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The implementation of an art curriculum material : relationship between beliefs and practices Hutson, Sonia 1983

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THE IMPLEMENTATION OF AN ART CURRICULUM MATERIAL: RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN BELIEFS AND PRACTICES By SON IA HUTSON B.A. ( E n g l i s h ) , Simon Fraser U n i v e r s i t y , 1979 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES CENTRE FOR THE STUDY OF CURRICULUM AND INSTRUCTION, FACULTY OF EDUCATION We accept t h i s thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA October, 1983 ©Sonia Hutson, 1983 In presenting t h i s thesis i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the Library s h a l l make i t f r e e l y available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of t h i s thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. I t i s understood that copying or publication of t h i s thesis for f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my written permission. Department of /j/ftfaj/^A/ t^jly^ ^ Mtyd /C&MMud&tto/ The University of B r i t i s h Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 Date DE-6 (3/81) i I Abstract This study addresses the need for research pertaining to the influence of teacher conception and s i t u a t i o n a l factors in the implementation of a r t curriculum m a t e r i a l s . The study y i e l d s insights about how three teachers* b e l i e f s shaped th e i r opinions of the merits and shortcomings of the teacher's guide, Surface Probe, and how s p e c i f i c s i tuational factors influenced t h e i r use of the material. Data c o l l e c t i o n methodology included questionnaires, interviews, teacher logs and on-site observations in an attempt to make e x p l i c i t the perceptions of the participants and the s i t u a t i o n a l setting of an art program as i t was implemented over an eight week period. Data was documented in three teacher p r o f i l e s which were organized around the following considerations: teacher conception of a r t , use of the material, factors that influenced use, and interpretation of the r e s u l t s . Findings were discussed as strengths and concerns of the material and factors that influenced implementation. This information was interpreted into guidelines for the development of art curriculum materials. It was found that the material could be adapted by teachers of varying levels of a r t background and teaching experience. The material offered s u f f i c i e n t student experiences in the productive domain, but suggestions for imagery development to enhance the production a c t i v i t i e s became an emerging issue with two of the teachers. In the synopsis of factors that influenced implementation i t was concluded that teacher conception and background experience in a r t were primary points that needed to be considered in curriculum development. Points to consider in the development of a r t curriculum materials are o u t l i n e d . i i i Acknow Iedgements I am indebted to Kathy, L i z , and John for the time they devoted to the implementation of Surface Probe. I also express my gratitude to Dr. Graeme Chalmers, Dr. Walter Werner, and Dr. Donald Wilson for t h e i r support and c r i t i c i s m . TABLE OF CONTENTS i v TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER Page 1. THE STUDY 1 The Prob I em 1 Assumptions 1 De f i n i t i o n of Terms 2 Limitations 2 2. REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE 5 Development of Surface Probe 5 The Study 5 3. METHODOLOGY 18 Framework 18 Focus 19 Instruments 20 Selection of Teachers 24 Schedule 26 4. TEACHER PROFILES 34 Pr o f i I e 1 A. Teacher conception of art education 34 B. Use of the material 36 C. Factors that influenced use 56 D. Interpretation of the res u l t s 59 TABLE OF CONTENTS v Page P r o f i l e 2 A. Teacher conception of art education 62 B. Use of the material 64 C. Factors that influenced use 75 D. Interpretation of the res u l t s 78 P r o f i l e 3 A. Teacher conception of art education i 80 B. Use of the material 82 C Factors that influenced use 88 D. Interpretation of the r e s u l t s 90 5. DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS 93 Strengths of the Material 93 Concerns of the Material 100 Synopsis of Factors That Influence Implementation 103 Suggestions for Curriculum Development 106 Summary 111 v i TABLE OF CONTENTS Page BibI iography 114 Appendices 116 1. Surface Probe 11V 2. The Day Art Rationale Assessment Instrument 224 3. Teacher Questionnaire 228 4. Teacher Logs 230 5. Guidelines for Completing Logs 234 6. I n i t i a l Teacher Interview Questions 236 7. Transcript of Teacher Interview 239 8. Final Teacher Interview Questions 243 9. Transcript of Taped Teacher Interview .....245 10. Student Interview Questions 253 11. Student Artwork 255 1 CHAPTER 1 The Study The Problem This study formulates guidelines for the development of a r t curriculum materials. The problem of factors which influence the implementation of a r t curriculum materials was addressed through a documentation of the use of the m a t e r i a l , Surface Probe, by three teachers in the west area of the Vancouver School D i s t r i c t . For the purposes of t h i s study, "use" was defined as what the material consisted of in p r a c t i c e . Teachers' conceptions of a r t education were extracted and s i t u a t i o n a l factors were considered in an attempt to determine the influences upon the p a r t i c i p a n t s ' use of the material and t h e i r perceptions of the materials strengths and weaknesses. This information was formulated into generalizations which could be interpreted as suggestions for a r t curriculum development. Assumptions In discerning factors which influence the implementation of a r t curriculum materials i t was assumed that the curriculum material would be personalized by the participants in the study as i t was implemented. In each s i t u a t i o n , a d i f f e r e n t program would e x i s t as defined by a number of variables such as p a r t i c i p a n t s ' i n t e r e s t s , background experiences, and conceptions of a r t education, as well as situational f a c t o r s . It was also assumed that the worth of the program would be judged on i t s relevance and meaningfuIness to the various p a r t i c i p a n t s (Werner, 1977, p.9). The implied r e l a t i o n s h i p between the investigator and the participants was therefore r e c i p r o c a l . Each added his own expertise and knowledge to the study as the 2 investigator t r i e d to interpret the program's value in terms of the part i c i p a n t s ' frames of reference. De f i n i t i o n of Terms Surface Probe was referred to as an a r t curriculum material, teachers' guide, and book. "Use" and "Implementation" were used interchangeably in t h i s study. Implementation was defined as "the actual use of an innovation or what the innovation consists of in practice" (Fullan and Pomfret, 1977, p. 366). How the material was interpreted or shaped by the participants was the focus of de s c r i p t i o n . Describe in t h i s study referred to the documentation of the programs-in-use through teacher p r o f i l e s . P r o fiIes included a documentation of teacher conception, use of the materials, and factors which influenced use. An interpretation of the res u l t s concluded each p r o f i l e . Conception referred to an orientation toward a r t education in elementary schools. It covered a teacher's p r i o r i t i e s in answering the question, "What can and should be taught to whom, when, and how?" (Eisner & VaI lance, 1974, p.2). Limitations The scope of t h i s book included a limited representation of elementary a r t teachers and classroom s i t u a t i o n s . However, despite d i v e r s i t y , many concerns are shared by a r t teachers and many classrooms share the same c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s so some generalizations can be made (Par l e t t & Hamilton, 1977). Limitations as to the amount of v i s i t a t i o n s the investigator could make to each school were determined by the investigator's 3 work schedule, although arrangements were made so that at least one v i s i t to each school could be made during school hours. One school was v i s i t e d twice during lessons and one classroom was observed weekly since the teacher and investigator taught at the same school. The time frame for the study limited teachers* use of the material in three ways. F i r s t l y , they received the material in April which limited the amount teaching time as well as time a v a i l a b l e for teacher planning before the end of the year. Secondly, th e i r use of the material in May and June was interferred with by end-of-year school procedures and a c t i v i t i e s . T h i r d l y , some of the pr i n t i n g techniques presented in the material had been taught by two of the teachers e a r l i e r in the year. Observation techniques posed some disadvantages. The presence of the investigator might have influenced the behaviour of the participants in each s i t u a t i o n . As we l l , the investigator had her own biases of s e l e c t i v e observation. But these are outweighted by the advantage of first-hand recording of behaviours as they occurred. These recordings were used as sta r t i n g points in interviews. Selective observation and interpretation of the investigator were compensated by the inclusion of a second observer who v i s i t e d each of the teachers for an interview and observed two of the classes during school hours. This also enabled the teachers to be more candid with t h e i r comments. 4 The fact that each teacher had volunteered to become part of the study may have limited the accuracy of the investigator's judgment of the quality of the implementation in that the teachers' use of the material may have varied i f they had not been part of a study where they were expected to "stay with the material" for the eight week period. 5 CHAPTER 2 Review of the Literature  Development of Surface Probe During the developmental phase of a teacher's guide for the study of natural design and printmaking, the l i t e r a t u r e reviewed by the author focussed on curriculum development, p a r t i c u l a r l y in art education, and theory and research on the nature of a r t , c r e a t i v i t y , and the student. Although the l i s t of resources is extensive, two writers in p a r t i c u l a r influenced the formation of a r a t i o n a l e and the choices of objectives, content and evaluation for the book. These were Lowenfeld (1952, 1975) and Eisner (1972, 1974, 1979). While i t is not within the sphere of t h i s study to review resources used for the developmental phase, a complete l i s t is supplied at the end of Surface Probe which is included in Appendix 1. It should be noted that subsequent readings in art education (in p a r t i c u l a r , Efland, 1976; Chalmers, 1981; Feldman, 1970; McFee & Degge, 1977) have influenced the author's decisions for further revisions of the curriculum material before p u b l i c a t i o n . These focus on the student as anthropologist and the importance of dialogue in art programs but they do not pertain to t h i s study. The Study For the purposes of t h i s study, the l i t e r a t u r e reviewed was concerned with two areas: (1) the use of teachers' classrooms for the development of a r t curriculum materials, and (2) studies which recognize the influence of teachers' conceptions and s i t u a t i o n a l factors on the implementation of art programs. 6 An example of the use of classrooms for curriculum development is The Aesthetic Education Program developed by Central Midwestern Regional Laboratories, Inc. (CEMREL, Inc., 1976) located at St. Louis, Missouri. The Aesthetic Education Program began in 1967 with a group of' educators who were committed to developing an aesthetic education program designed for a l l students, stressing an aesthetic content which encompassed a)) the arts and the f u l l scope of aesthetic phenomena. The r o l e of the program was that of a provider of resources, e s p e c i a l l y for the non-specialist teacher on a national s c a l e . In e f f e c t i t involved the planning and implementation of a complex e f f o r t toward individual and i n s t i t u t i o n a l change in atti t u d e where the inclusion of aesthetic content within general education could be j u s t i f i e d . The principal referent for program development was the d i s c i p l i n e of the a r t s . Content was organized around the following categories: (1) Aesthetics and Arts Elements, (2) Aesthetics in the Physical World, (3) Aesthetics and the Creative Process, (4) Aesthetics and the A r t i s t , (5) Aesthetics and the Culture, and (6) Aesthetics and the Environment. The materials focussed on process where the chosen a c t i v i t i e s not only taught a concept and reached an objective but also provided experiences that could be valued in t h e i r own r i g h t . Instructional resources included an array of games, records and f i l m s . The Aesthetic Education Program's instructional materials represented a departure from t r a d i t i o n a l curriculum development in that classromms were used as laboratories of experimentation and development. In the early stages of development, an observational monitoring of the package's implementation was conducted in preliminary classroom t r i a l s . A c t i v i t i e s 7 and materials which contained potential problems were t r i e d out in classrooms using small groups or an ent i r e c l a s s . An evaluator observed the amount of interest and enthusiasm generated by the materials and helped the developer analyse the children's behaviour for evidence of a b i l i t y to perform tasks and understand underlying concepts. Revisions needed before f u l l classroom t r i a l s were incorporated into the ma t e r i a l . In the second phase of "hothouse t r i a l s " , a systematic observation and description of a teacher and a group of students as they worked through a set of materials took place. Every session during which5 the unit was taught was observed by an evaluator and usually the developer. Based on a version of classroom ethnography influenced by the work of Smith and Geoffrey (1968), the observational method focussed i t s observations, interpretations, and analyses on the educational transactions brought about by a par t i c u l a r set of materials in a classroom s i t u a t i o n . Their notes were supplemented by t r a n s c r i p t s made from tape recordings of each session. Upon completion of the unit, an in-depth interview with the teacher was conducted by the eva I uator. Data was categorized according to the following t o p i c s : i n i t i a l reaction to the unit, suggested grade l e v e l , suggested teaching pattern, opinion of teacher's guide and materials, student reaction to the materials, and perceived e f f e c t s on students. Information was also gathered on the neighbourhood and type of family served by the school, physical f a c i l i t i e s , student scores on I.Q. and reading t e s t s , and teacher's educational experience, teaching s t y l e , interest in a r t and at t i t u d e toward aesthetic education. Informal discussions with teachers, judgments of the developer, and an analysis of student products r e s u l t i n g from the unit's 8 a c t i v i t i e s also yielded information. Units were revised on the basis of information obtained, and instruments to assess student's progress were ref ined. In the f i n a l stage, p i l o t t r i a l s were conducted at three s i t e s representing diverse socio-economic levels and ethnic groupings so that evidence of bias could be uncovered and remedied. During t h i s phase, the materials were judged for t h e i r a b i l i t y to meet both process and product c r i t e r i a . Process variables were examined using teacher questionnaires and c h e c k l i s t s , structured teacher, and occasionally student, interviews, and random spot observations to uncover s p e c i f i c problems in implementation or anticipated e f f e c t s the materials might produce. Product variables were examined using an evaluation design that focussed on the r e l a t i o n of student performance on outcome measures to how well the unit was implemented. In a d d i t i o n , i t was determined how student entry c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and teacher c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s affected implementation. Another example of the use of classrooms for developing art curriculum materials is the Stanford Kettering Project (Eisner 1970, 1979). The Kettering Project at Stanford University was a two year project that was begun in 1968 under the d i r e c t i o n of Eisner. The aim of the project was to develop an a r t curriculum that could be used with l i t t l e or no in-service by elementary school teachers who were untrained in art or art education. Focussing on the productive, h i s t o r i c a l and c r i t i c a l domains, seven units were developed, one each on l i n e , colour, composition, drawing, painting, graphics and a r t h i s t o r y . Each unit contained nine lessons and provided enough material, on the average, for a two-year program. Seven hundred instructional devices, including s l i d e s , reproductions, color boards, 9 transparencies and overlays to be used with the lessons in the s y l l a b i were coded with numbers, cross-referenced in curriculum guides, and placed in two "Kettering Boxes." The program contained sequenced a c t i v i t i e s and evaluation devices or procedures for each lesson. The Project was divided into two phases. Phase 1 extended from October 1, 1968 to August 1, 1969, and involved the curriculum design, some p i l o t t e s t i n g by teacher-consultants or by members of the team who developed the material, and subsequent revisions based on the re s u l t s of the p i l o t t e s t i n g . The second phase extended over a twelve-month period and consisted of developing an evaluation program and expanding the tryout of the materia] from four teachers to twenty teachers working in f i v e schools in two d ? s t r i c t s . Data c o l l e c t i o n methods included the appraisal of visual products produced by students, interviews with teachers, analysis of written comments made in the curriculum s y l l a b i by teachers, and comprehension t e s t s . A wide variety of methods were used to secure information regarding the e f f e c t s of the program on students as well as the aspects of the curriculum which needed r e v i s i o n . Data was collected in May and June and analyzed in July and August of 1969. Eisner summarized the problems of curriculum development and implementation of the Project in various readings and reports (Eisner, 1970, 1979) as follows: We erred in attempting to develop materials that need l i t t l e or no in-service, that overemphasized instructional objectives, that payed too much attention to the development of technical s k i l l s and provided too l i t t l e opportunity for the exercise of imagination, that were too p r e s c r i p t i v e regarding sequence, and that underestimated the need for a s y l l a b i s to be a t t r a c t i v e l y i l l u s t r a t e d and printed. We also severely underestimated the 10 amount of time needed to do work on the scale we aspired to reach. (Eisner, 1979, p. 151) The primary concerns of both projects were the e f f e c t s of a program on students and the a b i l i t y of the non-experienced a r t teacher to e f f e c t i v e l y implement a p a r t i c u l a r curriculum m a t e r i a l . Eisner further explicated his concern for approaches to research, program development and evaluation that consider the q u a l i t y of the experiences that participants might have with programs in his writings on q u a l i t a t i v e evaluation (1979). He adapted non-s t a t i s t i c a l forms of inquiry and evaluation and d e s c r i p t i v e and expressive language from a r t to general education practice in order to f a c i l i t a t e an awareness and understanding of the experiences of the p a r t i c i p a n t s . From t h i s awareness, a judgement about the program could be made and improvements could be considered. Eisner presents these ideas in his notions of educational connoisseurship and educational c r i t i c i s m . The connoisseur appreciates the experience through an awareness and understanding of i t . The c r i t i c must see the s u b t l e t i e s of the experience and analyze i t s interacting parts for t h e i r e f f e c t s on the "whole". He describes and interprets what he sees and then uses the information to evaluate the character of the educational practice and suggest improvements. The c r i t i c must become public and enlighten others to what he has seen whereas the connoisseur can p r i v a t e l y appreciate the experience. E f f e c t i v e c r i t i c i s m requires the use of connoisseurship but i t also works to r e f i n e i t . Even though t h i s q u a l i t a t i v e approach is more personal, Eisner proves i t s v a l i d i t y and o b j e c t i v i t y through a discussion of structural corroboration and r e f e r e n t i a l adequacy. Structural corroboration refers to the extent that the facts within the experience support the conclusions 11 drawn. Referential adequacy refers to that which the c r i t i c has illuminated that would otherwise go unseen. To judge the extent of r e l i a b i l i t y , one must look at the phenomena and be able to find what the c r i t i c has described. Eisner also claims that like s c i e n t i f i c inquiry, a q u a l i t a t i v e approach y i e l d s generalizations that help us to a n t i c i p a t e the future as well as enable us to more e f f e c t i v e l y experience a s i t u a t i o n : As one leans to look at educational phenomenon, as one ceases using stock responses to educational s i t u a t i o n s and develops habits of perceptual exploration, the a b i l i t y to experience q u a l i t i e s and their r e l a t i o n s h i p increases. (Eisner, 1979, p. 219) Eisner raises questions that must be considered by program developers. C r i t i c a l sense-making about how the p a r t i c i p a n t s in the program w i l l experience the program must be a prime consideration or problems in implementation w i l l a r i s e . Feldman (1967, 1970) developed a four-step model of a r t i s t i c c r i t i c i s m which has been used in t h i s study as a model for describing, analyzing, interpreting and judging participants perceptions as they used the curriculum m a t e r i a l . Although both the CEMREL Aesthetic Education Program and the Kettering Project used classrooms as laboratories for curriculum development to consider student and teacher c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , they did not s p e c i f i c a l l y investigate the influence of teacher b e l i e f s and s i t u a t i o n a l factors on the implementation of a curriculum m a t e r i a l . While few studies of t h i s nature have been conducted the need for research in t h i s area is addressed by Chapman (1979), Day (1972), Stuckhardt and Morris (1980), and Asch (1976). In a r t education, where teachers are r e l a t i v e l y free to decide the goals and content of t h e i r programs, the role teachers' b e l i e f s may play in determining the curriculum and the teaching process is c r u c i a l . As Chapman 12 (1979) notes, instructional materials in visual arts are r a r e l y used as primary sources of content, objectives and learning tasks. It cannot be assumed that teachers choose c a r e f u l l y researched materials and then serve as f a c i l i t a t o r s of student interaction with the pre-structured materials. Working with prospective a r t teachers, Chapman attempted to map re l a t i o n s h i p s between rationales for teaching a r t , the form and content of c u r r i c u l a , and how the expectations b u i l t into rationales and plans might shape the teaching process. Subtests that p r o f i l e d teachers' b e l i e f s in respect to four hypothetical orientations to teaching - the i d e a l i s t , r e a l i s t , p ersonalist and experimentalist - were matched with hypothetical seventh grade a r t programs submitted by these teachers. An informal comparison suggested that orientations may influence the way teachers envision the form and content of a r t programs. Day (1972) also examined rationales used by a r t teachers and curriculum makers for j u s t i f y i n g a r t programs. He summarizes three factors that contribute to the independence, i n d i v i d u a l i t y and d i v e r s i t y of teaching s t y l e s evident among a r t techers. F i r s t l y , teachers vary in a r t background in the productive, h i s t o r i c a l and c r i t i c a l domains. Secondly, divergence and i n d i v i d u a l i t y of expression are valued q u a l i t i e s in a r t . F i n a l l y , the a r t teacher has a great deal of freedom in planning art programs. T y p i c a l l y there is no s p e c i f i c curriculum that must be followed, and the a r t teacher is only expected to set a program within broad g u i d e l i n e s . Day defines a teacher's r a t i o n a l e as b e l i e f s regarding the purposes and goals of a r t education (the general rationale) which in turn influence choices for p a r t i c u l a r practices in a r t education (the s p e c i f i c r a t i o n a l e ) . He concludes that a teacher's r a t i o n a l e has a p o t e n t i a l l y strong influence 13 on the nature of that a r t teacher's program as well as the way he or she views other a r t programs. In an attempt to increase an awareness and understanding of individual teaching strategies and to i n i t i a t e discussion among a r t educators and program developers, Day devised The Day Art Rationale Instrument (see Appendix 2). The instrument l i s t s eight points of view on the reasons for teaching a r t and also provides the opportunity for one to formulate his own statement of b e l i e f . By employing the instrument, teachers may be able to c l a r i f y t h e i r own rationales or become aware of a l t e r n a t i v e concerns that may be incorporated into t h e i r e x i s t i n g r a t i o n a l e s . A t h i r d instrument that assesses at t i t u d e s held by individuals is The Attitude Towards Arts Education Scale (ATAES) developed by Stuckhardt and Morris (1980). Used in conjuction with a U.S. fe d e r a l l y funding project to i n i t i t a t e an a r t education program in elementary grades K - 6, the scale measured att i t u d e s held by teachers at the beginning of the project and assessed a t t i t u d e changes at the end of the i n i t i a l year. The instrument l i s t s 30 statements about a r t education and asks the teacher to rate his or her feelings about each statement according to a five- p o i n t scale ranging from "strongly agree" to "strongly disagree" and including "uncertain". Example statements include "Arts education is an educational f r i l l " and "Arts education enhances knowledge of our cultural her ? tage". The influence of teaching b e l i e f s on evaluation in a r t education is addressed by Asch (1976). She describes three time-honoured b e l i e f s that r e l a t e to attitudes and methodology concerning evaluation. F i r s t l y , the b e l i e f that student art should be accepted regardless of quality is nurtured by teachers who have a concern for the therapeutic value of a r t and the 14 power of p o s i t i v e reinforcement. Secondly, the b e l i e f in the importance of the a r t process over the finished product r e f l e c t s a concern for experimentation with techniques and ideas. T h i r d l y , the b e l i e f that evaluative discussions are detrimental to student c r e a t i v i t y and morale i s evident in teachers who feel that c r i t i c a l discussions remove the fun from a r t . t Asch concludes that these b e l i e f s , which emphasize freedom, c r e a t i v i t y , and i n d i v i d u a l i t y , r e s u l t in instructional methods where the teacher gives no guidance or c r i t i c i s m , a l l student work is equally acceptable, and students do not engage in sharing, analyzing, or expressing opinions about t h e i r a r t products or processes. As a consequence, no evaluative c r i t e r i a are used to a access student growth or lead students to other p o s s i b i l i t i e s of problem solving in t h e i r work. Evaluative discussions that can provide important learning opportunities and give insights to learning a b i l i t i e s and teacher effectiveness are overlooked. Methods of inquiry which take into account teacher b e l i e f s and the c u l t u r a l factors in a classroom in the implementation of programs have been formulated by Smith and Pohland and Par l e f t and Hamilton. Smith and Pohland, in p a r t i c u l a r , were a strong influence in a r t education's use of classroom ethnography. Smith was also involved in the development of The Aesthetic Education Program at CEMREL. These readings influenced the formulation of a strategy for t h i s study. Pohland (1972) o f f e r s the notion of par t i c i p a n t observation as a method of inquiry in a r t education. He describes the nature of participant observation as multi-method, multi-person, m u l t i - s i t u a t i o n , and multi-v a r i a b l e . Methods include observation, informal interviews, and the 15 c o l l e c t i o n of documents. The investigator interacts with a large number of people including teachers, p u p i l s , administrators, and other personnel in multiple settings of classrooms and schools in various parts of the country. He also looks at multiple variables which appear to a f f e c t programs. These include individual variables such as motives and t r a i t s , group variables such as classroom interaction and a c t i v i t y , and organizational, technological and c u l t u r a l v a r i a b l e s . In a response to Pohland's notion by Wilson (1972), the features of p a r t i c i p a n t observation that make i t a method of inquiry appropriate to art education are summarized as follows: (1) the method allows the researcher to attend to a number of variables and t h e i r i n t e r r e l a t i o n s . This corresponds to a work of a r t where the variables (such as media and processes) are related to the personality factors of the teacher and student as well as the c u l t u r a l , i n s t i t u t i o n a l , and physical settings in which a r t is taught, (2) the method is f l e x i b l e . The researcher can switch methodologies mid-stream j u s t as a r t redefines i t s e l f , and (3) the method requires a close q u a l i t a t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p between the researcher and the s i t u a t i o n being studied. This f i t s the subject of a r t which in i t s e l f is qua I i t a t i v e . Working with Smith in the school year 1968-1969, Pohland was involved in an evaluation of an innovative computer-assisted instruction (CAI) program in the Rural Highlands in Kentucky. Smith and Pohland (1972) concluded from that study that the c u l t u r a l milieu is a s i g n f i c a n t factor in the fuctioning of innovative programs. Two cultural features were responsible in part for the breakdown of the CAI system. One, defined as localism, included a d i s t r u s t of strangers. The second, defined as p o l i t i c s , was the view of CAI as a p o l i t i c a l rather than 16 educational issue. Smith and Pohland recognize that an awareness of c u l t u r a l l y determined actions and an a b i l i t y to v i s u a l i z e c u l t u r a l influences on the implementation of programs broadens our decision-making perspective and opens up new and unexpected aspects to consider in program development and evaluation. Smith (1974) applied the use of p a r t i c i p a n t observation to the Aspen Institute, an eight-day i n s t i t u t e involving CEMREL st a f f and administrators from various school d i s t r i c t s in the country. Administrators were of two l e v e l s , usually a superintendent and p r i n c i p a l . The purposes of the Institute included acquainting and a s s i s t i n g administrators in the i n i t i a t i o n of an aesthetic education program for t h e i r school d i s t r i c t s . As a p a r t i c i p a n t observer, Smith blended the roles of detachment and involvement through the d i f f e r e n t s e t tings, a c t i v i t i e s , and interactions of the session. He t r i e d to take copious notes which would supplement his experiences and become a basis for his report. The report was e n t i t l e d Images and Reaction: A Personal Report on "An 8 Day Week:". The notion of i l l u m i n a t i v e evaluation (P a r l e t t and Hamilton, 1972) also recognizes that a program is not an independent system that can be examined in i s o l a t i o n . The i l l u m i n a t i v e evaluator is not concerned with codifying observations with techniques such as interaction analysis as these do not f a c i l i t a t e the uncovering of the underlying and meaningful features of the interaction between the participants and the program. He is concerned with the perceptions of the participants as he focusses on patterns of cause and e f f e c t . The methodology of i l l u m i n a t i v e evaluation influenced the data gathering techniques of t h i s study. In an attempt to explain why teachers 17 d i f f e r in t h e i r a t t i t u d e s toward innovative materials, students and teachers were questioned about th e i r work with the curriculum material, what they thought of i t , and how i t compared to previous experiences. Interviews took an open-ended and discu r s i v e form to enable the participants to fr e e l y communicate the use and value of the curriculum material in r e l a t i o n to t h e i r s i t u a t i o n and concerns. Questionnaires were supplemented with interviews and logs. Checklists and guiding questions were used to stimulate thinking and probe into inner feelings and views. An informed account of the innovation in progress was developed by building up a record of on-going events, transactions and informal remarks to which i n t e r p r e t i v e comments were added. The investigator recorded discussions with and between parti c i p a n t s and payed close attention to the type of interactions in each s i t u a t i o n . Interviews and d i a r i e s allowed the teachers to express th e i r attitudes towards the material as well as the factors which influenced th e i r use of Surface Probe. The methodology and procedure are discussed in depth in the following chapter. 18 CHAPTER 3 Methodology Framework The r o l e of the investigator, the nature of the information secured, the technique of description applied and the basis for drawing conclusions were dictated by an underlying cultural framework through which events and information were interpreted. A "meaning-oriented" approach was applied as the study focussed on description and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . The investigator took the r o l e of a non-participant observer who described and interpreted events and perspectives. Since the study concentrated on the curriculum material in the context of three classroom s i t u a t i o n s , there was an emphasis on both observation at the classroom level and interviews with p a r t i c i p a t i n g teachers and students. Information was compiled into three teacher p r o f i l e s . Conclusions were drawn and organized according to the revealed participant perceptions. Borrowing from an a r t c r i t i c i s m model, t h i s study was organized to encompass d e s c r i p t i o n , a n a l y s i s , interpretation and judgment. (Feldman, 1967). Description focussed on the subject matter and approaches to teaching a r t that were evident in each s i t u a t i o n . Analysis was concerned with how the program was organized according to the participants assumptions, values, interests, and p r i o r i t i e s , as well as how s i t u a t i o n a l factors influenced the implementation of the material. Interpretation involved an unfolding of the relevance and meaningfuIness that the curriculum material held for the p a r t i c i p a n t s . A judgment of the strengths and weaknesses of the curriculum material based on the perceptions of the part i c i p a n t s in the study was organized into the concluding chapter. At 19 t h i s point, recommendations for curriculum development in art education were made. Focus The task of t h i s investigation was to make e x p l i c i t the perceptions of the participants and the sit u a t i o n a l setting of the program. Concerns of the evaluator were i l l u s t r a t e d in the following categories of questions: A. How Do Teachers Use The Material? 1. How do they t r a n s l a t e the material into experiences for students? 2. What types of experiences occur? 3. How do the teachers d i f f e r in the i r use of the material? 4. What common patterns emerge in the teachers' use of the material? 5. To what extent is the material modified? 6. To what extent is the material used as intended? 7. How do the teachers o r i g i n a l plans compare to their actual use? 8. How does the material accomodate the teaching-1 earning s t y l e in ex i stence? 9. How is the material adapted to the strengths and interests of the par t i c i pants? 10. How are the following aspects effected by the material: - classroom organization - teacher plann ing - roles of students and teacher - assumptions of participants B. What Factors Influence the Use of the Material? 1. What assumptions and values colour the participants personalization of the material? 20 2. What backgrounds do the participants bring to the program? 3. What s i t u a t i o n a l factors influence the use of the program? 4. How do the participants view the program as appropriate to the i r s ituation? 5. What aspects do the participants find relevant and meaningful? Why? 6. Do the teachers find a need for the material? 7. What are the teachers* concerns regarding the use of the material? 8. What further considerations would f a c i l i t a t e the use of the ma ter i a I ? 9. How does the presentation of the material influence the teachers' acceptance or use - e.g. format, i l l u s t r a t i o n s , organization of a c t i v i t i e s , sequence? 10. Does the theory presented in the Rationale c o n f l i c t with or support the p r a c t i c a l material? Instruments To focus on the uniqueness of each s i t u a t i o n , data c o l l e c t i o n was organized to document three teacher p r o f i l e s . Data c o l l e c t i o n instruments included the following: 1. The Day Art Rationale Assessment Instrument (see Appendix 2) This instruments l i s t 8 statements pertaining to the importance of a r t education and provides an opportunity for the teacher to express his own r a t i o n a l e . The statements are ranked according to how closely they correspond to one's b e l i e f s . 2. Teacher Questionnaires (see Appendix 3) In order to obtain information on teacher background, t h i s 21 questionnaire focussed on areas of a r t t r a i n i n g , years of teaching experience, current teaching assignment, areas covered in personal a r t program, p a r t i c u l a r s of currently enrolled classes, and the extent to which printmaking has been part of personal curriculum and student experience. In designing the questionnarie, reference was made to those used by the Western Education Development Group (WEDGE) which p i l o t tests and publishes l o c a l l y developed curriculum materials. 3. Teacher Logs (see Appendix 4) After each lesson, each teacher was to complete a log which summarized the amount of teacher time necessary for the lesson, d i f f i c u l t i e s in teaching the lesson, additional information needed, a c t i v i t i e s which the students found d i f f i c u l t , student p a r t i c i p a t i o n and reactions to the lesson, and teacher opinion of the lesson ( i . e . value, c l a r i t y ) . In designing the teacher log, reference was made to logs used by WEDGE. 4. Guidelines For Completing Logs (see Appendix 5) To motivate teachers to make detailed descriptions in the i r logs 10 guiding questions were o u t l i n e d . These questions t r i e d to probe the re l a t i o n s h i p between the material and teacher conceptions of a r t , s i t u a t i o n a l factors that influenced teacher presentation of the lesson, and ways that the lesson was modified according to teacher b e l i e f s . 5. Interv Jews Interviews were conducted with each of the three teachers and a sampling of students from classrooms involved in the use of the ma t e r i a l . Resources used as reference for designing the interview questions were the Canadian Content Unit Teacher Survey (Massey and Werner) and Evaluation: Sense-Making Of School Programs (Werner, 1977). 22 During the f i r s t interview with each teacher, a steady flow of questioning that focussed on teacher conceptions of art education (see Appendix 6) was lead by the evaluator while she took notes of key phrases and words. The purpose of the study, a brief description of the material and an explanation of the teacher logs concluded the interview. The investigator's notes were later transcribed into a written dialogue for future analysis (see Appendix 7).' No instructions for the use of the material were given. Teachers were told that they could feel free to modify the material in anyway that would s u i t t h e i r purposes. They were to act as if the investigator had no expectations of their implementation of Surface  Probe. Subsequent interviews with the teachers were conducted in the middle of the p i l o t session (end of May) and at the end of the school year. These sessions, employed the technique of e l i t e interviewing (Dexter, 1970). Rather than defining the questions and the problem, the investigator was eager to l e t the interviewee teach her by: a. stressing the interviewee's d e f i n i t i o n of the situation b. encouraging the interviewee to structure the account of the sit u a t i o n c. l e t t i n g the interviewee introduce to a considerable extent....his notions of what he regards as relevant, instead of relying upon the investigator's notion of relevance (Dexter, 1970, p. 5). Rather than taking notes in these interviews, a tape recorder was used to provide for a more conversational technique. In t h i s way, the investigator's concentrated attention was enhanced and tapes could be 23 analyzed at a later date to capture nuances and avoid misinterpretation. 