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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Art teacher pre-service education : a survey of the attitudes of Queensland secondary, and tertiary.. 1987

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ART TEACHER PRE-SERVICE EDUCATION: A SURVEY OF THE ATTITUDES OF QUEENSLAND SECONDARY, AND TERTIARY ART EDUCATORS B.Ed., The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF EDUCATION i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES D e p a r t m e n t o f V i s u a l a n d P e r f o r m i n g A r t s i n E d u c a t i o n We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s a s c o n f o r m i n g t o t h e r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA by V i c t o r i a G a r n o n s - W i l l i a m s O c t o b e r 1987 V i c t o r i a G a r n o n s - W i l l i a m s , 1987 tn presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It Is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of ^ PERFORMING ARTS IN EDUCATION The University of British Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 n OCTOBER 10, 1987 DE-60/81) ABSTRACT T h i s s t u d y compares t h e v i e w s o f t h r e e g r o u p s o f a r t e d u c a t o r s - s e c o n d a r y , t e r t i a r y p r e - s e r v i c e l e c t u r e r s , and s c h o l a r s - a b o u t t h e c o n t e n t and s t r u c t u r e c o n s i d e r e d i m p o r t a n t i n a r t t e a c h e r p r e - s e r v i c e e d u c a t i o n . Items o f p r o g r a m c o n t e n t and s t r u c t u r e , a s w e l l a s i s s u e s i n a r t - t e a c h e r p r e p a r a t i o n were g l e a n e d f r o m t h e w r i t i n g s o f s e l e c t e d s c h o l a r s and i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o a s u r v e y q u e s t i o n n a i r e . The s u r v e y was d i s t r i b u t e d t o s e c o n d a r y a r t e d u c a t o r s t h r o u g h o u t Q u e e n s l a n d and t o a r t p r e - s e r v i c e l e c t u r e r s t h r o u g h o u t A u s t r a l i a . An a n a l y s i s o f t h e r e s u l t s i d e n t i f i e s a r e a s and d e g r e e s o f a g r e e m e n t and d i f f e r e n c e on i t e m s b o t h w i t h i n and between g r o u p s . The s t u d y c a n a s s i s t t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f a r t t e a c h e r p r e - s e r v i c e programmes t h a t r e f l e c t t h e v a l u e s o f b o t h t h e o r e t i c i a n s and p r a c t i t i o n e r s o f a r t e d u c a t i o n . i i i TABLE OF CONTENTS P. A b s t r a c t i i L i s t of Tables v i i Acknowledgements v i i i CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION TO STUDY 1 Research Questions 3 Background t o Study 4 Purpose of t h i s Study 4 Design of the Study 5 Conclusion and Summary 7 CHAPTER 2 REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE 8 1. Determining the nature of the study 8 2. Developing the Survey Items from a Review of L i t e r a t u r e 17 "Content of Course' Items 18 "Struct u r e of Course' Items 26 "Part C Items 31 i v CHAPTER 3 CONDUCT OF THE STUDY 37 S u r v e y Items 38 L i m i t a t i o n s o f t h e S u r v e y 41 D a t a A n a l y s i s P r o c e d u r e s 44 D e s c r i p t i o n s o f t h e P o p u l a t i o n s 45 Summary 48 CHAPTER 4 RESULTS OF THE STUDY 50 CONCLUSIONS 50 What s e l e c t e d a r t e d u c a t i o n s c h o l a r s p e r c e i v e a s v a l u a b l e i n a r t t e a c h e r p r e - s e r v i c e e d u c a t i o n 50 What Q u e e n s l a n d t e a c h e r s o f a r t p e r c e i v e a s v a l u a b l e i n a r t t e a c h e r p r e - s e r v i c e e d u c a t i o n 50 C o m p a r i s o n s w i t h t h e G r e e r S t u d y 57 What t e r t i a r y a r t e d u c a t o r s p e r c e i v e a s v a l u a b l e f o r a r t t e a c h e r p r e - s e r v i c e e d u c a t i o n 58 Measure o f agr e e m e n t e x i s t i n g w i t h i n g r o u p s f o r a r t t e a c h e r p r e - s e r v i c e e d u c a t i o n 64 S e c o n d a r y A r t E d u c a t o r R e s p o n d e n t s 64 T e r t i a r y A r t E d u c a t o r R e s p o n d e n t s 67 Agreement Between G r o u p s o f S e c o n d a r y and T e r t i a r y R e s p o n d e n t s 70 Measure o f d i f f e r e n c e e x i s t i n g w i t h i n g r o u p s and between g r o u p s f o r a r t t e a c h e r p r e - s e r v i c e e d u c a t i o n 74 S e c o n d a r y a r t e d u c a t o r r e s p o n d e n t s 74 T e r t i a r y a r t e d u c a t o r r e s p o n d e n t s 76 D i f f e r e n c e s between g r o u p s o f S e c o n d a r y and T e r t i a r y r e s p o n d e n t s 77 DISCUSSION OF THE FINDINGS 81 A. R e l a t i o n s h i p s between t h e two r e s p o n d e n t g r o u p s and t h e a r t e d u c a t i o n s c h o l a r s h i p u s e d a s t h e b a s i s o f t h e s u r v e y 81 B. P o i n t s f o r d i s c u s s i o n 87 C. I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f a r t t e a c h e r p r e - s e r v i c e e d u c a t i o n 91 RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FURTHER STUDY 92 SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION 93 REFERENCES 95 APPENDICES 102 I A r t t e a c h e r p r e p a r a t i o n s u r v e y 103 I I N u m e r i c a l r e s u l t s f o r i t e m s 108 I I I P e r s o n a l comments 119 Rank order of r e s u l t s - secondary respondents Rank order of r e s u l t s - t e r t i a r y respondents v i i L I S T OF TABLES I Q u e e n s l a n d S e c o n d a r y A r t E d u c a t o r s : C o n t e n t o f C o u r s e Rank O r d e r A c c o r d i n g t o Mean R e s p o n s e - 1-2 on L i k e r t S c a l e I I Q u e e n s l a n d S e c o n d a r y A r t E d u c a t o r s : S t r u c t u r e o f C o u r s e Rank O r d e r A c c o r d i n g t o Mean R e s p o n s e 3-5 on L i k e r t S c a l e IV T e r t i a r y A r t E d u c a t o r s : C o n t e n t o f C o u r s e Rank O r d e r A c c o r d i n g t o Mean R e s p o n s e 1-2 on L i k e r t S c a l e VI S e c o n d a r y A r t E d u c a t o r Group: Items i n d i c a t i n g s t r o n g e s t a g r e e m e n t w i t h i n G r o u p a c c o r d i n g t o H i g h Modal R e s p o n s e s V I I T e r t i a r y A r t E d u c a t o r Group: Items i n d i c a t i n g s t r o n g e s t agreement w i t h i n g r o u p a c c o r d i n g t o h i g h modal r e s p o n s e s V I I I D i f f e r e n c e s between t h e g r o u p means o f s e c o n d a r y and t e r t i a r y r e s p o n d e n t s o f more t h a n .9 on t h e L i k e r t S c a l e . ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS T h a n k s g o e s t o my a d v i s o r , Dr Graeme C h a l m e r s , f o r h i s a s s i s t a n c e i n t h e c o m p l e t i o n o f t h i s s t u d y , e s p e c i a l l y c o n s i d e r i n g t h e d i s t a n c e a t w h i c h c o m m u n i c a t i o n s h a d t o t a k e p l a c e . T h a n k s a l s o t o D r Ron M a c g r e g o r f o r h i s a d v i c e d u r i n g summer s e s s i o n s a n d t o D r James G r a y f o r h i s p r e s e n c e a n d s u p p o r t a t t h e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h i s s t u d y i n B r i s b a n e , A u s t r a l i a . A p p r e c i a t i o n i s a l s o e x t e n d e d t o D r D a v i d Hawke , f o r h i s t i m e a n d i n p u t t o t h i s s t u d y o n t h e B r i s b a n e s i d e , a n d t o Donna W h i t e f o r t h e p r o c e s s i n g o f t h e many m a n u s c r i p t s . F i n a l l y , t h e w r i t e r w i s h e s t o e x p r e s s g r a t i t u d e t o R o b e r t P e a r d f o r t h e d a t a a n a l y s i s p r o g r a m a n d h i s p a t i e n c e , a n d e n c o u r a g e m e n t d u r i n g t h e many m o n t h s i t t o o k t o c o m p l e t e t h i s t h e s i s . 1 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION TO THE STUDY I n o r d e r t o d e v e l o p and e v a l u a t e a r t t e a c h e r p r e - s e r v i c e e d u c a t i o n p r o g r a m s , we need t o c o n s i d e r what c o n t e n t and s t r u c t u r e s a r e b a s i c o r d e s i r a b l e f o r a r t e d u c a t i o n p r e - s e r v i c e s t u d e n t s . A t p r e s e n t i n A u s t r a l i a , as i n o t h e r c o u n t r i e s , " e d u c a t o r s a r e now b e i n g i n u n d a t e d w i t h p r o p o s a l s f o r t h e more a d e q u a t e p r e p a r a t i o n o f t e a c h e r s ' ( B e y e r , 1986, p. 16,17). One way t o p u t t h e numerous p r o p o s a l s f o r a r t t e a c h e r p r e - s e r v i c e i n t o p e r s p e c t i v e w o u l d be t o s u b j e c t t h e v i e w s o f s c h o l a r s and r e s e a r c h e r s t o a r e s p o n s e f r o m two l e v e l s o f p r a c t i t i o n e r s : a r t e d u c a t o r s i n s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l s and a r t e d u c a t o r s i n t e r t i a r y i n s t i t u t i o n s o f t e a c h e r e d u c a t i o n . I n t h i s way, p r o g r a m d e s i g n e r s w i l l be more aware o f what i s v a l u e d by e a c h g r o u p and t h e a r e a s and d e g r e e o f a g r e e m e n t o r d i f f e r e n c e between them. T h i s i n f o r m a t i o n i s s e e n a s c r u c i a l f o r c o u r s e d e v e l o p m e n t and e v a l u a t i o n f o r s e v e r a l r e a s o n s . F i r s t l y , i f t h e v i e w s o f p r a c t i t i o n e r s a r e s o l i c i t e d a nd t a k e n i n t o a c c o u n t d u r i n g p r o g r a m r e v i s i o n , t h e v a l u e d i f f e r e n c e s t h a t have been c l a i m e d t o e x i s t 2 between t e r t i a r y p r o g r a m s and i n s e r v i c e p r o g r a m s o f a r t e d u c a t i o n m i g h t be l e s s e n e d ( E i s n e r , 1 9 7 2 ) . S e c o n d l y , t h e r e i s e v i d e n c e t o s u g g e s t t h a t p r a c t i t i o n e r s a r e more l i k e l y t o be s u p p o r t i v e o f r e f o r m s i f t h e y a r e p a r t o f t h e change a g e n c y t h a t p u t s them i n p l a c e ( G o o d l a d , 1 9 7 6 ) . T h i r d l y , t h e r e have b e e n c l a i m s i n t h e A u s t r a l i a n l i t e r a t u r e t o s u g g e s t t h a t p r a c t i t i o n e r