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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Equality of educational opportunity in British Columbia : a study of ethnicity and schooling Roth, Garry Bernard 1983

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ITY OF EDUCATIONAL OPPORTUNITY IN B R I T I S H COLUMBIA A STUDY OF ETHNICITY AND SCHOOLING by GARRY BERNARD ROTH M. ED., W e s t e r n W a s h i n g t o n U n i v e r s i t y , 1976 B. ED., U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1969 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF EDUCATION i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES DEPARTMENT OF CURRICULUM AND INSTRUCTION We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s a s c o n f o r m i n g t o t h e r e g u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF B R I T I S H COLUMBIA December, 1983 © G a r r y B e r n a r d R o t h , 1983 I n p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an a d v a n c e d d e g r e e a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I a g r e e t h a t t h e L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e a n d s t u d y . I f u r t h e r a g r e e t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may be g r a n t e d by t h e h e a d o f my d e p a r t m e n t o r b y h i s o r h e r r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l n o t be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . D e p a r t m e n t o f Cu^/CCHt"* j g:^cr^i4(l7^AC ^ u T h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a 1956 Main M a l l V a n c o u v e r , C a n a d a V6T 1Y3 iE-6 (.3/81) i i ABSTRACT E q u a l i t y o f E d u c a t i o n a l O p p o r t u n i t y i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a : A S t u d y o f E t h n i c i t y and S c h o o l i n g The p u r p o s e o f t h i s s t u d y was t o d e t e r m i n e t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p s among e t h n i c i t y and e q u a l i t y o f e d u c a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t y a c c o r d i n g t o a c c e s s and t r e a t m e n t o f s t u d e n t s w h i l e c o n s i d e r i n g outcomes i n t h e s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . Two d e m o g r a p h i c v a r i a b l e s , e t h n i c c o m p o s i t i o n and s t u d e n t p o p u l a t i o n , were us e d as w e l l as i n d i c a t o r s o f a c c e s s , t r e a t m e n t and outcome. The p o p u l a t i o n o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a was i n i t i a l l y d i v i d e d i n t o two e t h n i c c a t e g o r i e s : E n g l i s h and Non-E n g l i s h . The N o n - E n g l i s h c a t e g o r y was t h e n s u b d i v i d e d i n t o f o u r c a t e g o r i e s : F r e n c h , A b o r i g i n a l , L a t e r E u r o p e a n s and l a t e r V i s i b l e M i n o r i t i e s or A f r o - A s i a n s . A c c e s s i n d i c a t o r s were r e p r e s e n t e d by s c h o o l r e s o u r c e s as t h e y a r e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t e a c h e r q u a l i f i c a t i o n s and e x p e r i e n c e , s t u d e n t / t e a c h e r r a t i o a t t h e e l e m e n t a r y and s e c o n d a r y l e v e l and d o l l a r e x p e n d i t u r e f o r i n s t r u c t i o n a l r e s o u r c e s . T r e a t m e n t i n d i c a t o r s were a c c o r d i n g t o t h e n a t u r e o f t h e s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n and E n g l i s h as a Second Language programmes. In p a r t i c u l a r , t h e i n d i c a t o r s u s e d f o r t r e a t m e n t were t h e p e r c e n t a g e o f s t u d e n t s i n t h e programmes, t h e t o t a l d o l l a r e x p e n d i t u r e on t h e programmes, t h e s t u d e n t / t e a c h e r r a t i o i n t h e programmes, t h e number o f s t u d e n t s a p p r o v e d by t h e M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n f o r E n g l i s h as a Second Language and t h e d o l l a r e x p e n d i t u r e on s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n m a t e r i a l s . F i n a l l y , t h e outcome i n d i c a t o r s used were t h e mean a c h i e v e m e n t l e v e l s o f s t u d e n t s i n s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s f o r R e a d i n g , M a t h e m a t i c s and S c i e n c e a t G r a d e s f o u r , e i g h t and t w e l v e p l u s t h e p e r c e n t a g e o f g r a d u a t e s i n e a c h s c h o o l d i s t r i c t . A t h e o r e t i c a l r e s e a r c h model was d e v e l o p e d t o i n d i c a t e t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p s and t h e weak c a u s a l l i n k s between t h e two d e m o g r a p h i c v a r i a b l e s , t h e a c c e s s i n d i c a t o r s , t h e t r e a t m e n t i n d i c a t o r s and t h e outcome i n d i c a t o r s . The s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s had f o u r d i s t i n c t p h a s e s w h i c h t e s t e d t h e t h e o r e t i c a l r e s e a r c h model and t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p s among and between t h e i n d i c a t o r s . D e s c r i p t i v e a n a l y s e s o f raw d a t a r e p r e s e n t e d t h e f i r s t s t a g e o f s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s . The s e c o n d p h a s e was a c o r r e l a t i o n a l a n a l y s i s o f t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p s among t h e i n d i c a t o r s . F a c t o r a n a l y s i s , t h e t h i r d p h a s e , p r o d u c e d f i v e u n d e r l y i n g f a c t o r s . The d e m o g r a p h i c v a r i a b l e s , e t h n i c i t y and s t u d e n t p o p u l a t i o n , r e m a i n e d u n f a c t o r e d w h i l e t h e a c c e s s i n d i c a t o r s had two u n d e r l y i n g c o n s t r u c t s , t e a c h e r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and s t u d e n t / t e a c h e r r a t i o s . The t r e a t m e n t i n d i c a t o r s a l s o y i e l d e d two f a c t o r s , s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n and E n g l i s h as a Second Language. Of t h e outcome i n d i c a t o r s , o n l y t h e a c h i e v e m e n t s c o r e v a r i a b l e s were f a c t o r a n a l y z e d and t h e s e y i e l d e d a one f a c t o r s o l u t i o n . T h e r e f o r e , t h e a c h i e v e m e n t f a c t o r and t h e p e r c e n t a g e o f g r a d u a t e s r e p r e s e n t e d t h e outcomes. T h e s e f a c t o r s and o t h e r i n d i c a t o r s were t h e n t e s t e d i n t h e i v t h e o r e t i c a l model by t h e f o u r t h s t e p o f s t a t i s t i c a l t r e a t m e n t , t h e p a t h a n a l y s i s . T h i s t e c h n i q u e was us e d t o e v a l u a t e t h e t h e o r i z e d c a u s a l r e l a t i o n s h i p among d e m o g r a p h i c v a r i a b l e s ( e t h n i c i t y and e n r o l m e n t ) , a c c e s s f a c t o r s ( t e a c h e r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and s t u d e n t / t e a c h e r r a t i o s ) , t r e a t m e n t f a c t o r s ( s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n and E n g l i s h as a Second L a n g u a g e ) , one outcome f a c t o r ( a c h i e v e m e n t ) , and an outcome v a r i a b l e ( p e r c e n t a g e o f Grade 12 g r a d u a t e s ) . The p r o c e d u r e s o u t l i n e d above y i e l d e d t h r e e main c o n c l u s i o n s . F i r s t , c e r t a i n e t h n i c g r o u p s have d i f f e r e n t i a l a c c e s s t o t h e e d u c a t i o n a l r e s o u r c e s o f s t u d e n t / t e a c h e r r a t i o and t e a c h e r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . The s e c o n d main c o n c l u s i o n was t h a t e t h n i c g r o u p s do have d i f f e r e n t outcomes. F i n a l l y , t h e s t u d y f o u n d no r e l a t i o n s h i p among t h e s p e c i a l t r e a t m e n t v a r i a b l e s and t h e outcome m e a s u r e s . The r e a d e r i s d i r e c t e d t o t h e s e c t i o n on l i m i t a t i o n s o f s t u d y (pp. 167 - 171) where l i m i t a t i o n s a r e c o m p r e h e n s i v e l y d i s c u s s e d . I t i s i m p o r t a n t t o be re m i n d e d t h a t t h e a n a l y s e s b e i n g made w i t h t h e s c h o o l d i s t r i c t as t h e u n i t o f a n a l y s i s r e s t r i c t s t h e g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s t h a t c an a r i s e f r o m t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n . I t a l s o r e c o g n i z e s t h a t t h i s s t u d y has f o c u s s e d n e i t h e r on t h e p r o c e s s o f s c h o o l nor on e t h n i c f a m i l y p a t t e r n s and l i f e s t y l e s o r i n d i v i d u a l l e a r n i n g s t y l e s . V ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS In aman's l i f e , many c h a l l e n g e s a r e p r e s e n t e d w h i c h he must e n d u r e and overcome. A l l a r e n o t s i g n i f i c a n t o r i m p o r t a n t t o e x i s t a n c e b u t r a t h e r some a r e e s s e n t i a l t o t h e d i g n i t y and s p i r i t o f a man. Such a c h a l l e n g e was t h i s w h i c h pushed i n t e l l e c t , human e n d u r a n c e , r e s o u r c e s and l i f e . The t a s k c o u l d n o t have been c o m p l e t e d w i t h o u t t h e h e l p and p a t i e n c e o f o t h e r s . To t h e s e p e o p l e , I d e d i c a t e t h i s m i n o r s c i e n t i f i c c o n t r i b u t i o n : C r i n Roth - a r e m a r k a b l e l i f e mate J e n n y Roth - a l o v i n g , i n t e l l i g e n t young l a d y J a i m e Roth - a c a r i n g , dynamic young man V i c e n t D ' O y l e y - a m a s t e r o f e d u c a t i o n and humanism Dan Brown - a m a s t e r o f a d m i n i s t r a t i v e and o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s y s t e m s C h a r l i e U n g e r l e i d e r - a m a s t e r o f e d u c a t i o n a l and i n s t r u c t i o n a l d y n a m i c s Bob C o n r y - a m a s t e r o f c o n c e p t u a l and s t a t i s t i c a l f o r m u l a t i o n s J i m C a r t e r - a m a s t e r o f l e a d e r s h i p and p o l i c y i m p l e m e n t a t i o n Lee H e r b e r t s - a b r o t h e r and c o l l e a g u e S h a r o n J e r o s k i - a s i s t e r and c o l l e a g u e Susanne Love - a n u r s e and f r i e n d as w e l l as f o n d memories o f B r u c e , Lynn and t h e B l u e B e l l M o t e l , F o r t N e l s o n , B.C. v i TABLE OF CONTENTS A b s t r a c t i i Acknowledgment v L i s t o f T a b l e s x i L i s t o f F i g u r e s x i v CHAPTER I. OVERVIEW OF STUDY 1 INTRODUCTION 1 PURPOSE OF STUDY 4 SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY 5 EQUALITY OF ACCESS 6 EQUALITY OF TREATMENT 9 IMPLICATIONS OF EQUALITY OF OUTCOMES 10 ORGANIZATION OF STUDY 11 I I . REVIEW OF LITERATURE 17 INTRODUCTION 17 ETHNICITY 19 C o n c l u s i o n 28 EQUALITY OF ACCESS 32 I n s t r u c t i o n a l I n d i c a t o r s 32 S t u d e n t / T e a c h e r M e a s u r e s 32 S t u d e n t / F a c i l i t y M e a s u r e s 35 D i s t r i c t S i z e M e a s u r e s 37 Q u a n t i t y o f S e r v i c e M e a s u r e s 40 v i i CHAPTER I I . Summary 43 F i n a n c i a l I n d i c a t o r s 43 O p e r a t i n g E x p e n d i t u r e s 43 O p e r a t i n g Revenue 46 C a p i t a l / I n d e b t e d n e s s 48 Summary 49 S t a f f C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s I n d i c a t o r s 49 S a l a r y 50 E x p e r i e n c e 53 Q u a l i f i c a t i o n s 54 Summary 56 EQUALITY OF TREATMENT 56 T r e a t m e n t I n d i c a t o r s 56 Summary 57 OUTCOME INDICATORS 58 Summary 63 CONCLUSION 65 I I I . RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY 66 RESEARCH MODEL ON ETHNICITY AND EQUALITY OF EDUCATIONAL OPPORTUNITY 66 RESEARCH QUESTIONS 68 Model T e s t i n g 68 S u b s i d i a r y R e s e a r c h Q u e s t i o n 68 S u p p l e m e n t a r y R e s e a r c h Q u e s t i o n s 69 DATA COLLECTION PROCEDURES 69 Demographic I n d i c a t o r s 69 A c c e s s I n d i c a t o r s 71 T r e a t m e n t I n d i c a t o r s 73 Outcome I n d i c a t o r s 75 STATISTICAL METHODOLOGY 77 P r e l i m i n a r y A n a l y s e s 77 C o r r e l a t i o n a l A n a l y s e s 80 F a c t o r A n a l y s e s 80 P a t h A n a l y s e s 82 P a t h C o e f f i c e n t A n a l y s e s 82 IV. RESULTS 85 INTRODUCTION 85 E t h n i c i t y I n d i c a t o r s 86 A c c e s s I n d i c a t o r s 87 T r e a t m e n t I n d i c a t o r s 88 Outcome I n d i c a t o r s 90 N o r m a l i t y T e s t 90 v i i i CHAPTER IV. CORRELATIONAL ANALYSES 91 E t h n i c i t y and E n r o l m e n t 92 A c c e s s 93 T r e a t m e n t 94 Outcomes 95 E t h n i c i t y and A c c e s s 97 E t h n i c i t y and T r e a t m e n t 98 E t h n i c i t y and Outcomes 99 A c c e s s and T r e a t m e n t 101 A c c e s s and Outcomes 102 T r e a t m e n t and Outcomes 104 FACTOR ANALYSIS 106 E t h n i c i t y F a c t o r s 106 A c c e s s F a c t o r s 107 T r e a t m e n t F a c t o r s 109 Outcome F a c t o r s I l l Summary 113 PATH ANALYSIS 113 NON-ENGLISH AND ACHIEVEMENT VARIABLE PATHS 115 P a t h C o e f f i c i e n t V a l u e s 115 E n r o l m e n t 116 E t h n i c i t y 117 A c c e s s 117 T r e a t m e n t 118 Summary 118 NON-ENGLISH AND GRADUATE VARIABLE PATHS 119 P a t h C o e f f i c i e n t V a l u e s 119 N o n - E n g l i s h and G r a d u a t e s 119 FRENCH AND ACHIEVEMENT VARIABLE PATHS 121 P a t h C o e f f i c i e n t V a l u e s 121 E n r o l m e n t 122 E t h n i c i t y 124 A c c e s s 124 T r e a t m e n t 125 Summary 125 FRENCH AND GRADUATE VARIABLE PATHS 125 P a t h C o e f f i c i e n t V a l u e s 125 F r e n c h and G r a d u a t e s 125 EUROPEAN AND ACHIEVEMENT VARIABLE PATHS 127 P a t h C o e f f i c i e n t V a l u e s 127 E n r o l m e n t 128 E t h n i c i t y I 2 8 A c c e s s 128 T r e a t m e n t 130 Summary 130 i x CHAPTER I V . EUROPEAN AND GRADUATE VARIABLE PATHS 130 P a t h C o e f f i c i e n t V a l u e s 130 E u r o p e a n and G r a d u a t e s 131 AFRO-ASIAN AND ACHIEVEMENT VARIABLE PATHS 133 P a t h C o e f f i c i e n t s V a l u e s 133 E n r o l m e n t 133 E t h n i c i t y 135 A c c e s s 135 T r e a t m e n t 136 Summary 136 AFRO-ASIAN AND GRADUATE VARIABLE PATHS 136 P a t h C o e f f i c i e n t V a l u e s 136 A f r o - A s i a n and G r a d u a t e s 136 ABORIGINAL AND ACHIEVEMENT VARIABLE PATHS 138 P a t h C o e f f i c i e n t V a l u e s 138 E n r o l m e n t 140 E t h n i c i t y 140 A c c e s s 141 T r e a t m e n t 141 Summary 141 ABORIGINAL AND GRADUATE VARIABLE PATHS 142 P a t h C o e f f i c i e n t V a l u e s 142 A b o r i g i n a l and G r a d u a t e s 142 SUMMARY 14 4 V. SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS 148 SUMMARY 148 R e s e a r c h P r o b l e m 148 L i t e r a t u r e R e v i e w 149 T h e o r e t i c a l M o d e l 149 R e s e a r c h P r o c e d u r e s 151 CONCLUSIONS 153 E t h n i c i t y and E n r o l m e n t 153 E t h n i c i t y and A c c e s s 155 E t h n i c i t y and T r e a t m e n t 156 E t h n i c i t y and E d u c a t i o n a l Outcomes 157 E t h n i c i t y , E n r o l m e n t and A c c e s s 159 E t h n i c i t y , E n r o l m e n t and T r e a t m e n t 161 E t h n i c i t y , A c c e s s and T r e a t m e n t 161 E t h n i c i t y , A c c e s s and Outcomes 162 E t h n i c i t y , T r e a t m e n t and Outcomes 163 X CHAPTER V. IMPLICATIONS FOR POLICY 164 T e a c h e r C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and E t h n i c i t y 164 S p e c i a l E d u c a t i o n , ESL and E t h n i c i t y 165 E n r o l m e n t S i z e , R e s o u r c e s and E t h n i c i t y 166 LIMITATIONS OF STUDY 167 IMPLICATIONS FOR FURTHER RESEARCH 171 REFERENCES 173 APPENDICES 179 1. C o r r e l a t i o n M a t r i x f o r a l l V a r i a b l e s . . . . 180 2. Sample f o r m s 182 3. D e s c r i p t i v e S t a t i s t i c s on V a r i a b l e s 221 x i L i s t o f T a b l e s T a b l e Page 1 P e r c e n t a g e o f Grade 9 S t u d e n t s i n T o r o n t o S c h o o l s by P l a c e o f B i r t h 26 2 P e r c e n t a g e o f Grade 9 S t u d e n t s i n T o r o n t o S c h o o l s by P l a c e o f B i r t h and L e v e l o f S t u d y (1980) 26 3 P e r c e n t a g e and Rank o f Grade 9 S t u d e n t s i n T o r o n t o S c h o o l s by P l a c e o f B i r t h and L e v e l o f S t u d y (1980) 27 4 T o t a l P o p u l a t i o n o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a by t h e F i v e E t h n i c C a t e g o r i e s 70 5 P e r c e n t a g e of t h e A v e r a g e D i s t r i b u t i o n o f E t h n i c G r o u p s i n S c h o o l D i s t r i c t s 86 6 P e r c e n t a g e o f t h e A v e r a g e E t h n i c C o m p o s i t i o n i n S c h o o l D i s t r i c t s 87 7 D e s c r i p t i v e S t a t i s t i c s on Outcome V a r i a b l e s . . . . 91 8 C o r r e l a t i o n s among E t h n i c and E n r o l m e n t V a r i a b l e s 92 9 C o r r e l a t i o n s among A c c e s s V a r i a b l e s 93 10 C o r r e l a t i o n s among T r e a t m e n t V a r i a b l e s 94 11 C o r r e l a t i o n s among Outcome V a r i a b l e s 96 12 C o r r e l a t i o n s among E t h n i c , E n r o l m e n t and A c c e s s V a r i a b l e s 98 13 C o r r e l a t i o n s among E t h n i c , E n r o l m e n t and T r e a t m e n t V a r i a b l e s 99 14 C o r r e l a t i o n s among E t h n i c , E n r o l m e n t and Outcome V a r i a b l e s 100 15 C o r r e l a t i o n s among A c c e s s and T r e a t m e n t V a r i a b l e s 102 16 C o r r e l a t i o n s among A c c e s s and Outcome V a r i a b l e s 103 x i i T a b l e Page 17 C o r r e l a t i o n s among T r e a t m e n t and Outcome V a r i a b l e s 105 18 P r i n c i p a l Components o f E t h n i c V a r i a b l e s 107 19 P r i n c i p a l Components o f A c c e s s V a r i a b l e s 108 20 P r i n c i p a l Component Two F a c t o r S o l u t i o n : A c c e s s V a r i a b l e s 108 21 V a r i m a x R o t a t e d F a c t o r M a t r i x S o l u t i o n : A c c e s s V a r i a b l e s 109 22 P r i n c i p a l Components o f T r e a t m e n t V a r i a b l e s '. 109 23 P r i n c i p a l Component Two F a c t o r S o l u t i o n : T r e a t m e n t V a r i a b l e s 110 24 V a r i m a x R o t a t e d F a c t o r M a t r i x S o l u t i o n : T r e a t m e n t V a r i a b l e s 110 25 P r i n c i p a l Components o f Outcome V a r i a b l e s ( A c h i e v e m e n t S c o r e s ) I l l 26 P r i n c i p a l Component One F a c t o r S o l u t i o n o f Outcome V a r i a b l e s : A c h i e v e m e n t S c o r e s 112 27 F a c t o r M a t r i x S o l u t i o n o f Outcome V a r i a b l e s : A c h i e v e m e n t S c o r e s 112 28 C o r r e l a t i o n s Among F a c t o r s and V a r i a b l e s 114 29 C a l c u l a t i o n s o f t h e E f f e c t C o e f f i c i e n t s ( C i j ) f o r S t u d e n t s o f N o n - E n g l i s h b a c k g r o u n d and D i s t r i c t A c h i e v e m e n t 117 30 C a l c u l a t i o n s o f t h e E f f e c t C o e f f i c i e n t s ( C i j ) f o r S t u d e n t s o f N o n - E n g l i s h b a c k g r o u n d and D i s t r i c t G r a d u a t e s 120 31 C a l c u l a t i o n s o f t h e E f f e c t C o e f f i c i e n t s ( C i j ) f o r S t u d e n t s o f F r e n c h B a c k g r o u n d and D i s t r i c t A c h i e v e m e n t 123 32 C a l c u l a t i o n s o f t h e E f f e c t C o e f f i c i e n t s ( C i j ) f o r S t u d e n t s o f F r e n c h B a c k g r o u n d and D i s t r i c t G r a d u a t e s 126 x i i i T a b l e Page 33 C a l c u l a t i o n s o f t h e E f f e c t C o e f f i c i e n t s ( C i j ) f o r S t u d e n t s o f E u r o p e a n B a c k g r o u n d and D i s t r i c t A c h i e v e m e n t 129 34 C a l c u l a t i o n s o f t h e E f f e c t C o e f f i c i e n t s ( C i j ) f o r S t u d e n t s o f E u r o p e a n B a c k g r o u n d and D i s t r i c t G r a d u a t e s 132 35 C a l c u l a t i o n s o f t h e E f f e c t C o e f f i c i e n t s ( C i j ) f o r S t u d e n t s o f A f r o - A s i a n B a c k g r o u n d and D i s t r i c t A c h i e v e m e n t 134 36 C a l c u l a t i o n s o f t h e E f f e c t C o e f f i c i e n t s ( C i j ) f o r S t u d e n t s o f A f r o - A s i a n B a c k g r o u n d and D i s t r i c t G r a d u a t e s 137 37 C a l c u l a t i o n s o f t h e E f f e c t C o e f f i c i e n t s ( C i j ) f o r S t u d e n t s o f A b o r i g i n a l B a c k g r o u n d and D i s t r i c t A c h i e v e m e n t 140 38 C a l c u l a t i o n s o f t h e E f f e c t C o e f f i c i e n t s ( C i j ) f o r S t u d e n t s o f A b o r i g i n a l B a c k g r o u n d and D i s t r i c t G r a d u a t e s 143 x i v L i s t o f F i g u r e s F i g u r e s Page 1 I n p u t / o u t p u t model 12 2 T h e o r e t i c a l model on e t h n i c i t y and e q u a l i t y o f e d u c a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t y 12 3 T h e o r e t i c a l model on e t h n i c i t y and e q u a l i t y o f e d u c a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t y w i t h i n d i c a t o r s 67 4 Summary o f v a r i a b l e s 78 5 E t h n i c i t y , e n r o l m e n t and e q u a l i t y i n d i c e s f o r p a t h a n a l y s i s 113 6 P a t h a n a l y s i s f o r s t u d e n t s o f n o n - E n g l i s h b a c k g r o u n d and d i s t r i c t a c h i e v e m e n t 116 7 P a r s i m o n i o u s p a t h model f o r s t u d e n t s o f non-E n g l i s h b a c k g r o u n d and d i s t r i c t a c h i e v e m e n t 118 8 P a t h a n a l y s i s f o r s t u d e n t s o f n o n - E n g l i s h b a c k g r o u n d and d i s t r i c t g r a d u a t e s 119 9 P a r s i m o n i o u s p a t h model f o r s t u d e n t s o f non-E n g l i s h b a c k g r o u n d and d i s t r i c t g r a d u a t e s 121 10 P a t h a n a l y s i s f o r s t u d e n t s o f F r e n c h b a c k g r o u n d and d i s t r i c t a c h i e v e m e n t 122 11 P a r s i m o n i o u s p a t h model f o r s t u d e n t s o f F r e n c h b a c k g r o u n d and d i s t r i c t a c h i e v e m e n t 124 12 P a t h a n a l y s i s f o r s t u d e n t s o f F r e n c h b a c k g r o u n d and d i s t r i c t g r a d u a t e s 126 13 P a r s i m o n i o u s p a t h model f o r s t u d e n t s o f F r e n c h b a c k g r o u n d and d i s t r i c t g r a d u a t e s 127 14 P a t h a n a l y s i s f o r s t u d e n t s o f E u r o p e a n b a c k g r o u n d and d i s t r i c t a c h i e v e m e n t 129 15 P a r s i m o n i o u s p a t h model f o r s t u d e n t s o f E u r o p e a n b a c k g r o u n d and d i s t r i c t a c h i e v e m e n t 130 16 P a t h a n a l y s i s f o r s t u d e n t s o f E u r o p e a n b a c k g r o u n d and d i s t r i c t g r a d u a t e s 131 X V F i g u r e Page 17 P a r s i m o n i o u s p a t h m o d e l f o r s t u d e n t s o f E u r o p e a n b a c k g r o u n d and d i s t r i c t g r a d u a t e s 132 18 P a t h a n a l y s i s f o r s t u d e n t s o f A f r o - A s i a n b a c k g r o u n d and d i s t r i c t a c h i e v e m e n t 134 19 P a r s i m o n i o u s p a t h m o d e l f o r s t u d e n t s o f A f r o -A s i a n b a c k g r o u n d and d i s t r i c t a c h i e v e m e n t 135 20 P a t h a n a l y s i s f o r s t u d e n t s o f A f r o - A s i a n b a c k g r o u n d and d i s t r i c t g r a d u a t e s 137 21 P a r s i m o n i o u s p a t h m o d e l f o r s t u d e n t s o f A f r o -A s i a n b a c k g r o u n d and d i s t r i c t g r a d u a t e s 138 22 P a t h a n a l y s i s f o r s t u d e n t s o f A b o r i g i n a l b a c k g r o u n d and d i s t r i c t a c h i e v e m e n t 139 23 P a r s i m o n i o u s p a t h m o d e l f o r s t u d e n t s o f A b o r i g i n a l b a c k g r o u n d and d i s t r i c t a c h i e v e m e n t . . 141 24 P a t h a n a l y s i s f o r s t u d e n t o f A b o r i g i n a l b a c k g r o u n d and d i s t r i c t g r a d u a t e s 143 25 P a r s i m o n i o u s p a t h m o d e l f o r s t u d e n t s o f A b o r i g i n a l b a c k g r o u n d and d i s t r i c t g r a d u a t e s . . . . 144 26 T h e o r e t i c a l m o d e l on e t h n i c i t y and e q u a l i t y o f e d u c a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t y 150 1 C h a p t e r 1 OVERVIEW OF THE STUDY INTRODUCTION E q u a l i t y o f e d u c a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t y i s w i d e l y a c k n o w l e d g e d as an i m p o r t a n t v a l u e among w e s t e r n s o c i e t i e s . As t h e s o c i e t i e s e n c o u n t e r an u n p r e c e d e n t e d s t a t e o f s o c i a l change — i n p a r t due t o p l u r a l i s m — t h e e d u c a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s w h i c h s e r v i c e them f a c e a p r e d i c a m e n t : how c a n p l u r a l i s m become f u n c t i o n a l and p u r p o s i v e w i t h i n t h e c o n t e x t o f s c h o o l i n g v a l u e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h e q u a l i t y o f e d u c a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t y ? As e t h n i c d i v e r s i t y w i t h i n a s o c i e t y i n c r e a s e s ( B u r n e t , 1 9 8 1 ; M a r t i n , 1 9 7 8 ; Richmond and Lakshamana Rao, 1 9 7 6 ) , and as t h e s o c i e t y moves c l o s e r t o t h e r e a l i t y o f a g l o b a l community (McLuhan, 1 9 6 4 ; V a l a s k a k i s , 1 9 8 2 ) , t h e v a l u e s o f t h e s o c i e t y a r e c h a l l e n g e d and t h e dom i n a n t s o c i a l o r d e r a t t e m p t s t o a d j u s t t o t h e p r e s s u r e s c r e a t e d by t h e v a r i e t y o f v a l u e s and b e l i e f s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h g r e a t e r e t h n i c d i v e r s i t y . Not o n l y i s t h e s o c i e t y c h a l l e n g e d i n a t t e m p t i n g t o a s c e r t a i n an e f f e c t i v e r e s p o n s e s u c h as a s s i m i l a t i o n o r accommodation ( F u s e , 1 9 7 7 ) b u t a l s o t h e i n d i v i d u a l who i m m i g r a t e s i s f a c e d w i t h a c h a l l e n g e t o h i s v a l u e s and b e l i e f s ( B u l l i v a n t , 1 9 8 1 ; Von B e r t a l a n f f y , 1 9 6 8 ) . S i n c e t h e e d u c a t i o n a l s y s t e m i s a s u b s t r u c t u r e o f t h e s o c i e t y , e d u c a t i o n i s c o n t i n u o u s l y q u e s t i o n e d as t o i t s r o l e i n t h i s p r o c e s s o f change (Jones e t a l . , 1 9 7 8 ; M c Donald, 1 9 7 9 ) . R e g a r d l e s s o f how a s o c i e t y a t t e m p t s t o accommodate p l u r a l i s m , i t s e d u c a t i o n a l p o l i c i e s w h i c h s u p p o r t e q u a l i t y o f e d u c a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t y as a v a l u e (Garms, G u t h r i e & P i e r c e , 1 9 7 8 ) may be u n a b l e t o a t t a i n t h i s e q u a l i t y i n t h e c h a n g i n g s o c i a l e n v i r o n m e n t . I n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n s c h o o l i n g and e q u a l i t y became a p u b l i c i s s u e w i t h t h e 1954 U n i t e d S t a t e s Supreme C o u r t d e c i s i o n i n Brown v s . The B o a r d o f  E d u c a t i o n o f T o p e k a , K a n s a s ( L e v i n e and B a n e , 1975) . W i t h t h a t d e c i s i o n , p u b l i c a t t e n t i o n s h i f t e d f r o m c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f t h e d e s i r a b l i l i t y o f e q u a l i t y and i t s c o m p a t i b i l i t y w i t h a c u l t u r a l l y and e c o n o m i c a l l y p l u r a l i s t i c s o c i e t y t o q u e s t i o n i n g t h e r e a l i z a t i o n o f e q u a l i t y . D u r i n g t h e l a t e 1 960's and e a r l y 1970's a number o f r e s e a r c h e r s r a i s e d q u e s t i o n s a b o u t e q u a l i t y o f e d u c a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t y ( B o w l e s and G i n t i s , 1976; Co l e m a n e t a l . , 1966; J e n c k s , 1976; Owen, 1 9 7 4 ) . B o w l e s and G i n t i s (1976) c o n c l u d e d t h a t e q u a l i t y o f e d u c a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t y was a b e l i e f , r a t h e r t h a n a r e a l i t y . They a r g u e d t h a t t h e e d u c a t i o n a l s y s t e m i t s e l f i s a p r i m e f o r c e i n p e r p e t u a t i n g i n e q u a l i t y t h r o u g h i t s f a i l u r e t o p r o v i d e e q u a l a c c e s s t o e d u c a t i o n a l r e s o u r c e s , w h i c h r e s u l t s i n i n c o n s i s t e n c i e s i n m i n i m a l l e v e l s o f l e a r n i n g o u t c o m e s . E a r l i e r , Owen (1974) had r e a c h e d t h e same c o n c l u s i o n : . . . d e s p i t e e g a l i t a r i a n r h e t o r i c , t h e . . . " t r a d i t i o n " h a s i n r e a l i t y b e en one o f q u i t e s u b s t a n t i a l i n e q u a l i t i e s i n e d u c a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s (p. 7 ) . Owen t e s t e d h i s t h e s i s by a s s e s s i n g t h e q u a l i t y and q u a n t i t y o f e d u c a t i o n a l r e s o u r c e s a v a i l a b l e t o t h e s c h o o l s i n a number o f s t a t e s and c i t i e s i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . H i s f i n d i n g s c o n c u r r e d w i t h t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e 1946 s u r v e y b y t h e N a t i o n a l E d u c a t i o n a l A s s o c i a t i o n : a l t h o u g h s i m p l e a c c e s s t o e d u c a t i o n e x i s t s f o r t h e m a j o r i t y o f c h i l d r e n , e q u a l e d u c a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t y p e r t a i n i n g t o q u a l i t y and q u a n t i t y o f a c c e s s i s a b s e n t . Whether a c h i l d r e c e i v e s a good o r p o o r e d u c a t i o n depends l a r g e l y upon t h e community i n w h i c h he happens t o be b o r n and r a i s e d (Owen, 1974). In F r a n c e , B o u r d i e u (1966) came t o a s i m i l a r c o n c l u s i o n . He m a i n t a i n e d t h a t e a c h s t u d e n t comes t o s c h o o l w i t h a v a r y i n g d e g r e e o f " c u l t u r a l c a p i t a l " d e f i n e d as h a v i n g t h r e e c omponents: v e r b a l f a c i l i t y ; knowledge o f g e n e r a l c u l t u r e ; and knowledge o f t h e s c h o o l s y s t e m . I f a s t u d e n t has h i g h c u l t u r a l c a p i t a l — t h e a p p r o p r i a t e v e r b a l a b i l i t y and a s a t i s f a c t o r y knowledge o f t h e g e n e r a l c u l t u r e and s c h o o l s y s t e m -- he w i l l s u c c e e d i n s c h o o l . B o u r d i e u ' s argument (1966) r e i n f o r c e s Coleman's c o n c l u s i o n (1966) t h a t t h e s c h o o l l e g i t i m i z e s i n e q u a l i t y o f t r e a t m e n t o f s t u d e n t s w h i c h l a t e r i n f l u e n c e s i n d i v i d u a l s u c c e s s i n s o c i e t y . E d u c a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s i n E n g l a n d have f a c e d s i m i l a r c r i t i c i s m . In t h e Rampton Committee's i n t e r i m r e p o r t ( " E x p l o s i v e P a t h t h r o u g h an E t h n i c M i n e f i e l d " , 1 9 8 1 ) , e v i d e n c e was p r e s e n t e d w h i c h d e m o n s t r a t e d t h a t s t u d e n t s — p a r t i c u l a r l y West I n d i a n s — r e c e i v e d d i f f e r e n t i a l t r e a t m e n t b e c a u s e o f t o t h e i r r a c e , t h e r e b y c r e a t i n g d i f f e r e n t i a l l e v e l s o f a c h i e v e m e n t . The Rampton Committee c o n c l u d e d t h a t e v e r y s t u d e n t r e g a r d l e s s o f e t h n i c b a c k g r o u n d has a r i g h t t o a b a s i c e d u c a t i o n . I n C anada, P o r t e r (1965) r e v e a l e d r e l a t i o n s h i p s between s o c i a l c l a s s and b o t h e d u c a t i o n a l a t t e n d a n c e and e d u c a t i o n a l a t t a i n m e n t . He o b s e r v e d t h a t a l t h o u g h Canada e s p o u s e s t h e d e m o c r a t i c i d e a l o f e q u a l i t y a d i s c r e p a n c y e x i s t s b e t w e e n t h e a r t i c u l a t i o n o f t h e p r i n c i p l e and i t s i m p l e m e n t a t i o n . P o r t e r e s t i m a t e s C a nada t o be l e s s d e m o c r a t i c t h a n many C a n a d i a n s b e l i e v e . The e x t e n t t o w h i c h e q u a l i t y o f e d u c a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t y i s a r e a l i t y m ust be q u e s t i o n e d n o t o n l y i n t e r m s o f e q u a l i t y o f a c c e s s as i n d i c a t e d by t h e q u a l i t y and q u a n t i t y o f r e s o u r c e s , b u t a l s o i n t e r m s o f t h e e q u a l i t y o f t r e a t m e n t a c c o r d i n g t o s t u d e n t n e e d s . Murphy (1979) s u m m a r i z e d t h i s s i t u a t i o n , n o t i n g : . . . s o c i o l o g i s t s o f e d u c a t i o n i n o t h e r t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y d e m o c r a c i e s h a v e f o u n d s i m i l a r r e s u l t s i n t h e i r s o c i e t i e s b u t h a v e drawn v e r y d i f f e r e n t c o n c l u s i o n s . They a l l r e j e c t t h e a s s u m p t i o n t h a t a f u n d a m e n t a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f t h e s c h o o l i n i n d u s t r i a l s o c i e t y i s t h e l i b e r a t i o n o f i n d i v i d u a l s f r o m a s c r i b e d i n e q u a l i t i e s (p. 78) S u s t a n t i v e r a t h e r t h a n f o r m a l e q u a l i t y o f e d u c a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t y w o u l d r e q u i r e n o t m e r e l y s i m i l a r s t r u c t u r e s , p e d a g o g i e s and c u r r i c u l a a v a i l a b l e i n s c h o o l s f o r a l l s t u d e n t s , b u t r a t h e r t h a t t h e s e be e g u a l l y w e l l a d a p t e d t o s t u d e n t s f r o m d i f f e r e n t s o c i a l c l a s s and c u l t u r a l b a c k g r o u n d , (p. 2 0 3 ) . A n o t h e r e x p l a n a t i o n i s t h a t s c h o o l s a r e s e e n a s h a v i n g n e i t h e r t h e g o a l , t h e o p e r a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e s n o r t h e r e s o u r c e s t o l i b e r a t e i n d i v i d u a l s o r g r o u p s f r o m a s c r i b e d i n e q u a l i t i e s b e c a u s e t h e p o t e n t i a l f o r l i b e r a t i n g s u c h g r o u p s e x i s t s o n l y w i t h s o c i e t y . The i s s u e i n t h i s s t u d y was n o t t o d e t e r m i n e w h e t h e r t h e s o c i e t y o r t h e s c h o o l s y s t e m h a s t h e a b i l i t y t o e n s u r e e q u a l i t y o f e d u c a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t y b u t r a t h e r t o e x a m i n e i f e q u a l i t y e x i s t s . PURPOSE OF STUDY The p u r p o s e o f t h e s t u d y i s t o d e t e r m i n e t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between e t h n i c i t y and e q u a l i t y o f e d u c a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t y i n B r i t i s h -Columbia b a s e d on d a t a f o r 1981. The r e s e a r c h e x a mines i f t h e s t u d e n t s ' e t h n i c b a c k g r o u n d r e l a t e s t o t h e i r a c c e s s t o e d u c a t i o n a l s e r v i c e s , t h e way t h e y a r e t r e a t e d i n s c h o o l a c c o r d i n g t o t h e i r s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n a l needs and t h e outcomes t h e y a c h i e v e f r o m t h e i r s c h o o l i n g . E q u a l i t y o f e d u c a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t y i s an i m p o r t a n t v a l u e i n many w e s t e r n s o c i e t i e s and, t h u s , i t i s a r e l e v a n t i s s u e i n e d u c a t i o n a l r e s e a r c h . Such r e s e a r c h n o t o n l y i n v e s t i g a t e s e d u c a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s b u t a l s o s t u d i e s l i f e o p p o r t u n i t i e s b e c a u s e i n a d v a n c e d t e c h n o l o g i c a l c o u n t r i e s u n s k i l l e d l a b o u r i s i n c r e a s i n g l y i n l e s s demand and h i g h e r m i n i m a l l e v e l s o f b a s i c e d u c a t i o n a l s k i l l s a r e r e g u i r e d f o r s u c c e s s f u l l i f e s t y l e s . I t i s a c o n c e r n o f t h i s s t u d y t h a t e q u a l i t y o f e d u c a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t y does n o t e x i s t , and t h a t i n f a c t : T h e r e a r e i n d i v i d u a l s and g r o u p s whose c h a n c e s f o r a good l i f e a r e b e i n g s e r i o u s l y and s y s t e m a t i c a l l y c u r t a i l e d by t h e low q u a l i t y o f s c h o o l i n g t h a t our s o c i e t y makes a v a i l a b l e t o them ( G u t h r i e , K l e i n d o r f e r , L e v i n e and S t o u t , 1971, p. 2 ) . SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY P u b l i c e d u c a t i o n s y s t e m s i n w e s t e r n s o c i e t i e s a r e f o u n d e d upon p a r t i c u l a r c u l t u r a l v a l u e s o r e t h i c a l a s s u m p t i o n s . W r i t i n g s and r e s e a r c h i n t h e s e s o c i e t i e s i d e n t i f y t h r e e c o n c e p t s f u n d a m e n t a l t o e d u c a t i o n p o l i c y f o r m u l a t i o n : e q u a l i t y , e f f i c i e n c y and l i b e r t y . Garms, G u t h r i e and P i e r c e (1978), i n t h e i r d i s c u s s i o n o f p u b l i c v a l u e s and p u b l i c s c h o o l p o l i c y , s t a t e : E q u a l i t y , l i b e r t y and e f f i c i e n c y a r e v i e w e d by an o v e r w h e l m i n g m a j o r i t y as c o n d i t i o n s t h a t government s h o u l d m a x i m i z e . T h e s e t h r e e v a l u e s a r e c o n s i d e r e d "good", " j u s t " and " r i g h t " . The b e l i e f i n them has h i s t o r i c a l r o o t s t h a t a r e d e e p l y imbedded i n our common h e r i t a g e . T h i s b e l i e f p e r m e a t e s t h e i d e o l o g i e s , p r o m u l g a t e d by p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s , r e l i g i o n s , s c h o o l s and o t h e r s o c i a l i n s t i t u t e s . (P.18) H i s t o r i c a l l y , new w o r l d d e m o c r a t i c s o c i e t i e s , s u c h as Canada and i t s w e s t e r n p r o v i n c e , B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , have a t t e m p t e d t o m a x i m i z e t h e s e c u l t u r a l v a l u e s - e q u a l i t y , l i b e r t y and e f f i c i e n c y - i n t h e i r p u b l i c s c h o o l s y s t e m . A l t h o u g h t h e s e s o c i e t i e s have made s u c h a t t e m p t s i n t h e i r p u r s u i t o f e g a l i t a r i a n p r i n c i p l e s t h e s u c c e s s o f i m p l e m e n t a t i o n and emphasis o f t h e s e c u l t u r a l v a l u e s has v a r i e d among t h e d i f f e r e n t s o c i e t i e s and o v e r t i m e w i t h i n s o c i e t i e s . In e d u c a t i o n a l p o l i c y , e g u a l i t y has been i n t e r p r e t e d as " e g u a l i t y o f e d u c a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t y " - a c o n c e p t c o n c e i v e d a s : e q u a l a c c e s s , e q u a l t r e a t m e n t and e q u a l outcomes (Coleman, 1975; Serow and D a v i e s , 1 9 8 2 ) . EQUALITY OF ACCESS The f i r s t f a c e t o f e q u a l i t y o f e d u c a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t y e q u a l i t y o f a c c e s s — r e f e r s t o t h e r i g h t s o f c h i l d r e n t o e n t e r s c h o o l and t o have t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o be e d u c a t e d . S o c i e t y has a r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t o p r o v i d e and e n s u r e m i n i m a l l e v e l s o f r e s o u r c e s s u c h as t e a c h e r s , s p a c e , and d o l l a r s f o r e d u c a t i o n a l m a t e r i a l s so t h a t c h i l d r e n have t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o o b t a i n m i n i m a l l e v e l s o f e d u c a t i o n . S i m p l e a c c e s s t o e d u c a t i o n i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a i s g u a r a n t e e d by l e g i s l a t i o n under t h e P u b l i c S c h o o l A c t , t h e r e v i s e d S c h o o l A c t and t h e c o r r e s p o n d i n g S c h o o l A c t R e g u l a t i o n s . The r i g h t o f a p e r s o n t o a t t e n d i s o u t l i n e d i n S e c t i o n 1(2) o f t h e S c h o o l A c t : F o r t h e p u r p o s e s o f t h i s A c t and t h e r e g u l a t i o n s , r u l e s and o r d e r s made under i t , a p e r s o n i s deemed o f s c h o o l age i n a s c h o o l y e a r , on or b e f o r e December 31 i n t h a t s c h o o l y e a r , he has a t t a i n e d o r s h a l l have a t t a i n e d t h e age o f 6 o r more y e a r s , and i f he has n o t o r s h a l l n o t have p r i o r t o September 1 i n t h a t s c h o o l y e a r , a t t a i n e d t h e age o f 19 y e a r s . and S e c t i o n 155 ( l ) ( a ) ( i ) o f t h e S c h o o l A c t s t i p u l a t e s t h a t a s c h o o l b o a r d must p r o v i d e s c h o o l i n g f o r a l l r e s i d e n t s o f t h e s c h o o l d i s t r i c t who a r e e l i g i b l e t o a t t e n d . S e c t i o n 155 (1) (a) ( i ) s t a t e s : The b o a r d o f e a c h s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s h a l l : (a) e x c e p t as o t h e r w i s e p r o v i d e d i n t h i s A c t , p r o v i d e s u f f i c i e n t s c h o o l a c c o m o d a t i o n and t u i t i o n , f r e e o f c h a r g e t o a l l c h i l d r e n o f s c h o o l age r e s i d e n t i n t h a t s c h o o l d i s t r i c t . To e n s u r e t h a t e a c h s c h o o l d i s t r i c t i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a p r o v i d e s a minimum l e v e l o f s e r v i c e , t h e M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a r e g u l a t e s t h e l e n g t h o f t h e s c h o o l y e a r , t h e amount o f t i m e t o be s p e n t on e a c h c u r r i c u l u m a r e a and an amount o f e x p e n d i t u r e s a c c o r d i n g t o a f o r m u l a e n t i t l e d , "The B a s i c E d u c a t i o n Programme". The B a s i c E d u c a t i o n Programme i s t h e p r o v i n c i a l g u a r a n t e e o f a m i n i m a l e x p e n d i t u r e l e v e l p e r p u p i l . The s c h o o l b o a r d i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r s p e n d i n g t h e s e d o l l a r s on a m i n i m a l e d u c a t i o n programme. U n t i l r e c e n t l y , a s c h o o l b o a r d c o u l d , t h r o u g h a d d i t i o n a l t a x a t i o n , s u p p l e m e n t t h e B a s i c E d u c a t i o n Programme w i t h a d d i t i o n a l d o l l a r s . S i n c e t h e M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n n e i t h e r d e f i n e s a m i n i m a l e d u c a t i o n a l programme nor c o n s i d e r s c o s t d i f f e r e n c e s among d i s t r i c t s , t h e a c t u a l p e r p u p i l e x p e n d i t u r e l e v e l v a r i e s g r e a t l y among s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s . F o r example, t h e S t i k i n e S c h o o l D i s t r i c t -- an i s o l a t e d n o r t h e r n d i s t r i c t — s p e n t $ 120,760 p e r one I n s t r u c t i o n a l U n i t ( t w e n t y p u p i l s ) i n t h e o p e r a t i n g s e c t i o n o f i t s 1981 b u d g e t . In c o n t r a s t , t h e D e l t a S c h o o l D i s t r i c t — a s u b u r b a n community c l o s e t o t h e p o p u l a t i o n and i n d u s t r i a l c e n t r e o f t h e P r o v i n c e --s p e n t $ 46,460 p e r one I n s t r u c t i o n a l U n i t d u r i n g t h e same y e a r . Such r e g i o n a l d i s p a r i t i e s i n e x p e n d i t u r e s may w e l l r e p r e s e n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e q u a l i t y and q u a n t i t y o f s c h o o l i n g a v a i l a b l e t o s t u d e n t s . V a r i o u s p o s s i b i l i t i e s must be r e c o g n i z e d . Even though a d i s t r i c t s u c h as S t i k i n e s p e n d s c o n s i d e r a b l y more p e r p u p i l on e d u c a t i o n , once t h e h i g h c o s t o f p r o v i d i n g s u c h goods and s e r v i c e s i n t h i s remote i s o l a t e d d i s t r i c t i s t a k e n i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n , t h e end r e s u l t may be an i n a d e q u a t e l e v e l o f s e r v i c e e i t h e r i n q u a l i t y or q u a n t i t y . A n o t h e r a l e r n a t i v e i s t h a t t h e low e x p e n d i t u r e p e r p u p i l on e d u c a t i o n a l r e s o u r c e s by t h e D e l t a D i s t r i c t may be p u r c h a s i n g l e s s t h a n a d e q u a t e q u a l i t y o r q u a n t i t y o f e d u c a t i o n a l s e r v i c e s i n p r o v i d i n g a m i n i m a l e d u c a t i o n a l programme. EQUALITY OF TREATMENT E q u a l i t y o f E d u c a t i o n a l O p p o r t u n i t y , i n t e r p r e t e d as e q u a l e d u c a t i o n a l t r e a t m e n t (Coleman, 1975), i s b a s e d on t h e p r e m i s e t h a t s t u d e n t s have a wide v a r i e t y o f c u l t u r a l l y or g e n e t i c a l l y d e t e r m i n e d a b i l i t i e s and as a c o n s e q u e n c e r e q u i r e d i f f e r e n t o r a t t i m e s p a r t i c u l a r i s e d e d u c a t i o n a l s e r v i c e s . The B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a S c h o o l A c t r e c o g n i z e s t h e s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n a l needs o f p a r t i c u l a r s t u d e n t s . The R e g u l a t i o n s (1981) r e a d : 96. S p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n programmes, i n c l u d i n g t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f s p e c i a l c l a s s e s o r o t h e r s p e c i a l p r o v i s i o n s f o r t h e s c h o o l accommodation and t u i t i o n o f c h i l d r e n w i t h l e a r n i n g h a n d i c a p s , s h a l l be r e c o g n i z e d f o r t h e p u r p o s e s o f c a l c u l a t i n g t h e c o s t o f t h e b a s i c e d u c a t i o n programme i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h S e c t i o n 181 o f t h e A c t o n l y i f t h e y a r e e s t a b l i s h e d and o p e r a t e d i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h t h i s r e g u l a t i o n and w i t h t h e r e g u i r e m e n t s o f t h e M i n i s t r y . and: 155. The number o f a p p r o v e d i n s t r u c t i o n a l u n i t s f o r e a c h s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s h a l l be c a l c u l a t e d on t h e b a s i s o f (d) n o t more t h a n 0.8 o f one u n i t f o r e a c h s p e c i a l c l a s s i n t h e d i s t r i c t a p p r o v e d i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h S e c t i o n 96. Once a g r o u p o f s t u d e n t s has been i d e n t i f i e d as r e q u i r i n g a p a r t i c u l a r f o r m o f e d u c a t i o n a l t r e a t m e n t , t h e d i s t r i c t makes a p p l i c a t i o n t o t h e M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n f o r a p p r o v a l . In 1981 o v e r 3,000 S p e c i a l C l a s s a p p r o v a l s were g r a n t e d ( S c h o o l s F i n a n c e B r a n c h , 1 9 8 2 ) . The f o l l o w i n g programmes a r e examples o f S p e c i a l E d u c a t i o n A p p r o v a l s made: 1. l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e , i n c l u d i n g e n r i c h m e n t programmes f o r t h e g i f t e d s t u d e n t ; 2. s i g h t o r h e a r i n g i m p a i r e d programme; 3. programmes f o r h o s p i t a l o r homebound; 4. programmes f o r t h e a u t i s t i c ; 5. programmes t o meet t h e l e a r n i n g n e e d s o f N a t i v e I n d i a n c h i l d r e n , and 6. programmes t o meet s p e c i f i c l o c a l n e e d s ( N i c h o l s , 1 9 8 0 , p. 2 3 ) . The M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a a l s o p r o v i d e s f u n d s f o r o t h e r " c o m p e n s a t o r y " programmes t h r o u g h s p e c i a l g r a n t s s u c h a s " E n g l i s h a s a S e c o n d L a n g u a g e " . R e c e n t l y , l a r g e numbers o f V i e t n a m e s e r e f u g e e s r e c e i v e d l a n d e d i m m i g r a n t s t a t u s i n C a n a d a ; t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n r e c o g n i z e d t h e p l i g h t o f i t s s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s w h i c h had t o p r o v i d e e d u c a t i o n f o r t h e c h i l d r e n o f t h e s e f a m i l i e s and i n s t i t u t e d s p e c i a l g r a n t s t o e s t a b l i s h E n g l i s h as a S e c o n d L a n g u a g e programmes. B o t h S p e c i a l E d u c a t i o n Programmes and s p e c i a l g r a n t s o r c o m p e n s a t o r y g r a n t s a r e p r o c e d u r e s by t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a s o c i e t y t o p r o v i d e f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e t o d i s t r i c t s w i t h h i g h t a x a t i o n i n o r d e r t o e n s u r e e q u a l i t y o f e d u c a t i o n a l t r e a t m e n t . IMPLICATIONS OF EQUALITY OF OUTCOMES The t h i r d f a c e t o f e q u a l i t y o f e d u c a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t y r e l a t e s t o e q u a l e d u c a t i o n a l o u t c o m e s . T h i s r e l a t i v e l y new i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f e q u a l i t y o f e d u c a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t y a p p e a r e d i n t h e e a r l y 1970's ( M o s t e l l e r and M o y n i h a n , 1 9 7 2 ) , and c o n t e n d s t h a t e d u c a t i o n a l p r e p a r a t i o n h a s become more o f a r e q u i r e m e n t f o r an i n d i v i d u a l ' s s u c c e s s i n s o c i e t y . P o r t e r , P o r t e r and B l i s h e n (1973) m a i n t a i n t h a t a s y s t e m a t i c a s s o c i a t i o n e x i s t s between e d u c a t i o n a l l e v e l a t t a i n e d and income l e v e l a c h i e v e d . I f p e r s o n a l s u c c e s s i n s o c i e t y i s r e l a t e d t o l e v e l o f e d u c a t i o n , i t i s a r g u e d t h a t e g u a l l e a r n i n g outcomes s h o u l d o c c u r a t a b a s i c s k i l l s l e v e l . A l t h o u g h t h e t h i r d f a c e t o f e g u a l i t y o f e d u c a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t y , e q u a l i t y o f outcomes, may have some m e r i t as an t h e o r e t i c a l c o n c e p t , i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o s u p p o r t t h e l o g i c o f t h e argument g i v e n t h e d i v e r s i t y o f i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s f o u n d i n s c h o o l s . To assume, r e g a r d l e s s o f s t u d e n t s ' i n n a t e a b i l i t y t h a t a l l s t u d e n t s w i l l o b t a i n a c e r t a i n l e v e l o f outcome w i t h i n a g i v e n p e r i o d o f t i m e i s an i n c o m p a t i b l e i d e a l . ORGANIZATION OF THE STUDY T h i s s t u d y employs t h e p r o d u c t i o n f u n c t i o n method, a u n i q u e a n a l y t i c p e r s p e c t i v e t h a t a t t e m p t s t o d e t e r m i n e t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p s among s c h o o l r e s o u r c e s , s t u d e n t b a c k g r o u n d f a c t o r s and s t u d e n t outcomes. Glasman and B i n i a m i n o u (1981) d e s c r i b e t h e r e s e a r c h method: B a s e d on t h e a s s u m p t i o n t h a t s c h o o l s have s y s t e m s ' a t t r i b u t e s , t h e s e a n a l y s e s employ r e s e a r c h s t r a t e g i e s t o measure c h a n g e s i n t h e s y s t e m ' s o u t p u t s b r o u g h t a b o u t by c h a n g e s i n t h e s y s t e m s ' i n p u t s . P r o d u c t i o n f u n c t i o n s a r e use d t o r e f l e c t r e l a t i o n s between measures o f o u t p u t s and o f i n p u t s (p. 5 0 9 ) . The b a s i c model o f t h e p r o d u c t i o n f u n c t i o n method i s g i v e n i n F i g u r e 1. S t u d e n t B a c k g r o u n d F a c t o r s > S c h o o l R e s o u r c e s S t u d e n t O u t c o m e s j J INPUT INPUT PROCESS OUTPUT F i g u r e 1. I n p u t / o u t p u t m o d e l -I n p u t v a r i a b l e s i n t h e model a r e f i x e d a t t r i b u t e s o f t h e s y s t e m w h i c h a r e n o t o r c a n n o t be i n f l u e n c e d by t h e s y s t e m . The i n p u t p r o c e s s — t h e a p p l i c a t i o n o f s c h o o l r e s o u r c e s i n t h e s c h o o l i n g a c t i v i t i e s -- has a t t r i b u t e s w h i c h c a n g e n e r a l l y be i n f l u e n c e d by t h e s y s t e m . The o u t p u t s i n t h i s c a s e a r e v a r i o u s m e a s u r e s o f s t u d e n t outcomes. The i n p u t - o u t p u t model was used as t h e b a s i s f o r t h e t h e o r e t i c a l model t o be e v a l u a t e d i n t h i s s t u d y . The d i a g r a m i n F i g u r e 2 d e p i c t s t h e c a u s a l r e l a t i o n s h i p t h e o r i z e d . E t h n i c i t y A c c e s s E n r o l m e n t T r e a t m e n t S c h o o l i n g S y s t e m S c h o o l i n g S y s t e m I n p u t s P r o c e s s S c h o o l i n g S y s t e m s O u t p u t s F i g u r e 2. T h e o r e t i c a l m o d e l on e t h n i c i t y a n d e q u a l i t y o f e d u c a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t y System i n p u t f a c t o r s a r e t h e p o p u l a t i o n d e m o g r a p h i c s o f s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s o v e r w h i c h a s c h o o l b o a r d has l i t t l e c o n t r o l . T h e s e i n p u t f a c t o r s i n f l u e n c e t h e s c h o o l i n g s y s t e m p r o c e s s i n p u t s , a c c e s s f a c t o r s and t r e a t m e n t f a c t o r s . A l s o , an i n t e r a c t i o n e x i s t s between t h e a c c e s s f a c t o r s and t r e a t m e n t f a c t o r s . B o t h t y p e s o f s y s t e m i n p u t s have a d i r e c t e f f e c t on t h e s y s t e m o u t p u t s or outcome f a c t o r s . The s c h o o l i n g s y s t e m p r o c e s s i s c o n s t i t u t e d o f t h e f a c t o r s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h e q u a l i t y o f e d u c a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t y : e q u a l i t y o f a c c e s s and e q u a l i t y o f t r e a t m e n t . S i n c e 1970, s i x c o m p r e h e n s i v e and d e t a i l e d r e v i e w s have been c o m p l e t e d on t h e p r o d u c t i o n f u n c t i o n r e s e a r c h ( B r i d g e , Judd & Moock, 1979; C e n t r a & P o t t e r , 1980; Cohn & W i l l m a n , 1975; Glasmann & B i n i a m i n o u , 1981; Katzman, 1971; Murnane, 1975). T h e s e r e v i e w s c o v e r t h e m a j o r i t y o f t h e i n p u t - o u t p u t s t u d i e s ; however, t h e y make t h e c o n c e p t u a l and s t a t i s t i c a l e r r o r o f c o m p a r i n g r e s u l t s a c r o s s v a r i o u s l e v e l s o f a g g r e g a t e d d a t a . B i d w e l l and K a s a r d a (1975) c o n t e n d t h a t c o m p a r i s o n o f r e s u l t s a t d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s r e p r e s e n t s a n a l y t i c a l e r r o r : I n t r o d u c i n g m u l t i p l e l e v e l s o f a n a l y s i s i n t o t h e same model b r i n g s d i f f i c u l t i e s o f e s t i m a t i o n and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n ( e g : t h e " e c o l o g i c a l f a l l a c y " ) . . . ( p . 