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The artist/teacher : balancing a dual role 1982

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THE ARTIST/TEACHER: BALANCING A DUAL ROLE by ROSEMARY MO OLSON LINN B.Sc, The University of Oregon, 1970 A TRESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Department of Visual and Performing Arts i n Education Faculty of Education We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA March 1982 fc) Rosemary Moulson Linn In presenting t h i s thesis i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the Library s h a l l make i t f r e e l y available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of t h i s thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. I t i s understood that copying or publication of t h i s thesis for f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my written permission. Department of The University of B r i t i s h Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 DE-6 (3/81) i i . ABSTRACT Many a r t teachers i n the p u b l i c schools desire to create t h e i r own a r t work and to develop t h e i r t a l e n t s i n a r t . They have a need to express and to communicate as a r t i s t s , and they b e l i e v e that the cr e a t i v e a r t teacher has a l o t to o f f e r the students. However, they are aware that l a c k of time and energy, due t o the demands of the classroom, hinders the development and growth of t h e i r s k i l l s . In an attempt to discover how the r o l e s of teacher and a r t i s t can be r e c o n c i l e d and balanced, I have examined, through a s e r i e s of interviews, the l i f e s t y l e s of a small group of ten a r t i s t / t e a c h - ers who do manage to produce, i n t h e i r chosen c r a f t s , on a continuous bas i s i n s p i t e of heavy teaching loads. The purpose of t h i s t h e s i s has been two- f o l d : to i n v e s t i g a t e some of the philosophies, working methods and organ- i z a t i o n a l s k i l l s of these c r e a t i v e people as a means of encouragement f o r those a r t teachers, i n c l u d i n g myself, who wish to be more productive and, secondly, to discover some of the e f f e c t s of the teacher's creative a c t i v - i t i e s upon classroom students. I have attempted t o " t e s t out" some of these methods by changing some of my own work habits and schedules and by a l t e r i n g my own studio f a c i l i t i e s . The problem of la c k of energy does not assume large proportions with the group under study. The a r t i s t / t e a c h e r often derives energies through the excitement of the discovery of form and image, from successes i n the a r t f i e l d and from the deli b e r a t e imposition of e x h i b i t and commission dead- l i n e s placed upon themselves. Once deeply involved i n t h e i r a r t work, f i n d - i n g energy t o create does not become a f a c t o r . Many i n the group are aware that s t r e s s drains energy, and they emphasize the p o s i t i v e e f f e c t s of exer- c i s e , r e l a x a t i o n and d i e t . i i i . The teachers i n the study are keenly aware of the l i m i t a t i o n s of time, and, many of t h e i r ideas f o r paintings, t a p e s t r i e s and c l a y pieces come from the drawing books and notebooks which they usually have with them. These idea sources are d i a r i e s f o r future reference when working time i s more av- a i l a b l e . Once under way on an a r t project, many of the group are s e l f - d i s c i p - l i n e d , r e s e r v i n g d e f i n i t e times f o r working. Depending upon school schedul- i n g , some work i n the classroom may be possible during spare periods or at noon hours. Many plan ahead f o r vacation time by ordering and preparing materials i n advance. Because of the time f a c t o r , some a r t i s t / t e a c h e r s choose to work i n t e c h n i c a l l y uncomplicated media. Most teachers i n the group have set up a separate studio area where materials are at hand and some sor t of i s o l a t i o n i s p o s s i b l e . A l l of the teachers emphasized the importance of the support and co-operation of fam- i l y members and f r i e n d s . Some stressed the r o l e of the p r i n c i p a l whose sup- port i s important f o r the a r t teacher as w e l l as f o r the status of the v i s u a l a r t s i n the school. A l l of the a r t i s t / t e a c h e r s i n the group suggested that showing a r t work with peers i n a group e x h i b i t or working toward a one-man show are p o s i t i v e , and p o s s i b l e , goals f o r the a r t teachers. Balancing the dual r o l e s of a r t i s t and teacher does require dedication, but when interwoven as part of a l i f e s t y l e the r o l e s are not n e c e s s a r i l y viewed as separate. A l l of the a r t i s t s interviewed f e l t that the a r t i s t / teacher's creative e f f o r t s influenced t h e i r works i n the classroom i n a pos- i t i v e way. The sharing, with students, of image search, of planning compos- i t i o n s , rendering, of solutions sought to problems encountered, and of c r i t - i c a l review of one's work i s a good avenue toward encouraging e x c i t i n g a r t experiences f o r students i n the classroom. The teacher who i s a l s o develop- i n g h i s s k i l l s i n a r t may maintain some hum i l i t y and sympathy f o r the prob- lems and f r u s t r a t i o n s of h i s students. iv. The a r t teacher who wants to develop t a l e n t s and s k i l l s to a higher degree needs time. School boards, due t o d e c l i n i n g enrollment and more f l e x i b l e scheduling, are c u r r e n t l y encouraging half-time or shared teach- i n g . The a r t teacher who can manage such an arrangement can develop t a l - ents working half-time, returning l a t e r , refreshed and bringing new ideas and experiences to the classroom. Allowance should be made i n s t a f f i n g schedules to enable teachers to develop t h e i r i n t e r e s t s , a b i l i t i e s and t a l - ents. More study needs to be i n i t i a t e d regarding the problems of harmoniz- in g the r o l e s of teacher and a r t i s t , and of the e f f e c t s and influences of these r o l e s on students i n the a r t c l a s s . Maintaining one's a r t i s t i c s e l f while teaching should be a goal o f a r t education and should be encouraged. V . TABLE OF CONTENTS Page ABSTRACT i i LIST OF PLATES v i i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS v i i i DEDICATION . . . . . . . . i x Chapter One INTRODUCTION TO THE PROBLEM 1 Statement of the Problem . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Importance of the Study . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Method of Research . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . U Limitations o f the Study • 5 D e f i n i t i o n of Terms 5" The Artist/Teacher Group • • . . . . . . 6 Chapter Two THE ARTIST/TEACHER: MARSHALLING THE ENERGIES 7 The Need t o Create 10 Management of Stress . . . . . . 13 Chapter Three THE ORGANIZATION OF TIME 15" The Image Search 16 The Work Schedule 21 The Studio . . . . . 2$ The Role of Family and Colleagues 29 vi. Page Chapter Four CONCLUSIONS 3k Implications f o r Art Education • 37 Recommendations . . . . . . . . . Ul REFERENCES Uk APPENDIX A. Interview Questionnaire U6 APPENDIX B. Biographical Information of Artist/Teachers 50 v i i . LIST OF PLATES Plate Number Page 1. "Child in Front of Piero de Cosimo Painting," by lone Mclntyre, 1981, o i l , 36" x u8" 52 2. "Tapis Tree," by Barbara Shelly, 1978, applique and sculpted tufting, It1 x 7 1 5k 3. "Gate Image," by Malcolm McTaggart, 1980, bronze, 56" x liU" x 3" 56 U. "My Own Kitchen. With Love, Sandra Jane," by Sandra Jane Shaw, 1981, acrylic, kBn x 69" overall 58 5. "Prairie Impression," by Nancy Kirk, 1977, wool tapestry, 9* x 12' . 60 6. "Kelp in Coal Habour," by B i l l McDonald, 1979, graphite on paper, 22" x 36" 62 7. "Backstroke," by Don Portelance, 1977, o i l on acrylic, U8" x 52" 6li 8. Untitled work, by Mary Bowerman, 1981, mixed media, Jhn x 18" 66 9. "Barnacle Family," by Lynda Lirette, 1980, mixed media, 36" x 36" 68 10, "Cheung Chau," by Nancy Oliver, 1981, silkscreen, 9" x 12" . . 70 11, "Maid's Day Off," by Rosemary Linn, 1981, pencil, 20" x 31" 71 12, "In the Garden," by Rosemary Linn, 1981, pencil, 23" x 29" 72 v i i i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I would l i k e t o express ray thanks and appreciation f o r the help and encouragement I have received from my advisor, Professor S i n c l a i r Healy, and from the other members of my t h e s i s committee, Dr. Graeme Chalmers and Professor Robert Steele. I am al s o indebted to the fol l o w i n g a r t i s t / t e a c h e r s whose ideas and opinions have played an important part of t h i s study: Mary Bowerman Malcolm McTaggarb Nancy Kirk Nancy O l i v e r Lynda L i r e t t e Don Portelance B i l l McDonald Sandra Jane Shaw lone Mclntyre Barbara S h e l l y My s p e c i a l thanks to my sons, Harry and Shaun Linn, who have given me much help and support during my studies. DEDICATION This t h e s i s i s dedicated to my mother, Jocelyn Moulson, who would have been glad. 1, Chapter One INTRODUCTION TO THE PROBLEM Teachers of the v i s u a l a r t s i n the p u b l i c school system often express a des i r e t o develop t h e i r own t a l e n t s and a b i l i t i e s as a r t i s t s i n a d d i t i o n to t h e i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s and duties i n the classroom. They b e l i e v e that the production of t h e i r own work creates w i t h i n themselves an excitement and an enthusiasm which c a r r i e s over i n t o the classroom. This view i s shared by some a r t educators i n the f i e l d (Szekely, 1978; Speight, 197U). Szekely, f o r instance, stresses the r e l a t i o n s h i p between a r t i s t i c development and growth as a teacher, and he postulates that " p r a c t i c i n g and teaching a r t have fundamental s i m i l a r i t i e s , and progress i n one area generally leads to a heightened awareness of the other." In a d d i t i o n , he sees t h i s r e l a t i o n - ship as having desirable e f f e c t s f o r a r t education. He s t a t e s : The a r t i s t - t e a c h e r who i s c o n t i n u a l l y growing both as an a r t i s t and as a pedagogue appears to be the best hope f o r our schools. The c r e a t i v e i n d i v i d u a l who i s able to combine h i s a r t i s t s e l f with the concerns of teaching has a great deal to o f f e r , (p. 17) Szekely stresses the excitement of c r e a t i n g and the awakening of new ideas "which may be t r a n s l a t e d i n t o a r t making as w e l l as teaching these s k i l l s " (p. 17). Statement of the Problem The problem, however, seems t o be that some a r t teachers frequently en- counter d i f f i c u l t y f i n d i n g the necessary time and energy required f o r study and growth as a r t i s t s . Indeed, Szekely f e e l s that i t becomes "progressively d i f f i c u l t " f o r the teacher to continue the p u r s u i t and development of a r t - i s t i c s k i l l s e s p e c i a l l y i f that teacher "gives of himself i n the classroom." 2. Teachers, under pressures due to the demands and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of the job, are very often too t i r e d or too exhausted to attempt t o hone t h e i r own t a l e n t s . Time devoted to maintaining some degree of cr e a t i v e work i s often haphazard and "catch as catch can." This i s an i r o n i c s i t u a t i o n given the f a c t that teachers of the v i s u a l a r t s c o n t i n u a l l y urge and encourage t h e i r students to be c r e a t i v e and experimental and to make some use of t h e i r given t a l e n t s . Teachers frequently encounter a c o l l i s i o n of r o l e s between commit- ment to t h e i r students and pursuit of t h e i r own creative i n t e r e s t s . I t would appear to be a problem of r o l e i n t e g r a t i o n . Yet, w i t h i n the educational community, some teachers of the v i s u a l a r t s do manage, and manage s u c c e s s f u l l y , to maintain a continuous l e v e l of creat- i v e work. They produce on a sustained l e v e l , developing and growing as a r t - i s t s . These productive people would seem to have developed, i n a d d i t i o n to a r t i s t i c s k i l l s , other kinds of s k i l l s i n c l u d i n g p a r t i c u l a r l y e f f i c i e n t or- ganizational a b i l i t i e s . These s k i l l s appear t o involve the a b i l i t y to or- ganize t h e i r out-of-school time i n an e f f i c i e n t or planned manner, reserving f o r themselves the necessary time to become involved i n the search f o r per- sonal imagery. They a l s o f i n d the time required to experiment with t h e i r chosen medium and to develop t e c h n i c a l s k i l l s . In the same manner, those a r t teachers who f i n d time t o produce on a continuous b a s i s have managed to overcome the sometimes d r a i n i n g and exhaust- i n g e f f e c t s of demands which teaching places upon t h e i r energies. Teaching requires a great amount of " g i v i n g " emotionally as w e l l as the e f f o r t and energy required to motivate and to " p u l l out" the best of each i n d i v i d u a l student. Importance of the Study Apparently, these a r t i s t / t e a c h e r s have arranged p r i o r i t i e s i n some sor t 3 of balance, and t h i s balance allows the teacher to become deeply•involved i n h i s or her own work while a l s o f u n c t i o n i n g as an e f f e c t i v e and dedicated a r t teacher. Some of these teachers become, i n e f f e c t , models f o r t h e i r students i n s o f a r as they share t h e i r growth and experiences i n a r t with the students, thus s e t t i n g up an a r t room s i t u a t i o n where teacher and student are both involved i n ongoing experimentation and search. Speight (197U) believes that very p o s i t i v e r e s u l t s occur i n a classroom where i t can be seen that the i n s t r u c t o r i s excited, involved and ent h u s i a s t i c about the disc o v e r i e s made as he or she continues personal a r t i s t i c p u r s u i t s . In view of t h i s f a c t , Speight views the s i t u a t i o n as foll o w s : "The f a c t that the teacher i s f a c i n g the same problems they (the students) are asked t o solve tends to have quite an e f f e c t upon teacher-student r e l a t i o n s h i p s " (p. 1|6). Speight sees as favorable such searching out of shared problems because "there i s a mutual partnership i n a common cause," He views t h i s partner- ship as a "great f a c t o r i n the success of the t o t a l a r t program, mainly through higher student motivation and production," but, at the same time, he acknowledges the d i f f i c u l t y of being a p r a c t i c i n g a r t i s t while teaching. Perhaps much of the f r u s t r a t i o n encountered by the teacher-would-be-artist or i g i n a t e s from an e a r l i e r career choice. Many a r t teachers see t h e i r i n t - e r e s t s and a b i l i t i e s as l y i n g w i t h i n both teaching and crea t i n g