s , b o t h s e c o n d a r y and t e r t i a r y a r t e d u c a t o r s , may be r e s i s t a n t t o , unaware o f o r u n c o n v i n c e d o f t h e v a l u e o f c u r r e n t t h e o r e t i c a l v i e w p o i n t s ( H i l l e r ( 1 9 8 4 ) , H i c k e y ( 1 9 8 4 ) , Hammond ( 1 9 8 1 ) , B o u g h t o n ( 1 9 8 6 ) . L a s t l y , i n t h e s p e c i f i c c o n t e x t o f Q u e e n s l a n d , t h e r e a r e h i s t o r i c r e a s o n s why t h e c u r r e n t needs o f p r e - s e r v i c e s e c o n d a r y a r t e d u c a t o r s may have a l t e r e d and t h e v i e w s o f i n s e r v i c e a r t e d u c a t o r s r e m a i n r e l a t i v e l y unknown. The l a t t e r two r e a s o n s b e h i n d t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e s t u d y w i l l be more f u l l y o u t l i n e d i n C h a p t e r Two, "Review o f t h e L i t e r a t u r e ' . T h i s s t u d y began, t h e r e f o r e , w i t h t h e n o t i o n t h a t p r o g r a m d e s i g n e r s s h o u l d e s t a b l i s h c o m p a r a t i v e v i e w p o i n t s f o r a r e a s o f c o n t e n t and t y p e s o f s t r u c t u r e s v a l u e d by g r o u p s o f a r t e d u c a t o r s - s c h o l a r s , t e r t i a r y a r t t e a c h e r p r e - s e r v i c e 3 e d u c a t o r s , and s e c o n d a r y a r t e d u c a t o r s . P r o g r a m d e s i g n e r s s h o u l d a l s o a c c o u n t f o r t h e s e v i e w p o i n t s more d i r e c t l y when e v a l u a t i n g e x i s t i n g , and d e v e l o p i n g new a r t t e a c h e r p r e - s e r v i c e p r o g r a m s . R e s e a r c h Q u e s t i o n s T h e s e c o n c e r n s l e d t o t h e f o r m u l a t i o n o f f i v e r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n s : 1. What c o n t e n t and e x p e r i e n c e s do s e l e c t e d a r t e d u c a t i o n s c h o l a r s p e r c e i v e a s v a l u a b l e f o r a r t t e a c h e r p r e - s e r v i c e e d u c a t i o n ? 2. What c o n t e n t and e x p e r i e n c e s do Q u e e n s l a n d s e c o n d a r y a r t e d u c a t o r s p e r c e i v e as v a l u a b l e f o r a r t t e a c h e r p r e - s e r v i c e e d u c a t i o n 3. What c o n t e n t and e x p e r i e n c e s do t e r t i a r y a r t e d u c a t o r s p e r c e i v e a s v a l u a b l e f o r a r t t e a c h e r p r e - s e r v i c e e d u c a t i o n ? 4. What measure o f agreement e x i s t s w i t h i n g r o u p s and between g r o u p s i n t e r m s o f a) c o n t e n t and b) e x p e r i e n c e s f o r a r t t e a c h e r p r e - s e r v i c e e d u c a t i o n ? 5. What measure o f d i s a g r e e m e n t e x i s t s w i t h i n g r o u p s and between g r o u p s i n t e r m s o f a) c o n t e n t and b) e x p e r i e n c e s f o r a r t t e a c h e r p r e - s e r v i c e e d u c a t i o n ? 4 BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY I n 1 9 8 5 , t h e Q u e e n s l a n d B o a r d o f T e a c h e r E d u c a t i o n c o n d u c t e d an i n f o r m a l s u r v e y e n t i t l e d " E d u c a t i o n and t h e A r t s : I d e n t i f y i n g R e s e a r c h Needs' (Duck 1985) i n w h i c h some v e r y b r o a d a r e a s o f c o n c e r n amongst a r t s e d u c a t o r s were p r e s e n t e d . S i n c e t h e f o c u s o f t h a t s t u d y was i n t e n t i o n a l l y b r o a d , i s s u e s i d e n t i f i e d by r e s p o n d e n t s t e n d e d t o be f a i r l y g e n e r a l , b u t some d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h p r e - s e r v i c e e d u c a t i o n was i n d i c a t e d . A more s p e c i f i c e x a m i n a t i o n was n eeded, one t h a t w o u l d i d e n t i f y more p r e c i s e l y t h o s e a r e a s o f c o n t e n t and e x p e r i e n c e s f o r a r t t e a c h e r p r e - s e r v i c e e d u c a t i o n t h a t were v a l u e d by a r t e d u c a t o r s . The r e s u l t s f r o m s u c h a s u r v e y c o u l d t h e n be u s e d t o e v a l u a t e t h e e x i s t i n g a r t t e a c h e r p r e - s e r v i c e p r o g r a m and d e t e r m i n e d i r e c t i o n s f o r f u t u r e d e v e l o p m e n t . THE PURPOSE OF THIS STUDY T h i s s t u d y was d e s i g n e d t o d i s c o v e r w h e t h e r t h e r e a r e v a l u e d i f f e r e n c e s between s e c o n d a r y and t e r t i a r y p r a c t i t i o n e r s and a r t e d u c a t i o n s c h o l a r s and t o what e x t e n t t h e r e a r e d i f f e r e n c e s c o n c e r n i n g t h e c o n t e n t and e x p e r i e n c e s needed i n a r t t e a c h e r p r e - s e r v i c e e d u c a t i o n . R e s u l t s w o u l d g i v e 5 p r a c t i t i o n e r i n p u t i n t o p r o g r a m e v a l u a t i o n and s u g g e s t a r e a s o f i n - s e r v i c e o r l i a i s o n n e c e s s a r y i n o r d e r t o implement new p r o g r a m m odels o r c o n t e n t . DESIGN OF THE STUDY The v i e w s o f s e l e c t e d a r t e d u c a t i o n s c h o l a r s and r e s e a r c h e r s were u s e d t o f o r m u l a t e a s u r v e y q u e s t i o n n a i r e t h a t was s u b m i t t e d , a f t e r p i l o t i n g , t o g r o u p s o f Q u e e n s l a n d s e c o n d a r y a r t e d u c a t o r s and A u s t r a l i a n T e r t i a r y A r t E d u c a t o r s . R e s p o n s e s t o e v e r y i t e m w i t h i n e a c h g r o u p were c o l l a t e d and t h e n e v e r y i t e m r e s p o n s e was compared between g r o u p s . I n t h i s way, i t was p o s s i b l e t o d e s c r i b e a r e a s o f a g r e e m e n t and d i s a g r e e m e n t w i t h i n and between g r o u p s on s p e c i f i c i s s u e s i n a r t t e a c h e r p r e p a r a t i o n . I t was a l s o p o s s i b l e t o d e s c r i b e w h i c h a s p e c t s o f a r t t e a c h e r p r e - s e r v i c e e d u c a t i o n e s p o u s e d by t h e o r e t i c i a n s were a l s o v a l u e d by p r a c t i t i o n e r s . The s t u d y i s d e s c r i p t i v e , and i n t e n d e d f o r d e l i b e r a t i o n , as no s u r v e y o f t h i s t y p e has been done i n Q u e e n s l a n d p r e v i o u s l y . D e f i n i t i o n s o f t e r m s A r t e d u c a t i o n " s c h o l a r s ' r e f e r s t o t h o s e whose p r i m a r y f i e l d o f s t u d y o r o c c u p a t i o n t h e c r i t i c a l e n q u i r y i n t o o r t h e a n a l y s i s o f t h e t e a c h i n g o f a r t , 6 those who are most a l i g n e d t o the upper l e v e l s of Gray's (1985) m u l t i - d i m e n s i o n a l model. "•Researchers" w i l l r e f e r t o those who conduct and p u b l i s h s t u d i e s or r e p o r t s t h a t make recommendations on a r t teacher e d u c a t i o n , i n c l u d i n g A u s t r a l i a n S t a t e and Commonwealth teacher e d u c a t i o n commissions. " L e c t u r e r ' i s the common term f o r those t e a c h i n g i n t e r t i a r y i n s t i t u t i o n s i n A u s t r a l i a , and i s used both i n the s u r v e y - q u e s t i o n n a i r e on items and w i t h i n t h i s study. L i m i t a t i o n s and d e l i m i t a t i o n s Some s e l e c t i o n of items and t o p i c s was n e c e s s a r i l y made i n order f o r the q u e s t i o n n a i r e not to be a daunting l e n g t h to respondents. Every attempt was made t o i n c o r p o r a t e r e c u r r i n g t o p i c s i n the general l i t e r a t u r e , as w e l l as some unique t o p i c s . The shortcomings of the survey instrument s p e c i f i c a l l y and the q u e s t i o n n a i r e method of data g a t h e r i n g g e n e r a l l y w i l l be o u t l i n e d i n Chapters 2 and 3. There were l i m i t a t i o n s i n the p o p u l a t i o n of a r t educators surveyed. R e s u l t s c o l l a t e d from the "secondary* group i n c l u d e d o n l y those beyond t h e i r f i r s t year of t e a c h i n g (only one respondent was 7 o m i t t e d on t h e s e g r o u n d s ) . R e s p o n s e s f r o m " t e r t i a r y a r t e d u c a t o r s were c o l l e c t e d f r o m Q u e e n s l a n d and f r o m o t h e r S t a t e s a s " w e l l i n o r d e r t o s e c u r e a l a r g e r number o f r e s p o n d e n t s . C o n c l u s i o n and Summary The need f o r e s t a b l i s h i n g c o m p a r a t i v e v i e w p o i n t s f o r what c o n t e n t and e x p e r i e n c e i s v a l u e d i n p r e - s e r v i c e a r t t e a c h e r e d u c a t i o n i s p r e r e q u i s i t e t o any f u t u r e c h a n g e s i n a r t t e a c h e r p r e p a r a t i o n i n Q u e e n s l a n d . An e f f e c t i v e p r e - s e r v i c e programme i s s e e n a s a " m e d i a t i o n ' between t h o s e t h i n g s t h a t a r e v a l u e d by p r a c t i t i o n e r s , and t h o s e t h i n g s t h a t a r e p r o p o s e d by s c h o l a r s and r e s e a r c h e r s : t h e " t h e o r e t i c i a n s ' o f a r t e d u c a t i o n . I n t h i s s t u d y , t h e a c c u m u l a t e d v i e w s o f s c h o l a r s have been u s e d a s a b a s i s f o r a q u e s t i o n n a i r e . R e s p o n s e t o t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e were a n a l y s e d t o d e t e r m i n e t h e c o m p a r a t i v e v i e w p o i n t s o f s e l e c t e d Q u e e n s l a n d s e c o n d a r y a r t e d u c a t o r s and a number o f t e r t i a r y a r t e d u c a t o r s . R e s u l t s a r e d e s c r i p t i v e , i d e n t i f y i n g a r e a s o f c o n s e n s u s and d i f f e r e n c e . 8 CHAPTER TWO REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE A s u r v e y o f l i t e r a t u r e was u s e d i n two ways i n t h e d e s i g n i n g o f t h i s s t u d y . I n i t i a l l y , i t was u n d e r t a k e n t o d e t e r m i n e t h a t a s t u d y o f t h i s n a t u r e was t h e a p p r o p r i a t e s t a r t i n g p o i n t f o r t h e e v a l u a t i o n and d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e m a j o r a r t t e a c h e r p r e p a r a t i o n p r o g r a m i n Q u e e n s l a n d . S e c o n d l y , a r e v i e w o f l i t e r a t u r e was u n d e r t a k e n t o f o r m u l a t e t h e s p e c i f i c i t e m s f o r t h e s u r v e y - q u e s t i o n n a i r e . T h i s C h a p t e r w i l l a d d r e s s b o t h o f t h e s e " r e v i e w s ' i n t u r n . 