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A Study of training programs for Native Indian Teaching Assistants with emphasis on the program at Lytton,… Stringer, Judith Anne 1984

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A STUDY OF TRAINING PROGRAMS FOR NATIVE INDIAN TEACHING ASSISTANTS WITH EMPHASIS ON THE PROGRAM AT LYTTON, B.C. By JUDITH ANNE STRINGER B.A., The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1984 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Department of Curriculum and I n s t ruc t i ona l Studies ( C e n t r e f o r the Study of C u r r i c u l u m and I n s t r u c t i o n ) We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g to the r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A p r i l 1984 Cc\ J u d i t h Anne S t r inger In presenting t h i s thesis i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the Library s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of t h i s t h e s i s for s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by h i s or her representatives. I t i s understood that copying or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s thesis f o r f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my written permission. Department of . The University of B r i t i s h Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 Date (^2^U>37^ / f < f / DE-6 (3/81) ABSTRACT i i T h i s s t u d y was s t a r t e d a f t e r the w r i t e r a t t e n d e d a workshop i n L y t t o n at which the t e a c h e r s and the N a t i v e I n d i a n T e a c h i n g A s s i s t a n t s examined t h e i r r o l e s i n a new and d e v e l o p i n g program d e s i g n e d to improve the p e r f o r m a n c e of I n d i a n s t u d e n t s i n s c h o o l s by p r o v i d i n g I n d i a n a d u l t s as r o l e models and as c u l t u r a l b r i d g e s between I n d i a n l i f e and w h i t e m i d d l e c l a s s s c h o o l s . The w r i t e r had been w o r k i n g w i t h t e a c h e r a i d e s i n m u l t i c u l t u r a l c l a s s r o o m s f o r s e v e n y e a r s o u t s i d e of Canada and w i s h e d to o b s e r v e s i m i l a r i t i e s and d i f f e r e n c e s i n t r a i n i n g programs and i n a c c e p t a n c e p a t t e r n s of t e a c h e r a i d e s or t e a c h i n g a s s i s t a n t s by s c h o o l t e a c h e r s and the s c h o o l s y s t e m s . The s t u d y has two p a r t s : 1) a r e v i e w of the l i t e r a t u r e on I n d i a n E d u c a t i o n , the T r a i n i n g of N a t i v e I n d i a n T e a c h e r s and the T r a i n i n g of N a t i v e I n d i a n T e a c h i n g A s s i s t a n t s , and 2) t h e T e a c h i n g A s s i s t a n t T r a i n i n g Program program i n L y t t o n . As the l i t e r a t u r e of the t r a i n i n g of N a t i v e I n d i a n T e a c h i n g A s s i s t a n t s was s p a r s e , the l i t e r a t u r e on the t r a i n i n g of t e a c h e r a i d e s and t e a c h i n g a s s i s t a n t s i n m u l t i c u l t u r a l c l a s s r o o m s and on the New C a r e e r s f o r the Poor Movement of t h e l a t e s i x t i e s was c o r r e l a t e d w i t h the a v a i l a b l e m a t e r i a l f r o m N a t i v e I n d i a n T e a c h i n g A s s i s t a n t T r a i n i n g p r o g r a m s . Components from programs t h a t were judged h e l p f u l , s u c c e s s f u l or n e c e s s a r y by program p a r t i c i p a n t s and r e s e a r c h e r s were a s s e m b l e d and compared. i i i The L y t t o n program was followed f o r two years i n i r r e g u l a r l y spaced v i s i t s . R esults from s t r u c t u r e d i n t e r v i e w s , q u e s t i o n n a i r e s , and observations made while l e a d i n g i n s e r v i c e s e s s i o n s , and doing document study were compiled. Programs designed to t r a i n teacher aides or teaching a s s i s t a n t s were found to be remarkably s i m i l a r across North America from 1 9 6 8 - 1 9 8 3 . A mini-teacher education course was u s u a l l y given to the t r a i n e e s even though i n most programs the teaching a s s i s t a n t assumes c l e r i c a l or t u t o r i a l r o l e s . Very l i t t l e has been attempted i n t r a i n i n g sessions to enhance the i n f u s i o n of d i f f e r e n t c u l t u r a l norms i n l e a r n i n g s t y l e s or behaviors i n t o the t r a d i t i o n a l middle c l a s s North American school systems. Although most st u d i e s have concluded that the teachers who work with teaching a s s i s t a n t s r e q u i r e t r a i n i n g and s u p e r v i s i o n i n order to help them l e a r n new r o l e s and teaming s k i l l s , few programs had the resources to r e t r a i n teachers. The p o l i t i c a l nature of school change has been underplayed by the people attempting to increase the presence of Indian a d u l t s i n the s c h o o l s . The n e c e s s i t y f o r a wide and e f f e c t i v e communication network i n the community to gain and r e t a i n support f o r new programs has been ignored, sometimes d e l i b e r a t e l y , but ever with p e r i l . Those groups i n the community that f e e l they are being bypassed are able to stop or change programs before they achieve t h e i r d e s i r e d r e s u l t s . i v The i n t r o d u c t i o n of the s t u d y of I n d i a n l a n g u a g e s and a r t i f a c t s to the c u r r i c u l u m of s c h o o l s w i t h l a r g e I n d i a n s t u d e n t p o p u l a t i o n s has begun. The s t u d y of I n d i a n f o o d s , a r t , m u s i c and dance has been o r g a n i z e d i n many c o m m u n i t i e s . The d e e p e r c u l t u r e of a t t i t u d e s , c o n s i d e r a t i o n of o t h e r s , r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h the e n v i r o n m e n t and modes of l e a r n i n g have y e t to be s t u d i e d and i m p l e m e n t e d . V TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION 1 Background of the Problem 1 The L y t t o n S i t u a t i o n 8 Research Problem 10 Purpose of Study 12 Terminology 13 2. REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE 17 Overview 17 Indian Education 17 E a r l y H i s t o r y 17 Curriculum Content Change 20 Teachers and T h e i r Roles 25 Community Involvement 28 Indian Teacher T r a i n i n g Programs 30 Native Indian C o n t r o l 31 F i e l d Centres 32 C u l t u r a l Content 33 Academic A c c o u n t a b i l i t y 36 Support S e r v i c e s 37 i v i P a r a p r o f e s s i o n a l T r a i n i n g Programs 38 Community Involvement 40 Purposes and O b j e c t i v e s of Programs 43 P r e r e q u i s i t e s 45 Goals f o r Program Trainees 46 I n s e r v i c e Content 46 I n s e r v i c e O r g a n i z a t i o n 48 Assignment to Schools 52 Support S e r v i c e s 53 Fi n d i n g s 57 T r a i n i n g Programs f o r Indian Teacher Aides 60 Background 60 Community Involvement 62 Purposes and O b j e c t i v e s of Programs 68 P r e r e q u i s i t e s 72 Goals f o r Program Trainees 73 I n s e r v i c e Content 73 I n s e r v i c e O r g a n i z a t i o n 83 Assignment to Schools 88 Support S e r v i c e s - F i n a n c i a l 93 Support S e r v i c e s - P e r s o n a l 95 Support Services-Academic 97 E v a l u a t i o n by P a r t i c i p a n t s 101 F i n d i n g s 102 v i i 3. METHODOLOGY HO Summary 110 Instruments 112 Ques t i o n n a i r e s 112 Teaching A s s i s t a n t Q u e s t i o n n a i r e 112 Teacher Q u e s t i o n n a i r e 113 Int erviews 114 Observations 114 Document Study 116 L i m i t a t i o n s 116 4. LYTTON TEACHING ASSISTANT TRAINING PROGRAM 119 I n t r o d u c t i o n to the Community 119 The L y t t o n Teaching A s s i s t a n t T r a i n i n g Program..122 Community Involvement 122 Purposes and O b j e c t i v e s of Programs 128 P r e r e q u i s i t e s 131 Goals f o r Program Trainees 131 I n s e r v i c e Content 133 I n s e r v i c e O r g a n i z a t i o n 147 Assignment to Schools 153 v i i i Support Services 158 Home Base 158 F i n a n c i a l Support 160 Program Coordinator 160 Program Manager 162 Academic Support 163 Community Support 165 Fin d i n g s 166 RESULTS: CORRELATIONS BETWEEN LITERATURE AND LYTTON 173 Problem 173 Purpose 174 Summary of Study 175 Methodology 175 Conclusions 176 Future Challenges For Research and Implementation 190 CONCLUSIONS 197 Summary 197 Conclusions 198 B i b l i o g r a p h y 201 Appendices 221 i x APPENDICES A p p e n d i x A I n t e r v i e w C h e c k l i s t f o r Program L e a d e r s 220 A p p e n d i x B I n t e r v i e w C h e c k l i s t f o r Program D e v e l o p e r s 222 A p p e n d i x C T e a c h e r Q u e s t i o n n a i r e 223 A p p e n d i x D T e a c h i n g A s s i s t a n t Q u e s t i o n n a i r e 229 A p p e n d i x E The R o l e of the T e a c h e r A i d e (as d e f i n e d i n the B.C.T.F. Handbook)..238 A p p e n d i x F E s s e n t i a l T o p i c s S t u d i e d i n Programs f o r T e a c h e r - a i d e s i n E a s t e r n K e n t u c k y . . 2 4 1 A p p e n d i x G C l a s s r o o m A s s i s t a n t T r a i n i n g P r o f i l e Department of E d u c a t i o n , N o r t h w e s t T e r r i t o r i e s , W e s t e r n A r c t i c C e r t i f i c a t e , 2nd E d i t i o n 243 A p p e n d i x H Sample P e r f o r m a n c e O b j e c t i v e s , S t a n d a r d s , A c t i v i t i e s and E v a l u a t i o n s f r o m the C l a s s r o o m A s s i s t a n t Manual, N o r t h w e s t T e r r i t o r i e s , Department of E d u c a t i o n , 2nd E d i t i o n , 1978 246 A p p e n d i x I P a r a P r o f e s s i o n a l Program f o r R e m e d i a l T u t o r s i n Yukon S c h o o l s , Yukon N a t i v e B r o t h e r h o o d , W h i t e h o r s e , 1979 247 A p p e n d i x J Needs A s s e s s m e n t Survey from D a l l a s S tudy 248 LIST OF TABLES TABLE I. Completion and Drop-out Rates - Estimates f o r recent years, for B.C. Indian Students normally r e s i d e n t on reserve 3 I I . T r a i n i n g Program Timetables 51 I I I . I n s e r v i c e Topics for Teacher A s s i s t a n t T r a i n i n g Programs 80 IV. Afternoon Schedule 133 V. V I . Scheduled Workshops for Lytton 136 Schedule for L y t t o n Program January-June 1982 ....149 A Study of T r a i n i n g Programs f o r Native Indian Teaching A s s i s t a n t s with Emphasis on the Program at L y t t o n , B.C, Chapter One I n t r o d u c t i o n Background of the Problem Native Indian students have not been graduates of, nor s u c c e s s f u l students i n , academic programs i n North American schools i n p r o p o r t i o n to t h e i r number. The Hawthorne Report s t a t e d that only twelve percent of Native Indian students were i n the same age-grade as t h e i r White peers (Hawthorn et a l . , 1967, p.132). Sixteen years l a t e r i n 1983, a f t e r many attempts by the f e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l governments, teachers and parents to improve education f o r Native Indian students, F r i d e r e s recorded that Native Indian students were on average two and a h a l f years o l d e r than t h e i r White classmates. Siggner & L o c a t e l l i (1980) reviewed data prepared by the Research Branch of the Department of Indian A f f a i r s and Northern Development. They found that although the r e t e n t i o n r a t e f o r Native Indian students from entry to Grade Two through entry to Grade Twelve increased from eleven percent i n 1966 to seventeen-and-a-half percent i n 1971, i t then decreased to s i x t e e n percent i n 1976. The r e t e n t i o n rate f o r a l l Canadian students i n c r e a s e d from 50.5% to 75.2% over the 2 same p e r i o d , 1966-1976. It i s impossible to obtain an accurate p i c t u r e of the education of a l l Native Indian students because the students who do not l i v e on t h e i r reserve are not included i n school s t a t i s t i c s of Native Indian students unless they are i n c l u d e d i n the Master T u i t i o n Agreement ( i . e . they or t h e i r parents are normally r e s i d e n t on r e s e r v e ) . But Siggner and L o c a t e l l i (1980) observed over t h i r t y - s i x percent of B.C. Native Indians were l i v i n g " o f f r e s e r v e " i n 1976 and they p r e d i c t e d that f i g u r e was l i k e l y to i n c r e a s e . As w e l l , many Canadian school systems are now g e n e r a l l y u n w i l l i n g to keep data separated according to the " r a c i a l o r i g i n " of t h e i r students. Table I presents school completion rates for Native Indian students r e s i d e n t on reserves i n B r i t i s h Columbia. However, the table shows the number of Native Indian students i n B r i t i s h Columbia covered by the Master T u i t i o n Agreement who entered Grade Twelve in the f a l l of 1981 was equal to only t h i r t y percent of the group in Grade 1 twelve years b e f o r e , and by June of 1982 that f i g u r e was cut i n h a l f . Even i f the number of graduates continues to i n c r e a s e as p r o j e c t e d i t w i l l be the year 2001 before the percentage of Native Indian students completing Grade Twelve i s equal to the B.C. p r o v i n c i a l average of graduates i n 1976. Table I COMPLETION AND DROP-OUT RATES - Estimates for recent years, for B.C. Indian students normally resident on reserve. YEAR OF ENROLLMENT ITEM 1965 1967 1969 1970 1971 Grade 1 enrollment-Actual 1,739 1,853 1,892 1,716 1,521 Grade 1 enrollment Minus Repeaters-Estimated(1) 1,531 1,355 1,440 1,363 1,230 Grade 12 enrollment (5) 11 Years Later-Actual(2,3) 230 324 384 408 463 Grade 12 Graduation 12 Years Later-E s t imat e (4) 115 162 192 204 231 DROP OUT RATE 92.5% 88% 87% 85% 81% COMPLETION RATE TO GRADUATION (YEAR) 7.5% 12% 13% 15% 19% (1977) (1979) (1981) (1982) (1983) (1) Estimated to be equal to actual Grade 2 enrollment the following year. (2) These enrollments are infl a t e d by some students who started school more than 11 years before and who repeated some grades. The enrollments are deflated by students who began exactly 11 years before, who repeated, but who may graduate in a subsequent year. (3) These enrollments are deflated by f a i l u r e to include students who moved off reserve during their school years and were no longer included in enumerations. (4) Estimated as one-half of those enrolled in Grade 12 in October. (5) Estimate Source:More,1983, p.3. 4 The p e r s i s t e n c e of the problem of lack of achievement i n schools by Native Indian students causes concern to Native Indian a d u l t s because the future e m p l o y a b i l i t y of an i n c r e a s i n g number of young Native Indians i s l i m i t e d by t h e i r c o n t i n u i n g low r e t e n t i o n rate i n s c h o o l s . Not only are job o p p o r t u n i t i e s fewer for non-graduates but entry to post-secondary t r a i n i n g and education i s r e s t r i c t e d (Siggner & Young, 1980, pp. 29 ,33). The d i s c o u r a g i n g drop i n the number of Native Indian students e n r o l l e d i n v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g between the years 1968 to 1976 i s countered by an increase i n the number of Native Indian students i n u n i v e r s i t y or p r o f e s s i o n a l t r a i n i n g ( i . e . n u r s i n g and t e a c h i n g ) . However the e i g h t f o l d i n c r e a s e i n students i n p r o f e s s i o n a l courses r e s u l t e d i n a t o t a l number of only 377 students (Siggner & L o c a t e l l i , 1980, p.35). In 1976, i f the number of Native Indian teachers was p r o p o r t i o n a t e to the number of Native Indian students, B.C. would have been t r a i n i n g almost 1300 Native Indian teachers to c o r r e c t the imbalance i n the teaching p r o f e s s i o n alone, i g n o r i n g other p r o f e s s i o n s . Among attempts by the Federal Government to improve educ a t i o n f o r Native Indian students was the i n t e g r a t i o n of those students i n t o p r o v i n c i a l schools as recommended i n the Hawthorne Report i n 1967. In order to improve t h e i r record of educating Native Indian students, the P r o v i n c i a l p u b l i c schools have u t i l i z e d v a r i o u s methods, four of which are: c u r r i c u l u m change, a d d i t i o n a l support s e v i c e s , responses to the paper "Indian C o n t r o l of Indian Education" ( N a t i o n a l 5 Indian Brotherhood, 1972) and s p e c i a l t r a i n i n g programs for Native Indian students at post-secondary i n s t i t u t i o n s . The most obvious change i s an expansion of s t u d i e s of Native Indian c u l t u r e s i n B r i t i s h Columbia sch o o l s . In s o c i a l s t u d i e s c u r r i c u l u m f o r Year Four, e n t i t l e d " E a r l y C u l t u r e s of North America" t h i s r e v i s e d c u r r i c u l u m f i v e "major understandings" are s t u d i e d i n r e l a t i o n to eleven " a b o r i g i n a l c u l t u r e areas". The guide s t a t e s that "Culture i s a Way of L i f e " but the concept " C u l t u r e s Change" was moved to Year Five i n 1974 (Elementary S o c i a l S t u d i e s , Year 1-7, 1974). Secondly, a d d i t i o n a l support s e r v i c e s have been provided f o r Native Indian students (More et a l , 1983). These include e x t r a c o u n s e l l i n g as w e l l as s p e c i a l Learning A s s i s t a n c e Classes and E n g l i s h as a Second Language C l a s s e s . In 1976, 282 out of 11,749 Native Indian students were e n r o l l e d i n f u l l time s p e c i a l c l a s s e s i n B.C. schools, a drop of two percent but s t i l l twelve percent of the students (Siggner & L o c a t e l l i , 1980, p.30). T h i r d l y , some of the demands voiced by the N a t i o n a l Indian Brotherhood have been met by some school d i s t r i c t s . The document, "Indian C o n t r o l of Indian Education" ( N a t i o n a l Indian Brotherhood, 1972) has become the basis for Native Indian communities seeking improvement of t h e i r c h i l d r e n ' s e d u c a t i o n . The paper c a l l e d f o r improved c u r r i c u l a d e a l i n g with the h e r i t a g e of Native Indian students w r i t t e n by Native Indian people working with c u r r i c u l u m s p e c i a l i s t s . It 6 advocated teaching i n the Native Indian languages where students were f l u e n t i n t h e i r language and teaching of the l o c a l Native Indian language to preserve i t i n areas where the use of the language was d e c r e a s i n g . P a r e n t a l c o n t r o l of schools was i d e n t i f i e d as a necessary move i n order to remove r a c i s t textbooks, to c o r r e l a t e e d u c a t i o n a l goals with Native Indian v a l u e s , to i n c r e a s e the presence of Native Indian people i n the schools to teach c u l t u r e and languages, and to become c o u n s e l l o r s to Native Indian students. C u l t u r a l E ducation Centres were to be e s t a b l i s h e d . Non-Indian teachers were to be prepared to teach Native Indian c h i l d r e n by being made more aware of Native Indian c u l t u r e , language and v a l u e s . Native Indian p a r a p r o f e s s i o n a l s would be t r a i n e d and h i r e d f o r both s p e c i a l education and r e c r e a t i o n needs. Indian s t a f f i n g i n p r o p o r t i o n of one adult to twenty students was requested. Research was to be under s u p e r v i s i o n of the Indian people. F i n a l l y , i n answer to the demands f o r more Native Indian educators s p e c i a l t r a i n i n g programs were created i n u n i v e r s i t i e s across Canada i n the e a r l y years of 1970. Many of the programs accepted students with lower academic q u a l i f i c a t i o n s than normally r e q u i r e d f o r teacher t r a i n i n g programs but a l l attempted to ensure that graduation standards were e q u i v a l e n t to other education degrees (More, 1980). Native Indian educators such as Verna Kirkness (1976), Howard Adams (1975), and Art Blue (1978) attempted to inform 7 the academic and education h i e r a r c h i e s of the Native Indian p e r s p e c t i v e . Kirkness accented community involvement i n education, adoption of t r a d i t i o n a l v a l u e s, r e t e n t i o n of Indian c u l t u r e while l e a r n i n g enough about other c u l t u r e s to be able to f u n c t i o n i n the present economic climate of Canada. She c a l l e d f o r b i l i n g u a l education, accurate h i s t o r y l e s s o n s , development of communication s k i l l s , Indian s t u d i e s , and m a t e r i a l s r e l e v a n t to Indian students. Education i n the community was to be expanded to i n c l u d e adult education and p r e s c h o o l t r a i n i n g . Adams i d e n t i f i e d a gap between the r e a l i t y of Native Indian l i f e and the schools designed to prepare students f o r l i f e i n an i n d u s t r i a l i z e d s o c i e t y . He d e s c r i b e d a w h i t e - i d e a l imbedded i n the minds of Native Indian s which g l o r i f i e d t hings white and which focussed on the p r e p a r a t i o n for l i v i n g i n a white s o c i e t y . D e c o l o n i z a t i o n , demything White supremacy, was necessary before Native Indian s would become proud of t h e i r own developing c u l t u r e . A r t Blue (1978) t r i e d to e x p l a i n the Native Indian concept of meaning to educators. He suggested that Native Indian s looked f o r c o r r e l a t i o n s r a ther than cause and e f f e c t . He welcomed educators' e f f o r t s to improve Native Indian education and t h e i r help, but asked that they examine t h e i r v i s i o n and recognize t h e i r m o t i v a t i o n . He suggested that the disadvantaged or m i n o r i t i e s were d i f f e r e n t and that educators should b u i l d on t h e i r advantages rather than create 8 a scheme for d e a l i n g with t h e i r disadvantages. He suggested the m a j o r i t y group l e t Native Indians teach Native Indian c u l t u r e r ather than p l a c i n g that c u l t u r e i n the "young", 3000 year o l d , European, mold f o r Native Indian consumption. Some Native Indian Bands i n B.C. have addressed the education problems of t h e i r c h i l d r e n by forming t h e i r own schools and school d i s t r i c t s . The "secondary p a r t i c i p a t i o n of the community r i s e s and the r e t e n t i o n rate f o r students i n c r e a s e s " i n Indian c o n t r o l l e d schools i n Native Indian communities ( F r i d e r e s , 1983, p.162). Many bands now operate t h e i r own p r e - s c h o o l s , some have expanded to running t h e i r own elementary schools and high schools and the Nisgha have formed t h e i r own school d i s t r i c t . Mount C u r r i e , New Aiyansh, A l e r t Bay, Chehalis and B e l l a B e l l a are s i t e s of some of the e s t a b l i s h e d band schools i n B.C. Other Native Indian parents have t r i e d l e s s d r a s t i c s t r a t e g i e s f o r improving the education of t h e i r c h i l d r e n . In some d i s t r i c t s the parents and school personnel have created programs to teach l o c a l Native Indian languages, legends, c r a f t s , a r t , music and technology (More et a l , 1981, 1983). Some of these programs are taught by Native Indian p a r a p r o f e s s i o n a l s , some by Native Indian v o l u n t e e r s and some by non-Indian but a c c u l t u r a t e d teachers. The L y t t o n S i t u a t i o n Community-centered Indian education has been a feature 9 i n L y t t o n f o r at l e a s t ten years. In J u l y of 1973 the L y t t o n Indian Community and Simon Fraser U n i v e r s i t y o f f e r e d a four week course to teachers, teacher a i d e s , adult educators and other i n t e r e s t e d people i n the community. Topics included Thompson Indian c u l t u r e , problems i n Indian education concerning parents, teachers and others, and the r o l e of a school t r u s t e e (Ind i a n Education Newsletter, 1973). A Band-operated pre-school c l a s s was s t a r t e d i n 1972. Financed by the Band, i t has been s t a f f e d by the Band members and a c e r t i f i e d preschool teacher. It moved in t o the elementary school i n 1980 to make the t r a n s i t i o n to school even smoother f o r the students. Thompson language c l a s s e s have been a part of the high school c u r r i c u l u m i n L y t t o n since 1974. The language program was expanded i n t o the elementary school i n 1982. These measures were not deemed s u f f i c i e n t to r e a l i z e the a s p i r a t i o n s which the parents of the L y t t o n Band had for t h e i r c h i l d r e n . According to the Education D i r e c t o r for the Band i n 1982, although more students were s t a y i n g i n school l o n g e r , there were few high school graduates and s t i l l fewer students going on to post secondary education. There seemed to be a very low percentage of Native Indian students i n the academic courses i n comparison to the percentage of Native Indian students i n t o t a l enrolment of the s c h o o l . (61%-1974, 75%-1982) The L y t t o n Home-School Coordinator was concerned that Native Indian students i n Kumsheen High School i n L y t t o n were 10 not e n r o l l e d i n senior math and science courses required f o r u n i v e r s i t y entrance programs. Her f i n d i n g s were echoed i n The Province newspaper (June 17,1983) which reported a government a n a l y s i s of B.C. school d i s t r i c t s done i n 1978. A f a i l u r e r a t e of e i g h t y - f i v e to ninety percent by Native Indian students i n B r i t i s h Columbia schools was r e v e a l e d . In one d i s t r i c t with a high Native Indian student p o p u l a t i o n , low Grade Eig h t math scores were recorded. In the same d i s t r i c t the Grade Twelve math scores were the highest i n the p r o v i n c e . However no Native Indian students were e n r o l l e d i n those Grade Twelve math c l a s s e s . This d i s t r i c t i s not n e c e s s a r i l y the one which the L y t t o n students attend. In 1980 the L y t t o n Review/Action Committee was e s t a b l i s h e d by the L y t t o n area Indian Bands (Kanaka, L y t t o n , Nicomen, S i s k a , Skuppah) and the South Cariboo School D i s t r i c t . The Committee agreed that one p o s s i b l e way to improve the l e a r n i n g s i t u a t i o n of t h e i r students was the i n t r o d u c t i o n of more adult Native Indian s onto the s c h o o l , t h i s time as teaching a s s i s t a n t s In the classrooms. It was a n t i c i p a t e d that e v e n t u a l l y these teaching a s s i s t a n t s would become f u l l y q u a l i f i e d teachers, or that students would see that teaching was a p r o f e s s i o n to which they could progress. Research Problem The problem with which the present study i s concerned i s the need to improve the academic achievement and r e t e n t i o n 11 r a t e of N a t i v e I n d i a n s t u d e n t s i n s c h o o l s t h r o u g h i n c r e a s e d p a r t i c i p a t i o n of N a t i v e I n d i a n a d u l t s i n the s c h o o l s , the i m p l e m e n t a t i o n of more c u l t u r a l l y r e l e v a n t c u r r i c u l a , and the i n t r o d u c t i o n of more N a t i v e I n d i a n t e a c h e r s to s c h o o l s . One way i n wh i c h c u l t u r a l l y r e l e v a n t c u r r i c u l a and N a t i v e I n d i a n t e a c h e r s have been i n t r o d u c e d i n t o s c h o o l s has been t h r o u g h the use of N a t i v e I n d i a n p a r a p r o f e s s i o n a l s to t e a c h N a t i v e I n d i a n l a n g u a g e s and c u l t u r a l a c t i v i t i e s . More r e c e n t l y , t r a i n i n g programs have been d e s i g n e d f o r N a t i v e I n d i a n p a r a p r o f e s s i o n a l s to become more e f f e c t i v e as t e a c h i n g a s s i s t a n t s to improve the academic a c h i e v e m e n t of N a t i v e I n d i a n s t u d e n t s . These more r e c e n t l y t r a i n e d t e a c h i n g a s s i s t a n t s have no f o r m a l r o l e i n i n t r o d u c i n g N a t i v e I n d i a n l a n g u a g e s , c u l t u r e s or c r a f t s . D e s c r i p t i o n s or e v a l u a t i o n s of N a t i v e I n d i a n p a r a p r o f e s s i o n a l t r a i n i n g programs a r e not r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e . Those o b t a i n e d from A r i z o n a , V i r g i n i a , the N o r t h West T e r r i t o r i e s of Canada and i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a from the C o l l e g e of New C a l e d o n i a , C a r i b o o C o l l e g e , and the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a a r e compared, i n the p r e s e n t s t u d y , to t r a i n i n g programs of the s i x t i e s i n the U.S.A. d e s i g n e d f o r m u l t i c u l t u r a l c l a s s r o o m s i n New Yo r k , C a l i f o r n i a and K e n t u c k y . T e a c h e r a i d e s were i n t r o d u c e d i n t o U.S. s c h o o l s i n many p l a c e s i n an e f f o r t to p r o v i d e r o l e models f o r c h i l d r e n and to p r o v i d e community l i a s o n p e r s o n n e l i n a r e a s where a wide d i v e r g e n c e i n c l a s s and c u l t u r e was p e r c e i v e d between the t e a c h e r s and t h e i r s t u d e n t s . Urban s c h o o l s i n a r e a s w i t h 12 l a r g e immigrant populations from other c o u n t r i e s or migrants from r u r a l America, r u r a l schools i n the h i l l s of Kentucky, b i l i n g u a l classrooms f o r H i s p a n i c c h i l d r e n , a l l t r i e d to solve some of the c r o s s - c u l t u r a l problems by i n t r o d u c i n g teacher aides from the r e l e v a n t m i n o r i t y group. The p e r i o d from 1957 to about 1967 was the one Goodlad (1983) i d e n t i f i e d as the time of the only s e r i o u s e f f o r t s at school reform i n the United States of America. Purpose of Study The purpose of the study was to i d e n t i f y congruencies i n program design and development between the L y t t o n program for t r a i n i n g Native Indian teaching a s s i s t a n t s and t r a i n i n g programs for p a r a p r o f e s s i o n a l s i n c r o s s - c u l t u r a l s i t u a t i o n s elsewhere. Common t r a i n i n g components, implementation p r a c t i c e s , support f a c i l i t i e s are sought f o l l o w i n g the lead of the I n t e r n a t i o n a l C o u n c i l of E d u c a t i o n a l Development (ICED) Guide to Case S t u d i e s : . . . i n c o n t r a s t to t r y i n g to give an o v e r a l l " s u c c e s s " r a t i n g to each case, i t would be f a r more u s e f u l to t r y to d i s c o v e r what concrete f a c t o r s w i t h i n each program and i t s environment had helped or hindered the achievement of i t s o b j e c t i v e s , and to what extent s i m i l a r p o s i t i v e and negative, f a c t o r s turned up r e p e a t e d l y i n d i f f e r e n t program c o n t e x t s . (Coombs, 1980, p.3) A c o l l e c t i o n of those "concrete f a c t o r s " i s then presented f o r the c o n s i d e r a t i o n of program developers and p a r t i c i p a n t s i n teaching a s s i s t a n t t r a i n i n g programs as those program 13 d e v e l o p e r s and p a r t i c i p a n t s a t t e m p t to improve the d e l i v e r y of the e d u c a t i o n system to N a t i v e I n d i a n s t u d e n t s and to improve the s u c c e s s r a t e of the N a t i v e I n d i a n s t u d e n t s i n t h a t e d u c a t i o n s y s t e m . T e r m i n o l o g y The i n t r o d u c t i o n of a d d i t i o n a l a d u l t s to c l a s s r o o m s to work w i t h t e a c h e r s means t h a t t e a c h e r s and t h o s e a d u l t s have to l e a r n the s k i l l s of t e a m i n g . In teaming the t e a c h e r r e t a i n s r e s p o n s i b i 1 i t y f o r p l a n n i n g and d e s i g n i n g l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t i e s but the a d d i t i o n a l a d u l t assumes s u p e r v i s o r y , t u t o r i n g , and e v a l u a t i o n t a s k s under the g u i d a n c e of the t e a c h e r . Teaming i n v o l v e s team work between the p r o f e s s i o n a l t e a c h e r and p a r a p r o f e s s i o n a 1 p e r s o n n e l . C r o s s - c u l t u r a l t e a m i n g o c c u r s when one of the members of the team i s a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of a m i n o r i t y c u l t u r e . In B r i t i s h C olumbia N a t i v e I n d i a n c o m m u n i t i e s the c r o s s - c u l t u r a l team i s u s u a l l y a n o n - I n d i a n t e a c h e r w o r k i n g w i t h N a t i v e I n d i a n t e a c h e r a i d e s but i n some c i t i e s the t e a c h e r may be a member of a m i n o r i t y group w h i l e the t e a c h e r a i d e i s from the dominant c u l t u r e g r o u p . The terms N a t i v e , N a t i v e I n d i a n and I n d i a n a r e used to d e s c r i b e i n d i g e n o u s p e o p l e s of N o r t h A m e r i c a by w r i t e r s i n the l i t e r a t u r e of I n d i a n E d u c a t i o n . In t h i s s t u d y the t h r e e terms w i l l be used i n t e r c h a n g e a b l y . 14 In the l i t e r a t u r e and i n p r a c t i c e , the use of terms to d e s c r i b e p a r a p r o f e s s i o n a l s ( i . e . persons working i n the school who are not q u a l i f i e d , u n i v e r s i t y t r a i n e d teachers) are many, only some of which denote s p e c i f i c task o r i e n t a t i o n . The most general terms are p a r a p r o f e s s i o n a l and a u x i l i a r y (Klopf et a l . , 1969, E d u c a t i o n a l S e r v i c e s Bureau, 1966) and b u i l d i n g aide (Brown et a l . , 1975). More s p e c i f i c are the terms teacher a s s i s t a n t s , teacher aides and teacher a s s o c i a t e s which are commonly used to d e s c r i b e for a n o n - p r o f e s s i o n a l l y t r a i n e d person working as a helper to a p r o f e s s i o n a l l y t r a i n e d teacher i n a team s i t u a t i o n i n a classroom. S t i l l more s p e c i a l i z e d terms are used to denote tasks done by the p a r a p r o f e s s i o n a l : reading a s s i s t a n t s , t u t o r s , l a b o r a t o r y a s s i s t a n t s , playground a i d e s , c l e r i c a l a i d e s , l i b r a r y a i d e s , dormitory a i d e s , home-school c o o r d i n a t o r s and community-school workers. 1 Teacher aides i s the most commonly used term i n both Canada and the United States of America. It i s used by Steere et a l . ( 1 9 6 5 ) , Brown et a l . ( 1 9 7 5 ) , Canadian Education A s s o c i a t i o n (1967), Clough and Clough (1978), DaSilva and Lucas (1974), E d u c a t i o n a l S e r v i c e Bureau (1966), Esbensen 1 The two p o s i t i o n s of home-school c o o r d i n a t o r and community-school worker are commonly f i l l e d i n communities i n B r i t i s h Columbia with large Native Indian student populations but the r o l e and t r a i n i n g f o r those p o s i t i o n s are outside the l i m i t s of the present study. 15 (1966), King (1975), N a t i o n a l Indian Brotherhood (1973), Shank and McElroy (1970), Wright (1969), Center for Applied L i n g u i s t i c s (1976) i n t r a i n i n g manuals and r e p o r t s . The Cariboo College and the Department of Indian A f f a i r s i n Ontar i o ran Indian Teacher Aide Programs i n 1972-73. In B e l l a B e l l a the people c a l l themselves teacher a i d e s . The B r i t i s h Columbia Teachers' F e d e r a t i o n Handbook de f i n e d the term teacher aide by the l i m i t s placed on the r o l e of a teacher aide i n B r i t i s h Columbia school classrooms (See Appendix E of t h i s s t u d y . ) . The Yukon Native Brotherhood designed a program f o r Remedial Tutors i n Yukon Schools i n 1979. The dut i e s of the t u t o r s are s i m i l a r to those of teacher a i d e s : 1. S u p e r v i s i o n of the m a j o r i t y group i n a classroom while the teacher works with a small group of s p e c i a l needs c h i l d r e n . 2. Work with an i n d i v i d u a l or small group of c h i l d r e n w i t h i n the classroom i n a p r a c t i c e or teaching a c t i v i t y based on the teacher's d i a g n o s i s of the c h i l d r e n ' s needs. 3. Work with a c h i l d or small group of c h i l d r e n o utside the classroom, but only when e x c e p t i o n a l circumstances d i c t a t e removal to a l e s s d i s t r a c t a b l e l e a r n i n g p l a c e . (Yukon Native Brotherhood, 1979, p.2) Various terms have been used to name c r o s s - c u l t u r a l p a r a p r o f e s s i o n a l s but the job d e s c r i p t i o n s f o r the p a r a p r o f e s s i o n a l s are s i m i l a r to those for teacher a i d e s . The program i n New South Wales, A u s t r a l i a , u t i l i z e d the term Teaching A s s i s t a n t s (More, 1978), even though teacher aide i s used i n other s t a t e s i n A u s t r a l i a . The s i m i l a r tasks and r o l e s are: 1. to a s s i s t teachers i n c e r t a i n aspects of 16 i n s t r u c t i o n ; 2. to f a c i l i t a t e communication between teachers and c h i l d r e n and between parents and teachers. 3. to i n s t r u c t i n l i t e r a c y s k i l l s ; 4. to provide ' i d e n t i f i c a t i o n models' f o r the c h i l d r e n , who might otherwise see themselves as s t r a n g e r s i n a white-dominated environment. ( G r i f f i n , undated, p . l , i n More, 1978) The s t r u c t u r e of a career development ladder has been o u t l i n e d i n which a t r a i n e e becomes an a i d e , then an a s s i s t a n t , an a s s o c i a t e , an a p p r e n t i c e or student teacher, a teacher or other p r o f e s s i o n a l such as counselor or l i b r a r i a n and f i n a l l y a master teacher or t r a i n i n g c o o r d i n a t o r (Klopf et al.,1969). More prepared a working d r a f t f o r such a career ladder f o r B.C.'s "community-bound people i n r e l a t i v e l y i s o l a t e d communities" i n 1980. In the present study the term used by the program p a r t i c i p a n t s i s quoted. D i f f e r e n c e s i n r o l e s and tasks are noted. In most cases the term i s "teacher a i d e " except f o r L y t t o n i n which "teaching a s s i s t a n t " i s used. The p a r t i c i p a n t s i n that program were most adamant that they were not "Band A i d e s " but that they were "Teaching A s s i s t a n t s " . 17 Chapter Two Review of the L i t e r a t u r e Overview This chapter examines s t u d i e s that have been done to determine ways to improve the academic progress of Indian students i n schools of Canada and the U.S.A. F i r s t a b r i e f h i s t o r y of Indian Education i n c l u d i n g comments on curric u l u m development, changes i n teacher r o l e s and community involvement w i l l be presented. Then, the s p e c i a l programs for Native Indian teacher education, the programs f o r t r a i n i n g p a r a p r o f e s s i o n a l s f o r employment i n schools and the Native Indian teacher a s s i s t a n t t r a i n i n g programs are reviewed. The components of those t r a i n i n g programs f o r classroom p a r a p r o f e s s i o n a 1 s are c a t e g o r i z e d . Indian Education E a r l y H i s t o r y R e s i d e n t i a l Schools ( v i v i d l y d e scribed by Louise Lyons i n Moore-Eyman, 1977), Indian Day Schools and p r o v i n c i a l i n t e g r a t e d schools have a l l been u t i l i i z e d as places to improve the education of Native Indian students. Most educators and government o f f i c i a l s have had to agree with Indian parents that these places and t h e i r c u r r i c u l a have not 18 been s i t e s of s u c c e s s f u l l e a r n i n g s by Indian students. T h e i r language has been deprecated; t h e i r c u l t u r e has been unrecognized and unappreciated; t h e i r people's knowledge has been ignored and t h e i r h i s t o r y has been misrepresented. A l l have been i d e n t i f i e d as causes fo r students' l o s s of s e l f - e s t e e m and d e s i r e f o r l e a r n i n g ( F r i d e r e s , 1983, Adams, 1975, Smith, 1977, N a t i o n a l Indian Brotherhood, 1972, Hawthorne et a l . , 1967). The F i r s t Report of the Canada A u x i l i a r y M i s s i o n Society ( I n d i a n A f f a i r s , Education D i v i s i o n , 1965) s t a t e d i n the f i r s t h a l f of the 19th Century that Native Indian teachers were teaching t h e i r people to read the s c r i p t u r e s i n t h e i r own tongue. The Native Indian r e l i g i o n s were being replaced by C h r i s t i a n i t y but the languages were not yet l o s t . By the end of the century the minimal progress i n educating Indian c h i l d r e n was blamed on poor attendance and l a c k of p a r e n t a l support. Teaching the c h i l d r e n E n g l i s h became one of the major goals while suppression of Indian languages became more prominent from about 1890 and continued u n t i l 1964 ( I n d i a n A f f a i r s , Education D i v i s i o n , 1965). R e s i d e n t i a l schools r e s o l v e d the attendance problems. They were designed to " a c c u l t u r a t e the Indian i n t o the s o c i e t y of the new dominant p o p u l a t i o n " (Smith, 1977). Not only were c h i l d r e n i n r e s i d e n t i a l schools separated from t h e i r f a m i l i e s , they were cared f o r by non-Indians, spoken to only i n E n g l i s h or French, fed European food and taught European s u b j e c t s and s k i l l s . They were not allowed to speak t h e i r 19 Indian languages even during playtime or worktime. Punishment f o r using Indian languages was not rare (Adams, 1975, F r i d e r e s , 1983). The s c h o o l s ' goals were to " C h r i s t i a n i z e , ... and a g r a r i a n i z e " (Gue quoted i n -Thomson, 1978 , p.45). In h i s report to the Methodist Church i n 1906 the Reverend Thompson F e r r i e r recommended that the Methodist Schools f o r Indian c h i l d r e n concentrate on making the students i n t o s u c c e s s f u l farmers as the p r o f e s s i o n s were overcrowded i n Canada. He emphasized that the European c i v i l i z a t i o n had "wantonly" destroyed the Indians means of s e l f - s u p p o r t ( F e r r i e r , 1906). F e r r i e r was keeping pace with the Macdonald-Robertson Movement (1900-1913) which promoted manual t r a i n i n g , and p a r t i c u l a r l y a g r i c u l t u r a l t r a i n i n g , for a l l students i n the p u b l i c schools of Canada (Sutherland, 1978). The t r a i n i n g of Indian teachers became l e s s and l e s s common. As one o f f i c i a l p r o t e s t e d , an Indian should not teach Indian c h i l d r e n as they needed a white teacher to teach the "Indianness" out of them. This example of b u r e a u c r a t i c racism i s i l l u s t r a t e d i n a l e t t e r dated 1918 r e p r i n t e d i n Indians  Without T i p i s (Sealey & K i r k n e s s , 1975). The c o n f l i c t between the values held by Indian communities and parents, and the schools the c h i l d r e n attended was c l e a r l y i l l u m i n a t e d i n a Quance Lecture given by Father Andre Renaud. (1971). He r e g r e t t e d that although the schools " e l i m i n a t e d p a r e n t a l models", they did not replace them with adult models c u l t u r a l l y acceptable to the students' 20 "Indianness". This absence of models has been addressed by The N a t i o n a l Indian Brotherhood's p o l i c y paper, Indian  C o n t r o l of Indian Education p u b l i s h e d i n 1972. Curriculum Content Change A major change i n m a t e r i a l s used i n Canadian schools was demanded by the Indian peoples during the time of the c u r r i c u l u m r e v i s i o n i n the s e v e n t i e s . The N a t i o n a l Indian Brotherhood a l s o c a l l e d f o r changes i n textbooks and m a t e r i a l s used i n schools f o r Native Indian students and non-Indian students. Their c a l l was r e i n f o r c e d by w r i t e r s who have d e a l t , sometimes e m o t i o n a l l y , with the problems and h i s t o r y of Indian Education such as Sealy and K i r k n e s s (1973), Adams (1975), L i n k l a t e r (1973), King (1978), Smith (1978), and Blue (1978). A l l of them deplore the untruths and omissions i n Canadian school texts when d e a l i n g with Indian h i s t o r y and with the present l i v e s of Indians A l l s t a t e that there must be c o r r e c t i o n s made to textbooks so the f a c t s are more honestly presented. Both the 'noble savage' image and the ' l u r k i n g menace' image must be e r a d i c a t e d . F u r t h e r , while the knowledge of c r a f t s , t r a d i t i o n a l food p r a c t i c e s and s u r v i v a l t a c t i c s need to be known and a p p r e c i a t e d , the r e a l i t i e s of Indian c u l t u r e today are more important than the a r t i f a c t s of the past. Sealey s t r e s s e d the need for unbiased c u r r i c u l u m m a t e r i a l s and textbooks that a c c u r a t e l y portrayed "Native r e a l i t i e s and white r e a l i t i e s " (Sealey, 1973) to be w r i t t e n 21 and used to form the b a s i s f o r c u r r i c u l u m f o r I n d i a n s t u d e n t s i n m u l t i - c u l t u r a l c l a s s r o o m s . New c u r r i c u l u m models which i n c l u d e d I n d i a n l a n g u a g e s , c o m m u n i c a t i o n s k i l l s , a d u l t s t u d i e s and p r e - k i n d e r g a r t e n s t u d i e s were p r e s e n t e d and o u t l i n e d by K i r k n e s s ( 1 9 7 8 ) . Howard Adams, i n h i s m i l i t a n t P r i s o n s of G r a s s ( 1 9 7 5 ) , c a l l e d f o r more emphasis on r e c r e a t i o n a l , c u l t u r a l and community p r o j e c t s o u t s i d e the c l a s s r o o m . He d e s i r e d t h a t t e a c h e r - s t u d e n t r e l a t i o n s h i p s be more humanized. He s u g g e s t e d t h a t s c h o o l s s h o u l d s e r v e as community c e n t r e s i n the e v e n i n g s and t h a t a d u l t e d u c a t i o n programs be c o n d u c t e d to i n c r e a s e I n d i a n and M e t i u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the l e g a l and s o c i a l s e r v i c e s d e l i v e r y s y s t e m s . In a t e l e p h o n e i n t e r v i e w ( 1 9 8 2 ) , Adams s t r e s s e d t h a t c u r r i c u l u m d e v elopment cannot s i m p l y a c c e n t the p a s t or i t becomes a c a r i c a t u r e of the c u l t u r e ; i t must r e f l e c t the p r e s e n t r e a l i t i e s . He reminded h i s p e o p l e t h a t even t h e i r l a n g u a g e s needed to be m o d e r n i z e d , n o t l o c k e d i n h i s t o r y . A. R i c h a r d K i n g c o m p i l e d a s u r v e y of a c t i v i t i e s t h a t had been d e v e l o p e d f o r I n d i a n s t u d e n t s i n B.C. s c h o o l s In 1973-74. The use of many systems of w r i t t e n symbols when r e c o r d i n g and i n t e a c h i n g I n d i a n l a n g u a g e s was named as a m a j o r o b s t a c l e to the d e v elopment of N a t i v e I n d i a n l a n g u a g e c u r r i c u l a . K i n g r e c o g n i z e d the c o n t r i b u t i o n s " r e l a t i v e l y ' u n t r a i n e d ' community members" had made c o n d u c t i n g c l a s s e s . He i d e n t i f i e d the major b a r r i e r s to i n n o v a t i o n as b e i n g p o l i t i c a l p r o b l e m s , the s o u r c e s and uses of power and 22 i n f o r m a t i o n ( K i n g , 1974). One of the p r o j e c t s i n the Canada S t u d i e s C u r r i c u l u m D evelopment P r o j e c t was TAWOW, a k i t d e s i g n e d by M e t i s and I n d i a n e d u c a t o r s to e n a b l e a l l s t u d e n t s to s t u d y some of e x p e r i e n c e s of I n d i a n p e o p l e t o d a y . The k i t c o n t a i n e d the two b o o k s , I n d i a n s W i t h o u t T i p i s and D e f e a t h e r i n g t h e I n d i a n as b a c k g r o u n d r e s o u r c e m a t e r i a l f o r t e a c h e r s . As w e l l , f i f t y s t u d y c a r d s and one hundred p i c t u r e s , a f i l m s t r i p , two c a s s e t t e s , a book, When M o r n i n g S t a r s Sang T o g e t h e r , and a t v p l a y were i n c l u d e d f o r s t u d e n t u s e . The k i t was d e s i g n e d f o r m u l t i - g r a d e use; i t was not t i e d to any s p e c i f i c c u r r i c u l a or g r a d e . As a r e s u l t i t has been u n d e r u s e d . The h i g h r e a d a b i l i t y l e v e l (Grade N i n e ) of the m a t e r i a l i n the k i t r e s t r i c t s i n d e p e n d e n t s t u d e n t use of the w r i t t e n m a t e r i a l s but the e x c e l l e n t p i c t u r e s c o u l d be used i n d i s c u s s i o n g r o u p s at e v e r y grade l e v e l . The Sto l o ' S i t e l C u r r i c u l u m m a t e r i a l s were p r e p a r e d by the F r a s e r V a l l e y Band f o r use i n the p r o v i n c i a l s c h o o l s by I n d i a n and n o n - I n d i a n s t u d e n t s and t e a c h e r s . These g r a d e d m a t e r i a l s were i n t r o d u c e d t h r o u g h a s y s t e m a t i c s e r i e s of w orkshops and have been used by t e a c h e r s to f u r t h e r knowledge and a p p r e c i a t i o n of I n d i a n t r a d i t i o n s and c u l t u r e . C r i t i c i s m has f o c u s e d on two p o i n t s : the s t r i c t l y p o s i t i v e p i c t u r e of t h e h i s t o r y of the I n d i a n Band, i g n o r i n g any u n p l e a s a n t n e s s or c o n f l i c t w i t h i n the Band, and the f o r m a l i z a t i o n of I n d i a n k nowledge i n t o the t e c h n i c a l f o r m a t of b e h a v i o r a l o b j e c t i v e s and a t i g h t time frame ( R o t h e , u n d a t e d ) . 