1 This helped further an understanding of the program-in-use and avoided building upon the investigator's notion of the s i t u a t i o n . Questions used as s t a r t i n g points for discussion in the f i n a l interview are included in Appendix 8. A sample t r a n s c r i p t of an interview is included in Appendix 9. Interviews with students occurred at the end of the session, although a sampling from each cl a s s was not a v a i l a b l e for a l l s i t u a t i o n s . Usually groups of fiv e students were interviewed to ascertain their opinions of printmaking and t h e i r experiences in the u n i t . Opinions of how they would change the printmaking unit were asked. Interview questions used as sta r t i n g points for discussion are outlined in Appendix 10. Only one teacher listened to the taped interview of her students. Kathy commented aft e r l i s t e n i n g to the tape that she was surprised that the students did not mention the h i s t o r i c a l presentations or the c r i t i c a l d i scussions. This may have resulted from the investigator's line of questioning or the lack of importance that the students placed on these exper iences. 6. Classroom V i s i t a t i o n s An outside observer was scheduled for v i s i t a t i o n s to two teachers. One teacher refused because she was not comfortable with the control of her c l a s s , although she did consent to an interview. The observer's v i s i t a t i o n included interviews and were conducted half way through the session. These were discussed with the investigator and were used for cr o s s v a l i d a t i o n with the investigator's findings. During c l a s s v i s i t a t i o n s the investigator took the r o l e of a non-pa r t i c i p a n t observer. Notes were taken to record interactions between 24 students, teacher and students, and students with a r t materials. The investigator engaged in conversations with students and the teacher, and photographs of displays and students at work were taken. Even the most t r i v i a l aspects (such as procedures and interactions among students and teacher) of the situation were recorded and later discussed during interv iews. 7. Col lection of Student Work Samples of student's work were accumulated by each teacher. These were used as a sta r t i n g point in the fina l interviews, and were analyzed by the investigator. Examples from each class are included in Appendix 11. 8. Teacher's Comments Recorded in the Material Two teachers ( L i z and Kathy) recorded comments d i r e c t l y into their copies of Surface Probe as they read through the material and presented lessons. The comments were compared to information yielded by the other data c o l l e c t i o n methods. The copies of the book were returned upon completion of t h i s study. A method of crossvaI idation was made possible by t h i s variety of data-c o l l e c t i o n methods. Written data was compared, questions were repeated in interviews, and reactions to the investigator's report were obtained from each teacher to confirm accuracy. Selection of Teachers To avoid the variable of location in the c i t y and to f a c i l i t a t e v i s i t s by the investigators, teachers were chosen from the west side of Vancouver. In order to e s t a b l i s h factors that might influence implementation, i t was desirable to choose teachers of varying a r t backgrounds and teaching 25 experience, in p a r t i c u l a r with printmaking. The most expedient way to do t h i s was to se l e c t teachers whose backgrounds were known to the investigator. F a m i l i a r i t y with the investigator may have been a factor in those teachers volunteering to use the m a t e r i a l . The c h a r a c t e r i s i t i c s of teachers chosen for the study and a summary of student c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s follows: Teacher 1 (Kathy) Kathy was a f i r s t year teacher who had never taught a r t and had no t r a i n i n g in printmaking. As she was not scheduled to teach a r t , special arrangements had to be made to change her assignment. She had substituted for two years and was working 60$, e n r o l l i n g a grade 5 c l a s s . Kathy's class had had no experience with printmaking. There were 29 students in the group and a minority Native Indian population was included. The school is situated in a middle cl a s s neighbourhood. Generally, the cla s s had not enjoyed a r t t h i s year as the students f e l t that t h e i r former a r t teacher did not l i k e her assignment or the c l a s s . Teacher 2 (Li z) L i z had taught a r t for the 26 years of her teaching career. She had t r a i n i n g in a r t from college and had taught a l l printmaking methods in Surface Probe except for screen p r i n t i n g . She enrolled six a r t classes from grades 5 to 7. As she had transferred schools the year before, she had not taught these students until t h i s year. Liz chose two classes to be involved in the study. Her s p l i t 5-6 class contained 30 students and had completed leaf and styrofoam prints as 26 part of a short unit on texture in the year. The grade 6 cla s s contained 30 students and had completed glue prints in the previous year with another teacher. The school is situated in a middle class neighbourhood. Teacher 3 (John) John had taught a r t for 7 of his 12 teaching years. He had experience with teaching many aspects of printmaking, in par t i c u l a r screen p r i n t i n g . He was mostly self-taught, although he had taken some university a r t courses. He enrolled fi v e a r t classes ranging from grades 5 to 7. John included each of these classes in the study. Only the grade 7's had experience with printmaking when John had taught them in grade 5. Since John had taken a year leave of absence, he had not taught the present grade 5 or 6 classes, and they had no experience in printmaking. Each c l a s s contained an average of 30 students. The school is in a middle class neighbourhood and serves a minority Greek population. ScheduIe , January - A p r i l , 1981 - f i r s t draft of Surface Probe completed September, 1981 - M3y, 1982 - second dra f t of Surface Probe completed February, 1983 - selection of teachers for the study - permission from p r i n c i p a l s obtained - permission obtained from Vancouver School Board art consultant March - design of data c o l l e c t i o n instruments and procedure 27 interview with Kathy (1 hour) Data instruments (Appendices 2-5) were administered and teacher interviewed focussed on questions outlined in Append ix 6. interview with Liz (45 minutes) The same proceudre as Kathy's interview was fo!lowed except that the Day Art Rationale Assessment Instrument and Teacher Questionnaire were completed by Liz later in the week and were then mailed to the investigator through the school d i s t r i c t d e l i v e r y . observation of Kathy's class (20 minutes) The c l a s s was completing the Rubbings a c t i v i t y . interview with John (1 1/2 hours) The same procedure as Liz's interview was foI lowed. documentation of notes from interviews with John (Appendix 7) and Liz into dialogue form. Observation of Kathy's class (10 minutes) The investigator viewed a display of 28 monoprints and discussed these with the students. observation of Kathy's class (30 minutes) The class was completing glue and cardboard plates. Conversations among students and teacher were noted in dialogue form. observation of Liz's class (1 1/2 hours) The class was completing lino plates. Conversations among students and the teacher were noted in dialogue form. Descriptions of the room displays and the students in process of the a c t i v i t y were noted. interview with Liz (1 hour) Notes from the observation were used as sta r t i n g points for discussion during t h i s taped interview. notes from the observation were transformed into a written account. observation of Kathy's class (25 minutes) The students were engaged in pri n t i n g f i s h . 29 interview with Kathy (1 1/2 hours) A summary of Kathy's use of the material became a starting point for a discussion of her opinion of the value of the material and her students' reactions to pr intmaking. observation of John's class ( 2 hours) The students were making cardboard plat e s . Procedures for note-taking were the same as with Liz's observation, interview with John (1 1/2 hours) The same procedure was followed as with the preceding interviews with the other two teachers. interview with Liz's students (30 minutes) The students' reactions to printmaking were taped. See Appendix 10 for s t a r t i n g -point questions, interview with Liz (1 hour) A summary of Liz's use of the material was obtained using samples of students' work as starting points. The closeness of the book's conception of a r t to L i z ' s conception was discussed using questions which raised s p e c i f i c points (see Appendix 8). Samples of students 30 work were collected by the investigator. (See Appendix 11) outside observer's v i s i t a t i o n to Liz's class (1 1/2 hours) A description of the room and a record of student dialogue and interaction with the teacher were recorded. A discussion with the teacher focussed on her use of the mater ia I. observation of Kathy's class (30 minutes) The students were completing styrofoam pr i n t s . outside observer's v i s i t a t i o n to John's c l a s s (2 hours) A taIk with the teacher focussed on his use of the mat e r i a l . A description of the students in the process of making cardboard plates and prints and interactions between the teacher and students were recorded. Photographs of the students at work and work areas were taken. observation of Kathy's class (20 minutes) The students were completing styrofoam 31 p r i n t s . Photographs of the students at work were taken. - outside observer's v i s i t a t i o n with Kathy (1/2 hour) The interview focussed on Kathy's reaction to the m a t e r i a l . June 23 - v i s i t a t i o n of Liz's class (20 minutes) Photographs of students at work and displays of students' prints were ta ken. - interview with John's students (45 minutes) A taped discussion of the i r reactions to printmaking focussed on the questions outlined in Appendix 10. - interview with John (1 1/2 hours) The same procedure as Liz's interview (June 2) was followed and samples of students' work were c o l l e c t e d . (See Appendix 11) June 27 - interview with Kathy's students (30 minutes) The same procedure as the interviews with students from the other schools was foI I owed . June 28 - Liz's copy of Surface Probe was r July 18 - 30 August 3 August 5 - September 30 32 coI Iected. The same procedure as John's interview (June 23) was followed. Student work (see Appendix 10) and Kathy's copy of Surface Probe were c o l l e c t e d . Kathy had also written comments in the material as she read the information and presented lessons. (See Appendix 9 for a t r a n s c r i p t i o n of t h i s interview). Kathy also listened to the tape of the interview with her students at t h i s time. tapes were transcribed Pauses and utterances were deleted (see sample interview in Appendix 9). teacher p r o f i l e s were compiled AlI sources of data were compared and cross-referenced in order to ensure accuracy of the use each teacher made of the material and to summarize in d e t a i l t h e i r comments about the factors which influenced t h e i r use. Kathy's validation of her p r o f i l e Kathy read her p r o f i l e and agreed with i t s accuracy. interpretation of the r e s u l t s and implications for curriculum development 33 in a r t education formulated Liz's v a l i d a t i o n of her p r o f i l e . Liz read her p r o f i l e and agreed with a l l but one of the statements. In her copy of Surface Probe she had checked p a r t i c u l a r lessons in the Table of Contents. The investigator assumed these were a c t i v i t i e s that Liz planned to use next year, but in a c t u a l i t y they were lessons that she had wanted to complete in her use of the material for the duration of t h i s study. Kathy's reading of the investigator's interpretation of the strengths and weaknesses of the ma t e r i a l . Kathy disagreed with the investigator's view that the Rationale and information on curriculum development were not valuable to teachers. She commented that these discussions were useful in r e l a t i o n to her concerns. John's va l i d a t i o n of his p r o f i l e John read the p r o f i l e and agreed with i t s accuracy. 34 CHAPTER 4 The P r o f i l e s P r o f i l e 1 A. Teacher conception of a r t education. Kathy has a strong view about the importance of a r t in the school curriculum. Aside from i t s social b e n e f i t s , she f e e l s that a r t affords the students a chance "to play and work with styles and techniques", and she thinks that the students see a r t as an important break from academic subjects since the focus is on "doing" rather than on content. She is enthusiastic about sharing the enjoyment of a r t with her students and helping them discover that " s k i l l is r e a l l y a lack of fear". Her students would work primarily as a r t i s t s , occasionally as c r i t i c s and r a r e l y as h i s t o r i a n s : "Art at the elementary level implies 'hands-on'". Her program would take a breadth approach as she feels that i t is important for the students to develop s k i l l s in a variety of media and techniques. Her p a r t i c u l a r personal areas of interest (watercolours and design with a variety of media) as well as the interests of the students would be incorporated into her curriculum planning. For example, she would include optional units where the students could pursue th e i r talents and interests in t h e i r own chosen areas. Having no previous t r a i n i n g in a r t other than a methods course at un i v e r s i t y , Kathy would r e l y on her own expertise and interest when planning. P r a c t i c a l books and resource people (friends and colleagues) would supply her with background information. She would also try to secure the help of practicing a r t i s t s to demonstrate techniques and processes to the students. 35 Her broad conception of a r t is re f l e c t e d in her ideas about f i e l d t r i p s . Promoting the students' awareness and s e n s i t i v i t i e s to the environment and contributing to the i r understanding of how a r t is used in everyday l i f e and in d i f f e r e n t cultures would be p r i o r i t i e s . For example, a tour of False Creek would focus on the c r i t i c i s m of a r t forms ranging from food displays to the integration of the man-made and natural environments. Kathy is not sure about the appropriateness the teaching of a r t history to students of grade f i v e l e v e l . She feels that i t is important for a program to "grow with the students" so her planning would center on building upon the knowledge and s k i l l level of her c l a s s . Some a c t i v i t i e s would not be attempted until she achieved a rapport with her class and established a relaxing and confident atmosphere within the group. For example, group discussions of student artwork would probably not take place until later in the year so that c r i t i c i s m would not be done in a demoralizing way. Depending upon the c l a s s , she fe e l s that discussions of student work might not even be appropriate. Therefore, although she feels that displaying student work is important, she does not an t i c i p a t e that these displays would be used for group evaluation. Kathy would organize the a r t room so that students could be grouped. Primarily t h i s would be to f a c i l i t a t e peer-teaching. Also, she sees t h i s as an e f f e c t i v e way to d i s t r i b u t e supplies and arrange clean-up. She would hope to i n s t i l l in the students an awareness of the care of equipment and a r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for cleaning their own area. She anticip a t e s that she would probably have a tendency to cut ar t lessons short to ensure that clean-up was complete, p a r t i c u l a r l y because the ar t room is shared. 36 B. Use of the material. Kathy chose to integrate the four sections of the book - o r i e n t a t i o n , study, a p p l i c a t i o n , and c r i t i c i s m - into her lesson plans for each week rather than treat them as separate weekly lessons. Because she taught the unit only to her own c l a s s , she planned to organize her week so that each Wednesday some sort of orientation took place. At t h i s time, she would t r y to present an h i s t o r i c a l perspective and i l l u s t r a t e how the concepts to be covered in the week appeared in nature. As she did not want to teach " i n a vacuum" she t r i e d to integrate the unit with some sort of Language Arts a c t i v i t y as w e l l . Time permitting, Wednesdays would also be a demonstration day so that on Thursdays the class could meet in the a r t room to begin a "hands-on" application of the concepts. Fridays involved a c r i t i c a l discussion related to t h i s "hands-on" exper ience. Although she did not teach a formal c r i t i c i s m lesson from the book, she took the evaluation questions from the end of each lesson, supplemented them with some of her own, and placed them on the classroom blackboard on Thursdays. These stayed on the board un t i l the next morning and became the focus for the weekly c r i t i c a l d i scussion. A sampling of the students' comments from these discussions were written on examples of their work which were kept in a folder for the investigator. Each week's organization, therefore, revolved around a double block of a r t (85 min.) on Thursdays. Wednesday's introductions were completed within a 40 minute period or were set up as a spare-time a c t i v i t y . Friday's discussions generally lasted 40 minutes. Kathy used the curriculum material with her class from April 27 to June 17. Although her proposed use was outlined in A p r i l , she changed her plans and covered the following lessons in that period: 37 ORIENTATION: ACTIVITY 1 - The Grab Bag ACTIVITY 2 - The Blin d f o l d Walk (optional a c t i v i t y ) STUDY: ACTIVITY 1 - Rubbings ACTIVITY 2 - Direct P r i n t (teacher demonstration only) ACTIVITY 3 - Fish P r i n t s ACTIVITY 4 - Modified Texture (optional a c t i v i t y ) ACTIVITY 6 - Shapes in Nature (Texture Study Chart only) APPLICATION: ACTIVITY 2 - Direct P r i n t s - V a r i a t i o n : Mono-prints ACTIVITY 4 - Styrofoam P r i n t s ACTIVITY 5 - Cardboard P r i n t s ACTIVITY 8 - Screen Prin t i n g (modified into an optional a c t i v i t y using s t e n c i l s and fabric prints) WEEK 1: ApriI 27, 28 and 29 The focus for the week was an introduction to textures in nature. Wednesday's introduction of the Grab Bag a c t i v i t y lead into Thursday's a c t i v i t y of Rubbings. Friday's c r i t i c a l discussion focussed on both lessons. The optional a c t i v i t y was an application of the technique of rubbing to form patterned borders on f a b r i c using f a b r i c crayons. The teacher preparation involved setting up the Grab Bag station which consisted of a selection of natural objects in a brown bag and xeroxed copies of the record sheets supplied in the book (p. 94). Kathy chose to organize the a c t i v i t y according to the book's instructions for 'A. Class Grab Bag' rather than as 'B. Individual Grab Bags'. She noted that the a l t e r n a t i v e s given in the book for the presentation of t h i s lesson were helpful in that they offered her a solution to the problem of limited time. 38 As well, she was " j o l t e d " into thinking of time-saving a l t e r n a t i v e s for subsequent lessons. It was also necessary for her to review the Background Information and the lesson plans presented in the book in order to understand "the background, process and techniques". She noted that the background information was most h e l p f u l . Also, the samples of rubbings in the book were "broad enough to give (her) ideas and i l l u s t r a t i v e enough to give (her) a standard". As she had never done a rubbing, she practiced the technique as outlined in the book (p. 41). She had no problems with following the book step-by-step, and thusly her samples were av a i l a b l e for Thursday's demonstration. In accordance with the instructions in the book (p. 3 0 ) , Kathy emphasized to the clas s the use of desc r i p t i v e words as they f i l l e d out the Grab Bag record sheets on Wednesday. With a brief discussion and sample de s c r i p t i o n , she was able to conduct the lesson as a spare time a c t i v i t y throughout the day. She notes that the students' record sheets were "extremely useful" for increasing student awareness and that she referred to the records in subsequent lessons and discussions. Kathy also used the des c r i p t i v e words generated by the a c t i v i t y as a starting point for poetry. The students completed a poem about one of the things that they f e l t in the bag. For the s p e c i f i c a r t room a c t i v i t y of Rubbings on Thursday, the format of the lesson in the book "was followed and was e f f e c t i v e " . She began with a presentation of the h i s t o r i c a l information from the book. Kathy noted that the students seemed to enjoy knowing that what they were doing "was useful in some respect". 39 Securing materials was no problem although mulberry paper was not av a i l a b l e so white bond paper was substituted. Both the teacher and the students brought in natural objects for the exercise. Although some of Kathy's procedural instructions - "getting things out, cleaning things up" -were not c l e a r , she had no problems with demonstrating the procedure to the students. However, the demonstration was hampered because the area she chose was not quite big enough for a l l to see. Nine students who were at LEC missed the demonstration but Kathy f e l t that t h i s was not a problem as peer-teaching took place when they returned to the room. She also f e l t that Wednesday's introduction helped c l a r i f y the lesson for these students. As evident when I entered the room after Kathy's demonstration, the students were very enthusiastic (except, as Kathy noted, for 2 out of the 30 students). They were a c t i v e l y experimenting with the colours of the crayons and with combining the natural objects in t h e i r compostions. Some students combined colours while others repeated items to make patterns. Attempts were made to form pictures and compostions rather than c o l l e c t i o n s of isolated rubbings of various items on one paper. The students were completing the technique with ease and were anxious to show me the i r r e s u l t s . Kathy noted only one problem with the technique when students attempted to use objects that were not f l a t . Some students had d i f f i c u l t y molding the paper around the object and obtaining a clear p r i n t . However she did note that in many cases the students used them e f f e c t i v e l y . (The book recommended using only f l a t o b j e c t s ) . Kathy was surprised at how quickly the students were able to apply the concepts to the process. They were able to practice the rubbing technique, i d e n t i f y "good and bad points", and then apply a corrective e f f o r t to a 40 large product. In the i r f i n a l rubbings, they concentrated on creating lines of emphasis, using a vari e t y of textures, repeating textures and items to create patterns, and creating "complete pictures". Kathy attributed the high level of student p a r t i c i p a t i o n mainly to the instant success that the students had with the technique - a " d i r e c t r e s u l t of them watching, l i s t e n i n g and learning". The students obviously found the lesson interesting and enjoyed learning. Other influences were the excitement of a new teacher and the opportunity to experiment with a new technique. However, she did feel that additional information in terms of depth of learning and application would have made the lesson more e f f e c t i v e as many students finished quickly and wondered what else they could do with the technique. The second objective of the lesson (a discussion of dot, line and shape in the rubbings) was presented on Friday. Kathy f e l t that t h i s went very well and that the concepts seemed to fascinate the students. She displayed t h e i r rubbings on a b u l l e t i n board in her classroom and focussed the discussion on questions concerning the technique of rubbing (What went ri g h t ? wrong? How would you correct it?) and the textures of natural objects as revealed v i s u a l l y in the rubbings and t a c t i c a l l y in the Grab Bag a c t i v i t y (How is pattern created? How do line and shape create texture? Which words best describe texture?) Here, Kathy modified the di r e c t i o n given in the evaluation section of the lesson (p. 42) to concentrate more on the qua l i t y of texture in the displayed products and less on the cause of texture in nature. However, she did include a discussion of "how nature repeats i t s e l f " and "how man-made products imitate nature." Kathy emphasized that she gave l i t t l e guidance during the discussions 41 and that the students did the majority of the t a l k i n g . She recorded their comments on the art work so that she could later evaluate the c r i t i c a l s k i l l s and q u a l i t a t i v e contributions of the students. Examples of these comments gave some insight to the concerns of the students: P r i n t 1: - good d e t a i l in some leaves; some smudges - overlap (of objects) not good - good choice of colour P r i n t 2: - too much? - colou r f u l - f i l l s page - eyes jump a l l over page; nothing attached Kathy f e l t that the students were most enthusiastic during the discussions and that they were cre a t i v e in t h e i r comments. She noted that "they were learning almost despite themselves." She also f e l t that some of the students who did not excel in other subjects were able to achieve some success which increased t h e i r confidence and encouraged p o s i t i v e recognition from other studetns in the c l a s s . The week's optional a c t i v i t y was to apply the technique to making patterened borders on pillow cases and T - s h i r t s using natural objects and f a b r i c crayons. Both the students and Kathy noted problems with using the crayons because the T - s h i r t s had to be stretched by several students in order to get complete coverage. Once washed, the crayons tended to smudge. However, many students completed the a c t i v i t y and Kathy f e l t that i t was e f f e c t i v e . In her evaluation of the students, Kathy focussed on three areas: process, product and c r i t i c a l s k i l l s . She did not employ the evaluation 42 c h e c k l i s t supplied in the book (p. 97) but instead developed her own evaluation framework and completed an evaluation on each student for each lesson in her u n i t . The report card le t t e r grade was determined from t h i s c o l l e c t i o n of evaluation forms. Kathy f e l t i t important to note how well the teaching-learning s t y l e of the lessons in the book f i t her conception of art because i t r e f l e c t e d the notion that knowledge can be applied to technique to produce "a good product". At t h i s point, her view of the curriculum material was enhanced by the r e a l i z a t i o n of the variety of media and methods of application a v a i l a b l e . She was also most enthusiastic about the fact that the students were enjoying what they were doing in a r t . She stated that her learning was enhanced by the readings and her teaching of the m a t e r i a l . The d e f i n i t i o n of terms and the explanations of how concepts interconnect presented in the introduction of the book were very helpful for her understanding and her organization of the presentations of the lessons. WEEK 2: May 4, 5 and 6 The focus for the second week was techniques that create textures found in nature. Wednesday's lesson revolved around the Texture Study Chart from the a c t i v i t y Shapes in Nature (p.56). Making a leaf p r i n t (p.43) was demonstrated by the teacher. Thursday's a c t i v i t y consisted of two types of mono-prints - d i r e c t and reverse prints (p.66). Friday's discussion involved questions concerning the techniques used in the chart and the products from the mono-prints. The optional a c t i v i t i e s included leaf prints and the Modified Texture a c t i v i t y (p. 49). Kathy's teacher preparation included practicing with ink as a medium and using the technique of mono-print. She reviewed the lesson plans from 43 the book, in p a r t i c u l a r the vocabulary from the texture chart. During her experimentation with the techniques, she completed five prints without problem. She therefore had samples of a leaf p r i n t , an etched print and a reverse p r i n t for her demonstrations. She also xeroxed enough copies of the Texture Study Chart supplied in the book (p. 94) for her c l a s s . Kathy noted that the presentations of the texture chart and the leaf p r i n t s in the book were very u s e f u l . She thought that the texture chart was an "invaluable teaching a i d " and she modified the sequence of a c t i v i t i e s in the book to use the leaf p r i n t as an i l l u s t r a t i o n of the techniques presented in the chart. On Wednesday, she conducted a formal lesson on the texture chart. Each technique was placed on the board and discussed with the c l a s s . Kathy directed the discussion toward the use of the techniques to create natural textures, s p e c i f i c a l l y how the basic shapes of t r i a n g l e s , c i r c l e s and squares produce textures. The completed chart on the board was a duplicate of that supplied in the book and was used as a continual reference for the remainder of the lessons in her u n i t . In f a c t , i t stayed on the blackboard for several weeks. Kathy assigned an individual texture chart to each student. These were started in c l a s s and completed for homework. Wednesday's lesson concluded with her demonstration of a leaf p r i n t . This enabled her to r e l a t e the techniques used in the texture chart to a p r i n t of a natural object. She pointed out how the textural quality of the leaf was created by dot ( s t i p p l e ) , l i n e , and shape ( c i r c l e s ) . She also drew the students attention to "emphatic l i n e s " - those that are dominant in the p r i n t . The demonstration gave her the opportunity to f a m i l i a r i z e the 44 students with printmaking equipment (ink, glass plate, and r o l l e r ) and the technique of printmaking i t s e l f ( t r a n s f e r r i n g an image from one surface to another). Following the suggestion in the book (p. 66), Kathy planned to have the students apply th e i r work on the texture chart to the creation of mono-prints on Thursday. She noted that the students "lapped up the knowledge from the chart and applied i t well in sketching and drawing ideas for th e i r p r i n t s " . The only instruction she gave the students for developing images for t h e i r prints was to try to apply the techniques from the chart. They were to complete both methods of mono-print technique but they could choose the order in which the did them. However, a f t e r the sketches were done, the students encountered problems with making the i r p r i n t s , in p a r t i c u l a r with c o n t r o l l i n g the ink. It was a problem that Kathy had not anticipated as she did not experience the same d i f f i c u l t y in her p r a c t i c e s . She notes that had she anticipated the problem, she would have stressed more practice and "play with the medium" in the lesson. Using the f i r s t method presented in the book (p. 67), some students inked the glass plate and etched t h e i r designs d i r e c t l y into the ink using p e n c i l s , compasses, and other t o o l s . But the students either used too much ink or too l i t t l e . Consequently in some p r i n t s , the image appeared faded as not enough ink was transferred to the paper while in others the lines of the image were not clear as the ink had spread when pressure was applied to the paper. Another problem occurred if the students took too long to draw t h e i r image into the ink. The ink became dry and when the paper was applied to the plate, no amount of pressure from the r o l l e r could l i f t a clear image. The students also found i t d i f f i c u l t to draw onto th e i r plates as they could 45 not rest t h e i r hands on the plate for support and c o n t r o l . More success was achieved with the second method (a variation suggested on p. 68). The students drew t h e i r images on paper, placed the paper over an inked plate and then went over the pencil lines with a blunt t o o l . Pressure was applied with a r o l l e r and then the prin t was l i f t e d . However, several students were uable to complete both methods because of a lack of time. This caused f r u s t r a t i o n for them as well as created problems for clean-up which Kathy f e l t was too rushed and incomplete. Completing the second method became an optional a c t i v i t y for the week. It should be noted here that the procedural instructions give on pp. 67 and 68 were mixed up in the lay-out of t h i s draft of the book. The second column of each page should be exchanged. However, af t e r reading through the explanation of printmaking techniques of p. 25, Kathy was able to discern how the two methods d i f f e r e d and could e f f e c t i v e l y conduct the lesson. She noted that the lesson seemed clear upon reading and i t was very easy to teach, but she f e l t that the book should have discussed how d i f f i c u l t i t might be for the students to deal with the ink. She f e l t that some suggestion should be made in the book for the students to experiment with the width of line in their images ( i . e . experimenting with d i f f e r e n t sized tools to discover which are more e f f e c t i v e ) and with the thickness of the ink to get a feel for the medium. She concluded that both methods were very tough for the students and she was disappointed that the students had not achieved "instant success" as in the previous week. She suggested that the a c t i v i t y not be used as an introduction to printmaking methods as the students need to be very careful and t h e i r knowledge and control of the medium has to be developed. 46 Although the students were not generally happy with the end product of th e i r p r i n t s , they were active and enthusiastic during th e i r experimentations. Kathy noted that they were p a r t i c u l a r l y fascinated by the use of Iine to produce texture and regretted that the seven students who were at LEC missed the actual printing part of the lesson. Even though the motivation of the students was high, Kathy f e l t that she t r i e d to present too much and did not an t i c i p a t e well enough the knowledge and s k i l l level of her grade 5 c l a s s . Because her class was eager, she was tr y i n g to "jam pack theory, technique, practice lessons, and options for each lesson" and concluded that part of the reason for the disappointing r e s u l t s was that she was trying to teach too many concepts in a limited amount of time. Signs of the students' ski I Is progressing were evident in the practice and application of the texture-producing techniques but not so evident in printmaking technique. When I walked into her classroom to look at the students' prints displayed on the b u l l e t i n board, I was impressed with their use of texture techniques from the texture chart, in pa r t i c u l a r t h e i r use of l i n e . I commented to the students that they had achieved success with the printmaking technique. Kathy f e l t that t h i s comment made some of the students re-evaluate their prints and change the i r minds about the quality of the r e s u l t s . She also noted that " i t probably helped them on Friday" when they discussed them. Friday's discussion centered on the printmaking technique (What went r i g h t ? What went wrong? What could they have changed?) and the use of line to create texture. Comments made by the students about the three prints they chose as the best included: 47 Pr i n t 1 (etched mono-print): - clearer line - Iines used welI - ink related texture (texture created from the background ink) Pr i n t 2 (reverse p r i n t ) : ' - came out well (clear image) - f i I I ed page P r i n t 3 (reverse p r i n t ) : - great colour - s t i p p l e e f f e c t of ink - lines used w e l l ; simple but not too simple The Modified Texture a c t i v i t y and leaf prints were completed by several students as optional a c t i v i t i e s and many students finished t h e i r second method of mono-prints as assigned on Thursday. WEEK 3: May 11, 12 and 13 The thi r d week focussed on the appl i c a t i o n of the Texture Study chart to r e l i e f p r i n t s , stressing the p r i n c i p l e of balance in design. Wednesday's lesson included a review of the texture chart and a demonstration of making glue and cardboard plates. Thursday involved printing both plates and Friday's discussion was directed to the textural quality of the students' prints from both methods. Kathy o r i g i n a l l y had not planned to teach either method to her class but the students had seen some examples from other classes in the artroom and "begged (her) to do them". Her teacher preparation included f a m i l i a r i z i n g herself with the two printmaking methods and practicing each in order to an t i c i p a t e any problems that might a r i s e for her students. She read through the lessons in the book 48 (pages 69 and 75) and noted that the instructions were very c l e a r . As no h i s t o r i c a l perspective was provided she referred to books she had at home (art references on Medievil manuscripts and p r i n t i n g ) . She prepared a partially-completed glue plate by drawing two roses on a piece of cardboard and going over one rose with lines of glue to create a raised surface. She also cut out pieces of cardboard for assembly in her demonstration on Wednesday. Her lesson on Wednesday was confined to a demonstration of how to make both pla t e s . She pointed out to the class how she had applied the texture techniques from the chart to her image for the glue plate. Then she covered the remaining lines of her plate with glue, advising the cl a s s on how to control the amount of glue that comes out of the b o t t l e . She explained to the students that the object was to build up a r e l i e f with glue or layers of cardboard so that a print could be taken from the plates. She concluded with a brief demonstration of how to assemble a cardboard plate, stressing the balance between textured or raised areas and nontextured areas and the use of space. She assigned the glue plate for homework so that they could dry overnight and suggested that the students could also take cardboard home to work on t h e i r cardboard plates. She was suprised at how many students chose to do both for homework. Again, she only stressed the use of texture for imagery development. She noted that she had a creative class and that coming up with images was not r e a l l y a problem. She encouraged them to use nature as a reference and to develop natural designs, but she did not l i m i t them in t h e i r choice of subjects. However, she did supply step-by-step drawing cards for those 49 students who had d i f f i c u l t y coming up with an idea. Some students took the cards home to work on th e i r glue pl a t e s . On Thursday, the students were at various stages and consequently, the organization of the lesson worked out "fabulously". Approximately half the class had completed th e i r glue plates at home so -they were dry and ready to p r i n t . The other students completed t h e i r glue plates in class and were able to assemble a cardboard plate while they waited for the glue plate to dry. The students seemed to have l i t t l e problem with c o n t r o l l i n g the glue when making t h e i r p l a t e s . One student told me during an interview that the glue could be shaped while i t was drying and that i t was nice to use something other than a pencil for "drawing". Another student told me during the lesson that she had had some problem with creating grass on her plate because the ink "gIubbed together" but she had solved the problem by waiting for the glue to harden s l i g h t l y and then used a sharp tool to separate the g I ue. Kathy began the lesson with a demonstration of how to ink a glue p l a t e , using her plate as a working example. Her f i r s t print turned out rather faded and she explained to the clas s that because the plate i t s e l f absorbs ink u n t i l i t is saturated, several prints would have to be taken before a clear p r i n t was obtained. She also stressed the importance of applying a s u f f i c i e n t amount of ink to the plate and pressure to the paper in order to transfer the ink. Since the students were familiar with the location of supplies in the ar t room, they organized themselves. During t h i s lesson, Kathy was able to work with almost a f u l l class as some of the LEC students chose to remain so they could take part in the lesson. After t h i s week, the LEC teacher v o l u n t a r i l y changed the timetable 50 to accomodate these students at another time in the week. The motivation and p a r t i c i p a t i o n of the students was very high. When I entered the room, they were busily working at various s t a t i o n s . Some were completing th e i r cardboard plates while others were p r i n t i n g . There was a lot of "work-noise" in the room as students were o f f e r i n g each other suggestions about how to control the printing technique. As Kathy had planned, this was a time to practice and experiment with the technique, and the students seemed enthused about t h e i r d i s c o v e r i e s . They learned from each others' mistakes and advice about how much ink to put on the glass plate. Several students pointed out to me how they had used the texture techniques (Crosshatching, s t i p p l e , etc.) in t h e i r images. Many were able to evaluate the quality of th e i r printmaking techniques and were able to explain why t h e i r prints were "good or bad" (not enough ink on the plate, ink allowed to dry, not enough texture in the i r images). The students moved about the room freely and were interested in how other students' p r i n t s were turning out. Kathy took a low p r o f i l e as she c i r c u l a t e d among them to off e r advice on the printmaking technique. It was a p o s i t i v e atmosphere as the students spent a lot of time r e i n f o r c i n g each other on their successes. Once again, time became a factor and several students did not complete the cardboard plate in the a l l o t e d time. Some of them were so involved in prin t i n g t h e i r glue plates by experimenting with d i f f e r e n t colours that they completely forgot about the second assignment. Friday's discussion questions focussed on the students' application of texture to images and the quality of their printmaking techniques. Kathy noted that the discussion went very well and that i t covered what she had 51 planned. She f e l t that the students were impressed with both their a p p l i c a t i o n of texture and t h e i r control in p r i n t i n g . Enough students had learned from some mistake during the lesson that these became a good st a r t i n g point for the discussion. Samples of t h e i r comments included: P r i n t 1 (cardboard): - good lines - ink even and smooth P r i n t 2 (cardboard): - bubbles in i t are good ( s t i p p l e e f f e c t created by the background ink) - layering good P r i n t 3 (glue p l a t e ) : - second p r i n t ; ink flowed n i c e l y - clear picture - Iines for texture P r i n t 4 (glue p l a t e ) : - good placement of "things" - s o l i d glue areas good - ink (background) creates "eeriness" Kathy concluded that the lesson was valuable in two ways: (1) " I t was a very easy way to i l l u s t r a t e texture producing techniques such as line and at the same time expose the children to r e l i e f p r i n t i n g " , and (2) " I t was easy for the students to obtain a successful product. They could e a s i l y determine the causes of poor prints and take measures to improve upon the i r techn ique." The optional a c t i v i t y for the week was string plates (a variation of glue plates suggested in the book on page 71). WEEK 4: May 26 Because of Sports Day and the May long weekend, one a r t lesson was missed. Because the following week was shortened, the a r t lesson for t h i s 52 week was confined to Thursday only. Kathy planned to use the time as a catch-up lesson so that any unfinished cardboard plates could be completed. For those students who were f i n i s h e d , she organized a lesson on fi s h prints from the book (p. 46). Kathy's preparation became an ordeal as she found i t d i f f i c u l t to find whole f i s h at local f i s h markets. Her dad eventually went out to Steveston and obtained some t r o u t . On Wednesday, she washed the f i s h as suggested in the book (p. 47) with a solution of vinegar and water. She stored them in the staffroom fridge overnight. Considering her acquired knowledge of printmaking methods, Kathy found that the book's instructions and her teaching of the lesson were straightforward. She did have a question about whether the f i s h should be gutted as about half of her fi s h were not; t h i s created problems when the boys t r i e d to apply heavy pressure with the r o l l e r in order to push the guts out of the f i s h . (The book suggests buying gutted f i s h on p. 47). The object of Thurday's lesson was experimentation with technique and colour. It was to be a fun, "kind of practice-play a c t i v i t y " for the students. Kathy wanted to see how much they remembered from past lessons and how experimental they could be. She gave no demonstration and instead put the f i s h in various locations around the room and allowed them to organize themselves. The level of p a r t i c i p a t i o n was high. When I entered the room, a few students were printing t h e i r cardboard plates and the majority were l i f t i n g p rints from the f i s h . Several g i r l s were experimenting with colours and had combined four colours of ink in v e r t i c a l s t r i p s to make "rainbow t r o u t " . However, some students were wasting time by playing with the f i s h ( i . e . 