1. DETERMINING THE NATURE OF THE STUDY W h i l e p r o g r a m s m i g h t c o n c e i v a b l y be c h a n g e d u s i n g t h e a d v i c e o f t h e o r i s t s a l o n e , w i t h o u t an a w a r e n e s s o f o t h e r p a r t i c i p a n t s ' v i e w p o i n t s , t h i s a p p r o a c h i s p r o b l e m a t i c . B e y e r a l l u d e s t o t h i s i n h i s a r t i c l e " A r t i n E d u c a t i o n r e f o r m : Toward what e n d ? ' and u r g e s c a u t i o n - " I n p a r t i c u l a r , t h e d a n g e r t h a t e d u c a t o r s w i l l o n c e a g a i n r u s h t o judgement, a c t i o n , and r e a c t i o n , a t t h e e x p e n s e o f t h o u g h t f u l , r e f l e c t i v e and s u s t a i n e d a n a l y s i s , i s an ominous one" (1986, p. 17). MacGregor s u p p o r t s t h i s 9 c a u t i o n a r y v i e w (1985). H i l l e r l i n k s t h i s d i r e c t l y t o p r e - s e r v i c e - [ T e a c h e r s ] must be a b l e t o r e s i s t t h e t e m p t a t i o n t o "jump on t h e band wagons" when some new p a n a c e a i s b e i n g p r o m o t e d . Whether t h i s c a n be done a t p r e - s e r v i c e l e v e l d e p ends on t h e a b i l i t y o f t h o s e d e s i g n i n g t h e c o u r s e s " (1984, p. 36). S e c o n d l y , u s i n g s c h o l a r s ' and r e s e a r c h e r s ' work as t h e p r i m a r y b a s i s f o r c h a n g e s t o p r e - s e r v i c e p r o g r a m s i s p r o b l e m a t i c b e c a u s e o f t h e i r i s o l a t i o n f r o m t h e c l a s s r o o m s i t u a t i o n ( G r a y , 1984, E i s n e r , 1983, C.D.C., 1985). Duck's 1985 r e p o r t s u p p o r t s t h i s , a nd a l s o i n d i c a t e s t h a t t e a c h e r e d u c a t o r s may be i s o l a t e d f r o m b o t h t h e o r i s t s and c l a s s r o o m s - " T e a c h e r e d u c a t o r s a r e a t r i s k o f becoming i s o l a t e d f r o m o t h e r s i n v o l v e d i n t h e a r t s and a r t e d u c a t i o n " ( p . 19). The A u s t r a l i a n S c h o o l s C o m m i s s i o n r e p o r t o f 1979 hoped t o c o u n t e r a c t t h i s p o s s i b i l i t y by recommending " t h a t t h o s e r e s p o n s i b l e f o r p r i m a r y and s e c o n d a r y e d u c a t i o n be c l o s e l y i n v o l v e d i n making d e c i s i o n s a b o u t t h e c o n t e n t and s t r u c t u r e o f c o u r s e s f o r t e a c h e r t r a i n e e s " ( p . 23). O t h e r r e p o r t s recommend t h i s , b u t do n o t o u t l i n e e x a c t l y how t h i s i s t o be accomplished. By s u b j e c t i n g some of the ideas of t h e o r i s t s concerning content and s t r u c t u r e of p r e - s e r v i c e t o those i n the f i e l d , we can: a) g i v e t e a c h e r s some in p u t i n t o t eacher e d u c a t i o n , and b) f i n d out whether p r a c t i t i o n e r s i n the classroom support the ideas of t h e o r i s t s . P r a c t i t i o n e r s w i t h i n p r e - s e r v i c e f a c u l t i e s a l s o may not be aware o f , or may not agree with, what t h e o r i s t s propose or what te a c h e r s v a l u e . Out of t h i s came the attempt a t a comparative study. In reviewing the l i t e r a t u r e , t h e r e were few s t u d i e s t h a t canvassed teacher viewpoints about te a c h e r p r e p a r a t i o n i n a r t . Chapman p o i n t s t o the dea r t h of s t u d i e s i n v o l v i n g a r t te a c h e r s i n I n s t a n t A r t , I n s t a n t C u l t u r e (1982p. 107). Her own study of te a c h e r s , r e p o r t e d i n the same volume, while not d e a l i n g with t e a c h e r p r e p a r a t i o n , presented v a l u a b l e guidance i n terms of s p e c i f i c i t y of items. Most oth e r s t u d i e s p e r t i n e n t t o the intended focus and p o p u l a t i o n (Schools Commission, 1983, Duck, 1985, Botsman, 1985) were very g e n e r a l , i n d i c a t i n g broad areas of i n v e s t i g a t i o n , but not s p e c i f i c i n terms of p r e - s e r v i c e content or s t r u c t u r e . Greer's study of "The P r o f e s s i o n a l P r e p a r a t i o n Needs of A r t Teachers i n the State of Arkansas", (1979), while extremely s p e c i f i c i n terms of items was only meant to evaluate ex i s t i n g teacher preparation programs i n Arkansas. Results from the Greer study were descriptive of what art teachers thought was "desirable' or "undesirable' for preparation i n terms of what was already offered i n the State's pre-service programs, not what was proposed by t h e o r i s t s . Nevertheless, i t provided a useful model for the present study and some comparisons are made between the results of the two studies i n Chapter 4, where i t i s shown that several trends were supported between the populations surveyed. The most important contribution to the present study was Greer's rationale, which concurred with the rationale for the survey i n Queensland: namely, that pre-service program designers must be aware of what teachers value i n t h e i r preparation in order to "design better programs' and e f f e c t a more collab o r a t i v e e f f o r t . However, the use of the content of existing programs to formulate items on the survey was seen as rather l i m i t i n g for the present study. There i s some evidence that teachers teach as they themselves were taught i n pre-service, w h i c h Hammond (1981) c a l l s "a s e l f - p e r p e t u a t i n g d e v e l o p m e n t " ( p . 89). H i c k e y (1984) s u p p o r t s t h i s a s w e l l when she c l a i m s " t r a i n i n g i n t e r t i a r y i n s t i t u t i o n s h as s e t t h e p a t t e r n b o t h i n c o n t e n t and m e t h o d o l o g y " ( p . 59). I n t h i s c a s e , i t was c r u c i a l t h a t some o f t h e i t e m s r e f e r t o c u r r e n t t h e o r y b e yond t h a t w h i c h may p r o v i d e t h e f o u n d a t i o n s f o r most e x i s t i n g p r o g r a m s . W i t h a more p r e c i s e p r o f i l e o f a r t e d u c a t o r v i e w p o i n t s , p r o g r a m d e s i g n e r s w i l l be a b l e t o a s c e r t a i n how i n f o r m e d , r e c e p t i v e , o r s u p p o r t i v e p r a c t i t i o n e r s may be t o c u r r e n t t h e o r e t i c a l v i e w s . A b r i e f o v e r v i e w o f t h e l i t e r a t u r e c o n c e r n i n g t h e A u s t r a l i a n and Q u e e n s l a n d s i t u a t i o n l e d me t o b e l i e v e t h a t t h e p o p u l a t i o n s i n my s t u d y may n o t v a l u e some o f t h e c u r r e n t t h e o r e t i c a l p r o p o s a l s . Many a r t e d u c a t i o n s c h o l a r s work i n a c o n t e x t o u t s i d e A u s t r a l i a , and many s c h o l a r s who work i n A u s t r a l i a have o b t a i n e d t h e i r d e g r e e s i n a r t e d u c a t i o n o v e r s e a s . A u s t r a l i a , and Q u e e n s l a n d i n p a r t i c u l a r , h as a l o n g h i s t o r y o f i m p o r t i n g key and i n f l u e n t i a l p e r s o n n e l , c u r r i c u l a , and i d e o l o g i e s f r o m e l s e w h e r e ( B r a b e n , 1982). I t has been s u g g e s t e d t h a t p e r h a p s s u c h w h o l e s a l e i m p o r t a t i o n i s c o u n t e r - p r o d u c t i v e and i n a p p r o p r i a t e . Mason, i n h e r a r t i c l e " A r t t e a c h e r p r e p a r a t i o n i n E n g l a n d , A u s t r a l i a , and t h e USA: some o b s e r v a t i o n s " c a u t i o n s I s u s p e c t , however, t h a t E n g l i s h and A u s t r a l i a n a r t e d u c a t o r s a r e m i s g u i d e d i f t h e y assume t h a t i n n o v a t i o n s i n p r o f e s s i o n a l s t u d i e s c o u r s e s o f t h e k i n d I have o u t l i n e d i n t h e USA, i n t h e m s e l v e s , n e c e s s a r i l y g u a r a n t e e i m p r o v e d a r t - t e a c h e r p r e p a r a t i o n . I n d e e d , I w o u l d a r g u e t h a t t h e i r t e n d e n c y t o b orrow q u a s i - s c i e n t i f i c and management m e t a p h o r s and t e r m i n o l o g y f r o m a r t - t e a c h e r e d u c a t i o n programmes i n t h e USA i s p o t e n t i a l l y d e s t r u c t i v e r a t h e r t h a n c o n s t r u c t i v e i n t h e c o n t e x t o f E n g l i s h o r A u s t r a l i a n s y s t e m s o f e d u c a t i o n (1983, p . 60). I t has e v e n been s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h e v e r y f a c t t h a t i d e o l o g i e s o r i n n o v a t i o n s have been i m p o r t e d i s t h e r e a s o n t h e y a r e r e s i s t e d . M a c k r e l l documents t h i s i n h i s t h e s i s " C h a n g i n g and c o n f l i c t i n g v i e w s o f A r t E d u c a t i o n i n t h e C o n t e x t o f S o c i a l and P o l i t i c a l F o r c e s " , and s t a t e s B e c a u s e f o r t h e most p a r t A u s t r a l i a n s d i d n o t c r e a t e i t , t h e y a r e n o t c o m m i t t e d t o i t . I d e a s and v a l u e s can be used but are mocked. The sceptism of the Bush t r a d i t i o n and the c y n i c i s m of the Digger t r a d i t i o n combine t o c r e a t e .... d i s t r u s t ...