Open Collections

UBC Theses and Dissertations

UBC Theses Logo

UBC Theses and Dissertations

A comparison of the oral syntax of Canadian kindergarten children with the written syntax in the beginning… Dempsey, Mary Deirdre 1980

Your browser doesn't seem to have a PDF viewer, please download the PDF to view this item.

Item Metadata

Download

Media
831-UBC_1980_A8 D45.pdf [ 6.78MB ]
Metadata
JSON: 831-1.0055138.json
JSON-LD: 831-1.0055138-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 831-1.0055138-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: 831-1.0055138-rdf.json
Turtle: 831-1.0055138-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 831-1.0055138-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 831-1.0055138-source.json
Full Text
831-1.0055138-fulltext.txt
Citation
831-1.0055138.ris

Full Text

A COMPARISON OF THE ORAL SYNTAX OF CANADIAN KINDERGARTEN CHILDREN WITH THE WRITTEN SYNTAX IN THE BEGINNING BASAL READERS  by MARY DEIRDRE DEMPSEY B.Ed., Simon F r a s e r  U n i v e r s i t y , 1976  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE  REQUIREMENT FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS  in THE  FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES  (Center f o r The Study o f Curriculum & I n s t r u c t i o n )  We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming t o the r e q u i r e d standard  The  U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, A p r i l , 1980 ^ ) Dempsey, D., 1980  In p r e s e n t i n g  this thesis i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f the requirements f o r  an advanced d e g r e e a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I a g r e e t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and s t u d y . I f u r t h e r agree that permission  for extensive  copying o f this thesis  f o r s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may be g r a n t e d by t h e Head o f my Department o r by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s .  I t i s understood that copying o r p u b l i c a t i o n  o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l n o t be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my written  permission.  Department  nf  E d u c a t i o n , Centre f o r the Study of C u r r i c u l u m &  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia 2075 Wesbrook P l a c e V a n c o u v e r , Canada V6T 1W5  DE-6  B P 75-51 1 E  Instruction.  A B S T R A C T  A COMPARISON OF THE ORAL SYNTAX OF CANADIAN KINDERGARTEN CHILDREN WITH THE WRITTEN SYNTAX IN THE  The  BEGINNING BASAL READERS  purpose o f t h i s study was t o compare the o r a l  syntax of s e l e c t e d Canadian kindergarten w r i t t e n syntax i n the two beginning  c h i l d r e n with the  reading  series  p r e s c r i b e d f o r use i n the schools i n B r i t i s h Columbia. The  o r a l language data was obtained  four kindergarten Richmond, B.C..  by taping twenty-  c h i l d r e n from three s e l e c t e d schools i n The c h i l d r e n were taped i n three  sessions w i t h i n t h e i r classroom  - a free-play session, a  s t o r y - t e l l i n g s e s s i o n and an i n t e r v i e w s e s s i o n . language data was obtained  different  The w r i t t e n  by a n a l y s i n g the f i r s t two books  from the Grade one l e v e l f o r the Reading 72 0 and Language Patterns  (Revised) b a s a l reading s e r i e s .  Based on the s y n t a c t i c measures used, f o r the most p a r t the c h i l d r e n ' s o r a l syntax was found to be s i g n i f i c a n t l y more complex than the syntax i n the Reading 720 s e r i e s . (p<1.05). Except f o r the use of dependent c l a u s e s , and the length o f adverb phrases and c l a u s e s , the Language Patterns  s e r i e s was  found to be c l o s e l y matched to the syntax of the c h i l d r e n . The  r e s u l t s of t h i s study warrant c a r e f u l c o n s i d e r a t i o n  by those i n v o l v e d i n the c r e a t i o n and implementation of beginning  reading m a t e r i a l s . i  To my f a t h e r and mother whose i n s p i r a t i o n , d e d i c a t i o n , and l o v e helped t h i s t h e s i s become a reality.  ii  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I am very g r a t e f u l t o my a d v i s o r , Dr. G.H. Cannon, f o r the i n t e r e s t and enthusiasm he so w i l l i n g l y i n my r e s e a r c h .  invested  Thanks a r e a l s o extended t o the members  of my committee, Dr. G. Snyder and Dr. W. Werner, f o r t h e i r a d v i c e and encouragement. I am indebted t o the Richmond School D i s t r i c t f o r t h e i r cooperation.  My s p e c i a l thanks go t o the p r i n c i p a l s ,  t e a c h e r s , and students who p a r t i c i p a t e d so r e a d i l y i n t h i s study and t o my p r i n c i p a l , B e r t Fergus, f o r the tremendous support and understanding o f f e r e d  throughout.  I would l i k e t o express a s p e c i a l thank you t o my good f r i e n d s , Paddi C a f f e r k y and Meredith Pue, f o r t h e i r a b l e a s s i s t a n c e w i t h the coding of the data.  invalu-  A l s o , I would  l i k e t o express my a p p r e c i a t i o n t o Paddi B i r d s a l l , May Cannon, B e r r y l Patteraude, Sheena S e l k i r k , Jean Walters and Dorothy W i n g f i e l d f o r t h e i r t e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e and t o say a s p e c i a l note o f thanks t o my t y p i s t , Rose Canuel, f o r h e r f i n e work. The success of t h i s p r o j e c t c o u l d n o t have been a c h i e v e d without the h e l p of my f a m i l y and f r i e n d s - t o Greg, Shawneen, Trudy and Cathy I extend my s i n c e r e  Sheila,  thanks.  F i n a l l y , I wish t o thank Dan f o r h i s c o n t i n u i n g moral support.  iii  TABLE OF CONTENTS Page ABSTRACT  1  DEDICATION  1  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  1  i i i  TABLE OF CONTENTS  iv  J  LIST OF TABLES  vi  CHAPTER I GENERAL NATURE OF THE PROBLEM  '  1  Problems f o r I n v e s t i g a t i o n Premise o f the Study L i m i t a t i o n s of the Study D e f i n i t i o n s of Terms  2 3 6 7  CHAPTER I I BACKGROUND LITERATURE  9  Children's L i n g u i s t i c A b i l i t i e s and Development The Language-Reading R e l a t i o n s h i p (a) (b)  Language A b i l i t y Achievement  9 13  and  O r a l Language and the Reading Process  The L i n g u i s t i c Content o f Reading M a t e r i a l s Reading Performance and Language-Based Materials  13 15 13 23  CHAPTER I I I METHODS OF COLLECTING AND  TREATING DATA  28  Introduction Data C o l l e c t i o n (A)  O r a l Language Sample  iv  2  8  -  M e t h o d o l o g y  -  P i l o t  -  S e l e c t i o n  o f  S c h o o l s  -  S e l e c t i o n  o f  S u b j e c t s  -  S c h e d u l e  (B)  f o r  D a t a  W r i t t e n  L a n g u a g e  -  R e a d i n g  7 2  -  L a n g u a g e  T r e a t m e n t  (A)  S t u d i e s  O r a l  o f  C o l l e c t i o n  S a m p l e  0  P a t t e r n s  D a t a  L a n g u a g e  A n a l y s i s  S e g m e n t a t i o n  o f  L a n g u a g e  C o m m u n i c a t i o n -  M a z e  -  P h r a s e s  -  (B)  C H A P T E R  &  L a n g u a g e  o n  C h a p t e r  D e p e n d e n t  C l a u s e s  A n a l y s i s  I I I  I V  P R E S E N T A T I O N  A N D  P a r t  A n a l y s i s  I  -  A n t h e  A N A L Y S I S  B a s a l  M e a s u r e -  -  I I  -  A n  a n d  O F  D A T A  C o m p a r i s o n  o f  S y n t a c t i c  F l u e n c y  C - U n i t  o f  S y n t a c t i c  C o m p l e x i t y  P h r a s e s D e p e n d e n t  A n a l y s i s  C l a u s e s  a n d  C o m p a r i s o n  L a n g u a g e  o f  t h e  C h i l d r e n  L a n g u a g e  o f  t h e  B a s a l  M e a s u r e -  -  o f  T h e  M e a s u r e -  o f  R e a d e r s  T h e  M e a s u r e  P a r t  U n i t  U n i t  V o c a b u l a r y  W r i t t e n  N o t e s  ( R e v i s e d )  o f  S y n t a c t i c  o f  a n d  t h e t h e  R e a d e r s  F l u e n c y  C - U n i t  S y n t a c t i c  C o m p l e x i t y  P h r a s e s D e p e n d e n t  C l a u s e s  v  M-Unit & C-Unit i n the C h i l d r e n ' s  Speech  Notes on Chapter IV CHAPTER V RESULTS, IMPLICATIONS  & RECOMMENDATIONS  Results I m p l i c a t i o n s & Recommendations Recommendations f o r F u r t h e r Research  vi  LIST OF TABLES Page TABLE 1  Flow Chart o f Procedures f o r A n a l y s i s of the Data  40  TABLE 2  Mean Length, Standard D e v i a t i o n and Range of C-Units Found i n B a s a l Readers  44  TABLE 3  Mean C-Unit Length f o r Samples 1-12 o f the B a s a l Readers  46  TABLE 4  Average Number o f Phrases per C-Unit f o r the B a s a l Readers  48  TABLE 5  Chi-Square V a l u e s o f C-Units C o n t a i n i n g and Not C o n t a i n i n g Phrases f o r the B a s a l Readers  49  TABLE 6  Mean Length o f Phrases Found i n B a s a l Readers  50  TABLE 7  Average Number o f Dependent Clauses per C-Unit f o r the B a s a l Readers  51  TABLE 8  Mean Length of Dependent Clauses Found i n B a s a l Readers  53  TABLE 9  Mean Length, Standard D e v i a t i o n , and Range o f C-Units Found i n B a s a l Readers and C h i l d r e n ' s Speech  54  TABLE 10  D i f f e r e n c e s i n Mean Length o f C-Units Found Between Readers and C h i l d r e n ' s Speech  56  TABLE 11  Average Number o f Phrases per C-Unit f o r B a s a l 57 Readers and C h i l d r e n ' s Speech  TABLE 12  Chi-Square V a l u e s o f C-Units C o n t a i n i n g and Not C o n t a i n i n g Phrases f o r the B a s a l Readers and the C h i l d r e n ' s Speech  58  TABLE 13  Mean Length o f Phrases Found i n B a s a l Readers and C h i l d r e n ' s Speech  60  TABLE 14  D i f f e r e n c e s i n Mean Length o f Adverb Phrases Found i n B a s a l Readers and C h i l d r e n ' s Speech  61  TABLE 15  Average Number o f Dependent Clauses per C-Unit 62 f o r B a s a l Readers and C h i l d r e n ' s Speech  vii  Mean Length o f Clauses Found i n B a s a l Readers and C h i l d r e n ' s Speech Mean Length, Standard D e v i a t i o n and V a r i a n c e o f C-Units and M-Units Found i n C h i l d r e n ' s Speech  viii  1 CHAPTER I GENERAL NATURE OF THE PROBLEM When c h i l d r e n come t o s c h o o l , they a r e q u i t e f l u e n t i n spoken E n g l i s h and y e t o f t e n t i m e s the very nature o f many b a s a l r e a d i n g s e r i e s tends t o ignore r a t h e r than on t h i s t a c i t knowledge o f language. c h i l d r e n ' s l i n g u i s t i c competencies,  capitalize  Thus, i n examining t h e r e appears  t o be a  l a c k o f congruency between i n f o r m a l e d u c a t i o n , t h a t i s , the education c h i l d r e n r e c e i v e p r i o r t o e n t e r i n g the f i r s t  grade,  and formal e d u c a t i o n , the e d u c a t i o n c h i l d r e n r e c e i v e upon e n t e r i n g the f i r s t grade. O'Neil  In h i s essay " P r o p e r l y L i t e r a t e " ,  (1977) summarizes t h i s s t a n d p o i n t on s c h o o l i n g and  captures the nature o f the problem which t h i s study  addresses:  "Before they go o f f t o s c h o o l , c h i l d r e n have engaged i n f i v e years of b r i n g i n g coherent (unspoken) e x p l a n a t i o n s t o the world o f experiences, l i n g u i s t i c , s o c i a l , e t c . t h a t they f a c e . They're doing p r e t t y w e l l a t i t , too...(But) Reading i s taught as i f i t were another language, another world, not as i f i t were a highly abstract representation of the language t h a t the c h i l d a l r e a d y has t a c i t knowledge o f . Intuitive connections a r e erased. And so i s knowledge." (pg. 75) It  i s proposed  t h a t the c h i l d r e n ' s o r a l l i n g u i s t i c com-  p e t e n c i e s have not always been g i v e n adequate c o n s i d e r a t i o n i n the l i n g u i s t i c content o f some o f the b e g i n n i n g r e a d i n g t e x t s .  2  Thus, the aim o f t h i s r e s e a r c h i s t o compare the o r a l  syntax  of Canadian k i n d e r g a r t e n c h i l d r e n with the w r i t t e n syntax i n the two i n i t i a l b a s a l r e a d i n g s e r i e s r e c e n t l y p r e s c r i b e d f o r use i n the s c h o o l s o f B r i t i s h Columbia  (Victoria,  1978).  T h i s i n f o r m a t i o n c o u l d be h e l p f u l i n p r o v i d i n g some g u i d e l i n e s f o r the l i n g u i s t i c content o f beginning r e a d i n g t e x t s .  Such  f i n d i n g s may be o f p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t to those i n v o l v e d i n c u r r i c u l u m development, e s p e c i a l l y i n the c r e a t i o n and implementation  o f beginning r e a d i n g m a t e r i a l s . PROBLEMS FOR INVESTIGATION  More s p e c i f i c a l l y , t h e f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n s w i l l be addressed: What syntax occurs i n the Reading 72 0 beginning r e a d e r s - "A P o c k e t f u l o f Sunshine" and "A Duck Is A Duck?" What syntax occurs i n the Language P a t t e r n s (Revised) beginning s e r i e s - " L i s t e n i n g L e t t e r s " and "Laughing L e t t e r s ? " What i s the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the syntax i n the Reading 72 0 readers and t h e Language P a t t e r n s (Revised) readers? What syntax i s e v i d e n t i n the speech o f s e l e c t e d Canadian k i n d e r g a r t e n c h i l d r e n ? What i s the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the o r a l syntax o f the c h i l d r e n and w r i t t e n syntax i n the Reading 720 readers? What i s the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the o r a l syntax o f the c h i l d r e n and the w r i t t e n syntax i n the Language P a t t e r n s (Revised) readers? For the v a r i o u s " r e l a t i o n s h i p s " t h a t were s t u d i e d , r e f e r t o Chapter  4, page 42.  3 PREMISE OF THE  STUDY  L i t e r a c y , d e f i n e d as "the a b i l i t y to read and f o r p r a c t i c a l purposes of d a i l y l i f e " goals  o f our  society.  write  i s one o f the paramount  ( B u l l o c k , 1975;  pg. 10).  C a l f e e and  Drum (1978) present a h i s t o r i c a l review of r e s e a r c h on  reading  a c q u i s i t i o n and p o i n t out t h a t : "In c o u n t r i e s which p r i d e themselves on t h e i r democratic i d e a l s , the goals of an informed c i t i z e n r y leads n a t u r a l l y t o the e f f o r t f o r u n i v e r s a l literacy." (pg. 189) Consequently,  an e d u c a t i o n a l system e x i s t s which i s e n t i r e l y  dependent upon the adequate attainment  of a b a s i c r e a d i n g  ability. The t a s k o f t e a c h i n g our c h i l d r e n to become s k i l l e d readers i s , t h e r e f o r e , a t o p i c o f much d i s c u s s i o n .  Literally  m i l l i o n s of d o l l a r s and man-hours have been spent i n the p u r s u i t of the answer t o the q u e s t i o n : "What i s the b e s t way young c h i l d to read?" " p r o p o s i t i o n s about how f o r a t l e a s t 450 pg. 184).  And  In f a c t , a c c o r d i n g to Mathews  to reach a (1966),  best to teach r e a d i n g have been d i s p u t e d  years, probably more."  ( C a l f e e & Drum,  1978;  yet i t seems t h a t i n s p i t e o f the e x t e n s i v e r e -  search and experimentation, find reading d i f f i c u l t .  an alarming number of normal c h i l d r e n  The B u l l o c k Report  (1975), an  enquiry  i n t o the r e a d i n g problem i n Great B r i t a i n , r e v e a l s t h a t : "From the evidence c o l l a t e d i t seems t h a t approximately 20 per cent of 7-year o l d s are v i r t u a l l y non-readers, w h i l e 4 per cent of 15-year o l d s can o n l y read as w e l l as a 7-9-year o l d , and over 10 per cent read l e s s w e l l than the average 11-year o l d . " (pg.  106)  4  And  a c c o r d i n g t o e s t i m a t i o n s from t h e U.S.A., A u s t r a l i a and  Britain,  "The o v e r a l l p i c t u r e seems f a i r l y c o n s t a n t  English-speaking c u l t u r e s . "  across  (Hart, 1977, pg. 13).  Recent r e s e a r c h i n p s y c h o l i n g u i s t i c s has made s i g n i f i c a n t c o n t r i b u t i o n s t o the f i e l d o f r e a d i n g .  The i n t e g r a l  relation-  s h i p between o r a l language competency and r e a d i n g has been emphasized.  The p s y c h o l i n g u i s t i c view o f r e a d i n g , as d e f i n e d  by Smith and Goodman,,is founded on the n o t i o n t h a t i s b u i l t on t h e base o f the c h i l d ' s e x i s t i n g  "literacy  language."  (Goodman, 1969, pg.27). The a c t i v e r o l e of t h e i n d i v i d u a l i n language p r o c e s s i n g has a l s o been emphasized throughout p s y c h o l i n g u i s t i c l i t e r a t u r e . v. V i t a l c o n t r i b u t i o n s a r e made by the reader's e x p e r i e n c e s , t a t i o n s and l i n g u i s t i c knowledge.  expec-  A c c o r d i n g t o Smith (1971)  and Goodman (1968), the process o f r e a d i n g i s a meaningful i n t e r a c t i o n between the reader's language and t h e w r i t e r ' s language.  The reader i s a c t i v e l y engaged i n e x t r a c t i n g meaning  from an a r r a y o f g r a p h i c symbols arranged Another important  i n a s p a t i a l dimension.  n o t i o n can be t r a c e d throughout the  p s y c h o l i n g u i s t i c l i t e r a t u r e on r e a d i n g . many r e a d i n g s e r i e s f a i l  Studies r e v e a l that  to r e c o g n i z e t h e l e v e l o f l i n g u i s t i c  s o p h i s t i c a t i o n which c h i l d r e n b r i n g t o t h e i r i n i t i a l experience.  As Smith, Goodman and Meredith  reading  (1974) p o i n t o u t ,  the problem with many p r e s e n t l y - u s e d r e a d i n g t e x t s :  5  " i s not t h a t they are s i l l y , but t h a t they are not language. Any system f o r s i m p l i f y i n g r e a d i n g m a t e r i a l must stop s h o r t of c r e a t i n g language t h a t i s l i k e none the c h i l d has ever heard. The c h i l d must be a b l e to use h i s language knowledge r i g h t from the beginning." (Smith, Meredith, Goodman 1974; pg. 272) I f the reading process o u t l i n e d by Smith, Goodman, & Meredith  i s a c t u a l l y what happens i n the reader's b r a i n ,  reading m a t e r i a l s which r e f l e c t c h i l d r e n ' s o r a l speech patt e r n s should f a c i l i t a t e t h i s r e a d i n g p r o c e s s . have been a few  s t u d i e s conducted  Recently  there  i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s ,  Japan, E a s t e r n Canada, A u s t r a l i a , and B r a z i l which have analyzed the l i n g u i s t i c content of c h i l d r e n ' s speech and reading t e x t s . Gray, 1977;  (Arthur, 1979;  I n a c i o , 1977).  Handscombe, 1972;  their  Hart, Walker,  Such an i n v e s t i g a t i o n i s needed  i n Western Canada. T h e r e f o r e , the author b e l i e v e s t h a t t h e r e i s a need to compare the o r a l language of Canadian c h i l d r e n w i t h the w r i t t e n language i n the two  p r e s c r i b e d r e a d i n g t e x t s used i n B r i t i s h  Columbia, C a n a d a — i . e . , Reading 720 Language P a t t e r n s Winston.  p u b l i s h e d by Ginn  and  (Revised) p u b l i s h e d by H o l t , Rhinehart  &  L I M I T A T I O N S  T h i s  s t u d y  s e l e c t e d  B r i t i s h  i s  g r o u p  t h e  g e n e r a l i z e d  i n  s t u d y  t h e  o f  t w o  i s  l i m i t e d  r e a d i n g  r e a d i n g  T h u s ,  f i n d i n g s  p a r t i c u l a r  t e x t s .  t h e  S T U D Y  o r a l  i n s o f a r  p o p u l a t i o n  o t h e r  b e g i n n i n g  t h e  O n l y  l a r g e r  t o  t o  T H E  k i n d e r g a r t e n  C o l u m b i a .  r e f l e c t s  T h e  l i m i t e d  O F  p r o d u c t i o n  c h i l d r e n  o f  f r o m  a  R i c h m o n d ,  a s  t h e  s a m p l e  p o p u l a t i o n  c a n  t h e  r e s u l t s  b e  g r o u p s .  t o  t h e  s e r i e s  p r e s c r i b e d  p r o g r a m m e s  c a n  d e s c r i p t i o n  o n l y  i n  b e  f o r  B r i t i s h  o f  t h e  u s e  i n  l a n g u a g e  t h e  C o l u m b i a .  g e n e r a l i z e d  t o  t h e s e  7  D e f i n i t i o n o f Terms In t h i s study, t h e f o l l o w i n g terms w i l l be used a c c o r d i n g to  the accompanying d e f i n i t i o n s :  ANALYTICAL METHOD: r e a d i n g method which i n i t i a l l y presents the whole word, f o l l o w e d by a breakdown i n t o s m a l l e r p a r t s ; t h i s a n a l y s i s o f the words p r o v i d e s c o r r e c t p r o n u n c i a t i o n . BASAL READER: graded s e r i e s o f textbooks moving from s i n g l e t o complex s k i l l s , which p r o v i d e t h e l e a r n i n g and p r a c t i c e t o become an independent reader; u s u a l l y provided f o r the teacher's use are guides f o r i n s t r u c t i o n , workbooks f o r development o f student's s k i l l s , and o t h e r supplemental a i d s . BASAL SERIES: graded s e t of r e a d i n g t e x t s BASAL TEXT: one of a s e r i e s o f b a s a l reader t e x t s CLAUSE: a group o f words c o n t a i n i n g a s u b j e c t and a p r e d i c a t e and forming p a r t o f a compound o r complex sentence. COMMUNICATION UNIT (C-UNIT): an independent c l a u s e with i t s m o d i f i e r s (Loban). DECODING: process o f i d e n t i f y i n g the sound v a l u e (phonemes) of the p r i n t e d symbol (grapheme); l o o k i n g a t the p r i n t e d symbol CART and pronouncing the word CART. DEPENDENT OR SUBORDINATE CLAUSE: a c l a u s e t h a t cannot stand alone because i t i s dependent on the r e s t o f the sentence f o r i t s meaning. I t does not express a complete thought. I t must always be a t t a c h e d t o the main c l a u s e as a p a r t o f a sentence. There a r e three types - noun, a d j e c t i v e and adverb. ENCODING: a n a l y s i s and c o n v e r s i o n o f o r a l language i n t o r e p r e s e n t a t i v e w r i t t e n symbols. ENGLISH PRIMARY LANGUAGE USERS (OPL): people who o n l y speak E n g l i s h , both a t home and a t s c h o o l . ENGLISH SECOND LANGUAGE USERS (ESL): people whose dominant language a t home i s n o t E n g l i s h . LANGUAGE EXPERIENCE METHOD: method o f t e a c h i n g r e a d i n g which i n c l u d e s both the r e c e p t i v e and e x p r e s s i v e aspects o f language, u s i n g s t o r y content d i c t a t e d o r developed from the c h i l d r e n ' s p e r s o n a l experience o r i d e a s ; i n s t r u c t i o n a l stages: o r a l d i s c u s s i o n , s t o r y d i c t a t i o n , s t o r y r e a d i n g , word r e c o g n i t i o n and/or word a t t a c k a c t i v i t i e s , development o f word banks and r e c r e a t i o n a l reading.  8  LINGUISTIC ABILITY: the i n h e r e n t or developed c a p a c i t y w i t h language. LINGUISTIC COMPETENCIES: s k i l l s , concepts, a t t i t u d e s which are r e l a t e d d i r e c t l y t o language. LITERACY: the a b i l i t y t o read and w r i t e f o r p r a c t i c a l of d a i l y l i f e .  purposes  MAZE UNIT (M-UNIT): a s e r i e s of words f o r i n i t i a l p a r t s o f words), o r unattached fragments which do not c o n s t i t u t e a communication u n i t and are not necessary to the communication  unit.  