UBC Theses and Dissertations

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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Noun modifier production in a comparison of graphic and non-graphic computer-assisted instruction Long, Gayle E. 1983

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NOUN M O D I F I E R PRODUCTION I N A COMPARISON OF G R A P H I C AND NON-GRAPHIC C O M P U T E R - A S S I S T E D I N S T R U C T I O N by G A Y L E E. LONG B. S c . , U n i v e r s i t y o f W a s h i n g t o n , 1966 A T H E S I S S U B M I T T E D I N P A R T I A L F U L F I L L M E N T OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n t h e D e p a r t m e n t o f C u r r i c u l u m a n d I n s t r u c t i o n S t u d i e s F a c u l t y o f E d u c a t i o n We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s a s c o n f o r m i n g t o t h e r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d . THE U N I V E R S I T Y OF B R I T I S H COLUMBIA A p r i l , 1983 Gayle E. Long, 1983 I n p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an advanced degree a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I agree t h a t t h e L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and s t u d y . I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be g r a n t e d by t h e head o f my department o r by h i s o r h e r r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l n o t be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Department o f Education The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 D a t e April ?5, ABSTRACT The p r o b l e m u n d e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n i n t h i s s t u d y was t o d e t e r m i n e i f i d e n t i f y i n g the components o f e f f e c t i v e CAI and a u g m e n t i n g them w i t h a p p r o p r i a t e g r a p h i c s i n o r d e r to p r o d u c e a s e n t e n c e w r i t i n g program which p r o v i d e d s t u d e n t s w i t h s e m i - c o n c r e t e e x p e r i e n c e s would r e s u l t i n i m p r o v e d s t u d e n t w r i t i n g . T h r e e v e r s i o n s o f the S e n t e n c e E l a b o r a t i o n Programme ( P e n c i l / P a p e r , T e x t / C o m p u t e r , G r a p h i c s / C o m p u t e r ) , were d e s i g n e d and p r o d u c e d by the e x p e r i m e n t e r f o r t h i s s t u d y . The program f o c u s s e d on i n c r e a s i n g s t u d e n t use o f noun m o d i f i e r s i n s e n t e n c e s . A l l t h r e e v e r s i o n s c o n t a i n e d t u t o r i a l , d r i l l and p r a c t i c e , and p r o d u c t i o n ( w r i t i n g ) s e c t i o n s . I t was h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t no d i f f e r e n c e s would o c c u r between the t h r e e t r e a t m e n t g r o u p s f o r the number o f c o r r e c t r e s p o n s e s i n the d r i l l and p r a c t i c e or p r o d u c t i o n s e c t i o n s o f the program, or f o r t h e t o t a l l a p s e d time r e q u i r e d by s t u d e n t s to c o m p l e t e the v a r i o u s l e v e l s . I t was a l s o h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s would o c c u r among the t h r e e t r e a t m e n t g r o u p s and the c o n t r o l g r o u p f o r use o f noun m o d i f i e r s i n p o s t - t e s t s e n t e n c e w r i t i n g and c o m p o s i t i o n s . The s t u d y was c o n d u c t e d w i t h a sample o f 56 g r a d e 6 s t u d e n t s from the same s c h o o l . S t u d e n t s were r a n d o m l y a s s i g n e d w i t h i n c l a s s t o the f o u r g r o u p s . I n the p r e -and p o s t - t e s t i n g p r o c e d u r e s , a l l s t u d e n t s w r o t e 10 s e n t e n c e s u s i n g words from t h e i r S p e l l i n g l i s t , and two c o m p o s i t i o n s . The c o n t r o l g r o u p r e c e i v e d no a d d i t i o n a l i n s t r u c t i o n . The t e x t o f t h e i n s t r u c t i o n was the same f o r t h e t h r e e t r e a t m e n t g r o u p s . The P e n c i l / P a p e r g r o u p r e c e i v e d t h e i n s t r u c t i o n i n an o r a l i i p r e s e n t a t i o n t o t h e w h o l e g r o u p , w h i l e b o t h c o m p u t e r g r o u p s r e c e i v e d t h e i n s t r u c t i o n i n d i v i d u a l l y o n m i c r o c o m p u t e r s . T h e G r a p h i c s / C o m p u t e r g r o u p i n s t r u c t i o n i n c l u d e d t h e a d d i t i o n of g r a p h i c s . A n a l y s i s o f c o v a r i a n c e , u s i n g C TBS a n d p r e - t e s t s c o r e s a s c o v a r i a t e s , r e v e a l e d s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s a m o n g t h e g r o u p s f o r u s e o f n o u n m o d i f i e r s i n p o s t - t e s t S p e l l i n g s e n t e n c e s , a n d e x a m i n a t i o n of t h e g r o u p m e a n s i n d i c a t e d t h e T e x t / C o m p u t e r g r o u p a c h i e v e d t h e h i g h e s t mean s c o r e . T h e a n a l y s i s o f c o v a r i a n c e , u s i n g C T B S * s c o r e s a s a c o v a r i a t e , a l s o f o u n d s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s among .the t r e a t m e n t g r o u p s f o r t h e n u m b e r of c o r r e c t r e s p o n s e s i n t h e d r i l l a n d p r a c t i c e s e c t i o n o f t h e p r o g r a m a n d f o r t o t a l l a p s e d t i m e . T h e P e n c i l / P a p e r g r o u p h a d t h e h i g h e s t mean s c o r e f o r d r i l l a n d p r a c t i c e , a n d t h e G r a p h i c s / C o m p u t e r g r o u p r e q u i r e d t h e m o s t t i m e t o c o m p l e t e t h e p r o g r a m . A l t h o u g h t h e p r o g r a m was e f f e c t i v e i n i n c r e a s i n g t h e u s e o f n o u n m o d i f i e r s i n S p e l l i n g s e n t e n c e s , t h e a d d i t i o n o f g r a p h i c s t o t h e p r o g r a m d i d n o t i n c r e a s e i t s e f f e c t i v e n e s s . T h e u s e o f t h e p r o g r a m d i d n o t r e s u l t i n a n i n c r e a s e i n n o u n m o d i f i e r s i n s t u d e n t c o m p o s i t i o n s . * C a n a d a T e s t o f B a s i c S k i l l s ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS To my h u s b a n d , F r e d , who n o t o n l y e n c o u r a g e d me t o s t a r t t h e p r o g r a m , b u t who n e v e r a l l o w e d me t o d o u b t I c o u l d f i n i s h , I w i s h t o d e d i c a t e t h i s s t u d y . H i s u n s e l f i s h n e s s , u n d e r s t a n d i n g , p a t i e n c e a n d l o v e a r e u n e q u a l l e d b y a n y o n e I ' v e e v e r k n o w n . I h a v e b e e n e x t r e m e l y f o r t u n a t e t o h a v e D r . M a r v W e s t r o m a s my a d v i s o r a n d c h a i r m a n o f my c o m m i t t e e f o r t h e p a s t t h r e e y e a r s . H i s a d v i c e a n d c o u n s e l h a v e b e e n i n v a l u a b l e . T h e s t a n d a r d s he s e t w e r e h i g h b u t w i t h h i s e n c o u r a g e m e n t a n d s u p p o r t I was a b l e t o a t t a i n a l e v e l o f e x p e r t i s e a n d k n o w l e d g e I w o u l d n o t h a v e t h o u g h t p o s s i b l e . I w o u l d a l s o l i k e t o t h a n k D r . M a r s h a l l A r l i n a n d D r . R o l a n d G r a y f o r t h e t i m e a n d e x t r a e f f o r t t h a t t h e y e x p e n d e d i n my b e h a l f i n o r d e r f o r me t o c o m p l e t e my t h e s i s f o r S p r i n g g r a d u a t i o n . iv TABLE OF CONTENTS INTRODUCTION , 1 Statement of the Problem 4 Statement of Purpose 6 Statement of Hypothesis 7 REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE Background 8 Research 13 Use of Graphics in CAI 13 CAI in Subject Areas 24 Summary 42 DESIGN AND PROCEDURES 46 Hypothesis 47 Program Description 48 Tests 49 Covariates 49 Post-Test Measures 51 S t a t i s t i c a l Procedures 52 Research Design 53 Control Group 53 Pencil/Paper Group 54 Text/Computer Group 54 Graphics/Computer Group 55 Procedures 56 ANALYSIS OF THE DATA 60 Post-Test 1 (Use of Noun Modifiers in Spelling Sentences) 62 Post-Test 2 (Use of Noun Modifiers in Compositions). . 62 D r i l l and Practice 63 Production (Writing Sentences That Conformed to the Model) 63 Time 63 Observations 64 Summary 66 DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS 67 Use of Noun Modifiers in Spelling Sentences and Compositions 67 The Sentence Elaboration Programme: D r i l l and Practice, Production and Lapsed Time 68 Suggestions for Further Study . . . 70 BIBLIOGRAPHY 72 vj LIST OF TABLES TABLE CONTENTS PAGE I Six Levels of the Sentence Elaboration Programme 48 II Mean CTBS Total Language S k i l l s Scores by Group 50 III Means and Standard Deviations 60 IV Summary of Analysis of Covariance of Noun Modifier Use in Spelling Sentences and Compositions 61 V Summary of Analysis of Covariance of D r i l l and Practice Scores, Production Scores, and Lapsed Time 62 VI Number of Students Writing Sentences Which Matched the Model Sentence, by Group and Level 64 V l t CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION S i n c e the e a r l y 1 9 6 0 ' s , e d u c a t o r s have been i n v e s t i g a t i n g the use o f C o m p u t e r - A s s i s t e d I n s t r u c t i o n (CAI) a c r o s s the s u b j e c t a r e a s and g r a d e l e v e l s , i n t o p o s t s e c o n d a r y e d u c a t i o n and i n i n d u s t r i a l and m i l i t a r y t r a i n i n g . S t u d i e s i n c l u d e programs w h i c h r a n g e from two week d r i l l and p r a c t i c e u n i t s to y e a r - l o n g c u r r i c u l u m f o r s u b j e c t s s u c h as R e a d i n g and M a t h e m a t i c s . H a r o l d Shane i d e n t i f i e d as a m a j o r p r o b l e m the l a c k o f agreement among e d u c a t o r s as to which methods o f i n s t r u c t i o n a r e b e s t and what the g o a l s o f e d u c a t i o n s h o u l d be. He e m p h a s i z e d t h a t d e v e l o p e r s o f CAI must b a l a n c e what i s t e c h n i c a l l y p o s s i b l e w i t h what i s e d u c a t i o n a l l y d e s i r a b l e (Shane, 1 9 8 2 ) . A f t e r s p e n d i n g f i v e y e a r s a t J e a n P i a g e t ' s C e n t r e f o r G e n e t i c E p i s t e m o l o g y , Seymour P a p e r t e n d o r s e d P i a g e t ' s t h e o r y t h a t c h i l d r e n must e n c o u n t e r s t i m u l i w hich e n c o u r a g e d e v e l o p m e n t o f " h i g h e r o r d e r " c o g n i t i v e s k i l l s ( E i s e l e , 1982). P a p e r t t h e n p r o p o s e d t h a t c o m p u t e r s may p r o v i d e c h i l d r e n w i t h o p p o r t u n i t i e s t o e x p l o r e i d e a s and c o n c e p t s not a v a i l a b l e a t the c o n c r e t e l e v e l i n the n a t u r a l e n v i r o n m e n t . The e d u c a t i o n a l s y s t e m u t i l i z e s a c o n c r e t e t o a b s t r a c t a p p r o a c h i n p r e s e n t i n g c o n t e n t i n v a r i o u s s u b j e c t a r e a s . F o r example i n Math, c h i l d r e n b e g i n by m a n i p u l a t i n g c o u n t e r s 1 (beans, buttons, etc.) i n order to e s t a b l i s h the basis for addition and subtraction. Using the computer, for example, allows children to quickly move or separate objects into parts when studying f r a c t i o n s , or to watch counters/numbers regroup in addition and subtraction problems. In Science, students conduct experiments i n laboratories in order to achieve an understanding of more abstract concepts and processes. With the computer, students are able to conduct simulations of experiments which are too dangerous, require too much time, or are too costly to be conducted in a real laboratory setting. These programs allow students to manipulate many parameters in order to observe their various e f f e c t s i n the experiment. Teachers use movies, pictures, f i e l d t r i p s to museums, etc. to provide a concrete basis for the development of h i s t o r i c a l concepts. Social studies programs for the computer allow students to simulate the experiences of the early explorers; trading of furs for food, navigating by the stars, etc., or i d e n t i f y i n g geographic areas based on a number of cl i m a t i c conditions. In Reading, teachers begin with pictures to establish a re l a t i o n s h i p between objects and words, and words and sentences. Again, the computer allows children a variety of concrete or semi-concrete experiences: matching pictures and words, sequencing pictures to match sentence order, observing c h a n g i n g t h e s e q u e n c e o f e v e n t s i n a s t o r y i n o r d e r t o e x p l o r e t h e c o n c e p t o f l o g i c a l o r d e r . W h i l e , a l l t h e s e s u b j e c t s u s e t h e c o n c r e t e - t o - a b s t r a c t p r o c e s s t o d e v e l o p h i g h e r l e v e l c o n c e p t u a l s k i l l s , t h e t e a c h i n g o f w r i t i n g s k i l l s r e q u i r e s t h a t s t u d e n t s d e v e l o p t h e i d e a s a n d t h e n p r o d u c e t h e w r i t t e n w o r d . I n a n a t t e m p t t o t e a c h s t u d e n t s how t o o r d e r t h e i r t h o u g h t s l o g i c a l l y , some t e a c h e r s u s e a s e r i e s o f p i c t u r e s w h i c h g u i d e s t u d e n t s t h r o u g h a w r i t i n g p r o c e s s . O t h e r s u s e s e n t e n c e c o m b i n i n g t e c h n i q u e s i n w h i c h s t u d e n t s a r e g i v e n t w o s e n t e n c e s a n d a r e s h o w n how t o " c o n n e c t o r c o m b i n e " t h e s e n t e n c e s i n t o o n e l o n g e r s e n t e n c e . S t i l l o t h e r t e a c h e r s d e m o n s t r a t e t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p o f w o r d s w i t h i n a s e n t e n c e t o e a c h o t h e r b y u s i n g t r e e s t r u c t u r e d i a g r a m m i n g . One n e e d o n l y p e r u s e t h e p u b l i c a t i o n s w h i c h p u b l i s h r e v i e w s o f e d u c a t i o n a l s o f t w a r e ( E V A L U A T I O N S : MICROWARE, E d u c a t i o n a l P r o d u c t s I n f o r m a t i o n E x c h a n g e , M i c r o S I F T , C o m p u t e r U s i n g E d u c a t o r s , T h e C o m p u t i n g T e a c h e r ) t o r e a l i z e t h a t t h e u s e o f c o m p u t e r s i n t e a c h i n g w r i t i n g - r e l a t e d s k i l l s h a s b e e n p r i m a r i l y l i m i t e d t o C A I l e s s o n s on p u n c t u a t i o n , c a p i t a l i z a t i o n , p a r t s o f s p e e c h ( i d e n t i f y i n g n o u n s , a d j e c t i v e , e t c . ) a n d t o w o r d p r o c e s s i n g . H o w e v e r , t h e g r a p h i c a n d / o r s i m u l a t i o n c a p a b i l i t y o f t h e m i c r o c o m p u t e r s h o u l d e n a b l e a t e a c h e r t o p r e s e n t a n d m a n i p u l a t e i d e a s on a s e m i - c o n c r e t e b a s i 3 , t h e r e b y p r o v i d i n g c h i l d r e n w i t h a p i c t o r i a l v i s u a l i z a t i o n o f c h a n g e s i n s e n t e n c e s ( e . g . " T h e b o y w i t h t h e s t i c k c h a s e d t h e d o g . " o r "The b o y c h a s e d t h e d o g w i t h t h e 3 s t i c k . n ) S t a t e m e n t o f t h e P r o b l e m T h e p r o b l e m i s s t a t e d a s f o l l o w s : I f o n e i d e n t i f i e s t h e c o m p o n e n t s o f e f f e c t i v e C A I a n d a u g m e n t s t h e m w i t h a p p r o p r i a t e , e f f e c t i v e g r a p h i c s o r v i s u a l s i n o r d e r t o p r o d u c e a s e n t e n c e w r i t i n g p r o g r a m w h i c h p r o v i d e s s t u d e n t s w i t h s e m i - c o n c r e t e e x p e r i e n c e s , w i l l s t u d e n t w r i t i n g i m p r o v e ? F r a n c i s M. D w y e r , i n a h a n d b o o k o n v i s u a l l e a r n i n g , d i s c u s s e d r e a l i s m t h e o r i e s a n d t h e c o n c r e t e - t o - a b s t r a c t d i m e n s i o n o f l e a r n i n g ( D w y e r , 1 9 7 8 ) . He p r o p o s e d t h a t i f v i s u a l i z a t i o n m a t e r i a l s w e r e t o i m p r o v e l e a r n i n g , t h e y m u s t p r o v i d e e x a c t l y t h e r i g h t a m o u n t o f d e t a i l , c l a r i f y t h e c o n t e n t b e i n g p r e s e n t e d , c o n t a i n t h e a p p r o p r i a t e a m o u n t o f i n f o r m a t i o n , a n d a l l o w t h e s t u d e n t a d e q u a t e t i m e f o r p r o c e s s i n g t h e i n f o r m a t i o n . A f t e r a n e x t e n s i v e r e v i e w o f t h e l i t e r a t u r e a n d c o m p l e t i o n o f s e v e r a l s t u d i e s , D w y e r c o n c l u d e d t h a t s i m p l e l i n e d r a w i n g s w e r e t h e s i n g l e m o s t e f f e c t i v e t y p e o f v i s u a l f o r f a c i l i t a t i n g s t u d e n t a c h i e v e m e n t a n d f o r r e d u c i n g d i f f e r e n c e s a m o n g s t u d e n t s o f a l l i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e l e v e l s . T h e r e v i e w o f t h e l i t e r a t u r e w i l l s h o w t h a t r e s e a r c h e r s who u s e v i s u a l s o r g r a p h i c s i n c o m p u t e r p r o g r a m s p r o p o s e d t h a t g r a p h i c s s h o u l d f o c u s o n p r o g r a m o b j e c t i v e s , c o n v e y i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t t h e s u b j e c t a n d be n e c e s s a r y t o t h e p r o c e s s i n g o f i n f o r m a t i o n . 