(1981, p. 207). I f t h i s i s so, then A u s t r a l i a n or Queensland a r t educators would not l i k e l y v alue e x t e r n a l c u r r e n t t h e o r e t i c a l t h i n k i n g . T h i s would seem t o be supported by Hammond i n h i s a r t i c l e " A r t Education I d e o l o g i e s : c u r r e n t emphasis i n A u s t r a l i a ' , i n which he c l a i m s t h a t t h e o r i s t s are " l a r g e l y ignored by a r t educators i n A u s t r a l i a " (1981, p. 88). I t was thought t h a t a survey of some a r t educators may s u b s t a n t i a t e these views, and help t o l o c a t e s p e c i f i c areas of c o n t e n t i o n . Recent, dramatic changes to the Queensland e d u c a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e make secondary a r t educators' viewpoints concerning t h e i r p r e p a r a t i o n an unknown f a c t o r . P r i o r t o 1976, p r e p a r a t o r y c o l l e g e programs, s y l l a b i , and classroom t e a c h e r s ' work programs were c l o s e l y a l i g n e d because they were c e n t r a l l y l e g i s l a t e d . M a c k r e l l (1981, p. 171) suggests t h a t "change, when i t d i d occur, tended t o come as a consequence of d i r e c t i o n of c e n t r a l a d m i n i s t r a t o r s and i t was a p p l i e d u n i f o r m l y t h r o u g h o u t a s t a t e . " B r a b e n ' s " S u r v e y o f A r t T e a c h e r E d u c a t i o n i n Q u e e n s l a n d 1 8 9 0 - 1 9 7 6 ' (1982) a l s o documents t h i s , b u t e x p l a i n s how t h i s p r o c e s s , and w i t h i t t h e c l o s e c o n t a c t s and u n i f o r m i t y o f v i e w between a r t e d u c a t o r s , was d i s s o l v e d w i t h t h e g r a n t i n g o f autonomy f o r t e a c h e r e d u c a t i o n i n s t i t u t i o n s i n 1 9 7 6 . He c o n c l u d e s t h a t " w i t h autonomy f o r i n s t i t u t i o n s i n t h e f i e l d o f a r t e d u c a t i o n , and t h e r e l i n q u i s h i n g o f b u r e a u c r a t i c c o n t r o l , a r t t e a c h e r e d u c a t i o n w i l l a l m o s t c e r t a i n l y a l t e r i t s c o n c e p t " ( 1 9 8 2 , p . 6 2 ) . T h i s autonomy do e s n o t n e c e s s a r i l y i n d i c a t e a d i v e r g e n c e o f a r t e d u c a t o r s ' v i e w p o i n t s c o n c e r n i n g t e a c h e r p r e p a r a t i o n , b u t , a l o n g w i t h o t h e r f a c t o r s , d o e s n o t g u a r a n t e e a w a r e n e s s o f v i e w p o i n t s between g r o u p s l i k e t h e s y s t e m o f t h e p a s t . One o t h e r c o n t r i b u t i n g f a c t o r w h i c h d i s s o l v e d c l o s e c o n t a c t between g r o u p s was t h e g r a n t i n g o f more autonomy t o s e c o n d a r y a r t e d u c a t o r s . The s t a t e e d u c a t i o n s y s t e m a d o p t e d f i r s t t h e R a d f o r d , t h e n ROSBA s t r u c t u r e s (Review o f S c h o o l - B a s e d A s s e s s m e n t ( 1 9 7 6 ) ) . A m a j o r change u n d e r ROSBA f o r a r t e d u c a t o r s was t h e s h i f t i n g o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r w r i t i n g a r t c u r r i c u l u m t o t h e s c h o o l s and t h e c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r . T h e s e c u r r i c u l u m work p r o g r a m s were t o be b a s e d on e x t r e m e l y b r o a d government s y l l a b i t h a t c o u l d be i n t e r p r e t e d w i t h much f l e x i b i l i t y by t h o s e who t a u g h t t h e c o u r s e s . The newly a l t e r e d r o l e o f t h e t e a c h e r a s c u r r i c u l u m d e s i g n e r u n d o u b t e d l y c h a n g e d t h e needs o f t h e s e c o n d a r y a r t e d u c a t o r and i t i s l i k e l y t h a t what t h e y t h o u g h t w o u l d be v a l u a b l e f o r p r e - s e r v i c e w o u l d have a l t e r e d a s w e l l . T h i s much has a l r e a d y been g e n e r a l l y a s c e r t a i n e d i n t h e r e c e n t , i n f o r m a l s t u d y by t h e Q u e e n s l a n d B o a r d o f T e a c h e r E d u c a t i o n , " E d u c a t i o n and t h e A r t s : I d e n t i f y i n g R e s e a r c h Needs" (Duck, 1 9 8 5 ) . How much agr e e m e n t e x i s t e d between t h e v i e w s o f s e c o n d a r y a r t e d u c a t o r s and t e r t i a r y a r t e d u c a t o r s , and on what s p e c i f i c i s s u e s , was n o t e s t a b l i s h e d i n t h a t s t u d y . F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e s e two g r o u p s had n o t been c a n v a s s e d c o n c e r n i n g some o f t h e c u r r e n t i d e a s p r o p o s e d by a r t e d u c a t i o n s c h o l a r s and r e s e a r c h e r s . Some i n d i c a t i o n o f t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n seemed p r e r e q u i s i t e t o o f f e r i n g r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s f o r t h e f u t u r e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e m a j o r Q u e e n s l a n d a r t p r e - s e r v i c e p r o g r a m . 2. DEVELOPING THE SURVEY ITEMS FROM A REVIEW OF LITERATURE In t h i s s e c t i o n , the l i t e r a t u r e t h a t determined the survey items w i l l be b r i e f l y o u t l i n e d . Laura Chapman's I n s t a n t A r t , I n s t a n t C u l t u r e (1982) pr o v i d e d i n v a l u a b l e guidance f o r t o p i c s and was the major source f o r s p e c i f i c items, mainly because a r t teacher p r e - s e r v i c e education i s mentioned i n c o n s i d e r a b l e d e t a i l . Other sources o f t e n supported the ideas and recommendations made by Chapman. A u s t r a l i a n a r t e d u c a t i o n r e s e a r c h was gleaned f o r items as w e l l , i n p a r t i c u l a r the unpublished c o m p i l a t i o n of notes made by Geoff Hammond on " A r t Teacher P r e p a r a t i o n ' a t a seminar h e l d by the A u s t r a l i a n I n s t i t u t e of A r t Education i n P e r t h i n 1985. These notes represented recommendations and i s s u e s c o n s i d e r e d important by d e l e g a t e s from each S t a t e . Three major aspects of a r t teacher p r e - s e r v i c e programs appeared i n the l i t e r a t u r e . F i r s t , t h e r e were the elements t h a t were suggested f o r i n c l u s i o n i n a program - these were sometimes courses ( i . e . " s o c i o l o g y ' ) or sometimes concepts ( i . e . " s t r a t e g i e s f o r promoting the s t a t u s of a r t i n s c h o o l s ' ) . S e c o n d , t h e r e were i t e m s t h a t r e l a t e d t o t h e s t r u c t u r e o f t h e p r o g r a m , o r t h e way i n w h i c h t h e c o n t e n t o r t o p i c s s h o u l d be p r e s e n t e d ( i . e . " t h a t s t u d e n t s have a b r e a d t h o f knowledge i n s t u d i o a r e a s ' ) . T h i r d , t h e r e were some t h i n g s i d e n t i f i e d a s g e n e r a l o r l o c a l c o n t r o v e r s i e s t h a t r e l a t e d t o e i t h e r t h e c o u r s e a s a whole ( i . e . " t h a t c o u r s e s s h o u l d be a minimum o f 4 y e a r s ' d u r a t i o n ' ) o r a r t t e a c h i n g g e n e r a l l y ( i . e . f u n d i n g o f i n - s c h o o l a r t p r o g r a m s ) . F o r t h e s a k e o f o r g a n i s a t i o n , a l t h o u g h some o f t h e a s p e c t s o v e r l a p , t h e s e t h r e e d i v i s i o n s were made on t h e s u r v e y and w i l l be a d d r e s s e d s e p a r a t e l y h e r e . "CONTENT OF COURSE' ITEMS C o n t e n t i t e m s were by f a r t h e most p r o l i f i c i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e . However, i t was g e n e r a l l y " c o n t e n t ' i n t e r m s o f what s h o u l d be t a u g h t i n s c h o o l c u r r i c u l a , b u t n o t n e c e s s a r i l y i n p r e - s e r v i c e p r o g r a m s . K e e p i n g i n mind t h e u n d e r l y i n g a s s u m p t i o n t h a t t h e r e i s a c o n n e c t i o n between what i s p r a c t i s e d i n s c h o o l s and what i s e x p e r i e n c e d i n p r e - s e r v i c e , r e c u r r i n g t o p i c s i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e r e g a r d i n g b o t h s e c o n d a r y and p r e - s e r v i c e c o n t e n t were d e v e l o p e d i n t o s u r v e y i t e m s . The o v e r v i e w o f c o n t e n t p r e s e n t e d i n t h e d i a g r a m , "what s h o u l d an a r t t e a c h e r know a b o u t a r t " o u t l i n e d by B o u g h t o n i n "How t o B u i l d an A r t T e a c h e r " (1986, p . 33), was d e v e l o p e d c o n c u r r e n t l y w i t h t h i s s u r v e y , b u t c o r r e l a t e s w i t h most o f t h e i t e m s i n t h e s u r v e y . What f o l l o w s i s a b r i e f o u t l i n e o f some o f t h e s o u r c e s f o r e a c h i t e m , a l o n g w i t h r a t i o n a l e s f o r i n c l u s i o n where w a r r a n t e d : A. S t u d i o - The h i s t o r i c a l f i n e a r t s s u b j e c t s o f a r t e d u c a t i o n were i n c l u d e d , t h a t i s d r a w i n g , p a i n t i n g , and s c u l p t u r e , a l o n g w i t h e l e c t i v e o f f e r i n g s f o u n d i n t h e Q u e e n s l a n d S e n i o r S y l l a b u s , s u c h a s j e w e l l e r y , p o t t e r y , f i b r e a r t s , p r i n t m a k i n g and l e a t h e r w o r k w h i c h c o u l d be l o o s e l y t e r m e d a p p l i e d a r t s o r c r a f t s . T h e s e a p p l i e d a r t s a r e p r o p o s e d a l s o by R i c h a r d s o n (1984), Chapman (1978) and o t h e r s . P r o p o n e n t s o f t h e s t u d y o f newer m e d i a , n o t a b l y L a n i e r (1984), Feldman (1976) and J o n e s (1980) p r o m p t e d t h e i n c l u s i o n o f f i l m , v i d e o , T.V and p h o t o g r a p h y . Computer A r t was added as "a medium f o r d o i n g a r t p r o j e c t s ... t o be c o n s i d e r e d i n c u r r i c u l u m p l a n n i n g f o r t h e end o f t h e t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y " (1982, p. 31). C o m m e r c i a l a r t was l i s t e d i n t h e G r e e r s t u d y and h i g h l i g h t e d by Chapman i n A p p r o a c h e s t o A r t i n E d u c a t i o n (1978). B. E d u c a t i o n S t u d i e s - As G r e e r ' s s t u d y showed, t h e s e a r e g e n e r a l l y t h e " c o n s t a n t ' o r r e q u i r e d s t u d i e s i n t e a c h e r e d u c a t i o n i n s t i t u t i o n s , o f t e n t i m e s h o u s e d w i t h i n s e p a r a t e f a c u l t i e s . The A u s t r a l i a n S c h o o l s Commission R e p o r t s , (1977, 1979, 1983) and t h e Q u e e n s l a n d Review o f T e a c h e r E d u c a t i o n , B a s s e t t R e p o r t , 1978, c o n c e r n t h e m s e l v e s m o s t l y w i t h g e n e r a l a s p e c t s o f p r e - s e r v i c e . The same r e p o r t s were a l s o u s e d w i t h r e f e r e n c e t o some o f t h e " s t r u c t u r e o f c o u r s e ' i t e m s . The f o u r a r e a s o f c o n t e n t i n c l u d e d i n t h e " E d u c a t i o n S t u d i e s * s e c t i o n o f t h e s u r v e y were deemed " e s s e n t i a l s ' i n t h e s e r e p o r t s . C. Employment p r o s p e c t s and e x p e c t a t i o n s o f e m p l o y e r s - E i s n e r (1972) c o n s i d e r s knowledge a b o u t t h e s t r u c t u r e and f u n c t i o n i n g o f t h e s c h o o l c r u c i a l t o t h e n e o p h y t e t e a c h e r . The 1980 A u s t r a l i a n A r t s C o u n c i l " P a r r R e p o r t ' r e c e i v e d many comments f r o m a r t g r a d u a t e s who were now t e a c h e r s t h a t i n d i c a t e d "employment p r o s p e c t s ' was a n e c e s s a r y t o p i c f o r p r e - s e r v i c e . 