a r t . Grauer (1981) echoes the f r u s t r a t i o n f e l t among some a r t teachers when she st a t e s : A r t teachers, as a whole, have to deal with a dual i d e n t i t y . They are often tra i n e d both as educators and as studio a r t - i s t s , and when the great move i n t o the classroom takes place, the t e a c h e r / a r t i s t i s l e f t wondering how to incorporate these two i d e n t i t i e s so that they w i l l be of b e n e f i t to t h e i r stud- ents and to themselves, (p. 13) Any close examination o f the problems confronted by the a r t educator who attempts to balance the dual r o l e s of teacher and a r t i s t reveals a dearth of a v a i l a b l e research. This paper w i l l examine some of the working methods used by teachers who are able to maintain t h e i r a r t i s t i c s e l v e s . Method of Research Because of the d i f f i c u l t i e s faced by the a r t i s t / t e a c h e r who attempts to integrate two r o l e s , I w i l l consider, i n t h i s t h e s i s , some of the meth- ods and techniques employed by a small, l o c a l group of a r t teachers who pro- duce on a s u b s t a n t i a l l e v e l . I w i l l discuss some of the methods they employ toward searching out form and imagery, budgeting a v a i l a b l e time, marshalling energies and organizing studio space and equipment. This paper w i l l a lso consider any rewards, s a t i s f a c t i o n s and s a c r i f i c e s accruing from the maint- enance of such a l i f e s t y l e . This information has been garnered through a ser i e s of informal interviews and discussions. A r t i s t / t e a c h e r s were encour- aged to elaborate upon t h e i r working methods. As a method of research, i n - terviews were chosen as being a personal and d i r e c t form of communication and information gathering. Because teachers often seek a creative o u t l e t beyond the challenges of the classroom, the question a r i s e s as to whether any of the s a t i s f a c t i o n s and l e a r n i n g experiences that the teacher derives through c r e a t i v e work f i n d t h e i r way back i n t o the classroom. That i s , how are students influenced, i f at a l l , by the teacher who i s also producing as a p r a c t i c i n g a r t i s t ? What are the impli c a t i o n s f o r a r t education? F i n a l l y , I have used ray consultations with a r t i s t / t e a c h e r s as an av- enue toward r e a l i z i n g ray own goals i n a r t through the use of some so r t of e f f e c t i v e organization of time. As a d i r e c t a p p l i c a t i o n of some of the methods, ha b i t s and systems followed by these teachers, I have attempted to apply some of the elements of t h e i r l i f e s t y l e s to my p a r t i c u l a r l i f e s i t u a - t i o n , a b i l i t i e s , circumstances and goals. I t has been during the c r e a t i o n of my own work, done i n conjunction with, and forming a part of, t h i s paper, that I have i n e f f e c t , "tested out" some of the techniques used by these teachers to combat the l i m i t a t i o n s of time and energy encountered i n the process of working as a teacher and as an a r t i s t . My r e f l e c t i o n s upon prob- lems encountered and solutions found also appear as part of t h i s paper. Limitations of the Study This study has been l i m i t e d to the teachers at the p u b l i c school and community college l e v e l s . D e f i n i t i o n of Terms For the purposes o f t h i s paper, the following d e f i n i t i o n s w i l l apply: A r t i s t / t e a c h e r : The p r o f e s s i o n a l teacher of the v i s u a l and p l a s t i c a r t s , working f u l l time a t the p u b l i c school or community college l e v e l s , who i s a l s o maintaining a sustained l e v e l of c r e a t i v e work. Sustained l e v e l of work: A continuous outflow of work, i n v e s t i g a t i o n and development i n a chosen medium, not n e c e s s a r i l y e n t a i l i n g p u b l i c e x h i b i t i o n of the work. V i s u a l and P l a s t i c a r t s : Drawing, p a i n t i n g , printmaking, f i l m a r t s , sculp- ture and design i n f a b r i c , f i b r e , wood, c l a y , metal, c o l l a g e , e t c . The Artist/Teacher Group Mary Bowerman Malcolm McTaggart Nancy K i r k Nancy O l i v e r Lynda L i r e t t e Don Portelance B i l l McDonald Sandra Jane Shaw lone Mclntyre Barbara Shelly 7. Chapter Two THE ARTIST/TEACHER: MARSHALLING THE ENERGIES' One of the most important problems f a c i n g the a r t i s t / t e a c h e r i s the l i m i t a t i o n i n p h y s i c a l energy encountered when teaching duties and other p r o f e s s i o n a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s are f i n a l l y completed f o r the day. Teaching i n the p u b l i c school system and also a t the community college l e v e l i s a f u l l - t i m e and demanding job, and the conscientious and e f f e c t i v e teachers of the v i s u a l a r t s at those l e v e l s are l i t e r a l l y " g i v i n g " of themselves, of t h e i r ideas, thoughts and emotions throughout the day. The very subjective nature of the world of the v i s u a l and p l a s t i c a r t s , indeed of the f i n e a r t s i n general, requires that the teacher " s h i f t gears" not only between teach- i n g the various a r t courses but between i n d i v i d u a l student needs as w e l l . That i s , the a r t teacher must recognize and encourage the i n d i v i d u a l a b i l i - t i e s , development and growth of each a r t student. Many a r t i n s t r u c t o r s have experienced the depletion and d i s s i p a t i o n of t h e i r p h y s i c a l and mental ener- gies as time goes by. A r t teacher Malcolm McTaggart s t a t e s : Teaching f i v e days a week drains one's energy. The a r t teacher, by dealing with and by discussing human emotions a l l day, i s con t i n u a l l y giving of h i s own emotions. A r t has no formula, as does mathematics, and each student i s seen as unique. This i s a h e l l of a concept to work with. The teacher f e e l s responsible to reach each student i n order to help him r e a l i z e h i s p o t e n t i a l , (McTaggart, 1981) McTaggart goes on to say that "what t i r e s most" i s that, i n these days of d e c l i n i n g enrollment, coupled with the in t r o d u c t i o n of a d d i t i o n a l required courses i n the school curriculum, the a r t i n s t r u c t o r consequently must often 8. teach outside of h i s or her subject area. This, of course, requires l e a r n - i n g and preparation i n such diverse courses as E n g l i s h , s t a g e c r a f t , metal shop and so f o r t h . The teacher's energies are f u r t h e r depleted. McTaggart f e e l s that these problems can be overcome i n s o f a r as the a r t i s t / t e a c h e r l i v e s f o r him/herself by continuing to create h i s or her own work and f o r t h i s , McTaggart says, the teacher needs access t o a more v a r i e d and f l e x i b l e teach- ing schedule. He f e e l s that "the r e s u l t i n g overflow (of the creative teacher) goes t o the students," and the teacher's enthusiasm reveals i t s e l f i n the classroom and has a p o s i t i v e and motivating e f f e c t on the a r t students. He stre s s e s , however, as d i d a l l of the teachers interviewed, that a teacher's e f f o r t s and energies must p r i m a r i l y be channeled i n t o the main r e s p o n s i b i l - i t y of teaching. Instructor Nancy Kirk sees h e r s e l f as " p r o f e s s i o n a l l y bound. I am paid f o r teaching, and my energies are p r i m a r i l y there." With two new courses t o prepare f o r , she must budget her time wisely i n order to create. The energy required t o design and complete her huge woven t a p e s t r i e s , however, comes p a r t l y "from the excitement generated by working with new ideas and images or by the pressures of an e x h i b i t or a commission due-date coming up" ( K i r k , 1981). Many teachers f e l t that once an idea f o r work has begun t o germinate, the problem of f i n d i n g enough energy to complete the project d i d not e x i s t . The idea i t s e l f was the motivating f o r c e . This thought was echoed by mural designer Barbara S h e l l y , who thinks that energy "highs" are derived from the imagined idea, from successes i n the a r t f i e l d , and from "the f e a r that the job won't get done on time." Some of the teachers mentioned the "adrenalin flow" stemming from the urgency of upcoming deadlines. These deadlines may not n e c e s s a r i l y p e r t a i n to p u b l i c e x h i b i t i o n s of a r t , but they may include working to prepare t h e i r work as motivational aids f o r the classroom. 9. I t would seem that many of the a r t i s t / t e a c h e r s purposefully put the challenge of due dates upon themselves, and thus they were committed to pro- duce on time. This deliberate act of p u t t i n g themselves i n a p o s i t i o n of having to be ready with work at a c r i t i c a l time seems to be an a r t i f i c i a l , but e f f e c t i v e , prod to get more work accomplished. Many teachers appear to produce w e l l , e s p e c i a l l y under the pressure of a time l i m i t . Success and goals, then, whether derived from personal s a t i s f a c t i o n s , from the praise of f a m i l y and f r i e n d s , from the i n t e r e s t of classroom students, from the excitement of an upcoming e x h i b i t i o n i n an a r t show or from s e l l i n g a piece of work a l l contribute toward b o l s t e r i n g confidence and high s p i r i t s . Tea- cher Lynda L i r e t t e f e e l s that many a r t teachers c o n t i n u a l l y challenge them- selves by s e t t i n g up new expectations. She s t a t e s : I f a r t teachers are to be c r e a t i v e , they should avoid stagna- t i o n . New experiences are important f o r them. They should encourage themselves to take chances and to welcome change. Five years i s long enough at any one school. We need to change our concept of ourselves, and one way to accomplish t h i s i s to widen and explore new experiences, t o meet and influence other people and i n turn be influenced by them. ( L i r e t t e , 1982) I n s t r u c t o r Don Portelance f e e l s strongly that energy, or the la c k of i t , should not be a problem: I f a r t teachers, who t r u l y desire to work and create, l a c k the energy needed t o produce and grow as a r t i s t s then I can assume they are not working at a r t a t a l l or are doing very l i t t l e . Were they immersed and involved i n c r e a t i n g t h e i r own personal imagery, they would have the necessary psycho- l o g i c a l stimulus to be c r e a t i v e . The ac t u a l deep involvement 10 with ideas, images and, e s p e c i a l l y , the materials themselves generates an excitement and the needed energy follows e a s i l y enough. (Portelance, 1981) Portelance q u a l i f i e s t h i s statement, however, when he goes on to say that " i t a l l requires a c e r t a i n c r a z i n e s s , " that i s , he f e e l s that i t requires a l i f e t i m e of complete involvement i n order to attempt to do j u s t i c e to the two careers. I'm not sure to what extent Portelance i s taking i n t o account those a r t teachers who f i n d themselves i n l e s s than i d e a l circumstances to create, such as the female a r t i s t / t e a c h e r with family r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s to husband and c h i l d r e n who may not, a t t h i s point i n time, have the time and support needed i n order to become t o t a l l y i nvolved. The Need t o Create A l l of the a r t i s t / t e a c h e r s approached f e e l a strong need to create. Art i s a very important part of t h e i r l i v e s . Many emphasized th a t they would continue working at t h e i r c r a f t whether or not anyone e l s e cared, was i n t e r - ested or even viewed the work. Many see the c r e a t i n g of forms and images to be an i n t e g r a l and interwoven part of t h e i r mode of l i v i n g . As one becomes more involved with the cr e a t i v e process, ideas and exploration from previous images evolve and are born again i n new configurations. I t then becomes easy to understand how the channeling of one's energies i n t o teaching a r t and mak- in g a r t , because of time l i m i t a t i o n s , can throw other i n t e r e s t s and a c t i v i t - i e s i n t o subordinate p o s i t i o n s . As w i l l be discussed l a t e r , the dedicated a r t i s t / t e a c h e r reaps many rewards but makes many s a c r i f i c e s . I t seems t o me that the urge to create b u i l d s upon i t s e l f , and becomes self-generating i n a short time. To have a piece of work "on the way" acts as a c a t a l y s t and i s i t s e l f the i n s p i r a t i o n to continue. One wonders i f 11. working with ideas, images and, p a r t i c u l a r l y , materials might a c t u a l l y , over time, become, i f not part of the neu r o l o g i c a l system, at l e a s t a h a b i t . Per- haps the urge to create a r t i s s i m i l a r to that which impels the musician to play and that which i s - u n s e t t l i n g when he or she misses f o r a few days the f e e l of an instrument i n the arms. Some of the a r t i s t s i n t h i s study s a i d that they would rather work even on "mindless," tedious background areas of t h e i r p a i ntings, f o r example, than not have anything t o work on a t a l l . Corn (1973) quotes Andrew Wyeth as claiming: "To have a p i c t u r e — s a y l i k e Brown S w i s s — i n your studio and working on i t — i t ' s marvelous because i t ' s l i k e a bone to go In and gnaw a t " (p. 72). At the same time, Wyeth, a f t e r a l i f e - long involvement with h i s a r t s t i l l experiences the " f l a s h " which he says occurs whenever an image suggests i t s e l f to him f o r a pa i n t i n g (p. hS)» A few of the a r t i s t s i n t h i s study expressed almost the same sensation. For example, Sandra Shaw explains: I get an idea, a v i s i o n , and then I struggle t o b r i n g i t t o f r u i t i o n . When an idea f o r an image comes, I am excited and seek some kind of a release through the a r t materials them- sel v e s . Then, f o r an hour or so, the ac t u a l working time be- comes somewhat automatic, almost as though I'm i n a dream and, t o a degree, the a c t u a l p a i n t i n g j u s t happens. When the work i s over, and i f the p a i n t i n g i s "working," then, f i n a l l y , I'm relaxed and happy. (Shaw, 1981) Shaw f e e l s that a r t i s a companion f o r her, and she f e e l s "a purpose to l i f e " when she i s involved with her work. A r t becomes her "personal sense of Tightness, not the c r i t i c s ' . " Nearly a l l of the a r t i s t s i n t h i s study ex- press f e e l i n g s s i m i l a r to Shaw's i n that they work p r i m a r i l y with themselves as c r i t i c , and, f o r the most part, each evinces a strong dose of confidence as regards t h e i r image choice and the medium se l e c t e d . I t must be emphasized 12. that many of these artists stress that their strength, energy and motiva- tion to work late into the evening, for instance, comes about through their total involvement with their work, but also because of the support and en- couragement they receive from certain significant people. This latter as- pect will be discussed later in this paper, but the point being made is that i t is within the realm of the art teacher to maintain dual roles of teacher and artist providing these roles overlap or intertwine so that one is really an extension of the other. While a l l of the teachers viewed the creative process as self-growth, and as a part of their pursuit of knowledge, teach- ers also saw themselves as "driven," "exhilarated," and "excited" when the images being sought were "working" on the canvas or in clay. According to B i l l McDonald, the creative process is a "passion, a major part of my l i f e . It's an unravelling of the story." Some of the teachers approached saw the creative process as being a reward, an escape from the tedious and the mun- dane. Barbara Shelly describes the creative urge as a "strong need to ex- press the subconscious, to get something out." During the course of exploring the various possibilities an image or series of images may yield, I have experienced, like Shelly and others, the need to delineate certain forms. Themes which have evolved in ray own work, done in the past, have recurred again, and they appear as part of the draw- ings done in conjunction with this paper. These themes have been a continua- tion, after many years of sporadic activity, of patterns and forms imagined. Any compulsion to expand upon these themes has been a desire to explore them fully and, perhaps, to finally exorcise them. However, there is no doubt that when the artist/teacher is finally deeply involved in the creative pro- cess, when, as one teacher put i t , "the creative juices are running," the problem of energy lack and day-to-day stress are, in part, alleviated. 