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A comparison of the oral syntax of Canadian kindergarten children with the written syntax in the beginning… Dempsey, Mary Deirdre 1980

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A COMPARISON OF THE ORAL SYNTAX OF CANADIAN KINDERGARTEN CHILDREN WITH THE WRITTEN SYNTAX IN THE BEGINNING BASAL READERS by MARY DEIRDRE DEMPSEY B.Ed., Simon Fraser University, 1976 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENT FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Center for The Study of Curriculum & Instruction) We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard The University of B r i t i s h Columbia, A p r i l , 1980 ^) Dempsey, D., 1980 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f the r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an advanced degree a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C olumbia, I agree t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and st u d y . I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be gr a n t e d by the Head o f my Department o r by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s underst o o d t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Department n f Education, Centre for the Study of Curriculum & Instruction. The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia 2075 Wesbrook P l a c e Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5 D E - 6 B P 7 5 - 5 1 1 E A B S T R A C T A COMPARISON OF THE ORAL SYNTAX OF CANADIAN KINDERGARTEN CHILDREN WITH THE WRITTEN SYNTAX IN THE BEGINNING BASAL READERS The purpose of thi s study was to compare the o r a l syntax of selected Canadian kindergarten children with the written syntax in the two beginning reading series prescribed for use in the schools in B r i t i s h Columbia. The o r a l language data was obtained by taping twenty-four kindergarten children from three selected schools in Richmond, B.C.. The children were taped in three d i f f e r e n t sessions within their classroom - a free-play session, a s t o r y - t e l l i n g session and an interview session. The written language data was obtained by analysing the f i r s t two books from the Grade one l e v e l for the Reading 72 0 and Language Patterns (Revised) basal reading series. Based on the syntactic measures used, for the most part the children's oral syntax was found to be s i g n i f i c a n t l y more complex than the syntax in the Reading 720 series. (p<1.05). Except for the use of dependent clauses, and the length of adverb phrases and clauses, the Language Patterns series was found to be closely matched to the syntax of the children. The results of this study warrant careful consideration by those involved in the creation and implementation of beginning reading materials. i To my father and mother whose i n s p i r a t i o n , dedication, and love helped t h i s thesis become a r e a l i t y . i i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I am very grat e f u l to my advisor, Dr. G.H. Cannon, for the in t e r e s t and enthusiasm he so w i l l i n g l y invested in my research. Thanks are also extended to the members of my committee, Dr. G. Snyder and Dr. W. Werner, for th e i r advice and encouragement. I am indebted to the Richmond School D i s t r i c t for t h e i r cooperation. My special thanks go to the p r i n c i p a l s , teachers, and students who participated so r e a d i l y in t h i s study and to my p r i n c i p a l , Bert Fergus, for the tremendous support and understanding offered throughout. I would l i k e to express a special thank you to my good friends, Paddi Cafferky and Meredith Pue, for t h e i r invalu-able assistance with the coding of the data. Also, I would l i k e to express my appreciation to Paddi B i r d s a l l , May Cannon, Berryl Patteraude, Sheena Selkirk, Jean Walters and Dorothy Wingfield for t h e i r technical assistance and to say a special note of thanks to my t y p i s t , Rose Canuel, for her fine work. The success of t h i s project could not have been achieved without the help of my family and friends - to Greg, Sheila, Shawneen, Trudy and Cathy I extend my sincere thanks. F i n a l l y , I wish to thank Dan for his continuing moral support. i i i TABLE OF CONTENTS Page ABSTRACT 1 DEDICATION 1 1 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS i i i TABLE OF CONTENTS J i v LIST OF TABLES v i CHAPTER I GENERAL NATURE OF THE PROBLEM ' 1 Problems for Investigation 2 Premise of the Study 3 Limitations of the Study 6 Def i n i t i o n s of Terms 7 CHAPTER II BACKGROUND LITERATURE 9 Children's L i n g u i s t i c A b i l i t i e s 9 and Development The Language-Reading Relationship 13 (a) Language A b i l i t y and Achievement 13 (b) Oral Language and the Reading Process 15 The L i n g u i s t i c Content of Reading Materials 13 Reading Performance and Language-Based 2 3 Materials CHAPTER III METHODS OF COLLECTING AND TREATING DATA 2 8 Introduction Data C o l l e c t i o n (A) Oral Language Sample 2 8 i v - M e t h o d o l o g y - P i l o t S t u d i e s - S e l e c t i o n o f S c h o o l s - S e l e c t i o n o f S u b j e c t s - S c h e d u l e f o r D a t a C o l l e c t i o n ( B ) W r i t t e n L a n g u a g e S a m p l e - R e a d i n g 7 2 0 - L a n g u a g e P a t t e r n s ( R e v i s e d ) T r e a t m e n t o f D a t a ( A ) O r a l L a n g u a g e A n a l y s i s S e g m e n t a t i o n o f L a n g u a g e C o m m u n i c a t i o n U n i t - M a z e U n i t - P h r a s e s & D e p e n d e n t C l a u s e s - V o c a b u l a r y ( B ) W r i t t e n L a n g u a g e A n a l y s i s N o t e s o n C h a p t e r I I I C H A P T E R I V P R E S E N T A T I O N A N D A N A L Y S I S O F D A T A P a r t I - A n A n a l y s i s a n d C o m p a r i s o n o f t h e B a s a l R e a d e r s M e a s u r e o f S y n t a c t i c F l u e n c y - T h e C - U n i t M e a s u r e o f S y n t a c t i c C o m p l e x i t y - P h r a s e s - D e p e n d e n t C l a u s e s P a r t I I - A n A n a l y s i s a n d C o m p a r i s o n o f t h e L a n g u a g e o f t h e C h i l d r e n a n d t h e L a n g u a g e o f t h e B a s a l R e a d e r s M e a s u r e o f S y n t a c t i c F l u e n c y - T h e C - U n i t M e a s u r e o f S y n t a c t i c C o m p l e x i t y - P h r a s e s - D e p e n d e n t C l a u s e s v M-Unit & C-Unit in the Children's Speech Notes on Chapter IV CHAPTER V RESULTS, IMPLICATIONS & RECOMMENDATIONS Results Implications & Recommendations Recommendations for Further Research v i LIST OF TABLES TABLE 1 Flow Chart of Procedures for Analysis of the Data TABLE 2 Mean Length, Standard Deviation and Range of C-Units Found in Basal Readers TABLE 3 Mean C-Unit Length for Samples 1-12 of the Basal Readers TABLE 4 Average Number of Phrases per C-Unit for the Basal Readers TABLE 5 Chi-Square Values of C-Units Containing and Not Containing Phrases for the Basal Readers TABLE 6 Mean Length of Phrases Found in Basal Readers TABLE 7 Average Number of Dependent Clauses per C-Unit f o r the Basal Readers TABLE 8 Mean Length of Dependent Clauses Found in Basal Readers TABLE 9 Mean Length, Standard Deviation, and Range of C-Units Found in Basal Readers and Children's Speech TABLE 10 Differences in Mean Length of C-Units Found Between Readers and Children's Speech TABLE 11 Average Number of Phrases per C-Unit for Basal Readers and Children's Speech TABLE 12 Chi-Square Values of C-Units Containing and Not Containing Phrases for the Basal Readers and the Children's Speech TABLE 13 Mean Length of Phrases Found in Basal Readers and Children's Speech TABLE 14 Differences in Mean Length of Adverb Phrases Found in Basal Readers and Children's Speech TABLE 15 Average Number of Dependent Clauses per C-Unit for Basal Readers and Children's Speech Page 40 44 46 48 49 50 51 53 54 56 57 58 60 61 62 v i i Mean Length of Clauses Found in Basal Readers and Children's Speech Mean Length, Standard Deviation and Variance of C-Units and M-Units Found in Children's Speech v i i i 1 CHAPTER I GENERAL NATURE OF THE PROBLEM When children come to school, they are quite fluent in spoken English and yet oftentimes the very nature of many basal reading series tends to ignore rather than c a p i t a l i z e on t h i s t a c i t knowledge of language. Thus, i n examining children's l i n g u i s t i c competencies, there appears to be a lack of congruency between informal education, that i s , the education children receive p r i o r to entering the f i r s t grade, and formal education, the education children receive upon entering the f i r s t grade. In h i s essay "Properly L i t e r a t e " , O'Neil (1977) summarizes t h i s standpoint on schooling and captures the nature of the problem which t h i s study addresses: "Before they go o f f to school, children have engaged in f i v e years of bringing coherent (unspoken) explanations to the world of ex-periences, l i n g u i s t i c , s o c i a l , etc. that they face. They're doing pretty well at i t , too...(But) Reading i s taught as i f i t were another language, another world, not as i f i t were a highly abstract representation of the language that the c h i l d already has t a c i t knowledge of. I n t u i t i v e connections are erased. And so i s knowledge." (pg. 75) It i s proposed that the children's o r a l l i n g u i s t i c com-petencies have not always been given adequate consideration i n the l i n g u i s t i c content of some of the beginning reading texts. 2 Thus, the aim of t h i s research i s to compare the oral syntax of Canadian kindergarten children with the written syntax i n the two i n i t i a l basal reading series recently prescribed for use i n the schools of B r i t i s h Columbia ( V i c t o r i a , 1978). This information could be help f u l i n providing some guidelines for the l i n g u i s t i c content of beginning reading texts. Such findings may be of p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t to those involved i n curriculum development, e s p e c i a l l y in the creation and imple-mentation of beginning reading materials. PROBLEMS FOR INVESTIGATION More s p e c i f i c a l l y , the following questions w i l l be addressed: What syntax occurs in the Reading 72 0 beginning readers - "A Pocketful of Sunshine" and "A Duck Is A Duck?" What syntax occurs in the Language Patterns (Revised) beginning series - "Listening Letters" and "Laughing Letters?" What i s the re l a t i o n s h i p between the syntax in the Reading 72 0 readers and the Language Patterns (Revised) readers? What syntax i s evident i n the speech of selected Canadian kindergarten children? What i s the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the o r a l syntax of the children and written syntax in the Reading 720 readers? What i s the re l a t i o n s h i p between the o r a l syntax of the children and the written syntax i n the Language Patterns (Revised) readers? For the various "relationships" that were studied, re f e r to Chapter 4, page 42. 3 PREMISE OF THE STUDY Literacy, defined as "the a b i l i t y to read and write for p r a c t i c a l purposes of d a i l y l i f e " i s one of the paramount goals of our society. (Bullock, 1975; pg. 10). Calfee and Drum (1978) present a h i s t o r i c a l review of research on reading acqui s i t i o n and point out that: "In countries which pride themselves on t h e i r democratic ideals, the goals of an informed c i t i z e n r y leads naturally to the e f f o r t for universal l i t e r a c y . " (pg. 189) Consequently, an educational system exists which i s e n t i r e l y dependent upon the adequate attainment of a basic reading a b i l i t y . The task of teaching our children to become s k i l l e d readers i s , therefore, a topic of much discussion. L i t e r a l l y m i l l i o n s of d o l l a r s and man-hours have been spent i n the pursuit of the answer to the question: "What i s the best way to reach a young c h i l d to read?" In f a c t , according to Mathews (1966), "propositions about how best to teach reading have been disputed for at l e a s t 450 years, probably more." (Calfee & Drum, 1978; pg. 184). And yet i t seems that i n spite of the extensive re-search and experimentation, an alarming number of normal children find reading d i f f i c u l t . The Bullock Report (1975), an enquiry into the reading problem i n Great B r i t a i n , reveals that: "From the evidence c o l l a t e d i t seems that approximately 20 per cent of 7-year olds are v i r t u a l l y non-readers, while 4 per cent of 15-year olds can only read as well as a 7-9-year old, and over 10 per cent read less well than the average 11-year o l d . " (pg. 106) 4 And according to estimations from the U.S.A., A u s t r a l i a and B r i t a i n , "The o v e r a l l picture seems f a i r l y constant across English-speaking cultures." (Hart, 1977, pg. 13). Recent research i n psycholinguistics has made s i g n i f i c a n t contributions to the f i e l d of reading. The in t e g r a l r e l a t i o n -ship between o r a l language competency and reading has been emphasized. The psycholinguistic view of reading, as defined by Smith and Goodman,,is founded on the notion that " l i t e r a c y i s b u i l t on the base of the chi l d ' s e x i s t i n g language." (Goodman, 1969, pg.27). The active r o l e of the in d i v i d u a l i n language processing has also been emphasized throughout psycholinguistic l i t e r a t u r e . v. V i t a l contributions are made by the reader's experiences, expec-tations and l i n g u i s t i c knowledge. According to Smith (1971) and Goodman (1968), the process of reading i s a meaningful -interaction between the reader's language and the writer's language. The reader i s a c t i v e l y engaged i n extracting meaning from an array of graphic symbols arranged i n a s p a t i a l dimension. Another important notion can be traced throughout the psycholinguistic l i t e r a t u r e on reading. Studies reveal that many reading series f a i l to recognize the l e v e l of l i n g u i s t i c sophistication which children bring to th e i r i n i t i a l reading experience. As Smith, Goodman and Meredith (1974) point out, the problem with many presently-used reading texts: 5 " i s not that they are s i l l y , but that they are not language. Any system for simplifying reading material must stop short of creating language that i s l i k e none the c h i l d has ever heard. The c h i l d must be able to use h i s language knowledge r i g h t from the beginning." (Smith, Meredith, Goodman 1974; pg. 272) If the reading process outlined by Smith, Goodman, & Meredith i s a c t u a l l y what happens in the reader's brain, reading materials which r e f l e c t children's o r a l speech pat-terns should f a c i l i t a t e t h i s reading process. Recently there have been a few studies conducted in the United States, Japan, Eastern Canada, A u s t r a l i a , and B r a z i l which have analyzed the l i n g u i s t i c content of children's speech and t h e i r reading texts. (Arthur, 1979; Handscombe, 1972; Hart, Walker, Gray, 1977; Inacio, 1977). Such an investigation i s needed in Western Canada. Therefore, the author believes that there i s a need to compare the o r a l language of Canadian children with the written language i n the two prescribed reading texts used i n B r i t i s h Columbia, Canada—i.e., Reading 720 published by Ginn and Language Patterns (Revised) published by Holt, Rhinehart & Winston. L I M I T A T I O N S O F T H E S T U D Y T h i s s t u d y i s l i m i t e d t o t h e o r a l p r o d u c t i o n o f a s e l e c t e d g r o u p o f k i n d e r g a r t e n c h i l d r e n f r o m R i c h m o n d , B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . O n l y i n s o f a r a s t h e s a m p l e p o p u l a t i o n r e f l e c t s t h e l a r g e r p o p u l a t i o n c a n t h e r e s u l t s b e g e n e r a l i z e d t o o t h e r g r o u p s . T h e s t u d y i s l i m i t e d t o t h e d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e l a n g u a g e i n t h e t w o r e a d i n g s e r i e s p r e s c r i b e d f o r u s e i n t h e b e g i n n i n g r e a d i n g p r o g r a m m e s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . T h u s , t h e f i n d i n g s c a n o n l y b e g e n e r a l i z e d t o t h e s e p a r t i c u l a r t e x t s . 7 De f i n i t i o n of Terms In t h i s study, the following terms w i l l be used according to the accompanying d e f i n i t i o n s : ANALYTICAL METHOD: reading method which i n i t i a l l y presents the whole word, followed by a breakdown into smaller parts; th i s analysis of the words provides correct pronunciation. BASAL READER: graded series of textbooks moving from single to complex s k i l l s , which provide the learning and practice to become an independent reader; usually provided for the teacher's use are guides for in s t r u c t i o n , workbooks for development of student's s k i l l s , and other supplemental aids. BASAL SERIES: graded set of reading texts BASAL TEXT: one of a series of basal reader texts CLAUSE: a group of words containing a subject and a predicate and forming part of a compound or complex sentence. COMMUNICATION UNIT (C-UNIT): an independent clause with i t s modifiers (Loban). DECODING: process of i d e n t i f y i n g the sound value (phonemes) of the printed symbol (grapheme); looking at the printed symbol CART and pronouncing the word CART. DEPENDENT OR SUBORDINATE CLAUSE: a clause that cannot stand alone because i t i s dependent on the rest of the sentence for i t s meaning. It does not express a complete thought. It must always be attached to the main clause as a part of a sentence. There are three types - noun, adjective and adverb. ENCODING: analysis and conversion of or a l language into representative written symbols. ENGLISH PRIMARY LANGUAGE USERS (OPL): people who only speak English, both at home and at school. ENGLISH SECOND LANGUAGE USERS (ESL): people whose dominant language at home i s not English. LANGUAGE EXPERIENCE METHOD: method of teaching reading which includes both the receptive and expressive aspects of language, using story content dictated or developed from the children's personal experience or ideas; i n s t r u c t i o n a l stages: o r a l discussion, story d i c t a t i o n , story reading, word recognition and/or word attack a c t i v i t i e s , development of word banks and recreational reading. 