4 I n a d i s c u s s i o n o f CAI, W i l l i a m P r i t c h a r d c a u t i o n e d t h a t not a l l programs may a p p e a l t o , or be e f f e c t i v e w i t h , a l l l e a r n e r s and t h a t l e a r n i n g s t y l e s s h o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d when d e s i g n i n g and a s s i g n i n g programs ( P r i t c h a r d , 1982). C a t h e r i n e Morgan a l s o f o c u s s e d on e f f e c t i v e n e s s ; however, she s u g g e s t e d t h a t CAI must be e f f e c t i v e as a s u p p l e m e n t t o , r a t h e r t h a n a s u b s t i t u t e f o r , i n s t r u c t i o n (Morgan, 1978). One c o u l d c o n t i n u e t o q u o t e e d u c a t o r s who have been i n v o l v e d i n the d e v e l o p m e n t o f CAI p r o g r a m s , and i n e a c h i n s t a n c e would f i n d a d i f f e r e n t r a t i o n a l e as the b a s i s f o r d e s i g n i n g p r o g r a m s . However, the Review o f the L i t e r a t u r e w i l l a l s o show t h a t a c r o s s the s u b j e c t a r e a s most o f the e f f e c t i v e CAI programs c o n t a i n e d t h e f o l l o w i n g c o m p o n e n t s : 1. a t u t o r i a l s e c t i o n which p r e s e n t e d i n f o r m a t i o n , p r o v i d e d r e m e d i a t i o n when n e c e s s a r y and a l l o w e d s t u d e n t p a c i n g , 2. a d r i l l and p r a c t i c e s e c t i o n w h i c h e n a b l e d s t u d e n t s to p r a c t i c e the s k i l l s / c o n c e p t s w h i c h were p r e -s e n t e d i n the t u t o r i a l s e c t i o n , 3. a management s y s t e m w h i c h s c o r e d s t u d e n t r e s p o n s e s , b r a n c h e d them t o a p p r o p r i a t e l e v e l s , and p r o v i d e d s t u d e n t r e c o r d s f o r t e a c h e r r e v i e w . 5 Statement of Purpose Having i d e n t i f i e d and studied the problem, the purpose of this study was threefold, namely: 1» to design and produce three versions of a program, each of which contained t u t o r i a l , d r i l l and prac-t i c e , and management components, and whose objec-tive was to increase the use of noun modifiers in sentences: Version 1 - presented by experimenter with p e n c i l / paper practice exercises, no pictures or graphics, Version 2 - entire lesson presented on a micro-computer, no pictures or graphics, Version 3 - entire lesson presented on a micro-computer with animation/graphics used in the t u t o r i a l . 2. to f i e l d test the variations of the program with an appropriate student population. 3 . to analyze the effectiveness of the var i a t i o n s of the program i n terms of student performance during the program and on completion of the post-teat measures . 6 HVDothftgp.g G i v e n t h r e e v e r s i o n s o f t h e S e n t e n c e E l a b o r a t i o n P r o g r a m m e ; p e n c i l / p a p e r , t e x t / c o m p u t e r , g r a p h i c s / c o m p u t e r , e a c h p r e s e n t e d t o a d i f f e r e n t t r e a t m e n t g r o u p ; a n d a c o n t r o l g r o u p who r e c e i v e d no t r e a t m e n t b u t who w e r e p r e - a n d p o s t - t e s t e d w i t h t h e t r e a t m e n t g r o u p s : 1. T h e r e w i l l be no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e ( O C = . 0 5 ) b e t w e e n t h e f o u r g r o u p s f o r t h e f o l l o w i n g d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s : a . t h e n u m b e r o f n o u n m o d i f i e r s u s e d w h e n s t u d e n t s w e r e a s k e d t o w r i t e t e n i n d i v i d u a l s e n t e n c e s a t p o s t - t e s t ; b. t h e n u m b e r o f n o u n m o d i f i e r s u s e d i n t w o c o m p o s i t i o n s o f 100 w o r d s e a c h a t p o s t - t e s t . 2. T h e r e w i l l be no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e ( c x = . 0 5 ) b e t w e e n t h e t h r e e t r e a t m e n t g r o u p s f o r t h e f o l l o w i n g d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s : a . t h e n u m b e r o f c o r r e c t r e s p o n s e s i n t h e d r i l l a n d p r a c t i c e s e c t i o n o f t h e p r o g r a m ; b. t h e n u m b e r o f s e n t e n c e s w r i t t e n by s t u d e n t s a t e a c h l e v e l w h i c h c o r r e c t l y m a t c h e d t h e m o d e l s e n t e n c e ; c . t h e a m o u n t o f t i m e r e q u i r e d by s t u d e n t s t o c o m p l e t e t h e t u t o r i a l a n d d r i l l a n d p r a c t i c e s e c t i o n s o f t h e p r o g r a m . 7 CHAPTER II REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE Background D r . Marv Westrom, who teaches Computing S t u d i e s at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , d e f i n e s C o m p u t e r - A s s i s t e d I n s t r u c t i o n (CAI) as a t e a c h i n g t e c h n i q u e i n which the computer i s the i n s t r u c t o r . He suggests that CAI can be d i v i d e d i n t o the f o l l o w i n g c a t e g o r i e s (Westrom, 1980): . CAI i n a l a b o r a t o r y s e t t i n g may be • s u b j e c t s u p p o r t ' and may i n v o l v e a p p r o p r i a t e to c u r r e n t l e s s o n s . (2) Games . Programs i n t h i s c a t e g o r y u s u a l l y i n v o l v e s i m u l a t i o n and the i n t e r a c t i o n o f s e v e r a l p l a y e r s with the computer . (3) D r i l l and P r a c t i c e . S tudents d r i l l and p r a c t i c e m a t e r i a l a l r e a d y l e a r n e d (but not m a s t e r e d ) . Advantages of CAI d r i l l and p r a c t i c e i n c l u d e ease of programming, immediate r e i n f o r c e m e n t , and use by many s tudents f o r many hours of e x e r c i s e . T h i s form of CAI i s e s p e c i a l l y a p p l i c a b l e when r o t e l e a r n i n g i s 8 1 ) L a b o r a t o r y U s e c l a s s i f i e d as i n v e s t i g a t i o n s emphasized as opposed to a c q u i s i t i o n of concepts. Tutorial/Dialogue . In this type of i n s t r u c t i o n the computer acts as an i n t e l l i g e n t tutor. Students work their way through c r i t e r i o n tests. I f their response i s accurate, the computer presents the next subtest. An incorrect response to a question causes the student to be branched to remediation. Good t u t o r i a l s are able to discriminate the "correctness" of a student response and to provide any additional information necessary for the completion of the question. Tutorials allow i n s t r u c t i o n to be i n d i v i d u a l i z e d i n terms of content, rate and opportunity. Not a l l students have to do the same lesson at the same time. Good t u t o r i a l s are d i f f i c u l t to produce because programs must be more than textbook pages or worksheets requiring multiple choice responses. A sophisticated analysis of student answers requires complicated programming and t u t o r i a l s capable of providing a variety of remediation and enrichment lessons can become very large. Simulation . Simulation i s used to provide models of real or a r t i f i c i a l systems. It i s especially a d v a n t a g e o u s i n s i t u a t i o n s where i n s t r u c t i o n would not o t h e r w i s e be p o s s i b l e ; e g . , t i m e c o m p r e s s i o n and e x p a n s i o n , e x p e n s e a v o i d a n c e ( f l i g h t s i m u l a t o r s ) , d a n g e r a v o i d a n c e ( m e d i c a l t r a i n i n g ) , and f e e d b a c k ( e x p l a n a t i o n s o f how and why). S i m u l a t i o n i s e x t r e m e l y m o t i v a t i n g b u t i t i s v e r y d i f f i c u l t to p r o d u c e . P o s s i b l e p rograms must be r e s e a r c h e d c a r e f u l l y so t h a t r e a l i t y can be r e p l i c a t e d as a c c u r a t e l y as p o s s i b l e . B a r b a r a Thompson, i n a r e v i e w o f t h e a p p l i c a t i o n s o f c o m p u t e r s i n r e a d i n g i n s t r u c t i o n , s u g g e s t s t h a t t u t o r i a l s p r o v i d e d i r e c t e d , programmed i n s t r u c t i o n i n w h i c h the s t u d e n t c a n r e q u e s t r e v i e w s , q u i z z e s o r a d d i t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n . She a l s o v i e w s the computer as an o p p o r t u n i t y f o r p r o b l e m s o l v i n g e x p e r i e n c e s . S t u d e n t s may p r o c e s s v a r i o u s t y p e s o f i n f o r m a t i o n , e d i t , p r e d i c t outcomes o f s t o r i e s and r e a r r a n g e s e n t e n c e s t o c r e a t e p a r a g r a p h s (Thompson, 1980). K e h r b e r g a d v i s e s t h a t m u l t i - s e n s o r y a p p r o a c h e s t o CAI s h o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d . F o r example, m i c r o c o m p u t e r s and computer t e r m i n a l s may be i n t e r f a c e d w i t h t a p e r e c o r d e r s , v i d e o d i s c s and p r i n t e r s t o p r o v i d e o p p o r t u n i t y f o r more v a r i e d i n s t r u c t i o n a l s e t t i n g s . He s u g g e s t s t h a t not a l l e x p e r i e n c e s s h o u l d be c o m p u t e r i z e d . A d e c i s i o n must be made as t o t h e b e s t 1 0 \ mode o f p r e s e n t a t i o n f o r t h e l e s s o n . A p r o g r a m w h i c h s i m u l a t e s a s w i n g i n g p e n d u l u m may n o t be a s m e a n i n g f u l t o t h e c h i l d a s p r o v i d i n g t h e c h i l d w i t h a n o p p o r t u n i t y t o b u i l d h i s own p e n d u l u m u s i n g s t r i n g , p a p e r c l i p s a n d w a s h e r s ( K e h r b e r g , 1 9 7 9 ) . A r t h u r S. M e l m e d , a n a d v i s o r w i t h t h e N a t i o n a l I n s t i t u t e o f E d u c a t i o n , d i s c u s s e s i n f o r m a t i o n t e c h n o l o g y i n U n i t e d S t a t e s s c h o o l s . He s t a t e s t h a t t h o u g h s i m u l a t i o n s h a v e b e e n e x t e n s i v e l y s t u d i e d by t h e m i l i t a r y s e r v i c e s , e m p i r i c a l d a t a o n t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f s i m u l a t i o n s i s s t i l l l a c k i n g . M e l m e d s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e u s e o f s i m u l a t i o n s i n e d u c a t i o n i s b a s e d o n t h e p r e m i s e t h a t i n t u i t i v e u n d e r s t a n d i n g p r e c e d e s f o r m a l k n o w l e d g e . T h e r e f o r e , w h e r e i n t u i t i v e u n d e r s t a n d i n g i s w e a k o r n o n - e x i s t e n t , l e a r n i n g m u s t p r o c e e d m o r e d e l i b e r a t e l y a n d c a r e f u l l y . He c i t e s a s e x a m p l e s a s t r o n a u t s who r e q u i r e s u b s t a n t i a l p r a c t i c e i n o r d e r t o l e a r n how t o c o n t r o l m o v e m e n t s i n z e r o g r a v i t y , a n d c h i l d r e n who m u s t l e a r n M a t h e m a t i c s a n d S c i e n c e c o n c e p t s w h i c h h a v e no p r e c e d e n t i n t h e i r l i f e e x p e r i e n c e s , s u c h a s N e w t o n ' s Law o f r a d i o a c t i v e d e c a y o r s t a t i s t i c s o f p o p u l a t i o n c h a n g e . M e l m e d p r o p o s e s t h a t i n t e r a c t i v e m a c h i n e s u t i l i z i n g s i m u l a t i o n s p r o v i d e a m e t h o d o f d e v e l o p i n g a n i n t u i t i v e u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f p h e n o m e n a ( M e l m e d , 1 9 8 2 ) . R e l a t e d t o t h e u s e o f s i m u l a t i o n s i s t h e i n c l u s i o n o f g r a p h i c d i s p l a y s i n i n s t r u c t i o n a l p r o g r a m s . I n some i n s t a n c e s , g r a p h i c d i s p l a y s may, i n f a c t , be s i m u l a t i o n s . H o w e v e r , 1 1 g r a p h i c s may a l s o be i n c l u d e d i n d r i l l a n d p r a c t i c e p r o g r a m s , t u t o r i a l s a n d e d u c a t i o n a l g a m e s . G r a p h i c p r e s e n t a t i o n s may r a n g e f r o m l i n e d r a w i n g s a n d / o r s i m p l e g r a p h s t o a n i m a t e d s i m u l a t i o n s . T h e y may be p r i m a r i l y m o t i v a t i o n a l ; i e . r e w a r d s y s t e m s f o r c o r r e c t r e s p o n s e s , o r t h e y may h a v e a n i n s t r u c t i o n a l p u r p o s e s u c h a s m e n t i o n e d by M e l m e d _ n h i s d i s c u s s i o n o f s i m u l a t i o n s . J o s e p h R i g n e y a n d K a t h y L u t z i n t h e i r w o r k a t t h e B e h a v i o r a l T e c h n o l o g y L a b s a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a p r o p o s e d t h a t s i m p l y s h o w i n g s t u d e n t s g r a p h i c d i s p l a y s w o u l d n o t be v e r y e f f e c t i v e . T h e y s u g g e s t t h a t s t u d e n t s m u s t h a v e r e a s o n s f o r p r o c e s s i n g i n f o r m a t i o n a n d t h i s m e a n s t h a t a t t e n t i o n m u s t be d i r e c t e d t o t h o s e g r a p h i c f e a t u r e s w h i c h a r e s u p p o s e d t o c o n v e y t h e i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t t h e s u b j e c t . T h e e m p h a s i s i n t h i s a r t i c l e a b o u t C A I a n d i m a g e r y i s o n t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n v a r i o u s p r o c e s s i n g l e v e l s a n d e x t e r n a l a n d i n t e r n a l i m a g e r y . T h e a u t h o r s d e s c r i b e a n e x t e r n a l i m a g e a s a s e t o f p r o p o s i t i o n s a b o u t t h e s u b j e c t m a t t e r w h i c h a r e s t a t e d i n v i s u a l a s o p p o s e d t o v e r b a l t e r m s . R i g n e y a n d L u t z s u g g e s t t h a t p r o v i d i n g a p p r o p r i a t e a n d v a l i d e x t e r n a l i m a g e s may s t i m u l a t e t h e p r o p e r c o g n i t i v e p r o c e s s i n g a n d r e s u l t i n t h e n e c e s s a r y i n t e r n a l i m a g e s ( R i g n e y , L u t z , 1 9 7 4 ) . T h e i r e x a m p l e o f h i g h s c h o o l g r a d u a t e s who e n t e r t h e s e r v i c e a n d m u s t l e a r n t h e w o r k i n g s o f c o m p l e x w e a p o n r y s y s t e m s i s s i m i l a r t o M e l m u d ' 3 d e s c r i p t i o n o f l e a r n i n g s i t u a t i o n s i n v o l v i n g 12 a s t r o n a u t s and c h i l d r e n . In each o f t h e s e e x amples, a n i m a t e d v i s u a l a n a l o g i e s may be a b l e to communicate the n a t u r e o f c h a n g e s i n e v e n t s w h i c h m i g h t r e q u i r e c o m p l i c a t e d v e r b a l d e s c r i p t i o n s . R i g n e y and L u t z s u b m i t t h a t i n d u c i n g i m a g e r y and the p r o c e d u r e s w h i c h r e q u i r e the s t u d e n t t o r e a l l y p r o c e s s the m a t e r i a l , seem t o r e s u l t i n b e t t e r l e a r n i n g and r e t e n t i o n . R e s e a r c h Use o f G r a p h i c s i n CAI M a r t h a Moore and o t h e r s a t the Army R e s e a r c h I n s t i t u t e f o r the B e h a v i o r a l and S o c i a l S c i e n c e s i n i t i a t e d r e s e a r c h on the i n s t r u c t i o n a l e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f t h r e e l e v e l s o f g r a p h i c d i s p l a y s f o r c o m p u t e r - a s s i s t e d i n s t r u c t i o n . She b a s e d the need f o r t h i s s t u d y on what she d e s c r i b e d as a l a c k o f e x i s t i n g s y s t e m a t i c r e s e a r c h on the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f CAI w h i c h a r e t h o u g h t to enhance l e a r n i n g . Moore s a i d t h a t g r a p h i c s c a p a b i l i t i e s a r e o f t e n an i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r i n the d e s i g n and s e l e c t i o n o f CAI s y s t e m s b e c a u s e o f an assumed i n t r i n s i c i n s t r u c t i o n a l v a l u e as a s u p p l e m e n t t o a u r a l and t e x t u a l p r e s e n t a t i o n s . However, the Army R e s e a r c h I n s t i t u t e r e v i e w o f l i t e r a t u r e on g r a p h i c s i n non-CAI i n s t r u c t i o n had r e v e a l e d no e m p i r i c a l e v i d e n c e o f the e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f g r a p h i c s . T h e r e f o r e , Moore p r o p o s e d a IS s y s t e m a t i c r e s e a r c h program t o f o c u s on the e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f c o m p u t e r g r a p h i c s as a f u n c t i o n o f the t y p e o f g r a p h i c s e m p l o y e d , as w e l l as i n r e l a t i o n t o v a r i o u s s u b j e c t m a t t e r , l e a r n i n g t a s k s and l e a r n e r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . The s t a t e d p u r p o s e f o r t h i s p a r t i c u l a r s t u d y was t o o b t a i n d a t a c o m p a r i n g t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f v a r i o u s l e v e l s o f c o m p u t e r g r a p h i c s and t o e x p l o r e t h e i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t s o f l e v e l s o f c o m p u t e r g r a p h i c s w i t h i d e n t i f i a b l e l e a r n e r a p t i t u d e s and t a s k s . The a u t h o r s d e v e l o p e d t h r e e v e r s i o n s o f a CAI l e s s o n on t h e p s y c h o p h y s i o l o g y o f a u d i t i o n . One v e r s i o n used a h i g h l e v e l o f g r a p h i c s d e s c r i b e d as a n i m a t i o n s and l i n e d r a w i n g s . A n o t h e r v e r s i o n o f t h e l e s s o n u s e d a medium l e v e l o f g r a p h i c s d e f i n e d as l i n e d r a w i n g s o n l y . The t h i r d v e r s i o n o f the l e s s o n u s e d low l e v e l g r a p h i c s c o n s i s t i n g o f s c h e m a t i c r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s and boxed a l p h a n u m e r i c s . The s u b j e c t s were 90 e n l i s t e d p e r s o n n e l , r a n g i n g i n age f r o m 17 t o 3 2 f r o m the E n g i n e e r i n g S c h o o l and the D e f e n s e M a p p i n g S c h o o l . A l l were h i g h s c h o o l g r a d u a t e s who were i n a d v a n c e d t r a i n i n g p r o g r a m s . T h i r t y s u b j e c t s were a s s i g n e d r a n d o m l y to e a c h o f t h r e e g r o u p s . The o n l y v a r i a b l e between g r o u p s was t h e l e v e l o f g r a p h i c s u s e d i n t h e p r o g r a m s . S t u d e n t s p r o c e e d e d l i n e a r l y t h r o u g h t h e l e s s o n s w h i c h c o n t a i n e d f o u r s e c t i o n s , f o r a t o t a l o f 153 f r a m e s . E a c h f r a m e c o n s t i t u t e d an i n s t r u c t i o n a l u n i t . E v e r y t h i r d f r a m e was 14 f o l l o w e d by a f o r c e d - c h o i c e o r c o n s t r u c t e d - a n s w e r q u e s t i o n w h i c h had t o be a n s w e r e d c o r r e c t l y i n o r d e r f o r t h e s t u d e n t t o c o n t i n u e . E a c h s e c t i o n was f o l l o w e d by a r e v i e w . F a i l u r e t o a c h i e v e 85? on t h e r e v i e w r e s u l t e d i n r e p e a t i n g t h e i m m e d i a t e l y p r e c e e d i n g s e c t i o n . S t u d e n t s c o u l d c h o o s e t o r e p e a t a n i m m e d i a t e l y p r e c e e d i n g f r a m e a t any t i m e . A t c o m p l e t i o n o f t h e l e s s o n , p e r f o r m a n c e c r i t e r i a i n c l u d e d t h e f o l l o w i n g f i v e m e a s u r e s : 1. T o t a l t i m e t o c o m p l e t e t h e l e s s o n , 2 . F a c t s T e s t c o n s i s t i n g o f 20 t r u e / f a l s e and m u l t i p l e c h o i c e q u e s t i o n s t o c h e c k t h e s u b j e c t ' s k n o w l e d g e o f q u a l i t a t i v e and q u a n t i t a t i v e m o d i f i e r s d e s c r i b e d i n t h e l e s s o n , 3 . T e r m i n o l o g y T e s t c o n s i s t i n g o f 13 m a t c h i n g i t e m s t o c h e c k t h e s u b j e c t ' s k n o w l e d g e o f t h e f u n c t i o n o f t h e p a r t s o f t h e e a r and t h e t e r m s u s e d i n t h e l e s s o n , 4 . I d e n t i f i c a t i o n T e s t c o n s i s t i n g o f 14 m u l t i p l e c h o i c e q u e s t i o n s d e s i g n e d t o e v a l u a t e k n o w l e d g e o f t h e l o c a t i o n and s t r u c t u r e o f p a r t s o f t h e e a r , 5 . P r i n c i p l e s T e s t c o m p r i s e d o f 21 t r u e / f a l s e and m u l t i p l e c h o i c e q u e s t i o n s t o c h e c k k n o w l e d g e o f p r i n c i p l e s and t h e o r i e s . F o u r r a t e r s j u d g e d a l l t e s t i t e m s a s t o c a t e g o r y o f k n o w l e d g e and when d i s a g r e e m e n t s o c c u r r e d , i t e m s w e r e e l i m i n a t e d . M o o r e r e p o r t e d t h a t a o n e - w a y a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e on t i m e t a k e n t o c o m p l e t e t h e l e s s o n i n d i c a t e d no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e among t h e t h r e e g r o u p s , F ( 2 , 8 7 ) = . 