UBC Theses and Dissertations

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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Teacher rationale for compliance or non compliance with curriculum guidelines in the teaching of elementary… Munro, Peter Ronald 1986

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TEACHER RATIONALE FOR COMPLIANCE OR NON COMPLIANCE WITH CURRICULUM GUIDELINES IN THE TEACHING OF ELEMENTARY SCHOOL GYMNASTICS by PETER RONALD MUNRO C e r t . E d . , L o u g h b o r o u g h C o l l e g e , 1973 B.A. i n E d . , W e s t e r n W a s h i n t o n U n i v e r s i t y , 1980 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES ( C e n t r e f o r t h e S t u d y o f C u r r i c u l u m and I n s t r u c t i o n ) We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g t o t h e r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF B R I T I S H COLUMBIA A u g u s t , 1986 9 C£) P e t e r R o n a l d Munro ' In presenting t h i s thesis i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the Library s h a l l make i t f r e e l y available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of t h i s thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. I t i s understood that copying or publication of t h i s thesis for f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my written permission. Department of CvRtaeot-vri exrW Xo«a.TRocrtoi>l The University of B r i t i s h Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 Date f c 7 S 6 ~ Oct - > 5 i i ABSTRACT T h i s study used a q u e s t i o n n a i r e to examine t e a c h e r r a t i o n a l e f o r compliance or non-compliance w i t h c u r r i c u l u m g u i d e l i n e s i n the t e a c h i n g of elementary s c h o o l g y m n a s t i c s . D e s c r i p t i v e data were c o l l e c t e d from t e a c h e r s to e s t a b l i s h : 1. How much time i s g i v e n by primary t e a c h e r s to the t e a c h i n g of gymnastics to t h e i r homeroom c l a s s e s . 2. What f a c t o r s p r i m a r y t e a c h e r s i d e n t i f y as b e i n g i m p o r t a n t d e t e r m i n a n t s i n the amount of time they a l l o c a t e to the t e a c h i n g of g y m n a s t i c s . A two-part q u e s t i o n n a i r e was d e s i g n e d to gather data r e l e v a n t to the two major g o a l s of the st u d y . Twenty one s c h o o l s were chosen at random from one s c h o o l d i s t r i c t , and a l l n i n e elementary s c h o o l s i n a second d i s t r i c t were i n c l u d e d . The study sample comprised 132 p r i m a r y t e a c h e r s ; 74 of these r e t u r n e d the q u e s t i o n n a i r e . The r e s u l t s of the study i n d i c a t e d t h a t the m a j o r i t y of t e a c h e r s o f f e r e d t h e i r s t u d e n t s w e l l below the time a l l o t m e n t a s s i g n e d to gymnastics i n the B r i t i s h Columbia p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n c u r r i c u l u m g u i d e . The data a l s o i n d i c a t e d t h a t t e a c h e r s g e n e r a l l y had c e r t a i n a t t i t u d e s towards the t e a c h i n g of gymnastics which i n c l u d e d the f o l l o w i n g : (a) s t r o n g agreement t h a t s t u d e n t s enjoyed gymnastics l e s s o n s , (b) s t r o n g agreement t h a t gymnastics was v a l u a b l e to c h i l d r e n , (c) enjoyment i n t e a c h i n g g y m n a s t i c s , (d) s t r o n g concern f o r student s a f e t y , (e) concern f o r te a c h e r l i a b i l i t y i n the event of a c c i d e n t s to s t u d e n t s , and ( f ) l i t t l e expectancy t h a t gymnastics be t a u g h t . Other i i i f a c t o r s w h i c h a p p e a r e d t o a c t as d e t e r m i n a n t s i n c l u d e d : ( a ) t h e a d e q u a c y of p r i n t r e s o u r c e s , (b) t h e n a t u r e o f p r e - s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g , ( c ) t e a c h e r s ' s e n s e of c o m p e t e n c e i n t h e t e a c h i n g o f g y m n a s t i c s and, ( d ) t h e a d e q u a c y o f i n - s e r v i c e . T h i s s t u d y c o n c l u d e d t h a t i t was t h e i n t e r a c t i o n o f f a c t o r s t h a t i n f l u e n c e d t i m e a l l o c a t i o n . T h e r e was a s t r o n g i n d i c a t i o n t h a t p r e - s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g was a m a j o r f a c t o r and t h a t i t was compounded by o t h e r f a c t o r s s u c h as l e v e l s o f s u p p o r t s e r v i c e s , t e a c h e r age, and t e a c h e r c o n c e r n s about s a f e t y . I n t u r n , t h e s e f a c t o r s were p o s s i b l y i n t e r a c t i n g to a f f e c t t e a c h e r s ' p e r c e p t i o n s o f c o m p e t e n c e t o i n s t r u c t s t u d e n t s i n g y m n a s t i c s . R e c o m m e n d a t i o n s a r i s i n g f r o m t h e s t u d y i n c l u d e d ( a ) t h a t o p p o r t u n i t i e s be p r o v i d e d f o r i n - s e r v i c e t h a t meets t h e s p e c i f i c n e eds o f t e a c h e r s , ( b ) t h a t t e a c h e r a s s o c i a t e s be a p p o i n t e d t o p r o v i d e c o a c h i n g i n g y m n a s t i c s at a t e a c h e r ' s s c h o o l , ( c ) t h a t p r e - s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g f o r t e a c h e r s i n v o l v e c o m p r e h e n s i v e c o u r s e s i n g y m n a s t i c s , and ( d ) t h a t l e a d e r s h i p be shown by p r i n c i p a l s i n d e v e l o p i n g s c h o o l - w i d e p l a n s f o r p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n t h a t d e f i n e s p e c i f i c t i m e s and a c t i v i t i e s f o r g y m n a s t i c s . F u r t h e r , i t i s recommended t h a t a d d i t i o n a l r e s e a r c h s h o u l d a t t e m p t t o c l a r i f y t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h s p e c i f i c f a c t o r s o u t l i n e d i n t h i s s t u d y i n t e r a c t t o a f f e c t t i m e a l l o c a t i o n f o r g y m n a s t i c s . i v TABLE OF CONTENTS A b s t r a c t i i T a b l e o f C o n t e n t s i v L i s t of T a b l e s v i A c k n o w l e d g e m e n t s x C h a p t e r 1. THE PROBLEM 1.1 I n t r o d u c t i o n . . . 1 1.2 R a t i o n a l e f o r t h e S t u d y 4 1.3 P u r p o s e o f t h e S t u d y 7 1.4 D e f i n i t i o n o f Terms 7 1.5 L i m i t a t i o n s o f t h e S t u d y 8 1.6 S i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e S t u d y 8 2. LITERATURE REVIEW 2 . 1 O v e r v i e w 9 2.2 H i s t o r i c a l P e r s p e c t i v e 9 2.3 The R o l e o f G y m n a s t i c s i n t h e c u r r i c u l u m . . . . 27 2.4 C u r r e n t T r e n d s 33 2.5 E d u c a t i o n a l Change and G y m n a s t i c s 37 2 . 6 Summary 51 3. METHODOLOGY 3.1 I n t r o d u c t i o n 54 3.2 P o p u l a t i o n 54 3.3 Sample 55 3.4 D e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e Q u e s t i o n n a i r e 55 3.5 P r o c e d u r e s 58 3.6 D a t a A n a l y s i s 60 4. RESULTS OF THE STUDY 4 . 1 O v e r v i ew 6 3 4.2 Q u e s t i o n n a i r e R e t u r n R a t e 64 4.3 Time A l l o c a t i o n f o r G y m n a s t i c s 64 4.4 F a c t o r s I n f l u e n c i n g Time A l l o c a t i o n 66 4.5 A d d i t i o n a l F i n d i n g s 102 4.6 Summary . 105 V 5. DISCUSSION OF THE RESULTS 5.1 O v e r v i e w of t h e C h a p t e r 106 5.2 Time A l l o c a t i o n . 106 5.3 D e t e r m i n a n t s o f Time A l l o c a t i o n 112 5.4 A d d i t i o n a l F i n d i n g s 134 5.5 Summary .- 135 6. SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS, AND RECOMMENDATIONS 6 . 1 Summary 13 6 6.2 C o n c l u s i o n s 140 6.3 R e c o m m e n d a t i o n s 146 B i b l i o g r a p h y 150 A p p e n d i c e s A P i l o t Q u e s t i o n n a i r e 157 B C o v e r i n g L e t t e r and F i n a l Q u e s t i o n n a i r e . . . . . . 162 v i L I S T OF TABLES TABLE PAGE 1. Q u e s t i o n n a i r e r e t u r n d i s t r i b u t i o n 64 2. P e r c e n t a g e Time A l l o c a t i o n f o r G y m n a s t i c s I n s t r u c t i o n 65 3. P e r c e n t a g e S c a l e R e s p o n s e t o S t a t e m e n t 1: I e n j o y t e a c h i n g g y m n a s t i c s t o my s t u d e n t s 67 4. P e r c e n t a g e S c a l e R e s p o n s e t o S t a t e m e n t 2: My s t u d e n t s e n j o y p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n g y m n a s t i c s a c t i v i t i e s 67 5. P e r c e n t a g e S c a l e R e s p o n s e t o S t a t e m e n t 3: I o f f e r g y m n a s t i c s as p a r t o f my o v e r a l l p r o g r a m b e c a u s e i t i s e x p e c t e d a t my s c h o o l 68 6. P e r c e n t a g e S c a l e R e s p o n s e t o S t a t e m e n t 4: I do n o t have t h e c o m p e t e n c e t o i n s t r u c t s t u d e n t s i n g y m n a s t i c s 69 7. P e r c e n t a g e S c a l e R e s p o n s e t o S t a t e m e n t 5: I s e e g r e a t v a l u e t o t h e s t u d e n t s i n p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n g y m n a s t i c s - 70 8. P e r c e n t a g e S c a l e R e s p o n s e t o S t a t e m e n t 6: T h e r e i s a d e q u a t e i n - s e r v i c e o f f e r e d f o r g y m n a s t i c s i n my d i s t r i c t 71 9. P e r c e n t a g e S c a l e R e s p o n s e t o S t a t e m e n t 7: T h e r e a r e a d e q u a t e p r i n t r e s o u r c e s f o r g y m n a s t i c s i n s t r u c t i o n i n my s c h o o l 72 10. P e r c e n t a g e S c a l e R e s p o n s e t o S t a t e m e n t 8: The l o c a l community ( p a r e n t s & o t h e r s ) e x p e c t s me t o o f f e r g y m n a s t i c s as p a r t of my o v e r a l l p r o g r a m 73 11. P e r c e n t a g e S c a l e R e s p o n s e t o S t a t e m e n t 9: My c o n c e r n f o r t e a c h e r l i a b i l i t y l i m i t s t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h I o f f e r g y m n a s t i c s i n s t r u c t i o n 74 12. P e r c e n t a g e S c a l e R e s p o n s e t o S t a t e m e n t 10: I c o n s i d e r t h e a b i l i t y t o d e m o n s t r a t e g y m n a s t i c s an e s s e n t i a l r e q u i r e m e n t f o r g y m n a s t i c s i n s t r u c t i o n 75 v i i L I S T OF TABLES ( c o n t ) TABLE PAGE 13. P e r c e n t a g e S c a l e R e s p o n s e t o S t a t e m e n t 11: My c o n c e r n f o r s t u d e n t s a f e t y l i m i t s t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h I o f f e r g y m n a s t i c s i n s t r u c t i o n 76 14. P e r c e n t a g e S c a l e R e s p o n s e t o S t a t e m e n t 12: Our s c h o o l f a c i l i t i e s a r e n o t a d e q u a t e f o r t h e g y m n a s t i c s p r o g r a m I o f f e r my s t u d e n t s . - 77 15. P e r c e n t a g e S c a l e R e s p o n s e t o S t a t e m e n t 13: I w o u l d t e a c h more g y m n a s t i c s i f t h e r e was a t l e a s t one p e r s o n on s t a f f who was q u a l i f i e d t o o f f e r a d v i c e 78 16. P e r c e n t a g e S c a l e R e s p o n s e to S t a t e m e n t 14: The c o m p l e x i t i e s o f o r g a n i z i n g p u p i l s and e q u i p m e n t l i m i t s t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h I o f f e r g y m n a s t i c s i n s t r u c t i o n 79 17. C r o s s - t a b u l a t i o n o f Time A l l o c a t i o n and P e r c e n t a g e S c a l e R e s p o n s e t o S t a t e m e n t 1: I e n j o y t e a c h i n g g y m n a s t i c s t o my s t u d e n t s . - 82 18. C r o s s - t a b u l a t i o n o f Time A l l o c a t i o n and P e r c e n t a g e S c a l e R e s p o n s e t o S t a t e m e n t 2: My s t u d e n t s e n j o y p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n g y m n a s t i c s a c t i v i t i e s 83 19. C r o s s - t a b u l a t i o n o f Time A l l o c a t i o n and P e r c e n t a g e S c a l e R e s p o n s e t o S t a t e m e n t 3: I o f f e r g y m n a s t i c s as p a r t o f my o v e r a l l p r o g r a m b e c a u s e i t i s e x p e c t e d a t my s c h o o l . . . . - 84 20. C r o s s - t a b u l a t i o n o f Time A l l o c a t i o n and P e r c e n t a g e S c a l e R e s p o n s e i n D i s t r i c t A t o S t a t e m e n t 4: I do n o t have t h e c o m p e t e n c e t o i n s t r u c t s t u d e n t s i n g y m n a s t i c s 85 2 1 . C r o s s - t a b u l a t i o n o f Time A l l o c a t i o n and P e r c e n t a g e S c a l e R e s p o n s e i n D i s t r i c t B t o S t a t e m e n t 4: I do n o t have t h e c o m p e t e n c e to i n s t r u c t s t u d e n t s i n g y m n a s t i c s 86 22. C r o s s - t a b u l a t i o n of Time A l l o c a t i o n and P e r c e n t a g e S c a l e R e s p o n s e t o S t a t e m e n t 5: I s e e g r e a t v a l u e t o s t u d e n t s i n p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n g y m n a s t i c s 87 v i i i L I S T OF TABLES ( c o n t ) TABLE PAGE 23. C r o s s - t a b u l a t i o n o f Time A l l o c a t i o n and P e r c e n t a g e S c a l e R e s p o n s e i n D i s t r i c t A t o S t a t e m e n t 6 :There i s a d e q u a t e i n - s e r v i c e o f f e r e d f o r g y m n a s t i c s i n my d i s t r i c t 88 24. C r o s s - t a b u l a t i o n o f Time A l l o c a t i o n and P e r c e n t a g e S c a l e R e s p o n s e i n D i s t r i c t B t o S t a t e m e n t 6:There i s a d e q u a t e i n - s e r v i c e o f f e r e d f o r g y m n a s t i c s i n my d i s t r i c t 89 25. C r o s s - t a b u l a t i o n o f Time A l l o c a t i o n and P e r c e n t a g e S c a l e R e s p o n s e t o S t a t e m e n t 7: T h e r e a r e a d e q u a t e p r i n t r e s o u r c e s f o r g y m n a s t i c s i n s t r u c t i o n i n my s c h o o l 90 26. C r o s s - t a b u l a t i o n o f Time A l l o c a t i o n and P e r c e n t a g e S c a l e R e s p o n s e t o S t a t e m e n t 8: The l o c a l community ( p a r e n t s & o t h e r s ) e x p e c t s me t o o f f e r g y m n a s t i c s as p a r t o f my o v e r a l l p r o g r a m 91 27. C r o s s - t a b u l a t i o n o f Time A l l o c a t i o n and P e r c e n t a g e S c a l e R e s p o n s e i n D i s t r i c t A t o S t a t e m e n t 9: My c o n c e r n f o r t e a c h e r l i a b i l i t y l i m i t s t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h I o f f e r g y m n a s t i c s i n s t r u c t i o n . . 92 28. C r o s s - t a b u l a t i o n o f Time A l l o c a t i o n and P e r c e n t a g e S c a l e R e s p o n s e i n D i s t r i c t B t o S t a t e m e n t 9: My c o n c e r n f o r t e a c h e r l i a b i l i t y l i m i t s t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h I o f f e r g y m n a s t i c s i n s t r u c t i o n 93 29. C r o s s - t a b u l a t i o n o f Time A l l o c a t i o n and P e r c e n t a g e S c a l e R e s p o n s e t o S t a t e m e n t 10: I c o n s i d e r t h e p e r s o n a l a b i l i t y t o d e m o n s t r a t e g y m n a s t i c s an e s s e n t i a l r e q u i r e m e n t f o r g y m n a s t i c s i n s t r u c t i o n 94 30. C r o s s - t a b u l a t i o n o f Time A l l o c a t i o n and P e r c e n t a g e S c a l e R e s p o n s e t o S t a t e m e n t 11: My c o n c e r n f o r s t u d e n t s a f e t y l i m i t s t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h I o f f e r g y m n a s t i c s i n s t r u c t i o n 95 i x L I S T OF TABLES ( c o n t ) TABLE PAGE 3 1 . C r o s s - t a b u l a t i o n of Time A l l o c a t i o n and P e r c e n t a g e S c a l e R e s p o n s e t o S t a t e m e n t 12: Our s c h o o l f a c i l i t i e s a r e n o t a d e q u a t e f o r t h e g y m n a s t i c s p r o g r a m I o f f e r my s t u d e n t s 96 32. C r o s s - t a b u l a t i on of Time A l l o c a t i o n and P e r c e n t a g e S c a l e R e s p o n s e i n D i s t r i c t A t o S t a t e m e n t 13: I w o u l d t e a c h more g y m n a s t i c s i f t h e r e was at l e a s t one p e r s o n on s t a f f who was q u a l i f i e d t o o f f e r a d v i c e 97 33. C r o s s - t a b u l a t i o n of Time A l l o c a t i o n and P e r c e n t a g e S c a l e R e s p o n s e i n D i s t r i c t B t o S t a t e m e n t 13: I w o u l d t e a c h more g y m n a s t i c s i f t h e r e was a t l e a s t one p e r s o n on s t a f f who was q u a l i f i e d t o o f f e r a d v i c e 98 34. C r o s s - t a b u l a t i o n of Time A l l o c a t i o n and P e r c e n t a g e S c a l e R e s p o n s e t o S t a t e m e n t 14: The c o m p l e x i t i e s o f o r g a n i z i n g p u p i l s & e q u i p m e n t l i m i t s t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h I o f f e r g y m n a s t i c s i n s t r u c t i o n 99 35. C r o s s - t a b u l a t i o n o f Time A l l o c a t i o n and P e r c e n t a g e Age D i s t r i b u t i o n 100 36. C r o s s - t a b u l a t i o n o f Time A l l o c a t i o n and P r e - S e r v i c e t r a i n i n g 101 37. C r o s s - t a b u l a t i o n o f Time A l l o c a t i o n and G r a d e L e v e l T a u g h t 102 38. F r e q u e n c y o f p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n c l a s s e s 103 39. F r e q u e n c y o f T o t a l M i n u t e s p e r week f o r P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n 103 X ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS A s p e c i a l t h a n k s t o my w i f e and son f o r t h e i r e n c o u r a g e m e n t and s u p p o r t d u r i n g t h e c o u r s e o f t h i s s t u d y . S p e c i a l t h a n k s must be a l s o be a c c o r d e d t o D r . P e t e r Moody f o r h i s t i m e , p a t i e n c e , and s u p p o r t t h r o u g h e a c h s t a g e o f t h e s t u d y . I w o u l d a l s o l i k e t o t h a n k D r . M o i r a L u k e and Dr. H a r o l d R a t z l a f f f o r t h e i r i n v a l u a b l e h e l p w i t h t h e s t u d y . F i n a l l y , my t h a n k s t o t h o s e who t o o k t h e t i m e t o r e s p o n d t o t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e , f o r w i t h o u t t h e i r h e l p , t h i s s t u d y c o u l d n o t ha v e been c o m p l e t e d . 1 CHAPTER 1 The P r o b l e m 1 . 1 I n t r o d u c t i o n P h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n has been p a r t o f o u r g e n e r a l p u b l i c s c h o o l e d u c a t i o n f o r more t h a n one h u n d r e d y e a r s . D u r i n g t h i s t i m e many ch a n g e s h a v e t a k e n p l a c e i n t h e p h i l o s o p h y , t e a c h i n g m e t h o d o l o g y , and c o n t e n t o f t h e s u b j e c t . One e l e m e n t o f i n s t r u c t i o n t h a t has s u r v i v e d t h e c h a n g e s i n d i r e c t i o n i s t h e r o l e o f t h e t e a c h e r . Today i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l s i t i s most t y p i c a l t h a t t h e t a s k o f i n s t r u c t i o n i n p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n i s p l a c e d i n t h e hands o f t h e c l a s s r o o m g e n e r a l i s t t e a c h e r (Moody, 1 9 8 4 ) . A l t h o u g h some i n d i v i d u a l s c h o o l s o r e v e n w h o l e d i s t r i c t s h ave s e e n f i t t o h i r e f u l l - t i m e p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n s p e c i a l i s t s , t h e most r e c e n t s u r v e y on p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ( P r o v i n c i a l L e a r n i n g A s s e s s m e n t P r o g r a m ) showed t h a t " t h e m a j o r i t y of e l e m e n t a r y t e a c h e r s who a r e now t e a c h i n g p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n have l i t t l e o r no f o r m a l t r a i n i n g i n t h i s s u b j e c t a r e a " ( C a r r e , 1979 p. 2 ) . 2 I n s p i t e of t h i s l a c k o f t r a i n i n g , t h e g e n e r a l i s t t e a c h e r i s e x p e c t e d t o f u l f i l l what Moody ( 1 9 8 4 ) has l a b e l l e d a " c u r r i c u l u m mandate". He a r g u e s t h a t t e a c h e r s a r e n o t s u p p o s e d t o be f r e e t o t e a c h what t h e y w i s h , b u t a r e e x p e c t e d t o f o l l o w a d m i n i s t r a t i v e and c u r r i c u l a r p r e s c r i p t i o n s c l e a r l y o u t l i n e d i n d o c u m e n t s p r o d u c e d by t h e M i n i s t r y of E d u c a t i o n i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . C u r r i c u l u m g u i d e l i n e s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a a d v o c a t e t h a t e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n p r o g r a m s s h o u l d i n c l u d e a b a l a n c e of w e l l d e v e l o p e d l e s s o n s i n a t l e a s t t h e a r e a s of d a n c e , games, and g y m n a s t i c s ( D e p a r t m e n t of E d u c a t i o n , 1 9 7 1 ) . A r e v i s e d e d i t i o n of t h e g u i d e i n 1975 f u r t h e r c o n f i r m e d t h e s e d i r e c t i o n s and, s i n c e t h e n , l o c a l l y d e v e l o p e d g u i d e s h a v e been p r o d u c e d by many d i s t r i c t s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ( e . g . , V a n c o u v e r , N anaimo, and C o q u i t l a m ) r e f l e c t i n g t h e s e p r o v i n c i a l g u i d e l i n e s . H owever, as F u l l a n ( 1 9 8 2 ) has p o i n t e d o u t , t h e e x i s t e n c e of c u r r i c u l u m g u i d e l i n e s does n o t n e c e s s a r i l y mean t h e y a r e a c t u a l l y b e i n g f o l l o w e d . Many t e a c h e r s , he s u g g e s t s , do n o t a c t u a l l y use them a t a l l . Two s t u d i e s u n d e r t a k e n i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a p r o v i d e f u r t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n c o n c e r n i n g t h e s t a t u s of c u r r i c u l u m g u i d e s . C o l e s ( 1 9 8 1 ) r e p o r t e d t h a t t h e l a n g u a g e a r t s c u r r i c u l u m g u i d e was u s e d o n l y o c c a s i o n a l l y by t h e m a j o r i t y o f t e a c h e r s s u r v e y e d . J 3 R o b i t a i l l e ( 1 9 8 0 ) t a k e s t h i s p o i n t e ven f u r t h e r c o n c l u d i n g t h a t a c o n s i d e r a b l e gap e x i s t e d b e t ween t h e i n t e n d e d c u r r i c u l u m , as d e s c r i b e d i n c u r r i c u l u m g u i d e s , and t h e i m p l e m e n t e d c u r r i c u l u m . The 1979 B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a A s s e s s m e n t of P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n f o u n d t h a t n e a r l y a l l t h e e l e m e n t a r y t e a c h e r s s u r v e y e d had some f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h t h e 1975 E l e m e n t a r y P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n g u i d e ( C a r r e , 1 9 8 0 ) . I n s p i t e of t h i s f a m i l i a r i t y , i t a p p e a r e d t h a t t h e m a j o r i t y of t e a c h e r s were n o t f o l l o w i n g i t s s u g g e s t e d g u i d e l i n e s , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n t h e m a t t e r o f g y m n a s t i c s i n s t r u c t i o n . T h a t s u r v e y ' s mandate was e s s e n t i a l l y t o c a r r y o u t an a s s e s s m e n t o f p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , t h u s t h e r e a s o n s why t h e m a j o r i t y o f t e a c h e r s were n o t f o l l o w i n g c u r r i c u l u m g u i d e l i n e s i n t h e t e a c h i n g o f g y m n a s t i c s were not d e t e r m i n e d . A p r e l i m i n a r y e x p l o r a t o r y i n v e s t i g a t i o n c o n d u c t e d i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h t h i s s t u d y s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h e s i t u a t i o n c o n c e r n i n g g y m n a s t i c s i n s t r u c t i o n i n 1979 p r e v a i l s t o d a y i n many e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l s . T h i s same i n v e s t i g a t i o n a l s o i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e r e a s o n s why t e a c h e r s a r e s t i l l c h o o s i n g t o i g n o r e c u r r i c u l u m g u i d e l i n e s i n t h e t e a c h i n g o f e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l g y m n a s t i c s w a r r a n t e d f u r t h e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n . T h u s , i t was r e a s o n e d t h a t a s u r v e y o f e l e m e n t a r y t e a c h e r s w o u l d p r o v i d e s u b s t a n t i v e e v i d e n c e as t o t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h t e a c h e r s a r e c u r r e n t l y f o l l o w i n g g u i d e l i n e s i n 4 t h e t e a c h i n g o f e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l g y m n a s t i c s . I n a d d i t i o n , and p e r h a p s o f g r e a t e r i m p o r t a n c e t o a l l e d u c a t o r s , t h e s u r v e y c o u l d i d e n t i f y what f a c t o r s i n f l u e n c e t e a c h e r s i n t h e a l l o c a t i o n of a c e r t a i n p r o p o r t i o n o f t h e i r p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n p r o g r a m t i m e t o g y m n a s t i c s i n s t r u c t i o n . 1.2 R a t i o n a l e C u r r i c u l u m g u i d e l i n e s p r o v i d e o n l y one s o u r c e o f c u r r i c u l u m m a t e r i a l s t h a t t e a c h e r s u s e . M a t e r i a l s t h a t have been d e v e l o p e d by l o c a l d i s t r i c t s a l s o p r o v i d e a s o u r c e t h a t many t e a c h e r s use t o d e v e l o p a " c u r r i c u l u m i n u s e " ( F u l l a n , 1 9 8 2 ) . P h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n c u r r i c u l u m g u i d e s s u c h as t h o s e p r e p a r e d by t h e V a n c o u v e r S c h o o l B o a r d ( 1 9 8 3 ) , A c t i o n Nanaimo ( 1 9 7 8 ) , and t h e C a l g a r y B o a r d o f E d u c a t i o n ( 1 9 8 0 ) c o n t a i n many i d e a s , l e s s o n p l a n s , and s k i l l p r o g r e s s i o n s i n v a r i o u s a c t i v i t y a r e a s . H owever, t h e s e g u i d e s a l l c o n c u r w i t h p r o v i n c i a l g u i d e l i n e s and a d v o c a t e t h a t g y m n a s t i c s s h o u l d r e c e i v e 25-30 p e r c e n t o f t h e t i m e a l l o t t e d t o an e l e m e n t a r y p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n p r o g r a m ( t h e C a l g a r y g u i d e has been s a n c t i o n e d by t h e C a n a d i a n A s s o c i a t i o n f o r H e a l t h , P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n and R e c r e a t i o n ) . 5 Thus i f t h e g y m n a s t i c s t i m e a l l o t m e n t i n p r o v i n c i a l and l o c a l p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n g u i d e s i s c o n s i s t e n t , t h e q u e s t i o n a r i s e s : To what e x t e n t a r e t e a c h e r s f o l l o w i n g t h e s e s a n c t i o n e d g u i d e l i n e s ? D o c h e r t y and M o r t o n ( 1 9 8 2 ) have s u g g e s t e d t h a t g y m n a s t i c s i s among t h e a r e a s l e a s t t a u g h t i n many p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n p r o g r a m s i n e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l s . Two s t u d i e s of i m p o r t a n c e a p p e a r t o s u b s t a n t i a t e t h i s c l a i m . Thompson ( 1 9 7 9 ) f o u n d t h a t 6.6 p e r c e n t of e l e m e n t a r y t e a c h e r s s u r v e y e d i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a d i d n o t t e a c h g y m n a s t i c s , and 52.3 p e r c e n t t a u g h t i t f o r o n l y 20 p e r c e n t o r l e s s o f t h e i r p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n p r o g r a m t i m e . A r e c e n t s u r v e y ( C a r r e , 1980) of o v e r 1000 e l e m e n t a r y t e a c h e r s t h r o u g h o u t B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , i n d i c a t e d t h a t a p p r o x i m a t e l y 40 p e r c e n t o f p r i m a r y t e a c h e r s s u r v e y e d a l l o c a t e d l e s s t h a n 10 p e r c e n t o f t h e i r a c t i v i t y t i m e t o g y m n a s t i c s i n s t r u c t i o n . Of t h e i n t e r m e d i a t e t e a c h e r s s u r v e y e d , a p p r o x i m a t e l y 50 p e r c e n t f e l l i n t o t h e same c a t e g o r y as t h e i r p r i m a r y c o u n t e r p a r t s . The above e v i d e n c e s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e t i m e a l l o t m e n t f o r g y m n a s t i c s a d v o c a t e d by c u r r i c u l u m g u i d e l i n e s i s n o t b e i n g f o l l o w e d . What t h e s e s t u d i e s do n o t o f f e r , h o w e v e r , a r e s u g g e s t i o n s as t o f a c t o r s t h a t i n f l u e n c e t e a c h e r s i n t h e i r d e c i s i o n s c o n c e r n i n g 6 t i m e a l l o c a t i o n . T h i s s t a t e m e n t does n o t i m p l y c r i t i c i s m , b u t s e r v e s more t o i n d i c a t e t h a t e d u c a t i o n a l change i s a c o m p l e x i s s u e . F u l l a n ( 1 9 8 2) c a p t u r e s t h e n o t i o n o f t h i s c o m p l e x i t y when he s u g g e s t s t h a t " t h e i d e a of i m p l e m e n t a t i o n and of t h e f a c t o r s a f f e c t i n g a c t u a l u s e seems s i m p l e enough, but t h e c o n c e p t has p r o v e n t o be e x c e e d i n g l y e l u s i v e " (p. 5 5 ) . T h i s c a u t i o n n o t w i t h s t a n d i n g , he s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e r e has been enough e v i d e n c e p r o d u c e d o v e r t h e l a s t d e c a d e t o be f a i r l y c o n f i d e n t a b o u t what f a c t o r s h a v e t h e most i n f l u e n c e on e d u c a t i o n a l c h a n g e . He has p u l l e d t o g e t h e r many of t h e common e l e m e n t s f o u n d i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e and p u t them i n t o a f r a m e w o r k f o r e d u c a t i o n a l c h a n g e . T h i s f r a m e w o r k i d e n t i f i e s f i f t e e n f a c t o r s t h a t i n t e r a c t w i t h e a c h o t h e r t o i n f l u e n c e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n . I n s p i t e o f t h e i n t e r e s t shown by F u l l a n and o t h e r s i n t h e f i e l d o f e d u c a t i o n a l c h a n g e , few s t u d i e s h a v e a d d r e s s e d how i t a f f e c t s t h e s p e c i f i c c u r r i c u l u m a r e a o f g y m n a s t i c s . C o n s e q u e n t l y t h e s i t u a t i o n c o n c e r n i n g g y m n a s t i c s i n s t r u c t i o n at t h e e l e m e n t a r y l e v e l r e m a i n s u n c l e a r . I n p a r t i c u l a r , l i t t l e i s known a b o u t why t e a c h e r s c h o o s e t o c o m p l y w i t h , or i g n o r e t h e M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n c u r r i c u l u m g u i d e l i n e s f o r g y m n a s t i c s . 7 1.3 P u r p o s e o f t h e s t u d y The p u r p o s e o f t h i s s t u d y was t o examine t e a c h e r r a t i o n a l e f o r c o m p l i a n c e o r n o n - c o m p l i a n c e w i t h c u r r i c u l u m g u i d e l i n e s i n t h e t e a c h i n g o f e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l g y m n a s t i c s . The m a j o r g o a l s o f t h i s s t u d y were t o e s t a b l i s h : 1. How much t i m e i s g i v e n by p r i m a r y t e a c h e r s t o t h e t e a c h i n g o f g y m n a s t i c s t o t h e i r homeroom c l a s s e s . 2. What f a c t o r s p r i m a r y t e a c h e r s i d e n t i f y as b e i n g i m p o r t a n t d e t e r m i n a n t s i n t h e p r o p o r t i o n o f t i m e t h e y a l l o c a t e t o g y m n a s t i c s i n s t r u c t i o n . 1.4 D e f i n i t i o n o f t e r m s G y m n a s t i c s . F o r t h e p u r p o s e of t h i s s t u d y , g y m n a s t i c s i s d e f i n e d as t h e m a n e u v e r i n g o f t h e body e f f e c t i v e l y a g a i n s t t h e f o r c e o f g r a v i t y e i t h e r i n d i v i d u a l l y , w i t h p a r t n e r s , o r i n g r o u p s b o t h on t h e f l o o r and on, or w i t h , a w i d e v a r i e t y o f b o t h s m a l l and l a r g e a p p a r a t u s . P r i m a r y t e a c h e r . A t e a c h e r o f G r a d e s One, Two, or T h r e e . 8 Homeroom C l a s s . The c l a s s t o w h i c h t h e t e a c h e r has been a s s i g n e d f o r i n s t r u c t i o n a l p u r p o s e s , i n c l u d i n g i n s t r u c t i o n i n p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n and, t h e r e f o r e , gymnas t i c s . 1.5 L i m i t a t i o n s o f t h e S t u d y 1. The v a l i d i t y of t h e r e s u l t s of t h i s s t u d y a r e l i m i t e d t o t h e p o p u l a t i o n u s e d i n t h e s t u d y . 2. The u s e of a q u e s t i o n n a i r e t o g a t h e r d a t a has c e r t a i n l i m i t a t i o n s and t h e s e w i l l be d i s c u s s e d i n f u r t h e r c h a p t e r s . 1.6 S i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e S t u d y 1. The k n o w l e d g e g a i n e d f r o m t h i s and s i m i l a r s t u d i e s w i l l be of a s s i s t a n c e t o t h o s e c h a r g e d w i t h d e v e l o p i n g and p r e s e n t i n g p r e - and i n - s e r v i c e p r o g r a m s f o r t e a c h e r s whose r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i t i s t o t e a c h g y m n a s t i c s . 2. The f i n d i n g s o f t h i s s t u d y w i l l f u r t h e r t h e k n o w l e d g e of c u r r i c u l u m i m p l e m e n t a t i o n i n g y m n a s t i c s i n s t r u c t i o n . 3. The c a u t i o u s g e n e r a l i z a t i o n o f t h e f i n d i n g s of t h i s s t u d y may a l s o have s i g n i f i c a n c e n o t o n l y i n p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n , b u t o t h e r a r e a s o f t h e c u r r i c u l u m . 9 CHAPTER 2 R e v i e w of t h e L i t e r a t u r e 2. 1 O v e r v i e w C o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e m a j o r e m p h a s i s of t h i s s t u d y , t h i s r e v i e w o f t h e l i t e r a t u r e w i l l have as i t s f o c i t h e a r e a s o f g y m n a s t i c s and of e d u c a t i o n a l change as i t r e l a t e s t o t h e t e a c h i n g o f g y m n a s t i c s . P a r t i c u l a r a t t e n t i o n i n t h i s r e v i e w w i l l be g i v e n t o t h e r o l e o f t h e t e a c h e r and i n o r d e r t o a d d r e s s t h i s p u r p o s e , t h i s r e v i e w i s d i v i d e d i n t o f i v e p a r t s . S e c t i o n 2.2 w i l l e x a m i n e g y m n a s t i c s and g y m n a s t i c s i n s t r u c t i o n f r o m an h i s t o r i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e . S e c t i o n 2.3 w i l l l o o k a t t h e r o l e o f g y m n a s t i c s i n t h e s c h o o l c o n t e x t . S e c t i o n 2.4 l o o k s a t t h e emergence of c u r r e n t t r e n d s i n g y m n a s t i c s i n s t r u c t i o n . F a c t o r s t h a t i n f l u e n c e o r h i n d e r t e a c h e r s i n t h e i r d e c i s i o n s c o n c e r n i n g t h e t e a c h i n g of g y m n a s t i c s a r e p r e s e n t e d i n s e c t i o n 2.5. F i n a l l y , s e c t i o n 2.6 p r o v i d e s a b r i e f summary of t h e c h a p t e r . 2 . 2 H i s t o r i c a l P e r s p e c t i v e The b e g i n n i n g s o f g y m n a s t i c s a r e somewhat 10 o b s c u r e , a l t h o u g h a n c i e n t r e c o r d s a p p e a r t o show t h a t g y m n a s t i c s - r e l a t e d a c t i v i t i e s w e r e b e i n g p r a c t i s e d by t h e C h i n e s e as l o n g ago as 2600 B.C. ( L o k e n & W i l l o u g h b y , 1 9 5 9 ) . H o w e v e r , i f g y m n a s t i c s can be s a i d t o have had a b e g i n n i n g , t h e n we must jump a c o u p l e of m i l l e n n i a t o a b o u t 776 B.C. and f o c u s a t t e n t i o n upon a n c i e n t G r e e c e . The word ' G y m n a s t i c s ' i s d e r i v e d f r o m t h e G r e e k w o r d Gymnos m e a n i n g nude, w h i c h r e f l e c t e d t h e G r e e k p r a c t i s e o f p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n e x e r c i s e s w h i l e u n c l o t h e d . Thus t h e l i t e r a l d e f i n i t i o n o f g y m n a s t i c s i s t h e 'naked a r t ' ( T a t l o w , 1 9 7 8 ) . The e x e r c i s e s t h e G r e e k s named ' g y m n a s t i c s 1 c o n s i s t e d o f r u n n i n g , j u m p i n g , t h r o w i n g t h e d i s c u s and j a v e l i n , b o x i n g , and w r e s t l i n g and w e re o f t e n p e r f o r m e d t o t h e a c c o m p a n i m e n t of m u s i c and song (Brown & Sommer, 1 9 6 9 ) . The Romans a d o p t e d f r o m t h e G r e e k s p h a s e s of g y m n a s t i c s t h e y b e l i e v e d t o have m i l i t a r y v a l u e , u s i n g t h e wooden h o r s e w h i c h t h e y mounted and d i s m o u n t e d ( T a t l o w , 1 9 7 8 ) . However when t h e Roman e m p i r e f i n a l l y d e c l i n e d a b o u t 500 A.D., so d i d g y m n a s t i c s , and t h e s u c c e e d i n g t h o u s a n d y e a r s w i t n e s s e d a t o t a l a b s e n c e of f o r m a l i z e d g y m n a s t i c s w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n of a c r o b a t i c and c i r c u s t y p e a c t i v i t i e s (Brown & W a r d e l l , 1 9 8 0 ) . The r e v i v a l of g y m n a s t i c s o c c u r r e d i n E u r o p e i n t h e e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y , p r o v i d i n g a b a s i s f o r what i s 11 now most commonly r e f e r r e d t o as O l y m p i c or a r t i s t i c g y m n a s t i c s . Munrow ( 1 9 6 3 ) has s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h i s r e v i v a l began w i t h t h e work of J.C. G u t s Muths who f o r m e d t h e l i n k b e t w e e n c l a s s i c a l and modern g y m n a s t i c s . Munrow s t a t e s t h a t t h e g r e a t c o n t r i b u t i o n s G u t s M u t h s made were "1) An e a r l y c l a s s i f i c a t i o n on a n a t o m i c a l l i n e s w h i c h l e d t o t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f e x e r c i s e s ' d e s i g n e d t o p r o d u c e p a r t i c u l a r e f f e c t s on t h e body'. 