21 D. C u r r e n t c h a n g e s i n t h e e d u c a t i o n a l s y s t e m a s a who l e - The AIAE s e m i n a r n o t e s (1985) i n c l u d e d t h i s a s a v a l u a b l e c o n c e p t f o r p r e - s e r v i c e , and i t i s g i v e n c o n s i d e r a b l e a t t e n t i o n by a r t e d u c a t o r s s u c h a s E i s n e r . Chapman s t a t e s " A r t t e a c h e r s s h o u l d a l s o be aware o f t h e f o r c e s - s o c i a l , p o l i t i c a l a nd e c o n o m i c - w h i c h a r e s h a p i n g e d u c a t i o n a t t h e f e d e r a l , s t a t e and l o c a l l e v e l " (1982, p. 99). E. A r t A d v o c a c y R o l e o f t h e A r t E d u c a t o r - i . r e l e v a n c e o f a r t t o s o c i e t y - T h i s e m p h a s i s has been c o n s i d e r e d v e r y i m p o r t a n t by s c h o l a r s s u c h a s Hammond (1981), Mason (1983), McFee and Degge (1977). i i . r e l e v a n c e o f a r t t o s t u d e n t s i n s c h o o l s - L a n i e r (1972) and Feldman (1976) i n p a r t i c u l a r s u g g e s t t h i s a s t h e s t a r t i n g p o i n t f o r e f f e c t i v e s c h o o l a r t a c t i v i t i e s . T h i s was a l s o on t h e AIAE s e m i n a r l i s t o f i m p o r t a n t i s s u e s . i i i . p u b l i c r e l a t i o n s - Chapman l i s t s " i n c r e a s i n g ' o r " e n h a n c i n g p u b l i c a w a r e n e s s o f t h e a r t s ' a s one o f h e r rec o m m e n d a t i o n s f o r i m p r o v i n g a r t e d u c a t i o n (1982, p. 159-60) . Degge s t a t e s : H e l p i n g o u r a r t e d u c a t i o n s t u d e n t s u n d e r s t a n d t h e i m p o r t a n c e and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f e s t a b l i s h i n g o n - g o i n g and s u b s t a n t i v e t a l k w i t h t h e i r s t u d e n t s , p a r e n t s , and a d m i n i s t r a t o r s a b o u t what i s b e i n g l e a r n e d and i t s v a l u e seems a n e c e s s a r y s t e p i n a l t e r i n g t h e p e r c e p t i o n s o f o t h e r s (1979, p. 178). i v . S t r a t e g i e s f o r p r o m o t i n g t h e s t a t u s o f a r t i n s c h o o l s - Chapman spe n d s a good d e a l o f t i m e o u t l i n i n g t h e s e s p e c i f i c a l l y i n I n s t a n t A r t , I n s t a n t C u l t u r e (1982, p. 159). F. A r t t e a c h i n g a i d s and r e s o u r c e s - Chapman c o n s i d e r s i t " i m p e r a t i v e . . . t o employ t e a c h e r s o f a r t (who a r e ) t h o r o u g h l y f a m i l i a r w i t h r e s o u r c e s f o r t e a c h i n g a r t " ( p . 42). G. E v a l u a t i o n o f s t u d e n t a r t work - The 1978 Review o f T e a c h e r E d u c a t i o n i n Q u e e n s l a n d recommends t h a t "methods o f e v a l u a t i o n s h o u l d be t a u g h t f u n c t i o n a l l y a s w e l l a s f o r m a l l y . " ( p . i v ) The Q u e e n s l a n d B o a r d o f S e c o n d a r y S c h o o l s S t u d i e s a l s o saw t h i s a s a p r o b l e m a r e a , d e v o t i n g t i m e t o p r o d u c e an " A s s e s s m e n t i n A r t " b o o k l e t f o r d i s t r i b u t i o n amongst s e c o n d a r y a r t e d u c a t o r s . 23 H. E l e m e n t s and P r i n c i p l e s o f D e s i g n - S t u d i o p r a c t i c e , c r i t i c i s m a nd a e s t h e t i c t h e o r y o f t e n make r e f e r e n c e t o t h e " f o r m a l p r o p e r t i e s ' o f a r t w o r k s . S t u d y done by C l a r k (1975) showed t h a t f o r a t l e a s t t e n y e a r s t h e m a j o r i t y o f a r t e d u c a t i o n t e x t b o o k s i n c l u d e d t h e e l e m e n t s and p r i n c i p l e s o f d e s i g n a s a m a j o r component. I . C u l t u r a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n f o r m s and f u n c t i o n s o f a r t : Many a r t e d u c a t o r s , i n c l u d i n g C h a l m e r s (1978), McFee and Degge (1977) and Hammond (1981) have s u g g e s t e d s h i f t i n g t h e e m p h a s i s i n a r t c u r r i c u l u m t o one t h a t i s more a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l l y b a s e d . The p a r t i c u l a r w o r d i n g f o r t h e s u r v e y i t e m was c h o s e n i n c a s e a r t e d u c a t o r s were n o t f a m i l i a r w i t h t e r m s s u c h a s " c u l t u r a l a n t h r o p o l o g y ' . J . A e s t h e t i c t h e o r y - L a n i e r i d e n t i f i e s " A e s t h e t i c l i t e r a c y ' a s t h e " p r o p e r s i n g l e p u r p o s e o f a r t e d u c a t i o n " (1980, p.11). " A e s t h e t i c s ' i s a l s o m e n t i o n e d i n Duck's R e p o r t as a d e s i r e d f o c u s f o r a r t e d u c a t i o n i n Q u e e n s l a n d (1985, p . 7). K. A r t H i s t o r y - T h i s i t e m was i n c l u d e d a s one o f t h e m a j o r d i s c i p l i n e s o f a r t e d u c a t i o n . The breakdown i n t o c h r o n o l o g i c a l p e r i o d s was l o o s e l y b a s e d on t h e c h r o n o l o g i c a l s t r u c t u r e o f many p r e - s e r v i c e a r t h i s t o r y c o u r s e s , as commented on by H i c k e y i n "Some r e c e n t a p p r o a c h e s t o t e a c h i n g a r t h i s t o r y and c r i t i c i s m i n s c h o o l s ' (1984, p. 58-65). " A r c h i t e c t u r e ' was l i s t e d a s a s e p a r a t e i t e m w i t h i n a r t h i s t o r y a s i t has r e c e i v e d renewed e m p h a s i s i n c u r r i c u l u m s t h a t a r e b a s e d on " e n v i r o n m e n t ' . P r o p o n e n t s o f t h i s w o u l d be C h a l m e r s (1978), Adams, and Ward (1982). L. P h i l o s o p h y o f A r t - T h i s i t e m was i n c l u d e d a s some s c h o l a r s ( E f l a n d (1978), f o r i n s t a n c e ) t a k e a p h i l o s o p h i c a l a p p r o a c h t o s t u d y i n g a r t e d u c a t i o n . M * Knowledge and s t u d y o f A r t E d u c a t i o n T h e o r y - Chapman makes t h e c l a i m t h a t "As a p r o f e s s i o n a l g r o u p , a r t e d u c a t o r s a r e p r o b a b l y l e s s r e c e p t i v e t o t h e o r y and r e s e a r c h t h a n most e d u c a t o r s " (1982, p. 102). The i t e m was i n c l u d e d t o s e e k some a f f i r m a t i o n o f t h i s . N. A r t C u r r i c u l u m / P r o g r a m P l a n n i n g - T h e s e a r e a s a r e c o n s i d e r e d i m p o r t a n t i n many a r t e d u c a t i o n t e x t s , ( i . e . E i s n e r (1971); Hardiman and Z e r n i c h (1974) and o t h e r s ) . Chapman sums up t h e i m p o r t a n c e by s a y i n g " C u r r i c u l u m d e v e l o p m e n t - p l a n n i n g an a r t p r o g r a m - i s an a r e a o f s t u d y t h a t c a n h e l p t e a c h e r s t o i n t e g r a t e t h e i r k nowledge a b o u t a r t , a b o u t students and other information derived from t h e i r coursework i n education" (1982, p. 97). O. Integration of Art with Other Subjects There i s some controversy between scholars on t h i s point. While scholars such as Lewis (1976) support integration between the arts, Lanier would discourage i t . Eisner has suggested that some art educators consider a r t objectives i n the wider context of general education - he refers to t h i s as a "contextualist' viewpoint (1971). Hammond goes so f a r as to l i n k r i g i d " s t r a t i f i c a t i o n of subjects' with a r t education's weakened status i n schools (1981, p. 90). P. Current Research - This item was included as a " n u l l ' item, as many scholars and researchers question the valuing of research by those at the classroom l e v e l ; Eisner, i n "Can educational research inform education practice?* (1983) suggests that i t i s "good ideas' and not current research that i s valued by p r a c t i t i o n e r s . This seems to be generally supported (Day and DiBlasio, 1983, Chapman, 1982). Although the l a t t e r generally defend research, they acknowledge that teachers may remain skeptical of i t s value. 26 Q. L i b e r a l E d u c a t i o n - H i l l e r (1984) c l a i m s t h a t many p r e - s e r v i c e a r t e d u c a t o r s "have i n s u f f i c i e n t a c a d e m i c r i g o r " i n t o c o p e w i t h i m p o r t a n t c o n c e p t s i n t h e i r p r o g r a m , and s u g g e s t s t h a t a w i d e - r a n g i n g l i b e r a l e d u c a t i o n i s needed t o a c c o m p l i s h t h i s . "STRUCTURE OF COURSE* ITEMS I n an a t t e m p t t o k e e p t h e number o f i t e m s f o r t h e e n t i r e s u r v e y manageable, t h e " s t r u c t u r e o f c o u r s e ' q u e s t i o n s were c o n f i n e d t o t h o s e c o n s i d e r e d "key' f o r p r o f i l i n g v i e w p o i n t s . Q u e s t i o n s were s e t i n p a i r s i n o r d e r t o show i f any p o l a r i z a t i o n o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n o c c u r r e d . F o r example, Items A and B a s k r e s p o n d e n t s how i m p o r t a n t t h e y c o n s i d e r " b r e a d t h ' o f s t u d i o e x p e r i e n c e o r " d e p t h ' o f s t u d i o e x p e r i e n c e i n p r e - s e r v i c e . S i m i l a r l y , i t e m s K and L i d e n t i f y what t h i n g s a r e c o n s i d e r e d i m p o r t a n t i n v o l v e m e n t s f o r " L e c t u r e r s ' and " T e a c h e r s ' . Some o f t h e s o u r c e s f o r t h e Items and r a t i o n a l e s f o r i n c l u s i o n f o l l o w : A and B. " B r e a d t h ' and " Depth' o f s t u d i o e x p e r i e n c e - T h e r e has been some c o n t r o v e r s y a b o u t t h e t y p e o f s t u d i o e x p e r i e n c e n e c e s s a r y f o r p r e - s e r v i c e . Chapman (1982) c r i t i c i z e s t h e " n a r r o w n e s s o f s c o p e ' o f " d e p t h p r o g r a m s ' , as d o e s H i l l e r , who a d v o c a t e s " g i v i n g s t u d e n t s an a d e q u a t e b r e a d t h o f s t u d i o e x p e r i e n c e t o c o p e w i t h t h e v a r i e t y o f demands e x p e c t e d o f a r t t e a c h e r s i n t h e s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l ' (1985., p. 59). C. I n t e g r a t i o n o f d i f f e r e n t a s p e c t s o f a r t w i t h i n s t u d i o c o u r s e s - L o v a n o - K e r r , i n p a r t i c u l a r , h i g h l i g h t s t h i s c o n c e p t i n h e r a r t i c l e " I m p l i c a t i o n s o f DBAE f o r T e a c h e r E d u c a t i o n ' (1985, p. 220). T h i s c o n c e p t i s a l s o s u p p o r t e d , i n t e r e s t i n g l y enough, by some o f t h o s e who e m p h a s i z e t h e " s t u d i o m odel' i n p r e - s e r v i c e , n o t a b l y M i c h a e l (1980) and S c h u l t z (1980). D. A r t c u r r i c u l u m a s a p a r t o f s t u d i o c o u r s e s - Chapman (1982, p . 