Open Collections

UBC Theses and Dissertations

UBC Theses Logo

UBC Theses and Dissertations

The beautiful in form and colour : art education curriculum in British Columbia between the wars Rogers, Anthony William 1983

Your browser doesn't seem to have a PDF viewer, please download the PDF to view this item.

Item Metadata

Download

Media
831-UBC_1983_A8 R63.pdf [ 8.03MB ]
Metadata
JSON: 831-1.0055137.json
JSON-LD: 831-1.0055137-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 831-1.0055137-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: 831-1.0055137-rdf.json
Turtle: 831-1.0055137-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 831-1.0055137-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 831-1.0055137-source.json
Full Text
831-1.0055137-fulltext.txt
Citation
831-1.0055137.ris

Full Text

C • I THE B E A U T I F U L I N FORM AND COLOUR: ART EDUCATION CURRICULUM IN B R I T I S H COLUMBIA BETWEEN THE WARS By ANTHONY W I L L I A M ROGERS B . E d . , The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1 9 6 8 A T H E S I S SUBMITTED IN P A R T I A L F U L F I L L M E N T OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n THE F A C U L T Y OF GRADUATE S T U D I E S ( C e n t r e f o r t h e S t u d y o f C u r r i c u l u m a n d I n s t r u c t i o n ) We a c e e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g t o t h e r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE U N I V E R S I T Y OF B R I T I S H COLUMBIA AUGUST 1983 ( C ) • A n t h o n y W i l l i a m R o g e r s , 1983 In presenting t h i s thesis i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the Library s h a l l make i t f r e e l y available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of t h i s thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. I t i s understood that copying or publication of t h i s thesis for f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my written permission. Department of The University of B r i t i s h Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 E-6 (.3/81) ABSTRACT Art education has always had a place i n the p u b l i c school cur-riculum of B r i t i s h Columbia. By the end of the f i r s t world war t h i s subject was well established under the t i t l e of "Drawing", and also played a part i n "Manual Art s " and "Nature Study". However, a r t educa-t i o n means more than the prescribed curriculum. I t must also include what was taught to teachers as a r t education at the normal schools and summer schools and what was a c t u a l l y taught to students i n the schools. In popular thought the interwar period i s divided i n t o two parts, predepression and depression. However, the economic depression l e f t the i n s t i t u t i o n of education r e l a t i v e l y unscathed and, i n f a c t , education developed throughout the n i n e t e e n - t h i r t i e s . The p h y s i c a l i s o l a t i o n of communities, which led to a d i v i s i o n between the large urban schools and the small r u r a l ones, probably played a greater role than the depression i n determining education as did the subtle influence of the B r i t i s h majority among the population. In a r t education an important i n d i r e c t influence was the growth of the a r t i s t i c community and the development of a definable west coast s t y l e . I f one man held a pre-eminent p o s i t i o n i n B.C. a r t and a r t education, i t was William P. Weston. He achieved prominence as a painter and provided a key influence i n the growth of the B.C. s t y l e . He played a s i g n i f i c a n t role in the development of the a r t education curriculum during the nineteen-twenties and was l a r g e l y responsible f o r the changes that were i n s t i t u t e d i n the 1936*-1937 curriculum r e v i s i o n . He co-authored the 1924 B.C. a r t text and rewrote i t alone i n 1933. At the Vancouver Normal School and at the summer schools i n V i c t o r i a he personally taught a r t education to many of the province's teachers and no other i n d i v i d u a l enjoyed as great an opportunity to influence so many. His approach to art education was, i n e f f e c t , that which was current i n B r i t i s h educa-t i o n before h i s departure from England i n 1909. While such ideas were la r g e l y abandoned i n B r i t a i n during the following years, he continued to develop and modify them i n B r i t i s h Columbia. This l e d B.C. educa-t i o n to develop i n some unique ways and the "New" education and "Pro-gressivism" did not have the impact on B.C. a r t education that i t had elsewhere. Teacher t r a i n i n g i n a r t education at the two Normal Schools followed the prescribed curriculum quite c l o s e l y . At V i c t o r i a the teaching was competent but uninspired, while i n Vancouver Weston had a strong emotional and i n s p i r a t i o n a l e f f e c t on h i s students. However, at both schools the teaching was s k i l l oriented and involved a good deal of copying. This, i n the pu b l i c schools, often l e d to a rather r i g i d system of a r t teaching and p a r t i c u l a r l y so i n the city, schools where the text tended to be followed s l a v i s h l y without concern f o r the underlying philosophy. In r u r a l schools a r t was very often neglected. In some cases i t was not taught at a l l while i n others the emphasis was on p r a c t i c a l arts with l i t t l e regard f o r the prescribed curriculum. Teachers often did not have the text and the shortage of supplies l e d to them using materials students could obtain free from home. A l l i n a l l i t could be sa i d that what a c t u a l l y took place i n the schools f a i l e d to r e f l e c t the intent of the curriculum and that a r t was the poor r e l a t i o n among the subjects. TABLE OF CONTENTS ABSTRACT i i LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS . V CHAPTER ONE r " Taking Up the Search 1 CHAPTER TWO - Widening the. Search 9 CHAPTER THREE - Outside Influences . . 33 CHAPTER FOUR - The Paint Slinger . . . 51 CHAPTER FIVE - The Curriculum Prescribed 82 CHAPTER SIX - The P r e s c r i p t i o n Interpreted . . . . 108 CHAPTER SEVEN - The Interpretation Translated . . . . . . . 126 CONCLUSION 146 SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY 150 i v LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS Figure 1 I l l u s t r a t i o n s from William Dyce's Drawing Book, 1842 18 2 Graph Showing Per Capita Expenditure on Education: 1921-1939 42 3 W.P. Weston: Early Snapshots 63 4 Art Room at the P r o v i n c i a l Normal School, . V i c t o r i a 112 5 A Comparison of Plates i n A Teacher's Manual of Drawing with Drawings Made by a Student at Vancouver Normal School 117 6 An I l l u s t r a t i o n by S.P. Judge from B.C. Teacher, May 1935 130 v CHAPTER ONE TAKING UP THE SEARCH Art education has been a part of the B.C. curriculum since the s t a r t of the p u b l i c school system i n 1872. The subjectsstaught as Art have d i f f e r e d at various times, theories about a r t education have changed, and the pragmatic reasons for including a r t have a l t e r e d . The importance of a r t i n the curriculum has varied r e l a t i v e to other subjects, but a r t has always been there. This thesis examines a r t edu-cation i n the p u b l i c schools of B r i t i s h Columbia during the interwar years and traces the development of the curriculum from 1923 to 1937. I t i d e n t i f i e s the role of a r t education i n the o v e r a l l school programme and shows that the B.C. a r t curriculum had i t s roots i n B r i t i s h ideas of a r t education current at the beginning of the century. Because education does not e x i s t i n a vacuum the thesis considers s o c i a l and economic factors a f f e c t i n g the province i n s o f a r as they may have had an e f f e c t on B.C. education. The thesis does not consider a r t education i n the senior secondary schools, the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, or the Vancouver School of Art"*" except as they may r e l a t e to p u b l i c school a r t . I t i s not concerned with a r t education outside the province unless t h i s a f -fects B.C. a r t education. However, by i n v e s t i g a t i n g the place that t h i s subject occupied i n the o v e r a l l school curriculum of B.C., the thesis explores that curriculum's usefulness and appropriateness for the period. The f i r s t task i s to c l a r i f y the various terms used throughout 1 2 t h i s t h e s i s . Because the meaning of words can change or become modi-f i e d over time, i t i s necessary to e s t a b l i s h how c e r t a i n words are being used. We f i n d here that two terms i n p a r t i c u l a r cause problems, namely a r t and p u b l i c schools. We use both these terms confidently, but going back only s i x t y years we f i n d some s i g n i f i c a n t differences i n meaning. Today, by public schools we understand the school system, funded by government, from kindergarten to grade twelve. U n t i l 1923 i t meant the school system, funded by government, covering three grades. Junior, Intermediate and Senior. In that year the system changed to an eight grade one and the schools were renamed "elementary schools." So we have a much more l i m i t e d d e f i n i t i o n of the terms than that used i n the modern sense. With a r t we have a somewhat d i f f e r e n t problem. Since the term as such d i d not e x i s t i n the elementary Pro- grammes of Study, the thesis studies those aspects of the curriculum which come c l o s e s t to what would be considered Art today. This means defin i n g Art as the subject of Drawing as described i n the Programmes 2 of Study during the peri o d studied, together with most of Manual Arts from grades one to f i v e and a small part of Nature Study. I have discussed these terms at some length as the meaning of language, of i n d i v i d u a l words, of expressions, or of ideas, poses a r e a l problem i n any research. I t i s a r e l a t i v e l y simple problem when the language i s obviously d i f f e r e n t , but so often the term i s s t i l l current, yet has a subtly d i f f e r e n t meaning. An example i s Drawing. Today we usually l i m i t the term to the use of a medium such as p e n c i l , pen, or charcoal, but, i n the B.C. curriculum guides before 1936, i t 3 also meant pai n t i n g using watercolour or other tempera media. R e l a t i v e l y l i t t l e research has been done on education i n B r i t i s h Columbia during the interwar years and almost none at a l l on B.C. a r t education. Such as there i s w i l l be considered with the Secondary sources i n the next chapter. Here I w i l l discuss some p r i -mary sources. Perhaps the most obvious source i s the curriculum guide, which was c a l l e d Course of Study u n t i l 1925 and Programme of Study thereafter. The guide, whatever i t s o f f i c i a l name, described the prescribed Drawing, Manual Arts and Nature Study programmes b r i e f l y but s u c c i n c t l y . In respect to Drawing the teacher was r e f e r r e d to 3 the Manual of Drawing and Design, l a t e r rewritten as the Manual of 4 Drawing, and these texts were more or l e s s the prescribed curriculum. One might be tempted to assume that the prescribed curriculum gave the information that was needed, that t h i s was a r t education i n the interwar period. But such would not be a reasonable assumption. A number of other questions must s t i l l be answered. How was the prescribed curriculum interpreted before i t was taught, f o r example? Simply reading;involves i n t e r p r e t a t i o n and so the various influences that may a f f e c t a reader's i n t e r p r e t a t i o n should be looked at;- These influences could include the economic climate, s o c i a l f a c t o r s , the prevalent trends i n a r t of the time, popular a r t forms and so on. A further most important influence would be how the curriculum was taught to the teachers and how the teachers thought they ought to teach a r t , which i s not n e c e s s a r i l y the same thing. And then the question must be asked of what was a c t u a l l y taught i n the schools 4 a,nd whether there were s i g n i f i c a n t differences between c i t y and r u r a l schools. By and large the answers to these questions must be looked for in the primary sources since secondary sources are so li m i t e d . In one way t h i s may be an advantage since the researcher i s forced to use o r i g i n a l material,' but i n another way i t i s a d i s -advantage as the possible richness of another researcher's work i s not a v a i l a b l e to be reinfo r c e d or counterbalanced. For the educational researcher i n B.C. p a r t i a l answers to 5 many questions can be found i n the Annual Report of the Public Schools, published by the Department of Education i n the f a l l of each year. Each issue throughout the interwar period contained the report of each inspector; each Normal School p r i n c i p a l , the Superintendent of Education, the Director of the Summer School and so on. In addition there was a wealth of s t a t i s t i c a l data and even p i c t u r e s . The reports of the inspectors give valuable clues about what was, or was not, be-ing taught i n the schools. While t h e i r short synopses of the year cannot give much d e t a i l , i t seems reasonable to suppose that what was mentioned was considered important by the writer and so should be taken s e r i o u s l y . Another clue to what was being taught i n the schools can be found i n the report of the text-book branch, where the number of texts and supplies issued were l i s t e d . For what was being taught to teachers about a r t the Annual provided much d e t a i l i n the report of the summer school d i r e c t o r . Often accompanied by pict u r e s of a r t and c r a f t work, hi s d e t a i l e d summary always had a large part devoted to creative courses taught at the summer school. However, the reports by the p r i n c i p a l s of 5 Normal Schools provided l i t t l e d e t a i l about courses. For that i t i s necessary to look elsewhere. The search for what was taught about a r t at the Normal Schools i s l e s s d i f f i c u l t than i t might be, due i n large part to the r e l a t i v e l y small number of changes i n personnel during the period under i n v e s t i g a -t i o n . There were only two Normal Schools, at Vancouver and V i c t o r i a , and only three A r t Masters i n t o t a l with whom i t i s necessary to be concerned. William Percy Weston taught a r t at Vancouver from 1914 to 1946, Harry Dunnell was at V i c t o r i a from 1915 to 1931 and was succeeded by John Gough, who stayed u n t i l 1942. Since the majority of teachers i n the province went to the two Normal Schools (the Survey of the 6 School System stated i n 1925 that seventy-eight percent were trained i n these two schools), i t can be seen that they must have had a wide-spread e f f e c t on a r t education i n B r i t i s h Columbia. William P. Weston had a much greater influence than j u s t as a teacher at the Normal School and h i s r o l e w i l l be considered^'.separately i n some d e t a i l . Having established the importance of the Normal Schools how can we know what was taught there? There are almost no secondary sources of information and, since the question r e a l l y being asked i s , "What--did the''.student-teachers learn?" The -principal-.way. to get an answer i s to ask the people who went to the Normal Schools. Fortunately the twenties and t h i r t i e s are s t i l l within l i v i n g memory and so i t was possible to interview r e t i r e d teachers and ask ju s t that question. This kind of information can be suspect, as i t r e l i e s on memories and the human memory i s not always p r e c i s e , but, i f several people t e l l you 6 the same thing, then the information gains greater c r e d i b i l i t y . The interviews also l e d to the discovery of some other valuable primary Sources, A number of those interviewed s t i l l keep t h e i r notebooks from Normal School and the two examined c l e a r l y show what was taught i n the a r t education classes. A comparison of the notebooks from d i f -ferent years also shows the l i m i t e d changes made i n the Normal School 7 courses over a period of time. Retired teachers have also proved a valuable source of i n f o r -mation about what was a c t u a l l y taught i n the schools, but since each informant taught i n a d i f f e r e n t school i t was more d i f f i c u l t to get corroborating evidence. Interviews with those who were c h i l d r e n at the time had p a r t i c u l a r l i m i t a t i o n s since childhood memories are often vague or rosetinted. Actual examples of the children's a r t work have l a r g e l y disappeared. That which remains i s more l i k e l y to be the exceptional rather than the humdrum and the chances of f i n d i n g a l l of a c h i l d ' s work completed during an extended period i s extremely u n l i k e l y . I t must be remembered that the c h i l d ' s work would have been done over a period of eight years, or more. So with an area of study which i s most important the researcher i s reduced to f i n d i n g snippets here and snippets there, then attempting to piece them into a cohesive whole. But the r i g h t pieces and the r i g h t luck may well prove successful. S o c i a l and economic factors are considered i n order to give some background to the study, to provide a screen, so to speak, on which to project a p i c t u r e . The thesis does not attempt to e s t a b l i s h 7 a cause and e f f e c t r e l a t i o n s h i p between the s o c i a l or economic f a c t o r s and education, nor does i t attempt to give more than a glimpse of a complex and everchanging s u b j e c t ; However, i t i s hoped t h a t t h i s glimpse w i l l enable education, and a r t education i n p a r t i c u l a r , t o be put i n t o some k i n d of context of pla c e and time. As p r e p a r a t i o n f o r c o n s i d e r i n g the curr i c u l u m d i r e c t l y , the next two chapters deal w i t h secondary sources of inf o r m a t i o n and r e -view the l i t e r a t u r e , then disc u s s some s o c i a l and economic f a c t o r s . 8 FOOTNOTES "*"The school opened i n 1925 as the Vancouver School of Decor-t i v e and Applied Arts under the auspices of the Vancouver School Board. 2 The name was changed from Courses of Study i n 1923 when the eight grade system was introduced. The name Programme of Study was used u n t i l the curriculum r e v i s i o n of 1936. Curriculum guides were issued i r r e g u l a r l y . For a r t educators those of 1923 and 1925 were important. Later ones showed very l i t t l e change i n p r e s c r i p t i o n u n t i l 1936. 3 Charles Scott, William P. Weston, and S.R. Judge, Manual  of Drawing and Design. (Toronto: Thomas Nelson & Sons, 1924). 4 William P. Weston, A Teacher's Manual of Drawing. (Toronto: Thomas Nelson & Sons, 1933). 5 Annual Report of the Public Schools. ( V i c t o r i a : King 1s P r i n t e r ) . The report i s issued every year. 6 G.H. Putman and G.M. Weir, Survey of the School System. ( V i c t o r i a ; King's P r i n t e r , 1925). For example, those of Isabel Johnston (1920) and Marjorie Clark (1934). They show a remarkable s i m i l a r i t y despite being fourteen years apart. CHAPTER TWO WIDENING THE SEARCH An • "inevitable problem when dealing with the educational h i s t o r y of B r i t i s h Columbia i s the paucity of secondary sources. There i s , of course, F. Henry Johnson's o ld standby, A History of  Public Education i n B r i t i s h Columbia,"*" which has been a v a i l a b l e since 1964, I t never did have pretensions beyond being a survey and ade-quately performed i t s unpretentious task. No-one to date has attempted a more ambitious or exhaustive general h i s t o r y , which i s perhaps i n -di c a t i v e of what a vast task i t s w r i t i n g would be. However, to help f i l l the gap, there has more recently been published a number of books of c o l l e c t e d essays. The exce l l e n t Schooling and Society i n B r i t i s h  Columbia (J. Donald Wilson and David C. Jones, eds.) i s well worth perusal, not only f o r Wilson's introduction, "The Historiography of 3 B r i t i s h Columbia Educational History',',' which does much to confirm the lack of h i s t o r i c a l w r itings, and for the exce l l e n t bibliography by 4 Frances M. Woodward, but more p a r t i c u l a r l y f o r the essays themselves. A l l deal with d i f f e r e n t facets of education towards the beginning of the twentieth century and help to bring the period a l i v e f o r the reader, whether concerning the greater issue of mass pu b l i c schooling or the smaller h i g h l i g h t of the Vernon Preparatory School. Shaping the  Schools of the Canadian West, (David C. Jones, Nancy M. Sheehan and Robert M. Stamp, eds.),^ though not r e s t r i c t e d to B r i t i s h Columbia, also contains some very useful material i n a complementary way. In his introduction, r e f e r r e d to above, Wilson mentions N e i l Sutherland's 9 10 6 Children i n English-Canadian Society, 1880 - 1920, pointing out that, although i t has a national perspective, i t does provide "an exce l l e n t s t a r t i n g point f o r any student of the h i s t o r y of childhood, youth and, 7 education i n B r i t i s h Columbia." In the f i e l d of unpublished materials D.L. MacLaurin's d i s s e r t a t i o n "A History of Education i n the Crown Colony of Vancouver Island and B r i t i s h Columbia and i n the Province of Q B r i t i s h Columbia'' has stood alone since 1937 as a general l i s t i n g of B.C. education. A l l of these examples of B.C. educational h i s t o r y , however, have one thing in.common; they barely mention a r t education. This i n i t s e l f may be evidence of the r e l a t i v e l y unimportant r o l e assigned to the subject by e i t h e r h i s t o r i a n s or educators generally, but t h i s i s negative evidence and of l i m i t e d value. However, such books as those l i s t e d above are important i n that they provide some general background material concerning education i n the province. Turning from more general h i s t o r i e s to the more s p e c i f i c , one searches i n vain f o r any published material on B.C. a r t education during the interwar period. Doctoral d i s s e r t a t i o n s or masters' theses are s i m i l a r l y non-existent and one i s reduced to searching for graduate papers on the subject. Some do e x i s t but tend to be fragmentary i n concept or shallow i n research. To give j u s t two examples, Margaret Morris's 1978 paper, "The Roots of Art Education i n X B r i t i s h Columbia: 9 a General History," consists i n large part of a s e l e c t i o n of xeroxed primary sources, short interviews with various art educators, and gossipy anecdotes from a number of sources, some acknowledged, but many 11 not. There i s no narrative thread, no i n d i c a t i o n why any piece of information was chosen for i n c l u s i o n and many important events and people are omitted. What i s included shows a bias towards the Van-couver area. While some of the primary sources are i n t e r e s t i n g , they are a l l e a s i l y a v a i l a b l e elsewhere and are so incomplete that t h e i r c o l l e c t i o n here i s akin to taking them out of context. The second example i s V i o l e t Sketchley's "The H i s t o r i c a l Development and Philosophy of A rt Education with Special Emphasis on the Years 1930 to 1950. 1 , 1 0 Despite i t s magnificent t i t l e , t h i s paper i s , i n e f f e c t , a c o l l e c t i o n of haphazard reminiscences of Mrs. Sketchley's own teaching career with a p a r t i c u l a r emphasis on her teaching i n the Peace River country. As a personal reminiscence i t gives a l i t t l e colour to the period, but i t does not deal with h i s t o r y or philosophy on any but the most super-f i c i a l l e v e l . Looking at the interwar period more generally there are a number of i n t e r e s t i n g theses that provide a view of the time which may allow a better understanding of the educational climate. Jean Mann's "Progressive Education and the Depression i n B r i t i s h Columbia" (UBC, 1978)^ i s very much concerned with the p o l i t i c a l h i s t o r y . I t provides a r e v i s i o n i s t counterbalance to Johnson's whiggish view of the period and much good p o l i t i c a l information, such as the King report of 1935. Another f i n e UBC thesis from the same year which also provides a re-v i s i o n i s t view of the period i s Timothy Dunn's "Work, Class and Educa-12 t i o n : Vocationalism i n B r i t i s h Columbia." This work gives some par-t i c u l a r l y powerful i n s i g h t s into attitudes towards educational, - s o c i a l 12 and economic concerns. For views which are contemporary with the period under study two theses have proven u s e f u l . C a r l Gross's 1939 d i s s e r t a t i o n , "Edu- . cation i n B.C. with P a r t i c u l a r Consideration of Natural and S o c i a l 13 Factors," looks at B.C. education with a c e r t a i n naivete. I t i s an outsider's view and r e l i e s heavily on interviews with people i n the c i t i e s of V i c t o r i a and Vancouver. As an outsider Gross could be ex-pected to lack the background knowledge which would enable him to c r i t i c a l l y assess a l l that he was t o l d , but as an outsider he-jcoiiild also be expected to have a r e l a t i v e l y objective viewpoint. His thesis does give uneven emphasis to the l i m i t e d number of natural and s o c i a l factors considered, but at l e a s t i t provides a s t a r t i n g point f o r further study. Gross's p a r t i c u l a r concerns are the i s o l a t i o n of many B,C. communities and the r a c i a l tensions that existed. These w i l l be again r e f e r r e d to l a t e r . The second t h e s i s which has helped to give a contemporary per-spective to curriculum has been George Green's 1938 t h e s i s , "The Development of the Curriculum i n the Elementary Schools of B r i t i s h 14 Columbia." This thesis provides a f a c t u a l , rather than i n t e r p r e t a t i v e , survey of the prescribed elementary curriculum from the beginnings of p u b l i c education i n the province to 1936. I t i s a useful reference through which to trace development or change i n a curriculum or through which to compare two or more c u r r i c u l a . I t s exposition of the a r t edu-cation curriculum i s correct i n general and, though i t does have some inaccuracies i n d e t a i l , i s quite adequate f o r a quick check of what was 13 prescribed. Because no place or curriculum e x i s t s i n i s o l a t i o n i t i s necessary to look beyond B r i t i s h Columbia." The B r i t i s h Columbia cur-riculum was undoubtedly influenced by educational developments elsewhere i n the country, i n North America, and i n Europe. For example, educa-t i o n a l h i s t o r y has shown that the beginnings of p u b l i c education i n B.C. were much influenced by Egerton Ryerson and the Ontario experience, although by the nineteen-twenties the various c u r r i c u l a showed a sen s i -t i v i t y to l o c a l needs. I t w i l l be seen i n following chapters that the elementary a r t curriculum, which had followed a f a i r l y t y p i c a l North American pattern, became extensively modified during the twenties and t h i r t i e s through the influence of one man, William P. Weston. Weston was a product of the B r i t i s h teacher education system at the beginning of the century and i t was ideas acquired then during h i s own t r a i n i n g that he brought to B r i t i s h Columbia a r t education. The argument w i l l be made that an approach to a r t education which was abandoned i n England was continued here and developed to s u i t the educational thought of the n i n e t e e n - t h i r t i e s . Consequently, i n order to understand the t r a d i t i o n out of which Weston's ideas grew and i n order to appreciate the par-a l l e l s between the B r i t i s h approach and the B.C. p r a c t i c e , i t i s necessary to examine the h i s t o r y of a r t education i n B r i t a i n with a p a r t i c u l a r emphasis on the period ending about 1908. Also, i n order to understand the early B.C. elementary a r t curriculum i t i s necessary to examine a r t education h i s t o r y i n North America. There are several serious books on B r i t i s h a r t education, three 14 of which were published, within a year or two of each other. A l l three cover much the same ground, although with d i f f e r e n t emphases, and each has some p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t s which help to make the B.C. experience c l e a r e r . I f they s u f f e r from a common f a u l t i t may be that they tend to be p r e s e n t i s t i n a t t i t u d e and assume that a l l change i n a r t educa-t i o n was for the better, although t h i s would be only p a r t i a l l y true of Sutton's book. The e a r l i e s t of the three i s Gordon Sutton's A r t i s a n or 16 A r t i s t . Sutton quotes a 1903 a r t h i s t o r y to make what he considers an important point about a r t educations In a h i s t o r y of education i t i s not s u f f i c i e n t to read of the men who were ahead of t h e i r generation. The great bulk of the p r a c t i c a l work was done by men who simply attempted to teach i n accordance with what was considered contempor-ary needs, . , . The active s o c i a l , l i t e r a r y , p o l i t i c a l , r e l i g i o u s forces which l i e behind the school work are^usu-a l l y those of at l e a s t a generation or two previous. The statement may w e l l be considered to have been prophetic about B r i t i s h Columbia where a r t educators could be considered to have con-tinued to play the o l d melodies long a f t e r they had been abandoned i n B r i t a i n , On the other hand i t could be argued that the new arrange-ments of the melodies were so d i f f e r e n t as to transform the o l d tunes into new compositions altogether. However, such an argument must r e l y , at l e a s t i n part, on opinion and Sutton's book provides much of the information necessary to form such an opinion based on a comparison of the experience i n the two places, A somewhat s i m i l a r argument i s put forward by Louis Hartz i n 18 his book, The Founding of New S o c i e t i e s . He sees immigrants to new 15 s o c i e t i e s bring with them fragments of the o l d . In one respect these fragments tend to be preserved by an inherent conservatism within the new society. At the same time, however, there i s a change and develop-ment that takes place because, he says: Once the fragment has escaped the European challenges past and future, once i t has achieved i t s curiously timeless place i n Western h i s t o r y , an unfolding within i t takes place which would have been inconceivable i n the c o n s t r i c t e d atmos-phere of Europe. . . because both the r i g h t and the l e f t are missing. The f i x i t y of the fragment l i b e r a t e s i n the end a r i c h i n t e r i o r development. There i s a recurring theme i n Sutton's book which helps to show the contrast between B r i t a i n and B r i t i s h Columbia. Sutton de-plores the way i n which during the twentieth century i n England the teaching of s k i l l s has been denigrated and the use of a r t as a means of expressing precise opinion has been abandoned. I t i s not that he i s against free expression or the w i l d use of media to express f e e l i n g . I t i s rather that he decries the denial of one approach i n order to accommodate another, when both approaches have value. We s h a l l see l a t e r that such a dramatic change of emphasis did not occur i n B r i t i s h Columbia. B r i t i s h ideas of a r t teaching prevalent at the turn of the century were transplanted by William Weston i n 1909 and took root i n the f e r t i l e ground prepared by the predominantly B r i t i s h educational 19 establishment. We s h a l l see that i t was Weston's ideas that were to hold sway during the interwar period. The r e l a t i v e i s o l a t i o n of the province allowed Weston to r e t a i n his turn of the century views and to r e f i n e them to s u i t l o c a l needs. Undoubtedly changes elsewhere had t h e i r e f f e c t i n B.C, Indeed an examination of the programmes of 16 study which were introduced during the interwar period reveals many s i m i l a r i t i e s with programmes elsewhere. However, the emphases on s k i l l development remained as did the use of a r t for the exact ex-pression of ideas and f o r the f a c t u a l recording of v i s u a l images. Whereas B r i t i s h a r t educators went o f f along the new route of free expression, having decided that the o l d route was a dead end, B.C. ar t educators stayed with the o l d and discovered that i n f a c t further development was f r u i t f u l . Eventually the B r i t i s h new road and the B.C. o l d road would be seen to be leading i n much the same d i r e c t i o n , which i s not s u r p r i s i n g since both had s i m i l a r educational goals. Consequently, when Marion Richardson, the high p r i e s t e s s of the "Slosh" 20 school, v i s i t e d B.C. i n 1934, she could be highly and si n c e r e l y praised f o r a l l she had accomplished. Her ideas f o r "freeing" the students' expression could be accepted while being incorporated i n t o a programme that continued to stress s k i l l development. However, t h i s discussion takes us f a r beyond Sutton's book and foreshadows what w i l l be discussed l a t e r . The immediate point i s that Sutton's premise f a c i l i t a t e s t h i s kind of comparison. A r t i s a n or A r t i s t i s b a s i c a l l y a h i s t o r y of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Looking at a r t education i n B r i t a i n Sutton makes c l e a r the strands i n i t s development that l e d to the type of a r t education prevalent at the beginning of the twentieth century. One strand he sees having i t s beginning with the Swiss, P e s t a l o z z i . He shows how B r i t i s h drawing was deeply influenced by Pe s t a l o z z i ' s ideas, s t a r t i n g about 1800, This was an influence which would p e r s i s t f o r 17 over a century, P e s t a l o z z i ' s system of l i n e s , curves and angles as a basis f o r drawing l e d to a whole system of symmetrical ornament, A second strand Sutton sees s t a r t i n g i n 1798 with R.L. and Maria Edge-worth ' s Pj?a£ticaJME^ This book advocated both drawing and c r a f t s , such as works i n clay or wax, basketry> weaving, card and pasteboard modelling, and carpentry. A l a t e r strand i s Froebel's i n -fluence with h i s development of Pes t a l o z z i ' s ideas and h i s advocacy of c r a f t s . This influence went f a r beyond kindergarten to a f f e c t much of drawing, pa i n t i n g and modelling and, perhaps p a r t i c u l a r l y , spontan-eous drawing. Another strand i s seen i n William Dyce's Drawing Book (1842) with i t s stress on ornament and r e p e t i t i v e design. (Figureol))!