53 f l o a t i n g them in the sink, jabbing them with sharp o b j e c t s ) . A few of the g i r l s became squeemish, and one became i l l and had to leave the room. However, above t h i s a i r of disruption in the room, most students were seriously trying to obtain "the perfect p r i n t " . Some had problems with printing the head and g i l l areas so they t r i e d putting their fingers inside the f i s h ' s mouth in order to lend some support when they applied ink and smoothed the printing paper over the head. They also devised a way to fan the t a i l to get a better p r i n t . For some i t was a challenge and they worked hard to improve t h e i r printing procedure. Again, the students helped each other and offered advice about how to apply the ink in one direction so as not to remove scales as t h i s would decrease the quality of t h e i r p r i n t s . Kathy commented that she would probably do the a c t i v i t y as an optional a c t i v i t y next time because of i t s "quick and d i r t y nature". She would also modify her approach to use a variety of types and sizes of f i s h as she f e l t that the lesson would have been more e f f e c t i v e if a comparison could have been made. As many finished quickly, thus giving time to "fool around", using several types of f i s h would lengthen the a c t i v i t y since the students could take prints from more than one f i s h . Kathy concluded that she has serious doubts about whether she would even attempt the a c t i v i t y again unless she had "an angelic c l a s s " . Warning the class ahead of time might also allow her to control the e x c i t a b i l i t y of p a r t i c u l a r students. The students and Kathy were pleased with the r e s u l t s of their p r i n t s . It was evident from my conversations with several students (student interview) that they had become aware of line and shape in the textural q u a l i t y of the f i s h . Their prints also i l l u s t r a t e d that their s k i l l s in printmaking were s u b s t a n t i a l l y improved. 54 However, Kathy was so discouraged with the behaviour of the class in general and the messiness of the a c t i v i t y that she decided to cancel the discussion session on Friday. She also took several days to complete her teacher log for the lesson. WEEKS 5 and 6: June 9, 16 and 17 Because of school-wide t e s t i n g , another week of a r t was missed. Kathy's teaching resumed the following week when she planned a two-week session on styrofoam p r i n t i n g . The focus once again was an application of the techniques from the texture chart to form an image and experimentation with a new technique. Both sessions were conducted on Thursdays in her classroom as the a r t room was not a v a i l a b l e , but the students were able to use other times in the week to work on optional a c t i v i t i e s . A f i n a l discussion period was planned for the 17th. Kathy's teacher preparation involved practicing the technique and c o l l e c t i n g styrofoam and tools for her students to make the i r plates. As there was i n s u f f i c i e n t time to c o l l e c t meat trays and sheets of styrofoam were not a v a i l a b l e , she purchased meat trays from the local supermarket. During the f i r s t week, the students developed an image to p r i n t . They worked out sketches on paper and, time permitting, transferred t h e i r images to t h e i r pieces of styrofoam. Kathy notes that she did not d i r e c t or guide the students to p o s s i b i l i t i e s . She simply told them to apply what they had learned about l i n e , texture, and design, and suggested but did not limi t them to animals or scenes. She gave them possible resources such as the "texture chart, classroom books, nature and architecture." (See example of student work in Appendix II) Following the instructions in the book (p. 73) she demonstrated the use of various tools ( p e n c i l s , nail f i l e , exacto knives, lino-cutters) in 55 carving into the styrofoam. She instructed them in preparing the plate by cutting away the sides of t h e i r meat trays so that they could work on a f l a t surface. Kathy noted (in her log) that the lesson's Instructions were clear but that she could not answer the students' questions about how the technique had been used h i s t o r i c a l l y or a r t i s t i c a l l y as no information was contained in the book. During the second session, the students completed th e i r plates and began p r i n t i n g . They were required to pull two prints from each inking of the plate to make a total of six p r i n t s . From my observation, i t was evident that the student p a r t i c i p a t i o n was high as they e n t h u s i a s t i c a l l y experimented with colour and worked to modify t h e i r plates for subsequent p r i n t s . Because the plates were easy to wash and dry, they were able to make prints of varying colours. Kathy noted that the students were impressed with the ease of working with the medium. They could take a p r i n t and i f they were not pleased with the r e s u l t s they could cut away more areas to modify t h e i r designs. The success level was high and the students were pleased with t h e i r r e s u l t s . Many framed their prints and some used them to make Father's Day cards. Kathy was pleased at how well the students displayed t h e i r knowledge of texture techniques and printmaking methods. This was evident not only in t h e i r prints but also in t h e i r discussions with each other while p r i n t i n g . However, Kathy noted that the q u a l i t y of the discussion generated on Friday was lower than previous weeks. Their comments did not show as much ins i g h t , and Kathy concluded that t h i s was a r e s u l t of the lack of consistency in the weekly routine which had been interrupted by other school procedures. Examples of t h e i r comments include: 56 P r i n t 1: - too textured? - lots of pattern; some not clear - d i f f e r e n t ; a textured rainbow P r i n t 2: - pattern is clear - fun - polka dots make texture - not enough technique (texture) The optional a c t i v i t y for t h i s session carried on for the remainder of the school year. The silkscreen a c t i v i t y in the book (p. 84) was modified into printing with a st e n c i l and fabr i c paints. A sponge was dipped in the paint and then dabbed onto the st e n c i l so that the image could be transferred to f a b r i c . Many students completed t h i s a c t i v i t y and the res u l t s were generally successful, although the students did say (student interview) that at times a double image occurred because the cloth slipped or because too much paint was allowed through the s t e n c i l . One student asked to do clay prints and took some materials home. Although t h i s a c t i v i t y was suggested in the book, Kathy had not mentioned i t or put i t on an optional a c t i v i t y card. Another student expressed a desire to do silkscreen and joined my class for one session to print a T - s h i r t . She cut out the s t e n c i l s in her free class time with Kathy. C. Factors that influenced use. Kathy's interest in being part of t h i s study was a primary factor in her use of the material. As .the s t a f f teaching assignments had been rearranged to give her the opportunity to interact with the material and her c l a s s , the quantity of her use was expected to be high. Coupled with the fact that Kathy did not have an established a r t program and had never taught printmaking, the book was nat u r a l l y forced into the position of a primary 57 resource material for the eight week session. One of the strongest reasons for her a b i l i t y to translate so much of the book into experiences for her students was the compatabiIity of the book to her conception of a r t education. She found that she could r e a d i l y accomodate the lesson plans into her teaching s t y l e , and the background information was s u f f i c i e n t for "ideas that she could explore herself before introducing them to a c l a s s " . She f e l t that the theory in the book supported the practical application and through her personalization of the material (changing the sequence to combine lessons that would complement or enhance each other) she met the sample unit's objectives as outlined on page 13. The i l l u s t r a t i o n s were helpful in providing guidelines for her practice of techniques and evaluation of the students. She noted that she would have liked more h i s t o r i c a l information and some indication of recommended total lesson time. The students' reactions to Kathy's t r a n s l a t i o n of the book also influenced her use. Their motivation level was high and because the r e s u l t s of Kathy's lessons were successful, she became increasingly excited about the m a t e r i a l . In p a r t i c u l a r , she had not anticipated how " b e n e f i c i a l , well-received, enthusiastic and objective the discussions would be". Even though she had been leary about including c r i t i c a l discussions, these in e f f e c t became one of the most successful a c t i v i t i e s . She f e l t that the book was e s p e c i a l l y helpful with ideas for these discussions and that she noted a real growth in the students' a b i l i t y to ta Ik about a r t . As well, the discussion periods were "great builders of cohesiveness in the classroom" and had "produced an enthusiasm, an awareness, and an ingenuity of thought in students". 58 My conversations with students revealed that primarily they thought that printmaking was fun, new, and in t e r e s t i n g . They had obviously learned about texture and had successfully completed a variety of printmaking methods. They liked the freedom to choose their own subjects and found the texture chart useful when developing th e i r images. They e s p e c i a l l y appreciated Kathy's clear explanations and were impressed that she had t r i e d the technique herself and could give them meaningful suggestions and guide Iines about what to expect. They f e l t that t h i s avoided a waste of th e i r a r t time. Several s i t u a t i o n a l factors influenced Kathy's use of the material, primarily the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of her c l a s s . She was aware of the grade level of her students and t r i e d to gear the program to build on the i r e x i s t i n g s k i l l s . For example, as the students had l i t t l e background in colour mixing she planned opportunities for them to experiment with colour. In her i n i t i a l plans, she had wanted to do si l k s c r e e n , lino p r i n t s , and photograms. However, she considered these to be complex and involved a c t i v i t i e s , requiring more attention to fewer students. She concluded that with the s i z e and the rambuncious nature of her group that she would not be able to complete these a c t i v i t i e s s u c c e s s f u l l y . Once she started teaching the unit, she again altered her plans as she f e l t she was trying to present too many concepts in a short amount of time. She therefore slowed down the pace to meet the c a p a b i l i t i e s of the students. Classroom space and a v a i l a b i l i t y were no problem, but she noted that having the book e a r l i e r would have allowed her to make use of the school board resources l i s t e d at the back of the book (p. 99). She f e l t that she did not have enough time to order, preview and incorporate the resources as 59 aids to her teaching. The school routines which interrupted her program also influenced her use in that i t caused some a c t i v i t i e s to be presented and completed h a s t i l y . When she was forced to a l t e r the weekly routine, she noted that this disruption had an e f f e c t on the quality of the students' input into discussions. She had wanted to do a walk with her class so that they could look at nature and architecture and r e l a t e them to what they had done in the unit, but ran out of time. The time that Kathy spent on teacher preparation was extensive for several reasons: her strong in t e r e s t , the excitement that the material generated among her students and herse l f , and the fact that her learning was enhanced. Her part-time teaching schedule and the enthusiasm with which Kathy approached her teaching assignments were also great influences. Kathy has plans to use the material next year, given that she teaches a r t . As she w i l l be assigned to some Learning Enrichment cla s s e s , she hopes to incorporate the material in other areas as w e l l . How she uses the book w i l l be determined by the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of her group. D. Interpretation of the r e s u l t s . In Kathy's case, the material provided ideas and background information that could be translated into a c t i v i t i e s for her students. Her concern was to expand upon the s k i l l s of her c l a s s , provide them with opportunities to experiment with techniques and media, and discover that a r t can be fun. The curriculum material helped her meet these ends. She f e l t that the students s k i l l s did progress, p a r t i c u l a r l y in t h e i r a b i l i t y to ta l k about a r t . She noted that the book offered her enough information so that she could provide ample opportunities for the students to experiment and become s k i l l f u l with printmaking techniques. She f e l t that the students gained a confidence in the i r 60 a b i l i t i e s to "make a r t " , and consequently enjoyed the u n i t . Kathy concluded that the material could be adapted to any of her teaching s i t u a t i o n s in the future. It could be integrated into Language Arts, Learning Enrichment or Social Studies. Because she "hates teaching in a vacuum", integration of the material is l i k e l y to occur. The material also provided her with ideas that she did not have time to try t h i s year but that she plans to use next year. Because of her interest and willingness to spend time on preparation, she w i l l try new ideas that can be presented to her c l a s s e s . She f e e l s that her growth w i l l be enhanced and that she w i l l also be more able to a n t i c i p a t e problems and guide the students. Because of her limited a r t t r a i n i n g , Kathy needed a primary resource material that provided s u f f i c i e n t information for her planning. Consequently, the sections of the book on Background Information, the Printmaking Unit, the Records and the Resource L i s t s were the most relevant to her. The Curriculum Framework (p. 10), the Rationale, and the Program Development sections only offered her limited information. The Curriculum Framework, in p a r t i c u l a r , did not o f f e r her much prac t i c a l help. For the most part, information within the lesson plans was clear and s u f f i c i e n t for her to be able to practice and present the techniques or concepts. However, h i s t o r i c a l information was sometimes lacking and further i l l u s t r a t i o n s would have helped. Further advice on the organization of lessons may also be warranted as there were some a c t i v i t i e s (photograms and silkscreen) that she did not t r y because of the numbers in her class and their rambunctious nature. A recommended length of lesson time also would have f a c i l i t a t e d her use of the material. 61 Kathy f e l t that the material allowed her to plan a c t i v i t i e s that were meaningful to the students. Although they did not use most of the curriculum material d i r e c t l y , they became enthusiastic during discussions, which created a cohesive feeling within the group. The students' s k i l l s in printmaking progressed, and they thought that the unit was fun, new, and in t e r e s t i n g . Their concerns were that the art program should be fun, but that they should also be taught s k i l l s by a knowledgeable teacher. They appreciated Kathy's clear explanations, suggestions, and guidelines, and f e l t that they r e a l l y understood texture and printmaking. They did not r e a l i z e that Kathy was following a book and were impressed with her experiments and preparation. The Texture Chart, which the students found most useful in understanding texture and creating images, and the Grab Bag Record sheet were the only parts of the book with which the students came into d i r e c t contact. In her interaction with the material, Kathy came to understand the s k i l l s of her students in a way that had not been previously possible. She f e l t that the students learned more about each other and became more accepting of those whose s k i l l s in other areas are not high. The students were also able to view Kathy with a new perspective. The material primarily changed Kathy's thinking on the value of discussion sessions used as evaluation at the end of each week's lessons. 62 P r o f i l e 2 A. Teacher conception of a r t education. Liz feels that art is important to the total development of the c h i l d in that i t imposes "a real d i s c i p l i n e " that stems from the subject rather than the teacher. She sees i t as a challenging and demanding subject where s k i l l s can be improved by learning, and thinks that students often are not as serious as she would li k e them to be. They see a r t as "a fun time" and do not appreciate the fac t that there is "a lot to learn". In her program, she focusses on developing s k i l l s in s e n s i t i v i t y and perceptual awareness. She o f f e r s a background in a r t appreciation and experiences with a wide variety of materials and techniques. She encourages experimentation, thinking, and hard work. Her students work primarily as a r t i s t s ; she f e e l s that the students mostly enjoy "the doing". She feels that students are interested in art history and r e l a t e s samples of a r t i s t s ' works as examples in p a r t i c u l a r lessons. Her students act as c r i t i c s as they talk about each other's work during a r t a c t i v i t i e s . They do not study the a r t of d i f f e r e n t c u l t u r e s . Many a c t i v i t i e s are conducted outdoors around the school, and f i e l d t r i p s are arranged to Jericho Beach. During these excursions, the students engage in exercises to observe and sketch the environment rather than c r i t i c a l l y analyze i t . L i z would like to take the students out of the school more often, p a r t i c u l a r l y to a r t g a l l e r i e s , but organizing transportation and managing students can pose problems. Teaching six classes of a r t also makes t h i s less f e a s i b l e . Having taught a r t for 26 years, L i z has a well-established a r t program. She has taken college a r t courses but r e l i e s mainly on learning from 63 colleagues. Consequently, she a c t i v e l y attends school board workshops and has her own c o l l e c t i o n of materials gathered from workshops and magazines. She continually searches for "anything (she) can lay (her) hands on that she sees as useful" and uses visual aids that are a v a i l a b l e from the board. Although she had taught most the printmaking methods presented in Surface  Probe she expressed interest in using the material because i t might " o f f e r (her) new ideas and d i f f e r e n t approaches". Liz does not follow a p a r t i c u l a r curriculum guide but varies the scope of her a r t program according to her teaching s i t u a t i o n . Her basic program consists primarily of drawing and painting with some work in fab r i c a r t s , ceramics, sculpture, and printmaking. The a c t i v i t i e s are sequenced with a t r a n s i t i o n of media. For example, the students might develop drawings into paintings. She a l t e r s the subject or changes the media depending upon what appeals to the students. The complexity of technique also increases with grade l e v e l . For example, in printmaking, the younger grades (four and five) might do object printing while the older grades (six and seven) would do lino p r i n t i n g . She t r i e s to build progressively on students' experience in these grades. In her conception, the teacher takes a very a c t i v e r o l e by d i r e c t i n g and guiding the students to experiment and " s t i c k with" lengthy projects. She f e e l s that students cannot be set to work and l e f t ontheir own. " I f you r e a l l y wnat them to get something out of I t " , you have to c i r c u l a t e with encouragement to make them think. For L i z , developing an image is more important than the process or technique so she plans developmental stages in each project to lead up to a f i n a l .product. She has strong views that the media is only a vehicle for 64 the expression of an idea, and consequently she spends much class time guiding the students through step-by-step stages to create images that revolve around a theme. She fe e l s that a r t can be integrated with other subject areas, but that often i t is abused and made into busywork. L i z organizes the a r t room so that students s i t in groups of four or s i x . This is primarily to f a c i l i t a t e the d i s t r i b u t i o n of materials and clean-up. Monitors are not used as each student is responsible for their own area. Although the a r t room is shared, Liz finds that t h i s does not e f f e c t her program. Students' artwork is displayed in the room and in the ha I I ways. B. Use of the material. L i z planned to use the curriculum material from A p r i l 29 to the remainder of the school year with her own class (grade 5-6 s p l i t ) and with one of her other six a r t classes (grade 6 ) . Each cla s s was scheduled for two 40 minute blocks of art per week, although she did add in some extra periods for her own c l a s s . Prior to volunteering to use the book, L i z had completed a few lessons on texture with her own c l a s s . They had completed rubbings, made drawings of the textures, and then applied them to drawings of textured l i z a r d s . L i z concluded that printmaking, in p a r t i c u l a r lino p r i n t s , would be a good follow-up a c t i v i t y . The school had planned a Sea Festival for June where the gym would be turned into a display of students' work from a l l subjects revolving around a sea theme. L i z f e l t that the printmaking technique could e a s i l y be related to that theme. She planned to use the Grab Bag and a c t i v i t i e s #3-7 in the Study, although these plans changed. Her use of the book i l l u s t r a t e d her integration of the curriculum material with t h i s school event. 65 L i z covered the following lessons: ORIENTATION: ACTIVITY 1 - The Grab Bag STUDY: ACTIVITY 2 - Fish P r i n t s ACTIVITY 6 - Shapes in Nature APPLICATION: ACTIVITY 3 - Glue P r i n t s (not completed) ACTIVITY 4 - Styrofoam P r i n t s ACTIVITY 6 - Lino Plates Since Liz had taught the lessons in the Application section at some point in her career, these lessons were not taken d i r e c t l y from the book, but were modified to f i t her approach in teaching the techniques. She had also been exposed to Fish P r i n t s at a school board workshop. She had used the idea of a grab bag in Language Arts but had never applied i t to a r t . Shapes in Nature came from the book but the procedure was modified. Because of her experience as an area a r t consultant during the previous year, Liz also offered many suggestions that would make the material more useful for teachers of l i t t l e a r t background. LESSON 1: (April 29) The Grab Bag L i z had planned to conduct the Grab Bag a c t i v i t y with only one of her grade six a r t cl a s s e s . She organized the a c t i v i t y according to the book's suggestion for 'B. Individual Grab Bags' (p. 32) so that the students could choose th e i r own objects and assemble their own bags. Liz noted that t h i s "choice of objects by individual students was most revealing of t h e i r awareness of d i f f e r e n t q u a l i t i e s . The kids who brought better things were more aware". Her teacher preparation involved xeroxing the student record sheets from the book (p. 94). She planned a 35 minute period to conduct the a c t i v i t y : 10 minutes for 66 explanation and motivation, 15 minutes for the a c t i v i t y , and 10 minutes for a f i n a l d i scussion. The a c t i v i t y received an enthusiastic response from the c l a s s and L i z f e l t that "they r e a l l y got something out of i t " . The students f e l t each object in the bag, recorded de s c r i p t i v e words, and then c i r c l e d t h e i r choices of the best words. Following the book's suggestion, Liz then worked with 2 or 3 objects from one of the bags, having a number of the students l i s t d e s c r i p t i v e words while she wrote them on the board. She discussed with the class which words were the most d e s c r i p t i v e . Liz noted that while some students had some problems with choice of words and described shape rather than texture, the group discussion that concluded the a c t i v i t y was most valuable. Even though both she and the students found the a c t i v i t y enjoyable and in t e r e s t i n g , she f e l t that the lesson was too rushed and noted that some indication in the book of approximate lesson time would help. She also suggested that the book place more emphasis on the follow-up discussion (p. 31 ) . When her grade f i v e entered the room for the next period, they expressed to Liz that the a c t i v i t y looked exciting so she altered her plans and conducted the exercise with them. She used the bags from the grade six class and ran o f f more record charts. She noted that the r e p e t i t i o n of the a c t i v i t y was more successful for three reasons: (1) the students where "keener" (2) she extended the a c t i v i t y to 60 minutes, doubling the time for the a c t i v i t y and the discussion, and (3) the class had been exposed to lessons on texture and was therefore more careful with th e i r choice of words to describe the textures. She f e l t that the class was enthusiastic and could have gone on with the follow-up discussion. The students that I 67 interviewed stated that the objects could be recognized f a i r l y e a s i l y but that at times " i t was hard to get ideas for f i l l i n g out the charts". LESSON 2: (May 2) Fish P r i n t s L i z had planned the Fish P r i n t s for only her c l a s s , but once the p r i n t i n g a c t i v i t y was set up, she decided to complete i t with two grade six classes as w e l l . One of the grade six classes had not been involved with Liz's use of the curriculum material but she f e l t that t h e i r prints could be used for the Sea F e s t i v a l . Liz had been exposed to f i s h printing using a d i f f e r e n t procedure at a workshop. She concluded that the procedure outlined in the book was more d i f f i c u l t because i t used a r o l l e r which she f e l t "was too complicated and (she) wasn't sure how well the ink would go into crevices aroung g i l l s " . Using the alternate procedure, Li z instructed the students to "paint the f i s h from head to t a i l with India ink" and then "mold, pat and stroke mulberry paper over and around (the) f i s h " . She noted after the lessons that her method was easy. She noted that the a c t i v i t y produced "a great deal of s a t i s f a c t i o n to students who do not always find a r t easy" and that she "was surprised at the students who listened to instructions c a r e f u l l y and carried them out s u c c e s s f u l l y " . The level of student p a r t i c i p a t i o n was high and cooperative. They obviously "wanted to have a good p r i n t " . In comparing the grade leve l s , Liz concluded that the 6's were "somewhat blase" while the 5's "were more intriged by i t a l l and were j u s t that much more c a r e f u l " . Her volunteer helper for the lesson also noted that she was surprised to see one student in p a r t i c u l a r show patience as he was usually e a s i l y frustrated in a r t . 68 Liz concluded that she would like to try the a c t i v i t y again with 3 or 4 students to a f i s h so that they could have an opportunity to experiment. The book suggests that groups be no larger than 4 (p. 47). The completed p r i n t s were hung on banners for display in the gym. LESSON 3: (May 6) Lino P r i n t s ( s p l i t 5/6 class) L i z had done lino prints with a r t classes in previous years but had "stopped doing lino because there's such a muck and everyone was chopping t h e i r f i n g e r s " . She noted that the book inspired her to t r y the a c t i v i t y again. The technique f i t into her art program as a follow-up to her class's work on texture and i t s a b i l i t y to be integrated into a project for the Sea FestivaI. However, Li z developed the lesson much more extensively than the book and noted that she wondered i f "some people who hadn't too much experience would be able to go by the book". The way she elaborated upon the procedure (p. 78) i l l u s t r a t e s the importance that Liz places on developing an image rather than on the technique i t s e l f (See sample of student work in Appendix II ) . Her preparation involved cutting paper for the lesson. During the f i r s t c l a s s , she took 15-20 minutes to introduce the f i r s t step in the project, a pencil drawing of a textured f i s h on newsprint. She pinpointed the book's use of the term "scrap paper" as leading the reader to believe that t h i s stage is not important. In her plan, t h i s stage is the most important. She f i r s t emphasized to the students that they create an interesting shape for the i r f i s h such as an exotic f i s h . Arrangements had been made for the students to use the Iibrary as reference for their images. Liz commented that she is never sure how appropriate using the l i b r a r y i s , but she concludes that some students "don't have an image in t h e i r mind 69 at a l l " and need some help. She then emphasized the textural quality of f i s h created by the f i n s , bones and scales. Seme students wanted to try representing the colours in f i s h a f t e r they had seen pictures in the l i b r a r y , but Liz discouraged them. LESSON 3: (May 12) Lino P r i n t s (continued) ( s p l i t 5/6 class) To follow the pencil drawings of f i s h , Liz planned black and white paintings of the f i s h so that students couId "v i s u a I i z e the image when printed". To accomodate the d i f f e r e n t speeds at which students complete work, Li z also planned to demonstrate the techniques of carving with lino tools and how to transfer their image to a piece of l i n o . She worked with small groups for the demonstrations. L i z commented that she likes to do the "painting after drawing in pencil because they (the students) get everything so uptight in t h e i r drawing". She f e l t that many students were not convinced that t h i s stage was necessary, although she f e l t that she needed to spend more time with the students' experiments in paint. If she had more time, she notes that she would have made them complete a reversed painting using white paint on black paper. The students I interviewed found i t d i f f i c u l t to do their painting because they were working quickly and the paintbrush "was t h i c k " . However, they f e l t that doing the painting helped them "imagine how the f i s h might look". Liz notes that "some d e l i g h t f u l f i s h paintings" r e s u l t e d . These were mounted on banners for display at the Sea F e s t i v a l . The students then transferred t h e i r drawings to lino blocks which Liz had pre-cut. The areas that were to print black in the f i n a l product were shaded in with pencil on the block. Therefore, the students would carve away the unshaded areas only. Some students had problems with recreating 70 t h e i r drawings on the lino so L i z l e t them cut out th e i r f i s h drawing and then trace them onto the Iino. Before the students were allowed to cut t h e i r blocks, they had to experiment with various types of gougers on pieces of scrap l i n o . Wooden blocks were used for support. L i z noted that some students became "frustrated with the lino t o o l s " and had a "tendency to hurry", but she concluded that t h i s could have been her f a u l t because of "the sense of urgency that (they) had to get prints for 'Sea F e s t i v a l ' " . To conclude her i n s t r u c t i o n , Liz discussed with the class the carving of the block. She emphasized that the background be kept simple and discouraged them from adding seaweed because she f e l t i t was "enough to concentrate on the f i s h " for texture and carving. She also pointed out that the background "was the easiest place to s t a r t " carving. She had also set up a display of 5 printmaking books that she had checked out from the l i b r a r y so that the students could refer to the e f f e c t s achieved by a r t i s t s in t h e i r carving of wood blocks. Li z noted that the level of student p a r t i c i p a t i o n of t h i s lesson was good and that the students were keen to cut th e i r lino so they could s t a r t pr i n t i n g . LESSON 5: (May 12) Shapes in Nature (grade 6) Liz planned to use Shapes in Nature from the book (p. 56) with two grade six c l a s s e s . She did not do the a c t i v i t y with her own cl a s s because she thought "they had done enough other things with texture already". She modified the procedure for the a c t i v i t y by excluding the Texture Chart. She had o r i g i n a l l y planned to complete the chart but f e l t that she did not have enough time to develop i t with her c l a s s e s . If she had done i t , she would 71 have reversed the procedure so that i t followed the t r a c i n g s . She noted that she " r e a l l y liked the idea of the texture chart" and that she w i l l try i t next year. Liz's teacher preparation involved bringing in objects and organizing paper, pen c i l s , and f e l t pens. The students were to bring in objects for the lesson as we I I. As she noted in her teacher log, the lesson was "a bad lesson". Half of the students forgot to bring objects so she had to send them outside in groups of six to c o l l e c t natural items for the exercise. However, some took advantage of the situation and "began leaping around" which caused Liz to get angry. She commented: "When I'm l i k e that, I absolutely make them do what I want", and she f e l t that they lost t h e i r c r e a t i v i t y because of the s i t u a t i o n . The students traced t h e i r objects on paper according to the procedure in the book. Although the objective was to create areas of negative space, she noted that the students "had gotten so carried away with the shape of the thing that they weren't thinking about negative space enough". Overcrowding of objects caused i n s u f f i c i e n t negative space for the texture. She could see r i g h t away that she should have spent more time instructing the students on the selection of objects for size and shape. She suggested that the book emphasize a l i m i t of 2 or 3 objects that could be repeated on the paper and f e l t that a less experienced a r t teacher would run into problems with the book's i n s t r u c t i o n s . Instead of using the texture techniques from the texture chart, Liz gave the students a blank piece of paper that was sectioned into 6 squares. They went around the room looking for d i f f e r e n t textures. Then they drew 72 the textures on the paper. Without L i z mentioning i t , some students discovered the rubbing method to transfer the textures. One texture was chosen for f i l l i n g in the negative space of t h e i r t r a c i n g s . L i z noted that she was pleased with the r e s u l t s although some students started making a pattern rather than a texture in the i r background. In her log, Liz noted that she didn't think the students enjoyed the lesson although not for the f a u l t of the book's i n s t r u c t i o n s . Later during an interview, Liz concluded from th e i r finished products that they must have enjoyed doing them. The students worked during lessons for the remainder of the year to f i n i s h t h e i r tracings while they were working on other a r t proj ect s . LESSON 4: (May 18) Styrofoam P r i n t s (5/6 s p l i t class) As Liz was conducting a workshop on The Sun Theme, she "quickly rushed in" a short styrofoam printing project with her c l a s s . Although the same procedure was followed, Liz did not take t h i s lesson from the book (p. 75). The students drew suns into the styrofoam with p e n c i l , experimented with several colours of ink, and then made prints which Liz used as examples in her workshop. LESSON 3: (May 26) Lino P r i n t s (continued) (My Observation) The students were at various stages in the process covered in the previous two lessons on lino p r i n t i n g . L i z reviewed the procedure and drew thei r attention to the instructions on the board (Although similar to those in the book, the instruction p. 79 were not copied): 1. Make drawing of your f i s h (pencil or newsprint) 2. Put drawing on lino 3. Make black painting on white paper. Try to work out which part of 73 your block w i l l be black. 4. Start to cut lino away. Experiment with t o o l s on scrap l i n o . 5. Cut away lino block. Keep checking with me. She told the c l a s s that the painting did not have to be exactly as i t had been drawn and encouraged them to experiment with the tools on scrap lino to see the d i f f e r e n t textures created by the t o o l s . She emphasized the importance of showing her th e i r work once they had started carving the block so she could make sure that they were doing i t properly. Many times during the lesson, L i z reinforced proper carving technique of keeping their hands behind the blades and continually suggested that they change tools and create "a lot of texture". Experimentation and decision-making seemed a p r i o r i t y as she encouraged one student to "experiment on scrap. You decide. Try something out yourself and see what works out for you". When enough were at the printing stage, she called those ready over to the pr i n t i n g center. This was a long table covered with newspaper. Two glass plates, printing paper, r o l l e r s and black ink were set up. Paper towels were also a v a i l a b l e . Liz demonstrated how to ink the glass plate, instructing them to ink the e n t i r e surface and l i s t e n for the ink to make a "squishing sound" to indicate that i t had been suitably "worked". She inked a lino plate (a sample done by her daughter) and then applied the mulberry paper. After c a r e f u l l y rubbing the e n t i r e surface with a clean r o l l e r , she l i f t e d a pri n t and hung i t on the blackboard to dry. The student response was most enthusiastic as others from the room started to gather at the center, obviously very anxious to get to that stage in th e i r own work. The f i r s t student to print was able to c r i t i c a l l y analyze his use of ink and with each of his three prints he made co r r e c t i v e measures in his 74 technique. When asked how he li k e printing lino he stated, " I t ' s more challenging. With styrofoam i t was too easy. You j u s t use p e n c i l . This takes more time because you have to carve." Liz concluded that the students r e a l l y enjoyed the lino printing and she was most impressed with the patience that some of them were showing. The lesson concluded with clean-up. No teacher log was written for t h i s Iesson. LESSON 3: (June 9) Lino P r i n t s (continued) Lino printing was observed by another evaluator for t h i s session. Again, no teacher log was written. The project continued for the remainder of the year and no other technique was introduced to t h i s c l a s s . By t h i s time, a l l students had finished their f i s h drawings and most were at the printing stage. The lesson began with Liz reviewing what the students should have before cutting a block and stressing that the black and white painting be used as a guide to t h e i r carving. Variety of tools was stressed and care in centering the p r i n t on the paper was discussed. The procedure was reviewed using the work displayed on the walls as examples. The instructions on the blackboard were directed to printing procedure and were more detailed than those in the book (p. 78): 1. Cut lino block, use d i f f e r e n t kinds of t o o l s . 