91) i m p l i e s t h a t methods c o u r s e s ( r e f e r r e d t o as c u r r i c u l u m c o u r s e s i n Q u e e n s l a n d ) a r e o f t e n " a t o d d s ' w i t h s t u d i o c o u r s e s i n t e r m s o f t h e v a l u e and t y p e o f a c t i v i t i e s . T h i s may be a r e s u l t o f a l a c k o f i n t e g r a t i o n o f c u r r i c u l a r c o n c e r n s w i t h i n t h e s t u d i o a r e a as w e l l a s a f o c u s on a c t i v i t i e s o f a d i f f e r e n t n a t u r e w i t h i n t h e method c o u r s e s . W h i l e Chapman doe s n o t d i r e c t l y a d v o c a t e i n t e g r a t i o n , i t was f e l t t h a t t h e i n c l u s i o n o f s u c h an i t e m w o u l d be v a l u a b l e . E. S e p a r a t e , t h o r o u g h g r o u n d i n g i n d i f f e r e n t a s p e c t s o f a r t - Chapman c l a i m s t h a t " i n p r o g r a m s t h a t p r e p a r e t e a c h e r s , s t u d i o c o u r s e s may n o t be b a l a n c e d w i t h i n - d e p t h s t u d i e s i n t h e h i s t o r y o f a r t o r a r t t h e o r y " ( p . 9 0 ) . She t h e r e f o r e a p p e a r s t o a d v o c a t e s e p a r a t e t h o r o u g h g r o u n d i n g i n t h e s e a s p e c t s o f a r t . F. I n v o l v e m e n t i n c o n t e n t and m edia r e l e v a n t t o s c h o o l c i r c u m s t a n c e s - T h i s i t e m was g l e a n e d f r o m t h e AIAE s e m i n a r n o t e s on a r t p r e - s e r v i c e i s s u e s . A l s o , t h e Duck s t u d y ( 1 9 8 5 ) s t a t e s t h a t " t h e a p p l i c a b i l i t y o f t h e i r [some c o l l e g e s t a f f ] c o u r s e s t o t h e c l a s s r o o m t e a c h i n g s i t u a t i o n was r e p o r t e d t o be d o u b t f u l i n some i n s t a n c e s " ( p . 1 7 ) . G. I n v o l v e m e n t i n c o n t e n t and media f o r t h e i r own p e r s o n a l d e v e l o p m e n t - The " a r t i s t " model o f t r a i n i n g , w h i c h i s u n d e r c o n s i d e r a b l e d e b a t e c u r r e n t l y , i s s t i l l t h e p r e d o m i n a n t e m p h a s i s i n a r t p r e - s e r v i c e p r o g r a m s i n A u s t r a l i a ( H i c k e y , 1 9 8 4 ) . Chapman v i e w s t h i s " i m a g e o f " t e a c h e r - as a r t i s t ' a s " t r o u b l e s o m e ' ( 1 9 8 2 , p . 8 9 ) . However, t h e l a t e s t R e v iew o f A r t s E d u c a t i o n and T r a i n i n g o r Botsman R e p o r t , ( 1 9 8 5 ) , s t r o n g l y s t a t e s " u n t i l t e a c h e r s a r e t r a i n e d t o a s i m i l a r d e g r e e o f competence i n t h e a r t f o r m t a u g h t t o t h a t e x p e c t e d o f t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l a r t i s t , l i t t l e p r o g r e s s w i l l be made" ( p . 105). Such a d i c h o t o m y i n p o i n t s - o f - v i e w was c o n s i d e r e d s i g n i f i c a n t , and a s w e l l as f o r m i n g t h e b a s i s f o r t h i s s u r v e y i t e m , t h i s d i c h o t e m y was f o r m u l a t e d i n t o a s t a t e m e n t o f c o n t r o v e r s y i n P a r t C o f t h e s u r v e y . H. P r a c t i c e t e a c h i n g - T h e s e i t e m s were m a i n l y g l e a n e d f r o m t h e m o d e ls recommended i n t h e S c h o o l s C o m m i s s i o n R e p o r t , 1979. The f i r s t i t e m r e g a r d i n g p r a c t i c a a t a l l l e v e l s o f s c h o o l i n g i n c o r p o r a t e d v i e w s f r o m Chapman (1982) who p r o p o s e d t h a t s u c h e x p e r i e n c e w o u l d h e l p e s t a b l i s h a l o n g - t e r m p e r s p e c t i v e on a r t c u r r i c u l u m . The Duck r e p o r t (1985) a l s o c i t e s some t e a c h e r s who were d i s s a t i s f i e d w i t h h a v i n g g r a d u a t e d f r o m p r e - s e r v i c e w i t h o u t e x p e r i e n c i n g a r t c l a s s e s a t a l l g r a d e l e v e l s . I . T h a t l e c t u r e r s have s c h o o l t e a c h i n g e x p e r i e n c e - T h i s i t e m was i n c l u d e d a s an i t e m i n t h e AIAE s e m i n a r n o t e s (1985), as w e l l as t h e Duck R e p o r t , (1985) w h i c h s t a t e d " t h e r e was c o n s i d e r a b l e comment t h a t some c o l l e g e p o s i t i o n s were o c c u p i e d by p e o p l e w i t h i n a p p r o p r i a t e t r a i n i n g o r employment b a c k g r o u n d s " ( p . 17). J . T h a t l e c t u r e r s be i n v o l v e d i n t e a c h i n g c h i l d r e n on a r e g u l a r b a s i s - The S c h o o l s C o m m i s s i o n r e p o r t recommends t h a t " t h e s t a f f o f t r a i n i n g i n s t i t u t i o n s s h o u l d t e a c h f o r , s a y , a t l e a s t a t e r m e v e r y t h r e e y e a r s on a f u l l - t i m e b a s i s " (1979, p . 13). The Duck s t u d y r e p o r t s t h a t " i t was a r g u e d t h a t c o l l e g e l e c t u r e r s s h o u l d . . . s e c u r e t e m p o r a r y secondments t o t e a c h i n g p o s i t i o n s i n o r d e r t o m a i n t a i n a r e a l i s t i c a p p r e c i a t i o n o f t h e s c h o o l t e a c h i n g p r o c e s s " ( p . 19). K. T h a t l e c t u r e r s m a i n t a i n i n v o l v e m e n t s - i n a r t p r a c t i c e , a r t e d u c a t i o n i s s u e s , a r t s o r g a n i z a t i o n s , s c h o o l s , o b t a i n i n g f u r t h e r q u a l i f i c a t i o n s . A l t h o u g h n o t d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d t o c o u r s e s t r u c t u r e , t h e v a r i o u s i t e m s l i s t e d u n d e r t h i s h e a d i n g were f o r m u l a t e d as a r e s u l t o f one o f t h e t o p i c s i n c l u d e d i n t h e Duck R e p o r t w h i c h i n t r o d u c e d t h i s s e c t i o n by s t a t i n g "The n a t u r e o f l e c t u r i n g s t a f f e mployed by t e a c h e r e d u c a t i o n i n s t i t u t i o n s was a l s o a m a t t e r f r e q u e n t l y r a i s e d i n d i s c u s s i o n s " ( p . 17). " A r t p r a c t i c e " was ad d e d a s a r e s u l t o f t h e Chapman " T e a c h e r V i e w p o i n t " s t u d y (1982) w h i c h showed t h a t a m a j o r i t y o f t e a c h e r s f e l t i t was v a l u a b l e f o r t e a c h e r s o f a r t t o be p r a c t i s i n g a r t i s t s , a l t h o u g h i t must be n o t e d t h a t Chapman w o u l d seem t o be a t v a r i a n c e w i t h t h i s ( p . 89-91), as a r e some A u s t r a l i a n s c h o l a r s ( B o u g h t o n (1986), H i l l e r , (1984)). I t s h o u l d a l s o be n o t e d t h a t , due t o an o m i s s i o n a t t h e p r i n t e r y , " i n - s e r v i c e " was n o t i n c l u d e d i n t h i s s e c t i o n o f t h e s u r v e y . L. T h a t A r t t e a c h e r s m a i n t a i n i n v o l v e m e n t s - i n a r t , a r t e d u c a t i o n i s s u e s , a r t p r e - s e r v i c e p r o g r a m s , a r t s o r g a n i z a t i o n s , o b t a i n i n g f u r t h e r q u a l i f i c a t i o n s , l i a i s o n w i t h o t h e r s c h o o l a r t p r o g r a m s , i n - s e r v i c e p r o g r a m s . T h e s e i t e m s a r e s i m i l a r t o t h o s e s e t f o r l e c t u r e r s i n an a t t e m p t t o d e t e r m i n e v a r i a n c e . " L i a i s o n w i t h o t h e r s c h o o l s " was a d d e d a s a r e s u l t o f t h e Duck s u r v e y , b u t i s a l s o a re c o m m e n d a t i o n i n Chapman (1982, p . 152). PART C P a r t C o f t h e s u r v e y i n c o r p o r a t e d i s s u e s o r s t a t e m e n t s c o n c e r n i n g i s s u e s t h a t had been i d e n t i f i e d a s g e n e r a l o r l o c a l c o n t r o v e r s i e s . T h e s e i s s u e s r e l a t e d t o t h e p r e - s e r v i c e c o u r s e a s a whole o r a r t t e a c h i n g g e n e r a l l y . They a r e o u t l i n e d a s f o l l o w s : A. " I n A r t t e a c h e r p r e - s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g p r o g r a m s , a r t s u b j e c t c o u r s e s s h o u l d be g i v e n more e m p h a s i s t h a n e d u c a t i o n c o u r s e s . " The t o p i c o f t h e p r o p o r t i o n a l e m p h a s i s o f c o u r s e s w i t h i n p r e - s e r v i c e h as been c o n t r o v e r s i a l i n Q u e e n s l a n d . A t p r e s e n t t h e b a l a n c e o f a r t c o u r s e s i s n e a r 33%, e d u c a t i o n c o u r s e s n e a r 30%, p r a c t i c u m 18%. I n t h e i r 1982 p o l i c y s t a t e m e n t , t h e Q u e e n s l a n d A r t T e a c h e r s ' A s s o c i a t i o n s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h e b a l a n c e f o r a r t c o u r s e s s h o u l d be 50%. B. " A r t t e a c h e r p r e - s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g c o u r s e s s h o u l d be a minimum o f 4 y e a r s d u r a t i o n " . The AIAE s e m i n a r recommended an i n c r e a s e t o a t l e a s t 4 y e a r s f o r t e a c h e r p r e p a r a t i o n i n a r t . C u r r e n t l y , t h e d i p l o m a o f t e a c h i n g i n a r t i s 3 y e a r s i n Q u e e n s l a n d . C. " A r t c o u r s e s t h a t d e v e l o p i n d i v i d u a l and p e r s o n a l e x p r e s s i o n s h o u l d be g i v e n more e m p h a s i s t h a n a r t c u r r i c u l u m c o u r s e s . " T h i s i t e m was i n c l u d e d b e c a u s e a h i s t o r i c a l t r e n d i n a r t p r e - s e r v i c e e d u c a t i o n c o u r s e s o f t h e p a s t t w e n t y y e a r s , a s o u t l i n e d by E i s n e r (1972) and Chapman (1978) , has been t o w a r d s t e a c h e r s d e v e l o p i n g p e r s o n a l e x p e r t i s e i n a r t . Chapman a c k n o w l e d g e s t h i s a l s o i n h e r 1982 p u b l i c a t i o n ( p . 