©^ Yet another strand can be seen i n the continuing pressure from manu-facturers f o r the development of schools and classes of design to counter what was seen as a threat from the continental European manufacturers, Sutton's book helps to make cl e a r that a r t teaching developed over a long period of time and didn't j u s t happen because of the b r i l l i a n c e of c e r t a i n rare i n d i v i d u a l s although some p a r t i c u l a r i n -d i v i d u a l s d i d play larger r o l e s than others i n developing the tradi-s.t 21 t i o n . I t shows the long t r a d i t i o n of B r i t i s h a r t education which was c a r r i e d to B r i t i s h Columbia by William P. Weston i n p a r t i c u l a r and which had been c a r r i e d to Massachusetts by Walter Smith some f o r t y years e a r l i e r . The point i s that people such as Smith and Weston transplanted the ideas of t r a d i t i o n a l B r i t i s h a r t education. This i s not to suggest that Weston's ideas were previously unheard of i n B.C. 1 8 F i g . 1. I l l u s t r a t i o n s from W i l l i a m Dyce's Drawing Book, 184-2.' This book had an i m p o r t a n t i n f l u e n c e on the development of B r i t i s h a r t e d u c a t i o n d u r i n g the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y . -19 or t o t a l l y unique, Other educators with s i m i l a r t r a i n i n g were already here. Weston 1s r o l e was to provide a focus for such ideas over a long period of time. Since he occupied an i n f l u e n t i a l p o s i t i o n he could r e f i n e and singlemindedly spread the ideas he had developed during h i s own t r a i n i n g and early teaching experience. We can speculate that these ideas probably took stronger hold because they had the aura of the "old country" and did not have strong counter-ideas to challenge them. Sutton goes on to trace the "South Kensington System" and i t s great influence i n the second h a l f of the nineteenth century. He looks at the Royal Commission on Technical i n s t r u c t i o n of 1884, which was addressed by such people as William Morris and Walter Smith and at which Morris urged that drawing should be taught j u s t as i s reading 22 and w r i t i n g . Of p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t to anyone studying B.C. a r t education i s Sutton's account of the 1908 London County Council Con-23 ference on the Teaching of Drawing. This conference made a number of recommendations which p a r a l l e l e d l a t e r developments i n the B.C. a r t education curriculum. Memory drawing was stressed and t h i s technique i n p a r t i c u l a r would be advocated i n B.C. throughout the interwar period. But other p a r a l l e l s can be found too. Perspective was downplayed and geometrical drawing was incorporated into object drawing and pattern-work. Drawing from actual objects was encouraged and colour was to be used f r e e l y . I t was hoped that modelling i n clay would be pursued above the primary l e v e l . There i s no d i r e c t evidence to suggest that the 1908 conference was the source of any of the developments i n the 20 B,C, curriculum, nor i s i t known whether anyone who was l a t e r to be connected with forming the curriculum attended or was aware of the conference, but i t i s a further i n d i c a t o r of the closeness between the B.C. curriculum of the twenties and t h i r t i e s and B r i t i s h a r t education ideas of the f i r s t decade. Since the conference did occur the year before the departure from England of W.P. Weston, and since he was teaching a r t i n London at the time, i t i s perhaps a reasonable specula-t i o n that he would have been aware of the proceedings and could possibly have attended the conference i t s e l f . Sutton goes on to document the changes i n B r i t i s h a r t education during the remainder of the twentieth century up u n t i l the time of h i s w r i t i n g . He recounts some of the dramatic changes that occurred i n adult perceptions of c h i l d a r t , the d i r e c t influence that people such as Marion Richardson had on B r i t i s h a r t education, and the i n d i r e c t influence of people such as Franz Cizek. This l a s t part of the book holds less i n t e r e s t f o r us i n B r i t i s h Columbia except as a contrast to point up how d i f f e r e n t B.C. a r t education became from the B r i t i s h simply because the older B r i t i s h ideas were not abandoned, but r e f i n e d . 24 Richard Carlme i n Draw They Must covers much the same ground as Sutton. He does devote more space to a r t education p r i o r to the nineteenth century. Nevertheless, although hessees a r t as having played "a more v i t a l r o l e i n the l i f e of the community" during the time of the Tudors, Stuarts and Georges, he too argues that a r t education r e a l l y gained a foothold during the nineteenth century. In the preface he makes a t e l l i n g point: Research tended to confirm our view that a r t had only ac<-quired i t s place i n education, modest as i t i s , as a re-• s u i t of the constant e f f o r t s of a r t i s t s and teachers through-out i t s h i s t o r y . . . . But despite these apparent advances, a r t performs a r e l a t i v e l y minor r o l e i n the l i f e of the com-munity today and i t means , s i n g u l a r l v / ^ l i t t l e to the great majority of the world's population. Like Sutton, C a r l i n e shows that new ideas i n a r t education do not spring miraculously from some innovator's i n s p i r a t i o n , but r e s u l t from a long development. As an example he discusses how Cizek became known f a r and wide f o r h i s ideas which l e d to a general concern with a c h i l d ' s v i s u a l expression, yet he was not a c t u a l l y ahead of h i s 26 time. In England teachers such as Gooke and Ablett had been pro-pounding similar-..teachings i n the l a t e eighteen-seventies and e i g h t i e s . That the r e a l innovator i s he who develops, adapts and recombines e x i s t i n g ideas i s perhaps a point which cannot be made too often. Unlike Sutton, C a r l i n e gives two chapters (ch. 10 and 14) to a r t teaching i n the B r i t i s h Empire outside of B r i t a i n . Unfortunately almost nothing i n them r e l a t e s to a r t education i n Canada and nothing whatsoever r e l a t e s to B r i t i s h Columbia. What the chapters do show i s how d i f f e r e n t l y the B r i t i s h Columbia experience had evolved compared to some other parts of the B r i t i s h Empire, such as India. A t h i r d book on the teaching of a r t i n B r i t a i n i s The History 27 and Philosophy of Art Education by Stuart Macdonald. As do Sutton and C a r l i n e , Macdonald stresses the developmental nature of the h i s t o r y of a r t education. This point i s worth reemphasising yet again f o r a l l too many writings on a r t education are a l l too w i l l i n g to ascribe i t s development to a few magical shamen, such as Franz Cizek, Macdonald 22 looks at some of the e f f o r t s to achieve change and considers some reasons f o r t h e i r r e l a t i v e i n e f f e c t i v e n e s s , saying: The w r i t i n g of Spencer, Bain, Cooke and S u l l y d i d not e f f e c t a swift change of viewpoint i n B r i t a i n towards c h i l d a r t , but they d i d demonstrate that e x i s t i n g prac-t i c e s were not su i t e d to the c h i l d ' s natural development and prepared the way f o r a new approach. The lack of immediate impact on a r t education was due to the f a c t that i n the n i n e t i e s the f i n e q u a l i t i e s of c o l o u r f u l p r i m i t i v e , Egyptian and post-impressionist a r t were not widely appreciated, so c h i l d a r t wag not comparable to any admired branch of a r t , as a r t . The comment does perhaps show some questionable presumptions on Macdonald's part as to what c h i l d a r t i s , but the broad point i s v a l i d . An area of a r t education to which Macdonald perhaps gives more prominence than do Sutton and Carl i n e i s memory drawing. In p a r t i c u l a r he points out that Alphonse Legros, who became professor at the Slade School i n 1876, was a great advocate of the technique and that i t was 29 to remain popular i n B r i t a i n u n t i l the second world war. He goes on that Marion Richardson continued to praise memory drawing u n t i l the 30 end of her l x f e . The drawing exercise was to be an important part of the B.C. a r t curriculum too and Macdonald mentions that Walter Smith made i t a part of h i s teaching i n Massachusetts. Mention of Walter Smith takes us to the section of the book which i t does not share with Draw They Must or A r t i s a n or A r t i s t . Macdonald gives a chapter to the development of a r t education i n the United States and, i n p a r t i c u l a r , to Walter Smith's r o l e i n Massachu-31 s e t t s , While the chapter has only ten pages f i t nevertheless gives some flavour of developments there which have been generally considered to have influenced a r t education throughout North America. They c e r t a i n l y had some ea r l y influence i n Canada, Smith's drawing book was published i n Montreal and was recommended across the country. In 1892 i t was included i n the l i s t of prescribed texts f o r B.C. However, i f one i s to get a better appreciation of the possible influence of American a r t education i n B r i t i s h Columbia, i t i s necessary to turn to a more d e t a i l e d account. Such an account i s given i n the o l d , yet s t i l l respected, Growth of A r t i n American Schools by Frederick 32 M, Logan. I t i s not a work of such scholarship as the three books discussed above, but i t s aim i s d e l i b e r a t e l y more modest. Designed as an undergraduate text to elucidate "the i n t e r p l a y between the growth 33 of a r t education and the p r a c t i c e of the a r t , " i t i s not a h i s t o r y per se, but h i s t o r y i s used to support the author's premises. While t h i s i s a quite legitimate focus for the book, the approach does lead to the book's greatest weakness. I t i s a weakness of which Sutton, Carline and Macdonald were most aware and avoided assiduously. Logan tends to accept s i m p l i s t i c reasons for change and to accept the influence of c e r t a i n i n d i v i d u a l s without recognizing the long and complex background which led to such i n d i v i d u a l s ' emergence. For example, he ascribes 34 i n t e r e s t i n design and l e t t e r i n g to the influence of William Morris, t o t a l l y overlooking the long development i n design and l e t t e r i n g throughout the nineteenth century which had i t s influence on a r t edu-cation i n B r i t a i n and the United States and of which Morris was one r e s u l t , not the i n s t i g a t o r . This i s not to suggest that Morris lacked influence for he was c l e a r l y a leader i n some f i e l d s . I t i s simply that Logan overemphasises him, Somewhat s i m i l a r l y he traces the i n -fluence of Walter Smith at the Massachusetts Normal Art School and 24 sees i t as s t i l l providing the dominant pattern to the curriculum f o r 35 teacher t r a i n i n g i n 1955. • Undoubtedly Smith was a very important fig u r e i n American a r t education, but such a bald claim ignores a mul-tit u d e of developments and also seems to run counter to Logan's own claim that Smith provided no more than an uninspired s t a r t i n g point 36 f o r a r t education. For our purposes Logan's work c a r r i e s a p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t because i t outlines a continuing difference i n approach to a r t education compared to that p e r t a i n i n g i n B r i t a i n . From time to time t h i s North American attitu d e can be seen creeping into the B r i t i s h Columbia cur-riculum only to be displaced by the B r i t i s h t r a d i t i o n as advocated by Weston. The American a t t i t u d e can be summed up as being more concerned, from a much e a r l i e r period, with self-expression rather than with s k i l l s . Logan quotes Mary Mann, Horace Mann's wife, as w r i t i n g i n 1860 that she taught drawing " j u s t to see how well the c h i l d r e n could express an idea 37 i n drawing." This type of approach Logan f e e l s was l a t e r inadver-t e n t l y and unconsciously reinforced by Walter Smith. Smith believed that h i s precise methods could be applied to the very young. In pracfei t i c e t h i s was not so, or at any rate those tra i n e d by Smith f a i l e d i n t h e i r attempts to do so, and the f a i l u r e l e d to a reaction so that i n l a t e r times American a r t education minimised the value of craftsmanship and precise workmanship. The reaction l e d to the notion that an a r t teacher needs a l i t t l e t r a i n i n g i n many a r t a c t i v i t i e s rather than a 38 thorough grounding i n a few. This postulated sequence of events may be another example of Logan's o v e r s i m p l i f i c a t i o n but there does seem to be a difference of approach along these l i n e s to the preparation of 25 a r t teachers, A d i f f e r e n t aspect of Logan's book which has i n t e r e s t f o r us because i t provides some p a r a l l e l s with B r i t i s h Columbia i s the section on the growth of American education from 1870 to 1917. In B.C. such a growth pattern was to s t a r t some f o r t y or so years l a t e r than i t d i d i n the U.S. While some conditions were unique to B r i t i s h Columbia, much of the o v e r a l l e f f e c t was s i m i l a r . In p a r t i c u l a r , the twin pres-sures of education on finance and of population on cla s s si z e l e d to recurring problems. This was p a r t i c u l a r l y true i n the urban areas where r e l i e f of one of these pressures would i n e v i t a b l y lead to a c r i s i s i n the other area. Logan points out that the one room r u r a l school d i d much to a l l e v i a t e these pressures by providing a more f l e x i b l e s o l u t i o n than was possible i n the larger c i t y schools. We s h a l l see that much the same pertained i n B.C. although we s h a l l a lso see that t h i s was at the considerable expense of a major deviation from the prescribed, or desired, curriculum. Yet another aspect of i n t e r e s t i s Logan's discussion of the continuing influence, from 1903, of the School Arts Book (previously the Applied Arts Book) with i t s i n t e r e s t i n drawing from nature, l e t t e r -ing, border decoration and conventionalized design. Logan sees these i n t e r e s t s as a r i s i n g from Morris's influence, but, as mentioned e a r l i e r , t h i s i s probably too s i m p l i s t i c an explanation. At any rate, School  Arts Book d i d r e f l e c t some s i m i l a r i n t e r e s t s to those seen i n the B.C. curriculum and such i n t e r e s t s could be traced to the B r i t i s h influence. A f i n a l p a r a l l e l should be drawn at t h i s time between American a,nd B r i t i s h Columbian a r t education. During the depression American 26 i n s t i t u t i o n s and foundations continued to enjoy good health and t h i s enabled a r t education to progress and mature during the t h i r t i e s despite the economic d i f f i c u l t i e s . S i m i l a r l y , i n B r i t i s h Columbia a r t education developed r e l a t i v e l y unhampered by the economic d i s a s t e r , and t h i s w i l l 39 be dealt with i n greater d e t a i l l a t e r . For a somewhat d i f f e r e n t emphasis on American a r t education one could r e f e r to the doctoral d i s s e r t a t i o n , "A History of Art Education 40 i n the Public Schools of the United States" by Francis Bland Belshe. This d i s s e r t a t i o n tends towards opinion rather than scholarship. Among other things i t overemphasises the decline of a r t as an i n d u s t r i a l sub-j e c t or, at the very l e a s t , puts that decline too early by claiming that i t was during the eighteen-eighties that a r t as an i n d u s t r i a l subject gave way to a r t as a c u l -t u r a l study. I n d u s t r i a l drawing did not disappear completely, but i t did give way i n large measure as a subject of general education and was relegated to the status of a s p e c i a l sub-j e c t . . . .^£the eighteen-eighties) was the age of the d i l e t t a n t e . The notion o f the United States during the eighteen-eighties as being a nation of d i l e t t a n t e s somehow f a i l s to r i n g true. However, Belshe does have much to say about a r t i n the twenties and t h i r t i e s and ex-t e n s i v e l y quotes B e l l e Boas, Margaret E. Mathias, and Natalie Robinson 42 Cole. Belshe's comments should not be taken as more than personal opinion, but they are of a type which may have been f a i r l y common at that time and have i n t e r e s t on that account. I f American graduate work of the postwar period l e f t , at l e a s t i n some cases, something to be desired, at l e a s t i t d i d not sink to the l e v e l of at l e a s t one Canadian master's t h e s i s . "Art Education, I t s C u l t u r a l Basis, I t s Development, and I t s Ap p l i c a t i o n i n Alberta Schools" 43 by John A l l i s o n Forbes i s a p i t i f u l document. In true p r e s e n t i s t s t y l e i t attempts to j u s t i f y a progressively better world without any r e a l argument to support i t s presentism. T y p i c a l of the work i s the broad statement, "Outside of the f i e l d of music the eighteenth century 44 was not a creative period." Such a thesis should be avoided except t to point out the sad lack of Canadian a r t education writings and for the possible i n t e r e s t of i t s synopsis of the 1912 Alberta course of study f o r a r t . ^ George T a i t ' s "A History of A r t Education i n the Elementary 46 schools of Ontario" i s a much more successful t h e s i s . In i t T a i t traces some important factors which influenced a r t education i n Ontario between 1845 and 1956. This thesis makes i t easier f o r B.C. educators to compare the B.C. experience with Ontario's and to trace s i m i l a r i t i e s and differences. P r i o r to 1904 more s i m i l a r i t i e s than differences could be seen i n a comparison of B.C. and Ontario a r t programmes, but the Ontario revised course of study which appeared i n 1904 and which was apparently influenced by the "New Education" marked a divergence from B.C. views. The Ontario Teachers' Manual, issued i n 1916, showed a further widening of the gap between the two provinces. As t h i s manual dominated elementary a r t education i n Ontario from 1916 to 1937 T a i t * s d e s c r i p t i o n of i t has relevance to t h i s t h e s i s . He describes the manual as embodying "a t e c h n i c a l and adult approach to a r t educa-47 t i o n , " While i t emphasised some of the same s k i l l s as did the B.C. course of study, such as colour harmony, i t did not seem to provide such an integrated approach to s k i l l development. I t was apparently more 28 influenced by American methods than b y " B r i t i s h ones. Indeed T a i t sees American methods generally as having had a strong e f f e c t on Ontario a r t education p a r t i c u l a r l y through the magazine School A r t s , which f i r s t appeared i n 1900. He also sees John Dewey as having had a strong influence on a r t education i n Ontario with Dewey's teaching being ac-48 cepted by "leading educators." Arthur Lismer's classes f o r chi l d r e n at the Toronto A r t Gallery are discussed by T a i t and he sees i n them the influence of Cizek and further influence from Dewey. In T a i t ' s view, Lismer, Cizek, Dewey and the American magazines provided c r u c i a l influences f o r a r t education i n Ontario. In B.C. we f i n d that they f a i l e d to have the same e f f e c t . The contrast i s informative. The books and other writings r e f e r r e d to i n t h i s chapter can do much to c l a r i f y our understanding of the state of a r t education today and can help us to appreciate the foundations of the present c u r r i c u l a . We are perhaps fortunate i n B r i t i s h Columbia that the English and American h i s t o r i e s of a r t education can be so i n s t r u c t i v e to us about the forming of a r t c u r r i c u l a i n the province. However, our f a i l u r e to have any l o c a l h i s t o r y of a r t education cannot but be a handicap i n some unique ways. I t i s posited that t h i s h i s t o r y of the development of a r t c u r r i c u l a i n the elementary schools during a p a r t i c u l a r l y im-portant period w i l l , i n some way, redress the lack. 29 FOOTNOTES 1 F , Henry Johnson, A History of Public Education i n B r i t i s h  Columbia (Vancouver: University of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1964). 2 J. Donald Wilson and David C. Jones, eds., Schooling and  Society i n 20th Century B r i t i s h Columbia (Calgary: D e t s e l i g Enter-p r i s e s Ltd., 1980). 3 Ibid . pp. 7-21. 4 I b i d . pp. 163-190. Frances M. Woodward, "The History of Education i n B B r i t i s h Columbia: A Selected Bibliography." 5 David C. Jones; Nancy M. Sheehan; and Robert M. Stamp, eds., Shaping the Schools of the Canadian West (Calgary: D e t s e l i g Enter-p r i s e s Ltd., 1979), 6 N e i l Sutherland, Children in. English-Canadian Society,  1880T-1920 (Toronto: Uni v e r s i t y of Toronto Press, 1976). 7 Wilson, Schooling and Society, p. 9. g D.L. MacLaurin, "A History of Education i n the Crown Colony of Vancouver Island and B r i t i s h Columbia and i n the Province of B r i t i s h Columbia." Ph.D. d i s s e r t a t i o n , University of Washington, 1937. 9 Margaret Morris, "The Roots of A r t Education i n B r i t i s h Columbia." Paper f o r (Art) Education 541 course, University of B r i t i s h Columbia. 1978. " ^ V i o l e t Sketchley, "The H i s t o r i c a l Development and Philosophy of Art Education with Special Emphasis on the Years 1930-1950." Paper fo r (Art) Education 541 course, University of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1982. "^Jean Mann, "Progressive Education and the Depression i n B r i t i s h Columbia." Master's t h e s i s , University of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1978. 12 Timothy A. Dunn, "Work, Class and Education: Vocationalism i n B r i t i s h Columbia." Master's t h e s i s , University of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1978. 30 13 C a r l H, Gross, "Education i n B.C. with P a r t i c u l a r Considera-t i o n of Natural and S o c i a l Factors," Ph.D. d i s s e r t a t i o n , Ohio State Un i v e r s i t y , 1939, 14 George H.E, Green, "The Development of the Curriculum i n the Elementary Schools of B r i t i s h Columbia." Master's t h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1938. 15 For example, Green saw no change i n curriculum f o r a r t between 1930 and 1936, yet t h i s time period included the p u b l i c a t i o n of a sub-s t a n t i a l l y revised e d i t i o n of the a r t text. 1967), 16 Gordon Sutton, A r t i s a n or A r t i s t (London: Pergamon Press, 17 I b i d , , p, 14. 18 Louis Hartz, The Founding of New Societies (New York: Harcourt, Brace and World, Inc., 1964). 19 There are many possible examples. Two would be John Kyle, l a t e r i n f l u e n t i a l i n the Department of Education and i n whose footsteps Weston trod as Drawing Supervisor f o r Vancouver School Board and as A r t Master at the Normal School, Vancouver, and Charles Scott, who suc-ceeded Weston at the Vancouver School Board and l a t e r d i r e c t e d the Vancouver School of A r t . 20 The term "slosh" was used by C l i f f o r d E l l i s when w r i t i n g about Marion Richardson i n Athene, the journal of Society f or Educa-t i o n Through A r t , Summer, 1947. I t was used to describe the way Marion Richardson's ideas were perceived by others rather than the way she ex-pressed them. Quoted by Sutton i n A r t i s a n or A r t i s t , p. 281, 21 In Sutton's view, an example of an i n d i v i d u a l to whom too much emphasis i s sometimes given would be William Morris. Sutton finds Morris's influence i n schools to have been " i n d i r e c t and long delayed." (p, 72), 22 Sutton, A r t i s a n or A r t i s t , p. 225, 2 3 I b i d . , pp. 214-219. 24 Richard C a r l i n e , Draw They Must (London: Edward Arnold Publishers Ltd,, 1968), 31 2 5 I b i d , , p, i i i , 2 6I:bld, , pp. 158-160, 27 Stuart Macdonald, The History and Philosophy of Art Education (London: University of London Press Ltd., 1970). 2 8 I b i d , , p. 328. 29 I b i d , , p. 272. 30 I b i d . , p. 273. 31 I b i d . , pp. 253-262, "America Imports Cole's System," 32 Frederick M. Logan, Growth of A r t i n American Schools (New York: Harper and Brothers, 1955), 33 I b i d , , p, x i i . E d i t o r ' s introduction by John Guy Fowlkes. 34 I b i d . , p. 134. 3 5 I b i d . , p. 72. 3 6 I b i d , , p. 88, 37 I b i d , , p. 66. 38 I b i d . , pp. 69-70. 3 9 I b i d , , p. 168. 40 Francis Bland Belshe, "A History of A r t Education i n the Public Schools of the United States." Ph.D. d i s s e r t a t i o n , Yale Uni-v e r s i t y , 1946. 41 I b i d . , p, 10, 4 2 I b i d , , pp. 160-177, B e l l e Boas, Art i n the School (New York: Doubleday, 1927); Margaret E. Mathias, Art i n the Elementary- School (New York: Charles Schribner's Sons, 1929); Natalie Robinson Cole, The Arts i n the Classroom (New York: The John Day Co., 1940). 32 43 John A l l i s o n Forbes, "Art Education, I t s C u l t u r a l Basis, I t s Development, and I t s A p p l i c a t i o n i n Alberta Schools," Master's t h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y of Alberta, 1951, 44 Ib i d . , p. 31. 45 I b i d . , pp. 57-59, 46 George Edward T a i t , "A History of Art Education i n the Elementary Schools of Ontario." Ed.D. t h e s i s , University of Toronto, 1957. 47 Ib i d . , p. 156. ^ I b i d . , p. 115. CHAPTER THREE OUTSIDE INFLUENCES In t h i s chapter I consider some factors which may help the reader to put into a context developments i n the p u b l i c a r t education curriculum, and which I believe to have had some influence, d i r e c t or i n d i r e c t , on B.C. education. I t i s not intended to give more than a glimpse of some s o c i a l and economic factors i n f l u e n c i n g the interwar period and to i d e n t i f y a few of the popular myths. What was B r i t i s h Columbia l i k e as a place to l i v e during the twenty years between the two world wars? What was the environment i n which the schools were operating? What were the s o c i a l conditions i n Which the curriculum was being taught? Were there unique features of the province which might a f f e c t the schools and the curriculum? To what extent did economic and s o c i a l change a f f e c t the schools d i r e c t l y ? These are a l l questions which ought to be asked and undoubtedly there are others which could be posed. Inevitably much w i l l be l e f t out that some would consider to be important and other matters w i l l be included that some would think le s s important. However, i t should be remembered that, while looking back from the present we can perceive trends and larger patterns over a period of time, i t i s not such an overview which influences the day-to-day reactions or thought of people. I f the apparent c l a r i t y of hindsight can mislead, popular writings about the twenties and t h i r t i e s can be even more misleading. They p r o j e c t v i v i d stereotypes of the interwar period. The twenties i s often seen as the age of the flapper, with the emancipation of the 33 young, fun, booze and some d i s c r e e t sex; the t h i r t i e s , the age of the great depression, with the world out of work, soup l i n e s , poverty and bare feet. Such images are not to be dismissed completely, but i t i s doubtful whether they suggest anything but the crudest c a r i c a t u r e . In terms of population the province grew considerably between the wars. In 1921 the population was 524,582 while by 1939 i t had grown to 774,000. During the same period the school population grew from 85,000 to 120,459. While both urban and r u r a l populations grew, the c i t i e s were expanding at a f a s t e r rate so that by 1939 54% of people l i v e d i n urban areas compared to 47% i n 1921.''" Despite the growth of population the province was s t i l l being described by some i n 1939 as a f r o n t i e r province since i t had a population of less than two per square m i l e . 2 Whether or not B r i t i s h Columbia was a f r o n t i e r province, i t was as diverse as the many contrasts of population, climate and t e r r a i n could make i t . Anyone who attempted to equate the Japanese f i s h i n g community of Steveston with the Doukhobour farming community around Grand Forks or the English urban community of V i c t o r i a , f o r example, would be a f o o l at best. However, a d i v i s i o n of the province which was probably j u s t i f i a b l e i n general terms was that between the c i t y and the country. Educationally the d i v i s i o n between urban and r u r a l schools was commonly made and there were some clear d i s t i n c t i o n s . The c i t i e s contained a l l the large schools while the vast majority of r u r a l 3 Schools had only one or two rooms. In the c i t i e s , schools could be inspected e a s i l y , had some support s e r v i c e s , and teachers could gain p r o f e s s i o n a l support from t h e i r colleagues. In the country, schools 35 were often so i s o l a t e d that they were lucky to see the inspector once a year, there were no support services and teachers had l i t t l e or no 4 contact with other teachers. The d i v i s i o n between urban and r u r a l schools w i l l be seen to have played an important part i n the curriculum a c t u a l l y taught i n the schools. What led to such a clear c u t d i v i s i o n ? The 1939 d i s s e r t a t i o n , r e f e r r e d to i n the previous chapter, "Education i n B r i t i s h Columbia with P a r t i c u l a r Consideration of Natural and S o c i a l Factors," answered 5 t h i s question i n some d e t a i l . While the author, C a r l Gross, was look-ing at conditions i n the province i n the lat e t h i r t i e s , the factors contributing to the d i v i s i o n had been constant. I f these factors could be summed up i n one word, that word would be " i s o l a t i o n " . The large s i z e of the province and i t s r e l a t i v e l y i s o l a t e d l o c a t i o n on the con-tin e n t had played a ro l e i n shaping i t s l i f e . I t was cut o f f from the East by mountains, and from the West by the ocean. To the south lay the i n t e r n a t i o n a l boundary. Thus, Gross f e l t , " u n t i l recently B r i t i s h Columbia was l i k e an i s l a n d i n the sea." I f by the l a t e t h i r t i e s the province was no longer i s o l a t e d from i t s neighbours, nevertheless, within the province, there were many i s o l a t e d people and communities. The highway system was l i m i t e d . V i r t u a l l y no major roads had been con-structed beyond Prince George, f o r example. I t took two days to get to the Peace River country by a circuitous (Voute-through-Edmonton.. To. travel--by;-, car-across ithe^ southern- part of -the-province to"Fernie was- -.. d i f f i c u l t . - and involved*'an -expensive f e r r y t r i p . ^  One reason why so many i s o l a t e d communities had grown up, despite the inadequate transportation system, was seen i n the ea r l y 36 method of providing free land f o r s e t t l e r s almost anywhere i n the province. This had re s u l t e d i n settlement occurring wherever s u i t a b l e a g r i c u l t u r a l land was discovered rather than where i t could be r e a d i l y serviced. Contributing to the i s o l a t i o n of d i f f e r e n t communities were the climate and the t e r r a i n . Extremes of temperature i n the I n t e r i o r made winter t r a v e l hazardous and summer t r a v e l uncomfortable, while the high mountains and deep v a l l e y s made t r a v e l d i f f i c u l t at any time. On the Coast, the climate was milder i n temperature, but winter storms did much to n u l l i f y that advantage, while the mountainous t e r r a i n l e d to an i n c r e d i b l y convoluted c o a s t l i n e . I f the ph y s i c a l features could be blamed d i r e c t l y f o r making d i f f i c u l t the development of the province and of i t s educational system, they could a l s o be blamed i n d i r e c t l y . Types of occupation arose l a r g e l y from the features of the province and by t h e i r nature added to the edu-c a t i o n a l d i f f i c u l t i e s . Gross i d e n t i f i e d a number of the major occupa-tions and t h e i r p a r t i c u l a r associated problems. Mining was seen as leading to company c o n t r o l l e d towns with a preponderance of men and few c u l t u r a l advantages; logging, to settlements that were only tem-porary, or, i f permanent, were i s o l a t e d ; f i s h i n g , to i s o l a t e d s e t t l e -ments; trapping, to i s o l a t e d s t a t i o n s , too small to resemble a town; a g r i c u l t u r e , to people so poor they barely survived. B.C., i n f a c t , had the most sparse population i n the country. One important influence on the s o c i a l , economic and educational conditions which contributed to the i s o l a t i o n of people was the poor road system. That the roads were bad was made abundantly c l e a r by the press. The newspapers r e g u l a r l y complained of poor maintenance of roads and bridges. The Vancouver Sun on 16 December, 1938 c a r r i e d the headline "Bridge Condition Blamed for Accident." The following day the paper described the Penticton to Summerland road as being i n "a di s g r a c e f u l condition" and further urged that the road from the border to Enderby should be hard surfaced to make intercommunication easier. But bad roads were not confined to the i n t e r i o r . Even i n the Fraser V a l l e y , close to B,C.' s-largest .eity>nthe. roads .