23 Other Indian Bands i n B.C. and across Canada have prepared c u r r i c u l u m u n i t s and m a t e r i a l s f o r use i n t h e i r s c h o o l s . C a r r i e r , C h i l c o t i n and Shuswap language programs are a l t e r n a t e s to the second language requirement for u n i v e r s i t y e ntrance. The Okanagan Bands' J o i n t Curriculum Development P r o j e c t has elementary m a t e r i a l s i n schools throughout the Okanagan V a l l e y and high school m a t e r i a l s are being developed. Other bands have prepared m a t e r i a l and courses f o r use i n l o c a l s c h o o l s . Because of the language d i v e r s i t y i n B.C.'s Indian Bands, many m a t e r i a l s are l i m i t e d i n d i s t r i b u t i o n and a p p l i c a t i o n . The G i t s k a n , Nisgha, Kwalwala language and c u l t u r a l programs are i n o p e r a t i o n i n some schools i n t h e i r language areas (More et a l . , 1980, 1983). The Ontario Government responded to c a l l s f o r more honest m a t e r i a l s with People of Native Ancestry: A Resource  Guide f o r the Primary and J u n i o r D i v i s i o n s . This i s a t e a c h e r s ' guide l i s t i n g a c t i v i t i e s , p r o j e c t s and resource m a t e r i a l s (books, f i l m s , e tc.) that, i f used, should help students understand Native Indian c u l t u r e s and present concerns. The m a t e r i a l i s ungraded and u n s t r u c t u r e d . T h e r e f o r e , i t r e l i e s on the p r o f e s s i o n a l i s m of the teachers to develop u n i t s of study or to i n f u s e the m a t e r i a l i n t o t h e i r lessons based on school c u r r i c u l u m requirements. To help teachers use the resource guide People of Native Ancestry, another set of c u r r i c u l u m m a t e r i a l s , Touch  a C h i l d , A Midnorthern Ontario Region Curriculum Development  P r o j e c t was prepared by a team of educators and Indian 24 p e o p l e . I t c o n s i s t s of a c o l l e c t i o n of l a r g e c a r d s c o n t a i n i n g p l a n n i n g h i n t s f o r u n i t s f o r use i n P r i m a r y and J u n i o r c l a s s e s . O b j e c t i v e s and a c t i v i t i e s a r e l i s t e d . An i l l u m i n a t i n g d i s c u s s i o n of f o u r t y p e s of m u l t i - c u l t u r a l e d u c a t i o n i s fo u n d i n Whyte ( 1 9 8 2 ) . He i d e n t i f i e s the f i r s t , " p r o b l e m - c e n t e r e d p r o g r a m s " as b e i n g c o m p e n s a t o r y , a t t e m p t i n g to c o r r e c t a d e f i c i e n t home or t"o a d a p t a' s c h o o l to r e d u c e h o m e / s c h o o l d i s c o r d a n c e . The b e s t of t h e s e a s s i m i l a t i v e e f f o r t s a r e jud g e d to be the E n g l i s h as a Second Language or t r a n s i t i o n c l a s s e s . The s e c o n d t y p e , a n t i - d i s c r i m i n a t o r y p rograms, a t t e m p t to t e a c h s t u d e n t s to a c c e p t o t h e r s ' r i g h t s to be d i f f e r e n t by t e a c h i n g v a l u e d i f f e r e n c e s but i g n o r e " t h e ec o n o m i c , p o l i t i c a l and s o c i a l power r e l a t i o n s h i p s " f o u n d i n m u l t i - c u l t u r a l s o c i e t i e s . The t h i r d t y p e , e t h n i c - s p e c i f i c p r o g r a m s , range from t h o s e programs c o n c e n t r a t i n g on c u l t u r e as m a t e r i a l p r o d u c t s , c u l t u r e as a c t i o n s , to c u l t u r e as c o n c e p t u a l and c o g n i t i v e s y s t e m s . Whyte s t r e s s e s t h a t the dan g e r i n t h i s a p p r o a c h i s t h a t too o f t e n the s t u d i e s s t o p at the m a t e r i a l a r t i f a c t s . The s c h o o l does not r e c o g n i z e the t r a d i t i o n s of home as b e i n g " c u l t u r e " . T h i s c a u s e s " d i s i n t e g r a t i o n a t the p e r s o n a l , f a m i l y and community l e v e l s " . The f o u r t h t y p e , m u l t i - c u l t u r a l e d u c a t i o n f o r c u l t u r a l p l u r a l i s m i s the f i n a l program d e s c r i b e d by Whyte. I t r e q u i r e s t h e r e to be c o r p o r a t e p l u r a l i s m and s t r u c t u r a l p l u r a l i s m a l s o . In e f f e c t , i t r e q u i r e s b a r r i e r s to m a i n t a i n c u l t u r a l s t r e n g t h and p u r i t y i n p r a c t i c e , p h i l o s o p h y and 25 l a n g u a g e . These " b a r r i e r s " a r e s i m i l a r to t h o s e p r o p o s e d by t h e S p e c i a l Committee on I n d i a n S e l f - G o v e r n m e n t (Government of Canada, 1983). Whyte s t a t e s t h a t i t i s not the u l t i m a t e s o l u t i o n as i t i g n o r e s t o o many r e a l i t i e s of Canada t o d a y . Whyte a d v o c a t e s an e c l e c t i c a p p r o a c h which a l l o w s the m i n o r i t y p e r s o n to s e l e c t w hich of the f o u r programs and r e s u l t s he/she d e s i r e s , e x e r c i s i n g c o n t r o l o v e r h i s / h e r e d u c a t i o n and l i f e - s t y l e . T e a c h e r s and T h e i r R o l e s T e a c h e r s ' p r o f e s s i o n a l i s m i s somewhat s u s p e c t by N a t i v e I n d i a n c o m m u n i t i e s a f t e r r e p o r t s such as K i n g ' s (1981) c o n f i r m e d what so many e d u c a t o r s and p a r e n t s had s u s p e c t e d ; " t e a c h e r s were so dependent on b e i n g t o l d what to do" t h a t t h e y have d i f f i c u l t y t e a c h i n g from o t h e r than t e x t b o o k s and s e t c u r r i c u l a ( s e e a l s o Talmage, 1972, S t a k e , 1978, L o r t i e , 1 9 7 5 ). I t was r e a l i z e d by some I n d i a n e d u c a t o r s t h a t changes i n c u r r i c u l a and m a t e r i a l s would not be s u f f i c i e n t to s o l v e a l l t h e f l a w s i n the e d u c a t i o n of I n d i a n s t u d e n t s . S a n d e r s o n (1975) s u g g e s t e d t h a t a r e t h i n k i n g of the r o l e of the t e a c h e r and a r e t r a i n i n g of t e a c h e r s was r e q u i r e d to make I n d i a n e d u c a t i o n s u c c e s s f u l . He demanded t h a t t e a c h e r s f o r s a k e t h e i r s c h o o l b u i l d i n g s , t h e i r p r o f e s s i o n a l j a r g o n , and t h e i r d i s t r u s t of p a r e n t s ' i n t e n t i o n s . He i n v i t e d the t e a c h e r s i n t o the community to become i n t i m a t e l y i n v o l v e d 26 w i t h t h e i r s t u d e n t s and t h e i r f a m i l i e s ( s e e a l s o Wyatt, 1978). He warned t h a t i f the i n t e r a c t i o n between p a r e n t s and t e a c h e r s were r e s t r i c t e d to the p r e s e n c e i n s c h o o l s of a s s o c i a t e t e a c h e r s and community l i a s o n p e r s o n n e l , and t h a t i f c u r r i c u l u m p l a n n i n g were done s o l e l y by community l e a d e r s and s c h o o l m e n , o n l y " i n t r a m u r a l s q u a b b l i n g " would r e s u l t . A t r i p a r t i t e r o l e f o r t e a c h e r s was o u t l i n e d by S a n d e r s o n : ( 1 ) i n s t r u e t o r ; ( 2 ) d e v e l o p e r of c u r r i c u l u m m a t e r i a l s p r o d u c e d f o r i n d i v i d u a l s t u d e n t s , c l a s s e s and c o m m u n i t i e s ; ( 3 ) i n t e r a c t o r w i t h s t u d e n t s and p a r e n t s i n n o n a u t h o r i t a r i a n s e t t i n g s . He a l s o s u g g e s t e d c l a s s r o o m s c h e d u l e s would have to be r e s t r u c t u r e d to a l l o w t e a c h e r s time to d e v e l o p m a t e r i a l s and to make sound i n s t r u c t i o n a l d e c i s i o n s . K i n g (1978) p o i n t e d out t h a t a l t h o u g h N o r t h A m e r i c a n t e a c h e r s have a f i f t y y e a r h i s t o r y of t a l k i n g a b o u t , a l l o w i n g f o r , and a d a p t i n g t e a c h i n g f o r i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n s t u d e n t s , and of s t a r t i n g where the s t u d e n t i s , the p r e v a i l i n g t e n d e n c y i s f o r e d u c a t o r s to " c a t e g o r i z e l e v e l s of s p e c i f i c l e a r n i n g s t h a t i n d i c a t e where a s t u d e n t s h o u l d be " ( S e a l e y , 1973 , p. 202) and t e a c h at t h a t l e v e l . Grade F i v e t e a c h e r s t e a c h m a t e r i a l i n Grade F i v e c u r r i c u l u m g u i d e s at p r o v i n c i a l l y s e t l e v e l s , r a t h e r than t e a c h s t u d e n t s who happen to be c l a s s i f i e d as Grade F i v e but who o p e r a t e at d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s i n d i v i d u a l l y , and as i n d i v i d u a l s , at d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s r e f l e c t i n g t h e i r i n t e r e s t and g r o w t h . The I m p o s i t i o n of p r o v i n c i a l l y s e t exams f o r s t u d e n t s r e i n f o r c e s 27 t h i s mind s e t . While teachers i d e n t i f y some students as d e f e c t i v e or d e f i c i e n t , and request extra help i n the form of Learning A s s i s t a n c e teachers and c l a s s e s , a l l too few teachers that King (1978) observed i n B.C. schools were prepared to do the extra WORK (emphasis King's) r e q u i r e d to i n d i v i d u a l i z e i n s t r u c t i o n , or to adapt m a t e r i a l s f o r students who are d i f f e r e n t from the expected norm. King did recognize pockets of a c t i o n i n B.C. where community e l d e r s , students and teachers worked together to develop a process f o r changing school content and as a r e s u l t , the s t r u c t u r e and c o n t r o l of s c h o o l i n g . They were able to stay w i t h i n the mandated p r o v i n c i a l g u i d e l i n e s even while a d j u s t i n g the content of c l a s s e s to r e f l e c t l o c a l knowledge and values, language and c u l t u r e . King appended an o u t l i n e of "Core Knowledge A v a i l a b l e i n Most Native Communities in B r i t i s h Columbia" along with a chapter on how a teacher might work with the community i n c o l l e c t i n g and processing the knowledge f o r use i n the s c h o o l s . Hebert was much more p o s i t i v e i n her assessment of teacher s t r a t e g i e s f o r m u l t i c u l t u r a l education i n her e v a l u a t i o n of the L i l l o o e t Language Program i n 1983. She s t a t e d that while the d e f i c i e n c y model had been rampant i n the s i x t i e s , i n the seventies c u l t u r a l d i f f e r e n c e s were recognized and acknowledged, and programs were designed to study the d i f f e r e n c e s . She c l a s s i f i e d programs i n the e i g h t i e s as being based on a p r o f i c i e n c y model, b u i l d i n g on the strengths and a b i l i t i e s of each c h i l d . 28 Community I n v o l v e m e n t The f i r s t a t t e m p t to document the p r o c e s s of c r e a t i n g an I n d i a n s c h o o l and an I n d i a n e n v i r o n m e n t i n Canada was made by Wyatt i n 1977. The Mount C u r r i e S c h o o l was a community e f f o r t , not an a c a d e m i c e x p e r i m e n t nor a c u l t u r a l d e m o n s t r a t i o n . The p r e s e r v a t i o n of the form of the p r o v i n c i a l and f e d e r a l s c h o o l s r e f l e c t e d the c o n s e r v a t i s m of the p a r e n t community. ( T h i s f a i t h i n the t r a d i t i o n a l s c h o o l i s d i s c u s s e d I n a p a p e r , "The M y s t i c P a n a c e a " , by Smith ( 1 9 7 7 ) , and S e a l e y ( 1 9 7 3 ) , p. 2 0 5 ) . The c u r r i c u l u m i n Mount C u r r i e was r e o r g a n i z e d to i n c l u d e l e s s o n s i n the l o c a l l a n g u a g e . I n d i a n m u s i c and d a n c i n g were t a u g h t by community p e o p l e r a t h e r than p r o f e s s i o n a l t e a c h e r s . S o c i a l s t u d i e s and l i t e r a t u r e i n the s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l f o c u s s e d on i s s u e s of c o n t e m p o r a r y c o n c e r n s o f I n d i a n p e o p l e . A t r a i n i n g program f o r N a t i v e I n d i a n t e a c h e r s and a i d e s d i d not d i f f e r s u b s t a n t i a l l y from t e a c h i n g methods and t h e o r i e s p r e s e n t e d at Simon F r a s e r U n i v e r s i t y . T h e r e f o r e when t r a d i t i o n a l I n d i a n s k i l l s and knowledge were to be t a u g h t , p e o p l e from the community were t a p p e d so t h a t t r a d i t i o n a l knowledge was p a s s e d on i n a more c u l t u r a l l y t r u e manner. L e s s o n s were h e l d i n a p p r o p r i a t e n a t u r a l s u r r o u n d i n g s i f p o s s i b l e or the community r e s o u r c e p e r s o n n e l were b r o u g h t i n t o the s c h o o l . Wyatt e m p h a s i s e d the i m p o r t a n c e of the N a t i v e I n d i a n t e a c h e r as " c u l t u r e b r o k e r " : the t e a c h e r p r o c e e d s on the p r e m i s e s t h a t (1) a s p e c t s of the c u l t u r e and c o m m u n i c a t i o n s t y l e s 29 of both school and community are v a l u a b l e ; (2) teaching s t y l e and c u r r i c u l u m m a t e r i a l s should draw on the resources of both; and (3) h i s / h e r s k i l l s make i t p o s s i b l e to go beyond simply recommending i n t e g r a t i o n of the two approaches to a c t u a l l y developing programs and m a t e r i a l s which s y n t h e s i z e aspects of both c u l t u r a l s t y l e s . (Wyatt, 1978, p.23) Renaud reminded h i s audience of Canadian educators at the Quance Lectures of 1971 that e d u c a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s and personnel are slow to change, and he pointed out that the changes needed would have to come from the Indian p o p u l a t i o n . His words were a warning to Native Indian people. Schools, t h e i r teachers and a d m i n i s t r a t o r s change very slowly; the c l i e n t s , Indian students and other students, are expected to change to conform to the t r a d i t i o n s of s c h o o l s . Indian a d u l t s have become more in v o l v e d i n the schools of t h e i r communities. E v a l u a t i o n s of Community schools are a v a i l a b l e ( A l b e r t a Education, 1981, Buckanga, 1978, Hamilton and Owston, 1982, Handley et a l . , 1980) but e v a l u a t i o n s of community involvement i n schools i s more rare (King, 1981, Owston, 1983, Sanderson, 1975). The Education North p i l o t study (Ingram et a l . , 1981, A l b e r t a Education, 1982) followed seven communities i n northern A l b e r t a f o r f i v e years. Each community attempted to develop c i t i z e n involvement i n education programs through l o c a l education s o c i e t i e s . Six stages of development were o u t l i n e d and the d i f f i c u l t i e s a s s o c i a t e d with each stage were i d e n t i f i e d . The study p r o v i d e s a pragmatic guide to other community based programs. 30 I n d i a n T e a c h e r T r a i n i n g Programs Programs at u n i v e r s i t i e s i n F r e d r i c t o n , Thunder Bay, W i n n i p e g , B r a n d o n , S a s k a t o o n , R e g i n a , C a l g a r y , L e t h b r i d g e , V i c t o r i a and V a n c o u v e r have a c c e p t e d I n d i a n s t u d e n t s under s p e c i a l a d m i s s i o n s to t r y to i n c r e a s e the number of I n d i a n t e a c h e r s . "Program q u a l i t y has not been s a c r i f i c e d because of t h e s e a d a p t a t i o n s " ( Wyatt, 1978, p.20) and as More a v e r r e d " e a s i n g e n t r y s t a n d a r d s does not have to r e s u l t i n l o w e r i n g g r a d u a t i o n s t a n d a r d s " (More, 1980, p . 3 5 ) . Programs at each of t h e s e u n i v e r s i t i e s a r e d i f f e r e n t . The V i c t o r i a program has s p e c i a l i z e d i n the t r a i n i n g of t e a c h e r s of N a t i v e I n d i a n l a n g u a g e s . The U n i v e r s i t y of L e t h b r i d g e has i n s t i t u t e d a program of N a t i v e A m e r i c a n S t u d i e s . In S a s k a t c h e w a n , the G a b r i e l Dumont I n s t i t u t e of N a t i v e S t u d i e s and A p p l i e d R e s e a r c h has worked w i t h the two p r o v i n c i a l u n i v e r s i t i e s to d e v e l o p a N a t i v e S t u d i e s Program and has managed the S a s k a t c h e w a n U r b a n N a t i v e T e a c h e r E d u c a t i o n Program. The W i n n i p e g program has c o n c e n t r a t e d on i n n e r c i t y e d u c a t i o n . F i v e i s s u e s or p r o b l e m s u n i q u e to t h e s e I n d i a n t e a c h e r e d u c a t i o n programs have been i d e n t i f i e d : (1) N a t i v e I n d i a n c o n t r o l o f , and/or p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n DECISION-MAKING PROCESSES r e l a t i v e to N a t i v e e d u c a t i o n , i n c l u d i n g N a t i v e t e a c h e r e d u c a t i o n , (2) the use of FIELD CENTRES to f a c i l i t a t e the t r a n s i t i o n of the N a t i v e I n d i a n s t u d e n t to u n i v e r s i t y S t u d i e s , ( 3 ) t h e d e f i n i t i o n and i n c o r p o r a t i o n of r e l e v a n t CULTURAL CONTENT i n t o the t e a c h e r p r e p a r a t i o n programs, ( 4 ) t h e p r o v i s i o n of STUDENT SERVICES, 5) as a c o n s e q u e n c e of the f o u r p r e c e d i n g p o i n t s , the d e s i g n of s u i t a b l e systems of ACADEMIC AND FINANCIAL ACCOUNTABILITY w h i c h f a c i l i t a t e f i e l d c e n t r e o p e r a t i o n s and j o i n t 31 governance arrangements, and also ensure program i n t e g r i t y . (Mcintosh, 1979 , p.23) Native Indian Control Because teacher education is a prerogative granted only to p r o v i n c i a l u n i v e r s i t i e s , Indian control of programs in u n i v e r s i t i e s is not easily achieved. However, as more Indian educators become school, college and university staff members and as some assume administative positions, more Indian p a r t i c i p a t i o n in decision making occurs. Programs that are more "community-based" (More,1980) such as the Mount Currie program planned j o i n t l y with Simon Fraser University staff and The Northern Teacher Education Program in northern Saskatchewan which has instructors from both the niv e r s i t y of Saskatchewan and the University of Regina, have more Indian control than those situated exclusively on campuses. The Native Indian Teacher Education Program (NITEP) of the University of B r i t i s h Columbia is an example of a program in which Native Indian p a r t i c i p a t i o n and decision making has gradually increased. Mcintosh and Thomas (1977) in their review of the creation and f i r s t three years of "~ NITEP observed that the Native Indian Teachers' Association had been unsuccessful in their attempt to win support from the pro v i n c i a l Department of Education for a special teacher training program for Native Indians. When they were able to e n l i s t the support of the Dean of Education at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, the program was eventually approved by 32 the U n i v e r s i t y Senate a f t e r a "time-consuming and t e d i o u s " procedure. The degree of Indian c o n t r o l was r e s t r i c t e d i n 1977 to the presence of four out of the seven members of the Dean's Committee. However since 1983, NITEP has been headed by one of Canada's well-known Indian educators, Verna K i r k n e s s . However, NITEP, l i k e other u n i v e r s i t y programs, i s s t i l l under the c o n t r o l of the u n i v e r s i t y senate. F i e l d Centres The p r e s e n t a t i o n of the f i r s t two years of the NITEP program i n f i e l d centres l o c a t e d i n the students' home t e r r i t o r y has been fe a t u r e of the f i v e year NITEP plan from i t s incept i o n . Other programs adopted the p r a c t i c e of using f i e l d centres as w e l l : The U n i v e r s i t y of V i c t o r i a has done part of i t s Native Language Teacher Program i n B r i t i s h Columbia f i e l d centres not reached by other programs. Simon F r a s e r U n i v e r s i t y conducted i t s e n t i r e program f o r teachers on the Mount C u r r i e Reserve. In A l b e r t a , f i e l d centres f o r programs from the u n i v e r s i t i e s have been l o c a t e d at St. Paul (the Morning Star Program), the Morley Reserve, Hobbema, and Grouard (Moore-Evans, 1977). F i e l d centres have been f e a t u r e s of programs i n Northern Saskatchewan and the Northwest T e r r i t o r i e s and the Yukon. The Micmac-Mallseet I n s t i t u t e of the U n i v e r s i t y of New Brunswick runs part of i t s teacher e d u c a t i o n program o f f campus i n r o t a t i n g c e n t r e s . 33 C u l t u r a l Content The c u l t u r a l content of these programs has r a i s e d s e v e r a l i s s u e s . The f i r s t issue i s that which Wyatt recognized "... c o n v e n t i o n a l teacher p r e p a r a t i o n of people who happen to be n a t i v e does not answer the problem" (Wyatt, 1 978 , p.19) and warned of "the danger of f a l l i n g i n t o non-native school patterns"(Wyatt, 1978, p.21). However, when Burnaby (1980) reported the concerns of the Ontario Teachers F e d e r a t i o n (O.T.F.) about s p e c i a l t r a i n i n g programs for Native Indians which had been done i n the past by the Department of Indian A f f a i r s but which were now going to be c e r t i f i e d programs by the Ontario government, she s t a t e d : Even i f Native education and Native teacher t r a i n i n g were considered equal i n q u a l i t y but d i f f e r e n t , the problems of access of Native people to m a j o r i t y c u l t u r e education and teaching jobs would be great. Therefore, the concern that the OTF ( O n t a r i o Teachers Federation) and other i n s t i t u t i o n s have shown that Native teacher t r a i n i n g be as r i g o r o u s and c o n t a i n the same b a s i c s u b j e c t matter as r e g u l a r teacher t r a i n i n g , i s j u s t i f i e d on the grounds of Native i n t e r e s t s as w e l l as the i n t e r e s t s of the Ontario teaching p r o f e s s i o n and others Not only must r e g u l a r m a t e r i a l be covered but extra content as w e l l . (Burnaby, 1980, p. 355) The O n t a r i o Teachers F e d e r a t i o n seemed sure that Native teachers r e q u i r e d not only the usual b a s i c teacher t r a i n i n g m a t e r i a l , but a d d i t i o n a l content i n order f o r the Native teacher to have access to the m a j o r i t y c u l t u r e and not j u s t be an e f f e c t i v e Native education teacher. The emphasis on the need for the r e g u l a r teacher t r a i n i n g when i t has been so i n e f f e c t i v e i n s u c c e s s f u l l y preparing teachers to teach 34 I n d i a n s t u d e n t s i s s u s p e c t e s p e c i a l l y when viewed a l o n g s i d e t h e O n t a r i o e d u c a t i o n s y s t e m s ' i n s i s t a n c e t h a t t e a c h e r s i n F r e n c h i m m e r s i o n programs must f i r s t be s u c c e s s f u l t e a c h e r s i n the E n g l i s h l a n g u a g e s t r e a m . Moore-Eyman (1977) a l s o e m p h a s i z e d the n e c e s s i t y of I n d i a n t e a c h e r s m a s t e r i n g the pedagogy of the m a j o r i t y c u l t u r e . She p o i n t e d out the d i f f i c u l t i e s the t e a c h e r - t r a i n e e s at M o r l e y had i n d e v e l o p i n g d e t a i l e d l e s s o n p l a n s . She a t t r i b u t e d i t i n p a r t to the d i f f e r e n c e s i n the I n d i a n c o n c e p t of time as c i r c u l a r as o pposed to the c o n c e p t of time as l i n e a r . She p o i n t e d out t h a t the I n d i a n s t u d e n t t e a c h e r s viewed t e a c h i n g as t e a c h e r - d i s c o u r s e due to the m i s s i o n e d u c a t i o n t r a d i t i o n w h i c h had been dominant f o r o v e r a c e n t u r y . They i d e n t i f i e d t h e i r s c h o o l e x p e r i e n c e w i t h the i d e a l e d u c a t i o n so c o m p l e t e l y t h a t i n s p i t e of the I n d i a n t r a d i t i o n of t e a c h i n g by example or d o i n g , s t u d e n t t e a c h e r s c o u l d not i d e n t i f y p u p i l - a c t i v i t y p r o c e d u r e s f o r use i n a c l a s s r o o m . The a c c e n t on the N a t i v e c u l t u r e becoming p a r t of the s c h o o l c u r r i c u l u m , w r i t t e n and i m p l i c i t , p r o p o s e d by Wyatt was r e v e r s e d by Burnaby, the O n t a r i o T e a c h e r s F e d e r a t i o n , and Moore-Eyman. R a t h e r than i n t r o d u c i n g I n d i a n t e a c h e r s to s c h o o l s , the p l a n s f o c u s s e d on t u r n i n g I n d i a n s i n t o t y p i c a l s c h o o l t e a c h e r s of the dominant c u l t u r e . Enhancement of I n d i a n c u l t u r a l s t y l e s , c h i l d r e a r i n g methods, reward systems and i n t e r a c t i o n p a t t e r n s and the i n t e g r a t i o n of t h e s e i n t o t e a c h i n g s t y l e s and methods have y e t to be t r i e d . I n s t e a d t r a i n e e t e a c h e r s who a r e I n d i a n a r e t a u g h t c o n v e n t i o n a l w h i t e 35 teaching modes. There have been attempts to i d e n t i f y teaching methods most acceptable to Indian students. Renaud (1971), K l e i n f e l d (1972), Sealey (1973), Wyatt (1978), Yukon Native Brotherhood (1980), and Arbess (1981) have a l l published m a t e r i a l suggesting ways for teachers to adapt t h e i r teaching s t y l e s to the l e a r n i n g s t y l e s most common to Indian students. The Harvard Research P r o j e c t on M a n i t o u l i n I s l a n d analysed s u c c e s s f u l teaching s t r a t e g i e s and behaviors i n an Indian school (Mowhatt, c.1979, E r i c k s o n & Mohatt, 1982). Moore-Eyman (1977) i d e n t i f i e d some t e n t a t i v e successes using s m a l l - s t e p programmed i n s t r u c t i o n techniques and computer-assisted i n s t r u c t i o n i n teaching Indian students. A second c u l t u r a l issue i s presented when student teachers are expected to l e a r n and i n t e r n a l i z e the values of the academic world : i . e . a n a l y s i s , c l a s s i f i c a t i o n , cause and e f f e c t , p r o j e c t i o n s , o r a l and w r i t t e n communication, c o m p e t i t i o n , and meeting p r o j e c t deadlines (Mcintosh, 1979, MacDonald, 1978). However, these students are i n a program that purports to be a Native Indian program, so i t might be expected that the program w i l l r e i n f o r c e Native values and l e a r n i n g s t y l e s : i . e . h o l i s t i c l e a r n i n g , s p a c i a l - v i s u a l l e a r n i n g , k i n e s t h e t i c l e a r n i n g , a u r a l l e a r n i n g , interdependence, and l e a r n i n g through d i r e c t experience r a t h e r than through w r i t t e n accounts (Arbess, 1981, S t e r l i n g & Hebert, 1982). The students are e n r o l l e d i n a program that i s supposed to enhance and p r o t e c t t h e i r c u l t u r e , but they 36 a r e f o r c e d to e x p r e s s t h e i r i d e a s and e x p e r i e n c e i n the f o r m a l , l i n e a r p a t t e r n s of a c a d e m i a . The a n a l y s i s or s y n t h e s i s of t h i s p r o b l e m has not been c o m p l e t e d . I n d i a n c u l t u r e i s t y p i c a l l y r e p r e s e n t e d i n t h a t p o r t i o n of any N a t i v e I n d i a n t e a c h e r t r a i n i n g program c a l l e d " I n d i a n " or " N a t i v e " s t u d i e s . The c u r r i c u l u m of t h i s p a r t of the program u s u a l l y c o n t a i n s t h r e e s e q u e n t i a l components: a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l knowledge, c o n t e m p o r a r y i s s u e s , and the d e v e l o p m e n t of c u r r i c u l u m m a t e r i a l s d e a l i n g w i t h the a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l and c o n t e m p o r a r y i s s u e s f o r use i n s c h o o l s (Thomas & M a c i n t o s h , 1977, M a c i n t o s h , 1979). A f o u r t h component i n many programs i s the de v e l o p m e n t or the improvement of f l u e n c y i n N a t i v e I n d i a n l a n g u a g e s . A l t h o u g h t h e s e q u e n t i a l p a r t of c o u r s e o u t l i n e s have g r a d u a l l y d e v e l o p e d , the g e o g r a p h i c a l scope of the each component has y e t to be d e t e r m i n e d : l o c a l , p r o v i n c i a l , Canada, N o r t h A m e r i c a , or the w e s t e r n h e m i s p h e r e s t u d i e s . Concensus on c o n t e n t has not been r e a c h e d a c r o s s t r a i n i n g i n s t i t u t i o n s . D i v e r s i t y i n the N a t i v e l a n g u a g e s as w e l l as d i v e r s i t y i n l i f e s t y l e s of I n d i a n s a c r o s s Canada has made the i n s t i t u t i o n s r e s p o n s i v e to l o c a l n e e d s . As i n o t h e r C a n a d i a n e d u c a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s , t h e r e i s no n a t i o n a l c o n c e n s u s . A cademic A c c o u n t a b i l i t y The m a t t e r of academic a c c o u n t a b i l i t y , the a c c u s a t i o n s of watered-down c u r r i c u l a , " t h e red p a s s " , have d e t r a c t e d 37 from the r e p u t a t i o n of the Native Indian teacher t r a i n i n g programs (Thomas & Mcintosh, 1977, Mcintosh, 1977, Mcintosh, 1979, More, 1980, Read, 1983). Nevertheless i n n o v a t i v e programs have been developed. The U n i v e r s i t y of Saskatchewan opted to develop a sh o r t e r term program f o r Native students while the U n i v e r s i t y of Calgary decided to have the Indian students complete the r e g u l a r program with a d d i t i o n a l t u t o r i a l h elp. ( T h i s t u t o r i a l help was not accepted by the students u n t i l the f o u r t h year of the program when the t u t o r i a l took on the added r o l e of c o u n s e l l i n g (Moore-Eyman, 1977). The Morning Star program i n A l b e r t a adapted a d e l i v e r y system i n which only one course i s o f f e r e d at a time. Most programs found that a d d i t i o n a l w r i t i n g and o r a l communication s k i l l s had to be i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o the f i r s t year or the preceding summer to ensure success i n f i r s t year E n g l i s h courses. The need f o r improved communication s k i l l s i s now so widespread i n u n i v e r s i t i e s i n A l b e r t a that the Indian students are no longer the only students i n the remedial E n g l i s h program (Moore-Eyman, 1977). Support S e r v i c e s The p r o v i s i o n of mu l t i d i m e n s i o n a l support s e r v i c e s i n c l u d i n g i n f o r m a t i o n , c o u n s e l l i n g , c h i l d c a r e , f i n a n c i a l a i d , easy access, non-threatening environment and t u t o r i n g was necessary f o r the success of students i n programs such as Red Lodge (Moore-Eyman, 1977), and Morning Star (Sloan, 1981, 38 Read, 1983), and the Indian Studies P r o j e c t at the U n i v e r s i t y of New Brunswick. A major hurdle f o r Indian adult students i s that of r a i s i n g s e l f - c o n f i d e n c e and se l f - e s t e e m . One of the most valued sources of support during that p e r i o d of s e l f - e v a l u a t i o n has been the peer group (Thomas & Macintosh, 1977, More, 1980). The support of the group while the student s t r i v e s to change old a t t i t u d e s towards s e l f and school i s v i t a l . The r o l e of language s t u d i e s and Indian Studies i n i n c r e a s i n g s e l f - e s t e e m f o r Indian students i s mentioned by Thomson (1978), Burnaby, (1980), McDonald, (1978). The importance of a t u t o r to b o l s t e r a d u l t s t r y i n g to improve r u s t y or undeveloped w r i t i n g s k i l l s , and to ease adult students back i n t o the r o l e of student i n school from the r o l e of independent person i n the adult world must be recognized (Mezirow and Ulmer i n Read, 1983). More l i t e r a t u r e on disadvantaged a d u l t s was in c o r p o r a t e d i n t o Read's case study of P r o j e c t Morning S t a r . (The use of the term disadvantaged i n 1983 again i l l u s t r a t e s how very p o s i t i v e was Hebert's assumption that that view of c u l t u r e d i f f e r e n c e s had been put to r e s t at the end of the s i x t i e s . ) P a r a p r o f e s s i o n a l T r a i n i n g Programs In the s i x t i e s i n the U.S.A., f e d e r a l funds were made a v a i l a b l e to schools f o r the improvement of education, e s p e c i a l l y of m i n o r i t y and u n d e r p r i v i l e g e d students. Some of the r e s u l t i n g programs such as Head S t a r t and T i t l e 1 39 advocated the use of a d u l t s from the community as teacher a s s i s t a n t s . ( S u n d e r l i n , 1968, E d u c a t i o n a l S e r v i c e Bureau, 1966, Dady, 1968) The f i n d i n g s of the Bank S t r e e t College of Education's study of the use of a u x i l i a r i e s i n some of the schools of f i f t e e n areas i n the United States i n the l a t e s i x t i e s are p u b l i s h e d i n New Partners i n the American School: Study of  A u x i l i a r y Personnel i n Education (1967), New Careers and  Rules i n the American School (1968) and A Learning Team:  Teacher and A u x i l i a r y (1969). These w r i t i n g s c o n t a i n a c t u a l case s t u d i e s backed by q u a n t i t a t i v e and q u a l i t a t i v e analyses. The t r a i n i n g of teacher aides i n Canada i s not w e l l documented. No d e t a i l e d d i s c u s s i o n s , records nor e v a l u a t i o n s of t r a i n i n g programs for teacher aides were l o c a t e d . General d i s c u s s i o n s on the number and the use of teacher aides i n schools i n B r i t i s h Columbia and Ontario were loca t e d (Canadian Education A s s o c i a t i o n , 1967, Enns et a l . , 1974). One booklet suggested ways B r i t i s h Columbia teachers might u t i l i z e teacher aides (Csapo, 1975). The e f f e c t s of i n v o l v i n g parents i n Canadian schools were part of s t u d i e s by Pomfret (1972, 1982) and F u l l a n (1982). F u l l a n (1982) reviewed the l i t e r a t u r e on the e f f e c t s of parent involvement i n schools as a f f e c t i n g change. He quoted C l a r k ' s c o n c l u s i o n that a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n of parents from the school community i n i n s t r u c t i o n of b a s i c s k i l l s to elementary students r e s u l t e d i n higher achievement by the s t u d e n t s . The e f f e c t on an i n d i v i d u a l student was enhanced by 40 the p a r t i c i p a t i o n of that student's parent. Other studies referred to by Fullan found positive results in achievement and self-concept by both parents and students, especially in minority/black/disadvantaged children. Parent involvement as a paid aide, a volunteer, or a home tutor was p o s i t i v e l y correlated to student achievement gains. Community Involvement The Bank Street Project (Klopf et a l . , 1969) recorded that teachers and administrators feel challenged by non-professionals in their schools. Wright also i d e n t i f i e d this fact and she added "Teachers feel inevitable uneasiness when someone... less q u a l i f i e d . . . seems to encroach... . Aides (must) demonstrate theirs ... is a supportive role" (Wright, 1969, p.5). Concurrent with the training program for the teacher aides in New Haven in 1966 was a program for the teachers and principals to learn how to use teacher aides e f f e c t i v e l y (Wright, 1969). A similar process was deemed necessary by City University of New York (Klopf et a l . , 1969). Although Morehead University included the team approach to training and working in a l l i t s workshops in Eastern Kentucky for teacher aides (Klopf et a l . , 1969), teachers did not attend the workshops. Dady l i s t e d twenty-five topics for workshops to train teacher aides (see Appendix F) and singled out three topics that he f e l t must be part of any workshop. One of those was the "Team 41 Approach to T r a i n i n g and Working". Teaming was approached through s e n s i t i v i t y t r a i n i n g and program a n a l y s i s i n separate group meetings of teachers and teacher aides i n C a l i f o r n i a as reported by Openshaw, Joy and G i l b e r t (Klopf et a l . , 1969). The p a r a p r o f e s s i o n a l must become a co-worker, one who does more than simply f o l l o w d i r e c t i o n s , one who i s an a c t i v e , l e a r n i n g member of a team but who a l s o recognizes the teacher's experience and e x p e r t i s e , Mcllhenny (1979) suggested. She recommended the s u p e r v i s o r be a f a c i l i t a t o r i n the team b u i l d i n g process. Wright's book (1969) i s a primer f o r the concept and process of i n t r o d u c i n g teacher aides to s c h o o l s . She wrote: ...as parent, teacher, and school a d m i n i s t r a t o r ... I have seen t h e i r eagerness to o f f e r t a l e n t s . . . I have seen both e l a t i o n and d i s i l l u s i o n m e n t as they returned from t h e i r f i r s t encounters with the " e s t a b l i s h m e n t " f o r seminars and c o n t i n u i n g help. ... Most of the unfortunate i n c i d e n t s that have marred the r e l a t i o n s h i p of p r o f e s s i o n a l s and p a r a p r o f e s s i o n a 1 s can be avoided i f a l l concerned are i n v o l v e d i n p r e s e r v i c e and i n s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g programs focused on the ways that they can work tog e t h e r . (Wright, 1969, pp.4,5) One major problem of h i r i n g m i n o r i t i e s to work i n the schools r e s u l t e d i n an extension of the Pygmalion e f f e c t (Rosenthal & Jacobsen, 1968). Even though the b i l i n g u a l teacher aides h i r e d by the New York schools had completed s i x t y hours of c o l l e g e c r e d i t , Mcllhenney warned that : ...(the) p a r a p r o f e s s i o n a l i s f r e q u e n t l y a member of the same m i n o r i t y group as the c h i l d r e n . Since the teacher's expectations of the students are low, o f t e n the expectations of the p a r a p r o f e s s i o n a l s are c o r r e s p o n d i n g l y low. (Mcllhenney, 1979, p.16) The Colorado State Board of Education i n 1968 a l s o 42 r e a l i z e d that teachers needed " s p e c i a l p r e p a r a t i o n " i n order to develop respect f o r and understanding of the r o l e s and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of p a r a p r o f e s s i o n a l s and teachers i n the new s i t u a t i o n . The Board was unique i n that i t a l s o recommended i n v o l v i n g community businessmen and parents i n the planning stage of p l a c i n g p a r a p r o f e s s i o n a l workers i n the schools so the businessmen and parents would " f e e l secure" about the proposed changes. The Board stated that the community has a r i g h t to know what changes are taking place and why (Cheuvront, 1968). This i s a p o l i t i c a l f a c t that educators, a d m i n i s t r a t o r s , s t a t e and p r o v i n c i a l Departments of Education sometimes ign o r e . Only one of the other l o c a t e d s t u d i e s , from New York, recognized that "...without complete understanding and community support, l i t t l e or no success can be expected." (Kohn quoted i n Mcllhenney, 1979, p.5). In D e t r o i t , planners included the t o t a l school community but not the community as a whole, i n i n i t i a l meetings. Alexander and S e l i c k (Klopf et a l . , 1969) counted i n that s c h o o l community, the p r i n c i p a l , department heads, lunchroom manager, c u s t o d i a n , counselor, school-community agent and some s e n i o r t e a c h e r s . In 1967, the i n i t i a l f e e l i n g s towards the program of h i r i n g one hundred s i x t y - s e v e n "unemployables" to work i n the school were apprehension, and concern over e x t r a work l o a d s . It was recognized that a l l those working in the schools e i t h e r d i r e c t l y or i n d i r e c t l y with the new p a r a p r o f e s s i o n a l s needed to be part of the implementation pro c e s s . 43 The t i t l e of K l o p f , Bowman and Joy's A Learning Team:  Teacher and A u x i l i a r y s u c c i n c t l y s t a t e s a message which cannot be ignored by developers of programs f o r teacher a i d e s . The end r e s u l t of a teacher aide t r a i n i n g program must be a l e a r n i n g team, not a teaching team nor a teacher plus a teacher aide . The l e a r n i n g team must c o n s i s t of teacher(s) working with a teacher aide , with the students and with the community. F i n a l l y , Wright (1969) reminded everyone " . . . b u i l d i n g t eacher-teacher aide teams that are compatible i s tough work. ...no magic formula " (Wright, 1969, p. 19). Purposes and O b j e c t i v e s of Programs This s e c t i o n w i l l assemble the stated purposes of teacher aide t r a i n i n g programs. It w i l l look at e a r l y programs which addressed the need to improve student achievement and to provide job t r a i n i n g and employment for community people who were seen as disadvantaged and shut out of mainstream s o c i e t y . F u r t h e r , l a t e r programs which recognized that while the presence of community people i n c r e a s e d student performance i n schools, school personnel b e n e f i t t e d from the increased contact and understanding of the home c u l t u r e w i l l be examined. The New York program f o r ed u c a t i o n a l a s s i s t a n t s was cre a t e d "to improve student l e a r n i n g and to provide employment f o r a disadvantaged p o p u l a t i o n " (Pernice i n Klopf et a l . , 1969, p.142). 44 The programs i n Kentucky and D e t r o i t r e s u l t e d from a "convergence of these two needs f o r the improvement of the teaching of p u p i l s and f o r the c r e a t i o n of separate channels of job development and job experience" (Alexander and S e l i c k i n K lopf et a l . , 1969, p.136). The purpose of the t r a i n i n g program developed by the U n i v e r s i t y of C o n n e c t i c u t t and the New Haven Board of Education i n 1966 was "to prepare and t r a i n low-income neighborhood r e s i d e n t s to become teacher aides and to provide them with experience and education that w i l l enable them to use t h e i r a b i l i t y to i t s f u l l e s t extent" (Wright, 1969, p.26) . La t e r w r i t e r s s t r e s s e d that programs only had l e g i t i m a c y i f t h e i r goal was to improve i n s t r u c t i o n . (McManama, 1972, Clough & Clough, 1978) More d e t a i l e d purposes were o u t l i n e d f o r the A u x i l i a r y U t i l i z a t i o n Program i n Berkeley, C a l i f o r n i a (1967-68) by Openshaw, Joy and G i l b e r t : 1. To enhance the p o s s i b i l i t y that c h i l d r e n from low-income f a m i l i e s w i l l succeed i n school by b r i n g i n g parents and teachers i n t o a working r e l s t i o n s h i p w i t h i n the s c h o o l , with the goal of modifying p o s i t i v e l y the behavior of a l l three -p u p i l s , parents, and teachers. 2. To promote r e c o g n i t i o n and understanding by parents and teachers of each other's reward and r e s t r a i n t s system and ways of meeting c h i l d r e n ' s development. 3. To e s t a b l i s h l i n e s of communication among school s t a f f , the c h i l d r e n , and t h e i r parents not otherwise i n v o l v e d i n the program. 4. To in c r e a s e the s e n s i t i v i t y of the school f a c u l t y toward the l i f e s t y l e , concerns, c h i l d r e a r i n g patterns and the language of the community by means of summer p r e s e r v i c e and a c o n t i n u i n g i n s e r v i c e education program f o r 45 teachers and a i d e s . 5. To in c r e a s e the relevance of education i n terms of o c c u p a t i o n a l m o b i l i t y and personal development f o r parents employed as aides so that they, i n turn, may pass on to t h e i r c h i l d r e n t h e i r enhanced view of education. (Klopf et a l . , 1969, p.130) Only i n the report of the Minneapolis Aide Program begun i n 1965 was the st a t e d purpose to r e c r u i t i n neighborhoods of a l l s c h o o l s , not jus t those i n "disadvantaged" areas. The l i n k a g e of the school and community through the aide was recognized as a c h i e f value (Hayen, i n Klopf et a l . , 1969, p.121, and i n E d u c a t i o n a l S e r v i c e Bureau, 1966). P r e r e q u i s i t e s P r e r e q u i s i t e s f o r entry i n t o teacher aide t r a i n i n g programs v a r i e d across the United S t a t e s . No p r e r e q u i s i t e s are recorded f o r Canadian programs to t r a i n teacher a i d e s . Some programs set an entry requirement of two years or s i x t y hours of c o l l e g e c r e d i t (Mcllhenney, 1979, Emmerling and Chavis, 1967). Other programs set no r e s t r i c t i o n s based on education or work experience, so they were designed with upgrading components. Some t r a i n e e s took c o l l e g e courses, others high school courses (Brown, 1975, Wright, 1969, Klopf et a l . , 1969, Cheuvront, 1968, S u n d e r l i n , 1968). 46 Goals f o r Program Trainees Many programs expected the aides to continue to f u l l p r o f e s s i o n a l a c c r e d i t a t i o n . The programs i n Texas, Kentucky and D e t r o i t were ex c e p t i o n s . The Bank Street Study concluded that "Upward m o b i l i t y should be p o s s i b l e but not compulsory. Advancement should be r e l a t e d to both d e s i r e and a b i l i t y . " ( Klopf et a l . , 1969, p. 17). In Canada i n 1973 an Ontario Teachers' F e d e r a t i o n Survey i d e n t i f i e d 1200 students i n Community Colleges i n the province e n r o l l e d i n courses a d v e r t i s e d to t r a i n them f o r p a r a p r o f e s s i o n a l r o l e s i n schools (Ennis, D i l l o n and McDowell, 1974). The goal of the community c o l l e g e s i n Ontario f o r p l a c i n g these students was not r e a l i s t i c as no d i s t r i c t s had permanent budget a l l o c a t i o n s f o r p a r a p r o f e s s i o n a l s . I n s e r v i c e Content This s e c t i o n w i l l d e s c r i b e the t o p i c s included i n the t r a i n i n g courses f o r teacher aides i n the United S t a t e s . No d e s c r i p t i o n s of the content of courses f o r teacher aides i n Canada were l o c a t e d . The E d u c a t i o n a l S e r v i c e Bureau Inc. (1966) i n t h e i r review of teacher aide and a u x i l i a r y programs h a i l e d the i n t r o d u c t i o n by the Minneapolis Schools of an i n s e r v i c e week of workshops f o r a i d e s . Topics of the workshops r e f l e c t the 47 tasks assigned to teacher aides when they were introduced to the system i n 1965. Records and record keeping, l i b r a r y r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s , general classroom d u t i e s , use of a u d i o - v i s u a l equipment and m a t e r i a l s , p r e p a r a t i o n of art m a t e r i a l s , p r e p a r a t i o n of science m a t e r i a l s , k i n d e r g a r t e n r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s , playground, lunchroom, h a l l and bus dut i e s comprised the program. C l o s e l y f o l l o w i n g the o r i g i n a l t r a i n i n g program i n Minneapolis was one i n N o r f o l k . It encompassed i n t r o d u c t i o n to the school ( e t h i c s , personal development, time and r u l e s , p h y s i c a l p l a n t ) , d u t i e s of the p a r a p r o f e s s i o n a l i n elementary and high s c h o o l s , importance of p u n c t u a l i t y and re g u l a r attendance, c r e a t i n g rapport with students, d i s c i p l i n e , a p p r o p r i a t e dress. As p r e v i o u s l y s t a t e d , academic courses designed f o r "high school e q u i v a l e n c y " (Wright, 1969) or "upgrading f o r eventual c o l l e g e entrance" (Cheuvront, 1968) were added to l a t e r programs. In Kentucky three t o p i c s are always i n c l u d e d i n the two or three day workshops: (1) Human Growth and Development of C h i l d r e n , (2) Team Approach to T r a i n i n g and Working, and (3) Career Development of A u x i l i a r i e s (Dady i n Klopf et a l . , 1969 p.128). Twenty-five t o p i c s i n a l l were i n c l u d e d i n the Kentucky workshops (Appendix F ) . Topics f o r the i n s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g component of the program i n Texas (Brown et a l . , 1975) c o n s i s t e d of u n i t s i n r o l e d e f i n i t i o n , s u p e r v i s i o n techniques, o p e r a t i o n of 48 business and a u d i o - v i s u a l machines, b u l l e t i n board design, r e c o r d keeping, communication s k i l l s , l i b r a r y s k i l l s , small group i n s t r u c t i o n , p o s i t i v e reinforcement and team tea c h i n g . In the handbooks f o r teacher aides published i n the se v e n t i e s a concensus of t o p i c s had developed (Shank and McElroy, 1970, Bri g h t o n , 1972, McManama, 1972, Abbott, 1973, O r n s t e i n , 1975). Abbott avers that the workshops must be set up i n c o n j u n c t i o n with school needs but Shank and McElroy, McManama and Brown et a l . present g e n e r a l i z e d l e s s o n plans f o r t h e i r suggested workshops. I n s e r v i c e O r g a n i z a t i o n In t h i s s e c t i o n the o r g a n i z a t i o n patterns of teacher aide t r a i n i n g courses are o u t l i n e d . P r e s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g s e s s i o n s f o r teacher aides p r i o r to t h e i r assignment to schools as w e l l as i n s e r v i c e workshops and on-the-job t r a i n i n g are inc l u d e d i n the b r i e f d e s c r i p t i o n . A s t r u c t u r e d p r e s e n t a t i o n of t o p i c s was made i n the program designed by Brown et a l . (1975) f o r " b u i l d i n g a i d e s " i n the D a l l a s Independent School D i s t r i c t i n Texas. This program was performance o r i e n t e d . P r e t e s t s (see Appendix G) were used i n the program to determine the t r a i n i n g r e q u i r e d by b u i l d i n g aides to improve t h e i r e f f e c t i v e n e s s as h a l l and l i b r a r y s u p e r v i s o r s , o f f i c e and a u d i o - v i s u a l machine o p e r a t o r s , record keepers and d i s p l a y mounters. The t r a i n i n g s e s s i o n s took place during s i x f u l l day sessions and t h i r t e e n 49 two hour t r a i n i n g s e s sions spread throughout the school year. A more open approach to o r g a n i z a t i o n was u t i l i z e d i n Berkeley. The i n s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g c o n s i s t e d of four components: ( l ) c a r e e r development for the aides which i n c l u d e d job o p p o r t u n i t y i n f o r m a t i o n and c o l l e g e , high school or o c c u p a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g courses, (2)group meetings of aides and teachers to provide time fo r program a n a l y s i s , s e n s i t i v i t y t r a i n i n g , a n d r o l e p l a y i n g , ( 3 ) t r a i n i n g of teachers and aides to help c h i l d r e n improve t h e i r s k i l l s i n r e a d i n g , and (4)team leader t r a i n i n g , the t r a i n i n g of t r a i n e r s (Openshaw, Joy and G i l b e r t i n Klopf et a l . , 1969, p. 131). The t r a i n i n g took place during two hour meetings held weekly a f t e r s c h o o l . In New Haven, the program s t a r t e d with an o r i e n t a t i o n p e r i o d which i n c l u d e d an i n t r o d u c t i o n to the school system, procedures and equipment. A f t e r the aides began working with t e a c h e r s , t o p i c s such as classroom techniques, content courses, and communication s k i l l s were added (Wright, 1969). S i m i l a r c o o r d i n a t i o n of t r a i n i n g and on-the-job experience was planned by Clough and Clough (1978), and Mcllhenny (1979). Fol l o w i n g an i n i t i a l program i n which aides were t r a i n e d f o r ten weeks p r i o r to entry i n t o the s c h o o l s , the D e t r o i t study recommended the p r e s e r v i c e be cut to two weeks and the remainder of the t r a i n i n g program be conducted i n the mornings with on-the-job i n t e g r a t i o n occuring i n the a f t e r n o o n s . The h a l f - d a y study, h a l f - d a y work format was used i n i t i a l l y by the New York program. However, once the aides i n 50 New York were placed i n the schools, they attended i n s e r v i c e c l a s s e s f o r a f u l l day at l e a s t once a month f o r "generic t r a i n i n g " , i n c l u d i n g psychology and c h i l d development, s k i l l s t r a i n i n g i n classroom tasks and human r e l a t i o n s t r a i n i n g or team t r a i n i n g (Klopf et a l . , 1969). Changes recommended f o r the program i n D e t r o i t r e s u l t e d i n a two-week p r e s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g p e r i o d followed by a h a l f - d a y i n s e r v i c e , and a h a l f - d a y on the job t r a i n i n g because: 1) i t would reduce the amount of unused time; 2) i t would permit feedback and i n t e r a c t i o n between t h e i r school experiences and t h e i r academic s t u d i e s ; 3) i t would a s s i s t i n developing more r e a l i s t i c a t t i t u d e s regarding t h e i r r o l e s i n the school ; 4) i t would allow the aides to apply a b s t r a c t p r i n c i p l e s to a c t u a l s i t u a t i o n s and even more im p o r t a n t l y , to a b s t r a c t p r i n c i p l e s from a n a l y s i s of experience; 5) i t would provide an op p o r t u n i t y to r e v i s e the t r a i n i n g program to conform to the requirements of the sch o o l ; 6) i t would f a c i l i t a t e the o p e r a t i o n of aide-teacher workshops, which should begin as e a r l y as p o s s i b l e i n the t r a i n i n g p e r i o d ; and 7) i t would f a c i l i t a t e r e a l i s t i c planning on the part of teachers and a d m i n i s t r a t o r s i n developing new and b e t t e r ways of i n c o r p o r a t i n g aides i n the s c h o o l s . (Klopf et a l , 1969, p. 140) The o r g a n i z a t i o n of programs i s presented i n Table I I . 51 Table II TRAINING PROGRAM TIMETABLES Program Entry Requirements P r e s e r v i c e I n s e r v i c e Berkeley none b r i e f - f o l lowed P i l o t Program 2 hr./wk.T&TA 1 da/mo.TA D a l l a s none P r e t e s t , 2-half days 10 two hr.+ 4 f u l l days TA D e t r o i t (a) none (b) none East Kentucky none 10 wk.-40 hr/wk 2 wk.-40 hr/wk 1 1/2 hr. TA ( a f t e r school) 8 wk. a.m. c l a s s e s + p.m. on-the-job none 1 , 2 or 3 day workshops ( 25 t o p i c s ) TA Minneapolis none 2 y r . on-the-job t r a i n i n g T a i l o r e d to a u x i l i a r y and school needs New York none New York 60 c o l l e g e ( B i l i n g u a l ) c r e d i t s 2 wks. a.m. study, p.m. o b s e r v a t i o n 1 da./mo. TA c o l l e g e courses taken at same time as on-the job t r a i n i n g TA T&TA TA = = teachers and teacher aides teacher aides only 52 A s s i g n m e n t t o S c h o o l s The a s s i g n m e n t of t e a c h e r a i d e s to work i n ' b u i l d i n g s ' , to work w i t h i n d i v i d u a l t e a c h e r s or to work w i t h two or more t e a c h e r s has a f f e c t e d the job f u l f i l l m e n t e x p e r i e n c e d by the a i d e s , the a c c e p t a n c e of and s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h t e a c h e r a i d e s by t e a c h e r s and the s u c c e s s of programs as d e t e r m i n e d by e x t e r n a l e v a l u a t o r s . In t h i s s e c t i o n the v a r i o u s p r o c e d u r e s f o r a s s i g n i n g t e a c h e r a i d e s to s c h o o l s w i l l be examined to i d e n t i f y t h o s e p r o c e d u r e s w h i c h seemed most s u c c e s s f u l . In Texas and K e n t u c k y the a i d e s were a s s i g n e d to " b u i l d i n g s " and worked w i t h s e v e r a l t e a c h e r s as r e q u e s t e d and i n d i f f e r e n t c a p a c i t i e s (Brown et a l . , 1975, K l o p f et a l . , 1969). In K e n t u c k y t h i s was b ecause t h e r e were not enough a i d e s f o r an a i d e to be a s s i g n e d to e v e r y t e a c h e r . I t was o b s e r v e d t h a t when more t h a n one or two t e a c h e r s s h a r e d an a i d e t h a t a i d e s p e n t most of her time i n c l e r i c a l d u t i e s ( K l o p f et a l , 1 9 69). The B e r k e l e y program a d j u s t e d i t s a s s i g n m e n t of a i d e s f r o m a o n e - t o - o n e b a s i s to an a r r a n g e m e n t whereby two t e a c h e r s s h a r e d one a i d e b ecause t h e r e was more c a r e f u l p l a n n i n g of the time the a i d e and t e a c h e r worked t o g e t h e r when the a i d e was a v a i l a b l e f o r o n l y h a l f a day. The Bank S t r e e t Study made g e n e r a l recommendations t h a t a f t e r a p e r i o d of i n s e r v i c e and work w i t h one or two t e a c h e r s , the a i d e s s h o u l d s e l e c t a s p e c i a l r o l e , such as c l a s s r o o m a i d e , l i b r a r y a i d e , t u t o r , c o u n s e l o r a i d e , i n which 53 s p e c i a l i z e d t r a i n i n g would be given. The Colorado State Board of Education planned for the aides to work i n a general c a p a c i t y i n the school with many d i f f e r e n t teachers u n t i l a teacher requested the aide be assigned permanently to the teacher's c l a s s . The aide would be f r e e to accept or r e j e c t the o f f e r without jeopardy but the team would thus have a b e t t e r chance of being compatible (Cheuvront, 1968). Mcllhenny (1979) saw the development of a team of coworkers, the teacher and the aide as being important. The teacher, Mcllhenny avered, must become a "mentor"; the teacher and aide should plan the school day and a c t i v i t i e s together; they must p r a c t i c e the s k i l l s of teaching together as a team; the teacher must help the p a r a p r o f e s s i o n a l see the a p p l i c a t i o n s and use of the t h e o r e t i c a l c l a s s e s i n lesson p l a n n i n g , classroom management, and reinforcement techniques. Support S e r v i c e s The c h a r a c t e r i s t i c e s of adult students determine the nature of r e q u i r e d support s e r v i c e s . In t h i s s e c t i o n those c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s are reviewed as i d e n t i f i e d by the Bank Street Study. Personal support i s needed from the peer group, the other teacher a i d e s . A d i f f e r e n t type of personal support comes from the community i n the form of a p p r o v a l , the program c o o r d i n a t o r i n the form of personal guidance and e v e n t u a l l y from a mentor/teacher when a team i s forged. Academic support 54 from a r e c o g n i z e d i n s t i t u t i o n may be i n the form of a l e a d e r , a p r i n t e d handbook and a c e r t i f i c a t e . F i n a l l y , f i n a n c i a l s u p p o r t r e i n f o r c e s community r e c o g n i t i o n and e ases f a m i l y r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of the t e a c h e r a i d e . The Bank S t r e e t Study r e v i e w e d the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of a d u l t s t u d e n t s . The i m p o r t a n c e of s m a l l group membership and t h e p a r t i c i p a t i o n of the a d u l t s t u d e n t i n p l a n n i n g the c o n t e n t and form of the program were r e c o r d e d . The need f o r b u i l d i n g a p o s i t i v e s e l f - i m a g e i n o r d e r to a l l o w the a d u l t to t r y new r o l e models was s t r e s s e d f o r b o t h the a s s i s t a n t and t h e t e a c h e r . The f a c t t h a t a d u l t s t a k e l o n g e r t h an c h i l d r e n to l e a r n b e c a u s e they have to i n t e g r a t e the new " knowledge, c o n c e p t s and t e c h n i q u e s " i n t o p a s t l i v i n g and r e l a t e i t to p r e s e n t needs was p r e s e n t e d . The r e q u i r e m e n t s of a d u l t s f o r c o n t e m p l a t i o n , f o r t r y i n g out new i d e a s i n p r i v a t e , of a v o i d i n g p u b l i c f a i l u r e were a c c e n t e d . T h i s l e d t o recommendations f o r t r a i n i n g - o n - t h e - j o b r a t h e r t h an weekend s e m i n a r s , the use of r o l e p l a y i n g , o b s e r v i n g p e o p l e i n a c t i o n r a t h e r t h an l e c t u r e methods of p r e s e n t i n g m a t e r i a l . A l l t h e s e p o i n t to a r e q u i r e m e n t f o r s m a l l group membership and f o r a p r i v a t e p l a c e i n which to p r a c t i s e new s k i l l s . As w e l l , a d u l t s t u d e n t s v a l u e of academic c r e d i t f o r both work e x p e r i e n c e and i n s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g . The c o n t r i b u t i o n s of " h a r d f u n d s " to g i v e s t a t u s and c o n t i n u i t y was a l s o n o t e d . The c r e a t i o n of a c a r e e r l a d d e r to i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e i n c r e m e n t s i n pay and changes i n t i t l e f o r s e q u e n t i a l j o b s i n an o c c u p a t i o n a l t r a c k i s a most e f f e c t i v e way to e n c o u r a g e 55 people r e t u r n i n g to a place where they did not l i k e l y experience success the f i r s t time (Klopf et a l , 1969). Thus are p e r s o n a l , academic and f i n a n c i a l support requirements enumerated. The importance of p r o f e s s i o n a l s t a f f personnel "to a s s i s t teachers and aides on the job and to coordinate the a i d e s ' work experience with the t r a i n i n g program." was recognized by Hayen i n h i s a n a l y s i s of a three year old program i n Minneapolis P u b l i c schools ( K l o p f , 1969, p.121). As w e l l as the teacher i n the r o l e as mentor to the a i d e , i n the program of which Mcllhenney wrote, there was support f o r the teacher and the p a r a p r o f e s s i o n a l from the workshop leaders who v i s i t e d the classroom. This workshop leader guided the p a r a p r o f e s s i o n a l i n i n t e g r a t i n g l e a r n i n g s from workshops to p r a c t i c e i n the classroom and helped the teacher plan b e t t e r use of the p a r a p r o f e s s i o a l . The D e t r o i t program "coaches" acted as " t r a i n e r s , c o u n s e l o r s , s u p e r v i s o r s and advocates of the a u x i l i a r i e s and g e n e r a l l y as l i a s o n between the a u x i l i a r i e s and the school system. They were r e s p o n s i b l e i n dual form to the p r i n c i p a l of the school and the p r o j e c t d i r e c t o r . " (Alexander an S e l i c k i n K l o p f et a l . , 1969, p.137). Each school was assigned a coach. The need for c o u n s e l l i n g and guidance throughout the program f o r aides and teachers was again emphasized by P e r n i c e i n her d i s c u s s i o n of programs i n New York (Klopf et a l . , 1969). 