13. Management of Stress Nearly a l l of the teachers involved i n this study mentioned the stress often encountered during the normal teaching year. Pressures inevitably arise during the course of a "high-key" career, and teachers often f e e l re- quired to "be on" a l l day i n an attempt to motivate and bring out the best i n their studentso Some of the teachers interviewed are determined to re- duce the excess stress met during the teaching day, and consequently they take steps to include some form of stress control i n their daily or weekly a c t i v i t i e s . They deliberately reserve some time i n their busy schedules to devote to the care of their general health. Some teachers set aside the early morning hours for calesthenics, swimming or, particularly, running and jogging. Art instructor B i l l McDonald (1982) states: "I am addicted to run- ning about forty minutes each morning. Running clears my head and saves my mind. When I'm out alone running, I can meditate, I f e e l very aware, and I can think clearly," Mary Bowerman keeps f i t by jogging each morning at seven o'clock, and she often l i f t s weights and practices calesthenics later i n the day. Other teachers attend dance and keep-fit classes two or three times each week. Most f e l t that hard, physical exercise helped give them the necessary energy needed to pursue a heavy work schedule, Nancy Kirk also jogs daily and she emphasizes that this daily a c t i v i t y , coupled with a healthful diet, has contributed to the present harmony of her l i f e s t y l e . She thinks that the artist/teacher, often a success-oriented individual, sets up too many challenges and goals, and subsequently he or she works singlemindedly to complete these ambitious projects. Kirk recounts the con- sequences she faced after attempting too much at once: I was working very hard for a long time, I had a commission to complete on time, an exhibit coming up, lessons to prepare i i * . for and a student teacher to work with. I needed therapy to dissolve a ruptured disc caused by months of physical strain working at a huge weaving loom. My blood pressure was high and I really f e l t the demands from a l l sides. (Kirk, 1981) Kirk thinks that art teachers can accomplish much of what they plan, but she feels that good health i s ultimately more important than any goals that they may strive f o r . I f goals are set on a more r e a l i s t i c time scale, and time i s reserved for relaxation, then the tensions and frustrations are, of course, reduced. Lifestyles, temperaments and habits, however, are d i f f i c u l t to change. Barbara Shelly regards many artist/teachers as being highly motiv- ated to learn and do. She sees them as often being high achievers and she views herself as being "driven, a workaholic." Shelly relaxes by walking through the forests which surround her house, by playing with her children and by sewing. Many of the teachers reduce stress by talking about problems with friends, particularly friends who share a common l i f e s t y l e . Good eat- ing habits play an important role i n maintaining high energy levels and gen- eral health, and a high f i b r e , high protein diet, often a vegetarian menu, i s followed by many i n the group. Art teachers, then, who are determined to develop their talents and s k i l l s , need to conserve their energies by avoiding stress whenever possible and to maintain or improve their level of health. In addition, the artist/teacher, faced with the limitations of time, has to organize and budget i t wisely. 15 Chapter Three THE ORGANIZATION OF TIME In the preceding chapter I have considered some of the methods used by the a r t i s t / t e a c h e r to summon up and to maintain the high energy l e v e l s needed to teach and to create* The teacher of the v i s u a l a r t s at the secondary l e v e l often sees the work day lengthened due to student consultations, s t a f f or par- e n t a l meetings, e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s and other p r o f e s s i o n a l d u t i e s . Compounding t h i s busy schedule i s the f a c t that, as discussed previously, d e c l i n i n g enrollment and other changes i n the school system are f o r c i n g a r t teachers to spend much of t h e i r out-of-school time preparing lessons out of t h e i r s p e c i a l t y f i e l d . Martin (1981) acknowledges the need of many a r t teach- ers to develop as a r t i s t s , and she reminds us that u n i v e r s i t y a r t education departments and a r t schools recognize the importance of the c r e a t i v e teacher. She s t a t e s . Perhaps they can help us convince the administrative hierarchy that what we need to be the best possible teachers i s time. Time t o develop our personal expressions and time to share our work with students Cemphasis minej. Time t o prevent burn- out, because burnout seems to happen to those teachers who give the most. Burnout i s not j u s t a symptom of a teacher i n d i s t r e s s j i t i s a symptom of a system i n d i s t r e s s , (p. 2) Martin i s pleading here f o r f l e x i b l e teaching assignments and alternate scheduling of c l a s s e s . I t i s a l s o a plea f o r f l e x i b l e t h i n k i n g on the part of administration. U n t i l a system which encourages a v a r i e t y and choice of teaching timetables i s created, teachers who want to develop as a r t i s t s must l e a r n to develop the a b i l i t y t o organize t h e i r time. The a r t i s t / t e a c h e r s i n t h i s study, maintaining as they are dual r o l e s , have learned to a high 16. degree how t o budget t h e i r time. S h e l l y b e l i e v e s that she i s able to work and produce t o the extent that she does because she has "good or g a n i z a t i o n a l s k i l l s . " She f e e l s that one of the most important aspects of her work oc- curs during the planning stage when she analyzes and organizes every f a c e t of the p r o j e c t i n d e t a i l . Nearly a l l of the teachers interviewed stressed the importance of preparation. In order to consider some of the ways whereby a r t i s t / t e a c h e r s have been able to counteract the l i m i t a t i o n s of time, f o r the purposes of t h i s paper, I w i l l discuss some of the methods used to search out and develop images, some e f f i c i e n t work h a b i t s , the value of studio space and the importance of support and help given t o the a r t i s t / t e a c h e r by s i g n i f i c a n t people. The Image Search Previously, I have discussed b r i e f l y the concept of the e x p l o r a t i o n of images i n the context of t h e i r p o t e n t i a l to generate and s u s t a i n i n t e r e s t , excitement and energy f o r the a r t i s t i n question. Working with a s e r i e s of i n t r i g u i n g images banishes, to some degree, some of the f r u s t r a t i o n s a teach- i n g week may b r i n g . The a r t i s t / t e a c h e r , however, l a c k s the luxury of hours and days, held by the f u l l - t i m e a r t i s t , t o l e i s u r e l y and completely explore those ideas, forms and images which i n t r i g u e him or her. The time to search and to create, then, becomes precious. Under these circumstances, the teacher who wishes t o grow and develop as an a r t i s t o f t e n learns t o discover, value and capture as workable images those l i n e s and forms immediately at hand. They do not need an ex o t i c l o c a l e t o excite t h e i r c r e a t i v e energies. Because of the l i m i t a t i o n s of time a v a i l a b l e to work i t i s important f o r the a r t teacher t o make use of a l l opportunities to record, through drawings, memory or camera, those images deemed as worth c o l l e c t i n g f o r future reference 17, and exploration. Conversely, some of the a r t i s t s interviewed stressed that, although t h e i r work schedule i s often preplanned and t i g h t l y adhered t o , work, once begun f o r the session, i s often i n t u i t i v e , t o a c e r t a i n extent. Often the progress of the work proceeds with no conscious o r deliberate r e f - erence to preliminary drawings or d e f i n i t e images. Bowerman often explores with the l a t t e r technique e s p e c i a l l y when working with c l a y . S i m i l a r l y , working with no preconceived images, she often uses monoprints as s t a r t i n g points i n the search f o r new forms perhaps to be worked up l a t e r i n a d i f f e r - ent medium. However, she may use many sketches or preliminary drawings when planning a p a i n t i n g i n order to "get the f e e l i n g of the p a i n t i n g beforehand." McDonald views the pursuit of images and ideas as "a gradual evolution out of the previous work." Often, work proceeds i n an immediate sense i n that forms happen without dependence on the outside world or the l i t e r a l appear- ance of t h i n g s . The previous work i s a c a t a l y s t f o r what occurs next. Sh e l l y , whose studio i s surrounded by f o r e s t s near Bedwell Bay, incorp- orates the tree forms, the stumps and branches of her immediate surroundings i n t o l a r g e , f a b r i c compositions. However, because of the high cost of fab- r i c required f o r her often huge designs, she must preplan w e l l using small drawings, or s l i d e s , before enlarging the images to w a l l - s i z e d proportions. Drawing i s , f o r her, a "thinking time," and her a r t i s created by "constant refinement" using colored p e n c i l s on paper placed over a l i g h t t a b l e . So Sh e l l y harvests her images by l o o s e l y recorded sketches of her impressions of the f o r e s t , f o r example, which she then designs, and plans, very care- f u l l y . When she i s s a t i s f i e d with the composition, enlargement begins, McTaggart, whose f i n i s h e d s c u l p t u r a l forms appear t o have been p r e c i s e l y designed and planned from t h e i r very inception, a c t u a l l y derives many of h i s ideas from small sketches and doodles done at s t a f f meetings or while t a l k i n g 18 on the phone. These b i t s and pieces of paper, patches a c t u a l l y , t o r n from envelopes and menus, are then glued into large scrapbooks. Because these doodles were not done f o r any s p e c i f i c purposes, McTaggart views them as subconscious images which he enlarges as free-standing wood constructions. He sees h i s work as being b a s i c a l l y i n t u i t i v e , and s t a t e s : "The i n t u i t i v e i s made v i s i b l e by various r a t i o n a l , planned processes." Nancy K i r k works from small, colored drawings c o l l e c t e d during vacation t r a v e l s . She a l s o gets ideas using s l i d e s flashed onto the white walls of her s t u d i o . Her im- ages are landscapes or d e t a i l s of nature. These very small drawings are the b a s i s f o r twenty-foot woven murals. K i r k s t a t e s : I love the look and f e e l of the materials I work with, and my image sources are my impressions of the e f f e c t s of climate: snow melting on the p r a i r i e s j the c o l o r of l i c h - ens; the boot t h r u s t through the snow. These are concepts of winter woven i n t o tapestry forms. (Kirk, 1981) The a r t i s t / t e a c h e r , working within a l i m i t e d amount of time, often i s i n tune with the forms, l i n e s and colors of the surrounding world. Sandra Shaw i s influenced by the p o s s i b i l i t i e s of design inherent i n the objects of her kitchen and d i n i n g room. She explores and creates themes from f u r n - i t u r e , sewing machines and plants on the window s i l l . For many ar t teachers, time, energy and money d i c t a t e how f a r a f i e l d the a r t i s t can t r a v e l i n search of new theme ideas. Shaw chooses t o work with what i s " a v a i l a b l e " In terms of image and materials. She explores forms i n the carvings on o l d c h a i r backs, the costumes of china d o l l s and the pattern elements from geraniums, checkered t a b l e c l o t h s and o l d l a c e . Her home i s f i l l e d with antiques and odds and ends, and these forms reappear i n her compositions. Shaw wants to "unlock" her own images but, at the same time, she does not want to "rub 19 out" the past. A r t i s t s have seemingly unlimited design choices at close hand. I f the desire to work i s present, at l e a s t the problems of the search f o r images and ideas w i l l , to some extent, take care of themselves. " A v a i l - able" material, f o r Shaw, includes pastels and a c r y l i c s which she finds are d i r e c t and immediately a c c e s s i b l e . A few of the teachers interviewed mentioned dreams as sources f o r p a i n t - ing i d e a s . One a r t i s t , Lynda L i r e t t e , has been involved with the concept of the cycles of l i f e , of family, b i r t h and regeneration. These concepts, trans- l a t e d i n t o seed pods and other growing things, become very personal expres- sions of her f e e l i n g s at t h i s stage of her l i f e , L i r e t t e claims that some of her best ideas come from her involvement with the students i n her a r t c l a s s e s . She receives "fresh stimulation r e a c t i n g to the work done by the a r t students themselves." I t seems t o me that mutual and shared l e a r