2) An e a r l y d e v e l o p m e n t o f a p p a r a t u s t o make p o s s i b l e t h e s y s t e m a t i c p r a c t i c e of s w i n g i n g , c l i m b i n g and b a l a n c i n g s k i l l s " ( p . 9 ) . I t was t h i s work by G u t s Muths t h a t was s u b s e q u e n t l y d e v e l o p e d i n t h e e a r l y 1800's a l o n g two i n d e p e n d e n t l i n e s : F r i e d r i c h J a h n , a German, d e v e l o p e d h i s a p p a r a t u s a c t i v i t i e s , and P e r L i n g , a Swede, d e v e l o p e d h i s c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s y s t e m of a c t i v i t i e s . F r i e d r i c h J a h n c o n c e i v e d t h e i d e a of c o m b i n i n g g y m n a s t i c s t r a i n i n g w i t h a r o u s i n g p a t r i o t i c f e r v o u r . I t was J a h n who i n v e n t e d s e v e r a l p i e c e s of e q u i p m e n t , among them t h e h o r i z o n t a l b a r , p a r a l l e l b a r s , s i d e h o r s e , and v a u l t i n g b u c k . E x e r c i s e s t h a t r e q u i r e d c o u r a g e and d a r i n g w e r e i n v e n t e d t o go a l o n g w i t h t h e s e p i e c e s o f e q u i p m e n t . J a h n ' s p u r p o s e was to d e v e l o p f i t , a g g r e s s i v e p a t r i o t s , and t h u s he f o r m e d t h e T u r n v e r e i n , a p a t r i o t i c c l u b of g y m n a s t i c s o r i e n t e d Germans who e x e r c i s e d f o r p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s . 12 When t h e s e c l u b s moved i n d o o r s , so d i d t h e e q u i p m e n t , r e s u l t i n g i n a d a p t a t i o n and s o p h i s t i c a t i o n o f t h e c r u d e e q u i p m e n t and t h e i n v e n t i o n o f more and more e x e r c i s e s o r s t u n t s ( B rown & W a r d e l l , 1 9 8 0 ) . A l s o i n t h e e a r l y 1 8 0 0 ' s , P e r L i n g was d e v e l o p i n g S w e d i s h g y m n a s t i c s , and was t h e f i r s t t o a p p r e c i a t e t h e c o r r e c t i v e v a l u e of g y m n a s t i c s ( L o k e n & W i l l o u g h b y , 1 9 5 9 ) . H i s p h i l o s o p h y was g r o u p i n s t r u c t i o n a t a word o f command, p r e f e r r i n g f r e e s t a n d i n g e x e r c i s e s t h a t w e r e h e l d u n t i l a n o t h e r p o s i t i o n was o r d e r e d . Munrow ( 1 9 6 3 ) d i f f e r e n t i a t e s b e t w e e n t h e two by c l a s s i f y i n g L i n g g y m n a s t i c s as a " s y s t e m " and J a h n g y m n a s t i c s as a " s p o r t " . The A m e r i c a n s , he s a y s , h a v e p r e f e r r e d t o c a l l t h e s p o r t g y m n a s t i c s , and t h e s y s t e m c a l i s t h e n i c s . He l i s t s t h e e s s e n t i a l f e a t u r e s o f t h e two s y s t e m s : L i n g and S w e d i s h G y m n a s t i c s 1. L i n g s t u d i e d anatomy and p h y s i o l o g y and u r g e d s t r o n g l y t h a t t h e o r y and p r a c t i c e s h o u l d go hand i n ha n d . 2. He d e v e l o p e d f r e e - s t a n d i n g e x e r c i s e s i n w h i c h no e x t e r n a l a p p a r a t u s o r i m p l e m e n t s were u s e d and i n w h i c h , t h e r e f o r e , t h e e f f e c t s o f t h e movements on t h e body were t h e o n l y c o n s i d e r a t i o n . 3. He e s t a b l i s h e d a t r a i n i n g i n s t i t u t e w h i c h was c o n c e r n e d w i t h c h i l d r e n and e d u c a t i o n a l work f r o m t h e b e g i n n i n g . 4. R e m e d i a l o r m e d i c a l g y m n a s t i c s f i g u r e d p r o m i n e n t l y i n h i s work. 13 5. I n Sweden t h e e x e r c i s e s and t h e e s t i m a t e d needs o f t h e body d e t e r m i n e d t h e d e v e l o p m e n t s o f t h e a p p a r a t u s . 6. A c l a s s i f i c a t i o n was i n i t i a t e d by L i n g and m e r e l y e l a b o r a t e d by h i s s o n , by B r a n t i n g , and by o t h e r s . H i s s o n , H j a l m a r L i n g , was m a i n l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e e d u c a t i o n a l g y m n a s t i c t a b l e , o r d a y ' s o r d e r , w h i c h c r y s t a l l i z e d S w e d i s h g y m n a s t i c t h o u g h t and p r a c t i c e f o r many y e a r s . 7. - L i n g h i m s e l f was made a member of t h e A s s o c i a t i o n o f S w e d i s h D o c t o r s , and t h e a c c e p t a n c e o f h i s work i n o t h e r c o u n t r i e s c a n be a t t r i b u t e d l a r g e l y t o m e d i c a l i n t e r e s t . T h e s e f a c t s c a n be c o n t r a s t e d w i t h e a r l y d e v e l o p m e n t s i n Germany as f o l l o w s : J a h n and German G y m n a s t i c s 1. J a h n had no c o n n e c t i o n w i t h t h e m e d i c a l p r o f e s s i o n , n o r d i d he i d e n t i f y h i m s e l f w i t h p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n on a f u l l - t i m e p r o f e s s i o n a l b a s i s . 2. He c a l l e d g y m n a s t i c s " T u r n e n " , s e e k i n g a work [ s i c ] of German o r i g i n and s e l e c t i n g one w h i c h meant a j o u s t o r t o u r n e y . 3. The e x e r c i s e s on German a p p a r a t u s were d i c t a t e d by t h e a p p a r a t u s . The gym n a s t s made up t h e i r own e x e r c i s e s on a t r i a l - a n d - e r r o r b a s i s , and t h e n d i s p l a y e d them f o r o t h e r s t o t r y ; f r o m t h e s t a r t t h e e x e r c i s e s were m i l d l y c o m p e t i t i v e . 4. J a h n s t a r t e d w i t h s c h o o l b o y s , but t h e movement r a p i d l y grew i n t o a young a d u l t movement. I t was i n c l u b s and u n i v e r s i t i e s , n o t i n s c h o o l s , t h a t i t s e a r l y g r o w t h was m a n i f e s t e d . 5. From i t s m i l d l y c o m p e t i t i v e b e g i n n i n g , i n f l u e n c e d no d o u b t by t h e f a c t t h a t t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s were a d u l t s , T u r n e n soon grew i n t o a c o m p e t i t i v e s p o r t w h i c h has been r e p r e s e n t e d a t n a t i o n a l and i n t e r n a t i o n a l l e v e l e v e r s i n c e . ( P . 12.) 14 One must n o t be l e f t w i t h t h e i m p r e s s i o n t h a t t h e s e n a t i o n a l g y m n a s t i c f o r m s were t h e o n l y ones t h a t w e r e b e i n g d e v e l o p e d d u r i n g t h e 1 8 0 0 ' s . P h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n p l a y e d an i m p o r t a n t r o l e i n o t h e r E u r o p e a n c o u n t r i e s r e s u l t i n g i n g y m n a s t i c s s y s t e m s of d i f f e r e n t t y p e s e v o l v i n g i n Denmark, C z e c h o s l o v a k i a , and F r a n c e . What makes t h e work o f J a h n and L i n g s t a n d a p a r t , h o w e v e r , i s t h e t r e m e n d o u s i n f l u e n c e t h e y had i n c o u n t r i e s o t h e r t h a n t h e i r own. D auer & P a n g r a z i ( 1 9 8 3 ) have s t a t e d t h a t t h e i n f l u e n c e of b o t h of t h e s e s y s t e m s was f e l t i n A m e r i c a t o w a r d s t h e end of t h e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y due t o t h e i n f l u x o f German & S w e d i s h i m m i g r a n t s t o t h e c o u n t r y . The e x p o n e n t s o f b o t h s y s t e m s b a t t l e d b i t t e r l y o v e r t h e i r p a r t i c u l a r m e t h o d s , r e s u l t i n g i n A m e r i c a n s c h o o l s a d o p t i n g an e c l e c t i c p o s i t i o n o f c o m p r o m i s e b e t w e e n t h e two s y s t e m s (Brown & Sommer, 1 9 6 9 ) . The I n t e r n a t i o n a l F e d e r a t i o n o f G y m n a s t i c s managed t o b r i n g t h e two s y s t e m s t o g e t h e r i n 1920, however T a t l o w ( 1 9 7 8 ) s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e r e i s s t i l l a c l a s h of aims b e t w e e n t h e two t h a t e x i s t s to t h i s day. A t t h e t u r n of t h e t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y i n E n g l a n d , t h e p e r c e i v e d v a l u e o f S w e d i s h g y m n a s t i c s i n d u c e d t h e B r i t i s h army and n a v y t o o f f i c i a l l y a d o p t i t f o r use i n t h e i r t r a i n i n g p r o g r a m s . I n 1904, t h e E n g l i s h S c h o o l B o a r d p u b l i s h e d "A S y l l a b u s o f P h y s i c a l E x e r c i s e s f o r Use i n P u b l i c E l e m e n t a r y S c h o o l s " t h a t 15 was b a s e d b r o a d l y on t h e S w e d i s h s y s t e m of p h y s i c a l e x e r c i s e s " (Brown & Sommer, 1 9 6 9 ) . The s y l l a b u s e m p h a s i z e d t h a t e x e r c i s e s s h o u l d be t a u g h t by f o r m a l a r m y - t y p e d r i l l i n s t r u c t i o n . Hence i t was n o t s u r p r i s i n g d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d t o o b s e r v e many of t h e l e s s o n s b e i n g t a u g h t by f o r m e r Army p e r s o n n e l ( W h i t e h e a d & H e n d r y 1 9 7 6 ) . M c i n t o s h ( 1 9 5 2 ) has p o i n t e d o u t t h a t p u b l i c e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l s i n B r i t a i n w e r e d i r e c t l y e n c o u r a g e d to employ i n s t r u c t o r s who had been t r a i n e d i n t h e Army G y m n a s t i c C o u r s e . T h e s e i n s t r u c t o r s g a ve t e a c h i n g an e m p h a s i s t h a t had a s t r i c t l y f o r m a l i z e d , m i l i t a r i s t i c f l a v o u r . H o w e v e r , t h i s s y l l a b u s d i d n o t r e m a i n i n f o r c e f o r v e r y l o n g , b e i n g s u b s e q u e n t l y r e v i s e d i n 1909, 1919, and 1 9 3 3 . T h e s e r e v i s i o n s , a l t h o u g h e m p h a s i z i n g e x e r c i s e s t h a t w e r e b a s e d on t h e S w e d i s h s y s t e m , made c l e a r how t h e t r e n d was b e g i n n i n g t o move away f r o m t h e f o r m a l i t y of t h e d r i l l l e s s o n w i t h i t s m i l i t a r y p r e c i s i o n , t o w a r d s l e s s o n s t h a t e m p h a s i z e d g r e a t e r f r e e d o m f o r t h e i n d i v i d u a l ( B i l b o r o u g h & J o n e s , 1 9 7 3 ) . The U n i t e d S t a t e s i n t h e 1920's and 1930's saw a c o m p l e t e r e v o l u t i o n i n s c h o o l p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n . The e m p h a s i s c h a n g e d t o s p o r t s and games, and f o r m a l g y m n a s t i c s was d i s c a r d e d i n f a v o u r of t h e s e two a r e a s . B a l e y ( 1 9 7 4 , pp. 6-7) has p r o p o s e d f o u r main r e a s o n s f o r t h e d e c l i n e o f t h e s p o r t of g y m n a s t i c s i n t h e 16 U n i t e d S t a t e s u n t i l m i d - t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y : 1. A d m i n i s t r a t o r s made an e r r o n e o u s a p p l i c a t i o n t o p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n of J o h n Dewey's p h i l o s o p h i c s t a t e m e n t s c o n c e r n i n g t h e a d v i s a b i l i t y o f f r e e p l a y c o u p l e d w i t h c o n t i n u e d u s e of d i s t a s t e f u l h i g h l y f o r m a l p r o c e d u r e s i n t e a c h i n g o f g y m n a s t i c s . 2. A d e c r e a s e i n t h e a v e r a g e p e r s o n ' s s t r e n g t h , p o w e r , and e n d u r a n c e r e s u l t e d f r o m t h e d e c r e a s e d need f o r p h y s i c a l l a b o r , m a k i n g s u c c e s s i n g y m n a s t i c s s t u n t s h a r d e r t o a c h i e v e and b r i n g i n g j o y s of s u c c e s s t o f e w e r p e o p l e . 3. P h y s i c a l e d u c a t o r s began t o t e a c h n o n - s t r e n u o u s a c t i v i t i e s b e c a u s e t h e y a p p e a r e d t o c o n t a i n a s m a l l e r e l e m e n t of h a z a r d , and b e c a u s e t h r o u g h them, t h e p h y s i c a l l y u n f i t c o u l d e x p e r i e n c e a "medium of s u c c e s s . " 4. The g r o w t h i n p o p u l a r i t y o f team s p o r t s s u c h as f o o t b a l l , b a s k e t b a l l , b a s e b a l l . A l s o t h e p h y s i c a l e d u c a t o r s began t o t e a c h team s p o r t s due t o numbers o f s t u d e n t s w h i c h c o u l d be h a n d l e d , w h i l e t h e y c o m p l e t e l y n e g l e c t e d t h e i n d i v i d u a l a c t i v i t i e s . ( A c t u a l l y t h e f o r m a l method of t e a c h i n g c a u s e d t h e s t u d e n t s t o r e j e c t t h e m i l i t a r y a p p r o a c h t o s t e p - b y - s t e p g y m n a s t i c s and demand t h e e x c i t e m e n t o f u n r e g i m e n t e d team s p o r t s . ) ( p p . 1 1 - 1 2 ) . I n E n g l a n d d u r i n g t h e 1 9 2 0 ' s , t h e s t i l l d o m i n a n t S w e d i s h s y s t e m o f g y m n a s t i c s was b e i n g c h a l l e n g e d by t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n o f v a r i o u s E u r o p e a n methods of modern g y m n a s t i c s . I n a d d i t i o n , games and swimming were b e i n g o f f i c i a l l y e n c o u r a g e d i n a t t e m p t s t o b r o a d e n t h e a p p r o a c h t o p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n . The r e v i s i o n o f t h e S y l l a b u s o f P h y s i c a l E x e r c i s e s i n 1933, h o w e v e r , s t i l l r e f l e c t e d o f f i c i a l a c c e p t a n c e of t h e S w e d i s h s y s t e m . 17 What was e v i d e n t i n t h i s r e v i s i o n was t h e "change i n c o n c e p t i o n and method f r o m °Drill, E x e r c i s e s and P h y s i c a l T r a i n i n g ' t o t h e e n l i g h t e n e d b r e a d t h o f " P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n ' " ( P r i e s t l y , 1974, p. 2 1 ) . H owever, w i t h t h e c o n c l u s i o n o f t h e S e c o n d W o r l d War, c h a n g e s s t a r t e d t o o c c u r i n p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n i n E n g l a n d — c h a n g e s t h a t w o u l d a f f e c t g y m n a s t i c s i n s t r u c t i o n n o t o n l y t h e r e , but t h r o u g h o u t t h e w o r l d . B a s e d on t h e a p p e a l of o b s t a c l e t r a i n i n g , u n o r t h o d o x , n e w l y d e s i g n e d , and even i m p r o v i s e d a p p a r a t u s was i n s t a l l e d i n t h e s c h o o l s . F o r m a l methods o f i n s t r u c t i o n were deemed i n a p p r o p r i a t e f o r t h i s new s i t u a t i o n , and c h i l d r e n were e n c o u r a g e d t o u s e e x p l o r a t i o n i n d i s c o v e r i n g ways t o use t h e a p p a r a t u s (Brown & Sommer, 1 9 6 9 ) . J o h n s t o n e ( 1 9 7 4 ) has p o i n t e d o u t t h a t i t was t h e c h i l d r e n t h e m s e l v e s , who r e v e a l e d t h e p o s s i b i l i t i e s o f t h e new e q u i p m e n t , and what emerged f r o m t h i s were new t e a c h i n g t e c h n i q u e s . He comments t h a t , "By t h e v e r y n a t u r e of t h e s i t u a t i o n , i t was no l o n g e r p o s s i b l e t o have f o r m a l g r o u p i n g s and a command-response t y p e of t e a c h i n g " ( p . 2 3 ) . M a u l d o n and L a y s o n ( 1 9 7 9 ) i n t e r p r e t t h e c hange as more of a r e a c t i o n a g a i n s t t h e r i g i d i t y o f t h e s t i l l d o m i n a n t S w e d i s h g y m n a s t i c s . However t h e r e i s no argument f r o m t h e s e and many o t h e r a u t h o r s t h a t t h e movement t h e o r i e s of R u d o l p h L a b a n ( 1 8 7 9 - 1 9 5 8 ) g r e a t l y i n f l u e n c e d t h e s u p p o r t e r s of t h i s 18 new movement, g i v i n g t h e new g y m n a s t i c s an o p p o r t u n i t y t o d e v e l o p a t h e o r e t i c a l f r a m e w o r k . Brown and Sommer ( 1 9 6 9 ) h a v e s u g g e s t e d t h a t f o l l o w i n g L a b a n ' s method: C h i l d r e n e x p l o r e a movement t a s k o r s o l v e a movement p r o b l e m w h i l e m o v i n g i n t h e i r own way. They a r e t a u g h t how t o u s e t h e components w e i g h t , t i m e , and f l o w e f f e c t i v e l y , what i s i n v o l v e d i n a movement, w h e r e a movement c a n go i n t h e s p a c e a r o u n d t h e body, what s h a p e s t h e body c a n make, and how t o use t h e i r own movement e x p e r i e n c e s and i d e a s i n a r r a n g i n g f r e e - f l o w i n g movement s e q u e n c e s , ( p . 72) T h e s e a u t h o r s f u r t h e r p o i n t o u t t h a t l e s s o n s a r e d e v e l o p e d a r o u n d a theme. A number o f movements, s e l f - d i r e c t e d by t h e c h i l d r e n , t h a t r e l a t e t o a theme a r e w o r k e d o u t i n i t i a l l y on t h e f l o o r and t h e n t h i s k n o w l e d g e i s t r a n s f e r r e d t o a p p a r a t u s . I n c o n c l u s i o n , Brown and Sommer comment, "The E n g l i s h method o f movement e d u c a t i o n i n e d u c a t i o n a l g y m n a s t i c s i s . . . . a n i m a g i n a t i v e a p p l i c a t i o n o f L a b a n ' s t h e o r i e s o f movement" ( p . 7 2 ) . A l t h o u g h t h e s e e d s o f t h i s new f o r m of g y m n a s t i c s w e r e b e i n g l a i d i n E n g l a n d , H o l b r o o k ( 1 9 7 3 ) has p o i n t e d o ut t h a t g y m n a s t i c s i n t h a t c o u n t r y c o n t i n u e d t o d e v e l o p a l o n g more f o r m a l l i n e s . The e m p h a s i s was on s e t movement p a t t e r n s d e s i g n e d to d e v e l o p s t r e n g t h , e n d u r a n c e , a g i l i t y , and b a l a n c e . T h i s was, she s t a t e s , i n p a r t a r e s p o n s e t o t h e n a t i o n a l c o n c e r n o v e r p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s , b u t a l s o s u g g e s t s t h a t i n t e r e s t 19 i n s u c c e s s a t t h e O l y m p i c games l e v e l was a d e t e r m i n i n g f a c t o r i n t h e g r o w t h o f O l y m p i c g y m n a s t i c s a t t h e s c h o o l l e v e l . I n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s d u r i n g t h e 1 9 5 0 ' s , t h e u p r o a r o v e r p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s among s c h o o l c h i l d r e n a l s o r e s u l t e d i n a renew e d e m p h a s i s b e i n g p l a c e d upon p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n i n t h e s c h o o l s . One o f t h e b y - p r o d u c t s of t h i s i n t e r e s t was t h a t g y m n a s t i c s was g i v e n s p e c i a l e m p h a s i s as a s t r e n g t h b u i l d e r (Brown & W a r d e l l , 1 9 8 0 ) . T h e s e a u t h o r s have a l s o s u g g e s t e d t h e p o o r s h o w i n g of t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s i n g y m n a s t i c s a t t h e O l y m p i c games of 1956, t h e f o r m a l g y m n a s t i c e x h i b i t i o n s by t o u r i n g t e a m s , and t h e t e l e v i s i n g o f g y m n a s t i c c o m p e t i t i o n s a l l c o n t r i b u t e d t o t h e e m p h a s i s t h a t O l y m p i c g y m n a s t i c s r e c e i v e d i n s c h o o l s . I n s p i t e o f t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f O l y m p i c g y m n a s t i c s i n t h e s c h o o l s , t h e i n f l u e n c e o f t h e new movement t h a t had begun t o g a i n p r o m i n e n c e i n E n g l a n d , was b e g i n n i n g t o i m p a c t i n N o r t h A m e r i c a , w i t h t e a c h e r s s t a r t i n g t o u s e L a b a n ' s movement a n a l y s i s t o t e a c h what a l s o became known as e d u c a t i o n a l g y m n a s t i c s ( K i r c h n e r 1 9 8 5 ) . Over t h e n e x t two d e c a d e s , many t e x t books w r i t t e n i n b o t h N o r t h A m e r i c a and E n g l a n d h e l p e d d e v e l o p and c l a r i f y t h e p u r p o s e and c o n t e n t o f e d u c a t i o n a l g y m n a s t i c s . N e v e r t h e l e s s , t h e change f r o m t h e t e a c h i n g o f f o r m a l g y m n a s t i c s t o e d u c a t i o n a l g y m n a s t i c s was a g r a d u a l p r o c e s s . T h i s i s w e l l 20 i l l u s t r a t e d by a q u o t e f r o m a t e x t b o o k on p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n p u b l i s h e d i n 1970: One of t h e most s i g n i f i c a n t c h a n g e s o c c u r r i n g i n t h e e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n p r o g r a m i s w i t h i n t h e s e l f - t e s t i n g a r e a . Our c o n t e m p o r a r y a p p r o a c h , w h i c h may be s i m p l y d e f i n e d as t e a c h i n g s t a n d a r d i z e d s k i l l s t h r o u g h a p r e d o m i n a n t u s e o f t h e d i r e c t method, i s g r a d u a l l y b e i n g r e p l a c e d by t h e e d u c a t i o n a l g y m n a s t i c a p p r o a c h . ( K i r c h n e r , 1970, p.336) The i n f l u e n c e o f e d u c a t i o n a l g y m n a s t i c s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a can be e x a m i n e d by r e f e r r i n g t o t h e c u r r i c u l u m g u i d e w r i t t e n f o r t h e p r o v i n c e i n 1971 ( D e p a r t m e n t of E d u c a t i o n , 1 9 7 1 ) . B o t h t h i s and t h e s u b s e q u e n t r e v i s i o n ( M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n , 1 9 7 5 ) , c l e a r l y mandate t h a t e d u c a t i o n a l g y m n a s t i c s s h a l l be t a u g h t t o c h i l d r e n o f e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l age. W h ether t h i s a d v o c a c y was a c t u a l l y b e i n g c a r r i e d o u t i n e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a d u r i n g t h e '70's r e m a i n s u n c l e a r . However, K r u g e r (1978) does s u g g e s t t h a t t h e f a m i l i a r c o n c e p t of g y m n a s t i c s i n s c h o o l s a t t h i s t i m e was s t i l l a s e r i e s o f s e l f - t e s t i n g a c t i v i t i e s t h a t were o f t h e O l y m p i c f o r m and p r e s e n t e d by t h e t e a c h e r . Up t o t h i s p o i n t , some k e y s t a g e s have been t r a c e d i n t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f g y m n a s t i c s i n E n g l a n d and N o r t h A m e r i c a . I t w o u l d be u s e f u l t o s u m m a r i z e t h e s i m i l a r i t i e s and t h e d i f f e r e n c e s t h a t e x i s t b e t ween them, b e c a u s e as R a n d a l l ( 1 9 6 1 ) has o b s e r v e d , "The 21 t e r m G y m n a s t i c s i s c a p a b l e of many i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s , t a k i n g on d i f f e r e n t s h a d e s o f meaning t h a t v a r y i n i n t e n s i t y " ( p . 1 1 ) . S w e d i s h g y m n a s t i c s . S w e d i s h g y m n a s t i c s was a d o p t e d as t h e b a s i s o f s c h o o l work i n E n g l a n d and r e f l e c t e d an e r a i n w h i c h t h e e m p h a s i s was p l a c e d upon i n s t r u c t i n g t h e c h i l d r e n w i t h an i m p o s e d d i s c i p l i n e . H o l b r o o k ( 1 9 7 3 ) has e n c a p s u l a t e d t h e b a s i s o f t h e w o r k , s t a t i n g t h a t : [ I t was] a n a t o m i c a l , w i t h a c e r t a i n r e m e d i a l e m p h a s i s , c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e s y s t e m a t i c t r a i n i n g o f m u s c l e s and j o i n t s i n a d d i t i o n t o d e v e l o p i n g s t r e n g t h , e n d u r a n c e , and a q u i c k r e s p o n s e t o command. T h e r e was an i n e v i t a b l e l i m i t a t i o n o f t h e r a n g e o f movement p o s s i b i l i t i e s , much of t h e work b e i n g s y m m e t r i c , p l a n a l , and r h y t h m i c a l l y l i m i t e d . The u n i q u e n e s s o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l was l a r g e l y u n r e c o g n i z e d o r i g n o r e d . ( p . 3) R a n d a l l ( 1 9 6 1 ) has s i m p l i f i e d t h i s as f o l l o w s , " [ i t was] s y s t e m a t i z e d e x e r c i s e s f o l l o w e d by s k i l l s p e r f o r m e d o n . . . [ s p e c i f i c a l l y d e s i g n e d ] b a r s , r o p e s , h o r s e , box and mat" ( p . 1 2 ) . M o r i s o n ( 1 9 6 9 , p. 8.) has a l s o o f f e r e d a d e f i n i t i o n t h a t f o c u s e s upon t h e i d e a s of s y s t e m a t i z e d e x e r c i s e s , commenting "The S w e d i s h s y s t e m o f g y m n a s t i c s c o n s i s t e d o f a s e r i e s o f e x e r c i s e s f o r e a c h 22 p a r t o f t h e body, i n t u r n so t h a t a l l j o i n t s were u s e d i n f u l l r a n g e and a l l m u s c l e s s y s t e m a t i c a l l y e x e r c i s e d " ( p . 8 ) . O l y m p i c g y m n a s t i c s . The b a s i s o f O l y m p i c g y m n a s t i c s began w i t h t h e work of J a h n and German G y m n a s t i c s (Munrow, 1 9 6 3 ) . I t was b a s e d on e x e r c i s e s t h a t were d i c t a t e d by t h e a p p a r a t u s u s e d a n d , i n a d d i t i o n , i t a l s o s o u g h t to p r e p a r e t h e gymnast w i t h t h e i d e a s o f f i t n e s s , p a t r i o t i s m , and b r o t h e r h o o d . Graham, H o l t / H a l e , McEwan, and P a r k e r ( 1 9 8 0 ) h a v e s u g g e s t e d t h a t O l y m p i c or a r t i s t i c (as i t i s a l s o c a l l e d ) g y m n a s t i c s f o c u s e s s p e c i f i c a l l y on l e a r n i n g t o e x e c u t e a s e r i e s o f p r e d e t e r m i n e d s t u n t s i n one c o r r e c t way. S i e d e n t o p , H e r k o w i t z , and R i n k ( 1 9 8 4 ) w h i l e n o t s p e c i f i c a l l y d e f i n i n g O l y m p i c g y m n a s t i c s , t a k e t h e p o s i t i o n t h a t t h i s t y p e of g y m n a s t i c s c o n c e r n s s p e c i f i c s k i l l s t h a t a r e t o be l e a r n e d and p e r f e c t e d . They s u g g e s t t h a t t u m b l i n g and a p p a r a t u s w ork a r e t o be i n c l u d e d u t i l i z i n g p a r a l l e l b a r s , v a u l t i n g h o r s e s , h o r i z o n t a l b a r s , r i n g s and b a l a n c e beams. Downey ( 1 9 7 6 ) a l s o s e e s O l y m p i c g y m n a s t i c s i n t e r m s of p e r f o r m a n c e and s t a t e s , " O l y m p i c g y m n a s t i c s e m p h a s i z e s m a i n l y p e r f e c t i o n o f s p e c i f i c movements or c o m b i n a t i o n s of movement on t h e f l o o r and on or o v e r s p e c i a l l y d e s i g n e d a p p a r a t u s " ( p . 1 3 0 ) . 23 E d u c a t i o n a l g y m n a s t i c s . W i l l i a m s ( 1 9 7 9) has s u g g e s t e d t h a t e d u c a t i o n a l g y m n a s t i c s i s a t e r m a p p l i e d t o a f o r m of g y m n a s t i c s t h a t i s t a u g h t i n s c h o o l s . She s e e s a s i m i l a r i t y b e t w e e n e d u c a t i o n a l and O l y m p i c g y m n a s t i c s i n t h e i r c o n t e n t s b u t s e e s e d u c a t i o n a l g y m n a s t i c s as b e i n g more l o o s e l y s t r u c t u r e d and h a v i n g a c o m p l e t e l y d i f f e r e n t m e t h o d o l o g y . D o c h e r t y and M o r t o n ( 1 9 8 2 ) i n r e p o r t i n g on t h e C a n a d i a n G y m n a s t i c s F e d e r a t i o n Programme, h a v e h e l p e d t o i d e n t i f y a s i m i l a r i t y b e t w e e n e d u c a t i o n a l and O l y m p i c g y m n a s t i c s . They r e f e r t o t h e s i x d o m i n a n t movement p a t t e r n s w h i c h h a v e been d e v e l o p e d by t h e F e d e r a t i o n : ( a ) S t a t i c p o s i t i o n s , ( b ) L a n d i n g s , ( c ) R o t a t i o n s , (d) S w i n g s , ( e ) S p r i n g s ( J u m p s ) , ( f ) F l i g h t and h e i g h t ( p . 6 ) . T h e s e a u t h o r s s u g g e s t t h a t t e a c h e r s u s e an a p p r o a c h t h a t " i n t e g r a t e s t h e c o n t e n t and m e t h o d o l o g y o f e d u c a t i o n a l g y m n a s t i c s w i t h t h e b a s i c movement p a t t e r n s " ( p . 6 ) . T r a d i t i o n a l s t u n t s c a n be d i r e c t l y t a u g h t b u t c h i l d r e n s h o u l d be e n c o u r a g e d t o e x p l o r e and c r e a t e movement p a t t e r n s on t h e f l o o r o r on a p p a r a t u s . The movements c h i l d r e n p r o d u c e w i l l show an i n t e r p r e t a t i o n common to t h e two f o r m s o f g y m n a s t i c s . B i l b o r o u g h and J o n e s ( 1 9 7 3 ) c a p t u r e t h e e s s e n t i a l d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n e d u c a t i o n a l and O l y m p i c g y m n a s t i c s when t h e y s u g g e s t t h a t t h e d i f f e r e n c e i s 24 m a n i f e s t i n t h e t e a c h i n g m e t h o d o l o g y : I n t h e t r a d i t i o n a l a p p r o a c h t o t h e t e a c h i n g o f g y m n a s t i c s o n l y one method, t h e d i r e c t method o f p r e s e n t a t i o n , was u s e d , a p a r t i c u l a r e x e r c i s e o r movement, v a u l t or a g i l i t y b e i n g i m p o s e d on t h e c l a s s by t h e t e a c h e r . Now t h r e e methods a r e u s e d : 1) t h e d i r e c t method of p r e s e n t a t i o n , i n w h i c h t h e t e a c h e r i m p o s e s a s p e c i f i c a c t i v i t y , 2) t h e i n d i r e c t method o f p r e s e n t a t i o n , w h ere t h e c h i l d r e n a r e c o m p l e t e l y f r e e to c h o o s e o r d e v i s e t h e i r own a c t i v i t i e s o r movements w i t h i n t h e l i m i t s o f t h e s p a c e and a p p a r a t u s a t t h e i r d i s p o s a l , 3) t h e l i m i t a t i o n method of p r e s e n t a t i o n , w h e r e t h e c h i l d r e n a r e a l l o w e d t o c h o o s e f r e e l y w i t h i n t h e l i m i t a t i o n s i m p o s e d by t h e t e a c h e r . The l i m i t a t i o n i s t h e t a s k o r c h a l l e n g e i m p o s e d , ( p . 84) L o g s d o n et a l . ( 1 9 8 4 ) , w h i l e h e l p i n g t o c l a r i f y what i s meant by e d u c a t i o n a l g y m n a s t i c s , a l s o shows where i t d i f f e r s f r o m O l y m p i c g y m n a s t i c s , commenting t h a t : [ e d u c a t i o n a l g y m n a s t i c s ] c e n t e r s i t s a t t e n t i o n on a w a k e n i n g c h i l d r e n t o t h e f u l l p o t e n t i a l o f t h e body as an i n s t r u m e n t f o r movement and h e l p i n g them d e v e l o p i n d i v i d u a l i t y and v e r s a t i l i t y i n g y m n a s t i c s as t h e y p u r s u e t h e i r s k i l l p o t e n t i a l . . . . [ c h i l d r e n ] a r e e n c o u r a g e d t o f i n d a v a r i e t y o f r e s p o n s e s or ways t h e y c a n s o l v e t h e t a s k s r a t h e r t h a n b e i n g shown and t a u g h t one way o f p e r f o r m i n g a s t u n t o r s k i l l , ( p . 208) A l t h o u g h some a u t h o r s h a v e p r e f e r r e d t o e x p l o r e t h e s i m i l a r i t i e s and d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n t h e two 25 g y m n a s t i c s , o t h e r s h a v e s o u g h t t o c l a r i f y t h e p u r p o s e o f e d u c a t i o n a l g y m n a s t i c s . S i e d e n t o p et a l . ( 1 9 8 4 ) h a v e d e f i n e d t h e p u r p o s e of e d u c a t i o n a l g y m n a s t i c s as "body management: t h e a b i l i t y o f an i n d i v i d u a l t o manage h i s o r h e r own body i n o b j e c t i v e movement u n d e r i n c r e a s i n g l y d i f f i c u l t c o n d i t i o n s . . . . I t [ e d u c a t i o n a l g y m n a s t i c s ] d e a l s w i t h o b j e c t i v e movement. The g o a l i s t o m a s t e r c o n t r o l of t h e body" (p . 2 3 1 ) . Graham et a l . ( 1 9 8 0 ) a r e q u i t e s p e c i f i c i n d e f i n i n g t h e p u r p o s e and c o n t e n t o f e d u c a t i o n a l g y m n a s t i c s . They s t a t e t h a t " [ e d u c a t i o n a l g y m n a s t i c s ] p r o v i d e s c h i l d r e n w i t h g y m n a s t i c e x p e r i e n c e s t o t e a c h them t o maneuver t h e i r b o d i e s e f f e c t i v e l y a g a i n s t t h e f o r c e o f g r a v i t y , b o t h on t h e f l o o r and on a p p a r a t u s " ( p . 1 4 0 ) . Cameron & P l e a s a n c e ( 1 9 7 1 ) comment t h a t t h e p u r p o s e o f e d u c a t i o n a l g y m n a s t i c s i s " t o t e a c h t h e c o r r e c t and s k i l l f u l u s e of t h e body i n v a r i o u s s i t u a t i o n s , by c o m b i n a t i o n s o f movements w h i c h a r e e c o n o m i c a l i n t h e u s e of t i m e , s t r e n g t h , s p a c e , and f l o w " ( p . 4 ) . R a n d a l l ( 1 9 6 1 , p. 12.) has a l s o p r e f e r r e d t o t a l k a b o u t e d u c a t i o n a l g y m n a s t i c s n o t o n l y i n t e r m s of movement q u a l i t i e s , but a l s o i n i t s e f f e c t s on t h e b o d y , s e e i n g e d u c a t i o n a l g y m n a s t i c s as b e i n g : B a s e d upon L a b a n ' s movement q u a l i t i e s . The s t a r t i n g p o i n t i s n o t r e s t r i c t e d t o i s o l a t e d p a r t s o f t h e b o d y . . . [ a n d ] t h e f i n a l r e s u l t i s n o t l i m i t e d t o mere s t r e n g t h and s u p p l e n e s s but r a t h e r t h e s e ends w i l l be s e r v e d i n c i d e n t a l l y as 26 b y - p r o d u c t s t h r o u g h t h e t r a i n i n g by w h i c h t h e i n d i v i d u a l becomes i n c r e a s i n g l y aware o f t h e f u l l p o t e n t i a l o f h e r body t h r o u g h movement, ( p . 12) I n h e l p i n g t o c l a r i f y e d u c a t i o n a l g y m n a s t i c s , t h e l i t e r a t u r e makes m e n t i o n o f t h e s i m i l a r i t i e s and d i f f e r e n c e s t h a t e x i s t w i t h O l y m p i c g y m n a s t i c s . A l t h o u g h i t can be s a i d t h e y have s i m i l a r c o n t e n t s , t h e i r aims a r e d i f f e r e n t . E d u c a t i o n a l g y m n a s t i c s u s e s a v a r i e t y of t e a c h i n g m e t h o d o l o g i e s to p r o d u c e good m o v e r s , i n c r e a s e body a w a r e n e s s , body c o n c e p t , movement c o n c e p t s , and s k i l l ; w h e r e a s O l y m p i c g y m n a s t i c s r e l i e s upon one s p e c i f i c method o f i n s t r u c t i o n t o a c h i e v e t h e d e s i r e d g o a l s . Summary. T h i s s e c t i o n has p r o v i d e d a f r a m e of r e f e r e n c e f o r t h e e x a m i n a t i o n o f what i s b e i n g t a u g h t i n s c h o o l s . As C a p e l ( 1 9 8 6 ) has n o t e d , t h e r e i s more t h a n one t y p e o f g y m n a s t i c s c u r r e n t l y b e i n g t a u g h t i n s c h o o l s , b u t t h e two t y p e s t h a t a r e most commonly t a u g h t a r e e d u c a t i o n a l and O l y m p i c . T h i s h i s t o r i c a l r e v i e w o f t h e l i t e r a t u r e has d e s c r i b e d how t h e s e two m a j o r i n f l u e n c e s h a v e f o u n d t h e i r way i n t o s c h o o l i n s t r u c t i o n a l p r o g r a m s . The e m p h a s i s o f t h i s p a p e r w i l l now s w i t c h t o an e x a m i n a t i o n of a r g u m e n t s t h a t h a v e been documented i n s u p p o r t o f t h e i n c l u s i o n o f g y m n a s t i c s i n t h e c u r r i c u l u m . I d e n t i f y i n g t h e s e 27 c l a i m s s e r v e s t o s u g g e s t r a t i o n a l e s t e a c h e r s use f o r i n c l u d i n g g y m n a s t i c s i n a p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n p r o g r a m . 