56 In C a l i f o r n i a , the group meetings of the e n t i r e s t a f f , that had been designed for processing feedback, were modified as the program progressed. The f i r s t m o d i f i c a t i o n was to meet i n s m a l l e r groups of four teachers and t h e i r assigned aides plus a team l e a d e r . L a t e r teachers and aides met s e p a r a t e l y to f a c i l i t a t e frankness i n d i s c u s s i n g "process observer's p r o f i l e s " and data from i n t e r v i e w s and q u e s t i o n n a i r e s . Self-assessment of behavior, f e e l i n g s , and r o l e p l a y i n g of s i t u a t i o n s appeared to be " e f f e c t i v e f o r i n c r e a s i n g understanding, communication and acceptance of new r o l e s and r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h i n a school system" (Openshaw, Joy & G i l b e r t i n Klopf et a l . , 1969, p.134). Although group support and the presence of a mentor/counsellor helped t r a i n e e s adjust to new r o l e s and s i t u a t i o n s as teacher a i d e s , i t was recognized that persons e n t e r i n g the t r a i n i n g program could not succeed unless they were free from e x c e s s i v e l y time consuming home r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . Such demands cannot be ignored no matter how much a t r a i n e e wants to become a school worker (DaSilva & Lucas, 1974). The f a c t i s t h a t : the road ... to f u l l p r o f e s s i o n a l c e r t i f i c a t i o n i s so long and d i f f i c u l t that few low-income a u x i l i a r i e s could hope to t r a v e l the whole journey. ... unless the r e q u i r e d t r a i n i n g can be secured without undue hardships and pressures emanating from minimal funds, heavy fam i l y and work r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . (Klopf et a l . , 1969, p. 15) No program had organized a s s i s t a n c e such as day care f a c i l i t i e s designed to l e s s e n demands of f a m i l y 57 r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s but f i n a n c i a l support was part of most t r a i n i n g programs. The Bank S t r e e t Study v a l i d a t e d the importance of a paid s t i p e n d to the t r a i n e e s while they attended course work at a "degree g r a n t i n g i n s t i t u t i o n " . The Berkeley Program in c l u d e d s t i p e n d s paid to aides and teachers while they attended workshops (Klopf et. a l . , 1969). The New Haven Program i n 1966 a l s o i n c l u d e d a t r a i n i n g s t i pend (Wright, 1969). Fin d i n g s Four i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r programs were stated i n 1969 which s t i l l r e q u i r e a t t e n t i o n today: 1. To i n i t i a t e a program for the u t i l i z a t i o n of aides i s a d i f f i c u l t and d e l i c a t e o p e r a t i o n , which c a l l s for a) r e s t r u c t u r i n g of p r e s e r v i c e education f o r teachers i n which they l e a r n to share with aides t h e i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s to c h i l d r e n i n the classroom; and b) new t r a i n i n g approaches and techniques f o r the p r e p a r a t i o n of a u x i l i a r y personnel. 2. Since the perceptions and a b i l i t i e s of aides and of teachers are major determinants i n the success of any program of aide u t i l i z a t i o n , great care must be e x e r c i s e d i n the s e l e c t i o n p rocess. 3. Some type of i n d i v i d u a l o b s e r v a t i o n and e v a l u a t i o n with opportunity for feedback and d i s c u s s i o n of s p e c i f i c cases holds grest promise f o r improvement of u t i l i z a t i o n of a u x i l i a r y p e r s o n n e l . 4. Continuous, i n t e n s i v e i n s e r v i c e education for a l l school personnel i s e s s e n t i a l , with the l e a d e r s h i p f o r such education r e s i d i n g i n persons not d i r e c t l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the school program. 5. Released time f o r planning by teachers and a u x i l i a r i e s should be i n c l u d e d i n the school schedule each day. (Klopf et a l . , 1969, p.135) 58 Even though the p a r a p r o f e s s i o n a l s i n Kentucky spent about one quarter of t h e i r time checking t e s t s and homework, t y p i n g , d u p l i c a t i n g , and preparing d i s p l a y s , the aides were qu i t e happy with t h e i r assignments. They spent l i t t l e time i n t e r a c t i n g with students but the aides saw that because of t h e i r work the teachers had more time to spend with i n d i v i d u a l students. P r o c e s s - o b s e r v e r s ' records of time u t i l i z a t i o n of aides showed greater time a l l o c a t i o n to c l e r i c a l and m o n i t o r i a l d u t i e s than the aides reported themselves, but few aides f e l t they were i n e f f e c t i v e or po o r l y u t i l i z e d (Dady i n Klopf et a l . , 1969, p.126). A f i v e year study i n twenty-five Michigan schools done f o r the U.S. Department of Health, Education and Welfare i n 1967 r e v e a l e d these changes i n teachers' jobs a f t e r aides were i n t r o d u c e d . Time was reduced doing these tasks: 1. C o r r e c t i n g papers 89% 2. E n f o r c i n g d i s c i p l i n e 36% 3. Taking attendance 76% 4. Preparing r e p o r t s 25% 5. S u p e r v i s i n g c h i l d r e n moving between c l a s s e s . 6 1 % 6. Monitoring w r i t t e n lessons 83% The extra time thus made a v a i l a b l e was used by teachers to i n c r e a s e the time they spent on the f o l l o w i n g tasks: 1. Lesson p r e p a r a t i o n 105% 2. Hearing p u p i l r e c i t a t i o n s 57% 3. P r e p a r a t i o n of homework assignments 20% 4. I n d i v i d u a l coaching 27% (Cheuvront, 1968 quoted S t a f f i n g f o r Better Schools 1967, Bri g h t o n , 1972 quoted U.S. News and World Report, 1956) The 1970 survey by the N a t i o n a l Education A s s o c i a t i o n of the United States c l a s s i f i e d the a s s i s t a n c e provided by p a r a p r o f e s s i o n a l s i n schools t h u s l y : 59 S e c r e t a r i a l a s s i s t a n c e 72.2% A s s i s t a n c e with lunch duty 45.8% A s s i s t a n c e with papers with o b j e c t i v e answers 40.3% A s s i s t a n c e with playground duty 35.6% A s s i s t a n c e with small group i n s t r u c t i o n 26.9% P r e p a r a t i o n of i n s t r u c t i o n a l resources 26.9% A s s i s t a n c e with i n d i v i d u a l i z e d i n s t r u e t i o n . . . 2 5 . 7 % Use of i n s t r u c t i o n a l resources 20.4% A s s i s t a n c e with bus duty 15.5% A s s i s t a n c e with grading essay-type papers 5.6% Other 5.8% ( O r n s t e i n et a l . , 1975, p . v i i i ) The Berkeley study found the use of aide i n i n t e r a c t i v e tasks with students rose to an average of t h i r t y - s e v e n percent of c l a s s time at the end of the year. Teaching s t y l e s of teachers a f f e c t e d the amount of i n t e r a c t i o n between aides and students. "Group-focused teachers" used aides more e f f e c t i v e l y than " i n s t r u c t i o n - f o c u s e d t e a c h e r s " . The use of aides evolved "a modus operandi through experimentation, a n a l y s i s , feedback and j o i n t planning by each t e a c h e r - a u x i l i a r y team" (Openshaw, Joy and G i l b e r t i n Klopf et a l . , 1969 , p.133-4). Two f i n a l reminders about the process of i n t r o d u c i n g teacher aides i n t o schools are presented from the w r i t e r s i n the l a t e s i x t i e s . In t h e i r report of the D e t r o i t P u b l i c Schools program for one hundred s i x t y - f i v e a u x i l i a r y personnel i n 1967, Alexander and S e l i c k o f f e r e d t h i s a n a l y s i s f o r the reason teachers do not change: The d a i l y demands of t h e i r jobs -emotional and p h y s i c a l - and the frequency with which these demands occur, often prevent teachers from doing much beyond s u r v i v i n g . Improvement i n the teaching of p u p i l s , the only improvement that has any r e a l value i n the whole business of education, w i l l not come u n t i l the teacher's r o l e has been made 60 manageable. The use of a u x i l i a r y personnel promises to be as e x c e l l e n t opportunity to make that r o l e more manageable. ( K l o p f , 1969, p.136) Wright reminds schools and aides that the "One important e v a l u a t i o n c r i t e r i o n i s always the request f o r more of the same by parents and students." (Wright, 1969, p.19). T r a i n i n g Programs f o r Indian Teacher Aides Background The t r a i n i n g programs for Native Indian teacher aides i n Indian schools i n the U.S.A. were part of the Head S t a r t programs and p a r a l l e l e d the New Careers f o r the Poor programs plus the move f o r Indian c o n t r o l of Indian education. Federal money was a v a i l a b l e f o r both the schools and the t r a i n i n g programs (Thompson, 1978). The demonstration school at Rough Rock pioneered the use of Indian aides ( P l a t e r o , 1978). The u n i v e r s i t i e s i n A r i z o n a became i n v o l v e d In developing and improving t r a i n i n g programs (Steere et a l . , 1965, Bureau of Indian A f f a i r s , 1970, P r a t t and Ramey, 1974). McLean did not f i n d a d e s c r i p t i o n of any t r a i n i n g programs for Canadian Indian teacher aides when she did A Review of Indian Education i n North America (1973). She e x p l a i n e d her study of programs designed f o r Indians between 1966-1971 was hindered by the lack of documentation of Canadian programs. The need for t r a i n i n g f o r Indian teacher aides was f i r s t 61 o f f i c i a l l y recognized i n Canada i n a speech by the M i n i s t e r of Indian A f f a i r s , Jean Chetian, to p r o v i n c i a l m i n i s t e r s of educat i o n i n 1972. The progress i n e s t a b l i s h i n g Indian teacher aide t r a i n i n g programs i n Canada was assessed by King i n 1975 : Some t e n t a t i v e i s o l a t e d t r a i n i n g e f f o r t s have been made by h o l d i n g s p e c i a l "workshops" or developing l i m i t e d u n i v e r s i t y summer p r o j e c t s for teacher a i d e s . ... But nothing i n the way of i d e n t i f y i n g s p e c i f i c t r a i n i n g programs or e s t a b l i s h i n g j o b - e n t r y or advancement c r i t e r i a has yet been attempted. (King, 1975 ,p.24) The d e s i r e to keep (or to change) the status quo i n the school system r a t h e r than a d e s i r e to u t i l i z e the unique value of the use of Indian teacher aides i n classrooms were the m o t i v a t i o n f o r two suggested l o c a l e s f o r t r a i n i n g programs, i . e . at community c o l l e g e s or, a l t e r n a t e l y , as part of the teacher t r a i n i n g process at e s t a b l i s h e d u n i v e r s i t i e s (King, 1975). The 1972 programs by the Cariboo College In L i l l o o e t and by the Department of Indian A f f a i r s and Northern Development i n O n t a r i o were the e a r l i e s t Canadian t r a i n i n g programs r e f e r r e d to i n the l i t e r a t u r e l o c a t e d f o r t h i s s t u d y . ( P l a t e r , 1973, Haig Brown, 1976). As w e l l , documents from t r a i n i n g programs f o r Indian teacher aides i n B r i t i s h Columbia, the Northwest T e r r i t o r i e s , and the Yukon were examined (Cornwell, 1978, More, 1978, 1979, 1980, 1982, More and Ashworth, 1980, 1982, Noble, 1980, Northwest T e r r i t o r i e s Department of Edu c a t i o n , 1978, Yukon Native Brotherhood, 1979). Assessments of the t r a i n i n g programs and the use of teacher aides were 62 a l s o reviewed (King, 1975, More, 1982, Noble, 1980). Community Involvement In t h i s s e c t i o n the involvement of the community in d i s c u s s i o n s f o r planning new programs, i n c l u d i n g the i n t r o d u c t i o n and t r a i n i n g of teacher aides w i l l be d i s c u s s e d . The program developers from the U n i v e r s i t y of Arizona and the Center f o f Applied L i n q u i s t i c s i n A r l i n t o n , V i r g i n i a , met with community l e a d e r s , school personnel and students to r e c e i v e guidance to enable them to determine c u l t u r a l content, academic content and d i r e c t i o n before designing t r a i n i n g programs for teacher a i d e s . Most of the programs developed i n Canada do not seem to recognize i n t h e i r o r g a n i z a t i o n such a need fo r wide community involvement once the program i s conceived and f i n a n c e d . The planning, implementation and o p e r a t i o n of Indian teacher aide t r a i n i n g programs i n Canada seem to be given over more completely to post secondary i n s t i t u t i o n s or education o f f i c e r s than i n the United S t a t e s . The Center f o r A p p l i e d L i n g u i s t i c s ' s Handbook (1976) made some key p o i n t s i n t h e i r plans for developing a t r a i n i n g program: 1) that a needs survey of school personnel, students and community members should be used to i d e n t i f y the areas i n need of development; 2) o b j e c t i v e s f o r the workshop(s) should be c l e a r l y s t a t e d by the planning committee; and 3) the o b j e c t i v e s should r e f l e c t the p r i o r i t i e s of the community and 63 school s t a f f . The p a r t i c i p a n t s must know what i s expected of them and what they can expect from the program. Their recommendations a p p l i e d not only to the summer workshop programs that the Center for Applied L i n q u i s t i c s conducted f o r i n d i v i d u a l groups i n the southern U.S.A. and for the combined teacher and teacher aides f o r s e v e r a l d i f f e r e n t Indian l i n q u i s t i c groups, but f o r a l l teacher aide t r a i n i n g programs. U n f o r t u n a t e l y l a t e r programs seem to downplay the need to i n v o l v e community people and school personnel and students i n the planning stages. In B r i t i s h Columbia, both teachers and a d m i n i s t r a t o r s have had input i n t o the design and op e r a t i o n of programs, though not u s u a l l y at the i n i t i a l stages and not i n any exte n s i v e way. In Williams Lake, the Co-ordinator of the Native Indian Teaching A s s i s t a n t Program at Williams Lake, replanned a workshop i n order to address some of the r o l e problems that had a r i s e n . The teachers and teaching a s s i s t a n t s formed eight groups i n the meeting to address the problems. A s p e c i f i c problem s o l v i n g format was used i n the workshop " i n which the g o a l , the f a c i l i t a t i n g f o r c e s , the r e s t r a i n i n g f o r c e s and e v e n t u a l l y the s o l u t i o n ( s ) were i d e n t i f i e d . " (Haig-Brown, 1976, unnumbered). Problems discussed" were: (1) communication between (a)the teacher and teaching a s s i s t a n t and (b)the teacher, the teaching a s s i s t a n t , and the community; and (2) the r o l e of the teaching a s s i s t a n t i n the s c h o o l . The need to form strong teams made up of the teacher and 64 teacher a s s o c i a t e was recognized i n Cornwell's proposal f o r the Teacher A s s o c i a t e T r a i n i n g Program at the College of New Caledonia i n P r i n c e George, B r i t i s h Columbia. However, p r a c t i c a l a p p l i c a t i o n s of these concerns were d i f f i c u l t as the aides i n that program were working without t r a i n i n g i n the schools which were r u r a l , i s o l a t e d , m u l t i - g r a d e , one to four classroom s c h o o l s . Because the schools were so widely d i s p e r s e d , the communication between the program planners and i n s t r u c t o r s was sparse. Only one of four surrounding school d i s t r i c t s employed Native teacher aides or Native Language I n s t r u c t o r s , and the other three "were not p a r t i c u l a r l y i n t e r e s t e d i n the program" for t r a i n i n g Indian teacher a s s o c i a t e s . Community involvement i n the program was t h e r e f o r e minimal (Cornwell, 1978, Noble, 1980, 1982). In the Northwest T e r r i t o r i e s , the problem of distance i n r e s t r i c t i n g community input was addressed i n a d i f f e r e n t manner. I n i t i a l l y , teachers had been r e s p o n s i b l e for developing t h e i r own t r a i n i n g program for t h e i r Native Indian a i d e s . Rather than continue t r a i n i n g i n t h i s very l o c a l form, a r e g i o n a l consensus was sought. In 1977 a workshop was held i n Y e l l o w k n i f e i n which "Classroom A s s i s t a n t s and Teachers/Teacher C o n s u l t a n t s " met "to i d e n t i f y s p e c i f i c s k i l l s demonstrated by e f f e c t i v e Classroom A s s i s t a n t s " i n the t e r r i t o r y s c h o o l s . It was a "grass r o o t s " e x e r c i s e without " d i r e c t input from the headquarters s t a f f of the Department of E ducation" (Northwest T e r r i t o r i e s Department of Education, 65 1978, p.4). At l a t e r workshops manuals d e l i n e a t i n g competencies, designated a c t i v i t e s and performance o b j e c t i v e s were w r i t t e n . The performance o b j e c t i v e s were based on p a r t i c u l a r community languages, geography, and c u l t u r e . These manuals now form the core of the t r a i n i n g program, removing areas of u n c e r t a i n t y about what should c o n s t i t u t e t r a i n i n g and what standards of competency should be rewarded with a higher c e r t i f i c a t e and more pay. (A copy of a t r a i n i n g p r o f i l e and an example set of o b j e c t i v e s , a c t i v i t i e s and e v a l u a t i o n are i n c l u d e d i n Appendices H and I.) The extent of community and school involvement i n most of the t r a i n i n g programs has been r e s t r i c t e d to e l e c t e d s chool board members, a d m i n i s t r a t o r s , and r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s from Indian Band Education Committees. Consultants from c o l l e g e s or u n i v e r s i t i e s have designed the programs a f t e r c o n s u l t i n g with these people. The c o n s u l t a n t s were able to a d j u s t scheduled p r e s e n t a t i o n of u n i t s to conform with l o c a l needs but the degree of " l o c a l i z a t i o n " of content was dependent on the preknowle'dge the i n d i v i d u a l i n s t r u c t o r s of workshop sessions had of the communities. This knowledge was r e s t r i c t e d because few i n s t r u c t o r s v i s i t e d a community more than once or twice during a t r a i n i n g program (More, 1979, 1981, 1982, Yukon Native Brotherhood, 1979). T h i s problem of i n s t r u c t o r s ' u n f a m i l i a r i t y with l o c a l c o n d i t i o n s was avoided i n the t r a i n i n g program i n L i l l o o e t and Williams Lake. There, extensive use of school d i s t r i c t r esource people and respected teachers as i n s t r u c t o r s was 66 made ( P l a t e r , 1973, Haig-Brown, 1976, 1983). The p o l i t i c s of change have been ignored i n t h i s recent attempt at e f f e c t i n g some improvement i n s c h o o l i n g for Indian students. The usual wooing of e s t a b l i s h e d power groups has not been attempted by the Indian community. This time the omission may be i n t e n t i o n a l . The Native Indian people are q u i t e accustomed to having v e r b a l acquiescence followed by non-action to many of t h e i r requests, formal agreement but s u r p r i s i n g p r a c t i c e s i n the past. They do not t r u s t the good i n t e n t i o n s of people who,in the past, have had amazing i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of land and f i s h i n g t r e a t i e s , education and employment p o l i c i e s , and s o c i a l s e r v i c e s ( F r i d e r e s , 1983). In the time of the r e p a t r i a t i o n of the C o n s t i t u i o n of Canada of Canada i n 1982, the Native Indians were on guard. They paid f o r , organized, and maneuvered teacher aides into schools without g a i n i n g the support of the m a j o r i t y of community members nor school personnel. The reasons f o r t h i s strong a c t i o n are explianed by Carney (1982). In h i s d i s c u s s i o n of adult education p r o j e c t s i n Canada, he define s "Native-European interdependence" as "the degree to which ' a b o r i g i n a l s o v r e i g n t y and s t r e n g t h ' has been maintained i n the two way process of a c c u l t u r a t i o n . " (p.8) Carney expands four i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of that "Native-European Interdependence": (1) a r e l a t i o n s h i p of mutual b e n e f i t ( i d e n t i f i e d as a s h o r t - l i v e d p e r i o d f o l l o w i n g c o n t a c t ) , (2) a time of v i c t i m i z a t i o n (Carney warns t h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n ignores the r e s i s t a n c e s t r a t a g i e s and innate 67 strengths of Native communities; i t can lead to r a d i c a l i z a t i o n or , as undesirable, rescue stategies). More at t r a c t i v e are two other interpretations (3) factors of mutual understanding and common effort such as i d e n t i f i e d in Dion's My Tribe The Crees and Manuel's The Fourth World. This third interpretation is described as one which is aiding communication between Natives and Europeans. Six factors which characterize successful adult education programs for Natives are: (1) they were established by the people in the community and are managed and controlled at the l o c a l level;(2) each program is seen as a long-term venture, not a quick f i x solution to 'a problem' ; (3) each program is located in a native community where i t takes on a community i d e n t i f i c a t i o n and where i t has access to community support; (4) each program is seen as being part of other community a c t i v i t i e s and programs; (5) native people play dominant managerial roles in such programs, resource people from outside the community are called in to provide expertise on a short-term basis; and (6) the programs are seen as a means to individual s e l f - f u l f i l l m e n t not simply as avenues to employment. (Carney, 1982, p.9) 4) adult education "as part of an overall mutually agreed upon stategy" that w i l l not solve a l l problems as exemplified in writings by Snow, Bellerose, Cardinal, or Steinhauer. Three warnings are given to adult educators: a) i t is not true that any teacher is better than none, b) Disassociate yourself with programs designed by government agencies in response to a c r i s i s , and c) Recognize and beware of situations where the a c t i v i t i e s , even i f mutually agreed upon, may disrupt community goals. Carney asserted that in order to develop effective programs i t was necessary to 68 r e f l e c t on those of the past and hear the people of the community i n t h e i r present (Carney, 1982). These words to adu l t educators are cogent. What must be remembered by the Indian community i s that the school personnel are a l s o members of the community, and as members, they must be a c t i v e l y i n v o l v e d i n planning and implementing change. Goodlad warned that "most e f f o r t s to improve schools founder on r e e f s of ignorance... of the ways schools f u n c t i o n i n general and ignorance of the inner workings of s e l e c t e d schools i n p a r t i c u l a r " (Wiggins, 1983). U n f o r t u n a t e l y , the d e s i g n e r s and d i r e c t o r s of many Indian Teacher Aide programs have ignored the ways schools f u n c t i o n and those inner workings of s p e c i f i c schools as they t r i e d to improve what has been judged poor education experience f o r Native Indian s t u d e n t s . These i n t e r n a l f a c t o r s or f a c t i o n s i n the e d u c a t i o n a l establishment can not be ignored, defeated nor o v e r r u l e d . They must be induced to j o i n the i n n o v a t i n g team. Purposes and O b j e c t i v e s of Programs This s e c t i o n deals with the purposes and o b j e c t i v e s to be found i n many of the Indian teacher aide programs. Those purposes and o b j e c t i v e s s t a t e d f o r American programs w i l l be d i s c u s s e d f i r s t , followed by the purposes and o b j e c t i v e s of the Canadian programs. The s i m i l a r i t y of purposes and o b j e c t i v e s , i n s p i t e of d i f f e r e n c e s i n names given to Indian p a r a p r o f e s s i o n a l s w i l l be shown. The two main purposes for 69 the programs - to provide a " c u l t u r e broker" and to enhance the l e a r n i n g s by Indian students - r e c e i v e d i f f e r e n t weightings i n the various t r a i n i n g programs. The Indian Teacher-Aide Handbook (Steere et a l . , 1965) was publi s h e d f o l l o w i n g the development of a program to t r a i n Navajo Teacher Aides f o r kindergartens on r e s e r v e s . The o b j e c t i v e s of that program were: 1. To provide pre-school education and i n s t r u c t i o n f o r the t e a c h e r - a i d e . 2. To e s t a b l i s h the foundation f o r e f f e c t i v e working r e l a t i o n s h i p s between the teacher and teache r - a i d e . 3. To provide the i n f o r m a t i o n about Indian c u l t u r e necessary to understand the Indian c h i l d . 4. To a s s i s t the teacher-aides i n understanding the value and purpose of education. 5. To develop the teacher-aides i n t o v i t a l f o r ces who can make education understandable to the people i n t h e i r l o c a l communities. (Steere et a l . , 1965, p.3) These o b j e c t i v e s were adopted by the l a t e r programs for Navajo teacher aides which were conducted i n 1970, and 1974 (B.I.A.,1970, P r a t t and Ramey, 1974). The Choctaw B i l i n g u a l Education Program i n Oklahoma was based on the idea that Choctaw c h i l d r e n must recognize the f a c t that they and t h e i r people l i v e i n a world of two languages and two c u l t u r e s ( L i t t l e j o h n , 1971). The teachers and teacher aides were made aware of aspects of the E n g l i s h language that are absent i n the Choctaw language to help them re c o g n i z e and accept c u l t u r e d i f f e r e n c e s . The school s t a f f was encouraged to be more f l e x i b l e about c u l t u r a l l y c o n t r o l l e d behaviors. Both c u l t u r e s were given r e c o g n i t i o n as v a l i d l i f e s t y l e s . 70 In the d i s c u s s i o n of o b j e c t i v e s w r i t t e n for the Cariboo C o l l e g e program, the use of Indian teacher aides i s expected j "to enhance the s e l f respect and f e e l i n g of s e l f - w o r t h among Indian people by g e t t i n g them to recognize they CAN p a r t i c i p a t e i n the education progress and have a valuable and unique c o n t r i b u t i o n to make.", to be a r o l e model for students, and "to a s s i s t i n developing a p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e towards d i f f e r e n t c u l t u r a l values and beha v i o r s " (Haig-Brown, 1976, unnumbered). O b j e c t i v e s f o r the on-going teacher a s s i s t a n t t r a i n i n g program i n Williams Lake School D i s t r i c t were recorded as being i d e n t i c a l to those of the 1972 program i n L i l l o o e t conducted by the Cariboo C o l l e g e . They were: The primary o b j e c t i v e of the program i s to provide t r a i n i n g f o r Indian teacher a s s i s t a n t s would be employed i n classrooms where there are s i g n i f i c a n t numbers of Indian c h i l d r e n , to a s s i s t teachers and the p u p i l s . (Haig-Brown, 1976, unnumbered) S p e c i f i c o b j e c t i v e s were: -To provide a ' c u l t u r a l b r i d g e ' between the Indian and white c u l t u r e s . -To provide an opportunity for the Indian people to appear before the white s o c i e t y i n a r o l e of p o s i t i v e and c o n s t r u c t i v e l e a d e r s h i p . -To e x p l a i n the "home" to the " s c h o o l " and the " s c h o o l " to the "home". -To provide access to the homes i n order to secure support f o r the school program. -To provide as "acceptance" of the nativ e c u l t u r e . -To provide younger Indian people with s a t i s f y i n g employment o p p o r t u n i t i e s which u t i l i z e t h e i r e d ucation and b i c u l t u r a l background. -To provide an example f o r the community of the two c u l t u r e s working i n clo s e c o - o p e r a t i o n . " (Haig-Brown, 1976, unnumbered) The o b j e c t i v e s of the Northwest T e r r i t o r i e s program were : 71 1. To implement a comprehensive t r a i n e e program i n s k i l l and r e l a t e d areas. 2. To u t i l i z e the t r a i n e e ' s progress record as a method of c e r t i f i c a t i o n . 3. To encourage competent, e f f e c t i v e Classroom A s s i s t a n t s to pursue a career i n tea c h i n g . 4. To allow, where a p p r o p r i a t e , for the Classroom A s s i s t a n t t r a i n i n g program to be d e l i v e r e d , e i t h e r i n part or as a whole, i n a native language e.g.INUKITUT. There i s nothing i n t h i s program that would prevent t h i s o b j e c t i v e from being achieved. (Northwest T e r r i t o r i e s Department of Education, 1978, p.2) The o b j e c t i v e of d e l i v e r y of the program i n a Native language i s a f i r s t , perhaps because the north i s one of the few areas where Native language f l u e n c y i s common i n younger members of the communities. Other programs have as goals the in c r e a s e i n f l u e n c y i n Native languages by the aides ( L i t t l e j o h n , 1971, Haig-Brown, 1976, More, 1979, Handley et a l . , 1980). The P a r a p r o f e s s i o n a l Program f o r Remedial Tutors i n Yukon Schools i s the most r e s t r i c t i v e i n i t s t i t l e . However of r o l e e x p e c t a t i o n s , a t t r i b u t e s d e s i r a b l e l i s t of s k i l l s to be developed, the t u t o r the teacher aide or teaching a s s i s t a n t . i n the d e s c r i p t i o n i n candidates and c l o s e l y resembles Under the heading of Program O b j e c t i v e s these major goals are l i s t e d : 1. To i n v o l v e l o c a l people i n the e d u c a t i o n a l process i n t h e i r own community. 2. To upgrade the s k i l l s of the present t u t o r s from a personal and p r o f e s s i o n a l point of view. 3. To provide an avenue by which p a r a p r o f e s s i o n a l s may enter, at some l a t e r date, the f i e l d of p r o f e s s i o n a l teacher education. 4. To provide the t u t o r with knowledge and s k i l l s to make her/him an e f f e c t i v e a s s i s t a n t to the classroom teacher. 5. To develop t u t o r s k i l l s i n a i d i n g communication between the school and community e s p e c i a l l y making the teacher aware of var i o u s community 72 r e s o u r c e s . 6. To provide the tutor with s k i l l s which w i l l be of b e n e f i t not only to the school but to the community at large.(Yukon Native Brotherhood, 1979, p.1,2) Some of the t r a i n i n g programs a s p i r e to making the aide a " c u l t u r e broker" (Wyatt, 1978) but others concentrate on more school-based needs of a teacher a s s i s t a n t , Indian or non-Indian. It i s sometimes assumed that the presence of an Indian adult i n a classroom w i l l add some Indian c u l t u r e to the c u r r i c u l u m or i n a m u l t i - c u l t u r a l mileau, a m i n o r i t y r e p r e s e n t a t i v e w i l l make the c u r r i c u l u m more m u l t i - c u l t u r a l . King i d e n t i f i e d the purpose of the use of the Indian teacher aides i n schools as being to enhance the "communication p o t e n t i a l between the Native c h i l d r e n and the r e s t of the s c h o o l " and as "some kind of increased "involvement" of the Native community i n school a f f a i r s " (King, 1975, p.23). P r e r e q u i s i t e s The entry requirements to Indian teacher aide t r a i n i n g programs are reviewed i n t h i s s e c t i o n . There have not been formal e d u c a t i o n a l requirements f o r candidates f o r t r a i n i n g programs f o r Indian teacher a s s i s t a n t s i n Canada. In the United S t a t e s , a few programs that were part of a p r o f e s s i o n a l t r a i n i n g program required high school graduation c e r t i f i c a t e . For those programs with emphasis on Indian language teaching, f l u e n c y i n the l o c a l language has been a p r e r e q u i s i t e . G e n e r a l l y teacher a s s i s t a n t 73 t r a i n e e s have been parents who wish to work with the c h i l d r e n of t h e i r community in the s c h o o l s . In Williams Lake there has been a trend towards young high school graduates becoming teacher a s s i s t a n t s (Haig Brown, 1982). Goals f o r Program Trainees I n i t i a l l y the goal f o r the t r a i n i n g programs was simply to place Native a u x i l i a r y personnel i n the schools who had an understanding of the c h i l d r e n ' s c u l t u r e (Steere,1965, Reeves et a l . , 1978, King, 1975, Haig-Brown, 1976). Later the programs were e n v i s i o n e d as a step i n a career ladder,encouraging and enabling Indian teacher aides to go on to p r o f e s s i o n a l a c c e d i t a t i o n as teachers (Northwest T e r r i t o r i e s Department of Education, 1978, Yukon Native Brotherhood, 1979, More, 1980, 1982, Kuskokwith Community C o l l e g e , 1980). I n s e r v i c e Content In t h i s s e c t i o n the t o p i c s of i n s e r v i c e workshops are l i s t e d to enable comparisons to be made with other Indian teacher aide t r a i n i n g programs and the teacher aide t r a i n i n g programs i n the United States i n the s i x t i e s . There i s a n o t i c e a b l e s i m i l a r i t y i n programs both to each other and to t y p i c a l teacher t r a i n i n g programs but there are unique o f f e r i n g s i n some programs. 74 In the e a r l i e s t d e t a i l e d record of a t r a i n i n g program f o r Indian teacher aides (Steere et a l . , 1965), the aides went to the campus of Arizona State U n i v e r s i t y for eight weeks. A demonstration classroom i n the Laboratory School was conducted with Indian preschool c h i l d r e n from a neighboring r e s e r v a t i o n . The areas of i n s t r u c t i o n i n c l u d e d : 1. Primary and pre-school education 2. C h i l d Development 3. E n g l i s h 4. Community i n the school 5. Indian education and Indian values 6. C r e a t i v e A c t i v i t i e s 7. D i r e c t e d teaching 8. Teacher and teacher-aides r e l a t i o n s h i p , and 9. A u d i o - v i s u a l and communications techniques. (Steere et a l . , 1965, p.4) Subsequent programs f o r the Navajo people brought both the teachers and the teacher aides together f o r summer workshops. The aides were t r a i n e d to work throughout the s c h o o l , not j u s t i n k i n d e r g a r t e n . Some c u l t u r a l a d d i t i o n s were made to the c u r r i c u l u m i n 1970. Navajo games as w e l l as "White" games were added to the a i d e s ' and teachers' r e p e r t o i r e , grass weaving was introduced and the importance of experience s t o r i e s i n l e a r n i n g E n g l i s h was emphasized more s t r o n g l y . (Bureau of Indian A f f a i r s , 1970). The Choctaw B i l i n g u a l Education Program focused on language a c q u i s i t i o n . It provided c l a s s e s i n teaching E n g l i s h and Choctaw. Drama, r o l e p l a y s , and making books were some language teaching techniques s t u d i e d . Values C l a r i f i c a t i o n was used to help define d i f f e r e n c e s i n c u l t u r e s and to b u i l d a p p r e c i a t i o n of the two c u l t u r e s i n which the Choctaw c h i l d had to l i v e ( L i t t l e j o h n , 1971). 75 The Center f o r Applied L i n q u i s t i c s conducted summer workshops for a s i n g l e language group, the Choctaw B i l i n g u a l I n s t i t u t e . A l a r g e r group of workshops was coordinated by the U n i v e r s i t y of Utah which t r a i n e d teachers and teacher aides working i n Navajo, Choctaw, Papago, Cherokee, and Acoma schools i n 1975. A summer workshop could focus on one or more of these s i x areas: •development of E n g l i s h language s k i l l s •development of Native language s k i l l s . t r a i n i n g i n b a s i c l i n q u i s t i c concepts • t r a i n i n g i n teaching methods . t r a i n i n g i n c u r r i c u l u m development .Increase awareness of community t r a d i t i o n s and ways they can be i n t e g r a t e d i n t o the c u r r i c u l u m . (Center f o r Applied L i n q u i s t i c s , 1976, p.2) The Center recommended four t e e n enrichment areas as w e l l as the s i x major content areas needed i n Native education. One of the enrichment areas was, of course, Native Arts and C r a f t s . However i t was recommended that the production of pots and baskets be used as a b a s i s for mathematics or s o c i a l and science i n s t r u c t i o n r a t h e r than the usual a r t or r e c r e a t i o n c u r r i c u l a . This was an ingenious i n f u s i o n of Indian c u l t u r e to main c u r r i c u l a areas u s u a l l y ignored by those t r y i n g to make c u r r i c u l u m r e l e v a n t to students i n c r o s s - c u l t u r a l classrooms. A second a d d i t i o n to the usual t o p i c s was that of p u b l i c speaking. The problem of the d i f f e r e n c e between the c r i t e r i a of an e f f e c t i v e speaker i n the community t r a d i t i o n and that of E n g l i s h s t y l e was r e c o g n i z e d . The dilema of the development of s t y l e by future Indian leaders was "that Native p r a c t i c e i s not subjected to undue c r i t i c i s m , and the p a r t i c i p a n t s are not forced to 76 r e j e c t the r e q u i s i t e E n g l i s h s t y l e s because of those d i f f e r e n c e s " (Center f o r A p p l i e d L i n q u i s t i c s , 1976, p.25). This a t t e n t i o n to d i f f e r e n t speaking s t y l e s was studied by Mowhatt (c.1976) with the aim of f i t t i n g teaching s t y l e to Odawan c u l t u r e . Perhaps there i s a need to develop both s t y l e s f o r d i f f e r e n t audiences as i s attempted by the Choctaw program ( L i t t l e j o h n , 1971). There are two A s s o c i a t e Programs o f f e r e d by the Kuskokwim Community College i n A l a s k a . The f i r s t i s geared f o r I n s t r u c t i o n a l a i d e s . This the two year program leads to an A s s o c i a t e of Arts degree. T h i r t y course c r e d i t s are r e q u i r e d i n General Arts (Math, E n g l i s h , H i s t o r y , Psychology, Science) and f u r t h e r u n i t s must be taken i n : O r i e n t a t i o n to Education (Math, Reading and Language Arts A c t i v i t i e s i n the Classroom), Methods for Teaching a Second Language and C h i l d Development. Two e l e c t i v e s may be chosen from A r t , Music and P h y s i c a l Education A c t i v i t i e s , and/or Audio V i s u a l Methods and O r a l and W r i t t e n L i t e r a t u r e i n the C r o s s - C u l t u r a l Classroom. A practicum completes the program. The second program leads to an A s s o c i a t e of Arts Degree i n B i l i n g u a l B i c u l t u r a l E d u c a t i o n . Course work i n c l u d e s : W ritten Communications, Oral Communications, Psychology, C u l t u r a l H e r i t a g e , Teaching Mathematics, Teaching Language A r t s , Teaching Reading, C h i l d Development, Alaska Native Studies, Alaska Native Language and L i n q u i s t i c s , N a t u r a l Science/Math Requirements, O r i e n t a t i o n to Education, I n t r o d u c t i o n to B i l i n g u a l E d u cation, Methods of Second Language Teaching, and 77 Methods & M a t e r i a l s i n B i l i n g u a l Education (Kuskokwim Community C o l l e g e , 1980). The Cariboo College course i n L i l l o o e t i n cluded u n i t s c o v e r i n g a u d i o - v i s u a l equipment o p e r a t i o n and maintenance, contents and methods i n c u r r i c u l a areas, Teaching E n g l i s h as a Second Language, l i b r a r y o p e r a t i o n and s k i l l s , Indian C u l t u r e , c h i l d development and l o c a l c u l t u r e . The program designed i n Williams Lake added Philosophy, the Code of E t h i c s , and Tests as u n i t s of study. L o c a l c u l t u r e i n W i l l i a m s Lake i n c l u d e d three language programs, C a r r i e r , C h i l c o t i n and Shuswap, as w e l l as s t o r y - t e l l i n g , drama, dance (Haig-Brown, 1976). The Teacher A s s o c i a t e T r a i n i n g Program at Prince George at the College of New Caledonia, c o n s i s t e d of modules or seminars. Topics i n c l u d e d the usual a u d i o - v i s u a l techniques, c h i l d development, classroom management, r o l e of the a s s o c i a t e ( a i d e ) , and l e s s o n p l a n n i n g . Added were "key v o c a b u l a r y " as a method of beginning reading, p r e p a r a t i o n of l o c a l m a t e r i a l s and t h e i r i n t e g r a t i o n i n t o the classroom, Native language i n s t r u c t i o n , and l e a r n i n g d i s a b i l i t i e s (my emphasis) (Corn w e l l , 1978, Noble, 1979, 1980). The P a r a p r o f e s s i o n a l Program for Remedial Tutors i n Yukon Schools, o f f e r e d from January to June i n 1980 c o n s i s t e d of c l a s s e s that covered the t o p i c s : C h i l d Development, Audio and Video S k i l l s , Classroom Management, S u p e r v i s i o n , I n t e r p e r s o n a l S k i l l s , School and S o c i e t y , Cross C u l t u r a l E d u c a t i o n and T u t o r i a l S k i l l s i n Language Arts and 78 Mathematics. A u n i t e n t i t l e d Resource Development with C h i l d r e n i s unique to t h i s program. This program was intended to be a prepatory year, the p a r a p r o f e s s i o n a l year, i n a four year Yukon Teacher Education Program, at the end of which a Bachelor of Education (Elementary) could be awarded (Yukon Native Brotherhood, 1979). The Northwest T e r r i t o r i e s ' Classroom A s s i s t a n t s T r a i n i n g programs are competency-based systems developed i n Y e l l o w k n i f e i n 1977 by t e r r i t o r y teachers and classroom a s s i s t a n t s . The workshop p a r t i c i p a n t s i d e n t i f i e d " c l u s t e r s of knowledge, judgements and s k i l l s " necessary f o r e f f e c t i v e classroom a s s i s t a n t s i n t h e i r area. The r e s u l t i n g Classroom A s s i s t a n t P r o f i l e was p r i n t e d i n the form of a chart with the s k i l l s or competencies arranged i n h o r i z o n t a l bands (see Appendix H). Each band i s sequenced i n order of p r i o r i t y as determined by the people i n the program. Performance o b j e c t i v e s and l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t i e s as w e l l as standards of performance for each competency were w r i t t e n at l a t e r workshops and form the t r a i n i n g manuals f o r each c e r t i f i c a t e : E astern A r c t i c C e r t i f i c a t e , E astern A r c t i c Diploma, Western A r c t i c C e r t i f i c a t e , and Western A r c t i c Diploma. There are two programs as the E a s t e r n and Western areas i d e n t i f i e d s l i g h t l y d i f f e r e n t r e q u i r e d competencies (Northwest T e r r i t o r i e s Department of Education, 1978). The workshops conducted i n B e l l a B e l l a and i n the Nisgha School D i s t r i c t were s i m i l a r . Units on Classroom Management, S e l f - c o n c e p t Development, C h i l d Development, Language A r t s , 79 the Role of the Teacher Aide, Communication S k i l l s and A s s e r t i v e n e s s T r a i n i n g were given i n 1979. The program i n B e l l a B e l l a was completed with u n i t s on Lesson P l a n n i n g , P r a c t i c a l A u d i o - v i s u a l Use, M e t r i c a t i o n , Art Education, School Philosophy and E d u c a t i o n a l Jargon. The l a s t t o p i c was added i n response to requests from the t r a i n e e a s s i s t a n t s (More, 1982). The Nisgha Teacher Aides were almost a l l Nisgha language teachers and t h e i r program accommodated t h e i r needs. As w e l l as the common u n i t s of Classroom Management, S e l f - c o n c e p t , Communications, C h i l d Development, and Lesson P l a n n i n g , there were added u n i t s i n General Teaching S k i l l s , Nonverbal Communication, Thinking i n Nisgha, Unit P l a n n i n g , O b j e c t i v e s of Nisgha Language Program, E v a l u a t i o n and Grading. The l a t t e r focused on n a t i v e Indian s t y l e s of l e a r n i n g and teaching that were p o s s i b l e to use i n the schools (More, 1979). The contents of some of the t r a i n i n g programs are compiled i n Table I I I . 