8 LINGUISTIC ABILITY: the inherent or developed capacity with language. LINGUISTIC COMPETENCIES: s k i l l s , concepts, attitudes which are related d i r e c t l y to language. LITERACY: the a b i l i t y to read and write for p r a c t i c a l purposes of d a i l y l i f e . MAZE UNIT (M-UNIT): a series of words for i n i t i a l parts of words), or unattached fragments which do not constitute a communication unit and are not necessary to the communication unit. PHONOLOGICAL UNIT: p r a c t i c a l l y , t h i s unit i s a sentence. In transcribing speech,the unit i s determined by i n f l e c t i o n , stress, intonation, and pause of the speaker. (Strickland, Loban) PHRASE: a group of related words not expressing a complete thought and not including a subject and a predicate. There are three types: adjective, adverb and noun. PSYCHOLINGUISTICS: f i e l d of study which encompasses psychology and l i n g u i s t i c s , the resultant blend allows the examination of language as a t o t a l process. SENTENCE: herein defined as any language pattern beginning with a c a p i t a l l e t t e r and ending with a period. SYNTHETIC METHOD: reading i n s t r u c t i o n a l method i n which the learner s t a r t s with short and simple units as l e t t e r s of the alphabet, s y l l a b l e s , etc., and progresses to p o l y s y l l a b i c words, phrases, and sentences; part-to-whole. T-UNIT: a minimal terminable unit which contains some independent clause and any dependent clauses s y n t a c t i c a l l y related to i t . (Hunt, 19 65) The d e f i n i t i o n s for the terms pertaining to reading have been taken from "Dictionary of Reading and Learning D i s a b i l i t y Terms" by C l i f f o r d L. Bush & Robert C. Andrews, Educational & Psychological Associates Press: New Jersey, 1973. The d e f i n i t i o n s pertaining to grammar have been taken from "An Instant Resource: Hands-On Grammar," by Stan Laird, Fearon-Pitman Publishers, Inc., Belmont, C a l i f o r n i a . 1977 9 CHAPTER II BACKGROUND LITERATURE Literature relevant to t h i s investigation i s presented under the following headings: Children's L i n g u i s t i c A b i l i t i e s and Development The Language-Reading Relationship (a) Language A b i l i t y and Reading Achievement (b) Oral Language and the Reading Process The L i n g u i s t i c Content of Reading Materials Reading Performance and Language-Based Materials Children's L i n g u i s t i c A b i l i t i e s Among the e a r l i e s t and the most valuable acquisitions of children i s t h e i r treasury of words and grammar. Chuvosky ( 1 9 6 3 ) , a long-time observer of children's language found that at about one year old, children know about ten words, at two years of age 2 5 0 - 3 0 0 words, and by the end of the t h i r d year, t h e i r vocabulary has grown into the thousands, (pg. 1 1 ) . The develop-ment of syntactic a b i l i t i e s during the pre-school years i s also regarded as an incredible process. Chuvosky commented on t h i s feat: "The same i s true of the grammatical forms that the c h i l d learns in the same period. I once t r i e d to make a l i s t of these forms (declensions, conjugations, the use of prefixes and s u f f i x e s ) . I noted down not less than seventy. Most of these "genera-l i z a t i o n s " that are formed i n the c h i l d ' s brain forever, for his e n t i r e l i f e , are established between the ages of three 10 and four, when the l i n g u i s t i c giftedness seems to be p a r t i c u l a r l y strong." (Chuvosky, pg. 11) Indeed, many marvel at the systematic, expediant manner by which language learning occurs. It fascinated Chuvosky to such an extent that he c a l l e d the c h i l d "a l i n g u i s t i c genius." (pg. 7) . Children s t a r t i n g school do possess an amazing amount of l i n g u i s t i c knowledge. Educators need to recognize and c a p i t a l i z e on the l i n g u i s t i c competency which childre n bring to the reading task. Children's L i n g u i s t i c Development Although l i n g u i s t s are impressed by the l i n g u i s t i c knowledge of children, the research has revealed that l i n g u i s t i c development i s not complete by the age of four or f i v e . ( A n i s f i e l d & Tucker, 1973; Chomsky, 1969; Hatch, 1971; Hunt, 1965; Menyuk, 196 9). After t e s t i n g f o r t y children in the Boston area, Carol Chomsky (1969) found that: (1) active syntactic a c q u i s i t i o n was not complete by the age of 5 or 6, but i t was taking place up to the age of 9 and perhaps beyond. (pg. 121) (2) there was an order and rate i n the acquis i t i o n of structures. 11 These l i n g u i s t i c developmental stages have been the topic of several other extensive studies. Templin (195 7), one of the pioneers in language develop-ment studies, measured the utterances of children from three to eight years. As the students* age increased, he found a clear increase in the use of complex elements, e s p e c i a l l y the adjunctive clause. Loban (196 3) conducted a longitudinal study of kinder-garten to Grade six-aged children r e s i d i n g i n Oakland, C a l i f o r n i a . He devised a "communication unit" - an a n a l y t i c unit which measured the syntactic complexity of the student's reading, writing and speaking samples. From the sample of 338 students, a group of t h i r t y students were selected to form a "high" group and twenty-four students to form a "low" group. The production of the two groups was compared and some of the conclusions of t h i s study were: 1. The fluency and the amount of students' language increased over the years. 2. F l e x i b i l i t y within a syntactic pattern, rather than the pattern i t s e l f , was a more e f f e c t i v e measure of developmental language contro l . 3. As the students got older, the number of mazes and average number of words per maze 12 unit decreased; however, when the low group was analyzed separately, the average number of words per maze unit increased. 4. The "high" group showed greater a b i l i t y with regard to noun clauses, i n f i n i t i v e s , verbals, p a r t i c i p l e , prepositional and gerund phrases, appositives, nominative absolutes and c l u s t e r s of words i n cumulative sentences. (1970; pg.-,;625) 5. The "low" group..."says l e s s , has more d i f f i c u l t y i n saying i t and has le s s vocabulary with which to express what i t says." (pg. 43) O'Donnell, G r i f f i n and Norris (1963) analyzed the oral syntax patterns of elementary school children and found that there was a developmental sequence of syntactic a c q u i s i t i o n . They noticed that r e l a t i v e clauses ("The boy who l i v e s i n Canada") were used more frequently in kindergarten than i n the older grades, while other items, l i k e nouns modified by p a r t i -c i p l e s ("The boy l i v i n g in Canada"), were used more frequently in the l a t e r grades. As the children's age increased, they reported a decrease i n the length of meaningless speech fragments (mazes). 0'Donnell et a l also observed that the f i r s t year i n school was one of rapid and extensive development of o r a l and written language structures which slowed down u n t i l the end of the f i f t h year, when i t increased considerably. 13 h \ Hunt's (1965) analysis of grammatical structures con-tained i n the written materials of fourth, eighth and twelfth grade students also revealed a sequential development i n the acq u i s i t i o n of syntactic structures. Longer responses, less redundancy and more clauses, e s p e c i a l l y adjective clauses, steadily increased according to grade l e v e l . Menyuk's studies (1969), which are based on children's use of base structure rules and transformational rules i n t h e i r o r a l speech patterns, supported the notion of a sequential development of language a c q u i s i t i o n . Similar to the other studies c i t e d , Menyuk's research revealed evidence that s p e c i f i c aspects of l i n g u i s t i c development are s t i l l being completed beyond six years of age. The Language-Reading Relationship (a) Language A b i l i t y and Reading Achievement A number of studies have indicated that a b i l i t y i n language tends to influence reading achievement. Loban's longitudinal study (1963) evaluated the l i n g u i s t i c patterns of students from kindergarten to Grade s i x . He reported that: "those subjects who read well by the end of grade three are the subjects who ranked high i n or a l language for the kindergarten and f i r s t three years of the study...not a single one of the twenty best readers i n Grade three i s below the mean on or a l language." (pg. 69) 14 The o v e r a l l r e s u l t s indicated that a p o s i t i v e corre-l a t i o n existed between language a b i l i t y and reading achievement at the Grade three to Grade six l e v e l . A series of studies have been conducted using the I l l i n o i s Test of Psycholinguistic A b i l i t i e s as a means of determining which factors are important i n the reading process. The research has suggested that reading achievement i s dependent on the a b i l i t y to use language at an automatic-sequential integrative l e v e l . (Bateman & Weatherall, 19 65; Foster, 1963; Hart, 1970; McLeod, 1967). In 19 67, Fry surveyed several studies which investigated the r e l a t i o n s h i p between reading achievement and language development. (Shire, 1945; Evertts, 1962; Barnes, 1962; Cordes, 1965; and Schutte, 1967). Generally, the r e s u l t s showed that reading achievement was related to the number of d i f f e r e n t words used and, or to the t o t a l l i n g u i s t i c output of the subjects. The results of Fry's comparison of the language patterns of below-average and above-average readers revealed that: "the above-average group used more conversation in t h e i r s t o r i e s , used a greater number of transformations and more T-units per communication unit." (1969, pg. 70). Springer (1975) explored the r e l a t i o n s h i p between standard English auditory discrimination and f i r s t - g r a d e reading achieve-ment and found s i g n i f i c a n t correlations between scores on auditory discrimination tests and scores on composite reading 15 p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the area of vocabulary and comprehension. Moe and Rush (1977) conducted a comparison between the o r a l language fluency of children entering Grade one and t h e i r success i n learning to read as measured at the end of the school year. They reported a pos i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p between language a b i l i t y and reading achievement but emphasized the need to develop more e f f e c t i v e measures for i d e n t i f y i n g and evaluating the s p e c i f i c l i n g u i s t i c factors involved in the reading process. According to the research c i t e d , there seems to be an agreement that language a b i l i t y e f f e c t s reading performance. (b) Oral Language and the Reading Process While l i s t e n i n g , speaking, reading and writing have d i s t i n c t i v e q u a l i t i e s , they are nevertheless i n t e r r e l a t e d facets of the communication process. As discussed i n the previous section, young children come to school as very e f f e c t i v e o r a l language u s e r s — a knowledge gained through l i s t e n i n g and speaking. This mastery of the spoken language i s accomplished with no systematic i n s t r u c t i o n or programmed materials. And yet, as Goodman (1972) pointed out, "children are far more uniformly successful i n learning to talk and l i s t e n than they are i n learning to read and write." (pg. 505) Much of the l i t e r a t u r e on the psycholinguistic approach to reading has claimed that one of the major reasons for t h i s 16 limited success in reading i n s t r u c t i o n i s that reading has not been regarded as one dimension of the same language pro-cess as l i s t e n i n g and speaking. (Goodman, 1968; Smith, 1971; Ryan and Semmel, 1969). In the a r t i c l e "Reading—The Key i s in Children's Language," Goodman (1972) outlined some of the teaching practices which have been responsible for t h i s : We have been teaching reading as a set of s k i l l s to be learned, rather than as a language process to be mastered. - We have been teaching children who are competent users of o r a l language as i f they were beginners i n language learning. We have ignored the language structure and i n the name of teaching, fed children strings of l e t t e r s or strings of words. We have taught children to match l e t t e r s to sounds without giving them a basic knowledge of complex relationships between o r a l and written English. Thus, according to the psycholinguistic view of reading, as defined by Smith (1971) and Goodman (1968), reading i s not a matter of sequentially pairing v i s u a l forms with auditory forms which are then interpreted l i k e speech. (Ryan & Semmel, 1969; pg. 59). Rather, reading i s a constructive, active process i n which the reader uses his cognitive and l i n g u i s t i c knowledge to determine, from a c a r e f u l sampling of cues, the author's message. In processing o r a l language, children tend to group sequences of sounds into meaningful units. (Werner & Kaplan, 1950; Hutton-locher, 1964). In the reading process the reader must also group sequences of l e t t e r s and words into meaningful units. According to Smith (1971), reading involves: " i d e n t i f y i n g through d i s t i n c t i v e features graphic units which are meaningful 17 because they represent semantic "chunks" of the reader's organized interpretation of his or her world." (Hart, 1978; pg. 15). The reader approaches written language with the expec-tatio n of using his knowledge of language to perceive a message from the text and thus becomes an expert at what Goodman (1970) has c a l l e d "the psycholinguistic guessing game". He becomes an expert not by "precise perception" and i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of a l l elements, but from s k i l l in selecting the f i n e s t , most productive cues necessary to produce guesses which are ri g h t the f i r s t time. (pg. .260) . The use of Miscue Analysis as developed by K. Goodman, (1965) and Y. Goodman & Burke (1972) revealed that o r a l reading miscues (errors students make as read aloud) "are seldom random but r e f l e c t the reader's e f f o r t to render a meaningful rendition of the text. (Calfee & Drum, 1978; pg. 193). Therefore, a common view voiced throughout the psycho-l i n g u i s t i c research i s that reading i s a language-based process and consequently readers expect reading materials to conform to the structures of o r a l language they have already acquired. The Mount Gravatt Language research team summarized t h i s view-point: "Literacy i s an extension of or a c y — t h e a b i l i t y to communicate e f f e c t i v e l y i n o r a l language must precede and i s ine x t r i c a b l y interwoven with the development of a b i l i t y to create and interpret language i n i t s written form." (Hart, Walker & Gray, 1978; pg. 1) 18 The L i n g u i s t i c Content of Reading Materials Since o r a l language competency i s an important factor operating in the reading process, researchers have emphasized the need for beginning reading materials which correspond to the o r a l language patterns already acquired by the c h i l d . Otherwise, as the Bullock Report warned, reading materials might hinder the process of interpreting written language from o r a l l i n g u i s t i c knowledge: "A printed text i s easier to read the more clo s e l y i t s structures are related to those used by the reader i n normal speech... Reading material which presents children with...unreal language therefore lacks p r e d i c t a b i l i t y and prevents them from making use of the sequential p r o b a b i l i t y in l i n g u i s t i c structure." (Bullock Report, pg. 92) C r i t i c s of current reading materials are concerned with the "unnatural" language in children's reading texts (Stevens, 1965; Amsden, 1964). Both Strickland (1962) and Loban (1963) c r i t i c i z e d the language used in readers as " i n f a n t i l e and monotonous" compared to the richness and va r i e t y of the spoken language of the students using these materials. (Goodman, 1968; pg. 298). In the teacher's manual of "Breakthrough to Literacy" (1973), a language-based i n i t i a l reading programme, the authors pointed out that the language in most primers i s a r t i f i c i a l : "Forms such as "Dan has a can" or "See the dog. Look, look, look" are r a r e l y encountered 19 outside the pages of a primer. Books composed e n t i r e l y from "high frequency" words are seldom gripping in content, and primers seldom match the language of children i n t h e i r wide in t e r e s t . " (pg. 145) Since beginning reading materials have been the subject of much c r i t i c i s m , i t seems necessary to view some of the res u l t s of studies which have systematically analysed the relati o n s h i p between children's o r a l language and the language in the reading texts. Strickland's (1962) research i s a major study found i n the l i t e r a t u r e on children's language develop-ment. The purpose of her study was: "...to discover, i s o l a t e , and describe the patterns of syntax found i n the o r a l language of elementary school children and to ascertain whether they appeared i n certain representative reading textbooks designed for these grade l e v e l s . " (pg. 5) An informal speech sample was gathered by stimulating one hundred children from grades one to six to talk about themselves, t h e i r families, pets or whatever was of in t e r e s t at the moment, (pg. 16). Then samples from four widely-used textbooks were analysed to determine i f they contained the or a l language patterns most frequently used by children. Strickland's results indicated that the only l i n g u i s t i c pattern which appeared i n both samples at a l l l e v e l s was the basic Subject Verb Object utterance. There was no systematic introduction of the elements of sub-ordination, an element found to be an indicator of l i n g u i s t i c 20 maturity i n the o r a l language analysis. Furthermore, i n the texts there appeared to be no scheme for syntax control to compare with the widely-practiced vocabulary cont r o l . Patterned on Strickland's study, R i l i n g (1965) compared the o r a l and written language patterns of students i n Grades four and six with the language i n s i x basal reading programmes. The results revealed that the language of the children in t h i s study was s l i g h t l y i n f e r i o r s t r u c t u r a l l y to the language i n most of t h e i r textbooks. Furthermore, similar to Strickland's findings, R i l i n g found that children's textbooks did not follow a consistent sequential development of sentence structure. In 1970, Handscombe concluded a three-year study which investigated the o r a l language patterns of a sample of students in Toronto, Canada. The findings indicated that children's o r a l speech was more complex than the written language i n the reading programmes provided by the school system. In 19 74, Lutz undertook a systematic investigation of the language of twenty-five basal reading texts intended for use in kindergarten through grade three. He discovered that: "the overwhelming majority of sentences (over 10,000 of 12,000) were simple active declarative sentences. ...this syntactic monotony; coupled with the f a c t that the sentences are r a r e l y longer than ten words (presumably to accommodate a short attention span and memory), makes for s t e r i l e syntax indeed." (pg. 37) 21 "The Language of Children - A Key to Literacy" (1977) outlined the r e s u l t s of a fifteen-year study conducted at Mount Gravatt College, Queensland, A u s t r a l i a . Quite an exten-sive sample of children's natural speech patterns was c o l l e c t e d and compared with the written language found i n four introductory reading series used in England and A u s t r a l i a . Similar to the other studies c i t e d , the results indicated that children's language was d i f f e r e n t than textbook language: " S u f f i c i e n t information i s available from a count of word sequences to indicate that the sequences most frequently used i n reading books are not the ones most frequently used in children's language. It follows that the language i n most readers i s not c h i l d language i n the sense of being r e a d i l y understood by children." (Hart, Walker, Gray, 1977, pg. 20) Following the schema of the Mount Gravatt project, the researcher (1978) conducted a small-scale comparison of children's language and textbook language. The twenty most frequent one and two-word sequences found i n children's language by the Mount Gravatt Research Project were compared to the twenty most frequently used words i n two beginning reading series used i n B r i t i s h Columbia - Reading 720 and Language Patterns (Revised). Although quite l i m i t e d i n size and scope, t h i s single language analysis revealed that the words and word sequences most frequently used in these reading programmes were not always the ones most frequently used i n children's o r a l speedh. 