PHONOLOGICAL UNIT: p r a c t i c a l l y , t h i s u n i t i s a sentence. In t r a n s c r i b i n g speech,the u n i t i s determined by i n f l e c t i o n , s t r e s s , i n t o n a t i o n , and pause o f the speaker. ( S t r i c k l a n d , Loban) PHRASE: a group o f r e l a t e d words not e x p r e s s i n g a complete thought and not i n c l u d i n g a s u b j e c t and a p r e d i c a t e . There are three t y p e s : a d j e c t i v e , adverb and noun. PSYCHOLINGUISTICS: f i e l d of study which encompasses psychology and l i n g u i s t i c s , the r e s u l t a n t b l e n d a l l o w s the examination of language as a t o t a l p r o c e s s . SENTENCE: h e r e i n d e f i n e d as any language p a t t e r n b e g i n n i n g w i t h a c a p i t a l l e t t e r and ending with a p e r i o d . SYNTHETIC METHOD: r e a d i n g i n s t r u c t i o n a l method i n which the l e a r n e r s t a r t s w i t h s h o r t and simple u n i t s as l e t t e r s o f the alphabet, s y l l a b l e s , e t c . , and p r o g r e s s e s t o p o l y s y l l a b i c words, phrases, and sentences; part-to-whole. T-UNIT: a minimal t e r m i n a b l e u n i t which c o n t a i n s some independent c l a u s e and any dependent c l a u s e s s y n t a c t i c a l l y r e l a t e d to i t . (Hunt, 19 65)  The d e f i n i t i o n s f o r the terms p e r t a i n i n g to r e a d i n g have been taken from " D i c t i o n a r y of Reading and L e a r n i n g D i s a b i l i t y Terms" by C l i f f o r d L. Bush & Robert C. Andrews, E d u c a t i o n a l & P s y c h o l o g i c a l A s s o c i a t e s P r e s s : New J e r s e y , 1973. The d e f i n i t i o n s p e r t a i n i n g to grammar have been taken from "An I n s t a n t Resource: Hands-On Grammar," by Stan L a i r d , Fearon-Pitman P u b l i s h e r s , Inc., Belmont, C a l i f o r n i a . 1977  9  CHAPTER I I BACKGROUND LITERATURE L i t e r a t u r e r e l e v a n t to t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n i s  presented  under the f o l l o w i n g headings: C h i l d r e n ' s L i n g u i s t i c A b i l i t i e s and The  The  Development  Language-Reading R e l a t i o n s h i p (a)  Language A b i l i t y and  (b)  O r a l Language and  Reading Achievement  the Reading Process  L i n g u i s t i c Content of Reading M a t e r i a l s  Reading Performance and Children's L i n g u i s t i c  Language-Based M a t e r i a l s  Abilities  Among the e a r l i e s t and the most v a l u a b l e a c q u i s i t i o n s of c h i l d r e n i s t h e i r t r e a s u r y of words and a long-time observer  grammar.  Chuvosky  o f c h i l d r e n ' s language found t h a t a t about  one  year o l d , c h i l d r e n know about ten words, a t two  age  2 5 0 - 3 0 0  vocabulary  ( 1 9 6 3 ) ,  words, and  by the end  of the t h i r d year,  has grown i n t o the thousands,  (pg. 1 1 ) .  ment o f s y n t a c t i c a b i l i t i e s d u r i n g the p r e - s c h o o l regarded as an i n c r e d i b l e process.  years  of  their The  years  developi s also  Chuvosky commented on  feat: "The same i s t r u e of the grammatical forms t h a t the c h i l d l e a r n s i n the same p e r i o d . I once t r i e d to make a l i s t of these forms ( d e c l e n s i o n s , c o n j u g a t i o n s , the use of p r e f i x e s and s u f f i x e s ) . I noted down not l e s s than seventy. Most of these "general i z a t i o n s " t h a t are formed i n the c h i l d ' s b r a i n f o r e v e r , f o r h i s e n t i r e l i f e , are e s t a b l i s h e d between the ages of three  this  10  and four, when the l i n g u i s t i c g i f t e d n e s s seems t o be p a r t i c u l a r l y s t r o n g . " (Chuvosky, pg. 11)  Indeed, many marvel a t the systematic, by which language l e a r n i n g o c c u r s . such an extent  expediant manner  I t f a s c i n a t e d Chuvosky t o  t h a t he c a l l e d the c h i l d  "a l i n g u i s t i c  genius."  (pg. 7) . C h i l d r e n s t a r t i n g school do possess an amazing amount o f l i n g u i s t i c knowledge.  Educators need t o r e c o g n i z e  and c a p i t a l i z e  on the l i n g u i s t i c competency which c h i l d r e n b r i n g t o the r e a d i n g task.  C h i l d r e n ' s L i n g u i s t i c Development Although l i n g u i s t s are impressed by the l i n g u i s t i c knowledge o f c h i l d r e n , the r e s e a r c h  has r e v e a l e d t h a t  linguistic  development i s n o t complete by the age o f f o u r or f i v e . ( A n i s f i e l d & Tucker, 1973; Chomsky, 1969; Hatch, 1971; Hunt, 1965;  Menyuk, 196 9).  Boston area,  A f t e r t e s t i n g f o r t y c h i l d r e n i n the  C a r o l Chomsky  (1969) found t h a t :  (1) a c t i v e s y n t a c t i c a c q u i s i t i o n was not complete by the age o f 5 or 6, but i t was t a k i n g p l a c e up t o the age o f 9 and perhaps beyond. (2) t h e r e was an order  (pg. 121) and r a t e i n the  a c q u i s i t i o n of s t r u c t u r e s .  11  These l i n g u i s t i c developmental stages have been the  topic  of s e v e r a l other e x t e n s i v e s t u d i e s . Templin  (195 7), one  o f the pioneers  i n language  develop-  ment s t u d i e s , measured the u t t e r a n c e s o f c h i l d r e n from three to e i g h t y e a r s .  As the students*  age  i n c r e a s e d , he found  a  c l e a r i n c r e a s e i n the use of complex elements, e s p e c i a l l y  the  adjunctive clause. Loban (196 3) conducted a l o n g i t u d i n a l study o f k i n d e r garten to Grade six-aged c h i l d r e n r e s i d i n g i n Oakland, C a l i f o r n i a . He d e v i s e d a "communication u n i t " - an a n a l y t i c u n i t which measured the s y n t a c t i c complexity w r i t i n g and  speaking  samples.  of the student's  reading,  From the sample of 338  students,  a group of t h i r t y students were s e l e c t e d to form a "high" group and twenty-four of the two  students to form a "low"  groups was  compared and  group.  The  production  some of the c o n c l u s i o n s of  t h i s study were: 1.  The  f l u e n c y and the amount o f  students'  language i n c r e a s e d over the y e a r s . 2.  F l e x i b i l i t y within a syntactic pattern, r a t h e r than the p a t t e r n i t s e l f , was  a more  e f f e c t i v e measure of developmental language control. 3.  As the students got o l d e r , the number of mazes and average number of words per maze  12 u n i t decreased; however, when the low was of 4.  a n a l y z e d s e p a r a t e l y , the average number words per maze u n i t i n c r e a s e d .  The  "high" group  showed g r e a t e r a b i l i t y w i t h  r e g a r d t o noun c l a u s e s , i n f i n i t i v e s ,  verbals,  p a r t i c i p l e , p r e p o s i t i o n a l and gerund  phrases,  a p p o s i t i v e s , nominative a b s o l u t e s and of 5.  words i n cumulative sentences.  The  "low" group..."says  clusters  (1970; pg.-,;625)  l e s s , has more d i f f i c u l t y  in  s a y i n g i t and has l e s s v o c a b u l a r y w i t h which  to  express what i t says."  O'Donnell, G r i f f i n and N o r r i s syntax p a t t e r n s o f elementary there was  group  a developmental  (pg. 43) (1963) analyzed the o r a l  s c h o o l c h i l d r e n and found t h a t  sequence of s y n t a c t i c  They n o t i c e d t h a t r e l a t i v e c l a u s e s ("The  boy who  acquisition. lives in  Canada") were used more f r e q u e n t l y i n k i n d e r g a r t e n than i n the o l d e r grades, w h i l e o t h e r items, l i k e nouns m o d i f i e d by ciples in  ("The  boy l i v i n g  the l a t e r grades.  i n Canada"),  were used more f r e q u e n t l y  As the c h i l d r e n ' s age i n c r e a s e d , they  r e p o r t e d a decrease i n the l e n g t h o f meaningless (mazes). school was  parti-  speech  fragments  0'Donnell e t a l a l s o observed t h a t the f i r s t year i n one of r a p i d and e x t e n s i v e development o f o r a l  w r i t t e n language  and  s t r u c t u r e s which slowed down u n t i l the end of  the f i f t h year, when i t i n c r e a s e d c o n s i d e r a b l y .  13 h  \  Hunt's  (1965) a n a l y s i s o f grammatical s t r u c t u r e s con-  t a i n e d i n the w r i t t e n m a t e r i a l s o f f o u r t h , e i g h t h and t w e l f t h grade students  a l s o r e v e a l e d a s e q u e n t i a l development i n the  a c q u i s i t i o n of syntactic structures.  Longer responses, l e s s  redundancy and more c l a u s e s , e s p e c i a l l y a d j e c t i v e c l a u s e s , s t e a d i l y increased according Menyuk's s t u d i e s  to grade  level.  (1969), which a r e based on c h i l d r e n ' s  use o f base s t r u c t u r e r u l e s and t r a n s f o r m a t i o n a l r u l e s i n t h e i r o r a l speech p a t t e r n s , supported the n o t i o n o f a s e q u e n t i a l development o f language a c q u i s i t i o n .  S i m i l a r t o the other  s t u d i e s c i t e d , Menyuk's r e s e a r c h r e v e a l e d evidence t h a t aspects o f l i n g u i s t i c development a r e s t i l l  being  specific  completed  beyond s i x years o f age.  The Language-Reading R e l a t i o n s h i p (a)  Language A b i l i t y and Reading Achievement A number o f s t u d i e s have i n d i c a t e d t h a t a b i l i t y i n  language tends t o i n f l u e n c e r e a d i n g Loban's l o n g i t u d i n a l study p a t t e r n s o f students  achievement.  (1963) evaluated  from k i n d e r g a r t e n  the l i n g u i s t i c  t o Grade s i x .  He r e p o r t e d  that: "those s u b j e c t s who read w e l l by the end o f grade three a r e the s u b j e c t s who ranked high i n o r a l language f o r the k i n d e r g a r t e n and f i r s t three years o f the study...not a s i n g l e one o f the twenty b e s t readers i n Grade three i s below the mean on o r a l language." (pg. 69)  14  The o v e r a l l r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t a p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n e x i s t e d between language a b i l i t y and r e a d i n g  achievement  a t the Grade t h r e e t o Grade s i x l e v e l . A s e r i e s o f s t u d i e s have been conducted u s i n g the I l l i n o i s Test of P s y c h o l i n g u i s t i c A b i l i t i e s determining  which f a c t o r s a r e important  The r e s e a r c h has suggested  i n the r e a d i n g  process.  t h a t r e a d i n g achievement i s dependent  on the a b i l i t y t o use language a t an integrative level.  as a means of  (Bateman  automatic-sequential  & Weatherall,  19 65; F o s t e r ,  1963;  Hart, 1970; McLeod, 1967). In 19 67, F r y surveyed  s e v e r a l s t u d i e s which i n v e s t i g a t e d  the r e l a t i o n s h i p between r e a d i n g achievement and language development.  ( S h i r e , 1945; E v e r t t s , 1962; Barnes, 1962; Cordes,  1965; and Schutte, 1967).  G e n e r a l l y , the r e s u l t s showed t h a t  r e a d i n g achievement was r e l a t e d t o the number of d i f f e r e n t words used and, or t o the t o t a l l i n g u i s t i c output o f the s u b j e c t s . The r e s u l t s of F r y ' s comparison o f the language p a t t e r n s o f below-average and above-average readers r e v e a l e d t h a t : above-average group used more c o n v e r s a t i o n i n t h e i r  "the  stories,  used a g r e a t e r number o f t r a n s f o r m a t i o n s and more T - u n i t s per communication u n i t . " Springer  (1969, pg. 70).  (1975) e x p l o r e d the r e l a t i o n s h i p between  standard  E n g l i s h a u d i t o r y d i s c r i m i n a t i o n and f i r s t - g r a d e r e a d i n g  achieve-  ment and found  s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n s between scores on  a u d i t o r y d i s c r i m i n a t i o n t e s t s and scores on composite r e a d i n g  15  p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the area of vocabulary and Moe  and Rush (1977) conducted  comprehension.  a comparison between the  o r a l language f l u e n c y of c h i l d r e n e n t e r i n g Grade one and  their  success i n l e a r n i n g to read as measured a t the end of the school year.  They r e p o r t e d a p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p between  language a b i l i t y and r e a d i n g achievement but emphasized the need to develop more e f f e c t i v e measures f o r i d e n t i f y i n g  and  e v a l u a t i n g the s p e c i f i c l i n g u i s t i c f a c t o r s i n v o l v e d i n the reading process. A c c o r d i n g to the r e s e a r c h c i t e d , there seems to be  an  agreement t h a t language a b i l i t y e f f e c t s r e a d i n g performance.  (b)  O r a l Language and the Reading  Process  While l i s t e n i n g , speaking, r e a d i n g and w r i t i n g have d i s t i n c t i v e q u a l i t i e s , they are n e v e r t h e l e s s i n t e r r e l a t e d f a c e t s of the communication p r o c e s s .  As d i s c u s s e d i n the  previous  s e c t i o n , young c h i l d r e n come to school as very e f f e c t i v e  oral  language u s e r s — a knowledge gained through  speaking.  l i s t e n i n g and  T h i s mastery of the spoken language i s accomplished systematic i n s t r u c t i o n or programmed m a t e r i a l s .  And  with  no  y e t , as  Goodman (1972) p o i n t e d out, " c h i l d r e n are f a r more u n i f o r m l y s u c c e s s f u l i n l e a r n i n g to t a l k and l i s t e n than they are i n l e a r n i n g t o read and w r i t e . " (pg.  505)  Much of the l i t e r a t u r e on the p s y c h o l i n g u i s t i c approach to r e a d i n g has claimed t h a t one o f the major reasons  for this  16 l i m i t e d success i n r e a d i n g i n s t r u c t i o n i s t h a t r e a d i n g has not been regarded as one dimension of the same language cess as l i s t e n i n g and speaking. (Goodman, 1968; Ryan and Semmel, 1969).  In the a r t i c l e  pro-  Smith,  1971;  "Reading—The Key i s  i n C h i l d r e n ' s Language," Goodman (1972) o u t l i n e d some of the t e a c h i n g p r a c t i c e s which have been r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h i s : We have been t e a c h i n g r e a d i n g as a s e t of s k i l l s to be l e a r n e d , r a t h e r than as a language process to be mastered. - We have been t e a c h i n g c h i l d r e n who are competent users of o r a l language as i f they were beginners i n language l e a r n i n g . We have i g n o r e d the language s t r u c t u r e and i n the name o f t e a c h i n g , f e d c h i l d r e n s t r i n g s of l e t t e r s or s t r i n g s o f words. We have taught c h i l d r e n to match l e t t e r s to sounds without g i v i n g them a b a s i c knowledge o f complex r e l a t i o n s h i p s between o r a l and w r i t t e n E n g l i s h . Thus, a c c o r d i n g t o the p s y c h o l i n g u i s t i c view of r e a d i n g , as d e f i n e d by Smith  (1971) and Goodman (1968), r e a d i n g i s not a  matter o f s e q u e n t i a l l y p a i r i n g v i s u a l forms w i t h a u d i t o r y which are then i n t e r p r e t e d l i k e speech. pg. 59).  (Ryan & Semmel,  forms 1969;  Rather, r e a d i n g i s a c o n s t r u c t i v e , a c t i v e p r o c e s s i n  which the reader uses h i s c o g n i t i v e and l i n g u i s t i c knowledge t o determine, from a c a r e f u l sampling of cues, the author's message. In p r o c e s s i n g o r a l language, c h i l d r e n tend to group sequences sounds i n t o meaningful u n i t s .  (Werner & Kaplan, 1950;  Hutton-  l o c h e r , 1964).  In the r e a d i n g process the reader must a l s o  group sequences  of l e t t e r s and words i n t o meaningful u n i t s .  A c c o r d i n g to Smith  (1971), r e a d i n g i n v o l v e s :  of  "identifying  through d i s t i n c t i v e f e a t u r e s g r a p h i c u n i t s which a r e meaningful  17  because they r e p r e s e n t semantic "chunks" o f the reader's organized  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f h i s o r her world."  (Hart, 1978;  pg. 1 5 ) . The  reader approaches w r i t t e n language w i t h t h e expec-  t a t i o n o f u s i n g h i s knowledge o f language t o p e r c e i v e a message from the t e x t and thus becomes an expert a t what Goodman (1970) has c a l l e d  "the p s y c h o l i n g u i s t i c guessing game".  He becomes an  expert not by " p r e c i s e p e r c e p t i o n " and i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f a l l elements, but from s k i l l cues  necessary  time.  i n s e l e c t i n g the f i n e s t , most p r o d u c t i v e  t o produce guesses which are r i g h t the f i r s t  (pg. .260) . The use o f Miscue A n a l y s i s as developed  by K. Goodman,  (1965) and Y. Goodman & Burke (1972) r e v e a l e d t h a t o r a l miscues  ( e r r o r s students make as read aloud) "are seldom random  but r e f l e c t the reader's of  reading  the t e x t .  e f f o r t t o render a meaningful r e n d i t i o n  ( C a l f e e & Drum, 1978; pg. 193).  T h e r e f o r e , a common view v o i c e d throughout the psychol i n g u i s t i c r e s e a r c h i s t h a t r e a d i n g i s a language-based and consequently  readers expect  process  r e a d i n g m a t e r i a l s t o conform to  the s t r u c t u r e s o f o r a l language they have a l r e a d y a c q u i r e d . The Mount G r a v a t t Language r e s e a r c h team summarized t h i s viewpoint: " L i t e r a c y i s an e x t e n s i o n o f o r a c y — t h e a b i l i t y to communicate e f f e c t i v e l y i n o r a l language must precede and i s i n e x t r i c a b l y interwoven w i t h the development o f a b i l i t y t o c r e a t e and i n t e r p r e t language i n i t s w r i t t e n form." (Hart, Walker & Gray, 1978; pg. 1)  18 The L i n g u i s t i c Content  of Reading M a t e r i a l s  Since o r a l language competency i s an important  factor  o p e r a t i n g i n the r e a d i n g process, r e s e a r c h e r s have emphasized the need f o r beginning r e a d i n g m a t e r i a l s which correspond the o r a l language p a t t e r n s a l r e a d y a c q u i r e d by the Otherwise,  to  child.  as the B u l l o c k Report warned, r e a d i n g m a t e r i a l s  might h i n d e r the process of i n t e r p r e t i n g w r i t t e n language from o r a l l i n g u i s t i c knowledge: "A p r i n t e d t e x t i s e a s i e r t o read the more c l o s e l y i t s s t r u c t u r e s are r e l a t e d t o those used by the reader i n normal speech... Reading m a t e r i a l which p r e s e n t s c h i l d r e n w i t h . . . u n r e a l language t h e r e f o r e l a c k s p r e d i c t a b i l i t y and prevents them from making use of the s e q u e n t i a l p r o b a b i l i t y in l i n g u i s t i c s t r u c t u r e . " (Bullock Report,  pg.  92)  C r i t i c s of c u r r e n t r e a d i n g m a t e r i a l s are concerned the "unnatural" language i n c h i l d r e n ' s reading t e x t s 1965;  Amsden, 1964).  Both S t r i c k l a n d  (Stevens,  (1962) and Loban  c r i t i c i z e d the language used i n readers as " i n f a n t i l e  with  (1963) and  monotonous" compared to the r i c h n e s s and v a r i e t y of the spoken language of the students u s i n g these m a t e r i a l s . pg. 298).  (Goodman,  1968;  In the t e a c h e r ' s manual o f "Breakthrough t o L i t e r a c y "  (1973), a language-based i n i t i a l r e a d i n g programme, the p o i n t e d out t h a t the language i n most primers  authors  is artificial:  "Forms such as "Dan has a can" or "See the dog. Look, look, look" are r a r e l y encountered  19  o u t s i d e the pages o f a primer. Books composed e n t i r e l y from "high frequency" words a r e seldom g r i p p i n g i n c o n t e n t , and primers seldom match the language o f c h i l d r e n i n t h e i r wide interest." (pg. 145) Since beginning r e a d i n g m a t e r i a l s have been the s u b j e c t of much c r i t i c i s m , i t seems n e c e s s a r y t o view some o f the r e s u l t s o f s t u d i e s which have s y s t e m a t i c a l l y a n a l y s e d the r e l a t i o n s h i p between c h i l d r e n ' s o r a l language and the language i n the r e a d i n g t e x t s .  Strickland's  (1962) r e s e a r c h i s a major  study found i n the l i t e r a t u r e on c h i l d r e n ' s language development.  The purpose o f h e r study was: " . . . t o d i s c o v e r , i s o l a t e , and d e s c r i b e the p a t t e r n s o f syntax found i n the o r a l language o f elementary s c h o o l c h i l d r e n and to a s c e r t a i n whether they appeared i n c e r t a i n r e p r e s e n t a t i v e r e a d i n g textbooks designed f o r these grade l e v e l s . " (pg. 5)  An i n f o r m a l speech sample was gathered by s t i m u l a t i n g one hundred c h i l d r e n from grades one t o s i x t o t a l k about themselves, t h e i r f a m i l i e s , pets o r whatever was o f i n t e r e s t a t the moment,  (pg.  Then samples from four widely-used textbooks were a n a l y s e d t o determine i f they c o n t a i n e d the o r a l language p a t t e r n s most f r e q u e n t l y used by c h i l d r e n .  Strickland's results  indicated  t h a t the only l i n g u i s t i c p a t t e r n which appeared i n both  samples  a t a l l l e v e l s was the b a s i c S u b j e c t Verb O b j e c t u t t e r a n c e . There was no systematic i n t r o d u c t i o n o f the elements o f subo r d i n a t i o n , an element found t o be an i n d i c a t o r of l i n g u i s t i c  16).  20 m a t u r i t y i n the o r a l language t e x t s there appeared  analysis.  Furthermore,  i n the  t o be no scheme f o r syntax c o n t r o l t o  compare w i t h the w i d e l y - p r a c t i c e d vocabulary c o n t r o l . Patterned on S t r i c k l a n d ' s study, R i l i n g the o r a l and w r i t t e n language four and s i x w i t h the language  p a t t e r n s of students i n Grades i n s i x b a s a l r e a d i n g programmes.  The r e s u l t s r e v e a l e d t h a t the language study was  (1965) compared  of the c h i l d r e n i n t h i s  s l i g h t l y i n f e r i o r s t r u c t u r a l l y to the language  most o f t h e i r textbooks.  Furthermore,  in  s i m i l a r to S t r i c k l a n d ' s  f i n d i n g s , R i l i n g found t h a t c h i l d r e n ' s textbooks d i d not a c o n s i s t e n t s e q u e n t i a l development of sentence In 1970,  i n Toronto, Canada.  The  p a t t e r n s o f a sample o f students  findings indicated that  children's  more complex than the w r i t t e n language  r e a d i n g programmes p r o v i d e d by the s c h o o l In 19 74, Lutz undertook the language  structure.  Handscombe concluded a t h r e e - y e a r study which  i n v e s t i g a t e d the o r a l language  o r a l speech was  follow  i n the  system.  a systematic i n v e s t i g a t i o n of  of t w e n t y - f i v e b a s a l r e a d i n g t e x t s intended f o r use  i n k i n d e r g a r t e n through grade t h r e e .  He d i s c o v e r e d t h a t :  "the overwhelming m a j o r i t y of sentences (over 10,000 of 12,000) were simple a c t i v e d e c l a r a t i v e sentences. . . . t h i s s y n t a c t i c monotony; coupled w i t h the f a c t t h a t the sentences are r a r e l y longer than ten words (presumably t o accommodate a s h o r t a t t e n t i o n span and memory), makes f o r s t e r i l e syntax indeed." (pg. 37)  21  "The Language of C h i l d r e n - A Key to L i t e r a c y " (1977) o u t l i n e d the r e s u l t s of a f i f t e e n - y e a r study conducted a t Mount Gravatt  C o l l e g e , Queensland, A u s t r a l i a .  Quite an exten-  s i v e sample o f c h i l d r e n ' s n a t u r a l speech p a t t e r n s was c o l l e c t e d and compared w i t h the w r i t t e n language found i n four reading other  s e r i e s used i n England and A u s t r a l i a .  