6 3 ) . T h e r e f o r e , i n r e v i e w i n g t h e s e s t u d i e s i t i s c r i t i c a l t o e n s u r e t h a t c o m p a r i s o n o f r e s u l t s does n o t o c c u r a c r o s s t h e d i f f e r e n t d a t a b a s e s o f d i s t r i c t s , s c h o o l s , c l a s s r o o m s and s t u d e n t s . I f t h e " e c o l o g i c a l f a l l a c y " i s t o be a v o i d e d i n r e s e a r c h , t h e p r o b l e m o f d e t e r m i n i n g w h i c h u n i t o f a n a l y s i s w i l l be t h e most p r o d u c t i v e o r c o n c e p t u a l l y w i l l r e p r e s e n t t h e t h e o r e t i c a l i s s u e s must be d e a l t w i t h . F o r example, does t h e v a r i a b i l i t y o f an a c c e s s f a c t o r d e s c r i b e d by a g g r e g a t e d d a t a a t t h e d i s t r i c t l e v e l r e p r e s e n t t h e r e a l i t y o f what e x i s t s or would i t be more p r o d u c t i v e as a s c i e n t i f i c e n d e a v o u r t o c o n s i d e r d a t a w h i c h u s e s t h e s t u d e n t as t h e u n i t o f a n a l y s i s ? By a g g r e g a t i n g d a t a a c r o s s a d i s t r i c t , s u b s t a n t i a l v a r i a t i o n between s c h o o l s and s t u d e n t s i s e l i m i n a t e d . Such s c h o o l or s t u d e n t v a r i a t i o n s may be more r e p r e s e n t a t i v e c o n c e p t u a l l y and a n a l y t i c a l l y o f c a u s a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s . A l t h o u g h t h i s may be t h e s i t u a t i o n t h e r e i s m e r i t i n u s i n g s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s as t h e u n i t o f a n a l y s i s . B i d w e l l and K a s a r d a (1975) e m p h a s i z e d t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f s c h o o l d i s t r i c t a n a l y s i s i n t h e i r r e s e a r c h . On t h e o t h e r h a n d , i f we v i e w o r g a n i z a t i o n a l phenomena as means f o r t r a n s f o r m i n g e n v i r o n m e n t a l i n p u t s i n t o o u t p u t s , t h e n one p r i n c i p a l l o c u s o f t h e s e phenomena may be t h e s c h o o l d i s t r i c t r a t h e r t h a n t h e i n d i v i d u a l s c h o o l . T h e r e i s l i t t l e v a r i a t i o n between s c h o o l s i n t h e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n o f a d m i n i s t r a t i v e c o n t r o l , more between s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s . B u d g e t - m a k i n g , w h i c h a f f e c t s s u c h t h i n g s as t h e d i f f e r e n t i a l a l l o c a t i o n o f r e s o u r c e s between f u n c t i o n s ( e . g . , t e a c h i n g v e r s u s n o n - academic s e r v i c e s ) or between s c h o o l s , i s a c e n t r a l - o f f i c e and s c h o o l b o a r d r e s p o n s i b i l i t y (p. 5 6 ) . T h e r e f o r e , t h e u n i t o f a n a l y s i s i n t h i s s t u d y w i l l be s c h o o l d i s t r i c t — t h e l e v e l o f o r g a n i z a t i o n a t w h i c h p o l i c y and r e s o u r c e a l l o c a t i o n d e c i s i o n s a r e made. C h a p t e r I has p r o v i d e d an i n t r o d u c t i o n and t h e p u r p o s e o f t h e s t u d y . The s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e s t u d y has been d e v e l o p e d by d e f i n i n g e g u a l i t y o f e d u c a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t y and i t s a p p l i c a t i o n t o t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a c o n t e x t . T h r e e d e f i n i t i o n s o f e q u a l i t y — a c c e s s , t r e a t m e n t and outcomes — have been d i s c u s s e d . C h a p t e r I I r e v i e w s t h e l i t e r a t u r e on e t h n i c i t y and t h e s c h o o l i n g p r o c e s s . In p a r t i c u l a r , t h o s e s t u d i e s w h i c h d e a l w i t h e q u a l i t y o f s t u d e n t a c c e s s and s t u d e n t t r e a t m e n t as t h e y r e l a t e t o s t u d e n t outcomes a r e d i s c u s s e d . The summary p r o v i d e s an o v e r v i e w o f r e s e a r c h f i n d i n g s and l e a d s t o t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f v a r i a b l e l i s t s d e a l i n g w i t h e t h n i c i t y and e g u a l i t y . The s c h o o l i n g r e s e a r c h m o d e l , s t u d y q u e s t i o n s and r e s e a r c h d e s i g n a r e o u t l i n e d i n C h a p t e r I I I a l o n g w i t h t h e g r o u p s o f v a r i a b l e s w h i c h a r e t o be i n d i c a t o r s f o r s t u d e n t a c c e s s , s t u d e n t t r e a t m e n t and s t u d e n t outcomes. C h a p t e r IV o u t l i n e s t h e f o u r p h a s e s o f s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s . The s o u r c e s o f t h e raw d a t a a r e d e s c r i b e d a l o n g w i t h t h e d e s c r i p t i v e s t a t i s t i c s on e a c h v a r i a b l e i n p h a s e one. A g e n e r a l d i s c u s s i o n i s g i v e n on t h e c o r r e l a t i o n m a t r i c e s d e s c r i b i n g s i g n i f i c a n t t r e n d s t o p r o v i d e t h e b a s e f o r t h e t h i r d p h a s e , f a c t o r a n a l y s i s , w h i c h w i l l d e t e r m i n e u n d e r l y i n g s o u r c e v a r i a b l e s and w i l l r e d u c e t h e number o f v a r i a b l e s t o a s m a l l e r s e t o f f a c t o r s . F i n a l l y , p a t h a n a l y s i s i s us e d t o t e s t t h e model f i r s t a t a g e n e r a l e t h n i c l e v e l and t h e n by s p e c i f i c e t h n i c g r o u p s . C h a p t e r V c o n c l u d e s w i t h a summary o f p r o c e d u r e s and f i n d i n g s p l u s i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r p o l i c y d e v e l o p m e n t a t t h e M i n i s t r y and s c h o o l d i s t r i c t l e v e l s . F i n a l l y , t h e l i m i t a t i o n s o f t h e s t u d y a r e a d d r e s s e d w i t h r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s f o r f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h on t h e t o p i c o f e t h n i c i t y and e q u a l i t y o f e d u c a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t y . 17 C h a p t e r I I REVIEW OF LITERATURE INTRODUCTION A number o f i n p u t and o u t p u t v a r i a b l e s have been u s e d i n p r o d u c t i o n f u n c t i o n r e s e a r c h i n e d u c a t i o n . R e s e a r c h e r s t y p i c a l l y c l a s s i f y t h e v a r i a b l e s a s : s t u d e n t b a c k g r o u n d f a c t o r s , e d u c a t i o n a l r e s o u r c e s , and s t u d e n t outcomes (Glasman and B i n i a m i n o u , 1 9 81). T h i s r e v i e w i s o r g a n i z e d on t h e b a s i s o f t h e s e t h r e e c a t e g o r i e s u t i l i z i n g t h e s c h o o l d i s t r i c t as t h e u n i t o f a n a l y s i s . In t h e f i r s t s e c t i o n o f C h a p t e r I I , a r a t i o n a l e i s p r o v i d e d f o r i n c l u d i n g e t h n i c i t y as a s t u d e n t b a c k g r o u n d v a r i a b l e . T h i s i s f o l l o w e d by a r e v i e w o f s t u d i e s w h i c h c o n s i d e r t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f e t h n i c i t y and s t u d e n t a c h i e v e m e n t . The s e c t i o n c o n c l u d e s w i t h a d i s c u s s i o n on e t h n i c i t y i n t h e C a n a d i a n c o n t e x t and a schemata o f e t h n i c g r o u p s t o be i n c l u d e d i n t h e t h e o r e t i c a l m o d e l . The s e c o n d c a t e g o r y , s c h o o l i n g s y s t e m p r o c e s s , i s d i v i d e d i n t o two m a j o r g r o u p s : a c c e s s and t r e a t m e n t . The a c c e s s v a r i a b l e s a r e t h o s e r e s o u r c e v a r i a b l e s w h i c h a r e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h m a t e r i a l and human r e s o u r c e s p r o v i d e d by s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s i n o r d e r t o i n s t i t u t e an e d u c a t i o n a l programme; t h e t r e a t m e n t v a r i a b l e s a r e m a t e r i a l and human r e s o u r c e v a r i a b l e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h s p e c i a l programming w h i c h i s r e q u i r e d t o meet t h e s p e c i a l needs o f s t u d e n t s . S e c t i o n two o f C h a p t e r I I r e v i e w s t h e r e s o u r c e v a r i a b l e s a f f i l i a t e d w i t h e q u a l i t y o f a c c e s s . T h i s c a t e g o r y o f r e s o u r c e v a r i a b l e s i s s u b d i v i d e d i n t o t h r e e major a r e a s : i n s t r u c t i o n a l i n d i c a t o r s , f i n a n c i a l i n d i c a t o r s and s t a f f c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i n d i c a t o r s . E ach major a r e a i s f u r t h e r s u b d i v i d e d i n t o r e l a t e d t o p i c s . The i n s t r u c t i o n a l i n d i c a t o r s have f o u r s u b s e c t i o n s : s t u d e n t / t e a c h e r m e a s u r e s , s t u d e n t / f a c i l i t y m e a s u r e s , d i s t i c t s i z e m e a s u r e s and q u a n t i t y o f s e r v i c e m e a s u r e s . F i n a n c i a l i n d i c a t o r s a r e t h o s e v a r i a b l e s a f f i l i a t e d w i t h t h e s c h o o l d i s t r i c t ' s f i n a n c e s , and a r e d i v i d e d i n t o t h r e e t o p i c s : o p e r a t i n g e x p e n d i t u r e s , o p e r a t i n g r e v e n u e and c a p t i a l / i n d e b t e d n e s s . The f i n a l m a j o r a r e a , s t a f f c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i n d i c a t o r s , c o n s i d e r s t e a c h i n g ' and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e v a r i a b l e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h e d u c a t i o n a l s t a f f . T h e s e a r e d i v i d e d i n t o t h r e e g r o u p s : s a l a r y , e x p e r i e n c e and q u a l i f i c a t i o n s . A t t h e end o f e a c h s u b s e c t i o n i s a c r i t i q u e and summary o f t h a t p a r t i c u l a r v a r i a b l e and i t s s u c c e s s as an i n d i c a t o r i n r e s e a r c h . The t h i r d s e c t i o n o f t h i s C h a p t e r d i s c u s s e s t h e r a t i o n a l e f o r e q u a l i t y o f t r e a t m e n t v a r i a b l e s , r e v i e w s a l i m i t e d number o f s t u d i e s and c o n c l u d e s w i t h a s t a t e m e n t on t r e a t m e n t i n d i c a t o r s t o be us e d i n t h e s t u d y . Use and t y p e o f s t u d e n t outcomes a r e r e v i e w e d i n t h e f o u r t h s e c t i o n . I n c l u d e d i s a summary s t a t e m e n t on t h e t y p e o f s t u d e n t outcome v a r i a b l e s t o be used i n t h i s s t u d y . F i n a l l y , t h e c h a p t e r c o n c l u d e s w i t h a summary w h i c h o u t l i n e s t h e v a r i a b l e s w i t h i n t h e a p p r o p r i a t e c a t e g o r i e s t o be i n c l u d e d i n t h e t h e o r e t i c a l m o d e l . In d e t e r m i n i n g w h i c h v a r i a b l e s a r e t o be r e t a i n e d or e x c l u d e d i n e a c h domain, t h e p r o c e d u r e f o l l o w e d i s t h a t o u t l i n e d by J o n e s ( 1 9 8 1 ) . The f i r s t p h ase i s t o a s c e r t a i n w h i c h f a c t o r s have been u s e d i n 19 r e s e a r c h f o r r e p r e s e n t i n g a s e c o n d p h a s e , t h e r e t e n t i o n d e p e n d s on t h e d e g r e e t o w h i c h t h e f i n a l p h a s e , w h i c h a p p e a r s made t o r e t a i n o r e l i m i n a t e r e d u n d a n t i n m e a s u r e d v a r i a n c e i t h a s l i m i t e d v a r i a n c e . d o m a i n o r c o n c e p t . I n t h e o r d e l e t i o n o f a v a r i a b l e i t r e p r e s e n t s t h e d o m a i n . I n i n C h a p t e r I I I , a d e c i s i o n i s a v a r i a b l e i f i t i s e i t h e r w i t h a n o t h e r v a r i a b l e o r i f ETHNICITY R e s e a r c h a b o u t s t u d e n t b a c k g r o u n d f a c t o r s has g e n e r a l l y e m p h a s i z e d s o c i o e c o n o m i c s t a t u s and r e l a t e d m e a s u r e s s u c h as a v e r a g e f a m i l y i n c o m e , p a r e n t s ' e d u c a t i o n a l l e v e l and p a r e n t s ' o c c u p a t i o n . T h e r e i s , h o w e v e r , an a l t e r n a t i v e o u t l i n e d by G u t h r i e , K l e i n d o r f e r , L e v i n and S t o u t : An i n d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e t h a t c o u l d be u s e d i n a d d i t i o n t o o r i n p l a c e o f ' s o c i o e c o n o m i c s t a t u s ' i s r a c e o r m i n o r i t y g r o u p membership...Many o f t h e d i s p a r i t i e s we h y p o t h e s i z e a s o c c u r r i n g as a c o n s e g u e n c e o f an i n d i v i d u a l ' s b e i n g o f l o w e r s o c i o e c o n o m i c s t a t u s m i g h t a l s o be h y p o t h e s i z e d as o c c u r r i n g as a c o n s e g u e n c e o f an i n d i v i d u a l ' s b e i n g a member o f a m i n o r i t y r a c i a l o r e t h n i c g r o u p ( 1 9 7 1 , p.21) G l a z e r and M o y n i h a n (1975) a l s o e m p h a s i z e t h i s new a w a r e n e s s o f e t h n i c i t y as an a l t e r n a t i v e t o c l a s s s t r u c t u r e : . . . t h e r e i s some l e g i t i m a c y t o f i n d i n g t h e f o r m s o f i d e n t i f i c a t i o n b a s e d on s o c i a l r e a l i t i e s as d i f f e r e n t a s r e l i g i o n , l a n g u a g e , a n d n a t i o n a l o r i g i n a l l h a v e s o m e t h i n g i n common, s u c h t h a t a new t e r m i s c o i n e d t o r e f e r t o a l l o f them - ' e t h n i c i t y ' . . . i t i s a l s o t r u e t h a t we m u s t add e t h n i c i t y a s a new m a j o r f o c u s f o r t h e m o b i l i z a t i o n o f i n t e r e s t s , t r o u b l e s o m e b o t h t o t h o s e who w i s h t o e m p h a s i z e t h e p r i m a c y o f c l a s s , and t h o s e who w i s h t o e m p h a s i z e t h e p r i m a c y o f a n a t i o n (p. 1 8 ) . Hen c e , e t h n i c i t y a s w e l l as s o c i a l c l a s s may be v i e w e d as a m a j o r f o c u s o f d i s c u s s i o n ; i t i s t h e r e f o r e f e a s i b l e t o u s e e t h n i c i t y o r s o c i a l c l a s s i n d o i n g a p r o d u c t i o n f u n c t i o n a n a l y s i s i n e d u c a t i o n . The m a j o r p u r p o s e o f t h i s s t u d y i s t o t e s t w h e t h e r s t u d e n t p e r f o r m a n c e i s , i n f a c t , a f u n c t i o n o f e t h n i c i t y . A c c o r d i n g t o S e b o l d and D a t o ( 1 9 8 1 ) , s t u d e n t p e r f o r m a n c e c a n be a f f e c t e d i n s e v e r a l ways by e t h n i c i t y : ...The e t h n i c and r a c i a l c o m p o s i t i o n o f t h e s t u d e n t b o d y may a f f e c t s t a n d a r d i z e d t e s t s c o r e s v i a a number o f p a t h s : f a m i l y a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d e d u c a t i o n a l a c h i e v e m e n t may d i f f e r a c r o s s e t h n i c and r a c i a l g r o u p s ; p e e r a t t i t u d e s may d i f f e r ; a n d , f i n a l l y s t a n d a r d i z e d t e s t s may be b i a s e d i n f a v o u r o f t h e d o m i n a n t ( m a j o r i t y ) s u b g r o u p o f s t u d e n t s ( p . 9 6 ) . F o u r s t u d i e s u s i n g d i s t r i c t s as t h e i r u n i t o f a n a l y s i s c o n s i d e r e d p e r f o r m a n c e as a f u n c t i o n o f e t h n i c i t y o r r a c e ( B i d w e l l and K a s a r d a , 1975; C u r r i e , 1978; K a t z m a n , 1971; S e b o l d and D a t o , 1 9 8 1 ) . The s i x p e r f o r m a n c e i n d i c a t o r s u s e d by K a t z m a n (1971) w ere d a i l y a t t e n d a n c e , c o n t i n u a t i o n t h r o u g h h i g h s c h o o l , r e a d i n g g a i n b e t w e e n g r a d e s two and s i x , m a t h e m a t i c s a c h i e v e m e n t s c o r e s a t t h e g r a d e f i v e l e v e l , p e r c e n t a g e o f a p p l i c a t i o n s f o r a d m i s s i o n t o t h e e l i t e B o s t o n L a t i n H i g h S c h o o l a t t h e end o f g r a d e s i x , and t h e p e r c e n t a g e o f s t u d e n t s p a s s i n g t h e L a t i n S c h o o l e x a m i n a t i o n . I n o r d e r t o t e s t t h e e f f e c t s o f r a c e , K a t z m a n d i v i d e d t h e s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s i n t o f o u r c l a s s e s : 40 w h i t e d i s t r i c t s (50 - 100 % C a u c a s i a n ) , 8 i n t e g r a t e d d i s t r i c t s (25 - 50 % C a u c a s i a n ) , 7 B l a c k d i s t r i c t s ( l e s s t h a n 25 % C a u c a s i a n ) , and one p r e d o m i n a n t l y C h i n e s e d i s t r i c t . An a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e was p e r f o r m e d on t h e s i x p e r f o r m a n c e i n d i c a t o r s d e m o n s t r a t e d no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s by r a c e i n a t t e n d a n c e , c o n t i n u a t i o n and r e a d i n g . However, t h e r e was a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e (p>.05) i n m a t h e m a t i c s a c h i e v e m e n t , f a v o u r i n g t h e C h i n e s e d i s t r i c t . A l s o , t h e p e r c e n t a g e o f s t u d e n t s who a p p l i e d t o t h e L a t i n H i g h S c h o o l was s i g n i f i c a n t l y l o w e r (p>.05) f o r t h e W h i t e and I n t e g r a t e d c a t e g o r i e s compared t o t h e C h i n e s e p o p u l a t i o n . A s i m i l a r r e s u l t o c c u r r e d f o r p e r c e n t a g e o f s t u d e n t s who p a s s e d t h e L a t i n e x a m i n a t i o n s , w i t h t h e C h i n e s e d i s t r i c t p e r f o r m i n g b e t t e r t h a n t h e W h i t e , B l a c k and I n t e g r a t e d p o p u l a t i o n s . G i v e n t h e s e f i n d i n g s , i t i s anomalous t h a t Katzman (1971) c o n c l u d e d : The a n a l y s i s r e v e a l s t h a t t h e r a c i a l c o m p o s i t i o n o f t h e s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s i s n o t s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e l a t e d t o p e r f o r m a n c e , c e t e r i s p a r i b u s (p. 6 2 ) . Katzman d i d n o t r e c o g n i z e t h e r e s u l t s i n m a t h e m a t i c s a c h i e v e d by t h e C h i n e s e p o p u l a t i o n and r a t i o n a l i z e d t h e L a t i n a p p l i c a t i o n and L a t i n p a s s r e s u l t s by d e s c r i b i n g them a s : 1. o v e r a c h i e v e m e n t o f t h e C h i n e s e s t u d e n t s ; and 2. a r e f l e c t i o n o f t h e v a l u e o f s c h o l a r s h i p i n t h e C h i n e s e s u b - c u l t u r e (p. 6 2 ) . C o n t r a r y t o Katzman's i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , h i s r e s e a r c h a p p e a r s t o d e m o n s t r a t e t h a t p e r f o r m a n c e i s a f u n c t i o n o f e t h n i c i t y . B i d w e l l and K a s a r d a (1975) d i d n o t d e f i n e any s p e c i f i c r a c i a l / e t h n i c g r o u p i n t h e i r s t u d y o f one h u n d r e d and f o u r s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s i n C o l o r a d o . N e v e r t h e l e s s , t h e y u s e d t h e p e r c e n t a g e o f non-White p o p u l a t i o n r e s i d i n g i n a s c h o o l d i s t r i c t as a v a r i a b l e . S t u d e n t p e r f o r m a n c e was r e p r e s e n t e d by s t a n d a r d i z e d r e a d i n g and m a t h e m a t i c s a c h i e v e m e n t s c o r e s f o r h i g h s c h o o l s t u d e n t s ; i n b o t h c a s e s , t h e p e r c e n t a g e o f non-White p o p u l a t i o n was i n v e r s e l y and s i g n i f i c a n t l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h p e r f o r m a n c e . B i d w e l l and K a s a r d a (1975) assumed a r e l a t i o n s h i p between e t h n i c i t y and a c h i e v e m e n t , and " w i s h e d t o c o n t r o l f o r p e r c e n t n o n - W h i t e a s a d i s t u r b a n c e t e r m when e s t i m a t i n g t h e e f f e c t s o f t h e o t h e r i n d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s on a c h i e v e m e n t l e v e l s " (p. 62) . They b a s e d t h e i r a s s u m p t i o n on t h e r e s u l t s o f r e s e a r c h w h i c h had e x a m i n e d e t h n i c i t y a t t h e s c h o o l and c l a s s r o o m l e v e l (Amour, 1972; C o l e m a n e t a l . , 1966; C r a i n , 1 9 8 1 ) . S e b o l d and D a t o (1981) u s e d a g e n e r a l i z e d v a r i a b l e t o d e p i c t e t h n i c i t y / r a c e : t h e p e r c e n t a g e o f s t u d e n t s c l a s s i f i e d as m i n o r i t i e s . T h e i r s t u d y u s e d t h e l a r g e s t one h u n d r e d s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s i n C a l i f o r n i a . Ten s t u d e n t o u t p u t v a r i a b l e s i n c l u d e d t e s t s o f r e a d i n g , s p e l l i n g , w r i t t e n e x p r e s s i o n and m a t h e m a t i c s . No s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p was f o u n d b e t w e e n p e r c e n t a g e o f m i n o r i t i e s and s p e l l i n g a t t h e s i x t h and t w e l f t h g r a d e l e v e l o r w i t h m a t h e m a t i c s and w r i t t e n e x p r e s s i o n a t t h e g r a d e s i x l e v e l . H o w ever, t h e p e r c e n t a g e o f m i n o r i t i e s was s i g n i f i c a n t l y and i n v e r s e l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h r e a d i n g a t g r a d e s t w o , t h r e e , s i x and t w e l v e and w i t h m a t h e m a t i c s and w r i t t e n e x p r e s s i o n a t g r a d e t w e l v e . A l t h o u g h S e b o l d and D a t o (1981) f o u n d d i f f e r i n g r e s u l t s a c r o s s e x a m i n a t i o n s , t h e y w e re a b l e t o r e p o r t t h a t t h e c o e f f i c i e n t s o f t h e i r p r o d u c t i o n f u n c t i o n m o d e l e x p l a i n e d f r o m 85% t o 92% o f t h e v a r i a t i o n i n t h e d i s t r i c t s c o r e s . One C a n a d i a n s t u d y h a s c o n s i d e r e d g e n e r a l e t h n i c i t y b y t h e p r o p o r t i o n s o f E n g l i s h and n o n - E n g l i s h as a v a r i a b l e . C u r r i e (1978) a n a l y z e d i n t r a p r o v i n c i a l and i n t e r p r o v i n c i a l v a r i a t i o n s by s c h o o l d i s t r i c t i n t h e r e t e n t i o n o f s t u d e n t s i n s c h o o l i n t h e f o u r p r o v i n c e s i n t h e A t l a n t i c R e g i o n o f C a n a d a : Nova S c o t i a ( n = 5 6 ) , New B r u n s w i c k ( n = 3 3 ) , N e w f o u n d l a n d (n=36) and P r i n c e Edward I s l a n d ( n = 5 ) . The s t u d e n t o u t p u t v a r i a b l e s w e re t h e number o f s t u d e n t s r e t a i n e d b e t w e e n g r a d e s e i g h t and e l e v e n , and t h e number o f s t u d e n t s r e t a i n e d b e t w e e n g r a d e s e i g h t and t w e l v e . C u r r i e d i d n o t f i n d a s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h i n Nova S c o t i a , New B r u n s w i c k o r P r i n c e Edward I s l a n d . He d i d f i n d a s i g n i f i c a n t (.05) and p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n t h e p r o p o r t i o n o f E n g l i s h and t h e r e t e n t i o n f a c t o r s i n N e w f o u n d l a n d and i n t h e t o t a l A t l a n t i c R e g i o n . T h r e e r e c e n t s t u d i e s d i d n o t a g g r e g a t e d a t a a t t h e d i s t r i c t l e v e l b u t a t t h e s c h o o l o r s t u d e n t l e v e l ( C o m m i t t e e o f I n q u i r y i n t o t h e E d u c a t i o n o f C h i l d r e n f r o m E t h n i c M i n o r i t y G r o u p s , 1981; M a e s t a s , 1981; W r i g h t and D h a n o t a , 1 9 8 1 ) . T h e s e s t u d i e s a r e d i s c u s s e d h e r e b e c a u s e t h e y r e p o r t on a d i f f e r e n t e t h n i c p o p u l a t i o n t h a n o t h e r s t u d i e s r e v i e w e d ; as w e l l , t h e y p r o v i d e r e c e n t i n f o r m a t i o n on e t h n i c r e s e a r c h i n o t h e r c u l t u r a l c o n t e x t s . I n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , M a e s t a s (1981) u s e d a s a m p l e o f 369 M e x i c a n A m e r i c a n h i g h s c h o o l s e n i o r s and 203 n o n - M e x i c a n A m e r i c a n h i g h s c h o o l s e n i o r s . B o t h p o p u l a t i o n s were a s s i g n e d c a t e g o r i e s by r e g i o n s — r u r a l , medium s i z e d c i t y , b edroom c o m m u n i t y and l a r g e u r b a n a r e a — and t h e d i f f e r e n c e s among r e g i o n s w e r e a n a l y z e d . The d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s were s c o r e s on t h e C o m p r e h e n s i v e T e s t o f B a s i c S k i l l s and Iowa T e s t o f B a s i c S k i l l s . R e g i o n d i d n o t i n f l u e n c e s t u d e n t a c h i e v e m e n t , b u t a s t r o n g r e l a t i o n s h i p e x i s t e d b e t w e e n e t h n i c i t y and a c h i e v e m e n t . I n G r e a t B r i t a i n , t h e B r i t i s h G o v e r n m e n t r e s p o n d e d t o t h e 1977 R e p o r t o f t h e S e l e c t C o m m i t t e e on Race R e l a t i o n s and I m m i g r a t i o n on "The West I n d i a n Community" by e s t a b l i s h i n g t h e C o m m i t t e e o f I n q u i r y i n t o t h e E d u c a t i o n o f C h i l d r e n f r o m E t h n i c M i n o r i t y G roups i n M a r c h , 1979. The Committee t a b l e d i t s i n t e r i m r e p o r t t i t l e d "West I n d i a n C h i l d r e n i n our S c h o o l s " (The Rampton R e p o r t ) on June 17, 1981. The Rampton R e p o r t i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e S c h o o l L e a v e r s S u r v e y d u r i n g t h e 1978/79 a c a d e m i c y e a r w h i c h r e p r e s e n t e d a p p r o x i m a t e l y 50% o f t h e e t h n i c m i n o r i t y s c h o o l p o p u l a t i o n i n s i x L o c a l E d u c a t i o n A u t h o r i t i e s ( L E A s ) , showed p a r t i c u l a r p e r f o r m a n c e t r e n d s among d i f f e r e n t e t h n i c g r o u p s . The e x a m i n a t i o n r e s u l t s were f o r : t h e C e r t i f i c a t e o f S t a t e E x a m i n a t i o n ( C S E ) , t h e G e n e r a l C e r t i f i c a t e o f E x a m i n a t i o n "0" l e v e l (GCE "0" l e v e l ) and t h e G e n e r a l C e r t i f i c a t e o f E x a m i n a t i o n "A" l e v e l (GCE "A" l e v e l ) . A l l t h r e e l e v e l s o f e x a m i n a t i o n r e p r e s e n t a b a t t e r y o f c o m p r e h e n s i v e e x a m i n a t i o n s i n a v a r i e t y o f s u b j e c t a r e a s . The CSE r e p r e s e n t s a l e v e l o f e x a m i n a t i o n i n s u b j e c t a r e a s u s i n g minimum competency measures as t h e c r i t e r i a . The GCE "0" i s e q u i v a l e n t t o t h e g r a d e t w e l v e g r a d u a t i o n c e r t i f i c a t e . B o t h a r e g i v e n t o t h e same age g r o u p , b u t t o d i f f e r e n t s t u d e n t p o p u l a t i o n s d e p e n d i n g on c a r e e r a s p i r a t i o n s and a b i l i t y . The GCE "A" l e v e l a r e e x a m i n a t i o n s f o r U n i v e r s i t y e n t r a n c e . The CSE i s g r a d e d by l e v e l w i t h g r a d e 1 b e i n g t h e h i g h e s t g r a d e . The GCE "0" l e v e l and GCE "A" l e v e l a r e g r a d e d by l e t t e r g r a d e A t h r o u g h E w i t h A, B, and C d e s i g n a t e d as " h i g h e r g r a d e s " . The C o m m i t t e e ' s f i n d i n g s , can be summarized as f o l l o w s : 1. I n a l l CSE and GCE "0" l e v e l e x a m i n a t i o n s , 3% o f t h e West I n d i a n s o b t a i n e d f i v e o r more h i g h e r g r a d e s i n s u b j e c t s compared w i t h 18% o f A s i a n s ; 2. In CSE E n g l i s h and GCE "0" l e v e l Language o n l y 9% o f West I n d i a n s o b t a i n e d h i g h e r g r a d e s compared w i t h 21% o f A s i a n s and 29% o f a l l o t h e r l e a v e r s i n t h e s e LEAs; 25 3. I n CSE and GCE "0" l e v e l i n M a t h e m a t i c s o n l y 5% o f West I n d i a n s o b t a i n e d h i g h e r g r a d e s compared w i t h 20% o f A s i a n s and 19% o f a l l o t h e r l e a v e r s i n t h e s e L E A s ; 4. A t GCE "A" l e v e l o n l y 2% o f t h e West I n d i a n s g a i n e d one o r more p a s s c o m p a r e d w i h 13% A s i a n s and 12% o f a l l o t h e r l e a v e r s i n t h e s e L E A s ; 5. O n l y 1% o f West I n d i a n s went on t o u n i v e r s i t y c o m p a r e d w i t h 3% o f A s i a n s and 3% o f a l l o t h e r l e a v e r s i n t h e s e L E A s ; and 6. O n l y 1% o f West I n d i a n s went on t o f u l l t i m e d e g r e e c o u r s e s i n f u r t h e r e d u c a t i o n c o m p a r e d w i t h 5% o f A s i a n s and 4% o f a l l o t h e r l e a v e r s i n t h e s e L E A s . T h e s e r e s u l t s l e d t h e C o m m i t t e e t o c o n c l u d e t h a t ; . . . [ t h e r e w i l l ] a l w a y s be some c h i l d r e n who w i l l u n d e r a c h i e v e and f o r v a r i o u s r e a s o n s w i l l f a i l t o r e a c h t h e i r f u l l p o t e n t i a l . H o w e v e r , t h e i s s u e t a k e s on a d i f f e r e n t t o n e and becomes a c o n c e r n when a d i s t i n c t e t h n i c g r o u p i s u n d e r a c h i e v i n g i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e i r p e e r s , a t l e a s t n o t o b t a i n i n g t h e e x a m i n a t i o n q u a l i f i c a t i o n s n e e ded t o g i v e them e q u a l i t y o f o p p o r t u n i t y i n t h e employment m a r k e t and t o e n a b l e them t o t a k e a d v a n t a g e o f t h e r a n g e o f p o s t - s c h o o l o p p o r t u n i t i e s a v a i l a b l e (p. 3 ) . The B o a r d o f E d u c a t i o n f o r t h e C i t y o f T o r o n t o i n v e s t i g a t e d t h e e t h n i c c o m p o s i t i o n and p r o g r a m m i n g o f g r a d e n i n e s t u d e n t s i n 1975 and 1980 ( W r i g h t and D h a n o t a , 1981) . Two a s p e c t s o f t h e i r work a r e r e l e v a n t t o t h i s s t u d y . F i r s t , a s shown i n T a b l e 1, t h e i m m i g r a t i o n p a t t e r n o f s t u d e n t s b e t w e e n 1975 and 1980 v e r i f y t h a t t h e e t h n i c c o m p o s i t i o n i n a C a n a d i a n c i t y i s c h a n g i n g . B e t w e e n 1975 and 1980 t h e p e r c e n t a g e o f g r a d e n i n e s t u d e n t s e n r o l l e d i n T o r o n t o s c h o o l s who w e re b o r n i n C a n a d a , E u r o p e and t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s d r o p p e d by 7.7%, w h i l e t h e p e r c e n t a g e o f s t u d e n t s f r o m A s i a and A f r i c a h a s q u i n t u p l e d f r o m 1.1% t o 5.7%. The s e c o n d a s p e c t o f t h e T o r o n t o s t u d y w h i c h i s o f i n t e r e s t i s t h e a n a l y s i s o f p r o g r a m m i n g by e t h n i c g r o u p . The T o r o n t o S e c o n d a r y S c h o o l s ' programme o f f e r s s u b j e c t s a t s i x d i f f e r e n t 26 T A B L E 1 P e r c e n t a g e o f G r a d e 9 S t u d e n t s i n T o r o n t o S c h o o l s by P l a c e o f B i r t h 1 R e g i o n 1975 1980 C a n a d a 66.1 62.0 E u r o p e 20.5 16.2 U n i t e d S t a t e s & M e x i c o .7 1.4 C e n t r a l £ S o u t h ' A m e r i c a 6.7 8.4 F a r & M i d d l e E a s t 3.1 5.1 A s i a £ A f r i c a 1.1 5.7 No I n f o r m a t i o n 1.7 1.3 TOTAL 9 9 . 9 2 1 0 0 . 1 2 A d o p t e d f r o m i n f o r m a t i o n by W r i g h t a n d O h a n o t a , 1 9 8 1 , p . 13. Does n o t e q u a l 1 0 0 % b e c a u s e o f r o u n d i n g . l e v e l s o f d i f f i c u l t y : l e v e l 1 ( m o d i f i e d ) , l e v e l 2 ( v o c a t i o n a l ) , l e v e l 3 ( o c c u p a t i o n a l o r b a s i c ) , l e v e l 4 ( g e n e r a l ) , l e v e l 5 (advanced) and l e v e l 6 ( e n r i c h e d ) . L e v e l s 5 and 6 a r e p r e r e q u i s i t e f o r a d m i s s i o n t o u n i v e r s i t i e s . The 7,065 g r a d e n i n e s t u d e n t s were c a t e g o r i z e d by l e v e l s o f programming and p l a c e o f b i r t h as shown i n T a b l e 2. L e v e l 1 ( m o d i f i e d ) and L e v e l 6 ( e n r i c h e d ) had v e r y s m a l l p o p u l a t i o n s and were combined w i t h L e v e l 2 and L e v e l 5, r e s p e c t i v e l y . TABLE 2 P e r c e n t a g e o f G r a d e 9 S t u d e n t s i n T o r o n t o S c h o o l s By P l a c e o f B i r t h a n d L e v e l o f S t u d y ( 1 9 8 0 ) 1 R e g i o n o f B i r t h M o d i f i e d £ V o c a t i o n a l O c c u p a t i o n a l Gene r a l A d v a n c e d £ E n r i c h e d T o t a l C a n a d a 1.8 14.7 27 .2 56.4 1 0 0 . I 2 E u r o p e 5.3 25.6 33 .3 35.8 100.0 U n i t e d S t a t e s £ M e x i c o 0.0 1.0 6 .1 92.9 100.0 C e n t r a l £ S o u t h A m e r i c a 4.9 23.0 34 .5 37.6 100.0 F a r £ M i d d l e E a s t 1.6 5.3 23 .1 70.1 1 0 0 . I 2 A s i a £ A f r i c a 2.2 10.6 31 .2 5 6 . 0 100.0 No I n f o r m a t i o n 3.9 18.0 30 .8 47.4 1 0 0 . I 2 TOTAL 2.6 16.4 28 .6 52.4 100.0 A d o p t e d f r o m i n f o r m a t i o n by W r i g h t a n d O h a n o t a , 1 9 8 1 , p . 4 7 . Does n o t e q u a l 1 0 0 % b e c a u s e o f r o u n d i n g . I f l e v e l s 1, 2, and 3 a r e c o n s i d e r e d t o i n d i c a t e l o w a c h i e v e m e n t , and l e v e l s 4, 5, and 6 t o i n d i c a t e h i g h a c h i e v e m e n t , t h e n t h e a s s o c i a t i o n o f a c h i e v e m e n t and e t h n i c i t y i s c l e a r as shown i n T a b l e 3. T A B L E 3 P e r c e n t a g e a n d Rank o f G r a d e 9 S t u d e n t s i n T o r o n t o S c h o o l s by P l a c e o f B i r t h a n d L e v e l o f S t u d y ( 1 9 8 0 ) 1 Low H i g h T o t a l R e g i o n o f B i r t h A c h i e v e m e n t A c h i e v e m e n t U n i t e d S t a t e s E M e x i c o 1.0 99.0 100.0 F a r & M i d d l e E a s t 6.9 93.2 1 0 0 . I 2 A s i a £ A f r i c a 12.8 87.2 100.0 C a n a d a 16.5 83.6 1 0 0 . I 2 C e n t r a l £ S o u t h A m e r i c a 27.9 72.1 100.0 E u r o p e 30.9 69.1 100.0 No I n f o r m a t i o n 21.9 78.2 1 0 0 . I 2 TOTAL 19.0 81.0 100.0 ^ A d o p t e d f r o m i n f o r m a t i o n by W r i g h t a n d D h a n o t a , 1 9 8 1 , p. 4 7 . ^Does n o t e q u a l 100 % b e c a u s e o f r o u n d i n g . The i n f l u e n c e o f c u l t u r a l b a c k g r o u n d on s u c c e s s a t s c h o o l h a s a l s o b e e n d e m o n s t r a t e d by t h e r e s e a r c h o f B e r n s t e i n (1971) and B o u r d i e u (1966) , who h a v e shown t h a t t h e s o c i a l and c u l t u r a l b a c k g r o u n d o f a s t u d e n t has an i n f l u e n c e on t h e s u c c e s s i n s c h o o l i n g . The r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n t h e c u l t u r a l b a c k g r o u n d o f s t u d e n t s and s u c c e s s i n s c h o o l i n g s h o u l d be s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t i n C a n a d a t h a n t h a t f o u n d i n o t h e r w e s t e r n i n d u s t r i a l i z e d n a t i o n s s u c h as t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , B r i t a i n and F r a n c e . C o u n t r i e s h a v e v i e w e d a l l i m m i g r a n t s as p e o p l e t o be a s s i m i l a t e d i n t o t h e m a i n s t r e a m ; C a n a d a , h o w e v e r , has c h o s e n t o v i e w i m m i g r a n t s as c l u s t e r s o f u n i q u e c u l t u r e s w i t h g r o u p c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s w h i c h s h o u l d be r e t a i n e d . A r e a s o n f o r t h i s d i f f e r e n t p e r s p e c t i v e may l i e i n t h e f a c t t h a t Canada had two d o m i n a n t f o u n d i n g n a t i o n a l i t i e s , t h e B r i t i s h and t h e F r e n c h , who have a p a r t i c u l a r h i s t o r i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p . W r i t i n g f r o m K y o t o , J a p a n , F u s e (1977) i n h i s c o m p a r i s o n o f W e s t e r n i n d u s t r i a l i z e d n a t i o n s w i t h Canada c o n f i r m e d t h i s d i s t i n c t i o n : T u r n i n g now t o t h e C a n a d i a n s c e n e we f i n d two c h a r t e r g r o u p s , t h e E n g l i s h and t h e F r e n c h , d e e p l y e n t r e n c h e d i n t h e e a r l y h i s t o r y o f t h i s c o u n t r y . E v e n t u a l l y , t h e B r i t i s h a t t a i n e d hegemony o v e r t h e F r e n c h , w h i c h f a c t h a s l e f t a t r a g i c l e g a c y s t i l l p l a g u i n g us i n C a n a d i a n d o m e s t i c p o l i t i c s , i n c l u d i n g t h e O c t o b e r C r i s i s i n 1970 and t h e most r e c e n t a i r c o n t r o l l e r s s t r i k e o v e r t h e p r o p o s e d i n t r o d u c t i o n o f F r e n c h (p. 1 7 ) . I n o r d e r t o p r o t e c t t h e r i g h t s o f e a c h f o u n d i n g c u l t u r e , i t became i m p e r a t i v e t o a c k n o w l e d g e t h e r e s p e c t f o r c u l t u r a l and l i n g u i s t i c d i f f e r e n c e s i n C a n a d i a n i d e o l o g y . I n t h e 1 9 7 0 s , t h a t i d e o l o g y b e g a n t o be e x t e n d e d t o o t h e r e t h n i c g r o u p s . D ' O y l e y ( 1 9 7 9 ) , r e f l e c t e d t h i s C a n a d i a n i d e a l a t t h e C a n a d i a n B l a c k S t u d i e s C o n f e r e n c e w h e r e he s t a t e d : O f f i c i a l g o v e r n m e n t p o l i c y i n C a n a d a s u p p o r t s m u l t i c u l t u r a l i s m ; h a r d l y d o e s i t s p e a k o f a s s i m i l a t i o n . I n p r o m o t i n g e t h n i c i t y , e t h n i c d e v e l o p m e n t and t h e r e f o r e m u l t i - e t h n i c i t y , t h e f e d e r a l g o v e r n m e n t g i v e s t h e i m p r e s s i o n t h a t i t w i s h e s t h e e v e n t u a t i o n w h e r e b y e a c h e t h n i c s t r a n d a t t a i n s i t s h i g h e s t e t h n i c s t r e n g t h a l o n g c l e a r l y d e f i n e d d i m e n s i o n s w h i l e a c k n o w l e d g i n g and c o n t r i b u t i n g t o t h e c o r p o r a t e i n s t i t u t i o n s w h i c h s t e m f r o m t h e m a j o r i t y ( p . 1 2 2 ) . C o n c l u s i o n A l t h o u g h t h e r e h a s b e e n l i m i t e d r e s e a r c h i n C anada on t h e i n t e r a c t i o n b e t w e e n e t h n i c i t y and s c h o o l s u c c e s s , P o r t e r (1965) d i d f i n d a r e l a t i o n s h i p between e t h n i c o r i g i n and s c h o o l a t t e n d a n c e p a t t e r n s r e l a t e d t o t y p e s o f o c c u p a t i o n a l d i s t r i b u t i o n among e t h n i c g r o u p s . F u r t h e r , P o r t e r (1965) p o s t u l a t e d t h a t s t r a t i f i c a t i o n o f e t h n i c g r o u p s i n Canada o c c u r r e d t h r o u g h c o n q u e s t and i m m i g r a t i o n . D ' O y l e y (1982) has c o n c e p t u a l i z e d a p a r s i m o n i o u s c l u s t e r i n g o f d i s t i n c t e t h n i c g r o u p i n g s : . . . t h a t t h e hand o f C a n a d i a n s o c i e t y be p e r s u a d e d t o a r e c o g n i t i o n o f i t s f i v e f i n g e r s , e a c h o f w h i c h i s i t s e l f a c l u s t e r , an a s s e m b l a g e o f s u b - g r o u p s . 1. t h e a b o r i g i n e s ; 2. t h e a n g l o p h o n e ; 3. t h e f r a n c o p h o n e ; 4. t h e l a t e r E u r o p e a n and 5. t h e l a t e r v i s i b l e m i n o r i t y ( i . e . ; A f r i c a n and A s i a n ) (p. 126) T h e s e f i v e c a t e g o r i e s have h i s t o r i c a l v a l i d i t y w i t h i n t h e C a n a d i a n c o n t e x t when a c c e s s t o goods and s e r v i c e s , as w e l l as t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p s among t h e m a j o r g r o u p s , a r e c o n s i d e r e d . C a n a d i a n a b o r i g i n a l s were c o n q u e r e d and s u b j u g a t e d . T h e i r p e o p l e were i n t e r n e d on r e s e r v e s w i t h e a c h p e r s o n g i v e n a band i d e n t i t y number. A l a r g e government b u r e a u c r a c y , t h e De p a r t m e n t o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s , was o r g a n i z e d t o watch o v e r them. T h e s e a c t s were b a s e d on two b a s i c r a t i o n a l e s : 1. The a b o r i g i n e s were t o r e c e i v e goods and s e r v i c e s f r o m t h e government f o r t h e l a n d c a l l e d Canada; and 2. The a b o r i g i n e s had t o be s e g r e g a t e d f o r t h e i r own p r o t e c t i o n . I t i s i r o n i c t h a t i n a w e s t e r n d e m o c r a t i c s o c i e t y i n 1983, t h e c o n c e n t r a t i o n r e s e r v e s , t h e i d e n t i t y numbers, t h e l a r g e g u a r d i n g b u r e a u c r a c y , and t h e p s y c h o l o g i c a l s u b j u g a t i o n s h o u l d s t i l l e x i s t . The p r e s e n t e t h o s o f t h e m a j o r i t y o f t h e c o n c e n t r a t i o n r e s e r v e s i s an a b n o r m a l l y h i g h d e a t h r a t e and e x c e s s i v e a s o c i a l b e h a v i o u r by t h e a b o r i g i n a l s u c h a s t h e u s e o f d r u g s , a l c o h o l and v i o l e n c e . The A n g l o p h o n e i s t h e d o m i n a n t r a c e and c u l t u r e i n C a n a d a , w h i c h s u c c e s s f u l l y c o n g u e r e d t h e A b o r i g i n a l and F r a n c o p h o n e and h e n c e h a s r e t a i n e d a h i s t o r i c a l p r i d e o f p l a c e . The F r a n c o p h o n e , a l t h o u g h c o n q u e r e d and t o some d e g r e e s u b j u g a t e d b y t h e A n g l o p h o n e , f o r m s t h e s e c o n d d o m i n a n t c u l t u r a l and e t h n i c g r o u p i n t h e C a n a d i a n s o c i e t y . Over t h e c e n t u r i e s , t h e F r a n c o p h o n e , b e c a u s e o f t h e i r p o p u l a t i o n s i z e and c o n c e n t r a t i o n , h a s m a i n t a i n e d a c u l t u r a l and s o c i a l i d e n t i t y . The r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n A n g l o p h o n e and F r a n c o p h o n e i n Canada h a s g i v e n r i s e t o t h e i d e a l t h a t C a n a d a i s a b i l i n g u a l and b i c u l t u r a l c o u n t r y . The l a t e r E u r o p e a n came t o Canada m a i n l y f o r t h e o p p o r t u n i t i e s w h i c h e x i s t e d . B e c a u s e o f t h e s i z e o f C a n a d a , t h e y w e re a b l e t o b u i l d c u l t u r a l e n c l a v e s i n w h i c h t h e i r l a n g u a g e and c u l t u r e r e m a i n e d d o m i n a n t . The Germans and U k r a n i a n s o f A l b e r t a and S a s k a t c h e w a n a r e e x a m p l e s w i t h i n t h i s g r o u p . The l a s t g r o u p , t h e l a t e r v i s i b l e m i n o r i t y , i s d i s t i n c t f o r t h r e e r e a s o n s : 1. t h e i r r e l a t i v e " n e w n e s s " t o C a n a d a ; 2. t h e i r d i s t i n c t i v e p h y s i c a l f e a t u r e s a s comp a r e d t o t h e d o m i n a n t p o p u l a t i o n ; 3. t h e r a c i s m and a n t a g o n i s m w h i c h h a s been e x h i b i t e d t o w a r d s them by t h e r e s t o f Canada a t some p o i n t i n h i s t o r y , i . e . ; t h e b l a c k s h a v i n g been s l a v e s , t h e C h i n e s e h a v i n g i m m i g r a t i o n r e s t r i c t e d a s w e l l as o v e r t 31 h o s t i l i t y i n t h e V a n c o u v e r r i o t s d u r i n g t h e e a r l y p a r t o f t h e c e n t u r y , t h e i n t e r n m e n t o f J a p a n e s e d u r i n g t h e Second W o r l d War, t h e r e c e n t h o s t i l i t y t o w a r d s E a s t I n d i a n s i n t h e c i t y o f V a n c o u v e r . B a s e d on t h e work o f B o u r d i e u (1966) and P o r t e r (1972), a h i e r a r c h y o f e t h n i c g r o u p s a c c o r d i n g t o s t u d e n t p e r f o r m a n c e can be p r e d i c t e d . U s i n g B o u r d i e u ' s c o n c e p t o f c u l t u r a l c a p i t a l w i t h t h r e e components -- v e r b a l f a c i l i t y , knowledge o f g e n e r a l c u l t u r e , and knowledge o f t h e s c h o o l s y s t e m -- and P o r t e r ' s argument t h a t b e c a u s e o f an i n d i v i d u a l ' s l i m i t e d r e s o u r c e s he o r she i s u n a b l e t o m a i n t a i n two p a r a l l e l c u l t u r e s , t h o s e e t h n i c g r o u p s w h i c h a r e more i s o m o r p h i c t o B o u r d i e u ' s components o f c u l t u r a l c a p i t a l s h o u l d have h i g h e r a c h i e v e m e n t i n s c h o o l t h a n t h o s e e t h n i c g r o u p s w h i c h a r e l e s s i s o m o r p h i c . In 1972, P o r t e r r e i t e r a t e d h i s c o n c e r n t h a t t h e p e r p e t u a t i o n o f m u l t i c u l t u r a l i s m i n Canada i s a n t i t h e t i c a l t o a f u n c t i o n a l i n d u s t r i a l s o c i e t y . H i s argument was t w o f o l d : f i r s t , e v e r y p e r s o n has l i m i t e d r e s o u r c e s and t o t r y t o m a i n t a i n two p a r a l l e l s o c i e t i e s — t h e d o m i n a n t s o c i e t y and h i s own — i s i m p o s s i b l e ; s e c o n d , l a n g u a g e and customs w h i c h a r e d i f f e r e n t from t h e d o m i n a n t s o c i a l o r d e r a r e o b s t a c l e s t o s c h o o l s u c c e s s . Murphy (1979) c o n t e n d s t h a t two o t h e r p o s s i b l i t i e s e x i s t : f i r s t , e t h n i c i t y may n o t be r e l a t e d t o s c h o o l s u c c e s s and s e c o n d , e t h n i c i t y may r e a c t p o s i t i v e l y w i t h s c h o o l s u c c e s s (p. 78). I f t h e i n t e r a c t i o n between e t h n i c i t y and s c h o o l i n g as c o n s i d e r e d by B o u r d i e u (1966) and P o r t e r (1972) i s v a l i d t h e n w i t h i n D ' O y l e y ' s f i v e e t h n i c g r o u p i n g s , s t u d e n t a c h i e v e m e n t s h o u l d o c c u r d i f f e r i e n t i a l l y . T h e r e f o r e , s i x e t h n i c g r o u p i n g s w i l l be c o n s i d e r e d i n t h i s s t u d y : A n g l o p h o n e ; t h e g e n e r a l e t h n i c c a t e g o r y o f Non- E n g l i s h ; l a t e r E u r o p e a n s ; l a t e r V i s i b l e M i n o r i t y ; F r a n c o p h o n e ; and A b o r i g i n a l . EQUALITY OF ACCESS T h i s s e c t i o n o f t h e l i t e r a t u r e r e v i e w e x a m i n e s t h e r e s e a r c h on t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n i n d i c a t o r s o f r e s o u r c e a c c e s s and s t u d e n t o u t c o m e s . The r e s o u r c e i n d i c a t o r s a r e v a r i a b l e s w h i c h a t t e m p t t o m e a s u r e b o t h q u a n t i t a t i v e and q u a l i t a t i v e d i f f e r e n c e s i n r e s o u r c e s a v a i l a b l e t o s t u d e n t s . R e v i e w s o f p r o d u c t f u n c t i o n s t u d i e s ( B r i d g e , J u d d & Moock, 1979; C e n t r a & P o t t e r , 1980; G l a s m a n & B i n i a m i n o u , 1981) r e v e a l t h a t " r e s o u r c e s " i s an e x t r e m e l y b r o a d c a t e g o r y and i s o f t e n d i v i d e d i n t o t h r e e c o n g l o m e r a t e s : i n s t r u c t i o n a l i n d i c a t o r s , f i n a n c i a l i n d i c a t o r s and s t a f f c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . I n s t r u c t i o n a l I n d i c a t o r s The most common s c h o o l d i s t r i c t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i n c l u d e d i n r e s e a r c h s t u d i e s a r e t h o s e v a r i a b l e s w h i c h m e a s u r e s e r v i c e t o s t u d e n t s . S t u d e n t / T e a c h e r M e a s u r e s . P u p i l / t e a c h e r r a t i o v a r i a b l e s a r e v i e w e d a s an optimum i n d i c a t o r s f o r s e r v i c e t o s t u d e n t s and a r e t h e most f r e q u e n t l y u s e d i n s t r u c t i o n a l i n d i c a t o r s . The more s t u d e n t s a t e a c h e r h a s , t h e l e s s l i k e l y i t i s t h a t t h e t e a c h e r w i l l be a b l e t o meet i n d i v i d u a l s t u d e n t r e q u i r e m e n t s o r n e e d s , p a r t i c u l a r l y as c l a s s s i z e e x c e e d s some optimum l e v e l . I f one assumes t h a t t h e s c h o o l i n g p r o c e s s i s b a s e d on t e a c h e r -s t u d e n t i n t e r a c t i o n , a c h i e v e m e n t s h o u l d be p o s i t i v e l y r e l a t e d t o l o w p u p i l / t e a c h e r r a t i o s w h i c h m a x i m i z e s u c h i n t e r a c t i o n . A l t h o u g h t h e argument f o r a p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p between a c h i e v e m e n t and low p u p i l / t e a c h e r r a t i o seems c o n c e p t u a l l y sound i t does n o t c o n s i d e r t h e v a r i a n c e o f s t u d e n t a b i l i t i e s w i t h i n c l a s s r o o m s . F o r example, i t i s more i n s t r u c t i o n a l l y sound t o have a c l a s s o f f o r t y s t u d e n t s whose a b i l i t y l e v e l i s w i t h i n one s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n t h a n i t i s t o have f i f t e e n s t u d e n t s whose a b i l i t y l e v e l encompasses t h r e e s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s . I f a l l s t u d e n t s were r a n d o m l y a s s i g n e d t o c l a s s r o o m s , t h e use o f p u p i l / t e a c h e r r a t i o s as i n d i c a t o r s o f s e r v i c e would p r o b a b l y be v a l i d . However s t u d e n t s a r e o f t e n g r o u p e d h o m o g e n e o u s l y e i t h e r by c h a n c e o r c h o i c e and t h e r e f o r e p u p i l / t e a c h e r r a t i o i s n o t n e c e s s a r i l y a v a l i d i n d i c a t o r . The u s u a l means o f c o m p u t i n g o f p u p i l / t e a c h e r r a t i o as an i n d i c a t o r o f s e r v i c e t o s t u d e n t s i s t o d i v i d e t h e t o t a l number o f s t u d e n t s by t h e t o t a l number o f t e a c h e r s ( C u r r i e , 1978; K i e s l i n g , 1969; K i e l s i n g , 1970; Raymond, 1 9 7 8 ) . A few r e s e a c h e r s have i n c l u d e d b o t h t e a c h e r s and s p e c i a l i s t t e a c h e r s , a r g u i n g t h a t t h e p r e s e n c e o f s p e c i a l i s t s i n t h e s y s t e m e n h a n c e s s e r v i c e t o s t u d e n t s and t h e r e f o r e s h o u l d i n c r e a s e a c h i e v e m e n t (Brown, 1972; Katzman, 1 9 7 1 ) . O t h e r s have a r g u e d t h a t t h e number o f s t u d e n t s e n r o l l e d i s n o t a v a l i d p r o x y f o r s e r v i c e b e c a u s e s t u d e n t a b s e n c e s r e d u c e t h e t e a c h e r ' s w o r k l o a d c o n s i d e r a b l y . In t h e s e s t u d i e s , s t u d e n t d a i l y a t t e n d a n c e has been d i v i d e d by t h e number o f f u l l t i m e e q u i v a l e n t t e a c h e r s (Benson e t a l . , 1965; B i d w e l l and K a s a r d a , 1975; Cohn, 1965). R e s u l t s o f s t u d i e s on t h e r e l a t i o n s among t h e p u p i l / t e a c h e r i n p u t v a r i a b l e s and t h e c o g n i t i v e o u t p u t v a r i a b l e s have been i n c o n s i s t e n t . Raymond (1968) d i d n o t f i n d s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p s among o u t p u t m e a s u r e s and s t u d e n t / t e a c h e r r a t i o s . K i e s l i n g (1969) c a l c u l a t e d 54 r e g r e s s i o n e q u a t i o n s on a r u r a l s a m p l e and f o u n d no s i g n i f i c a n c e b e t w e e n any o f t h e s c h o o l d i s t r i c t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and s t u d e n t o u t c o m e s . I n h i s u r b a n s a m p l e , 30 o f t h e 54 r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s e s were r e p o r t e d ; i n 12 c a s e s t h e t e a c h e r / s t u d e n t r a t i o was n e g a t i v e l y and s i g n i f i c a n t l y l i n k e d t o c o g n i t i v e o u t c o m e s . I n