2 2 In 1977, Bohn conducted an extensive language comparison. He examined the productive l i n g u i s t i c capacities of a selected sample of B r a z i l i a n children and the language found i n the materials used to teach beginning reading. He hypothesized that children's language would display a broader range of structures than the primers. Although t h i s notion was not sup-ported, the res u l t s revealed a very low number of sentence types and an obvious absence of complex sentences, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the i n i t i a l portions of the primers. Bohn emphasized the serious implications of reading materials which do not match children's oral language patterns: "...Most teachers w i l l r e l y e n t i r e l y on the primer i n t h e i r teaching, and the c h i l d thus w i l l have a very limited reading experiences i n the f i r s t year of his schooling...They c e r t a i n l y cannot be taught a language by means that are inappropriate to t h e i r developmental l e v e l , and thus r i c h exposure to natural language i s c r u c i a l . " He did not recommend l i f t i n g control from beginning reading materials but warned that: "the c h i l d should be exposed to more than a mere 3 4 5 sentences found i n the primers analysed, and which t o t a l an average of under three sentences per day i n a school year." (pg. 200-1) In 1979, Arthur conducted a c r o s s - l i n g u i s t i c investigation of the oral language of t h i r d grade children i n the U.S.A. and Japan and the language i n t h e i r basal readers. According to the measures of syntactic complexity employed, the or a l language patterns of American children and Japanese were e s s e n t i a l l y the same but varied greatly from the language i n the basals. Similar to Strickland's (1962) and R i l i n g ' s (1965) r e s u l t s , no systematic control over the development of sentence structure i n the textbooks was found. Contrary to Strickland's (1962) finding that "the o r a l language children use i s far more advanced than the language of the books i n which they are taught to read" (pg. 106), Arthur found that the language of children in both countries was s i g n i f i c a n t l y less complex than the language of- the basals. The research presented has explored the re l a t i o n s h i p between o r a l language and written language. A discrepancy between the o r a l language of children and the written language in the reading textbooks has been reported. Studies evaluating the benefits of using language-based reading materials w i l l be presented i n the next section. Reading Performance & Language-Based Materials In 1962, Strickland suggested that "evidence i s needed as to whether children would be aided or hindered by the use of sentences i n t h e i r books more l i k e the sentences they use i n thei r speech". (pg. 106). To evaluate the e f f e c t of language-based materials on reading performance, a number of studies have been conducted. Amsden (1964) conducted a study which found that the more the reading textbooks approximated the student's oral speech patterns, the greater the reading comprehension. Ruddell (1965) undertook a major investigation to determine whether or not materials based on language patterns used by children have an e f f e c t on reading performance. From Strickland's (1962) l i s t of high frequency and low frequency language patterns for Grade four students, he wrote two types passages. The reading comprehension of 131 Indiana students was evaluated on both types of materials by means of a cloze test. Ruddell concluded that: Reading comprehension i s a function of the s i m i l a r i t y between the patterns of language structure found i n the reading material and the patterns of language structure found in children's speech. Reading comprehension scores on materials that u t i l i z e the high frequency patterns of or a l language structure are s i g n i f i c a n t l y greater than reading comprehension scores on materials that u t i l i z e low frequency patterns of o r a l language structure. (pg. 273) Williams (1968) compared the comprehension of good and poor readers on science text material which was rewritten to match t h e i r language patterns. He found that there was a greater increase in comprehension for the poor readers. This increase was not merely a r e s u l t of a s i m p l i f i c a t i o n of syntax, but rather, was due to the precise matching of the syntax of the poor reader with the syntax of the text. Based on Ruddell'-s study, Tatham (1968) designed a study to further investigate children's reading comprehension of language-based materials. A comparison of students at two grade l e v e l s - Grade two and four - was "intended to encourage the emergence of any developmental leve l s with respect to children's a b i l i t y to comprehend diverse kinds of language patterns, (pg. 5). The pertinent conclusions were: 1) A s i g n i f i c a n t number of second and fourth graders comprehended material written with frequent o r a l language patterns better than material written with infrequent o r a l language patterns. 2) Fourth graders comprehended material written with frequent and infrequent o r a l language patterns s i g n i f i c a n t l y better than the second graders. 26 According to Tatham, i f maximum comprehension i s the goal, reading materials should be based on the l i n g u i s t i c patterns that children f i n d easier to comprehend—which are thei r own oral language patterns. Fagan (19 71) found that reading comprehension seemed to be related to the type of syntactic structure in the text. The investigation revealed that patterns normally found in d i r e c t speech contributed the lea s t to sentence and passage d i f f i c u l t y . McCabe (1977) i d e n t i f i e d structures which appeared to i n h i b i t or f a c i l i t a t e comprehension fo r elementary and junior high school subjects. Similar to Williams' r e s u l t s (1968), a s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t upon comprehension of mathematical material rewritten on the basis of students' o r a l language patterns was found. McCabe concluded with a message for curriculum development: "...become sensitive to those structures used by students in th e i r natural discourse...try to include..., i n o r a l and written exposition, as many of those l i n g u i s t i c structures employed by students as possible. As an c o r o l -l a r y , the use of l i n g u i s t i c structures which students do not use should be minimized." '(pg. 16) Based on Strickland's (1962) frequency l i s t of o r a l language patterns and Tatham's (1969) comprehension tasks, Gardner (1979) investigated the e f f e c t s of similar o r a l and 27 written language patterns on children's reading comprehension at the beginning reading l e v e l . Beginning readers comprehended materials based on frequently-used o r a l language patterns better than they comprehended materials based on infrequently-used language patterns. In response to Strickland's suggestion that educators need to ascertain whether or not materials based on children's language patterns have an e f f e c t on reading performance, the research c i t e d above has suggested that there i s a p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p between reading performance and language-based reading materials. These findings warrant careful consideration by those involved i n producing and implementing the reading curriculum. As Tatham (1968) pointed out, " i t seems l o g i c a l and i n keeping with l i n g u i s t i c knowledge to use children's patterns of language structure in written material to f a c i l i t a t e learning the concept that spoken and written language are related." (pg. 149-150). Hopefully these r e s u l t s w i l l become guidelines for the development of e f f e c t i v e beginning reading materials. 23 CHAPTER III METHODS OF COLLECTING AND TREATING DATA Introduction The researcher r e a l i z e d that t h i s study involves an analysis of children's language which would require designing a s i t u a t i o n i n which observable and measurable records could be obtained. Furthermore, to a t t a i n a sample of "natural" language, the setting and technique of investigation should simulate, as much as possible, the "natural" environment. These factors were important considerations i n the design of th i s study. DATA COLLECTION - ORAL LANGUAGE SAMPLE Methodology In order to obtain a r e a l i s t i c measure of the children's l i n g u i s t i c a b i l i t i e s , the researcher c o l l e c t e d the language 1 sample within t h e i r classroom setting. To assess the depth and breadth of t h e i r l i n g u i s t i c competencies, d i f f e r e n t formal and informal modes for e l i c i t i n g language were used on a 2 selected sample of twenty-four children. To c o l l e c t the language sample, three FM microphones and three portable FM receiver-audio taperecorder units were used. The microphones were tunable to separate frequencies so that the three pairs of units (one unit = a microphone and a receiver-taperecorder) operated on three separate channels. Thus, the sounds picked 29 up by each microphone were recorded separately on each tape. Each microphone was worn by one of the subjects. The speech of each subject was recorded separately on a tape. In t h i s way i t was possible to c o l l e c t the data of the indi v i d u a l ' s d i s -course. Because background sounds were s l i g h t l y audible, i f necessary, i t would be possible to correlate one subject's utterances with the other members of the group. This language r e t r i e v a l technique permitted the normal mobility and inte r a c t i o n of kindergarten children and at the same time allowed ease i n tra n s c r i p t i o n of i n d i v i d u a l speech patterns. The data came from three modes of children's l i n g u i s t i c i n t e r a c t i o n : (1) a free-play session (2) a s t o r y - t e l l i n g session (3) a interview session In the f i r s t mode, spontaneous speech was recorded for f i f t e e n minutes as three children played f r e e l y , without any adult intervention, i n the "Dress-Up Center". The same group were then involved in a s t o r y - t e l l i n g session - the researcher was present to introduce the task and to ask questions. The subjects were asked to t e l l a five-minute story to the group - they could invent a story, t e l l a well-known story such as Cinderella, or t e l l a story with the aid of a picture book. Most of the children did use a book to help sequence t h e i r ideas. In contrast to the f i r s t two sessions, the t h i r d session 30 was quite structured. The researcher interviewed the group for f i f t e e n minutes. In order to get a sample of the breadth and depth of t h e i r l i n g u i s t i c c a p a b i l i t i e s , divergent questioning techniques were used. (See Appendix B), Interviews were conducted according to some of the "General Guidelines for Interviews" summarized by Witz and Goodwin (1970). (Appendix C). This meant that i t was necessary to "encourage verbal output" by asking for explanations by avoiding asking questions that permitted yes-no answers, and by provoking "the c h i l d ' s own summaries and general statements" (pg. 2). In conjunction with the verbal s t i m u l i , both v i s u a l s t i m u l i in the form of picture cards and t a c t i l e s t imuli i n the form of l i v e animals were employed. (See Appendix A). PILOT STUDIES To determine how appropriate the procedures were for probing the research problem, a p i l o t investigation was conducted. Six children were randomly chosen from the kindergarten class at Rideau Park School, Richmond. Prior to c o l l e c t i n g data, the investigator spent time getting acquainted with the student, and f a m i l i a r i z i n g the students with the taping equipment. The or a l language sample was c o l l e c t e d within the classroom setting. The audio-tapes were transcribed and analysed. The three modes for c o l l e c t i n g data were evaluated. Adjustments were made i n order to e s t a b l i s h the f i n a l form of procedures and materials for the major investigation. 31 S E L E C T I O N O F S C H O O L S S t r a t i f i e d s a m p l i n g w a s u s e d t o o b t a i n t w e n t y - f o u r s t u d e n t s f r o m k i n d e r g a r t e n c l a s s e s o f t h r e e e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l s i n R i c h m o n d . E r r i n g t o n E l e m e n t a r y , G a r d e n C i t y E l e m e n -t a r y , a n d K i n g s w o o d E l e m e n t a r y w e r e s e l e c t e d b e c a u s e o f t h e c o n v e n i e n t l o c a t i o n o f t h e s c h o o l s a n d t h e p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e o f t h e p r i n c i p a l s a n d t e a c h e r s t o w a r d s t h e p r o j e c t . A l s o , t h e s t u d e n t p o p u l a t i o n c o n t a i n e d s o m e o f t h e v a r i e d l i n g u i s t i c b a c k g r o u n d s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f t h e G r e a t e r V a n c o u v e r a r e a . S E L E C T I O N O F S U B J E C T S A f t e r o b t a i n i n g t h e p e r m i s s i o n o f t h e R i c h m o n d S c h o o l B o a r d , t h e i n t e r v i e w e r c o n t a c t e d t h e t h r e e p r i n c i p a l s a n d k i n d e r g a r t e n t e a c h e r s o f t h e s c h o o l s i n v o l v e d a n d a r r a n g e d t o s e l e c t a s t r a t i f i e d r a n d o m s a m p l e . A t a b l e o f r a n d o m n u m b e r s w a s u s e d t o s e l e c t f r o m e a c h s c h o o l e i g h t s u b j e c t s d i v i d e d e v e n l y o n t h e b a s i s o f s e x a n d l a n g u a g e . T h i s p r o v i d e d a f i n a l s a m p l e o f t w e n t y - f o u r s u b j e c t s ; s i x m a l e a n d s i x f e m a l e s u b j e c t s w i t h E n g l i s h a s a P r i m a r y L a n g u a g e , a n d s i x m a l e a n d 3 s i x f e m a l e s u b j e c t s w i t h E n g l i s h a s a S e c o n d L a n g u a g e . T o e n s u r e s e l e c t i o n o f a s a m p l e w i t h o u t a n y p a r t i c u l a r s y s t e m a t i c b i a s , r i g o r o u s s a m p l i n g p r o c e d u r e s w e r e e m p l o y e d . T h e f i n a l g r o u p o f p a r t i c i p a n t s w a s c h o s e n f r o m b o t h m o r n i n g a n d a f t e r n o o n c l a s s e s . T h e s e b o y s a n d g i r l s r a n g e d f r o m 5 y e a r s a n d 5 m o n t h s t o 6 y e a r s a n d 5 m o n t h s o f a g e . T h e t e a c h e r s w h o s e 32 students were involved varied i n age, teaching experience and 4. educational philosophy. SCHEDULE FOR DATA COLLECTION Research was conducted at the three respective schools within the kindergarten classroom with the regular teacher present. Audio-taping was done as unobtrusively as possible by a technician i n the same room as the researcher and the subjects. Each subject was recorded in three d i f f e r e n t sessions. In setting up a schedule for data c o l l e c t i o n , there were two groups of three subjects i n each class which took turns p a r t i -cipating i n the taping sessions. This was to minimize the t i r i n g of the subjects. (Appendix D). WRITTEN LANGUAGE SAMPLE The data for the written language sample was obtained from the two basal reading series - Reading 720 by Ginn & Company and Language Patterns (Revised), by Holt, Rhinehart & Winston, recently prescribed texts for the elementary grades i n the province of B r i t i s h Columbia. The f i r s t two books at the Grade one l e v e l were analysed. READING 72 0 The Reading 720 i s a l i n g u i s t i c a l l y - b a s e d developmental reading series. The stated philosophy i s that reading i s : - a process of decoding - comprehending the author's message - c r i t i c a l l y evaluating the author's message, and - incorporating the author's ideas into one's own thinking as a r e s u l t of reading. (Ginn, 1978; pg. T.8) For each dimension, the emphasis i s on processing from the known to the unknown. Decoding s k i l l s , of an a n a l y t i c a l nature are taught so the reader can unlock unknown words within a meaningful context. Even at the i n i t i a l learning stages, "reading for meaning" i s stressed. The units within each reader are organized into developing s p e c i f i c themes with varie story types. The t i t l e s of readers examined are: "A Pocketful of Sunshine," and "A Duck Is A Duck". LANGUAGE PATTERNS (REVISED) Language Patterns indicates that i t i s a multi-sensory developmental reading programme. The stated aim of the series i s to achieve l i t e r a c y which i s defined as confidence and adeptness in the Language Arts of reading, writing, speaking and l i s t e n i n g . (Holt, 1976; pg. x - x i ) . A c a r e f u l introduction of sounds with a one-to-one audio-visual correspondence characterizes the i n i t i a l reading materials. Decoding i s 34 heavily emphasized. In contrast to Reading 720, a synthetic rather than an analytic approach i s used. As stated i n the philosophy of the programme, "there i s nat u r a l l y more