n i n g between teacher and student i s an i d e a l , and r a r e , s i t u a t i o n . Students nearly always become in t r i g u e d by the teacher's drawing books and notebooks which usually reveal more about the a r t i s t than polished works. A l l of the teachers i n the group sang the praises of the small drawing book. Some of the books, l i k e McTaggart's, contain c o l o r notes, complete drawings and glaze formulas. Many teachers do some of t h e i r best work on the backs of s t a f f meeting agenda. Shadbolt (1968) understands the importance of the portable drawing book. He s t a t e s : There i s a c e r t a i n i n t e l l i g e n t doodling possible with a note- book that can be a source of generating form-motifs. A l l one's t h i n k i n g i s i n one place: i t can be packed around wherever one goes. I t o f f e r s a c o n t i n u i t y of reference f o r the mind. One can t r y an embryo form p o s s i b i l i t y over and over again, varying the combination of aspects, e l i m i n a t i n g 20. unrelated elements, c l a r i f y i n g the meaning u n t i l a worth- while motif or configuration i s a r r i v e d a t . (p. 230) During the course o f t h i s study, I have observed th a t those a r t i s t / t e a c h e r s whose work, l i k e Shadbolt's, veers away from the l i t e r a l and representational d e p i c t i o n of objects, tend to work i n a method which allows the a r t i s t t o "parlay," as Shadbolt puts i t , one shape i n t o another. In t h e i r notebooks, d e f i n i t e growth and the evolving of new forms i s apparent. The notebooks are f a s c i n a t i n g d i a r i e s of thought processes. The concept and use of the notebook i s a u s e f u l t o o l f o r the a r t i s t , and i t i s a valuable method of immediate record-taking f o r the busy a r t teacher. For the a r t i s t / t e a c h e r whose work i s b a s i c a l l y representational, i t can become a diar y of f a i t h f u l l y recorded images. I have found that part of the excitement of working on a drawing, f o r instance, i s the weaving or f i t t i n g together of seemingly disparate representational images c u l l e d from my drawing book, photographic s l i d e s , and my imagination. Any success which accrues often seems to be due to some i n e v i t a b l e placement of the images and the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between those images. The a r t i s t whose work i s represent- a t i o n a l d e l i b e r a t e l y controls the contours of h i s or her work i n an e f f o r t t o depict the r e a l world, but i t seems to me that the true excitement of the c r e a t i v e process i s that one cannot f u l l y v i s u a l i z e the f i n a l outcome of the i l l u s t r a t i o n or the drawing. The completed work i s often l i k e a foundling, appearing suddenly and j u s t there, and often not what, one set out to do at a l l . As Shaw has stated, one wonders i f the a r t i s t works f o r a time a t some so r t of subconscious l e v e l . The images which I have chosen to explore dur- i n g t h i s study have centered upon a l i t e r a l d e p iction of closed gardens, of stone walls and of people who move i n and around an i s o l a t e d part of the countryside. The work, i n p e n c i l , i l l u s t r a t e s a f a v o r i t e s t o r y written f o r c h i l d r e n at the beginning of t h i s century. As mentioned e a r l i e r , i t has 21. been important f o r me, and a challenge, to work on a theme which I had ex- plored years before i n an etching and l a t e r i n a large p a i n t i n g . I have long been fascinated with the magical q u a l i t y often seen i n i l l u s t r a t i o n s i n Russian f o l k s t o r i e s and f a i r y t a l e s . These books, with t h e i r r i c h i l - l u s t r a t i o n s , are v i s u a l " t r e a t s " f o r c h i l d r e n . The sources of the images I have used have been garnered from drawings of my family, from drawings (and s l i d e s ) of yew t r e e s and vines, and I have r e l i e d on old photographs f o r a u t h e n t i c i t y of c l o t h i n g s t y l e s . Although I have kept the s e t t i n g , the characters and the events i n mind as I proceeded, I have obtained the high- est s a t i s f a c t i o n exploring, f o r instance, the "whiteness," forms and shad- ows of a lar g e , garden hat. I have found, however, that any worthwhile development as an a r t i s t , or as an i l l u s t r a t o r , while a l s o maintaining a teaching career, demands the e f f i c i e n t budgeting of time and the e s t a b l i s h - ment of a routine work schedule. The Work Schedule Because of a strong determination to pursue the dual r o l e s of teacher and a r t i s t , many of the teachers interviewed have developed, during the course of t h e i r growth as a r t i s t s , e f f i c i e n t working schedules as techniques f o r saving time. Many are s e l f - d i s c i p l i n e d to a high degree, and t h e i r work habits are organized and c o n t r o l l e d . Teacher Lynda L i r e t t e views teachers, i n general, as being h i g h l y motivated t o l e a r n . She s t a t e s : Teachers love to l e a r n . They are avid learners and are, themselves, good students. Teachers are al s o under the pressure of time and deadlines. I t s a part of the educa- t i o n a l system i t s e l f , and i t i s perpetuated. We set time l i m i t s f o r our students throughout the school year i n every c l a s s . ( L i r e t t e , 1982) 22. Because of these l i m i t a t i o n s i n time, some of the a r t i s t / t e a c h e r s have chosen to work i n a medium which i s , t o some degree, "immediate." McTaggart comp- l e t e s h i s huge, s t r u c t u r a l pieces with "Foam-Core" which allows f o r the f a s t , f u l l - s i z e construction of an i d e a . S h e l l y chooses to work i n f a b r i c because of i t s f l e x i b i l i t y and a v a i l a b i l i t y . She thinks, however, that "much time must f i r s t be devoted t o conquering the medium before the a r t i s t , i s f r e e t o develop images." Portelance uses the i n d i r e c t method i n h i s o i l paintings, but he saves hours or days of drying time by using a c r y l i c paint f o r the underpainting. The a r t i s t s i n t h i s study, through the wise budgeting of time, were able to devote hours to t h e i r c r a f t almost equal to the hours spent i n the classroom. Nancy Kirk, working on weekends through one school year and over two summer months, carded, spun, washed, dyed and wove three hundred and f i f t y pounds of raw f l e e c e i n t o a commissioned twenty by t h i r t y foot mural. Others i n the group accomplished s i m i l a r f e a t s . Many a r t teach- er s , however, set themselves more modest goals. They derive s a t i s f a c t i o n through the steady development of t h e i r work. Most of the a r t i s t s i n t h i s study, however, developed t h e i r t a l e n t s by devoting a good po r t i o n of the weekend to work. At l e a s t one day of the weekend was treated as a f u l l nine- t o - f i v e work day. Some a l s o preplanned during the winter months i n prepara- t i o n f o r a f u l l summer of work. During the spring materials are ordered; sketches and canvases assembled; cl a y reconstituted; studios renovated. Some of the a r t i s t s h i r e part-time or f u l l - t i m e a s s i s t a n t s to help them, e s p e c i a l l y when the work involves huge projects or when the a r t i s t i s work- in g on a commission. McTaggart h i r e s people to scale up drawings from h i s designs and to make models. Shelly stresses that she needs to plan and or- ganize thoroughly due to the cost f a c t o r of the s a l a r i e s paid t o her f u l l - time a s s i s t a n t s . 23. Throughout the school year a r t i s t / t e a c h e r s occasionally j o i n t h e i r students by working on the same project or assignment. During l i f e classes they draw or paint from the model and, during lunch hours or a f t e r school, they continue to work the p a i n t i n g toward completion. Other teachers, when working on a p a i n t i n g or design along with the students, p r e f e r to work on those p i c t o r i a l elements which are subordinate to the main design and which do not require a high degree of concentration. During a teacher's spare periods, when time permits, the empty classroom i s often an e x c e l l e n t place to set up an e a s e l or work on some printmaking. Here, l i g h t i n g i s usually good, and exhaust fans can be u t i l i z e d . During the day, one's energy i s usually high. For the a r t i s t / t e a c h e r who creates at school, the classroom becomes another kind of s t u d i o . One a r t i s t , who teaches at the secondary l e v e l i n a p r i v a t e school, has access to her classroom over the weekend. Nancy O l i v e r , who lacks the space and equipment to s i l k s c r e e n at home, does her printmaking a t school where she can turn on the exhaust fans and make use of the large sinks, huge tables and ample drying racks. Using her own inks and papers, she can work without being disturbed. O l i v e r , of course, can work up designs, cut s t e n c i l s and mat her p r i n t s at home. Another teacher, B i l l McDonald, stays at h i s school one or two evenings per week whenever he decides to work i n c l a y . He begins work a f t e r school and may stay i n t o the evening, working on the potter's wheel or using the k i l n . A r t i s t / t e a c h e r Don Portelance has chosen to save many hours during the school year by l i v i n g close to where he teaches. He l i v e s w i t h i n minutes of h i s school. This was a deliberate move made years ago to enable him "to spend more time p a i n t i n g and l e s s time d r i v i n g . " I f h i s spare period f a l l s adjacent to the lunch hour, he often can have over two hours to p a i n t . He has a permanent easel set up i n h i s a r t room, and he usually has work i n 2U. some stage of completion. As mentioned e a r l i e r , h i s use of a c r y l i c s f o r the underpainting allows him t o work i n an i n d i r e c t o i l technique. The a c r y l i c reduces the drying time. This gives Portelance a p a i n t i n g medium he can "walk away from," tha t i s , he can r e t u r n at any time t o complete the p a i n t - i n g using impasto and g l a z i n g i f desired, Portelance demonstrates by paint- i n g p o r t r a i t s of h i s students, and a s e r i e s of these paintings formed a r e - cent show. He often brings i n assorted objects f o r the c l a s s , and himself, t o draw: d o l l s , animal s k u l l s , and so f o r t h . Students a l s o have access to a wide assortment of s l i d e s f o r image ideas, and they are encouraged t o s t a r t a s l i d e c o l l e c t i o n of t h e i r own i n a d d i t i o n t o t h e i r drawing books. During c l a s s e s , when students are involved i n t h e i r own work, Portelance p a i n t s , often using the "props" he has brought i n . He considers teaching a r t and making a r t to be intertwined; one and the same. Working, i n and out of c l a s s , using a d o l l as an idea source, Portelance has done a s e r i e s of drawings as w e l l as a s e r i e s of lithographs. Images of d o l l s appeared i n some of h i s paintings f o r a time. Portelance draws and paints seemingly most of h i s f r e e time. At s t a f f meetings, f o r instance, s i t t i n g a t the back of the room, he does c a r e f u l drawings f o r use l a t e r i n p a i n t i n g s . While a t - tending hockey games, and watching f o o t b a l l on t e l e v i s i o n , Portelance d i d a s e r i e s of drawings of scoreboards which he incorporated i n the composition of some of h i s seascapes. He often f i n d s design ideas from t e l e v i s i o n , and he has a two-hour drawing session on the f e r r y boat to Vancouver I s l a n d . Be- cause of time l i m i t a t i o n s , Portelance often completes work f o r a show i n an "accessible" medium: p e n c i l , p a s t e l or i n k . The busy a r t teacher, knowing time t o be a precious commodity, needs t o develop a new set of working habits, indeed a new l i f e s t y l e , i f he or she wishes t o improve a r t a b i l i t i e s . Time f o r a r t work, i d e a l l y , should be part 25" of the week's routine and i n rhythm with the l i f e s t y l e . Days to do one's own a r t work need t o be reserved, set aside, f o r that purpose only. Chores and errands, which can expand alarmingly i n t o the a r t time, can be postponed f o r another day or, preferably, delegated f o r someone else to do. I f the a r t i s t i s to develop h i s or her t a l e n t s and s k i l l s to any degree, he or she has to be able, of course, t o r e t r e a t i n t o a work area and, t o a large ex- tent, shut out the world a t those times. The Studio Many of the teachers i n t h i s study emphasized that the l o c a t i o n of t h e i r house and studio was a primary consideration. Some have chosen to l i v e where they have access to the downtown core, close to supply stores, g a l l e r i e s , f e l l o w a r t i s t - f r i e n d s , f u r t h e r education and c u l t u r a l events. They f e e l that any time saved from commuting to t h e i r schools and back each day adds on to t h e i r "studio time" and to t h e i r energy l e v e l s . McTaggart rents a converted foundry i n the I n d u s t r i a l part of the down- town core as a studio. He enjoys l i v i n g i n the metropolitan area and cate- gorizes h i s sculpture as "of the c i t y : an a r c h i t e c t o n i c language." Three other sculptors work i n the same complex. McTaggart's studio, resembling to some extent a l a r g e , modern garage, has wide doors which r o l l up allowing ample access f o r large pieces. A large work room i s l i t by fluorescent l i g h t s . This studio has concrete f l o o r s , exhaust fans, and a s p r i n k l e r sys- tem. McTaggart a l s o has a l i v i n g area i n adjoining rooms. He f i n d s i t t o be a f u n c t i o n a l work space and a comfortable o f f i c e . Before her retirement from teaching a r t , a r t i s t lone Mclntyre, whose home and studio i s now on Bowen Island, l i v e d i n an o l d e r East Vancouver home. At that time, she l i v e d on the main f l o o r , rented out the two upper 26. f l o o r s and used the basement as a studio. The studio was composed of two small rooms, bare except f o r e a s e l , bed, chairs and materials. This house, purchased i n the nineteen s i x t i e s , was chosen because i t was close to her school, and close to downtown. The house was not i n a fashionable part of town and thus was comfortably a f f o r d a b l e . Mclntyre sees h e r s e l f as "able to s e t t l e i n anywhere," and as " i n s i d e myself and i n d i f f e r e n t to my surround- ings." Throughout her teaching career, Mclntyre was able to arrange periods of time away from the classroom i n order to p a i n t . As w i l l be discussed l a t e r i n t h i s paper, these periods of time away from teaching can become of the utmost importance f o r the a r t i s t / t e a c h e r and