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Art education in schools and galleries : a case study of a suburban art gallery’s educational program Stephen, Virginia 1983

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ART EDUCATION IN SCHOOLS AND GALLERIES: A CASE STUDY OF A SUBURBAN ART GALLERY'S EDUCATIONAL PROGRAM by VIRGINIA STEPHEN B.A., B.Ed., Queen's University, 1974  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Department of Visual and Performing Arts in Education Faculty of Education  We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA April  1983  © Virginia Stephen 1983  In p r e s e n t i n g requirements  this thesis f o r an  B r i t i s h Columbia,  it  freely available  for  understood that for  Library  s h a l l make  for reference  and  study.  I  f o r extensive copying of  h i s or  be  her  g r a n t e d by  shall  not  the  be  further this  thesis  head o f  representatives.  copying or p u b l i c a t i o n of  f i n a n c i a l gain  University  the  s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may by  the  the  I agree that  permission  department or  f u l f i l m e n t of  advanced degree a t  of  agree that  in partial  this  my  It is thesis  a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my  written  permission.  Department o f  j & C ^ ^ ^ u ^ E ? t&cn/r*i  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h 1956 Main Mall V a n c o u v e r , Canada V6T 1Y3  (3/81)  Columbia  -~^!bJ^  ^Ol(ccC<p/y  ii ABSTRACT Almost all public art galleries, large and small, plan for the use of the gallery by school classes. the  role of art  teachers.  In this manner, the gallery takes on  educator, a role  shared with most elementary  school  This shared responsibility implies a partnership between gal-  lery educators and teachers, whereby each partner resources with the other.  shares expertise and  In this case study two workshop packages, in-  cluding pre-visit and in-gallery materials, for grades three through six, were developed and evaluated.  It  became evident that while gallery pro-  grams can be designed to provide a good experience for children as well as professional development for teachers, there may be a lack of communication between galleries and schools.  This impedes the potential success  of gallery based art educational programs.  iii TABLE OF CONTENTS Page ABSTRACT  ii  TABLE OF CONTENTS  111  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  v  Chapter 1.  INTRODUCTION  1  2.  EDUCATION AS A MANDATE FOR MUSEUMS AND ART GALLERIES  7  Review of Literature A Survey of Vancouver Area Museum Educators 3.  THE SURREY SITUATION  28  The Surrey Art Gallery Staff Assessment of the Community and the Gallery's Role in the Community A Survey of Surrey Teachers' Attitudes Towards Gallery Education 4.  THE CASE STUDY:  THE DEVELOPMENT OF TWO WORKSHOP PROGRAMS '..  52  The Initiation of a Case Study of the Surrey Art Gallery Educational Program The Programs 5.  TESTING AND EVALUATION  72  Testing and Evaluating the Program A Follow-up Study 6.  CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS  95  REFERENCE NOTES  103  REFERENCES  105  APPENDIXES  110  iv  1.  Museum Educators' Questionnaire  1 1 0  2.  Gallery Education Poster for the Surrey  1 1 5  Art Gallery 3.  The Initial Teacher Survey  1 1 ?  4.  The Second Teacher Survey  121  5.  The Inuit Pre-visit Preparation Kit  1 2 5  6.  The Inuit Workshop Presentation Kit  148  7.  Inuit Workshop Follow-up Ideas  1 9 0  8.  The Seeing Ourselves Through Art Pre-visit  1 9 6  Preparation Kit 9.  The Seeing Ourselves Through Art Workshop  2 2 3  Text 10.  The Seeing Ourselves Through Art Workshop  249  Follow-up Ideas 11.  Samples of Children's "Thank you" Letters  12.  Teacher Evaluation of the Pre-visit Preparation Kits  2 5 1  2 5 5  13.  Teacher Evaluation of the Workshops (in-gallery^o  14.  Instructor's Evaluation of the Inuit Workshop  2 6 3  15.  Photographs of the Children and Their Work  2 6 6  16.  Follow-up Study Letter to the Teachers  2 6 9  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I would like to thank the staff of the Surrey Art Gallery, in pa tieular Ingrid Kolt, the Education and Events Coordinator, for giving the opportunity to undertake this study.  1  CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION The study of visual art has been a part of the curriculum in the public school system since 1875.  How important it has been in the cur-  riculum has varied throughout the past decades.  The British Columbia  Public Schools' Report of 1875 advocates an art program of 'drawing' for all  students.  Drawing is, according to John Jessop the writer of the  report, a necessary tool for all students to have, no matter what their future vocations may be. al or obligatory. of fine art skills.  At various times, art studies have been option-  Programs were usually concerned with the acquisition In the 1950's and 1960's particularly, the influence  of Victor Lowenfeld and contemporary trends in the art world resulted in many art courses that were very strong in studio activity but often lacking in the historic, critical component of art study.  Lowenfeld's great  contribution was in providing an opportunity for self expression. his view, was an outlet for individual thoughts and feelings.  Art in  The newly  proposed Art 8-12 curriculum guide and resource book for British Columbia High Schools promotes both the development of studio skills and the general aesthetic education of students (Note 1). To supplement art programs, the annual visit to the local art gallery (Note 2) is popular. As galleries realize the importance of serving the school audience, they have taken on the role of art educators.  They  have planned events and programs that take them into the realm of being partners with the schools in this business of 'art education' for children. How well does this partnership work? Are there gains to be made by both partners?  Is there a true sharing between the schools and art gal-  2  leries?  Is the supposed partnership being used to its fullest?  That is,  is the expertise of the school teachers and the gallery staff being utilized to provide the best possible experience for all involved?  Do gal-  lery staff learn from teachers and teachers from gallery staff, or are the children, if in fact they do learn anything, the only learners? These questions have led to an examination of the literature in the field of gallery education.  Because this field is only now gaining at-  tention through gallery educators' association with the National Association of Education in Art and the formation of its own networks, literature has been obscure in the past.  Much has been published in the United  States in the last eight years but very little Canadian work has appeared until very recently.  The literature not only provides a background to  the development of education programs in galleries,  but also describes  programs in use in various settings and suggests future directions for gallery educators to explore.  From this examination the study was nar-  rowed to the Lower Mainland area of British Columbia and the educational programming of a suburban art gallery, the Surrey Art Gallery, in order that it be a manageable focus.  The preparation and examination of two  themes/subjects in their workshop program offered the opportunity to evaluate how well an art gallery can serve its local schools. As an introduction to this study, I would like to recount how, as a teacher with an art history background, I became concerned about the art education my students received, both in my class and on excursions to art galleries. Every fall from 1975 to 1980, I contacted the Art Gallery of Ontario Education Department and set up an appointment to visit the gallery with my art students from Loyalist Collegiate and Vocational Institute in  3 Kingston, Ontario.  This set into motion the often chaotic process of  arranging the trip to Toronto—applying for school  and School Board  approval for the trip, booking transportation, writing parent approval letters and subsequently retrieving the signed permission forms and fees from the students before boarding the bus, deciding how to select the forty students (the maximum number per school  that the gallery would  accommodate) from some two hundred and fifty, planning other events for the day in Toronto, preparing the students for the gallery experience as well as the visit to the 'big' city, and arranging for supervision of the classes left behind at the school.  The same process had to be repeated  for several trips per year to the local public art gallery, the Agnes Etherington Art Centre, and the annual grade 13 expedition to New York City. After going through this process a number of times, and often wondering "why" when the inevitable problems arose, two things became evident.  The first was the wide variety of programs, or lack of programs,  the art galleries offered for school groups, and, the difference in the galleries' attitudes towards the students and their teachers.  At the Art  Gallery of Ontario, we were led through the exciting classroom introduction tour program where the students were encouraged to participate in discussion led by informed and energetic instructors.  At some galleries,  we were encouraged to look around on our own, and, at others, the sixteen to eighteen year old students were told that they could not look at the exhibitions without a guide.  We were complimented on the level of our  discussion at some galleries and told we asked too many questions others.  at  I was told once that the guide didn't care what background the  students had in the subject of the exhibition (more than she, as it  4  turned out) or what we wanted to see most because it would fit into our classroom studies.  She was going to give us her prepared talk and we  were to listen, not to ask questions and were not allowed to stay in the gallery for our own studies after the tour.  As it turned out, this guide  had not been with the gallery long and was not yet confident about her ability to present the exhibition or to stretch gallery rules.  Some gal-  lery staff were very pleased to help the students with assignments they had been given to prepare on their own (i.e. gallery reviews and interviews at local galleries, specific studies at other galleries).  Others  were not accommodating, perhaps because of constraints on their time from gallery duties and other school groups.  A staff member at the Agnes  Etherington Art Centre said that sometimes gallery staff may refrain from helping students with assignments for fear of doing the students' homework for him.  Once I was told I probably didn't know enough to take my  students on my own tour.  Elsewhere I was encouraged to do so.  The second observation was that I seemed to be one of the few art teachers that I had contact with who frequently went through the 'ordeal' of gallery field trips.  The reasons were many—it was too complicated to  arrange the trips and the effort was not worth the return, the students didn't get much out of the trips, the students didn't want to go.  Most  limited trips to one a year rather than using galleries as a regular resource for their program.  An unfortunate aspect of many of the 'art'  programs at the schools of these teachers (largely secondary and senior public teaching grades seven and eight) seemed to be that the art history and art appreciation aspects of the program was this annual gallery field trip,  perhaps supplemented with a week or so of art history  slides.  These were all teachers with university art training, but it became evi-  5  dent, this art training rarely included more than an art history survey course along with the many studio courses.  These were the teachers in  the system with the most art background and their programs were all but ignoring one of the most important components, the critical and historic components, of a good art education program.  If this were the case, what  was happening in elementary school classes where the teachers had l i t t l e , i f any, art training?  How did they use gallery programs?  Did they use  the available programs at all? Within the school system these problems may be approached by the preparation of good curriculum materials for the teachers to use, workshops, and, improved art, education in the institutions which train teachers. These changes, however, will be slow to implement and slow to take effect, especially now that declining enrollment, budget cuts and calls for added emphasis on the 'basics' affect the schools. What other avenues then are available to improve the quality of art education for our children?  The obvious answer is the gallery, but do  the galleries offer programs that are helpful and, do these programs have the most realistic and appropriate focus?  It would appear from casual  observation that many of the galleries deem i t sufficient to address only the children, undoubtedly the main concern of all of us, while ignoring the rest of the school group—the teacher.  Gallery programs tend to  intimidate the 'non art background' teacher with a dazzling display of activities  that use equipment, materials and resources  that are not  available for the teacher in her classroom thus discouraging her from attempting to approach art topics, or, alternatively, they may bore and discourage  her,  and her students,  with a passive,  'walk and gawk'  6 (0tt,1977,p.l7) tour.  This, of course, is not true of all gallery educa-  tion programs but is true of a discouraging number. As will  become evident from the review of the literature in the  field of gallery education, galleries consider themselves to be an education institution because of their very mandate to exhibit art for the public to view and assess.  They offer programs to the public and to  schools to assist people to learn to 'look' and to assess in order to have the fullest experience of the work on exhibition.  All are concerned  with helping the public make art a part of their daily existence.  For  art to become a part of the daily existence of the school room, teachers need some help.  Who is better to give it than the gallery staff with all  of the expertise available to them as well as their collection and exhibitions.  7  CHAPTER 2 EDUCATION AS A MANDATE FOR MUSEUMS AND ART GALLERIES Review of Literature "It is almost.impossible to exaggerate the importance of art teaching  for the diffusion of culture" (Cox,1913,p.49).  This statement is  included in Newson and Silvers, The Art Museum as Educator, a collection of writings and descriptions of exemplary programs that has become the text in the field of gallery education.  Although this statement is one  that we hear often today in art education circles, it was in fact made in 1913 by K. Cox in an address to the New York City teachers at the Metropolitan Museum of Art.  Mr. Cox lamented the fact that at most schools,  trade skills connected with art were taught rather than art itself. What was neglected was teaching 'about' art. Lamentably the same criticism could be made of most school art programs today.  Most schools offer students art programs that are based on  the production of art.  The teachers, if they have any art training, are  usually trained in studio pursuits and have l i t t l e knowledge or background in art history, aesthetics, criticism or culturally based studies such as sociology or cultural anthropology.  Most of us do not go as far  as Vincent Lanier who purports to advocate eliminating studio activities from art programs in order to build a new curriculum based on the development of aesthetic literacy (Lanier,!980,p.l9).  We do, however, agree  that we are neglecting a very important facet of art education. blem is:  how do teachers  The pro-  introduce the non-production facets of art  study into their programs? It would seem that in order to do this the teacher needs a lot of help.  The inadequacies of training have been mentioned.  In addition, we  8  are faced with staff cuts that will result in teachers being faced with larger classes and more diversified teaching duties, especially  in the  elementary schools which will probably lose the services of such specialists on staff as the art teacher.  These cuts will also rob the profes-  sion of some of the young, better trained teachers and place teachers with no art background in front of art classes.  Severe budget cuts will  take funds for visual aids, in-service training, and other teaching aids away from the teachers.  In addition," we must face the fact that as a  group, art educators have not, for the most part, been able to convince legislators and administrators of the values that we know are inherent in good art education programs.  As a result, in these difficult times, we  will have trouble getting administrators' support for changed art programs, if in fact we save the programs at all in the push towards 'the basics'. A pessimistic picture?  Unfortunately yes, but we may be overlooking  an important source of help in our dilemma—the museum.  Cox's 1913 ad-  dress pointed out that to teach art we must show students 'the real thing'.  Of course, today's technology provides us with much better re-  productions than those available to teachers in 1913, but it is amazing how many children still pass through art classes without having ever seen 'the real thing'. Robert Ott says that 'Partnership between society institutions for education are enhancing the unique role of museum education' p. 15).  (Ott,1981,  That a museum or an art gallery is an education institution may  be debated by some.  To most its primary function is the collection, pre-  servation and display of, in the case of art galleries, significant art works.  It is, in a sense, a repository for work that someone decided was  9  'good art . 1  However, a brief survey of the history of the art museum in  North America will show that an art museum is also an education institution and that many of its philosophies are the same as those of a good school art program. Museums as we know them are still young. tory is but two hundred years old.  Even in Europe their his-  Throughout that history, education  has been seen by museum organizers as a major role of museums.  For ex-  ample, the collection of the Louvre was arranged according to historical principles so that the museum may serve the public by giving access to all to the greatest works of art as well as 'for the inculcation of political and social virtue' (Silver,1978).  The Metropolitan Museum of Art  had an educational program as early as 1872.  Most museums saw that they  could contribute to the lives of all citizens by showing them art that would 'educate,  humanize and refine a practical and laborious people'  (Silver,1980,p.l3).  Of course, there is a certain amount of elitism in  these lofty theories, but the idea is valid. In the late nineteenth century, there was a great push among the general population to educate themselves.  Education for children was not  yet compulsory and many adults who had been forced to leave school very early in order to earn a living, saw a need for more education as they strove for success in business and society. education in books and in art. document.  They found sources of that  Like books, art was seen to be a social  Reading clubs, libraries, scholarly clubs and societies became  popular vehicles for the exchange of ideas, and in 1880 there was a petition in New York to open the Metropolitan Museum on Sundays so that those who worked could attend on their day off.  The vast network of adult edu-  cation we have today did not exist for these people, but, the power of  10  art to communicate knowledge was recognized and this was available at no cost. Just as many of our art educators today assert, John Dana, Newark Museum Director, 1909-1929, saw the art in museums as much more than objects to gaze at.  He saw 'only one solution to social problems—the  increase of intelligent sympathy' (Si 1ver,l978) and art was a means to achieve that end. So that museum visitors could have help understanding the art work displayed, lecturers and docents were provided as teachers.  The Boston  Museum of Art as early as 1907 trained these people to teach towards a work of art, that is, pointing out factors contributing to art not those drawn from i t . The Depression saw museums in financial crisis.  Many could only  stay open by drastically reducing staff and salaries and relying on volunteer staff.  The push to stay open was strong because i t was seen that  museums offered relief from the grim conditions of the economic situation.  Many out-of-work people 'found' museums.  Some museums offered  free workshops and courses free for people on relief. justified requests for public funding of the museums.  These programs Federal programs  backed by some private funding facilitated progressive programs in education especially for high schools which were much better attended than they had been previously because there was no work for the young people when they left school. Theodore Low concluded that as a result of the Depression 'museums became aware that they existed to serve a public which was willing to be served but which had definite needs and desires and refused to be fed the nectar of the museums' choosing' (Silver,!978,p.16).  Collections and  11  educational programs had to expand and increase their relevance to the desires of the public.  It also became apparent that museums could help  to keep up the public's desire for first hand information.  T.R. Adams,  museum adult education advocate, saw that crucial skills acquired through the study of art could help the public deal with the plethora of new and confusing ideas abounding as technology boomed and political ideas that were often new and dangerous emerged (Adams,1937,p.9). In the 1960's, museums were recognized as agencies of cultural indoctrination and thus powerful social institutions as well as vehicles for teaching cultural history.  Museums were seen as having to move to-  wards service to minorities rather than be merely elitist proponents of western European aesthetics and culture.  Outreach programs that took  programs to the people rather than people to the museum became popular. Museums thus became available to those who did not visit them. Many such programs continue today but are used mostly by schools. Education efforts by museums have now focused from the adult to the child and schools are the prime users of museum facilities.  Museums have be-  come a sort of 'field trip heaven' for the entertainment of classes of school children and their teachers. The original observation of this chapter was that the museums could become a great help to the teacher.  The potential of this relationship  is not met by the type of activity mentioned above.  The museum educators  and teachers could work together to provide a much more valuable experience for teachers and students.  What is needed is to create a gallery  habit among the students rather than promote a 'one-shot' encounter with art.  Because it is not possible to accommodate all of the students for  repeated class  visits,  programs must be developed so that both the  12  schools and the galleries  encourage students to visit the gallery on  their own and help them develop the critical and analytic skills, background information and confidence to use collections and special exhibitions. The role of the museum or art gallery as an educator has a tradition as long as the existence of museums as we know them.  Their very mandate  of collecting and conserving art or artifacts and making the collection, available to the public for study implies that they are an educational institution.  Often the availability of the museum as a study resource is  limited to scholars or interested adults.  But more and more often muse-  ums and art galleries are providing programs specifically  designed for  the use of school groups by the museum staff or education officer. Such programs are based on the generally accepted premise that children must be taught to use the museum and that class visits are important even though, as some museum staff will give as a reason for the absence of school programs, the fact that 'the essential communication within the museum is a personal one that exists between the individual and the exhibits' (Cameron,1967,p.33).  In order to better facilitate that communi-  cation by helping to provide the child with a way of seeing museum study should be an early and ongoing experience.  In providing such experience,  the museum or gallery education goals should be to open up the world of sight and sound and touch for each child by sharpening his perceptual skills and to make him sensitive to new sources of data in the world around him (Cameron,1967).  The role of the gallery or museum education  program should thus become one of 'motivation and stimulation' (Merrill, 1967). That educational programs at art galleries are used by schools is  13  immediately evident i f one has ever been in the foyer of a large art gallery on a weekday morning when a seemingly endless wave of excited school children pours through the front door.  The problem of attracting users  for educational programs is not one that faces the staffs at such large, well established, big city galleries such as the Art Gallery of Ontario in Toronto or many of the large galleries in the United States.  Accord-  ing to staff at the AGO, their main problem is being able to accommodate groups for repeat visits. However, small local public galleries often find the opposite to be the case.  The small gallery has a much smaller staff which is often re-  quired to fulfill many functions rather than be able to devote its time to a single area such as education programming. Such a staff simply does not have time to be able to adequately design and promote programs for the use of school groups.  If the small gallery is fortunate enough to be  able to inspire an active group o f volunteer help to do much o f this work, much of this problem is alleviated, but the major responsibility rests with the education officer. What the smaller gallery is also fighting is the commonly held attitude that because the gallery is small and local it is probably not as 'good' as a large city gallery.  The local teachers may well have this  attitude, and rather than spend the time to organize a trip to the local gallery will arrange a trip to a nearby city where the children can visit many places of interest in one outing.  The class may visit an art gal-  lery, a museum, tour a real city and maybe stop off for a peek at the zoo.  The problem of the small gallery staff is the development of a pro-  gram that demonstrates to local schools that the small gallery has much to offer.  The galleries'  very proximity to the schools  facilitates  14  repeat visits to the gallery with much less fuss and expense than a repeat visit to the city.  The staff at the gallery may be as well informed  as that in the larger gallery and can offer the same quality of learning to children.  Most important, the small gallery staff is probably much  more accessible to the teacher and willing to adapt programs for particular groups and teachers. The school district that has a commitment to providing their students with sound programs in the arts has a valuable ally and resource in the local gallery.  The New Orleans Museum of Art, although a very large  institution, has become an active part of the arts programs of that school district.  According to a school board official,  'Our previous  experience with the museum had been random and purely at the discretion of the classroom teacher.  We felt there was a need for school staff and  museum staff to work together to make the museum visit a more educational one.  We wanted to find a way to mesh the resources and objectives of the  schools with the museum objects . . . ' (Trusty,1978).  In the programs  developed through that coordination of effort, teachers and museum staff worked together on the development of program theme ideas and content. Cooperatively developed workbooks provide ideas for orientation to museum visits,  background information and bibliography, classroom  directly giving background to at-the-gallery  activities  activities  and follow-up  ideas not only in art activity but also incorporating music, theatre and other subject area projects in keeping with the schools' interdisciplinary approach to programming.  Extensive evaluation of  that program  through teacher, museum staff and student contributions has shown that the collaborative effort has helped the students to have a more integrated and strongly reinforced experience than had been the case with  I  15  former programs.  In addition, teachers were able to learn more about  what was in the museum and how to use i t (although i t was felt that many teachers still felt uncomfortable away from their home turf) and museum staff learned more about schools and teaching. Examples of combining the efforts of educational institutions such as that of the New Orleans project and others such as those in the Museum of South Texas and the Philadelphia Museum of Art, show smaller galleries and school districts the potential benefits of collaboration to both parties.  It should however be kept in mind that the two institutions are  essentially different though and that neither should undertake to become the other.  That is, galleries should not replace the school program or  attempt to copy a school, but should retain its unique quality. Programs should still retain the valuable, independent ideas of museum staff. In addition to improving programming, school-museum collaboration has been found to alleviate budget problems of both groups by sharing some expenses and cutting down on the duplication of services.  In some  cases school boards provide transportation to the museum and help with museum staff  salaries  while  the museum provides  course, the objects to be studied.  facilities  and, of  Support of the school boards also  insures that supervisory staff encourage teachers to participate in projects with the museum. What museum educators stand to gain from the collaboration is up-todate knowledge of learning theory and school curriculum theory.  In the  past, and still in many art galleries, the format of most museum visits has been that of the tour.  Learning theory research over many years does  not support the effectiveness of learning by the osmosis process inherent in the lecture-tour format.  With this knowledge the museum educator  16  should attempt to develop a format that will encourage more learning. A museum educational program should have as its basis the goal of teaching children to look—art appreciation to foster enjoyment and awaken curiosity.  In the traditional tour format the student makes few contribu-  tions to discussion.  In essence he is being asked to evaluate what he  sees according to what some adults are telling him is 'art'.  In fact,  the research of Mary Rouse has indicated that the child makes his selections 'almost entirely on the basis of personal preference and he almost always makes choices in opposition to those of art experts' (Rouse,1971, p.20).  If this is so then the task of the museum educator is not to  merely dispense information on a tour but to try to find ways of introducing newcomers to 'sensory experiences to stimulate powers of perception, feeling and thought' (Borcoman,!969,p.22). velop an awareness of the students as people.  Museum staff must de-  Who better to help them in  gaining that knowledge than those who know children best, the teachers? 'As a school system plans and develops its curriculum, obligations to both teachers and students must be considered.  Much of this does not  concern us in the museum, but one obligation that should concern us is the role of the museum in curriculum development' (Wood,1967,p.27).  Most  museums are not an integral part of the school system but they are in their educational programs trying to serve that system.  As a result,  educators and curators in the galleries and museums should not only plan their programs around their collections and knowledge, but according to the needs of the schools as these are indicated in their curriculum. Programs at the museum must change both with the exhibitions and the school curricula.  This is the only way that they will be both meaningful  and useful to the users.  17  So far in this chapter the roles of the museum officer and the school board have been discussed with little mention of the link in the communication between schools and galleries important one—the teacher.  that is  perhaps the most  The teachers' role is probably most import-  ant in ensuring that the museum experience is most profitable.  'I find  that only when the teacher has himself had the experience of looking, of learning to read an object visually, of appreciating the many issues and interests which can be roused, is he able to make full educational use of the museum visit . . . ' (Newson,1978,p.462).  This observation of Hans Zet-  terberg when he was a British Museum educator is seconded by most educators in the museum field.  Many museum staff observe that when a class  comes to a museum the teacher seems as unfamiliar and uncomfortable with the new surroundings as are the children.  Not only are the teachers not  habitual museum visitors but they feel uncomfortable fearing that in this environment their position of authority with their class is threatened. Such teachers seem to react either by abandoning their class to the museum staff or by attempting to bias their children's opinions in such a way as to make the job of the museum staff very awkward.  Perhaps this would  indicate that the efforts of museum staff in devoting most of their time to developing student programs is misplaced.  Perhaps the real target for  museum efforts should be the teacher. 'I believe that theoretically it is better for us (museum educators) to teach the teacher and leave the important task of taking the children through the gallery to the one who knows children best' (Fansler,l932). Such philosophy is the basis of many major gallery education programs. The Victoria and Albert Museum has had as its major education focus the education of teachers in training for jobs in the British school system.  18  The teacher has received instruction in the art of teaching and knows the personalities and capabilities of their students so that they should know best how to present information to their class.  The museum staffs' con-  tact with the students is usually limited to the forty-five minutes or so that they are with them in the gallery.  The influence of the teacher on  the group is much larger and could easily counter the impact museum staff have i f they fail to reinforce the museum visit with activities classroom.  in the  It is the opinion of many educators that 'what the (museum)  experience means to the students is often determined more by the way the teacher fits the visit into the classroom studies than by the museum educator or docent who conducts that visit'  (Newson,1978,p.463).  If the  teacher can be encouraged and supported in efforts to use museums effectively then the visit will be enhanced.  The experience will have been one  that is shared by the teacher and his own students and not totally controlled by someone else not as well acquainted with the personality of the group. Ideally, the teachers should receive instruction about how to use the museum as a part of their university training.  This is almost non-  existent now except in rare cases such as the programs that the Victoria and Albert have set up in cooperation with teacher colleges.  Most ef-  forts to train teachers in museum use is haphazard, relying mostly on the initiative of particularly interested student teachers.  In the past,  student teachers at the Faculty of Education at Queen's University in Kingston have had the option to do a part of their teaching practicum at the Art Gallery of Ontario.  Such a program certainly has benefits for  the teacher in training but it is largely a case of preaching to the converted.  What is really needed is a means of reaching more teachers in  19 more conventional teaching situations.  Because what the teacher learns  in teacher training is easily lost in the avalanche of information that falls upon him in that relatively short period and also does not relate to any experience the student has yet had, perhaps the time to try to reach him is later.  The museum educator who said 'maybe you shouldn't  get to them (teachers) in training but wait until they're in classroom practice . . . then they panic—maybe then we can help them' (Newson.l978, p.465) was probably being most realistic. What the museum has to teach the teacher is not only facts about the particular pieces on exhibition in the museum but also suggestions about how to guide and shape the students' world.  personal responses to the visual  The teacher has not received guidance about either of these areas  in previous training.  The teacher is not exploring them in the classroom  because they are unsure about both the incorporation of them into the classroom programs and the adequacy of their knowledge to develop a good program.  Many would probably be surprised to find that their knowledge  of teaching and of other subject areas would give them more help than they had thought.  What most art educators and museum educators would  want to show them is that art and visual literacy, and thus museum use, are effective when integrated into other areas of study. How then does the museum staff reach the teacher? trying a variety of approaches.  Many museums are  Some museums such as the Cleveland Muse-  um of Art and the museum in Cincinnati offer credit courses to teachers in the summer or through night school that not only teach background information in the academic orientation of the museum art history or anthropology but also suggest ways that the teacher can introduce these subjects to their students.  Other museums offer teacher resource centres  20  (St. Louis Art Museum) that provide equipment, visual aids and kits for teachers to borrow, as well as short workshops which introduce teachers to museum programs, collections, activities.  and make suggestions about classroom  Such programs of course require a fairly extensive museum  staff that can devote its time to such endeavours as well as conduct its in-gallery programs for visiting groups. The small museum or gallery does not have such staff available and thus has a more difficult time offering all of the services to teachers that it would like to.  The benefits that a small museum could derive  from training teachers to be more active in museum education may stand to be more than those accruing to a larger institution.  If the museum edu-  cator at a small gallery could receive the help from teachers her time could be freed to spend on special projects and more complete programming (Silver,1978,p.463).  Some galleries and museums have developed ideas for  self-guided tours which help a teacher and her class visit the museum without the aid of a guide, such as the Museum of Anthropology at the University of British Columbia.  Others have developed or collected pack-  ages of information that can be sent out to a teacher to give some background information to the exhibitions.  Where such programs fall short is  in providing guidance in how to use that compiled information.  What the  staff at such galleries need to do is find a means of extending their resources so that they are not wasting their efforts on half developed ideas. In setting up its programs, for both teachers and students, museum education staff has to face the question of what sort of role they will assume.  Will they function as examples to the classroom teacher of how  to approach art in education, as a resource for teachers who need their  21  specific knowledge or as critics of art and art education practices? Or will they attempt to amalgamate all three roles?  The priority of any  educational program should be developing the art education of the children who use the art gallery or art museum, but the museum must face the fact that if their programs are to be used to their greatest potential they must win the confidence and help of teachers and school districts. This will require learning from schools and teachers what they can about curriculum, life in the classroom, and teaching skills.  It will also  require that the museum staff contribute what it can to the teachers' knowledge.  The museum must try to give teachers exposure and practice to  ® help them build confidence with art and the museum, areas that many have not previously had the opportunity to study, and to promote the integration of art into education.  Most of a l l , if Dr. Ott's (Ott, 1981 ,p.l5)  vision of a partnership is to be realized, it must be understood that both partners, museum and school personnel, are professionals, each with specific knowledge to be shared. A Survey of Vancouver Area Museum Educators In searching the literature concerning art gallery and museum educational programs and practices, it becomes apparent that there is a lack of available material specifically about Canadian programs. Alan Bassing and Chantelle Levielle in connection with the Montreal Museum of Fine Arts and Concordia University, and Robert Ott have recently contributed to the literature in both Canadian and American publications.  The prob-  lems of all art gallery educational programs are universal so while Canadian writings are just beginning to appear, American and British work is relevant and helpful for Canadian gallery educators.  While there are  educational programs and departments at most major and many small public  22  galleries, most programs are in their infancy and are struggling to survive with small staffs and inadequate budgets.  There seems to be little  time or manpower available to undertake either evaluative studies of programs in existence or needs studies for those galleries undertaking the formation of new programs or the revision of existing ones.  In order to  establish a frame of reference for the research to be undertaken in this thesis, a preliminary study was designed to review the state of museum and gallery educational programs in Vancouver and the surrounding Lower Mainland area of British Columbia.  In this way the work to be undertaken  becomes particularly relevant to the Canadian situation and does not rely for guidance entirely on available American studies. Six museums and art galleries were chosen to be reviewed in the study.  The institutions were chosen to provide a variety of different  situations with regard to setting (urban and suburban), type of collection (art gallery, anthropological),  funding sources and affiliations  (independent, part of community or municipal center, part of arts centre or part of a university). The person in charge of educational programs at each museum was contacted by telephone to introduce her to the project and a time was arranged for a personal interview to take place at the museum or art gallery.  Each interview took from one to two hours or more as most of the  interviewees were more than happy to share their thoughts.  The inter-  views each followed the format of the questionnaire included as Appendix I.  After describing the programs under their supervision, each inter-  viewee was questioned about educational program staffing, and relation with the local  school  their contact  district and individual  teachers,  their theories with regard to museum education and art education in gen-  23  eral and their prophecies for the future of educational programs through museums. The educational provisions of these six institutions proved to be as varied as were their physical settings.  They ranged from the near ab-  sence of programming at North Vancouver's Presentation House Gallery through traditional tours at the Vancouver Art Gallery and the Burnaby Art Gallery, self-guided activities encouraging teachers to share learning with the students at the University of British Columbia Museum of Anthropology, to programs such as those at the Vancouver Centennial Museum and the Surrey Art Gallery that combine tour format with various workshop participation programs. Of those museum educators interviewed, half had previous teaching experience with the age group for which they were designing programs. Of the remaining half, some had acted as teaching assistants at university but not in the public school system.  Those institutions that did not re-  quire teaching experience of their education staff, such as the Vancouver Centennial Museum, hire their staff on the basis of their knowledge of what the collection covers.  Museum skills and a strong academic back-  ground are there felt to be more important in the fostering of communication between the artifacts and the viewer. prepare the children for that communication.  It is up to the teacher to Other institutions favour  an academic preparation in the field of the collection combined with knowledge of children and schools in order to be able to present information about the collection in ways that will be of the most benefit for students. The degree of contact that museums have with schools also varies greatly.  Generally a lack of contact with the schools results not from  24  disinterest but from lack of time on the part of museum educators.  At  Presentation House there was no familiarity with the school curricula and contact was limited to sending out newsletters and hoping that teachers would contact the gallery.  The Vancouver Art Gallery finds their program  is well used so it does not actively set up contact with schools except by newsletter.  They will however custom design a tour for a group if the  teacher contacts them in time.  The Burnaby Art Gallery educational pro-  grams are in their infancy but the education officer hopes to be able to visit schools and make personal contact with teachers in her area so that she can plan to enhance the curricula in general use.  The University of  British Columbia Museum of Anthropology and the Vancouver Centennial Museum have made it a point to know what goes on in the schools.  If the  museums can present their collections in such a way as to relate them to something that the students are studying then they will be more receptive to the information that is conveyed through the artifacts.  These museums  also found that i f they have contact with the school boards and subject coordinators, etc., the individual teachers will be encouraged by them to use the museums.  At the Surrey Art Gallery, art and social studies co-  ordinators of the local school district are consulted about curriculum content before workshops are developed, so the gallery is developing programs that the teachers will be able to use to enhance classroom activities.  All of the educators indicated that they have contact with indi-  vidual teachers only when these teachers ask the museum for a tour date or for information.  Some educators found that they had an ongoing con-  tact with some teachers who are regular users of the programs but had little opportunity to meet any that were not already museum users. The programs offered at the museums all focus on elementary school  25  children.  This is not because of any lack of conviction that high school  students can benefit from museum contact but because i t is elementary school teachers who by far book the larger number of visits. that high school. teachers run into more difficulties  It seems  trying to excuse  their students from other teachers' classes in order to free enough time for a visit than do elementary school teachers who usually teach all subjects to one class. One concern that most of the educators expressed was that the teachers who brought their classes to the museum were, for the large part, not prepared for the visit and thus had not adequately prepared the class nor provided to follow up the visit with a classroom activity.  It seemed  that most of the teachers' preparation had been in making the arrangements for transport to the museum, parental permission and excuse from school, all time consuming and demanding tasks.  The children had been  told where they were going but that was usually the extent of the preparation.  It seemed that many of the teachers were not seasoned 'museum  goers' and thus felt uncomfortable or unfamiliar with the content and routine of museums. From this preliminary study, a number of recommendations and hopes for the future of museum education arose.  Foremost was the hope that the  museums could reach more individual classroom teachers in order to familiarize them with what the museums and art galleries have to offer them and their classes and to help them plan ways to integrate museum visits into regular classroom programs.  The current practices of mass mail outs  to school districts and schools is useful in giving officials a general idea of what is happening at museums, but all too often this information does not filter down to the classroom teacher who can use i t .  If museums  26  want to attract the attention of these teachers they must find a way to make more personal contact with them.  Unfortunately this is a time con-  suming and expensive endeavour but could be facilitated with the help of volunteers on phoning committees to obtain the names of the appropriate teacher contact at each school or by sitting in on meetings and conferences in relevant subject areas to meet the teachers in person.  The  museums' staff effort would be appreciated by the teachers who would then feel they had a name and face to associate with the museum mail outs. It appears to this researcher that i f indeed museum staff are concerned that they help the teacher provide their classes with a meaningful museum experience, then perhaps some of their efforts should be refocused to developing programs that teach  the teacher  rather than just  the  child. In addition, museum staff should consider the wisdom of hiring staff that have familiarity with schools,  classroom routine and curriculum.  The museum would then be preparing programs for users whose situation and needs they understand.  