2.3 The R o l e o f G y m n a s t i c s i n t h e C u r r i c u l u m G y m n a s t i c s i n s t r u c t i o n i s an i m p o r t a n t component o f a b a l a n c e d s c h o o l p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n p r o g r a m . S t r o n g a r g u m e n t s h a v e been made by s e v e r a l a u t h o r s i n s u p p o r t o f s c h o o l p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n . The f o l l o w i n g g o a l s t a t e m e n t s show a h i g h l e v e l o f c o n g r u e n c e and a r e p r e s e n t e d t o p r o v i d e a r e f e r e n c e p o i n t f o r e x a m i n i n g t h e r o l e of g y m n a s t i c s i n t h e s c h o o l c o n t e x t . R a t i o n a l e f o r p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n i n t h e  c u r r i c u l u m . Dauer & P a n g r a z i ( 1 9 8 4 , pp. 12-15) have s u g g e s t e d t h a t p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n can p l a y an i m p o r t a n t r o l e i n b o t h t h e g r o w t h and d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e c h i l d . They c i t e r e s e a r c h s u p p o r t i n g t h e need f o r p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y i n o r d e r t o a c h i e v e t h e s e ends. P h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n , t h e y a r g u e , must f u l f i l l c e r t a i n o b j e c t i v e s i n o r d e r t h a t t h e c h i l d m i g h t a c h i e v e t h e g o a l s of g r o w t h and d e v e l o p m e n t . S p e c i f i c a l l y , t h e y s t a t e t h a t t h e p r o g r a m s h o u l d h a v e components o f ( a ) p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s , (b) movement e x c e l l e n c e and u s e f u l p h y s i c a l s k i l l s , ( c ) s o c i a l d e v e l o p m e n t , ( d ) s a f e t y s k i l l s and a t t i t u d e s , ( e ) wholesome r e c r e a t i o n , ( f ) p o s i t i v e s e l f 28 c o n c e p t , (g) p e r s o n a l v a l u e s , and (h) e x p e r i e n c e s w i t h many k i n d s o f a c t i v i t y . K i r c h n e r ( 1 9 8 5 , pp. 9-11) has c e r t a i n l y a g r e e d w i t h t h e above c o m p o n e n t s , but has c o l l a p s e d them, s e e i n g t h e o b j e c t i v e s of p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n as ( a ) e n h a n c i n g p h y s i c a l g r o w t h and d e v e l o p m e n t , (b ) d e v e l o p i n g u s e f u l p h y s i c a l s k i l l s , ( c ) d e v e l o p i n g s o c i a l l y u s e f u l w a y s , (d ) d e v e l o p i n g i n t e l l e c t u a l c o m p e t e n c e , ( e ) d e v e l o p i n g c r e a t i v e t a l e n t s , and ( f ) e n h a n c i n g a c h i l d ' s s e l f - i m a g e . S i e d e n t o p et a l . ( 1 9 8 4 , pp. 6-8) o f f e r s e v e r a l l i n e s o f argument f o r j u s t i f y i n g p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n , c i t i n g e v i d e n c e t h a t p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n has a ( n ) ( a ) p h y s i c a l d e v e l o p m e n t f u n c t i o n , (b) c o g n i t i v e d e v e l o p m e n t f u n c t i o n , ( c ) s o c i a l i z i n g / m o r a l i z i n g f u n c t i o n , ( d ) e m o t i o n a l d e v e l o p m e n t f u n c t i o n , and ( e ) c u l t u r a l t r a n s m i s s i o n f u n c t i o n . B a i l e y ( 1 9 7 3 ) , i n a p a p e r t h a t a t t e m p t e d t o j u s t i f y t h e need f o r p r o v i d i n g g r o w i n g c h i l d r e n w i t h w i d e r o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n p r o g r a m s of p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y , a r g u e s t h a t : 1. P h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y i s n e c e s s a r y t o s u p p o r t n o r m a l g r o w t h i n c h i l d r e n . 2. I n a c t i v i t y as a y o u n g s t e r can h a v e a b e a r i n g on m a t u r e f u n c t i o n a l c a p a c i t y and c o n s e q u e n t l y may be d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d t o a number of a d u l t p r o b l e m s . 3. The b a s i c o r i e n t a t i o n t o w a r d e x p e r i e n c e i s e s t a b l i s h e d e a r l y i n l i f e . I f we want 29 a d u l t p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y i t s h o u l d be remembered t h a t m o t i v a t i o n t o w a r d s a c t i v i t y i s p r o b a b l y l a i d down at a v e r y e a r l y age. "As t h e t w i g i s b e n t , so grows t h e t r e e . " 4. L e a r n i n g i n s i d e t h e c l a s s r o o m may be e n h a n c e d and s u p p o r t e d by a c t i v i t y o u t s i d e t h e c l a s s r o o m . " A l l work and no p l a y makes J a c k a d u l l boy", ( p p . 5 0 - 5 1 ) T h i s b r i e f r e v i e w has p r e s e n t e d a r g u m e n t s t h a t s e v e r a l a u t h o r s h a v e o f f e r e d c o n c e r n i n g t h e need f o r p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n i n t h e c u r r i c u l u m . The u n i q u e r o l e o f g y m n a s t i c s w i t h i n p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n i s d i s c u s s e d i n t h e n e x t s e c t i o n . R a t i o n a l e f o r g y m n a s t i c s i n t h e c u r r i c u l u m . Munrow ( 1 9 6 3 , p. 3) has d e f i n e d g y m n a s t i c s as " s y s t e m a t i z e d f o r m s of e x e r c i s e d e s i g n e d t o p r o d u c e p a r t i c u l a r e f f e c t s on t h e body". He saw t h e e f f e c t s o f g y m n a s t i c s on t h e body i n terras o f s t r e n g t h , m o b i l i t y , e n d u r a n c e , power, and s k i l l : c o n f i n i n g h i s d i s c u s s i o n s o f t h e e f f e c t s t o t h e p u r e l y p h y s i c a l . H o w e v e r , t o c o n s i d e r o n l y t h e p h y s i c a l e f f e c t s seems t o p r e c l u d e o t h e r q u a l i t i e s t h a t g y m n a s t i c s has t o o f f e r . C a p e l ( 1 9 86) has t a l k e d a b o u t g y m n a s t i c s as p r o v i d i n g o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r i n v e n t i v e n e s s , c r e a t i v i t y , c h a l l e n g e , and a d v e n t u r e b u t a l s o a g r e e s w i t h t h e p h y s i c a l b e n e f i t s t h a t g y m n a s t i c s i s t h o u g h t t o b r i n g t o c h i l d r e n . She s e e s t h e demands o f s t r e n g t h , 30 s t a m i n a and f l e x i b i l i t y as h e l p i n g d e v e l o p t h e o v e r a l l c a p a c i t y o f c h i l d r e n . S i e d e n t o p & a l . ( 1 9 8 4 ) a l s o see g y m n a s t i c s as a go o d , g e n e r a l f i t n e s s a c t i v i t y e s p e c i a l l y f o r f l e x i b i l i t y and s t r e n g t h d e v e l o p m e n t , h owever t h e y s u g g e s t t h a t " [ t h e r e a r e ] many o t h e r p h y s i c a l , p s y c h o l o g i c a l and e m o t i o n a l b e n e f i t s , e s p e c i a l l y i f a c t i v i t i e s a r e c o n d u c t e d i n a s t r o n g e d u c a t i o n a l s e t t i n g " ( p . 3 9 8 ) . I n r e f e r r i n g s p e c i f i c a l l y t o e d u c a t i o n a l g y m n a s t i c s , many a u t h o r s h a v e a t t e m p t e d t o j u s t i f y t h i s f o r m o f g y m n a s t i c s i n t e r m s o f i t s o v e r a l l b e n e f i t s t o e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l c h i l d r e n . S t a n d e v e n ( 1 9 7 8 ) has a t t e m p t e d t o j u s t i f y e d u c a t i o n a l g y m n a s t i c s i n t h e c u r r i c u l u m b e c a u s e o f t h e u n i q u e r o l e i t has to p l a y i n t h a t i t s c e n t r a l c o n c e r n i s " t o f o c u s a t t e n t i o n on t h e body i n d e v e l o p i n g p h y s i c a l s k i l l . . . f o r t h e s h e e r s a k e of b o d i l y s k i l l i t s e l f " ( p . 3 5 ) . K r u g e r ( 1 9 7 8 ) , m e a n w h i l e , has s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h i s f o r m o f g y m n a s t i c s p r o v i d e s a v e h i c l e f o r p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s , p r o p e r motor d e v e l o p m e n t and p o s t u r e , and body management t e c h n i q u e s , and recommends t h e t e a c h i n g o f e d u c a t i o n a l g y m n a s t i c s t o a c h i e v e t h e s e g o a l s . Wiseman (1978) has a r g u e d t h a t Munrow's (1963) f o r m o f g y m n a s t i c s does n o t t a k e i n t o a c c o u n t some b e n e f i t o f a p e r s o n a l or d e v e l o p m e n t a l n a t u r e t o t h e p e r f o r m e r , and s e e s t h e r a t i o n a l e f o r e d u c a t i o n a l g y m n a s t i c s as p r o v i d i n g t h e p o t e n t i a l f o r 31 t h e a c q u i s i t i o n o f t h e s e ' e x t r a ' s k i l l s . M o r i s o n ( 1 9 6 9 ) e m p h a s i z e s t h a t e d u c a t i o n a l g y m n a s t i c s c a n c o n t r i b u t e t o t h e p e r s o n a l d e v e l o p m e n t o f c h i l d r e n s i n c e i t c a n be f r e e l y a d a p t e d to s u i t a l l i n t e r e s t s , n e e d s , and a b i l i t i e s o f a l l c h i l d r e n d u r i n g t h e i r d e v e l o p m e n t a l s t a g e s . She s e e s e d u c a t i o n a l g y m n a s t i c s as b u i l d i n g up a s y s t e m a t i c and p r o g r e s s i v e e x p e r i e n c e o f movement and s u g g e s t s t h a t "To be p h y s i c a l l y l i t e r a t e one s h o u l d be c r e a t i v e , i m a g i n a t i v e and c l e a r i n e x p r e s s i v e movement, c o m p e t e n t and e f f i c i e n t i n u t i l i t a r i a n movement, and i n v e n t i v e , v e r s a t i l e and s k i l l f u l i n o b j e c t i v e movement" ( p . 3 ) . E d u c a t i o n a l g y m n a s t i c s , she a r g u e s , can p r o v i d e t h e v e h i c l e f o r t h e f u n c t i o n a l , o b j e c t i v e a c t i o n s i d e o f movement as i t can be a d a p t e d t o t h e ne e d s o f any g r o u p . W i l l i a m s ( 1 9 7 9) s t a t e s t h a t t h e aims o f e d u c a t i o n a l g y m n a s t i c s a r e d i f f e r e n t f r o m o t h e r f o r m s o f p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n i n t h a t t h e v a l u e s a r e o f an i n t r i n s i c n a t u r e . She s e e s t h e a t t e n t i o n o f t h e gymnast as b e i n g on t h e f l e x i b i l i t y , s t r e n g t h and b e a u t y o f h i s / h e r own movement and makes t h e argument t h a t o t h e r f o r m s o f p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n f o c u s on v a l u e s t h a t a r e e x t r i n s i c i n n a t u r e . B u c k l a n d ( 1 9 76) a g r e e s w i t h t h i s s u g g e s t i o n , n o t i n g t h e c o n s i d e r a b l e c o n t r i b u t i o n t h a t i t makes t o t h e h a p p i n e s s o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l c h i l d as h e / s h e a c h i e v e s s u c c e s s , and 32 comments t h a t " E d u c a t i o n a l g y m n a s t i c s i s c o n c e r n e d w i t h a s s i s t i n g t h e c h i l d ' s n a t u r a l p r o c e s s of g r o w t h , g i v i n g h i m o p p o r t u n i t i e s t o e x e r c i s e and d e v e l o p h i s s o c i a l , c r e a t i v e , and p h y s i c a l s k i l l s . I n d o i n g s o , many of t h e c h i l d ' s e m o t i o n a l needs a r e met" ( p . 2 ) . I n summary, i t i s c l e a r t h a t many a u t h o r s c h o o s e t o j u s t i f y g y m n a s t i c s i n t h e c u r r i c u l u m a l o n g e d u c a t i o n a l l i n e s , s u g g e s t i n g t h a t t h e r e a r e b e n e f i t s t o c h i l d r e n i n t h e p s y c h o m o t o r , c o g n i t i v e , and a f f e c t i v e d o m a i n s . H o w e v e r , i n t h e i r book on t e a c h i n g g y m n a s t i c s , M a u l d o n and L a y s o n ( 1 9 7 9 ) c r i t i c a l l y q u e s t i o n some of t h e e d u c a t i o n a l j u s t i f i c a t i o n s t h a t h a v e been o f f e r e d f o r g y m n a s t i c s i n t h e c u r r i c u l u m . Among t h e p o i n t s t h e y r a i s e a r e : F i r s t , i f g y m n a s t i c s does b r i n g a " n a t u r a l " e n v i r o n m e n t w i t h i n t h e r a n g e o f a l l c h i l d r e n , t h e n i s t h i s an a d e q u a t e j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r i t s i n c l u s i o n i n t h e t i m e t a b l e ? The t i m e g i v e n to g y m n a s t i c s c o u l d be d e v o t e d t o o t h e r a r e a s o f l e a r n i n g t h a t a r e j u s t as i m p o r t a n t , l e a v i n g t h e c h i l d r e n t o t h e i r own d e v i c e s t o s a t i s f y t h e i r p h y s i c a l n e e d s . S e c o n d , t h a t c h i l d r e n f i n d g y m n a s t i c s e n j o y a b l e i s an i n s u f f i c i e n t j u s t i f i c a t i o n on t h e g r o u n d s t h a t a c o u n t e r argument c o u l d a l s o be u s e d a g a i n s t a c t i v i t i e s t h a t c h i l d r e n f i n d n o t so e n j o y a b l e . T h i r d , t h a t g y m n a s t i c s i s i n c l u d e d on s o c i a l g r o u n d s assumes t h a t t h e s e q u a l i t i e s a r e d i r e c t l y t r a n s f e r a b l e ; t h i s a s p e c t , M a u l d o n and L a y s o n c l a i m , i s d e b a t a b l e . 33 F i n a l l y , t h e y s u g g e s t t h a t t h e s u r v i v a l of g y m n a s t i c s o v e r th e y e a r s may be e x p l a i n e d by t h e use of t h e term " e d u c a t i o n a l " w h i c h c a r r i e s w i t h i t t h e i m p l i c a t i o n of v a l u e . However, the a u t h o r s s u g g e s t t h a t the use of t h e term e d u c a t i o n a l p e r h a p s r e f e r s more to t h e t e a c h i n g m e t h o d o l o g y u s e d t h a n i t s v a l u e , and as s u c h a r g u e t h a t t h e means ca n n o t a u t o m a t i c a l l y j u s t i f y t h e end s . I n as much as M a u l d o n and L a y s o n (1979) c r i t i c a l l y q u e s t i o n e d u c a t i o n a l c l a i m s c o n c e r n i n g why g y m n a s t i c s s h o u l d be t a u g h t w i t h i n t h e p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n c u r r i c u l u m , t h e y do a g r e e w i t h o t h e r p r e v i o u s l y c i t e d a u t h o r s t h a t t h e r e i s e v i d e n c e to s u p p o r t t h e r e l a t e d n e s s of e d u c a t i o n a l g y m n a s t i c s to motor d e v e l o p m e n t , c o g n i t i v e d e v e l o p m e n t , and c o n c e p t f o r m a t i o n . 2 . 4 C u r r e n t T r e n d s The l i t e r a t u r e p r e s e n t e d shows t h a t a d i s t i n c t move has been made ove r th e p a s t 15 y e a r s towards the a d o p t i o n o f e d u c a t i o n a l g y m n a s t i c s i n e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l s . However, what i s not so c l e a r i s whether a new s h i f t i n emphasis i s o c c u r r i n g i n t h e t e a c h i n g of g y m n a s t i c s t h a t would i n c o r p o r a t e or even e n c o u r a g e t h e t e a c h i n g of t r a d i t i o n a l or O l y m p i c g y m n a s t i c s . G y m n a s t i c s p u b l i c a t i o n s t h a t were w r i t t e n i n t h e 1960's and 1970's f o r use i n e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l s 34 a p p e a r e d t o d e a l a l m o s t e x c l u s i v e l y w i t h e d u c a t i o n a l g y m n a s t i c s . S u c h p u b l i c a t i o n s h a v e n o t been so p r e v a l e n t i n t h e 1980's a n d , i n a d d i t i o n , p r o f e s s i o n a l j o u r n a l s h a v e i n c l u d e d v e r y few a r t i c l e s on g y m n a s t i c s . Some m a j o r p u b l i c a t i o n s o f t h e 1980's ( e . g . , S i e d e n t o p e t a l . , 1984) s u g g e s t t h e d e b a t e b e t w e e n t h e m e r i t s o f e d u c a t i o n a l and o t h e r f o r m s o f g y m n a s t i c s may be r e k i n d l i n g i t s e l f . A u t h o r s s u c h as Graham et a l . ( l 9 8 0 ) and L o g s d o n e t a l . ( 1 9 8 4 ) i n c l u d e s p e c i f i c c h a p t e r s on g y m n a s t i c s i n s t r u c t i o n i n t h e i r b o o k s d e a l i n g w i t h t h e t e a c h i n g o f p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n . T h e s e a u t h o r s f o c u s t h e i r a t t e n t i o n e x c l u s i v e l y on t h e t e a c h i n g o f e d u c a t i o n a l g y m n a s t i c s t o s t u d e n t s o f an e l e m e n t a r y age. On t h e o t h e r h a n d , Dauer and P a n g r a z i ( 1 9 8 3 ) do n o t m e n t i o n t h e word g y m n a s t i c s i n any c h a p t e r h e a d i n g s , p r e f e r r i n g t o i n c l u d e c h a p t e r s on " a p p a r a t u s a c t i v i t i e s " and " s t u n t s and t u m b l i n g " . I n t e r e s t i n g l y , t h e a c t i v i t i e s and t e a c h i n g m e t h o d o l o g y t h a t a r e s u g g e s t e d c o u l d c e r t a i n l y be d e f i n e d as t r a d i t i o n a l i n c o n t e n t and a p p r o a c h . K i r c h n e r ( 1 9 8 5) a c k n o w l e d g e s t h e t e r m g y m n a s t i c s b u t c h o o s e s t o l a b e l one o f h i s c h a p t e r s " S t u n t s , T u m b l i n g , and Movement S k i l l " . The a c t i v i t i e s he p r e s e n t s i n t h i s c h a p t e r a r e c l a s s i f i e d as b a l a n c e , v a u l t i n g , c l i m b i n g , and a g i l i t y s k i l l s . O t h e r s u b s e q u e n t c h a p t e r s s u g g e s t ways o f a p p l y i n g t h e 35 l e a r n e d s k i l l s u s i n g s m a l l equipment and l a r g e a p p a r a t u s . The a p p r o a c h used h e r e can b e s t be d e s c r i b e d as f l e x i b l e , c o m b i n i n g e l e m e n t s of b o t h t r a d i t i o n a l and e d u c a t i o n a l g y m n a s t i c s . F u r t h e r e v i d e n c e of t h e l i n k i n g of e d u c a t i o n a l and t r a d i t i o n a l g y m n a s t i c s i s found i n t h e work of Mace fie Benn ( 1 9 8 2 ) . T h e s e a u t h o r s have s u g g e s t e d t h a t g y m n a s t i c s can be t a u g h t i n e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l s u s i n g a more f l e x i b l e a p p r o a c h t h a n t h e r i g i d m e t h o d o l o g y used some y e a r s ago. D o c h e r t y and M o r t o n (1982) i n a paper t h a t bemoans the l a c k of g y m n a s t i c s b e i n g t a u g h t i n e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l s , h a ve r e a s o n e d t h a t many t e a c h e r s a r e r e l u c t a n t to t e a c h e d u c a t i o n a l g y m n a s t i c s as the a p p r o a c h used i s too p r o c e s s o r i e n t e d , and does not o f f e r a c l e a r r e l a t i o n s h i p to t h e f u n d a m e n t a l s k i l l s o f g y m n a s t i c s . However, t h e y a l s o s u g g e s t t h a t t e a c h e r s a r e r e l u c t a n t to o f f e r O l y m p i c g y m n a s t i c s b e c a u s e o f the n a t u r e o f t h e a c t i v i t y and t h e r e q u i r e m e n t to e i t h e r t e a c h or p e r f o r m i t . C o n s e q u e n t l y , t h e y p r e s e n t an a p p r o a c h to the t e a c h i n g o f g y m n a s t i c s t h a t combines th e c h a l l e n g e and r e l e v a n c y of O l y m p i c g y m n a s t i c s w i t h t h e m e t h o d o l o g y of e d u c a t i o n a l g y m n a s t i c s . I f t h e p r e c e d i n g p a r a g r a p h s , a l b e i t b r i e f , a r e an i n d i c a t i o n of c u r r e n t t r e n d s , t h e n p e r h a p s t h e pendulum t h a t has swung so many t i m e s i n p h y s i c a l 36 e d u c a t i o n i s on t h e move y e t a g a i n w i t h g y m n a s t i c s e x e r t i n g t h e i n f l u e n c e . The s u g g e s t i o n s of Mace and Benn ( 1 9 8 2 ) , and D o c h e r t y and M o r t o n ( 1 9 8 2 ) , may p r o v i d e an i n s i g h t as t o how g y m n a s t i c s i n s t r u c t i o n m i ght i n t e g r a t e a s p e c t s of b o t h e d u c a t i o n a l and O l y m p i c g y m n a s t i c s . Summary. T h i s r e v i e w has t a k e n t h e p o s i t i o n t h a t g y m n a s t i c s i s by i t s v e r y n a t u r e complex. The acc o m p a n y i n g r e v i e w of t h e l i t e r a t u r e has f o c u s e d on t h r e e a r e a s : 1. An h i s t o r i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e showing how g y m n a s t i c s e v o l v e d o v e r the c e n t u r i e s to i n c l u d e b o t h O l y m p i c and e d u c a t i o n a l g y m n a s t i c s . T h e s e a r e t h e two forms t h a t a r e c u r r e n t l y b e i n g t a u g h t to s t u d e n t s o f an e l e m e n t a r y age. 2. An e x a m i n a t i o n of t h e r o l e of g y m n a s t i c s i n t h e s c h o o l c o n t e x t , c i t i n g the b e n e f i t s of g y m n a s t i c s n o t o n l y i n g e n e r a l e d u c a t i o n a l t e r m s , but a l s o i n s p e c i f i c terms r e l a t e d t o a c h i l d ' s c o g n i t i v e , p s y c h o m o t o r , and a f f e c t i v e d e v e l o p m e n t . The p r e s e n t a t i o n of t h e s e arguments p o s s i b l y o f f e r s i n s i g h t s i n t h e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of r a t i o n a l e s t h a t t e a c h e r s use i n making a d e c i s i o n to o f f e r g y m n a s t i c s as p a r t of t h e i r c u r r i c u l u m . 37 3. An e x a m i n a t i o n of c u r r e n t t r e n d s s u g g e s t i n g t h a t the a p p r o a c h to t h e t e a c h i n g of g y m n a s t i c s may be c h a n g i n g . I t i s s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h e t r e n d c o u l d be t o w a r d s an a p p r o a c h w h i c h combines the c h a l l e n g e of O l y m p i c g y m n a s t i c s w i t h t h e t e a c h i n g m e t h o d o l o g y used i n e d u c a t i o n a l g y m n a s t i c s . T h i s r e v i e w a l s o a g r e e s w i t h Moody (1984) t h a t t e a c h e r s s h o u l d not be f r e e to t e a c h w h a t e v e r t h e y w i s h . T h i s n e x t s e c t i o n w i l l examine f a c t o r s t h a t can a f f e c t whether or n o t a d e s i r e d or mandated e d u c a t i o n a l change o c c u r s i n p r a c t i c e . Of p a r t i c u l a r i m p o r t i n t h e c o n t e x t of t h i s s t u d y i s how t h e s e f a c t o r s r e l a t e to t h e t e a c h i n g of g y m n a s t i c s . 2.5 E d u c a t i o n a l Change and G y m n a s t i c s A l t h o u g h few s t u d i e s have been found r e l a t e d to g y m n a s t i c s i n s t r u c t i o n at t h e e l e m e n t a r y l e v e l , two r e c e n t p a p e r s c o n c e r n i n g t h e amount of t i m e a c t u a l l y s p e n t t e a c h i n g t h i s s u b j e c t come from s u r v e y s c o n d u c t e d i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ( C a r r e , 1979, and Thompson, 1979). B o t h of t h e s e s t u d i e s s u g g e s t t h a t t e a c h e r s o f f e r e d w e l l below th e recommended t i m e a l l o t m e n t s as o u t l i n e d by t h e p r o v i n c i a l g u i d e ( M i n i s t r y of E d u c a t i o n , 1975). I n a summary of t e a c h e r s ' r e a s o n s f o r not t e a c h i n g an a c t i v i t y , Thompson r e p o r t e d t h a t "1) T r a d i t i o n a l g y m n a s t i c s was 38 c o n s i d e r e d to be too advanced f o r p u p i l s . 2) C h i l d r e n l e a r n e d i n s u f f i c i e n t s k i l l s d u r i n g e d u c a t i o n a l g y m n a s t i c s . In a d d i t i o n , a few t e a c h e r s were not s u r e o f t h e d i s t i n c t i o n between e d u c a t i o n a l and t r a d i t i o n a l g y m n a s t i c s , nor d i d th e y have enough e x p e r i e n c e of e x p o s u r e to t h i s a c t i v i t y " (p. 5 9 ) . D o c h e r t y and M o r t o n (1982) have s u g g e s t e d t h a t t e a c h e r s a r e r e l u c t a n t to o f f e r O l y m p i c g y m n a s t i c s b e c a u s e of "The n a t u r e of t h e a c t i v i t y i t s e l f and the r e q u i r e m e n t s to t e a c h or p e r f o r m g y m n a s t i c s " (p. 3 ) . They p o i n t out t h a t many p r i m a r y g r a d e t e a c h e r s l a c k t h e competence to " s p o t ' s t u d e n t s and t h e r e f o r e a v o i d t e a c h i n g t h e s u b j e c t . A l t h o u g h t h e y s u g g e s t many t e a c h e r s a r e s a t i s f i e d w i t h t h e a p p r o a c h e s and work i n v o l v e d i n e d u c a t i o n a l g y m n a s t i c s , t h e y comment "Many t e a c h e r s . . . h a v e been r e l u c t a n t to t e a c h e d u c a t i o n a l g y m n a s t i c s on t h e grounds t h a t i t i s too much p r o c e s s o r i e n t e d and l a c k s a c l e a r r e l a t i o n s h i p to t h e f u n d a m e n t a l s k i l l s of g y m n a s t i c s " (p. 5 ) . A paper by Thompson and P o t v i n (1983) p r e s e n t e d the- f i n d i n g s f r o m two s t u d i e s d e a l i n g s p e c i f i c a l l y w i t h c u r r i c u l u m d e s i g n and i m p l e m e n t a t i o n i n e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l g y m n a s t i c s . The s t u d i e s s u g g e s t t h a t t e a c h e r s have d i f f i c u l t y i m p l e m e n t i n g g y m n a s t i c s programs u s i n g the c u r r i c u l u m m a t e r i a l s t h a t were a v a i l a b l e . T e a c h e r s wanted d e t a i l e d p r o g r e s s i v e l e s s o n p l a n s t h a t were p r a c t i c a l and c o u l d p r o v i d e 39 them w i t h i n f o r m a t i o n on b o t h c o n t e n t m a t e r i a l and m e t h o d o l o g y . T h i s s t u d y a l s o s u g g e s t e d t h a t t e a c h e r s a r e more i n t e r e s t e d i n t h e p r a c t i c a l c o n c e r n s of i m p l e m e n t a t i o n r a t h e r t h a n t h e t h e o r e t i c a l b a c k g r o u n d . The d e s i g n o f l e s s o n p l a n s s h o u l d a l l o w f o r more t e a c h e r f l e x i b i l i t y i n t h e s e l e c t i o n o f f o r m a t , w i t h t h e p r e f e r r e d i n i t i a l d e s i g n most l i k e l y b e i n g d e t a i l e d p r o g r e s s i v e l e s s o n p l a n s . H owever, a f t e r t h i s i n i t i a l i m p l e m e n t a t i o n p e r i o d , t e a c h e r s s h i f t e d t h e i r p r e f e r e n c e s t o p l a n s t h a t o f f e r a more open ended o r g e n e r a l d e s i g n . Thompson and P o t v i n have c a l l e d t h i s s t a g e " s e c o n d i m p l e m e n t a t i o n " ( p . 1 6 ) . D o y l e and P o n d e r ( 1 9 7 7 - 7 8 ) h a v e r e f e r r e d t o s u c h f a c t o r s o f i m p l e m e n t a t i o n as t h e " p r a c t i c a l i t y e t h i c ' . A c c o r d i n g t o t h e s e a u t h o r s , t e a c h e r s j u d g e i n n o v a t i o n s a c c o r d i n g t o t h r e e c r i t e r i a ; c o n g r u e n c e , i n s t r u m e n t a l i t y , and c o s t . The a s p e c t of c o n g r u e n c e has t h r e e d i m e n s i o n s , ( a ) does i t f i t t h e way t h e t e a c h e r n o r m a l l y t e a c h e s i n a c l a s s r o o m , ( b ) w here was i t t r i e d b e f o r e and w i t h what s u c c e s s , and ( c ) how w i l l s t u d e n t s r e a c t t o i t ( e . g . , s t u d e n t i n t e r e s t and e n j o y m e n t ) . I n s t r u m e n t a l i t y on t h e o t h e r hand has two c o n c e r n s f o r t h e t e a c h e r : ( a ) does i t d e p i c t t h e c l a s s r o o m s i t u a t i o n , and (b) i s i t c l e a r i n p r o c e d u r a l c o n t e n t , or i s i t t o o g e n e r a l or a b s t r a c t . The t h i r d a s p e c t of c o s t can be d e f i n e d i n t e r m s o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l ( i . e . , what p o t e n t i a l r e t u r n w i l l r e s u l t 40 f r o m the change, e.g., s t u d e n t e n t h u s i a s m ) . The r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l amount o f p u b l i s h e d and u n p u b l i s h e d l i t e r a t u r e f o u n d t h a t d e a l s s p e c i f i c a l l y w i t h e d u c a t i o n a l change and g y m n a s t i c s cannot deny t h a t t h e r e a r e f a c t o r s i n f l u e n c i n g t e a c h e r c h o i c e i n t h e t e a c h i n g of t h i s s u b j e c t . C o n s e q u e n t l y i t i s n e c e s s a r y to i n v e s t i g a t e how the l i t e r a t u r e d e a l s w i t h e d u c a t i o n a l change i n g e n e r a l i n o r d e r to s u g g e s t f a c t o r s t h a t have a r e l e v a n c e f o r g y m n a s t i c s . I t i s a p p a r e n t t h a t some a u t h o r s have i d e n t i f i e d s p e c i f i c f a c t o r s t h a t a r e a s s o c i a t e d i n a p o s i t i v e manner w i t h t h e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n of e d u c a t i o n a l i n n o v a t i o n s i n g e n e r a l , w h i l e o t h e r s have p e r f o r m e d e x h a u s t i v e r e v i e w s o f t h e l i t e r a t u r e to t e a s e out g e n e r a l f a c t o r s t h a t a r e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h s u c c e s s f u l change. These w i l l b o t h be p r e s e n t e d to h i g h l i g h t how the l i t e r a t u r e e x h i b i t s many common el e m e n t s of change. I n a d d i t i o n , t h e r e l e v a n c e of t h e s e common f a c t o r s to the c u r r i c u l u m a r e a of g y m n a s t i c s w i l l a l s o be shown. F a c t o r s i n f l u e n c i n g e d u c a t i o n a l change. G r o s s , G i a c q u i n t a , and B e r n s t e i n (1975) i d e n t i f i e d f i v e b a r r i e r s t h e y saw to i m p l e m e n t a t i o n : (a) most t e a c h e r s d i d not have a c l e a r image of t h e r o l e p e r f o r m a n c e the i n n o v a t i o n e x p e c t e d , (b) t e a c h e r s o f t e n l a c k e d t h e s k i l l s o r knowledge to p e r f o r m the new r o l e s , ( c ) s h o r t a g e s of equipment and 41 i n s t r u c t i o n a l m a t e r i a l s , ( d ) o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c o n d i t i o n s t h a t w e re i n c o n g r u e n t w i t h t h e i n n o v a t i o n , and ( e ) t h e n e g a t i v e o r n o n - s u p p o r t i v e a t t i t u d e o f a d m i n i s t r a t o r s f o r t h e i n n o v a t i o n . F u l l a n & P o m f r e t ( 1 9 7 7 ) i n an e x h a u s t i v e r e v i e w o f l i t e r a t u r e i n i m p l e m e n t a t i o n have s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h e i r a n a l y s i s i d e n t i f i e d v a r i o u s f a c t o r s t h a t c o u l d be o r g a n i z e d i n t o f o u r b r o a d c a t e g o r i e s : 1 C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e i n n o v a t i o n ( e x p l i c i t n e s s : w h a t , who, when, how; c o m p l e x i t y . 2 ) S t r a t e g i e s and methods ( i n - s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g , r e s o u r c e s u p p o r t , f e e d b a c k m e c h a n i s m s , p a r t i c i p a t i o n ) . 3 C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e a d o p t i n g u n i t ( a d o p t i o n p r o c e s s , o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c l i m a t e , e n v i r o n m e n t a l s u p p o r t , d e m o g r a p h i c f a c t o r s ) . 4 C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f p o l i t i c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s o u t s i d e t h e a d o p t i n g u n i t s , i n c e n t i v e s y s t e m , r o l e of e v a l u a t i o n , p o l i t i c a l c o m p l e x i t y , ( p p . 367-368) A l t h o u g h t h e y u r g e d c a u t i o n i n v i e w i n g t h e s e f i n d i n g s as d e f i n i t i v e , t h e y n e v e r t h e l e s s s u g g e s t t h a t t h e r e was enough c o n s i s t e n c y i n t h e number of t i m e s c e r t a i n f a c t o r s were i d e n t i f i e d t o l e n d c r e d i b i l i t y t o t h e a n a l y s i s . I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o n o t e t h a t C a r r e & T u r k i n g t o n ( 1 9 8 2 ) u s e d t h e s e f o u r components o f i m p l e m e n t a t i o n as a b a s i s f o r d e s i g n i n g a p r o v i n c i a l m o d e l f o r t h e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a 42 S e c o n d a r y P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n G u i d e ( M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n , 1 9 8 0 ) . L o u c k s & L i e b e r m a n ( 1 9 8 2 ) s o u g h t t o e x p o s e t h e k e y u n d e r s t a n d i n g s e m e r g i n g f r o m r e s e a r c h and e x p e r i e n c e i n m a k i n g c u r r i c u l a r c h a n g e . They p r o p o s e d t h a t t h e f i n d i n g s of r e s e a r c h and d o c u m e n t e d e x p e r i e n c e be u s e d t o p l a n and c a r r y o u t more e f f e c t i v e c u r r i c u l u m i m p l e m e n t a t i o n . T h e s e a u t h o r s h o l d t h a t one of t h e key f a c t o r s r e l a t e d t o c u r r i c u l u m i m p l e m e n t a t i o n i s s u p p o r t f o r t h e p r o c e s s , and s u g g e s t t h a t t h i s c a n be i n t h e f o r m of m a t e r i a l s , human a s s i s t a n c e and m o r a l e b o o s t i n g , a d e q u a t e t i m e a l l o c a t i o n , and p e e r c o l l e g i a l i t y . S u p p o r t f r o m m u l t i p l e s o u r c e s o f p e r s o n n e l s u c h as p r i n c i p a l s , o t h e r t e a c h e r s , and e x t e r n a l s o u r c e s w i l l l i k e l y i n c r e a s e t h e c h a n c e s o f t h e c hange e f f o r t s u c c e e d i n g . L o u c k s and Z a c c h e i ( 1 9 8 3 ) h a v e a l s o h i g h l i g h t e d t h e i n g r e d i e n t s t h e y i m p l y a r e c r i t i c a l t o a s u c c e s s f u l c h a n g e , " ( 1 ) A w e l l d e f i n e d , " c l a s s r o o m f r i e n d l y 1 , e f f e c t i v e i n n o v a t i o n . (2) A m p l e , a p p r o p r i a t e , and c o n t i n u o u s h e l p f o r t e a c h e r s f r o m a v a r i e t y o f p l a y e r s . ( 3 ) C l e a r d i r e c t i o n f r o m a d m i n i s t r a t o r s . ( 4 ) A t t e n t i o n t o i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z a t i o n " ( p . 2 8 ) . W e r ner ( 1 9 8 2 , pp. 17-31) has s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h e r e a r e f i f t e e n g e n e r a l p r i n c i p l e s t h a t c o u l d be u s e d as a s t a r t i n g p o i n t f o r t h o s e c h a r g e d w i t h t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r i m p l e m e n t a t i o n . I n h i s s u g g e s t i o n s 43 f o r s u c c e s s f u l i m p l e m e n t a t i o n , he makes t h e f o l l o w i n g p o i n t s t h a t s h o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d i n t h e c o n t e x t of t h i s s t u d y . ( a ) P l a n n i n g a n t i c i p a t e s t a s k s , r o l e s , and r e s o u r c e s n e c e s s a r y t o put changes i n t o p r a c t i c e , ( b ) c u r r i c u l u m d e v e l o p e r s have r e a l i s t i c change e x p e c t a t i o n s and t h a t t h e y c l e a r l y a r t i c u l a t e t h o s e e x p e c t a t i o n s , ( c ) c u r r i c u l u m d e v e l o p e r s e n s u r e t h a t t h e d e s i g n o f new p r o g r a m s i s " p r a c t i c a l " , ( d ) i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f a new p r o g r a m r e q u i r e s t i m e and r o u t i n e u s e may t a k e two or t h r e e y e a r s t o a c h i e v e , ( e ) p r i o r i t i e s be e s t a b l i s h e d among c o m p e t i n g p r o g r a m demands i f a s c h o o l o r d i s t r i c t i s d e a l i n g w i t h s e v e r a l new p r o g r a m s a t one t i m e , ( f ) s c h o o l p r i n c i p a l s h a v e an a c t i v e and f a c i l i t a t i n g r o l e i n t h e p r o c e s s , (g) s u c c e s s f u l i m p l e m e n t a t i o n r e q u i r e s s p e c i f i c s t a f f d e v e l o p m e n t o p p o r t u n i t i e s as t h e need a r i s e s , and (h) s i n c e new p r o g r a m s w i l l u s u a l l y r e q u i r e a d a p t a t i o n t o meet l o c a l n e e d s , d e t a i l e d c l a r i f i c a t i o n o f t h e c u r r i c u l u m c h a n g e s depends on members of t h e s c h o o l s t a f f . T e a c h e r s s h o u l d t h e r e f o r e t r y t o b e g i n u s i n g t h e new p r o g r a m s as soon as p o s s i b l e ; t h e p r o g r a m w i l l a c q u i r e d e f i n i t i o n t h r o u g h u s e . S u c c e s s f u l i m p l e m e n t a t i o n , Werner s u g g e s t s , w i l l o c c u r o n l y i f " T e a c h e r s h a v e t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o s t u d y t h e new c u r r i c u l u m , l e a r n what c h a n g e s a r e i n v o l v e d , d i s c u s s i t w i t h c o l l e a g u e s , and a d a p t i t t o s u i t l o c a l c o n d i t i o n s and t h e needs o f t h e 44 s t u d e n t s " ( p . 1 0 ) . I n what has so f a r p r o v e n t o be t h e most c o m p r e h e n s i v e r e v i e w o f l i t e r a t u r e , F u l l a n ( 1 9 8 2 ) p u l l s t o g e t h e r much o f t h e common e l e m e n t s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h s u c c e s s f u l c h a n g e . H i s model o f change i d e n t i f i e s 15 f a c t o r s w h i c h he o r g a n i z e s i n t o f o u r c a t e g o r i e s . T h e s e a r e u n i q u e i n as much as " t h e y o f f e r a c o n v e r g e n c e o f f i n d i n g s f r o m two r e l a t i v e l y d i s t i n c t b o d i e s o f r e s e a r c h - t h a t on s c h o o l i n n o v a t i o n and t h a t on s c h o o l e f f e c t " ( p . 5 5 ) . W h i l e o t h e r m o d e l s m i g h t have p r o v i d e d a f r a m e w o r k f o r t h i s s t u d y , F u l l a n ' s seems r e a d i l y a d a p t a b l e f o r t h e a n a l y s i s o f e d u c a t i o n a l change as i t r e l a t e s s p e c i f i c a l l y t o g y m n a s t i c s ; i t s c u r r e n t and c o m p r e h e n s i v e n a t u r e a l s o p r o v i d e a c r e d i b i l i t y t h a t i s e c h o ed i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e . T h e s e f i f t e e n f a c t o r s and t h e i r p a r t i c u l a r i m p o r t t o t h i s s t u d y a r e p r e s e n t e d , t o g e t h e r w i t h b r i e f s t a t e m e n t s t o p l a c e them i n t h e c o n t e x t o f e d u c a t i o n a l change as i t r e l a t e s t o t h e t e a c h i n g o f g y m n a s t i c s . 