f o r students i n the a r t classes as w e l l . A r t i s t / t e a c h e r Don Portelance, i n a d d i t i o n to h i s "classroom studio," has converted three small basement rooms in t o a studio: a p a i n t i n g room which Portelance has l i t with s p o t l i g h t s s i m i l a r to g a l l e r y l i g h t i n g ; a draw- i n g room where a table can be t i l t e d at various angles or l e f t f l a t f o r p r i n t - i n g and c u t t i n g mats; a storage room with f l o o r - t o - c e i l i n g shelves and s l o t s f o r framed p r i n t s , paintings and r o l l s of canvas. Upstairs, i n the family rumpus room, what appears to be a door i n a center w a l l i s a c t u a l l y a d r a f t - i n g table which drops down i n t o the room. Portelance has paper, pastels and ink nearby and oc c a s i o n a l l y , while watching t e l e v i s i o n , he gets ideas f o r form and composition from the moving images before him. As stated, these a r t i s t / t e a c h e r s have chosen t o l i v e r e l a t i v e l y close to the schools where they teach. However, f o r many years, Barbara S h e l l y accepted the hour's d r i v i n g time between her classroom and her country home. The rewards o f l i v i n g by the water i n a q u i e t , forested area compensated f o r the inconvenience of commuting to her school. E a r l i e r i n her career, Shelly had no studio as such, and i n order to create her f a b r i c murals, she set up 27 her sewing machine i n any convenient corner of her house. Later, she over- saw the design and construction of a studio a d d i t i o n to her house: a large room adjoining the family r e c r e a t i o n area and a second room above, reached by a s p i r a l s t a i r c a s e . The two l e v e l s share a large s k y l i g h t . A l l inner walls are painted white to lessen d i s t r a c t i o n from the colors of the murals i n progress. Floors are wood, uncovered, and thus " s o f t on the f e e t . " The two working areas are spacious, and the storage i s ample. Shelly worked c l o s e l y with a cabinetmaker to design bins f o r f l e e c e and f o r skeins of wool, and long, shallow drawers were b u i l t to store colored threads. Ample storage space was of major importance due to the large amounts of f a b r i c required f o r her huge murals. The lower room, the c u t t i n g and sewing room, has long, cus- tom-built tables where padded hangings are taped down i n readiness f o r hand t u f t i n g . Fabric r e l i e f s are pinned to canvas-covered walls i n preparation f o r a d d i t i o n a l c o l o r areas to be attached. Throughout the day, large sky- l i g h t s brighten the rooms. At night, track l i g h t i n g approximates g a l l e r y l i g h t i n g . The upstairs room has multiple f u n c t i o n s : a design area, a l i b - r a r y and an o f f i c e . Shelly designs her murals here, working at a l i g h t t a b l e with swatches of f a b r i c s and f i b r e s close by. Long, open shelves hold pap- er s , drawings, photographs and matting boards. Nearby i s a large s l i d e c o l - l e c t i o n . From a r a i l i n g a t t h i s l e v e l , S h e l l y can look down to the work room below and converse with her a s s i s t a n t s during the c u t t i n g and sewing proces- ses. Above, tre e branches and other f o r e s t shapes make s h i f t i n g patterns on the s k y l i g h t . Images born of these shadows appear frequently i n her work. The studio design i s i d e a l l y suited to S h e l l y f s working methods and chosen medium. Weaver Nancy K i r k has chosen to l i v e and work i n a modern townhouse w e l l situated between her school and downtown. She has converted the large 28. master bedroom i n t o a weaver's stu d i o . As i n the studios of some of the a r t i s t s , the walls are painted white so as not to i n t e r f e r e with the colors i n the work. Large windows give ample l i g h t . Her primary consideration f o r choosing t h i s house was studio space, and she has more of i t i n the basement. The converted bedroom i s n L " shaped, and i s large enough to accommodate a large, f o u r harness f l o o r loom as w e l l as a v e r t i c a l tapestry loom. K i r k dyes her wool at school where i t can d r i p i n t o large sand p i t s b u i l t i n t o the "dyeing room." In her converted studio, Kirk has p u l l e d up the o r i g i n a l carpeting to remove the problem of vacuuming f l e e c e and wool ends. Like many of the a r t i s t s i n t h i s study, Kirk works at night under track l i g h t i n g and incandescent bulbs. Fluorescent l i g h t i n g a l t e r s the c o l o r s she i s working with and so she avoids i t . She prefers to work under l i g h t i n g conditions s i m i l a r to those where the weaving w i l l f i n a l l y hang. Like Kirk, I have chosen to convert the master bedroom of my house i n t o a s t u d i o . The adjoining bathroom sink i s convenient and o f f e r s a d d i t i o n a l storage i n the cabinets below. Makeshift shelves of lumber and b r i c k s run along one w a l l and hold u t e n s i l s . A large t a b l e doubles as storage f o r paper and as a mat c u t t i n g surface. A comfortable armchair seats models and v i s i t - o r s. A small, school a r t t a b l e , purchased from the school d i s t r i c t f o r a few d o l l a r s , has been converted i n t o a large (38" x 1*8") drawing table s i m i l a r to a draftsman's t a b l e . A ledge f o r p e n c i l s , and elbows, has been attached. The e n t i r e drawing surface can be r a i s e d or lowered to any angle. An adjust- able Luxor draftsman's lamp clamps on to the board. This lamp i s p e r f e c t f o r work at night as i t can be positioned exactly where needed. Many pu b l i c schools s t i l l have these small drawing tables stored away, unwanted, i n dark corners. Because I was so impressed with my converted t a b l e , I gathered some of them f o r my classes and, with the help of the In- d u s t r i a l Education department, renovated ten more f o r the a r t room. Students 29. l i k e them because they s l a n t to the desired angle f o r watercolor washes and, because of the wide ledge that has been attached, canvasses and drawing boards can stand v e r t i c a l l y . My studio, reasonably w e l l equipped, comfortable to work i n and separ- ated from the r e s t of the house greatly f a c i l i t a t e s my a b i l i t y to work. Hav- i n g space to r e t r e a t to where supplies are i n readiness and a piece of work i s w o n the way" can be a source of motivation f o r the a r t teacher. Having examined some o f the methods used by l o c a l a r t teachers to dev- elop t h e i r t a l e n t s as a r t i s t s , I f e e l that i t i s a l s o necessary to acknow- ledge the influence of the family and of other people i n the teacher's soc- i a l and p r o f e s s i o n a l c i r c l e s . The Role of Family and Colleagues Most of the a r t i s t s i n t h i s study stressed the importance of the help and support they have received over the years from t h e i r f a m i l i e s . Family members can be a source of encouragement and emotional support. Many teach- ers reported that some of t h e i r most f a i t h f u l "patrons" or c l i e n t s were people from the "extended family," which included k i n f o l k i n general. Over the years, i t has been these people who have helped give encouragement and confidence to the a r t i s t / t e a c h e r by d i s p l a y i n g a r t work i n home, o f f i c e , or club. I t i s often family members who back up the a r t i s t at e x h i b i t time and defend against " c r i t i c s . " The a r t teacher, however, who has the added r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of spouse and c h i l d r e n , needs the help of t h i s nuclear group i f he or she expects t o have time alone i n the s t u d i o . The problem compounds, of course, and i s more d i f f i c u l t to solve when c h i l d r e n are very small. Art teacher Lynda L i r e t t e works on her f a b r i c designs i n the evenings when her small c h i l d r e n are 30. asleep. Often, on weekends, her husband watches them, g i v i n g Lynda a few hours to h e r s e l f . The presence of her husband's parents, l i v i n g i n a sep- arate suite i n the house, has helped reduce the constant demands of c h i l d care. With t h e i r help, L i r e t t e i s "set f r e e : the value of time has been learned." A f t e r her studio was completed, muralist Barbara Shelly was able to work a t home, and be with her small c h i l d r e n more often. The a r t i s t / t e a c h e r who i s a l s o married needs, and depends upon, an understanding and sympathetic spouse i f the teacher i s to grow and develop h i s or her s k i l l s as an a r t i s t . To develop t a l e n t s requires time spent a l - one to think and to work. Some of the teachers i n t h i s study reported that t h e i r spouses helped not only on the domestic " f r o n t " but worked a t matting, framing and hanging pieces f o r a show, McDonald and Portelance emphasize that the emotional support given by t h e i r wives has played a s i g n i f i c a n t part i n t h e i r development as a r t i s t s . Portelance now f e e l s more keenly the i s o l a t i o n which, o f necessity, i s imposed upon the creative i n d i v i d u a l and he s t a t e s : I've been p a i n t i n g f o r a long time and teaching, too. I ' l l continue to do both, but I value being with people more these days, e s p e c i a l l y my f a m i l y . E a r l y retirement would allow me t o be with them. Showing to the public i s somewhat l e s s important now. (Portelance, 1981) I t i s while working toward a show that the a r t i s t / t e a c h e r ' s family and s o c i a l l i f e s u f f e r s because a l l spare time i s spent i n the s t u d i o . Perhaps the most d i f f i c u l t s i t u a t i o n i n which to attempt creative work occurs when the f u l l - t i m e a r t teacher has small c h i l d r e n at home. A u x i l i a r y help with the c h i l d r e n and with the housework i s mandatory i f these goals are to be r e a l i z e d . I t i s extremely d i f f i c u l t to do creative work of any s i g n i f i c a n c e when teaching a l l day and r a i s i n g small c h i l d r e n . In a one parent family 31. the task becomes Herculean. The a r t i s t / t e a c h e r needs peer group support as w e l l . Sandra Shaw a f - firms that encouragement from a r t i s t f r i e n d s has given her much of her motiv- a t i o n to grow as an a r t i s t and to e x h i b i t her work. Her involvement i n a r t has "opened up a whole new world of like-minded people f o r me, a community of shared ideas and sentiments." For many a r t teachers, e x h i b i t i n g i s an e x c i t i n g s o c i a l event, where f r i e n d s gather f o r c e l e b r a t i o n , acknowledgement and mutual encouragement. Whether or not the a r t teacher e x h i b i t s , h i s or her presence a t a r t shows gives him/her needed contacts with the a r t world and with other a r t i s t s and challenges him or her to think and to improve. Some a r t teachers e x h i b i t on an annual b a s i s , often with other teachers from w i t h i n the same school d i s t - r i c t . A r t teachers i n Richmond, B r i t i s h Columbia, f o r example, have had fo u r annual a r t shows, e x h i b i t i n g at the Richmond A r t Ga l l e r y and at the Arts Club Theatre. Grauer (1981) emphasizes that e x h i b i t i n g i s on a voluntary b a s i s . Work i s a l s o f o r s a l e . Grauer s t a t e s : "There i s c e r t a i n l y some s a t i s f a c t i o n i n knowing that our work i s displayed i n the homes and o f f i c e s of p r i n c i p a l s , teachers, s e c r e t a r i e s and students" (p. 13). Colleagues at school provide support to a r t teachers by the help they give with t e c h n i c a l problems: the I n d u s t r i a l Education department b u i l d s canvas st r e t c h e r s ; the Graphics depart- ment photographs work f o r p u b l i c i t y purposes; the Chemistry department con- cocts a l i v e r of sulphur bath, when needed, to patina a bronze head. The a r t teacher's p r i n c i p a l i s a colleague as w e l l , and can be a source of sup- port and sympathy, e s p e c i a l l y i f he or she understands the a r t i s t / t e a c h e r ' s motivations and goals. I t i s often the p r i n c i p a l who sets a good climate f o r a r t , indeed, f o r the f i n e a r t s i n general i n the school. Former school p r i n c i p a l B o r e l l i (1982), now r e t i r e d , f e e l s that administrators should 32 encourage a r t teachers to develop as a r t i s t s i n a d d i t i o n to t h e i r r o l e s as teacher. He sees t h i s growth as enriching the teacher and, consequently, the students, B o r e l l i f e e l s that "the c r e d i b i l i t y of the a r t teacher who i s also developing h i s s k i l l s i n the a r t world i s tremendous." B o r e l l i be- l i e v e s that the a r t teacher who i s a l s o involved i n h i s or her own work "ev- okes the i n t e r e s t of the students to a high degree." Throughout his career i n education, he has championed a r t i n the schools, seeing i t as a balance f o r the more computational subjects. B o r e l l i has welcomed and supported those a r t teachers on h i s s t a f f who are also a r t i s t s i n t h e i r own r i g h t . Another former p r i n c i p a l , S i n c l a i r (1982), believes that students have much respect f o r the a r t i s t / t e a c h e r , and he thinks that the a r t teacher's own cre a t i v e work can be a primary source of v i s u a l a i d s . I t i s extremely im- portant f o r the producing a r t teacher to have the support of h i s or her c o l - leagues on s t a f f and at the administrative l e v e l s . V i c e - p r i n c i p a l Varro s t a t e s : I t i s extremely d i f f i c u l t f o r a teacher to communicate i n the area of the f i n e a r t s unless he himself p a r t i c i p a t e s i n the process of a r t expression. This provides him with a creative matrix w i t h i n which he can maintain personal renewal with h i s own changing world. His s e n s i b i l i t i e s w i l l continue to res- pond to t h i s world around him. (Varro, 1982) Varro f e e l s that as the a r t teacher's own work evolves, " t h i s inner renewal i s a v i t a l source and a r e v i t a l i z a t i o n f o r teaching a r t . " He cautions, how- ever, about the high energy l e v e l s required to maintain two p r o f e s s i o n a l car- eers and warns about "the d i f f i c u l t y of serving two masters." Varro stresses, however, tha t the a r t teacher should maintain p r a c t i c i n g s k i l l s , and he f e e l s i t t o be of major importance that administrators help and encourage the a r t 33. teacher i n h i s or her own a r t p u r s u i t s . Many of the a r t i s t / t e a c h e r s interviewed emphasized the support received from p r i n c i p a l s as being important. Some p r i n c i p a l s encouraged teachers to show t h e i r work a t schools, at school board o f f i c e s and at d i s t r i c t resource centers. P r i n c i p a l s have attended the a r t ex h i b i t i o n s of t h e i r a r t teachers and have encouraged the teaching s t a f f i n general to attend. Perhaps a r t teacher and p r i n c i p a l can come to some s o r t of agreement wherein the teacher can e x h i b i t h i s or her work on a regular b a s i s . Teachers are expected to contribute to the school by p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s , f o r example, or by serving on any number of committees. Perhaps the a r t teacher 1 s c o n t r i b u t i o n to the school can center around h i s or her own t a l e n t s . 