0 2 . R e s u l t s o f o n e - w a y a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e on t h e c o n t e n t t e s t s r e v e a l e d no 15 s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e f o r l e v e l o f g r a p h i c s : F a c t s Tes t F ( 2 , 8 7 ) = .44 Terminology Test F ( 2 , 8 7 ) = 1.20 I d e n t i f i c a t i o n Test F ( 2 , 8 7 ) = .42 P r i n c i p l e s Test F ( 2 , 8 7 ) = 1.07. Moore conc luded that the l e v e l of computer g r a p h i c s had no e f f e c t on f i n a l performance and t h e r e f o r e , minimal g r a p h i c s may be s u f f i c i e n t f o r CAI (Moore, e t . a l . , 1979) . Moore c a r e f u l l y d e s c r i b e d random assignment of s u b j e c t s , treatment procedures and performance t e s t s . No mention was made of p r e t e s t i n g p r o c e d u r e s nor was c o n t r o l f o r the p o s s i b i l i t y of p r e v i o u s exposure to course content d i s c u s s e d . I n i t i a l l y Moore i d e n t i f i e d a l a c k of e m p i r i c a l ev idence of the e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f g r a p h i c s . Had she i n c l u d e d a c o n t r o l group which r e c e i v e d the same CAI course with no g r a p h i c p r e s e n t a t i o n , her c o n c l u s i o n tha t min imal g r a p h i c s may be s u f f i c i e n t might have been s u b s t a n t i a t e d or Moore may have found no s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t f o r any l e v e l of g r a p h i c s . As i t s t a n d s , Moore i s l e f t w i th her i n i t i a l prob lem, a l a c k o f e m p i r i c a l ev idence on the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of computer g r a p h i c s . Kathy A. L u t z conducted a s tudy on multimode Knowledge o f R e s u l t s at the Computer-Based L a b o r a t o r y at I l l i n o i s U n i v e r s i t y . She s t a t e d that t h i s type of f eedback , Knowledge o f R e s u l t s (KR) , has been used as a r e i n f o r c e r i n programmed i n s t r u c t i o n and CAI wi thout ev idence to s u p p o r t i t s 16 effectiveness. Lutz proposed that rather than supply Knowledge of Results (KR) through printed or auditory messages alone, the computer could respond with appropriate and i n t e r e s t i n g changes i n visual display using p i c t o r i a l or graphic animation. KR which included a combination of printed and/or auditory messages with changes in v i s u a l display constituted multimode Knowledge of Results . Lutz designed the study to investigate the premise that multimode KR i s superior to t r a d i t i o n a l l y presented KR and that a lesson involving multimode KR would maintain a student's interest and attention better than a version of the lesson providing only fundamental KR. The lesson format involved kindergarten children using a d r i l l and practice format to learn letter-sound associations. Children saw four magicians' hats, each containing a d i f f e r e n t l e t t e r . The children were given a phoneme aurally and were asked to point to i t s corresponding l e t t e r . If a c h i l d was correct, the multimode KR included a bunny that hopped out of a hat accompanied by a positive audio message. An incorrect response resulted i n no reaction on the screen but the c h i l d received an auditory message. Children with no previous experience on the PLATO system received a t r a i n i n g lesson unrelated to the study which f a m i l i a r i z e d them with the machine. The 32 children were then 17 r a n d o m l y a s s i g n e d t o f o u r t r e a t m e n t g r o u p s . Each s u b j e c t r e c e i v e d one o f f o u r v e r s i o n s o f a d r i l l and p r a c t i c e p r o g r a m on l e t t e r naming u s i n g the PLATO IV s y s t e m which i n c l u d e d an a u d i o d e v i c e and a t o u c h p a n e l ( a l l o w s c h i l d t o r e s p o n d by p o i n t i n g t o an a nswer.) The f o u r v e r s i o n s d i f f e r e d o n l y i n t h e t y p e o f d i s p l a y f o r m a t and t h e t y p e o f KR. A l l o w a b l e r e s p o n s e r a t e was h e l d c o n s t a n t ; a l l v e r s i o n s p e r m i t t e d a maximum o f s i x c o r r e c t r e s p o n s e s p e r m i n u t e . Two g r o u p s r e c e i v e d p o s i t i v e a u d i o KR and a change i n v i s u a l s t i m u l u s f o l l o w i n g a c o r r e c t r e s p o n s e . Two g r o u p s r e c e i v e d a s i m p l e d i s p l a y o f f i v e l e t t e r s and i n two g r o u p s the l e t t e r s were p r e s e n t e d i n a p i c t o r i a l s e t t i n g o f f i v e c a r r o t s and a bunny. S t u d e n t s were a l l o w e d a 15 m i n u t e warm-up s e s s i o n . The c o m puter s t a r t e d an i n t e r n a l c l o c k when the l e s s o n commenced and s t o p p e d th e c l o c k when the l e s s o n t e r m i n a t e d . A 2 x 2 f a c t o r i a l a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e was used t o a s s e s s the e f f e c t s o f t h e two i n d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s , t y p e o f KR and t y p e o f d i s p l a y f o r m a t , on the f o u r d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s : t o t a l t i m e s p e n t i n l e s s o n ( T 1 ) , amount o f t i m e d i s t r a c t e d f r o m t h e l e s s o n ( T 2 ) , a d j u s t e d t o t a l time ( T t = T 1 - T 2 ) and p e r c e n t t i m e d i s t r a c t e d o f t o t a l time ( T d = 1 0 0 ( T 2 / T 1 ) ) . T1 was r e c o r d e d by t h e c o m p u t e r . T2 was r e c o r d e d by t h e o b s e r v e r and i n c l u d e d t i m e when the s u b j e c t ' s head was d i r e c t e d away from the s c r e e n . 18 In the f i n a l e v a l u a t i o n , T 1 was h i g h e r and T 2 was l o w e r f o r m u l t i m o d e KR c o n d i t i o n s but t h e d i f f e r e n c e s were n o t s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t . T t was g r e a t e r f o r t h e m u l t i m o d e g r o u p s and L u t z r e p o r t e d t h a t t h e d i f f e r e n c e between g r o u p s a p p r o a c h e d s i g n i f i c a n c e . R e s u l t s a l s o i n d i c a t e d t h a t s t u d e n t s i n m u l t i m o d e KR g r o u p s s p e n t a s i g n i f i c a n t l y l a r g e r p o r t i o n o f time a t t e n d i n g to t a s k (Td) t h a n d i d o t h e r s u b j e c t s ( p < . 0 1 ) . L u t z s u g g e s t s t h a t m u l t i m o d e KR may be more e f f e c t i v e t h a n s i m p l e KR b e c a u s e s t u d e n t s a r e l e s s d i s t r a c t e d . She f o u n d t h a t f o r m a t had no e f f e c t on the d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s ( L u t z , 1 9 7 3 ) . One must be c a r e f u l when i n t e r p r e t i n g t h e r e s u l t s o f t h i s s t u d y . The two g r o u p s r e c e i v i n g o n l y an a u d i t o r y message f o r KR may have a t t e n d e d t o the a u d i o d e v i c e r a t h e r t h a n th e s c r e e n w h i l e r e c e i v i n g m e s s a g e s . S i n c e t i m e d i s t r a c t e d i n c l u d e d any t i m e a s u b j e c t ' s head t u r n e d away from the s c r e e n , the Td may be d r a m a t i c a l l y skewed and s h o u l d be r e i n v e s t i g a t e d . I t would seem t h a t r e p o r t i n g r e s u l t s o f c r i t e r i o n t e s t s w h i c h measured the number o f c o r r e c t r e s p o n s e s , number o f a t t e m p t s p e r q u e s t i o n , e t c . would have been v a l u a b l e . A h i g h e r number o f c o r r e c t r e s p o n s e s on t h e f i r s t a t t e m p t o r h i g h p o s t - t e s t p e r f o r m a n c e s c o r e s c o r r e l a t e d w i t h t o t a l a d j u s t e d t i m e and p e r c e n t time d i s t r a c t e d may have p r o v i d e d some u s e f u l i n f o r m a t i o n on the e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f g r a p h i c s i n m u l t i m o d e Knowledge o f R e s u l t s . 19 William A. King, in conjunction with the Navy Personnel Research and Development Centre, designed a study to investigate the p o s s i b i l i t y of combining text and graphics for concept learning. He produced three versions of a lesson on the s i n e - r a t i o concept: 1 . verbal text with animated graphics 2. verbal text with s t i l l graphics 3 . verbal text only Forty f i v e students from the Basic E l e c t r i c i t y and Electron i c s School at the Naval Training Center in San Diego were randomly assigned to the three treatment groups.• Pre and post-tests were the same except that the order of the four possible choices for each question was changed. Comparison of the pre and post-test scores indicated learning occurred in each group. The animated graphics group had the highest mean scores but none of the differences were s i g n i f i c a n t . There was no difference i n the amount of time required for t r a i n i n g . King proposed several possible explanations for the lack of s i g n i f i c a n t findings. A l l 45 students had been attending the school and may have already known much of the terminology. Therefore, they may have been accustomed to using verbal labels for mental images. He also suggested that the task may not have been d i f f i c u l t enough for differences to occur. King said that the two versions of the lesson containing 20 g r a p h i c s were somewhat s lower i n p r e s e n t a t i o n mode than the v e r b a l t ex t v e r s i o n . The system was not ab le to generate a "block of t ex t and g r a p h i c s " but r a t h e r "drew" the g r a p h i c s on the s c r e e n . Both the g r a p h i c s and text appeared at the same t i m e . The s tudent then had to dec ide whether to examine the g r a p h i c s f i r s t or read the t ex t f i r s t . King suggested that i n c l u s i o n of a u d i o might have he lped d i r e c t the s t u d e n t s ' a t t e n t i o n and l e a d the s tudent s through the l e s s o n w i t h l e s s c o n f u s i o n , r e s u l t i n g i n a g r e a t e r d i f f e r e n c e i n performance between the groups ( K i n g , 1975). C o n s i d e r i n g the number and type of problems i d e n t i f i e d by the a u t h o r , the r e s u l t s are i n c o n c l u s i v e . Perhaps i f K i n g r e p l i c a t e d the s tudy u s i n g m a t e r i a l wi th an a p p r o p r i a t e l e v e l of d i f f i c u l t y to which s tudent s h a d n ' t been p r e v i o u s l y exposed , d i f f e r e n t pre and p o s t - t e s t s , and a system i n which p r e s e n t a t i o n time was equal f o r a l l g r o u p s , he would produce some d e f i n i t i v e r e s u l t s . As p a r t o f a N a t i o n a l S c i e n c e F o u n d a t i o n p r o j e c t , H . J . P e t e r s and K. C . D a i k e r conducted a s tudy u s i n g an i n t r o d u c t o r y CAI Chemis try program on a lkanes and a l k e n e s . The o b j e c t i v e o f the s tudy was to determine i f the m a t e r i a l s were e f f e c t i v e , and i f the use of a n i m a t i o n i n the program s p e c i f i c a l l y c o n t r i b u t e d to s tudent s* l e a r n i n g . F o r t y - s i x s tudent s who v o l u n t e e r e d f o r the s tudy were randomly a s s i g n e d to one of three e x p e r i m e n t a l groups or to a 21 c o n t r o l g r o u p . A l l s t u d e n t s t o o k a p r e t e s t , s p e n t a p p r o x i m a t e l y an h o u r on t h e p r o g r a m and t o o k a p o s t t e s t . The c o n t r o l g r o u p w o r k e d w i t h a c h e m i c a l e l e m e n t game f o r t h e i r c o m p u t e r - b a s e d e x e r c i s e s . The t h r e e t r e a t m e n t g r o u p s r e c e i v e d t h e f o l l o w i n g i n s t r u c t i o n a l s e q u e n c e s : G1) b r i e f v e r b a l i n t r o d u c t i o n , a n i m a t e d i l l u s t r a t i o n , a q u e s t i o n on t h e t o p i c , G2) b r i e f v e r b a l i n t r o d u c t i o n , " b e f o r e a n d a f t e r " s e t o f g r a p h i c s , a q u e s t i o n on t h e t o p i c , G3) b r i e f v e r b a l i n t r o d u c t i o n , a n i m a t e d i l l u s t r a t i o n , a s t a t e m e n t o f f a c t . A l t h o u g h a l l b u t two o f t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l s t u d e n t s s c o r e d b e t t e r on p o s t t e s t t h a n on p r e t e s t , t h e mean g a i n s c o r e s ( 2 3 + / _ i i j p e r c e n t a g e p o i n t s ) d i d n o t r e a c h s t a t i s t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e ( z = 1 . 6 9 > p < 0 . 1 ) . By c o m p a r i s o n , t h e mean g a i n s c o r e s f o r t h e c o n t r o l g r o u p w e r e 6 + / g p e r c e n t a g e p o i n t s . P e t e r s a n d D a i k e r a l s o f o u n d no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e among t h e t r e a t m e n t g r o u p s . A f t e r r e - e x a m i n i n g t h e c o n g r u e n c e b e t w e e n and among t h e i n s t r u c t i o n a l o b j e c t i v e s , t h e t e s t q u e s t i o n s , a n d t h e i n s t r u c t i o n a l s e q u e n c e s , t h e y p r o p o s e d t h a t t h e r e a s o n a n i m a t i o n had no m e a s u r a b l e e f f e c t on t e s t s c o r e s was b e c a u s e t h e a n i m a t i o n s h o u l d h a v e b e e n more c a r e f u l l y f o c u s s e d on t h e i n f e r r e d o b j e c t i v e s . T h i s may be s u p p o r t e d by t h e f a c t t h a t i n i n f o r m a l i n t e r v i e w s f o l l o w i n g t h e t e s t , s t u d e n t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e y had n o t made t h e r e l e v a n t 22 c o n n e c t i o n s b e t w e e n t h e a n i m a t i o n s e q u e n c e s and t h e a s s o c i a t e d t o p i c . T h e r e f o r e t h e a u t h o r s c o n c l u d e d t h a t r e l a t i n g a n i m a t i o n t o o b j e c t i v e s and i n c l u d i n g i n t e r a c t i v e s e q u e n c e s t h a t d r a w t h e s t u d e n t ' s a t t e n t i o n t o t h e f e a t u r e s o f t h e a n i m a t i o n a r e e q u a l l y n e c e s s a r y i f g r a p h i c s and a n i m a t i o n a r e t o be e f f e c t i v e i n s t r u c t i o n a l t o o l s ( P e t e r s , d a i k e r , 1 9 8 2 ) . One m i g h t a l s o s u g g e s t t h a t a r e p l i c a t i o n o f t h e s t u d y u s i n g s t u d e n t s r a n d o m l y s e l e c t e d f r o m a g r o u p o f i n t r o d u c t o r y C h e m i s t r y s t u d e n t s , l a r g e r t r e a t m e n t / c o n t r o l g r o u p s i z e , and an e x t e n d e d t r e a t m e n t t i m e , a s w e l l a s i m p l e m e n t i n g t h e s u g g e s t i o n s o f t h e a u t h o r s , s h o u l d p r o d u c e more d e f i n i t i v e r e s u l t s . 