emphasis on the phonics component at the early stages to help the c h i l d develop the s k i l l s that lead to independent reading power." (Holt, pg. i x ) . The t i t l e s of the readers examined are: "Listening Letters" and "Laughing Letters". ORAL LANGUAGE ANALYSIS In the l a s t f o r t y years, children's language and language ac q u i s i t i o n has been the topic of much attention. Consequently, several standardized measures have been developed for comparison of the l i n g u i s t i c patterns of d i f f e r e n t groups of children. Tests for determining the mean length of utterances and the frequency with which cert a i n types of words are used by children have been created. Certain grammatical a b i l i t i e s have been i d e n t i f i e d and evaluated as indicators of syntactic maturity. ( A n i s f i e l d & Tucker, 1973; Chomsky, 1969; Fagan, 1970; Hatch, 1971; Menyuk, 196 9). Other measures included an assessment of syntactic and s t r u c t u r a l features of language for remediation (Chyratal et a l , 1976) and an analysis of vocabulary (Chotlos 1944 & Johnson, 1944; O'Rourke, 1974; Thorndike & Lbrge, 1944). In 1953, Loban began a longitudinal study which traced the o r a l and written l i n g u i s t i c growth of over 300 students in Oakland, C a l i f o r n i a from kindergarten through Grade twelve. This study was also concerned with developing appropriate methods of semantic and structual analysis. (Loban, 1967). For classroom and research evaluation, an objective method for segmenting the flow of o r a l language was devised and the following counts were determined: (1) length of communication unit (average number of words per communication unit) (2) length of maze unit (average number of words per maze unit) With some adaptations, Loban's method of analysis has formed the broad framework for the evaluation of s y n t a c t i c a l patterns in t h i s investigation. SEGMENTATION OF ORAL LANGUAGE The data c o l l e c t e d was transcribed and analyzed according to the methodology outlined by Loban (1976). The two basic units of segmentation, the communication unit (referred to as the C-unit) and the maze unit (referred to as the M-unit) have been used in t h i s research. (See Appendix H for a sample t r a n s c r i p t ) . THE COMMUNICATION UNIT Calculating the average number of words per communication un i s an e f f e c t i v e means of quantifying o r a l language. Watts (1948) 36 described i t as "the natural l i n g u i s t i c unit...a group of words which cannot be further divided without the loss of the i r e s s e n t i a l meaning". Because of the subjective nature of "essential meaning," t h i s d e f i n i t i o n proved d i f f i c u l t to apply. Thus, Loban adopted Hunt's (1965) s t r u c t u r a l d e f i n i t i o n which referred to a segment as "each independent clause with 5 i t s modifiers." The children's t r a n s c r i p t s were segmented into C-units. As outlined by Loban, there were three cases in which a C-unit could occur: 1. Each independent grammatical predication 2. Each answer to a question, provided that the answer lacks only the r e p e t i t i o n of the question elements to s a t i s f y the c r i t e r i o n of independent predication 3. Each word such as 'Yes' or 'No' when given in answer to a question such as "Have you ever been sick?" (pg. 9) THE MAZE UNIT Oftentimes o r a l speech patterns contain hesitations, f a l s e s t a r t s , and meaningless r e p e t i t i o n s . Loban referred to these as "mazes" and i d e n t i f i e d a maze unit as "a series of words (or i n i t i a l parts of words), or unattached fragments which 37 do not constitute a communication unit and are not necessary to the communication unit." (pg. 106), In t h i s study, the children's t r a n s c r i p t s were segmented into maze units and communication units and coded accordingly. Each unit was i d e n t i f i e d by a six-number coding group which indicated the number and type of words each unit contained. This was e a s i l y interpreted by the computer programmes which calculated the number of C-units and M-units per subject and the mean number of words per unit. These measures were used to evaluate l e v e l s of sy n t a c t i c a l fluency. (Appendix E & F). PHRASES AND DEPENDENT CLAUSES Researchers have pointed out that the clause i s an important measure of language and thought (Jespersen, 192 2; Piaget, 1925). Loban (1963) claimed that "phrases and dependent clauses are verbal means of showing re l a t i o n s h i p s . Through them, speakers communicate more complex propositions than are possible with single independent clauses." (pg. 17-18). Ty p i c a l l y , subordination has been considered a more mature and d i f f i c u l t form of s y n t a c t i c a l structure than simple statements. (Frogner, 1933; Heider & Heider, 1940; Granowsky, 1972 ; LaBrant, 1933; Templin, 1957; Loban, 1963). Thus, i n t h i s study, the C-units and M-units were further segmented and coded to indicate the length and type of phrase or dependent clause. Following the method of analysis used by Arthur (1979) , the 38 amount of phrasing and subordination was reported i n terms of percentages of C-units housing these units . Also, the percentage of C-units not containing any phrases or dependent clauses was calculated. These measures were used to evaluate leve l s of s y n t a c t i c a l complexity. VOCABULARY After segmentation, the t r a n s c r i p t s were analyzed i n order to prepare a cumulative vocabulary l i s t for the sample population. The words l i s t e d were grouped into nouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbs, prepositions, pronouns, i n t e r j e c t i o n s , contractions and conjunctions according to t h e i r use in dialogue. Once these words were c l a s s i f i e d , each vocabulary item was numerically coded according to the type of word and i t s place on the alpha-betized cumulative vocabulary l i s t . (Appendix F & G). WRITTEN LANGUAGE ANALYSIS The written language sample was treated i n exactly the same manner as the o r a l language sample. The same sy n t a c t i c a l measures were used. However, as Loban (1963) pointed out, "mazes" are tangles i n communication unique to speech: "in the written t r a n s c r i p t s , only the communication units w i l l occur... Occasionally i n writing there w i l l be some language that i s garbled, but such garbles do not a r i s e from the same cause as mazes. They should be noted and removed from the written communication unit." (pg. 107) 39 Thus, for the written analysis, only the communication unit was scored. 40 TABLE 1 FLOW CHART OF PROCEDURES FOR ANALYSIS OF DATA Transcripts of Tapes Segmentation of Transcripts Syntax Coding of C-rUnits & M-Units Coding Word'Count for C-Units & M-rUnits Coding type^ phrases' noun adjective adverb id word count of: dependent clauses noun adjective adverb Vocabulary Making an alphabetized cumulative vocabulary l i s t C l a s s i f y i n g 1 and l i s t i n g words according to type: nouns, verbs, pronouns, adverbs, pronouns, connectives, a r t i c l e s , prepositions, i n t e r j e c t i o n s , and contractions Within each phrase/dependent clause/C-Unit/M-Unit coding words according to type per vocabulary l i s t Keypunching Analysis I (using specialized programmes written for these data, plus SPSS Crosstabs (Stat. Pack, for Social Sciences)) Interpretation NOTES FROM CHAPTER THREE The research was conducted during the l a s t few weeks of June with kindergarten-aged children. This testing time and age group were chosen in an attempt to obtain a measure of the l i n g u i s t i c a b i l i t i e s of Grade one students just p r i o r to beginning a formalized reading programme. To allow for inaudible and unacceptable data, over-sampling was performed. Although subjects were s t r a t i f i e d on the basis of English Primary Language Users (EPL) and English Second Language Users (ESL), t h i s information w i l l not be used for analysis at t h i s time. (EPL - children who spoke English only at home and at school ESL - children whose dominant language at home was not English) After the language sample had been c o l l e c t e d , the teacher provided some background information on each subject. This data on academic achievement, socio-economic status and l i n g u i s t i c background could prove to be v i t a l to subsequent research in t h i s area. The reader i s encouraged to re f e r to Appendix B, pp. 100-107 of Loban's book, Language Development, for a complete description of the uses of C-Units and M-Units in language analysis. CHAPTER TV PRESENTATION & ANALYSIS OF DATA In order to obtain information on the s p e c i f i c researc questions stated in Chapter I, i t was necessary to conduct the following measures on the written language of the two basal reading series and the o r a l language of the children: 1 mean length of communication units (C-units) 2 mean length of maze units (M-units) proportion of C-units and M-units in t o t a l communication 3 - sequence of mean C-unit length frequency of use of d i f f e r e n t types of phrases and dependent clauses mean length of phrases and dependent clauses used per C-unit - proportion of C-units containing phrases and dependent clauses proportion of C-units not containing phrases and dependent clauses The r e s u l t s of these measures are summarized in the text and tables that follow. PART I AN ANALYSIS AND COMPARISON OF THE BASAL READERS (1) A Measure of Fluency - The Communication Unit Fluency, the a b i l i t y to f i n d words to express oneself r e a d i l y and smoothly, i s considered a mark of successful 43 communication. (Loban, 1963). In t h i s study, the average number of words per communication unit i s used as a basic measure of fluency. Table 2 shows the measures of central tendency and v a r i a b i l i t y for words per C-unit for the two basal reading series. The figures are based on the t o t a l number of C-units for each basal reader. The mean C-unit length of the Language Patterns series i s greater than the mean C-unit length of the Reading 72 0 series by .59 words. The longest C-unit found, which was 14 words, appeared in the Language Patterns series. The shortest C-units, one word commands, were found in both series. An analysis of variance was run to t e s t for significance among the mean C-unit lengths of the basals. It was found that a s i g n i f i c a n t difference existed (F=33.42, df=1,1330, p ^ .001); A Student's t - t e s t was computed on mean 4 C-unit lengths and a s i g n i f i c a n t difference was found (p^_..05). Table 2 shows a comparison of the mean C-unit lengths between the two reading series. To determine i f the basals were arranged sequentially on the basis of C-unit length, the t o t a l number of C-units for each series was divided into 12 samples. For each sample the l a s t 50% of the C-units were analyzed. Hence, the l a s t 5 9 C-units of each of the 12 samples for the Reading 72 0 series was compared to the l a s t 51 units of each sample for the Language Patterns series (Table 3). If the language i n each of TABLE 2 Mean Length, Standard Deviation and Range of  C-Units Found in Basal Readers X s.d. range Reading 7 2 0 4 . 2 4 1 . 6 4 2 . 6 9 Language Patterns 4 . 8 3 2 . 0 7 4 . 3 2 Difference * in _ . 5 9 X * p ^ . 0 5 45 the reading series i s arranged sequentially from "easy" to " d i f f i c u l t " , the researcher expects that t h i s progression could be r e f l e c t e d i n an increase i n mean C-unit length from the beginning to the end. Thus, the shortest mean C-unit length should be found in the f i r s t sample, and the longest mean C-unit length in the twelfth sample. For example, in the Reading 720 series, the mean C-unit length for sample six -which was 2.73, would have been more appropriate as the mean length for sample one. In the Language Patterns series, the mean C-unit length for sample f i v e - which was 5.06, would have been more appropriate as the mean C-unit length for sample nine. From reading Table 3, i t appears that these two i n i t i a l reading series are not c l e a r l y arranged in terms of the complexity of mean C-unit length. When a Spearman Rho Rank Correlation C o e f f i c i e n t was calculated between the sampling order and the order of the mean C-unit lengths, no s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n was found for either basal series. MEASURES OF SYNTACTIC COMPLEXITY Phrasing and subordination, along with fluency, are important factors in e f f e c t i v e communication. In t h i s study, the use of phrases and dependent clauses are considered as indicators of syntactic complexity. To compute these measures, most of the procedures outlined by Arthur (1979) were followed. (a) Phrases For each series, the number of d i f f e r e n t phrases and the 46 TABLE 3 Mean C-unit Length for Samples 1-12 of Basal Readers Rank Sample Reading 720 Rank Language Patterns 1 4.05 6 3.18 1 2 4.61 7 3.78 2 3 4.83 10 4.75 5' 4 4.81 9 4.53 3 5 3.46 4 5.06 9 6 2.73 1 4.76 6 7 3.40 3 4.69 4 8 3.36 2 5.31 10 9 3.78 5 5.55 11 10 4.61 8 4.84 7 11 6.19 12 5.00 8 12 4.93 11 6.29 12 47 average number of phrases per C-unit was computed and reported in Table 4. It was found that the Language Patterns series has s i g n i f i c a n t l y more phrases per C-unit than the Reading 72 0 series. (p Z, .05). Also, i t revealed that the Reading 720 series has only one type of phrase - the adverb phrase. Although the Language Patterns series has mostly adverb phrases, there are examples of both noun and adjective phrases. The number of C-units containing and not containing phrases was determined and summarized in Table 5. A chi-square test revealed that the d i s t r i b u t i o n of phrases in the basals was) 2 s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t . (X = 34.35, d.f = 1, p__.001). It showed that the Language Patterns series has s i g n i f i c a n t l y more C-units containing phrases than the Reading 720 serie s . The mean length of phrases found in the readers was calculated and reported in Table 6. The adverb phrases in the Language Patterns series<were s i g n i f i c a n t l y longer than those in the Reading 72 0 series (p —1.05). Since there were no instances of adjective or noun phrases in the Reading 720 series, a comparison of these phrases could not be conducted. (b) Dependent Clauses A summary of the findings regarding the number of d i f f e r e n t dependent clauses and the average number of clauses per C-unit i s given in Table 7. No s i g n i f i c a n t differences between the basals were found. 48 TABLE 4 Average Number of Phrases per C-Unit for the Basal Readers Number of Cases Average number of Over Total phrases per C-Units C-Unit * Sloun Phrases Reading 720 Language Patterns 1/618 .0618 Adverb Reading 720 129/714 .1807 Phrases Language Patterns 2 00/618 .32 36 Adjective Reading 720 Phrases Language Patterns 9/618 .0146 Total Phrases Reading 720 129/714 .1807 ** Language Patterns 210/618 .3398 ** ** p ^ .05 * Calculated by dividing t o t a l number of cases over t o t a l number of C-units TABLE 5 Ch i -Square Va lues of C - U n i t s C o n t a i n i n g and  Not C o n t a i n i n g Phrases f o r the B a s a l s C o n t a i n i n g Not C o n t a i n i n g Reading 720 , 17 .8 82.2 Language P a t t e r n s 32.2 67.8 Ch i square = 3 4 . 3 5 , d . f = 1 , p Z l .001 TABLE 6 Mean Length of Phrases Found in the Basal Readers Reading 72 0 Language Patterns Noun Phrases - 2 Adverb Phrases 2.69* 3 . 0 1 * Adjective phrases - 2.67 P Z l .05 51 TABLE 7 Average Number of Dependent Clauses per C-Unit f o r the Basals Data Set Number of Cases Over Total C-Units Average Number of Clauses per C-Unit Noun Clauses Reading 72 0 Language Patterns 3/714 4/618 0042 0065 Adverb Clauses Reading 72 0 Language Patterns 5/618 0081 Adjective Clauses Reading 72 0 Language Patterns Total Clauses Reading 72 0 Language Patterns 3/714 9/618 0042 (n.s.) 0146 (n.s.) * Calculated by di v i d i n g t o t a l number of cases over t o t a l number of C-units 52 There were so few instances of dependent clauses that a chi-square test on the d i s t r i b u t i o n of clauses was not conducted. The mean length of dependent clauses found i n the readers was calculated and reported i n Table 8. However, no s i g n i f i c a n t differences were found. PART II AN ANALYSIS AND COMPARISON OF THE LANGUAGE OF THE  CHILDREN AND THE BASAL READERS A Measure of Fluency - The Communication Unit Using the C-unit as a gross measure of syntactic fluency, the language of the children and each of the readers was compared. Table 9 shows the measures of central tendency and v a r i a b i l i t y for words per C-unit for each data set. The figures are based on the t o t a l number of C-units for each basal reader and for the o r a l language sample. The mean C-unit length of the Reading 720 series was less than the mean length of children's o r a l language by .50 words; the Language Patterns series was greater than the children's o r a l mean length in the children's language by .09 words. The shortest C-units were one-word commands which were found in a l l three data sets. The longest C-unit which was 30 words appeared i n the children's speech - t h i s had 16 more words than the longest C-unit i n the Language Patterns readers and 19 more than the longest C-unit in the Reading 72 0 series. 5 3 T A B L E 8 M e a n L e n g t h o f D e p e n d e n t C l a u s e s F o u n d i n B a s a l R e a d e r s R e a d i n g 7 2 0 L a n g u a g e P a t t e r n s D i f f e r e n c e i n X X X N o u n C l a u s e s 3 . 6 7 4 . 5 . 8 3 ( n . s . ) A d v e r b C l a u s e s - 6 . 4 A d j e c t i v e C l a u s e s T A B L E 9 M e a n L e n g t h , S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n s , a n d R a n g e o f C - U n i t s F o u n d i n R e a d e r s a n d C h i l d r e n ' s S p e e c h X s . d . R a n g e R e a d i n g 7 2 0 4 . 2 4 1 . 6 4 2 . 6 9 L a n g u a g e P a t t e r n s 4 . 8 3 2 . 0 7 4 . 3 2 C h i l d r e n 4 . 7 4 2 . 8 1 7 . 9 0 55 An analysis of variance was run to test for s i g n i f i c a n c e . I t was found that a s i g n i f i c a n t difference existed (F=12.950, d.f = 2, p^-.OOl). Comparing each of the series to the o r a l language, the mean C-unit length in the Reading 72 0 series was found to be s i g n i f i c a n t l y shorter than the C-unit length in the children's speech (p<^.05). No s i g n i f i c a n t differences between the Language Patterns series and the children's speech was found. (Table 10). Measures of Syntactic Complexity (a) Phrases A summary of findings on the use of phrases in the basals and in the children's speech i s given in Table 11. An analysis of variance was run and i t revealed that a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f -ference existed in terms of the average number of phrases per C-unit (F=33.198, d.f = 2, p^-.OOOl). The Language Patterns series and children's speech were s i g n i f i c a n t l y more complex than the Reading 720 series (p^.05). No s i g n i f i c a n t d i f -ferences existed between the Language Patterns series and the children's speech. Also, the r e s u l t s revealed that while the Reading 720 series had instances of only one type of phrase (the adverb phrase), both the language of the children and the Language Patterns series had instances of a l l three types. A chi-square t e s t showed that the d i s t r i b u t i o n of phrases in the children's speech and one of the basals was s i g n i f i c a n t l y T A B L E 1 0 D i f f e r e n c e i n M e a n L e n g t h o f C - U n i t s F o u n d B e t w e e n R e a d e r s a n d C h i l d r e n L a n g u a g e P a t t e r n s C h i l d r e n * * R e a d i n g 7 2 0 . 