80 Table I I I INSERVICE TOPICS FOR TEACHER ASSISTANT TRAINING PROGRAMS I n s e r v i c e Topics T r a i n i n g Programs A A B B C E. T L N N N. P W Y R U E E E E Y A E R I U I S L R N K X T V W W. I L K Z T. L K. T E ' A T A N L 0 0 A E N S 0 H Y T. C I N N A C R T N 0 0 E A A B B A U R M 0 E L L C B. K G S R L I I K E I L F N Y I. 0 L G A 0 G R A I N U A. G K N I I E E A A S L T. I.FOUNDATIONS OF SOCIAL AND BEHAVIORAL SCIENCES 1.Child Development X 2.S choo1 as an I n s t i t u t i o n a ) H i s t o r y , s t r u c t u r e , o r g a n i z a t i o n X b ) C urriculum Organizat ion c ) Classroom Management X d)Home-School R e l a t i o n s 3.Man & S o c i e t y a) 20th Century Change b) S t r a t i f i c a t i o n - e t h n i c , c l a s s , r a c e c) Famlly: prime u n i t d) Government Ser v i c e s e) Power & I n t e r e s t Groups X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X 81 Table I I I (con't) I n s e r v i c e Topics T r a i n i n g Programs A A B B C E. T L N N N. P W Y R U E E E E Y A E R I U I S L R N K X T V W W. I L K Z T. L K. T E A T A N L 0 0 A E N S 0 H Y T. C I N N A C R T N 0 0 E A A B B A U R M 0 E L L C B. K G S R L I I K E I L F N Y I. 0 L G A 0 G R A I N U A. G K N I I E E A A s L T. II.JOB RELATED SKILLS 1.Content & Methodology a)Read ing X X X X X X X b)Language Arts X X X X X X c ) A r i thmetIc X X X X X X X d ) S o c i a l Studies & Science X X e ) A r t & Music X X X f ) H e a l t h & Safety X X X X X X g)P.E. & Games X X X . I n d i v i d u a l i z a t i o n a ) O b s e r v a t i o n X X X X X b ) C o u n s e l l i n g X X X X X c)Remediation X X X X X X d)Learning s t y l e s X X X X .Classroom O r g a n i z a t i o n a ) P l a n n i n g & Records X X X X X X X b ) S u p p l i e s X X X X X X X X X X c ) A u d i o - v i s u a l X X X X X X X X X d ) O f f i c e Machines X X X e ) D i s p l a y s , L e t t e r i n g X X X X X X - I Table I I I (con't) 82 I n s e r v i c e Topics T r a i n i n g Programs A A B B C E. T L N N N. P w Y R U E E E E Y A E R I U I S L R N. K X T V W W. I L K Z T. L K. E A T A N L 0 0 A E N S 0 H Y T. C I N N A C R T N 0 0 E A A B B A U R M 0 E L L C B. K G S R L I I K E I L F N Y I. 0 L G A 0 G R A I N U A. G K N I I E E A A S X X X X X X X X X X III.BASIC EDUCATION 1 . Communication & Study S k i l l s 2. World of Work a) Dress,Grooming b) Promptness c) Reporting A n t i c i p a t e d Absences d) Rapport with Co-workers 3. Advancement a) Aptitude T e s t i n g b) C o u n s e l l i n g : S e l f -Concept Enhancement c) C o n f l i c t R e s o l u t i o n 4. Role of Education A s s i s t a n t a) Job D e s c r i p t i o n X b) T r a i n i n g P r o j e c t e d c) Needs I d e n t i f i c a t i o n X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X IV.CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT 1. Native Language X ( I n d i a n , European, Asian) 2. Communi ty X X Research X X X X X X X X 3 . H i s t o r i c a l Research X X X 4 . M a t e r i a l s Prep. X X X X X X X X X X X X X 5 .Scope & Sequence Planning X X X X 83 I n s e r v i c e O r g a n i z a t i o n The o r g a n i z a t i o n of the I n d i a n t e a c h e r a i d e t r a i n i n g p r o g r a m s ' workshops or s e m i n a r s i s summarized i n t h i s s e c t i o n . The e a r l i e r programs r e c o g n i z e d t h a t t e a c h e r s needed to l e a r n to work w i t h t e a c h e r a i d e s i n the c l a s s r o o m but l a t e r programs i g n o r e d or d i s c o u n t e d t h i s team b u i l d i n g component. The moving of programs from u n i v e r s i t y c e n t r e s to l o c a l c o m m u n i t i e s seems to be a l e a r n i n g from the N a t i v e I n d i a n T e a c h e r T r a i n i n g programs Some of the t e a c h e r a i d e t r a i n i n g programs i d e n t i f i e d by t h i s s t u d y g a t h e r e d t o g e t h e r the t e a c h e r a i d e s and sometimes the t e a c h e r s t o o , f o r a summer c o u r s e of t h r e e to e i g h t weeks a t a c e n t r a l u n i v e r s i t y campus. Those programs t h a t i n c l u d e d t h e t e a c h e r a i d e s and the t e a c h e r s r e c o g n i z e d the e x p e r i e n c e of the t e a c h e r a i d e t r a i n i n g programs of the s i x t i e s and p r o v i d e d t r a i n i n g to h e l p b o t h the t e a c h e r a i d e s and t e a c h e r s become e f f e c t i v e team members. At the u n i v e r s i t y campus t r a i n i n g c e n t r e s , the a i d e s were a b l e to p r a c t i s e the p r a c t i c a l a p p l i c a t i o n s of the t h e o r y i n the c o u r s e s at d e m o n s t r a t i o n or l a b o r a t o r y s c h o o l s and i n r o l e p l a y s w i t h e a c h o t h e r . A d v a n t a g e s to t h i s s t y l e of p r e s e n t a t i o n are the a v a i l a b i l i t y of l i b r a r y and o t h e r r e s o u r c e s such as c o u n s e l l i n g s e r v i c e s , h e a l t h c a r e s e r v i c e s ; p r o x i m i t y to a c a d e m i c t u t o r s c o n n e c t e d w i t h the u n i v e r s i t y ; the d i s t a n c e f r o m the d i s t r a c t i o n of f a m i l y r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s ; and the s t a t u s of b e i n g p a r t of a r e c o g n i z e d , a l m o s t p r o f e s s i o n a l , 84 program (Shank and McElroy, 1970). At the North Arizona U n i v e r s i t y a program c a l l e d the Navajo-Hopi Teacher Corps was developed. It s t a r t e d with a p r e s e r v i c e workshop i n the summer i n which the candidates s t u d i e d the language and c u l t u r e of the people of the area, the community, and c h i l d development. During the school year the " i n t e r n " r e c e i v e d t r a i n i n g through video tape lessons i n technique and theory of classroom i n s t r u c t i o n . Contact was maintained with the u n i v e r s i t y through a team l e a d e r . The f i v e or s i x i n t e r n s i n a school began work as t u t o r s to i n d i v i d u a l students. They progressed to more r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i n small group work and e v e n t u a l l y worked with the whole c l a s s . The i n t e r n s r o t a t e d p o s i t i o n s every s i x weeks so they obtained experience at a l l l e v e l s of the s c h o o l . They were able to work i n s e l f - c o n t a i n e d , open or p o r t a l classrooms. S i x t y percent of the i n t e r n ' s time was spent i n classrooms, twenty percent i n community r e l a t i o n s and twenty percent i n u n i v e r s i t y s t u d i e s . The f o l l o w i n g summer was spent on the u n i v e r s i t y campus, then the i n t e r n s returned to the schools f o r a year i n a c l a s s or i n s p e c i a l t y chosen. A Bachelor's or Master's degree was awarded at the end of the program (Wilson, 1978). Students i n the programs i n Alaska could take courses f u l l - time on campus or part-time i n the t h i r t y v i l l a g e s at which courses were o f f e r e d . Courses were a v a i l a b l e during a four semester year on campus but not i n the summer i n the v i l l a g e s . An academic counselor attempted to coordinate a 85 c y c l e of courses through the v i l l a g e s to enable the people working i n the schools to upgrade t h e i r academic and p r o f e s s i o n a l s t a n d i n g . Upon completion of an A s s o c i a t e of A r t s Degree i t was p o s s i b l e to enter any U n i v e r s i t y of Alaska e d u c a t i o n program at the t h i r d year l e v e l (Kuskokwim Community C o l l e g e , 1980). The Yukon program was quite d i f f e r e n t from other programs i n western Canada because the t u t o r s attended c l a s s e s everyday f o r f i v e and one-half hours. Each day began with a study p e r i o d i n which the t u t o r s worked on personal communication s k i l l s , both o r a l and w r i t t e n . The other c l a s s each morning was a t u t o r i n g s k i l l s development c l a s s . In the afternoons the t u t o r s worked on a p r o j e c t , u s u a l l y m a t e r i a l s development, and then had a f i n a l c l a s s In p r a c t i c a l s k i l l s . O b servation i n classrooms was scheduled for a h a l f - d a y each week. The s k i l l s s essions were organized so that the t u t o r s experienced being taught as an i n d i v i d u a l , i n small and large groups, and i n p r o j e c t development. A l l c l a s s e s were held i n the Yukon Teacher Education Program f a c i l i t i e s i n Whitehorse. Those who completed the program could q u a l i f y for "mature e n t r y " to the Yukon Teacher Education Program or the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia education f a c u l t y (Yukon Native Brotherhood, 1979). In the Northwest T e r r i t o r y s c h ools, f o l l o w i n g p u b l i c a t i o n of the Classroom A s s i s t a n t T r a i n i n g Manuals and P r o f i l e s , the t r a i n i n g of the aides r e v e r t e d to being the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the classroom teacher. The t r a i n i n g manual 86 was designed to be used by the t r a i n e e to i d e n t i f y , plan p r a c t i c e e x e r c i s e s , and master performance o b j e c t i v e s . When the s u p e r v i s i n g teacher and aide agreed that mastery had been achieved, the competency was to be recorded on the Classroom A s s i s t a n t T r a i n i n g P r o f i l e f o r the c e r t i f i c a t e l e v e l aimed f o r . (Competency based i n s t r u c t i o n a l models were also used i n the Navajo-Hopi Teacher Corps t r a i n i n g program (Wilson, 1978). While most of the competencies could be acquired on-the-job and be evaluated by the teachers, c e r t a i n s k i l l s were i d e n t i f i e d as being best acquired at an e d u c a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n . The teacher aides must go to a southern u n i v e r s i t y for summer courses to o b t a i n those competencies. (Northwest T e r r i t o r i e s Department of Education, 1978). The 1972 t r a i n i n g program at L i l l o o e t brought together twelve t r a i n e e s from Williams Lake, L i l l o o e t and B e l l a B e l l a f o r a four week t r a i n i n g s e s s i o n administered by Cariboo C o l l e g e but taught by l o c a l t eachers. The t r a i n e s s then returned to t h e i r home communities and worked i n the schools f o r s i x months under sponsor teachers. The course f i n i s h e d with a f i n a l one month t r a i n i n g s e s s i o n i n L i l l o o e t ( P l a t e r , 1973) . The t r a i n i n g plan i n Williams Lake i n t e r s p e r s e d f i v e o n - t h e - j o b - t r a i n i n g s e s s i o n s of f i v e to t h i r t e e n days with workshops or " v e s t i b u l e s " l a s t i n g from one to f i v e days. The workshops were held i n a c e n t r a l l o c a t i o n i n the d i s t r i c t . Each of the o n - t h e - j o b - t r a i n i n g sessions had one of the f o l l o w i n g f o c i i : d i s c o v e r i n g the need f o r a c r o s s - c u l t u r a l 87 a i d e , c l e r i c a l tasks, one-to-one student a s s i s t a n c e , Language A r t s and c r o s s - c u l t u r a l e ducation. A Teacher's A s s i s t a n t C e r t i f i c a t e was awarded upon completion of the t r a i n i n g program. This t r a i n i n g program has been repeated i n the d i s t r i c t but not o f t e n enough to t r a i n a l l the new teaching a s s i s t a n t s as q u i c k l y they have been h i r e d . Teacher a s s i s t a n t s tend to move on to other Band p o s i t i o n s with more p r e s t i g e and a few of the teacher a s s i s t a n t s entered the p r o f e s s i o n a l teacher t r a i n i n g program o f f e r e d i n Williams Lake by Native Indian Teacher Education Program (NITEP) i n 1982 (Anthony, 1983). A proposal to e s t a b l i s h the Teacher A s s o c i a t e T r a i n i n g Program at the College of New Caledonia i n P r i n c e George, B.C. was w r i t t e n i n 1978 f o r teacher a s s o c i a t e s i n f e d e r a l schools i n the P r i n c e George Indian A f f a i r s D i s t r i c t . The teacher a s s o c i a t e s were s c a t t e r e d i n schools across the l a r g e area. As the a s s o c i a t e s were already at work i n the f e d e r a l s c h o o l s , a modular format was suggested f o r the t r a i n i n g program. This format had been used by the Department of Indian A f f a i r s i n i t s preschool teacher t r a i n i n g program f o r Indian people i n B.C. and i n Williams Lake i n the teacher a s s i s t a n t t r a i n i n g program. The modules or t r a i n i n g sessions were held once a month for a week at the C o l l e g e . The seminars c o n s i s t e d of l e c t u r e s and d i s c u s s i o n s plus w r i t t e n assignments. During the other three weeks of the month the a s s i s t a n t s worked i n classrooms i n the schools of t h e i r home communities. One week was spent observing other 88 p a r a p r o f e s s i o n a l s at work i n schools with large Indian student populations (Cornwell, 1978, Noble, 1980). The teacher aide t r a i n i n g program at B e l l a B e l l a and the NIsgha Language Teacher T r a i n i n g Program at New Aiyansh were o f f e r e d i n modules i n the communities. I n s t r u c t o r s from Vancouver, P r i n c e George and elsewhere i n the province t r a v e l l e d to these i s o l a t e d communities to give two or f i v e day workshops. A program c o o r d i n a t o r i n the community helped arrange the timetables of the workshops and a s s i s t e d as a support person f o r the aides and the teachers i n v o l v e d i n the programs (More, 1979, 1982). Assignment to Schools In t h i s s e c t i o n the arraongements f o r a s s i g n i n g Indian teacher aides to schools and classrooms w i l l be examined. Although e a r l y programs i n the United States t r a i n e d teacher aides i n the summer before they were assigned school p o s i t i o n s , some l a t e r Indian teacher aide t r a i n i n g programs i n both the United States and Canada were organized a f t e r the a f t e r the Indian teacher aides were a c t u a l l y working i n the s c h o o l s . In a few instances the untrained Indian teacher a i d e s had been given f u l l r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s as teachers i n i s o l a t e d s c h o o l s . The f i r s t program to t r a i n Indian teacher aides i n A r i z o n a drew candidates from twenty t r i b e s . The aides returned to t h e i r home schools a f t e r t r a i n i n g and were 89 assigned to preschool c l a s s e s (Steere et a l . , 1965). In l a t e r summer courses both the teacher and the teacher-aide attended c l a s s e s together to develop s k i l l s as team members (Bureau of Indian A f f a i r s , 1970, L i t t l e j o h n , 1971, Center f o r Appplied L i n q u i s t i c s , 1979). This r e c o g n i t i o n of the n e c e s s i t y for teachers and teacher aides to l e a r n to team was documented by P l a t e r i n the f i r s t Indian teacher aide t r a i n i n g program i n B r i t i s h Columbia but no l a t e r program i n the province planned to conduct workshops to develop teaming between teachers and Indian teacher a i d e s . P l a t e r was concerned with the " l a c k of op p o r t u n i t y to adequately prepare teachers to use a i d e s , combined with the d i f f i c u l t y of c l e a r l y e s t a b l i s h i n g the mutually supportive r o l e s of teacher and a i d e " . He recognized that sending out m a t e r i a l to sponsor teachers was "a pale s u s t i t u t e f o r d i s c u s s i o n and study" ( P l a t e r , 1974, P15-16). The m a t e r i a l s from t r a i n i n g programs i n Alaska, the Yukon and the Northwest T e r r i t o r i e s do not o u t l i n e any methods f o r assignment of a s s o c i a t e s , t u t o r s or classroom a s s i s t a n t s . T h i s d i s r e g a r d of a problematic part of the i n t r o d u c t i o n of teacher aides to classrooms was continued i n the Williams Lake and P r i n c e George d i s t r i c t s where Indian teacher aides were assigned to classrooms before the t r a i n i n g program was c r e a t e d . The Williams Lake program scheduled v i s i t s by the c o - o r d i n a t o r to the classrooms to help " f a c i l i t a t e 90 communication between the teachers and the teaching a s s i s t a n t s " (Haig-Brown, 1976, n. pag.). Following the program a day's workshop was held with teachers and teacher a s s i s t a n t s together. The meeting was designed to: c l a r i f y the r o l e of the Teaching A s s i s t a n t i n the classroom, to s i g h t ( s i c ) some s p e c i f i c duties a Teaching A s s i s t a n t could perform, and to f o s t e r b e t t e r communication and empathy between the Teaching A s s i s t a n t s and t h e i r sponsor teachers. (Haig-Brown, 1976, n. pag.) Although Cornwell s t a t e d i n h i s proposal f o r the program i n P r i n c e George that "Teachers must also be given a s s i s t a n c e i n l e a r n i n g the processes of e s t a b l i s h i n g a working rapport with the a s s o c i a t e " and "This i s p a r t i c u l a r l y important i n the process of a l l o w i n g the a s s o c i a t e s to grow as i n d i v i d u a l s -i t i s very easy to keep suggesting ways of p r e s e n t i n g a l e s s o n without stopping to l i s t e n or encouraging the a s s o c i a t e s to t r y out t h e i r i d e a s " ( C o r n w e l l , 1979, p.14), the program developers were not able to have workshops where teachers and a s s o c i a t e s could develop rapport, nor were there frequent observations and d i s c u s s i o n s between the teachers, a s s o c i a t e s and program c o - o r d i n a t o r or i n s t r u c t o r s to help develop teaming i n a more i n d i v i d u a l i z e d manner. Shortage of funds and d i s t a n c e between sc h o o l s , time f o r workshops a l l hindered the d e l i v e r y of a recognized key element i n the program (Noble, 1980). The programs i n B e l l a B e l l a and New Aiyansh were organized a f t e r the Indian language teachers and support people had s t a r t e d working i n the schools a l s o . They became the p i l o t programs for the Indian P a r a p r o f e s s i o n a l T r a i n i n g 91 Program o f f e r e d throughout B r i t i s h Columbia i n 1981-82. Each of the programs had a c o o r d i n a t o r who was expected to "be on c a l l at most times, and who would also have scheduled time ( f o r a r ranging a c t i v i t i e s , f o r p r o v i d i n g some of the p r o f e s s i o n a l feedback fo r the i n t e r n s h i p component, for c o u n s e l l i n g ) " (More, 1978, p.2). However i n the e v a l u a t i o n of the t o t a l b i l i n g u a l / b i c u l t u r a l program i t was found that "there i s l i t t l e f o r m a l i z e d o p p o r t u n i t y to apply workshop t o p i c s to the classroom under s p e c i f i c guidance of a p r o f e s s i o n a l " (Handley et a l . , 1980). In B e l l a B e l l a the teachers met with one of the i n s t r u c t o r s f o r an afternoon during which they were b r i e f e d on previous workshop sessions the aides had attended concerning the r o l e of the teacher aides i n B e l l a B e l l a . " L i k e the aides the teachers requested advance i n f o r m a t i o n of f u t u r e teacher aide workshops, and of the long term plans f o r t h e i r t r a i n i n g " (McCutcheon, 1980). Two months l a t e r the teachers met with another i n s t r u c t o r and expressed s i m i l a r concerns. They stated they were i n t e r e s t e d i n the workshops so they could r e i n f o r c e workshop l e a r n i n g s of t h e i r teacher a i d e . They were concerned that reassignments of aides by the program a d m i n i s t r a t o r s had been made without warning. Assignments of aides i n both programs seemed random. The Ontario Task Force on the E d u c a t i o n a l Needs of Native Peoples found that aides were u n d e r - u t i l i z e d and were performing menial tasks rather than being given teaching r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , e s p e c i a l l y i n c u l t u r a l t o p i c s and language (quoted i n Haig-Brown, 1976, n. pag.). The expectations of 92 t h e a s s i s t a n t s and t h e i r hopes to i n t r o d u c e t h e i r n a t i v e c u l t u r e and knowledge i n t o the s c h o o l l i f e of I n d i a n s t u d e n t s were not r e a l i z e d . I n s t e a d , the d e l e g a t i o n of o n l y u n p l e a s a n t t a s k s , the u n c e r t a i n t y of the d e f i n i t i o n of the r o l e of t e a c h e r a s s i s t a n t and the l a c k of a c a r e e r l a d d e r had " r e s u l t e d i n a l a c k of commitment to f u l l y r e a l i z e the p o t e n t i a l of t h e i r work" ( H a i g - B r o w n , 1976, n. p a g . ) . K i n g a c c u s e d i n s t i t u t i o n a l a d m i n i s t r a t o r s of b e i n g d e l i b e r a t e l y vague i n d e f i n i n g t h e i r e x p e c t a t i o n s of I n d i a n t e a c h e r a i d e s b e c a u s e : the k i n d s of outcomes s o u g h t a r e f u n c t i o n s of a h i g h d e g r e e of s k i l l a t i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s and s e n s i t i v i t y to a g r e a t c o m p l e x i t y of s o c i a l n u a n c e s — s k i l l s and s e n s i t i v i t i e s w hich are u s u a l l y a b s e n t i n the u s u a l " p r o f e s s i o n a l " s c h o o l p e r s o n n e l . In o t h e r words, c o n t r a s t e d w i t h the n o r m a t i v e h e l p i n g mother t e a c h e r a i d e who i s u s u a l l y j u s t h e l p i n g the t e a c h e r do more of what the t e a c h e r would do anyhow i f time a l l o w e d , the n a t i v e I n d i a n t e a c h e r a i d e i s r e a l l y b e i n g e x p e c t e d to p e r f o r m some s p e c i a l i z e d f u n c t i o n s w h i c h the p r o f e s s i o n a l s c h o o l p e r s o n n e l have been u n a b l e to p e r f o r m — o f t e n u n a b l e to p e r c e i v e even t h e need f o r p e r f o r m i n g . ( K i n g , 1975, p.23) Upon r e v i e w i n g the programs o f f e r e d to I n d i a n t e a c h e r a i d e s s i n c e K i n g w r o t e , i t i s p o s s i b l e to s u g g e s t I n d i a n t e a c h e r a i d e s a r e now e x p e c t e d to do b o t h the "more of the same" t a s k s as w e l l as t h o s e d e v e l o p i n g " i n t e r p e r s o n a l " and i n t r a - c u l t u r a l . The a b s e n c e of a c a r e e r l a d d e r and the f r a g i l i t y of f u n d i n g f o r t e a c h e r a s s i s t a n t s a r e two c o n t i n u i n g d e f i c i e n c i e s . As a r e s u l t of the p r e s s u r e s to a c c o m p l i s h so much i n so many r o l e s , the I n d i a n a i d e becomes s u s c e p t i b l e to b o t h 93 " c u l t u r e shock" and " r o l e shock" (King, 1981). It i s then d i f f i c u l t to prevent the aide from becoming d i s s a t i s f i e d with the s c h o o l , or the school becoming d i s i l l u s i o n e d about the " c u l t u r e b r i d g e " . Support S e r v i c e s - F i n a n c i a l The t r a i n i n g of teacher aides i s not a recognized f u n c t i o n of e d u c a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s t h e r e f o r e grant money from governments and foundations must be obtained before a program can e x i s t . Most a d u l t s r e q u i r e f i n a n c i a l support during t r a i n i n g and c e r t a i n l y most expect to be paid f o r working i n the s c h o o l s . However as the p o s i t i o n of teacher aide i s not recognized as an e s s e n t i a l part of the e d u c a t i o n a l establishment, school d i s t r i c t s and government departments of education seldom i n c l u d e s a l a r i e s f o r teacher aides i n t h e i r budgets or long-term plans. Indian teacher aides are not any more valued by school f i n a n c i n g systems than other teacher a i d e s . The year-to-year f i n a n c i n g of both Indian teacher aide t r a i n i n g programs and Indian teacher aide p o s i t i o n s i n schools i s accomplished using a v a r i e t y of sources. Some of these sources are enumerated i n t h i s s e c t i o n . In the United S t a t e s , f i n a n c i a l support f o r Indian a d u l t s t r a i n i n g to work i n preschools was made a v a i l a b l e under T i t l e I I , Community A c t i o n Programs as part of the Economic Opportunity Act. This f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e was used 94 by the American Indian T r i b e s to finance pre-school t r a i n i n g (Steere et a l . , 1965, G e l a r d i and M i l l e r , 1980). The Center f o r Applied L i n q u i s t i c s ' workshop with the U n i v e r s i t y of Utah was funded under E d u c a t i o n a l P r o f e s s i o n a l Development A s s i s t a n c e . The s p e c i f i c uses of the funding are not recorded (Center for Applied L i q u i s t i c s , 1976). Some s c h o l a r s h i p money was a v a i l a b l e f o r students e n r o l l e d i n the A s s o c i a t e programs at Kuskokwim Community Co l l e g e i n Ala s k a . The p r o j e c t was funded under T i t l e VII of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act. (Kuskokwim Community C o l l e g e , 1980). The Yukon Department of Education gave f i n a n c i a l support to students plus t r a v e l l i n g allowance. Subsidies f o r housing were considered (Yukon Native Brotherhood, 1979). In the B r i t i s h Columbia programs ( L i l l o o e t , Williams Lake, P r i n c e George, B e l l a B e l l a and New Aiyansh) the teacher aides or teaching a s s i s t a n t s are u s u a l l y paid s a l a r i e s by t h e i r band from e d u c a t i o n a l funds. Some money i s a v a i l a b l e d i r e c t l y from the f e d e r a l government f o r programs that are v o c a t i o n a l and not p a r a p r o f e s s i o n a l . Thus the Department of Indian A f f a i r s provided funds f o r development and op e r a t i o n of the L i l l o o e t and P r i n c e George programs as " t r a i n i n g employment package(s)" ( P l a t e r , 1974) each f o r one year ( C o r n w e l l , 1978). While p r o v i d i n g welcome f i n a n c i a l support, the s a l a r i e s paid to the teacher aides sometimes cause problems. In small communities, when only a few aides had been h i r e d and 95 t r a i n e d , i t was sometimes d i f f i c u l t to r a l l y those who were not h i r e d behind the program. The continued economic welfare of the teacher a s s i s t a n t sometimes caused c o n f l i c t i n the community and i n the home, e s p e c i a l l y i f the women became the ones r e c e i v i n g r e g u l a r pay and more education. The community became f a c t i o n a l i z e d (Reeves et a l . , 1978, King, 1981, Ingram et a l . , 1981 ) . The F i e l d Development O f f i c e of the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia has supported the programs i n the Yukon and throughout B r i t i s h Columbia by making i n s t r u c t o r s a v a i l a b l e and by h e l p i n g to f i n a n c e t h e i r fees and t r a v e l costs (More, 1983). Support S e r v i c e s - P e r s o n a l G e n e r a l l y teacher aides reenter the world of the school with low expectations of success and acceptance(Klopf et a l . , 1969). The c a r e f u l shepherding by a sympathetic and knowledgeable c o o r d i n a t o r plus the guidance of an i n t e r e s t e d teacher has increased the self-esteem and success of teacher a i d e s i n t h i s attempt to improve student l e a r n i n g s . The support o f f e r e d by the perr group of t r a i n e e teacher aides i s as important as that recorded by e v a l u a t o r s of Indian teacher t r a i n i n g programs (Mcintosh, 1979, More, 1980, Read, 1983, Thomson, 1978). In t h i s s e c t i o n the personal support g i v e n to t r a i n e e Indian teacher aides w i l l be reviewed. The e a r l y teacher aide programs i n the United States 96 gave the aides workshops but personal guidance ended there. The Centre fo r Applied L i n q u i s t i c s made o n s i t e v i s i t s to schools before and a f t e r the summer workshops i n 1965 to provide resource and support s e r v i c e s (Center for Applied L i n q u i s t i c s , 1979). It was recommended that teacher-teacher aide teams i n each school meet once a month to dicuss ideas, d i f f i c u l t i e s and evaluate ongoing programs at the workshops i n 1970 i n A r i z o n a (Bureau of Indian A f f a i r s , 1970). This group problem-solving s e s s i o n was t r i e d i n a formal way only once i n W i l l iams Lake (Haig Brown, 1976). Personal support through a s u p e r v i s o r / c o u s e l l o r / p r o g r a m c o o r d i n a t o r was given i n most programs. An academic counselor was assigned each student i n Kuskokwim Community College (Kuskokwim Community C o l l e g e , 1980). The i n t e r n s i n the Navajo-Hopi Teacher Corps had a team leader who supervised the i n t e r n i n the classroom and the community a c t i v i t i e s and who was a l s o a v a i l a b l e f o r d i s c u s s i o n of the course work that was presented on video tape (Wilson, 1978). A s i m i l a r r o l e was f i l l e d by the c o o r d i n a t o r f o r the programs i n L i l l o o e t , P r i n c e George, Williams Lake, B e l l a B e l l a and New Aiyansh. The d i f f i c u l t i e s grew as the schools at which the t r a i n e e s were assigned became d i s t a n t from the center or each other. In A r i z o n a a team leader was r e s p o n s i b l e f o r s i x i n t e r n s i n the same s c h o o l . The L i l l o o e t program had a c o o r d i n a t o r but he was not able to v i s i t the t r a i n e e s at work i n schools d i s t a n t from that c e n t r e . In P r i n c e George, the c o o r d i n a t o r 97 p l a n n e d programs f o r t w e n t y - n i n e a s s o c i a t e s from n i n e s c h o o l s . The W i l l i a m s Lake program's c o o r d i n a t o r was r e s p o n s i b l e f o r g u i d i n g the program f o r twenty t e a c h e r s and t r a i n e e s i n s e v e r a l s c a t t e r e d s c h o o l s . In New A i y a n s h the p o s i t i o n of c o o r d i n a t o r was o n l y p a r t t i m e . The c o o r d i n a t o r a t B e l l a B e l l a was r e s p o n s i b l e f o r a r r a n g i n g workshops w i t h U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a as w e l l as f o r l o c a l t r a i n i n g and l i a s o n . S u p p o r t S e r v i c e s - A c a d e m i c The p r e s e n c e of the a c ademic i n s t r u c t o r s i s b r i e f , most i n s t r u c t o r s c o n d u c t o n l y one or two workshops i n each p r o g r a m . T h e r e f o r e the p o s s e s i o n of p r i n t e d m a t e r i a l s i n the f o r m of a handbook c o n t a i n i n g i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t was expanded i n the workshops p r o v i d e s l o n g - t e r m s u p p o r t and as e a s i l y a c c e s s i b l e r e f e r e n c e r e s o u r c e f o r the t e a c h e r a i d e s , h i s s e c t i o n examines some of t h e s e p r i n t e d s u p p o r t m a t e r i a l s i n some d e t a i l . The t e a c h e r - a i d e s i n the f i r s t t r a i n i n g program i n A r i z o n a r e q u e s t e d a w r i t t e n r e c o r d of the program to s e r v e as a g u i d e f o r b o t h t e a c h e r s and a i d e s at work i n the c l a s s r o o m . The handbook c o n t a i n s the s y l l a b u s of the p i l o t program. I t was p u b l i s h e d when i t became o b v i o u s d u r i n g the e i g h t week t r a i n i n g s e s s i o n t h a t a w r i t t e n g u i d e would be needed by the t e a c h e r - a i d e s to h e l p them f u n c t i o n i n t h e i r j o b s more e f f e c t i v e l y . T h i s h a n d b o o k - s y l l a b u s has been q u o t e d and has 98 served as a model for l a t e r programs In Arizona and B r i t i s h Columbia. The a u t h o r i t y accorded t h i s handbook i s due i n part to i t s s t a t e d use: It i s intended as to be used as a guide for the t e a c h e r - a i d e to supplement the program d i r e c t e d by the teacher, and may serve as a guide for the aide working with younger or older c h i l d r e n . The p r i n c i p l e s are the same. It i s understood that the m a t e r i a l w i l l be adapted to the problems, the i n d i v i d u a l c h i l d r e n , the v a r i e d c u l t u r a l and environmental c o n d i t i o n s i n which i t w i l l be used. To f u n c t i o n at a high l e v e l i n the classroom and i n the community, the aide must have an understanding of c h i l d development, a l l f a c e t s of the c u r r i c u l u m , the c u l t u r a l h e r i t a g e , and community r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n h i s p a r t i c u l a r area. (Steere et a l . , 1965, p.8) The handbook i s designed to be a reference book for the a i d e . It i n c l u d e s a summary of d u t i e s , c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of c young c h i l d r e n and suggestions f o r e f f e c t i v e ways to guide them i n i n t e r p e r s o n a l and e d u c a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s . D e t a i l s on planning the day i n a p r e - s c h o o l i n c l u d e sample lesson plans and a c t i v i t i e s , but do not include any suggestions f o r c u l t u r a l i n f u s i o n of Native Indian knowledge, c r a f t s , games or songs. The handbook provides m a t e r i a l that a s s i s t s the Indian teacher aide advance pre-school students' exposure to the dominant c u l t u r e through rhymes, f a i r y t a l e s , games, art m a t e r i a l s and language but 1965 was too e a r l y for educators to recognize that c h i l d r e n l e a r n best i f they know t h e i r own c u l t u r e f i r s t . This emphasis was c o r r e c t e d i n l a t e r handbooks (i.e.Bureau of Indian A f f a i r s , 1970). S e c t i o n two of the book i s e n t i t l e d Indian C u l t u r e . The s e c t i o n appears to be an o u t l i n e f o r teaching c u l t u r e to the teachers by the a i d e s . It was important that the teachers and 99 aides understood the present c u l t u r e of the Navajo. Although the o b j e c t i v e s for the Indian Culture s e c t i o n s t a t e : 4. C u l t u r a l patterns are the g r e a t e s t h e r i t a g e of any group and should be regarded with p r i d e . 5. As groups come i n contact, an exchange of c u l t u r e s w i l l occur. 6. Culture s u b s t i t u t i o n or r e j e c t i o n can be d i s a s t r o u s i f not based on a very c a r e f u l p a t t e r n of s e l e c t i o n . 7. A good s e l e c t i v e process should not introduce c u l t u r a l c o n f l i c t s . (Steere et a l . , 1965 , p. 76) and the p i c t u r e s accompanying the text show adult Indian people engaged i n current a c t i v i t i e s and t r a d i t i o n a l c u l t u r a l observances, the program's i m p l i c i t r e c o g n i t i o n and acceptance of the dominant c u l t u r e of America i s apparant in the t o t a l absence of suggested classroom a c t i v i t i e s , s t o r i e s , games or l e a r n i n g experiences that would i n v o l v e Indian knowledge or c u l t u r e . The handbooks prepared by the Centre f o r A p p l i e d L i n q u i s t i c s and f o r the Choctaw B i l i n g u a l Program placed more emphasis on c r o s s - c u l t u r a l a c t i v i t i e s and programs (Center f o r A p p l i e d L i n q u i s t i c s , 1979, L i t t l e j o h n , 1971). Much work i s s t i l l to be done on d e f i n i n g Indian c u l t u r e , o r g a n i z i n g and s t r u c t u r i n g i t to f i t the school c u r r i c u l a or a l t e r n a t e l y , o r g a n i z i n g and s t r u c t u r i n g the s c h o o l to f i t the c u l t u r e . The f i n a l s e c t i o n of the handbook i s a guide for classroom A u d i o - V i s u a l equipment and communication techniques. Valuable plans f o r preparing students f o r f i e l d t r i p s and f o r preparing a u d i o - v i s u a l p r e s e n t a t i o n s are also o u t l i n e d . 100 Three handbooks prepared at subsequent workshops i n A r i z o n a f o r Indian teacher aides and teachers of Indian c h i l d r e n emphasizied team teach i n g , r o l e d e f i n i t i o n , w r i t i n g l e s s o n plans as w e l l as the t o p i c s i n the e a r l i e r programs. In s p i t e of research by Mowhatt (1976), E r i c k s o n and Mohatt (1982), K l e i n f e l d (1972, 1973), S t e r l i n g and Hebert(n.d.) and d i s c u s s i o n s by Arbess (1981) and Cornwell (1978) the methodology and teaching s k i l l s taught to Indian teacher aides i n l a t e r programs d i f f e r not at a l l from those i n teacher education programs throughout North America. Handbooks and c o l l e c t i o n s of o u t l i n e s f o r workshops that have been prepared i n B r i t i s h Columbia have had m u l t i p l e purposes (Haig-Brown,1976, More and Ashworth, 1980, 1982). Haig-Brown (1976) appended the s e c t i o n from the B r i t i s h Columbia Teachers' F e d e r a t i o n Handbook that d e f i n e s the r o l e of teacher aide i n B r i t i s h Columbia schools (see Appendix E ) . He a l s o i n c l u d e d parts of Steere's handbook and m a t e r i a l from the O n t a r i o and Cariboo College guides to add to the c o n s i d e r a t i o n s about what an aide was and could do. The handbooks with t h e i r examples and assignments have served as resource books for the a i d e s . For the teachers, the handbooks have provided a concrete record of what the aide has been expected to l e a r n and t h e r e f o r e , what the aide might be asked to do. The i n c l u s i o n of a philosophy f o r teacher a i d e s , a code of e t h i c s , a job d e s c r i p t i o n and a l i s t of p o s s i b l e d u t i e s i n "Native Indian P a r a p r o f e s s i o n a l T r a i n i n g Program: Learning Packages" (More and Ashworth, 1980) a l s o provided 101 the teachers and aides with more bases from which to establish a working team plan. Evaluation by Participants In this section the only extensive evaluation of a training program by the actual participants is quoted. The c r i t i c i s m s seem val i d for other programs as well. The evaluations of the training program for associate teachers in Prince George was done by the trainees, the teachers and the coordinator. Questionnaires were completed at the end of each seminar but the most revealing evaluation came in discussions held during the coordinator's f i n a l v i s i t to each school. The c r i t i c i s m s of the trainees centred on four items in the program: (a) Although the majority of seminars were seen as useful, too much was presented to the participants in too short a time. (b) More time should be spent in actual practice of seminar content and more time should be spent on assignments while the participants are in Prince George. (c) The program should be more structured with required attendance and evaluation of assignments. Participants should receive some sort of credit for their work. (d) Participants who are not working in classrooms should be required to work in their schools on a voluntary basis (this applies to substitutes p r i m a r i l y ) . (Noble, 1980, pp.3,4) The federal teachers c r i t i c i s m s of the program were: (a) The f a i l u r e of some associates to integrate what they had learned in the seminars in their classroom performance (b) The lack of emphasis on practicum assignments and evaluation of the performance of the participants. 102 (c) The f a i l u r e to more a c t i v e l y i n v o l v e f e d e r a l teachers i n the program and keep them informed of seminar content. (Noble, 1980, p.4) The c o o r d i n a t o r f e l t the s t a r t i n g of the program was most pro b l e m a t i c . Hired only one month before the f i r s t seminar was held, she had l i t t l e chance to gather, and l e s s chance to assess, i m p l i c a t i o n s of d i f f e r e n t formal education l e v e l s of the t r a i n e e s , d i f f e r e n t experiences i n schools and d i f f e r e n t e d u c a t i o n a l goals (Noble, 1980). Her experience as a program c o - o r d i n a t o r was not unique.. F i n d i n g s In t h i s s e c t i o n the s a l i e n t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of Indian education and the programs designed to improve i t w i l l be d i s c u s s e d . The f i n d i n g s from t r a i n i n g progams for teacher a i d e s , both Indian and non-Indian w i l l be presented. The improvement of the academic achievement of Indian students i n schools has been attempted i n three types of s c h o o l s : on-reserve s c h o o l s , r e s i d e n t i a l schools and i n t e g r a t e d s c h o o l s . The trend seems to be to r e l o c a t e schools back onto the r e s e r v e s . In the past, the s e p a r a t i o n of students from t h e i r f a m i l i e s to the r e s i d e n t i a l schools allowed educators to c o n t r o l student attendance, to increase exposure to E n g l i s h but created a problem i n that the students were separated and a l i e n a t e d from t h e i r own c u l t u r e without being exposed to another c u l t u r e other than the c u l t u r e of the r e s i d e n t i a l school system. Attendance at 103 i n t e g r a t e d schools has increased the students' exposure to the m a j o r i t y c u l t u r e and language but the Indian students' achievement i n schools has not been that d e s i r e d by t h e i r parents nor educators. Demands for relevant c u r r i c u l a form Indian a s s o c i a t i o n s have been p a r t i a l l y met with the i n t r o d u c t i o n of courses i n Native languages, a r t s , c r a f t s and music, plus some courses i n h i s t o r y and law. Textbooks have been r e w r i t t e n to c o r r e c t some of the a n t i - I n d i a n bias and the most b l a t a n t m i s r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of h i s t o r y . Community and Native c o n t r o l of education have only been achieved i n a very few l o c a t i o n s . The trend i n Canada towards c e n t r a l i z e d c o n t r o l of c u r r i c u l a , t e s t i n g , textbook, and m a t e r i a l s use does not point to a p o s i t i v e p o l i t i c a l climate f o r the r e a l i z a t i o n of the d e s i r e f o r the c o n t r o l of Indian education by Indian people. The t r a i n i n g of p a r a p r o f e s s i o n a l s from m i n o r i t y groups i n the United States i n the s i x t i e s allowed entry of community people i n t o the s c h o o l s . It was a long-term process which r e q u i r e d community reeducation through open communication i n p r i n t , i n meetings, and i n free a s s o c i a t i o n with s c h o o l s . Teachers and teacher aides had to be taught to work as team members and had to l e a r n to accept each other's d i f f e r e n c e s i n c h i l d r e a r i n g p r a c t i c e s and reward systems, i n language and i n mannerisms. The use of teacher aides i n b i l i n g u a l or b i c u l t u r a l programs i n New York (Mcllhenny,1979, Klopf et al,1969), C o n n e c t i c u t t (Wright, 1969), C a l i f o r n i a , 104 Kentucky, Minnesota, and Michigan (Klopf et a l , 1969) have been r e p o r t e d . In a l l of these programs candidates have been chosen from the school's community with no or l i t t l e e d u c a t i o n p r e r e q u i s i t e s . V a r i e d upgrading has been provided depending upon the need. More important than academic p r e r e q u i s i t e s , according to e v a l u a t o r s , was the a b i l i t y and w i l l i n g n e s s of the teacher aides to p e r s o n n a l l y accept and adopt c e r t a i n codes of behavior and dress and to use accepted techniques of c o n t r o l and i n s t r u c t i o n with c h i l d r e n . Being punctual and n o t i f y i n g others of p o s s i b l e absences were two d e s i r e a b l e behaviors s t r e s s e d by school personnel. The improved academic achievement of c h i l d r e n was c o r r e l a t e d with the presence of t h e i r parents i n the classroom working with the teacher ( F u l l a n , 1982). The p i v o t a l p o s i t i o n of the p r i n c i p a l i n any i n n o v a t i v e program has been d e l i n a t e d by Sarason (1971, F u l l a n and Park (1981), Leithwood and Stanley (1983), and P r a v i c a and Mclean (1983). The a c t i v e support of t h i s key person i n any school i s e s s e n t i a l to the success of any i n n o v a t i o n . The p r i n c i p a l must be convinced that the i n n o v a t i o n i s worthwhile for h i s students and h i s teachers so that he w i l l pursue i t s adoption and implementation. Native Indian teacher t r a i n i n g programs i n the United States and Canada have r e i n f o r c e d some l e a r n i n g s from the p a r a p r o f e s s i o n a l t r a i n i n g programs of the s i x t i e s , e s p e c i a l l y concerning f e a t u r e s of adult education. The importance of 105 f a c i l i t i e s to e n a b l e m i n o r i t y s t u d e n t s to r a i s e s e l f - e s t e e m has been a c c e n t e d i n the s u c c e s s e s of peer group s u p p o r t and c o u n s e l l i n g , a home base or ' n e s t ' w i t h i n a l a r g e r i n s t i t u t i o n , the l e a d e r s h i p of a t r u s t e d , s y m p a t h e t i c and a c a d e m i c a l l y q u a l i f i e d c o o r d i n a t o r . T h i s c o o r d i n a t o r a c t s as a b u f f e r and a b r i d g e to ease the e n t r y and e f f i c i e n t w o r k i n g by the s t u d e n t s i n t o the c u l t u r a l l y f o r e i g n w o r l d of a c a d e m i a . The d i f f i c u l t i e s r a i s e d by f a m i l y and o u t s i d e r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of the t r a i n e e t e a c h e r s and p a r a p r o f e s s i o n a l s have been p a r t i a l l y a d d r e s s e d by the use of f i e l d c e n t r e s - t r a i n i n g c l o s e to home - and by s t i p e n d s p a i d to s t u d e n t s . The f o r m a l i z a t i o n of N a t i v e S t u d i e s has r a i s e d the p r o f i l e of the c u l t u r e s of the I n d i a n p e o p l e s . The c u l t u r e s a r e no l o n g e r r e l e g a t e d to a n c i e n t a n t h r o p o l o g y but now have r e c o g n i t i o n as c u r r e n t l i f e s t y l e s , l e g a l systems and a r t s . The knowledge of the I n d i a n p e o p l e s i s g i v e n r e s p e c t . T r a i n i n g programs f o r t e a c h e r a i d e s or t e a c h i n g a s s i s t a n t s , t e a c h e r a s s o c i a t e s or c l a s s r o o m a s s i s t a n t s , show a s t r o n g r e s e m b l a n c e whether th e y a r e d e s i g n e d f o r N a t i v e I n d i a n s i n Canada or the U n i t e d S t a t e s or i f they are d e s i g n e d f o r o t h e r b i c u l t u r a l c l a s s e s , d i s a d v a n t a g e d s o c i a l g r o u p s or A u s t r a l i a n A b o r i g i n a l p e o p l e . S c h o o l s t r u c t u r e and o r g a n i z a t i o n , c h i l d d e v e l o p m e n t , c o m m u n i c a t i o n and c o u n s e l l i n g s k i l l s , use of a u d i o - v i s u a l and o f f i c e m a c h i n e s , some b a s i c s k i l l s u p g r a d i n g , a r t s and c r a f t o r g a n i z a t i o n , and i n the N a t i v e I n d i a n programs, I n d i a n l a n g u a g e f l u e n c y and 106 I n d i a n c u l t u r e c u r r i c u l u m d e v elopment are common components ( T a b l e I I I ) . Many I n d i a n s t u d e n t s r e q u i r e d c o u r s e work i n the s t r u c t u r e and grammar of t h e i r l a n g u a g e even i f they were f l u e n t s p e a k e r s . T r i b a l h i s t o r y and p o l i t i c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s were o t h e r n e c e s s a r y t o p i c s f o r many of the c a n d i d a t e s f o r t h e N a v a j o - H o p i T e a c h e r Corps ( W i l s o n , 1978) and i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ( P l a t e r , 1973). The major change has been the d r o p p i n g of teaming s k i l l s from the l a t e r p r o g r a m s . In d o i n g t h i s program d e s i g n e r s i g n o r e d the f a c t t h a t the i n t r o d u c t i o n of t e a c h e r a i d e s or t e a c h i n g a s s i s t a n t s to c l a s s r o o m s r e q u i r e s t h a t b o t h t e a c h e r s and t e a c h e r a i d e s l e a r n new r o l e s . The p e r s i s t a n c e of t e a c h e r s i n p u r s u i n g t r a d i t i o n a l t e a c h i n g methods i s w e l l documented by S take et a l . ( 1 9 7 8 ) , L o r t i e (1975) and S a r a s o n ( 1 9 7 1 ) . New r o l e s f o r t e a c h e r s d e s i g n e d by o u t s i d e r s are a d a p t e d or a r e r e j e c t e d o u t r i g h t by t e a c h e r s ( W a l t e r s , 1981, P a r i s h and A r e n d s , 1983, S a r a s o n , 1971, F u l l a n , 1973, F u l l a n and P a r k , 1981). I t i s i m p e r a t i v e t h a t t h i s t e aming component be r e i n t r o d u c e d to t r a i n i n g p rograms to ease the e n t r y of t e a c h e r a i d e s , to i n c r e a s e t h e i r e f f i c i e n t use and to r e c o g n i z e the v a l u e of both t e a c h e r s and t e a c h e r a i d e s i n t h i s i n n o v a t i o n . The o r g a n i z a t i o n of i n s t r u c t i o n a l and c l a s s r o o m time v a r i e d ( T a b l e I I ) . Most programs began w i t h an i n t e n s i v e p e r i o d of i n t r o d u c t i o n to the s c h o o l s f o r the f u t u r e a s s i s t a n t s f o l l o w e d by p l a c e m e n t i n the s c h o o l s . U n f o r t u n a t e l y a l l too few r e c e n t programs p r o v i d e d time f o r t h e t e a c h e r s and a s s i s t a n t s to d i s c u s s and s o l v e the 107 d i f f i c u l t i e s of m e r g i n g the a s s i s t a n t s i n t o the e x i s t i n g s c h o o l s t r u c t u r e nor to h e l p i n g t e a c h e r s l e a r n to work w i t h an a d u l t a s s i s t a n t , N a t i v e I n d i a n or o t h e r w i s e , i n a team of c o - w o r k e r s . T r a i n i n g f o r the a s s i s t a n t s c o n t i n u e d to t a k e p l a c e at r e g u l a r i n t e r v a l s , i n some c a s e s on one day a week, or one week out of e v e r y month. D i s t a n c e from s c h o o l to t r a i n i n g c e n t r e sometimes mandated t h a t l o n g e r t r a i n i n g s e s s i o n s be h e l d at l e s s f r e q u e n t i n t e r v a l s , and f o r l o n g e r p e r i o d s . O n l y i n a few s i t u a t i o n s were the p a r t i c i p a n t s of a p r o g r am a b l e to spend p a r t of each day i n t r a i n i n g and p a r t of each day i n the s c h o o l . The t r a i n i n g of I n d i a n t e a c h e r a i d e s has had two major f o c i i : (1) to i n c r e a s e I n d i a n s t u d e n t s ' a c h i e v e m e n t by c r e a t i n g a " c u l t u r e b r o k e r " or " c u l t u r a l b r i d g e " , and (2) to i n c r e a s e the number of I n d i a n a d u l t s employed i n the s c h o o l e d u c a t i o n team. The f i r s t f o c u s was i n t e n d e d to be a b r i d g e to p e r m i t p e o p l e to b r i n g more I n d i a n n e s s i n t o the s c h o o l s y s t e m . There has been an i n c r e a s e i n the t e a c h i n g of I n d i a n c r a f t s , a r t , m u s i c , l a n g u a g e s and h i s t o r y . However the i n s e r v i c e c o n t e n t of t r a i n i n g programs which c l o s e l y r e s emble t y p i c a l t e a c h e r t r a i n i n g c o u r s e s , and the l a c k of s u p e r v i s i o n and c o m m u n i c a t i o n between the home community, the s c h o o l p e r s o n n e l , and the program p e r s o n n e l has r e s u l t e d i n the t e a c h e r a i d e s becoming a b r i d g e a c r o s s which more i n f o r m a t i o n t r a v e l s from the s c h o o l to the s t u d e n t t h a n from the I n d i a n community and c u l t u r e to the s c h o o l . The t e a c h e r a i d e l e a r n s t h e n o n - I n d i a n s c h o o l s y s t e m and t h e n e x p l a i n s i t to the 108 I n d i a n s t u d e n t s so t h a t the s t u d e n t s not o n l y know what the methods and r u l e s a r e , but sees t h o s e methods and r u l e s as l e g i t i m a t e f o r the I n d i a n p e o p l e , a c c e p t e d and promoted by I n d i a n p e o p l e . The o t h e r i n t e n t i o n of the b r i d g e - t o b r i n g I n d i a n c u l t u r e , not j u s t c u r r i c u l u m m a t e r i a l s - i s v e r y d i f f i c u l t to a t t a i n when most of t e a c h e r a i d e s have w h i t e i n s t r u c t i o n a l models i n the t e a c h e r s w i t h whom the y work, i n t h e i r c o u r s e w o r k , and i n t h e i r own e x p e r i e n c e as s t u d e n t s . The second f o c u s of I n d i a n t e a c h e r a i d e t r a i n i n g programs - t o i n c r e a s e the number of I n d i a n a d u l t s employed i n the s c h o o l s y s t e m - has been r e a l i z e d most s u c c e s s f u l l y where the s c h o o l i s a band o p e r a t e d s c h o o l or s c h o o l d i s t r i c t . In o t h e r s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s , the e s t a b l i s h e d t e a c h e r a s s o c i a t i o n s view t e a c h e r a i d e s as infamous i n s e r t i o n s d e s i g n e d to r e d u c e the number of t e a c h i n g j o b s f o r a s s o c i a t i o n members; a c c e p t a n c e of t e a c h e r a i d e s as c o w o r k e r s has been slow, e s p e c i a l l y i n c l a s s r o o m s . I n d i a n bands have p a i d the s a l a r i e s of t e a c h e r a i d e s to p r e v e n t c h a r g e s of u s u r p i n g l o c a l s c h o o l b o a r d f i n a n c e s and t h i s has a l l o w e d the t e a c h e r a i d e s to be p l a c e d i n s c h o o l s . S a d l y , t e a c h e r and a d m i n i s t r a t o r s have s t i l l to be c o n v i n c e d the i n t r o d u c t i o n of I n d i a n t e a c h e r a i d e s i s a p o s i t i v e c o o p e r a t i v e e f f o r t r a t h e r t h a n an i n v a s i o n from p e o p l e who p r e v i o u s l y had l i t t l e i n t e r e s t or i n f l u e n c e i n s c h o o l s but who now a r e t a k i n g t h e i r p l a c e i n what was a c l o s e d p r o f e s s i o n a l shop. The p o l i t i c a l n a t u r e of i n t r o d u c i n g I n d i a n t e a c h e r a i d e s i s even more 109 delicate than the introduction of middle-class parent volunteers or teacher aides to schools. The sensitive nature of the process has been overlooked or Ignored by those who have operated and designed most of the training programs for Indian teacher aides. C h a p t e r T h r e e M e t h o d o l o g y 110 Summary The p r e s e n t s t u d y c o n s i s t s of two p a r t s , a r e v i e w of the l i t e r a t u r e on I n d i a n E d u c a t i o n w i t h p a r t i c u l a r a t t e n t i o n p a i d t o the l i t e r a t u r e on the t r a i n i n g of I n d i a n t e a c h e r s and t e a c h e r a i d e s as w e l l as the t r a i n i n g of t e a c h e r a i d e s to work i n m u l t i c u l t u r a l c l a s s r o o m s , and a s t u d y of the T e a c h i n g A s s i s t a n t T r a i n i n g Program i n L y t t o n , B.C. The s t u d y of the L y t t o n program took p l a c e over a two y e a r p e r i o d . The r e s e a r c h e r f i r s t became aware of the t e a c h i n g a s s i s t a n t t r a i n i n g program i n L y t t o n i n O c t o b e r 1981 and m o n i t o r e d i t t h r o u g h to June 1983. The T e a c h i n g A s s i s t a n t t r a i n i n g program i n L y t t o n , B.C. i s an example of a community w o r k i n g on the development of a s c h o o l team of p a r e n t s and e d u c a t o r s . The t r a i n i n g program was a f o r m a l e n t r y p r o c e s s to the s c h o o l f o r community members, i n t r o d u c i n g the team c o n c e p t of e d u c a t i o n f o r n a t i v e I n d i a n s and t e a c h e r s . T h i s s t u d y m i r r o r s some of the i m p r e s s i o n s of the p a r t i c i p a n t s , the t e a c h e r s , t h e a d m i n i s t r a t o r s , f o r t h e r e a r e " m u l t i p l e t r u t h s , m u l t i p l e u n d e r s t a n d i n g s , some c o n t r a d i c t o r y to o t h e r s " ( S t a k e , 1977). S t a k e reminded e d u c a t o r s t h a t " problems are d i r e c t l y s o l v e d by p e o p l e c l o s e at hand" r a t h e r than by the p r e s u m p t i o n t h a t " i n some measurement o r . . . i m p o r t e d t r u t h l i e s the remedy." I l l P e o p l e i n a s m a l l v i l l a g e , even one on the T r a n s - C a n a d a Highway and main r a i l w a y l i n e s , seemed to f e e l : ... an o u t s i d e r v i s i t s , p l a n s to t e l l s o m e t h i n g of y o u r s t o r y . You a r e s k e p t i c a l . ... he who knows n o t h i n g about you w i l l , even i n s a y i n g good, do you harm by t w i s t i n g the s t o r y . Then he w i l l go away and a l l of you i n your i s o l a t e d .. community w i l l l i v e w i t h the bad f e e l i n g s l e f t i n h i s wake. (The R a i n y Lake C h r o n i c l e , 1983 , p.2) T h e r e was a l o n g p e r i o d of t r u s t b u i l d i n g w h i l e program p a r t i c i p a n t s were wary of an o u t s i d e i n v e s t i g a t o r who had m o t i v e s t h a t were u n r e l a t e d to the program i t s e l f and the p e o p l e i n the program. T h i s i n i t i a l h e s i t e n c y on the p a r t of t h e T e a c h i n g A s s i s t a n t s and s c h o o l s t a f f to be p a r t of the s t u d y p r e c l u d e d the use of p r e t e s t s and p o s t t e s t s to a s s e s s c hanges i n a t t i t u d e s or p e r f o r m a n c e . The s t u d y i s a m i c r o - s t u d y u s i n g G o o d l a d ' s "amalgam of t r a d i t i o n a l t e c h n i q u e s : i n t e r v i e w s , q u e s t i o n n a i r e s , o b s e r v a t i o n s , and, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the c u r r i c u l u m domain, c o l l e c t i o n s of documents" ( G o o d l a d , 1983). An a t t e m p t has been made to d e s c r i b e and document program a c t i v i t i e s and p r o c e s s e s . T h i s i s c l a s s i f i e d as p r o c e s s e v a l u a t i o n ( B o r i c h , 1982). 112 Ins t r u m e n t s  Q u e s t i o n n a i r e s T e a c h e r A s s i s t a n t Q u e s t i o n n a i r e The q u e s t i o n n a i r e ( A p p e n d i x D) g i v e n to the t e a c h i n g a s s i s t a n t s was a d a p t e d from the one d e s i g n e d by Thomas and M c i n t o s h f o r t h e i r e v a l u a t i o n of the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ' s N a t i v e I n d i a n T e a c h e r E d u c a t i o n Program ( N I T E P ) . J i o t h NITEP and the L y t t o n t e a c h i n g a s s i s t a n t t r a i n i n g program a c c e p t e d s t u d e n t s w i t h v a r i e d academic b a c k g r o u n d . Both programs p r e p a r e d s t u d e n t s to work i n the s c h o o l s but r e c o g n i z e d the program might p r e p a r e p e o p l e f o r o t h e r j o b s as w e l l ; b o t h programs were d e s i g n e d s p e c i f i c a l l y f o r the I n d i a n p e o p l e of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . The c o - o r d i n a t o r and the e d u c a t i o n d i r e c t o r of the L y t t o n program viewed i t as p r e p a r a t i o n f o r NITEP; the t r a i n e e s i n i t i a l l y hoped the t e a c h i n g a s s i s t a n t t r a i n i n g program would d e v e l o p i n t o a NITEP c e n t r e ; t h e r e f o r e , a c o m p a r i s o n between the r e s p o n s e s o f the p a r t i c i p a n t s of the two programs would i l l u s t r a t e s i m i l a r i t i e s between the two groups of s t u d e n t s . A sample q u e s t i o n n a i r e was d i s t r i b u t e d to the T e a c h i n g A s s i s t a n t s i n March of 1982. Some q u e s t i o n s were d e l e t e d at t h i s time f o l l o w i n g a d i s c u s s i o n w i t h the T e a c h i n g A s s i s t a n t t r a i n e e s , the P rogram C o o r d i n a t o r and the r e s e a r c h e r . The r e v i s e d q u e s t i o n n a i r e was d i s t r i b u t e d to the T e a c h i n g A s s i s t a n t s d u r i n g the f i n a l week of the program i n May, 1983. 