101, 102) . Items D. and E. P r i m a r y A r t E d u c a t i o n Items - A l t h o u g h t h e s u r v e y was i n t e n d e d f o r s e c o n d a r y and t e r t i a r y a r t e d u c a t o r s , t h e r e was e v i d e n c e i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e o f " b l a m e - l a y i n g ' (Botsman 1 9 8 5 , p. 1 0 4 ) o r s u g g e s t i o n s t h a t t h e s e two g r o u p s were d i s s a t i s f i e d w i t h t h e p r i m a r y s i t u a t i o n i n a r t . The Duck s t u d y c o n c e n t r a t e d m o s t l y on p r i m a r y a r t s e d u c a t i o n , ( 1 9 8 5 ) . Two g e n e r a l i t e m s c o n s i d e r e d "key' i s s u e s were s e l e c t e d f o r t h e s u r v e y . They a r e as f o l l o w s : D. " E v e r y r e g i o n s h o u l d have a s p e c i a l i s t a r t t e a c h e r a s s i g n e d t o i t s p r i m a r y s c h o o l s w i t h e x p e r t i s e i n P r i m a r y A r t E d u c a t i o n " . The Duck r e p o r t s t a t e s , "The p r o v i s i o n o f S p e c i a l i s t s u p p o r t t o t e a c h e r s i n P r i m a r y s c h o o l s was g e n e r a l l y c o n s i d e r e d one o f t h e b e s t ways o f a c h i e v i n g [ u p g r a d i n g i n t h e a r t s a r e a s i n s c h o o l s ] " ( p . 1 0 ) . E. " P r i m a r y and e a r l y c h i l d h o o d p r e - s e r v i c e p r o g r a m s s h o u l d i n c l u d e a t l e a s t one: ( i ) p e r s o n a l d e v e l o p m e n t a r t c o u r s e ( i i ) a r t c u r r i c u l u m c o u r s e " T h i s i t e m was f o r m u l a t e d so a s t o be s i m i l a r i n c o n t e n t t o i s s u e s f o r s e c o n d a r y t e a c h e r s . The Duck r e p o r t l i s t s a s a c r i t i c i s m o f p r i m a r y p r e - s e r v i c e t h a t " a t t e n t i o n i s f o c u s e d on t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f p e r s o n a l s k i l l s , r a t h e r t h a n t e a c h i n g c o m p e t e n c i e s " ( p . 15). E l s e w h e r e i n t h e r e p o r t , however, p r a c t i c a l competence and c o n f i d e n c e a r e l i s t e d a s p r o b l e m s ( p . 6). Items F. and G. Q u e e n s l a n d a r t p r e - s e r v i c e p r o g r a m i t e m s . I n Q u e e n s l a n d , and i n o t h e r S t a t e s i n A u s t r a l i a , a r t t e a c h e r p r e - s e r v i c e e d u c a t i o n i n v o l v e s some a s p e c t s o f programming t h a t a r e d i f f e r e n t f r o m t h o s e i n N o r t h A m e r i c a n m o d e l s . The f o l l o w i n g two i t e m s have d i r e c t a p p l i c a t i o n t o t h e A u s t r a l i a n s i t u a t i o n , and t h u s were i n c l u d e d i n t h e s u r v e y . F. " I n 3 y e a r p r e - s e r v i c e p r o g r a m s , a d o u b l e - a r t o p t i o n s h o u l d be a v a i l a b l e a s w e l l a s an a r t P r i m a r y T e a c h i n g A r e a and o t h e r s u b j e c t S e c o n d T e a c h i n g A r e a . " One o f t h e o p i n i o n s e x p r e s s e d d u r i n g Duck's i n v e s t i g a t i o n was t h a t t h e s e c o n d a r e a o f s p e c i a l i z a t i o n be done away w i t h i n t h e a r t s . C u r r e n t l y , i n t h e m a j o r Q u e e n s l a n d p r e - s e r v i c e p r o g r a m , s t u d e n t s must s p e n d 19% o f t h e i r c o u r s e t i m e i n a s e c o n d t e a c h i n g a r e a , s u c h as E n g l i s h o r Math. The s u g g e s t i o n was made t h a t t h e a r t s were complex enough t o w a r r a n t t h e e n t i r e t i m e w i t h i n a p r e - s e r v i c e p r o g r a m be s p e n t i n t h e one a r e a (Duck, 1985, p . 16). G. " A r t t e a c h e r s g r a d u a t i n g f r o m an end-on p r e p a r a t i o n p r o g r a m a r e b e t t e r e q u i p p e d t o t e a c h t h e s u b j e c t t h a n 3 y e a r t r a i n e d c o n c u r r e n t g r a d u a t e s . " B r a b e n (1982) o u t l i n e s t h e n a t u r e o f t h e two t y p e s o f p r e - s e r v i c e p r o g r a m s i n h i s " H i s t o r i c a l C o n t e x t o f A r t T e a c h i n g i n Q u e e n s l a n d " . The "end-on' p r o g r a m i s a o n e - y e a r c o u r s e o f a r t t e a c h e r e d u c a t i o n a d d e d on t o a 3 y e a r d i p l o m a o r d e g r e e i n p r o f e s s i o n a l a r t s t u d i e s . The " c o n c u r r e n t ' p r o g r a m i s a 3 y e a r p r o g r a m o f s t u d i e s i n v o l v i n g a r t , a r t e d u c a t i o n , e d u c a t i o n , and s e c o n d t e a c h i n g a r e a c o u r s e w o r k s i m u l t a n e o u s l y . H i c k e y m a i n t a i n e d t h a t " b o t h methods p r o d u c e a q u a l i t y p r o d u c t and c a t e r r e s p e c t i v e l y t o t h e s p e c i a l i z a t i o n s o f d i f f e r e n t i n d i v i d u a l s " (1985, p . 58). H i l l e r , i n p a r t i c u l a r , r e f u t e s t h i s - "End-on one y e a r d i p l o m a c o u r s e s a r e u n s a t i s f a c t o r y b e c a u s e o f t h e t i m e c o n s t r a i n t " (1984, p.38). H. "Adequate r e s o u r c e s f o r r e g u l a r i n - s c h o o l a r t p r o g r a m s have g r e a t e r p r i o r i t y t h a n t h e m a i n t e n a n c e / e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f community s e r v i c e s i n a r t . " P a r t o f t h e d i s c u s s i o n d u r i n g t h e A u s t r a l i a n I n s t i t u t e o f A r t E d u c a t i o n S e m i n a r on A r t T e a c h e r P r e p a r a t i o n ( P e r t h , 1985) c e n t r e d a r o u n d t h e p r i o r i t i e s o f funding f o r a r t e d u c a t i o n . A recommendation was made by s e v e r a l d e l e g a t e s t h a t i n - s c h o o l a r t programs should have g r e a t e r p r i o r i t y than community a r t s s e r v i c e s . There was c o n s i d e r a b l e c o n t r o v e r s y surrounding t h i s i s s u e . I. " I t i s e s s e n t i a l t h a t a p r o s p e c t i v e a r t teacher be a b l e t o a r t i c u l a t e why i t i s important t o teach a r t and be a b l e t o o f f e r reasons f o r the amount and k i n d of a t t e n t i o n g i v e n t o a c t i v i t i e s i n the a r t program." Chapman i n I n s t a n t A r t , I n s t a n t C u l t u r e s t a t e s "The p r o s p e c t i v e teacher should be a b l e t o i d e n t i f y what students should be asked t o p e r c e i v e , judge and c r e a t e , and be a b l e t o o f f e r good reasons f o r the amount and k i n d of a t t e n t i o n g i v e n t o v a r i o u s aims and content" (p. 97). T h i s statement was adapted t o i n c l u d e r a t i o n a l e s ( i . e . "why i t i s important t o teach a r t ' ) as w e l l as a c t i v i t i e s , as these have been seen as r e c u r r i n g needs i n the l i t e r a t u r e . As H i l l e r says "A review of r a t i o n a l e i s c e r t a i n l y necessary but what seems to me to be of g r e a t e r p r i o r i t y i s the development of an a b i l i t y amongst our te a c h e r s t o d e s i g n programmes and teach w i t h a s p e c i f i c r a t i o n a l e i n mind" (1984, p. 38). CHAPTER 3 CONDDCT OF T H E STDDY T h i s study p r e s e n t s d e s c r i p t i v e data from a s u r v e y - q u e s t i o n n a i r e on areas of content and types of s t r u c t u r e s t h a t are c o n s i d e r e d important i n secondary a r t teacher p r e - s e r v i c e programs. Two groups were surveyed: p r e - s e r v i c e A u s t r a l i a n t e r t i a r y a r t educators and Queensland secondary a r t educators. The survey instrument was developed as a r e s u l t o f a l i t e r a t u r e search t h a t i d e n t i f i e d p r o p o s a l s of b a s i c and d e s i r a b l e components f o r a r t p r e - s e r v i c e programs made by a r t educa t i o n s c h o l a r s and r e s e a r c h e r s . The responses t o items have been t r e a t e d comparatively w i t h i n and between the two respondent groups i n order t o l o c a t e areas of agreement and d i f f e r e n c e . The purpose i s to be d e l i b e r a t i v e i n order t o make informed p r o p o s a l s f o r the development and improvement of a r t teacher p r e - s e r v i c e e d u c a t i o n with a minimum of c r i t i c i s m of present circumstances. The two major r e f e r e n c e s f o r the d a t a - g a t h e r i n g technique and procedures were Good's E s s e n t i a l s of E d u c a t i o n a l Research (1972) and Borg and G a l l ' s E d u c a t i o n a l Research: An I n t r o d u c t i o n (5th e d i t i o n , 1984). As w e l l , the d e s i g n o f t h e s u r v e y was p a t t e r n e d a f t e r two o t h e r s t u d i e s c o n d u c t e d i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s and A u s t r a l i a , namely, "A s t u d y o f t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l p r e p a r a t i o n needs o f a r t t e a c h e r s i n t h e s t a t e o f A r k a n s a s " ( G r e e r , 1979) and The P a r r R e p o r t ( A u s t r a l i a n A r t s C o u n c i l , 1980). SURVEY ITEMS One s o u r c e f o r i t e m s was a s e m i n a r on " A r t T e a c h e r P r e p a r a t i o n " h e l d a t t h e A u s t r a l i a n I n s t i t u t e o f A r t E d u c a t i o n ' s A n n u a l C o n f e r e n c e h e l d i n P e r t h i n May, 1985. O t h e r s o u r c e s i n c l u d e d p u b l i s h e d and u n p u b l i s h e d a r t e d u c a t i o n s c h o l a r s h i p , a s o u t l i n e d f u l l y i n C h a p t e r 2. Items were g r o u p e d i n t o 4 s e p a r a t e s e c t i o n s - P a r t A ( P e r s o n a l D a t a ) , P a r t B ( V iews on