It would seem a wasted effort and an incomplete  learning experience i f programs are not designed for their users. A common complaint of museum staff is that they do not have enough space to provide other than tour activities and an often voiced complaint of teachers is a lack of budget for transportation to museums.  Why then  could not schools and museums cooperate by sharing facilities?  Many  schools have empty classrooms because of declining enrollment and i t would be much less expensive to transport one museum staff member than thirty children.  Such an arrangement should not, of course, replace the  museum visit and the children's contact with the actual 'objects' there but could introduce them to valuable concepts in visual literacy and  27  introduce them to such objects that might be transportable.  Teachers  would be able to see by example how they can use museum studies in their classroom.  Museum staff would have the opportunity to experience the  school environment first hand.  In addition, both institutions might be  spared some of the expense of the duplication of facilities and equipment.  For many museums, such a program would be prohibitively expensive  as repeated visits to schools would accrue heavy transportation cost for staff and materials.  Transporting materials often would put much wear on  the materials and be awkward for staff. At the museum or art gallery, concern for the educational programs should be a major one for all of the staff, not just the educator.  In  most museums and galleries the responsibility for the choosing and arranging of the exhibitions is the responsibility of the director and curators.  The educator then has to deal with presenting this exhibition to  the public and the children having had no role in creating the exhibition itself.  While directors and curators are experts on their collections,  the educator is supposed to be an expert on the users of the museum. The most effective exhibitions would combine the knowledge of both.  It is  encouraging to hear that the Vancouver Museum plans to include the Museum Educator on its exhibition committee in the near future. In summary, the discussions with educators reiterated the need for more communication between museums and schools.  A primary concern is  that teachers be made more aware of how to use museums and that museums be more aware of those for whom they are preparing programs. for museum programs to be effective,  In order  there must be an end to the strong  territorial ism that seems to arise when museum educators and teachers meet.  28 . CHAPTER 3 THE  SURREY SITUATION  The Surrey Art Gallery S t a f f Assessment of the Community and the Gallery's Role i n the Community As a result of the survey described in the preceding chapter, a cont a c t was made with the Surrey Art G a l l e r y . demonstrated  an i n t e r e s t  The s t a f f of this a r t gallery  in the continuous  evaluation and updating of  t h e i r educational program and had a philosophy of programming f o r schools similar  to that which  I was formulating.  When  the g a l l e r y  was given  funds to work on t h e i r education program (see Chapter 6), we were able to work together. The Surrey Art Gallery i s typical is  small, has a small  staff,  of many a r t g a l l e r i e s  exists  i n a suburban  today.  community  It  or town  rather than a large c i t y and must pursue a vigorous program to a t t r a c t i t s audience. to  I t i s thus a good subject f o r study because the solutions  i t s dilemmas may be i n s t r u c t i v e to the many g a l l e r i e s in similar  situ-  ations. The Surrey Art Gallery exists as a part of an Arts Centre which also houses a theatre, rehearsal f a c i l i t i e s , and  construction f a c i l i t i e s ,  addition  to o f f i c e  space  two classrooms  f o r the s t a f f .  housed i n a newly renovated building  b u i l d i n g , very  i s set in Bear Creek Park,  playing f i e l d ,  a theatre g a l l e r y , and a pottery  A l l of these  set storage studio, i n  f a c i l i t i e s are  impressively designed.  a large park  The  containing a track,  swimming pool, picnic area and t r a i l s .  I t i s an a t t r a c -  t i v e and well used s i t e , although i s o l a t e d from any shopping or business area that might a t t r a c t additional  drop-in v i s i t o r s .  The gallery s t a f f have three areas of the centre i n which to offer  29 programs—the main gallery, pottery  studio.  the theatre gallery and the classrooms and  The last two areas are shared with the art programmer  for the municipality, who runs children's and adult arts and craft workshops and courses. The whole complex is funded and operated by the Municipality of the District of Surrey and its Parks and Recreation Department, who pay for both f a c i l i t i e s and staff.  In addition to municipal funds, the gallery  depends on such funding sources as the British Columbia Cultural Fund and the Koerner Foundation. Because i t facilities,  is a young gallery  with limited  funding and storage  the Surrey Art Gallery does not have a permanent collection  but maintains a program of monthly changing exhibitions assembled by the staff or borrowed from other galleries. The gallery staff estimate that they receive some 1,500 visitors per month,  including  casual  events, and school groups.  visitors,  those  attending  specific  gallery  The gallery visitors book indicates that most  visitors are from the Surrey area, although some of the special events attract visitors from Vancouver and surrounding municipalities. The gallery supports a small staff consisting of the director,  the  curator, a half-time curator for the theatre gallery, a preparator, and an education and events coordinator.  The services of two office  are shared with the rest of the center staff.  staff  In addition there are  three education instructors employed on a per class basis.  Volunteers do  many of the tasks associated with the gallery--mailouts, maintaining the small reference library and acting as docents, of which there are approximately sixteen, for the educational program. In order to gain some insight into how the gallery views i t s e l f both  30  as in institution and as an institution that is a part of a particular community, I interviewed the gallery director, Rosa Ho. The community in which the gallery exists is a very diverse one. The District of Surrey encompasses a number of small town sites some of which have all but disappeared over the years.  There is no one downtown  business and shopping area, but five town centers—Whalley and Guildford in the north, Newton in the center and Cloverdale and South Surrey in the south.  In general, the south is rural, Guildford has a fairly high den-  sity population and the other areas are between the two in population density.  In general it is suburban, a place where people live because  single family housing is affordable and the setting is pleasant.  There  is little industry in the areas so those who work in the community are mostly involved in small service industries. to work.  Others commute to Vancouver  It is basically a community of young families and families with  a long tradition in the area. The director sees the community as definitely one in the process of change as the population grows.  While in the past the education level of  the citizens could be considered lower than that in Vancouver, today, with an influx of city-raised young adults and the establishment of Douglas College and Kwantlen College, interest in higher education is rising. Ms. Ho sees the community as having a mixed philosophy towards the arts.  While i t is largely what she described as a "WASP" community,  there are active cultural groups who support their own dance, music and art at a grassroots  level.  The people of the community tend to be  'doers' who are active supporters of their own enterprises and use the arts for social, recreational or leisure purposes rather than for intel-  31  lectual reasons.  When i t comes to the 'fine arts' this group find it  difficult, as do the gallery staff, to establish what they want because their familiarity is only with the work of their peers and not the 'art world'.  They are, Ms. Ho says, reticent to seek out something different  or 'better'. Ms. Ho thinks that by far the larger group in the community are the non-joiners, perhaps those who have moved from the city and are reticent to join the local groups because they feel  little in common with local  people, or are looking for something more than such groups offer, such as enrichment through the fine arts. The difficulty the gallery staff  has is in identifying with this  diversified community in which most of them do not live.  The only member  of the immediate gallery staff (excluding office personnel) to live in the Surrey area is a family person.  Everyone else is young and either  single or childless, and live in Vancouver where they are close to the activities and amenities that they enjoy. Because the Surrey Art Gallery is funded by the municipality, i t finds that it is directly involved in the community, probably more so than many other galleries.  As a part of the Cultural Services Branch of  the municipality it must comply with the needs and goals of that body and, be answerable to i t .  Such control by local government puts consid-  erable pressure on an institution to serve its particular community. The Surrey Art Gallery is involved with its community in both passive and active ways.  Ms. Ho describes as passive involvement, the pre-  sentation of exhibitions to enrich the citizens' and pleasure.  experience,  knowledge  It provides the opportunity for the individual to view the  art on display and interact on a personal basis.  More active is the  32 involvement with children through the education program, and with adults and families through the events programs which provide a wide variety of unstructured, enjoyable experiences designed to complement the exhibitions.  In addition, members of the community, individually or as part of  an organization, have access to the theatre gallery to display their own work. In i t s  exhibition  rationale,  the  gallery  staff  tries  to provide  experiences that will enrich the lives of community members by offering something more than work that is already in their  realm of experience.  While the theatre gallery exhibits local work, the main gallery attempts to go beyond.  The exhibition rationale is biased towards the contempor-  ary, but, also encompasses Canadian and international  trends.  The staff  admit to a special interest in the work of lesser known but able British Columbian a r t i s t s . avant garde.  Historic subjects are presented as well as the more  The staff try to provide variety within the exhibition pro-  gram to attract visitors of different  interests.  In summary, they wish  to provide a balanced variety of "good" art for public viewing in addition to building up a good national reputation. Ms. Ho says that i t  is really quite d i f f i c u l t to say which exhibi-  tions seem to work best ( i . e .  provide the greatest draw) because, for  example, while some conceptual shows have been a great success, others have failed.  Attendance at exhibitions seems to depend as much on such  factors as time of year, press coverage, advertising and the weather as on the particular content of the show. tract much attention.  Big name artists of course at-  Shows for which the gallery provides educational  material also seem to attract more v i s i t o r s .  Acceptance by the public of  some of the more avant garde work is slow, a problem which will always be  33  there, but seems no more of a problem in Surrey than in larger institutions like the Vancouver Art Gallery. as an opportunity to teach.  The gallery must treat such shows  Exhibitions are accompanied by materials  which will help the public learn. Because the Surrey Art Gallery sees education as within its mandate, i t provides experiences not only for the general public, but for school children as well.  Ms. Ho is not hesitant to admit that programs for  children are a vehicle to reach out to parents, who in seeing the pleasure that their children derived from a gallery visit will develop incentive to visit the gallery themselves or as a family.  In addition, by ex-  posing the children to pleasant experiences in the arts, the gallery can initiate a lasting, future interest.  Through its educational programs  the gallery hopes that i t impresses upon teachers the idea that art is not a side issue but is relative to curriculum, both in art and other subject areas.  The Surrey teacher is probably from as diverse a back-  ground as the rest of the Surrey population and needs the same encouragements and justifications to visit the gallery. Ingrid Kolt is the Education and Events Coordinator at the Surrey Art Gallery, and as such is responsible for implementing a program for schools as well as adults.  She relates that when the gallery first open-  ed, before its present staff and facility were established, it was very much a community place—a facility without a staff.  One of the first  artists to show in that gallery brought in kids for activities related to his work with the philosophy of 'get'em while they're young'.  These  early programs were experimental, depending on the individual initiative of the artists involved, and on available grants.  Their popularity, how-  ever, established the need for someone to function in the role of coordi-  34 nator and Ingrid's position was. established. When faced with the task of setting up an educational program for an art gallery, one is faced with several alternatives.  Once the programmer  has assessed what f a c i l i t i e s and personnel resources are available, program format may be any combination of the following:  (1)  the  tours con-  ducted by curatorial staff, docents or education staff, (2) film or video programs i f there is money but no staff available, shops, (4)  'hands-on' work-  written tour outlines for teachers to use to take their own  class around the exhibitions, or (5) activity  (3)  classroom discussion and hands-on  for the teacher and class, with or without gallery  volvement.  staff  in-  All of these 'in-gallery' programs could be supplemented with  kits and materials available for use of teachers in their classrooms. Formal and informal  surveys of teachers by the gallery staff  cated that, on the whole, teachers therefore,  have l i t t l e  not be aware of the gallery  art  or using i t .  training  indi-  and may,  This is not the  fault of the teachers--it's just the nature of the educational system. Teacher training teaches future teachers a production based way to teach art to children and school boards often have very vague art guidelines. tion.  curricula  Boards tend to provide teachers with 'how to make' informa-  Edmund Feldman observed this to be a universal problem in art edu-  cation (Feldman,1978,p.l9).  Secondly, they found that teachers need to  be offered programs which make i t easy for them to be able to justify time away from school.  The programs must (1)  the  connect visual arts with  other areas of curriculum, especially social studies, and (2) provide the students with an active experience. Now that the Surrey Art Gallery is settled into its new f a c i l i t i e s , it  is able to offer a range of programs for schools.  To best describe  35 these offerings, here is the text of the information that is sent out to all Surrey schools (see Appendix 2 for complete poster). TOUR AND WORKSHOP PACKAGES AND BACK! The Gallery is pleased to announce the return of this popular program.  We can now accommodate 2 classes simultaneously on program  days as a result of extensive classroom renovations.  Class A and  Class B will participate in different workshops concurrently.  Each  class will also receive a guided tour of the current exhibition. Preparation and follow-up materials will  be provided.  Tour and  Workshop Packages can be tailored to suit various age levels.  Each  session is limited to a maximum of 30 participants and runs from 9:45 a.m. - Noon. Advance booking is required. TUESDAY MORNINGS . Inuit Arts and Culture - an invaluable opportunity to learn about the changing arts and culture of the Inuit.  Activities include  printmaking, slides, games and "hands-on" exhibits of Inuit tools and clothing on loan from the Government of the Northwest Territories.  Suitable for grade 3 through adult.  . Seeing Ourselves through Art - take a journey through history to view the people of Canada through the eyes of our artists, past and present.  Slides, discussion, visual arts activities and an art pro-  ject designed to encourage self-expression  are included.  Suitable  for grade 4 through adult. FRIDAY MORNINGS . The World of Clay - explore the world history of man's manipulation of clay by seeing demonstrations and examples, and working with clay and various clay tools.  Suitable for grade K through adult.  36 Extensive self-guided follow-up materials are available participants.  on loan to  Groups wishing to use these materials at the Gallery  may do so by booking the classroom in advance for use after  their  workshop. . Art Encounter - learn about works on exhibit by seeing, discussing and doing, under the guidance of a trained volunteer  docent.  Art  Encounter involves participants in a variety of perceptual, movement and visual arts activities bition.  specifically designed for each new exhi-  Suitable for grade K through adult.  CLASSROOM WORKSHOPS The Gallery's Extension Program offers a range of self-guided Workshops, Poster and Slide-Sound Kits f a c i l i t y on a library loan basis. with any age group.  for  use in your classroom or  Most kits may be adapted for use  Kits include West Coast Native Peoples, Pioneer  Arts, The Treasures of Tutankhamun and the Language of Colour (also excellent  for  intermediate  science classes).  Advance booking is  required. All of these programs try to encourage teachers to bring their classes to the gallery by making i t easy and relevant for the teacher to f i t a v i s i t into her classroom curriculum. The gallery  staff  settled on the tour/workshop format for most of  the programming for a number of reasons, Ms. Kolt reports. staff  are firm believers in what they call  The gallery  'concrete learning'.  They  feel that children will learn from discussion, not lectures, but that i t really  'sinks in' when discussion is coupled with hands-on experience.  Indeed, they have found that teachers insist on activities their gallery v i s i t .  as a part of  Because the gallery has no permanent collection  it  37  is  very difficult to be able to design  different  programs for each  month's exhibition, especially with an education staff of one.  The "Art  Encounters" workshop was developed to deal directly with each exhibition, involving the classes in a number of exercises in the gallery itself.  It  is a great deal of work for the staff to be able to change and adapt these activities for each show.  All of the other workshops, while taking  place in the new gallery classrooms, are not given without a tour of the current exhibitions.  The tours are a part of the package in order to  give students the opportunity to relate concepts they have discussed in the gallery classroom to the art in the exhibitions through discussion with the guide. So far the gallery is focusing on programs for elementary schools, although much of  the material  is  easily  adaptable  for high school  groups. Through its educational programs, in keeping with its over-all philosophies,  the Surrey Art Gallery  through its children and teachers,  attempts to offer  the community,  something more than is available in  school art curriculum or through arts and crafts classes.  It tries to  foster an enjoyment and appreciation of the 'fine arts' through its own exhibitions, and supplementary information. A Survey of Surrey Teachers' Attitudes Towards Gallery Education A major factor in the success of museum and art gallery programs for schools is, as the New Orleans Museum of Art found in its work with the local school district, the building of communication channels between the galleries and the schools.  These channels should not only be used for  the dispersal of advertising for programs offered by the galleries, but also for gathering information from school officials and teachers about  38 the type of programs that would be most useful.  Information about the  curriculum in the schools, the teachers art background and the particular problems of the schools—arranging time away from the classroom, transportation and the length of time that can be put aside for trips should be sought from schools. The teacher is probably the most important source of information because it is this person who knows the curriculum in the various subject areas and how best to introduce information to the children they teach every day.  The gallery educator should make use of this information  while planning any programs that are supposed to be for school children to ensure that they are presenting appropriate topics in an appropriate manner for their intended participants. It seems, from talking to museum and gallery educators in the Lower Mainland and reviewing the available literature, that most use teacher input to evaluate programs that are already offered to them.  Few of the  sample programs described in Silver's and Newson's 'The Art Museum as Educator' cite gathering suggestions and ideas from teachers as important parts of the background for their program design.  The programs of the  East Cleveland Art Museum and the Brooklyn Museum both used the school district officials as links to the schools but seemed only to communicate with teachers when preparing for their specific visit, after the programs were set.  Teachers were however asked for evaluation of the programs  (Silver,1978,Chapter 6).  While such evaluation is most valuable for pro-  gram assessment and planning future changes, i t would seem that opinions of teachers at an earlier stage might result in a program that requires fewer revisions and attracts more teacher and student use.  It should  also be realized that for the most part, asking the opinions of program  39  users after they have used the programs is essentially  only asking for.  reaffirmation o f the support the teachers have already demonstrated by booking programs.  The teacher who should be reached is that teacher who  does not use the programs, for whatever reason.  Because teachers who do  not use gallery programs offered to them are by far the larger group, they might be able to offer insights into why they do not use programs and thus suggest what galleries can do to attract their use o f galleries. For this reason, gallery educators should attempt to plan programs with teachers rather than for teachers and school groups. Because of the above observation, it was decided to attempt to survey teachers,  particularly those who did use the programs as well as  those who did not, about educational programs for art galleries. The Surrey Art Gallery is a small gallery that is doing an admirable job o f arranging exhibitions o f an extremely high calibre.  The gallery  lacks a permanent collection but has exhibitions in their main gallery and an adjacent theatre gallery in the main lobby of the Surrey Arts Center.  The main gallery, who's primary mandate is to exhibit and promote  promising contemporary British Columbian artists, in monthly changing exhibitions, also shows the best o f British Columbia art, the arts o f the Inuit and nationally circulating exhibitions.  The theatre gallery fea-  tures the work of local artists and arts groups as well as work from local schools and colleges.  Because it would be almost impossible for  the gallery education staff  to plan a program completely around such  rapidly changing exhibitions, they offer the schools a tour o f the current show combined with a theme workshop in one of the gallery classroom areas. project.  The workshops combine a slide show/discussion with a hands-on (For more details of the gallery exhibition policy and program  40 descriptions, see Chapter 3 , Part  1.)  Although all of the schools in the Surrey School District are sent an attractive and informative poster outlining the programs and services offered and booking procedures, a review  of  gallery  records indicated  that the programs were booked by a small group of teachers and schools, who use the various programs repeatedly.  There were a great many schools  who never sent classes to the gallery.  Of the  sixty-nine  elementary  schools in Surrey D i s t r i c t , only ten have sent classes regularly to the gallery in the past three years.  What should be done to encourage the  teachers at those schools not represented to introduce to their students this valuable community resource? The f i r s t approach to conducting this pointing.  survey proved to be disap-  A questionnaire (see Appendix 3) was sent to one teacher in  each of ten schools which were not using the gallery education program. The teachers were chosen because the  administration  at  their  schools  indicated that these were teachers who were interested in art and/or taking their classes on field trips.  The teachers represented a spread of  grades three to six, the target grades for the gallery  programs.  Al-  though the teachers were sent a letter explaining the study, and a stamped return envelope, and many were asked to participate in the study personally, only two replies arrived, and these only after a reminder phone call. These results seemed to confirm the warnings of museum educators that i t is extremely d i f f i c u l t  to get responses from most teachers.  It  could be that the timing for the survey (October and November) was bad. Schools were s t i l l  reeling under the effects of severe budget cuts and  classroom activities were in full swing.  41  It ers.  was decided to attempt another approach to surveying the teach-  It.was obvious that this second attempt should avoid the p i t f a l l of  getting lost among the many other obligations in the teachers' routine. The best way to do this seemed to be to approach the teachers in person, with the intention of providing a personal contact that demonstrated the goodwill of the researcher and the gallery. The public relations officer for the school district was contacted to (1) obtain his permission and support for a survey and (2) ask his suggestions for how the survey could be conducted. tic  He offered enthusias-  support for the undertaking and suggested three ways in which  could be accomplished.  it  The f i r s t was to contact the art helping teacher  and s o l i c i t support and interviewees through her contacts.  This idea was  rejected because using her contacts would probably be using teachers who were already enthusiastic about art encounters for their effect,  it  would be biasing results.  students.  In  The second approach would be to  contact the elementary school superintendent to explore the possibility of setting up a workshop for teachers.  Our survey would be used as an  introduction to a session we would give on gallery use for the classroom teacher.  This would be a good idea to use in the future,  but for the  immediate time would require organization and a time that was not possible for this study.  The last  suggestion was to contact individual  principals and ask to talk with their staff at a staff meeting or at a lunch hour session.  This would give a good cross-section of teacher  attitudes by providing contact with teachers from various grade levels and subject orientation.  We chose to do this.  Two principals were called and both welcomed the project.  One prin-  cipal offered a staff meeting for the survey, to take the form of a dis-  42  cussion guided by a questionnaire.  He later had to change this invita-  tion to an informal presentation to the staff at a lunch hour because of an unexpected priority for his staff meeting agenda.  The other principal  had very full agendas for the next few staff meetings but welcomed a noon hour v i s i t . The schools were chosen for reasons outlined below.  One school was  close to the Surrey Arts Center and therefore had no transportation f i c u l t i e s to deal with for visits to the Gallery.  dif-  Several, but not a l l ,  teachers at this school used the workshop programs offered by the Gallery.  This group of teachers would be able to give information about  their use of the programs as well as why teachers in schools close to the gallery would not use the gallery.  The second school was outside of  walking distance, so had to deal with transportation problems in planning.  trip  It was a school that had sent one or two classes to the gal-  lery in the past but not in the last two years. have very different  This teacher group might  opinions about the gallery and using its programs.  By this selection of schools i t was hoped that the opinions of teachers from a variety  of  situations would be represented, with emphasis on  teachers who do not use the programs. Because i t seemed unfair to ask the teachers' help in providing information for the study without offering anything in exchange, i t was decided to exchange information.  The Surrey Art Gallery art educator was  invited to join the meeting, to give information about the gallery programs, to help answer the teachers'  queries and to address their com-  ments. Because both meetings were to be staffroom, lunch time meetings, and thus quite informal with teachers coming and going to supervisions, les-  43 son preparations, e t c . , i t was decided to distribute the questions that were to be asked in questionnaire form so that the teachers could answer them while they ate and not lose their this form of interview  relaxation  time.  Unfortunately  did not allow for the spontaneity of discussion  that would have come from a group discussion but i t did give each teacher the opportunity to participate. and chatting,  While they were f i l l i n g out the forms  we could chat with individuals  in  an informal  way and  answer any questions that arose. The f i r s t school visited was the school that was close to the Arts Center and sent  several  classes  to  the  workshop programs.  teachers came to the lunchroom to participate naires.  Thirteen  and f i l l e d out question-  I introduced the project and thanked them for their help before  I distributed questionnaires.  The gallery education officer  spoke with  the group a l i t t l e later, while teachers worked on the questionnaire and ate their  lunches.  The atmosphere was relaxed and while the teachers  carried on their social discussions among themselves, they took to answer the questions thoroughly.  We noticed that gallery  efforts  publicity  had reached the school and was displayed in the staffroom (for the questionnaire used, see Appendix 4). The teachers were f i r s t asked where they lived.  This was in order  to ascertain whether their opinions might reflect those of the community. The staff of the Art Gallery, as has been mentioned, is composed almost entirely of people who live outside of the Surrey district and thus are putting together programs for a community in which they do not l i v e . teachers may represent and reflect  the attitudes  The  of that community be-  cause they live in i t and are in constant contact with the children and parents of that community.  Their comments may reflect views of the gal-  44  lery, typical of members of the community. what gallery staff perceive them to be. outside of the district.  These may be different from Only six of this staff lived  Of those, five lived very close and in similar  communities and one lived in Vancouver, where most of the gallery staff live, so, as a group, these people are perhaps more representative of the community than gallery staff. When planning field trips, most of the staff of this school indicated that they chose destinations that fitted into their classroom studies, usually the science or social studies curriculum.  They planned an  average of two trips a year to such places as the Planetarium, Fort Langley, the Arts, Science and Technology Center, Stanley Park and local businesses (bakeries, grocery stores,  etc.)  to complement their "what do  people do in the community" focus for primary and intermediate social studies. Art is a part of all of the classroom programs of these teachers and all but one of them enjoy teaching art.  The one who does not enjoy the  experience cites the failure of some lessons and lack of experience as reasons.  Of the others, five felt that they had all the training they  need for the present although all but two had only art education within teacher training as art background. The other two also had some courses that they had taken for their own interest.  None of the teachers indica-  ted that they dealt with art history, art appreciation or visual literacy lessons with their classes.  Instead they relied on the usual array of  elementary school art projects—drawing, colouring, crafts, manipulating paper, puppet making, etc.—occasionally using such activity to 'enrich' social studies or science. It is curious that three of the teachers did not see a relation  45  between a visit to an art gallery and curriculum, although one takes her class there anyway.  For her, the gallery excursion is merely a special  event, an outing planned as a 'fun' trip, not one considered to be an important part of the children's studies.  All but four of the surveyed  group have taken their students to a workshop at the gallery and only two were unaware of the programs offered.  The program users were all pleased  with the programs at the Surrey Art Gallery.  These responses were, I  hope, not coloured by the fact that the Gallery Education officer from that gallery was right in front of the group.  I stressed to them that I  encouraged candid criticism as that was the only way I could formulate recommendations that would lead to stronger programs suited to their needs. An interesting comment made by one of the teachers was that he felt 'more art education needs to be done before this community will arrive at the gallery having much (background and art education to understand) your regular exhibitions'.  When I asked him to elaborate further, he explain-  ed that he felt the community members as a whole did not have enough background to be able to enjoy and understand many of the exhibitions. This from a member of that community!  This surely is encouragement for  the gallery to assert itself with art education programs for the children (the future Surrey) and adults, teachers among them.  If, as this teacher  believes, the community that financially supports the gallery and should be its primary users has difficulty dealing with the contemporary gallery exhibitions,  the gallery should respond with programs to help develop  critical skills and give information.  Gallery staff are presently in the  process of developing a number of different ways to communicate with the casual visitor, offering them information to help deal with the exhibi-  46 tions.  Information in the form of a didactic panel introducing the exhi-  bition and a short, easy to read essay about the work and a self-guided tour are already available.  By the end of the summer of 1983, there will  also be a page of suggestions for gallery  games that parents can play  with their children at the gallery and a slide/tape presentation to balance and complement the written material.  According to the gallery edu-  cation and events coordinator, these are all attempts to reach those who do not participate in the gallery's organized programs such as the Sunday talks and films. These teachers indicated that they would seek 'good art'  in such  varied places as Paris, the Vancouver Art Gallery, private galleries and downtown galleries.  Only a couple mentioned their local public gallery  (the Surrey Art Gallery) and one finds art 'almost everywhere'.  I think  i t i s often the opinion of 'non-city' dwellers that they have to go to a large center to find good collections or exhibitions of art.  It  is hard  to convince them that a gallery in their midst could also offer art.  Perhaps art loses some of its romance i f  it  'good'  is that easily acces-  sible. These teachers' suggestions for future programming repeatedly called for programs related to the curriculum and appropriate for specific grade levels.  One teacher specified that the programs should offer something  that he could not provide his class.  It  seemed that what these teachers  f e l t they couldn't provide was the 'non-doing' aspects of art education, as they all requested teacher workshops in art appreciation and relating art topics to curriculum.  Curiously though, what they wanted for  their  students was activity oriented workshops—printmaking, pottery and painting workshops.  This seems to be an inconsistency.  While they want one  47  thing for themselves they expect the gallery different  for the children.  to do something  entirely  What they want for the children does not  u t i l i z e the most important expertise of the gallery staff—ways of relating to art  through their  exhibitions and learning to  'look'  at  them.  These teachers seem not to see the relationship between c r i t i c a l and historic activity and the doing aspects of art.  We know from the work edu-  cators such as Mary Erikson (Note 4) with her art games that appreciation can and does involve 'doing . 1  Do these teachers?  The response to the survey at the second school was not as positive as the f i r s t .  This school did not use the gallery at present, perhaps  because the gallery poster was not in evidence on their information board and only four said they were even vaguely aware of the program offered. Only seven responded to the questionnaire, the others in the staff room, approximately five, indicating they had supervisions or lesson preparations to do, were not interested or believed that the survey was not applicable to their situation.  Several did not show up at the meeting.  This session, the Gallery Educator gave the introduction to our v i s i t and outlined the gallery programs before I expressed my purposes and plea for help.  This was, for my purposes, a tactical  error as several  teachers  l e f t as soon as they got the information they wanted from Ms. Kolt.  The  more successful approach for me was to save the dispensing of information until after the questionnaire had been completed, when i t would not bias the responses of the group.  The promise of information to come after the  questionnaire may encourage the interviewees  to participate  with  their  Surrey and area residents, took  their  contribution of information. This group of teachers, all  children to the same sorts of places as the other group, although more  48 mentioned recreational  sports trips  priority for that school.  (skating and skiing), apparently a  The planetarium was popular for its  and professionally produced, program for the primary grades.  special,  The teach-  ers' bi-annual trips were usually planned to complement socials or s c i ence curriculum, but could also be called a 'special event', unrelated to a particular classroom activity.  The larger part of this group did not  see how a v i s i t to an art gallery would be related to curriculum, especially for the primary grades. Again, art training for this group was limited to that received in teacher training.  One teacher admitted to having no art training and,  further, that he did not enjoy teaching art because he found i t to come up with ideas.  difficult  The others all expressed pleasure in teaching art  as the children enjoyed i t .  However these teachers were somewhat r e t i -  cent to indicate what they did in art  classes.  The displays in  the  school indicated a lot of feltpen drawing and colouring, 'crafts' and a great deal of construction paper cutting and pasting (there were many green construction paper dragons, all  very similar in design).  the teachers admitted they needed more art training.  All of  They indicated that  the gallery could help with this training with teacher workshops for art appreciation.  Three wanted workshops on relating art to the rest of the  curriculum and two on using the gallery.  Once again, for their students,  they wanted programs based on studio s k i l l s .  These teachers, as did the  others, expressed the desire to see more children's art displayed at the gallery.  In fact, the gallery had a large exhibition of Japanese child-  ren's art in the fall of 1982 and presently, March, 1983, have an impressive show of Surrey High School student art in the theatre gallery. The sampling for this survey proved to be quite small, twenty teach-  49 ers, but because there 'was a consistency in their that those surveyed represent  the  remarks,  it  opinions of the majority  is  felt  of Surrey  teachers. The study raises several questions. ducting of such a survey.  It  v i s i t s ended up being informal  The f i r s t pertains to the con-  was unfortunate  that both of the school  lunch hour meetings.  While the format  provided an informal atmosphere for chatting and gave every teacher the opportunity  to express his/her opinions, i t  infringed on the  teachers'  relaxing, eating and social time in a busy day, an infringement that may lessen teachers' interest and willingness to participate. to make the intruding researcher feel  It also serves  somewhat uncomfortable.  Perhaps  the more controlled staff meeting atmosphere would be a better forum for gaining teachers' attention and support. All of the teachers were eager to use .all made available  to them and were concerned that most of the  that they chose to do provided enrichment studies.  of the field trip time  for their  activities  regular classroom  They were conscious of choosing activities that were curriculum  motivated, mostly in the science and social studies area.  Many teachers  stated that they did not see that an art gallery v i s i t f i l l e d the criteri a , especially for the primary grades.  The teachers, on the whole, did  not seem to understand the importance of visual literacy or art appreciation activity in helping the young c h i l d , or adult, to learn to 'look' at and 'assess' not only art, but all the visual phenomenon. acy or 'aesthetic l i t e r a c y ' ,  Visual l i t e r -  as art educator Vincent Lanier phrases  it,  i s for Lanier and many other educators, what the primary purpose of art education should be (Lanier,1980,p.l9). the art  education of elementary  These teachers, responsible for  school children, are all  but ignoring  50  t h i s paramount f a c e t of a r t e d u c a t i o n .  They seem to be p r e s e n t i n g t h e i r  students with a r t experiences t h a t are e n t i r e l y focused on the 'doing' s k i l l s and not the ' l o o k i n g ' s k i l l s i n v i s u a l e x p e r i e n c e .  There i s a  r e a l need to help teachers r e a s s e s s t h i s way of r e g a r d i n g a r t education and to g i v e them some guidance towards a new  approach.  Barbara Newson, i n support of g a l l e r y e f f o r t s i n teacher e d u c a t i o n , says t h a t 'to o f f e r more than enrichment  r e q u i r e s the p a r t n e r s h i p of  t e a c h e r s who have become convinced of the importance  of the a r t museum  ( g a l l e r y ) as an e d u c a t i o n a l resource and who have l e a r n e d how to use i t ' (Newson,1978,p.263).  Teachers, as well as c h i l d r e n , must ' l e a r n to see  by doing' (Newson,!978,p.271) so t h a t they no longer see s t u d i o a c t i v i t i e s as d i v o r c e d from the h i s t o r i c and c r i t i c a l a s p e c t s of d e a l i n g with a r t , both i n g a l l e r i e s and t h a t of t h e i r own c r e a t i o n . Some of the school d i s t r i c t s have responded to the need f o r teacher e d u c a t i o n i n t h i s o r i e n t a t i o n by u s i n g the g a l l e r y as an i n i t i a l resource f o r a c u r r i c u l u m p r o j e c t . In Richmond, B r i t i s h Columbia (Note 3 ) , i t was n o t i c e d t h a t teachers d i d not t a l k  'about'  a r t with t h e i r  students.  I n i t i a l l y , s t a f f from the Vancouver A r t G a l l e r y took works from the permanent c o l l e c t i o n to schools and encouraged c h i l d r e n and teachers to t a l k about what they were s e e i n g .  These g a l l e r y l e d d i s c u s s i o n s i l l u s t r a t e d  t o teachers v a r i o u s c r i t i c a l and a n a l y t i c methods t h a t they c o u l d use i n l e a d i n g t h e i r own c l a s s d i s c u s s i o n s . T h i s experience l e a d to a teacher developed c u r r i c u l u m l i n k i n g a r t a p p r e c i a t i o n with w r i t t e n e x p r e s s i o n . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , t h i s example i s a rare one.  In other school  help with a r t education comes only i n the form of 'how workshops f o r v a r i o u s s t u d i o p r o j e c t s .  districts,  to' handouts and  In those d i s t r i c t s , the g a l l e r y  c o u l d take a much more a c t i v e r o l e i n teacher education with the d i s -  51  trict.  Galleries should not only be able to give information about their  collection but illustrate how to use the collection and exhibitions to provide maximum, longlasting experience for the children. The Surrey Art Gallery Education Officer agrees with the conclusions drawn from the survey with Surrey teachers.  She comments 'We are sincere  in asking for opinions (from teachers)--we want to make our programs as good as we possibly can'.  However, past attempts at involving teachers  have been d i f f i c u l t because teachers' time is very limited.  As a result,  teacher help has been only in terms of verifying the relevance of proposed workshops to the curriculum. something specific to  She also noted that teachers need  respond to—specific questions,  solutions to specific problems.  suggestions for  The docents for the educational program  are now discussing visiting the schools next year, perhaps to do an introductory 'looking at art' ing gallery programs.  session with teachers as a means of introduc-  52  CHAPTER 4 THE CASE STUDY:  THE DEVELOPMENT OF TWO WORKSHOP PROGRAMS  The Initiation of a Case Study of the Surrey Art Gallery Educational Program A review of literature in the field of museum education, information gathered from museum educators and interviews  with teachers,  reveal a  number of problems facing museum education department programmers.  Those  problems, varying from lack of program use to poor funding to space planning, appear to be dominated by one overriding problem—a lack of effective communication and cooperation between museums and schools. Both the museum's staff adequately  prepared for their  concern that teachers and classes are not museum v i s i t  and teachers'  repeated  re-  quests for information to help them in their classrooms indicate that the focus for future museum programming should be the teacher.  Although many  museum staff are reluctant to take on the role of teacher trainer  that  they feel is the responsibility of university teacher training programs, school their  d i s t r i c t s , and the teachers, advantage.  Well  such an endeavour could prove to  prepared teachers would lead to well  prepared  classes, a greater interest in the museum or gallery as a valuable teaching resource, and a more comfortable rapport between teachers and the museum staff. There are many directions that museums could take in planning programs to help teachers.  The most direct programs could take the form of  teacher workshops to orientate teachers both to the specific programs of the education department and how to use them, and to provide background information about the museum collections.  Such programs, offered in the  evening, during summer holidays or as professional development day semin-  53  ars would encourage teachers to go back to their schools and try to use the information given to them. However, it is a commonly held theory that one of the best ways to learn is by example.  Perhaps that is one of the most effective and effi-  cient ways that a museum can approach program development.  If a museum  can develop programs for the school visitors that show teachers how to integrate the resources of the museum into their curriculum they will be teaching both teachers and students at the same time. The case study that the remainder of this thesis will focus upon was developed in an attempt to apply the above theory. The Surrey Art Gallery education staff wished to have a workshop already in use rewritten and to develop a workshop on a new topic.  As  already mentioned, the format of the in-gallery workshops for intermediate elementary school classes consisted of a tour of the current monthly gallery exhibition followed or preceded by a session in the gallery classrooms involving a lecture and a studio project.  Topics of the work-  shops were either media focused, such as the clay workshop, or appreciation/curriculum focused, such as the Inuit Arts and Culture workshop. This format provides students with both an intense involvement with one topic (the workshop) and direct contact with the art in the exhibitions. Each facet of the program should encourage the children to relate concepts learned in one to the other. Ingrid Kolt, the Education and Events Coordinator at the gallery, was faced with a common problem of all small galleries and museums. She was a department of one playing two roles, public events program officer as well as education officer for school programs.  With only volunteer  help to operate programs and to plan them, the gallery staff find little  54  available time to invest in the lengthy process of creating programs. The gallery could find some funds for paying instructors on a per class basis but not for doing the necessary background work.  When a gallery  has to rely on volunteers and part time help for such work, it is often difficult to find people with the background in education, art history, studio training and gallery theories and practices which are necessary to develop good programs. If a gallery cannot afford to hire staff with the above qualifications, it must be creative in how it  goes about finding funding that  could facilitate specific projects such as program writing.  