113 The T e a c h i n g A s s i s t a n t s , by t h e n c o m f o r t a b l e about the c o n t e n t s and the use of the i n f o r m a t i o n , were n o n e t h e l e s s c o n f i d e n t of t h e i r r i g h t to answer or not to answer the q u e s t i o n s . A l t h o u g h t h e y were sur e t h e i r i n d i v i d u a l r e s p o n s e s would not be r e v e a l e d , t h e y a l s o knew t h a t the r e s e a r c h e r c o u l d i d e n t i f y t h e i r r e p l i e s to q u e s t i o n s and t h i s may have shaped t h e i r r e s p o n s e s . T e a c h e r Q u e s t i o n n a i r e The q u e s t i o n n a i r e ( A p p e n d i x C) g i v e n to the t e a c h e r s was a d a p t e d from the pre and p o s t t e s t s g i v e n by Brown i n 1975 t o s c h o o l p e r s o n n e l i n Texas d u r i n g the c r e a t i o n of a t r a i n i n g p r o g r a m f o r b u i l d i n g a i d e s . The two programs were s i m i l a r as the b u i l d i n g a i d e s i n Texas l i k e the T e a c h i n g A i d e s i n L y t t o n were not a s s i g n e d to one t e a c h e r but p e r f o r m e d a v a r i e t y of t a s k s f o r v a r i o u s t e a c h e r s i n the s c h o o l . The t r a i n e e s i n b o t h programs were c h o s e n from the s c h o o l community w i t h o u t p r e r e q u i s i t e a c a d e m i c q u a l i f i c a t i o n s . A d d i t i o n a l q u e s t i o n s were f o r m u l a t e d a f t e r c o n s i d e r a t i o n of the M i n i s t r y of E d u c a t i o n ' s New S t a t e g i e s i n I n d i a n E d u c a t i o n ( 1 9 8 1 ) , C o r n w e l l ( 1 9 7 9 ) , S t e r l i n g and H e b e r t ( n . d . ) . The a d d i t i o n a l q u e s t i o n s a t t e m p t e d to d e t e r m i n e i f t e a c h i n g or p r e s e n t a t i o n s t y l e s had been a d a p t e d to match M i n i s t r y s u g g e s t i o n s f o r accommodating I n d i a n s t u d e n t s ' l e a r n i n g s t y l e s i n the s c h o o l s . The r e s e a r c h e r a t t e n d e d a s t a f f m e e t i n g at the h i g h 114 s c h o o l i n May to p r e s e n t the q u e s t i o n n a i r e and answered q u e s t i o n s c o n c e r n i n g the s t u d y and use of the d a t a and t h e s i s . The p r i n c i p a l at the e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l chose to I p r e s e n t and d i s t r i b u t e the q u e s t i o n n a i r e to h i s s t a f f . The r e s e a r c h e r d i d not meet w i t h the e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l s t a f f . I n t e r v i e w s The i n t e r v i e w c h e c k l i s t s ( A p p e n d i c e s A and B) were f o r m u l a t e d by the r e s e a r c h e r and r e f i n e d i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h p rogram d e v e l o p e r s and d e l i v e r y p e r s o n n e l i n March, 1982. Comments r e g a r d i n g l a t e r d e v e l o p m e n t s were added i n the f a l l o f 1982 and In F e b r u a r y , 1983. I n t e r v i e w s w i t h the s c h o o l p r i n c i p a l s and the t e a c h e r who c o o r d i n a t e d the t u t o r i n g p r o g r am i n the h i g h s c h o o l were h e l d i n May, 1983. D u r i n g the i n t e r v i e w s the r e s e a r c h e r t r i e d to i d e n t i f y , i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h the p a r t i c i p a n t s , f a c t o r s t h a t had a f f e c t e d the program d e s i g n and o p e r a t i o n . I n t e r v i e w s were h e l d i n the o f f i c e s of the p e o p l e i n t e r v i e w e d . A w r i t t e n r e p o r t of the i n t e r v i e w was s e n t to each p e r s o n f o r c o r r e c t i o n s and a d d i t i o n s . A f u r t h e r m e e t i n g was h e l d i f so d e s i r e d . W r i t t e n c o r r e c t i o n s were made and t h e n r e c h e c k e d by t e l e p h o n e and l e t t e r . O b s e r v a t i o n s The r e s e a r c h e r became a p a r t i c i p a n t o b s e r v e r i n two w o r k s h o p s , one a t t e n d e d by t e a c h e r s and T e a c h i n g A s s i s t a n t s , 115 and one math workshop a t t e n d e d o n l y by the T e a c h i n g A s s i s t a n t s . The r e s e a r c h e r c o n d u c t e d two c u r r i c u l u m d e v e l o p m e n t workshops w i t h the T e a c h i n g A s s i s t a n t s . The r e s e a r c h e r was h i r e d to t u t o r the t e a c h e r T e a c h i n g A s s i s t a n t s t o a s s i s t them w i t h the c o m p l e t i o n of one of the Open L e a r n i n g I n s t i t u t e of B r i t s h C o l u m b i a ' s E n g l i s h c o u r s e s . The t u t o r i n g took p l a c e d u r i n g e i g h t s e s s i o n s of two a f t e r n o o n s . The r e s e a r c h e r made s e v e r a l v i s i t s to the o f f i c e of the E d u c a t i o n D i r e c t o r and C u r r i c u l u m M a t e r i a l s D e v e l o p e r of the L y t t o n I n d i a n Band to r e v i e w program d e v e l o p m e n t , and to p r o v i d e some r e s e a r c h m a t e r i a l from the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a l i b r a r y f o r the c u r r i c u l u m b e i n g d e v e l o p e d by the L y t t o n I n d i a n Band e m p l o y e e s . I n f o r m a l c o n v e r s a t i o n s were h e l d w i t h the T e a c h i n g A s s i s t a n t s d u r i n g t h e s e v i s i t s . The r e s e a r c h e r a t t e n d e d the " S u c c e s s e s i n I n d i a n E d u c a t i o n : A S h a r i n g " C o n f e r e n c e i n V a n c o u v e r i n F e b r u a r y , 1983 t o o b s e r v e the p r e s e n t a t i o n by the T e a c h i n g A s s i s t a n t s , E d u c a t i o n D i r e c t o r and C u r r i c u l u m M a t e r i a l s D e v e l o p e r of the L y t t o n p rogram. V i s i t s to the s c h o o l s were made on the days t h a t the r e s e a r c h e r was i n L y t t o n but t h o s e v i s i t s were r e s t r i c t e d to d i s c u s s i o n s w i t h the p r i n c i p a l s and i n d i v i d u a l t e a c h e r s . C l a s s r o o m o b s e r v a t i o n s were not made. I n s t e a d , the r e p o r t of c l a s s r o o m o b s e r v a t i o n s of the T e a c h i n g A s s i s t a n t s made by the program e v a l u a t o r at the end of the se c o n d y e a r of the L y t t o n t r a i n i n g program were r e a d . 116 Document Study C o p i e s of the o u t l i n e s f o r each workshop h e l d i n L y t t o n were o b t a i n e d . S c h e d u l e s of c l a s s e s and c l a s s r o o m a s s i g n m e n t s i n the s c h o o l s were made a v a i l a b l e by program d e v e l o p e r s . As w e l l as m a t e r i a l i n the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a L i b r a r i e s , documents and books from the p r i v a t e l i b r a r i e s of v a r i o u s f a c u l t y members were r e v i e w e d . The c o l l e c t i o n of m a t e r i a l i n the NITEP r e f e r e n c e room was exam i n e d . P e o p l e who had been i n ch a r g e of I n d i a n t e a c h e r t r a i n i n g programs were c o n t a c t e d and i n most c a s e s , documents were o b t a i n e d . The m a t e r i a l s a v a i l a b l e from the Department of I n d i a n A f f a i r s i n V a n c o u v e r were examined. L i m i t a t i o n s The r e s e a r c h e r was not c o n t i n u a l l y i n v o l v e d i n the program nor was she a b l e to make s c h e d u l e d o b s e r v a t i o n s of the program. However, t h i r t e e n p e r c e n t of the t r a i n i n g w o r k shops were a t t e n d e d a l t h o u g h v i s i t s were u n e v e n l y s p a c e d t h r o u g h o u t the two y e a r s . O b s e r v a t i o n of the T e a c h i n g A s s i s t a n t s at work w i t h s t u d e n t s or t e a c h e r s were not made by the r e s e a r c h e r . I t was not p o s s i b l e to c o n t r o l the l e v e l of c o o p e r a t i o n i n q u e s t i o n n a i r e a n s w e r i n g . F i v e out of t e n s t a f f members i n 117 t h e e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l c o m p l e t e d the q u e s t i o n n a i r e ; t e n out of f o u r t e e n s t a f f members i n the h i g h s c h o o l r e s p o n d e d . A l l the T e a c h i n g A s s i s t a n t s c o m p l e t e d the f i r s t p a r t of the q u e s t i o n n a i r e , o n l y one d e c l i n e d to c o m p l e t e the second h a l f . The p e o p l e who l e f t the t r a i n i n g program a t the b e g i n n i n g of the f i r s t y e a r and the p e r s o n who l e f t i t i n the second y e a r d i d not f i l l out the q u e s t i o n n a i r e s . T h e r e a r e f o u r p o s s i b l e e x p l a n a t i o n s f o r the lower r e s p o n s e r a t e by the e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l s t a f f : 1) t h e r e were fewer T e a c h i n g A s s i s t a n t s w o r k i n g i n the e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l f o r the l a s t s i x months of the program. 2) the q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were d i s t r i b u t e d by the p r i n c i p a l r a t h e r t h a n the r e s e a r c h e r , thus the p e r s o n a l , p r o f e s s i o n a l c o n t a c t was l a c k i n g between the r e s e a r c h and the t e a c h e r s . 3) t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e was d i s t r i b u t e d j u s t a f t e r the C u r r i c u l u m M a t e r i a l s D e v e l o p e r , an e x - s t a f f member of the e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l , and the E d u c a t i o n a l D i r e c t o r had l e f t the band's employ and l o y a l t i e s were d i v i d e d between the program and the p e o p l e who had l e f t . 4) I t was not p o s s i b l e f o r the r e s e a r c h e r to employ p e r s o n a l f o l l o w u p p r o c e d u r e s i n the e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l . Oppenheimer o b s e r v e d t h a t one of the p r o b l e m s of e v a l u a t i n g e d u c a t i o n a l programs f o r a d u l t s was t h a t i t was " a l m o s t i m p o s s i b l e to get a n e g a t i v e comment or c r i t i c a l e v a l u a t i o n of a c l a s s or t e a c h e r from an o l d e r a d u l t s t u d e n t " ( O p p e n h e i m e r , 1980, p . 2 ) . T h i s s t a t e m e n t a l s o a p p l i e s to N a t i v e I n d i a n s t u d e n t s and w r i t t e n e v a l u a t i o n s . They are o n l y 118 s l i g h t l y l e s s r e l u c t a n t to c r i t i c i z e v e r b a l l y ( N o b l e , 1980). Rothe r e m i n d e d r e s e a r c h e r s t h a t q u e s t i o n n a i r e r e s u l t s a r e b i a s e d when I n d i a n p e o p l e " a r e e x p e c t e d to comp l e t e f o r c e d - c h o i c e i t e m s which r e f l e c t a r e s e a r c h e r ' s p e r s p e c t i v e on e d u c a t i o n a l f e a t u r e s which a r e s i g n i f i c a n t and r e l e v a n t to the r e s e a r c h e r " ( R o t h e , 1982, p . l ) . R e s e a r c h e r s a r e f u r t h e r c a u t i o n e d by Adams because "answers by M e t i s and I n d i a n s to f o r m a l q u e s t i o n n a i r e s r a r e l y r e p r e s e n t t r u e o p i n i o n s about the q u e s t i o n s " (Adams,1975, p . 1 5 7 ) . In t h i s s t u d y b o t h t e a c h e r s and I n d i a n p e o p l e were r e q u e s t e d to answer such a f o r m a l q u e s t i o n n a r i e . C h a p t e r Four L y t t o n T e a c h i n g A s s i s t a n t P rogram 1 1 9 In t h i s c h a p t e r the d e v elopment of the L y t t o n T e a c h i n g A s s i s t a n t T r a i n i n g Program w i l l be d e s c r i b e d . F i r s t t h e r e i s a b r i e f s k e t c h of the town of L y t t o n , t h e n the t r a i n i n g p r ogram i s p r e s e n t e d . The t r a i n i n g program w i l l be d i s c u s s e d u nder the same h e a d i n g s as were used i n the r e v i e w of the l i t e r a t u r e : Community I n v o l v e m e n t , P u r p o s e s and O b j e c t i v e s of the Program, P r e r e q u i s i t e s , G o a l s f o r the Program T r a i n e e s , I n s e r v i c e C o n t e n t , I n s e r v i c e O r g a n i z a t i o n , A s s i g n m e n t to S c h o o l s , S u p p o r t S e r v i c e s and F i n d i n g s . I n t r o d u c t i o n t o the Community The v i l l a g e of L y t t o n p e r c h e s on a bench above the c o n f l u x of the Thompson and F r a s e r R i v e r s . The T r a n s - C a n a d a Highway c u t s a l o n g the m o u n t a i n s i d e above the v i l l a g e w h i l e t h e two main C a n a d i a n of the r a i l w a y l i n e s s k i r t the upper and l o w e r l i m i t s of the o l d town. A neat g r i d of t r e e - l i n e d s i d e - s t r e e t s b o r d e r s the wide s t o r e - f r o n t e d main s t r e e t . Two b l o c k s a r e empty due to p a s t f i r e s . T here a r e two g r o c e r y s t o r e s , a s m a l l d e p a r t m e n t s t o r e , a bank, the l i b r a r y and some s m a l l e r s t o r e s a l o n g the s t r e e t . At the t u r n o f f from the T r a n s - C a n a d a t h e r e i s a l a r g e m o t e l , g a r a g e , c a f e , and summer r i v e r r a f t t r i p complex on the r i g h t and the h i g h s c h o o l on t h e l e f t . 120 T h e r e a r e two new s u b d i v i s i o n s h i d d e n above the T r a n s - C a n a d a highway. They a r e b u i l t on a d r y , open h i l l s i d e . T r e e s are j u s t s t a r t i n g to p r o v i d e much needed wind b r e a k s and s h e l t e r from the sun i n summer i n t h i s , one of the h o t t e s t s p o t s i n Canada. W i n d i n g down the h i l l under the r a i l l i n e , the road p a s s e s the f o r e s t r y s t a t i o n , manned o n l y i n the summer, and t u r n s once a g a i n to e n t e r the town. On the r i g h t an i m p o s i n g t w o - s t o r e y b u i l d i n g w i t h a m o t e l i n tow becomes a c e n t r e of a c t i v i t y i n the summer f o r r a f t t r i p p e r s f i n a l i z i n g p l a n s to go down the F r a s e r or Thompson R i v e r . A l i t t l e f a r t h e r down the s t r e e t on the l e f t i s the c e n t r e of town f o r the t e e n a g e r s , the e l e c t r o n i c games a r c a d e . A n o t h e r b l o c k f u r t h e r i s the c o r e of the town. On one c o r n e r i s the h o t e l c o m p l e t e w i t h c a f e , r e s t a u r a n t and pub, and a c r o s s from i t i s the p o s t o f f i c e s h a r i n g a b u i l d i n g w i t h the I n d i a n Band O f f i c e . J u s t up the h i l l on a s i d e s t r e e t i s the R.C.M.P. o f f i c e and the e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l . Tucked i n b e h i n d the Band o f f i c e on the p a r t of main s t r e e t w hich i s cut o f f by the o l d highway i s the h o s p i t a l and c h u r c h . Between the Band o f f i c e and the h o t e l i s a r o a d t h a t l e a v e s the town f o r L i l l o o e t . I t a l s o l e a d s to the f e r r y a c r o s s the r i v e r to the many s m a l l e n c l a v e s of I n d i a n p e o p l e who l i v e on farms and r a n c h e s on the benches i n the c u r v e s of the F r a s e r R i v e r . The road to B o t a n i e V a l l e y b r a n c h e s o f f the L i l l o o e t Road. The o l d r e s i d e n t i a l s c h o o l i s f u r t h e r a l o n g the r o a d to L i l l o o e t . L y t t o n has a p o p u l a t i o n of about 2000 . Of t h e s e 121 r e s i d e n t s , 1200 a r e N a t i v e I n d i a n s . I n d i a n a d u l t s work i n the c a f e , i n the m i l l , i n the band o f f i c e , as s u p p o r t s t a f f i n the s c h o o l s , f o r the r a i l w a y s , as l o g g e r s and as f a r m e r s i n t h e s u r r o u n d i n g c o u n t r y . The n o n - N a t i v e s a r e the s t o r e and h o t e l owners, the g a r a g e , m i l l and m o t e l o p e r a t o r s , the t o u r i s t r a f t t r i p o r g a n i z e r s , the t r a i n c r ews, the f o r e s t r y , m e d i c a l , p o l i c e and t e a c h i n g p e r s o n n e l . T h e r e a r e numerous a d u l t s , I n d i a n and n o n - I n d i a n , who a r e unemployed most of the year.- P a r t time work w i t h the Highways D e p a r t m e n t , and w i t h t h e F o r e s t S e r v i c e t r e e p l a n t i n g or f i r e f i g h t i n g crews i s sometimes a v a i l a b l e . One of the many s m a l l r e s e r v e s i n the a r e a ( t h e o r i g i n a l L y t t o n s e t t l e m e n t ) a b u t s the town and the I n d i a n s who l i v e t h e r e e n j o y the b e n e f i t s of the town's water s u p p l y , f i r e p r o t e c t i o n , sewer s y s t e m , h o s p i t a l , and t v s a t e l l i t e r e c e p t i o n d i s h . In the o p i n i o n of some of the towns' p e o p l e , the I n d i a n s a r e seen to r e c e i v e an i n o r d i n a t e amount of f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e from the government which i s p a i d f o r by the n o n - I n d i a n t a x p a y e r . T h i s was seen to be t r u e of t h o s e I n d i a n p e o p l e who had a c c e s s to town f a c i l i t i e s , t h o s e I n d i a n p e o p l e who were p r o v i d e d w i t h Band j o b s , t h o s e p e o p l e who r e c e i v e d t r a i n i n g c o u r s e s i n f a r m i n g or i n w o r k i n g i n the s c h o o l s , and t h o s e I n d i a n s t u d e n t s who r e c e i v e d e d u c a t i o n a l l o w a n c e s ( s e e a l s o R e i d , 1 9 7 4 ) . These s e n s i t i v i t i e s r e g a r d i n g the e q u a l i t y of o p p o r t u n i t y and t r e a t m e n t between I n d i a n and n o n - I n d i a n meant t h a t some p e o p l e i n the town were not e n t h u s i a t i c 122 s u p p o r t e r s of the T e a c h i n g A s s i s t a n t T r a i n i n g Program. L e s t the i m p r e s s i o n i s g i v e n of a town d i v i d e d by the above, i t was o b s e r v e d t h a t the Department of A g r i c u l t u r e l e c t u r e s and d e m o n s t r a t i o n s on g a r d e n i n g and o r c h a r d i n g t h a t were h e l d i n the Band o f f i c e f a c i l i t i e s were a t t e n d e d by b o t h I n d i a n and n o n - I n d i a n s . I t was a l s o o b s e r v e d t h a t at community b a l l games t h e r e were p l a y e r s b o t h I n d i a n and n o n - I n d i a n . The L y t t o n T e a c h i n g A s s i s t a n t T r a i n i n g Program Community I n v o l v e m e n t In t h i s s e c t i o n the i n v o l v e m e n t of community members and g r o u p s i n L y t t o n i n the I n d i a n t e a c h i n g a s s i s t a n t t r a i n i n g p r o g r a m i s examined and d i s c u s s e d . The p o p u l a t i o n of the community of L y t t o n i s a l m o s t e v e n l y d i v i d e d between I n d i a n and n o n - I n d i a n p e o p l e . The s c h o o l p e r s o n n e l a r e bot h I n d i a n and n o n - I n d i a n but the t e a c h e r s and a d m i n i s t r a t o r s are a l l n o n - N a t i v e I n d i a n w h i l e the s t u d e n t body i s s e v e n t y - f i v e p e r c e n t N a t i v e I n d i a n . Community i n v o l v e m e n t i n c h a n g i n g c u r r i c u l u m , s t a f f i n g and a c t i v i t i e s i n the s c h o o l t h e r e f o r e was an a t t e m p t to a l t e r power s t r u c t u r e , a v e r y p o l i t i c a l h a p p e n i n g . In 1980 the L y t t o n R e v i e w / A c t i o n Committee was e s t a b l i s h e d by the L y t t o n a r e a I n d i a n Bands (Kanaka, L y t t o n , Nicomen, S i s k a , Skuppah) and the South C a r i b o o S c h o o l 123 D i s t r i c t . A c o n s u l t a n t from the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a was a s k e d to j o i n the c o m m i t t e e . The p u r p o s e of the committee was: to d e t e r m i n e how w e l l the c u r r e n t e d u c a t i o n s y s t e m i s m e e t i n g the needs of I n d i a n c h i l d r e n a t t e n d i n g L y t t o n s c h o o l s so Band members as w e l l as o t h e r p a r e n t s can be more aware of the e x i s t i n g e d u c a t i o n a l s y s t e m , i t s s t r e n g t h s and w e a k n e s s e s , as a b a s i s f o r c o n s i d e r a t i o n of d e v e l o p i n g improvements and a l t e r n a t i v e s f o r the f u t u r e . (More, 1981) D u r i n g Phase 1, t h r e e Band members i n t e r v i e w e d p a r e n t s , o l d e r s t u d e n t s and i n t e r e s t e d community p e o p l e to d e t e r m i n e and d i s c u s s t h e i r g o a l s f o r e d u c a t i o n . I n d i a n E d u c a t i o n p r o j e c t s i n o t h e r c o m m u n i t i e s were examined. In p a r t i c u l a r , the t e a c h e r a i d e program at B e l l a B e l l a and the B i l i n g u a l / B i c u l t u r a l program at New A i y a n s h , the c u r r i c u l u m p r o j e c t s of the S t o r l o S i t e l , and the work b e i n g done by R o b e r t S t e r l i n g and h i s program i n M e r r i t t were s t u d i e d . A s e r i e s of g o a l s and o b j e c t i v e s f o r the s t u d e n t s i n t h e two L y t t o n s c h o o l s w i t h p a r t i c u l a r r e f e r e n c e to the l a r g e p e r c e n t a g e (75%) of I n d i a n s t u d e n t s was d e v e l o p e d by t h e s t a f f s of the s c h o o l s . A r e p o r t of Phase I was p r e s e n t e d t o the Band i n the summer of 1981. T h i s phase c o m p l e t e d the f i r s t s t e p of T y l e r ' s r a t i o n a l e , "What e d u c a t i o n a l p u r p o s e s s h o u l d the s c h o o l seek to a t t a i n ? " ( T y l e r , 1966). I t a l s o b r o u g h t the t h r e e main groups n e c e s s a r y f o r the s u c c e s s f u l i m p l e m e n t a t i o n of any i n n o v a t i o n ( O r g a n i z a t i o n f o r Economic C o - o p e r a t i o n and D e v e l o p m e n t , 1977, F u l l a n , 1983), namely: ( a ) t h o s e who a r e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the i n n o v a t i n g 124 a c t i o n as d e s i g n e r s , a n a l y s t s , s e l e c t o r s and i m p l e m e n t o r s ; (b) t h o s e who make up the t a r g e t a r e a - i n d i v i d u a l c i t i z e n s , p r o f e s s i o n a l g r o u p s , o r g a n i z a t i o n s or c o m m u n i t i e s , and ( c ) t h e g e n e r a l p u b l i c who can be e x p e c t e d to be more t h a n j u s t n e u t r a l o b s e r v e r s . ( B r u u s g a a r d q u o t e d by O r g a n i z a t i o n f o r Economic C o - o p e r a t i o n and D e v e l o p m e n t , 1977, n. pag.) However, the next s t e p s of the r a t i o n a l e , "What e d u c a t i o n a l e x p e r i e n c e s can be p r o v i d e d t h a t a r e l i k e l y to a t t a i n t h e s e p u r p o s e s ? " and "How can t h e s e e d u c a t i o n a l e x p e r i e n c e s be e f f e c t i v e l y o r g a n i z e d ? " were not f o r m a l l y a d d r e s s e d by the groups i n v o l v e d b e c a u s e , w h i l e the i n t e r v i e w s were b e i n g c o n d u c t e d , and the g o a l s b e i n g s e t , the Home-School C o o r d i n a t o r of the L y t t o n Band began d i s c u s s i o n s w i t h the s c h o o l p r i n c i p a l s and the s u p e r i n t e n d e n t of the S o u t h C a r i b o o S c h o o l D i s t r i c t about the p o s s i b i l i t y of p l a c i n g I n d i a n T e a c h i n g A s s i s t a n t s i n the s c h o o l c l a s s r o o m s . T h i s p r o j e c t might have i n f a c t been s o m e t h i n g t h a t the c o m m i t t e e , community and s c h o o l s t a f f would have s e l e c t e d as s o m e t h i n g to answer the second of T y l e r ' s q u e s t i o n s , but they were s i d e s t e p p e d i n the p r o c e s s . W h i l e the committee c o n t i n u e d c o l l e c t i n g d a t a to examine the e d u c a t i o n p r o c e s s i n L y t t o n , the Home-School C o o r d i n a t o r p u r s u e d the p o s s i b i l i t y of c r e a t i n g a T e a c h i n g A s s i s t a n t T r a i n i n g Program by s e e k i n g s u p p o r t from the D i r e c t o r of I n d i a n E d u c a t i o n i n the M i n i s t r y of E d u c a t i o n , B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . The Department of I n d i a n A f f a i r s and the o f f i c e of the S u p e r v i s o r of I n d i a n E d u c a t i o n of the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a were a p p r o a c h e d by the Home-School 125 C o o r d i n a t o r to o r g a n i z e a t r a i n i n g program f o r the T e a c h i n g A s s i s t a n t s . The Home-School C o o r d i n a t o r employed a s t r a t e g y of c o l l e c t i n g a l l s u p p o r t i n g f i g u r e s and documents and a s s e m b l i n g them on p a p e r , t h e n , w i t h t h o s e p a p e r s i n hand, m e e t i n g the o f f i c i a l s and a d m i n i s t r a t o r s one by one, f a c e to f a c e , to o b t a i n t h e i r a p p r o v a l and b a c k i n g f o r the program. By September, 1981, a t e n t a t i v e f o r m a t f o r the L y t t o n T e a c h i n g A s s i s t a n t T r a i n i n g Program had been c r e a t e d . F i n a n c i n g from the Band's d i s c r e t i o n a r y f u n d s had been a p p r o v e d by the Band C o u n c i l and the Department of I n d i a n A f f a i r s f o r program s a l a r i e s , equipment and s u p p l i e s , the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ' s F i e l d O f f i c e p r o v i d e d i n s t r u c t o r s and t h e i r s t i p e n d s . A Program C o o r d i n a t o r was h i r e d from w i t h i n the community. She was a p e r s o n who had t a u g h t i n the e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l and who had worked as a s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n a s s i s t a n t i n t h e h i g h s c h o o l . E i g h t c a n d i d a t e s f o r t r a i n i n g were r e c r u i t e d from the band by the Home-School C o o r d i n a t o r . P r i n c i p a l s gave p e r m i s s i o n f o r the T e a c h i n g A s s i s t a n t s to be p r e s e n t i n t h e i r s c h o o l s and t e a c h e r s v o l u n t e e r e d t h e i r c l a s s r o o m s . A room i n the band o f f i c e b u i l d i n g was a l l o c a t e d as the T e a c h i n g A s s i s t a n t s ' c l a s s r o o m . The program was began l e s s t h a n s i x months a f t e r c o n c e p t i o n . The Home S c h o o l C o o r d i n a t o r , the Band C h i e f , the Band O f f i c e s t a f f , the L y t t o n R e v i e w / A c t i o n Committee and the Band were a l l proud and a l i t t l e s u r p r i s e d t h a t so much c o u l d happen so f a s t . I t a p p e a r e d t h a t e v e r y o n e i n v o l v e d i n the 126 i n n o v a t i o n of i n t r o d u c i n g I n d i a n T e a c h i n g A s s i s t a n t s i n t o the s c h o o l s had become i n f o r m e d about the p l a n n e d program, and had a p p r o v e d i t . The community and the s c h o o l s t a f f s had some r e s e r v a t i o n s about the program, i t s i n t e n t s and p u r p o s e s . Some of the q u e s t i o n s r a i s e d were: "What a r e we t r a i n i n g t h e s e p e o p l e f o r ? " "Can we a s s u r e them of j o b s i n the s c h o o l s at the end of a s u c c e s s f u l l y c o m p l e t e d program?" "Where w i l l the fund s f o r t h e i r s a l a r i e s come from i n f u t u r e y e a r s ? " To o t h e r s the program was a n o t h e r "make-work" program, government money b e i n g spent on a t a s k t h a t d i d n ' t need to be done. To s t i l l o t h e r s the program was b e i n g f o i s t e d onto the s c h o o l s b e f o r e the t e a c h e r s and a d m i n i s t r a t o r s had a chance to t h i n k a b o u t : " D i d the t e a c h e r s need T e a c h i n g A s s i s t a n t s ? " "What do t e a c h e r s want T e a c h i n g A s s i s t a n t s to be a b l e to do?" VWhat w i l l i t mean to t e a c h e r s , s t u d e n t s , and s c h o o l s , to have T e a c h i n g A s s i s t a n t s i n the c l a s s r o o m s ? " "How does a t e a c h e r work w i t h a T e a c h i n g A s s i s t a n t ? " Two or t h r e e p e o p l e wondered, "How w i l l t e a c h e r s work w i t h T e a c h i n g A s s i s t a n t s who a r e I n d i a n s , and not n e c e s s a r i l y t h o s e who had been s t a r p u p i l s nor u n c r i t i c a l s u p p o r t e r s of the s c h o o l s y s t e m ? " As the program p r o g r e s s e d , the community as a whole had l i t t l e d i r e c t i n p u t i n t o the program. However, c o n v e r s a t i o n s i n the community about the program f i l t e r e d back to the Band o f f i c e t h r o u g h the T e a c h i n g A s s i s t a n t s , t e a c h e r s , Home-School C o o r d i n a t o r and Program C o o r d i n a t o r . 127 I n f o r m a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n networks c o n c e r n i n g the t r a i n i n g p r ogram e s t a b l i s h e d t h e m s e l v e s . The workshop i n s t r u c t o r s p i c k e d up f e e l i n g s , a t t i t u d e s , o p i n i o n s , and i n f o r m a t i o n when t h e y v i s i t e d the s c h o o l s and t a l k e d to s t a f f members, or as t h e y c h e c k e d i n t o m o t e l s or a t e meals i n r e s t a u r a n t s . A s t r a n g e r i n a s m a l l town i s q u e s t i o n e d about h i s or her b u s i n e s s . Few l o c a l n o n - I n d i a n p e o p l e h e s i t a t e d t o v o i c e t h e i r o p i n i o n about t h i s new d e v elopment i n t h e i r s c h o o l s . I t seemed t h e r e were at l e a s t two s e p a r a t e networks w i t h o n l y a minimum c r o s s o v e r between n o n - I n d i a n and I n d i a n i n f o r m a t i o n and p e r c e p t i o n s about the program. The I n d i a n Band, t h r o u g h the c h i e f , o f f i c e s t a f f , and Home-School C o o r d i n a t o r ' s r e g u l a r r e p o r t s to the Band C o u n c i l , were k e p t f o r m a l l y i n f o r m e d about the program's d e v e l o p m e n t . Because the Band C o u n c i l r e g u l a t e d the f u n d s and was a p p r i z e d of h a p p e n i n g s , the Band r e t a i n e d f i n a n c i a l and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e c o n t r o l of the p r o j e c t . The P rogram C o o r d i n a t o r and the Home-School C o o r d i n a t o r s e r v e d as the community c o n t r o l f o r program d e s i g n i n the f o l l o w i n g ways. They were a b l e to a s s e s s the i n t e r a c t i o n between the T e a c h i n g A s s i s t a n t s and the t e a c h e r s i n the s c h o o l by d a i l y o b s e r v a t i o n s and by the f e e d b a c k each of them r e c e i v e d from i n d i v i d u a l t e a c h e r s and T e a c h i n g A s s i s t a n t s . They c o n s u l t e d w i t h each o t h e r and w i t h the S u p e r v i s o r of I n d i a n E d u c a t i o n from the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . The Program C o o r d i n a t o r and the Home-School C o o r d i n a t o r a d j u s t e d the c o n t e n t and form of the a f t e r n o o n s e s s i o n s and 128 workshops to accomodate the p e r c e i v e d and v o i c e d needs of the T e a c h i n g A s s i s t a n t s . A n o t h e r p a r t of the community, the t e a c h e r s , d i d not have c o n t r o l o v e r program d e s i g n . In o n l y one i n s t a n c e were the t e a c h e r s ' needs a d d r e s s e d f a c e - t o - f a c e by the program. At o t h e r t i m e s , t e a c h e r s ' c o n c e r n s were c o n s i d e r e d , but not i n the combined p r e s e n c e of t e a c h e r s and T e a c h i n g A s s i s t a n t s . The t e a c h e r s d i d not see how the t r a i n i n g program was a t t e m p t i n g to adapt to meet t h e i r needs f o r a s s i s t a n c e i n the c l a s s r o o m . They d i d not f e e l they had i n p u t i n t o the program. The w i d e r community was s t i l l more remote from i t . P u r p o s e s and O b j e c t i v e s of Program In t h i s s e c t i o n the s t a t e d p u r p o s e s and o b j e c t i v e s of the L y t t o n T e a c h i n g A s s i s t a n t T r a i n i n g Program w i l l be d i s c u s s e d . The i n t e n t i o n s of the T e a c h e r A s s i s t a n t T r a i n i n g Program i n L y t t o n were s i m i l a r to t h o s e t r a i n i n g programs f o r I n d i a n T e a c h e r A i d e s i n the s c h o o l s of B e l l a B e l l a , B e l l a C o o l a , K l e m t u , and C h e h a l i s , a l l of which used the workshop o u t l i n e s d e v e l o p e d by More and Ashworth ( 1 9 8 0 ) . The program i n t e n t as found i n The N a t i v e I n d i a n  P a r a p r o f e s s i o n a l T r a i n i n g Program: L e a r n i n g P a c k a g e s (More & A s h w o r t h , 1 9 8 0 ) i s to : a) p r o v i d e an e f f e c t i v e t r a i n i n g program f o r N a t i v e I n d i a n s to work i n c l a s s r o o m s as T e a c h i n g A s s i s t a n t s , N a t i v e 129 Language Teachers or i n other p a r a p r o f e s s i o n a l r o l e s . b) emphasize s k i l l development i n the areas i n which the n a t i v e Indian p a r a p r o f e s s i o n a l can make s p e c i a l c o n t r i b u t i o n s to the classroom - i . e . t u t o r i n g i n d i v i d u a l s and small groups, c u l t u r a l i n f u s i o n , language development, teaching a n a t i v e language, l i a s o n with parents, o r i e n t a t i o n and support of teach e r s . c) provide an academic and p r o f e s s i o n a l basis f o r entry i n t o N.I.T.E.P. and teacher c e r t i f i c a t i o n and on to a d m i n i s t r a t i v e r o l e s i n s c h o o l s . d) provide a t r a i n i n g program adapted to the needs of the community. A d d i t i o n a l purposes of the L y t t o n program as defined by the p a r t i c i p a n t s and Home-School Coordinator were to: e) improve communication between band and s c h o o l . f ) develop c u r r i c u l u m m a t e r i a l s s p e c i f i c to the Thompson c u l t u r e for use i n the s c h o o l s . The L y t t o n Teaching A s s i s t a n t T r a i n i n g Program concentrated on doing j u s t what i t s name s t a t e d , t r a i n i n g Teaching A s s i s t a n t s . The one Thompson Language Teacher a l r e a d y working i n the schools attended some of the t r a i n i n g s e s s i o n s but there was no e f f o r t to t r a i n the other Teaching A s s i s t a n t s to be Language Teachers. The work on the E n g l i s h u n i t s from the Open Learning I n s t i t u t e of B r i t i s h Columbia was designed to prepare the Teaching A s s i s t a n t s to enter NITEP. They did complete the courses to the u n i v e r s i t y entrance l e v e l . U n f o r t u n a t e l y the 130 small number of Teaching A s s i s t a n t s meant there could not be a NITEP f i e l d centre i n L y t t o n , and the f a m i l y r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of the a s s i s t a n t s precluded the option of a t t e n d i n g a NITEP program elsewhere at the present time. Two of the Teaching A s s i s t a n t s hope sometime i n the future to be able to become f u l l y q u a l i f i e d t e a c h e r s . The t e a c h e r s , a d m i n i s t r a t o r s , Teaching A s s i s t a n t s , and S u p e r v i s o r of Indian Education (More, 1982) a l l agreed the program had Increased communication and understanding between home and s c h o o l . The p o s i t i v e responses were based on f e e l i n g s , i n f o r m a l c o n v e r s a t i o n s and observations of i n t e r a c t i o n s between teachers, a d m i n i s t r a t o r s , teaching a s s i s t a n t s and students. No numerical records of conferences nor tealephone and personal c a l l s support the personal o p i n i o n s or assessments of the program p a r t i c i p a n t s . Under the guidance of the Curriculum M a t e r i a l s Developer, the teaching a s s i s t a n t s created some c u r r i c u l u m m a t e r i a l s f o r use by the students. Two i l l u s t r a t e d Thompson vocabulary workbooks and some storybooks of l o c a l legends were created and p r i n t e d f o r use i n the s c h o o l s . A book i l l u s t r a t i n g l o c a l p l a n t s and s p e c i f y i n g t h e i r t r a d i t i o n a l use was i n d r a f t form i n June, 1983. A c o l l e c t i o n of classroom a c t i v i t i e s based on the study of Indian Foods was i n rough d r a f t . A c o l l e c t i o n of h i s t o r i c a l p r i n t s from the p r o v i n c i a l a r c h i v e s has been obtained. An outdoor education u n i t , a scope and sequence plan f o r the i n f u s i o n of Thompson knowledge i n t o the p r o v i n c i a l s o c i a l s t u d i e s c u r r i c u l u m i n 131 the elementary grades was s t a r t e d . The teaching of Thompson language c l a s s e s extended throughout elementary and high school c l a s s e s . P r e r e q u i s i t e s The p r e r e q u i s i t e s f o r entry to the t r a i n i n g program i n L y t t o n were never f o r m a l l y recorded. The Home-School Coordinator s e l e c t e d the candidates with the help of members of the Band c o u n c i l . The experience of the people i n L y t t o n r e i n f o r c e s the f i n d i n g s of programs i n the United States that cademic p r e r e q u i s i t e s c o n t r i b u t e l e s s to the success of t r a i n e e s than a w i l l i n g n e s s to accommodate to school i d i o s y n c r a s i e s . In programs designed to b r i n g m i n o r i t y group a d u l t s i n t o the schools i n the United States as p a r a p r o f e s s i o n a l s , p u n c t u a l i t y , r e g u l a r attendance, r e p o r t i n g absences, conformity to norms of dress eased entry. Dependablity, a s s e r t i v e n e s s and i n i t i a t i v e were q u a l i t i e s school s t a f f i d e n t i f i e d as d e s i r a b l e q u a l i t i e s i n f u t u r e candidates f o r t r a i n i n g i n L y t t o n with s t r e s s put upon d e p e n d a b i l i t y i n p u n c t u a l i t y and attendance. Goals f o r Teaching A s s i s t a n t s The o r i g i n a l goals envisioned by the Home School C o o r d i n a t o r , the Program Coordinator and the Teaching 132 A s s i s t a n t s were to upgrade the education of the Teaching A s s i s t a n t s so they could be an " e f f e c t i v e Indian presence" i n the schools and to prepare the Teaching A s s i s t a n t s f o r eventual entry i n t o NITEP. It was hoped the Teaching A s s i s t a n t s would become a nucleus of Indian p r o f e s s i o n a l teachers i n the community's schools someday. The goals as expressed by a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of the Department of Indian A f f a i r s were broader. He f e l t the t r a i n i n g could provide entry to school based careers but also could provide entry to p o s i t i o n s i n Band a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . Some of the Teaching A s s i s t a n t s became e f f e c t i v e t u t o r s and c o u n s e l l o r s i n the high s c h o o l . In the elementary s c h o o l , time c o n s t r a i n t s r e s t r i c t e d planning time which seemed to prevent e f f e c t i v e use of the Teaching A s s i s t a n t s . As elementary teachers i n smaller schools do not have p r e p a r a t i o n time during the school day, and as teaching a s s i s t a n t s were not u s u a l l y i n the school except between 8:30 a.m. and noon, there was l i t t l e time a v a i l a b l e to arrange teaming. During the program three of the Teaching A s s i s t a n t s were e l e c t e d to the L y t t o n Band C o u n c i l . These people assumed l e a d e r s h i p r o l e s i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n of community r e c r e a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s such as Bingo n i g h t s , b a s e b a l l teams and league p l a y , and Indian dance groups while c o n t i n u i n g t h e i r t r a i n i n g and jobs as teaching a s s i s t a n t s . Another p a i r of the Teaching A s s i s t a n t s were a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a n t s i n the n e g o t i a t i o n processes i n Ottawa during the r e p a t r i a t i o n of the Canadian 133 Constitution in 1983. Thus were the goals of the Department of Indian A f f a i r s realized during the l i f e of the training program. Inservice Content In this section the content of the workshop sessions w i l l be described. A discussion of the content of the workshop sessions w i l l follow. The content of the training program scheduled for each afternoon in the designated classroom in the Band o f f i c e was designed to upgrade the Teaching Assistants' language and mathematics s k i l l to university entrance standards and to acquire classroom management s k i l l s . It was i n i t i a l l y planned that the Teaching Assistants would keep a journal, study basic grammar, l i t e r a t u r e and mathematics plus increase their exposure to art materials and games for three weeks of each month (Table IV). Table IV Afternoon Schedule MON TUES WED THURS FRI 1:00 Journal Journal Journal Journal Journal 1:15 Literature Punc.& Cap. Abbrev./ S p e l l . / Writing Posses. Vocab. 2:00 Math Art/Games Math Math Art/Games 2:30 Teach.Less. Sp.Proj. Verbal Comm. Teach.Less. Open 134 Teaching A s s i s t a n t s needed time to t a l k about t h e i r new role and t h e i r new perceptions of the school now that they were a d u l t s working i n the school system. The d e b r i e f i n g sessions became a source of t o p i c s f o r the teaching component of the af t e r n o o n , g e n e r a l l y the time was used to augment of knowledge of some school subject s k i l l such as l i t e r a r y a n a l y s i s , algebra or s e n i o r math s k i l l s , graph and map reading s k i l l s , and vocabulary development. The t o p i c s of the workshops conducted i n the afternoons of the f o u r t h week of each month were those found i n The  Native Indian P a r a p r o f e s s i o n a l T r a i n i n g Program: Learning  Packages (More & Ashworth, 1980) plus some l o c a l l y developed u n i t s (Table V ) . The program began with a workshop i n which the features of Indian education i n B r i t i s h Columbia were reviewed. The second workshop was the f i r s t of a s e r i e s i n Communications le d by an i n s t r u c t o r from the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia. The i n s t r u c t o r introduced and led p r a c t i c e sessions i n developing s k i l l s i n c l e a r message sending, body language, paraphrasing responses, seeking s p e c i f i c s , and problem s o l v i n g techniques. In the second year of the program, the i n s t r u c t o r of the communications workshops conducted a s s e r t i v e n e s s t r a i n i n g sessions and developed the c o u n s e l l i n g s k i l l s of the Teaching A s s i s t a n t s . In the f i r s t l o c a l l y produced workshop, the school p r i n c i p a l s , the d i s t r i c t Supervisor of I n s t r u c t i o n , and the l o c a l school board t r u s t e e explained the o r g a n i z a t i o n of the 135 p u b l i c school system and p r o f e s s i o n a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of members of the system. A second examination the l o c a l school system was made i n January, 1982 when the r o l e of the School Board and the p r o v i n c i a l education system was defined f o r the Teaching A s s i s t a n t s . A second s e r i e s of l o c a l l y produced workshops was conducted by teachers from the Ly t t o n s c h o o l s . The c u r r i c u l a f o r the elementary and high school language a r t s programs were d e s c r i b e d , the m a t e r i a l s presented and some a c t i v i t i e s the Teaching A s s i s t a n t s could use were presented and p r a c t i s e d . This workshop, by pr e s e n t i n g some of the content with which the Teaching A s s i s t a n t s were u n f a m i l i a r gave them experience as l e a r n e r s as w e l l as p r a c t i c e i n some t u t o r i n g s k i l l s . The t h i r d set of l o c a l l y produced workshops were conducted by the l o c a l h e a l t h s e r v i c e workers. They addressed l o c a l concerns with the t o p i c s S u i c i d e P r e v e n t i o n and Adolescent Development. I n s t r u c t o r s with experience i n Indian Education i n i Canada were s e l e c t e d to teach the u n i t s o u t l i n e d i n The  Native Indian P a r a p r o f e s s i o n a l T r a i n i n g Program: Learning  Packages (More & Ashworth, 1982). 136 Table V Scheduled Workshops f o r L y t t o n 1981-1982 1982-1983 SEPTEMBER 14-16 Indian Education 21-22 Communication 20-21 Communication 29-30 C o l l e c t i n g O r a l H i s t o r y OCTOBER 28-29 C h i l d Development Learning D i f f i c u l t i e s I n d i v i d u a l i z e d I n s t r u c t i o n 30 Classroom Management NOVEMBER 3-4 Language Arts Overview ( L o c a l ) 23 Classroom Management 25 Teacher-Teaching A s s i s t a n t Roles DECEMBER 6-7 Drama (L o c a l ) 13-14 Math JANUARY 25-26 S u i c i d e P r e v e n t i o n Adolescent Development ( L o c a l ) 27 School Board & P r o v i n c i a l Department of Education ( L o c a l ) 28-29 Communication Speech Arts ( L o c a l ) FEBRUARY 22-24 I n s t r u c t i o n a l Methods-Math 25-26 Classroom Management P o s i t i v e Reinforcement 29-30 C u l t u r a l I n f u s i o n 31 C u l t u r a l Assignment MARCH APRIL 3-4 Curriculum Deve1opment 16-17 SUCCESS 21-22 O . L . I . E n g l i s h 7-8 0 . L . I . E n g l i s h 21-22 O.L.I.English 1-2 I d e n t i f y i n g I n d i v i d u a l Learning Problems MAY 14-15 C u l t u r a l I n f u s i o n 18-19 O.L.I.English 25-26 O.L.I.English 17-18 27-28 Communi cat ion Evaluat ion 16-18 Review 19-20 E v a l u a t i o n 137 In the f i r s t Classroom Management workshop, the Teaching A s s i s t a n t s worked through some cooperation a c t i v i t i e s and r e l a t e d them to t h e i r classroom experiences. Then they analysed t h e i r classroom experience as both students and Teaching A s s i s t a n t s and i d e n t i f i e d behaviors that c o n t r i b u t e to p o s i t i v e s e l f - c o n c e p t development fo r i n d i v i d u a l students and that c o n t r i b u t e to a p o s i t i v e classroom c l i m a t e . In November, a second workshop on Classroom Management int r o d u c e d the s k i l l s of lesson p l a n n i n g . The lessons that were planned used the S t o r l o S i t e l Curriculum m a t e r i a l s . These m a t e r i a l s demonstrate how to i n f u s e an Indian c u l t u r e i n t o school c u r r i c u l a . A t h i r d workshop helped Teaching A s s i s t a n t s develop p o s i t i v e reinforcement methods for e s t a b l i s h i n g classroom d i s c i p l i n e . The workshops on C h i l d Development o u t l i n e d the stages of p h y s i c a l , s o c i a l and p e r s o n a l , moral and i n t e l l e c t u a l stages of development. The Teaching A s s i s t a n t s were shown how to i d e n t i f y the stages, how to work with c h i l d r e n at various stages, and how to encourage growth. The Teaching A s s i s t a n t s were assigned tasks making observations of c h i l d r e n ' s behaviors and l e a r n i n g s f o r a week f o l l o w i n g the workshop. The t u t o r i n g d u t i e s of the Teaching A s s i s t a n t s were addressed i n a workshop i n which they s t u d i e d the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of i n d i v i d u a l l e a r n i n g problems and how to work with students who are having d i f f i c u l t y l e a r n i n g s p e c i f i c s k i l l s . The concern over task assignment and r o l e d e f i n i t i o n by 138 t e a c h e r s , Teaching A s s i s t a n t s and program developers r e s u l t e d i n a j o i n t teacher-Teaching A s s i s t a n t workshop led by the S u p e r v i s o r of Indian Education at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia. The emphasis was placed upon mutual d i s c o v e r y of ways to improve the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of the Teaching A s s i s t a n t s i n the s c h o o l . The two comprehensive mathematics workshops emphasized the p r i n c i p l e s of teaching mathematics, the necessary t r a n s i t i o n from concrete to semi-concrete to a b s t r a c t , graphing, problem s o l v i n g and topology. I n s t u c t o r s from other areas were u t i l i z e d to conduct workshops i n Drama, the Speech A r t s , C o l l e c t i o n of Oral H i s t o r y M a t e r i a l and Curriculum Development. The Drama and Speech Arts sessions were designed to: (1) i n c r e a s e the confidence of the Teaching A s s i s t a n t s , (2) give them p r a c t i s e i n s t o r y t e l l i n g and d r a m a t i z a t i o n , and (3) sharpen t h e i r o r a l speaking techniques. The meetings with an a n t h r o p o l o g i s t to l e a r n the techniques f o r the c o l l e c t i o n of o r a l h i s t o r y m a t e r i a l i n t r o d u c e d r e s e a r c h s k i l l s that the Teaching A s s i s t a n t s needed to s t a r t amassing data f o r Thompson c u r r i c u l u m m a t e r i a l s . The use of tape recorders and note taking during i n t e r v i e w s , t r a n s c r i b i n g , c l a s s i f y i n g data, i n t e r v i e w i n g techniques, use of videotapes, s t i l l photographs, s l i d e s and o b t a i n i n g and using a r c h i v a l m a t e r i a l were a l l d e a l t with i n a two day s e s s i o n . The c o n t i n u a t i o n of the o r a l h i s t o r y c o l l e c t i n g 139 by teaching a s s i s t a n t s , tasks teaching a s s i s t a n t s could be requested and expected to complete. In s p i t e of the a t t e n t i o n paid to the development of communication s k i l l s , open and c l e a r communication between teacher and Teaching A s s i s t a n t s , between the Education D i r e c t o r and Teaching A s s i s t a n t s and between teachers and the Program Developer and Education D i r e c t o r did not occur. The atmosphere of t r u s t and cooperation that followed the j o i n t teacher-Teaching A s s i s t a n t workshop i n November, 1981 d i s s i p a t e d . Improved communications was the major request from teachers, a d m i n i s t r a t o r s and Teaching A s s i s t a n t s . The o r i e n t a t i o n to the school system s e s s i o n attempted to inform the t r a i n e e Teaching A s s i s t a n t s of the r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of members of the school establishment but more emphasis could have been put on the s o c i a l n i c e t i e s r e q u i r e d by school personnel. For example, high p r i o r i t y f o r both a d u l t personnel and students i s given to attendance, p u n c t u a l i t y and neatness i n appearance. The f i r s t two items are not n e g o t i a b l e . In the classroom, teachers have a long t r a d i t i o n of being i n c o n t r o l . Even s u p e r v i s o r s and a d m i n i s t r a t o r s knock before e n t e r i n g a teacher's domain. In summation, Teaching A s s i s t a n t s must understand the supportive nature of t h e i r r o l e i f they are to win acceptance by t e a c h e r s . E q u a l i t y and true teamwork develops slowly, i n c r e m e n t a l l y . (See E d u c a t i o n a l S e r v i c e Bureau Inc., 1966, Wright, 1969, Klopf et a l . , 1969, B r i g h t o n , 1972, Abbott, 1973.) 