23 CAI i n S u b j e c t A r e a s In two s e p a r a t e a r t i c l e s , A t k i n s o n and F l e t c h e r r e p o r t e d on t h e CAI r e a d i n g program d e v e l o p e d by S t a n f o r d U n i v e r s i t y . An i n i t i a l r e a d i n g program d e v e l o p e d i n 1964 had a t t e m p t e d t o t e a c h a l m o s t a l l i n i t i a l r e a d i n g on the computer w i t h l i t t l e d e p e ndence on c l a s s r o o m t e a c h i n g . They r e p o r t e d t h a t t h o u g h t h e p r o g r a m had been s u c c e s s f u l , t h e c o s t o f d e v e l o p i n g and m a i n t a i n i n g s u c h an e x t e n s i v e CAI c u r r i c u l u m was p r o h i b i t i v e . W i t h t h i s i n mind, from 1970 t o 1972 S t a n f o r d U n i v e r s i t y c o n c e n t r a t e d on d e v e l o p i n g a new l o w - c o s t CAI c u r r i c u l u m t h a t would s u p p l e m e n t th e c l a s s r o o m i n s t r u c t i o n i n i n i t i a l r e a d i n g . The c e n t r a l computer was housed at S t a n f o r d w i t h t e l e p h o n e l i n e l i n k s t o s t u d e n t t e r m i n a l s . The program c o n s i s t e d o f s i x s t r a n d s ( A t k i n s o n , F l e t c h e r , 1972): I R e a d i n e s s : p r a c t i c e w i t h manual s k i l l s r e q u i r e d f o r i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h the c o m p u t e r . I I L e t t e r S t r a n d : p r a c t i c e i n c o p y i n g , r e c o g n i t i o n and r e c a l l o f l e t t e r s o f the a l p h a b e t . I l l Word S t r a n d : d e v e l o p m e n t o f s i g h t word v o c a b u l a r y . IV S p e l l i n g S t r a n d : r e c o g n i t i o n and r e c a l l o f g r a p h i c a l l y r e g u l a t e d , m o n o s y l l a b i c words ( r a n , man, f a n ) . V P h o n i c s S t r a n d : d i r e c t e d p r a c t i c e i n c o p y i n g and r e c o g n i z i n g s p e l l i n g p a t t e r n s . VI C o m p r e h e n s i o n S t r a n d : p r a c t i c e on word m e a n i n g . The s i x r e a d i n g s t r a n d s were i m p l e m e n t e d i n g r a d e s K 24 t h r o u g h 3 . S t u d e n t p l a c e m e n t and s u c c e s s d e t e r m i n e d b r a n c h i n g to new s t r a n d s . L e s s o n s f o r each s t u d e n t were drawn from one t o f i v e s t r a n d s c o n c u r r e n t l y . The program was h i g h l y i n d i v i d u a l i z e d f o r maximum p r o g r e s s . S t u d e n t h i s t o r i e s were c o n t i n u a l l y u p d a t e d f o r p r e s c r i p t i v e p u r p o s e s . T e a c h e r r e p o r t s i n c l u d e d c l a s s a v e r a g e s , s t u d e n t l i s t i n g s , u n i t number o f t h e c u r r i c u l u m i t e m where e a c h s t u d e n t was w o r k i n g a c r o s s t h e s t r a n d s , and e r r o r r a t e m e a s u r e s . T e a c h e r s were a b l e t o see the a r e a s o f s t r e n g t h and t h e a r e a s n e e d i n g s p e c i a l a s s i s t a n c e . E v a l u a t i o n o f t h e program i n v o l v e d f i f t y p a i r s o f g r a d e one c h i l d r e n , 25 p a i r s o f g r a d e one boys and 25 p a i r s o f g r a d e one g i r l s . One c h i l d f r o m each p a i r was a s s i g n e d t o t h e c o n t r o l g r o u p and one t o t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p ( g r o u p r e c e i v i n g C A I ) . E a c h p a i r was matched on p r e - t e s t s c o r e s ( M e t r o p o l i t a n R e a d i n e s s T e s t ) w i t h no two s c o r e s more t h a n two p o i n t s a p a r t ( F l e t c h e r , A t k i n s o n , 1 9 72). The c h i l d r e n were matched f o r c o m p a r a b l e c l a s s r o o m s w i t h t e a c h e r s o f s i m i l a r e x p e r i e n c e and a b i l i t y . The e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p r e c e i v e d a p p r o x i m a t e l y t e n m i n u t e s o f CAI p e r day f r o m J a n u a r y t o J u n e o f 1970. No CAI was a d m i n i s t e r e d d u r i n g g r a d e two. F l e t c h e r r e p o r t e d t h a t a t t h e end o f g r a d e one, a c o m p a r i s o n o f s c o r e s on t h e S t a n f o r d A c h i e v e m e n t T e s t , C a l i f o r n i a C o o p e r a t i v e P r i m a r y R e a d i n g T e s t and a t e s t w r i t t e n s p e c i f i c a l l y f o r e v a l u a t i o n o f t h e r e a d i n g c u r r i c u l u m , 25 s i g n i f i c a n t l y favoured the experimental group (p<.01) ( F l e t c h e r , Atkinson, 1972). The C a l i f o r n i a Cooperative Primary Reading Test i n d i c a t e d t hat the experimental group had gained 5.05 months more than the c o n t r o l group. Atkinson s t a t e d that the t e s t i n g was conducted by a team unaware of experimental treatments. He a l s o r e p o r t e d that the s t a n d a r d i z e d t e s t s were conducted at the end of grade two to determine i f any d i f f e r e n c e between the groups at the end of grade one was s u s t a i n e d through grade two without a d d i t i o n a l CAI. These repeated t e s t s showed the experimental group to be 4.90 months ahead of the c o n t r o l group at the end of grade two. Because there was l e s s d i f f e r e n c e between the mean ga i n scores of the g i r l s and boys i n the experimental group than between mean gain scores of g i r l s and boys i n the c o n t r o l group, Atkinson i n f e r r e d that the boys b e n e f i t t e d more than g i r l s from the CAI I n i t i a l Reading Program (Atkinson, F l e t c h e r , 1972). The f a c t that the e x p e r i m e ntal group r e c e i v e d CAI f o r only 6 months and that the d i f f e r e n c e s between groups appears to have been s u s t a i n e d through the f o l l o w i n g year without a d d i t o n a l treatment suggests that prolonged use of the CAI r e a d i n g programs could have dramatic r e s u l t s . Wilson and F i t z g i b b o n r e p o r t e d on the Elementary E n g l i s h CAI Program i n 1970. I t c o n s i s t e d of 180 core l e s s o n s i n c l u d i n g supplementary m a t e r i a l s f o r grades f o u r , f i v e and 26 s i x . The t e a c h e r s s e l e c t e d the sequence and t o p i c s a p p r o p r i a t e t o t h e i r l e s s o n schemes and r e c e i v e d d a i l y and w e e k l y r e p o r t s on s t u d e n t p r o g r e s s . F o r p u r p o s e s o f e v a l u a t i o n , i n t a c t g r a d e f o u r and g r a d e f i v e c l a s s e s were a s s i g n e d t o t h r e e g r o u p s , E x p e r i m e n t a l , C o n t r o l I and C o n t r o l I I . The t h r e e g r o u p s were r a t e d f o r mean I.Q. s c o r e s and s o c i o e c o n o m i c s t a t u s . The a u t h o r s r e p o r t e d t h a t t e s t s o f t h e d a t a showed no d i f f e r e n c e s among the g r o u p s w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e s e v a r i a b l e s . S t u d e n t s were p r e - t e s t e d i n F e b r u a r y o f 1979 w i t h t h e Language s u b t e s t o f the S t a n d a r d A c h i e v e m e n t T e s t B a t t e r y , form x and were p o s t - t e s t e d w i t h form w o f t h e t e s t a t the c o n c l u s i o n o f the i n s t r u c t i o n i n J u n e . The E x p e r i m e n t a l E n g l i s h group (n=68) r e c e i v e d CAI i n b o t h E n g l i s h and M a t h e m a t i c s . C o n t r o l I (n=42) r e c e i v e d CAI i n M a t h e m a t i c s b u t n o t i n E n g l i s h . T h i s g r o u p was t o s e r v e as an i n t e r m e d i a t e c o n t r o l f o r the p o s s i b l e e f f e c t o f t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l s c h o o l s e t t i n g . C o n t r o l I I (n=77) was l o c a t e d i n a n o t h e r s c h o o l and r e c e i v e d o n l y t r a d i t i o n a l i n s t r u c t i o n . The d i s t r i b u t i o n o f s t u d e n t s between g r a d e s f o u r and f i v e was n o t d i s c u s s e d and t h e a u t h o r s p r o v i d e d no d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e pro g r a m s used f o r i n s t r u c t i o n i n e i t h e r c o n t r o l g r o u p . A l l g r o u p s r e c e i v e d an e q u a l b l o c k o f time f o r Language A r t s i n s t r u c t i o n . The p o s t - t e s t s c o r e s i n d i c a t e d a mean g a i n o f s e v e n months f o r t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p and a mean g a i n o f t h r e e months f o r 27 each o f the c o n t r o l groups. The a u t h o r s s t a t e d t h a t because the H v a l u e f o r p r e - t e s t s c o r e s was not s i g n i f i c a n t but t h a t the H v a l u e f o r p o 3 t - t e s t s c o r e s was s i g n i f i c a n t beyond p <.05 t h a t t h e r e were a c t u a l g a i n s f a v o u r i n g the e x p e r i m e n t a l group ( W i l s o n , F i t z g i b b o n , 1970). In 1970 S e r v e r and S t o l u r o w o u t l i n e d a Harvard L a b o r a t o r y p r o j e c t which was d e v e l o p e d and implemented by a language development p s y c h o l o g i s t , a l e a r n i n g t h e o r y p s y c h o l o g i s t , a c o n s u l t a n t p s y c h o l o g i s t a r e a d a b i l i t y s p e c i a l i s t and CAI programmers. The g o a l of the p r o j e c t was to d e s i g n and c r e a t e an i n d i v i d u a l i z e d Language A r t s i n s t r u c t i o n a l program to be implemented by the H a r v a r d CAI system and of use as an a i d to c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r s . S t u d e n t s were a s s e s s e d by o n - l i n e (computer) and o f f - l i n e ( w r i t t e n ) s t a n d a r d i z e d t e s t i n g i n s t r u m e n t s . A l l the assessment i n f o r m a t i o n was then c o m p i l e d to produce i n d i v i d u a l i z e d i n s t r u c t i o n a l s equences. A number of t u t o r i a l and d r i l l and p r a c t i c e programs were de v e l o p e d f o r r e a d i n g comprehension, s p e l l i n g , and p h o n i c s . S t u d e n t i n t e r e s t , r e a d i n g l e v e l , age and grade l e v e l p r o v i d e d a d a t a base f o r the development o f r e a d i n g l i s t s f o r e n r i c h m e n t . The f i n a l phase of the program i n c o r p o r a t e d STUDENT, a t e a c h e r ' s m o n i t o r i n g a i d , which c o n s t a n t l y updated s t u d e n t work summaries, a s s i g n m e n t s , r e m e d i a t i o n and e n r i c h m e n t . The program was p i l o t e d w i t h a group of l o w - a c h i e v i n g 28 c h i l d r e n . Two e q u i v a l e n t forms o f the C a l i f o r n i a R e a d i n g A c h i e v e m e n t T e s t were a d m i n i s t e r e d o n - l i n e and o f f - l i n e . The r e s u l t s o f VIPCON ( o n - l i n e v i s u a l d i s c r i m i n a t i o n t e x t ) c o r r e l a t e d w i t h t h e C a l i f o r n i a R e a d i n g A c h i e v e m e n t T e s t r e s u l t s . The a u t h o r s i d e n t i f i e d s e v e r a l p r o b l e m s e n c o u n t e r e d i n t h e p i l o t s t u d y . They e x p r e s s e d d i f f i c u l t y i n d e t e r m i n i n g what the s t u d e n t s d i d and d i d not comprehend, and t h e y i d e n t i f i e d a need f o r more p r e c i s e s c o r i n g o f the c o m p r e h e n s i o n e x e r c i s e s ( S e r v e r , S t o l o r o w , 1 9 7 0 ) . The p u r p o s e o f t h i s p i l o t was to a s c e r t a i n i f f u r t h e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n was w a r r a n t e d . No s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s o f f i n d i n g s was r e p o r t e d i n the s t u d y nor was a l a t e r , more e x t e n s i v e r e v i e w o f t h e program t o be f o u n d i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e . H i r s c h b u h l , Myers and H i r s c h b u h l r e p o r t e d the r e s u l t s o f a f i v e y e a r s t u d y o f t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f A k r o n ' s C o m p u t e r - B a s e d E d u c a t i o n Network. The Network s e r v e d a u n i v e r s i t y p o p u l a t i o n o f 24,000 as w e l l as t h e s u r r o u n d i n g c o m m u n i t i e s . The a r t i c l e c o n s i s t e d o f the r e p o r t s o f s e v e r a l c o u n t i e s u s i n g t h e Network. These r e p o r t s d i d n o t i n c l u d e c o m p l e t e d e s c r i p t i o n s o f e v a l u a t i o n p r o c e d u r e s o r any s t a t i s t i c a l f i n d i n g s w h i c h would e n a b l e the r e a d e r t o d e t e r m i n e i f any d i f f e r e n c e s were s i g n i f i c a n t ( H i r s c h b u h l , M e y e r s & H i r s c h b u h l , 1980). In the 1975-76 s c h o o l y e a r , Woodridge S c h o o l D i s t r i c t i n summit County i m p l e m e n t e d Computer-Based E d u c a t i o n (CBE) i n 29 grades seven and eight from September to June and in grades f i v e and six from January to June. CBE treatment groups averaged two months growth for every month i n the program while non-CBE treatment groups averaged only 1.5 months for every month in the program. Though the res u l t s were encouraging and were replicated over a variety of grade l e v e l s , i t must be noted that this p a r t i c u l a r program was available only for students with serious reading d e f i c i e n c i e s . Both the experimental and control groups were receiving remedial i n s t r u c t i o n . Akron Public Schools reported CBE experiences in two elementary schools. Seiberling School u t i l i z e d CBE for students with reading s k i l l s assessed to be one or more years below grade l e v e l . In the f i r s t year, the program concentrated on extreme reading d e f i c i e n c i e s regardless of mental a b i l i t y . During the second year, the enrollment was limited to learning disabled and educable mentally retarded students. Children were pre-tested and post-tested each year in the areas of vocabulary and comprehension using the C a l i f o r n i a Achievement Test. At the conclusion of the 1977-78 school year, the grade fi v e students showed a mean gain of 1.43 grade l e v e l s . The six t h grade mean gain was 1.63 grade l e v e l s . In 1979 grade f i v e students at post-test had a mean gain of 0.3 grade l e v e l while the grade six mean gain was 0.9 grade l e v e l . 30 I t was d u r i n g t h i s s e c o n d y e a r o f t h e program t h a t e n r o l l m e n t i n t h e c l a s s was l i m i t e d t o o n l y t h o s e s t u d e n t s i d e n t i f i e d as l e a r n i n g d i s a b l e d and e d u c a b l e m e n t a l l y r e t a r d e d . The a u t h o r s s u g g e s t e d t h i s i s r e f l e c t e d i n the l o w e r mean g a i n s c o r e s f o r 1 9 7 9 . The J a c k s o n E l e m e n t a r y S c h o o l CBE p r o j e c t i s r e p o r t e d i n two s t u d i e s . The H i r s c h b u h l s t u d y r e p o r t s t h a t J a c k s o n E l e m e n t a r y S c h o o l u s e d a CBE L e a r n i n g S t a t i o n as a s u p p o r t s y s t e m f o r Math r e m e d i a t i o n and e n r i c h m e n t i n a s e l f - c o n t a i n e d g r a d e s i x c l a s s . The CBE t r e a t m e n t g r o u p ( g r a d e s i x c l a s s ) r e c e i v e d the p r e s c r i b e d M a t h e m a t i c s c u r r i c u l u m and an a d d i t i o n a l f i f t e e n m i n u t e s d a i l y i n CBE s e s s i o n s . A c o n t r o l g r o u p ( a n o t h e r g r a d e s i x c l a s s ) r e c e i v e d o n l y c o n v e n t i o n a l i n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e p r e s c r i b e d c u r r i c u l u m . B o t h g r o u p s were p r e and p o s t - t e s t e d u s i n g a l t e r n a t e f o r m s o f t h e C a l i f o r n i a A c h i e v e m e n t T e s t . The mean g a i n f o r the CBE t r e a t m e n t g r o u p was 3 . 5 g r a d e l e v e l s f o r t h e 1 9 7 8 - 7 9 s c h o o l y e a r . The mean g a i n f o r the c o n t r o l goup was 1 . 