introductory  S i m i l a r to the  s t u d i e s c i t e d , the r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t c h i l d r e n ' s  language was d i f f e r e n t than textbook language: " S u f f i c i e n t i n f o r m a t i o n i s a v a i l a b l e from a count of word sequences to i n d i c a t e t h a t the sequences most f r e q u e n t l y used i n r e a d i n g books are not the ones most f r e q u e n t l y used i n c h i l d r e n ' s language. I t f o l l o w s t h a t the language i n most r e a d e r s i s not c h i l d language i n the sense o f being r e a d i l y understood by children." (Hart, Walker, Gray, 1977, pg. 20) Following researcher  the schema of the Mount Gravatt  (1978) conducted a s m a l l - s c a l e comparison o f  c h i l d r e n ' s language and textbook language. frequent  p r o j e c t , the  The twenty most  one and two-word sequences found i n c h i l d r e n ' s language  by the Mount Gravatt  Research P r o j e c t were compared t o the  twenty most f r e q u e n t l y used words i n two b e g i n n i n g r e a d i n g used i n B r i t i s h Columbia - Reading 720 and Language (Revised).  series  Patterns  Although q u i t e l i m i t e d i n s i z e and scope, t h i s s i n g l e  language a n a l y s i s r e v e a l e d  t h a t the words and word  most f r e q u e n t l y used i n these r e a d i n g  sequences  programmes were not always  the ones most f r e q u e n t l y used i n c h i l d r e n ' s o r a l speedh.  2 2  In  1977, Bohn conducted an e x t e n s i v e language  comparison.  He examined the p r o d u c t i v e l i n g u i s t i c c a p a c i t i e s o f a s e l e c t e d sample o f B r a z i l i a n c h i l d r e n and the language  found i n the  m a t e r i a l s used to teach b e g i n n i n g r e a d i n g . He h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t c h i l d r e n ' s language would d i s p l a y a broader range o f s t r u c t u r e s than the primers.  Although t h i s n o t i o n was not sup-  ported, the r e s u l t s r e v e a l e d a v e r y low number o f sentence types and an obvious absence initial  o f complex sentences, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the  p o r t i o n s o f the primers.  Bohn emphasized  the s e r i o u s  i m p l i c a t i o n s o f r e a d i n g m a t e r i a l s which do not match c h i l d r e n ' s o r a l language p a t t e r n s : "...Most t e a c h e r s w i l l r e l y e n t i r e l y on the primer i n t h e i r t e a c h i n g , and the c h i l d thus w i l l have a very l i m i t e d r e a d i n g experiences i n the f i r s t year of h i s schooling...They c e r t a i n l y cannot be taught a language by means t h a t a r e i n a p p r o p r i a t e t o t h e i r developmental l e v e l , and thus r i c h exposure t o n a t u r a l language i s c r u c i a l . " He d i d not recommend l i f t i n g  c o n t r o l from b e g i n n i n g r e a d i n g  m a t e r i a l s but warned t h a t : "the c h i l d should be exposed t o more than a mere 3 4 5 sentences found i n the primers analysed, and which t o t a l an average of under t h r e e sentences per day i n a s c h o o l year." (pg. In of  200-1)  1979, A r t h u r conducted a c r o s s - l i n g u i s t i c  investigation  the o r a l language o f t h i r d grade c h i l d r e n i n the U.S.A. and  Japan and the language i n t h e i r b a s a l r e a d e r s .  According to  the  the o r a l  measures o f s y n t a c t i c complexity employed,  language p a t t e r n s o f American c h i l d r e n and Japanese were e s s e n t i a l l y t h e same but v a r i e d g r e a t l y from the language i n the b a s a l s .  Similar to Strickland's  (1962) and R i l i n g ' s  r e s u l t s , no systematic c o n t r o l over the development s t r u c t u r e i n the textbooks was found.  (1965)  o f sentence  Contrary to Strickland's  (1962) f i n d i n g t h a t "the o r a l language c h i l d r e n use i s f a r more advanced than the language o f the books i n which they are taught t o r e a d " (pg. 106), A r t h u r found t h a t the language o f c h i l d r e n i n both c o u n t r i e s was s i g n i f i c a n t l y l e s s  complex  than the language of- the b a s a l s . The r e s e a r c h presented has e x p l o r e d the r e l a t i o n s h i p between o r a l language and w r i t t e n language.  A discrepancy  between the o r a l language o f c h i l d r e n and the w r i t t e n i n the r e a d i n g textbooks has been r e p o r t e d .  language  Studies evaluating  the b e n e f i t s o f u s i n g language-based r e a d i n g m a t e r i a l s w i l l be presented i n the next s e c t i o n .  Reading Performance & Language-Based  Materials  In 1962, S t r i c k l a n d suggested t h a t "evidence i s needed as to whether c h i l d r e n would be a i d e d o r hindered by the use o f sentences i n t h e i r books more l i k e the sentences they use i n t h e i r speech".  (pg. 106).  To e v a l u a t e the e f f e c t o f language-  based m a t e r i a l s on r e a d i n g performance, a number o f s t u d i e s have been conducted.  Amsden  (1964) conducted a study which found t h a t the  more the r e a d i n g textbooks  approximated the student's  oral  speech p a t t e r n s , the g r e a t e r the r e a d i n g comprehension. Ruddell  (1965) undertook a major i n v e s t i g a t i o n t o  determine whether or not m a t e r i a l s based on language p a t t e r n s used by c h i l d r e n have an e f f e c t on r e a d i n g performance. Strickland's  (1962) l i s t o f high frequency  From  and low frequency  language p a t t e r n s f o r Grade four students, he wrote two types passages.  The r e a d i n g comprehension o f 131 Indiana  students  was e v a l u a t e d on both types o f m a t e r i a l s by means of a c l o z e test.  R u d d e l l concluded  that:  Reading comprehension i s a f u n c t i o n o f the s i m i l a r i t y between the p a t t e r n s o f language s t r u c t u r e found  i n the r e a d i n g m a t e r i a l  and the p a t t e r n s o f language s t r u c t u r e found i n c h i l d r e n ' s speech. Reading comprehension scores on m a t e r i a l s t h a t u t i l i z e the h i g h frequency  patterns of  o r a l language s t r u c t u r e are s i g n i f i c a n t l y g r e a t e r than r e a d i n g comprehension scores on materials that u t i l i z e  low frequency  of o r a l language s t r u c t u r e . (pg. 273)  patterns  Williams  (1968) compared the comprehension of good  and poor readers  on s c i e n c e t e x t m a t e r i a l which was  to match t h e i r language p a t t e r n s .  He  rewritten  found t h a t there was  g r e a t e r i n c r e a s e i n comprehension f o r the poor r e a d e r s . i n c r e a s e was  not merely a r e s u l t o f a s i m p l i f i c a t i o n of  but r a t h e r , was  due  a  This syntax,  t o the p r e c i s e matching of the syntax o f  the poor reader with the syntax of the t e x t . Based on Ruddell'-s  study, Tatham  (1968) designed a study  to f u r t h e r i n v e s t i g a t e c h i l d r e n ' s r e a d i n g comprehension of language-based m a t e r i a l s . grade l e v e l s - Grade two  A comparison of students and  f o u r - was  "intended  at  two  to encourage  the emergence of any developmental l e v e l s with r e s p e c t  to  c h i l d r e n ' s a b i l i t y to comprehend d i v e r s e kinds of language patterns, 1)  (pg. 5).  The  p e r t i n e n t c o n c l u s i o n s were:  A s i g n i f i c a n t number of second and graders  fourth  comprehended m a t e r i a l w r i t t e n  frequent o r a l language p a t t e r n s than m a t e r i a l w r i t t e n with  with  better  infrequent  oral  language p a t t e r n s . 2)  Fourth graders with frequent patterns second  comprehended m a t e r i a l w r i t t e n and  i n f r e q u e n t o r a l language  s i g n i f i c a n t l y b e t t e r than  graders.  the  26  According  t o Tatham, i f maximum comprehension i s the  goal, reading materials patterns  should  be based on the l i n g u i s t i c  t h a t c h i l d r e n f i n d e a s i e r to comprehend—which a r e  t h e i r own o r a l language Fagan  (19 71)  patterns.  found t h a t r e a d i n g  comprehension seemed to  be r e l a t e d t o the type of s y n t a c t i c s t r u c t u r e i n the t e x t . The  investigation revealed  that patterns  normally found i n  d i r e c t speech c o n t r i b u t e d the l e a s t t o sentence and passage difficulty. McCabe (1977) i d e n t i f i e d s t r u c t u r e s which appeared t o i n h i b i t o r f a c i l i t a t e comprehension f o r elementary and j u n i o r high school  subjects.  Similar to Williams'  r e s u l t s (1968), a  s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t upon comprehension o f mathematical m a t e r i a l r e w r i t t e n on the b a s i s o f students' was  found.  o r a l language  McCabe concluded with a message f o r  patterns  curriculum  development: "...become s e n s i t i v e t o those s t r u c t u r e s used by students i n t h e i r n a t u r a l d i s c o u r s e . . . t r y to i n c l u d e . . . , i n o r a l and w r i t t e n e x p o s i t i o n , as many o f those l i n g u i s t i c s t r u c t u r e s employed by students as p o s s i b l e . As an c o r o l l a r y , t h e use o f l i n g u i s t i c s t r u c t u r e s which students do not use should be minimized." '(pg. 16) Based on S t r i c k l a n d ' s language p a t t e r n s Gardner  (1962) frequency l i s t of o r a l  and Tatham's (1969) comprehension  tasks,  (1979) i n v e s t i g a t e d the e f f e c t s of s i m i l a r o r a l and  27  w r i t t e n language p a t t e r n s on c h i l d r e n ' s r e a d i n g at the beginning  reading  level.  comprehension  Beginning readers  m a t e r i a l s based on f r e q u e n t l y - u s e d  o r a l language  comprehended  patterns  b e t t e r than they comprehended m a t e r i a l s based on i n f r e q u e n t l y used language p a t t e r n s . In response to S t r i c k l a n d ' s suggestion  t h a t educators  need to a s c e r t a i n whether or not m a t e r i a l s based on c h i l d r e n ' s language p a t t e r n s have an e f f e c t on r e a d i n g performance, r e s e a r c h c i t e d above has  suggested t h a t there i s a p o s i t i v e  r e l a t i o n s h i p between r e a d i n g performance and reading  the  language-based  materials.  These f i n d i n g s warrant c a r e f u l c o n s i d e r a t i o n by i n v o l v e d i n producing As Tatham  and  implementing the r e a d i n g  (1968) p o i n t e d out,  " i t seems l o g i c a l and  those  curriculum. i n keeping  with l i n g u i s t i c knowledge to use c h i l d r e n ' s p a t t e r n s of language s t r u c t u r e i n w r i t t e n m a t e r i a l to f a c i l i t a t e l e a r n i n g the concept t h a t spoken and w r i t t e n language are r e l a t e d . " 149-150).  (pg.  H o p e f u l l y these r e s u l t s w i l l become g u i d e l i n e s f o r  the development of e f f e c t i v e beginning  reading  materials.  23 CHAPTER I I I METHODS OF COLLECTING AND TREATING DATA Introduction The  r e s e a r c h e r r e a l i z e d t h a t t h i s study i n v o l v e s an  a n a l y s i s o f c h i l d r e n ' s language which would r e q u i r e d e s i g n i n g a s i t u a t i o n i n which o b s e r v a b l e and measurable r e c o r d s c o u l d be obtained.  Furthermore, t o a t t a i n a sample o f " n a t u r a l "  language, the s e t t i n g and technique o f i n v e s t i g a t i o n  should  s i m u l a t e , as much as p o s s i b l e , the " n a t u r a l " environment. These f a c t o r s were important c o n s i d e r a t i o n s i n the d e s i g n o f this  study.  DATA COLLECTION - ORAL LANGUAGE SAMPLE Methodology In order t o o b t a i n a r e a l i s t i c measure o f the c h i l d r e n ' s l i n g u i s t i c a b i l i t i e s , the r e s e a r c h e r c o l l e c t e d the language 1 sample w i t h i n t h e i r classroom s e t t i n g . To assess the depth and breadth of t h e i r l i n g u i s t i c competencies, d i f f e r e n t  formal  and i n f o r m a l modes f o r e l i c i t i n g language were used on a 2 s e l e c t e d sample o f twenty-four  children.  To c o l l e c t the  language sample, t h r e e FM microphones and t h r e e p o r t a b l e FM r e c e i v e r - a u d i o t a p e r e c o r d e r u n i t s were used.  The microphones  were tunable t o separate f r e q u e n c i e s so t h a t the t h r e e p a i r s o f units  (one u n i t = a microphone and a r e c e i v e r - t a p e r e c o r d e r )  operated  on t h r e e separate channels.  Thus, the sounds p i c k e d  29  up by each microphone were recorded  s e p a r a t e l y on each  Each microphone was worn by one o f the s u b j e c t s . of each s u b j e c t was recorded  tape.  The speech  s e p a r a t e l y on a tape.  In t h i s way  i t was p o s s i b l e t o c o l l e c t the data o f the i n d i v i d u a l ' s d i s course.  Because background sounds were s l i g h t l y a u d i b l e , i f  necessary, i t would be p o s s i b l e t o c o r r e l a t e one s u b j e c t ' s utterances  with the other members o f the group.  r e t r i e v a l technique permitted of k i n d e r g a r t e n  T h i s language  the normal m o b i l i t y and i n t e r a c t i o n  c h i l d r e n and a t the same time allowed  ease i n  t r a n s c r i p t i o n of i n d i v i d u a l speech p a t t e r n s . The  data came from three modes of c h i l d r e n ' s l i n g u i s t i c  interaction: (1)  a free-play session  (2)  a story-telling  (3)  a interview  session  session  In the f i r s t mode, spontaneous speech was recorded minutes as three c h i l d r e n played  for fifteen  f r e e l y , without any a d u l t  i n t e r v e n t i o n , i n the "Dress-Up Center".  The same group were  then i n v o l v e d i n a s t o r y - t e l l i n g s e s s i o n - the r e s e a r c h e r present  t o i n t r o d u c e the task and t o ask q u e s t i o n s .  were asked t o t e l l a f i v e - m i n u t e  was  The s u b j e c t s  s t o r y t o the group - they c o u l d  i n v e n t a s t o r y , t e l l a well-known s t o r y such as C i n d e r e l l a , or t e l l a s t o r y with  the a i d o f a p i c t u r e book.  c h i l d r e n d i d use a book t o help sequence t h e i r In c o n t r a s t t o the f i r s t  Most of the ideas.  two s e s s i o n s , the t h i r d  session  30  was q u i t e s t r u c t u r e d . f o r f i f t e e n minutes.  The r e s e a r c h e r i n t e r v i e w e d the group In order t o g e t a sample of the breadth  and depth of t h e i r l i n g u i s t i c c a p a b i l i t i e s , d i v e r g e n t q u e s t i o n i n g techniques were used. conducted  (See Appendix B ) ,  a c c o r d i n g t o some o f the "General G u i d e l i n e s f o r  Interviews" summarized by Witz and Goodwin C).  Interviews were  (1970).  (Appendix  T h i s meant t h a t i t was necessary t o "encourage v e r b a l  output" by a s k i n g f o r e x p l a n a t i o n s by a v o i d i n g a s k i n g  questions  t h a t p e r m i t t e d yes-no answers, and by provoking  "the c h i l d ' s  own summaries and g e n e r a l statements"  In c o n j u n c t i o n  (pg. 2 ) .  w i t h the v e r b a l s t i m u l i , both v i s u a l s t i m u l i i n the form of p i c t u r e cards and t a c t i l e s t i m u l i i n the form of l i v e were employed.  animals  (See Appendix A ) .  PILOT STUDIES To determine how a p p r o p r i a t e the procedures  were f o r  probing the r e s e a r c h problem, a p i l o t i n v e s t i g a t i o n was  conducted.  Six c h i l d r e n were randomly chosen from the k i n d e r g a r t e n c l a s s at Rideau Park School, Richmond.  P r i o r to c o l l e c t i n g  data,  the i n v e s t i g a t o r spent time g e t t i n g acquainted w i t h the student, and  f a m i l i a r i z i n g the students w i t h the t a p i n g equipment.  o r a l language sample was c o l l e c t e d w i t h i n the classroom The audio-tapes were t r a n s c r i b e d and analysed. f o r c o l l e c t i n g data were e v a l u a t e d .  setting.  The t h r e e modes  Adjustments were made i n  order t o e s t a b l i s h the f i n a l form o f procedures f o r the major i n v e s t i g a t i o n .  The  and m a t e r i a l s  31 S E L E C T I O N  S t r a t i f i e d  s t u d e n t s  f r o m  s c h o o l s  t a r y ,  i n  a n d  t h e  a n d  p o p u l a t i o n  b a c k g r o u n d s  o f  t h e  w e r e  B o a r d ,  t h e  i n t e r v i e w e r  k i n d e r g a r t e n  s e l e c t  w a s  a  e v e n l y  f i n a l  t e a c h e r s  s t r a t i f i e d  u s e d  t o  o n  s e l e c t  t h e  s a m p l e  s u b j e c t s  t h e  b a s i s  o f  w i t h  r a n d o m  f r o m  o f  s e x  a s  p r o j e c t .  o f  t h e  v a r i e d  G r e a t e r  O F  E l e m e n -  o f  t h e  a t t i t u d e  A l s o ,  t h e  l i n g u i s t i c  V a n c o u v e r  a r e a .  S U B J E C T S  o f  t h e  t h e  t h r e e  A  e i g h t  s u b j e c t s ;  s i x  S c h o o l  p r i n c i p a l s  t a b l e  l a n g u a g e .  P r i m a r y  R i c h m o n d  i n v o l v e d  s c h o o l  a n d  a  b e c a u s e  t h e  s c h o o l s  e a c h  C i t y  t o w a r d s  s a m p l e .  t w e n t y - f o u r  E n g l i s h  s e l e c t e d  p e r m i s s i o n  t h e  G a r d e n  p o s i t i v e  c o n t a c t e d  o f  e l e m e n t a r y  t h e  t h e  S E L E C T I O N  o b t a i n i n g  t h r e e  a n d  s o m e  o f  t w e n t y - f o u r  E l e m e n t a r y ,  t e a c h e r s  c o n t a i n e d  o b t a i n  o f  s c h o o l s  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c  A f t e r  t o  c l a s s e s  E l e m e n t a r y  l o c a t i o n  S C H O O L S  u s e d  E r r i n g t o n  K i n g s w o o d  p r i n c i p a l s  s t u d e n t  w a s  k i n d e r g a r t e n  R i c h m o n d .  c o n v e n i e n t  o f  s a m p l i n g  O F  a n d  o f  a n d  a r r a n g e d  r a n d o m  s u b j e c t s  n u m b e r s  d i v i d e d  T h i s  p r o v i d e d  m a l e  a n d  L a n g u a g e ,  a n d  t o  s i x  s i x  a  f e m a l e  m a l e  a n d  3 s i x  f e m a l e  T o  s u b j e c t s  e n s u r e  s y s t e m a t i c  s e l e c t i o n  b i a s ,  T h e  f i n a l  a n d  a f t e r n o o n  a n d  5  g r o u p  m o n t h s  w i t h  r i g o r o u s  o f  6  o f  a  y e a r s  a s  a  s a m p l e  s a m p l i n g  p a r t i c i p a n t s  c l a s s e s .  t o  E n g l i s h  w i t h o u t  p r o c e d u r e s  w a s  c h o s e n  T h e s e  b o y s  a n d  m o n t h s  5  S e c o n d  a n d  o f  a n y  p a r t i c u l a r  w e r e  f r o m  g i r l s  a g e .  L a n g u a g e .  e m p l o y e d .  b o t h  r a n g e d  T h e  m o r n i n g  f r o m  5  t e a c h e r s  y e a r s  w h o s e  32  students were i n v o l v e d v a r i e d i n age, educational  t e a c h i n g experience  4.  and  philosophy.  SCHEDULE FOR Research was  conducted  DATA COLLECTION  a t the t h r e e r e s p e c t i v e s c h o o l s  w i t h i n the k i n d e r g a r t e n classroom w i t h the r e g u l a r teacher present.  Audio-taping was  done as u n o b t r u s i v e l y as p o s s i b l e  by a t e c h n i c i a n i n the same room as the r e s e a r c h e r and  the  subjects. Each s u b j e c t was  recorded i n t h r e e d i f f e r e n t s e s s i o n s .  s e t t i n g up a schedule f o r data c o l l e c t i o n , t h e r e were  In  two  groups of t h r e e s u b j e c t s i n each c l a s s which took t u r n s p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the t a p i n g s e s s i o n s . t i r i n g of the s u b j e c t s .  T h i s was  to minimize the  (Appendix D).  WRITTEN LANGUAGE SAMPLE The data f o r the w r i t t e n language sample was from the two  b a s a l r e a d i n g s e r i e s - Reading 720  Company and Language P a t t e r n s  obtained  by Ginn &  (Revised), by H o l t , Rhinehart  Winston, r e c e n t l y p r e s c r i b e d t e x t s f o r the elementary the p r o v i n c e of B r i t i s h Columbia. the Grade one  l e v e l were a n a l y s e d .  The  f i r s t two  &  grades i n  books a t  READING 72 0 The Reading 720 reading s e r i e s .  is a linguistically-based  The  developmental  stated philosophy i s that reading i s :  - a process of  decoding  - comprehending the author's message - c r i t i c a l l y e v a l u a t i n g the author's message, and - i n c o r p o r a t i n g the author's own  ideas i n t o one's  t h i n k i n g as a r e s u l t of r e a d i n g .  pg.  (Ginn,  1978;  T.8)  For each dimension,  the emphasis i s on p r o c e s s i n g from the  known to the unknown.  Decoding s k i l l s , o f an a n a l y t i c a l  nature  are taught  so the reader can unlock unknown words w i t h i n a  meaningful  context.  Even a t the i n i t i a l l e a r n i n g stages,  "reading f o r meaning" i s s t r e s s e d .  The  u n i t s w i t h i n each  reader are o r g a n i z e d i n t o d e v e l o p i n g s p e c i f i c themes w i t h v a r i e s t o r y types.  The  t i t l e s of readers examined are: "A P o c k e t f u l  of  and  "A Duck Is A Duck".  Sunshine,"  LANGUAGE PATTERNS (REVISED) Language P a t t e r n s i n d i c a t e s t h a t i t i s a m u l t i - s e n s o r y developmental  r e a d i n g programme.  The  s t a t e d aim of the  i s to achieve l i t e r a c y which i s d e f i n e d as c o n f i d e n c e adeptness i n the Language A r t s of r e a d i n g , w r i t i n g , and l i s t e n i n g . of  (Holt, 1976;  pg. x - x i ) .  series  and  speaking  A careful introduction  sounds w i t h a one-to-one a u d i o - v i s u a l  correspondence  c h a r a c t e r i z e s the i n i t i a l r e a d i n g m a t e r i a l s .  Decoding i s  34  h e a v i l y emphasized.  In c o n t r a s t to Reading 720, a s y n t h e t i c  r a t h e r than an a n a l y t i c approach i s used.  As s t a t e d i n the  p h i l o s o p h y o f the programme, "there i s n a t u r a l l y more emphasis on the phonics component a t the e a r l y stages to h e l p the c h i l d develop the s k i l l s t h a t l e a d t o independent r e a d i n g power." (Holt, pg. i x ) .  The t i t l e s o f the r e a d e r s examined  are: " L i s t e n i n g L e t t e r s " and "Laughing L e t t e r s " .  ORAL LANGUAGE ANALYSIS In the l a s t f o r t y y e a r s , c h i l d r e n ' s language and a c q u i s i t i o n has been the t o p i c o f much a t t e n t i o n .  language  Consequently,  s e v e r a l s t a n d a r d i z e d measures have been developed f o r comparison of the l i n g u i s t i c p a t t e r n s of d i f f e r e n t groups of c h i l d r e n . T e s t s f o r determining the mean l e n g t h o f u t t e r a n c e s and the frequency w i t h which c e r t a i n types of words a r e used by c h i l d r e n have been c r e a t e d .  C e r t a i n grammatical a b i l i t i e s have been  i d e n t i f i e d and e v a l u a t e d as i n d i c a t o r s o f s y n t a c t i c m a t u r i t y . ( A n i s f i e l d & Tucker, 1973; 1971; Menyuk, 196 9).  Chomsky, 1969;  Fagan, 1970;  Hatch,  Other measures i n c l u d e d an assessment o f  s y n t a c t i c and s t r u c t u r a l f e a t u r e s of language f o r r e m e d i a t i o n (Chyratal e t a l , 1976) & Johnson, 1944;  and an a n a l y s i s of v o c a b u l a r y (Chotlos  O'Rourke, 1974;  Thorndike & Lbrge, 1944).  In 1953, Loban began a l o n g i t u d i n a l study which t r a c e d the o r a l and w r i t t e n l i n g u i s t i c growth o f over 300 students i n Oakland, C a l i f o r n i a from k i n d e r g a r t e n through Grade twelve.  1944  This  study was a l s o concerned with d e v e l o p i n g a p p r o p r i a t e  methods of semantic and s t r u c t u a l a n a l y s i s . For  classroom and r e s e a r c h e v a l u a t i o n ,  (Loban, 1967).  