140 The program was adapted to the needs of the Teaching A s s i s t a n t s as long as the Program Coordinator had c o n t r o l over the content of the afternoon i n s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g but the workshop leaders from outside the community did not t i e t h e i r t o p i c p r e s e n t a t i o n to p r a c t i c a l needs of the program p a r t i c i p a n t s . The t o p i c s of the workshops i n October and November, 1981 (Table V) were cogent to the program but the examples and e x e r c i s e s were not t i e d to the current day-to-day needs of the Teaching A s s i s t a n t s . The re g u l a r a f t e r n o o n sessions (Table IV) had j u s t been reorganized and adjusted to meet t h e i r needs rather than being t i e d to a set schedule. In the schools the Teaching A s s i s t a n t s were adapting to the system while the teachers watched to see what the Teaching A s s i s t a n t s would volunteer to do. At a time when the Teaching A s s i s t a n t s could have put to use s k i l l s developed i n o f f i c e and a u d i o - v i s u a l machines o p e r a t i o n , record keeping, and s u p e r v i s i o n of small groups, the Teaching A s s i s t a n t s were taught the theory of stages of development, language a c q u i s i t i o n , establishment of classroom c l i m a t e . At that c r u c i a l beginning stage of teaming when teachers would have f e l t comfortable a s s i g n i n g n o n - i n s t r u c t i o n a l d u t i e s to the Teaching A s s i s t a n t s and when the Teaching A s s i s t a n t s could have gained confidence by completing simple routine classroom school tasks, the Teaching A s s i s t a n t s had no t r a i n i n g i n those b a s i c c l e r i c a l tasks that teachers are u s u a l l y most w i l l i n g to turn over to n o n - p r o f e s s i o n a l s . In 141 other programs reviewed, i n t h i s e a r l y part of the t r a i n i n g program, Teaching A s s i s t a n t s were encouraged to help the teachers by assuming r o u t i n e c l e r i c a l tasks and minor s u p e r v i s o r y d u t i e s while confidence i n t h e i r i n d i v i d u a l a b i l i t y and a b i l i t y to work w i t h i n a team grew. But i n L y t t o n , the teachers were made to f e e l that i f they asked f o r help i n r o u t i n e c l e r i c a l d u t i e s of the teaching p r o f e s s i o n , they would be asking f o r "sla v e l a b o r " and the program planners feared the Teaching A s s i s t a n t s would be used s o l e l y i n these n o n - i n t e r a c t i n g r o l e s . As a r e s u l t , the f i r s t step of b u i l d i n g teaching teams i n classrooms, the sharing of c l e r i c a l d u t i e s , was not t r i e d . Instead the teachers and Teaching A s s i s t a n t s were expected to dive i n t o the middle of the team b u i l d i n g process. When teachers f i n a l l y assigned the Teaching A s s i s t a n t s some t u t o r i n g t asks, the monthly workshops continued to address l a r g e group planning and classroom management s k i l l s such as m o t i v a t i o n , i d e n t i f y i n g b e h a v i o r a l o b j e c t i v e s , u n i t and l e s s o n planning, m a i n t a i n i n g " p o s i t i v e classroom c l i m a t e " r a t h e r than "keeping d i s c i p l i n e " . Topics addressed i n a l e s s formal manner were c u l t u r a l i n f u s i o n , small group i n s t r u c t i o n , and t u t o r i n g s k i l l s - the a c t u a l classroom a c t i v i t i e s i n which the Teaching A s s i s t a n t s were engaged. The workshop leaders were not s u f f i c i e n t l y aware of the r e a l i t i e s of the experiences of the Teaching A s s i s t a n t s i n the schools to be able to match the content of the workshops to current needs of the Teaching A s s i s t a n t s . For example, 142 while most of the Teaching Assistants were working as tutors in the high school struggling with geometry, algebra and business math as they tr i e d to aid the students under their tutorage, the math workshops dealt with the use of concrete materials and topology. Although the objective of teaching the Teaching Assistants to present concepts with real objects and to look at problems from different angles was essen t i a l , the workshop did not tie the theory to immediate classroom requirements of the Teaching Assistants. As a re s u l t , the Teaching Assistants were impatient and not able to concentrate on the lessons of the workshop. Nor were they able to transfer the techniques of using concrete objects to teach elementary students number facts and measurement to the technique for using concrete shapes and forms to teach geometry to a student needing t u t o r i a l help. This desired transfer of training is a s k i l l that has to be pointedly taught before i t is learned. Similarly the curriculum development workshops did not register as " r e a l " . They were based on methods of cul t u r a l infusion possible in whole class lessons and in unit planning while the Teaching Assistants were generally responsible for one to one tutoring and needed help in adapting set curriculum for students who were having problems. The workshop started from the curriculum materials instead of from the actual work of the Teaching Assistants. The workshops were not community grounded. The workshop leaders lacked authority to gain access to observe the 143 Teaching A s s i s t a n t s working i n the classrooms and to set the content of the workshops so that they could t r u l y deal with the requirements of the Teaching A s s i s t a n t s f o r the work they were a c t u a l l y doing. The program d i r e c t o r , who sometimes mistook goals f o r needs, arranged the workshops through the u n i v e r s i t y but did not have enough i n f o r m a t i o n to enable the workshop leaders to plan t h e i r sessions around examples p e r t i n e n t to the present experience of the Teaching A s s i s t a n t s . In the f u t u r e the Teaching A s s i s t a n t s may have o p p o r t u n i t i e s to work more with elementary school c h i l d r e n and l a r g e groups, to make le s s o n plans and p l o t u n i t s of study, but at the time of the workshops the Teaching A s s i s t a n t s d e s p e r a t e l y needed techniques they could use i n t h e i r t u t o r i n g s e s sions more than they needed i n s t r u c t i o n on the broader i s s u e s f o r e f f e c t i v e t e a c h i n g . The Language Arts workshops that were conducted by teachers from the l o c a l schools dealt with the aspects of reading and vocabulary development that the Teaching A s s i s t a n t s needed most. These sessions r e i n f o r c e d some of the lessons s t a r t e d by the Program Coordinator and t i e d those a f t e r n o o n sessions c l o s e r to the world of the s c h o o l . They were much more e f f e e c t i v e as the leaders were more aware of day-to-day problems of the Teaching A s s i s t a n t s . The d i f f i c u l t i e s i n c o r r e l a t i n g the workshop content and the Teaching A s s i s t a n t s ' work i n L y t t o n became i n c r e a s i n g l y obvious during the t u t o r i n g sessions f o r the Open Learning E n g l i s h Course. Repeated contact with the same i n s t r u c t o r 144 e a s e d r e t i c e n c e and c o n v e r s a t i o n s r e v e a l e d f r u s t r a t i o n s and p r o b l e m s i n work and s t u d y s e s s i o n s . The c o u r s e came a l i v e o n l y when the T e a c h i n g A s s i s t a n t s were shown t h a t i t c o n t a i n e d the v e r y s k i l l s t hey needed to h e l p the s t u d e n t s t h e y t u t o r e d . T o p i c s e n t e n c e s , main i d e a s , s u p p o r t i n g f a c t s , c o l o u r f u l l a n g u a g e , s u i t a b l e a d j e c t i v e s , c o n n e c t o r s , became terms to l e a r n b e c a u s e the T e a c h i n g A s s i s t a n t s c o u l d t h e n e x p l a i n t h e s e to t h e i r s t u d e n t s . The c o u r s e was not j u s t a s e r i e s of d i f f i c u l t a c t i v i t i e s to be m a s t e r e d f o r i t s own s a k e ; i t was a t e c h n i q u e to l e a r n about what they had to t e a c h . When i t was p o i n t e d out to them t h a t b r a i n s t o r m i n g , p r i o r i z i n g , round r o b i n r e a d i n g s e s s i o n s , d i s c u s s i o n s , and p a i r i n g - o f f , were not o n l y a c t i v i t i e s T e a c h i n g A s s i s t a n t s d i d i n c l a s s , but t h a t t h e y were t e c h n i q u e s to be used i n t h e i r t u t o r i n g s e s s i o n s , the a f t e r n o o n program no l o n g e r seemed so o n e r o u s . The s u g g e s t i o n t h a t by l e a r n i n g to w r i t e e s s a y s i n the ways the Open L e a r n i n g I n s t i t u t e (OLI) r e q u i r e d , they were a l s o l e a r n i n g methods t h a t would be a c c e p t a b l e when p r e p a r i n g c u l t u r a l m a t e r i a l f o r s t u d e n t s i n s c h o o l s and a c c e p t a b l e forms f o r b r i e f s f o r f u t u r e r e q u e s t s and p r o p o s a l s f o r f i n a n c i n g , gave meaning to e x e r c i s e s t h a t no one e n j o y e d . D i f f i c u l t i e s the T e a c h i n g A s s i s t a n t s e x p e r i e n c e d i n the OLI E n g l i s h c o u r s e i n c l u d e d d e v e l o p i n g a n a l y s i s t e c h n i q u e s , l i n e a r t h i n k i n g , and i d e n t i f y i n g cause and e f f e c t . The d i f f e r e n c e s i n s t r u c t u r e of the T e a c h i n g A s s i s t a n t s ' w r i t t e n a s s i g n m e n t s and the models p l a c e d i n f r o n t of them and the f r u s t r a t i o n of t r y i n g to d e c i p h e r and t h e n a p p l y m a r k e r s ' 145 comments were added t r i a l s . These p r o b l e m s v i v i d l y i l l u s t r a t e d the d i c h o t o m y of the e x p e c t a t i o n s of s c h o o l s w i t h t h e i r i m p l i c i t norms, and the r e a l i t y of the T e a c h i n g A s s i s t a n t s ' c i r c u l a r t h i n k i n g p a t t e r n s , s t i l l dominant a f t e r t w e l v e y e a r s of s c h o o l i n g . The n e c e s s i t y of r e c o g n i s i n g the e x i s t a n c e and l e g i t i m a c y of b o t h the l i n e a r and c i r c u l a r was o b v i o u s . The n e c e s s i t y of d e v e l o p i n g awareness of and competency i n b o t h became r e a l . The l e g i t i m a c y of u s i n g t r a d i t i o n a l I n d i a n o r a t o r y s t y l e s w h i l e a d d r e s s i n g I n d i a n g r o u p s , and w h i l e s t o r y t e l l i n g must be a c c o m p a n i e d by the r e a l i z a t i o n t h a t o t h e r l i t e r a r y s t y l e s a r e more e a s i l y u n d e r s t o o d by t h o s e who c o n t r o l m a t e r i a l b e i n g i n t e g r a t e d i n t o s c h o o l s or t h o s e who at p r e s e n t c o n t r o l the f u n d i n g f o r many programs f o r I n d i a n p e o p l e . C u l t u r a l b i l i n g u a l i s m must be p a r t of the r e p e r t o i r e of e d u c a t e d I n d i a n p e o p l e ( L i t t l e j o h n , 1971, C e n t e r f o r A p p l i e d L i n q u i s t i c s , 1976, Whyte, 1982). B e c a u s e t h e r e were problems of r o l e d e f i n i t i o n and gaps i n the T e a c h i n g A s s i s t a n t s knowledge of h i g h s c h o o l s u b j e c t s i n w h i c h t h e y were e x p e c t e d to a s s i s t , the a f t e r n o o n s e s s i o n s sometimes assumed a c r i s i s i n t e r v e n t i o n a t t i t u d e r a t h e r than t h e demeanor of a s t r u c t u r e d t r a i n i n g program. P a r t i c i p a n t s d o u b t e d t h e i r p u r p o s e s and a c h i e v e m e n t s . The j o i n t t e a c h e r - T e a c h i n g A s s i s t a n t workshop gave p e o p l e a chance to i d e n t i f y p o s i t i v e e x p e r i e n c e s and a team s p i r i t s t a r t e d to emerge. Both t e a c h e r s and T e a c h i n g A s s i s t a n t s e x p r e s s e d a p p r e c i a t i o n f o r the program, a p p r o v a l of g o a l s and methods, 146 b e c a u s e by t h i s time b o t h groups had had an o p p o r t u n i t y to c o n t r i b u t e to the d e s i g n and shape of the program. U n f o r t u n a t e l y the team s p i r i t d i d not c o n t i n u e to grow f o l l o w i n g the C h r i s t m a s b r e a k . A gap i n the c o m m u n i c a t i o n between the t r a i n i n g program and the s c h o o l a d m i n i s t r a t o r s and t e a c h e r s d e v e l o p e d . T h i s o c c u r r e d b e c a u s e the t e a c h e r s were s i m p l y t o l d the names of the workshops t h a t had been h e l d but t h e y wanted to know what the T e a c h i n g A s s i s t a n t s had been s t u d y i n g . The t e a c h e r s s t a t e d t h a t t h e r e must be a c l e a r u n d e r s t a n d i n g of r o l e s and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s , c o n t i n u o u s e v a l u a t i o n of p e r f o r m a n c e and t r a i n i n g . I m p l i c i t i n th e s e d e s i r e s was the u n c e r t a i n t y r e g a r d i n g the t e a c h e r s ' r o l e s and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s i n t h i s team t e a c h i n g s i t u a t i o n , and u n e a s i n e s s about e v a l u a t i o n , by whom, of whom and how. J u s t as the j o i n t workshop r e s e t the program's d i r e c t i o n i n a p o s i t i v e f a s h i o n once, p e r h a p s more m e e t i n g s c o u l d s e t new a s s i g n m e n t s f o r T e a c h i n g A s s i s t a n t s under t e a c h e r - m e n t o r s r a t h e r t h a n s e t t i n g t e a c h e r s as uneasy o b s e r v e r s , u n c e r t a i n of what s k i l l s t h e i r T e a c h i n g A s s i s t a n t i s d e v e l o p i n g and u n s u r e of what th e y may r e a s o n a b l y r e q u e s t a T e a c h i n g A s s i s t a n t to do. S t i l l more c o m m u n i c a t i o n s k i l l s must be d e v e l o p e d t o g e t h e r by b o t h g r o u p s . The gap i n c o m m u n i c a t i o n meant the t e a c h e r s were not i n v i t e d to become p a r t n e r s i n the t r a i n i n g of the T e a c h i n g A s s i s t a n t s . The e x c e p t i o n was the one h i g h s c h o o l t e a c h e r who became the c o o r d i n a t o r and e n c o u r a g e r of the t u t o r i n g program i n the s e c o n d y e a r . Few o t h e r t e a c h e r s viewed t h e m s e l v e s as 147 key p a r t i c i p a n t s or s t a k e h o l d e r s i n the t r a i n i n g program even when t h e r e was a T e a c h i n g A s s i s t a n t w o r k i n g i n t h e i r c l a s s r o o m . The t e a c h e r s were a u x i l i a r i e s to the program r a t h e r t h a n i n t e g r a l p a r t n e r s i n the l e a r n i n g p r o c e s s . Even the t e a c h e r h i r e d as the C u r r i c u l u m D e v e l o p e r d i d not u n d e r t a k e to t r a i n the T e a c h i n g A s s i s t a n t s to d e v e l o p c u r r i c u l u m m a t e r i a l s but s i m p l y worked a l o n g s i d e of them. I n s e r v i c e O r g a n i z a t i o n The o r g a n i z a t i o n and s c h e d u l i n g of workshop s e s s i o n s i s d i s c u s s e d i n the f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n . The f l e x i b i l i t y r e q u i r e d b e c a u s e of d i s t a n c e from the u n i v e r s i t y , p o l i t i c a l c o n f e r e n c e s , and changes i n s c h e d u l i n g , f u n d i n g and p e r s o n n e l i s s t r e s s e d . The program was p l a n n e d so t h a t the T e a c h i n g A s s i s t a n t s would spend t h e i r m o r n i n g s i n the s c h o o l s as T e a c h i n g A s s i s t a n t s and t h e i r a f t e r n o o n s i n the Band c l a s s r o o m l e a r n i n g the s k i l l s to make them b e t t e r T e a c h i n g A s s i s t a n t s . They were a l s o e x p e c t e d to upgrade t h e i r E n g l i s h and Math s k i l l s i n the a f t e r n o o n s i n p r e p a r a t i o n f o r e n t r y to a NITEP program a t a u n i v e r s i t y e n t r a n c e l e v e l . The workshops were s c h e d u l e d f o r the f i n a l week of each month but the i n s t r u c t o r s were not always a v a i l a b l e as a s s i g n e d . The T e a c h i n g A s s i s t a n t s a r r i v e d i n the a f t e r n o o n e x p e c t i n g one s o r t of workshop but found a n o t h e r . On at l e a s t two o c c a s i o n s i n the se c o n d y e a r , two i n s t r u c t o r s f o r two 148 d i f f e r e n t workshops a r r i v e d on the same aft e r n o o n . This f l e x i b i l i t y i n the s c h e d uling of workshops led to some During the f i r s t year, the Program Coordinator v i s i t e d the schools i n the mornings and t a l k e d to teachers and a d m i n i s t r a t o r s . This permitted c l o s e c o o r d i n a t i o n between schoolwork, workshop content and day-to-day coaching which was a p p r e c i a t e d , perhaps more i n r e t r o s p e c t by teachers, a d m i n i s t r a t o r s and Teaching A s s i s t a n t s when i n the second year there was no Program C o o r d i n a t o r . At the end of November the f i r s t j o i n t teacher-Teaching A s s i s t a n t workshop was h e l d . Another scheduled f o r May was never h e l d . F o l l o w i n g the j o i n t workshop, the Teaching A s s i s t a n t s worked i n the schools f u l l time to a s s i s t with h o l i d a y p r o j e c t s throughout December. A team s p i r i t seemed to be b u i l d i n g , e s p e c i a l l y i n the high s c h o o l . In January a more d e f i n i t e timetable was implemented (Table V I ) . For at l e a s t one week each month the Teaching A s s i s t a n t s were i n the schools a l l day. The Program Coordinator observed the classroom work of the Teaching A s s i s t a n t s and worked out s t r a t e g i e s f o r improving performance i n the classroom. F l e x i b i l i t y was s t i l l a key o p e r a t i v e word. Lytton respondents commented that workshop leaders were not always a v a i l a b l e when scheduled, prereading m a t e r i a l seldom a r r i v e d before the workshops and workshops were switched at short n o t i c e . 149 Table VI SCHEDULE FOR LYTTON PROGRAM JANUARY-JUNE 1982 January Week Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday F r i d a y •-In school morning only-— I n school a l l day •In school morning only--4 S u i c i d e Adolescent D e f i n i n g the Follow-P r e v e n t i o n Development Role of the Communication up Workshop Workshop School Board Workshop and Educ.System February Week Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thurs day Fr i d a y 1 F i e l d T r i p 3 days In schools morning V i c t o r i a Museum 2 ( p r e - s c h o o l ) In schools a l l day 3 ( p r e - s c h o o l ) I n schools morning only Workshop pre-assignments and Open Learning-p.m. 4 I n s t r u c t i o n a l Methods f o r Math Workshop 3 days C u l t u r a l I n f u s i o n workshop 2 days 150 Table VI (con't) SCHEDULE FOR LYTTON PROGRAM JANUARY-JUNE 1982 March Week Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday 1 ( F i e l d Trip cancelled) Observing- Elementary School Class Open Learning and English Upgrading — p.m. 2 In school a l l day : 3 In school a l l day 4 In school morning only Workshop preassignments and Open Learning—p,m. 5 Positive Reinforcement and Identifying Individual and D i s c i p l i n e Methods for Learning Problems Assistants Workshop 3 days Workshop 2 days A p r i l Week Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday 1 SPRING BREAK Open Learning e xam 2 HOLIDAY (bookkeeping) -In schools morning only Open Learning and English—p.m. 3 xn schools morning only English, Cultural Topics--p.m. 4 In schools a l l day 151 Table VI (con't) SCHEDULE FOR LYTTON PROGRAM JANUARY-JUNE 1982 May Week Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday F r i d a y 1 In schools a l l day 2 i n schools a l l day 3 In schools morning only Workshop preassignments -- Projects-p.m. 4 HOLIDAY Communication F i n a l E v a l u a t i o n Workshop Wrap-up of Lyt t o n Course with a l l Workshop 2 days Teachers 2 days In March, an Interim E v a l u a t i o n completed by the Supervisor f o r Indian Education at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia reported observable b e n e f i t s of the program a f t e r s i x months. These i n c l u d e d the presence i n the classrooms of an a d u l t with whom the Indian c h i l d r e n could i d e n t i f y , "remarkable growth i n the classroom s k i l l s of the Teaching A s s i s t a n t s ... increased involvement i n education by Indian people; an inc r e a s e d awareness by teachers of s i m i l a r i t i e s and d i f f e r e n c e s i n e d u c a t i o n a l needs of Indian and non-Indian c h i l d r e n ; ...and a grea t e r p o t e n t i a l f o r e x p l a i n i n g the schools to the Indian community and f o r p r o v i d i n g feedback 152 f o r the Indian community to the s c h o o l s . " (More, 1982) Fol l o w i n g the e v a l u a t i o n , plans were made to inc r e a s e the number of Teaching A s s i s t a n t s i n the t r a i n i n g program and to add the p r e p a r a t i o n of Thompson c u r r i c u l u m m a t e r i a l s to the s k i l l s of the Teaching A s s i s t a n t s f o r the 1982-83 school year. During the summer the p o s i t i o n of Program Coordinator was c a n c e l l e d and a Curriculum M a t e r i a l s Developer was h i r e d i n s t e a d . The Education D i r e c t o r and her a s s i s t a n t assumed r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the o r g a n i z a t i o n of the t r a i n i n g program as w e l l as the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r managing i t . In the second year the program r e v e r t e d to the format of mornings i n the sch o o l s , afternoons i n the Band classroom i n order to concentrate on two major f o c i i : p r e p a r a t i o n of m a t e r i a l s and upgrading E n g l i s h . Monthly workshops by i n s t r u c t o r s from the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia were planned. The i n i t i a l workshops i n communications and r e c o r d i n g o r a l h i s t o r y were w e l l r e c e i v e d . The Teaching A s s i s t a n t s were h i g h l y motivated to go out to t a l k with the e l d e r s and record the h i s t o r y of the Thompson people of the Ly t t o n Band. The workshop sessions i n which teaching m a t e r i a l s , wordcards, puppets and workbooks f o r the elementary school Thompson Language Program were prepared occupied almost h a l f the afternoon sessions from November to February. This period was climaxed by the p r e s e n t a t i o n made at the "Successes i n 153 Indian E d u c a t i o n : A Sharing" conference i n Vancouver, February 16-19, 1983. At l e a s t one afternoon per week was devoted to work on the Open Learning E n g l i s h program. I n t e r s p e r s e d at approximately monthly i n t e r v a l s were two afternoon workshops i n Math, Speech A r t s , Drama and Curriculum Development. From March to May more energy was expended on completing the Open Learning E n g l i s h packages. Without the Education D i r e c t o r to manage the program, the Teaching A s s i s t a n t s undertook to examine the program with the Supervisor of Indian Education from the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, and the Home School C o o r d i n a t o r . A t e s t i n g program c o n s i s t i n g of w r i t t e n t e s t s of the m a t e r i a l presented i n the workshops was completed. Plans f o r the 1983-84 school year were made for c o n t i n u a t i o n of the work of the Teaching A s s i s t a n t s i n the schools as w e l l as the c o l l e c t i o n and p r e p a r a t i o n by Band members of Thompson c u l t u r a l m a t e r i a l s f o r use i n the s c h o o l s . Assignment to Schools The assignment of Teaching A s s i s t a n t s to school classrooms and students w i l l be d e s c r i b e d . The program s t a r t e d i n September 1981 with the Teaching A s s i s t a n t s working i n the schools only i n the mornings. Four Teaching A s s i s t a n t s chose to work i n the high s c h o o l , and f o u r chose to work i n the elementary s c h o o l . They rotated between schools at s i x week i n t e r v a l s . By Christmas the 154 T e a c h i n g A s s i s t a n t s were w o r k i n g i n the s c h o o l s f o r f u l l days f o r about h a l f of each month. T h i s change was i n r e s p o n s e to r e q u e s t s by b o t h t e a c h e r s and T e a c h i n g A s s i s t a n t s . G e t t i n g the T e a c h i n g A s s i s t a n t s i n the c l a s s e s was, a f t e r a l l , the aim of the t r a i n i n g program. In the h i g h s c h o o l the T e a c h i n g A s s i s t a n t s were at f i r s t a s s i g n e d to h e l p s p e c i f i c t e a c h e r s i n s p e c i f i c c l a s s e s . The T e a c h i n g A s s i s t a n t s were e x p e c t e d to a t t e n d c l a s s e s and a s s i s t the t e a c h e r as d i r e c t e d , but t h e r e was no time a s s i g n e d f o r p l a n n i n g t o g e t h e r . T h i s a bsence of p l a n n i n g time was t r u e f o r the t e a c h e r s and T e a c h i n g A s s i s t a n t s i n the e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l as w e l l . As a r e s u l t the T e a c h i n g A s s i s t a n t s t e n d e d to s i m p l y c a r r y out i s o l a t e d t a s k s r a t h e r t h a n becoming i n v o l v e d i n the e d u c a t i o n p r o c e s s . F o r example, The T e a c h i n g A s s i s t a n t s were c o m p l e t i n g a s s i g n m e n t s w i t h s t u d e n t s t h a t the t e a c h e r s had f u l l y o u t l i n e d . When the program resumed i n September, 1982 the h a l f day f o r m a t was r e i n s t a t e d . The T e a c h i n g A s s i s t a n t s d i d not spend f u l l days i n the s c h o o l s d u r i n g the second y e a r of the p r o g r a m . The program s t a r t e d to f l o u n d e r i n the f a l l of 1982. At t h a t time the T e a c h i n g A s s i s t a n t s a l l moved to the h i g h s c h o o l and the t u t o r i n g program was o r g a n i z e d under the l e a d e r s h i p of one of the h i g h s c h o o l t e a c h e r s . A f t e r a s h o r t time two of the T e a c h i n g A s s i s t a n t s moved back to the e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l . Those T e a c h i n g A s s i s t a n t s i n the t u t o r i n g p rogram i n the h i g h s c h o o l assumed r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r g e t t i n g two or t h r e e s t u d e n t s to c l a s s and p r e p a r e d f o r c l a s s w i t h 155 homework completed and books In hand. Attendance by the Teaching A s s i s t a n t s became more re g u l a r and the i n t e r e s t i n the students and teaching process i n c r e a s e d . Steps i n the development of the t u t o r i n g program were s t r u c t u r e d to i n c r e a s e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the tutor and student towards the school t a s k s . 1. Students each were given a homework book i n which assignments were recorded by the student. The Teaching A s s i s t a n t s had to check the books of t h e i r students to determine what work was due, done or incomplete and together the student and Teaching A s s i s t a n t could decide what extra help was r e q u i r e d . 2. Teaching A s s i s t a n t s attended c l a s s e s so they would be b e t t e r able to t u t o r students i n areas of d i f f i c u l t y . 3. Teaching A s s i s t a n t s helped i n d i v i d u a l s complete assignments i n c l a s s under teacher d i r e c t i o n . 4. Teaching A s s i s t a n t s conducted a group a c t i v i t y prepared by the teacher. The homework records provided data i n d i c a t i n g areas that r e q u i r e d r e t e a c h i n g or extra p r a c t i c e . 5. Teaching A s s i s t a n t s prepared charts and a c t i v i t i e s under teacher d i r e c t i o n , and g r a d u a l l y began to help t h e i r student groups complete assignments. 6. Teaching A s s i s t a n t s d i s c u s s e d homework records with p a r e n t s . Plans f o r improved performance by students through help from parents and t u t o r s was planned together. 7. Teaching A s s i s t a n t s helped teachers d i s c u s s students' s c h o o l work with parents. (Smith, Lytton Respondent, 1983) 156 T h i s s t r u c t u r e d a p p r o a c h d e f i n e d f o r the f i r s t t i m e , i n d e t a i l , j u s t what the T e a c h i n g A s s i s t a n t s were to do. The T e a c h i n g A s s i s t a n t s who moved back to the e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l were a s s i g n e d permanent d u t i e s . The m o r n i n g s c h e d u l e of one was s h a r e d by two t e a c h e r s . The T e a c h i n g A s s i s t a n t c o m p l e t e d t a s k s as a s s i g n e d i n a book, u s i n g the q u e s t i o n s and e l i c i t i n g t he answers d e s i g n a t e d by the c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r i n d i s c u s s i o n g r o u p s w h i c h the T e a c h i n g A s s i s t a n t h e l d w i t h s t u d e n t s . The o t h e r T e a c h i n g A s s i s t a n t was d e s c r i b e d as "here e v e r y m o r n i n g and h e l p s i n many ways." T h a t T e a c h i n g A s s i s t a n t r e p o r t e d making t e a c h i n g a i d s , d e v i s i n g games as w e l l as w o r k i n g w i t h i n d i v i d u a l s t u d e n t s and h e l p i n g the t e a c h e r w i t h s n a c k s , w i n t e r c l o t h e s and c l e a n - u p i n the c l a s s r o o m . As w e l l , t h i s T e a c h i n g A s s i s t a n t u n d e r t o o k to p r e p a r e some t e a c h i n g a i d s at home. W h i l e the p r o c e d u r e of r o t a t i n g a s s i g n m e n t s between the two s c h o o l s at s i x week i n t e r v a l s was s a t i s f a c t o r y f o r the T e a c h i n g A s s i s t a n t s , the s c h o o l s t a f f f e l t t h a t the a s s i g n m e n t time was too s h o r t . They j u s t had t h e i r s c h e d u l e s and p r o c e d u r e s a d a p t e d to the use of an a s s i s t a n t and they l o s t t h a t a s s i s t a n t f o r at l e a s t s i x weeks. In the h i g h s c h o o l , t e a c h e r s f e l t t h e i r knowledge about the needs of t h e i r s c h o o l s and s t u d e n t s were o v e r l o o k e d w h i l e the views a b o u t needs h e l d by s e m i - i n v o l v e d s c h o o l w o r k e r s such as the Home-School C o o r d i n a t o r , the Program C o o r d i n a t o r and the p e r s o n a l w i s h e s or i n t e r e s t s of the T e a c h i n g A s s i s t a n t s d e t e r m i n e d p l a c e m e n t of t h o s e a s s i s t a n t s . The T e a c h i n g A s s i s t a n t s seemed f r e e to s e l e c t whom they would work w i t h and when, but the t e a c h e r s d i d not have the same f r e e d o m . Some a d j u s t m e n t s were made but not w i t h o u t c o n f r o n t a t i o n . In t h e end, the c o n t r o l of the program r e m a i n e d w i t h the Band but p r i n c i p a l s and t e a c h e r s had more i n f l u e n c e on the p l a c e m e n t of T e a c h i n g A s s i s t a n t s . Few T e a c h i n g A s s i s t a n t s p r e f e r r e d to work i n the e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l . A f u l l time l i b r a r y a s s i s t a n t would have been welcome but to t r a i n d i f f e r e n t T e a c h i n g A s s i s t a n t s f o r one month p e r i o d s was a d a u n t i n g , t i m e - c o n s u m i n g t a s k . T e a c h i n g A s s i s t a n t s , on the o t h e r hand, found many of the d u t i e s i n the e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l to be h o u s e k e e p i n g or c h i l d - c a r i n g i n n a t u r e and d i d not seem to have much e d u c a t i o n a l v a l u e . In the e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l , the s i x week l e n g t h of the r o t a t i o n c y c l e and c h o i c e of a s s i g n m e n t s meant t h a t few "teams" of t e a c h e r - t e a c h i n g a s s i s t a n t d e v e l o p e d . The l a c k of time t o g e t h e r f o r p l a n n i n g made i t d i f f i c u l t f o r t e a c h e r s to make e f f e c t i v e use of T e a c h i n g A s s i s t a n t s . In the f a l l of the se c o n d y e a r , w h i l e the T e a c h i n g A s s i s t a n t s were c o m p l e t i n g c l a s s r o o m t a s k s In the h i g h s c h o o l as a s s i g n e d , t h e i r growth i n r e s p o n s i b i l i t y seemed s t u n t e d . The T e a c h i n g A s s i s t a n t s were n e i t h e r r e q u i r e d nor c o m p e l l e d to t h i n k of p a s t b e h a v i o r s and c o n s e q u e n c e s , nor to p l a n f o r f u t u r e d e v e l o p m e n t s . T h e r e f o r e , the t u t o r i n g program was d e s i g n e d to i n c r e a s e the p e r s o n a l commitment to s t u d e n t s who o b v i o u s l y needed h e l p . T h i s p l a n seemed to g i v e the T e a c h i n g A s s i s t a n t s more of a sense of p u r p o s e t h a n the f o r m e r 158 assignments as v e r i f i e d by the increased attendance and renewed i n t e r e s t i n students' progress. The seven-step process l i s t e d on page one hundred f i f t y - f i v e was more manageable than the l i s t of t h i r t y - s i x p o s s i b l e d u t i e s f o r the Teaching A s s i s t a n t s that was found i n the "Guidebook to Teachers Planning to Work with Indian Teacher Aides" i n The Native Indian P a r a p r o f e s s i o n a l  T r a i n i n g Program: Learning Packages (More and Ashworth, 1981). The teachers a p p r e c i a t e d the Teaching A s s i s t a n t s more as students completed more homework assignments and appeared i n c l a s s r e g u l a r l y with pre-reading done and with books i n hand. The Teaching A s s i s t a n t s attended c l a s s e s to be sure they knew what assignments were given to t h e i r students. Some s u p e r v i s i o n of small groups i n c l a s s e s became part of the Teaching A s s i s t a n t s ' t a s k s . Support S e r v i c e s The support s e r v i c e s that seemed e s s e n t i a l to the L y t t o n Teaching A s s i s t a n t s are des c r i b e d and discus s e d i n t h i s s e c t i o n under the headings: Home Base, F i n a n c i a l Support, Program C o o r d i n a t o r , Program Manager, Academic Support and Community Support. Home Base The program i n Ly t t o n began i n September, 1981 with 159 e i g h t t r a i n e e s , a Program C o o r d i n a t o r , the Home-School C o o r d i n a t o r and h e r a s s i s t a n t a l l s h a r i n g c l a s s r o o m and o f f i c e s p a c e i n a l a r g e basement room i n the band o f f i c e b u i l d i n g . T h e r e were c l a s s e s to be c o n d u c t e d In the a f t e r n o o n s but t h e r e were a l s o m e e t i n g s of the Home-School C o o r d i n a t o r and her a s s i s t a n t and s t u d e n t s and p a r e n t s ; t h e r e were phone c a l l s to o r d e r s u p p l i e s or a r r a n g e w o rkshops. T h e r e were more c a l l s from the s c h o o l s , from p a r e n t s , from h e a l t h c a r e w o r k e r s . To a c h i e v e r e l i e f from the i n t e r r u p t i o n s and d i s t r a c t i o n s , a p a r t i t i o n was b u i l t to form a w o r k i n g o f f i c e and a b i g L - s h a p e d c l a s s r o o m and m e e t i n g a r e a . The Program C o o r d i n a t o r and the T e a c h i n g A s s i s t a n t s had, t h e n , a room th e y c o u l d f i l l w i t h books, a u d i o - v i s u a l machines", p o s t e r s , w a l l c h a r t s , r e m i n d e r s and s c h e d u l e s . A c o l l e c t i o n of r e f e r e n c e books was begun. H i s t o r i e s of I n d i a n p o l i t i c a l d e v e l o p m e n t , c o l l e c t i o n s of I n d i a n myths, a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l s t u d i e s of the Thompson p e o p l e , r e c o r d s of l o c a l h i s t o r y , government documents as w e l l as b a s i c r e f e r e n c e s such as d i c t i o n a r i e s , t h e s a u r i , e n c y c l o p e d e a , as w e l l as some t e x t books were a c q u i r e d . A u d i o - v i s u a l equipment was r e q u i r e d b o t h f o r t e a c h i n g p u r p o s e s and to f a m i l i a r i z e the T e a c h i n g A s s i s t a n t s w i t h the v a r i o u s machines i n use i n c l a s s r o o m s and s c h o o l s . The o r i g i n a l open a r e a impeded work. The t r a f f i c was d i s r u p t i n g . The a c c e s s i b i l i t y of the r e f e r e n c e m a t e r i a l and a u d i o - v i s u a l equipment to the p u b l i c i n c r e a s e d t h e i r use but sometimes needed m a t e r i a l was not a v a i l a b l e . 160 F i n a n c i a l S u p p o r t F i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e i n the form of a s a l a r y was p a i d to the T e a c h i n g A s s i s t a n t s d u r i n g the t r a i n i n g program by the Band. T h i s f i n a n c i a l s u p p o r t was from the a n n u a l budget and t h i s p r e c l u d e d l o n g term p l a n n i n g as the program had to be r e - f u n d e d each y e a r . The T e a c h i n g A s s i s t a n t s a g r e e d t h a t t h e y r e c e i v e d a s u f f i c i e n t sum w h i l e t h e y were i n a t r a i n i n g program. U n f o r t u n a t e l y t h e r e were no g u a r a n t e e d f u n d s a v a i l a b l e to pay t r a i n e d T e a c h i n g A s s i s t a n t s . The program and the p o s i t i o n t h u s must be renewed a n n u a l l y . Program C o o r d i n a t o r The P rogram C o o r d i n a t o r ' s p o s i t i o n encompassed many r o l e s : t e a c h e r , l i a s o n between s c h o o l s t a f f and T e a c h i n g A s s i s t a n t s , program d e v e l o p e r , m a t e r i a l s p r o c u r e r , l i a s o n between Band E d u c a t i o n D i r e c t o r and T e a c h i n g A s s i s t a n t s , s u p e r v i s o r , m entor, c o o r d i n a t o r of l o c a l program and u n i v e r s i t y program, and t u t o r f o r Open L e a r n i n g c o u r s e s . The c o o r d i n a t o r v i s i t e d the s c h o o l s i n the m o r n i n g to t a l k to the t e a c h e r s and a d m i n i s t r a t o r s . She l i s t e n e d to them and i n c o r p o r a t e d t h e i r o b s e r v a t i o n s and i d e a s i n t o the a f t e r n o o n s e s s i o n s . The T e a c h i n g A s s i s t a n t s were o b s e r v e d at work so t h e c o o r d i n a t o r c o u l d h e l p them i n t e g r a t e workshop l e a r n i n g s i n t o t h e i r c l a s s r o o m work. The c o o r d i n a t o r d i s c u s s e d and 161 planned workshops with leaders from outside the community. The p o s i t i o n was e l i m i n a t e d i n second year and the s a l a r y i n s t e a d went to the Curriculum M a t e r i a l s Developer. Teachers, p r i n c i p a l s and Teaching A s s i s t a n t s r e g r e t t e d the l o s s of the Program C o o r d i n a t o r . Someone was needed to: (a) monitor the Teaching A s s i s t a n t s ' attendance, (b) keep communication l i n e s open between teachers and Teaching A s s i s t a n t s regarding afternoon classwork and i n t e g r a t i o n of that i n t o morning work i n the schools, (c) monitor the school classroom work of Teaching A s s i s t a n t s to see that workshop s k i l l s were p r a c t i s e d and became part of Teaching A s s i s t a n t s ' r e p e r t o i r e , (d) d i s c u s s with teache rs the progress of Teaching A s s i s t a n t s so that assignments could be changed, (e) provide a formal channel f o r e v a l u a t i o n of classroom performance, and to supply d i r e c t i o n f o r improvement. A program c o o r d i n a t o r whose main l o y a l t y was to the e f f e c t i v e use of Teaching A s s i s t a n t s i n the classroom was r e q u i r e d . A c o o r d i n a t o r who could understand i n s t i t u t i o n a l and e d u c a t i o n a l pressures on teachers and who could then t r a n s l a t e t e a c h e r s ' needs i n t o lessons' f o r Teaching A s s i s t a n t s was c r u c i a l to the program. A program c o o r d i n a t o r whom the Teaching A s s i s t a n t s could be sure would present t h e i r views i n a p r o f e s s i o n a l and respected format to the schools and to the Band a d m i n i s t r a t i o n was r e q u i r e d . A c o o r d i n a t o r who could push gently and lead a s s u r e d l y through mazes of academic and classroom s k i l l s while not i n s u l t i n g or h u r t i n g p r i d e was a key component of the program. i 162 Program Manager This i s a f i c t i t i o u s t i t l e created to d e s c r i b e the f u n c t i o n s performed by the Home-School Coordinator ( l a t e r E d ucation D i r e c t o r ) f o r the t r a i n i n g program. The Program Manager was an e n e r g e t i c , determined person who assembled data and presented i t c o n v i n c i n g l y , i n accep t a b l e b u r e a u c r a t i c form, to the personnel of i n s t i t u i o n s who had to give t h e i r approval i n order f o r the program to get s t a r t e d . The Program Manager e x h i b i t e d s e l f - a s s u r a n c e because i t was best to see a d m i n i s t r a t o r s i n one-to-one meetings where they were more e a s i l y convinced of the merits of the proposed programs. The Program Manager attended many meetings and presented r e p o r t s with e l a n . The Program Manager r e q u i r e d a good c r e d i t r a t i n g so b i l l s and s a l a r i e s could be paid when grants were slow to a r r i v e . (See a l s o Government of Canada, 1983, p.85.) The Program Manager developed contacts i n government and i n u n i v e r s i t i e s and research centres i n order to o b t a i n c r e d i b l e support f o r p r o p o s a l s . As w e l l , the Program Manager became f a m i l i a r with Indian education p r o j e c t s across Canada i n order to design a p r o j e c t to match the community's needs. The Program Manager developed p o l i t i c a l s k i l l s to get and keep the support of Band and School o f f i c i a l s and people i n the community. The Program Manager learned to be be a planner and l o g i s t i c s expert to arrange f o r workshops when and as r e q u i r e d . The L y t t o n Program was the only program reviewed i n 163 w h i c h one p e r s o n a t t e m p t e d to o r g a n i z e , d e v e l o p , a d m i n i s t e r and be a c c o u n t a b l e f o r the t r a i n i n g program. F i n a n c i a l p r u d e n c e might have been the r e a s o n f o r d r o p p i n g the Program C o o r d i n a t o r d u r i n g the s e c o n d y e a r but the r e s u l t i n g work l o a d of the E d u c a t i o n D i r e c t o r must be seen as a f a c t o r i n p r o b l e m s i n t h a t y e a r of the program. Only when the h i g h s c h o o l t e a c h e r assumed the d u t i e s of c o o r d i n a t i n g the t u t o r i n g or i n - s c h o o l p a r t of the program d i d i t seem p o s s i b l e t h a t the program c o u l d c o n t i n u e . A cademic S u p p o r t T h i s s e c t i o n d e s c r i b e s the s u p p o r t s u p p l i e d to the I n d i a n T e a c h i n g A s s i s t a n t T r a i n i n g Program by the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . That s u p p o r t i n c l u d e d p e r s o n n e l , p r i n t e d m a t e r i a l s and f i n a l l y , a c e r t i f i c a t e . The S u p e r v i s o r of I n d i a n E d u c a t i o n at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a h e l p e d a r r a n g e f u n d i n g t h r o u g h the F i e l d O f f i c e of the U n i v e r s i t y , the M i n i s t r y of E d u c a t i o n of B.C. and the D.I.A. f o r the i n s t r u c t o r s and the m a t e r i a l s f o r the p r ogram. He was a v a i l a b l e f o r o b s e r v a t i o n s , j o i n t p l a n n i n g s e s s i o n s , i n t e r n a l e v a l u a t i o n s , o n g o i n g p l a n n i n g and a d a p t a t i o n , and n e g o t i a t i o n s . He a r r a n g e d i n s t r u c t o r s f o r w orkshops t h r o u g h h i s c o n t a c t s w i t h p e o p l e i n the network of I n d i a n e d u c a t i o n , community c o l l e g e s and the u n i v e r s i t i e s . He e n s u r e d t h a t the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a g r a n t e d a c e r t i f i c a t e to the a s s i s t a n t s at the end of the program. 164 "A d o c t o r i n the h o u s e " was a welcome a d d i t i o n to the p r o gram. The l e g i t i m a c y added by the s u p p o r t of the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a and e s p e c i a l l y by the S u p e r v i s o r of I n d i a n E d u c a t i o n was i n s t r u m e n t a l i n a r r a n g i n g f u n d i n g and p l a c e m e n t of T e a c h i n g A s s i s t a n t s i n the s c h o o l s . The s t r u c t u r e d workshops l e d by q u a l i f i e d I n s t r u c t o r s f a m i l i a r w i t h the l o n g term g o a l s of the program and w i t h e x p e r i e n c e i n I n d i a n e d u c a t i o n were v a l u e d by the T e a c h i n g A s s i s t a n t s . The c o n t i n u e d s u p p o r t by the S u p e r v i s o r of I n d i a n E d u c a t i o n at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a t h r o u g h o u t the program gave needed p e r s p e c t i v e i n t h a t g a i n s t h a t a p p e a r e d i n s i g n i f i c a n t to t h o s e i n v o l v e d i n the d a y - t o - d a y r u n n i n g of the program were more r e c o g n i z a b l e to someone from o u t s i d e the community who c o u l d compare the program to o t h e r s . The g r a n t i n g of the c e r t i f i c a t e by U.B.C. meant t h a t t h e s e p e o p l e were w o r k i n g toward s o m e t h i n g p r e s t i g i o u s and from an e s t a b l i s h e d i n s t i t u t i o n ; the program became s o m e t h i n g o t h e r t h e n a make-work program. The g r a d u a t i o n ceremony a f f o r d e d an o p p o r t u n i t y f o r p u b l i c r e c o g n i t i o n of the T e a c h i n g A s s i s t a n t s ' e f f o r t s and the s c h o o l s ' c o o p e r a t i o n . The p r i n t e d m a t e r i a l s from the workshops s u p p l i e d r e f e r e n c e m a t e r i a l s f o r the T e a c h i n g A s s i s t a n t s . The p r i n t e d m a t e r i a l s would have been v a l u e d more had t h e y had t h e i r own b i n d e r to w h i c h the T e a c h i n g A s s i s t a n t s c o u l d have added the u n i t s as s t u d i e d . 1 6 5 Community S u p p o r t T h i s s e c t i o n i d e n t i f i e s community s u p p o r t s e r v i c e s such as the s c h o o l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , the s c h o o l s t a f f and the Band C o u n c i l and C h i e f . The s c h o o l s t a f f and a d m i n i s t r a t i o n were a c t i v e l y i n v o l v e d i n c o n s o l i d a t i n g p o s i t i v e outcomes of the program s u c h as i n c r e a s e d c o m m u n i c a t i o n w i t h p a r e n t s . They were w i l l i n g to try-new c o m b i n a t i o n s i n teaming and new f o r m a t s i n u s i n g the T e a c h i n g A s s i s t a n t s when i n i t i a l a t t e m p t s were l e s s t h a n e f f e c t i v e . At the time of a p p a r a n t c o l l a p s e , the p r i n c i p a l s a s s e r t e d t h e i r e x p e c t a t i o n s f o r p r o f e s s i o n a l b e h a v i o r and t h i s r e s p e c t from the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n h e l p e d the T e a c h i n g A s s i s t a n t s c o m p l e t e y e a r two. The s c h o o l s t a f f a l l o w e d the program to d e v e l o p and gave the T e a c h i n g A s s i s t a n t s s p a c e . They d i d not t r y to t a k e o v e r the program but a l l o w e d i t to grow t h r o u g h some d i f f i c u l t s t a g e s . They w a i t e d to be i n v i t e d to become c o n t r i b u t i n g p a r t i c i p a n t s i n the program. They might have r e q u e s t e d more i n p u t s o o n e r but r e a l i s t i c knowledge of the time t h e y had a v a i l a b l e to g u i d e an a s s i s t a n t , u n c e r t a i n t y o v e r the a s s i s t a n c e a v a i l a b l e , and v a r i a n c e i n o p i n i o n of the m u l t i c u l t u r a l r o l e of a s c h o o l were r e s t r i c t i n g i n f l u e n c e s . The s u p p o r t of the L y t t o n Band t h r o u g h t h e i r c h i e f and c o u n c i l f o r the f i r s t y e a r and a h a l f e n c o u r a g e d and s u s t a i n e d a h i g h l e v e l of p r o d u c t i v i t y on the p a r t of the Home-School C o o r d i n a t o r . W i t h o u t t h e i r s u p p o r t h e r p o s i t i o n 166 was untenable and she l e f t the program. The c h i e f and c o u n c i l continued to encourage the Teaching A s s i s t a n t s and provided concrete support i n the form of the "home base", f i n a n c i a l a i d and l e a d e r s h i p . Wider community support did not develop, p o s s i b l y because there, was no way f o r the wider community to c o n t r i b u t e to the program but inf o r m a l support was given to i n d i v i d u a l s as reported by some Teaching A s s i s t a n t s and school s t a f f members. Fi n d i n g s The l e a r n i n g s from the L y t t o n Teaching A s s i s t a n t T r a i n i n g Program are presented and discus s e d i n point form i n t h i s s e c t i o n . 1. The problem of r o l e d e f i n i t i o n f o r the teachers and the Teaching A s s i s t a n t s was never r e s o l v e d . That d i f f i c u l t y was voic e d by the Ontario program i n 1972 and i t s t i l l e x i s t s i n most contexts i n c l u d i n g B r i t i s h Columbia: Unless c l a r i t y can be brought to the issue of aide u t i l i z a t i o n i n modern e d u c a t i o n a l p r a c t i c e the f u n c t i o n s of aides w i l l remain ambiguous, and the s e r v i c e s they provide w i l l be l e s s than s a t i s f a c t o r y both to themselves and to the schools they serve. (Haig-Brown, 1976, n. pag.) The teachers and Teaching A s s i s t a n t s of Ly t t o n made a s t a r t on d e f i n i n g t h e i r r o l e s at the workshop i n November 1981. More and frequent meetings were needed to complete the task because the program's p i c t u r e of the r o l e of a Teaching 167 A s s i s t a n t and the c l a s s r o o m a c t u a l i t y of the r o l e d i d not c o i n c i d e . C o n t i n u a l a s s e s s m e n t of r o l e s by b o t h t e a c h e r s and T e a c h i n g A s s i s t a n t s i n a n o n - c o n f r o n t a l group s i t u a t i o n was needed. F r e q u e n t group m e e t i n g s between T e a c h i n g A s s i s t a n t s and t e a c h e r s might have p r o v i d e d p o s i t i v e f e e d b a c k , c o n s t r u c t i v e c r i t i c i s m , calm p r o b l e m s o l v i n g f o r u m s , and p l a n n i n g s e s s i o n s . T e a c h e r s and p r i n c i p a l s needed to f e e l t h e y were p a r t of the t r a i n i n g team. They needed to know what p a r t i n the program t h e y c o u l d p l a y . F o r example, o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r s c h o o l p e r s o n n e l to be i n v o l v e d i n the program i n c r e a s e d t h e i r commitment to the program, i . e . two of t h o s e who gave workshops became the C u r r i c u l u m M a t e r i a l s D e v e l o p e r and the C o o r d i n a t o r of the t u t o r i n g program, two of the more v o c a l and a c t i v e s u p p o r t e r s i n the s t a f f . 2. The g o a l s the program manager had were not r e a l i s t i c f o r the program g i v e n the s m a l l number of t r a i n e e s , the u n c e r t a i n f i n a n c e s and the l i m i t e d l o c a l r e s o u r c e s . As t h e r e were o n l y s e v e n r e g u l a r t r a i n e e s , t h e r e were not enough c a n d i d a t e s f o r a NITEP c e n t r e to be e s t a b l i s h e d i n L y t t o n . Long term f i n a n c i n g must be a v a i l a b l e to e n a b l e e f f i c i e n t p l a n n i n g . Program components may be a d j u s t e d but the p r e s e n c e of a m a s t e r p l a n and a s s u r e d f i n a n c i n g of l o n g e r t h a n one y e a r i n c r e a s e the l i k e l i h o o d of a commitment b e i n g made by the s t a k e h o l d e r s , the Department of I n d i a n A f f a i r s , the Band c o u n c i l , the program p a r t i c i p a n t s and the s c h o o l p e r s o n n e l ( P l a t e r , 1 9 7 3). 168 3. Program managers, c o o r d i n a t o r s and T e a c h i n g A s s i s t a n t s s h o u l d d e t e r m i n e p r i o r i t i e s between program, s c h o o l , home and community uses of the T e a c h i n g A s s i s t a n t s ' t i m e . I t cannot be assumed t h a t the program w i l l be the f i r s t p r i o r i t y to a l l the t r a i n e e s . I t i s a l s o i m p o r t a n t f o r the i n s t r u c t o r s f r o m o u t s i d e the community to be made aware of l o c a l r e a l i t i e s so t h e i r p l a n n i n g f o r workshops i s a b l e to take i n t o a c c o u n t time r e s t r a i n t s . Community and f a m i l y r e s p o n s i b l l i t e s of the T e a c h i n g A s s i s t a n t s d e t e r m i n e the time a v a i l a b l e f o r o u t s i d e p r e p a r a t i o n f o r c l a s s e s . For example, C o n s t i t u t i o n C o n f e r e n c e s , community b a s e b a l l n i g h t s , s i c k c h i l d r e n and widowhood were o c c u r a n c e s i n T e a c h i n g A s s i s t a n t s ' l i v e s t h a t the program a t t e m p t e d to i g n o r e i n the s e c o n d y e a r . However, when i t i s p o s s i b l e to t i e the workshop c o n t e n t to l o c a l r e a l i t i e s , s c h o o l or p o l i t i c a l , more e f f o r t i s l i k e l y to be made by t r a i n e e s to co m p l e t e e x t r a p r e p a r a t i o n . 4. More c o o r d i n a t i o n has to be done between s c h o o l and c o u r s e work f o r T e a c h i n g A s s i s t a n t s . The T e a c h i n g A s s i s t a n t s were most i n v o l v e d i n workshops t h a t t i e d t h e o r y to the a c t u a l i t i e s of the L y t t o n c l a s s r o o m s . Math t h e o r y and t o p o l o g y c o n c e p t s might have been h e l p f u l i n t e a c h i n g p r o b l e m s o l v i n g t e c h n i q u e s but what the T e a c h i n g A s s i s t a n t s were w o r r i e d about was how to s o l v e e q u a t i o n s and how to t e a c h b u s i n e s s a r i t h m e t i c . Workshops were not d e s i g n e d to meet the immediate i n s t r u c t i o n a l needs of the T e a c h i n g A s s i s t a n t s . They were t a u g h t c l a s s r o o m t e c h n i q u e s when th e y needed to 169 l e a r n more t u t o r i n g s t r a t e g i e s . Workshops i n drama, e s s a y w r i t i n g and s p e e c h a r t s had to be t i e d to p e r s o n a l or c l a s s r o o m needs to be v a l u e d . To be a b l e to pass an exam or to a n a l y z e a p i e c e of l i t e r a t u r e were not a v a l i d r e a s o n to l e a r n , but i t was i m p o r t a n t to l e a r n to speak and w r i t e i n o r d e r to be a b l e to be e f f e c t i v e when p r e s e n t i n g a b r i e f or a p p l y i n g f o r f u n d s . 5. The a c c e p t a n c e of T e a c h i n g A s s i s t a n t s i s i n f l u e n c e d l e s s by a c a d e m i c c a p a b i l i t i e s and c r e d e n t i a l s t h a n I t i s by a w i l l i n g n e s s on the p a r t of the T e a c h i n g A s s i s t a n t to accommodate s c h o o l i d i o s y n c r a s i e s . P u n c t u a l i t y , c o n f o r m i t y to norms of the t e a c h i n g p r o f e s s i o n , a c c e p t a n c e of r e s t r i c t i o n s on o u t s i d e p o l i t i c a l i n v o l v e m e n t were the keys to a c c e p t a n c e by the s c h o o l p e r s o n n e l . 6. The T e a c h i n g A s s i s t a n t s r e v i s e d t h e i r v iews of s c h o o l s when th e y became p a r t of the s t a f f . They r e e x a m i n e d b e h a v i o r e x p e c t a t i o n s of c h i l d r e n , d u t i e s of t e a c h e r s , and f u n c t i o n s of s c h o o l s . A c l a s s r o o m seen from the p o i n t of view of an a d u l t w orker was a d i f f e r e n t p l a c e t h a n the one th e y remembered as s t u d e n t s or as v i s i t i n g p a r e n t s . In the i n i t i a l months the T e a c h i n g A s s i s t a n t s demanded time i n the a f t e r n o o n s to d i s c u s s t h e s e new p e r c e p t i o n s of what goes on i n a c l a s s r o o m . 7. The a f t e r n o o n c l a s s s e s s i o n s had to be s t r i c t l y s t r u c t u r e d t o g i v e them v a l u e o t h e r w i s e t h e y became viewed as 170 unimportant or d e t e r i o r a t e d i n t o gripe s e s s i o n s . Assignments would be completed outside of c l a s s i f t h e i r purposes were c l e a r ; i f the completion were expected and r e q u i r e d ; and i f a pe r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p was e s t a b l i s h e d between the i n s t r u c t o r and the Teaching A s s i s t a n t s ( K l e i n f e l d , 1972). 