--.were • in' a deplorable, con-d i t i o n , A few weeks e a r l i e r the Sun had started an a r t i c l e on the woes of d r i v i n g close to Vancouver i n the following amusing, yet t e l l i n g , way: Watch out f o r that gravel, d e a r , — easy, here's a p o t - h o l e ! — slow down around t h i s corner, i t ' s too sharp . . . that bridge i s narrow and s l i p p e r y , . . . Not a s c r i p t f o r a radio play; j u s t a r a p i d - f i r e descrip-t i o n of any of our secondary highways, by John Motorist, teach-ing h i s wife to drive. In B r i t i s h Columbia i t takes a major accident to get ro,ads repaired, made reasonably safe f o r t r a v e l i n good weather. I have put some emphasis on the state of the roads because the i s o l a t i o n of people r e l i e s not only on l i v i n g outside of a c i t y , but also upon how d i f f i c u l t i t i s to get to a population centre. Despite the trend towards urban l i v i n g one c h i l d i n three attended a small r u r a l school i n the 1936-1937 school year and about one i n f o r t y could not even get to a one room school and so had to take courses by correspond-Q ence. A few of these correspondence students would have reasons other than i s o l a t i o n f o r undertaking t h e i r schooling i n t h i s way, but most would have been too f a r from a school. We s h a l l see that t h i s sort of i s o l a t i o n contributed to the great difference between the a r t curriculum taught i n the c i t y schools 38 and that taught i n the i s o l a t e d r u r a l ones when we look at what was a c t u a l l y taught i n the schools i n a l a t e r chapter. Some proof of t h i s would seem to l i e i n the contrast between the annual reports of the drawing supervisor, S.P. Judge, to the Vancouver School Board, i n which he r e g u l a r l y e x t o l l e d the progress i n a r t education, and the survey 9 i n the Peace River country taken by C. Dudley G a i t s k e l l . This survey found almost no a r t education taking place. Further proof might be found i n the contrast between the well-equipped c i t y school and the bare r u r a l school. Equipment and supplies do not ensure a successful pro-gramme, but they are h e l p f u l . I f p h y s i c a l i s o l a t i o n was a problem i n B r i t i s h Columbia, r a c i a l i s o l a t i o n was another. By 1983 standards B.C. was d e f i n i t e l y a r a c i s t society, • The dominant r a c i a l group was white Caucasian and among these whites the B r i t i s h were predominant. Over a l l , the percentage of Brit i s h - b o r n i n the province was 27 per cent, as compared to 11 per cent n a t i o n a l l y , and, as the province also had the lowest percentage of Canadian born c i t i z e n s (54 per cent compared to the countrywide average of 78 per cent), t h i s B r i t i s h preponderance was s i g n i f i c a n t . In addition to the B r i t i s h born there were those of B r i t i s h extraction. In V i c t o r i a , f o r example, those of B r i t i s h extraction made up 83 per cent of the population."*" 0 This B r i t i s h connection had a strong i n -fluence on l i f e i n the province. People were proud of t h e i r B r i t i s h heritage, the newspapers spoke approvingly of the Motherland and B r i t i s h news predominated. With the Empire being considered by the B r i t i s h to be i n f u l l flower, and with the t r a d i t i o n a l B r i t i s h conceit that the white man was superior, p a r t i c u l a r l y i f English speaking, i t i s not 39 d i f f i c u l t to imagine some r a c i a l tensions. And r a c i a l tensions there were, p a r t i c u l a r l y against A s i a t i c s . In 1938 the premier of the province t o l d the Royal Commission on Dominion-Provincial r e l a t i o n s : O r i e n t a l immigration into Canada should be prohibi t e d upon grounds of i d e o l o g i c a l differences of race, and as many Orientals as p o s j j b l e should be returned to the land from which they came. This kind of prejudice undoubtedly arose from many causes, not l e a s t of which was that even though B.C.'s A s i a t i c population only made up 5 per cent of the population, t h i s was ten times greater than i n the re s t of the country. Strange r e l i g i o n s , u n f a i r competition, allegiance to a foreign power, high b i r t h r a t e , high crime rate and a lower standard of l i v i n g were a l l given as reasons f o r di s c r i m i n a t i o n . That these so-c a l l e d reasons were i n f a c t e a s i l y demonstrable myths, d i d l i t t l e to deter those who disseminated them and throughout the twenties and t h i r t i e s many a n t i - o r i e n t a l statements could be found i n the newspapers. At the beginning of the twenties the r a c i s t f e e l i n g s seemed dire c t e d mainly against the Chinese, whereas by the l a t e t h i r t i e s the Japanese were the victims. As f a r as education was concerned, the schools seemed to stay remarkably free of r a c i a l prejudice against A s i a t i c s . The att i t u d e s of i n d i v i d u a l students and teachers must, i n some cases, have been aff e c t e d by the many a n t i - O r i e n t a l a r t i c l e s and statements, but the teaching profession as a whole stayed away from such intolerance. In f a c t the B.C. Teacher c a r r i e d a r t i c l e s from time to time which were sympathetic 12 to the A s i a t i c s and deplored r a c i s t a t t i t u d e s . But i t could not be 40 claimed that education stayed completely free of a n t i ^ O r i e n t a l a t t i t u d e s . Dr, McLean, when Mi n i s t e r of Education, had refused to c e r t i f y O r i e n t a l teachers. His successor, Mr, Weir, was more t o l e r a n t , but, i t was r e -13 ported, the p u b l i c opposed t h e i r being h i r e d . Another minority group which suffered from the r a c i a l prejudice of the population generally was that of the native peoples. The Native 14 Indian was considered to r e t a i n h i s "barbaric customs" and had great d i f f i c u l t y gaining employment. However, because Indian education was a f e d e r a l rather than a p r o v i n c i a l matter, his problems d i d not have so much d i r e c t influence on p r o v i n c i a l education. Indians d i d attend B.C.'s schools i n some cases, but most did not and were not encouraged to do so. When considering the interwar period the most dramatic s o c i a l and economic event that people seem to think of i s the Great Depression. The interwar era i s undoubtedly divided i n t o two main periods, prede-pression and depression. The stock market crash of l a t e 1929 and the subsequent economic d i s r u p t i o n d i d have a profound e f f e c t on the whole of North American society. At f i r s t thought i t seems reasonable to assume that a l l aspects of society must have suffered equally. However, one must be cautious i n assuming that education suffered i n the t h i r t i e s i n comparison with the prosperous twenties. For one thing schools had not been prosperous during the nine-teen- twenties, The province had been expanding i n population, many of the schools, including new ones, were p r i m i t i v e , and, despite a lack of q u a l i f i e d teachers, teacher s a l a r i e s were low, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n r u r a l areas, Money f o r school operations and supplies was hard to come by and i t was f e l t by some to be a t o t a l l y unnecessary expense to educate ' 41 the average c h i l d beyond grade e i g h t . ^ The t h i r t i e s and depression undoubtedly brought problems f o r schools with school boards having to f i g h t hard to j u s t i f y t h e i r bud-gets. Education budgets were reduced i n d o l l a r value and teachers' s a l a r i e s were cut back. A casual glance at the s t a t i s t i c s might sug-gest that education was i n dire s t r a i t s . In actual f a c t t h i s was not so o v e r a l l . Depression brought with i t p r i c e d e f l a t i o n and so i n pur-chasing power education budgets remained equal to or better than edu-cation budgets before the s t a r t of the depression. In 1935 the Van-couver School Board c a l c u l a t e d t h e i r per capita costs i n terms of the 1913 d o l l a r using the Department of Labour c o s t - o f - l i v i n g index. They discovered that, except f o r one year (1933), t h e i r annual per capita expenditure was considerably higher i n purchasing power than the best year p r i o r to the depression, even though t h e i r funds had been cut severely i n d o l l a r value. This was despite the f a c t that the school board had considerable trouble i n g e t t i n g t t h e i r budgets ap-proved, being required to account f o r every penny, and often seeing t h e i r seemingly lean budgets slashed further. Using the Department of Labour c o s t - o f - l i v i n g index and apply-ing i t to the p r o v i n c i a l education expenditures, i t becomes even c l e a r e r that education during the depression years was no worse o f f for funds than i n the previous decade. D o l l a r values went down, enrolment 17 went up, but purchasing power a c t u a l l y improved. When making t h i s kind of comparison, c a l c u l a t i o n s such as those f o r c o s t - o f - l i v i n g should be accepted with some caution. There are several reasons f o r t h i s . Despite the many factors considered by the 42 economic a n a l y s t , not a l l f a c t o r s can be considered, The index i s designed t o be most accurate when a p p l i e d to the average consumer. S p e c i a l i s e d f i e l d s , such as education, may have unique features which do not f o l l o w the general p a t t e r n . However, despite such d i f f i c u l t i e s , c o s t - o f - l i v i n g indexes do i n d i c a t e trends and a major change, up or down, i n the index w i l l c e r t a i n l y mean some change i n the d i r e c t i o n i n -d i c a t e d . In other words, the d i f f e r e n c e between per c a p i t a f i g u r e s of $65.50 and $66.10 may be meaningless, but the d i f f e r e n c e between $65.50 and $53.78 should not be dismissed. ;100 90 80 70t 60 5'0 401 A . 21 22 23 2A 25 26 27 28 29 30 3*1 3*2 33 34 35 36 37 3*8 3*9 Tear Cost i n d o l l a r s Cost i n purchasing- power of d o l l a r ( 1 9 1 3 as 1 0 0 ; Department of Labour i n d e x ) F i g . 2 . Per C a p i t a E x p e n d i t u r e on E d u c a t i o n : 1 9 2 1 - 1 9 3 9 . An examination of the graph (figure 2) shows that between 1921 and 1939 there was a gradual,^but steady.,improvement i n educational funding. As there was a corresponding steady increase i n high school enrolment t h i s probably meant that a d d i t i o n a l funding was more l i k e l y to be applied at the upper l e v e l s rather than at the elementary grades. In f a c t , t h i s appears to have been the case. Only one year, nineteen-twenty-eight, does not f i t the general pattern and examination of the d e t a i l e d figures f o r that year shows the sharply increased expenditure to have been due e n t i r e l y to an exceptionally heavy c a p i t a l expenditure on new school b u i l d i n g s . The raw figures used are those given i n the Annual Report of the Public Schools and include a l l expenditures on education except those f o r the Un i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia. I t could be argued that some other expenditures, such as those for the School f o r the Deaf and B l i n d or f o r the Normal Schools, should have been ex-cluded, but i t could equally be argued that these were i n f a c t p u b l i c school education costs. In any event, as they were constant costs, they do not a f f e c t the o v e r a l l trends. Further evidence that education d i d not s u f f e r dramatically as a r e s u l t of the economic collapse can be seen i n the new programmes and developments that were introduced during t h i s time and which might have been expected to be deferred or cancelled i f educational funding had been i n t r u l y d i r e s t r a i t s , The f i r s t example, and one which r e l a t e s d i r e c t l y to a r t education, involved the rewriting oftthe a r t education text, the Teachers' Manual of Drawing and Design. This book had been introduced i n 1924 and, as we s h a l l see l a t e r , had become the basis of the curriculum. In 1931 i t was decided that a new e d i t i o n was c a l l e d 44 for and W.P, Weston was authorised to write i t . The book was f i n a l l y produced i n 1933 and d i s t r i b u t e d to a l l schools i n the province. No doubt the book represented an improvement over the o l d , but i t d i d not represent any dramatic new approach to a r t education and could hardly have f a l l e n i n t o the category of an e s s e n t i a l expense. I t must be ad-mitted that the new text d i d not cost the government a large sum as they managed to negotiate a f a i r l y advantageous deal with the publishers, but t h i s was not the only deferrable expense which was incurred. A much more dramatic one was the decisi o n , made i n 1934, to completely revise the curriculum for a l l subjects at a l l grade l e v e l s . S t a r t i n g i n 1935 committees were struck and new c u r r i c u l a were designed. The elementary programme was introduced f o r the 1936-1937 school year and the second-ary curriculum was ready f o r the following year. While there i s no doubt that there was a general f e e l i n g that a r e v i s i o n of the curriculum was needed, i t was nevertheless an expense which could have been post-poned i f educational financing had t r u l y been i n a bad state. These are not the only two examples that could be given; examination of B.C. education during the t h i r t i e s produces many more. There was the expan-sion of the correspondence school, for example, or the continuation of the summer school f o r teachers. In actual f a c t education budgets did not s u f f e r to any great extent and, as Logan found i n the United States (see chapter two), i n s t i t u t i o n s continued to enjoy good f i n a n c i a l health and to progress and mature. This i s not to suggest that education suffered no i l l e f f e c t s from the depression. Teachers' s a l a r i e s were cut back i n many cases and >• r u r a l schools i n p a r t i c u l a r were short of operating funds and could not 45 r e l y on contributions from the community to help defray extra expenses. On the other hand d e f l a t i o n at l e a s t made the teachers' s a l a r i e s go. further and shortage of operating funds had always been a problem for r u r a l schools; the depression d i d not create the problem. The worst aspect of the depression f o r the schools may well have been the poverty of some i n d i v i d u a l students and t h e i r families and the very high unem-ployment rate, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n c e r t a i n areas and communities. Indeed, t a l k i n g with teachers who were i n the schools during the t h i r t i e s , i t i s exactly t h i s that they remember: the ch i l d r e n who came from homes where there was no money whatsoever, or t h e i r own youthful embarrassment at being able to own a car when some more established member of the 18 community had given up h i s . The depression was probably the gravest s o c i a l and economic event of the whole interwar period and the f a c t that i t had less e f f e c t on education than might have been expected i n no way lessened i t s importance. The a r t i s t i c community i s another aspect of l i f e i n B r i t i s h Columbia which should be considered here since i t had an important i n -d i r e c t e f f e c t on education and a r t education i n p a r t i c u l a r . At the end of the f i r s t world war B r i t i s h Columbia had no n a t i o n a l l y known a r t i s t s . Indeed, a common complaint was that i n the East no-one recognized that there were any a r t i s t s on the West Coast. At that time a r t i n B r i t i s h Columbia was s t i l l following the B r i t i s h t r a d i t i o n of p r e t t y landscapes and the majority of a r t i s t s were part-time or weekend painters. Thomas Fripp was generally considered to be the only f u l l - t i m e p r o f e s s i o n a l a r t i s t , Fripp painted the B.C. scenery i n the B r i t i s h s t y l e , not be-cause he wanted to, but because i t so l d . He had been one of the founding 46 members of the B.C, Society of Fine ; Arts i n 1909 and t h i s group was to 19 become a f o c a l point f o r l o c a l a r t i s t s , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n Vancouver, The nineteen-twenties was to see some dramatic developments i n B.C, p a i n t i n g . A r t i s t s were to break away from the pretty B r i t i s h land-scape t r a d i t i o n and begin p a i n t i n g the coast and the mountains i n ways more suited to the dramatic rugged scenery. Questions about who was the f i r s t B.C. painter to e x h i b i t a new i n d i v i d u a l s t y l e or who was the most i n f l u e n t i a l are probably unanswerable, but looking back from 1974, 20 Gordon Smith saw W.P. Weston as having been the key f i g u r e , while current popular acclaim would probably see Emily Carr as being the most important painter of the period. Be that as i t may, the twenties and t h i r t i e s saw a dramatic growth i n B.C. a r t . As Maria Tippett and Douglas Cole summed i t up: A new generation of painters dominated Vancouver for more than two decades a f t e r 1926. Diverse i n o r i g i n , they nevertheless possessed a s i m i l a r landscape perception and pa i n t i n g s t y l e . Charles Scott adapted h i s S c o t t i s h aca-demic s t y l e to the new natio n a l and i n t e r n a t i o n a l currents of inter-war a r t . Varley evolved as a landscapist during h i s ten years i n the province, while Jock Macdonald, Paul Rand and W.P, Weston developed or r e f i n e d a landscape s t y l e i n B r i t i s h Columbia which was consistent with the wilderness perception. S i g n i f i c a n t as were a l l of these, however, i t was Emily Carr who most s t r i k i n g l y revea^jd the new per-ception of B r i t i s h Columbia's landscape. Another development which was to have a l a s t i n g impression on the B r i t i s h Columbia a r t scene was the opening, i n 1925, under the auspices of the Vancouver School Board, of the Vancouver School of Decorative and Applied Arts , This school was l a t e r to become the Van-couver School of A r t and eventually the Emily Carr College of A r t and Design, The school would be a c a t a l y s t f o r much of the development i n 47 the f i n e a r t s and was probably l a r g e l y responsible for acceptance of the idea that the f i n e a r t s might include something more than p a i n t i n g and drawing. For many years i t operated i n inadequate premises and suffered the usual v i c i s s i t u d e s of a new organisation, but i t survived and marked a major turning point i n the a r t i s t i c l i f e of the province. I f nothing e l s e , i t assembled a talented and i n s p i r a t i o n a l group of i n s t r u c t o r s with such people as Charles Scott, J.W.G. Macdonald, F.H. Varley and Grace Melvin. Another turning point was the opening of the Vancouver Ar t Gallery i n 1931. Although i n the planning stages since 1925, i t may have been yet another example for Logan's premise that i n s t i t u t i o n s prospered during the depression. There were those who claimed that fo r many years i t d i d l i t t l e under the conservative leadership of H.A. Stone, but i t s very existence was i n d i c a t i v e of a growing awareness 22 of a r t i n the province. The n i n e t e e n - t h i r t i e s saw a growing acceptance of B r i t i s h Columbia a r t i s t s outside the province. W.P. Weston became the f i r s t western member of the Canadian Group of Painters. Emily Carr was taken up by Lawren•Harris and was well-received i n the East. B.C. a r t i s t s were encouraged to e x h i b i t at the National Gallery i n Ottawa and at exhibitions abroad, such as those i n London, England i n 1937 and 1938. While Eastern a r t i s t s continued to dominate the national scene, B.C. a r t i s t s could no longer be forgotten. As stated at the beginning of the chapter, what has been i n -cluded here i s no more than a glimpse of some of the factors that ought to be considered when thinking about the interwar period. I t 48 i s important to be aware of them because the B r i t i s h Columbia of today i s not the B r i t i s h Columbia of that time and our casual remembrances, f i l t e r e d by time, are not n e c e s s a r i l y of those things that most con-cerned people at the time, This chapter has looked b r i e f l y at influences from outside pu b l i c education. The next considers much more exactly the influence of one most important man within the p u b l i c education system. 49 FOOTNOTES ^Sixth Census of Canada-(Ottawa: King's P r i n t e r , 1922.) Annual Report of V i t a l S t a t i s t i c s ( V i c t o r i a : King's P r i n t e r , 1940. p, C.13.) Figures f o r 1921 are taken from the 1921 census. As there was no census i n 1939 the figures are the o f f i c i a l estimates contained i n the p r o v i n c i a l Annual Report of V i t a l S t a t i s t i c s . 2 Green, "Education i n B.C.", p. 33. 3 Out of a t o t a l of 1015 elementary schools i n 1936 only 117 were urban schools. The remainder were r u r a l or municipality schools and only a very few had more than two rooms. 4 The school inspector based i n Prince Rupert reported that i t took him twenty-nine days to v i s i t j u s t the two schools at A t l i n and Telegraph Creek. Annual Report of the Public Schools, 1929, pp. R32-33. 5 C a r l H. Gross, "Education i n B.C. with P a r t i c u l a r Considera-t i o n of Natural and S o c i a l Factors." (Ph.D. d i s s e r t a t i o n , Ohio State University, 1939). 6 Gross i s apparently r e f e r r i n g to the f e r r y across Kootenay Lake. In 1938 i t c a r r i e d an average of 300 cars per day. I t was to remain a bottleneck i n the t r a n s p r o v i n c i a l highway system u n t i l the opening of the Creston-Salmo Skyway i n the s i x t i e s . 7 Vancouver Sun, 25 November, 1938, p. 31. 8 Annual Report of the Public Schools ( V i c t o r i a : King's P r i n t e r , 1937), pp. 1-2. 9 Survey of the Peace River area by C. Dudley G a i t s k e l l c a r r i e d out i n 1936-1937. The r e s u l t s of t h i s survey should be read with some caution as the instruments used were hardly i m p a r t i a l . However, the survey's broader implications would seem to be upheld. ^ F i g u r e s quoted by Gross f o r the year 1938. 1 1Quoted by Gross, "Education i n B.C.", p. 320. 12 See, f o r example, B.C. Teacher f o r October, November and December 1938. 50 13 Gross, "Education i n B.C." p. 265. 14 I b i d . , p. 109. 1 5 F o r a wideranging discussion of various viewpoints about the need, or lack of need, f o r secondary education see the Putman-Weir Survey of the School System, Chapter 2, pp. 24-45. 16 Annual Report of the Public Schools, 1935, p. S50. 17 Cost of l i v i n g figures were taken from M.C. Urquhart, ed., H i s t o r i c a l S t a t i s t i c s of Canada (Toronto: MacMillan Co. of Canada, 1965). These figures seem to d i f f e r i n some years from those used by the Vancouver School Board. For 1932, 1933 and 1934 the Vancouver School Board figures are a l i t t l e more conservative. The difference could have r e s u l t e d from the School Board using figures f o r a p a r t i c u l a r month, or the Department of Labour could have revised the index i n l a t e r years to r e f l e c t trends not included i n the o r i g i n a l a n a l y s i s . 18 Conversation with Gilmour Clark i n November 1982 concerning h i s experiences as a teacher at Steelhead and Hatzic during the n i n e t e e n - t h i r t i e s . 19 . . W.P. Weston i n conversation with Margery Dallas i n A p r i l 1962. Tape recording from c o l l e c t i o n of Glenbow/Alberta I n s t i t u t e , Calgary. (Hereafter c a l l e d D a l l a s Tapes). 20 Gordon Smith i n taped interview with u n i d e n t i f i e d i n t e r -viewer, probably Cai Opre. Tape was apparently made i n 1974 a f t e r Mr. Opre had been commissioned by Weston's daughter to write a book on W.P. Weston. The book was never completed but some taped interviews remain i n the possession of the a r t i s t ' s daughter. 21 Maria Tippett and Douglas Cole, From Desolation to Splendour. (Toronto: Clarke, Irwin and Company, 1977), p. 90. — 22 Dallas Tapes-. CHAPTER FOUR THE PAINT SLINGER In previous chapters i t has already become apparent that W.P. Weston played a major r o l e i n a r t education i n B r i t i s h Columbia. In f a c t he was one of that r e l a t i v e l y small number of strong i n d i v i d u a l s who have patterned the educational development of B r i t i s h Columbia by exerting an influence much greater than might reasonably be expected. He was a man of quiet passion and strong b e l i e f s who did more than any other person to determine and develop a r t education i n the p u b l i c schools of the province. I now propose at t h i s time to trace some of the events of h i s l i f e and some of the influences which shaped him. Since he, i n h i s turn, shaped a r t education, an examination of h i s l i f e makes i t c l e a r e r why he thought and acted as he d i d . The discussion of William Percy Weston involves looking back to the previous chapters and forward to the following ones which discuss the p r e s c r i p t i o n and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the curriculum. I t also involves some consideration of a r t gener-a l l y i n B r i t i s h Columbia. As we have already seen, the shape of a r t education i n B r i t i s h Columbia owes more to English ideas of a r t at the turn of the century, as interpreted by Weston, and to the p r a c t i c a l experience he gained from teaching teachers at the Vancouver Normal School, than i t does to theories of a r t education which were then cur-rent i n other parts of North America, How did t h i s one man, Weston, come to wield such influence? As has already been hinted, he may have happened to be the r i g h t man, i n the r i g h t place, at the r i g h t time. From 1915 to 1946 f u l l y h a l f the 51 52 new teachers i n B r i t i s h Columbia owed t h e i r a r t t r a i n i n g d i r e c t l y to 2 him- Of the remainder, many were influenced through taking h i s popular courses at the annual V i c t o r i a summer school for teachers. He was i n -volved i n w r i t i n g teachers' a r t texts and he had a key r o l e i n c u r r i c -ulum r e v i s i o n . No other s i n g l e person had such a wide ranging influence on a r t education i n the schools over such a long period of time. Not only that but he was also considered to be one of the most outstanding of the l o c a l a r t i s t s with a nat i o n a l reputation. William Percy Weston was born at E a l i n g , London, on November 30, 1879, He was the youngest of eight c h i l d r e n . While l i t t l e i s known of hi s childhood, i t would seem to have been a f a i r l y normal middle-cla s s V i c t o r i a n one despite one p a r t i c u l a r and p e r s i s t e n t problem. In l a t e r l i f e he would r e c a l l that he had a close r e l a t i o n s h i p with h i s mother-and very l i t t l e contact with h i s father, who was a keen card player and preferred h i s club to home. His mother, meanwhile, confined to home, developed an over-reliance on gin, but t h i s i n no way impaired the mother-son r e l a t i o n s h i p . Throughout his adult l i f e he remembered her with fondness and ascribed h i s own standards, which were high, to h i s mother's influence. The drinking problem, he f e l t , r esulted from hi s father's neglect. Weston neither forgave h i s father nor allowed 3 that he played a c e n t r a l r o l e i n h i s upbringing. Weston had an urge to excel i n h i s endeavours and h i s early l i f e i n England provides several examples. As a teenager he developed an i n t e r e s t i n model s a i l i n g boats and, when he was f i f t e e n , b u i l t himself a three foot gaff--headed c u t t e r . This was not some clumsily-made model, but an exact miniature. The h u l l had keel and r i b s , covered with planking, and the s a i l s were c o r r e c t l y rigged. He photographed i t during and a f t e r construction, then s a i l e d i t across Kingsmere pond on 4 Wimbledon Common, Kingsmere was a popular place f o r s a i l i n g model boats as i t was safe, yet provided good long stretches of open water. Perhaps he dreamed of one day being able to s a i l i n h i s own boat, but such a dream may have seemed impossible f o r a citybred V i c t o r i a n boy. Undoubtedly though, t h i s model yacht marked the beginning of a l i f e l o n g passion f o r s a i l i n g and of a dream that the adult Weston would see come true. Few d e t a i l s of Weston's schooling are known to us, but there emerge two events concerning t h i s future a r t educator that hold s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t , In 1890, when he was ten years o l d , Weston won From Powder  Monkey to Admiral, a book by W.H.G. Kingston, as a pa i n t i n g p r i z e at school and, when he was t h i r t e e n , one of h i s paintings was chosen to go as part of an e x h i b i t of B r i t i s h a r t at the world f a i r i n Chicago. So his a r t i s t i c t a l e n t was recognized e a r l y . Whether he excelled at h i s other studies we do not know, but he c e r t a i n l y d i d not f a i l f o r he went to t r a i n as a teacher at the Battersea P u p i l Teacher Centre and at Borough •Teachers^Training-. College.~^.It wseems l i k e l y that he . started at Battersea i n the autumn of 1895, ju s t before h i s sixteenth birthday, and that he went on to Borough Teacher Training College i n 1898, probably graduating the following year. Once h i s t r a i n i n g was completed he started work as a teacher. At t h i s time he had not taken any a r t courses, except as part of h i s regular teacher t r a i n i n g , but, some time a f t e r he had sta r t e d work he took classes r e g u l a r l y at Putney School of Ar t , beginning i n 1901. He 54 continued the classes u n t i l 1908, the year i n which he married. The classes that he took led him towards the Board of Education examina-tions i n a r t , which were held every spring. These examinations had replaced those of the South Kensington School of Art and were the recognized standard throughout the B r i t i s h Empire. They were i n no way concerned with " c r e a t i v i t y " , but with the s k i l l s of drawing, p a i n t i n g , and modelling, the emphasis being on drawing. Drawings were made from a model, e i t h e r animate or inanimate, and, during the f i r s t few years of the century, when Weston was taking classes, several examinations 7 were added to t e s t drawing from memory. Drawing from memory was to become an important part of a l l Weston's classes and he believed i t to be an excellent way of teaching ar t . As he described i t , the four hour exam was divided into two p a r t s . F i r s t , the candidates drew from a model. They were then sent out f o r a time to re s t and would return to draw the same model, but t h i s time from memory. Weston f e l t that the drawing made from memory was always Q an improvement on the drawing made d i r e c t l y . His f i r s t courses i n 1901 were Freehand Drawing of Ornament and Drawing i n Light and Shade from a Cast. Inbboth of these he achieved f i r s t class standing. Each year thereafter he would take two more courses and, i f he had not achieved f i r s t class standing i n an examina-t i o n the previous year, he would repeat the t e s t f o r that subject as wel l , By 1908 he had taken and passed twenty-five examinations i n sixteen a r t subjects and had obtained f i r s t c l a s s standing i n eleven of them. One examination, Drawing from the Antique, he a c t u a l l y took four times i n h i s attempts to r a i s e a second cl a s s pass to a f i r s t c l a s s 55 standing, Two others (P r i n c i p l e s of Ornament and Painting Ornament i n Monochrome) he took three times with the same purpose. No doubt, i f he had not been d i s t r a c t e d from h i s purpose by h i s marriage i n A p r i l , 1908, the b i r t h of h i s f i r s t c h i l d the following May, and h i s removal to Canada i n July 1909, he would have continued to pursue p e r f e c t i o n . Such determination, not only to succeed, but also to excel, was a t r a i t that stayed with him throughout h i s l i f e . When i n 1962, Weston looked back on h i s early t r a i n i n g , he remarked that he had had very l i t t l e t r a i n i n g i n pai n t i n g and t h i s statement i s borne out by the examination subjects. Only two of the 9 possible subjects involved p a i n t i n g and both of these he passed. He also believed strongly that drawing was the basis of a good a r t t r a i n -ing and the thrust of the examinations would indicate that h i s early t r a i n i n g was the basis f o r t h i s b e l i e f . When we consider that as a teacher he showed p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t i n design, geometric drawing and memory drawing, i t i s worthwhile to note a l l these subjects were among those i n which he obtained f i r s t c l a s s standing as a student. During the time that he was taking a r t classes at night school, he was also teaching f u l l - t i m e . Yet he s t i l l found time to earn some extra money by i l l u s t r a t i n g a s e r i e s of three beginning readers f o r the publisher, Charles and Dibble. These were The Beaumont F a i r y Story  Readers: Snow White and Rose Red, C i n d e r e l l a , and Jack the Giant'. Killgar er. The i l l u s t r a t i o n s were t y p i c a l of those i n children's books at the beginning of the century and do not give much hi n t of Weston's l a t e r work other than that they showed a strong sense of design and were very competently drawn. As no date was given i n the books i t i s 56 not known exactly when Weston completed t h i s assignment. I t does ap-pear to have been the only time when he drew f o r a market. He l i k e d to say i n l a t e r years that, as an a r t i s t , he was fortunate to be able to draw and paint what he wanted since he had a job which paid him adequately. Whenever i t was that he found time to complete the i l l u s t r a -t i ons f o r the readers, i t was not on Sunday afternoons. These were 12 reserved for going to tea at 18 Melody Road, Wandsworth. The a t t r a c -t i o n at Melody Road was Jessie Clara Bennett. Jessie Bennett also taught and he may have met her when they were both student-teachers. At any rate they were to marry on A p r i l 11, 1908 and i n l a t e r years would t a l k , o f having known each other for many years before that and 13 of having been engaged f o r f i v e f u l l years, Tea on Sunday was a r i t u a l . In good weather they would often go b i c y c l e r i d i n g , but, on the days that they stayed at the Bennett home, i t was probably quite l i v e l y as Jessie Bennett was one of ten c h i l d r e n . Why they were en-gaged for so long i s not known, but i t may well have been that they wanted to save a f a i r amount of money to enable them to leave England. The idea of emigrating was not a sudden one with them. Since a married woman could not teach i n those days, the only way that they could have the b e n e f i t of two s a l a r i e s was to put o f f getting married. Once married, however, they d i d not l e t the grass grow under t h e i r f e e t . By the time of t h e i r f i r s t anniversary J e s s i e Weston was expecting a c h i l d and they had t h e i r t i c k e t s f o r Vancouver, Their f i r s t daughter, Betty, was born on May 31, 1909 and eight weeks l a t e r they were on the t r a n s - A t l a n t i c steamer. That they came to Vancouver was luck as much as anything. They a c t u a l l y had plans f o r going to Siam. However, the post of Art teacher at King Edward High School became open and, as Weston r e c a l l e d i n 1962: The Reeves (and Sons, Ltd.) adviser was out here. He wasn't a salesman at a l l . He was an adviser on the school work be-cause he had been a teacher. He'd been a great fellow f o r getting around and f i n d i n g out things. He got me to come out. This would seem to have been Mr. Vaughan, Director of Art and Manual Training i n Glasgow, Scotland, f o r i t was he who recommended Weston."