6 g r a d e l e v e l s . No s t a t i s t i c a l t e s t s o f s i g n i f i c a n c e were r e p o r t e d i n the H i r s c h b u h l a r t i c l e . Thomas Warner a l s o r e p o r t e d on t h e J a c k s o n E l e m e n t a r y S c h o o l C o m p u t e r - B a s e d E d u c a t i o n M a t h e m a t i c s P r o j e c t . Warner d e f i n e s the s t u d e n t p o p u l a t i o n as a v e r a g e , m i d d l e c l a s s and p r e d o m i n a t e l y w h i t e . B a s ed on o v e r a l l a p t i t u d e and a c h i e v e m e n t , - s t u d e n t s were r a n d o m l y a s s i g n e d t o math c l a s s e s i n m a t c h e d p a i r s . S u b j e c t s were p r e and p o s t - t e s t e d as r e p o r t e d 31 i n the H i r s c h b u h l s t u d y . The c l a s s averages were w i t h i n .10 o f grade l e v e l on the p r e - t e s t . Rather than c o n v e n t i o n a l i n s t r u c t i o n of the p r e s c r i b e d c u r r i c u l u m as r e p o r t e d by H i r s c h b u h l , Warner s t a t e s that e x p e r i m e n t a l and c o n t r o l groups r e c e i v e d i d e n t i c a l o b j e c t i v e s , t e x t s , and homework a s s i g n m e n t s . The treatment group r e c e i v e d 15 minutes of CBE d a i l y . The CBE c u r r i c u l u m c o n s i s t e d o f h i e r a r c h i c a l and content s p e c i f i c s u b - s e c t i o n s which were broken down i n t o sequenced o b j e c t i v e s . S tudents proceeded from p r e - t e s t to p r e - t e s t u n t i l a q u e s t i o n was m i s s e d . They were i m m e d i a t e l y branched to an i n d i v i d u a l i z e d t u t o r i a l f o r tha t o b j e c t i v e . A comprehens ive t e s t was a d m i n i s t e r e d at c o m p l e t i o n o f a l l o b j e c t i v e s i n a s u b - s e c t i o n . Based on t e s t per formance , a s tudent went back to t u t o r i a l s or on to the next s u b - s e c t i o n . The t e a c h e r r e c e i v e d d e t a i l e d weekly r e p o r t s on the number o f o b j e c t i v e s passed by p r e - t e s t s w i t h i n s u b - s e c t i o n s , t i m e - o u t s , o b j e c t i v e s r e p e a t e d and t e s t s c o r e s . Warner r e p o r t e d that i n d i v i d u a l l y computed t v a l u e s showed s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s f a v o u r i n g the CBE group f o r both c o m p u t a t i o n and a p p l i c a t i o n at p<.002 (Warner, 1980) . Revere L o c a l S c h o o l s e v a l u a t e d CBE d u r i n g the 1977-78 s c h o o l y e a r . The r e a d i n g l e v e l s o f grade s i x s t u d e n t s were a s s e s s e d at the b e g i n n i n g of the s c h o o l year and at the end of the f i r s t s emes ter . F o r two months d u r i n g the second semester 32 s t u d e n t s r e c e i v e d d a i l y CBE. The i n s t r u c t o r and m a t e r i a l s were the same b o t h s e m e s t e r s but a t the end o f the s e c o n d term t h e p o s t - t e s t i n d i c a t e d t h a t s t u d e n t s had g a i n e d an a v e r a g e o f 2.4 months more i n r e a d i n g p r o f i c i e n c y d u r i n g t h e s e m e s t e r w i t h CBE t h a n d u r i n g t h e s e m e s t e r w i t h o u t CBE ( H i r s c h b u h l , M e y e r s & H i r s c h b u h l , 1980). A l l o f t h e s c h o o l s i n v o l v e d i n the CBE Network i n P o r t a g e County r e p o r t e d a p p r o x i m a t e l y 1.5 y e a r s growth f o r s e r i o u s l y d i s a b l e d r e a d e r s . No a d d i t i o n a l s t a t i s t i c s o r i n f o r m a t i o n were c i t e d ( H i r s c h b u h l , Meyers & H i r s c h b u h l , 1 980) . Though most o f the s c h o o l s i n t h e r e p o r t by H i r s c h b u h l , e t a l . e v a l u a t e d t h e CBE p rograms u s i n g e x p e r i m e n t a l / c o n t r o l g r o u p d e s i g n s w i t h p r e and p o s t - t e s t i n g o f t h e s t u d e n t s , a b s e n c e o f r e p o r t s o f t e s t s o f s t a t i s t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e and e x p l i c i t d e s c r i p t i o n s o f e x p e r i m e n t a l c o n d i t i o n s l e a v e s one a b l e t o s u g g e s t o n l y p o s i t i v e r e s u l t s . I f the d e f i n i t i v e r e p o r t by Warner on t h e J a c k s o n E l e m e n t a r y S c h o o l P r o j e c t i s i n d i c a t i v e o f t h e t y p e o f e v a l u a t i o n s c a r r i e d out i n a l l t h e c o u n t i e s , t h e n t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f A k r o n C o m p u t e r - B a s e d E d u c a t i o n Network would a p p e a r t o be p r o d u c i n g p o s i t i v e r e s u l t s . I n the e a r l y 1970's, f e d e r a l l y f u n d e d CAI p r o g r a m s were made a v a i l a b l e t o some s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . S c h o o l s i n l o w - e c o n o m i c a r e a s , where a c h i e v e m e n t had been below a v e r a g e , were e l i g i b l e f o r s p e c i a l g r a n t s w i t h w h i c h t h e y c o u l d buy CAI p r o g r a m s f r o m t h e i r S c h o o l B o a r d s . Not a l l s c h o o l s who 33 were e l i g i b l e for such programs took advantage of them but those who did, received f i f t e e n terminals and one l i n e - p r i n t e r . The courseware included Computer Curriculum Corporation (CCC) materials in Mathematics, Reading and Language Arts. In 1971 seven schools in Chicago had purchased the CAI programs. By 1977-78, 59 schools were u t i l i z i n g Computer-Assisted Instruction; 54 of these were elementary schools and f i v e were schools for the education of the p h y s i c a l l y handicapped. Only students one and one-half years below grade l e v e l i n reading achievement q u a l i f i e d for the s p e c i a l programs in any of the schools. Students received ten minutes of d r i l l and practice in reading and ten minutes in either Mathematics or Language Arts every day. Teachers received a Daily Class report and a monthly Periodic Gain report. Branching occurred automatically based on student reports. The project was evaluated annually. Comparisons were usually made with other programs which included i n d i v i d u a l i z e d , diagnostic and p r e s c r i p t i v e procedures. An evaluation of the program indicated there were no important differences i n student attention to task or i n attitude toward the a c t i v i t i e s of the various s p e c i a l i z e d programs. No difference was noted in achievement of pupils using CAI as opposed to any of four other s p e c i a l i z e d reading programs. However, the cost effectiveness r a t i o for CAI was 34 h i g h enough to be a f a c t o r i n s e l e c t i n g one o f t h e s e s p e c i a l i z e d s t u d e n t programs. ( H a l l w o r t h , B r e b n e r , 1 9 8 0 ) . None o f t h e e v a l u a t i o n p r o c e d u r e s and no s t a t i s t i c a l f i n d i n g s were r e p o r t e d . D u r i n g the 1974-75 s c h o o l y e a r , Los N i e t o s , C a l i f o r n i a i n s t i t u t e d f e d e r a l l y f u n d e d programs f o r the d i s a d v a n t a g e d . The program c o n s i s t e d o f A r i t h m e t i c f o r g r a d e s two t h r o u g h n i n e , E l e m e n t a r y R e a d i n g S k i l l s f o r g r a d e s t h r e e t h r o u g h s i x , and WRITE f o r g r a d e s f o u r though n i n e . The e a r l y a c h i e v e m e n t r e s u l t s were e x c e l l e n t but s c h o o l s e x p e r i e n c e d s e r i o u s o p e r a t i o n a l p r o b l e m s ( i e . . s y s t e m breakdown, s l o w r e s p o n s e t i m e ) w h i c h c u l m i n a t e d i n t h e a c q u i s i t i o n o f a new s y s t e m i n 1976. The new program p r o v i d e d R e a d i n g and Language f o r a l l s t u d e n t s i n g r a d e s f o u r t h r o u g h e i g h t i n f i v e s c h o o l s . The t e a c h e r i n t r o d u c e d the c o n c e p t s and p r o v i d e d o p p o r t u n i t y f o r t h e a p p l i c a t i o n and t r a n s f e r o f newly a c q u i r e d s k i l l s to more complex c o n c e p t s . The computer p r o v i d e d t h e d r i l l and p r a c t i c e . A t h r e e y e a r l o n g i t u d i n a l s t u d y u s i n g the C a l i f o r n i a T e s t o f B a s i c S k i l l s w i t h s t u d e n t s who were i n g r a d e s f o u r and f i v e i n 1974, most o f whom r e m a i n e d i n the s t u d y t h r o u g h 1977» p r o d u c e d the f o l l o w i n g mean g a i n s i n g r a d e l e v e l e q u i v a l e n t s : 35 1974 1 975 mean grade 4 means means gains Math Reading Language 3.4 3.0 3.2 7.5 6 . 4 5.9 4.1 3.4 2.7 grade 5 Math Reading Language 3.4 3.5 3.2 8.2 8 . 0 7.5 4.8 4.5 4.3 « grade l e v e l equivalent mean gains Unfortunately the study has no non-CAI gains to report and only suggests that the expected mean gain without CAI would have been 2.1 grade l e v e l equivalent for the two year academic period . Computers were available for use before and after school and the report made note of the fact that during this same time period, there was a s i g n i f i c a n t reduction in truancy and vandalism (Hallworth, Brebner, 1980). Vinsonhaler and Bass reviewed a number of studies using CAI d r i l l and practice in Language Arts and Mathematics. The c r i t e r i o n measure for Mathematics evaluation was the Stanford Achievement Test and the c r i t e r i o n measure for Language A r t 3 evaluation was the Metropolitan Achievement Test. Performance was evaluated as an average gain score. The unit of measurement was grade year equivalent. Each of the studies involved an experimental group r e c e i v i n g CAI and t r a d i t i o n a l 36 i n s t r u c t i o n and a control group receiving only t r a d i t i o n a l i n s t r u c t i o n . Some studies controlled for the p o s s i b i l i t y of Hawthorne Effect by providing CAI experience in other subject areas for control subjects. The three major studies in Language Arts were from C a l i f o r n i a , Michigan and New York. The samples were large and the duration of the studies spanned the school year. The mean gain differences between experiment and control groups were po s i t i v e , ranging from .1 to .4 of a school year in favour of CAI . The following studies in Math were reported: C a l i f o r n i a 1966-67 and 1967-68 M i s s i s s i p p i 1967-68 New York 1968-69 and 1969-70 Michigan 1968-69 and 1969-70. The duration of the programs ranged from three months i n M i s s i s s i p p i to nine and ten months in C a l i f o r n i a , New York and Michigan. These studies also u t i l i z e d large samples (n=l82 to 3500). Most comparisons of mean gain scores showed advantages for CAI plus t r a d i t i o n a l i n s t r u c t i o n and most differences were s i g n i f i c a n t . Vinsonhaler and Bass concluded that Computer-Assisted Instruction and t r a d i t i o n a l i n s t r u c t i o n together are more e f f e c t i v e than t r a d i t i o n a l i n s t r u c t i o n alone but they suggested that other, less expensive methods for augmenting t r a d i t i o n a l i n s t r u c t i o n should be examined (Vinsonhaler, Bass, 1972). Fletcher, Suppes and Jameson evaluated a Mathematics d r i l l and 37 p r a c t i c e p r o g r a m f o r g r a d e s o n e t h r o u g h s i x d u r i n g t h e 1 9 6 7 - 6 8 s c h o o l y e a r i n M i s s i s s i p p i . S t u d e n t s w e r e r a n d o m l y a s s i g n e d t o e x p e r i m e n t a l a n d c o n t r o l g r o u p s . T h e d i f f e r e n c e i n a c h i e v e m e n t r a n g e d f r o m .41 t o . 8 8 g r a d e q u i v a l e n t a n d s i g n i f i c a n t l y f a v o u r e d C A I s t u d e n t s a t e a c h g r a d e l e v e l ( p < . 0 1 ) ( F l e t c h e r , S u p p e s & J a m e s o n , 1 9 7 2 ) . S u p p e s a n d M o r n i n g s t a r p u b l i s h e d a n e x t e n s i v e a n a l y s i s o f t h e A r i t h m e t i c p r o g r a m s i n C o m p u t e r - A s s i s t e d I n s t r u c t i o n a t S t a n f o r d U n i v e r s i t y f r o m 1 9 6 6 - 6 8 . T h e i n t r o d u c t i o n i d e n t i f i e d m a j o r c o n c e p t u a l i s s u e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h C o m p u t e r - A s s i s t e d I n s t r u c t i o n a n d e x p l a i n e d t h e p h i l o s o p h i c a l b a s e s f o r t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e c u r r i c u l u m . T h e v o l u m e w a s d i v i d e d i n t o t w o p a r t s . P a r t I w a s a d e t a i l e d d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e d r i l l a n d p r a c t i c e p r o g r a m . P a r t I I d e s c r i b e d t h e t u t o r i a l p r o g r a m f o r f i r s t a n d s e c o n d g r a d e M a t h e m a t i c s . T o g e t h e r t h e y d e t a i l e d t h e c u r r i c u l u m , t h e o p e r a t i o n o f t h e t e r m i n a l s i n t h e s c h o o l s a n d a b e h a v i o u r a l a n a l y s i s o f t h e s t u d e n t d a t a . By t h e e n d o f t h e 1 9 6 6 - 6 7 s c h o o l y e a r , m o r e t h a n 1 5 0 0 s t u d e n t s i n e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l s i n t h e S a n F r a n c i s c o B a y a r e a w e r e r e c e i v i n g C A I d r i l l a n d p r a c t i c e i n M a t h e m a t i c s . Two t e l e t y p e s w e r e i n s t a l l e d i n M o r e h e a d , K e n t u c k y a t t h e M o r e h e a d S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y L a b o r a t o r y S c h o o l a n d o n e was p l a c e d i n a n e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l i n E l l i o t v i l l e , K e n t u c k y . D u r i n g t h e 1 9 6 7 - 6 8 s c h o o l y e a r , t h e n u m b e r o f s t u d e n t s i n t h e C A I d r i l l a n d p r a c t i c e p r o g r a m r e m a i n e d c o n s t a n t i n 3 8 C a l i f o r n i a but in Kentucky the number of students enrolled in part-time i n s t r u c t i o n had increased to 1500. In McComb, Mi s s i s s i p p i 640 students received daily i n s t r u c t i o n and more than 500 students at a Job Corps Center in Iowa were getting p a r t i a l i n s t r u c t i o n . A l l of the student terminals were connected to the Stanford d r i l l and practice program via telephone l i n k s . The 1966-67 t u t o r i a l CAI program was being used by 53 f i r s t grade students. In 1967-68 the number increased to 73 second grade students. At the conclusion of the f i r s t year of the program four C a l i f o r n i a schools participated in the evaluation process. Grades three to six were tested in an Experimental School (A) and a Control School (B) within the same d i s t r i c t . Students were pre and post-tested i n a l l schools and the differences were examined for School A versus School B, School C versus School D. The increase in performance for students i n the Experimental School A was s i g n i f i c a n t l y greater than for the Control School B at grade three. Grades four and six of Experimental School C showed a s i g n i f i c a n t increase in performance over those i n School D. In 1968 the evaluation was conducted in seven schools. The SAT was administered as pre-test and post-test to grades one through s i x . The d i s t r i b u t i o n of control and experimental groups was not a matched comparisons model. Some schools 39 c o n t a i n e d o n l y e x p e r i m e n t a l s t u d e n t s ; some s c h o o l s c o n t a i n e d b o t h e x p e r i m e n t a l a n d c o n t r o l ( i n s e p a r a t e d c l a s s e s a n d i n m i x e d c l a s s e s ) . A n a l y s e s w e r e d o n e f o r t w o g r o u p s ; e g . , m i x e d c l a s s e s a n d s e p a r a t e d c l a s s e s . D a t a f r o m t h e s c h o o l w i t h m i x e d c l a s s e s d e m o n s t r a t e d t h a t t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l s t u d e n t s g a i n e d m o r e t h a n c o n t r o l s t u d e n t s f o r a l l g r a d e s b u t t h e d i f f e r e n c e s w e r e s i g n i f i c a n t f o r g r a d e s t h r e e , f o u r a n d f i v e . I n s c h o o l s w i t h s e p a r a t e d c l a s s e s , s t u d e n t s r e c e i v i n g C A I g a i n e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y m o r e t h a n c o n t r o l s t u d e n t s i n c o m p u t a t i o n a t g r a d e s t w o , t h r e e a n d f i v e a n d i n a p p l i c a t i o n s a t g r a d e s i x . The a u t h o r s i n d i c a t e d t h a t v a r i a b i l i t y i n t e a c h i n g s t y l e may h a v e h a d a n e f f e c t o n some o f t h e f i n d i n g s . G e n e r a l l y , t h e a n a l y s i s o f t h e S t a n f o r d p r o g r a m was w e l l e x e c u t e d a n d r e p o r t e d ( S u p p e s , M o r n i n g s t a r , 1 9 7 2 ) . T h e O n t a r i o I n s t i t u t e f o r S t u d i e s i n E d u c a t i o n , w i t h f u n d i n g f r o m t h e O n t a r i o M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n , i n i t i a t e d t h e C o m p u t e r - A s s i s t e d R e m e d i a t i o n a n d E v a l u a t i o n ( C A R E ) p r o j e c t a s a c o m p o n e n t o f t h e O n t a r i o A s s e s s m e n t I n s t r u m e n t P o o l ( O A I P ) . T h e CARE c o u r s e s w e r e t u t o r i a l a n d c o n t a i n e d l e s s o n s , t e s t s a n d b r a n c h i n g s t r a t e g y f o r i n d i v i d u a l l e v e l s o f p e r f o r m a n c e . A p p r o x i m a t e l y 1 0 , 0 0 0 a d v a n c e d a n d r e m e d i a l s t u d e n t s u s e d CARE d u r i n g a t w o y e a r p e r i o d . I n S e p t e m b e r o f 1 9 7 9 , a l l s t u d e n t s i n g r a d e s 7 t h r o u g h 10 i n t h e p a r t i c i p a t i n g s c h o o l s w e r e g i v e n a p a p e r a n d p e n c i l 40 t e s t . O f t h e 2000 s t u d e n t s t e s t e d , 1082 w e r e s e l e c t e d t o u s e CARE A r i t h m e t i c m a t e r i a l . T h e r e m a i n i n g s t u d e n t s s e r v e d a s a n i n f o r m a l c o m p a r i s o n g r o u p . T h e a v e r a g e t e s t s c o r e i n S e p t e m b e r was 43$. T h e r e w e r e no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n s t u d e n t s a s s i g n e d t o CARE a n d t h o s e a s s i g n e d t o t h e c o m p a r i s o n g r o u p . I n J a n u a r y 1980, t h e p a p e r a n d p e n c i l t e s t s w e r e a g a i n a d m i n i s t e r e d . T h e mean n u m b e r o f t o p i c s c o m p l e t e d was 7 ( o u t o f 32 p o s s i b l e t o p i c s i n M a t h e m a t i c s ) a n d t h e a v e r a g e e x p o s u r e t i m e w a s f o u r h o u r s . T h e a u t h o r s r e p o r t e d t h a t CARE s t u d e n t s n o t o n l y i m p r o v e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y f r o m p r e t o p o s t - t e s t , b u t t h e y a l s o i m p r o v e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y o v e r n o n - C A R E s t u d e n t s i n t h e same s c h o o l s (p<.001). A t a b l e o f p e r c e n t a g e s i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e g r e a t e r t h e p r o p o r t i o n o f t o p i c s c o m p l e t e d , t h e g r e a t e r t h e d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n CARE a n d n o n - C A R E s t u d e n t s ( G e r s h m a n , S a k a m o t o , 1981). U n f o r t u n a t e l y , t h e a u t h o r s h a v e n o t s t a t e d w h e t h e r s u b j e c t s w e r e a s s i g n e d r a n d o m l y t o t r e a t m e n t a n d c o m p a r i s o n g r o u p s . I t i s n o t c l e a r i f t h e r e w a s a c o n t r o l f o r H a w t h o r n e E f f e c t o r t e a c h e r e f f e c t a n d t h e a u t h o r s h a v e n o t s t a t e d i f c l a s s e s w e r e c o m p r i s e d o f a m i x t u r e o f t r e a t m e n t / c o m p a r i s o n s u b j e c t s o r i f i n t a c t g r o u p s w e r e a s s i g n e d t o t r e a t m e n t . T h e CARE p r o j e c t a p p e a r s t o h a v e p r o d u c e d a s t r o n g s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t b u t t h e l a c k o f a p r e c i s e p r o c e d u r a l d e s c r i p t i o n w e a k e n s t h e r e p o r t . 