an o b j e c t i v e  method  f o r segmenting the flow of o r a l language was d e v i s e d and the following  counts were determined: (1) l e n g t h  of communication u n i t  (average  number o f words per communication (2) l e n g t h  o f maze u n i t  unit)  (average number of  words per maze u n i t )  With some a d a p t a t i o n s , Loban's method of a n a l y s i s has formed the broad framework f o r the e v a l u a t i o n patterns i n t h i s  of s y n t a c t i c a l  investigation.  SEGMENTATION OF ORAL LANGUAGE The  data c o l l e c t e d was t r a n s c r i b e d  to the methodology o u t l i n e d by Loban  and analyzed a c c o r d i n g  (1976).  u n i t s o f segmentation, the communication u n i t the C-unit) and the maze u n i t been used i n t h i s r e s e a r c h .  The two b a s i c ( r e f e r r e d t o as  ( r e f e r r e d to as the M-unit) have (See Appendix H f o r a sample  transcript).  THE Calculating  COMMUNICATION  UNIT  the average number of words per communication un  i s an e f f e c t i v e means o f q u a n t i f y i n g  o r a l language.  Watts (1948)  36  d e s c r i b e d i t as "the n a t u r a l l i n g u i s t i c u n i t . . . a group of words which cannot be f u r t h e r d i v i d e d without the l o s s of t h e i r e s s e n t i a l meaning".  Because of the s u b j e c t i v e nature  of " e s s e n t i a l meaning," t h i s d e f i n i t i o n proved d i f f i c u l t t o apply.  Thus, Loban adopted Hunt's  (1965) s t r u c t u r a l  definition  which r e f e r r e d t o a segment as "each independent c l a u s e w i t h 5 i t s modifiers." The c h i l d r e n ' s t r a n s c r i p t s were segmented i n t o C - u n i t s . As o u t l i n e d by Loban, t h e r e were t h r e e cases i n which a C - u n i t could occur: 1.  Each independent grammatical p r e d i c a t i o n  2.  Each answer t o a q u e s t i o n , p r o v i d e d t h a t the answer l a c k s o n l y the r e p e t i t i o n of the q u e s t i o n elements t o s a t i s f y the c r i t e r i o n of independent p r e d i c a t i o n  3.  Each word such as 'Yes' or 'No' when g i v e n i n answer to a q u e s t i o n such as "Have you ever been s i c k ? "  (pg. 9)  THE MAZE UNIT Oftentimes o r a l speech p a t t e r n s c o n t a i n f a l s e s t a r t s , and meaningless r e p e t i t i o n s .  hesitations, Loban r e f e r r e d to  these as "mazes" and i d e n t i f i e d a maze u n i t as "a s e r i e s of words (or i n i t i a l p a r t s of words), or unattached fragments which  37  do not c o n s t i t u t e a communication u n i t and are not n e c e s s a r y t o the communication u n i t . "  (pg. 106),  In t h i s study, the c h i l d r e n ' s t r a n s c r i p t s were  segmented  i n t o maze u n i t s and communication u n i t s and coded a c c o r d i n g l y . Each u n i t was  i d e n t i f i e d by a six-number coding group which  i n d i c a t e d the number and type o f words each u n i t c o n t a i n e d . T h i s was e a s i l y i n t e r p r e t e d by the computer programmes which c a l c u l a t e d the number of C - u n i t s and M-units per s u b j e c t and the mean number o f words per u n i t .  These measures were used  to e v a l u a t e l e v e l s of s y n t a c t i c a l f l u e n c y .  PHRASES AND  (Appendix E & F ) .  DEPENDENT CLAUSES  Researchers have p o i n t e d out t h a t the c l a u s e i s an important measure of language and thought (Jespersen, 192 2; P i a g e t , 1925).  Loban  (1963) claimed t h a t "phrases and  dependent c l a u s e s are v e r b a l means of showing r e l a t i o n s h i p s . Through them, speakers communicate  more complex  propositions  than a r e p o s s i b l e w i t h s i n g l e independent c l a u s e s . "  (pg. 17-18).  T y p i c a l l y , s u b o r d i n a t i o n has been c o n s i d e r e d a more mature and d i f f i c u l t form of s y n t a c t i c a l s t r u c t u r e than simple statements. (Frogner, 1933; Heider & Heider, 1940; Granowsky, 1972 ; LaBrant, 1933; Templin, 1957; Loban, 1963).  Thus, i n t h i s  study, the C - u n i t s and M-units were f u r t h e r segmented  and coded  to i n d i c a t e the l e n g t h and type of phrase or dependent c l a u s e . F o l l o w i n g the method o f a n a l y s i s used by A r t h u r  (1979) , the  38  amount of p h r a s i n g and of  percentages  s u b o r d i n a t i o n was  of C - u n i t s housing  r e p o r t e d i n terms  these u n i t s .  A l s o , the  percentage of C - u n i t s not c o n t a i n i n g any phrases or dependent c l a u s e s was  calculated.  l e v e l s of s y n t a c t i c a l  These measures were used to e v a l u a t e  complexity.  VOCABULARY A f t e r segmentation, the t r a n s c r i p t s were analyzed to prepare  a cumulative  vocabulary  list  i n order  f o r the sample p o p u l a t i o n .  The words l i s t e d were grouped i n t o nouns, v e r b s , a d j e c t i v e s , adverbs,  p r e p o s i t i o n s , pronouns, i n t e r j e c t i o n s , c o n t r a c t i o n s  and c o n j u n c t i o n s a c c o r d i n g to t h e i r use  i n dialogue.  these words were c l a s s i f i e d , each v o c a b u l a r y  item was  Once numerically  coded a c c o r d i n g t o the type of word and i t s p l a c e on the b e t i z e d cumulative  vocabulary  list.  alpha-  (Appendix F & G).  WRITTEN LANGUAGE ANALYSIS The w r i t t e n language sample was  t r e a t e d i n e x a c t l y the  same manner as the o r a l language sample. measures were used.  However, as Loban  The  same s y n t a c t i c a l  (1963) p o i n t e d  "mazes" are t a n g l e s i n communication unique to speech: " i n the w r i t t e n t r a n s c r i p t s , o n l y the communication u n i t s w i l l o c c u r . . . O c c a s i o n a l l y i n w r i t i n g there w i l l be some language t h a t i s g a r b l e d , but such g a r b l e s do not a r i s e from the same cause as mazes. They should be noted and removed from the w r i t t e n communication u n i t . " (pg.  107)  out,  39  Thus, f o r the w r i t t e n was  scored.  a n a l y s i s , o n l y the communication u n i t  40 TABLE 1 FLOW CHART OF PROCEDURES FOR ANALYSIS OF DATA T r a n s c r i p t s o f Tapes Segmentation  of Transcripts Vocabulary  Syntax  Making an a l p h a b e t i z e d cumulative v o c a b u l a r y l i s t  Coding of C-rUnits & M-Units Coding Word'Count f o r C-Units & M-rUnits Coding type^  id word count of:  phrases'  dependent c l a u s e s  noun adjective adverb  noun adjective adverb  C l a s s i f y i n g and l i s t i n g words a c c o r d i n g t o type: nouns, v e r b s , pronouns, adverbs, pronouns, c o n n e c t i v e s , a r t i c l e s , prepositions, interjections, and c o n t r a c t i o n s 1  Within each phrase/dependent clause/C-Unit/M-Unit coding words a c c o r d i n g t o type per v o c a b u l a r y l i s t  Keypunching Analysis  I  (using s p e c i a l i z e d programmes w r i t t e n f o r these data, p l u s SPSS C r o s s t a b s (Stat. Pack, f o r S o c i a l S c i e n c e s ) )  Interpretation  NOTES FROM CHAPTER THREE  The r e s e a r c h was conducted d u r i n g t h e l a s t few weeks of June with kindergarten-aged c h i l d r e n . This testing time and age group were chosen i n an attempt t o o b t a i n a measure o f t h e l i n g u i s t i c a b i l i t i e s o f Grade one students j u s t p r i o r t o beginning a f o r m a l i z e d r e a d i n g programme. To a l l o w f o r i n a u d i b l e and unacceptable sampling was performed.  data,  over-  Although s u b j e c t s were s t r a t i f i e d on the b a s i s of E n g l i s h Primary Language Users (EPL) and E n g l i s h Second Language Users (ESL), t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n w i l l n o t be used f o r a n a l y s i s a t t h i s time. (EPL - c h i l d r e n who spoke E n g l i s h o n l y a t home and at s c h o o l ESL  - c h i l d r e n whose dominant language a t home was not E n g l i s h )  A f t e r the language sample had been c o l l e c t e d , the teacher p r o v i d e d some background i n f o r m a t i o n on each subject. T h i s data on academic achievement, s o c i o economic s t a t u s and l i n g u i s t i c background c o u l d prove to be v i t a l t o subsequent r e s e a r c h i n t h i s a r e a . The reader i s encouraged t o r e f e r t o Appendix B, pp. 100-107 o f Loban's book, Language Development, f o r a complete d e s c r i p t i o n of the uses o f C-Units and M-Units i n language a n a l y s i s .  CHAPTER TV PRESENTATION & ANALYSIS OF DATA In order t o o b t a i n i n f o r m a t i o n on the s p e c i f i c questions  researc  s t a t e d i n Chapter I, i t was necessary t o conduct  the f o l l o w i n g measures on the w r i t t e n language of the two basal reading  s e r i e s and t h e o r a l language o f t h e c h i l d r e n : 1 mean l e n g t h o f communication u n i t s (C-units) 2  mean l e n g t h o f maze u n i t s proportion of C-units  (M-units)  and M-units i n t o t a l  communication 3  -  sequence o f mean C - u n i t  length  frequency of use o f d i f f e r e n t types o f phrases and dependent  clauses  mean l e n g t h of phrases and dependent  clauses  used per C - u n i t -  p r o p o r t i o n of C - u n i t s c o n t a i n i n g phrases and dependent c l a u s e s p r o p o r t i o n o f C - u n i t s not c o n t a i n i n g phrases and dependent  clauses  The  r e s u l t s o f these measures a r e summarized i n the t e x t  and  tables that follow.  PART I  AN ANALYSIS AND COMPARISON OF THE BASAL READERS  (1)  A Measure o f Fluency Fluency,  - The Communication U n i t  the a b i l i t y t o f i n d words to express o n e s e l f  r e a d i l y and smoothly, i s c o n s i d e r e d  a mark o f s u c c e s s f u l  43 communication.  (Loban, 1963).  In t h i s study,  number o f words per communication  the average  u n i t i s used as a b a s i c  measure o f f l u e n c y . Table 2 shows the measures o f c e n t r a l tendency and v a r i a b i l i t y f o r words per C - u n i t f o r the two b a s a l r e a d i n g series.  The f i g u r e s a r e based on the t o t a l number o f C - u n i t s  f o r each b a s a l reader.  The mean C - u n i t l e n g t h of t h e Language  P a t t e r n s s e r i e s i s g r e a t e r than the mean C - u n i t l e n g t h o f the Reading 72 0 s e r i e s by .59 words.  The l o n g e s t C - u n i t  found, which was 14 words, appeared i n the Language P a t t e r n s series.  The s h o r t e s t C - u n i t s , one word commands, were found  i n both s e r i e s .  An a n a l y s i s of v a r i a n c e was run t o t e s t f o r  s i g n i f i c a n c e among the mean C - u n i t l e n g t h s o f the b a s a l s . was found t h a t a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e e x i s t e d df=1,1330, p ^  .001);  It  (F=33.42,  A Student's t - t e s t was computed on mean 4  C - u n i t l e n g t h s and a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e was found  (p^_..05).  Table 2 shows a comparison o f the mean C - u n i t lengths between the two r e a d i n g  series.  To determine i f the b a s a l s were arranged s e q u e n t i a l l y on the b a s i s of C - u n i t l e n g t h , the t o t a l number o f C - u n i t s f o r each s e r i e s was d i v i d e d i n t o 12 samples. l a s t 50% of the C - u n i t s were analyzed.  For each sample the Hence, the l a s t 5 9  C - u n i t s o f each o f the 12 samples f o r the Reading 72 0 s e r i e s was compared t o the l a s t 51 u n i t s o f each sample f o r the Language P a t t e r n s s e r i e s  (Table 3 ) .  I f the language i n each o f  TABLE 2 Mean Length, Standard D e v i a t i o n and Range o f C-Units Found i n B a s a l Readers  X  s.d.  range  Reading 7 2 0  4 . 2 4  1 . 6 4  2 . 6 9  Language P a t t e r n s  4 . 8 3  2 . 0 7  4 . 3 2  Difference in _ X  *  p  ^  . 0 5  * . 5 9  45 the r e a d i n g s e r i e s i s arranged "difficult",  s e q u e n t i a l l y from "easy" t o  the r e s e a r c h e r expects  that t h i s progression  c o u l d be r e f l e c t e d i n an i n c r e a s e i n mean C - u n i t l e n g t h from the beginning  t o the end.  l e n g t h should be found  Thus, t h e s h o r t e s t mean C - u n i t  i n t h e f i r s t sample, and the l o n g e s t  mean C - u n i t l e n g t h i n the t w e l f t h sample.  F o r example, i n  the Reading 720 s e r i e s , t h e mean C - u n i t l e n g t h f o r sample s i x which was 2.73, would have been more a p p r o p r i a t e as the mean l e n g t h f o r sample one.  In the Language P a t t e r n s s e r i e s , the  mean C - u n i t l e n g t h f o r sample f i v e - which was 5.06, would have been more a p p r o p r i a t e as the mean C - u n i t l e n g t h f o r sample nine. From r e a d i n g Table 3, i t appears t h a t these two i n i t i a l r e a d i n g s e r i e s are n o t c l e a r l y arranged of mean C - u n i t l e n g t h .  i n terms of the complexity  When a Spearman Rho Rank C o r r e l a t i o n  C o e f f i c i e n t was c a l c u l a t e d between the sampling  order and the  order o f the mean C - u n i t l e n g t h s , no s i g n i f i c a n t was found  f o r either basal  correlation  series.  MEASURES OF SYNTACTIC COMPLEXITY Phrasing and s u b o r d i n a t i o n , along with f l u e n c y , are important  f a c t o r s i n e f f e c t i v e communication.  In t h i s  study,  the use o f phrases and dependent c l a u s e s a r e c o n s i d e r e d as i n d i c a t o r s of s y n t a c t i c complexity. most o f the procedures (a)  To compute these measures,  o u t l i n e d by Arthur  (1979) were f o l l o w e d .  Phrases For each s e r i e s , the number o f d i f f e r e n t phrases and the  46 TABLE 3 Mean C - u n i t Length f o r Samples 1-12 of B a s a l Readers  Sample  Reading 720  Rank  Language  Patterns  Rank  1  4.05  6  3.18  1  2  4.61  7  3.78  2  3  4.83  10  4.75  5'  4  4.81  9  4.53  3  5  3.46  4  5.06  9  6  2.73  1  4.76  6  7  3.40  3  4.69  4  8  3.36  2  5.31  10  9  3.78  5  5.55  11  10  4.61  8  4.84  7  11  6.19  12  5.00  8  12  4.93  11  6.29  12  47  average number o f phrases per C - u n i t was computed and r e p o r t e d i n Table 4.  I t was found t h a t the Language P a t t e r n s s e r i e s  has s i g n i f i c a n t l y more phrases per C - u n i t than the Reading series.  72 0  (p Z, .05). A l s o , i t r e v e a l e d t h a t the Reading 720  s e r i e s has o n l y one type o f phrase - the adverb phrase. Although the Language P a t t e r n s s e r i e s has mostly adverb phrases, there are examples of both noun and a d j e c t i v e phrases. The number of C - u n i t s c o n t a i n i n g and not c o n t a i n i n g phrases was determined and summarized i n Table 5.  A chi-square t e s t  r e v e a l e d t h a t the d i s t r i b u t i o n o f phrases i n the b a s a l s was) 2 significantly different. (X = 34.35, d . f = 1, p__.001). I t showed t h a t the Language P a t t e r n s s e r i e s has s i g n i f i c a n t l y more C - u n i t s c o n t a i n i n g phrases than the Reading  720 s e r i e s .  The mean l e n g t h o f phrases found i n the r e a d e r s was c a l c u l a t e d and r e p o r t e d i n Table 6.  The adverb phrases i n the  Language P a t t e r n s series<were s i g n i f i c a n t l y longer than those i n the Reading  72 0 s e r i e s  (p —1.05).  Since t h e r e were no  i n s t a n c e s o f a d j e c t i v e or noun phrases i n the Reading  720 s e r i e s ,  a comparison o f these phrases c o u l d n o t be conducted.  (b)  Dependent Clauses A summary o f the f i n d i n g s r e g a r d i n g the number o f d i f f e r e n t  dependent c l a u s e s and the average number o f c l a u s e s per C - u n i t i s g i v e n i n Table 7. b a s a l s were found.  No s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between the  48 TABLE 4 Average Number of Phrases per C-Unit f o r the B a s a l Readers  Number o f Cases Over T o t a l C-Units Sloun Phrases  Average number of phrases per C-Unit *  Reading 720 Language P a t t e r n s  1/618  .0618  Adverb Phrases  Reading 720 Language P a t t e r n s  129/714 2 00/618  .1807 .32 36  Adjective Phrases  Reading 720 Language P a t t e r n s  9/618  .0146  T o t a l Phrases  Reading 720 Language P a t t e r n s  129/714 210/618  **  *  .1807 ** .3398 **  p ^ .05  C a l c u l a t e d by d i v i d i n g t o t a l number o f cases over t o t a l number o f C - u n i t s  TABLE 5 C h i - S q u a r e V a l u e s of C - U n i t s C o n t a i n i n g and Not C o n t a i n i n g Phrases f o r the B a s a l s  Containing Reading 720  ,  Language P a t t e r n s  C h i square =  34.35,  d.f  Not  Containing  17.8  82.2  32.2  67.8  =1,  p Zl .001  TABLE 6 Mean Length of Phrases Found i n the B a s a l Readers  Reading 72 0 Noun Phrases Adverb Phrases A d j e c t i v e phrases  P Z l .05  2.69* -  Language P a t t e r n s 2 3.01* 2.67  51  TABLE 7 Average Number o f Dependent Clauses per C-Unit f o r the B a s a l s  Data Set  Number o f Cases Over T o t a l C-Units  Average Number of Clauses per C-Unit  Noun C l a u s e s Reading 72 0 Language P a t t e r n s  3/714 4/618  0042 0065  5/618  0081  3/714 9/618  0042 0146  Adverb Clauses Reading 72 0 Language P a t t e r n s A d j e c t i v e Clauses Reading 72 0 Language P a t t e r n s T o t a l Clauses Reading 72 0 Language P a t t e r n s  *  C a l c u l a t e d by d i v i d i n g t o t a l number of cases over t o t a l number of C - u n i t s  (n.s.) (n.s.)  52  There were so few  i n s t a n c e s of dependent c l a u s e s t h a t  a c h i - s q u a r e t e s t on the d i s t r i b u t i o n of c l a u s e s was conducted.  The mean l e n g t h of dependent c l a u s e s found i n  the r e a d e r s was no  not  c a l c u l a t e d and r e p o r t e d i n Table 8.  However,  s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s were found.  PART I I  AN ANALYSIS AND COMPARISON OF THE CHILDREN AND THE BASAL READERS  A Measure of Fluency  LANGUAGE OF  THE  - The Communication U n i t  Using the C - u n i t as a gross measure of s y n t a c t i c f l u e n c y , the language of the c h i l d r e n and each of the readers compared.  was  Table 9 shows the measures of c e n t r a l tendency  and v a r i a b i l i t y f o r words per C - u n i t f o r each data s e t .  The  f i g u r e s are based on the t o t a l number of C - u n i t s f o r each b a s a l reader and f o r the o r a l language sample. l e n g t h of the Reading 720  s e r i e s was  of c h i l d r e n ' s o r a l language by s e r i e s was  l e s s than the mean l e n g t h  .50 words; the Language P a t t e r n s  g r e a t e r than the c h i l d r e n ' s o r a l mean l e n g t h i n  the c h i l d r e n ' s language by  .09 words.  were one-word commands which were found The  The mean C - u n i t  l o n g e s t C - u n i t which was  speech - t h i s had  The  shortest C-units  i n a l l three data s e t s .  30 words appeared i n the c h i l d r e n ' s  16 more words than the l o n g e s t C - u n i t i n the  Language P a t t e r n s readers and i n the Reading 72 0 s e r i e s .  19 more than the l o n g e s t C - u n i t  5 3  T A B L E  M e a n  L e n g t h  o f  D e p e n d e n t  R e a d i n g  7 2 0  8  C l a u s e s  F o u n d  L a n g u a g e  i n  B a s a l  P a t t e r n s  X  N o u n  C l a u s e s  A d v e r b  C l a u s e s  A d j e c t i v e  C l a u s e s  R e a d e r s  D i f f e r e n c e  X  3 . 6 7  -  4 . 5  6 . 4  i n  X  . 8 3  ( n . s . )  T A B L E  M e a n  L e n g t h ,  S t a n d a r d  D e v i a t i o n s ,  R e a d e r s  a n d  9  a n d  R a n g e  C h i l d r e n ' s  o f  C - U n i t s  S p e e c h  X  s . d .  R a n g e  4 . 2 4  1 . 6 4  2 . 6 9  P a t t e r n s  4 . 8 3  2 . 0 7  4 . 3 2  C h i l d r e n  4 . 7 4  2 . 8 1  7 . 9 0  R e a d i n g  7 2 0  L a n g u a g e  F o u n d  i n  55 An a n a l y s i s of v a r i a n c e was I t was  found  d.f = 2,  run to t e s t f o r s i g n i f i c a n c e .  t h a t a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e e x i s t e d (F=12.950,  p^-.OOl).  Comparing each o f the s e r i e s t o the  oral  language, the mean C - u n i t l e n g t h i n the Reading 72 0 s e r i e s was  found to be s i g n i f i c a n t l y s h o r t e r than the C - u n i t  i n the c h i l d r e n ' s speech  (p<^.05).  No  significant differences  between the Language P a t t e r n s s e r i e s and speech was  found.  the c h i l d r e n ' s  (Table 10).  Measures of S y n t a c t i c (a)  length  Complexity  Phrases A summary of f i n d i n g s on the use of phrases i n the b a s a l s  and  i n the c h i l d r e n ' s speech i s given i n Table 11.  of v a r i a n c e was  run and  An a n a l y s i s  i t revealed that a s i g n i f i c a n t  dif-  ference e x i s t e d i n terms of the average number of phrases per C-unit  (F=33.198,  d.f = 2,  p^-.OOOl).  The  Language P a t t e r n s  s e r i e s and c h i l d r e n ' s speech were s i g n i f i c a n t l y more complex than the Reading 720  series  (p^.05).  No  significant  dif-  ferences e x i s t e d between the Language P a t t e r n s s e r i e s and  the  c h i l d r e n ' s speech.  the  Reading 720  A l s o , the r e s u l t s r e v e a l e d t h a t while  s e r i e s had  i n s t a n c e s of o n l y one  type of phrase  (the adverb phrase), both the language of the c h i l d r e n and Language P a t t e r n s s e r i e s had  i n s t a n c e s of a l l three  the  types.  A c h i - s q u a r e t e s t showed t h a t the d i s t r i b u t i o n of phrases i n the c h i l d r e n ' s speech and one o f the b a s a l s was  significantly  T A B L E  D i f f e r e n c e F o u n d  i n  B e t w e e n  L a n g u a g e  M e a n  1 0  L e n g t h  R e a d e r s  P a t t e r n s  a n d  o f  C - U n i t s C h i l d r e n  C h i l d r e n  * R e a d i n g  C h i l d r e n  *  p £ . 0 5  7 2 0  . 5 9  . 0 9  * . 5 0  57 TABLE 11 Average Number o f Phrases per C-Unit f o r B a s a l Readers & C h i l d r e n  Data Set  Number o f Cases Over T o t a l C-Units  Average Number o f Phrases per C-Unit  Noun Phrases  Reading 72 0 Language P a t t e r n s Children  1/618 1/1634  .0618 .0006  Adverb Phrases  Reading 720 Language P a t t e r n s Children  129/714 200/618 574/1634  .1807 .3236 .3513  Adjective Phrases  Reading 720 Language P a t t e r n s Children  9/618 47/1634  0146 0288  Total Phrases  Reading 72 0 Language P a t t e r n s Children  129/714 210/618 622/1634  1807 * 3398 * 3807 *  *  P Zl-05  T A B L E  C h i - S q u a r e  V a l u e s P h r a s e s  o f  C - U n i t s  f o r  t h e  C o n t a i n i n g  B a s a l s  C o n t a i n i n g  R e a d i n g  L a n g u a g e  7 2 0  P a t t e r n s  C h i l d r e n  C h i  s q u a r e  =  7 1 . 5 6 1 9 8 ,  1 2  a n d  a n d  t h e  N o t  C o n t a i n i n g  C h i l d r e n  N o t  C o n t a i n i n g  1 7 . 8  8 2 . 8  3 2 . 2  6 7 . 8  3 5 . 1  6 4 . 9  d . f  =  2 ,  p _ 1 . 0 0 0 1  59  d i f f e r e n t . (X  2  = 71.56198, d.f = 2,  P a t t e r n s s e r i e s and  p^.OOOl).  The  Language  the c h i l d r e n ' s speech c o n t a i n e d  signifi-  c a n t l y more phrases than the Reading 72 0.  Table 12 g i v e s the  chi-square v a l u e s comparing the number of C - u n i t s c o n t a i n i n g and not c o n t a i n i n g phrases i n both of the readers and  the  c h i l d r e n ' s speech. The mean l e n g t h of phrases found was  i n the three data  c a l c u l a t e d and r e p o r t e d i n Table 13.  sets  The adverb phrases  i n the Language P a t t e r n s s e r i e s were s i g n i f i c a n t l y longer the ones found series  i n the c h i l d r e n ' s speech and  (p^.,001) (Table 14).  