2. Keep checking with me. 3. To p r i n t you need: newspaper (plenty) mulberry paper 2 r o l I e r s 1 glass plate tubes of ink (always replace caps) 75 4. Squeeze out plenty of ink, r o l l on glass p l a t e . 5. Put plenty of pressure on r o l l e r when r o l l i n g on lino block. L i z made many p o s i t i v e comments to the students about how hard they were working and how successful t h e i r r e s u l t s were, noting use of contrast and care with carving. She stopped them at one point to bring t h e i r attention to keeping th e i r p r i n t s clean, stressing the use of clean newspaper and washing t h e i r hands. Generally, the students were on task for the duration of the lesson. The lesson concluded with clean-up. The prints were mounted on banners for the d i s p l a y . Liz stated that those who finished t h e i r f i r s t prints would have an opportunity to either modify and r e p r i n t their plates or s t a r t a new plate, time permitting. She also wanted some to experiment with using a d i f f e r e n t colour. In t h i s way, the project extended to the end of the school year. LESSON 4: Glue P r i n t s L i z had planned to do glue prints or styrofoam prints with her grade 6 class e s . They had done glue prints the year before but "they did not seem too enthusiastic" to repeat the a c t i v i t y . L i z f e l t that she had to do something to get them "keen" about them. She divided the project into three stages: (1) sketches of boats and things on the beach at Jericho and from the top of a h i l l , (2) developing the sketches into paintings to create p i c t u r e s , and (3) using part of the paintings to make glue plates for p r i n t i n g . The f i r s t two steps were completed and the paintings were used for the gym di s p l a y . However, Liz did not have enough time with the classes to complete the printing a c t i v i t y . The book was not used for reference. C. Factors that influenced use. Because L i z is an experienced a r t teacher who has an established a rt program, the curriculum material took 76 the position of a supplementary resource. She uses resources for ideas and approaches that f i t into her u n i t s . By glancing through the in s t r u c t i o n s , she would know what she was going to do: "I don't do what you say but i t gives me a d i f f e r e n t way of thinking about something or using part of an idea...and then f i t t i n g i t to what I have". She states that she would never follow someone's unit of work exactly: "I j u s t get the idea and do i t the way I want t o " . Because of t h e i r focus on texture, The Grag Bag and Shapes in Nature were chosen. However, the lessons from the Application section of the book became reminders of techniques rather than lesson plans to be followed. L i z ' s conception of art with i t s strong emphasis on creating an image caused her to focus on her own plans rather than the technique as stated in the book, even though the objectives were the same. She feels that students need more guidance in creating textured images for p r i n t i n g . She would like "to see more emphasis (for a l l printmaking lessons in the book) in developing the image before the student s t a r t s to p r i n t " . She notes that in her experience, she has "seen too many printing a c t i v i t i e s in which image is secondary and the elements and p r i n c i p l e s of design are ignored". One factor in Liz's volunteering to use the material was i t s a b i l i t y to be integrated with her a r t program as well as the school's a c t i v i t y of the Sea F e s t i v a l . Texture and printmaking were related to the sea theme and even though i t had not been L i z ' s intent, the objectives outlined in the book (p. 13) for these two areas were met. This was not a r e s u l t of following the book's unit but rather a logical r e s u l t of the combination of the element of design (texture) and the media (printmaking). L i z ' s experiences in observing many a r t classes as a consultant caused 77 her to surmise that some of the lessons lacked s u f f i c i e n t information for a beginner, p a r t i c u l a r l y in printing techniques and image development. However, she did feel that the Background Information (pp. 15-27) and the Resource L i s t (p. 99) would be useful to teachers of l i t t l e art background. In analyzing the book value for h e r s e l f , she f e l t that the Rationale "reinforced things that she already knew" and that i t "made sense". She liked the organization of the book into sections and f e l t that t h i s would "be useful i f you were going to work through i t " . The lesson plans were well layed out and she appreciated "not having to read...a whole lot that you don't r e a l l y need". She avoided the evaluation section at the end of each lesson and instead administered a t e s t on texture to her classes at the end of the u n i t . The r e s u l t s of the test were good and Liz f e l t that they " r e a l l y got something out of the lessons". She did not do any lessons from C r i t i c i s m but noted that the book's suggestion of organizing a f i e l d t r i p or a photo display to examine man-made structures (p. 92) was something that she l i k e d . She also stated that she must try the Unit Evaluation from page 96. Liz noted that there were other things that she would like to do in the book but that she " j u s t did not f i t (them) i n " . Time was a large f a c t o r . Other constraints included the numbers in her classes and the demands of other subjects. Some of her a r t classes were also interrupted by camping tr i ps. L i z stated that she plans to use the book next year as a supplementary resource. She would s e l e c t lessons that appealed to her or that she though would work. As well, she would l i k e to see a s i l k screen a c t i v i t y organized as she had never done t h i s with students and would like to t r y . 78 D. Interpretation of the r e s u l t s . For L i z , the material offered new ideas which could f i t into her own unit on printmaking. She did not use the lessons d i r e c t l y from the book but modified the procedures to f i t her own teaching s t y l e . Her concern was that many students have d i f f i c u l t y with creating an image to portray, but that every student is able to achieve i f they have some guidance from the teacher. She f e l t that the book did not o f f e r her information in regards to the students' creation of images. L i z also feels that i t is important for the students to come to understand the elements and p r i n c i p l e s of design. The book did give her two new approaches to exploring the element of texture which both she and the students found interest ing. Because L i z had an established a r t program, she was in need of only supplementary resources. She concluded that the material could be adapted to her s i t u a t i o n in that i t contains ideas that can be modified to f i t her u n i t s . Information within the lessons w i l l help her remember procedures but she doubts that teachers of l i t t l e a r t background would find the information suff i c i e n t . L i z 's interest and experience as an area a r t consultant caused an interaction with the material above her own s i t u a t i o n . She tended to analyze the book for i t s relevance to other teaching s i t u a t i o n s as w e l l . She feels that there is a need for a r t curriculum materials that help the teacher guide the students to create images. She has strong f e e l i n g s that a r t only occurs when a medium is used as an expression of an idea, thought, or f e e l i n g . She has observed many classes where the work of students, in her opinion, is not a r t . She cited examples of " c r a f t s projects" and i l l u s t r a t i o n s for s t o r i e s , p a r t i c u l a r l y in the primary grades. She noted 79 that teachers are keen, and even experienced a r t teachers are always serching for new ideas. She suggested that the book should meet the need for themes and imagery development, and f e l t that t h i s was the material's weakness. Even though some students in her class would like more freedom to choose their own subjects to portray, i t seemed that Liz's strong emphasis on imagery development allowed them to create artwork that they were proud o f . Many students could appreciate the need for a step-by-step development in imagery and in the understanding of the nature of the process of p r i n t i n g . They also enjoyed printmaking and had learned about texture from the a c t i v i t i e s that L i z chose. The sections of the book that were most relevant for L i z were the sample printmaking unit, the records, and the resource l i s t . The theory and the background information only reinforced things that L i z already knew. In her choice of the Grab Bag lesson, Liz f e l t that information was s u f f i c i e n t , although more emphasis in the book should be given to the follow-up discussion. She also f e l t that more information was needed in Shapes in Nature to guide the students in t h e i r selection of objects for the exercise. The organization within these lessons were h e l p f u l . The information presented for screen printing was i n s u f f i c i e n t as Liz was reluctant to t r y to organize t h i s a c t i v i t y , even though she expressed interest in i t . 80 P r o f i l e 3 A. Teacher conception of a r t education. John feels that art is important to the total development of the c h i l d in i t s broadening of the creative process: "seeing things in a new or unique way, accepting the new and exploring the unusual". His program focusses on promoting a wider, more diverse perspective from which students view the environment. He a I so t r i e s to take the "mystery" out of a r t by showing the students " t r i c k s " such as perspective. He would like the students to r e a l i z e "that anyone can create at a s k i l l f u l amateur l e v e l " , and he hopes to build on t h e i r future understanding that " a r t is pure self-expression" as well as "a familiar and useful t o o l " . An understanding of the elements and p r i n c i p l e s of design is also stressed. However, John does not focus on imagery development but instead t r i e s to lead the students to discover the d i f f e r e n t p o s s i b i l i t i e s of media through experimentation. His students work primarily as a r t i s t s : "We concentrate on making a r t " . He feels that students most enjoy the "freedom amid r e s t r i c t i o n to make stuf f themselves" and they appreciate the "lack of judgement about whether they have the r i g h t or wrong answer". They do not work as h i s t o r i a n s . John notes that " i t is too soon to worry about 'masters' and there's no room to put i t i n " . Occassiona11y, he uses examples of a r t i s t s ' works in discussions of why they were successful. But he avoids more complex art work as he feels that "the students don't have the motor s k i l l s or experience to get into complex work (themselves) and they see within t h e i r c a p a b i l i t i e s " . His students work as c r i t i c s of each other's work only i n c i d e n t a l l y as they analyze reasons for successes and ways to avoid f a i l u r e s . Judgments are avoided. A study of the a r t of d i f f e r e n t cultures 81 does not occur in formal lessons but happens i n c i d e n t a l l y as w e l l . The scope of his program is f l e x i b l e but he generally teaches drawing and sketching in the f i r s t term and plans for a lot of printmaking, claywork, model-building with balsa and card, and fabr i c dying and applique. He sequences a c t i v i t i e s over several years to range from easy to complex. For example, drawing gives way to perspective and 3-dimensional shading. John f e e l s that a r t is integrated constantly with other subjects "anytime you do anything v i s u a l " ; most of his integration occurs with Social Studies. A c t i v i t i e s are conducted outdoors only when necessary. This is dictated by av a i l a b l e table space, equipment, and the p a r t i c u l a r media. John has taught a r t for 7 of his 12 teaching years and has taught printmaking each year. He does not follow a s p e c i f i c teaching manual, and r e l i e s on interest and tra i n i n g when planning. Books with background information are most h e l p f u l . John describes his program as "a growing curriculum". He continually t r i e s to do things that he has never done before in order to avoid "getting bored", and he is always "looking for new and better ideas". Usually he wi l l t r y to "retrace the steps" in a r t i s t s ' work or get ideas from other a r t teachers. He states that his most successful units are those that he is "good at like drawing and cartoon ing". John's interest in his personal a r t causes him to make experiments using the p a r t i c u l a r media that he has planned for his students. He t r i e s new things and then discusses his successes or f a i l u r e s with the c l a s s . Ideally, he would l i k e to lead the students to discovery by supplying enough materials for experimentation. However, he f e e l s that time is short and so often he makes examples to show them the p o s s i b i l i t i e s . 82 Displaying student work is a p r i o r i t y and for any unit of work, "everything goes on display walls or in showcases". Their work is not considered finished unless i t is ready for display and consequently John spends time instructing them on ways to mount the i r work. Care of equipment is stressed. D i s t r i b u t i o n of supplies i s teacher dominated, and students are encouraged not to waste materials. Boxes for scraps are a v a i l a b l e so that materials can be recycled. Monitors are not assigned and each student is responsible for t h e i r own clean-up. Seating is f l e x i b l e and students are grouped for some a c t i v i t i e s , in p a r t i c u l a r s p e c i f i c demonstrations. B. Use of the material. John planned to use the curriculum material during May and June with his grade six and seven classes. However, he decided to include the grade 5's in the printmaking unit in order to accomodate his plans for continuity in his grade six art program for next year. Since he taught a s p l i t 5-6 and the grade 5's of t h i s class were "forced into the unit" he decided to include the straight grade 5 as w e l l . The timetable was scheduled so that each of his classes would receive three 40 minute blocks of a r t a week: one for printmaking, one for model-building and one for claywork. He had wanted to promote as much as possible "an overlap of materials and an overlap of working with p l a s t i c s and objects". For example, model-making could be done with clay and some of the claywork could be used for printmaking a c t i v i t i e s . He stated that the curriculum material " f i t into ideas (he) had in his head - unformed but (he) had a general idea of what (he) wanted to do", and so consequently he volunteered to use i t . In t r a n s l a t i n g the book into experiences for his students, John used 83 only two lessons: Cardboard Plates (p. 75) and the Direct P r i n t (p. 43). He had taught both methods at some point in his career. LESSON 1: Cardboard Plates (Div. 1-5) The lesson plan in the book was not followed exactly but was modified to f i t the s k i l l level of each grade and build upon projects that had been completed e a r l i e r in the year. With the younger grades (s t r a i g h t 5's and the 5-6 s p l i t ) John concentrated on the textural quality of the printing plate, making the a c t i v i t y a follow-up from the cloth and wallpaper collages that the students had done e a r l i e r in the year. With the 6's and 7's, he focussed "a l i t t l e b i t more on st r a i g h t artwork with the cardboard" emphasizing form and l i n e , and drawing on a previous project of applique pi l l o w s . He contrasted the exercise for the 5's and 5-6's as a "more primitive a c t i v i t y " in r e l a t i o n to the "more sophisticated" exercise for the older grades. During the seven week session, some of the grade seven students completed silkscreens as w e l l . John had introduced the technique to them before he started using the curriculum material and had also taught i t for many years. For each of the cla s s e s , John's teacher preparation involved making samples of each stage of the plate-making and printmaking processes. For the plates, one example was "glued up ahead of time", one was half f i n i s h e d , and a t h i r d was started "from scratch" so that the students could see a l l of the stages. With the younger grades his samples included more cloth and wallpaper scraps to create textures but as the unit progressed he found that he was suggesting to the older ones to supplement th e i r cardboard with a "variety of t e x t i l e s , woods, string and wallpaper scraps to provide better, more interesting textures". He concluded his introduction to each 84 class by inking the completed and dried example and taking a few p r i n t s . He also prepared prints ahead of time to discuss e f f e c t s that the printmaking technique could achieve. During my observation, i t was noted that John spent much time encouraging the students to experiment with the creation of their plates as well as the inking for a p r i n t . No suggestion was given for image formation other than using materials a v a i l a b l e in the room or natural objects that the students could c o l l e c t outside. John had set up a supply area which contained cloth scraps, textured wallpaper pieces, leaves, seeds, and corrugated cardboard as well as basic printmaking equipment. The suggestions in the book were not referred to but were s i m i l a r . The only r e s t r i c t i o n placed on the students was that they had to make one p r i n t on cloth and one on paper. John was open to any of t h e i r experiments, even if he knew that the students might run into problems. He wanted them to pursue ideas and discover problems for themselves. These discoveries were used as a basis for spontaneous small group and class discussions. The students also offered advice and warnings to each other while they were working. John continually made suggestions such as applying colours over the top of each other and using d i f f e r e n t colours of printing pa per. John noted in his teacher logs that the level of student p a r t i c i p a t i o n was high as they were "intrigued...(by) something new (that was) not too complex". They were also "keen to see re s u l t s (and) show each other how 'neat' the ' l i f t - o f f s ' were". Some were "motivated by (the) successes of some of the more a r t i s t i c a l l y adventuresome students". The students that I 85 interviewed f e l t that printmaking was fun and that most of what they learned came from experimentation and s e l f - d i s c o v e r y . They f e l t that the objective of the a c t i v i t y was to experiment with texture, use d e t a i l , and learn how to "use materials r i g h t " . Several of the grade 5's said that i f they could do the a c t i v i t y again, they would try something harder and would make a picture "instead of j u s t experimenting". They a l l f e l t that they had run out of time. John analyzed the successes and f a i l u r e s of the lessons with each class in his teacher logs. With some of the grade f i v e s , he found that they were unable to conceptualize the printing process and had t r i e d to form coloured pictures instead of p l a t e s . "They kept looking for the 'right' coloured wallpaper or cloth to form a collage" as they had done e a r l i e r in the year. He noted that "some never caught on - even a f t e r l i f t i n g one or two p r i n t s " , although some that "had experienced the r e s u l t s of t h i s 'mistake' (became) much more aware of the nature of the process". He concluded that t h i s was "very vaIuabIe". With one of the grade six classes, the concept of mirror image arose. Some students t r i e d to use l e t t e r s in t h e i r plates and "had d i f f i c u l t y " as the l e t t e r s printed backwards because of the nature of the printing process. He suggested that some i l l u s t r a t i o n of "the 'mirror image' nature of the process with pre-made plates" would have helped the lesson. For the next cla s s (grade 7) he t r i e d to demonstrate t h i s concept using block l e t t e r s . Although the students understood the concept, John "found that a number of the students were making 'signs* using words - for example, block c a p i t a l s s p e l l i n g out t h e i r names". Even though "they were into the process" they were "not using i t to depict or project images". He stated tha;r he had 86 mixed feelings about the r e s u l t s of the lessons. "They didn't come up with anything t h a t . . . i s p a r t i c u l a r l y a r t i s t i c . There wasn't a lot of adventurous new f r o n t i e r s broken". However, i t did lead into "a nice l i t t l e lesson with some of the kids on symmetry and...refIections" although t h i s was not what he had intended. The same problem occurred with the students who were doing s i Ikscreening. John f e l t that his use of the word " s t e n c i l " caused the to students associate l e t t e r i n g s t e n c i l s to th e i r work and most of them made name plates for T - s h i r t s . Although he did not discourage them, he noted that "the technique is the same (but) the level of a r t i s t i c endeavour is much less" than developing an image. He f e l t that there was "not a whole lot of designing going on". The grade 7's that I interviewed said that they liked having the freedom to choose t h e i r own image but one commented: "I would't do s t e n c i l l i n g (again) because ( i t ' s ) too easy. I would t r y to create a more complicated p i c t u r e " . John concluded that the next time he does printmaking, he would s t a r t with a theme. He mentioned two p o s s i b l i t i e s . Because of his own interest and personal resources, an Old S a i l i n g Ships theme would begin with showing the students samples of seascapes done in the 1800's or 1900's using printmaking as a medium. He would choose "samples where the work is very s i m p l i s t i c or primitive in block p r i n t i n g " so as not to "intimidate the students and make them feel that there was no way they could do something on a p a r a l l e l " . By li m i t i n g the students* choice of subject to a theme, John fee l s that he would avoid them opting for "an easy way out" such as doing t h e i r name, and he would "stretch them a l i t t l e b i t further" in t h e i r a r t i s t i c endeavours (see student work in Appendix I I ) . John also mentioned 87 the idea of doing logos and using Vancouver's harbour as a theme. He would arrange a f i e l d t r i p where the students could make sketches around the harbour and do rubbings of objects t y p i c a l l y found around the dock. "When you get to printmaking, they are trying to portray a p a r t i c u l a r scene, f e e l i n g , (or) idea. They're looking for the kinds of textures and shapes that w i l l do that". He concludes that the r e s u l t s would be more in t e r e s t i n g . He suggested that the curriculum material pay more attention to imagery but noted that themes was "not r e a l l y within the sphere of the book...other to mention that (they are) a good p o s s i b i l i t y " . Other problems arose during the printing process. Some students took too long to apply ink to their plates, in particular when they were experimenting with putting several colours of ink on d i f f e r e n t portions of a plate at the same time. Consequently the ink was drying too quickly. Ink also dried on the glass plates when they waited too long between p r i n t s . Some students had not glued t h e i r plate together with enough glue which caused pieces to l i f t o f f and become stuck to the inked r o l l e r . Colour mixing on the glass plates became muddy as the classes had " i n s u f f i c i e n t colour mixing background". John concluded that more work had to be done with the classes in t h i s area. However, the students did achieve "some interesting colour mixes and o u t l i n i n g when a plate done in one colour was used with a second colour before completely drying the f i r s t colour". "Printing twice on the same paper to form a 'shadow' image also intrigued the c h i l d r e n " . Some students did not understand the concept of " l i f t i n g - o f f the prin t from the plate" and instead turned the plate upside down onto the paper. John concluded that he should "have had them attach the plate to a 88 table top or a large board". Because of interruptions to his scheduled a r t cla s s e s , the month of June became work periods for the students to complete th e i r cardboard plates and s i l k s c r e e n s . "I j u s t let them go, experimenting with things", although t h i s was not his intent. He was unable to conduct formal lessons as there were times when he would "get f i v e kids showing up for a class when you think you're going to have t h i r t y " . There were some students who only attended one printmaking lesson during the seven week session, and "there were whole classes that he never saw" for the last part of the u n i t . Consequently, John could not f i n i s h the unit. He was only able to achieve his desired r e s u l t s with a few students where he could "show them how they could get an e f f e c t that they wanted". In general, he was pleased with the r e s u l t s of the lessons, however. LESSON 2: Leaf P r i n t s (Div. 2 Grade 7 at camp) John took the printmaking equipment to camp "thinking that (he would) do some but (they) were so busy doing other things (they) only had time one evening to do a b i t " . John prepared a few examples of leaf p r i nts ahead of time. " I t was r e a l l y a group of kids hanging around one evening with nothing better to do", but the level of student p a r t i c i p a t i o n was high as they l i f t e d p r i n t s for an hour. John notes that the students found the lesson interesting as they "inked everthing imaginable...experimenting to find 'neat textures'". Although the procedure in the book (p. 44) is s i m i l a r , the lesson plan from the book was not followed. C. Factors that influenced use. Because John continually changes his curriculum and looks for new ideas, the curriculum material became a valuable resource of "ideas that he would like to try next year". Although 89 he was unable to translate many of the a c t i v i t i e s into lessons for his current classes, he used the material in other ways. He experimented with clay prints (p. 74) and included his examples in a display board of pr i n t -making techniques. He plans to use th i s with classes next year. He was inspired by the lesson on photograms (p. 51) into thinking of other ways that r e f l e c t e d l i g h t could be used for "long-term printmaking". He took the idea of f i s h prints (p. 46) and helped two grade three teachers with d i f f e r e n t p o s s i b i l i t i e s . (He changed the procedure to use India ink.) He also showed the sample in the book (p. 48) to one clas s to i l l u s t r a t e that prints could be taken from almost any surface. The students expressed interest in doing them but John f e l t that there was not enough time. John also expressed interest in doing styrofoam prints next year. He had planned to use "contour lines to build up textures" as in Modified Texture (p. 49) and during a four day absence he instructed the substitute to assign an a c t i v i t y in t h i s area. She did not take the a c t i v i t y from the book, however. John noted that he would "pick and choose units from the book and use them as ...they are...as g u i d e l i n e s . . .that w i l l t e l l (him) what (he has) forgotten to do". He would look in the book to make sure that he had "remembered to set everthing up". The evaluation sections of the lessons would not be used, and he would concentrate on the Study and Application sections in the book. The only thing he would add would be the theme for the un i t , and he would "write that in the book (himself)". He would not try to complete the book in one year but would sequence the a c t i v i t i e s over three years. He would also do the unit e a r l i e r in the year to avoid the confusion created by year-end school procedures. 90 The importance that John places on experimentation was evident in his use of the material but he concluded that "he focussed too much on process so that some of the images were t r i t e " . He would do i t d i f f e r e n t l y next time to center around themes to develop imagery. He noted that next year he would "probably go through using most of the lessons in the book", although he would not go by the sequencing of a c t i v i t i e s . He questioned the book's logic of determining easy-to-comI ex techniques because he feels that silkscreen is a very simple process as compared to carving on lino which is "a more sophisticated or highly-developed s k i l l " . He would choose to ignore the Rationale. He has doubts about whether there r e a l l y is a sequence with the other a c t i v i t i e s . The two factors that prevented John from using the material as planned were time and interruptions from school events. Many of his lessons were interferred by band practices for the school concert in June, Sports Day, school-wide testing that froze the timetable, special presentations, track meets, and camping t r i p s . Formal lessons could not be conducted with p a r t i a l classes and many art periods were missed. In o f f e r i n g suggestions that might enhance the curriculum material, John mentioned the addition stenciI-spraying on f a b r i c , a section on "helpful hints and warnings", and a resource l i s t s p e c i f i c a l l y for Vancouver of where supplies that are unavailable from the board can be obtained. Included here would be waterbased screen printing inks. D. Interpretation of the r e s u l t s . John's concern was to lead the students to self-discovery through experimenting with media. He focussed on process, hoping that knowledge of the d i f f e r e n t p o s s i b i l i t i e s of 91 techniques could broaden the students' c r e a t i v i t y . The book's presentation of a v a r i e t y of printmaking a c t i v i t i e s was useful in t h i s regard, i f not t h i s year, in John's plans to incorporate the book into his program in subsequent years. However, during his use of the material, John became concerned about his lack of emphasis on imagery and concluded that much of the students' work was t r i t e . The book gave him no information on imagery development, and he suggested that t h i s was a weakness. Although he was not sure i f themes is within the sphere of the book, he concluded that he has an interest in using themes for his printmaking units in the future. He would write these into the book himself. He also has a need for information on water-based screenprinting inks so that students can control printing themseIves. Some of the students seemed to come to the same conclusion. Even though they had enjoyed printmaking and had achieved an understanding of the process as well as the design element of texture, some f e l t that in repeating the unit they would try to create something more complex Iike a picture. The students had no d i r e c t contact with the book and completed only one a c t i v i t y . The relevant sections of the book for John were the a c t i v i t i e s of the Study and the Application sections. These lessons would not be followed exactly but would be used as reminders of materials and procedures. The value of the book came from new ideas that inspired John to create v a r i a t i o n s of technique. B a s i c a l l y the ideas made him invent other p o s s i b i l i t i e s that he could experiment with and then translate into a c t i v i t i e s for his students. His interest in printmaking was a strong factor in his desire to keep the book, and he notes that he w i l l probably 92 teach most of the lessons in the book over the next three years. " I t is a reminder of a l l the neat things you can do with printmaking" as well as a guide for checking equipment and procedures. During t h i s study, John was unable to t r a n s l a t e much of the book into a c t i v i t i e s for his students because of si t u a t i o n a l f a c t o r s . Its relevancy must be derived from John's statements of future planning and his personal experiments during the session. 93 CHAPTER 5 Discussion of Findings This study yielded information that may be useful in the development of a r t curriculum materials. The curriculum material Surface Probe was used in the three classrooms for an eight-week session, and information on the participants' use and perspectives of the material was gathered. Information and observations were interpreted and grouped as strengths and weaknesses of the material. Suggestions that might be considered in a r t curriculum development were made on the basis of these. A second focus of the study was to document the factors which influenced the teachers' use of the material. Some tentative conclusions have been formed and interpreted as further implications for curriculum development. Strengths of the Material Based on the information in the teacher p r o f i l e s , i t was concluded that the material held some meaning and relevance to teachers and students of varying experience. A discussion of s p e c i f i c strengths i l l u s t r a t e s t h i s point. The f i r s t strength was the book's presentation of a variety of ideas that could be integrated into a teacher's planning of a printmaking-texture u n i t . L i z had exposed one of her classes to some lessons on texture e a r l i e r in the year, but she was able to incorporate the Grab Bag into an additional lesson. Although she had used t h i s in Language Arts in the past, the book gave her the idea of integrating i t into a r t . She also used Shapes in Nature with a second c l a s s . Although she had been exposed to many of the 94 pri n t i n g techniques in the book, she was inspired to try f i s h prints and lino cutting a f t e r reviewing the book. John experimented with printing techniques in the book. Even though he had been exposed to the techniques that he translated as experiences for the students, he was inspired to invent other techniques that could be used in planning for subsequent years. The lesson on photograms caused John to think about including the natural fading of b u l l e t i n board paper into a lesson on long-term printmaking with natural light for next year. He also t r i e d clay prints and noted that clay and styrofoam prints would be ideas for future planning. His own examples of clay prints were mounted onto a display of printmaking techniques that he plans to use as a teaching aid in the future. Kathy was able to incorporate the lessons in the book into her own organization of a printmaking-texture-natural design u n i t . She followed the book very c l o s e l y , although she changed the sequence and supplemented the unit with her own ideas for optional a c t i v i t i e s . Kathy was eager to present as many lessons to her students as time permitted, so many of the book's lessons became optional spare-time a c t i v i t i e s . Each of the three teachers expressed a desire to try more ideas than the time frame of the study allowed. Kathy wanted to complete photograms, l i n o , and si Ikscreening, in p a r t i c u l a r . L i z noted that the curriculum material contained many ideas that she would try next year. She p a r t i c u l a r l y would l i k e to try si Ikscreening. John f e l t the pressure of time and found himself trying to rush through a few more techniques before the session was over. He was p a r t i c u l a r l y interested in photograms. Each teacher asked to keep t h e i r copy of Surface Probe. John did not return his 95 copy. L i z and Kathy had written comments in t h e i r copies, but they requested that the books be returned to them on completion of t h i s study. A second strength that can be derived from t h i s primary conclusion was that p a r t i c u l a r lessons in the book could be integrated to other subjects. Kathy was able to integrate The Grab Bag a c t i v i t y with poetry writing in Language Arts. Liz noted that the lesson on photograms could be e a s i l y integrated with a Science lesson. John's emerging concern for themes and imagery development caused him to note that the book could be integrated into a study of old s a i l i n g ships and the Vancouver Harbour. Li z was able to integrate her lessons with a special school presentation around the theme of the Sea F e s t i v a l , in p a r t i c u l a r with the use of f i s h and lino p r i n t s . S p e c i f i c features within the book were noted as strengths by the teachers. P r i m a r i l y , Liz noted that the organization of the book into sections would f a c i l i t a t e a teacher's use of the material i f i t was going to be worked through in i t s e n t i r e t y . Kathy's use of the material i l l u s t r a t e d t h i s strength. She was able to incorporate the four sections of the unit -o r i e n t a t i o n , study, a p p l i c a t i o n , and c r i t i c i s m - into her own sequencing of the lessons presented in the book. From the book's sequence, she derived the importance of a c l e a r , developmental organization of concepts and ski I Is. A fourth strength relates to the background information supplied in the book. This includes the sections on the elements and p r i n c i p l e s of design and printing techniques. L i z noted that these sections would be very useful to teachers with l i t t l e a r t background. Kathy noted that the information on the design elements and p r i n c i p l e s helped her understand and present concepts. She found that the information on printing techniques f a c i l i t a t e d 96 her teaching by allowing her to instruct the students in the proper names for methods she presented in lessons. This was an important factor in the students' viewing of her as knowledgeable on the subject. The students' respect for their teacher became an issue since they had found their former teacher lacking in expertise. Included in the informational section of the book are the Rationale, Program Development and Curriculum Framework. Although the investigator had some concerns about these sections, i t must be noted that Kathy found these sections useful to her s i t u a t i o n . The Rationale presented enough theory for her to understand the developmental level of her students and provided reasons for the choices of student experiences in the m a t e r i a l . Program Development and Curriculum Framework reinforced the reasons for the unit's organization into four sections and caused Kathy to repeat the same organization with her lessons. In the f i r s t d r a f t of t h i s study, the use of these sections was questioned and was therefore organized under concerns of the investigator. However, when Kathy reviewed the d r a f t , she was quite adamant that these sections provided her with an understanding that determined her use of the ma t e r i a l . She f e l t that t h i s information was a strength of the book. Pa r t i c u l a r strengths were also evident within the Sample Printmaking Unit. The va r i e t y of texture and printmaking a c t i v i t i e s provided enough information for teachers to plan for depth of a media. The i l l u s t r a t i o n s were h e l p f u l . Kathy also noted that the samples of student work offered her assistance when she was prac t i c i n g techniques. She was also able to use the samples as a standard when evaluating her class's work. John also used the samples in demonstrations with his students. In p a r t i c u l a r , the samples 97 of f i s h prints were shown to the cla s s to reinfo r c e the idea that a print could be taken from almost any surface. A l l three teachers f e l t that the lay-out of the lessons was useful and relevant to the i r concerns. Liz appreciated not having to read through an abundance of information to a r r i v e at the materials l i s t s and procedures. The book was easy to skim for information. John f e l t that the primary value of the material for him would be the clear outline of lesson plans that could remind him of materials and procedures. Kathy f e l t that the instructions in lessons provided her with enough information on materials and procedure that she could practice printing techniques with which she was unfamiliar before presenting them to her c l a s s . She concluded that the instructions were easy to follow, and that the information on teacher preparation helped her organization of lessons. The other categories within the lessons - objectives, vocabulary, history, evaluation, and follow-up - were most useful to Kathy. This determined the seventh strength of the material. The evaluation questions at the end of each lesson were valuable starting points for c r i t i c a l d iscussions. Each week, Kathy would place these questions on the board, supplemented with questions of her own, and the students would t a l k about the a r t that they produced during the week. Kathy noted that the students' a b i l i t i e s to ta Ik about a r t as c r i t i c s progressed over the eight-week session. In f a c t , the c r i t i c a l discussions produced a cohesive s p i r i t within the c l a s s . It should be noted that Kathy had not o r i g i n a l l y planned to include the discussions in her unit, but that after seeing the students' reactions, she f e l t that the discussions were the most beneficial aspect of th e i r learning. Liz also found the suggestions for c r i t i c a l discussion 98 included in the Grab Bag a c t i v i t y most useful in increasing the students" s e n s i t i v i t i e s to texture. The vocabulary provided in the book f a c i l i t a t e d both Kathy's and the class's a b i l i t i e s to ta l k about a r t . The h i s t o r i c a l information was noted as useful, and Kathy f e l t that the students appreciated knowing the relevance of the concepts that were presented in c l a s s . The follow-up a c t i v i t i e s are also useful for extending the book's a c t i v i t i e s . Kathy incorporated these into job-cards that could be completed by the students in the i r spare time. Related to t h i s strength is the fourth section of the book's unit, C r i t i c i s m . Although the teachers did not translate t h i s section into experiences for the students, a l l three teachers expressed a desire to use the ideas presented in the lessons. Kathy wanted to complete a walking tour of the neighbourhood that would center on a discussion of texture as i t appears in man-made forms. Liz also noted that she liked the ideas of A c t i v i t y 2 where a f i e l d t r i p or photo display concerning man-made structures was arranged to compare the elements of design in nature to those in structures made by man. John f e l t that an exploration of the textures of things t y p i c a l l y found