41 Summary U s e o f G r a p h i c s i n CAI A r t h u r M e l m e d s u g g e s t e d t h a t w h e r e l e a r n i n g h a s no p r e c e d e n t i n r e a l l i f e e x p e r i e n c e , one m u s t p r o c e e d s l o w l y , b u i l d i n g a n i n t u i t i v e u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f a c o n c e p t . I n a s i m i l a r l i g h t , R i g n e y a n d L u t z p r o p o s e d t h a t i n some i n s t a n c e s , p r o v i d i n g a p p r o p r i a t e v a l i d e x t e r n a l i m a g e s may be e f f e c t i v e i n s t i m u l a t i n g t h e n e c e s s a r y i n t e r n a l i m a g e s . W h i l e M e l m e d h a s i d e n t i f i e d s i m u l a t i o n s a s a v e h i c l e f o r p r o v i d i n g t h e n e c e s s a r y e x p e r i e n c e , R i g n e y and L u t z t a l k e d a b o u t u s i n g a n i m a t e d v i s u a l a n a l o g i e s . I n e i t h e r c a s e , t h e u s e o f some f o r m o f g r a p h i c s d i s p l a y may s i m p l i f y t h e a c q u i s i t i o n o f c o n c e p t s w h i c h w o u l d o t h e r w i s e r e q u i r e e x t e n s i v e v e r b a l e x p l a n a t i o n s . P e t e r s and D a i k e r p r o p o s e d t h a t s i m p l y u s i n g a n i m a t i o n a n d / o r g r a p h i c s i n t h e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f c o n c e p t s i s n o t s u f f i c i e n t t o c a u s e i m p r o v e d l e a r n i n g . T h e y s u g g e s t t h a t a n i m a t i o n / g r a p h i c s mus t be c a r e f u l l y f o c u s s e d on o b j e c t i v e s a n d t h a t t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n t h i s f o r m o f v i s u a l s t i m u l i a n d t h e t e x t m u s t be b r o u g h t t o t h e a t t e n t i o n o f t h e s t u d e n t . I f h o w e v e r , i n t u i t i v e u n d e r s t a n d i n g h a s b e e n a c h i e v e d a n d t h e n e c e s s a r y i n t e r n a l i m a g e s a r e b e i n g p r o c e s s e d by t h e s t u d e n t , t h e n g r a p h i c s i n a n y f o r m may be s u p e r f l u o u s a n d l e a r n i n g may be o c c u r i n g a t a more a b s t r a c t c o g n i t i v e l e v e l . 42 T h i s may a l s o p r o v i d e a n a l t e r n a t e e x p l a n a t i o n f o r t h e l a c k o f s i g n i f i c a n t f i n d i n g s i n t h e M o o r e a n d K i n g s t u d i e s o n t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f v a r i o u s l e v e l s o f g r a p h i c s i n C A I . K i n g r e p o r t e d t h a t b e c a u s e o f t h e t r a i n i n g s c h o o l p r o g r a m s , h i s s u b j e c t s may h a v e a l r e a d y b e e n u s i n g v e r b a l l a b e l s f o r m e n t a l i m a g e s a n d t h e r e f o r e t h e g r a p h i c s w o u l d h a v e b e e n r e d u n d a n t . B e c a u s e M o o r e ' s s u b j e c t s w e r e i n a s i m i l a r t r a i n i n g s i t u a t i o n , a n d no m e n t i o n was made o f p r e - t e s t i n g , t h e same c o n d i t i o n may h o l d t r u e i n h e r s t u d y . K a t h y L u t z e v a l u a t e d t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f g r a p h i c s i n m u l t i - m o d e K n o w l e d g e o f R e s u l t s b a s e d o n t i m e a t t e n d i n g t o t a s k . T h o u g h s h e f o u n d a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e f o r m u l t i - m o d e KR ( u s e o f g r a p h i c s a n d a u d i t o r y m e s s a g e ) i t d o e s n o t i n d i c a t e w h e t h e r o r n o t t h e r e w a s a n y d i f f e r e n c e i n how much t h e c h i l d r e n l e a r n e d a n d / o r r e t a i n e d . A c c o r d i n g t o R i g n e y a n d L u t z , s t u d e n t s m u s t h a v e r e a s o n s f o r p r o c e s s i n g i n f o r m a t i o n t h e r e f o r e , g r a p h i c f e a t u r e s s h o u l d c o n v e y i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t t h e s u b j e c t . Y e t i n h e r s t u d y , L u t z u s e d p i c t o r i a l s e t t i n g s a n d g r a p h i c KR u n r e l a t e d t o t h e l e t t e r s p r e s e n t e d f o r r e c o g n i t i o n . I n s t e a d o f m a g i c i a n s ' h a t s o r b u n n i e s a n d c a r r o t s w i t h l e t t e r s , t h e g r a p h i c s c o u l d h a v e b e e n m n e u m o n i c s ( i e . h o n a h a t , d o n a d o g ) . I f t h e s t u d e n t r e s p o n d e d b y i d e n t i f y i n g a c o r r e c t l e t t e r , a n a p p r o p r i a t e g r a p h i c r e s p o n s e c o u l d h a v e f o l l o w e d ( d o g s i t s up o r w a g s t a i l w h e n d i s c o r r e c t l y c h o s e n ) . 43 I n p r o d u c e s u m m a r y , i f t h e a n i m p r o v e m e n t i n u s e o f a n i m a t i o n / g r a p h i c s i n C A I s t u d e n t a c h i e v e m e n t , i t s h o u l d : t o 1. u t i l i z e a n i m a t i o n / g r a p h i c s w h i c h f o c u s o n t h e p r o g r a m o b j e c t i v e s a n d w h o s e r e l a t i o n s h i p t o t h e t e x t i s u n d e r s t o o d b y t h e s t u d e n t s , 2. p r o v i d e i n t e r n a l i m a g e s , o r v i s u a l i z a t i o n o f a b s t r a c t c o n c e p t s n o t p r e v i o u s l y a c h i e v e d , 3 . p r o v i d e a d d i t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t t h e s u b j e c t . C A I i n S u b j e c t A r e a s I n a l l o f t h e s t u d i e s r e v i e w e d , w h e t h e r o r n o t t h e p r o g r a m w a s d e e m e d e f f e c t i v e was b a s e d on s t u d e n t p e r f o r m a n c e . D i d t h e s t u d e n t s s i g n i f i c a n t l y i m p r o v e w h i l e u s i n g C A I ? Of t h e 13 s t u d i e s r e v i e w e d , 11 r e p o r t e d g a i n s i n s t u d e n t a c h i e v e m e n t . One s t u d y d i d n o t r e p o r t a n e v a l u a t i o n a n d o n l y o n e r e p o r t e d no d i f f e r e n c e s i n a c h i e v e m e n t . O f t h e 11 w h i c h f o u n d g a i n s i n s t u d e n t a c h i e v e m e n t , 6 s t u d i e s r e p o r t e d s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s r a n g i n g f r o m p < . 0 5 t o p < . 0 0 1 . A l l 6 s t u d i e s i n v o l v e d s t u d e n t s f r o m r e g u l a r c l a s s r o o m s . T h e r e m a i n i n g 7 s t u d i e s , 5 o f w h i c h d i d n o t i n c l u d e t e s t s o f s i g n i f i c a n c e , w e r e l i m i t e d t o l o w a c h i e v i n g s t u d e n t s . E i g h t o f 44 the studies used pre and post-testing procedures. A l l of the programs focussed on one of three subject areas, Reading, Language Arts or Math. Some of the studies (Atkinson & Fletcher; Wilson & Fitzgibbon; Server & Stolurow; Fletcher, Suppes & Jameson, Ontario) contained extensive t u t o r i a l units with branching for remediation and enrichment, d r i l l and practice sections, and student management systems which provided dai l y and/or weekly reports for teachers. The remaining 8 programs were primarily d r i l l and p r a c t i c e . Of these 8, 7 reported increases in achievement for treatment groups over control groups and 2 of these were s i g n i f i c a n t . However, of the 5 programs u t i l i z i n g t u t o r i a l , d r i l l and practice, and teacher management systems with regular classes, 4 reported s i g n i f i c a n t differences in favour of CAI groups. In summary, though the presentation format and s p e c i f i c content in these studies varied greatly, those studies u t i l i z i n g t u t o r i a l , d r i l l and p r a c t i c e , and management systems, produced consistently s i g n i f i c a n t r e s u l t s i n improving student achievement. Therefore the program designed for this study includes t u t o r i a l , d r i l l and practice, and management components. The graphics which are u t i l i z e d focus on the program objectives, are d i r e c t l y related to the text, provide a v i s u a l i z a t i o n of the abstract concepts, and provide additional information about the subject. 45 CHAPTER III DESIGN AND PROCEDURES In order to test the hypotheses as stated in Chapter I and restated below, the experimenter designed and produced three versions of the Sentence Elaboration Programme (SEP). Version 1 was presented by the experimenter with pencil and paper exercises; no graphics or pictures were used. Version 2 was presented on a microcomputer and included the same text; no graphics or pictures were used. In version 3, the lesson was presented on microcomputers and included the same text, but also included animation/graphics i n the t u t o r i a l section. The objective of SEP was to provide students with variations of a systematic approach to increasing the use of noun modifiers in sentences. A control group, which was pre- and post-tested with the three treatment groups, was included in the study in order to ascertain i f any changes which occurred at post-test were due to the treatment rather than non-treatment factors, such as pre-testing or other c u r r i c u l a within the classroom. The control group received no additional i n s t r u c t i o n . 46 H y p o t h e s e s G i v e n t h r e e v e r s i o n s o f t h e S e n t e n c e E l a b o r a t i o n P r o g r a m m e ; p e n c i l / p a p e r , t e x t / c o m p u t e r , g r a p h i c s / c ornpu t e r , e a c h p r e s e n t e d t o a d i f f e r e n t t r e a t m e n t g r o u p ; a n d a c o n t r o l g r o u p who r e c e i v e d no t r e a t m e n t b u t who w e r e p r e - a n d p o s t - t e s t e d w i t h t h e t r e a t m e n t g r o u p s : 1 . T h e r e w i l l be no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e ( - * = . 0 5 ) b e t w e e n t h e f o u r g r o u p s f o r t h e f o l l o w i n g d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s : a . t h e n u m b e r o f n o u n m o d i f i e r s u s e d w h e n s t u d e n t s w e r e a s k e d t o w r i t e t e n i n d i v i d u a l s e n t e n c e s a t p o s t - t e s t ; b. t h e n u m b e r o f n o u n m o d i f i e r s u s e d i n t w o c o m p o s i t i o n s o f 100 w o r d s e a c h a t p o s t - t e s t . 2. T h e r e w i l l be no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e (0C = .O5) b e t w e e n t h e t h r e e t r e a t m e n t g r o u p s f o r t h e f o l l o w i n g d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s : a . t h e n u m b e r o f c o r r e c t r e s p o n s e s i n t h e d r i l l a n d p r a c t i c e s e c t i o n o f t h e p r o g r a m ; b. t h e n u m b e r o f s e n t e n c ' e s w r i t t e n by s t u d e n t s a t e a c h l e v e l w h i c h c o r r e c t l y m a t c h e d t h e m o d e l s e n t e n c e ; c . t h e a m o u n t o f t i m e r e q u i r e d by s t u d e n t s t o c o m p l e t e t h e t u t o r i a l a n d d r i l l a n d p r a c t i c e s e c t i o n s o f t h e p r o g r a m . 47 Program Description The Sentence Elaboration Programme (SEP) consisted of six lev e l s (TABLE I ) . In the f i r s t four l e v e l s , noun modifiers in the form of adjectives, prepositional phrases, dependent clauses and determiners (an, many, most, some, the, etc.) were added to the sentences to modify the subject nouns. In l e v e l 5 an object noun was added to the sentence and in l e v e l 6, two adjectives were added to modify the object noun. The purpose, of these two l e v e l s was to encourage students to use noun modifiers for other than just the subject of the sentence. The following abbreviations are used in TABLE I: SN = Subject Noun, V = Verb, Adj. = Adjective, PP = Prepostional Phrase, D = Determiner, DC = Dependent Clause, ON = Object Noun. TABLE I. Six l e v e l s of the Sentence Elaboration Programme Level 1. Adj. - SN - V eg: F l u f f y Clouds f l o a t . Level 2 . Adj. - Adj.- N - V eg: Big black bears growl. Level 3 - D - Adj. - Adj. - SN - PP - V eg: The strange spotted plant in the corner bloomed . Level 4. D - Adj. - Adj. - SN - DC - V eg: A bent old man who was wearing ragged clothes smiled. Level 5. D - Adj. - Adj. - SN- DC - V - ON eg: Some black spotted bugs that l i v e in the garden eat leaves. Level 6. D - Adj. - Adj. - SN - DC - V - Adj. - Adj. - ON eg: The t a l l maple tree that grows in the park loses big dead leaves. 48 I n k e e p i n g w i t h the f i n d i n g s o f t h e Review o f the L i t e r a t u r e , e a c h l e v e l o f t h e S e n t e n c e E l a b o r a t i o n Programme c o n s i s t e d o f t h e f o l l o w i n g components: P a r t I an i n t e r a c t i v e t u t o r i a l w h i c h d e m o n s t r a t e d the e l a b o r a t i o n p r o c e s s and p r o v i d e d r e v i e w when s t u d e n t r e s p o n s e s were i n c o r r e c t , P a r t I I a d r i l l and p r a c t i c e s e c t i o n i n w h i c h the s t u d e n t i d e n t i f i e d a g r o u p o f words as m a t c h i n g o r not m a t c h i n g the m o d e l, P a r t I I I a p r o d u c t i o n s e c t i o n i n w h i c h the s t u d e n t was a s k e d t o w r i t e f i v e s e n t e n c e s c o n f o r m i n g t o the model . T e s t s C o v a r i a t e s CTBS T o t a l Language S k i l l s S c o r e . A f t e r the random a s s i g n m e n t o f s t u d e n t s t o c o n t r o l and t r e a t m e n t g r o u p s , Language S k i l l s raw s c o r e s f r o m the Canada T e s t s o f B a s i c S k i l l s (CTBS) were u s e d t o d e t e r m i n e i f any e n t r y d i f f e r e n c e s e x i s t e d a c r o s s the g r o u p s w h i c h m i g h t i n t e r f e r e w i t h i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f p o s t - t e s t r e s u l t s . C o m p i l a t i o n o f g r o u p means (TABLE I I ) i n d i c a t e d an a n a l y s i s o f c o v a r i a n c e s h o u l d be used w i t h th e Canada T e s t s o f B a s i c S k i l l s (CTBS) T o t a l Language S k i l l s s c o r e s as a c o v a r i a t e f o r a l l t h e d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s . 49 TABLE I I . Mean CTBS T o t a l Language S k i l l s s c o r e s by g r o u p . Raw Grade S c o r e E q u i v a l e n t C o n t r o l Group 576 6.4 P e n c i l / P a p e r (T1) 681 6.9 T e x t / C o m p u t e r (T2) 565 .6.2 G r a p h i c s / C o m p u t e r (T3) 547 6.2 P r e - T e s t Measure 1 ( S p e l l i n g S e n t e n c e s ) . One week p r i o r t o i n s t i t u t i n g the program, s t u d e n t s were g i v e n a l i s t o f t e n s p e l l i n g words f o r which t h e y w r o t e s e n t e n c e s . The t o t a l number o f noun m o d i f i e r s was r e c o r d e d f o r i n d i v i d u a l s t u d e n t s . The r e s u l t o f P r e - T e s t Measure 1 was u s e d as an a d d i t i o n a l c o v a r i a t e f o r P o s t - T e s t Measure 1. P r e - T e s t Measure 2 ( C o m p o s i t i o n ) . D u r i n g the two weeks p r i o r t o i n s t i t u t i n g the program, a l l s u b j e c t s were a s k e d t o w r i t e two c o m p o s i t i o n s , each o f w h i c h were two pages i n l e n g t h . On e a c h c o m p o s i t i o n day, s t u d e n t s were a l l o w e d t o s e l e c t a t o p i c f r o m a l i s t o f f i v e t i t l e s . I n o r d e r t o be s u r e t h a t t h e l e n g t h o f c o m p o s i t i o n s f o r a l l s t u d e n t s was the same, and t o a c c o u n t f o r any change i n w r i t i n g w h i c h m i g h t have o c c u r r e d 50 from the b e g i n n i n g t o t h e end o f the c o m p o s i t i o n s , t h e f i r s t 100 words i n t h e f i r s t c o m p o s i t i o n and t h e l a s t 100 words i n t h e s e c o n d c o m p o s i t o n were u s e d . The t o t a l number o f noun m o d i f i e r s were c o m p i l e d f o r each s t u d e n t . P r e - T e s t Measure 2 was used as an a d d i t i o n a l c o v a r i a t e f o r P o s t - T e s t Measure 2. P o s t - T e s t M e a s u r e s P o s t - T e s t Measure 1 ( S p e l l i n g S e n t e n c e s ) . One week a f t e r c o m p l e t i o n o f SEP, s t u d e n t s were g i v e n a new l i s t o f t e n s p e l l i n g words f o r w h i c h t h e y w r o t e s e n t e n c e s . The t o t a l number o f noun m o d i f i e r s was r e c o r d e d f o r i n d i v i d u a l s t u d e n t s . P o s t - T e s t Measure 2 ( C o m p o s i t i o n ) . D u r i n g t h e two weeks f o l l o w i n g c o m p l e t i o n o f SEP, a l l s u b j e c t s were a s k e d t o w r i t e two c o m p o s i t i o n s , e a c h o f w h i c h were two pages i n l e n g t h . On each c o m p o s i t i o n day, the s t u d e n t s were a l l o w e d t o s e l e c t a t o p i c from a l i s t o f f i v e t i t l e s . As i n the P r e - T e s t M e a s u r e 2, the f i r s t 100 words i n the f i r s t c o m p o s i t i o n and t h e l a s t 100 words i n the s e c o n d c o m p o s i t i o n were u s e d . The t o t a l number o f noun m o d i f i e r s was c o m p i l e d f o r e a c h s t u d e n t . 