than  the Reading 72 0  There were too few cases of noun  and a d j e c t i v e phrases to conduct a comparison.  (b)  Dependent  Clauses  Throughout the w r i t t e n and o r a l language data, there were very few cases of dependent c l a u s e s .  However, a summary of the  f i n d i n g s r e g a r d i n g the number o f d i f f e r e n t c l a u s e s and  the  average number of c l a u s e s per C - u n i t i s g i v e n i n Table  15.  There were s i g n i f i c a n t l y more c l a u s e s i n the c h i l d r e n ' s speech than  i n e i t h e r o f the b a s a l s e r i e s  l e n g t h of c l a u s e s found was  (p^.0001).  The mean  i n the readers and c h i l d r e n ' s speech  determined and presented  i n Table 16.  The adverb c l a u s e s  i n the Language P a t t e r n s s e r i e s were s i g n i f i c a n t l y longer the ones found  i n the c h i l d r e n ' s speech  (p^.001).  72 0 s e r i e s had no i n s t a n c e s of adverb c l a u s e s .  The  than  Reading  There were too  i  60  TABLE 13 Mean Length of Phrases Found i n B a s a l Readers  Reading 72 0  Language P a t t e r n s  X Noun phrases Adverb phrases A d j e c t i v e phrases  2.69  & Children's  X  Speech  Children X  2  3  3.01  2.59  2.67  2.70  61  TABLE 14 Differences  i n Mean Length o f Adverb Phrases Found i n B a s a l Readers and C h i l d r e n ' s Speech  Language P a t t e r n s  Children  * Reading 72 0  .32  .07 *  Children  * p ^.001  .25  62 TABLE 15 Average Number o f Dependent Clauses per C-Unit f o r B a s a l Readers and C h i l d r e n ' s Speech  Data Set  Number o f Cases Over T o t a l C-Units  Average Number o f Clauses per C-Unit  Noun Clauses  Reading 720 Language P a t t e r n s Children  3/714 4/618 20/1634  0042 0065 0122  Adverb Clauses  Reading 72 0 Language P a t t e r n s Children  5/618 31/1634  0081 0190  Adjective Clauses  Reading 72 0 Language P a t t e r n s Children  5/1634  0031  Total Clauses  Reading 720 Language P a t t e r n s Children  3/714 9/618 56/1634  0042 0146 0343  *  pZ.0001  * *  63 TABLE  16  Mean Length of Dependent Clauses Found i n Basal Readers and C h i l d r e n ' s Speech Reading 720 Noun Clauses  3.67  Adverb Clauses Adjective Clauses *  p l~ .001  -  Language Patterns  Children  4.5  4.2  6.4 *  4.3 3.2  Difference in _ X  2.27 *  64  few  i n s t a n c e s of a d j e c t i v e  parison  or noun c l a u s e s t o conduct a com-  of mean l e n g t h s , or t o complete a c h i - t e s t on  d i s t r i b u t i o n of dependent  THE  MAZE UNITS AND  clauses.  COMMUNICATION UNITS IN THE  CHILDREN'S SPEECH  In t h i s study, Loban*s (1963) method of segmenting flow of language i n t o two and  the maze u n i t and  b a s i c u n i t s , the communication  examining t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p , has  conducted on the c h i l d r e n ' s Due the  t o the  syntactic  f a c t that  unit been  speech.  "mazes" are o n l y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of  idiosyncrasies  of o r a l language  a comparison of the maze-communication u n i t i n the  the  readers i s i m p o s s i b l e .  (Loban, pg.  107),  relationship  Therefore', the  following  results  are only presented to p r o v i d e i n f o r m a t i o n on the o r a l p r o f i c i e n c y of the Table 17  children.  shows the measure of c e n t r a l tendency  v a r i a b i l i t y f o r words per t o t a l sample of 24 subjects). length  C - u n i t and  subjects.  (See  and  per Maze u n i t f o r  the  Appendix I f o r i n d i v i d u a l  I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note t h a t the mean C - u n i t  of 4.74  and  the mean M-unit length  of 2.40  found i n  t h i s study are q u i t e c l o s e t o those r e p o r t e d by Loban i n h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n of the (C-Unit - 4.81;  (1963)  language o f k i n d e r g a r t e n c h i l d r e n .  M-Unit - 2.58)  (pg.  28).  65  An a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e found t h a t a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e e x i s t e d between the mean l e n g t h o f C - u n i t s and M-units d.f = 1,  p Z..0001) (Table 17).  (F=177 9,  The p r o p o r t i o n o f maze  u n i t s and communication u n i t s f o r the t o t a l communication o f each s u b j e c t can be found i n Appendix J .  I t i s interesting to  note the v a r i a n c e between s u b j e c t s - f o r example, f o r s u b j e c t 1 the C - u n i t s a r e 65% o f the t o t a l u t t e r a n c e s whereas f o r s u b j e c t 23,  the C - u n i t s a r e 97.7% o f the t o t a l .  C-unit/M-unit  A comparison o f the  r e l a t i o n s h i p f o r i n d i v i d u a l s w i t h i n the p o p u l a t i o n  should r e v e a l some i n t e r e s t i n g r e s u l t s . the scope o f t h i s  study.  However, t h i s i s beyond  TABLE 17  Mean Length, Standard D e v i a t i o n and V a r i a n c e of C-Units and M-Units Found i n C h i l d r e n ' s Speech  No. o f Cases Maze Communication Difference in X  *  p ^L.oooi  Standard Deviation  Mean  Variance  670  2.40  2.02  4.08  7752  4.74  2.81  7.90  2.34  *  67 NOTES ON CHAPTER IV  1.  "Mean l e n g t h " was determined by c a l c u l a t i n g the average number o f words per u t t e r a n c e .  2.  No a n a l y s i s of maze u n i t s was conducted on e i t h e r of the b a s a l s - see Chapter I I I , page 38 f o r an explanation.  3.  An a n a l y s i s of the sequence of mean l e n g t h was an a p p r o p r i a t e measure f o r the b a s a l r e a d i n g series  4.  only.  Throughout t h i s study,  u n l e s s otherwise  stated,  the t e s t f o r s i g n i f i c a n c e used was a Student's t-test.  68  CHAPTER V RESULTS, IMPLICATIONS AND The purpose o f t h i s study was  RECOMMENDATIONS  to compare the o r a l  syntax of s e l e c t e d Canadian k i n d e r g a r t e n c h i l d r e n with w r i t t e n syntax  i n the two  beginning  the  reading s e r i e s p r e s c r i b e d  f o r use i n the schools i n B r i t i s h Columbia.  Significant  d i f f e r e n c e s were found both i n the comparison of the b a s a l readers and i n the comparison of the language of the c h i l d r e n and the b a s a l readers. Results The  i n v e s t i g a t i o n c o n s i s t e d of two  compared the syntax o f the two  parts: Part I  basal reading s e r i e s - Part II  compared the c h i l d r e n s syntax to the syntax 1  b a s a l s and presented the c h i l d r e n .  i n each of the  some r e s u l t s on the l i n g u i s t i c f l u e n c y of  Both the w r i t t e n and o r a l data were analyzed  on  the b a s i s o f l e n g t h s , f r e q u e n c i e s and d i s t r i b u t i o n s of communic a t i o n u n i t s , phrases and dependent c l a u s e s . The  f i n d i n g s of P a r t I were t h a t :  1.  In terms of communication u n i t s , the Language P a t t e r n s s e r i e s was than the Reading 720  2.  s i g n i f i c a n t l y more complex series.  In terms of complexity  (p-1.05).  of mean C-Unit  length,  no c l e a r p r o g r e s s i o n emerged f o r the Language P a t t e r n s or the Reading 72 0 s e r i e s .  69 3.  In terms o f p h r a s i n g , the Language P a t t e r n s s e r i e s was  s i g n i f i c a n t l y more complex  Reading 72 0 s e r i e s . 4.  than the  (pZ .-05) .  In terms o f dependent c l a u s e s , no  significant  d i f f e r e n c e s between the b a s a l s were found. Thus, i n answer to the r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n posed i n Chapter I r e g a r d i n g the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the syntax i n the two r e a d i n g s e r i e s , Language P a t t e r n s was  found to be more  than Reading 72 0 s e r i e s on the s y n t a c t i c f e a t u r e s  basal  complex  examined.  The f i n d i n g s of P a r t I I were t h a t : 1.  In terms o f communication of the c h i l d r e n was  u n i t s , the speech  s i g n i f i c a n t l y more  complex  than the language i n the Reading 720 s e r i e s ,  (p^.05).  No s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between the Language P a t t e r n s s e r i e s and the c h i l d r e n ' s speech were found. 2.  In terms o f p h r a s i n g , w i t h the e x c e p t i o n o f the l e n g t h o f adverb phrases, the c h i l d r e n ' s speech and the Language P a t t e r n s s e r i e s were s i g n i f i c a n t l y more complex  than the Reading 720 s e r i e s ( p ^ . 0 5 ) .  The l e n g t h of adverb phrases i n the Language P a t t e r n s s e r i e s was  s i g n i f i c a n t l y g r e a t e r than those  i n the c h i l d r e n ' s speech and the Reading 72 0 s e r i e s (p ^.001) .  70 3.  In terms of dependent c l a u s e s , with the  exception  of the l e n g t h of adverb c l a u s e s , the c h i l d r e n ' s speech was  s i g n i f i c a n t l y more complex than e i t h e r  of the b a s a l s  (p.^f.0001).  The  l e n g t h of adverb  c l a u s e s i n the Language P a t t e r n s  s e r i e s was  signi-  f i c a n t l y g r e a t e r than those i n the c h i l d r e n ' s speech and 4.  the Reading 720  s e r i e s (p<£ .001).  In terms of l e n g t h and  p r o p o r t i o n o f communication  and maze u n i t s i n the c h i l d r e n ' s speech, t h e r e i s a s i g n i f i c a n t v a r i a n c e between the s u b j e c t s Thus, t h i s  (p^.,0001).  i n v e s t i g a t i o n of the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the  i n the c h i l d r e n ' s speech and has r e v e a l e d  the syntax i n each o f the  some i n t e r e s t i n g r e s u l t s .  syntax  basals  Based on the s y n t a c t i c  measures used, f o r the most p a r t the c h i l d r e n ' s o r a l syntax found to be  s i g n i f i c a n t l y more complex than the  Reading 720  series.  and  the l e n g t h  Patterns  was  syntax i n the  Except f o r the use of dependent  clauses  of adverb phrases and c l a u s e s , the Language  s e r i e s was  found t o be c l o s e l y matched to the  syntax  of the c h i l d r e n .  I m p l i c a t i o n s and The  Recommendations  r e s u l t s o f t h i s study warrant c a r e f u l c o n s i d e r a t i o n  by those  involved  i n the c r e a t i o n and  beginning  reading basal s e r i e s .  implementation of  However, the  c a u t i o n s the reader a g a i n s t making any  researcher  definitive  conclusions  71  regarding and  the r e l a t i o n s h i p between c h i l d r e n ' s o r a l syntax  the w r i t t e n syntax i n e i t h e r of the two  s e r i e s examined  u n t i l a complete s y n t a c t i c a n a l y s i s i s conducted. As Loban (1970) suggested, i t i s the f l e x i b i l i t y w i t h i n a language p a t t e r n , not o n l y the word count, which i s an i n d i c a t o r of l i n g u i s t i c maturity, Nevertheless,  (pg.  625).  the f i n d i n g s of t h i s study i n d i c a t e t h a t  the f o l l o w i n g p o i n t s are worthy of 1.  consideration:  T h i s study found t h a t the syntax i n the Reading 720  s e r i e s was  f o r the most p a r t , d i f f e r e n t  from the c h i l d r e n ' s o r a l syntax.  The  s e r i e s s t a t e s t h a t a t t e n t i o n i s given  Reading 72 0 to a  "total  view" o f language development: . . . I n s t r u c t i o n on ways i n which language i s used i s designed to support the c h i l d ' s o v e r a l l language and reading growth. (Ginn, 1978; T14) ...There are many opport u n i t i e s f o r language-based a c t i v i t i e s throughout the t o t a l programme; the continuous i n t e n t i o n i s to r e i n f o r c e c h i l d r e n ' s understanding t h a t what we t h i n k we can say, what we speak can be w r i t t e n , what i s w r i t t e n can be read, and what i s read can be i n c o r porated i n t o our thought process. (Ginn, 1979; pg. 1). Therefore,  a c r i t i c a l e v a l u a t i o n of m a t e r i a l s  that  c l a i m t o g i v e adequate c o n s i d e r a t i o n to c h i l d r e n ' s n a t u r a l language i s necessary. 2.  In the b a s a l readers examined, there was progression  i n terms of complexity of  a lack of  syntax.  72 Curriculum developers might want to c o n s i d e r s y n t a c t i c c o n t r o l as a f a c t o r i n the c r e a t i o n o f beginning 3.  reading m a t e r i a l s .  S u b o r d i n a t i o n , a more s o p h i s t i c a t e d form o f s y n t a c t i c s t r u c t u r e , was more p r e v a l e n t i n the c h i l d r e n ' s speech than i n the b a s a l s .  Producers  of c u r r i c u l u m m a t e r i a l s  might want to c o n s i d e r i n c l u d i n g more i n s t a n c e s of d i f f e r e n t types of dependent c l a u s e s i n beginning reading m a t e r i a l s . 4.  A tremendous v a r i a n c e i n l i n g u i s t i c p r o f i c i e n c y between s u b j e c t s was  revealed.  Educators  be aware of the l i n g u i s t i c a b i l i t i e s of  need to students  and the l i n g u i s t i c content of b a s a l r e a d i n g  series.  I t i s q u i t e p o s s i b l e t h a t c e r t a i n b a s a l s would be more a p p r o p r i a t e f o r c e r t a i n 5.  students.  Anyone u s i n g these r e a d i n g s e r i e s should be aware of  the d i f f e r e n c e s t h a t were found  complexity  between the two  b a s a l s and between the  b a s a l s and the c h i l d r e n ' s speech. r e a d i n g s e r i e s may  6.  the  These  beginning  need to be supplemented w i t h  materials that r e f l e c t of  i n the s y n t a c t i c  the l i n g u i s t i c  sophistication  children.  Teachers should be aware of the syntax i n the b a s a l s e r i e s .  I t may  t h a t appears  be necessary  to  orally  73  pre-teach some o f the s y n t a c t i c p a t t e r n s to enable c h i l d r e n who a r e e x p e r i e n c i n g d i f f i c u l t y to make the connection between t h e i r  linguistic  knowledge and the language i n the t e x t s .  Recommendations f o r F u r t h e r Research For f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h , the f o l l o w i n g recommendations are made: 1.  To p r o v i d e a more comprehensive e v a l u a t i o n o f syntax, a content a n a l y s i s o f the s y n t a c t i c p a t t e r n s i n these t h r e e data s e t s should be conducted.  2.  To p r o v i d e a broader  l i n g u i s t i c comparison, ah  a n a l y s i s o f the vocabulary  i n the samples o f  w r i t t e n and o r a l language used i n t h i s study be 3.  should  undertaken.  To e v a l u a t e the l i n g u i s t i c competencies of the c h i l d r e n , a comparison o f each i n d i v i d u a l i n the t h r e e t a p i n g s i t u a t i o n s i s recommended.  The sex,  language and academic achievement o f each s u b j e c t should be taken  4 .  into  account.  To determine whether or not c e r t a i n r e a d i n g m a t e r i a l s are more a p p r o p r i a t e f o r c e r t a i n students, the  74  s e l e c t e d b a s a l s should be t r i e d out linguistically different  children.  on  75  APPENDICES  76  APPENDIX A LIST OF MATERIALS NEEDED  Taping  Equipment  3 FM microphones  3 p o r t a b l e FM r e c e i v e r - a u d i o t a p e r e c o r d e r u n i t s  Storytelling  Session  P i c t u r e books  Interview  (Ladybird Talk About books a r e v e r y s u i t a b l e . For example: T a l k About THE BEACH, CLOTHES, BEDTIME)  Session  Large p i c t u r e s o f animals which c o n t a i n a l o t o f a c t i v i t y . L i v e animal(s)  - p r e f e r a b l y a p e t they haven't been exposed to b e f o r e . e.g. 3 newts were used  APPENDIX B SAMPLE INTERVIEW QUESTIONS Discussion - Verbal Stimuli Have you ever been to the Richmond Nature or t o the zoo?  Park,  What d i d you see there? T e l l us about How  d i d the  eat?  What d i d you eat f o r b r e a k f a s t t h i s morning? What do you t h i n k the  eats f o r breakfast?  Do you have a pet? T e l l me  about your  pet.  I f you c o u l d have any pet, what would you choose - Why? . Discussion - Visual  Stimuli  C h i l d r e n were shown c h a r t - s i z e action-packed p i c t u r e s of animals and asked a number of open-ended q u e s t i o n s "What do you see happening i n t h i s p i c t u r e ? Can you d e s c r i b e what  i - doing? s  T e l l us about the shape/colour...of t h i s  animal.  What do you t h i n k i t eats? What do you t h i n k happened j u s t before t h i s p i c t u r e was What do you t h i n k i s going t o happen next?" I. D i s c u s s i o n - V i s u a l & T a c t i l e  Stimuli  Three newts i n a tank were presented to the c h i l d r e n . They were not f a m i l i a r w i t h t h i s c r e a t u r e but were v e r y eager to ask q u e s t i o n s , and t o watch and to handle the newts. A number of q u e s t i o n s were asked t o s t i m u l a t e conversation -  taken  78  What do you t h i n k these animals are? What animal do they remind you o f ? Can you t e l l  us what you see t h a t newt i s doing r i g h t now?  F e e l the newt.  How does i t f e e l ?  T e l l us what they look l i k e  (.../eat/shape/colour)  What do you t h i n k t h e newt w i l l do next? Why have the newts got both a wet spot a d r y spot (rocks) i n t h e i r home? Which spot do they seem t o l i k e b e t t e r ?  (pool) and How do you know?  79  APPENDIX C GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR II  General remarks on how 1.  to i n t e r a c t with the  Encourage v e r b a l output (i)  Ask  explanations  (ii)  Avoid q u e s t i o n s t h a t permit yes or no answers  Be e s p e c i a l l y s e n s i t i v e to l e v e l s of g e n e r a l i t y and p r e s u p p o s i t i o n s you might have i n forming your q u e s t i o n s and what might be i m p l i e d by them. a)  Use the most g e n e r a l phrases w i t h the fewest s u p p o s i t i o n s . Only i f the c h i l d has t r o u b l e c o n n e c t i n g , become more s p e c i f i c . For example: What w i l l happen? v s . How v s . Which way w i l l i t go?  b)  Ill  child  Maximize the number of usable e x p r e s s i v e a c t s , a)  4.  INTERVIEWS  w i l l i t go?  Pay s p e c i a l a t t e n t i o n to what i m p l i c a t i o n s your q u e s t i o n s might have i n l i g h t of your p r e s u p p o s i t i o n s .  Miscellaneous 1.  Focus your a t t e n t i o n on the c h i l d a t a l l times. Avoid g e t t i n g too i n v o l v e d i n the c h i l d ' s r e a c t i o n s to your q u e s t i o n ; i . e . , m a i n t a i n a l i t t l e b i t o f reserve. A l s o a v o i d s i t u a t i o n s t h a t would focus the c h i l d ' s a t t e n t i o n on you, thereby d i s t u r b i n g the task c o n t e x t .  2.  Be sure q u e s t i o n s are a b s o l u t e l y c l e a r . C l e a r up any u n c l e a r statements of the c h i l d . I f necessary, ask him t o repeat h i m s e l f again. Adapted from: Klaus G. Witz and David R. Goodwin J u l y 20, 1970  30 APPENDIX D SCHEDULE FOR DATA COLLECTION  School  Class  oup  Subjects  Mode  A  A.M.  1 2 1 2 1 2 3 4 3 4 3 4  1,2,3 4,5,6 1,2,3 4,5,6 1,2,3 4,5,6 7,8,9 10,11,12 7,8,9 10,11,12 7,8,9 10,11,12  A A B B C C A A B B C C  1 2 1 2 1 2 3 4 3 4 3 4  1,2,3, 4,5,6 1,2,3 4,5,6 1,2,3 4,5,6 7,8,9 10,11,12 7,8,9 10,11,12 7,8,9 10,11,12  A A B B C C A A B B C C  1 2 1 2 1 2 3 4 3 4 3 4  1,2,3 4,5,6 1,2,3 4,5,6 1,2,3 4,5,6 7,8,9 10,11,12 7,8,9 10,11,12 7,8,9 10,11,12  A A B B C C A A B B C C  P.M.  B  A.M.  P.M.  A.M.  N = 36  LEGEND School A B C  Kingswood Errington Garden C i t y  Mode A - Free P l a y Session B - S t o r y t e l l i n g Session C'- Interview Session  * NOTE: Oversampling was conducted. Only tapes from e i g h t s u b j e c t s i n each school were used f o r the a n a l y s i s .  31 APPENDIX E DIRECTIONS FOR ANALYZING TRANSCRIPTS Segmentation Communication U n i t - C - u n i t s - i n d i c a t e by a s l a n t e d p e n c i l line / / Maze U n i t s  - M-units  - i n d i c a t e by r e d b r a c k e t s  Examples:  I c a n ' t / | I can't}).... I am going t o s i n g / . . . No he d i d n ' t / ( l am going t o sing})...Au Yea,  (Yea) s u r e / . . . T h i s s i d e / ( t h i s  )  Revoir/  side)....  What are you going/(Oow) She's burning her eyes/ You're b i t i n g  II  Phrases  me/  (excluding verb phrases)  - above each phrase  Clauses -  - u n d e r l i n e twice w i t h a blue p e n c i l and c i r c l e word i n phrase  p r i n t the type  (noun, adverb, a d j e c t i v e )  enclose i n blue p a r e n t h e s i s and c i r c l e in clause above each c l a u s e p r i n t the type  Examples:  first  f i r s t word  (noun, adverb, adj.)  (adv.) They want(to)get out a g a i n / ulv.)  :fj you want out again)  I w i l l take you out a g a i n /  I caught one before you know/  i  APPENDIX F I.  DIRECTIONS FOR  82,  CODING TRANSCRIPTS  The t r a n s c r i p t s were coded so the computer c o u l d produce the necessary summary s t a t i s t i c s on the amount, and frequency of d i f f e r e n t types of u t t e r a n c e s . To f a c i l i t a t e t h i s a n a l y s i s , s p e c i a l i z e d programmes were w r i t t e n f o r the data before the SPSS C r o s s t a b s programme c o u l d be used. (See Appendix H f o r , a sample transcript') . Using coding groups o f 6 d i g i t s - the f o l l o w i n g l e v e l s of a n a l y s i s are to be conducted: Level I  - Write coding group i n b l u e pen above the f i r s t word a t the beginning o f each u t t e r a n c e . 1.  Code a l l u t t e r a n c e s as e i t h e r : Maze U n i t  (M-Unit) - "01"  Communication U n i t  2.  ( i n d i c a t e d by r e d brackets)  (C-Unit) - "02"  ( i n d i c a t e d by p e n c i l slashes)  Code the number o f words i n each of these u n i t s (4 d i g i t s ) e.g. -  A M-Unit w i t h 2 0 words would be coded as "010020" A C-Unit with 11 words would be coded as "020011"  * L e v e l I I - 1.  Underneath L e v e l I, code i n p e n c i l the type of phrase ( i n d i c a t e d by two blue l i n e s underneath phrase) / dependent c l a u s e ( i n d i c a t e d by b l u e p a r e n t h e s i s ) a c c o r d i n g t o the f o l l o w i n g l i s t : 13 14 15 16 17 18  *  -  noun phrase adverb phrase a d j e c t i v e phrase noun c l a u s e adverb c l a u s e adjective clause  L e v e l I I a n a l y s i s w i l l not be conducted on every communication unit. For example, i n the case of a simple sentence w i t h no phrases or c l a u s e s , o n l y L e v e l I and L e v e l I I I a n a l y s i s w i l l be computed.  33  2.  Code the number o f words i n each p h r a s e / c l a u s e e.g. - A noun c l a u s e w i t h 4 words would coded as "160004"  be  L e v e l I I I - Under L e v e l 1 & I I , code i n r e d pen each words i n the u t t e r a n c e a c c o r d i n g to type and number per vocabulary l i s t . (Be sure and code the word as i t i s used i n the sentence - f o r example, "no" i s not o n l y an a d j e c t i v e but an adverb and a noun). Use the f o l l o w i n g l i s t f o r the type o f word and r e f e r t o the v o c a b u l a r y l it (Appendix. G) f o r the words l i s t i n g : 03 04 05 06 07  -  e.g.  noun verb adjective adverb pronoun The adverb " r i g h t 06 adv.  