5 9 . 5 0 C h i l d r e n . 0 9 * p £ . 0 5 57 TABLE 11 Average Number of Phrases per C-Unit for Basal Readers & Children Data Set Number of Cases Average Number of Over Total C-Units Phrases per C-Unit Noun Phrases Reading 72 0 Language Patterns Children 1/618 1/1634 .0618 .0006 Adverb Phrases Reading 720 Language Patterns Children 129/714 200/618 574/1634 .1807 .3236 .3513 Adjective Phrases Reading 720 Language Patterns Children 9/618 47/1634 0146 0288 Total Phrases Reading 72 0 Language Patterns Children 129/714 210/618 622/1634 1807 * 3398 * 3807 * * P Zl-05 T A B L E 1 2 C h i - S q u a r e V a l u e s o f C - U n i t s C o n t a i n i n g a n d N o t C o n t a i n i n g P h r a s e s f o r t h e B a s a l s a n d t h e C h i l d r e n C o n t a i n i n g N o t C o n t a i n i n g R e a d i n g 7 2 0 1 7 . 8 8 2 . 8 L a n g u a g e P a t t e r n s 3 2 . 2 6 7 . 8 C h i l d r e n 3 5 . 1 6 4 . 9 C h i s q u a r e = 7 1 . 5 6 1 9 8 , d . f = 2 , p _ 1 . 0 0 0 1 59 2 different. (X = 71.56198, d.f = 2, p^.OOOl). The Language Patterns series and the children's speech contained s i g n i f i -cantly more phrases than the Reading 72 0. Table 12 gives the chi-square values comparing the number of C-units containing and not containing phrases in both of the readers and the children's speech. The mean length of phrases found in the three data sets was calculated and reported in Table 13. The adverb phrases in the Language Patterns series were s i g n i f i c a n t l y longer than the ones found in the children's speech and the Reading 72 0 series (p^.,001) (Table 14). There were too few cases of noun and adjective phrases to conduct a comparison. (b) Dependent Clauses Throughout the written and o r a l language data, there were very few cases of dependent clauses. However, a summary of the findings regarding the number of d i f f e r e n t clauses and the average number of clauses per C-unit i s given i n Table 15. There were s i g n i f i c a n t l y more clauses in the children's speech than in either of the basal series (p^.0001). The mean length of clauses found in the readers and children's speech was determined and presented i n Table 16. The adverb clauses in the Language Patterns series were s i g n i f i c a n t l y longer than the ones found in the children's speech (p^.001). The Reading 72 0 series had no instances of adverb clauses. There were too i 60 TABLE 13 Mean Length of Phrases Found in Basal Readers & Children's Speech Reading 72 0 Language Patterns Children X X X Noun phrases - 2 3 Adverb phrases 2.69 3.01 2.59 Adjective phrases 2.67 2.70 61 TABLE 14 Differences in Mean Length of Adverb Phrases Found in Basal  Readers and Children's Speech Language Patterns Children * Reading 72 0 .32 .07 * Children .25 * p ^.001 62 TABLE 15 Average Number of Dependent Clauses per C-Unit for Basal Readers and Children's Speech Data Set Number of Cases Average Number of Over Total C-Units Clauses per C-Unit Noun Reading 720 3/714 Clauses Language Patterns 4/618 Children 20/1634 0042 0065 0122 Adverb Reading 72 0 Clauses Language Patterns 5/618 Children 31/1634 0081 0190 Adjective Clauses Reading 72 0 Language Patterns Children 5/1634 0031 Total Reading 720 3/714 Clauses Language Patterns 9/618 Children 56/1634 0042 * 0146 0343 * * pZ.0001 T A B L E 16 63 Mean Length of Dependent Clauses Found i n Basal Readers and Children's Speech Difference Reading 720 Language Patterns Children i n _ X Noun Clauses 3.67 Adverb Clauses Adjective Clauses -4.5 6.4 * 4.2 4.3 2.27 * 3.2 * p l~ .001 64 few instances of adjective or noun clauses to conduct a com-parison of mean lengths, or to complete a c h i - t e s t on d i s t r i b u t i o n of dependent clauses. THE MAZE UNITS AND COMMUNICATION UNITS IN THE CHILDREN'S SPEECH In t h i s study, Loban*s (1963) method of segmenting the flow of language into two basic units, the communication unit and the maze unit and examining t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p , has been conducted on the children's speech. Due to the f a c t that "mazes" are only c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the syntactic idiosyncrasies of o r a l language (Loban, pg. 107), a comparison of the maze-communication unit r e l a t i o n s h i p in the readers i s impossible. Therefore', the following r e s u l t s are only presented to provide information on the o r a l pro-f i c i e n c y of the children. Table 17 shows the measure of central tendency and v a r i a b i l i t y for words per C-unit and per Maze unit for the t o t a l sample of 24 subjects. (See Appendix I for i n d i v i d u a l subjects). It i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note that the mean C-unit length of 4.74 and the mean M-unit length of 2.40 found in t h i s study are quite close to those reported by Loban (1963) in his investigation of the language of kindergarten children. (C-Unit - 4.81; M-Unit - 2.58) (pg. 28). 65 An analysis of variance found that a s i g n i f i c a n t difference existed between the mean length of C-units and M-units (F=177 9, d.f = 1, p Z..0001) (Table 17). The proportion of maze units and communication units for the t o t a l communication of each subject can be found i n Appendix J. It i s in t e r e s t i n g to note the variance between subjects - for example, for subject 1 the C-units are 65% of the t o t a l utterances whereas for subject 23, the C-units are 97.7% of the t o t a l . A comparison of the C-unit/M-unit r e l a t i o n s h i p for individuals within the population should reveal some int e r e s t i n g r e s u l t s . However, t h i s i s beyond the scope of t h i s study. TABLE 17 Mean Length, Standard Deviation and Variance of C-Units and M-Units Found in Children's Speech Standard No. of Cases Mean Deviation Variance Maze 670 2.40 2.02 4.08 Communication 7752 4.74 2.81 7.90 Difference in 2.34 * X * p ^L.oooi 67 NOTES ON CHAPTER IV 1. "Mean length" was determined by c a l c u l a t i n g the average number of words per utterance. 2. No analysis of maze units was conducted on either of the basals - see Chapter II I , page 38 for an explanation. 3. An analysis of the sequence of mean length was an appropriate measure for the basal reading series only. 4. Throughout t h i s study, unless otherwise stated, the test for significance used was a Student's t - t e s t . 68 CHAPTER V RESULTS, IMPLICATIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS The purpose of t h i s study was to compare the o r a l syntax of selected Canadian kindergarten children with the written syntax in the two beginning reading series prescribed for use in the schools in B r i t i s h Columbia. S i g n i f i c a n t differences were found both in the comparison of the basal readers and i n the comparison of the language of the children and the basal readers. Results The investigation consisted of two parts: Part I compared the syntax of the two basal reading series - Part II compared the c h i l d r e n 1 s syntax to the syntax in each of the basals and presented some r e s u l t s on the l i n g u i s t i c fluency of the children. Both the written and o r a l data were analyzed on the basis of lengths, frequencies and d i s t r i b u t i o n s of communi-cation units, phrases and dependent clauses. The findings of Part I were that: 1. In terms of communication units, the Language Patterns series was s i g n i f i c a n t l y more complex than the Reading 720 series. (p-1.05). 2. In terms of complexity of mean C-Unit length, no clear progression emerged for the Language Patterns or the Reading 72 0 ser i e s . 69 3. In terms of phrasing, the Language Patterns series was s i g n i f i c a n t l y more complex than the Reading 72 0 series. (pZ .-05) . 4. In terms of dependent clauses, no s i g n i f i c a n t differences between the basals were found. Thus, in answer to the research question posed in Chapter I regarding the re l a t i o n s h i p between the syntax i n the two basal reading series, Language Patterns was found to be more complex than Reading 72 0 series on the syntactic features examined. The findings of Part II were that: 1. In terms of communication units, the speech of the children was s i g n i f i c a n t l y more complex than the language in the Reading 720 series, (p^.05). No s i g n i f i c a n t differences between the Language Patterns series and the children's speech were found. 2. In terms of phrasing, with the exception of the length of adverb phrases, the children's speech and the Language Patterns series were s i g n i f i c a n t l y more complex than the Reading 720 series (p^.05). The length of adverb phrases in the Language Patterns series was s i g n i f i c a n t l y greater than those in the children's speech and the Reading 72 0 series (p ^ .001) . 70 3. In terms of dependent clauses, with the exception of the length of adverb clauses, the children's speech was s i g n i f i c a n t l y more complex than either of the basals (p.^f.0001). The length of adverb clauses in the Language Patterns series was s i g n i -f i c a n t l y greater than those in the children's speech and the Reading 720 series (p<£ .001). 4. In terms of length and proportion of communication and maze units i n the children's speech, there i s a s i g n i f i c a n t variance between the subjects (p^.,0001). Thus, t h i s investigation of the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the syntax in the children's speech and the syntax in each of the basals has revealed some int e r e s t i n g r e s u l t s . Based on the syntactic measures used, for the most part the children's o r a l syntax was found to be s i g n i f i c a n t l y more complex than the syntax in the Reading 720 series. Except for the use of dependent clauses and the length of adverb phrases and clauses, the Language Patterns series was found to be c l o s e l y matched to the syntax of the children. Implications and Recommendations The r e s u l t s of t h i s study warrant c a r e f u l consideration by those involved in the creation and implementation of beginning reading basal s e r i e s . However, the researcher cautions the reader against making any d e f i n i t i v e conclusions 71 regarding the r e l a t i o n s h i p between children's o r a l syntax and the written syntax in either of the two series examined u n t i l a complete syntactic analysis i s conducted. As Loban (1970) suggested, i t i s the f l e x i b i l i t y within a language pattern, not only the word count, which i s an indicator of l i n g u i s t i c maturity, (pg. 625). Nevertheless, the findings of t h i s study indicate that the following points are worthy of consideration: 1. This study found that the syntax i n the Reading 720 series was f o r the most part, d i f f e r e n t from the children's o r a l syntax. The Reading 72 0 series states that attention i s given to a " t o t a l view" of language development: ...Instruction on ways in which language i s used i s designed to support the c h i l d ' s o v e r a l l language and reading growth. (Ginn, 1978; T14) ...There are many oppor-t u n i t i e s for language-based a c t i v i t i e s throughout the t o t a l programme; the continuous intention i s to reinforce children's understanding that what we think we can say, what we speak can be written, what i s written can be read, and what i s read can be incor-porated into our thought process. (Ginn, 1979; pg. 1). Therefore, a c r i t i c a l evaluation of materials that claim to give adequate consideration to children's natural language i s necessary. 2. In the basal readers examined, there was a lack of progression in terms of complexity of syntax. 72 Curriculum developers might want to consider syntactic control as a factor i n the creation of beginning reading materials. 3 . Subordination, a more sophisticated form of syntactic structure, was more prevalent in the children's speech than i n the basals. Producers of curriculum materials might want to consider including more instances of d i f f e r e n t types of dependent clauses i n beginning reading materials. 4 . A tremendous variance in l i n g u i s t i c proficiency between subjects was revealed. Educators need to be aware of the l i n g u i s t i c a b i l i t i e s of students and the l i n g u i s t i c content of basal reading series. It i s quite possible that c e r t a i n basals would be more appropriate for certain students. 5 . Anyone using these reading series should be aware of the differences that were found in the syntactic complexity between the two basals and between the basals and the children's speech. These beginning reading series may need to be supplemented with materials that r e f l e c t the l i n g u i s t i c sophistication of the children. 6. Teachers should be aware of the syntax that appears in the basal series. It may be necessary to o r a l l y 73 pre-teach some of the syntactic patterns to enable children who are experiencing d i f f i c u l t y to make the connection between t h e i r l i n g u i s t i c knowledge and the language i n the texts. Recommendations for Further Research For further research, the following recommendations are made: 1. To provide a more comprehensive evaluation of syntax, a content analysis of the syntactic patterns in these three data sets should be conducted. 2 . To provide a broader l i n g u i s t i c comparison, ah analysis of the vocabulary i n the samples of written and o r a l language used i n t h i s study should be undertaken. 3. To evaluate the l i n g u i s t i c competencies of the children, a comparison of each i n d i v i d u a l in the three taping situations i s recommended. The sex, language and academic achievement of each subject should be taken into account. 4 . To determine whether or not certain reading materials are more appropriate for certain students, the 74 selected basals should be t r i e d out on l i n g u i s t i c a l l y d i f f e r e n t children. 75 APPENDICES 76 APPENDIX A  LIST OF MATERIALS NEEDED Taping Equipment 3 FM microphones 3 portable FM receiver-audio taperecorder units S t o r y t e l l i n g Session Picture books (Ladybird Talk About books are very suitable. For example: Talk About THE BEACH, CLOTHES, BEDTIME) Interview Session Large pictures of animals which contain a l o t of a c t i v i t y . Live animal(s) - preferably a pet they haven't been exposed to before. e.g. 3 newts were used APPENDIX B SAMPLE INTERVIEW QUESTIONS Discussion - Verbal Stimuli Have you ever been to the Richmond Nature Park, or to the zoo? What did you see there? T e l l us about How did the eat? What did you eat f o r breakfast t h i s morning? What do you think the eats for breakfast? Do you have a pet? T e l l me about your pet. If you could have any pet, what would you choose - Why? . Discussion - Visual Stimuli Children were shown chart-size action-packed pictures of animals and asked a number of open-ended questions -"What do you see happening in t h i s picture? Can you describe what i - s doing? T e l l us about the shape/colour...of t h i s animal. What do you think i t eats? What do you think happened just before t h i s picture was taken What do you think i s going to happen next?" I. Discussion - V i s u a l & T a c t i l e Stimuli Three newts i n a tank were presented to the children. They were not fa m i l i a r with t h i s creature but were very eager to ask questions, and to watch and to handle the newts. A number of questions were asked to stimulate conversation -78 What do you think these animals are? What animal do they remind you of? Can you t e l l us what you see that newt i s doing r i g h t now? Feel the newt. How does i t feel? T e l l us what they look l i k e (.../eat/shape/colour) What do you think the newt w i l l do next? Why have the newts got both a wet spot (pool) and a dry spot (rocks) in t h e i r home? Which spot do they seem to l i k e better? How do you know? 79 APPENDIX C GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR INTERVIEWS II General remarks on how to inter a c t with the c h i l d 1. Maximize the number of usable expressive acts, a) Encourage verbal output (i) Ask explanations ( i i ) Avoid questions that permit yes or no answers 4. Be e s p e c i a l l y sensitive to l e v e l s of generality and presuppositions you might have i n forming your questions and what might be implied by them. a) Use the most general phrases with the fewest suppositions. Only i f the c h i l d has trouble connecting, become more s p e c i f i c . For example: What w i l l happen? vs. How w i l l i t go? vs. Which way w i l l i t go? b) Pay special attention to what implications your questions might have i n l i g h t of your presuppositions. I l l Miscellaneous 1. Focus your attention on the c h i l d at a l l times. Avoid getting too involved i n the c h i l d ' s reactions to your question; i . e . , maintain a l i t t l e b i t of reserve. Also avoid situations that would focus the c h i l d ' s attention on you, thereby disturbing the task context. 2. Be sure questions are absolutely c l e a r . Clear up any unclear statements of the c h i l d . If necessary, ask him to repeat himself again. Adapted from: Klaus G. Witz and David R. Goodwin July 20, 1970 APPENDIX D 30 SCHEDULE FOR DATA COLLECTION School A Class A.M. P.M. B A.M. P.M. A.M. oup Subjects Mode 1 1,2,3 A 2 4,5,6 A 1 1,2,3 B 2 4,5,6 B 1 1,2,3 C 2 4,5,6 C 3 7,8,9 A 4 10,11,12 A 3 7,8,9 B 4 10,11,12 B 3 7,8,9 C 4 10,11,12 C 1 1,2,3, A 2 4,5,6 A 1 1,2,3 B 2 4,5,6 B 1 1,2,3 C 2 4,5,6 C 3 7,8,9 A 4 10,11,12 A 3 7,8,9 B 4 10,11,12 B 3 7,8,9 C 4 10,11,12 C 1 1,2,3 A 2 4,5,6 A 1 1,2,3 B 2 4,5,6 B 1 1,2,3 C 2 4,5,6 C 3 7,8,9 A 4 10,11,12 A 3 7,8,9 B 4 10,11,12 B 3 7,8,9 C 4 10,11,12 C N = 36 LEGEND School A B C Kingswood Errington Garden City Mode A - Free Play Session B - S t o r y t e l l i n g Session C'- Interview Session * NOTE: Oversampling was conducted. Only tapes from eight subjects i n each school were used for the analysis. 