a n o t h e r s t u d y , K i e s l i n g (1970) c a l c u l a t e d 127 r e g r e s s i o n e g u a t i o n s w h i c h i n c l u d e d p u p i l / t e a c h e r r a t i o as an i n d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e . I n t h r e e o f t h e e q u a t i o n s , p u p i l / t e a c h e r r a t i o was p o s i t i v e l y r e l a t e d t o o u t c o m e ; i n t h r e e o t h e r e q u a t i o n s t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p was n e g a t i v e . T h e s e r e s u l t s a r e n o t s u r p r i s i n g ; w i t h o v e r 100 r e g r e s s i o n e q u a t i o n s , t h e f i n d i n g o f i s o l a t e d s i g n i f i c a n t p r e d i c t o r s c a n be a t t r i b u t e d t o c h a n c e . K a t z m a n (1971) f o u n d no s i g n i f i c a n t a s s o c i a t i o n b e t w e e n p u p i l / t e a c h e r r a t i o s and h i s s i x outcome v a r i a b l e s . I n f a c t , t h e p a t t e r n o f p o s i t i v e and n e g a t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n s i n h i s s t u d i e s was i n c o n s i s t e n t . B rown (1972) s u b s t a n t i a t e d K a t z m a n ' s r e s u l t s ; i n f i v e a n a l y s e s p e r f o r m e d t h e c o e f f i c i e n t b e t w e e n t h e s t u d e n t / t e a c h e r r a t i o and c o m p o s i t e a c h i e v e m e n t s c o r e s had a n e g a t i v e s i g n i n two a n a l y s e s , and was s i g n i f i c a n t (.05) i n n o n e . B e n s o n e t a l . (1965) f o u n d no r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n s t u d e n t / t e a c h e r r a t i o and s c o r e s on r e a d i n g a c h i e v e m e n t t e s t s , and Cohn (1968) f o u n d no s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n b e t w e e n s t u d e n t / t e a c h e r and c o m p o s i t e g a i n s c o r e b e t w e e n t h e t e n t h and t w e l f t h g r a d e . I n C u r r i e ' s (1978) A t l a n t i c R e g i o n s t u d y , p u p i l / t e a c h e r r a t i o was n o t r e l a t e d t o s t u d e n t r e t e n t i o n m e a s u r e s i n Nova S c o t i a , N e w f o u n d l a n d , P r i n c e Edward I s l a n d and t h e t o t a l A t l a n t i c R e g i o n . In f a c t , f o r t h e t o t a l A t l a n t i c R e g i o n t h e c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s were n e g a t i v e f o r t h e two r e t e n t i o n f a c t o r s and p u p i l / t e a c h e r r a t i o s . O n l y i n New B r u n s w i c k was t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p p o s i t i v e and s i g n i f i c a n t (.05). B i d w e l l and K a s a r d a ( 1 9 7 5 ) , f o u n d a s i g n i f i c a n t (.05) a s s o c i a t i o n i n a n e g a t i v e d i r e c t i o n : as s t u d e n t / t e a c h e r r a t i o i n c r e a s e d , t h e R e a d i n g and M a t h e m a t i c s a c h i e v e m e n t s c o r e s d e c r e a s e d . The most common i n d e x u s e d f o r p u p i l / t e a c h e r r a t i o was t h e t o t a l number o f s t u d e n t s d i v i d e d by t h e t o t a l number o f t e a c h e r s . Those s t u d i e s w h i c h u s e d a v e r a g e d a i l y a t t e n d a n c e r a t h e r t h a n t o t a l number o f s t u d e n t s used a weak r a t i o n a l e f o r r e d u c e d w o r k l o a d f o r t e a c h e r s t o s u b s t a n t i a t e t h e use o f d a i l y a t t e n d a n c e . Q u i t e o f t e n t h e e x a c t o p p o s i t e i s t r u e : when a s t u d e n t r e t u r n s t o t h e c l a s s r o o m , he c r e a t e s a d d i t i o n a l w o r k l o a d . A l t h o u g h no s i g n i f i c a n t t r e n d between p u p i 1 / t e a c h e r r a t i o s and s t u d e n t outcomes was f o u n d i n s t u d i e s r e v i e w e d , p u p i l / t e a c h e r r a t i o s r e t a i n t h e i r c o n c e p t u a l m e r i t as i n d i c a t o r s o f s e r v i c e t o s t u d e n t s . T h e r e f o r e , t h i s s t u d y w i l l i n c l u d e two measures o f p u p i l / t e a c h e r r a t i o : p u p i l / t e a c h e r r a t i o a t t h e e l e m e n t a r y l e v e l ( k i n d e r g a r t e n t h r o u g h g r a d e 7 ) ; and p u p i l / t e a c h e r r a t i o a t t h e s e c o n d a r y l e v e l ( g rade 8 t h r o u g h g r a d e 1 2 ) . S t u d e n t / F a c i l i t y M e a s u r e s . R e s e a r c h e r s have o c c a s i o n a l l y t r i e d t o measure t h e q u a l i t y o f i n s t r u c t i o n a l s e r v i c e by i n c l u d i n g v a r i a b l e s t h a t r e l a t e t o t h e p h y s i c a l p l a n t and c l a s s r o o m a r e a i n a s c h o o l d i s t r i c t . The number o f s t u d e n t s p e r c l a s s r o o m a r e a was u s e d by K i e s l i n g (1970) and Katzman (1971) as an i n d i c a t o r o f l e a r n i n g e n v i r o n m e n t . B o t h p o s t u l a t e d t h a t fewer s t u d e n t s p e r c l a s s r o o m a r e a would have a p o s i t i v e e f f e c t on l e a r n i n g o utcomes. K i e s l i n g (1970) i n c l u d e d two o t h e r measures o f p h y s i c a l p l a n t w h i c h he f e l t s h o u l d be p o s i t i v e l y r e l a t e d t o a c h i e v e m e n t : t h e number o f p u p i l s p e r a c a d e m i c c l a s s r o o m ; and p e r l a b o r a t o r y . Katzman (1971) us e d age o f p h y s i c a l p l a n t s i n a s c h o o l d i s t r i c t as a p r o x y f o r a t t i t u d e t o w a r d s e d u c a t i o n . He h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t t h e age o f b u i l d i n g s may n o t have a d i r e c t i n f l u e n c e on e d u c a t i o n a l i m p a c t b u t may be a s u r r o g a t e f o r g e n e r a l s a f e t y and o b s o l e n c e w h i c h i n t u r n r e f l e c t s a t t i t u d e t o w a r d s e d u c a t i o n . I t does n o t seem r e a s o n a b l e t o use t h e age o f a b u i l d i n g as a p r o x y f o r e d u c a t i o n a l a t t i t u d e w h i c h i n t u r n i n f l u e n c e s e d u c a t i o n a l o utcomes. Such a p r o x y i s t o o f a r removed f r o m t h e c a u s a l r e l a t i o n s h i p p o s t u l a t e d , and assumes t h a t no r e n o v a t i o n s have o c c u r r e d w i t h i n a b u i l d i n g and t h a t "newness" i s t h e " r i g h t " o r p r o p e r e n v i r o n m e n t f o r l e a r n i n g . I f t h i s were t r u e , a number o f u n i v e r s i t i e s would be d e s i g n a t e d e d u c a t i o n a l l y unsound b e c a u s e o f t h e i r age. K i e s l i n g (1970) c a l c u l a t e d s i x r e g r e s s i o n e g u a t i o n s , e n t e r i n g p u p i l s p e r c l a s s r o o m as a p r e d i c t o r ; o n l y one s i g n i f i c a n t c o e f f i c i e n t , n e g a t i v e l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h s t u d e n t outcome m e a s u r e s , was f o u n d . The number o f s t u d e n t s p e r a c a d e m i c c l a s s r o o m s and s t u d e n t s p e r l a b o r a t o r y were n o t s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e l a t e d t o t h e c o m p o s i t e s c o r e on t h Iowa T e s t o f B a s i c S k i l l s . Katzman (1971) a l s o f o u n d no r e l a t i o n between t h e s t u d e n t / c l a s s r o o m r a t i o and c o g n i t i v e outcomes, a l t h o u g h he d i d f i n d a n e g a t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e age o f s c h o o l b u i l d i n g s and a c h i e v e m e n t s c o r e s i n M a t h e m a t i c s . The s t u d e n t / f a c i l i t y measures a r e c l e a r l y n o t o p t i m a l i n d i c a t o r s o f s e r v i c e t o s t u d e n t s i n t h e s c h o o l i n g p r o c e s s ; i t i s n o t s u r p r i s i n g t h a t t h e s e m e asures d i d n o t y i e l d c o n s i s t e n t s i g n i f i c a n t f i n d i n g s . S t u d e n t / f a c i l i t y measures w i l l n o t be i n c l u d e d i n t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y . D i s t r i c t S i z e M e a s u r e s . A n o t h e r commonly c o n s i d e r e d s c h o o l d i s t r i c t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c i s d i s t r i c t p o p u l a t i o n s i z e . B i d w e l l and K a s a r d a (1975) h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t d i s t r i c t s i z e would e f f e c t a d i s t r i c t ' s s t r u c t u r e i n t h r e e ways. The p u p i 1 / t e a c h e r r a t i o w ould i n c r e a s e w i t h d i s t r i c t s i z e i n c r e a s e ; a d m i n i s t r a t i v e i n t e n s i t y would d e c r e a s e w i t h an i n c r e a s e i n d i s t r i c t s i z e ; and t e a c h e r s ' q u a l i f i c a t i o n s would be h i g h e r w i t h an i n c r e a s e i n d i s t r i c t s i z e . B o t h Brown (1972) and C u r r i e (1978) d e c l a r e d t h a t s i z e i n f l u e n c e d t h e q u a l i t y o f s e r v i c e . Katzman (1971) i n c l u d e d s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s i z e t o v e r i f y e c o n o m i e s o f s c a l e . S e v e r a l v a r i a b l e s have been u s e d i n t h e s e s t u d i e s t o r e p r e s e n t d i s t r i c t s i z e . B e n s o n e t a l . ( 1 9 6 5 ) , K i e s l i n g (1969) and S e b o l d and Dato (1981) s e l e c t e d a v e r a g e d a i l y a t t e n d a n c e o f s t u d e n t s . B i d w e l l and K a s a r d a (1975) u s e d a v e r a g e d a i l y a t t e n d a n c e b u t employed a l o g a r i t h m ( l o g 1 0 ) t r a n s f o r m a t i o n t o a d j u s t t h e skewed d i s t r i b u t i o n c r e a t e d by a few l a r g e s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s . Katzman (1971) s e l e c t e d t h e a c t u a l number o f s t u d e n t s p e r s c h o o l d i s t r i c t as t h e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e v a r i a b l e f o r s i z e . The w e a k e s t r e p r e s e n t a t i v e v a r i a b l e was u s e d by Brown (1972) who i n t e r p r e t e d q u e s t i o n n a i r e r e t u r n f r o m t h e g r a d e f o u r p o p u l a t i o n as a p r o x y f o r t o t a l d i s t r i c t e n r o l m e n t . The i n c l u s i o n o f a v a r i a b l e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s i z e has m e r i t . A n a l y s i s o f c o s t f a c t o r s on a p e r s t u d e n t b a s i s have e s t a b l i s h e d t h a t a c u r v i l i n e a r r e l a t i o n s h i p does e x i s t between d i s t r i c t s i z e and c o s t p e r s t u d e n t (Garms, G u t h r i e and P i e r c e , 1978): medium s i z e d d i s t r i c t s have low per s t u d e n t c o s t s . I t seems r e a s o n a b l e t o h y p o t h e s i z e t h a t t h e r e s o u r c e s s t u d e n t s r e c e i v e as w e l l as t h e s i z e o f t h e community t h e y l i v e i n has some r e l a t i o n s h i p t o p o p u l a t i o n c o m p o s i t i o n and s t u d e n t a c h i e v e m e n t . F o u r o f t h e s e v e n s t u d i e s t h a t c o n s i d e r e d d i s t r i c t s i z e as an i n p u t v a r i a b l e f o u n d no s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h a c h i e v e m e n t s c o r e s and c o g n i t i v e measures ( B i d w e l l and K a s a r d a , 1975; Brown, 1972; Katzman, 1971; K i e s l i n g , 1969). In t h r e e o t h e r s t u d i e s , (Benson e t a l . , 1965; C u r r i e , 1978; S e b o l d and D a t o, 1981), t h e r e s u l t s were m i x e d . Benson e t a l . (1965) d i v i d e d t h e sample i n t o t h r e e c a t e g o r i e s a c c o r d i n g t o s i z e o f d i s t r i c t . In s m a l l d i s t r i c t s , t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p o f s i z e t o r e a d i n g a c h i e v e m e n t was s i g n i f i c a n t and n e g a t i v e . The r e s u l t s f o r m i d d l e s i z e d i s t r i c t s were s i g n i f i c a n t and p o s i t i v e . The c o e f f i c i e n t on d i s t r i c t s i z e p r o v i d e d by a v e r a g e d a i l y a t t e n d a n c e was p o s i t i v e and s i g n i f i c a n t (.10) i n s i x o f t h e t e n e q u a t i o n s u s e d by S e b o l d and Dato (1981). T h i s l e d them t o s p e c u l a t e t h a t : .. . A p p a r e n t l y , t h e r e a r e some ec o n o m i e s t o s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s i z e o v e r t h e r a n g e o f v a l u e s o b s e r v e d i n t h e d a t a . T h e s e e c o n o m i e s seem t o be more s u b s t a n t i a l a t t h e t w e l f t h g r a d e l e v e l , a l t h o u g h no p a r t i c u l a r l y s t r o n g i n f e r e n c e s can be drawn f r o m t h e r e s u l t s " (p. 97). The number o f s t u d e n t s i n a d i s t r i c t p r o v e d t o be one o f t h e most c o n s i s t e n t l y s i g n i f i c a n t f i n d i n g s i n C u r r i e 1 s (1976) s t u d y . I t was p o s i t i v e and s i g n i f i c a n t l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h r e t e n t i o n between g r a d e s e i g h t and t w e l v e i n Newfoundland and P r i n c e Edward I s l a n d s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s and p o s i t i v e l y and s i g n i f i c a n t l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h r e t e n t i o n b e t w e e n g r a d e s e i g h t and e l e v e n i n t h e t o t a l A t l a n t i c R e g i o n . Two r e s e a r c h e r s h a v e u s e d d i f f e r e n t r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s o f s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s i z e and p o p u l a t i o n g r o w t h . B e n s o n e t a l . (1965) i n c l u d e d a m e a s u r e on g e o g r a p h i c a r e a o f s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s . I f p o p u l a t i o n i s c o n s t a n t , t h e c o s t o f o p e r a t i n g a s m a l l s c h o o l d i s t r i c t i s l e s s t h a n t h e c o s t o f o p e r a t i n g a d i s t r i c t e n c o m p a s s i n g a l a r g e g e o g r a p h i c a r e a . A l s o t h e l e v e l o f s e r v i c e t o s t u d e n t s may be g r e a t e r s i n c e one c o u l d c a p i t a l i z e on e c o n o m i e s o f s c a l e i n d i s t r i c t s w i t h c o n c e n t r a t e d p o p u l a t i o n . K i e s l i n g (1969) a t t e m p t e d t o m e a s u r e t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n t h e g r o w t h o f s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s b e t w e e n 1950 - 1958 and t h e r e s o u r c e s a v a i l a b l e t o s t u d e n t s . W h i l e t h e i n t e n t o f t h e s e s t u d i e s had m e r i t , t h e v a r i a b l e s c h o s e n w ere i n a d e g u a t e . F o r e x a m p l e , a d i s t r i c t ' s g e o g r a p h i c a r e a d o e s n o t n e c e s s a r i l y c o r r e s p o n d t o an a c c u r a t e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f s e r v i c e w i t h i n t h e a r e a . I n some s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s , t h e s c h o o l s and t h e i r r e s o u r c e s , a r e c l u s t e r e d w i t h i n t h e g e o g r a p h i c a r e a o f a d i s t r i c t . I n o t h e r d i s t r i c t s o f t h e same g e o g r a p h i c a r e a , t h e s c h o o l s may be s p r e a d t h r o u g h o u t t h e r e g i o n . A r e a i s n o t a good p r o x y f o r r e s o u r c e a v a i l a b l i l i t y and s e r v i c e w i t h o u t c o n s i d e r i n g t h e l o c a t i o n o f s c h o o l s w i t h i n t h e d i s t r i c t . R i e s l i n g ' s (1969) g r o w t h i n d e x a l s o p r e s e n t s p r o b l e m s . I s i t i n t e n d e d t o m e a s u r e t h e demand f o r l i m i t e d r e s o u r c e s o r t h e a b i l i t y o f a d i s t r i c t t o accommodate t h e i n c r e a s e d s t u d e n t p o p u l a t i o n w i t h e d u c a t i o n a l r e s o u r c e s ? N e i t h e r B e n s o n e t a l . (1965) n o r K i e s l i n g (1969) d i s c o v e r e d a r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n t h e s e v a r i a b l e s and s t u d e n t o u t c o m e s . D i s t r i c t s i z e m e a s u r e s as d e f i n e d b y p o p u l a t i o n seem t o h a v e some m e r i t i n r e p r e s e n t i n g s e r v i c e t o s t u d e n t s . A number o f s t u d i e s h a v e shown a s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h o u t c o m e s ( B e n s o n e t a l . , 1965; C u r r i e , 1978; S e b o l d and D a t o , 1 9 8 1 ) . T h e r e f o r e s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s i z e a s m e a s u r e d b y t h e t o t a l s t u d e n t e n r o l m e n t w i l l be i n c l u d e d i n t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y . S i n c e s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s i z e i s n o t a f a c t o r w h i c h s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s c a n i n f l u e n c e , t h e v a r i a b l e w i l l be c l a s s i f i e d as an i n p u t o r e x o g e n o u s v a r i a b l e i n t h e t h e o r e t i c a l m o d e l a l o n g w i t h e t h n i c i t y . Q u a n t i t y o f S e r v i c e M e a s u r e s . T h i s c a t e g o r y o f i n s t r u c t i o n a l r e s o u r c e s i n c l u d e s v a r i a b l e s w h i c h a t t e m p t t o m e a s u r e q u a n t i t y o f s e r v i c e . T h e s e h a v e been u s e d b y a l i m i t e d number o f r e s e a r c h e r s b e c a u s e t h e c a s u a l l i n k w i t h o u t c o m e s i s e x t r e m e l y t e n u o u s . T e a c h e r w o r k l o a d i s one s u c h f a c t o r . The a s s u m p t i o n h a s b e e n made t h a t i f t h e t e a c h e r i s o v e r w o r k e d ,he h a s l i m i t e d e n e r g y and t i m e t o c o n c e n t r a t e on s t u d e n t s and s u b j e c t a r e a s h e n c e s t u d e n t a c h i e v e m e n t i s r e d u c e d . Cohn (1968) a t t e m p t e d t o s u b s t a n t i a t e t h i s a s s u m p t i o n by i n c l u d i n g t h e number o f s e m e s t e r h o u r s p e r t e a c h i n g a s s i g n m e n t . Raymond (1968) and Cohn (1968) u s e d t h e number o f d i f f e r e n t s u b j e c t a s s i g n m e n t s p e r t e a c h e r as a m e a s u r e o f t e a c h e r w o r k l o a d . The number o f s e m e s t e r h o u r s p e r t e a c h i n g a s s i g n m e n t was n e g a t i v e l y r e l a t e d t o s t u d e n t o u t c o m e s , b u t n o t a t a s i g n i f i c a n t l e v e l ( C o h n , 1 9 6 8 ) . The f i n d i n g t h a t p r o v i d i n g more h o u r s o f i n s t r u c t i o n i n a s u b j e c t t e n d e d t o d e c r e a s e a c h i e v e m e n t d i d n o t seem l o g i c a l t o Cohn ( 1 9 6 8 ) . One p o s s i b l e e x p l a n a t i o n i s t h a t t h e h e a v i e r w o r k l o a d s a r e a s s i g n e d t o t h e b e g i n n i n g o r i n e x p e r i e n c e d t e a c h e r . I f e x p e r i e n c e i s p o s i t i v e l y r e l a t e d t o o u t c o m e s , t h e s t u d e n t s may n o t be r e c e i v i n g b e t t e r i n s t r u c t i o n a l s e r v i c e t h r o u g h i n c r e a s e d h o u r s o f c o n t a c t w i t h i n e x p e r i e n c e d t e a c h e r s . W o r k l o a d as m e a s u r e d by t h e number o f t e a c h i n g a s s i g n m e n t s had m i x e d r e s u l t s . A l t h o u g h Raymond (1968) f o u n d a n e g a t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t i n s e v e n o f t h e e i g h t r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s e s , none was s i g n i f i c a n t . The number o f c r e d i t u n i t s o f f e r e d t o s t u d e n t s and t h e number o f l i b r a r y b o o k s i n e x c e s s o f t h e s t a n d a r d w e re s t u d i e d by Cohn (1968) and Raymond ( 1 9 6 8 ) , r e s p e c t i v e l y . They r e a s o n e d t h a t t h e q u a n t i t y o f c o u r s e s and r e s o u r c e s was p o s i t i v e l y r e l a t e d t o s t u d e n t a c h i e v e m e n t . N e i t h e r o f t h e s e two m e a s u r e s was s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t . I n f a c t , Raymond (1968) r e p o r t e d a n e g a t i v e t r e n d i n f i v e o f t h e e i g h t r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s e s w here t h e number o f l i b r a r y b o o k s was t h e i n d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e , a nd a c h i e v e m e n t t e s t s c o r e s and f r e s h m a n g r a d e p o i n t a v e r a g e s w e r e d e p e n d e n t m e a s u r e s . F i n a l l y , an " a d m i n i s t r a t i v e i n t e n s i t y " m e a s u r e was c o n s i d e r e d i n f o u r s t u d i e s . H y p o t h e t i c a l l y , t h e more s u p p o r t s e r v i c e s a v a i l a b l e t o t e a c h e r s , t h e more l i k e l y s t u d e n t g a i n s i n c o g n i t i v e d e v e l o p m e n t w o u l d o c c u r . B e n s o n e t a l . (1965) and B i d w e l l and K a s a r d a (1975) i n c l u d e d a p r o f e s s i o n a l s u p p o r t s t a f f / t e a c h e r r a t i o t o t e s t i m p o r t a n c e o f s p e c i a l i s t s u p p o r t s t a f f i n i m p r o v i n g s t u d e n t a c h i e v e m e n t . B e n s o n and h i s c o l l e a g u e s a s w e l l a s B i d w e l l and K a s a r d a o b t a i n e d n e g a t i v e and p o s i t i v e s i g n i f i c a n c e c o e f f i c i e n t s on t h i s v a r i a b l e , r e s p e c t i v e l y . C a r e f u l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n must be u s e d b e c a u s e t h e Benson s t u d y u s e d a t e a c h e r / a d m i n i s t r a t o r r a t i o w h i l e B i d w e l l and K a s a r d a employed an a d m i n i s t r a t o r / t e a c h e r r a t i o . B e n s on and h i s c o l l e a g u e s d i v i d e d t h e sample s i z e i n t o s m a l l , m i d d l e and l a r g e d i s t r i c t s i z e . U s i n g t h e t e a c h e r / a d m i n i s t r a t o r r a t i o , t h e y f o u n d t h a t , i n s m a l l and m i d d l e s i z e d i s t r i c t s , h i g h a c h i e v e m e n t was a s s o c i a t e d w i t h low a d m i n i s t r a t i o n i n t e n s i t y , and low a c h i e v e m e n t was a s s o c i a t e d w i t h h i g h a d m i n i s t r a t i o n i n t e n s i t y . In t h e l a r g e r d i s t r i c t s , h i g h a c h i e v e m e n t was a s s o c i a t e d w i t h h i g h a d m i n i s t r a t i o n i n t e n s i t y and low a c h i e v e m e n t w i t h low a d m i n i s t r a t i o n i n t e n s i t y . In t h e B i d w e l l and K a s a r d a s t u d y , a n e g a t i v e b u t s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n a p p e a r e d between a d m i n i s t r a t o r - t e a c h e r r a t i o and a c h i e v e m e n t v a r i a b l e s : low a c h i e v e m e n t was a s s o c i a t e d w i t h h i g h a d m i n i s t r a t i o n i n t e n s i t y and h i g h a c h i e v e m e n t w i t h low a d m i n i s t r a t i o n i n t e n s i t y . In t h i s s t u d y , t h e skewed d i s t r i b u t i o n c a u s e d by a few v e r y l a r g e s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s was c o r r e c t e d by a l o g a r i t h m ( l o g - ^ ) t r a n s f o r m a t i o n . T h i s t r a n s f o r m a t i o n may have w e i g h t e d t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n t oward " l a r g e n e s s " , s u b s t a n t i a t i n g t h e r e s u l t s f o u n d by Benson e t a l . f o r l a r g e s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s . K i e s l i n g (1969; 1970) d e v e l o p e d an a d m i n i s t r a t o r / p u p i l r a t i o t o t e s t t h i s h y p o t h e s i s . The r a t i o was n o t s i g n i f i c a n t i n e i t h e r o f h i s s t u d i e s . Q u a n t i t y o f s e r v i c e i n d i c a t o r s , s u c h as t e a c h e r w o r k l o a d , number o f l i b r a r y books and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e i n t e n s i t y m e a s u r e s , a r e t o o f a r removed f r o m t h e c a u s a l model o f s c h o o l i n g t o have a d i r e c t e f f e c t on s t u d e n t outcomes: t o o many i n t e r v e n i n g and i n d i r e c t f a c t o r s o c c u r i n t h e s c h o o l i n g p r o c e s s . Hence g i v e n t h e i n c o n c l u s i v e and i n c o n s i s t e n t r e s u l t s o f t h e s t u d i e s r e v i e w e d , q u a l i t y o f s e r v i c e i n d i c a t o r s w i l l n o t be i n c l u d e d i n t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y . Summary. T h i s r e v i e w o f l i t e r a t u r e has been d e v o t e d t o s p e c i f i c i n s t r u c t i o n a l i n d i c a t o r s . One s t u d y , ( J o n e s e t a l . , 1978) t o o k an a l t e r n a t i v e a p p r o a c h t o i n c l u d i n g s p e c i f i c m easures o f i n s t r u c t i o n a l r e s o u r c e s . R a t h e r t h a n i n c l u d i n g numerous v a r i a b l e s w h i c h r e f l e c t e d p a r t i c u l a r i n p u t s , J o n e s and h i s c o l l e a g u e s f a c t o r a n a l y z e d t w e l v e i n p u t v a r i a b l e s and o b t a i n e d t h r e e f a c t o r s w h i c h t h e y l a b e l l e d g e n e r a l s c h o o l r e s o u r c e s , s p e c i a l s c h o o l r e s o u r c e s and c l a s s s i z e . Of t h e s e t h r e e f a c t o r s , o n l y c l a s s s i z e was p o s i t i v e l y and s i g n i f i c a n t l y (.05) r e l a t e d t o a v e r a g e s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s c o r e s i n r e a d i n g and m a t h e m a t i c s . F a c t o r i n g t h e i n d i c a t o r s i n o r d e r t o r e d u c e t h e number o f v a r i a b l e s by a s c e r t a i n i n g t h e e x i s t a n c e o f an u n d e r l y i n g c o n s t r u c t has m e t h o d o l o g i c a l m e r i t s i n c e t h e c o n c e p t s u s u a l l y i n v o l v e d i n e d u c a t i o n a r e o f t e n n o t d i s c r e t e u n i t s nor w e l l d e f i n e d . The l i t e r a t u r e r e v i e w on i n s t r u c t i o n a l i n d i c a t o r s i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h r e e v a r i a b l e s have m e r i t f o r f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h : s t u d e n t / t e a c h e r r a t i o s a t t h e e l e m e n t a r y l e v e l and s e c o n d a r y l e v e l , and d i s t r i c t s i z e d e f i n e d as t o t a l s t u d e n t e n r o l m e n t . T h e s e t h r e e v a r i a b l e s w i l l be i n c l u d e d i n t h i s s t u d y . F i n a n c i a l I n d i c a t o r s O p e r a t i n g E x p e n d i t u r e s . R e s e a r c h e r s i n t e r e s t e d i n o p e r a t i n g e x p e n d i t u r e s have f r e q u e n t l y examined i n d i c e s o f i n s t r u c t i o n a l e x p e n d i t u r e s , s e e k i n g t o d e t e r m i n e t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n i n s t r u c t i o n a l e x p e n d i t u r e and s t u d e n t a c h i e v e m e n t l e v e l s . C o s t p e r a v e r a g e d a i l y a t t e n d a n c e o f s t u d e n t s ( B e n s o n e t a l . f 1965; C o nn, 1968; C u r r i e , 1978; K a t z m a n , 1971; S e b o l d and D a t o , 1981) h a s b e e n most commonly u s e d a s a p r o x y f o r o p e r a t i n g e x p e n d i t u r e . A m o d i f i c a t i o n o f t h i s v a r i a b l e was u s e d by Goodman (1959) and by Brown (1972) i n c o m p u t i n g e x p e n d i t u r e as a r a t i o p e r s t u d e n t . Raymond (1968) e x c l u d e d t e a c h e r s ' s a l a r i e s i n c o m p u t i n g e x p e n d i t u r e s and t h e n a v e r a g e d t h e i n s t r u c t i o n a l e x p e n d i t u r e s o v e r f o u r y e a r s (1957 -1961) . The same a v e r a g i n g p r o c e d u r e was f o l l o w e d on t h e h i s o utcome v a r i a b l e s — t h e A m e r i c a n C o l l e g e T e s t i n g s c o r e s and F r e s h m a n G r a d e P o i n t A v e r a g e — t o e l i m i n a t e any e x t r a o r d i n a r y i n c r e a s e o r d e c r e a s e i n a p a r t i c u l a r y e a r . Cohn ( 1 9 6 8 ) , Raymond ( 1 9 6 8 ) , and Brown (1972) f o u n d no s i g n i f i c a n t a s s o c i a t i o n b e t w e e n e x p e n d i t u r e s and s t u d e n t o u t c o m e s and e v e n t h e d i r e c t i o n o f t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p was i n c o n s i s t e n t . K atzman ( 1 9 7 1 ) , t h e o n l y r e s e a r c h e r t o u s e e x p e n d i t u r e p e r a v e r a g e d a i l y s t u d e n t e n r o l m e n t , f o u n d no s i g n i f i c a n t r e s u l t s , a l t h o u g h t h e a s s o c i a t i o n s he o b s e r v e d were c o n s i s t e n t l y p o s i t i v e f o r r e a d i n g , a v e r a g e d a i l y a t t e n d a n c e , r e t e n t i o n , and a p p l i c a t i o n f o r a d m i s s i o n t o L a t i n H i g h S c h o o l s . F o u r s t u d i e s o b t a i n e d s i g n i f i c a n t p o s i t i v e a s s o c i a t i o n s b e t w e e n e x p e n d i t u r e s and s t u d e n t o u t c o m e s : Goodman ( 1 9 5 9 ) ; B e n s o n e t a l . (1965) i n s m a l l s i z e d i s t r i c t s , S e b o l d and D a t o (1981) ; and C u r r i e (1978) , i n t h e Nova S c o t i a s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s on r e t e n t i o n b e t w e e n g r a d e 8 and 11 and t h e t o t a l A t l a n t i c R e g i o n f o r two r e t e n t i o n m e a s u r e s . B e n s o n e t a l . ( 1 9 6 5 ) , K i e s l i n g (1969) and K i e s l i n g (1970) c o n s i d e r e d f i v e o t h e r t y p e s o f e x p e n d i t u r e s . B e n s o n and h i s c o l l e a g u e s d e v e l o p e d two r a t i o s : i n s t r u c t i o n a l e x p e n d i t u r e d i v i d e d by t o t a l e x p e n d i t u r e ; and t o t a l s c h o o l d i s t r i c t o p e r a t i n g b u d g e t d i v i d e d b y a v e r a g e d a i l y a t t e n d a n c e . K i e s l i n g (1969; 1970) i n c o r p o r a t e d t h r e e e x p e n d i t u r e v a r i a b l e s i n t o h i s a n a l y s i s w h i c h r e l a t e d d i r e c t l y t o s e r v i c e s a t t h e d i s t r i c t l e v e l : e x p e n d i t u r e on a l l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f a s c h o o l d i s t r i c t p e r s t u d e n t ; e x p e n d i t u r e on c e n t r a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n p e r s t u d e n t ; and e x p e n d i t u r e p e r s t u d e n t on b o o k s and s u p p l i e s . E x p e n d i t u r e s f o r b o o k s and s u p p l i e s p e r s t u d e n t r e l a t e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y b u t n e g a t i v e l y t o t h e d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s i n t e n c a s e s o u t o f t h e t h i r t y r e p o r t e d r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s e s . The a d m i n i s t r a t i v e e x p e n d i t u r e p e r p u p i l was p o s i t i v e l y and s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e l a t e d t h i r t y - s i x t i m e s i n one h u n d r e d and t w e n t y - s e v e n r e g r e s s i o n s a n a l y s e s . The o t h e r t h r e e i n p u t v a r i a b l e s y i e l d e d no s i g n i f i c a n t a s s o c i a t i o n s . The o p e r a t i n g e x p e n d i t u r e i n d i c a t o r s u s e d b y t h e s e r e s e a r c h e r s a p p e a r t o be t o o c o m p r e h e n s i v e . The i n d i c a t o r s w e r e b a s e d on g r o s s e x p e n d i t u r e s o r t o t a l o p e r a t i n g b u d g e t s f o r s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s . S u c h e x p e n d i t u r e s i n c l u d e m a i n t e n a n c e , b u s i n g and j a n i t o r i a l c o s t s ; t h u s t h e c a u s a l l i n k b e t w e e n t h e s e t y p e s o f d i s t r i c t r e s o u r c e s and s t u d e n t o u t c o m e s i s n e b u l o u s . Any e f f e c t p r o d u c e d w o u l d be i n d i r e c t o r d i l u t e d by t h e i n f l u e n c e o f o t h e r f a c t o r s . S i n c e i t i s a common b e l i e f i n e d u c a t i o n t h a t more money f o r r e s o u r c e s w i l l p u r c h a s e b e t t e r q u a l i t y s e r v i c e s and t h e r e f o r e i n c r e a s e s t u d e n t o u t c o m e s , one s p e c i f i c e x p e n d i t u r e v a r i a b l e w i l l be i n c l u d e d i n t h i s s t u d y : t h e p e r s t u d e n t d o l l a r amount s p e n t on i n s t r u c t i o n a l s u p p l i e s i n a s c h o o l d i s t r i c t . I t i s one e x p e n d i t u r e w h i c h d i r e c t l y e f f e c t s t h e e d u c a t i o n a l r e s o u r c e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h l e a r n i n g . O p e r a t i n g Revenue. A number o f s t u d i e s c o n s i d e r e d o p e r a t i n g r e v e n u e from t h r e e p o s s i b l e s o u r c e s - l o c a l t a x a t i o n , p r o v i n c i a l / s t a t e a i d , and f e d e r a l a i d . T a x a t i o n r a t e and a s s e s s e d v a l u e o f c o m m e r c i a l and r e s i d e n t i a l p r o p e r t y a r e i n d i c a t o r s o f a s c h o o l d i s t r i c t ' s w e a l t h . T h e s e measures a r e i n c l u d e d f o r p r i m a r i l y two r e a s o n s : f i r s t l y , a i d w h i c h i s n o t r a i s e d l o c a l l y i s an i n d i c a t i o n o f t h e l o c a l d i s t r i c t ' s i n a b i l i t y t o pay f o r a m i n i m a l s t a n d a r d o f e d u c a t i o n ; and s e c o n d l y , r i c h d i s t r i c t s a r e a b l e t o buy more and b e t t e r e d u c a t i o n a l s e r v i c e s . B o t h i m p l y t h a t a d d i t i o n a l d o l l a r s w i l l r a i s e t h e a c a d e m i c s t a n d i n g o f s t u d e n t s . T h r e e i n d i c a t o r s c h o s e n t o r e p r e s e n t t h e r i c h n e s s o f a s c h o o l d i s t r i c t ' s a b i l i t y t o pay f o r e d u c a t i o n a l s e r v i c e s have been t h e d i s t r i c t t a x r a t e and t o t a l d i s t r i c t t a x e s r a i s e d as a r a t i o t o t o t a l income (Benson e t a l . , 1965) and l o c a l t a x e s r a i s e d p e r s t u d e n t (Brown, 1 9 7 2 ) . P r o v i n c i a l / s t a t e a s s i s t a n c e t o s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s was r e p r e s e n t e d i n two s t u d i e s by s t a t e a i d p e r p u p i l (Brown, 1972) and t h e r a t i o o f s t a t e a i d t o t o t a l r e v e n u e s (Benson e t a l . , 1 9 6 5 ) . F e d e r a l a i d was c o n s i d e r e d i n r e l a t i o n s h i p t o s t u d e n t outcomes by B e nson e t a l . (1965) and Brown ( 1 9 7 2 ) . Two s t u d i e s u s e d a t o t a l r e v e n u e f i g u r e f r o m a l l s o u r c e s , B i d w e l l and K a s a r d a , 1975; Benson e t a l . , 1965. In t h e l a t t e r s t u d y , a r a t i o was o b t a i n e d by d i v i d i n g t h e r e v e n u e by t h e a v e r a g e d a i l y a t t e n d a n c e . Two b r o a d i n d i c a t o r s u s e d were t h e a s s e s s e d p r o p e r t y v a l u e i n a d i s t r i c t d i v i d e d by a v e r a g e d a i l y a t t e n d a n c e ( B e n s o n e t a l . , 1 9 6 5 ) and s t a t e e q u a l i z e d v a l u a t i o n o f p r o p e r t y p e r s t u d e n t ( B r o w n , 1 9 7 2 ) . R e s e a r c h on t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n o p e r a t i n g r e v e n u e and s t u d e n t o u t c o m e s has b e e n i n c o n c l u s i v e . Out o f t h e e l e v e n r e v e n u e i n d i c a t o r s c o n s i d e r e d o n l y t h r e e w e re s i g i f i c a n t l y r e l a t e d t o o u t c o m e s ( B i d w e l l and K a s a r d a , 1 9 7 5 ; B r o w n , 1 9 7 2 ) . The amount o f s t a t e a i d p e r s t u d e n t and t h e s t a t e e q u a l v a l u a t i o n o r p r o p e r t y p e r s t u d e n t w e re b o t h s i g n i f i c a n t i n u r b a n and s t a t e s a m p l e s b u t w e re n e g a t i v e ( B r o w n , 1 9 7 2 ) . I n o t h e r w o r d s , t h e more s t a t e a i d o r t h e g r e a t e r v a l u a t i o n o f p r o p e r t y p e r s t u d e n t p e r s c h o o l d i s t r i c t , t h e l o w e r t h e a c h i e v e m e n t l e v e l o f t h e s t u d e n t s . T h e s e r e s u l t s l e d Brown ( 1 9 7 2 ) t o c o n c l u d e : . . . t h i s i s f u r t h e r e v i d e n c e t h a t a c h i e v e m e n t i s n o t a v a l u e d o u t p u t o f s c h o o l (p. 2 1 7 ) and ...We must l o o k b e y o n d t h e T h r e e R's f o r what makes a good s c h o o l g o o d , o r what m i g h t make a p o o r one b e t t e r . I m p o r t a n t c o n t r i b u t i o n s r e m a i n t o be made i n i d e n t i f y i n g and m e a s u r i n g t h e o u t p u t s o f s c h o o l s o t h e r t h a n c o g n i t i v e a c h i e v e m e n t (p. 2 1 9 ) I n t h e B i d w e l l and K a s a r d a ( 1 9 7 5 ) s t u d y , f i s c a l r e s o u r c e s were f o u n d t o h a v e s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t s on r e a d i n g and m a t h e m a t i c s a c h i e v e m e n t , c o n t r a r y t o t h e f i n d i n g s i n o t h e r s t u d i e s . B i d w e l l and K a s a r d a c o n c l u d e d t h a t t h e o t h e r s t u d i e s f a i l e d . . . t o e x a m i n e d e p e n d e n c i e s among e n v i r o n m e n t a l and o r g a n i z a t i o n a l v a r i a b l e s o f s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s and t h e c o n s e q u e n c e s f o r s t u d e n t a c h i e v e m e n t o f t h e d e p e n d e n c i e s (p. 6 9 ) . a n d , t h u s , o b t a i n e d i n s i g n i f i c a n t r e s u l t s s i n c e t h e e f f e c t s a r e i n d i r e c t . The l i m i t e d s u c c e s s o f o p e r a t i n g r e v e n u e as a p r e d i c t o r i s most l i k e l y due t o t h e f a c t t h a t r e v e n u e i s n o t synonymous w i t h e x p e n d i t u r e . A number o f d e c i s i o n s a r e made by v a r i o u s a u t h o r i t i e s a f f i l i a t e d w i t h t h e e d u c a t i o n a l s y s t e m w h i c h d i r e c t l y i n f l u e n c e how r e v e n u e i s t o be e x p e n d e d on e d u c a t i o n a l r e s o u r c e s . T h e s e d e c i s i o n s i n f l u e n c e t h e q u a l i t y and q u a n t i t y o f e d u c a t i o n a l r e s o u r c e s w h i c h d i r e c t l y and i n d i r e c t l y i n f l u e n c e t h e l e a r n i n g e n v i r o n m e n t o f s t u d e n t s . No o p e r a t i n g r e v e n u e i n d i c a t o r w i l l be i n c l u d e d i n t h i s s t u d y b e c a u s e o f t e n u o u s d i r e c t e f f e c t s w h i c h may e x i s t w i t h s e r v i c e t o s t u d e n t s . C a p t i a l / I n d e b t e d n e s s . C a p i t a l v a l u e and i n d e b t e d n e s s o f s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s h a v e been c o n s i d e r e d by r e s e a r c h e r s i n t e r e s t e d i n t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p o f t h e v a l u e o f b u i l d i n g s , f u r n i t u r e and e g u i p m e n t t o s t u d e n t o u t c o m e s and who h a v e h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t g r e a t e r v a l u e o f c a p i t a l i t e m s i n d i s t r i c t s i n d i c a t e d a g r e a t e r commitment t o e d u c a t i o n . T h u s , a g r e a t e r e x p e n d i t u r e on b u i l d i n g s and e q u i p m e n t w o u l d r a i s e t h e l e v e l o f s t u d e n t p r o d u c t i v i t y as m e a s u r e d by h i g h e r s c o r e s on a c h i e v e m e n t t e s t s . Cohn ( 1 9 6 8 ) , K i e s l i n g (1969) and K i e s l i n g (1970) i n c l u d e d t h e v a l u e o f a s c h o o l d i s t r i c t ' s b u i l d i n g s a s a r a t i o o f t h e s t u d e n t s e n r o l l e d . B u i l d i n g v a l u e d i v i d e d by a v e r a g e d a i l y a t t e n d a n c e o f s t u d e n t s was u s e d by Cohn ( 1 9 6 8 ) . O t h e r r e s e a r c h e r s who u s e d a m o d i f i c a t i o n o f t h e c a p i t a l v a l u e v a r i a b l e were K i e s l i n g (1969) and Cohn ( 1 9 6 8 ) . I n h i s 1969 s t u d y , K i e s l i n g i n c l u d e d t h e v a l u e o f a s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s b u i l d i n g s a s a r a t i o o f t h e s t u d e n t p o p u l a t i o n ; Cohn e m p l o y e d b u i l d i n g v a l u e d i v i d e d by a v e r a g e d a i l y a t t e n d a n c e o f s t u d e n t s . K i e s l i n g (1969) i n c l u d e d two o t h e r c a p i t a l v a l u e v a r i a b l e s : a b u i l d i n g v a l u e i n d e x b a s e d on a p e r c l a s s r o o m u n i t ; and an i n d e x b a s e d on t h e v a l u e o f f u r n i t u r e and e q u i p m e n t p e r s t u d e n t . O n l y one s t u d y p r o d u c e d s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t r e s u l t s . I n two r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s e s , K i e s l i n g (1970) f o u n d a n e g a t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n t h e v a l u e o f d i s t r i c t p r o p e r t y on a p e r s t u d e n t b a s i s and s t u d e n t o u t c o m e s . T h i s r e s u l t was o b t a i n e d a f t e r t h i r t e e n a n a l y s e s were c o m p l e t e d u s i n g c a p i t a l v a l u e a s an i n d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e . G i v e n t h e number o f a n a l y s e s done s u c h a r e s u l t may be due t o c h a n c e , and t h e r e f o r e s h o u l d be v i e w e d w i t h c a u t i o n . A n o t h e r i n d i c a t o r o f a s c h o o l d i s t r i c t ' s w e a l t h i s bonded i n d e b t e d n e s s . Two s t u d i e s , Cohn (1968) and K i e s l i n g (1969) a s s e s s e d t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h i s v a r i a b l e i n d e t e r m i n i n g s t u d e n t ' s a c h i e v e m e n t ; n e i t h e r s t u d y o b t a i n e d a s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p . C a p i t a l / i n d e b t e d n e s s i n d i c a t o r s a p p e a r t o be t o o removed f r o m e d u c a t i o n a l r e s o u r c e s w h i c h h a v e an i m p a c t on t h e e d u c a t i o n a l p r o c e s s o f s t u d e n t s . T h e r e f o r e , t h e s e w i l l n o t be i n c l u d e d i n t h i s s t u d y . Summary. The m a j o r i t y o f f i n a n c i a l i n d i c a t o r s h a v e n o t d e m o n s t r a t e d a r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h s t u d e n t o u t c o m e s . Money d o e s p u r c h a s e r e s o u r c e s f o r e d u c a t i o n , i t seems c o n c e p t u a l l y s o u n d t o p o s t u l a t e t h a t t h e amount o f money a v a i l a b l e — h e n c e r e s o u r c e a v a i l a b i l i t y — s h o u l d be r e l a t e d t o s t u d e n t o u t c o m e s . T h i s s t u d y w i l l , t h e r e f o r e , i n c l u d e one f i n a n c i a l i n d i c a t o r : e x p e n d i t u r e on i n s t r u c t i o n a l s u p p l i e s . T h i s v a r i a b l e d i r e c t l y a f f e c t s t h e m a t e r i a l e d u c a t i o n a l r e s o u r c e s a v a i l a b l e t o s t u d e n t s . S t a f f C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s I n d i c a t o r s A number o f s t a f f q u a l i t y i n d i c a t o r s h a v e been u s e d t o e x a m i n e t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n t h i s c o n s t r u c t and s t u d e n t a c h i e v e m e n t . T h e s e i n d i c a t o r s o f s t a f f q u a l i t y c a n be d i v i d e d i n t o t h r e e c a t e g o r i e s : s a l a r y ; e x p e r i e n c e ; and f o r m a l q u a l i f i c a t i o n s . S a l a r y . The a s s u m p t i o n a s s o c i a t e d w i t h e x a m i n i n g t h e s a l a r y l e v e l s o f i n s t r u c t i o n a l s t a f f h o l d s t h a t g r e a t e r amounts o f m o n e t a r y r e i m b u r s e m e n t f o r s e r v i c e s w i l l a t t r a c t b e t t e r q u a l i t y s t a f f , w h i c h w i l l , i n t u r n , i m p r o v e t h e q u a l i t y o f i n s t r u c t i o n , p r o d u c i n g g r e a t e r s t u d e n t a c h i e v e m e n t . The most common i n d i c e s o f t e a c h e r s a l a r i e s u s e d i n t h e s t u d i e s r e v i e w e d were t h e mean and m e d i a n s a l a r i e s f o r t e a c h e r s ( B e n s o n e t a l . , 1965; C o h n , 1968; K i e s l i n g , 1969; K i e l s i n g , 1970 and Raymond, 1 9 6 8 ) . Raymond (1968) d i d a f u r t h e r b r e a k d o w n o f t h e mean t e a c h e r s a l a r y i n t o mean e l e m e n t a r y and mean s e c o n d a r y t e a c h e r s ' s a l a r i e s . R e s u l t s f r o m s t u d i e s u s i n g t h i s v a r i a b l e were n o t c o n s i s t e n t . B e n s o n and h i s c o l l e a g u e s f o u n d t h a t t e a c h e r s ' s a l a r i e s w e r e s i g n i f i c a n t l y and p o s i t i v e l y r e l a t e d t o a c h i e v e m e n t i n o n l y t h e m i d d l e s i z e C a l i f o r n i a s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s . Raymond (1968) r e p o r t e d s i g n i f i c a n t (.05) and p o s i t i v e a s s o c i a t i o n s f o r t h e mean s a l a r y o f t e a c h e r s w i t h s t u d e n t a c h i e v e m e n t . When he d i v i d e d h i s t e a c h e r s a l a r y p o p u l a t i o n i n t o two g r o u p s — e l e m e n t a r y and s e c o n d a r y — o n l y t h e a v e r a g e e l e m e n t a r y t e a c h e r ' s s a l a r y was p o s t i v e l y and s i g n i f i c a n t l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a c h i e v e m e n t t e s t s c o r e s and f r e s h m a n g r a d e p o i n t a v e r a g e s . C o e f f i c i e n t s f o r m e d i a n t e a c h e r s ' s a l a r y w e re s i g n i f i c a n t (.05) i n t h e t h r e e r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s e s c o m p l e t e d by Cohn (1968) who u s e d t h e Iowa t e s t s o f E d u c a t i o n a l D e v e l o p m e n t s c o r e s a s t h e d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e . K i e s l i n g ( 1 969; 1970) f o u n d no p a t t e r n o f a s s o c i a t i o n between t e a c h e r s a l a r y and s t u d e n t a c h i e v e m e n t . The v a r i a b l e was e n t e r e d i n one h u n d r e d and t w e n t y - s e v e n r e g r e s s i o n e q u a t i o n s and was a s i g n i f i c a n t p r e d i c t o r o n l y n i n e t i m e s , e i g h t o f t h e s e i n a n e g a t i v e d i r e c t i o n . S e v e r a l o t h e r s a l a r y i n d i c a t o r s have been used as p r o x i e s o f i n s t r u c t i o n a l q u a l i t y . B e n son e t a l . (1965) and K i e s l i n g (1969) a s s s e s s e d t h e i n f l u e n c e o f t h e p e r c e n t a g e o f t e a c h e r s i n t h e h i g h e s t s a l a r y q u a r t i l e and h i g h e s t s a l a r y d e c i l e , r e s p e c t i v e l y . The p e r c e n t a g e o f t e a c h e r s i n t h e h i g h e s t s a l a r y q u a r t i l e was s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e l a t e d i n t h e t h r e e p o p u l a t i o n s amples o f d i s t r i c t s b u t t h e d i r e c t i o n o f t h e r e s u l t s was mixed (Benson e t a l . , 1965). I n b o t h s m a l l and medium d i s t i c t s , i t was p o s i t i v e . In l a r g e d i s t r i c t s , t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p was n e g a t i v e . O n l y i n s m a l l d i s t r i c t s was t h e p e r c e n t a g e o f t e a c h e r s i n t h e l o w e s t s a l a r y q u a r t i l e s i g n i f i c a n t l y and n e g a t i v e l y r e l a t e d t o a c h i e v e m e n t . T h e s e r e s u l t s s u g g e s t t h a t some r e l a t i o n s h i p e x i s t s between s a l a r y p a i d t o t e a c h e r s and s t u d e n t outcomes, b u t one must be c a r e f u l i n t e r p r e t i n g t h e s e r e s u l t s b e c a u s e a c o n c o m i t a n t e f f e c t e x i s t s between s a l a r y and e x p e r i e n c e . S a l a r y l e v e l may be a p r o x y f o r e x p e r i e n c e as w e l l as f o r q u a l i t y . Raymond (1968) a t t e m p t e d t o accomodate some o f t h e o t h e r c o n c o m i t a n t e f f e c t s on s a l a r y l e v e l s , i n c l u d i n g v a r i a b l e s w h i c h m i g h t i n f l u e n c e t h e s a l a r y l e v e l s o f t e a c h e r s o t h e r t h a n t h e e f f e c t o f m a r k e t f a c t o r s s u c h as demand. He i n c l u d e d a w e i g h t e d s a l a r y s c h e d u l e , a d j a c e n t c o u n t y a v e r a g e s a l a r y and an a d j a c e n t c o n t i g u o u s c o u n t y w e i g h t e d s a l a r y s c h e d u l e as v a r i a b l e s , u s i n g 52 t h e r a t i o n a l e t h a t : The s a l a r y p a i d by a s c h o o l s y s t e m i s n o t t h e o n l y f a c t o r c a p a b l e o f a f f e c t i n g t h e q u a l i t y o f t e a c h e r h i r e d . The l o c a t i o n a l p r e f e r e n c e s o f i n d i v i d u a l s may be s u c h t h a t t e a c h e r s ' s a l a r i e s i n n e a r - b y c o u n t i e s w i l l have a g r e a t e r e f f e c t upon m i g r a t i o n t h a n w i l l s a l a r i e s i n d i s t a n t c o u n t i e s (p. 4 5 4 ) . The r e g r e s s i o n e q u a t i o n s y i e l d e d no s i g n i f i c a n t r e s u l t s f o r a d j a c e n t c o u n t y i n d e x e s b u t t h e w e i g h t e d a v e r a g e s a l a r y was s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t and p o s i t i v e l y r e l a t e d t o Freshman Grade P o i n t A v e r a g e i n one o f two a n a l y s e s . Two o t h e r v a r i a b l e s have been u s e d by r e s e a c h e r s i n t r y i n g t o d e t e r m i n e whether a r e l a t i o n s h i p e x i s t s between s a l a r y and s t u d e n t outcomes. Benson e t a l . (1965) d e v e l o p e d an i n d e x o f t e a c h e r s ' s a l a r y d i v i d e d by a v e r a g e d a i l y a t t e n d a n c e and K i e s l i n g (1970) h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t t h e a v e r a g e s a l a r y o f t e a c h e r s who were i n v o l v e d i n l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e and o t h e r s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n a r e a s would be r e l a t e d t o s t u d e n t outcomes. N e i t h e r v a r i a b l e was s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e l a t e d t o a c h i e v e m e n t . A s i m i l a r r a t i o n a l e has been u s e d f o r a d m i n i s t r a t o r s a l a r i e s . I t has been h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t s a l a r y d i f f e r e n c e s s h o u l d buy b e t t e r q u a l i t y a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , p r o d u c i n g b e t t e r s c h o o l s and h i g h e r a c h i e v e m e n t . The same p r o b l e m e x i s t s w i t h a d m i n i s t r a t o r s ' s a l a r i e s as w i t h t e a c h e r s ' s a l a r i e s : h i g h e r s a l a r i e s do n o t n e c e s s a r i l y p u r c h a s e b e t t e r q u a l i t y . F o r e xample, t h e r e a s o n f o r h i g h e r a d m i n i s t r a t o r s a l a r i e s i s t h a t t h e y may have a s t r o n g e r b a r g a i n i n g u n i t w i t h t h e s c h o o l b o a r d s t h a n t h e i r c o u n t e r p a r t s i n o t h e r d i s t r i c t s . The r e l a t i o n s h i p may w e l l be s t r o n g e r between s a l a r i e s and b a r g a i n i n g s t r e n g t h t h a n between s a l a r i e s and g u a l i t y . Both Benson et a l . (1965) andKeisling (1969) incorporated a mean administrators' salary in their regression analyses. As well, Benson and his colleagues developed an index of administrator s a l a r i e s divided by average d a i l y attendance in order to see i f a relationship existed with student outcomes, and a r a t i o between teachers' and administrators' s a l a r i e s . They hypothesized that the higher the r a t i o , the lower the quality of administration, and, thus, the lower student outcomes. Kies l i n g (1969) also included the salary of the Superintendent of Schools. A l l of these indicators proved to be unrelated to outcome. Research on the association between salary indicators and student outcomes i s inconclusive. It seems reasonable to assume that factors other than quality influence salary l e v e l s ; thus, more pay i s not necessarily related to better qu a l i t y . Other factors such as i s o l a t i o n , bargaining power and wealth of a school d i s t r i c t probably have as great an influence in determining salary levels as does the supply and demand market. Therefore, this study w i l l not include a salary indicator. Experience. A second set of variables often assumed to be related to student outcomes involve teacher experience. The rationale used i s that a teacher with greater experience w i l l know how to enhance the learning environment and produce higher levels of student achievement. Three studies used the average number of years experience of teachers as an independent variable (Brown, 1972; Goodman, 1959; and K i e s l i n g , 1970). Katzman (1971) used the percentage of teachers with over ten years of experience as a proxy for the q u a l i t y o f i n s t r u c t i o n . R e s u l t s were i n c o n s i s t e n t . Of t h e one h u n d r e d and t w e n t y - s e v e n r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s e s computed by K i e s l i n g ( 1 9 7 0 ) , e x p e r i e n c e was s i g n i f i c a n t l y and p o s i t i v e l y r e l a t e d t o a c h i e v e m e n t i n e i g h t e e n c a s e s and a l s o s i g n f i c a n t l y and n e g a t i v e l y r e l a t e d i n f o u r c a s e s . Brown (1972) a l s o f o u n d no s i g n i f i c a