^ In actual f a c t he had f i r s t suggested the p o s i t i o n to Fred Weston, W.P. Weston's brother. Fred was an a r t teacher i n Glasgow, but h i s wife, who was S c o t t i s h , did not wish to leave Scotland, so the brother i n London was approached i n s t e a d . ^ W.P. Weston leapt at the opportunity and Siam was forgotten. What tipped the balance i n favour of Vancouver rather than the exotic Orient, we do not know, but i t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to speculate that the prospect of converting into r e a l i t y the dreams of the l a d s a i l i n g h i s model boat on Kingsmere pond may have had something to do with i t . I t i s c e r t a i n l y true that, from h i s a r r i v a l i n Vancouver, Weston showed a great love f o r the sea and boats. Just who was i t who stepped o f f the t r a i n with h i s wife and baby daughter i n the summer of 1909? I t was a man of nearly t h i r t y , who, by d i n t of h i s own e f f o r t s , had obtained a thorough grounding i n a r t . He was a man with a greater ambition to achieve excellence than to forge ahead i n one new a c t i v i t y a f t e r another. He was a teacher, a good one with ten year's experience, and he had the self-confidence to recognize h i s own a b i l i t y . He had a strong supporter i n h i s wife and 58 both were looking forward e n t h u s i a s t i c a l l y to t h e i r new l i f e . In more ways than one i t was a new man who stepped o f f the t r a i n i n Vancouver. The W.P. Weston who had said goodbye to h i s family and boarded the boat t r a i n to Liverpool was Percy Weston; the man who a r r i v e d i n Vancouver was B i l l Weston. He had shed a name he always d i s l i k e d as he had shed his o l d l i f e . Only h i s wife, who was used to the o l d name, would continue to c a l l him Percy. The Westons took a house at the edge of the bush near King Edward High School and had the r e s t of the summer to get organised. L i f e must have been very d i f f e r e n t from that i n a London suburb, but neither Weston ever mentioned the adjustment as causing any d i f f i c u l t y . I t was an e x c i t i n g new experience and t h i s was what they were seeking. Then too they were c e r t a i n l y not alone i n s t a r t i n g a new l i f e . Van-couver was experiencing a period of great growth and many other new immigrants were coming to the c i t y , many of them from England. The c i t y was growing apace and as Weston r e c a l l e d , "Everyone was out 17 making money on r e a l estate." Everyone except the Westons, that i s . They d i d not have the funds or the i n c l i n a t i o n to speculate. B i l l Weston had come to be an a r t teacher at the high school and was pre-pared to give the task a l l h i s attention and energy. School started i n September and marked the beginning of a very successful school year. Weston was so successful i n f a c t that he would only stay i n the teaching job f o r one year. In 1910 John Kyle, the Drawing Supervisor f o r Vancouver schools and the man who had h i r e d hxTOf moved over to the Normal School and Weston became the new Super-v i s o r , This p o s i t i o n he would keep f o r four years. 59 The years as Drawing Supervisor were enjoyable ones f o r Weston and he had the opportunity to see what was going on i n a l l the c i t y schools. By and large he was s a t i s f i e d and made encouraging reports each year to the Board of Trustees. In them Weston drew attention to what he saw as the strengths and weaknesses of a r t teaching i n the Vancouver system. The c r i t i c i s m s were always made within a framework of praise and were i n v a r i a b l y constructive. His firm b e l i e f that a r t work should r e s t on a strong framework of s k i l l s came through c l e a r l y i n each report and his p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t s i n memory drawing and de-sign were c l e a r l y seen. In h i s very f i r s t report he drew attention to the need to stress both these areas and i n h i s t h i r d report he sai d : A most important and h i t h e r t o somewhat neglected branch of our work, memory drawing, has been taken up with great suc-. cess by the senior grades during the past year, and I should l i k e to see more work i n t h i s d i r e c t i o n i n the intermediate grades. This branch of the work i s of great educational value, as i t gives the p u p i l s the opportunity to apply the p r i n c i p l e s previously learned and requires more mental a c t i v i t y than continued d i r e c t copying from objects. Teach-ers are r e a l i z i n g t h i s f a c t , and f i n d also that, when taken i n thjgproper manner, considerable i n t e r e s t i s added to the work, This i s not to suggest that he only talked of h i s p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t s . On the contrary, he c l e a r l y recognized that a l l aspects of the a r t programme were important. He was s e n s i t i v e to d i f f e r i n g needs of the students i n the drawing classes and pointed out that, while some were interest e d i n the fine a r t s , many were more interested i n the p r a c t i c a l a r t s , He organised exhibitions of student work.and some of these went as f a r a f i e l d as Toronto and Melbourne. There was an obvious dedication to h i s work and an e f f o r t to deal c r e a t i v e l y with the problems of the growing system. 60 From s h o r t l y a f t e r h i s a r r i v a l i n Vancouver he became active i n a r t c i r c l e s outside of school as well as i n . The B r i t i s h Columbia Society of Fine A r t s , l a t e r known as the B r i t i s h Columbia Society of A r t i s t s , had been formed i n the spring of 1909, ju s t before the Westons ar r i v e d . When the society members r e a l i s e d that there was a new a r t i s t 20 i n the c i t y , they approached Weston to j o i n . This he d i d and h i s association with the group was to be a l i f e l o n g one. He f i r s t exhibited with them i n 1910. From sketches he had made e a r l i e r i n England he painted h i s Cornish Coast and i t was well received. At that time the society was made up almost e n t i r e l y of amateur painters. In f a c t , only one a r t i s t i n the c i t y made h i s l i v i n g from h i s paintings. This was Thomas Fripp. Weston thought that Fripp was a good a r t i s t but regretted that, i n order to s e l l h i s work, Fripp was forced to paint "pretty" pictures rather than those which t r u l y represented the country. The Canadian landscape had to be painted i n an English s t y l e i n order to be saleable and Fripp could do t h i s w e l l . Fripp's father had been a member of the Royal Academy and a contemporary of Turner, while Fripp himself had had a good English t r a i n i n g , so he was well q u a l i f i e d to produce 21 "English" work. Others i n the B.C. society were also B r i t i s h t r a i n e d and producing somewhat s i m i l a r work. For example, S.P. Judge, who at that time was a commercial a r t i s t and gave a r t lessons p r i v a t e l y , produced watercolours; Stanley T y t l e r , who had been born i n India and had l a t e r painted i n A u s t r a l i a , worked e n t h u s i a s t i c a l l y i n o i l s . Weston r e a l i s e d from the beginning that the grandeur of B r i t i s h Columbia demanded a new approach, but l i k e the others he did not have any idea of how to go about i t . As Weston s a i d : 61 I l i k e d t h i s place very much and I wanted to be able to paint i t . I had painted the English landscape a l i t t l e b i t . Not so much because there I was doing i t more as a s i d e l i n e , as a pastime. But here I f e l t 1 was teach-, ing a r t . Well, the only thing was to t r y and accomplish something i n i t myself and that's what kept me going. And he d i d keep going, but i t would be several years before he began to solve the problem and sixteen before he f e l t that he had discovered a reasonable s o l u t i o n . Another a r t i s t whom he encountered at t h i s time was Emily Carr. He met her through Mrs. Frame, a mutual f r i e n d , when he went to tea at Mrs. Frame's small upstairs apartment on the corner of Broadway and G r a n v i l l e . At that time Miss Carr was i n the process of a l t e r i n g her older paintings to s u i t her Paris mood, but she, l i k e Weston, had s t i l l to develop the d i s t i n c t i v e s t y l e f o r which she i s known today. Theirs was a pleasant meeting and they would continue to have pleasant meetings throughout the r e s t of Emily Carr's l i f e , but a r t i s t i c a l l y they were not to challenge each other. In time Miss Carr would develop her v i s i o n of B r i t i s h Columbia working out of her V i c t o r i a studio and Weston would develop h i s i n Vancouver. The one would respect the other, but neither would f e e l threatened by the other's a b i l i t y . In l a t e r years some tensions b u i l t up between Weston and some of the more com-mercia l l y successful a r t i s t s when Weston f e l t that the Muse was being p r o s t i t u t e d to the d o l l a r , but such never occurred with a r t i s t s such 22 as Emily Carr, Yet not a l l was teaching and a r t . He had set up h i s photo-graphic darkroom at home and continued to do his own developing and p r i n t i n g . The pictures he made then and the ones he had made i n England 62 before the turn of the century for that matter, a t t e s t i n a small way to h i s thoroughness. While we often f i n d o l d photographs to be d i s -coloured and fading, h i s remain c r i s p and c l e a r ; a c r e d i t to the proper development and complete washing, a time-consuming process that the majority tended to cut sh o r t , ( f i g u r e 3). In February, 1912, he got a new subject to photograph, for a second daughter was born, completing the family c i r c l e . In the summer of 1913, he f i n a l l y spent some time on a boat exploring the l o c a l c o a s t l i n e . He and some teacher friends rented the motor launch "Wynot" and for a glorious week i n August they putt-putted past the Sechelt peninsula and up Agamemnon Channel, then on even further to the foot of Mount A l f r e d . The wives they fortunately l e f t i n a camp at Sechelt f o r the f l i e s and a somewhat r e c a l c i t r a n t engine brought f o r t h a vocabulary that had no place i n the average Edwardian d i c t i o n a r y . But the sea was calm, the mountains magnificent, t h e i r pipes drew well and even Weston's cooking passed muster. They brought back good memories, a diary, photographs and the determination 23 to do i t again sometime. That they didn't may have been connected with the f a c t that within a year Europe was plunged into war. Weston was not to be d i r e c t l y involved i n i t , but many of the younger B r i t i s h immigrants d i d return to e n l i s t . However, before the war began, Weston again changed h i s job, again following i n John Kyle's footsteps. He became the Art Master at the P r o v i n c i a l Normal School, Vancouver. He had now been f i v e years i n the c i t y and he took advantage of the change i n employer to make an 24 extended v i s i t to England with h i s wife and c h i l d r e n . They l e f t i n early June and returned i n August, leaving a Europe at war. No doubt 63 a. J e s s i e Bennett b e f o r e one of her r e g u l a r Sunday a f t e r n o o n c y c l i n g t r i p s w i t h her f u t u r e husband, W.P. Weston. F i g . 3. W.P. Weston: E a r l y Snapshots. 64 the c h i l d r e n were duly admired and h i s success as an educator praised. His brothers and s i s t e r s , f o r t h e i r p art, had t h e i r own successes to r e l a t e , Margaret had her own c h i l d r e n to d i s p l a y , L i l l i a n was head-mistress of a school and Frank had gained fame as a chemist with im-portant o r i g i n a l research and several publications to h i s c r e d i t . The summer was happy, but B i l l Weston knew that he had no desire to become Percy Weston again. The west coast of B r i t i s h Columbia was his home and he would have no further wish to leave i t . The end of the war i n November, 1918, was followed f i v e weeks l a t e r by a personal l o s s . Weston's mother died at the age of seventy-nine. She had been h i s c l o s e s t emotional t i e with the o l d country and, with her passing, he could f i n d no reason to contemplate another v i s i t . The post at the Normal School was one he was to hold f o r thirty-two years and i n which he was to exercise great influence. He discovered that i t was exactly the job he wanted and the one where he could be the most e f f e c t i v e . As h i s daughter, Doris Wood, r e c a l l s : A l l 1 remember i s that he loved the whole thirty-two years that he worked. He s a i d that whatever you do you should decide what you want to do for yourselves, because you've got to be happy. He s a i d , "I don't get a l o t of money, but I'm happy." And i f the job was the r i g h t one f o r him, i t was equally true that he was the r i g h t man f o r the post. I t i s perhaps appropriate at t h i s time to look back f o r a moment and assess why he was so well suited. I t was c e r t a i n l y not unimportant that he had sorted out h i s emotional t i e s with England and that he had no doubts about where he wanted to be. With his great love of the mountains and the sea there were few other places which could s a t i s f y 65 t h i s love other than Vancouver. A most important love was that of wife and family. Here too he was fortunate. His wife proved a great support to him and was also content to l i v e on the West Coast. Their daughters were healthy. A l l i n a l l he had a happy and secure home. His f i v e years with the Vancouver School Board had given him experience of a l l l e v e l s of p u b l i c schooling. He knew the strengths and weaknesses of the system and he knew that the success of a r t i n the schools l a y i n a good grounding i n technique, but with a v a r i e t y of expression. He had the t r a i n i n g both as an a r t i s t and as a teacher to provide t h i s ground-ing and to i n s p i r e i n others the confidence that he was r i g h t . As an a r t i s t he had already become an important figure i n the l o c a l a r t scene and he was developing new a r t i s t i c challenges f o r himself. He knew that he wanted to develop a s t y l e of p a i n t i n g to s u i t the grandeur of the country, even though as yet he had no i n k l i n g of what that s t y l e might be. So, the r i g h t combination of challenge and confidence enabled Weston, at age t h i r t y - f i v e , to forge ahead. This i s not to suggest i n any way that he was overconfident. He was, i n f a c t , a very humble man and would have been the l a s t to claim at t h i s time that he was uniquely f i t t e d to f i l l the r o l e s assigned to him, p r e f e r r i n g to ascribe h i s success to outside sources. But, as f a r as the students were concerned, he was a great success because he met each one at h i s or her own l e v e l o f a b i l i t y and s t a r t e d from there. He showed a genuine concern f o r each. Even the l e a s t able remembered him as "a d e l i g h t f u l man." As one sa i d : I enjoyed Weston's classes (in 1933), even i f I couldn't do i t . , . , You see, as the year progressed I was not drawing well and I said to him, Can they f a i l me f o r not being able to draw?" 66 He said, " Certainly not! I f you took lessons u n t i l you were a hundred you would not be able to draw." He knew r i g h t away. "You keep i t neat and t i d y and that's a l l I^w concerned about." I'm no a r t i s t , I never was. I knew that. She may not have been an a r t i s t , but she d i d learn and appreciated h i s help. In f a c t when she went out into the schools as a substitute teacher l a t e r , a f t e r her family had grown, she found she s t i l l used s k i l l s she had learned i n h i s classes and even got compliments from her colleagues f o r the a r t ideas he had i n s t i l l e d i n her. A more able stu-dent of a r t i n the same clas s remembered him as providing many new ideas. "I found that quite e x c i t i n g because i t was something I hadn't 27 seen much of before." She remembered also h i s p i c t u r e s , which he would display at the school and which were also stimulating and a new experience. Other students remembered going to h i s home to v i s i t h i s Studio and being i n s p i r e d to greater things. The reasons f o r h i s success as a teacher were simple, but too r a r e l y met. He had great s k i l l himself and could communicate those s k i l l s . V i o l e t Sketchley, a student i n 1938, put i t well when she sa i d : What we learned from Weston was of great value and when I look back at the drawings I did i n Normal School. . .1 think how much he taught me. . . . 1 remember him with awe. I thought he was j u s t " i t " . , .because of h i s way of t a l k -ing to us. We were his p u p i l s . I know i t was things l i k e that. I know i t ' s dominated my own work that each c h i l d i n h i s own way was s p e c i a l . He j u s t gave us the personal touch, you could say. This personal touch i s constantly mentioned i n one way or another by Normal School graduates, A fellow teacher who saw'him teaching summed i t up: There was t h i s personal approach towards each i n d i v i d u a l and h i s own expression that he seemed to be able to f o s t e r . To bring f o r t h the tim i d , you know. , . , There was almost a 67 reverence, a f e e l i n g about the i n s p i r a t i o n he gave. He seemed to be able i n h i s teaching to f i n d some facet i n a r t that would i n t e r e s t each person somewhere along the l i n e , , .to helggthem choose an area where they had some lat e n t a b i l i t y , Weston would probably have been embarrassed to hear such fulsome praise and would have preferred to t a l k of the team s p i r i t that existed at the school, A team s p i r i t d e f i n i t e l y did e x i s t and i s often r e f e r r e d to as r e t i r e d teachers reminisce. While Weston i s remembered with par-t i c u l a r warmth, other s t a f f members too were well thought of and t h i s helped to provide the sort of environment i n which Weston could teach so happily f o r so many years, The students r e a l l y appreciated t h e i r teachers: We were a l l kind of fond of them. I can't think of anyone that we d i s l i k e d r e a l l y , except that nebulous P.E, woman who j u s t sort of came once i n a while. . . I don't f e e l I got to know her at a l l , but a l l the others you would go and t a l k to quite f r e e l y and often they would be happy to see you a f t e r h o u r s — a f t e r the classes i n the r o o m — i f you wanted to go and ask them something about what you were teaching or some-thing you hadn't caught on to i n t h e i r c l a s s e s . The Annual had put i t more s u c c i n c t l y three years e a r l i e r i n 1931: We have received from the methods and example of our i n -s t r u c t o r s , ^ e very essence of good teaching and good leadership, I have discussed Weston's ro l e at the Normal School i n some d e t a i l because i t did take up a large part of h i s l i f e . The thirty-two years he spent there formed a continuum i n which there was gentle change and development, with Weston always looking forward while remaining true to the p r i n c i p l e s and theories of a r t education with which he started. He never deviated from h i s b e l i e f that an education i n a r t should be based on learning the basic s k i l l s of drawing and design, then working 68 from there, A comparison of the notebooks made by a student i n 1920 with a set made by another i n 1934 shows a remarkable s i m i l a r i t y . These same notebooks shown to a student who graduated i n 1942 brought 32 the comment, "Oh yes, that i s the sort of thing we d i d . " If Weston's r e l a t i o n s h i p s with h i s students and h i s teaching at the Normal School seem to have been a t a l e of unruffled success, t h i s may have been so and much of h i s l i f e from 1914 on seems to have f a l l e n into a pattern of ebb and flow. He was for many years president of the B.C. Society of A r t i s t s and exhibited every year i n t h e i r show. He joined the Royal Vancouver Yacht Club before 1918 and b u i l t and raced yachts f o r many years. In time h i s children grew up, married happily and moved away, The Westons continued to enjoy a happy marriage and provided each other with mutual support. They were never r i c h , but t h e i r income was assured. In a l l these ways h i s l i f e had slipped i n t o a pattern, which, i f t h i s had been the long and the short of i t , would have been i n e f f a b l y d u l l . But l i f e was not d u l l . The smooth patterns of one part of h i s l i f e enabled him to be daring i n others. Two areas i n which he had a very wide and powerful influence were h i s own p a i n t i n g and h i s work on curriculum. The two were i n t e r -connected i n that h i s ideas i n both had been formed by the same t r a i n i n g and experience, but they should be considered separately. When Weston f i r s t a r r i v e d i n B r i t i s h Columbia, he brought with him h i s sketch books and n a t u r a l l y enough h i s f i r s t paintings were based on these, The f i r s t p a i n t i n g he completed and exhibited i n 1910„ The Cornish Coasty gave l i t t l e h i n t of the future Weston s t y l e . During the next ten years a few hints of what was to come started to appear i n 69 h i s paintings, but they were s t i l l i n the '"English" s t y l e . However, Weston was determined to pa i n t B.C. as he saw i t . In a note to a f r i e n d that he wrote i n 1965 he explained h i s f e e l i n g s : Before coming to B.C. i n 1909 I had seen only o l d s e t t l e d lands so B.C. with i t s rugged mts., tumbled beaches, huge for e s t giants & b e a u t i f u l tree forms shaped by wind, r a i n , f r o s t & snow appealed to me strongly. I made up my mind to study & know these things & to me the best way was by drawing & p a i n t i n g them constantly. A l l these forms have been affected by & moulded by the elements'—wind, r a i n , f r o s t & snow i n one way or another, e.g. erosion i n mountain forms, changes i n structure i n l i v i n g forms. The study of t h i s i s most i n t e r e s t i n g & b^s been the main force behind a l l my drawings & paintings. S t a r t i n g i n 1919 he entered an experimental period i n which he painted what he l a t e r described as "some pretty wild things" and he kept v i r t u a l l y none of h i s paintings from 1919 to 1926, p r e f e r r i n g to burn them. Some l a t e r c r i t i c s of his work picked up the myth that the burn-ing of h i s paintings was a great symbolic bonfire with the new Weston emerging phoenixlike from i t s ashes. But i t wasn't l i k e that at a l l and i s a myth that should be l a i d to r e s t . The truth i s much simpler. During t h i s period Weston was d i s s a t i s f i e d with his paintings and simply d i d not keep them. There was no great hoarding of t r a n s i t i o n a r y can-vases with a r i t u a l destruction of them when he f e l t he had succeeded. Weston t r i e d to make t h i s c l e a r to the woman who was to fabricate the myth when she f i r s t hinted at the p o s s i b i l i t y : I was r e a l l y t r y i n g to show the things that I wanted and they didn't, so I got r i d of them and that's a l l . I t was j u s t a b i t of commonsense. .I'd been t r y i n g these things for f i v e or s i x years and burned them u n t i l I found I was getting something more that I wanted. , , , Don't^gun away with the idea that the change was sudden by any means. However, she d i d j u s t that. 70 By 1926 Weston had developed a style of painting that he f e l t suited the unspoilt splendour of the B.C. scenery and started to pro-duce the paintings for which he would become known. Most were studio paintings based on sketches in pencil or in o i l s produced on site and they would show his keen interest in colour and design. He did not wish to produce finished work on site because, he said: To my mind, no matter what style of painting one uses, the subject matter must be known before trying to paint. ^ r a w _ ing i s most useful for teaching accurate observation. A friend, Elmore Ozard, later recalled: He was a highly designed painter. He said to me, "How could I have spent so much time bothering about a l l that detail when there are so many bigger things in the landscape to see." This i s what he told me over and 3gver again. This of course is where he made his big change. Having developed a style with which he was reasonably content, Weston painted in earnest, though never letting his own work interfere with his teaching at the Normal School. To a large extent he was painting for his own satisfaction and would never paint to be popular or to s e l l . When, in later years, he looked back over his l i f e , he recognized that he and Emily Carr had been theoonly two uncompromising painters during the interwar period. He particularly admired Emily Carr because she was painting for a l i v i n g yet never allowed herself to paint for a market. Recognition for western painters came slowly during those years, but when i t did come Weston's worth was recognized. His work was among the f i r s t western painting exhibited at the National Gallery in 1930. He was the f i r s t western painter to be invited to join the Canadian Group of Painters in 1933, he was elected an Associate of the Royal Canadian Academy in 1936. He was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society of A r t i s t s , London, i n 1938, His paintings began to be exhibited 37 i n t e r n a t i o n a l l y . L o c a l l y he was known as a modernist and even the Department of Education began to take notice and to recognize that they had an important painter on the p a y r o l l . But he could not be said to be a popular painter. His work was too new for that. Popularity had to wait f o r a stroke of luck. In 1941, Princess A l i c e , wife of the Governor-General, v i s i t e d Vancouver, saw a show of Weston's work and bought a p a i n t i n g as a birthday g i f t f o r her husband. Weston was\amused to f i n d himself an overnight success. From now on h i s work was eagerly awaited, but t h i s d i d not a l t e r h i s approach one b i t . He continued to paint c a r e f u l l y and competently with each work advancing him a l i t t l e along h i s c r e a t i v e path. Today, a r t i s t s look back with great respect to what he accomplished. As one of today's most i n f l u e n t i a l West Coast painters, Gordon Smith, says: I think even h i s most severest c r i t i c s recognize Weston as . . .a key fi g u r e i n B r i t i s h Columbia a r t , more so than Varley, more so than Scott, more so than McDonald, more so than pretty well anyone. He was the key figure and every-one now, whether i t ' s the Shadbolts, or whether i t ' s Gracie, or whoever, w i l l ngt deny Weston h i s p o s i t i o n i n the a r t of B r i t i s h Columbia. Having traced b r i e f l y Weston's development as a painter, we should go back and look at h i s influence on the a r t curriculum of the p u b l i c schools. For h i s f i r s t few years at the Normal School t h i s i n -fluence was l i m i t e d to i n t e r p r e t i n g the e x i s t i n g curriculum to student-teachers. However, i n the early twenties, the Department of Education saw a need f o r a new a r t text and wished i t to be produced i n the pro-vince. Consequently Charles Scott, who had taken over Weston's post of Drawing Supervisor f o r Vancouver School Board, S.P. Judge, no longer a 72 commercial a r t i s t but now a Vancouver teacher, and Weston were asked to write one. They undertook the challenge with enthusiasm. The Manual of Drawing and Design was published by Thomas Nelson and Sons, Ltd. i n 39 1924. Scott had acted as e d i t o r and a l l three had worked on the con-tent. In actual f a c t i t would seem that Weston himself had been respon-s i b l e f o r a large part of the book. A c a r e f u l examination of i t does provide evidence that t h i s was so and when the text i s compared with a l a t e r one that Weston produced alone, and which w i l l be discussed l a t e r , the extent of h i s involvement becomes c l e a r . The book consisted of f o r t y pages of i n s t r u c t i o n a l text, twenty-eight pages of course o u t l i n e s and seventy-four pages of i l l u s t r a t i o n s . T h i r t y - f o u r of the pages of i l l u s t r a t i o n were d e f i n i t e l y Weston's and i t i s possible that up to s i x of the remaining f o r t y could have been h i s a l s o . The twelve pages of the Design chapter were claimed by Weston as being h i s alone and h i s influence can be discerned i n other sections of the book. Since he had no hand i n the i l l u s t r a t i o n s f o r the high school section, i t i s l i k e l y that h i s influence on the seven pages of text f o r that section was at best l i m i t e d . So i t would seem that Weston played a greater r o l e i n the book's production than did the others. Two of h i s p r i n c i p a l b e l i e f s are stressed i n the text: the importance of draw-ing as a basis for a l l a r t and the r o l e of design. Another of h i s tenets i s treated somewhat ambiguously. Drawing from memory i s advo-cated at some times and at others i s cautioned against. A reason f o r t h i s can be found i n the f a c t that while Weston believed strongly i n 40 memory drawing, Scott d i d not and f e l t that i t l e d to poor drawing. We can, i f we wish, imagine the two friends arguing the matter and 73 compromising by leaving things a b i t i n d e f i n i t e , The w r i t i n g and drawing of the book took place during the winter of 1922-1923 and Doris Wood remembers her father's e f f o r t s c l e a r l y s A l l that winter long he worked on the book. As soon as he came home he'd go i n the front room, the l i v i n g room a c t u a l l y but that's what we c a l l e d i t then, and he'd work on i t f o r a couple of hours every day. I knew he worked very hard on i t . First^Jhough, when he got home he'd have a glass of butter-milk. Weston remembered spending many hours on the book and f e l t that i t was an enjoyable experience. However, there had been one serious problem. He and Scott f e l t that Judge's work d i d not reach a high enough standard 42 and so Weston d i d h i s best to retouch i t without l e t t i n g Judge know. A comparison of Weston's i l l u s t r a t i o n s with the others i n the book shows that some were decidedly i n f e r i o r , p a r t i c u l a r l y with regard to the l a y -out of the page. There were also a number of s p e l l i n g errors i n the i n f e r i o r plates and several examples of poor l e t t e r i n g . These were a l l f a u l t s to make someone who had Weston's high standards cringe. Weston's d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n with Judge's work was to have some importance when the book came to be revised l a t e r . The Manual was important because i t became, i n e f f e c t , the curriculum f o r grades one to eight. I t represented a new approach since i t introduced the term Design to the a r t programme f o r the f i r s t time and i t expanded the ro l e of drawing. This expansion of- drawing was p a r t i c u l a r l y noticeable at the lower grades. I t a l s o gave the teacher more freedom to introduce new ideas to the cla s s and i t assumed that, while not a l l might be a r t i s t s , a l l could learn to draw adequately. 