in Vancouver's harbour would be part of his future plann ing. An eighth strength was noted by both L i z and Kathy in the records and resource l i s t s supplied in the book. Liz used the records for The Grab Bag and expressed a desire to incorporate the Texture Study Chart into her unit for next year. Kathy used both of those records, and found that the texture chart was most b e n e f i c i a l . She centered the majority of her lessons around the techniques presented in the chart. The students commented on how useful 99 the chart was in helping them produce textures in th e i r own images. The students' reactions and s k i l l development leads to the ninth strength. F i r s t l y , the content presented in the book was appealing to upper elementary students. Interviews with students from each school i l l u s t r a t e d that they found the a c t i v i t i e s fun, and each of the teachers noted that t h e i r students enjoyed the lessons. The students were also able to conclude that t h e i r understanding of printmaking and texture had increased during the session, and they were eager to try d i f f e r e n t or more complex techniques. The teachers also noted that the s k i l l s of the students had increased. Kathy noted that a s e n s i t i v i t y to design elements occurred in her class as students began noticing texture in t h e i r neighbourhood. During c r i t i c a l discussions, the students were able to analyze successes and f a i l u r e s and give reasons or ideas on how technique could be improved. John's class was also able to make suggestions for improvement of their work. Each of the three classes i l l u s t r a t e d an increase in understanding of technique by the peer teaching that occurred. Students were able to advise each other on the use of ink and printmaking t o o l s , as well as o f f e r suggestions that would improve the textural quality of t h e i r images and the clearness of t h e i r p r i n t s . The f i n a l strength, and possibly the most important, was exhibited in Kathy's use of the curriculum m a t e r i a l . Because she needed no further assistance from the developer aside from minor c l a r i f i c a t i o n s , i t can be concluded that a teacher with l i t t l e a r t background or teaching experience would be able to modify and adapt the curriculum material to s u i t the planning of a printmaking u n i t . This was a r e s u l t of the features of the material that have j u s t been discussed, and the fact that Kathy intends 100 to use the material next year regardless of her teaching assignment. Through the evaluation of her students' work and the observations made by the investigator during th e i r class time, i t is evident that a less experienced teacher can use the curriculum material to promote the technical s k i l l and perceptual a b i l i t i e s of students. Concerns of the Material During the study, p a r t i c u l a r issues and concerns of the teachers arose. Primarily, John and Liz expressed a concern for the lack of instruction in imagery development within the lessons. Imagery development was a primary focus in Liz's orientation to a r t education, and she was unable to secure ideas from the book in t h i s regard. She f e l t that a less experienced teacher would have a need for t h i s information, and without i t , she doubted whether the students' products could be c l a s s i f i e d as " a r t " . John's growing concern for imagery development also became evident. However, he concluded that i t was doubtful whether i t was within the sphere of the book to present information on imagery development other than to suggest the use of themes. Kathy was not concerned about imagery development and so t h i s did not become an issue. She f e l t that the students were creative enough to develop t h e i r own ideas, and her concern was for th e i r use of texture only. The students of John's class also expressed a concern for imagery development. Those interviewed f e l t that they would l i k e to try to make more complex pictures rather than j u s t textural experiments. Although some of Liz's students wanted more freedom in choosing subjects for images, many of them understood the value of Liz's steps in imagery development. The majority of them were pleased with t h e i r work. Kathy's students enjoyed the 101 freedom to choose t h e i r own subjects and f e l t that ideas could be obtained from friends, from nature, or from step-by-step drawing cards. An analysis of the students' work from each of the classes by the investigator reinforces the need to address image development in the book. The products of both Kathy and John's classes seem undeveloped compared to those produced by Liz's students. John described his students' work as t r i t e . The guidance that Liz's students received for compostion and texture development is evident in the quality of t h e i r images. The evaluator's bias is acknowledged but i s reinforced in John and L i z ' s concern. A second concern of the investigator focusses on the teachers' use of the h i s t o r i c a l perspective in the book. Kathy was the only teacher to attempt to use t h i s information in planned lessons. Through her use of the h i s t o r i c a l information, she found that for some lessons, information was lacking. This forced her to consult additional resources. It can be concluded that h i s t o r i c a l information is superficiaI Iy treated in the book. Related to t h i s concern was the c r i t i c a l perspective presented in the book. Although L i z f e l t that the suggestions for c r i t i c i s m in The Grab Bag a c t i v i t y were useful, she f e l t that more emphasis should be placed on the follow-up as she considered t h i s to be the most valuable part of the lesson. Even though the three teachers expressed interest in the C r i t i c i s m section of the unit, none of them executed them as formal lessons. This may have been a r e s u l t of a lack of development and deta i l within the lesson plans themselves. Cross-referencing with lessons in the other three sections may have encouraged the teachers to use the suggestions. A fourth concern is the lack of information for teacher preparation and lesson presentation for p a r t i c u l a r printmaking techniques. Liz commented 102 that many of the lessons did not seem to provide enough instruction for teachers who were not familiar with printmaking. She cited lino prints as the most obvious example. In her own use of the material, she also noted the lack of guidance for organizing a s i Ikscreening a c t i v i t y with a c l a s s , and requested that the investigator demonstrate how t h i s could be planned. Kathy wanted to try photograms and. silkscreen but f e l t that these were too complex to accomplish with a large c l a s s . Perhaps additional information on organization would have enabled her to complete these lessons. Both Kathy and John suggested that further information about possible problems with p a r t i c u l a r printing techniques was also needed. Kathy had problems with monoprints and f e l t that a l i s t of anticipated problems and ways to avoid them would have been b e n e f i c i a l . She noted that the students were very frustrated with the technique. John noted that because printmaking is a messy medium that involves unique equipment, a section on "hints and warnings" would be h e l p f u l . Added i l l u s t r a t i o n s for more complex techniques such as developmental lino prints and step-by-step i l l u s t r a t i o n s of l i f t i n g a pri n t were also suggested by John. A l l three teachers were concerned about the lack of information for adapting techniques to students of varying a r t experience and s k i l l l e v e l . The f i f t h concern r e l a t e s to the value of the information on theory and curriculum development. Li z skimmed the material but f e l t that i t only reinforced things she already knew. John seemed bothered by the theory and noted that he would sequence a c t i v i t i e s according to logic rather than "that developmental s t u f f " . A l l three teachers noted that they would use the printmaking unit in future planning, but none of them mentioned the curriculum framework as being useful for planning. Kathy f e l t that i t 103 helped her understand the development of the unit, but i t s use for planning a c t i v i t i e s using d i f f e r e n t media is questionable. It can be concluded that the curriculum framework is not s u f f i c i e n t l y developed to be a suitable a i d , and that the teachers' primary concern is for the practical suggestions that the book can o f f e r . The f i n a l concern is i l l u s t r a t e d in Kathy's use of the material, i t is evident that in order for a teacher of l i t t l e a r t experience to use the material, a large amount of teacher preparation time is necessary. Kathy practiced each of the techniques before she presented them to her c l a s s . She also spent many hours reading the book and developing an organization suitable to her concerns. Many problems that could have occurred with the students were discovered in her own experimentation. However, a teacher who is unable to spend as much time preparing might avoid many of the lessons in the book. It is also possible that i f a teacher has not practiced a technique, she may confront many problems when she presents the material to a c l a s s . Synopsis of Factors That Influence Implementation It would seem that in a l l three cases, teacher conceptions of and backgrounds in a r t were substantial factors in the quality of implementation. The two teachers who had an established program, with experience in teaching printmaking, were less prone to use the material as a primary source for planning than the less experienced teacher. These teachers had a need for new ideas and approaches, but the i r concerns were mostly in guidance for imagery development with students rather than exercises in elements of design or media techniques with which they already had experience. This was not j u s t a function of experience. The two 104 experienced teachers also showed p a r a l l e l s in their thinking about a r t education which determined th e i r needs. For L i z , however, the need for image development was much stronger than for John who seemed to stress both image and experimentation with multiple techniques in his conception of a r t education. In Kathy's case, image development was not a p r i o r i t y . Her conception focussed on experimentation with a variety of media and techniques. However, as she gained more experience with teaching a r t , she concluded that students cannot be bombarded with concepts or techniques. She began to understand the l i m i t s of the students' c a p a b i l i t i e s and consequently slowed down the pace. She also f e l t that her students "were creative enough" to be able to create images and was pleased with the textural q u a l i t i e s of their r e s u l t s . It cannot be determined whether she would find a need for image development as she gained more experience with teaching a r t . The worth of the material was derived, in part, by the closeness of the book's conception of a r t to that of the teachers involved in the study. Kathy's focus on natural textures and printmaking made her view the material as relevant and meaningful. John's focus on expanding the p o s s i b i l i t i e s allowed him to view the book as useful for planning printmaking techniques. However, his growing concern for imagery caused him to conclude that the material would not be relevant to his en t i r e printmaking u n i t . Liz's strong concern for imagery would cause her to see the material as meaningful and relevant only as a supplementary resource of some ideas that could f i t into her planned u n i t s . She does not see i t as extremely useful to teachers with l i t t l e a r t background. The follow-up discussions at the end of each lesson were used regularly only by Kathy who found the book's l i s t s of 105 evaluation questions most helpful and the group discussions invaluable. Both Liz and John conducted spontaneous discussions based on situations that occurred during lessons. They both avoided the evaluation sections in the Iessons. Despite the d i v e r s i t y of the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of each s i t u a t i o n , there were similar s i t u a t i o n a l factors which influenced implementation. The most prominent of these were time of year and interruptions from school a c t i v i t i e s . A l l three teachers f e l t that they did not have enough time to f i t in everything that they would like to have t r i e d in the book. Also, many a r t lessons were cancelled due to school events such as testing and Sports Day. This reduced the amount of time a v a i l a b l e for each teacher to complete a c t i v i t i e s with the students. It can be surmised that May and June are not the most opportune times for studies of t h i s nature. Each teacher was also concerned about the f e a s i b i l i t y of p a r t i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s because of numbers of students in their c l a s s e s . Both Liz and Kathy avoided screenprinting as they were not sure how to organize the a c t i v i t y around so many students. Kathy had also wanted to do photograms, where equipment was a v a i l a b l e in the school, but chose not to for the same reason. John had the same concerns with screenprinting and choose to d i r e c t the technique with small groups in a center in the room, with himself c o n t r o l l i n g the printing process. Part of t h i s was a r e s u l t of using o i l -based inks which are messy and hazardous. He would like to organize i t so that each student could do their own printing which would free him to work with others who may need help in other areas. Even though the a c t i v i t i e s in the book were chosen for their s u i t a b i l i t y to students of the intermediate grades, each teacher avoided 106 presentations and a c t i v i t i e s which they f e l t were too complex for the students. John planned two v a r i e t i e s of r e l i e f prints with the students where the 5's completed a simpler exercise in creating textured plates and the 7's completed a more sophisticated version of cardboard plates. Kathy f e l t that monoprints should not be done until students' printing s k i l l s were developed and questioned i t s position in the sequencing of a c t i v i t i e s . John also had doubts about the sequencing, viewing screen printing as a rather simple technique. L i z f e l t that each a c t i v i t y had to be c a r e f u l l y presented to the students or they would not be able to achieve. Here she questioned the book's lack of information and developmental stages within lessons. The teachers d i f f e r e d in t h e i r concerns about preparation time. Preparation time was not a factor for Kathy as she taught part-time and was interested enough to spend a great deal of time trying techniques for her s e l f , although she would have liked the book e a r l i e r to enhance her planning. John spent extra time trying and thinking about lessons in the book and did not feel that preparation time was a problem. Liz spent a lot of time thinking of ways to develop imagery in each lesson. She t r i e d to r e l a t e a c t i v i t i e s to themes and plan for a t r a n s i t i o n of media within a u n i t . She f e l t that her preparation time was limited, in p a r t i c u l a r because the school Sea Festival event took up much of i t . Suggestions for Curriculum Development The strengths and concerns of the curriculum material as determined by the three teachers in t h i s study gave some insight into teachers' needs and interests for an a r t curriculum material. Generalizing from t h i s information, i t seems that consideration of the following points might enhance curriculum development in a r t education: 107 A clear o u t l i n e of the conception of a r t education and the notions of the r o l e of the teacher and student underlying a curriculum material may allow the teachers to determine the usefulness of the material in r e l a t i o n to the i r p r i o r i t i e s and b e l i e f s . This information could be included in a preface. As teachers seem to be concerned about learning new ideas or approaches to presenting concepts, a curriculum material which provides a depth approach to the study of a medium or element of design might give teachers a variety of lessons from which to choose. Lessons could be adapted to their established programs, and by choosing d i f f e r e n t lessons each year teachers could personalize a curriculum material into long-term planning. Follow-up a c t i v i t i e s provided for each lesson may also serve t h i s end. As some teachers l i k e to integrate art with other subject areas, suggestions for ways to expand upon or r e l a t e p a r t i c u l a r lessons to areas such as Science and Language Arts may be us e f u l . It seems that a curriculum material should hold some relevance to teachers of various a r t backgrounds. The simple techniques of a medium could be presented for use by non-experienced teachers while more complex techniques could be included for more experienced teachers. Lessons could be organized in a sequence from simple to complex. This might also allow teachers to accommodate for the varying s k i l l and experience levels of students. For the non-experienced teacher, background information on the 108 elements and p r i n c i p l e s of design and techniques of a medium may be helpful in practicing techniques and presenting lessons to students. Step-by-step i l l u s t r a t i o n s of procedures for techniques of a medium might further a s s i s t the non-experienced teacher in prac t i s i n g and presenting lessons. Samples of student's work included in the curriculum material may give teachers a standard for evaluation of student r e s u l t s and may also motivate teachers to use p a r t i c u l a r lessons. A c l e a r , concise, and organized lay-out of lesson plans which include a l i s t of materials, objectives, steps of teacher preparation, vocabulary, an out l i n e of procedure, and suggestions for evaluation and follow-up a c t i v i t i e s may a s s i s t the teacher's use of the curriculum material. S u f f i c i e n t information in each of these categories could be supplied to a s s i s t non-ex periened teachers in p a r t i c u l a r . A discussion of "helpful hints" and "possible problems that students may encounter" included in pa r t i c u l a r lessons may a s s i s t teachers in the i r choices of lessons for pa r t i c u l a r s k i l l levels of students and the i r sequencing of a c t i v i t i e s . This may also allow teachers to avoid f a i l u r e in lesson presentation. A suggestion of possible questions that might be used as starting points in c r i t i c a l discussions of students' work may a s s i s t teachers in t h e i r planning and evaluation of students working as c r i t i c s . A suggestion for a c t i v i t i e s which focus on a r t forms in the man-made environment ( i . e . a walking tour of the 109 neighbourhood) may also further t h i s end. H i s t o r i c a l examples with p a r t i c u l a r lessons may a s s i s t teachers in th e i r planning for students to work as h i s t o r i a n s . Works of a r t could be accompanied with biographical information on the a r t i s t and the time in which each work was completed. Information as to the s i g n i f i c a n c e of the subject matter, theme, and medium of each work could also be included. Other samples of works of a r t and a r t i s t s could be referred to in a resource l i s t supplied in the curriculum material. Checklists for student use, where applicable, might be included in an appendix to a s s i s t teachers 1 presentations of p a r t i c u l a r lessons. These could be in a format that allows for xeroxing d i r e c t l y from the appendix. A l i s t of resource materials ( i . e . f i l m s , picture sets, etc.) may a s s i s t teachers in t h e i r selections of visual aids to supplement lesson presentation. It seems that content presented in a curriculum material should be aligned to the developmental level of the intended student p a r t i c i p a n t s . Suggestions for ways to adapt lessons to various experience and s k i l l levels might contribute to th i s end. A discussion of developmental levels might be included in a section that deals with the assumptions and ratio n a l e underlying the choices of objectives, content, and evaluation c r i t e r i a for the curriculum m a t e r i a l . Suggestions for student involvement in planning ( i . e . choice of themes or subject matter) might ensure content that is interesting and relevant to students of d i f f e r e n t 110 age l e v e l s . For those teachers who emphasize the productive domain, ideas for image development seem to be a concern. Suggestions for step-by-step development of images or the use of themes may accomodate these teachers. For example, in creating an image of a f i s h , a lesson on shape might be followed by a lesson on texture. Background information and lessons which emphasize the elements and p r i n c i p l e s of design may further t h i s end. Cross-referencing lessons may a s s i s t teachers in th e i r sequencing and r e l a t i n g of a c t i v i t i e s . A curriculum material in binder format might allow teachers to rearrange sequencing and add lessons from other sources that re l a t e to p a r t i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s . A teacher's preference in grouping students might be considered in lesson plans. Some teachers group students for pa r t i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s while others provide only individual assignments. A curriculum material could provide suggestions for both approaches. Within individual assignments, the speed at which students work may vary. Lesson plans could accomodate students who work faster than others by suggesting ways to extend a c t i v i t i e s . Suggested methods of evaluation may a s s i s t teachers in assessing student progress in various s k i l l s . These could be in the form of evaluative questions for each lesson or record sheets and tests supplied in an appendix. It seems that limi t s of time need to be considered in a curriculum m a t e r i a l . Because of the demands of other subjects, teacher preparation time for lessons could be c l e a r l y outlined and kept to 111 a minimum. A suggested time allotment for each lesson might a s s i s t teachers in t h e i r presentation of lessons. Time with students is usually limited to 80 minutes per week, and often a teacher's timetable forces two 40-minute blocks of a r t . This may r e s t r i c t the type of a c t i v i t i e s that a teacher chooses for an art program and also raises a concern about the f e a s i b i l i t y of f i e l d t r i p s and outdoor a r t a c t i v i t i e s . A curriculum material might accomodate these r e s t r i c t i o n s with the inclusion of some short a r t a c t i v i t i e s or with suggestions of how a c t i v i t i e s can be divided among several sessions. In developing a c t i v i t i e s , i t seems that the average siz e of elementary a r t classes needs to be considered. Generally, classes range from 25 to 33 students. More complicated a c t i v i t e s could include suggestions for organization of materials and procedures so that each student is engaged in the a c t i v i t y and supplies are e f f i c i e n t l y d i s t r i b u t e d . The amount of teacher assistance required by each student could be estimated when choices for a c t i v i t i e s are made. A clear example is the inclusion of screen-printing in an elementary school a r t program. A v a i l a b i l i t y of equipment for more complex techniques such as t h i s might also be considered in curriculum development. Summary The meaning a pa r t i c i p a n t extrapolates from a curriculum material is related to his stance in the world or his perspective. Values, b e l i e f s , learned assumptions, knowledge and expectations form the participant's 112 perspective and determine how he w i l l implement a curriculum material. Meanings in programs are therefore m u l t i p l e . Perspectivism is an important issue in education. The developer of a program interprets the world from a p a r t i c u l a r stance because of his background experiences. His perspective influences his decisions about what is educationally s i g n i f i c a n t and desirable, enables him to determine a need, and allows him to define a program that meets that need. The means, ends and methods of evaluation that he chooses w i l l r e f l e c t his world view. Because of the m u l t i p l i c i t y of perspectives in education, however, users of programs may not perceive that there is a need, and so they might disagree with the purposes of the developer's program. If they do perceive the need, they may not view his program as o f f e r i n g the best way to meet that need. If they do not perceive the program as being relevant to the needs of the students and the constraints of the classroom, and i f the program is incongruous with t h e i r established practices and perspectives, the program w i l l not be implemented. If, on the other hand, a program is accepted, the user w i l l adapt and a l t e r i t to f i t his own perspective, and therefore, the user may be implementing a program quite d i f f e r e n t from' what the developer intended. In turn, the students may be experiencing a d i f f e r e n t program than the teacher thinks they are experiencing. Developers of a r t curriculum materials need to keep in mind that the o r i g i n a l program fragments and m u l t i p l i e s into numerous programs. By est a b l i s h i n g r e c i p r o c i t y between his program and the user, the developer legitimizes the user as a developer and increases the chances of implementation. Studying the use of a curriculum material in classrooms can give the developer some insights into how a program may be put into practice 113 according to the various conceptions of elementary a r t teachers. An understanding of the meaningfuIness of a program can be heightened by s h i f t i n g perspectives and asking new questions. Using a cultural perspective, an investigator is afforded the opportunity to consider emerging issues and various viewpoints of a program's merits and short-comings. 114 BibI tography . The Aesthetic Education Program: A Report on the Accomplishments 1969 - 1975, Volumes I and II. St. Louis, Mo.: CEMREL, Inc., 1976. Asch, R.L. Teaching b e l i e f s and evaluation. Art Education, October, 1976, Volume 29, 1 8 - 2 2 . Chalmers, F.G. Art education as ethnology. Studies in Art Education, 1981, 22(3), 6 - 14. Chapman, L. The bearing of a r t i s t i c and educational commitments on the teaching of a r t . In G.L. Knieter & J. S t a l l i n g s (Eds.), The teaching  process in ar t s and ae s t h e t i c s . St. Louis, Mo.: CEMREL, Inc., 1979. Day, M. Rationales for a r t education: Thinking through and t e l l i n g why Art Education, February, 1972, 25(2), 17 - 20. Dexter, L.A. E l i t e and spe c i a l i z e d interviewing. Evanston: Northwestern University Press, 1970. Efland, A. The school art s t y l e : a functional a n a l y s i s . Studies in Art  Education, 1976, _T7(2) , 37 - 44. Eisner, E.W. Stanford's kettering project. Art Education, 1970 23(8) 4 - 7 Eisner, E.W. Educating a r t i s t i c v i s i o n . New York: Macmillan, 1972. Eisner, E.W. & Vallance, E. (Eds.). C o n f l i c t i n g conceptions of curriculum. Berkeley: McCutchan, 1974. Eisner, E.W. The educational imagination. New York: Macmillan, 1979. Feldman, E. Becoming human through a r t . Englewood C l i f f s , N.J.: Prentice - Hal I, 1970. Feldman, E.B. V a r i e t i e s of visual experience. Englewood C l i f f s , N.J.: Prentice - Ha I I, 1967. Fullan, M. & Pomfret, A. Research on curriculum and instruction implementation. Review of Educational Research, Winter, 1977, 47 ( I ) , 335 - 397. Lowenfeld, V. The nature of c r e a t i v e a c t i v i t y . London: Rout I edge & Kegan Paul, 1952. Lowenfeld, V. & B r i t t a i n , W.L. Creative and mental growth. New York: MacmiI Ian , 1975. Massey, D. & Werner, W., Canadian content unit teacher survey. Canad ian  content k i t s : An assessment. Alberta Education, 1977. 115 McFee, J. & Degge, R. Art, c u l t u r e , and environment: A c a t a l y s t for  teach ing • Belmont, C a l i f . : Wadworth, 1 9 7 7 . P a r l e t t , M. & Hamilton, D. Evaluation as illumination: A new approach to the study of innovatory programmes. In D. Hamilton et al (Eds.), Beyond  the numbers game: A reader in educational evaluation. BerkeIey: McCutchan, 1 9 7 7 . Pohland, P. P a r t i c i p a n t observation as a research methodology. Studies in  Art Education, Spring, 1 9 7 2 , J 3 _ ( 3 ) , 4 - 1 5 . Smith, L.M. & Geoffrey, W. The complexities of an urban classroom. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Wilson, 1 9 6 8 . Smith, L.M. & Pohland, P.A. Education, technology, and the rural highlands. In AERA Monograph Series on Curriculum Evaluation (No. 7 ) . Chicago: Rand McNally, 1 9 7 4 . Smith, L.M. Images and reactions: a personal report on 'an 8-day week:' Report on i n s t i t u t e in a e s t h e t i c education, St. Louis, Mo.: CEMREL, Inc., 1 9 7 4 . Stuckhardt, M.H. and Morris, J.W. The development of a scale to measure at t i t u d e s held toward a r t education. Studies in Art Education, 1 9 8 0 , 2 1 ( 2 ) , 50 - 5 6 . Werner, W. Evaluation: Sense-making of school programs. In T. Aoki (Ed.), Curriculum evaluation in a new key. Centre for the the Study of Curriculum and Instruction, University of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1 9 7 8 . Wilson, B. A response to 'Participant observation as a research methodology'. Studies in Art Education, Spring, 1 9 7 2 , 1 3 ( 3 ) , 2 2 - 3 . 116 Append ices 1. Surface Probe 2. The Day Art Rationale Assessment Instrument 3. Teacher Questionnaire 4. Tea c her Log s 5. Guidelines for Completing Logs 6. I n i t i a l Teacher Interview Questions 7. Transcript of Teacher Interview 8. Final Teacher Interview Questions 9. Transcript of Taped Teacher Interview 10. Student Interview Questions 11. Student Artwork Appendix 1 Surface Probe Surface Probe A Study of Natural Design and Printmaking Sonia Hutson copyright © WEDGE 1982 Surface Probe An Investigation of Natural Textures and Printmaking contents preface rationale ; 2 program development 6 the role of the teacher 8 the student 9 curriculum framework 10 sample unit the intents 12 background information 15 elements of design 16 principles of design '.. 22 printmaking 24 orientation activity 1: the grab bag 29 activity 2: the blindfold walk 34 activity 3: the viewfinder 36 study activity 1: rubbing 41 activity 2: the direct print 43 activity 3: fish prints 46 activity 4: modified texture 49 activity 5: photograms 51 activity 6: shapes in nature: tracings 56 activity 7: repeat shapes: pattern 59 application activity 1: stamp prints 62 activity 2: direct prints 66 activity 3: glue prints 69 activity 4: styrofoam prints 72 activity 5: cardboard plates 75 activity 6: lino plates 77 activity 7: developmental lino prints 81 activity 8: screen printing 84 criticism activity 1: elements of design in art forms 89 activity 2: elements of design in man-made structures '. 91 records 93 resources 99 bibliography 100 Surface Probe is designed as a supplementary resource material to aid upper elementary teachers in the planning of a cohesive and developmental art cur-riculum. It offers a practical curriculum framework and illustrates how a unit in natural design and printmaking can be developed using specific guidelines. The guide provides the necessary background information for planning and presenting learning experiences that are aligned to the developmental levels of students from grades four to seven. The activities are sequenced to guide the students through inquiry, self-discovery and qualitative problem solving. An in-depth exploration of design in nature and techniques of printmaking is used as a means to stimulate the students' growth in percep-tual skills and aesthetic sensitivity. Enriching the stu-dents' senses is emphasized. Preface Although the unit can be used directly, teachers should be aware of the theory and assumptions that underly the program. As in other subject areas, teachers of art must clarify their own beliefs in order to under-stand the effect their programs have on students and to make appropriate choices of content and activities. Because of its inherent logic, the program is intended for presentation in four stages: orientation, study, appli-cation and criticism. Flexibility within these sections is encouraged in order to provide relevance to the teacher and his/her particular group of students. The extent to which the sample unit is modified will also depend upon available resources and environmental conditions. Rationale Surface Probe is based on the premise that art edu-cation is deserving of a prominent position within the broad educational context because of its unique quali-ties which can promote the total development of the child. By developing the students' perceptual skills, art experiences can help students become more aware of their environment. This is an important factor in today's world where the environment demands redefinition and is under constant change. By developing the students' aethetic sensitivities, art experiences can perhaps ena-ble students to make appropriate choices in this time of change. Conceptions of art education and the value of art have changed throughout history. Because of social and economic demands, the focus of art instruction has shifted among student-centered, subject-centered and society-centered approaches. Surface Probe takes into account each of these approaches, focusing on the child primarily, but also channeling specific activities to consider the knowledge of the subject and the condition of society. Art contains subject-specific skills and knowledge which must be part of an art program in order to give it validity in an educational context. Society has its own social and economic characteristics which must be considered in program development in order to achieve validity within the social context of the time. The list of suggested reference books will be useful to teachers who would like further reading on approaches to art education. •The summary ol developmental stages is taken from Macmillan), 1975. pp. 47-49. 229-247. 301-314. Studies have been done to try to discern the extent of influence that heredity and the environment have on the growth of perceptual and artistic abilities. Basically, the existing research parallels the dichotomy of the nature-nurture approaches in art education. On the one hand, the development of the child is seen as stemming from within, that it occurs with maturation, regardless of the environment. On the other hand, the environment is seen as an influential factor that can enrich or retard development. Surface Probe is based on the research of Viktor Lowenfeld and Elliot Eisner. Viktor Lowenfeld viewed art as a vehicle for achieving the creative and mental growth of the child. His work crystallized much of the teaching about art education that had developed from John Dewey's ideas. It became the psychological foun-dation in which teachers of art were trained during the 1950's in Europe and the United States. Lowenfeld describes specific stages of development in art; viewing the environment as a strong factor in promoting and enriching these stages. In his book, Creative and Mental Growth, he states that children pass through developmental stages sequentially and usually at determined age levels, although not all child-ren move from one stage to another at the same time. Lowenfeld and W. Lambert Britlain, Creative and Mental Growth (New York: The first of these stages is the Scribbling Stage which usually lasts from two to four years of age. It is a time when the child develops from the use of random scrib-bles to more controlled scribbles. But it is not until the Preschematic Stage, which lasts from four to seven years of age, that the child makes his first representa-tional attempts. At this level, the child is eager to show his work to others, especially adults. The next stage is the Schematic Stage, where the child's drawings sym-bolize parts of his environment and a base line is used. The next two stages are of particular interest to teachers of upper elementary school children. By nine years of age, the child enters the Stage of Dawning Realism, sometimes referred to as the Gang Age. The child is more conscious of himself and this is reflected in his artwork, as well as in his reluctance to show his work to others. An awareness of the characteristics of this stage should help the developer choose content that is appropriate to children of grades four to seven: • increasing awareness of his real world and greater visual awareness • pleasure in doing group work • moves to a form of expression more closely related to nature • concern for proper detail • beginning to deal with abstract concepts: a move from base line to the use of plane • developing an awareness of pattern and decoration • discovering the meaningfulness of his environment and beginning to relate this to himself • becoming increasingly critical of himself and others Around the age of eleven or twelve, the child enters the Pseudo-naturalistic Stage or the Stage of Reason-ing. He becomes more aware of his natural surround-ings and is concerned with proportion in his work. His visual representations also show sexual characteristics and an awareness of differences in colour. Teachers of grade seven students should be aware of the character-istics of this stage as they engage in program development: • the end of art as a spontaneous activity • a priority for attempts at naturalism • recognition of the final product, rather than the process, for value. • increased visual awareness of the human figure and detail • awareness of creating perspective in drawing • awareness of colour and design For some students, this stage is the last experience that they will have with art. As they enter the Period of Decision, which usually occurs from ages four-teen to seventeen when art is an elective in high school, they may choose to continue their artistic development or abandon it entirely. Lowenfeld's thesis is that one must start with the child and broaden his experiences in order to enrich his developmental growth in art. By offering rich and varied experiences that seize the child through all of his senses, the development of his perceptual sensitivity will occur. As his knowledge of the environment increases, so does the creativ-ity of his expressions. For Lowenfeld, the product is subordinate to the process. He also emphasizes a depth approach rather than a breadth approach within the process. Broadening the child's experience with the envir-onment works to develop not only perceptual abil-ity, but also concept formation. Activities can be provided in a program to guide the student towards an awareness of details and differences in size, shape, texture, colour and form in the environment. This awareness enriches the student's representa-tions of objects as he encounters them directly. More importantly, awareness of the environment becomes part of the student's memory and contrib-utes to the clearness and efficiency of his visual concepts. Visual concepts permit the student to represent objects from memory, rather than from direct experience. A child who is deprived of per-ceptual experiences will be unable to form efficient concepts which will result in his inability to produce completely realistic works of art. Elliot Eisner suggests that the stages children pass through in their visual expression need not be seen as limits but rather as starting points. Through instruction in technique, the child can expand the range of expressive options from which to choose to work and thereby enhance his artistic development: To externalize what one feels, thinks or imagines requires the creation of forms (in the visual arts) that will carry those feelings, thoughts and images forward into the public world. To do this requires the transformation of a material-clay, paint, crayon, pencil, paper-into a medium, something through which those ideas, images and feelings are embodied. To achieve this transformation of material to medium requires the use of technique, the tools and devices one employs to articulate form.' John Dewey also stated that 'only where material is employed as media is there expression and an!'? It would seem then that an art program must provide instruction in technical skills with materials, but not as an end in itself but rather as an aid for creative expression. A child can develop in his creative expression if he has a variety of materials in which to give his expressions form as long as he does not become frustrated with the mate-rials because of a lack of technical skill. •Elliot W. Eisner, ••What We Know about Children's Art — and What We Need to Know", in Elliot W. Eisner, ed., The Arts, Human Development and Education (Berkeley: McCutchan Publishing Corporation). 