5 1 Measure 3 ( D r i l l and P r a c t i c e ) . The t o t a l number of correct responses for the d r i l l and practice sections of a l l six l e v e l s of SEP was recorded for each student. Measure 4 (Production). The t o t a l number of sentences written which matched the model sentence on each of the six le v e l s of SEP was recorded for each student. Measure 5 (Time). The number of .minutes from the beginning of the t u t o r i a l to the end of the d r i l l and practice was recorded for each l e v e l by student, and then a t o t a l number of minutes for the six lev e l s of SEP was recorded for i n d i v i d u a l students. S t a t i s t i c a l Procedures The data ' from various measures were treated as follows, The analysis of covariance was done using the SPSS computer program at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia Education Research Service Centre. The CTBS Total Language S k i l l s scores and Pre-Test 1 (Spelling Sentences) were used as covariates for Post-Test 1. The CTBS Total Language S k i l l s scores and 52 Pre-Test 2 (Composition) were used as covariates for Post-Test 2 (Composition). The CTBS Total Language S k i l l s scores were used as covariates for Measure 3 ( D r i l l and Practice), Measure 4 (Production) and Measure 5(Time). Research Design The basic design of this investigation i s a four group study. The subjects were 56 grade six students who were divided between two classrooms at Burrard View Community School in North Vancouver, B r i t i s h Columbia. Within each c l a s s , students were randomly assigned to one of four groups. Control Group (n = l 4 ) The Control students completed the Pre-Test 1 ( S p e l l i n g Sentences) and Pre-Test 2 (Composition) assignments, received no additional writing i n s t r u c t i o n , and then completed the Post-Test 1 (Spelling Sentences) and Post-Test 2 (Composition) assignments with the treatment students. 53 P e n c i l / P a p e r G r o u p ( T 1 ) ( n = 1 4 ) E a c h m o r n i n g t h e s e s t u d e n t s met i n t h e R e s o u r c e Room w h e r e t h e t u t o r i a l p o r t i o n o f t h e l e s s o n was p r e s e n t e d b y a t e a c h e r ( e x p e r i m e n t e r ) u s i n g a b l a c k b o a r d . No p i c t u r e s o r g r a p h i c s w e r e u s e d . T h e r e c o g n i t i o n e x e r c i s e ( d r i l l a n d p r a c t i c e ) was p r i n t e d o n p a p e r a n d i n c l u d e d a n e x a m p l e o f t h e m o d e l s e n t e n c e f o l l o w e d b y t e n g r o u p s o f w o r d s . S t u d e n t s w e r e a s k e d t o w r i t e a n " n " o r " y " b e s i d e e a c h g r o u p o f w o r d s t o i n d i c a t e i f t h e w o r d s m a t c h e d t h e s e n t e n c e m o d e l . T h e y w e r e a b l e t o s e e t h e m o d e l s e n t e n c e a n d a l l t e n p r o b l e m s a t o n e t i m e . T h e s h e e t s w e r e c o l l e c t e d b y t h e t e a c h e r a n d t h e n t h e s t u d e n t s w e r e a s k e d t o w r i t e f i v e s e n t e n c e s c o n f o r m i n g t o t h e m o d e l . T h e t e a c h e r s c o r e d b o t h a s s i g n m e n t s ( d r i l l a n d p r a c t i c e , p r o d u c t i o n ) . T e x t / C o m p u t e r G r o u p ( T 2 ) ( n = l 4 ) I n g r o u p s o f f o u r , t h e T e x t / C o m p u t e r s t u d e n t s came t o t h e R e s o u r c e Room w h e r e t h e p r o g r a m w a s l o a d e d i n t o t h e m i c r o c o m p u t e r s , r e a d y f o r t h e s t u d e n t s t o t y p e i n t h e i r n a m e s a n d b e g i n . T h e c o n t e n t a n d t e x t o f t h e t u t o r i a l p r o g r a m was e x a c t l y t h e same a s t h a t p r e s e n t e d b y t h e t e a c h e r t o t h e P e n c i l / P a p e r G r o u p ( T I ) . A g a i n , no p i c t u r e s o r g r a p h i c s w e r e u s e d i n t h e p r o g r a m . I n t h e d r i l l a n d p r a c t i c e s e c t i o n , t h e m i c r o c o m p u t e r s c r e e n d i s p l a y e d t h e m o d e l s e n t e n c e a n d o n e g r o u p o f w o r d s . T h e s t u d e n t s t y p e d " y " o r " n " t o i n d i c a t e w h e t h e r o r n o t t h e w o r d s m a t c h e d t h e m o d e l s e n t e n c e . When t h e a n s w e r was 54 c o r r e c t , the s t u d e n t r e c e i v e d one o f f i v e p o s i t i v e r e i n f o r c e r s ("good work", " v e r y good", e t c . ) . In the e v e n t the answer was i n c o r r e c t , the s t u d e n t was a s k e d t o "Be s u r e t o che c k the m o d e l . " The model s e n t e n c e r e m a i n e d on the s c r e e n w h i l e t h e grou p o f words was e r a s e d and a hew gro u p was p r e s e n t e d . The s t u d e n t c o n t r o l l e d the r a t e o f p r e s e n t a t i o n o f the program by p r e s s i n g the s p a c e b a r when r e a d y f o r new t e x t . At the c o n c l u s i o n o f e a c h s e s s i o n , t h e computer s t o r e d the l e v e l and number o f c o r r e c t a n s w e r s i n the s t u d e n t ' s f i l e . A f t e r c o m p l e t i n g the t u t o r i a l and d r i l l and p r a c t i c e s e c t i o n s , s t u d e n t s were a s k e d t o w r i t e f i v e s e n t e n c e s which c o n f o r m e d t o the m o d e l . These were s c o r e d by the t e a c h e r / e x p e r i m e n t e r . G r a p h i c s / C o m p u t e r Group (T3) ( n = l 4 ) As w i t h t h e T e x t / C o m p u t e r Group (T2), t h e G r a p h i c s / C o m p u t e r s t u d e n t s came t o the R e s o u r c e Room where t h e program was l o a d e d i n t o the m i c r o c o m p u t e r s , r e a d y f o r t h e s t u d e n t s t o t y p e i n t h e i r names and b e g i n . The c o n t e n t and t e x t o f the t u t o r i a l program were the same as t h a t p r e s e n t e d t o the P e n c i l / P a p e r and T e x t / C o m p u t e r g r o u p s . T h e r e was no d i f f e r e n c e between the d r i l l and p r a c t i c e s e c t i o n s f o r t h e G r a p h i c s / C o m p u t e r g r o u p and the T e x t / C o m p u t e r g r o u p . The model s e n t e n c e and a g r o u p o f words were p r e s e n t e d ; the s t u d e n t t y p e d "y" o r "n", and r e c e i v e d f e e d b a c k ("very good", e t c . or "be s u r e to check t h e model.") The model s e n t e n c e r e m a i n e d on t h e 55 s c r e e n w h i l e t h e g r o u p o f words was e r a s e d and r e p l a c e d by a new g r o u p . S t u d e n t s c o n t r o l l e d t h e r a t e o f p r e s e n t a t i o n , and on c o m p l e t i o n o f the d r i l l and p r a c t i c e , the l e v e l and number c o r r e c t were s t o r e d i n t h e i r f i l e s and t h e y were a s k e d t o w r i t e f i v e s e n t e n c e s w h i c h c o n f o r m e d t o t h e m o d e l . These were s c o r e d by t h e t e a c h e r / e x p e r i m e n t e r . A l t h o u g h the t e x t o f the program was the same f o r the two c o mputer g r o u p s (T2 and T3)» a n i m a t i o n and g r a p h i c s were used i n t h e G r a p h i c s / C o m p u t e r Group (T3) t u t o r i a l . The a n i m a t i o n and g r a p h i c s were d e s i g n e d t o h e l p s t u d e n t s v i s u a l i z e t h e d e s c r i p t i v e c h a n g e s t a k i n g p l a c e i n the s e n t e n c e s as noun m o d i f i e r s and nouns were a d d e d . The g r a p h i c s and t e x t a p p e a r e d s i m u l t a n e o u s l y t o e n s u r e t h a t s t u d e n t s r e l a t e d t h e c h a n g i n g p i c t u r e t o the c h a n g i n g ' s e n t e n c e . I n o r d e r f o r the t e x t t o r e m a i n the same f o r b o t h computer v e r s i o n s and s t i l l u t i l i z e a n i m a t i o n / g r a p h i c s , i t was n e c e s s a r y t o l i m i t the p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t e x t t o f o u r l i n e s a t a t i m e , when p r e s e n t e d i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h g r a p h i c s . I n models 3» 5 and 6, more t h a n one s e t o f g r a p h i c s had t o be l o a d e d i n t o the p r o g r a m . P r o c e d u r e s Two weeks p r i o r t o i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f SEP, u s i n g a T a b l e o f Random Numbers, s t u d e n t s were r a n d o m l y a s s i g n e d t o one o f t h e f o u r g r o u p s ; C o n t r o l , P e n c i l / P a p e r ( T 1 ) , T e x t / C o m p u t e r ( T 2 ) , o r G r a p h i c s / C o m p u t e r ( T 3 ) . The c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r s were g i v e n a 56 l i s t o f f i v e c o m p o s i t i o n t i t l e s b y t h e e x p e r i m e n t e r . T h e t e a c h e r s a s k e d t h e s t u d e n t s t o s e l e c t a t i t l e a n d w r i t e a c o m p o s i t i o n w h i c h was a t l e a s t t w o p a g e s i n l e n g t h ( t o e n s u r e t h e s t o r y w o u l d c o n t a i n 100 w o r d s . ) T h e n e x t w e e k ( o n e w e e k p r i o r t o c o m m e n c e m e n t o f S E P ) t e a c h e r s a g a i n a s k e d t h e s t u d e n t s t o s e l e c t a t i t l e a n d w r i t e a t w o p a g e c o m p o s i t i o n . D u r i n g t h i s same w e e k , s t u d e n t s a l s o w r o t e t e n s e n t e n c e s , e a c h o f w h i c h c o n t a i n e d o n e o f t e n s p e l l i n g w o r d s . The e x p e r i m e n t e r b o r r o w e d t h r e e A p p l e 11+ m i c r o c o m p u t e r s w i t h s i n g l e d i s k d r i v e s a n d m o n i t o r s . T h e s e , a l o n g w i t h t h e s c h o o l ' s A p p l e I I + / d i s k d r i v e / m o n i t o r , w e r e s e t up i n t h e s c h o o l ' s R e s o u r c e Room i n s u c h a way t h a t s t u d e n t s w e r e n o t a b l e t o s e e e a c h o t h e r ' s s c r e e n s . C h a i r s , t a b l e s , a n d / o r d e s k s w e r e p r o v i d e d f o r t h e P e n c i l / P a p e r G r o u p . A l l o f t h e s t u d e n t s i n B u r r a r d V i e w C o m m u n i t y S c h o o l h a v e a c c e s s t o a n d h a v e b e e n u s i n g t h e s c h o o l ' s PET a n d A p p l e 11 + m i c r o c o m p u t e r s o n a r e g u l a r b a s i s f o r a t l e a s t t w o y e a r s , s o i t was n o t n e c e s s a r y t o a l l o w t i m e f o r t h e s t u d e n t s t o f a m i l i a r i z e t h e m s e l v e s w i t h t h e c o m p u t e r s . H a v i n g c o m p l e t e d t h e P r e - T e s t p r o c e d u r e s , t h e C o n t r o l G r o u p s t u d e n t s c o n t i n u e d w i t h t h e i r r e g u l a r c l a s s r o o m a c t i v i t i e s . T h e y r e c e i v e d no i n f o r m a t i o n a n d p e r f o r m e d no a d d i t i o n a l e x e r c i s e s u n t i l t h e s t u d e n t s f r o m a l l f o u r g r o u p s w e r e a s k e d t o c o m p l e t e P o s t - T e s t w r i t i n g a s s i g n m e n t s . A t 9:15 e a c h m o r n i n g o f t h e p r o g r a m , t h e f o u r t e e n s t u d e n t s 57 i n t h e P e n c i l / P a p e r G r o u p ( T 1 ) came t o t h e r o o m . T h e t e a c h e r / e x p e r i m e n t e r s t a r t e d a s t o p w a t c h a s s h e b e g a n t h e t u t o r i a l p r e s e n t a t i o n . D u r i n g t h e i n t e r a c t i v e p o r t i o n . o f t h e t u t o r i a l , s t u d e n t s r a i s e d t h e i r h a n d s i n r e s p o n s e t o q u e s t i o n s . On c o m p l e t i o n o f t h e t u t o r i a l , t h e e x p e r i m e n t e r d i s t r i b u t e d t h e d r i l l a n d p r a c t i c e p a p e r s a n d t h e n r e c o r d e d t h e l a p s e d t i m e o n s t u d e n t p a p e r s a s t h e y f i n i s h e d . A f t e r w r i t i n g f i v e s e n t e n c e s c o n f o r m i n g t o t h e m o d e l , s t u d e n t s r e t u r n e d t o t h e i r r o o m s . As t h e P e n c i l / P a p e r G r o u p ( T 1 ) r e t u r n e d t o t h e i r c l a s s r o o m s , t h e f i r s t f o u r c o m p u t e r s t u d e n t s a r r i v e d . T h e y t y p e d t h e i r n a mes i n t o t h e m i c r o c o m p u t e r a t t h e same t i m e a s t h e e x p e r i m e n t e r s t a r t e d t h e s t o p w a t c h . T h e l a p s e d t i m e w a s r e c o r d e d f o r e a c h s t u d e n t a s t h e y c o m p l e t e d t h e t u t o r i a l a n d d r i l l a n d p r a c t i c e s e c t i o n s . T h e y t h e n m o v e d t o d e s k s o r t a b l e s a n d b e g a n w r i t i n g t h e i r f i v e s e n t e n c e s . When a l l f o u r s t u d e n t s h a d m o v e d t o t h e t a b l e s , t h e n e x t f o u r s t u d e n t s a r r i v e d , a n d t h e s t o p w a t c h was s t a r t e d a s t h e y t y p e d t h e i r n a m e s i n t o t h e c o m p u t e r s . T h i s p r o c e d u r e r e p e a t e d i t s e l f u n t i l a l l t h e s t u d e n t s i n t h e T e x t / C o m p u t e r ( T 2 ) a n d G r a p h i c / C o m p u t e r ( T 3 ) g r o u p s h a d c o m p l e t e d t h e d a y ' s l e s s o n . B e c a u s e t h e s t u d e n t s r e c e i v e d o n l y o n e S E P l e v e l p e r d a y , t h e e n t i r e r o u t i n e r e p e a t e d i t s e l f e a c h d a y f o r s i x d a y s . D u r i n g t h e w e e k f o l l o w i n g c o m p l e t i o n o f S E P , t h e s t u d e n t s i n a l l f o u r g r o u p s ( C o n t r o l , T 1 , T 2 , T 3 ) , o n c e a g a i n w r o t e s e n t e n c e s f o r e a c h o f t h e i r t e n s p e l l i n g w o r d s a n d w r o t e a t w o 58 page c o m p o s i t i o n . D u r i n g t h e s e c o n d week f o l l o w i n g SEP, s t u d e n t s w rote t h e i r s e c o n d P o s t - T e s t c o m p o s i t i o n . T i t l e s f o r the two p o s t - t e s t c o m p o s i t i o n s were s e l e c t e d from a new l i s t p r o v i d e d t o the c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r by the e x p e r i m e n t e r . As i n the P r e - T e s t Measure 2 ( c o m p o s i t i o n ) , the f i r s t 100 words o f the f i r s t c o m p o s i t i o n and the l a s t 100 words o f the s e c o n d c o m p o s i t i o n were u s e d . 59 CHAPTER IV ANALYSIS OF THE DATA Summaries o f Group Means and A n a l y s e s o f C o v a r i a n c e The means and s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s o f CTBS T o t a l Language S k i l l s , P r e - T e s t 1 ( S p e l l i n g S e n t e n c e ) , P r e - T e s t 2 ( C o m p o s i t i o n ) , P o s t - T e s t 1 ( S p e l l i n g S e n t e n c e ) , P o s t - T e s t 2 ( C o m p o s i t i o n ) , D r i l l / P r a c t i c e s c o r e , P r o d u c t i o n s c o r e , and Time, a r e p r e s e n t e d i n TABLE I I I . TABLE I I I MEANS STANDARD DEVIATIONS ( i n p a r e n t h e s e s ) CTBS Pre 1 S p e l l Pre 2 Comp. P s t 1 S p e l l P s t 2 Coop . Meas . 3 D r / P r Meas . 4 Prod . Meas . 5 Time ( K i n ) C o n t r o l 576' (160) 5.3 . (2.8) 11.0 ( «.7) 5.3 (1.8) 11.3 ( 5.9) P e n c i l / Paper (TI ) 681 (237) 1.6 (2.9) 12.8 ( 5.2) 7.8 (6.8) 15.2 ( 8.4) 53.4 (5. 2 ) 15.2 (7.8) 2507 (207) T e i t / Computer (T2) 565 (163) 4 . 4 (3-2) 9.7 ( 1.6) 9.9 (4.6) 14.7 ( 8.7) 40.8 ( 8 . 7 ) 11.8 (8.8) 2669 (588) G r a p h i c s / Compu t e r (T3) 516 (217) 2.9 (2.1) 12.7 ( 5.7) 7.0 (3-6) 15.1 ( 5.7) 44 . 9 (7.6) 15.4 (7-5) 3270 (568) The s i g n i f i c a n c e o f d i f f e r e n c e s o f . t h e means f o r noun m o d i f i e r use i n S p e l l i n g S e n t e n c e s ( P o s t - T e s t 1) and 60 C o m p o s i t i o n s ( P o s t - T e s t 2) f o r t h e c o n t r o l and the t h r e e t r e a t m e n t g r o u p s was t e s t e d u s i n g a n a l y s i s o f c o v a r i a n c e w i t h CTBS s c o r e s as a c o v a r i a t e f o r P o s t - T e s t 1 and P o s t - T e s t 2. P r e - T e s t 1 ( S p e l l i n g S e n t e n c e ) a l s o s e r v e d as a c o v a r i a t e f o r P o s t - T e s t 1 ( S p e l l i n g S e n t e n c e ) , w h i l e P o s t - T e s t 2 ( C o m p o s i t i o n ) s e r v e d as an a d d i t i o n a l c o v a r i a t e f o r P o s t - T e s t 2 ( C o m p o s i t i o n ) . The d e g r e e s o f fre e d o m ( d f ) , mean s q u a r e , r e s i d u a l d e g r e e s o f f r e e d o m , r e s i d u a l mean s q u a r e , and F v a l u e s a r e summarized i n T a b l e I V . S i g n i f i c a n t F v a l u e s a r e i n d i c a t e d w i t h an •. TABLE I V . SUMMARY OF ANALYSIS OF COVARIANCE OF NOUN MODIFIER USE IN SPELLING SENTENCES AND COMPOSITIONS. Noun M o d i f i e r s S p e l l i n g S e n t e n c e s Noun M o d i f i e r s i n C o m p o s i t i o n s d f Mean R e s i d u a l S q u a r e d f 61 .4 1 .5 50 50 R e s i d u a l Mean S q u a r e 15.7 42.6 3-9 < 1 The s i g n i f i c a n c e o f d i f f e r e n c e s o f the t r e a t m e n t g r o u p mean s c o r e s f o r t h e number o f c o r r e c t r e s p o n s e s i n the d r i l l and p r a c t i c e s e c t i o n o f SEP ( D r i l l and P r a c t i c e ) , the number o f s e n t e n c e s w r i t t e n w h i c h matched the model s e n t e n c e s ( P r o d u c t i o n ) , and t h e t o t a l l a p s e d t i m e were t e s t e d u s i n g a n a l y s i s o f c o v a r i a n c e w i t h the CTBS s c o r e s as t h e c o v a r i a t e . 61 The d e g r e e s o f f r e e d o m ( d f ) , mean s q u a r e , r e s i d u a l d e g r e e s o f f r e e d o m , r e s i d u a l mean s q u a r e , and F v a l u e s a r e r e p o r t e d i n TABLE V. S i g n i f i c a n t F v a l u e s a r e i n d i c a t e d by an *. TABLE V. SUMMARY OF ANALYSIS OF COVARIANCE OF DRILL AND PRACTICE SCORES, PRODUCTION SCORES, AND LAPSED TIME. d f Mean S q u a r e R e s i d u a l d f R e s i d u a l Mean S q u a r e F D r i l l and P r a c t i c e 2 413.5 38 47.8 8 . 6 42* P r o d u c t i o n 2 52.4 38 55.7 < 1 Time 2 464 . 