31 APPENDIX E DIRECTIONS FOR ANALYZING TRANSCRIPTS Segmentation Communication Unit - C-units - indicate by a slanted p e n c i l l i n e / / Maze Units - M-units - indicate by red brackets ) Examples: I can't/|I can't}).... I am going to sing/... No he d i d n ' t / ( l am going to sing})...Au Revoir/ Yea, (Yea) sure/...This s i d e / ( t h i s s i d e ) . . . . What are you going/(Oow) She's burning her eyes/ You're b i t i n g me/ II Phrases (excluding verb phrases) - underline twice with a blue pencil and c i r c l e f i r s t word in phrase - above each phrase p r i n t the type (noun, adverb, adjective) Clauses - enclose in blue parenthesis and c i r c l e f i r s t word in clause above each clause p r i n t the type (noun, adverb, adj.) (adv.) Examples: They want(to)get out again/ ulv.) :fj you want out again) I w i l l take you out again/ I caught one before you know/ i APPENDIX F 82, I. DIRECTIONS FOR CODING TRANSCRIPTS The tr a n s c r i p t s were coded so the computer could produce the necessary summary s t a t i s t i c s on the amount, and frequency of d i f f e r e n t types of utterances. To f a c i l i t a t e t h i s analysis, sp e c i a l i z e d programmes were written f o r the data before the SPSS Crosstabs programme could be used. (See Appendix H for,a sample transcript') . Using coding groups of 6 d i g i t s - the following l e v e l s of analysis are to be conducted: Level I - Write coding group i n blue pen above the f i r s t word at the beginning of each utterance. 1. Code a l l utterances as ei t h e r : Maze Unit (M-Unit) - "01" (indicated by red brackets) Communication Unit (C-Unit) - "02" (indicated by pencil slashes) 2. Code the number of words in each of these units (4 d i g i t s ) e.g. - A M-Unit with 2 0 words would be coded as "010020" A C-Unit with 11 words would be coded as "020011" Underneath Level I, code in pencil the type of phrase (indicated by two blue l i n e s underneath phrase) / dependent clause (indicated by blue parenthesis) according to the following l i s t : 13 - noun phrase 14 - adverb phrase 15 - adjective phrase 16 - noun clause 17 - adverb clause 18 - adjective clause * Level II analysis w i l l not be conducted on every communication unit. For example, i n the case of a simple sentence with no phrases or clauses, only Level I and Level III analysis w i l l be computed. * Level II - 1. 33 2. Code the number of words in each phrase/clause e.g. - A noun clause with 4 words would be coded as "160004" Level III - Under Level 1 & II, code in red pen each words in the utterance according to type and number per vocabulary l i s t . (Be sure and code the word as i t i s used in the sentence - for example, "no" i s not only an adjective but an adverb and a noun). Use the following l i s t for refer to the vocabulary l i words l i s t i n g : 03 - noun 04 - verb 05 - adjective 06 - adverb 07 - pronoun e.g. The adverb " r i g h t 06 0098-adv. l i s t e d as " 93 the type of word and t (Appendix. G) for the 08 - connective 09 - a r t i c l e 10 - preposition 11 - i n t e r j e c t i o n 12 - contraction would be coded as " on the adverb l i s t II. Directions for Preparing Data for Keypunching Enter the numbers onto the Fortran coding sheets following the order of the words on the t r a n s c r i p t s . Level I i s recording f i r s t then a l l of i t s parts - Level II phrases and clauses ( i f applicable) and Level II - each word i n the utterance. For example the following language sample from subject 13 would be coded on the sheet in the following manner: 84 0^0003 The t M o © o 3 driver 0^0003 the s i t s 03 o44g l e f t / \Hooo3 I0po\<j 0^0003 (on) the 03oUS9 r i g h t / O70O13 I cWooo \ am oqoo 03 the o a o o o s oHooot 010013 Am I d r i v e r / o a. 0003 010O1 s We just OH0SI<j| turned/ OIOO03 (we just turned j 020006 090003 030251 040424 140003 100019 090003 030659 020005 040001 0700013 140003 100019 090003 030448 020004 070013 040001 090003 030251 020003 070028 060045 040519 010003 070028 060045 040519 APPENDIX G CUMULATIVE VOCABULARY LIST N O U N S ( A ) ( B ) A a r o n 0 3 0 0 0 1 b a b o o n 0 3 0 0 2 4 A c o r n s 0 3 0 0 0 2 B a b s 0 3 0 0 2 5 a d v e n t u r e 0 3 0 0 0 3 b a b i e s 0 3 0 0 2 6 A f r i c a 0 3 0 0 0 4 b a b y 0 3 0 0 2 7 a i r p o r t 0 3 0 0 0 5 b a c k 0 3 0 0 2 8 A l a n 0 3 0 0 0 6 b a c k s 0 3 0 9 0 3 A l l o u e t t a 0 3 0 0 0 7 b a g 0 3 0 0 2 9 A m a n d a 0 3 0 0 0 8 b a g s 0 3 0 0 3 0 A m e r i c a 0 3 0 0 0 9 b a l l 0 3 0 0 3 1 A n d y 0 3 0 0 1 0 b a l l o o n 0 3 0 0 3 2 A n t h o n y 0 3 0 0 1 1 b a l l o o n s 0 3 0 0 3 3 a n i m a l 0 3 0 0 1 2 b a l l s 0 3 0 0 3 4 a n i m a l s 0 3 0 0 1 3 b a n a n a 0 3 0 0 3 5 A n n 0 3 0 0 1 4 b a n d 0 3 0 0 3 6 A n n a 0 3 0 0 1 5 b a n d s t a n d 0 3 0 0 3 7 a n s w e r 0 3 0 0 1 6 b a n g 0 3 0 0 3 8 a n t 0 3 0 0 1 7 b a n k 0 3 0 0 3 9 a n t s 0 3 0 0 1 8 b a n k s 0 3 0 0 4 0 a p p l e 0 3 0 0 1 9 b a r k 0 3 0 0 4 1 a r m 0 3 0 0 2 0 b a r n 0 3 0 0 4 2 a r m s 0 3 0 0 2 1 b a s e m e n t 0 3 0 0 4 3 a q u a r i u m 0 3 0 0 2 2 b a s k e t 0 3 0 0 4 4 a t t i c 0 3 0 0 2 3 b a s s 0 3 0 0 4 5 a p p l e s 0 3 0 8 9 7 b a t 0 3 0 0 4 6 Nouns Cont ! d (B) bath batteries beach beak beanbag beard bears beaver beavers bed bee beer b e l t b e l l Ben Benny Beth Bett B i l l B i l l y bike birch b i r d birds birthday birthdays b i t 0 3 0 0 4 7 0 3 0 0 4 8 0 3 0 0 4 9 0 3 0 0 5 0 0 3 0 0 5 1 0 3 0 0 5 2 0 3 0 0 5 3 0 3 0 0 5 4 0 3 0 9 4 6 0 3 0 0 5 5 0 3 0 0 5 6 0 3 0 0 5 7 0 3 0 0 5 8 0 3 0 8 7 6 0 3 0 0 5 9 0 3 0 0 6 0 0 3 0 0 6 1 0 3 0 0 6 2 0 3 0 0 6 3 0 3 0 0 6 4 0 3 0 0 6 5 0 3 0 0 6 6 0 3 0 0 6 7 0 3 0 0 6 8 0 3 0 0 6 9 0 3 0 0 7 0 0 3 0 0 7 1 b i t s blackbird Black hen blanket blankets block blood board boat Bob Bobbie body bolts bone bones bonnet book books boots bottle bottles bottom bow bows bow-wow box boxes 0 3 0 0 7 2 0 3 0 0 7 3 0 3 0 0 7 4 0 3 0 0 7 5 0 3 0 0 7 6 0 3 0 0 7 7 0 3 0 0 7 8 0 3 0 0 7 9 0 3 0 9 4 5 0 3 0 0 8 0 0 3 0 0 8 1 0 3 0 0 8 2 0 3 0 0 8 3 0 3 0 9 0 5 0 3 0 0 8 4 0 3 0 0 8 5 0 3 0 0 8 6 0 3 0 0 8 7 0 3 0 0 8 8 0 3 0 0 8 9 0 3 0 0 9 0 0 3 0 0 9 1 0 3 0 0 9 2 0 3 0 0 9 3 0 3 0 0 9 4 0 3 0 0 9 5 0 3 0 0 9 6 N o u n s C o n t ' d ( B ) b o y 0 3 0 0 9 7 b u m p 0 3 0 1 2 2 b o y s 0 3 0 0 9 8 b u m p s 0 3 0 8 9 0 B o z o 0 3 0 0 9 9 b u n d l e 0 3 0 1 2 3 b r a i n 0 3 0 1 0 0 b u n n y 0 3 0 1 2 4 b r a i n s • 0 3 0 1 0 1 b u n s 0 3 0 1 2 5 b r a n c h e s 0 3 0 1 0 2 b u s 0 3 0 1 2 6 b r a s s 0 3 0 1 0 3 b u s s t o p 0 3 0 1 2 7 b r e a d 0 3 0 1 0 4 b u s t i c k e t 0 3 0 1 2 8 b r e a k f a s t 0 3 0 1 0 5 b u t t e r f l y 0 3 0 1 2 9 B r e n d a 0 3 0 1 0 6 b u t t o n 0 3 0 1 3 0 B r e n t 0 3 0 1 0 7 b u t t o n s 0 3 0 1 3 1 b r i c k s 0 3 0 1 0 8 b r i d g e 0 3 0 1 0 9 b r o t h e r 0 3 0 9 5 0 ( C ) b r u s h 0 3 0 1 1 0 c a b i n 0 3 0 1 3 2 b u b b l e 0 3 0 1 1 1 c a c t u s p l a n t 0 3 0 1 3 3 b u b b l e b a t h 0 3 0 1 1 2 c a g e 0 3 0 1 3 4 b u b b l e g u m 0 3 0 1 1 3 c a k e 0 3 0 1 3 5 b u b b l e s 0 3 0 1 1 4 c a l f 0 3 0 1 3 6 b u c k e d 0 3 0 1 1 5 C a m 0 3 0 1 3 7 b u d 0 3 0 1 1 6 C a m e l 0 3 0 1 3 8 b u d s 0 3 0 9 3 4 c a m p 0 3 0 1 3 9 b u g 0 3 0 1 1 7 c a n d y 0 3 0 1 4 0 b u g s 0 3 0 1 1 8 c a n 0 3 0 1 4 1 B u g s y P a p e r 0 3 0 1 1 9 c a n s 0 3 0 1 4 2 b u i l d i n g 0 3 0 1 2 0 c a p 0 3 0 1 4 3 b u i l d i n g s 0 3 0 1 2 1 c a r 0 3 0 1 4 4 N o u n s C o n t ' d ( C ) c a r d 0 3 0 1 4 5 c a r e 0 3 0 9 2 0 C a r l O 0 3 0 1 4 6 C a r r o t s 0 3 0 1 4 7 c a r r o t , . 0 3 0 1 4 8 c a r s 0 3 0 1 5 0 c a s e 0 3 0 1 5 1 c a t 0 3 0 1 5 2 c a t e r p i l l a r 0 3 0 1 5 3 C a t h y C l i f f 0 3 0 1 5 4 c a v e 0 3 0 1 5 5 c a v i t i e s 0 3 0 1 5 6 C . B . 0 3 0 1 5 7 c e l e r y 0 3 0 1 5 8 c e n t r e 0 3 0 1 5 9 c e r e a l 0 3 0 1 6 0 c h a i r 0 3 0 1 6 1 C h a m p 0 3 0 1 6 2 c h a p s 0 3 0 1 6 3 c h e e k 0 3 0 1 6 4 c h e e r s 0 3 0 1 6 5 c h i c k e n 0 3 0 1 6 6 c h i c k s 0 3 0 1 6 7 c h i l d r e n 0 3 0 1 6 8 c h i l d 0 3 0 1 6 9 c h i l l 0 3 0 1 7 0 c h i n 0 3 0 1 7 1 C h u c k 0 3 0 3 7 0 c h u c k l e 0 3 0 9 2 2 c h u c k w a g o n 0 3 0 1 7 2 c i r c l e 0 3 0 1 7 3 c i t y 0 3 0 1 7 4 c l a p 0 3 0 8 9 3 c l e a n e r s 0 3 0 1 7 5 c l e r k 0 3 0 1 7 6 c l i c k 0 3 0 1 7 7 c l i n i c 0 3 0 1 7 8 c l o c k 0 3 0 1 7 9 c l o c k s 0 3 0 1 8 0 c l o s e t 0 3 0 1 8 1 c l o t h 0 3 0 1 8 2 c l o t h e s 0 3 0 2 1 3 c l o t h i n g 0 3 0 1 8 3 c l o w n 0 3 0 1 8 4 c l o w n s 0 3 0 1 8 5 c o a t 0 3 0 1 8 6 c o b w e b s 0 3 0 1 8 8 c o f f e e 0 3 0 1 8 9 c o f f e e c a k e 0 3 0 1 9 0 c o l d 0 3 0 2 1 4 c o l o u r 0 3 0 1 9 1 c o m i c s 0 3 0 1 9 2 N o u n s ( C o n t ' d ) ( C ) c o n e s 0 3 0 1 9 3 D a f f y D u c k l i n g 0 3 0 2 1 6 c o n t e s t 0 3 0 1 9 4 d a m 0 3 0 2 5 8 c o p s 0 3 0 2 1 2 D a n 0 3 0 2 1 7 c o r n e r 0 3 0 1 9 5 d a n d y 0 3 0 2 1 8 c o t 0 3 0 1 9 6 d a n g e r 0 3 0 2 1 9 c o u n t r y 0 3 0 1 9 7 D a n n y 0 3 0 2 2 0 c o w 0 3 0 1 9 8 d a r l i n g 0 3 0 2 2 1 c o w s 0 3 0 1 9 9 D a v i d 0 3 0 2 2 2 c r a b s 0 3 0 2 0 0 d a y 0 3 0 2 2 3 c r a c k e r 0 3 0 2 0 1 d a y s 0 3 0 9 3 3 c r a c k e r s 0 3 0 2 0 2 d e e r 0 3 0 2 5 5 C r a i g 0 3 0 2 0 3 d e e r s 0 3 0 2 5 9 c r a s h 0 3 0 2 0 4 d e l i v e r y 0 3 0 2 2 4 c r a y o n s 0 3 0 2 0 7 d e n 0 3 0 2 2 5 c r i c k e t 0 3 0 2 0 5 d e n t i s t 0 3 0 2 2 6 c r o c o d i l e 0 3 0 2 0 6 d e s k 0 3 0 2 2 7 c r o w n 0 3 0 2 0 8 D e s m o n d D r a g o n 0 3 0 2 2 8 c r o w d 0 3 0 8 7 7 d i a p e r s 0 3 0 2 2 9 c r u n c h 0 3 0 9 2 8 d i e t 0 3 0 2 5 3 c u p 0 3 0 2 0 9 D i m i t y 0 3 0 2 3 0 c u p c a k e 0 3 0 2 1 0 d i n g - d o n g 0 3 0 2 3 1 c u r l y 0 3 0 9 2 3 d i s h 0 3 0 2 3 2 c u s h i o n 0 3 0 2 1 1 d i s h e s 0 3 0 2 3 3 ( D ) d d t c h e s 0 3 0 2 5 7 d a d 0 3 0 2 1 5 d o c k 0 3 0 2 3 4 d a d d y 0 3 0 2 6 0 d o c t o r 0 3 0 2 3 5 N o u n s C o n t ' d ( D ) d o g 0 3 0 2 3 6 e g g s 0 3 0 2 6 4 d o g g i e 0 3 0 2 3 7 e l e p h a n t 0 3 0 2 6 5 d o g g i e s 0 3 0 2 6 1 e l e p h a n t s 0 3 0 2 7 5 d o g s 0 3 0 2 3 8 e l f 0 3 0 2 6 6 d o l l 0 3 0 2 3 9 e l v e s 0 3 0 2 6 7 D o n 0 3 0 2 4 0 E m i l y 0 3 0 2 6 8 d o o r 0 3 0 2 4 1 e n d 0 3 0 2 6 9 d o z e n 0 3 0 2 5 4 e n g i n e 0 3 0 2 7 1 d r a g o n 0 3 0 2 4 2 E r i c 0 3 0 2 7 0 d r e a m s 0 3 0 2 5 2 e v e r y b o d y 0 3 0 9 4 8 d r e s s 0 3 0 2 4 3 e v e r y t h i n g 0 3 0 2 7 4 d r u g s t o r e 0 3 0 2 4 4 e y e s 0 3 0 2 7 1 d r i n k 0 3 0 9 0 8 d r i n k s 0 3 0 9 3 0 ( F ) d r i v e r 0 3 0 2 5 1 f a c e 0 3 0 2 7 6 d r u m 0 3 0 2 4 5 f a i r y 0 3 0 2 7 7 d r u m s t i c k 0 3 0 9 0 2 f a m i l y 0 3 0 2 7 8 d u c k 0 3 0 2 4 6 f a r - 0 3 0 3 0 0 d u c k l i n g 0 3 0 2 4 7 f a r m y a r d 0 3 0 9 2 6 d u c k s 0 3 0 2 4 8 f a r m e r 0 3 0 2 7 9 d u m p t r u c k 0 3 0 2 4 9 f a t h e r 0 3 0 3 0 4 d u s t 0 3 0 2 5 0 f e e t 0 3 0 2 8 0 ( E ) f i e l d 0 3 0 2 8 1 e a r n i n g s 0 3 0 2 7 2 f i g h t e r 0 3 0 2 8 2 e a r s 0 3 0 2 6 2 f i n s 0 3 0 2 8 3 e d g e 0 3 0 9 5 4 f i r e 0 3 0 2 8 4 e g g 0 3 0 2 6 3 f i r e f i g h t i n g 0 3 0 2 8 5 N o u n s C o n t ' d ( F ) f i r e m a n 0 3 0 3 0 7 f i s h 0 3 0 2 8 6 f i s h e r m a n 0 3 0 3 0 6 f l a g 0 3 0 2 8 7 f l a p 0 3 0 8 8 2 f l a p j a c k s 0 3 0 2 8 8 f l a s h l i g h t 0 3 0 2 8 9 F l o r e n c e 0 3 0 3 0 1 f l y 0 3 0 8 8 1 f o i l 0 3 0 3 1 0 f o o t 0 3 0 9 0 0 f o o d 0 3 0 2 9 0 f o r e s t 0 3 0 2 9 1 f o x 0 3 0 2 9 3 f o x e s 0 3 0 3 1 1 F r e c k l e s 0 3 0 2 9 3 F r e d F r o g 0 3 0 2 9 4 F r i d a y s 0 3 0 3 0 8 f r i e n d 0 3 0 9 0 3 f r d l l s 0 3 0 2 9 5 f r o g 0 3 0 2 9 6 f r o g g y 0 3 0 3 0 9 f r o g s 0 3 0 3 1 2 f r o n t 0 3 0 2 9 7 f r o s t 0 3 0 2 9 8 f r o w n 0 3 0 2 9 9 ( G ) G a i l 0 3 0 3 1 3 g a l l o n 0 3 0 3 4 2 g a m e 0 3 0 3 1 4 g a n g 0 3 0 3 1 5 g a s 0 3 0 3 1 6 g e a r 0 3 0 3 4 0 g e e s e 0 3 0 3 5 2 G e o r g i e 0 3 0 3 1 7 G e r m a n S h e p a r d 0 3 0 3 4 5 g e r m s 0 3 0 3 5 0 g i f t 0 3 0 3 1 8 g i l l s 0 3 0 3 4 6 g i n d e r b r e a d 0 3 0 3 1 9 g i r a f f e 0 3 0 3 4 9 g i r l 0 3 0 3 2 0 g i r l s 0 3 0 3 2 1 g l a s s 0 3 0 3 2 1 g l a s s e s 0 3 0 3 2 2 g o a t 0 3 0 3 2 3 g o a t s 0 3 0 3 2 4 g o l d f i s h 0 3 0 3 2 5 g o i n g 0 3 0 9 0 1 g o n g s 0 3 0 3 2 6 g o o d - b y e 0 3 0 3 2 7 g o w n 0 3 0 3 2 8 Nouns Cont'd Grade One Granddad Grandma Grandpa glass gravel Green Team grin groups G r i f f gun guppies Gurjert .' Gus gusts guy guys (H) habit hair ham hamburgers hand handle hands (G) 0 3 0 3 4 1 0 3 0 3 4 3 0 3 0 3 2 9 0 3 0 3 3 0 0 3 0 3 3 1 0 3 0 3 3 2 0 3 0 3 3 3 0 3 0 8 9 8 0 3 0 3 5 1 0 3 0 3 3 4 0 3 0 3 3 8 0 3 0 3 3 4 0 3 0 3 4 8 0 3 0 3 3 6 0 3 0 3 3 7 0 3 0 3 4 4 0 3 0 3 3 9 0 3 0 3 5 3 0 3 0 3 7 5 0 3 0 3 5 4 0 3 0 3 5 5 0 3 0 3 5 6 0 3 0 3 5 7 0 3 0 3 5 8 hanky hat head heart helicopter help hen Henry hens hero h i l l h i l l s h i l l s i d e hippopotamus hockey hog hole home homes hotdogs house humps hut (I) icecream 0 3 0 3 5 9 0 3 0 3 6 0 0 3 0 3 7 8 0 3 0 3 7 9 0 3 0 3 6 1 0 3 0 9 3 5 0 3 0 3 6 2 0 3 0 3 6 3 0 3 0 3 6 4 0 3 0 3 7 7 0 3 0 3 6 5 0 3 0 8 8 9 0 3 0 9 3 8 0 3 0 3 8 0 0 3 0 3 6 6 0 3 0 3 6 7 0 3 0 3 6 8 0 3 0 3 6 9 0 3 0 3 7 0 0 3 0 3 7 1 0 3 0 3 7 2 0 3 0 3 7 3 0 3 0 3 7 4 0 3 0 3 8 1 Nouns Cont'd (I) idea 030385 inch 030382 India 030386 inside 030383 Isabel 030384 (J) jacket 030387 jack-in-the-box 030388 jacks 030389 jam 030390 James 030391 Jan 030392 Jane 030393 Japan 030394 Ja r r e t t 030394 Jason 030408 Jed 030396 Je f f 030397 Jennifer 030398 Jerry 030399 Jet ,030400 J i l l 030401 Jim 030402 job 030403 jobs 030404 joke 030405 juice 030407 jump 030915 junk 030406 (K) Kate 030409 Kay 030410 Ken 030411 kennels 030412 key 030413 keys 030414 kid 030425 kids 030426 Kim 030415 kindergarten 030424 king 030416 Kip 030417 Kirsten 030418 Kirshy 030 419 k i t 030420 K i t Cat 030888 k i t t e n 030421 kittens 030422 Kool-Aid 03042 7 Nouns Cont'd (L) Lad 030941 log 030443 lady 030450 logs 030444 lake 030449 l o l l i p o p s 030445 lampshade 030428 look 030453 land 030429 Louise 030454 leaf 030430 lumber 030446 leaves 030451 lunch 030447 l e f t 030448 leg 030431 (M) legs 030432 Ma-a-a 030456 l i d 030433 Mac 030457 l i d s 030434 MacDonald 030866 l i g h t 030435 machine 030458 Linda 030436 machines 030459 l i n e 030437 Mag da 030460 l i o n 030438 magic 030461 l i p s 030439 man 030462 l i q u i d 030905 Mandy 030513 l i s t s 030440 map 030463 L i t t l e Town 03092 maple 030464 L i t t l e Red Hen 030441 mark 030510 Liz 030442 Mark 030508 l i z a r d 030452 market 030465 l i z a r d s 030455 mash 030887 Nouns Cont'd (M) mast 030466 mat 030467 Matt 030468 Mayor 030469 meal 030470 meat 030471 men 030472 meow 030473 mess 030474 metal 030475 mice 030514 Mickey 030515 microphone 030511 miles 030509 mike 030477 milk 030476 Milky Way 030478 m i l l 030479 minute 030480 minutes 030481 mirror 030482 Miss 030483 Miss Perez 030942 Miss Smith 030484 Miss Stephen 030485 mitt 030486 mitts 030487 Molly 030488 Mom 030489 Mom Frog 030891 money 030507 monkey 030518 monkeys 030521 monster 030490 monsters 030491 month 030492 mop 030493 morning 030494 motel 030412 moth 030495 mother 030496 Mother Duck 030943 Mother Rabbit 030944 motor 030506 mouse 030497 mouth 030516 Mr. 030498 Mr. Black 030499 Mr. Frog 030517 Mr. McTavish 030910 Nouns Cont'd (M) Mrs. C l i f f 030501 Mrs. Grundy 030502 Mrs. McTavish 030503 Mrs. Shower 030519 Mrs. Trowers 030520 mud 030504 mummy 03050 5 mumps 030873 (N) name 030522 names 030523 Nan 030524 nap 030525 naps 030526 Nat 030867 neck 030527 needle 030528 nest 030874 nests 030529 newspaper 030530 newt 030949 Nick 030531 night 030532 nighttime 030 865 Norman 030533 nose 030534 'number 4' nut nuts nothing nobody (0) oak obstacles octopus Olga one ones Ontario orange other outside owl (P) pad page s pal Pam pancakes pans pants 030905 030872 030535 030536 030537 030538 030546 030545 030539 030544 030548 030542 030540 030547 030541 030543 030549 030616 030550 030551 030605 030552 030553 Nouns Cont 'd (P) paper 030615 park 030554 p a r r o t 030555 p a r r o t s 030556 p a r t 030557 p a r t s 030558 pa r t y 030559 pasture 030611 Pat 030560 path 030561 peanuts 030562 p e l l e t s 030563 pen 030564 pen 030565 pennies 030566 Penny 030567 penguins 030618 people 030568 pepper 030609 Petez 030569 pet 030570 Pete 030571 Peter 030572 pets 030572 p i c n i c 030574 p i c t u r e 030575 p i c t u r e s 030622 p i e c e 030601 p i g 030576 pigeons 030577 p i g g i e 030578 p iggy bank 030579 p i g s 030910 p i l l 030580 p i n 030581 P ine 030581 P i n e ' s 030583 p i z z a Hut 030584 p l a c e 030620 p l a c e s 030604 p lanes 030585 p l a n e t 030586 p lank 030587 p l a n t 030588 p lan 030939 p l a t e 030614 p l a s t i c 030619 p l a t e s 030610 p layground 030606 p o l i c e 030603 pond 030592 pol lywogs 030621 Nouns Cont'd (P) pool 030617 rain 030630 popcorn 030593 raincoat 030662 popsicles 030594 ranch 030631 porcupine 030612 Randy 030632 porridge 030608 rat 030633 pot 030595 rats 030634 puck 030597 Raymond 030635 pub 030602 Red Hen 030892 pumps 030924 ribbon 030636 puppet 030598 ribbons 030637 puppies 030599 Rick Rat 030638 ride 030639 (Q) rides 030944 question 030623 ring 030640 rig h t 030659 (R) rink 030641 rabbit 030624 r i v e r 030642 rabbits 030625 road 030643 race 030665 Robby Robin 030644 races 030667 robbers 030645 raccoon 030626 robin 030646 raccoons 030627 robot 030661 radio 030664 rock 030649 r a f t 030628 rocket 030650 rag d o l l 030629 rockets 030651 100 Nouns Cont'd (R) rocks 030652 seals 030683 rod 030653 seat 030684 Ron 030654 secret 030684 Ron's Rabbit 030655 seeds >; 030686 room 030663 sentence 030687 row 030660 shade 030688 Rudy 030656 sheep 030689 rug 030657 shelf 030690 Rusty Fox 030658 shel l s 030691 sherry 030692 (S) ship 030693 sack 030669 shoes 030694 saddle 030670 shore 030695 sailboats 030671 shoulder 030696 sale 030672 shower 030697 s a l t 030673 shop 030698 Sam 030674 side 030699 sand 030675 sight 030700 Sandra 030676 sign 030701 sandwich 030677 signs 030702 sandwiches 030678 step 030940 Saturday 030679 songs 030927 scamp 030680 Si l k y 030919 scarf 030681 s i s t e r 030703 scissors 030682 skin 030704 Nouns Cont'd (S) skunk 030705 sky 030706 sky 030706 sled 030707 sleep 030708 s l i d e 030709 slippers 030710 snack 030711 snake 030712 snakes 030713 snow 030714 snowman 030715 socks 030716 something 030717 son 030718 song 030719 sort 030720 sound 030721 space 030722 spot 030723 spots 030724 sq u i r r e l 030725 squ i r r e l s 030726 stamp 030727 star 030729 stars 030730 steamshovels 030731 st i c k 030732 stic k s 030733 store 030734 stor i e s 030735 story 030736 s t a i r s 030953 sounds 030936 suckers 030931 ship 030925 sea 030981 stove 030737 Stephen 030738 street 030739 streets 030740 stuf f 030741 sucker 030742 summer 030743 supper 030744 surprise 030745 surprises 030746 Susan 030747 Suzu 030748 sweater 030749 swings 030750 Stanley Park 030741 Stanley Beach 030752 st r i n g 030752 Nouns Cont'd (S) spring 030875 telephone 030758 sun 030883 thanks 030759 s h e l l 030886 thing 030760 swim 030893 things 030761 shot 030894 thread 030762 sun-up 030896 throat 030763 steps 030899 thunder 030764 stand 030900 Tim 030765 speck 030903 time 030766 shelves 030906 Tip 030767 smells 030911 t i p s 030768 springs 