1976, p. 12. •John Dewey, Art as Experience (New York: Minton, Balch and Company), 1934. p. 63. Program Development The components of a program include intents, activi-ties, resource materials and evaluation. The intents are the goals of the program, which represent the purposes of the developer. The activities are the means through which the intents will be achieved. These include the teaching methodology, learning strategies and class-room organization. The resource materials represent the display with which the participants interact in order to achieve the ends. Display includes tools, equipment, media, art materials, books, films, slide sets and objects. Evaluation methods are formulated to determine whether the ends have been attained. In developing programs, the teacher chooses intents and means, establishes a relationship between ends and means, and engages in evaluation. Evaluation in program development includes not only the methods devised to determine if the ends are attained, but also the teacher's own critical evaluation of his/her program. From a technical perspective, the teacher needs to consider if the means and methods of evaluation are appropriate to the ends. Are the expe-riences sequenced? Does the program establish a rhythm between depth and breadth in its activities? Are both qualitative and quantitative methods of evaluation used? More importantly, the teacher needs to evaluate the educational and social implications of the program. Whose interests are being served by the program? What values are reflected? What is actually expe-rienced by the students? How is their thinking being shaped? J J J J J J J J - 8 n d T ' A O k i ' P r o S r a m s ** p « > P ' e (Vancouver: Centre tor the Study ot Curriculum and Instruction, University ot Program Development Program development does not proceed in a linear fashion; means and ends grow together and are deter-mined by each other. Because they are mutually impor-tant, the developer must build flexibility into his program. At times, means will dominate, or ends may spring from means. In art programs, flexibility is especially important as the artistic development and expressions of students are unique and personal. The list of suggested refer-ence books includes texts that will be useful for further reading on program development. Statements of objectives in behavioral terms are use-ful for the formulation of art activities and they force the teacher to move away from the vagueness that typifies some art programs. However, there are many instances where the teacher does not want predictability, and will be more concerned with expressive outcomes rather than instructional objectives. Instructional objectives are used where skills are developed through practice; they describe a form of student behavior that can be described and recognized. Expressive outcomes are used where skills are used in some personally expres-sive way; they describe an encounter the student is to have. The consequences of that encounter are what the teacher attempts to discover and appraise. For the teacher's benefit, the lessons in the sample unit in this guide are presented with instructional objectives. The Role of the Teacher Before developing a program, it is important for the teacher to examine his own assumptions and beliefs about art since these will be transmitted through the program and will affect the students' attitudes about art and its nature. The emphasis that a teacher places on art will also determine the students' growth in the area. The presentation of lessons has to be carefully planned in order to motivate and guide the students. In this way, art lessons compare with those of other sub-ject areas, especially language arts. A teacher does not expect a child to write a story without readiness activities such as brainstorming. In the same way, a child cannot be expected to perceive the envir-onment or translate his ideas and feelings into art forms without sufficient guidance, knowledge or skills. The teacher must take an active role. It is valuable for the teacher to have some experience with art, even if this is achieved only through a community cen-ter. Not only will the background enhance his program development and teaching, but it will also enhance his own personal growth. The teacher will also be more able to guide the students and to anticipate problems that they may encounter if he has experienced techniques first hand. The Student The focus of an art program is the stu-dents. Content and experiences are pro-vided to promote the students' growth. The developmental level and the interests of the students must therefore be consi-dered when planning a program. If the materials and experiences offered in the program are beyond the capabilities or interests of the students, they will become frustrated or bored. The students must also be challenged in the program or their growth will not be significant. It is impor-tant to remember that school programs have a long range effect on the way a child perceives art and its nature. This unit is designed for use with upper elementary school children, ages nine to twelve. A summary of the characteristics of the developmental levels of students of these ages is included in XheRationale. Considering these characteristics will help the teacher choose content that is appropriate to his particular group of stu-dents as well as bring meaning to those students who will experience the program. Curriculum Framework Art, like other subjects, has its own body of knowledge and skills that can be mastered by the students. It also has its own terminology. Instruction can focus on the learning of art through the eyes of the artist, the art historian or the art critic. It can also focus on the subject that is studied, the media used, the products made, the style that is executed or a dominant element or principle of design. These features may be means or ends in particular lessons, but they also relate to the goal of the growth of the students in a particular direction. A more detailed breakdown of the content of art pro-grams will help the teacher in program development. Some features will be dominant in specific lessons while others will be related features. It will become apparent during planning that the features are not easily separ-ated, but this dependency is valuable when considering sequence and breadth in programs. A program can use any of the features as its starting point. Features 1. Subject: natural environment, man-made environment, imaginary environment, circus, sports, architecture, machines, animals.etc. 2. Media: printmaking, clay, drawing, painting, fabric and textiles 3. Products: prints, sculptures, pottery, drawings, paintings, weavings, batiks 4. Style: realsitic, abstract 5. Elements of Design: texture, line, shape, form, colour, space 6. Principles of Design: movement, repetition, balance, contrast, emphasis, unity Sample Unit: A Study in Natural Design and Printmaking The following unit contains activities which allow students to study texture and the elements of design that form texture as they appear in natural objects. Their discoveries are applied to an exploration of printmaking, a technique whose qualities are especially appropriate to the impression and expression of textures. Suggested activities for the criticism of the man-made environment culminate the unit. Teachers are encouraged to modify and adapt the activities within the four stages of this unit in order to suit their particular situation and group of students. However, they should always keep in mind what their purposes are, what their students are doing and why they are doing it. The Intents In broad terms, this unit is concerned with developing the child's growth in: 1. his perceptual abilities 2. his technical skill Perceptual growth will aUow the student to more criti-cally examine his work and the work of others, as well as increase his awareness of sources in the environment that can be used as ideas in works of art. Skillful manipu-lation of tools and media will give the student an under-To achieve these goals, the content of the unit focuses on three features: 1. the subject of the natural environment 2. the media of printmaking 3. the design element of texture These features were chosen for their appeal to students of the Gang Age. The quality of printmaking is especially appropriate to the expression of textures. The fact that standing of the qualities of different media and will allow him to make appropriate selections of media and tech-nique that can give his expressions form. Experiences with various media can also increase the complexity and visual appeal of the student's work. more than one copy of a print can be made also encour-ages the student to experiment rather than cherish a final product. Each of these features creates its own objectives: A . Natural Environment: • the student is able to identify the elements of design — line, shape, space, colour, texture — as they occur in the natural environment. • the student is able to identify ways in which physi-cal changes create design in nature. • the student is able to identify designs in nature that are a result of biological function. • the student recognizes ways in which natural design is incorporated into man-made forms. • the student is able to use design elements from nature as a source for his own art forms. B. Printmaking • the student is able to state that printmaking is the process of transferring an image from one surface to another • the student is able to use printmaking methods and tools in order to produce a print • the student is able to use a variety of printmaking techniques C . Texture • the student is able to describe the tactile and visual qualities of a surface • the student is able to use line, shape, space, and colour in order to produce textures • the student is able to develop textures for use in compositions N3 13. Depth In the unit, depth is accomplished through the detailed exploration of texture. Breadth Breadth is accomplished in a unit when one subject or medium is compared to another. We are comparing natural textures as they appear in different aspects of our environment. The use of texture in student work is also compared. To avoid copying, students are encouraged to compare their use of texture to that of artists only after they have completed their work. Sequence The lessons in this unit are sequenced in several ways. The activities are arranged in four sections: 1. orientation to the unit 2. study of texture in the natural environment 3. application of the study to the students' creation of their own work 4. students' criticism of the man-made environment Each lesson builds upon the knowledge and discoveries of the preceding lessons. Complexity also increases with each activity as the number of related features increase. The unit starts with the most elementary forms of printmaking and progresses to the more complicated methods. Activities The activities in the unit are designed for use in an outdoor education experience although with minor modifications, they can easily be conducted in a school setting. If activities occur at a camp, there must be an available building where supplies can be set up for the students to engage in printmaking. Some activities are adaptable to local field trips. Many study activities can take place during a field trip and the application of the study can be carried out on return to the classroom This unit also sets a rhythm between individual and group activities. Background Information A discussion ol the elements of design — line, shape, space and colour as related to texture — and the techniques of printmaking Texture Texture is the surface characteristic of an object. In nature, texture is a result of growth, action or movement. For example, textures can function as protection, as in porcupines, or textures can be created by the actions of weathering and erosion. Textural distinctions become visually pronounced as light reflects in varying degrees on a surface. Differen-ces in texture can also be perceived tactically or through the sense of touch. In two-dimensional art forms, the illusion of texture can be created with dots, lines, shapes, space and colour. Repetion of texture creates pattern. Line Line is an element of design which plays an important role in the creation of texture. Repeated lines create pattern, texture and movement. Continuous lines that enclose shapes also create textures. A line is an extension of a dot, and can move in a horizontal, vertical, diagonal or random direction. Lines can be straight, jagged, curved, wavy, bent or broken. Lines are also formed when shapes or planes meet. Contour lines follow the edges of objects and define their shape. In nature, lines mark the growth of an object, the course of movement of an object or creature, or the changes caused by the action of external forces. Rings on a tree, animal tracks and the results of erosion illus-trate the varying causes of natural lines. Lines also mark the interface between structures in nature. In art forms, the use of line can create rhythm and movement. Line can also be used to create effects. For example, horizontal lines create a calming effect while vertical lines express rigidity and strength and diagonal lines are active and dynamic. Lines can vary in length, width, degree of curvature or direction. Shape In two-dimensional form, shape is delineated by con-tour lines. Lines set boundaries of width and height to form geometric or organic shapes. Geometric shapes are based on the circle, square or triangle. For example, the diamond shape is formed by placing two triangles together. Other geometric shapes include the rectangle, oval, trapezium, pentagon, hex-agon, octagon and parallelogram. Starfish and wasps' nests are good examples of natural geometric shapes. Organic shapes are enclosed by randomly flowing contour lines. Trees form an example of natural organic shapes. In art forms, shapes are created by the use of contour lines, colour placement in specific areas or by shading. Space Space is an element of design that is mutually dependent on shape. Shapes appear in space, and within certain shapes, space is formed. The shape of an object is considered a positive shape or image. The area surrounding the object is considered negative shape or space. The quality of negative space, therefore, is determined by the positive shape of an object. For example, the shapes within a wasp's nest form hexagonal negative spaces. In a more organic shape such as a tree, the shape of the tree forms organic negative spaces between branches and leaves. Considering the space around an object, or the nega-tive spaces, is an important factor in the composition of works of art. 19. Colour Pure light contains the spectrum of colours: red, orange, yellow, green, blue" and violet. When light is broken with a prism, the spectrum can be seen. In nature, raindrops act as prisms, creating rainbows. Objects absorb and reflect colours according to their molecular make-up. For example, when a surface absorbs the spectrum but reflects blue, the object appears blue. The total absorbtion of the spectrum makes an object appear black. T h e total reflection of the spectrum makes an object appear white. Colour in nature is the result of many causes. Expo-sure to the sun, forces of weathering and seasonal changes can alter the colour of objects. Colour changes in nature can be also result from biological functions.for example, camouflage and photosynthesis. A mottled texture is created when dots of colour appear on a surface. A slippery texture is created when a colour is of a high intensity. Colours can also create shapes, as in peacock feathers. In art forms, colours or hues can be divided into primary, secondary, tertiary, or complementary colours. Red, blue and yellow are primary colours and cannot be made by mixing other colours. Green, orange and violet are secondary colours and are created by mixing primary colours: blue and yellow create green, yellow and red create orange and red and blue create violetComplementary colours are those that are oppo-site on the colour wheel, as illustrated below. Analagous colours are colours of the same colour family or hue. They appear beside each other on the colour wheel. The lightness or darkness of an object is its value. These are expressed in art forms as tints and shades. The brightness or dullness of a colour is its Intensity which relates to the amount of light that is absorbed or reflected by an object. To reduce the intensity of a colour, it is mixed with its complement, thus forming a tertiary colour. Tints are made by adding white to a colour to lighten it. Shades are made by adding black to a colour to darken it. Transparent colours transmit rays of light and lumi-nate an object. They create a sheer, gauzy texture. Translucent colours admit the passage of light but diffuse it so that objects cannot be clearly distinguished. They create fuzzy textures. Opaque colours are imper-vious to light and do not show the object beyond the surface. They create a variety of textures such as dull, matte and glossy. tints shades Principles of Design Movement In nature, evidence of movement of creatures, natural forces or growth create textures. In art forms, an artist composes the elements of design in such a way that the eye moves to all parts of his / her expression. The movement of line also creates areas of textures in art forms. Repetition In nature, the repetition of lines and shapes create textures and patterns, such as lines in wood grain and shapes in crystals. In art forms, an artist repeats the elements of design to achieve not only pattern, but also unity and balance within his/her compositions. Repetition also plays a role in movement. Contrast In nature, surfaces with different textures contrast, such as smooth rocks and rough bark. Contrasting elements of design are used by artists to create emphasis in art forms. 22. Emphasis Emphasis occurs when the eye is drawn to one part of an object or composition. Emphasis can be created when a textural area appears in relation to non-textured areas, such as barnacles on a smooth shell. Emphasis directly relates to balance in that a textured area which creates a heavy effect would be used less frequently than a solid area of light colour. However, if the solid area is dark, more of the textured area would be used in order to create balance. Artists use emphasis to create an area of special interest or focus. Balance Balance as a state of equality can be formal or infor-mal. Formal balance occurs when equal objects are arranged symmetrically, such as the radial balance of a mushroom or the repeated shapes of a starfish. Infor-mal balance occurs when unequal objects are arranged asymmetrically to create an equilibrium, such as the random placement of leaves on a plant. In art forms, areas of texture balance with solid areas in order to produce harmony and unity in compositions. Unity or H a r m o n y Harmony is created when the elements and princi-ples of design work together to produce a cohesive whole. Unity is found in nature, the man-made environ-ment and art forms. An example of the harmony between nature and the man-made environment is Jap-anese gardens. Printmaking Printmaking is the process of transferring the image from one surface to another There are two basic methods to making prints: 1. Relief printing, which involves making a plate, applying colour to its surface, and impressing it on paper. A relief plate is made by adding or subtracting to a surface. 2. Screen printing (silk-screen or serigraphy) which involves making a stencil and forcing colour through its openings by using a screen stretched with silk or other porous material such as organdy Printmaking Methods Illustrated in the Unit monoprints: the making of a single impression from a plate. Paper can be placed over an inked glass plate and drawn on with a pencil. When a print is lifted the drawn image is transferred to the opposite side of the paper. etching: etching or scratching into a surface to produce fine lines. Direct prints from an inked plate demonstrate this process. relief prints: printing a raised surface created by an additive or subtractive method. Glue prints, string prints and lino prints are examples of relief printing collographs: (a combination of collage and graph) a plate is formed by layering shapes of cardboard to a surface to form a collage. screen printing: a screen is stretched with organdy and stencils of paper are made. The ink is forced through the screen and passes through holes in the stencil to material below. 25. Organizing a Printing Area Organizing a room for a unit in printmaking involves setting up areas for supplies, printing, drying prints, cleaning up and displaying prints. All inks should be water-based for safety and ease of clean up. Small printing plates for rolling ink are easier for students to handle than larger ones. These plates can be made of glass or scrap pieces of arborite, depending on the age levels of the students and their abilities to adequately handle the plates when they are washing them. Leaving all supplies in one corner of the room will allow students to become independent and responsible for organizing their own printing areas. However, depending upon class size, the teacher may prefer to organinize four or five areas in the room where groups of students can share supplies and experiment with var-ious colours. All printing areas should be covered with newspaper and should have an adequate supply of printing paper readily available. Damp paper towels should be placed at each printing area so that the students can keep their hands clean and avoid smudg-ing their prints. Prints can be placed on the floor or counters side by side in order to dry. It is more convenient, however if a print drying rack is available so that many prints can be layered to dry at one time. A line of string placed across an area like a clothesline is also a convenient method to dry numerous prints as the prints can be placed back to back and attached to the string with pegs. Printmaking supplies: -glass plates -brayers -lino guards -linoleum gougers -battleship limoleum -Xacto knives •scissors -silkscreens -organdy -gummed tape -masking tape -staple gun and staples •squeegees -hydro amber film -fabric printing dye -extender -fixative A clean up area must have a sink and an adequate supply of paper towels. After washing, the glass plates can be carefully dried and stored in the supply area between layers of newspaper so that they do not stick together. Plates can also be stored on their sides in special racks. Rollers can be washed, dried and stored in plastic tubs. Ink should never be left on a roller to dry. A specific display area for mounted prints will enable students to not only see the results of their work, but will also afford an area where the class can convene to discuss the qualities of the printmaking methods and the success of the class's prints. An easy way to mount prints is to glue them onto a piece of construction paper that is slightly larger than the prints. For the purpose of mounting, the amount of construction paper that is vis-ible behind the print should be equal on the top and sides but slightly larger on the bottom. 27. Orientation: Readiness Activities to Begin Thinking About Visual and Tactile Textures. Activity 1 The Grab Bag: Tactile Textures This activity restricts the students' senses, focusing on tactile, rather than visual sensations. Objective Given a bag containing six natural objects and restricted to the sense of touch, the student is able to differentiate the texture of each object and record a description of each object. The student is also able to relate his descriptions in a group discussion. This activity can be organized in two ways depending upon available resources and teacher preference. A . A Class G r a b Bag: Materials: • one large paper bag • six natural objects (i.e. bark, cones, shells, etc.) • two large sheets of chart paper •thick felt pen Teacher Preparation • Set up a 'texture center' by placing the bag of objects on a table and pinning the chart paper to a nearby bulletin board. On one piece of chart paper, outline the procedure for the lesson. On the other piece, print the heading.'TYPES OF TEXTURES', leaving enough room for each student to record their descriptions of the objects in the bag. • Before the students use the center, it will be necessary to discuss the difference between descriptive words and words that are overused and meaningless (nice, pretty, etc.). Stimulate the students' imagina-tion by brainstorming descriptive words for an object that is not in the bag. For example, pick a holly leaf, pass it to each member of the class and have them describe how it feels. List each description on the board. Sample words might include sharp, hard, prickly, and jagged. Once the list is complete, discuss the effectiveness of each word and have the class judge which words have the best describing power-i.e. prickly. A sample of discussion questions might include:W/w'c/) words describe the uniqueness ot the leaf? Which words also describe other objects and do not really account for the difference between a holly leaf and a cone, for example? Which words really give you no information about the special qualities of the leaf? Encourage the students to select the best possible words that describe the uniqueness of each object in the bag. Procedure • At no time should you look into the bag during this activity. • Place your hand in the bag and pick up an object. • Feel the object and think of all the words that des-cribe its uniqueness. Choose the best word. • Continue for all objects in the bag. • Record your six descriptions on the chart with the felt pen. Follow-up Once each student has recorded his description, repeat the analysis of words as outlined in Teacher Preparation, circling the best descriptive words as you proceed. Remove the objects from the bag and discuss the students' choices of descriptive words. The group discussion is an indicator of each student's sensitivity to tactile qualities and verbal communication. The discussion might include the following questions: Which words could describe a pine cone, for example? Could those words also describe other objcets in the bag? Which words account for the uniqueness of the cone and do not accurately describe the other objects in the bag? B. Individual G r a b Bags: It is more effective for the students to collect objects for grab bags as it gives them the opportunity to analyze textural differences in two ways: to choose a variety of textures and to describe a group of different textures. In this activity, students work in partners, recording their descriptions on record sheets (supplied at the back of this guide). This gives the teacher has a permanent record of the students' sensitivity to tactile qualities. Materials •record sheet (one per student) •pencils (one per partner set) • a large paper bag for each student • six natural objects (collected by each student) Teacher Preparation Each student should be encouraged to choose a variety of objects that have unique qualities and different textures, for example, cones, rocks and shells. They should feel the objects as they choose them for variety. The motivation for this activity can follow the same discussions as outlined in the Class Grab Bag. Procedure • Assemble a bag of six natural objects that have different textural qualities. • Choose a partner and exchange bags. • Place your hand in the bag and pick an object. Do not look at it. • Feel the object and think of all the decriptive words that account for its unique texture. Choose the best word. • List your word on the record sheet. • Remove the object from the bag and identify it on your record sheet. • Continue the procedure with the remaining five objects. Follow-up The class rejoins as a group with their grab bags and record sheets. Choose one object, for example a shell, and have the students that described shells offer their descriptions. Analyze the describing powers of their words as in Activity A. Evaluation Record sheets can be stored in individual student folders for examination by the teacher. The group discussions will also be an indicator of each student's sensitivity to tactile qualities. At this stage, it may become apparent to some students that words cannot at times account for the uniqueness of textures and that another form of communication becomes necessary-visual representation. Activity 2: The Blindfold Walk: Tactile Textures Objective Restricted to the sense of touch by being blindfolded, the student is able to describe the textural qualities of objects that he touches as he walks in an enclosed outdoor area. The student should be able to recall at least three types of textures at the end of the walk. Materials • blindfolds Teacher Preparation Often when the use of one of the senses is taken away from a person the sensitivities of the othPr IZTr Tr? aSe- 'n ' "I a C ! i V i t y ' , h e S t u d e n , S r e , y o n , h e i r s e n s e o f B s Z Z t M r a ^ ^ partner. A d,scuss,on of safety and the responsibilities of the visual partner should be discussed at the beg.nn.ng of the lesson. Boundaries for the activity should be set by the teacher n safe oudoorarea Procedure • The students work in pairs. One is blindfolded; the other acts as a visual guide. The guide's job is to protect the other student from harm, such as tripping over objects. He also leads the blindfolded student to various natural objects and should be encouraged to hand objects to his partner. After several minutes, the blind-fold is removed and the students reverse roles. An unfamiliar section and different objects should be chosen for the second student. •A more controlled procedure it to blindfold one stu-dent and have the partner give him objects for examina-tion while he is seated. Evaluation The class rejoins and the students share their discoveries about the senses and texture as it relates to touch. Add new adjectives to the list. Discussion questions may include: How did it feel to be blindfolded? How did the sense of touch help you cope with the loss of sight? Does touch give you the same information about the surface of an object that sight gives you? Does it give you more or less? Did you learn anything about natural objects that you were not aware of before? that you take for granted? Activity 3 The Viewfinder: Visual Textures Objective Using a viewfinder, the student is able to identify dots, lines and shapes in a section of a natural surface. He is able to record these by drawing the visible texture from the viewfinder onto paper. He is able to identify the cause of the texture during group discussion. Materials • purchased slide frames or prepared viewfinders made of construction paperfsee Teacher Preparation) • thin felt pens • drawing paper 75 cm by 75 cm or in proportion to the viewfinders • coloured construction paper 15 cm by 15 cm for mounting • drawing boards (or drawing tables) • glue • tape Teacher Preparation instructions For the Drawing Activity: This activity focuses on drawing the dots, lines and shapes visible on the surface of an object. Some preparatory work on drawing skills at the begining of the lesson will increase the success of the activity. Firstly, the students start with drawing only the dominant lines or their drawings will take too long to finish. Shapes will then take form and then the patterns within those shapes can be filled in. Every dot or line does not have to be registered as long as the effect of the texture is portrayed. Students need to be reminded to draw what they see, not what they think they see. Dividing the opening of the viewfinder and the drawing paper into imaginary grids will help the students achieve accurate proportions. If they can judge where the dots, shapes and lines meet the borders of the opening they can draw them to correspond with the borders of their paper. •Adapted trom Betty Edwards, Drawing on the Right Side ot the Brain (Los Angeles: J.P. Tarcher, Inc.), 1979, pp. 100-103 'Adapted from Betty Edwards, T o Make a Viewfinder * • To prepare a viewfinder for each student, cut enough pieces of thin cardboard into squares 10 cm by 10 cm. Find the center of the paper by drawing two intersecting lines from the corners: • Slide a ruler down the paper until it intersects with two lines at a distance of 3 cm: • Draw a horizontal line to connect the two diagonal lines. Repeat the procedure for the other three sides in order to complete a square:. • Using an exacto knife or scissors, cut out the 3 cm square to leave an opening. Note: The opening should be in the same proportions as the students' drawing papers. If the opening is square, the draw-ing paper should also be square. the Right Side ot the Brain (Los Angeles: J.P. Tarcher, Inc.). 1979, pp. 104-106. Procedure • Choose an object for study, trying to find one that contains an interesting surface of dots, lines or shapes. • Place the viewfinder over the most interesting part of the surface. • Examine the placement of dots, lines and shapes. Which lines are dominant? Which areas are without texture? Are the dots random or uniform? Are the lines parallel? Do they intersect? Where do the lines enter the opening of the viewfinder and where do they exit? Draw the dominant dots, lines and shapes onto your paper, being careful that their placement duplicates what you actually see through the view-finder. Random dots can be filled in with less accuracy. When your drawing is complete, mount it on con-struction paper and place it on the display wall. Evaluation Students rejoin in front of the display wall and discuss the effects of dot, line and shape in texture. (For example, dots can give a grainy texture, lines a ripply texture and shapes a bumpy texture.) They try to postulate as to whether the texture is a result of biological function (i.e. cones) or the action of external forces (weathering). Questioning: Can you identify which natural object each texture was taken from? What makes it easy or difficult to identify the object? What textural effects do dots, lines and shapes produce? What caused the texture? Why are dots random in some surfaces and uniform in others? Why are lines parallel in some areas and not in others? Vocabulary • grainy, ripply, bumpy, textures • dominant, subordinate lines 39. Study A critical examination of texture, pattern, apace, line and shape In the natural environment through drawing, design and elementary printmaking methods Activity 1: Rubbing (Texture in Natural Surfaces) Objective Given a crayon and paper the student is able to produce a rubbing of a natural surface. The student is able to identify dots, lines and shapes that are found in his rubbing. Materials •mulberry paper (or soft paper) 10 cm by 10 cm • wax crayons Teacher Preparation At the beginning of the activity, define printmaking as the process of transferring an image from one surface to another. 'Rubbings' are an elementary form of printmaking. By making rubbings of natural objects, their surface textures become pronounced. Demonstrate the process of making a rubbing using a flat natural object such as bark. Procedure •Find a dry surface that is textured. A surface that is fairly flat will be easier to mold the paper around. •Place the paper on the object. • Using the side of the crayon, rub the crayon over the paper. Rub in one direction only, using long strokes that carry the crayon from one end of the paper to the other. You may have to go over the surface twice to obtain a clear impression, but make sure that the paper does not slip or a blurred image will result. o 41. History' Rubbings have been made for many centuries, notably by the Chinese. Stone engravings were made in China to provide a permanent record of famous paintings, and rubbings were taken from the engravings (627-643 A.D.). A number of modern artists use rubbings, particularly Max Ernst. Travellers to England also make brass rubbings in the cathedrals. The class rejoins to examine the rubbings and the effects of dot, line and shape. They postulate as to the cause of the surface texture — growth, movement or action. Discussion questions may include: Was the textural effect created by dots? lines? shapes? Are some areas more textured than others? Are some areas smooth? What do you think caused the texture — growth of the object, weathering, action or movement of water? Again, the class can brainstorm adjectives to describe the textural qualities of their rubbings and they can compare the differences between visual and tactile textures. Which gives you more information about the object's uniqueness — visual or tactile examination? Which enables you to identify the object more accurately? Are visual descriptions clear — that is, can one visual representation be confused for another? What effect do dots produce (i.e. grainy)? What effects do lines create (i.e. ripply)? What effects do shapes produce (i.e. bumpy)? •Historical information in the unit is taken from: Harvey Daniels, Printmaking (New York: The Viking Press) Activity 2 The Direct Print: Line in Texture Objective Using printing materials and leaves, the student is able to produce a direct print of a leaf. He is able to relate how line creates texture through group discussion. Teacher Preparation Areas for cleaning equipment, printing and displaying prints need to be set up as explained on p Demonstrate the process of making a direct print of a leaf. Procedure • Collect a variety of fallen leaves of different shapes. • Set up a work area consisting of a glass plate, some ink, a roller, newspaper and printing paper. • Place newspaper on the table • Place the glass plate, roller and ink to one side, leaving a clean area for printingj 44. Place a small amount of ink on the plate and work it with the roller by rolling the roller back and forth. Do not spread the ink over the entire surface of the glass. Keeping the ink in the center of the plate will insure that the roller picks up an adequate amount of ink. Place the leaf on the newspaper, underside facing up. Transfer the ink to the leaf by rolling the loaded brayer over it. The leaf will have to be held in place or it will stick to the roller and may tear if removed. Run the roller in one direction, away from you. Too much ink will produce a thick, blurry image. Too little ink will produce an unclear print. Place the inked leaf on a clean surface, inked side up, and cover it with printing paper. Rub the paper carefully, applying pressure with the side of your hand, to all parts of the paper. You may have to rub the paper several times in order to lift a sufficient amount of ink onto the paper. Carefully lift the paper from the leaf by holding the leaf down at its stem. If it sticks to the paper, turn the paper over and carefully lift the leaf up at one corner. An exacto knife may help you get under the leaf. Slowly remove it by holding the corner and pulling the leaf up and to one side. Hang the print to dry. History The printing of found objects is similar to the making of collages an arranoement of two dimensional found surfaces stuck to a background paper or other J ^ ^ S S S s S Braaue m ^ m a r i y oolta^s. especially during their Cubist periods. Another artist. K u r t S S ^ ^ J S S m e s m y ^ U S C k 6 t S ' b U " 0 n S * h i S C ° " a * e s - H e s , a t e d that "ihe wasSthe wodd Evaluation Exhibit the prints and have students describe the textural qualities of the leaves. Discuss the use of line to create texture and the students' discoveries about achieving successful prints. Questioning: How are the lines positioned in the leaves? Are some parallel? symmetrical? random? How does the position of lines produce the texture of the leaf? Are some lines more dominant? Why? Why are the lines positioned the way they are? Why are lines in leaves different? What do the lines of leaves have in common? Why are there similarities and differences? What problems arose during printing? How could these problems be avoided? What causes a blurry print? What causes a weak print? How would you go about achieving a successful print if you repeated the activity? How can you avoid smudges on the printing paper? Follow-up • Experiment with combining several leaves in one print • Combine objects with different textures to make a collage. Activity 3: Fish Prints Objective Using printing materials and a fish, the student is able to produce a fish print He is able to describe the textural quality of the surface of the fish and account forthecauseof the t e x t u ^ He is able to compare the visual and tactile textural differences of the surface o f ^ f f e h Materials • purchased fish 12 cm - 30 cm (one per 5 students) • vinegar • water • water-based printing ink • rollers • glass plates • printing paper • newspaper • paper towels Teacher Preparation Buy enough gutted fish for the groups in the class. Each group should be no larger than four students. It is interesting to compare the textures of different varieties of fish (i.e. trout, cod) but the lesson is just as effective if only one type is purchased. The fish need to be washed in a solution of three parts water to one part vinegar in order to remove their slimy film. Take care so that the scales are not removed when you wash the fish. Dry the fish carefully with paper towels and place them throughout the room at different printing centers. Procedure • Place ink on the glass plate and work it with the roller. • Transfer the ink to the fish, rolling in one direction towards the grain of the scales. Rolling against the scales will cause them to loosen and fall off, decreasing the success of the prints. • When the fish is sufficiently covered with ink, mold the printing paper around the fish, rubbing the paper gently as you curve it over the body. If too much ink is used, the print will be blurry. Flat areas of the body can be rubbed more than once, but in the areas that the paper is molded around the body, care must be taken to rub the paper only once or a double image will occur. • Carefully lift the paper and hang the print to dry. • Repeat the process for further prints. If you wish to change colour, wash and dry the fish carefully. It should last through several washings and at least a _^ dozen prints before the scales fall off completely. 47. Evaluation The success of the students' prints will be determined by the amount of ink they use as well as their ability to carefully mold the paper around the body of the fish. A discussion of the more successful prints during the activity should benefit the students. What causes thick, blurry prints? What causes the double image? How can the double image be avoided, especially around the fish's head? How can you avoid smudging? After the prints are displayed, textural qualities can be discussed. How would you describe the texture ot a fish tactically rather than visually? How would you describe its visual texture? Why is there a difference? What causes the textures of a fish? -> 48. Activity 4 Modified Texture: A study of line Objective Using a felt pen and paper, the student is able to draw parallel lines in such a way as to achieve the appearance of a textured surface. Materials • felt pens • drawing paper 20 cm by 30 cm • drawing boards or tables • wood (driftwood, etc.) Teacher Preparation Collect or have the students collect pieces of driftwood or other pieces or wood or branches that have knot holes. Remind them to find dead wood and not to damage living trees in their search. Discuss the movement of line around knots and the textural effects created by the lines of the wood grain. Are the lines parallel? How do lines flow around knots? What types of textures are created by lines? Vocabulary • parallel lines, wavy lines, broken lines, areas of tension, horizontal lines, vertical lines, curvature. •Adapted from Ernst Rottger and Dieter Klante, Creative Drawing:Point and Line (New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold Company). 