1 38 56 .0 8.291* P o s t - T e s t 1 , Use o f Noun M o d i f i e r s i n S p e l l i n g S e n t e n c e s The a n a l y s i s o f c o v a r i a n c e i n d i c a t e d s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s among t h e g r o u p s . E x a m i n a t i o n o f T a b l e I I I shows t h a t w h i l e a l l t h r e e t r e a t m e n t g r o u p s i n c r e a s e d i n number o f noun m o d i f i e r s u s e d i n s p e l l i n g s e n t e n c e s a t P o s t - T e s t , t h e C o n t r o l g r o u p mean r e m a i n e d c o n s t a n t . The T e x t / C o m p u t e r s t u d e n t s (T2) d e m o n s t r a t e d the g r e a t e s t i n c r e a s e . N u l l h y p o t h e s i s 1 a was r e j e c t e d . P o s t - T e s t 2. Use o f Noun M o d i f i e r s i n C o m p o s i t i o n s An a n a l y s i s o f c o v a r i a n c e showed no d i f f e r e n c e s among g r o u p s f o r use o f noun 62 s i g n i f i c a n t m o d i f i e r s i n c o m p o s i t i o n s . N u l l h y p o t h e s i s 1b w a s n o t r e j e c t e d . D r i l l a n d P r a n t i n s T h e a n a l y s i s o f c o v a r i a n c e r e v e a l e d s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s a c r o s s t h e t r e a t m e n t g r o u p s f o r n u m b e r o f c o r r e c t r e s p o n s e s i n t h e d r i l l . A n e x a m i n a t i o n o f g r o u p m e a n s a s s h o w n i n T a b l e I I I i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e P e n c i l / P a p e r s t u d e n t s (T2) a c h i e v e d t h e h i g h e s t n u m b e r o f c o r r e c t r e s p o n s e s . H o w e v e r , t h e s e s t u d e n t s w e r e a l s o h i g h e s t o n t h e C TBS s c o r e s . N u l l h y p o t h e s i s 2a w a s r e j e c t e d . P r o d u c t i o n . ( W r i t i n g S e n t e n c e s T h a t C o n f o r m e d t o t h e M o d e l ) . T h e a n a l y s i s o f c o v a r i a n c e i n d i c a t e d n o s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s a c r o s s t h e t r e a t m e n t g r o u p s f o r t h e n u m b e r o f s e n t e n c e s w h i c h m a t c h e d t h e m o d e l s i n t h e p r o d u c t i o n s e c t i o n s o f S E P . N u l l h y p o t h e s i s 2b was n o t r e j e c t e d . T i m e . ( T o t a l L a p s e d T i m e F r o m B e g i n n i n g o f T u t o r i a l t o E n d o f D r i l l a n d P r a c t i c e ) . An a n a l y s i s o f c o v a r i a n c e i n d i c a t e d s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s a c r o s s t h e t h r e e t r e a t m e n t g r o u p s f o r l a p s e d t i m e . T h e G r a p h i c s / C o m p u t e r g r o u p ( T 3 ) r e q u i r e d m o r e t i m e t h a n w a s r e q u i r e d by t h e o t h e r t w o t r e a t m e n t g r o u p s . N u l l h y p o t h e s i s 2c w a s r e j e c t e d . 63 O b s e r v a t i o n s A l t h o u g h the a n a l y s i s o f c o v a r i a n c e d e t e c t e d no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between g r o u p s f o r t h e number o f s e n t e n c e s s t u d e n t s were a b l e t o w r i t e t h a t matched t h e SEP m o d e l s , t h e number o f s t u d e n t s who p r o d u c e d the models v a r i e d f r o m g r o u p t o g r o u p . T h i s i n f o r m a t i o n i s p r e s e n t e d i n TABLE VI . TABLE V I . NUMBER OF STUDENTS WRITING SENTENCES WHICH MATCHED THE MODEL SENTENCE, BY GROUP- AND L E V E L . 0 1 2 3 .4 5 6 L e v e l s I n the G r a p h i c s / C o m p u t e r g r o u p ( T 3 ) , s i x o f the f o u r t e e n s t u d e n t s p r o d u c e d s e n t e n c e s f o r a l l s i x models i n t h e p r o d u c t i o n s e c t i o n s o f the program and a t o t a l o f 11 s t u d e n t s p r o d u c e d s e n t e n c e s f o r a t l e a s t f i v e m o d e l s . O n l y t h r e e s t u d e n t s i n the P e n c i l / P a p e r g r o u p ( T 1 ) , and t h r e e s t u d e n t s i n th e T e x t / C o m p u t e r g r o u p ( T 2 ) , p r o d u c e d s e n t e n c e s f o r a l l s i x 64 m o d e l s . Seven s t u d e n t s i n t h e P e n c i l / P a p e r group (T1) and s i x s t u d e n t s i n t h e T e x t / C o m p u t e r g r o u p ( t 2 ) p r o d u c e d s e n t e n c e s f o r a t l e a s t f i v e m o d e l s . I t a p p e a r s t h a t though the s t u d e n t s i n the G r a p h i c s / C o m p u t e r g r o u p d i d not p r o d u c e a s i g n i f i c a n t l y g r e a t e r number o f s e n t e n c e s m a t c h i n g the m o d e l s , more s t u d e n t s i n the g r o u p were a b l e t o p r o d u c e s e n t e n c e s f o r more m o d e l s t h a n were s t u d e n t s from t h e o t h e r two t r e a t m e n t g r o u p s . S e v e r a l o t h e r o b s e r v a t i o n s were made wh i c h s h o u l d be n o t e d . F i r s t l y , G r a p h i c s / C o m p u t e r s t u d e n t s (T3) g e n e r a l l y t o o k l e s s time to w r i t e p r o d u c t i o n s e n t e n c e s . f o r models 5 and 6 t h a n f o r p r e v i o u s m o d e l s . On the day when the s t u d e n t s were w o r k i n g on model 5, t h e l a s t s e v e n s t u d e n t s to come to the R e s o u r c e Room ( G r a p h i c s / C o m p u t e r g r o u p , T3 ) came d i r e c t l y from t h e gym where t h e i r c l a s s was p r e p a r i n g f o r the e v e n i n g a c t i v i t i e s . D u r i n g the model 6 l e s s o n on the f o l l o w i n g day, the same s e v e n s t u d e n t s were d i s t u r b e d when a p r i m a r y band began p l a y i n g i n t h e room a d j a c e n t t o t h e R e s o u r c e Room. The s t u d e n t s were v i s i b l y d i s t r a c t e d , and i t i s the o p i n i o n o f the e x p e r i m e n t e r t h a t t h e s e two f a c t o r s (Open House, p r i m a r y band) may a c c o u n t f o r the r e d u c e d t i m e s p e n t w r i t i n g the s e n t e n c e s and t h e r e f o r e , t h e l o w e r p r o d u c t i o n s c o r e s f o r the G r a p h i c s / C o m p u t e r g r o u p (T3) on models 5 and 6. A l l o f the computer t r e a t m e n t s t u d e n t s a t t e n d e d t o t a s k w h i l e on t h e c o m p u t e r . However, the e x p e r i m e n t e r n o t e d t h a t the G r a p h i c s / C o m p u t e r s t u d e n t s (T3) d i d n o t a p p e a r t o t a k e t i m e t o c a r e f u l l y r e a d t h e t e x t when r e m e d i a t i o n o c c u r r e d f o l l o w i n g 65 an e r r o r . I n s t e a d , they l o o k e d at the p i c t u r e and i n some cases they c o n t i n u e d w i t h o u t r e a d i n g the accompanying t e x t . These s t u d e n t s , a l s o r e a c t e d to the v a r i o u s a n i m a t i o n and g r a p h i c s w i t h s m i l e s , c h u c k l e s , e t c . d u r i n g the l e s s o n . SUMMARY In l i g h t of the r e s u l t s of the a n a l y s i s of c o v a r i a n c e , the f o l l o w i n g s t a t e m e n t s are made r e g a r d i n g the h y p o t h e s i s . 1. A l t h o u g h a l l t h r e e treatment group means i n c r e a s e d from P r e - t o P o s t - T e s t w h i l e the C o n t r o l group mean remained c o n s t a n t , the Text/Computer s t u d e n t s (T2) d e m o n s t r a t e d the g r e a t e s t mean number of noun m o d i f i e r s used i n P o s t - T e s t S p e l l i n g s e n t e n c e s . 2. No s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s o c c u r r e d between groups f o r use o f noun m o d i f i e r s i n c o m p o s i t i o n s . 3 . The P e n c i l / P a p e r group (T1) s c o r e d h i g h e r than the o t h e r two t r e a t m e n t groups on the d r i l l and p r a c t i c e s e c t i o n of the Sentence E l a b o r a t i o n Programme. 4. There was no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between the t r e a t -ment groups f o r the t o t a l number o f s e n t e n c e s w r i t t e n which matched the model s e n t e n c e s . 5. The G r a p h i c s / C o m p u t e r group (T3) r e q u i r e d more time t o complete the t u t o r i a l and d r i l l and p r a c t i c e s e c t i o n s of SEP than d i d the o t h e r t r e a t m e n t g r o u p s . 66 CHAPTER V D I S C U S S I O N AND C O N C L U S I O N S The p r o b l e m i d e n t i f i e d i n C h a p t e r I o f t h i s s t u d y was t o i d e n t i f y c o m p o n e n t s o f C A I w h i c h c o u l d be c o m b i n e d w i t h a p p r o p r i a t e , e f f e c t i v e g r a p h i c s i n o r d e r t o p r o d u c e a s e n t e n c e w r i t i n g p r o g r a m w h i c h w o u l d p r o v i d e s t u d e n t s w i t h s e m i - c o n c r e t e e x p e r i e n c e s . The p u r p o s e o f t h e s t u d y was t o d e v e l o p a n d p r o d u c e v a r i a t i o n s o f s u c h a p r o g r a m i n o r d e r t o d e t e r m i n e w h i c h i f a n y o f t h e v a r i a t i o n s w o u l d c a u s e c h i l d r e n t o u s e m o r e n o u n m o d i f i e r s i n t h e i r w r i t i n g . T h e S e n t e n c e E l a b o r a t i o n P r o g r a m m e was d e s i g n e d by t h e e x p e r i m e n t e r t o p r o v i d e t h e s e m i - c o n c r e t e e x p e r i e n c e , t h r o u g h w h i c h s t u d e n t s c o u l d v i s u a l i z e how t h e s e n t e n c e c h a n g e d a s n o u n m o d i f i e r s w e r e a d d e d . T h e n , h a v i n g d e m o n s t r a t e d t h e c h a n g e s , t h e p r o g r a m r e q u i r e d s t u d e n t s t o i d e n t i f y m o d e l s e n t e n c e s , a n d f i n a l l y , t o p r o d u c e m o d e l s e n t e n c e s . T h e p e n c i l / p a p e r v e r s i o n e n a b l e d t h e t e a c h e r t o p r e s e n t t h e p r o g r a m w i t h o u t c o m p u t e r s i n a r e g u l a r c l a s s r o o m s e t t i n g . The t w o c o m p u t e r v e r s i o n s w e r e d e s i g n e d t o e x a m i n e t h e d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n u s i n g t e x t o n l y a n d t e x t w i t h a n i m a t i o n / g r a p h i c s t o i n c r e a s e t h e u s e o f n o u n m o d i f i e r s i n s e n t e n c e s . U s e o f N o u n M o d i f i e r s i n S p e l l i n g S e n t e n c e s a n d C o m p o s i t i o n s An e x a m i n a t i o n o f T A B L E I I I s h o w s t h a t a l l t h r e e t r e a t m e n t 67 g r o u p m e a n s e x c e e d e d t h e C o n t r o l g r o u p m e a n s . M o r e i m p o r t a n t l y , t h e C o n t r o l g r o u p mean s c o r e was u n c h a n g e d f r o m P r e - T e s t t o P o s t - T e s t s e n t e n c e w r i t i n g . The t r e a t m e n t g r o u p m e a n s a l l i n c r e a s e d f r o m P r e - t o P o s t - T e s t S p e l l i n g s e n t e n c e s w i t h t h e T e x t / C o m p u t e r g r o u p mean i n c r e a s i n g t h e m o s t . No s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s w e r e f o u n d among t h e g r o u p s f o r u s e o f n o u n m o d i f i e r s i n P o s t - T e s t c o m p o s i t i o n s . H o w e v e r , t h e u s e o f t h e p r o g r a m w i t h i n t h e r e s e a r c h d e s i g n may h a v e c o n t r i b u t e d t o t h e l a c k o f d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n g r o u p s . A l l i n s t r u c t i o n t o o k p l a c e i n t h e R e s o u r c e Room w i t h no c a r r y o v e r t o c l a s s r o o m a s s i g n m e n t s . S t u d e n t s c o m p l e t e d t h e e n t i r e S e n t e n c e E l a b o r a t i o n P r o g r a m m e w i t h i n s i x d a y s a n d w i t h o u t b e i n g a s k e d t o u s e t h e m o d e l s i n c o m p o s i t i o n s . The f a c t t h a t a n a l y s i s o f c o v a r i a n c e f o u n d s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s a m ong t h e g r o u p s f o r n o u n m o d i f i e r u s e i n s i n g l e S p e l l i n g s e n t e n c e p r o d u c t i o n b u t n o t f o r n o u n m o d i f i e r u s e i n c o m p o s i t i o n s may be b e c a u s e t h e s t u d e n t s w e r e n o t a s k e d t o u s e t h e m o d e l s i n c o m p o s i t i o n s a n d b e c a u s e t h e l e n g t h o f t i m e t h e s t u d e n t s i n t e r a c t e d w i t h t h e p r o g r a m w a s n o t s u f f i c i e n t f o r d i f f e r e n c e s t o o c c u r a t P o s t - T e s t . T h e S e n t e n c e E l a b o r a t i o n P r o g r a m m e ; D r i l l a n d P r a c t i c e .  P r o d u c t i o n , a n d L a p s e d T i m e B o t h c o m p u t e r g r o u p s t o o k l o n g e r t o c o m p l e t e e a c h l e v e l o f t h e p r o g r a m t h a n d i d t h e P e n c i l / P a p e r g r o u p , w i t h t h e 6 8 G r a p h i c s / C o m p u t e r g r o u p ( T 3 ) r e q u i r i n g t h e m o s t t i m e . P a r t o f t h e t i m e d i f f e r e n c e i s a c c o u n t e d f o r i n t h e f a c t t h a t t h e a n i m a t i o n / G r a p h i c s v e r s i o n r e q u i r e d more t i m e t o l o a d t h e g r a p h i c s i n t o t h e c o m p u t e r f r o m t h e d i s k , and o n l y f o u r l i n e s o f t e x t c o u l d be p r e s e n t e d w i t h t h e g r a p h i c s . B o t h c o m p u t e r v e r s i o n s r e q u i r e d t h e s t u d e n t s t o a n s w e r a l l q u e s t i o n s i n d i v i d u a l l y and t o r e v i e w i n f o r m a t i o n when t h e y made i n c o r r e c t r e s p o n s e s t o q u e s t i o n s . The t u t o r i a l s e c t i o n o f t h e n o n - c o m p u t e r g r o u p l e s s o n s moved q u i c k l y b e c a u s e s t u d e n t s who v o l u n t e e r e d a n s w e r s w e r e u s u a l l y c o r r e c t and t h e r e f o r e , t h e i n s t r u c t o r d i d n o t h a v e t o r e v i e w c o n c e p t s . A l t h o u g h t h e P e n c i l / P a p e r g r o u p ( T 1 ) r e q u i r e d l e s s t i m e and s c o r e d h i g h e r on t h e d r i l l and p r a c t i c e s e c t i o n s t h a n t h e c o m p u t e r g r o u p s , t h e y d i d n o t s c o r e s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r on t h e p r o d u c t i o n s e c t i o n o f t h e p r o g r a m . The s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e P e n c i l / P a p e r g r o u p s c o r e s on t h e d r i l l a n d p r a c t i c e m a t c h i n g p o r t i o n o f t h e p r o g r a m s h o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d w i t h r e s e r v a t i o n s . P e r h a p s f u r t h e r t e s t i n g w o u l d c l a r i f y i f s t u d e n t s w e r e a c t u a l l y b e t t e r a b l e t o r e c o g n i z e t h e s e n t e n c e s w h i c h m a t c h e d t h e m o d e l s o r w h e t h e r t h e y w e r e e x a m i n i n g t h e t e n g r o u p s o f w o r d s f o r " y V n " p a t t e r n s . An a l t e r n a t i v e e x p l a n a t i o n may be t h a t t h e y w e r e b e t t e r a b l e t o f i n d t h e g r o u p s o f w o r d s w h i c h d i d n o t m a t c h t h e m o d e l s b e c a u s e w i t h a l l t e n g r o u p s o f w o r d s and t h e m o d e l s e n t e n c e on t h e same p a p e r , t h e y w e r e a b l e t o p e r f o r m m u l t i p l e c o m p a r i s o n s ( a s i n a 69 m u l t i p l e c h o i c e f o r m a t ) . The f a c t t h a t t h e P e n c i l / P a p e r g r o u p ( T 1 ) was n o t e q u a l l y s u c c e s s f u l on t h e p r o d u c t i o n s e c t i o n o f t h e p r o g r a m l e a d s t h i s e x p e r i m e n t e r t o c o n c l u d e t h a t t h e s t u d e n t s w e r e a b l e t o f i n d t h e s e n t e n c e s w h i c h d i d n ' t m a t c h t h e m o d e l . S u g g e s t i o n s f o r F u r t h e r S t u d y A r e p l i c a t i o n o f t h e s t u d y i n w h i c h s t u d e n t s r e c e i v e o n l y one m o d e l p e r week w o u l d e n a b l e t h e t e a c h e r / e x p e r i m e n t e r t o r e q u i r e t h a t s t u d e n t s u s e t h e m o d e l s i n c l a s s r o o m c o m p o s i t i o n s . E v a l u a t i o n o f t h e p r o g r a m c o u l d t h e n i n c l u d e a s a m p l e o f s t u d e n t w r i t i n g p r i o r t o commencement o f t h e p r o g r a m , d u r i n g t h e p r o g r a m , and a f t e r c o m p l e t i o n o f t h e p r o g r a m . The d i r e c t e d t r a n s f e r e n c e may p r o d u c e more d e f i n i t i v e r e s u l t s . A r e p l i c a t i o n o f t h e s t u d y m i g h t a l s o i n c l u d e a t r e a t m e n t w h i c h u t i l i z e s g r a p h i c s i n t h e o r i g i n a l p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h e c o n c e p t s b u t u s e s t e x t w i t h o u t g r a p h i c s f o r r e m e d i a l and r e v i e w i n f o r m a t i o n . A s e c o n d t r e a t m e n t w o u l d o p e r a t e i n r e v e r s e , t e x t f o l l o w e d by r e m e d i a l g r a p h i c s . I f t h e c o m p u t e r r e c o r d s a l l r e m e d i a l and r e v i e w l o o p s f o r a l l t r e a t m e n t s , a c o m p a r i s o n o f t r e a t m e n t s m i g h t i n d i c a t e w h e t h e r t e x t o r g r a p h i c s a r e m o s t e f f e c t i v e i n i n i t i a l p r e s e n t a t i o n o r i n r e m e d i a l / r e v i e w p r e s e n t a t i o n . I f t h e s t u d y i s r e p l i c a t e d , p r e s e n t i n g o n l y one m o d e l p e r w e e k , i t w o u l d a l s o be e n l i g h t e n i n g t o p e r f o r m d e l a y e d p o s t - t e s t i n g p r o c e d u r e s t o d e t e r m i n e i f t h e u s e o f n o u n 70 modifiers i n classroom writings continues to increase, remains constant or decreases over time. 7 1 BIBLIOGRAPHY A t k i n s o n , R i c h a r d C. and F l e t c h e r , J o hn D. " T e a c h i n g C h i l d r e n t o Read w i t h a Computer," R e a d i n g T e a c h e r , v o l . 25, No. 4 ( J a n u a r y 1972), 319-327. Bowman, R i c h a r d F., J r . "A *Pac-Man' T h e o r y o f M o t i v a t i o n : T a c t i c a l I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r C l a s s r o o m I n s t r u c t i o n , " E d u c a t i o n a l T e c h n o l o g y , v o l . 22, no.9 (September 1 9 8 2 ) , pp. 14,16. B r o d , R. L. 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