II.  08 09 10 11 12  -  connective article preposition interjection contraction  would be coded as  0098l i s t e d as " 93 " on the adverb  list  D i r e c t i o n s f o r P r e p a r i n g Data f o r Keypunching Enter the numbers onto the F o r t r a n c o d i n g sheets f o l l o w i n g the order of the words on the t r a n s c r i p t s . Level I i s r e c o r d i n g f i r s t then a l l of i t s p a r t s - L e v e l I I phrases and c l a u s e s ( i f a p p l i c a b l e ) and L e v e l I I - each word i n the u t t e r a n c e . For example the f o l l o w i n g language sample from s u b j e c t 13 would be coded on the sheet i n the f o l l o w i n g manner:  84 \Hooo3 0^0003 The tMo©o3  driver 0^0003 the  o a. 0003 010O1 s  We  sits 03 o44g left/  OH0SI<j|  just  I0po\<j 0^0003 (on) the  turned/  O70O13 I  cWooo \ am  oaooos 03oUS9 oHooot right/ Am  oqoo 03 the  010013 I  driver/  OIOO03 (we  just  turned j  020006 090003 030251 040424 140003 100019 090003 030659 040001 0700013 140003 100019 090003 030448 020004  070013  040001 090003 030251 020003 070028 060045 040519 010003 060045  040519  020005  070028  APPENDIX G CUMULATIVE VOCABULARY L I S T  N O U N S  ( A )  ( B )  A a r o n  0 3 0 0 0 1  b a b o o n  0 3 0 0 2 4  A c o r n s  0 3 0 0 0 2  B a b s  0 3 0 0 2 5  a d v e n t u r e  0 3 0 0 0 3  b a b i e s  0 3 0 0 2 6  A f r i c a  0 3 0 0 0 4  b a b y  0 3 0 0 2 7  a i r p o r t  0 3 0 0 0 5  b a c k  0 3 0 0 2 8  A l a n  0 3 0 0 0 6  b a c k s  0 3 0 9 0 3  A l l o u e t t a  0 3 0 0 0 7  b a g  0 3 0 0 2 9  A m a n d a  0 3 0 0 0 8  b a g s  0 3 0 0 3 0  A m e r i c a  0 3 0 0 0 9  b a l l  0 3 0 0 3 1  A n d y  0 3 0 0 1 0  b a l l o o n  0 3 0 0 3 2  A n t h o n y  0 3 0 0 1 1  b a l l o o n s  0 3 0 0 3 3  a n i m a l  0 3 0 0 1 2  b a l l s  0 3 0 0 3 4  a n i m a l s  0 3 0 0 1 3  b a n a n a  0 3 0 0 3 5  A n n  0 3 0 0 1 4  b a n d  0 3 0 0 3 6  A n n a  0 3 0 0 1 5  b a n d s t a n d  0 3 0 0 3 7  a n s w e r  0 3 0 0 1 6  b a n g  0 3 0 0 3 8  a n t  0 3 0 0 1 7  b a n k  0 3 0 0 3 9  a n t s  0 3 0 0 1 8  b a n k s  0 3 0 0 4 0  a p p l e  0 3 0 0 1 9  b a r k  0 3 0 0 4 1  a r m  0 3 0 0 2 0  b a r n  0 3 0 0 4 2  a r m s  0 3 0 0 2 1  b a s e m e n t  0 3 0 0 4 3  a q u a r i u m  0 3 0 0 2 2  b a s k e t  0 3 0 0 4 4  a t t i c  0 3 0 0 2 3  b a s s  0 3 0 0 4 5  a p p l e s  0 3 0 8 9 7  b a t  0 3 0 0 4 6  Nouns C o n t d !  (B)  bath  0 3 0 0 4 7  bits  0 3 0 0 7 2  batteries  0 3 0 0 4 8  blackbird  0 3 0 0 7 3  beach  0 3 0 0 4 9  Black hen  0 3 0 0 7 4  beak  0 3 0 0 5 0  blanket  0 3 0 0 7 5  beanbag  0 3 0 0 5 1  blankets  0 3 0 0 7 6  beard  0 3 0 0 5 2  block  0 3 0 0 7 7  bears  0 3 0 0 5 3  blood  0 3 0 0 7 8  beaver  0 3 0 0 5 4  board  0 3 0 0 7 9  beavers  0 3 0 9 4 6  boat  0 3 0 9 4 5  bed  0 3 0 0 5 5  Bob  0 3 0 0 8 0  bee  0 3 0 0 5 6  Bobbie  0 3 0 0 8 1  beer  0 3 0 0 5 7  body  0 3 0 0 8 2  belt  0 3 0 0 5 8  bolts  0 3 0 0 8 3  bell  0 3 0 8 7 6  bone  0 3 0 9 0 5  Ben  0 3 0 0 5 9  bones  0 3 0 0 8 4  Benny  0 3 0 0 6 0  bonnet  0 3 0 0 8 5  Beth  0 3 0 0 6 1  book  0 3 0 0 8 6  Bett  0 3 0 0 6 2  books  0 3 0 0 8 7  Bill  0 3 0 0 6 3  boots  0 3 0 0 8 8  Billy  0 3 0 0 6 4  bottle  0 3 0 0 8 9  bike  0 3 0 0 6 5  bottles  0 3 0 0 9 0  birch  0 3 0 0 6 6  bottom  0 3 0 0 9 1  bird  0 3 0 0 6 7  bow  0 3 0 0 9 2  birds  0 3 0 0 6 8  bows  0 3 0 0 9 3  birthday  0 3 0 0 6 9  bow-wow  0 3 0 0 9 4  birthdays  0 3 0 0 7 0  box  0 3 0 0 9 5  bit  0 3 0 0 7 1  boxes  0 3 0 0 9 6  N o u n s  C o n t ' d  ( B )  b o y  0 3 0 0 9 7  b u m p  0 3 0 1 2 2  b o y s  0 3 0 0 9 8  b u m p s  0 3 0 8 9 0  B o z o  0 3 0 0 9 9  b u n d l e  0 3 0 1 2 3  b r a i n  0 3 0 1 0 0  b u n n y  0 3 0 1 2 4  0 3 0 1 0 1  b u n s  0 3 0 1 2 5  b r a n c h e s  0 3 0 1 0 2  b u s  0 3 0 1 2 6  b r a s s  0 3 0 1 0 3  b u s s t o p  0 3 0 1 2 7  b r e a d  0 3 0 1 0 4  b u s t i c k e t  0 3 0 1 2 8  b r e a k f a s t  0 3 0 1 0 5  b u t t e r f l y  0 3 0 1 2 9  B r e n d a  0 3 0 1 0 6  b u t t o n  0 3 0 1 3 0  B r e n t  0 3 0 1 0 7  b u t t o n s  0 3 0 1 3 1  b r i c k s  0 3 0 1 0 8  b r i d g e  0 3 0 1 0 9  b r o t h e r  0 3 0 9 5 0  b r u s h  0 3 0 1 1 0  c a b i n  b u b b l e  0 3 0 1 1 1  c a c t u s  b u b b l e b a t h  0 3 0 1 1 2  c a g e  0 3 0 1 3 4  b u b b l e g u m  0 3 0 1 1 3  c a k e  0 3 0 1 3 5  b u b b l e s  0 3 0 1 1 4  c a l f  0 3 0 1 3 6  b u c k e d  0 3 0 1 1 5  C a m  0 3 0 1 3 7  b u d  0 3 0 1 1 6  C a m e l  0 3 0 1 3 8  b u d s  0 3 0 9 3 4  c a m p  0 3 0 1 3 9  b u g  0 3 0 1 1 7  c a n d y  0 3 0 1 4 0  b u g s  0 3 0 1 1 8  c a n  0 3 0 1 4 1  0 3 0 1 1 9  c a n s  0 3 0 1 4 2  b u i l d i n g  0 3 0 1 2 0  c a p  0 3 0 1 4 3  b u i l d i n g s  0 3 0 1 2 1  c a r  0 3 0 1 4 4  b r a i n s  B u g s y  •  P a p e r  ( C )  0 3 0 1 3 2  p l a n t  0 3 0 1 3 3  N o u n s  C o n t ' d  (C)  c a r d  0 3 0 1 4 5  c h i n  0 3 0 1 7 1  c a r e  0 3 0 9 2 0  C h u c k  0 3 0 3 7 0  C a r l O  0 3 0 1 4 6  c h u c k l e  0 3 0 9 2 2  C a r r o t s  0 3 0 1 4 7  c h u c k w a g o n  0 3 0 1 7 2  c a r r o t , .  0 3 0 1 4 8  c i r c l e  0 3 0 1 7 3  c a r s  0 3 0 1 5 0  c i t y  0 3 0 1 7 4  c a s e  0 3 0 1 5 1  c l a p  0 3 0 8 9 3  c a t  0 3 0 1 5 2  c l e a n e r s  0 3 0 1 7 5  c a t e r p i l l a r  0 3 0 1 5 3  c l e r k  0 3 0 1 7 6  C a t h y  0 3 0 1 5 4  c l i c k  0 3 0 1 7 7  c a v e  0 3 0 1 5 5  c l i n i c  0 3 0 1 7 8  c a v i t i e s  0 3 0 1 5 6  c l o c k  0 3 0 1 7 9  C . B .  0 3 0 1 5 7  c l o c k s  0 3 0 1 8 0  c e l e r y  0 3 0 1 5 8  c l o s e t  0 3 0 1 8 1  c e n t r e  0 3 0 1 5 9  c l o t h  0 3 0 1 8 2  c e r e a l  0 3 0 1 6 0  c l o t h e s  0 3 0 2 1 3  c h a i r  0 3 0 1 6 1  c l o t h i n g  0 3 0 1 8 3  C h a m p  0 3 0 1 6 2  c l o w n  0 3 0 1 8 4  c h a p s  0 3 0 1 6 3  c l o w n s  0 3 0 1 8 5  c h e e k  0 3 0 1 6 4  c o a t  0 3 0 1 8 6  c h e e r s  0 3 0 1 6 5  c o b w e b s  0 3 0 1 8 8  c h i c k e n  0 3 0 1 6 6  c o f f e e  0 3 0 1 8 9  c h i c k s  0 3 0 1 6 7  c o f f e e c a k e  0 3 0 1 9 0  c h i l d r e n  0 3 0 1 6 8  c o l d  0 3 0 2 1 4  c h i l d  0 3 0 1 6 9  c o l o u r  0 3 0 1 9 1  c h i l l  0 3 0 1 7 0  c o m i c s  0 3 0 1 9 2  C l i f f  N o u n s  ( C o n t ' d )  ( C )  D u c k l i n g  0 3 0 2 1 6  c o n e s  0 3 0 1 9 3  D a f f y  c o n t e s t  0 3 0 1 9 4  d a m  0 3 0 2 5 8  c o p s  0 3 0 2 1 2  D a n  0 3 0 2 1 7  c o r n e r  0 3 0 1 9 5  d a n d y  0 3 0 2 1 8  c o t  0 3 0 1 9 6  d a n g e r  0 3 0 2 1 9  c o u n t r y  0 3 0 1 9 7  D a n n y  0 3 0 2 2 0  c o w  0 3 0 1 9 8  d a r l i n g  0 3 0 2 2 1  c o w s  0 3 0 1 9 9  D a v i d  0 3 0 2 2 2  c r a b s  0 3 0 2 0 0  d a y  0 3 0 2 2 3  c r a c k e r  0 3 0 2 0 1  d a y s  0 3 0 9 3 3  c r a c k e r s  0 3 0 2 0 2  d e e r  0 3 0 2 5 5  C r a i g  0 3 0 2 0 3  d e e r s  0 3 0 2 5 9  c r a s h  0 3 0 2 0 4  d e l i v e r y  0 3 0 2 2 4  c r a y o n s  0 3 0 2 0 7  d e n  0 3 0 2 2 5  c r i c k e t  0 3 0 2 0 5  d e n t i s t  0 3 0 2 2 6  c r o c o d i l e  0 3 0 2 0 6  d e s k  0 3 0 2 2 7  c r o w n  0 3 0 2 0 8  D e s m o n d  c r o w d  0 3 0 8 7 7  d i a p e r s  0 3 0 2 2 9  c r u n c h  0 3 0 9 2 8  d i e t  0 3 0 2 5 3  c u p  0 3 0 2 0 9  D i m i t y  0 3 0 2 3 0  c u p c a k e  0 3 0 2 1 0  d i n g - d o n g  0 3 0 2 3 1  c u r l y  0 3 0 9 2 3  d i s h  0 3 0 2 3 2  c u s h i o n  0 3 0 2 1 1  d i s h e s  0 3 0 2 3 3  d d t c h e s  0 3 0 2 5 7  D r a g o n  0 3 0 2 2 8  (D)  d a d  0 3 0 2 1 5  d o c k  0 3 0 2 3 4  d a d d y  0 3 0 2 6 0  d o c t o r  0 3 0 2 3 5  N o u n s  C o n t ' d  (D)  d o g  0 3 0 2 3 6  e g g s  0 3 0 2 6 4  d o g g i e  0 3 0 2 3 7  e l e p h a n t  0 3 0 2 6 5  d o g g i e s  0 3 0 2 6 1  e l e p h a n t s  0 3 0 2 7 5  d o g s  0 3 0 2 3 8  e l f  0 3 0 2 6 6  d o l l  0 3 0 2 3 9  e l v e s  0 3 0 2 6 7  D o n  0 3 0 2 4 0  E m i l y  0 3 0 2 6 8  d o o r  0 3 0 2 4 1  e n d  0 3 0 2 6 9  d o z e n  0 3 0 2 5 4  e n g i n e  0 3 0 2 7 1  d r a g o n  0 3 0 2 4 2  E r i c  0 3 0 2 7 0  d r e a m s  0 3 0 2 5 2  e v e r y b o d y  0 3 0 9 4 8  d r e s s  0 3 0 2 4 3  e v e r y t h i n g  0 3 0 2 7 4  0 3 0 2 4 4  e y e s  0 3 0 2 7 1  d r u g  s t o r e  d r i n k  0 3 0 9 0 8  d r i n k s  0 3 0 9 3 0  d r i v e r  0 3 0 2 5 1  f a c e  0 3 0 2 7 6  d r u m  0 3 0 2 4 5  f a i r y  0 3 0 2 7 7  d r u m s t i c k  0 3 0 9 0 2  f a m i l y  0 3 0 2 7 8  d u c k  0 3 0 2 4 6  f a r -  0 3 0 3 0 0  d u c k l i n g  0 3 0 2 4 7  f a r m y a r d  0 3 0 9 2 6  d u c k s  0 3 0 2 4 8  f a r m e r  0 3 0 2 7 9  0 3 0 2 4 9  f a t h e r  0 3 0 3 0 4  0 3 0 2 5 0  f e e t  0 3 0 2 8 0  f i e l d  0 3 0 2 8 1  d u m p  t r u c k  d u s t  ( E )  ( F )  e a r n i n g s  0 3 0 2 7 2  f i g h t e r  0 3 0 2 8 2  e a r s  0 3 0 2 6 2  f i n s  0 3 0 2 8 3  e d g e  0 3 0 9 5 4  f i r e  0 3 0 2 8 4  e g g  0 3 0 2 6 3  f i r e f i g h t i n g  0 3 0 2 8 5  N o u n s  C o n t ' d  ( F )  f i r e m a n  0 3 0 3 0 7  f i s h  0 3 0 2 8 6  G a i l  0 3 0 3 1 3  f i s h e r m a n  0 3 0 3 0 6  g a l l o n  0 3 0 3 4 2  f l a g  0 3 0 2 8 7  g a m e  0 3 0 3 1 4  f l a p  0 3 0 8 8 2  g a n g  0 3 0 3 1 5  f l a p j a c k s  0 3 0 2 8 8  g a s  0 3 0 3 1 6  f l a s h l i g h t  0 3 0 2 8 9  g e a r  0 3 0 3 4 0  F l o r e n c e  0 3 0 3 0 1  g e e s e  0 3 0 3 5 2  f l y  0 3 0 8 8 1  G e o r g i e  0 3 0 3 1 7  f o i l  0 3 0 3 1 0  G e r m a n  f o o t  0 3 0 9 0 0  g e r m s  0 3 0 3 5 0  f o o d  0 3 0 2 9 0  g i f t  0 3 0 3 1 8  f o r e s t  0 3 0 2 9 1  g i l l s  0 3 0 3 4 6  f o x  0 3 0 2 9 3  g i n d e r b r e a d  0 3 0 3 1 9  f o x e s  0 3 0 3 1 1  g i r a f f e  0 3 0 3 4 9  F r e c k l e s  0 3 0 2 9 3  g i r l  0 3 0 3 2 0  F r e d  0 3 0 2 9 4  g i r l s  0 3 0 3 2 1  F r i d a y s  0 3 0 3 0 8  g l a s s  0 3 0 3 2 1  f r i e n d  0 3 0 9 0 3  g l a s s e s  0 3 0 3 2 2  f r d l l s  0 3 0 2 9 5  g o a t  0 3 0 3 2 3  f r o g  0 3 0 2 9 6  g o a t s  0 3 0 3 2 4  f r o g g y  0 3 0 3 0 9  g o l d f i s h  0 3 0 3 2 5  f r o g s  0 3 0 3 1 2  g o i n g  0 3 0 9 0 1  f r o n t  0 3 0 2 9 7  g o n g s  0 3 0 3 2 6  f r o s t  0 3 0 2 9 8  g o o d - b y e  0 3 0 3 2 7  f r o w n  0 3 0 2 9 9  g o w n  0 3 0 3 2 8  F r o g  (G)  S h e p a r d  0 3 0 3 4 5  Nouns Cont'd  (G)  Grade One  0 3 0 3 4 1  hanky  0 3 0 3 5 9  Granddad  0 3 0 3 4 3  hat  0 3 0 3 6 0  Grandma  0 3 0 3 2 9  head  0 3 0 3 7 8  Grandpa  0 3 0 3 3 0  heart  0 3 0 3 7 9  glass  0 3 0 3 3 1  helicopter  0 3 0 3 6 1  gravel  0 3 0 3 3 2  help  0 3 0 9 3 5  Green Team  0 3 0 3 3 3  hen  0 3 0 3 6 2  grin  0 3 0 8 9 8  Henry  0 3 0 3 6 3  groups  0 3 0 3 5 1  hens  0 3 0 3 6 4  Griff  0 3 0 3 3 4  hero  0 3 0 3 7 7  gun  0 3 0 3 3 8  hill  0 3 0 3 6 5  guppies  0 3 0 3 3 4  hills  0 3 0 8 8 9  G u r j e r t .'  0 3 0 3 4 8  hillside  0 3 0 9 3 8  Gus  0 3 0 3 3 6  hippopotamus  0 3 0 3 8 0  gusts  0 3 0 3 3 7  hockey  0 3 0 3 6 6  guy  0 3 0 3 4 4  hog  0 3 0 3 6 7  guys  0 3 0 3 3 9  hole  0 3 0 3 6 8  home  0 3 0 3 6 9  homes  0 3 0 3 7 0  (H) habit  0 3 0 3 5 3  hotdogs  0 3 0 3 7 1  hair  0 3 0 3 7 5  house  0 3 0 3 7 2  ham  0 3 0 3 5 4  humps  0 3 0 3 7 3  hamburgers  0 3 0 3 5 5  hut  0 3 0 3 7 4  hand  0 3 0 3 5 6  handle  0 3 0 3 5 7  hands  0 3 0 3 5 8  (I)  icecream  0 3 0 3 8 1  Nouns Cont'd (I) idea  030385  jobs  030404  inch  030382  joke  030405  India  030386  juice  030407  inside  030383  jump  030915  Isabel  030384  junk  030406  (J)  (K)  jacket  030387  jack-in-thebox  030388  jacks  030389  jam  030390  James  030391  Jan  030392  Jane  030393  Japan  030394  Jarrett  030394  Jason  030408  Jed  030396  Jeff  030397  Jennifer  030398  Jerry  030399  Jet  ,030400  Jill  030401  Jim  030402  job  030403  Kate  030409  Kay  030410  Ken  030411  kennels  030412  key  030413  keys  030414  kid  030425  kids  030426  Kim  030415  kindergarten  030424  king  030416  Kip  030417  Kirsten  030418  Kirshy  030 419  kit  030420  K i t Cat  030888  kitten  030421  kittens  030422  Kool-Aid  03042 7  Nouns Cont'd (L) Lad  030941  log  030443  lady  030450  logs  030444  lake  030449  lollipops  030445  lampshade  030428  look  030453  land  030429  Louise  030454  leaf  030430  lumber  030446  leaves  030451  lunch  030447  left  030448  leg  030431  (M)  legs  030432  Ma-a-a  030456  lid  030433  Mac  030457  lids  030434  MacDonald  030866  light  030435  machine  030458  Linda  030436  machines  030459  line  030437  Mag da  030460  lion  030438  magic  030461  lips  030439  man  030462  liquid  030905  Mandy  030513  lists  030440  map  030463  L i t t l e Town  03092  maple  030464  L i t t l e Red Hen  030441  mark  030510  Liz  030442  Mark  030508  lizard  030452  market  030465  lizards  030455  mash  030887  Nouns Cont'd (M) mast  030466  mitt  030486  mat  030467  mitts  030487  Matt  030468  Molly  030488  Mayor  030469  Mom  030489  meal  030470  Mom  meat  030471  money  030507  men  030472  monkey  030518  meow  030473  monkeys  030521  mess  030474  monster  030490  metal  030475  monsters  030491  mice  030514  month  030492  Mickey  030515  mop  030493  microphone  030511  morning  030494  miles  030509  motel  030412  mike  030477  moth  030495  milk  030476  mother  030496  M i l k y Way  030478  Mother Duck  030943  mill  030479  Mother Rabbit  030944  minute  030480  motor  030506  minutes  030481  mouse  030497  mirror  030482  mouth  030516  Miss  030483  Mr.  030498  Miss Perez  030942  Mr. Black  030499  Miss Smith  030484  Mr. Frog  030517  Miss  030485  Mr. McTavish  030910  Stephen  Frog  030891  Nouns Cont'd  (M)  Mrs.  Cliff  030501  'number 4'  030905  Mrs.  Grundy  030502  nut  030872  Mrs.  McTavish  030503  nuts  030535  Mrs.  Shower  030519  nothing  030536  Mrs.  Trowers  030520  nobody  030537  mud  030504  mummy  03050 5  (0)  mumps  030873  oak  030538  obstacles  030546  octopus  030545  (N) name  030522  Olga  030539  names  030523  one  030544  Nan  030524  ones  030548  nap  030525  Ontario  030542  naps  030526  orange  030540  Nat  030867  other  030547  neck  030527  outside  030541  needle  030528  owl  030543  nest  030874  nests  030529  (P)  newspaper  030530  pad  030549  newt  030949  page s  030616  Nick  030531  pal  030550  night  030532  Pam  030551  nighttime  030 865  pancakes  030605  Norman  030533  pans  030552  nose  030534  pants  030553  Nouns C o n t ' d  (P)  paper  030615  pictures  030622  park  030554  piece  030601  parrot  030555  pig  030576  parrots  030556  pigeons  030577  part  030557  piggie  030578  parts  030558  p i g g y bank  030579  party  030559  pigs  030910  pasture  030611  pill  030580  Pat  030560  pin  030581  path  030561  Pine  030581  peanuts  030562  Pine's  030583  pellets  030563  pizza  pen  030564  place  030620  pen  030565  places  030604  pennies  030566  planes  030585  Penny  030567  planet  030586  penguins  030618  plank  030587  people  030568  plant  030588  pepper  030609  plan  030939  Petez  030569  plate  030614  pet  030570  plastic  030619  Pete  030571  plates  030610  Peter  030572  playground  030606  pets  030572  police  030603  picnic  030574  pond  030592  picture  030575  pollywogs  030621  Hut  030584  Nouns Cont'd (P) pool  030617  rain  030630  popcorn  030593  raincoat  030662  popsicles  030594  ranch  030631  porcupine  030612  Randy  030632  porridge  030608  rat  030633  pot  030595  rats  030634  puck  030597  Raymond  030635  pub  030602  Red Hen  030892  pumps  030924  ribbon  030636  puppet  030598  ribbons  030637  puppies  030599  Rick Rat  030638  ride  030639  rides  030944  ring  030640  right  030659  rink  030641  (Q) question  030623  (R) rabbit  030624  river  030642  rabbits  030625  road  030643  race  030665  Robby Robin  030644  races  030667  robbers  030645  raccoon  030626  robin  030646  raccoons  030627  robot  030661  radio  030664  rock  030649  raft  030628  rocket  030650  030629  rockets  030651  rag  doll  100 Nouns Cont'd  (R)  rocks  030652  seals  030683  rod  030653  seat  030684  Ron  030654  secret  030684  Ron's Rabbit  030655  seeds  room  030663  sentence  030687  row  030660  shade  030688  Rudy  030656  sheep  030689  rug  030657  shelf  030690  Rusty Fox  030658  shells  030691  sherry  030692  ship  030693  (S)  >;  030686  sack  030669  shoes  030694  saddle  030670  shore  030695  sailboats  030671  shoulder  030696  sale  030672  shower  030697  salt  030673  shop  030698  Sam  030674  side  030699  sand  030675  sight  030700  Sandra  030676  sign  030701  sandwich  030677  signs  030702  sandwiches  030678  step  030940  Saturday  030679  songs  030927  scamp  030680  Silky  030919  scarf  030681  sister  030703  scissors  030682  skin  030704  Nouns Cont'd (S) skunk  030705  stick  030732  sky  030706  sticks  030733  sky  030706  store  030734  sled  030707  stories  030735  sleep  030708  story  030736  slide  030709  stairs  030953  slippers  030710  sounds  030936  snack  030711  suckers  030931  snake  030712  ship  030925  snakes  030713  sea  030981  snow  030714  stove  030737  snowman  030715  Stephen  030738  socks  030716  street  030739  something  030717  streets  030740  son  030718  stuff  030741  song  030719  sucker  030742  sort  030720  summer  030743  sound  030721  supper  030744  space  030722  surprise  030745  spot  030723  surprises  030746  spots  030724  Susan  030747  squirrel  030725  Suzu  030748  squirrels  030726  sweater  030749  stamp  030727  swings  030750  star  030729  S t a n l e y Park  030741  stars  030730  S t a n l e y Beach  030752  steamshovels  030731  string  030752  Nouns Cont'd (S) spring  030875  telephone  030758  sun  030883  thanks  030759  shell  030886  thing  030760  swim  030893  things  030761  shot  030894  thread  030762  sun-up  030896  throat  030763  steps  030899  thunder  030764  stand  030900  Tim  030765  speck  030903  time  030766  shelves  030906  Tip  030767  smells  030911  tips  030768  springs  030912  today  030769  stripe  030913  toes  030770  strings  030917  Tarn  030771  spill  030917  Tomoko  030772  stores  030918  Tom Turkey  030773  stop  030919  Toni  030774  tonight  030775  top  030776  (T) tank  030904  town  030777  Tab  030753  toy  030778  tail  030754  track  030779  Tarn  030755  train  030780  team  030756  trains  030781  Ted  030757  trap  030782  Nouns Cont'd (T) tree  030783  towel  030805  trip  030784  two  030806  trips  030785  types  030807  truck  030786  trumpet  030901  trees  030932  Tad  030868  trunk  030889  Thelma  030869  tummy  030885  twin ;  030878  thicket  030884  twins  030879  trucks  030787  turnip  030788  (U)  turtle  030789  umbrella  030808  tire  030790  Uncle  030809  trunk  030781  ticket  030792  (V)  times  030793  vacation  030810  tables  030794  van  030811  tub  030795  velvet  030812  tent  030796  Velda  030813  teeth  030797  visit  030814  teeter-totter  030798  vowel  030815  turtles  030799  turn  030800  (W)  tunnel  030801  washing  030952  trick  030802  wagon  030816  tadpoles  030803  waiting  030817  tiger  030804  walk  030818  walking  030819  Bill  Nouns Cont'd (W) wall  0 3 0 8 2 0  whale  0 3 0 8 4 7  wallet  0 3 0 8 2 1  wolf  0 3 0 8 4 8  water  0 3 0 8 2 2  worm  0 3 0 8 4 9  way  0 3 0 8 2  whales  0 3 0 8 5 0  weed  0 3 0 8 2 4  wood  0 3 0 8 5 1  weeds  0 3 0 8 2 5  window  0 3 0 8 5 2  week  0 3 0 8 2 6  west  0 3 0 8 8 8  well  0 3 0 8 2 7  Wendy  0 3 0 8 2 8  wheat  0 3 0 8 2 9  yee  0 3 0 8 5 3  wig  0 3 0 8 3 0  yesterday  0 3 0 8 5 4  Wilfred  0 3 0 8 3 1  yip  0 3 0 8 5 5  Willy  0 3 0 8 3 2  Wilma  0 3 0 8 3 3  (Z)  wind  0 3 0 8 3 4  Zak  0 3 0 8 5 6  winds  0 3 0 8 3 5  zebra  0 3 0 8 5 7  wings  0 3 0 8 3 6  Zip  0 3 0 8 5 8  winter  0 3 0 8 3 7  zoo  0 3 0 8 5 9  wish  0 3 0 8 3 8  woman  0 3 0 8 3 9  word  0 3 0 8 4 0  world  0 3 0 8 4 2  wheel  0 3 0 8 4 3  witch  0 3 0 8 4 4  while  0 3 0 8 4 5  washing  0 3 0 8 4 6  3  (Y)  VERBS (A) am  040001  beware  040021  answer  040002  bit  040022  ate  040003  bite  040023  ask  040004  biting  040024  asked  040005  block  040025  allowed  040006  boasted  040026  act  040007  boasting  040027  asks  040619  bobs  040028  ate  040712  bolts  040029  bows  040030  bragged  040031  (B) back  040008  bring  040032  bake  040009  bringing  040033  bang  040010  broke  040034  bark  040011  brush  040035  barked  040012  bump  040036  bat  040013  bumped  040037  be  040014  bumps  040038  became  040015  burn  040039  been  040016  burning  040040  beeped  040017  button  040041  began  040018  buttons  040042  bends  040019  buzzed  040043  bent  040020  buzzing  040044  Verbs Cont'd (B) busted  040045  cannot  040059  bust  040046  care  040060  buying  040047  cares  040061  brought  040048  carry  040062  bleeding  040050  chase  040063  blows  040050  catch  040696  building  040051  catched  040701  breathe  040052  check  040064  brings  040053  checked  040065  buy  040054  chill  040066  bakes  040596  chose  040067  better  040599  chuck  040068  begin  040651  chuckle  040069  begged  040672  chuckled  040070  become  040685  clap  040071  buzzy  040691  clean-up  040072  breathing  040704  click  040073  bringed  040715  closer  040074  bends  040733  cluck  040075  clucks  040076  collect  040077  (C) call  040055  collected  040078  called  040056  collects  040079  came  040057  color  040080  can  040058  come  040081  coming  040082  Verbs Cont'd (C) correct  040083  cleaning  040109  could  040084  crawling  040110  cover  040085  croaking  040111  covered  040086  caged  040112  crack  040087  collecting  040113  claps  040612  carrying  040114  cracks  040088  crashed  040115  cracked  040089  driving  040116  crash  040090  cook  040597  crawled  040091  cried  040683  creeping  040092  comes  040636  crept  040093  crawl  040709  cross  040094  chase  040721  crunch  040095  cleaned  040693  cry  040096  (D)  crying  040097  drag .  040614  curly  040098  drips  040611  cut  040099  dry  040700  chasing  040100  drying  040730  change  040101  did  040117  caught  040102  dig  040188  cooking  040103  digging  040119  catching  040104  digs  040120  camping  040105  dim  040121  count  040106  ding  040122  cooked  040107  do  040123  climb  040108  down  040124  108 Verbs Cont'd (D) dragged  040125  • (E)  drags  040126  eat  040146  draw  040127  eating  040147  dreaming  040128  eats  040148  dress  040129  end  040149  drifted  040130  ended  040150  drifts  040131  eaten  040151  drills  040132  escape  040152  drink  040133  excuse  040601  drinks  040134  drip  040135  (F)  drive  040136  fall  040695  drizzle •  040137  falls  040153  dropped  040138  falling  040154  drops  040139  fans  040155  dumped  040140  fed  040156  dumps  040141  feel  040157  drives  040142  fell  040158  drop  040143  felt  040159  dropping  040144  filled  040160  dive  040145  fills  040161  driving  040590  find  040162  doing  040591  finish  040163  does  040598  finished  040164  dressed  040500  fix  040165  dressing  040674  fixed  040166  109 Verbs Cont'd (F) fizzle  040167  giving  040732  flaps  040168  galloping  040189  flapping  040169-  gallops  040190  flash  040170  gasps  040191  flops  040171  get  040192  fly  040172  gets  040193  flying  040173  getting  040194  fogs  040174  giggled  040195  follow  040175  give  040196  forget  040176  gliding  040197  forgot  040177  glug  040198  fried  040178  go  040199  frown  040179  gobble  040200  fry  040180  going  040201  fussing  040181  got  040202  fishing  040182  grab  040203  found  040183  grabbed  040204  feels  040184  grabs  040205  feeding  040185  grin  040206  feed  040186  grinned  040207  fail  040187  grips  040208  following  040188  groaned  040209  fire  040593  grumble  040210  fish  040711  grumbled  040211  fighting  040718  guess  040212  gone  040213  grabbing  040214  (G)  Verbs Cont'd (G) gives  0 4 0 2 1 5  hides  0 4 0 2 3 4  grins  0 4 0 6 0 5  hit  0 4 0 2 3 5  gusts  0 4 0 6 2 7  hits  0 4 0 2 3 6  gallop  0 4 0 6 2 8  hold  0 4 0 2 3 7  gave  0 4 0 6 7 5  honk  0 4 0 2 3 8  goes  0 4 0 7 1 3  hop  0 4 0 2 3 9  gone  0 4 0 6 8 9  hoped  0 4 0 2 4 0  hopped  0 4 0 2 4 1  hopping  0 4 0 2 4 2  hugs  0 4 0 2 4 4  hops  0 4 0 2 4 3  hummed  0 4 0 2 4 5  hung  0 4 0 2 4 6  hunt  0 4 0 2 4 7  hunts  0 4 0 2 4 8  hurry  0 4 0 2 4 9  hurts  0 4 0 2 5 0  hate  0 4 0 2 5 1  holding  0 4 0 2 5 2  held  0 4 0 6 6 6  h u r t •.  