If the gal-  lery can forecast its needs in terms of specific projects to be completed, they have more options for finding funding.  They may contract  the work to a freelance writer who may be a student, a teacher, a person who has left the gallery or teaching field to be at home, or someone working part-time elsewhere.  In addition, they can take advantage of the  numerous government grants that are offered for summer student employment, community development projects, arts people on Unemployment Insurance Benefits.  projects or projects  for  Such grants will usually pro-  vide money to pay people to carry out projects that have been proposed by either the sponsoring institution or the people to be employed, and deemed worthwhile by the government department offering the grants.  Usually  the grants will provide only a minimal salary for the people hired, but often this salary can be supplemented by the gallery and its funders to make it more attractive to the best qualified candidates. Such was the case with the Surrey Art Gallery.  The Gallery applied  for and was granted money through the British Columbia Ministry of Labour Student Employment Program.  The terms of the grant were that a student  55 be hired for a period of about two and a half months to carry out the projects proposed by the Education and Events Coordinator.  Because the  grant provided only for a minimal wage, the gallery received additional support from the Municipality of the District of Surrey, which operates the gallery, to bring the salary up to the level of programmers in other recreation departments of the municipality. This funding cleared the way for the Surrey Art Gallery to be able to sponsor this researcher.  My background in art history, studio prac-  t i c e , teaching and a long standing interest in gallery programming, quali f i e d me as a candidate for the project.  My major responsibility was to  develop new workshops that could be put into regular use by the gallery. These workshops would combine the perceived needs and a basic format required by the gallery staff with the ideas of the researcher.  By working  in an environment such as this where a researcher is developing work for a real situation the chances of the product being viable are greater than if  the researcher is working entirely on his/her own with no obligation  to the gallery to create something that they will use.  Conversely, the  researcher is also guaranteed that his/her work will be used and therefore available for ongoing evaluation of its effectiveness. Thus i t came about that I was able to set up a working relationship with an art gallery to test ideas that were formulated as a result of the preliminary studies undertaken.  The gallery goals were that new programs  maintain their present workshop format, with the addition of a pre-visit package, and (1)  connect visual  arts  (especially social studies) and (2) experience.  with other  areas of curriculum  provide the students with an active  Using these requirements as a framework,  I could test my  ideas of using gallery programs to provide teacher education by inter-  56 relating 'art'  topics with other curriculum areas and developing the c r i -  tical and historical aspects of art education.  Although the gallery was  only able to pay for the time spent in actual  workshop development and  the occasional subsequent teaching of  the workshops after  the summer  grant expired, they were able to take advantage of the research and evaluation done by the researcher free of charge.  This is a point that any  gallery or museum should consider, that is by interesting a graduate student in specific, testable projects they will eventually have access to a very complete study for a relatively  small financial  investment.  The Programs As a result of funding being approved for the Education Department of the Surrey Art Gallery, the Gallery hired me to develop a new workshop for  their  schools program and to  revamp an already  offered workshop.  These workshops were to be developed so that they satisfied gallery  re-  quirements for their already established program format as well as my own concerns for the needs of gallery educational programming. The requirements set out for the workshops can be divided into two groups.  The f i r s t stemmed from my concerns for the art education merits  of the materials and the second concerned more specific goals relating to their use. The Art Gallery, by its nature as a place where works are put on display for people to look at and assess, is concerned mainly with the aesthetics and visual literacy components of art education, that is helping people to be able to look at and understand and assess visual phenomenon (Lanier,1980,p.88).  In essence, the galleries' concern is with the  perception, rather than the production of art. gram should thus be sure that i t  A gallery education .pro-  offers the students the opportunity to  57 develop their perception skills.  These skills, as CM. Smith points out,  can best be promoted through (1) facilitating increasingly more sensitive discrimination of aesthetic  qualities  through guided encounters with  works of art, (2) instruction in critical evaluative procedures, and (3) providing for sufficient understanding of the historical and cultural context of art (Smith,1970,p.44).  These three goals must be included in  the Surrey Art Gallery workshops for them to qualify as art education in the realm of the development of visual literacy. The second group of requirements are concerned with the researcher's interest in gallery education programs as a vehicle to educate the teacher in art education and the gallery's philosophy. workshop packages to be developed:  (1)  These are that the  provide a 'draw' for teachers  because of their relevance to school curriculum, (2) show teachers ways to introduce 'art'  topics into the curricula of art and other subjects,  therefore using a subject area that the teacher may be more familiar and confident as touchstones for teaching art, (3) provide enough useful information to the teacher, without being condescending, to help the teacher in these times when they already feel over-extended, (4) be adaptable to many grade levels, (5) be adaptable enough that teachers can expand or refocus the information to fit their specific program, and (6) be adaptable enough that gallery staff could present the whole workshop at the schools if budget restraints forbid field trips. The Inuit:  Arts and Culture workshop was the first to be developed.  The Gallery already had an Inuit workshop as a part of their program, but it was felt that this workshop needed to be reworked.  The original work-  shop had been developed by a gallery instructor who had no training as a teacher or in art although she has an active interest in the arts.  This  58 instructor did an admirable job in researching the Inuit l i f e s t y l e , selecting slides and artifacts  to use in the workshop, and, learning a  printmaking technique to include as the 'hands-on' aspect of the workshop.  But the workshop lacked both focus and substance.  instructor,  as she admitted,  lacked confidence in  Because the  dealing with  'art'  topics, the arts of the Inuit were not explored in the workshop in s u f f i cient depth.  This is probably a problem faced by many smaller galleries  who must depend on their volunteers for putting together program material s. It was decided that i t was important to keep the Inuit workshop, in a new form, because i t was popular with the teachers. an indigenous, Canadian cultural group, i t intermediate social studies curriculum.  fit  With i t s focus on  well into the junior and  What was needed was more infor-  mation for teachers to add to what they already taught their  students  from social studies texts, material that dealt with the products of Inuit culture not just as artifacts but as art forms. The second workshop was a totally workshop that dealt  new one.  The gallery wanted a  specifically with Canadian art  history.  Students  were to be given background information that would help them deal with the gallery exhibitions which-are largely Canadian and contemporary.  The  challenge in the preparation of this workshop was to avoid having i t become the dull lecture that the public has often come to associate with art  history.  In addition to providing a fresh approach to what some  might consider a boring topic, i t had to relate to school curriculum. The format of the two workshops was to a certain extent dictated by the gallery staff who wanted to stay with a classroom presentation and project, followed or preceded by a tour of the current exhibition.  While  59  this  format provided the children with an extensive experience in the  gallery,  it  was felt that the experience was suffering because i t was  being treated as an experience isolated from the regular routine of the school classroom.  The children were not receiving the pre-visit prepara-  tion that would help them to be more receptive to the workshop and tour. In addition, they probably were not following up the v i s i t with a c t i v i ties in the classroom which might help to reinforce their experience at the gallery. In order to address these problems, i t was decided to have the new workshops consist of (1) a pre-visit kit to be sent to the teacher prior to the gallery v i s i t including (a) script, and (d) student activity  slides,  (b)  script, (c)  tape of the  sheets, designed to introduce the area  to be discussed in the gallery v i s i t , (2) the gallery workshop consisting of a talk and slide presentation followed by a studio activity,  and (3)  post-visit activity suggestions. Despite the fact  that many art  educators are concerned that  the  extensive use of slides and reproductions in art classes is having the affect  of causing children not to learn to relate to  'real'  paintings  when they see them, we chose to use slides for these workshops and ^previsit kits.  Certainly slides f a i l to relate the sense of scale or the  impact of texture and colour, but, they are quite simply the best means of introducing the students to works and examples that are not available in a small community gallery such as the Surrey Art Gallery which has no permanent collection.  Slides generally provide a truer reproduction than  do prints and are much easier for the instructor than a pile of bulky prints.  to handle gracefully  They are easier to store and less expensive  than prints and certainly more portable for lending purposes.  When the  60 use of slides is followed up with a hands-on experience with materials and a tour of gallery exhibitions, their negative affects can easily be overcome or lessened. For the pre-visit kits, both a cassette tape of the script for the twenty slides and a printed copy of the tape script were included.  The  teacher could choose whether he/she wanted a recorded commentary or to have students or herself read the commentary.  The ideal situation would  be for the teacher and the students to share the narration,  with the  teacher adding text or emphasis to suit the needs and interests of her particular class. greater impact. did not feel  In this way the kit would become personalized and have The taped commentary would be useful for the teacher who  confident that he/she had the background to approach the  topic covered in the kit on his/her own.  No matter which approach the  teacher chose to use, the kit would, we hoped, illustrate  how a class  could be prepared for a v i s i t to an art gallery or a museum.  This pre-  paration in class would not only include the disemi nation of information but activities to reinforce this.  These activities should use knowledge  gained from the information as well as stimulating vocabulary and observation s k i l l s that will help them in the activities planned for the gallery. For the exact text of the pre-visit Appendixes 5, 6, 8, and 9.  kits  and the workshop, see  The following paragraphs describe these and  discuss the reasons for choosing the various approaches used to handle the topics. As previously stated,  the  Inuit:  Arts and Culture workshop was  being redesigned to add more emphasis to the arts aspect of the Inuit culture.  The pre-visit package was designed to introduce the students  61  and teachers to the Inuit l i f e s t y l e . package for the Canadian art  The package, as does the pre-visit  workshop, begins with a checklist of the  contents of the kit so that the teacher can check immediately that all is included.  If  the kit  is missing any parts,  the  gallery  quickly arrange to have the missing part supplied. is an introduction to the teacher.  staff  would  Following this  list  This introduction gives the teacher  information she will need when planning the class such as an estimated length of time needed and the equipment needed for the presentation.  It  t e l l s briefly what the material in the kit covers and what topics will be covered in the in-gallery workshop. use the kit follow.  Step by step instructions for how to  The teacher introduction ends with instructions for  the return of the kit and an invitation  for comments about i t .  All of  these components are combined and bound into a duo-tang cover, with the slides in order in a plastic sleeve, so that the ' k i t '  i s f l a t for mail-  ing and has no loose parts to be easily lost. Several considerations had to be made regarding the format of the teacher introduction and instructions.  It  had to be taken into account  that teachers have hectic schedules and not a lot of time to read copious instructions.  The text of these must be concise, clear and laid out in  such a way that a quick scan would answer most of their questions.  Many  teachers seem to feel alienated from gallery staff because of what they perceive to be an academic elitism due to the gallery knowledge of the topics concerned with their collections.  staffs'  greater  To try to pre-  vent that attitude arising, the tone of the teacher instruction should be informative without being condescending in any manner.  The instruction  sheet should reflect that the gallery staff are aware of the confines on the teachers'  time and the questions he/she may have about organizing  62 this particular class.  As a teacher, I recall my frustrations upon re-  ceiving a package of information prepared by an art gallery for me to use with my class.  It  was so lacking in organization, instructions or sug-  gestions for its use, that i t required more time for me to put together a plan for its use than i f I had researched and gathered the myself.  information  I have also received instruction l i s t s that sounded as though  they were written for the use of a grade three student instead of a well educated teacher.  The kits that I prepared tried to avoid both of these  situations. As the intention of the pre-visit kit (see Appendix 5) i s to provide the students and teachers with background information to prepare them for the gallery workshop, the Inuit kit focuses on aspects of the Inuit culture.  The Inuit are discussed in terms of how their culture (up until  the 1950's) was influenced by the climate in which they lived, the vegetation and wildlife  in the region, the isolation of their communities  from the rest of the world and their  very rare contact with Europeans.  Housing, transportation, clothing, hunting and fishing techniques, r e l i gion and the roles of the family members are discussed.  The presentation  ends with mention of how the last two and a half decades has seen a dramatic change in the culture of these people.  The slides that were selec-  ted are mostly photographs of the Inuit l i f e s t y l e .  We chose to use only  twenty slides as they f i t neatly into a plastic slide sleeve, and, i l l u s trate to the teacher that they do not need a great number of slides to put together an effective preparation lesson. Consultation with the Surrey School District social studies helping teacher, indicated that this was the sort of information that the teachers used in teaching the unit on the Inuit that is a part of the inter-  63  mediate curriculum.  It  could thus act as either a review for the stu-  dents or as an introduction both to that unit of study and the gallery workshop. The activity activities:  sheet which accompanies the kit includes a variety of  vocabulary search, written work, interpretation  and photographs.  These activities  could be used either  of diagrams at  intervals  throughout the presentation as suggested in the instructions, or all gether after the presentation.  to-  Done during the presentation, they would  provide breaks in the deluge of information and prevent wandering attention in a room darkened for slides.  Used in this manner they would also  serve to reinforce ideas being discussed at that point in the commentary. The children might be frustrated trying to remember everything that they need for the activities after the whole presentation. At the gallery,  the students are taken to one of the classrooms  where they will have a slide presentation with simultaneous discussion, followed by a studio project—lino block printing.  The presentation (see  Appendix 6) given by a gallery instructor who had designed the workshop used by the gallery before this study, focuses on the arts of the Inuit. It  discusses how they were a part of traditional  Inuit culture,  tradi-  tional lifestyle and how they have helped the Inuit to cope with their new situation. Using slides of the drawings of an Inuit a r t i s t , Pitseolk, i l l u s t r a ting her l i f e as a young woman in the earlier part of the century, the presentation opens with a review of the traditional  Inuit culture.  If  the students have gone through the pre-visit package, this provides a review and gives them confidence as they are able to provide most of the information themselves.  If the class had not had the opportunity to pre-  64  pare this  introduction provides them with background information  they  will need to appreciate and understand the rest of the workshop. The rest of the workshop deals with (1) ture, and (3) printmaking.  sculp-  The script of the presentation purposely pro-  vides much more information minutes allowed for i t .  the fibre arts, (2)  than could be used within the  The reasons for this are:  forty-five  (1) to provide enough  information that the instructor can focus on any one of the arts which the teacher of the class wishes to emphasize to enhance his classroom work, and (2) to provide information that could be used i f the presentation were to be given at the school or to the public where more time would be available.  Printmaking will usually be the particular focus be-  cause the studio activity is a printmaking one.  At various times during  the presentation, the instructor will have the students examine various objects of the Inuit culture:  clothing, tools and sculpture materials  which the gallery has on loan from the government of the Northwest T e r r i tories. In this section of the workshop, the students are introduced not only to the techniques used by the Inuit to produce their work, but to the formal qualities inherent in the work which we use to discuss any work of art.  The instructor points out that the art  of the Inuit is  unique to that group and that this is because of their traditional way of l i f e and because of developments in the North during the past twenty-five years. Since the studio activity for this workshop is lino block printing, the students are shown how to make a simple lino print and how this technique is quite similar to that used for the Inuit stone cuts. dents then have the opportunity to produce a small print.  The stu-  As motivation  65 for selecting their image, the students are told the story of Sedna, the sea goddess, a very popular subject for the Inuit a r t i s t s . their  image and planning their  In choosing  design, the students are encouraged to  remember to use the formal considerations that we find in Inuit p r i n t s lack of background, a radial or a radiating pattern, large areas of flat colour. for the studio activity,  simple shapes and  As there is only forty-five minutes allowed  the students can only produce a small  print.  However, they and their teacher receive enough information and experience that they could work on more complex prints in lino technique back in their classroom. It would be possible and appropriate to choose a sculpture or fibre art  project to do in t h i s . workshop instead of the print activity.  We  chose to use the printmaking because the gallery had the equipment needed and the instructor was familiar with the technique.  It was also possible  to produce a print in the time allowed, and teachers had shown enthusiasm for the activity when i t was used in earlier Inuit workshops.  Sculpture  and fibre arts activities would be d i f f i c u l t  forty-five  minutes and would require  to complete in  the purchase of new supplies and equipment  beyond the capabilities of the budget. When the class completes the workshop, the teacher is given a sheet with ideas for activities they can do with their class when they return to their  school  (Appendix 7).  It  was f e l t that i t  was most important  that the gallery workshop be followed up in the classroom with some related activity  so that the students receive reinforcement of what they  learned at the gallery.  It  the follow-up suggestions.  is d i f f i c u l t to know how extensive to make Discussion with the education staff  at the  Art Gallery of Ontario indicated that of the various methods they have  66  used to present follow-up ideas, the most successful seemed to be a l i s t of just a few ideas with a brief description of how to do each activity. They found that i f the teachers were given any more than a page of ideas they tended not to read i t because i t gave the impression that follow-up was too complex.  If  seemed that the  only one idea was given, teachers ignored i t  gallery  was telling  follow-up idea, better than their  them that  own might be.  it  was the  as i t  only good  Following this advice,  we decided to put together a l i s t of a few ideas that the teacher might use or expand upon for further  studies in the classroom.  These sugges-  tions offer new studio ideas as well as ideas integrating art and social studies a c t i v i t i e s .  This permits the teacher to use them to the best  advantage of his/her classroom curriculum, whether i t be in art class or in social studies. The format of the second workshop, Seeing Ourselves Through Art, a look at the painting tradition in Canada, is essentially the same as that for the Inuit workshop. an 'at-the-gallery'  The same format of a pre-visit kit  followed by  class and studio project and follow-up class sugges-  tions, was selected so that the workshops were standardized.  Teachers  would thus know the 'routine' and what to expect when they booked another workshop subsequent to their  first  visit.  This standardization  would  help the teacher prepare his/her class for the excursion. The gallery  staff  had decided that they wanted a workshop dealing  with Canadian art history but they had not chosen a focus for the workshop.  My proposal to use figure painting as a trend to trace  Canada's history was accepted.  through  We found that the social studies curricu-  lum for the elementary grades focuses not on a names and dates approach to learning about our heritage, but on a 'peoples' approach.  People are  67  studied as family groups, as communities, as ethnic groups and as individuals.  We thus decided that pictures with people in them would be  interesting to the children and fit into this philosophy.  One difficulty  with this curriculum seems to be that often the children do not get a wholistic picture of our history.  For our workshop we decided to use a  chronological approach to presenting the material so that the children might get a sense of the whole and of the stages of development in both Canada and its art. Because the Surrey Art Gallery has no permanent collection and usually has quite avant; garde exhibitions, they do not have many ways of i l lustrating the traditions of art history which have led to the kinds of art being done today.  Often we need a sense of that tradition in order  to understand and appreciate more recent work.  Canada, having a rela-  tively short art tradition must look to the art of other countries and cultures to find some of its roots.  For this reason, the pre-visit pack-  age for this workshop (see Appendix 8) attempts to present students and teachers with a very brief overview of the tradition of figure painting in western art.  Of course it is impossible to cover this topic in any  depth with twenty slides and ten pages of script.  But it is possible to  give an impression of why artists in past centuries painted pictures of people and some of the stylistic changes that occurred.  It offers a ve-  hicle to introduce some of the vocabulary used when discussing figure painting, such as commission, portrait, profile, represent, period covered in this kit ends in the 1800's in Europe.  etc.  The  This was the  time at which Canada was beginning to have artists of her own and i t was from Europe that most Canadian artists and settlers came. plete text of this package, see Appendix 8.  For the com-  68  The activity sheet designed to accompany this package has activities that reinforce the vocabulary and explore a major development in art history, the use of perspective.  It also explores a particular type of f i g -  ure painting, the Egyptian tomb painting. the teacher that art  related activities  Again, these activities show do not have to be only studio  activities but can branch into other curriculum areas such as language, mathematics and social  studies.  The activities  include a vocabulary  study, a perspective exercise using simple geometry and an examination of an art  form of another culture.  They also illustrate  some motivation  ideas for studio a c t i v i t i e s , such as for the 'Egyptian' activity. To do this k i t , as with the Inuit k i t , a teacher would need at least an average class time, forty-five minutes.  Although using the informa-  tion given as a foundation, the teacher could probably spread the lesson over several class periods.  With a busy schedule imposed by school cur-  ricula and a c t i v i t i e s , the teacher often does not have much more than one class to be able to devote to the k i t , or to any sort of preparation for a field t r i p . The introduction to the Seeing Ourselves Through Art workshop best expresses what I wanted to do in this workshop:  'In  this workshop we  will look at pictures of people done by Canadian a r t i s t s .  The work of  these artists has much to tell us about a r t i s t s , the traditions that are behind their work, the lives of the people in the pictures and the history of Canada as a nation of people—native people and people who came here from other lands.  Canadian art came out of the traditions of Euro-  pean art, such as that which you saw in your classroom presentation, and gradually became something special to Canada.' (For the exact text of the workshop, see Appendix 9).  The workshop explores these points through  69 slides of paintings from Canada's early times to today.  These are pre-  sented chronologically in order that the students will get a sense of the progression of both Canadian art and Canada's history. for this workshop may seem prescriptive, i t  While the script  is meant only as a guide to  what the instructor should say with each slide.  It  is not intended that  the instructor should conduct this portion of the workshop as a lecture, but more as a guided discussion with the students, e l i c i t i n g as much participation  from the children as possible.  Throughout the script there  are places where the instructor can stop the class to conduct various a c t i v i t i e s , exploring the points being made in the text.  Such activities  give the instructor a break and the children a chance to move around and be more active.  They also point out to the teacher some ways that she  could use other methods besides lectures and research projects to study art history and art theory.  I have suggested ways to use theatre exer-  cises and photography as tools to explore some of the concepts. In order for an instructor to complete everything in the workshop script, she would need more than the forty-five minutes allotted by the gallery.  However, as i t is designed, the workshop can be adapted to the  special interests of a particular group by thoughtful editing by the instructor.  In its entirety, i t would be most suitable for use as a public  workshop, with or without the studio portion, where more time could be allotted.  Also, in the event that this workshop should be offered to the  schools as an 'at the school' event, conducted by either gallery.staff or the classroom teacher, the script in its entirety could be spread over several class periods.  It  could be used as a half day or all  vity or broken up over several days.  day acti-  Another problem that had to be ad-  dressed in deciding just how extensive the scripts should be was the pro-  70 blem that the gallery docent or instructor conducting the workshop may have a weak background in Canadian art history.  It would then be neces-  sary to provide that person with enough information to give them some confidence with the subject. When trying to develop a studio activity to be a part of this workshop, the obvious choice of medium was painting as we had been dealing with painted works.  However, within the confines of forty-five minutes,  this seemed an impractical project.  Also that medium, or drawing, are  probably the most commonly used in the classroom.  Because a part of our  purpose in putting these workshops together is to show teachers some new approaches to handling art education, I wanted to avoid using a studio idea they most probably already used.  In addition, I wanted to do a pro-  ject which would help the students, and the teachers, deal with the concept of abstraction, one that arises often in the gallery exhibitions and one that it is often the most difficult to deal with. The project I decided to use was doing an abstract self-portrait—a portrait about the individual students rather than a portrait of how the students looked.  Children, in the primary grades especially, seem to en-  joy using art to tell about their feelings.  In support of this concept,  Ronald MacGregor says that " . . . art is a means to express what we feel about events, personalities, and states of mind . . . artmaking . . .  per-  mits us to focus upon those things we feel most intensely . . . By realizing that they construct and interpret their world partly in response to the way they feel about i t , children can learn to be more understanding of the other peoples' point of view, and more sensitive to their own" (MacGregor,1977,p.7).  To compose about feelings about themselves is a  good introduction to the concept of abstraction.  I chose to use torn  71  tissue paper as the medium because it required relatively  l i t t l e equip-  ment, the colours are vivid and attractive to the children, tearing the paper encourages the children to think in terms of large shapes and patterns rather than intricate detail, and, it is possible to achieve a finished product in the time allotted.  In addition, it is a technique easi-  ly grasped by children of all age groups. The follow-up ideas that were put together to give the teachers for this workshop, were similar in nature to those developed for the Inuit workshop (See page 65 describing the Inuit workshop for our rationale behind our follow-up suggestions, and Appendix 10 for the l i s t of follow-up suggestions for this workshop).  72  CHAPTER 5 TESTING AND EVALUATION Testing and Evaluating the Program The workshops described in the last chapter were tested and evaluated in a number of ways by people with several different orientations. The first group of evaluators was Surrey Art Gallery staff—the gallery education officer, the curators and the director.  This group provi-  ded on-going evaluation of the material as i t was being prepared.  This  evaluation, both in verbal comments, in committee meetings and in notation on drafts, was mainly concerned with the specific content of the workshops—the choice of slides, the accuracy of art historical information and analysis, and the coherence of the text.  In addition, gallery  staff evaluated the workshops as they were being presented to classes. Teachers who used the workshop programs were also asked to evaluate the materials and their experiences with them.  This evaluation was by  questionnaire and by informal discussion. The third group of evaluators is the instructors who actually taught the workshops.  Because I taught the Seeing Ourselves Through Art work-  shop, this is partly a self evaluation of the success and adaptability of the materials.  The other workshop was taught by another instructor who  had taught the previous Inuit workshop.  She compared the relative suc-  cess of the two approaches to the same topic. Final evaluation was my own evaluation of not only the workshop I taught, but the other as well.  I was able to sit in and observe the  Inuit workshop both for how well the instructor was able to use the materials prepared for her and for the response of the students and teacher to the workshop.  73  As mentioned, prior to final  drafting of the workshop text and ma-  t e r i a l s , the gallery staff met with me to offer their comments and advice about the materials that I had selected.  For the Inuit workshop this was  most helpful because the gallery director had much more knowledge about Inuit arts than I did.  On the whole, the group supported my choices as  offering a good survey of images representing the major developments in Canadian art and representative pieces of quality Inuit art.  They also  thought they were successful vehicles for illustrating events and l i f e styles in Canada, and for exploring a variety of important art appreciation concepts.  It  was f e l t that the script lead the children through  several different approaches to 'looking' at and learning from and about art.  The conclusion was that I had, in the selection of slides and ac-  companying text, satisfied C M . Smith's guidelines for developing perceptual s k i l l s (see the preceding section for these). dealing with this committee was editing their  enthusiastic suggestions  for additions to the script, which, had they all resulted in a six hour workshop!  The only problem in  been used, would have  Because, as a whole, the staff of the  gallery have l i t t l e experience working with small children, many of their suggestions for changes in both text content and language were inappropriate for the age group we were serving.  This, of course, is a problem  many academics face when preparing materials both for children and the general public, and is one that many galleries must face head-on i f they wish to be accessible to the general public.  Unfortunately, many academ-  i c a l l y oriented gallery professionals are reluctant to change their style or approach in order to reach the public. The gallery staff were pleased that the materials  satisfied  their  goals of providing some background and an introduction to c r i t i c a l and  74  evaluative skills which would help students deal with the type of exhibitions the gallery prefers.  It should also be mentioned that the staff  was heartened by the thank you letter written by a grade four student that expressed his intention to bring his family to the Surrey Art Gallery.  This, after a l l , is one of the gallery's strategies in offering  programs for children—getting the children to interest their parents in the gallery (see Appendix 11 for samples of student 'thank yous'). It should also be mentioned that the materials were also reviewed by a teacher with experience teaching all of the grades that we focused on, grades three to six.  She had some helpful suggestions for minor changes  in language and approaches to the activities, but was enthusiastic about our approach both to the materials and to helping teachers. For teacher evaluation of the workshops they attended with their classes, the questionnaires  seen as Appendixes 12 and 13 were used.  There were two questionnaires—one  for the pre-visit package and the  other for the in-gallery workshops.  Each teacher was given the question-  naire at the beginning of the workshop, by the instructor, with an explanation of what it was to be used for.  Only one of the eleven teachers  surveyed failed to return the questionnaires. First, the response of the teachers to the Inuit Arts and Culture workshop will be examined, followed by responses to the Seeing Ourselves Through Art workshop. Six classes participated in the Inuit workshop in the evaluation period of October and November, 1982.  Of these classes, one was a grade  four class, three classes were grade five, one was a combined grade six and seven class, and one class was a grade seven group. The pre-visit package of materials was sent to five of the groups.  75  The sixth teacher booked her v i s i t too late for the gallery to be able to send the materials but she did borrow them to use with her class after their gallery v i s i t .  Four of the five teachers who did receive the mate-  r i a l s returned the evaluation questionnaire.  Their comments are summar-  ized following (for an exact breakdown of their responses, see Appendix 12).  The teachers all  indicated that they had some background in the  subject of the workshop, the Inuit, but only two of the four indicated any background in art, and those two had only a minimal preparation. of the teachers said that they tried to do a preparation  All  lesson with  their class before a field trip but this usually took the form of information and discussion about the destination of the v i s i t rather than the program they would take part in there. using the preparation package and f e l t clear about what would go on there.  All teachers and classes enjoyed that they came to the  gallery  One teacher expressed surprise that  a preparation package was available and, like others, was delighted that this service was offered. The teachers' comments about the contents of the package were most enthusiastic.  It was heartening to learn that all  of the teachers used  the materials as we had hoped, that i s , with the commentary script rather than the taped commentary.  In general, the teachers found the length of  the presentation to be good, the language appropriate to the grade leve l s , and the text appropriate, helpful, and relevant to the social studies  curriculum.  The children enjoyed the activity  sheets and their  teachers were sure that the materials increased their students' enthusiasm for the upcoming gallery v i s i t . cisms.  The teachers only offered two c r i t i -  The f i r s t was that they would have liked more art a c t i v i t i e s .  It  should be noted that i t was not the intention of the pre-visit package to  76  deal with the a r t s of the I n u i t .  I t i s only meant as an i n t r o d u c t i o n to  I n u i t c u l t u r e , p r i o r to the g a l l e r y s e s s i o n which focuses on the a r t s . The second c r i t i c i s m was t h a t there needed to be more s l i d e s .  While i t  would be good to put more s l i d e s i n the package, we f e l t t h a t i t was  too  expensive to provide more than one s l e e v e of s l i d e s , a l s o the r i s k s of l o s s or damage to the s l i d e s would be g r e a t e r i f there were more. must be remembered t h a t we had to put' together f i v e complete  c o p i e s of  the p a c k a g e — f o u r to c i r c u l a t e and one to be kept as a m a s t e r — a n s i v e undertaking on a small budget.  It  expen-  An a d d i t i o n a l s l e e v e of s l i d e s f o r  each k i t would have almost doubled our c o s t s . F i v e of the workshop p a r t i c i p a n t s r e t u r n e d t h e i r comments about the i n - g a l l e r y p a r t of the I n u i t workshop (see Appendix  13).  A f t e r having  observed t h e i r c l a s s i n t h a t s e s s i o n , they a l l agreed t h a t the preparat i o n package had helped t h e i r students to be more r e c e p t i v e to the workshop than they might have been, or had been, on other f i e l d t r i p s .  When  q u e s t i o n e d about the students' f a m i l i a r i t y with the s u b j e c t of the workshop, the teachers thought t h a t the m a t e r i a l covered was mostly new them as was the s t u d i o technique ( l i n o block p r i n t i n g ) .  to  On the whole,  the teachers l i k e the format of the workshop but i n d i c a t e d t h a t they would l i k e more student p a r t i c i p a t i o n and more time f o r the printmaking. Teacher  responses  i n d i c a t e t h a t the workshop d e f i n i t e l y  enhanced  the  c l a s s e s ' r e g u l a r programs, and t h a t the t e a c h e r s would a l l a p p r e c i a t e help t h a t c o u l d be g i v e n . t o them i n the form of follow-up c l a s s suggest i o n s , teacher workshops, more k i t s , and  classroom  visits  by  gallery  s t a f f f o r s t u d i o l e s s o n s , workshops and a r t a p p r e c i a t i o n s e s s i o n s . A l l i n d i c a t e d t h a t i n a d d i t i o n to the obvious b e n e f i t s to the students, they had gained some new i n s i g h t about using a r t i n the classroom.  77  In summary, the teacher response to our workshop, i n c l u d i n g the prev i s i t package, was very p o s i t i v e .  Perhaps the only s o l u t i o n to t h e i r  major c r i t i c i s m t h a t there was not enough time f o r student p a r t i c i p a t i o n would be to extend the time a l l o t t e d f o r the workshop to two hours.  This  would make a very long v i s i t as the whole package a l s o i n c l u d e s a tour the e x h i b i t i o n s , and many teachers may h a l f hour away from the s c h o o l . reduce  not be able to spare the extra  The other p o s s i b l e s o l u t i o n would be to  the time spent i n the s l i d e - d i s c u s s i o n s e c t i o n .  However, t h i s  would be most d i f f i c u l t to do without j e o p a r d i z i n g some of  the goals  the w o r k s h o p s — t h o s e concerned with the development of perceptual I t i s important  of  of  skills.  to remember t h a t as a g a l l e r y , the mandate to produce  'art' i s secondary to t h a t of examining the a r t of o t h e r s . t i n g , the s t u d i o a c t i v i t y i s used to r e i n f o r c e concepts  In t h i s s e t d i s c u s s e d when  examining images by g i v i n g the students the o p p o r t u n i t y to explore  these  concepts through t h e i r own a r t making. A p o i n t t h a t came out very c l e a r l y i n both the e v a l u a t i o n s of  this  workshop and those of the Seeing Ourselves Through A r t workshop, i s t h a t i t i s the teacher's i n i t i a t i v e suggestions district.  or requirements  t h a t gets a c l a s s to the g a l l e r y , not the  of  the school a d m i n i s t r a t o r s or the  school  T h i s would i n d i c a t e t h a t i t i s to the i n d i v i d u a l teacher t h a t  the g a l l e r y should d i r e c t communication and i n f o r m a t i o n about t h e i r programs. The s e s s i o n of d i s a p p o i n t i n g to me.  the workshop t h a t I was able to observe was somewhat As I expressed  e a r l i e r , a person who  develops  g a l l e r y educational program has to be aware t h a t the program w i l l bly  be taught by someone, a docent or g a l l e r y i n s t r u c t o r , who  have formal  teaching experience  or background i n a r t or the  a  probamay  not  specific  78  topic of the workshop.  Our solution to this problem was to provide  enough information in the suggested text of the workshop that the instructor is provided with needed background information.  The instructor  for the Inuit workshop had neither teaching nor art background, and ran into some problems because of this.  In addition, as she had also taught  and developed the previously used Inuit workshop, she had a routine of several years to forget and re-learn, always a difficult task.  I was  disappointed that in editing the script to fit into the allotted time, the instructor cut out much of the material that was the purpose of the rewrite of the workshop—direct discussion about the arts of the culture. Instead, over half of the class was spent on material already covered in the pre-visit package.  I think this was largely the result of not being  able to break an old habit.  A solution to this problem would be to have  the instructor observe the person who developed the workshop present i t and then edit the script, with the help of the programmer.  As stated  earlier, the script is purposely long so that it can be refocused to media appropriate to the current gallery exhibition.  As such, editing  should be done by cutting out one or more of the media sections rather than watering all of them down in such a way that the presentation loses impact.  The instructor could also learn some teaching 'tricks' by ob-  serving a more experienced teacher.  This would help her avoid some of  the rough spots in style of presentation and make the transition from the slide section to the studio session smoother and more clearer. This instructor is by no means a poor one.  She is enthusiastic and  personable and, with a l i t t l e more help, could do a very good job of presenting the workshop.  The suggestion for help should probably be addres-  sed to the gallery (any gallery) who find themselves in the position of  79  using inappropriately prepared instructors for education programs.  The  extra time must be taken to make sure that the presentation, as interpreted by the instructor, satisfies all the intentions of the workshop. It must be remembered that this presentation is being given in the presence of an experienced teacher to help not only the children, but the teacher.  Embarrassment of the instructor and lessening of the program's  worth to the teacher must be avoided. The instructor herself was very pleased with the information that the workshop script provided her with and expressed a wish to be able to use all of i t .  Her observations  indicate that the presentation was  enthusiastically received by the students, as I also observed when sitting in on her class.  She also supported the teachers in that she saw a  difference in the response level between those students who used the previsit package and those who did not (see Appendix 14 for more details of the instructor's responses). Finally, the children—what comments did the children have about their experience with the workshops?  To take their 'thank you' letters  as an indication, it seems they enjoyed the visit and learned some new things as well.  Some of these letters are reproduced in Appendix 11, but  some of the most encouraging comments were as follows: tures you have in your Gallery.  'I like the pic-  I also liked the slides too and how you  showed us how to make the pictures.' (Chad Cammer, grade 4); 'All of last summer my friends, Jeremy and I came on our bikes to see the paintings.' (Teresa Harvie, grade 5); 'I thought that (Surrey Art Gallery) was a good place instead of school to learn about Inuits.' 4); 'I like the pictures and paintings. that we do.' (Kathleen McLean, grade 5).  (Cindy McLellon, grade  I also enjoyed making the arts Other letters went on to ex-  80  plain more about their visit,  that first they went on a tour and the  guide showed them copper plates that were used to make the prints in the exhibition.  Following this, they went to the workshop to learn about  Inuit life and how they produced prints. prints.  They then made their own  These letters indicate that they not only enjoy the visit, but  seemed to have grasped the relationship between the workshop and the particular exhibition which they toured.  The children seemed to have left  the gallery happy with their visit and, in some cases,  enthusiastic  enough to visit again on their own. The Seeing Ourselves Through Art workshop offers  a different ap-  proach to studying art than do the other gallery workshops--the media oriented clay workshop, the elements and principles of design focus of the art encounter workshops, and the art of another culture focus of the Inuit Arts and Culture.  It has a more traditional art history focus.  such i t may be the most difficult of the workshops to promote.  As  Many  people, teachers included, have a pre-conceived idea that art history, especially  Canadian art history, is a dry, 'academic' subject.  This  notion is one that is difficult to overcome, so special efforts had to be made to ensure that the workshop acted to dispel this misconception, for both the children and their teachers, by being both fun and informative. By the time the final form of the scripts of the pre-visit package and the workshop had been reached, we were confident that we had achieved that balance.  It remained to be seen how the teachers received and eval-  uated the materials. Five classes were booked for the evaluation period of mid October to mid December, 1982.  All five of the teachers of those classes returned  their evaluation questionnaires and offered verbal comments about the  81  workshop.  Because I taught a l l of the e v a l u a t e d s e s s i o n s , I was able to  set up a rapport with the teachers t h a t encouraged Of each  t h e i r comments.  the c l a s s e s p a r t i c i p a t i n g , three were from grade  from grades  four and s i x .  f i v e and  Since our intended audience  one  for this  workshop was grades f o u r to seven, we seemed to have a c c u r a t e l y f o r e c a s t where the i n t e r e s t f o r t h i s t o p i c would be.  Most of our bookings  were  from the middle of the f o r e c a s t e d range. The p r e - v i s i t package was sent to only four of the c l a s s e s , one  of  which had no time to work through i t before the v i s i t , so there are only three e v a l u a t i o n s of the package (see Appendix 12). The backgrounds of the teachers who p a r t i c i p a t e d i n these workshops are probably t y p i c a l of many elementary school t e a c h e r s .  