3h Chapter Four CONCLUSIONS The writer's purpose i n t h i s t h e s i s has been t o examine the l i f e s t y l e s of a small group of c r e a t i v e a r t i s t / t e a c h e r s i n an e f f o r t to discover how the r o l e s of teacher and a r t i s t can be balanced and r e c o n c i l e d . Many a r t teachers are f r u s t r a t e d . They f e e l that they have a l o t to express and to communicate as a r t i s t s , but they l a c k the time and energy to f u l f i l l these goals. The a r t i s t s i n the group are able to work and to progress at t h e i r c r a f t i n s p i t e of t h e i r teaching loads. The productive a r t teacher appears to derive high energy l e v e l s from various sources. Such people are excited exploring images and t h e i r j u x t a p o s i t i o n s . The p o t e n t i a l of form and c o l o r on canvas or s i l k s c r e e n excites t h e i r imagination and spurs them on. McTaggart t e l l s us that "energy comes from a commitment and a purpose, and a l l else f a l l s away from i t and teaching." Many of the teachers interviewed f e l t that i t was a l s o important to expand t h e i r l i v e s beyond the classroom and the stu- dio by enriching t h e i r l i v e s through family and f r i e n d s and through new a c t - i v i t i e s and experiences. The a r t teacher, however, does not f i n d the energy, drive and compulsion t o create u n t i l he or she i s able to immerse him/herself i n h i s / h e r work f o r periods of uninterrupted time. Rewards come as w e l l from the d e l i g h t that the a r t i s t experiences when simply working with the medium i t s e l f . Some of the teachers i n t h i s study d e l i b e r a t e l y set dead- l i n e s and due dates which they must meet. This might include working under the pressures of a show or a commission, and many of the a r t i s t s f e l t that they often d i d t h e i r best work under such s i t u a t i o n s . Other teachers f e l t t h a t working whenever possi b l e , even i f accomplishing only a small amount each day, added up, over time, to a s u b s t a n t i a l body of work. Energies and 35. enthusiasms are high, too, when confidence i n one's own a b i l i t i e s i s high. Success does breed success, and pleasure at seeing one's a r t work progress- i n g often banishes f r u s t r a t i o n s . Energy to work at t h e i r c r a f t has a l s o been a byproduct of good h e a l t h . The a r t i s t s here, f o r the most part, have been influenced by the counter-culture of the n i n e t e e n - s i x t i e s , e s p e c i a l l y as i t pertains to exercise and d i e t . The teachers i n t h i s group are, to a large extent, h i g h l y organized. Their l i f e s t y l e s are oriented to dual careers, and they plan and manage t h e i r time w e l l . Many of the teachers i n t h i s study are "high achievers"; they are goal oriented. Their goals i n a r t may not n e c e s s a r i l y include public e x h i b i - t i o n s of work or r e c o g n i t i o n beyond the family group. There i s a d r i v e , how- ever, to improve t h e i r s k i l l s and to search out new motifs. Developing as an a r t i s t takes a tremendous amount of time, and many s a c r i f i c e s must be made. The a r t i s t , by the very nature of h i s or her work, must i s o l a t e him/ h e r s e l f and r e t r e a t from family and f r i e n d s when the work demands i t . This i s a p a r t i c u l a r dilemma f o r the s i n g l e a r t i s t / t e a c h e r who does not always have the emotional support proffered by a mate. Many of the single a r t i s t s i n the group were keenly aware of the s o c i a l l i m i t s they had placed upon themselves due to studio i s o l a t i o n . The importance of the co-operation and assistance given to the a r t i s t / t e a c h e r by family and f r i e n d s cannot be empha- sized enough nor can the necessity of having some kind of studio area, how- ever small, made a v a i l a b l e where the a r t i s t can work. Thus, balancing the r o l e s of a r t i s t and teacher i s a d i f f i c u l t task r e q u i r i n g dedication i f one i s t o counteract the l i m i t a t i o n s of time and energy needed to work as w e l l as to enjoy l i f e and family each day. During the course of t h i s study, i t became apparent to me that a sur- p r i s i n g amount of work can be accomplished with good planning and e f f i c i e n t 36 organization of time and f a c i l i t i e s . Teaching art and creating art are really part of one l i f e s t y l e , or can be. Maintaining a "two career" l i f e - style requires making deliberate changes i n working and l i v i n g habits. Work- ing beyond the classroom on creative work demands a certain single-mindedness of purpose. During part of this study, I f e l t challenged to i l l u s t r a t e an old story written for children at the turn of the last century. The story, The Secret Garden, by F.H. Burnett c a l l s , ideally, for color i l l u s t r a t i o n s . However, because of limitations of time, I chose to work i n pencil, an "avail- able" medium. With pencil, I could work directly onto the surface with no intermediate steps but, to avoid erasure, much of the composition had to be pre-planned to preserve the paper's surface. As with Shelly, much of the "real" work occurred i n the earlier, planning stages. I found that I was able to do much of the actual rendering during spare periods at school. I found i t to be an advantage to have several drawings "going" at the same time. Some of the work was l e f t at home while the rest remained i n the classroom for me to return to when time allowed. The intertwining of the roles of teacher and a r t i s t would appear to be a sympathetic blend i n that each role, and success i n i t , reinforces the other. Poritz (1976) found that artist/teachers considered art to be "an integral part of their l i v e s , and not a separate activity which i s isolated and hermetic" (p. 27). Indeed, the creative work which the art teacher does beyond the classroom i s , as Szekely believes, "an important preparation for class performance" (1978, p. 18). Art, and the making of i t , i s really a process of sharing, sharing not just the f i n a l product but the steps and de- cisions made along the way. Szekely views the artist/teacher as one who i s "giving his creative self as a model to others." He goes on to state: It i s only by absorbing others into one's creative performance that the essential communal experience called 'art' occurs. 37. I t i s w i t h i n the p o t e n t i a l o f a l l a r t - t r a i n e d i n d i v i d u a l s who continue to work on a regular b a s i s and maintain t h e i r i n t e r e s t i n the a r t world. I t i s not r e s t r i c t e d to the minute percentage who a c t u a l l y s e l l and e x h i b i t t h e i r works r e g u l a r l y , (p. 20) A l l of the a r t teachers included i n t h i s study stressed the e f f e c t s of t h e i r work upon t h e i r c l a s s e s . Mclntyre found her work to act as a "stimu- l u s " i n that i t was b e n e f i c i a l f o r students to see the a r t i s t / t e a c h e r i n - volved i n , and love to do, h i s or her own work. During the course of t h i s paper, I have examined the various means em- ployed by a r t teachers to f i n d the time to do t h e i r own work. At t h i s point, I think i t i s important to consider the influence, i f any, of the p r a c t i c i n g a r t i s t / t e a c h e r upon the students i n the c l a s s . Implications f o r Art Education A l l of the teachers i n t h i s study stressed that the a r t teacher who i s also p r a c t i c i n g h i s or her c r a f t and developing s k i l l s , has a p o s i t i v e i n f l u - ence upon the a r t c l a s s students. They f e l t that students have a greater respect f o r teachers who make a r t important and v i t a l i n t h e i r own l i v e s . When students see a teacher enthusiastic and excited about a r t , they are more apt t o be i n s p i r e d and to regard a r t i n a new way. The whole student- teacher r e l a t i o n s h i p i s improved. Students give the teacher more of t h e i r a t t e n t i o n , and often regard that teacher as a new person i n t h e i r l i v e s rather than j u s t another teacher. Students are i n t r i g u e d to f i n d that the teacher i n the a r t room has an i d e n t i t y , i n t e r e s t s and a b i l i t i e s . The f a c t that the teacher i s also an a r t i s t can be a strong motivational f a c t o r . Szekely (1978) s t a t e s : "The a r t i s t / t e a c h e r who has performed or painted the previous evening maintains a high l e v e l of i n t e r e s t and c r e a t i v e ideas which 38. serve as readily available references for art teaching" (p. 17). He says that "the closer to the sources of inspiration, the nearer one feels to the art world, the deeper one's insights will reach into the art process of oth- ers" (p. 18). Surely the art teacher who is experiencing the problems and hard work inherent in producing art will have more sympathy with the dilemmas and frustrations met by his art students, and hopefully will have developed some degree of humility and sympathy regarding the difficulties encountered in creating art. Lirette feels that although the teacher may be an artist in her own right and, as such, is a model for her classes, she nevertheless must be a teacher f i r s t . "The teacher must be good at communicating other than at the visual level. He must be able to communicate and motivate in other ways as well" (Lirette, 1982). Teaching and making art are part of a way of l i f e , and should not be seen as completely different activities. Suc- cess in one area often breeds success in the other. Shelly, who views draw- ing as "thinking time," says that many of her teaching ideas come to her while she is working. Conversely, inspiration and ideas can originate in the classroom, Lirette claims that the students often offer the stimulus to the teachers "Teaching makes me feel good about myself and thus able to create in an inspired way" (Lirette, 1982), Many teachers in this study emphasize that one of the most important aspects about practicing their craft is that students can see at f i r s t hand the creative process from the Inception of an idea through to the completion of the art form. Students are encouraged to value the process itself as well as the final product. Kirk encourages the students to study the progression of her designs from small colored thumb-nail or postage stamp sized drawings to huge woven tapestries. Kirk uses this as a teaching device as does 39. Bowerman, who shows students s l i d e s of her work as i t evolves. She a l s o brings i n the a c t u a l work as i t progresses through varying stages of comple- t i o n . Rejected experiments are shown as w e l l , and reasons are given f o r dis c a r d i n g them. McTaggart shows students h i s large scrapbooks of ideas and doodles which are the genesis of h i s large sculptures. Other teachers b r i n g i n the same kind of "idea c o l l e c t i o n " books. These books are so i n d i v i d u a l and unique to each a r t i s t that they i n t r i g u e and encourage the students t o have the confidence to search out t h e i r own personal imagery and to be ex- perimental. This mutual search f o r form and content, t h i s shared a c t i v i t y i n the a r t room, has important implications f o r the teaching of a r t . This concept of sharing often influences the success of the a r t program as a whole. When Portelance brought i n d o l l s and worked i n c l a s s on h i s de- signs, students brought i n a melange of objects to incorporate i n t o s t i l l - l i f e compositions. These objects were stored i n a side room f o r students to borrow from and wrestle i n t o compositions. Students watch Portelance as he l a y s i n the preliminary o u t l i n e s f o r a painting, mixes the c o l o r s , and pro- ceeds from a c r y l i c underpaintings to f i n a l o i l gl a z i n g on the top l a y e r s . He asks small groups of dedicated a r t students to v i s i t h i s home, studio and e x h i b i t i o n s . They often go with him i n h i s station-wagon on Sundays, i n the f a l l and s p r i n g , t o the beach to p a i n t . He and two of h i s former students i n s t i t u t e d a l i f e - c l a s s , c a l l e d Suite E, by renting a large room at a nearby r e c r e a t i o n center. They had models s i t f o r them, and some parents p a r t i c i - pated as w e l l . Portelance f e e l s that, as a p r a c t i c i n g a r t i s t , he i s an a r t contact f o r h i s students. His work i s an example of how the a r t i s t searches f o r , and integrates, images. He states? Students r e l y on s p e c i f i c and d e f i n i t e advice. I would have no answer f o r a student's problems i f I wasn't doing a r t work myself. I r e a l l y f e e l that I must prac t i c e what I preach. ko. If i t doesn't mean enough to the teacher to create, why should i t mean anything to the students? (Portelance, 1981) The notion that the art teacher should be a professional a r t i s t as well as an art teacher i s not being entertained here, but I feel that the teacher of the visual arts must continue to explore the problems of personal imagery and of s k i l l development. The only way one can maintain any degree of touch with these problems i s to work with them and through them. This activity may not entail exhibiting or selling work, but I feel that the practice of the craft i s very important. A good learning situation arises when instruc- tor and student are both exploring, discovering, learning and sharing suc- cesses and failures together. The very encountering and solving of problems together i s a v i t a l part of learning art and learning to cope as well. Michael (1980) stresses that the function of the arts i n education i s to "help express one's self aesthetically at the highest human level." He goes on to say that the wise art teacher tries to elevate students to "higher, more sensitive levels of achievement" (p. 16). Surely, then, i t i s import- ant that students see that the teacher i s achieving as well. In my own art classes, I found that students are highly interested and intrigued by the teacher's creative work. Some of my work was produced dur- ing "spare" periods and also during quiet times i n the classroom when stud- ents were absorbed i n their own paintings. Students f e e l that the art teacher should be talented and skilled at what he