n t t r e n d i n r e s u l t s . I n K a t z m a n ' s s t u d y ( 1 9 7 1 ) , e x p e r i e n c e was s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e l a t e d t o r e a d i n g and n o t t o f i v e o t h e r i n d i c a t o r s o f s t u d e n t o u t c o m e . O n l y Goodman (1959) r e p o r t e d a c o n s i s t e n t p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n e x p e r i e n c e and s t u d e n t o u t c o m e s . K i e s l i n g (1970) and Katzman (1971) e x a m i n e d two o t h e r v a r i a b l e s : K i e s l i n g c o n s i d e r e d t h e y e a r s o f e x p e r i e n c e o f p r i n c i p a l s ; and Kat z m a n c o n s i d e r e d t h e a n n u a l p e r c e n t a g e r a t e o f t e a c h e r t u r n - o v e r . K i e s l i n g f o u n d t h a t t h e amount o f e x p e r i e n c e o f t h e p r i n c i p a l s was n o t r e l a t e d s t u d e n t o u t c o m e s . K a t z m a n r e p o r t e d t h a t t h e a n n u a l p e r c e n t a g e o f t e a c h e r t u r n -o v e r was s i g n i f i c a n t l y and n e g a t i v e l y r e l a t e d t o m a t h e m a t i c s b u t n o t t o a t t e n d a n c e , c o n t i n u a t i o n , r e a d i n g , a p p l i c a t i o n t o t h e L a t i n S c h o o l s o r a c c e p t a n c e i n t o t h e L a t i n S c h o o l s . The e x p e r i e n c e i n d i c a t o r s p r o v e d t o be s i g n i f i c a n t i n t h r e e o f t h e f o u r s t u d i e s (Goodman, 1959; K a t z m a n , 1971; K i e s l i n g , 1970) . Two o f t h e s e s t u d i e s u s e d t h e mean y e a r s o f e x p e r i e n c e o f t e a c h e r s a s t h e i r v a r i a b l e s . A l t h o u g h t h e r e s u l t s o f p r e v i o u s r e s e a r c h a r e t e n u o u s , t h i s s t u d y w i l l i n c l u d e a t e a c h e r s e x p e r i e n c e v a r i a b l e . Q u a l i f i c a t i o n s . The t h i r d s e t o f s t a f f c h a r a c t e r i s t i c v a r i a b l e s r e l a t e t o q u a l i f i c a t i o n s m e a s u r e d by d e g r e e o r c e r t i f i c a t e l e v e l . T h r e e i n d i c a t o r s h a v e been u s e d t o m e a s u r e d e g r e e l e v e l : a v e r a g e d e g r e e l e v e l ( K i e s l i n g , 1 9 7 0 ) ; p e r c e n t a g e o f s t a f f w i t h a M a s t e r s D e g r e e ( B i d w e l l and K a s a r d a , 1975; B r o w n , 1972; K a t z m a n , 1 9 7 1 ) ; and p r o p o r t i o n o f t e a c h e r s w i t h f o u r o r more y e a r s o f u n i v e r s i t y ( C u r r i e , 1978) . K i e s l i n g o b t a i n e d no s i g n i f i c a n t r e s u l t s i n any o f h i s 127 r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s e s f o r t h e d e g r e e l e v e l o f p r i n c i p a l s , and f o u n d f o u r s i g n i f i c a n t n e g a t i v e a s s o c i a t i o n s f o r d e g r e e l e v e l o f t e a c h e r s . B i d w e l l and K a s a r d a (1975) d i d f i n d a p o s i t i v e and s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n t h e d e g r e e l e v e l o f t e a c h e r s and t h e p e r f o r m a n c e o f s t u d e n t s f o r r e a d i n g b u t n o t f o r m a t h e m a t i c s . T e a c h e r q u a l i f i c a t i o n was n o t s i g n i f i c a n t i n two o f t h e f o u r p r o v i n c e s s t u d i e d by C u r r i e ( 1 9 7 8 ) ; h o w e v e r , i t was p o s i t i v e l y and s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e l a t e d t o r e t e n t i o n i n Nova S c o t i a , N e w f o u n d l a n d and t h e t o t a l A t l a n t i c R e g i o n . O t h e r i n d i c a t o r s o f q u a l i f i c a t i o n u s e d h a v e been t h e p e r c e n t a g e o f t e a c h e r s c e r t i f i c a t e d ( K a t z m a n , 1971) and t h e a v e r a g e l e v e l o f c e r t i f i c a t e h e l d by t h e t e a c h e r s i n a s c h o o l d i s t r i c t ( K i e s l i n g , 1 9 7 0 ) . A l t h o u g h Katzman (1971) f o u n d no s t r o n g r e l a t i o n s h i p s , K i e s l i n g (1970) r e p o r t e d t h a t a v e r a g e c e r t i f i c a t e l e v e l o f t e a c h e r s t a f f was p o s i t i v e l y and s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e l a t e d t o p e r f o r m a n c e i n 28 o f 121 r e g r e s s i o n s a n a l y s e s and n e g a t i v e l y r e l a t e d i n o n e . Q u a l i f i c a t i o n i n d i c a t o r s seem t o h a v e some r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h s t u d e n t o u t c o m e s a c c o r d i n g t o t h e s t u d i e s r e v i e w e d h e r e . A l t h o u g h t h e r e s u l t s a r e i n c o n s i s t e n t , t h r e e s t u d i e s ( B i d w e l l and K a s a r d a , 1975; C u r r i e , 1978; K i e s l i n g , 1970) h a v e r e p o r t e d s i g n i f i c a n t , p o s i t i v e a s s o c i a t i o n s . T h e r e f o r e , t h i s s t u d y w i l l i n c l u d e a q u a l f i c a t i o n s v a r i a b l e . Summary. O n l y two s t a f f c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a s e q u a l i t y o f a c c e s s i n d i c a t o r s h ave y i e l d e d m i x e d y e t p r o m i s i n g r e s u l t s i n t h e s t u d i e s r e v i e w e d . S i g n i f i c a n t and p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n s h a v e b e e n r e p o r t e d b e t w e e n t h e two s t a f f c h a r a c t e r i s t i c v a r i a b l e s ; t e a c h e r e x p e r i e n c e and t e a c h e r t r a i n i n g , and s t u d e n t outcome v a r i a b l e s ( B i d w e l l and K a s a r d a , 1975; C u r r i e , 1978; Goodman, 1959; K a t z m a n , 1 9 7 1 ; K i e s l i n g , 1 9 7 0 ) . T h i s s t u d y w i l l i n c l u d e t h e s e two m e a s u r e s o f s t a f f c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . EQUALITY OF TREATMENT E q u a l i t y o f t r e a t m e n t i s b a s e d on t h e a s s u m p t i o n t h a t e d u c a t i o n i s an e g u a l i z a t i o n p r o c e s s d e s i g n e d t o overcome s t u d e n t l e a r n i n g d i s a d v a n t a g e s . G u t h r i e e t a l . (1971) o u t l i n e d t h e l o g i c and r a t i o n a l e f o r e q u a l i t y o f t r e a t m e n t : C e r t a i n l y , t h o s e c h i l d r e n who b e g i n t h e i r s c h o o l i n g w i t h t h e g r e a t e s t d i s a d v a n t a g e must h a v e d i s p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y g r e a t e r s c h o o l i n g r e s o u r c e s i n o r d e r t o e q u a l i z e o p p o r t u n i t y a t age 16 (p. 2 1 ) . T r e a t m e n t I n d i c a t o r s . Of t h e t h r e e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s o f e d u c a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t y , e g u a l i t y o f t r e a t m e n t has been t h e l e a s t r e s e a r c h e d . O n l y t h r e e r e s e a c h e r s h a v e c o n s i d e r e d t r e a t m e n t i n d i c a t o r s . B o t h K i e s l i n g (1969) and Goodman (1959) t r i e d t o a s c e r t a i n w h e t h e r t h e p r o v i s i o n o f s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n s t a f f was p o s i t i v e l y r e l a t e d t o s t u d e n t a c h i e v e m e n t . K i e s l i n g f o u n d no s i g n i f i c a n c e b e t w e e n t h e t w o , w h i l e Goodman d i s c o v e r e d a p o s i t i v e and s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n c o g n i t i v e m e a s u r e s and t h e number o f s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n s t a f f p e r s t u d e n t . A t h i r d s t u d y w h i c h i n c l u d e d t r e a t m e n t i n d i c a t o r s h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t a d d i t i o n a l r e s o u r c e s would c o u n t e r a c t t h e l e a r n i n g d i s a b i l i t i e s o r o t h e r p r o b l e m s w h i c h h i n d e r c h i l d r e n f r o m a c h i e v i n g w e l l i n s c h o o l ( S e b o l d & D a t o , 1981). By u s i n g v a r i a b l e s w h i c h were r e l a t e d t o s p e c i a l programme e x p e n d i t u r e s , t h e y i n d e x e d r e s o u r c e s r e q u i r e d t o compensate f o r t h e u n d e r a c h i e v e m e n t , m e a s u r i n g s u p p o r t s e r v i c e s programme e x p e n d i t u r e s p e r a v e r a g e d a i l y a t t e n d a n c e , s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n i n s t r u c t i o n a l e x p e n d i t u r e s p e r a v e r a g e d a i l y a t t e n d a n c e and s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n programme p e r a v e r a g e d a i l y a t t e n d a n c e . A l l t h r e e v a r i a b l e s p r o v e d t o have no p o s i t i v e a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h outcomes and, i n some c a s e s , t o o k on n e g a t i v e v a l u e s . A c c o r d i n g t o S e b o l d and D a t o , i t i s n o t s u r p r i s i n g t h a t t h e s e v a r i a b l e s p e r f o r m e d p o o r l y b e c a u s e s u c h programmes: ...may n o t b e a r t h e same d i r e c t r e l a t i o n t o d e v e l o p m e n t o f b a s i c c o g n i t i v e s k i l l s as d o e s th e g e n e r a l e d u c a t i o n programme; and s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n programmes a r e by t h e i r v e r y n a t u r e d e s i g n e d t o a m e l i o r a t e a v a r i e t y o f s p e c i a l i z e d programmes, many o f w h i c h , l i k e s p e e c h d i s a b i l i t i e s , a r e o n l y i n d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d t o t h e s k i l l s t e s t e d by t h e A s s e s s m e n t Programme (p. 9 9 ) . I f i n f a c t t h e r e e x i s t s a s t r o n g n e g a t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p between s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n i n d i c a t o r s and s t u d e n t outcomes two e x p l a n a t i o n s seem l i k e l y : e i t h e r t h e programmes a r e p o o r l y i m p l e m e n t e d and a r e n o t a c h i e v i n g t h e g o a l s f o r w h i c h t h e y a r e i n t e n d e d ; o r , t h e programmes a r e i n t e n d e d t o i n f l u e n c e or i m prove o t h e r s t u d e n t outcomes t h a n a c a d e m i c a c h i e v e m e n t . Summary. F o r t h e p u r p o s e o f t h i s s t u d y , two g r o u p s o f t r e a t m e n t v a r i a b l e s w i l l be u s e d . A g e n e r a l c a t e g o r y d e a l i n g w i t h s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n and a s p e c i f i c c a t e g o r y c o n c e r n e d w i t h E n g l i s h as a Second L a n g u a g e . T h i s s p e c i f i c c a t e g o r y i s i n c l u d e d b e c a u s e t h e p o p u l a t i o n o f t h e s t u d y w i l l be drawn from v a r i o u s e t h n i c g r o u p s and, t h e o r e t i c a l l y , t h e E n g l i s h l a n g u a g e d e v e l o p m e n t o f N o n - E n g l i s h g r o u p s p l a y s a m a j o r r o l e i n a c h i e v e m e n t . The s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n v a r i a b l e s i n c l u d e d a r e s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n e n r o l m e n t d i v i d e d by s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n t e a c h e r s , s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n e n r o l m e n t as a p e r c e n t a g e o f t o t a l s t u d e n t e n r o l m e n t , s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n money s p e n t p e r s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n s t u d e n t and t h e amount o f s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n d o l l a r s s p e n t on t e a c h e r s u p p l i e s p e r s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n s t u d e n t . W i t h i n t h e E n g l i s h as a Second Language (ESL) c a t e g o r y , f o u r i n d i c a t o r s w i l l be c o n s i d e r e d : ESL e n r o l m e n t as a p e r c e n t a g e o f t o t a l e n r o l m e n t , ESL e n r o l m e n t d i v i d e d by t h e M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n a p p r o v a l s t o r u n ESL programmes; ESL t o t a l d o l l a r e x p e n d i t u r e d i v i d e d by ESL s t u d e n t e n r o l m e n t ; and ESL e n r o l m e n t d i v i d e d by t h e number o f t e a c h e r s who i n s t r u c t ESL s t u d e n t s . OUTCOME INDICATORS W i t h i n t h e c a t e g o r y o f s t u d e n t outcomes, p r e v i o u s r e s e a r c h has u t i l i z e d v a r i o u s t e s t s c o r e s and c o n t r u c t e d numerous v a r i a b l e s t o a c t as outcome i n d i c a t o r s . B i d w e l l and K a s a r d a (1975) s u r v e y e d 105 s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s i n t h e S t a t e o f C o l o r a d o a t t h e h i g h s c h o o l l e v e l . A l t h o u g h C o l o r a d o d i d n o t use s t a t e - w i d e t e s t i n g , B i d w e l l and K a s a r d a d i d f i n d t h r e e s t a n d a r d i z e d t e s t s b e i n g u s e d by s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s i n 1969 - 1970 s c h o o l y e a r : t h e S t a n f o r d A c h i e v e m e n t T e s t , t h e Iowa T e s t o f E d u c a t i o n a l D e v e l o p m e n t , and t h e T e s t o f A c a d e m i c P r o g r e s s . S c o r e s f o r e a c h t e s t were t r a n s f o r m e d by g r a d e l e v e l f o r e a c h s c h o o l d i s t r i c t t o a n a t i o n a l d i s t r i b u t i o n o f p e r f o r m a n c e , y i e l d i n g a mean g r a d e s t a n d a r d i z e d a c h i e v e m e n t l e v e l a c c o r d i n g t o n a t i o n a l l y normed p e r c e n t i l e s i n r e a d i n g and m a t h e m a t i c s a t e a c h g r a d e l e v e l i n h i g h s c h o o l a c r o s s a l l t h r e e i n s t r u m e n t s . T h i s p r o c e d u r e i m p r o v e d c o m p a r a b i l i t y b e t w e e n s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s , b u t B i d w e l l and K a s a r d a n o t e d t h a t s u c h a p r o c e d u r e w o u l d g i v e a c o n s e r v a t i v e e s t i m a t e o f t h e i r m o d e l b e c a u s e n o r m i n g c o r r e c t s f o r e x t r a - p e r s o n a l s o u r c e s o f v a r i a t i o n s u c h as co m m u n i t y and s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s i n a c h i e v e m e n t s c o r e s . O c c a s i o n a l l y , s t u d i e s o f t h e p r o d u c t i o n f u n c t i o n m o d e l were a b l e t o a r r a n g e t e s t i n g s p e c i f i c a l l y f o r t h e p u r p o s e o f t h a t s t u d y . J o n e s , Owen, B a r o n and D a r r o w ( 1 9 7 8 ) , c o n s t r u c t e d a s p e c i a l t e s t f o r g r a d e e i g h t s t u d e n t s f r o m r e l e a s e d i t e m s i n R e a d i n g and M a t h e m a t i c s f r o m t h e N a t i o n a l A s s e s s m e n t f o r E d u c a t i o n P r o g r e s s . A c o m p o s i t e mean s c o r e was d e r i v e d f o r e a c h o f t h e 27 d i s t r i c t s f r o m t h e t e s t i n g done i n 1973. S c h o o l d i s t r i c t s were s t r a t i f i e d a c c o r d i n g t o s i z e , u r b a n s t a t u s , s o c i o e c o n o m i c s t a t u s and g e o g r a p h i c l o c a t i o n w i t h a random s a m p l e b e i n g drawn f r o m e a c h s t r a t u m . O t h e r r e s e a c h e r s h a v e b e e n a b l e t o o b t a i n o u t p u t v a r i a b l e s f r o m e x i s t i n g a n n u a l t e s t i n g programmes. Katzman ( 1 9 7 1 ) , f o r e x a m p l e , s u r v e y e d 56 s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s i n t h e B o s t o n a r e a i n 1965, and u s e d t h e d i f f e r e n c e i n m e d i a n r e a d i n g s c o r e s b e t w e e n t h e s e c o n d and s i x t h g r a d e r s as a p r o x y f o r c o g n i t i v e g a i n . A t t h e s e c o n d g r a d e l e v e l , t h e G a t e s P r i m a r y R e a d i n g T e s t , Form 1 — s e n t e n c e r e a d i n g and p a r a g r a p h r e a d i n g -- was u s e d ; a t G r a d e s i x l e v e l , t h e S t a n d f o r d I n t e r m e d i a t e A c h i e v e m e n t T e s t , Form 2 — word m e a n i n g and p a r a g r a p h r e a d i n g — was u s e d . The s e c o n d a c h i e v e m e n t v a r i a b l e was t h e f i f t h g r a d e m a t h e m a t i c s s c o r e on t h e S t a n f o r d I n t e r m e d i a t e T e s t , Form 1 — c o m p u t a t i o n , c o n c e p t s and a p p l i c a t i o n s . In a d d i t i o n t o t h e two c o g n i t i v e m e a s u r e s f o r r e a d i n g and m a t h e m a t i c s , f o u r o t h e r measures o f s t u d e n t p e r f o r m a n c e were u s e d . Two o f t h e s e were r e l a t e d t o r e t e n t i o n o r " h o l d i n g power" o f s c h o o l s w i t h i n a d i s t r i c t : t h e r a t e o f a v e r a g e d a i l y a t t e n d a n c e ; and t h e r a t e o f c o n t i n u a t i o n o f e l e m e n t a r y g r a d u a t e s t h r o u g h t o h i g h s c h o o l g r a d u a t i o n . The f i n a l two measures were i d i o s y n c r a t i c t o t h e B o s t o n s y s t e m — a p p l i c a t i o n and a d m i s s i o n t o e l i t e B o y s ' and G i r l s ' L a t i n H i g h S c h o o l s i n t h e B o s t o n a r e a . A c c o r d i n g t o Katzman, t h e L a t i n H i g h S c h o o l s a r e p r e p a r a t o r y s c h o o l s f o r p o s t s e c o n d a r y i n s t i t u t i o n s and 95% o f t h e i r a l u m n i a t t e n d c o l l e g e . The c r i t e r i a f o r a d m i s s i o n t o t h e L a t i n H i g h S c h o o l s i s t h e s u c c e s s f u l c o m p l e t i o n o f a c o m p e t i t i v e e x a m i n a t i o n a t t h e end o f g r a d e s i x . The p e r c e n t a g e o f s t u d e n t s i n e a c h s c h o o l d i s t r i c t who w r o t e t h e L a t i n S c h o o l E x a m i n a t i o n was a p r o x y f o r p o s t s e c o n d a r y a c a d e m i c a s p i r a t i o n s and t h e p e r c e n t a g e o f s t u d e n t s who p a s s e d t h e e x a m i n a t i o n was an i n d i c a t i o n o f a c a d e m i c a c h i e v e m e n t among s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s . T h e s e s i x m e a s u r e s o f p e r f o r m a n c e were t h e n u s e d as d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s i n Katzman's p r o d u c t i o n f u n c t i o n a n a l y s i s . K i e s l i n g (1969; 1970) o b t a i n e d outcome d a t a f r o m e x i s t i n g t e s t i n g programmes i n New York S t a t e where t h e Iowa T e s t o f B a s i c S k i l l s was g i v e n a n n u a l l y . K i e s l i n g (1969) u s e d t h e c o m p o s i t e s c o r e o f t h e Iowa T e s t as w e l l as t h e a r i t h m e t i c and l a n g u a g e s c o r e s , and computed t h e d i f f e r e n c e between t h e s i x t h g r a d e mean and t h e f o u r t h g r a d e mean o f s t u d e n t s who were i n t h e s c h o o l d i s t r i c t i n t h o s e g r a d e s . The sample was t h e n d i v i d e d i n t o f i v e s u b - g r o u p s a c c o r d i n g t o f a t h e r ' s o c c u p a t i o n , and t h e d i s t r i c t s c l a s s i f i e d as u r b a n o r n o n - u r b a n . F i f t y - f o u r d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s were c o n s i d e r e d . By l i m i t i n g t h e s t u d y t o t h o s e who r e c e i v e d t h e i r e d u c a t i o n i n a s i n g l e d i s t r i c t , K i e s l i n g c o n t r o l l e d f o r t h e i n f l u e n c e o f s c h o o l d i s t r i c t i n p u t v a r i a b l e s on t h e a c h i e v e m e n t s c o r e s . A l t h o u g h t h i s p r o c e d u r e has some m e r i t , p r o b l e m s o c c u r when g a i n s c o r e s a r e c a l c u l a t e d . Such a p r o c e d u r e t e n d s t o compound i n t h e g a i n s c o r e t h e measurement e r r o r o f t e s t s a t b o t h t h e g r a d e f o u r and s i x l e v e l s . A l s o i n o r d e r t o be a c c u r a t e , K i e s l i n g s h o u l d have u s e d t h e same p r o c e d u r e o f m e a s u r i n g t h e d i f f e r e n c e o f t h e o t h e r i n d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e r e s o u r c e s . In h i s 1970 s t u d y , K i e s l i n g u s e d o n l y t h e mean c o m p o s i t e , m a t h e m a t i c s and v e r b a l s c o r e s on t h e Iowa T e s t o f B a s i c S k i l l s a t t h e g r a d e f i v e and e i g h t l e v e l s i n 86 s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s . The sample was t h e n d i v i d e d i n t o s e v e n sub- sam p l e s a c c o r d i n g t o f a t h e r ' s e d u c a t i o n . The d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s were t h e a v e r a g e s c o r e s a t e a c h g r a d e l e v e l f o r e a c h s u b - s a m p l e g e n e r a t i n g 42 r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s e s . Cohn ( 1 9 6 8 ) a l s o u s e d t h e g a i n i n a c a d e m i c a c h i e v e m e n t i n h i s Iowa s t u d y o f 377 s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s . In Iowa, t h e h i g h s c h o o l s a r e r e q u i r e d t o a d m i n i s t e r t h e Iowa T e s t s o f E d u c a t i o n a l D e v e l o p m e n t once e v e r y two y e a r s . U s i n g t h e a v e r a g e c o m p o s i t e s c o r e a t t h e t w e l f t h g r a d e i n 1 9 6 3 , minus t h e a v e r a g e c o m p o s i t e s c o r e a t t h e t e n t h g r a d e i n 1 9 6 1 , Cohn o b t a i n e d an a v e r a g e c o m p o s i t e g a i n s c o r e f o r e a c h s c h o o l d i s t r i c t . T h i s he termed " t h e a v e r a g e q u a l i t y i n c r e m e n t t h a t was p r o v i d e d by i n s t r u c t i o n i n t h e t e n t h and e l e v e n t h g r a d e (p. 4 2 6 ) " . The p r o b l e m w i t h Conn's a n a l y s i s i s t h a t two d i f f e r e n t p o p u l a t i o n s a r e i n v o l v e d ; one a t t h e g r a d e t e n and a s e c o n d a t g r a d e t w e l v e . No c o m p e n s a t i o n o r c o n s i d e r a t i o n i s made f o r t h e i n and o u t m i g r a t i o n due t o t r a n s f e r s o r d r o p o u t s w h i c h o c c u r s b e t w e e n g r a d e t e n and g r a d e t w e l v e . Goodman (1959) u s e d New Y o r k S t a t e f o r h i s d a t a b a s e and t h e r e f o r e had a v a i l a b l e t h e a c h i e v e m e n t r e s u l t s o f t h e Iowa T e s t o f B a s i c S k i l l s i n c o m p o s i t e s c o r e s and r e a d i n g s c o r e s . Mean s c o r e s i n t h e s e two a r e a s f o r g r a d e s s e v e n and e l e v e n were c a l c u l a t e d f o r 98 s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s . B e n s o n e t a l . (1965) c a p i t a l i z e d on t h e C a l i f o r n i a S t a t e t e s t i n g programme, u s i n g t h e mean s c o r e i n r e a d i n g on t h e C a l i f o r n i a A c h i e v e m e n t T e s t a t t h e g r a d e f i v e l e v e l a c r o s s 249 s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s . C a l i f o r n i a h a s d e v e l o p e d i t s own a s s e s s m e n t programme u n d e r t h e C a l i f o r n i a O f f i c e o f Programme E v a l u a t i o n and R e s e a r c h . E a c h y e a r s t a t e - w i d e e x a m i n a t i o n s a r e g i v e n : r e a d i n g t e s t s i n t h e s e c o n d , t h i r d , s i x t h and t w e l f t h g r a d e s ; and s p e l l i n g , w r i t t e n e x p r e s s i o n and m a t h e m a t i c s t e s t s a t t h e s i x t h and t w e l f t h g r a d e s . S e b o l d and D a t o (1981) u s e d t h e t e n mean s c o r e s f o r t h e a c a d e m i c y e a r 1975 - 1976 i n 100 o f C a l i f o r n i a S t a t e ' s l a r g e s t s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s as t h e i r d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e . A f o u r t h t y p e o f c o g n i t i v e m e a s u r e has b e e n i n c o r p o r t e d by r e s e a r c h e r s a s a m e a s u r e o f t h e q u a l i t y o f s c h o o l i n s t r u c t i o n w h i c h i s n o t d i r e c t l y a f f i l i a t e d w i t h t h e p u b l i c s c h o o l s y s t e m . Raymond (1968) r e c o r d e d t h e s c o r e s o f a p p r o x i m a t e l y 5,000 West V i r g i n i a g r a d u a t e s f r o m 49 s c h o o l d i s t r i c t who a t t e n d e d West V i r g i n i a U n i v e r s i t y , u s i n g an o v e r a l l s c o r e f r o m t h e A m e r i c a n C o l l e g e T e s t i n g Programme (ACT) and F r e s h m a n G r a d e P o i n t A v e r a g e (FGPA) f o r s t u d e n t s b e t w e e n t h e y e a r s 1963 and 1966. S i n c e t h e s t u d e n t p o p u l a t i o n a t t e n d i n g West V i r g i n i a U n i v e r s i t y was n o t a random s a m p l e f r o m e a c h s c h o o l d i s t r i c t , t h e ACT and FGPA s c o r e s w e r e a d j u s t e d t o e l i m i n a t e t h e b i a s . An a n a l y s i s o f h i g h s c h o o l g r a d e p o i n t a v e r a g e f o r e a c h s c h o o l d i s t r i c t showed a h i g h o f 3.50 t o a l o w 2.49 i n S e n i o r E n g l i s h , M a t h e m a t i c s , S o c i a l S t u d i e s and N a t u r a l S c i e n c e s . The o v e r a l l t e s t s c o r e s on t h e A m e r i c a n C o l l e g e T e s t i n g Programme and t h e F r e s h m a n G r a d e P o i n t A v e r a g e w e re r e g r e s s e d upon t h e H i g h S c h o o l G r a d e P o i n t A v e r a g e f o r e a c h s c h o o l d i s t r i c t . T h i s y i e l d e d r e g r e s s i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s s i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e 1 p e r c e n t l e v e l on a 10 p e r c e n t s t r a t i f i e d random s a m p l e f r o m t h e 5,000 o b s e r v a t i o n s . Raymond (1968) h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t t h e H i g h S c h o o l G r a d e P o i n t A v e r a g e was a p r o x y f o r s t u d e n t a p t i t u d e and t h a t t h e c o n t r i b u t i o n o f a p t i t u d e t o a c h i e v e m e n t on t h e o v e r a l l s c o r e s on t h e ACT and FGPA was i n v a r i a n t among s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s i n d i c a t i n g q u a l i t y d i f f e r e n c e s . Raymond's r a t i o n a l e f o r f o l l o w i n g t h e p r o c e d u r e f o r a d j u s t i n g mean s c o r e s i s v a l i d o n l y t o a c e r t a i n p o i n t . The H i g h S c h o o l G r a d e P o i n t A v e r a g e s c a n be c o n s i d e r e d a p r o x y n o t o n l y f o r t h e a p t i t u d e o f t h e s t u d e n t s b u t a l s o f o r t h e q u a l i t y o f s c h o o l i n g w h i c h t h e y r e c e i v e . C u r r i e (1978) u s e d o n l y r e t e n t i o n a s a m e a s u r e o f a c a d e m i c s u c c e s s . He d e f i n e d r e t e n t i o n i n two ways : r e t e n t i o n f r o m g r a d e e i g h t t o g r a d e e l e v e n ; and r e t e n t i o n f r o m g r a d e n i n e t o g r a d e t w e l v e . Summary. P r o b l e m s o f t e s t u s a g e and t e s t i n t e r p r e t a t i o n p l a g u e t h e s t u d i e s w h i c h u s e d s t a n d a r d i z e d a c h i e v e m e n t t e s t r e s u l t s , r a i s i n g q u e s t i o n s a b o u t t h e s t u d i e s i n w h i c h t h e y were emplo y e d . Q u e s t i o n a b l e p r o c e d u r e s , s u c h as B i d w e l l and K a s a r d a (1975) no r m i n g a c r o s s t h r e e d i f f e r e n t s t a n d a r d i z e d t e s t s , Katzman's (1971) and R i e s l i n g ' s (1969) use o f g a i n s c o r e s , Cohn's (1968) use o f g a i n s c o r e s on d i f f e r e n t s t u d e n t p o p u l a t i o n s , and Raymond's (1968) p r o c e d u r e f o r a d j u s t m e n t o f t e s t s c o r e s c an do n o t h i n g b u t d e c r e a s e t h e v a l i d i t y o f t h e a n a l y s e s u s e d . The most a c c u r a t e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f s t u d e n t outcome, i f s t a n d a r d i z e d a c h i e v e m e n t t e s t s a r e t o be u s e d , i s a common a c h i e v e m e n t t e s t g i v e n t o a l l t h e s u b j e c t s w i t h i n a s p e c i f i c t i m e . The r e v i e w o f l i t e r a t u r e s u b s t a n t i a t e s t h e o b s e r v a t i o n o f A v e r c h , C a r r o l l , D o n a l d s o n , K i e s l i n g and P i n c u s (1975) t h a t t h e most common measures o f s t u d e n t outcomes a r e c o g n i t i v e a c h i e v e m e n t t e s t s , p r i m a r i l y s t a n d a r d i z e d r e a d i n g or m a t h e m a t i c s t e s t s c o r e s . T h e r e f o r e , t h i s s t u d y w i l l i n c l u d e t h e r e s u l t s o f p r o v i n c i a l s t a n d a r d i z e d t e s t s c o r e s i n r e a d i n g , m a t h e m a t i c s and s c i e n c e a t t h e g r a d e s f o u r , e i g h t , and t w e l v e l e v e l . One o t h e r measure o f outcome w i l l be i n c l u d e d : t h e p e r c e n t a g e o f g r a d e 12 g r a d u a t e s t o t h e t o t a l s e c o n d a r y p o p u l a t i o n . The g r a d u a t i o n i n d i c a t o r i s a measure o f a c a d e m i c e t h o s i n a s c h o o l d i s t r i c t and may r e f l e c t n o t o n l y a c a d e m i c commitment b u t a l s o s t u d e n t d e m o g r a p h i c f a c t o r s i n a s c h o o l d i s t r i c t . However r e g a r d l e s s o f t h e r e a s o n f o r d i f f e r e n t i a l p e r c e n t a g e s o f g r a d u a t e s a c r o s s d i s t r i c t s , t h e v a r i a b l e does r e f l e c t t h e a c a d e m i c t o n e i n a s c h o o l d i s t r i c t . 65 CONCLUSION The c r i t i q u e and r e v i e w o f r e s e a r c h u s i n g t h e p r o d u c t i o n f u n c t i o n model has p r o v i d e d i n f o r m a t i o n on i n d i c a t o r s w h i c h a r e most l i k e l y t o be r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f t h e c o n c e p t s a f f i l i a t e d w i t h e q u a l i t y o f a c c e s s and e q u a l i t y o f t r e a t m e n t as w e l l as outcomes. A d d i t i o n a l l y , a c o n c e p t u a l schemata f o r e t h n i c i t y , as i t p e r t a i n s t o t h e C a n a d i a n c o n t e x t , was d e v e l o p e d f r o m t h e l i t e r a t u r e r e v i e w e d . The f o l l o w i n g i s a b r i e f summary o f t h e i n d i c a t o r s t o be u s e d i n t h e s t u d y : 1. E t h n i c i t y has s i x c a t e g o r i e s : E n g l i s h , non- E n g l i s h , F r e n c h , L a t e r E u r o p e a n , A f r o - A s i a n , A b o r i g i n a l ; 2. S c h o o l d i s t r i c t s i z e i s t o be r e p e s e n t e d by t h e t o t a l s t u d e n t e n r o l m e n t ; 3. E q u a l i t y o f A c c e s s has f i v e m e a s u r e s : s t u d e n t / t e a c h e r r a t i o s a t t h e e l e m e n t a r y and s e c o n d a r y l e v e l , t h e p e r s t u d e n t c a p i t a d o l l a r amount s p e n t on e d u c a t i o n a l s u p p l i e s , t e a c h e r e x p e r i e n c e and t e a c h e r q u a l -i f i c a t i o n s ; 4. E q u a l i t y o f T r e a t m e n t has e i g h t m e a s u r e s : t h e s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n s t u d e n t / t e a c h e r r a t i o , t h e p e r c e n t a g e o f s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n s t u d e n t s , d o l l a r amount s p e n t p e r s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n s t u d e n t on s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n s u p p l i e s t o t a l d o l l a r amount p e r c a p i t a s p e n t on s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n programmes, E n g l i s h as a Second Language s t u d e n t / t e a c h e r r a t i o , t h e p e r c e n t a g e o f E n g l i s h as a Second Language s t u d e n t s , t h e E n g l i s h as a Second Language p o p u l a t i o n p e r M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n a p p r o v a l f o r E n g l i s h as a Second Language programmes and t h e p e r c a p i t a amount s p e n t on E n g l i s h as a Second Language programme p e r s t u d e n t ; 5. Outcome i n d i c a t o r s have t e n m e a s u r e s ; a c h i e v e m e n t s c o r e s i n r e a d i n g , m a t h e m a t i c s and s c i e n c e a t t h e g r a d e 4, 8 and 12 l e v e l s and t h e p e r c e n t a g e o f g r a d e 12 g r a d u a t e s t o t h e t o t a l s e c o n d a r y p o p u l a t i o n . 66 C h a p t e r I I I RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY C h a p t e r I I I w i l l d i s c u s s t h e c o n c e p t u a l model t o be t e s t e d and t h e s p e c i f i c r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n s t o be ans w e r e d . The c o l l e c t i o n o f d a t a and s t a t i s t i c a l p r o c e d u r e s u s e d t o p r e p a r e t h e d a t a f o r a n a l y s i s w i l l a l s o be o u t l i n e d . RESEARCH MODEL ON ETHNICITY AND EQUALITY OF EDUCATIONAL OPPORTUNITY The p u r p o s e o f t h e s t u d y i s t o d e t e r m i n e t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p s among e t h n i c i t y and e q u a l i t y o f e d u c a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t y as d e f i n e d by a c c e s s and t r e a t m e n t w i t h r e f e r e n c e t o outcomes i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s . The r e s e a r c h r e p o r t e d h e r e was u n d e r t a k e n t o d e t e r m i n e t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p o f t h e s t u d e n t s ' e t h n i c b a c k g r o u n d s t o t h e i r a c c e s s t o e d u c a t i o n a l s e r v i c e s , t o t h e s p e c i a l t r e a t m e n t t h e r e c e i v e and t o t h e outcomes t h e y a c h i e v e f r o m t h e i r s c h o o l i n g . T h e s e i s s u e s a r e s c h e m a t i z e d i n F i g u r e 3. The model o u t l i n e s t h e h y p o t h e s i z e d r e l a t i o n s h i p s among t h e i n p u t s , p r o c e s s i n p u t s and o u t p u t s . B o t h e t h n i c i t y and e n r o l m e n t a r e d e s i g n a t e d as d e m o g r a p h i c i n p u t s , o v e r w h i c h s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s have l i m i t e d i n f l u e n c e . T h e s e i n t e r a c t w i t h b o t h a c c e s s f a c t o r s and t r e a t m e n t f a c t o r s w h i c h i n t u r n a f f e c t t h e s t u d e n t outcomes. I t i s a l s o h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t t h e e t h n i c i t y o f t h e s t u d e n t p o p u l a t i o n c a u s e s d i f f e r e n t i a l l e v e l s o f o utcomes. W i t h i n t h e d e m o g r a p h i c i n p u t s and t h e p r o c e s s i n p u t s , i t i s f u r t h e r t h e o r i z e d t h a t i n t e r a c t i o n s o c c u r . The d i f f e r e n t e t h n i c g r o u p s and t h e p o p u l a t i o n s i z e o f a d i s t r i c t a r e D e m o g r a p h i c ENROLMENT E T H N I C I T Y S c h o o l i n g O u t c o m e s A C C E S S TREATMENT OUTCOMES INPUTS PROCESS OUTPUTS E n r o l m e n t : E t h n i c i t y : A c c e s s : T r e a t m e n t : O u t c o m e s : ( l ) t o t a l s t u d e n t f u l l - t i m e e q u i v a l e n t ( l ) p e r c e n t a g e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f p o p u l a t i o n a c r o s s s i x e t h n i c c a t e g o r -i e s : E n g l i s h , N o n - E n g l i s h , F r e n c h , E u r o p e a n , A f r o - A s i a n a n d A b o r i g i n a l ( 1 ) t e a c h e r e x p e r i e n c e ( 2 ) l e v e l o f t e a c h e r t r a i n i n g ( 3 ) e l e m e n t a r y s t u d e n t / t e a c h e r r a t i o ( 4 ) s e c o n d a r y s t u d e n t / t e a c h e r r a t i o ( 5 ) d o l l a r e x p e n d i t u r e p e r s t u d e n t on e d u c a t i o n s u p p l i e s ( 1 ) p e r c e n t a g e o f s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n s t u d e n t s ( 2 ) s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n s t u d e n t / t e a c h e r r a t i o ( 3 ) d o l l a r e x p e n d i t u r e p e r s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n s t u d e n t on s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n p r o g r a m m e ( 4 ) d o l l a r e x p e n d i t u r e p e r s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n s t u d e n t on s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n s u p p l i e s ( 5 ) p e r c e n t a g e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f E n g l i s h a s a S e c o n d L a n g u a g e s t u d e n t s ( 6 ) number o f E n g l i s h as a S e c o n d L a n g u a g e a p p r o v a l s ( 7 ) E n g l i s h as a S e c o n d L a n g u a g e s t u d e n t / t e a c h e r r a t i o ( 8 ) d o l l a r e x p e n d i t u r e p e r E n g l i s h a s a S e c o n d L a n g u a g e s t u d e n t on E n g l i s h a s a S e c o n d L a n g u a g e P r o g r a m m e ( 1 ) a c h i e v e m e n t s c o r e s i n r e a d i n g , m a t h e m a t i c s a n d s c i e n c e a t t h e G r a d e 4, 8 a n d 12 l e v e l s ( 2 ) p e r c e n t a g e o f G r a d e 12 g r a d u a t e s t o s e c o n d a r y e n r o l m e n t F i g u r e 3. T h e o r e t i c a l m o d e l on e t h n i c i t y a n d e q u a l i t y o f e d u c a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t y w i t h i n d i c a t o r s . a s s o c i a t e d , c o n s i d e r i n g t h e f a c t t h a t p a r t i c u l a r e t h n i c g r o u p s may s e t t l e i n p a r t i c u l a r r e g i o n s . A l s o t h e t r e a t m e n t f a c t o r s a r e i n f l u e n c e d b y t h e a c c e s s f a c t o r s . 68 RESEARCH QUESTIONS The r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n s a r e a r r a n g e d i n t h r e e c a t e g o r i e s : 1. model t e s t i n g ; 2 . s u b s i d i a r y ; and 3 . s u p p l e m e n t a r y Model T e s t i n g The r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n r e l a t i n g t o model t e s t i n g r e f e r s t o t h e i n t e r a c t i o n s o f t h e t h e o r e t i c a l model on e t h n i c i t y and e q u a l i t y o f e d u c a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t y : What a r e t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p s among t h e e q u a l i t y o f e d u c a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t y i n d i c a t o r s ; a c c e s s , t r e a t m e n t and outcomes, when t h e e t h n i c c o m p o s i t i o n and s i z e o f s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s a r e c o n s i d e r e d ? Subs i d i a r y R e s e a r c h Q u e s t i o n The s e c o n d c a t e g o r y o f g u e s t i o n s d e a l w i t h t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p s among t h e t h r e e g r o u p s o f v a r i a b l e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h outcomes and e q u a l i t y o f e d u c a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t y ; a c c e s s and t r e a t m e n t : 1. I s t h e a l l o c a t i o n o f e d u c a t i o n a l a c c e s s r e s o u r c e s among s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s r e l a t e d t o t h e e t h n i c c o m p o s i t i o n and e n r o l m e n t o f t h o s e d i s t r i c t s ? 2 . I s t h e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n programmes i n t h e s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s r e l a t e d t o t h e e t h n i c c o m p o s i t i o n and e n r o l m e n t o f t h o s e d i s t r i c t s ? 3 . A r e s t u d e n t outcomes r e l a t e d t o t h e e t h n i c c o m p o s i t i o n and e n r o l m e n t o f s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s ? 4 . I s t h e a l l o c a t i o n o f e d u c a t i o n a l a c c e s s r e s o u r c e s r e l a t e d t o t h e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f s p e c i a l t r e a t m e n t programmes ? 5 . I s t h e a l l o c a t i o n o f e d u c a t i o n a l a c c e s s r e s o u r c e s r e l a t e d t o s t u d e n t outcomes? 6. I s t h e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f s p e c i a l t r e a t m e n t programmes r e l a t e d t o s t u d e n t outcomes? S u p p l e m e n t a r y R e s e a r c h Q u e s t i o n s The s u p p l e m e n t a r y q u e s t i o n s a s s e s s t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p s among th e i n d i c a t o r s w i t h i n e a c h o f t h e g r o u p s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h e g u a l i t y o f e d u c a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t y ; e t h n i c i t y i n c l u d i n g e n r o l m e n t , a c c e s s , t r e a t m e n t and outcomes. The S u p p l e m e n t a r y Q u e s t i o n s a r e as f o l l o w : A. A r e t h e r e r e l a t i o n s h i p s among t h e i n d i c a t o r s o f e t h n i c i t y ? B. A r e t h e r e r e l a t i o n s h i p s among t h e i n d i c a t o r s o f a c c e s s ? C. A r e t h e r e r e l a t i o n s h i p s among t h e i n d i c a t o r s o f t r e a t m e n t ? D. A r e t h e r e r e l a t i o n s h i p s among t h e i n d i c a t o r s o f outcome? DATA COLLECTION PROCEDURES F o r e a c h o f t h e v a r i a b l e s , d a t a were c o l l e c t e d by s c h o o l d i s t r i c t and t h e n a v e r a g e d t o o b t a i n an a g g r e g a t e d s c o r e f o r e a c h d i s t r i c t . The v a r i a b l e s were g r o u p e d w i t h i n f o u r c a t e g o r i e s : d e m o g r a p h i c , a c c e s s , t r e a t m e n t and outcomes. D e m o g r a p h i c I n d i c a t o r s The d a t a on s i x e t h n i c g r o u p s — E n g l i s h ; N o n - E n g l i s h ; F r e n c h ; E u r o p e a n ; A f r o - A s i a n ; and A b o r i g i n a l -- were o b t a i n e d f r o m t h e 1981 Canada Census (Appendix 2) w h i c h d e f i n e d t h e c e n s u s t r a c t s w i t h i n t h e s e v e n t y - f i v e s c h o o l d i s t r i c t b o u n d a r i e s . The s p e c i f i c C e n s u s i t e m a s k e d r e s p o n d e n t s t o i d e n t i f y t h e i r f i r s t s p o ken l a n g u a g e , o r mother t o n g u e : What i s t h e l a n g u a g e you  f i r s t l e a r n e d i n c h i l d h o o d and s t i l l u n d e r s t a n d ? When f i r s t l a n g u a g e spoken i s u s e d as a p r o x y f o r e t h n i c i t y , , t h e c o n c e p t o f e t h n i c i t y and how i t i s d e f i n e d becomes an i s s u e . Does l a n g u a g e s p o k e n i n t h e home r e p r e s e n t t h e complex c u l t u r a l and v a l u e o r i e n t a t i o n s w h i c h a r e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a d i s t i n c t e t h n i c g r o u p ? I t i s an a s s u m p t i o n o f t h i s s t u d y t h a t l a n g u a g e s p o k e n i s one o f t h e s t r o n g e s t f a c t o r s w h i c h d i f f e r e n t i a t e s one e t h n i c g r o u p f r o m a n o t h e r . A l t h o u g h i t does n o t r e p r e s e n t t h e b r e a d t h or d e p t h o f c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s w h i c h d e f i n e an e t h n i c g r o u p , i t n o n e t h e l e s s i s a key i n d i c a t o r . C e n s u s Canada d a t a , w h i c h l i s t e d 82 mother t o n g u e s by s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s , was u s e d t o d e t e r m i n e t h e t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n by s e v e n m a j o r g r o u p s : E n g l i s h , F r e n c h , L a t e r E u r o p e a n , A s i a t i c , A f r i c a n , A m e r i n d i a n and I n d i a n . T h e s e d a t a a r e p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e 4. A s i a t i c and A f r i c a n were combined, as d i s c u s s e d i n C h a p t e r 1, t o form t h e A f r o - A s i a n C a t e g o r y ; and A m e r i n d i a n and I n d i a n were combined t o f o r m t h e A b o r i g i n a l C a t e g o r y e x c l u d i n g t h e E n g l i s h and t h e F r e n c h . The L a t e r E u r o p e a n c a t e g o r y i n c l u d e d t h o s e n a t i o n a l i t i e s a f f i l i a t e d w i t h E u r o p e a n c o u n t r i e s . TABLE 4 T o t a l P o p u l a t i o n o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a by t h e F i v e E t h n i c C a t e g o r i e s E t h n i c C a g e g o r i e s P o p u l a t i o n As p e r c e n t a g e o f T o t a l p o p u l a t i o n E n g l i s h 2 , 2 4 9 , 3 1 0 8 1 . 9 6 F r e n c h 4 5 , 6 1 5 1.66 L a t e r E u r o p e a n 2 8 8 , 0 9 5 10.50 A f r o - A s i a n 1 4 9 , 8 3 5 5.46 A b o r i g i n a l 1 1 , 4 4 0 .42 O t h e r 175 .01 T o t a l P o p u l a t i o n 2 , 7 4 4 , 4 7 0 1 0 0 . 0 1 * * 0 o e s n o t e q u a l 1 0 0 % b e c a u s e o f r o u n d i n g . The t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n v a l u e s f o r e a c h o f t h e f i v e e t h n i c g r o u p s were computed f o r e a c h o f t h e s e v e n t y - f i v e s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s . Once t h e s e v a l u e s were o b t a i n e d , p e r c e n t a g e s o f t h e t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n were c a l c u l a t d by d i v i d i n g by t h e t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n o f t h e s c h o o l d i s t r i c t and m u l t i p l y i n g by one h u n d r e d . The r e s u l t i n g v a l u e s became e t h n i c i t y i n d i c a t o r v a l u e s f o r f u t u r e s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s . The o t h e r d e m o g r a p h i c v a r i a b l e , e n r o l m e n t , was d e f i n e d as t h e t o t a l f u l l - t i m e e q u i v a l e n t s t u d e n t e n r o l m e n t as g i v e n i n M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n Form I (Appendix 2) d a t e d September 30, 1980. A c c e s s I n d i c a t o r s F i v e v a r i a b l e s were d e v e l o p e d as i n d i c a t o r s o f a c c e s s t o e d u c a t i o n a l s e r v i c e s f o r e a c h o f t h e s e v e n t y - f i v e s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s : 1. t h e amount o f t e a c h e r e x p e r i e n c e ; 2. t h e l e v e l o f t e a c h e r t r a i n i n g ; 3. t h e d o l l a r v a l u e s p e n t on e d u c a t i o n a l s u p p l i e s ; 4. t h e s t u d e n t / t e a c h e r r a t i o a t t h e e l e m e n t a r y l e v e l ; and 5. t h e s t u d e n t / t e a c h e r r a t i o a t t h e s e c o n d a r y l e v e l . D a t a on t e a c h e r e x p e r i e n c e were o b t a i n e d f r o m t h e S t a t i s t i c a l S e r v i c e s B r a n c h , M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n , w h i c h u s e d as t h e i r s o u r c e t h e t e a c h e r r e p o r t i n g Form J (Appendix 2) d a t e d September 30, 1980 where t e a c h e r s r e p o r t e d t h e i r y e a r s o f e x p e r i e n c e . F o r e a c h d i s t r i c t , y e a r s o f e x p e r i e n c e were t o t a l l e d and d i v i d e d by t h e number o f t e a c h e r s i n t h e d i s t r i c t . The s t a t i s t i c g i v e s t h e a v e r a g e t o t a l y e a r s o f t e a c h i n g e x p e r i e n c e by s c h o o l d i s t r i c t f o r f u l l and p a r t t i m e t e a c h e r s . The i n d i c a t o r f o r t e a c h e r t r a i n i n g was o b t a i n e d from t h e i n f o r m a t i o n p r o v i d e d by t h e S t a t i s t i c a l S e r v i c e s B r a n c h , M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n . The s o u r c e was once a g a i n Form J as r e p o r t e d by t e a c h e r s on September 30, 1980. T h r e e c a t e g o r i e s o f c e r t i f i c a t i o n were g i v e n : p r o f e s s i o n a l , d e f i n e d as t e a c h e r s w i t h d e g r e e s ; s t a n d a r d , d e f i n e d as t e a c h e r s w i t h o u t a d e g r e e b u t w i t h t e a c h e r t r a i n i n g ; and l e t t e r o f p e r m i s s i o n , d e f i n e d as t e a c h e r s w i t h no d e g r e e s o r t e a c h e r t r a i n i n g . The s t a t i s t i c u sed i n t h e a n a l y s i s was t h e p e r c e n t a g e o f p r o f e s s i o n a l l y c e r t i f i c a t e d t e a c h e r s i n a s c h o o l d i s t r i c t . The t h i r d i n d i c a t o r used f o r e d u c a t i o n a l a c c e s s was t h e d o l l a r e x p e n d i t u r e p e r p u p i l o f e a c h d i s t r i c t on e d u c a t i o n a l s u p p l i e s . The b u d g e t i n g p r o c e d u r e f o r s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s r e q u i r e d t h a t s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s r e p o r t t h e amount o f money s p e n t on i n s t r u c t i o n a l s u p p l i e s . T h i s amount i n c l u d e d s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n e x p e n d i t u r e s on s u p p l i e s as w e l l as r e g u l a r programme e x p e n d i t u r e s . The s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n e x p e n d i t u r e f o r i n s t r u c t i o n a l s u p p l i e s was s u b t r a c t e d and t h e r e m a i n i n g amount d i v i d e d by t h e e n r o l m e n t . T h i s y i e l d e d a d o l l a r amount p e r s t u d e n t expended on i n s t r u c t i o n a l s u p p l i e s ( A c c o u n t B3) by s c h o o l d i s t r i c t . The t o t a l B3 amount p e r d i s t r i c t was o b t a i n e d from t h e S c h o o l s F i n a n c e B r a n c h (1981) i n i t s a n n u a l p u b l i c a t i o n e n t i t l e d , " C o m p a r a t i v e and A n a l y t i c a l D a t a : 1981 S c h o o l D i s t r i c t B u d g e t s " (pp. 19 - 2 4 ) . From t h i s B3 amount was s u b t r a c t e d t h e m a t e r i a l s e x p e n d i t u r e p r o v i d e d i n t h e S p e c i a l Programmes Summary S h e e t , Form EDUC 1001, i s s u e d by t h e S p e c i a l Programmes B r a n c h d a t e d A p r i l , 1982. A l t h o u g h t h e e x p e n d i t u r e s l i s t e d were p r o j e c t e d f o r t h e 1982 f i s c a l y e a r , t h e S p e c i a l Programmes B r a n c h was under f i s c a l r e s t r a i n t and t h e r e f o r e t h e e x p e n d i t u r e s p e r p u p i l s h o u l d be s i m i l a r t o t h e 1981 l e v e l . The f o u r t h i n d i c a t o r was t h e s t u d e n t s p e r t e a c h e r r a t i o a t t h e e l e m e n t a r y l e v e l . The t o t a l e n r o l m e n t a t t h e e l e m e n t a r y l e v e l by d i s t r i c t , g r a d e one t h r o u g h s e v e n , was o b t a i n e d from Form I d a t e d September 30, 1980 as p u b l i s h e d by S t a t i s t i c a l S e r v i c e s , M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n . T h i s t o t a l e l e m e n t a r y e n r o l m e n t f i g u r e was d i v i d e d by t h e number o f f u l l - t i m e e q u i v a l e n t t e a c h e r s a t t h e e l e m e n t a r y l e v e l as r e p o r t e d on September 30, 1980 by M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n Form J . The r a t i o o b t a i n e d was t h e number o f s t u d e n t s p e r t e a c h e r a t t h e e l e m e n t a r y l e v e l . The f i f t h i n d i c a t o r , s t u d e n t s p e r t e a c h e r r a t i o a t t h e s e c o n d a r y l e v e l , u s e d t h e same s o u r c e documents and was c a l c u l a t e d i n t h e same manner as t h e e l e m e n t a r y s t u d e n t / t e a c h e r r a t i o . T r e a t m e n t I n d i c a t o r s The t r e a t m e n t v a r i a b l e s were d i v i d e d i n t o two g r o u p s : s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n and E n g l i s h as a Second Language i n d i c a t o r s . The s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n i n d i c a t o r s were d e v e l o p e d from r e s o u r c e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e f o l l o w i n g s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n programmes: l e a r n i n g d i s a b l e d ; e d u c a b l e m i l d l y r e t a r d e d ; t r a i n a b l e m o d e r a t e l y r e t a r d e d ; s e v e r e and p r o f o u n d l y r e t a r d e d ; h o s p i t a l / h o m e b o u n d ; p h y s i c a l l y h a n d i c a p p e d ; r e s i d e n t i a l ; v i s u a l i m p a i r m e n t ; l e a r n i n g i m p a i r m e n t ; a u t i s t i c ; s e v e r e b e h a v i o u r p r o b l e m s ; r e h a b i l i t a t i o n ; e x t r e m e s o f c l i m a t e and d i s t a n c e ; j o b t r a i n i n g f o r m o d e r a t e / s e v e r e h a n d i c a p p e d ; and I n d i a n E d u c a t i o n . The f i r s t i n d i c a t o r u s e d was t h e p e r c e n t a g e o f s t u d e n t s who r e c e i v e s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n s e r v i c e s i n a s c h o o l d i s t r i c t . The number o f s t u d e n t s r e p o r t e d on t h e S p e c i a l Programmes Summary S h e e t and R e q u e s t Form, EDUC 1001, d a t e d S p r i n g , 1981, f o r e a c h d i s t r i c t was d i v i d e d by t h e d i s t r i c t s t u d e n t p o p u l a t i o n r e p o r t e d on Form I d a t e d September 30, 1980, and e x p r e s s e d as a p e r c e n t a g e . The i n d i c a t o r i s t h e p e r c e n t a g e o f s t u d e n t s who r e c e i v e s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n s e r v i c e s i n a s c h o o l d i s t r i c t . The s e c o n d v a r i a b l e a f f i l i a t e d w i t h t h e c l u s t e r o f t r e a t m e n t v a r i a b l e s was t h e t o t a l d o l l a r e x p e n d i t u r e by s c h o o l d i s t r i c t on s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n p e r s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n s t u d e n t . The amount o f d o l l a r s a p p r o v e d f o r e x p e n d i t u r e was d i v i d e d by t h e e n r o l m e n t f r o m t h e same f o r m , EDUC 1001. T h i s y i e l d e d t h e d o l l a r amount expended on s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n