1963. p. 39. Procedure • Draw six small circles randomly on the paper. They should be no closer than three cm apart and should be 3 — 5 cm in diameter. Do not place any circles within 3 cm of the edge of the paper. • Starting at the top of the paper and working to the bottom of the paper, draw a straight line from one edge to another. • Draw a line parallel to the first line, working from top to bottom. It should be approximately 1 cm apart from the first line. • Continue drawing lines across the paper until you are close to a circle. • When a line approaches a circle, it must move around and parallel to it. All subsequent lines must reproduce the curve created by the movement around the circle, since the lines must be as close to parallel with each other as possible (see illustration). • Continue to the side edge of the paper. Evaluation The class rejoins to discuss how lines create "tension points" when they are close together and the different effects created by horizontal lines, vertical lines, and the degree of curvature in lines. Have the students make guesses as to how the lines in wood were formed. Are they a cause of biological function or were they formed by external forces such as weathering? How are growth patterns recorded in these lines? Where do you find parallel lines? Why? What causes broken lines? ^ 50. ACTIVITY 5 Photograms: Shapes in Nature O B J E C T I V E Given a sheet of Kodak studio proof paper, the student is able to collect natural organic and geometric objects and produce a photogram. He is able to differentiate between geometric and organic shapes in class photograms during groups discussion. Materials • natural flat objects • Kodak studio proof paper (1 sheet per student) • sheets of large black construction paper folded in half (1 per student) • powdered photographic fixture for studio proof paper • water • two developing trays (at least as large as the photograms) • two pairs of photographic tongs • an opaque plastic jug • tacks • corkboard \ • stiff mounting paper • glue • glass plates (optional) • drawing paper 20 cm by 30 cm o 51. Teacher Preparation Discuss organic and geometric shapes and encour-age the students to choose objects of varying sizes and shapes. They will need enough objects to fill their studio proof paper. Large empty areas in the photogram make the objects appear as if they are floating and should be avoided. The more successful photograms are created by overlapping objects and by using the full surface of the paper, extending beyond the edges. Paper exposed to bright sunlight produces the best results. If possible, conduct this activity at noon. Because the paper exposes quickly, time must not be wasted. Once the paper is rempveq\from its protective box, the objects must be placed on top of it as soon as possible. If a dark room is available, each sheet of paper can be placed inside an opaque envelope. Large sheets of black construction paper can also be folded in half to make folders to hold the paper. Since light cannot pass through the construction paper, the folders can be taken outside by the students and once they decide on their arrangement of objects, the photographic paper can be slipped out of its folder. In the same way, once the photogram is exposed, the objects can be quickly removed and the photographic paper can be quickly returned to its folder until/it can be removed for "fixing". If the photograms are not "fixed", the images will last only a short time and eventually the whole paper will expose. Fixing the paper is a simle process which can be done by the students once their photograms are completed. Fixative for studio proof paper can be purchased at any photographic supply store. It should be stored in an opaque plastic jug until it is needed. Set up a "fixing area" by mixing the packaged fixative with water according to the directions. Pour the mixed solution into a developing tray. Pour room temperature water into a second developing tray. Supply plastic tongs at each tray for the handling of the photograms. 172 Procedure • Collect a variety of natural objects — some that are organic-shaped (i.e. leaves) and others that are geometric-shaped (i.e. mushroom caps). • On the drawing paper, arrange the objects to form a unique design. Have some objects overlap the edges of the paper and others touch each other. Experiment with arranging the objects until you have found a pleasing arrangement. • Remove the studio paper from its protective black folder place it on a flat surface and quickly repro-duce the arrangement of your objects onto it. Since the paper exposes in light, it helps to shade the paper with your body or another piece of paper while you arrange the objects. • Place a clean glass plate over the objects to hold them in place. If there is no breeze, this will not be necessary. • Expose the arrangement to the light. Within minutes the paper will begin to turn dark, purple. The longer it is exposed, the darker it will become. • Remove the glass plate and the objects after approximately five minutes and quickly place your photogram in the black folder. • When you are ready for the fixative, quickly remove the photogram from the black folder and place it in the tray marked FIXATIVE. • Leave it in the tray for two minutes, agitating it by gently moving it back and forth with the end of the plastic tongs. 54. After two minutes, pick up the photogram with the tongs. Grasp the corner of the paper, lift it out of the tray and let most of the fixative drain from your paper back into the tray. Place the photogram in the tray marked WATER and agitate it gently for two minutes. Grasp the corner of the photogram with the tongs and drain most of the water back into the tray. Tack the photogram to the corkboard in each corner and leave to dry. When dry, glue the photogram onto stiff mounting cardboard. As the edges of the photogram tend to curl it may be necessary to place a weight on top of the mounted photogram once It is glued in order to obtain a flat mount. Tack the photograms to a display board. Evaluation shapes be effectively ISS& to ^ JSiS^£SLJ^ ,rian9'e? How can How are these "negative" shapes r n ^ T r t e ^ t t n T P "* , h e b a c k 9 r o u n d ? r r Activity 6 Shapes in Nature: Tracings Objective By arranging objects of different shapes on paper the student is able to create areas of negative space. By using a pattern of smaller shapes, he is able to create texture in the negative spaces on the paper. Materials • Texture Study Charts: one per student (supplied in the guide) • flat, natural objects • paper 20 cm by 30 cm (depending on size of objects; larger paper may be necessary) • pencils • thin felt pens Teacher Preparation Review shape as it is used to create texture, and organic and geometric shapes. Encourage the students to be selective in their choice of objects by trying to find unique and varying shapes. Discuss ways that dots, shapes and linescan be arranged to form shapes that create texture as you go over the Texture Study Chart (see chart). Procedure • Complete a Texture Study Chart. • Select an assortment of objects with different shapes (i.e. shells, dried starfish, rocks, mushroom caps, wood). Choose enough objects to fill your paper. • Place the objects on your paper, allowing some to ' touch or overlap each other and some to overlap the edges of the paper. • Trace the outline of each object, removing each from the paper as you finish. Where objects over-lap, do not trace the part of the object that is con-tained within another object (see example). • Choose one of the patterns from your Texture Study Chart and fill in all the negative space or background with the pattern. 176 Evaluation Students rejoin to share discoveries on how dots, lines and shapes create texture and how negative space it important in composition in art forms. How is line used to form shapes? How does shape create texture? Describe the kinds of textures that circles create. How about triangles or rectangles? How does shape create space? What is negative space? How do overlapping objects and boundaries of the paper help to create interesting composi-tions? How is negative space important in producing balance within a composition? ACTIVITY 7 Repeat Shapes: Pattern Objective Using positive and negative space, the student is able to create a unique shape. By repeating the shape he is able to create a pattern. Material* • black construction paper cut into twelve pieces 8 cm by 10 cm • white paper (22 cm by 30 cm) • scissors • glue • pencils • scrap paper 22 cm by 30 cm • mounting paper Teacher Preparation Review organic and geometric shapes and positive and negative space to motivate the students' imaginations in their creation of shapes. Procedure • Divide a piece of 22 cm by 30 cm paper into a grid containing twelve 8 cm by 10 cm segments. Using a ruler, measure across the top of the page and • place dots on the paper that are 8 cm apart (see diagram) • Repeat the procedure at the bottom of the page. • Join the dots with a ruler to form three parallel lines. Turn the paper and repeat the process in order to form a grid. In each square of the grid, experiment by drawing shapes, applying what you learned from the pre-vious lesson. Your shape should tiff the square, touching the edges of the square once on each side. Choose the most interesting shape. Cut out the chosen shape to use as a tracer. Trace and cut out twelve duplicate shapes out of black construction paper. Draw a grid on white paper using the method out-lined above. Arrange the twelve black shapes onto the grid using one of the sequences shown on the opposite page. Glue the shapes into place, making sure that the edges of the shapes meet the grid lines. Mount your pattern and pin it to the display board. Evaluation Examine the students' use of positive and negative space in their creation of unique shapes for their repeat patterns. Questioning: Which shapes produce effective patterns? Do the patterns remind you of any natural patterns? How is the principle of movement important in pattern? Give examples of pattern in nature. What causes pattern in nature? Examine the student's use of shape space in his creation of a symmetrical design. Questioning: What is negative space? What is symmetry? What is balance? Give examples of negative space in nature. How is negative space created in nature? How does negative space become important in composition? Application To apply the discovering from the study to various printmaking techniques. ACTIVITY 1 Stamp Prints: Imaginary Shapes O B J E C T I V E The student is able to invent an organic shape by combining geometric shapes. He is able to cut the shape into the surface of a potato and print its image onto paper to form a pattern. M A T E R I A L S • large potatoes split in half (1 /2-1 per student) • paring knives • water-based paint thickly mixed (like cream) or ink • printing paper (white) • scrap paper • sponges or make-shift printing pads Teacher Preparation Review organic and geometric shape and relate repeating shapes and textures to pattern as in the study. Discuss patterns in nature, having students brainstorm the causes of pattern in nature (in bees' nests, for example, the repetition of a hexagon creates pattern). Prepare printing pads by brushing paint onto thin pieces of felt or sponges. Make sure that the paint is not too thin or the print will become fuzzy. P R O C E D U R E • On scrap paper experiment with creating new shapes by combining geometric and/or organic shapes. Choose the most interesting shape and draw it onto the surface of a cut potato. • Using a knife, carve away all the negative space. Cutting the potato surface into a square before beginning will make aligning the stamps when printing much easier. • Dip the potato into the printing pad and then onto the paper. Controlled patterns can be created by first drawing a grid with pencil onto the paper. Patt-erns can be created by placing repeated shapes on a horizontal, diagonal or vertical line. The potato shape can also be turned for each print to make patterns within patterns. Colours can be changed for each grid. E V A L U A T I O N Discuss the roles of shape and repetition in the creation of pattern as in the previous lessons. How does repetition create movement? Which shapes are effective in forming patterns? What causes blurry prints from the potato? How can this be avoided? How can problems of aligning each print be solved? F O L L O W — U P A variation of this activity is to make two different stamps and alternate them in one pattern. Diagonal patterns are also effective (see illustrations). ACTIVITY 2 Direct Prints: Line  O B J E C T I V E By applying his use of line from the Texture Study Chart the student is able to etch a design onto an inked glass plate. At least half of the surface of the design must be textured. M A T E R I A L S Teacher Preparation As described on page26.set up areas for printing, clean-up and displaying prints. All activities in the Application encourage the students to apply their knowledge from the Study activities. Explain that etching is the process of scratching an image into a plate and then taking a print to transfer the image onto paper. Vocabulary • etching, negative prints P R O C E D U R E • Completely cover a glass plate by rolling ink onto its surface. • Using blunt tools, scratch or etch a design onto the inked glass plate. Apply your discoveries of lines to create textured areas by using cross-hatching, parallel lines, wavy lines, etc. If you are not satisfied with the design, simply reroll the surface with more ink. • Carefully lift the paper once you have finished and hang the print to dry. • A negative print of the same image can be obtained by placing anew sheet of thin paper over the glass plate and applying pressure with a roller in order to transfer the image. Depending upon how much ink was originally used, a second negative print may be possible (see example). oo 67. V A R I A T I O N Mono-Prints: Line This procedure produces a reverse print. P R O C E D U R E • Ink the glass plate and carefully place a sheet of paper over its surface. Do not apply pressure to the paper while you are working and avoid touching it with your hands. • Using a sharp tool (pen or pencil), carefully draw your design onto the paper. • Carefully place paper over top of the plate being careful not to smudge the etching. • Using a clean roller, apply equal but light pressure onto the back of the paper in order to transfer the image. • Carefully lift the print and hang it to dry. E V A L U A T I O N Display the students' work on a bulletin board. Examine the application of the use of line to create texture from the study exercise. Questioning: How is line combined to form texture? Why is it effective to divide a composition into textured and non-textured areas? Give examples of objects in nature that have contrasting textures. Why do you think this is so? ACTIVITY 3 Glue Prints: Line to Create Texture O B J E C T I V E Using repeated lines or shapes, the student is able to create the illusion of texture in an image. The student is able to make a plate of the image by drawing the image onto a cardboard plate and building a relief of glue on top of the lines of the drawing. M A T E R I A L S • glass plates •'water-based printing ink • brayers • mulberry paper • newspaper • Lepage's glue in nozzle squeeze bottles • heavy cardboard or pulp board (22 cm by 30 cm) T E A C H E R P R E P A R A T I O N Review the discoveries about texture and printmaking made by the students in previous lessons. Focus on the use of line to produce textures in the Study activities, especially their Texture Study Chart. P R O C E D U R E • Draw an image onto a sheet of cardboard, paying special attention to your use of line to create texture. • Along the lines of the pencilled image, squeeze out a line of glue. • Set aside the plate to dry, preferably overnight. • Ink the glass plate and roll the loaded brayer over the surface of the cardboard image. • Place a sheet of paper over the image and. rub it .with your hand. • Lift the print and hang it to dry. It will be noted that some ink will be retained by the background sec-tions of the image. This will produce interesting textured areas that contrast to the more highly defined glue line. E V A L U A T I O N Examine the use of glue lines to create texture. What type of quality is produced by the glue lines? Why are they more highly defined than the background area? What textural effect is created by the background areas? Why does this happen? What causes some areas to have no ink? How is the medium of printmaking effective in producing textures? V O C A B U L A R Y • relief prints, printing plate V A R I A T I O N Raised lines can be formed on a plate by gluing string to cardboard. ACTIVITY 4 Styrofoam Prints: Line (relief prints) OBJECTIVE By using line, the student is able to impress a textural image for printing into a piece of styrofoam. He is able to obtain at least two successful prints from the plate. M A T E R I A L S • styrofoam sheets or meat trays • brayers • tools for scratching and incising (pins, pencils, knives and other sharp tools) • glass plates • water-based printing ink • mulberry paper. T E A C H E R P R E P A R A T I O N Sheets of styrofoam can be purchased from most local art supply stores. However, untextured styrofoam meat trays work just as well. Cut the raised edges from the meat trays so that a flat surface remains. Use the side that is untextured. Give the students advance notice of the activity so that they can have a few weeks to collect meat trays from home. Remind them to wash and dry them carefully, making sure that they do not scratch the surface of the tray. When printing with styrofoam, the first few prints will contain little ink as the styrofoam must absorb a small quantity of ink before it acts as a good plate. Students should therefore make at least six prints in order to obtain sharp images. P R O C E D U R E • Using various tools, experiment with creating a line drawing by pushing tools into the styrofoam or by carving pieces of the styrofoam away. • Ink the surface of the styrofoam in the same way as the glue plate. • Apply a piece of mulberry paper to the plate and rub. • Lift the print and hang it to dry. • Once it is dry, mount the print and pin it to the 'display wall. EVALUATION VARIATION:Clay Prints Examine the use of line to create texture and the skillful use of tools in this printing technique. Questioning: What are the limits of styrofoam? Are lines easy to incise into the surface? What about shapes? How can line be used to create texture? How effective is the contrast between solid and textured areas in prints? What causes prints with little ink? How do you obtain a clear print? Printing plates can be made from clay. Roll out a slab of clay and let It stand until It Is semi-hard. Using cutting tools, Incise a design Into the clay and then print the plate. The plate must not be allowed to harden or It will crack or break and be unsuitable for printing. Plates can be kept moist by applying damp paper towels over them and then placing them In plastic bags. ACTIVITY 5 Cardboard Prints O B J E C T I V E Using shapes of cardboard, the student is able to create a textured image for a printing plate. He is able to make at least two successful prints from the plate. M A T E R I A L S • pulp board • thin cardboard • scissors • glue P R O C E D U R E • Using scrap paper, experiment with combining shapes to form a composition. You may choose to create a design or an image. • Once you have decided on your composition, cut the shapes out of cardboard. Several layers of cardboard on top of each other make an effective texture. For example, if you create a fish, cut its basic shape out of cardboard. Cut its scales out of additional cardboard and glue them to the basic shape. • Glue all the cardboard pieces onto a sheet of pulp-board to form a plate. Do not make more than three layers of cardboard in any area. • Lift a print and hang it to dry. • When dry, mount the print and pin it to the display board. E V A L U A T I O N Examine the students' use of shape in creating texture in their compositions. Questioning: How do the textural effects of line and shape differ? How does the quality of printmaking itself enhance textural effect? What type of texture is best created by large shapes? small shapes? lines? 76. ACTIVITY 6 Lino Prints O B J E C T I V E By using line and shape to create texture, the student is able to draw a textural image onto a piece of linoleum. He is able to use lino tools to carve away areas of the lino in order to form a printing plate He is able to produce at least two successful prints from the plate. T E A C H E R P R E P A R A T I O N Discuss the effects of leaving areas without texture as in the Study activities. Areas that are untouched will print the colour of the ink. Carved areas will produce a textured surface because of the nature of the material. Deliberate textured areas should be strived for. A demonstration of the use of lino tools is necessary (see illustrations). P R O C E D U R E • Make a sketch on scrap paper of an image that achieves a balance between textured and non-textured areas and positive and negative space. • Experiment with scrap pieces of lino to become accustomed to the effects of the tools and materials. • Transfer the drawing to the lino by covering the back of the drawing with a thick coating of pencil. Place the drawing on top of the piece of linoleum right side up and trace over the original lines. • Carve out those areas which are to be textured. Do not touch the areas that are to remain a solid colour. • Ink the lino plate and lift a print. EVALUATION Examine the student's use of solid and textured areas and his attempts to create deliberate textures. Questioning: How does linoleum lend itself to the crea-tion of textural areas? How can the tools be used to create texture? How does the contrast of solid and textured areas make the composition more interesting? How does the amount of ink on the printing plate affect the results of the print? Can certain effects be achieved by using a small amount of ink? 78. 198 1 9 9 d 00 ACTIVITY 7 DEVELOPMENTAL LINO PRINTS: Subtractive Method: colour in printing O B J E C T I V E By alternating between carving and printing a piece of linoleum, the student is able to produce a developmen-tal print containing at least three colours. M A T E R I A L S • as lino activity 6 • facilities to wash the lino plate to print different colours. T E A C H E R P R E P A R A T I O N Discuss colour mixing and the colour wheel as explained on p. 21. The procedure (or registering the plate sev-eral times on one paper will have to be dis-cussed. The easiest method for registering the plate and the prints Is to cut each exactly the same size. For each print the comers of the paper would align perfectly on top of the corners of the plno plate. Registration blocks can also be used (see lllustatlon). P R O C E D U R E | • Three stages are recommended for this procedure, although, with patience, more steps can be added. As in the preceding lesson, carve a lino plate but leave most of the block intact. • Take the required number of prints from the plate. Once it has been re-cut, no more prints of the stage can be taken. For experimentation, the same colour should not be used for all prints. Working with sev-eral analogous colour schemes will allow for com-parison at the end of the lesson. • Once the plate has been washed and dried, | further cutting can be done for the second stage. Note that any areas that are cut away from the block will remain the colour as printed In stage one, and that the parts left uncut will become a second colour. • Overprint the lino plate onto the original prints, being careful to follow register marks, and using a second colour. It is easier to place the plate onto the paper to align it to register marks and than carefully flip it in order to rub the surface of the paper. • Repeat the process for the third overlap. E V A L U A T I O N Examine the students' use of colour and application of colour theory from the study. QuestioningHowdoes the[use of colour add to the interest of an image? Which colour combinations coloTs? combinations create a mood? effect? Do certain textures look better in specific 202 co GO ACTIVITY 8 Screen Printing: Colour and Shape O B J E C T I V E Using shapes the student is able to make one to five stencils for screen printing. He is able to choose colour combinations for his design and produce one successful screen print. M A T E R I A L S • screen stretched with organdy • fabric dye • white paper (bond) • scissors • exacto knives T E A C H E R P R E P A R A T I O N MAKING A SCREEN Simple screens can be made by stretching organdy over any frame made of cardboard or wood. To make a frame that can be used repeatedly the following steps can be followed: 1. Cut four lengths of wood 45 cm. Cut each end at a 45 degree angle. 2. Assemble the lengths to form a frame and nail together. 3. Cut a piece of organdy 45 cm square. 4. Staple the organdy to the top of the frame, working from side to side, stretching the material before it is stapled (see illustration). When completely stapled, the material should be taut enough that a coin could bounce on its surface, like a trampoline. 5. When using water-based ink, it is not necessary to cover the edges of the frame with tape., However, a strip of masking tape placed over the staples will protect the hands from any staples that may be slightly raised. The tape will most likely have to be replaced after each time the screen is washed. P R O C E D U R E • Geometric Designs — Experiment with overlap-ping geometric shapes to form a design. Choose one and draw the composition on white bond paper. For each colour used, trace one complete design. This will help with aligning the shapes on the fabric. • Creatures — Draw an animal or bird using contour, dominant lines. Experiment with dividng the crea-ture into shapes. Draw a master and trace one copy for each colour. • Place the fabric on newspaper. If a T-shirt is used, place two sheets of newspaper inside. Make sure the material is flat. Cut holes in the stencils where the ink should pass. Place the stencil in its designated position on the material. Protect the rest of the fabric by covering i all showing material with single sheets of news-! paper. These should overlap the stencil by about I 7.5 cm. Place the screen over the stencil. Apply^.a small amount of ink across the top of the organdy. Using a squeegee, pull the ink to the bottom of the screen. The more pressure applied to the squee-gee, the less ink will move through the silk. • Turn the squeegee to pull the ink back to the top ol the screen. Repeat if necessary. • Carefully lift the screen. One student should hold the fabric down so that the stencil stays adhered to the screen. 86. Hang the material to dry before doing the next colour. Remove the stencil from the screen and-wash the screen. Repeat the process for the next colour. E V A L U A T I O N Examine the students' use of shape and colour, as well as their handling of the materials and the method of screen printing. Questioning: What designs are the most effective? What problems arise from overlapping shapes? What colour combinations are effective? Why? What causes the ink to come out too thick? How can you control the amount of ink that passes through the screen? V O C A B U L A R Y • pulling the ink, stencil, squeegee, screen Criticism A critical examination ot works of art and the man-made environment. ACTIVITY 1 Criticism: Elements of Design in Art Forms O B J E C T I V E S • The student knows ways in which artists draw ideas from nature for their visual statements. • The student knows how artists use printmaking techniques to create the illusion of texture. • The students can compare their use of texture with other student and artist work. M A T E R I A L S • students' prints • examples and reproductions of artists' works T E A C H E R P R E P A R A T I O N Set up a display ot student and artist work In the class. Examples should be available from local school boards or magazines. Student work should include examples from each printing technique conducted in the unit ACTIVITIES 1 Comparison of student prints: • Students view the display of prints. • The teacher leads a discussion of the works. Example: What qualities of natural textures have been brought out in the prints? How was the illusion of texture created? 2. Comparison with artists' works: • Students critically examine artists' works and try to determine the source of their visual statements. Works other than prints can be examined, for example paintings. • The teacher leads a discussion of the qualities of printmaking techniques that create the illusion of texture. • The students compare their own use of texture and printmaking with that of artists. E V A L U A T I O N The teacher will have to judge the quality of the statements that the students make. The sample record sheets in this unit include a method for judging and recording statements. Examples: Is the student willing to take pan] in discussions? Is the student confident and eager to express his ideas and discoveries? Is the student inventive in his thinking? Has the student shown an increased awareness of texture throughout the unit? Is the student able to describe the quality of textures in works? ACTIVITY 2 Criticism: Elements of Design in Man-Made Structures O B J E C T I V E Using the knowledge of elements of design in nature, the student is able to make a comparison of elements of design in man-made structures to those found in nature and share these in group discussions. The students can critically discuss the use of line, shape, space, texture and colour to achieve unity in buildings. M A T E R I A L S • photos of man-made structures T E A C H E R P R E P A R A T I O N • Arrange a field trip or create a display of photos of various types of man-made structures. ACTIVITIES Lead a discussion of the elements of design as see In buildings. Brainstorm how the design of a building blends or Interferes with Its surroundings. Discuss the use of line, shape, colour, space and texture In the building. A discussion of the principles of design will help the students criticize the architectural design of the building as well as the harmony created between the building and Its surroundings. E V A L U A T I O N Judge the qualities of the students' statements. Give examples of local buildings that have unique shapes. Questioning: What is the most common shape used in architectural design? Why? What is the purpose or function of shape in architecture? How are lines created in buildings? How do apartments compare to natural dwellings (i.e. bees' nests)? What do igloos compare to in nature? How is glass used in architecture? fountains? How is nature incorporated with man-made structures? What limits does an architect have when he plans a building or environment? What should he consider? F O L L O W - U P As a culmination to the unit the students can design their own environment - park, school, recreation center, etc., - or building. Rough drafts can be drawn onto scrap paper in preparation for making a plate using any of the printing method studied in the unit. They should incorporate each element and principle of design into their compositions, paying particular emphasis to texture. Records Records of students' progress in the unit are an essential part of evaluation. Types of evaluation records include open-ended questionnaires, checklists and anecdotal records. Some records are for students' use while other records are used by the teacher. Before drafting a method of evaluating and recording the teacher must decide the purpose of the evaluation and the point of reference for judging the students' progress. Will the work of the student be the point of reference or will the teacher observe the student in action? Discussions and interviews should also be recorded. The students and the teacher should also engage in an evaluation of the unit upon its completion and during its execution so that strengths and weaknesses can be established and modifications can be made. Student recording sheet for the orientation Orientation List all the words you can think of that describe the quality of the objects that you felt in the "grab bag" and on the "blindfold walk":  1. 2. 3. 4. 5. * 6. 7. Name: Date: Teacher's observation checklist Student's Name: Dates of Unit: The student exceptional average below average Student's Name Dates of Unit: Date Assignment Comments Texture Study Chart Stipple: The use of dots placed randomly within a space. A grainy texture results. Circlet: The use of circles placed randomly, overlapping to create a bumpy texture. Dots can be placed inside each circle. Scales: The overlapping of circles to show only half of each circle. Placed in a definite pattern to produce a scaly texture. Lines: The placement of lines parallel to each other to produce a ripply or stringy texture. Lines can be bent, curved, wavy or straight. Cross-hatching: The deliberate intersection of parallel lines at right angles to create a diamond-shaped mesh. Makes areas appear tones of grey. Solid Areas: The blackening in or deliberate neglect of any area to create solid areas of black or white. Used to contrast or emphasize textures nearby. My Texture: Be daring and original. Use nature to help you. Choose random or deliberate styles. Students' unit evaluation Name: Date: What did you like about the unit? What did you dislike? Did you find anything difficult of confusing? (Give examples.) Did you find anything too easy? (Give examples.) What activities did you learn the most from? Why? What would you have changed? Why? Teacher's Summary Report Name of student: Unit: Dates: 1. As an Artist: -can describe textures -can produce textures -can do a rubbing -can do a direct print -can do a monoprint -can do a relief print -handles tools with skill -experiments -etc. 2. As a Critic -shares ideas -shares discoveries -can describe textural qualities in objects and works of art -can determine sources of texture in works of art -is aware of the quality of printmaking in producing texture -is eager to express ideas -is inventive in his thinking 3. As an Historian: -is aware of artists throughout history who have used natural textures as inspiration -is somewhat aware of the history of printmaking. Teacher's planning and evaluation checklist Unit Dates: Grade(s): Planning: Details: Purpose of Unit: Objective: Outcomes: Students' developmental level: Students' interests considered: Students' needs considered: Subject: Media: Products: Style: Design elements: Design principles: Depth: Breadth: Sequence: The student working as: 1. artist 2. critic 3. historian Unit Evaluation: 1. values reflected 2. educational implications 3. social implications 4. flexibility, etc. 5. strengths 6. weaknesses. RESOURCES: Visual resource, particularly reproductions of artists' works, available from the V.S.B. are limited. It is often difficult to obtain resources when they are needed, unless they are booked months in advance. Reliance on these resources also reduces the opportunity for new activities spontaneously to evolve from planned activi-ties. It is recommended that teachers accumulate their own file of resources. Magazines are a good source. Included here is a list of available resources from the V.S.B. that pertain to this unit and its possible follow-up activities: Slide Sets: VG 1-7.4 Perception VG 1-7.3 Texture in Man-Made Articles VG 1-2.16 Texture Forms in Nature Art Reference Slides: ARS 130 Texture and Pattern ARS 144 Prints ARS 135 Trees ARS 148 Landscape ARS 149 Water Forms ARS 151 Flowers Picture Sets: VP 1-4.1 Linoleum Block Printing VP 1 -7.7 Perception VP 1-7.4 Surface VP 1-12.1 Artistry in Nature Charts: VC 1 -4.2 Lithograph and Engraving VC 1 -4.4 Bookbinding and Printing Filmstrips VF 1-4.15 Advancing with Collage VF 1-4.17 Potato Printing VF 1-4.18 Cardboard Printing VF 1-4.21 Blocks that Print VF 1 -4.22 Textile Art Through the Ages VF 1 -4.26 Linoleum & Woodcut VF 1 -4.37 Cardboard & Collagraph Printing VF 1 -4.38 Leaf & Clay Printing VF 1 -4.39 Linoleum & Woodcut Printing VF 1 -4.40 Silk Screen Printing VF 1 -4.41 String & Glue Printing VF 1 -4.42 Vegetable & Gadget Printing Films: VT 1 -2.11 Monotype Prints VT 1-2.4 Picture Making at the Gang Age VT 1-4.9 Surface Decoration VT 1 -4.34 Art from Found Materials VT 1-7.18 Discovering Texture VT 1-7.17 Discovering Creative Pattern VT 1-7.19 Discovering Ideas for Art VT 1 -7.22 Art Elements: An Introduction VT 4-15.58 Colour in Nature VT 1 -2.34 Discovering Composition in Art VT 2-2.12 The Colour of Life VT 4-1.189 Animal Camouflage VT 4-1.176 Nature's Camouflage VT 4-7.28 Light and Color VT 4-7.16 Color and Light: An Introduction VT 4-7.32 Learning about Light VT 4-8.7 Seasons of the Year It is recommended that the teacher preview the resources. Some may not be applicable to specific grade levels. The untrained teacher should find the films and filmstrips especially beneficial in planning lessons. Bibliography: Curriculum Development: Arnheim, Rudolf. Art and Visual Perception. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1974. The book is grounded on the principles of the psychological thinking and the experiments derived from gestalt theory. The chapters include balance, shape, form, growth, space, light, colour, movement dynamics and expression as they relate to perceptual mechanisms. Of particular interest to developers is the chapter on growth which investigates why children draw the way they do. Arnheim claims that they draw what they see rather than what they conceive. Boyle, C J . Guidelines for Developing an Art Program. (Vancouver School Board) B.C.T.F., 1975. Boyle presents a brief but useful discussion of curriculum considerations in art. It is presented in a "recipe" format and Is adequate as a supplementary resource for developers. Chapman, Laura H. Approaches to Art in Education. New York: Harcourt, Brace, Jovanovlch, Inc., 1978. Chapman offers theory summaries on the nature of artistic process and child development, and discusses the role of art in society. She suggests activities in drawing, painting, printmaking and graphic design, photography, film and television, sculpture, crafts, and architectural and environ-mental design. Each topic is channeled into personal expression, the artistic heritage and art in society as a curriculum framework. It is an excellent book for clarification of conception, program planning, evaluation and resources. Conrad, George. The Process of Art Education in the Elementary School. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall. Inc., 1964. Built around the concept of process, the text provides a detailed analysis, using theory and research, of four questions: 1. Why is art important in elementary school education? 2. What is art education? 3. How do we recognize the process of art education In the work of children? 4. How do we use art as a means to contribute to the education of elementary school children? It is an excellent resource material. Dewey, John. Art as Experience. New York: Minton, Balch and Company, 1934. Although a rather technical book, its studies on experience, expression and perception are of value to conception clarification. Eisner, Elliot W., ed. The Arts, Human Development, and Art Education. Berkeley, McCutchan Publishing Corporation, 1976. Through a selection of readings, the book focuses on two themes: 1. The social and political conditions that give direction and establish priorities for school programs. 2. The understanding of development. It is an excellent guide to curriculum decision-making. Eisner, Elliot W. and Vallance, Elizabeth, eds. Conflicting Conceptions of Curriculum. Berkeley: McCut-chan Publishing Corporation, 1974. Through selections of essays, Eisner presents five conceptions of curriculum: development of cognitive processes, technology,self-actualization, social reconstruction-relevance and aca-demic rationalism. The book's value comes when it is used as a means to developing a conception of education curriculum. Eisner, Elliot W. Education Artistic Vision. New York: The Macmillan Company, 1972. Eisner focuses on two concerns about art education in schools today: 1. The peripheral position that it has with regard to general education. 2. The emphasis on productivity within art programs. He attempts to justify the importance of art education, and bridge the gap between art and the academic subjects by showing that art is a product of intelligence and by advocating the instruction of skills in art. Eisner, Elliot W. The Educational Imagination. Don Mills: Collier Macmillan Canada, 1979. The book represents an expansion of approaches to educational inquiry. Eisner presents the notions of educational criticism and connoisseurship as a move towards qualitative evaluation, rather than quantitative. Although it addresses general education, it is of value to those in the art field. Eisner, Elliot W. and Ecker, David W., eds. Readings in Art Education. Waltham, Massachusetts: Blaisdell Publishing Co.. 1966. Through a selection of readings, the book involves the reader in decision-making as to his own values and beliefs about art and art education. Through a discussion of various theories and research on creativity and factors that influence human develoment in art, the text helps the reader identify effective teaching strategies. Gaitskell, Charles D. and Hurwitz, Al. Children and Their Art. New York: Harcourt, Brace, Jovanovich, Inc., The book deals with the theoretical basis of art education and the practical methods for teaching art. As an excellent guide to program planning, it presents a thorough examination of all aspects of curriculum design in art. It provides suggestions for activities, materials and evaluation. Hurwitz, Al and Madeja, Stanley S. The Joyous Vision: A Sourcebook lor Elementary Art Appreciation. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1977. The text is an excellent source of activities that give students the competence to make informed judgments about the aesthetic merits of works of art. It provides definitions, history, and suggested resources, activities, units and programs. Journal ofAesthtic Education. Urbana, Illinois: The Board of Trustees of the University of Illinois. The journals offer essays and book reviews that are helpful to developers of art education curriculum. Journal of Curriculum Studies. The journals offer essays and book reviews that are helpful to curriculum developers in any educational area. Lansing, Kenneth M. Art, Artists and Art Education. Dubuque, Iowa: Kendall-Hunt Publishing Company, 1976. Influenced by Viktor Lowenfeld, Lansing offers assistance to teachers in the development and application of a philosophy of education. The book itself as a philosophical foundation as well as a practical orientation. The topics include the nature and value of art, artistic growth, formulating objectives and building a curriculum. Linderman, Earl W. and Herberholz, Donald W. Developing Artistic and Perceptual Awareness. Dubuque, Iowa: Wm. C. Brown Company Publishers, 1979. The underlying premise in the text is that early stimulation of the child's sensory mechanisms Is essential to free his creative power. The text emphasizes the importance of grounding a program in a clear conception of art education, and presents theories on the nature of art and creative thinking, as well as child art development. Suggestions for motivation, materials and ways to develop awareness for aesthetic judgment and art heritage are provided. Lowenfeld, Viktor and Brittain, W. Lambert. Creative and Mental Growth. New York- Macmillan Co.. Inc., 1975. The text addresses the Importance of art education as well as the importance of develomental stages in program planning. It offers suggested activities which develop the creative potential and aesthetic awareness of children. The developmental stages are explained in depth and materials and activities suitable to each stage are presented. Lowenfeld, Viktor. The Nature ol Crative Activity. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul Ltd., 1952. Lowenfeld's study of drawings, paintings and sculptures of weak-sighted children concludes in the presentation of two creative types: optically-inclined and haptically-inclined. His findings can be adapted to children with normal vision, and should be considered in program development in art. State of Ohio Department of Eduction. Guidelines for Planning Art Instruction in the Elementary School ol Ohio. 1970. Anexcellentresource book for program planning and evaluation. Suggestions for program content demonstrate the use of depth and breadth as well as goals for personal fulfillment, improving the social order and transmitting the cultural heritage. The book emphasizes the considerations of local needs and goals as a part of the development process. Tri-County Goal Develoment Project. Course Goals in Art. K-12 (Critique Edition). Portland, 1974. As a summary of goals in art programs, the text is useful in aiding developers establish the program goals for their curricula. Vancouver School Board, Elementary Arts Curriculum (Draft), 1981. The draft offers goals, objectives, resources, definitions and suggested activities to advise the local developer in program planning. Attempts to present unit plans have been made. Werner, W. and Aoki, T. Programs (or People. Vancouver: Centre for the Study of Curriculum and Instruction, University of B.C., 199. The text offers an excellent discussion of the components of program development: intents, activities, materials and evaluation. Werner comments on the importance of underlying concep-tions in curriculum development as well as the process of develoment. Yochim, Louise Dunn. Perceptual Growth in Cretivity. Scranton: International Textbook Company, 1967. Focusing on the develoment of perceptual and creative skills, the text deals with the significance of art education. From an analysis of paintings of children of all ages, Yochim suggests methods and experiences that cultivate image-forming skills and foster depth in sensory perception. Recommendations for teacher responsibility and classroom organizations are presented. 103. Specific Topics in Art: 1. Printmaking Excellent resource books on the history and techniques of printmaking include: Capon, Robin. Introducing Graphic Techniques. London: B.T. Batsford Limited, 1972. Using the theme of fish, Capon presents seventy-eight lessons in the graphic arts. He presents printing techniques as well as lessons using painting, drawing and paper work. Daniels, Harvey. Printmaking. New York: The Viking Press, 1971. Harvey presents a comprehensive guide to printing technique. Green, Peter. New Creative Print Making. New York: Watson-Guptill Publications, 1967. The text explores relatively simple methods of printmaking, but is adequate as a supplementary resource book. Saff, Donald and Sacilotto, Deli. Printmaking: History and Process. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Wilson, 1978. A comprehensive survey of printmaking in history and printing techniques is presented. The text is well suited as a primary resource material. 2. Drawing: Edwards, Betty. Drawing on the Right Side of the Brain. Los Angeles: J.P, Tarcher, Inc. 1979. Designed for people who cannot draw at all, the book presents a series of exercises that concentrate on the right side of the brain. Supported by research, Edwards concludes that drawing is teachable. Her exercises can be adapted to other media. Rottger, Ernst and Klante. Dieter. Creative Drawing: Point and Line. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold Company, 1963. The text takes the approach of "creative play", and presents numerous examples of children's art using line to create texture and enclose shapes. It is an excellent resource book of drawing exercises. 224 Appendix 2 The Day Art Rationale Assessment Instrument (Day, 1972) 225 Completed Copy From Teacher 1 ID#. WHY TEACH ART? (The Day Art Rationale Assessment" Instrument) ^ Rank each of these statements according to how closely they correspond with your own beliefs.• I s_2 3 U 5 6. 7 8' 9__ very close not close FA. The primary purpose of art in the. curriculum is to- foster creativity through fLstudio art activities. Ag4-&lfls<:i is thp nnily plaoo many of the—students "have tc J^ befeave.. ereatively. (Jfy B« Ai U I M uurk WfafeJt-gon'tinu&i, Lu aluink, we must provide' students with competencies J/,and encourage attitudes that will promote art as a leisure time activity in (j$> 7^adult years. C. Art classes should have an. integrating effect on the student's personality and 7 flL should, provide, him with opportunities to release tensions and express inner !•• feelings using art materials. D. . We. must attempt tc increase students' knowledge of great art of the past and i( present so that they will have the necessary understandings to appreciate the art of the future. , E . ^ We must provide visual education wrrorTMphaois-an^jUie^EFFECTA-of maso modia, ' an spjfawT^and adyjartl^Bins on ouj>-p3?esent aadTTtk^ ure em^f^nto«nts^---8ur^_art stuaerfcs .will be~Tomorrow • s voters^ taxpayer's and consumers. F.^ . Art is the major'means of transmitting our cultural heritage. We should attempt to acquaint students'with arts of the world's cultures as well as with art that is unique to the culture of this country. • . • . . . . . . .:• $ ' - .. • G. -In wrlri whirh i i brrnnrnc incrm-ii ncly mn"lirini ?;H; iu+"nintn4, nnH 1i -i ,"T"i nn"1 ; /o) /^ w e should attempt.to cultivate respect for intuitive and subjective thinking. Tfl'Much of what is good in life will be forsaken by those.who try to be completely ' objective.. • I. Provide your own rationale i f none of the above approximate yours. 226 Completed Copy From Teacher 2 VHY TiACK A?.T? (The Day Art Rationale Assessment Instrument) Rank each of these statements according to how closely they correspond with your own beliefs. ^ I 2 3*1 L 5 6 t> 7 8 £ 9 £ 6 r very close ' not close A. The primary purpose of art in the curriculum i s to foster creativity through • studio art a c t i v i t i e s . Art class i s the only place many of the students have tc behave creatively. ^2. As the work week continues to shrink, we must provide students with competencies and encourage attitudes that w i l l promote art as a leisure time activity in adult years. /. Art classes should have an integrating effect on the student's personality and should provide him with opportunities to release tensions and express inner feelings using art materials. D. We must attempt tc increase students' knowledge of great art of the past and present sc that they w i l l have the necessary understandings to appreciate the " art of the future. We must prcvide visual education with emphasis on the effects of mass media, urban sprawl, and advertising on our present and future environments. Our art students w i l l be tomorrow's voters, taxpayers and consumers. G O *ff. Art i s th% major means of transmitting our cultural heritage. Ve should attempt tc acquaint students with arts of the world's cultures as well as with art that i s unique to the culture of this country. .G. In a world which i s becoming increasingly mechanized, automated, and dispersonal, we should attempt to cultivate rerpect for intuitive and subjective thinking. Much of what i s good in l i f e w i l l be forsaken by those who try tc be completely objective. y/K. Art has a unique contribution to make to the growth of the learner. So other school subject can provide the training of visual aesthetic sensibilities sc v i t a l fcr an aware public. Art objects need to be exposed as v i t a l sources of knowledge. I. Provide your own rationale i f none of the above approximate yours. d w^jseiC (XO^cc^^ W i ^ i ^>afV. or KA of W 227 Completed Copy From Teacher 3 . ID? WHY TEACH ART? (The Day Art Rationale Assessment Instrument) Rank each of these statements according to how closely they correspond with your own beliefs. I A 2 H 3 G L C 5 F 6 ft 7 3 8 E 9 very close not close A. The primary purpose of art in the curriculum is to .foster creativity through studio art activities. Art class is the only place many of the students have tc behave creatively. B. As the work week continues to shrink, we must provide students with competencies and encourage attitudes that will promote art as a leisure time activity in adult years. C. Art classes should have an'^integrating effect on the student1 s personality/and,, should provide him with opportunities to release tensions and express inner feelings using art materials. D. We must attempt tc increase students' knowledge of great art of the past and present so that they will have the necessary understandings to appreciate the art of the future. E. Ve must provide visual education with emphasis on the effects of mass media, urban sprawl, and advertising on our present and future environments. Our art students^will be tomorrow's voters, taxpayers,and consumers. F. Art is the major means of transmitting our cultural heritage. We should attempt to acquaint students with arts of the world's cultures as well as with art that is unique to the culture of this country. G. In a world which is becoming increasingly mechanized, automated, and dispersonal, we should attempt to cultivate respect for intuitive and subjective thinking. Kuch of what is good in life will be forsaken by those who try tc be completely objective. H. Art has a unique contribution to make to the growth of the learner. No other school subject can provide the training of visual aesthetic sensibilities so vital fcr an aware public. Art. objects need to be exposed as vital sources-of knowledge. I. Provide your own rationale i f none of the above approximate yours. Appendix 3 Teacher Questionnaire 229 Teacher Questionnaire (completed by each teacher) ' ID #. TEACHER QUESTIONNAIRE I. Summarize your training in art (diplomas or degrees, special courses) and give particulars as to the areas of concentration. 2. Which areas of art are you most interested in?  — • I 3. How many years have you taught? 4. How many years have you taught art? 5. Which of the following are you? regular classroom teacher; subjects special subject teacher; specify 6. Currently, how many art classes do you enroll? (give particulars of grade level and class size)  7. In planning your art curriculum, which instructional resource materials do you use?  8. Which areas are covered in your curriculum? (Do you concentrate on some areas more than others? Do you vary your concentrations from grade to grade?) 9. Have you taught printmaking before? 10. If yes, which aspects of printmaking have you taught? II. Have the classes involved in this study received instruction in printmaking this year? (If yes, please specify techniques covered.) 12. Are printmakjng supplies available in your school? (Specify) 13. If you have not taught printmaking before, explain the factors that have prevented this from becoming part of your curriculum. 14. If you have taught printmaking before, explain the factors that might have limited the range of techniques that the students have been offered. Adapted from WEDGE Teacher Questionnaire Appendix 4 Teacher Logs 231 Teacher 1 (Kathy) (One sample from a total of fi v e logs) ID# TEACHER LOGS TOPIC ^ ^ n ^ ^ ^ r ^ ^ ^ LESSON NO. J DATE ftpU ?<>>[*«, How many minutes did Y O U spend on each -part of the .lesson?* What type of teacher preparation was necessary in order to conduct the lesson,?  Identify any instructions that we not clear. in mi*. Vts*or. 1 Identify any parts of the" lesson that you found difficult to teach and describe what  the difficulty was. Ktio^ S uit*£. o^r^ ^ H^c*jub>!tt«.W.. aJoooV Vflow«vO-«^  |w>Wtu>- . ' u*- ~¥iAV v\*A>pte>. T> U>c»i Vlio-«i3 vixa-»V v>cxv4 l t_tx\cc_^ >*Cb ^cn »-« • -Ve> %<->>.<-<'i m Lit - <e>fcCAosfe u U e x A l L t V i n « - e > » O t i / ^ e c l 7xL*\?> gyrtww •WaotjraA o -^VC**- *ooV>S U * * o » j t . Describe any additional information that you feel students should have in order to do the activities more effectively. AA*l*inyyaJ> U«.%>«H.aJUV>«N mooJLgA VV»»«- Ve>Vtg. -Wns Identify activities with which the students found difficulty and describe what the  difficulty was, gam^ c. eVw. 'no-p -<g5VvV c\>^t-ejei..±r\ c^ owgjs "V^ -m^ oAtoi •yPj »' Describe anything-exceptional (good or bad) that happened during the lesson. Reasons? ~^ 1 * >~ " ~——/ ^ a o ^ j i . ;ioaa«jii&. What was the level of student participation? what influenced their participation? ; How do vou think the students found this lesson? (interesting, boring, useful) Why?_ , \ State^youg feji!?f*o?r of the lesson: its value, clarity, need for modification, etc.. . Adapted from WEDGE Teacher Logs 232 Teacher 2 (Liz) (One sample from a total of six logs) ID# TEACHER LOGS TOPIC Tf>4- Grnk? fca^G^dw/c^gp Dw 3 LESSON N0.__J DATE How many minutes did you spend on each part of the lesson? What type of teacher preparation was necessary i n order to conduct the lesson,? 1 Qv/v-i ofP record ^U-eeH Identify any instructions that we not clear. Identify any parts of the lesson that you found d i f f i c u l t to teach and describe what  the d i f f i c u l t y was. Describe any additional information that you feel students should have in order to  do the a c t i v i t i e s more effectively. Identify a c t i v i t i e s with which the students found d i f f i c u l t y and describe what the  d i f f i c u l t y was. ?sj. . C- 'C; 0 b k v v \ v\hH-> C.Wo\e<£. CH v\jQv~ci S Describe anything exceptional (good or bad) that happened during the lesson. Reasons? What was the level of student participation? What influenced their participation? How do you think the students found this lesson? (interesting, boring, useful) Why? State your opinion of the lesson: i t s value, c l a r i t y , need for modification.etc. , P W o u l d S o W l t M i d i C C X V L - O V I O 9 h o ^ d -T_ WQi Vo-o r^staecf. Adapted from WEDGE Teacher Logs 233 Teacher 3 (John) (One sample from a total of ten logs) iDfr TEACHER LOGS TOPIC (2&rdL fijrZfigj (usClH\_ O^J^^xiiUrt^CxJc^^ LESSON NO. ^ DATE Ha<>.'bn- 8 3 - QfuasdZpt*"-p ^ ^fr 6 i c<jZ 7:5 How many minutes did you spend on each part of the lesson? / brief •. x'-CLnAUo sinp%y jyl^^Pn^aJicZ^ . What type of teacher preparation was necessary i n order to conduct the lesson? Identify any instructions that we n o t * W . ^ ^^^^J J^fZ^ JtC^Je^j LjHL Identify any parts of the lesson that you found d i f f i c u l t to teach and describe what the d i f f i c u l t y was. .» / • • - / ; - /? / > k-ido CU^ Jju\.Cyf^-uL? Pf^t. <i**t /facet SvtaJL JUU^ 7 ^ Describe any additional information that you feel students should have i n order to //,75"/-^cj;c do the a c t i v i t i e s more effectively. ^ , ' Identify a c t i v i t i e s with which the students found d i f f i c u l t y and describe what the  d i f f i c u l t y was. Describe anything exceptional (good or bad) that happened during'the lesson. Reasons? :ifjs(z d(^JL Z^ehjL ce&itr- UJTX^- UMJI CJC^A. &^Lcf-What was the level of student participation? What influenced their participation? H'iofL tlt^jL. . • M^iHzgug ikj Siucc£^ t£ ^f^U >k<rr4-''art '!>(< ccJLL ad'\r&CtiA*~t s^sJ- 9ft^&>JU r How do vniiyt.Mnfc the students found this lesson? (interesting, boring, useful) Why? State your opinion of the lesson: i t s value, c l a r i t y , need for modification.etc. Adapted from WEDGE Teacher Logs Appendix 5 Guidelines for Completing Logs 235 Guidelines for Completing Logs (Copies supplied to each teacher) GUIDING QUESTIONS FOR TEACHER LOGS; As you complete the teacher log for each lesson, please consider the following questions: 1. How did the presentation of the material ( i . e . illustrations, format, samples, type) affect your use of the material? • . 2. What situational factors influenced your lesson and your use of the material? Consider the following: ' . - class size - grade level of students - classroom space - arrangement of classroom furniture - a v a i l a b i l i t y of art materials - a v a i l a b i l i t y of other resources - limits of time - motivation of the students . ^ 3. Does the theory i n the book support the practical material i n the lesson? 4.. Does the lesson accomodate or force a change i n the teaching-learning style in existence in your classroom? 5. How does the lesson align with your conception of art education? 6. Are there signs of the students' s k i l l s progressing with each lesson? In what way? 7. Do you modify the lesson? In what ways and why? 8. Is there any change i n the students' attitudes towards art as your use of the material continues? In what ways? 9. Does your view of the use and value of the material change as you use the material? How? 10. Are there lessons that you find more worthwhile than others? more clear than others? In what ways? '.' • Flea.se identify the times and days that you w i l l be using the program i n your class so that visitations can be arranged. Indicate the preferred days of the week that you w i l l be available for after-school interviews. 236 Appendix 6 I n i t i a l Teacher Interview Questions 237 I n i t i a l Teacher Interview Questions (format for the i n i t i a l interview with each teacher) 1. What resources do you use in planning your a r t curriculum? 2. How much do you re l y on your experience, t r a i n i n g or interest in a r t when you plan? 3. Have you attended a r t workshops or sought the help of the art consuItant(s)? If yes, how helpful are these resources? 4. What resources would help you improve your program planning? 5. Do you follow the V.S.B. Art Curriculum guide? To what extent do you modify or adhere to the guide? Give reasons. 6. What is the scope of your art curriculum? 7. How do you sequence units and a c t i v i t i e s within units? 8. What areas of a r t do you concentrate on most? Give reasons. 9. What importance does the school ( p r i n c i p a l , s t a f f , students) place on art? 10. Do you ever give the students extra a r t periods? Are a r t classes ever cancelled for other a c t i v i t i e s ? 11. Do you conduct some a c t i v i t i e s outdoors? Do you arrange f i e l d t r i p s ? Give p a r t i c u l a r s . 12. How are the students grouped in your classes? In what ways do you see t h i s grouping as e f f e c t i v e ? 13. How do you organize and d i s t r i b u t e materials in your classroom? Is the ar t room shared with other teachers? How does t h i s a f f e c t your program? 14. What s k i l l s do you feel the students acquire in your program? 238 15. How do you see a r t as " f i t t i n g in" to other areas of the school curr icuI urn? 16. How do you feel that a r t is important to the total development of the student? What can a r t do that other subjects cannot? 17. What do you think the students enjoy most about art? What do parents want? 18. What kinds of a c t i v i t i e s do you think students should engage in (working as a r t i s t s , c r i t i c s , h i s t o r i a n s ) ? 19. Do you use examples of a r t i s t s * work in your class? If yes, how are they used? 20. Do the students study the a r t of d i f f e r e n t cultures? How is t h i s organ i zed ? 21. Do the students share and discuss t h e i r work with other students? How? 22. How much importance do you put on displaying students' work? Where are these displayed? 23. What constraints prevent you from teaching a r t the way you would like? 24. How would you l i k e to change your a r t program or are you s a t i s f i e d with i t ? 25. What value and use do you think t h i s curriculum material w i l l have in r e l a t i o n to your established program? Reference made to the "Canadian Content Unit Teacher Survey" (Massey and Werner, 1977) and "Evaluation: Sense-Making of School Programs" (Werner, 1977). Appendix 7 Transcript of Teacher Interview 240 Transcript of Teacher Interview I n i t i a l Interview With Liz (Teacher 2) (One sample from a total of 12 teacher interviews) S: What resources do you use in planning your a r t curriculum? L: Books, pictures, s l i d e s , photographs, visual aids, hand-outs. S: How do you rely on your experience, t r a i n i n g or interest in art when you plan? L: I'm self-taught and highly interested. I have learned from other teachers, collegues. I was also trained at a teacher's college in England and took night courses at a r t school there. S: Have you attended workshops? L: Yes, and I find the hand-outs from these u s e f u l . S: What resources would help you improve your program planning? L: More visual a i d s . For example, I wish I could have the V.S.B. resources when and as long as I want them. S: Do you follow the V.S.B. Art Curriculum guide? L: No. S: What is the scope of your a r t program? L: It b a s i c a l l y includes drawing, painting, fabric a r t s , ceramics, and some sculpture. I l i k e to o f f e r a variety of media. S: How do you sequence a c t i v i t i e s ? L: It's sort of a t r a n s i t i o n of media. For example, the students might use t h e i r drawings for a painting. The grade fours and fives have more success with painting than the older ones. For the fours to sixes I a l t e r the subject or change the media depending on what appeals to them. Printmaking, for example, would become more d i f f i c u l t with each grade l e v e l . The younger ones might do object printing while the older ones wou Id do Iino. S: What importance does the school place on art? L: The p r i n c i p a l has an awareness of the need for a r t . The s t a f f , in p a r t i c u l a r the primaries, are keen and appreciative. The students are not as serious as I would like them to be. They see i t as a fun time and don't appreciate the learning and e f f o r t they need to do. S: Do you ever give extra art periods? 241 L: Yes, in pa r t i c u l a r with my c l a s s . S: Are a r t classes ever cancelled for other a c t i v i t i e s ? L: Yes...I ike LEC and computer. S: Do you conduct a c t i v i t i e s outdoors? L: Yes, for example rubbings and sketching. I also take the students down to Jericho Beach. S: How are students grouped in your classes? L: They choose the i r own groups for group a c t i v i t i e s such as murals. But I don't do many communal a c t i v i t i e s . S: How do you organize and d i s t r i b u t e materials in your classroom? L: I don't use monitors. They s i t in groups of four or six and each student is responsible for getting supplies and cleaning up. They do t h i s group by group when they are ready and quiet. S: Is the a r t room shared with other teachers? L: Yes, but I find that doesn't a f f e c t me. S: What s k i l l s do you feel the students acquire in your program? L: S k i l l s in looking, drawing - s e n s i t i v i t y and awareness. A background in a r t appreciation, experience with d i f f e r e n t materials and working. I guess the emphasis is that there's a lot to learn. It is n ' t something that j u s t happens. It can be improved by learning. S: How do you see a r t as f i t t i n g in with other subjects? L: I feel that i t can be integrated but often i t ' s abused and made into busywork. S: How do you feel that a r t is important to the total development of the chiId? L: It imposes a real d i s c i p l i n e . The subject is the d i s c i p l i n e , not the teacher. It's a challenge to some students who might find other subjects too easy, although i t can fru s t r a t e some. S: What do you think the students enjoy most about art? L: The doing. S: What do parents want? 242 L: I don't know. S: What kinds of a c t i v i t i e s , l i k e a r t i s t s , h istorians and c r i t i c s , do you think the students should engage in? L: Primarily as a r t i s t s . The students are interested in art history. I would use examples of s t i l l l i f e s here. They act as c r i t i c s in t h e i r own l i t t l e groups when they t a l k about what they like in each other's work. S: How do you use samples of a r t i s t ' s work? L: They are examples of a p a r t i c u l a r lesson. Related - not separate. S: Do the students study the art of d i f f e r e n t cultures? L: No. S: Do the students share and discuss their work with other students? L: Yes, in smaller groups. S: How much importance do you place on displaying students work? L: That's very important. I use the room and the hallways although I find there is limited room in the display cases. S: What constraints prevent you from teaching a r t the way you would like? L: The demands of other subject areas. Mainly the amount of time I have with the students and the numbers in each c l a s s . I'd rather work with twenty-four rather than thirty-two. S: How would you l i k e to change your art program? L: I'd like to spend more time on fa b r i c a r t s . I find that very time consuming. I'd also l i k e to take the students out of the school more, li k e to g a l l e r i e s . But managing them and organizing transportation is a hassle. S: What value or use do you think Surface Probe w i l l have in r e l a t i o n to your established program? L: I think i t w i l l o f f e r me new ideas and d i f f e r e n t approaches. 243 Appendix 8 Final Teacher Interview Questions 244 Final Teacher Interview Questions (Used as guidelines and st a r t i n g points for the fi n a l interviews) 1. What do you feel is missing from the book? 2. How much did you use the book in planning? 3. Exactly how did you use i t ? 4. How does the Rationale align with your philosophy? 5. Did you use the evaluation questions at the end of each lesson? 6. What else would you have liked to use from the book? 7. Will you use the book next year? How? 8. Summarize the book's strengths and weaknesses. Appendix 9 Transcript of Taped Teacher Interview 246 Transcript of Taped Teacher Interview S: K: S: K: S: K: S: K: S: K: S: K: S: K: Final Taped Interview With Kathy (Teacher 1) (One sample from a total of 12 teacher interviews) The presentation of the material in the book, like the format... Very straightforward. How about the instructions? It was easy to follow. Very straightforward. Much appreciated in some cases, e s p e c i a l l y with the h i s t o r i c a l aspect. Some of those lessons were more detailed than others but i t was easy a f t e r looking at the more detailed ones where you had given the background and the h i s t o r i c a l a p p l i c a t i o n s of that p a r t i c u l a r thing and suggestions, i t was easy to modify that lesson or pick up parts of that for another lesson. Which is what I did for most of the book a c t u a l l y . I don't think I ever did an isolated lesson from the book. So you b a s i c a l l y read through the lesson and ... then looked for other things in the book that would complement or enhance or help explain...or took something that you had explained -for example, how you had extracted a technique from nature - in one aspect and had explained t h i s in one lesson - It was always easy a f t e r having seen i t in one lesson to say 'Oh yeah, that applies to ...' Did the i l l u s t r a t i o n s help? Yup. Did you ever show them to the kids? Yes and no. I never did in a f u l l a r t block but in the Wednesday periods before, yes. I did alt my demonstrations in my room, I'd say, 'This is how i t can be used and did you know that these people...' That kind of thing. So you referred to the book to give the kids examples. Yes. Was the book l e f t out on the table? Not often. But I didn't have any hesitancy in leaving i t there if I had something that I wanted to show them. S p e c i f i c a l l y , how did the i l l u s t r a t i o n s and examples in the book help you? 2 4 7 K: They helped me f i r s t of a l l when I was practising those techniques. I had an idea of how one successful p r i n t did look. I don't think there was a time when I didn't practice one before I did i t [with the k i d s ] . But if that had of happened I c e r t a i n l y would have used the book to say 'Look what people can do with i t . ' S: How did the organization of the a c t i v i t e s a f f e c t your use or acceptance of the a c t i v i t i e s . K: I imposed my own organization on i t . But within that imposition I used your four organizational categories. Within a single lesson I picked something that would be a hands-on a p p l i c a t i o n , something that would be h i s t o r i c a l . So within the four category organization I would for every lesson either refer to - "do you remember when we did the Grab Bag and those of you who did rubbings can you remember how that Grab Bag f e l t and how i t applied to the rubbing and then you can see i t in your glue p r i n t . " Then always that c r i t i c i s m . That c r i t i c i s m category was not d i f f i c u l t but I never did a formal c r i t i c i s m lesson. I did that one kind of post hands-on thing a f t e r each lesson. My Friday discussions -they were tremendously successful but I r e a l l y wanted to - if i'd had more time with t h i s , what I r e a l l y wanted to do was f i r s t of a l l a walk - some sort of outside look at the nature, look at the a r c h i t e c t u r e a c t i v i t y and can you r e l a t e i t to what you are doing. And second, get something h i s t o r i c a l or even something that they hadn't done themselves so that there could have been some sort of objective c r i t i c i s m . Which isn't to say that the c r i t i c i s m they did - I was impressed with how objective they were with t h e i r c r i t i c i s m . S: So, instead of doing a s p e c i f i c lesson on c r i t i c i s m of the environment or an a r t i s t s piece of work like in t h i s section of the book, yours were c r i t i c a l evaluations and discussions with the kids on Friday and was related to t h e i r hands-on experience. K: Yes. S: Did class size influence what you did? K: Yes. I would have been much less reluctant to do - in fact, I would have done a lot more - what I consider complex things and what I consider to be more involved things that required more attention by fewer people. Like the optional a c t i v i t i e s with T - s h i r t s . I would have loved to have done s i l k s c r e e n s . My class was so active and so rambunctious that I don't think I could have done photograms with them very s u c c e s s f u l l y . Which is too bad because I r e a l l y wanted to do photograms. S: Were you limited or influenced by the grade level at a l l ? K: I guess influenced is the word. Yes, I was aware of the grade level -not the grade level as much as the ski I I l e v e l . I geared the program to build on what they already had. S: And classroom space? 248 K: In my classroom i t was a minimal problem. People had to stand on desks and chairs to see sometimes, but I don't p a r t i c u l a r l y care about th a t . In your classroom (the a r t room) u n t i l I got used to i t , u ntil I knew what space could be used e f f e c t i v e l y - minimal. No your classroom was very well organized in that respect. S: A v a i l a b i l i t y of a r t materials? K: No problem. S: A v a i l a b i l i t y of other resources? K: I would l i k e to have had the book e a r l i e r than I did only because I would have used the school board resources li s t e d at the back. You had some prints l i s t e d in here that I r e a l l y wanted - picture sets - a lot of things in here that I didn't feel I had time to order and get, preview and show. S: Any limit s because i t was May and June? K: The t e s t i n g . It's funny; my kids were so rowdy anyway, but they never got uncontrolled. I was r e a l l y surprised but I was aware that that was going to happen at some point. I would have liked more time to play with the u n i t . There were times when I thought things were done ha s t i l y when they shouldn't have been. S: How about motivation of the students? K: Superb. They were r e a l l y good. S: Did the book accommodate or force a change in your teaching st y l e ? K: I suppose i t accommodated but only because I made i t accommodate I suppose - No, not only because... but because i t was presented in a way that I could take i t and accommodate i t to me. Maybe because you and I have similar teaching s t y l e s . S: How did the lessons align with your conception of a r t education? How do you think the book f i t s in with your conception? K: Well, i t matches very c l o s e l y . I think I would like to have seen t h i s book in the context of the whole curriculum and then answer that question. But, from the use I made of the book and from the theo r e t i c a l point of view, i t matches i t very c l o s e l y . I don't r e a l l y see any need to change that. What I did do - which I assumed I was at l i b e r t y to do - was stress d i f f e r e n t things in d i f f e r e n t lessons and choose - for example - let's see, was i t glue prints that I used the leaf print? I don't remember. Anyway what I did do was figure out what I wanted my stress in that lesson to be and then b u i l t up to that stress by using the four categories. S: So in that lesson - for example, if you were doing glue p r i n t s , then in 249 that one lesson, you t r i e d to do a b i t or o r i e n t a t i o n , a b i t of study and a b i t of a p p l i c a t i o n . . . K: and then the c r i t i c i s m . Yeah. S: Were there signs of the student's s k i l l s progressing with each lesson? K: Yes. No question. S: S k i l l s in what area? K: S k i l l s in a l l kinds of areas. In colour - they were wild and r e a l l y e nthusiastic about playing with the colours to the point of mixing and matching and matching and adding things to the i r ink to make the colour softer or harsher, l i g h t e r , darker or change i t in some way. Experimentation with technique. They wanted to combine techniques. They wanted to go further with the techniques they had learned. They were keen to try d i f f e r e n t things and they learned from i t . The thing that r e a l l y h i t home was the last one I did were several of them did th e i r f i r s t p r i n t - the styrofoam - and then saw ways that they could take that - add or subtract from that styrofoam plate to make i t better or worse according to what I had taught them about line and shape and texture - how to create texture. S: From the texture study chart? K: You bet. It was r e a l l y neat to see. They had done that chart about midway through the unit but I always referred to i t - I always in my demonstration sa i d , "How do you think I could change t h i s to make i t better?" S: So there were s k i l l s in technique as far as applying textures. K: And s k i l l s in awareness. You wouldn't have believed - r e a l l y i t was r e a l l y n ice. I honestly didn't know that i t would work quite as well as i t d i d . By the end of t h i s unit, kids were coming up to me and saying, "Come and see t h i s t r e e " . It was r e a l l y funny. I mean, i t wasn't quite that blatant but you could t e l l that they had been walking home and had seen something that a c t u a l l y related to the art lesson -or a house that had used some of these texture techniques. There was one of those r e d - t i l e d roofs that was a l l scaled and the kids were tal k i n g about i t . S: Was there any change in the students' a t t i t u d e s towards a r t as your use of the material continued? K: I don't know because once I saw the kind of r e s u l t s that were coming out of i t and what kind of learning was going on, I got r e a l l y excited about i t and that may have changed t h e i r attitudes a l i t t l e b i t . S: Did you view of the use and value of the material change as you used i t ? 250 K: Well, I don't think I ever thought i t was valueless. I know I never thought that but I didn't expect the d r a s t i c r e s u l t s I got - the successful r e s u l t s I got. So...yeah. S: Were there lessons that you found more worthwhile than others? K: I'm tempted to say no, but I'm going to say yes. The r a t i o n a l e behind that is how much e f f o r t did I put into a c t u a l l y s i t t i n g down and preparing the lesson. No, that's not true... S: I guess in some ways the ones that you could do in that amount of time, you d i d . . . K: Yes, time was d e f i n i t e l y the c o n s t r a i n t . What I was going to say was the ones that I a c t u a l l y sat down and went 'Yes, I can r e l a t e t h i s to t h i s to t h i s and here's how i t w i l l work best.' But the fact is I did that with most of the lessons - a l l of them. But I think the book stands on i t s own. S: What do you think is missing from the book? K: S p e c i f i c a l l y , I can think of some of these lessons don't contain a h i s t o r i c a l perspective. For the sake of ease from a teacher's point of view maybe you might have included a few more physical examples of work. S: When you went through the lessons, did you find that there was enough information in the lessons that you could carry on? K: Oh d e f i n i t e l y . For example. I had wanted to do lino prints and I had looked at that lesson quite c a r e f u l l y and I was a l l set to go until the time ran out. S: Did you use the evaluation questions at the end of each lesson? K: Yes. S: On Fridays? K: Yes, but you have to remember that I rarely said anything on Fridays. I j u s t let them go. What I did was, a f t e r the lesson on Thursdays I would either put a l l of these or the ones I had chosen (the evaluation questions) on the board plus whatever questions I had come up with that I wanted them to t a l k about. Any they stayed on the board until the next morning and those were the questions that the kids were supposed to think about. S: Can you t e l l me s p e c i f i c a l l y how you organized your week? 251 K: Wednesday was the introduction to the lesson and that was usually some sort of ori e n t a t i o n a c t i v i t y . Sometimes there was a carry over from the week before because I was integrating i t with Social Studies and Language. But there was always an introduction to whatever they were going to on Thursdays - some sort of o r i e n t a t i o n , some sort of h i s t o r i c a l perspective, some sort of 'Of what value is t h i s ? ' and 'Do you see i t anywhere - does i t come from nature? does i t come from architecture? Why is i t a v a l i d a c t i v i t y beyond j u s t play?' Sometimes, time permitting, that was the demonstration period so that on Thursday we could walk into the a r t room and ju s t go. S: Can you recount a s p e c i f i c work? K: Okay, one Wednesday, I introduced the texture technique. S: From the Texture Study Chart? K: Yeah, and then how the techniques had come from the Grab Bag A c t i v i t y which had been done weeks before - how they related to that, how they could be used. A l i t t l e b i t about space and how i t could be used appropriately - how they could use line appropriately - how to use the techniques that were in the book. I did those on the board and then assigned the Texture Study Chart. They didn't a c t u a l l y do the chart r i g h t away. After I handed i t out and i l l u s t r a t e d the techniques -these charts at the back of the book were invaluable, let me t e l l you -and then I did a leaf p r i n t to demonstrate how they showed up in nature - now j u s t printing a leaf could i l l u s t r a t e most if not a l l of them. That worked r e a l l y w e l l . And then Thursday morning - no, Then I d i d , half of a glue prin t because I wanted i t to dry before I printed i t Thursday morning. My demonstration of a glue prin t involved getting my design down on paper and a c t u a l l y going over i t and using whatever the Texture Chart had done and what I had thought about space and a l l that in a p r i n t . It dried overnight and then the next morning I demonstrated how to print i t . They finished t h e i r texture charts in class and they a c t u a l l y designed t h e i r glue prints and either had the glue down on the pr i n t or were to take the glue home that Wednesday so they could p r i n t Thursday. Also on Wednesday I had demonstrated very b r i e f l y a cardboard plate. Those kids who wanted to took enough cardboard home to one overnight. Z i l l i o n s of them d i d . It was r e a l l y n i c e . It turned out that they almost organized themselves. S: Did you get the optional a c t i v i t i e s from the book? K: Some of them and some of them I got from other sources or made them up or whatever. They were related to whatever was the stress of the lesson that week - that was the only c r i t e r i a I put on them. It didn't even have to do with printmaking or ink - Well, i t had to do with printmaking but didn't have to do necessarily with ink or anything e l s e . Like the T- s h i r t s as an optional a c t i v i t y partly had to do with colour mixing and ac t u a l l y that was nice because there were so few colours that they had to mix them. Partly there was a stress on 252 rubbing. A lot of them did pillow cases, making borders out of the rubbings using bark or whatever. That was an optional a c t i v i t y with f a b r i c crayons the week we did rubbings. Later on, when I found the fab r i c paints, they could a c t u a l l y make s t e n c i l s . Kind of as a g u i l t f e e l i n g for not doing si Ikscreening and because they were so enthusiastic about having done the i r pillow case and because the f a b r i c crayons didn't work welI on T- s h i r t s because they had to be stretched so much and because I had played with the paints at home and they had worked so much better, I did that as the last option. The fabric crayons had run a I i t t l e a f t e r they were washed so a lot of kids a c t u a l l y bought t h e i r own sets of fa b r i c paints when they saw the resu I t s . If you teach a r t next year, w i l l you use t h i s book? Yes. How do you think you'll use i t ? I t ' l l depend on the class and the t i m e - a l l kinds of things. How much did you think your background tr a i n i n g or interest helped? Interest - not t r a i n i n g . The interest, I think, helped. 253 Appendix 10 Student Interview Questions 254 Student Interview Questions (Used as st a r t i n g points for discussion. A total of three student interviews were conducted.) 1. Describe the types of a c t i v i t i e s that you did in printmaking. 2. What did you enjoy the most? Why? 3. What did you find d i f f i c u l t ? Why? 4. How did you come up with images to print? 5. What did you learn from the unit? 6. What would you have changed? How? Why? 7. How did you solve problems or find answers to your questions? Appendix 11 Student Artwork 256 Styrofoam P r i n t Sample of student work from Kathy's class (Teacher # 1 ) This sample i l l u s t r a t e s Kathy's concern for experimentation with texture and her use of the Texture Study Chart. The student applied the techniques from the chart into image development. 257 Lino P r i n t Sample of student work from Liz's class (Teacher #2) This sample i l l u s t r a t e s Liz's concern for image development. The lino p r i n t was the t h i r d stage in the development of an image of a f i s h . Cardboard P r i n t Sample of student work from John's class (Teacher # 3 ) This sample i l l u s t r a t e s John's emerging concern for image development, described the image as t r i t e as compared to images that might be develc around a theme. 

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