or she teaches, and they identify, to some degree, with the teacher. Many art students wanted me to bring i n drawings from the series that I had at home. They were intrigued with the concept of i l l u s t r a t i n g something read. The danger, of course, i s that by showing our work we may inadvertently cause the students to choose similar images and compositions and thus not find their own for that period of time. Ul. Recommendations The f o l l o w i n g recommendations and suggestions are included i n t h i s study f o r the purposes of encouraging a r t teachers to seek out and in v e s t i g a t e some of the avenues open to them which could enable them to devote more of t h e i r time developing t h e i r own work i n a r t . As discussed previously, a r t i s t / t e a c h e r s often work and produce at a high l e v e l of energy, e s p e c i a l l y when they have set a s p e c i f i c goal f o r them- selves. Some teachers i n the p u b l i c school system often f e e l inadequate be- cause they are not producing as a r t i s t s . For those a r t teachers who want t o show t h e i r work, e x h i b i t i n g i n a group, perhaps with other a r t teachers, can play a large part toward b u i l d i n g confidence i n themselves as a r t i s t s i n t h e i r own r i g h t . Such a teacher can t h r i v e upon what Speight (197U) c a l l s the "constructive c r i t i c i s m of h i s peers" (p. U7). Speight regards any neg- at i v e f e e l i n g s of self-doubt on the part of the a r t i s t / t e a c h e r toward t h e i r own work as "valuable and as signs of p r o f e s s i o n a l growth." He a l s o advocates the planning of a one-man show as a goal i n order to "make i t e a s i e r to d i s - c i p l i n e oneself, t o spend the necessary hours to prepare f o r an e x h i b i t " (p. U6). Mutual b e n e f i t s can r e s u l t when a r t teacher and school p r i n c i p a l work together to set up and maintain a high standard of a r t i n the school. The school can have i t s own a r t g a l l e r y where students, and teachers, can e x h i b i t t h e i r work. Art teachers, alone or i n concert with others i n the d i s t r i c t , can hang work at school board o f f i c e s , d i s t r i c t resource centers, and l o c a l l i b r a r i e s . Perhaps part of the problem regarding the i d e n t i t y of the a r t teacher as a r t i s t i s that, a t the p u b l i c school l e v e l , he or she i s not r e a l l y expected to be growing and producing i n a creative sense as a condi- t i o n to h i s or her employment. I t may be desirable i f i t happens, but i t i s U2. not expected and, often, the t a l e n t s of the a r t teacher beyond teaching are not considered. Teachers of the v i s u a l a r t s at the post-secondary l e v e l s , however, are u s u a l l y expected to develop as professionals beyond t h e i r im- mediate teaching d u t i e s . P r o f e s s i o n a l development i n t h e i r c r a f t i s seen as important to the teacher, the students and the school. Time i s often granted, i n the form of leaves of absence, t o allow the teacher t o do creat- i v e work. This would be a desirable s i t u a t i o n at the p u b l i c school l e v e l with the guarantee that a p o s i t i o n would be a v a i l a b l e should the a r t teacher be away longer than the usual, and standard, one year. In some school d i s t - r i c t s obtaining a leave of absence i s d i f f i c u l t . The problem of maintaining the careers o f teaching and of producing as an a r t i s t needs d i s c u s s i o n and f u r t h e r study. The teacher does need support from the school, e s p e c i a l l y i f the administration recognizes that work as an a r t i s t i s an important form of preparation f o r c l a s s e s , and can a l s o be the a r t i s t / t e a c h e r ' s c o n t r i b u - t i o n t o the school. Many teachers consider half-time teaching t o be the i d e a l s o l u t i o n to enable them t o f i n d time to grow as a r t i s t s . Mclntyre's l a s t three years of teaching, before her retirement, were on a half-time b a s i s . She taught f o r f i v e months and thus had seven months to spend i n her studio. This ar- rangement enabled her to complete a s e r i e s of paintings f o r a major show. Under these conditions teachers are able to get i n t o a working rhythm where they can produce without i n t e r r u p t i o n . To avoid any d i s r u p t i v e influences on the students caused by the change of teachers at the end of January, the two teachers i n question would need to be i n sympathy and agreement over curriculum and evaluation d e c i s i o n s . School d i s t r i c t s are taking another look at the concept of half-time teaching, and they are appraising the b e n e f i t s t o students and teachers. School boards are much more accepting than previously about shared assignments. 1*3 Faced with d e c l i n i n g enrollment, t h i s arrangement helps a l l e v i a t e the prob- lems of o v e r - s t a f f i n g . School d i s t r i c t s are a l s o aware of the value of the mental well-being of the teacher and the philosophy of a balanced l i f e s t y l e between teaching and other ways o f personal development. A r t teacher J e r r y Kearns ( P o r i t z , 1976) s t a t e s : M I love teaching. Unfortunately, the i n s t i t u - t i o n r e a l l y gets t o you. The longer you're there, the more bureaucratic you become and the more i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d you become" ( p # 39). Declining enrollment and the d e s i r e of many adults to continue t h e i r education i s causing school administrators to create more f l e x i b l e c l a s s schedules. F o r instance, at my school an a d d i t i o n a l teaching period w i l l be added i n the e a r l y morning. Teachers having these c l a s s e s , or choosing to take them, w i l l then have three afternoons " f r e e " each week whenever t h e i r spare periods f a l l on these days a f t e r lunch. I t i s an i d e a l s i t u a - t i o n t o enable teachers t o develop i n t h e i r chosen areas. Many teachers may experience d i f f i c u l t y r e c o n c i l i n g the r o l e s of teacher and a r t i s t and, i n order to create and grow as an a r t i s t may have t o make a career choice between teaching or developing t h e i r t a l e n t s to the f u l l e s t . Those a r t teachers who want to create and to teach can, with good planning and support from family, f r i e n d s and colleagues, l e a r n to balance and recon- c i l e the two r o l e s . Further study would be desirable regarding the influence of the a r t i s t / teacher i n the classroom and i n the school. We need t o look at the r o l e of the p u b l i c school a r t teacher v i s - a - v i s the college a r t teacher as expecta- t i o n s regarding t h e i r p r o f e s s i o n a l development as a r t i s t s d i f f e r widely. We need to l e a r n how t o help the a r t teacher who wants to hone t a l e n t s i n a r t and i n teaching, and who wants to maintain a balanced l i f e s t y l e of teacher and a r t i s t # kk REFERENCES B o r e l l i , J . Interview, February 22, 1982. Bowerman, M. Interview, October 8, 1981. Corn, W.M. The a r t of Andrew Wyeth. Greenwich, Conn.: New York Graphic Society, Ltd., 1972. Grauer, K. In praise of t e a c h e r / a r t i s t e x h i b i t s . BCATA: Journal f o r A r t Teachers. 1981, 21(3), 13. Kirk, N. Interview, September 2k, 1981. L l r e t t e , L. Interview, January 13, 1982. Martin, U. ( E d i t o r i a l ) , BCATA: Journal f o r A r t Teachers, 1981, 21(3), 02. McDonald, W. Interview, January 13, 1982. Mclntyre, I . Interview, October 11, 1981. McTaggart, M. Interview, November 2, 1981. Michael, J.A. Studio a r t experience: The heart of a r t education. A r t Education, 1980, 3^(2), 15-19. O l i v e r , N. Interview, October 8, 1981. P o r i t z , S. A r t education i n t r a n s i t i o n : A documentation of the merging r o l e s of the a r t i s t / t e a c h e r (Doctoral d i s s e r t a t i o n , U niversity of Massachusetts, 1976). D i s s e r t a t i o n Abstracts I n t e r n a t i o n a l , 1976, 219 5539A. ( U n i v e r s i t y Microfilms No. DCJ77-06399) Portelance, D, Interview, November 19, 1981. Shadbolt, J . In search of form. Toronto: McClelland and Stewart Ltd., 1968. Shaw, S.J. Interview, October 28, 1981. S h e l l y , B. Interview, October 30, 1981. S i n c l a i r , E. Interview, February 5, 1982. Speight, J . Inst r u c t o r s must p r a c t i c e what they preach. School A r t s , 197U, 7U(U), U6-li8. Szekely, G. Uniting the roles of artist and teacher. Art Education, 1978, 31(1), 17-20. Varro, J. Interview, February 20, 1982. 1*6. APPENDIX A. Interview Questionnaire A. Marshalling the Energies: 1. You seem to have a need t o create, and you are producing on a con- tinuous and sustained l e v e l . How are you able to summon up the necessary energy t o do your own a r t work as w e l l as maintain a teaching career? 2 . Are energy "highs" themselves derived from successes i n the a r t world? 3. Do you consider the production of your own a r t work to be hard work or a form of relaxation? U. Do you have other classroom preparations other than a r t ? Are you a l s o teaching E n g l i s h , or d r a f t i n g , etc.? 5". Do you f e e l that you are "giving" completely of y o u r s e l f i n the classroom? Does t h i s deplete your energy l e v e l t o any s i g n i f i c a n t degree? 6, Do you "push" y o u r s e l f to do your own a r t work even when you are t i r e d ? Are you "driven" t o create? ?• How are you able to handle s t r e s s ? 8. What e f f e c t s , i f any, does d i e t , r e l a x a t i o n , r e s t and p h y s i c a l exercise have i n helping you maintain the energy to work. B. The Organization of Time: 1. How are you able to teach f u l l - t i m e and yet f i n d time to do your own a r t work? 2 . Do you have some s o r t of order of p r i o r i t i e s regarding time f o r work w i t h i n your l i f e s t y l e ? 3. How do you f i n d time t o gather ideas f o r images and to experiment with the images found? U, What are some of the sources of your imagery? Imagination? Dreams? Drawings and sketches? Your own photographs and s l i d e s ? !>• What theme changes have occurred over the years? 6. Are your image sources close at hand or have t r a v e l s and vacations played a part i n your image search? 7, Is your choice of medium r e l a t e d t o the time you have a v a i l a b l e ? Why have you chosen that p a r t i c u l a r medium? Is i t s i m i l a r to the materials you frequently use i n the classroom? 8 # How are you able to budget your time? What i s your work schedule? Do you f o l l o w some sor t of a "yearly calendar"? Do you work only on weekends or during summer vacations? 9, What advance ordering and preparation of materials and equipment do you f i n d necessary? 10, When do you concentrate best? How are you able to "shut out" the r e s t of the world i n order to create? l l e How are you able t o balance time f o r family and f r i e n d s with time i s o l a t e d i n the studio? 12, What i s your work schedule when an e x h i b i t or a commission i s due? Do you e x h i b i t on a regular basis? Where? Do you keep abreast of the work of other a r t i s t s ? Are you now doing more of your own a r t work than you d i d e a r l i e r i n your teaching career? 13, Was your choice of the l o c a t i o n of your residence/studio based upon proximity to your school, to f u r t h e r education, a r t g a l l e r i e s , stores and c u l t u r a l a c t i v i t i e s ? H i , What kind of studio space do you now have? How are you able to organize space, working methods, t o o l s , materials and equipment? Is the working area separate from the family and l i v i n g space? 15 a How do you c o n t r o l l i g h t i n g , v e n t i l a t i o n and storage problems? 16, Does having a separate studio area a f f e c t your a b i l i t y t o be motivated, to concentrate and to create? The Role of Family and Colleagues: 1* What help and support do you receive from family, f r i e n d s and colleagues? What are some of the rewards and s a c r i f i c e s which accrue from attempting to balance the dual r o l e s of a r t teacher and a r t i s t ? 2, How are you able to teach, do your own creative works and yet maintain a s o c i a l l i f e ? 3« What sort of support do you receive from your peer group? What reinforcement do you receive from fellow a r t i s t s regarding your a r t work? Do you e x h i b i t with f e l l o w a r t i s t / t e a c h e r s ? ! u What support do you receive from other teachers at your school? Do they know of, or attend, your a r t shows? So What support do you derive from your school p r i n c i p a l ? Is he aware of your c r e a t i v e work? Does he attend your exhibits? Has your work been shown at your school, school board o f f i c e s or d i s t r i c t resource center? Does the production of your own a r t work, and i t s display or use i n the classroom or school a r t g a l l e r y , count as an e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r contribution? How does your p r i n c i p a l regard the r o l e of a r t i s t / t e a c h e r i n the school and i n the d i s t r i c t ? Implications f o r Art Education: l a Do you think that the production of your own a r t work a f f e c t s your teaching i n the classroom? I f so, i n what way? 2a Do you use, i n the classroom, ideas f o r images, projects or pro- cedures which you have discovered while doing your own a r t work? Conversely, does teaching a r t give you ideas f o r your own work? 1*9 Do students appear t o appreciate the a r t teacher who i s also a producing a r t i s t ? I f so, how do you discern t h i s ? As an a r t i s t / t e a c h e r , do you use your own a r t work as a teaching device? Do you see any drawbacks to showing your own work t o your students? What do you consider to be the i d e a l teaching "load" which allows you to do your own cr e a t i v e work? Do you p r e f e r , or have you t r i e d , half-time or part-time teaching? Have you taken a leave of absence i n order t o develop your own t a l e n t s as an a r t i s t ? How did t h i s a f f e c t the development of your work and of your subsequent teaching? APPENDIX B. Bi o g r a p h i c a l Information of Artist/Teachers lone McIntyre Born: Bowen Isl a n d , B.C. Education: A r t Students League, New York, N.Y. Normal School, Vancouver, B.C. - teaching c e r t i f i c a t e Bachelor of Education, University of B r i t i s h Columbia Master of A r t s , Art Education, U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia Teaching: Alpha Secondary School i n Burnaby, B.C. Burnaby South Senior Secondary School, Burnaby, B.C. Ex h i b i t i o n s : 1952 - A l f r e d Adler I n s t i t u t e , New York, N.Y. 1953 - Tribune Subway Gallery, New York, N.Y. 1965,66 - L i t t l e G a l l e r y , New Westminster, B.C. 1966-70 - Annual Shows, Vancouver Art Gallery, Vancouver, B.C. 1978 - Burnaby A r t Gallery, Burnaby, B.C. 1980 - I t a l i a n C u l t u r a l Centre, Vancouver, B.C. 1982 - Franz Wynans Gallery, Vancouver, B.C. 52. Plate Number 1: " C h i l d i n Front of Piero de Cosimo Pain t i n g , " by lone Mclntyre, 1981. 