Two admitted to  a l i m i t e d background i n a r t or a r t h i s t o r y and the t h i r d has no background i n these a r e a s . All  o f the teachers agreed  t h a t doing a preparatory l e s s o n with  t h e i r c l a s s e s before going on a g a l l e r y v i s i t i s important.  Only  two,  however, a c t u a l l y d i d a l e s s o n , b e f o r e every f i e l d t r i p , and t h a t d e a l t with what an a r t g a l l e r y was  r a t h e r than i n f o r m a t i o n about the s u b j e c t  they would be e x p l o r i n g a t the g a l l e r y . A l l used and enjoyed the package t h a t was sent to them from the Surrey A r t G a l l e r y . Only one of the three attempted the commentary without the tape of the s c r i p t .  They a l l found  the i n s t r u c t i o n s f o r the use of the m a t e r i a l s c l e a r . In g e n e r a l , the teachers found  the s c r i p t the r i g h t l e n g t h , the  vocabulary a p p r o p r i a t e and the m a t e r i a l s i n t e r e s t i n g , h e l p f u l and  rele-  vant to the c u r r i c u l u m ( i n these grades, the students are studying n a t i v e people, s e t t l e r s and Canadian  history in social studies).  One  teacher  thought t h a t the i n f o r m a t i o n i n the s c r i p t might be too d e t a i l e d ( t h i s  82  was the teacher with no art background and I think he felt both threatened and out of his depth with this new topic).  The activity sheets were  well received by both teachers and students.  Several of the students  brought their completed activity sheets to show me at the gallery.  The  children did not seem to have trouble completing the assignments and said that they thought they were 'fun but not too easy', as one child expressed i t . Teacher comments indicated that they found the package to be very helpful, and that they appreciated being provided with the materials that were not usually readily available to them. One teacher offered two suggestions for revising the package.  She  suggested more 'art type' activities, a suggestion that I would be reluctant to follow i f it meant cutting out some of the present activities. Because one of our purposes is to show the teacher how to approach art through other subject areas and how to use art as a means to reach those areas, i t is important to use a number of activities which are not specifically an 'art' or studio based activity. could use fewer vocabulary activities.  She also thought that we  This part of the activity sheets  could be reduced a bit but the vocabulary introduced through this package is very important preparation for the discussions that will take place at the gallery workshop.  That is one of the major purposes in developing  the pre-visit packages. Five teachers evaluated the "in-gallery" segment of the workshop (see Appendix 13).  After observing their classes in the workshop, all  teachers who had done the pre-visit package with their classes felt that the preparation had helped their class to be more receptive to the workshop than they might have been.  All of these teachers felt that because  83  the children had been given information that helped them to answer questions and make observations in the workshop, they f e l t quite relaxed and confident that they would give right answers when the gallery instructor asked their opinions.  The children were eager to be able to use some of  the vocabulary introduced in the preparation k i t .  I was pleased to hear  words such as portrait, pose or commission used correctly by the children in our discussion.  The teachers indicated that they were words that had  not been discussed before the pre-visit k i t .  This certainly helped the  students be receptive to the information in the workshop, which was, for the most part, new to the children. Although the children were not very familiar with the subject of the workshop, most of them were familiar with the studio technique (tissue paper collage).  They were not, however, familiar with our approach to  making the collage—doing an abstract, self-portrait.  The teachers said  that this whole idea was helpful to them because i t used a simple technique with materials that are available even in these times of budget cuts.  The technique could also be used to explore a number of other  ideas. On the whole, the teachers were pleased with the workshops format. To quote one of them, "it is good to have a 'listening' session and then 'hands-on' to implement the ideas."  My only concern with this positive  evaluation is that the teacher regarded the slide section as a "listening" session.  We were very careful to make these sessions very much a  'looking' and 'evaluating' experience for the children.  We tried to lec-  ture as l i t t l e as possible, encouraging the children to participate  in  discussion. As in the Inuit workshop, teachers were pleased with the content,  84  language, focus and presentation of the workshop. The major concern was, again, that the slide section was too long, although 'excellent'.  The  teachers felt that the time devoted to this section took time away from the 'hands-on' portion.  In fact, the time allotted for each section is  equal (forty-five minutes).  I reiterate that the primary concern of the  gallery is not the production of art and that part of the purpose of the workshops is to show teachers ways they may try to introduce the non-production aspects of art education into their classroom program.  I discus-  sed this problem with some of the teachers and they agreed that it would be very difficult to shorten the presentation and still cover the topic. Their suggestions for a solution ranged from dividing the workshop into two workshops to extending the time spent on the workshops to a full two hours instead of one and a half hours.  They felt that everything we  covered in the presentation was interesting and important and therefore we should not make large deletions from the material. Once again, the teachers expressed their support for any help that we could offer them.  Their strongest request was for gallery staff to  visit the schools for workshops and art appreciation. welcome teacher workshops and more kits.  They would also  What they seemed to learn most  from our present workshops was some ideas on how to approach art history and appreciation in their own classes. As the instructor for this workshop, I was pleased with the responses of all the classes taught in this evaluation period.  All of the  classes were a l i t t l e different and I found that the presentation I gave to each class also differed.  The differences I observed seemed not to be  so much the result of the classes being of varying grade levels, but more to do with whether or not the class had done the preparation lesson. The  85  one grade five class that had not had the preparation seemed to be composed of students of equal ability to the other two classes, but they were much slower to participate in discussion. Perhaps one of the advantages of being an experienced teacher when one must repeat the same workshop several times, is that experience gives you more confidence to edit and re-arrange the content of the workshop as you go along.  Experience teaches the teacher to be able to assess a  group quickly and adjust the material and presentation accordingly. The inexperienced teacher may lack the confidence to 'play' with the material she has been given to present.  Many docents and gallery instructors also  lack this experience. My major concern is the length of the slide section of the workshop. Much of the material cannot be covered in the allotted time and some of the student activities had to be deleted.  I think that this is unfortu-  nate as those activities might be the most helpful to the teachers and also be valuable aids to the children's understanding of the material. I think the problem stems from our being overly ambitious about how much can be covered in one class session, and that, in future, perhaps the workshop topics will have to be reduced in scope.  Alternatively, a large  topic could be covered in a series of workshops rather than just one. This could be a way of attracting more school visitors as well as offering the classes an extended art experience.  The idea of extending the  workshop time to two hours also seems viable as the children were still interested and attentive at the end of an hour and a half, and showed every indication that they could handle another half hour. On occasion I was concerned that the children were not understanding the instructions for their self-portrait assignment.  The concept of mak-  86  ing a picture based on feelings and personalities is a difficult one to understand.  It is difficult to break the already ingrained idea that a  portrait must show a face with all the appropriate features and details. Once into the project, though, most of the children seemed to have no difficulty  'revealing' themselves.  Those who had the most difficulty  were the older children who were fast approaching the insecurities of puberty.  It seemed that the greatest lack of understanding of the assign-  ment was the teachers, who had much more to 'unlearn', as one of them expressed i t .  None of the teachers in this group tried their own self-  portrait but they all helped their students with their work. Some of the 'advice' they gave the children showed some lack of understanding of the assignment.  The work that the children produced (see Appendix 15 for  photographs) was exciting and their comments about their work ranged from a shaky rendition (soprano!) of the song 'Am I Blue' to ' . . . it's obvious from Jeff's that he's a mess', to 'I guess i f it's about a person its important'.  It was odd that in some classes there was a marked differ-  ence in the compositions of the boys and the girls. choose 'stronger' colours and more angular shapes.  The boys tended to It would be an inter-  esting further study to explore the reasons for the differences.  Was a  different self-concept inherent between the sexes? Was it the results of sex-role stereotyping?  Was it the results of our discussions about some  abstract portraits in the workshop where we tried to decide what the artist had done to make the paintings about a man or a woman (e.g. Helen by William Ronald, 1972)? On the whole, the children and the teachers were enthusiastic about their portraits—wanting to display them, wanting to try another, wanting to do portraits of others.  87  When the gallery education officer came to observe one of the workshops, she was pleased with what she saw.  Aside from a concern that we  had to cut back on the length of the slide section, her comments were mainly about minor changes in wording. One of the requirements set out for these workshops were that they be adaptable for audiences other than school groups from grades four to seven.  I had the opportunity to use the workshop with a grade one class,  much below the level we were writing for, and as a gallery event for families.  The grade one class presented the greatest challenge but proved  to be an enjoyable group. Not only were they young, but they also were a group with various 'special needs'.  The group included children who did  not speak English, hyperactive children, a physically handicapped child and several children with emotional problems.  A challenge.  For that  group I used basically the material that I had put together for a followup class with two of the older groups (see the next section for details of that study) and cut the workshop time to one hour--thirty minutes with slides and thirty minutes picture making.  The class worked well and the  children remained attentive and active.  The family groups at the gallery  event presentation were also a delight.  It was obvious that a couple of  the children had been 'roped' into attending, as had one of the fathers. But once started, the workshop engaged everyone's attention.  Both par-  ents and children told me that they had learned from the lecture and it was very satisfying to hear family members discussing the questions I posed and working together on the portraits.  The children in the group  ranged in age from four to sixteen. The tour of the current exhibition that either follows or precedes the workshops is an important part of the school visits to the gallery.  88  Indeed there would not be much sense in giving the workshop in a gallery setting without them.  It is important that the tour guide (docent) use  some of the concepts discussed in the workshops in her discussion of the exhibit.  Unfortunately, to date none of the docents has either seen the  workshops or read the scripts to know how to relate her tour to the workshop material.  Of course, the docents, who are volunteers, already have  a heavy time commitment just keeping up with the twice yearly training sessions the gallery gives them and preparing new tours each month for the changing exhibitions.  For the gallery to be able to justify their  education program format, there is going to have to be provision made for the docents to be well briefed on the workshop text, by either observing a school'group or having the presentation given to them as a group. A Follow-up Study After the workshop and pre-visit material had been taught and evaluated, some questions still remained unanswered.  These questions concern-  ed, among other things, the value of the gallery program as an educational experience for the children. Was its effect momentary and confined to the visit period?  Was there, as gallery staff hoped, a carry-over of  their enjoyment and knowledge to future art experiences?  In addition,  were the children able to apply the ideas presented to them in the workshop using slides of paintings to a discussion of 'real' paintings? It was decided to conduct a follow-up study with some of the classes who had visited the workshop programs in an attempt to answer these questions. Classes who had participated in the Seeing Ourselves Through Art workshop were chosen as test groups because, having taught those workshops, the researcher was familiar with the classes and exactly how dis-  89  cussions had gone in the workshop.  In addition, the content of that  workshop is more strictly art oriented than the social Inuit workshop.  studies based  Thus it is more relevant to the purpose of the follow-up  study. Two classes were selected from the five evaluated in the preceding chapter.  The classes were the same grade level, of similar size and from  similar neighbourhoods but different schools.  The teachers of both of  these classes were enthusiastic about providing art experiences for their students although one had considerably more art experience other.  than the  The teachers also seemed to have different styles in relating to  their classes—one was quite energetic and the other more relaxed, but both had good rapport with the students. were chosen so that we were testing  Classes of similar character  children from similar contexts.  Teachers with slightly differing profiles were chosen to ensure that we did not obtain positive results only because the teacher was knowledgeable and energetic. The two teachers were contacted by a letter (see Appendix 16) introducing the project and asking permission to visit their class and use them as test cases.  The letter was designed to be informative and com-  plimentary in order to encourage the teachers'  participation.  Both  teachers were enthusiastic and telephoned immediately to set up dates for the visit.  Dates approximately one month after the class visited the  gallery were chosen.  The teachers and gallery staff felt that this was a  reasonable amount of time for the children to retain information, but long enough after the visit that some of the excitement and short memory retention would have worn off. At the school, the students were lead in a forty-five minute class  90 by the researcher (the specific content of this class follows).  Because  teachers are the ones who know their class best and could most accurately assess the progress of their  students, i t was important to involve them  as evaluators of the follow-up.  This evaluation was subjective and in-  formal, taking place directly after the class in discussion with the researcher.  In addition to this evaluation, the classes were taped so that  the researcher could later review the session. to assess whether their  The teachers were asked  students seemed to have retained the  analytic s k i l l s introduced to them in the workshop. to assess whether  the children had retained  workshop by using i t in the follow-up class. a difference  critical/  Teachers were asked  vocabulary learned at  the  They were asked i f they saw  in the type of observations the children made before and  after the workshop when confronted with visual images.  They also were  asked whether their students were able to transfer these s k i l l s from discussion of slides of paintings to discussion of real paintings. The outline of the class conducted with the children as a follow-up class to their  gallery v i s i t for the Seeing Ourselves Through Art work-  shop is as follows: The class began with a discussion of why an artist paints a picture, using as examples five workshop (for  slides that the children saw as a part of  the  details of these slides, see the slide l i s t accompanying  the workshop script in Appendix 9).  The children were asked why the  a r t i s t may have painted each picture and were given the chance to tell what else they remembered about the paintings. 1.  The slides shown were:  Votive of the Three Castaways—painted by the a r t i s t  to  tell a story and to express gratitude for the rescue of the castaways.  91  2.  Mere Jeanne F r a n c o i s e — p a i n t e d to record what a p a r t i c u l a r person looked  like.  3.  Fathers of C o n f e d e r a t i o n — t o describe an important  4.  Vera - painted to show how the a r t i s t  event.  feels about the sub-  ject. 5.  Walking Woman—painted so that the a r t i s t could experiment with colour, design, e t c .  These s l i d e s were shown i n chronological order, as they were i n the workshop, i n order to reinforce  the sense of a progession  through  Canadian  art from early settlement to the present. In both  the p r e - v i s i t  k i t , which  both  classes had worked  through  p r i o r to t h e i r workshop, and i n the workshop, attempts were made to expand the children's vocabulary for dealing with a r t by introducing several  new terms.  For the follow-up, eleven of these words were, printed on a  large card which was placed before the group. trait,  The words used were:  por-  figure painting, composition, monochrome, chiaroscuro, represent,  traditional,  realistic,  preparation, abstract, pose.  The nine  slides  l i s t e d below were shown to the children and they were asked to pick which words from the l i s t applied to each s l i d e , so that eventually they formulated  definitions  again  the s l i d e s  f o r each term and an example f o r a p p l i c a t i o n . are shown  i n chronology.  The s l i d e s  used  s l i d e l i s t i n Appendix 9 for d e t a i l s ) : 1.  A Haida Human Face M a s k — t r a d i t i o n a l , represent  2.  J o l i Fou I n n — f i g u r e painting  3.  France Bringing the F a i t h — r e p r e s e n t , r e a l i s t i c  4.  Paul Kane sketches—preparation  5.  Meeting of the School T r u s t e e s — c h i a r o s c u r o  Once  were (see  92 6.  Vincent Massey—pose, r e a l i s t i c  7.  Carl Schaefer—monochrome,  8.  M i l l a r Brittain-Rummage  9.  Katherine—abstract,  composition  Sale—composition  composition  ( t h i s section of the workshop, as well as the others, took the form of an open discussion). For the l a s t part of the c l a s s , portraits'.  The  lene Tatham, of  f i r s t was the  children were shown two  'real  an o i l on canvas by an Ontario a r t i s t ,  Char-  researcher,  and  the  a  mixed media  (on  paper),  double  p o r t r a i t by a young B r i t i s h Columbian a r t i s t , Catherine McEwen. The  children were given  pieces while we  the  opportunity  to touch  and  examine  the  discussed technical terms about the media—canvas, o i l  paint, support, frame, ink, p e n c i l s .  The children were also shown p r e l i -  minary drawings, photographs and mockups used by the a r t i s t s to plan the portraits.  Following t h i s we  following questions: j e c t well? by  Who  discussed the p o r t r a i t s with  i s the subject?  Is the composition  the  Did the a r t i s t know the sub-  What colours has the a r t i s t used?  the painting?  some of  Why?  effective?  What mood i s shown  Which i s more  realis-  tic? Evaluation of the response of the two classes, to the follow-up reveals that the children's responses exceeded the expectations the teachers and the researcher.  class  of  both  From the tapes of the c l a s s , the evalu-  ator noticed that the class of the teacher with more a r t background and a more energetic teaching style responded a l i t t l e more readily and dently than did the other c l a s s .  This was  possibly because they are more  accustomed to this sort of discussion of a r t . difficulty  r e l a t i n g t h e i r knowledge gained  confi-  However, neither class had  through discussion of  slides  93  of paintings at the workshop to the paintings shown to them, and both classes were able to apply the vocabulary they had learned at the workshop both to the slides and the paintings used in the follow-up study. Both teachers indicated that the vocabulary the students were using in the discussions in the follow-up sessions was a marked improvement over that used by the children before the workshop pre-visit kit or the workshop.  When asked what comment he would make about the double portrait,  one boy replied 'It looks kind of scary and stands out 'cause of . . . you know that 'chairy' word that means real light and real dark!' Chiaroscuro was the word he searched for.  He made a valiant effort to pro-  nounce i t , but definitely knew what it means and was quite correct. When commenting on the colours of the portrait of me one girl said 'I think the artist likes you because she used lots of warm, bright colours. Green isn't supposed to be warm but i t looks warm there. your friend?'  Is the artist  The artist is in fact a very good friend and the yellow/  green is quite a warm green.  The teacher said that the class had not  discussed the warm/cool colour concept before the workshop.  She was very  pleased with the way her students had grasped the idea. It must be taken into account that the children's enthusiastic response in the follow-up study might be due in part to the extra effort on their part to impress the researcher or because of the excitement of a break in their everyday routine.  Despite this,  this rather informal  study indicates that children do derive new knowledge from the workshop format sessions at the Surrey Art Gallery and that this knowledge is retained for use in later art experiences.  This result might suggest that  the gallery consider incorporating follow-up classes as well as the previsit sessions as an integral part of the workshop program.  This would  provide an opportunity to continue their art experience and to reinforce the concepts explored in the gallery workshop.  95  CHAPTER 6 CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS We have seen that there is a problem of reaching users, or potential users, of gallery programs in order to inform them of what is being offered.  It  is general practice to send publicity posters and press re-  leases to the principals of schools and those supervisors and helping teachers or coordinators who work with curriculum and make recommendations to teachers.  This study indicates that information often does not  reach the teacher, who is the person who arranges the trips. should find a way of reaching these teachers more directly. require  more time of course, but much of the  docents and volunteers.  Galleries This would  work could be done by  These people could compose l i s t s of  interested  contact people by phoning schools and meeting with supervisors. could deliver  information  to the schools in person at  They  lunch hours or  attend staff meetings so that a personal contact is made with the teachers.  While these efforts would be a great deal of work the f i r s t  year,  the amount of work would be decreased yearly, as the schools become aware of gallery programs. As the  present workshop package format is well  teachers and students, and offers  learning  received by both  experiences  format should be maintained by the Surrey Art Gallery. a useful  format for other  galleries  to adopt.  for  both,  that  It would also be  For future workshops,  teachers should be consulted about the topics they would like to see offered.  These topics should, however, be of a narrower  scope than the  Seeing Ourselves Through Art or even the Inuit Arts and Culture. topic can be adequately covered in the time allotted.  Neither  They could be nar-  rowed to, perhaps, Seeing Ourselves Through Canadian Portraits,  or The  96  Inuit Printmaker.  Topics could be divided into a series of workshops.  Especially well received, useful, and pedagogically sound, are the prev i s i t preparatory packages, and they should be maintained as a necessary part of the gallery package.  In addition, more follow-up should be of-  fered either in the form of a post-visit package or of a personal followup in the classroom by gallery staff need for this information.  It  or docents.  Teachers indicate a  would also help for gallery  staff  and  docents whose understanding of the school would be increased through this direct contact with the school classroom situation.  For the children,  follow-up  experience  fruitfully 1978,p.27).  classes  would ensure that  and creatively  their  gallery  'lived  in subsequent experiences' (Dewey in Silver,  In addition to the workshops, which are designed to be of  use to both students and teachers, the galleries should make every attempt to design programs on gallery use specifically for teachers.  While  this may seem to be a job of the school board and teacher training i n s t i tutions, i t is a role that should be supplemented by experts in the gallery.  If gallery staff offer programs for schools and wish their efforts  to be rewarded with both full bookings and cognitive and affective gains for the children, they are going to have to help with teacher education. Such contact with teachers may not only help the teacher but may also attract gallery users and open avenues for gallery staff teachers.  to learn from  Once again the demands that this sort of program would place  on gallery staff  time and funds are great, but could be lessened with  creative planning.  Local school districts could be helpful in providing  space, publicity and teacher time for workshops to be offered as part of Professional Development days ( i f as summer institute courses. 4  they are provided), in the evenings-or  Development of these programs could be the  97  combined effort of school board staff and gallery staff or could be projects for graduate students in education or summer grant students. programs would be offered to teachers as fellow educators.  These  Whoever de-  signs the programs should therefore have a good knowledge of teaching and of the schools. This familiarity with schools and teaching is also an important qualification for anyone writing and planning future workshops for the gallery education program.  Not only should the workshops provide sound  information in art history and aesthetics, but its presentation should be appropriate to the age group i t is designed for, and in keeping with upto-date education theories and trends.  People with the necessary exper-  ience to write such material could be found among graduate students in art education, unemployed teachers,  or teachers who have retired who  might welcome such a project, especially if some of the work could be done at home. projects.  Working teachers could also participate in summer writing  Funding could come from gallery sources, government employment  grants or through arrangement with the school district.  If  galleries  could interest education students in developing materials for the educational program for assignments or thesis work, they would be offering students valuable practical experience.  The gallery would thus have  materials costing little more than production costs and time for consultation with the students. If a gallery deems i t worthwhile to go through all  the  efforts  necessary to put together good program materials, they must also make the commitment to ensure that the presentation of that material is up to the same standard.  Because often the programs are presented by instructors  or docents who were not involved in their development and probably have  98  l i t t l e or no formal teaching experience, the time must be taken to thoroughly train these people.  Gallery staff  they have approved is appropriately  should know that the material  presented.  Before the  instructor  faces a class, she should be thoroughly briefed in both the contents of the workshop and styles of presentation and have had the opportunity for a 'trial-run'  presentation with gallery  staff.  By offering a package'that includes pre-visit a c t i v i t i e s , in-gallery workshop and tour a c t i v i t i e s , and follow-up activities or suggestions, a certain pedagogical flow is implied.  Each of these activities will build  upon the previous ones to provide a total and lasting experience for the children. practice.  It If  must be guaranteed that this flow is not interrupted  in  i t i s , the program format loses much of its j u s t i f i c a t i o n .  To make sure the flow does occur  smoothly, activities  must occur  in  appropriate order and the links between the activities must be apparent. If,  as in many programs, segments are conducted by different personnel,  all  involved must be thoroughly aware of the material  other segments.  covered in  the  In the case of the Surrey Art Gallery, docents should  either attend a workshop as an observer or, as a group, be given a workshop presentation by the instructors.  Students and teachers should be  able to see the relationships and use what they have learned in one session to deal with the following segment.  This is particularly a problem  when the tour portion of a package comes between the preparation materials and the segment for which they prepare the children.  It  is impor-  tant that the exhibition that is viewed and the way the guide handles i t offer a link between the preparation and the workshop, otherwise the experience would be confusing to the students.  If  the tour is not handled  in such a way as to incorporate the workshop a c t i v i t i e s , is there a jus-  99  tification for offering the package, or doing the workshops in a gallery? The main purpose of a gallery program is to help children relate to art. They must have the opportunity to demonstrate their ability to communicate with the art in the gallery as a result of what they learn in a workshop. The final recommendation is that the gallery staff attempts to work with teachers to help them solve some of the problems that prevent their classes from visiting the gallery or using its  services.  Difficulty  finding transportation to the gallery is a major deterent to gallery visits.  Often the teacher is totally defeated by lack of budget, school  policy against the use of private transportation for insurance reasons, and the lack of parent participation in car pooling.  The gallery could  offer help from two directions—taking the workshop to the school, or helping to provide transportation, as does the Heritage Village Museum in Burnaby, offering suggestions that the teacher may not have thought of or using funding sources such as the Manpower and Immigration Community Recovery Program or private or business donations that might be available to the gallery.  This latter suggestion is somewhat idealistic but may be  a possibility.  Gallery staff I spoke to thought that these sorts of  efforts are beyond their commitment, and may be akin to 'nurse-maiding' the teachers causing them to expect these services even if they do have means of getting to the gallery.  However, the contact with teachers that  these services could bring would be an investment that proves worthwhile use.  Not only may they attract more users to the programs, but gallery  instructors who took workshops for presentation at schools could learn much about school life. schools,  however,  The gallery would have to make clear to the  that these are emergency services and will  not be  100  available when school  funding is  transportation to the gallery.  sufficient  The galleries'  to provide students with most valuable resources  are its collection and exhibitions and the primary function of a gallery educational program is to bring the children into contact with that body of work in the gallery. In assessing of the evaluations of the workshops prepared for this study, I have concluded that these workshops provide a welcome and needed service.  The preparation package portion provided teachers with both a  specific preparation lesson for the workshop their class will be attending and ideas about how to prepare their class for other gallery trips. In addition, the preparation kits provide background information that is necessary to gain full benefit from the workshop.  Having thus presented  that information, gallery staff has to spend less of the valuable ingallery time with background and can delve into the primary concern of the workshop.  The entire workshop package provides teachers with some  ideas on how to introduce art topics into their curriculum and gives them some specific information on the topics covered without using equipment and supplies which are beyond their reach if they were to try similar lessons on their own.  It provides the children access to facets of art  which are not usually being introduced to them in the schools through a series of events, each building upon and reinforcing the others. Providing the workshops with a title and focus that obviously relates art to another curriculum area encourages participation of elementary teachers.  These are teachers who have limited background in art so  they may avoid workshop titles that concern topics which are not familiar to them.  Most of those who chose the Inuit workshop did so because the  class was studying the Inuit culture.  101  The teachers who participated in evaluation supported our programs as a form of teacher education.  The concern that arises,  however,  is  whether they learned what we had hoped they would learn from the workshop.  One of the major intentions of the workshop was to help teachers  with the 'non-production' aspects of art education. with their students in class.  They all made things  What we wanted to illustrate was how to  'talk' about art and how to link the 'talking' and the 'doing' to provide a fuller learning experience for the children.  Our role as a gallery is  to be primarily concerned with the 'seeing and talking about' and indicate how this can carry over to the doing.  The teachers' repeated c r i t i -  cism that the first portion of the in-gallery workshop was too long leaving not enough time for the project (in fact, there was equal time for each part), indicates that they were firmly rooted in their preconception that art is "making things".  Perhaps what is needed is to have sessions  for teachers designed to clearly spell out what we hoped to illustrate and then given them examples.  They must learn that the end of the work-  shop is not the end of the experience, that we are providing them with something they can build upon in their classrooms.  Further proof of the  teachers' focus on studio aspects of art education is that of the four workshops offered by the Surrey Art Gallery, the clay workshop is the most heavily booked. From our contact with teachers  it  seems that communication with  schools is difficult but not because of their lack of interest. more because of the already high demands on teachers' time.  It is  These teach-  ers teach all of the subjects in their curriculum to their class and find themselves dealing with more responsibilities in less time as a result of declining enrollments and budgetary restrictions.  If there is money  102  available for field trips, i t is more likely to be issued for trips related to subjects considered to be more important than art.  If  munication gap between galleries and teachers is to bridge, the tive is going to have to come from the galleries.  the cominitia-  Without the strength-  ening of communications between galleries and schools, the partnership of the two institutions in the art education of children envisioned by Dr. Robert Ott is but a vision.  Any program that a gallery provides to help  teachers should 'give teachers exposure and practice that will make them confident and comfortable not only in the museum (gallery) but with art itself,  and to try through teachers to integrate  education of the young'  (Silver,!978,p.463).  If  works of art  into the  this prescription for  teacher education by galleries were followed, the gap in communication between galleries and schools would be closed.  103  REFERENCE NOTES Aesthetic education, according to Vincent Lanier (Lanier,1980,p.l9), should be a primary focus of art education.  'Aesthetically l i t e r -  ate' is the term he would use to describe the student who has learned through art education to be 'affectionately all  the visual arts of past and present and of  our own and how these arts can be dealt with'.  knowledgeable about other cultures and Edmund Feldman uses  the term 'visual literacy' to describe what he thinks should be the focus of art education.  All visual images are a language which we  must all be able to read in order to cope with our culture which is 'increasingly represented and perceived in visual terms' 1976,p.200).  (Feldman,  We learn to 'read' this visual language through devel-  opment of c r i t i c a l s k i l l s and examining and assessing images of the past. In this study, the terms museum and art gallery are used frequently. Both of these terms refer to institutions exhibiting art.  In the  United States, and thus in much of the literature available,  'art  museum' is used to refer to an institution with a permanent collection representing the art of past ages and past cultures as well as contemporary work. artifacts.  These institutions  also collect and  exhibit  'Art gallery' is used by other institutions which do not  collect artifacts, only art work. is used most frequently,  In Canada, the term 'art gallery'  perhaps because our institutions  not combine art and artifacts  in their collections.  tend to  For the pur-  poses of this study, the terms are interchangeable (from discussion with Anne Morrison, Vancouver Art Gallery, March, 1980). This information comes from a conversation with Kit Grauer of the  104 Richmond School District, March, 1983. 4.  Mary Erikson discussed these games at her address to the Curriculum Implementation Institute at July, 1982.  the  University of  British  Columbia,  105 REFERENCES Adam, T. R. The museum and popular culture. N.Y.: A.M.A. Association for Adult Education, 1937, 9. Adams, W. H. The national gallery's role in art education. Art Education, Dec. 1971, 24:9,  14-17  Axson, S . , Cox, K. & Hall, G. Art museums and schools. N.Y.: Schribners, 1913. Bassing, A. Educational programs for the museums of art & anthropology an international  overview in Presentations on Art Education Research  Orientation: Art, Culture and the Museum, 1981, 6_, Montreal, 81-84. Bleike,  C. The volunteer  in art  education. Art Education, Jan.  1980,  33:1 , 19-20. Bloom, Kathryn. Arts organizations & their services to schools: Patrons or partners? education.  An emerging pattern for educational change - The arts in Prepared by the staff of the Arts in education program of  the J.D.R. Fund, Jan. 1974. Borcoman, J . W. Public education in the visual arts, Curator, Vol. XII:1, 1969. Cameron, Duncan. A view point; the museum as a communication system and implications for museum education; Curator, Vol. 10:11 , 1968. Caston, E. The object of my affections; commentary on museums, Art Education, Jan. 1980,  33:1  Cauman, Samuel. The living museum. N.Y.: N.Y.U. Press, 1952. Chalmers, F.G. The art museum & art education.  Instructional Psychology,  Vol. 1:1 , 40-44. Chambers, K. Field work in relation to museum classroom teaching. tor, Vol. 3, 1958,  8-11.  Cura-  106  Clay, George. Do museums educate? Museum News, Vol. 30/2,  Oct.  1960,  36-40. Cox, K. Museums of art and teachers, Art museums & schools; Saxon ed., N.Y. Schribners, 1913. Cuthbertson, Shirley.  No experience needed. B.C.A.T.A. Journal, A p r i l ,  1969. Davis, S. The art museum, games & strategies  for children, for art  in  museums, unpublished paper, 1980. Dewey, J . Experience and education. New York: C o l l i e r , 1963, 25-29. Erikson, Mary. Uses of history in art  education. Studies in Art Educa-  ti on, 18/3. Fansler, Roberta. Art and adolescence, Art Museum Bulletin, 1932,  23:2,  58. Feldmon, Edmund B. Visual literacy, Journal of Aesthetic Education, Vol. 10, July, 1976, 195-200. Feldmon, Edmund B. Catalyst - The arts; Art Education, 31:10, Nov. 1978, 7-12. Foster, M. S. Game catalogue: Educational approach to exhibition viewing; Art Education, 27:7, Oct. '74. Gatch, H. A comparison of learning in a museum with learning in school, unpublished thesis, University of Toronto, 1947-48. Grana, C. The private lives of public museums; Trans-action, 1974, 20-25. Hofman, H. Translating inert to living knowledge. Curator, Vol 5:2,  1962.  Housen, A. What is beyond or before the lecture tour? A study of aesthetic modes of understanding. Art Education, 33:1, 1980, 17-18. Jones, Lois. Volunteer guides & classroom teachers in school programs in European & N.A. art museums. 1978.  visitation  Studies in Art Education,  •107  Lacey, T. & Agar, J . I know its there but how do I use i t . Art Education, 33:1 , Jan. 1980, 10-12. Lanier, Vincent. Six terms on the agenda for the eighties. Art Education, 33:8, September, 1980, 16-23. Lanier, V. Popularization without misrepresenation, curriculum content for aesthetic literacy. Art Education, 33:6, Nov. 1980. Larrabbee, Eric, ed: Museums & education, Washington, D . C : Smithsonian Press, 1968. Low, T. The museum as a social instrument. New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1942. Lowenfeld, Viktor & Brittain, W. L. Creative and mental growth (5th edition). New York: MacMillan, 1970. MacGregor, Ronald. Art plus. Toronto: McGraw-Hill, 1977, 7. McLanthan, Richard. Art & man: extending museum resources. Museum News, Vol. 49/2, Oct. 1971 , 18-20. Marcouse, Renee. The listening eye, teaching in an art museum. London: Her Majesty's stationary office, 1961. Martin, E. Why museum education in today's world. Museum News, Vol. 46(2), 1967, 31-2. Mayer, Susan. Museum education: beyond the tour. Art Education, 33:1, January, 1980. Mayer, S. What about museums. Art Education, 24:4 & 5, May, 1974. Merrill, G. New dimensions in museum teaching. Museum News, Oct. 1967, 35-37. Mims, Sandra. Museum tripping. Art Education, 35:1, Jan. 1982.  108  Morris, J . & Stuckhardt, M. Oaea Journal, Vol. 19:1,  Ohio Art Education  Assocation. Including:  (1) Defurio, A. Burn the museums. Some diverse thoughts in museums and museum education. (2) Herr, M. Education Programs at Allen Art Institute. (3) Zakon, R. Directions & education.  Murphy, John T. What you can do with your education department. News, Vol 49/2, Oct. 1970,  Museum  4-17.  Newson, B. On understanding art museums. Studies in Art Education, 16:2, 46-53. Newson, B. & Silver, A. The art museum as educator. Berkeley:  University  of California Press, 1978. Ott, Robert. Museum education and society: relevance today, art,  culture  and the museum, Presentations on Art Education Research Orientations, Concordia University, 6, 1981. Ott, Robert. Teaching art awareness in museums. Art Teacher, National Art Education Association, 24:1 , 1977, 18-19. Ott,  Robert.  Museums & schools.  Universal  partners  in  education.  Art  Education, 1980, 33:1 , 7-9. Press, N. Inside art:  a program of participation.  Art Education,  33:1,  Jan. 1980. Rawlins, Ki p i . Educational metamorphasis of the american museum. Studies in Art Education, 20:1 , 1978. Read, Herbert. Education through art. London: Faber & Faber, 1967. Rice, Megan. Looking & seeing. Windsor: Art Gallery of Windsor, 1980. Ripley, S. Museums & education. Curator, XI/3,  1968, 183-88.  109 Rouse, Mary. What research tells us about sequences & structuring in art in art instructions. Art Education, 24:5, May, 1971, 18-26. Sewall, G. Museums as schools. Newsweek, October 15, 1 979. Sewell, Daniel. 'What you see is what you get: An approach to the use of museums for education', Art Education, 24:9, Dec. 1971, 22-25. Smith, C. M. 'Style and education' in aesthetic concepts & education (ed. Ralph A. Smith) Urbana: University of I l l i n o i s Press, 1970, 421-22. Soli i n s , S. Games children play in museums. Art Journal, 31:3  (Spring,  1972), 271-5. Stake, R. To evaluate an arts program. Journal of Aesthetic Education, 10:3, (1976), 25. Staley,  R. Presentations  on art  education  research orientations;  Art,  culture & the museum, #6, 1981, Concordia University. Articles:  R. Ott. Museum education & society: Relevance today. Korsenik, Diane. Listening to children think about art. Bassing, A. Educational programs for the museums of art and anthropology.  T r e i t , K i t . Museum & art 1978,  gallery  games. B.C.A.T.A. Journal, 19:1,  Oct.  4-6.  Whittman, Otto. The museum and its role in art education. Art Education, 19:2,  (Feb. 1966), 3-6.  Wood, M. A museums contribution  to curriculum. Museum News, 4:5,  Feb.  1967, 36-38. Wood, M. The museums's contribution  to  curriculum.  Museum News, Feb.  1967, 36-37. Zeller,  T. Let's  1983, 43-46.  teach art  with originals.  Art Education, 36:1, Jan.  110  APPENDIX 1  Ill  DATE OF INTERVIEW:  •  MUSEUM NAME: ADDRESS:^  :  CONTACTj  ! i  j j  PHONE: ^ POSITION;  ,  :  1) IS THERE A SPECIFIC EDUCATION DEPARTMENT IN THE MUSEUM? IF NO, WHO FULFILS THAT FUNCTION?  2) STAFF: NUMBER IN DEPARTMENT POSITION NAMES WHAT BACKGROUND AND QUALIFICATIONS DO THE STAFF HAVE?  WHY WERE PEOPLE WITH THOSE QUALIFICATIONS CHOSEN?  WHAT IS THE RATE OF STAFF TURNOVER IN THE DEPARTMENT?  3)HISTORY: HOW LONG HAS THE MUSUEM HAD AN EDUCATIONAL PROGRAM? WAS IT A PART OF THE ORIGINAL PLANS FOR THE MUSEUM? I i  HOW HAS THE DEPARTMENT CHANGED? STAFF SIZE PROGRAM] i  I  FACILITIES •  | i  i  I  j  1  •fy) FACILITIES: ARE THERE SEPARATE EDUCATION DEPARTMENT FACILITIES ? OFFICES STUDIOS A.V. EQUIPMENT  5) WHAT IS THE PRIMARY SOURCE OF FUNDING FOR THE MUSEUM?  6) WHAT PROGRAMS ARE OFFERED? ADULTS:  HIGH SCHOOLS:  ELEMENTARY  SCHOOLS:  7) DO YOU FIND THAT THE MAJORITY OF YOUR EFFORTS GO TO A PARTICULAR GROUP? WHO?  WHY?  8) DO TOURS SEEM TO BE A MAJOR PART OF YOUR SCHOOL PROGRAM I i  WHO LEADS TOURS?  j  DO TOURS FOLLOW A SET PATTERN OR ARE THEY FLEXIBLE?  9) HOW  10)  DO SCHOOLS FIND OUT ABOUT YOUR PROGRAMS?'  ARE STUDENTS GENERALLY PREPARED FOR THEIR V I S I T ?  j i i  ARE TEACHERS? 1  i 11)  APPROXIMATELY HOW  MANY STUDENTS USE THE PROGRAMS EACH YEAR? i  i .  i •  i  EACH WEEK? IS  THERE A PREDOMINATE  AGE/GRADE  LEVEL? WHICH?  ! . l  j WHAT SUBJECT AREA ARE MOST CLASSES FROM?  I  ARE THERE MANY REPEAT V I S I T S ? DO SOME SCHOOLS USE THE MUSEUM MORE THAN  OTHERS?  WHY?  ARE CHILDREN WELCOME TO V I S I T THE MUSEUM ON THEIR OWN? - ARE .THERE PEOPLE THERE TO HELP THEM OR ANSWER QUESTIONS I F THEY DO V I S I T WITHOUT AN ADULT?  12)  DOES THE MUSEUM OFFER SERVICES S P E C I F I C A L L Y FOR TEACHERS? •  ARE THERE PLANS FOR SUCH SERVICES i e ) l e c t u r e history  courses,  training,  visits  tours, to  lesson  schools...  aids,  series, a r t i n service  ;  ii4  I S YOUR STAFF INVOLVED WITH ANY TEACHER GROUPS' ie." BCATA?  DOES YOUR STAFF FAMILIARIZE I T S E L F WITH CURRICULUM  IN THE  j  AREA I T SERVES?  DOES YOUR STAFF KEEP UP WITH CURRENT TRENDS I N EDUCATION, S P E C I F I C A L L Y ART EDUCATION INTERESTS IN SUCH F O C I I AS ETHNOGRAPHIC,  ENVIRONMENTAL,  CULTURAL, SOCIAL, V I S U A L / ;  AESTHETIC LITERACY B A S I S FOR ART PROGRAMS?  HOW  DO YOU SEE YOUR ROLE IN RELATION TO THE SCHOOLS?  i  13)  DOES YOUR DEPARTMENT HAVE A STATED PHILOSOPHY ABOUT MUSEUM EDUCATION? WHAT?  14) WHAT ARE THE BASIC PROBLEMS YOU FACE WITH YOUR PRESENT MODE OF OPERATION? i e . time,  15)  HOW  r e . teachers,  students,  staff,  space....  DO YOU FORESEE THE FUTURE OF EDUCATION IN THIS MUSEUM? 1  «  1 1 5  APPENDIX 2  Education Services are open to youth and adult community groups in Surrey and the Lower Mainland. We Invite teachers, group leaders and parents to join in along with their attending groups. Programs will run from October 12,1982 to May 31,1983. Booking B o o k i n g s for all services must be made in a d v a n c e by p h o n i n g 596-7461. B o o k early to avoid disappointment!  Cost Surrey Art Gallery Education Services are free of charge.  Gallery Hours Weekdays: Evenings: Weekends: Closed:  9 a.m. - 4:30 p.m. T u e s . a n d Thurs. 7 - 9:30 p.m. Sat. a n d S u n . 1 - 5:00 p.m. Statutory Holidays  Guided tours o l cuirent gallery tJAhiuiiiuns are available to groups of 10 - 30 people by booking in advance. Tour length averages o n e hour. Exhibition related films and demonstrations will be offered when available. Tours are led by trained volunteer docents (tour guides). For information o n becoming a volunteer docent, phone 596-7461.  b u r andi Workshops are Back!: The Gallery is pleased to a n n o u n c e the return of this popular program. W e can now a c c o m m o d a t e 2 c l a s s e s simultaneously o n program days as a result of extensive classroom renovations. Class A and Class B will participate in different workshops concurrently. Each class will also receive a guided tour of thecurrent exhibition. Preparation and follow-up materials will be provided. Tour and W o r k s h o p Packages can be tailored to suit various a g e levels. Each session is limited to a maximum of 30 participants and runs from 9:45 a.m. - N o o n . A d v a n c e booking is required.  