p e r s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n s t u d e n t by e a c h s c h o o l d i s t r i c t . The same s o u r c e and p r o c e d u r e were used t o o b t a i n t h e t h i r d i n d i c a t o r , s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n d o l l a r s s p e n t on m a t e r i a l s p e r s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n s t u d e n t f o r e a c h s c h o o l d i s t r i c t . The f i n a l v a r i a b l e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n was a p e r s o n n e l i n d i c a t o r : t h e r a t i o o f t h e number o f s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n s t u d e n t s p e r s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n t e a c h e r . The t o t a l number o f s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n s t u d e n t s was d i v i d e d by t h e t o t a l number o f s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n t e a c h e r s as r e p o r t e d on t h e S p e c i a l Programmes Summary S h e e t and R e q u e s t Form, EDUC 1001. The same r e s o u r c e documents and p r o c e d u r e were used t o o b t a i n t h e f o u r E n g l i s h as a Second Language (ESL) i n d i c a t o r s : t h e p e r c e n t a g e o f ESL s t u d e n t s by s c h o o l d i s t r i c t ; t h e number o f s t u d e n t s i n a d i s t r i c t p e r ESL a p p r o v a l ; t h e amount o f d o l l a r s 75 p e r ESL s t u d e n t expended on ESL Programme; and t h e number o f ESL s t u d e n t s p e r ESL t e a c h e r . Outcome I n d i c a t o r s The l a s t g r o u p o f i n d i c a t o r s was t h a t a f f i l i a t e d w i t h e q u a l i t y o f outcomes. F o u r d i s t i n c t c a t e g o r i e s o f outcomes were u t i l i z e d i n t h e s t u d y : M a t h e m a t i c s A c h i e v e m e n t s c o r e s a t g r a d e s f o u r , e i g h t and t w e l v e ; R e a d i n g A c h i e v e m e n t s c o r e s a t g r a d e s f o u r , e i g h t and t w e l v e ; S c i e n c e A c h i e v e m e n t s c o r e s a t g r a d e s f o u r , e i g h t and t w e l v e l e v e l s and t h e p e r c e n t a g e o f g r a d e t w e l v e g r a d u a t e s p e r s e c o n d a r y e n r o l m e n t . The a c h i e v e m e n t t e s t s were p a r t o f t h e r e g u l a r p r o v i n c i a l a s s e s s m e n t programme. The 1981 M a t h e m a t i c s A s s e s s m e n t was t h e s e c o n d p r o v i n c i a l M a t h e m a t i c s a s s e s s m e n t ; t h e f i r s t was c o n d u c t e d i n 1977. A c c o r d i n g t o R o b i t a i l i e ( 1 9 8 1 ) : The M a t h e m a t i c s A s s e s s m e n t was c a r r i e d o u t i n e a r l y 1981. Over 90,000 s t u d e n t s i n G r a d e s 4, 8 and 12, a l o n g w i t h a sample o f 2,500 Gra d e 10 s t u d e n t s , c o m p l e t e d t e s t b o o k l e t s c o n t a i n i n g i t e m s d e s i g n e d t o a s s e s s t h e i r m a s t e r y o f f i v e c o n t e n t d o m a i n s : Number and O p e r a t i o n , Geometry, Measurement, A l g e b r a i c T o p i c s , and Computer L i t e r a c y (p. 1) • A M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n p o l i c y " a l l o w e d a s s e s s m e n t r e s u l t s f o r l a r g e d i s t r i c t s t o be b a s e d on samples r a t h e r t h a n upon t h e e n t i r e p o p u l a t i o n a t any g r a d e l e v e l " (O'Shea, 1981) O'Shea d e s c r i b e d t h i s p r o c e s s : As a f i r s t s t e p i n c o n s t r u c t i n g t h e sample, a c a l c u l a t i o n was made f o r e a c h d i s t r i c t t o d e t e r m i n e t h e minimum samples s i z e r e q u i r e d t o p r o d u c e a 95% c o n f i d e n c e i n t e r v a l o f a t most 5% on e a c h i t e m . T h a t i s , i n t h e " " w o r s t " c a s e , f o r an i t e m w h i c h 50% o f t h e s t u d e n t s sampled answered c o r r e c t l y , one s h o u l d be "95% s u r e " t h a t , i f a l l t h e s t u d e n t s i n t h e d i s t r i c t had r e s p o n d e d t o t h e i t e m , between 45% and 55% o f them w o u l d have o b t a i n e d t h e c o r r e c t answer t o t h e i t e m . On t h e b a s i s o f t h i s c a l c u l a t i o n , s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s w h i c h were i d e n t i f i e d a s b e i n g l a r g e enough t o a l l o w s a m p l i n g i n t h e A s s e s s m e n t were t h e n u s e d t o p r o v i d e c l a s s e s f o r t h e p i l o t p h ase o f t h e s t u d y (p. 8 9 ) . F o r e a c h s c h o o l d i s t r i c t , an a v e r a g e t o t a l s c o r e o v e r t h e f i v e c o n t e n t domains b a s e d on t h e i r s t u d e n t s a c h i e v e m e n t was computed by t h e D a t a S e r v i c e s B r a n c h , M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n . T h e s e a v e r a g e t o t a l s c o r e s or mean s c o r e f o r M a t h e m a t i c s a t t h e g r a d e s f o u r , e i g h t and t w e l v e were u s e d as outcome i n d i c a t o r s f o r e a c h s c h o o l d i s t r i c t . The s e c o n d g r o u p o f outcome i n d i c a t o r s was a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e P r o v i n c i a l R e a d i n g A s s e s s m e n t o f 1980 w h i c h a s s e s s e d t h e r e a d i n g s k i l l s o f n e a r l y 100,000 s t u d e n t s : The R e a d i n g A s s e s s m e n t was c o n d u c t e d i n t h e S p r i n g of 1980. S t u d e n t s i n G r a d e s 4, 8 and 12 r e s p o n d e d , t o t e s t i t e m s d e s i g n e d t o measure r e a d i n g a c h i e v e m e n t i n f o u r a r e a s : Word A t t a c k , Word M e a n i n g , P a s s a g e C o m p r e h e n s i o n , A p p l i e d R e a d i n g / S t u d y S k i l l s (Tuinman & K e n d a l l , 1980, p.7) A t o t a l s c o r e was computed a c r o s s t h e f o u r a r e a s o r domains f o r e a c h s t u d e n t . Then, an a v e r a g e s t u d e n t s c o r e a t t h e g r a d e f o u r , e i g h t and t w e l v e l e v e l was o b t a i n e d f o r each o f t h e 75 s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s . T h e s e a v e r a g e s c o r e s were u s e d as t h e outcome i n d i c a t o r s i n R e a d i n g . The 1982 P r o v i n c i a l S c i e n c e A s s e s s m e n t p r o v i d e d t h e t h i r d s e t o f outcome i n d i c a t o r s . In t h e c o g n i t i v e domain, t h e a s s e s s m e n t e v a l u a t e d t h r e e a r e a s : S c i e n c e P r o c e s s e s , Knowledge and H i g h e r L e v e l T h i n k i n g . A c c o r d i n g t o t h e 1982 B.C. S c i e n c e A s s e s s m e n t Summary R e p o r t ( T a y l o r , 1 9 82): T h r e e a s s e s s m e n t forms (X,Y and Z) e a c h c o n t a i n i n g d i f f e r e n t a c h i e v e m e n t i t e m s , were a d m i n i s t e r e d a t G r a d e s 4, and 8, and two forms (X and Y) were a d m i n i s t e r e d a t Grade 12. A t o t a l o f o v e r 80,000 p u p i l s w r o t e t h e v a r i o u s a s s e s s m e n t forms (p. 1 3 ) . S a m p l i n g and p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e S c i e n c e A s s e s s m e n t f o l l o w e d p r o c e d u r e s s i m i l a r t o t h o s e o f p r e v i o u s a s s e s s m e n t s . T a y l o r o u t l i n e d t h e method as f o l l o w s : 77 . . . o u t o f t h e 75 s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 63 d i s t r i c t s r e q u i r e d f u l l p a r t i c i p a t i o n o f a l l s c h o o l s i n t h e main a s s e s s m e n t (March,1982) and were t h e r e f o r e n o t a v a i l a b l e f o r s a m p l i n g o r f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e p i l o t p h ase o f t h e A s s e s s m e n t . In t h e r e m a i n i n g 12 d i s t r i c t s , c a r e was needed t o e n s u r e t h a t i f s c h o o l s o r c l a s s e s were used i n t h e p i l o t p h a s e , t h e n t h e r e had t o be r e t a i n e d a s u f f i c i e n t number o f s t u d e n t s f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e main A s s e s s m e n t t o e n s u r e s t a b l e d i s t r i c t s t a t i s t i c s (p. 1 7 ) . The s t u d e n t r e s u l t s were t o t a l l e d o v e r t h e t h r e e domains y i e l d i n g a c o m p o s i t e s c o r e . The c o m p o s i t e s c o r e f o r ea c h s t u d e n t was t h e n t o t a l l e d by d i s t r i c t and d i v i d e d by t h e number o f s t u d e n t s . The r e s u l t was an a v e r a g e s t u d e n t s c i e n c e s c o r e p e r d i s t r i c t a t e a c h o f t h e t h r e e g r a d e l e v e l s . T h e s e s c o r e s were u s e d as outcome i n d i c a t o r s o f a c h i e v e m e n t . The f i n a l outcome i n d i c a t o r was t h e p e r c e n t a g e o f g r a d e t w e l v e g r a d u a t e s t o t h e t o t a l s e c o n d a r y p o p u l a t i o n i n a s c h o o l d i s t r i c t . The s o u r c e s o f d a t a were Form I , d a t e d September 30, 1980 f o r e n r o l m e n t , and t h e S t a t i s t i c a l S e r v i c e s B r a n c h f o r t h e number o f g r a d u a t e s . T h i s v a r i a b l e r e p r e s e n t s t h e d e g r e e o f a c a d e m i c e t h o s i n a s c h o o l d i s t r i c t . F i g u r e 4 p r e s e n t s a summary o f v a r i a b l e s by c a t e g o r y , a b b r e v i a t i o n ( i f a p p l i c a b l e ) and s o u r c e . STATISTICAL METHODOLOGY The d a t a a n a l y s e s have f o u r d i s t i n c t p h a s e s : 1. P r e l i m i n a r y A n a l y s e s ; 2. C o r r e l a t i o n a l A n a l y s e s ; 3. F a c t o r A n a l y s e s ; 4. P a t h A n a l y s e s . P r e l i m i n a r y A n a l y s e s F o r e a c h s c h o o l d i s t r i c t , an a v e r a g e v a l u e was computed f o r V A R I A B L E A B B R E V I A T I O N / T E R M SOURCE E t h n i c i t y 1. E n g l i s h 2. F r e n c h 3. E u r o p e a n 4. A f r o - A s i a n 5. A b o r i g i n a l 6. O t h e r C a n a d a C e n s u s , J u n e , 1 9 8 1 E n g l i s h F r e n c h E u r o p e a n A f r o - A s i a n A b o r i g i n a l O t h e r E n r o l m e n t E n r o l m e n t M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n , F o r m I , S e p t e m b e r , 1980 A c c e s s 1. Y e a r s o f T e a c h e r E x p e r i e n c e 2. L e v e l o f T e a c h e r T r a i n i n g 3. D o l l a r s p e r S t u d e n t S p e n t on E d u c a t i o n a l S u p p l i e s 4. E l e m e n t a r y S t u d e n t / T e a c h e r R a t i o 5. S e c o n d a r y S t u d e n t / T e a c h e r R a t i o E x p e r i e n c e T r a i n i n g B u d g e t E l e m . R a t i o S e c . R a t i o M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n , F o r m J , S e p t e m b e r , 1980 M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n , F o r m J , S e p t e m b e r , 1980 M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n , C o m p a r a t i v e a n d A n a l y t i c a l D a t a : 1981 S c h o o l D i s t r i c t B u d g e t s M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n , F o r m I £ F o r m J , S e p t e m -b e r , 1980 M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n , F o r m I £ F o r m J , S e p t e m -b e r , 1980 T r e a t m e n t 1. P e r c e n t a g e o f S p e c i a l S p e c . S t u d . E d u c a t i o n S t u d e n t s 2. D o l l a r s p e r S p e c i a l S p e c . B u d g e t E d u c a t i o n S t u d e n t S p e n t on S p e c i a l E d u c a t i o n 3. D o l l a r s p e r S p e c i a l S p e c . M a t s E d u c a t i o n S t u d e n t S p e n t on S p e c i a l E d u c a t i o n S u p p l i e s 4. S p e c i a l E d u c a t i o n S p e c . R a t i o S t u d e n t / T e a c h e r R a t i o 5. P e r c e n t a g e o f E n g l i s h a s ESL S t u d , a S e c o n d L a n g u a g e S t u d e n t s 6. Number o f S t u d e n t s p e r E S L A p p r o v . E n g l i s h a s a S e c o n d L a n g u a g e A p p r o v a l 7. D o l l a r s p e r E S L S t u d e n t E S L B u d g e t S p e n t on E S L P r o g r a m m e 8. E S L S t u d e n t / T e a c h e r E S L R a t i o R a t i o M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n , F o r m I , S e p t e m b e r , 1980 M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n , F o r m I , S e p t e m b e r , 1980 M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n , F o r m 1 0 0 1 , S p r i n g , 1981 M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n , S p r i n g , 1981 M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n , F o r m 1 0 0 1 , S p r i n g , 1981 M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n , F o r m 1 0 0 1 , S p r i n g , 1981 M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n , F o r m 1 0 0 1 , S p r i n g , 1981 M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n , F o r m 1 0 0 1 , S p r i n g , 1981 M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n , F o r m 1 0 0 1 , S p r i n g , 1981 F i g u r e 4. Summary o f v a r i a b l e s V A R I A B L E A B B R E V I A T I O N / T E R M SOURCE O u t c o m e 1. R e a d i n g 4 2. R e a d i n g 8 3. R e a d i n g 12 4. M a t h e m a t i c s 4 5. M a t h e m a t i c s 8 6. M a t h e m a t i c s 12 7. S c i e n c e 4 8. S c i e n c e 8 9. S c i e n c e 12 10. P e r c e n t a g e o f G r a d e 12 S c i e n c e 4 S c i e n c e 8 S c i e n c e 12 R e a d i n g 4 R e a d i n g 8 R e a d i n g 12 Math 4 E d . E t h o s 12 Math 8 Math 12 M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n , M a t h e m a t i c s A s s e s s m e n t , S p r i n g , 1981 M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n , R e a d i n g A s s e s s m e n t , S p r i n g , M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n , S c i e n c e A s s e s s m e n t , S p r i n g , 1982 1980 M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n , F o r m .1, S e p t e m b e r , 1980 M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n , S t a t i s t i c a l S e r v i c e s G r a d u a t e s t o T o t a l S e c o n d a r y P o p u l a t i o n B r a n c h , J u n e , 1981 NOTE: The a b b r e v i a t i o n s f o r e a c h v a r i a b l e w h e r e a p p l i c a b l e w i l l be u s e d i n t h e r e s u l t s . F i g u r e 4. Summary o f v a r i a b l e s ( c o n t ' d ) t h e v a r i a b l e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h e t h n i c i t y , a c c e s s , t r e a t m e n t and outcomes. The s c h o o l d i s t r i c t a v e r a g e v a l u e s were e n t e r e d as v a r i a b l e s i n t h e subprogramme CONDESCRIPTIVE i n t h e S t a t i s t i c a l P ackage f o r t h e S o c i a l S c i e n c e s (SPSS) f i l e ( N i e e t a l . , 1975) . T h i s subprogramme computed t h e d e s c r i p t i v e s t a t i s t i c s f o r t h e c o n t i n u o u s i n t e r v a l - l e v e l d a t a and gave t h e f o l l o w i n g d e s c r i p t i v e s t a t i s t i c s : mean, s t a n d a r d e r r o r , s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n , v a r i a n c e , k u r t o s i s , skewness, r a n g e , minimum and maximum. A d i s c u s s i o n i s i n c l u d e d on e a c h v a r i a b l e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h e t h n i c i t y , a c c e s s , t r e a t m e n t and outcomes and i t s r e l a t e d d e s c r i p t i v e s t a t i s t i c s i n C h a p t e r IV. Ea c h v a r i a b l e was t e s t e d f o r n o r m a l i t y u s i n g t h e s u b -programme UBC FREQ ( K i t a , 1 9 7 5). The p u r p o s e o f t h e programme was t o f i t t h e o r e t i c a l d i s t r i b u t i o n s w i t h t h e o b s e r v e d d i s t r i b u t i o n s and t o a s c e r t a i n t h e "goodness o f f i t " . I f t h e o b s e r v e d d i s t r i b u t i o n was s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t t h e n 1 t h e t h e o r e t i c a l n o r m a l d i s t r i b u t i o n (CHIPROB>.05), a d e c i s i o n was made as t o what s t a t i s t i c a l t r a n s f o r m a t i o n was r e q u i r e d i n o r d e r t o s a t i s f y t h e a s s u m p t i o n s o f r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s i s . C o r r e l a t i o n a l A n a l y s e s The P e a r s o n p r o d u c t moment c o r r e l a t i o n was u s e d t o t e s t t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e c o n c o m i t a n t v a r i a t i o n b e t w e e n t h e v a r i a b l e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h e t h n i c i t y , e n r o l m e n t , a c c e s s , t r e a t m e n t and o u t c o m e s . The c o m p u t e r subprogramme PEARSON CORR a s o u t l i n e d i n SPSS ( N i e e t a l . , 1975) was u t i l i z e d . The r e s u l t i n g c o r r e l a t i o n m a t r i c e s p r o v i d e d an o p p o r t u n i t y t o a n a l y z e e a c h v a r i a b l e as an i n d e p e n d e n t m e a s u r e o f v a r i a n c e as w e l l as p r o v i d e d t h e i n p u t s t a t i s t i c f o r f a c t o r a n a l y s i s . The P e a r s o n c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i n t ( r ) i s d e f i n e d as t h e r a t i o o f c o v a r i a t i o n t o t h e s g u a r e r o o t o f t h e p r o d u c t o f v a r i a t i o n i n v a r i a b l e X and t h e v a r i a t i o n i n v a r i a b l e Y and i s r e p r e s e n t e d by t h e f o l l o w i n g f o r m u l a u s e d by SPSS: V N X i Y i -{*. . Xi I M '•' . Y i Li = l " V i = l n . . L i = 1 w h e r e X i = i t h o b s e r v a t i o n o f v a r i a b l e x Y i - i t h o b s e r v a t i o n o f v a r i a b l e y N = number o f o b s e r v a t i o n s F a c t o r A n a l y s e s F a c t o r a n a l y s i s was e m p l o y e d a t t h i s s t a g e t o d e t e r m i n e w h e t h e r p a t t e r n s o f r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h i n g r o u p s o f v a r i a b l e s e x i s t e d so a s t o p e r m i t " r e d u c t i o n " t o a s m a l l e r s e t o f s o u r c e v a r i a b l e s i n an a t t e m p t t o a c c o u n t f o r t h e o b s e r v e d r e l a t i o n s i n t h e d a t a ( N i e e t a l . , 1 9 7 5 , p. 4 6 9 ) . Subprogramme FACTOR p r o d u c e d by S t a t i s t i c a l Pakages f o r t h e S o c i a l S c i e n c e s ( N i e e t a l . , 1 9 7 5 ) was u t i l i z e d . S p e c i f i c a l l y , t h e f a c t o r a n a l y t i c t e c h n i q u e p e r f o r m e d was p r i n c i p a l component f a c t o r i n g w i t h i t e r a t i o n s u s i n g a v a r i m a x o r t h o g o n a l r o t a t e d s o l u t i o n . The c o r r e l a t i o n m a t r i c e s f o r t h e e t h n i c i t y , a c c e s s , t r e a t m e n t and outcome v a r i a b l e s were u s e d as t h e i n p u t d a t a f o r t h e a n a l y s e s . F i r s t , t h e c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s were e n t e r e d on an e x p l o r a t o r y b a s i s t o d e t e r m i n e e i g e n v a l u e s . T h e s e were a n a l y z e d and a number o f f a c t o r s were s p e c i f i e d t o be e x t r a c t e d f o r e a c h o r i g i n a l v a r i a b l e l i s t . P r i n c i p a l component f a c t o r a n a l y s i s t r a n s f o r m s a g i v e n s e t o f v a r i a b l e s i n t o c o m p o s i t e v a r i a b l e s t h a t a r e o r t h o g o n a l . The f i r s t ' p r i n c i p a l component' i s t h e b e s t l i n e a r c o m p o s i t e t h a t a c c o u n t s f o r more o f t h e v a r i a n c e t h a n any o t h e r l i n e a r c o m b i n a t i o n . The s e c o n d ' p r i n c i p a l component' i s t h e s e c o n d b e s t l i n e a r c o m b i n a t i o n t h a t a c c o u n t s f o r t h e most r e s i d u a l v a r i a n c e o nce t h e f i r s t component i s removed. T h i s p r o c e s s i s r e p e a t e d f o r t h e r e m a i n i n g components u n t i l a l l t h e v a r i a n c e i n t h e o r i g i n a l d a t a i s expended. I n i t i a l l y , no a s s u m p t i o n i s made ab o u t t h e u n d e r l y i n g s t r u c t u r e s o f t h e v a r i a b l e s . The s t a t i s t i c a l model f o r p r i n c i p a l component a n a l y s i s i s : Z j = aj-^F-L + A j 2 F 2 + ... + A j n F n where Zj = v a r i a b l e j i n s t a n d a r d i z e d f o r m F i = h y p o t h e t i c a l f a c t o r s A j i = s t a n d a r d i z e d m u l t i p l e r e g r e s s i o n c o e f f i c i e n t v a r i a b l e j on f a c t o r i ( f a c t o r l o a d i n g ) E a c h o f t h e n o b s e r v e d v a r i a b l e s i s d e s c r i b e d l i n e a r l y i n terms o f n new u n c o r r e l a t e d components F-^, F 2 - . . , F n , e a c h o f w h i c h i s i n t u r n d e f i n e d as a l i n e a r c o m b i n a t i o n o f t h e n o r i g i n a l v a r i a b l e s ( N i e e t a l . , 1 9 7 5 , p. 4 7 1 ) . P a t h A n a l y s e s W r i g h t (1934, 1921, 1960) d e v e l o p e d p a t h a n a l y s i s as a method f o r t e s t i n g b o t h t h e d i r e c t and t h e i n d i r e c t e f f e c t s o f a c a u s a l m o d e l . In o t h e r words, p a t h a n a l y s i s does n o t e s t a b l i s h c a u s a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s b u t i s a method o f v e r i f i c a t i o n o f a t h e o r e t i c a l c a u s a l m o d e l . In t h e e v e n t t h e d a t a a r e c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e e x p l a n a t o r y m o d el, t h e t h e o r y has n o t been p r o v e n b u t r a t h e r i s e m p i r i c a l l y s u p p o r t e d . K e r l i n g e r and Ped h a z u r (1973) a s s e r t t h a t f o u r a s s u m p t i o n s a r e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e a p p l i c a t i o n o f p a t h a n a l y s i s . The f i r s t a s s u m p t i o n i s b a s e d on t h e common p r e m i s e s a f f i l i a t e d w i t h a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e : t h a t t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p s among v a r i a b l e s a r e l i n e a r and a d d i t i v e . The u n i q u e a s p e c t o f t h e f i r s t a s s u m p t i o n f o r p a t h a n a l y s i s i s t h a t t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p s among v a r i a b l e s i s a l s o c a u s a l . As w i t h o t h e r s t a t i s t i c a l forms o f a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e , i n t e r a c t i o n , c u r v i l i n e a r and m u l t i p l i c a t i v e r e l a t i o n s a r e e x c l u d e d . The s e c o n d a s s u m p t i o n i s t h a t t h e r e s i d u a l s -- e r r o r s i n p r e d i c t i o n — a r e n o t c o r r e l a t e d w i t h any o t h e r v a r i a b l e s i n t h e model, nor among t h e m s e l v e s . T h e r e f o r e , a l l v a r i a b l e s c o n s i d e r e d t o be r e l e v a n t a r e t o be i n c l u d e d i n t h e t h e o r e t i c a l model so t h a t a l l d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s a r e a l i n e a r c o m b i n a t i o n o f t h e i n d e p e n d e n t and o t h e r d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s p l u s t h e i r r e s i d u a l t e rm. The i n d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s i n t h e model r e m a i n u n a n a l y z e d . The l a s t two a s s u m p t i o n s a r e t h a t t h e v a r i a b l e s a r e e x p r e s s e d i n r a t i o or i n t e r v a l s c a l e s , and t h a t t h e c a u s a l r e l a t i o n among v a r i a b l e s i s o f an u n i d i r e c t i o n a l f l o w w i t h no r e c i p r o c a l c a u s a t i o n . P a t h C o e f f i c i e n t A n a l y s e s . When t h e above a s s u m p t i o n s a r e r e a s o n a b l y met, p a t h c o e f f i c i e n t s a r e s t a n d a r d i z e d p a r t i a l r e g r e s s i o n c o e f f i c e n t s ( y ^ ' s ) . The i m p o r t a n t d i f f e r e n c e between o r d i n a r y r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s i s and p a t h a n a l y s i s i s t h a t t h e o r d i n a r y r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s i s r e g r e s s e s a d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e on a l l i n d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s whereas p a t h a n a l y s i s may r e q u i r e more t h a n one r e g r e s s i o n w i t h a v a r i a b l e b e i n g d e c l a r e d d e p e n d e n t and t h e n r e g r e s s i n g i t on a l l o t h e r v a r i a b l e s assumed t o be i n d e p e n d e n t . T h e r e f o r e , t h e p a t h c o e f f i c i e n t s a r e t h e A : v a l u e s f o r p a t h s l e a d i n g f r o m t h e i n d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s t o t h e d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s . A n o t h e r p u r p o s e o f p a t h a n a l y s i s i s t o p e r m i t t h e v a r i a n c e between two v a r i a b l e s t o be p a r t i t i o n e d i n t o d i r e c t and i n d i r e c t e f f e c t s . P a t h c o e f f i c i e n t s a r e w r i t t e n P i j where s u b s c r i p t " i " i s t h e d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e and s u b s c r i p t " j " i s t h e i n d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e . The e f f e c t c o e f f i c i e n t s , C i j , w h i c h measures t h e change i n X i g i v e n a u n i t change i n X j w h i l e o t h e r v a r i a b l e s a r e f r e e t o a d j u s t t o c h a n g e s i n X j , were c a l c u l a t e d . The C i j ' s r e p r e s e n t t o t a l e f f e c t s , b o t h d i r e c t and i n d i r e c t c o v a r i a t i o n among t h e v a r i a b l e s . In a l l c a s e s , P i j ' s e q u a l t h e d i r e c t c o v a r i a t i o n between X i and X j w h i l e i n d i r e c t c a u s a l c o v a r i a t i o n e q u a l s t h e e f f e c t c o e f f i c i e n t minus t h e d i r e c t c o v a r i a t i o n ( C i j - P i j ) . To c a l c u l a t e t h e p a t h c o e f f i c i e n t s , subprogramme REGRESSION was u s e d from t h e S t a t i s t i c a l Package f o r t h e S o c i a l S c i e n c e s (Nie e t a l . , 1 9 7 5). Once t h e p a t h c o e f f i c i e n t s were computed f o r e a c h p a t h m o d e l , a p a r s i m o n i o u s model was c o n s t r u c t e d u s i n g o n l y t h o s e p a t h s t h a t had e i t h e r a t o t a l e f f e c t s v a l u e ( C i j ) or a d i r e c t e f f e c t s v a l u e ( P i j ) > .17. 84 Two m o d els a r e t h e o r i z e d , a g e n e r a l model o f e t h n i c i t y and s p e c i f i c m o d e ls o f e t h n i c i t y . Under the g e n e r a l model o f e t h n i c i t y , n o n - E n g l i s h i s t h e e t h n i c c a t e g o r y c o n s i d e r e d a l o n g w i t h e n r o l m e n t , a c c e s s and t r e a t m e n t i n d i c a t o r s and b o t h outcome v a r i a b l e s , a c h i e v e m e n t and g r a d u a t e s , a r e i n d e p e n d e n t l y d e s i g n a t e d as outcome i n d i c a t o r s i n s e p a r a t e p a t h m o d e l s . Under t h e s p e c i f i c e t h n i c m o d e l s , p a t h c o e f f i c i e n t s a r e computed, f o r e a c h e t h n i c g r o u p , e n r o l m e n t a c c e s s i n d i c a t o r s , t r e a t m e n t i n d i c a t o r s and e a c h outcome i n d i c a t o r . T h e r e f o r e , t h e r e a r e two s p e c i f i c m odels f o r e a c h e t h n i c g r o u p ; F r e n c h , A b o r i g i n a l , E u r o p e a n and A f r o - A s i a n . In t o t a l , t e n p a t h a n a l y s e s were t e s t e d ; i ) two g e n e r a l e t h n i c models w i t h n o n - E n g l i s h as t h e i n p u t v a r i a b l e and t h e two outcome v a r i a b l e s , a c h i e v e m e n t and g r a d u a t e s , as outcome i n d i c a t o r s ; i i ) e i g h t s p e c i f i c e t h n i c models w i t h t h e f o u r e t h n i c c a t e g o r i e s , E u r o p e a n , F r e n c h , A f r o - A s i a n and A b o r i g i n a l , as t h e i n p u t v a r i a b l e s and t h e two outcome v a r i a b l e s as s e p a r a t e outcome i n d i c a t o r f o r e a c h e t h n i c c a t e g o r y . U s i n g t h e g e n e r a l e t h n i c model ( F i g u r e 6) o f non- E n g l i s h and t h e outcome i n d i c a t o r a c h i e v e m e n t , th e p a t h c o e f f i c i e n t s were c a l c u l a t e d by e s t i m a t i n g t h e f o l l o w i n g l i n e a r e q u a t i o n s t h r o u g h r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s i s : 3,2 X2 3,2 X2 5 , 2 X 2 + P 5 . 3 X 3 + P 5 , 4 X 4 6 2 X 2 + P 6 , 3 X 3 * P 6 , 4 X 4 7,3 X3 + P 7 , 4 X 4 + P 7 , 5 X 5 + P 7 , 6 X 6 E i = l a t e n t v a r i a b l e X i = v a r i a b l e P i j = p a t h c o e f f i c i e n t v a l u e x l X 2 = E 2 X 3 = E 3 + P 3 ,1 X1 + P x 4 = E 4 + P 4 1 X 1 + P X 5 = E 5 + P 5 1 X 1 + P X 6 + E 6 + P 6 1 X 1 + P X 7 = E 7 + P 7 1 X 1 + P C h a p t e r IV RESULTS INTRODUCTION Each o f t h e f o u r a n a l y t i c p h a s e s i n C h a p t e r IV was c h o s e n f o r i t s s t a t i s t i c a l a b i l i t y e i t h e r t o p r e p a r e d a t a or t o t e s t t h e p a r t i c u l a r r e l a t i o n s h i p s as o u t l i n e d by t h e i s s u e s r a i s e d i n C h a p t e r I I I . Phase One, p r e l i m i n a r y a n a l y s e s , was a d a t a p r e p a r a t i o n s t a g e w h i c h c o n s i d e r e d th e d e s c r i p t i v e s t a t i s t i c s f o r e a c h v a r i a b l e and a s c e r t a i n e d whether o r n o t d a t a t r a n s f o r m a t i o n was n e c e s s a r y . Phase Two i n c l u d e d c o r r e l a t i o n a l a n a l y s e s w h i c h t e s t e d f o r c o n c o m i t a n t v a r i a t i o n between s p e c i f i c i n d i c a t o r s . T h e s e a n a l y s e s examined t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p s o u t l i n e d by S u p p l e m e n t a r y Q u e s t i o n s A, B, C, and D as w e l l as S u b s i d i a r y Q u e s t i o n s 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6, s e a r c h i n g f o r r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h i n t h e g r o u p s o f i n d i c a t o r s f o r e t h n i c i t y , a c c e s s , t r e a t m e n t and outcomes and t h e n r e l a t i o n s h i p s among t h e g r o u p s o f i n d i c a t o r s o f e t h n i c i t y , a c c e s s , t r e a t m e n t and outcomes. Phase T h r e e , f a c t o r a n a l y s e s , d e t e r m i n e d u n d e r l y i n g s o u r c e v a r i a b l e s w i t h i n e a c h g r o u p o f i n d i c a t o r s and d e v e l o p e d new i n d i c e s f o r Phase F o u r , p a t h a n a l y s e s . T h e s e p r o c e d u r e s were n e c e s s a r y t o v e r i f y t h e e x i s t e n c e o f u n d e r l y i n g c o n s t r u c t s as w e l l as r e d u c e t h e number o f v a r i a b l e s f o r t h e p a t h a n a l y s i s . F i n a l l y , p a t h a n a l y s i s t e s t e d t h e c a u s a l s y s t e m s p r o p o s e d among t h e g r o u p s o f v a r i a b l e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h e t h n i c i t y , a c c e s s , t r e a t m e n t and outcomes. F i r s t , one p a t h model c o n c e r n i n g g e n e r a l e t h n i c i t y , N o n - E n g l i s h , was t e s t e d . Then e a c h o f f o u r p a t h models w i t h i n t h e N o n - E n g l i s h Groups were t e s t e d : F r e n c h , E u r o p e a n , A f r o - A s i a n and A b o r i g i n a l . E t h n i c i t y I n d i c a t o r s In t h e i n i t i a l d e s c r i p t i v e a n a l y s i s o f d a t a , t h e mean p e r c e n t a g e c o m p o s i t i o n o f t h e e t h n i c v a r i a b l e s a c r o s s s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s was: TABLE 5 P e r c e n t a g e o f t h e A v e r a g e D i s t r i b u t i o n o f E t h n i c G r o u p s i n S c h o o l D i s t r i c t s E n g l i s h 85. .008 F r e n c h 1. .720 E u r o p e a n 9. .622 A f r o - A s i a n 2, .600 A b o r i g i n a l 1. .224 O t h e r .002 I t i s a p p a r e n t f rom t h e s e s t a t i s t i c s t h a t f i r s t , t h e E n g l i s h c o m p o s i t i o n o f s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s i s e x t r e m e l y l a r g e and t h e r e f o r e w i l l overpower t h e v a r i a t i o n o f t h e o t h e r e t h n i c g r o u p s . A l s o , t h e p e r c e n t a g e o f E n g l i s h i s t o o h i g h t o be an a c c u r a t e p r o x y f o r E n g l i s h O r i g i n . The p r o b l e m l i e s i n t h e mother tongue q u e s t i o n used as t h e e t h n i c i t y i n d i c a t o r . C e n sus Canada a s k e d t h e q u e s t i o n , "What i s t h e l a n g u a g e you f i r s t  l e a r n e d i n c h i l d h o o d and s t i l l u n d e r s t a n d " ? Most f i r s t g e n e r a t i o n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a n s would answer E n g l i s h r e g a r d l e s s o f t h e i r e t h n i c b a c k g r o u n d s i n c e E n g l i s h i s t h e dominant l a n g u a g e spoken i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . T h e r e f o r e , t h e v a r i a b l e i s i n d i c a t i n g a s s i m i l a t i o n o f e t h n i c g r o u p s i n t o C a n a d i a n s o c i e t y as w e l l as m e a s u r i n g i n d i v i d u a l s o f E n g l i s h o r i g i n . B e c a u s e o f t h i s d y n a m ic and t h e f a c t t h a t t h e p e r c e n t a g e i s so h i g h f o r E n g l i s h , t h e E n g l i s h as an e t h n i c c a t e g o r y w i l l be e l i m i n a t e d f r o m t h e a n a l y s i s . S e c o n d , t h e " O t h e r " c a t e g o r y has e x t r e m e l y s m a l l v a l u e s and i s t h e r e f o r e i n s i g n i f i c a n t t o t h e t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n s i z e i n t h e s t u d y and hence a l s o w i l l be e x c l u d e d . F i v e e t h n i c g r o u p s a r e l e f t t o be i n c l u d e d i n t h e a n a l y s i s : Non- E n g l i s h , F r e n c h , E u r o p e a n , A f r o - A s i a n and Abor i g i n a l . New v a l u e s were computed f o r t h e e t h n i c g r o u p s w i t h E n g l i s h p o p u l a t i o n and t h e " O t h e r " c a t e g o r y removed. The new v a l u e s f o r t h e r e m a i n i n g f o u r e t h n i c g r o u p s were: TABLE 6 P e r c e n t a g e o f t h e A v e r a g e E t h n i c C o m p o s i t i o n i n S c h o o l D i s t r i c t s F r e n c h 12.4 E u r o p e a n 63.4 A b o r i g i n a l 7.7 A f r o - A s i a n 16.6 The s e c o n d a n a l y s i s showed t h a t F r e n c h c o m p o s i t i o n v a r i e d i n s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s f r o m a low o f 0% t o a h i g h o f 29.5%; E u r o p e a n c o m p o s i t i o n v a r i e d f r o m 9% t o 94.5%; A f r o - A s i a n c o m p o s i t i o n v a r i e d f r o m 1.4% t o 52.2% and A b o r i g i n a l c o m p o s i t i o n v a r i e d f r o m 9% t o 98.3% ( A ppendix 3 ) . A c c e s s I n d i c a t o r s On t h e A c c e s s V a r i a b l e s (Appendix 3 ) , t h e mean y e a r s o f t e a c h e r e x p e r i e n c e by d i s t r i c t was 10.56 y e a r s w i t h a low o f 5.9 y e a r s e x p e r i e n c e and a h i g h o f 14.0 y e a r s o f t e a c h i n g e x p e r i e n c e . No s c h o o l d i s t r i c t had l e s s t h a n 66% o f t h e t e a c h e r s c e r t i f i c a t e d w i t h d e g r e e s . Of t h e 75 s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s , t h e h i g h e s t p e r c e n t a g e o f t e a c h e r s w i t h d e g r e e s was 90.2% w i t h a p r o v i n c i a l a v e r a g e p e r s c h o o l d i s t r i c t 77.67%. The amount o f money s p e n t on i n s t r u c t i o n a l s u p p l i e s v a r i e d c o n s i d e r a b l y between s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s w i t h t h e mean e x p e n d i t u r e a t $ 90.91 p e r s t u d e n t , a low o f $ 38.00 p e r s t u d e n t and a h i g h o f $ 238.00 p e r s t u d e n t . The a v e r a g e s t u d e n t / t e a c h e r r a t i o s a t t h e e l e m e n t a r y and s e c o n d a r y l e v e l s were 19.279 and 16.884, r e s p e c t i v e l y . T r e a t m e n t I n d i c a t o r s The t r e a t m e n t v a r i a b l e s (Appendix 3) u s e d as s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n i n d i c a t o r s had v a l u e s and r e l a t i o n s w h i c h were i n c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e t h e o r e t i c a l m o d e l . The i n d i c a t o r r e p r e s e n t i n g t h e number o f s t u d e n t s who r e c e i v e s e r v i c e i s c o n f o u n d e d by t h e f a c t t h a t i n r e p o r t i n g a s t u d e n t who i s l a b e l l e d n a t i v e , h e a r i n g i m p a i r e d and m i l d l y r e t a r d e d may be c o u n t e d as t h r e e s t u d e n t s . T h i s p r o c e d u r e o f r e p o r t i n g y i e l d s some s c h o o l d i s t r i c t w i t h a v e r y h i g h p e r c e n t a g e o f s t u d e n t s r e c e i v i n g s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n s e r v i c e s . The p e r c e n t a g e o f s t u d e n t s r e c e i v i n g s u c h s e r v i c e s v a r i e s f r o m a low o f 9.5% t o a h i g h o f 100% f o r t h r e e d i s t r i c t s w i t h a mean o f 28%. In e s s e n c e , l e s s t h a n o n e - t h i r d o f t h e s t u d e n t s a r e r e c e i v i n g s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n s e r v i c e s . When t h e n a t u r a l d e m o g r a p h i c s , s u c h as t h e p e r c e n t o f s t u d e n t s who s h o u l d have s p e c i a l p r o b l e m s i s compared w i t h t h e r e p o r t e d p e r c e n t a g e , t h e v a l i d i t y o f how some s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s c a t e g o r i z e s t u d e n t s as s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n s t u d e n t s must be q u e s t i o n e d . The same p a t t e r n i s e v i d e n t when t h e d o l l a r s s p e n t per d i s t r i c t on s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n i n t o t a l and m a t e r i a l s , s p e c i f i c a l l y , a r e e x a m i n e d . A l a r g e v a r i a n c e e x i s t s w i t h i n t h e t o t a l f u n d s s p e n t p e r s t u d e n t as w e l l as f o r m a t e r i a l s i n s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n . The t o t a l d o l l a r s p e n t v a r i e s between a low o f $120.00 p e r s t u d e n t t o a h i g h o f $735.00 p e r s t u d e n t w i t h a mean o f $ 2 3 9 . 0 0 ; w h i l e s p e c i f i c m a t e r i a l e x p e n d i t u r e s v a r i e d between a low o f $2.00 p e r s t u d e n t t o a h i g h o f $53.00 w i t h a mean o f $ 1 0 . 7 3 . I t i s o b v i o u s f r o m t h e s e e x p e n d i t u r e p a t t e r n s t h a t s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n o b t a i n s c o n s i d e r a b l y g r e a t e r f u n d i n g i n some d i s t r i c t s t h a n o t h e r s . The l a s t t r e a t m e n t v a r i a b l e d e a l t w i t h p e r s o n n e l and t h e i r u t i l i z a t i o n , t h e s t u d e n t / t e a c h e r r a t i o f o r s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n . A l t h o u g h t h e s m a l l e r r a t i o s b elow 25 s t u d e n t s t o one t e a c h e r a r e a p p r o p r i a t e , t h e e x c e e d i n g l y h i g h r a t i o s i n e x c e s s o f 25 s t u d e n t s p e r t e a c h e r must be an a r t i f a c t o f l a b e l l i n g a s t u d e n t t h r o u g h v a r i o u s c a t e g o r i e s t h u s i n c r e a s i n g t h e a c t u a l number o f s t u d e n t s who have c o n t a c t w i t h a t e a c h e r . A l s o , t h e r a t i o s 152 t o 1 or 141 t o 1 may be c r e a t e d by programmes w h i c h a r e n o t h o u s e d i n s e l f - c o n t a i n e d c l a s s r o o m s s u c h as L e a r n i n g A s s i s t a n c e t e a c h e r s . They come i n t o c o n t a c t w i t h a g r e a t e r number o f s t u d e n t s o v e r a y e a r t h a n t e a c h e r s o f t h e m e n t a l l y r e t a r d e d , who a r e t y p i c a l l y h o u s e d i n s e l f - c o n t a i n e d c l a s s r o o m s . The s e c o n d g r o u p o f t r e a t m e n t i n d i c a t o r s were t h o s e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h E n g l i s h as a Second Language. The p e r c e n t a g e o f s t u d e n t s who were c l a s s i f i e d as E n g l i s h as a Second Language s t u d e n t s v a r i e d f r o m 0% t o 1 1 % o f t h e t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n o f a s c h o o l d i s t r i c t and t h e mean was 1.3%. J u s t as t h e p e r c e n t o f s t u d e n t s c l a s s i f i e d a s E n g l i s h as a S e c o n d L a n g u a g e s t u d e n t s v a r i e d c o n s i d e r a b l y , so d o e s t h e number o f t o t a l s t u d e n t s p e r E n g l i s h as a S e c o n d L a n g u a g e a p p r o v a l s . T h i s c o u l d be t h e r e s u l t o f E n g l i s h a s a S e c o n d L a n g u a g e s t u d e n t s c l u s t e r i n g i n c e r t a i n l o c a t i o n s b e c a u s e o f i m m i g r a t i o n p a t t e r n s . The low was an a p p r o v a l f o r 411 s t u d e n t s and t h e h i g h was o v e r 11,394 s t u d e n t s p e r a p p r o v a l . The e x p e n d i t u r e o f d o l l a r s p e r E n g l i s h as a S e c o n d L a n g u a g e s t u d e n t was r a t h e r l o w on t h e a v e r a g e . A l t h o u g h t h e amount o f f u n d s e x p e n d e d v a r i e d f r o m $ 3.00 t o $ 72.00 p e r s t u d e n t , t h e mean p e r s c h o o l d i s t r i c t was $ 14.95. The i n d i c a t o r o f E n g l i s h as a S e c o n d L anguage w h i c h d e a l t w i t h s t a f f i n g , an E n g l i s h as a S e c o n d L a n g u a g e s t u d e n t / t e a c h e r r a t i o , showed e x t r e m e v a r i a t i o n . The d i f f e r e n c e i n p r o g r a m i n g and how t h e E n g l i s h a s a S e c o n d L a n g u a g e t e a c h e r i s u t i l i z e d e i t h e r i n a s e l f - c o n t a i n e d c l a s s r o o m o r a s an i t i n e r a n t t e a c h e r w o u l d c r e a t e s u c h d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e s t u d e n t / t e a c h e r r a t i o . Outcome I n d i c a t o r s T a b l e 7 o u t l i n e s t h e b a s i c d e s c r i p t i v e s t a t i s t i c s f o r t h e outcome v a r i a b l e s f o r s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s . N o r m a l i t y T e s t s The d i s t r i b u t i o n o f e a c h v a r i a b l e was a s s e s s e d f o r n o r m a l d i s t r i b u t i o n by t h e subprogramme UBC FREQ ( K i t a , 1 9 7 5 ) . S e v e r a l e t h n i c and t r e a t m e n t v a r i a b l e s h a d o b s e r v e d d i s t r i b u t i o n s w h i c h w e r e s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t t h a n t h e t h e o r e t i c a l n o r m a l d i s t r i b u t i o n (CHIPROB> . 0 5 ) . -91 T A B L E 7 D e s c r i p t i v e S t a t i s t i c s on O u t c o m e V a r i a b l e s Low H i g h Mean S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n R e a d i n g 4 61. ,3 83. ,0 77. ,1 3. ,5 R e a d i n g 8 54. .5 74. .8 67. .6 3. ,9 R e a d i n g 12 54. .0 75. .0 67, ,0 3. .3 Math 4 45. .2 65. .4 57, ,3 3. .4 Math 8 39. .3 65, .5 53, .8 4. .5 Math 12 42. .8 73. .0 57, .9 4. .8 S c i e n c e 4 36. .3 71. .8 62. .3 5. .3 S c i e n c e 8 42, .3 59. .7 53. .9 2. .8 S c i e n c e 12 41. .7 67. .4 53. .3 4, .0 E d . E t h o s 12 7, .5 19. .8 13. .7 2. .5 The e t h n i c v a l u e s w h i c h needed t r a n s f o r m a t i o n were A f r o -A s i a n and A b o r i g i n a l . A l l d i s t r i b u t i o n s f o r t h e t r e a t m e n t v a r i a b l e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n and E n g l i s h as a Second Language were s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t f r o m n o r m a l and hence r e q u i r e d t r a n s f o r m a t i o n i f t h e a s s u m p t i o n o f a d d i t i v i t y o f e f f e c t s was t o be t e n a b l e . S i n c e t h e v a r i a b l e s were p o s i t i v e l y skewed, a l o g a r i t h m i c t r a n s f o r m a t i o n was p e r f o r m e d on t h e v a r i a b l e s . The n o r m a l d i s t r i b u t i o n t e s t c o m p l e t e d t h e d a t a p r e p a r a t i o n f o r s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s . CORRELATIONAL ANALYSES P e a r s o n p r o d u c t moment c o r r e l a t i o n s were c a l c u l a t e d u s i n g t h e subprogramme PEARSON CORR (Ni e e t a . , 1975) among a l l t h e v a r i a b l e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h e t h n i c i t y , e n r o l m e n t , a c c e s s , t r e a t m e n t and o u t c o m e s ( A p p e n d i x 1 ) . The r e s u l t s o f t h e c o r r e l a t i o n a l a n a l y s e s a r e d i s c u s s e d by s e c t i o n . E t h n i c i t y and E n r o l m e n t . A s s o c i a t i o n s among s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s i z e and f o u r i n d i c a t o r s o f e t h n i c i t y — F r e n c h , E u r o p e a n , A f r o - A s i a n and A b o r i g i n a l — a r e shown i n T a b l e 8. T A B L E 8 C o r r e l a t i o n s Among E t h n i c a n d E n r o l m e n t V a r i a b l e s F r e n c h E u r o p e a n A f r o - A s i a n A b o r i g i n a l E u r o p e a n -10 A f r o - A s i a n 04 - 4 1 * * A b o r i g i n a l .19 - 6 2 * * -08 E n r o l m e n t -19 -06 4 0 * * - 3 0 * * s i g n i f i c a n c e ^ ^ .01 * * s i g n i f i c a n c e <. .001 NOTE: C o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s w i l l be r e p o r t e d as two v a l u e p l a c e s a n d w i t h o u t d e c i m a l s . When t h e t o t a l N o n - E n g l i s h p o p u l a t i o n was d i v i d e d i n t o s p e c i f i c e t h n i c g r o u p s c e r t a i n t r e n d s became e v i d e n t i n e t h n i c s e t t l e m e n t p a t t e r n s among t h e s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s , a l t h o u g h , n o t s u r p r i s i n g l y , t h e s e t t l e m e n t p a t t e r n o f t h e F r e n c h p o p u l a t i o n was n o t s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t by s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s i z e . F r e n c h a l o n g w i t h E n g l i s h i s one o f t h e f o u n d i n g e t h n i c g r o u p s o f C a n a d a ; h e n c e , F r e n c h e t h n i c i t y as i n d i c a t e d by l a n g u a g e was p r o b a b l y c o n f o u n d e d by t h e p r o c e s s o f a s s i m i l a t i o n i n t o t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a c u l t u r e . A s i g n i f i c a n t p a t t e r n d i d emerge among t h e o t h e r t h r e e e t h n i c g r o u p s . The A b o r i g i n a l p o p u l a t i o n i s r e l a t i v e l y l a r g e r i n s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s w i t h s m a l l s t u d e n t p o p u l a t i o n s w h i l e t h e A f r o - A s i a n p o p u l a t i o n i s r e l a t i v e l y l a r g e r i n l a r g e p o p u l a t i o n c e n t r e s . The E u r o p e a n p o p u l a t i o n i s r e l a t i v e l y l a r g e r i n c o m m u n i t i e s w h i c h have n e i t h e r a l a r g e p r o p o r t i o n o f A b o r i g i n a l s nor A f r o - A s i a n s . E x c l u d i n g , F r e n c h and E n g l i s h , e t h n i c g r o u p s t e n d t o s e t t l e i n c l u s t e r s s u b s t a n t i a t i n g t h e m o s a i c a n a l o g y r a t h e r t h a n t h e a s s i m i l a t i o n a n a l o g y o f e t h n i c s e t t l e m e n t . A c c e s s The c o r r e l a t i o n m a t r i x p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e 9 d i s p l a y s t h e c o n c o m i t a n t v a r i a t i o n among t h e a c c e s s v a r i a b l e s — t h e human and m a t e r i a l r e s o u r c e s a v a i l a b l e t o s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s . TABLE 9 C o r r e l a t i o n s Among A c c e s s V a r i a b l e s B u d g e t T r a i n i n g E x p e r i e n c e E l e m . R a t i o T r a i n i n g -06 E x p e r i e n c e -20 3 1 * E l e m . R a t i o - 3 9 * * 04 09 S e c . R a t i o - 3 1 * * 23 19 44** * s i g n i f i c a n c e O < ^ . 0 1 ** s i g n i f i c a n c e ^ < .001 The e x p e n d i t u r e o f d o l l a r s on s t u d e n t s u p p l i e s i n s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s was s i g n i f i c a n t l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e e l e m e n t a r y s t u d e n t / t e a c h e r r a t i o and t h e s e c o n d a r y s t u d e n t / t e a c h e r r a t i o . The s m a l l e r t h e s t u d e n t / t e a c h e r r a t i o was i n a s c h o o l d i s t r i c t , t h e g r e a t e r t h e amount o f money was b e i n g s p e n t on s t u d e n t s u p p l i e s . T h i s t r e n d may r e f l e c t e c o n o m i e s o f s c a l e i n p u r c h a s i n g power or a c o m p e n s a t i n g a t t i t u d e i n t h e s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s i n c e t h e amount o f t e a c h e r e x p e r i e n c e and q u a l i f i c a t i o n , b o t h h i g h c o s t f a c t o r s , a r e n e g a t i v e l y r e l a t e d t o e x p e n d i t u r e s i n s t u d e n t s u p p l i e s . The amount o f t e a c h e r e x p e r i e n c e was p o s i t i v e l y and s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e l a t e d t o t e a c h e r g u a l i f i c a t i o n s . The o n l y o t h e r s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p a p p e a r e d between t h e e l e m e n t a r y and s e c o n d a r y s t u d e n t / t e a c h e r r a t i o s . The same p a t t e r n o f s t u d e n t / t e a c h e r r a t i o s was l i k e l y t o be o b s e r v e d a t b o t h t h e e l e m e n t a r y and s e c o n d a r y l e v e l s w i t h i n a d i s t r i c t . T r e a t m e n t T a b l e 10 p r e s e n t s t h e c o n c o m i t a n t v a r i a t i o n among t h e e i g h t t r e a t m e n t v a r i a b l e s , f o u r o f w h i c h were r e l a t e d t o s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n w h i l e t h e o t h e r f o u r were d e v e l o p e d f r o m E n g l i s h as a S e c ond Language (ESL)programmes. TABLE 10 C o r r e l a t i o n s Among T r e a t m e n t V a r i a b l e s S p e c . S p e c . S p e c . S p e c . E S L E S L E S L S t u d . B u d g e t M a t s . R a t i o S t u d . A p p r o v . B u d g e t S p e c . B u d g e t - 3 3 * S p e c . M a t s . - 4 7 * * 3 6 * * S p e c . R a t i o 8 4 * * - 4 7 * * - 6 0 * * ESL S t u d . -16 02 19 -04 ESL A p p r o v . -17 02 08 01 5 8 * * ESL B u d g e t 14 -.08 -11 01 - 6 8 * * ESL R a t i o -05 08 20 04 7 2 * * * s i g n i f i c a n c e ^ ( K .01 * * s i g n i f i c a n c e ^ K. .001 S i m i l a r r e s u l t s a p p e a r e d w i t h i n b o t h t h e s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n and t h e ESL i n d i c a t o r s . In p a r t i c u l a r , t h e g r e a t e r t h e p e r c e n t a g e o f s t u d e n t s i n s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s who g u a l i f y f o r e i t h e r o f t h e s e programmes t h e fewer r e s o u r c e s a v a i l a b l e t o e a c h s t u d e n t . As t h e p e r c e n t a g e o f s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n s t u d e n t s i n c r e a s e d i n a d i s t r i c t , t h e s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n s t u d e n t / t e a c h e r r a t i o i n c r e a s e d and fewer d o l l a r s p e r s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n s t u d e n t were s p e n t on t h e s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n programmes or s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n m a t e r i a l s . When s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n f u n d i n g i n c r e a s e d p e r s t u d e n t , more d o l l a r s p e r s t u d e n t were s p e n t on m a t e r i a l s and t h e s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n s t u d e n t / t e a c h e r r a t i o was l o w e r . A l s o when t h e s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n s t u d e n t / t e a c h e r r a t i o i n c r e a s e d , fewer d o l l a r s p e r s t u d e n t were s p e n t on m a t e r i a l s . A s i m i l a r t r e n d was o b s e r v e d among t h e E n g l i s h a s a Second Language v a r i a b l e s . As t h e p e r c e n t a g e o f ESL s t u d e n t s i n c r e a s e d i n a d i s t r i c t , t h e ESL s t u d e n t / t e a c h e r r a t i o i n c r e a s e d , t h e number o f s t u d e n t s p e r ESL a p p r o v a l i n c r e a s e d and fewer d o l l a r s p e r ESL s t u d e n t were s p e n t on t h e ESL programme. When ESL f u n d i n g p e r s t u d e n t i n c r e a s e d , fewer s t u d e n t s e x i s t e d p e r ESL a p p r o v a l and t h e ESL s t u d e n t / t e a c h e r r a t i o was l o w e r . A l s o , t h e number o f s t u d e n t s p e r ESL a p p r o v a l was s i g n i f i c a n t l y and p o s i t i v e l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e ESL s t u d e n t / t e a c h e r r a t i o : t h e more ESL s t u d e n t s p e r a p p r o v a l , t h e more ESL s t u d e n t s p e r ESL t e a c h e r . A p p a r e n t l y , t h e same dynamic was o c c u r r i n g w i t h i n b o t h g r o u p s o f v a r i a b l e s : an i n c r e a s e d s t u d e n t demand f o r fewer r e s o u r c e s as t h e s t u d e n t p o p u l a t i o n became l a r g e r i n a d i s t r i c t . Outcomes T a b l e 11 p r e s e n t s t h e c o r r e l a t i o n m a t r i x f o r t h e outcome v a r i a b l e s : a v e r a g e s t u d e n t t e s t s c o r e s p e r d i s t r i c t o v e r t h r e e g r a d e l e v e l s i n R e a d i n g , M a t h e m a t i c s , S c i e n c e , and e d u c a t i o n a l e t h o s , t h e p e r c e n t a g e o f Grade 12 s t u d e n t s . TABLE 11 C o r r e l a t i o n s Among Ou t c o m e V a r i a b l e s R e a d i n g 4 R e a d i n g 8 R e a d i n g 12 H a t h 4 H a t h 8 Math 12 S c i e n c e 4 S c i e n c e 8 S c i e n c e 12 R e a d i n g 8 5 8 * * R e a d i n g 12 3 8 * * 6 3 * * Math 4 5 7 * * 6 7 * * 6 5 * * M a t h 8 6 3 * * 7 3 * * 4 8 * * 7 0 * * Math 12 26 26 4 6 * * 3 1 * 3 7 * * S c i e n c e 4 4 8 * * 5 2 * * 4 0 * * 5 2 * * 4 3 * * 24 S c i e n c e 8 6 4 * * 4 9 * * 4 6 * * 5 9 * * . 