1. Need I m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f a p a r t i c u l a r change w i l l be more e f f e c t i v e i f i t i s p e r c e i v e d by t e a c h e r s as a d d r e s s i n g a s p e c i f i c n e e d . F o r e x a m p l e , do t e a c h e r s s e e t h e need f o r e d u c a t i o n a l g y m n a s t i c s i n t h e p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n c u r r i c u l u m ? 45 2 . C l a r i t y The g o a l s of g y m n a s t i c s and means of a c h i e v i n g them need to be made c l e a r f o r t e a c h e r s . F o r example, do c u r r i c u l u m g u i d e s t h a t a d v o c a t e e d u c a t i o n a l g y m n a s t i c s p r o v i d e t e a c h e r s w i t h enough c l a r i t y i n o r d e r f o r them to use the g u i d e ? 3. C o m p l e x i t y G y m n a s t i c s can r e q u i r e complex changes i n t e a c h i n g s t r a t e g i e s , m a t e r i a l s , and b e l i e f s of t h e t e a c h e r s . F o r example, t h e use o f t e a c h i n g m e t h o d o l o g y t h a t i s not of t h e "command' s t y l e , or t h e use of heavy or l a r g e e quipment. 4. Q u a l i t y and p r a c t i c a l i t y of program ( e . g . ,  mat e r i a l s . ) C u r r i c u l u m m a t e r i a l s t h a t a r e p r a c t i c a l , of good q u a l i t y , and meet th e r e q u i r e m e n t s of the program must be a v a i l a b l e ( e . g . , see Thompson & P o t v i n , 1982). I n a d d i t i o n , t h e p h y s i c a l c o n d i t i o n s of the s c h o o l must be a p p r o p r i a t e f o r g y m n a s t i c s i n s t r u c t i o n . F o r example, a c c e s s to equipment t h a t i s n e c e s s a r y f o r a q u a l i t y program i n g y m n a s t i c s . 5. The h i s t o r y of i n n o v a t i v e a t t e m p t s T e a c h e r s who have had n e g a t i v e e x p e r i e n c e s w i t h p r e v i o u s change a t t e m p t s w i l l be more s k e p t i c a l about s u g g e s t i o n s f o r f u t u r e change, r e g a r d l e s s of t h e 46 p o s s i b l e b e n e f i t s . I n t h e c a s e of e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , t h e p r o c e s s f o r i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f t h e 1975 p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n g u i d e was s i m i l a r t o t h a t o f t h e g u i d e of 1971; a p a r t f r o m s u p p l y i n g a number of r e s o u r c e b o o k s , l i t t l e a s s i s t a n c e was o f f e r e d t e a c h e r s i n t h e i r a c q u i s i t i o n o f t h e new k n o w l e d g e and s k i l l s n e e d ed t o use a p p r o p r i a t e t e a c h i n g methods i n t e a c h i n g t h e new f o r m ( i . e . , e d u c a t i o n a l ) of g y m n a s t i c s (Moody, 1 9 8 2 ) . 6. The a d o p t i o n p r o c e s s The q u a l i t y o f t h e a d o p t i o n p r o c e s s s e t s t h e s t a g e f o r t h e s u b s e q u e n t s u c c e s s or f a i l u r e o f an i n n o v a t i o n . The a s s i s t a n c e p r o v i d e d by t h e M i n i s t r y o f E d u c t i o n i n t h e a d o p t i o n o f what was recommended i n t h e c u r r i c u l u m g u i d e s of 1971 and 1975 was m i n i m a l (Moody, 1 9 8 2 ) . 7. C e n t r a l a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s u p p o r t and i n v o l v e m e n t A l t h o u g h i n d i v i d u a l s and s i n g l e s c h o o l s can b r i n g a b o u t c h a n g e , i f b o a r d s u p p o r t i s i n c i d e n t a l , d i s t r i c t - w i d e c hange i n g y m n a s t i c s p r o g r a m s w i l l n o t l i k e l y h a ppen ( e . g . , a s s i s t a n c e f r o m c o n s u l t a n t s w i t h p r o g r a m and m a t e r i a l s , o r g a n i z a t i o n o f i n - s e r v i c e , and o t h e r s u p p o r t was a v a i l a b l e t o v e r y few s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ( M o o d y , 1 9 8 2 ) ) . 47 8. S t a f f d e v e l o p m e n t ( i n - s e r v i c e ) and  p a r t i c i p a t i o n I n - s e r v i c e i n g y m n a s t i c s i s a p r o c e s s n o t an e v e n t . As s u c h , p o t e n t i a l new ways of " d o i n g " , new s k i l l s , k n o w l e d g e , and a t t i t u d e s i n t h e t e a c h i n g of g y m n a s t i c s w i l l r e q u i r e o n - g o i n g s u p p o r t f r o m p e e r s and o t h e r s . F o r e x a m p l e , t e a c h e r s w i l l need h e l p t o d e v e l o p a theme o v e r a s e r i e s of l e s s o n s ( e . g . , see W i l l i a m s , 1 9 7 9 ) . 9. T i m e - l i n e and i n f o r m a t i o n s y s t e m ( e v a l u a t i o n ) I m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f g y m n a s t i c s p r o g r a m s r e q u i r e a t i m e - l i n e t h a t i s g u i d e d by t h e c o m p l e x i t i e s o f t h e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n p r o c e s s . Time i s needed f o r s u c h a r e a s as i n - s e r v i c e , b e c o m i n g c o m f o r t a b l e w i t h u s i n g e a c h a s p e c t o f t h e g y m n a s t i c s i n n o v a t i o n , ( e . g . , s m a l l a p p a r a t u s , f l o o r w o r k , use o f t h e m e s ) , and b e i n g a b l e t o i n t e r a c t w i t h o t h e r t e a c h e r s a b o u t t h e i n n o v a t i o n . F o r e x a m p l e , s h a r i n g s i m i l a r s u c c e s s e s o r p i t f a l l s i n d e v e l o p i n g t h e m e s , or t e a c h i n g m e t h o d o l o g i e s t h a t m i g h t be new t o them. 10. B o a r d and community c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s A l t h o u g h i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o g e n e r a l i z e , p a r e n t s i n t h e community ca n a f f e c t t h e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n of a g y m n a s t i c s p r o g r a m . F o r e x a m p l e , t h e y can i n s i s t t h a t t h e c u r r i c u l u m g u i d e l i n e s i n g y m n a s t i c s be f o l l o w e d ; r a i s e f u n d s t o add t o g y m n a s t i c s e q u i p m e n t ; 48 o r p r o v i d e p h y s i c a l a s s i s t a n c e w i t h t h e p r o g r a m . 11. The p r i n c i p a l A l t h o u g h change i s p o s s i b l e w i t h o u t t h e p r i n c i p a l , he o r she c a n s t r o n g l y , i n f l u e n c e t h e l i k e l i h o o d o f w h e t h e r a g y m n a s t i c s i n n o v a t i o n i s i m p l e m e n t e d s u c c e s s f u l l y by d e m o n s t r a t i n g i n t e r e s t and p r o v i d i n g m o t i v a t i o n . F o r e x a m p l e , t h e p r i n c i p a l can show s u p p o r t f o r b o t h t h e t e a c h e r and a s c h o o l - w i d e p r o g r a m by p r o v i d i n g a s s i s t a n c e w i t h a r r a n g i n g f o r a g r o u p o f c l a s s e s t o u s e t h e gym on a p a r t i c u l a r day ( e s p e c i a l l y i f t h i s i n v o l v e s t h e use o f h e a v y o r l a r g e e q u i p m e n t ) . 12. T e a c h e r - t e a c h e r r e l a t i o n s The q u a l i t y o f t h e w o r k i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p s b e t w e e n t e a c h e r s i s r e l a t e d t o i m p l e m e n t a t i o n . P e e r s u p p o r t and c o a c h i n g ( e . g . , by someone k n o w l e d g e a b l e on s t a f f ) c a n i n f l u e n c e t h e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f g y m n a s t i c s p r o g r a m s ( f o r a f u l l e r d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h i s a s p e c t see J o y c e & S h o w e r s , 1 9 8 0 ) . 13. T e a c h e r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and o r i e n t a t i o n s One t e a c h e r t r a i t t h a t has been i d e n t i f i e d w i t h s u c c e s s f u l i m p l e m e n t a t i o n i s t e a c h e r s e n s e o f e f f i c a c y . A l t h o u g h i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o e x p l a i n how t e a c h e r s g e t a s e n s e o f e f f i c a c y , t h e i n f l u e n c e o f t e a c h e r b e l i e f s , t e a c h e r c o m p e t e n c i e s , and t e a c h e r 49 k n o w l e d g e can i n f l u e n c e t h e t e a c h i n g o f g y m n a s t i c s . 14. Government a g e n c i e s The l i k e l i h o o d o f i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o c c u r r i n g w i l l depend upon t h e c o n g r u e n c e b e t w e e n r e f o r m and l o c a l n e e d , and on how c h a n g e s a r e i n t r o d u c e d and f o l l o w e d t h r o u g h . F o r e x a m p l e , l a c k o f r o l e c l a r i t y b e t w e e n e x t e r n a l and i n t e r n a l g r o u p s c o n c e r n i n g t h e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f t h e c u r r i c u l u m g u i d e s o f 1971 and 1975 r e s u l t e d i n l i t t l e a s s i s t a n c e b e i n g o f f e r e d t o t e a c h e r s . 15. E x t e r n a l a s s i s t a n c e T e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e i n t h e f o r m o f m a t e r i a l s , c o n s u l t a n t s , and s t a f f d e v e l o p m e n t s h o u l d be p r o v i d e d by t h e g o v e r n m e n t who i n i t i a t e d t h e c h a n g e . L a r g e r s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s may h a v e t h e r e s o u r c e s t o p r o v i d e t h i s a s s i s t a n c e t h r o u g h t h e i r c e n t r a l o f f i c e . I t i s t h e s m a l l e r d i s t r i c t s ( e . g . , t h o s e w i t h o u t p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n c o n s u l t a n t s o r c o o r d i n a t o r s ) who have t o i n i t i a t e s p e c i f i c h e l p f o r t e a c h e r s t o d e v e l o p e f f e c t i v e g y m n a s t i c p r o g r a m s . Summary. W h i l e t h e p r e c e d i n g e x h a u s t i v e e x p l a n a t i o n o f i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e r e a r e i n f l u e n c e t h e d i r e c t i o n pages do n o t r e p r e s e n t an i m p l e m e n t a t i o n , t h e y c l e a r l y common e l e m e n t s t h a t c a n and e x t e n t o f e d u c a t i o n a l 50 change. The p u r p o s e of t h i s r e v i e w of i m p l e m e n t a t i o n was to p r e s e n t c e r t a i n f a c t o r s t h a t a p pear to be s i g n i f i c a n t i n e d u c a t i o n a l change, e s p e c i a l l y as i t r e l a t e s to t h e t e a c h i n g of g y m n a s t i c s . In t h i s s t u d y , the work of F u l l a n (1982) has been shown to be p a r t i c u l a r l y r e l e v a n t , e s p e c i a l l y when he n o t e s t h a t : The c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of t h e n a t u r e of t h e change, t h e make-up of t h e l o c a l d i s t r i c t , t h e c h a r a c t e r of i n d i v i d u a l s c h o o l s and t e a c h e r s , and t h e e x i s t e n c e and f o r m of e x t e r n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n t e r a c t to p r o d u c e c o n d i t i o n s f o r change or non-change. I t t a k e s a f o r t u n a t e c o m b i n a t i o n of t h e r i g h t f a c t o r s - a c r i t i c a l mass - t o s u p p o r t and g u i d e t h e p r o c e s s of r e s o c i a l i z a t i o n w h i c h r e s p e c t s t h e m a i n t e n a n c e needs of i n d i v i d u a l s and grou p s and at t h e same time f a c i l i t a t e s , s t i m u l a t e s , p r o d s p e o p l e to change t h r o u g h a p r o c e s s o f i n c r e m e n t a l and d e c r e m e n t a l f i t s and s t a r t s on the way to i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z i n g or d i s c o n t i n u i n g t h e change i n q u e s t i o n " (p. 7 9 ) . Thus, F u l l a n ' s model a p p e a r s to p r o v i d e a u s e f u l c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n of t h e a n a l y s i s of i m p l e m e n t a t i o n f a c t o r s as t h e y r e l a t e to t h e t e a c h i n g of g y m n a s t i c s . A d d i t i o n a l f a c t o r s s p e c i f i c to g y m n a s t i c s . E a c h a r e a of c u r r i c u l u m change has i t s own s p e c i f i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . The t e a c h i n g of g y m n a s t i c s i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a c o n c e r n f o r t h e s a f e t y o f p e r f o r m e r s , and t h i s f a c t o r s h o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d as 51 i m p o r t a n t as o t h e r f a c t o r s o u t l i n e d i n t h e p r e v i o u s s e c t i o n . T h e r e a r e numerous r e f e r e n c e s i n the l i t e r a t u r e t o t h e s a f e t y a s p e c t s o f g y m n a s t i c s ( e . g . , M o r i s o n , 1969; Dauer & P a n g r a z i , 1983; K i r c h n e r , 1985; Graham e t a l . , 1980), but v e r y few a d d r e s s t h e t o p i c i n terms of a f a c t o r t h a t c o u l d i n f l u e n c e a t e a c h e r ' s p r a c t i c e . Graham et a l . (1980) have s u g g e s t e d t h a t "Some t e a c h e r s a v o i d g y m n a s t i c s b e c a u s e t h e y a r e c o n c e r n e d about t h e s a f e t y o f t h e c h i l d r e n and a r e a f r a i d t h a t c h i l d r e n might be i n j u r e d " (p. 146). W a r r e l l (1978) has a l s o i n d i c a t e d t h a t "Many b e g i n n i n g t e a c h e r s a r e q u i t e r i g h t l y c o n c e r n e d about s a f e t y i n t h e gymnasium and q u e s t i o n t h e i r competence t o p r e v e n t a c c i d e n t s " (p. 4 2 ) . The c o n c e r n of t e a c h e r s f o r t h e s a f e t y of t h e i r s t u d e n t s and t h e r e s u l t i n g c o n s e q u e n c e s o f t e a c h e r l i a b i l i t y s h o u l d not be r e l e g a t e d to t h a t of m i n i m a l i m p o r t a n c e . I t s h o u l d be a f f o r d e d e q u a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n when c o n s i d e r i n g f a c t o r s t h a t a f f e c t e d u c a t i o n a l change and t h e t e a c h i n g of g y m n a s t i c s . 2.6 Summary T h i s r e v i e w has so u g h t to e s t a b l i s h a c l e a r e r c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n of t h e c o m p l e x i t i e s of g y m n a s t i c s i n s t r u c t i o n and t h e r e b y g a i n a c l e a r e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e t e a c h i n g of g y m n a s t i c s from the view of the 52 t e a c h e r . In o r d e r to a d d r e s s t h i s p u r p o s e , the f o l l o w i n g a r e a s have p r o v i d e d a f o c i : 1. An e x a m i n a t i o n of g y m n a s t i c s and g y m n a s t i c s i n s t r u c t i o n f r o m an h i s t o r i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e ; 2. An e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e r o l e of g y m n a s t i c s i n t h e s c h o o l c o n t e x t ; 3. An e x a m i n a t i o n of c u r r e n t t r e n d s i n g y m n a s t i c s i n s t r u c t i o n ; and 4. An e x a m i n a t i o n of f a c t o r s w h i c h i n f l u e n c e t e a c h e r s i n t h e i r d e c i s i o n s c o n c e r n i n g t h e t e a c h i n g of g y m n a s t i c s . An h i s t o r i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e showed how g y m n a s t i c s i n s t r u c t i o n i n t h e s c h o o l s has e v o l v e d to i t s p r e s e n t forms of O l y m p i c g y m n a s t i c s and e d u c a t i o n a l g y m n a s t i c s . An e x a m i n a t i o n of t h e r o l e of g y m n a s t i c s i n t h e s c h o o l c o n t e x t p r e s e n t e d p o s s i b l e i n s i g h t s i n t o t h e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f r a t i o n a l e s t h a t t e a c h e r s form when making d e c i s i o n s c o n c e r n i n g g y m n a s t i c s as p a r t of a c u r r i c u l u m . The l i t e r a t u r e r e l a t e d to c u r r e n t t r e n d s i n g y m n a s t i c s s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h e a p p r o a c h to t h e t e a c h i n g of g y m n a s t i c s c o u l d be c h a n g i n g . T h i s change would see l e s s of a d i s t i n c t i o n between O l y m p i c g y m n a s t i c s and e d u c a t i o n a l g y m n a s t i c s and would see an a p p r o a c h t h a t combines t h e c h a l l e n g e of O l y m p i c g y m n a s t i c s but u s i n g t h e m e t h o d o l o g y f a v o u r e d w i t h e d u c a t i o n a l g y m n a s t i c s . 53 T h e f i n a l f o c a l a r e a o f t h e l i t e r a t u r e r e v i e w c o n c e r n e d e d u c a t i o n a l c h a n g e a s i t r e l a t e s s p e c i f i c a l l y t o g y m n a s t i c s . T h e r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l a m o u n t o f s t u d i e s t h a t w e r e f o u n d s p e c i f i c a l l y d e a l i n g w i t h g y m n a s t i c s n e c e s s i t a t e d a n i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f t h e g e n e r a l l i t e r a t u r e t h a t h a s i d e n t i f i e d f a c t o r s i n f l u e n c i n g s u c c e s s f u l c h a n g e . S t u d i e s t h a t i d e n t i f i e d s p e c i f i c f a c t o r s p o s i t i v e l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h e d u c a t i o n a l c h a n g e a n d , s t u d i e s t h a t h a v e i d e n t i f i e d g e n e r a l f a c t o r s c o n c e r n i n g s u c c e s s f u l e d u c a t i o n a l c h a n g e , w e r e d i s c u s s e d . T h e c o m m o n a l i t y o f t h e e l e m e n t s i d e n t i f i e d i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e h a v e b e e n p u l l e d t o g e t h e r b y F u l l a n ( 1 9 8 2 ) , a n d i t w a s h i s m o d e l o f 15 f a c t o r s w h i c h i n f l u e n c e e d u c a t i o n a l c h a n g e t h a t f o r m e d t h e c o n c e p t u a l f r a m e w o r k o f t h i s s t u d y . I n a d d i t i o n , c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s s p e c i f i c t o g y m n a s t i c s t h a t c o u l d h a v e a d i r e c t b e a r i n g o n e d u c a t i o n a l c h a n g e w e r e i d e n t i f i e d a n d r e v i e w e d . 54 CHAPTER 3 M e t h o d o l o g y • 1 I n t r o d u c t i o n T h i s s t u d y r e q u i r e d d a t a c o n c e r n i n g t h e r a t i o n a l e t e a c h e r s g i v e f o r c o m p l i a n c e or n o n - c o m p l i a n c e w i t h c u r r i c u l u m g u i d e l i n e s i n t h e t e a c h i n g of e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l g y m n a s t i c s . Two Lower M a i n l a n d s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s i n the P r o v i n c e of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a were a p p r o a c h e d f o r p e r m i s s i o n to d i s t r i b u t e q u e s t i o n n a i r e s to t e a c h e r s . One d i s t r i c t was somewhat s m a l l e r t h a n t h e o t h e r , but each d i s t r i c t had u n i q u e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s ( e . g . , i n s u p p o r t s e r v i c e s ) t h a t might h e l p e x p l a i n t h e q u e s t i o n o f c o m p l i a n c e or n o n - c o m p l i a n c e w i t h c u r r i c u l u m g u i d e l i n e s . B e c a u s e d a t a were r e q u i r e d f r o m a l a r g e sample of t e a c h e r s , i t was f e l t t h e a p p r o a c h t h a t would b e s t s e r v e t h i s p u r p o s e was the " m a i l q u e s t i o n n a i r e * . , 2 P o p u l a t i o n The p o p u l a t i o n to w h i c h i n f e r e n c e s a r e to be made c o n s i s t s of g e n e r a l i s t p r i m a r y t e a c h e r s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t e a c h i n g p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n to t h e i r homeroom 55 c l a s s e s i n t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a p u b l i c s c h o o l s y s t e m i n t h e Lower M a i n l a n d and o t h e r s i m i l a r u r b a n s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s . 3.3 Sample D i s t r i c t A. The d i r e c t o r y o f e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l s i n t h i s d i s t r i c t was numbered f r o m 1 t o 84. U s i n g a random number t a b l e , a l i s t o f 21 s c h o o l s was o b t a i n e d and a l l 100 p r i m a r y t e a c h e r s i n t h e s e s c h o o l s were i n c l u d e d i n t h e p o p u l a t i o n s a m p l e . D i s t r i c t B. A l l 32 p r i m a r y t e a c h e r s were s e l e c t e d f r o m t h e n i n e e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l s w i t h p r i m a r y d i v i s i o n s i n t h i s d i s t r i c t . T h i s number c o n s t i t u t e d 100 p e r c e n t o f t h e t e a c h e r s of t h e p r i m a r y g r a d e s . 3.4 D e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e I n i t i a l c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e f o l l o w e d d i s c u s s i o n s w i t h e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l t e a c h e r s and e x p e r t s i n t h e f i e l d o f p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n i n s c h o o l s and u n i v e r s i t i e s , as w e l l as e x a m i n i n g r e l a t e d q u e s t i o n n a i r e l i t e r a t u r e , s u c h as t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n T e a c h e r Q u e s t i o n n a i r e ( C a r r e , 1 9 8 0 ) . A p r e l i m i n a r y t e s t i n g o f t h i s i n i t i a l d r a f t was made on an i n f o r m a l b a s i s w i t h t e a c h e r s f r o m 56 D i s t r i c t A n o t e l i g i b l e i n t h e s a m p l e . T h i s d r a f t had s p a c e s f o r r e s p o n d e n t s t o make a d d i t i o n a l comments a n d , f r o m an a n a l y s i s o f t h e r e t u r n e d q u e s t i o n n a i r e s , a p p r o p r i a t e a d d i t i o n s , d e l e t i o n s , and m o d i f i c a t i o n s w e r e p e r f o r m e d . The r e v i s e d q u e s t i o n n a i r e ( s e e A p p e n d i x A) was t h e n p i l o t t e s t e d i n December, 1985, w i t h p r i m a r y t e a c h e r s f r o m a t h i r d s c h o o l d i s t r i c t i n t h e Lower M a i n l a n d who met t h e c r i t e r i a s t i p u l a t e d i n s e c t i o n 1.4. Twenty q u e s t i o n n a i r e s w e r e d i s t r i b u t e d and 14 w e r e r e t u r n e d f o r a r e t u r n r a t e o f 70 p e r c e n t . The r e t u r n s c o n t a i n e d s e v e r a l u s e f u l comments a n d , on t h e b a s i s o f t h e s e and d i s c u s s i o n s w i t h t h e a u t h o r ' s r e s e a r c h c o m m i t t e e , c h a n g e s were made t o q u e s t i o n s and t h e f o r m a t o f t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e . The f i n a l q u e s t i o n n a i r e ( A p p e n d i x B) c o n t a i n e d two s e c t i o n s . The f i r s t s e c t i o n was d e s i g n e d t o g a t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n c o n c e r n i n g f a c t o r s t h a t t e a c h e r s i d e n t i f i e d as b e i n g i m p o r t a n t d e t e r m i n a n t s i n t h e t e a c h i n g o f g y m n a s t i c s . A L i k e r t - t y p e s c a l e was u s e d f o r t h i s s e c t i o n , t h e a v a i l a b l e r e s p o n s e s b e i n g ; S t r o n g l y A g r e e ( S A ) , A g r e e ( A ) , U n c e r t a i n ( U ) , D i s a g r e e ( D ) , and S t r o n g l y D i s a g r e e ( S D ) . A l l i t e m s r e q u i r e d a c i r c l e r e s p o n s e . The f i v e r e s p o n s e s SA, A, U, D, and SD were w e i g h t e d o ne, t w o , t h r e e , f o u r , and f i v e r e s p e c t i v e l y f o r t a b u l a t i o n . The w e i g h t i n g f o r t h e two n e g a t i v e 57 q u e s t i o n s (numbers f o u r and 12) was r e v e r s e d so t h a t t h e r e s p o n s e s f o r SA, A, U, D, and SD were w e i g h t e d f i v e , f o u r , t h r e e , two and one r e s p e c t i v e l y f o r t a b u l a t i o n . T h i s was done t o f a c i l i t a t e e a s i e r c o m p i l a t i o n and a n a l y s i s o f t h e d a t a , and t h e r e s u l t s f r o m t h i s s e c t i o n a r e p r e s e n t e d i n c h a p t e r f o u r . An a d d i t i o n a l q u e s t i o n i n t h i s s e c t i o n a s k e d r e s p o n d e n t s t o i d e n t i f y any a d d i t i o n a l r e a s o n s t h e y had f o r t e a c h i n g o r n o t t e a c h i n g g y m n a s t i c s . The s e c o n d s e c t i o n o f t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e p r o v i d e d f o r d e m o g r a p h i c d a t a r e l a t e d t o g e n d e r , age, number o f y e a r s o f t e a c h i n g e x p e r i e n c e , and g r a d e l e v e l t a u g h t . R e s p o n d e n t s w ere a l s o a s k e d t o i n d i c a t e t h e p r o p o r t i o n o f p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n t i m e t h a t i n v o l v e d g y m n a s t i c s i n s t r u c t i o n , t h e f r e q u e n c y and t o t a l m i n u t e s p e r week t h e i r c l a s s r e c e i v e d p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n , and w h e t h e r t h e y had r e c e i v e d p r e - s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g i n g y m n a s t i c s . An a d d i t i o n a l q u e s t i o n a s k e d t h e r e s p o n d e n t s t o i n d i c a t e t h r e e d i f f e r e n t a c t i v i t i e s t h e y w o u l d n o r m a l l y i n c l u d e i n t h e i r g y m n a s t i c s c l a s s e s . The p u r p o s e o f t h i s s e c t i o n was to i d e n t i f y t h e p r o p o r t i o n o f a p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n p r o g r a m t h a t t e a c h e r s were a l l o c a t i n g t o t h e c u r r i c u l u m a c t i v i t y of g y m n a s t i c s . I n a d d i t i o n , t h i s s e c t i o n a l s o p r o v i d e d i n f o r m a t i o n c o n c e r n i n g f a c t o r s t h a t c o u l d i n f l u e n c e t e a c h e r s i n t h e t e a c h i n g o f g y m n a s t i c s . A d d i t i o n a l d a t a i n t h i s s e c t i o n p r o v i d e d i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t c o u l d be u s e d i n a 58 d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e r e s u l t s . Items i n t h i s s e c t i o n were to be answered w i t h a check mark or as i n d i c a t e d i n t h e i n s t r u c t i o n s . Time f o r c o m p l e t i o n o f t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e was e s t i m a t e d at a p p r o x i m a t e l y f i f t e e n m i n u t e s . The q u e s t i o n n a i r e was d i s t r i b u t e d to the s e l e c t e d sample i n J a n u a r y , 1986. The r e a s o n f o r c h o o s i n g t h i s t i m e of t h e s c h o o l y e a r was t h a t t h e r e s e a r c h e r f e l t , f r o m p e r s o n a l e x p e r i e n c e and i n d i s c u s s i o n s w i t h c o l l e a g u e s , t h a t g y m n a s t i c s i n s t r u c t i o n was at i t s peak d u r i n g t h e w i n t e r term. Q u e s t i o n s r e l a t i n g to g y m n a s t i c s i n s t r u c t i o n , i t was r e a s o n e d , would be at an optimum l e v e l w i t h r e s p e c t to r e l e v a n c y and would m i n i m i z e r e s p o n s e e r r o r as a f u n c t i o n of memory. 3.5 P r o c e d u r e s P e r m i s s i o n to c o n d u c t t h i s s t u d y was sought and o b t a i n e d f r o m t h e C e n t r a l O f f i c e a d m i n i s t r a t o r s i n b o t h s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s . In a d d i t i o n , p e r m i s s i o n to c o n d u c t t h e s t u d y was o b t a i n e d from the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a E t h i c s Committee. The q u e s t i o n n a i r e , w i t h a l e t t e r e x p l a i n i n g t h e p u r p o s e of t h e s t u d y and e n s u r i n g r e s p o n d e n t s ' a n o n y m i t y ( s e e A p p e n d i x B ) , was d i s t r i b u t e d i n J a n u a r y , 1986 to the t e a c h e r s i d e n t i f i e d i n t h e sample. The q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were d e l i v e r e d by hand to each s c h o o l i n b o t h d i s t r i c t s . I n D i s t r i c t A, a 59 q u e s t i o n n a i r e and a r e t u r n , a d d r e s s e d e n v e l o p e , was p l a c e d i n t h e p e r s o n a l box of e ach s a m p l e t e a c h e r . I n D i s t r i c t B, t h e a u t h o r was a b l e t o p l a c e t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e , w i t h a r e t u r n , a d d r e s s e d e n v e l o p e i n t h e p e r s o n a l b o x e s o f t e a c h e r s i n o n l y s i x of t h e n i n e s c h o o l s . I n t h e o t h e r t h r e e s c h o o l s , e i t h e r a s e c r e t a r y o r t h e p r i n c i p a l i n s i s t e d on t a k i n g c h a r g e o f t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e . S i n c e t h o s e t o be s u r v e y e d w e r e t o r e m a i n anonymous t o t h e r e s e a r c h e r , p r o c e d u r e s t o m a x i m i z e t h e r e s p o n s e r a t e were as f o l l o w s : 1. A l l r e t u r n e n v e l o p e s w e r e a d d r e s s e d t o t h e r e s e a r c h e r . S u b j e c t s i n D i s t r i c t A were e n c o u r a g e d to u s e t h e s c h o o l m a i l s y s t e m t o r e t u r n t h e i r q u e s t i o n n a i r e s . S u b j e c t s i n D i s t r i c t B were p r o v i d e d w i t h a s t a m p e d , a d d r e s s e d e n v e l o p e i n o r d e r t o r e t u r n t h e i r q u e s t i o n n a i r e s . 2 . A f o l l o w - u p l e t t e r was p l a c e d i n t h e b o x e s of a l l s u b j e c t s a f t e r a p e r i o d of 1 0 d a y s . T h i s was done i n D i s t r i c t A u s i n g a t e a c h e r known p e r s o n a l l y t o t h e a u t h o r i n e a c h s c h o o l . I n D i s t r i c t B, s c h o o l s e c r e t a r i e s a g r e e d to p e r f o r m t h i s t a s k . 3. The c o n t a c t i n D i s t r i c t A was phoned a f t e r a f u r t h e r p e r i o d o f 1 0 d a y s and a s k e d to make p e r s o n a l c o n t a c t w i t h t h e s u b j e c t s c o n c e r n i n g t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e . I n D i s t r i c t B, a f o l l o w - u p l e t t e r was 60 s e n t to the p r i n c i p a l of each s c h o o l i n the d i s t r i c t . G r e a t c a r e was t a k e n to i m p r e s s upon t h e p r i n c i p a l s , s c h o o l s e c r e t a r i e s , and p e r s o n a l c o n t a c t s i n a l l s c h o o l s t h a t the anonymity of the s u b j e c t s was of utmost i m p o r t a n c e . Thus, i n each c a s e of a f o l l o w - u p , a l l s u b j e c t s were c o n t a c t e d w i t h no attempt to d e t e r m i n e whether c o m p l e t e d q u e s t i o n n a i r e s had a l r e a d y been r e t u r n e d . 3.6 D a t a A n a l y s i s The v a r i o u s r e s p o n s e s to i t e m s 1-14 f r o m P a r t I and 1-7 f r o m P a r t I I o f t h e s u r v e y i n s t r u m e n t , as w e l l as t h e r e s p o n s e s f r o m each d i s t r i c t were a s s i g n e d a number w h i c h was t r a n s f e r r e d to a F o r t r a n c o d i n g s h e e t . T h i s i n f o r m a t i o n was i n p u t and v e r i f i e d on the I.B.M/M.T.S. a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a Computing C e n t e r . The d a t a were t r e a t e d u s i n g the S t a t i s t i c a l P a c k a g e f o r t h e S o c i a l S c i e n c e s (S.P.S.S.) D e s c r i p t i v e s t a t i s t i c s of f r e q u e n c y d i s t r i b u t i o n , mean, s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n , and r e l a t i v e and a d j u s t e d p e r c e n t a g e s were computed. The S.P.S.S. program p e r m i t t e d f u r t h e r m a n i p u l a t i o n of t h e r e s p o n s e s to t h e i t e m s i n the q u e s t i o n n a i r e as f o l l o w s : 1. One way a n a l y s i s of v a r i a n c e (ANOVA) between 61 t h e d i s t r i c t s f o r each of t h e s t a t e m e n t s 1-14 on P a r t I of t h e s u r v e y i n s t r u m e n t was p e r f o r m e d to d e t e r m i n e w hether t h e means of t h e samples were s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t from each o t h e r . 2. C r o s s t a b u l a t i o n of t h e d a t a between s t a t e m e n t s 1-14 on P a r t I and D i s t r i c t s A and B was p e r f o r m e d . 3. A one sample c h i - s q u a r e t e s t was used to d e t e r m i n e whether t h e f r e q u e n c y of r e s p o n s e to the p r o p o r t i o n of t h e t o t a l p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n program t h a t i n v o l v e s g y m n a s t i c s i n s t r u c t i o n was s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t to t h a t e x p e c t e d by c h a n c e . 4. One way a n a l y s i s of v a r i a n c e (ANOVA) between t h e d i s t r i c t s and i t e m 5 on P a r t I I o f t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e was p e r f o r m e d to d e t e r m i n e whether the means of t h e sample were s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t from each o t h e r . 5. C r o s s - t a b u l a t i o n o f t h e d a t a u s i n g t h e c h i - s q u a r e t e s t of a s s o c i a t i o n between s t a t e m e n t s 1-14 on P a r t I and i t e m 5 on P a r t I I was p e r f o r m e d to d e t e r m i n e i f t h e r e was any s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p between f a c t o r s i d e n t i f i e d as d e t e r m i n a n t s i n the amount of time a l l o c a t e d to g y m n a s t i c s and t h e p r o p o r t i o n of t o t a l p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n program t h a t i n v o l v e s g y m n a s t i c s i n s t r u c t i o n . 6. One way a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e (ANOVA) between t h e d i s t r i c t s f o r each of t h e i t e m s 2, 4, and 7 on 62 P a r t I I of t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e was p e r f o r m e d to d e t e r m i n e whether t h e means o f t h e samples were s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t from each o t h e r . 7. C r o s s - t a b u l a t i o n o f t h e d a t a u s i n g the c h i - s q u a r e t e s t of a s s o c i a t i o n between i t e m 5 on P a r t I I and i t e m s 2,4, and 7 on P a r t I I was p e r f o r m e d to d e t e r m i n e i f t h e r e was any s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e p r o p o r t i o n o f t o t a l p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n p rogram t h a t i n v o l v e s g y m n a s t i c s i n s t r u c t i o n and age, g r a d e l e v e l t a u g h t , and p r e - s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g of t e a c h e r s . A d d i t i o n a l f i n d i n g s i n c l u d e d d a t a f r o m P a r t I I o f t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e . T h e s e d a t a were t a b u l a t e d to p e r m i t a n a l y s i s of t h e samples from each d i s t r i c t as w e l l to p r o v i d e i n f o r m a t i o n to be used i n a d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e r e s u l t s . 63 CHAPTER 4 The R e s u l t s of t h e Study 4.1 O v e r v i e w The p u r p o s e of t h i s s t u d y was to examine t e a c h e r r a t i o n a l e f o r c o m p l i a n c e or n o n - c o m p l i a n c e w i t h c u r r i c u l u m g u i d e l i n e s i n t h e t e a c h i n g of e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l g y m n a s t i c s . T h i s s t u d y u s e d a q u e s t i o n n a i r e to e s t a b l i s h : 1. How much t i m e i s g i v e n by p r i m a r y t e a c h e r s t o t h e t e a c h i n g of g y m n a s t i c s t o t h e i r homeroom c l a s s e s . 2. F a c t o r s w h i c h p r i m a r y t e a c h e r s i d e n t i f y as b e i n g i m p o r t a n t d e t e r m i n a n t s i n the amount of time t h e y a l l o c a t e to t h e t e a c h i n g of g y m n a s t i c s . T h i s c h a p t e r d e t a i l s t h e a n a l y s i s of the d a t a o b t a i n e d f r o m t h e 74 c o m p l e t e d q u e s t i o n n a i r e s . S e c t i o n 4.2 r e p o r t s t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e r e t u r n r a t e . I n s e c t i o n s 4.3 and 4.4 t h e d a t a r e l a t e d to the two major 64 g o a l s o f t h i s s t u d y a r e a n a l y z e d : A d d i t i o n a l f i n d i n g s c o n c e r n i n g P a r t I I o f t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e a r e p r e s e n t e d i n s e c t i o n 4.5. 4.2 Q u e s t i o n n a i r e R e t u r n R a t e T a b l e 1 D i s t r i c t D i s t r i b u t e d R e t u r n e d % R e t u r n e d A 100 58 58 B 32 16 50 A+B 132 74 56 T a b l e 1 shows t h a t 56% of t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e s w e r e r e t u r n e d f o r a n a l y s i s . 