TUESDAY MORNINGS • Inuit Arts and Culture — an invaluable opportunity to learn about the changing arts and culture of the Inuit. Activities include printmaking, slides, games a n d "hands-on" exhibits of Inuit tools and clothing on loan from the Government of the Northwest Territories. Suitable for grade 3 through adult. • Seeing Ourselves through Art — take a journey through history to view the people of C a n a d a through the eyes of our artists, past and present. Slides, d i s c u s sion, visual arts activities and an art project designed to encourage self-expression are included. Suitable for grade 4 through adult.  FRIDAY MORNINGS • The World of Clay — explore the world history of man's manipulation of clay by seeing demonstrations a n d examples, a n d w o r k i n g with clay and various clay tools. Suitable for grade K through adult.  Location: T h e Surrey Art Gallery is located in the Surrey Arts C e n t r e complex, 13750 88th Avenue, Surrey, B . C . V 3 W 3 L 1 .  Extensive self-guided follow-up materials are available o n loan to participants. G r o u p s wishing to use these materials at the Gallery may d o so by booking the classroom in advance for use after their workshop. • A r t Encounter — learn about works o n exhibit by seeing, discussing and doing, under the guidance of a trained volunteer docent. Art Encounter involves participants in a variety of perceptual, movement a n d visual arts activities specifically designed for e a c h n e w exhibition. Suitable for grade K through adult.  Q  N E T S  The Gallery's Extension Program offers a range of selfguided Workshops, Poster and S l i d e - S o u n d Kits for use in your classroom or facility on a library loan basis. Most kits may be adapted for use with any age group. Kits include West Coast Native Peoples. Pioneer Arts, The Treasures of Tutankhamun and the Language of C o l o u r (also excellent for intermediate s c i e n c e classes). A d v a n c e booking is required.  G u d lif o r d T o w nC e n r t a  W h a e lly T o w nC e n r t e  i  I  i  88 [h Ave  • i u r r r y Aft G * e lr y 1 1 7 5 0 9 t n f l Avt  Surrey Art Gallery Education Services is financially assisted by the Cultural Services Division of the Surrey Parks a n d Recreation C o m m i s s i o n a n d the Government of British C o l u m b i a through the British C o l u m b i a Cultural F u n d a n d the British C o l u m b i a Lottery Fund.  117  APPENDIX 3  118 A SURVEY FOR TEACHERS TEACHER  SCHOOL  GRADE  TEACHER'S BACKGROUND SUBJECT AREA TAUGHT  1) How o f t e n do y o u u s e museums o r a r t g a l l e r i e s A p p r o x i m a t e l y how many t i m e s 2)  3) What s i z e  class?  annually?  Do y o u u s e t h e museum o r g a l l e r y only f o r special  with your  f o r i t sregular collection or  shows?  g r o u p do y o u t a k e ?  How many a d u l t s p e r c h i l d ? k)  What g r a d e l e v e l  do y o u u s u a l l y  take?  Why?  5)  How do y o u g e t t o t h e museum o r g a l l e r y ?  6) W h i c h museums o r g a l l e r i e s  do y o u u s e ?  Why?  7) Have y o u met t h e e d u c a t i o n o f f i c e r Who I n i t i a t e d 8) Do y o u f i n d  t h a t c o n t a c t ? Why?  the museum/gallery  staff  9) Do y o u d i s c u s s y o u r museum v i s i t guide p r i o r  i n t h e museums y o u u s e ?  t o your c l a s s  t o be a c c e s s i b l e ?  with the education o f f i c e r o r  visit?  10) How d o e s t h e m u s e u m / g a l l e r y t r i p  f i r into  your  classroom  1 1 9  program'  11)  Do y o u p l a n  specific  junction with tresure  12)  tasks f o r your s t i d e n t s  the v i s i t ,  i e . questions  t o do i n c o n -  t o be a n s w e r e d ,  hunts, drawings,...?  Do you f i n d t h a t the programs o f f e r e d a t the museum/gallery meets your needs and e x p e c t a t i o n s ?  1 3 ) A r e the museum/gallery s t a f f f l e x i b l e to accomodate your specific  needs?  14) What would make you use the museums o r g a l l e r i e s  15)  What programs would you l i k e to see o f f e r e d by the musem/ gallery,  16)  more?  i e . tours, curriculum related tours,  workshops...  Would you use a program whereby museum/gallery s t a f f came to your s c h o o l ? ""hat format, m a t e r i a l would you l i k e to see for  17)  such a program?  What c o u l d the museum/gallery do f o r you as a t e a c h e r ?  18) How do you see the museum/gallery and the s c h o o l i n r e l a t i o n to  each o t h e r , i e . museum as enrichment, museum as c u r r i c u l u m  a i d , museum and s c h o o l as p a r t n e r s , . . . . ?  19)  Do you f e e l  c o m f o r t a b l e a t a museum/gallery? Why?  120  20) What do you f e e l i s the major problem p r e v e n t i n g t e a c h e r s from u s i n g museums/galleries to t h e i r g r e a t e s t p o t e n t i a l ?  21) Are you aware o f the programs o f f e r e d by the museums/ galleries  i n your area?  121  APPENDIX 4  TEACHER SURVEY  1. WHERE DO YOU LIVE? SURREY DISTRICT  •  OTHER  .  .  2. WHERE DO YOU TAKE YOUR CLASS FOR FIELD TRIPS (OR, WHERE HAVE YOU TAKEN THEM IN THE PAST)? (This i s f a n t a s i z i n g there i s budget money f o r f i e l d  that  t r i p s ! ).  3. HOW OFTEN DO YOU SCHEDULE FIELD TRIPS? ONCE A YEAR  O  TWICE A YEAR  •  THREE TIMES A YEAR  Q  FOUR OR MORE TIMES A YEAR  O  4. WHY DO YOU CHOOSE THESE PLACES TO VISIT?  5.  DO YOU.FEEL THAT THESE PLACES OFFER SOMETHING DIRECTLY OR EASILY CONNECTED WITH CURRICULUM? WHICH SUBJECT AREAS?  6. DO YOU FEEL THAT THERE IS A CLEAR CUT CONNECTION BETWEEN CURRICULUM AND A VISIT TO AN ART GALLERY? HOW?  7 . WHAT  IS  YOUR A R T ART  COURSES  ART  EDUCATION  EXTRA  8. DO  YOU T H I N K  TEACHING  9.  DO  ART  AT  O  TEACHER  TRAINING  CURRICULAR  COURSES  ON Y O U R  IN  SHOULD YOUR  ART  O  H A V E MORE T R A I N I N G  D  INITIATIVE  OWN  AND/OR  HELP  FOR  CLASSROOM?  TEACHING  F O R M DO  UNIVERSITY IN  YOU  YOU L I K E  10. WHAT  BACKGROUND?  ART?  CLASSES  WHY?  IN  WHY  YOUR  NOT?  CLASSROOM  TAKE?  1.  11. H A V E Y O U E V E R B E E N T O  WHAT  OCCASIONED  12. H A V E Y O U E V E R  14. WHAT  ART  IS  THE  SURREY  VISIT  T A K E N YOUR  13. A R E Y O U A W A R E O F SURREY  YOUR  THE  CLASS  PROGRAMS  TO  THE  OFFERED  SURREY  TO  ART  SCHOOLS  GALLERY?  BY  THE  GALLERY?  YOUR  KIND  GALLERY?  THERE?  GENERAL  VIEW  OF  THE  i e ) types of e x h i b i t i o n s ,  WHAT  ART  OF  EXHIBITIONS  WOULD  SURREY  ART  GALLERY?  events, s t a f f , e t c ,  YOU L I K E  TO  SEE  THERE?  12k  15.  16.  WHERE WOULD YOU GO TO SEE GOOD ART?  " I WOULD TAKE MY CLASS TO THE SURREY ART GALLERY I F . . .  11  17.WHAT COULD THE SURREY ART GALLERY DO!.-TO ATTRACT YOUR USE OF THE GALLERY AS A TEACHER? ie.  teacher  workshops on  g a l l e r yuse art  '•  appreciation  a r thistory ^  using  ;  a r ti n other  curriculum  programs f o r s t u d e n t s  ;  1 }•.in t h e f o r m  areas  of....  2) o n t h e f o l l o w i n g t o p i c  18.WHAT DO YOU THINK I S THE ROLE OF ART IN THE COMMUNITY AND AS A PART OF OUR CULTURE?  19.ANY  COMMENTS?  ;  • 1  !  1 2 5  APPENDIX 5  m  *r„£K  599-7461  SURREY ART  GALLERY  SURREY ART GALLERY INUIT ARTS AND CULTURE WORKSHOP PRE-VISIT PREPARATORY KIT  SURREY ART GALLERY 13750 - 88th Avenue Surrey, B.C. V3W 3L1 ( 604) 596-7461  128  INUIT ARTS AND CULTURE WORKSHOP PREPARATORY K I T CONTENTS  1.  Teacher I n t r o d u c t i o n  2.  1 Sleeve of Slides  3.  1 C a s s e t t e Tape o f S l i d e Commentary  4.  S c r i p t f o r S l i d e Commentary  5.  L i s t of Slides included  6.  Student A c t i v i t y  7.  T e a c h e r Copy o f A c t i v i t y  8.  Follow-up Ideas  9.  Mask M a k i n g  10.  Sheet  in Kit  Sheet Sheet  Techniques  D e s c r i p t i o n o f Games a n d T o y s  (with  answers)  129  SURREY ART GALLERY; Teacher  INUIT ARTS AND CULTURE WORKSHOP  Introduction:  We a r e l o o k i n g f o r w a r d t o y o u r c l a s s ' s v i s i t t o t h e S u r r e y A r t G a l l e r y f o r t h e Tour and W o r k s h o p P a c k a g e f e a t u r i n g t h e I n u i t A r t s and C u l t u r e Workshop on ^ _ f r o m 9:45 a.m. t o 1 2 : 0 0 Noon. The p a c k a g e a l s o f e a t u r e s a g u i d e d t o u r o f t h e current Gallery e x h i b i t i o n . We h a v e d e s i g n e d t h i s p a c k a g e o f m a t e r i a l a s an a i d i n p r e p a r i n g your c l a s s f o r the workshop. I t includes:  You  1.  A sleeve  2.  A cassette  3.  A script  4.  A worksheet f o r students.  5.  An answer s h e e t f o r y o u .  will  o f 20 s l i d e s . tape o f . t h e  commentary f o r t h e s l i d e s .  o f t h e commentary.  need t o r o u n d up:  1.  A s l i d e p r o j e c t o r and  2.  A cassette  tape  screen.  recorder.  A p p r o x i m a t e l y 45 m i n u t e s o f c l a s s t i m e s h o u l d be s e t a s i d e f o r t h e presentation. The m a t e r i a l c o v e r e d i n t h i s k i t i s meant t o p r o v i d e some b a c k g r o u n d i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t t h e t r a d i t i o n a l I n u i t way o f l i f e . When y o u v i s i t t h e G a l l e r y we w i l l d i s c u s s I n u i t a r t s and t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f a r t i n b o t h p a s t and p r e s e n t I n u i t l i f e . We w i l l a l s o d i s c u s s what a r t means t o t h e I n u i t and what t h e i r a r t means to us. How t o Use t h i s K i t : 1.  Show t h e s l i d e s t o t h e c l a s s i n o r d e r ( 1 - 2 0 ) a l o n g w i t h t h e t a p e d commentary o r , r e a d a l o u d t h e commentary s c r i p t i n t h i s package. The t a p e , o r s c r i p t , w i l l i n d i c a t e when t o c h a n g e s l i d e s ( l i s t e n f o r t h e t o n e on t h e t a p e ) .  2.  The a c t i v i t y s h e e t s h o u l d be g i v e n o u t a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e l e s s o n a s t h e t a s k s a r e t o be done a t v a r i o u s p o i n t s d u r i n g t h e p r e s e n t a t i o n ( t o g i v e y o u a b r e a k and v a r y t h e p a c e f o r t h e students). The s c r i p t s w i l l i n d i c a t e w h e r e t o s t o p f o r e a c h task.  3.  The a c t i v i t y sheet a l s o i n c l u d e s a vocabulary s e a r c h . You may want to g i v e the words to your c l a s s b e f o r e the p r e s e n t a t i o n so they can be keeping t h e i r ears open f o r them d u r i n g the commentary. These words are a l s o u n d e r l i n e d i n your s c r i p t .  4.  You w i l l a l s o see on the s c r i p t s that there are p l a c e s where c l a s s d i s c u s s i o n should take p l a c e , and there are questions to s t r u c t u r e that d i s c u s s i o n given i n the s c r i p t and on the tape. When you see the s l i d e s you w i l l probably have more ideas of t h i n g s to d i s c u s s with your s t u d e n t s .  Kit  Return:  Please b r i n g the k i t m a t e r i a l s back to the G a l l e r y when you come for the Workshop. We a l s o welcome any w r i t t e n comments or suggestions you may have regarding the k i t . If you have l o s t a s l i d e , p l e a s e phone us immediately so we can make a d u p l i c a t e . There i s a $ 1 . 0 0 charge f o r each l o s t s l i d e , payable i n cash upon your v i s i t to the G a l l e r y . We hope that t h i s k i t i s h e l p f u l it.  to you and that your c l a s s  enjoys  131  SLIDE COMMENTARY SCRIPT INUIT ARTS AND  CULTURE WORKSHOP  PRE-VISIT PREPARATORY KIT I n t r o d u c t i o n to the C l a s s ; This p r e s e n t a t i o n has been planned to i n t r o d u c e you to the way of l i f e of the I n u i t so that you w i l l be prepared f o r the " I n u i t A r t s and C u l t u r e " Workshop at the Surrey Art G a l l e r y . Who knows another word f o r " I n u i t " ? Eskimo i s c o r r e c t , but i n Canada they are known as " I n u i t " - a n a t i v e word which means "the people". Alaskan n a t i v e s are known as Eskimos. You a l l now have a worksheet which you w i l l be working on at v a r i o u s times d u r i n g t h i s s l i d e p r e s e n t a t i o n . Take a minute now to look at the word l i s t on the a c t i v i t y sheet so that you can l i s t e n f o r the meanings d u r i n g the workshop. Slide  #1  (Map) - As long as 28,000 years ago, there were people l i v i n g i n the northern reaches of our continent'. These people l i v e d i n the harsh c l i m a t e of the A r c t i c shown at the top of t h i s map. Can you f i n d the A r c t i c C i r c l e on the map? (pause) These people l i v e d n o r t h and south of t h i s imaginary l i n e , a l l the way from Alaska to Greenland. The I n u i t d i d not know there were other kinds of people in the world u n t i l Europeans s a i l e d a c r o s s the A t l a n t i c Ocean to the A r c t i c s e v e r a l hundred years ago. They came to hunt whales, to e x p l o r e the land and sea f o r trade routes and f i n d s u p p l i e s of animal s k i n s to be made i n t o European f a s h i o n s . European l a d i e s wore c o r s e t s s t i f f e n e d with whale t e e t h , as w e l l as s e a l s k i n c l o t h i n g and a c c e s s o r i e s . Upper-class European gentlemen enjoyed c l o t h e s trimmed with s e a l and fox fur. Jewelry and ornaments made of i v o r y from walrus tusk were a l s o popular 200 - 300 years ago. The I n u i t had to develop a way of l i f e that ensured t h e i r s u r v i v a l i n the c o l d , harsh c l i m a t e and d i d not depend on c o n t a c t with other people. You probably a l r e a d y know some t h i n g s about the t r a d i t i o n a l I n u i t life. For i n s t a n c e , what type of winter houses d i d the I n u i t once l i v e i n ? ... I f you answered i g l o o s , you are c o r r e c t , although i n summer they made s e a l s k i n tents. Now, most l i v e i n houses much l i k e yours, e s p e c i a l l y i n winter. Can you f i n d A l e r t Bay on t h i s map? ... The next you w i l l see i s a photograph of that a r e a .  slide  (NEXT  SLIDE)  Slide  #2  (NEXT  SLIDE)  Slide  #3  ( A l e r t Bay) - When e a r l y e x p l o r e r s s a i l e d t h e i r s h i p s t o t h e A r c t i c i n t h e summer s e a s o n when t h e w a t e r was n o t f r o z e n , t h e y saw l a n d s c a p e s l i k e t h i s . The people o f t h e n o r t h l a n d had b e e n c o p i n g w i t h t h i s e n v i r o n m e n t f o r many h u n d r e d s o f y e a r s . They had d e v e l o p e d tools, t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , ways o f b u i l d i n g s h e l t e r , and clothing t h a t h e l p e d them s u r v i v e w i t h o u t b r i c k h o u s e s , f u r n a c e s , e l e c t r i c i t y or snowmobiles. We c a n p u t t o g e t h e r a c l e a r p i c t u r e o f t h e o l d ways o f t h e Inuit b e c a u s e t h e s e ways d i d n o t c h a n g e d r a s t i c a l l y u n t i l the 1950's and 1960's. C o n s e q u e n t l y , we h a v e p h o t o g r a p h s t a k e n b y v i s i t o r s t o t h e A r c t i c w h i c h c l e a r l y show t h e old ways. T r a d i t i o n a l t o o l s , o b j e c t s and c l o t h i n g were e a s i l y c o l l e c t e d and s a v e d . People were a b l e to t r a v e l a b o u t w i t h t h e s m a l l I n u i t f a m i l y g r o u p s t h a t roamed t h e l a n d , t o o b s e r v e how they l i v e d with l i t t l e c o n t a c t w i t h o t h e r g r o u p s and w i t h o u t l a r g e s e t t l e m e n t s . The I n u i t s e t up camp w h e r e h u n t i n g a n d f i s h i n g w e r e g o o d . T h e y m o v e d when t h e y n e e d e d new h u n t i n g g r o u n d s o r wanted t o v i s i t o t h e r g r o u p s o r Hudson Bay p o s t s f o r suppli es.  (NEXT  ( S n o w D r i f t s ) - In w i n t e r , t h e A r c t i c i s v e r y c o l d and c o v e r e d w i t h snow d r i f t s s h i f t e d a b o u t b y t h e w i n d s . Much o f t h e o c e a n f r e e z e s o v e r t h i c k l y s o t h a t i t i s d i f f i c u l t to t e l l the l a n d from the water. SLIDE)  Slide  #4  (STOP  TAPE)  ( W i n t e r V i l l a g e ) - The w i n t e r s i n t h e A r c t i c a r e v e r y l o n g and h a r d . I n t h i s camp t h e p e o p l e a r e t a k i n g advantage of d i m i n i s h i n g l i g h t to prepare for the days o f c o l d a n d d a r k n e s s , much a s h a s b e e n d o n e f o r centuries.  Teacher  1.  What a) b) c)  2. (START  Note:  Use t h e s e q u e s t i o n s a s c l a s s d i s c u s s i o n about  p r o v i s i o n s have  been  a guide to the s l i d e .  a  made f o r :  housing? transportation? clothing?  What c a n y o u available?  tell  about  the  building  materials  TAPE) You h a v e p r o b a b l y d i s c o v e r e d t h a t t h e h o u s e s w h i c h t h e I n u i t men h a v e b u i l t a r e made o f snow b l o c k s . Inside  t h e r e was  a p l a t f o r m ( a l s o made o f snow) f o r  sleeping.  I n u i t who remember t h e s e i g l o o s , say t h a t t h e y were v e r y c l e a n a n d c o z y a l t h o u g h s o m e t i m e s a snow b l o c k would c a v e i n w i t h t h e w i n d . Of c o u r s e t h e y m e l t e d i n summer, b u t t h e I n u i t c o u l d b u i l d a new i g l o o i n an h o u r i f t h e o l d one became damaged o r t h e family undertook o n e o f t h e i r many m o v e s ( u p t o t e n t i m e s a year). T h e r e was a l w a y s s n o w t o b u i l d w i t h i n t h e w i n t e r , b u t a s y o u c a n s e e , no t r e e s t o c u t down f o r buildings.  (NEXT  S l e d s made f r o m s c r a p s o f wood a n d a n i m a l b o n e s t h e I n u i t f o u n d w e r e p o w e r e d by dog t e a m s . The p r o v i d e d an e n g i n e t h a t o n l y n e e d e d f o o d t o r u n m e c h a n i c s , no g a s s t a t i o n s , no s p a r e p a r t s ! SLIDE)  Slide  #5  that dogs - no  (NEXT  ( T u n d r a V e g e t a t i o n ) - By May, much o f t h e snow h a s melted to r e v e a l the tundra l a n d . A l t h o u g h t h e snow m e l t s , i t i s n e v e r warm e n o u g h f o r t h e s o i l t o s o f t e n . P l a n t s must be v e r y h a r d y t o grow and s u r v i v e i n t h e short season. SLIDE)  SIide  #6  ( V e g e t a t i o n ) - These b e a r b e r r i e s , g r a s s and t y p i c a l o f t h e p l a n t s t h a t grow and p r o v i d e c h a n g e o f d i e t f o r humans and animals. Some a n i m a l s , s u c h plants a l l year, a snow i n t h e w i n t e r  lichens are a temporary  a s t h e c a r i b o u , s u r v i v e on t h e s e d i e t t h e y must d i g f o r t h r o u g h the months.  (NEXT  When a l l o f t h e s e p l a n t s a r e g r o w i n g i n the s h o r t summer s e a s o n t h e y p r o v i d e a b e a u t i f u l , colourful change of s c e n e r y from t h e w i n t e r snows. SLIDE)  Slide  #7  (STOP  TAPE)  (Summer Camp) - Summer m e a n s c h a n g e s f o r p e o p l e t o o . E v e n new h o u s e s ! T h e new h o u s e i s made o f d i f f e r e n t m a t e r i a l s , a new s t y l e a n d h a s d i f f e r e n t c o o k i n g arrangements.  Teacher  (START  Note:  L e a v e s l i d e #7 o n t h e s c r e e n w h i l e c l a s s d o e s a c t i v i t y #1 on their worksheets.  the  TAPE) T h e women o f t h e f a m i l y c o n s t r u c t e d t h e s e summer t e n t s o u t o f w a t e r p r o o f s e a l s k i n s on a f r a m e o f w h a l e b o n e s and s t i c k s , w e i g h t e d down by s t o n e s . Inside, the tent h a s a s l e e p i n g a r e a and a communal l i v i n g a r e a , b u t , u n l i k e i n t h e w i n t e r , most c o o k i n g i s done o u t d o o r s .  134 4  (NEXT  This SLIDE)  Slide  #8  tent  is easily  -  packed  and  moved  with  the  family.  (NEXT  ( E s k i m o Woman, J o h n W h i t e , 1 6 t h C e n t u r y ) - T h i s I n u i t woman m u s t h a v e b e e n o n e o f t h e f i r s t t o h a v e h e r picture (portrait) painted. J o h n W h i t e was the artist who p a i n t e d t h e p i c t u r e when h e v i s i t e d t h e A r c t i c o n a w h a l i n g b o a t 300 y e a r s a g o , l o n g b e f o r e t h e r e w e r e any w h i t e men l i v i n g i n t h a t p a r t of t h e c o u n t r y or most of Canada f o r t h a t m a t t e r ! T h e woman's o u t f i t i s n o t w h a t E u r o p e a n s were used t o as f a s h i o n a b l e d r e s s f o r London or P a r i s , b u t i t t e l l s a l o t a b o u t the l i f e she lead. SLIDE)  Slide  #9  RETURN Slide (STOP  ( F r e n c h Woman) - T h i s F r e n c h l a d y o f t h e same t i m e p e r i o d would c e r t a i n l y not have been c o m f o r t a b l e i n an A r c t i c Winter! Why n o t ? ... ( p a u s e f o r d i s c u s s i o n ) . TO  #8 Now TAPE)  turn  Teacher  (START  TAPE)  to  your  Note:  activity  sheet  and  do  Task  #2.  L e a v e s l i d e #8 o n t h e s c r e e n . Have s t u d e n t s work i n d i v i d u a l l y , i n p a i r s as a c l a s s g r o u p .  or  ( NEXT SLIDE) Slide  #10  (NEXT  (Woman w i t h u l u ) - T h e u l u , o r woman's k n i f e , i s b e i n g u s e d by t h e woman t o c u t s e a l s k i n t h a t h a s b e e n prepared, by s c r a p i n g and s o f t e n i n g , t o be u s e d f o r clothing. C a r i b o u s k i n w o u l d be p r e p a r e d i n t h e same way. O n l y women a r e a l l o w e d t o u s e t h e u l u b e c a u s e i t i s s u i t e d e s p e c i a l l y f o r t h e j o b s they do. Men have d i f f e r e n t t o o l s b e c a u s e t h e y do d i f f e r e n t j o b s t h a n t h e women - h u n t i n g , f i s h i n g a n d b u i l d i n g s h e l t e r s . Women were r e s p o n s i b l e f o r making a l l of the f a m i l y c l o t h e s (from boots to hoods), l o o k i n g a f t e r the s m a l l c h i l d r e n a n d t h e h o m e , p r e p a r i n g f o o d , a n d m a k i n g t h e summer tent. V e r y o f t e n i n s m a l l f a m i l y g r o u p s men a n d women would h e l p e a c h o t h e r w i t h t h e i r t a s k s so t h a t e v e r y t h i n g was done. SLIDE)  Slide  #11  The f i n i s h e d o u t f i t , a l a d i e s a m a t i u k d o e s n o t look much d i f f e r e n t f r o m t h e o n e w h i c h we h a v e a l r e a d y s e e n , a l t h o u g h t h r e e hundred y e a r s have passed between the m a k i n g o f t h e two o u t f i t s . What d i f f e r e n c e do you see in t h i s o u t f i t ? (pause) ( d e c o r a t i o n , beadwork) D e c o r a t i o n became p o s s i b l e when t h e I n u i t c o u l d trade f u r s and f o o d f o r g l a s s b e a d s and b r i g h t l y coloured  135  -  5 -  thread with the Europeans of the Hudson's Bay or the European whalers. (NEXT SLIDE)  Company  S l i d e #12  ( O i l Lamps) - T h i s I n u i t woman i s m e l t i n g s e a l f a t i n an old soapstone lamp. This o i l i s not only used for cooking but a l s o to l i g h t and heat the home. (NEXT SLIDE)  S l i d e #13  (Tent I n t e r i o r ) - Today the I n u i t has a few more b u i l d i n g m a t e r i a l s a v a i l a b l e through s t o r e s e s t a b l i s h e d i n settlements by white people. Now summer houses are made of canvas with wood frames and are " f u r n i s h e d " with s l e e p i n g bags and b l a n k e t s r a t h e r than t r a d i t i o n a l animal f u r robes. The b a s i c l a y o u t remains much the same as i n i g l o o s or s k i n t e n t s - there i s a communal s l e e p i n g p l a t f o r m (everyone s l e e p s together!) and an area f o r cooking and other home a c t i v i t i e s . (NEXT SLIDE)  S l i d e #14  (Caribou) - This animal running a c r o s s the tundra (the barren a r c t i c land) i s a c a r i b o u enjoying the b r i e f p e r i o d of summer when the a r c t i c i s n e a r l y snow f r e e and there i s d a y l i g h t almost 24 hours a day. He has been very important to the I n u i t l i f e s t y l e . Every part of him i s u s e f u l to the I n u i t : he i s used f o r food, for a n t l e r and bone to make t o o l s and f o r h i s f u r coat to make warm c l o t h e s . Where have you seen t h i s coat before? (In s l i d e #8) The c a r i b o u l i v e s i n l a r g e herds that t r a v e l across the A r c t i c i n search of food. The I n u i t followed these herds so that they could hunt them f o r s u r v i v a l . ,  According to I n u i t t r a d i t i o n , i t was the man who hunted and f i s h e d to p r o v i d e food and the animal s k i n s , bones and sinew needed f o r c l o t h e s , t o o l s and b u i l d i n g materials. (NEXT SLIDE) S l i d e #15  (STOP THE  ( F i s h i n g Weir) - F i s h i n g p r o v i d e s an important food source f o r the I n u i t d u r i n g times of the year when animals cannot be found to hunt. Summer f i s h i n g i s accomplished by using these w e i r s . A c t i v i t y #3 e x p l o r e s how these work. TAPE) Teacher Note:  (START TAPE)  Turn to the a c t i v i t y sheet and do task #3, l e a v i n g s l i d e #15 on the s c r e e n ) .  136  -  6 -  (NEXT SLIDE) Slide  #16  (Winter F i s h i n g Hole) - In winter the f i s h i n g process i s much more d i f f i c u l t . Task #4 on the a c t i v i t y sheet i s about winter f i s h i n g . Go to that task now!  (STOP TAPE) Teacher  Note:  Leave s l i d e #16 on the screen while the students complete task #4.  (START TAPE) (NEXT SLIDE) S l i d e #17  (Hunter & Tent) - T h i s I n u i t hunter, with harpoon i n hand, i s g e t t i n g ready f o r a day's hunting. Because the snow and i c e have melted, h i s winter dog s l e d i s no longer a means of t r a v e l . Instead, he t r a v e l s by water in a kayak l i k e the one b e s i d e him or an umiak which i s a l a r g e r , . o p e n boat f o r s e v e r a l people. Can you t e l l what m a t e r i a l s are used to b u i l d the kayak? ... The I n u i t c o u l d not run down to the lumber yard or hardware s t o r e to p i c k up s u p p l i e s , so they used s e a l s k i n s s t r e t c h e d over a frame of a n t l e r s and p i e c e s of wood. (NEXT SLIDE)  S l i d e #18  ( A r t i f a c t s ) - Many of the t h i n g s that the I n u i t used for thousands of years are s t i l l i n use by those I n u i t who l i v e i n very i s o l a t e d a r e a s . The t o o l s are s t i l l u s e f u l because they are made from m a t e r i a l s r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e i n the environment - such as bone, soapstone and i v o r y - and have been a l t e r e d by the I n u i t over the years to be p e r f e c t f o r the work that needs to be done. We can r e f e r to these t o o l s as a r t i f a c t s . Art i fact i s the word used by people who study c u l t u r e s to d e s c r i b e the t h i n g s t h a t people of a p a r t i c u l a r c u l t u r e c r e a t e for t h e i r p a r t i c u l a r l i f e s t y l e .  (STOP TAPE) Teacher  Note:  I n s t r u c t the c l a s s t o t u r n to the a c t i v i t y sheet f o r task #5, l e a v i n g s l i d e #18 on the s c r e e n ) .  (START TAPE) (NEXT SLIDE) S l i d e #19  Today, although the A r c t i c environment i s s t i l l harsh, the I n u i t has new ways of s u r v i v i n g the l o n g , b i t t e r  137  - 7 -  w i n t e r s . The i g l o o i s no longer necessary as a winter home, although here we see that t h i s f a m i l y has used snow b l o c k s to b u i l d a tunnel to get out of t h e i r house which i s b u r i e d by a snow d r i f t . (NEXT SLIDE) Slide  #20  (Cape Dorset at Night) - Today many Inuit have l e f t the l i f e that r e q u i r e d them to move o f t e n to f o l l o w the herds of animals upon whom t h e i r l i f e depended. T h i s old l i f e s t y l e r e q u i r e d them to l i v e i n small groups that could be e a s i l y moved. Today, the white man and a decrease i n the animal p o p u l a t i o n have brought a new l i f e s t y l e to the A r c t i c . Settlements of a more permanent nature have sprung up i n areas that are a c c e s s i b l e to southern c i t i e s by a i r or s h i p . Houses much l i k e ours are now b u i l t with m a t e r i a l s shipped i n from the south. Schools and churches have been b u i l t . S t o r e s import food, c l o t h i n g and household goods so that hunting i s no longer necessary f o r s u r v i v a l . Winter t r a v e l over the i c e and snow and summer t r a v e l i n open water have changed with the i n t r o d u c t i o n of snowmobiles, outboard motors and aluminum boats. The Inuit now f i n d themselves i n the d i f f i c u l t p o s i t i o n of t r y i n g to f i n d ways to cope with t h i s change i n l i f e s t y l e and new means of earning a l i v i n g i n s e t t l e m e n t s such as t h i s at Cape Dorset. On your v i s i t t o the Surrey A r t G a l l e r y we w i l l t a l k about I n u i t l i f e and a r t s . We w i l l look at t h e i r a r t of the past and what i t t e l l s us about them. We w i l l a l s o look at I n u i t a r t today and how the I n u i t are using t h e i r a r t as a means of s u p p o r t i n g themselves i n a new l i f e s t y l e . We w i l l t a l k about what a r t means to the I n u i t .  138 SURREY ART SLIDE  GALLERY:  INUIT ARTS AND  CULTURE-PRE-VISIT PREPARATORY KIT  LIST:  1)  Map  of A r c t i c .  2)  A r c t i c Bay  3)  Drifted  4)  Winter Camp, Pond I n l e t , NWT, D. W i l k i n s o n , 1964.  Information Canada Photograph,  5)  Tundra near Baker Lake i n May,  D. Sutherland,  6)  Tundra p l a n t l i f e  - Midnight  i n May,  snow, D. S u t h e r l a n d ,  D. S u t h e r l a n d ,  photo.  photo.  - stereocavlon - aldinum - lichen D. Sutherland,  photo.  photo.  7)  An eskimo f a m i l y cooking a meal i n f r o n t of t h e i r s k i n t e n t at the old f i s h i n g ground, P e l l y Bay, NWT, Information Canada Photograph, D. W i l k i n s o n , 1964.  8)  John Whyte, Eskimo Woman, 1600's.  9)  Fragonard, inches.  La B i l l e t  Doux, c. 1770-80, o i l on canvas,  33 x 27  C u t t i n g scraped s e a l with u l u , Pond I n l e t , D. Sutherland, Jean S i a t s u i k with a new photo.  amatiuk, Baker Lake, D.  photo.  Sutherland,  Seal f a t being melted i n the t r a d i t i o n a l , p r i m i t i v e lamp, Information Canada Photograph, D. W i l k i n s o n , 1953. Inside a "modern t e n t " . Caribou. An Eskimo f i s h i n g i n the a n c i e n t manner with a stone weir and e a r l y implements, Information Canada Photograph, D. W i l k i n s o n . An.Inuit fisherman i n s i d e a windbreak at a f i s h i n g h o l e , Information Canada Photograph, D. W i l k i n s o n , 4/58. An Eskimo hunter with a harpoon b e s i d e a kayak and a s k i n GNWT, photo. Artifacts. Snow tunnel on a r o o f . Cape Dorset a t n i g h t . /M0785  tent,  140 SURREY ART GALLERY; INUIT ARTS AND CULTURE WORKSHOP ; PRE-VISIT PREPARATORY KIT  ULU  TASK / / l  WRITE A GOOD AD FOR THE 'ARCTIC NEWS' THAT DESCRIBES THE HOUSE IN THE SLIDE WHICH AN ESKIMO FAMILY IS MOVING AWAY FROM. YOUR AD SHOULD DESCRIBE THE HOUSE, TELL ABOUT ITS LOCATION, WHAT ITS MADE FROM, WHY THE FAMILY IS MOVING, WHY IT IS A GOOD HOUSE FOR AN INUIT FAMILY AND WHAT IT IS LIKE INSIDE.  2.  141  FOR THE NEXT A ACTIVITIES LOOK AT THE SLIDE ON THE SCREEN FOR CLUES!!!  #2  AS AN ARTIST ON AN EXPLORERS EXPEDITION YOU PAINTED THIS PICTURE TO SHOW A WOMAN OF THE ARCTIC. LOOK CLOSELY AT THE CLOTHING OF THE WOMAN IN THE PICTURE TO FIND 'CLUES' THAT TELL YOU SOMETHING ABOUT INUIT LIFE 300 YEARS AGO. TOR EACH QUESTION BELOW, WRITE A) THE ANSWER I! AND B) WHAT 'CLUES' GAVE YOU THAT ANSWER.  1) WHAT IS THE WEATHER LIKE IN THE ARCTIC?  2) WHAT ANIMALS WERE FOUND IN THE AREA?  3) WHAT WERE SOME OF THE WOMAN'S ACTIVITIES?  3.  142  AS A TRAVELLER IN THE TUNDRA YOU HAVE COME ACROSS THESE PILES OF ROCKS THAT SEEM TO HAVE SOME SORT OF SPECIAL FORMATION. IN THE SPACES BETWEEN THE STONES YOU FOUND SOME  <g? | I (I 1 H  WHAT WENT ON HERE? HOW DID THESE ROCK PILES WORK? DRAW YOUR IDEA ON THE DIAGRAM BELQW  THIS WINTER DAY SEEMS QUITE BRIGHT AND MILD BUT WHAT TELLS YOU THAT IT MIGHT BE VERY COLD ?7??  HOW THICK DO YOU SUPPOSE THE ICE IS??  WHAT CLUES DID YOU USE TO GET THESE ANSWERS???  <7  143  TASK 0 5 YOU HAVE HAD A SUCCESSFUL SEARCH FOR ARTIFACTS AND FOUND ALL OF THESE I  NOW THE PROBLEM IS TO TRY TO DECIDE WHAT THEY WERE USED FOR  •  11  •• •  MATCH THE NUMBER BESIDE EACH ARTIFACT WITH THE WORD BELOW THAT BEST DESCRIBES ITS USE SEWING  HUNTING  FISHING  CARVING  PERSONAL GROOMING  PLAYING  144  SURREY ART- GALLERY: INUIT ARTS AND CULTURE WORKSHOP - PRE-VISIT PREPARATORY KIT TEACHER ANSWER SHEET  o e o WORD LIST  LISTEN FOR/THESE NEW WORDS\DURING THE PRESENTATION INUIT - 'the p e o p l e , ' the term used r e f e r t o themselves TUNDRA - b a r r e n , a r c t i c  by the Eskimo to  land  AMAT1UK - vomens' parka KAYAK - s m a l l , s i n g l e - p a s s e n g e r boat made of s e a l s k i n , over a wood or bone frame, p r o p e l l e d by paddle UMIAK - l a r g e r , open boat f o r s e v e r a l  passengers  HARPOON - a type of spear attached t o i t s case by a long thong so that i t can be r e t r i e v e d a f t e r throwing IGLOO - snowblock house ARTIFACTS - o b j e c t s created  that people of a p a r t i c u l a r c u l t u r e for their particular lifestyle  WEIR - low stone w a l l s b u i l t a l o n g shore t o t r a p for spearing ULU - womens  1  fish  knife «  TASK ill  WRITE A GOOD AD FOR THE 'ARCTIC NEWS' THAT DESCRIBES THE HOUSE IN THE SLIDE WHICH AN ESKIMO FAMILY IS MOVING AWAY FROM.  YOUR AD SHOULD  DESCRIBE THE HOUSE, TELL ABOUT ITS LOCATION, WHAT IT IS MADE FROM, WHY  THE FAMILY IS MOVING, WHY  AND WHAT IT IS LIKE  Foil Sf*K.£  !  INSIDE.  IT IS A GOOD HOUSE FOR AN INUIT FAMILY  145 FOR THE NEXT A ACTIVITIES LOOK AT THE SLIDE ON THE SCREEN FOR CLUES!!.*  TASK ill  AS AN ARTIST ON AN EXPLORER'S EXPEDITION YOU PAINTED THIS PICTURE TO SHOW A WOMAN OF THE ARCTIC.  LOOK CLOSELY AT  THE CLOTHING OF THE WOMAN IN THE PICTURE TO FIND 'CLUES' THAT TELL YOU SOMETHING ABOUT INUIT L I F E 300 YEARS AGO. FOR EACH QUESTION BELOW, WRITE  A)  THE ANSWER!! AND  B)  WHAT 'CLUES' GAVE YOU THAT ANSWER.  WHAT IS THE WEATHER LIKE IN THE ARCTIC? A.  Very  cold  B.  Clues: -  l a y e r s of c l o t h i n g c l o t h e s made o f warm f u r baby needs t o be p r o t e c t e d t a l l boots f o r snow p r o t e c t i o n  WHAT ANIMALS WERE FOUND IN THE AREA? A.  Seals, caribou  B.  C l u e s : - Fur o f c l o t h i n g l o o k s l i k e s e a l , and c a r i b o u , the I n u i t used the f u r o f the animals i n t h e i r area.  WHAT WERE SOME OF THE WOMAN'S ACTIVITIES? A.  Tending b a b i e s , making c l o t h i n g ,  pre-  p a r i n g s k i n s and sewing them together B.  Clues:  - room f o r baby i n the amatiuk - c l o t h i n g l o o k s handmade  3.  TASK if 3  146  AS A TRAVELLER IN THE TUNDRA YOU HAVE COME ACROSS THESE PILES OF ROCKS THAT SEEM TO HAVE SOME SORT OF SPECIAL FORMATION. IN THE SPACES BETWEEN THE STONES YOU FOUND SOME AND  .  <*?| I [ I | (|  " "  WHAT WENT ON HERE? HOW DID THESE ROCK PILES WORK? DRAW YOUR IDEA ON THE DIAGRAM BELOW See what t h e s t u d e n t s come up w i t h ! b a s i c a l l y , t h e f i s h were t r a p p e d i n t h e s h a l l o w w a t e r o f t h e w e i r and t h e f i s h e r m e n waded i n and s p e a r e d them w i t h t h e implement shown a b o v e .  TASK ill*  THIS WINTER DAY SEEMS QUITE BRIGHT AND MILD BUT WHAT TELLS YOU THAT IT MIGHT BE VERY COLD ???? - the fisherman i s warmly d r e s s e d - he has b u i l t a w a l l t o p r o t e c t h i m s e l f f r o m t h e wind HOW THICK DO YOU SUPPOSE THE ICE IS?? - very,  he has a l o n g  WHAT CLUES DID YOU USE TC GET THESE ANSWERS???  fishing  line  147 TASK 0 5 YOU HAVE HAD A SUCCESSFUL SEARCH FOR ARTIFACTS AND FOUND ALL OF THESE I  ;  •  •  NOW THE PROBLEM IS TO TRY TO DECIDE WHAT THEY WERE USED FOR  III  MATCH THE NUMBER BESIDE EACH ARTIFACT WITH THE WORD BELOW THAT BEST DESCRIBES ITS USE SEWING FISHING -  6  HUNTING 14,15,12,10  PERSONAL GROOMING -  2,11,7  1,9,4,3,13  CARVING  -  9  PLAYING  -  5  148  APPENDIX 6  149  SURREY ART  GALLERY:  I n u i t A r t s and C u l t u r e W o r k s h o p  INSTRUCTOR NOTE: suggestions  The s l i d e s e q u e n c e s a r e o f t e n i n t e r r u p t e d by  f o r showing t h e hands-on m a t e r i a l s where they a r e  r e l e v a n t t o the t e x t .  As an a l t e r n a t i v e y o u c o u l d show t h e  hands-on o b j e c t s a t t h e end.  I n t h e s l i d e p r e s e n t a t i o n y o u and y o u r t e a c h e r  saw  coming t o t h e g a l l e r y t o d a y , you l e a r n e d a l i t t l e t r a d i t i o n a l ways o f l i f e  before about t h e  of the I n u i t .  I n o u r p r e s e n t a t i o n h e r e we a r e g o i n g  t o t a l k about the a r t s o  the  I n u i t ; how t h e y w e r e a p a r t o f t h e I n u i t ' s p a s t  and  how t h e y h a v e h e l p e d  s t y l e of the past S l i d e #1  thirty  t h e I n u i t c o p e w i t h t h e i r new  1967, f e l t p e n  i s an I n u i t woman who now  Cape D o r s e t On B a f f i n known as an a r t i s t .  Island. She l i v e s  drawing).  lives i n  Today s h e i s w e l l in a  clapboard  b u n g a l o w w i t h m o s t o f t h e c o n v e n i e n c e s we - kitchen appliances, telephone, furniture.  expect  comfortable  She e a t s much as we do.  However,  she  remembers t h a t m o s t o f h e r l i f e  the  I n u i t h a d done f o r many h u n d r e d s o f y e a r s .  fact, until  life-  years.  ( P i t s e o l a k , Happy G i r l s , Pitseolak  lifestyle  s h e l i v e d as In  t h e e a r l y 1960's m o s t I n u i t i n P i t s e o l a k  150  region  d w e l t i n i g l o o s and  frequently  and  l i v e d by  s k i n t e n t s , moved a b o u t  hunting.  P i t s e o l a k was  b o r n s o m e t i m e a r o u n d 1900,  remembers h e r  childhood  in  t h i s drawing.  catch, her  and  She  as b e i n g  legends during w i l l h e a r one  the  the  h a p p y , as she  remembers p l a y i n g  a game q u i t e  father telling  and  like  tennis.  make-believe,  She  remembers  c h i l d r e n a l l of the  long, dark, winter  of these l a t e r  i n this  shows  old  evenings.  (You  presentation).  NEXT S L I D E : S l i d e #2  ( P i t s e o l a k , B o t h i n Summer and a Lot,  1970,  Married  f e l t pen  life  i n W i n t e r We  drawing)  b e g a n e a r l y f o r P i t s e o l a k as  most I n u i t .  L i k e her  t h e o l d way,  f o l l o w i n g the  cariboo  i n winter,  They v i s i t e d  t h a t was  establishment  Bay  the  Company a t Cape D o r s e t o n l y  e x a m p l e , t h e y may  f a m i l y and  for  to get  the  often  settlement  of the  Hudson  supplies.  n e e d a wooden b o a t t o r e p l a c e  s e a l s k i n b o a t s t h a t had move t h e  i t did  f a t h e r , her husband hunted i n  moving ten times a year. growing w i t h  Moved  b e e n sewn by  belongings,  For the  t h e women t o  or canvas to  replace  s k i n s f o r m a k i n g summer t e n t s .  Even though  lonely  ( f o r e x a m p l e , when  h u n t was  l i f e was bad,  often d i f f i c u l t  the  remembers i t as  f a m i l y went h u n g r y ) ,  a l i f e with  Everyone worked together s h e l t e r and  so  the  Pitseolak  less worries  than  t h a t t h e r e was  clothing fora l l .  this  today.  food,  151  In  the p a s t , t h e I n u i t used  their creative  talents to  make a n d d e c o r a t e o b j e c t s t h a t t h e y n e e d e d as p a r t o f their daily  life  - tools,  c l o t h i n g a n d game p i e c e s .  They d i d n o t make t h i n g s j u s t t o l o o k a t a n d e n j o y . The  I n u i t would have t h o u g h t  i t s t r a n g e t h a t we h a v e  p a i n t i n g s a n d s c u l p t u r e s i n o u r homes j u s t f o r e n joyment.  The m a i n r e a s o n  forthis  i s , of course,  t h a t t h e y moved a b o u t s o o f t e n t h a t t h e y d i d n o t w a n t to you  c a r r y any more t h i n g s t h a n w e r e n e c e s s a r y .  Have  e v e r gone h i k i n g a n d p u t t o o much i n y o u r  knap-  sack? of  I m a g i n e h a v i n g t o move y o u r w h o l e bedroom  stuff  full  t h a t way!  NEXT S L I D E : S l i d e #3  (Photo o f I n u i t i n f u r p a r k a s ) .  INSTRUCTOR NOTE: Show 1) n e e d l e c a s e ,  2) p i e c e o f c a r i b o u  h i d e , p o i n t i n g o u t how t h e h o l l o w c a r i b o u h a i r s a c t as i n s u l a t i o n , and  3) h i d e s c r a p e r ,  4) u l u .  The women i n t h e I n u i t f a m i l y made a l l o f t h e f a m i l i e s ' clothing.  E a c h p e r s o n h a d two f u r p a r k a s  fur  i n s i d e f o r warmth and t h e o t h e r w i t h t h e f u r  facing  (one w i t h t h e  f a c i n g o u t ) , p a n t s , one t o t h r e e p a i r s o f l e g g i n g s , a n d socks and b o o t s .  E v e r y t h i n g was made o f a n i m a l s k i n o r  fur,  the caribou.  proud  usually  from  The women w e r e v e r y  o f t h e i r work a n d w e r e c a r e f u l t o d e c o r a t e  families'  clothing  so t h a t they always  looked  their  nice.  152  T h i s was one o f t h e ways t h e y  c o u l d be c r e a t i v e .  Thi  i s how P i t s e o l a k t a l k s a b o u t h e r p a r k a s : "When I made a p a r k a  I u s e d t o t r y t o make i t  t h e way I w a n t e d i t t o l o o k . make i t l o o k v e r y g o o d . u s e d t o sew on a p a r k a  I would t r y t o  I t was n o t e a s y and I f o r many d a y s .  We  alway  used t h e f i n e s t s k i n o f t h e young c a r i b o u f o r the head o f t h e p a r k a little  ears  a n d , on t o p , we w o u l d p u t  from t h e baby c a r i b o u .  very nice.  I t looked  I w o u l d a l s o make p a t t e r n s a n d  designs with d i f f e r e n t - c o l o u r e d skins." NEXT S L I D E : S l i d e #4 ( S k i n and f u r parkas) As y o u saw i n y o u r  classroom  p r e s e n t a t i o n , t h e women  u s e d beads, a n d c o l o u r e d t h r e a d s On t h i s p a r k a , amatiuk The  t o decorate c l o t h e s .  n o t i c e t h e f u r "baby" h o o d o n t h e  (woman's p a r k a ) .  women a l s o u s e d d i f f e r e n t c o l o u r s o f f u r t o c u t  out animal  shapes which they s t u c k t o t h e i n s i d e  of the i g l o o t o i l l u s t r a t e  stories  they  told to enter  tain the children. NEXT S L I D E : S l i d e #5  (Old B e r i n g Sea  INSTRUCTOR NOTE:  implement).  Show f i s h i n g g e a r . Show: 1) d i p p e r 2) h a r p o o n p o i n t a n d 3) w h i t t l i n g  knife.  wall  153  For  the  and  fished.  other  traditional  I n u i t way  They h u n t e d  animals of the  were u s e d ;  the  of  caribou,  Arctic.  the  frozen  fish  important  to  of the be  drift  they  wood, s o f t  decorate  i t or  you  used f o r ? figure  Slide  stone  or  of the  animal  blankets;  implements;  lacing  materials.  diet.  In  and  winter,  u s e d as  thawed f o r  using  antlers.  to t e l l  that  and  sleigh  food.'  f o r t h e men's a c t i v i t i e s  had  bone,, i v o r y ,  He  carved  the  a k n i f e , a snow k n i f e o r  Then he m i g h t c a r v e  What do  NEXT  t o be  perhaps with  happened w i t h  you  had  the hunter h i m s e l f  tool himself,  to  and  p a r t of the  t o o l s needed  made by  pick.  line  hunted  whale  t o o l s and  were wrapped i n s k i n s  runners u n t i l All  seal,  s k i n f o r c l o t h i n g , t e n t s , and  sinew f o r t h r e a d ,  F i s h were an  t h e men  A l l parts  t h e bones f o r c a r v i n g v a r i o u s and  life,  or  scratch a design  a  into i t  a s t o r y about something  that  tool.  suppose t h i s Look a t t h e  i m p l e m e n t m i g h t have b e e n  shape of  o u t what a n i m a l t h e  the  designs  piece  and  represent  t r y to to  give  clues.  SLIDE: #6  (Snow g o g g l e s ) Think of how  a sunny, snowy w i n t e r  b r i g h t i t i s on  hurts  your eyes?  problem miles,  this and  a day  You  can  like  day.  t h a t and  i m a g i n e how  i s i n the A r c t i c w i n t e r  miles,  and  miles  Can  you how  remember the  much o f  a  when t h e r e  of uninterrupted  light  are  glaring  154  snow.  The I n u i t d e v e l o p e d  w e a r on s u c h d a y s . light getting  The s l i t s  "snow g o g g l e s " t o  reduce  t o the eyes w h i l e s t i l l  p e r s o n enough s p a c e ivory  these  t o see o u t .  (probably from a w a l r u s  t h e amount o f allowing the  They a r e c a r v e d  tusk).  N o t i c e how t h e  c r a f t s m a n has s c r a t c h e d a v e r y s i m p l e d e s i g n of to  from  lines  d e c o r a t e t h e smooth s u r f a c e .  NEXT S L I D E : Slide  #7  (Miniature animal All  sculptures).  of the I n u i t groups b e l i e v e d t h a t animals  i n t e l l i g e n t b e i n g s who h a d s o u l s . was g i v e n t o p l e a s i n g them.  Special  t h e y n e e d e d f o r t h e i r own s u r v i v a l .  the l i f e  they hunted  of the hunter.  more  than  They w e r e  thank-  f o r helping to support  They a l s o b e l i e v e d t h a t  p e r s o n h a d some p e r s o n a l s p i r i t was  attention  The h u n t e r s h a d a g r e a t  r e s p e c t f o r t h e a n i m a l s and n e v e r k i l l e d  f u l t o the animals  were  each  p r o t e c t o r who  usually  i n t h e f o r m o f an a n i m a l who h a d a p p e a r e d  to help  the person  a t some i n c i d e n t i n h i s l a t e c h i l d h o o d .  Sometimes t h e h u n t e r w o u l d do s m a l l c a r v i n g s o f t h e a n i m a l as a f o r m o f t h a n k s . slip  i n t o a pocket.  They w e r e s m a l l enough t o  U s u a l l y they were c a r v e d o u t o f  b o n e , i v o r y o r a n t l e r a n d l e s s o f t e n , s t o n e , as s t o n e was h e a v y t o c a r r y .  They w e r e s i m p l e i n s h a p e .  Some-  times t h i n g s were l e f t o f f , n o t because t h e I n u i t n o t a good c a r v e r b u t b e c a u s e t h e y l i k e enough d e t a i l t o make a l i k e n e s s .  These  t o do early  just  was  155  " s c u l p t o r s " b e l i e v e d that the s p i r i t o f the animal was i n t h e m a t e r i a l c h o s e n f o r c a r v i n g a n d i t was their that  job t o carve  i n order  t o r e l e a s e t h e shape o f  animal.  NEXT S L I D E : S l i d e #8  ( P r e W o r l d War I I c a r v i n g s  f o rIglook).  INSTRUCTOR NOTE: DISCUSSION:  S e e how many o f t h e s e  What a n i m a l s used f o r ?  are there?  carvings you can i d e n t i f y . What c o u l d t h e t o o l s be  What m a t e r i a l s h a v e b e e n u s e d f o r t h e s e  pieces? NEXT S L I D E : S l i d e #9 (Thule  p e r i o d , B i r d F i g u r e s , i v o r y , Ih  Look how s i m p l e decorated  these  bird  X 2")  s h a p e s a r e . The m a k e r h a s  them w i t h p a t t e r n s  o f dots  scratched  on t o  g i v e some more d e t a i l . NEXT S L I D E : S l i d e #10 ( I n u k c h u k ) The  hunters a l s o constructed  these  huge s t o n e  What do y o u t h i n k t h i s b i g p i l e o f r o c k s t o b e ? ... T h i s g i a n t i s c a l l e d hunters  works!  i s supposed  an I n u k c h u k .  The  o f l o n g ago w o u l d b u i l d h i m on a r i s e o f  l a n d t o h e l p them i n t h e c a r i b o u h u n t .  The c u r i o u s  c a r i b o u w o u l d come c l o s e t o t h e g i a n t , become f r i g h t e n e d by i t a n d r u n away t o w a r d s an a r e a the hunters  waited.  where  S o m e t i m e s t h e women a n d c h i l d r e n  156  would hide behind  i t and  then shout  and wave t o h e l p  scare the c a r i b o u towards the h u n t e r s .  We  might  call  t h i s b i g s t r u c t u r e a statue or a s c u l p t u r e , but t h e I n u i t i t had  a very p r a c t i c a l  to  purpose.  NEXT S L I D E : S l i d e #11 (Masks) The  other person  influenced or  in  traditional Inuit society  t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f o b j e c t s was  'angakor.'  This person,  u s u a l l y a man,  supposed t o have the a b i l i t y spirits.  the  who  shaman  was  t o communicate w i t h  He w o u l d p u t h i m s e l f i n t o t r a n c e s t o h e a r  the i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t the s p i r i t s would g i v e him the hunt, such were.  actually  when he  and  transformed  r e l a t e d these  people  he had  to impress  stories.  people  told  carvers them.  s o m e t i m e s masks t o w e a r  carve boxes to c a t c h s p i r i t s  H i s p e r f o r m a n c e c o u l d be  his  Although  l o o k e d l i k e so they c o u l d carve  a l s o n e e d e d o r n a m e n t s and  He  i n t o the s p i r i t i t -  usually didn't carve, h i s stories  what the s p i r i t s He  and m i s s i n g  O f t e n he w o u l d use m a g i c t r i c k s  audience he  as w h e r e a n i m a l s  about  These t r a n c e s were c a l l e d s p i r i t - f l i g h t s .  b e l i e v e d he self.  the  very  with.  scary!  NEXT S L I D E : S l i d e #12 (Top: D o r s e t c u l t u r e , A d v e r j o r , 8") ( B o t t o m : D o r s e t c u l t u r e , clOOO AD, c a r i b o u a n t l e r , The  d e c o r a t i v e c a r v i n g t h a t was  for  the h u n t e r s  The  bottom piece i s a carved c a r i b o u a n t l e r .  themselves  done f o r t h e shaman o r  w o u l d have l o o k e d l i k e  p i c k o u t some o f t h e i m a g e s on  4 V )  this  piece?  Can  this. you  1 5 7  NEXT S L I D E : S l i d e #13 ( D o l l ) Toys and games w e r e e n j o y e d by t h e I n u i t c h i l d r e n a n d adults.  D o l l s a n d game p i e c e s w e r e c a r v e d much  the s m a l l animal s c u l p t u r e s .  like  T h i s d o l l i s a good e x -  ample . INSTRUCTOR NOTE:  Show:  1) bone game a n d  2) p i n a n d c u p game  NEXT S L I D E : S l i d e #14 ( P i p e s ) These p i p e s a r e a l i t t l e  newer, b u t have been carved  in a similar  They w e r e c a r v e d  technique.  to trade with the white whalers  specifically  and t r a d e r s .  NEXT S L I D E : S l i d e #15 ( T h u l e c u l t u r e , M a r r o w P i c k , i v o r y ) T h i s t o o l was u s e d f o r p i c k i n g Notice i t s beautiful  t h e marrow o u t o f b o n e s .  handle.  NEXT S L I D E : S l i d e #16  (Unknown, H u n t e r , Although  pre-1900, i v o r y )  the Inuit rarely  carved pieces j u s t f o r the  sake o f t h e o b j e c t i t s e l f ,  t h i s p i e c e from  1800"s m i g h t h a v e b e e n an e x c e p t i o n . figure i s very simple expressive.  