5 4 * * 21 3 3 * S c i e n c e 12 -13 -05 -11 -01 04 11 -02 E d . E t h o s 12 3 8 * * 5 4 * * 3 6 * * 4 2 * * 5 2 * * 20 3 7 * * * s i g n i f i c a n c e ^ ( ^ .01 * * s i g n i f i c a n c e ^ .001 97 A l l outcomes e x c e p t m a t h e m a t i c s 12 s c o r e s and s c i e n c e 12 s c o r e s , were p o s i t i v e l y and s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e l a t e d t o e a c h o t h e r . M a t h e m a t i c s 12 s c o r e s were a s s o c i a t e d w i t h o n l y r e a d i n g 12, and m a t h e m a t i c s 4 and 8 s c o r e s ; s c i e n c e 12 was n o t s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e l a t e d t o any o t h e r outcome v a r i a b l e . The r e s u l t s f o r m a t h e m a t i c s 12 s c o r e s and s c i e n c e 12 s c o r e s may be a t t r i b u t e d t o one o f t h r e e f a c t o r s : 1. t h e e x a m i n a t i o n s may have been c o n s t r u c t e d t o measure some c o n s t r u c t o t h e r t h a n t h a t measured by t h e o t h e r a c h i e v e m e n t t e s t s measured; or 2. t h e y were p o o r l y c o n s t r u c t e d and hence d i d n o t p r o v i d e v a l i d measure o f a c h i e v e m e n t ; or 3. a l l s e c o n d a r y s t u d e n t s a r e r e g u i r e d t o t a k e E n g l i s h / R e a d i n g c o u r s e s up t o and i n c l u d i n g t h e Grade 12 l e v e l , b u t n o t M a t h e m a t i c s or S c i e n c e . Many h i g h s c h o o l s t u d e n t s t a k e t h e i r l a s t M a t h e m a t i c s o r S c i e n c e c o u r s e d u r i n g Grade 10. However, a l l Grade 12 s t u d e n t s were r e q u i r e d t o w r i t e t h e p r o v i n c i a l a s s e s s m e n t e x a m i n a t i o n s ; t h e r e f o r e , t h e r e s u l t s on t h e s e s t a n d a r d i z e d t e s t s may be an a r t i f a c t o f s t u d e n t programming r a t h e r t h a n a measure o f a c h i e v e m e n t . G e n e r a l l y , c o r r e l a t i o n s a c r o s s e x a m i n a t i o n s a r e h i g h i n s p i t e o f t h e f a c t t h a t t h e e x a m i n a t i o n s were g i v e n t o c o m p l e t e l y d i f f e r e n t s t u d e n t p o p u l a t i o n s i n e a c h s c h o o l d i s t r i c t o v e r a t h r e e y e a r p e r i o d . A p p a r e n t l y , t h e d y n a m i c s w h i c h i n f l u e n c e a c h i e v e m e n t w i t h i n a s c h o o l d i s t r i c t a r e f a i r l y s t a b l e o v e r s t u d e n t p o p u l a t i o n s and t i m e . E t h n i c i t y and A c c e s s B i v a r i a t e a n a l y s i s o f t h e e t h n i c v a r i a b l e s , s t u d e n t e n r o l m e n t , and t h e a c c e s s v a r i a b l e s i s p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e 12. The p e r c e n t a g e o f F r e n c h and p e r c e n t a g e o f A b o r i g i n a l p o p u l a t i o n s were n e g a t i v e l y and s i g n i f i c a n t l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e p e r c e n t a g e o f t e a c h e r s who had d e g r e e s . W h i l e t e a c h e r s 98 TABLE 12 C o r r e l a t i o n s Among E t h n i c , E n r o l m e n t a n d A c c e s s V a r i a b l e s J E t h n i c / A c c e s s V a r i a b l e s E n r o l m e n t V a r i a b l e s B u d g e t T r a i n i n g E x p e r i e n c e E l e m . S e c . R a t i o R a t i o F r e n c h -10 - 3 5 * * -13 11 04 E u r o p e a n -20 -03 4 5 * * 19 09 A f r o - A s i a n - 2 9 * 25 -02 22 20 A b o r i g i n a l 19 - 2 8 * - 4 9 * * -06 -20 E n r o l m e n t -10 4 8 * * 3 3 * 15 2 9 * * s i g n i f i c a n c e 6 ^ ^ .01 * * s i g n i f i c a n c e ^ .001 e x p e r i e n c e was p o s i t i v e l y and s i g n i f i c a n t l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h E u r o p e a n e t h n i c i t y , i t was n e g a t i v e l y and s i g n i f i c a n t l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h A b o r i g i n a l e t h n i c i t y . The o n l y o t h e r s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p i n v o l v i n g an e t h n i c g r o u p a p p e a r e d b e t w e e n t h e A f r o - A s i a n e t h n i c i t y and l e s s m o n i e s s p e n t on s t u d e n t s u p p l i e s . S t u d e n t e n r o l m e n t v a r i a b l e was s i g n i f -i c a n t l y r e l a t e d t o t h r e e a c c e s s v a r i a b l e s : t h e p e r c e n t a g e o f t e a c h e r s w i t h d e g r e e s , t h e number o f y e a r s o f e x p e r i e n c e o f t e a c h e r s and t h e s e c o n d a r y s t u d e n t / t e a c h e r r a t i o . E t h n i c i t y and T r e a t m e n t P o s s i b l e r e l a t i o n s h i p s b e t w e e n e t h n i c g r o u p s and e q u a l i t y o f e d u c a t i o n a l t r e a t m e n t were e x a m i n e d n e x t . C o r r e l a t i o n s among t h e f o u r e t h n i c c a t e g o r i e s , s t u d e n t e n r o l m e n t , and t h e e i g h t t r e a t m e n t v a r i a b l e s a r e shown i n T a b l e 13. The number o f s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p s u n c o v e r e d b e t w e e n e t h n i c i t y and t r e a t m e n t was l i m i t e d . S t r o n g e s t a s s o c a t i o n s between a t r e a t m e n t i n d i c a t o r and t h e e t h n i c i t y v a r i a b l e s a p p e a r e d f o r t h e p e r c e n t a g e o f o f s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n s t u d e n t s i n a s c h o o l d i s t r i c t . Two e t h n i c c a t e g o r i e s were s i g n i f i c a n t l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e p e r c e n t a g e o f s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n s t u d e n t s : t h e E u r o p e a n p o p u l a t i o n was n e g a t i v e l y r e l a t e d w h i l e t h e A b o r i g i n a l p o p u l a t i o n was p o s i t i v e l y r e l a t e d . E n r o l m e n t was a l s o s i g n i f i c a n t l y b u t n e g a t i v e l y r e l a t e d t o p e r c e n t a g e o f s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n s t u d e n t s . T h i s i m p l i e s t h a t a g r e a t e r p e r c e n t a g e o f s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n s t u d e n t s were f o u n d i n s m a l l e r p o p u l a t i o n c e n t r e s . The o n l y o t h e r t r e a t m e n t v a r i a b l e w h i c h was TABLE 13 C o r r e l a t i o n s Among E t h n i c , E n r o l m e n t a n d T r e a t m e n t V a r i a b l e s E t h n i c / E n r o l m e n t V a r i a b l e s T r e a t m e n t V a r i a b l e s S p e c . S t u d . S p e c . B u d g e t S p e c . M a t s . S p e c . R a t i o E S L S t u d . E S L A p p r o v ESL . B u d g e t ESL R a t i o F r e n c h 05 -21 -09 -01 -08 -02 03 -06 E u r o p e a n - 3 6 * * 06 14 -20 -18 04 "11 -13 A f r o - A s i a n -16 06 10 -06 5 4 * * 08 -22 22 A b o r i g i n a l 3 3 * -01 -06 12 -01 -07 01 -01 E n r o l m e n t - 3 2 * 03 06 -12 2 8 * 19 -24 15 * s i g n i f i c a n c e •01 * * s i g n i f i c a n c e < .001 o f s t a t i s t i c a l i m p o r t a n c e was t h e p e r c e n t a g e o f E n g l i s h as a Second Language s t u d e n t s w h i c h was p o s i t i v e l y r e l a t e d t o b o t h A f r o - A s i a n e t h n i c i t y and e n r o l m e n t . E t h n i c i t y and Outcomes The n e x t a n a l y s e s examined r e l a t i o n s h i p s between outcomes and e t h n i c c o m p o s i t i o n o f s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s . The t e n outcome v a r i a b l e s , t h e f o u r e t h n i c i t y v a r i a b l e s , and s c h o o l d i s t r i c t TABLE 14 C o r r e l a t i o n s Among E t h n i c , E n r o l m e n t a n d O u t c o m e V a r i a b l e s E t h n i c / Outcome V a r i a b l e s E n r o l m e n t :  V a r i a b l e s R e a d i n g 4 R e a d i n g 8 R e a d i n g 12 Math 4 Math 8 M a t h 12 S c i e n c e 4 S c i e n c e 8 S c i e n c e 12 E d . E t i h o s 12 F r e n c h -01 01 05 01 05 06 -03 11 ' -05 -16 E u r o p e a n 5 6 * * 6 1 * * 5 6 * * 5 5 * * 5 1 * * 2 9 * 4 7 * * 5 5 * * -10 5 0 * * A f r o - A s i a n -01 -05 -06 07 11 12 09 -17 -18 -09 A b o r i g i n a l - 6 4 * * - 5 6 * * - 3 9 * * - 5 0 * * - 5 1 * * -22 - 4 8 * * - 3 9 * * 15 - 4 5 * * E n r o l m e n t 17 25 13 21 3 5 * 26 23 -03 -05 18 * s i g n i f i c a n c e b( .01 * * s i g n i ' f i c a n c e 0<^  < ^ .001 101 e n r o l m e n t were t h e i n p u t v a r i a b l e s t o o b t a i n t h e P e a r s o n c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s shown i n T a b l e 14. A d e f i n i t e p a t t e r n a p p e a r e d between two o f t h e e t h n i c g r o u p s and t h e outcome m e a s u r e s . The a s s o c i a t i o n between t h e p e r c e n t a g e o f E u r o p e a n s i n a s c h o o l d i s t r i c t and s t u d e n t outcomes was p o s i t i v e and e x t r e m e l y s t r o n g . The r e l a t i o n s h i p was s i g n i f i c a n t f o r a l l outcomes e x c e p t S c i e n c e 12; p r o p o r t i o n o f E u r o p e a n s p r e d i c t e d between 10% and 36% o f t h e v a r i a n c e i n a c h i e v e m e n t s c o r c e s , and 25% o f t h e v a r i a n c e i n Grade 12 g r a d u a t e s . As p r e v i o u s l y d i s c u s s e d , t h e v a l i d i t y o f S c i e n c e 12 t e s t s c o r e s must be q u e s t i o n e d s i n c e i t d i d n o t c o r r e l a t e w i t h t h e o t h e r s e v e n outcome m e a s u r e s . E x a c t l y t h e o p p o s i t e t r e n d was o b s e r v e d when t h e A b o r i g i n a l g r o u p was c o n s i d e r e d . The r e l a t i o n s h i p was n e g a t i v e and s i g n i f i c a n t w i t h a l l outcome v a r i a b l e s e x c e p t G r a d e 12 M a t h e m a t i c s and S c i e n c e . A c c e s s and T r e a t m e n t The c o r r e l a t i o n m a t r i x shown i n T a b l e 15 p r e s e n t s t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p s among t h e f i v e a c c e s s v a r i a b l e s and t h e e i g h t t r e a t m e n t v a r i a b l e s . As w i t h p r e v i o u s a n a l y s i s w h i c h i n c l u d e d t r e a t m e n t v a r i a b l e s , b o t h t h e p e r c e n t a g e o f s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n and p e r c e n t a g e o f ESL r a t i o s s i g n i f i c a n t l y e x p l a i n e d t h e amount o f v a r i a n c e . The p e r c e n t a g e o f s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n s t u d e n t s was s i g n i f i c a n t l y and n e g a t i v e l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e t h r e e o f t h e f i v e a c c e s s v a r i a b l e s : t e a c h e r e x p e r i e n c e ; e l e m e n t a r y s t u d e n t / t e a c h e r r a t i o ; and s e c o n d a r y s t u d e n t / t e a c h e r r a t i o . I n o t h e r words, as t h e p e r c e n t a g e o f s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n s t u d e n t s 102 T A B L E 15 C o r r e l a t i o n s Among A c c e s s a n d T r e a t m e n t V a r i a b l e s T r e a t m e n t V a r i a b l e s V a r i a b l e s S p e c . S p e c . S p e c . S p e c . E S L ESL ESL ESL S t u d . B u d g e t M a t s . R a t i o S t u d . A p p r o v . B u d g e t R a t i o B u d g e t 21 02 -11 09 -21 -19 20 -21 T r a i n i n g -23 -04 13 -04 29* 17 -21 28 E x p e r i e n c e -40** -07 15 -15 -07 14 -09 03 E l e m . R a t i o _44** -02 11 -31* 21 23 -29** 13 S e c . R a t i o -30* -05 -05 -06 30* 27 -23 19 * s i g n i f i c a n c e K ^ .01 * * s i g n i f i c a n c e U < .ooi i n a s c h o o l d i s t r i c t i n c r e a s e d , t h e number o f y e a r s o f t e a c h e r e x p e r i e n c e d e c r e a s e d as d i d t h e s t u d e n t / t e a c h e r r a t i o a t b o t h t h e e l e m e n t a r y and s e c o n d a r y l e v e l s . A d i f f e r e n t t r e n d was o b s e r v e d when t h e p e r c e n t a g e o f ESL s t u d e n t s i n a d i s t r i c t was c o n s i d e r e d . As t h e p e r c e n t a g e o f ESL s t u d e n t s i n c r e a s e d , t h e p e r c e n t a g e o f t e a c h e r s w i t h d e g r e e s i n c r e a s e d and t h e s e c o n d a r y s t u d e n t / t e a c h e r r a t i o i n c r e a s e d . The o n l y o t h e r s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p u n c o v e r e d b e t w e e n t h e a c c e s s and t r e a t m e n t v a r i a b l e s was t h e n e g a t i v e a s s o c i a t i o n b e t w e e n t h e e l e m e n t a r y s t u d e n t / t e a c h e r r a t i o and t h e d o l l a r amount p e r s t u d e n t s p e n t on ESL programmes i n s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s . A c c e s s and Outcome C o v a r i a t i o n b e t w e e n a c c e s s and outcome v a r i a b l e s i s p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e 16. I n e s s e n c e , d i d t h e o b s e r v e d v a r i a n c e i n t h e f i v e a c c e s s v a r i a b l e s c o r r e s p o n d t o t h e o b s e r v e d v a r i a n c e i n TABLE ' 16 C o r r e l a t i o n s Among A c c e s s a n d O u t c o m e V a r i a b l e s O u t c o m e V a r i a b l e s A c c e s s R e a d i n g 4 R e a d i n g 8 R e a d i n g 12 H a t h 4 H a t h 8 Math 12 S c i e n c e 4 S c i e n c e 8 S c i e n c e 12 E d . E t h o s 12 B u d g e t 02 - 2 7 * -26 - 3 7 * * - 3 4 * - 3 1 * - 2 9 * -09 -01 -25 T r a i n i n g 13 27 15 18 17 11 2 7 * 07 -02 21 E x p e r i e n c e 5 0 * * 5 6 * * 3 2 * 5 7 * * 5 8 * 18 5 3 * * 3 5 * * -12 6 2 * * E l e m . R a t i o -01 20 25 20 14 12 24 -07 -05 -04 S e c . R a t i o 14 22 17 2 9 * 19 05 3 0 * -02 -09 -03 * s i g n i f i c a n c e .01 s i g n i f i c a n c e .001 104 t h e t e n outcome v a r i a b l e s ? Two s i g n i f i c a n t t r e n d s were o b s e r v e d : f i r s t , one h a l f o f t h e outcome v a r i a b l e s were s i g n i f i c a n t l y and n e g a t i v e l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e d o l l a r amount p e r s t u d e n t s p e n t on m a t e r i a l s : t h e h i g h e r t h e s c o r e s on t h e s e a c h i e v e m e n t t e s t s , t h e l e s s money s p e n t on s u p p l i e s . S e c o n d l y , e x c e p t f o r M a t h e m a t i c s 12 and S c i e n c e 12 s c o r e s , a l l outcome v a r i a b l e s were s i g n i f i c a n t l y and p o s i t i v e l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t e a c h e r e x p e r i e n c e . T h i s p a r t i c u l a r r e l a t i o n was s t r o n g i n a c c o u n t i n g f r o m 10% t o 38% o f t h e c o n c o m i t a n t v a r i a n c e . A t t h i s s t a g e o f a n a l y s i s , i t would seem t h a t t h e amount o f t e a c h e r e x p e r i e n c e i s d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d t o h i g h e r a c h i e v e m e n t s c o r e s and t h e p e r c e n t a g e o f Grade 12 g r a d u a t e s i n s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s . F i n a l l y , two o t h e r outcome v a r i a b l e s , M a t h e m a t i c s 4 s c o r e s and S c i e n c e 4 s c o r e s , were p o s i t i v e l y and s i g n i f i c a n t l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e s e c o n d a r y s t u d e n t / t e a c h e r r a t i o . T h i s r e s u l t does n o t seem t o have an o b v i o u s e d u c a t i o n a l r a t i o n a l e and may be a s t a t i s t i c a l a r t i f a c t . T r e a t m e n t and Outcome The c o r r e l a t i o n m a t r i x on t h e t r e a t m e n t and outcome v a r i a b l e s i s shown i n T a b l e 17, where r e l a t i o n s h i p s between t h e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n programmes and s t u d e n t outcomes a r e p r e s e n t e d . N e a r l y a l l s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n s between t r e a t m e n t and outcome v a r i a b l e s were n e g a t i v e ; o n l y two t r e a t m e n t v a r i a b l e s seemed t o have some s u b s t a n c e i n t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h t h e outcome v a r i a b l e s . The p e r c e n t a g e o f s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n s t u d e n t s was s t r o n g l y and n e g a t i v e l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h s e v e n o f t h e t e n outcome v a r i a b l e s . Once a g a i n t h e a s s o c i a t i o n s w i t h t h e M a t h e m a t i c s 12 and S c i e n c e 12 s c o r e s TABLE 17 C o r r e l a t i o n s Among T r e a t m e n t a n d O u t c o m e V a r i a b l e s O u t c o m e V a r i a b l e s T r e a t m e n t V a r i a b l e s R e a d i n g 4 R e a d i n g 8 R e a d i n g 12 Math 4 Math 8 Math 12 S c i e n c e 4 S c i e n c e 8 S c i e n c e 12 E d . E t h o s 12 S p e c . S t u d . - 2 8 * - 4 9 * * - 4 2 * * - 4 8 * * - 4 7 * * -18 - 3 4 * -01 09 - 3 0 * S p e c . B u d g e t -03 12 08 10 09 01 -02 -06 -03 -05 S p e c . M a t s . 09 20 3 5 * 19 23 11 08 07 -08 14 S p e c . R a t i o -07 -26 - 3 2 * - 2 8 * - 2 7 * -06 -12 12 02 -15 ESL S t u d . -10 -12 -07 -16 -01 09 10 -09 -16 -02 ESL A p p r o v . 02 11 19 04 05 -01 07 05 -13 05 ESL B u d g e t 09 -02 -07 01 06 03 -21 12 06 07 ESL R a t i o -14 -06 06 -07 -21 02 27 -13 -13 -08 * s i g n i ' f i c a n c e .01 s i g n i f i c a n c e .001 106 were n o t s i g n i f i c a n t . S p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n s t u d e n t / t e a c h e r r a t i o was n e g a t i v e l y and s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e l a t e d t o t h r e e outcome v a r i a b l e s : R e a d i n g 12, M a t h e m a t i c s 4 and M a t h e m a t i c s 8. The d o l l a r amount s p e n t on s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n m a t e r i a l s was s i g n i f i c a n t l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h R e a d i n g 12 s c o r e s b u t t h e d o l l a r amount s p e n t p e r s t u d e n t on s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n p r o v e d t o h a v e no s i g n i f i c a n t a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h t h e outcome m e a s u r e s . N o t one o f t h e E n g l i s h as a S e c o n d L a n g u a g e v a r i a b l e s was s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e l a t e d t o o u t c o m e s . FACTOR ANALYSIS The c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t m a t r i x e s f o r e t h n i c i t y , a c c e s s , t r e a t m e n t and a c h i e v e m e n t o u t c o m e s w e r e f a c t o r a n a l y z e d f o r u n d e r l y i n g c o m p o n e n t s o r s t r u c t u r e s b y u t i l i z i n g s ubprogramme FACTOR ( N i e e t a l . , 1975) . E a c h f a c t o r a n a l y s i s i s d i s c u s s e d u n d e r t h e a p p r o p r i a t e h e a d i n g i n t h e f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n s . E t h n i c i t y F a c t o r The f i r s t f a c t o r a n a l y s i s i n c l u d e d t h e f o u r e t h n i c v a r i a b l e s -- E u r o p e a n ; F r e n c h ; A f r o - A s i a n and A b o r i g i n a l -- w i t h t h e i n t e n t o f d e t e c t i n g a p a t t e r n w h i c h w o u l d i n d i c a t e a more p a r s i m o n i o u s a r r a n g e m e n t o f t h e e t h n i c d a t a . A l l f o u r v a r i a b l e s w e r e e n t e r e d w i t h o u t s p e c i f y i n g t h e number o f f a c t o r s t o be e x t r a c t e d . A s t a t i s t i c a l c r i t e r i o n o f t e n u s e d f o r f a c t o r i d e n t i f i c a t i o n i s t h a t t h e e i g e n v a l u e be 1.0 o r g r e a t e r . U s i n g t h i s c r i t e r i o n , an a n a l y s i s o f T a b l e 18 i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e f o u r 107 TABLE 18 P r i n c i p a l C o m p o n e n t s o f E t h n i c V a r i a b l e s E t h n i c V a r i a b l e s E s t i m a t e o f C o m m u n a l i t y F a c t o r E i g e n v a l u e P e r c e n t o f V a r i a n c e C u m u l a t e d P e r c e n t E u r o p e a n .5902 1 1.7596 4 4 . 0 4 4 . 0 F r e n c h .0430 2 1.1016 27.5 71.5 A f r o - A s i a n .3541 3 .9191 23.0 94.5 A b o r i g i n a l .5244 4 .2198 5.5 100.0 N o t e : more t h a n 25 i t e r a t i o n s r e q u i r e d . e t h n i c v a r i a b l e s would y i e l d t h r e e f a c t o r s w i t h a c u m u l a t i v e v a r i a n c e o f 94.5 p e r c e n t . S i n c e t h e r e were o n l y f o u r v a r i a b l e s w i t h t h r e e f a c t o r s , e a c h o f t h e f o u r e t h n i c v a r i a b l e s was u s e d as an exogenous i n p u t v a r i a b l e f o r t h e p a t h a n a l y s e s . A c c e s s F a c t o r s The s e c o n d f a c t o r a n a l y s i s i n v o l v e d t h e f i v e v a r i a b l e s u s e d as a c c e s s i n d i c a t o r s : t h e d o l l a r amount s p e n t on s u p p l i e s p e r s t u d e n t ; p e r c e n t o f t e a c h e r s w i t h d e g r e e s ; mean number o f y e a r s e x p e r i e n c e o f t e a c h e r s ; e l e m e n t a r y s t u d e n t / t e a c h e r r a t i o ; and s e c o n d a r y s t u d e n t / t e a c h e r r a t i o . R e s u l t s o f t h e p r i n c i p a l components a n a l y s i s a r e shown i n T a b l e 19. In T a b l e 19, t h e e i g e n v a l u e s and t h e p e r c e n t o f e x p l a i n e d v a r i a n c e i n d i c a t e d a t w o - f a c t o r s o l u t i o n . Thus, t o o b t a i n f a c t o r s c o r e s , a t w o - f a c t o r s o l u t i o n w i t h a v a r i m a x o r t h o g o n a l r o t a t i o n was s p e c i f i e d . T a b l e s 20 and 21 p r e s e n t t h e r e s u l t s o f 1Q8 TABLE 19 P r i n c i p a l C o m p o n e n t s o f A c c e s s V a r i a b l e s A c c e s s E s t i m a t e o f F a c t o r E i g e n v a l u e P e r c e n t o f C u m u l a t i v e V a r i a b l e C o m m u n a l i t y V a r i a n c e V a r i a n c e B u d g e t .1946 1 1.9366 38.7 38.7 T r a i n i n g .1320 2 1.1704 23.4 62.1 E x p e r i e n c e .1325 3 .7806 15.6 77.8 E l e m . R a t i o .2688 4 .6024 12.0 89.8 S e c . R a t i o .2640 5 .5100 10.2 100.0 N o t e : more t h a n 25 i t e r a t i o n s r e q u i r e d . t h i s p r o c e d u r e . TAB L E 20 P r i n c i p a l C o m p o n e n t Two F a c t o r S o l u t i o n : A c c e s s V a r i a b l e s A c c e s s V a r i a b l e s E s t i m a t e o f C o m m u n a l i t y F a c t o r E i g e n v a l u e P e r c e n t o f V a r i a n c e C u m u l a t i v e P e r c e n t a g e B u d g e t . 2687 1 1.3544 70.3 7 0 . 3 T r a i n i n g .4136 2 .5720 29.7 100.0 E x p e r i e n c e .2432 E l e m . R a t i o .0691 S e c . R a t i o .3918 A s t u d y o f t h e f a c t o r l o a d i n g s i n d i c a t e d t h a t F a c t o r 1 r e f l e c t e d a s t u d e n t / t e a c h e r r a t i o w e i g h t i n g w h i l e F a c t o r 2 e m p h a s i z e d a t e a c h e r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s w e i g h t i n g ( T a b l e 2 1 ) . T h e r e f o r e , two a c c e s s f a c t o r s were u s e d i n t h e p a t h a n a l y s i s and l a b e l l e d s t u d e n t / t e a c h e r r a t i o s ( F a c t o r 1) and t e a c h e r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s ( F a c t o r 2 ) . 109 TA B L E 21 V a r i m a x R o t a t e d F a c t o r M a t r i x S o l u t i o n : A c c e s s V a r i a b l e s A c c e s s F a c t o r 1 F a c t o r 2 V a r i a b l e s B u d g e t - . 5 0 3 5 - . 1 2 3 3 T r a i n i n g .0445 .6416 E x p e r i e n c e .1481 .4703 E l e m . R a t i o .7804 - . 0 0 7 1 S e c . R a t i o .5582 .2831 T r e a t m e n t F a c t o r s The n e x t g r o u p o f v a r i a b l e s f a c t o r a n a l y z e d w e re t h e e i g h t v a r i a b l e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h e q u a l i t y .of t r e a t m e n t . The i n i t i a l a n a l y s i s d i d n o t s p e c i f y t h e number o f f a c t o r s t o be e x t r a c t e d . R e s u l t s a p p e a r i n T a b l e 22. T A B L E 22 P r i n c i p a l C o m p o n e n t s o f T r e a t m e n t V a r i a b l e s T r e a t m e n t V a V i a b l e s E s t i m a t e o f 1 C o m m u n a l i t y r a c t o r E i g e n v a l u e P e r c e n t a g e o f V a l u e s C u m u l a t i v e P e r c e n t a g e S p e c . S t u d . . 7529 1 3.4138 4 2 . 7 42.7 S p e c . B u d g e t .2785 2 2 . 4 6 1 4 30.8 73.4 S p e c . M a t s . .4430 3 • .7420 9.3 82.7 S p e c . R a t i o .8063 4 .6162 7.7 90.4 ESL S t u d . . 5764 5 .4266 5.3 95.8 ESL A p p r o v . . 8829 6 .1679 2:1 97.9 ESL B u d g e t .9180 7 .1218 1.5 00.4 ESL R a t i o . 7834 8 .0502 0.6 100.0 The f i r s t s t a g e O f t h e f a c t o r a n a l y s i s i n d i c a t e d a two f a c t o r s o l u t i o n ( e i g e n v a l u e s > 1.0) among t h e t r e a t m e n t iao.'.' v a r i a b l e s w h i c h a c c o u n t e d f o r 73.4% o f t h e v a r i a n c e . T h u s , t o o b t a i n f a c t o r s c o r e s , a t w o - f a c t o r s o l u t i o n was e x e c u t e d . R e s u l t s a r e p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e 23 and T a b l e 24. E x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e f a c t o r l o a d i n g s show two d i s t i n c t i v e p a t t e r n s u n d e r l y i n g t h e t r e a t m e n t v a r i a b l e s . T h e s e were l a b e l l e d E n g l i s h as a S e c o n d L a n g u a g e ( F a c t o r 1 ) , and S p e c i a l E d u c a t i o n ( F a c t o r 2 ) , and u s e d as i n p u t i n d i c e s f o r t h e p a t h a n a l y s i s . T A B L E 23 P r i n c i p a l C o m p o n e n t Two F a c t o r S o l u t i o n :  T r e a t m e n t V a r i a b l e s T r e a t m e n t V a r i a b l e s C o m m u n a l i t y F a c t o r E i g e n v a l u e P e r c e n t a g e o f V a r i a n c e C u m u l a t i v e P e r c e n t a g e S p e c . S t u d . .6641 1 3.1837 59.5 59.5 S p e c . B u d g e t .2239 2 2. 1 6 9 5 4 0 . 5 100.0 S p e c . M a t s . . 3 9 0 9 S p e c . R a t i o . 9 9 9 0 E S L S t u d . .5212 E S L A p p r o v . .7851 ESL B u d g e t .9596 E S L R a t i o .8095 T A B L E 24 V a r i m a x R o t a t e d F a c t o r M a t r i x S o l u t i o n : T r e a t m e n t V a r i a b l e s T r e a t m e n t V a r i a b l e F a c t o r 1 F a c t o r 2 S p e c . S t u d . - . 0 9 1 3 .8098 S p e c . B u d g e t .0304 - . 4 7 2 2 S p e c . M a t s . .1187 - . 6 1 3 9 S p e c . R a t i o .0660 .9973 ESL S t u d . .7151 - . 0 9 9 1 E S L A p p r o v . .8848 - . 0 4 7 1 E S L B u d g e t - . 9 7 7 7 .0610 ESL R a t i o .8990 - . 0 3 5 2 I l l Outcome F a c t o r s The t e n outcome v a r i a b l e s c o n s i s t e d o f two d i s t i n c t i v e g r o u p s : n i n e s c o r e s r e l a t e d t o a c a d e m i c a c h i e v e m e n t t e s t s and one s c o r e r e l a t e d t o t h e p e r c e n t a g e o f G r a d e 12 g r a d u a t e s . The G r a d u a t e i n d i c a t o r was u s e d as an outcome i n d e x i n t h e p a t h a n a l y s i s . The o t h e r n i n e a c h i e v e m e n t s c o r e s were f a c t o r a n a l y z e d t o o b t a i n a r e d u c t i o n i n v a r i a b l e s as w e l l as t o i d e n t i f y p o s s i b l e u n d e r l y i n g c o n s t r u c t s . R e s u l t s a r e shown i n T a b l e 25. T A B L E 25 P r i n c i p a l C o m p o n e n t s o f O u t c o m e V a r i a b l e s ( A c h i e v e m e n t S c o r e s ) O u t c o m e V a r i a b l e s E s t i m a t e o f C o m m u n a l i t y F a c t o r E i g e n v a l u e % o f V a r i a n c e C u m u l a t i v e X R e a d i n g 4 .5948 1 4 . 4 6 3 3 49. .6 49.6 R e a d i n g 8 .6833 2 1.0932 12. ,1 61.7 R e a d i n g 12 .6163 3 .9189 10. .2 71.9 Math 4 .6688 4 .7111 7. ,9 7 9 . 9 Math 8 .6805 5 .5840 6. .5 8 6 . 3 M a t h 12 . 3235 6 .5060 5. .6 92.0 S c i e n c e 4 .3468 7 .3192 3. .5 95.5 S c i e n c e 8 .5318 8 .2396 2, .7 98.2 S c i e n c e 12 .1466 9 .1648 1. .8 100.0 A l t h o u g h two e i g e n v a l u e s w e re g r e a t e r t h a n 1.0 s u g g e s t i n g a two f a c t o r s o l u t i o n , t h e e x t r e m e e i g e n v a l u e o f t h e f i r s t f a c t o r (4.4633 a c c o u n t i n g f o r 49.6% o f t h e v a r i a n c e ) s u g g e s t e d a one f a c t o r s o l u t i o n . A two f a c t o r s o l u t i o n was a t t e m p t e d : F a c t o r 1 a c h i e v e d an e i g e n v a l u e o f 4.105 a c c o u n t i n g f o r 87.7% o f t h e v a r i a n c e w h i l e F a c t o r 2 had an e i g e n v a l u e o f . 5750 a c c o u n t i n g f o r 12. 3 % o f t h e v a r i a n c e . T h e r e f o r e , a o n e - f a c t o r s o l u t i o n was 112 e x e c u t e d t o o b t a i n a f a c t o r s c o r e r e f l e c t i n g a c a d e m i c a c h i e v e m e n t . R e s u l t s a r e p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e s 26 and 27. T A B L E 26 P r i n c i p a l C o m p o n e n t One F a c t o r S o l u t i o n o f O u t c o m e V a r i a b l e s : A c h i e v e m e n t S c o r e s O u t c o m e E s t i m a t e o f F a c t o r E i g e n v a l u e % o f V a r i a n c e C u m u l a t i v e % V a r i a l b e s C o m m u n a l i t y R e a d i n g 4 .5213 1 4 . 0234 100.0 100.0 R e a d i n g 8 .6789 R e a d i n g 12 .4862 Math 4 .7210 M a t h 8 .6704 Math 12 .1642 S c i e n c e 4 .3333 S c i e n c e 8 .4474 S c i e n c e 12 .0006 T A B L E 27 F a c t o r M a t r i x S o l u t i o n o f O u t c o m e V a r i a b l e s : A c h i e v e m e n t S c o r e s O u t c o m e F a c t o r 1 V a r i a b l e s R e a d i n g 4 . 7220 R e a d i n g 8 .8240 R e a d i n g 12 .6973 M a t h 4 .8491 M a t h 8 .8188 M a t h 12 .4052 S c i e n c e 4 .5773 S c i e n c e 8 .6689 S c i e n c e 12 -. 0 2 4 9 — - -When t h e f a c t o r l o a d i n g s o f M a t h e m a t i c s 12 and S c i e n c e 12 a r e e x c l u d e d , a l l o t h e r a c h i e v e m e n t v a r i a b l e s had h i g h l o a d i n g v a l u e s i n t h e one f a c t o r s o l u t i o n ( T a b l e 27) . F o r t h e p u r p o s e o f t h e p a t h a n a l y s i s , t h e f a c t o r was d e s i g n a t e d A c h i e v e m e n t . 113 Summary F a c t o r a n a l y z i n g t h e v a r i o u s g r o u p s o f v a r i a b l e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h e t h n i c i t y , a c c e s s , t r e a t m e n t and outcomes y i e l d e d m i x e d r e s u l t s . R e d u c t i o n o f v a r i a b l e s i n t o f a c t o r s was p o s s i b l e f o r o n l y a c c e s s , t r e a t m e n t and outcomes. The e t h n i c i t y i n d i c a t o r s s h a r e d l i m i t e d v a r i a n c e ; no u n d e r l y i n g c o n s t r u c t s emerged. F i g u r e 5 summarizes t h e i n p u t v a r i a b l e s and f a c t o r s s e l e c t e d f o r use i n s u b s e q u e n t p a t h a n a l y s e s . E t h n i c i t y E n r o l m e n t A c c e s s T r e a t m e n t O u t c o m e s i . N o n - E n g l i s h i . E n r o l m e n t i . S t u d e n t / t e a c h e r r a t i o ( F a c t o r l ) i i . F r e n c h i i i . E u r o p e a n i v . A f r o - A s i a n v . A b o r i g i n a l i i . T e a c h e r C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s ( F a c t o r 2) i . E n g l i s h a s a i . A c h i e v e m e n t S e c o n d L a n g u a g e ( F a c t o r l ) ( F a c t o r 1) S p e c i a l E d u c a t i o n ( F a c t o r 2) i i . G r a d u a t e s F i g u r e 5: E t h n i c i t y , E n r o l m e n t a n d e q u a l i t y i n d i c e s f o r p a t h a n a l y s i s . T a b l e 28 p r e s e n t s t h e c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s among t h e f a c t o r s and v a r i a b l e s ( F i g u r e 5) t o be u t i l i z e d i n t h e p a t h a n a l y s e s . PATH ANALYSIS The f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n s p r e s e n t p a t h models s i m i l a r t o F i g u r e 2 w i t h t h e i r c o e f f i c i e n t s , c a l c u l a t i o n o f d i r e c t and i n d i r e c t e f f e c t s , t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f a more p a r s i m o n i o u s model and a summary o f t h e r e s u l t s . In a l l p a t h m o d e l s , t h e e t h n i c TABLE 28 C o r r e l a t i o n s Among F a c t o r s a n d V a r i a b l e s ENR ACCFAC1 ACCFAC2 TRTFAC1 TRTFAC2 0UTFAC1 E E 1 2 EUROPEAN FRENCH AFRO/ASIAN ACCFAC1 19 ACCFAC2 5 2 * * 11 TRTFAC1 23 24 22 TRTFAC2 -10 - 2 9 * -01 04 0UTFAC1 27 2 8 * 4 5 * * -02 -22 EE12 18 03 4 1 * * -07 -18 5 4 * * EUROPEAN -06 22- 15 -11 -20 6 8 * * 5 0 * * FRENCH -10 13 - 3 1 * -04 -01 03 - 1 6 . .10 AFRO/ASIAN .40** 26 19 23 -10 02 - 0 9 - 4 1 * * 04 ABORIGINAL - 3 0 * -14 _ 4 4 * * -02 11 - 6 3 * * - 4 5 * * - 6 2 * * 19 -08 * s i g n f i c a n c e .01 * * s i g n f i c a n c e .001 ENR E n r o l m e n t ACCFAC1 S t u d e n t / T e a c h e r R a t i o ( F a c t o r l ) ACCFAC2 T e a c h e r C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s ( F a c t o r 2) TRTFAC1 E n g l i s h as a S e c o n d L a n g u a g e ( F a c t o r l ) TRTFAC2 S p e c i a l E d u c a t i o n ( F a c t o r 2) 0UTFAC1 A c h i e v e m e n t ( F a c t o r l ) EE 12 G r a d u a t e s 115 v a r i a b l e and e n r o l m e n t a r e e x o g e n e o u s . B o t h a c c e s s f a c t o r s , s t u d e n t / t e a c h e r r a t i o and t e a c h e r c h a r a c t e r s , a r e c o n t a i n e d i n e a c h model w i t h e i t h e r b o t h t r e a t m e n t f a c t o r s , E n g l i s h as a Second Language and S p e c i a l E d u c a t i o n , o r one o f t h e t r e a t m e n t f a c t o r s d e p e n d i n g on t h e p a t h m o d e l . F o r e a c h e t h n i c v a r i a b l e , p a t h m o d els were c o n s t r u c t e d f o r e a c h outcome i n d i c e s — a c h i e v e m e n t s c o r e s , and p e r c e n t a g e o f g r a d u a t e s . NON-ENGLISH AND ACHIEVEMENT VARIABLE PATHS P a t h C o e f f i c i e n t V a l u e s F i g u r e 6 p r e s e n t s t h e p a t h model f o r N o n - E n g l i s h and a c h i e v e m e n t w i t h t h e d i r e c t e f f e c t c o e f f i c i e n t s ( P i , j ) p r e s e n t e d between e a c h v a r i a b l e . The p a r t i t i o n i n g o f t h e t o t a l e f f e c t s ( C i , j ) a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e N o n - E n g l i s h and a c h i e v e m e n t model a r e p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e 29. Where a p p l i c a b l e , t h e t o t a l e f f e c t s c o e f f i c i e n t s have been c a l c u l a t e d by a d d i n g t h e i n d i r e c t e f f e c t s t o t h e d i r e c t e f f e c t s . The p a r t i t i o n i n g o f t h e t o t a l e f f e c t c o e f f i c i e n t ( C i j ) i n t o d i r e c t and i n d i r e c t e f f e c t s ( T a b l e 29) u n c o v e r e d some s i g n i f i c a n t i n t e r a c t i o n s among t h e v a r i a b l e s . N o n - E n g l i s h and S p e c i a l E d u c a t i o n ( P 6 , l ) had a d i r e c t e f f e c t o f -.04 b u t t h e p o s i t i v e i n d i r e c t i n f l u e n c e o f t e a c h e r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s (.04); E n g l i s h as a Second Language (-.02) and S p e c i a l E d u c a t i o n (.02) c a n c e l l e d o u t l e a v i n g an e f f e c t c o e f f i c i e n t o f -.23 between Non-E n g l i s h and A c h i e v e m e n t . The t o t a l i n d i r e c t e f f e c t s (.11) o f t e a c h e r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and s t u d e n t / t e a c h e r r a t i o p r o v e d t o be s t r o n g e r t h a n t h e d i r e c t e f f e c t o f e n r o l m e n t on E n g l i s h as a Second Language (.03). W i t h a p o s i t i v e e f f e c t c o e f f i c i e n t 116 v a l u e o f .19, t h e r e l a t i o n b e t w e e n e n r o l m e n t and E n g l i s h as a S e c o n d L a n g u a g e became s i g n i f i c a n t . I n o t h e r w o r d s , t h e l a r g e r t h e s t u d e n t p o p u l a t i o n i s i n a s c h o o l d i s t r i c t , t h e g r e a t e r t h e p r o b a b i l i t y o f E n g l i s h as a S e c o n d L a n g u a g e p r o g r a m m i n g . The o t h e r i n d i r e c t e f f e c t w h i c h h ad a s t r o n g i n f l u e n c e on t h e e f f e c t c o e f f i c i e n t b e t w e e n e n r o l m e n t and s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n (P6,2 = -.11) was t h e i n f l u e n c e o f s t u d e n t / t e a c h e r r a t i o (.07). E n r o l m e n t . When t h e s c h o o l i n g p r o c e s s was c o n s i d e r e d w i t h i n t h e c o n t e x t o f t h e p r o p o r t i o n o f N o n - E n g l i s h p o p u l a t i o n and t h e e n r o l m e n t s i z e o f a s c h o o l d i s t r i c t ( F i g u r e 6 and F i g u r e 7) c e r t a i n t r e n d s became e v i d e n t . E n r o l m e n t and N o n - E n g l i s h --t h e e x o g e n o u s v a r i a b l e s — were p o s i t i v e l y and s i g n i f i c a n t l y c o r r e l a t e d (p < .01) : t h e l a r g e r t h e s c h o o l d i s t r i c t p o p u l a t i o n t h e l a r g e r t h e p r o p o r t i o n o f t h e N o n - E n g l i s h p o p u l a t i o n . E n r o l m e n t s i z e was a s s o c i a t e d w i t h s t u d e n t / t e a c h e r r a t i o (p < .10) w h i c h i n f l u e n c e d a c h i e v e m e n t (p < . 1 0 ) . A l s o , e n r o l m e n t was c o n c o m i t a n t w i t h t e a c h e r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s (p < .01) w h i c h i n t u r n s t r o n g l y i n f l u e n c e d a c h i e v e m e n t l e v e l s (p < . 0 1 ) . E n r o l m e n t r =.32 1 N o n - E n g l i s h S t u d e n t / T e a c h e r R a t i o T e a c h e r C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s 12 E n g l i s h as a S e c o n d L a n g u a g e S p e c i a l E d u c a t i o n F i g u r e 6. P a t h a n a l y s i s f o r s t u d e n t s on n o n - E n g l i s h b a c k g r o u n d a n d d i s t r j . c t _ a c h i e v e m e n t 117. TABLE 29 f o r C a l c u l a t i o n s o f S t u d e n t s o f N o n - E n g l i t h e E f f e c t C o e f f i c i e n t s ( C i j ) sh B a c k g r o u n d a n d D i s t r i c t A c h i e v e m e n t E f f e c t C o e f f i c i e n t D i r e c t C i j E f f e c t s T o t a l I n d i r e c t E f f e c t s C i j V a l u e C 3 , l P3.1 = -.13 C 4 , l P4.1 .08 C 5 , l P 5 , l .14 + + [ ( P 5 , 4 ) ( P , 4 , 1 ) + ( P 5 , 3 ) ( P 3 , 1 ) ] [(.01M-.03)] .12 C 6 , l P 6 , l -.04 + + [ ( P 6 t 4 ) ( P 4 , l ) + ( P 6 , 3 ) ( P 3 , l ) ] [ ( . 0 l ) + ( . 0 4 ) ] .01 C7.1 P7.1 - . 2 3 + + + [ ( P 7 , 3 ) ( P 3 , 1 ) + ( P 7 , 4 ) ( P 4 , 1 ) ( P 7 , 5 ) ( P 5 , 1 ) + ( P 7 , 6 ) ( P 6 , 1 ) ] [ ( - . 0 3 ) + ( . 0 4 ) + ( - . 0 2 ) + ( . 0 1 ) ] - .23 C3,2 P3,2 = .23 C4,2 P4,2 = .49 C5,2 P5.2 .08 + + [(P5,4)(P4,'2) + ( P 5 I 3 ) ( P 3 , 2 ) ] [ ( . 0 6 ) + ( . 0 5 ) ] .19 C6,2 P6,2 -.07 + + [ ( P 6 , 3 ) ( P 3 , 2 ) + ( P 6 , 4 ) ( P 4 , 2 ) ] [ ( - . 0 7 ) + ( . 0 3 ) ] -.11 C7,3 P7,3 .20 + + [ ( P 7 , 5 ) ( P 5 , 3 ) + ( P 7 , 6 ) ( P 6 , 3 ) ] [ ( - . 0 3 ) + ( . 0 5 ) ] .22 C6,3 P6.3 = -.29 C5,3 P5,3 = .22 C7,4 P7,4 .51 + + [ ( P 7 , 5 ) . ( P 5 , 4 ) + ( P 7 , 6 ) ( P 6 , 4 ) ] [ ( - . 0 2 ) + ( - . 0 l ) ] .48 C6,4 P6,4 = .07 C5,4 = ' P5,4 .12 C7,5 P7,5 - -.13 C7,6 P7.6 = -.16 E t h n i c i t y . P r o p o r t i o n o f N o n - E n g l i s h was o n l y n e g a t i v e l y and s i g n i f i c a n t l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a c h i e v e m e n t . A c c e s s . E n g l i s h a s a S e c o n d L a n g u a g e (p<.10) was p o s i t i v e and s i g n i f i c a n t w i t h s t u d e n t / t e a c h e r r a t i o w h i l e S p e c i a l E d u c a t i o n (p>.05) was n e g a t i v e and s i g n i f i c a n t . 118 S t u d e n t / t e a c h e r r a t i o was a l s o s i g n i f i c a n t w i t h a c h i e v e m e n t (p < . 1 0 ) : t h e l a r g e r t h e s t u d e n t / t e a c h e r r a t i o , t h e g r e a t e r t h e l e v e l o f a c h i e v e m e n t . The p a t h s b e t w e e n t e a c h e r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and t h e t r e a t m e n t v a r i a b l e s w e r e n o t s i g n i f i c a n t b u t t e a c h e r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s were a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a c h i e v e m e n t (p < . 0 1 ) . T r e a t m e n t . N e i t h e r t r e a t m e n t i n d e x was a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a c h i e v e m e n t . Summary. The p r o p o r t i o n o f N o n - E n g l i s h i n a s c h o o l d i s t r i c t i s s i g n i f i c a n t l y and n e g a t i v e l y r e l a t e d t o t h e a c h i e v e m e n t r e s u l t s o f s t u d e n t s . I n l a r g e r s t u d e n t p o p u l a t i o n d i s t r i c t s , t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p i s m e d i a t e d by t h e two a c c e s s f a c t o r s — t e a c h e r C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and s t u d e n t - t e a c h e r r a t i o s . The two t r e a t m e n t f a c a t o r s , ESL and S p e c i a l E d u c a t i o n , do n o t h a v e an i n f l u e n c e on a c h i e v e m e n t . E n g l i s h as a S e c o n d L a n g u a g e \2- S p e c i a l E d u c a t i o n E n r o l m e n t 3 — S t u d e n t / T e a c h e r R a t i o r=.32 1 4 T e a c h e r C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s \ 1 7 N o n - E n g l i s h - . 2 3 * * A c h i e v e m e n t * * * P -=.01 **P -= .05 *p -=.io F i g u r e 7. P a r s i m o n i o u s p a t h m o d e l f o r s t u d e n t s o f n o n - E n g l i s h b a c k g r o u n d and d i s t r i c t a c h i e v e m e n t 119 NON-ENGLISH AND GRADUATE VARIABLE PATHS P a t h C o e f f i c i e n t V a l u e s The p a t h model i n F i g u r e 8 t e s t e d c a u s a l p a t h s s i m i l a r t o t h o s e i n F i g u r e 6 e x c e p t t h a t p e r c e n t a g e o f g r a d u a t e s has been s u b s t i t u t e d f o r a c h i e v e m e n t as t h e outcome v a r i a b l e . The c o e f f i c i e n t s g i v e n i n F i g u r e 8 a r e p a t h c o e f f i c i e n t s ( P i j ) ; T a b l e 30 c o n t a i n s t h e e f f e c t c o e f f i c i e n t s ( C i j ) a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e outcome v a r i a b l e , p r o p o r t i o n o f g r a d u a t e s . An a n a l y s i s o f T a b l e 30 showed t h a t t h e t o t a l i n d i r e c t e f f e c t s were s m a l l and i n s i g n i f i c a n t and d i d n o t i n f l u e n c e t h e d i r e c t e f f e c t s . F i g u r e 8. P a t h a n a l y s i s f o r s t u d e n t s o f n o n - E n g l i s h b a c k g r o u n d a n d d i s t r i c t g r a d u a t e s N o n - E n g l i s h and G r a d u a t e s . The p a r s i m o n i o u s p a t h model d e r i v e d f r o m F i g u r e 8 i s shown i n F i g u r e 9. N o n - E n g l i s h 120 p o p u l a t i o n was n o t c o n c o m i t a n t w i t h t h e p e r c e n t a g e o f g r a d u a t e s ; n o r was s t u d e n t / t e a c h e r r a t i o . The s e c o n d a c c e s s f a c t o r , t e a c h e r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i n t e r m s o f y e a r s e x p e r i e n c e and p e r c e n t a g e o f d e g r e e s , was s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e l a t e d (p<.01) t o p r o p o r t i o n o f g r a d u a t e s . A s i n t h e p r e v i o u s a n a l y s i s , t r e a t m e n t f a c t o r s were n o t s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e l a t e d t o g r a d u a t e s a l t h o u g h s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n (P7,6 = -.18) had a n e g a t i v e t r e n d . I n o t h e r w o r d s , t h e e x i s t e n c e o f s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n programmes t e n d e d t o v a r y i n v e r s e l y w i t h t h e p e r c e n t a g e o f g r a d u a t e s i n a s c h o o l d i s t r i c t . T A B L E 30 C a l c u l a t i o n s o f t h e E f f e c t C o e f f i c i e n t s ( C i j ) f o r S t u d e n t s o n . N o n - E n g l i s h B a c k g r o u n d a n d D i s t r i c t G r a d u a t e s ' E f f e c t C o e f f i c i e n t D i r e c t C i j • C i j E f f e c t s T o t a l I n d i r e c t E f f e c t s V a l u e C 7 , l P7.1 + [ ( P 7 , 3 ) ( P 3 , 2 ) + ( P 7 , 4 ) ( P 4 , 1 ) + ( P 7 , 5 ) ( P 5 , 1 ) + ( P 7 , 6 ) ( P 6 , 1 ) ] .01 + [ ( . 0 0 ) + ( . 0 4 ) + ( - . 0 2 ) + ( . 0 2 ) ] .04 C7,3 P7.3 + [ ( P 6 , 5 ) ( P 5 , 3 ) + ( P 7 , 6 ) ( P 6 , 3 ) ] - . 0 3 + [ ( . . 0 4 ) + ( . 0 5 ) ] -.02 C7,4 P7,4 + [ ( P 7 , 5 ) ( P 5 , 4 ) + ( P 7 , 6 ) ( P 6 , 4 ) ] .44 + [ ( - . 0 2 ) + ( - . 0 l ) ] .41 C 7 ,5 P7,5 -.16 C 7,6 P7,6 -.18 ^ E f f e c t c o e f f i c i e n t s w e r e c a l c u l a t e d on l y f o r t h o s e p a t h s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e new o u t c o m e v a r i a b l e , G r a d u a t e s . The o t h e r e f f e c t c o e f f i c i e n t s h a d b e e n c a l c u l a t e d i n T a b l e 2 9 . 121 r=.32*1 E n r o l m e n t E n g l i s h as a S e c o n d I a n g u a q e S p e c i a l E d u c a t i o n S t u d e n t / T e a c h e r R a t i o j N o n - E n g l i s h T e a c h e r C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s .44*** -.18 7 G r a d u a t e s ***p < . o i **P ^ . 0 5 *P < . 1 0 F i g u r e 9. P a r s i m o n i o u s p a t h m o d e l f o r s t u d e n t s o f n o n - E n g l i s h b a c k g r o u n d a n d d i s -t r i c t g r a d u a t e s FRENCH AND ACHIEVEMENT VARIABLE PATHS P a t h C o e f f i c i e n t V a l u e s The p a t h model p r e s e n t e d i n F i g u r e 10 c o n s i d e r e d t h e c a u s a l p a t h s r e f l e c t i n g t h e F r e n c h e t h n i c g r o u p , e n r o l m e n t , two a c c e s s f a c t o r s , t h e s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n t r e a t m e n t f a c t o r and t h e outcome f a c t o r , a c h i e v e m e n t . As shown i n T a b l e 31, i n d i r e c t e f f e c t s i n f l u e n c e d t h e d i r e c t e f f e c t s i n t h r e e c a s e s . The i n d i r e c t i n f l u e n c e o f t e a c h e r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s (-.02) and s t u d e n t / t e a -c h e r r a t i o (-.05) c o u n t e r a c t e d t h e p o s i t i v e d i r e c t e f f e c t o f s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n on F r e n c h ( P 6 , l = .04) c h a n g i n g t h e d i r e c t i o n o f t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p f r o m p o s i t i v e t o n e g a t i v e ( C 5 , l = - . 0 3 ) . The i n d i r e c t e f f e c t s on t h e p a t h between F r e n c h and a c h i e v e m e n t weakened t h e d i r e c t i n f l u e n c e c o n s i d e r a b l y f r o m P6, 1 = .16 t o C 6 , l = .07. Of p a r t i c u l a r i m p o r t a n c e was t h e s t r o n g n e g a t i v e c o r r e s p o n d e n c e ( P 4 , l = -.11) between F r e n c h and t e a c h e r 122 c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s w h i c h c o u n t e r a c t e d t h e i n i t i a l p o s i t i v e d i r e c t e f f e c t s ( P 6 , l = . 1 6 ) . F i n a l l y , s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n ' s i n d i r e c t e f f e c t (.04) i n c r e a s e d t h e i n f l u e n c e o f s t u d e n t / t e a c h e r r a t i o on a c h i e v e m e n t t o .24. The r e m a i n i n g e f f e c t c o e f f i c i e n t s ( C i j ) were r e l a t i v e l y unchanged f r o m t h e d i r e c t e f f e c t s c o e f f i c i e n t s ( P i j ) . E n r o l m e n t . The "trimmed" p a t h model ( F i g u r e 11) showed t h e s t r o n g i n f l u e n c e o f e n r o l m e n t on t h e a c c e s s v a r i a b l e s . The s i z e o f s c h o o l d i s t r i c t e n r o l m e n t was n o t o n l y a p r e d i c t o r o f s t u d e n t / t e a c h e r r a t i o (p < .10) b u t a l s o o f t e a c h e r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s (p < . 0 1 ) . In o t h e r words, l a r g e r s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s , t e n d e d t o have l a r g e r s t u d e n t / t e a c h e r r a t i o s and more e x p e r i e n c e d q u a l i f i e d t e a c h e r s on s t a f f . The p a t h t e s t i n g t h e 123 T A B L E 31 C a l c u l a t i o n s o f t h e E f f e c t C o e f f i c i e n t s ( C i j ) f o r S t u d e n t s o f F r e n c h B a c k g r o u n d a n d D i s t r i c t A c h i e v e m e n t E f f e c t C o e f f i c i e n t D i r e c t C i j C i j E f f e c t s T o t a l I n d i r e c t E f f e c t s V a l u e C3.1 P3.1 .17 C 4 , l P 4 , l -.22 C5.1 P 5 , l + [ ( P 5 , 4 . ) ( P 4 , 1 ) + ( P 5 , 3 ) ( P 3 , 1 ) ] .04 + [ ( - . 0 2 M - . 0 5 ) ] -.03 C.6,1 P6.1 + [ ( P 6 , 5 ) ( P 5 , 1 ) + ( P 6 , 4 ) ( P 4 , 1 ) ( P 6 , 3 ) ( P 3 , 1 ) ] .16 + [ ( - . 0 1 M - . l l ) + ( .03 ) ] .07 C3.2 P3,2 .22 C4.2 P4.2 .48 C5.2 P5,2 + [ ( P 5 , 4 ) ( P 4 , 2 ) + ( P 5 , 3 ) ( P 3 , 2 ) ] = -.08 + [ ( ) + ( - 0 6 ) ] -.10 C5,3 P 5 . 3 - . 2 9 C6,3 P 6 , 3 + [ ( P 6 , 5 ) ( P 5 , 3 ) ] .20 + [ ( . 0 4 )1 C5,4 P5,4 .07 C6,4 P6,4 + t ( P 6 , 5 ) ( P 5 , 4 ) ] = .51 + [ ( - . 0 1 ) ] .50 C6,5 P 6 , 5 -.15 124 r e l a t i o n s h i p between e n r o l m e n t and s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n was i n s i g n i f i c a n t . E t h n i c i t y . The o n l y s t r o n g r e l a t i o n a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e p r o p o r t i o n o f F r e n c h i n t h e p o p u l a t i o n was t h e n e g a t i v e c o v a r i a t i o n w i t h t e a c h e r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s (p < .05): a l a r g e p e r c e n t a g e o f F r e n c h i n a s c h o o l d i s t r i c t c o r r e s p o n d e d t o l e s s e x p e r i e n c e d and l e s s q u a l i f i e d t e a c h e r s . A l t h o u g h , l a r g e r s t u d e n t / t e a c h e r r a t i o t e n d e d t o be a f f i l i a t e d w i t h t h e F r e n c h e t h n i c g r o u p ( P 3 , l = . 1 7 ) , t h i s p a r t i c u l a r r e s u l t was not s i g n i f i c a n t . F i n a l l y , n e i t h e r p a t h c o e f f i c i e n t between F r e n c h and s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n nor t h a t between F r e n c h and a c h i e v e m e n t was s i g n i f i c a n t . A c c e s s . B o t h a c c e s s v a r i a b l e s , s t u d e n t / t e a c h e r r a t i o (p < .10) and t e a c h e r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s (p < . 0 1 ) , when t e s t e d w i t h a c h i e v e m e n t s u p p o r t e d t h e t h e o r i z e d m o d e l . The a s s o c i a t i o n between a c c e s s and t r e a t m e n t was s u b s t a n t i a t e d o n l y i n t h e c a s e o f s t u d e n t / t e a c h e r r a t i o f a c t o r , where i t was n e g a t i v e (p < . 05) . L a r g e r s t u d e n t / t e a c h e r r a t i o s were a s s o c i a t e d w i t h fewer s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n programmes. T e a c h e r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s were n o t a f f i l i a t e d w i t h t h e t r e a t m e n t v a r i a b l e . *** P <C.01 ***P * .05 *P — .10 F i g u r e 1 1 . P a r s i m o n i o u s p a t h m o d e l f o r s t u d e n t s o f F r e n c h b a c k g r o u n d a n d d i s t r i c t a ^ c h i e v e m e n t 125 T r e a t m e n t . The t r e a t m e n t v a r i a b l e , s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n , was n o t r e l a t e d t o a c h i e v e m e n t . Summary. The p r o p o r t i o n o f F r e n c h i n a s c h o o l d i s t r i c t d i d n o t have an e f f e c t on s t u d e n t a c h i e v e m e n t . However, i t was n e g a t i v e l y s i g n i f i c a n t w i t h t e a c h e r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s w h i c h l o w e r e d a c h i e v e m e n t r e s u l t s . The o t h e r a c c e s s f a c t o r , s t u d e n t / t e a c h e r r a t i o , was p o s i t i v e l y and s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e l a t e d w i t h a c h i e v e m e n t r e s u l t s . The t r e a t m e n t f a c t o r , S p e c i a l E d u c a t i o n , had no i n f l u e n c e or a c h i e v e m e n t . FRENCH AND GRADUATE VARIABLE PATHS P a t h C o e f f i c i e n t V a l u e s In c a l c u l a t i n g t h e e f f e c t c o e f f i c i e n t s ( C i j ) f o r t h e p a t h model on F r e n c h and g r a d u a t e s ( F i g u r e 12) , t h e i n d i r e c t e f f e c t s had a p r o f o u n d i n f l u e n c e on two p a t h s . F o r t h e p a t h i n v o l v i n g F r e n c h and g r a d u a t e s , t h e n e g a t i v e d i r e c t i n f l u e n c e (P6,l=-.03) was i n c r e a s e d s u b s t a n t i a l l y by t h e n e g a t i v e i n d i r e c t e f f e c t s o f s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n (-.01), t e a c h e r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s (-.10) and s t u d e n t / t e a c h e r r a t i o (-.01) t o an e f f e c t c o e f f i c i e n t v a l u e (C6,2) o f -.15. The s t u d e n t t e a c h e r r a t i o and g r a d u a t e p a t h changed f r o m a n e g a t i v e r e l a t i o n (P6,3 = -.03) t o a p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n (C6,3 = .02) b e c a u s e o f t h e i n f l u e n c e o f s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n (.05). F r e n c h and G r a d u a t e s . F i g u r e 13 s u c c i n c t l y o u t l i n e s t h e r e l a t i o n s between t h e v a r i o u s v a r i a b l e s as t h e y r e l a t e d t o g r a d u a t e s . F r e n c h was n o t d i r e c t l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t r e a t m e n t o r t h e outcome measure, g r a d u a t e s . The s t r o n g i n f l u e n c e o f 126 F i g u r e 12. P a t h a n a l y s i s f o r s t u d e n t s o f F r e n c h b a c k g r o u n d a n d d i s t r i c t g r a d u a t e s T A B L E 32 C a l c u l a t i o n s o f t h e E f f e c t C o e f f i c i e n t s ( C i j ) f o r S t u d e n t s o f F r e n c h B a c k g r o u n d a n d D i s t r i c t G r a d u a t e s 1 i E f f e c t C o e f f i c i e n t D i r e c t C i j E f f e c t s T o t a l I n d i r e c t E f f e c t s V a l u e C6,2 P 6 , l + [ ( P 6 , 5 ) ( P 5 , l ) + ( P 6 , 4 ) ( P 4 , l ) + ( P 6 , 3 ) ( P 3 , 1 ) ] - . 