4.3 Time A l l o c a t i o n f o r G y m n a s t i c s The f i r s t q u e s t i o n t h i s s t u d y u n d e r t o o k t o answer was: How much t i m e i s g i v e n by p r i m a r y t e a c h e r s t o t h e t e a c h i n g of g y m n a s t i c s t o t h e i r homeroom c l a s s e s ? The r e s p o n s e s t o i t e m f i v e on t h e s e c t i o n o f t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e ( P a r t I I ) c o n c e r n i n g d e m o g r a p h i c d a t a w e r e a n a l y z e d and t a b u l a t e d ( T a b l e 2) t o o b t a i n an an s w e r f o r t h i s q u e s t i o n . The mean s c o r e was d e r i v e d by a s s i g n i n g t h e f o l l o w i n g n u m e r i c a l v a l u e s : 0%=1 t o 65 30%=7. A one s a m p l e c h i - s q u a r e t e s t was u s e d t o d e t e r m i n e w h e t h e r t h e f r e q u e n c y o f r e s p o n s e was s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t (<X = .05) t o t h a t e x p e c t e d by c h a n c e . The o b t a i n e d X * ( 6 , N = 74) = 20 .22 , p<.05 was s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t . T a b l e 2 P e r c e n t a g e Time A l l o c a t i o n f o r G y m n a s t i c s I n s t r u c t i o n Time D i s t r i c t 0% 5% 10% 15% 20% 25% 30% N M A 10 28 24 12 14 3 9 58 3 .36 B 25 25 19 13 6 6 6 16 2 .94 A+B 14 27 23 12 12 4 8 74 3 .27 T a b l e 2 shows t h a t 64% of t e a c h e r s s u r v e y e d a l l o c a t e d a b o u t 10% o r l e s s o f t h e i r p r o g r a m t i m e t o g y m n a s t i c s i n s t r u c t i o n , and 4 1 % a l l o c a t e d a b o u t f i v e p e r c e n t or l e s s . E i g h t p e r c e n t o f t h e s a m p l e a p p r o a c h e d a l e v e l o f a b o u t 30% i n s t r u c t i o n t i m e b e i n g g i v e n t o g y m n a s t i c s . I n D i s t r i c t B, 25% of t h e r e s p o n d e n t s o f f e r e d no i n s t r u c t i o n t o s t u d e n t s i n gymnas t i c s. 66 4.4 F a c t o r s i n f l u e n c i n g t i m e a l l o c a t i o n  I n t r o d u c t i o n . T h i s s e c t i o n i s d i v i d e d i n t o two p a r t s . The f i r s t p a r t s u m m a r i z e s t h e d a t a c o n c e r n i n g t e a c h e r s ' p e r c e p t i o n s a b o u t s t a t e m e n t s t h a t c o u l d i n f l u e n c e t i m e a l l o c a t i o n f o r g y m n a s t i c s . The s e c o n d p a r t u s e s t h i s i n i t i a l d a t a , t o g e t h e r w i t h t e a c h e r s ' r e s p o n s e s f r o m t h e s e c o n d s e c t i o n o f t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e , t o d e t e r m i n e f a c t o r s t h a t p r i m a r y t e a c h e r s i d e n t i f y as b e i n g i m p o r t a n t d e t e r m i n a n t s i n t h e amount o f t i m e t h e y a l l o c a t e t o t h e t e a c h i n g o f g y m n a s t i c s . T e a c h e r s ' p e r c e p t i o n s a b o u t f a c t o r s i n f l u e n c i n g  t i m e a l l o c a t i o n . I n P a r t I of t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e , t e a c h e r s were a s k e d t o r e s p o n d t o 14 s t a t e m e n t s p r e v i o u s l y i d e n t i f i e d as i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r s i n d e t e r m i n i n g t h e p r o p o r t i o n o f p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n p r o g r a m t i m e t h a t w o u l d i n v o l v e g y m n a s t i c s i n s t r u c t i o n . The r e s p o n s e s t o t h e s e s t a t e m e n t s f r o m i n d i v i d u a l s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s , and t h e t o t a l s a m p l e ( N_ ) , a r e p r e s e n t e d i n t a b l e s 3 -16. The mean s c o r e ( M ) was d e r i v e d by a s s i g n i n g t h e f o l l o w i n g n u m e r i c a l v a l u e s : SA=1 t o SD=5. A one way a n a l y s i s of v a r i a n c e f o r e a c h o f t h e s e 14 s t a t e m e n t s (ANOVA p<.05) was p e r f o r m e d t o d e t e r m i n e w h e t h e r t h e mean r e s p o n s e s f r o m e a c h d i s t r i c t showed any s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s . 67 T a b l e 3 P e r c e n t a g e S c a l e R e s p o n s e t o S t a t e m e n t 1: I e n j o y  t e a c h i n g g y m n a s t i c s t o my s t u d e n t s . S c a l e D i s t r i c t SA A U D SD N M A 18 46 25 9 1 56 2.30 B 21 50 14 14 0 14 2.21 A+B 19 47 23 10 1 70 2.29 T a b l e 3 i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e m a j o r i t y o f r e s p o n d e n t s i n b o t h d i s t r i c t s ( 6 6 % ) e n j o y e d t e a c h i n g g y m n a s t i c s t o t h e i r s t u d e n t s . O n l y 11% i n d i c a t e d t h e y d i d n o t e n j o y t e a c h i n g i t t o t h e i r s t u d e n t s . No s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t h e means o f e a c h d i s t r i c t e x i s t e d [ F ( l , 69) = .10, p > . 0 5 ] . T a b l e 4 P e r c e n t a g e S c a l e R e s p o n s e t o S t a t e m e n t 2: My s t u d e n t s  e n j o y p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n g y m n a s t i c s a c t i v i t i e s . S c a l e D i s t r i c t SA A U D SD N M A 38 52 11 0 0 56 1.73 B 21 79 0 0 0 14 1 .79 A+B 34 57 9 0 0 70 1.74 T a b l e 4 shows a s t r o n g m a j o r i t y of 6 8 r e s p o n d e n t s e i t h e r s t r o n g l y a g r e e d ( 3 4 % ) o r a g r e e d ( 5 7 % ) t h a t t h e i r s t u d e n t s e n j o y e d g y m n a s t i c s a c t i v i t i e s . The d a t a a l s o shows t h e r e was no d i s a g r e e m e n t f r o m any t e a c h e r i n t h e s a m p l e on t h i s s t a t e m e n t . The means of t h e s a m p l e s f r o m each d i s t r i c t d i d n o t show any s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e [ F ( l , 68) = .09, p > . 0 5 ] . T a b l e 5 P e r c e n t a g e S c a l e R e s p o n s e t o S t a t e m e n t 3: I o f f e r  g y m n a s t i c s as p a r t o f my o v e r a l l p r o g r a m b e c a u s e  i t i s e x p e c t e d a t my s c h o o l . S c a l e D i s t r i c t SA A U D SD N M A 9 20 27 36 7 55 3.13 B 7 7 7 64 14 14 3.71 A+B 9 17 23 42 9 69 3.25 T a b l e 5 i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e m a j o r i t y o f t h e r e s p o n d e n t s f e l t t h e r e was n o t an e x p e c t a t i o n at t h e i r s c h o o l t h a t g y m n a s t i c s be o f f e r e d . A h i g h e r p r o p o r t i o n o f t e a c h e r s i n D i s t r i c t A ( 2 9 % ) compared t o D i s t r i c t B ( 1 4 % ) e i t h e r s t r o n g l y a g r e e d or a g r e e d w i t h t h i s s t a t e m e n t . C o n v e r s e l y , t e a c h e r s i n D i s t r i c t B ( 7 8 % ) w e re i n s t r o n g e r d i s a g r e e m e n t w i t h t h i s s t a t e m e n t t h a n t h e i r c o u n t e r p a r t s i n D i s t r i c t A ( 4 3 % ) . 69 However, t h e d i s t r i c t s d i d n o t d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y f r o m one a n o t h e r i n t h e i r mean r e s p o n s e s t o t h i s s t a t e m e n t [ F ( l , 67) = 3.18, p> . 0 5 ] . T a b l e 6 P e r c e n t a g e S c a l e R e s p o n s e t o S t a t e m e n t 4: I do n o t  have t h e c o m p e t e n c e t o i n s t r u c t s t u d e n t s i n  g y m n a s t i c s . S c a l e D i s t r i c t SA A U D SD N M A 11 18 25 32 14 56 3.21 B 33 13 33 13 7 15 2.47 A+B 16 17 27 28 13 71 3.05 T a b l e 6 shows t h a t 4 1 % o f t h e t o t a l r e s p o n d e n t s d i s a g r e e d w i t h t h e s t a t e m e n t and f e l t t h a t t h e y had t h e c o m p e t e n c e t o i n s t r u c t s t u d e n t s i n g y m n a s t i c s . T h e r e was a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e F ( l , 69) = 5.48, p<.05 b e t w e e n t h e mean r e s p o n s e s o f e a c h d i s t r i c t t o t h i s s t a t e m e n t . I n D i s t r i c t A, 46% of t h o s e s u r v e y e d e i t h e r s t r o n g l y d i s a g r e e d o r d i s a g r e e d w i t h t h e n o t i o n o f c o m p e t e n c e , w h i l e i n D i s t r i c t B, t h e same l e v e l o f d i s a g r e e m e n t was shown by o n l y 20% o f t h o s e s u r v e y e d . 70 T a b l e 7 P e r c e n t a g e S c a l e R e s p o n s e t o S t a t e m e n t 5: I s e e g r e a t  v a l u e t o t h e s t u d e n t s i n p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n g y m n a s t i c s . S c a l e D i s t r i c t SA A U D SD N M A 52 38 2 0 0 56 1 .61 B 29 57 14 0 0 14 1 .86 A+B 47 41 10 1 0 70 1 .66 I n T a b l e 7 i t shows t h a t t h e m a j o r i t y o f t e a c h e r s i n b o t h s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s ( 8 8 % ) were i n a g r e e m e n t as t o t h e v a l u e t o s t u d e n t s of p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n g y m n a s t i c s . I n D i s t r i c t A, o v e r h a l f t h e r e s p o n d e n t s ( 5 2 % ) showed s t r o n g a g r e e m e n t w i t h t h i s s t a t e m e n t . No s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e e x i s t e d b e t w e e n t h e d i s t r i c t s i n t h e i r mean r e s p o n s e s [ F ( l , 68) = 1.36, p>.05]. 71 T a b l e 8 P e r c e n t a g e S c a l e R e s p o n s e t o S t a t e m e n t 6: T h e r e i s  a d e q u a t e i n - s e r v i c e o f f e r e d f o r g y m n a s t i c s i n  my d i s t r i c t . S c a l e D i s t r i c t SA A U D SD N M A 9 20 45 20 7 56 2 .96 B 0 0 0 47 53 15 4 .53 A+B 7 15 34 24 16 71 3 .30 A s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e [ F ( l , 69) = 3 2 . 5 9 , p<.05] i n T a b l e 8 i s shown b e t w e e n t h e d i s t r i c t s i n t h e i r mean r e s p o n s e s t o t h i s s t a t e m e n t . T e a c h e r s i n D i s t r i c t A w e re e v e n l y s p l i t on t h e i r a g r e e m e n t ( 2 9 % ) o r d i s a g r e e m e n t ( 2 7 % ) , b u t 100% o f t e a c h e r s i n D i s t r i c t B r e s p o n d e d t h a t t h e y e i t h e r d i s a g r e e d o r s t r o n g l y d i s a g r e e d w i t h t h e a d e q u a c y of i n - s e r v i c e o f f e r e d f o r g y m n a s t i c s i n t h e i r d i s t r i c t . 72 T a b l e 9 P e r c e n t a g e S c a l e R e s p o n s e t o S t a t e m e n t 7: T h e r e a r e a d e q u a t e p r i n t r e s o u r c e s f o r g y m n a s t i c s i n s t r u c t i o n  i n my s c h o o l . S c a l e D i s t r i c t SA A U D SD N M A 13 34 36 13 5 56 2. 64 B 0 27 47 20 7 15 3. 0 A+B 10 32 38 14 6 71 2. 73 T a b l e 9 shows t h a t t h e r e s p o n d e n t s f r o m D i s t r i c t A ( 4 7 % ) were more i n agreement w i t h t h i s s t a t e m e n t t h a n t h e i r c o u n t e r p a r t s i n D i s t r i c t B ( 2 7 % ) ; h owever t h e d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t h e means of t h e g r o u p s was n o t s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t [ F ( l , 6 9) = 2.10, p > . 0 5 ] . T h e r e a r e a l a r g e number of r e s p o n d e n t s i n D i s t r i c t A ( 3 6 % ) and D i s t r i c t B ( 4 7 % ) who a r e u n c e r t a i n as t o w h e t h e r t h e r e a r e a d e q u a t e p r i n t r e s o u r c e s f o r g y m n a s t i c s i n s t r u c t i o n a t t h e i r s c h o o l s . 73 T a b l e 10 P e r c e n t a g e S c a l e R e s p o n s e t o S t a t e m e n t 8: The l o c a l  community ( p a r e n t s & o t h e r s ) e x p e c t s me t o o f f e r  g y m n a s t i c s as p a r t o f my o v e r a l l p r o g r a m . S c a l e D i s t r i c t SA A U D SD N M A 2 13 55 25 5 56 3.20 B 7 20 20 33 20 15 3.40 A+B 3 14 46 26 8 71 3.24 T a b l e 10 i n d i c a t e s t h a t i n D i s t r i c t A, 30% o f t h e r e s p o n d e n t s w e re i n d i s a g r e e m e n t t h a t t h e r e was a community e x p e c t a t i o n f o r g y m n a s t i c s i n s t r u c t i o n . H o w ever, i n D i s t r i c t B, t h i s d i s a g r e e m e n t a l m o s t d o u b l e d t o 5 3 % . O v e r h a l f o f t h o s e s u r v e y e d i n D i s t r i c t A ( 5 5 % ) were u n c e r t a i n as t o w h e t h e r t h e community does e x p e c t them t o o f f e r g y m n a s t i c s i n s t r u c t i o n as p a r t o f t h e i r o v e r a l l p r o g r a m . D i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n t h e means o f t h e g r o u p s w e re n o t s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t [ F ( l , 69) = .60, p>.05]. 74 T a b l e 11 P e r c e n t a g e S c a l e R e s p o n s e t o S t a t e m e n t 9: My c o n c e r n f o r t e a c h e r l i a b i l i t y l i m i t s t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h I  o f f e r g y m n a s t i c s i n s t r u c t i o n . S c a l e D i s t r i c t SA A U D SD N M A 17 48 12 17 5 58 2.45 B 56 25 6 13 0 16 1.75 A+B 26 43 11 16 4 74 2.30 T a b l e 11 i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e m a j o r i t y o f t e a c h e r s ( 6 9 % ) i n D i s t r i c t s A & B a g r e e d t h a t t h e i r c o n c e r n f o r t e a c h e r l i a b i l i t y l i m i t e d t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h t h e y o f f e r e d g y m n a s t i c s i n s t r u c t i o n . T e a c h e r s i n D i s t r i c t A a p p e a r e d t o show l e s s c o n c e r n ( 6 5 % ) t h a n t h e i r c o u n t e r p a r t s i n D i s t r i c t B ( 8 1 % ) , and t h e mean r e s p o n s e s b e t w e e n e a c h d i s t r i c t d i d show a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e [ F ( l , 72) = 4.93, p < . 0 5 ] . 75 T a b l e 12 P e r c e n t a g e S c a l e R e s p o n s e t o S t a t e m e n t 10: I c o n s i d e r  t h e p e r s o n a l a b i l i t y t o d e m o n s t r a t e g y m n a s t i c s an  e s s e n t i a l r e q u i r e m e n t f o r g y m n a s t i c s i n s t r u c t i o n . S c a l e D i s t r i c t SA A U D SD N M A 9 25 14 46 5 56 3.14 B 0 33 20 33 13 15 3.27 A+B 7 27 16 44 7 71 3. 17 T a b l e 12 shows t h a t t h e m a j o r i t y o f t e a c h e r s ( 5 1 % ) s u r v e y e d w e re i n d i s a g r e e m e n t w i t h t h i s s t a t e m e n t . H owever, t h e r e were a l s o a l a r g e p e r c e n t a g e ( 3 4 % ) who i n d i c a t e d an a g r e e m e n t t h a t t h e r e was a r e q u i r e m e n t i n g y m n a s t i c s t o be a b l e t o p e r s o n a l l y d e m o n s t r a t e . The d i s t r i c t s w e r e e v e n l y m a t c h e d i n t h e i r a g r e e m e n t o r d i s a g r e e m e n t w i t h t h e s t a t e m e n t . T h e r e was no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t h e means f o r e a c h d i s t r i c t [ F ( l , 69) = .14, p > . 0 5 ] . 76 T a b l e 13 P e r c e n t a g e S c a l e R e s p o n s e t o S t a t e m e n t 11: My c o n c e r n  f o r s t u d e n t s a f e t y l i m i t s t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h I o f f e r  g y m n a s t i c s i n s t r u c t i o n . S c a l e D i s t r i c t SA A U D SD N M A 26 50 10 10 3 58 2. 16 B 50 40 0 6 6 16 1 . 81 A+B 31 47 8 10 4 74 2. 08 I t a p p e a r s i n T a b l e 13 t h a t t e a c h e r s i n b o t h s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s h ave a c o n c e r n f o r s t u d e n t s a f e t y as 78% e i t h e r s t r o n g l y a g r e e d o r a g r e e d w i t h t h e s t a t e m e n t . T h e r e was a g r e a t e r c o n c e r n i n D i s t r i c t B as e v i d e n c e d by t h e a g r e e m e n t r e s p o n s e ( 9 0 % ) compared t o D i s t r i c t A ( 7 6 % ) . However t h e d i f f e r e n c e s b e t ween t h e means d i d n o t e x h i b i t any s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s [ F ( l , 72) = 1.29, p>.05]. 77 T a b l e 14 P e r c e n t a g e S c a l e R e s p o n s e t o S t a t e m e n t 12: Our s c h o o l  f a c i l i t i e s a r e n o t a d e q u a t e f o r t h e g y m n a s t i c s  p r o g r a m I o f f e r my s t u d e n t s . S c a l e D i s t r i c t SA A U D SD N M A 4 11 14 66 5 56 3.59 B 7 0 13 66 13 15 3.80 A+B 4 9 14 66 7 71 3.63 T a b l e 14 i n d i c a t e s t h a t t e a c h e r s i n b o t h D i s t r i c t A ( 7 1 % ) and D i s t r i c t B ( 7 9 % ) e i t h e r d i s a g r e e d o r s t r o n g l y d i s a g r e e d t h a t t h e i r f a c i l i t i e s were n o t a d e q u a t e f o r t h e g y m n a s t i c s p r o g r a m t h e y o f f e r e d t h e i r s t u d e n t s . T h e r e was no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t h e mean r e s p o n s e s o f t h e two d i s t r i c t s [ F ( l , 69) = .65, p>.05]. 78 T a b l e 15 P e r c e n t a g e S c a l e R e s p o n s e t o S t a t e m e n t 13: I w o u l d  t e a c h more g y m n a s t i c s i f t h e r e was a t l e a s t one  p e r s o n on s t a f f who was q u a l i f i e d t o o f f e r a d v i c e . S c a l e D i s t r i c t SA A U D SD N M A 4 30 23 39 4 56 3. 09 B 28 36 21 14 0 14 2. 21 A+B 8 30 22 32 3 70 2 . 91 O v e r a l l , t h e r e s p o n s e s t o t h e s t a t e m e n t i n T a b l e 15 i n d i c a t e t h a t t e a c h e r s w e re q u i t e e v e n l y s p l i t on t h e i r a g r e e m e n t ( 3 8 % ) or d i s a g r e e m e n t ( 3 5 % ) as t o t h e i n f l u e n c e a q u a l i f i e d p e r s o n on s t a f f w o u l d h a v e on t h e amount of t i m e t h e y t a u g h t g y m n a s t i c s . H o w e v e r , t h e r e s p o n d e n t s i n D i s t r i c t B ( 6 4 % ) w e re a l m o s t d o u b l e i n t h e i r a g r e e m e n t t o t h i s s t a t e m e n t t h a n t h e i r c o u n t e r p a r t s i n D i s t r i c t A ( 3 4 % ) . The means f r o m e a c h d i s t r i c t d i d show a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e [ F ( l , 68) = 8.46, p < . 0 5 ] . 79 T a b l e 16 P e r c e n t a g e S c a l e R e s p o n s e t o S t a t e m e n t 14; The  c o m p l e x i t i e s o f o r g a n i z i n g p u p i l s and e q u i p m e n t l i m i t s  t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h I o f f e r g y m n a s t i c s i n s t r u c t i o n . S c a l e D i s t r i c t SA A U D SD N M A 11 41 13 27 9 56 2.82 B 7 50 7 29 7 14 2.79 A+B 10 43 11 27 9 70 2.81 F i f t y - t h r e e p e r c e n t of t h e r e s p o n d e n t s i n T a b l e 16 i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e y e i t h e r a g r e e d or s t r o n g l y a g r e e d t h a t t h e i r g y m n a s t i c s i n s t r u c t i o n was l i m i t e d by t h e c o m p l e x i t i e s o f o r g a n i z a t i o n . H owever, 36% a l s o i n d i c a t e d t h e c o m p l e x i t i e s d i d n o t l i m i t t h e e x t e n t o f t h e i r i n s t r u c t i o n . The r e s p o n s e s o f e a c h s c h o o l d i s t r i c t were e v e n l y m a t c h e d and no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t h e means e x i s t e d [ F ( l , 68) = .01, p > . 0 5 ] . A n a l y s i s o f t h e f a c t o r s t h a t i n f l u e n c e t i m e  a l l o c a t i o n . A d e c i s i o n was made t o r e d u c e t h e s e v e n c a t e g o r i e s o f t i m e t o t h r e e . The f i r s t g r o u p i n g "About 0-10%" was d e t e r m i n e d by c o m b i n i n g t h e r e s p o n s e s o f t h e o r i g i n a l c a t e g o r i e s o f "None at a l l " , 80 "About 5%", and "About 10%". The s e c o n d g r o u p i n g "About 15-20%" was d e t e r m i n e d by c o m b i n i n g r e s p o n s e s o f t h e o r i g i n a l c a t e g o r i e s of "About 15%" and "About 20%". The t h i r d g r o u p i n g "About 25-30%" was d e t e r m i n e d by c o m b i n i n g t h e o r i g i n a l c a t e g o r i e s o f "About 25%" and "About 30%". I n a d d i t i o n , t h e f i v e p o s s i b l e r e s p o n s e s of s t a t e m e n t s 1-14 on P a r t I I o f the q u e s t i o n n a i r e were r e d u c e d to t h r e e d i s t i n c t g r o u p s . " A g r e e " was d e t e r m i n e d by c o m b i n i n g th e o r i g i n a l c a t e g o r i e s of " S t r o n g l y A g r e e " and " A g r e e " . " D i s a g r e e " was d e t e r m i n e d by c o m b i n i n g th e o r i g i n a l c a t e g o r i e s of " D i s a g r e e " and " S t r o n g l y D i s a g r e e " . The c a t e g o r y of " U n c e r t a i n " r e m a i n e d as " U n c e r t a i n " . I t was a c c e p t e d t h a t t h e p r a c t i c e of c o m b i n i n g c a t e g o r i e s can a f f e c t the randomness of the sample, r e s u l t i n g i n unknown c o n s e q u e n c e s to the i n f e r e n c e s drawn (Hays, 1973). However, the d e c i s i o n to l o g i c a l l y combine t h e s e c a t e g o r i e s was made i n o r d e r to r a i s e t h e e x p e c t e d f r e q u e n c i e s to an a c c e p t a b l e s i z e t h a t a p p r o a c h e d t h e r e s t r i c t i o n s of a c h i - s q u a r e t e s t . C r o s s - t a b u l a t i o n o f t h e d a t a between tim e spent t e a c h i n g g y m n a s t i c s ( i t e m 5, P a r t I I ) and s t a t e m e n t s c o n c e r n i n g t e a c h e r s ' p e r c e p t i o n s about f a c t o r s t h a t c o u l d i n f l u e n c e t h i s t i m e ( s t a t e m e n t s 1-14, P a r t I ) were p e r f o r m e d . These r e s u l t s , t h e t o t a l s a m p le( N_ ), 81 and a mean s c o r e ( M ) a r e p r e s e n t e d i n t a b l e s 17 - 34 ( t h e mean s c o r e was d e r i v e d f r o m a s s i g n i n g t h e f o l l o w i n g n u m e r i c a l v a l u e s : A g r e e = 1 t o D i s a g r e e 3 3 ) . C r o s s - t a b u l a t i o n o f t h e d a t a b e t w e e n t h e t i m e s p e n t t e a c h i n g g y m n a s t i c s ( i t e m 5, P a r t I I ) and age, g r a d e l e v e l t a u g h t , and p r e - s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g ( i t e m s 2,4 & 7 on P a r t I I ) were a l s o p e r f o r m e d . T h e s e r e s u l t s , t h e t o t a l s a m p l e ( N_ ) , and a mean s c o r e ( M ) a r e p r e s e n t e d i n t a b l e s 35 - 37 ( t h e mean s c o r e was d e r i v e d f r o m a s s i g n i n g t h e f o l l o w i n g n u m e r i c a l v a l u e s : T a b l e 3 5 , 20-24=1 t o 54+=5; T a b l e 3 6 , Yes =1 t o No =2; T a b l e 37, G r a d e 1= 1 t o G r a d e 1/2/3 = 6 ) . The c h i - s q u a r e t e s t o f a s s o c i a t i o n was r u n t o d e t e r m i n e i f t h e r e was any s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n t h e p r o p o r t i o n o f t o t a l p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n p r o g r a m t h a t i n v o l v e s g y m n a s t i c s i n s t r u c t i o n and e a c h o f t h e 14 f a c t o r s and t h r e e i t e m s . A l e v e l o f s i g n i f i c a n c e was s e t a t 0 5 I t has been shown t h a t a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e (p<.05) e x i s t e d b e t w e e n d i s t r i c t s i n t h e i r mean r e s p o n s e s t o s t a t e m e n t s f o u r , s i x , n i n e , and t h i r t e e n on P a r t I o f t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e . T h u s , i n t h e a n a l y s i s o f t h e s e s t a t e m e n t s , t h e v a r i a b l e o f D i s t r i c t was added as a c o n t r o l . 82 T a b l e 17 C r o s s - t a b u l a t i o n o f Time A l l o c a t i o n and P e r c e n t a g e  S c a l e R e s p o n s e t o S t a t e m e n t 1: I e n j o y t e a c h i n g  g y m n a s t i c s t o my s t u d e n t s . S c a l e Time A g r ee U n c e r t a i n D i s a g r e e N M A b o u t 0-10% 58 26 16 43 1.58 A b o u t 11-20% 77 22 0 18 1.22 A b o u t 2 1 - 3 0 % 77 11 11 9 1.33 T a b l e 17 shows t h e r e was no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p [ X. ( 4 , N_ = 70) = 4. 60 , p>.05] b e t w e e n t i m e s p e n t t e a c h i n g g y m n a s t i c s and t e a c h e r e n j o y m e n t o f t h e s u b j e c t . The m a j o r i t y o f t e a c h e r s i n a l l g r o u p i n g s ( 5 8 % , 7 7 % , 77%) i n d i c a t e d t h e i r e n j o y m e n t i n t e a c h i n g g y m n a s t i c s . 83 T a b l e 18 C r o s s - t a b u l a t i o n o f Time A l l o c a t i o n and P e r c e n t a g e  S c a l e R e s p o n s e t o S t a t e m e n t 2: My s t u d e n t s e n j o y  p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n g y m n a s t i c s a c t i v i t i e s . S c a l e Time A g r ee U n c e r t a i n D i s a g r e e N M A b o u t 0 -10% 86 14 0 43 1 .14 A b o u t 15 -20% 100 0 0 18 1 .00 A b o u t 25 -30% 100 0 0 9 1.00 T a b l e 18 shows no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p ["X.2(2, N = 70) = 4.12, p>.05] e x i s t e d b e t w e e n t h e t i m e s p e n t t e a c h i n g g y m n a s t i c s and t e a c h e r s ' p e r c e p t i o n s o f s t u d e n t e n j o y m e n t o f t h e s u b j e c t . T h e r e was a l m o s t unanimous a g r e e m e n t among t e a c h e r s i n t h a t n e a r l y a l l i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e i r s t u d e n t s e n j o y e d p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n g y m n a s t i c s . 84 T a b l e 19 C r o s s - t a b u l a t i o n o f Time A l l o c a t i o n and P e r c e n t a g e  S c a l e R e s p o n s e t o S t a t e m e n t 3: I o f f e r g y m n a s t i c s  as p a r t o f my o v e r a l l p r o g r a m b e c a u s e i t i s  e x p e c t e d a t my s c h o o l . S c a l e Time A g r e e U n c e r t a i n D i s a g r ee N M A b o u t 0-10% 17 29 55 42 2.38 A b o u t 15-20% 33 17 50 18 2.17 A b o u t 25-30% 56 11 33 9 1.78 T h e r e was no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p [ A . (4 , N_ = 69 ) = 6.88 , p>.05] b e t w e e n t h e amount o f t i m e s p e n t t e a c h i n g g y m n a s t i c s and t h e e x p e c t a t i o n a t t h e s c h o o l t h a t g y m n a s t i c s s h o u l d be t a u g h t ( T a b l e 1 9 ) . H owever, p e r c e n t a g e a g r e e m e n t w i t h t h i s s t a t e m e n t was o b s e r v e d t o i n c r e a s e f r o m 17% t o 56% as t h e t i m e a l l o c a t e d to g y m n a s t i c s i n s t r u c t i o n a l s o i n c r e a s e d . I n a d d i t i o n , 29% o f t h o s e who t a u g h t t h e l e a s t g y m n a s t i c s ( A b o u t 0-10%) were u n c e r t a i n as t o t h e e x p e c t a n c y o f g y m n a s t i c s i n s t r u c t i o n a t t h e s c h o o 1 . 8 5 T a b l e 20 C r o s s - t a b u l a t i o n o f Time A l l o c a t i o n and P e r c e n t a g e  S c a l e R e s p o n s e i n D i s t r i c t A t o S t a t e m e n t 4: I do  n o t h a v e t h e c o m p e t e n c e t o i n s t r u c t s t u d e n t s  i n g y m n a s t i c s . S c a l e Time A g r ee U n c e r t a i n D i s a g r e e N M A b o u t 0 -10% 35 29 34 34 2.00 A b o u t 15 -2 0% 20 13 67 15 2.47 A b o u t 25 -30% 14 29 57 7 2.43 T a b l e 20 shows no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p [ X. (4 , N = 56 ) = 4. 94 , p>.05] e x i s t e d i n t h i s d i s t r i c t b e t w e e n t e a c h e r s ' s e n s e o f c o m p e t e n c e f o r t e a c h i n g g y m n a s t i c s and t i m e a l l o c a t i o n . The g r e a t e s t d i s a g r e e m e n t ( 6 7 % ) came f r o m t e a c h e r s who t a u g h t g y m n a s t i c s f o r a b o u t 15-20%. P e r c e n t a g e a g r e e m e n t w i t h t h i s s t a t e m e n t a l s o d i m i n i s h e d as t h e p r o p o r t i o n o f t i m e s p e n t t e a c h i n g g y m n a s t i c s i n c r e a s e d . 86 T a b l e 21 C r o s s - t a b u l a t i o n o f Time A l l o c a t i o n and P e r c e n t a g e  S c a l e R e s p o n s e i n D i s t r i c t B t o S t a t e m e n t 4: I do  n o t h a v e t h e c o m p e t e n c e t o i n s t r u c t s t u d e n t s  i n g y m n a s t i c s . S c a l e Time A g r e e U n c e r t a i n D i s a g r e e N M A b o u t 0-10% 70 20 10 10 1.40 A b o u t 15-20% 0 33 67 3 2.67 A b o u t 2 5 - 3 0 % 0 100 0 2 2.00 T a b l e 21 i n d i c a t e s a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p i n t h i s d i s t r i c t [ X- ( 4 , f[ = 15) = 1 0 . 87, p<.05] e x i s t e d b e t w e e n t e a c h e r s ' s e n s e o f c o m p e t e n c e f o r t e a c h i n g g y m n a s t i c s and t i m e a l l o c a t i o n . S e v e n t y p e r c e n t o f t e a c h e r s who t a u g h t g y m n a s t i c s f r o m about 0-10% a g r e e d t h a t t h e y f e l t t h e y d i d n o t have t h e c o m p e t e n c e t o i n s t r u c t s t u d e n t s i n g y m n a s t i c s . 87 T a b l e 22 C r o s s - t a b u l a t i o n o f Time A l l o c a t i o n and P e r c e n t a g e  S c a l e R e s p o n s e t o S t a t e m e n t 5: I s e e g r e a t v a l u e t o  t h e s t u d e n t s i n p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n g y m n a s t i c s . S c a l e Time A g r e e U n c e r t a i n D i s a g r e e N M A b o u t 0 -10% 81 16 2 43 1.21 A b o u t 15 -20% 100 0 0 18 1 .00 A b o u t 25 -30% 100 0 0 9 1 .00 I n s p i t e o f a d i f f e r e n c e i n t i m e ( 0 - 3 0 % ) s p e n t t e a c h i n g g y m n a s t i c s , a l a r g e m a j o r i t y ( 8 1 - 1 0 0 % ) o f t e a c h e r s saw g r e a t v a l u e t o t h e s t u d e n t s i n g y m n a s t i c s i n s t r u c t i o n ( T a b l e 2 2 ) . T h e r e was no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n t h e v a r i a b l e s o f t i m e a l l o c a t i o n and v a l u e i n g y m n a s t i c s t o s t u d e n t s N = 70) = 5.67, p > . 0 5 ] . 88 T a b l e 23 C r o s s ~ t a b u l a t i o n o f Time A l l o c a t i o n and P e r c e n t a g e  S c a l e R e s p o n s e i n D i s t r i c t A t o S t a t e m e n t 6: T h e r e  i s a d e q u a t e i n - s e r v i c e o f f e r e d f o r g y m n a s t i c s i n  my d i s t r i c t . S c a l e T i me A g r e e U n c e r t a i n D i s a g r e e N M A b o u t 0-10% 24 38 38 34 2 . 15 A b o u t 15-20% 27 60 13 15 1 .87 A b o u t 25-30% 57 43 0 7 1 .43 I n T a b l e 23, t h e p r o p o r t i o n o f t e a c h e r s who f e e l t h e r e i s a d e q u a t e i n - s e r v i c e i n t h i s d i s t r i c t i n c r e a s e d ( i . e . , 24%-57%) as t h e t i m e s p e n t t e a c h i n g g y m n a s t i c s i n c r e a s e d . T h e r e was a l a r g e p e r c e n t a g e o f t e a c h e r s i n a l l g r o u p s who were u n c e r t a i n as t o t h e a d e q u a c y o f t h e i n - s e r v i c e o f f e r e d i n D i s t r i c t A. The r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n i n - s e r v i c e and t i m e was n o t s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t [ A. ( 4 , N = 56) = 7.98, p>.05 ] . 8 9 T a b l e 24 C r o s s - t a b u l a t i o n o f Time A l l o c a t i o n and P e r c e n t a g e  S c a l e R e s p o n s e i n D i s t r i c t B t o S t a t e m e n t 6: T h e r e  i s a d e q u a t e i n - s e r v i c e o f f e r e d f o r g y m n a s t i c s i n  my d i s t r i c t . S c a l e Time A g r e e U n c e r t a i n D i s a g r e e N M A b o u t 0-10% 0 0 100 10 3.00 A b o u t 15-20% 0 0 100 3 3.00 A b o u t 25-30% 0 0 100 2 3.00 The r e s u l t s i n T a b l e 24 i n d i c a t e t h a t ALL t e a c h e r s who r e s p o n d e d t o t h e s u r v e y i n D i s t r i c t B f e l t t h a t i n s p i t e o f t h e meagre amount o f t i m e s p e n t t e a c h i n g g y m n a s t i c s , t h e r e was i n a d e q u a t e i n - s e r v i c e o f f e r e d i n t h i s d i s t r i c t . 90 T a b l e 25 C r o s s - t a b u l a t i o n o f Time A l l o c a t i o n and P e r c e n t a g e  S c a l e R e s p o n s e t o S t a t e m e n t 7: T h e r e a r e a d e q u a t e  p r i n t r e s o u r c e s f o r g y m n a s t i c s i n s t r u c t i o n i n  my s c h o o l . ' S c a l e Time A g r e e U n c e r t a i n D i s a g r e e N M A b o u t 0-10% 27 43 29 44 2. 02 A b o u t 15-20% 72 28 0 18 1. 28 A b o u t 25-30% 55 31 11 9 1.56 A s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p [ X(4, N = 71) = 13.44, p<.05] e x i s t s ( T a b l e 25) b e t w e e n t h e t i m e a l l o c a t e d t o g y m n a s t i c s and t h e a d e q u a c y o f t h e p r i n t m a t e r i a l s i n t h e s c h o o l . T e a c h e r s who t a u g h t g y m n a s t i c s f o r a b o u t 0-10% w ere e q u i v a l e n t i n t h e i r a g r e e m e n t ( 2 7 % ) o r d i s a g r e e m e n t ( 2 9 % ) w i t h t h i s s t a t e m e n t . However 43% o f t h e t e a c h e r s i n t h i s g r o u p a l s o r e p o r t e d t h e i r u n c e r t a i n t y . T hose who t a u g h t g y m n a s t i c s f o r a b o u t 15-20% ( 7 2 % ) o r f o r a b o u t 2 5 - 3 0 % ( 5 5 % ) i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e p r i n t r e s o u r c e s i n t h e s c h o o l s were a d e q u a t e . 91 T a b l e 26 C r o s s - t a b u l a t i o n o f Time A l l o c a t i o n and P e r c e n t a g e  S c a l e R e s p o n s e t o S t a t e m e n t 8: The l o c a l community  ( p a r e n t s & o t h e r s ) e x p e c t s me t o o f f e r g y m n a s t i c s  as p a r t o f my o v e r a l l p r o g r a m . S c a l e Time A g r e e U n c e r t a i n D i s a g r e e N M A b o u t 0-10% 11 45 43 44 2.32 A b o u t 15-20% 33 44 22 18 1.89 A b o u t 25-30% 11 67 22 9 2. 11 T h e r e was no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p ( T a b l e 26) b e t w e e n a l o c a l community e x p e c t a t i o n t h a t g y m n a s t i c s be t a u g h t and t i m e a c t u a l l y a l l o c a t e d t o t h e s u b j e c t [ X ( 4 , N = 71) = 6.70, p > . 0 5 ] . However, t h e r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e t h a t a c o n s i d e r a b l e p e r c e n t a g e o f r e s p o n d e n t s i n a l l g r o u p s ( 4 5 % , 4 4%, 67%) w e r e u n c e r t a i n as t o w h e t h e r t h e r e i s a community e x p e c t a t i o n f o r g y m n a s t i c s i n s t r u c t i o n . 92 T a b l e 27 C r o s s - t a b u l a t i o n o f Time A l l o c a t i o n and P e r c e n t a g e  S c a l e R e s p o n s e i n D i s t r i c t A t o S t a t e m e n t 9: My  c o n c e r n f o r t e a c h e r l i a b i l i t y l i m i t s t h e e x t e n t  t o w h i c h I o f f e r g y m n a s t i c s i n s t r u c t i o n . S c a l e Time A g r e e U n c e r t a i n D i s a g r e e N M A b o u t 0-10% 66 8 25 36 1.57 A b o u t 15-20% 67 20 13 15 1.47 A b o u t 25-30% 57 14 29 7 1.71 T a b l e 27 shows no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p [ X * ( 4 , N = 58) = 2.09 , p>.05] i n D i s t r i c t A b e t w e e n t e a c h e r s ' c o n c e r n f o r l i a b i l i t y and t h e amount of t i m e s p e n t t e a c h i n g g y m n a s t i c s . Over h a l f t h e t e a c h e r s i n t h i s d i s t r i c t i n a l l g r o u p s ( 6 0 % , 67%, 57%) i n d i c a t e d t h a t a c o n c e r n f o r t e a c h e r l i a b i l i t y d i d l i m i t t h e amount of t i m e t h e y s p e n t t e a c h i n g g y m n a s t i c s . 93 T a b l e 28 C r o s s - t a b u l a t i o n o f Time A l l o c a t i o n and P e r c e n t a g e  S c a l e R e s p o n s e i n D i s t r i c t B t o S t a t e m e n t 9: My  c o n c e r n f o r t e a c h e r l i a b i l i t y l i m i t s t h e e x t e n t t o  w h i c h I o f f e r g y m n a s t i c s i n s t r u c t i o n . S c a l e Time A g r e e U n c e r t a i n D i s a g r e e N M A b o u t 0-10% 91 0 9 11 1.19 A b o u t 15-20% 33 33 33 3 2.00 A b o u t 25-30% 100 0 0 2 1.00 T a b l e 28 shows no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p [ A . ( 4 , N = 16) = 6.79, p>.05] i n D i s t r i c t B b e t w e e n t e a c h e r s ' c o n c e r n f o r t e a c h e r l i a b i l i t y and t h e amount o f t i m e s p e n t t e a c h i n g g y m n a s t i c s . T e a c h e r s a p p e a r e d t o be a l m o s t unanimous t h a t t h e i r c o n c e r n f o r t e a c h e r l i a b i l i t y d i d l i m i t t h e i r g y m n a s t i c s i n s t r u c t i o n . T e a c h e r s who t a u g h t a b o u t 15-20% a p p e a r t o be s p l i t on t h e i r r e s p o n s e s , h owever t h e s e f i g u r e s s h o u l d be v i e w e d w i t h c a u t i o n b e c a u s e t h e number of r e s p o n s e s ( i i = 3) i s l o w . 94 T a b l e 29 C r o s s - t a b u l a t i o n o f Time A l l o c a t i o n and P e r c e n t a g e  S c a l e R e s p o n s e t o S t a t e m e n t 10: I c o n s i d e r t h e  p e r s o n a l a b i l i t y t o d e m o n s t r a t e g y m n a s t i c s an  e s s e n t i a l r e q u i r e m e n t f o r g y m n a s t i c s i n s t r u c t i o n . S c a l e Time A g r ee U n c e r t a i n D i s a g r e e N M A b o u t 0-10% 36 18 45 44 2.09 A b o u t 15-20% 22 6 72 18 2.50 A b o u t 25-30% 44 22 33 9 1.89 T a b l e 29 shows no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p ["X(4, N = 71) = 5.14, p>.05] b e t w e e n w h e t h e r t e a c h e r s f e l t i t n e c e s s a r y t o p e r s o n a l l y d e m o n s t r a t e g y m n a s t i c s and t h e amount of t i m e s p e n t t e a c h i n g t h e s u b j e c t . The p e r c e n t a g e of agre e m e n t was h i g h e s t ( 4 4 % ) among t h o s e who s p e n t a b o u t 2 5 % - 3 0 % o f t h e i r p r o g r a m t i m e on g y m n a s t i c s i n s t r u c t i o n . 95 T a b l e 30 C r o s s - t a b u l a t i o n o f Time A l l o c a t i o n and P e r c e n t a g e  S c a l e R e s p o n s e t o S t a t e m e n t 11: My c o n c e r n f o r  s t u d e n t s a f e t y l i m i t s t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h I  o f f e r g y m n a s t i c s i n s t r u c t i o n . S c a l e Time A g r e e U n c e r t a i n D i s a g r e e N M A b o u t 0 -10% 79 6 15 47 1. 36 A b o u t 15 -20% 72 17 11 18 1.39 A b o u t 25 -30% 89 0 11 9 1.22 No s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p e x i s t e d ( T a b l e 30) b e tween t h e amount of t i m e a l l o c a t e d g y m n a s t i c s and t e a c h e r s c o n c e r n f o r s t u d e n t s a f e t y [ X 2(4 , N = 74) = 2 .92 , p > .05]. T e a c h e r s i n a l l g r o u p s w e re c l o s e i n a g r e e m e n t ( 7 9 % , 7 2 % , 8 9 % ) t h a t t h e i r c o n c e r n s l i m i t e d t h e e x t e n t t h e y o f f e r e d g y m n a s t i c s i n s t r u c t i o n . 