figure tells  Although  (not a l o t o f d e t a i l s )  Can y o u t e l l w h a t t h e h u n t e r  how he i s f e e l i n g ?  the late this i t i s very  i s d o i n g and  The way t h e c a r v e r h a s p o s e d t h e  an e x c i t i n g  story!  158  The  o l d ways d i d n ' t e n d f o r t h e I n u i t u n t i l  t h i r t y y e a r s ago.  Pitseolak  about  says:  " I t h i n k t h e new t i m e s s t a r t e d f o r E s k i m o s a f t e r t h e w h i t e p e o p l e ' s w a r , when t h e w h i t e men b e g a n t o make many h o u s e s i n t h e A r c t i c . Eskimos  b e g a n t o move i n t o t h e s e t t l e m e n t s  and t h e n t h e w h i t e p o e p l e s t a r t e d h e l p i n g us t o g e t these houses.  T h a t ' s why l i f e  I don't t h i n k everybody from  changed.  was t o o f o n d o f m o v i n g  t h e camps, b u t t h e y s t i l l  came anyway....  They a r e w o r k i n g f o r t h e w h i t e man now." The w a r s h e r e f e r s t o i s t h e S e c o n d W o r l d War w h i c h ended i n 19 45.  Up u n t i l  that time I n u i t c o n t a c t w i t h  t h e w h i t e man was l i m i t e d . Bay  posts p e r i o d i c a l l y  stuffs,  He v i s i s t e d  t h e f e w Hudson  t o t r a d e f u r s f o r some f o o d  s e w i n g m a t e r i a l s s u c h as d u f f l e w o o l ,  metal  n e e d l e s , b u t t o n s a n d c o l o u r e d t h r e d s , a n d new t o o l s m e t a l k n i v e s , guns a n d p o t s a n d p a n s .  A few h a d  worked on t h e whale b o a t s . I n t h e new s e t t l e m e n t s t h a t t h e w h i t e man s e t up a t Cape D o r s e t a n d B a k e r L a k e a n d a t o t h e r s i t e s , were s u p p l y s t o r e s , government s e r v i c e s , s e r v i c e s and C h r i s t i a n m i s s i o n a r i e s . s e t up s c h o o l s t h a t n o t o n l y a t t e m p t e d I n u i t about  medical  The m i s s i o n a r i e s t o teach the  C h r i s t i a n i t y , b u t a l s o how t o r e a d a n d  w r i t e and speak E n g l i s h . had  there  seen o f s c h o o l s .  T h i s was t h e f i r s t  the Inuit  B e f o r e , a l l t e a c h i n g t h a t was  n e e d e d t o o k p l a c e i n t h e home.  159  A t t h e e n d o f W o r l d War  I I , t h e c a r i b o u h e r d had been  g r e a t l y d e p l e t e d , c a u s i n g many f a m i l i e s t o s u f f e r f r o m s t a r v a t i o n and e v e n t u a l l y d i s e a s e .  These  Inuit  0  began t o d r i f t  t o the settlements f o r help:  f o o d and s h e l t e r . and  families  Many h u n t e r s  left their  doctors, wives  t o be c a r e d f o r i n t h e s e t t l e m e n t s and  went back o u t t o t h e i c e f i e l d s  t o hunt.  I n t i m e , c h i l d r e n s t a r t e d t o go t o s c h o o l and t h e conveniences  p r o v i d e d i n t h e s e t t l e m e n t made  w o r k and more l e i s u r e t i m e although  f o r t h e women.  t h e y m s s e d t h e o l d ways and o f t e n  settlements i n hunting  season,  p e n d e n t on t h e new w a y s .  these  things?  left  They d i d n o t w a n t t o g i v e  f o o d , t h e new t y p e o f c l o t h e r s . to earn  Gradually,  t h e I n u i t became d e -  up t h e new h o u s e s b u i l t by t h e w h i t e man,  how w e r e t h e y  less  a living,  the imported  The p r o b l e m was  -  t o pay f o r a l l o f  The g o v e r n m e n t s e t up s e v e r a l s p e c i a l  p r o j e c t s t o employ t h e I n u i t , b u t t h e p r o j e c t s were often unsuccessful. i n g f o r someone  The I n u i t w e r e n o t u s e d t o w o r k -  e l s e , o r d o i n g work t h a t g a v e money i n -  s t e a d o f meat o r h i d e s . man's i d e a o f w o r k i n g  They w e r e n o t u s e d t o t h e w h i t e  time.  They w e r e u s e d t o d o i n g  t h i n g s as t h e y w e r e n e e d e d , n o t d u r i n g any  particular  hours. Finally,  someone h a d t h e i d e a t o make u s e o f t h e I n u i t ' s  craft skills.  James H o u s t o n w e n t t o Cape D o r s e t i n  1957 a s a c r a f t d e v e l o p m e n t o f f i c e r . h i m s e l f and was t h e r e f o r e a s s i g n e d teacher.  He was an  artist  t o a c t as an a d v i s o r /  160  S i n c e many women d i d n ' t l e a v e t h e s e t t l e m e n t , e v e n d u r i n g h u n t i n g s e a s o n , t h e y were encouraged articles  to  sew  t h a t H o u s t o n c o u l d s e l l f o r them i n t h e  south. P i t s e o l a k was living.  one  o f t h e women who  H e r e i s how  sewed t o e a r n  she d e s c r i b e s i t :  " A t f i r s t , a f t e r Sowmik ( H o u s t o n ) l o t s of sewing. with designs.  I made p a r k a s  came, I d i d  and  duffel  socks  L o t s o f women b e g a n t o w o r k -  k i n d o f woman so l o n g as t h e y c o u l d sew. to  embroider  things.  a n i m a l s and  B u t i t was  e v e n t h o u g h i t was NEXT S L I D E : S l i d e #17 (Parka) #18 ( W a l l H a n g i n g , #19 ( W a l l H a n g i n g , INSTRUCTOR NOTE: Show:  a l lkinds of  always hard to  1) p a r k a ,  living  f o r a parka  tough  craft officer  3)  socks,  a much e a s i e r  job  a n i m a l h i d e s w i t h bone  t o l d the craftswomen  f o r the parkas  a p p e a l t o t h e s o u t h e r n e r s who  so t h a t they w o u l d buy  what  would  them.  However,  t h e d e s i g n s t h a t t h e women c h o s e t o d e c o r a t e t h e of  -  hangings.  t h a n i t h a d b e e n t o sew  c o l o u r s t o use  used  do."  2) m i t t s ,  S e w i n g t h e s o f t d u f f l e c l o t h was  The  $12  I  any  Manguagsualuk) Angnaqqaq)  4) w a l l  needles.  a  border  t h e p a r k a show many s h a p e s f r o m t h e p a s t - h i d e s ,  animals, hunters  and  c a r v e r s , i g l o o s and  c h a r a c t e r from t r a d i t i o n a l  stories.  the  spirit  161  Designs were then embroidered of  or made from c u t o u t s  other c o l o u r e d f a b r i c and sewn onto the parka -  a technique c a l l e d a p p l i q u e .  W a l l hangings  were  made i n the same manner. The f i r s t white men t o v i s i t  the north were p a r t i c u -  l a r l y a t t r a c t e d t o the s c u l p t u r e of the I n u i t people. Some of the f i r s t v i s i t o r s i n the l a t e 1940's and e a r l y 1950's took the s c u l p t u r e s home t o the southern c i t i e s where they showed them to h a n d i c r a f t a s s o c i a t i o n s , g a l l e r i e s and government o f f i c i a l s .  When the  s c u l p t u r e s were o f f e r e d f o r s a l e , they were s o l d q u i c k l y and soon there was a demand f o r more.  When  the c r a f t o f f i c e r s began t o e s t a b l i s h themselves i n the n o r t h , they encouraged work t o s e l l .  the hunters t o b r i n g them  The hunters l i k e d working  i n t h i s way  because they c o u l d do s m a l l c a r v i n g s w h i l e they were on hunting e x p e d i t i o n s as w e l l as w h i l e they were s t a y i n g i n the s e t t l e m e n t .  Soon, there was a need f o r  space t o be s e t a s i d e f o r workshops at the s e t t l e m e n t s . The c r a f t s o f f i c e r s brought new k n i v e s and power t o o l s to  the workshops.  They gave suggestions as to what the  I n u i t might carve t o appeal t o the buyers yet  remain d i s t i n c t l y  Inuit.  i n the south,  S c u l p t u r e i s the only a r t  form t h a t we now a s s o c i a t e w i t h the I n u i t t h a t was a c t u a l l y a p a r t of t h e i r past way of l i f e .  White man's  i n f l u e n c e has changed s c u l p t u r e , but i t has not r u i n e d it. work.  There are s t i l l many t r a d i t i o n a l elements  i n the  162  NEXT S L I D E : S l i d e #20 (Rocks) T o d a y , m o s t I n u i t s c u l p t u r e i s made f r o m s t o n e is  which  f o u n d u n d e r t h e snow i n s p r i n g o r i s q u a r r i e d a t  s e v e r a l p l a c e s f a r from the s e t t l e m e n t s .  The I n u i t  enjoy the search f o r the stone because i t i n v o l v e s t r a v e l , much l i k e did.  t h e i r t r a d i t i o n a l or past  lifestyle  The s t o n e m o s t o f t e n u s e d i s commonly  soapstone  and i s v e r y s o f t .  green or b l a c k .  called  I t s c o l o u r c a n be g r e y ,  The g r e e n s t o n e i s o f t e n  called  serpentine, while other stones are r e f e r r e d  t o by  t h e i r c o l o u r ( i . e .grey s t o n e ) . NEXT S L I D E : S l i d e #21 ( B e a r on Rock) The  stone i s u s u a l l y  found i n chunks.  The s i z e a n d  s h a p e o f a chunk w i l l a f f e c t t h e way a c a r v i n g e v o l v e s . Do y o u remember w h a t we s a i d animal r e s t i n g  about  i n a stone w a i t i n g  r e l e a s e i t s shape?  That  the s p i r i t of the f o r the sculptor t o  idea i s s t i l l  held.  The I n u i t  p l a c e g r e a t v a l u e o n how w e l l t h e c a r v e r h a n d l e s t h e particular  s t o n e he h o p e s t o c a r v e .  This bear i s  s n o o z i n g o n t h e r o c k he h a s e m e r g e d f r o m ! d i f f e r e n t t h e s t o n e l o o k s when i t i s n i c e l y l i k e the bear? was  The b o t t o m  polished  p a r t has been l e f t as i t  found.  NEXT S L I D E : S l i d e #22 (Female  N o t i c e how  s c u l p t o r p r e p a r i n g stone)  Contemporary s c u l p t o r s o f t e n choose s m a l l stones the hunters  d i d i n the o l d times.  sculptures that f i t easily smaller.  but  i n t o t h e hand o r a r e even reminiscent  s c u l p t u r e s t h a t were c a r r i e d about  are a s i z e that i s popular  NEXT S L I D E : S l i d e #23 (Male s c u l p t o r Recently,  They p r o d u c e  These s c u l p t u r e s a r e n o t o n l y  of t h e t i n y  with  like  before,  with buyers i n the south.  l a r g e stone)  s c u l p t o r s have begun t o work w i t h  large stones  as  quite  this.  NEXT S L I D E : S l i d e #24 ( S c u l p t i n g w i t h power t o o l s ) W h i t e man's a x e s a n d s t r o n g m e t a l k n i v e s , a s w e l l as power t o o l s , h a v e a l l o w e d more w i t h t h e s t o n e .  They c a n c a r v e  more q u i c k l y t h a n w i t h p o s s i b l e t o carve skill  away p i e c e s much  t h e o l d hand t o o l s , making i t  large sculptures.  and c o n f i d e n c e  delicate  t h e carvers t o experiment  t o use these  I t takes  great  t o o l s on s u c h  stone.  NEXT S L I D E : S l i d e #25 (Box o f s c u l p t u r e The  materials)  Inuit carvers s t i l l  materials.  They s e a r c h  whales and a n i m a l s .  enjoy working w i t h  traditional  f o r o l d , hardened bones o f  164  NEXT S L I D E : S l i d e #26 ( I y a k a k , Can  s c u l p t u r e i n whalebone, v e r t e b r a e , 1 2 " ) .  y o u t e l l w h a t p a r t o f a w h a l e t h e s e b o n e s came  from?  (the back - v e r t e b r a e ) .  Iyakak, the s c u l p t o r  o f t h i s p i e c e , has used t h e n a t u r a l shape o f t h e bones as a p a r t o f t h e d e s i g n .  Whether c a r v i n g  bone o r i v o r y , t h e I n u i t show a g r e a t  i n stone,  sensitivity for  the o r i g i n a l shape o f t h e m a t e r i a l they u s e . NEXT S L I D E : S l i d e #27 ( B i r d s , c a r i b o u  antler)  T h e s e b i r d s h a v e b e e n made f r o m c a r i b o u a n t l e r s . They h a v e b e e n c a r e f u l l y p o l i s h e d f o r a s m o o t h ,  shiny  surface. NEXT S L I D E : S l i d e #28  (Marc T u n g i l i k , i n l a y  sculpture).  Some s c u l p t o r s e x p e r i m e n t w i t h u s i n g more t h a n one  material.  ivory. is  This piece  c o m b i n e s s o a p s t o n e and  The i v o r y i s s e t i n t o t h e s o a p s t o n e ;  called  this  inlay.  Most a r t i s t s  i n the south  w h e r e we l i v e ,  think a  g r e a t d e a l a b o u t t h e i d e a s b e h i n d t h e i r w o r k - why t h e y c h o o s e a s u b j e c t , how t o show t h e s u b j e c t , materials  a r e m o s t s u i t a b l e f o r t h e i d e a , a n d how  the work r e l a t e s t o o t h e r work o r i d e a s . s c u l p t o r , however, i s n o t concerned w i t h He i s m a i n l y  an  The I n u i t such  (arms, l e g s e t c . )  and t h a t i t l o o k s  t h e s u b j e c t - w h e t h e r i t i s an a n i m a l ,  imaginary  thoughts.  concerned that the s c u l p t u r e has a l l o f  the necessary p a r t s like  what  creature.  a person or  165  S l i d e # 28  (continued) The  I n u i t s c u l p t o r b e l i e v e s t h a t i f he h a s  done h i s  s c u l p t u r e w e l l i t s h o u l d n e e d no f u r t h e r e x p l a n a tions.  Some o f t h e y o u n g e r s c u l p t o r s who  have  had  the o p p o r t u n i t y t o read about o t h e r s c u l p t o r s from other c u l t u r e s or to study versities,  no  a r t at c o l l e g e s or  l o n g e r t h i n k t h i s way  f e e l more f r e e d o m t o e x p e r i m e n t o t h e r s and Inuit  uni-  entirely.  They  w i t h the ideas  of  c o m b i n e them w i t h t h e t r a d i t i o n s o f  the  culture.  NEXT S L I D E : Slide  #29  ( N i v i a k s h i a k , Sea S e d n a , t h e Sea who  is still  Goddess R i d i n g a S e a l ,  Goddess, i s a c h a r a c t e r from  a popular  w i l l hear her  1958)  legend  t h e G o d d e s s who  has  legend  subject of I n u i t a r t .  later,  You  but, b r i e f l y :  she  is  complete c o n t r o l over  sea  and  l a n d a n i m a l s , and  thus, the I n u i t ' s  b e l i e v e d t h a t she  i s v e r y c a l m when h e r h a i r i s  neat,  as i n t h i s s c u l p t u r e , b u t  food.  It is  . . .  NEXT S L I D E : Slide  #30 ....  (Ashoona, E n r a g e d T a y l a y o ,  1962,  green  stone)  a n g r y and  v i o l e n t when h e r h a i r becomes a mess.  Does t h i s  sound l i k e  how  anyone y o u  t h i s newer s c u l p t u r e h a s  spaces than  the  last  one.  know?!!!  Notice  many more h o l e s  and  166  NEXT SLIDE: S l i d e #31 (Jobie Crow, Sea S p i r i t Transformation, green-grey stone, 70 X lOOmm) In many I n u i t and  legends,  vice versa.  1980  humans t u r n i n t o sea  This i s c a l l e d a  creatures  transformation.  That i s what i s happening i n t h i s s c u l p t u r e . guess how actually hand.  Can  you  big this sculpture is?...(pause)... i t i s s m a l l enough to c a r r y i n the palm of your  It is characteristic  of I n u i t s c u l p t u r e t h a t  such a s m a l l work can be made t o g i v e the of something b i g , s o l i d and massive.  impression  Can you  guess  what shape the o r i g i n a l stone might have been?..(pause) NEXT SLIDE: S l i d e #32 (minimal dancing Can you  bear)  guess what the s u b j e c t of t h i s s c u l p t u r e i s ?  . . . I t ' s a very happy bear.  Many I n u i t  sculptors  today experiment w i t h making t h e i r p i e c e s as but e x p r e s s i v e  as p o s s i b l e , c r e a t i n g t r u l y  simple  elegant  works of a r t . NEXT SLIDE: Slide  #33  ( I o l a , Bear, 1966,  22  in.)  This bear i s carved i n much more d e t a i l and t r a d i t i o n a l , but j u s t as  i s more  joyous!  NEXT SLIDE: Slide  #34  (Manno, Bear on Ice, 1964, Can you  3%X6  guess what the s u b j e c t o f t h i s one  i s very s m a l l - j u s t 3" X 6". their carve.  7/10X3 3/10  The  delicate  in.) is? ...It legs  " r e f l e c t i o n s " must have been very d i f f i c u l t The  a r t i s t had  t o use very  fine  drills.  and to  167  NEXT S L I D E : S l i d e #35 ( E l i S a l l u a l u k , New  sculpture)  s c u l p t u r e s show e x p e r i m e n t s  w i t h new s u b j e c t s .  NEXT S L I D E : Slide  #36  (Kiakshuk, Morning Now  l e t us  Sun,  1961,  look at another  stencil)  a r t form t h a t the  h a v e become w e l l known f o r - t h e p r i n t . I n u i t had of  the  the  packages  p r o d u c t s t h e y w e r e u s i n g c o u l d be made e x -  a c t l y t h e same e a c h soup c a n ) . be u s e d  Many o f  e x p r e s s e d c u r i o s i t y a b o u t how  t h e new  Inuit  time.  ( T h i n k o f t h e l a b e l on  H o u s t o n showed them how  a s t e n c i l could  t o make many c o p i e s o f t h e one  and o v e r a g a i n .  a  design  over  When a c o p y i s made on p a p e r ,  i t is  called a print. NEXT S L I D E : Slide  #37  (Pitseolak,  A D r a w i n g Out  o f My M i n d ,  a r e now  1967)  Prints  and d r a w i n g s  a p o p u l a r a r t form of  Inuit,  a l t h o u g h they were not p a r t o f t h e  the  Inuit  tradition. "Two  w i n t e r s - two  y e a r s - a f t e r J i m came t o  live  i n Cape D o r s e t , he b e g a n t o ask  for  Many p e o p l e h a d b e e n d o i n g t h e d r a w i n g s started.  I t was  before I  o n l y j u s t b e f o r e J i m w e n t away  t h a t I heard people were drawing Pitseolak  drawings.  enjoyed producing c o l o u r f u l  t o make money." clothes for.  H o u s t o n t o s e l l i n t h e s o u t h , b u t when s h e d i s c o v e r e d t h a t more money c o u l d be made f r o m paper,  s h e was  amazed.  j u s t drawing  on  168  Slide  #37  (continued) Many o f P i t s e o l a k ' s d r a w i n g s a l t h o u g h she s a i d  looked l i k e  they s t a r t e d  monsters,  o u t t o be a n i m a l s , b u t  she w a s n ' t a g o o d enough a r t i s t y e t !  We a l l know t h a t  problem! The  I n u i t drawings  were becoming v e r y p o p u l a r i n t h e  s o u t h - t h e r e w e r e b a r e l y enough b e i n g done t o s u p p l y all  o f t h e o r d e r s f o r them.  One  d a y a w h i t e p e r s o n was v i s i t i n g  w h e r e t h e woman h a d j u s t f i n i s h e d out o f s e a l s k i n sealskin him  an I n u i t f a m i l y  cutting  t o s t i t c h onto a parka.  from which  of a s t e n c i l .  some s h a p e s The p i e c e o f  t h e shapes had been c u t reminded How may o f y o u have u s e d a s t e n c i l  t o make a l e t t e r f o r t h e t i t l e  on a p r o j e c t o r f o r a  sign? At f i r s t designs  t h e " p r i n t m a k e r s " made s t e n c i l s u s i n g t h e from  sealskin  drawings.  The s t e n c i l s w e r e c u t f r o m  j u s t as I n u i t women h a d b e e n d o i n g  to decorate  clothing.  L a t e r they used heavy paper  t h a t h a d b e e n o i l e d t o make s t e n c i l s . l a i d o n t h e p a p e r a n d i n k was b r u s h e d u s i n g a b r u s h made o f s t i f f caribou  f o r years  The s t e n c i l was i n t o the hole  caribou hair  o r a wad o f  skin.  INSTRUCTOR NOTE: DISCUSSION: Why do y o u s u p p o s e t h a t t h e d r a w i n g s were easy shapes,  t o adapt t o s t e n c i l work?  s o l i d colour)  the Inuit d i d  (large,  simple  169  S l i d e #37  (continued) Before contact w i t h people d i d n o t have paper unheard  of.  from  the south, the I n u i t  o r p e n c i l s and d r a w i n g was  The o n l y d r a w i n g s  almost  were d e s i g n s s c r a t c h e d  on s c u l p t u r e s o r some t h a t w e r e done f o r e a r l y t r a d e r s and w h a l e r s who Houston brought began and  also s u p p l i e d the m a t e r i a l . paper  and f e l t p e n s t o t h e I n u i t ,  t o draw p i c t u r e s o f t r a d i t i o n a l  spirits.  the south.  When  life,  they  animals  He f o u n d t h a t t h e y w e r e v e r y p o p u l a r i n I n i t i a l l y , P i t s e o l a k b o u g h t h e r own  b u t when H o u s t o n saw h e r f i r s t he g a v e h e r more m a t e r i a l s . p i c t u r e s o f what  drawings  and l i k e d  The I n u i t a r t i s t s  t h e y knew.  paper them,  drew  H o u s t o n and o t h e r s  from t h e s o u t h o f f e r e d s u g g e s t i o n s about what m i g h t make t h e d r a w i n g s  more a t t r a c t i v e  F o r i n s t a n c e , he s u g g e s t e d of  Pitseolak  d i d most o f  i n b r o w n and b l a c k b e c a u s e  were c o l o u r s s h e knew and l i k e d . clothing,  buyers.  t h a t t h e y p u t f a c e s on a l l  t h e c r e a t u r e s and p e o p l e .  her e a r l y drawings  f o r southern  these  In the past, a l l  t o o l s , t e n t s and b o a t s w e r e t h e s e  colours,  b e c a u s e t h e y w e r e made f r o m f u r s and s k i n s .  Most o f  t h e a n i m a l s and b i r d s i n t h e A r c t i c  are those  colours.  INSTRUCTOR NOTE: DISCUSSION: H o u s t o n s u g g e s t e d Why  she use b r i g h t c o l o u r s i n s t e a d .  do y o u s u p p o s e t h a t m i g h t b e ? ( c h e e r f u l ,  l i k e , more a p p e a l i n g t o p e o p l e c o l o u r s t o h a n g on w a l l s ) .  child-  i n the south - b r i g h t  170  NEXT S L I D E : S l i d e #38 ( K i a k s h u k , Sea K i a k s h u k was print.  Goddess H e l d by  the  a r t i s t who  did  P i t s e o l a k s a y s t h a t he  when she  started  a Bird, the was  d r a w i n g i n 1951  stencil)  drawing for a very old  and  she  this man  liked  his  d r a w i n g s because t h e y were " r e a l I n u i t . "  He  p i c t u r e s of  spirits  and  animals,  h e a r d o r b e e n t o l d by  the  shaman.  the  from s t o r i e s This p r i n t l e g e n d of is  up  is  the  had an  o l d ways o f  he  by  had  Kiakshuk i l l u s t r a t e s the  Sedna.  i n the  What I w a n t you  top  of  carved a l i t t l e  "syllabic."  l a n g u a g e c o u l d be  was  o n l y spoken.  The  Inuit  The  l e a r n e d t o use  written.  Arctic,  write their  own  artist  name done i n were  1800's so  that  U n t i l then i t  b a s e d on  sounds.  i t very quickly.  t h e r e were s c h o o l s i n the c o u l d r e a d and  later  This  Each  These l e t t e r s  l e t t e r s are  Inuit  print.  s i g n i n g h i s work.  m i s s i o n a r i e s i n the  Inuit  the  s t o n e stamp w i t h h i s  alphabet c a l l e d  the  popular  t o n o t i c e i s what  l e f t hand c o r n e r of  a r t i s t ' s way  d e v e l o p e d by  life,  drew  9 out  Long of  10  before  Inuit  language.  NEXT S L I D E : Slide  #39  (Geese and  Shaman,  stencil)  INSTRUCTOR NOTE: DISCUSSION:Use t h e  following  as  an  outline  for  d i s c u s s i o n of  this  print. I d o n ' t know t h e  title  i f we  out  w h a t ' s happening.' you  do the  you  can  figure  see?  How  can  person?  Why  i s he  d o i n g ? ....  One  of  t h i s s t e n c i l , but  let's  What a n i m a l  t e l l what each i s ?  sitting?  see  What a r e  the  Who  is  animals  t h i n g to n o t i c e about t h i s p r i n t  is  171  Slide  #39  (continued)  Discussion: t h e way t h e w a l r u s e s tummies a r e l i g h t e r this  is?  With  a stencil  ink  (really  are shaded s o t h a t i n colour.  do y o u s u p p o s e  are l i g h t e r ? or h a l f  y o u c a n c o n t r o l how  print  You w i l l  see t h a t t h i s  light  today  i s what we  "Playing  Demons,  other  stonecut)  call  K i c k b a l l with  a stone  cut.  carvers.  The s t o n e  a drawn d e s i g n ,  cut print  transferring  and  then  you  e v e r made a p o t a t o p r i n t ?  called  skilled  stone  away i n s h e e t s sculpture.  taking  i t t o a f l a t stone s u r f a c e  Well,  Have  imagine the  stone.  f o r c a r v i n g b u t they  a l o t when t h e y  As  stone  c a r v i n g the design out of the stone.  this  The I n u i t h a d  found  they  q u a r r i e d i t because i t tended  wasted  t o break  i n s t e a d o f t h e b l o c k s you need f o r  How does a p o t a t o p r i n t work?  you carve  not your  This p r i n t  method d e a l s w i t h  p o t a t o t o be a b i g s l a b o f g r e e n  right,  by t h e I n u i t  Demons" was done t h a t way.  we a l r e a d y know, t h e I n u i t were v e r y  .... T h a t ' s  away t h e p a r t s o f t h e p o t a t o  that are  d e s i g n s o t h a t when y o u a r e f i n i s h e d c a r v i n g ,  t h e p a r t where y o u drew y o u r rest!  onto the  i s not so with  b e s t known p r i n t m a k i n g method u s e d  used  o r dark the  methods.  NEXT SLIDE: S l i d e #40 ( P l a y i n g K i c k b a l l w i t h  is  under water?)  i s because you rub the i n k d i r e c t l y  paper.  The  Why  their  d e s i g n i s h i g h e r than the  S t o n e c u t works t h e same way!  a l l done, some d e t a i l s  When t h e c a r v i n g  c a n be s c r a t c h e d i n t o t h e  172  S l i d e #40  (continued) design.  Then the r a i s e d p a r t . o f the stone i s covered  i n ink by a r o l l e r  and the paper i s l a i d down or cut  and pressed so t h a t the inked design i s t r a n s f e r r e d to the paper.  Then the paper i s p u l l e d o f f , r e v e a l i n g  the d e s i g n . Let's look a t t h i s s e r i e s o f s l i d e s showing how  a stone c u t i s  done: Slides: #41  ... the I n u i t a r t i s t p r e p a r i n g a drawing i n h i s home. What i s he  #42  using?  ... another a r t i s t a t work. season t h i s i s ?  #43  Can you guess what  Look a t the house w a l l s f o r a c l u e !  ... at the workshop, these p r i n t e r s prepare the stone. They have drawn on the design and are now  carving  away the background! #44  ... a c l o s e r look. printmaker  #45  ... now  #46  stone has been inked so the  can b e t t e r see the d e s i g n he i s c a r v i n g .  the stone i s ready  guess how how  The  b i g and how  for printing.  Can  heavy the stone i s ?  Notice  f i n e l y carved the s u r f a c e i s !  ... f o r t h i s p r i n t , the c e n t r a l p a r t of the design i s to be orange, so here the p r i n t e r r o l l s on orange ink w i t h a rubber r o l l e r we  &  you  the  c a l l a brayer.  #47  ... the paper i s l a y e d on the inked stone  #48  i t i s rubbed t o make sure a l l of the ink t r a n s f e r s to  the paper.  and  This i s c a l l e d "burnishing."  173  Slides:(continued) #49  ... the paper i s p u l l e d a print.* one we  o f f the stone and t h e r e i s  T h i s p r i n t i s a d i f f e r e n t one  saw b e f o r e .  Can you guess who  o r i g i n a l drawing f o r t h i s one?  than  the  drew the  That's r i g h t -  Pitseolak. The  d i f f e r e n t centres i n the A r c t i c - Cape Dorset, Baker Lake  and Povungnituk s e t up p r i n t making shops i n d i f f e r e n t ways. Most of the p r i n t s we  are l o o k i n g a t were made a t Cape Dorset.  In Cape Dorset, the person who not u s u a l l y  the a r t i s t who  carved the stone p l a t e s  drew the o r i g i n a l drawing.  c r a f t development o f f i c e r s f o r the south helped the  and the p r i n t e r s became very s k i l l f u l .  The  The  printers  at the shop s e t up a system of p r e p a r i n g and p r i n t i n g plates  was  the  printers  worked w i t h the o r i g i n a l a r t i s t s t o help decide the b e s t way  to  do the p r i n t , what c o l o u r s t o use and what changes should be made.  At other c e n t r e s , the a r t i s t s cut t h e i r own  printing  stones. The  I n u i t enjoyed the p r i n t workshops because there were enough  people working i n one p l a c e to p r o v i d e good c o n v e r s a t i o n w h i l e they worked.  The work i n the p r i n t shop tended  because the men f o r the hunt. hunting season, use p r o p e r l y .  who  trained  as p r i n t e r s  to be  seasonal  s t i l l wanted t o go out  T h i s worked out w e l l because d u r i n g the w i n t e r the p r i n t i n g  inks became too c o l d and s t i f f  to  Some a r t i s t s were a l s o hunters and they c o u l d  continue drawing while at hunting camp.  Other a r t i s t s who  did  not hunt c o u l d continue drawing while the p r i n t e r s were away so that  the p r i n t e r s had work ready  f o r them when they r e t u r n e d .  17k L e t ' s look a t some p r i n t s INSTRUCTOR NOTE: Slide  o f Cape  Dorset:  Questions t o d i s c u s s while  #50  Man K i l l i n g  #51  Return o f the Sun  Seal  looking at prints:  Why i s there no background? (not thought to be important;  #52 - K i k a v i k and the  used t o seeing f l a t  Hunter  land  which almost e v e r y t h i n g  #5.3 - Luag, Three Owls,  in i s white,  making i t d i f f i c u l t t o see horizon) What k i n d of c o l o u r s are used?  Four B i r d s #54 - Muskox  Why? How do the a r t i s t s  arrange  #55  Caribou  their figures  #56  Dream  r i g h t i n the middle?  #57  Inukshoo  amount o f o b j e c t s on l e f t and  #58  Hunting  r i g h t o f center?  on the page? i . e . The same  What k i n d of  movement i s there i s the compositions? i.e. circular, radiating.  How i s t h i s shown?  i.e. direction  figures  curve o f the b o d i e s ? these p r i n t s  static,  about?  face, What are  i . e . animals,  the hunt, legends. NEXT SLIDE: Slide  #59 (Oonark, A Shaman's Helping  Spirits)  INSTRUCTOR NOTE: DISCUSSION: T h i s i s a Baker Lake p r i n t .  How i s i t d i f f e r e n t  from Cape Dorset? (more c o l o u r s , not as much movement, i . e . more s t a t i c ) . Today the s c u l p t u r e and p r i n t workshops are not run by the government c r a f t s d i r e c t o r , help of the c r a f t s  director.  but by committees o f I n u i t with the  175  S l i d e #59  (continued)  These committees are c a l l e d 'cooperatives' and are r e a l l y a b u s i n e s s run by the I n u i t f o r the I n u i t .  The  I n u i t have become  used t o the goods and s e r v i c e s p r o v i d e d by the s e t t l e m e n t s (food, c l o t h i n g , houses, e l e c t r i c i t y , e t c . ) and t h e i r now  a t t e n d schools r e g u l a r l y .  the I n u i t must f i n d a way services. for  children  But to l i v e i n a s e t t l e m e n t means  t o earn money to buy  these goods and  A r t s and c r a f t s co-ops have p r o v i d e d them w i t h money  t h i s new  way  of l i f e .  Running the co-ops themselves  the I n u i t c o n t r o l over the work they do - they are not  gives just  working f o r someone e l s e ! Making artworks to  a l s o g i v e s the I n u i t the chance t o communicate  others t h e i r f e e l i n g s about t h e i r l i f e ,  legends and  P i c t u r e s and s c u l p t u r e s are a language understood  traditions.  by a l l ,  no  matter what language they speak! This i s what P i t s e o l a k has to say about her a r t : "To make p r i n t s i s not easy. You must t h i n k and t h i s i s hard to do. prints.  A f t e r my  first  But I am happy doing  husband d i e d , I f e l t alone  the and  unwanted: making p r i n t s i s what has made me h a p p i e s t s i n c e he d i e d . them u n t i l they t e l l me to  I am going to keep on doing t o stop.  I f no one t e l l s  stop, I s h a l l make them as long as I am w e l l .  I can, I ' l l make them even a f t e r I am  dead."  me If  176  INUIT ARTS AND  CULTURE WORKSHOP  STUDIO ACTIVITY: The  s t u d i o a c t i v i t y f o r t h i s workshop w i l l be a printmaking  p r o j e c t u s i n g the ledgend  of Sedna as a m o t i v a t i o n f o r  imagery. Steps: 1.  Begin by r e a d i n g the c h i l d r e n the s t o r y of Sedna, t e l l i n g them t o l i s t e n f o r a p a r t t h a t they would l i k e to i l l u s t r a t e .  2.  Have the c h i l d r e n do a q u i c k s k e t c h of t h e i r i d e a , reminding  them of I n u i t p r i n t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  as, 1) no background, 3)  simple shapes,  4)  such  2) no h o r i z o n l i n e , c i r u c l a r or r a d i a l comp-  osition. '3.  Demonstrate the p r i n t technique u s i n g foam sheets for  the primary grade c h i l d r e n and l i n o f o r the  i n t e r m e d i a t e grade c h i l d r e n .  With the c l a s s e s  u s i n g the l i n o t o o l s , emphasize s a f e t y and  promise  to take away the t o o l s i f they are not used p r o p e r l y , 4.  Help students produce t h e i r p r i n t s .  Have them do  an e d i t i o n of two p r i n t s so t h a t they can  take  one w i t h them and l e a v e the other a t the g a l l e r y .  177 I N U I T ARTS AND CULTURE WORKSHOP SUPPLIES L I S T :  1) p e n c i l s 2) s c r a p  paper  3) p r i n t i n g paper 4) i n k s - b l a c k and p r i m a r i e s 5) r o l l e r s 6)  brushes  7) l i n o 8) l i n o  cutters  9) foam s h e e t i n g 10) s c i s s o r s 12) i n k i n g s u r f a c e i e . ) g l a s s sheet o r a r b o r i t e 13) wooden spoons  Sedna, the Sea Goddess The  P e t r e l s , proud b i r d s t h a t they are, l i v e on  the h i g h e s t p a r t s of the c l i f f s . peaks they  From  s w i r l o u t l i k e snowflakes,  down on the r o l l i n g  n o i s i n e s s of Razor  their looking Bills  who b u i l d t h e i r nests halfway up, and the G u l l s and  the l i t t l e  K i t t i w a k e s , who a r e content t o  nest a t the bottom. Once, long, long ago, there was a P e t r e l who was so proud t h a t he c o u l d f i n d no mate t h a t pleased him among h i s own k i n d , so he decided t h a t he would marry a Human being. With a l i t t l e magic, the P e t r e l gave h i m s e l f a human form.  Then, wanting t o look h i s best, he  got some f i n e s e a l s k i n s and made a b e a u t i f u l parka.  Now he looked very handsome, b u t h i s eyes  were s t i l l  the eyes of a b i r d , so he made some  179  s p e c t a c l e s from t h i n p i e c e s of walrus s p e c t a c l e s had only narrow s l i t s and h i d the P e t r e l ' s eyes  tusk.  t o look  These  through,  completely.  In t h i s d i s g u i s e , he went out i n h i s kayak to f i n d a wife. In a s k i n - c o v e r e d t e n t beside the sea t h e r e l i v e d a beautiful g i r l  named Sedna, who had many b r o t h e r s  but no s i s t e r s , and her f a t h e r was a widower. men had come t o her to ask her t o marry  Many  them—men  from her own t r i b e and other t r i b e s — b u t Sedna r e fused t o marry.  She was as proud i n her way as the  P e t r e l , and c o u l d f i n d no man who pleased h e r . The  the P e t r e l came, appearing  i n a b e a u t i f u l s e a l s k i n parka.  i  as a handsome s t r a n g e r Instead of b r i n g i n g  his  kayak up onto the beach, he stayed i n i t a t the  edge of the s u r f and c a l l e d o u t t o Sedna t o come t o him.  This  i n t e r e s t e d Sedna, as no other s u i t o r had  done such a t h i n g , b u t she would not go t o him. Then he began t o s i n g  to her:  "Come t o me, Come i n t o the land of the b i r d s Where there i s never hunger, Where my t e n t i s made of b e a u t i f u l  skins.  You w i l l have a necklace of i v o r y And s l e e p  on the skins of bears.  Your lamps w i l l be always f i l l e d w i t h o i l And your p o t w i t h meat."  -  3 -  181  The  song was  fuse.  so b e a u t i f u l t h a t Sedna c o u l d not r e -  She packed her b e l o n g i n g s i n a s e a l s k i n  she stepped  bag;  out of the t e n t and she walked down a c r o s s  the beach and got i n t o the s t r a n g e r ' s kayak.  They  s a i l e d out over the sea, away from Sedna's home and her f a t h e r and b r o t h e r s . The  P e t r e l made a home f o r Sedna on the rocky  Every day he caught  cliff.  f i s h f o r her, t e l l i n g her t h a t  they were young s e a l s , and f o r a w h i l e Sedna was py, because the P e t r e l had enchanted  her.  But one  the P e t r e l ' s s p e c t a c l e s f e l l o f f , and f o r the time Sedna looked i n t o her husband's eyes. moment the s p e l l was once t h a t she was her home was  broken.  first  She r e a l i z e d a l l a t  m a r r i e d to a, b i r d , and she saw  a nest on a b a r r e n c l i f f .  For the  that first  the  lash-  winds.  Sedna wept w i t h g r i e f and d e s p a i r , and the  Petrel,  although he l o v e d her, c o u l d not c o n s o l e her. In  the meantime, Sedna's f a t h e r and b r o t h e r s had  grown more and more l o n e l y , w i t h no woman to cook t h e i r meat and  sew  t h e i r c l o t h i n g and keep the o i l  burning i n t h e i r lamps. in  They s e t out i n t h e i r  the d i r e c t i o n t h a t the s t r a n g e r had  - 4  -  day  In t h a t  time she f e l t the s t i n g of the sea spray and ing  hap-  boat  taken Sedna.  182  When they came to the c l i f f where Sena l i v e d , P e t r e l was she saw  away hunting, and Sedna was  alone.  the When  her f a m i l y , she went running down t o them,  weeping, and i n a r u s h t o l d them a l l t h a t had happened t o her.  Her b r o t h e r s immediately  lifted  her  i n t o the boat and they bagan p a d d l i n g as r a p i d l y as p o s s i b l e back toward  t h e i r own  coast.  They had not been gone long when the P e t r e l r e t u r n e d to the n e s t .  He looked everywhere f o r Sedna, and  he  c a l l e d f o r her, h i s c r y a long and l o n e l y sound t h a t was  l o s t i n the wind and the sound of the sea.  P e t r e l s answered him; gone.  Other  they t o l d him where Sedna had  Spreading h i s wings, he soared out over the sea  and was  soon f l y i n g over the boat t h a t was  Sedna back t o her home.  carrying  T h i s made the b r o t h e r s nervous,  and they paddled f a s t e r .  As they skimmed over the water,  the P e t r e l became angry.  He began to b e a t h i s wings  a g a i n s t the wind, making i t w h i r l and s h r i e k , and making the waves l e a p higher and h i g h e r . was  In minutes  the sea  b l a c k w i t h storm, and the waves so w i l d t h a t the  boat was  i n danger of t u r n i n g over.  b r o t h e r s and f a t h e r r e a l i z e d because  h i s b r i d e was  Then Sedna's  t h a t the P e t r e l was  being taken from him.  angry  They decide  t h a t they must s a c r i f i c e Sedna to the sea i n order to save t h e i r own  lives.  They p i c k e d her up and threw her  i n t o the i c y water.  -  5 -  183  Sedna, blue w i t h c o l d , came up to the s u r f a c e and grabbed  a t the s i d e of the boat w i t h f i n g e r s t h a t were  t u r n i n g to i c e .  Her b r o t h e r s , out of t h e i r mids w i t h  f e a r , h i t a t her hands w i t h a paddle, and her  finger-  t i p s broke o f f l i k e i c i c l e s and f e l l back i n t o the sea, where they turned i n t o s e a l s and  swam away.  Coming up  again, Sedna t r i e d once more t o c a t c h h o l d of the boat, and a g a i n her b r o t h e r s h i t a t her hands w i t h the paddle. The  second  falling Two  j o i n t s of her f i n g e r s , breaking o f f and  i n t o the water, turned i n t o ojuk, ground  more times Sedna attempted  seals.  to take h o l d of the  side  of the boat, and each time her t e r r i f i e d b r o t h e r s h i t her hands, ana  the t h i r d j o i n t s of her f i n g e r s t u r n e d  i n t o walrus and the thumbs became whales. sank to the bottom of the sea. and  the b r o t h e r s f i n a l l y brought  The  Then Sedna  storm d i e d down,  t h e i r boat to land,but  a g r e a t wave f o l l o w e d them and drowned a l l of them.  -  6 -  183a  Sedna became a p o w e r f u l s p i r i t , creatures sends and  storms  hold  serious ing  who  sprang from her f i n g e r s . and w r e c k s  ceremonies  an arm , b u t s i n c e  goes  her,  she h a s no  j o u r n e y t o Sedna's hair.  e a c h as t h i c k  as  f i n g e r s , she c a n n o t  i s the s e r v i c e  she  plait  appreciates  So when t h e angakok comes t o h e r and a r -  r a n g e s h e r h a i r f o r h e r , she some o f t h e s e a l s and  t h e y may  keep-  the h u n t e r s - - t h e  on a s p i r i t  i n two b r a i d s ,  h a i r , and t h i s  most o f a l l .  from:  she  on e s p e c i a l l y  of the sea, t o a r r a n g e her  Sedna w e a r s h e r h a i r  so  people fear  and  f r o m b e i n g c a u g h t by  home a t t h e b o t t o m  sends  The  Sometimes  o c c a s i o n s — a s when s h e c a u s e s f a m i n e s by  the s e a l s  own  kayaks.  i n her honor,  angakok, o r c o n j u r e r ,  her  i n c o n t r o l of the sea  i s so g r a t e f u l t h a t  she  other animals to the hunters  have f o o d .  C a s w e l l , H., Hurtig  Shadows From The  Publishers,  Edmonton,  - 7 -  Singing 1973.  House  184 INUIT ARTS AND CULTURE WORKSHOP SLIDE  LIST:  Pitseolak,  Happy G i r l s ,  1967, f e l t pen d r a w i n g .  Pitseolak,  B o t h i n Summer a n d i n W i n t e r We Moved a L o t , 1970 f e l t pen drawing.  I n u i t wearing o l d s t y l e f u r c l o t h i n g . Amautiuk Old  B e r i n g Sea implements.  Snow g o g g l e s . Miniature  animal  sculptures.  Pre-WW I I c a r v i n g s f r o m t h e I g l o o l i k Thule p e r i o d ,  Bird Figures,  ivory,  a r e a , G. R o w l e y ,  photo.  1^ X 2, i n .  Inukchuk. Masks. Top:  Dorset c u l t u r e , Adverdjar, 8 i n .  Bottom:  Dorset c u l t u r e ,  Female d o l l , Pipes,  pre-1900,  c . 1000 A.D., c a r i b o u ivory.  10 X 12 i n .  T h u l e c u l t u r e , Marrow P i c k , Unknown, H u n t e r , p r e - 1 9 00,  ivory, ivory.  Parka. Manguagsualuk, w a l l Angnaqqaq, w a l l  hanging.  hanging.  Rocks. B e a r on Rock, s c u l p t u r e , Woman s c u l p t o r Working  soapstone.  preparing stone.  on t h e s t o n e .  U s i n g modern Box  a n t l e r , 4% i n .  tools  of sculpture  materials.  1.9 X 20.4 x 27 cm.  185 SLIDE  LIST  (continued  #2)  26)  Iyakak,  s c u l p t u r e o f whale  27)  Unknown,  28)  Tungilik,  29)  N i v i a k s h i a k , Sea Goddess  30)  Ashoona,  31)  Jobie  32)  Bear.  Birds,  caribou  inlay  antler,  12  i n . high.  Sutherland,  photo.  a Seal,  196 2, g r e e n  1958  stone.  T r a n s f o r m a t i o n , 19 80, g r e e n - g r e y s t o n e , 70 X 45 X 100mm.  33)  Iola,  34)  Manno,  35)  E l i Sallualuk, sculpture.  36)  Kiakshuk,  37)  P i t s e o l a k , A Drawing  38)  Kiakshuk,  39)  Geese  40)  Playing Kick  Ball  41)  Inuit  artist  drawing.  42)  Inuit  artist  drawing  43)  Inuit  preparing  44)  Preparing  stone  45)  Preparing  block,  46)  Inking  on t h e s e c o n d  47)  Laying  a sheet  48)  Burnishing  49)  Pulling  50)  Man  stone  1 9 6 6 , 22 i n .  Bear  On  I c e , 1 9 6 4 , 3% X 6  M o r n i n g Sun, 1961,  a n d Shaman,  Held  7/10  X  3 3/10 i n .  stencil  O u t o f My  Sea Goddess  By  Mind,  1967  a Bird,  stencil.  stencil. With  Demons.  a t home,  Information  blocks  for printing,  stone  Canada  Photograph.  Information  Canada  Photo.  block. Information colour,  of paper  the paper  Canada  a Seal,  Photograph.  Information  on the inked  on t h e i n k e d  print.  Killing  D.  Riding  Taylayo,  Crow, S e a S p i r i t green-grey  a  vertebrae,  sculpture.  Enraged  Bear,  bone  stone c u t .  Canada  stone,  stone,  Photograph  Information  Information  Canada  Canada  Photo.  Photo.  186 SLIDE LIST  (continued  #3)  51)  The  R e t u r n o f t h e Sun,  5 2)  Kikavik  53)  L u a j , Three Owls, Four B i r d s , s t o n e c u t .  54)  Muskox, s t o n e c u t .  55)  Caribou.  56)  Kenojuak,  and  the Hunter,  stone  cut.  stone cut.  Dream, s t o n e c u t .  57)  Inukshoo.  58)  Hunting.  59)  O o n a r k , A Shaman's H e l p i n g  Spirits.  190  APPENDIX 7  191 SURREY ART GALLERY: INUIT ARTS AND CULTURE WORKSHOP Follow-up  ideas  Teacher Note: A f t e r your v i s i t t o t h e S u r r e y A r t G a l l e r y f o r t h e I n u i t Workshop y o u m i g h t want t o do some f o l l o w - u p a c t i v i t i e s w i t h your c l a s s . F o l l o w i n g a r e some s u g g e s t i o n s : 1)  Stencil prints: I n u i t women u s e d t o d e c o r a t e c l o t h i n g and i g l o o w a l l s w i t h a p p l i q u e s c u t from s e a l s k i n . T h e s e a p p l i q u e s were i n t h e s h a p e s o f a n i m a l s upon whom t h e I n u i t depended f o r f o o d , o r , o f c h a r a c t e r s from I n u i t legends. From t h e s e e v o l v e d t h e s t e n c i l p r i n t . A c t i v i t y A - U s e an I n u i t l e g e n d , o r have t h e s t u d e n t s , i n d i v i d u a l l y o r a s a c l a s s , compose a s t o r y a b o u t I n u i t l i f e as a subject f o r t h e i r p r o j e c t . Have s t u d e n t s c u t a n i m a l shapes from squares o f b r i s t o l board, s t r e s s i n g the bulk o f t h e form. Arrange t h e shapes on a s h e e t of c o n t r a s t i n g c a r d o r paper i n a c o m p o s i t i o n which i l l ustrates their story. A c t i v i t y B - Make a p r i n t w i t h t h e n e g a t i v e s h a p e s t h a t a r e l e f t i n t h e c a r d when t h e a p p l i q u e s a r e c u t o u t a s a stencil. Make a p r i n t . Lay t h e shapes over a p i e c e of p a p e r and f i l l i n t h e h o l e w i t h p a i n t ( b r u s h e d o r s p r a y e d on) o r c r a y o n . Arrange s e v e r a l shapes f o r i n teresting compositions. You may w i s h t o t r y o v e r l a p p i n g s h a p e s , once t h e f i r s t p r i n t i n g i s d r y .  2)  The shaman o f t e n u s e d masks t o a i d them i n t h e t e l l i n g o f s t o r i e s a b o u t t h e s p i r i t s and i n t h e i r s p i r i t - f l i g h t s t o communicate w i t h t h e s p i r i t s . Have t h e s t u d e n t s make up t h e i r own s p i r i t o r c h o o s e a s p i r i t from a n I n u i t l e g e n d t o p o r t r a y i n a mask. T h e i r own s p i r i t s h o u l d have a s p e c i a l s i g n i f i c a n c e t o t h e i r own l i f e o r t o our contemporary l i f e s t y l e . The masks c o u l d be c o n s t r u c t e d f r o m p a p i e r mache, p a p e r bags o r c o l o r e d p a p e r s . E m p h a s i z e t h a t a mask must i l l u s t r a t e s p e c i f i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e s p i r i t so t h a t e v e r y o n e w i l l r e c o g n i z e who i t i s . A t t a c h e d t o t h i s s h e e t a r e some mask m a k i n g t e c h n i q u e s y o u m i g h t want t o u s e . A f t e r w a r d s t h e c h i l d r e n c o u l d u s e t h e i r masks i n a d r a m a t i c presentation of the story.  3)  The p r e c e d e n t s f o r much I n u i t s c u l p t u r e were game p i e c e s c a r v e d f r o m bone, i v o r y , wood o r s t o n e . Attached t o t h i s page a r e d e s c r i p t i o n s o f some I n u i t games and t o y s . Your c l a s s c o u l d make t h e p i e c e s n e e d e d f o r t h e games o u t o f wood, soap, s t r i n g , p l a s t i c e t c . a n d t h e n p l a y t h e games.  /2  -  SURREY ART GALLERY: 4)  192  2 -  INUIT ARTS AND CULTURE WORKSHOP  There are the f o l l o w i n g f i l m s a v a i l a b l e f r e e through the N.F.B. t h a t might be i n t e r e s t i n g t o show t o your class: 1.  The L i v i n g A r c t i c  56:01  c o l : 106C175-249  2.  Polar  27:42  c o l : 106c0176-171  3.  Sikusilarmiut 28:54 c o l : 106c0175-078 (made up of e x c e r p t s from animated f i l m s made i n Cape Dorset, i n t e r s p e r s e d with l i v e a c t i o n footage of modern day Cape D o r s e t ) .  4.  Stefanson: The A r c t i c P r o j e c t 15:56 c o l : 106B0165-121 (The adventures o f an A r c t i c geographer as he maps v a s t s t r e t c h e s of the A r c t i c , t r a v e l l i n g by dog s l e d ) .  5.  Angotee: The Story of an Eskimo Boy (1953) 31:00 c o l : 106c0153-021 (- growing up i n the ' o l d days ')  6.  Animation From Cape Dorset  7.  Legends and L i f e of the I n u i t 57:46 c o l : 106c0178-395  8.  Yesterday - Today - The N e t s i l i k Eskimo - a s e r i e s of s e v e r a l f i l m s about the t r a d i t i o n a l I n u i t and a d a p t a t i o n t o modern times.  9..  Eskimo A r t i s t Kenojuak 19:49 c o l : 106c0164-017 (the work and techniques of I n u i t woman printmaker Kenojuak).  Bear  18:52  c o l : l06col73-668  10.  Sonanguagat: I n u i t Masterworks 24:51 c o l : 106c0174-525  11.  The S t o r i e s of Tuktu S e r i e s ( t h i r t e e n f i l m s about the l i f e of an I n u i t boy - see catalogue f o r d e t a i l s ) .  There are s e v e r a l more f i l m s about the I n u i t a v a i l a b l e through N.F.B. and l i s t e d i n t h e i r c a t a l o g u e .  193  MASK MAKING TECHNIQUES * 1)  Make p o s i t i v e mold w i t h c l a y or p l a s t i c i n e . The f i n i s h e d mold should look l i k e the mask which you want t o make. To economize on c l a y f o r a l a r g e mask, i t i s p o s s i b l e t o 'pad' the base of the mold w i t h something, e.g. r o l l e d - u p newspaper.  2)  Cover the mold completely w i t h t h i n l a y e r of v a s e l i n e .  3)  Make paste: add a l i t t l e water to white f l o u r and s t i r to a smooth, t h i c k c o n s i s t e n c y , then pour on b o i l i n g water, s t i r r i n g c o n s t a n t l y , u n t i l paste t h i c k e n s .  4)  Dip p i e c e s of brown paper i n the paste and cover mold c a r e f u l l y - t r y t o avoid w r i n k l e s . Repeat u n t i l there a r e four complete l a y e r s . To d i s t i n g u i s h l a y e r s e a s i l y , use d i f f e r e n t c o l o u r e d bags. Do not use newspaper. Do not wait f o r each l a y e r to d r y b e f o r e adding next l a y e r . S t a r t with t h i c k paper, end with t h i n .  5)  Allow to d r y .  6)  Remove mask from mold. In most cases the mask w i l l e a s i l y s l i p o f f the mold, but with some complicated shapes, p a r t s of the c l a y mold have t o be dug out.  7)  Immediately wipe o f f a l l excess v a s e l i n e from mask.  8)  Allow mask t o dry more thoroughly, but m a i n t a i n i t s shape, e.g. by p u t t i n g a p i e c e . o f . p l a s t i c over the mold and p u t t i n g the mask back on the mold l o o s e l y (so a i r can c i r culate) .  9)  Trim edges to r e q u i r e d shape and make any mechanical adjustments. Strengthen edges w i t h e x t r a l a y e r of p a p i e r mache and w i r e . (wire r e - i n f o r c e m e n t i s o p t i o n a l )  10)  Allow edges t o dry, then sandpaper t o make s u r f a c e of mask smooth.  11)  P a i n t mask i n s i d e and o u t w i t h a l a y e r of white g l u e . ( I f you are p l a n n i n g t o p a i n t the mask w i t h w a t e r - c o l o u r s , only p a i n t g l u e on the i n s i d e of the mask.)  12)  Allow g l u e t o dry, then a t t a c h e l a s t i c t o the i n s i d e of the mask with white g l u e and a s m a l l s t r i p of t h i n c a r d .  13)  P a i n t mask and add trimmings  14)  Cut eye-holes and b r e a t h - h o l e s . Eye-holes can be c u t anywhere, p r e f e r a b l y i n a p a r t of the mask p a i n t e d w i t h a dark c o l o u r .  15)  I f necessary, pad mask w i t h foam f o r comfort.  