8. While Teaching A s s i s t a n t s most enjoy t h e i r work with students, teachers need help with n o n - i n t e r a c t i n g d u t i e s too; these are a part of a teacher's job. Some so r t of agreement about the percentage of time Teaching A s s i s t a n t s spend i n classrooms and i n preparing m a t e r i a l s f o r teachers must be e s t a b l i s h e d . Research r e p o r t s done i n Minneapolis found that Teaching A s s i s t a n t s spent f i f t y percent of t h e i r time doing r o u t i n e t asks, twenty-five percent s u p e r v i s i n g group a c t i v i t i e s , and twenty-five percent t u t o r i n g i n d i v i d u a l s (Bennett and F a l k , 1970). In L y t t o n , teachers h e s i t a t e d to ask for help with r o u t i n e tasks and Teaching A s s i s t a n t s were not encouraged to o f f e r help i n that area because i t was feared they would then do nothing more i n t e r a c t i v e . 9. The frequent v i s i t s of an outside c o n s u l t a n t were necessary to give p e r s p e c t i v e to seemingly small amounts of pr o g r e s s . Broader exposure to other programs plus non-personal, n o n - p o l i t i c a l involvment made i t e a s i e r for the out s i d e c o n s u l t a n t to suggest a l t e r n a t i v e methods and channels f o r i n s t r u c t i o n and implementation when r e q u i r e d . Program p a r t i c i p a n t s at a l l l e v e l s became discouraged when change was not immediate and sweeping i n the classrooms or i n 171 p e r s o n a l growth. People who imagine that they can e f f e c t much change i n schools i n a short time or make schools more a c c e p t i n g of non-middle c l a s s normalcy w i l l l i k e l y be d i s a p p o i n t e d and become discouraged (Renaud, 1979, L o r t i e , 1975). 10. Teachers would welcome more Thompson c u r r i c u l u m m a t e r i a l s , e s p e c i a l l y legends, l o c a l h i s t o r y , n a t u r a l h i s t o r y , p i c t u r e s , games, charts and cards to teach and p r a c t i s e language s k i l l s . They would l i k e some help i n t e g r a t i n g l o c a l knowledge i n t o the c u r r i c u l a . Teachers f e e l more comfortable using new, extra m a t e r i a l s rather than u t i l i z i n g e x tra people i n t h e i r classrooms. However a p o s i t i v e example of i n t e g r a t i n g l o c a l knowledge occurred t h i s year when n a t i v e foods were c o l l e c t e d and prepared by c l a s s e s i n both the elementary and high school as part of s c i e n c e , s o c i a l s t u d i e s and home economics c l a s s e s . Native c r a f t s such as beading have been part of the school art program f o r some time. W i l d l i f e s k e t ching i n the a r t program r e f l e c t s the community i n t e r e s t i n the n a t u r a l surroundings. 11. Both the Program Coordinator and Program Manager p o s i t i o n s are necessary. To ensure more communication about content of courses i s done between schools and the program, one person must take r e s p o n s i b l i 1 i t y to increase communication about tasks, s k i l l s development, m a t e r i a l s requirements and use as requested by the school personnel. The two jobs, Program Coordinator and Program Manager 172 s h o u l d be s e p a r a t e . Whenever t h i s has happened more c o - o r d i n a t i o n of p e o p l e , d e s i g n i n g of c u r r i c u l u m and f i n a n c i a l p l a n n i n g was done e f f e c t i v e l y . 12. A s p e c i a l c l a s s r o o m f o r the T e a c h i n g A s s i s t a n t s w i t h a c c e s s to r e f e r e n c e m a t e r i a l s , a u d i o - v i s u a l equipment and media f o r p r e p a r a t i o n of t e a c h i n g a i d s i s r e q u i r e d . 13. C o n t i n u e d c o m m u n i c a t i o n between p a r e n t s and s c h o o l s w hich h e l p s to improve s t u d e n t and p a r e n t r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r homework c o m p l e t i o n and i d e n t i f i c a t i o n w i t h s c h o o l g o a l s needs to c o n t i n u e . 14. I n d i a n T e a c h i n g A s s i s t a n t s and T e a c h e r s p e r s e v e r e . They d o n ' t g i v e up. 173 C h a p t e r F i v e R e s u l t s : C o r r e l a t i o n of L i t e r a t u r e and L y t t o n Study In t h i s c h a p t e r the p r o b l e m and p u r p o s e of the s t u d y a r e r e s t a t e d . The M e t h o d o l o g y i s r e v i e w e d . F i n d i n g s from the r e v i e w of the l i t e r a t u r e and the s t u d y of the L y t t o n I n d i a n T e a c h i n g A s s i s t a n t T r a i n i g Program a r e c o r r e l a t e d i n o r d e r to f o r m u l a t e c o n c l u s i o n s . P r o b l e m N a t i v e I n d i a n s t u d e n t s have not been g r a d u a t e s o f , nor s u c c e s s f u l s t u d e n t s i n , a c a d e m i c programs i n N o r t h A m e r i c a n s c h o o l s i n p r o p o r t i o n to t h e i r number. The p r o b l e m w i t h which the p r e s e n t s t u d y i s c o n c e r n e d i s the need to improve the a c a d e m i c a c h i e v e m e n t and the r e t e n t i o n r a t e of I n d i a n s t u d e n t s i n s c h o o l . T h i s s t u d y i s p a r t i c u l a r l y c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e p r o b l e m of i m p r o v i n g a c h i e v e m e n t and r e t e n t i o n of I n d i a n s t u d e n t s i n the s c h o o l s y s t e m t h r o u g h more I n d i a n community i n v o l v e m e n t i n the s c h o o l s , the use of c u l t u r a l l y r e l e v a n t c u r r i c u l a and the p r e s e n c e of more I n d i a n t e a c h e r s and w r i t e r s of m a t e r i a l . One way c u l t u r a l l y r e l e v a n t c u r r i c u l a and I n d i a n t e a c h e r s have been i n t r o d u c e d to the s c h o o l s has been t h r o u g h the use of I n d i a n p a r a p r o f e s s i o n a 1 s to t e a c h I n d i a n l a n g u a g e s and c u l t u r a l a c t i v i t i e s . More r e c e n t l y , t r a i n i n g programs have been d e s i g n e d f o r N a t i v e I n d i a n p a r a p r o f e s s i o n a l s to 174 become more e f f e c t i v e as t e a c h i n g a s s i s t a n t s to improve the a c a d e m i c a c h i e v e m e n t of I n d i a n s t u d e n t s . These t e a c h i n g a s s i s t a n t s have no f o r m a l r o l e i n i n t r o d u c i n g I n d i a n l a n g u a g e s , c u l t u r e or c r a f t s . P u r p o s e The p u r p o s e of t h i s s t u d y was to i n v e s t i g a t e c o n g r u e n c i e s i n program d e s i g n and d e v e l o p m e n t between the L y t t o n program f o r t r a i n i n g I n d i a n t e a c h i n g a s s i s t a n t s and t r a i n i n g programs f o r p a r a p r o f e s s i o n a l s i n c r o s s - c u l t u r a l s i t u a t i o n s e l s e w h e r e . Common t r a i n i n g components, i m p l e m e n t a t i o n p r a c t i c e s , s u p p o r t f a c i l i t i e s were sought f o l l o w i n g the l e a d of the I n t e r n a t i o n a l C o u n c i l of E d u c a t i o n a l Development g u i d e to c a s e s t u d i e s : . . . i n c o n t r a s t to t r y i n g to g i v e an o v e r a l l " s u c c e s s " r a t i n g to each c a s e , i t would be f a r more u s e f u l to t r y to d i s c o v e r what c o n c r e t e f a c t o r s w i t h i n each program and i t s e n v i r o n m e n t had h e l p e d or h i n d e r e d the a c h i e v e m e n t of i t s o b j e c t i v e s , and t o what e x t e n t s i m i l a r p o s i t i v e and n e g a t i v e f a c t o r s t u r n e d up r e p e a t e d l y i n d i f f e r e n t program c o n t e x t s . (Coombs, 1980, p.3) A c o l l e c t i o n of t h o s e " c o n c r e t e f a c t o r s " i s p r e s e n t e d f o r the c o n s i d e r a t i o n of program d e v e l o p e r s and p a r t i c i p a n t s i n t e a c h i n g a s s i s t a n t t r a i n i n g p r o g r a m s . 175 Summary of t h e Study  M e t h o d o l o g y W r i t t e n m a t e r i a l from and about t e a c h i n g a s s i s t a n t t r a i n i n g programs t h a t were d e v e l o p e d i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s f o r s c h o o l s w i t h a m u l t i c u l t u r a l c l i e n t e l e were r e v i e w e d . W r i t t e n m a t e r i a l s from and about programs d e s i g n e d i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s f o r I n d i a n c o m m u n i t i e s were examined. C o m m o n a l i t i e s were i d e n t i f i e d . Documents from programs t h a t had been d e v e l o p e d i n Canada, p a r t i c u l a r l y B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , were compared to d i s c o v e r f a c t o r s t h a t had been d e s c r i b e d as s u c c e s s f u l , e s p e c i a l l y by the p a r t i c i p a n t s i n the p r o g r a m s . The N a t i v e I n d i a n T e a c h i n g A s s i s t a n t Program at L y t t o n was f o l l o w e d o v e r a two y e a r p e r i o d . O b s e r v a t i o n s were combined w i t h documents, i n t e r v i e w s , and q u e s t i o n n a i r e r e s u l t s to i d e n t i f y the components t h a t had been deemed s u c c e s s e s by the program p a r t i c i p a n t s and t h o s e f a c t o r s t h a t had been s o u r c e s of d i f f i c u l t i e s . The r e s u l t i n g c o l l e c t i o n of c o n c e r n s i s o u t l i n e d f o r the c o n s i d e r a t i o n of t h o s e a t t e m p t i n g to d e s i g n , to c o n d u c t , or to p a r t i c i p a t e i n a t e a c h i n g a s s i s t a n t t r a i n i n g program, and e s p e c i a l l y an I n d i a n t e a c h i n g a s s i s t a n t t r a i n i n g program. These f a c t o r s have been p i v o t a l p o i n t s i n more than one t r a i n i n g program. 176 Conclusions 1. Communication networks must be e s t a b l i s h e d between t h e t r a i n i n g program and t h e community as a whole, between t h e t r a i n i n g program and t h e school community, and between t h e t r a i n i n g program and t h e supporting academic community. The implementation of any i n n o v a t i o n i n t o a school i s a very p o l i t i c a l process. Therefore a l l those who can a f f e c t that implementation must be kept informed about the i n n o v a t i o n or any one group can sabotage the program at the stage at which they have most c o n t r o l . The community c o n t r o l s the budget, the p r i n c i p a l c o n t r o l s the i n t r o d u c t i o n of an i n n o v a t i o n to h i s school and the teachers c o n t r o l the a c t u a l implementation of the i n n o v a t i o n ( P a r i s h and Arends, 1983). Programs that attempt change i n Indian communities, i n p a r t i c u l a r , must create e f f i c i e n t communication networks. The people i n the communities not only r e q u i r e f a c t u a l i n f o r m a t i o n , but a l s o organized systems so they may gain some c o n t r o l over what t h e i r c h i l d r e n are taught because as long as : Native parents have no c o n t r o l over c u r r i c u l u m , choice of textbooks,, or s t a f f , they have come (and w i l l continue) to regard the e d u c a t i o n a l system as an " o u t s i d e " r a c i s t i n s t u t i o n , to be t o l e r a t e d but not supported. ...when a l l the s t r u c t u r a l v a r i a b l e s are c o n s i d e r e d , the r e a c t i o n of Native parents to the e d u c a t i o n a l system i s not a p a t h e t i c , but a c t i v e l y , and understandably, h o s t i l e . ( F r i d e r e s , 1983, p.174) It i s not enough to simply i n v i t e Native people to be part of a community forum or community education committee to 177 c r e a t e s u p p o r t f o r programs because " A c t i v e a d u l t community s u p p o r t f o r e d u c a t i o n w i l l o n l y d e v e l o p when N a t i v e s who l i v e on the r e s e r v e a r e a l l o w e d to h o l d t e a c h i n g and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p o s i t i o n s . . . ." ( F r i d e r e s , 1983, p . 1 7 4 ) . E s t a b l i s h i n g N a t i v e I n d i a n t e a c h i n g a s s i s t a n t programs i s a s t a r t . The Home-School o r g a n i z a t i o n , the s c h o o l s t a f f s , the band c o u n c i l , the s c h o o l b o a r d and the town c o u n c i l are o r g a n i z e d b o d i e s t h a t s h o u l d be viewed as p o t e n t i a l s u p p o r t s e r v i c e s . They s h o u l d be i n f o r m e d about the program, and some members s h o u l d o b s e r v e the program i n a c t i o n i n o r d e r f o r c o n t i n u o u s p o s i t i v e community s u p p o r t to be f o r t h c o m i n g . These g r o u p s a r e the ones who can f a c i l i t a t e p r o b l e m s o l v i n g be i t p e r s o n a l or f i n a n c i a l , p h y s i c a l or p h i l o s o p h i c a l . I f t h e y a r e e x c l u d e d from the program so the i n f o r m a t i o n they g e t i s d i s t o r t e d or not o r i g i n a l , i f t h e y f e e l s l i g h t e d and u n i m p o r t a n t to the program, the program w i l l f a i l . The number of f a c t i o n s i n any community makes i t mandatory t h a t c l e a r c o m m u n i c a t i o n l i n e s a r e d e v e l o p e d . E x p e c t a t i o n s must be s h a r e d . These p o i n t s a r e b r o u g h t out i n the l i t e r a t u r e on the New C a r e e r s f o r the Poor movement as w e l l as the l i t e r a t u r e on I n d i a n e d u c a t i o n ( K l o p f et a l . , 1969, F u l l e n , 1982, Ingram e t a l . , 1 9 8 1 , OECD, 1977, Buckanaga, 1978, Reeves et a l . , 1978, M cDonald, 1978, K i n g , 1977, Thomson, 1977). S c h o o l p e r s o n n e l r e q u i r e i n t r o d u c t o r y i n f o r m a t i o n about a new program and a g r e a t d e a l of i n f o r m a t i o n about the p r o g r am as i t d e v e l o p s . I m p l e m e n t a t i o n of d i f f e r e n t or new programs i n a s c h o o l i s a p o l i t i c a l a c t . Changes i n s c h o o l s 178 to improve Indian education i n v o l v e p o l i t i c a l f a c t i o n s some of whom are not r e g u l a r p a r t i c i p a n t s i n the l i f e of the b a s i c a l l y c o n s e r v a t i v e climate of the s c h o o l . These p o l i t i c a l groups range from those groups a f r a i d of Indian p a r t i c i p a t i o n to Native Indian peoples a n t a g o n i s t i c to the dominant c u l t u r e systems. D e f i n i t e channels of communication w i t h i n the school and between the school and the t r a i n i n g program are e s s e n t i a l . In L y t t o n , L i l l o o e t , B e l l a B e l l a , Williams Lake and P r i n c e George, the teachers requested more communication about the program. One or two j o i n t workshop sessions and w r i t t e n i n f o r m a t i o n o u t l i n i n g t o p i c s of workshops did not s u f f i c i e n t l y s a t i s f y t e a c h e r s ' needs to know what s k i l l s t e aching a s s i s t a n t s had learned or what tasks teachers could l e g i t i m a t e l y request teaching a s s i s t a n t s to perform. The thorny i s s u e s of r o l e d e f i n i t i o n , assignment of teaching a s s i s t a n t s to classrooms, and task competency have most s u c c e s s f u l l y been r e s o l v e d i n group meetings using n o n - c o n f r o n t a t i o n a l problem s o l v i n g techniques. (Klopf et a l , 1967, Haig-Brown, 1976). Lytton did t h i s only once Teachers i n L y t t o n , B e l l a b e l l a , L i l l o o e t , Williams Lake and P r i n c e George working with teaching a s s i s t a n t s , voiced f r u s t r a t i o n s because they were not given more i n f o r m a t i o n about the kind of t r a i n i n g t h e i r teaching a s s i s t a n t s were r e c e i v i n g . Teachers wanted a channel fo r input i n t o the program as w e l l as c o n t r o l over the implementation of that program i n t h e i r classroom. None f e l t that a w r i t t e n l i s t of 179 the t o p i c s covered i n the workshops f o r the teaching a s s i s t a n t s was adequate i n f o r m a t i o n . Most teachers a s s e r t e d they must d i s c u s s the content of workshops with workshop le a d e r s as w e l l as r e c e i v e an o u t l i n e of the c l a s s . P r i n t e d i n f o r m a t i o n r e s t r i c t e d t h i s d e s i r e d two-way communication. As i n the past and as analysed by implementation s p e c i a l i s t s such as Sarason (1971), F u l l e n (1973, 1981, 1982), Foshay (1980), Pomfret (1982), changes i n c u r r i c u l u m content and p r e s e n t a t i o n decreed from c e n t r a l i z e d a u t h o r i t y have been aborted or adapted by communities, school a d m i n i s t r a t o r s and t e a c h e r s . That has not stopped new methods of imposing change on the school system from being devised (Werner et a l . , 1983, Butt et a l , 1983). Although w r i t e r s such as Goodlad (1983), King (1978, 1981), P a r i s h and Arends (1983) and many others have s t a t e d and r e s t a t e d teachers' i n e r t i a towards t r y i n g d i f f e r e n t methods and m a t e r i a l s , G l a t t h o r n (1983), C r a n d a l l (1983), and Louks and Zacchei (1983) have as s e r t e d that teachers w i l l use programs developed outside t h e i r schools to improve t h e i r own school i f they r e c e i v e a l i t t l e o utside support plus l e a d e r s h i p from t h e i r p r i n c i p a l . This support by a d m i n i s t r a t o r s i s c r u c i a l ( F u l l e n and Park, 1981, Leithwood and Stanley, 1983). The f a c t that school personnel c o n t r o l school programs cannot be i g n o r e d . B e a t t i e (1982) emp h a t i c a l l y i n s i s t s that teachers, not p r i n c i p a l s nor M i n i s t r i e s of Education have the f i n a l say about what i s taught i n classrooms and about how i t i s presented. Indian education innovations must win the support 180 of the school teachers and p r i n c i p a l s . C o n t i n u a l communication between the academic support i n s t i t u t i o n and the t r a i n i n g program Is v i t a l to insure that workshop t o p i c s and content are c l o s e l y coordinated with the classroom experiences of the t r a i n e e s . Preset c u r r i c u l a must be adapted and sometimes s a c r i f i c e d to ensure cl o s e c o r r e l a t i o n with the p r a c t i c a l requirements of the job. Teaching a s s i s t a n t s who are working as t u t o r s do not need lessons i n classroom management and long-term c u r r i c u l a p l a n n i n g ; t e a c h i n g a s s i s t a n t s who are working i n high school c l a s s e s do not have time to l e a r n elementary "hands on" s c i e n c e or math teaching techniques but do have a need to "brush up" on algebra and geometry le s s o n s ; language teachers have only time to l e a r n e f f e c t i v e ways of improving fluency and comprehension and not time fo r mathematics and science l e s s o n s . When the teaching a s s i s t a n t s f e e l competent i n t h e i r d e a l i n g s with students and competent i n t h e i r teaching a s s i s t a n t r o l e i n classrooms with teachers, there are o p p o r t u n i t i e s to broaden t h e i r knowledge i n longer, more rel a x e d study sessions that encompass the f u l l school c u r r i c u l a i n scope and sequence. 2. There i s a need f o r dynamic l o c a l l e a d e r s h i p . A l l the programs had at l e a s t one person who sparked others to t r y the i n n o v a t i o n and kept generating enthusiasm w i t h i n the program and outside i n the community. (Schools C o u n c i l , 1967, Hamilton, 1981, Werner, 1983). D i f f e r e n t programs i n B r i t i s h Columbia had various people as the keystone: a 181 Home-School C o o r d i n a t o r , a Band E d u c a t i o n O f f i c e r , a l o c a l t e a c h e r , a p r i n c i p a l and a d i s t r i c t a d m i n i s t r a t o r . L e s s f r e q u e n t l y , a Program C o o r d i n a t o r h i r e d from o u t s i d e the community has i n s p i r e d o t h e r s . In L y t t o n , f i r s t the E d u c a t i o n D i r e c t o r and l a t e r the h i g h s c h o o l t e a c h e r o r g a n i s e d , e n l i s t e d and e n t h u s e d o t h e r s about the program. U s u a l l y t e a c h e r s a r e most r e c e p t i v e to new i d e a s i n c u r r i c u l u m and m e t h o d o l o g y when the y a r e p r e s e n t e d by a r e s p e c t e d c o l l e a g u e : E f f e c t i v e l o c a l l e a d e r s h i p i s e s s e n t i a l and t h i s must come from among s e r v i n g t e a c h e r s . The most i m p o r t a n t q u a l i t i e s f o r such l e a d e r s h i p w i l l c l e a r l y be t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e and t h e i r a c c e p t a b i l i t y to c o l l e a g u e s i n the l o c a l i t y . E x p e r t n e s s a l o n e i s not enough. The most e f f e c t i v e i n p u t i s l i k e l y to come from a t e a c h e r who i s known and r e s p e c t e d f o r h i s work, who i s h i g h l y s k i l l e d and a b r e s t of new t h i n k i n g and who p o s s e s s e s the p e r s o n a l q u a l i t i e s to b r i n g c o o p e r a t i v e e f f o r t s to f r u i t i o n . ( S c h o o l s C o u n c i l , 1967, p. 7) The c r u c i a l f u n c t i o n of the p e r s o n ( s ) w i t h i n the s c h o o l i s to " r e s o l v e the t e n s i o n between i n n o v a t i o n and s t a b i l i t y " , to be the " ' r o l e i n n o v a t o r s ' who a r e a b l e to match t h e i r p e r s o n a l i n t e r e s t s and s t r e n g t h s w i t h the g o a l s of the s c h o o l and to i n v e n t u n c o n v e n t i o n a l r o l e s t h a t embody t h o s e g o a l s " ( H a m i l t o n , 1981, p . 1 4 7 ) . T h e r e must be someone who can n e g o t i a t e and communicate f r e e l y f o r the I n d i a n p e o p l e w i t h i n t h e s c h o o l community. That p e r s o n must have the t r u s t and r e s p e c t of b o t h the s c h o o l p e r s o n n e l and the I n d i a n community. The s e n s i t i v e t a s k of making a match between the i n n o v a t i o n and the g o a l s of the s c h o o l must be f o r e m o s t i n t h e p o l i t i c s of change f o r I n d i a n e d u c a t o r s . The f r a g i l e 182 communication networks that must be developed are most e f f e c t i v e when they are channeled through a person thoroughly aware and attuned to the l o c a l s i t u a t i o n . 3. New r o l e s must be s t u d i e d , p r a c t i s e d and l e a r n e d by b o t h t e a c h e r s and T e a c h i n g A s s i s t a n t s . There i s a necessary stage of p r e s e r v i c e before a program i s e s t a b l i s h e d i n the schools which i s needed to give s t a f f time to d e f i n e r o l e s , i d e n t i f y teaming modes and create channels of communication (King, 1981, Mcllhenney, 1979, C.A.T.M., 1978, C a r l t o n et al.,1977, C.A.L., 1976, F u l l e n , 1973, McManama, 1972, Shank & McElroy, 1970, BIA, 1970, Wright, 1969, Knopf et al.,1969, S u n d e r l i n , 1968, Cheuvront, 1968). Teaching A s s i s t a n t s r e q u i r e r e o r i e n t a t i o n to the school system as a d u l t s : an i n t r o d u c t i o n to the a c t u a l p h y s i c a l p l a n t , a study of t h e i r r o l e and how i t w i l l change as they progress through t r a i n i n g (Oppenheimer, 1979, McManama, 1972, E d u c a t i o n a l S e r v i c e Bureau, i n c . , 1966). This r e i n t r o d u c t i o n to schools and the changing f u t u r e r o l e of the teaching a s s i s t a n t has been missed i n most programs although the f i r s t item i s w e l l recognized as an e s s e n t i a l part of adult e d u c a t i o n and upgrading programs (Klopf et a l , 1969, Read, 1983). A s t r u c t u r e d approach to tasks and t r a i n i n g modules i n the i n s e r v i c e program and on-the-job t r a i n i n g was most s u c c e s s f u l i n the Ly t t o n program. Incremental steps i n r e s p o n s i b i l i t y were planned to a i d the career development of the teaching a s s i s t a n t i n programs i n A r i z o n a , Colorado, 183 Oregon, North C a r o l i n a , C a l i f o r n i a , Michigan, and Connecticut (Wilson, 1978, Cheuvront, 1968, E d u c a t i o n a l S e r v i c e Bureau, Inc., 1966, Emmerling and Chavis, 1967, Klopf et a l . , 1969, Wright, 1969). Only i n the two summer programs that were attended by the teachers and teaching a s s i s t a n t s together were these problems f o r m a l l y addressed (Bureau of Indian A f f a i r s , 1970). Not only do teaching a s s i s t a n t s need to l e a r n to a s s i s t t e a c h e r s , and to give them support (Wright, 1969), the teachers need to l e a r n "to share with aides t h e i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s to c h i l d r e n i n the classroom" (Klopf et a l . , 1969, p. 135). This need f o r teachers to l e a r n to work i n a team i s reported i n study a f t e r study and i n the comments of teaching a s s i s t a n t s and t e a c h e r s . A s o c i o l o g i c a l study suggested that a minimum of three workshops be held to enable teachers to i d e n t i f y v a r i o u s uses of a teaching a s s i s t a n t , the l e g a l and p o l i c y c o n s i d e r a t i o n s of using teaching a s s i s t a n t s , and the needs and a b i l i t i e s of the teachers and the teaching a s s i s t a n t s (Bennett and Falk, 1970). Bypassing the i n i t i a l i n s e r v i c e time to f a c i l i t a t e acceptance of teaching a s s i s t a n t s by teachers has created problems i n program a f t e r program. Lack of funds has been the reason; f a i l u r e of programs has been the r e s u l t . D i r e c t o r s of the teaching a s s i s t a n t t r a i n i n g programs have attempted to t r a i n teachers to work with teaching a s s i s t a n t s . It has been more e f f e c t i v e i f the d i r e c t o r teams with a teacher who i s experienced i n working with a teaching 184 a s s i s t a n t so that the teachers can i d e n t i f y with an experienced peer when l e a r n i n g s k i l l s i n an new r o l e (Bennett and F a l k , 1970, Mcllhenny, 1979). Teaming r e q u i r e s much time f o r planning, e v a l u a t i n g , r e v i s i n g p lans, t e s t i n g procedures, r e e v a l u a t i n g , e s p e c i a l l y i n the f i r s t year of working together. Teams must have time to meet to work out s t r a t e g i e s , f r u s t r a t i o n s and t a l k about successes (Wright, 1969, Klopf et a l , 1969, Esbensen, 1966, Joyce, 1967, P l a t e r , 1973, Bennett and Falk, 1970). E s t a b l i s h e d teams accomplish most tasks more e f f i c i e n t l y and e f f e c t i v e l y . 4. The importance of the a c t i v e support of the p r i n c i p a l of the school i n a c h i e v i n g implementation of an i n n o v a t i o n i s well-documented (Sarason, 1971, F u l l a n and Park, 1981, Leithwood and Stanley, 1983, P r a v i c a and McLean, 1983, Loucks 1983, Cox, 1983, Huberman, 1983). Once the p r i n c i p a l i s convinced of the value of the i n n o v a t i o n f o r the p r i n c i p a l ' s s c h o o l , the p r i n c i p a l ' s s t a f f and the p r i n c i p a l ' s students, the p r i n c i p a l must "exert strong and continuous pressure on teachers" plus " r e v i s i o n s i n s c h e d u l i n g , teaming, and monitoring " (Huberman, 1983) f o r s c h o o l improvements to be l a s t i n g . When p r i n c i p a l s l o s t enthusiasm and thus lessened support f o r change, the momentum g r a d u a l l y slowed and the improvement or i n n o v a t i o n ceased. 185 5. Funding f o r Teaching A s s i s t a n t t r a i n i n g programs and f o r Teaching A s s i s t a n t p o s i t i o n s i n schools must be part of long term f i n a n c i a l p l a n s . In n a t i v e communities, changes i n school programs have o f t e n been experimental and e a s i l y and q u i c k l y terminated (Hatt, 1969 quoted i n F r i d e r e s , 1983), sometimes before they have had a chance to prove t h e i r worth. The lack of committed long-term funding f o r teaching a s s i s t a n t s , other than Native language teachers, by any government department i n d i c a t e s the p o s i t i o n of teaching a s s i s t a n t i s not h i g h l y valued by e i t h e r the Department of Indian A f f a i r s or the p r o v i n c i a l education a u t h o r i t i e s . Therefore communities do not take the p o s i t i o n s e r i o u s l y e i t h e r . The programs are regarded i n a jaded f a s h i o n because: In g e n e r a l , the f e d e r a l government has r e t a i n e d c o n t r o l of development schemes by only a l l o w i n g n a t i v e s to implement p r o j e c t s rather then plan them (Hatt, 1969). Moreover, as Hatt has shown, Native p r o j e c t s tend to be short-term experimental or p i l o t p r o j e c t s , which can be terminated q u i c k l y with few problems. According to Hatt, these programs have " t h e r a p e u t i c " value only; because they defuse p r o t e s t and do not s e r i o u s l y d i s r u p t the s t a t u s quo, they perform e f f e c t i v e l y as s o c i a l mechanisms. ( F r i d e r e s , 1983, p.300) Quick r e s u l t s should not be expected. Changes in programs and c u r r i c u l u m take at l e a s t two years to become e s t a b l i s h e d i n schools ( F u l l e n and Park, 1981). To convince d i s t r i c t s and schools that a program w i l l have to be i n place f o r at l e a s t two or -three years before any measurable change i n student achievement could occur i s a formidable task that Indian Bands and the Academic support people w i l l have to 186 address i n the f u t u r e . The school boards are unable and u n w i l l i n g to simply provide jobs for Indian or non-Indian people as teaching a s s i s t a n t s . It must be proven that the h i r i n g of teaching a s s i s t a n t s improves the i n s t r u c t i o n and achievement of the students, or teachers and school boards w i l l not support the programs f o r t r a i n i n g teaching a s s i s t a n t s . When changes i n budget and personnel occur, "environmental t u r b u l e n c e " makes i t even more d i f f i c u l t to accomplish school improvement (Huberman, 1983). 6. The p o s i t i o n of Teaching A s s i s t a n t i s a j u s t i f i a b l e p o s i t i o n i n school s t a f f i n g . Most t r a i n i n g programs f o r teaching a s s i s t a n t s have as t h e i r s t a t e d goal the eventual a c c r e d i t a t i o n as p r o f e s s i o n a l t e a c h e r s . But not a l l people who want to work i n the schools want to become te a c h e r s . The Bank Street Study recognized the i n t r i n s i c value of a u x i l i a r y personnel i n the schools and recommended that the p o s i t i o n become i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d , p r o v i d i n g a career ladder w i t h i n the e d u c a t i o n a l system but a l s o r e s p e c t i n g : the d i g n i t y and v a l i d i t y of every task at every l e v e l . The jobs a v a i l a b l e at the entry l e v e l need to be meaningful i n terms of the ba s i c goals of education so that the person who f e e l s more comfortable remaining an aide can make a r e a l c o n t r i b u t i o n to the ongoing l i f e of the s c h o o l . Upward m o b i l i t y should be p o s s i b l e but not compulsory. Advancement should be r e l a t e d to both d e s i r e and a b i l i t y . (Klopf et a l . , 1969, p.17) 7. There has been no evidence that there are academic q u a l i f i c a t i o n s that are necessary p r e r e q u i s i t e s to s u c c e s s f u l 187 t r a i n i n g programs f o r Teaching A s s i s t a n t s . Teacher aides and Teaching A s s i s t a n t s who were accepted to programs i n C a l i f o r n i a , Kentucky, L y t t o n , P r i n c e George, Wil l i a m s Lake, B e l l a B e l l a , L i l l o o e t , and Texas without p r e r e q u i s i t e academic q u a l i f i c a t i o n s seemed as " s u c c e s s f u l i n t h e i r p o s i t i o n s as those i n New York and North C a r o l i n a who were expected to have completed two years of c o l l e g e . It seems that a w i l l i n g n e s s to conform to c e r t a i n expectations of the school i n dress, p u n c t u a l i t y , attendance, and po s s e s s i o n of a c e r t a i n amount of a s s e r t i v e n e s s and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i s the prime p r e r e q u i s i t e q u a l i t y i n teaching a s s i s t a n t s . (Klopf et al.,1969, B r i g h t o n , 1972, E d u c a t i o n a l S e r v i c e Bureau, Inc., 1966, Abbott, 1973, L y t t o n , 1983). 8. Teaching A s s i s t a n t s are r e s p o n s i b l e people and must be given tasks which allow them to e x e r c i s e that r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . K l e i n f e l d ( 1 9 7 3 ) observed that Native high school students who were given much l e s s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y than they had accepted at home began to act "p a s s i v e , dependent, and s o c i a l l y i r r e s p o n s i b l e " . In L y t t o n , when Teaching A s s i s t a n t s were given l e s s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y than they expected to r e c e i v e , some reacted i n a s i m i l a r f a s h i o n to K l e i n f e l d ' s students. They responded much b e t t e r when the program l o s t i t s Edu c a t i o n D i r e c t o r i n 1983, and they undertook to complete i n - s c h o o l d u t i e s and O.L.I, course work. When the the onus was on the i n d i v i d u a l Teaching A s s i s t a n t s and t h e i r program r a t h e r than on the Education D i r e c t o r ' s program p a r t i c i p a n t s , 188 there seemed to be more determination to succeed. Indian or non-Indian teaching a s s i s t a n t s respond best to a gradual i n c r e a s e i n r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s f o l l o w i n g a s t r u c t u r e d approach to task assignment and t r a i n i n g modules i n the i n s e r v i c e program and on-the-job t r a i n i n g . This must be both planned and coordinated between the s c h o o l , the program c o o r d i n a t o r and the academic support i n s t i t u t i o n (Wilson, 1978, Cheuvront, 1968, ESB, 1966, Emmerling and Chavis, 1967, Klopf et a l . , 1969, Wright, 1969). It i s usual for the teaching a s s i s t a n t s to begin with "menial t a s k s " that teachers have to do, but are most w i l l i n g to a s s i g n to others, c l e r i c a l and housekeeping jobs. G r a d u a l l y , but as q u i c k l y as p o s s i b l e teaching a s s i s t a n t s should move to p r e p a r a t i o n of lesson a i d s , and then work i n one to one t u t o r i n g s i t u a t i o n s . E v e n t u a l l y teaching a s s i s t a n t s work with small and large groups f o l l o w i n g l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t i e s designed by the p r o f e s s i o n a l teacher. As team confidence grows, the a s s i s t a n t c o n t r i b u t e s more to the p l a n n i n g stages as w e l l as to the d e l i v e r y stages of the teaching process. 9. T r a i n i n g programs f o r teaching a s s i s t a n t s have developed Into a condensed teacher t r a i n i n g course presented i n workshops or I n s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g c l a s s e s . These programs seem most e f f e c t i v e when they are c o r r e l a t e d c l o s e l y with what the teaching a s s i s t a n t s are doing i n t h e i r work i n the s c h o o l s . 189 10. The assignment of teaching a s s i s t a n t s i n schools has been most e f f e c t i v e when two teachers share one teaching a s s i s t a n t a c c o r d i n g to a schedule. Some s u c c e s s f u l teaming has occurred when an immediate one-to-one assignment of a s s i s t a n t and teacher has been made (Noble, 1980, Haig-Brown, 1976, Mcllhenny, 1979, P l a t e r , 1973), p r o v i d i n g both the teacher and teaching a s s i s t a n t a s s i s t a n t have been able to devote extra time to j o i n t p lanning (Cheuvront, 1968). More f r e q u e n t l y a general assignment to a b u i l d i n g or a r o t a t i o n of assignments to f a m i l i a r i z e teaching a s s i s t a n t s with a school has s t a r t e d o f f a program (Brown et a l . , 1975 , Klopf et a l . , 1969 , Cheuvront, 1968, L y t t o n , 1981). Most programs found that sharing an a s s i s t a n t by two teachers has r e s u l t e d i n more e f f e c t i v e use of both the a s s i s t a n t and time as did the L y t t o n Elementary School s t a f f (Klopf et a l . , 1969, Brown, 1979, Mcllhenney, 1979). 11. Trainees i n teaching a s s i s t a n t programs have a strong need f o r a p r i v a t e place f o r d e b r i e f i n g a f t e r classroom experiences . The value of having a room a v a i l a b l e f o r free d i s c u s s i o n s was was noted i n at l e a s t two of the programs, Berkeley (Klopf et a l . , 1969) and L y t t o n . Although teaming i s enhanced by teachers and teaching a s s i s t a n t s sharing s t a f f rooms and planni n g time, both teachers and teaching a s s i s t a n t s sometimes need to meet s e p a r a t e l y to share t h e i r unique experiences and viewpoints i n a l e s s demanding atmosphere 190 than a mutual meeting p l a c e . Indian students at u n i v e r s i t i e s have as w e l l found great support i n casual d i s c u s s i o n s with other students i n a meeting room or centre (Thomson, 1977, Thomas and Mcintosh, 1977, Read, 1983). 12. F i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e In the form of a st i p e n d f o r work done at the school gives r e c o g n i t i o n that programs are valued by the government, school boards and the community. While v o l u n t e e r aides are untrained helpers without r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the l e a r n i n g of school s k i l l s and knowledge by students, t r a i n e d teaching a s s i s t a n t s are r e s p o n s i b l e f o r that l e a r n i n g and to the teachers with whom they team. As an i n t e g r a l member of the teaching team they must r e c e i v e f i n a n c i a l rewards. Future Challenges f o r Research and Implementation In t h i s s e c t i o n recommendations a r i s i n g from the review of the l i t e r a t u r e and the study of the Ly t t o n Teaching A s s i s t a n t T r a i n i n g Program w i l l be presented. 1. The C u l t u r a l c o n t r i b u t i o n that Indian Teaching A s s i s t a n t s are expected to make to schools has yet to be d e f i n e d . Many t r a i n i n g programs seem to be designed to have the tea c h i n g a s s i s t a n t s "not only accept the s c h o o l i n g provided t h e i r c h i l d r e n , but a l s o to have Native parents change themselves f o r t h e i r c h i l d r e n ' s sake" (Carney, 1982 , p.2). Carney c a l l s t h i s a form of rescue. In other words, the 191 I n d i a n t e a c h i n g a s s i s t a n t i s t r a i n e d to be a t e a c h e r a s s i s t a n t as any o t h e r p a r e n t would be w i t h no a t t e n t i o n p a i d t o the u n i q u e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of I n d i a n c u l t u r e t h a t an I n d i a n t e a c h i n g a s s i s t a n t c o u l d b r i n g to the c l a s s r o o m , s t u d e n t s and t e a c h e r . The i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of t h o s e u n i q u e r e s o u r c e s has not been s c i e n t i f i c a l l y i d e n t i f i e d i n v e r i f i e d r e s e a r c h but s u g g e s t i o n s a r e made In I n d i a n e d u c a t i o n l i t e r a t u r e s u c h a s : beyond c u r r i c u l a , t h e r e i s a need f o r I n d i a n i z a t i o n o f I n d i a n s c h o o l s i n terms of t e a c h i n g t e c h n i q u e s , i n t e g r a t i o n of the s c h o o l i n t o the l o c a l community, and a d j u s t i n g the a n n u a l c a l e n d a r of e v e n t s to t h a t of the l o c a l community. ( P r i c e , 1974, p.113) The I n d i a n t e a c h i n g a s s i s t a n t can i n f o r m the t e a c h e r of i m p o r t a n t l o c a l c a l e n d a r e v e n t s . The p r e s e n t use of t e a c h i n g a s s i s t a n t s i s h e l p i n g the s c h o o l s move i n t o the community but f o r now o n l y the b o d i e s and not the b e l i e f s and t r a d i t i o n s of the t e a c h i n g a s s i s t a n t s a r e moving i n t o the s c h o o l s . I n t e g r a t i o n i s not y e t more t h a n a n o t h e r form of c o l o n i z a t i o n . The i n t r o d u c t i o n of I n d i a n t e a c h i n g t e c h n i q u e s i n t o s c h o o l s i s a c h a l l e n g e t h a t has not been f o r m a l i z e d . In a s t u d y i n wh i c h f i n d i n g s by P h i l i p s i n Oregon were t e s t e d i n O n t a r i o , an I n d i a n t e a c h e r and a n o n - I n d i a n t e a c h e r were o b s e r v e d at work i n c l a s s r o o m s . The d i f f e r e n c e s i n t e a c h i n g s t y l e s were i l l u s t r a t e d by o b s e r v a t i o n s such a s : r e l a t i v e " C u l t u r a l c o n g r u e n c e " of the two t e a c h i n g s t y l e s w i t h the c h i l d r e n ' s e x p e r i e n c e of s o c i a l l i f e o u t s i d e s c h o o l . ( p . 1 4 1 ) ... sense of p a c i n g . . . s l o w n e s s and i n t e r a c t i o n a l smoothness (p.145) ...more d i s j u n c t , a " s t o p and g o " p a t t e r n (p.147) 192 ...teacher's p o s i t i o n i n g i n space and o r i e n t a t i o n to objects and people...a d i s t i n c t rhythmic p a t t e r n to v e r b a l and non-verbal behavior (p.164) . . . " p r i v a t i z e d " arenas f o r i n t e r a c t i n g with c h i I d r e n . . . " s p o t 1 i g h t " i n d i v i d u a l c h i l d r e n . . . . ( E r i c k s o n & Mohatt, 1982) In some communities e s t a b l i s h i n g c u l t u r a l congruence between teaching s t y l e and homes n e c e s s i t a t e s major changes for m i d d l e - c l a s s teachers as was the case f o r one of the teachers i n the O n t a r i o study ( E r i c k s o n & Mohatt, 1982). For example, teachers of c h i l d r e n i n the N i c o l a V a l l e y probably f i n d that as : the grammar of Okanagan ... l a c k s a true causative c o n s t r u c t i o n and ...the use of Okanagan r e q u i r e s that a v e r b a l c o n t r a c t must be made e x p l i c i t between speaker and hearer before a speaker can form ex p e c t a t i o n s of an addressee with respect to d i r e c t i v e s i s s u e d . ...teachers cannot make / cause/ f o r c e n a t i v e c h i l d r e n to perform a p a r t i c u l a r task ... n a t i v e c h i l d r e n w i l l determine fo r themselves when to l e a r n , to respond, and when to stop... n a t i v e c h i l d r e n w i l l decide whether or not to s e l e c t and respect teachers as a u t h o r i t y f i g u r e s . ( S t e r l i n g & Hebert, 1982, p . l ) The problem of Indian students f i n d i n g themselves i n a c u l t u r a l l y - i n c o n g r u e n t s i t u a t i o n i s f u r t h e r explored by Arbess (1981) with r e f e r e n c e to s t y l e s of l e a r n i n g as defined by P h i l i p s (1972) and language a c q u i s i t i o n as described by S c o l l o n and S c o l l o n (1979). Arbess was one of the few educators who t r i e d to suggest ways teachers could make t h e i r classrooms more congenial to the l e a r n i n g s t y l e s of Indian students i n p r o v i n c i a l workshops and p u b l i c a t i o n s (Arbess, 1981). The Nisgha aides who were a l s o language teachers attempted to coordinate Indian l e a r n i n g s t y l e s and language teaching i n t h e i r schools (Handley et a l . , 1980, More, 1979). 193 The Choctaw program ( L i t t l e j o h n , 1971) recognized the d i f f e r e n c e s between the Choctaw Indian c u l t u r e and the European c u l t u r e of the schools and t r i e d to t r a i n teachers and aides to accommodate both c u l t u r e s i n the s c h o o l . The Center f o r Applied L i n g u i s t i c s ' summer program o u t l i n e d some of the more imaginative and i n t e g r a t e d a c t i v i t i e s for c u l t u r a l i n f u s i o n i n t o an e s t a b l i s h e d c u r r i c u l u m . The program designed by More and Ashworth (1980) attempted to include c u l t u r a l i n f u s i o n i n the t r a i n i n g of teacher aides and Teaching A s s i s t a n t s . T h e i r p e r s p e c t i v e was that "Every s u b j e c t could s t a r t from a Native p e r s p e c t i v e i f the teacher knows what that p e r s p e c t i v e i s " ( P r i c e , 1974, p.113), and i t was the Teaching A s s i s t a n t ' s task to help the teacher obtain that Indian p e r s p e c t i v e . This challenge was d i f f i c u l t f o r the Teaching A s s i s t a n t s because there has been l i t t l e attempt to r e i n f o r c e the "Indianness" of n a t i v e Teaching A s s i s t a n t s i n the content of Teaching A s s i s t a n t t r a i n i n g programs. The schools, u n i v e r s i t i e s and t r a i n i n g programs s t i l l seem to b e l i e v e that : ... c u l t u r e i s t r a d i t i o n a l a r t , beadwork, foods, language, t a l e s , from the point of view of school a u t h o r i t i e s , c u r r i c u l u m developers, and teachers, non-Indian and Indian for i n teacher education courses, Indian students l e a r n that " c u l t u r e " i s f o r m a l , e x p l i c i t p a t t e r n i n g , p r i m a r i l y producing a r t i f a c t s and languages. The idea that i m p l i c i t , i n f o r m a l c u l t u r e shapes people's ways of a c t i n g i n everyday l i f e does not seem g e n e r a l l y to be taught to teachers,-whether Indian or non-Indian. ( E r i c k s o n & Mohatt, 1982, p. 167) This " l i v i n g " c u l t u r e w i l l be more d i f f i c u l t to recognize and 194 accept, and then teach and p r a c t i c e than the c u r r i c u l u m now accepted as c u l t u r e . 2. The c h a l l e n g e to r e l e a s e c o n t r o l of Indian education to the Indian people has yet to be accepted by the Canadian s c h o o l s . The r e p o r t , Indian Self-Government i n Canada, presented to the Government of Canada (1983) by the s p e c i a l committee c h a i r e d by Mr. K e i t h Penner, concluded that " e x t e r n a l c o n t r o l of the education of Indian c h i l d r e n has been d i s t r u c t i v e of Indian c u l t u r e " (p.27). Although the commissioners observed that there are n a t i v e s t u d i e s programs i n e x i s t a n c e , and that the master t u i t i o n agreements provide funds to school boards f o r n a t i v e students, they recognized that the Indian Bands are "blocked by the school boards" from i n t r o d u c i n g r e l e v a n t c u r r i c u l u m m a t e r i a l . The commission sees Indian c o n t r o l over e d u c a t i o n as an e s s e n t i a l component i n strengthening Indian c u l t u r e and p r e s e r v i n g Indian h e r i t a g e . Indian witnesses to the commission recognized as w e l l that education must enable Indian students to acquire "the s k i l l s needed to survive and prosper i n non-Indian s o c i e t y " but warned that "Education programs operated by f e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l governments were seen as promoting a p o l i c y of a s s i m i l a t i o n " (p.29). The Native C o u c i l of Canada a s s e r t e d : we are t a l k i n g about r e l a t i o n s h i p s that respect the t r a d i t i o n s and c u l t u r e of those people...without t r y i n g to impose on them some kind of non-Indian r e l a t i o n s h i p . If we can do that on the basis of mutual respect and t r u s t , then I think we have gone h a l f way to s o l v i n g a l o t of the problems we have. (Government of Canada, 1983, p.41) 195 Dr. Lloyd Barber s t a t e d : I hope that we are p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y prepared f o r t h i s c h a l l e n g e . It has come upon us rather suddenly and tends to shake the basis on which we have always thought about our r e l a t i o n s h i p with n a t i v e people. I suppose, i n a way, we tend to react l i k e somebody who has been standing on the other f e l l o w ' s toes f o r so long that we are indignant when he wants to p u l l his foot out. I hope we can overcome t h i s f o r h i s sake and ours. (Government of Canada, 1983, p.137) Indian leaders were preparing f o r the F i r s t M i n i s t e r s ' Conference In Ottawa on March 8 and 9, 1984 at which the proposals f o r the f i r s t steps f o r F i r s t Nations Self-Government on Native lands and c o n t r o l of Indian E d u c a t i o n were to be d i s c u s s e d . In s p i t e of the d i f f i c u l t y f o r I n d ian leaders to s u s t a i n f a i t h i n a p a r l i m entary system which p e r i o d i c a l l y a d j usts and reverses previous t r e a t i e s and agreements, the members of the Assembly of F i r s t Nations prepared t h e i r b r i e f s f o r the conference and undertook to p u b l i c i z e t h e i r p o s i t i o n by p l a c i n g a f u l l page advertisement i n Canadian newspapers. The l e g i s l a t i o n concerning the s i x settlements f o r the c u t - o f f land claims was passed but the r e s u l t i n g payments and r e t u r n of reserve lands seemed to harden the l i n e s between the provinces which have developed on lands not r e l i n q u i s h e d to the crown by t r e a t i e s , the f e d e r a l government, and the Indian F i r s t Nations at the conference t a b l e i n Ottawa on March 8 and 9, 1984. In s p i t e of the recommendations of the a l l party committee that recommended the establishment of self-government f o r the F i r s t Nations on 196 t h e i r l a n d s (Government of Canada, 1983), the s i x of the p r o v i n c i a l l e a d e r s d e m o n s t r a t e d t h a t the n e g o t i a t i o n s w i l l be l e n g t h y and d i f f i c u l t . Once a g a i n C a n a d i a n p o l i t i c i a n s e n s u r e d t h a t I n d i a n l e a d e r s had a d i f f i c u l t t a s k i n c o n v i n c i n g t h e i r p e o p l e t h a t the C a n a d i a n p a r l i a m e n t a r y s y s t e m w i l l a l l o w the I n d i a n p e o p l e s to become f u l l and e q u a l p a r t n e r s i n Canada. 197 C h a p t e r S i x C o n c l u s i o n s Summary I n d i a n T e a c h i n g A s s i s t a n t s have been i n t r o d u c e d i n t o m u l t i c u l t u r a l c l a s s r o o m s w i t h l a r g e numbers of I n d i a n s t u d e n t s i n programs d e s i g n e d to improve the academic s u c c e s s of I n d i a n s t u d e n t s . The I n d i a n T e a c h i n g A s s i s t a n t s r e c e i v e t r a i n i n g t h a t i s d e s i g n e d to make them e f f e c t i v e " c u l t u r e b r o k e r s " as w e l l as t u t o r s and c l a s s r o o m a i d e s . T h i s s t u d y examined the l i t e r a t u r e of I n d i a n e d u c a t i o n c o n c e n t r a t i n g on t h r e e themes: 1) c u l t u r a l r e l e v e n c y , 2) t r a i n i n g of I n d i a n t e a c h e r s , and 3) t r a i n i n g of I n d i a n t e a c h i n g a s s i s t a n t s . As t h e r e was a p a u c i t y of m a t e r i a l c o n c e r n i n g the t r a i n i n g of I n d i a n t e a c h i n g a s s i s t a n t s , the s t u d y examined the l i t e r a t u r e on the t r a i n i n g of t e a c h e r a i d e s i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s , i n p a r t i c u l a r the t r a i n i n g of t e a c h e r a i d e s and t e a c h i n g a s s i s t a n t s d u r i n g the New C a r e e r s Movement w h i c h f o c u s s e d on i n t r o d u c i n g c r o s s - c u l t u r a l and u r b a n poor a d u l t a i d e s i n t o e x i s t i n g s c h o o l s y s t e m s . The T e a c h i n g A s s i s t a n t T r a i n i n g Program i n p r o g r e s s i n L y t t o n , B.C. was f o l l o w e d f o r two y e a r s d u r i n g which i n t e r v i e w s , q u e s t i o n n a i r e s , o b s e r v a t i o n s and document s t u d y were c o m p l e t e d . Components t h a t had a f f e c t e d the s u c c e s s of programs i n the s t u d i e d l i t e r a t u r e and the program i n L y t t o n were c o r r e l a t e d . 