96 T a b l e 31 C r o s s - t a b u l a t i o n o f Time A l l o c a t i o n and P e r c e n t a g e  S c a l e R e s p o n s e t o S t a t e m e n t 12: Our s c h o o l  f a c i l i t i e s a r e n o t a d e q u a t e f o r t h e g y m n a s t i c s  p r o g r a m I o f f e r my s t u d e n t s . S c a l e Time A g r e e U n c e r t a i n D i s a g r e e N M A b o u t 0-10% 14 16 70 44 2.57 A b o u t 15-20% 11 6 83 18 2.72 A b o u t 25-30% 11 22 67 9 2.56 I n T a b l e 3 1 , no s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p [ X X 4 , _N = 71) = 1.90, p>.05] e x i s t s b e t w e e n t h e amount o f t i m e t e a c h e r s a l l o c a t e d t o g y m n a s t i c s and t h e a d e q u a c y o f s c h o o l f a c i l i t i e s f o r t e a c h i n g g y m n a s t i c s . The m a j o r i t y o f t e a c h e r s i n a l l g r o u p s ( 7 0 % , 8 3 % , 6 7 % ) i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e f a c i l i t i e s i n t h e i r s c h o o l s were a d e q u a t e f o r t h e g y m n a s t i c s p r o g r a m t h e y o f f e r s t u d e n t s . 97 T a b l e 32 C r o s s - t a b u l a t i o n o f Time A l l o c a t i o n and P e r c e n t a g e  S c a l e R e s p o n s e i n D i s t r i c t A t o S t a t e m e n t 13: I w o u l d  t e a c h more g y m n a s t i c s i f t h e r e was a t l e a s t one  p e r s o n on s t a f f who was q u a l i f i e d t o o f f e r a d v i c e . S c a l e Time A g r ee U n c e r t a i n D i s a g r e e N M A b o u t 0-•10% 38 29 32 34 1.94 A b o u t 15- 20% 20 7 63 15 2.47 A b o u t 25-•30% 43 14 43 7 2.00 T a b l e 32 shows no s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p I X. ( 4 , N = 56) = 5.50, p>.05] i n D i s t r i c t A b e t w e e n t h e t i m e a l l o c a t e d f o r g y m n a s t i c s and t h e a v a i l a b i l i t y o f someone on a s t a f f who was q u a l i f i e d t o o f f e r a d v i c e . S i x t y s e v e n p e r c e n t of t h o s e who a l l o c a t e d a b o u t 0-10% e i t h e r a g r e e d or were u n c e r t a i n a b o u t t h i s s t a t e m e n t . The s t r o n g e s t d i s a g r e e m e n t ( 6 7 % ) was f r o m t e a c h e r s who a l l o c a t e d f r o m a b o u t 15-20% of t h e i r p r o g r a m t i m e t o g y m n a s t i c s . 98 T a b l e 33 C r o s s - t a b u l a t i o n o f Time A l l o c a t i o n and P e r c e n t a g e  S c a l e R e s p o n s e i n D i s t r i c t B t o S t a t e m e n t 13: I w o u l d  t e a c h more g y m n a s t i c s i f t h e r e was a t l e a s t one  p e r s o n on s t a f f who was q u a l i f i e d t o o f f e r a d v i c e . S c a l e Time A g r e e U n c e r t a i n D i s a g r e e N_ M A b o u t 0-10% 67 11 22 9 1.56 A b o u t 15-20% 67 33 0 3 1.33 A b o u t 25-30% 50 50 0 2 1.50 I n T a b l e 3 3 , no s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p [ "X.2(4, N = 14) = 2.59, p>.05] i n D i s t r i c t B e x i s t s b e t w e e n t h e t i m e a l l o c a t e d f o r g y m n a s t i c s i n s t r u c t i o n and t h e a v a i l a b i l i t y o f someone on a s t a f f who was q u a l i f i e d t o o f f e r a d v i c e . The m a j o r i t y o f t e a c h e r s i n d i c a t e d t h e i r a g r e e m e n t t h a t a q u a l i f i e d p e r s o n on s t a f f w o u l d i n c r e a s e t h e i r t i m e a l l o c a t i o n . 99 T a b l e 34 C r o s s - t a b u l a t i o n o f Time A l l o c a t i o n and P e r c e n t a g e  S c a l e R e s p o n s e t o S t a t e m e n t 14: The c o m p l e x i t i e s o f  o r g a n i z i n g p u p i l s & e q u i p m e n t l i m i t s t h e e x t e n t t o  w h i c h I o f f e r g y m n a s t i c s i n s t r u c t i o n . S c a l e Time A g r ee U n c e r t a i n D i s a g r e e N M A b o u t 0 -10% 51 16 33 43 1.81 A b o u t 15 - 2 0 % 50 6 44 18 1.94 A b o u t 25 -30% 67 0 33 9 1. 67 T h e r e was no s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p ( T a b l e 34) b e t w e e n t h e t i m e a l l o c a t e d f o r g y m n a s t i c s i n s t r u c t i o n and t h e c o m p l e x i t i e s of o r g a n i z i n g p u p i l s and i e q u i p m e n t f o r g y m n a s t i c s i n s t r u c t i o n [ X(4, N = 70) = 3.35, p > . 0 5 ] . A l l g r o u p s were r e l a t i v e l y even i n t h e i r a g r e e m e n t ( 5 1 % , 5 0 % , 67%) or d i s a g r e e m e n t ( 3 3 % , 44%, 33%) t h a t t h e s e c o m p l e x i t i e s l i m i t t h e amount o f g y m n a s t i c s i n s t r u c t i o n t h e y o f f e r . 100 T a b l e 35 C r o s s - t a b u l a t i o n o f Time A l l o c a t i o n and P e r c e n t a g e  Age D i s t r i b u t i o n . Age Time 20-34 25-34 35-44 45-54 54 + N M A b o u t 0-10% 0 17 38 43 2 47 3.30 A b o u t 15-20% 0 28 56 11 6 18 2.94 A b o u t 25-30% 0 33 56 11 0 9 2.78 T a b l e 35 i n d i c a t e s no s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p ["X ( 6 , N = 74) = 8.79, p>.05] b e t w e e n t h e t i m e a l l o c a t e d f o r g y m n a s t i c s i n s t r u c t i o n and t h e age of t h e r e s p o n d e n t s . I n t h e 45-54 age r a n g e , 4 3 % o f t h e r e s p o n d e n t s t a u g h t g y m n a s t i c s f o r a b o u t 0-10% of t h e i r p r o g r a m t i m e . A l a r g e m a j o r i t y o f t e a c h e r s ( 8 4 % & 90%) who t a u g h t g y m n a s t i c s f o r a b o u t 15-20% and a b o u t 2 5-30% r e s p e c t i v e l y were 44 y e a r s of age and u n d e r . 101 T a b l e 36 C r o s s - t a b u l a t i o n o f Time A l l o c a t i o n and P r e - S e r v i c e t r a i n i n g . T i me Tr a i n i n g Yes No N M A b o u t 0-10% 28 72 47 1 .72 A b o u t 15-20% 72 28 18 1 .28 A b o u t 2 5 - 3 0 % 66 33 9 1 .33 A s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p ["X. ( 2 , N_ = 74) = 12 . 8 2 , p<.05] e x i s t s ( T a b l e 36) between t i m e a l l o c a t e d t o g y m n a s t i c s and t h e p r e - s e r v i c e o f t h e r e s p o n d e n t s . The m a j o r i t y o f t e a c h e r s ( 7 2 % ) who t a u g h t g y m n a s t i c s f r o m a b o u t 0-10% of t h e i r p r o g r a m t i m e had no p r e - s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g i n g y m n a s t i c s i n s t r u c t i o n . The m a j o r i t y o f t e a c h e r s ( 7 2 % & 66%) who a l l o c a t e d a b o u t 15-20% o r a b o u t 25-30% r e s p e c t i v e l y o f t h e i r p r o g r a m t i m e had some p r e - s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g i n g y m n a s t i c s i n s t r u c t i o n . 102 T a b l e 37 C r o s s - t a b u l a t i o n o f Time A l l o c a t i o n and G r a d e  L e v e l T a u g h t . \ G r a d e ( S p l i t G r a d e s ) Time 1 2 3 1/2 2/3 1/2/3 N M A b o u t 0-10% 33 17 24 7 9 11 46 2.74 A b o u t 15-20% 29 18 18 6 11 18 17 3.06 A b o u t 25-30% 13 38 13 13 13 13 8 3.13 T a b l e 37 shows no s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p [ 7 C(10, N = 71) = 3.95, p>.05] b e t w e e n t h e t i m e a l l o c a t e d t o g y m n a s t i c s i n s t r u c t i o n and t h e g r a d e l e v e l t a u g h t by t h e r e s p o n d e n t s . 4.5 A d d i t i o n a l F i n d i n g s T a b l e 38 p r e s e n t s t h e w e e k l y f r e q u e n c y o f p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n l e s s o n s f o r homeroom c l a s s e s i n e a c h s c h o o l d i s t r i c t . T h i s t a b l e i n d i c a t e s t h a t 34 ( 6 0 % ) t e a c h e r s i n D i s t r i c t A o f f e r e d p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n t w i c e p e r week. I n D i s t r i c t B, 9 ( 6 0 % ) t e a c h e r s t a u g h t p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n t h r e e t i m e s p e r week. 103 T a b l e 38 F r e q u e n c y o f p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n c l a s s e s . D i s t r i c t F r e q u e n c y / W e e k A B A+B 1 1 0 1 2 34 3 37 3 7 9 16 4 8 2 10 5 7 1 8 N = 57 15 72 T a b l e 39 r e p o r t s t h e t o t a l number of m i n u t e s p e r week a homeroom c l a s s r e c e i v e d p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n . T h i s t a b l e shows t h a t 25 ( 4 6 % ) t e a c h e r s i n D i s t r i c t A o f f e r e d p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n f o r a t o t a l o f 80 m i n u t e s p e r week. I n D i s t r i c t B, 6 ( 4 0 % ) t e a c h e r s o f f e r e d p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n f o r 120 m i n u t e s p e r week. T a b l e 39 T o t a l M i n u t e s o f p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n p e r week. D i s t r i c t M i n u t e s A B A+B 35 1 0 1 45 1 0 1 50 2 0 2 (CONT ) T a b l e 39 (CONT) T o t a l M i n u t e s o f p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n p e r week. D i s t r i c t M i n u t e s A B A+B 60 2 1 3 65 1 0 1 70 1 0 1 80 25 1 26 90 7 2 9 100 1 2 3 115 1 0 1 120 4 6 10 125 1 0 130 1 0 135 0 1 140 1 0 150 3 1 160 1 0 175 1 0 200 1 0 N = 56 15 7: M = 91.07 106.7 94.37 105 4.6 Summary T h i s c h a p t e r has p r e s e n t e d an a n a l y s i s of the major f i n d i n g s of t h i s s t u d y . T h i s knowledge w i l l be used i n the next c h a p t e r to d i s c u s s the two major g o a l s of the s t u d y . 106 CHAPTER 5 D i s c u s s i o n of R e s u l t s 5.1 O v e r v i e w T h i s c h a p t e r w i l l p r e s e n t a d i s c u s s i o n of t h e r e s u l t s e m e r g i n g from the a n a l y s i s of the d a t a . Where a p p r o p r i a t e , s e l e c t e d comments from the r e t u r n e d q u e s t i o n n a i r e s w i l l be used to enhance the d i s c u s s i o n . S e c t i o n 5.2 p r e s e n t s a d i s c u s s i o n of t h e a n a l y s i s of t h e d a t a r e l a t i n g t o t h e p r o p o r t i o n of a p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n program t h a t i n v o l v e s g y m n a s t i c s i n s t r u c t i o n . S e c t i o n 5.3 w i l l d i s c u s s t h e a n a l y s i s of t h e d a t a r e l a t i n g to the f a c t o r s t e a c h e r s i d e n t i f i e d as b e i n g i m p o r t a n t d e t e r m i n a n t s i n the amount of t i m e t h e y a l l o c a t e d to the t e a c h i n g of g y m n a s t i c s . S e c t i o n 5.4 w i l l d i s c u s s any a d d i t i o n a l r e s u l t s t h a t emerged f r o m the q u e s t i o n n a i r e and a n a l y s i s of the d a t a . A b r i e f summary i s p r o v i d e d i n s e c t i o n 5.5. 5.2 Time A l l o c a t i o n P h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n c u r r i c u l u m g u i d e l i n e s a d v o c a t e t h a t s t u d e n t s of a p r i m a r y s c h o o l age s h o u l d be r e c e i v i n g g y m n a s t i c s i n s t r u c t i o n f o r 30% of the 107 a l l o c a t e d program t i m e ( M i n i s t r y of E d u c a t i o n , 1975). The r e s u l t s of t h i s s t u d y ( T a b l e 2) c l e a r l y i n d i c a t e t h a t s t u d e n t s t y p i c a l l y r e c e i v e d w e l l below t h i s recommended t i m e a l l o t m e n t . O n l y e i g h t p e r c e n t of r e s p o n d e n t s to t h e s u r v e y o f f e r e d t h e i r s t u d e n t s g y m n a s t i c s f o r about 30% of t h e i r p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n program t i m e . Even more r e v e a l i n g i s the f a c t t h a t n e a r l y t w o - t h i r d s (64%) of t h e t e a c h e r s s u r v e y e d o f f e r e d g y m n a s t i c s f o r o n l y about 10% or l e s s of the p r o g ram t i m e . T h i s f i g u r e r e p r e s e n t s a d r a m a t i c i n c r e a s e from t h o s e r e p o r t e d by C a r r e ( 1 9 8 0 ) . I n h i s s t u d y , he d i s c o v e r e d t h a t a p p r o x i m a t e l y 40% of p r i m a r y t e a c h e r s s u r v e y e d a l l o c a t e d about 10% or l e s s of t h e i r p r ogram t i m e to g y m n a s t i c s i n s t r u c t i o n . The r e s u l t s o f t h i s s t u d y a l s o p r o v i d e s u p p o r t f o r t h e c l a i m by F u l l a n (1982) t h a t t h e r e i s an " a l m o s t a r b i t r a r y v a r i a t i o n and emphasis i n c l a s s r o o m s on some s u b j e c t s o v e r t h e o t h e r s " (p. 1 1 7 ) . H i s r e v i e w of t h e l i t e r a t u r e i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e r e a r e numerous s t u d i e s w h i c h show t h a t t e a c h e r s l e a v e o u t , o r c o n v e r s e l y d e v o t e huge amounts of t i m e t o , c e r t a i n p a r t s of a c u r r i c u l u m . The r e s p o n d e n t s to t h i s s t u d y a l s o p r o v i d e d i n f o r m a t i o n c o n c e r n i n g a c t i v i t i e s n o r m a l l y i n c l u d e d i n t h e i r c l a s s e s . T h i s i n f o r m a t i o n has been grouped f o r d i s c u s s i o n under a p p r o p r i a t e h e a d i n g s t h a t a r e r e l a t e d t o t i m e a l l o c a t i o n . 108 About 5-10% g y m n a s t i c s . T e a c h e r s who t a u g h t g y m n a s t i c s f o r about 5-10% o f t h e t i m e i n d i c a t e d a p r e f e r e n c e f o r r o l l i n g or t u m b l i n g , and u s i n g the mats; t h r e e t e a c h e r s a l s o s a i d t h e y used the c l i m b i n g a p p a r a t u s . V e r y few r e p o r t e d a t h e m a t i c a p p r o a c h as d e s c r i b e d by W i l l i a m s (1979) b u t , t h o s e who d i d , showed a d i s t i n c t p r e f e r e n c e f o r the theme o f b a l a n c i n g . One t e a c h e r i n t h i s group d e s c r i b e d how t h e l e s s o n s were ba s e d upon themes, d e t a i l i n g how t h e knowledge g a i n e d on t h e f l o o r was to be a p p l i e d on to a p p a r a t u s . However, t h i s t e a c h e r ' s p rogram c o n s i s t e d of about s i x p e r i o d s per y e a r , each p e r i o d b e i n g 40 m i n u t e s i n l e n g t h ( D i s t r i c t A ) . A n o t h e r t e a c h e r i n t h i s group was v e r y s p e c i f i c , i n d i c a t i n g t h a t t h e a c t i v i t i e s n o r m a l l y i n c l u d e d i n g y m n a s t i c s c l a s s e s would c o n s i s t of "Forward & backward r o l l s , h e a d s t a n d s , and c a r t w h e e l s " ( D i s t r i c t A ) . V e r y few of t h e s e t e a c h e r s i n d i c a t e d i n t h e i r comments t h e use of a m e t h o d o l o g y u s e d t h a t c h a r a c t e r i z e s a d i s t i n c t a p p r o a c h to t e a c h i n g g y m n a s t i c s (e.g . , see B i l b o r o u g h & J o n e s , 1973; or K i r c h n e r , Cunningham, & W a r r e l l , 1970), but one t e a c h e r d i d r e p o r t t h a t t h e s t u d e n t s were e n c o u r a g e d to e x p l o r e " d i f f e r e n t ways to jump, l a n d , r o l l e t c . " ( D i s t r i c t A ) , and a n o t h e r d e s c r i b e d t h e use of " p a r t n e r s to d e v e l o p r o u t i n e s " ( D i s t r i c t B ) . Commenting s p e c i f i c a l l y on t h e t i m e a l l o c a t i o n , 109 one t e a c h e r i n t h i s group i n d i c a t e d on t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e t h a t : "We have a g y m n a s t i c s programme i n our s c h o o l b e f o r e s c h o o l h o u r s . Runs f o r s i x weeks i n t h e S p r i n g and Autumn t w i c e a week" ( D i s t r i c t B ) . Whether t h i s o c c u r s o n l y i n t h i s s c h o o l c a n n o t be s u b s t a n t i a t e d , a l t h o u g h a n o t h e r t e a c h e r f r o m t h i s g roup d i d w r i t e t h a t "I f e e l t h a t the Rec. C e n t r e o f f e r s a good g y m n a s t i c s program and I p r o v i d e a more g e n e r a l games/dance program" ( D i s t r i c t B ) . The most o f t e n r e p o r t e d f r e q u e n c y of t h e number of t i m e s per week a c l a s s r e c e i v e d p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n was two, and s t u d e n t s of t h i s group of t e a c h e r s r e c e i v e d g y m n a s t i c s f o r a p p r o x i m a t e l y s i x to t e n p e r i o d s per y e a r , each p e r i o d a v e r a g i n g about 40 m i n u t e s . About 15-20% g y m n a s t i c s . T e a c h e r s who t a u g h t g y m n a s t i c s to t h e i r s t u d e n t s f o r about 15-20% of t h e program t i m e a l s o showed a p r e f e r e n c e f o r t h e a c t i v i t i e s o f r o l l i n g or t u m b l i n g . V e r y l i t t l e t h e m a t i c work ( e . g . , see W i l l i a m s , 1979) e x c e p t b a l a n c i n g was r e p o r t e d by t h e r e s p o n d e n t s , and t h e r e was l i t t l e r e p o r t e d use of l a r g e a p p a r a t u s , the e x c e p t i o n s b e i n g a "box f o r v a u l t w o r k - a p p r o a c h , t a k e o f f , l a n d i n g " ( D i s t r i c t A ) . Work w i t h benches ( w h i c h K i r c h n e r , 1985 c a t e g o r i z e s as l a r g e e q u i p m e n t ) was v e r y p o p u l a r , and t h e s e were used by t h e m a j o r i t y of t e a c h e r s f o r b a l a n c i n g a c t i v i t i e s . T h e r e was m e n t i o n 110 o f d e v e l o p i n g r o u t i n e s or s e q u e n c e s and a l s o of w o r k i n g w i t h p a r t n e r s or i n s m a l l g r o u p s . The most o f t e n r e p o r t e d f r e q u e n c y of t h e number of t i m e s per week a c l a s s r e c e i v e d p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n was two, and s t u d e n t s o f t h i s group of t e a c h e r s r e c e i v e d g y m n a s t i c s f o r about 11 t o 17 p e r i o d s per y e a r , each p e r i o d b e i n g about 35-40 m i n u t e s i n l e n g t h . About 25-30% g y m n a s t i c s . T e a c h e r s who t a u g h t g y m n a s t i c s f o r about 25-30% of t h e p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n program t i m e were the o n l y group to i n d i c a t e t h a t c l a s s a c t i v i t i e s had a l o g i c a l s e q u e n c e . One t e a c h e r d e s c r i b e d t h e a c t i v i t i e s n o r m a l l y i n c l u d e d i n g y m n a s t i c s c l a s s e s as i n v o l v i n g a warm-up, f o l l o w e d by s k i l l d e v e l opment on t h e f l o o r or mats, w h i c h was t h e n a p p l i e d at a p p a r a t u s s t a t i o n e d at v a r i o u s c e n t r e s i n t h e gymnasium ( t h i s t y p e of l e s s o n p l a n f o l l o w e d c l o s e l y t h e framework s u g g e s t e d by D o c h e r t y and M o r t o n , 1982). T h e s e r e s p o n d e n t s a g a i n showed a p r e f e r e n c e f o r t h e theme of b a l a n c i n g and, a l t h o u g h r o l l i n g ( e g . , f o r w a r d s and b a c k w a r d s ) was a l s o a f o c u s i n t h e r e s p o n s e s , one t e a c h e r d i d e mphasize t h a t i t was t a u g h t v i a a movement e d u c a t i o n a p p r o a c h ( s e e K i r c h n e r , Cunningham, & W a r r e l l , 1970) t h a t u t i l i z e d s e q u e n c i n g . The f r e q u e n c y of the number of t i m e s per week s t u d e n t s of t h i s group of t e a c h e r s r e c e i v e d p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n r a n g e d from 1 t o 4 w i t h 3 I l l b e i n g t h e mode. B e c a u s e t h e r e was a wide v a r i a t i o n i n t h e s e numbers i t i s d i f f i c u l t to g e n e r a l i z e as to how many p e r i o d s per y e a r s t u d e n t s i n t h e s e c l a s s e s r e c e i v e d g y m n a s t i c s i n s t r u c t i o n . S t u d e n t s who had p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n t h r e e t i m e s per week c o u l d be r e c e i v i n g g y m n a s t i c s i n s t r u c t i o n f o r between 30-36 p e r i o d s per y e a r , each p e r i o d b e i n g f r o m 30-40 m i n u t e s i n l e n g t h . However, one t e a c h e r r e p o r t e d t h a t t h e homeroom c l a s s r e c e i v e d p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n f o r one p e r i o d p er week. T h i s t e a c h e r r e p o r t e d a 30% t i m e a l l o c a t i o n , w h i c h t r a n s l a t e s i n t o a g y m n a s t i c s program c o n s i s t i n g of about 13 p e r i o d s per y e a r . S ummary. T e a c h e r s i n D i s t r i c t s A and B d i d not f o l l o w c u r r i c u l u m g u i d e l i n e s ( M i n i s t r y of E d u c a t i o n , 1975) i n t h e p r o p o r t i o n of a p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n program t h e y a l l o c a t e d f o r g y m n a s t i c s i n s t r u c t i o n . N e a r l y t w o - t h i r d s o f t h e r e s p o n d e n t s to t h e s u r v e y i n d i c a t e d t h e y o f f e r e d g y m n a s t i c s f o r about 10% o r ' l e s s of t h e i r p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n program t i m e . Two common g y m n a s t i c s a c t i v i t i e s t h a t t e a c h e r s i n b o t h d i s t r i c t s r e p o r t e d i n c l u d i n g i n t h e i r c l a s s e s were b a l a n c i n g and r o l l i n g ; t h e most f r e q u e n t l y u s e d equipment b e i n g mats, b e n c h e s , and c l i m b i n g a p p a r a t u s . The v a r i a t i o n i n t i m e a l l o c a t i o n , and t h e s i m i l a r i t y i n t h e t y p e of work l i s t e d by a l l r e s p o n d e n t s , a l s o shows some 112 s u p p o r t f o r t h e f i n d i n g s of B o t t ( 1 9 8 5 ) . Her c o n c l u s i o n s , w h i c h were based upon i n t e r v i e w s , a n a l y s i s of schemes of work, and v i d e o r e c o r d i n g s made of g y m n a s t i c s l e s s o n s , r e p o r t e d t h a t , even though th e t i m e s p e n t on g y m n a s t i c s was v e r y d i f f e r e n t , t h e amount o f work r e p o r t e d by the t e a c h e r s i n t h e schemes was s i m i l a r . T h i s s t u d y has e s t a b l i s h e d t h a t the l a r g e m a j o r i t y of t e a c h e r s s u r v e y e d d i d not f o l l o w c u r r i c u l u m g u i d e l i n e s i n g y m n a s t i c s . The f o c u s of t h i s s t u d y w i l l now t u r n to f a c t o r s t h e r e s p o n d e n t s i d e n t i f i e d as b e i n g i m p o r t a n t d e t e r m i n a n t s i n t h e amount of t i m e t h e y a l l o c a t e d to t h e t e a c h i n g of g y m n a s t i c s . 5.3 The D e t e r m i n a n t s of Time A l l o c a t i o n  I n t r o d u c t i o n . T h i s s t u d y a d a p t e d F u l l a n ' s (1982) model of change t o p r o v i d e a framework f o r a n a l y z i n g e d u c a t i o n a l change as i t r e l a t e s s p e c i f i c a l l y to the t e a c h i n g of g y m n a s t i c s . The model i d e n t i f i e s f i f t e e n f a c t o r s w h i c h a r e o r g a n i z e d i n t o f o u r c a t e g o r i e s , and a b r i e f d e s c r i p t i o n of t h e i r i m p o r t to t h e c o n t e x t of t h i s s t u d y i s c o n t a i n e d i n C h a p t e r 2. I n a d d i t i o n , i t was a l s o s u g g e s t e d t h a t each a r e a of c u r r i c u l u m change has i t s own c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s ; and t h e t e a c h i n g of g y m n a s t i c s i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a c o n c e r n f o r s a f e t y . 113 C o n s i s t e n t w i t h F u l l a n ' s (1982) n o t i o n t h a t s p e c i f i c f a c t o r s can be o r g a n i z e d i n t o b r o a d c a t e g o r i e s , t h e d e t e r m i n a n t s of t i m e a l l o c a t i o n w i l l be d i s c u s s e d under the c a t e g o r i e s o f : 1. E x p e c t a t i o n s . 2. T e a c h e r e f f i c a c y . 3. S u p p o r t . 4. T e a c h e r knowledge. 5. S a f e t y . 6. Age. E x p e c t a t i o n s . T e a c h e r s r e p o r t e d no s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e a l l o c a t i o n o f t i m e to g y m n a s t i c s and an e x p e c t a n c y f r o m w i t h i n t h e s c h o o l or t h e l o c a l community t h a t g y m n a s t i c s be t a u g h t . However, agreement w i t h s c h o o l e x p e c t a t i o n ( s e e T a b l e 19) d i d i n c r e a s e f r o m t h o s e who t a u g h t l i t t l e g y m n a s t i c s ( i . e . , about 0 - 1 0 % ) , to t h o s e t e a c h e r s whose programs a p p r o a c h e d th e c u r r i c u l u m g u i d e l i n e s ( i . e . , about 2 5 - 3 0 % ) . The l i t e r a t u r e i n c l u d e s c o n s i d e r a b l e r e s e a r c h showing t h a t a p r i n c i p a l can have a p o w e r f u l i n f l u e n c e on e d u c a t i o n a l change ( e . g . , F u l l a n , 1982), however t h e s t u d y by Berman & M c l a u g h l i n (1979) r e p o r t e d t h a t t o o o f t e n t h e p r i n c i p a l does not p l a y an a c t i v e r o l e i n change. F u l l a n a l s o r e p o r t s on s t u d i e s i n Canada 114 w h i c h show t h a t at b e s t , o n l y about o n e - h a l f of s c h o o l p r i n c i p a l s p r o v i d e a c t i v e i n s t r u c t i o n a l l e a d e r s h i p i n t h e use of c u r r i c u l u m g u i d e l i n e s . T h a t i s n o t to say t h a t t h e e x p e c t a t i o n must come f r o m the p r i n c i p a l ; many s c h o o l s i n i t i a t e programs t h r o u g h t e a c h e r s t h e m s e l v e s . T h i s i n i t i a t i o n can r e s u l t i n a c o l l e g i a l e x p e c t a t i o n t h a t e v e n t s , f a i r s , m u s i c a l p r o d u c t i o n s , and p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n programs be p a r t of t h e l i f e of t h e s c h o o l . F u l l a n s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e r e a r e many i n s t a n c e s of t e a c h e r s or p r o j e c t l e a d e r s h a v i n g a s t r o n g i m p a c t on e d u c a t i o n a l change, but adds t h a t t h e r e was u s u a l l y a s u p p o r t i v e p r i n c i p a l b e h i n d them. Two t e a c h e r s i l l u s t r a t e d d i f f e r i n g l e v e l s of e x p e c t a n c y i n t h e i r a d d i t i o n a l comments: One t e a c h e r s a i d " We have a s t a t i o n s a p p r o a c h s e t up f o r t h e p r i m a r y g r a d e s t h r e e t i m e s w e e k l y " ( D i s t r i c t A ) . At th e o t h e r end of t h e t i m e s c a l e , a t e a c h e r w r o t e t h a t " i t s h a r d to get a " b l o c k " of c l a s s e s i n t e r e s t e d i n h a v i n g t h e gym s e t up f o r one day a week f o r t h e i r gym t i m e " ( D i s t r i c t A ) . However, t h e r e s u l t s of t h i s s t u d y s u g g e s t t h a t t h e r e i s l i t t l e e x p e c t a t i o n f r o m p r i n c i p a l s and/or s t a f f o f t h e s c h o o l s i n v e s t i g a t e d t h a t g y m n a s t i c s be o f f e r e d to s t u d e n t s . T e a c h e r s ' p e r c e p t i o n s t h a t the community e x p e c t s g y m n a s t i c s to be t a u g h t were not a s i g n i f i c a n t f a c t o r i n d e t e r m i n i n g t i m e a l l o c a t i o n i n t h i s s t u d y . I n a d d i t i o n , t h e r e was g e n e r a l d i s a g r e e m e n t among 115 r e s p o n d e n t s t h a t t h e r e i s a l o c a l community e x p e c t a t i o n to t e a c h g y m n a s t i c s ( s e e T a b l e 2 6 ) . T h i s f i n d i n g a l s o s u p p o r t s t h e c o n t e n t i o n of F u l l a n (1982) who d e s c r i b e s how most s c h o o l c o m m u n i t i e s do not d i r e c t l y i n v o l v e t h e m s e l v e s i n e d u c a t i o n a l change. T h a t i s not to say t h e r e i s no i n t e r e s t , f o r F u l l a n a l s o makes t h e p o i n t t h a t "most p a r e n t s a r e c o n c e r n e d and i n t e r e s t e d i n programs and changes r e l a t i n g to t h e i r own c h i l d r e n " (p. 2 0 3 ) . The d r a m a t i c i n c r e a s e i n g y m n a s t i c s c l u b s ( J o h n s o n , 1985) t h a t i s a t t r a c t i n g so many y o u n g s t e r s i s p e r h a p s p r o v i d i n g the need p a r e n t s c o u l d be e x p r e s s i n g f o r g y m n a s t i c s p r o g r a m s . As one t e a c h e r s t a t e d "I f e e l t h a t t h e Rec. C e n t r e o f f e r s a good g y m n a s t i c s program and I p r o v i d e a more g e n e r a l games/dance o r i e n t e d program" ( D i s t r i c t B ) . A n o t h e r t e a c h e r o f f e r e d as an a d d i t i o n a l r e a s o n f o r n o t t e a c h i n g any g y m n a s t i c s t h a t " C h i l d r e n can t a k e g y m n a s t i c s at a gymnasium o t h e r t h a n t h e s c h o o l " ( D i s t r i c t A ) . However, i f t h e r e i s a c o n c e r n w i t h i n t h e community, t h e n e i t h e r t h i s i s not b e i n g m a n i f e s t or p e r c e i v e d by t e a c h e r s , or i t i s b e i n g a b a t e d t h r o u g h g y m n a s t i c s i n v o l v e m e n t o u t s i d e the s c h o o l . T e a c h e r e f f i c a c y . T e a c h e r enjoyment, th e p e r c e p t i o n by t e a c h e r s o f s t u d e n t enjoyment, and t h e v a l u e to s t u d e n t s t e a c h e r s saw i n g y m n a s t i c s i n s t r u c t i o n were not s i g n i f i c a n t i n 116 i n f l u e n c i n g t h e amount o f time t e a c h e r s a l l o c a t e d to g y m n a s t i c s . T e a c h e r s from e i t h e r end of t h e t i m e s p e c t r u m i n d i c a t e d t h e i r enjoyment i n t e a c h i n g g y m n a s t i c s . One t e a c h e r who r e p o r t e d a t i m e a l l o c a t i o n of about 5% s t a t e d t h a t " i t ' s f u n f o r s t u d e n t s and me" ( D i s t r i c t A ) , whereas a n o t h e r who r e p o r t e d a t i m e a l l o c a t i o n of about 15% commented s i m p l y "I l i k e i t " ( D i s t r i c t A ) . The one n e g a t i v e comment came from a t e a c h e r who d i d not t e a c h any g y m n a s t i c s and s t a t e d c a t e g o r i c a l l y t h a t "I d o n ' t l i k e i t " ( D i s t r i c t A ) . However, i t s h o u l d be n o t e d t h a t t e a c h e r enjoyment d i d i n c r e a s e as t h e t i m e a l l o c a t i o n i n c r e a s e d , n e v e r t h e l e s s , n e a r l y 60% of t h o s e who t a u g h t g y m n a s t i c s f o r o n l y about 0-10% i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e y e n j o y e d d o i n g so ( s e e T a b l e 1 7 ) . The f i n d i n g s c o n c e r n i n g t e a c h e r and s t u d e n t enjoyment do not f u l l y s u p p o r t t h o s e of S c h m i d t & Buchmann (1983) who s t a t e d t h a t when l e v e l s of t e a c h e r enjoyment w i t h s u b j e c t s were h i g h , t i m e a l l o c a t i o n s f o r t h o s e s u b j e c t s a l s o t e n d e d to be h i g h . A l t h o u g h S c h m i d t & Buchmann's c o n c l u s i o n s were ba s e d upon academic s u b j e c t s , a s t u d y on g y m n a s t i c s by Thompson and P o t v i n (1983) a l s o i n d i c a t e d t h a t "the s u c c e s s and enjoyment of the c h i l d r e n " (p. 15) had an i n f l u e n c e on t e a c h e r s ' d e c i s i o n s c o n c e r n i n g c u r r i c u l u m . The r e s u l t s of t h e s t u d y r e p o r t e d i n t h i s t h e s i s i n d i c a t e t h a t a l t h o u g h t h e m a j o r i t y of t e a c h e r s e n j o y t e a c h i n g 117 g y m n a s t i c s ( s e e T a b l e 1 7 ) , and p e r c e i v e t h a t t h e i r s t u d e n t s e n j o y i t ( s e e T a b l e 1 8 ) , t h e s e f a c t o r s do not a p p e a r to s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n f l u e n c e t i m e a l l o c a t i o n . The r e s p o n d e n t s i n b o t h d i s t r i c t s were a l m o s t unanimous i n t h e i r agreement as to t h e v a l u e o f g y m n a s t i c s t o t h e s t u d e n t . Agreement by t e a c h e r s was shown w i t h a number o f a u t h o r s ( e . g . , Munrow, 1963; S i e d e n t o p et a l . , 1984), who have c i t e d t h e p h y s i c a l b e n e f i t s to s t u d e n t s — a s one t e a c h e r s t a t e d " I t h e l p s d e v e l o p f l e x i b i l i t y and c o - o r d i n a t i o n " ( D i s t r i c t B ) . A n o t h e r t e a c h e r o f f e r e d t h e t h o u g h t t h a t g y m n a s t i c s h e l p s "body c o - o r d i n a t i o n ( w h i c h i s ) n e c e s s a r y to a c h i l d d e v e l o p m e n t " ( D i s t r i c t B ) . Some t e a c h e r s a l s o saw t h e v a l u e of g y m n a s t i c s as i m p r o v i n g a c h i l d ' s s e l f - c o n c e p t , a g r e e i n g w i t h Dauer & P a n g r a z i (1984) as t o the i m p o r t a n t r o l e t h a t p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n can p l a y i n t h i s r e s p e c t . One t e a c h e r w r o t e t h a t "some s t u d e n t s s t a r i n g y m n a s t i c s (and o f f e r i n g i t ) g i v e s them a chance to d e m o n s t r a t e t h e i r s k i l l s " ( D i s t r i c t A ) . I n s p i t e of t h e o v e r w h e l m i n g agreement on the v a l u e of g y m n a s t i c s t o s t u d e n t s , t h e r e was no s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h i s f a c t o r and time a l l o c a t i o n f o r g y m n a s t i c s ( s e e T a b l e 2 2 ) . What was s i g n i f i c a n t , a l b e i t o n l y i n D i s t r i c t B, was t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between t e a c h e r s ' p e r c e p t i o n of competence to i n s t r u c t s t u d e n t s and t h e t i m e t h e y a l l o c a t e to t h e t e a c h i n g of g y m n a s t i c s ( s e e T a b l e 2 1 ) . 118 I n t h i s d i s t r i c t , s e v e n out of t e n t e a c h e r s who t a u g h t g y m n a s t i c s from about 0-10% f e l t t h a t t h e y d i d not have t h e competence to do so. The s t u d y by S c h m i d t & Buchman (1983) s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h e r e was some t e n d e n c y f o r t e a c h e r s who e x p e r i e n c e d d i f f i c u l t y i n t e a c h i n g academic s u b j e c t s ( i . e . , l a n g u a g e a r t s , s o c i a l s t u d i e s , m a t h e m a t i c s , and s c i e n c e ) to a l l o c a t e l e s s t i m e to them. A l t h o u g h Schmidt & Buchman u r g e c a u t i o n w i t h t h e i r c o n c l u s i o n s , t h e r e s u l t s o f t h i s s t u d y s u g g e s t t h a t a s e n s e of competence i n t e a c h i n g a non-academic s u b j e c t does have a r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h t i m e a l l o c a t i o n . T e a c h e r s i n D i s t r i c t A ( s e e T a b l e 20) d i d not r e p o r t t h e same f i n d i n g s on a s e n s e of competence f o r g y m n a s t i c s i n s t r u c t i o n as t h e i r c o u n t e r p a r t s i n D i s t r i c t B. The d a t a f o r D i s t r i c t A showed t h a t t h o s e who t a u g h t g y m n a s t i c s t h e l e a s t (about 0 - 1 0 % ) , were e v e n l y s p l i t on t h e i r agreement, u n c e r t a i n t y , and d i s a g r e e m e n t about t h i s p e r c e p t i o n of competency. I n a d d i t i o n , agreement w i t h a s e n s e of competence to i n s t r u c t s t u d e n t s i n c r e a s e d as t i m e a l l o c a t i o n i n c r e a s e d . S u p p o r t . The m a j o r i t y of t e a c h e r s i n b o t h d i s t r i c t s a g r e e d t h a t t h e f a c i l i t i e s i n t h e i r s c h o o l s were a d e q u a t e f o r t h e g y m n a s t i c s program t h e y o f f e r ( s e e T a b l e 3 1 ) . An 119 a n a l y s i s of t h e a c t i v i t i e s r e p o r t e d as b e i n g i n c l u d e d i n c l a s s e s showed t h a t t e a c h e r s r e q u i r e mats, b e n c h e s , a box; t h r e e t e a c h e r s a l s o i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e y used c l i m b i n g a p p a r a t u s . O n l y one t e a c h e r who d i d not t e a c h any g y m n a s t i c s s t a t e d t h a t an a d d i t i o n a l r e a s o n f o r not t e a c h i n g g y m n a s t i c s was " a l m o s t a c o m p l e t e l a c k of e q uipment" ( D i s t r i c t B ) . The c o m p l e x i t i e s o f o r g a n i z i n g the equipment and p u p i l s d i d not have any s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p to t i m e a l l o c a t i o n ( s e e T a b l e 34) b u t , t h e m a j o r i t y of a l l t e a c h e r s d i d a g r e e t h a t i t l i m i t e d t h e e x t e n t of t h e i r g y m n a s t i c s i n s t r u c t i o n . One t e a c h e r w r o t e t h a t " t h e r e was i n a d e q u a t e t i m e i n w h i c h to s e t up and put away eq u i p m e n t " ( D i s t r i c t B ) . A n o t h e r t e a c h e r s a i d "Heavy equipment i s t i m e consuming to b r i n g out so I d o n ' t use i t as o f t e n as I'd l i k e t o " ( D i s t r i c t A ) . I n a d d i t i o n , one t e a c h e r r e f e r r e d to the p r o b l e m of " g e t t i n g t h e equipment out f o r one c l a s s and t h e n p u t t i n g i t a l l away i n 30-40 m i n u t e s " ( D i s t r i c t A ) . C o n v e r s e l y , one t e a c h e r s t r o n g l y d i s a g r e e d t h a t t h e c o m p l e x i t i e s of o r g a n i z i n g p u p i l s and equipment l i m i t e d t h e e x t e n t of g y m n a s t i c s i n s t r u c t i o n "Because we have a s t a t i o n s a p p r o a c h s e t up f o r a l l t h e p r i m a r y g r a d e s t h r e e t i m e s w e e k l y w i t h s t u d e n t h e l p e r s " ( D i s t r i c t A ) . One t e a c h e r ' s comments d i d i n d i c a t e the s u p p o r t i v e r o l e a p r i n c i p a l or o t h e r t e a c h e r s can p l a y i n t h i s r e g a r d , w r i t i n g t h a t " i t ' s h a r d to g e t a 120 " b l o c k " of c l a s s e s i n t e r e s t e d i n h a v i n g t h e gym s e t up f o r one day a week" ( D i s t r i c t A ) . T h r e e of t h e s e t e a c h e r s ' comments appear to be s u g g e s t i n g t h a t t h e r e s h o u l d be a s c h o o l e x p e c t a n c y t h a t g y m n a s t i c s be t a u g h t , but a r e p e r h a p s r e c e i v i n g no s u p p o r t from o t h e r t e a c h e r s and/or t h e p r i n c i p a l . The f o u r t h t e a c h e r ' s comments s u g g e s t t h e r e i s s u p p o r t f r o m w i t h i n t h e s c h o o l and i t i s t r a n s l a t i n g i n t o i n c r e a s e d t i m e a l l o c a t i o n . The p r e v i o u s comments s e r v e to i l l u s t r a t e how the f a c t o r s of c o m p l e x i t y and s c h o o l e x p e c t a n c y can p o s s i b l y i n t e r a c t to a f f e c t t i m e a l l o c a t i o n . I t can be a complex i s s u e to o r g a n i z e g y m n a s t i c s equipment ( e s p e c i a l l y l a r g e and heavy equipment) f o r one 30-40 mi n u t e p e r i o d b u t , as one t e a c h e r p o i n t e d o u t , i t can be done i f t h e r e i s s u p p o r t f r o m w i t h i n the s c h o o l . T h e r e was a l s o a s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p between t i m e a l l o c a t i o n and the adequacy of p r i n t r e s o u r c e s i n b o t h s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s ( s e e T a b l e 2 5 ) . The m a j o r i t y of t e a c h e r s who t a u g h t g y m n a s t i c s f o r about 15-30% a g r e e d t h a t t h e p r i n t r e s o u r c e s were a d e q u a t e , but o n l y about o n e - q u a r t e r of t e a c h e r s who t a u g h t g y m n a s t i c s f o r about 10% or l e s s of t h e i r program a g r e e d w i t h t h i s s t a t e m e n t . I n a d d i t i o n n e a r l y h a l f of t h e t e a c h e r s who a l s o t a u g h t about 0-10% were u n c e r t a i n about th e adequacy of t h e p r i n t r e s o u r c e s . 