74 By 1931, however, the Department of Education was beginning to think that i t was time for a revised e d i t i o n . They approached Charles Scott, but he was not overly keen about the p r o j e c t . By that time he was p r i n c i p a l of Vancouver School of Art and presumably had l i t t l e time for w r i t i n g . The publishers t o l d the Department that they would be w i l l i n g to undertake the new book on t h e i r own, without the department's sponsorship, and they then approached Weston and asked him to produce a book on h i s own. I t seems that he discussed the matter with Scott, who suggested that Judge be approached also and that i t might be p o s s i b l e f o r the three of them to work together again. How-ever, Weston was not w i l l i n g to work with Judge as he believed that Judge's work would not be acceptable. Weston then agreed to write the book f o r Thomas Nelson. This caused a serious r i f t between Weston and hi s two former partners as Scott believed that Weston had approached Nelson i n the f i r s t place. Weston denied t h i s but t h e i r f r i endship was to be soured for some y e a r s . ^ When Weston started on the r e v i s i o n of the book he already had some new materials prepared although, at the time he made them, he d i d not r e a l i s e the use to which they would be put. In A p r i l 1931 he had hurt h i s leg while h i k i n g i n the mountains and, as a r e s u l t , was bed-ridden f o r some f i v e months. I t was a d i f f i c u l t time for him as i n i * t i a l l y the doctors said that he would never walk again. With t h i s prospect ahead of him he became very depressed. His leg was p a i n f u l , he could not paint, and he was separated from h i s students at the Normal School. His good f r i e n d at the School was Dr. J.M. Ewing. Ewing decided to take Weston i n hand and each day he v i s i t e d him a f t e r school, 75 shared a pot of tea, and encouraged him to take a more p o s i t i v e ap-proach. He persuaded Weston that he would walk again and that he had better s t a r t working on some new materials for his a r t classes. I t was these new materials that the publisher's representative saw and suggested could be incorporated i n the book. Weston d i d walk again, although h i s leg was to be troublesome f o r the r e s t of h i s l i f e , he went back to school i n the f a l l , and he started to revise the book. When the book f i n a l l y appeared i n 1933, as A Teachers' Manual of Drawing, the text had been completely rewritten and the i l l u s t r a -44 tions had been expanded from seventy-four plates to n i n e t y - f i v e . The course o u t l i n e s had been eliminated and replaced by more general suggestions within the text. I t was uncompromisingly Weston's. Memory drawing was strongly advocated, design was c e n t r a l and drawing s k i l l s underlay a l l . The connection with Weston's own early t r a i n i n g could be c l e a r l y traced. More freedom of expression was advocated, but a strong grounding i n s k i l l s was seen as e s s e n t i a l . The book was a grand success and teachers at the summer school, where Weston introduced i t , greeted i t e n t h u s i a s t i c a l l y . I t was immediately adopted by at l e a s t one other province, Manitoba, and the publishers considered d i s t r i b u t i n g 45 i t i n England. In B.C. i t became the a r t curriculum, i n f a c t i f not i n theory. Revision of the programme of studies was not r e a l l y neces-sary as the book was s u f f i c i e n t l y l i k e the previous one, but i t did represent an important s h i f t i n emphasis. Two years l a t e r the government commenced a complete r e v i s i o n of the curriculum i n the province. Weston was appointed chairman of both the elementary and secondary a r t curriculum committees. He was 76 the only appointed member o f the elementary committee. This gave him the opportunity to incorporate h i s ideas into the elementary guide and to make d i r e c t references to h i s text. So, by 1936, the elementary school curriculum could be s a i d to be e n t i r e l y Weston's work. I t was a curriculum that was to stay i n force u n t i l a f t e r the second world war. So with t h i s r e v i s i o n Weston had reached the peak of his achieve-ments i n spearheading change at the p r o v i n c i a l l e v e l . While his i n -fluence at the Normal School remained as important as ever, h i s d i r e c t influence on change i n the a r t curriculum had come to a cl o s e . He had not sought to have such a singular influence, but h i s quiet confidence i n himself and h i s uncompromising personal standards had led to h i s becoming the most important a r t educator i n the province. Before drawing to a conclusion the consideration of his career, i t - s h o u l d be mentioned that h i s influence as a teacher was even wider than we.have considered here. For many years he taught at the summer school f o r teachers i n V i c t o r i a , he taught night school during the winters i n Vancouver and he gave lessons to l o c a l sketch clubs. During the second world war he taught summer school to interned Japanese teachers. He was an indefatigable promoter of a r t and remained an im-portant person i n B r i t i s h Columbia f o r the re s t of h i s l i f e . When he had reached the peak of his influence with regard to the curriculum, he had not yet reached the peak of h i s p o p u l a r i t y as a painter. With the stimulus of Princess A l i c e ' s i n t e r e s t , he went from Strength to strength i n the publi c ' s opinion and continued to gain stature among the a r t i s t i c community. At the Normal School he continued teaching u n t i l 1946 and h i s students continued to admire and respect 77 him- When he d i d hand over to h i s successor, Elmore Ozard, Weston t o l d him, i n h i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c way, not to use the Weston manual, but to develop h i s own. Weston f e l t that h i s had o u t l i v e d i t s use-fulness. New ideas were needed. He himself went o f f to stomp the province giving lectures on a r t on behalf of U.B.C, r e f i n i n g h i s own new ideas and developing h i s own a r t . When a retrospective of h i s work -was held -at the^. Vancouver Art .Gallery i n .1959, more people crowded into the g a l l e r y f or the opening than had ever done so before. He continued to paint vigorously u n t i l h i s death at the age of -ei'ghty-eight.-. He had never-.sought-to" dominate" the* a r t f i e l d . He had never wished to dominate a r t education. He had ju s t happened to be there and to have the persistence and zeal to co n s i s t e n t l y advocate what he believed were sound ideas. His successor, Elmore Ozard, should perhaps have the l a s t word: I s t i l l b e lieve that he had an amazing future f e e l i n g about a r t education and education i n schools and what r e a l l y a r t could do f o r people, . . . I s t i l l think that i n both a r t and a r t educat|gn he was one of the early pioneers and great leaders. 78 FOOTNOTES "'"He was given the nickname "The Paint Slinger; Six Feet of Smile" by h i s friends on a boating holiday i n 1913. 2 That he had a d i r e c t influence on at l e a s t h a l f of the teach-ers can be seen by a simple matter of arithmetic. Seventy-eight per cent of the teachers i n the province were trai n e d i n B.C. Two out of three of the teachers t r a i n e d here went to Vancouver Normal School. 3 Based on information provided by Doris Wood, W.P. Weston's daughter. Conversation with the writer at Port Moody, A p r i l , 1983. 4 Photographs i n possession of Doris Wood. Kingsmere pond i d e n t i f i e d by caption i n W.P. Weston's handwriting. 5 CO. Scott, "B.C. Laureate i n Ar t . " Vancouver Province, 28 November 1936. ~ ^The l a s t c e r t i f i c a t e from the t r a i n i n g college i s dated A p r i l , 1899. Weston st a r t e d taking night school classes during the 1900-1901 school year. He l a t e r s a i d that he had worked "for some time" before taking night school classes, so the 1899 graduation date seems the most reasonable. 7 C e r t i f i c a t e s f o r a l l these courses are i n Mrs. Wood's possession, g William P, Weston i n conversation with Margery Dallas i n A p r i l 1962. Mrs. Dallas recorded about seven hours of taped i n t e r -views with Weston. C o l l e c t i o n of the Glenbow/Alberta I n s t i t u t e , (hereafter c a l l e d Dallas tapes). 9 Dallas tapes. "^Books i n possession of Mrs. Wood. He also photographed some of the i l l u s t r a t i o n s and these are also i n Mrs. Wood's possession. Neither author nor i l l u s t r a t o r was i d e n t i f i e d on the f r o n t i s p i e c e . "^Dallas tapes. 12 Address taken from Weston's own address book. 13 Doris Wood, A p r i l 1983. 79 14 Dallas tapes. 15 Lett e r dated August 12, 1910 to Dr. Robinson. Superintendent of Education, from Dr. William Gunn i n Edinburgh. The l e t t e r was con-cerning a.candidate f o r a d i f f e r e n t job, but Dr. Gunn mentioned the subject of Weston's having been recommended by Mr. Vaughan as a proof of Vaughan's c r e d i b i l i t y as a good judge of men. 1 6 D o r i s Wood, A p r i l 1983. 17 Dallas tapes. 1910. 18 I b i d . Also see Annual Report of Vancouver School Board, 19 Tenth Annual Report of Vancouver School Board, 1912. p. 38. 20 Dallas tapes. 2 1 I b i d . 22 An example of t h i s was Weston's dismay when he f e l t that h i s f r i e n d , Gordon Smith, had adopted a "new" s t y l e f o r pecuniary rather than pure a r t i s t i c reasons. This led to each making somewhat waspish comments about the other, but to Gordon Smith's c r e d i t he continued to pr a i s e Weston's c e n t r a l r o l e i n the development of B.C. a r t . (See Dallas tapes and interview r e f e r r e d to i n note 38.) 23 A rather splendid diary bound i n red leather and with The  Voyage of the "Wynot" i n gold-embossed l e t t e r s was produced. As f i v e of the ten voyagers were manual t r a i n i n g teachers they probably had access to the bookbinding equipment needed. 24 He resigned from the Vancouver School Board i n A p r i l , 1914. Annual Report of the Vancouver School Board, 1914. p. 16. 25 Doris Wood, A p r i l 1983. 2 6 Nina Lorimer (nee Joyce) i n conversation with the write r at Vancouver, February 1983. 27 / Marjorie Clark (ne'e Jack) i n conversation with the writer at Mission, November 1982, 80 28 V i o l e t Sketchley i n telephone conversation with the writer i n Vancouver, March 1983. 29 Elmore Ozard i n taped conversation with u n i d e n t i f i e d i n t e r -viewer, probably Cai Opre. Tape was possibly made some time i n 1974 and i s now i n the possession of Mrs. Wood. Doris Wood had commissioned Mr. Opre to write a book on her father, but apart from several taped interviews, l i t t l e e l s e developed. 30 Marjorie Clark, November 1982. 31 Annual of P r o v i n c i a l Normal School, Vancouver, 1930. 32 Isobel Johnston (1920), Marjorie Clark (1934), Joan Thompson Warn (1942) . 33 Note to Dr. Ben Kanee. Written by Weston on 23 December, 1965. 34 Dallas tapes. I t was Margery Dallas who originated the t a l e of the 1926 bonfire and p u b l i c i s e d i t i n a C.B.C. radio broadcast on 24 June 1962, 35 A second note to Dr. Ben Kanee. This one i s undated but was probably written at about the same time as the one r e f e r r e d to above. 36 Elmore Ozard. See note 29. 37 For example: 1933, A t l a n t i c C i t y ; 1937, London; 1938, London; 1939, New York, 38 Gordon Smith i n taped interview. Part of series r e f e r r e d to i n note 29. 39 C,H. Scott (Ed). The Teachers' Manual of Drawing and Design. (London: Thomas Nelson and Sons, Ltd., 1924). 40 See Scott's comments i n h i s f i r s t report as Drawing Super-v i s o r f o r Vancouver School Board. He praises the standard of work generally and ascribes i t to Weston's good influence, then he c r i t i -c i s e s drawing from.memory and i t s prevalence i n the schools. (Annual Report of the Vancouver School Board, 1914). 41 Doris Wood, A p r i l 1983. 81 42 Dallas tapes. 4 3 I b i d . 44 William P. Weston, A Teacher's Manual of Drawing. (London: Thomas Nelson and Sons, Ltd., 1933). 45 V i c t o r i a C o l o n i s t . 27 July 1934, p. 2. 46 Elmore Ozard. See note 29. CHAPTER, FIVE THE CURRICULUM PRESCRIBED This chapter examines the c u r r i c u l a for elementary a r t educa-t i o n prescribed by the p r o v i n c i a l Department of Education during the interwar period. The chapter does not attempt to describe what was a c t u a l l y taught i n the schools, but merely what was l a i d down and, i t could be assumed, would be taught under some t h e o r e t i c a l i d e a l condi-t i o n . Before examining the c u r r i c u l a , i t i s f i r s t useful to review again what i s meant here by a r t education. As discussed i n chapter one, the term Art d i d not e x i s t as a subject i n the B.C. elementary programme u n t i l 1936. The terms used were Drawing, Manual Work, or Manual Art s . Subjects taught under any of the three headings to some extent f i t a d e f i n i t i o n of a r t education that we might use today. However, one should be aware that Manual Training was not the same thing as Manual Work or Manual A r t s . I t was rather what today would be c a l l e d I n d u s t r i a l Arts and so i s not considered i n t h i s t h e s i s . Although some r e l a t i o n s h i p must e x i s t between a r t education and the i n d u s t r i a l a r t s , the two subjects give d i f f e r e n t emphases to the re-la t i o n s h i p between s k i l l s and cre a t i v e endeavour. A s i m i l a r difference i n approach existed between Manual Training and a r t education i n the period under discussion. The curriculum prescribed by the province was to be found i n the Courses of Study issued p e r i o d i c a l l y by the Department of Education. As we have seen, u n t i l 1923 the elementary or "public school" curriculum 82 83 was divided into three l e v e l s , "Junior Grade," "Intermediate Grade," and "Senior Grade." I t was expected that the average or b r i g h t p u p i l would take s i x or seven years to complete the three grades while the slower ones might be "retarded" (that i s , held back) and take eight or even nine years to get through. However, by 1923 i t had become ap-parent that to divide s i x to eight years of work in t o only three grades was no longer appropriate. At the beginning of the century the majority of students had attended schools with only one, two, or three rooms. Even i n the c i t i e s most schools had been small, but by 1923 c i t y schools were becoming quite large. Vancouver even had one with thirty-one d i v i s i o n s , and there was a steady growth i n the percentage of students attending urban s c h o o l s . 1 In the country there had started a drive to close down some one room schools and consolidate them i n t o l a r g e r , more e f f i c i e n t u n i t s , t h i s made possible by motor transportation. So i n 1923 the Courses of Study f i r s t introduced the eight grade system and i n so doing brought B r i t i s h Columbia i n t o l i n e with the system already adopted 2 elsewhere i n North America. The new d i v i s i o n of work did not mean any major change i n the work i t s e l f as a prefatory note was c a r e f u l to point out, saying: NOTE, - Except i n l i t e r a t u r e , no increase has been made i n the work prescribed i n the various subjects. I t i s expected, therefore, that, as was the case i n the past, many pu p i l s w i l l be able to complete the course i n s i x or seven years. The Department hopes to be able to give i n greater d e t a i l , i n the next issue of i t s Courses of Study^ the requirements f o r each grade i n the d i f f e r e n t subjects. In f a c t the Manual Work and Drawing c u r r i c u l a i n the 1923 Courses were i d e n t i c a l to those i n the 1921 issue. But the change to eight grades soon l e d to a change i n the work requirements and also made i t possible 84 f o r more d e t a i l e d work p r e s c r i p t i o n s to be given. By 1925 the prefatory note to the guide, which had been renamed Programme of Studies, showed that i t was now intended that the elementary programme should take eight years rather than s i x or seven, although that time option was l e f t open. I t now read: NOTE, - The work prescribed for elementary schools i s divided into eight grades, each of which w i l l , as a r u l e , occupy one year of a p u p i l ' s time. The brighter p u p i l s w i l l be able and should be given an opportunity to complete the course i n s i x or seven years. They should be transferred to a higher grade whenever t h e i r i n d i v i d u a l i n t e r e s t s require i t without regard to the reorganization o| classes which i s held r e g u l a r l y at the close of each term. The note i s of i n t e r e s t for two reasons. I t extended the elementary programme to eight years i n a very gentle, tentative manner and i t s writer c l e a r l y had i n mind that there should be continuous progress 5 for the more able. I t i s doubtful that such i n d i v i d u a l i z e d advance-ment did i n f a c t happen to any extent, but i t s advocacy by the Depart-ment has some s i g n i f i c a n c e . What i n f a c t was the Art curriculum when the eight grade system was f i r s t introduced? Although i t d i d not yet show Weston's influence, some of i t s B r i t i s h o r i g i n s could be c l e a r l y discerned. Of the three main texts, one had been written by an Englishman, another by a New Zealander t r a i n e d i n the B r i t i s h system. Only the t h i r d had been written by an American. In 1923 the guide combined Manual Work f o r grades one and two i n t o one section. In t h i s section there were three headings: Paper Folding and Cutting, Plasticene Modelling, and Mat-weaving,^ There was no p r o v i s i o n for drawing or p a i n t i n g except that i t was mentioned under paper-cutting f o r grade two that one might "use 85 some of these exercises f o r drawing lessons'" and "Nature Lessons" were 7 supposed "to be corr e l a t e d with Language and Drawing Lessons." The object of paper f o l d i n g and cuttin g was "to acquire dex-t e r i t y and s k i l l of hand by constructing and making objects: to know' r i g h t side, l e f t side, front, back, edge, corner, angle; to know such terms as turn, f o l d , etc.; and, i n short, to increase the vocabulary 8 of the c h i l d and a s s i s t the language lesson." Kidner's Educational Handwork was the recommended text and the paper f o l d i n g and cu t t i n g 9 syllabus f o r the two grades was drawn ex c l u s i v e l y from i t . T.B. Kidner was Director of Manual Training i n New Brunswick and, l i k e so many turn of the century educators, had been brought out from B r i t a i n . His book was mainly devoted to the use of paper or cardboard f o r f o l d -ing, c u t t i n g , and the construction of models. Detailed i n s t r u c t i o n s , complete with i l l u s t r a t i o n s and measurements, were given f o r making such things as photo frames, l e t t e r holders, and p e n c i l cases, the ob-j e c t being to improve the c h i l d ' s manual dexterity through the con-s t r u c t i o n of useful objects. Plasticene modelling was described extremely b r i e f l y as "The modelling of a sphere, c y l i n d e r , cone, cube, prism and pyramid; and the turning of these type models into objects having s i m i l a r forms." Mat-weaving was even b r i e f e r , merely l i s t i n g the text (Primary Work by Wilhelmine S e e g m i l l e r ) , 1 0 the paper (No. 1110), and the needles (No. 395). Primary Handwork, the sole American text, was perceived by i t s author as being an in t r o d u c t i o n to I n d u s t r i a l Training. Furthermore, she seemed to perceive the t r a i n i n g of ch i l d r e n f o r industry as being akin to missionary work. The book was f u l l of i n s p i r i n g quotes which 86 advocated labour and the appreciation of beauty. The book was essen-t i a l l y a p r a c t i c a l four year course i n weaving. I t started with simple paper weaving i n the f i r s t year, introduced handlooms i n the second, and ended up with sewing, embroidery and basketry i n the t h i r d and fourth. As the text was only intended for use i n the f i r s t two years i n B,C. the teacher was presumably expected not to go beyond the use or handlooms. From grade three on "Manual Work" was replaced by "Drawing." This subject r e l i e d e n t i r e l y on " B l a i r ' s Canadian Drawing Series."''" 1 Book One was used i n grade three, Book Two, with a few omissions, i n grade four. In grade f i v e , Book Two was completed and most of Book Three a l s o . This t h i r d book was f i n i s h e d i n grade s i x and Four was started. Grades seven and eight were devoted to the remainder of Book Four and Four-A. No suggestions were given i n the Courses of  Study as to how the texts might be used and there was not even a h i n t that any drawing should be done i n addition to that suggested i n the texts, But t h i s d i d not necess a r i l y mean that none should be done. Despite the b r e v i t y of the course ou t l i n e i t should not be thought that Drawing was treated more b r i e f l y than other subjects. The Courses of Study appear to have been written on the assumption that where a text was designated there was no necessity to give any further i n s t r u c t i o n s or suggestions. However, i n those cases where no text was used, then more d e t a i l was given. For example, i f one looks at 12 the Grade V curriculum one finds three pages devoted to t h i s grade. There are nine subjects. Almost two and a h a l f of those pages are devoted to Geography, History and Nature Study; Music gets one-third 87 page; Language, about one-sixth; and the r e s t , Reading, Writing, Draw-ing, and Arithmetic, each get less than two l i n e s . C l e a r l y the space devoted to each subject was i n no way an i n d i c a t o r of i t s importance. On the other hand one should not necess a r i l y extend one's own assess-ment of subject worth i n the nineteen-eighties to past c u r r i c u l a . I f there were one subject i n 1923 which was more important than any other, then i t was the one which today we do not even teach as such. As the guide so n i c e l y stated; The r e l a t i o n s h i p of experience, which nature study so beau-t i f u l l y provides, i s so fundamental to the proper teaching of every subject that that above a l l others should not be neglected. I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g that the idea of int e g r a t i o n of subjects, to which we give so much attention these days, was strongly i n the minds of the curriculum writers i n the early nineteen-twenties. The extent to which such int e g r a t i o n a c t u a l l y occurred i s another question which must be examined at another time, but that i t d i d occur at some l e v e l would seem a reasonable assumption. As a c o r r e l a t i o n between nature study and drawing was s p e c i f i c a l l y mentioned, some teaching of the drawing of natural forms was l i k e l y a part of the drawing programme. As B l a i r ' s Canadian Drawing Series was the prescribed drawing programme from grade three to grade eight, i t should be considered i n some d e t a i l , The f i v e books i n the seri e s had f i r s t been adopted i n 1901, 1 They were written by David B l a i r , a New Zealander and the f i r s t A r t Master at the P r o v i n c i a l Normal School, Vancouver, Each booklet was, i n e f f e c t , a drawing notebook. On each page a sample drawing was provided and the student was i n s t r u c t e d to draw a s i m i l a r one. However, 88 there were firm s t r i c t u r e s against copying and the student was advised to f i n d an actual object which he could draw, rather than reproduce another drawing. In some cases the object to be drawn was a common household one, i n others i t was taken from nature. The l a t e r books included geometric drawing, scale drawing and working drawings f o r manual work. • The term drawing included work with p e n c i l , chalk, crayon and brush. Colour work would-have also been included. By 1925, however, David B l a i r ' s booklets had been discarded, 14 the Course of Study had been renamed Programme of Studies and a sep-arate booklet was issued for the elementary schools. Previously the high, t e c h n i c a l and normal schools had a l l been included with the e l e -mentary i n the same book. Whatever the other reasons f o r i s s u i n g sep-arate books, i t would seem that one p r a c t i c a l consideration was that as the guide had been considerably expanded, i t was no longer possible to include a l l the information i n a single p u b l i c a t i o n . From twenty pages i n 1923 the guide had grown to almost a hundred. The extra space was f i l l e d with teaching suggestions and, i n the case of drawing and manual work, by an expanded programme r e f l e c t i n g a change of emphasis. In large part the change i n emphasis resulted from the new text f o r drawing, The Teacher's Manual of Drawing and Design. 1^ This book, written by Charles Scott, William P. Weston and S.P. Judge, was i n f a c t the ipso facto curriculum f o r Drawing. I t provided s p e c i f i c a c t i v i t i e s f o r every month of the school year and, with i t s wealth of i l l u s t r a t i o n s t provided a comprehensive programme for a l l tea.cheps. There was an emphasis placed on design with much concern for geometric and conventionalized natural forms. I t was i n large part 89 the work of William P. Weston and i t s w r i t i n g has been discussed i n the previous chapter. The changes can be seen c l e a r l y i n the grade one programme as 16 soon as the curriculum i s examined. Manual Work had become Manual  Arts and where the Manual Work consisted only of "paperfolding and c u t t i n g " and "plasticene modelling," "Manual Art s " included "paper-f o l d i n g , " "freehand c u t t i n g , " "plasticene modelling," " s t i c k l a y i n g " and "drawing." I t was the paperfolding and c u t t i n g which had been downgraded. While i t s usefulness i n t r a i n i n g hand and eye was acknow-ledged, paperfolding was c r i t i c i s e d because " i t does not provide much opportunity for self-expression" and so "about a dozen simple designs should be s u f f i c i e n t . " Freehand cutti n g fared a l i t t l e b etter and a number of ways of developing the s k i l l were suggested, but there was also the comment that "the work becomes monotonous when the c l a s s i s held to one model u n t i l i t i s perfected." Plasticene modelling on the other hand was expanded. The same basic shapes were suggested, but the curriculum went on to suggest many ways i n which these basic shapes could b e r c r e a t i v e l y developed. The medium was highly praised f o r pro-viding a,n occupation that i s enjoyed by the c h i l d , f o r i n i t he finds much scope for self-expression. I t strengthens and educates the hand, provides excellent finger^-training, and compels ob-servation of the smallest d e t a i l s . S t i c k l a y i n g and drawing had not been i n the 1923 curriculum. S t i c k -laying was seen as "the simplest form of handwork and may be given to the c h i l d on the f i r s t day of school." A v a r i e t y of ways was given f o r using the s t i c k s and i t was suggested that the p u p i l should "originate 90 designs: or i l l u s t r a t e a t a l e . " I t was drawing, the other aspect of Manual Arts which had not been i n the grade one programme previously, that had now been included. This i n c l u s i o n was not s u r p r i s i n g i n i t s e l f , but that so much was i n -cluded for grade one was s u r p r i s i n g and presumably res u l t e d from adop-t i o n of the new text. Drawing was to be done " i n soft p e n c i l , p a s t e l , crayon, or water-colour." The i n s t r u c t i o n s continued: Pupils should be taught to handle materials i n a correct was and to s i t and draw i n a h e a l t h f u l posture. Drawings i n p a s t e l should be made on neutral t i n t e d paper. Names of the primary and secondary colours and Jj^ e method of mixing them should be taught and demonstrated. Teachers were warned not to expect correct representative drawing and not to expect an adult concept. Imaginative, representative and memory drawing were a l l seen as appropriate however; representative drawing t r a i n i n g hand and eye "to an appreciation of good r e l a t i o n s h i p i n form" and memory drawing as a "powerful a i d i n stimulating observa-t i o n , " I t a l l seemed to add up to a heavy programme for a s i x or seven year o l d , but was i n l i n e with Weston's b e l i e f that drawing was the basic s k i l l of a l l a r t education. In grade two drawing again figured large. For the f i r s t term the programme was "as i n Grade I,, but with more attention to form, better handling of materials, and more power of i l l u s t r a t i o n . " The second term brought i n Object Drawing of simple rectangular shapes using p e n c i l and wash, Nature Drawing from flowers or leaves, and Design. This was the f i r s t time that the term "Design" had been used i n any elementary guide to the curriculum. The design section of the Teachers Manual of Drawing and Design had been contributed by W.P, 91 and while the other authors presumably concurred, i t was Weston's 19 i n t e r p r e t a t i o n that was given. For Weston Design was not invention, but simple arrangement or composition. I t was ornament. Ornament may be described as everyday a r t . I t may be seen on every object with which our d a i l y doings bring us i n contact. ,". . I t would seem reasonable that people i n gen-e r a l should know something of the commo^grinciples under-l y i n g the construction of good ornament. He went on to state that the Course i n Design must give some idea of these common p r i n c i p l e s to c h i l d r e n and he believed that they would develop a sense of order, arrangement and construction as a r e s u l t . His system r e l i e d to a large extent on copying and rearranging before eventually producing more o r i g i n a l designs. In time t h i s would lead to a development of the creative i n s t i n c t , he f e l t , and "stimulate a sense of the b e a u t i f u l i n form and colour." A l l t h i s seems somewhat a l i e n to ideas of c r e a t i v i t y c urrently i n vogue, but when t a l k i n g of c r e a t i v i t y i t i s important not to allow the arrogance of the present to lead to disdain for the past. In a r t education p a r t i c u l a r l y , when we look back beyond the s i x t i e s , i t i s hard not to be influenced by the view of c r e a t i v i t y that was held then. The s i x t i e s view was that c r e a t i v i t y i n c h i l d r e n should not be f e t t e r e d or crushed by constraints. I t was feared that too much.emphasis on p a r t i c u l a r s k i l l s or methods might imply that there was a l i m i t e d num-ber of correct ways to express oneself c r e a t i v e l y . This could lead c h i l d r e n to avoid expressing t h e i r creative ideas i n an o r i g i n a l manner l e s t they use the "wrong" way. The s i x t i e s approach was apparently an outgrowth of Progressivism which gained a foothold elsewhere i n the t h i r t i e s , but d i d not reach B.C. u n t i l w ell a f t e r the second world war. 92 I t i s not intended here to advocate any p a r t i c u l a r approach to crea-t i v i t y , but merely to point out that the s i x t i e s view was but one viewpoint. The opposing view would hold that i f the c h i l d "learns good-techniques and s k i l l s , h i s confidence i n h i s a b i l i t i e s gives him the freedom to express h i s c r e a t i v i t y . One can argue the e f f i c a c y of e i t h e r approach, or of any viewpoint in-between, but t h i s does not a l t e r the intent of t h e i r adherents. The caution i s necessary as so often those advocating c r e a t i v i t y before s k i l l s seem to believe that those advocating s k i l l s f i r s t were not a c t u a l l y concerned with crea-t i v i t y at a l l . Scott, Weston and Judge c l e a r l y believed i n a strong grounding i n s k i l l s and the 1925 a r t curriculum r e f l e c t e d t h i s b e l i e f . That they also had a b e l i e f i n the development of c r e a t i v i t y seems cl e a r . Design provided for the a p p l i c a t i o n of that c r e a t i v i t y to the world around us and for the recognition of design as i t e x i s t s i n the natural world. From grade three on, Manual Arts disappeared as a subject i n 1925 and was replaced by Drawing. This continued the patterns estab-l i s h e d i n grade two and developed them further. In "Nature Drawing," for example, f r u i t s were added to the l i s t of suggested subjects. In design, t r i a n g l e s were included among the geometric figures and more complex colour schemes were now considered appropriate. Perhaps most importantly, a new section c a l l e d "Lettering" was added with Roman c a p i t a l s to be taught. The same d i v i s i o n of "Drawing" was used from grade three to grade eight, except that "Colour" was shown as a separate section i n grades f i v e , s i x and seven. A higher l e v e l of s k i l l s and more complex 93 subjects were expected each year so that by the end of grade eight the students had had a v a r i e d experience. The outline f o r grade eight "Drawing" gives a good idea of the l e v e l of achievement that was ex-pected by that grade and as i t i s f a i r l y short i s given i n f u l l here: Drawing. OBJECT DRAWING.- Type forms and common objects based on these type forms, s i n g l y and i n groups. F i n i s h i n lead-pencil out-l i n e and i n l i g h t and shade. NATURE DRAWING.- Spray of leaves, flowers, f r u i t , vegetables, i n l i g h t and shade and colour. DESIGN.- As i n Grade VII. This grade should show a better f e e l i n g f or good l i n e and spacing. Colour schemes w i l l be r e p e t i t i o n of o l d work, but should show more refinement of tone and colour. Simple geometrical constructions as r e -quired f o r framework of designs. LETTERING,- L e t t e r i n g of verse, prose, school announcements, etc,, i n p e n c i l and pen. Decoration of i n i t i a l l e t t e r s . The reference to grade seven i n the Design section i s t y p i c a l of the well ordered progression of the curriculum. The exercises r e f e r r e d to included the planning of decorative motifs, the decoration of bands and panels and the study of h i s t o r i c ornament. The 1925 Drawing curriculum has been given i n some d e t a i l as b a s i c a l l y i t was to remain i n force u n t i l the t o t a l r e v i s i o n of the curriculum f o r a l l subjects i n 1936. Some changes and additions would be made to the elementary curriculum, but the majority of them would be minor. There would also be a new e d i t i o n of the teachers manual asiwe saw e a r l i e r but t h i s r e i n f o r c e d the e x i s t i n g curriculum rather than changed i t . The two major changes would be the addition of a junior high school a r t curriculum i n 1927 and the extension.of Manual  Arts to grades three and four i n 1926, A curriculum f o r manual t r a i n -ing schools, which was introduced i n 1925, d i d provide drawing f o r grades s i x , seven and eight p u p i l s i n the manual t r a i n i n g schools 94 programme, but, as i t was s t r i c t l y l i m i t e d to t e c h n i c a l drawing, i t w i l l not be considered here.• The Manual Arts programme reappeared i n the curriculum for grades three i n 1926 and was expanded to grade four, but l e f t the drawing section, already described, unchanged. In grade three, cardboard modelling with construction of three dimensional models and p l a s t i c ( i . e . p l a s t i c i n e type) models, which could be c o r r e l a t e d with Nature Study and Geography, were added. In grade four the modelling was continued, but with more complex constructions, and free c u t t i n g was introduced f o r i l l u s t r a t i v e purposes. The move to introduce junior high schools to B r i t i s h Columbia i n 1926 followed a trend which had become prevalent i n North America. While Vancouver had had a j u n i o r high school i n 1923, i t s c l i e n t e l e had been students who were not expected to go on to matriculation, whereas 22 the new schools were to provide a t r a n s i t i o n to senior high. The l e g i s l a t i o n f o r these schools was hastened by the recommendations of the Putman-Weir report and the f i r s t of the new j u n i o r highs was opened at Penticton i n 1926. By 1931 there were eleven such schools and throughout the t h i r t i e s others were opened where population and conditions allowed. However, the majority of grade seven and eight p u p i l s continued to attend elementary schools and t h i s should be 23 remembered when considering the impact of the new curriculum. The new junior high school course was t i t l e d Art (Drawing and  Design), I t was s t i p u l a t e d that i t should be taught both i n Shops and A r t Rooms.