198 C o n c l u s i o n s Changes i n s c h o o l programs a f f e c t the whole community. T h e r e f o r e , p l a n n i n g f o r new programs must i n v o l v e a l l members of t h a t community: 1) the f i n a n c i a l community, the I n d i a n Band, i t s c o u n c i l and members as w e l l as i t s e d u c a t i o n o f f i c e r s , the b u s i n e s s and p r o f e s s i o n a l p e o p l e of the community; 2) the p a r e n t community; and 3) the s c h o o l p e r s o n n e l , a d m i n i s t r a t o r s , t e a c h e r s and s u p p o r t s t a f f i n c l u d i n g s e c r e t a r i e s and j a n i t o r s . Each group has c o n t r o l o v e r some p a r t of the program. I f any group i s i g n o r e d , b y p a s s e d or s i d e s t e p p e d , t h a t group i s l i k e l y to v e t o the program t h r o u g h a c t i v e i n t e r v e n t i o n or p a s s i v e n o n - c o m p l i a n c e . The f i n a n c i a l s u p p o r t group can wit h d r a w f u n d i n g ; t h e p a r e n t group can w i t h d r a w s t u d e n t s from programs or l o b b y e d u c a t i o n a u t h o r i t i e s ; and the t e a c h e r s may p u b l i c l y r e f u t e the program or use t h e i r t r a d i t i o n a l power i n t h e i r c l o s e d - d o o r c l a s s r o o m s to p r a c t i s e n o n - i m p l e m e n t a t i o n . The most e f f e c t i v e means of g a i n i n g and r e t a i n i n g s u p p o r t has been the c r e a t i o n of c o m m u n i c a t i o n networks and c h a n n e l s t h a t a l l o w the f l o w of i n f o r m a t i o n about the program t o p r o c e e d to the grou p s i n the community and from the groups to the program p a r t i c i p a n t s . The c o m m u n i c a t i o n must be i n f o r m a t i v e and d e t a i l e d . Community m e e t i n g s i n which the pr o g r a m was d i s c u s s e d by the w i d e s t p o s s i b l e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of the p e o p l e , a c t i o n g r o u p s w h i c h took on development and s u p p o r t r o l e s , p u b l i c a t i o n s and s t r u c t u r e d o b s e r v a t i o n s to 199 keep the community i n f o r m e d were i m p o r t a n t . W i t h i n the s c h o o l g r o u p where p e o p l e were w o r k i n g w i t h the program a c o n s t a n t f l o w of i n f o r m a t i o n , i n t e r p e r s o n a l c o n t a c t , encouragement and s h a r i n g of s u c c e s s e s and f r u s t r a t i o n s were a l l needed to keep a program dynamic and g r o w i n g . A p r i n t e d l i s t of a c t i v i t i e s or s t u d y t o p i c s d i d not c o n s t i t u t e k e e p i n g p e o p l e i n f o r m e d . The program must be l e d by an e n e r g e t i c , c a p a b l e l o c a l p e r s o n who i n v o l v e s o t h e r s i n the p r o c e s s of development and i m p l e m e n t a t i o n of the program so t h a t o t h e r s become v e s t e d s t a k e h o l d e r s . S u c c e s s f u l s c h o o l i n n o v a t i o n s have most o f t e n been i n i t i a t e d by a l o c a l t e a c h e r who has f i r s t won and e n l i s t e d the s u p p o r t of a p r i n c i p a l and t h e n the o t h e r s c h o o l s t a f f members. The s u p p o r t and encouragement of the p r i n c i p a l f o r h i s s t a f f w h i l e t h e y a r e l e a r n i n g and p r a c t i s i n g new b e h a v i o r s i n new r o l e s was c r u c i a l to the s u c c e s s of new p r o g r a m s . F u r t h e r s u p p o r t from the p a r e n t community has been g a i n e d t h r o u g h the a c t i v e i n v o l v e m e n t of p e r e n t s i n c l a s s r o o m s . S u p p o r t from o u t s i d e a d m i n i s t r a t o r s and a c a d e m i c s has k e p t programs e x p a n d i n g i n s t r u c t u r e d f o r m s . New programs demand new a c t i v i t i e s and new r o l e s f o r t e a c h e r s and t h e i r t e a c h i n g a s s i s t a n t s . Because a d u l t l e a r n e r s have to p r a c t i c e new r o l e s i n n o n - t h r e a t e n i n g and n o n - s t r e s s f u l c o n d i t i o n s b e f o r e t h e y a r e c o m f o r t a b l e assuming t h o s e r o l e s i n p u b l i c s i t u a t i o n s , i n s e r v i c e f o r b o t h t e a c h e r s and t e a c h i n g a s s i s t a n t s w hich i n v o l v e s r o l e p l a y s , p r a c t i c e s i t u a t i o n s and o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r s e l f - c r i t i c i s m i s mandatory. G r a d u a l a s s u m p t i o n of t a s k s i n the new r o l e c o u p l e d w i t h 200 on-the-job t r a i n i n g has been s u c c e s s f u l . Both teachers and teaching a s s i s t a n t s need to have feed-back from observers to help them implement the new s k i l l s they t r y i n the classroom. E d u c a t i o n a l change i s a long term process. Too o f t e n programs were funded on a short term b a s i s , evaluated and c a n c e l l e d before they had had any e f f e c t on student achievement. This problem of short term funding has been p a r t i c u l a r l y t r a g i c i n Indian education as both parents and teachers view s o l u t i o n s as "band-aids" to cover up c r i s e s r a t h e r than cures to long standing i l l s . The b e n e f i t s of having an Indian adult i n the classroom as a r o l e model, as a c u l t u r e bridge and as a teacher a s s i s t a n t are recognized (Wyatt, 1977, 1978, More and Ashworth, 1980, King, 1975 , 1981). There i s s t i l l a need to. i d e n t i f y and analyse the d i f f e r e n c e s i n teaching s t y l e s of Indian c u l t u r e that are r e l a t e d to language, movement, s e l f - c o n t r o l , group i n t e r a c t i o n and i n d i v i d u a l m o t i v a t i o n . The l e a r n i n g s t y l e s that are most e f f e c t i v e f o r Indian students must be more f u l l y explored and u t i l i z e d . P r a c t i c e s i n Indian c u l t u r e s as w e l l as the study of a r t i f a c t s need to be i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o the school l i f e of Indian c h i l d r e n . Schools must become m u l t i c u l t u r a l i n a l l aspects of c u r r i c u l u m . There are e s s e n t i a l parts of the Indian c u l t u r e s that have yet to be i n t e g r a t e d or i n f u s e d i n t o that school c u r r i c u l a . 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London: Open Books, 1976 . 204 Rosenthal, Robert and Lenore Jacobson. Pygmalion i n the  Classroom: Teacher E x p e c t a t i o n and P u p i l s ' I n t e l l e c t u a l  Development. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1968. Ryga, George. " E t h n i c Experience and Curriculum" In Canadian  E t h n i c i t y : The P o l i t i c s of Menaning . Ed. Ted Aoki, J . Dahlie and Walter Werner. Vancouver: Centre f o r the Study of Curriculum and I n s t r u c t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y of B.C., 1978, pp.6-12. Siggner, Andrew and Chantal L o c a t e l l i . An Overview of  Demographic, S o c i a l and Economic C o n d i t i o n s Among B r i t i s h Columbia's R e g i s t e r e d Indian P o p u l a t i o n . Ottawa: Research Branch, Corporate P o l i c y , Department of Indian A f f a i r s , 1980. Smith, David G. " H a l f b r e e d : A Canadian E x i s t e n t i a l View of C u r r i c u l u m " In Canadian E t h n i c i t y : The P o l i t i c s of Meaning Ed. Ted Aoki, J . D a h l i e , Walter Werner. Vancouver: Centre for the Study of Curriculum and I n s t r u c t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1978, pp.39-44. Talmage, H a r r i e t . "The Textbook as A r b i t e r of Curriculum and I n s t r u c t i o n . " The Elementary School J o u r n a l , 72(1972), pp.20-25. Toronto Board of Education. F i n a l Report of Sub-Committee on  Race R e l a t i o n s . Toronto, 1979. CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT Barton, Len and Martin Lawn. "Back Inside the Whale: A Curriculum Case Study." Interchange Volume 11:4, 1980-81, pp.2-12. Brown, J e r r y L. "Defensive Curriculum Development." EducatIonal  L e a d e r s h i p , 39:2 ( 1981 ), pp. 108-109. Chase, F r a n c i s S. " E d u c a t i o n a l Research and Development in the S i x t i e s . " In Elements of Curriculum Development, Curriculum Monograph Supplement Curriculum Theory Network. Ed. Michael C o n n e l l y , John Herbert and J o e l Weiss. Toronto: Ontario I n s t i t u t e f o r Studies i n Education, 1971, pp.142-163. Chase, L a r r y . " Q u a l i t y C i r c l e s i n E d u c a t i o n . " E d u c a t i o n a l  Leadership 40:5(1983), pp.18-26. Co n n e l l y , Michael F., John Herbert, and J o e l Weiss. Elements of  C u r r i c u l u m Development. Curriculum Theory Network Monograph Supplement. Toronto: Ontario I n s t i t u t e f o r Studies i n E d u c a t i o n , 1971. 205 C o n n e l l y , F. Mic h a e l . "Some Co n s i d e r a t i o n s on the Status, R e l a t i o n s h i p to Reseach, Character, and Study of Curriculum Development: An Overview." In Elements of Curriculum  Development Curriculum Theory Network Monograph Supplement. Toronto: Ontario I n s t i t u t e for Studies i n Education, 1971, pp.164-174. Ferguson, C a r o l C. "The Inside-out Curriculum." E d u c a t i o n a l  L e a d e r s h i p , 39:2(1981), pp.114-116. Foshay, Arthur, ed. Considered A c t i o n f o r Curriculum  Improvement. A l e x a n d r i a , Va.: A s s o c i a t i o n f o r S u p e r v i s i o n and Curriculum Development, 1980. H o l t , Maurice. "Whole Curriculum Planning i n Schools: Some Research I m p l i c a t i o n s " J o u r n a l of Curriculum S t u d i e s , 14:3(1982), pp.267-276. J e n k i n s , David and Martin D. Shipman. Curriculum, An  I n t r o d u c t i o n . London: Open Books, 1976. Moore, Ev e l y n . "The Way i t i s i n Curriculum Development, Part 1: A Note on the Need for Curriculum Development S t u d i e s . " In Elements of Curriculum Development, Monograph Supplement Curriculum Theory Network. Ed. F. Michael Connelly, John Herbert and J o e l Weiss. Toronto: Ontario I n s t i t u t e f o r Studies i n Educ a t i o n , 1971, pp.12-14. Page, E l l i s B., David J a r j o u r a , Charles D. Konopka. "Curriculum Design Through Operations Research." American E d u c a t i o n a l  Research J o u r n a l , 13:1(1976), pp.31-49. Schools C o u n c i l Working Paper 10. Curriculum Development:  Teachers' Groups and Centres. London: Her Majesty's S t a t i o n e r y O f f i c e , 1967. Schubert, W i l l i a m H. and Ann Lynn Lopez Schubert. "Towards C u r r i c u l a That Are Of, By, and Therefore f o r Students." J o u r n a l  of Curriculum T h e o r i z i n g , 3:1(1981), pp.239-251. Tomkins, George, F. Michael Connelly and Jean-Jacques B e r n i e r , " C u r r i c u l u m and I n s t r u c t i o n " Canadian Research i n Educa t i o n :  A State of the Art Review Ed. John H.M. Andrews and W.Todd Rogers. Vancouver: U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1981. T y l e r , Ralph. Basic P r i n c i p l e s of Curr i c u l u m and I n s t r u c t i o n . Chicago: U n i v e r s i t y of Chicago Press, 1950. Watson, F l e t c h e r G. "The BSCS: A Curriculum Study."In Elements  of Curriculum Development, Monograph Supplement, Curriculum Theory Network. Ed. F. Michael Connelly , John Herbert and Jo e l Weiss. Toronto: Ontario I n s t i t u t e for Studies i n Education, 1971, pp.135-140. 206 Young, Joan Helen. "Teacher P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n C u r r l c u l u i m D e c i s i o n Making: An O r g a n i z a t i o n a l Dilemma." Curriculum I n q u i r y , 9:2(1979), pp.113-127. Zisenwine, David. "A Curriculum Development P r o j e c t : the I n d i v i d u a l School Option." J o u r n a l of Curriculum S t u d i e s , 13:3 (1981), pp. 259-261. IMPLEMENTATION B e a t t i e , C a t h e r i n e . "Learning R i g h t . " J o u r n a l of Curriculum  Studies , 14:1 ( 1982), pp.99-103. Bridge, G. "Parent P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n School I n n o v a t i o n s . " Teachers C o l l e g e Record, 77:3(1976), pp.366-384. C r a n d a l l , David P. "The Teacher's Role i n School Improvement." E d u c a t i o n a l Leadership, 41:3(1983), pp.6-9. D a n i e l s , Mike and Ian Wright. Implementation Viewpoints. Vancouver: Centre for the Study of Curriculum and Implementation, The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1980. F u l l a n , M i c h a e l . "The Problems of School Change and I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r E d u c a t i o n a l Futures." In Options: Reforms and A l t e r n a t i v e s  f o r Canadian E d u c a t i o n . Ed. T. Morrison and A. Burton. Toronto: H o l t , R i n e h a r t , and Winston of Canada, 1973, pp.397-413. F u l l a n , Michael and Paul Park. Curriculum Implementation: A  Resource Book. Toronto: M i n i s t r y of Education, O n t a r i o , 1981. F u l l a n , M i c h a e l . The Meaning of E d u c a t i o n a l Change. Toronto:Ontario I n s t i t u t e for the Study of Ed u c a t i o n , 1982. G l a t t h o r n , A l l a n A. "Curriculum Change i n Loo s e l y Coupled Systems." E d u c a t i o n a l Leadership, 39:2(1981), pp.110-111. Goodlad, John I. "Improving Schooling i n the 1980's: Towards R e p l i c a t i o n of Non-Events." E d u c a t i o n a l Leadership, 40:7(1983), pp.4-7. Hamilton, S. F. " A l t e r n a t i v e Schools f o r the '80s:Lessons from the P a s t . " Urban Education, 16(1981), pp.131-148. Hargreaves, Andy. "The Rhetoric of School-Centred Innovation." J o u r n a l of Curriculum S t u d i e s , 14:3(1982), pp.251-266. 207 Holman, Evelyn L e z z e r . "The School Ecosystem." In Considered  A c t i o n f o r School Improvement. Ed. Arthur Foshay. A l e x a n d r i a , Va.: A s s o c i a t i o n for S u p e r v i s i o n and Curriculum Development, 1980, pp.19-42. Huberman, A. M i c h a e l . "School Improvement S t r a t e g i e s That Work." E d u c a t i o n a l L e a d e r s h i p , 41:3(1983), pp.23-27. King, Richard A. "Role Shock i n L o c a l Community Development Dynamics." Canadian J o u r n a l of Edu c a t i o n , 6:4(1981), pp.56-76. K i r s t , Michael W.and Walker, Decker F. "An A n a l y s i s of Curriculum P o l i c y - M a k i n g . " Review of E d u c a t i o n a l Research, 41:5, pp.479-509. Leithwood, K. A., J . S. Clipsham, Florence Maynes, R. P. Baxter and J . D. McNabb, eds. Planning Curriculum Change: A Model and  Case Study . Toronto: Ontario I n s t i t u t e f o r Studies i n Education, 1976. Louks, Susan F. "At L a s t : Some Good News From a Study of School Improvement." E d u c a t i o n a l Leadership, 41:3(1983), pp.4,5. Louks, Susan F. and David A. Za c c h e i . "Applying Our Findings to Today's Innovations." E d u c a t i o n a l L e a d e r s h i p , 41:3(1983), pp.28-31 . O r g a n i z a t i o n f o r Economic Cooperation and Development. P o l i c i e s  f o r Innovation i n the Serv i c e Sector: I d e n t i f i c a t i o n annd  S t r u c t u r e o f Relevant F a c t o r s . P a r i s : O r g a n i z a t i o n for Economic Cooperation and Development, 1977. P a r i s h , Ralph and Richard Arends. "Why Innovative Programs are D i s c o n t i n u e d . " E d u c a t i o n a l L e a d e r s h i p . 40:4(1983), pp.62-65. P h i l l i p s , J . Arch, J r . and Richard Hawthorne. " P o l i t i c a l Dimensions of Curriculum D e c i s i o n Making." E d u c a t i o n a l  Leadership , 40:5( 1983), pp.362-366. P r a v i c a , S. S. and L. D. McLean. "The E f f e c t s of P r i n c i p a l P a r t i c i p a t i o n In Curriculum Implementation: Support from an E v a l u a t i o n of a New Mathematics Curriculum." The A l b e r t a  J o u r n a l of E d u c a t i o n a l Research, 29:1(1983), pp.4 6-63. R u s s e l l , H. H., K. A. Leithwood and R. P. Baxter. The  Peterborough P r o j e c t . Toronto: Ontario I n s t i t u t e for Studies in Educ a t i o n , 1973. Sarason, Seymour. The Culture of Schools and the Problem of  Change. Boston: A l l y n and Bacon, 1971. Werner, Walt. "A P o l i t i c a l View of Implementation T r a i n i n g . " CSSE Annual Conference, Vancouver, 5 June, 1983. 208 Werner, Walt, Brian Frankcombe, Tarry Grieve and Rob Watson, eds. Program Implementation Experiences; Cases from B r i t i s h  Columbia. Vancouver: Program Implementation Services, B r i t i s h Columbia Ministry of Education and Centre for the Study of Curriculum and Instruction, 1983. METHODOLOGY Adams, Kay Angona. "The Keen-edged Feather: Intu i t i v e Analysis and Reporting in Qualitative Analysis." Phi Delta Kappa CEDR  Quarterly, 15:3( 1982), pp.3-6. Aoki, T. and Walter Werner, eds. Identifying Evaluation Tasks:  A Case Study of the Amerindianization Project. Vancouver: Centre for the Study of Curriculum and Instruction, University of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1978. Andrews, John H. M. and W. Todd Rogers. Canadian Research in  Education: A State of the Art Review. Vancouver: University of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1981. Battersby, David. "The Use of Ethnography and Grounded Theory in Educational Research." McGill Journal of Education, 16:1, pp.91-98. Borich, Gary D. and Ron P. Jemelka. Programs and Systems: An  Evaluation Perspective. New York: Academic Press, 1982. Connelly, F. Michael. "How Shall We Publish Case Studies of Curriculum Development? An Essay Review of Reid and Walker's Case Studies in Curriculum Change." Curriculum Inquiry, 8:1(1978), pp.73-82. Evaluation Research Society. Standards for Program Evaluation (Exposure Dr a f t ) . May 1980. Goodlad, John I. "What Some Schools and Classrooms Teach" Educational Leadership, 40:7(1983), pp.8-19. Green, Judith and Cynthia Wallat. Ethnography and Language in  Educational Settings. Norwood, N.J.: Ablex Publishing Corporation, 1981. Joint Committee on Standards for Education Evaluation. Standards for Evaluations of Educational Programs, Projects, and Materials . New York: McGraw Book Company, 1981. Lewy, Arieh, ed. Handbook of Curriculum Evaluation, UNESCO. New York: Longman Inc., 1977. Nowakowski, J e r i R. "On E d u c a t i o n a l E v a l u a t i o n : A C o n v e r s a t i o n with Ralph T y l e r . " E d u c a t i o n a l Leadership, 40:8(1983), pp.24-29. Oppenheimer, Peter. "Problems i n E v a l u a t i n g E d u c a t i o n a l Programs for Older A d u l t s . " Newsletter, E v a l u a t i o n Research  S o c i e t y , 4:1(1980), pp.2,6,7. Pat t o n , Michael Quinn. A l t e r n a t i v e E v a l u a t i o n Research  Paradigm Grand Forks, N.D.: U n i v e r s i t y of North Dakota, 1978. Sevigny, Maurice J . " T r i a n g u l a t e d I n q u i r y . " In Ethnography  and Language i n E d u c a t i o n a l S e t t i n g s . Ed. J u d i t h Green and Cynthia W a l l a t . Norwood, N.J.: Ablex P u b l i s h i n g C o r p o r a t i o n , 1981, pp.73-81. Spradley, James P. and David W. McCurdy. The C u l t u r a l  E x p e r i e n c e : Ethnography i n Complex S o c i e t y . Chicago: Science Research A s s o c i a t e s , 1972. Spradley, James P. P a r t i c i p a n t Observation. New York: H o l t , Rinehart and Winston, 1980. Stake, Robert. "Guest E d i t o r i a l " CEDR Q u a r t e r l y , 10:3, (1977), pp.1,2. Stake, Robert. "The Case Study Method i n S o c i a l I n q u i r y . " E d u c a t i o n a l Researcher, February,1978, pp.5-8. T y l e r , Ralph. Basic P r i n c i p l e s of Curriculum and  I n s t r u c t i o n . Chicago: U n i v e r s i t y of Chicago Press, 1950. T y l e r , Ralph. "New Dimensions i n Curriculum Development." Phi D e l t a Kappan, September, 1966, pp.25-28. T y l e r , Ralph, Robert Gagne, and Michael S c r i v e n . P e r s p e c t i v e s of Curriculum E v a l u a t i o n , AERA Monograph S e r i e s on Curriculum E v a l u a t i o n . Chicago: Rand McNally & Co., 1967. Wahstrom, M e r l i n and Dawn Whitmore. "Observations on O b s e r v a t i o n s . " The School Guidance Worker, 30:4(1975), pp . 4 1-46. West, W. Gordon. " P a r t i c i p a n t Observation." Canadian J o u r n a l  of E d u c a t i o n , 2:3:(1977), pp.55-74. Wiggins, Sam P. "A View of A Place C a l l e d School" E d u c a t i o n a l Leadership, 40:7(1983), pp.5-7. 210 INDIAN EDUCATION A l b e r t a Education. School Program E v a l u a t i o n Report f o r  E r m i n e s k i l Primary School and Ermineskin Elementary-Junior  High, Hobbema, A l b e r t a . F i n a l D r a f t , December, 1981. A l b e r t a E d u c a t i o n . Education North E v a l u a t i o n (1978 -1982)  and A l t e r n a t i v e Programs Sourcebook : Summary. Edmonton, A l b e r t a : Government of A l b e r t a , 1983. Arbess, Saul. New S t a t e g l e s i n Indian Education: U t i l i z i n g  the Indian C h i l d ' s Advantages In the Elementary Classroom. Report a r i s i n g from workshops held February, 1981. "B.C. Scores an F f o r I t s Improved Indian Education." The  P r o v i n c e , Home E d i t i o n , 17 June 1983, S e c . l , p . l , col.1-6. Blue, A. 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Unpublished Paper, 1979. APPENDIX I n t e r v i e w C h e c k l i s t f o r A Program L e a d e r s How d i d the program get s t a r t e d ? Who a t t e n d e d the f i r s t m e e t i n g s or d i s c u s s i o n s ? When d i d you become i n v o l v e d ? Who a p p r o a c h e d you w i t h the p l a n s f o r the program? How d i d the band and the s c h o o l a g r e e to s t a r t the program? How many m e e t i n g s d i d i t take to s e t up the program? What form d i d t h e s e m e e t i n g s take? Have t h e r e been o n g o i n g m e e t i n g s between the band and the s c h o o l ? Do the program d e v e l o p e r s meet w i t h the band to d i s c u s s the program? Do the program d e v e l o p e r s meet w i t h the s c h o o l a d m i n i s t r a t o r s to d i s c u s s the program? Do the program d e v e l o p e r s meet w i t h the t e a c h e r s to d i s c u s s the program? The most s u c c e s s f u l m e e t i n g s have been: one to one d i s c u s s i o n s i n f o r m a l group d i s c u s s i o n s o v e r c o f f e e f o r m a l d i s c u s s i o n s i n a g u i d e d s i t u a t i o n f o r m a l p r e s e n t a t i o n s to groups open m e e t i n g s w i t h i n d i v i d u a l s s p e a k i n g 221 COMMENT: 13. Has o u t s i d e h e l p been a v a i l a b l e to program d e v e l o p e r s ? 14. How was the o u t s i d e h e l p c o n t a c t e d ? 15. Does the o u t s i d e h e l p v i s i t the program at r e g u l a r i n t e r v a l s ? 16. How have the a s s i s t a n t s been i n v o l v e d i n p l a n n i n g the program? 17. How have the t e a c h e r s been i n v o l v e d i n p l a n n i n g the program? 18. What a r e the avenues used to g a t h e r i n p u t from a s s i s t a n t s and t e a c h e r s ? 19. D e s c r i b e some changes t h a t have been made i n r e s p o n s e to i d e a s from the p a r t i c i p a n t s . 222 A p p e n d i x B I n t e r v i e w C h e c k l i s t f o r Program D e v e l o p e r s 1. How d i d the program get s t a r t e d ? 2. When d i d you j o i n the program? 3. How do you d e f i n e y o u r job? 4. What i s the b a s i s f o r the program? 5. What a r e the components of the c o u r s e ? 6. What w r i t t e n m a t e r i a l s a r e t h e r e ? 7. Who p r e p a r e s the w r i t t e n m a t e r i a l s ? 8. Who p r e s e n t s or t e a c h e r s the c o u r s e s ? 9. Who c o o r d i n a t e s the program? 10. How o f t e n a r e workshops h e l d ? 11. What form do the workshops t a k e ? 12. Who a t t e n d s the workshops? 13. How a r e the workshops e v a l u a t e d ? 14. Are the workshops a d a p t e d to l o c a l needs and c o n d i t i o n s ? 15. Are t u t o r i a l s h e l d ? Comment 16. How i s the program f i n a n c e d ? Appendix C 22' I. I n t e r a c t i n g Duties Frequency Competency F 0 N 1 . Tutors small groups of students under d i r e c t i o n of teacher A B C D F 0 N 2. Tutors i n d i v i d u a l s upon request A B C D F 0 N 3. Reads to c h i l d r e n A B C D F 0 N 4. T e l l s s t o r i e s A B C D F 0 N 5. Corr e c t s students' work A B C D F 0 N 6. Supervises c l a s s during short absences of teacher A B C D F 0 N 7. Supervises playground and hallways A B C D F 0 N 8. C i r c u l a t e s i n c l a s s to help students with e x e r c i s e s and p r o j e c t s A B C D F 0 N 9. A s s i s t s students i n the l i b r a r y A B C D F 0 N 10. Helps students organize study time A B C D F 0 N 11. Helps students complete homework assignments A B C D F 0 N 12. A s s i s t s teacher i n planning lessons A B C D F 0 N 13. A s s i s t s with excursions and sports days A B C D Comments: Appendix C 22! I I . Cultural Infusion Frequency Competency F 0 N 1. Tells legends and stories A B C D F 0 N 2. Uses Thompson words in conversations with students A B C D F 0 N 3. Uses l o c a l examples when explaining concepts to students A B C D F 0 N 4. Prepares native and lo c a l teaching aids A B C D F 0 N 5. Shares own experiences with teacher and students A B C D F 0 N 6. Assists teachers integrate Thompson language and lore into curriculum A B C D F 0 N 7. Assists teachers develop "hands on" experiences for students A B C D F 0 N 8. Assists teacher arrange demonstration rather than direction lessons A B C D F 0 N 9. Allows students to have input in planning and d i s c i p l i n e A B C D F 0 N 10. Arranges peer group learning experiences A B C D F 0 N 11. Demonstrates the legitimacy of native response time to questions or speech A B C D Comment s: Appendix C 226 I I I . Non-Interacting Duties Frequency Competency F 0 N 1 . Can design and c o n s t r u c t b u l l e t i n boards A B C D F 0 N 2. Demonstrates l e g i b l e manuscript and c u r s i v e w r i t i n g A B C D F 0 N 3. Demonstrates competency i n o f f i c e machine o p e r a t i o n ( d u p l i c a t o r s , t y p e w r i t e r s , telephone) A B C D F 0 N A. Demonstrates competency i n a u d i o - v i s u a l machine o p e r a t i o n A B C D F 0 N 5. Previews f i 1 m s / f i 1 m s t r i p s A B C D F 0 N 6. Orders a u d i o - v i s u a l m a t e r i a l s A B C D F 0 N 7. Cares f o r i n s t r u c t i o n a l a i d s , books and m a t e r i a l s A B C D F 0 N 8. Cares f o r sports equipment A B C D F 0 N 9. Cares for a r t m a t e r i a l s A B C D F 0 N 10. Organizes and f i l e s student records A B C D Comment s: A p p e n d i x C 227 IV. L i a s o n D u t i e s F r e q u e n c y Competency F 0 N 1. C o u n s e l s s t u d e n t s w i t h p e r s o n a l p r o b l e m s A B C D F 0 N 2. C o u n s e l s s t u d e n t s c o n c e r n i n g v o c a t i o n a l p l a n s A B C D F 0 N 3. H e l p s s t u d e n t s w i t h s c h o o l r o u t i n e s and r u l e s A B C D F 0 N 4. E x p l a i n s p r o b l e m s on b e h a l f of t e a c h e r s and p r i n c i p a l s to p a r e n t s A B C D F 0 N 5. E x p l a i n s p r o b l e m s on b e h a l f of p a r e n t s to t e a c h e r s and p r i n c i p a l s A B C D F 0 N 6. I n c r e a s e s t e a c h e r s knowledge about " T h i n g s I n d i a n " ( p r e s e n t and p a s t ) A B C D F 0 N 7. Works w i t h t e a c h e r on p r o b l e m s of i n d i v i d u a l s t u d e n t s A B C D F 0 N 8. I n c r e a s e s c o m m u n i c a t i o n between t e a c h e r and s t u d e n t s A B C D Comment s: V I . O t h e r u s e f u l t e a c h e r a s s i s t a n t c o m p e t e n c i e s to be d e v e l o p e d 1. 3. A p p e n d i x C 228 4. 5. V I I . I n d i a n l a n g u a g e programs are viewed by a n t h r o p o l o g i s t s as e s s e n t i a l to the p r e s e r v a t i o n of I n d i a n c u l t u r e s . The Thompson l a n g u a g e program has been expanded r a p i d l y i n the E l e m e n t a r y S c h o o l t h i s y e a r . P l e a s e comment on the program as you have o b s e r v e d i t . A ) L i s t ways the program has been e f f e c t i v e . b ) L i s t ways the program can be improved next y e a r . V I I I . Thompson C u r r i c u l u m m a t e r i a l s a r e b e i n g d e v e l o p e d by the band. What t y p e s of m a t e r i a l s would you l i k e to have d e v e l o p e d f o r y o u r use to make the Thompson c u l t u r e p a r t of y o u r t e a c h i n g ? 229 APPENDIX D Teacher A s s i s t a n t Questionnaire 1. How old are you? 2. What i s your sex? female male 3. What i s your m a r i t a l status? 4. How many people , i f any, are dependent on you f o r t h e i r support ? 5. What i s your status? sta t u s Indian non-status Indian non-Indian 6. How many years were you working, i n c l u d i n g years as a housewife, before you entered the program? 7. Was your work r e l a t e d to teaching? yes no 8. If your answer to question 7 was "yes", how was your work r e l a t e d to teaching? worked with young people worked with i n s t r u c t i o n a l m a t e r i a l s communicated with community members kept d e t a i l e d records other - Comment please 230 9. What was the highest education l e v e l achieved by your parents ? 10. What was the highest grade l e v e l you achieved at the time you l e f t school? 11. I n d i c a t e the number of years you spent ineach of the f o l l o w i n g s c h o o l s . Number of Years Indian School i n Home Communi ty Integrated School While L i v i n g at Home Indian R e s i d e n t i a l School Integrated School While L i v i n g Away From Home 0 1-3 4-6 7 or more 12. I have l i v e d i n L y t t o n a l l my l i f e . i n B.C. a l l my l i f e . i n Canada a l l my l i f e . i n c o u n t r i e s other than Canada. 13. I have c h i l d r e n a t t e n d i n g the Ly t t o n s c h o o l s . yes no 231 14. As you t h i n k back on you r s c h o o l e x p e r i e n c e as a s t u d e n t , w h i c h of the f o l l o w i n g s t a t e m e n t s b e s t d e s c r i b e s you? I e n j o y e d s c h o o l and d i d w e l l i n my s t u d i e s . I e n j o y e d s c h o o l but was n e v e r b e t t e r t han an a v e r a g e s t u d e n t . I knew I had to a t t e n d s c h o o l but g e t t i n g an e d u c a t i o n was not i m p o r t a n t to me. G o i n g to s c h o o l was u n p l e a s a n t f o r me and I wanted to g e t away from i t as soon as I c o u l d . o t h e r ( p l e a s e e x p l a i n ) 15. As you were g r o w i n g up, was t h e r e anyone c l o s e to you who s t r o n g l y i n f l u e n c e d you to c o n t i n u e y o u r s t u d i e s and do w e l l i n s c h o o l ? yes no sometimes 16. I f you answered the p r e v i o u s q u e s t i o n " y e s " , who was the most i n f l u e n c i a l p e r s o n ? mother f a t h e r g r andmother g r a n d f a t h e r o t h e r r e l a t i v e ( p l e a s e s p e c i f y ) t e a c h e r f r i e n d o t h e r ( p l e a s e s p e c i f y ) 232 17. Which of the f o l l o w i n g s t a t e m e n t s b e s t a c c o u n t s f o r why you a r e t a k i n g the T e a c h e r A s s i s t a n t T r a i n i n g Program? I want to t r a i n f o r a s t e a d y job w i t h a good income. I want p e o p l e to as p r e p a r e m y s e l f to s e r v e the N a t i v e a t e a c h e r a s s i s t a n t . I n d i a n I want to p r e p a r e m y s e l f f o r e n t r y i n t o N.I. T.E.P . I want to become a Thompson Language t e a c h e r • I want p e o p l e to p r e p a r e m y s e l f f o r l e a d e r s h i p work , not n e c e s s a r i l y r e l a t e d d i r e c t l y to w i t h my t e a c h i n g I had n o t h i n g b e t t e r to do and the o p p o r t u n i t y to be i n c l u d e d i n the program came up. Somebody t a l k e d me i n t o i t . o t h e r ( p l e a s e s p e c i f y ) L i s t e d below a r e a number of p o s s i b l e p r o b l e m s you may have f a c e d as a s t u d e n t t e a c h e r a s s i s t a n t . P l e a s e r a t e each of t h e s e a c c o r d i n g to how i m p o r t a n t each was i n a f f e c t i n g y o u r a d j u s t ment to the program. Use the f o l l o w i n g system f o r your r a t i n g s . 1.... Not I m p o r t a n t 2.... Somewhat I m p o r t a n t 3.... V e r y I m p o r t a n t 18. The work l o a d of a c ademic work was v e r y heavy. 19. The l a n g u a g e of the i n s t r u c t o r s was d i f f i c u l t to u n d e r s t a n d . 20. The t a s k s a s s i g n e d i n the c l a s s r o o m were not e x p l a i n e d . 233 21. The students did not know what a teacher a s s i s t a n t wa s . 22. There wasn't enough time to get to know the students w e l l . 23. The world of being an a s s i s t a n t was e n t i r e l y new to me, and was very confusing f o r the f i r s t three months. 24. The teachers were unsure of which tasks they could a s s i g n to me. 25. The v i s i t i n g workshop i n s t r u c t o r s were here f o r too short a time. 26. The workshops were not always p e r t i n e n t to what I was doing i n the classroom. 27. I f e l t separated from the l i f e I had been l e a d i n g . 28. I f e l t unable to do as w e l l as the other teacher a s s i s t a n t s . 29. I had d i f f i c u l t y i n o r g a n i z i n g my time and g e t t i n g assignments done when r e q u i r e d . 30. A d j u s t i n g to school r o u t i n e was d i f f i c u l t for me. 31. Being t r e a t e d as a student again was hard f o r me. 32. R e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s to my fami l y cut into time f o r st u d y i n g . 33. I found i t d i f f i c u l t to t a l k to my leaders about d i f f i c u l t i e s I was having i n the program. 34. I found i t d i f f i c u l t to t a l k to teachers about what they expected of me. 35. F i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e was inadequate. 36. I was too t i r e d i n the afternoons to do coursework. 37. P r e p a r i n g c u r r i c u l u m m a t e r i a l s was too s p e c i a l i z e d a task for me. 234 38. The community did not understand the teaching a s s i s t a n t r o l e . What are 1 or 2 of the most d i f f i c u l t problems you continue to face as a teacher a s s i s t a n t ? 39. 40. L i s t e d below are a number of statements about the program with which you may agree or d i s a g r e e . I n d i c a t e the s t r e n g t h of your f e e l i n g s i n the f o l l o w i n g way. 5... Strongly Agree 4... Agree 3... Undecided 2... Disagree 1... Strongly Disagree 41. I f i n d that the other teacher a s s i s t a n t s are the g r e a t e s t source of help when I run i n t o d i f f i c u l t y . 42. I f i n d i t easy to t a l k to the teachers i n the schools i f something i s bothering me. 43. People from the community understand the program and think i t i s good. 44. The teachers i n the schools have always been f r i e n d l y and h e l p f u l . 45. The teachers i n the schools have sometimes been f r i e n d l y and h e l p f u l . 235 46. Teachers i n the schools have expected me to be an expert on Native Indians because I am i n the program. 47. My study s k i l l s and knowledge of the basics have improved a great deal s i n c e I s t a r t e d the program. 48. My knowledge about teaching has increased g r e a t l y since I s t a r t e d the program. 49. My admiration f o r teachers has increased since I s t a r t e d the program. 50. I have gained a l o t of confidence i n myself since I s t a r t e d the program. 51. The p r i n c i p a l s and t h e i r s t a f f welcome teacher a s s i s t a n t s and make us f e e l v a l u a b l e . 52. I don't know the i n s t r u c t o r s from U.B.C. very w e l l because they are not with us very long during t h e i r v i s i t s . 53. I f e e l the i n s t r u c t o r s were aware of our problems and made t h e i r workshops r e l e v e n t to our s i t u a t i o n . 54. I have learned a great deal about being an Indian and teaching Indian students i n the program. 55. I f e e l that our program recognizes that Native c h i l d r e n and youth have s p e c i a l needs, and i t i s prep a r i n g us w e l l to meet those needs. 56. I f e e l that the teachers i n our schools recognize that Native students have s p e c i a l needs and use teacher a s s i s t a n t s to b e t t e r meet those needs. 57. The program has a s s i s t e d me i n coming to g r i p s with my personal bad experiences i n Indian - non-Indian r e l a t i o n s h i p s . 236 The f o l l o w i n g questions provide more p e r s o n a l l y formulated answers. Please f e e l f r e e to comment as f u l l y or as b r i e f l y as you wish. Use the backs of pages i f necessary. Information w i l l be coded and only used to improve plans f o r future programs. 58. If you have concerns about the program, did you f e e l that the i n s t r u c t o r s and c o - o r d i n a t o r s were w i l l i n g to l i s t e n to you and work towards improving the s i t u a t i o n ? yes no such a s i t u a t i o n never came up comment 59. Do you have a formal procedure i n the program to use when you have a problem or concern with the program of s t u d i e s ? yes no don't know comment 60. O v e r a l l , I would rate the program as : e x c e l l e n t good f a i r not doing what i t should be doing comment 237 61. P l e a s e i d e n t i f y the two s t r o n g e s t p o i n t s of the program, A) B) 62. P l e a s e i d e n t i f y the two weakest p o i n t s i n the program. A) B) 63. What t h r e e t h i n g s do you t h i n k c o u l d be done to improve the program? A) B) C) APPENDIX E SCHOOL STAFFING, TEACHER AIDES AND AUXILARIES (from the B.C.T.F. Handbook) P o l i c i e s 23.F.01 - That a more e q u i t a b l e d i s t r i b u t i o n of men and women should be i n c l u d e d i n school s t a f f s at a l l l e v e l s . 2 3 . F . 0 3 - That the teacher has prime r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r : (a) diagnosing the l e a r n i n g needs of p u p i l s ; (b) p r e s c r i b i n g the l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t i e s ; (c) implementingthe l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t i e s ; (d) e v a l u a t i n g the l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t i e s . ( 1 9 7 5 AGM,p.13) 23.F.05 - That a u x i l i a r y school personnel a s s i s t i n g i n a classroom s i t u a t i o n must do so under the d i r e c t s u p e r v i s i o n of a q u a l i f i e d classroom teacher. A u x i l i a r i e s whose tasks are of a general supportive nature and who are not working under the d i r e c t s u p e r v i s i o n of an i n d i v i d u a l teacher s h a l l be under the d i r e c t i o n and s u p e r v i s i o n of the school i t s e l f . (1975 AGM,p.75) 23.F.07 - That a u x i l i a r y school personnel include those a d u l t s who serve, i n a v o l u n t e e r or paid c a p a c i t y , to a s s i s t the teaching and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s t a f f i n the performance of d u t i e s . This a s s i s t a n c e s h a l l be under the d i r e c t i o n and s u p e r v i s i o n of the teaching and/or a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s t a f f . " D i r e c t i o n " means teaching and l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t i e s w i l l be designed, i n i t i a t e d and evaluated by teachers; "supervision"means the a c t i v i t y w i l l be c a r r i e d out i n such a place and manner that the teacher can r e a d i l y conduct ongoing e v l u a t i o u x i l i a r y school personnel i n c l u d e such persons as teacher a i d e s , s c h o o l a i d e s , l i b r a r y a i d e s , s u p e r v i s i o n a i d e s , lab a s s i s t a n t s , markers and c h i l d care workers; excluded are school s e c r e t a r i e s and j a n i t o r i a l , m a i n t e n a n c e and t r a n s p o r t a t i o n s t a f f . (1975 AGM,pp.73-74) (1976 AGM,p.97) 23.F.09 - That a u x i l i a r y school personnel may be used e f f e c t i v e l y to perform: (a) r o u t i n e c l e r i c a l d u t i e s ; such as checking p u p i l a t t e n d a n c e , d i s t r i b u t i n g s u p p l i e s and books, c o l l e c t i n g and r e c o r d i n g money, marking workbooks and e x e r c i s e s that may be checked by use of an answer key, r e c o r d i n g marks as d i r e c t e d ; (b) general housekeeping, such as m a i n t a i n i n g b u l l e t i n boards, s e t t i n g up equipment; (c) p r e p a r i n g teaching a i d s , such as c h a r t s , f l a s h cards t r a n s p a r e n c i e s , s t e n c i l s , tapes and p i c t u r e s . (d) s u p e r v i s i n g i n s c h o o l b u i l d i n g s , on playgrounds, i n study h a l l s and on f i e l d t r i p s ; (e) p r e p a r i n g and ma i n t a i n i n g science and shop s u p p l i e s and equipment; ( f ) s u p e r v i s i n g p u p i l s and performing c l e r i c a l d u t i e s i n the l i b r a r y . (1975 AGM,p.74) 23.F.11 - That a u x i l i a r y school personnel may be used e f f e c t i v e l y to perform, on a one-to-one group b a s i s , such i n s t r u c t i o n r e l t e d tasks as l i s t e n i n g to students read and conducting d r i l l s . A u x i l i a r y school personnel who have t r a i n i n g i n a s p e c i f i c area may be used as resource persons to demonstrate such s k i l l s or t a l e n t s . In a l l i n s t a n c e s such f u n c t i o n s must be performed under the d i r e c t i o n and s u p e r v i s i o n of a teacher; i n no in s t a n c e s h a l l a u x i l i a r y school personnel assume d i a g n o s t i c , p e r s c r i p t i v e or e v a l u a t i v e r e s p o n s i b i l i t l e s , n o r s h a l l a u x i l i a r y school personnel independently i n i t i a t e l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t i e s . (1975 AGM,p.74) (1976 AGM,p.97) 23.F.13 - That a u x i l i a r y school personnel s h a l l not: (a) i n f r i n g e i n any way upon the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of a teacher; (b) assume any i n s t r u c t i o n a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s i n the absence of a teacher; (c) t u t o r or i n s t r u c t on a one-to-one group b a s i s ; (d) provide any form of d i r e c t or independent remedial i n s t r u c t i o n . (1975 AGM.p.74) 23.F.15 - That, notwithstanding any other statements i n t h i s s e c t i o n , a u x i l i a r y school personnel s h a l l not be used as a l t e r n a t i v e s f o r : (a) the lowering of the p u p i l / t e a c h e r r a t i o ; (b) q u a l i f i e d p r o f e s s i o n a l personnel, i n c l u d i n g l i b r a r i a n s . c o u n s e l l o r s and teacher s u b s t i t u e s ; (c) adequate s e c r e t a r i a l s e r v i c e s ; (d) adequate equipment. (1975 AGM, pp.74-75) 23.F.17 - That a u x i l i a r y school personnel a s s i s t i n g i n a classroom s i t u a t i o n must do so under the d i r e c t i o n and s u p e r v i s i o n of a q u a l i f i e d classroom teacher. A u x i l i a r i e s whose tasks are of a general supportive nature and who are not working under the d i r e c t i o n and s u p e r v i s i o n of an i n d i v i d u a l teacher s h a l l be under the d i r e c t i o n and s u p e r v i s i o n of the school s t a f f . (1975 AGM, p. 75) (1976 AGM,p.95) 23.F.19 - That, when d i s c u s s i o n s are held or d e c i s i o n s made with respect to p u p i l s that a r i s e from the work of a s s o c i a t e d p r o f e s s i o n a l s , the te a c h e r ( s ) of those p u p i l s must be i n v o l v e d . (19 75 AGM,p.75) 23.F.21 - That d i s t r i c t s t a f f i n g requirements f o r p r o f e s s i o n a l teachers and, where a p p r o p r i a t e , requirements f o r a s s o c i a t e d p r o f e s s i o n a l s and a u x i l i a r y school personnel be a matter of n e g o t i a t i o n between the l o c a l a s s o c i a t i o n and school board. (1975 AGM,p.76) 23.F.23 - That c o n d i t i o n s governing the s e l e c t i o n , assignment, e v a l u a t i o n and d i s m i s s a l of a u x i l i a r y s c h o o l personnel be a matter of n e g o t i a t i o n among l o c a l a s s o c i a t i o n s and school boards and employees' a s s o c i a t i o n s . (1975 AGM,P.76) 23.F.25 - That a p p r o p r i a t e p r e - s e r v i c e and i n - s e r v i c e d r a i n i n g programs f o r a u x i l i a r y school personneland the teachers whom they work with be a matter of n e g o t i a t i o n between the l o c a l a s s o c i a t i o n and the school board. (1975 aGM,p.76) 23.F.27 - That a u x i l i a r y school personnel should be h i r e d as an a d d i t i o n to the allowable numbers of teachers rather then a l t e r n a t i v e s to teach e r s . (February 1976 Executive,pp 4-5) APPENDIX F 241 E s s e n t i a l Topics Studied i n Programs f o r Teacher-aides i n E a s t e r n Kentucky 1. Human Growth and Development of C h i l d r e n 2. Team Approach to T r a i n i n g and Working 3. Career Development of A u x i l i a r i e s 4. I n t r o d u c t i o n to A u x i l i a r y Programs 5. D e s i r a b l e C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of A u x i l i a r i e s 6. Self-Improving of A u x i l i a r i e s i n E t i q u e t t e , Dress and Grooming 7. D i s c o v e r i n g the Learning C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of Adults 8. Techniques of Group D i s c u s s i o n s 9. Working R e l a t i o n s h i p s Between A l l Personnel i n the Schools 10. B e n e f i t s from Using Disadvantaged Persons as A u x i l i a r i e s 11. Understanding the Role of the Teacher i n American S o c i e t y 12. Improving Home-School R e l a t i o n s h i p s 13. P r e p a r i n g D i s p l a y M a t e r i a l s , Such as B u l l e t i n Boards, Charts, Graphs, Maps, and Posters 14. Becoming an A u d i o v i s u a l T e c h n i c i a n 15. I n t r o d u c t i o n to C l e r i c a l S k i l l s 16. Assignment of M o n i t o r i a l and Routine Duties to A u x i l i a r i e s 17. Health and Safety i n the Schools 18. How to Conduct a Home V i s i t 19. Preparing and Scoring Tests 20. Working With C h i l d r e n I n d i v i d u a l l y or In Small Groups 21. I n t r o d u c t i o n to Teaching 22. I n t r o d u c t i o n to Reading I n s t r u c t i o n APPENDIX F 242 23. I n t r o d u c t i o n to A r i t h m e t i c I n s t r u c t i o n 24. S o c i o l o g i c a l Conditions A f f e c t i n g Learning i n the Classroom 25. Self-Improvement of A u x i l i a r i e s i n Basic Learning S k i l l s Source: Klopf et a l . , 1969, pp.128-129. APPENDIX G 243 Classroom A s s i s t a n t T r a i n i n g P r o f i l e  Department of Education Northwest T e r r i t o r i e s  Western A r c t i c C e r t i c i c a t e , 2nd E d i t i o n DEMONSTRATE A COMMITMENT TO TEACHING Enjoy working with c h i l d r e n Concentrate on the c h i l d r e n ' s needs Demonstrate a w i l l i n g n e s s to work extra time when needed 3 Demonstrate p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e towards the sc h o o l ' s ob j e c t i ve s 4 Follow a p p r o p r i a t e procedures i n the event of absenteeism M a i n t a i n h a b i t s of p u n c t u a l i t y P a r t i c i p a t e Demonstrate a i n i n - s e r v i c e w i l l i n g n e s s to workshops upgrade s tandard E n g l i s h or Native language 7 8 Demonstrate w i l l i n g n e s s to evaluate oneself B DEMONSTRATE KNOWLEDGE OF LOCAL CULTURE Provide C u l t u r a l advice to the teacher 1 Provide Knowledge of l o c a l c h i l d r e a r i n g p r a c t i c e s 2 Demonstrates a w i l l i n g n e s s to improve knowledge of l o c a l c u l t u r e 3 I d e n t i f y s p e c i f i c community s i t u a t i o n s which may a f f e c t l e a r n i n g 4 C DEMONSTRATE Demonstrate knowledge Demonstrate knowledge KNOWLEDGE OF of resources i n the of emergency EDUCATIONAL community procedures SYSTEM 1 2 APPENDIX G 244 D COMMUNICATE Provide Demonstrate a Read, w r i t e , and advice w i l l i n g n e s s to speak the l o c a l to the communicate languages teacher with c h i l d r e n 1 2 3 Write using a sta n d a r d i z e d w r i t i n g system where l o c a l l y a c ceptable 4 Teach a standardized w r i t i n g system where l o c a l l y a cceptable 5 Contribute to parent i n - s c h o o l i n t e r v i e w s 6 I n f o r m a l l y i d e n t f y the e d u c a t i o n a l e x p e c t a t i o n s of the community 7 S e l e c t a p p r o p r i a t e methods of communication 10 Comfort c h i l d r e n when necessary 13 I n f o r m a l l y convey school a c t i v i t i e s to the community a c o n s t r u c t i v e way 8 Lead a group d i s c u s s i o n with c h i l d r e n 11 Paraphrase c h i l d r e n ' s communicat ions 14 Conduct home v i s i t a t i o n s with the in teacher 9 Develop and use a p p r o p r i a t e q u e s t i o n i n g techniques 12 Use non-verbal communi ca t ion techniques 15 E ASSIST WITH TEACHING Teach i n the Native language Demonstrate an a b i l i t y to teach a second language where a p p l i c a b l e 2 Teach the Na t ive language Demonstrate a ba s i c knowledge i n subject areas 4 I n i t i a t e a spontaneous l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t y 5 A s s i s t i n es t a b l i s h i n g and operating an a c t i v i t y centre 6 APPENDIX G 245 ASSIST WITH TEACHING (CON'T) Teach s m a l l g r o u p s Use r e i n f o r c e m e n t t e c h n i q u e s 8 E s t a b l i s h m a i n t a i n c l a s s r o o m r o u t i n e s 9 and A s s i s t i n m a i n t a i n i n g d i s c i p l i n e 10 Share w i t h a t e a c h e r the r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s f o r s u p e r v i s i n g c h i l d r e n 11 F DEMONSTRATE A BASIC KNOWLEDGE OF HOW CHILDREN LEARN NOT APPLICABLE TO CERTIFICATE G PREPARE LEARNING MATERIALS T r a n s l a t e l e a r n i n g m a t e r i a l s i n t o N a t i v e c o n t e x t 1 O p e r a t e a v a r i e t y of A.V. equipment 2 O p e r a t e d u p l i c a t i n g equipment H ASSIST WITH PLANNING AND ORGANIZING LEARNING A C T I V I T I E S A s s i s t i n p l a n n i n g and o r g a n i z i n g f i e l d t r i p s 1 APPENDIX H 246 Sample Perfomance O b j e c t i v e s , Standards, A c t i v i t i e s and  E v a l u a t i o n s from the Classroom A s s i s t a n t Manual, Northwest  T e r r i t o r i e s , Department of Education, 2nd E d i t i o n , 1978 A-8 Demonstrate a w i l l i n g n e s s to upgrade standard E n g l i s h or n a t i v e language. GIVEN CONDITIONS: Given the need to upgrade standard E n g l i s h and/orthe f l u e n c y i n the n a t i v e language PERFORMANCE OBJECTIVES: - attend language c l a s s e s . - d i s p l a y a w i l l i n g n e s s to read a v a i l a b l e m a t e r i a l on E n g l i s h or n a t i v e language upgrading. STANDARD(S) OR CRITERIA: - that the t r a i n e e has shown an e f f o r t to improve h i s / h e r a b i l i t y to communicate i n the language s t u d i e d . LEARNING ACTIVITIES: - l i s t e n to tapes. - j o i n i n c o n v e r s a t i o n s using E n g l i s h or the native language. EVALUATION TECHNIQUE: - o b s e r v a t i o n of improved standard of E n g l i s h being used i n the classroom - provide i n t e r p r e t e r s e r v i c e i n the l o c a l native language. D - l l Lead a group d i s c u s s i o n with c h i l d r e n GIVEN CONDITIONS : Given that the t r a i n e e has gained experience i n working with i n d i v i d u a l c h i l d r e n . PERFORMANCE OBJECTIVES: - s e l e c t a p p r o p r i a t e methods of communication, i . e . v e r b a l or non-verbal - maintain c o n t r o l of the group so that l e a r n i n g i s t a k i n g place STANDARD(S) OR CRITERIA: - that the c h i l d r e n p a r t i c i p a t e i n the d i s c u s s i o n . - that the t r a i n e e i s i n c o n t r o l of the s i t u a t i o n and maintaining student i n t e r e s t . - that the o b j e c t i v e s of the p a r t i c u l a r d i s c u s s i o n s have been met. LEARNING ACTIVITIES : - develop and use a p p r o p r i a t e q u e s t i o n i n g techniques. - develop and use a p p r o p r i a t e v i s u a l a i d s . - experiment with d i f f e r e n t types of motivations and follow-up procedures. EVALUATION TECHNIQUE : - o b s e r v a t i o n by the teacher that he/she i s s a t i s f i e d that the t r a i n e e has conducted the d i s c u s s i o n to the standards i n d i c a t e d . APPENDIX I 247 Para P r o f e s s i o n a l Program f o r Remedial Tutors i n Yukon Schools, Yukon Native Brotherhood, Whitehorse, 1979 A n a l y s i s of I n s t r u c t i o n a l Emphasis Personal Development Communication S k i l l s I n t e r - p e r s o n a l S k i l l s Cross C u l t u r a l Education 220 hours 35 hours 35 hours Working with C h i l d r e n C h i l d Development Resource Development with C h i l d r e n Program Review Language Arts (50%) Mathematics (50%) O r i e n t a t i o n and Summary(50%) _ 290 hours (48%) 35 17, 17, 35 35 hours hours hours hours hours 17.5 hours 157.5 hours(26%) S u p e r v i s i o n S k i l l s School and S o c i e t y Audio V i s u a l Education S u p e r v i s i o n and Management Language Arts (50%) Mathematics (50%) O r i e n t a t i o n and Summary (50%) 17 35 17 35 35 35 > hours hours i hours hours hours hours 157.5 hours(26%) TOTAL 605 hours (100%) TENTATIVE SCHEDULE OF TOPICS Wk 1 Jan 7 -Jan 1 1 R e g i s t r a t i o n , o r i e n t a t i o n , i n t r o d u c t i o n 2 Jan 14 -Jan 18 School and s o c i e t y 3 Jan 21--Jan 25 Cross c u l t u r a l education 4 Jan 28--Feb 1 C h i l d development 5 Feb 4--Feb 8 T u t o r i a l s k i l l s - language a r t s 6 Feb 11 -Feb 15 T u t o r i a l s k i l l s - mathematics 7 Feb 18 -Feb 22 I n t e r p e r s o n a l s k i l l s 8 Feb 25--Feb 29 Audio and video s k i l l s 9 Mar 3 -Mar 7 T u t o r i a l s k i l l s - language a r t s 10 Mar 10--Mar 14 T u t o r i a l s k i l l s - mathematics 11 Mar 17 -Mar 21 SPRING BREAK 12 Mar 24' -Mar 28 I n t e r p e r s o n a l s k i l l s 13 Mar 31 -Apr 4 Cross c u l t u r a l education 14 Apr 7 -Apr 11 T u t o r i a l s k i l l s - language a r t s 15 Apr 14 -Apr 18 T u t o r i a l s k i l l s - mathematics 16 Apr 21 -Apr 25 C h i l d development 17 Apr 28 -May 2 Audio and video s k i l l s 18 May 5 -May 9 T u t o r i a l s k i l l s - language a r t s 19 May 12 -May 16 T u t o r i a l s k i l l s - mathematics 20 May 19 -May 23 S u p e r v i s i o n and classroom management 21 May 26 -May 30 Resource development with c h i l d r e n 22 June : 2 -June ! 6 Program review 23 June : 9 -June : 13 Program summary and c o n c l u s i o n APPENDIX J 248 Needs A s s e s s m e n t S u r v e y ,  D a l l a s I n d e p e n d e n t S c h o o l D i s t r i c t Study 1. In y o u r o p i n i o n a r e t e a c h e r a i d e s a d e q u a t e l y t r a i n e d p r i o r t o employment In the D.I.S.D.? S t r o n g l y Agree S t r o n g l y D i s a g r e e 1 2 3 4 5 2. In y o u r o p i n i o n w i l l t e a c h e r a i d e s b e n e f i t by p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n a t r a i n i n g program d u r i n g S t a f f D e velopment r e l e a s e d time? S t r o n g l y Agree S t r o n g l y D i s a g r e e 1 2 3 4 5 P l e a s e c h e c k t h e a p p r o p r i a t e i t e m s ; 3. What s t u d y a r e a s would you recommend be i n c l u d e d i n a T e a c h e r A i d e T r a i n i n g Program? O p e r a t i o n of s c h o o l o f f i c e m a chines O p e r a t i o n of a u d i o - v i s u a l equipment O r g a n i z i n g and i m p l e m e n t i n g a C r o s s - t u t o r P r o g r a m P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n A c t i v i t i e s Lunchroom S u p e r v i s i o n A s s i s t i n g i n c l e r i c a l t a s k s of m a i n t e n a n c e of h e a l t h r e c o r d s and s c r e e n i n g programs C l a s s r o o m management H a l l management C o n s t r u c t i o n and s u p e r v i s i o n of a r t s and c r a f t s a c t i v i t i e s S c o r i n g t e a c h e r made t e s t s M o n i t o r i n g s m a l l g r o u p s B u l l e t i n b o a r d s c o n s t r u c t i o n M a n u s c r i p t w r i t i n g APPENDIX J 249 Cursive writing Basic communication s k i l l s Typing Office f i l i n g Record keeping Library procedures Bookroom operation Teacher aide role Understanding and working with school children Others ( L i s t other study areas that you would l i k e included in the training program) 1 . 2. 3 . 4. 5. 6 . 7 . 8. Source: Brown et a l . , 1975. 

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