121 Whether t h i s n o t i o n of adequacy r e f e r r e d to the p r a c t i c a l i t y ( s e e D o y l e & P o n d e r , 1977-78; and Thompson & P o t v i n , 1983) or a v a i l a b i l i t y of p r i n t r e s o u r c e s was not d e t e r m i n e d by t h i s s t u d y . However, t h e l a r g e number of t e a c h e r s who t a u g h t g y m n a s t i c s f o r about 10% or l e s s who were u n c e r t a i n about t h i s q u e s t i o n of adequacy c o u l d s u g g e s t t h a t t h e p r a c t i c a l i t y of t h e r e s o u r c e s i s not the i s s u e — t h e i s s u e i s more one of u t i l i z i n g a r e s o u r c e book. A l t h o u g h t h i s s t u d y a g r e e s w i t h Moody (1982) t h a t " c u r r i c u l u m m a t e r i a l s f o r e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n abound" (p. 2 6 ) , i t a l s o s u g g e s t s t h a t a number of t e a c h e r s who t e a c h about 0-10% a r e p r o b a b l y unaware of t h e a v a i l a b l e p r i n t r e s o u r c e s . Thompson (1979) has s u g g e s t e d t h a t many c u r r i c u l u m p r o j e c t s r e m a i n on s c h o o l s h e l v e s , b o t h unused and unknown to t h e i n t e n d e d u s e r s . T h i s u n c e r t a i n t y of not knowing about the p r i n t m a t e r i a l s w i l l h i n d e r the d e v e l o p m e n t of a g y m n a s t i c s program f o r , as Moody p o i n t s o u t , " t e a c h e r s r e q u i r e a c c e s s to a p p r o p r i a t e c u r r i c u l u m m a t e r i a l s i f q u a l i t y , s e q u e n t i a l programs a r e to be i m p l e m e n t e d and m a i n t a i n e d " (p. 3 4 ) . O n l y about o n e - q u a r t e r of t h e t e a c h e r s i n D i s t r i c t A who t a u g h t g y m n a s t i c s f o r about 20% or l e s s o f t h e i r p rogram t i m e a g r e e d t h a t t h e r e was a d e q u a t e i n - s e r v i c e o f f e r e d i n t h e i r d i s t r i c t ( s e e T a b l e 2 3 ) . A l t h o u g h th e number d o u b l e s w i t h t e a c h e r s who o f f e r 122 g y m n a s t i c s f o r about 25-30% o f the program, t h e r e a r e a l a r g e p r o p o r t i o n o f , t e a c h e r s i n t h i s d i s t r i c t who a r e u n c e r t a i n or d i s a g r e e about t h e adequacy of i n - s e r v i c e . On t h e o t h e r hand, i n D i s t r i c t B, s i g n i f i c a n c e i s d i r e c t e d to the f a c t t h a t ALL t e a c h e r s p e r c e i v e i n - s e r v i c e to be i n a d e q u a t e i n the d i s t r i c t ( s e e T a b l e 2 4 ) . An e x p l a n a t i o n f o r t h e d i f f e r i n g r e s p o n s e s i s s u g g e s t e d by f o c u s i n g a t t e n t i o n on t h e l e v e l s of s u p p o r t a v a i l a b l e i n each d i s t r i c t . T e a c h e r s i n D i s t r i c t B were unanimous (100%) i n t h e i r d i s a g r e e m e n t as to the adequacy of i n - s e r v i c e . T h i s d i s t r i c t does not have a p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n c o o r d i n a t o r n o r a f u l l - o r p a r t - t i m e c o n s u l t a n t and, t h i s s t u d y would a r g u e t h a t , t h i s l i m i t s t h e scope of i n - s e r v i c e o f f e r e d f o r g y m n a s t i c s i n s t r u c t i o n . T h i s does n o t i m p l y t h a t t h e r e a r e no o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r t h e s e t e a c h e r s t o a t t e n d some forms of i n - s e r v i c e ( e . g . , p r i m a r y c o n f e r e n c e s ) . However, t h i s s t u d y would a l s o a r g u e t h a t t h e s e o p p o r t u n i t i e s a r e l i m i t e d and are p r o b a b l y of t h e " o n e - s h o t " t y p e w i t h l i t t l e , i f any, f o l l o w - u p b e i n g a v a i l a b l e . D i s t r i c t A, on the o t h e r hand, has a f u l l - t i m e p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n c o o r d i n a t o r , as w e l l as a t e a c h e r who a c t e d as a p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n c o n s u l t a n t f o r two days per week fr o m 1984-1986. Workshops i n g y m n a s t i c s i n t h i s d i s t r i c t have been o f f e r e d and some a s s i s t a n c e w i t h i n a s c h o o l s e t t i n g was o f f e r e d by t h e c o n s u l t a n t . 123 T h u s , one e x p l a n a t i o n f o r t h e s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e d a t a b e t w e e n t h e d i s t r i c t s i s t h a t t h e l e v e l s o f s u p p o r t a v a i l a b l e a r e p r o v i d i n g i n - s e v i c e t h a t i s m e e t i n g t h e n e e d s o f some t e a c h e r s , r e s u l t i n g i n a s t r o n g e r a g r e e m e n t as t o t h e a d e q u a c y o f i n - s e r v i c e o f f e r e d . H o wever, t h e d a t a f o r t h i s D i s t r i c t A a l s o shows t h a t t h e m a j o r i t y o f t e a c h e r s a r e u n c e r t a i n o r d i s a g r e e a b o u t t h e a d e q u a c y of i n - s e r v i c e o f f e r e d . One p l a u s i b l e s u g g e s t i o n f o r t h i s i s t h a t i n - s e r v i c e and o t h e r s u p p o r t o f f e r e d i n a r e n o t m e e t i n g t h e s p e c i f i c n e eds o f t e a c h e r s ( i . e . , beyond a few b a s i c l e s s o n s l e a r n e d at a w o r k s h o p ) . T h i s s t u d y ' s s c o p e was n o t t o l o o k a t t h e t y p e o f i n - s e r v i c e o f f e r e d , b u t does h a v e t h e p e r s o n a l k n o w l e d g e t h a t n e a r l y a l l w o r k s h o p s o f f e r e d i n t h i s d i s t r i c t w e r e o f t h e o n e - s h o t t y p e . Y e t a common e l e m e n t i n t h e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n r e s e a r c h l i t e r a t u r e c o n c e r n s t h e need f o r i n - s e r v i c e and s u p p o r t t h a t i s o n - g o i n g , s u p p o r t i v e , and n o t o f t h e o n e - s h o t t y p e ( F u l l a n , 1 9 8 2 ) . I f t e a c h e r s a r e t o be e x p e c t e d t o i n c r e a s e t h e i r t i m e a l l o c a t i o n f o r g y m n a s t i c s , i n - s e r v i c e a c t i v i t i e s i n t h e s e d i s t r i c t s m i g h t a v o i d u s i n g a o n e - s h o t t y p e w o r k s h o p , and i n s t e a d i n v e s t i g a t e m o d e l s o f i n - s e r v i c e s u c h as t h a t s u g g e s t e d by J o y c e and Showers ( 1 9 8 0 , 1 9 8 2 ) . T h e s e a u t h o r s p r o p o s e t h a t 124 s u c c e s s f u l i n - s e r v i c e c o n s i s t s of f i v e components: T h e o r y , d e m o n s t r a t i o n , p r a c t i c e , f e e d b a c k , and a p p l i c a t i o n f o r c o a c h i n g ( f o r a more d e t a i l e d s u c c e s s f u l a p p l i c a t i o n o f t h i s model, see Moody, 1984). T h i s model of i n - s e r v i c e , as Moody has r e p o r t e d , i s r e a d i l y a p p l i c a b l e to t h e p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n c l a s s s e t t i n g where c o a c h i n g t h r o u g h t e a r n - t e a c h i n g can r e a d i l y o f f e r o n - t h e - s p o t a d v i c e , e n c ouragement, and can i l l u s t r a t e t e c h n i q u e s i d e n t i f i e d w i t h t e a c h i n g the c u r r i c u l u m a r e a of g y m n a s t i c s . T h e r e was a l s o a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between t h e d i s t r i c t s to t h e s t a t e m e n t t h a t t e a c h e r s would t e a c h more g y m n a s t i c s i f t h e r e was someone on s t a f f who c o u l d h e l p them. Over t w o - t h i r d s of t h e t e a c h e r s i n D i s t r i c t B who t a u g h t g y m n a s t i c s f o r about 20% or l e s s a g r e e d w i t h t h i s s t a t e m e n t ( s e e T a b l e 3 3 ) . T h i s i s p e r h a p s i n d i c a t i v e of t h e i n a d e q u a c y of s u p p o r t ( e . g . , i n - s e r v i c e ) , and r e f l e c t s a need f o r s u p p o r t t h a t i s " a p p r o p r i a t e . . . and from a v a r i e t y of p l a y e r s " ( L o u c k s & Z a c c h e i , 1983, p. 2 8 ) . T h a t t h e r e i s l e s s agreement i n D i s t r i c t A ( s e e T a b l e 32) does s u g g e s t t h a t o t h e r h e l p ( e . g . , i n - s e r v i c e , a v a i l a b i l i t y of a c o n s u l t a n t ) i s p o s s i b l y p a r t i a l l y f u l f i l l i n g t h e r o l e of s u p p o r t . T h e r e a p p e a r s to be a t r e n d e m e r g i n g , as the d i s c u s s i o n of t h e r e s u l t s of t h i s s t u d y u n f o l d , t h a t 125 some f a c t o r s a p pear to be i n t e r a c t i n g w i t h each o t h e r to i n f l u e n c e t i m e a l l o c a t i o n f o r g y m n a s t i c s . The s u p p o r t f o r t h i s i n t e r a c t i o n comes from F u l l a n (1982) who p r o p o s e s t h a t e d u c a t o r s s h o u l d a v o i d " t h i n k i n g of t h e f i f t e e n f a c t o r s ( t h a t a f f e c t e d u c a t i o n a l change) i n i s o l a t i o n f r o m each o t h e r " (p. 5 7 ) . T h i s has been s u g g e s t e d d u r i n g t h e d i s c u s s i o n s d e a l i n g w i t h e x p e c t a t i o n s and t e a c h e r e f f i c a c y , and has been f u r t h e r d e v e l o p e d w i t h t h e d i s c u s s i o n of s u p p o r t . However, an o v e r a l l t r e n d t h a t i s e merging i s one t h a t would l i n k t i m e a l l o c a t i o n w i t h l e v e l s of t e a c h e r s ' knowledge about t h e t e a c h i n g of g y m n a s t i c s . T h i s s t u d y s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e s e l e v e l s o f knowledge have t h e i r base i n p r e - s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g . T e a c h e r k n o w ledge. The d a t a a n a l y z e d shows t h e r e i s a s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p between t i m e a l l o c a t i o n and p r e - s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g ( s e e T a b l e 3 6 ) . N e a r l y t h r e e - q u a r t e r s of the t e a c h e r s who t a u g h t g y m n a s t i c s f o r about 10% or l e s s o f t h e i r program t i m e d i d not have any p r e - s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g , whereas o n l y o n e - t h i r d of t e a c h e r s who t a u g h t g y m n a s t i c s f o r about 25-30% had no p r e - s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g . T h i s f i n d i n g s u p p o r t s t h e c l a i m of F u l l a n (1982) t h a t "many e l e m e n t a r y t e a c h e r s a r e t e a c h i n g s u b j e c t a r e a s f o r w h i c h they have l i t t l e p r e p a r a t i o n " ( p . 1 1 7 ) . I t a l s o s u p p o r t s th e f i n d i n g s of 126 C a r r e (1980) whose s u r v e y f o u n d t h a t 75% o f p r i m a r y t e a c h e r s had t a k e n no g y m n a s t i c c o u r s e s at a l l . As one t e a c h e r s t a t e d "I know v e r y l i t t l e about t h i s a r e a " ( D i s t r i c t A ) , and a n o t h e r o f f e r e d t h a t a r e a s o n f o r not t e a c h i n g g y m n a s t i c s was " l a c k of q u a l i f i c a t i o n s " ( D i s t r i c t A ) . A t h i r d t e a c h e r s a i d "I don't t e a c h i t b e c a u s e I am not a P.E. major or a t h l e t i c a l l y t r a i n e d . . . t o a t t e m p t a n y t h i n g beyond t h e v e r y b a s i c s " ( D i s t r i c t B ) . On t h e o t h e r hand one t e a c h e r who t a u g h t g y m n a s t i c s f o r 20% added t h a t an a d d i t i o n a l r e a s o n f o r t e a c h i n g g y m n a s t i c s was "I had a good e d u c a t i o n a l g y m n a s t i c s c o u r s e at t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a " ( D i s t r i c t A ) . Complementing t h e s u g g e s t i o n the m a j o r i t y of t e a c h e r s have a l i m i t e d l e v e l o f knowledge a r e r e p o r t e d comments t h a t i n d i c a t e l i m i t e d t y p e of a c t i v i t i e s b e i n g i n c l u d e d i n g y m n a s t i c s c l a s s e s . T h e r e was a d i s t i n c t p r e f e r e n c e f o r l i s t i n g the a r e a s o f r o l l i n g and b a l a n c i n g , e s p e c i a l l y w i t h t h o s e who t a u g h t about 10% or l e s s g y m n a s t i c s . I n a d d i t i o n , s t a t e m e n t s such as t h o s e by one t e a c h e r t h a t "I c a n n o t be at a l l s t a t i o n s at onc e " ( D i s t r i c t B) or "No s p o t t e r s a v a i l a b l e (and I ) don't know s p o t t i n g r u l e s " ( D i s t r i c t B) do add to t h e p i c t u r e t h a t t h e r e i s a l i m i t e d s c o p e of knowledge about a c t i v i t i e s , c o n t e n t , and t e a c h i n g m e t h o d o l o g y s u g g e s t e d f o r c h i l d r e n 127 of t h i s age ( e . g . , see W i l l i a m s , 1979; L o g s d o n et a l , 1983; or K i r c h n e r , Cunningham & W a r r e l l , 1970) e s p e c i a l l y among t e a c h e r s who t e a c h g y m n a s t i c s f o r about 10% o r l e s s . T h i s s t u d y p r o p o s e s t h a t a l i m i t e d g y m n a s t i c s knowledge i s p r i m a r i l y a c o n s e q u e n c e of a l a c k o f q u a l i t y p r e - s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g . However, i t i s a l s o s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h e l i m i t e d g y m n a s t i c s knowledge i s a l s o b e i n g compounded by l e v e l s and q u a l i t y of i n - s e r v i c e and o t h e r s u p p o r t ( e . g . , p r i n c i p a l s and/or c o n s u l t a n t s ) , and i s p o s s i b l y c o n t r i b u t i n g t o t e a c h e r s ' p e r c e p t i o n s o f a l a c k of competence to i n s t r u c t s t u d e n t s i n g y m n a s t i c s . A l l of t h e s e f a c t o r s a p p e ar to be i n t e r a c t i n g to some d e g r e e to a f f e c t t i m e a l l o c a t i o n f o r g y m n a s t i c s . However, i t i s t h e f i n a l c o n c e p t of s a f e t y t h a t a p p e a r s to be o f g r e a t e s t c o n c e r n to a l l t e a c h e r s . I t i s t h e a d d i t i o n and i n t e r a c t i o n o f t h i s c o n c e p t w i t h t h e a f o r e m e n t i o n e d w h i c h s e r v e s to s u g g e s t why a l l t e a c h e r s i n t h i s s u r v e y , some more than o t h e r s , l i m i t the e x t e n t of t h e i r g y m n a s t i c s i n s t r u c t i o n . S a f e t y . The a n a l y s i s of the d a t a f o r t h i s s t u d y i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e r e was no r e l a t i o n s h i p between tim e a l l o c a t i o n and c o n c e r n f o r t e a c h e r l i a b i l i t y and s t u d e n t s a f e t y . A l t h o u g h l e v e l s of c o n c e r n f o r t e a c h e r l i a b i l i t y were 128 c o n s i d e r a b l y h i g h e r i n D i s t r i c t B ( s e e T a b l e 28) t h a n D i s t r i c t A ( s e e T a b l e 2 7 ) , t h e r e was a s t r o n g agreement from a l l t e a c h e r s who t e a c h no g y m n a s t i c s to t h o s e who t e a c h about 30% t h a t c o n c e r n s about s t u d e n t s a f e t y do l i m i t t h e e x t e n t to w h i c h t h e y o f f e r g y m n a s t i c s i n s t r u c t i o n ( s e e T a b l e 28 and t h e d i s c u s s i o n f o r t h e one e x c e p t i o n to the a g r e e m e n t ) . The f i n d i n g s do s u p p o r t a s t u d y i n G r e a t B r i t a i n ( G a r n e r , 1985) w h i c h r e p o r t e d t h a t h a l f the t e a c h e r s s u r v e y e d i n d i c a t e d t h a t s a f e t y i n g y m n a s t i c s was one a r e a of c o n c e r n f o r them. Comments from the q u e s t i o n n a i r e s d i r e c t e d at t h i s t o p i c of s a f e t y i n c l u d e d : - T h e r e a r e too many s a f e t y p r e c a u t i o n s to make ( D i s t r i c t B ) . - I f e e l more p e o p l e a r e needed to make the groups s m a l l e r so t h a t a c c i d e n t s can be s p o t t e d and h o p e f u l l y p r e v e n t e d ( D i s t r i c t A ) . - T e a c h e r l i a b i l i t y s c a r e s a l o t of t e a c h e r s out o f g y m n a s t i c s e s p e c i a l l y u s i n g c l i m b i n g a p p a r a t u s ( D i s t r i c t B ) . - I ' v e d r o p p e d ( p a r t s o f ) my program b e c a u s e the p a r e n t s don't s p o t as w e l l as I'd l i k e and I'm r e s p o n s i b l e ( D i s t r i c t B ) . - I am c o n s t a n t l y c o n c e r n e d about i n j u r i e s . ( D i s t r i c t A) 129 - I l i k e i t ( b u t ) I l i m i t the l e v e l when I am not s u r e of t h e s a f e t y ( D i s t r i c t A ) . O t h e r t e a c h e r s h i g h l i g h t e d the two s t a t e m e n t s i n t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e on t e a c h e r l i a b i l i t y and s t u d e n t s a f e t y w i t h s p e c i a l m a r k i n g s . One t e a c h e r r e t u r n e d t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e w i t h a l i n e t h r o u g h P a r t I and wrote "I do not t e a c h any g y m n a s t i c s due to d i f f i c u l t i e s w i t h l i a b i l i t y " ( D i s t r i c t B ) . The i n d i c a t i o n s f r o m t h i s s t u d y a r e t h a t s a f e t y and l i a b i l i t y a r e of g r e a t c o n c e r n to t e a c h e r s and l i m i t s t h e i r g y m n a s t i c t i m e and program. Neuss (1985) has p o i n t e d out t h a t " r i s k has been i d e n t i f i e d as an e s s e n t i a l i n g r e d i e n t of g y m n a s t i c movement (and) t h e r e would seem to be w o r r i e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h an a p p a r e n t c o n t r a d i c t i o n between r i s k and s a f e t y " ( p . 1 2 ) . He does concede t h a t t h e t e a c h e r c l e a r l y has t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h e s a f e t y of the c h i l d r e n , but p o i n t s out t h a t t h e s e same c h i l d r e n must be a l l o w e d to " l e a r n t o j u d g e the p o s s i b l e from the d a n g e r o u s " ( p . 1 2 ) , and to a c c o m p l i s h t h i s need b o t h g u i d a n c e and h e l p f r o m t e a c h e r s . I n t u r n , t e a c h e r s must have a d e q u a t e p r o f e s s i o n a l t r a i n i n g to p r e p a r e them, and t h i s , Neuss a r g u e s , w i l l have to come t h r o u g h p r e - o r i n - s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g w h i c h w i l l p r o v i d e t h e b a c k g r o u n d f o r c l a s s o r g a n i z a t i o n and s u p p o r t methods. 130 T h i s s t u d y a g r e e s w i t h Neuss' c o n c l u s i o n s t h a t t h e r e i s a c o n t r a d i c t i o n between r i s k and s a f e t y , and s u g g e s t s t h a t what c o n t r i b u t e s to t h i s c o n t r a d i c t i o n a r e l e v e l s of knowledge about t e a c h i n g m e t h o d o l o g y and c o n t e n t . Over h a l f o f t h o s e s u r v e y e d who t a u g h t g y m n a s t i c s f o r about 10% or l e s s e i t h e r a g r e e d or were u n c e r t a i n t h a t t h e p e r s o n a l a b i l i t y to d e m o n s t r a t e an e s s e n t i a l r e q u i r e m e n t f o r i n s t r u c t i o n ( s e e T a b l e 2 9 ) . A l t h o u g h t h e d a t a a r e f a r from c o n c l u s i v e as n e a r l y h a l f o f t h o s e s u r v e y e d who t a u g h t about 0-10% a l s o d i s a g r e e d w i t h the s t a t e m e n t , t h e r e i s a s u g g e s t i o n of a p o s s i b l e l a c k of knowledge about a m e t h o d o l o g y used i n e d u c a t i o n a l g y m n a s t i c s . Graham et a l . (1980) have s u g g e s t e d , " t h e i n s t r u c t o r does not need to be a b l e to c o r r e c t l y d e m o n s t r a t e a s k i l l , b e c a u s e t h e c h i l d r e n a r e n e v e r e x p e c t e d to p e r f o r m t h e same s k i l l i n t h e same way" (p. 1 4 7 ) . K i r c h n e r , Cunningham, and W a r r e l l (1970) a l s o a r g u e t h a t t h i s way of t e a c h i n g " p r o v i d e s " b u i l t - i n ' s a f e t y , b e c a u s e when c h i l d r e n a r e g i v e n the f r e e d o m to e v o l v e to t h e i r own s o l u t i o n s , t h e y w i l l n o t a t t e m p t a movement w h i c h i s beyond t h e i r c a p a b i l i t i e s " ( p . 9 ) . They f u r t h e r s u g g e s t t h a t "few d e m o n s t r a t i o n s need to be g i v e n and t e a c h e r s can c i r c u l a t e a r ound t h e gymnasium as t h e r e a r e no f o r m a l l i n e s or commands w h i c h r e q u i r e a l l of t h e c h i l d r e n to p e r f o r m the same movements at the same t i m e " (p. 1 1 ) . 131 Two p l a u s i b l e s u g g e s t i o n s f o r t h e s e r e s u l t s on t h e p e r s o n a l a b i l i t y to d e m o n s t r a t e a r e o f f e r e d . F i r s t , t h a t age i s p o s s i b l y i n f l u e n c i n g t h e r e s p o n s e s to t h i s q u e s t i o n . The f a c t t h a t n e a r l y h a l f o f t h o s e who t a u g h t g y m n a s t i c s f o r about 0-10% were 45 y e a r s or o l d e r ( s e e T a b l e 35) c o u l d p r e c l u d e an a b i l i t y to d e m o n s t r a t e . The i n a b i l i t y or d e s i r e to d e m o n s t r a t e might b i a s t h e i r r e s p o n s e s i n f a v o u r of a d i s a g r e e m e n t w i t h t h i s s t a t e m e n t . The s e c o n d s u g g e s t i o n i s t h a t t h e t y p e and l e v e l of a c t i v i t y i n t h e s e c l a s s e s i s s u c h t h a t d e m o n s t r a t i o n s by t e a c h e r s a r e c e r t a i n l y not an e s s e n t i a l r e q u i r e m e n t . These s u g g e s t i o n s a r e at b e s t v e r y t e n u o u s , but n e a r l y t h r e e - q u a r t e r s of t h o s e who t e a c h about 15-20% d i s a g r e e d w i t h t h i s s t a t e m e n t . What does c o n f o u n d t h e i s s u e i s t h a t t w o - t h i r d s of t e a c h e r s who t a u g h t g y m n a s t i c s f o r about 25-30% o f the t i m e a l s o a g r e e or a r e u n c e r t a i n t h a t t h e r e i s an e s s e n t i a l r e q u i r e m e n t to p e r s o n a l l y d e m o n s t r a t e g y m n a s t i c s . As s t a t e d e a r l i e r t h e s u g g e s t i o n s s u r r o u n d i n g t h e r e s u l t s on t h e a b i l i t y to d e m o n s t r a t e s h o u l d be t r e a t e d w i t h c a u t i o n . They do w a r r a n t f u r t h e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n b e f o r e s p e c i f i c c o n c l u s i o n s can be i n f e r r e d . P r o v i d i n g s u p p o r t f o r d e v e l o p i n g an argument t h a t a l a c k of knowledge about c o n t e n t can c o n t r i b u t e to c o n c e r n s about s a f e t y , a r e t h e c l a s s a c t i v i t i e s r e p o r t e d by t h e r e s p o n d e n t s . The m a j o r i t y of 132 r e s p o n d e n t s , e s p e c i a l l y t h o s e who t a u g h t about 10% or l e s s , i n d i c a t e d t h e use of a b a s i c amount of equipment s u c h as mats. T h i s s u g g e s t s the p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t t h e s e t e a c h e r s might n o t f e e l competent to a l l o w c h i l d r e n to t r a n s f e r and d e v e l o p movements from the f l o o r to a v a r i e t y of l a r g e a p p a r a t u s ( e . g . , see D o c h e r t y & M o r t o n , 1982). T h i s group o f t e a c h e r s p r o b a b l y o f f e r e d a l i m i t e d scope o f g y m n a s t i c a c t i v i t i e s t h a t a r e of low r i s k and a r e n e v e r d e v e l o p e d f u l l y o v e r a s e r i e s of l e s s o n s ( e . g . , see W i l l i a m s , 1979). T h o s e who t a u g h t about 15-20% d i d r e p o r t t h e use of benches i n t h e i r work, a l l o w i n g them more s c o p e to d e v e l o p t h e i r l e s s o n s from b a s i c f l o o r work. However, among a l l r e s p o n d e n t s to the s u r v e y t h e r e was l i t t l e m e n t i o n of any l a r g e or heavy equipment e x c e p t t h o s e who w r o t e about the c l i m b i n g a p p a r a t u s , and one t e a c h e r who had the s t a t i o n s s e t up i n t h e gym and used s t u d e n t h e l p e r s . The p o s s i b l e l a c k o f knowledge about how to use equipment b o t h e d u c a t i o n a l l y and s a f e l y ( i . e . , a l l o w an element of r i s k ) c o u l d s t r e n g t h e n t e a c h e r s ' c o n c e r n s about s t u d e n t s a f e t y and t h e c o r r e s p o n d i n g e f f e c t s upon t e a c h e r l i a b i l i t y . T h i s i n t u r n c o u l d l i m i t t h e t i m e a l l o c a t e d to g y m n a s t i c s . A l t h o u g h a c o n c e r n about s a f e t y does a f f e c t a l l t e a c h e r s and l i m i t s t h e i r i n s t r u c t i o n t i m e , t h e d i s c u s s i o n c o n c e r n i n g s a f e t y has f o l l o w e d a l i n e of 133 argument t h a t f a c t o r s a f f e c t i n g t i m e a l l o c a t i o n s h o u l d n o t be v i e w e d i n i s o l a t i o n . Agreement was i n d i c a t e d w i t h Neuss (1985) s t a t e m e n t t h a t t h e r e i s a c o n t r a d i c t i o n between r i s k and s a f e t y w h i c h s t a r t s w i t h a l a c k of p r e - s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g i n t e a c h i n g m e t h o d o l o g y and c o n t e n t . In a d d i t i o n , t h i s s t u d y s u g g e s t s t h a t t e a c h e r s ' c o n c e r n s f o r s a f e t y a r e b e i n g e x a c e r b a t e d by l e v e l s of i n - s e r v i c e ( e s p e c i a l l y i n D i s t r i c t B) and o t h e r s u p p o r t , w h i c h i n t u r n , a f f e c t s t e a c h e r s ' competence to i n s t r u c t s t u d e n t s a d e q u a t e l y . A l t h o u g h a s t r o n g m a j o r i t y of t e a c h e r s i n t h i s s t u d y showed a c o n c e r n f o r s a f e t y w h i c h i n t u r n l i m i t e d the e x t e n t of t h e i r g y m n a s t i c s i n s t r u c t i o n , i t i s t h e p o s s i b l e i n t e r a c t i o n o f a g r e a t e r number o f f a c t o r s w h i c h a r e a f f e c t i n g t h o s e who t e a c h g y m n a s t i c s f o r about 10% or l e s s . A f a c t o r t h a t has been d i s c u s s e d under s a f e t y , but c a l l s f o r a s p e c i a l c a t e g o r y i s t h a t of age. I t has been s u g g e s t e d under th e a u s p i c e s of s a f e t y , t h a t age can i n t e r a c t w i t h o t h e r f a c t o r s . What needs to be added, however, i s t h a t a l t h o u g h t h e r e was no s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p between age and t i m e a l l o c a t i o n , n e a r l y 90% o f t h o s e who o f f e r e d g y m n a s t i c s f o r about 15-30% were age 44 o r under ( s e e T a b l e 3 5 ) . The r e s u l t s a l s o showed t h a t about h a l f of t h o s e who 134 o f f e r e d g y m n a s t i c s f o r about 10% o f l e s s were 45 o r o l d e r . T h i s s t u d y has n o t been a b l e to f i n d any r e l a t e d l i t e r a t u r e s u g g e s t i n g t h a t age can p l a y a p a r t i n g y m n a s t i c s i n s t r u c t i o n , a l t h o u g h one t e a c h e r who d i d not t e a c h any g y m n a s t i c s added as an a d d i t i o n a l r e a s o n "Too o l d " ( D i s t r i c t A ) . The s t u d y by C a r r e (1980) d i d r e v e a l , however, t h a t o v e r t h r e e - q u a r t e r s o f t h e r e s p o n d e n t s to t h e s u r v e y were aged 40 o r under w i t h n e a r l y 50% b e i n g age 30 o r u n d e r . H i s s u r v e y showed t h a t by c o m p a r i s o n 25% o f r e s p o n d e n t s t a u g h t g y m n a s t i c s f o r 26-40+% of t h e program t i m e . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , t h e r e was no c r o s s - t a b u l a t i o n o f age by p e r c e n t a g e t i m e a l l o c a t i o n so t h a t c o m p a r i s o n s can be made w i t h t h i s s t u d y . However t h i s s t u d y has t a k e n t h e v i e w t h a t f a c t o r s can i n t e r a c t w i t h o t h e r s to l i m i t t i m e a l l o c a t i o n f o r g y m n a s t i c s ; age adds y e t a n o t h e r p o s s i b l e f a c t o r . 5.4 A d d i t i o n a l F i n d i n g s In a d d i t i o n t o t h e comments l i s t e d , s e v e n t e a c h e r s i n d i c a t e d t h a t a r e a s o n f o r them t e a c h i n g g y m n a s t i c s was t h a t i t was p a r t of the p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n c u r r i c u l u m . No o t h e r r e a s o n s o t h e r t h a n t h o s e a l r e a d y m e n t i o n e d were l i s t e d . 135 5.5 Summary. T h i s c h a p t e r has examined major f i n d i n g s of t h i s s t u d y . The two major g o a l s c o n c e r n i n g how much t i m e t e a c h e r s a l l o c a t e to t e a c h i n g g y m n a s t i c s and what f a c t o r s do t e a c h e r s p e r c e i v e as i n f l u e n c i n g t h i s t i m e a l l o c a t i o n have been d i s c u s s e d i n l i g h t of t h e e v i d e n c e f r o m the s u r v e y of 74 t e a c h e r s . The summary, c o n c l u s i o n s , and recommendations a r i s i n g f r o m t h i s s t u d y a r e p r e s e n t e d i n C h a p t e r 6. 136 CHAPTER 6 Summary, C o n c l u s i o n s , and Recommendations 6.1 Summary I n t h i s s t u d y , d e s c r i p t i v e d a t a were o b t a i n e d from 74 t e a c h e r s i n two d i s t r i c t s i n the lo w e r m a i n l a n d e x a m i n i n g t e a c h e r r a t i o n a l e f o r c o m p l i a n c e or n o n - c o m p l i a n c e w i t h c u r r i c u l u m g u i d e l i n e s i n the t e a c h i n g of e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l g y m n a s t i c s . T h i s d a t a was used to e s t a b l i s h : 1. How much t i m e i s g i v e n by p r i m a r y t e a c h e r s to the t e a c h i n g of g y m n a s t i c s to t h e i r homeroom c l a s s e s . 2. What f a c t o r s p r i m a r y t e a c h e r s i d e n t i f y as b e i n g i m p o r t a n t d e t e r m i n a n t s i n t h e amount of time t h e y a l l o c a t e to the t e a c h i n g of g y m n a s t i c s . The l i t e r a t u r e r e v i e w had as i t s f o c i t h e a r e a s o f g y m n a s t i c s i n s t r u c t i o n i n t h e e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l and e d u c a t i o n a l change as i t r e l a t e s s p e c i f i c a l l y to the t e a c h i n g of g y m n a s t i c s i n t h e e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l . An 137 h i s t o r i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e s h o w e d h o w g y m n a s t i c s i n s t r u c t i o n i n t h e s c h o o l s h a s e v o l v e d t o i t s p r e s e n t f o r m s o f O l y m p i c g y m n a s t i c s a n d e d u c a t i o n a l g y m n a s t i c s . A n e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e r o l e o f g y m n a s t i c s i n t h e s c h o o l c o n t e x t p r e s e n t e d p o s s i b l e i n s i g h t s i n t o t h e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f r a t i o n a l e s t h a t t e a c h e r s f o r m w h e n m a k i n g d e c i s i o n s c o n c e r n i n g g y m n a s t i c s a s p a r t o f a c u r r i c u l u m . T h e l i t e r a t u r e r e l a t e d t o c u r r e n t t r e n d s i n g y m n a s t i c s s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h e a p p r o a c h t o t h e t e a c h i n g o f g y m n a s t i c s c o u l d be c h a n g i n g . T h i s c h a n g e w o u l d s e e l e s s o f a d i s t i n c t i o n b e t w e e n O l y m p i c g y m n a s t i c s a n d e d u c a t i o n a l g y m n a s t i c s a n d w o u l d s e e a n a p p r o a c h t h a t c o m b i n e s t h e c h a l l e n g e o f O l y m p i c g y m n a s t i c s b u t u s i n g t h e m e t h o d o l o g y f a v o u r e d w i t h e d u c a t i o n a l g y m n a s t i c s . T h e f i n a l f o c a l a r e a o f t h e l i t e r a t u r e r e v i e w c o n c e r n e d e d u c a t i o n a l c h a n g e a s i t r e l a t e s s p e c i f i c a l l y t o g y m n a s t i c s . T h e r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l a m o u n t o f s t u d i e s t h a t w e r e f o u n d s p e c i f i c a l l y d e a l i n g w i t h g y m n a s t i c s n e c e s s i t a t e d a n i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f t h e g e n e r a l l i t e r a t u r e t h a t h a s i d e n t i f i e d f a c t o r s i n f l u e n c i n g s u c c e s s f u l c h a n g e . S t u d i e s t h a t i d e n t i f i e d s p e c i f i c f a c t o r s p o s i t i v e l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h e d u c a t i o n a l c h a n g e a n d , s t u d i e s t h a t h a v e i d e n t i f i e d g e n e r a l f a c t o r s c o n c e r n i n g s u c c e s s f u l e d u c a t i o n a l c h a n g e , w e r e d i s c u s s e d . T h e c o m m o n a l i t y o f t h e e l e m e n t s i d e n t i f i e d i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e h a v e b e e n p u l l e d 138 t o g e t h e r by F u l l a n ( 1 9 8 2 ) , and i t was h i s model of 15 f a c t o r s w h i c h i n f l u e n c e e d u c a t i o n a l change t h a t formed t h e b a s i s f o r t h e framework of t h i s s t u d y . In a d d i t i o n , c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s s p e c i f i c to g y m n a s t i c s t h a t c o u l d have a d i r e c t b e a r i n g on e d u c a t i o n a l change were i d e n t i f i e d and r e v i e w e d . In o r d e r to a c h i e v e t h e g o a l s of t h e s t u d y a s p e c i a l t w o - p a r t q u e s t i o n n a i r e was d e s i g n e d . The f i r s t p a r t of t h i s s u r v e y i n s t r u m e n t asked t e a c h e r s to r e s p o n d to 14 s t a t e m e n t s t h i s s t u d y had i d e n t i f i e d as b e i n g i m p o r t a n t d e t e r m i n a n t s i n t h e t e a c h i n g of g y m n a s t i c s . A L i k e r t - t y p e s c a l e was u s e d f o r t h i s s e c t i o n w i t h t h e a v a i l a b l e r e s p o n s e s b e i n g : S t r o n g l y A g r e e ( S A ) , A g r e e ( A ) , U n c e r t a i n ( U ) , D i s a g r e e (D), and S t r o n g l y D i s a g r e e ( S D ) . The second p a r t of the s u r v e y i n s t r u m e n t p r o v i d e d f o r g a t h e r i n g d e m o g r a p h i c d a t a r e l a t e d to g e n d e r , age, number of y e a r s t e a c h i n g , g r a d e l e v e l t a u g h t , and e d u c a t i o n a l b a c k g r o u n d . I n a d d i t i o n , r e s p o n d e n t s were asked to i n d i c a t e t h e p r o p o r t i o n o f t h e i r t o t a l p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n program t h a t i n v o l v e s g y m n a s t i c s i n s t r u c t i o n , t h e f r e q u e n c y and t o t a l m i n u t e s per week t h e i r c l a s s r e c e i v e d p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n , and whether t h e y had r e c e i v e d p r e - s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g i n g y m n a s t i c s . Items i n t h i s s e c t i o n were answered w i t h a c h e c k mark or as i n d i c a t e d i n t h e i n s t r u c t i o n s . Two a d d i t i o n a l q u e s t i o n s oh t h e s u r v e y i n c l u d e d a s k i n g r e s p o n d e n t s to 139 i d e n t i f y examples o f c l a s s a c t i v i t i e s n o r m a l l y i n c l u d e d i n g y m n a s t i c s , and add any p o s s i b l e a d d i t i o n a l r e a s o n s t h e y might have f o r t e a c h i n g or not t e a c h i n g g y m n a s t i c s . A d e t a i l e d p r o c e s s of r e f i n e m e n t of t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e f o l l o w e d and i t s f i n a l f o r m was d i s t r i b u t e d to 134 t e a c h e r s i n two d i s t r i c t s i n the lo w e r m a i n l a n d . I n one d i s t r i c t , 21 s c h o o l s were r a n d o m l y c h o s e n and the q u e s t i o n n a i r e d i s t r i b u t e d to a l l p r i m a r y t e a c h e r s i n t h o s e s c h o o l s . I n t h e o t h e r d i s t r i c t , a l l p r i m a r y t e a c h e r s r e c e i v e d the q u e s t i o n n a i r e . A t o t a l o f 74 q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were r e t u r n e d . The a n a l y s i s of t h e d a t a c o n s i s t e d o f f o u r p a r t s (A l e v e l of s t a t i s t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e was s e t at . 