0 4 0 7 2 3  (H) had  0 4 0 2 1 6  hang  0 4 0 2 1 7  hangs  0 4 0 2 1 8  happen  0 4 0 2 1 9  has  0 4 0 2 2 0  happened  0 4 0 2 2 1  have  0 4 0 2 2 2  having  0 4 0 2 2 3  hear  0 4 0 2 2 4  head  0 4 0 2 2 5  heard  0 4 0 2 2 6  help  0 4 0 2 2 7  helping  0 4 0 2 2 8  helps  0 4 0 2 2 9  helped  0 4 0 2 3 0  hid  0 4 0 2 3 1  imagine  0 4 0 2 5 3  hidden  0 4 0 2 3 2  invent  0 4 0 2 5 4  hide  0 4 0 2 3 3  (I)  Verbs Cont'd (J) jumping  040672  leaped  040274  juggled  040255  leaves  040275  juggled  040256  let  040276  jump  040257  letter  040277  jumped  040258  left  040638  jumps  040259  licking  040278  licks  040279  left  040280  (K) kept  040260  lifted  040281  kick  040261  like  040282  kicks  040262  liked  040283  know  040263  likes  040284  knew  040731  limps  040285  keep  040264  listening  040286  killed  040265  live  040287  kissing  040266  locked  040288  kicked  040267  look  040289  keeps  040268  looked  040290  looking  040291  lost  040292  (L) land  040269  loved  040293  landed  040270  loves  040294  lands  040271  lie  040295  leave  040689  love  040296  laying  040272  laugh  040297  lay  040273  lying  040298  Verbs Cont'd  (L)  listen  0 4 0 2 9 9  must  0 4 0 3 1 5  lifts  0 4 0 6 2 0  married  0 4 0 3 1 6  lived  0 4 0 6 4 6  make  0 4 0 3 1 7  lives  0 4 0 6 5 3  means  0 4 0 3 1 8  led  0 4 0 6 5 9  making  0 4 0 3 1 9  looks  0 4 0 6 9 8  moving  0 4 0 3 2 0  listen  0 4 0 7 2 1  marry  0 4 0 3 2 1  letting  0 4 0 6 9 0  miss  0 4 0 6 8 0  (M)  (N)  made  0 4 0 3 0 0  name  0 4 0 3 2 2  mash  0 4 0 3 0 1  naps  0 4 0 3 2 3  may  0 4 0 3 0 2  near  0 4 0 3 2 4  meet  0 4 0 3 0 3  need  0 4 0 3 2 5  mended  0 4 0 3 0 5  needs  0 4 0 3 2 6  meow  0 4 0 3 0 5  nibbles  0 4 0 3 2 7  messy  0 4 0 3 0 6  nipping  0 4 0 3 2 8  met  0 4 0 3 0 7  nips  0 4 0 3 2 9  might  0 4 0 3 0 8  nodded  0 4 0 3 3 0  mix  0 4 0 3 0 9  mixed  0 4 0 3 1 0  mixing  0 4 0 3 1 1  open  0 4 0 3 3 1  moaned  0 4 0 3 1 2  opened  0 4 0 3 3 2  mop  0 4 0 3 1 3  order  0 4 0 3 3 3  munch  0 4 0 3 1 4  opens  0 4 0 7 1 4  must  0 4 0 3 1 5  (O)  113 Verbs Cont'd (P) packed  040334  pouted  040360  packing  040-35  puff  040361  pad  040336  puffed  040362  panic  040337  puffs  040363  panics  040338  pumps  040364  panted  040339  push  040365  passed  040340  pushed  040366  past  040341  put  040367  pats  040342  picking  040699  patting  040343  plant  040679  peeked  040344  pinch  040664  pick  040345  putting  040368  picked  040346  pulled  040369  picks  040347  pretend  040370  pile  040348  pulling  040371  plan  040348  paddled  040372  play  040350 '  painting  040373  played  040351  pop  040645  playing  040352  pinched  040665  please  040353  puts  040705  plods  040354  pull  040717  plop  040355  polished  040356  (Q)  popped  040357  quack  pops  040358  press  040359  040374  (R) ran  040375  Verbs  Cont'd  (R)  rattle  040376  reading  040598  reached  040377  rings  040609  read  040378  resting  040616  rest  040379  rests  040623  rested  040380  ring  040635  ride  040381  rattled  040645  rides  040382  rid  040680  rip  040383  read  040697  ripped  040384  riding  040728  roared  040385  runned  040734  rocks  040387  rush  040397  rubs  040388  rushed  040398  ruin  040389  rumble  040390  (S)  rumbled  040391  said  040399  rumbles  040392  sailed  040400  rumbling  040393  sailing  040401  run- *  040394  sang  040402  runs  040395  sat  040403  running  040396  saw  040404  rob  040592  says  040405  robbed  040593  screamed  040406  relaxing  040594  see  040408  remember  040595  seek  040409  raining  040596  seemed  040410  rolled  040597  seems  040411:.  Verbs Cont'd (S) sell  040412  slide  040668  shiver  040413  slides  040667  shop  040414  set  040662  show  040415  scrubbed  040658  shut  040416  scrub  040657  sighed  040417  sipped  040647  sight  040418  sizzle  040648  sign  040419  sipping  040649  sing  040420  shrink  040650  singing  040421  shrank  040652  sinks  040422  sticking  040694  sit  040423  swimmed  040706  sits  040424  say  040429  skims  040425  sleeped  040713  skip  040426  sees  040729  skipped  040427  snapped  040678  sleep  040654  splashed  040643  slipped  040430  straps  040633  slips  040431  snaps  040433  smiled  040432  snow  040434  sniff  040692  sobs  040435  seem  040690  sorted  040436  storing  040688  sound  040437  smile  040684  sounds  040438  splash  040673  spent  040439  sobbed  040671  spill  040440  smash  040669  spin  040441  Verbs Cont'd (S) spins  040442  splits  040635  spits  040443  spank  040467  spot  040444  scare  040468  spread  040445  supposed  040469  springs  040445  speaking  040470  stamp  040447  saved  040471  stamps  040448  shook  040472  stand  040449  swimming  040473  stands  040450  slept  040474  start  040451  smelling  040475  stay  040452  squished  040476  stayed  040453  stuck  040477  step  040454  seen  040478  stepped  040455  shopping  040479  steps  040456  showing  040480  stick  040457  sleeps  040481  stopped  040459  sleeping  040482  stop  040458  standing  040483  surprise  040460  stays  040484  swept  040462  staying  040485  swim  040463  swam  040486  shoot  040465  sticking  040487  shot  040466  shooting  040592  shone  040641  sitting  040594  shall  040710  should  040604  sniff  040644  sniffs  040606  V e r b s  C o n t ' d  ( S )  s m e l l s  0 4 0 6 0 7  t i e  0 4 0 5 0 3  s t o p s  0 4 0 6 0 8  t i r e d  0 4 0 5 0 4  s p i l l s  0 4 0 6 1 0  t o o k  0 4 0 5 0 5  s p o t s  0 4 0 6 2 2  t r a m p  0 4 0 5 0 6  s k i m  0 4 0 6 2 6  t r a m p e d  0 4 0 5 0 7  s e t  0 4 0 6 2 9  t r a p  0 4 0 5 0 8  s e t s  0 4 0 6 3 0  t r a p p e d  0 4 0 5 0 9  s m e l l  0 4 0 6 3 1  t r a p s  0 4 0 5 1 0  s p o t t e d  0 4 0 6 3 2  t r a v e l  0 4 0 5 1 1  s n i f f e d  0 4 0 6 4 2  t r a v e l l e d  0 4 0 5 1 2  t r i p  0 4 0 5 1 3  t r i p s  0 4 0 5 1 4  ( T )  t a k e  0 4 0 4 8 8  t r o l l  0 4 0 5 1 5  t a k e n  0 4 0 4 8 9  t r o t s  0 4 0 5 1 6  t a l k  0 4 0 4 9 0  t r y -  0 4 0 5 1 7  t a p p e d  0 4 0 4 9 1  t u r n  0 4 0 5 1 8  t e l l  0 4 0 4 9 2  t u r n e d  0 4 0 5 1 9  t e l l i n g  0 4 0 4 9 3  t h r e w  0 4 0 5 2 0  t h a n k  0 4 0 4 9 4  t a s t i n g  0 4 0 5 2 1  t h i n k  0 4 0 4 9 5  t o o k  0 4 0 5 2 2  t h i n k s  0 4 0 4 9 6  t i p p e d  0 4 0 5 2 3  t h r e w  0 4 0 4 9 7  t h o u g h t  0 4 0 5 2 4  t h r o b s  0 4 0 4 9 8  t o u c h  0 4 0 5 2 5  t h r o w  0 4 0 4 9 9  t a k i n g  0 4 0 5 2 6  t h r o w i n g  0 4 0 5 0 0  t r y i n g  0 4 0 5 2 8  t h r o w s  0 4 0 5 0 1  t a l k i n g  0 4 0 4 2 7  t h u m p s  0 4 0 5 0 2  t y p e s  0 4 0 5 9 5  Verbs Cont'd (T) tips  0 4 0 6 0 2  upset  0 4 0 5 3 3  thanks  0 4 0 6 0 3  upsets  0 4 0 5 3 4  tugging  0 4 0 6 1 3  use  0 4 0 5 3 5  tapping  0 4 0 6 1 7  used  0 4 0 5 3 6  tugs  0 4 0 6 1 8  trick  0 4 0 6 2 1  tip  0 4 0 6 2 4  vanished  0 4 0 5 3 7  throb  0 4 0 6 2 5  visit  0 4 0 5 3 8  tap  0 4 0 6 3 9  thanked  0 4 0 6 4 0  ticked  0 4 0 6 6 1  wait  0 4 0 5 3 9  tickle  0 4 0 6 6 3  waited  0 4 0 5 4 0  tickling  0 4 0 6 6 5  walk  0 4 0 5 4 1  thumped  0 4 0 6 7 0  want  0 4 0 5 4 2  track  0 4 0 6 7 7  wanted  0 4 0 5 4 3  tried  0 4 0 6 8 2  wants  0 4 0 5 4 4  tidy  0 4 0 6 8 7  was  0 4 0 5 4 5  thump  0 4 0 6 9 3  washes  0 4 0 5 4 6  told  0 4 0 6 9 9  waved  0 4 0 5 4 7  tied  0 4 0 7 3 3  wear  0 4 0 5 4 8  wearing  0 4 0 5 4 9  went  0 4 0 5 5 0  (U)  (V)  (W)  underline  0 4 0 5 2 9  were  0 4 0 5 5 1  understand  0 4 0 5 3 0  whack  0 4 0 5 5 2  undid  0 4 0 5 3 1  whisks  0 4 0 5 5 3  unhappy  0 4 0 5 3 2  whispered  0 4 0 5 5 4  Verbs Cont'd  (W)  wiggle  040555  watching  040582  will  040556  winks  040623  win  040557  welcome  040681  wind  040558  wishing  040634  winds  040559  wins  040637  wish  040560  wiggles  040681  wished  040561  waiting  040686  woke  040562  walking  040707  wore  040563  washed  work  040564  worked  040565  working  040566  works  040567  (Y)  would  040568  yank  040583  write  040569  yapped  040584  wrecking  040570  yaps  040585  wrecked  040572  yelled  040586  wonder  040573  yip  040587  washing  040574  yawned  040588  watch  040575  yells  040615  waking  040576  yanks  040632  won  040577  yap  040645  wiggling  040578  wrapping  040579  wiggled  040580  winning  040581  (X)  ADJECTIVES (A) animal  0 5 0 2 8 3  berr  0 5 0 0 1 9  afraid  0 5 0 0 0 1  black  0 5 0 0 2 0  ago  0 5 0 0 0 2  block  0 5 0 0 2 1  alike  0 5 0 0 0 3  blue  0 5 0 0 2 2  all  0 5 0 0 0 4  bottom  0 5 0 0 2 3  alone  0 5 0 0 0 5  bright  0 5 0 0 2 4  any  0 5 0 0 0 6  brown  0 5 0 0 2 6  another  0 5 0 0 0 7  broken  0 5 0 0 2 6  apple  0 5 0 0 0 8  bumpy  0 5 0 0 2 7  asleep  0 5 0 0 0 9  bus  0 5 0 2 2 7  Ann s  0 5 0 2 2 1  brass  0 5 0 2 3 0  Allan's  0 5 0 2 4 4  bubble  0 5 0 2 5 4  Andy s  0 5 0 2 4 7  bubbling  0 5 0 2 5 8  attic  0 5 0 2 6 8  Benny s  0 5 0 2 9 6  birch  0 5 0 2 9 8  bigger  0 5 0 3 1 0  1  1  (B)  1  baby  0 5 0 0 1 0  beaver  0 5 0 3 1 8  back  0 5 0 0 1 1  brain  0 5 0 3 2 1  bad  0 5 0 0 1 2  baggy  0 5 0 0 1 3  behind  0 5 0 0 1 4  corner  0 5 0 2 9 1  best  0 5 0 0 1 5  candy  0 5 0 2 9 4  big  0 5 0 0 1 6  clown  0 5 0 2 7 5  biggest  0 5 0 0 1 7  cactus  0 5 0 2 6 1  battered  0 5 0 0 1 8  chill  0 5 0 0 2 8  cracker  0 5 0 2 8 9  (C)  A d j e c t i v e s Cont'd (C) chocolate  0 5 0 0 2 9  dizzy  0 5 0 0 4 8  chubby  0 5 0 0 3 0  down  0 5 0 0 4 9  clever  0 5 0 0 3 1  dry  0 5 0 0 5 0  closed  0 5 0 0 3 2  drying  0 5 0 0 5 1  cold  0 5 0 0 3 3  dumb  0 5 0 0 5 2  cowboy  0 5 0 0 3 4  dusty  0 5 0 0 5 3  clumsy  0 5 0 0 3 5  drunk  0 5 0 2 1 5  crossly  0 5 0 0 3 6  dentist's  0 5 0 2 4 3  cute  0 5 0 0 3 7  Daffy s  0 5 0 2 4 6  camp  0 5 0 2 3 1  Dan' s  0 5 0 2 7 7  Champ s  0 5 0 2 4 8  drug  0 5 0 2 8 2  cross  0 5 0 2 6 7  delivery  0 5 0 3 0 4  chicken  0 5 0 2 7 6  crinkly  0 5 0 2 9 3  1  (D)  1  (E) each  0 5 0 0 5 4  extra  0 5 0 0 5 5  dandy  0 5 0 0 3 8  empty  0 5 0 0 5 6  darling  0 5 0 0 3 9  every  0 5 0 0 5 7  dead  0 5 0 0 4 0  easy  0 5 0 2 6 5  delicious  0 5 0 0 4 1  deep  0 5 0 0 4 2  different  0 5 0 0 4 3  fair  0 5 0 0 5 8  dim  0 5 0 0 4 4  fast  0 5 0 0 5 9  dirty  0 5 0 0 4 5  faster  0 5 0 0 6 0  distant  0 5 0 0 4 6  fat  0 5 0 0 6 1  diving  0 5 0 0 4 7  fine  0 5 0 0 6 2  first  0 5 0 0 6 3  (F)  A d j e c t i v e s Cont'd (F) five  0 5 0 0 6 4  grey  0 5 0 0 8 9  flat  0 5 0 0 6 5  gooey  0 5 0 0 9 0  four  0 5 0 0 6 6  girl' s  0 5 0 0 9 1  frantic  0 5 0 0 6 7  gucky  0 5 0 2 0 9  free  0 5 0 0 6 8  Grandma's  0 5 0 2 6 9  fresh  0 5 0 0 6 9  gas  0 5 0 2 8 5  fried  0 5 0 0 7 0  frisky "  0 5 0 0 7 1  frizzy  0 5 0 0 7 2  happy  0 5 0 0 9 2  front  0 5 0 0 7 3  high  0 5 0 0 9 3  fun  0 5 0 0 7 4  hot  0 5 0 0 9 4  funny  0 5 0 0 7 5  hungry  0 5 0 0 9 5  fire  0 5 0 0 7 6  hundred  0 5 0 0 9 6  few  0 5 0 0 7 7  half  0 5 0 2 0 8  favourite  0 5 0 0 7 8  ham  0 5 0 2 8 8  frog's  0 5 0 0 7 9  hat  0 5 0 2 9 5  fish  0 5 0 0 8 0  hockey  0 5 0 3 0 3  farm  0 5 0 2 8 6  hen' s  0 5 0 3 0 7  hard  0 5 0 3 1 1  (H)  (G) glad  0 5 0 0 8 1  glassy  0 5 0 0 8 2  glum  0 5 0 0 8 3  gone  0 5 0 0 8 4  grand  0 5 0 0 8 6  green  0 5 0 0 8 7  jolly  0 5 0 0 9 9  great  0 5 0 0 8 7  just  0 5 0 2 2 0  Jan' s  0 5 0 2 2 6  (I) 0 5 0 0 9 7  impossible  (J)  jacket  0 5 0 0 9 8  12 3 A d j e c t i v e s  C o n t ' d  ( J )  j u m p i n g  0 5 0 2 5 7  m i d d l e  0 5 0 1 0 7  j u n k  0 5 0 2 8 1  m i s s i n g  0 5 0 1 0 8  j a m  0 5 0 2 9 0  m - m - m  0 5 0 1 0 9  m o o - o o  0 5 0 1 1 0  m o r e  0 5 0 1 1 1  m u c h  0 5 0 1 1 2  m u d d y  0 5 0 1 1 3  m a d  0 5 0 1 1 4  ( K )  K i m ' s  0 5 0 2 3 8  ( L )  l i o n s  0 5 0 1 0 0  m i l l i o n  0 5 0 1 1 5  l i t t l e  0 5 0 1 0 1  m a s h e d  0 5 0 1 1 6  l i z a r d  0 5 0 1 0 2  M i s s  l o n g  0 5 0 1 0 3  m o t h  l e a s t  0 5 0 2 1 0  M o m '  l o s t  0 5 0 2 2 8  M r s .  l u m p y  0 5 0 2 3 2  m e s s y  0 5 0 2 7 9  l o t  0 5 0 2 7 0  m e a t  0 5 0 2 9 6  l a m p  0 5 0 2 7 4  m u d  0 5 0 2 6 0  l o t s  0 5 0 2 8 0  m e t a l  0 5 0 3 0 1  l o u d  0 5 0 3 0 2  l o o s e  0 5 0 3 1 3  (N)  l a u g h i n g  0 5 0 3 1 5  n e w  0 5 0 1 1 7  n e x t  0 5 0 1 1 8  n i c e  0 5 0 1 1 9  (M)  S m i t h ' s  0 5 0 2 1 8  0 5 0 2 3 4  0 5 0 2 4 1  s  S h e l b y ' s  0 5 0 2 7 3  m a i n  0 5 0 1 0 4  n o  0 5 0 1 2 0  m a n y  0 5 0 1 0 5  n e a t  0 5 0 1 2 1  m a p l e  0 5 0 1 0 6  A d j . Cont'd (N) nutty  0 5 0 3 1 7  (0)  person's  0 5 0 1 3 9  piggy  0 5 0 2 5 4  plant  0 5 0 2 7 1  odd  0 5 0 1 2 2  party  0 5 0 2 9 2  old  0 5 0 1 2 3  pine  0 5 0 2 9 7  one  0 5 0 1 2 4  picnic  0 5 0 3 0 4  only  0 5 0 1 2 5  park  0 5 0 3 0 8  open  0 5 0 1 2 6  paper  0 5 0 3 1 8  own  0 5 0 1 2 7  orange  0 5 0 1 2 8  okay  0 5 0 2 0 7  quick  0 5 0 1 4 0  other  0 5 0 2 1 1  quiet  0 5 0 1 4 1  oak  0 5 0 2 9 8  (Q)  (R) (P)  ready  0 5 0 1 4 2  panic  0 5 0 1 2 9  red  0 5 0 1 4 3  pink  0 5 0 1 3 0  rear  0 5 0 1 4 4  plastic  0 5 0 1 3 1  rough  0 5 0 1 4 5  pretty  0 5 0 1 3 2  rabbit  0 5 0 2 3 7  prickly  0 5 0 1 3 3  Red Hen's  0 5 0 2 4 2  purple  0 5 0 1 3 4  rag  0 5 0 2 5 1  police  0 5 0 1 3 5  Randy's  0 5 0 2 5 5  pen  0 5 0 1 3 6  rat' s  0 5 0 2 8 7  po l a r  0 5 0 1 3 7  Ron s  0 5 0 3 0 9  pet  0 5 0 1 3 8  1  A d j .  C o n t ' d  (S)  s u n n y  0 5 0 2 6 2  s o r e  0 5 0 1 6 8  s i l k y  0 5 0 2 5 0  s o r r y  0 5 0 1 6 9  s a t i n  0 5 0 2 3 4  s o u n d  0 5 0 1 7 0  S a m ' s  0 5 0 2 1 9  s p o i l t  0 5 0 1 7 1  s a d  0 5 0 1 4 6  s p o r t  0 5 0 1 7 2  s a f e  0 5 0 1 4 7  s t a r  0 5 0 2 2 9  s a f e r  0 5 0 1 4 8  s t e e r i n g  0 5 0 1 7 3  s a m e  0 5 0 1 4 9  s t i l l  0 5 0 1 7 4  s c r a m b l e d  0 5 0 1 5 1  s u d d e n l y  0 5 0 1 7 6  s h a g g y  0 5 0 1 5 2  s u r e  0 5 0 1 7 7  s h o r t  0 5 0 1 5 3  s p l e n d i d  0 5 0 2 9 9  s h o p p i n g  0 5 0 1 5 4  s m a r t  0 5 0 2 0 7  s i c k  0 5 0 1 5 5  S u s a n  s i d e  0 5 0 1 5 6  s p i n n i n g  0 5 0 2 5 3  s i l l y  0 5 0 1 5 7  s u c h  0 5 0 2 4 9  s l e e p i n g  0 5 0 1 5 8  s t i f f  0 5 0 2 5 2  s l i m y  0 5 0 1 6 0  s t u f f e d  s l o w  0 5 0 1 6 1  s i x  0 5 0 2 6 9  s m a l l  0 5 0 1 6 2  s p r i n g  0 5 0 2 7 2  s m a l l e r  0 5 0 1 6 3  s u m m e r  0 5 0 2 8 4  s m o o t h  0 5 0 1 6 4  s q u i s h e d  0 5 0 3 1 2  s n u g g l y  0 5 0 1 6 5  s m a l l - l o o k i n g  0 5 0 3 1 4  s o f t  0 5 0 1 6 6  s o r t  0 5 0 3 1 9  s o m e  0 5 0 1 6 7  1  s  0 5 0 2 7 8  . 0 5 0 2 6 4  126  A d j .  C o n t ' d  ( T )  T e d ' s  0 5 0 2 4 0  t a m e  0 5 0 2 6 3  t h r o b b i n g  0 5 0 2 2 3  t h o s e  0 5 0 2 6 5  t e n t  0 5 0 2 4 5  t u r n i p  0 5 0 3 0 5  t h i c k  0 5 0 2 2 2  T i p ' s  0 5 0 2 1 7  (U)  0 5 0 2 1 6  u g l y  0 5 0 1 9 3  t r u c k  0 5 0 2 1 4  u n k i n d  0 5 0 1 9 4  t e r r i b l e  0 5 0 1 7 8  u p s e t  0 5 0 2 2 5  t h a t  0 5 0 1 7 9  u n h a p p y  0 5 0 2 3 2  t h e  0 5 0 1 8 0  t h e s e  0 5 0 1 8 1  t h i n  0 5 0 1 8 2  v e r y  0 5 0 1 9 5  t h r e e  0 5 0 1 8 3  v e l v e t  0 5 0 2 3 3  t i c k l y  0 5 0 1 8 4  t i d y  0 5 0 1 8 5  t i g h t  0 5 0 1 8 6  w e l l  0 5 0 2 3 6  t h i s  0 5 0 1 8 7  w a g g y  0 5 0 1 9 6  t i n y  0 5 0 1 8 8  w a s h e d  0 5 0 1 9 7  t i r e d  0 5 0 1 8 9  w e l c o m e  0 5 0 1 9 7  t r a c k  0 5 0 1 9 0  w e t  0 5 0 1 9 9  t w o  0 5 0 1 9 1  w h a t  0 5 0 2 0 0  t w o - w h e e l e d  0 5 0 1 9 2  w h i t e  0 5 0 2 0 1  t w e l v e  0 5 0 2 0 8  w r e c k e d  0 5 0 2 0 2  t o p  0 5 0 2 5 9  w r o n g  0 5 0 2 0 3  t e n  0 5 0 2 6 0  w h i c h  0 5 0 3 1 1  T i m '  s  ( V )  (W)  A d j . Cont'd yellow  0 5 0 2 0 4  yucky  0 5 0 2 0 5  yummy  0 5 0 2 0 6  you  0 5 0 2 1 2  ADVERBS (A) as  0 6 0 1 0 7  both  0 6 0 0 2 0  about  0 6 0 0 0 1  but  0 6 0 0 2 1  across  0 6 0 0 0 2  best  0 6 0 1 1 3  after  0 6 0 0 0 3  bit  0 6 0 1 2 5  again  0 6 0 0 0 4  against  0 6 0 0 0 5  alone  0 6 0 0 0 6  already  0 6 0 0 0 7  along  0 6 0 0 0 8  always  0 6 0 0 0 9  apart  0 6 0 0 1 0  around  0 6 0 0 1 1  asleep  0 6 0 0 1 2  away  0 6 0 0 1 3  awhile  0 6 0 0 1 4  all  0 6 0 0 9 3  any  0 6 0 0 9 5  anyway  0 6 0 1 3 4  (C) crossly  0 6 0 1 2 4  certainly  0 6 0 0 2 2  crazier  0 6 0 0 2 3  closer  0 6 0 1 2 0  crazy  0 6 0 1 2 7  (D) darker  0 6 0 0 2 4  down  0 6 0 0 2 5  0 6 0 1 2 8  (B) back  0 6 0 0 1 5  backwards  0 6 0 0 1 6  behind  0 6 0 0 1 7  beside  0 6 0 0 1 8  bigger  0 6 0 0 1 9  different  (E)  0 6 0 0 2 6  either  0 6 0 0 2 7  else  0 6 0 0 2 8  enough  0 6 0 0 2 9  everywhere  0 6 0 1 0 1  even (F) faster  0 6 0 0 3 0  finally  0 6 0 0 3 1  1 2 9  Adverbs cont'd  (F)  first  0 6 0 0 3 2  forever  0 6 0 0 3 3  late  0 6 0 1 2 3  forwards  0 6 0 0 3 4  last  0 6 0 1 0 7  frantically  0 6 0 3 3 5  later  0 6 0 0 4 6  funny  0 6 0 0 3 6  little  0 6 0 0 4 7  fast  0 6 0 0 9 9  flat  0 6 0 1 0 4  (G) good  0 6 0 0 3 7  good-bye  0 6 0 0 9 7  glum  0 6 0 1 0 8  (H)  CL)  (M) maybe  0 6 0 0 4 8  much  0 6 0 1 1 2  more  0 6 0 0 9 4  (N) near  0 6 0 0 4 9  never  0 6 0 0 5 0  happily  0 6 0 0 3 8  no  0 6 0 0 5 1  hardly  0 6 0 0 3 9  not  0 6 0 0 5 2  here  0 6 0 0 4 0  now  0 . 6 0 0 5 3  how  0 6 0 0 4 1  neither  0 6 0 0 5 4  half  0 6 0 0 4 2  next  0 6 0 0 5 5  hard  0 6 0 0 4 3  high  0 6 0 1 2 5  (I)  (0) odd  0 6 0 1 0 9  off  0 6 0 0 5 6  instead  0 6 0 0 4 4  once  0 6 0 0 5 7  in  0 6 0 1 2 9  otherwise  0 6 0 0 5 8  out  0 6 0 0 5 9  okay  0 6 0 0 6 0  only  0 6 0 0 6 1  (J) just  0 6 0 0 4 5  Adverbs Cont'd  (0)  over  0 6 0 1 0 0  sometimes  0 6 0 0 7 1  outside  0 6 0 1 0 2  sure  0 6 0 0 7 2  on  0 6 0 1 2 1  still  0 6 0 0 7 3  (T)  (P) please  0 6 0 0 6 2  then  0 6 0 0 7 6  probably  0 6 0 0 6 3  there  0 6 0 0 7 7  past  0 6 0 1 0 3  tonight  0 6 0 0 7 8  too  0 6 0 0 7 9  today  0 6 0 0 9 6  (Q) quietly  0 6 0 1 2 2  quickly  0 6 0 0 6 4  (R)  (U) underneath  0 6 0 0 3 0  up  0 6 0 0 8 1  real  0 . 6 0 0 6 5  upside-down  0 6 0 0 8 2  really  0 6 0 0 6 6  until  0 6 0 1 1 1  right  0 6 0 0 9 3  upstairs  0 6 0 1 3 1  (V)  (S)  very  sadly  0 6 0 0 6 7  sound  0 6 0 0 7 4  sideways  0 6 0 0 7 5  (W)  suddenly  0 6 0 1 0 5  well  0 6 0 0 8 3  sale  0 6 0 1 1 9  when  0 6 0 0 8 4  so  0 6 0 0 6 8  whenever  0 6 0 0 8 5  softly  0 6 0 0 7 0  where  0 6 0 0 8 6  some  0 6 0 0 7 0  why  0 6 0 0 8 7  without  0 6 0 0 8 8  0 6 0 1 0 6  Adverbs Cont'd  (Y) yes  0 6 0 0 8 9  yet  0 6 0 0 9 0  yeah  0 6 0 0 9 1  you  0 6 0 0 9 2  yesterday  0 6 0 1 2 5  (Z)  PRONOUNS (A) anything  0 7 0 0 0 1  any  0 7 0 0 0 2  me  0 7 0 0 1 6  anyone  0 7 0 0 3 6  mine  0 7 0 0 1 7  my  0 7 0 0 1 8  (M)  (B) bath  0 7 0 0 3 7  0 7 0 0 0 3  myself  (N)  (E) each  0 7 0 0 0 4  nobody  everyone  0 7 0 0 0 5  none  everything  0 7 0 0 0 6  0 7 0 0 1 9  0 7 0 0 4 0  (O) our  0 7 0 0 2 0  (H) he  0 7 0 0 0 8  (S)  her  0 7 0 0 0 9  she  0 7 0 0 2 1  him  0 7 0 0 1 0  such  0 7 0 0 3 9  himself  0 7 0 0 1 1  someone  0 7 0 0 4 0  his  0 7 0 0 1 2  (T)  (I)  that  0 7 0 0 2 2  I  0 7 0 0 1 3  these  0 7 0 0 2 3  it  0 7 0 0 1 4  they  0 7 0 0 2 4  its  0 7 0 0 1 5  this  0 7 0 0 2 5  those  0 7 0 0 2 6  Pronouns Cont'd (U) us  0 7 0 0 3 9  (W) who  0 7 0 0 2 7  we  0 7 0 0 2 8  what  0 7 0 0 2 9  which  0 7 0 0 3 0  whatever  0 7 0 0 3 4  (Y) you  0 7 0 0 3 1  your  0 7 0 0 3 2  yourself  0 7 0 0 3 3  yours  0 7 0 0 3 4  CONJUNCTIONS  although  0 8 0 0 0 1  and  0 8 0 0 0 2  because  0 8 0 0 0 3  but  0 8 0 0 0 4  if  0 8 0 0 0 5  so  0 8 0 0 0 6  than  0 8 0 0 0 7  when  0 8 0 0 0 8  where  0 8 0 0 0 9  or  0 8 0 0 1 0  except  0 8 0 0 1 1  while  0 8 0 0 1 2  until  0 8 0 0 1 3  ARTICLES  a  090001  an  090002  the  090003  PREPOSITIONS  (A) along  1 0 0 0 0 1  (F)  among  1 0 0 0 0 2  for  1 0 0 0 1 4  at  1 0 0 0 0 3  from  1 0 0 0 1 5  about  1 0 0 0 3 4  against  1 0 0 0 0 4  around  1 0 0 0 0 5  in  1 0 0 0 1 6  along  1 0 0 0 0 6  into  1 0 0 0 1 7  after  1 0 0 0 0 7  across  1 0 0 0 2 9  (I)  (L) like  1 0 0 0 2 7  (B) beside  1 0 0 0 0 8  but  1 0 0 0 0 9  of  1 0 0 0 1 8  by  1 0 0 0 1 0  on  1 0 0 0 1 9  between  1 0 0 0 1 1  onto  1 0 0 0 2 0  behind  1 0 0 0 3 1  over  1 0 0 0 2 1  before  1 0 0 0 3 4  off  1 0 0 0 3 2  •(D) down  (P) 1 0 0 1 2  (E) except  (0)  past  1 0 0 0 3 3  (T) 1 0 0 0 1 3  to  1 0 0 0 2 2  through  1 0 0 0 2 8  P r e p o s i t i o n s Cont'd  (U) under  1 0 0 0 2 3  upon  1 0 0 0 2 4  up  1 0 0 0 3 0  (W) with  1 0 0 0 2 5  without  1 0 0 0 2 6  CONTRACTIONS (A) aren't  1 2 0 0 0 1  (C)  (I) I'd  1 2 0 0 1 2  I'll  1 2 0 0 1 3  can' t  1 2 0 0 0 2  I'm  1 2 0 0 1 4  couldn't  1 2 0 0 0 3  It' s  1 2 0 0 1 5  1 ve  1 2 0 0 1 6  it' s  1 2 0 0 1 7  isn 1  1 2 0 0 2 1  1  (D) didn * t  1 2 0 0 0 4  doesn' t  1 2 0 0 0 5  don 1  1 2 0 0 0 6  1  1  (L) (E)  1 2 0 0 1 8  1 2 0 0 0 7  let's  everybody s 1  (M) (G)  1 2 0 0 1 9  1 2 0 0 0 8  mine's girl' s  1 2 0 0 2 0  1 2 0 0 3 6  (H)  (0)  1 2 0 0 0 9  he'll  1 2 0 0 1 0  he' s  1 2 0 0 1 1  haven' t  1 2 0 0 3 3  here' s  1 2 0 0 3 4  hasn' t  one' s  1 2 0 0 2 1  (S) 1 2 0 0 2 2  she' s  how s  1 2 0 0 2 3  1  1 2 0 0 2 4  (T) th a e try'er s' s e 1  C o n t r a c t i o n s  C o n t ' d  (W) w e ' l l  1 2 0 0 2  w h a t '  s  1 2 0 0 2 6  w h e r e ' s  1 2 0 0 2 7  w o n '  1 2 0 0 2 8  t  w o u l d n '  w a s n '  t  t  5  1 2 0 0 3 5  1 2 0 0 3 6  (Y) y o u ' 1 1  1 2 0 0 2 9  y o u ' r e  1 2 0 0 3 0  y o u ' v e  1 2 0 0 3 1  w e '  1 2 0 0 3 2  r e  1,40 INTERJECTIONS (N)  (A) aaawr  1 1 0 0 0 1  nightie  1 1 0 0 3 4  all  1 1 0 0 3 0  night  1 1 0 0 3 5  right  achoo  1 1 0 0 3 6  (0)  (B) bang  1 1 0 0 0 2  oh  1 1 0 0 1 1  boom  1 1 0 0 0 3  okay  1 1 0 0 1 2  oow  1 1 0 0 1 3  ouch  1 1 0 0 1 4  (D) ding-dong  1 1 0 0 2 8  (P) pow  1 1 0 0 2 4  (G) good-bye  1 1 0 0 0 4  great  1 1 0 0 2 2  (R) rah-rah  1 1 0 0 3 1  rum-tum-tum  1 1 0 0 2 9  (H) ha  1 1 0 0 0 5  hello  1 1 0 0 0 6  hi  1 1 0 0 0 7  hm  1 1 0 0 0 8  huh  1 1 0 0 0 9  hey  1 1 0 0 1 0  (S) 1 1 0 0 1 5  screech  (T)  1 1 0 0 3 3  tap tap (W)  (M) my  1 1 0 0 2 5  wham  1 1 0 0 1 6  whee  1 1 0 0 1 7  wow  1 1 0 0 1 8  I n t e r j e c t i o n s  C o n t ' d  w e l l  1 1 0 0 2 3  w a - w a  1 1 0 0 2 7  ( Y )  y e a  1 1 0 0 1 9  y e o o w  1 1 0 0 2 0  y i p p y  1 1 0 0 2 1  y u m  y u m  1 1 0 0 3 2  1 4 2  A P P E N D I X  S A M P L E  S u b j e c t  1 3  ( M a l e  O F  E P L ,  A c a d e m i c :  C H I L D ' S  P M  H  T R A N S C R I P T  C l a s s .  A v e r a g e )  A g e :  6  y e a r s :  2  m o s .  For b r e v i t y on the t r a n s c r i p t s , the zeros were omitted from the s i x d i g i t coding  groups;  f o r example: "030790" would be w r i t t e n as "3-790".  # = phonological unit. for  explanation.  See Chapter 1, page  144 MODE 1 - F r e e p l a y Session oa.0003 OA 0003 03.000(0 U-»3 4-134 1-119 / 3 151 M-ttl 5-5C H-tfl «H VISI 4-5^ 4-3 I ' l l d r i v e home&C . . .Case i s e m p t y G e t a case out the y  020003 o^oot a 3~h4 i V i . 0 3 H-003 M-0S3L , t-_7 4-os? I-^JJ 4-lfcL 3-3.9 c a r # / . . . P o l i c e are coming #/... How e l s e can we get home i f oaoooi •Vjj U-3.  <M  H-»3b  oaooo_"  0*0003  -HOJL  \2rZ.5  y  /  1^3  4-H11  we can't d r i v e a c a r . . Y e a h # / . . . W e 11 get caught#/...I threw V3 the  HooogL* 010003 3-HI4 4-54 , >3i -5*055 3-4»H 4-S$! J_H1 1-35 , U-'iX 3-31.1 keys outlet . . .your e x t r a keys were rofti them#/. . .We're home oaoooc  OI0002. 1-53  1  /  *WU  ^"59,  OPooo /  \4o0o_. 1-51  C-(*3L  4  V3  M8  HHt  /  u  " *  3  1-3)  4-_l4  now#/...Get out#/. . .Please get out pf) the car # ./. . . I ' l l l e t you 0^0003 oaooc? 1400O3L. H-l3(, / 1-31 H-13U 4-23 / 1-13 H-111 3-3tOJ^p3 3-319 drive#./. . .you d r i v e c r a z i e r #/. . .1 f o r g o t my hat (at) home.# ./ . .  