53. Barbara Sh e l l y Education; B.Ed., M.A., U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia Thesis: Psychological and P h y s i o l o g i c a l Aspects of Colour P r i v i l e g e d Study, The Art I n s t i t u t e of Chicago Teaching P o s i t i o n s : 1967-69 - U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia. Ins t r u c t o r , 2nd, Irfch, and 5th year Design and A r t Education. 1970-present - Vancouver Community College, Langara Campus. Fine Arts I n s t r u c t o r i n Design and Fabric A r t s . One Man E x h i b i t i o n s and J u r i e d Shows: "Discoveries," Burnaby Art Gallery, 1969. "Mini A r t , " Burnaby Art Gallery, Five I n v i t e d A r t i s t s , 1970. One Man Show, Imperial A r t s , 1970. "Trees," Burnaby A r t Gallery, 1971. One Man Show, "Freighters and Figures," Vancouver A r t Gallery, 1972. Community A r t s Council, 197U. " E r o t i c A r t , " Mido Galler y , January 1975. Tapestry Canada, Phase I I , Royal Centre, February 1975. Capilano College Gallery, 1977. "Forest Images," Burnaby A r t Gallery, October-November, 1978. One Man Show, New Westminster Public A r t G a l l e r y , February 1979. Langara Campus, Vancouver Community College, March 1979. The Quest A r t G a l l e r y , V i c t o r i a , B.C., March 1979. " F l y i n g F i s h , " Lynn K r o l l G a l l e r y , New York, August 1980. Commissions: Leather Sculpture Mannequin, 1975, Neto Industries, Vancouver Tree Forms. Tapestry Hooking and Collage Mural, 15' by 7' Daon Corp., North Vancouver, 1977 Tree Forms. V a r i a t i o n No. 1 Daon Corp., North Vancouver, 1977 West Coast Rain Dragon, R e l i e f Fabric Construction Mural, 17' by 8* F l y i n g F i s h , Giant Windsocks, and twelve applique banners up t o 17' by U 1, Errdlios F i s h House, Vancouver, 1980 Plate Number 2: "Tapis Tree," by Barbara Shelly, 1978 Malcolm McTaggart Education; 197U-77 - B.Ed., Uni v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, majored i n Printmaking and Sculpture. 1971-73 - Diploma (U years), Vancouver School of A r t . Photography and A r t H i s t o r y . 1969-71 - Ryerson School of Film and Photography, Toronto. 1968-69 - Seneca College, Toronto. E x h i b i t i o n s : One Man Shows December 1981 - University of B r i t i s h Columbia, D i v i s i o n of I n d u s t r i a l Education Design G a l l e r y . Capilano College A r t G a l l e r y , North Vancouver, B.C. Presentation House Gallery, North Vancouver, B.C. "Fayette Campus Gallery," The Pennsylvania State U n i v e r s i t y . "The Hub Gal l e r y , " The Pennsylvania State U n i v e r s i t y . Queen E l i z a b e t h Theatre Gallery, Vancouver, B.C. Paperworks Gallery, Vancouver, B.C. November 1981 February 1981 September 1980 January I98O January 1978 October 1976 Group Shows November 1980 - October 1980 - May 1980 A p r i l 1980 February 1980 - November 1979 - November 1979 - November 1979 - October 1979 October 1979 - July-Aug. 1979 - June-July 1979 - Robson Media Centre, " D i v e r s i t y , " Vancouver, B.C. Kamloops Art Gallery, Kamloops, B.C. Hyatt S c u l p t u r a l Expo '80, Vancouver, B.C. Robson Media Centre, "7 a r t i s t s - 7 a r t teachers," Vancouver, B.C. "Sculpture of Canada," t r a v e l l i n g e x h i b i t i o n , Fayette Campus, Uniontown, Pa. Museo C a r r i l l o G i l . Mexico C i t y . I n t ' l mail a r t show. F e s t i v a l of Ar c h i t e c t u r e , C r y s t a l Gardens, V i c t o r i a , B.C. A r c h i t e c t u r a l I n s t i t u t e Gallery, Vancouver, B.C., Sculptors' Society of B r i t i s h Columbia j u r i e d show Galerias Mer-Kup, Mexico C i t y , B.C. Sculptors i n Mexico. "Sculpture of Canada," t r a v e l l i n g e x h i b i t i o n , The Pennsylvania State U n i v e r s i t y , Philadelphia, Pa. "Sculpture of Canada," t r a v e l l i n g e x h i b i t i o n , The Pennsylvania State U n i v e r s i t y , Allentown Campus. Klee Wyck Gal l e r y , North Vancouver, B.C., "P r i n t s and Sculpture," 1979. Teaching & l e c t u r e s : Presently a r t i n s t r u c t o r with Vancouver School Board. July 1980 - "Bronze Casting Workshop," University of B.C. A p r i l 1980 - "From Theory to P r a c t i c e , " B.C. A r t Teachers' Assoc., U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, guest l e c t u r e r . Feb.-Mar. 1980 - Unive r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, Div. of Continuing Ed. August 1979 - V i s i t i n g a r t i s t , Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico. Mar.-Apr. 1978 - V i s i t i n g a r t i s t , Johnson A t e l i e r Technical I n s t i t u t e of Sculpture, Princeton, N.J. Plate Number 3: "Gate Image," by Malcolm McTaggart, 1980. 57. Sandra Jane Shaw Edncational T r a i n i n g : 1958-60 - San Bernardino-Valley College, A.A. Degree I96O-63 - Uni v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a , Berkeley, B.A, Degree, Psychology major, Natural Science minor, 8 units of A r t . (Sculpture, A r t H i s t o r y , Design-Colour Theory, Elem. School A r t ) 1963 - Teacher Tr a i n i n g , U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a , Berkeley 1961.-66 - San Francisco State College Extension, 18 units (6 i n A r t ) 1972-77 - Douglas Community College, Surrey, Richmond, Burnaby, 1*6 u n i t s i n c l u d i n g Ceramics, V i s u a l A r t , and A r t H i s t o r y . 1977-81 - Univ e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, Undergraduate c r e d i t s 3 units i n A r t Education, 6 i n p l a s t i c s and graphics, 6 i n Communication Media Techniques. 1978 - Emily Carr College of Art, Summer session, 3 units i n Lithography and 3 units i n I n t a g l i o . Teaching Experience: 1963-67 1967- 68 1968- 70 1972-81 1972-76 - Taught t h i r d grade f o r four years and two summer sessions (two classes of cr e a t i v e w r i t i n g and s i x clas s e s of a r t , grades k t o 8) f o r the Jefferson Elementary School D i s t r i c t , Daly C i t y , C a l i f o r n i a . - Substituted i n Oakland, C a l i f . (Headstart. and grades K-3) - Substituted i n New Westminster, B.C. (K -7; - Substituted i n Coquitlam, B.C. (grades 8-12) - Taught children's a r t classes f o r the Burnaby Art Centre (ages 3 t o 12 years) A r t E x h i b i t s : 1981 1981 1980 1980 1980 1979 1978&79 1978 197U.75, & 1976 "from then . . . to now," a one-woman show, The Public Library A r t Gallery, New Westminster, B.C. "WOMANSIZE," Paper and Canvas, Women i n Focus Gallery, Vancouver, B.C. "Chairs, Checks, Geraniums and a Sewing Machine or Two," a one-woman show, The Uni t a r i a n Church, Vancouver, B.C. "Made by Hand ' 8 0 , " The Craftsmen's A s s o c i a t i o n of B.C., Centennial Museum, Vancouver, B.C. "Seven A r t i s t s , Seven Teachers," University of B r i t i s h Columbia, Graduate Student E x h i b i t , Robson Media Centre, Vancouver, B.C. New Westminster A r t s Council, Picture Loan, New Westminster, B.C. Arte Education Graphic Shows, AMS Gallery, U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver, B.C. Juried Student Show, AMS Gallery , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver, B.C. Instr u c t o r s ' E x h i b i t , Burnaby A r t Centre, Burnaby, B.C. 58. Plate Number hi "My Own Kitchen. With Love, Sandra Jane," by Sandra Jane Shaw, 1981. 59. Nancy Birzneck K i r k Education; U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, B.A. and M.A. degrees i n Ar t Education. E x h i b i t s and Commissions: Painti n g 1965 on - One Man Show i n Vancouver, exhibited a water colour i n the Vancouver A r t Gallery, Burnaby Ar t Gallery, Winnipeg A r t Gall e r y , and with the Canadian Federation of A r t i s t s . T e x t i l e A r t s I967 - Canadian Fine C r a f t s . Batik purchased by the National Gallery of the Department of External A f f a i r s . 1972 - Tapestries exhibited at the Faculty Club, U n i v e r s i t y of B.C. 1973 - Two Man Show with Joanna S t a n i s k i s at The Vancouver U n i v e r s i t y Women's Club 197U - Tapestry purchased by Western Washington State College 197k - Four t a p e s t r i e s woven f o r Teck Mining Group, Vancouver, B.C. ' 1975 - Three t a p e s t r i e s woven f o r White Pass Yukon Transportation Co., Vancouver, B.C. 1975 - Exhibited with Tapestries Canada Phase I I 1976 - Four t a p e s t r i e s woven f o r Crown Zellerbach, Vancouver, B.C. 1977 - One tapestry woven f o r J . Remai Development Co., Saskatoon, Sask. 1978 - One tapestry woven f o r J . Remai Development Co., Saskatoon, Sask. 1979 - E x h i b i t of t a p e s t r i e s at Place des A r t s , Coquitlam, B.C» P r o f e s s i o n a l A c t i v i t i e s : 197U-75 - Habitat Committee f o r the e x h i b i t by school c h i l d r e n . 1970-73 - B.C. A r t Teachers' A s s o c i a t i o n . Prepared lesson aids that are published by the B.C.T.F. on colour, design problems and wood and metal sculp t u r e . 1972 - A r t programmer and development f o r Place des A r t s , Coquitlam. Arranged courses and teachers. 1976 - Workshop and short course f o r teachers i n Spinning and Dyeing, Coquitlam, B.C. 1976 - Attended World C r a f t Council i n Mexico. 1979 - Curriculum r e v i s i o n i n the T e x t i l e Arts with the M i n i s t r y of Education* 1978-79 - D i s t r i c t Advisory Committee f o r A r t Education i n Coquitlam, B.C. Plate Number $x "Prairie Impression," by Nancy Kirk, 1977. 61. B i l l McDonald Education: Gladstone Secondary School, Vancouver, B.C. Bachelor of Education i n A r t Education, University of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver, B.C., 197U. Teaching: 1972- 7U - Mt. Pleasant Community Centre, Ceramics (Adult Education) 1973- 71* - North West Handcraft House, Ceramics 197U-present time - Handsworth Secondary School, North Vancouver, B.C. 1976-77 - Arti s t - i n - R e s i d e n c e , Strathcona Outdoor Education Centre, Campbell River, B.C. (Ceramics) 1982 - Bowen Island Community School (Drawing) Pr o f e s s i o n a l A f f i l i a t i o n s : Chairman, North Vancouver Teachers of the V i s u a l A r t s A s s o c i a t i o n A r t E x h i b i t i o n s : Spring 1973 - Painti n g Show, SUB Ga l l e r y , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver, B.C. Spring 1975 - One Man Show, A r t i s t ' s residence. Spring 1980 - "7 A r t i s t s - 7 A r t Teachers," Robson Square Media Centre, Vancouver, B.C. F a l l 1980 - Group Show, Ashcan A l l e y , Vancouver, B.C. (Drawings and Ceramics) Plate Number 6s "Kelp i n Coal Harbour," by B i l l McDonald, 1979 63. Don Portelance Born, r a i s e d and presently r e s i d i n g i n Vancouver, B.C. Education; Studied at the Vancouver School of A r t , the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia (B.Ed.) and Western Washington U n i v e r s i t y (M.Ed^Art). Completed Post Graduate Studies i n lithography, Vancouver School of A r t , Studied the works of Master A r t i s t s i n major g a l l e r i e s throughout Europe and North America, taking p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t i n the works of T i t i a n , Veronese, Goya, and other masters of broken and layered colour© E x h i b i t s ; Exhibited many one man and group shows from l o c a l to i n t e r n a t i o n a l , and i s represented i n p u b l i c , p r i v a t e and corporate c o l l e c t i o n s i n many coun t r i e s . Teachings Currently, a r t teacher at Centennial Senior Secondary School i n Coquitlam, B.C. Plate Number 7: "Backstroke," by Don Portelance, 1977. 65. Mary Bowerman Present P o s i t i o n : A r t Department Head, Point Grey Secondary School, Vancouver, B.C. Education: Bachelor of Arts i n Fine A r t s , U n i v e r s i t y of Saskatchewan a t Regina. Pro f e s s i o n a l Teaching C e r t i f i c a t e at The University of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver, B.C. (emphasis on media, E n g l i s h , a r t ) . Teaching: - U n i v e r s i t y of Saskatchewan ( f i r s t year course). - U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia (fourth year students). - Emily Carr College of A r t ( f i r s t year course). - Adult education, i n a r t , f o r North Vancouver School Board, Y.W.C.A., Community centres and private schools i n Vancouver, B.C. - Drama, En g l i s h , A r t at J.N. Burnett Junior Secondary School, Richmond, B.C. A r t E x h i b i t s : One-woman and group shows i n Toronto, Regina, Calgary, Vancouver and V i c t o r i a . Work i s included i n permanent c o l l e c t i o n s of a r t g a l l e r i e s and i n d i v i d u a l s . Founding member of the executive f o r the Craftsmen's A s s o c i a t i o n of B.C. P u b l i c a t i o n s : 'High school a r t c r e d i b i l i t y , ' B r i t i s h Columbia A r t Teachers' A s s o c i a t i o n Journal, January 1979, 19(2). "" ' I f i t works, do i t J ' B r i t i s h Columbia A r t Teachers' A s s o c i a t i o n Journal. A p r i l 1979, 19(U). 'Rocks and watercolours,' B r i t i s h Columbia Ar t Teachers' A s s o c i a t i o n Journal, February 1980, 20(2). 'Do you see what I mean?' Project B u i l d , Vancouver School Board. Reviews books and p u b l i c a t i o n s f o r the B.C. Schools L i b r a r i e s A s s o c i a t i o n . Plate Number 8: Untitled work, by Mary Bowerman, 1981 67. Lynda L i r e t t e Education: I96U - Graduated Delbrook Secondary School, North Vancouver, B.C. 1968 - Bachelor of Education (Elementary), U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver, B.C. 1982 - M.Ed, i n A r t Education, U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver, B.C. Teaching: 1968-71 - Handsworth Secondary School, North Vancouver, B.C. 1973-7U - North Vancouver High School, North Vancouver, B.C. 1975-78 - Carson Graham High School, North Vancouver, B.C. 1978-82 - Substitute teaching. A r t E x h i b i t i o n s : 1967 - Western Canada A r t C i r c u i t Tour 1969 - Kiwanis B.C. A r t s and Craf t s Show (second p r i z e winner). 1970 - as above I98O - "7 A r t i s t s - 7 A r t Teachers," Robson Media Centre, Vancouver, B.C. Plate Number 9: "Barnacle Family," by Linda L i r e t t e , 1980. 69. Nancy O l i v e r Education: 1973 - Bachelor of Secondary Education, University of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver, B.C. Teaching: 1973-76 - J.N. Burnett Junior Secondary School, Richmond, B.C. 1979 - S t . George's School f o r Boys, Vancouver, B.C. Ex h i b i t i o n s : 1 9 7 U - 7 6 - Mido Galler y , Main St r e e t , Vancouver, B.C. March 1 9 8 1 - Robson Square Media Centre, June 1981 - Group Show, Paperworks A r t Gallery, Vancouver, B.C. November 1981 - Group Show, Watermark Galler y , Vancouver, B.C. Pr o f e s s i o n a l : 1 9 7 5 - Started Richmond A r t Teachers E x h i b i t i o n s , Workshops: "Si l k s c r e e n i n g with Transparent Inks," "Discovering Vancouver's Heritage Buildings," "Developing Environmental Awareness Through Graphic Thinking." Plate Number 10: "Cheung Chau," by Nancy Oliver, 1981. Plate Number 11: "Maid's Day Off," by Rosemary Linn, 1981. Plate Number 12: "In The Garden," by Rosemary Linn, 1981.

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