0 3 + [ ( - . 0 l ) + ( - . 1 0 ) + ( - . 0 l ) -.15 C6,3 P6,3 + [ ( P 6 , 5 ) ( P 5 , 3 ) ] -.03 + [ ( . 0 5 ) ] .02 C6,4 P6,4 + [ ( P 6 , 5 ) ( P 5 , 3 ) ] .44 + [ ( - . 0 1 ) ] .43 C6,5 P6,5 = -.18 ^ C a l c u l a t i o n s w e re n e c e s s a r y f o r o n l y t h o s e e f f e c t c o e f f i c i e n t s a f f i l i a t e d wi t h t h e new o u t c o m e v a r i a b l e b e c a u s e t h e o t h e r c o e f f i c i e n t s h a d b e e n c a l c u l a t e d i n T a b l e 3 1 . t e a c h e r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s (p < .01) was m e d i a t e d by t h e p o p u l a t i o n (p<.01). 127 on t h e p e r c e n t a g e o f g r a d u a t e s s i z e o f t h e s c h o o l d i s t r i c t r — . 191 E n r o l m e n t 1 F r e n c h ***.?/ -<T .01 .22* S t u d e n t / T e a c h e r R a t i o -.29*;! S p e c i a l E d u c a t i o n V . 2 2 * * * T e a c h e r C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s A 3 * * * **P .05 .18 G r a d u a t e s *P ^ .10 F i g u r e 13. P a r s i m o n i o u s p a t h m o d e l f o r s t u d e n t s o f F r e n c h b a c k g r o u n d a n d d i s t r i c t g r a d -u a t e s EUROPEAN AND ACHIEVEMENT VARIABLE PATHS P a t h C o e f f i c i e n t V a l u e s The p a t h model shown i n F i g u r e 14 i n v o l v e d t h e E u r o p e a n e t h n i c g r o u p and a c h i e v e m e n t . Of a l l p a t h m o d e l s t e s t e d , t h i s 2 model a c c o u n t e d f o r t h e l a r g e s t t o t a l v a r i a n c e (R = 60) . T h r e e o f t h e e f f e c t c o e f f i c i e n t s ( C i j ) were i n f l u e n c e d by i n d i r e c t e f f e c t s . The s t r o n g d i r e c t n e g a t i v e e f f e c t between E u r o p e a n and s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n ( P 5 , l = -.17) was c o n f i r m e d by t h e i n d i r e c t n e g a t i v e e f f e c t o f s t u d e n t / t e a c h e r r a t i o (-.06) . T h i s p l u s t h e m i n o r i n d i r e c t p o s i t i v e i n f l u e n c e o f t e a c h e r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s (.02) n e t t e d an e f f e c t c o e f f i c i e n t e q u a l t o -.21 f o r t h e p a t h between E u r o p e a n and s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n . The s t r o n g p o s i t i v e d i r e c t r e l a t i o n s h i p between E u r o p e a n and a c h i e v e m e n t ( P 6 , l = .58) was f u r t h e r s t r e n g t h e n e d ( C 6 , l = .70) t h r o u g h t h e i n f l u e n c e o f t h e i n d i r e c t e f f e c t s c r e a t e d by s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n (.02), t e a c h e r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s (.07) and s t u d e n t / t e a c h e r r a t i o (.03). 128 An i n t e r e s t i n g i n t e r a c t i o n o c c u r r e d between t h e i n d i r e c t e f f e c t s a f f i l i a t e d w i t h t h e e n r o l m e n t and s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n p a t h . The p o s i t i v e i n f l u e n c e o f t e a c h e r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s (.05) was c o m p l e t e l y c o u n t e r a c t e d by t h e n e g a t i v e e f f e c t o f s t u d e n t / t e a c h e r r a t i o (-.05) w h i c h r e s u l t e d i n an e f f e c t c o e f f i c i e n t (C5,l=-.12) e q u a l t o t h e d i r e c t e f f e c t c o e f f i c i e n t (P5,2=-.12). E n r o l m e n t . The p a r s i m o n i o u s p a t h model f o r E u r o p e a n e t h n i c i t y and a c h i e v e m e n t ( F i g u r e 15) a g a i n i l l u s t r a t e d t h e s t r o n g i n f l u e n c e o f d i s t r i c t s i z e on t h e a c c e s s v a r i a b l e s ; s t u d e n t / t e a c h e r r a t i o (p<.10) and t e a c h e r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s (p<.01). No s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p e x i s t e d between p o p u l a t i o n s i z e and s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n . E t h n i c i t y . C o n c e n t r a t i o n o f t h e E u r o p e a n p o p u l a t i o n was n o t a s s o c i a t e d w i t h d i s t r i c t s i z e (r=-.06) and y e t t h e c o n c o m i t a n t v a r i a t i o n o f d i s t r i c t s i z e was s i g n i f i c a n t w i t h t h e a c c e s s v a r i a b l e s , s t u d e n t / t e a c h e r r a t i o (p<.05) and t e a c h e r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s (p<.10). The p r o p o r t i o n o f E u r o p e a n p o p u l a t i o n was n o t s i g n i f i c a n t w i t h S p e c i a l E d u c a t i o n programmes b u t i t was s t r o n g (P5,l=-.17) and had a t o t a l e f f e c t c o e f f i c i e n t ( C 5 , l ) o f -.21. The l a r g e s t e f f e c t c o e f f i c i e n t (C6,l=.70) i n t h i s s t u d y was o b t a i n e d i n t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between E u r o p e a n e t h n i c i t y and a c h i e v e m e n t (p<.001). A c c e s s . The a c c e s s v a r i a b l e s had mixed c a u s a l l i n k s w i t h s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n and a c h i e v e m e n t . S t u d e n t / t e a c h e r r a t i o had a n e g a t i v e and s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p (p < .05) w i t h s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n b u t t e a c h e r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s d i d n o t . The c o n v e r s e was t r u e when a c h i e v e m e n t was c o n s i d e r e d : s t u d e n t / t e a c h e r r a t i o 129 F i g u r e 14. P a t h a n a l y s i s f o r s t u d e n t s o f E u r o p e a n b a c k g r o u n d a n d d i s t r i c t a c h i e v e m e n t T A B L E 33 C a l c u l a t i o n s o f t h e E f f e c t C o e f f i c i e n t s ( C i j ) f o r S t u d e n t s o f E u r o p e a n B a c k g r o u n d a n d D i s t r i c t A c h i e v e m e n t E f f e c t C o e f f i c i e n t D i r e c t C i j C i j E f f e c t s T o t a l I n d i r e c t E f f e c t s V a l u e C3.1 P 3 , l .23 C 4 , l P4.1 ' .18 C5.1 P 5 , l + t ( P 5 , 4 ) ( P 4 , l ) + ( P 5 , 3 ) ( P 3 , l ) ] -.17 + [ ( . 0 2 M - . 0 6 ) ] -.21 C6.1 P 6 , l + [ ( P 6 , 5 ) ( P 5 , 1 ) + ( P 6 , 4 ) ( P 4 , 1 ) ( P 6 , 3 ) ( P 3 , 1 ) ] = .58 + [ ( . 0 2 )+(. .07 ) + (.03 ) ] .70 C3,2 P 3 . 2 .20 C4,2 P 4 , 2 .53 C5.2 P5,2 + [ ( P 5 t 4 ) ( P 4 , 2 ) + ( P 5 , 3 ) ' ( P 3 . 2 ) ] = -.12 + [ ( . 0 5 ) + ( - , 0 5 ) ] -.12 C5,3 P 5 , 3 = . -.24 C6.3 P 6 , 3 + [ ( P 6 , 5 ) ( P 5 , 3 ) ] = .11 + [ ( . 0 2 ) ] .13 C5,4 P5,4 .10 C6,4 P6,4 + [ ( P 6 , 5 ) ( P 5 , 4 ) ] .36 + [(-•oi )] .35 C6,5 P 6 . 5 -.07 130 was n o t s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e l a t e d t o a c h i e v e m e n t , b u t t e a c h e r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s were (p <.01). T r e a t m e n t . The t r e a t m e n t v a r i a b l e , s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n , was n o t a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a c h i e v e m e n t . Summary. The p r o p o r t i o n o f E u r o p e a n p o p u l a t i o n i s p o s i t i v e l y r e l a t e d t o s t u d e n t a c h i e v e m e n t i n s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s . A c c e s s f a c t o r , t e a c h e r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , i n c r e a s e d t h e s t r e n g t h o f t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e p r o p o r t i o n s o f E u r o p e a n s and s t u d e n t a c h i e v e m e n t s c o r e s . EUROPEAN AND GRADUATE VARIABLE PATHS P a t h C o e f f i c i e n t V a l u e s The p a t h model ( F i g u r e 16) f o r E u r o p e a n e t h n i c i t y and p r o p o r t i o n o f g r a d u a t e s o u t l i n e d t h e t e s t e d c a u s a l c o n n e c t i o n s among E u r o p e a n e t h n i c i t y , e n r o l m e n t , a c c e s s v a r i a b l e s , s p e c i a l 131 e d u c a t i o n and t h e outcome v a r i a b l e , p r o p o r t i o n o f g r a d u a t e s . As shown i n T a b l e 33, t h e d i r e c t p a t h c o e f f i c i e n t s ( P i j ) were f a i r l y s t a b l e w i t h t h e t o t a l e f f e c t c o e f f i c i e n t s ( C i j ) . I n o n l y one c a s e d i d t h e i n d i r e c t e f f e c t s show a s u b s t a n t i a l i n f l u e n c e on t h e d i r e c t e f f e c t s : f o r t h e p a t h d e f i n e d by E u r o p e a n and g r a d u a t e s , t h e n e t i n d i r e c t i n f l u e n c e o f s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n (.02), t e a c h e r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s (.07) and s t u d e n t / t e a c h e r r a t i o (-.03) i n c r e a s e d t h e e f f e c t c o e f f i c i e n t (C6,3) f r o m .44 t o .50. E u r o p e a n and G r a d u a t e s . The p a t t e r n o f e f f e c t s b e t w e e n E u r o p e a n e t h n i c i t y a nd g r a d u a t e s shown i n F i g u r e 16 was i d e n t i c a l t o t h a t f o u n d i n t h e p a t h m o d e l on E u r o p e a n and a c h i e v e m e n t ( F i g u r e 1 4 ) . T e a c h e r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s w e r e s i g n i f i c a n t l y and p o s i t i v e l y r e l a t e d (p < .01) t o t h e g r a d u a t e outcome a s was E u r o p e a n e t h n i c i t y (p <.01). S t u d e n t / t e a c h e r r a t i o was n o t r e l a t e d t o t h e p e r c e n t a g e o f g r a d u a t e s n o r was s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n a s s o c i a t e d . The o t h e r p a t h c o e f f i c i e n t s r e m a i n e d u n c h a n g e d f r o m t h e p a r s i m o n i o u s m o d e l on E u r o p e a n and a c h i e v e m e n t ( F i g u r e 1 5 ) . R 2 = 40 F i g u r e 16. P a t h a n a l y s i s f o r s t u d e n t s o f E u r o p e a n b a c k g r o u n d a n d d i s t r i c t g r a d u a t e s 132 T A B L E 34 C a l c u l a t i o n s o f t h e E f f e c t C o e f f i c i e n t s ( C i j ) f o r S t u d e n t s o f E u r o p e a n B a c k g r o u n d a n d D i s t r i c t G r a d u a t e s i E f f e c t C o e f f i c i e n t D i r e c t C i j C i j E f f e c t s T o t a l I n d i r e c t E f f e c t s V a l u e C 6 , l P6.1 + [ ( P 6 , 5 ) ( P , 5 , 1 ) + ( P 6 , 4 ) ( P 4 , 1 ) + ( P 6 , 3 ) ( P 3 , 1 ) ] .44 + [ ( . 0 2 ) + ( . 0 7 ) + ( - . 0 3 ) ] .50 C6,3 P6,3 + [ ( P 6 , 5 ) ( P 5 , 3 ) ] - . 1 3 + [ ( • 0 3 ) ] = -.10 C6,4 P6,4 + [ ( P 6 , 5 ) ( P 5 , 4 ) ] .37 [ ( - . 0 1 ) ] .36 C6,5 P6,5 = -.12 ' • C a l c u l a t i o n s w e re o n l y n e c e s s a r y f o r t h o s e e f f e c t c o e f f i c i e n t s a f f i l i a t e d w i t h t h e new o u t c o m e v a r i a b l e . The o t h e r e f f e c t c o e f f i c i e n t s were i d e n t i c a l t o t h o s e c a l c u l a t e d i n T a b l e 3 3 . 5 S p e c i a l E d u c a t i o n * * * P < .01 **P < .05 *P < .10 F i g u r e 17. P a r s i m o n i o u s p a t h m o d e l f o r s t u d e n t s o f E u r o p e a n b a c k g r o u n d a n d d i s t r i c t g r a d u a t e s 133 AFRO-ASIAN AND ACHIEVEMENT VARIABLE PATHS P a t h C o e f f i c i e n t s V a l u e s T h i s s e c t i o n p r e s e n t s t h e c a u s a l r e l a t i o n s o u t l i n e d i n F i g u r e 18, t h e p a t h model w h i c h c o n s i d e r e d A f r o - A s i a n e t h n i c i t y and a c h i e v e m e n t . The p a t h c o e f f i c i e n t s l i s t e d were d i r e c t e f f e c t s . The t o t a l i n d i r e c t e f f e c t s , as shown i n T a b l e 35, m o d e r a t e d o r i n c r e a s e d t h e d e g r e e o f r e l a t i o n s h i p i n t h r e e p a r t i c u l a r c a s e s . The v a l u e o f t h e e f f e c t c o e f f i c i e n t ( C 5 , l ) between A f r o - A s i a n and E n g l i s h as a Second Language was i n c r e a s e d t o a s i g n i f i c a n t l e v e l ( C 5 , l = .19) by t h e i n d i r e c t e f f e c t s o f t e a c h e r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s (.02) and s t u d e n t / t e a c h e r r a t i o (.04). In t h e c a s e o f A f r o - A s i a n and a c h i e v e m e n t , t h e d i r e c t e f f e c t ( P 6 , l = -.12) was m o d e r a t e d c o n s i d e r a b l y by t h e s t u d e n t / t e a c h e r r a t i o (.07). T h i s i n f l u e n c e , a l o n g w i t h t h e m i n o r i n d i r e c t e f f e c t s o f t h e E n g l i s h as a Second Language f a c t o r (-.02), and t e a c h e r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s (-.01), n e t t e d a t o t a l e f f e c t c o e f f i c i e n t ( C 6 , l ) e q u a l t o -.08. I n d i r e c t e f f e c t s more t h a n d o u b l e d t h e v a l u e o f t h e e f f e c t s c o e f f i c i e n t on t h e p a t h between e n r o l m e n t and E n g l i s h as a Second Language; t e a c h e r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i n d i r e c t l y i n c r e a s e d t h e e f f e c t c o e f f i c i e n t by .07 and s t u d e n t / t e a c h e r r a t i o by .02 n e t t i n g an e f f e c t c o e f f i c i e n t e q u a l t o .16. The p a r s i m o n i o u s model ( F i g u r e 19) g i v e s o n l y t h e s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t p a t h s o f t h e A f r o - A s i a n g r o u p and a c h i e v e m e n t . E n r o l m e n t . The exogenous v a r i a b l e s , e n r o l m e n t and A f r o -A s i a n , were h i g h l y c o r r e l a t e d (r = . 40) , s i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e p<. 01 l e v e l . In o t h e r words, t h e A f r o - A s i a n p o p u l a t i o n t e n d e d t o s e t t l e i n t h e l a r g e r s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s o f t h e p r o v i n c e . The 134 F i g u r e 18. P a t h a n a l y s i s f o r s t u d e n t s o f A f r o - A s i a n B a c k g r o u n d a n d d i s t r i c t a c h i e v e m e n t T A B L E 35 C a l c u l a t i o n s o f t h e E f f e c t C o e f f i c i e n t ( C i j ) f o r S t u d e n t s o f A f r o - A s i a n B a c k g r o u n d a n d D i s t r i c t A c h i e v e m e n t E f f e c t C o e f f i c i e n t C i j D i r e c t E f f e c t s T o t a l I n d i r e c t E f f e c t s C i j V a l u e C 3 , l P 3 , l JIZ C 4 , l P 4 , l _ -.02 C5.1 P5.1 .13 + + [ ( P 5 , 4 ) ( P 4 , 1 ) + ( P 5 , 3 ) ( P 3 , 1 ) ] [ ( • 0 2 ) + ( . 0 4 ) ] .19 C6.1 P6.1 -.12 + + [ ( P 6 , 5 ) ( P 5 , 1 ) + ( P 6 , 4 ) ( P 4 , 1 ) ( P 6 , 3 ) ( P 3 , 1 ) ] [{-.02M-.10 ) + (.07 )] -.08 C3.2 P3.2 .10 C.4,2 P4,2 .53 C5.2 P5.2 .07 + + [ ( P 5 , 4 ) ( P 4 , 2 ) + ( P 5 , 3 ) ( P 3 , 2 ) ] [ ( . 0 7 ) +(.02 )] .16 C5,3 P 5 . 3 .= _ Al - -C6,3 P 6 , 3 .30 + + [ ( P 6 , 5 ) ( P 5 , 3 ) ] [ ( - . 0 3 ) ] .27 C5.4 P5.4 .T4" C6.4 P6,4 .47 + + [ ( P 6 , 5 ) ( P 5 , 4 ) ] [ ( - • 0 2 ) ] .45 C6.5 P 6 , 5 -.17 135 e n r o l m e n t v a r i a b l e was o n l y s i g n i f i c a n t l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h one o t h e r v a r i a b l e — t e a c h e r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s (p = < . 1 0 ) . N e i t h e r s t u d e n t / t e a c h e r r a t i o nor E n g l i s h as a Second Language were a s s o c i a t e d w i t h e n r o l m e n t . E t h n i c i t y . The a n a l y s i s o f t h e A f r o - A s i a n p a t h s r e v e a l e d t h a t o n l y t h e s t u d e n t / t e a c h e r r a t i o had a d i r e c t s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t . A f r o - A s i a n was n o t r e l a t e d t o t e a c h e r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s or t o a c h i e v e m e n t o r t o E n g l i s h as a Second Language. However, when t h e t o t a l e f f e c t s f o r E n g l i s h as a Second Language were c a l c u l a t e d t h e v a l u e o f t h e c o e f f i c i e n t ( C 5 , l = .19) became i m p o r t a n t . r _ . 4 0 * f * L E n r o l m e n t .17 S t u d e n t / T e a c h e r R a t i o S p e c i a l E d u c a t i o n 1 A f r o - A s i a n T e a c h e r C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s * **P < .01 C 5 J _ = _ . l ? **P < .05 .17 A c h i e v e m e n t *P < .10 F i g u r e 19. P a r s i m o n i o u s p a t h m o d e l f o r s t u d e n t s o f A f r o - A s i a n b a c k g r o u n d a n d d i s t r i c t a c h i e v e m e n t A c c e s s . B o t h a c c e s s v a r i a b l e s , s t u d e n t / t e a c h e r r a t i o and t e a c h e r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , were p o s i t i v e l y r e l a t e d t o a c h i e v e m e n t (p < . 0 1 ) . T h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p i m p l i e s t h a t a l a r g e r s t u d e n t / t e a c h e r r a t i o and b e t t e r q u a l i f i e d t e a c h e r s y i e l d e d h i g h e r a c h i e v e m e n t r e s u l t s . The c o v a r i a t i o n between t e a c h e r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and E n g l i s h as a Second Language was n o t 136 s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t . T r e a t m e n t . A n e g a t i v e a s s o c i a t i o n e x i s t e d between t h e t r e a t m e n t v a r i a b l e , E n g l i s h as a Second Language and a c h i e v e m e n t , b u t i t was t o o s m a l l t o be p r o v e n s t a t i s t i c a l l y (P6,5 = - . 1 7 ) . Summary. The p r o p o r t i o n o f A f r o - A s i a n p o p u l a t i o n i s n o t s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e l a t e d t o s t u d e n t a c h i e v e m e n t . The a c c e s s f a c t o r s , s t u d e n t / t e a c h e r r a t i o , and t e a c h e r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s p o s i t i v e l y i n f l u e n c e d s t u d e n t a c h i e v e m e n t and s t r e n g t h e n e d t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e p r o p o r t i o n o f A f r o - A s i a n s i n a s c h o o l d i s t r i c t and a c h i e v e m e n t . AFRO-ASIAN AND GRADUATE VARIABLE PATHS P a t h C o e f f i c i e n t V a l u e s The g r a d u a t e v a r i a b l e was s u b s t i t u t e d as t h e outcome v a r i a b l e i n F i g u r e 20, and new p a t h c o e f f i c i e n t s c a l c u l a t e d . The t o t a l i n d i r e c t e f f e c t s m o d i f i e d t h e e f f e c t c o e f f i c i e n t ( C i j ) very, l i t t l e . O n l y i n t h e c a s e o f t h e g r a d u a t e s and a c h i e v e m e n t p a t h (C6,3) d i d t h e t o t a l i n d i r e c t e f f e c t s have an i m p o r t a n t i n f l u e n c e . W h i l e t h e i n d i r e c t e f f e c t s o f E n g l i s h as a Second Language (-.02), t e a c h e r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s (-.01) and s t u d e n t / t e a c h e r r a t i o (.01) were s m a l l t h e y d i d i n c r e a s e t h e e f f e c t c o e f f i c i e n t v a l u e t o -.18. A f r o - A s i a n and G r a d u a t e s . The p a t h t e s t e d between A f r o -A s i a n and g r a d u a t e s a l t h o u g h n o t s i g n i f i c a n t had a d i r e c t e f f e c t v a l u e ( P 6 , l ) o f -.16 and a t o t a l e f f e c t c o e f f i c i e n t v a l u e ( C 6 , l ) 137 F i g u r e 2 0 . P a t h a n a l y s i s f o r s t u d e n t s o f A f r o - A s i a n b a c k g r o u n d a n d d i s t r i c t g r a d u a t e s o f -.18. H e n c e , as t h e A f r o - A s i a n p o p u l a t i o n i n c r e a s e d i n the. s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s , t h e p e r c e n t a g e o f g r a d u a t e s d e c r e a s e d . T A B L E 36 C a l c u l a t i o n s o f t h e E f f e c t C o e f f i c i e n t s ( C i j ) f o r S t u d e n t s o f A f r o - A s i a n B a c k g r o u n d a n d D i s t r i c t G r a d u a t e s 1 E f f e c t C o e f f i c i e n t C i j D i r e c t E f f e c t s T o t a l I n d i r e c t E f f e c t s C i j V a l u e C 6 , l P 6 , l - .16 + + + [ ( P 6 , 5 ) ( P 5 , 1 ) + ( P 6 , 4 ) ( P 4 , 1 ) ( P 6 , 3 ) ( P 3 , 1 ) ] [ ( - . 0 2 ) + ( - . 0 1 ) + ( . 0 l ) ] = -.18 C6,3 P6,3 .06 + + [ ( P 6 , 5 ) ( P 5 , 3 ) ] [ ( - 0 3 ) ] .03 C6,4 P6,4 .47 + + ' [ ( P 6 , 5 ) ( P 5 , 4 ) [ ( - . 0 2 ) ] .45 C6,5 P6,5 = - . 1 5 C a l c u l a t i o n s w e re o n l y o u t c o m e v a r i a b l e . The n e c e s s a r y f o r o t h e r e f f e c t t h o s e e f f e c t c o e f f i c i e n t s a f f i l i a t e d w i t h t h e new c o e f f i c i e n t s w e re i d e n t i c a l t o t h o s e c a l c u l a t e d i n T a b l e 3 5 . 138 One o t h e r r e l a t i o n s h i p was s u b s t a n t i a t e d i n t h e p a t h m o d e l : t e a c h e r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and g r a d u a t e s (p < . 0 1 ) . T h i s r e s u l t was s i m i l a r t o t h a t f o u n d i n p r e v i o u s m o d e l s . The c o v a r i a t i o n between g r a d u a t e s and t h e s t u d e n t / t e a c h e r r a t i o or g r a d u a t e s and E n g l i s h as a Second Language was n o t s i g n i f i c a n t . G e n e r a l l y , t h e A f r o - A s i a n model t e s t e d d i d n o t p r o d u c e s i g n i f i c a n t r e s u l t s . 2 r = . 4 0 * * V E n r o l m e n t I 1 A f r o - A s i a n * * * P < .01 • -17 , 5 E n g l i s h as a S e c o n d L a n g u a g e 3 S t u d e n t / T e a c h e r R a t i o T e a c h e r C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s 4 7 * * * C i j _=_-.: IJj * *P < .05 B G r a d u a t e s *P < .10 F i g u r e 2 1 . P a r s i m o n i o u s p a t h m o d e l f o r s t u d e n t s o f A f r o - A s i a n b a c k g r o u n d a n d d i s t r i c t g r a d u a t e s ABORIGINAL AND ACHIEVEMENT VARIABLE PATHS P a t h C o e f f i c i e n t V a l u e s The p a t h model shown i n F i g u r e 22 o u t l i n e d t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p s among t h e A b o r i g i n a l , e n r o l m e n t , a c c e s s , s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n and a c h i e v e m e n t v a r i a b l e s . The c o e f f i c i e n t s i n d i c a t e d were d i r e c t e f f e c t s ( P i j ) . The t o t a l e f f e c t s c o e f f i c i e n t s ( C i j ) were decomposed i n t o d i r e c t and i n d i r e c t 139 e f f e c t s ( T a b l e 3 7 ) . An a n a l y s i s o f t h e i n d i r e c t e f f e c t s i n d i c a t e d s e v e r a l m e a n i n g f u l i n f l u e n c e s on t h e e f f e c t c o e f f i c i e n t . T h e n e g a t i v e d i r e c t e f f e c t ( P 6 , l = - . 5 0 ) b e t w e e n A b o r i g i n a l and a c h i e v e m e n t was r e i n f o r c e d by t h e i n d i r e c t e f f e c t s o f s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n ( - . 0 1 ) , t e a c h e r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s (-.07) and s t u d e n t / t e a c h e r r a t i o (-.01). T h e s e i n d i r e c t i n f l u e n c e s i n c r e a s e d t h e e f f e c t c o e f f i c i e n t t o - . 5 9 . When t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n e n r o l m e n t and s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n was c o n s i d e r e d , t h e i n d i r e c t e f f e c t s c a n c e l l e d e a c h o t h e r — t e a c h e r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s (.04) and s t u d e n t / t e a c h e r r a t i o (-.04) — w i t h t h e r e s u l t t h a t t h e e f f e c t c o e f f i c i e n t (C5,2=-.07) e q u a l l e d t h e d i r e c t e f f e c t c o e f f i c i e n t ( P 5 , 2 = - . 0 7 ) . One o t h e r i m p o r t a n t i n d i r e c t i n f l u e n c e was t h e e f f e c t o f s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n (.03) on s t u d e n t / t e a c h e r r a t i o and a c h i e v e m e n t ( P 5 , 2 = . 1 5 ) . T h i s i n d i r e c t e f f e c t r e a f f i r m e d t h e a l r e a d y s i g n i f i c a n t d i r e c t e f f e c t ( p < . 1 0 ) . 140 TABLE 37 C a l c u l a t i o n o f t h e E f f e c t C o e f f i c i e n t s ( C i j ) f o r S t u d e n t s o f A b o r i g i n a l B a c k g r o u n d and D i s t r i c t A c h i e v e m e n t E f f e c t C o e f f i c i e n t C i j D i r e c t E f f e c t s T o t a l I n d i r e c t E f f e c t s C i j V a l u e C3.1 P3.1 -.09 C 4 , l P 4 , l -.31 C5.1 P5.1 10 + + [ ( P 5 , 4 ) ( P 4 , 1 ) + ( P 5 , 3 ) ( P 3 , 1 ) ] [ ( - . 0 3 ) + ( . 0 2 ) ] .09 C 6 , l P 6 , l - .50 + + [ ( P 6 , 5 ) ( P 5 , 1 ) + ( P 6 , 4 ) ( P 4 , 1 ) ( P 6 , 3 ) ( P 3 , 1 ) ] [ ( - . 0 1 ) + ( - . 0 7 ) + ( - . 0 1 ) ] - . 5 9 C3,2 P3,2 = .16 C4.2 P4.2 .43 C5,2 P5,2 -.07 + + [ ( P 5 , 4 ) ( P 4 , 2 ) + ( P 5 , 3 ) ( P 3 , 2 ) ] [ ( . 0 4 )+( -.04 ) ] -.07 C5,3 P 5 , 3 = -.27 C6,3 P 6 , 3 .15 + + [ ( P 6 , 5 ) ( P 5 , 3 ) ] [ ( . 0 3 ) ] .18 C5.4 P5,4 = .10 C6,4 P6,4 .21 + + [ ( P 6 , 5 ) ( P 5 , 4 ) ] [ ( - . 0 1 ) ] .20 C6.5 P 6 . 5 = -.12 E n r o l m e n t . The P e a r s o n P r o d u c t C o r r e l a t i o n (r = -30) between e n r o l m e n t and A b o r i g i n a l was s i g n i f i c a n t (p < .01) and n e g a t i v e i n t h e model shown i n F i g u r e 22. The A b o r i g i n a l p o p u l a t i o n was a s s o c i a t e d w i t h d i s t r i c t s w h i c h had s m a l l e r s t u d e n t e n r o l m e n t s . The o n l y e n r o l m e n t r e l a t i o n s h i p w h i c h had s t a t i s t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e was t h e p a t h c o n s i d e r i n g t e a c h e r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s (p < .01) . No c o n n e c t i o n between e n r o l m e n t and s t u d e n t / t e a c h e r r a t i o or s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n was a p p a r e n t . E t h n i c i t y . V a l u e s f o r p a t h s between b o t h t h e a c c e s s and a c h i e v e m e n t v a r i a b l e s and e t h n i c i t y p r o v e d s i g n i f i c a n t (p<.01) and n e g a t i v e . In e s s e n c e , l e s s q u a l i f i e d t e a c h e r s worked w i t h 141 A b o r i g i n a l p o p u l a t i o n s and t h e a c h i e v e m e n t s c o r e s were s i g n i f i c a n t l y l o w e r f o r s c h o o l d i s t r i c t p o p u l a t i o n s w i t h l a r g e A b o r i g i n a l p o p u l a t i o n s . The A b o r i g i n a l i n d i c a t o r was n o t a s s o c i a t e d w i t h s t u d e n t / t e a c h e r r a t i o or s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n . A c c e s s . The a c c e s s v a r i a b l e s , s t u d e n t / t e a c h e r r a t i o and t e a c h e r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , were p o s i t i v e l y and s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e l a t e d t o a c h i e v e m e n t , a t t h e p<.10 and p<.05 l e v e l s , r e s p e c t i v e l y . I t s h o u l d be n o t e d t h a t s t u d e n t / t e a c h e r r a t i o and t h e r e f o r e t h e t r e a t m e n t v a r i a b l e , s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n , had d r o p p e d o u t o f t h e c a u s a l model b e c a u s e no p a t h c o n n e c t e d s t u d e n t / t e a c h e r r a t i o t o t h e mod e l . T r e a t m e n t . Once a g a i n t h e s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n v a r i a b l e was i s o l a t e d f r o m t h e r e s t o f t h e model h a v i n g no c a u s a l l i n k o f s i g n i f i c a n c e w i t h t h e a c h i e v e m e n t v a r i a b l e . Summary. The p r o p o r t i o n o f A b o r i g i n a l p o p u l a t i o n i s n e g a t i v e l y r e l a t e d t o s t u d e n t a c h i e v e m e n t i n a s c h o o l d i s t r i c t . T h i s n e g a t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p i s f u r t h e r i n f l u e n c e d by t h e n e g a t i v e and s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e p r o p o r t i o n o f A b o r i g i n a l p o p u l a t i o n and t h e a c c e s s f a c t o r , t e a c h e r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . - . 2 7 * * 5 S p e c i a l E d u c a t i o n 3 S t u d e n t / T e a c h e r R a t i o — 2 E n r o l m e n t . 4 3 * * * 4 T e a c h e r C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s • 2 1 * \ 1 — — — 3 6 A b o r i g i n a l . - . 5 0 * * * \ A c h i e v e m e n t * * * P < .01 **P K .05 *P < .10 F i g u r e 2 3 . P a r s i m o n i o u s p a t h m o d e l f o r s t u d e n t s o f A b o r i g i n a l b a c k g r o u n d a n d d i s t r i c t a c h i e v e m e n t 142 ABORIGINAL AND GRADUATE VARIABLE PATHS P a t h C o e f f i c i e n t V a l u e s The p a t h m o d e l shown i n F i g u r e 24 t e s t e d t h e p a t h c o e f f i c i e n t s a f f i l i a t e d w i t h t h e outcome v a r i a b l e , p e r c e n t a g e o f g r a d u a t e s i n a s c h o o l d i s t r i c t . A g a i n , t h e c o e f f i c i e n t v a l u e s l i s t e d w e r e d i r e c t e f f e c t s ; t h e i n d i r e c t e f f e c t s a r e g i v e n i n T a b l e 38. Two e f f e c t c o e f f i c i e n t s w e r e i n f l u e n c e d by t h e i n d i r e c t e f f e c t s . The d i r e c t i o n and v a l u e o f t h e p a t h c o e f f i c i e n t f o r A b o r i g i n a l and g r a d u a t e s was s t r e n g t h e n e d by an i n c r e a s e o f -.10 i n t h e n e t v a l u e o f t h e e f f e c t c o e f f i c i e n t ( C 6 , l ) . The g r e a t e s t i n d i r e c t i n f l u e n c e came f r o m t e a c h e r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s ( - . 0 9 ) . A b o r i g i n a l p o p u l a t i o n s h a d l e s s q u a l i f i e d and l e s s e x p e r i e n c e d t e a c h e r s , and t h i s i n f l u e n c e d t h e i r a b i l i t y t o g r a d u a t e . A l s o , t h e p o s i t i v e i n d i r e c t e f f e c t o f s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n m o d e r a t e d t h e i n f l u e n c e b e t w e e n s t u d e n t / t e a c h e r r a t i o and t h e p e r c e n t a g e o f g r a d u a t e s f r o m P 6 , l = -.10 t o C6,3 = - . 0 5 . A b o r i g i n a l and G r a d u a t e s . The o n l y p a t h s w h i c h r e t a i n e d c a u s a l s i g n i f i c a n c e w i t h A b o r i g i n a l i n t h e p a r s i m o n i o u s p a t h m o d e l ( F i g u r e 26) were t e a c h e r c h a r a c t e r - i s t i c s (p < .05) and p e r c e n t a g e o f g r a d u a t e s (p < . 0 1 ) . A l t h o u g h t h e s t u d e n t / t e a c h e r r a t i o was n e g a t i v e l y and s i g n i f i c a n t l y (p < .05) a s s o c i a t e d w i t h s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n w h i c h had a p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p (P6,5 = .17) w i t h g r a d u a t e s , t h e c a u s a l p a t h was b r o k e n b e c a u s e s t u d e n t / t e a c h e r r a t i o was n o t r e l a t e d t o e i t h e r e x o g e n e o u s v a r i a b l e i n t h e m o d e l . 1.43 P a t h a n a l y s i s f o r s t u d e n t s o f A b o r i g i n a l b a c k g r o u n d a n d d i s t r i c t g r a d u a t e s T A B L E 38 C a l c u l a t i o n s o f t h e E f f e c t C o e f f i c i e n t s ( C i j ) f o r S t u d e n t s o f A b o r i g i n a l B a c k g r o u n d a n d D i s t r i c t G r a d u a t e s ! E f f e c t C o e f f i c i e n t C i j D i r e c t E f f e c t s T o t a l I n d i r e c t E f f e c t s C i j V a l u e C 6 , l P6.1 -.32 + + + [ ( P 6 , 5 ) ( P 5 , l ) + ( P 6 , 4 ) ( P 4 , l ) ( P 6 , 3 ) ( P 3 , 1 ) ] [(-.02)+(-.09)+(.0l)] -.42 C6,3 P6,3 -.10 + + [ ( P 6 , 5 ) ( P 5 , 3 ) ] [ ( • 0 5 ) ] - . 0 5 C6,4 P6,4 .28 + + [ ( P 6 , 5 ) ( P 5 , 4 ) [ ( - - 0 2 ) ] .26 C6.5 P6,5 -.17 C a l c u l a t i o n s w e re o n l y n e c e s s a r y f o r t h o s e e f f e c t c o e f f i c i e n t s a f f i l i a t e d w i t h t h e new o u t c o m e v a r i a b l e . The e f f e c t c o e f f i c i e n t s w e re i d e n t i c a l t o t h o s e o t h e r s c a l c u l a t e d i n T a b l e 3 7 . 144 .30 ^ Enrolment 1 A b o r i g i n a l -.27*;! S t u d e n t / T e a c h e r R a t i o S p e c i a l E d u c a t i o n -.30***. T e a c h e r C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . 2 8 * * - . 3 2 * * * -.17 G r a d u a t e s ***P K .01 **P < .05 *P < .10 F i g u r e 2 5 . P a r s i m o n i o u s p a t h m o d e l f o r s t u d e n t s o f A b o r i g i n a l b a c k g r o u n d a n d d i s t r i c t g r a d u a t e s SUMMARY The s t u d y r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e p a t h model d e v e l o p e d f o r N o n - E n g l i s h e t h n i c i t y and a c h i e v e m e n t outcome a c c o u n t s f o r 35% o f t h e v a r i a n c e w h i l e t h e s i m i l a r p a t h model f o r p e r c e n t a g e o f g r a d u a t e s a c c o u n t s f o r 22% o f t h e v a r i a n c e . N o n - E n g l i s h p o p u l a t i o n s s e t t l e d i n l a r g e r s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s and l a r g e r s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s had b e t t e r t r a i n e d and more e x p e r i e n c e d t e a c h e r s . W h i l e t h e N o n - E n g l i s h p o p u l a t i o n s c o r e d l o w e r on a c h i e v e m e n t t e s t s t h a n d i d t h e E n g l i s h p o p u l a t i o n , t h e a c h i e v e m e n t s c o r e s were a f f e c t e d by t h e two a c c e s s f a c t o r s , h i g h e r s t u d e n t / t e a c h e r r a t i o s and b e t t e r t r a i n e d and more e x p e r i e n c e d t e a c h e r s . A l s o , h i g h e r s t u d e n t / t e a c h e r r a t i o s e x i s t e d where E n g l i s h as a Second Language Programming was i n c r e a s e d w h i l e l o w e r s t u d e n t / t e a c h e r 145 r a t i o s were u s u a l l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h an i n c r e a s e i n s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n programming. F i n a l l y , as t e a c h e r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i n c r e a s e d t h e p e r c e n t a g e o f g r a d u a t e s a l s o i n c r e a s e d i n a d i s t r i c t . When t h e p a t h s a f f i l i a t e d w i t h t h e F r e n c h e t h n i c g r o u p were t e s t e d , t h e amount o f v a r i a n c e a c c o u n t e d f o r i n t h e F r e n c h / A c h i e v e m e n t model and t h e F r e n c h / G r a d u a t e model was 32% and 22%, r e s p e c t i v e l y . Once a g a i n , i n c r e a s e d e n r o l m e n t among s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s was a s s o c i a t e d w i t h h i g h e r s t u d e n t / t e a c h e r r a t i o s and b e t t e r t r a i n e d and more e x p e r i e n c e d t e a c h e r s . As t h e p r o p o r t i o n o f F r e n c h p o p u l a t i o n i n c r e a s e d i n s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s , t h e t r a i n i n g and e x p e r i e n c e o f t e a c h e r s d e c r e a s e d . C o n v e r s e l y , b e t t e r t r a i n e d and more e x p e r i e n c e d t e a c h e r s r a i s e d a c h i e v e m e n t s c o r e s . The i n c r e a s e d a c h i e v e m e n t s c o r e s were a l s o a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e h i g h e r s t u d e n t / t e a c h e r r a t i o s . The same p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p e x i s t e d between t e a c h e r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and t h e outcome i n d e x , g r a d u a t e s . The o n l y o t h e r s i g n i f i c a n t p a t h i n t h e F r e n c h model was t h e n e g a t i v e c o r r e s p o n d e n c e between t h e s t u d e n t / t e a c h e r r a t i o and s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n programming. The E u r o p e a n p a t h models w h i c h t e s t e d t h e two outcome v a r i a b l e s , a c h i e v e m e n t and g r a d u a t e s , a c c o u n t e d f o r 60% and 40% o f t h e v a r i a n c e , r e s p e c t i v e l y . H i g h e r s t u d e n t e n r o l m e n t w i t h i n t h i s model was a f f i l i a t e d w i t h an i n c r e a s e d s t u d e n t / t e a c h e r r a t i o and a more e x p e r i e n c e d , q u a l i f i e d t e a c h e r p o p u l a t i o n . The r e l a t i v e p r o p o r t i o n o f E u r o p e a n s p r o v e d t o be s i g n i f i c a n t i n f o u r o f t h e f i v e p a t h s . A l a r g e r p r o p o r t i o n o f E u r o p e a n s was a s s o c i a t e d w i t h l a r g e r s t u d e n t / t e a c h e r r a t i o s and 146 more e x p e r i e n c e d , q u a l i f i e d t e a c h e r s . A l s o , an i n c r e a s e d E u r o p e a n p r e s e n c e i n s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s was s i g n i f i c a n t l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h b o t h outcome v a r i a b l e s : i n c r e a s e d a c h i e v e m e n t s c o r e s and i n c r e a s e d p e r c e n t a g e o f g r a d u a t e s . F u r t h e r , t h e s e outcome v a r i a b l e s were b o t h r e l a t e d t o more e x p e r i e n c e d , q u a l i f i e d t e a c h e r s . The o t h e r a c c e s s v a r i a b l e , s t u d e n t / t e a c h -e r r a t i o , i n c r e a s e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y as s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n progammes d e c r e a s e d . The A f r o - A s i a n p a t h m o d e l s , t e s t i n g t h e a c h i e v e m e n t outcome and g r a d u a t e outcome, a c c o u n t e d f o r 30% and 22% o f t h e v a r i a n c e , r e s p e c t i v e l y . T h i s model was t h e w e a k e s t i n t h e s t u d y . The p r o p o r t i o n o f A f r o - A s i a n s i n s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s i n c r e a s e d i n l a r g e r s t u d e n t p o p u l a t i o n c e n t r e s w h i c h had b e t t e r q u a l i f i e d and more e x p e r i e n c e d t e a c h e r s . A l s o , s i n c e t h e p r o p o r t i o n o f A f r o -A s i a n s i n c r e a s e d w i t h l a r g e r p o p u l a t i o n c e n t r e s , t h e s t u d e n t / t e a c h e r r a t i o s i n c r e a s e d . B o t h a c c e s s f a c t o r s , b e t t e r q u a l i f i e d , e x p e r i e n c e d t e a c h e r s and l a r g e r s t u d e n t / t e a c h e r r a t i o s were a f f i l i a t e d w i t h i n c r e a s e d a c h i e v e m e n t s c o r e s i n a d i s t r i c t . The a c c e s s v a r i a b l e , t e a c h e r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , was s t r o n g l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e p e r c e n t a g e o f g r a d u a t e s . The f i n a l two m o d e l s d e p i c t i n g A b o r i g i n a l and t h e two outcome v a r i a b l e s , a c h i e v e m e n t and g r a d u a t e s , a c c o u n t e d f o r 47% and 29% o f t h e t o t a l v a r i a n c e , r e s p e c t i v e l y . The A b o r i g i n a l p o p u l a t i o n was t h e o n l y e t h n i c g r o u p t o be s i g n i f i c a n t l y and n e g a t i v e l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h e n r o l m e n t . S i n c e t h e t e a c h e r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c f a c t o r was a f f i l i a t e d w i t h l a r g e r d i s t r i c t s , t h e c o r r e s p o n d i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p between A b o r i g i n a l and t e a c h e r 147 c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s was n e g a t i v e . The A b o r i g i n a l p o p u l a t i o n was a s s o c i a t e d w i t h l e s s q u a l i f i e d e x p e r i e n c e d t e a c h e r s . F u r t h e r , an i n c r e a s e d p r o p o r t i o n o f A b o r i g i n a l s was a s s o c i a t e d w i t h l o w e r a c h i e v e m e n t s c o r e s and fewer g r a d u a t e s . A c h i e v e m e n t was i n c r e a s e d t h r o u g h t h e e f f e c t s o f b o t h a c c e s s v a r i a b l e s , h i g h e r s t u d e n t / t e a c h e r r a t i o and b e t t e r q u a l i f i e d , e x p e r i e n c e d t e a c h e r s . The t e a c h e r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c f a c t o r a l s o i n f l u e n c e d t h e outcome v a r i a b l e , g r a d u a t e s . The o n l y r e l a t i o n s h i p w h i c h e x i s t e d w i t h t h e t r e a t m e n t v a r i a b l e , s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n , was a d e c r e a s e i n t h e s t u d e n t / t e a c h e r r a t i o . When a l l t h e p a t h a n a l y s e s were compared f o r t r e n d s , c e r t a i n r e l a t i o n s h i p s c o n s i s t e n t l y o c c u r r e d . The p r o p o r t i o n o f a p a r t i c u l a r e t h n i c p o p u l a t i o n i n a s c h o o l d i s t r i c t was r e l a t e d t o t h e s t u d e n t p o p u l a t i o n s i z e o f t h e s c h o o l d i s t r i c t . The a c c e s s f a c t o r , s t u d e n t / t e a c h e r r a t i o , was p o s i t i v e l y and s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e l a t e d t o t h e outcome f a c t o r , a c h i e v e m e n t , b u t was n e g a t i v e l y and s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e l a t e d t o t h e t r e a t m e n t f a c t o r , s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n . The s e c o n d a c c e s s f a c t o r , t e a c h e r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , was s i g n i f i c a n t l y and p o s i t i v e l y r e l a t e d t o b o t h outcome v a r i a b l e s , t h e a c h i e v e m e n t f a c t o r and t h e g r a d u a t e v a r i a b l e . In a d d i t i o n , t e a c h e r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s were s i g n i f i c a n t l y and n e g a t i v e l y r e l a t e d t o t h e F r e n c h and A b o r i g i n a l p o p u l a t i o n s . A l s o , b o t h outcome v a r i a b l e s , a c h i e v e m e n t and g r a d u a t e s , were s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e l a t e d t o t h e E u r o p e a n and A b o r i g i n a l p o p u l a t i o n s , i n t h e f o r m e r c a s e p o s i t i v e l y and i n t h e l a t t e r c a s e n e g a t i v e l y . 148 C h a p t e r V SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND IMPLICATIONS T h i s c h a p t e r has f i v e s e c t i o n s : 1) a summary o f t h e p r o b l e m and p r o c e d u r e s ; 2) an o u t l i n e o f t h e s i g n i f i c a n t f i n d i n g s and c o n c l u s i o n s ; 3) a p r e s e n t a t i o n o f p o l i c y i m p l i c a t i o n s o f t h e s t u d y ; 4) a d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e l i m i t a t i o n s o f t h e s t u d y ; and 5) an o u t l i n e o f i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h . SUMMARY Pr o b l e m s and p r o c e d u r e s a r e summarized i n f o u r s e c t i o n s : t h e r e s e a r c h p r o b l e m , t h e l i t e r a t u r e r e v i e w , t h e c o n c e p t u a l framework and t h e i n v e s t i g a t i v e p r o c e d u r e s . R e s e a r c h P r o b l e m The p u r p o s e o f t h i s s t u d y was t o d e t e r m i n e t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p s among e t h n i c i t y and t h e t h r e e c o n c e p t s o f e g u a l i t y o f e d u c a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t y i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s . In o r d e r t o a s s e s s t h e s e r e l a t i o n s h i p s , t h r e e c o n s t r u c t s o f e q u a l i t y o f e d u c a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t y were d e f i n e d : e g u a l i t y o f a c c e s s , e q u a l i t y o f t r e a t m e n t and e g u a l i t y o f outcomes. T h e s e c o n c e p t s seem t o be r e l a t e d t o t h e e t h n i c v a r i a t i o n s i n s c h o o l d i s t r i c t p o p u l a t i o n s a l o n g f o u r d i m e n s i o n s : 1. t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f e t h n i c g r o u p s ; 2. t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f r e s o u r c e s among s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s i n p r o v i d i n g s i m p l e a c c e s s ; 3. t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f s p e c i a l i z e d t r e a t m e n t t h r o u g h a d d i t i o n a l r e s o u r c e r e q u i r e m e n t s i n m e e t i n g s p e c i a l s t u d e n t n e e d s ; 4. t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f s t u d e n t a c h i e v e m e n t r e s u l t s among s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s . 149 T h r e e c a t e g o r i e s o f r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n s were d e v e l o p e d t o i n v e s t i g a t e t h e s e d i m e n s i o n s : r e s e a r c h model, s u b s i d i a r y and s u p p l e m e n t a r y . 1. r e s e a r c h model q u e s t i o n s a s s e s s e d t h e i n t e r a c t i o n among e t h n i c i t y , e n r o l m e n t , t r e a t m e n t and outcomes; 2. s i x s u b s i d i a r y r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n s a d d r e s s e d t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p s among t h e c o n c e p t s and t h e i r a s s o c i -a t e d i n d i c a t o r s ; and 3. f o u r s u p p l e m e n t a r y q u e s t i o n s a d d r e s s e d t h e r e l a t i o n -s h i p s w i t h i n e a c h c o n c e p t and t h e i r a f f i l i a t e d i n d i c a t o r s . L i t e r a t u r e Review The l i t e r a t u r e r e v i e w e d i d e n t i f i e d m e a n i n g f u l v a r i a b l e s or i n d i c a t o r s p r e v i o u s l y u s e d i n p r o d u c t i o n f u n c t i o n r e s e a r c h . T h i s r e v i e w was o r g a n i z e d i n t o f o u r m a j o r s e c t i o n s : e t h n i c i t y , a c c e s s , t r e a t m e n t and outcomes. A c c e s s was f u r t h e r c l a s s i f i e d i n t o i n s t r u c t i o n a l i n d i c a t o r s , f i n a n c i a l i n d i c a t o r s and s t a f f g u a l i t y i n d i c a t o r s . A t h e o r e t i c a l model was d e v e l o p e d f r o m t h e a n a l y s i s o f the l i t e r a t u r e and t h e d e s i g n a t e d v a r i a b l e s f o r e a c h c o n -s t r u c t w i t h i n t h i s model were a n a l y z e d . T h e o r e t i c a l Model The t h e o r e t i c a l model d e v e l o p e d was a m o d i f i c a t i o n o f th e t y p i c a l p r o d u c t i o n f u n c t i o n model o f i n p u t s / o u t p u t s . I n p u t s or exogeneous v a r i a b l e s — e n r o l m e n t and e t h n i c i t y — were d e m o g r a p h i c f a c t o r s w h i c h s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s c a n n o t i n f l u e n c e . A c c e s s and t r e a t m e n t v a r i a b l e s c o n s i d e r e d under t h e s c h o o l i n g p r o c e s s were f a c t o r s o v e r w h i c h s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s and t h e i r a d m i n i s t r a t i o n s had some c o n t r o l . The l a s t c a t e g o r y , o u t p u t s , were measures o f s t u d e n t outcomes. 150 D e m o g r a p h i c S c h o o l i n g O u t c o m e s T H c ENROLMENT TREATMENT ACCESS E T H N I C I T Y OUTCOMES INPUTS INPUTS PROCESS OUTPUTS F i g u r e 2 6 . T h e o r e t i c a l m o d e l on e t h n i c i t y a n d e q u a l i t y o f e d u c a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t y R e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n s d e t e r m i n e d t h e number and t y p e o f i n d i c a t o r s t o be t e s t e d . E n r o l m e n t was d e f i n e d as t h e t o t a l f u l l t i m e e q u i v a l e n t s t u d e n t s e n r o l l e d i n a s c h o o l d i s t r i c t . R e p r e s e n t i n g t h e e t h n i c i t y c a t e g o r y was t h e p e r c e n t a g e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f p o p u l a t i o n i n e a c h s c h o o l d i s t r i c t a c r o s s f i v e e t h n i c g r o u p s : N o n - E n g l i s h , F r e n c h , E u r o p e a n , A f r o - A s i a n and A b o r i g i n a l . The N o n - E n g l i s h p e r c e n t a g e was t h e summation o f t h e p e r c e n t a g e s f o r each o f t h e o t h e r e t h n i c g r o u p s : F r e n c h , E u r o p e a n , A f r o - A s i a n and A b o r i g i n a l . E q u a l i t y o f a c c e s s was d e f i n e d by f i v e v a r i a b l e s : t e a c h e r e x p e r i e n c e ; l e v e l o f t e a c h e r t r a i n i n g ; e l e m e n t a r y s t u d e n t / t e a c h e r r a t i o ; s e c o n d a r y s t u d e n t / t e a c h e r r a t i o and d o l l a r e x p e n d i t u r e p e r s t u d e n t on e d u c a t i o n s u p p l i e s . S t u d e n t s p e c i a l i z e d t r e a t m e n t was d i v i d e d i n t o two d i m e n s i o n s : s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n and E n g l i s h as a Second Language. F o u r v a r i a b l e s were a s s o c i a t e d w i t h each d i m e n s i o n . S p e c i a l E d u c a t i o n was r e p r e s e n t e d by t h e 151 p e r c e n t a g e o f s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n s t u d e n t s , s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n s t u d e n t / t e a c h e r r a t i o , d o l l a r e x p e n d i t u r e p e r s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n s t u d e n t on s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n programmes and d o l l a r e x p e n d i t u r e p e r s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n s t u d e n t on s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n s u p p l i e s . The f o u r v a r i a b l e s s e l e c t e d f o r E n g l i s h as a Second Language were: p e r c e n t a g e o f s t u d e n t s t a k i n g E n g l i s h as a Second Language; t h e number o f M i n i s t r y programme a p p r o v a l s i n E n g l i s h as a Second Language; E n g l i s h as a Second Language s t u d e n t / t e a c h e r r a t i o ; and t h e d o l l a r e x p e n d i t u r e p e r E n g l i s h as a Second Language s t u d e n t i n E n g l i s h as a S e cond Language Programmes. The f i n a l c o n s t r u c t , outcomes, was r e p r e s e n t e d by t e n v a r i a b l e s : t h e a c h i e v e m e n t s c o r e s i n r e a d i n g , m a t h e m a t i c s and s c i e n c e a t t h e G r a d e s 4, 8 and 12 l e v e l p l u s t h e p e r c e n t a g e o f g r a d u a t e s t o t h e t o t a l s e c o n d a r y e n r o l m e n t . R e s e a r c h P r o c e d u r e s D a t a were c o l l e c t e d f o r e a c h v a r i a b l e f o r a l l 75 s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . In o r d e r t o o b t a i n t h e raw d a t a , i n f o r m a t i o n was c o l l a t e d f r o m M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n f o r m s I , J , 1001; i t s f i n a n c i a l r e p o r t " C o m p a r a t i v e and  A n a l y t i c a l D a t a : 1981 S c h o o l D i s t r i c t s B u d g e t s " , t h e p r o v i n c i a l a s s e s s m e n t r e s u l t s i n R e a d i n g (1980), M a t h e m a t i c s ( 1 9 8 1 ) , S c i e n c e (1982) and t h e 1981 Canada C e n s u s . The i n f o r m a t i o n was t h e n p r o c e s s e d t h r o u g h f o u r p h a s e s o f a n a l y s i s u s i n g t h e s c h o o l d i s t r i c t as t h e u n i t o f a n a l y s i s . The f i r s t p h ase a s s e s s e d t h e d e s c r i p t i v e s t a t i s t i c s a s s o c i -a t e d w i t h e a c h v a r i a b l e , w h i c h were t h e n t e s t e d f o r n ormal d i s t r i b u t i o n and where n e c e s s a r y t h e v a r i a b l e s were 152 t r a n s f o r m e d . The s e c o n d p h a s e , c o r r e l a t i o n a l a n a l y s e s , s e a r c h e d f o r r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h i n t h e g r o u p o f i n d i c a t o r s f o r e t h n i c i t y , a c c e s s , t r e a t m e n t and outcomes as o u t l i n e d by t h e s u p p l e m e n t a r y q u e s t i o n s A, B, C and D: A. A r e t h e r e r e l a t i o n s h i p s among t h e i n d i c a t o r s o f e t h n i c i t y and e n r o l m e n t ? B. A r e t h e r e r e l a t i o n s h i p s among t h e i n d i c a t o r s o f a c c e s s ? C. A r e t h e r e r e l a t i o n s h i p s among t h e i n d i c a t o r s o f t r e a t m e n t ? D. A r e t h e r e r e l a t i o n s h i p s among t h e i n d i c a t o r s o f outcome? A l s o , t h i s p hase examined by c o r r e l a t i o n a l a n a l y s i s the= r e l a t i o n s h i p s among t h e g r o u p s o f i n d i c a t o r s f o r e t h n i c i t y , a c c e s s , t r e a t m e n t and outcomes as o u t l i n e d by t h e s u b s i d i a r y r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n s 1 t h r o u g h 6: 1. I s t h e a l l o c a t i o n o f e d u c a t i o n a l a c c e s s r e s o u r c e s among s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s r e l a t e d t o t h e e t h n i c c o m p o s i t i o n and e n r o l m e n t o f t h o s e d i s t r i c t s ? 