030912 today 030769 stri p e 030913 toes 030770 strings 030917 Tarn 030771 s p i l l 030917 Tomoko 030772 stores 030918 Tom Turkey 030773 stop 030919 Toni 030774 tonight 030775 (T) top 030776 tank 030904 town 030777 Tab 030753 toy 030778 t a i l 030754 track 030779 Tarn 030755 t r a i n 030780 team 030756 tra i n s 030781 Ted 030757 trap 030782 Nouns Cont'd (T) tree 030783 towel 030805 t r i p 030784 two 030806 t r i p s 030785 types 030807 truck 030786 trumpet 030901 trees 030932 Tad 030868 trunk 030889 Thelma 030869 tummy 030885 twin ; 030878 thicket 030884 twins 030879 trucks 030787 turnip 030788 (U) t u r t l e 030789 umbrella 030808 t i r e 030790 Uncle B i l l 030809 trunk 030781 t i c k e t 030792 (V) times 030793 vacation 030810 tables 030794 van 030811 tub 030795 velvet 030812 tent 030796 Velda 030813 teeth 030797 v i s i t 030814 teeter-t o t t e r 030798 vowel 030815 t u r t l e s 030799 turn 030800 (W) tunnel 030801 washing 030952 t r i c k 030802 wagon 030816 tadpoles 030803 waiting 030817 tig e r 030804 walk 030818 walking 030819 Nouns Cont'd (W) wall wallet water way weed weeds week well Wendy wheat wig Wilfred Willy Wilma wind winds wings winter wish woman word world wheel witch while washing 0 3 0 8 2 0 0 3 0 8 2 1 0 3 0 8 2 2 0 3 0 8 2 3 0 3 0 8 2 4 0 3 0 8 2 5 0 3 0 8 2 6 0 3 0 8 2 7 0 3 0 8 2 8 0 3 0 8 2 9 0 3 0 8 3 0 0 3 0 8 3 1 0 3 0 8 3 2 0 3 0 8 3 3 0 3 0 8 3 4 0 3 0 8 3 5 0 3 0 8 3 6 0 3 0 8 3 7 0 3 0 8 3 8 0 3 0 8 3 9 0 3 0 8 4 0 0 3 0 8 4 2 0 3 0 8 4 3 0 3 0 8 4 4 0 3 0 8 4 5 0 3 0 8 4 6 whale wolf worm whales wood window west (Y) yee yesterday yip (Z) Zak zebra Zip zoo 0 3 0 8 4 7 0 3 0 8 4 8 0 3 0 8 4 9 0 3 0 8 5 0 0 3 0 8 5 1 0 3 0 8 5 2 0 3 0 8 8 8 0 3 0 8 5 3 0 3 0 8 5 4 0 3 0 8 5 5 0 3 0 8 5 6 0 3 0 8 5 7 0 3 0 8 5 8 0 3 0 8 5 9 VERBS (A) am 040001 beware 040021 answer 040002 b i t 040022 ate 040003 bite 040023 ask 040004 b i t i n g 040024 asked 040005 block 040025 allowed 040006 boasted 040026 act 040007 boasting 040027 asks 040619 bobs 040028 ate 040712 bolts 040029 bows 040030 (B) bragged 040031 back 040008 bring 040032 bake 040009 bringing 040033 bang 040010 broke 040034 bark 040011 brush 040035 barked 040012 bump 040036 bat 040013 bumped 040037 be 040014 bumps 040038 became 040015 burn 040039 been 040016 burning 040040 beeped 040017 button 040041 began 040018 buttons 040042 bends 040019 buzzed 040043 bent 040020 buzzing 040044 Verbs Cont'd (B) busted 040045 bust 040046 buying 040047 brought 040048 bleeding 040050 blows 040050 building 040051 breathe 040052 brings 040053 buy 040054 bakes 040596 better 040599 begin 040651 begged 040672 become 040685 buzzy 040691 breathing 040704 bringed 040715 bends 040733 (C) c a l l 040055 ca l l e d 040056 came 040057 can 040058 cannot 040059 care 040060 cares 040061 carry 040062 chase 040063 catch 040696 catched 040701 check 040064 checked 040065 c h i l l 040066 chose 040067 chuck 040068 chuckle 040069 chuckled 040070 clap 040071 clean-up 040072 c l i c k 040073 closer 040074 cluck 040075 clucks 040076 c o l l e c t 040077 col l e c t e d 040078 c o l l e c t s 040079 color 040080 come 040081 coming 040082 Verbs Cont'd (C) correct 040083 cleaning 040109 could 040084 crawling 040110 cover 040085 croaking 040111 covered 040086 caged 040112 crack 040087 c o l l e c t i n g 040113 claps 040612 carrying 040114 cracks 040088 crashed 040115 cracked 040089 drivi n g 040116 crash 040090 cook 040597 crawled 040091 cr i e d 040683 creeping 040092 comes 040636 crept 040093 crawl 040709 cross 040094 chase 040721 crunch 040095 cleaned 040693 cry 040096 (D) crying 040097 drag . 040614 curly 040098 drips 040611 cut 040099 dry 040700 chasing 040100 drying 040730 change 040101 did 040117 caught 040102 dig 040188 cooking 040103 digging 040119 catching 040104 digs 040120 camping 040105 dim 040121 count 040106 ding 040122 cooked 040107 do 040123 climb 040108 down 040124 108 Verbs Cont'd (D) dragged 040125 • (E) drags 040126 eat 040146 draw 040127 eating 040147 dreaming 040128 eats 040148 dress 040129 end 040149 d r i f t e d 040130 ended 040150 d r i f t s 040131 eaten 040151 d r i l l s 040132 escape 040152 drink 040133 excuse 040601 drinks 040134 drip 040135 (F) drive 040136 f a l l 040695 d r i z z l e • 040137 f a l l s 040153 dropped 040138 f a l l i n g 040154 drops 040139 fans 040155 dumped 040140 fed 040156 dumps 040141 f e e l 040157 drives 040142 f e l l 040158 drop 040143 f e l t 040159 dropping 040144 f i l l e d 040160 dive 040145 f i l l s 040161 dri v i n g 040590 f i n d 040162 doing 040591 f i n i s h 040163 does 040598 finis h e d 040164 dressed 040500 f i x 040165 dressing 040674 fixed 040166 109 Verbs Cont'd (F) f i z z l e 040167 giving 040732 flaps 040168 galloping 040189 flapping 040169- gallops 040190 fla s h 040170 gasps 040191 flops 040171 get 040192 f l y 040172 gets 040193 f l y i n g 040173 getting 040194 fogs 040174 giggled 040195 follow 040175 give 040196 forget 040176 g l i d i n g 040197 forgot 040177 glug 040198 f r i e d 040178 go 040199 frown 040179 gobble 040200 f r y 040180 going 040201 fussing 040181 got 040202 fi s h i n g 040182 grab 040203 found 040183 grabbed 040204 feels 040184 grabs 040205 feeding 040185 grin 040206 feed 040186 grinned 040207 f a i l 040187 grips 040208 following 040188 groaned 040209 f i r e 040593 grumble 040210 f i s h 040711 grumbled 040211 fig h t i n g 040718 guess 040212 (G) gone grabbing 040213 040214 Verbs Cont'd (G) gives grins gusts gallop gave goes gone (H) had hang hangs happen has happened have having hear head heard help helping helps helped hid hidden hide 0 4 0 2 1 5 0 4 0 6 0 5 0 4 0 6 2 7 0 4 0 6 2 8 0 4 0 6 7 5 0 4 0 7 1 3 0 4 0 6 8 9 0 4 0 2 1 6 0 4 0 2 1 7 0 4 0 2 1 8 0 4 0 2 1 9 0 4 0 2 2 0 0 4 0 2 2 1 0 4 0 2 2 2 0 4 0 2 2 3 0 4 0 2 2 4 0 4 0 2 2 5 0 4 0 2 2 6 0 4 0 2 2 7 0 4 0 2 2 8 0 4 0 2 2 9 0 4 0 2 3 0 0 4 0 2 3 1 0 4 0 2 3 2 0 4 0 2 3 3 hides h i t h i t s hold honk hop hoped hopped hopping hugs hops hummed hung hunt hunts hurry hurts hate holding held hurt •. (I) imagine invent 0 4 0 2 3 4 0 4 0 2 3 5 0 4 0 2 3 6 0 4 0 2 3 7 0 4 0 2 3 8 0 4 0 2 3 9 0 4 0 2 4 0 0 4 0 2 4 1 0 4 0 2 4 2 0 4 0 2 4 4 0 4 0 2 4 3 0 4 0 2 4 5 0 4 0 2 4 6 0 4 0 2 4 7 0 4 0 2 4 8 0 4 0 2 4 9 0 4 0 2 5 0 0 4 0 2 5 1 0 4 0 2 5 2 0 4 0 6 6 6 0 4 0 7 2 3 0 4 0 2 5 3 0 4 0 2 5 4 Verbs Cont'd (J) jumping 040672 leaped 040274 juggled 040255 leaves 040275 juggled 040256 l e t 040276 jump 040257 l e t t e r 040277 jumped 040258 l e f t 040638 jumps 040259 l i c k i n g 040278 l i c k s 040279 (K) l e f t 040280 kept 040260 l i f t e d 040281 kick 040261 l i k e 040282 kicks 040262 li k e d 040283 know 040263 l i k e s 040284 knew 040731 limps 040285 keep 040264 l i s t e n i n g 040286 k i l l e d 040265 l i v e 040287 kiss i n g 040266 locked 040288 kicked 040267 look 040289 keeps 040268 looked 040290 looking 040291 (L) l o s t 040292 land 040269 loved 040293 landed 040270 loves 040294 lands 040271 l i e 040295 leave 040689 love 040296 laying 040272 laugh 040297 lay 040273 ly i n g 040298 Verbs Cont'd (L) l i s t e n l i f t s l i v e d l i v e s led looks l i s t e n l e t t i n g 0 4 0 2 9 9 0 4 0 6 2 0 0 4 0 6 4 6 0 4 0 6 5 3 0 4 0 6 5 9 0 4 0 6 9 8 0 4 0 7 2 1 0 4 0 6 9 0 must married make means making moving marry miss 0 4 0 3 1 5 0 4 0 3 1 6 0 4 0 3 1 7 0 4 0 3 1 8 0 4 0 3 1 9 0 4 0 3 2 0 0 4 0 3 2 1 0 4 0 6 8 0 (M) made mash may meet mended meow messy met might mix mixed mixing moaned mop munch must 0 4 0 3 0 0 0 4 0 3 0 1 0 4 0 3 0 2 0 4 0 3 0 3 0 4 0 3 0 5 0 4 0 3 0 5 0 4 0 3 0 6 0 4 0 3 0 7 0 4 0 3 0 8 0 4 0 3 0 9 0 4 0 3 1 0 0 4 0 3 1 1 0 4 0 3 1 2 0 4 0 3 1 3 0 4 0 3 1 4 0 4 0 3 1 5 (N) name naps near need needs nibbles nipping nips nodded (O) open opened order opens 0 4 0 3 2 2 0 4 0 3 2 3 0 4 0 3 2 4 0 4 0 3 2 5 0 4 0 3 2 6 0 4 0 3 2 7 0 4 0 3 2 8 0 4 0 3 2 9 0 4 0 3 3 0 0 4 0 3 3 1 0 4 0 3 3 2 0 4 0 3 3 3 0 4 0 7 1 4 113 Verbs Cont'd (P) packed 040334 pouted 040360 packing 040-35 puff 040361 pad 040336 puffed 040362 panic 040337 puffs 040363 panics 040338 pumps 040364 panted 040339 push 040365 passed 040340 pushed 040366 past 040341 put 040367 pats 040342 picking 040699 patting 040343 plant 040679 peeked 040344 pinch 040664 pick 040345 putting 040368 picked 040346 pulled 040369 picks 040347 pretend 040370 p i l e 040348 p u l l i n g 040371 plan 040348 paddled 040372 play 040350 ' painting 040373 played 040351 pop 040645 playing 040352 pinched 040665 please 040353 puts 040705 plods 040354 p u l l 040717 plop 040355 polished 040356 (Q) popped 040357 quack 040374 pops 040358 press 040359 (R) ran 040375 Verbs Cont'd (R) r a t t l e 040376 re a d i n g 040598 reached 040377 r i n g s 040609 read 040378 r e s t i n g 040616 r e s t 040379 r e s t s 040623 r e s t e d 040380 r i n g 040635 r i d e 040381 r a t t l e d 040645 r i d e s 040382 r i d 040680 r i p 040383 read 040697 r i p p e d 040384 r i d i n g 040728 roa r e d 040385 runned 040734 rocks 040387 rush 040397 rubs 040388 rushed 040398 r u i n 040389 rumble 040390 (S) rumbled 040391 s a i d 040399 rumbles 040392 s a i l e d 040400 rumbling 040393 s a i l i n g 040401 run- * 040394 sang 040402 runs 040395 sat 040403 running 040396 saw 040404 rob 040592 says 040405 robbed 040593 screamed 040406 r e l a x i n g 040594 see 040408 remember 040595 seek 040409 r a i n i n g 040596 seemed 040410 r o l l e d 040597 seems 040411:. Verbs Cont'd (S) s e l l 040412 s l i d e 040668 shiver 040413 slides 040667 shop 040414 set 040662 show 040415 scrubbed 040658 shut 040416 scrub 040657 sighed 040417 sipped 040647 sight 040418 s i z z l e 040648 sign 040419 sipping 040649 sing 040420 shrink 040650 singing 040421 shrank 040652 sinks 040422 st i c k i n g 040694 s i t 040423 swimmed 040706 s i t s 040424 say 040429 skims 040425 sleeped 040713 skip 040426 sees 040729 skipped 040427 snapped 040678 sleep 040654 splashed 040643 slipped 040430 straps 040633 s l i p s 040431 snaps 040433 smiled 040432 snow 040434 s n i f f 040692 sobs 040435 seem 040690 sorted 040436 storing 040688 sound 040437 smile 040684 sounds 040438 splash 040673 spent 040439 sobbed 040671 s p i l l 040440 smash 040669 spin 040441 Verbs Cont'd (S) spins 040442 s p l i t s 040635 spit s 040443 spank 040467 spot 040444 scare 040468 spread 040445 supposed 040469 springs 040445 speaking 040470 stamp 040447 saved 040471 stamps 040448 shook 040472 stand 040449 swimming 040473 stands 040450 slept 040474 start 040451 smelling 040475 stay 040452 squished 040476 stayed 040453 stuck 040477 step 040454 seen 040478 stepped 040455 shopping 040479 steps 040456 showing 040480 sti c k 040457 sleeps 040481 stopped 040459 sleeping 040482 stop 040458 standing 040483 surprise 040460 stays 040484 swept 040462 staying 040485 swim 040463 swam 040486 shoot 040465 st i c k i n g 040487 shot 040466 shooting 040592 shone 040641 s i t t i n g 040594 s h a l l 040710 should 040604 s n i f f 040644 s n i f f s 040606 V e r b s C o n t ' d ( S ) s m e l l s 0 4 0 6 0 7 t i e 0 4 0 5 0 3 s t o p s 0 4 0 6 0 8 t i r e d 0 4 0 5 0 4 s p i l l s 0 4 0 6 1 0 t o o k 0 4 0 5 0 5 s p o t s 0 4 0 6 2 2 t r a m p 0 4 0 5 0 6 s k i m 0 4 0 6 2 6 t r a m p e d 0 4 0 5 0 7 s e t 0 4 0 6 2 9 t r a p 0 4 0 5 0 8 s e t s 0 4 0 6 3 0 t r a p p e d 0 4 0 5 0 9 s m e l l 0 4 0 6 3 1 t r a p s 0 4 0 5 1 0 s p o t t e d 0 4 0 6 3 2 t r a v e l 0 4 0 5 1 1 s n i f f e d 0 4 0 6 4 2 t r a v e l l e d 0 4 0 5 1 2 ( T ) t r i p t r i p s 0 4 0 5 1 3 0 4 0 5 1 4 t a k e 0 4 0 4 8 8 t r o l l 0 4 0 5 1 5 t a k e n 0 4 0 4 8 9 t r o t s 0 4 0 5 1 6 t a l k 0 4 0 4 9 0 t r y - 0 4 0 5 1 7 t a p p e d 0 4 0 4 9 1 t u r n 0 4 0 5 1 8 t e l l 0 4 0 4 9 2 t u r n e d 0 4 0 5 1 9 t e l l i n g 0 4 0 4 9 3 t h r e w 0 4 0 5 2 0 t h a n k 0 4 0 4 9 4 t a s t i n g 0 4 0 5 2 1 t h i n k 0 4 0 4 9 5 t o o k 0 4 0 5 2 2 t h i n k s 0 4 0 4 9 6 t i p p e d 0 4 0 5 2 3 t h r e w 0 4 0 4 9 7 t h o u g h t 0 4 0 5 2 4 t h r o b s 0 4 0 4 9 8 t o u c h 0 4 0 5 2 5 t h r o w 0 4 0 4 9 9 t a k i n g 0 4 0 5 2 6 t h r o w i n g 0 4 0 5 0 0 t r y i n g 0 4 0 5 2 8 t h r o w s 0 4 0 5 0 1 t a l k i n g 0 4 0 4 2 7 t h u m p s 0 4 0 5 0 2 t y p e s 0 4 0 5 9 5 Verbs Cont'd (T) t i p s thanks tugging tapping tugs t r i c k t i p throb tap thanked ticked t i c k l e t i c k l i n g thumped track t r i e d tidy thump tol d t i e d (U) underline understand undid unhappy 0 4 0 6 0 2 0 4 0 6 0 3 0 4 0 6 1 3 0 4 0 6 1 7 0 4 0 6 1 8 0 4 0 6 2 1 0 4 0 6 2 4 0 4 0 6 2 5 0 4 0 6 3 9 0 4 0 6 4 0 0 4 0 6 6 1 0 4 0 6 6 3 0 4 0 6 6 5 0 4 0 6 7 0 0 4 0 6 7 7 0 4 0 6 8 2 0 4 0 6 8 7 0 4 0 6 9 3 0 4 0 6 9 9 0 4 0 7 3 3 0 4 0 5 2 9 0 4 0 5 3 0 0 4 0 5 3 1 0 4 0 5 3 2 upset upsets use used (V) vanished v i s i t (W) wait waited walk want wanted wants was washes waved wear wearing went were whack whisks whispered 0 4 0 5 3 3 0 4 0 5 3 4 0 4 0 5 3 5 0 4 0 5 3 6 0 4 0 5 3 7 0 4 0 5 3 8 0 4 0 5 3 9 0 4 0 5 4 0 0 4 0 5 4 1 0 4 0 5 4 2 0 4 0 5 4 3 0 4 0 5 4 4 0 4 0 5 4 5 0 4 0 5 4 6 0 4 0 5 4 7 0 4 0 5 4 8 0 4 0 5 4 9 0 4 0 5 5 0 0 4 0 5 5 1 0 4 0 5 5 2 0 4 0 5 5 3 0 4 0 5 5 4 Verbs Cont'd (W) wiggle 040555 watching 040582 w i l l 040556 winks 040623 win 040557 welcome 040681 wind 040558 wishing 040634 winds 040559 wins 040637 wish 040560 wiggles 040681 wished 040561 w a i t i n g 040686 woke 040562 walking 040707 wore 040563 washed work 040564 worked 040565 (X) working 040566 works 040567 (Y) would 040568 yank 040583 w r i t e 040569 yapped 040584 wrecking 040570 yaps 040585 wrecked 040572 y e l l e d 040586 wonder 040573 y i p 040587 washing 040574 yawned 040588 watch 040575 y e l l s 040615 waking 040576 yanks 040632 won 040577 yap 040645 w i g g l i n g 040578 wrapping 040579 wiggled 040580 winning 040581 ADJECTIVES (A) animal a f r a i d ago a l i k e a l l alone any another apple asleep Ann 1 s Allan's Andy 1s a t t i c (B) baby back bad baggy behind best big biggest battered 0 5 0 2 8 3 0 5 0 0 0 1 0 5 0 0 0 2 0 5 0 0 0 3 0 5 0 0 0 4 0 5 0 0 0 5 0 5 0 0 0 6 0 5 0 0 0 7 0 5 0 0 0 8 0 5 0 0 0 9 0 5 0 2 2 1 0 5 0 2 4 4 0 5 0 2 4 7 0 5 0 2 6 8 0 5 0 0 1 0 0 5 0 0 1 1 0 5 0 0 1 2 0 5 0 0 1 3 0 5 0 0 1 4 0 5 0 0 1 5 0 5 0 0 1 6 0 5 0 0 1 7 0 5 0 0 1 8 berr black block blue bottom bright brown broken bumpy bus brass bubble bubbling Benny 1s birch bigger beaver brain (C) corner candy clown cactus c h i l l cracker 0 5 0 0 1 9 0 5 0 0 2 0 0 5 0 0 2 1 0 5 0 0 2 2 0 5 0 0 2 3 0 5 0 0 2 4 0 5 0 0 2 6 0 5 0 0 2 6 0 5 0 0 2 7 0 5 0 2 2 7 0 5 0 2 3 0 0 5 0 2 5 4 0 5 0 2 5 8 0 5 0 2 9 6 0 5 0 2 9 8 0 5 0 3 1 0 0 5 0 3 1 8 0 5 0 3 2 1 0 5 0 2 9 1 0 5 0 2 9 4 0 5 0 2 7 5 0 5 0 2 6 1 0 5 0 0 2 8 0 5 0 2 8 9 Adjectives Cont'd (C) chocolate chubby clever closed cold cowboy clumsy crossly cute camp Champ 1s cross chicken c r i n k l y (D) dandy darling dead delicious deep d i f f e r e n t dim d i r t y distant diving 0 5 0 0 2 9 0 5 0 0 3 0 0 5 0 0 3 1 0 5 0 0 3 2 0 5 0 0 3 3 0 5 0 0 3 4 0 5 0 0 3 5 0 5 0 0 3 6 0 5 0 0 3 7 0 5 0 2 3 1 0 5 0 2 4 8 0 5 0 2 6 7 0 5 0 2 7 6 0 5 0 2 9 3 0 5 0 0 3 8 0 5 0 0 3 9 0 5 0 0 4 0 0 5 0 0 4 1 0 5 0 0 4 2 0 5 0 0 4 3 0 5 0 0 4 4 0 5 0 0 4 5 0 5 0 0 4 6 0 5 0 0 4 7 dizzy down dry drying dumb dusty drunk dentist's Daffy 1s Dan' s drug delivery (E) each extra empty every easy (F) f a i r fast faster f a t fine f i r s t 0 5 0 0 4 8 0 5 0 0 4 9 0 5 0 0 5 0 0 5 0 0 5 1 0 5 0 0 5 2 0 5 0 0 5 3 0 5 0 2 1 5 0 5 0 2 4 3 0 5 0 2 4 6 0 5 0 2 7 7 0 5 0 2 8 2 0 5 0 3 0 4 0 5 0 0 5 4 0 5 0 0 5 5 0 5 0 0 5 6 0 5 0 0 5 7 0 5 0 2 6 5 0 5 0 0 5 8 0 5 0 0 5 9 0 5 0 0 6 0 0 5 0 0 6 1 0 5 0 0 6 2 0 5 0 0 6 3 Adjectives Cont'd (F) f i v e f l a t four f r a n t i c free fresh f r i e d f r i s k y " f r i z z y front fun funny f i r e few favourite frog's f i s h farm (G) glad glassy glum gone grand green great 0 5 0 0 6 4 0 5 0 0 6 5 0 5 0 0 6 6 0 5 0 0 6 7 0 5 0 0 6 8 0 5 0 0 6 9 0 5 0 0 7 0 0 5 0 0 7 1 0 5 0 0 7 2 0 5 0 0 7 3 0 5 0 0 7 4 0 5 0 0 7 5 0 5 0 0 7 6 0 5 0 0 7 7 0 5 0 0 7 8 0 5 0 0 7 9 0 5 0 0 8 0 0 5 0 2 8 6 0 5 0 0 8 1 0 5 0 0 8 2 0 5 0 0 8 3 0 5 0 0 8 4 0 5 0 0 8 6 0 5 0 0 8 7 0 5 0 0 8 7 grey gooey g i r l ' s gucky Grandma's gas (H) happy high hot hungry hundred half ham hat hockey hen' s hard (I) impossible (J) j o l l y just Jan' s jacket 0 5 0 0 8 9 0 5 0 0 9 0 0 5 0 0 9 1 0 5 0 2 0 9 0 5 0 2 6 9 0 5 0 2 8 5 0 5 0 0 9 2 0 5 0 0 9 3 0 5 0 0 9 4 0 5 0 0 9 5 0 5 0 0 9 6 0 5 0 2 0 8 0 5 0 2 8 8 0 5 0 2 9 5 0 5 0 3 0 3 0 5 0 3 0 7 0 5 0 3 1 1 0 5 0 0 9 7 0 5 0 0 9 8 0 5 0 0 9 9 0 5 0 2 2 0 0 5 0 2 2 6 12 3 A d j e c t i v e s C o n t ' d ( J ) j u m p i n g 0 5 0 2 5 7 m i d d l e 0 5 0 1 0 7 j u n k 0 5 0 2 8 1 m i s s i n g 0 5 0 1 0 8 j a m 0 5 0 2 9 0 m - m - m 0 5 0 1 0 9 m o o - o o 0 5 0 1 1 0 ( K ) m o r e 0 5 0 1 1 1 K i m ' s 0 5 0 2 3 8 m u c h 0 5 0 1 1 2 m u d d y 0 5 0 1 1 3 ( L ) m a d 0 5 0 1 1 4 l i o n s 0 5 0 1 0 0 m i l l i o n 0 5 0 1 1 5 l i t t l e 0 5 0 1 0 1 m a s h e d 0 5 0 1 1 6 l i z a r d 0 5 0 1 0 2 M i s s S m i t h ' s 0 5 0 2 1 8 l o n g 0 5 0 1 0 3 m o t h 0 5 0 2 3 4 l e a s t 0 5 0 2 1 0 M o m ' s 0 5 0 2 4 1 l o s t 0 5 0 2 2 8 M r s . S h e l b y ' s 0 5 0 2 7 3 l u m p y 0 5 0 2 3 2 m e s s y 0 5 0 2 7 9 l o t 0 5 0 2 7 0 m e a t 0 5 0 2 9 6 l a m p 0 5 0 2 7 4 m u d 0 5 0 2 6 0 l o t s 0 5 0 2 8 0 m e t a l 0 5 0 3 0 1 l o u d 0 5 0 3 0 2 l o o s e 0 5 0 3 1 3 ( N ) l a u g h i n g 0 5 0 3 1 5 n e w 0 5 0 1 1 7 n e x t 0 5 0 1 1 8 ( M ) n i c e 0 5 0 1 1 9 m a i n 0 5 0 1 0 4 n o 0 5 0 1 2 0 m a n y 0 5 0 1 0 5 n e a t 0 5 0 1 2 1 m a p l e 0 5 0 1 0 6 Adj. Cont'd (N) nutty (0) odd old one only open own orange okay other oak (P) panic pink p l a s t i c pretty p r i c k l y purple police pen po lar pet 0 5 0 3 1 7 0 5 0 1 2 2 0 5 0 1 2 3 0 5 0 1 2 4 0 5 0 1 2 5 0 5 0 1 2 6 0 5 0 1 2 7 0 5 0 1 2 8 0 5 0 2 0 7 0 5 0 2 1 1 0 5 0 2 9 8 0 5 0 1 2 9 0 5 0 1 3 0 0 5 0 1 3 1 0 5 0 1 3 2 0 5 0 1 3 3 0 5 0 1 3 4 0 5 0 1 3 5 0 5 0 1 3 6 0 5 0 1 3 7 0 5 0 1 3 8 person's piggy plant party pine picn i c park paper (Q) quick quiet (R) ready red rear rough rabbit Red Hen's rag Randy's rat' s Ron 1 s 0 5 0 1 3 9 0 5 0 2 5 4 0 5 0 2 7 1 0 5 0 2 9 2 0 5 0 2 9 7 0 5 0 3 0 4 0 5 0 3 0 8 0 5 0 3 1 8 0 5 0 1 4 0 0 5 0 1 4 1 0 5 0 1 4 2 0 5 0 1 4 3 0 5 0 1 4 4 0 5 0 1 4 5 0 5 0 2 3 7 0 5 0 2 4 2 0 5 0 2 5 1 0 5 0 2 5 5 0 5 0 2 8 7 0 5 0 3 0 9 A d j . C o n t ' d ( S ) s u n n y 0 5 0 2 6 2 s o r e 0 5 0 1 6 8 s i l k y 0 5 0 2 5 0 s o r r y 0 5 0 1 6 9 s a t i n 0 5 0 2 3 4 s o u n d 0 5 0 1 7 0 S a m ' s 0 5 0 2 1 9 s p o i l t 0 5 0 1 7 1 s a d 0 5 0 1 4 6 s p o r t 0 5 0 1 7 2 s a f e 0 5 0 1 4 7 s t a r 0 5 0 2 2 9 s a f e r 0 5 0 1 4 8 s t e e r i n g 0 5 0 1 7 3 s a m e 0 5 0 1 4 9 s t i l l 0 5 0 1 7 4 s c r a m b l e d 0 5 0 1 5 1 s u d d e n l y 0 5 0 1 7 6 s h a g g y 0 5 0 1 5 2 s u r e 0 5 0 1 7 7 s h o r t 0 5 0 1 5 3 s p l e n d i d 0 5 0 2 9 9 s h o p p i n g 0 5 0 1 5 4 s m a r t 0 5 0 2 0 7 s i c k 0 5 0 1 5 5 S u s a n 1 s 0 5 0 2 7 8 s i d e 0 5 0 1 5 6 s p i n n i n g 0 5 0 2 5 3 s i l l y 0 5 0 1 5 7 s u c h 0 5 0 2 4 9 s l e e p i n g 0 5 0 1 5 8 s t i f f 0 5 0 2 5 2 s l i m y 0 5 0 1 6 0 s t u f f e d . 