0 5 ) . (1) An a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e (ANOVA) was p e r f o r m e d to d e t e r m i n e i f t h e mean r e s p o n s e s of the two d i s t r i c t s were s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t f r o m each o t h e r . (2) C r o s s - t a b u l a t i o n o f t h e d a t a was r u n between D i s t r i c t s A and B and s t a t e m e n t s on P a r t I o f t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e c o n c e r n i n g p o s s i b l e d e t e r m i n a n t s of t i m e a l l o c a t i o n . (3) The c h i - s q u a r e g o o d n e s s - o f - f i t t e s t was r u n t o d e t e r m i n e whether t h e f r e q u e n c y o f r e s p o n s e t o t h e q u e s t i o n c o n c e r n i n g t i m e a l l o c a t i o n was s i g n i f i c a n t to t h a t e x p e c t e d by c h a n c e . (4) C r o s s - t a b u l a t i o n of t h e d a t a between t h e p e r c e n t a g e t i m e a l l o c a t e d to g y m n a s t i c s and f a c t o r s t h e s t u d y 140 i d e n t i f i e d as b e i n g i m p o r t a n t d e t e r m i n a n t s i n f l u e n c i n g t h i s t i m e a l l o c a t i o n . D a t a r e l a t e d to t i m e were combined i n t o t h r e e d i s t i n c t g r o u p s : About 0-10%, About 15-20%, and About 25-30%. D a t a r e l a t e d to t e a c h e r p e r c e p t i o n s about p e r c e n t a g e t i m e a l l o c a t i o n were a l s o combined i n t o t h r e e d i s t i n c t g r o u p s , A g r e e , U n c e r t a i n , and D i s a g r e e . The c h i - s q u a r e t e s t o f a s s o c i a t i o n was used to d e t e r m i n e i f t h e r e was a s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p between t i m e and t e a c h e r s ' p e r c e p t i o n s o f f a c t o r s t h a t c o u l d p o s s i b l y a f f e c t the t i m e g i v e n to t h e t e a c h i n g of g y m n a s t i c s . The v a r i a b l e of D i s t r i c t was a l s o added as a c o n t r o l i n f a c t o r s where the mean r e s p o n s e s f o r each d i s t r i c t had been shown to be s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t f r o m each o t h e r . 6. 2 C o n c l u s i o n s The c o n c l u s i o n s p r e s e n t e d i n t h i s s t u d y a r e drawn f r o m d a t a t h a t was g a t h e r e d f r o m t e a c h e r s i n two s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s . I t was c o l l e c t e d t h r o u g h th e use of a m a i l q u e s t i o n n a i r e , and t h e l i m i t a t i o n s of t h i s a p p r o a c h s h o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d when making g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s . A l t h o u g h t h e d a t a was drawn from two l o w e r m a i n l a n d s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s , t h e c a u t i o u s g e n e r a l i z a t i o n o f t h e f i n d i n g s to s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s i n t h e l o w e r m a i n l a n d and o t h e r s i m i l a r u r b a n s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s may be p o s s i b l e . They w i l l a l s o have 141 p a r t i c u l a r i m p o r t f o r t h o s e c h a r g e d w i t h d e v e l o p i n g and p r e s e n t i n g p r e - and i n - s e r v i c e programs f o r t e a c h e r s whose r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i t i s to t e a c h g y m n a s t i c s . T h e s e c o n c l u s i o n s w i l l a l s o be of s i g n i f i c a n c e f o r t h e a r e a of c u r r i c u l u m i m p l e m e n t a t i o n i n g y m n a s t i c s , e s p e c i a l l y i n d i s t r i c t s t h a t have s i m i l a r c o n t e x t u a l c i r c u m s t a n c e s as t h e lo w e r m a i n l a n d . F i n a l l y , t h e c a u t i o u s g e n e r a l i z a t i o n i s a l s o u r g e d i n a p p l y i n g t h e s e f i n d i n g s not o n l y to p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n , but o t h e r a r e a s of t h e c u r r i c u l u m . 1. P r i m a r y t e a c h e r s a r e not c o m p l y i n g w i t h c u r r i c u l u m g u i d e l i n e s i n t h e t e a c h i n g of g y m n a s t i c s . The m a j o r i t y of t h e s e t e a c h e r s a r e o f f e r i n g t h e i r s t u d e n t s w e l l below t h e t i m e a l l o t m e n t a d v o c a t e d f o r g y m n a s t i c s i n the B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n c u r r i c u l u m g u i d e . 2. T h e r e i s l i t t l e e x p e c t a t i o n i n the s c h o o l s i n t h e s e d i s t r i c t s t h a t g y m n a s t i c s be o f f e r e d to s t u d e n t s i n t h e s c h o o I s . 3. T e a c h e r e n j o y m e n t , t h e p e r c e p t i o n by t e a c h e r s of s t u d e n t e njoyment, and t h e v a l u e t e a c h e r s see to s t u d e n t s i n g y m n a s t i c s i n s t r u c t i o n were not s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e l a t e d to t h e t i m e a l l o c a t e d f o r g y m n a s t i c s i n s t r u c t i o n . T h e r e was a s t r o n g agreement shown among a l l t e a c h e r s as to t h e v a l u e of g y m n a s t i c s 142 t o s t u d e n t s and to t h e p e r c e p t i o n s of s t u d e n t e n joyment. The m a j o r i t y of t e a c h e r s a l s o e n j o y e d t e a c h i n g g y m n a s t i c s to t h e i r s t u d e n t s . 4. A s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e e x i s t e d between D i s t r i c t s c o n c e r n i n g a s e n s e of competence to i n s t r u c t s t u d e n t s i n g y m n a s t i c s . I n D i s t r i c t B, t h e r e was a s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p between a sense of h a v i n g the competence to i n s t r u c t s t u d e n t s i n g y m n a s t i c s and t i m e a l l o c a t i o n . N e a r l y t h r e e - q u a r t e r s o f t h e t e a c h e r s i n t h i s d i s t r i c t who o f f e r e d g y m n a s t i c s f o r about 10% or l e s s of t h e i r program tim e f e l t t h a t t h e y d i d not have t h e competence to i n s t r u c t s t u d e n t s i n g y m n a s t i c s . I n D i s t r i c t A, o n e - t h i r d o f t h e t e a c h e r s who o f f e r e d g y m n a s t i c s f o r about 10% or l e s s , f e l t t h e y d i d not have t h e competence to i n s t r u c t s t u d e n t s i n g y m n a s t i c s . However, a l a r g e p o r t i o n o f t e a c h e r s i n t h i s group ( a b o u t 10% or l e s s ) were a l s o u n c e r t a i n whether t h e y d i d have the competence. 5. A s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e e x i s t e d between each d i s t r i c t c o n c e r n i n g the adequacy of i n - s e r v i c e o f f e r e d i n t h e d i s t r i c t . I n D i s t r i c t A, o n l y about o n e - q u a r t e r of t h e t e a c h e r s who t a u g h t g y m n a s t i c s f o r about 20% or l e s s f e l t t h a t t h e r e was a d e q u a t e i n - s e r v i c e o f f e r e d i n the d i s t r i c t . In a d d i t i o n , a l a r g e p e r c e n t a g e of t h e s e same t e a c h e r s were a l s o u n c e r t a i n as to t h i s s t a t e m e n t . I n D i s t r i c t B, ALL 143 t e a c h e r s s u r v e y e d f e l t t h a t t h e i n - s e r v i c e i n t h e i r d i s t r i c t was i n a d e q u a t e . 6. A s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p e x i s t e d between t i m e a l l o c a t i o n and t h e adequacy of p r i n t r e s o u r c e i n the s c h o o l s . O n l y about o n e - q u a r t e r o f t e a c h e r s who t a u g h t g y m n a s t i c s f o r about 10% or l e s s of t h e i r p rogram t i m e a g r e e d w i t h t h e r e were a d e q u a t e p r i n t r e s o u r c e s i n t h e s c h o o l . N e a r l y t h r e e - q u a r t e r s of t h o s e who t a u g h t f r o m about 15-20%, and o v e r h a l f of t h o s e who t a u g h t from about 25-30% a g r e e d t h e r e were a d e q u a t e p r i n t r e s o u r c e s i n t h e s c h o o l . 7. T h e r e was no s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p between t i m e a l l o c a t i o n and t h e p e r c e p t i o n of a p e r s o n a l a b i l i t y to d e m o n s t r a t e g y m n a s t i c s . F u r t h e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n of t h i s f a c t o r i s w a r r a n t e d as the r e s u l t s and d i s c u s s i o n of t h i s f a c t o r r a i s e d some unanswered q u e s t i o n s . 8. T e a c h e r l i a b i l i t y and a c o n c e r n f o r s t u d e n t s a f e t y w h i c h l i m i t s t h e e x t e n t o f a g y m n a s t i c s program d i d not show a s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p to t i m e a l l o c a t i o n . T h e r e was a s t r o n g agreement among a l l t e a c h e r s t h a t c o n c e r n f o r s t u d e n t s a f e t y l i m i t e d the e x t e n t of t h e i r i n s t r u c t i o n . The c o n c e r n f o r t e a c h e r l i a b i l i t y w h i c h l i m i t e d t h e e x t e n t of t h e program was shown by t h e m a j o r i t y of t e a c h e r s . T h i s c o n c e r n was v e r y h i g h among t h e t e a c h e r s i n D i s t r i c t B. 144 9. Over t w o - t h i r d s of t e a c h e r s s u r v e y e d p e r c e i v e d t h e i r s c h o o l f a c i l i t i e s as a d e q u a t e f o r the program t h e y o f f e r . 10. T h e r e was no s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p between t i m e a l l o c a t i o n and t h e p e r c e p t i o n of t e a c h e r s t h a t t h e y would t e a c h more g y m n a s t i c s i f t h e r e was someone on s t a f f who was q u a l i f i e d to o f f e r a s s i s t a n c e . However, s t r o n g e r agreement w i t h t h i s s t a t e m e n t was shown by t e a c h e r s i n D i s t r i c t B. 11. The m a j o r i t y o f t e a c h e r s a g r e e d t h a t t h e c o m p l e x i t i e s of o r g a n i z i n g p u p i l s and equipment l i m i t s t h e e x t e n t of t h e i r program. 12. N e a r l y t h r e e q u a r t e r s of t h e t e a c h e r s who o f f e r e d g y m n a s t i c s f o r about 10% o r l e s s of t h e i r program had no p r e - s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g i n g y m n a s t i c s i n s t r u c t i o n . N e a r l y t h r e e - q u a r t e r s of t h o s e who o f f e r e d g y m n a s t i c s f o r about 15-20%, and t w o - t h i r d s of t h o s e who o f f e r e d i t f o r 25-30%, had p r e - s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g i n g y m n a s t i c s . 13. N e a r l y 90% of t e a c h e r s who o f f e r e d g y m n a s t i c s f o r about 15-30% were between t h e ages of 25-44. F o r t y f i v e p e r c e n t o f t h o s e who o f f e r e d g y m n a s t i c s f o r about 10% o r l e s s were aged 45 and o l d e r . 145 Summary. Adequacy of p r i n t r e s o u r c e s , p r e - s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g , and a s e n s e o f competence ( i n D i s t r i c t B) were the o n l y f a c t o r s showing a s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p t o t i m e a l l o c a t i o n . I n a d d i t i o n , t h e r e was unanimous agreement from a l l t e a c h e r s i n D i s t r i c t B about t h e i n a d e q u a c y of i n - s e r v i c e . A l t h o u g h t h e s e were t h e o n l y f a c t o r s w h i c h p r e s e n t e d t h e m s e l v e s as b e i n g s i g n i f i c a n t i n t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p to t i m e a l l o c a t i o n f o r g y m n a s t i c s , t h e f a c t o r of s a f e t y was v i e w e d by a l o t of t e a c h e r s as an a r e a of h i g h c o n c e r n . C o n v e r s e l y t h e f a c t o r s of t e a c h e r e n j o y m e n t , a p e r c e p t i o n of s t u d e n t enjoyment and of v a l u e to s t u d e n t i n g y m n a s t i c s were p e r c e i v e d as p o s i t i v e by t h e m a j o r i t y of t e a c h e r s . T h i s s t u d y c o n c l u d e s t h a t i t i s t h e i n t e r a c t i o n o f f a c t o r s t h a t i n f l u e n c e s t i m e a l l o c a t i o n f o r g y m n a s t i c s . Some f a c t o r s do a p pear to have more i n f l u e n c e t h a n o t h e r s and, i t i s t h e s u g g e s t i o n o f t h i s s t u d y , t h a t p r e - s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g i s t h e major f a c t o r c o n t r i b u t i n g t o low l e v e l s of g y m n a s t i c s i n s t r u c t i o n i n t h e s c h o o l s i n t h e s e d i s t r i c t s . A d d i n g t o t h i s b ase of a l a c k of p r e - s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g a r e the f a c t o r s of age, s a f e t y , and s u p p o r t w h i c h i n t e r a c t to c o n t r i b u t e to t e a c h e r s ' p e r c e p t i o n s of competence to i n s t r u c t s t u d e n t s i n g y m n a s t i c s . 146 6.3 Recommendat i o n s 1. S c h o o l d i s t r i c t s must p r e s e n t o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r i n - s e r v i c e t h a t a r e a p p r o p r i a t e and meet the s p e c i f i c needs of t h e t e a c h e r s . T e a c h e r s i n t h e s e s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s have i n d i c a t e d t h a t l e v e l s o f i n - s e r v i c e a r e i n a d e q u a t e and t h a t t h e a v a i l a b i l i t y of c u r r e n t s t y l e s of workshops a r e not m e e t i n g th e s p e c i f i c n e e d s . M o d e l s of i n - s e r v i c e such as t h o s e d e v e l o p e d by J o y c e and Showers (1980, 1982) a r e r e a d i l y a p p l i c a b l e i n t h e c o n t e x t o f g y m n a s t i c s i n s t r u c t i o n as the gymnasium s e t t i n g i s i d e a l l y s u i t e d f o r a c c e p t i n g t h e p r e s e n c e of two t e a c h e r s . I n p a r t i c u l a r , c o n s i d e r a t i o n s h o u l d be g i v e n f o r the f i n a l a c t i v i t y of t h e i r model; c o a c h i n g . These a u t h o r s d e s c r i b e some of the f u n c t i o n s of c o a c h i n g as p r o v i d i n g c o m p a n i o n s h i p and s u p p o r t ( e s p e c i a l l y d u r i n g an i n i t i a l p e r i o d ) , g i v i n g t e c h n i c a l f e e d b a c k , and b e i n g a b l e to i l l u s t r a t e how to a p p l y t e c h n i q u e s to s u i t the needs of the c h i l d r e n and the s i t u a t i o n s . 2. To e f f e c t i n - s e r v i c e o p p o r t u n i t i e s , t e a c h e r a s s o c i a t e s s h o u l d be a v a i l a b l e to p r o v i d e a s s i s t a n c e and c o a c h i n g f o r t e a c h e r s w i t h i n t h e t e a c h e r ' s s c h o o l s e t t i n g . F i n a n c i a l s u p p o r t s h o u l d be p r o v i d e d f o r t e a c h e r a s s o c i a t e s to be a b l e to v i s i t s c h o o l s i n o r d e r t h a t a "peer c o a c h " r e l a t i o n s h i p be e s t a b l i s h e d to i m prove l e v e l s of g y m n a s t i c s i n s t r u c t i o n . 147 3. T e a c h e r p r e p a r a t i o n s h o u l d e n s u r e t h a t t h e l e v e l s of p r e - s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g i n g y m n a s t i c s a r e a d e q u a t e to p r e p a r e t e a c h e r s f o r i n s t r u c t i n g p r i m a r y s t u d e n t s i n g y m n a s t i c s . T h i s s t u d y has s u g g e s t e d t h a t p o t e n t i a l t e a c h e r s of g y m n a s t i c s have l i m i t e d e x p e r i e n c e s of g y m n a s t i c s a c t i v i t y p r i o r to Grade F o u r . A c o m p r e h e n s i v e c o u r s e i n v o l v i n g a v a r i e t y of t e a c h i n g m e t h o d o l o g i e s , and the development of themes, o t h e r t h a n r o l l i n g or b a l a n c i n g , o v e r a s e r i e s of l e s s o n s s h o u l d be of p r i m a r y i m p o r t a n c e . I n a d d i t i o n , t h e s e c o u r s e s s h o u l d emphasize i n s t r u c t i o n i n t h e u t i l i z a t i o n of l a r g e and s m a l l a p p a r a t u s ( s e e K i r c h n e r , 1985) t o f u r t h e r d e v e l o p a theme. 4. L e a d e r s h i p must be p r o v i d e d by the p r i n c i p a l or a t e a c h e r i n d e v e l o p i n g a y e a r l y p l a n f o r p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n t h a t s p e c i f i e s t i m e s f o r c l a s s e s and d e l i n e a t e s a program o f i n s t r u c t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s . I n a d d i t i o n , s u p p o r t ( e . g . , from i n t e r m e d i a t e s t u d e n t h e l p e r s ) must be p r o v i d e d f o r p r i m a r y c l a s s e s i n o r d e r t h a t t h e y can u t i l i z e l a r g e e quipment. T e a c h e r s i n t h e s e d i s t r i c t s i n d i c a t e d l i t t l e e x p e c t a n c y from the s c h o o l t h a t g y m n a s t i c s be p a r t of t h e o v e r a l l program. T h i s p l a n would c r e a t e a s c h o o l e x p e c t a n c y t h a t g y m n a s t i c s be t a u g h t , and would e n a b l e b l o c k s of c l a s s e s to use t h e gymnasium f o r a f u l l l e s s o n w i t h o u t t h e worry of s e t t i n g - u p or removing e q u i p m e n t . 148 5. The a p p a r e n t c o n t r a d i c t i o n b e t w e e n r i s k and s a f e t y must be c l a r i f i e d . T e a c h e r s i n t h e s e d i s t r i c t s showed a d i s t i n c t c o n c e r n a b o u t s a f e t y i n t h e gymnasium d u r i n g g y m n a s t i c s i n s t r u c t i o n . T h i s p r o c e s s o f c l a r i f i c a t i o n i s p e r h a p s t h e most d i f f i c u l t t o i m p l e m e n t b u t , i t must s t a r t w i t h t e a c h e r p r e p a r a t i o n and be s t r o n g l y r e i n f o r c e d t h r o u g h a d e q u a t e e x p e r i e n c e s w i t h i n - s e r v i c e t h a t have a l r e a d y been o u t l i n e d . I t i s t h e r e c o m m e n d a t i o n of t h i s s t u d y t h a t f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h i n t h e a r e a s o f s t u d e n t s a f e t y and t e a c h e r l i a b i l i t y be c a r r i e d out t o d e t e r m i n e t h e e x a c t n a t u r e o f t h e s e c o n c e r n s . 6. C u r r i c u l u m m a t e r i a l s s h o u l d be a v a i l a b l e t h a t a r e s p e c i f i c and p r a c t i c a l f o r t h e v a r y i n g n eeds of t h e p r i m a r y g e n e r a l i s t t e a c h e r . The r e s u l t s o f t h i s s t u d y s u g g e s t e d t h a t t e a c h e r s who t e a c h l i t t l e g y m n a s t i c s do n o t u s e t h e a v a i l a b l e r e s o u r c e s . H owever, s i m p l y p r o v i d i n g t h e s e p r i n t r e s o u r c e s w i l l n o t g u a r a n t e e a c t u a l u s e . C o n s e q u e n t l y i t s h o u l d be t h e mandate o f a c u r r i c u l u m l e a d e r ( e . g . , p r i n c i p a l ) t o e n s u r e t h a t t e a c h e r s a r e n o t o n l y aware of t h e b e s t r e s o u r c e s a v a i l a b l e , b u t a r e p r o v i d e d w i t h a s s i s t a n c e f o r t r a n s l a t i n g t h e i r c o n t e n t s i n t o l e s s o n p l a n s and a c t i v i t i e s . 14 9 7. The r e s u l t s of t h i s study have a l so r a i s e d some unanswered ques t ions concern ing how f a c t o r s i n t e r a c t to a f f e c t t ime a l l o c a t i o n for g y m n a s t i c s . The use of a q u e s t i o n n a i r e and the subsequent a n a l y s i s i s known to have i t s l i m i t a t i o n s for making g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s about the r e s u l t s . Thus t h i s s t u d y ' s f i n a l recommendation suggests that an i n depth i n v e s t i g a t i o n ( e . g . , case study or i n - d e p t h i n t e r v i e w ) be made to c l a r i f y the extent to which the i n f l u e n c e of each f a c t o r o u t l i n e d i n t h i s study i s f e l t by t e a c h e r s . S p e c i a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n should be made to i n c l u d e t eachers who o f f e r a broad spectrum of gymnast ics a c t i v i t i e s as w e l l as those whose time a l l o t m e n t s vary by the amounts i n d i c a t e d i n t h i s s t u d y . 150 BIBLIOGRAPHY 151 BIBLIOGRAPHY A c t i o n Nanaimo. ( 1 9 7 8 ) . S c h o o l d i s t r i c t #68 Nanaimo.B.C. : The s c h o o l d i s t r i c t . C a l g a r y b o a r d of e d u c a t i o n . ( 1 9 8 0 ) . G y m n a s t i c s , A movement  a p p r o a c h . C a l g a r y B o a r d of E d u c a t i o n . B a i l e y , D.A. (1974, May). The g r o w i n g c h i l d and t h e need  f o r p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y . A paper p r e s e n t e d at the N a t i o n a l C o n f e r e n c e on The C h i l d i n S p o r t and L a r g e P h y s i c a l A c t i v i t y . K i n g s t o n , O n t a r i o , May 13-18,1974. B a l e y , J . ( 1 9 7 4 ) . G y m n a s t i c s i n t h e s c h o o l s . B o s t o n : A l l y n & B a c o n . Berman, P. & M c l a u g h l i n , M. ( 1 9 7 9 ) . An e x p l o r a t o r y s t u d y of  s c h o o l d i s t r i c t a d a p t i o n s . S a n t a M o n i c a : Rand C o r p o r a t i o n . B i l b o r o u g h , A., & J o n e s , P. ( 1 9 7 3 ) . D e v e l o p i n g p a t t e r n s i n  p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n . London: U n i v e r s i t y of London P r e s s . B o t t , J . ( 1 9 8 5 ) . The r o l e of g y m n a s t i c s i n s c h o o l . B u l l e t i n  of P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n , 21 ( 1 ) , 15-16. Brown, J.R., & W a r d e l l , D.B. ( 1 9 8 0 ) . 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B r o w n . K r u g e r , H. ( 1 9 7 8 ) . A f o c u s on body management. J o u r n a l of  P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n and R e c r e a t i o n , 49 ( 7 ) , 39-41. L o g s d o n , B . J . , B a r r e t t , K.R., B r o e r , M.R., NcGee, R., Ammons, M., H a l v e r s o n , L . E . , & R o b e r t o n , M.A. ( 1 9 8 4 ) . P h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n f o r c h i l d r e n . P h i l a d e l p h i a : L e a & F e b i g e r . L o k e n , N.C., & W i l l o u g h b y , R.J. (1 959 ).- C o m p l e t e book of  g y m n a s t i c s . Englewood C l i f f s , N.J.: P r e n t i c e - H a l l . L o u c k s , S. & L i e b e r m a n , A. ( 1 9 8 2 ) . C u r r i c u l u m i m p l e m e n t a t i o n , f u n d a m e n t a l c u r r i c u l a r d e c i s i o n s . In W. F e n w i c k ( E d . ) , A s s o c i a t i o n f o r S u p e r v i s i o n and  C u r r i c u l u m Development : W a s h i n g t o n L o u c k s , S. & Z a c c h e i , D. ( 1 9 8 3 ) . A p p l y i n g our f i n d i n g s to t o d a y ' s i n n o v a t i o n s . E d u c a t i o n a l L e a d e r s h i p , 37 ( 3 ) , 212-215. 154 Mace, R., & B e n n , B. ( 1 9 8 2 ) . G y m n a s t i c s s k i l l s . L o n d o n : B a l s f o r d A c a d e m i c & E d u c a t i o n a l . M a u l d o n , E., & L a y s o n , J . ( 1 9 7 9 ) . T e a c h i n g g y m n a s t i c s . L o n d o n : M a c d o n a l d & E v a n s . M c i n t o s h , P.C. ( 1 9 5 2 ) . P h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n i n E n g l a n d s i n c e  1800. L o n d o n : B e l l & S o n s . M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n . ( 1 9 7 5 ) . E l e m e n t a r y p h y s i c a l  e d u c a t i o n g u i d e . V i c t o r i a , B.C.: The M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n . M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n . ( 1 9 8 0 ) . B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a s e c o n d a r y  p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n c u r r i c u l u m and r e s o u r c e g u i d e . V i c t o r i a : M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n . Moody, P.R. ( 1 9 8 2 ) . P i t t Meadows P.E. P r o j e c t ; e v a l u a t i o n  of an i m p l e m e n t a t i o n p r o j e c t . R e p o r t 86-13 f o r ERIBC. Moody, P.R. ( 1 9 8 4 , O c t o b e r ) . The i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f d a i l y  p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n : A c a s e s t u d y o f i n - s e r v i c e e d u c a t i o n . A p a p e r p r e s e n t e d a t t h e 2nd N a t i o n a l C o n f e r e n c e on P r e p a r i n g t h e P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n S p e c i a l i s t f o r C h i l d r e n . O r l a n d o , F l o r i d a , O c t . 2 0 - 2 3 , 1984. M o r i s o n , R. ( 1 9 6 9 ) . A movement a p p r o a c h t o e d u c a t i o n a l  g y m n a s t i c s . L o n d o n : J.M D e n t . Munrow, A.D. ( 1 9 6 3 ) . P u r e and a p p l i e d g y m n a s t i c s . L o n d o n : E d w ard A r n o l d L t d . N e u s s , R. ( 1 9 8 5 ) . G y m n a s t i c s i n t h e s c h o o l c u r r i c u l u m . - i s i t w o r t h w h i l e ? B u l l e t i n o f P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n , 21 ( 1 ) , 9-14. R a n d a l l , M. ( 1 9 6 1 ) . B a s i c movement. L o n d o n : B e l l & S o n s . R o b i t a i l l e , D.F. ( 1 9 8 0 ) . I n t e n t i o n , i m p l e m e n t a t i o n , r e a l i z a t i o n : The i m p a c t o f c u r r i c u l u m r e f o r m i n m a t h e m a t i c s . J o u r n a l o f c u r r i c u l u m s t u d i e s , 12 ( 4 ) , 299- 3 0 6 . S c h m i d t , W.H., & Buchmann, M. ( 1 9 8 3 ) . S i x t e a c h e r s b e l i e f s and a t t i t u d e s and t h e i r c u r r i c u l a t i m e a l l o c a t i o n s . E l e m e n t a r y S c h o o l J o u r n a l , 84 ( 2 ) , 1 6 2 - 1 7 1 . S i e d e n t o p , D., H e r k o w i t z , J . , R i n k , J . ( 1 9 8 4 ) . E l e m e n t a r y  p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n m e t h o d s . E n g l e w o o d C l i f f s , N J: P r e n t i c e - H a l l . 155 S t a n d e v e n , J.A. ( 1 9 7 8 ) . More t h a n s i m p l y movement e x p e r i e n c e . J o u r n a l o f P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n and R e c r e a t i o n , 49_ (7 ) , 3 5 - 3 8 . T a t l o w , P. ( E d . ) . ( 1 9 7 8 ) . The w o r l d o f g y m n a s t i c s . New Y o r k : Atheneum. Thompson, L., & P o t v i n , B. ( 1 9 8 3 ) . C u r r i c u l u m d e s i g n and i m p l e m e n t a t i o n i n e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l g y m n a s t i c s . C a n a d i a n  A s s o c i a t i o n f o r H e a l t h P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n and R e c r e a t i o n ,  50 ( 2 ) , 14-16. Thompson, P. ( 1 9 7 9 ) . T e a c h e r ' s p e r c e p t i o n s o f t h e e l e m e n t a r y p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n c u r r i c u l u m i n t h e s c h o o l s  of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . U n p u b l i s h e d m a s t e r ' s t h e s i s , Simon F r a s e r U n i v e r s i t y . V a n c o u v e r S c h o o l B o a r d . ( 1 9 8 3 ) . P h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n f o r t h e  c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r - a q u a l i t y a p p r o a c h . V.S.B. P r o g r a m S e r v i c e s : V a n c o u v e r . W a r r e l l , E. ( 1 9 7 8 ) . S a f e t y i n u s i n g g y m n a s t i c e q u i p m e n t . J o u r n a l o f P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n and R e c r e a t i o n , 49 (7 ) , 4 2 - 4 3 . W e r n e r , W. ( 1 9 8 2 ) . G u i d e l i n e s f o r p l a n n i n g p r o g r a m  i m p l e m e n t a t i o n . The M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n . P r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . W i l l i a m s , J . ( 1 9 7 6 ) . E d u c a t i o n a l and O l y m p i c g y m n a s t i c s . Two m a j o r f o r m s . B r i t i s h J o u r n a l o f P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n ,  R e c r e a t i o n , and D a n c e , 57 ( 2 ) , 3 4 -38. W i l l i a m s , J . ( 1 9 7 9 ) . Themes f o r e d u c a t i o n a l g y m n a s t i c s . L o n d o n : L e p u s B o o k s . Wiseman, E. ( 1 9 7 8 ) . The p r o c e s s of l e a r n i n g i n g y m n a s t i c s . J o u r n a l o f P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n and R e c r e a t i o n , 49 ( 7 ) , 4 4 - 4 7 . 156 APPENDICES APPENDIX A PILOT QUESTIONNAIRE 158 PART 1 P l e a s e r e a d e a c h s t a t e m e n t and c i r c l e ONE o f t h e f o l l o w i n g f i v e r e s p o n s e s f o r EACH s t a t e m e n t : 1 = SA ( S t r o n g l y A g r e e ) 2 = A (A g r ee) 3 = U ( U n c e r t a i n ) 4 = D ( D i s a g r e e ) 5 = SD ( S t r o n g l y D i s a g r e e ) SA U D SD 1. I e n j o y t e a c h i n g g y m n a s t i c s t o my s t u d e n t s . 2. My s t u d e n t s e n j o y p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n g y m n a s t i c s a c t i v i t i e s . 3. I o f f e r g y m n a s t i c s as p a r t of my o v e r a l l p r o g r a m b e c a u s e i t i s e x p e c t e d a t my s c h o o l . 4. I do not have t h e c o m p e t e n c e t o i n s t r u c t s t u d e n t s i n g y m n a s t i c s . 5. I see g r e a t v a l u e t o t h e s t u d e n t s i n p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n g y m n a s t i c s . 6. T h e r e i s a d e q u a t e i n - s e r v i c e o f f e r e d f o r g y m n a s t i c s i n my d i s t r i c t . 7. T h e r e a r e a d e q u a t e p r i n t r e s o u r c e s f o r g y m n a s t i c s i n s t r u c t i o n i n my s c h o o l . 8. The l o c a l c ommunity ( P a r e n t s & O t h e r s ) e x p e c t s me t o o f f e r g y m n a s t i c s as p a r t o f my o v e r a l l p r o g r a m . 9. My c o n c e r n f o r t e a c h e r l i a b i l i t y l i m i t s t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h I o f f e r g y m n a s t i c s i n s t r u c t i o n . 1 0 . I c o n s i d e r t h e a b i l i t y t o p e r s o n a l l y d e m o n s t r a t e g y m n a s t i c s s k i l l an e s s e n t i a l r e q u i r e m e n t f o r g y m n a s t i c s i n s t r u c t i o n . 159 SA A U D SD 11.My c o n c e r n f o r s t u d e n t s a f e t y l i m i t s t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h I o f f e r g y m n a s t i c s i n s t r u c t i o n . 1 2 3 4 5 12.Our s c h o o l f a c i l i t i e s a r e not a d e q u a t e f o r t h e g y m n a s t i c s p r o g r a m I o f f e r my s t u d e n t s . 1 2 3 4 5 13.1 w o u l d t e a c h more g y m n a s t i c s i f t h e r e was at l e a s t one p e r s o n on s t a f f who was q u a l i f i e d t o o f f e r a d v i c e . 1 2 3 4 5 14.The c o m p l e x i t i e s of o r g a n i z i n g p u p i l s and e q u i p m e n t l i m i t s t h e e x t e n t to w h i c h I o f f e r g y m n a s t i c s i n s t r u c t i o n . 1 2 3 4 5 A d d i t i o n a l r e a s o n s f o r my t e a c h i n g g y m n a s t i c s a r e : 1. 2. 3. A d d i t i o n a l r e a s o n s f o r my not t e a c h i n g g y m n a s t i c s a r e : 1 . 2. 160 PART I I P l e a s e r e a d e a c h q u e s t i o n c a r e f u l l y . Q u e s t i o n s 1,2,4 5 a s k f o r a c h e c k ( ) t o be put i n t h e a p p r o p r i a t e s p a c e . Q u e s t i o n s 3,6,7,8 a r e t o be a n s w e r e d a c c o r d i n g l y . 1 .Gender a ) M a l e : b) F e m a l e : _ 2.Age ( y e a r s ) a ) 2 0 - 2 4 : . b ) 2 5 - 3 4 : c ) 35-44: d) 4 5 - 5 4 : _ e) o v e r 54: 3. Number of y e a r s t e a c h i n g : y r s mths PLEASE RESPOND TO QUESTIONS 4,5,6 WITH RESPECT TO YOUR HOMEROOM CLASS, EVEN IF YOU TAKE OTHER CLASSES FOR PHYSICAL EDUCATION. 4.1 t e a c h P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n a ) G r a d e 1: t o t h e f o l l o w i n g g r a d e ( s ) : b ) G r a d e 2: c ) G r a d e 3: d) S p l i t G r a d e : a) None a t a l l : b) A b o u t 5%: c ) A b o u t 10%: d) A b o u t 15%: e) A b o u t 20%: f ) A b o u t 2 5 % : _ g) A b o u t 30%:__ t i m e s p e r week:_ FOR A TOTAL OF mins p e r week: 7.My p r e - s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g i n c l u d e d a ) Y e s : c o u r s e s i n g y m n a s t i c s i n s t r u c t i o n b ) N o : 5.The p r o p o r t i o n o f my t o t a l p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n p r o g r a m t h a t i n v o l v e s g y m n a s t i c s i n s t r u c t i o n i s : 6.My homeroom c l a s s r e c e i v e s p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n I f Y e s , p l e a s e e l a b o r a t e : ( e . g . . C o u r s e number, t i t l e , c o n t e n t , i n s t i t u t i o n , y e a r ) 161 8.Name a n d / o r d e s c r i b e t h r e e d i f f e r e n t a c t i v i t i e s y o u w o u l d n o r m a l l y i n c l u d e i n y o u r g y m n a s t i c s c l a s s ( e s ) : a) b) 162 APPENDIX B COVERING LETTER AND FINAL QUESTIONNAIRE PART 1 SA A U D SD 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 £ Please read each statement and circle ONE of the following five responses for EACH statement: 1«= SA (Strongly Agree) 2= A (Agree) 3- U (Uncertain) 4= D (Disagree) 5= SD (Strongly Disagree) 1. I enjoy teaching gymnastics to my students. ~ 2. Mv students enjoy participating in gymnastics activities. 3. I offer gymnastics as part of my overall program because i t 1 2 3 4 5 is expected at mv school. 4. I do not have the competence to instruct students in _ 1 2 3 4 5 gymnastics. 5. I see great value to the students in participating in 1 2 3 4 5 gymnastics. 6. There is adequate in-service offered for gymnastics in my 1 2 3 4 5 distr ict . 7. There are adequate print resources for gymnastics 1 2 3 4 5 instruction in my scnool. 8. The local community (parents S others) expects me to offer 1 2 3 4 5 gymnastics as'part of my overall program. 9. My concern for teacher l iabi l i ty limits the extent to which 1 2 3 4 5 I offer gymnastics instruction. 10. I consider the persons! ability to demonstrate ovmnastics 1 2 3 4 5 an essential requirement for gymnastics instruction. 11. My concern for student safety limits the extent to which I 1 2 3 4 5 offer gymnastics instruction. 12. Our school facil i t ies are not adequate for the gymnastics 1 2 3 4 5 program 1 offer my students. 13. I would teach more gymnastics i f there was at least one 1 2 3 4 5 oerson on staff wno was qualified to offer advice. 14. The complex i t i es of organizing pupils and eouioment limits 1 2 3 4 5 tne extent to wnich I offer gymnastics instruction. Additions! reason; fo- nv teac*"inc ovmnastics ere: 1. 2. 3. Additional reason; f o r mv not teac^inc gymnastic? are: 1. PART 11 Please read each auestion careful ly . Questions 1,2,4,5 ask for a check ( / ) to be put in the appropriate space. Questions 3,6,7,8 are to be answered as indicated. 1. Gender a)Male: b)Female: 2. Age (years) a)20-24: b) 25-34: c) 35-44: d) 45-54: e) over 54: 3.Number of years teaching. mths PLEASE RESPOND TO QUESTIONS 4,5,6 WITH RESPECT TO YOUP HOMEROOM CLASS, EVEN IF YOU TAKE OTHER CLASSES FOR PHYSICAL EDUCATION. 4.1 teach Physical Education to the following grade(s): a)Grade 1: b) Grade 2: c) Grade 3: d) Spi i t Grade: 5. The proportion of my total physical education program that involves gymnastics instruct ion i s : a)None at a l l : b) About 52: c) About 10%: d) About 152: e) About 202: f) About 25%: g) About 302: 6. My homeroom class receives physical education: times per week FOR A TOTAL OF mins per week: 7. My pre-service tra in ing included courses in gymnastics in s t ruc t ion : . .a)Yes: b)No: If Yes, please elaborate: (e.g.Course number, t i t l e , content , in s t i tu t ion , year) 8.Name and/or describe three different ac t iv i t i e s you would normally include in your gymnastics c lass(es): a) :  b). c). 

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