• There were four general aims, the f i r s t given being to develop an appreciation of form, space r e l a t i o n s and colour. The second 95 was addressed to a r t appreciation and the improvement of "taste and cult u r e , " while the t h i r d was concerned with the p r a c t i c a l " a p p l i c a t i o n of a r t p r i n c i p l e s to costume, to home environment, and to commercial and i n d u s t r i a l development." The l a s t had to do with the actual development of s k i l l s s t a t i n g : 4. An improvement i n judgment and execution i n drawing, design-ing, modelling, and other forms of a r t expression a s ^ h e y are re l a t e d to i n d i v i d u a l , home and community i n t e r e s t s . The grade seven course was divided into s i x sections: object drawing and plant drawing; freehand sketching; elements of design; applied design and a r t c r a f t s ; l e t t e r i n g ; mechanical drawing. Under each section the varied uses of a r t were stressed with i t being pointed out that a r t had a place both i n and out of school and i n the workshop. The p r a c t i c a l a p p l i c a t i o n of a r t i n the workshop was stressed a l i t t l e more than the other aspects, but i t was made quite c l e a r that aesthetic appreciation was also important. The grade eight course was s t r i c t l y an extension of the grade seven and the grade nine an extension of the eight except that "Lessons i n Art Appreciation" were added while object and plant drawing, applied design and a r t c r a f t s were l e f t out. The grade nine course i s not a d i r e c t concern here, but i t i s nevertheless i n t e r e s t i n g to see the d i r e c t i o n i n which the a r t course continued. A l l i n a l l the new junior high school curriculum of 1927 did show a major change i n the approach to a r t from that advocated i n the elementary grades seven and eight programme. The bibliography i s par-t i c u l a r l y i n t e r e s t i n g . I t included The Teachers'_Manual of Drawing  and Design used throughout the elementary grades and added seven other texts that were a l l design oriented. So while a r t appreciation was 96 seen as important, not one text was provided f o r t h i s aspect. As f a r as the elementary curriculum was concerned the other changes that occurred were i n 1930 when object drawing was eliminated from the f i r s t three grades and i n 1933 when W.P. Weston's Teachers  Manual of Drawing replaced the previous text. As was seen i n the previous chapter, a majority of the i l l u s t r a t i o n s were retained i n the new book and the text was rewritten with the emphasis on design and drawing being strengthened. The most obvious deletion was that of the d e t a i l e d table of a c t i v i t i e s for- eachmonth•of the year. The book was s u f f i c i e n t l y s i m i l a r to the previous text that i t did not indicate a major change i n the curriculum, but i t d i d re i n f o r c e (Westonrs under-l y i n g b e l i e f s about a r t education. By the m i d - t h i r t i e s i t had been decided to rev i s e the curriculum. The o f f i c e notebook of S.J. W i l l i s , Superintendent of Education, l i s t s the general committee f or r e v i s i o n of the curriculum under the date of February 7, 1935, There were sixteen people on the committee under the chairmanship of D.L. MacLaurin, p r i n c i p a l of the V i c t o r i a Normal 25 School. Eleven of the committee l i v e d i n Vancouver, four i n V i c t o r i a and one i n the I n t e r i o r , i n Kelowna. I t included a representative from each of the Normal Schools ( i n c i d e n t a l l y the only women on the com-mittee) , a representative of the University of B r i t i s h Columbia and two Inspectors of Schools. Of the remainder nine were p r i n c i p a l s of Vancouver schools. In addition there was a ce n t r a l r e v i s i o n committee, also under the chairmanship of D,L, MacLaurin, with a t o t a l of f i v e 26 . . . members. Several committees f o r i n d i v i d u a l subjects were given, i n -cluding one for Music, but there was apparently no committee f o r Art at the time. However, i n due course an a r t committee chairman was appointed. No doubt the choice caused no surprise. As we have seen i t was W.P. Weston, In an a r t i c l e i n The B.C. Teacher,- the Minister of Education, 27 the Hon. G.M. Weir, r e f e r r e d to the 1925 Survey of the School System. He suggested that while the curriculum had been improved "something s t i l l remains to be done" and that the Survey " w i l l help to give a common background of knowledge and a common understanding of p r i n c i -•"'28 pi e s . " As co-author of the Survey, Mr. Weir could be expected to remain somewhat p a r t i a l to i t , but i t would probably be wrong to ascribe the decision to rewrite the programme of studies to any one reason. On the other hand i t would be unwise to underestimate the influence of the Progressive movement, i n t e r e s t i n which was widespread throughout the country. Dr. Peter Sandiford, i n an a r t i c l e i n The School f o r February 1938, saw Progressivism as having been an important factor i n curriculum r e v i s i o n throughout a l l of Canada and reported that, i n f a c t , every province had revised, or was i n the process of r e v i s i n g , 29 xts school curriculum. The new elementary curriculum came into force i n September, 1936. I t had been o r i g i n a l l y intended to introduce i t only experimen-t a l l y f o r the f i r s t year, but t h i s decision was changed, ostensibly because copies of the o l d programme of studies had been used up. So teachers from grades one to eight came back to school i n September, 1936 with a completely new programme to t e a c h . 3 0 The curriculum f o r the remaining grades was to be introduced the following year. A f o r e -word to the new programme "urgently s o l i c i t e d " c r i t i c i s m of i t and 98 expected that "many suggestions f o r improvement" would be made. So the f a c t that i t survived without r a d i c a l r e v i s i o n , and i n f a c t had not been amended f i v e years l a t e r , may i n d i c a t e that i t was generally w e l l received. A most important part of the Programme of Studies was a section headed Aims and Philosophy of Education i n B r i t i s h Columbia and i n 31 eight pages i t explained j u s t that. This was the f i r s t time since the Course of Study of 1914 that a section had been devoted i n a cur-riculum guide to the raison d'etre of the programme. Consideration of the 1936 Art curriculum should come a f t e r study of these general aims. The f i r s t aim was an unabashedly p o l i t i c a l one: The schools...exist to develop c i t i z e n s , or subjects, ac-cording to the p r e v a i l i n g or dominating i d e a l s of the state or society....They wish to have c i t i z e n s able to play t h e i r part i n a democratic state... so^j^hat s o c i a l s t a b i l i t y may be united with s o c i a l progress. However, i t was also seen that from the point of view of the i n d i v i d u a l the schools e x i s t to a i d him i n h i s own self-growth or s e l f - r e a l i z a t i o n , i n making adjustments to h i s environment, and, i t may be, i n modifying t h i s environment, which i s at once a s o c i a l and a p h y s i c a l environment....This capacity for progressive adjustment requires the development of c r i t i c a l thinking, of openmindedness and^freedom from prejudice, unimpeded by unregulated emotion. With the societal" and personal aims of education s a t i s f a c t o r i l y c l a r i -f i e d , the school's r o l e could i t s e l f be i d e n t i f i e d : Character, therefore, may be said to be the main objective of education. The school and^its curriculum should be or-ganized to achieve t h i s end. Spencer had said almost exactly the same thing i n 1850.in S o c i a l 35 S t a t i c s , "Education has f o r i t s object the formation of character," 99 he had stated and f o r D.L. MacLaurin and his committee the same held true i n 1936. The development of t h i s character would be evidenced by-improvements i n s i x d i f f e r e n t areas, namely knowledge, habits, s k i l l s , i n t e r e s t s and appreciations, a t t i t u d e s , and i d e a l s . The chapter went on to discuss the best ways i n which the c h i l d ' s needs might best be met. How would the c h i l d be a s s i s t e d to f i t i nto society? What p a r t i c u l a r s k i l l s and knowledge di d he need? How could he be helped to- think imaginatively and independently? How could the influence of good homes be strengthened and that of bad ones counteracted? Such questions the authors attempted to answer i n a general way and required the curriculum to answer more exactly. But each time the i n d i v i d u a l was considered the answer always returned to s o c i e t a l needs: Individual growth which i s opposed to the s o c i a l good i s un-de s i r a b l e . The school, therefore, must f o s t e r the growth and development each p u p i l i n ways that are conducive to the good of a l l . This education to develop the good c i t i z e n was broken into four d i v i -sions: health and p h y s i c a l development; moral character; aesthetic development; i n t e l l e c t u a l development. Since the concern here i s with a r t education i t i s i n ae s t h e t i c development that we are most inte r e s t e d . The 1936 curriculum saw a r t i s t i c appreciation as being p a r t l y a matter of emotional r e -sponse and p a r t l y a matter of understanding, •» T o - i n s t i l that apprecia-', t i o n required a 1 teacher of s e n s i t i v i t y , I t was f e l t that Art should involve active expression as well as passive experience, even though the student might well be only "moderately successful", because thereby 100 the student would get some i n s i g h t into the work of others. Education generally•for the elementary school was broken down into nine aims. Two were r e l a t e d to a r t education, namely: 3. To stimulate and develop desirable self-expression. 6, To encourage i n t e r e s t s i n a r t , music, l i t e r a t u r e ^ nature, and play for the enrichment and enjoyment of l i f e . The other seven were, of course, i n d i r e c t l y applicable to a r t educa-t i o n , but i t was these two that d i r e c t l y addressed the subject. The aims f o r junior high school continued the elementary ones and also suggested that students should explore the p o s s i b i l i t i e s of various f i e l d s , i ncluding f i n e arts,' so that they might become aware of " t h e i r 38 own dominant i n t e r e s t s , c a p a c i t i e s , and l i m i t a t i o n s f o r them." The new a r t curriculum was no longer c a l l e d Drawing, but Graphic Arts: A r t Appreciation. A section on art appreciation had been added and a more extensive bibliography, but the course had a c t u a l l y not changed to any extent as f a r as a r t a c t i v i t i e s were concerned. The layout of the guide had been a l t e r e d , there now being f i v e columns headed r e s p e c t i v e l y : S p e c i f i c Aims or Objectives; Subject-matterj A c t i v i t i e s or Projects; Materials; Method; Desirable A t t a i n -ments, In addition paperfolding and c u t t i n g , p l a s t i c i n e modelling and suchlike had been put i n t o a separate section c a l l e d P r a c t i c a l A r t s . However, a c a r e f u l comparison of the o l d course and the new did not i n d i c a t e many major differences and the o l d text,'Weston's Teachers'  Manual of Drawing, was s t i l l recommended. In f a c t , despite the new bibliography, i t was the only text r e f e r r e d to for the d i f f e r e n t a c t i v i t i e s - - a n d i t was r e f e r r e d to constantly. The a r t appreciation section was new f o r the elementary school. 101 Previously appreciation had been "impl i c i t i n the curriculum, how i t was e x p l i c i t and was summed up by the f i n a l paragraph on the subject which stated: I t would be well to remember that Art Appreciation i s i n t e r -woven with the whole l i f e of the c h i l d , and teachers must grasp opportunities to c u l t i v a t e the f e e l i n g for order and beauty i n the creations of Nature and Man. I t was t h i s c u l t i v a t i o n of f e e l i n g s that was meant by a r t appreciation here and not p i c t o r i a l appreciation which demands knowledge of the standards of beauty, and of the p r i n -. c i p l e s of design, colour, and tonal values. Hence i n a cur-riculum for Elementary Schools i t should not be included; i t must come i n l a t e r yggrs when consciousness and reasoning have been more developed. Despite t h i s i t was- f e l t that students should be brought into contact with the f i n e s t reproductions of famous pictures since taste could be developed by "contagion." A suggested l i s t was given for each grade. These were mainly o l d masters and a quarter of them were by English a r t i s t s . Only one was i d e n t i f i e d as being by a Canadian and no twentieth century work was included. A large number of the f i f t y p i c t u r e s had c h i l d r e n as the subject and there were several action p i c t u r e s , such as Uccello's B a t t l e Scene. However, Raphael's The  S i s t i n e Madonna and Da V i n c i ' s The Last Supper were f e l t to be un-s u i t a b l e f o r the elementary grades because they were not seen as hold-ing any i n t e r e s t f o r c h i l d r e n . In order to provide a s u i t a b l e environment for the development of the aesthetic s e n s i b i l i t i e s i t was judged essential' that the c l a s s -room should "be exemplary i n i t s o r d e r l i n e s s " and that there should be a t t r a c t i v e displays around the room. Just being i n an orderly, pleasing 102 atmosphere was f e l t to be s u f f i c i e n t to "arouse response i n each c h i l d " 41 thus laying "the foundations of good t a s t e . " Even though the content of the new a r t curriculum d i d not hold many surprises f o r teachers when they f i r s t read i t i n the f a l l of 1936, the new layout d i d a l t e r the appearance of the guide and suggest change, Some change there was, but i t was of d e t a i l rather than of philosophy. There was more t a l k about " o r i g i n a l i t y " and "free expres-sion" but the suggested a c t i v i t i e s seemed to be as structured as before and sometimes more so. Taking the grade one curriculum as an example, one finds among the " S p e c i f i c Aims and Objectives" the "encouragement of free expression with i n d i v i d u a l variation, or o r i g i n a l i t y . " On the other hand i t was suggested that the grade one students should also be taught the "simple p r i n c i p l e s of drawing" of proportion, perspective 42 and balance. Some would consider these p r i n c i p l e s to b e " f a i r l y ad-vanced f o r students i n t h e i r f i r s t year of schooling and glancing back to the 1926 curriculum one reads: Correct representative drawing cannot be got at t h i s stage and teachers should t r y to see the c h i l d ' s mind as expressed i n the drawing instead of looking f o r an adult concept. ^ Imaginative drawing i s e s p e c i a l l y good at t h i s stage . . . So more freedom on the one hand was countered by more structure on the other, but the basic s i m i l a r i t i e s between the two c u r r i c u l a remained. The P r a c t i c a l Arts programme for grade one continued the a c t i v i -t i e s from the o l d curriculum except that s t i c k l a y i n g was omitted and some mention was made of working with wood and c l o t h . Also there was more emphasis given to working on larger projects which would integrate several of the p r a c t i c a l arts a c t i v i t i e s . Again, there was t a l k of 103 freedom of expression f o r the student, but, when i t came r i g h t down to i t , the guide was very s p e c i f i c . To take j u s t one example: for a Christmas p r o j e c t "palm-trees w i l l be needed"; there was no considera-t i o n of the p o s s i b i l i t y that they might not be. Since palm trees had been decreed, the guide was equally s p e c i f i c about how they ought to be made: Give d e f i n i t e d i r e c t i o n s f or making the tree, step by step, on the following p o i n t s : — 1, How to make the bark. 2, How to r o l l the paper over a p e n c i l to form the trunk. 3, How to paste the l a s t corner. 4, How to cut and fringe the leaves, ^ 5, How to paste the leaves into a hollow end of the trunk. While a l l t h i s was unequivocally s k i l l oriented with c r e a t i v i t y taking second place, i t must not be forgotten, as discussed above, that i t was f e l t that s k i l l s must be mastered before c r e a t i v i t y could be un-f e t t e r e d . Neither should i t be forgotten that W.P. Weston had been a c e n t r a l figure i n the curriculum r e v i s i o n , . He had always f i r m l y believed i n the teaching of s k i l l s and would continue to do so. Even t h i r t y years l a t e r he would s t i l l be saying, "Art must be founded on 45 sound technique, leavened with idealism and imagination." The grades two and three programmes continued the pattern established i n grade one but with a greater in t e g r a t i o n of the prac-t i c a l a r t s with S o c i a l Studies, From grade four, however, History and Geography replaced S o c i a l Studies and no attempt was made to co-ordinate p r a c t i c a l a r t s with them. Handwork began to be more important. As the guide said; A turning point has been reached *: , , and work of a more r e a l character must replace the f a g g i f u l or make-believe represen-tat i o n s that used to s u f f i c e . 104 I t was stressed that the programme should be developmental through the grades and that projects should not be decided upon i n a haphazard manner. Paper and cardboard modelling, for example, should lead to bookbinding; simple sewing should lead to sock darning or to the making of an apron for woodworking. This turning point which l e d to more emphasis on handwork began to lead p r a c t i c a l a r t s away from what would be c a l l e d a r t today and towards i n d u s t r i a l education and home economics. By grade s i x some part of claywork might s t i l l be considered a r t , but the r e s t : paper and cardboard modelling and bookbinding, needlecraft, and woodwork, were quite outside the scope of a r t education and of t h i s t h e s i s , Looking at the a r t c u r r i c u l a from the early twenties u n t i l the r e v i s i o n of 1936 that which s t r i k e s one the most i s the continuity of thought and the lack of any sudden change. There was change, but i t was orderly and gradual. The emphases on formal design-and on s k i l l s continued throughout .the period and were permanently strengthened. A l l other development had to take second place to these imperatives. That these two emphases survived the winds of change which blew i n the curriculum r e v i s i o n of 1936 would have been remarkable i f i t had not been for W.P. Weston's p e r s i s t i n g influence. As we s h a l l see i n the next chapter, h i s influence extended f a r beyond the curriculum i t s e l f . 105 FOOTNOTES ^Strathcona Elementary School had 31 d i v i s i o n s i n the 1923-1924 school year and would continue to grow. Only two Vancouver schools had less than eight d i v i s i o n s i n that year. However, South Vancouver and Point Grey d i d have a number of small schools. Annual  Report of the Public Schools ( V i c t o r i a : King's P r i n t e r , 1924). Hereafter c i t e d as ARPS. 2 Courses of Study ( V i c t o r i a : King's P r i n t e r , 1923). 3 I b i d . , p. 3. 4 Programme of Studies ( V i c t o r i a : King's P r i n t e r , 1925). ^The Superintendent of Education had been a l i t t l e l e s s r e t i c e n t about pointing out that the change i n the grading system might lead to some lengthening of elementary schooling f or some p u p i l s . ARPS (1923), p. F10. Courses of Study (1923), pp. 2-3. ^ I b i d . , p. 3. g Ib i d . , p. 2. 9 T.B. Kidner, Educational Handwork (Toronto: Educational Books Co., ,1910) . • . "^Wilhelmine Seegmiller, Primary Work (Chacago: Atkinson, Mentzer and Grover, <L906) . . •-; ''""'"David B l a i r , B l a i r ' s Canadian Drawing Series (Toronto: Copp, Clark Co. no date), 12 Courses of Study (1923), pp. 11-14. 13 Ibid., p, 20. 14 Programme of Studies ( V i c t o r i a ; King's P r i n t e r , 1925). 1 5 C h a r l e s Scott, William P. Weston, S.P. Judge, The Teacher's  Manual of Drawing and Design, ed. Charles Scott (Toronto: Nelson, 1924?). 106 "^Programme of Studies (1925), pp. 11-12. 17 I b i d . , p. 11. 18 I b i d . , p. 12. 19 William P. Weston, A Teacher's Manual of Drawing (Toronto: Nelson, 1933). In the preface to t h i s book Weston claimed respon-s i b i l i t y f o r the Design section of the previous text. 20 Scott, ed. The Teachers' Manual, p. 73. 21 Programme of Studies (1925), p. 84. 2 2ARPS (1924), p. F44. 23 In the school year 1931-1932 there were 21,130 B.C. students e n r o l l e d i n grades seven and eight. Of these, only 4266 attended j u n i o r high schools. ARPS (1932), p. L99. 24 Programme of Studies of the Junior High Schools ( V i c t o r i a : King's P r i n t e r , 1927), p. 77, 25 V i c t o r i a , B.C. P r o v i n c i a l Archives; for a complete l i s t i n g of the committee, see B.C. Teacher. 2^The Central Revision Committee members were D.L. MacLaurin, H.B, King, H.N. MacCorkindale, C B . Wood, and J . Roy Sanderson, ARPS (1936), p. H27. 27 G.H. Putman and CM. Weir, Survey of the School System ( V i c t o r i a : King's P r i n t e r , 1925). 2 8 CM. Weir, "The Revision of the Curriculum," B.C. Teacher (A p r i l 1935): 20-23. 29 Peter Sandiford, "Curriculum Revision i n Canada," The School  :CElementary Edition) 26 (February 1938): 472-77. 3 0Programme of Studies f o r the Elementary Schools ( V i c t o r i a : Kind's P r i n t e r , 1936), 31 Ibid., pp. 7-15, 107 32 Ibi d , , p, 7. 33 I b i d . , p. 7 3 4 l b i d . , p. 7. 35 Herbert Spencer, S o c i a l S t a t i c s quoted i n Source Book i n Philosophy of Education, ed. W.H. K i l p a t r i c k (New York: Macmillan, 1928) . 36 Programme of Studies (1936), p. 10. 37 Ib i d . , p. 13. 3 ^ I b i d . , p. 13. 39 Ib i d . , p. 150. 40 Ib i d . , p. 149. 41 Ibi d . , p. 149. 42 Ibi d . , p. 152. 43 Programme of Studies (1926), p. 12. 44 Programme of Studies (1936), pp. 175-76. 45 Quoted by Joan Lowndes i n a a r t i c l e on Weston./ Province, 16 September 1966. 46 Programme of Studies (1936), p. 187. CHAPTER SIX THE PRESCRIPTION INTERPRETED I t i s one thing to prescribe a course of study; i t i s quite another to ensure that i t i s followed. One important influence on the actual teaching of a r t was the t r a i n i n g given to teachers at the Normal Schools i n V i c t o r i a or Vancouver, and at the summer schools i n V i c t o r i a . I have already shown something of W.P. Weston's influence on students at the Vancouver Normal School and w i l l be returning to the subject i n t h i s chapter. But j u s t what of the t r a i n i n g i n a r t at the V i c t o r i a Normal School? From i t s opening i n 1915 u n t i l h i s r e -tirement i n 1931, Harry Dunnell was the a r t master and also taught penmanship and elementary woodwork. On h i s retirement, a former student, John Gough, took over the teaching'positiom-and remained u n t i l 1942. Unlike Weston, neither Dunnell nor Gough saw himself p r i m a r i l y as e i t h e r a r t teacher or a r t i s t though both painted for pleasure. Harry Dunnell had been brought out from England i n 1900 to organise the manual t r a i n i n g programme i n B.C. as part of the Macdonald-Robertson movement."*" He d i d ' t h i s with-enthusiasm and a b i l i t y . He became inspector of Manual Trai n i n g . f o r the province i n 1903 and held t h i s p o s i t i o n u n t i l j o i n i n g the V i c t o r i a Normal School i n 1915. A good part of the c r e d i t f o r the development of manual t r a i n i n g programmes i n B r i t i s h Columbia belongs to Harry Dunnell. At the Normal School Dunnell's a r t i n t e r e s t s appeared to be i n the more formal aspects of drawing, l e t t e r i n g and design, which was to be expected considering that h i s own background was i n Manual Training rather than i n Art. Students' memories of Harry Dunnell are 108 109 s u r p r i s i n g , not for what i s remembered, but for what f a i l s to be remembered. When I talked to graduates of the Vancouver Normal School and asked a general question about who or what was memorable at the School, Weston and h i s a r t programme almost always came up early i n the conversation. However, graduates of the V i c t o r i a school have few memories of t h e i r a r t t r a i n i n g . Winnifred Weir, for example, who went to V i c t o r i a Normal School i n 1928 said, "We didn't get much a r t , a l -though 1 do remember we had to take i t . " When asked who taught i t she thought perhaps.it was Miss I s b i s t e r . When Dunnell's name was men-tioned, she sai d , "Now that you're t a l k i n g about him, he's a vague 2 shape," Another student, Jack Fouracre, who was there i n 1923, care-f u l l y l i s t e d the teaching s t a f f , except f o r Dunnell, then added, 3 "There was another man, I can't remember him now." Norman Forbes, who was a classmate of Fouracre, remembered Dunnell as "another f i n e o l d gentleman with an English accent. He was a very very kind 4 pleasant o l d gentleman." Mr. Dunnell's a r t classes, i t would seem, did not excite the students. Those students who did remember some-thing of h i s courses had few h i g h l i g h t s to r e c a l l . Norman Forbes' wife, May Forbes, when asked by an interviewer about the a r t classes, s a i d : I think we were taught how to go about teaching ch i l d r e n a r t , how to set out paper and so on. Nothing elaborate. We used to make pict u r e s of birds and plants. We used to make b i g books of them. We d i d i t f o r Freeman's Nature Study and sometimes we d i d the i l l u s t r a t i o n s i n our a r t classes. Mr, Dunnell taught us l e t t e r i n g , at which I was never very good - how to l e t t e r things, the different^ kinds of l e t t e r i n g a,nd then just sketching and drawing. 110 A fellow student with May Forbes-was A, Wilf Johns, Twenty years l a t e r he was to take over- as Art Master himself when John Gough l e f t the post, He found much the same approach being followed i n 1942 as he had i n 1922 as a student. I t was an approach•with which he was not i n sympathy: I must say that the a r t I took at that time I was t o t a l l y opposed to, . . .1 don't know what (Dunnell) expected, but the point i s that everyone d i d the same thing. Everything was just so. You followed a l i t t l e book and you found out exactly what you should do and that was i t . . . .In pen-manship, i n a r t , everyone had tg do the same thing and both of these went against my grain. Johns did not blame t h i s approach to a r t education on Harry Dunnell, but rather to the whole approach of the Normal School. As d i d several other students Johns found the p r i n c i p a l , D.L. MacLaurin, to be the dominant force at the V i c t o r i a Normal School, He was respected, but 7 considered to be a stern and s t r i c t man, who frowned on s o c i a l things. "He was the Normal School, there's no doubt about that," said May 9 Forbes, Everything, i t seemed to the students, was formal and l a i d down. A f t e r the Putman-Weir report some changes were made, but MacLaurin's formal influence remained. Even.after he moved to the Minist r y of Education i n 1932 and h i s vi c e - p r i n c i p a l , - V.L. Denton, became p r i n c i p a l , l i t t l e changed, f o r Denton had been well trained i n • . 10 MacLaurin's ways. I f Denton's p r i n c i p a l s h i p d i d not change the V i c t o r i a Normal School i n general, Harry Dunnell's retirement did not bring many change to the a r t programme. When John Gough took over i n 1931 he continued the pattern of a r t education established by h i s o l d teacher, Dunnell. Since he held the post f o r eleven years he was presumably considered to I l l be a success, but, when he d i d leave the post to become an Inspector of Schools, he himself f e l t "I was able to return to my s p e c i a l t y , S o c i a l S t u d i e s . " 1 1 C l e a r l y he d i d not regard himself as an a r t s p e c i a l i s t , As a student teacher he had not thought of himself as an ar t teacher e i t h e r : I was sometimes shocked when we had an assignment i n music ^ or a r t and I d i d not f e e l I had t r a i n i n g i n these subjects. In h i s reminiscences about hi s days as a teacher at the Normal School, John Gough spoke hardly at a l l about hi s work as Art Master. For him the h i g h l i g h t of each week was the meeting of the l i t e r a r y society which he helped organise. Each Friday afternoon from 1:45 to 3:30, groups of students would present programmes to entertain the school. Art had l i t t l e part i n these l i t e r a r y functions except that once Emily Carr was i n v i t e d to present a programme. She a r r i v e d with her a r t work done on large brown paper, "But," s a i d Gough, "students and s t a f f were not greatly excited by what they saw." A photograph of Gough's a r t room at the Normal School taken 13 some time a f t e r 1938 shows some of the work done by h i s students (figure 4), Most notable are the posters f o r the V i c t o r i a Musical F e s t i v a l . As the posters are dated we know that Gough gave the same assignment i n 1938 that he had given i n the three previous years. With a si n g l e exception the nine posters shown are remarkably s i m i l a r . They are on a dark background and the a r t work i s contained neatly within a l i g h t border l i n e . The l e t t e r i n g i s clear and simple and each poster has a si n g l e bold decoration. They f i t exactly the c r i -t e r i a f o r posters given on page 107 of A Teacher's Manual of Drawing. 112 F i g . 4-. A r t Room at the P r o v i n c i a l Normal S c h o o l , V i c t o r i a . The photograph was ta k e n a t some time a f t e r 1938 and b e f o r e John Gough's r e t i r e m e n t i n 194-1. The o r i g i n a l p r i n t i s i n the U n i v e r s i t y of V i c t o r i a A r c h i v e s and shows more d e t a i l t h a n can t h i s copy. 113 Each poster i s e f f e c t i v e on i t s " own, but there i s l i t t l e r e a l d i f f e r -ence among them. S i m i l a r l y , the other work i n the room looks as though i t was dictated by the same manual. There are student produced charts of analogous colours, complementary colours and colour harmonies; there are wash drawings and mass drawings; there are conventionalised designs; there are t r a v e l posters. What i s not seen i n the photo, but which i s featured i n the manual, i s any hint of geometric border design. On the other hand, the photo shows a number of cardboard models of churches and c a s t l e s and three dimensional work that had no r o l e i n the manual. A l l - i n a l l t h i s remarkably clear photo does much to confirm A, W i l f r e d Johns' opinion that the art.course consisted of everyone doing the same thing at the same time. While the evidence i s somewhat l i m i t e d i t i s f a i r l y c l e a r that teacher education i n a r t at the V i c t o r i a Normal School c l o s e l y followed the curriculum. Student-teachers received a c a r e f u l t r a i n i n g i n some s p e c i f i c s k i l l s which would enable them to go out and have students produce conventional images. They were not encouraged to create w i l d l y o r i g i n a l work, but they would be able to produce bold simple images and c l e a r simple display alphabets. Tha't may be a l l that should have been expected from a f a i r l y short course which had to take e n t i r e l y un-trai n e d young people and have them ready within one school year to assume complete r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r a c l a s s of c h i l d r e n i n up to eight grades, I f the a r t education had a f a u l t i t was that i t lacked ex-citement and d i d not encourage students to go beyond what they were taught, Did a s i m i l a r s i t u a t i o n p r e v a i l at the P r o v i n c i a l Normal 114 School i n Vancouver? There were undoubtedly many s i m i l a r i t i e s , but there were some differences too. The a r t education programme i n Van-couver has been discussed to some extent i n chapter four. A w e l l -informed comment on the diff e r e n c e between the V i c t o r i a and Vancouver Normal School programmes i s one made by Mildred Fahrni (nee Osterhoot). Mrs, Fahrni attended the V i c t o r i a Normal School i n 1917, l a t e r went to U,B.C, taught i n Vancouver during the twenties, then d i d post-graduate work at Bryn Mawr and the London School of Economics. While studying i n London she was involved i n a p r o j e c t on new teaching methods and l a t e r was able to tour the Continent to v i s i t "Progres-s i v e " schools. As part of t h i s tour she v i s i t e d Franz Cizek's school i n Vienna, For several years i n the m i d - t h i r t i e s she was a member of the Vancouver Board of School Trustees. Although there was no d i r e c t connection between the Vancouver School Board and the Normal School, she nevertheless became f a m i l i a r with i t both as a teacher and as a school trustee. Her experience i n a v a r i e t y of educational rol e s made her p a r t i c u l a r l y w e l l - q u a l i f i e d to assess the work of the Normal School and her own background as a student of Harry Dunnell enabled her to make v a l i d comparisons. In Mrs. Fahrni's view the difference between the Vancouver and V i c t o r i a Normal Schools was not one of course content, but of p e r s o n a l i t y , at l e a s t as f a r as the a r t programme went. Again we come back to W.P. Weston for Mrs. Fahrni says: I remember f e e l i n g that (Weston) was much superior to many others that I had come i n contact with, much more progres-sive than a r t teachers that I'd had i n school, and being quite impressed with him and h i s own work as well as with the teaching. . . , (He was progressive) i n allowing more scope for c r e a t i v i t y and encouraging students to express t h e i r own f e e l i n g s through t h e i r a r t and to reach out to 115 understanding the basis of t h e i r a r t and the i n t e r p r e t i n g of a r t . Not j u s t a p i c t u r e that you. looked at, but what was behind i t and so on. A student who was at the Normal School i n 1933, put i t more simply: I l i k e d Weston's a r t because i t was new to me and he was a nice fellow. I found that quite e x c i t i n g because i t was something I hadn't seen much of before. These two comments contain the essence of Weston's success as an a r t educator. Students l i k e d him and found h i s own a r t e x c i t i n g and new. Weston himself encouraged h i s students not only to develop t h e i r s k i l l s but also to push beyond what they considered t h e i r l i m i t s and to explore new ground. The formal content of his course did not break new. ground. The difference came i n the way that Weston made students think"about a r t and the confidence i n t h e i r own a b i l i t i e s that he i n s p i r e d . The student who made the comment above kept the a r t notebooks she made at the Vancouver Normal School. They show that the course followed quite c l o s e l y the content of Weston's book A Teacher's Manual of Drawing. While t h i s text had j u s t been published i n the year that she attended the Normal School, Weston's courses i n previous years had followed a s i m i l a r pattern and i n basic course ou t l i n e d i d not change much i n future years. Weston himself commented to h i s successor i n 1946 that i t was time for a change and that h i s own text should f i n a l l y be abandoned, 1 6 Looking at the a r t course i n more d e t a i l one finds that the 17 year was divided into two main sections. Drawing occupied most of the f i r s t term, then a f t e r the Christmas break the remainder of the 116 year was devoted to colour theory and design. The f i r s t term's drawing included some pain t i n g and l e t t e r i n g . To s t a r t the year Weston would take h i s classes outside to sketch the b i r d s , trees and shrubs that were to be found around the Normal School. As the weather deteriorated nature-objects would be brought i n t o the classroom for Weston di d not believe i n copying from p i c t u r e s . "Shun the copyist!" h i s students echoed him, while he himself was quoted as saying: Nature i s the only and ever open book of design. She has more decorative forms than we can ever dispose o£^ and we who would design must be ardent students of her. Later i n the term Weston introduced l e t t e r i n g and students made posters. As Christmas approached they turned to making t h e i r own Christmas cards. A f t e r Christmas, colour theory was taken up i n some d e t a i l . Colour charts were made and analogous, complementary and con-t r a s t i n g colours were discussed. D i f f e r e n t colour harmonies were explored, Accompanying t h i s exploration of colour Weston taught various aspects of design. He taught students how to take natural forms and conventionalize them, then to use these conventionalized forms to create p i c t u r e s , patterns and borders. Some time was also spent i n exploring geometrical designs and through such designs devel-oping an appreciation of balance and harmony i n a p i c t u r e . In h i s teaching of design Weston seems to have been somewhat inconsistent. Although he d i d not believe i n copying, h i s method of teaching was to have students copy exactly h i s own designs from h i s text or from h i s charts., (figure 5) , Having completed t h e i r copies s u c c e s s f u l l y , the Students might then produce designs of t h e i r own. I t was a system which went r i g h t back to Weston's own t r a i n i n g i n England at the 117 F i g . 