0 5 0 2 6 4 s l o w 0 5 0 1 6 1 s i x 0 5 0 2 6 9 s m a l l 0 5 0 1 6 2 s p r i n g 0 5 0 2 7 2 s m a l l e r 0 5 0 1 6 3 s u m m e r 0 5 0 2 8 4 s m o o t h 0 5 0 1 6 4 s q u i s h e d 0 5 0 3 1 2 s n u g g l y 0 5 0 1 6 5 s m a l l - l o o k i n g 0 5 0 3 1 4 s o f t 0 5 0 1 6 6 s o r t 0 5 0 3 1 9 s o m e 0 5 0 1 6 7 126 A d j . C o n t ' d ( T ) T e d ' s 0 5 0 2 4 0 t a m e 0 5 0 2 6 3 t h r o b b i n g 0 5 0 2 2 3 t h o s e 0 5 0 2 6 5 t e n t 0 5 0 2 4 5 t u r n i p 0 5 0 3 0 5 t h i c k 0 5 0 2 2 2 T i p ' s 0 5 0 2 1 7 ( U ) T i m ' s 0 5 0 2 1 6 u g l y 0 5 0 1 9 3 t r u c k 0 5 0 2 1 4 u n k i n d 0 5 0 1 9 4 t e r r i b l e 0 5 0 1 7 8 u p s e t 0 5 0 2 2 5 t h a t 0 5 0 1 7 9 u n h a p p y 0 5 0 2 3 2 t h e 0 5 0 1 8 0 t h e s e 0 5 0 1 8 1 ( V ) t h i n 0 5 0 1 8 2 v e r y 0 5 0 1 9 5 t h r e e 0 5 0 1 8 3 v e l v e t 0 5 0 2 3 3 t i c k l y 0 5 0 1 8 4 t i d y 0 5 0 1 8 5 ( W ) t i g h t 0 5 0 1 8 6 w e l l 0 5 0 2 3 6 t h i s 0 5 0 1 8 7 w a g g y 0 5 0 1 9 6 t i n y 0 5 0 1 8 8 w a s h e d 0 5 0 1 9 7 t i r e d 0 5 0 1 8 9 w e l c o m e 0 5 0 1 9 7 t r a c k 0 5 0 1 9 0 w e t 0 5 0 1 9 9 t w o 0 5 0 1 9 1 w h a t 0 5 0 2 0 0 t w o - w h e e l e d 0 5 0 1 9 2 w h i t e 0 5 0 2 0 1 t w e l v e 0 5 0 2 0 8 w r e c k e d 0 5 0 2 0 2 t o p 0 5 0 2 5 9 w r o n g 0 5 0 2 0 3 t e n 0 5 0 2 6 0 w h i c h 0 5 0 3 1 1 Adj. Cont'd yellow yucky yummy you 0 5 0 2 0 4 0 5 0 2 0 5 0 5 0 2 0 6 0 5 0 2 1 2 ADVERBS (A) as about across after again against alone already along always apart around asleep away awhile a l l any anyway (B) back backwards behind beside bigger 0 6 0 1 0 7 0 6 0 0 0 1 0 6 0 0 0 2 0 6 0 0 0 3 0 6 0 0 0 4 0 6 0 0 0 5 0 6 0 0 0 6 0 6 0 0 0 7 0 6 0 0 0 8 0 6 0 0 0 9 0 6 0 0 1 0 0 6 0 0 1 1 0 6 0 0 1 2 0 6 0 0 1 3 0 6 0 0 1 4 0 6 0 0 9 3 0 6 0 0 9 5 0 6 0 1 3 4 0 6 0 0 1 5 0 6 0 0 1 6 0 6 0 0 1 7 0 6 0 0 1 8 0 6 0 0 1 9 both but best b i t (C) crossly c e r t a i n l y c r a z i e r closer crazy (D) darker down d i f f e r e n t (E) either else enough everywhere even (F) faster f i n a l l y 0 6 0 0 2 0 0 6 0 0 2 1 0 6 0 1 1 3 0 6 0 1 2 5 0 6 0 1 2 4 0 6 0 0 2 2 0 6 0 0 2 3 0 6 0 1 2 0 0 6 0 1 2 7 0 6 0 0 2 4 0 6 0 0 2 5 0 6 0 1 2 8 0 6 0 0 2 6 0 6 0 0 2 7 0 6 0 0 2 8 0 6 0 0 2 9 0 6 0 1 0 1 0 6 0 0 3 0 0 6 0 0 3 1 1 2 9 Adverbs cont'd (F) f i r s t forever forwards f r a n t i c a l l y funny fast f l a t (G) good good-bye glum (H) happily hardly here how half hard high (I) instead in (J) just 0 6 0 0 3 2 0 6 0 0 3 3 0 6 0 0 3 4 0 6 0 3 3 5 0 6 0 0 3 6 0 6 0 0 9 9 0 6 0 1 0 4 0 6 0 0 3 7 0 6 0 0 9 7 0 6 0 1 0 8 0 6 0 0 3 8 0 6 0 0 3 9 0 6 0 0 4 0 0 6 0 0 4 1 0 6 0 0 4 2 0 6 0 0 4 3 0 6 0 1 2 5 0 6 0 0 4 4 0 6 0 1 2 9 0 6 0 0 4 5 CL) l a t e l a s t l a t e r l i t t l e (M) maybe much more (N) near never no not now neither next (0) odd off once otherwise out okay only 0 6 0 1 2 3 0 6 0 1 0 7 0 6 0 0 4 6 0 6 0 0 4 7 0 6 0 0 4 8 0 6 0 1 1 2 0 6 0 0 9 4 0 6 0 0 4 9 0 6 0 0 5 0 0 6 0 0 5 1 0 6 0 0 5 2 0 . 6 0 0 5 3 0 6 0 0 5 4 0 6 0 0 5 5 0 6 0 1 0 9 0 6 0 0 5 6 0 6 0 0 5 7 0 6 0 0 5 8 0 6 0 0 5 9 0 6 0 0 6 0 0 6 0 0 6 1 Adverbs Cont'd (0) over outside on 0 6 0 1 0 0 0 6 0 1 0 2 0 6 0 1 2 1 sometimes sure s t i l l 0 6 0 0 7 1 0 6 0 0 7 2 0 6 0 0 7 3 (P) please probably past (Q) quie t l y quickly (R) rea l r e a l l y r i g h t 0 6 0 0 6 2 0 6 0 0 6 3 0 6 0 1 0 3 0 6 0 1 2 2 0 6 0 0 6 4 0 . 6 0 0 6 5 0 6 0 0 6 6 0 6 0 0 9 3 (T) then there tonight too today (U) underneath up upside-down u n t i l upstairs 0 6 0 0 7 6 0 6 0 0 7 7 0 6 0 0 7 8 0 6 0 0 7 9 0 6 0 0 9 6 0 6 0 0 3 0 0 6 0 0 8 1 0 6 0 0 8 2 0 6 0 1 1 1 0 6 0 1 3 1 (S) sadly sound sideways suddenly sale so s o f t l y some 0 6 0 0 6 7 0 6 0 0 7 4 0 6 0 0 7 5 0 6 0 1 0 5 0 6 0 1 1 9 0 6 0 0 6 8 0 6 0 0 7 0 0 6 0 0 7 0 (V) very (W) well when whenever where why without 0 6 0 1 0 6 0 6 0 0 8 3 0 6 0 0 8 4 0 6 0 0 8 5 0 6 0 0 8 6 0 6 0 0 8 7 0 6 0 0 8 8 Adverbs Cont'd (Y) yes yet yeah you yesterday 0 6 0 0 8 9 0 6 0 0 9 0 0 6 0 0 9 1 0 6 0 0 9 2 0 6 0 1 2 5 (Z) PRONOUNS (A) anything any anyone (B) bath (E) each everyone everything (H) he her him himself his (I) I i t i t s 0 7 0 0 0 1 0 7 0 0 0 2 0 7 0 0 3 6 0 7 0 0 0 3 0 7 0 0 0 4 0 7 0 0 0 5 0 7 0 0 0 6 0 7 0 0 0 8 0 7 0 0 0 9 0 7 0 0 1 0 0 7 0 0 1 1 0 7 0 0 1 2 0 7 0 0 1 3 0 7 0 0 1 4 0 7 0 0 1 5 (M) me mine my myself (N) nobody none (O) our (S) she such someone (T) that these they t h i s those 0 7 0 0 1 6 0 7 0 0 1 7 0 7 0 0 1 8 0 7 0 0 3 7 0 7 0 0 1 9 0 7 0 0 4 0 0 7 0 0 2 0 0 7 0 0 2 1 0 7 0 0 3 9 0 7 0 0 4 0 0 7 0 0 2 2 0 7 0 0 2 3 0 7 0 0 2 4 0 7 0 0 2 5 0 7 0 0 2 6 Pronouns Cont'd (U) us 0 7 0 0 3 9 (W) who we what which whatever 0 7 0 0 2 7 0 7 0 0 2 8 0 7 0 0 2 9 0 7 0 0 3 0 0 7 0 0 3 4 (Y) you your yourself yours 0 7 0 0 3 1 0 7 0 0 3 2 0 7 0 0 3 3 0 7 0 0 3 4 a l t h o u g h and because but i f so than when where o r e x c e p t w h i l e u n t i l CONJUNCTIONS 0 8 0 0 0 1 0 8 0 0 0 2 0 8 0 0 0 3 0 8 0 0 0 4 0 8 0 0 0 5 0 8 0 0 0 6 0 8 0 0 0 7 0 8 0 0 0 8 0 8 0 0 0 9 0 8 0 0 1 0 0 8 0 0 1 1 0 8 0 0 1 2 0 8 0 0 1 3 ARTICLES a 090001 an 090002 t h e 090003 PREPOSITIONS (A) along among at about against around along afte r across (B) beside but by between behind before 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 2 1 0 0 0 0 3 1 0 0 0 3 4 1 0 0 0 0 4 1 0 0 0 0 5 1 0 0 0 0 6 1 0 0 0 0 7 1 0 0 0 2 9 1 0 0 0 0 8 1 0 0 0 0 9 1 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 3 1 1 0 0 0 3 4 (F) for from (I) in into (L) l i k e (0) of on onto over off 1 0 0 0 1 4 1 0 0 0 1 5 1 0 0 0 1 6 1 0 0 0 1 7 1 0 0 0 2 7 1 0 0 0 1 8 1 0 0 0 1 9 1 0 0 0 2 0 1 0 0 0 2 1 1 0 0 0 3 2 •(D) down 1 0 0 1 2 (P) past 1 0 0 0 3 3 (E) except 1 0 0 0 1 3 (T) to through 1 0 0 0 2 2 1 0 0 0 2 8 Prepositions Cont'd (U) under upon up 1 0 0 0 2 3 1 0 0 0 2 4 1 0 0 0 3 0 (W) with without 1 0 0 0 2 5 1 0 0 0 2 6 CONTRACTIONS (A) aren't (C) can' t couldn't (D) didn *t doesn' t don 11 (E) everybody 1s (G) g i r l ' s (H) h e ' l l he' s haven' t here' s hasn' t how1 s 1 2 0 0 0 1 1 2 0 0 0 2 1 2 0 0 0 3 1 2 0 0 0 4 1 2 0 0 0 5 1 2 0 0 0 6 1 2 0 0 0 7 1 2 0 0 0 8 1 2 0 0 3 6 1 2 0 0 0 9 1 2 0 0 1 0 1 2 0 0 1 1 1 2 0 0 3 3 1 2 0 0 3 4 (I) I'd I ' l l I'm It' s 1 1 ve i t ' s isn 11 (L) l e t ' s (M) mine's (0) one' s (S) she' s (T) that's ere's y 1 re1 2 0 0 1 2 1 2 0 0 1 3 1 2 0 0 1 4 1 2 0 0 1 5 1 2 0 0 1 6 1 2 0 0 1 7 1 2 0 0 2 1 1 2 0 0 1 8 1 2 0 0 1 9 1 2 0 0 2 0 1 2 0 0 2 1 1 2 0 0 2 2 1 2 0 0 2 3 1 2 0 0 2 4 C o n t r a c t i o n s C o n t ' d (W) w e ' l l w h a t ' s w h e r e ' s w o n ' t w o u l d n ' t w a s n ' t 1 2 0 0 2 5 1 2 0 0 2 6 1 2 0 0 2 7 1 2 0 0 2 8 1 2 0 0 3 5 1 2 0 0 3 6 (Y) y o u ' 1 1 y o u ' r e y o u ' v e w e ' r e 1 2 0 0 2 9 1 2 0 0 3 0 1 2 0 0 3 1 1 2 0 0 3 2 (A) aaawr a l l r i g h t achoo 1 1 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 3 0 1 1 0 0 3 6 INTERJECTIONS (N) nightie night 1 1 0 0 3 4 1 1 0 0 3 5 1,40 (B) bang boom (D) ding-dong (G) good-bye great (H) ha he l l o h i hm huh hey (M) my 1 1 0 0 0 2 1 1 0 0 0 3 1 1 0 0 2 8 1 1 0 0 0 4 1 1 0 0 2 2 1 1 0 0 0 5 1 1 0 0 0 6 1 1 0 0 0 7 1 1 0 0 0 8 1 1 0 0 0 9 1 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 0 2 5 (0) oh okay oow ouch (P) pow (R) rah-rah rum-tum-tum (S) screech (T) tap tap (W) wham whee wow 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 2 1 1 0 0 1 3 1 1 0 0 1 4 1 1 0 0 2 4 1 1 0 0 3 1 1 1 0 0 2 9 1 1 0 0 1 5 1 1 0 0 3 3 1 1 0 0 1 6 1 1 0 0 1 7 1 1 0 0 1 8 I n t e r j e c t i o n s C o n t ' d w e l l 1 1 0 0 2 3 w a - w a 1 1 0 0 2 7 ( Y ) y e a y e o o w y i p p y y u m y u m 1 1 0 0 1 9 1 1 0 0 2 0 1 1 0 0 2 1 1 1 0 0 3 2 1 4 2 A P P E N D I X H S A M P L E O F C H I L D ' S T R A N S C R I P T S u b j e c t 1 3 ( M a l e E P L , P M C l a s s . A g e : 6 y e a r s : 2 m o s . A c a d e m i c : A v e r a g e ) For brevity on the tr a n s c r i p t s , the zeros were omitted from the six d i g i t coding groups; for example: "030790" would be written as "3-790". # = phonological unit. See Chapter 1, page for explanation. 144 MODE 1 - Freeplay Session oa.0003 OA 0003 03.000(0 U-»3 4-134 1-119 / 3 151 M-ttl 5-5C y H-tfl «H VISI 4-5^ 4-3 I ' l l drive home&C . . .Case i s e m p t y G e t a case out the 020003 o^oot a 3~h4 i V i . 0 3 H-003 M-0S3L , t-_7 4-os? I-^ JJ 4-lfcL 3-3.9 car#/...Police are coming #/... How else can we get home i f o a o o o i 0 * 0 0 0 3 oaooo_" •Vjj U-3. H-»3b <M y \2rZ.5 - H O J L / 1^3 4-H11 we can't drive a car..Yeah#/...We 111 get caught#/...I threw HooogL* 0 1 0 0 0 3 V3 3-HI4 4-54 , > 3 i -5*055 3-4»H 4-S$! J_H1 1-35 , U-'iX 3-31.1 the keys outlet . . .your extra keys were rofti them#/. . .We're home OI0002. o a o o o c \4o0o_. OPooo4/ 1-53 / * W U ^"59 , C - ( * 3 L 1-51 M8 V 3 H H t / u " * 3 4-_l4 1-3) now#/...Get out#/. . .Please get out pf) the car # ./. . . I ' l l l e t you 0^0003 oaooc? 1400O3L. H-l3(, / 1-31 H-13U 4-23 / 1-13 H-111 3-3tOJ^p3 3-319 drive#./. . .you drive c r a z i e r #/. . .1 forgot my hat (at) home.# ./ . . oaooot, oa*oo* lHooo li Come on I ' l l shoot the cops#/...I'll kick the t i r e fofa the p o l - i r r p 0 3.000 5" 0 5 L 0 0 O 3 3riM4 / >g 4-aao s-is 3-190 / 12-34 4-3 71 4- ioo / carl./. . . He has got battered tire#/. . .They 're p u l l i n g overt/... H-310 T ' i l H-20'x jfetfc l - i t 3-1*4 4-44 1 0 i % l-'iz. i~ 3 i Pretend you got (in) mv truck instead of your van and you took U-$4 %'X 7'3l 4-S1X, 1-14/ ' M - 3 0 H-S10 *7-33L 3~1S(, M l . off and you wrecked it# '...You're wrecking your truck up#/. . . Oacoo3 010003 Oaoool o a o o o c I M I 1-33. v i a / a - n H 3 ~-ao* . 4-q\ . 4 - o « 9 - 3 Here's your truck# ./. .. i t 1 s a l l wrecked#/. . .Yeah#/.. .Chuck the Wooo-3 0 W M 1 \4OOQ3 0^000414ooc_ 3-40U kHt 9-3 _ - _ 4 _ . S-iDl l&Sa q-3 3-314 , M-3.ot Ifeli q - 3 junk Cn)' the river# 7. . .Going (to) the hospital#7. . .Going /to)_t__e oaooou W0003 oa.0001 oaooos- IH0003 O-OI'? , 4-<?l ll-l« V I 3-0»<» / t - ^ l , H- IU (,-S<? lo -IS beac jhJJ . . .Yeah, l e t ' s go ftp*) the beach#V. . .Yeahft/. . .Get out((o£S_ 0 1 0 0 0 I o ' i 0 O o S " ^ 0 0 0 X O i o o o ^ j I 4 0 O O S L , >\t S-TJL , / U » N 4-2.0) mi i - u 3-1«t, y H--347 14>L_D-14 3-3HO, mv truck #J. . . \3Teah,j going (boy wreck mv truck#/. . .Put i t (in) gear!. /. 145 <^ 0 C°3 OaOOOiT 0 2OQO3 02000 [> I ' l l bust it#/. . . Jump out p H t n e c a r l J. . . Here ' s a gun# . 7. . star t shooting the wheels ffi i t # . / . . T h i s i s your car#:/..You.have got 02.0007; four to f i v e cztQjff/. . .and you are wrecking them a l l up#/. .. and I only got a truckt/. . .and one other truck(fchaj); works# 1/. . Olooo? o*xooo2> oiooot Yeah, you have got four to f i v e cars#/...Yes you do# .jL. . We 11 IHoocS oioocl H0003 f i r e rocks the thinasft/. . . Come on l e t ' s get (in? my truck#/ oioooio W0003 oaooot IHOoo'f and we' 11 run tfveft a c a r l .7. . . You can s i t an) the back seat# . . OloooT H0003 oa.0010 \HO003v ISO0O3 1-31 HHB* W i f t iM-1 3-oat • / 1-13 4-1 H-ao 1 U H ^ - 0 1 ' ' 4 - 3 3-asI J £ >* You can s i t En^ the back there*/. . . I am going fco) be the drive/| OiOOOt \40003 ' 0 X 0 0 0 5 W 0 0 0 3 my trunk ft./. . .ThP dri v e r s i t s QSrp the rigjit.# f. . /Am IQ?ff the l e f t # . y . Olooc^ 0oooo3 0a°°0fe I500O3 l-OiHI-3 3~*5I / > * « H-Sli , -^3 3-04 JM8 9-3 I am the driver#./. . .We just turned#./.. the back (of/ the truck. OQooot 14 ooo3 oaooo'7 M-X3S H-in 1-tS IS^ 1 H 3-tcly t-U 4-(<H t-Hi. 4-3 hit#yf. . l e t ' s go back ftxy the p n h i . / . .Ypahl Ipt-.'s go get the bag#/. . . l e t ' s go get two bags tonight#/:... Go in and get some ©aooo^i o a o o u !lfooo3 , \Mi S-of <»-3 . 3-osi , 1343 W s-oi 9-3 3~osli£^ 0,-3 money # J. .. Here 1 s a l l the beer #./ . . I' 11 put a l l the beer fin) the 150003 02.0004 0 2.000k 1-02% KHjl 3"1«t / M-OSI lOit i m 4-1^9/ 7-31 1^'^-. back# . . . .p f) the truck # y. . • Come • on l e t ' s go ..You get out and 146 (j 20005" oaoo o_, get it#.yC . .That was nine, Miss Stephens!/. . . a l l the beer i s 0 2COOS- | 4 0 0 o 3 oaoo<?3 C-vl f.-<yo Woo jsd^ ? i3* 3-L&i , 3-635 V-Vi** - - f t / up here#./..Get overrorh your seat#/. . .Raymond s i t s there#./.. oaoooC. oaoooy o2oo<?f "W3 .j-sfa »HWJ (,-"77 / "W3 ^ V3 3-ar| , j l - l l 1-3i f-«U3 No, I want to s i t there#/. . . I am the dr i v e r * / . . .0. K. you s i t oiooio 1 H 0 0 0 3 oaoooV M l _/ W 7 ' 3 S M * " *3t1 7:'*/J£Wt 5-171 3-3V0 y t-7t» there#/...Yes we can, we just put ltt fin) rear gear#/. . .and then i t stays#y... 1 4 7 M o d e 3 - I n t e r v i e w S e s s i o n 0 2 0 0 0 5 " 1 4 0 0 0 3 W e w e n t / o n ^ t h e t r a i n # / . o a.ooo?. * H > 3 3-3% ' M s ? M 3 5 ' 3 l S / . T h e d o g i s a l l l a u g h i n g * / . '0 20 00 9> 0 20ooS U - » 1 5 - f e l , V o 3 s - i o i s - a . y n - ^ s / > r A M , I t ' s f a t * / . . . . T h a t ' s t h e l i t t l e w o l f a n d # . / . . . H e l o o k s ^ l i k OXOocS \ 1 0 0 0 3 h e i s O a o o o i 1 3 0 0 0 3 0 1 0 0 0 3 i c k i n j ^ h i m u p # b e c a u s e h e ' s # } ' • / . . . H e d o e s n ' t l i k e m e 0 a oook n • IX-^ H k-Si IO-iH I ' l i -1 - : >, w i g g l i n g * y . . . . T h e y ' r e o u t l i k e t h a t * p u s h e d o u t * / H " 3U 6-59 O O O O o S " 0 ^ O o o g t V * 4-ST7 0 2 - O o o S T 7 4 5 H - S S 0 1-13 ^ 7 1 -10 M S ' ,  4 S17 / " K H - S S 0 ^ - 0 3 3 - 0 3 S h c » l l I p u t h i m b a c k * / H e w o n ' t * / H e w e n t t h e w r o n g w a y * / ; . . S-ao3 3-8 ^ 0 aooo4 H e h a s s m a l l e r l e g s * / h e p u t s h i s l e g s d i f f e r e n t * / 1-S H-IP^ ' H J - 3-433. < * - U $ O1Ooo1 0 \ O G O 3 ( I l i k e him*j... oa-oooi' 1 4 D 0 0 3 . C a n ' t g o ( i r a t h e w a t e r * / . O i O O O S " H*sx i-io £ G o o e y * . y . . \40003 4-SS l-« H - M 7 . C a n he l i v e o u t ( o f oaooot, 14000 3. t - 1 3 t h e w a t e r * / C a n I k e e p h o l d i n g h i m * / T r y i n g ^ - g \ w a l k a w a y oxoooa . O l O o o i ;og> m e * . / . . . . t h i s o n e * . A . . . P u t h i m < t > v e : g > h e r e # . / . . . . Y e a h * / . . . . 0 1 0 0 0 5 \400O3- u U O o o x O J o o o X M-nt v i o 4 - S I H o - H . (.-11 , V ? l . t»-f* , 12-9 4-S«l / L e t h i m w a l k f i n ) t h e r e * / Y e a h * R i g h t * / . . . . H e ' s w i n n i n g * / oaoooj jHbooa, oiooob H o o o x © 2 . 0 0 01 o a . 0 0 0 3 103 i -ax . M - i o > »es* 1-^,/ H ~ ^ 3 1 / M f l l H O L o o k d Q j - h . a t # / I ' m g o i n g < t o ) w i g g l e i t * . / . . . W a i t * / . . . . G e t h i m S a n d r a * / . 4-31.1 3-5H7 1 . P u t o n e -Jt u-4o , ^ 7 - M O un*- t - H . 4-317 740 lAhereft . / . . ' . . P u t him (In) there* / . . . . M a k e him 0 2.000 x o a o o o 020002. i - f c l t-yO „ 4-3*7 U S . 4 " ' ^ d - i j . 7 - 0 ' K « y / j u m p d o w n * / J u m p d o w n * / G e t d o w n * / C o m e h e r e * / . 148 MODE 2 - S t o r y t e l l i n g Session 3-33 0 f-5'lS" H-'H3 3-734- mi 1-lX 5-I0I 3-320 ^-"^ A grandpa was t e l l i n g a story (boi his l i t t l e g i r l # . . . . Then 0*0003 0X000 ( 0 4-0 3 5H°l 3"350 9-03 3-330 */-5?fr Mfc t-oj the l i t t l e g i r l read#....the grandpa yawned#....then the u- n 0 2 .00 I) 5Hol 3:V3r 5-//V 9-x L-% ^63 5-/0/ 3-320 v-m y - j . 7 - ? l i t t l e k i d got mad#....and then the l i t t l e g i r l read and he O i O O t <1 1-5* V-IS1 (,-12. t-7t ^ 3 5-101 J-320 <HSt was f a l l i n g asleep#....and then the l i t t l e g i r l f e l l asleep M 4-367. *Hl3 3-34 k£|a -^03 ^ 1-03 3-330 C / - q and put the book fojT) the bed#....and the grandpa f e l l asleep#, A P P E N D I X I . A v e r a g e N u m b e r o f W o r d s P e r C o m m u n i c a t i o n U n i t a n d p e r M a z e U n i t f < i T o t a l # o f T o t a l W o r d s A v e r a g e # o f T o t a l W o r d s W o r d s i n C - U n i t W o r d s p e r C - U n i t i n M - U n i t 1 3 5 1 2 9 1 5 . 3 9 6 0 2 3 9 1 3 7 8 5 . 7 3 1 3 3 3 6 4 3 4 2 4 . 6 2 2 2 4 3 2 0 2 9 1 4 . 3 4 2 9 5 4 4 8 4 2 2 4 . 1 4 2 6 6 3 3 3 3 0 8 4 . 7 4 2 5 7 3 9 6 3 7 7 4 . 8 3 1 9 8 4 2 2 3 9 1 4 . 7 6 3 1 9 3 0 3 2 9 0 4 . 5 3 1 3 1 0 3 2 4 2 7 9 4 . 0 4 4 5 1 1 4 9 0 3 9 9 4 . 9 3 9 1 1 2 3 3 1 3 1 1 4 . 7 8 2 0 1 3 ' 5 8 6 5 5 9 . 5 . 0 4 2 7 1 4 5 1 2 4 5 3 4 . 9 8 5 9 1 5 4 9 2 4 4 3 4 . 6 1 4 9 1 6 3 7 7 3 4 4 4 . 4 1 3 3 1 7 2 0 9 1 9 5 4 . 3 3 1 4 1 8 2 7 3 2 5 8 4 . 8 7 1 5 1 9 2 0 8 1 8 0 4 . 5 0 2 8 2 0 2 0 1 1 8 4 6 . 7 9 1 7 2 1 3 1 0 3 0 4 " 4 . 8 3 6 2 2 3 1 6 2 9 1 4 . 2 8 2 5 2 3 2 4 8 2 4 7 5 . 7 4 1 2 4 ^ 2 3 7 2 1 5 4 . 6 7 2 2 T o t a l 8 4 2 2 7 7 5 2 4 . 7 4 6 7 0 A v e r a g e # o f W o r d s p e r M - U n i t 2 . 3 0 1 . 8 6 2 . 2 0 2 . 6 4 1 . 7 3 2 . 7 8 2 . 1 1 2 . 0 6 3 . 2 5 3 , 3 , 2 , 1 , 2 , 2 , 3 . 2 . 1 . 2 . 0 0 3 7 2 2 8 0 8 1 3 3 0 0 0 0 6 7 5 5 2 . 8 3 2 . 0 0 2 . 2 7 1 . 0 0 3 . 6 7 2 . 4 0 VD A P P E N D I X J . P r o p o r t i o n o f M a z e s a n d C o m m u n i c a t i o n U n i t i n T o t a l C o m m u n i c a t i o n f o r C h i l d r e n T o t a l # o f U t t e r a n c e s N u m b e r o f C - U n i t s % o f T o t a l U t t e r a n c e s N u m b e r o f M - U n i t s % o f T o t a l U t t e r a n c e s 1 8 0 5 4 6 7 . 5 0 2 6 3 2 . 5 0 2 7 3 6 6 9 0 . 4 1 7 9 . 5 9 3 8 4 7 4 8 8 . 1 0 1 0 1 1 . 9 0 4 7 8 6 7 8 5 . 9 0 1 1 1 4 . 1 0 5 1 1 7 1 0 2 8 7 . 1 8 1 5 1 2 . 8 2 6 7 4 6 5 8 7 . 8 4 9 1 2 . 1 6 7 8 7 7 8 8 9 . 6 6 9 1 0 . 3 4 8 9 7 8 2 8 4 . 5 4 1 5 1 5 . 4 6 9 6 8 6 4 9 4 . 1 2 4 5 . 8 8 1 0 8 4 6 9 8 2 . 1 4 1 5 1 7 . 8 6 1 1 1 0 8 8 1 7 5 . 0 0 2 7 2 5 . 0 0 1 2 7 4 6 5 8 7 . 3 4 9 1 2 . 1 2 1 3 1 2 6 1 1 1 8 8 . 1 0 1 5 1 1 . 9 0 1 4 1 1 2 9 1 8 1 . 2 5 2 1 1 8 . 7 5 1 5 1 1 7 9 6 8 2 . 0 5 2 1 1 7 . 9 5 1 6 8 9 7 8 8 7 . 6 4 1 1 1 2 . 3 6 1 7 5 2 4 5 8 6 . 5 4 7 1 3 . 4 6 1 8 6 2 5 3 8 5 . 4 8 9 1 4 . 5 2 1 9 5 1 4 0 7 8 . 4 3 1 1 2 1 . 5 7 2 0 3 9 3 3 8 4 . 6 2 6 1 5 . 3 8 2 1 6 6 6 3 9 5 . 4 5 3 4 . 5 5 2 2 7 9 6 8 8 6 . 0 8 1 1 1 3 . 9 2 2 3 4 4 4 3 9 7 . 7 3 1 2 . 2 7 2 4 _ 5 _ 2 4 6 . 8 8 . 4 6 _ 6 1 1 . 5 4 T o t a l 1 9 1 3 1 6 3 4 8 5 . 4 2 2 7 9 1 4 . 5 8 151 BIBLIOGRAPHY Amsden, Constance; "Oral Language and Printed Word Reading," in Malcolm P. 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Fry, Maurice A.; A Transformational Analysis of the Oral Language  Structure Used by Two Reading Groups at the Second Grade  Level, Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation, The University of Iowa, 1967. Gardner, Dorothy Jean; The Eff e c t s of Oral and Written Language  Patterns on Comprehension Among Beginning Readers, Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation, Temple University, 1979. Ginn & Company; Reading and the Language Arts, Canada, 1979. Ginn & Company; Reading 72 0, Teacher's Edi t i o n , A Duck i s a Duck. Canada, 1978. Goodman, K.S.; "Dialect Barriers in Reading Comprehension," in J.C. Baratz and R.W. Shuy (Eds.), Teaching Black Children  to Read, Arlington, V i r g i n i a : CAL, 1969, 14-28. Goodman, K.S.; "The Psycholinguistic Nature of the Reading Process," K.S. Goodman (Ed.), The Psycholinguistic Nature of the Reading Process, Detroit: Wayne State University Press, 1968, 15-26. Goodman, K.S.; "The Key i s in Children's Language," Reading  Teacher, 1972, 505-508. 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