2. I s t h e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n programmes i n s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s r e l a t e d t o t h e e t h n i c c o m p o s i t i o n and e n r o l m e n t o f t h o s e d i s t r i c t s ? 3. A r e s t u d e n t outcomes r e l a t e d t o t h e e t h n i c c o m p o s i t i o n and e n r o l m e n t o f s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s ? 4. I s t h e a l l o c a t i o n o f e d u c a t i o n a l a c c e s s r e s o u r c e s r e l a t e d t o t h e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f s p e c i a l t r e a t m e n t programmes. 5. I s t h e a l l o c a t i o n o f e d u c a t i o n a l a c c e s s r e s o u r c e s r e l a t e d t o s t u d e n t outcomes? 6. I s t h e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f s p e c i a l t r e a t m e n t programmes r e l a t e d t o s t u d e n t outcomes? The t h i r d p h a s e o f t h e s t a t i s t i c a l p r o c e d u r e s i n v o l v e d f a c t o r a n a l y s i s w h i c h was r e q u i r e d t o r e d u c e t h e d a t a t o a s m a l l e r number o f v a r i a b l e s f o r t h e f o u r t h p h a s e , p a t h a n a l y s i s . 153 F a c t o r a n a l y s i s y i e l d e d two f a c t o r s f o r t h e a c c e s s v a r i a b l e s : s t u d e n t / t e a c h e r r a t i o ( F a c t o r 1) and t e a c h e r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s ( F a c t o r 2) ; two f a c t o r s f o r t h e t r e a t m e n t v a r i a b l e s : E n g l i s h as a Second Language ( F a c t o r 1) and s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n ( F a c t o r 2 ) ; and one f a c t o r f o r t h e a c h i e v e m e n t s c o r e s . A p a t h a n a l y s i s t e s t e d t h e t h e o r e t i c a l model and t h e i n t e r a c t i o n among t h e e t h n i c v a r i a b l e s , e n r o l m e n t v a r i a b l e , a c c e s s f a c t o r s , t r e a t m e n t f a c t o r s , outcome f a c t o r and t h e g r a d u a t e v a r i a b l e . Two models were c o n s t r u c t e d f o r e a c h o f t h e f i v e e t h n i c g r o u p s w h i c h had e i t h e r t h e a c h i e v e m e n t f a c t o r or t h e p e r c e n t a g e o f g r a d u a t e s as t h e outcome. A t o t a l o f t e n p a t h a n a l y s e s t e s t e d t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p s among t h e v a r i o u s i n d i c a t o r s i n o r d e r t o answer t h e r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n r e l a t e d t o t h e mod e l : What a r e t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p s among t h e a c c e s s , t r e a t m e n t and outcome i n d i c a t o r s when t h e e t h n i c c o m p o s i t i o n and p o p u l a t i o n s i z e o f a s c h o o l d i s t r i c t a r e c o n s i d e r e d ? CONCLUSIONS The f o l l o w i n g c o n c l u s i o n s a r e r e l a t e d t o t h e g e n e r a l r e s e a r c h model q u e s t i o n w h i c h c o n s i d e r s t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p s among t h e v a r i o u s i n d i c a t o r s when e t h n i c c o m p o s i t i o n and t h e p o p u l a t i o n s i z e o f s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s a r e c o n s i d e r e d . E t h n i c i t y and E n r o l m e n t C o n c l u s i o n One: C e r t a i n e t h n i c p o p u l a t i o n s a r e u n e v e n l y and d i s t i n c t l y d i s t r i b u t e d i n t h e P r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a by e n r o l m e n t s i z e o f s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s . An a n a l y s i s o f t h e c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s between t h e two e xogeneous v a r i a b l e s -- t h e p r o p o r t i o n o f e t h n i c g r o u p s and t h e p o p u l a t i o n s i z e o f s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s — i n t h e p a t h m o d els 154 i n d i c a t e s t h a t d i f f e r e n t e t h n i c g r o u p s s e t t l e d i n d i f f e r e n t a r e a s o f t h e p r o v i n c e . When t h e p r o p o r t i o n o f N o n - E n g l i s h p o p u l a t i o n i n a s c h o o l d i s t r i c t was c o n s i d e r e d , t h e l a r g e r t h e p e r c e n t a g e o f N o n - E n g l i s h p o p u l a t i o n was a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a l a r g e r s t u d e n t e n r o l m e n t . T h i s f i n d i n g was a l s o t r u e f o r t h e A f r o - A s i a n g r o u p . An o p p o s i t e t r e n d was o b s e r v e d when t h e A b o r i g i n a l p o p u l a t i o n was c o n s i d e r e d . A l a r g e p e r c e n t a g e o f A b o r i g i n a l s w i t h i n a s c h o o l d i s t r i c t was a s s o c i a t e d w i t h s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s w i t h s m a l l e r s t u d e n t p o p u l a t i o n s . The F r e n c h and E u r o p e a n e t h n i c g r o u p s were n o t s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e l a t e d w i t h t h e s t u d e n t p o p u l a t i o n s i z e o f a s c h o o l d i s t r i c t . A c o n t i n u o u s d e b a t e i n t h e C a n a d i a n s o c i e t y i s whether or n o t t h e p a t t e r n o f c u l t u r a l s e t t l e m e n t o f i m m i g r a n t s i s m o s i a c — c u l t u r a l c l u s t e r s — o r a s s i m i l a t i o n ( F u s e , 1 9 77). A l t h o u g h t h e r e s u l t s o f t h i s s t u d y d i d n o t d i r e c t l y r e l a t e t o t h i s i s s u e , c e r t a i n e t h n i c p o p u l a t i o n s do t e n d t o s e t t l e i n p a r t i c u l a r e n v i r o n m e n t s d e f i n e d by p o p u l a t i o n s i z e . S i n c e t h i s e t h n i c s e t t l e m e n t p a t t e r n does e x i s t between s c h o o l d i s t r i c t p o p u l a t i o n s , i t may a l s o o c c u r w i t h i n t h e s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s s u b s t a n t i a t i n g t h e m o s i a c p a t t e r n o f s e t t l e m e n t . Of t h e f o u r s t u d i e s ( B i d w e l l and K a s a r d a , 1974; C u r r i e , 1978; Katzman, 1971; S e b o l d and D a t o , 1981) r e v i e w e d t h a t c o n s i d e r e d t h e r a c e or e t h n i c c o m p o s i t i o n o f s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s , none examined t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between e t h n i c c o m p o s i t i o n and s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s i z e b u t r a t h e r t h e y u s e d b o t h - e n r o l m e n t and e t h n i c i t y - as i n d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s t o e s t i m a t e t h e e f f e c t s o f o t h e r v a r i a b l e s on a c h i e v e m e n t . 155 E t h n i c i t y and A c c e s s C o n c l u s i o n Two: E t h n i c g r o u p s have d i f f e r e n t i a l a c c e s s t o t h e e d u c a t i o n a l r e s o u r c e s as d e f i n e d by s t u d e n t / t e a c h e r r a t i o and t e a c h e r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . The two a c c e s s f a c t o r s , s t u d e n t / t e a c h e r r a t i o and t e a c h e r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , had d i f f e r e n t r e s u l t s when t h e p r o p o r t i o n o f e t h n i c p o p u l a t i o n s were c o n s i d e r e d by s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s . As t h e p r o p o r t i o n o f F r e n c h , E u r o p e a n and A f r o - A s i a n p o p u l a t i o n s i n c r e a s e d i n s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s , t h e s t u d e n t / t e a c h e r r a t i o i n c r e a s e d . No s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p was f o u n d between t h e s t u d e n t / t e a c h e r r a t i o and t h e g e n e r a l e t h n i c c a t e g o r y o f Non-E n g l i s h o r t h e A b o r i g i n a l p o p u l a t i o n . The v a l u e o f t h e s e c o n d f a c t o r , t e a c h e r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , v a r i e d s u b s t a n t i a l l y among t h e e t h n i c p o p u l a t i o n s . The v a l u e s o f t h e t e a c h e r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c f a c t o r d e c r e a s e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y as t h e p r o p o r t i o n o f F r e n c h and A b o r i g i n a l p o p u l a t i o n s i n c r e a s e d i n a s c h o o l d i s t r i c t . When t h e p r o p o r t i o n o f E u r o p e a n s i n c r e a s e d i n a s c h o o l d i s t r i c t , t h e t e a c h e r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c v a l u e i n c r e a s e d . In o t h e r words, t h e more q u a l i f i e d and e x p e r i e n c e d t e a c h e r s t a u g h t i n s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s when t h e p r o p o r t i o n o f E u r o p e a n p o p u l a t i o n i n c r e a s e d . No s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p was f o u n d among t h e a c c e s s f a c t o r s and t h e g e n e r a l e t h n i c g r o u p o f N o n - E n g l i s h o r t h e A f r o - A s i a n p o p u l a t i o n . The r e s u l t s o b t a i n e d between t h e e t h n i c i t y and t h e a c c e s s f a c t o r s s u b s t a n t i a t e s t h e f i n d i n g s o f o t h e r s t u d i e s w h i c h d i d n o t use s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s as t h e u n i t o f a n a l y s i s (Coleman e t a l . , 1966; Owen, 1974) . 156 E t h n i c i t y and T r e a t m e n t C o n c l u s i o n T h r e e : E t h n i c g r o u p s do n o t r e c e i v e d i f f e r e n t i a l e d u c a t i o n a l t r e a t m e n t as d e f i n e d by S p e c i a l E d u c a t i o n programmes and E n g l i s h as a Second Language Programme. The t r e a t m e n t f a c t o r s , s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n and E n g l i s h as a Second Language, were n o t s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e l a t e d w i t h any o f t h e e t h n i c c a t e g o r i e s . A l t h o u g h t h i s f i n d i n g f o r s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n programmes i s c o n c e p t u a l l y a p p r o p r i a t e s i n c e s t u d e n t s q u a l i f y i n g f o r s p e c i a l i z e d e d u c a t i o n a l t r e a t m e n t s h o u l d n o t c o r r e s p o n d t o e t h n i c b a c k g r o u n d , i t i s i n c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e p u r p o s e and i n t e n t o f E n g l i s h as a Second Language Programme. T h i s programme was d e v e l o p e d s p e c i f i c a l l y f o r N o n - E n g l i s h p o p u l a t i o n s and y e t f o r some r e a s o n t h e a n t i c i p a t e d r e l a t i o n s h i p was n o t c o n f i r m e d s t a t i s t i c a l l y . A r e v i e w o f t h e t o t a l e f f e c t s c o e f f i c i e n t s i n d i c a t e s o n l y one c o e f f i c e n t v a l u e (.19) between ESL and t h e p r o p o r t i o n o f A f r o - A s i a n p o p u l a t i o n may r e p r e s e n t an i n s t r u c t i o n a l t r e n d . S e v e r a l p o s s i b i l i t i e s e x i s t as t o why a s t r o n g e r s t a t i s t i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p was n o t f o u n d between t h e d i f f e r e n t e t h n i c p o p u l a t i o n s and ESL programming. F i r s t , some o t h e r a d m i n i s t r a t i v e c r i t e r i a t h a n t h e need f o r ESL i n s t r u c t i o n f o r N o n - E n g l i s h p o p u l a t i o n s may be i n t e r v e n i n g i n t h e p r o c e s s o f i m p l e m e n t i n g t h i s programme. F o r example, r e g a r d l e s s o f t h e n e e d , i f no ESL t e a c h e r s a r e a v a i l a b l e f o r i n s t r u c t i o n , t h e n no ESL programme i s i m p l e m e n t e d . A n o t h e r p o s s i b i l i t y i s t h a t , i n t h e f i r s t p h ase o f t h e s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s , t h e v a r i a b l e s a f f i l i a t e d w i t h t h e two t r e a t m e n t f a c t o r s were n o t n o r m a l l y d i s t r i b u t e d . In f a c t , a few 157 o f t h e s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s had r e p o r t e d t h e p r o p o r t i o n o f s t u d e n t s i n s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n as 100%. Such i n f o r m a t i o n i n d i c a t e s a f l a w i n r e p o r t i n g s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n i n f o r m a t i o n o r i n t h e c r i t e r i a u s ed by d i s t r i c t s f o r s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n . Of t h e t h r e e s t u d i e s (Goodman, 1959; K i e s l i n g , 1969; S e b o l d and D a t o , 1981) r e v i e w e d i n s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n , none c o n s i d e r e d t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between e t h n i c i t y and s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n . The f o c u s o f t h e i r s t u d i e s was t o r e s e a r c h t h e p o s s i b l e r e l a t i o n s h i p between s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n and outcomes. E t h n i c i t y and E d u c a t i o n a l Outcomes C o n c l u s i o n F o u r : E t h n i c g r o u p s do a c h i e v e d i f f e r e n t i a l outcomes f r o m t h e s c h o o l i n g p r o c e s s . A l t h o u g h t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p s between e t h n i c i t y and e d u c a t i o n a l outcomes were n o t s i g n i f i c a n t a c r o s s a l l e t h n i c g r o u p s , t h e y d i d y i e l d t h e l a r g e s t p a t h c o e f f i c i e n t s . An i n c r e a s e i n t h e p r o p o r t i o n s o f N o n - E n g l i s h and t h e A b o r i g i n a l p o p u l a t i o n s i n a s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s i g n i f i c a n t l y l o w e r e d t h e s c o r e on t h e a c h i e v e m e n t f a c t o r . A h i g h e r p r o p o r t i o n o f E u r o p e a n s i n a s c h o o l d i s t r i c t had e x a c t l y t h e o p p o s i t e e f f e c t . The s c o r e on t h e a c h i e v e m e n t f a c t o r i n c r e a s e d s u b s t a n t i a l l y . No s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p was f o u n d between t h e a c h i e v e m e n t f a c t o r and e i t h e r o f t h e r e m a i n i n g e t h n i c g r o u p s ; F r e n c h and A f r o - A s i a n . On t h e p e r c e n t a g e o f g r a d u a t e s as an outcome v a r i a b l e , an i n c r e a s e i n t h e p r o p o r t i o n o f A b o r i g i n a l p o p u l a t i o n i n a s c h o o l d i s t r i c t c o r r e s p o n d e d t o a d e c r e a s e i n t h e p e r c e n t a g e o f g r a d u a t e s . The o p p o s i t e f i n d i n g was e v i d e n t when t h e E u r o p e a n 158 p o p u l a t i o n was c o n s i d e r e d . An i n c r e a s e i n t h e p r o p o r t i o n o f E u r o p e a n s s u b s t a n t i a l l y i n c r e a s e d t h e p e r c e n t a g e o f g r a d u a t e s . The o t h e r e t h n i c c a t e g o r i e s — N o n - E n g l i s h , F r e n c h and A f r o -A s i a n — were n o t s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t w i t h t h e outcome v a r i a b l e p e r c e n t a g e o f g r a d u a t e s . A l t h o u g h t h e t o t a l e f f e c t s c o e f f i c i e n t on A f r o - A s i a n s had a v a l u e o f -. 18 i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e p e r c e n t a g e o f g r a d u a t e s . P o r f e r (1972) p o s t u l a t e d t h a t t h e l a n g u a g e and c u l t u r e o f e t h n i c g r o u p s were o b s t a c l e s t o s c h o o l s u c c e s s . Murphy (1979) s u g g e s t e d t h a t two o t h e r p o s s i b i l i t i e s e x i s t : e t h n i c i t y may n o t be r e l a t e d t o s c h o o l s u c c e s s ; o r , e t h n i c i t y may i n t e r a c t p o s i t i v e l y w i t h s c h o o l i n g . D e p e n d i n g on t h e p a r t i c u l a r e t h n i c g r o u p s , t h e r e s u l t s o f t h i s s t u d y s u p p o r t s a l l t h r e e p r o p o s i t i o n s . P o r t e r ' s p o s i t i o n i s s u b s t a n t i a t e d by t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e p r o p o r t i o n o f A b o r i g i n a l p o p u l a t i o n and t h e outcome i n d i c a t o r s w h i l e t h e p r o p o r t i o n o f E u r o p e a n s i n a s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s u b s t a n t i a t e s Murphy's a s c e r t i o n t h a t e t h n i c i t y may i n t e r a c t p o s i t i v e l y w i t h s c h o o l s u c c e s s . Murphy's s e c o n d p r o p o s i t i o n t h a t e t h n i c i t y may n o t be r e l a t e d t o s c h o o l s u c c e s s i s s u p p o r t e d by t h e r e s u l t s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e F r e n c h and A f r o -A s i a n p o p u l a t i o n s . B i d w e l l and K a s a r d a (1975) as w e l l as S e b o l d and Dato (1981) f o u n d s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t r e s u l t s f o r e t h n i c g r o u p s on p a r t i c u l a r outcome v a r i a b l e s . Such r e s u l t s a r e s u b s t a n t i a t e d by t h e f i n d i n g s o f t h i s s t u d y and t h a t i s e t h n i c g r o u p s p e r f o r m d i f f e r e n t l y on a c h i e v e m e n t v a r i a b l e s . Katzman's s t u d y (1971) o f t h e C h i n e s e p o p u l a t i o n s u p p o r t e d t h e p r o p o s i t i o n t h a t e t h n i c i t y may i n t e r a c t p o s i t i v e l y w i t h s c h o o l i n g . 159 E t h n i c i t y , E n r o l m e n t and A c c e s s C o n c l u s i o n F i v e : The s i z e and d i r e c t i o n o f t h e s t u d e n t p o p u l a t i o n o f a s c h o o l d i s t r i c t d e t e r m i n e s t h e d i r e c t i o n o f i t s e d u c a t i o n a l r e s o u r c e s s u c h as s t u d e n t / t e a c h e r r a t i o and t e a c h e r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . W i t h i n t h e c o n t e x t o f e t h n i c i t y , t h e e n r o l m e n t s i z e o f a s c h o o l d i s t r i c t was c o n s i s t e n t l y and s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e l a t e d t o t h e a c c e s s f a c t o r s . The t e a c h e r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c f a c t o r s c o r e i n c r e a s e d w i t h an i n c r e a s e i n t h e e n r o l m e n t o f a s c h o o l d i s t r i c t . In o t h e r words, more e x p e r i e n c e d and b e t t e r q u a l i f i e d t e a c h e r s were a s s o c i a t e d w i t h l a r g e r s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s . T h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p was one o f t h e s t r o n g e s t f o u n d i n t h i s s t u d y . The s t u d e n t / t e a c h e r r a t i o f a c t o r was p o s i t i v e and s i g n i f i c a n t i n t h r e e o f t h e f i v e e t h n i c c a t e g o r i e s : N o n - E n g l i s h , F r e n c h and E u r o p e a n . As t h e p r o p o r t i o n o f t h e s e t h r e e e t h n i c g r o u p s i n c r e a s e d i n t h e p o p u l a t i o n o f a s c h o o l d i s t r i c t , t h e s t u d e n t / t e a c h e r r a t i o i n c r e a s e d . C o n c l u s i o n F i v e , w h i c h i s s u p p o r t e d by t h e p a r t i c u l a r r e l a t i o n s h i p s among t h e two a c c e s s f a c t o r s ; s t u d e n t / t e a c h e r r a t i o and t e a c h e r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , and t h e e n r o l m e n t s i z e o f t h e s c h o o l d i s t r i c t , s u p p o r t s B i d w e l l and K a s a r d a 1 s f i n d i n g s (1975) . I t was an a s s u m p t i o n o f t h i s s t u d y t h a t b o t h f a c t o r s o f a c c e s s , l o w e r s t u d e n t / t e a c h e r r a t i o and h i g h e r t e a c h e r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , had a s t r o n g and p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h t h e s c h o o l i n g p r o c e s s . In t h i s p r o d u c t i o n f u n c t i o n m o d el, t h e s e c o n d f a c t o r , h i g h e r t e a c h e r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , d i d p r o v e t o be s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e l a t e d t o a h i g h e r p e r c e n t a g e o f g r a d u a t e s and a 160 h i g h e r a c h i e v e m e n t f a c t o r s c o r e . H o w e v e r , t h e f i r s t f a c t o r , l o w e r s t u d e n t / t e a c h e r r a t i o , m ust be q u e s t i o n e d as a v i a b l e i n d i c a t o r o f r e s o u r c e a c c e s s and i t s a b i l i t y t o i n f l u e n c e o u t c o m e s b e c a u s e e x a c t l y t h e o p p o s i t e t r e n d e merged, a h i g h e r s t u d e n t / t e a c h e r r a t i o was a s s o c i a t e d w i t h i n c r e a s e d a c h i e v e m e n t s c o r e s b u t had no i n f l u e n c e on t h e p e r c e n t a g e o f g r a d u a t e s . S u c h r e s u l t s c o u l d l e a d one t o e r r o n e o u s l y c o n c l u d e t h a t a l o w e r s t u d e n t / t e a c h e r r a t i o h a s a n e g a t i v e i n f l u e n c e on a c h i e v e m e n t . An a l t e r n a t e p o s s i b i l i t y , h o w e v e r , i s t h a t F a c t o r 1 s t u d e n t / t e a c h e r r a t i o — i s n o t an a p p r o p r i a t e i n d i c a t o r o f r e s o u r c e a l l o c a t i o n and i s t o o s i m p l i s t i c a c o n s t r u c t as a m e a s u r e o f t h e i n s t r u c t i o n a l e n v i r o n m e n t . One o f t h e k e y d y n a m i c s t h a t o c c u r s i n a c l a s s r o o m i s t h e a b i l i t y o f a t e a c h e r t o i n s t r u c t a t a l e v e l c o m m e n s u r a t e w i t h t h e s t u d e n t a b i l i t y l e v e l . I n a l a r g e r p o p u l a t i o n c e n t e r , s t u d e n t s t e n d t o be g r o u p e d by a b i l i t y l e v e l n o t o n l y by s c h o o l b u t a l s o by c l a s s r o o m . I n t h i s s i t u a t i o n , t h e d i v e r s i t y o f s t u d e n t a b i l i t y i n a c l a s s r o o m i s l i m i t e d by t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e s t u d e n t p o p u l a t i o n . I n s m a l l e r p o p u l a t i o n c e n t e r s , s u c h a d y n a m i c o f r e s t r i c t i n g a b i l i t y l e v e l i n a c l a s s r o o m d o e s n o t o c c u r ; h e n c e s m a l l e r c l a s s e s u n s u c c e s s f u l l y t r y t o c o m p e n s a t e f o r t h e d i v e r s i t y o f s t u d e n t a b i l i t y w h i c h e x i s t s . The r e s u l t i s t h a t a l t h o u g h s t u d e n t / t e a c h e r r a t i o s a r e l e s s t h e a c h i e v e m e n t l e v e l i s a l s o l e s s . I n o r d e r t o f u r t h e r c o m p e n s a t e f o r t h e d i v e r s i t y o f s t u d e n t a b i l i t y i n t h e s m a l l e r e n r o l m e n t d i s t r i c t , more s t u d e n t s a r e c l a s s i f i e d a s s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n p u p i l s . The s m a l l e r e n r o l m e n t s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s a r e f a c e d w i t h a s e c o n d p r o b l e m o f t e a c h e r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . M ore q u a l i f i e d and 1 6 1 e x p e r i e n c e d t e a c h e r s who p r o d u c e b e t t e r a c h i e v e m e n t r e s u l t s as w e l l as g r a d u a t e more g r a d e t w e l v e s t u d e n t s l i v e i n l a r g e s t u d e n t p o p u l a t i o n c e n t e r s . From t h e r e s u l t s o f t h i s s t u d y , i t i s a p p a r e n t t h a t two c o m p l e t e l y d i f f e r e n t e d u c a t i o n a l d y n a m i c s e x i s t i n l a r g e and s m a l l s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s . E t h n i c i t y , E n r o l m e n t and T r e a t m e n t C o n c l u s i o n S i x : The s t u d e n t p o p u l a t i o n s i z e o f a s c h o o l d i s t r i c t i s n o t r e l a t e d t o t h e s p e c i a l i z e d programme t r e a t m e n t o f s t u d e n t s . When t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between e n r o l m e n t and t h e s t u d e n t s p e c i a l t r e a t m e n t f a c t o r s was c o n s i d e r e d w i t h i n t h e c o n t e x t o f e a c h e t h n i c c a t e g o r y , no s i g n i f i c a n t t r e n d was d i s c o v e r e d . In o t h e r words, t h e e x i s t a n c e o f S p e c i a l E d u c a t i o n and ESL programming was n o t r e l a t e d t o t h e s t u d e n t e n r o l m e n t s i z e o f a s c h o o l d i s t r i c t . T h i s r e s u l t i s l o g i c a l l y c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e p u r p o s e and i n t e n t o f s u c h programming. None o f t h e s t u d i e s (Goodman, 1959; K i e s l i n g 1969; S e b o l d and D a t o , 1981) r e v i e w e d i n t h e a r e a o f s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n c o n s i d e r e d t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between s t u d e n t p o p u l a t i o n s i z e o f a s c h o o l d i s t r i c t and s p e c i a l i z e d t r e a t m e n t o f s t u d e n t s . E t h n i c i t y , A c c e s s and T r e a t m e n t C o n c l u s i o n S e v e n : The e d u c a t i o n a l r e s o u r c e f a c t o r , s t u d e n t / t e a c h e r r a t i o , i s s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e l a t e d t o t h e s p e c i a l i z e d t r e a t m e n t o f s t u d e n t s . C o n s i d e r a t i o n o f t h e two a c c e s s f a c t o r s ; s t u d e n t - t e a c h e r r a t i o and t e a c h e r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , w i t h t h e two t r e a t m e n t f a c t o r s ; s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n and E n g l i s h as a Second Language, y i e l d e d d i f f e r e n t r e s u l t s among t h e v a r i o u s e t h n i c g r o u p s . 162 F i r s t , t h e t e a c h e r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s f a c t o r was n o t r e l a t e d t o e i t h e r t r e a t m e n t f a c t o r f o r any o f t h e e t h n i c c a t e g o r i e s . The s t u d e n t / t e a c h e r f a c t o r was n e g a t i v e l y r e l a t e d t o t h e s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n f a c t o r r e g a r d l e s s o f t h e e t h n i c c o m p o s i t i o n i n a s c h o o l d i s t r i c t . In o t h e r words, an i n c r e a s e i n s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n programmes i n a s c h o o l d i s t r i c t was r e l a t e d w i t h a d e c r e a s e i n s t u d e n t / t e a c h e r r a t i o . The o p p o s i t e r e l a t i o n s h i p was f o u n d between ESL programming and t h e s t u d e n t / t e a c h e r r a t i o ; an i n c r e a s e i n ESL programming i n a s c h o o l d i s t r i c t was r e l a t e d t o an i n c r e a s e i n s t u d e n t / t e a c h e r r a t i o . The e f f e c t o f s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n programming on t h e a l l o c a t i o n o f o t h e r r e s o u r c e s i n a s c h o o l d i s t r i c t was n o t c o n s i d e r e d by t h e r e s e a r c h (Goodman, 1959; K i e s l i n g , 1969; S e o l d and D a t o , 1981) r e v i e w e d i n s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n . E t h n i c i t y , A c c e s s and Outcomes C o n c l u s i o n E i g h t : D i f f e r e n t i a l a c c e s s t o e d u c a t i o n a l r e s o u r c e s i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h d i f f e r e n t i a l o utcomes. The r e l a t i o n s h i p s among t h e two a c c e s s f a c t o r s ; s t u d e n t / t e a c h e r r a t i o and t h e t e a c h e r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , and t h e two outcome i n d i c a t o r s ; a c h i e v e m e n t f a c t o r and p e r c e n t a g e o f g r a d u a t e v a r i a b l e , were g e n e r a l l y c o n s i s t e n t a c r o s s a l l e t h n i c c a t e g o r i e s . The s t u d e n t / t e a c h e r f a c t o r was n o t r e l a t e d t o t h e p e r c e n t a g e o f g r a d u a t e v a r i a b l e b u t i t was p o s i t i v e l y r e l a t e d t o t h e a c h i e v e m e n t f a c t o r f o r t h e d i f f e r e n t e t h n i c g r o u p s e x c l u d i n g t h e p r o p o r t i o n o f E u r o p e a n s . A h i g h e r s t u d e n t / t e a c h e r r a t i o was a s s o c i a t e d w i t h h i g h e r a c h i e v e m e n t s c o r e s f o r N o n - E n g l i s h , F r e n c h , A f r o - A s i a n and A b o r i g i n a l p o p u l a t i o n s w h i l e t h e i n t h e 163 c a s e o f E u r o p e a n s no s t a t i s t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e was f o u n d . The t e a c h e r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c f a c t o r was c o n s i s t e n t l y and p o s i t i v e l y r e l a t e d t o b o t h outcome i n d i c a t o r s a c r o s s a l l e t h n i c g r o u p s . In f a c t , t h i s a c c e s s f a c t o r w i t h t h e outcome i n d i c a t o r s had on t h e a v e r a g e t h e h i g h e s t p a t h c o e f f i c i e n t s f o u n d i n t h e s t u d y . A l t h o u g h a g r e a t e r v a l u e i n t h e t e a c h e r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s f a c t o r was s t r o n g l y r e l a t e d t o t h e outcome i n d i c a t e s , t h i s r e s u l t c a n n o t be i n t e r p r e t e d t h a t t h e most e x p e r i e n c e d and q u a l i f i e d t e a c h e r s a r e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h an i n c r e a s e i n outcome s c o r e s o r v a l u e s . I t i s p o s s i b l e f o r a c u r v i l i n e a r r e l a t i o n s h i p t o e x i s t between t h e two s c o r e s i n t h a t t h e most e x p e r i e n c e d and q u a l i f i e d t e a c h e r s a r e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a d e c r e a s e i n outcome s c o r e s o r v a l u e s . C o n c l u s i o n E i g h t and i t s p a r t i c u l a r f i n d i n g s a r e n o t c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e f i n d i n g s on s t u d e n t / t e a c h e r r a t i o and s t u d e n t outcome i n o t h e r s t u d i e s r e v i e w e d , ( C u r r i e , 1978; K i e s l i n g , 1969; K i e s l i n g , 1970; Raymond, 1978) but s u b s t a n -t i a t e t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f t e a c h e r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s f o u n d i n o t h e r r e s e a c h ( B i d w e l l and K a s a r d a , 1975; C u r r i e , 1978; Goodman, 1959; Katzman, 1971; K i e s l i n g , 1 9 7 0 ) . E t h n i c i t y , T r e a t m e n t and Outcomes C o n c l u s i o n N i n e : In t h i s s t u d y o f d a t a a t t h e d i s t r i c t l e v e l , no r e l a t i o n s h i p was f o u n d between s p e c i a l i z e d t r e a t m e n t s o f s t u d e n t s i n ESL and i n s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n programmes and t h e outcome m e a s u r e s o f a c h i e v e m e n t t e s t s and t h e p e r c e n t a g e o f Grade 12 g r a d u a t e s . B o t h t r e a t m e n t f a c t o r s d i d n o t p r o v e t o be r e l a t e d t o e i t h e r outcome i n d i c a t o r f o r any o f t h e f i v e e t h n i c g r o u p s c o n s i d e r e d i n 164 t h i s s t u d y . T h e s e r e s u l t s seem t o i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e f u n c t i o n o f s p e c i a l i z e d s e r v i c e s f o r s t u d e n t s i s f o r some o t h e r p u r p o s e t h a n t h e improvement o f s t u d e n t outcomes. S i n c e t h e s e t r e a t m e n t f a c t o r s were n o t s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t , t h e r e s u l t s seem t o s u b s t a n t i a t e t h e p r e v i o u s o b s e r v a t i o n by S e b o l d and Dato (1981) i n t h a t s u c h s p e c i a l programmes: ...may n o t b e a r t h e same d i r e c t r e l a t i o n t o d e v e l o p m e n t o f b a s i c c o g n i t i v e s k i l l s as t h e g e n e r a l e d u c a t i o n programme (p. 9 9 ) . . . A l t h o u g h Goodman (1959) f o u n d a p o s i t i v e and s i g n i f -i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p between h i s s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n s t a f f p e r s t u d e n t , t h e r e s u l t s o f t h i s s t u d y s u p p o r t s t h e f i n d i n g s o f o f o t h e r r e s e a r c h e r s ( K i e s l i n g , 1969; S e b o l d and D a t o , 1981) and t h a t i s no r e l a t i o n s h i p e x i s t s between s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n programming and i n c r e a s e d c o g n i t i v e outcomes. A l t h o u g h no s t a t i s t i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p was f o u n d , o c c a s i o n a l l y t h e c o -e f f i c i e n t s had n e g a t i v e v a l u e s w h i c h was s i m i l a r t o t h e r e s u l t s o b t a i n e d by S e b o l d and Dato (1 9 8 1 ) . IMPLICATIONS FOR POLICY The f o l l o w i n g p o l i c y i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r t h e M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n and s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a have been d e r i v e d f r o m t h e r e s u l t s o f t h i s s t u d y . F o u r m a j o r i m p l i c a t i o n s r e l a t e t o e t h n i c i t y , t o t h e two a c c e s s f a c t o r s s t u d e n t / t e a c h e r r a t i o and t e a c h e r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s -- and t o t h e two t r e a t m e n t f a c t o r s , s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n and ESL. T e a c h e r C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and E t h n i c i t y C o n c l u s i o n Two on t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e t e a c h e r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s f a c t o r and i t s i n f l u e n c e on t h e a c a d e m i c s u c c e s s 1 6 5 o f s t u d e n t s s u b s t a n t i a t e s t h e r e s u l t s o f o t h e r r e s e a r c h (Goodman, 1959; Katzman, 1971; K i e s l i n g , 1970, B i d w e l l and K a s a r d a , 1975; C u r r i e , 1 9 7 8 ) . T h i s r e s u l t m e r i t s some f u r t h e r c o n s i d e r a t i o n by t h e M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n and S c h o o l B o a r d s . S i n c e t h e t e a c h e r r e s o u r c e i s u n e v e n l y and i n e q u i t a b l y d i s t r i b u t e d by e t h n i c g r o u p s and i n p a r t i c u l a r as i t r e l a t e s t o t h e F r e n c h and A b o r i g i n a l p o p u l a t i o n s , i t becomes e d u c a t i o n a l l y i m p e r a t i v e t h a t an a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p r o c e d u r e be implemented t o overcome t h i s d i s c r e p a n c y . I m p l i c a t i o n One: T h a t t h e M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n and S c h o o l B o a r d s r e v i e w h i r i n g and t r a i n i n g p r a c t i c e s f o r t e a c h e r s and t h a t p r o c e d u r e s be implemented w h i c h e n s u r e t h e F r e n c h and A b o r i g i n a l p o p u l a t i o n s o b t a i n more e x p e r i e n c e d and q u a l i f i e d t e a c h e r s . S e v e r a l p o s s i b i l i t e s e x i s t on how t o a c h i e v e t h e s e e n d s . A t e a c h e r secondment programme f o r d i s t r i c t s w ih a h i g h p r o p o r t i o n o f F r e n c h and A b o r i g i n a l p o p u l a t i o n s c o u l d be i n s t i t u t e d . The s c h o o l s y s t e m a l r e a d y s u p p o r t s e x c h a n g e s w i t h o t h e r c o u n t r i e s and i t would be an e a s y m a t t e r t o make th e same a r r a n g e m e n t s between s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s so t h a t more e x p e r i e n c e d and q u a l i f i e d t e a c h e r s would be a v a i l a b l e i n t h o s e s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s w h i c h r e q u i r e t h e i r e x p e r t i s e . S p e c i a l E d u c a t i o n , ESL and E t h n i c i t y The two c o n c l u s i o n s on t h e t r e a t m e n t f a c t o r and w h i c h a r e s u p p o r t e d by o t h e r r e s e a r c h ( K i e s l i n g , 1979; S e b o l d and D a t o , 1981) have p r o f o u n d i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r t h e e d u c a t i o n a l s y s t e m . The f a c t t h a t e t h n i c g r o u p s do n o t r e c e i v e d i f f e r e n t i a l t r e a t m e n t under ESL programming, C o n c l u s i o n T h r e e , q u e s t i o n s t h e p u r p o s e o f s u c h programming. 166 I m p l i c a t i o n Two: T h a t t h e M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n and S c h o o l B o a r d s r e v i e w ESL programmes t o e n s u r e t h a t such programmes a r e m e e t i n g s t u d e n t needs f o r w h i c h t h e y a r e i n t e n d e d . A s e c o n d c o n s i s t e n t f i n d i n g i n t h i s s t u d y was t h a t b o t h t h e s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n f a c t o r and t h e ESL f a c t o r d i d n o t i n f l u e n c e c o g n i t i v e d e v e l o p m e n t as measured by a c h i e v e m e n t t e s t s nor d i d t h e y i n f l u e n c e t h e p e r c e n t a g e o f g r a d u a t e s ( C o n c l u s i o n N i n e ) . Two p o s s i b i l i t i e s e x i s t f o r t h e l a c k o f a r e l a t i o n s h i p . The programmes a r e i n a d e q u a t e l y implemented o r t h e programmes e x i s t f o r r e a s o n s o t h e r t h a n a c a d e m i c improvement. I m p l i c a t i o n T h r e e : T h a t t h e M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n and S c h o o l B o a r d s r e v i e w t h e p u r p o s e and i n t e n t o f S p e c i a l E d u c a t i o n and ESL programmes w i t h i n t h e s c h o o l i n g p r o c e s s . E n r o l m e n t S i z e , R e s o u r c e s and E t h n i c i t y B o t h t h e t e a c h e r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c f a c t o r and t h e s t u d e n t / t e a c h e r r a t i o f a c t o r were c o n s i s t e n t l y r e l a t e d t o e n r o l m e n t s i z e o f a s c h o o l d i s t r i c t when t h e p r o p o r t i o n o f e t h n i c p o p u l a t i o n was c o n s i d e r e d ( C o n c l u s i o n F i v e ) . T h i s r e s u l t w h i c h v e r i f i e s o t h e r r e s e a r c h ( B i d w e l l and K a s a r d a , 1975) has i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r t h e a l l o c a t i o n o f e d u c a t i o n a l r e s o u r c e s f o r s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s . P o s s i b l y , t h e i n e g u i t y o f r e s o u r c e a l l o c a t i o n between d i s t r i c t s may be t h e r e s u l t o f m e e t i n g s p e c i f i c needs w i t h i n a d i s t r i c t . In o t h e r words, t h e c o n c e p t o f e q u a l i t y as i t p e r t a i n s t o r e s o u r c e a l l o c a t i o n i s an i n a p p r o p r i a t e i d e a l . A n o t h e r p o s s i b i l i t y i s t h a t t h e s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s have n o t p u r s u e d e q u a l i t y as d e s c r i b e d h e r e i n and s h o u l d t r y new d i r e c t i o n s i n o r d e r t o a c h i e v e b e t t e r r e s u l t s . 167 I m p l i c a t i o n F o u r : T h a t t h e M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n and S c h o o l B o a r d s r e v i e w t h e a l l o c a t i o n o f r e s o u r c e s and where a p p l i c a b l e e n s u r e t h a t a more e q u i t a b l e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f r e s o u r c e s o c c u r s i n s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s . LIMITATIONS OF STUDY R e s e a c h e r s who have u s e d p r o d u c t i o n f u n c t i o n a n a l y s i s have been t r o u b l e d by s e v e r a l a n a l y t i c a l i s s u e s ( B r i d g e , Judd and Moock, 1979; C e n t r a and P o t t e r , 1980; Cohn and M i l l m a n , 1975; Glasman and B i n i a m i n o u , 1981; Katzman, 1971; Murnane, 1975). The most s e r i o u s l i m i t a t i o n i n a d i s t r i c t s t u d y o f t h i s t y p e i s s e a r c h i n g f o r a r e l a t i o n s h i p between e d u c a t i o n a l i n p u t s and e d u c a t i o n a l o u t p u t s . I t i s p o s s i b l e t o a s c e r t a i n among s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s i n e q u a l i t y o r d i s c r e p a n c i e s i n t h e a l l o c a t i o n o f s c h o o l r e s o u r c e s , s t u d e n t outcomes and s t u d e n t b a c k g r o u n d . The p r o b l e m e x i t s when r e s e a c h e r s a t t e m p t t o a n a l y z e t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p s among t h e s e t s o f v a r i a b l e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h s c h o o l r e s o u r c e s , s t u d e n t outcomes and s t u d e n t b a c k g r o u n d . The argument i s t h a t t h e v a r i a b l e s a r e n o t c o n c e p t u a l l y d i s c r e t e u n i t s i n and o f t h e m s e l v e s nor do t h e s e t s o f v a r i a b l e s i n c l u d e a l l t h e i m p o r t a n t measures due t o t h e m u l t i p l i c i t y o f f a c t o r s i n v o l v e d (Hanushek and K a i n , 1972; Thomas, 1 9 8 0 ) . B e c a u s e o f t h e s e d e f i c i e n c i e s , t h e p r o b l e m has l e d t o a d e f i n i t i o n o f t h e v a r i a b l e s u s e d as " o n l y c r u d e m e asures o f n o n - s c h o o l e n v i r o n m e n t , c u r r e n t s c h o o l r e s o u r c e i n p u t s , and c u r r e n t a c h i e v e m e n t " (Spady, 1973, p. 1 3 3 ) . The s p e c i f i c f l a w s i n u s i n g s u c h v a r i a b l e s i n p r o d u c t i o n f u n c t i o n a n a l y s i s and t h e n t r y i n g t o i n t e r p r e t r e l a t i o n s h i p s between s c h o o l r e s o u r c e s and a c h i e v e m e n t a r e t h e u n i t o f 168 a n a l y s i s , q u a l i t y o f r e s o u r c e s , p s y c h o l o g i c a l t r a i t s , d i s c r e t e d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n o f e f f e c t s , t i m e e f f e c t d i s t i n c t i o n and h i s t o r i c a l c o n t e x t . The l i m i t a t i o n o f u s i n g s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s as t h e u n i t o f a n a l y s i s i s t h a t t h e d i s t r i c t s may be t o o g e n e r a l a c a t e g o r y f r o m w h i c h t o draw m e a n i n g f u l c o n c l u s i o n s a b o u t s t u d e n t a c h i e v e m e n t and s c h o o l r e s o u r c e s . By a g g r e g a t i n g d a t a a c r o s s a d i s t r i c t , s u b s t a n t i a l v a r i a t i o n between s c h o o l d i f f e r e n c e s and s t u d e n t d i f f e r e n c e s a r e e x c l u d e d . V a r i a t i o n w i t h i n a s c h o o l d i s t r i c t may be as i m p o r t a n t o r even more i m p o r t a n t t o t h e s e outcomes and t o e d u c a t i o n a l t h e o r y t h a n t h e v a r i a t i o n among s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s . U s i n g t h e s c h o o l d i s t r i c t as t h e u n i t o f a n a l y s i s does n o t t a k e i n t o a c c o u n t t h e i n d i v i d u a l s t u d e n t s i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h t h e s c h o o l r e s o u r c e s . One s c h o o l d i s t r i c t may have t w i c e as many l i b r a r y b ooks p e r s t u d e n t t h a n a n o t h e r s c h o o l d i s t r i c t b u t y e t have o n l y 25% o f t h e books on t h e l i b r a r y s h e l f f o r c i r c u l a t i o n . A s u r v e y would show h i g h r e s o u r c e a l l o c a t i o n i n l i b r a r y books w h i l e i n f a c t t h e r e e x i s t s low u t i l i z a t i o n o f t h a t r e s o u r c e . The s e c o n d i s s u e i s t h a t p r o d u c t i o n f u n c t i o n s t u d i e s do n o t c o n s i d e r t h e q u a l i t y o f t h e s c h o o l r e s o u r c e s . F o r example, t h e y do n o t a s s e s s t h e q u a l i t y o f goods r e l a t e d t o t h e e x p e n d i t u r e o f d o l l a r s . A s c h o o l d i s t r i c t w i t h a low p e r s t u d e n t e x p e n d i t u r e may be p u r c h a s i n g l i m i t e d h i g h q u a l i t y goods and s e r v i c e s w h i l e a s c h o o l d i s t r i c t w h i c h has h i g h p e r s t u d e n t e x p e n d i t u r e s may be p u r c h a s i n g low q u a l i t y goods and s e r v i c e s i n g r e a t q u a n t i t i e s . Q u a l i t a t i v e and q u a n t i t a t i v e i s s u e s as t h e y r e l a t e t o r e s o u r c e s a r e o f t e n n o t e v a l u a t e d . A p r i n c i p a l l i m i t a t i o n o f t h e p a r a d i g m , and one w h i c h may 169 have p r o f o u n d i n f l u e n c e on r e s u l t s , i s t h e e x c l u s i o n o f p s y c h o l o g i c a l t r a i t s s u c h as i n t e l l i g e n c e and m o t i v a t i o n w h i c h a r e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h l e a r n i n g . A l t h o u g h measurement o f t h e s e t r a i t s a r e p l a g u e d w i t h o p e r a t i o n a l d i f f i c u l t i e s , l e a r n i n g t h e o r y s e e s i n them as i m p o r t a n t c o n s t r u c t s . F a i l u r e t o c o n s i d e r them l e a d s t o i n c o m p l e t e e x p l a n a t i o n s o f s t u d e n t l e a r n i n g and, t h e r e f o r e , s t u d e n t a c h i e v e m e n t . The argument c o n t e n d s t h a t i f r e s o u r c e s a r e e q u i v a l e n t , a p o p u l a t i o n o f s t u d e n t s who a r e b o t h h i g h l y m o t i v a t e d and i n t e l l i g e n t w i l l a c h i e v e a t a h i g h e r l e v e l t h a n a p o p u l a t i o n o f s t u d e n t s who a r e u n m o t i v a t e d and a c a d e m i c a l l y s l o w . The f o u r t h c o n c e r n i s t h a t t h e s e t s o f v a r i a b l e s d e s i g n a t e d as s c h o o l r e s o u r c e s and s t u d e n t b a c k g r o u n d may n o t be d i s c r e t e and i n d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s . Spady (1973) d e s c r i b e d t h e p r o b l e m o f t h e i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t t h u s : The t y p i c a l i n p u t - o u t p u t s t u d y a t t e m p t s t o d e t e m i n e whether d i f f e r e n c e s i n s c h o o l r e s o u r c e s a r e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h s t u d e n t a c h i e v e m e n t when o t h e r i m p o r t a n t v a r i a b l e s a r e a l s o t a k e n i n t o a c c o u n t . M a j o r m e t h o d o l o g i c a l and i n t e r p r e t i v e e r r o r s may r e s u l t by f a l s e l y a s c r i b i n g t h e s c h o o l r e s o u r c e s w i t h t h o s e e f f e c t s t h a t a r e a c t u a l l y due t o o t h e r v a r i a b l e s . B e c a u s e f a m i l y s o c i o e c o n o m i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and s c h o o l r e s o u r c e a l l o c a t i o n s a r e a s s o c i a t e d , much o f t h e v a r i a b i l i t y i n s t u d e n t a c h i e v e m e n t c a n n o t be e x c l u s i v e l y o r ' u n i g u e l y ' a s c r i b e d t o e i t h e r one (p. 1 3 5 ) . The f i f t h i s s u e r e l a t e d t o l i m i t a t i o n s i s t h a t o f t i m e . I t i s assumed t h a t t h e r e s o u r c e s measured i n a p a r t i c u l a r y e a r r e l a t e t o t h e a c h i e v e m e n t o f s t u d e n t s i n t h a t p a r t i c u - l a r y e a r . L i t t l e c o n s i d e r a t i o n i s g i v e n t o t h e h i s t o r i c a l a n a l y s i s o f r e s o u r c e s and t h e a c h i e v e m e n t o f s t u d e n t s . By n o t c o n s i d e r i n g t h i s e f f e c t , t h e m e a s u r e s u s e d f o r r e s o u r c e s and s t u d e n t a c h i e v e m e n t u t i l i z e s i n a d e g u a t e l y t h e i n f l u e n c e o f s c h o o l 170 r e s o u r c e s i n p r e v i o u s y e a r s on s t u d e n t a c h i e v e m e n t The Grade 4 s t u d e n t s who w h i l e i n Grade 3, may have had an e x t r e m e l y d e p r i v e d s c h o o l e n v i r o n m e n t , b u t now have a r i c h e n v i r o n m e n t may s c o r e p o o r l y on G r a d e 4 a c h i e v e m e n t . The r i c h r e s o u r c e s o f Grade 4 may be u n a b l e t o compensate f o r t h e r e s o u r c e d e p r i v a t i o n i n Grade 3 and y e t t h e s u r v e y would show t h a t t h e Grade 4 g r o u p was h i g h i n r e s o u r c e s and y e t s c o r e d low i n a c h i e v e m e n t . A l s o , t h e s t u d y d i d n o t i n c l u d e a measure o f s o c i o e c o n o m i c s t a t u s w h i c h i n o t h e r r e s e a r c h (Coleman e t a l . , 1966; L e v i n e and Bane, 1975; P o r t e r , 1965) has p r o v e n t o be s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e l a t e d t o s t u d e n t a c h i e v e m e n t . The o m i s s i o n o f a s o c i o - e c o n o m i c i n d i c a t o r as an i n p u t v a r i a b l e i n t h i s p r o d u c t i o n f u n c t i o n model may be c r i t i c i z e d as a major l i m i t a t i o n o f t h i s s t u d y . A f i n a l l i m i t a t i o n p a r t i c u l a r t o t h i s s t u d y i s t h e h i s t o r i c a l c o n t e x t i n w h i c h i t t o o k p l a c e . The d a t a and i n f o r m a t i o n i s b a s e d on what e x i s t e d i n t h e y e a r s of 1981 and 1982 i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . As o f June and J u l y o f 1983, t h e newly e l e c t e d S o c i a l C r e d i t government i n t r o d u c e d m a j o r l e g i s l a t i o n w h i c h w i l l have a p r o f o u n d e f f e c t on t h e p o l i c i e s and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p r o c e d u r e s i n t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a e d u c a t i o n a l s y s t e m . A m a j o r p r i n c i p l e b e h i n d t h e l e g i s l a t i o n i s c e n t r a l i z a t i o n . T h r o u g h a new f i n a n c i n g f o r m u l a and management i n f o r m a t i o n s y s t e m s , t h e M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n w i l l c o n t r o l t h e t o t a l d o l l a r e x p e n d i t u r e s i n e d u c a t i o n a t t h e d i s t r i c t l e v e l w h i c h i n t u r n w i l l e f f e c t l e v e l s o f s e r v i c e w h i l e S c h o o l B o a r d s w i l l no l o n g e r have t h e a b i l i t y t o i n c r e a s e or d e c r e a s e b u d g e t s t o i n f l u e n c e l e v e l s o f s e r v i c e . The autonomy and r o l e s o f S c h o o l B o a r d s and t h e i r a d m i n i s t r a t o r s w i l l be r e s t r i c t e d by 171 t h i s l e g i s l a t i o n . S u b s e q u e n t l y , s u c h c h a n ges i n t h e powers and a u t h o r i t i e s w i t h i n t h e e d u c a t i o n a l s y s t e m w i l l i n f l u e n c e some o f th e f a c t s and i s s u e s o u t l i n e d i n t h i s s t u d y and i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o a s c e r t a i n a t t h i s t i m e what t h e s p e c i f i c r a m i f i c a t i o n s t h e s e c h a n g e s w i l l have on t h e e d u c a t i o n a l s y s t e m and t h e e d u c a t i o n a l s e r v i c e t o c h i l d r e n . IMPLICATIONS FOR FURTHER RESEARCH S e v e r a l o f t h e c o n c l u s i o n s i n t h i s s t u d y have i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h . The f i r s t c o n c l u s i o n i m p l i e s t h a t e t h n i c and c u l t u r a l e n c l a v e s do e x i s t i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . I f i n f a c t t h i s were s u b s t a n t i a t e d , i t would have s i g n i f i c a n t i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r F e d e r a l and P r o v i n c i a l p o l i c y on b i c u l t u r a l i s m and m u l t i c u l t u r a l i s m . The u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f c u l t u r e s and t h e c u l t u r a l i n t e g r a t i o n p r o c e s s would t a k e on g r e a t e r e m p h a s i s and meaning and h o p e f u l l y combat i g n o r a n c e and r a c i a l m i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g . The r e l a t i o n s h i p between e t h n i c i t y and s t u d e n t outcomes from C o n c l u s i o n F o u r s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e t h e o r e t i c a l model s h o u l d be expanded and i n c l u d e s o c i o e c o n o m i c s t a t u s and r e l i g i o u s b a c k g r o u n d as exogenous v a r i a b l e s . R e f e r r i n g t o B o r d i e u ' s c o n c e p t (1966) o f t h e s c h o o l s y s t e m b e i n g a d i s t i n c t s u b c u l t u r e w i t h u n i q u e v a l u e s and b e l i e f s , i t may be p o s s i b l e t o c r o s s v a l i d a t e t h e v a l u e s w i t h e t h n i c i t y t o d e t e r m i n e what v a l u e s and b e l i e f s e x i s t i n a s c h o o l s y s t e m . A l s o , t h e r e s e a r c h l i t e r a t u r e s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e r e has been some s u c c e s s i n u s i n g b o t h s o c i o e c o n o m i c s t a t u s and r e l i g i o u s , b a c k g r o u n d o f p o p u l a t i o n as p r e d i c t o r s o f a c h i e v e m e n t . 172 B o t h C o n c l u s i o n S e v e n - on t h e i n t e r a c t i o n b e t w e e n t h e a c c e s s f a c t o r s and t h e t r e a t m e n t f a c t o r s - and C o n c l u s i o n E i g h t -on t h e i n t e r a c t i o n b e t w e e n t h e a c c e s s f a c t o r s and t h e outcome i n d i c a t o r s - r a i s e t h e i s s u e o f how r e s o u r c e s c o m p