5. A c o m p a r i s o n of P l a t e s 68 and 74 i n A T e a c h e r ' s Manual of Drawing w i t h d r a w i n g s made by M a r j o r i e C l a r k (nee J a c k ) w h i l e a s t u d e n t a t the P r o v i n c i a l Normal S c h o o l , Vancouver. 118 beginning of the century. His explanation f o r the apparent i n c o n s i s -tency would l i k e l y have been twofold. F i r s t , he believed that the a r t i s t , whether adult or c h i l d , needed to b u i l d up a memory bank of conventionalized designs which could be drawn on confidently at any time and then adapted to f i t the creative work on hand. Second, he believed that you must proceed step by step developing your s k i l l s along with, or possibly- i n advance of, your creative ideas. He him-s e l f put the matter c l e a r l y : Be as progressive as you l i k e , as advanced as you l i k e ; but always be sure that i t i s one step forward and that i t i s not beyond your knowledge or strength. This exploration of colour and design would occupy Weston's classes to the end of the year. No doubt they continued with t h e i r sketching and when the spring weather came i t seems c e r t a i n that the sketch-books were taken outdoors again. The a r t education courses at the two Normal Schools covered much the same ground. By and large they prepared the student teacher f o r . h i s or her r o l e by covering the material i n the prescribed text. On the face of i t , therefore, one would expect s i m i l a r r e s u l t s to be obtained. However, at V i c t o r i a , the two i n s t r u c t o r s were not a r t s p e c i a l i s t s , even though they were competent a r t i s t s . The course they provided was adequate, but uninspired. At Vancouver, the i n s t r u c t o r was an a r t s p e c i a l i s t with an extensive t r a i n i n g and was t o t a l l y dedi-cated to h i s task. This dedication was hardly s u r p r i s i n g since he played a major r o l e i n creating the prescribed programme and he was committed to i t s t h e o r e t i c a l underpinnings. As a r e s u l t , the students at the Vancouver Normal School, or many of them at any rate, were 119 i n s p i r e d by t h e i r teacher to take that extra step and to develop f u r -ther what they had learned. The Normal School was not the only way i n which the curriculum could be interpreted f o r teachers. The other major way was through the a r t courses at the annual Summer School for Teachers i n V i c t o r i a . The Summer School had sta r t e d i n 1915 and continued throughout the interwar period. In 1931, for economic reasons, the courses were s t r i c t l y c u r t a i l e d and no a r t courses were given. I t looked as though the Summer School might disappear completely. However, the p o s s i b i l i t y r a i s e d such an outcry that the school was reorganised on a fee paying basis and continued to prosper. In 1937 i t was expanded to include . courses for c r e d i t and from then on began to resemble more nearly the University summer sessions which would eventually replace i t . Art courses at the Summer School were always popular and while courses i n some subjects would f l o u r i s h for a time then disappear, the a r t courses would remain. As constant as the courses was one i n s t r u c t o r , William P, Weston. The only year he did not teach at Summer School was i n 1931. when the courses were cut back. This was, i n any case, the year i n which he was i l l so' that he would not have been a v a i l a b l e whether there had been a r t courses or not. Weston was by no means the only a r t i n s t r u c t o r at the Summer School, but he was the only one to go re g u l a r l y . John Kyle was usually there i n the early twenties, but he was also involved i n organising the Summer School, Charles S c o t t went for a couple of years (1922, 1923) and then not again u n t i l 1937, Harry Dunnell never d i d teach at Summer School and John Gough di d so for the f i r s t time i n 1937. So 120 Weston's was the only continuing influence, He usually taught the Preliminary, or F i r s t Year, a r t course and in-many summers, s t a r t i n g i n 1925, he gave a series of open lectures on a r t appreciation and the hi s t o r y of a r t . His ar t courses continued the work he was doing at the Normal School. In 1925, as i n other years, The Preliminary Art Course covered an extensive f i e l d and i t embraced nature drawing, design, model drawing, l e t t e r -ing and blackboard work. . In nature drawing each student was expected to be able to give a more or less true ren-dering . . . these drawings were then made the bases f o r motifs i n design. . . As at the Normal School Weston would take his classes out sketching, and, s i t t i n g under the shade of a white umbrella, would himself sketch and encourage h i s students. He thoroughly enjoyed the relaxed atmosphere of the Summer School and the opportunity i t afforded him to reach out to more teachers. He considered t h i s h i s summer holiday. Summer i n V i c t o r i a a lso gave him the opportunity to renew his friendship with Emily Carr and during the t h i r t i e s he would v i s i t her r e g u l a r l y . He developed the habit of borrowing her pictures to display at the Summer School, At f i r s t she was suspicious, perhaps because of the cool reception she had received from John Gough and the V i c t o r i a Normal School, but Weston overcame her reticence and was pleased to be able to introduce her work to the teachers. One time Miss Carr h e r s e l f at-tended the Summer School to take a short story course and Weston would drive her'home. Another time Weston took students to v i s i t her studio and Emily Carr gave them a l l tea. He did not miss any opportunity to 21 encourage i n t e r e s t i n a r t i n general or B.C. ar t i n p a r t i c u l a r . I t may have been that he got a s p e c i a l pleasure from the pu b l i c 121 lectures he gave at the Summer School as these enabled him to i n -fluence teachers who were not involved i n the a r t classes as well as those who were. But Weston was not the only person to lecture on a r t at these summer sessions. In 1934 Marion Richardson came from England to give three lectures about her a r t education methods, which had caused quite a s t i r i n B r i t a i n . She met enthusiastic crowds across the country and no doubt i n V i c t o r i a as elsewhere she was "almost 22 overwhelmed by the warmth of the welcome I received." On the surface Marion Richardson's approach was very d i f f e r e n t from Weston's and she believed that as a r e s u l t of her v i s i t : Many of the teachers decided there and then that, given permission, they would gladly abandon the formal syllabus of work which h i t h e r t o had guided them and t r u s t to the children's natural i n t e r e s t s to be the mainspring of t h e i r a r t teaching. But i t may be that t h e i r two approaches were not r e a l l y so d i f f e r e n t . She saw the c h i l d as wanting to paint "his own mental p i c t u r e s : t r a i n s 24 and sta t i o n s , stores and shops, barges, boats and b i g ships." Weston, on the other hand, was s t r e s s i n g nature and nature was more l i k e l y to be the s t u f f of the mental pi c t u r e s of many B.C. c h i l d r e n . Both wanted to work from the c h i l d ' s own i n t e r e s t s , but Weston put more emphasis on s k i l l development than d i d Richardson and there i s no evidence that any of h i s teachers wanted to throw away h i s new manual. In f a c t , when Miss Richardson v i s i t e d , Weston was using the new manual at Summer School for the f i r s t time and, the Colonist-reported, "his class of 25 f o r t y teachers i s working with enthusiasm." Another v i s i t i n g speaker was Arthur Lismer, He came to l e c -ture the year following Miss Richardson. The f i r s t lecture he gave to 122 a f u l l house, but, as he never r a i s e d h i s voice and refused to stand on the stage where the audience could see him and possibly hear him, he would have had no audience at a l l for the two succeeding lectures 26 i f Weston had not dragged i n h i s own class of students. While Marion Richardson was "much enjoyed (for her) fresh out-look on the subject of that c r e a t i v e work which can' be expected from 27 c h i l d r e n " she does not seem to have had much more e f f e c t i n the long term than did the unfortunate Mr. Lismer. I t was u n l i k e l y that any sin g l e s e r i e s of three lectures was l i k e l y to do more than encourage the audience. I t was a continuing influence'over a period of years which was l i k e l y to have the most e f f e c t . The continuing influence, of course, was W.P. Weston. From 1917 u n t i l 1938 he p e r s i s t e n t l y presented his v i s i o n . I f the impression has been given that Weston dominated a r t education at the Summer School i t i s because he probably did. However, there were other a r t courses besides h i s . S t a r t i n g shakily i n 1924, but gaining popularity t h e r e a f t e r , was an a r t course s p e c i a l l y designed for high school teachers and another i n figure drawing and p i c t o r i a l p a i nting. These courses r e f l e c t e d the growing'importance of secondary education. In some years there were pottery and weaving courses and these usually proved popular. The Summer School purchased i t s own k i l n i n 1925. Other courses came and went. No doubt the p r o v i s i o n of s p e c i a l i s e d courses depended to some extent on whether a su i t a b l e i n -s t r u c t o r was a v a i l a b l e . For the primary grades there was always a course which included handwork, but as at the Normal School courses, there was l i t t l e , i f any, emphasis on o r i g i n a l i t y . 123 We saw i n previous chapters that Weston was a key fi g u r e i n the w r i t i n g of the a r t curriculum. We have seen i n t h i s chapter that he also had an i n f l u e n t i a l r o l e i n that curriculum's i n t e r p r e t a t i o n both as Art Master at the larger of the two Normal Schools and as a teacher at the Summer School. But perhaps his importance for a r t education came about mostly because of h i s dogged persistence and enthusiasm. His approach was a curious blend of conservatism and progressivism. He was always seeking new ideas and new ways of en-couraging others to do likewise. Yet, at the same time, h i s basic premises d i d not a l t e r , h i s underlying philosophy remained constant. The ideas he espoused early i n h i s career he continued to espouse towards i t s end. The ideas were dressed i n new garb from time to time, but-they d i d not change. The very consistency of h i s o f t -repeated advice and h i s own unwavering f a i t h i n h i s v i s i o n gave him a c r e d i b i l i t y no-one else could match. His ideas were not p a r t i c u l a r l y o r i g i n a l , but they became h i s over the years. Let us f i n a l l y look at what went on i n the schools themselves and see whether that which had been prescribed and interpreted was i n f a c t t r a n s l a t e d into p r a c t i c e . 124 FOOTNOTES "'"For a discussion of the Macdonald-Robertson movement see N. Sutherland, Children i n English-Canadian Society, (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1976) pp. 182-201. 2 Winnifred Weir, i n conversation with the wri t e r , June 25, 1983. 3 Tape recording made November 1, 1978 by Jack Fouracre. University of V i c t o r i a archive. Accession No. 78-T-13. 4 Tape recording made November 23, 1978 by Norman and May Forbes. University of V i c t o r i a archive. Accession No. 78-T-21. 5 I b i d . 6Tape recording made November 27, 1978 by A. Wilf r e d Johns. University of V i c t o r i a archive. Accession No. 78-T-25. 7 Tape recording made October 27, 1978 by John Gough. Univer-s i t y of V i c t o r i a archive. Accession No. 78-T-14. Q A. W i l f r e d Johns tape. 9 May Forbes tape. 1 0Tape recording made December 7, 1983 by H. Campbell. Univer-s i t y of V i c t o r i a archive. Accession No. 78-T-19. "'""'"John Gough tape. 1 2 I b i d . 13 Photograph i n c o l l e c t i o n of University of V i c t o r i a archive. No accession number. The two copies i n the possession of the univer-s i t y have d i f f e r e n t dates p e n c i l l e d on the back. The most recent date that can be read i n the photo i s May 1938. 14 Mildred Fahrni i n conversation with the wri t e r , February, 1983. 15 ' Marjorie Clark (nee Jack) i n conversation with the wri t e r , November 1982, 125 16 Elmore Ozard i n conversation with u n i d e n t i f i e d i n t e r -viewer, probably Cai Opre. Tape recording made about 1974, 17 The o u t l i n e of the course was drawn from several sources: the Normal School Annual, 1931; drawing notebook of Marjorie Clark made i n 1933-1934; reminiscences of V i o l e t Sketchley, Weston's student i n 1938; a comparison of sources with A Teacher's Manual  of Drawing. 18 W.P. Weston quoted i n Normal School Annual, 1931, p. 74. 1 9 l b i d . 20 Annual Report of the Public Schools ( V i c t o r i a : King's P r i n t e r , 1925), p. M68. 21 William P. Weston i n conversation with Margery Dallas, A p r i l 1962. Tape recording i n possession of Glenbow/Alberta I n s t i t u t e , Calgary, A l t a . 22 Marion Richardson, A r t and the C h i l d (London: Uni v e r s i t y of London Press, 1948) p. 74. 23 I b i d . , p. 75. 24 I b i d . 25 . V i c t o r i a C olonist , July 27, 1934, p. 2. 26 W.P. Weston m conversation with Margery Dallas, A p r i l 1962. 27 Annual Report of the Publ i c Schools ( V i c t o r i a : King's P r i n t e r , 1934), p. N32. CHAPTER SEVEN THE INTERPRETATION TRANSLATED Turning from the curriculum as i t was interpreted at the two Normal Schools and at the Summer School to look at the way i n which i t was tra n s l a t e d i n t o p r a c t i c e , the whole matter becomes much more com-plex. From a very few i n s t i t u t i o n s and one p e r s i s t e n t enthusiast, who dominated the scene with l i t t l e competition, we must now consider a thousand or more schools and several times as many teachers. 1 The vast majority of these schools were one or two room establishments and many of them were i s o l a t e d . Consequently the majority of teachers had l i t t l e contact with t h e i r colleagues and often no background of ex-perience apart from what they had done and seen at the Normal School. As Inspector May of V i c t o r i a and the Gulf Islands said i n 1923: The aim of nearly a l l teachers i s to obtain a p o s i t i o n i n a graded school where the work i s of a less t r y i n g char-acter and there i s a p o s s i b i l i t y of associating with others of the same c a l l i n g . But with the majority of the schools being r u r a l many had no such opportunity. Inspector May was perhaps overstating the case for 1, by no means a l l r u r a l teachers seemed unhappy with t h e i r l o t , but the favoured teachers were generally considered tb be those who taught i n urban schools. They were better paid, worked i n larger schools, had c o l -leagues with whom to discuss t h e i r ideas and, i f they taught a r t , had the p o s s i b i l i t y of some in - s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g and perhaps a Drawing Supervisor to give advice. There was, therefore, a b i g difference i n f a c i l i t i e s and working conditions between the urban and r u r a l schools 126 127 which l e d to some d i v e r s i t y i n approach. I w i l l f i r s t consider the teaching of a r t i n urban schools, taking as an example the s i t u a t i o n i n the Vancouver school system since i t comprised by f a r the la r g e s t group of urban schools. Even before consolidation i n January, 1929, i t had been the la r g e s t school d i s t r i c t i n the province and, a f t e r i t s amalgamation with. South Van-couver and Point Grey, one student i n three attended a Vancouver 3 school and represented more than h a l f the urban students. In the majority of schools each teacher was responsible f o r his or her own a r t programme. S t a r t i n g i n the mid-twenties a few schools d i d adopt the platoon system and i n the t h i r t i e s there were some junior high schools, but these schools remained the exception rather than the r u l e . In 1929, for example, the Vancouver Drawing Supervisor, S,P. Judge, found he had 540 teachers out of a t o t a l of 1147 i n 66 schools to supervise,so c l e a r l y there .were not too many 4 s p e c i a l i s t s . I f , as we s h a l l see, the problem i n many r u r a l schools was that the curriculum f o r art' was not followed at a l l , the problem i n some urban schools was that i t was followed too s l a v i s h l y as W.P. Weston found. Although he was not d i r e c t l y involved with the Vancouver schools? he d i d v i s i t them as part of h i s Normal School r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s when he would be supervising student-teachers. He would also v i s i t some schools i n order to borrow c h i l d a r t for displays at the Normal School and he d i d give night classes f o r teachers at various times. A l l too often Weston was disappointed by what he saw: I was very disgusted because going around the schools I had t r i e d to explain the approach and that these (pictures i n 128 the text) were only examples of- what they could aim at, I had t r i e d to explain to them the kind of material they should give the c h i l d r e n before asking them to make o r i g i n a l designs and I made i t quite c l e a r how you could s t a r t and I showed them drawings that students and chi l d r e n had made and then the work they'd make from i t afterwards. But what did they do? Just take the book, put i t up and l e t them copy that. Nothing at a l l , that's a l l they were, copyists. And that had been the thing a l l along. That was my biggest job when I was supervisor - to stop them j u s t copying anything. I'd give them ideas and then I'd f i n d copies of the idea I'd given them a l l round the blessed town. In part t h i s may have r e s u l t e d from the security which follow-ing the text gave a teacher who f e l t inadequate i n a r t . I t may also have resulted i n part from Weston's own technique of teaching the s k i l l s through copying before leading the student i n t o more creative f i e l d s . He seems to have c o n s i s t e n t l y overlooked that h i s own methods r e l i e d heavily on copying, and h i s s p e c i f i c i n s t r u c t i o n s i n h i s text may have done much to uni n t e n t i o n a l l y discourage c r e a t i v i t y i n the schools. In his own hands the system of teaching a r t was e f f e c t i v e , h i s enthusiastic p u p i l s bear witness to that, but, without h i s en-thusiasm and s p e c i a l understanding, the system did not work so we l l . However, i n part the lack of c r e a t i v i t y may also have been a r e s u l t of S.P, Judge's influence. In Weston's view Judge had lacked the creative s k i l l s necessary f o r producing an a r t . t e x t and the r i g i d i t y that t h i s suggested would appear to have c a r r i e d over into h i s supervision, A good i n d i c a t i o n of Judge's approach can be found i n an a r t i c l e he wrote f o r B.C. Teacher in'May 1935. While advocating that the a r t i c l e i s f o r , , . t h e teacher of any grade who i s interested i n develop-ing and stimulating the a n a l y t i c a l and creative thought of the p u p i l s , . . Judge then does no more than give some very uncreative suggestions f o r 129 drawing very simple shapes based on the t r i a n g l e and h a l f c i r c l e . The examples are not p a r t i c u l a r l y well drawn and while he tal k s of them as being conventionalised shapes, they show that he does not r e a l l y under-stand the meaning of the term. These shapes owe l i t t l e to r e a l i t y or nature and do not take an idea farther, but rather they lead the teacher to retrogress to a type of geometric cartooning (figure 6). From Judge's statement, given above, i t i s quite c l e a r that he intended to encourage the c h i l d ' s c r e a t i v i t y . In p r a c t i c e , i t seems u n l i k e l y that the kind of a c t i v i t y he advocated would have done so. Weston would seem to have been r i g h t about Judge's lack of c r e a t i v i t y . Even i f Judge was weak i n t h i s respect, however, he was not responsible alone f o r t h i s kind of copying approach. I t was widespread, yet was not recognised as copying. Despite these c r i t i c i s m s , i t should be remembered that S.P. Judge was a well-thought-of a r t supervisor, who held h i s post for many years u n t i l h i s retirement i n 1941. I t should also be remembered that, having worked with Weston on the 1924 text, he was closer to Weston's ideas than many, yet even he f a i l e d to in t e r p r e t Weston's system or put i t into p r a c t i c e . Another reason f o r following the text c l o s e l y may well have been connected with the very h i s t o r y of the post of Drawing Supervisor i n Vancouver. Judge had taken the p o s i t i o n i n 1924 when he replaced Charles Scott who was moving to the p o s i t i o n of p r i n c i p a l at the Vancouver School of Decorative and Applied Arts. Scott had been Drawing Supervisor since 1914 when he himself had replaced Weston, who, i n h i s turn had replaced John Kyle. I t was Scott, Weston and Judge Who had written the 1924 a r t text and Vancouver teachers were 1-30 Sbeltfcr Sucjcjestions Double luitr) de&il? o. • o £2± in Fin1' Utensils S Try others-tf^nsporf^ toys, furniture,frtiil^ uecjctaWc5, or lioincj trYmc|S Add ecjcj uniT F i g . 6. The i l l u s t r a t i o n by S.P. Judge which accompanied h i s a r t i c l e "Drawing and Gra p h i c E x p r e s s i o n " i n the B.C. Teacher f o r May 1935. The page was n e i t h e r w e l l drawn nor w e l l l a i d o u t . 131 undoubtedly aware of that f a c t . I t would have been unusual i f such awareness had not encouraged them to use t h e i r supervisors' text. There were s t i l l other reasons that would have led teachers to follow the curriculum c l o s e l y . The system of inspection i n force during the interwar years would have been one and then too regular classes were held f o r teachers to keep them up-to-date with the cur-riculum. In 1928, for example, Spencer Judge reported: The classes f o r teachers i n the methods and aims of the_ Public School Drawing syllabus have been well attended. S i m i l a r comments were made i n a number of years and other comments about the p u p i l s ' progress i n "the p r i n c i p l e s of observation, orderly arrangement and good colour sense" or about "the very noticeable im-provement i n colour and design i n our recent work" indicate that Judge was very aware of the dict a t e s of the curriculum and made them c l e a r g to the teachers he supervised. One aspect of a r t education i n which Vancouver made a sustained e f f o r t was the development of some degree of i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p between Drawing and Manual Arts. There was a separate - Manual Arts Supervisor, Henry H i l l , - a n d Judge worked c l o s e l y with him. During the nineteen-t h i r t i e s Manual Arts classes were expanded at the intermediate l e v e l s and from 1934 onwards teachers received t r a i n i n g to become s p e c i a l i s t s 9 xn the subject. There were several reasons for the move. Manual Arts cost l e s s to teach than did the older subject, Manual Training. Manual Arts could be integrated more e a s i l y with other school subjects and providing a Manual Arts teacher within the school enabled p r i n -c i p a l s to have supervision time during Manual Arts classes, S.P, Judge 132 took a p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t i n the subject and he and Henry H i l l earned the Superintendent's praise f o r " t h e i r u n t i r i n g e f f o r t s . " 1 0 By 1938 i t was reported that seventy percent of the schools had s p e c i a l i n -structors f o r Manual Arts and, i n many cases, s p e c i a l rooms. However, Drawing, or Art as i t was c a l l e d by then, was mostly s t i l l taught by the regular teachers. With the w i l l i n g cooperation of the Supervisor, Art as a subject had l o s t ground to one which did not pretend to be p r i m a r i l y a creative subject. I t was concerned with the development of manual dexterity and was described as follows: The subject now constitutes well balanced units of i n -. s t r u c t i o n i n Needlework, P l a s t i c Modelling, Light Wood-work, Cardboard Modelling and Basketry. As i f to stress the f a c t that the subject was not a creative one, i t was also c a l l e d P r a c t i c a l Arts and advantage was taken of i t s p r a c t i c a l nature to give the students useful work. Both the Superintendent and the Manual Arts Supervisor proudly reported i n d i f f e r e n t parts of the 1937-1938 Vancouver School Board Annual Report: As an example of the P r a c t i c a l Arts classes' pleasure i n co-operation, we may l i s t some of the services that they have rendered: (a) 225 boxes for the V i s u a l Education Department; (b) 300 cards f o r Vocational Classes; (c) 650 charts f o r P r a c t i c a l Arts and Art Departments; (d) 4000 primary booklets rebound for l i b r a r y use. A l l of t h i s expansion of Manual Arts was taking place at about the time when the new a r t curriculum of 1936 was to stress an i n d i v i d -u a l i s e d approach and to take more note of c r e a t i v i t y . In some ways S.P. Judge appeared to be p h i l o s o p h i c a l l y i n tune with-such an approach. In 1935 he had worried that: There i s s t i l l i n the teaching i n some classrooms a background of d i c t a t e d recipes and projects or over-emphasis on technique^ This curbs the i n i t i a t i v e and creative thought of the c h i l d . 133 By 1937, however, he was more concerned with h i s a r t classes research-ing "the study of Design f o r Heraldic Devices and H i s t o r i c a l Pageants 14 ry" so that they could combine t h e i r Art and Manual Arts projects for Coronation year than he was concerned with c r e a t i v i t y , at l e a s t i n the sense i n which the 1936 curriculum used the term. Judge's enthusiastic endorsement of Manual Arts, seemingly at the expense of the Art programme, suggests some apparent inconsistency. The swing i n the Vancouver schools towards the Manual Arts, or c r a f t s , however, was not necessarily conceived at that time as representing a dramatic movement away from the c r e a t i v e . Some f e l t , and i t may be that Judge di d also, that to make an object was i n i t s e l f to create something, to plan i t was to go further along the road of c r e a t i v i t y , and to develop an o r i g i n a l design was to go further s t i l l . These were a l l steps along the way and none ought to be l e f t out. Nevertheless, i t could not be claimed that Manual Arts had c r e a t i v i t y as.the prime objective. The very close following of the text, the l i m i t e d view of creative endeavour, the ascendance of the Manual Arts programme i n the schools and the f a i l u r e to discern the underlying i n t e n t of the prescribed curriculum a l l contributed to the problems that had d i s -turbed W.P, Weston. Judge's own approach may well have been a f a c t o r but was hardly the cause; the cause was undoubtedly more complex than that. As we have seen, Weston himself may have unwittingly c o n t r i -buted to i t and the manner i n which the majority of teachers i n t e r -preted what was written down would seem to have been an important f a c t o r . What must be remembered, however, i s that what was written i n 134 the curriculum was followed f a i r l y c l o s e l y . I t was the d i s s a t i s -f a c t i o n of the man who was most c l o s e l y associated with i t s writing Which gives us the clue to the c i t y programme's shortcomings. Without that clue, the programme i n these c i t y schools would have appeared much more successful and i t would be unwise to underestimate i t s many strengths. Turning from the s i x t y or so schools which served one t h i r d of a l l the c h i l d r e n i n the province to the nearly nine hundred schools which served another one i n three we f i n d a somewhat d i f f e r e n t s i t u a -t i o n to that which pertained i n the c i t y schools. 1"' These were the r u r a l schools where teaching could be of "a t r y i n g character" i f Inspector May was to be believed. That many d i d f i n d i t d i f f i c u l t i s attested to by the constant movement of teachers. In many d i s t r i c t s i t was unusual f o r a teacher to stay at a p a r t i c u l a r school f o r more than one yea r . 1 ^ Even during the worst part of the depression when the poor economic s i t u a t i o n made jobs more d i f f i c u l t to get there was 17 a s u r p r i s i n g movement of teachers from place to place. However, i t would be wrong to assume that there was a general d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n with r u r a l schools among teachers. Some of'those who moved did so f o r reasons other than being unhappy with t h e i r l o t and a good number d i d not move at a l l . Many r e t i r e d teachers looking back to t h e i r exper-ience i n the ungraded r u r a l school remember i t with a f f e c t i o n . They remember i t for the close r e l a t i o n s h i p s they b u i l t up with the c h i l d -ren, f o r the hard work that teaching many grades i n one room e n t a i l e d and f o r the personal s a t i s f a c t i o n that the children's success brought them. As one teacher r e c a l l e d ; 135 I only taught'three years i n the ungraded (school) and then I taught i n the high school. . . Oh, I preferred the un-graded school. The other i s j u s t l i k e any big school, You are teaching classes, you have to be i n and out and so on and i t i s much more impersonal. The f i r s t school was r e a l l y nice. The c h i l d r e n had r e a l l y tough l i v i n g conditions th.ere and they had l o t s of guts too — nice gutsy l i t t l e k i d s . That teacher was i n the Fraser V a l l e y i n the m i d - t h i r t i e s . Another teacher remembered her experiences i n a d i f f e r e n t part of the.province, outside of Burns Lake, at about the same time: I j u s t loved i t because t h e i r whole l i v e s were involved. (The students) j u s t l i v e d school f o r the ten months and then waited p a t i e n t l y for i t ' to s t a r t again i n September. I t was an e n t i r e l y d i f f e r e n t atmosphere. I'd have been out l i k e a shot, but t h e i r w h o l e ^ i f e was t h e i r school. I t was a pleasure to teach them. Just l i k e any experience i n l i f e , some people loved i t , others hated i t and there were many inbetween. When we look at what was a c t u a l l y taught i n the r u r a l schools i t appears at f i r s t glance that f o r the nine hundred schools there were nine hundred d i f f e r e n t c u r r i c u l a . Often p r a c t i c e had so l i t t l e apparent r e l a t i o n s h i p to the p r e s c r i p t i o n that the o f f i c i a l curriculum seems to have been superfluous. However, when we look more c l o s e l y at the d i v e r s i t y a number of patterns begin to appear. Even so, i n a sin g l e chapter i t i s only possible to look at the p r a c t i c e of a few teachers i n a few schools and to hope that t h e i r experience may have some general implications. Some of the patterns seem obvious yet they hide some important differences among teachers. For example, there were those who attempted to follow a curriculum and those who did not, there were those who considered themselves a r t i s t i c and those who d i d not, and' then there were those who taught a r t on Friday 136 afternoons and those who d i d not. This l a s t d i v i s i o n may seem par-t i c u l a r l y t r i v i a l on the surface, but i n fac t i t may indicate some-thing much more fundamental. Friday afternoon was d e f i n i t e l y the popular time to give an 20 a r t lesson i n the r u r a l school. I t could bring the week to a close on a les s structured note. When well taught i t was a popular subject and so ended the week on an upbeat, or i t merely f i l l e d i n time when everyone was t i r e d . For a few teachers i t brought to a conclusion a r t a c t i v i t i e s that had been commenced throughout the week, but-for many i t was the only time that a r t a c t i v i t i e s were encouraged or allowed. In some cases a r t was relegated to Friday afternoon so that i f work i n other subjects took longer than expected, such work could be f i n i s h e d during the Friday afternoon without disturbing anything considered important, These comments about Friday afternoon a r t may suggest that a r t was not generally considered an important subject i n the r u r a l school. Talking to r e t i r e d teachers about t h e i r a r t programmes a very strong impression i s given that t h i s was indeed the case. By and large those who talked about t h e i r a r t teaching considered the subject important, but i n every case the informant f e l t that he or she was unusual and that teachers i n other schools d i d not teach much a r t . Nita F l i c k , who taught i n ce n t r a l B.C. i n the t h i r t i e s , found that on the odd occasion when she managed to see what was going on i n another school, the a r t work was disappointing. When asked whether the other teachers did as much a r t as she did, Mrs. F l i c k answered: No, they didn't. And were they as ingenious? No!, . . They d i d some ( a r t ) , but i t was nearly a l l connected with 137 p r a c t i c a l a r t because with many grades i n the c l a ^ s you could teach the p r a c t i c a l a r t s much more e a s i l y . S i m i l a r l y , V i o l e t Sketchley i n the Peace River country f e l t she was unusual because she believed a r t was important. But opportunities for the teachers- to compare notes came r a r e l y because, as Marjorie Clark 22 from the'Fraser V a l l e y said, "I was absolutely alone." A survey made i n the Peace River area by C. Dudley G a i t s k e l l i n 1936-1937 found almost no a r t at a l l being taught. This may well have been true, but, as h i s methods were somewhat suspect, h i s f i n d -ings must be treated c a r e f u l l y . This survey w i l l be considered i n more d e t a i l l a t e r . But i f some taught no a r t and a few taught a l o t , what d i d the majority teach? In many cases they probably'did"much the same as Gilmour Clark who at eighteen found himself with t h i r t e e n students, one of whom was three years h i s senior: I always d i d teach s t r i c t l y by the curriculum. . . then, to me i t was more l i k e a b i b l e and I didn't dare deviate from i t , which was my f a u l t . What you need i s something as a new teacher, to t e l l you what to teach and when to teach i t . The only problem with following the curriculum guide was that i t r e f e r r e d the teacher to the text f o r d e t a i l s about the drawing pro-gramme and to other manuals, such as Kidner's Educational Handwork, f o r manual a r t s . While the textbook branch d e f i n i t e l y bought enough of the teachers' reference books to supply a l l the schools, i n many cases these books d i d not seem to reach t h e i r destination. Out of nine r e t i r e d teachers who were s p e c i f i c a l l y asked about a r t texts 24 only one could r e c a l l having seen or used any. The sole text that t h i s informant remembered was Weston's A Teacher's Manual of Drawing. 