oaooot,  lHooo i  oa*oo*  l  Come on I ' l l shoot the c o p s # / . . . I ' l l k i c k the t i r e fofa the 0 3.000 5"  pol-irrp  05L00O3  / >g 4-aao s-is 3-190 / 12-34 carl./. . . He has got b a t t e r e d t i r e # / . . .They 're  3riM4  4-3 71 pulling  4-ioo / overt/...  H-310 T ' i l H-20'x jfetfc l - i t 3-1*4 4-44 l-'iz. i~3i Pretend you got (in) mv t r u c k i n s t e a d of your van and you took 1 0 i %  U-$4 off  %'X 7'3l 4-S1X, 1-14/ 'M-30 H-S10 *7-33L 3~1S(, Ml. and you wrecked i t # '...You're wrecking your t r u c k up#/. . .  Oacoo3 IMI  1-33.  010003 a-n H 3  /  v i a  ~-ao*  .  Oaoool 4-q\ .  oaoooc 4-o« 9-3  Here's your truck# ./. .. i t s a l l wrecked#/. . .Yeah#/.. .Chuck the 1  Wooo-3 1 \4OOQ3 0^000414ooc_ 3-40U kHt 9-3 _-_4_ . S-iDl l&Sa q-3 3-314 , M-3.ot Ifeli q - 3 junk Cn)' the r i v e r # 7. . .Going (to) the hospital#7. . .Going /to)_t__e oaooou W0003 oa.0001 oaooosIH0003 O-OI'? , 4-<?l ll-l« V I 3-0»<» / t-^l , H-IU (,-S<? lo -IS b e a c j h J J . . .Yeah, l e t ' s goftp*)the beach#V. . .Yeahft/. . .Get out((o£S_ 0 W M  01000 I  o  ' i 0 O o S " ^  0  0 0 X  Oiooo^j  I40OOSL,  >\t S-TJL , /U» 4-2.0) mi i-u 3-1«t, y H--347 14>L_D-14 3-3HO, mv t r u c k #J. . . \3Teah,j going (boy wreck mv truck#/. . .Put i t (in) gear!. /. N  145 OaOOOiT  <^ °3 0C  I'll  0 2OQO3  02000 [>  c a r l J. . . Here ' s a gun# . 7. . s t a r t  bust i t # / . . . Jump o u t p H t n e  s h o o t i n g t h e wheels ffi i t # . / . . T h i s i s your car#:/..You.have g o t 02.0007;  f o u r t o f i v e cztQjff/.  . .and you a r e wrecking them a l l up#/. ..  and I o n l y g o t a t r u c k t / . . .and one o t h e r truck(fchaj); works# 1/. . o*xooo2>  Olooo?  oiooot  Yeah, you have g o t f o u r t o f i v e cars#/...Yes you do# .jL. . We 11 oioocl  IHoocS f i r e rocks  H0003  t h e t h i n a s f t / . . . Come on l e t ' s g e t (in? my t r u c k # /  oioooio  oaooot  W0003  IHOoo'f  and we' 11 run tfveft a c a r l .7. . . You can s i t an) the back seat# OloooT 1-31 HHB* W  H0003  i f t i M - 1 3-oat •  /  oa.0010 \HO003v 1-13 4-1 H-ao 1 U H ^ - ' ' 4 - 3  . .  ISO0O3 3-asI J £ >*  0 1  You can s i t En^ the back t h e r e * / . . . I am g o i n gfco)be t h e d r i v e / | OiOOOt  \40003  '  0  X  0  0  0  5  W0003  my trunkft./.. .ThP d r i v e r s i t s QSrp the rigjit.# f. . /Am IQ?ff the l e f t # . y . Olooc^ 0oooo3 0a°°0fe I500O3 l-OiHI-3 3~*5I / >*« H-Sli , ^-3 3-04 J M 8 9-3 I am t h e driver#./. . .We j u s t turned#./.. the back (of/ the truck. OQooot 14 ooo3 oaooo'7 M-X3S H-in 1-tS IS^ H 3-tcly t-U h i t # y f . . l e t ' s go back ftxy t h e p n h i . / . . Y p a h l 1  4-(<H t-Hi. 4-3 Ipt-.'s go g e t the  bag#/. . . l e t ' s go g e t two bags tonight#/:... Go i n and g e t some ©aooo^i oaoou ! fooo3 , \Mi S-of <»-3 . 3-osi , 1343 W s-oi 9-3 3~osli£^ 0,-3 money # J. .. Here s a l l t h e beer #./ . . I' 11 put a l l t h e beer fin) the l  1  150003  02.0004  0 2.000k  1-02% KHjl 3"1«t / M-OSI lOit i m 4-1^9/ 7-31 ^1'^. back# . . . .p f) the t r u c k # y. . • Come • on l e t ' s go ..You g e t o u t and  146 (j 20005" get  o a o o o_,  it#.yC . .That was n i n e , Miss Stephens!/. . . a l l the beer i s  0 2COOS- | 4 oaoo<?3 C-vl f.-<yo Woo jsd^ ? i 3 * 3-L&i , 3-635 V-Vi** - - f t / up here#./..Get overrorh your seat#/. . .Raymond s i t s there#./.. oaoooC. oaoooy o2oo<?f 0  0  o  3  "W3 .j-sfa »HWJ (,-"77 / "W3 ^ V3 3-ar| , j l - l l 1-3i f-«U3 No, I want t o s i t there#/. . . I am the d r i v e r * / . . .0. K. you s i t oiooio 1H0003 oaoooV M l _/ W ' M * " *3t1 7:'*/J£Wt 5-171 3-3V0 t-7t» there#/...Yes we can, we j u s t put lttfin)r e a r gear#/. . .and then 7  3 S  y  it  stays#y...  1 4  M o d e 020005"  1  4  0  0  0  3  -  I n t e r v i e w  w e n t / o n ^ t h e  3-3%  'Ms?  d o g  i s  5 ' 3 l S  f a t * / .  V o 3 . .  . T h a t ' s  i s #}'•/.  . . H e  /  l a u g h i n g * / .  OXOocS  ,  t h e  s - i o i  s - a .  l i t t l e  w o l f  Oaoooi h e  M 3 a l l  0 20ooS  5-fel  I t ' s  . T h e  t r a i n # / .  '0 20 00 9> U - » 1  S e s s i o n  o a.ooo?.  3  *H>3 W e  7  n - ^ s  a n d # . / . . . H e  l i k e  >  r  A M ,  010003  i c k i n j ^ h i m  m e  /  l o o k s ^ l i k  130003  d o e s n ' t  \10 0 0 3  y  u p #  b e c a u s e  h e ' s  0 a oook n  • y. .  w i g g l i n g * O  IX-^H  k-Si  . . T h e y ' r e  o u t  OOOoS"  0  1-13 ^ 7 I p u t  S h c » l l  1-10 h i m  o u t * /  02-OooST  4-ST7  V * H e  - 6-59 : >,  p u s h e d  ^ O o o g t  V*  M S ' , b a c k * /  H -1" 3 U  IO-iH I ' l i that*  l i k e  "7 4K5 H e  4-S17 / w o n ' t * /  HH--SSSS00 w e n t  S-ao3  ^-03 t h e  w r o n g  O1Ooo1  0 aooo4 H-IP^'  H J -  3-433.  p u t s  h i s  l e g s  1-S h a s  H e  s m a l l e r  l e g s * /  h e  oa-oooi'  0 \ O G O 3  14  D 0 0  < * - U $  l i k e him*j... .  C a n '  O  t h e  w a t e r * /  t  g o  ( i r a  3  t h e  w a t e r *  l-« H-M7 he l i v e  . C a n  /.  oaooot,  i O O O S "  C a n  I  H*sx  k e e p  i-io  h o l d i n g  h i m * /  m e *  ./..  . . t h i s  T r y i n g  ^ - g \  L e t  vio h i m  oaoooj L o o k  w a l k  f i n )  j u m p  /.  . P u t  t-yO „ d o w n * /  V?l  I ' m  3-5H7  1  M-io> g o i n g  -Jt  ,  R i g h t * / .  Hooox »es* <to)  u-4o  lAhereft 020002. J u m p  h e r e # . / . . .  t»-f*  w i g g l e  ,  ^7  o n e  4-3*7  o u t ( o f  t-13  w a l k  a w a y  U S . d o w n * /  ./. . ' . . P u t  /.  12-9 . .  .  . .  4-S«l  . H e ' s  1-^,/  i t * . / .  -MO  un*-  3  t-H  .  him (In) t h e r e *  d o w n * /  /.  oa o o o 7- ' « 0  C o m e  oa.0003  /  ~ ^ 1 . . W a i t * / . H  K  /  w i n n i n g * /  ©2.0001  0 2.000 x 4"'^ d-ij. G e t  . Y e a h *  O J o o o X  .  Y e a h *  oiooob  103 i - a x . dQj-h.at# /  him<t>ve:g>  u U O o o x  ,  t h e r e * /  4-31.1  i-fcl  .A...Put  4-SIHo-H.  jHbooa,  S a n d r a *  o n e *  .  \40003  O l O o o i  \400O3(.-11  0 1 0 0 0 5  M-nt  .y.  14000 3.  oxoooa. ;og>  £ G o o e y *  d i f f e r e n t * /  4-SS  (I  3-8 ^  3 - 0 3 w a y * / ; . .  M f l l H O . . . G e t  4-317 . . . M a k e  y /  h e r e * / .  h i m  740 him  148  MODE 2 - S t o r y t e l l i n g  Session  3-33 0 f-5'lS" H-'H3 3-734- mi 1-lX 5-I0I A grandpa was t e l l i n g a s t o r y (boi h i s l i t t l e 0*0003  3-320 ^-"^ g i r l # . . . . Then 0X000(0  4-0 3 5H°l 3"350 9-03 3-330 */-5?fr Mfc t-oj the l i t t l e g i r l read#....the grandpa yawned#....then the u-  5Hol little  0 2.00 I) 3:V3r 5-//V 9-x L-% ^63 5-/0/ 3-320 v-m y - j . 7 - ? k i d got mad#....and then the l i t t l e g i r l read and he n  O i O O t <1  1-5* V-IS1 (,-12. t-7t ^ 3 5-101 was f a l l i n g asleep#....and then the l i t t l e  J-320 <HSt g i r l f e l l asleep  M 4-367. *Hl3 3-34 k£|a ^-03 ^ 1-03 3-330 C/-q and put the bookfojT)the bed#....and the grandpa f e l l asleep#,  A P P E N D I X  I  i  .  A v e r a g e  T o t a l  #  W o r d s  N u m b e r  o f  o f  W o r d s  T o t a l i n  P e r  W o r d s  C - U n i t  C o m m u n i c a t i o n  A v e r a g e W o r d s  U n i t  #  p e r  a n d  p e r  M a z e  U n i t  o f  T o t a l  C - U n i t  i n  f<  W o r d s  M - U n i t  A v e r a g e W o r d s  #  p e r  1  3 5 1  2 9 1  5 . 3 9  6 0  2  2 . 3 0  3 9 1  3 7 8  5 . 7 3  1 3  3  1 . 8 6  3 6 4  3 4 2  4 . 6 2  2 2  4  2 . 2 0  3 2 0  2 9 1  4 . 3 4  2 9  5  2 . 6 4  4 4 8  4 2 2  4 . 1 4  2 6  6  1 . 7 3  3 3 3  3 0 8  4 . 7 4  2 5  7  2 . 7 8  3 9 6  3 7 7  4 . 8 3  1 9  8  2 . 1 1  4 2 2  3 9 1  4 . 7 6  3 1  2 . 0 6  9  3 0 3  2 9 0  4 . 5 3  1 3  1 0  3 . 2 5  3 2 4  2 7 9  4 . 0 4  4 5  1 1  3,  0 0  4 9 0  3 9 9  4 . 9 3  9 1  1 2  3,  3 7  3 3 1  3 1 1  4 . 7 8  2 0  1 3 '  2 , 2 2  5 8 6  5 5 9  5 . 0 4  2 7  1 4  1,  5 1 2  4 5 3  4 . 9 8  5 9  2 , 8 1  1 5  4 9 2  4 4 3  4 . 6 1  4 9  2 ,  3 3  1 6  3 7 7  3 4 4  4 . 4 1  3 3  3 .  0 0  .  8 0  1 7  2 0 9  1 9 5  4 . 3 3  1 4  2 . 0 0  1 8  2 7 3  2 5 8  4 . 8 7  1 5  1 .  6 7  1 9  2 0 8  1 8 0  4 . 5 0  2 8  2 .  5 5  2 0  2 0 1  1 8 4  2 1  2 . 8 3  3 1 0  3 0 4  2 2  3 1 6  2 3 2 4  T o t a l  2 4 8 ^  2 3 7  8 4 2 2  6 . 7 9  1 7  4 . 8 3  6  2 . 0 0  2 9 1  4 . 2 8  2 5  2 . 2 7  "  o f M - U n i t  2 4 7  5 . 7 4  1  1 . 0 0  2 1 5  4 . 6 7  2 2  3 . 6 7  7 7 5 2  4 . 7 4  6 7 0  2 . 4 0  VD  A P P E N D I X  J .  P r o p o r t i o n  T o t a l  #  o f  U t t e r a n c e s  o f  M a z e s  a n d  N u m b e r C - U n i t s  o f  C o m m u n i c a t i o n  %  o f  U n i t  T o t a l  U t t e r a n c e s  i n  T o t a l  C o m m u n i c a t i o n  N u m b e r  o f  M - U n i t s  1  8 0  5 4  6 7 . 5 0  2 6  2  7 3  6 6  9 0 . 4 1  7  3  8 4  7 4  8 8 . 1 0  1 0  %  f o r  o f  C h i l d r e n  T o t a l  U t t e r a n c e s  3 2 . 5 0 9 . 5  9  1 1 . 9 0  4  7 8  6 7  8 5 . 9 0  1 1  1 4 . 1 0  5  1 1 7  1 0 2  8 7 . 1 8  1 5  1 2 . 8 2  6  7 4  6 5  8 7 . 8 4  9  1 2 . 1 6  7  8 7  7 8  8 9 . 6 6  9  1 0 . 3 4 1 5 . 4 6  8  9 7  8 2  8 4 . 5 4  1 5  9  6 8  6 4  9 4 . 1 2  4  5 . 8 8  1 0  8 4  6 9  8 2 . 1 4  1 5  1 7 . 8 6  1 1  1 0 8  8 1  7 5 . 0 0  2 7  2 5 . 0 0  1 2  7 4  6 5  8 7 . 3 4  9  1 1 1  8 8 . 1 0  1 5  1 1 .  9 1  8 1 . 2 5  2 1  1 8 . 7 5  1 3  1 2  1 4  1 1 2  6  1 2 . 1 2 9 0  1 5  1 1 7  9 6  8 2 . 0 5  2 1  1 7 . 9 5  1 6  8 9  7 8  8 7 . 6 4  1 1  1 2 . 3 6  1 7  5 2  4 5  8 6 . 5 4  7  1 3 . 4 6  1 8  6 2  5 3  8 5 . 4 8  9  1 4 . 5 2  1 9  5 1  4 0  7 8 . 4 3  1 1  2 1 . 5 7 1 5 . 3 8  2 0  3 9  3 3  8 4 . 6 2  6  2 1  6 6  6 3  9 5 . 4 5  3  4 . 5 5  2 2  7 9  6 8  8 6 . 0 8  1 1  1 3 . 9 2  4 3  9 7 . 7 3  1  2 . 2 7  4 6 .  8 8 . 4 6  _ 6  1 1 . 5 4  8 5 . 4 2  2 7 9  1 4 . 5 8  2 3  4 4  2 4  _5_2  T o t a l  1 9 1 3  1 6 3 4  151 BIBLIOGRAPHY Amsden, Constance; "Oral Language and P r i n t e d Word Reading," i n Malcolm P. Douglass (Ed.), The Claremont C o l l e g e Conference Yearbook. Claremont, C a l i f o r n i a : Claremont Graduate School, 1964, 90-94. A n i s f i e l d , Mosche & Tucker, R i c h a r d G; " E n g l i s h P l u r a l i z a t i o n Rules o f Six-Year O l d C h i l d r e n i n C.A. Ferguson & D.I. S l o b i n , (Eds.) S t u d i e s o f C h i l d Language Development, New York: H o l t , Rhinehart & Winston, Inc., 1973, 211-266. A r t h u r , L; A C r o s s - L i n g u i s t i c I n v e s t i g a t i o n o f the O r a l Language of T h i r d Grade C h i l d r e n & The Language o f the B a s a l Reader: The U n i t e d S t a t e s & Japan. Unpublished D o c t o r a l D i s s e r t a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y o f Georgia, 1972. Bateman, B. and W e t h e r e l l , J ; P s y c h o l i n g u i s t i c Aspects o f Mental R e t a r d a t i o n . Mental R e t a r d a t i o n 3, 1965, 8-13. Bohn, H; A S y n t a c t i c a l C h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n o f the O r a l Language of S e l e c t e d B r a z i l i a n Kindergarten C h i l d r e n Compared t o the Language Used i n the Language Used i n the Primers, To Teach Them t o Read. Unpublished D o c t o r a l D i s s e r t a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y o f Texas a t A u s t i n , 19 77. B u l l o c k , A; A Language f o r L i f e , Report of the Committee of I n q u i r y Appointed by the S e c r e t a r y o f State f o r Education and Science (London, HMSO), 1975. Bush, C l i f f o r d & Robert C. Andrews; D i c t i o n a r y of Reading and Learning D i s a b i l i t i e s Terms. E d u c a t i o n a l & P s y c h o l o g i c a l A s s o c i a t e s Press, New J e r s e y , 1973. C a l f e e , Robert C. & P r i s c i l l a A. Drum; Theory, Research and P r a c t i c e , " OISE, John Wiley & Sons, 1978.  "Learning t o Read: Curriculum I n q u i r y 8:3,  C h a l l , Jeanne S; Learning t o Read: The Great Debate, H i l l , New York, 196 7.  McGraw-  Chomsky, C a r o l ; The A c q u i s i t i o n o f Syntax i n C h i l d r e n From F i v e to Ten. Cambridge, Mass. MIT Press, 1969. C h o t l o s , J.W.; "Studies i n Language Behavior: IV, A S t a t i s t i c a l & Comparative A n a l y s i s o f I n d i v i d u a l W r i t t e n Language Samples," P s y c h o l o g i c a l Monograph, 56, (1944), 75-111. Chuvosky, K.; From Two t o F i v e , Press, B e r k l e y , 1963.  U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a  Dempsey, D e i r d r e ; A Comparison o f the Language o f C h i l d r e n and That o f Current I n t r o d u c t o r y Readers, Unpublished Paper, 1978.  152 Fagan, W.T.; An I n v e s t i g a t i o n Into The R e l a t i o n s h i p Between Reading D i f f i c u l t y and The Number and Types of Sentence T r a n s f o r m a t i o n ^ Unpublished D o c t o r a l D i s s e r t a t i o n , The U n i v e r s i t y o f A l b e r t a , 1970. Fagan, W i l l i a m T.; • "Transformations and Comprehension," Reading Teacher , XXV (November, 1971), 169-172. F i e g e l , S.; Non-Parametic S t a t i s t i c s f o r the B e h a v i o r a l S c i e n c e s , McGraw-Hill: New York, 1956. F o s t e r , S.C.; Language S k i l l s f o r C h i l d r e n With P e r s i s t e n t A r t i c u l a t o r y Disorders. Unpublished Master's T h e s i s , Texas Women's U n i v e r s i t y , 1963. Frogner, E l l e n ; Problems o f Sentence S t r u c t u r e i n P u p i l ' s Themes. E n g l i s h J o u r n a l , 22, 1933, 742-749. F r y , Maurice A.; A T r a n s f o r m a t i o n a l A n a l y s i s o f the O r a l Language S t r u c t u r e Used by Two Reading Groups a t the Second Grade Level, Unpublished D o c t o r a l D i s s e r t a t i o n , The U n i v e r s i t y o f Iowa, 1967. Gardner, Dorothy Jean; The E f f e c t s o f O r a l and W r i t t e n Language P a t t e r n s on Comprehension Among Beginning Readers, Unpublished D o c t o r a l D i s s e r t a t i o n , Temple U n i v e r s i t y , 1979. Ginn & Company; Reading and the Language A r t s , Canada, 1979. Ginn & Company; Reading 72 0, Teacher's E d i t i o n , A Duck i s a Duck. Canada, 1978. Goodman, K.S.; " D i a l e c t B a r r i e r s i n Reading Comprehension," i n J.C. Baratz and R.W. Shuy (Eds.), Teaching B l a c k C h i l d r e n to Read, A r l i n g t o n , V i r g i n i a : CAL, 1969, 14-28. Goodman, K.S.; "The P s y c h o l i n g u i s t i c Nature of the Reading P r o c e s s , " K.S. Goodman (Ed.), The P s y c h o l i n g u i s t i c Nature o f the Reading Process, D e t r o i t : Wayne State U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1968, 15-26. Goodman, K.S.; "The Key i s i n C h i l d r e n ' s Language," Teacher, 1972, 505-508.  Reading  Goodman, K.S.; "Reading: A P s y c h o l i n g u i s t i c Guessing Game," i n Harry Singer and Robert B. R u d d e l l (Eds.), T h e o r e t i c a l Models & Process of Reading, Newark, Delaware: IRA, 1970, 259-272. Goodman, K.S.; " P s y c h o l i n g u i s t i c U n i v e r s a l s i n the Reading Process," i n F. Smith (Ed.), P s y c h o l i n g u i s t i c s and Reading, New York: H o l t , Rhinehart & Winston, Inc., 1973, 21-27.  153  Goodman, K.S.; "A L i n g u i s t i c Study o f Cues and Miscues i n Reading," Elementary E n g l i s h , V o l . 42 (October 1965), 639-643. Goodman, Y e t t a M. & C.L. Burke; Reading Miscue Inventory Manual, New York: M a c M i l l a n P u b l i s h i n g Co., Inc. 1972. Handscombe, R.; F i v e to Nine: Aspects o f F u n c t i o n and S t r u c t u r e i n the Spoken Language of Elementary School C h i l d r e n ^ Toronto: York U n i v e r s i t y and Board o f E d u c a t i o n f o r the Borough of North York, 1972. Hart, N.W.M.; A P s y c h o l i n g u i s t i c Approach t o the D i a g n o s i s and Remediation o f D e f i c i t S t a t e s i n C h i l d r e n R e s u l t i n g from Primary Language D e p r i v a t i o n . Unpublished D o c t o r a l T h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y of Queensland, !T9~70. Hart, Walker, Gray; The Language o f C h i l d r e n - A Key to L i t e r a c y , Addison-Wessley: Menlo Park, C a l i f o r n i a ,  1977.  Hatch, Evelyn; Four Experimental S t u d i e s i n Syntax o f C h i l d r e n , Southwest Regional E d u c a t i o n a l Lab, Inglewood, C a l i f o r n i a ERIC 039250, 1970. Heider, F r i t z & Heider, Grace; A Comparison o f Sentence S t r u c t u r e of Deaf and Hearing C h i l d r e n . P s y c h o l o g i c a l Monographs, 52, No. 1, 1940, 42-103. Hunt, K.W.; Grammatical S t r u c t u r e s W r i t t e n a t Three Grade Champaign, I l l i n o i s NCTE, 1965.  Levels,  Huttenlocher, J . ; C h i l d r e n ' s Language: Word Phrase R e l a t i o n s h i p . i n C h i l d Language, A Book o f Readings, Ed. by Aaron Bar-Adon and Werner F. Leopold. Englewood C l i f f s , N.J., P r e n t i c e H a l l , 1971. Jesperson, Otto; Language: I t s Nature, Development London: A l l e n & Unwin, 1922.  & Origin.  Johnson, Wendell; "Studies i n Language Behavior: I. A Program of Research," P s y c h o l i n g u i s t i c Monographs, (1944), 56:2. L i n n , John (General E d i t o r ) ; Language P a t t e r n s , Teacher's Resource Book, H o l t , Rhinehart & Winston of Canada, L t d . , Toronto: 19 76. Loban, W.; Stages, V e l o c i t y & P r e d i c t i o n o f Language Development, K-12. U.S. Dept. of H e a l t h , E d u c a t i o n & Welfare, O f f i c e of E d u c a t i o n , ERIC, U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a , 1970. Loban, W.; Problems i n O r a l E n g l i s h , K i n d e r g a r t e n Through Grade Nine, N a t i o n a l C o u n c i l of Teachers, Champaign, I l l i n o i s ,  1966.  154  Loban, W.; The Language o f Elementary School C h i l d r e n , NCTE Research Report, No. 1, Champaign, I l l i n o i s : N a t i o n a l C o u n c i l of Teachers o f E n g l i s h , 1963. Loban, W.; Language Development, Urbana, I l l i n o i s . C o u n c i l of Teachers o f E n g l i s h , 1976. Low,  National  Labrent; "A Study of C e r t a i n Language Developments o f C h i l d r e n i n Grades 4-12 I n c l u s i v e , " Genetic Psychological Monographs, 14:4 (1933), 387-394.  L u t z , J . ; "Some Comments on P s y c h o l i n g u i s t i c Research & E d u c a t i o n , " The Reading Teacher, October 1974, 36-39. McCabe, P.P.; E f f e c t Upon Comprehension of Mathematical M a t e r i a l Prepatterned on the B a s i s of O r a l Language. ERIC, ED. 140275, May 1977, 21. Paper presented a t the Annual Meeting of the I n t e r n a t i o n a l Reading A s s o c i a t i o n (22nd, Miami Beach, F l o r i d a , May 2-6, 1977). McLeod, J . ; D y s l e x i a i n Young C h i l d r e n , A F a c t o r i a l Study, w i t h S p e c i a l Reference t o the I l l i n o i s T e s t of P s y c h o l i n g u i s t i c A b i l i t i e s , I.R.E.C. Papers, V o l . 2., No. 1, 1967. MacKay, David; B r i a n Thompson; Pancha Schaub; Breakthrough t o L i t e r a c y - Teacher's Resource Book, Bowmar: G l e n d a l e , 1973. Mathews, Mathew M.; Teaching t o Read, Chicago: U n i v e r s i t y o f Chicago P r e s s , 1966. Menyuk, Paula; Sentences C h i l d r e n Use, Press, 196"9~T Moe,  Cambridge, Mass.,  MIT  Alden J . , & Timothy R. Rush; P r e d i c t i n g F i r s t - G r a d e Reading Achievement from S e l e c t e d Measures of O r a l Language Performance, Paper presented a t the Annual Meeting of the N a t i o n a l Reading Conference (2 7th, New O r l e a n s , Dec. 1-3, 1977).  O'Donnell, R., W. G r i f f i n & R. N o r r i s ; Syntax of K i n d e r g a r t e n & Elementary School C h i l d r e n : A T r a n s f o r m a t i o n a l A n a l y s i s . Champaign, I l l i n o i s : N a t i o n a l C o u n c i l of Teachers o f E n g l i s h , 1963. O'Donnell, R., W. G r i f f i n & R. N o r r i s ; "A T r a n s f o r m a t i o n a l A n a l y s i s of O r a l & W r i t t e n Grammatical S t r u c t u r e s i n the Language of C h i l d r e n t o Grades 3, 5 and 7," The J o u r n a l of E d u c a t i o n a l Research, 61, No. 1, Sept. 1967, 35-39. O ' N e i l , W.; "Properly L i t e r a t e , " i n The P o l i t i c s o f L i t e r a c y , M a r t i n Hoyles (Ed.), W r i t e r s & Readers P u b l i s h i n g C o o p e r a t i v e : London, 1977, 73-77.  155 O'Rourke, J.P.; Toward a Science of V o c a b u l a r y P a r i s : Mouton, 1975.  Development,  R i l i n g , Mildred; O r a l & W r i t t e n Language of C h i l d r e n i n Grades 4 & 6 Compared w i t h the Language o f T h e i r Textbooks"^ United S t a t e s Department o f H e a l t h , E d u c a t i o n , and W e l f a r e . O f f i c e o f E d u c a t i o n , C o o p e r a t i v e Research P r o j e c t No. 2410, Durant, Oklahoma: Southeastern S t a t e C o l l e g e , 1965. R u d d e l l , R.; "The E f f e c t of O r a l & W r i t t e n P a t t e r n s o f Language S t r u c t u r e on Reading Comprehension," The Reading Teacher, January 1965, 270-275. Ryan, E. & Melyn I. Semmel; "Reading as a C o n s t r u c t i v e Language Process," Reading Research Q u a r t e r l y , F a l l , 1969, 59. Schools Department C i r c u l a r , Department B.C., November 1978, 6.  of Education,  Victoria,  Smith, E., Goodman, S., &:Meredith, R.; The Reading P r o c e s s : A P s y c h o l i n g u i s t i c View. In Resources i n Reading Language I n s t r u c t i o n , ed. by R u d d e l l , Ahern, Hartson, and T a y l o r . Englewood C l i f f s , N.J.: P r e n t i c e - H a l l , 1974. Smith, F.; Understanding Reading. & Winston, 1971.  New  York: H o l t , Rhinehart  Springer, Judith; A u d i t o r y D i s c r i m i n a t i o n & Reading Achievement of Puerto Rican Spanish-Speaking F i r s t - G r a d e Students, Unpublished Ed. T h e s i s , Rutgers U n i v e r s i t y , New J e r s e y , 1975. Stevens, M.; " I n t o n a t i o n i n the Teaching of Reading," Elementary E n g l i s h , 1965, 42, 231-37. S t r i c k l a n d , Ruth; The Language of Elementary School C h i l d r e n : I t s R e l a t i o n s h i p to the Language of the Reading Textbooks and the Q u a l i t y o f Reading of S e l e c t e d C h i l d r e n . Bulletin o f the School o f E d u c a t i o n , 38, Bloomington, Indiana: Indiana U n i v e r s i t y , 1962. Tatham, S.; "Reading Comprehension o f M a t e r i a l W r i t t e n w i t h S e l e c t e d Language P a t t e r n s : A Study o f Grades Two and Four," Reading Research Q u a r t e r l y , V. (Spring, 1970), 402-06. Tempiin, M i l d r e d C.; C e r t a i n Language S k i l l s i n C h i l d r e n , C h i l d Welfare Monograph, S e r i e s No. 2~, M i n n e a p o l i s : U n i v e r s i t y of Minnesota P r e s s , 1957. Watts, A.F.; The Language & Mental Development Boston: D.C.,, Heath & Co., 1948.  of C h i l d r e n ,  156  Werner, H. & Kaplan, E.; Development of Word Meaning Through V e r b a l Context, An Experimental Study. J o u r n a l of Psychology, 29, 1950,~251-257. W i l l i a m s , D.L.; "Rewritten Science M a t e r i a l s and Reading Comprehension," J o u r n a l of E d u c a t i o n Research, LXI (Jan. 1968), 204-06. Witz, K.; A n a l y s i s o f Frameworks i n Young C h i l d r e n , Paper^ U n i v e r s i t y o f I l l i n o i s , 1970.  Unpublished  Witz, K. & D. Goodwin; General G u i d e l i n e s f o r I n t e r v i e w s , Unpublished paper, U n i v e r s i t y o f I l l i n o i s , 1970.  

Cite

Citation Scheme:

        

Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics

Share

Embed

Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                        
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            src="{[{embed.src}]}"
                            data-item="{[{embed.item}]}"
                            data-collection="{[{embed.collection}]}"
                            data-metadata="{[{embed.showMetadata}]}"
                            data-width="{[{embed.width}]}"
                            async >
                            </script>
                            </div>
                        
                    
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:
http://iiif.library.ubc.ca/presentation/dsp.831.1-0055138/manifest

Comment

Related Items