16)  Wear mask.  17)  Re-cycle c l a y : wipe o f f v a s e l i n e and put c l a y i n a p l a s t i c bag w i t h a wet sponge, I f c l a y i s very hard, soak i t .  18)  When c l a y i s u s a b l e , MAKE ANOTHER MASK.  - h a i r , f u r , f a b r i c or whatever.  * Courtesy o f Garbanzo the clown  194 AND TOYS  GAMES  Games: among  Hide  and seek,  children.  majority adult  These  T h e games  - similar  or  carved  caught  must a  turn.  a piece  it.  Next  the  stick  of soap  you  are ready  seated  - similar men  one  collects  students  ing  land  their  collects  their  sticks  that  has a d u l l  leather  and m i s s i n g own  and  thong.  means  by c a r v i n g  soap  string.  a  small  design  b u t be sure  have  of string  animal  t h e a i rand  by a  the holes.  a l l the holes  a piece  to dice.  upright t h e most  can play.  o f bone  Now  order  as you l i k e  f i t into  in  that  Now  mark t h e  a  different  t o the soap.  Attach  point  a t one end.  dice  belong figures  ivory  images  Now  the pieces  of birds  dice  pieces  each  When  f a c i n g him.  by  takes  land,  The  number  collecting on one  the design  student  the dice  face.  Any  a design  U s e i n k t o make  The  they  i s the winner.  o r marking  i n a circle,  i n the a i r .  to the player  y o u own  and s c r a t c h i n g  sitting  Small  i n t h e a i r one a t a t i m e .  Make  indicate the top face.  out.  c a n make  ivory  into  attached  specific  holes  are tossed  that  to  and t e n a c i t y  to play.  figures  pieces  glue  to a stick  TINGMIUJANG  small  or p l a s t e r and carve  a number u n t i l  string  A  i s tossed  and u s i n g  a s many  Securely  who  f o r their  enjoyment but  the strength  o r bone  in a  you use w i l l  the  of  provided  holes  stick  shapes  drill  with  number.  But the  a preparation  and cup.  many  Students  into  Take  and  with  be s p e a r e d  plaster  holes  to ball  on a p o i n t e d  missing or  not only  popular  for survival.  AJEGAUNG skull  were  games a r e u n i v e r s a l .  the I n u i t c h i l d r e n develop  necessary  Holes  and s k i p p i n g  o f c h i l d r e n s ' games w e r e  life.  helped  sliding  stand  turns  each  side  throw-  player  -  Toys: in  2  195  -  R a t t l e s w e r e made f r o m b e a r t e e t h w i t h h o l e s  them a n d a t t a c h e d t o a  handle.  Wooden t o p s w e r e r o u n d w i t h a s t i c k d r i l l e d the center.  drilled  The t o p s w e r e d e c o r a t e d  and g l u e d i n  with designs.  To make  the tops s p i n , c h i l d r e n would t w i s t t h e s t i c k between f i n g e r s w i t h t h e end o f t h e s t i c k b a l a n c e d Whizzers  are musical toys.  to a string.  t h e a i r t h e y made a b u z z i n g  B u l l Roarers  like  When p u l l e d  sound.  a r e made o f wooden s l a t s  which w h i r l through  on t h e g r o u n d .  They a r e wooden t o y s s h a p e d  a p r o p e l l e r w i t h one e n d a t t a c h e d through  their  like  leaves,  t h e a i r a t t h e end o f an a t t a c h e d  l i k e a whip l a s h , making a fearsome n o i s e .  thong  196  APPENDIX 8  197  SEEING OURSELVES THROUGH ART  ""TnTZS SURREY ART GALLERY 596-7461  SURREY ART GALLERY SEEING OURSELVES THROUGH ART P R E - V I S I T PREPARATORY K I T  SURREY ART GALLERY 13750 - 8 8 t h Avenue S u r r e y , B.C. V3W 3 L 1 (604) 5 9 6 - 7 4 6 1  199  SEEING OURSELVES THROUGH ART PREPARATORY KIT CONTENTS  1.  Teacher I n t r o d u c t i o n Sheet  2.  1 Sleeve of S l i d e s  3.  1 C a s s e t t e Tape of S l i d e  4.  Script for Slide  5.  L i s t of S l i d e s i n c l u d e d  6.  Student A c t i v i t y Sheet  7.  Teacher Copy o f A c t i v i t y Sheet  8.  Follow-up Ideas  Commentary  Commentary in Kit  (with answers)  200 SURREY ART GALLERY: Teacher  SEEING OURSELVES THROUGH ART WORKSHOP  Introduction:  We are looking forward t o y o u r c l a s s v i s i t t o t h e Surrey A r t G a l l e r y on _ from 9:45 a.m. t o 12 noon, to p a r t i c i p a t e i n the Seeing Ourselves Through A r t Workshop, c o n s i s t i n g o f a guided t o u r o f our c u r r e n t e x h i b i t i o n , a p r e s e n t a t i o n and an a r t a c t i v i t y . This package of m a t e r i a l s has been prepared t o be used by you and your c l a s s as a background and i n t r o d u c t i o n to the p r e s e n t a t i o n you w i l l have at the A r t G a l l e r y . This package i n c l u d e s : 1. 2. 3. 4. You  will 1. 2.  A A A A  sleeve of 19 s l i d e s s c r i p t f o r the s l i d e commentary student a c t i v i t y sheet teacher answer sheet  need to round up: A s l i d e p r o j e c t o r and screen A map of the world  Approximately 45 minutes of c l a s s time should this presentation.  be s e t aside f o r  When you v i s i t the g a l l e r y you w i l l be p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n a workshop that explores Canadian h i s t o r y by studying p a i n t i n g s by Canadian a r t i s t s whose s u b j e c t s were people. T h e m a t e r i a l s that you are about to use i n your classroom w i l l lead you through a f a s t survey of the a r t i s t s ' treatment of the f i g u r e from e a r l i e s t times u n t i l 19th century France. We are p r o v i d i n g t h i s background so t h a t , i n your workshop, you w i l l be able to r e l a t e our Canadian a r t h i s t o r y to i t s r o o t s i n Europe. How t o Use T h i s K i t : 1.  The s l i d e s i n t h i s package are numbered i n the order i n which they are t o be shown. For the commentary t o accompany the s l i d e s you can e i t h e r : a)  play the c a s s e t t e p r o v i d e d ; or  b)  read the commentary aloud the s c r i p t p r o v i d e d .  The The 2.  t o the c l a s s y o u r s e l f from  tape w i l l i n d i c a t e when t o change s l i d e s by a tone. s c r i p t a l s o i n d i c a t e s where t o change s l i d e s .  There are p l a c e s  i n the commentary where i n t e r r u p t i o n s f o r  201  c l a s s d i s c u s s i o n are a p p r o p r i a t e . Just stop the tape and use the q u e s t i o n s suggested i n the s c r i p t to guide discussion. There are a l s o times when you may want to stop the s l i d e s t o p o i n t out t h i n g s you might want your c l a s s to note i n p a r t i c u l a r . 3.  Before you begin the s l i d e p r e s e n t a t i o n , d i s t r i b u t e the a c t i v i t y sheet to the c l a s s , as the a c t i v i t i e s have been planned t o take p l a c e at i n d i c a t e d times throughout the presentation. Have the c l a s s read over the vocabulary l i s t at the beginning of the a c t i v i t y sheet so that they can look f o r the words d u r i n g the p r e s e n t a t i o n . The vocabulary words a r e a l s o u n d e r l i n e d i n your s c r i p t .  4.  A c t i v i t y #3 i n v o l v e s doing a drawing a l a a n c i e n t Egypt. You may want your c l a s s t o use l a r g e paper, f e l t , p a s t e l s or p e n c i l crayons f o r t h i s e x e r c i s e so p l e a s e b r i n g the drawings t o our G a l l e r y when you v i s i t .  Kit  Return:  Please b r i n g the k i t m a t e r i a l s back t o the G a l l e r y when you come f o r the Workshop. We a l s o welcome any w r i t t e n comments suggestions you may have r e g a r d i n g the k i t . If you have l o s t a s l i d e , p l e a s e phone us immediately so we ca make a d u p l i c a t e . There i s a one d o l l a r charge f o r each l o s t s l i d e , payable i n cash upon your v i s i t to the G a l l e r y . We hope that t h i s k i t i s h e l p f u l to you and that your enjoys i t .  class  202  SLIDE COMMENTARY SCRIPT SEEING OURSELVES THROUGH ART WORKSHOP PRE-VISIT PREPARATORY KIT  Introduct i on: Since the beginning of man's time on e a r t h , he has expressed h i m s e l f through a r t , whether by d e c o r a t i n g h i s weapons and t o o l s or p a i n t i n g animal scenes i n caves t o record and h e l p i n the hunt f o r food. In p r e h i s t o r i c times, man's l i f e depended e n t i r e l y upon how w e l l he could use what was on hand, t h e r e f o r e the most important t h i n g s to him were animals and the t o o l s he needed t o hunt them or defend h i m s e l f a g a i n s t them. According to the few examples a r c h a e o l o g i s t s have found, people d i d not appear i n the e a r l i e s t cave p a i n t i n g s because the purpose of art was to d e p i c t the animals man depended on f o r l i f e , not to t e l l about h i m s e l f . S  l  l  d  e  #  1  (Thebes, Ladies and M u s i c i a n s , B.C.)  tomb p a i n t i n g , c.1400  Very g r a d u a l l y man became more organized i n h i s l i v i n g and he invented many t h i n g s to improve h i s 1 i f e. He learned how t o breed and tend food and t r a n s p o r t a t i o n .  animals f o r  He learned how t o p l a n t and harvest crops so that he d i d not have t o search f o r w i l d p l a n t s f o r food. 3.  He learned  to weave c l o t h .  He developed b u i l d i n g s k i l l s so that he could c o n s t r u c t more permanent homes i n t h e • l o c a t i o n s he d e s i r e d . 5.  He developed ways of o r g a n i z i n g people so that they could l i v e i n l a r g e settlements more efficiently. People w i t h i n these settlements had p a r t i c u l a r jobs to do t o help i n the f u n c t i o n i n g o f the community. Within t h i s s t r u c t u r e some people became very powerful and accumulated great wealth, others found themselves as s e r v a n t s t o these people.  In a n c i e n t Egypt the pharaoh was the most important person. To the people he was a combined king and a god. Because the pharaoh b e l i e v e d that there was a  2 0 3  -  2 -  l i f e a f t e r death f o r which he must be prepared, each had h i s s l a v e s b u i l d a huge pyramid to hold h i s tomb. Inside t h a t tomb were many chambers which housed the food, u t e n s i l s and wealth he would need to use i n h i s next l i f e . He had s l a v e a r t i s t s p a i n t the w a l l s of the tombs with p i c t u r e s that i l l u s t r a t e d how good h i s l i f e was, how wealthy he was and how he would pass to h i s next l i f e . This was done so that the gods could "see" what a great man he was. In t h i s p a i n t i n g from the w a l l s of a tomb at Thebes, done about 1400 B.C., we see some of the l a d i e s and musicians who would have e n t e r t a i n e d the pharoah and h i s c o u r t . Take a second to t r y to s i t i n your c h a i r i n the same p o s i t i o n as these people - n o t i c e e s p e c i a l l y which way the shoulders f a c e , the head face and the l e g s go. (pause) Is t h i s a comfortable p o s i t i o n ? Look at the s l i d e again - do the people look a l i k e to you? These people are a l l very s i m i l a r i n appearance, the same s i z e , the same p o s i t i o n , the same f e a t u r e s . The a r t i s t used a formula, a p a t t e r n that t o l d him what a person looks l i k e . The f i g u r e s represent people, but do not show them as i n d i v i d u a l s . Notice how f l a t the f i g u r e s look and how a l l heads are viewed from the s i d e , a l l eyes from the f r o n t shoulders from the f r o n t and h i p s and legs from the side. The a r t i s t s who d i d these murals d i d not s i g n t h e i r work because i t was not thought to be important who they were. People thought of a r t i s t s i n the same way they d i d c a r p e n t e r s and b u i l d e r s . (NEXT SLIDE) S l i d e #2  ( C l a s s i c a l Greece, Ruvo, tomb mural, 4th C., B.C.)  V e i l e d Women,  One thousand years l a t e r , i n Greece, a r t i s t s have learned to watch people more c l o s e l y , to see how they move, how they l o o k , what t h e i r p r o p o r t i o n s are. As a r e s u l t , these people look much more n a t u r a l and realistic. We don't know who the a r t i s t was who d i d t h i s work because he was considered a craftsman, l i k e a c a r p e n t e r , t a i l o r or'goldsmith and t h e r e f o r e d i d not s i g n h i s work. But we can t e l l that he has s t u d i e d h i s s u b j e c t , people, very thoroughly. (NEXT SLIDE) S l i d e #3  (French Tapestry, c.1073-83) Most p a i n t e r s of the past were men because women d i d not work o u t s i d e of the home. However, women worked with c l o t h to produce and decorate the f a m i l y ' s  204 - 3 clothing. They a l s o made t a p e s t r i e s ; hand woven f a b r i c decorated with s t i t c h i n g , t o be used as d e c o r a t i o n s i n the home and i n churches. The women o f t e n used s u b j e c t s s i m i l a r to those used by p a i n t e r s , such as i n t h i s t a p e s t r y produced i n 1073 nine hundred years agol Often a r t was produced to t e l l people s t o r i e s about the B i b l e or important events, because very few people could read. Can you t e l l what s t o r y i s being t o l d here? Teacher note: Line of q u e s t i o n i n g : Which way i s the boat going? How can you t e l l ? Who i s i n the boat? Where might they be going? How can you t e l l ? Who are the people on horseback? What are they doing? What are they c a r r y i n g ? Why? Who are the two standing people? What are they doing? How can you tell? Who i s the seated person? How can you t e l l ? Why i s he b i g g e s t ? What might he be saying? What i s the person behind him doing? In f a c t : T h i s i s a p a r t of a very long t a p e s t r y that t e l l s the s t o r y of the B a t t l e of Hastings, i n which W i l l i a m the Conqueror from Europe invaded England and became k i n g . In t h i s s e c t i o n messengers have come to the King of England to t e l l of the d e f e a t . You can n o t i c e that the people i n t h i s t a p e s t r y are q u i t e r e a l i s t i c but i n r a t h e r awkward poses and look l i k e c u t o u t s . What looks r a t h e r odd i s the d i f f e r e n c e between the s i z e of the people and the tiny buildings. The a r t i s t f e l t the people were more important than b u i l d i n g s , so she made them the b i g g e s t . As i n the Egyptian and Greek p a i n t i n g s , people are a l l arranged i n a row. (NEXT SLIDE) S l i d e #4  ( B y z a n t i n e , Enthroned Madonna and C h i l d , 1.3 Century) In other p a r t s of the world, a r t i s t s were changing the way they were drawing p i c t u r e s . T h i s Madonna and C h i l d was painted i n the 1200's i n I t a l y by the A d r i a t i c Sea. The f a c e of the Madonna (the V i r g i n Mary) i s very s o f t and round l o o k i n g although the f e a t u r e s (eyes, nose, mouth) are q u i t e s t y l i z e d . That i s , the a r t i s t only r e p r e s e n t s each f e a t u r e , and they would be done i n the same way f o r a l l people r e g a r d l e s s of what the p a r t i c u l a r noses, e t c . , looked l i k e . However, we do have the f e e l i n g t h a t she i s d e f i n i t e l y made of s k i n and bone. Look c a r e f u l l y at the C h r i s t C h i l d . Do  -  4  205  -  you n o t i c e something odd about how the baby i s r e p r e s e n t e d ? . . . . You probably n o t i c e d that he doesn't look much l i k e a baby - more l i k e a small a d u l t ! This was very common at that time. Because C h r i s t was so important, i t was thought d i s r e s p e c t f u l to show him as a c h i l d . At that time c h i l d r e n were thought of as mini a d u l t s by most people. Two other t h i n g s to n o t i c e here are 1) that the c l o t h that forms the c l o t h i n g looks almost carved, not s o f t and n a t u r a l l i k e the f a c e ; and 2) that although the Madonna i s s i t t i n g on a throne i t has been drawn so that i t looks l i k e she may s l i d e r i g h t o f f i t . A r t i s t s were s t i l l "trying to s o l v e the problem of how to make t h e i r people and s e t t i n g look n a t u r a l together. (NEXT SLIDE) S l i d e #5  ( G i o t t o , Madonna Enthroned, C.1311) This Madonna painted by the I t a l i a n , G i o t t o , at l e a s t 100 years l a t e r looks a l i t t l e more comfortable i n her s e a t ! The a r t i s t i s s o l v i n g many of the problems of p e r s p e c t i v e . P e r s p e c t i v e simply means how to draw f u r n i t u r e , rooms, and landscapes, so that they don't look f l a t or l i k e they are about to s l i d e out of the picture. The a r t i s t wants to show space i n the p i c t u r e i n a r e a l i s t i c manner, so that a l l the o b j e c t s are the r i g h t s i z e and you can t e l l which o b j e c t s are c l o s e r and which are f u r t h e r away. Looking at a p i c t u r e with good p e r s p e c t i v e i s l i k e l o o k i n g out of a window. G i o t t o ' s crowd around the throne r e a l l y looks l i k e they are behind one another. The Madonna looks l i k e a r e a l f l e s h and blood person, although her baby looks q u i t e mature. Notice a l s o that the background i s not j u s t f l a t gold but c o n t a i n s a crowd of people.  (NEXT SLIDE) S l i d e #6  ( G i o t t o , Lamentation over C h r i s t ,  1305)  The s u b j e c t of t h i s p a i n t i n g i s a l s o a r e l i g i o u s story: the death of C h r i s t . Most p a i n t i n g s u n t i l t h i s time were of r e l i g i o u s s t o r i e s . The church and wealthy c i t i z e n s h i r e d a r t i s t s to p a i n t p a r t i c u l a r s t o r i e s so that the people of the church could "see" them. The a r t i s t could not a f f o r d to p a i n t j u s t what he wanted, and he had no time f o r t h i s a f t e r doing what others h i r e d him to do. What new t h i n g do you n o t i c e about the background? Rocks, t r e e s , h i l l s - a landscape. The a r t i s t d i d  -  5  206  -  not j u s t p a i n t a f l a t , coloured background but made an attempt to p l a c e the event i n t o a d e f i n i t e , r e a l i s t i c s e t t i n g . The arrangement of the people i n that landscape i s much more i n t e r e s t i n g than you have seen b e f o r e . They are not j u s t strung „out i n a row. (NEXT SLIDE) Slide  #7  (The C l o i s t e r s , B e l l e Heures, L i f e of S t . Jerome, c.1410-13, close-up) A r t i s t s ' s k i l l s were a l s o used to i l l u s t r a t e books for the church. This work was u s u a l l y done by monks and c a l l e d " I l l u m i n a t e d Manuscripts". This a r t i s t ' s f i g u r e s are not a l l i n a l i n e and they d e f i n i t e l y look l i k e they are moving! What does the a r t i s t do to show moving f i g u r e s ? . . . . (Some of the f i g u r e s lean to suggest movement i n that d i r e c t i o n . They are arranged i n groups to the s i d e of the p i c t u r e . Their c l o t h i n g has l o t s of curved l i n e s and looks l i k e i t flows i n d i f f e r e n t d i r e c t i o n s , as c l o t h e s do when a person moves.) How d o e s t h e a r t i s t show t h a t p e o p l e a r e i n t h e distance? (pause f o r answers) He p u t t h e m h i g h up. Would the p e o p l e f i t i n t o the buildings? (pause)  (NEXT SLIDE) S l i d e #8  (Masaccio,-The T r i b u t e Money, c.1427, close-up) Masaccio was a very t a l e n t e d a r t i s t who died when he was only 27 years o l d , but l e f t us p a i n t i n g s which show great g e n i u s . What problem of e a r l i e r a r t i s t s has Masaccio solved here? (Notice the b u i l d i n g and the c l o t h e s ) (pause) You probably n o t i c e d that the people would probably f i t i n t o the b u i l d i n g s . Did you n o t i c e that the c l o t h i n g looks l i k e i t covers a r e a l body? T h i s p a i n t i n g i s on a c h u r c h w a l l i n F l o r e n c e , Italy, b u t was p a i d f o r by a w e a l t h y c i t i z e n . He w a n t e d e v e r y o n e t o know t h a t he h a d d o n a t e d t h i s g e n e r o u s g i f t t o t h e c h u r c h , s o he h a d M a s a c c i o make o n e of the p e o p l e l o o k l i k e him. Can you g u e s s w h i c h one i t might be?  (NEXT SLIDE) S l i d e #9  (Masaccio, P r o f i l e of a Young Man,  c.1425, 17"x  13")  T h i s customer or patron d i d n ' t have to have h i s p i c t u r e f i t t e d i n t o another but commissioned Masaccio to p a i n t j u s t h i m s e l f .  2 0 7  -  6 -  (NEXT SLIDE) S l i d e #10  (Mantegna, Calvary  - 1457-9,  close-up)  This s l i d e i s to be used f o r a c t i v i t y sheet. Turn to that now.  #1 on your  Teacher note: leave s l i d e on the screen and tape while the c l a s s works through task #1.  stop  the  (START TAPE) (NEXT SLIDE) S l i d e #11  (da V i n c i , The  Last Supper, c.1495,  close-up)  Leonardo da V i n c i was an a r t i s t whose i n t e r e s t s were so v a r i e d that he was not only i n demand as an a r t i s t but as an inventor of machines and weapons, and as a scientist. He even invented a h e l i c o p t e r - 400 years before motors had been invented. As an a r t i s t , he was a l s o very i n v e n t i v e and because a l l of h i s experiments d i d n ' t work as he had hoped, some of h i s p a i n t i n g s have s u f f e r e d g r e a t l y with age. This "Last Supper" i s one of them - i t has almost disappeared from the w a l l on which i t was p a i n t e d . You w i l l have n o t i c e d that the l a s t few p a i n t i n g s we have looked at were p a i n t e d on w a l l s . T h i s technique i s c a l l e d f r e s c o . The a r t i s t a c t u a l l y a p p l i e s p a i n t q u i c k l y to a damp, f r e s h l y p l a s t e r e d w a l l . C h r i s t and the a p o s t l e s are arranged i n a l i n e r i g h t across the p a i n t i n g and the v a n i s h i n g p o i n t f o r the p e r s p e c t i v e i s i n the c e n t r e - emphasizing C h r i s t as the most important f i g u r e . There i s not much movement i n the p i c t u r e to g i v e a f e e l i n g of the drama of the event. How does da V i n c i t e l l us that t h i s i s a very emotional event?.... Look c l o s e l y at the faces - what wonderful expressions - they t e l l the s t o r y ! What e x p r e s s i o n s do you see?.... ( f e a r apprehension, d i s t r u s t , q u e s t i o n ) (NEXT SLIDE) S l i d e #12  (da V i n c i , The Mona L i s a ,  1503-6, 30"x  20")  This famous lady i s probably one of the best known a r t i s t ' s models, perhaps because there i s an a i r of mystery about her. Da V i n c i painted her p o r t r a i t on a small canvas, much s m a l l e r than t h i s s l i d e makes i t look. The p a i n t i n g was done i n o i l p a i n t s on canvas cloth. Her husband commissioned the p i e c e - t h a t i s , he h i r e d da V i n c i to p a i n t i t and paid him f o r the finished piece.  208 -  7  -  The a r t i s t has c a r e f u l l y chosen c o l o u r s that are q u i t e d u l l and moody - browns, r i c h y e l l o w s , and golds. Her pose, the way she i s s i t t i n g , i s very calm, and the landscape behind her i s hazy and dream-like. A l l these t h i n g s perk our i n t e r e s t i n t r y i n g to f i g u r e out the s t o r y i n the p a i n t i n g . Now, look at the f a c e - what i s t h a t expression? Hold your hand up to cover h a l f of the f a c e , d i v i d e i t up and down the c e n t r e . What e x p r e s s i o n do you see on that h a l f of the face? Now do the same for the other h a l f . What do you see here?.... Now t r y to do these two e x p r e s s i o n s at once to your own face...(pause) Quite impossible i s n ' t i t ! Da V i n c i i s experimenting with how an a r t i s t can p a i n t h i s p a i n t i n g s l i g h t l y d i f f e r e n t l y from what the model's face shows, perhaps i n order to c r e a t e a mood. When we look at Mona L i s a ' s face we can't t e l l t h a t the a r t i s t has experimented - a l l we can t e l l i s t h a t the r e s u l t i s very mysterious - what i s t h a t lady t h i n k i n g ? Even though p a i n t i n g s can look q u i t e r e a l i s t i c , we must remember that we are s t i l l l o o k i n g a t the a r t i s t ' s v i s u a l idea of something, not at the r e a l t h i n g . (NEXT  SLIDE)  S l i d e # 1 3 ( C l o u e t , F r a n c i s I, c.1524, 3 7 " x  29")  Most of the work we have seen so f a r was done i n Italy. Now we w i l l look a t work from the northern p a r t s of Europe - France, Holland, England - p l a c e s from which the e a r l y s e t t l e r s of Canada came. In 1524 the King of France commissioned an a r t i s t to do t h i s p a i n t i n g of him. He wanted the p a i n t i n g to show how important and wealthy he was. The a r t i s t has used a few t r i c k s to g i v e t h i s impression - he has made the body look l a r g e r and more powerful then h i s t o r y t e l l s us t h i s King of France was. He has shown f a b r i c s which look very r i c h and expensive. The face l a c k s the d e t a i l and r e a l i s m that we saw da V i n c i use i n I t a l y a few years e a r l i e r - i t i s more a symbol of a k i n g . Why do you suppose the a r t i s t put so much d e t a i l i n t o the c l o t h i n g and l e s s i n t o the f a c e ? . . . . Perhaps the message the p a i n t i n g gave about the s u b j e c t ' s p o s i t i o n was more important than how h i s face looked. Perhaps he was r e a l l y not an a t t r a c t i v e person? (NEXT SLIDE) S l i d e # 1 4 (Rubens, Assumption of the V i r g i n , c.1626, 50" x 3 7 " ) We have looked a t many p i c t u r e s t h a t t e l l about C h r i s t i a n r e l i g i o u s events l i k e t h i s one - but what a d i f f e r e n c e we see here! Most of those we have seen  - 8 -  209  were calm, with people standing or s i t t i n g q u i t e s t r a i g h t , arranged n e a t l y on the ground a g a i n s t a simple background. (STOP TAPE) Teacher Note:  Leave s l i d e #14 on the screen, stop the tape and use these questions as a guide to a short c l a s s d i s c u s s i o n . Leave t h i s s l i d e on when you r e s t a r t the tape.  What makes the p i c t u r e look so stormy?.... c o l o u r s which ones? l i n e s - a l l of the curved forms made by the c u r v i n g l i n e s and the way the f i g u r e s are posed - t w i s t e d , l e a n i n g - no two a l i k e . A l s o , there i s a cloudy background. (START TAPE)  Most of the work we have seen has had people arranged evenly across the p a i n t i n g so that the canvas d i v i d e s evenly up the c e n t r e . How i s t h i s one d i v i d e d ? . . . . When i t looks l i k e a p i c t u r e i s d i v i d e d i n two from corner to corner i t i s c a l l e d a " d i a g o n a l " . Look a t how the upper l e f t of the p a i n t i n g i s composed of blue sky and the o p p o s i t e s i d e i s dark l a n d . There are people along the d i v i d e . The people a l l p o i n t upwards so that you r e a l l y have the impression of the V i r g i n moving up to heaven. ( NEXT SLIDE)  S l i d e #15 (Rembrandt, A r i s t o t l e Comtemplating the Bust of Homer, c.1653) In Holland, where t h i s a r t i s t , Rembrandt, worked, the people had q u i t e a d i f f e r e n t l i f e s t y l e than d i d those i n France. They were P r o t e s t a n t , while the French were Roman C a t h o l i c , and t h e i r r e l i g i o n d i c t a t e d that they l i v e a simple, s t r i c t l i f e . P a i n t i n g s such as we have j u s t seen were not acceptable to the church. The Dutch favoured dark c o l o u r s , q u i t e p l a i n b u i l d i n g s and f u r n i t u r e , and d i d not have a wealthy, extravagant k i n g . This p a i n t i n g of an a n c i e n t Greek philosopher shows t h i s very d i f f e r e n t a t t i t u d e . The c o l o u r s a r e very dark and sombre, the c l o t h i n g on the man i s q u i t e simple. Rembrandt i s experimenting with how he can use l i g h t to made a p i c t u r e look dramatic. He uses very l i g h t s e c t i o n s to emphasize the f a c e , what he i s l o o k i n g a t and the connection between the man and the o b j e c t . The r e s t of the work i s very dark. T h i s c o n t r a s t between dark and l i g h t i s c a l l chiaroscuro. Notice how the l i g h t areas form a t r i a n g l e with the face at the top p o i n t . A l s o , i t i s  -  d u l l a l l around stand o u t .  9  -  210  the f a c e , which causes the face to  Although the p a i n t i n g i s of a p h i l o s o p h e r from the 4th century B.C. Greece, the a r t i s t has chosen to p o r t r a y h i s s u b j e c t i n c l o t h e s f a s h i o n a b l e during h i s own time. Why do you t h i n k he d i d t h i s ? (pause) (NEXT SLIDE) S l i d e #16'(Lorrain, P a s t o r a l Landscape - 17th century) This landscape was painted i n France at about the time the f i r s t s e t t l e r s were l e a v i n g the country f o r Canada. Here the a r t i s t i s showing the c o u n t r y s i d e with some people i n i t . Is h i s s u b j e c t the land or the people? B e f o r e , we always saw the people as the main s u b j e c t with the landscape used only as background. Here the people a r e the l e a s t important t h i n g - i t doesn't matter who they a r e , but where they a r e . Do you suppose the c o u n t r y s i d e r e a l l y looked l i k e t h i s ? . . . . T h i s i s what we c a l l a romantic landscape - one that looks more l i k e a l o v e l y dream p l a c e than a r e a l one. Notice the mist, the s o f t c o l o u r and the e e r i e atmosphere. This p a i n t i n g was probably not commissioned because, by t h i s time, a r t i s t s were beginning to choose the s u b j e c t s they wished to p a i n t . (NEXT SLIDE) S l i d e #17 (Gainsborough,  The B a i l l i e Family, 1784)  The B a i l l i e f a m i l y of England decided that they wanted a p a i n t i n g of the whole f a m i l y so they commissioned Gainsborough to do t h i s p a i n t i n g . Can you imagine standing there f o r hours and hours while the a r t i s t p a i n t e d t h i s p i c t u r e ! Probably not everyone i n i t d i d . The a r t i s t d i d some drawings of the f a m i l y , both s e p a r a t e l y and as a group, decided how to arrange them i n the most e f f e c t i v e way, and then p a i n t e d the p i c t u r e c a l l i n g the f a m i l y members back only so that he could capture d e t a i l s . Do you suppose they always dressed t h i s way f o r a t y p i c a l day at home? Have you ever had a f a m i l y p o r t r a i t taken by a photographer? How d i d you d r e s s ? Like the landcape we j u s t saw, t h i s p i c t u r e i s q u i t e romantic and i d e a l i z e d - t h e p e r f e c t f a m i l y i n t h e i r p e r f e c t c l o t h e s a g a i n s t a l o v e l y background.  - 10 -  (NEXT  SLIDE)  Slide  #18 ( R e n o i r , L a B a l a B o u g i v a l , 1883, 70" x 37")  211  In t h e l a t e 1800's, a b o u t 100 y e a r s a g o , p a i n t i n g changed q u i t e a b i t . A r t i s t s began t o p a i n t o r d i n a r y p e o p l e , r a t h e r than j u s t t h e w e a l t h y . T h i s was b e c a u s e t h e a r t i s t s changed t h e i r way o f w o r k i n g . They would p a i n t t h e p i c t u r e s f i r s t and t h e n w o r r y a b o u t t r y i n g t o s e l l them, i n s t e a d o f w o r k i n g m o s t l y for commissions. T h i s gave them more f r e e d o m t o explore d i f f e r e n t subjects. As w e l l , t h e r e were more p e o p l e who c o u l d a f f o r d t o buy p a i n t i n g s s i n c e t h e r e were no l o n g e r j u s t p o o r e r w o r k i n g p e o p l e , a few m i d d l e c l a s s p e o p l e and t h e v e r y w e a l t h y . Now t h e r e was a l a r g e m i d d l e c l a s s o f b u s i n e s s p e o p l e who wanted t o buy s m a l l p a i n t i n g s f o r t h e i r homes - n o t t h e huge w a l l s i z e p i e c e s o f e a r l i e r t i m e s t h a t took years t o complete. I t was a t t h i s t i m e t h a t c i t i e s were g r o w i n g r a p i d l y b e c a u s e new t e c h n o l o g y was making i t p o s s i b l e t o s e t up f a c t o r i e s t o p r o d u c e c l o t h , t o o l s , and c l o t h i n g , and t o p r o c e s s m e t a l s f o r m a c h i n e r y and r a i l r o a d s . Many p e o p l e moved t o t h e c i t y f r o m t h e c o u n t r y t o work i n t h e s e new i n d u s t r i e s and t o s e t up b u s i n e s s e s s u c h a s s h o p s t o s u p p o r t t h e i n d u s t r y and p r o v i d e goods and f o o d f o r t h e w o r k e r s . These b u s i n e s s p e o p l e became t h e new m i d d l e c l a s s who had money t o spend. R e n o i r was i n t e r e s t e d n o t i n t h i s p a r t i c u l a r c o u p l e b u t i n t h e way t h e l i g h t p l a y e d on t h e f i g u r e s and t h e way c o l o u r s work. The c o l o u r s a r e l i g h t and a l i v e - l i k e carefree dancers. These a r e o r d i n a r y p e o p l e e n j o y i n g t h e m s e l v e s on a b e a u t i f u l summer d a y . How c a n y o u t e l l i t i s summer? (pause t o d i s c u s s ) (NEXT SLIDE) Slide  #19 ( D a u m i e r , T h i r d  C l a s s C a r r i a g e , 1862, 26" x 35")  A r t i s t s a l s o began t o u s e t h e i r work t o make s t a t e m e n t s o r comments a b o u t p o l i t i c s and l i f e . This i s c a l l e d s o c i a l comment. Here some v e r y p o o r farm people a r e f o r c e d t o t r a v e l i n an uncomfortable railway c a r with a l l o f t h e i r possessions i n bundles. There i s n o t h i n g r o m a n t i c about t h i s t i r e d mother, who i s t e n d i n g h e r baby! Daumier h a s used l i g h t ( c h i a r o s c u r o ) t o e m p h a s i s t h e s e women. I t i s a very r e v e a l i n g l i g h t t h a t emphasizes t h e i r t i r e d f a c e s . He h a s used o u t l i n e s t o e m p h a s i z e t h e l i n e s o f t h e faces. T h e s e women a r e much l i k e t h o s e who would  212 -  have t r a v e l l e d life.  11  -  t o Canada  to t r y to f i n d  a  better  When you v i s i t t h e S u r r e y A r t G a l l e r y , you w i l l see how a r t i s t s p o r t r a y e d t h e l i f e and p e o p l e o f t h e new land - Canada. As t h e c o u n t r y grew and changed so d i d the scope of the a r t i s t s . You w i l l s e e how t h e i r a r t changed t o become more e x p r e s s i v e o f i n d i v i d u a l s ' t h o u g h t s , p e r s o n a l i t i e s and f e e l i n g s .  2 1 3  SURREY ART SLIDE  GALLERY:  SEEING OURSELVES THROUGH ART; PREPARATORY KIT  PRE-VISIT  LIST:  1)  Thebes,  L a d i e s and  2)  Classical B.C.  3)  F r a n c e , Bayeux T a p e s t r y , c.1073-83.  4)  B y z a n t i n e S c h o o l , Enthroned 52 x 30 i n .  5)  Giotto,  (Italy),  Madonna  6)  Giotto,  (Italy),  Lamentation  7)  The St.  8)  Masaccio,  9)  Masaccio, ( I t a l y ) , 17 x 13 i n .  Profile  10)  Mantegna, ( I t a l y ) , wood, c l o s e - u p .  Calvary,  1457-59, tempera  and  11)  Leonardo  (Italy),  The  c.1495-98.  12)  L e o n a r d o da V i n c i , ( I t a l y ) , The Mona L i s a , wood p a n e l , 30-1/4 x 20-7/8 i n .  1503-6, o i l on  13)  Jean C l o u e t , ( F r a n c e ) , F r a n c i s on b o a r d , 37-3/4 x 29-1/8.  I, c.  tempera  14)  P e t e r P a u l Rubens, ( F l a n d e r s ) , c.1626, 50 x 37 i n .  Assumption  15)  Rembrandt, ( H o l l a n d ) , A r i s t o t l e C o n t e m p l a t i n g t h e B u s t Homer, 1653, o i l on c a n v a s , 56-1/2 x 53-3/4 i n .  16)  Claude L o r r a i n (France), Pastoral Compagna, 17th C., o i l on c a n v a s ,  17)  G a i n s b o r o u g h , ( E n g l a n d ) , The c a n v a s , 40 x 52-1/2 i n .  18)  P i e r r e Auguste R e n o i r , ( F r a n c e ) , o i l on c a n v a s , 70 x 37 i n .  20)  Honore Daumier, ( F r a n c e ) , c a n v a s , 26 x 35 i n .  Greece,  M u s i c i a n s , tomb p a i n t i n g , Ruvo, tomb m u r a l ,  Veiled  Madonna and  da  Vinci,  The  B.C.  Women, 4 t h  Child,  13  C.  C,  Enthroned,•c.1311. Over  Christ,  Cloisters, ( F r a n c e ) , B e l l e s Heures, Jerome, c.1410-13, c l o s e - u p . (Italy),  c.1400  1305.  Life  of  T r i b u t e Money, c.1427, c l o s e - u p . o f a Young Man,  Last  Supper,  1524,  o i l on  of the  and o i l Virgin, of  Landscape: The Roman 40 x 52-1/2 i n .  Baillie  Third  c.1425,  F a m i l y , 1784,  La B a l a B o u g i v a l , Class  Carriage,  o i l on 1883,  o i l on  215  SURREY ART GALLERY - SEEING OURSELVES THROUGH ART WORKSHOP  THE A C T I V I T Y SHEET THERE IS A QUIZ TO SEE HOW TO THE PRESENTATION.  portrait perspective landscape fresco commission  pose  chiaroscuro  romantic  social  comment  tapestry  subject  WELL YOU LISTENED  216 ACTIVITY  #1  Look c a r e f u l l y a t t h e p a i n t i n g Mantegna  who  a formula On  painted  for getting  them  longer  This it  i t i n 1457  t h e o u t l i n e below,  making  on y o u r  point  meet a t t h i s using  i n Italy.  by t h e  He h a s  the p e r s p e c t i v e  right!!  trace  from  the l i n e s  and l o n g e r  until  i s called  artist  discovered  t h e pavement  t h e y a l l meet i n a  the vanishing  point  stones, point  (please  label  picture!!)  N o w . . . f i n d what  Now,  on t h e s c r e e n  other  point.  lines  c a n be l e n g t h e n e d  Draw them  stick^-people,  so t h a t  they  i n too.  f i t the f i g u r e s i n t o the p i c t u r e .  Look c a r e f u l l y a t t h e p i c t u r e y o u have now  done and  t r y to  figure  to point  out the  o u t how  importance  the vanishing  o f the event.  also  point  i s used  2 1 7  ACTIVITY #2 Now  l e t ' s f i n d out what new words you have l e a r n e d .  F i l l in  the blanks i n the f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n w i t h the c o r r e c t word .from the l i s t a t the beginning of the a c t i v i t y sheets. read through each sentence f i r s t ;  Hint:  t h e r e may be a c l u e t o a  m i s s i n g word a f t e r the blank i n the sentence.  1.  's FATHER WAS  A VERY WEALTHY MAN  IN 1500.  your name HE DECIDED THAT HE MUST HAVE A PICTURE OF HIS CHILD PAINTED SO....HE CALLED UPON THE ARTIST DA VINCI TO HIM TO DO A  OF THE CHILD! !  NOT HAPPY TO HAVE TO SIT AND THANK GOODNESS IT WAS HUGE  SAID CHILD  FOR THE  WAS  PAINTING.  ONLY TO BE A SMALL PAINTING AND NOT A TAKING UP THE WHOLE PLASTER WALL! ! !  WOULD HAVE MADE  IT  MUCH HAPPIER IF FATHER your name  HAD WANTED A NICE 2.  C i r c l e the c o r r e c t meaning f o r the f o l l o w i n g word: Chiaroscuro i s  3.  SHOWING THE COUNTRYSIDE.  a) b) c) d)  a hot I t a l i a n meal a type of c o l o u r p a t t e r n the dramatic use of l i g h t and dark a type of c h a i r  C i r c l e the c o r r e c t meaning f o r the u n d e r l i n e d words i n the following: A romantic p a i n t i n g shows people a) i n l o v e , b) r e a l i s t i c , p e r f e c t d r e a m l i k e way o r ,  c)  i n an un-  i n t h e i r homes.  However, an a r t i s t who wants t o make a s o c i a l comment wants h i s p a i n t i n g s t o show, a) f a i r and e q u a l l i f e life  happy, r i c h people,  i s f o r everyone, or  i s f o r some people.  c)  how  b)  how  difficult  218 A C T I V I T Y #3 - NOW I S YOUR CHANCE TO BE THE ARTIST.  WHEN YOU  COME TO THE SURREY ART GALLERY WE WOULD L I K E T O SEE IMAGINE  THE PICTURES YOU PRODUCE IN THIS EXERCISE.  t h e Pharoah  o f E g y p t has d e c i d e d  humble s l a v e , must p a i n t a w a l l In  t h e space below  look about he  like.  plan  that you, h i s f o r his  what y o u r  section  Remember t h a t y o u must show  the r u l e r ' s l i f e  i s o r what g o o d  that w i l l  deeds  tomb!!  tell  will  something  how w e a l t h y  he h a s done.  R E M E M B E R T H E FORMULA T H A T ANCIENT EGYPTIAN ARTISTS USED T O DRAW PEOPLE  -  heads i n p r o f i l e ( f r o m t h e s i d e ) eyes from t h e f r o n t s h o u l d e r s from t h e f r o n t l e g s from the s i d e a n d . . . . a l l o f t h e f i g u r e s a r e i n a row..  219  SURREY ART GALLERY  - SEEING OURSELVES  THROUGH ART WORKSHOP  FOR THIS A C T I V I T Y SHEET YOU WILL NEED TO HAVE A >y^AND A V\  LISTEN''FOR THESE WORDS THROUGHOUT THE LESSON! THE A C T I V I T Y SHEET THERE IS A QUIZ TO SEE HOW TO THE  AT THE END WELL YOU  M  OF  LISTENED  PRESENTATION.  p o r t r a i t - a p a i n t i n g or photograph of a person, e s p e c i a l l y t h e i r face p e r s p e c t i v e - a way t o draw f u r n i t u r e , rooms and landscapes so they show depth i n s t e a d o f l o o k i n g f l a t landscape - a p a i n t i n g o r photograph of scenery f r e s c o - a p a i n t i n g done on a damp, f r e s h l y p l a s t e r e d w a l l commission - t o h i r e someone t o make something and pay them f o r the f i n i s h e d product (e.g. h i r e an a r t i s t t o p a i n t a portrait) pose - the way the s u b j e c t of a p a i n t i n g i s s i t t i n g or standing (can apply t o s c u l p t u r e , photography e t c . ) c h i a r o s c u r o - the c o n t r a s t between l i g h t r o m a n t i c - l o v e l y , dreamlike,  and dark  unreal  s o c i a l comment- a statement about p o l i t i c s tapestry subject  and l i f e  - hand woven f a b r i c decorated with s t i t c h i n g used as d e c o r a t i o n i n homes and churches - what the work o f a r t i s about  to be  220 ACTIVITY  #1  Look c a r e f u l l y a t t h e p a i n t i n g Mantegna a  who  painted  t h e o u t l i n e below,  making  them  longer  This it  i t i n 1457  formula f o r getting  On  on y o u r  point  meet a t t h i s using  i n Italy.  by the  He h a s  discovered  the p e r s p e c t i v e  right!!  trade  f r o m t h e pavement  the l i n e s  and l o n g e r  until  i s called  t h e y a l l meet i n a  the vanishing  point  stones, point  (please  other  point.  lines  c a n be l e n g t h e n e d  Draw them  stick^-people,  so t h a t  label  f i t the f i g u r e s i n t o the p i c t u r e . done  figure  to point  o u t how  the v a n i s h i n g  of the event.  they alsc  i n too.  Look c a r e f u l l y a t t h e p i c t u r e y o u h a v e now  importance  artist  picture!!)  N o w . . . f i n d what  Now,  on t h e s c r e e n  point  i s used  and t r y t o out the  221  #2  ACTIVITY Now  let's  find  the blanks  i n the f o l l o w i n g  from  the l i s t  read  through  missing  o u t what new w o r d s y o u have l e a r n e d . section with  word a f t e r  first;  the b l a n k  1.  t h e r e may  HIM  TO DO A  NOT  HAPPY TO HAVE TO S I T AND  portrait  THANK GOODNESS I T WAS fresco  pose  IN 1500.  is  SAID CHILD  WAS  THE PAINTING AND  NOT  UP THE WHOLE PLASTER WALL! ! ! MUCH HAPPIER  '. A IT  I F FATHER  name  landscape •  a) b) (g) d)  PAINTED  commission  FOR  SHOWING THE  the c o r r e c t meaning f o r the f o l l o w i n g  Chiaroscuro  3.  OF HIS CHILD  OF THE CHILD! !  TAKING  WANTED A NICE  Circle  to a  ONLY TO BE A SMALL PAINTING  your  2.  be a c l u e  Hint:  A VERY WEALTHY MAN  WOULD HAVE MADE HAD  sheets.  HE CALLED UPON THE ARTIST DA VINCI TO  HUGE  word  name  HE DECIDED THAT HE MUST HAVE A PICTURE SO  in  i n the sentence.  's FATHER WAS your  the c o r r e c t  a t the b e g i n n i n g of the a c t i v i t y each sentence  Fill  COUNTRYSIDE.  word:  a hot I t a l i a n meal a type of c o l o u r p a t t e r n the dramatic use of l i g h t a type of c h a i r  and  dark  C i r c l e t h e c o r r e c t meaning f o r t h e u n d e r l i n e d words i n the following: A romantic  painting  realistic,  p e r f e c t d r e a m l i k e way  However, his  an a r t i s t  paintings  shows p e o p l e  who  a) i n l o v e , © or,  c)  i n their  w a n t s t o make a s o c i a l  t o show, a)  fair  and e q u a l l i f e  life  i s f o r some p e o p l e .  happy, r i c h  i s f o r everyone,  or  i n an u n -  comment wants  people, ©  homes.  how  b)  how  difficult  222 ACTIVITY  # 3 - NOW IS YOUR CHANCE TO BE THE A R T I S T .  WHEN Y O U  COME TO THE SURREY ART GALLERY WE WOULD L I K E T O SEE THE PICTURES YOU PRODUCE IN THIS EXERCISE. IMAGINE  t h e Pharoah humble In  about  R E M E M B E R  P E O P L E  -  T H E  s l a v e , must p a i n t a w a l l  t h e space below  look  he  o f Egypt has decided  like.  that  you, h i s  f o r h i s tomb!!  p l a n what y o u r  section  Remember t h a t y o u must show  theruler's l i f e  i s o r what g o o d  that w i l l  deeds  tell  will  something  how w e a l t h y  he h a s done.  FORMULA THAT ANCIENT EGYPTIAN ARTISTS USED  T O  D R A W  heads i n p r o f i l e (from the s i d e ) eyes from t h e f r o n t s h o u l d e r s from t h e f r o n t l e g s from t h e s i d e a n d . . . . a l l o f t h e f i g u r e s a r e i n a row..  2 2 3  APPENDIX 9  224 SURREY ART GALLERY SEEING OURSELVES THROUGH ART A WORKSHOP ABOUT THE FIGURE I N CANADIAN PAINTING INSTRUCTOR NOTE:  S e t o u t t h e v i s u a l s so s t u d e n t s all  can  s e e them.  INTRODUCTION In f r o n t o f you a r e s e v e r a l v e r y  different pictures.  though they a r e d i f f e r e n t from each o t h e r ,  Even  c a n you see what  t h e y a l l h a v e i n common? INSTRUCTOR NOTE:  Allow  students  t o d i s c u s s what t h e  a n s w e r m i g h t be u n t i l with I n t h i s w o r k s h o p we w i l l Canadian a r t i s t s . us  1  t h e y come up  people.'  l o o k a t p i c t u r e s o f p e o p l e done b y  The w o r k o f t h e s e a r t i s t s h a s much t o t e l l  about the a r t i s t s ,  the t r a d i t i o n s that are behind  their  work, t h e l i v e s o f t h e p e o p l e i n t h e p i c t u r e s and t h e h i s t o r y o f C a n a d a a s a n a t i o n o f p e o p l e - n a t i v e p e o p l e and p e o p l e who came h e r e f r o m o t h e r the  lands.  C a n a d i a n a r t came o u t o f  t r a d i t i o n s o f E u r o p e a n a r t , s u c h a s t h a t w h i c h y o u saw i n  your classroom  presentation,  and g r a d u a l l y became s o m e t h i n g  s p e c i a l t o Canada. During  this presentation  composition monochromatic tradition realistic SLIDE  (Haida,  ^  people, both Indians  A  listen  represents sitter civilian authentic  human f a c e mask, wood a n d p a i n t ) and I n u i t ,  h a v e come t o b e c o n s i d e r e d a life  f o r t h e s e new w o r d s :  that required  art.  earliest  p r o d u c e d many o b j e c t s  which  Many o f t h e s e p e o p l e  lived  them t o move a b o u t f r e q u e n t l y , f o l l o w i n g  the a n i m a l s and f i s h w h i c h were t h e i r l i f e - s t y l e d i d not leave as d e c o r a t i o n s  - Canada's  source of food.  This  them t i m e t o p r o d u c e o b j e c t s  only  f o r t h e i r homes, n o r d i d t h e p e o p l e w a n t t o  c a r r y about o b j e c t s  t h a t had no p r a c t i c a l p u r p o s e .  they used t h e i r a r t i s t i c  abilities  tools or to create objects  t o decorate  Instead,  c l o t h i n g and  t h a t were p a r t o f r e l i g i o u s  rituals.  225 -  2 -  T h i s mask was made t o be u s e d i n a H a i d a I n d i a n c e r e m o n y . A mask i s r e a l l y a f a l s e f a c e and was u s e d by t h e H a i d a to  i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e w e a r e r was t r a n s f o r m e d i n t o  character.  T h i s one r e p r e s e n t s a human f a c e - n o t a p a r t i c u l a r  p e r s o n , b u t humans i n g e n e r a l . in  another  a t r a d i t i o n a l design.  The mask m a k e r made t h i s mask  I n o t h e r w o r d s , he u s e d  this design  b e c a u s e h i s p e o p l e had a l w a y s made human f a c e m a s k s l o o k  like  this. NEXT S L I D E SLIDE  (Thebes,  tomb p a i n t i n g , c l 4 0 0 B.C.) - Remember t h e a r t o f t h e  #1B  E g y p t i a n s , w h e r e p e o p l e were a l l drawn t h e same way - n o t a s individuals?  F o r b o t h t h e Haida and t h e E g y p t i a n s ,  t h e human  was u s e d o n l y a s a p a r t o f t h e s t o r y , n o t a s a p a r t i c u l a r i n dividual. NEXT S L I D E SLIDE #2A  (Frere Luc, France Bringing 218.4 X 218.4 c m ) .  the F a i t h ,  1671, o i l on c a n v a s ,  Among t h e e a r l i e s t p e o p l e t o come t o  Canada t o s e t t l e w e r e p e o p l e f r o m F r a n c e .  They s e t t l e d i n  e a s t e r n C a n a d a i n w h a t i s now Quebec, New B r u n s w i c k a n d Nova Scotia. for of for  T h e s e p e o p l e l e f t F r a n c e t o t r y t o f i n d a new  themselves  - a life  without poverty, without t i g h t  t h e government and w i t h o u t a f u t u r e t h a t h e l d better times.  ous l i f e  of the explorers,  t r a d e r s o r perhaps Church  I n Canada, t h e y hoped t o l i v e  C a t h o l i c Church  hope  the adventur-  own t h e i r own f a r m .  The F r e n c h Roman C a t h o l i c to the native  The g o v e r n m e n t o f F r a n c e and t h e Roman  sent representatives t o look a f t e r  i z a t i o n o f t h e new  control  share i n t h e wealth of the f u r  saw t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o b r i n g C h r i s t i a n i t y  p e o p l e o f Canada.  little  life  the organ-  lands.  F r e r e L u c was a monk i n t h e Roman C a t h o l i c C h u r c h who came t o C a n a d a t o h e l p s e t up t h e c h u r c h i n t h e 1 6 0 0 ' s . an a r t i s t who u s e d h i s t a l e n t s t o t e l l in  t h e new l a n d .  He was a l s o  the story of the church  H e r e he t e l l s o f F r a n c e b r i n g i n g  f a i t h t o the natives.  the C h r i s t i a n  He i s u s i n g p e o p l e i n t h e p i c t u r e t o  r e p r e s e n t d i f f e r e n t groups  of people. 3  INSTRUCTOR  NOTE:  226  3 -  Discuss  the painting  following  questions  Can  anyone  the  Indians  the white Who  Frere  L u c was  France  trained  using the  tell  me  as  guidelines:  about  had b e f o r e  the r e l i g i o n  t h e coming  of  man?  i s 'France'?  as an a r t i s t  How  can you  tell?  i n the monasteries  a n d t h e r e f o r e shows t h e C a n a d i a n  of  countryside looking  like  France. NEXT SLIDE #2B  SLIDE  (Claude 40 X  Lorrain,  Pastoral  42*2 cm) .  Do  room  presentation?  like  Lorrain's  imagine  y o u remember Look  'romantic'  the wild,  Landscape, this  a t how  o i l on  painting  your  F r e r e Luc's  French  unexplored  17th century, from  Canada  countryside!  Canadian  forest  class-  looks  Is this land  canvas,  just  how  would  have  looked? INSTRUCTOR  NOTE:  Review i.e.  an i d e a l i z e d  might NEXT SLIDE  the meaning  imagine  of  'romantic'  vision  o f how  one  a place.  