138 She had sought i t out to use because she had been so impressed with Weston when she was h i s student at the Normal School. The others responded i n much the same way as d i d Fanny Kinney of Prince George: T didn't use the a r t programme of studies because i t wasn't s p e c i f i c enough. I don't r e c a l l seeing any kind of teacher's manual for.drawing. I'm sure I would remember i f one was i n the school. So with l i t t l e , to guide them, what a r t work d i d teachers teach? From conversations with a number of these teachers a gener-26 a l i z e d p i c t u r e can be given. Their Normal School notebooks and the s k i l l s they had learned there were what they r e l i e d on to some extent, but as often as not they r e l i e d on t h e i r own ingenuity and s k i l l s . In the r u r a l schools money f o r supplies was very l i m i t e d so materials, such as paint and construction paper, were precious. Art projects were often d i c t a t e d by what could be scrounged. As Fred F l i c k found when he s t a r t e d teaching i n the Cariboo i n the l a t e twenties: The sum t o t a l of the school board's revenue was f i v e d o l l a r s a month. That was the rent of the teacjherage I was i n . That was t h e i r t o t a l , f i f t y d o l l a r s a year. Five d o l l a r s a month f o r a l l supplies did not leave much money for a r t . So the teachers used gunny sacks and l a r d p a i l s and o l d t i r e s and the Eaton's catalogue, or whatever they could acquire fr e e . There are those who s t i l l claim that ex-rural school teachers can be recog-nized because they always use a l l of both sides of every piece of paper. Art projects i n the r u r a l school, therefore, would r e l y on the materials a v a i l a b l e and would have to be suitable f o r c h i l d r e n of 139 widely d i f f e r e n t ages. I t was impractical to have a separate p r o j e c t for every grade. In some cases ch i l d r e n would be encouraged to br i n g work from home-and so k n i t t i n g or embroidery could "be considered an acceptable a r t p r o j e c t . The keener, or more able, teachers would en-courage drawing i n Nature Study, History and Geography ( l a t e r S o c i a l Studies), or Science and would teach drawing s k i l l s during these sub-j e c t s , Friday afternoon could then be reserved f o r a wider range of a c t i v i t i e s . The most valuable free a r t supply would seem to have been the Eaton's catalogue since so many informants e x t o l l e d i t . I t s pictures could be cut out to make collages, to decorate greeting cards, or to convert a glass j a r or b o t t l e into a vase. Suitable i l l u s t r a t i o n s could be found i n the catalogues to i l l u s t r a t e a point i n a poster. Should there by any coloured pages they could be cut into s t r i p s to help make the endless paper chains e s s e n t i a l to the celebration of Christmas. Gunny sacks were invaluable too. Even the most clumsy could embroider some kind of decoration on them with wool from home, or possibly with r a f f i a i f the school could a f f o r d i t . Decorative mats were r e l a t i v e l y e a s i l y made by s e l e c t i v e l y drawing -out the threads and many a cardboard model house had sacking for drapes and carpet. The range of ar t projects r e l i e d to.a great extent on the i n -genuity of teacher and pu p i l s i n using whatever came to hand; Perhaps among the most ingenious projects was the "leatherwork" unit i n which the "leather" had been cut from o l d red inner tubes. These pieces of rubber were suc c e s s f u l l y converted i n purses and p e n c i l cases complete 140 with rubber thonging. I f l o c a l clay was av a i l a b l e then the ware could be f i r e d i n the school's p o t - b e l l i e d stove. Many pots never made i t to completion, but those that did brought a great sense of s a t i s f a c t i o n . B.C. Teacher 28 c a r r i e d f u l l i n s t r u c t i o n s , but the project remained a d i f f i c u l t one. Despite the shortage'of funds some a r t supplies would be pur-chased. Construction paper was as useful then as i t i s now. Much primary work was based on the sixteen square system of f o l d i n g and the teachers who had retained t h e i r Normal School notebooks and the school's mimeographed pages of designs could teach the ch i l d r e n to make a whole range of paper models. Construction paper could be used for paper weaving and f o r Easter Bunny baskets and Chinese lanterns and many other p r o j e c t s . A l i n e of construction paper d a f f o d i l s along the bottom of the windowpane was, i n many a r u r a l school, the surest sign that spring was on the way. The l i s t could go on. Many of the projects were c r a f t rather than a r t p r o j e c t s , but drawing and pai n t i n g did have t h e i r place, even when they were not done during the re s t of the week. Posters and murals based on seasonal themes, such as Hallowe'en and Christmas, were always popular and they gave the opportunity to teach some colour theory. Geometric designs were considered worthwhile exercises and they could be used to help decorate a poster. But i n some schools drawing was not a creative endeavour, Rather, as Weston had com-plained about the c i t y schools, i t was simply a copying exercise from an object or a p i c t u r e . In some cases the teacher f e l t this-was the wa.y a r t ought to be taught, but i n others i t was the method i n which 141 the teacher, and probably the students, f e l t most secure, Fanny Kinney was quite frank about i t : I thought of a r t as r e l a x a t i o n rather than as a serious subject. I d i d not f e e l q u a l i f i e d to teach a r t w e l l . We did some drawing and p a i n t i n g , p a r t i c u l a r l y "murals. The chi l d r e n always copied an object or p i c t u r e because they ^ didn't have the s k i l l to work from memory or imagination. I f t h i s was not the most creative endeavour the c h i l d r e n were at l e a s t learning some p i c t o r i a l s k i l l s and Mrs. Kinney was making a brave e f f o r t to teach the subject. Despite the more encouraging s i t u a t i o n that may have been suggested by the range of a c t i v i t i e s mentioned on the previous pages, i n many r u r a l schools no a r t was taught at a l l . As mentioned e a r l i e r C. Dudley G a i t s k e l l found a depressing s i t u a t i o n when he surveyed the Peace River area i n 1936 and 1937. As i t was the only survey of i t s type to be c a r r i e d out at that time i t has been often quoted as evidence that very l i t t l e a r t was taught i n the r u r a l schools. For example, i n the f i r s t survey of March, 1936, only four out of f i f t y -s i x respondents f e l t that "pupils are being given s u f f i c i e n t t r a i n i n g i n a r t , " The s t a t i s t i c sounds impressive, but must.be treated with caution. The covering l e t t e r c a r r i e d a broad h i n t that a negative comment "may a i d a movement to better teaching conditions i n t h i s important subject" and contained the further leading statement; Owing to t h e i r lack of time, inadequate t r a i n i n g , and guided by an i n d e f i n i t e , unsuitable and uninteresting course of studies, teachers seem to f i n d d i f f i c u l t y i n many cases to give t h i s subject o f ^ a r t i t s proper attention i n the d a i l y teaching programme, With suggested answers and reasons f o r them being suggested by the Surveyor, i t i s d i f f i c u l t to accept the findings without'reservation. 142 On the other hand, G a i t s k e l l ' s own observations i n the Peace River area convinced him of the need for action and he was supported by the Inspector of Schools, who also f e l t that not much was being done i n the way of a r t . So, as the reminiscences of a few a r t enthusiasts have given us one side of the p i c t u r e , we must r e l y on a suspect sur-vey to give us something of the other. The question of how the curriculum was tran s l a t e d i n t o p r a c t i c e allows of no sing l e answer. In the r u r a l schools the various s i t u a -tions were too diverse and the many teachers too i s o l a t e d from each other. Perhaps the most that can be said, inadequate though i t may be, i s that a few taught a r t w e l l , a few taught no a r t and many d i d the best t h e i r l i m i t e d resources and s k i l l s allowed. However, whether teaching the subject well or poorly, r u r a l school teachers r a r e l y used any prescribed text and found the prescribed curriculum to be inadequate. In the c i t y schools a r t was d e f i n i t e l y taught, but here the problem was that there was too great an adherence to the texts and the curriculum so that the creative intent behind them was l o s t . For most, A r t remained the poor r e l a t i o n among the subjects. Not many i n B r i t i s h Columbia during the interwar years can have agreed with the Dean of Columbia who had t o l d the B.C. teachers at t h e i r annual conference i n 1923: The r e a l f r u i t s of education should be tc^enable a person to do nothing and to do i t a r t i s t i c a l l y . V 4 143 FOOTNOTES "Vor example, i n the 1922-1923 school year 3,118 teachers taught i n 1,044 schools; i n 1928-1929, 3668 teachers taught i n 1,105 schools; i n 1937-1938, 4092 teachers taught i n 1172 schools. 2 Annual Report of the Public Schools ( V i c t o r i a : King's P r i n t e r , 1923), p. F24. 3 In 1929 there were 111,017 students enrolled i n p r o v i n c i a l schools of whom 37,222 attended i n Vancouver. Total enrolment i n schools of a l l p r o v i n c i a l c i t i e s was 68,707. 4 Annual Report of Vancouver C i t y Schools, 1929, p. 108. 5 W.P. Weston i n conversation with Margery Dallas, A p r i l , 1962. Tape recording i n c o l l e c t i o n of Glenbow/Alberta I n s t i t u t e , Calgary. ^S.P. Judge, "Drawing and Graphic Expression," B.C. Teacher (May, 1935): 3-5. 7 Annual Report of Vancouver C i t y Schools, 1928, p. 116. 8 I b i d . , 1926, p. 96; I b i d . , 1933, p. 32. 9 I b i d . , 1934-1935, pp. 22-25. 1 0 I b i d . , p. 24. l : L I b i d . , 1937-1938, p. 63. 1 2 I b i d . , p. 68. 1 3 I b i d . , 1934-1935, p. 43. 1 4 I b i d . , 1937-1938, p. 67. 15 For example, i n 1929 38,965 students attended 894 r u r a l elementary or r u r a l superior r u r a l schools. "^Annual Report of the Public Schools, 1923, p. F.24. Inspec-to r May's comment was prompted by the f a c t that out of 15 teachers i n the Gulf Islands 12 had moved at the end of the 1922-1923 school year. Similar s i t u a t i o n s were not unknown. 144 17 For example, Fred F l i c k who taught i n the Cariboo throughout the t h i r t i e s t o l d the writer of h i s own moves every year or so and remembered many others as also moving.- One reason, of course, was the rule that a woman resigned on her marriage and t h i s constantly created openings f o r teachers. 18 Marjorie Clark (nee Jack) i n a conversation with the writer i n November, 1982. She taught i n the Fraser V a l l e y and i s r e f e r r i n g to her teaching at F e r n h i l l School (1935-1936), Hatzic School (1936-1938), and Mission High School (1938-1939). 19 N i t a F l i c k (nee Burgess) i n a conversation with the w r i t e r i n May 1983. 20 Fred F l i c k i n p a r t i c u l a r remembered Friday afternoons as being the time f o r a r t classes and he remembered other teachers as f e e l i n g the same way. However, i t was not only a teachers' p r e f e r -ence . I t was recommended i n some texts, such as Kidner's Educational  Handwork, p. 12. 21 Nita F l i c k , May 1983. 22 Marjorie Clark i n conversation, November, 1982. 23 Gilmour Clark i n a conversation with the w r i t e r i n November, 1982 concerning h i s experiences at Steelhead and Hatzic Schools. 24 The sole informant to use Weston's book was V i o l e t Sketchley. She had been his student at the Normal School i n 1938. 25 Fannie Kinney i n a conversation with the w r i t e r i n May, 1983. 26 While many sources were used, the section on what was taught i n the r u r a l schools draws p a r t i c u l a r l y on the information provided by Fred and Nita F l i c k , who taught i n the Cariboo, Fannie Kinney, who taught i n Prince George, Winnifred Weir, who taught i n the East Kootenay, and Marjorie Clark, who taught i n the Fraser V a l l e y . 27 Fred F l i c k i n a conversation with the writer i n May 1983. 28 R. Kenneth Bradley, ''Pottery-making i n the Rural School," B.C. Teacher (June, 1937): 498-500, 145 29 Mimeographed l e t t e r from C, Dudley G a i t s k e l l , dated March 14, 1936, which accompanied the survey, 30 Province, A p r i l 3, 1923. CONCLUSION The more we consider a r t education i n the public schools of B r i t i s h Columbia between the wars, the clearer i t becomes that one man played a c e n t r a l r o l e i n the curriculum's p r e s c r i p t i o n , i t s i n t e r p r e -t a t i o n and, as far as i t was p o s s i b l e , i n i t s p r a c t i c e . We have seen that he wielded h i s influence without any p a r t i c u l a r genius, without any p a r t i c u l a r new ideas, and probably without any p a r t i c u l a r intent to have that c e n t r a l r o l e . Perhaps the major reason that Weston did play such a leading r o l e was that throughout the interwar period no-one else had the i n -c l i n a t i o n to compete with him for i t . The educational establishment was quite small and those others who were important i n education or a r t had t h e i r own spheres- of influence. Charles Scott, for example, had the a r t school and the opportunity to mold young adults; John Kyle was i n charge of t e c h n i c a l education at the Department of Education and could take v i c a r i o u s c r e d i t f o r much that went on edu-c a t i o n a l l y ; Macdonald and Varley had s a t i s f a c t i o n as painters more than as teachers. Others, such as Dunnell, Gough and Judge, who might have challenged Weston, were not b a s i c a l l y a r t educators or lacked the i n t e r e s t or a b i l i t y to threaten h i s p o s i t i o n . Another reason that Weston's ideas met with such acceptance was the very f a c t that they were based on l a t e nineteenth century B r i t i s h ideas. This t r a d i t i o n a l B r i t i s h approach f i t t e d in" well with the l a r g e l y B r i t i s h educational establishment. People such as Kyle and Scott understood.him because they had grown up i n the same t r a -d i t i o n . Weston was r e f i n i n g the known rather than advocating a 147 r a d i c a l l y new approach. However, t h i s refinement was s u f f i c i e n t l y unique that development d i d take place and so by the t h i r t i e s the o l d t r a d i t i o n had been s u f f i c i e n t l y r e v i t a l i s e d to mesh su c c e s s f u l l y with "Progressive" ideas from elsewhere. F i n a l l y , Weston had an unwavering confidence that he was r i g h t and t h i s , together with h i s conservatism and regular patterns of behaviour, meant that he alone had the perseverance and consistency to present his ideas over a long period of time. He was doggedly p e r s i s t e n t . He was always there. He was the one person you could r e l y on and he was known to be competent. As usually happens i n such cases, he was therefore r e l i e d on. In addition to a r t education, another matter has been pre-sented b r i e f l y i n t h i s t h e s i s . I t would not have been appropriate to explore i t at greater length i n these pages, but i t does deserve to be examined further elsewhere. The popular idea of the depression years from 1929 to 1939 as being ten l o s t years j u s t w i l l not do. Close examination c e r t a i n l y shows that there were d i f f i c u l t times and personal tragedies, but, as i n education, the hard times were r e s t r i c t e d to a much smaller compass. In education, simply an exam-in a t i o n of. the Annual Reports of the Public Schools can give us some useful clues, 1930 was seen to be a good year and the Annual Report f o r 1931 brought barely a h i n t of concern. The following years showed the s t r a i n of the economic s i t u a t i o n although, as we have seen, the educational i n s t i t u t i o n survived quite well despite complaint. By the 1936 report, a much more hopeful note was heard from the educational establishment and by the 1937 i t was c l e a r that the --•1'48 rocky road had been s u c c e s s f u l l y negotiated and l e f t behind. Turning back to a r t education, the biggest lesson that may be learned from t h i s study i s not that one man can suc c e s s f u l l y dominate the making of a curriculum, but, that despite his doing so competently and s u c c e s s f u l l y , that curriculum can f a i l to achieve i t s i n t e n t . In the r u r a l schools the prescribed curriculum, by and large, was not taught; i n the urban schools, i t was followed s l a v i s h l y and the intent was l o s t . The f a i l u r e was c e r t a i n l y not e n t i r e l y Weston's. Educa-t i o n does not r e l y on the p r e s c r i p t i o n but on the a b i l i t y and en-thusiasm of the teacher. The successful teaching of a r t does not depend so much on what i s l a i d down, but on how what i s l a i d down i n adapted, changed and presented and i n how the student i s i n s p i r e d or motivated to perform. As. a teacher of teachers at the Normal School and at the Summer Schools, Weston had an undoubted a b i l i t y to motivate and encourage h i s students and h i s own reputation as an a r t i s t helped to give" him even greater stature with h i s students. In t h i s respect he may have helped to lessen the f a i l u r e to achieve the intent of the curriculum, but a f a i l u r e i t was. If an examination of the a r t education curriculum i n the interwar years helps us to understand better the curriculum of today, that i n i t s e l f i s useful and has some future implications. Perhaps of greater import i s the imp l i c a t i o n that i n a creative subject such as Art too close an adherence to a prescribed curriculum can defeat the creative intent behind that curriculum. On the other hand, a f a i l u r e to prescribe i n d e t a i l w i l l f r u s t r a t e the majority who do seek guidance. The hard answer to the problem may be that, as the 149 prescribed curriculum w i l l be most used by those who w i l l teach the subject poorly i n any case,' i t must-be so designed as to minimise that poor teaching as much as po s s i b l e . The a r t c u r r i c u l a produced between the wars went a long way towards performing t h i s function. Where they f a i l e d was i n providing an adequate explanation of the creat i v e i n t e n t behind the structured exercises. We need to ensure that future A r t c u r r i c u l a perform the dual function of explaining the intent" for those who do not need the d e t a i l e d p r e s c r i p t i o n , while providing a c l e a r and precise structure for those who do. I f t h i s can be achieved without e i t h e r requirement overshadowing the other, then something worthwhile w i l l be accomplished. 150 SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY I. BOOKS Ashwin, C l i v e , ed. A r t Education, Documents and P o l i c i e s , 1768-1975. London: Society f o r Research i n t o Higher Education, 1975. B l a i r , David. B l a i r ' s Canadian Drawing Series. Toronto: Copp Clark and Company, undated. Boas, B e l l e . A r t i n the School. New York: Doubleday and Company, 1927. C a r l i n e , Richard, Draw They Must. ' London: Edward Arnold Publishers, 1968. Cole, Natalie Robinson. The-Arts i n the Classroom. New York: The John Day Co., 1940. Cottingham, M.E.. A Century of Public Education i n B r i t i s h Columbia. Vancouver: B r i t i s h Columbia Teachers Federation, 1958. Cremin, L.- The Transformation of the School. New York: A l f r e d A. tKnapf, 1969. de Lemos, Pedro. Applied A r t . Mountain View, C a l i f o r n i a : P a c i f i c Press Publications, 1920. Dewey, John. A r t as Experience. New York: Minton, Batch and Company, 1934. Dow, Arthur Wesley. Composition. New York: Doubleday & Company, 1931. Dow, Arthur Wesley. Theory and P r a c t i c e of Teaching Art. New York: Teachers' College, 1912. Eisner, E l l i o t . Educating A r t i s t i c V i s i o n . New York: The Macmillan Co., 1972. Friesen, J.-and Ralston, H.K. eds. H i s t o r i c a l Essays on B r i t i s h .' Columbia. Toronto: McClelland and Stewart, 1976. Hartz, Louis. The Founding of New S o c i e t i e s . New York: Harcourt, Brace and World, Inc., 1964. Johnson, F.H, A B r i e f History of Canadian Education. Toronto: McGraw-Hill, 1968, Johns on, F,H, A History of Public Education i n B r i t i s h Columbia. Vancouver: Uni v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, .1964, Jones, David C , Sheehan, Nancy M. and Stamp, Robert M. eds. Shaping the Schools of the Canadian West. Calgary: Detse'lig Enterprises, 1979. 151 Kidner, T.B, Educational Handwork. Toronto: Educational Books Co., 1910. K i l p a t r i c k , W.H. Source BOOk i n the Philosophy of Education. New York: The Macmillan Company, 1928. Lawr, D.A. and Gidney, R.D. eds. Educating Canadians. Toronto: Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1973. Logan, Frederick M. Growth of Art i n American Schools. New York: Harper and Brothers, 1955. Macdonald, Stuart. The History and Philosophy of Art Education. London:' University of London Press, 1970. Mathias, Margaret E. Art i n the Elementary School. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1929. Ormsby, Margaret. B r i t i s h Columbia; A History. Toronto: Macmillan of Canada, 1958. Prang's New Graded Course i n Drawing f o r Canadian Schools. Toronto: W.J. Gage & Company, 1901. No author given. Richardson, Marion. Art and'the C h i l d . London: University of London Press, 1948. Scott, Charles, Weston, William P. and Judge, S.P. The Teachers'  Manual of Drawing and Design. Toronto: Thomas Nelson and Sons, 1924. Seigmiller, Wilhelmine. Primary Work. Chicago: Atkinson, Mentzer & Grover, 1906. Sutherland, N e i l . Children i n English-Canadian Society. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1976. Sutton, Gordon. Artisan- or A r t i s t . London» Pergamon Press, 1967. Taylor, Geoffrey W. Builders of B r i t i s h Columbia: an I n d u s t r i a l  History. V i c t o r i a ; Morris Publishing, 1982. Tippett, Maria and Cole, Douglas. From Desolation to Splendour. Toronto! Clarke, Irwin and Company, 1977. Varley, Christopher. F.H, Varley. Ottawa: National G a l l e r y of Canada, 1979. Ward, w, P e t e r a n d MacDonald, A,J, eds. B r i t i s h Columbia H i s t o r i c a l  Readings. Vancouver: Douglas Mclntyre, 1981. 152 Weston, William P. A Teacher's Manual of Drawing. Toronto ; Thomas Nelson & Sons, 1933. Whitford, W.G. An Introduction to Art Education. New York: Appleton, 1929. Wilson , D e l i a F. Primary I n d u s t r i a l A r t s. Peoria: Manual Arts Press, 1926. Wilson, J. Donald and Jones, David C.-, eds. Schooling & Society i n 20th Century B r i t i s h Columbia. Calgary: D e t s e l i g Enterprises, 1980. I I . GOVERNMENT AND SCHOOL BOARD PUBLICATIONS B r i t i s h Columbia, Department of Education. Annual Reports of the  Public Schools. V i c t o r i a : King's P r i n t e r , 1918-1939. — C u r r i c u l a of Public Schools of B r i t i s h Columbia. V i c t o r i a : King's P r i n t e r , 1914. — • — Courses of Study f o r the Public, High, Technical and Normal Schools. V i c t o r i a : King's P r i n t e r , 1921. ~ • -Courses of Study for the P u b l i c , High, Technical and Normal Schools. V i c t o r i a : King's P r i n t e r , 1923. -—<—' -One Hundred.Years of Education in_ B r i t i s h Columbia. V i c t o r i a , Queen's P r i n t e r , 1972. - — — Programme of Studies, f o r the Elementary Schools. V i c t o r i a : King's P r i n t e r , 1925. ' >——Programme of Studies f o r the Elementary Schools. V i c t o r i a : King's P r i n t e r , 1926. '—------Programme of Studies of the Junior High Schools. V i c t o r i a : King's P r i n t e r , 1927. r^rrr^-rProgramme of Studies f o r the Elementary Schools, V i c t o r i a : King's P r i n t e r , 1936. — — — S u m m e r School f o r Teachers, 1936. General Announcement of Courses, Archives of B r i t i s h Columbia. King, H.B, School Finance i n the Province of British-Columbia. V i c t o r i a : King's P r i n t e r , 1935, — Putman, J,H, and Weir, G.M. Survey of the School System. V i c t o r i a : King's P r i n t e r , 1925. 153 Vancouver School Board. Annual Reports of' the Vancouver School Board. 1902-1939. " ~ I I I , JOURNAL OR MAGAZINE ARTICLES Acorn, J e s s i e I. "Primary Manual Arts i n the Rural School." B.C. Teacher, June 1937, pp. 503-504, Black, Norman F. "The New Programme of Studies." B.C. Teacher, October 1936, pp. 49-52. ' Brough, T,A. "Revising the Curriculum i n B r i t i s h Columbia." B.C.  Teacher, November 1936, pp. 122-125. Bradley, R. Kenneth. "Pottery making i n the Rural School." B.C.  Teacher, June 1937, pp. 498-500. " B r i t i s h Columbia Teachers on T r i a l . " B.C. Teacher, February ;1936, pp. 11-13. "Curriculum Revision Under Way." B.C. Teacher, November 1935, pp. 9-10. Faunt, J e s s i e . "A Day i n an Art Department." B.C. Teacher, March 1934, pp. 35-37. H i l l , Henry, " P r a c t i c a l A r t s . " B.C. Teacher, June 1937, p. 508. Judge, S.P. "Drawing and Graphic Expression." B.C. Teacher, May 1935, pp. 3-5. Paquette, F.D. "One Man's Reaction to the New Course of Studies." B.C. Teacher, October 1936, pp. 7-9. "Personnel of Curriculum Revision Committee." B.C. Teacher, June 1935, p. 1. " P o r t r a i t of an A r t i s t . " C.B.C. Times, 23-29 June 1962, p. 3. Sandiford, Peter. "Curriculum Revision i n Canada." The School, February 1938, pp. -472-477. Scott, Charles H, "Art Teaching i n B r i t i s h Columbia." The School, March 1940, pp. 613-616, Shadbolt, J,L, "A New Era Opens i n the Teaching of Art." B.C.  Teacher, January 1937, pp, 232-233. „-^^r^,.r«School Art and the Workshop S p i r i t . " B,C, Teacher, June 1937, pp, 505-507. 154 "Subject Committees on Curriculum Revision." B.C. Teacher, February 1936, pp. 7-9. Weir, G.M. "Education and National Progress," - B.C. Teacher, May 1937, pp. 427-430. •—••—"The Revision of the Curriculum." B.C. Teacher, A p r i l 1935, pp. 20-23, W i l l i s , S.J. "Public School System of B.C." The School-, February 1928, pp. 602-608. IV, NEWSPAPERS  Nelson Daily News, 1948. Vancouver Province, 1923-1938; 1946. Vancouver Sun, 1959. V i c t o r i a D a i l y Colonist, 1923-1938. V i c t o r i a Daily Times, 1923-1938. V, THESES AND GRADUATE PAPERS Belshe, Francis Bland. "A History of A r t Education i n the Public Schools of the United States." Ph.D d i s s e r t a t i o n , Yale University, 1946, Dunn, Timothy A l l a n . "Work, Class & Education: Vocationalism i n B.C.1 Master's Thesis, U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1978. Forbes, John A l l i s o n . "Art Education, Its C u l t u r a l Basis, I t s Development, and Its A p p l i c a t i o n i n Alberta Schools." M.A, Thesis, University of Alberta, 1951. Foster, John Keith,-"Education and Work i n a Changing Society: B r i t i s h Columbia 1870-1930." M.A. Thesis, University of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1970. G a i t s k e l l , CD, "An Experiment i n Art Instruction i n the Peace River M,A, Thesis, U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1939. Green, George H,E. "Development of Curriculum i n Elementary Schools of B.C. P r i o r to 1936." M.A. Thesis, University of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1938, Green, George H.E, "Development of Curriculum i n Secondary Schools of B,C" Ph.D, Thesis, U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto, 1944. 155 Gross, C a r l Henry, "Education i n B r i t i s h Columbia-with P a r t i c u l a r Consideration of Natural and S o c i a l Factors." Ph.D. Thesis, Ohio State U n i v e r s i t y , 1939. MacLaurin, D...L. "History of Education i n the Crown Colonies of Van-couver Island and B r i t i s h Columbia and i n the Province of B r i t i s h Columbia." Ph.D. Thesis, University of Washington, 1937. Mann, Jean. "Progressive Education and the Depression i n B.C." Master's Thesis, U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1978. Morris, Margaret; "The Roots of Art Education i n B r i t i s h Columbia." Graduate paper, Uni v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1978. Saunders, Robert. "Comparative Development of Art Education i n Canada and United States." M.A. Thesis, Penn State. Sketchley, V i o l e t . "The Historical'Development and Philosophy of Art Education with Special Emphasis on the Years 1930-1950." Graduate Paper, University of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1982. T a i t , George Edward. "A History of Art Education.in the Elementary Schools of Ontario." Ed.D. Thesis, University of Toronto, 1957. VI. OTHER.UNPUBLISHED MATERIALS B r i t i s h Columbia, Department of Education. Contracts with Text Book Companies, 1923-1931. GR454. P r o v i n c i a l Archives of B r i t i s h Columbia. — — — D i r e c t o r of - Correspondence School Let t e r F i l e , 1934-1937. GR396, P r o v i n c i a l Archives of B r i t i s h Columbia. , o f f i c e Notebooks 1924-1931; 1932-1944. GR139. P r o v i n c i a l Archives of B r i t i s h Columbia. — — School D i s t r i c t Information Forms, 1923 and 1928. GR461. P r o v i n c i a l Archives of B r i t i s h Columbia. --------Superintendent'of Education's Personal News Clipp i n g Books, 1920-1931 and 1921-1938. GR467. P r o v i n c i a l Archives o f B r i t i s h Columbia. Dalla s , Margery, " P o r t r a i t of an A r t i s t , " Unpublished Typescript. C o l l e c t i o n of University of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1962. Weston, W,P, Personal Papers and Correspondence. Private C o l l e c t i o n of W.P, Weston's daughter, Doris Wood, 156 VII. INTERVIEWS Clark, Marjorie. Interview, Mission, November 1982. Clark, W. Gilmour. Interview, Mission, Novembery1982, Fahrni, Mildred. Interview, Vancouver, February 1983. F l i c k , Frederick. Interview, 100 Mile House, May 1983. F l i c k , N i t a . Interview, 100 Mile House, May 1983. Kinney, Fanny.- Interview, Prince George, May 1983. Lorimer, Nina. Interview, Vancouver, February 1983. Sketchley, V i o l e t , Interview, Vancouver, March 1983. Weir, Winnifred. Interview, Vancouver, June 1983. Wood, Doris, Interview, Port Moody. VIII. TAPE RECORDINGS Glenbow/Alberta I n s t i t u t e , Calgary.- W.P. Weston interviewed by Margery Dallas, A p r i l 1962. University of V i c t o r i a Archives. H. Campbell interviewed by Judy Windle, 7 December 1978. ——'—'—May Forbes interviewed by Judy Windle, 23 November 1978. — — — Norman Forbes interviewed by Judy Windle, 23 November 1978. — i — - - J a c k Fomarre interviewed by Judy Windle, 1 November 1978. — — - - J o h n Gough interviewed by Judy Windle, 27 October 1978. — — — A , Wilfred Johns interviewed by Judy Windle, 27 November 1978. - - — — — P e r c y Wilkinson interviewed by Judy Windle, 2 November 1978. Wood, Doris, p r i v a t e C o l l e c t i o n . O r v i l l e Fisher interviewed by Cai Opre, 1974. - - ' — — — B e t t y Marsh interviewed by Cai Opre, 1974. — — - L e o n a r d Marsh interviewed by Cai Opre, 1974, 157 Wood, Doris, p r i v a t e C o l l e c t i o n . Elmore Ozard interviewed by Cai Opre, 1974. •— Gordon Smith interviewed by Cai Opre, 1974. -<—D, Stewart interviewed by Cai Opre, 1974. 

Cite

Citation Scheme:

        

Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics

Share

Embed

Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                        
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            src="{[{embed.src}]}"
                            data-item="{[{embed.item}]}"
                            data-collection="{[{embed.collection}]}"
                            data-metadata="{[{embed.showMetadata}]}"
                            data-width="{[{embed.width}]}"
                            async >
                            </script>
                            </div>
                        
                    
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:
http://iiif.library.ubc.ca/presentation/dsp.831.1-0055137/manifest

Comment

Related Items