SLIDE  (Frere  Luc, Monsigneur  de L a v a l ,  1671-2,  o i l on  canvas)  #2A SLIDE #2B  (Anonymous, 71.1  X  Mere  Jean  F r a n c o i s e , 1684, o i l on  canvas,  58.4 c m ) .  INSTRUCTOR  NOTE:  Discuss  these  following What by  can you t e l l  their  posed?  using the  questions as a  clothing?  pressions?  has  slides  about  guideline: these  . . . their  . . . t h e way  chosen  to  people ex-  they a r e  . . . the colours the  artist  use?  4  you  -  227  4 -  A r t i s t s were p a i d t o p a i n t p i c t u r e s o f t h e s e  important  p e o p l e s o t h a t t h e r e w o u l d be a r e c o r d o f w h a t t h e y like.  Remember t h i s was l o n g b e f o r e  invented. received  looked  t h e p h o t o g r a p h was  A l s o , t h e a r t i s t s came f r o m E u r o p e w h e r e their a r ttraining.  Consequently, they  they  painted  t h e p e o p l e o f Canada e x a c t l y t h e same way t h e y w o u l d  paint  people i n Europe.  The p a i n t i n g s , t h e r e f o r e , a r e n o t d i s -  t i n c t l y Canadian.  These p o r t r a i t s a r e v e r y  the a r t i s t using  shows t h e p e o p l e s i t t i n g  i n very  command g r e a t  These a r e p e o p l e o f t h e i n -  They m u s t l o o k l i k e p e o p l e who  respect.  a r t i s t can g i v e a g r e a t d e a l of i n f o r m a t i o n about t h e  s i t t e r s by t h e p o s i t i o n s i n w h i c h he p u t s p r e s s i o n he shows on t h e i r and  positions  - a p r i e s t and a n u n , s o t h e y m u s t l o o k s e r i o u s ,  t e l l i g e n t and i m p o r t a n t .  The  stiff  - that i s ,  sombre c o l o u r s and d o e s n o t u s e a b a c k g r o u n d t o t e l l  p a r t of the s t o r y about the person. church  formal  faces  them a n d t h e e x -  (remember t h e Mona  Lisa  her smile?) ACTIVITY:  ( L e a v e t h e s l i d e on t h e s c r e e n .  Turn  on  into  the l i g h t s .  D i v i d e the group  p a i r s and g i v e e a c h p a i r a m i r r o r ) . Now we a r e g o i n g  to pretend  a r t i s t s preparing  to paint a portrait - a  p i c t u r e of a p a r t i c u l a r you  t h a t we a r e a l l  type of person.  i s t h e a r t i s t and t h e o t h e r  the person being the p a i n t i n g .  painted.  I will  with a character  i s the s i t t e r -  The m i r r o r w i l l be  g i v e you a sheet of paper  t o be p a i n t e d  arrange the s i t t e r  One o f  and y o u m u s t  so t h a t your p a i n t i n g  as much a b o u t t h e s u b j e c t a s p o s s i b l e .  tells Re-  member, we w i l l o n l y  see t h e head and  and maybe t h e a r m s .  When y o u a r e f i n i s h e d ,  will  shoulders we  c h o o s e a f e w p o r t r a i t s and s e e i f we c a n  g u e s s who y o u h a v e p a i n t e d .  You w i l l  5 minutes t o complete your p o r t r a i t . f o l d e d paper t o each a r t i s t . the mayor, a m o v i e s t a r ,  have about (Pass o u t a  Suggested  a farmer,  characters:  a person . . .  that's 5  -  warm  NEXT SLIDE  and f r i e n d l y ,  the  children  the  sitters  The  papers  or  228  5 -  a mean  change  p l a c e s when  g e t a chance could  y o u may w i s h  o l dm i s e r .  finished  so  t o be t h e a r t i s t s .  be c o l l e c t e d ±o  Have  provide  and r e s h u f f l e d  new  ones).  SLIDE  (ExVoto  - Mme.  Riverin,  (ExVoto  - 3 Castaways,  1 7 0 3 , o i l o n c a n v a s , 40 X  52 cm)  #4A SLIDE #4B  As w e l l  as paying  t o have  some o f t h e p e o p l e "ex v o t o "  means  " o u t o f a vow."  These  their were  Catholic custom  be  of their  and here  were very give  French  People  popular  Our e a r l y homeland.  usually  not trained human.  with  real  The wealthy  thanks  i s a Latin  phrase  saved  f o rtheir  rescue  artists are very  Riverin from  which  a  crisis.  imitated  training  They  a  who p a i n t e d  'Canadian'  Madam  from  i n Europe  settlers  little  to  paintings painted to  of painting  i n Europe.  painted,  artists  been  French  20 cm)  hired  The a r t i s t s  people  the f i r s t  Canada  had these  type  12 X  of themselves  "Ex v o t o "  g r a t i t u d e f o rhaving  a very  considered  they  paintings.  people.  works were  portraits  of early  paint  record  1754, o i l on b o a r d ,  among this  these  and c o u l d because informal  and her c h i l d r e n shipwreck.  INSTRUCTOR NOTE: D I S C U S S I O N : What d o y o u s u p p o s e is  the story  (On a  June  boat  With  the help  girls  were  rescued).  ings  appear  t o have  trained  opinion?  fabric tioned, tion  artist?  women  fell  o f S t . Anne Which  been  (Castaways  over-  into the the three  o f t h e two  done  (Mme. R i v e r i n  the river,  women  paint-  by t h e b e t t e r  What c l u e s h e l p  drapery). lack  painting?  crossing  2 men a n d 3 y o u n g  and t h e 3 young  water.  your  the other  17, 1754, w h i l e  with  turned  behind  you form  - more  detail,  - not propor-  of perspective, lack  of a t t e n -  to detail).  5  229  - 6 NEXT SLIDE SLIDE  (Kane,  ( I n d i a n s P l a y i n g a t A l c o l o h , c l 8 5 1 - 6 , o i l on 18 X 29 i n c h e s ) "  # 5 A  SLIDE  (Kane,  Sketches,  canvas,  cl850)  # 5B  The  s e t t l e r s who  s i g h t s and  f a c e d many h a r d s h i p s .  a curiosity was  came t o Canada f r o m E u r o p e saw many  t o the Europeans.  so d i f f e r e n t f r o m  s e t t l e r s regarded and  The  n a t i v e people  B e c a u s e t h e i r way  t h a t of the s e t t l e r s ,  subjects for a r t i s t s Canada's g r o w i n g  b e c a u s e t h e y w e r e new cities  and p e o p l e  Canada became more s e t t l e d and some a r t i s t s of  saw  disappearing.  was  life the  distrust  t o them  and  f o r people  still  living  i n Europe.  As  s e t t l e m e n t s moved w e s t w a r d ,  the I n d i a n l i f e s t y l e These a r t i s t s  of  They w e r e p o p u l a r  because they were a s o u r c e of c u r i o s i t y in  were  some of  them w i t h a m i x t u r e o f f e a r ,  i g n o r a n c e , as w e l l as c u r i o s i t y .  new  as b e i n g i n d a n g e r  w a n t e d t o make s u r e  there  a r e c o r d o f t h e s e p e o p l e , whom t h e y c o n s i d e r e d n o b l e .  Artists art  s u c h as P a u l Kane, who  i n Europe,  people. used  travelled  grew up i n C a n a d a b u t s t u d i e d  the c o u n t r y doing s k e t c h e s of n a t i v e  They t h e n t o o k t h e s k e t c h e s i n t o t h e i r  them as m o d e l s t o compose l a r g e p a i n t i n g s on  T h e s e s k e t c h e s w e r e v e r y l o o s e and w e r e done i n p e n c i l and c o l o u r or o i l p a i n t s . ing  s t u d i o s and  free.  The  i n a landscape  E n g l i s h garden  Sometimes  f i n i s h e d canvases  standing i n  t h a t l o o k s more l i k e  than the w i l d s of the f o r e s t .  t e c h n i q u e s used  water-  ended up a  lookstiff  manicured  In order  g i v e the i m p r e s s i o n of the d i g n i t y of the p e o p l e , used  they  other times i n c o l o u r , u s i n g  very c a r e f u l l y planned, w i t h people  formation  canvas.  the  to artist  by E u r o p e a n p a i n t e r s when t h e y r o m a n t i -  cized their subjects. NEXT SLIDE SLIDE  (Gainsborough,  #6B  Do  The  B a i l l i e Family,  1784)  you remember s e e i n g t h i s f a m i l y p o r t r a i t b e f o r e ?  i t compare t o P a u l Kane's I n d i a n group?  ( i . e . sky,  How  does  hills).  -  7  230  -  SLIDE  (William Berczy,  #6A  T h i s p o r t r a i t o f t h e famous c h i e f , J o s e p h B r a n t ,  Joseph Brant,  1 7 9 7 , o i l on  l i k e a s t a t u e than a r e a l person. t h e famous I n d i a n l e a d e r was  canvas)  Although  by a l l r e p o r t s ,  a handsome and  imposing  man.  Indian  chief.  T h i s p a i n t i n g l o o k s l i k e an a c t o r p l a y i n g an P o r t r a i t s of a c t o r s or of people very popular  i n t h e a t r e costumes were  i n England during t h i s time.  W i l l i a m Berczy,  l o o k s more  chose t o copy the  This  artist,  s t y l e of these p a i n t i n g s .  NEXT SLIDE SLIDE  (Krieghoff,  Habitants' Cabin,  SLIDE  (Cruikshank,  Breaking  #7B  The  1850's,  o i l on  canvas)  #7A  life  one.  of t h e s e  s e t t l e r s who  T h e r e w e r e few  were v e r y rough. neighbours to  clear  and  and  Road, 1 8 9 4 , o i l on c a n v a s , 8 8 . 9 X r o a d s t o t h e f a r m s and  The  people  s t o r e s - and  the l a n d , b u i l d  lived had  b u t had  those  in isolation  t o r e l y on  the farms,  to e n t e r t a i n themselves.  this lifestyle.  w a n t e d t o f a r m was  difficult  that existed  - f a r from  their  f e e d and  a  172.7cm)  inventiveness  c l o t h e the f a m i l y  Many a r t i s t s w a n t e d t o r e c o r d  T h e s e w e r e a r t i s t s who  g r e w up  i n Canada  gone t o e i t h e r E u r o p e o r t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s t o  study  painting formally. P a i n t i n g s o f s e t t l e r s became q u i t e p o p u l a r in  the f a s t growing Canadian c i t i e s ,  paintings.  The  who  among b u s i n e s s  could afford  a r t i s t s would not w a i t u n t i l  they  had  in  t r y to s e l l  them.  Often  t h e y had  to support  to  buy  customers  b e f o r e p a i n t i n g , but would p a i n t a s e r i e s of p a i n t i n g s then  people  and  themselves  o t h e r w a y s , when p a i n t i n g d i d n o t p r o d u c e e n o u g h money.  They w o r k e d a s t e a c h e r s , s i g n p a i n t e r s , h o u s e p a i n t e r s , any t h a t w o u l d g i v e them money t o c o n t i n u e w i t h t h e i r a r t . image of l i f e tic.  The  t h a t these  artists  showed was  c u s t o m e r s wanted t o see a c a r e f r e e , i d y l l i c  T h e y d i d n o t w a n t t o see  the hardships  W h i c h o f t h e s e p a i n t i n g s w o u l d you (Cruikshank dreary,  often very  - Breaking  of the r u r a l  grim  The romanlife.  settlers.  t h i n k i s most t r u e to  Road - c o o l c o l o u r s , l o o k s c o l d  s t r u g g l i n g animals,  faced  job  life?  and  farmers).  8  -  NEXT SLIDE  8  231  -  SLIDE  (Krieghoff,  J.B.  Jolifou,  Auberger  1871,  y  o i l on  canvas)  #8A SLIDE #8B  (Harris,  A  Meeting  Krieghoffs perhaps more In  of  p o r t r a y a l of  gives  likely  an  the  this  settlers  this  INSTRUCTOR  the  was  many p r o b l e m s a s t h e y at  School  a  view  of  rare,  second  to  the  of  up  a  o i l on happy  lifestyle.  special  set  1885,  enjoying  i n a l l parts  worked  NOTE:  Trustees,  settlers  unrealistic  that  reality,  carefully  the  canvas)  time  It  is  occasion. Canada  their  had  to  face  communities.  Look  painting.  Discuss  the  Can  f i g u r e out  you  (a  school  Can  you  room  tell  (school  who  the  are  the  represent  trying  What  to  win  is an  men? community-  happening? argument  with  trustee???). you  know a b o u t  (small,  one  room,  one  created  a  artist  that  is? desk).  is?  do  using  this  lady  Who  trustees).  school What  what  parents,  (teacher  questions:  - blackboard,  teacher)  (farmers, school  following  has  chiaroscuro. is  schools  then?  teacher).  The  sense Do  you  ( c o n t r a s t between  of  drama  recall light  by  what and  dark). NEXT SLIDE  SLIDE  (Harris,  Fathers  of  Confederation,  a  study,  1884)  #9A SLIDE  (Photo,  #9B  In  the  Meeting early part  countries Canada  of of  i n Europe;  started  In  1867,  to  i t s own  painting  the  the  our  paid  government.  shows  the  men  Ministers,  h i s t o r y , Canada  first  t o work  wait  First  France  toward off We who  and  call  up  Britain this  wanted  to  was  then  setting  and  1981) governed  England.  i t s own  gave  by Eventually  government.  Canada  the  "confederation"  right  and  e s t a b l i s h Canada's . . .  this first 9  -  9  -  232  c o n s t i t u t i o n - the F a t h e r s of C o n f e d e r a t i o n . INSTRUCTOR NOTE: D i s c u s s the f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n s : - What was  confederation?  - Who  are these  people?  - Who  i s the most important  i n t h i s event?  How  can you  - What does the s e t t i n g event?  person  tell  tell? about the  ( i . e . windows - t a l l ,  arched,  r i c h colours, elegant f u r n i t u r e , s i z e of room, amount of  setting  shown). - Do you suppose t h a t t h i s i s what the event a c t u a l l y looked - Why  do you  like?  suppose the a r t i s t  was  commissioned f o r t h i s p a i n t i n g ? In  1981,  the f i n a l stages of c o n f e d e r a t i o n took p l a c e w i t h the  b r i n g i n g of the c o n s t i t u t i o n t o Canada from B r i t a i n . i n t h i s photograph t h i s about.  are the p r o v i n c i a l premiers who  men  brought  When H a r r i s ' s p a i n t i n g of the F a t h e r s of Con-  f e d e r a t i o n was  p a i n t e d , the photograph was  means of r e c o r d i n g events. about how  The  not y e t a popular  Today, we g e t most of our ideas  s p e c i a l events looked from photographs and  and magazines as w e l l as t e l e v i s i o n  newspapers  coverage.  INSTRUCTOR NOTE: Compare t h i s photo to formal p a i n t i n g ( i . e . poses with tea cups; i n f o r m a l background - l i t t l e  indicated;  arrange-  ment of people, where i s Trudeau? Furniture, c l o t h i n g - business s u i t s not s p e c i a l as i n p a i n t i n g ) . N.B.  people caught  i n a c a s u a l moment r a t h e r  than posed and p o s i t i o n e d as i s necessary for  painting  ( i . e sketches of each person,  arrangement etc) - photo c o u l d not be  used  as r e f e r e n c e f o r p a i n t i n g - a kind of sketch. ACTIVITY:  Arrange  the group f o r a c l a s s p o r t r a i t with  a p o l a r o i d camera, d i s c u s s i n g and r e a r r a n g ing  t o e x p l o r e : the e f f e c t of d i f f e r e n t ...  10  -  233  -  10  r a t i o s of background to people, i . e . lower h a l f of p a i n t i n g occupied by people, upper two t h i r d s by background; d i f f e r e n t  settings,  poses of people, a c c e s s o r i e s ; placement people to show importance.  How  of  best could  a l l of t h i s be arranged to g i v e a t r u e imp r e s s i o n of the group? NEXT SLIDE SLIDE  (Varley, Vera, 1930,  o i l on canvas)  #10A SLIDE  (Varley, V i n c e n t Massey, 1920,  o i l on canvas,  119.4  X 142.2  cm)  #10B  In the t w e n t i e t h century, a r t i n Canada has progressed  immensely.  A r t i s t s now  have a r t schools i n Canada as w e l l as e a s i e r  to the U.S.  and Europe.  access  A r t i s t s a l s o have much more o p p o r t u n i t y  through t r a v e l and p u b l i c a t i o n s to communicate w i t h each other about t h e i r work and i d e a s . and a l s o t r y out new now  As a r e s u l t ,  ideas of t h e i r own.  they c o u l d share ideas Because many a r t i s t s  p a i n t f i r s t and then worry about s e l l i n g  the work, they are  g e n e r a l l y l e s s concerned with producing what the buyers F r e d e r i c k V a r l e y was traits.  famous i n the 1920's and 3 0's  f o r h i s por-  In the past, a r t i s t s doing p o r t r a i t s u s u a l l y t r i e d  achieve an almost photographic a t t e n t i o n to d e t a i l and c o l o u r much as they saw now  request.  i t in real l i f e .  to  used  A r t i s t s such as V a r l e y  f e l t a freedom to use c o l o u r to express t h e i r f e e l i n g s  about  the p e r s o n a l i t y of the s u b j e c t . INSTRUCTOR NOTE: DISCUSSION: Why these c o l o u r s ?  do you  suppose he  Can you p i c k out a l l of the  c o l o u r s he used i n the s k i n ?  Why  them? ( r e f l e c t i v e , e x p r e s s i o n ) . you d e s c r i b e the way paint?  d i d he How  use  would  the a r t i s t a p p l i e s  the  ( i . e . l a r g e brush, l o t s of p a i n t , b i g  s t r o k e s - makes the p o r t r a i t f r e e and Now  chose  s q u i n t a t the p a i n t i n g .  How  strong.)  does i t look?  (more p h o t o g r a p h i c ) . 11  -  This p o r t r a i t ,  11  -  234  "Vera" i s of an o r d i n a r y person, no one famous.  The other p o r t r a i t i s of V i n c e n t Massey, a Governor General. How  does i t d i f f e r from t h e . i n f o r m a l p o r t r a i t of Vera?  (i.e.  stiff  pose, l e s s freedom of brush work, more sober  c l o t h i n g and c o l o u r s ) . NEXT SLIDE SLIDE  ( s l i d e of photo p o r t r a i t ; Karsch, Robert Borden,  *"'""'"  S i r Robert Borden, the s u b j e c t of t h i s photograph, was  B  prime m i n i s t e r during the f i r s t World War. taken i n 1933 when he was  1933) Canada's  T h i s photo  enjoying h i s retirement.  was  The photo-  grapher, Josef Karsch, i s famous f o r h i s p o r t r a i t s of w e l l known Canadians. INSTRUCTOR NOTE: DISCUSSION: What does the photograph t e l l you about t h i s man's p e r s o n a l i t y ? Would i t say more i n c o l o u r ? p a i n t e r p a i n t t h i s man? What f e a t u r e s would be  How might a  i . e . what c o l o u r s ? emphasized?  NEXT SLIDE SLIDE  (Miller B r i t t a i n ,  Longshoremen, 1940, o i l on masonite, 120X25 in.)  (Miller B r i t t a i n ,  Rummage S a l e, 1940,  #11A SLIDE #12B  The d e p r e s s i o n years i n Canada, for  many.  o i l on masonite, 63.5X50.8cm)  the 1930's, meant hard times  Jobs and money were s c a r c e .  People had to f i g h t f o r  work and l e a r n ways to s t r e t c h what l i t t l e money they c o u l d g e t so  t h a t the f a m i l i e s had food and c l o t h i n g .  M i l l e r B r i t t a i n was a B.C. t h a t p a r t of our h i s t o r y . shoremen.. the  a r t i s t who  d i d many p a i n t i n g s about  The people i n the p a i n t i n g are Long-  In the d e p r e s s i o n a Longshoreman would go down to  dockyards each morning and w a i t w i t h hundreds of others  u n t i l the employers came out and announced needed to work t h a t day. hope  how many men  Everyone e l s e would  he  then leave and  f o r b e t t e r luck the next day, or the next. . .  12  - 12 -  235  INSTRUCTOR NOTE: DISCUSSION: What s t o r y do the of the w a i t i n g men faces t e l l  t e l l you?  How  do  their  these s t o r i e s ?  Rummage s a l e s became very popular depression. like?  i n the  What i s a rummage s a l e ?  ever been to one? was  faces  Have you  Do you remember what i t  What has  the a r t i s t done to g i v e  the f e e l i n g of a crowded, h e c t i c rummage s a l e ? What k i n d of l i n e s do you  see - 'curved.' What  s o r t of c o l o u r s are used?  (deep, warm reds  orange.) picture?  How  and  are the f i g u r e s p l a c e d i n t o the  (crowded, overlapped,  p a r t l y i n and  out of the p i c t u r e - makes i t look l i k e movement) .  The way  the a r t i s t arranges t h i n g s i n  the p a i n t i n g i s c a l l e d composition. seen the s o r t of composition s a l e before?  Have we  i n the rummage  (no, u s u a l l y e v e r y t h i n g  p l e t e l y i n the frame i . e . s l i d e 13B Meeting of the School  i s com- Harris,  Trustees).  NEXT SLIDE SLIDE  (Charles Comfort, The  H i t l e r Line,  1948)  #12A SLIDE # 1  (Charles Comfort, Young Canadian, 1942,  watercolour,  90.2X105.4cm)  4R  In the e a r l y 1940's Canada p a r t i c i p a t e d i n World War support  B r i t a i n ' s war  Adolf H i t l e r . men  The  a g a i n s t the Germans who  war  I I to  were lead by  took place i n Europe, so young Canadian  found themselves f i g h t i n g a war  f a r away from home i n  c o u n t r i e s t h a t look very d i f f e r e n t from Canada and where d i f f e r e n t languages were spoken. f r i g h t e n i n g time, l i v i n g  For these men  i t was  a lonely,  i s o l a t e d from home and  seeing  death  and d e s t r u c t i o n a l l around them. However, the war  provided  r e c o r d i n g events and  jobs f o r people whose i n t e r e s t  p r o v i d i n g news about the war  was  f o r the  c i v i l i a n s or servicemen. .13  236  - 13 -  Newspaper  journalists,  broadcasters battle  were a l l w o r k i n g b e h i n d  fronts.  Among  artists  were h i r e d  express  peoples'  in  pencil  spot. in  people  film the  these  scenes  were war of  e m o t i o n s a b o u t war. and  makers and and  radio  at  the  artists.  t h e war  and  These  t r y to  M o s t o f them worked  s m a l l w a t e r c o l o u r p a i n t i n g s on  were l a t e r  turned  the  into o i l paintings  studios.  The  portrait  is  of a n o t h e r  p a i n t box you  these  to r e c o r d scenes  sketches  Some o f  their  photographers,  in this war  pair  artist,  i n the m i d s t  a b o u t how  he  of p a i n t i n g s by C h a r l e s Carl  Shaeffer, s i t t i n g  of b a t t l e .  felt?  Comfort  What does t h e  What d o e s t h e way  he  with  his  face  tell  is sitting  tell  you? The  artist  little  dull  has  used v e r y  blue.  uses to d i f f e r e n t medium and scheme. and  few  When an  artist  s h a d e s o f one  d a r k brown, we  T h i s way  call  of u s i n g  of war!  this unnatural  The  limits  browns and  the c o l o u r s  i t a  has  light,  'monochromatic' c o l o u r  What a good way  artist  a  he  c o l o u r , f o r example  colour gives a very  looks quite unnatural.  feeling  colours - just  a l s o used  sombre  t o show  light  to  effect  the emphasize  feeling.  INSTRUCTOR NOTE: DISCUSSION: fall? think  (hands and light  hands and  has  face?  heavy l i n e s ,  Where d o e s t h e face).  been used (they  they  Why to  just  look  do  light  you  emphasize  hang, t h e y  tired,  have  h e a v y and  hard-  worked) . The  other  p a i n t i n g , Comfort's  shows s o l d i e r s  i n the midst  "Hitler  Line"  of b a t t l e .  The  c o l o u r s used f o r t h i s p a i n t i n g are  monochro-  matic  Why  again,  s u p p o s e he  except  f o r the r e d s .  chose those  colours?  s t a n d o u t and  startling).  the reds  (blood,  c o l o u r o f bombs),  look  very  represent?  i n y o u r rmind's  t a k e away t h e f e n c e p i e c e s a t t h e f r o n t painting.  Is the p a i n t i n g as  you  ( t h e monochro-  m a t i c s make t h e r e d s What do  do  effective,  eye  of  the  is i t  237  - 14 -  as s t a r t l i n g , without them? The a r t i s t has used the fence to c r e a t e a d i a g o n a l i n the composition. is  A diagonal  a l i n e that d i v i d e s the p i c t u r e on an  angle  (as opposed t o those on the h o r i z o n t a l  - a c r o s s , or v e r t i c a l - u p and down).  This  d i a g o n a l upsets our sense of order and makes us uneasy because we want t o s t r a i g h t e n i t . A r t i s t s make use of d i a g o n a l s when they want t h e i r p a i n t i n g s t o be dramatic and d i s t u r b i n g . NEXT SLIDE SLIDE  (West, Death of Wolfe,  1770,  o i l on canvas,  #13A  A r t i s t s i n former wars p a i n t e d t h e i r work mostly and wanted to show how noble war was. of  Wolfe,"  59h X 84 in.) i n studios  Compare t h i s  i n the War of 1812 t o Comfort's  "Death  portrait.  Comfort's  g e n e r a t i o n of a r t i s t s were more i n t e r e s t e d i n p o r t r a y i n g the r e a l i t i e s of war f o r the p u b l i c . NEXT SLIDE SLIDE  (Hughes, American and Canadian  Troops, Medupat Main Post  #14A  Exchange, K i s k a , A l a s k a , 1944, o i l on canvas) Since W.W.II much has happened t o change the Canadian life.  Rapid advances i n technology - t e l e v i s i o n ,  way of  film,  computers and f a s t , convenient t r a n s p o r t a t i o n - have enabled us t o see the l i f e s t y l e s of other people.  To a c e r t a i n ex-  tent, these f a c t o r s have r e l i e v e d the a r t i s t of having t o r e cord f a c t , and thereby have l e f t him f r e e t o use h i s imagination, resulting  i n more p e r s o n a l e x p r e s s i o n .  NEXT SLIDE SLIDE  (William Kurelek, Women Feeding the Threshing Gang, a c r y l i c  #15A  on board,  61 X 74.9 cm)  W i l l i a m Kurelek i s an a r t i s t whose work you may have seen i n books or magazines. His  He has been p a i n t i n g  s i n c e the 1950's.  scenes of country l i f e are q u i t e popular and o f t e n seen  reproduced  i n books.  The good q u a l i t y of r e p r o d u c t i o n now  a v a i l a b l e i n books allows a l l of us t o enjoy works of a r t from museums and a r t g a l l e r i e s around  the world.  - 15 -  SLIDE #15B  238  ( C r u i k s h a n k , B r e a k i n g Road) Life  has n o t changed  painting  o f women p r e p a r i n g  shows a s e t t i n g  that  by t h e w e a t h e r . has been  about  trained very  r e c a l l that i n European  similar  a style  differences  affected  out a t r a d i t i o n of years.  i s the s t y l e  t r a d i t i o n and d i d p a i n t i n g s paintings.  that  What i s i n which life?  style  perhaps  often  that looked  K u r e l e k has d e v e l o p e d  'Canadian;"  of Canadian r u r a l  done i n a s i m p l e r pose  f o r hundreds  a style  life.  i n how t h e s e p e o p l e p a i n t ?  by an amateur,  and g r e a t l y  i n C r u i k s h a n k * s t i m e , a r t i s t s were  i s much more  more e x p r e s s i v e  gang  t o p a i n t these scenes of r u r a l  t o European  which  isolated  t h e s e two p a i n t i n g s  Kurelek's  the threshing  The women a r e c a r r y i n g  a r t i s t s have c h o s e n  You w i l l  to feed  isstill  a part of harvest  different the  much f r o m C r u i k s h a n k ' s d a y .  he f e e l s i s  Can y o u s e e some K u r e l e k ' s work i s  - i t l o o k s more l i k e i t was p a i n t e d a real  t o make t h e p a i n t i n g  farmer.  seeem more  He d o e s  this  on p u r -  authentic.  INSTRUCTOR NOTE: DISCUSSION: How do t h e two c o m p o s i t i o n s compare? How a r e t h e y a r r a n g e d ?  Which i s  simpler? NEXT SLIDE SLIDE #16A SLIDE #16B  (Kurelek, photo of t h e a r t i s t ) (Kurelek, These is  S e l f - p o r t r a i t , 1957)  a r e both p i c t u r e s  of the a r t i s t  William  Kurelek.  a p h o t o g r a p h and t h e o t h e r i s a s e l f - p o r t r a i t ;  painting  One  the a r t i s t ' s  of h i m s e l f .  INSTRUCTOR NOTE: DISCUSSION: Which t e l l s p e r s o n ? Why? What does chose  each  to paint  Look c a r e f u l l y show?  (he  i s 'painting'  a t the background.  Why do y o u s u p p o s e  the background  s e e s o m e t h i n g wrong  more a b o u t t h e  he u s e s ?  Kurelek Can y o u  i n the photo o f Kurelek?  an a l r e a d y  framed  picture!).  16  239  - 16 -  NEXT SLIDE SLIDE  (Snow, Test Focus F i g u r e ,  1965, o i l on canvas, 152.4 X 203.2 cm)  #17A  SLIDE  (Blank)  ^  In the 1960's and 1970's many Canadians began t o f e e l  7  B  that  because businesses were g e t t i n g t o be so l a r g e , c i t i e s so enormous and e v e r y t h i n g  computerized, the i n d i v i d u a l was  becoming l e s s and l e s s important t o the people i n power and s o c i e t y as a whole.  T h i s p a i n t i n g by M i c h a e l Snow uses the  f i g u r e of a woman as a p a r t of a p a t t e r n . icular has  She i s n o t a p a r t -  person but c o u l d be any woman from the 1960's - she  a t y p i c a l 60's h a i r s t y l e and dress.  The a r t i s t uses her  not as a p o r t r a y a l of people or of a p e r s o n a l i t y b u t as a shape t o be used t o explore By using  arrangements of c o l o u r and p a t t e r n .  the human f i g u r e j u s t as a shape i n a p a t t e r n , the  a r t i s t expresses the impression was  no longer  of many t h a t the i n d i v i d u a l  important i n our s o c i e t y .  NEXT SLIDE SLIDE  (Danby, At the Crease, 1972, egg tempera on board, 28 X 40 in.)  #18A SLIDE  (Ronald, Helen, 1972, o i l on canvas, 198.5 X 152.5 cm)  # 18 B Much of Canadian a r t today i s p a i n t e d 'realism' or 'magic r e a l i s m . '  i n a s t y l e t h a t we c a l l  Many a r t i s t s  experimented f o r  years with d i f f e r e n t s t y l e s of a b s t r a c t p a i n t i n g , which confused had  the p u b l i c because i t d i d not look  seen b e f o r e .  l i k e anything  (Abstract a r t does not have a r e a l i s t i c  s u b j e c t t h a t we can r e c o g n i z e - i t r e l y s on the b a s i c of a r t - c o l o u r , osition) .  they  elements  shape, l i n e s e t c . - t o make a f i n i s h e d comp-  For many people, r e a l i s t i c  art, like  this painting  of a g o a l i e by Ken Danby, i s something t h a t i s e a s i e r t o understand. has  By c o n c e n t r a t i n g  created  In f a c t ,  on p a i n t i n g so much d e t a i l ,  the a r t i s t  something t h a t looks very much l i k e a photograph.  i t looks almost more r e a l i s t i c  than a photograph.  17  -  INSTRUCTOR NOTE:  17  DISCUSSION:  communicate you?  The  pose  you  have  ever  hockey.  is a  figure us  played  particular  some k i n d  f o r us  to  Do  i f  you  player  sport,  or  so  ourselves  you  think is  a l l goalies?  of  imagine  imagine  especially  hockey  that represents  play  can  to  he  Many  i t is in  this  place.  SLIDE  (Haida,  human  goalie  sequently  hides  who  goalie  mask  The  form  and  by  the  painting,  Studio  paint)  that  and  takes  other  meant  for  face,  hides  individuality,  way  out  and  i t i n ceremony.  mask  person's  wood  a mask  is stylized  the  figure  mask,  his  wore  mostly  the  face  i s wearing  Indian  to  i s tense;  painting  emotion  you  athlete's  is  or  feel,  easy  The  feeling  g o a l i e must  of  #19B  this  this  a  SLIDE  much  Does  how  this  NEXT  2k0  -  the  Like  the  Indian  hiding  individual  i t makes  the  scene  how  at  very  The same  clues  looks  mask  the  mask,  the  like.  a  goalie.  be  used  hockey  mask  time  we  con-  for  i t i s to  the  the  and  character,  looked.  p r o t e c t i o n but  the  a  by  masks  what  face  did  i s dictated  thereby  his  as  represents  similar  (repeat)  i t  hides  usually  use  Used  a  in  impersonal.  Activity  Introduction Faces in  of  people  Canada  and  SLIDE  (Frere  #1  Originally what job  a  Luc,  was,  #2  (Pellan, In  recent  what  the  always  around  the  Monsigneur the  artist  person's  portraits SLIDE  have  and  looked Type  de  years,  de  subject  the  like,  portrait what  his  h i s p e r s o n a l i t y was  realistic  artists  popular  for  artists  1671-72)  to use  looked  what  l a Rue  individual  Laval,  tried  quite  a  world.  features  perhaps  been  Saint  like  less and  show  us  position  or  like.  The  recognizable.  Laurent,  became  looked  and  to  1941)  concerned more  with  concerned  exactly with  ex-  241  - 18 -  p r e s s i n g t h e i r thoughts about the i n d i v i d u a l ' s p e r s o n a l i t y . This p o r t r a i t i s c a l l e d  'Type de l a Rue S a i n t Laurent' i n  other words, a t y p i c a l person on S t . Laurence S t r e e t .  The  a r t i s t has chosen c o l o u r s , shapes and d e t a i l s t h a t he thinks represent  t h a t type of person, i . e . f e d o r a hat,  flashing  jacket, straight  The  striped  artist  face.  i s a l s o e x p l o r i n g how the p a i n t i n g works as a  composition  - how the l i n e s , c o l o u r s and shapes can be a r -  ranged f o r the b e s t SLIDE  h a i r and angular  effect.  (Claude Breeze, Faces #2, 1967) T h i s p a i n t i n g i s merely c a l l e d Faces #2. we can f i n d i n i t t h a t r e p r e s e n t  There are some things  f a c i a l f e a t u r e s , t e e t h , noses,  eyes, ears, but these are rearranged  and c o l o u r e d  i n a very  unusual way. INSTRUCTOR NOTE: DISCUSSION: Why do you suppose t h i s might be? (e.g. using p a r t of the design,  facial  f e a t u r e s as  r e c o r d most measurable  f e a t u r e s of the f a c e , express c o n f u s i o n ) . A r t i s t s i n the p a s t few decades have experimented with thing c a l l e d  'abstraction.'  T h i s means t h a t the a r t i s t i s  moving away from p a i n t i n g things as they looked. he uses ideas about c o l o u r s , shapes, p a t t e r n s or SLIDE  ( L e s l i e Poole,  Personal  some-  Instead, compositions.  P o r t r a i t , Nov. 7, 1978, A c r y l i c on canvas)  T h i s p a i n t i n g by Vancouver a r t i s t L e s l i e Poole i s c a l l e d 'Personal  Portrait.*  The p a i n t i n g i s i n two halves  - both s i d e s  are a b s t r a c t but one i s much more a b s t r a c t than the other. INSTRUCTOR NOTE: DISCUSSION:  What does the p a i n t i n g  t e l l you about Mr. Poole?  ( i . e . h i s choice  of c o l o u r s , h i s p e r s o n a l i t y , what he looks like)  19  -  (William  Ronald,  Do y o u r e m e m b e r INSTRUCTOR  Helen, this  NOTE: it? it  This  DISCUSSION: things  i s about  painting  1 9 8 . 5 X 1 5 2 . 5 cm i s called  Can you f i n d  about  a woman?  - soft  How m i g h t (J.  1972, o i l o n c a n v a s ,  painting?  What  'girls'  242  19 -  a woman i n  the painting  (colours  colours,  round  i t be changed  slide  i s of a painting,  look  like?  (a q u i l t ) .  INSTRUCTOR  NOTE:  calls  D I S C U S S I O N : Why  shapes  - womanly).  this  pattern  to represent  does  i tt e l l  you about  To  review:  When  of  a person  object  he have  does  a  What  about:  looks  2)  what a person's  personality  about  like  ways  these  i s like  o f showing  of design like  how h e c o m b i n e s  chosen  painting  what t h e p e r s o n  the elements  'Katherine  'Katherine ?  1)  with  does i t  1  he h a s t o t h i n k  he h a s t o t h i n k  and  173 X 173 cm)  her?  an a r t i s t  Then  a man?  the painting  might  you  represents  t o be a b o u t  b u t what o t h e r  The a r i t s t  tell  - pink  H u r t u b i s e , K a t h e r i n e , 1967, o i l on c a n v a s ,  This  'Helen.  colour  elements  into  these  and a  shape  composi  tion.  STUDIO  PROJECT  (Leslie For us  our p r o j e c t will  about  look  mood  Personal we  we  himself.  look;  b u t we w i l l  and something  are i n right  t o do " s e l f  'about'  o f how we  on our face, like  Portrait)  are going  do a p o r t r a i t  the details  freckles we  Poole,  about  portraits" We  little  will  curls  - each of  n o t be w o r r i e d i n our hair  w a n t t o show b a s i c a l l y our p e r s o n a l i t y ,  or  what  perhaps the  now.  •Materials: -  coloured  -  glue  -  paper white  tissue  paper  and c o n s t r u c t i o n  f o r support of collage c o n s t r u c t i o n paper  i.e. light  paper  card, . . . 20  -  -  2D  243  Materials:  v  - scrap paper f o r planning - p e n c i l s f o r planning  only  • Steps: Planning  - Use  composition i n t o two  a p e n c i l and  scrap paper to p l a n the b a s i c  of your p o r t r a i t .  compositions  You might d i v i d e your paper  l i k e Poole d i d .  Use  these  questions  to help you p l a n your p o r t r a i t : How  b i g i s the nose?  What i s your b a s i c h a i r What are your ears For c l u e s , use  style?  like?  the m i r r o r s and  j u s t do your head and  f e e l your f a c e .  shoulders.  Next, p i c k out the c o l o u r s you want to use. you use  Remember,  The  colours  shouldn't be f a c t u a l but should t e l l about your  personality.  You  might want l o t s of c o l o u r or you might  want to use monochromes ( i . e . a l l shades of one c o l o u r ) . Doing: A)  Gather together your m a t e r i a l s f o r your p o r t r a i t . will  You  need:  1) a p i e c e of card or heavy paper 2) the c o l o u r s of t i s s u e and c o n s t r u c t i o n paper you need. 3) glue B)  L i g h t l y sketch your d e s i g n on the c a r d , u s i n g your  sketch  as a guide. C)  Tear out the c o l o u r e d paper i n the shapes you need f o r your p o r t r a i t .  No  scissors!I  Remember t h a t you can  l a p the t i s s u e f o r more c o l o u r s .  You  can a l s o f o l d  overand  c r i n k l e the paper f o r some i n t e r e s t i n g t e x t u r e s . When you  are f i n i s h e d , we w i l l have a look a t a l l of the  p o r t r a i t s t o see how  w e l l you have done.  self-  244 SURREY ART GALLERY: SEEING OURSELVES THROUGH ART WORKSHOP SLIDE LIST: F o l l o w i n g a r e s l i d e s l i s t e d i n o r d e r o f t h e i r presentation. I f two p r o j e c t o r s a r e u s e d , A = p r o j e c t o r A; B = p r o j e c t o r B 1.  1-A  H a i d a mask, human f a c e , wood a n d p a i n t  2.  1-B  T h e b e s , L a d i e s a n d M u s i c i a n s , tomb p a i n t i n g , c. 1400 B.C.  3.  2-A  F r e r e L u c , F r a n c e B r i n g i n g t h e . F a i t h , 1671, o i l o n c a n v a s , 218.4 X 218.4 cm.  4.  2-B  Claude L o r r a i n , oil  P a s t o r a l Landscape,  1 7 t h C.,  o n c a n v a s , 40 X 4 2 % i n .  5.  3-A  F r e r e Luc, Monsigneur  6.  3-B  7.  4-A  Anonymous, P o r t r a i t o f M e r e J e a n n e F r a n c o i s e , o i l on c a n v a s , 71.1 X 58.4 cm Anonymous, V o t i v e o f Mme. R i v e r i n , 17 03, o i l on c a n v a s , 4 0 X 5 2 cm  8.  4-B  Anonymous, V o t i v e o f T h r e e C a s t a w a y s , o i l o n b o a r d , 1 2 % X 20 i n .  9.  5-A  P a u l Kane, I n d i a n s P l a y i n g a t A l c o l o h , oil  de L a v a l ,  1 6 7 1 - 7 2 , o i l on c a n v a s  c.  168 4,  1754,  c. 1851-6,  o n c a n v a s , 18 X 29 i n .  10.  5-B  P a u l Kane, s k e t c h e s from h i s notebook,  c . 1850  11.  6-B  12.  6-A  G a i n s b o r o u g h , The B a i l l i e F a m i l y , 1 7 8 4 , o i l on c a n v a s , 99 X 90 i n . W i l l i a m B e r c z y , J o s e p h B r a n t , 1797  13.  7-A  C o r n e l i u s K r i e g h o f f , H a b i t a n t s ' C a b i n , 1850's o i l on c a n v a s  14.  7-B  W i l l i a m C r u i k s h a n k , B r e a k i n g Road, 1 8 9 4 , o i l o n c a n v a s , 88.9 X 172.7 cm.  15.  8-A  C o r n e l i u s K r i e g h o f f , J.B. J o l i f o u , A u b e r g e r , 1871, o i l on canvas  16.  8-B  Robert H a r r i s , Meeting of the School Trustees, 1885, o i l o n c a n v a s  17.  9-A  Robert H a r r i s , Fathers of Confederation, a study, 1884  18.  9-B  Photo:  Bob C o o p e r ,  F i r s t M i n i s t e r s , 1981  19. 10-A  F r e d e r i c k V a r l e y , V e r a , 1930, o i l on canvas  20. 10-B  F r e d e r i c k V a r l e y , V i n c e n t M a s s e y , 1 9 2 0 , o i l on c a n v a s , 119.4 x 142.2 cm. K a r s c h , R o b e r t B o r d e n , 1933, p h o t o g r a p h  21. 11-B  . . ./2  245 Slide  List  - Page  2  22.  12-B  M i l l e r B r i t t a i n , T h e Rummage S a l e , o n m a s o n i t e , 6 3 . 5 x 5 0 . 8 cm.  23.  11-A  M i l l e r B r i t t a i n , Longshoremen, m a s o n i t e , 20 x 25 i n .  24.  13-B  Robert 1885.  25.  12-A  C h a r l e s Comfort, canvas  The H i t l e r  26.  14-B  C h a r l e s Comfort, 90.2 X 1 0 5 . 4 cm  Young  27.  13-A  B e n j a m i n West, o i l on canvas,  28.  14-A  E . J . Hughes, A m e r i c a n a n d C a n a d i a n Medupat Main P o s t Exchange, K i s k a , o i l o n c a n v a s , 40 X 48 i n .  29.  15-A  William  K u r e l e k , Women F e e d i n g  acrylic  on board,  Cruikshank,  Harris,  Meeting  1940,  o i l  1940, o i l on  of the School Trustees. Line,  Canadian,  1948, o i l on 1942, w a t e r c o l o u r ,  Death o f W o l f e , 1770, 59h X 84 i n . Troops, A l a s k a , 1944,  the Threshing  Gang.  6 1 X 7 4 . 9 cm.  30.  15-B  William  31.  16-A  W i l l i a m Kurelek, photo o f the a r t i s t , from: t h e V a n c o u v e r S u n , W e e k e n d , v o l . 2 4 , #27, p . 8 .  32.  16-B  William  33.  17-A  M i c h a e l Snow, T e s t . F o c u s F i e l d F i g u r e , 1 9 6 5 , o i l o n c a n v a s , 1 5 2 . 4 X 2 0 3 . 2 cm.  34.  17-B  Blank  35.  18-A  Ken Danby, A t t h e C r e a s e , 1972, e g g t e m p e r a o n b o a r d , 28 X 40 i n .  36.  18-B  William Ronald, o i l on canvas,  37.  19-B  Haida  STUDIO A C T I V I T Y Luc,  Kurelek,  mask,  Breaking  Self  Road  Portrait,  1957  H e l e n , 1972, 1 9 8 . 5 X 1 5 2 . 5 cm.  human  face,  INTRODUCTION Monsigneur  wood  and p a i n t .  SLIDES:  1.  Frere  de L a v a l ,  2.  Alfred  Pellan,  Type  3.  Claude  Breeze,  Faces  4.  Leslie  Poole,  5.  William  6.  J . H u r t u b i s e , K a t h e r i n e , 1967, o i l on canvas,  de l a Rue S a i n t  L a u r e n t , 1941  #2, 1 9 6 7  Personal Portrait,  Ronald,  1671-72  Helen,  N o v . 7. 1 9 7 8 , a c r y l i c  1972, o i l on c a n v a s ,  on  canvas  1 9 8 . 5 X 1 5 2 . 5 cm. 173 X  173 cm.  248  249  APPENDIX 10  2 5 0  SURREY ART Follow-up  GALLERY:  SEEING OURSELVES THROUGH ART  WORKSHOP  Activities:  Teacher Note: A f t e r your v i s i t t o the Surrey A r t G a l l e r y f o r the " S e e i n g O u r s e l v e s T h r o u g h A r t " w o r k s h o p , you m i g h t want t o do one o f t h e s e f o l l o w - u p a c t i v i t i e s w i t h y o u r c l a s s : 1)  P a i n t i n g s o f e v e r y d a y l i f e a r e c a l l e d "Genre" p a i n t i n g s . Have y o u r c l a s s do p a i n t i n g s o r c o l o u r e d d r a w i n g s t h a t i l l u s t r a t e t h e i r everyday l i f e - o r d i n a r y people, doing familiar activities. R e c a l l t h e work o f K u r e l e k , K r e i g h o f f , or R o b e r t H a r r i s t h a t was shown i n t h e workshop.  2)  A v i s u a l notebook: One o f t h e t h i n g s t h a t we n o t i c e d a b o u t t h e p a i n t i n g s we saw i n t h e workshop i s t h a t o f t e n t h e y r e f l e c t t h e s p i r i t and e n v i r o n m e n t of t h e t i m e s i n w h i c h t h e y were p a i n t e d . Have t h e s t u d e n t s c o m p i l e a s c r a p b o o k o f " v i s u a l " i t e m s which become m e a n i n g f u l or s i g n i f i c a n t b e c a u s e o f t h e i r a r r a n g e m e n t or s i m p l y b e c a u s e the s t u d e n t t h o u g h t t h e i t e m i m p o r t a n t enough t o k e e p . The i t e m s s h o u l d be f o u n d r a t h e r t h a n j u s t c l i p p e d f r o m a v a i l a b l e p e r i o d i c a l s . . . i . e . , p r i n t e d w r a p p e r s , menus, packaging, envelopes, old negatives, t i c k e t stubs . . . The i d e a o f t h e notebook i s t o c r e a t e a s o r t o f " t i m e c a p s u l e " t h a t m i g h t be f o u n d by someone 100 y e a r s f r o m now. S t r e s s t h e i d e a o f u s i n g a theme t o u n i f y t h e p r o j e c t and c h o o s i n g o b j e c t s t h a t r e f l e c t contemporary times.  3)  F a c e o f our t i m e s : Choose a p h o t o g r a p h o f t h e f a c e of a p u b l i c f i g u r e o f our t i m e s , ( p r e f e r a b l y a C a n a d i a n ) and cut i t up i n t o s q u a r e s , one s q u a r e p e r c l a s s member. S h u f f l e t h e s q u a r e s and d i s t r i b u t e them t o s t u d e n t s , who w i l l , u s i n g m a r k e r s , draw an e n l a r g e d v e r s i o n o f t h e i r s e c t i o n on a p i e c e o f p a p e r a t l e a s t 12" x 12". R e a s s e m b l e t h e " p h o t o g r a p h " on t h e w a l l t o c r e a t e a " f a c e mural" of your c h a r a c t e r .  M0880  2 5 1  APPENDIX 11  APPENDIX 12  256  TEACHER EVALUATION OF PRE-VISIT PREPARATORY KIT I = INUIT  S = SEEING OURSELVES THROUGH ART  In order to produce materials that will be of maximum use to you, we would like your input. Your evaluation of the materials that you have just used with your class will be most appreciated by those preparing out k i t s . Please answer the following questions: NAME:  SCHOOL:  GRADES USING THE MATERIALS:  Grade Grade Grade Grade  TOTAI 1.  WHICH KIT HAVE YOU JUST USED? Questionnaires:  2.  Grade Grade Grade Grade  TOTAL  INUIT  4 5 6 7  1 3 •1  SEEING OURSELVES THROUGH ART  - completed - 4 - not completed - 1 - not used - 1  returned - 3 kit not sent - 1 kit not used - 1  DO YOU HAVE A BACKGROUND IN THE SUBJECT COVERED IN THE KIT? I - little - 2  3.  4 5 6 &7 7  S - yes - 2 - no - 1  DO YOU HAVE AN ART BACKGROUND? I - little - 2 - none - 2  S - yes (limited) - 2 - no - 1  WOULD YOU NORMALLY DO A PREPARATORY LESSON WITH YOUR CLASS BEFORE VISITING AN ART GALLERY IF YOU HAD NOT BEEN SENT THE MATERIALS? I IF YES I  S - yes no WHAT FORM WOULD THAT LESSON TAKE?  - information & discussion, film, pictures - general information about an art gallery  S - Same as per  I.  257  WOULD YOU HAVE REQUESTED THIS KIT HAD IT NOT BEEN AUTOMATICALLY SENT TO YOU UPON BOOKING YOUR WORKSHOP? I - yes - 2 S - yes - no - 1 ( 1 wouldn't have expected there to be one) DO YOU THINK IT IS A GOOD IDEA TO DO A PREPARATORY LESSON? WHY? I - yes - 4  S - yes - 3 -provides tie between school and gallery  WERE YOU CLEAR AS TO WHAT YOUR VISIT TO THE SURREY ART GALLRY WOULD ENTAIL? I - yes - 4  S - yes - 3  DID YOU ENJOY THIS PREPARATORY KIT? I - yes - 4  S - yes - 3  DID YOUR CLASS ENJOY THE PRESENTATION? I - yes - 4  S - yes - 3  DID YOU USE ALL OF THE MATERIALS INCLUDED IN THE KIT, I.E. TAPE, COMMENTARY, ACTIVITY SHEETS? I - yes - 4 (but not tapes)  S - yes - 3 (except tape for 2)  CHECK OFF THE APPROPRIATE COMMENTS ABOUT THIS KIT: TO ADD COMMENTS) I  (PLEASE FEEL FREE  I  Length:  too long  Vocabulary:  too d i f f i c u l t  too short  Detail  SLIDES,  1  good length  1  too detailed too sketch  2  appropriate  too simplistic  Instructions 4 For Use:  3  appropriate  3  clear too detailed too sketchy confusing  258  Material Presented: I  Activity Sheets: I  S boring  3  S _3_ enjoyable  2  J _ _ interesting J _ _ appropriate  3  _3__ helpful  4  _3__ relevant to curriculum  interest in their  2  J_  gallery v i s i t  4  _ unnecessary _ inappropriate 2  enhancing to curriculum  J_  helped peak student  not relevant to curriculum but valuable addition to program 12. YOUR COMMENTS AND/OR SUGGESTIONS: _ I -  you do a good jobl covenient to use information more slides per comment more 'art' activities  _S - very helpful; good kits not available - more 'art type' activities - less vocabulary  13. YOUR STUDENTS' COMMENTS AND/OR SUGGESTIONS: I - See letters in next Appendix  APPENDIX 13  260 f  TEACHER EVALUATION OF "AT THE GALLERY WORKSHOP" I = INUIT  S = SEEING OURSELVES THROUGH ART  We would greatly appreciate your help in evaluating our programs so that we can design them to your maximum benefit. Please answer the following questions: NAME:  SCHOOL:  GRADES: WORKSHOP ATTENDED:  INUIT: ARTS & CULTURE / SEEING OURSELVES THROUGH ART Evaluation: Completed: Incomplete:  1.  5 1  Completed:  5  WAS THE PRE-VISIT PREPARATORY KIT THAT WE SENT YOU, A HELPFUL INTRODUCTION TO THE WORKSHOP AT THE GALLERY? I - yes - 4 - no - 1 (not received)  S - yes - 3 - not used - 1  DID IT HELP MAKE YOUR CLASS MORE RECEPTIVE TO THE WORKSHOP? I - yes - 4 2.  DID YOUR CLASS ENJOY THE WORKSHOP? I - yes - 5  3.  S - yes - 5  WAS THE MATERIAL COVERED NEW TO THEM? I - yes - 2 - partially - 3  4.  S - yes - 3  S - yes - 2 - partially - 3  WAS YOUR CLASS FAMILIAR WITH THE STUDIO TECHNIQUE USED IN THE PRODUCTION PART OF THE WORKSHOP? I - yes - some - 3 - no - 2  S - yes - 4 - no - 1  261  5.  DOES YOUR CLASS HAVE ART REGULARLY AT SCHOOL? I - yes - 4 - no - 1 (irregularly)  6.  yes no  DID THE WORKSHOP ENHANCE YOUR REGULAR ART PROGRAM? I - yes - 5  7.  4 1  S - yes - 5  WHY DID YOU SCHEDULE THIS VISIT FOR YOUR CLASS?  required by school d i s t r i c t required by school 4  4  initiated by you  4  2  relevant to classroom studies this year  4  4  seemed like a valuable experience for your class other  8.  DO YOU LIKE THE FORMAT OF OUR WORKSHOPS? I - yes - 3 - more student participation - 2  9.  S - yes - 5  WHAT IMPROVEMENTS COULD WE MAKE TO THE PRESENTATIONS?  I LENGTH:  2 - more time for pri ntmaking  shorter si i de selection  FOCUS:  i 2 - good  2 - good CONTENT:  3 - good  LANGUAGE:  4 - good  I - comments: - 'good the way i t i s ' - 'happy with i t as i s '  PRESENTATION:  good  S - slide presentation excellent - break up slide section  262  10. WOULD YOU USE CLASSROOM FOLLOW-UP SUGGESTIONS? I - yes - 4 - sometimes  S - yes - 4 - sometimes  1  1  11. WHAT TOPICS WOULD YOU LIKE TO SEE COVERED IN THIS WORKSHOP FORMAT? I - 2 - Group 7 1 - Indian  S  printmaking day (already offered) - Indian  12. WOULD YOU USE ANY OF THE FOLLOWING IF THEY WERE AVAILABLE FROM US? l_  S  3  4  teacher workshops  5  4  more kits  4  3  preparation material  1 4  bibliography 5  classroom visits for  _I _4_ 2  s 1 3  studio lesson presentation similar to workshops  _3_ art appreciation lessons 13. DO YOU LEARN FROM OUR WORKSHOPS? I  S  _3_  1  studio ideas  _4_  4  ideas for how to approach art history or art appreciation topics  _3_ 2  1  new knowledge from the content of the presentations  _2_ more confidence for using art in the classroom  263  APPENDIX 14  INSTRUCTOR  E V A L U A T I O N OF WORKSHOP  sjknu^f' CuJ~ f CuXtu^.  Workshop t a u g h t : Grade l e v e l :  MATERIALSt  X- (=>  Number o f s t u d e n t s :  Z£_  School: Please  comment b r i e f l y on the f o l l o w i n g a s p e c t s o f the m a t e r i a l you  used: l e n g t h o f s c r i p t as g i v E n to you:  a d a p t a b i l i t y o f t h a t s c r i p t f o r your s p e c i f i c group, i e ) l e n g t h , l a n g i and  content:  usefulness o f information given:  ,  _^  -  choice of v i s u a l s :  s u i t a b i l i t y o f and i n s t r u c t i o n s f o r , s t u d i o p r o j e c t :  s t u d e n t response t o the workshop m a t e r i a l s and a c t i v i t i e s :  suggestions  1  f o r f u t u r e use and ammendment:  y  INSTRUpTOR E V A L U A T I O N OF WORKSHOP M A T E R I A L S i  taughti  Workshop  level t  Grade  School i Please  JFIee\  t  -XfJtii  QrK  ^CultUlC  5"  _____  Number, o f s t u d e n t s i  2^"  uicc^cl  comment b r i e f l y o n t h e f o l l o w i n g a s p e c t s  o f t h e m a t e r i a l you  used: length  T  of script  hciJC  i.Kctknp^  adaptability and  as givsn  to you:  cic  <?&*k  -b cLcoi^odoK  of that  script  f o r your  .' ,.>»J-  4t> S u i t  specific  G? f a c t e  group}  I  out/  i e ) l e n g t h , lan^  content: ^df:  L/_M  usefulness  ;  o f information  Q \-0  6<L U ^ e L  given:  excelled t  choice  of visuals:  suitability  student  response  suggestions ciacs  ar{  o f and i n s t r u c t i o n s f o r , s t u d i o  HAttn  t o t h e workshop m a t e r i a l s  for future  and a c t i v i t i e s :  u s e and amrnendraent:  Vso^' p r e Kir c l a c ;  dosses  project:  ^  a  4 r \ d ^e^efcre  i d»ci t > o t  hoot  Mlberf  pre f i t -  or  6-  266  APPENDIX 15  267  268  269  APPENDIX 16  

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