A r t T e a c h e r P r e - S e r v i c e P r e p a r a t i o n ) , P a r t C ( w h i c h s o l i c i t e d o p i n i o n s on c o n t r o v e r s i a l s t a t e m e n t s ) and P a r t D ( P r o f e s s i o n a l A s s o c i a t i o n Q u e s t i o n s ) . I n P a r t B i t e m s were a l s o s u b d i v i d e d a c c o r d i n g t o 2 g e n e r a l t o p i c s - C o n t e n t o f C o u r s e , and S t r u c t u r e o f C o u r s e . S e v e r a l i t e m s seemed b e s t s u b d i v i d e d e v e n f u r t h e r - f o r example, t h e v a r i o u s s t u d i o a r e a s o f a r t , t h e 39 breakdown o f p e r i o d s o f a r t h i s t o r y , and o t h e r s u b j e c t g r o u p i n g s . The s u r v e y d e a l s w i t h c o u r s e and p r o g r a m c o n t e n t g e n e r a l l y (44 i t e m s ) , and i n c l u d e s 12 i t e m s d e a l i n g w i t h s t r u c t u r e s and p r o p o r t i o n s o f c o n t e n t i n p r e - s e r v i c e p r o g r a m s . An a d d i t i o n a l 15 i t e m s c o n c e r n t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l i n v o l v e m e n t s o f a r t e d u c a t o r s . A 5 p o i n t L i k e r t s c a l e was u s e d . I n t h i s r e s p e c t i t was p a t t e r n e d a f t e r t h e P a r r R e p o r t c o m m i s s i o n e d by t h e A u s t r a l i a n A r t s C o u n c i l i n 1980. By u s i n g a 5 p o i n t s c a l e , r e s p o n d e n t s p r i o r i t i z e d i t e m s a s " h i g h l y v a l u e d ' t o " n o t v a l u e d a t a l l ' . I n P a r t B t h e naming was " g r e a t d e a l o f e m p h a s i s ' t o " l i t t l e o r none' and " v e r y i m p o r t a n t ' t o " n o t i m p o r t a n t a t a l l ' . I n P a r t C t h e s c a l e was named " s t r o n g l y a g r e e d ' t o " s t r o n g l y d i s a g r e e ' , w i t h t h e m i d - p o i n t o f t h e s c a l e f o r t h i s s e c t i o n o f t h e s u r v e y named "no o p i n i o n ' . The l e t t e r o f t r a n s m i t t a l i n t r o d u c i n g t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e was a d a p t e d f r o m t h e l e t t e r o f t r a n s m i t t a l u s e d i n t h e A u s t r a l i a n A r t s C o u n c i l P a r r R e p o r t , T e r t i a r y V i s u a l A r t s (1980). The s u r v e y i n s t r u m e n t was p i l o t e d and r e v i s e d w i t h t h e a s s i s t a n c e o f e i g h t o f t h e Q u e e n s l a n d A r t T e a c h e r s ' A s s o c i a t i o n (QATA) E x e c u t i v e members. F i v e were s e c o n d a r y a r t e d u c a t o r s , two were D e p a r t m e n t o f E d u c a t i o n A r t O f f i c e r s , and one a t e r t i a r y l e c t u r e r i n a r t e d u c a t i o n . C o n f u s i n g i t e m s , o m i s s i o n s , and i r r e l e v a n t m a t e r i a l were a l t e r e d , and t h e f i n a l e d i t i n g was s u p e r v i s e d by a n o t h e r t e r t i a r y l e c t u r e r i n A r t E d u c a t i o n . The r e v i s e d s u r v e y was d i s t r i b u t e d v i a s e v e r a l a g e n c i e s . One h u n d r e d and f i f t y were s e n t t o QATA members v i a t h e A s s o c i a t i o n n e w s l e t t e r w i t h p r e - a d d r e s s e d , stamped e n v e l o p e s . A f u r t h e r f i f t y were s e n t w i t h a B o a r d o f S e c o n d a r y S c h o o l S t u d i e s (B.S.S.S.) i n - s e r v i c e a r t member, on h e r v i s i t s t o r e g i o n a l t e a c h e r g r o u p s t h r o u g h o u t t h e S t a t e . T h i s l a t t e r avenue f o r d i s t r i b u t i o n was s e e n as an a d v a n t a g e as t h i s t e a c h e r g r o u p r e p r e s e n t s s e c o n d a r y a r t t e a c h e r s g e n e r a l l y and n o t j u s t QATA members. As QATA members i n c l u d e p r i m a r y , s e c o n d a r y , and t e r t i a r y a r t t e a c h e r s , t h e i n s t r u m e n t i n c l u d e d a s e c t i o n f o r p e r s o n a l d a t a o f a d e s c r i p t i v e n a t u r e t o i d e n t i f y t h e t e a c h i n g l e v e l and e x p e r i e n c e o f e a c h r e s p o n d e n t . I n t h i s way i t was p o s s i b l e t o s e p a r a t e 41 t h e p o p u l a t i o n i n t o t h e g r o u p s i n v o l v e d i n t h i s s t u d y . The t o t a l number o f r e t u r n s was 53 by t h e s e two means, 4 t e r t i a r y a r t e d u c a t o r s , and 49 s e c o n d a r y . As w e l l , t h e s u r v e y was d i s t r i b u t e d t h r o u g h t h e A u s t r a l i a n I n s t i t u t e o f A r t E d u c a t i o n N e w s l e t t e r i n December, 1985. S i n c e t h e membership o f t h i s p r o f e s s i o n a l a s s o c i a t i o n i s m o s t l y t e r t i a r y a r t e d u c a t o r s , i t was hoped t h a t t h e m a j o r i t y o f r e t u r n s w o u l d be i n t h i s g r o u p . Of t h e 17 r e t u r n s , 12 were t e r t i a r y a r t e d u c a t o r s . The t o t a l number o f r e t u r n s f o r e a c h p o p u l a t i o n v i a a l l t h e s e means was: Q u e e n s l a n d s e c o n d a r y a r t e d u c a t o r s - 49, T e r t i a r y a r t e d u c a t o r s - 16. LIMITATIONS OF THE SURVEY 1. T i m i n g The QATA n e w s l e t t e r t h a t c o n t a i n e d t h e s u r v e y - q u e s t i o n n a i r e was s e n t o u t v e r y n e a r t o t h e end o f t h e a c a d e m i c y e a r . T h i s was c o n s i d e r e d a d i s a d v a n t a g e by t h e r e s e a r c h e r , as t e a c h e r s w o u l d be i n v o l v e d i n f i n a l r e p o r t i n g . However, t h e e d i t o r o f t h e n e w s l e t t e r had s p a c e f o r t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e i n t h a t p a r t i c u l a r i s s u e . I t was d e c i d e d t o p u b l i s h i t , a s w i t h o u t t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l a s s o c i a t i o n ' s a s s i s t a n c e w i t h p r i n t i n g and m a i l i n g t h e s u r v e y w o u l d n o t have r e c e i v e d a w ide c i r c u l a t i o n i n t h e S t a t e . The AIAE n e w s l e t t e r was a l s o c i r c u l a t e d v e r y n e a r t o t h e end o f t h e y e a r . S i n c e t h e t e r t i a r y i n s t i t u t i o n s do n o t have an e x t e n d e d v a c a t i o n , t h i s was n o t c o n s i d e r e d a f a c t o r a t t h e t i m e . I n r e t r o s p e c t , however, due t o t h e s m a l l number o f r e t u r n s , t i m i n g m i g h t have been a f a c t o r a f t e r a l l . The B o a r d o f S e c o n d a r y S c h o o l S t u d i e s a r t member, had some d i f f i c u l t i e s i n c i r c u l a t i n g t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e a l s o . The t e a c h e r s ' m e e t i n g s s c h e d u l e d were p a r t o f a m o d e r a t i o n p r o c e s s i n v o l v i n g s t u d e n t a r t work and i n t h e p a s t had a l l o w e d t e a c h e r s t h e day f r e e , w i t h p l e n t y o f t i m e i n w h i c h t h e s u r v e y c o u l d be done. However, t h i s f o r m a t was c h a n g e d , and a r t t e a c h e r s were r e q u i r e d t o s p e n d t h e day a t t h e i r s c h o o l s , d r o p p i n g s t u d e n t work o f f and c o l l e c t i n g i t a t t h e end o f t h e d a y . N e v e r t h e l e s s , 13 t e a c h e r s t o o k t i m e t o c o m p l e t e a q u e s t i o n n a i r e . 2. F o l l o w - u p p r o c e d u r e s A v i s u a l "ad' was p l a c e d on t h e b a c k c o v e r o f t h e F e b r u a r y QATA n e w s l e t t e r ( s e e A p p e n d i x C) and a r e m i n d e r s e n t o u t v i a t h e AIAE n e w s l e t t e r . O n l y one more r e s p o n s e was f o r t h c o m i n g . A f t e r an i n i t i a l c o m p i l a t i o n o f d a t a and c o n s u l t a t i o n w i t h t h e c o m p u t i n g s t a f f a t t h e B r i s b a n e C o l l e g e o f A d v a n c e d E d u c a t i o n , i t was a p p a r e n t t h a t t h e number o f r e s u l t s was s u f f i c i e n t t o g i v e t h e i n f o r m a t i o n n e e d e d . No f u r t h e r f o l l o w - u p was a t t e m p t e d . 3. L i m i t a t i o n s o f t h e s u r v e y - q u e s t i o n n a i r e method o f d a t a c o l l e c t i o n T h i s method o f d a t a c o l l e c t i o n c a n n o t be g u a r a n t e e d t o d e t e r m i n e what l e c t u r e r s o r t e a c h e r s r e a l l y b e l i e v e o r p r a c t i c e , b u t a s s u m i n g t h a t p e o p l e who v o l u n t a r i l y r e s p o n d t o s u c h s u r v e y s a r e a n s w e r i n g t r u t h f u l l y , t h e d a t a c a n be assumed t o a p p r o x i m a t e t h e i r v i e w s on t h e s u b j e c t s s u r v e y e d . Due t o t h e n a t u r e o f t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n , t h e a n o n y m i t y o f i n d i v i d u a l s made i n d i v i d u a l f o l l o w - u p i m p o s s i b l e , and t h e number o f r e t u r n s was d e p e n d a n t on t h e w i l l i n g n e s s o f p e o p l e t o r e s p o n d . However, s i n c e t h e i n t e n t i o n o f t h e s u r v e y was t o u s e r e s u l t s d e s c r i p t i v e l y , and n o t t o make i n f e r e n c e s f o r t h e e n t i r e p o p u l a t i o n , t h e p r o p o r t i o n o f r e t u r n s was c o n s i d e r e d a d e q u a t e . The t e r t i a r y p o p u l a t i o n was, i n p a r t i c u l a r , a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s m a l l sample and t h i s h a s b een k e p t i n mind when a n a l y z i n g t h e r e s u l t s . DATA ANALYSIS PROCEDURES A l l r e s p o n s e s t o i t e m s were e n t e r e d o n t o a computer p r o g r a m as n u m e r i c a l " b l o c k s ' - e a c h s u r v e y was numbered and e a c h i t e m r e s p o n s e was numbered. P e r s o n a l d a t a boxes were a l s o numbered, and i t e m s s u c h a s "how many y e a r s a s an a r t t e a c h e r do y o u h a v e ? " w h i c h r e q u i r e d a w r i t t e n r e s p o n s e , were g i v e n n u m e r i c a l e q u i v a l e n t s on a M a s t e r s u r v e y s h e e t . The p r o g r a m a l l o w e d f o r one o r two v a r i a b l e a n a l y s e s i n o r d e r t o compare r e s p o n s e s w i t h i n g r o u p s , between g r o u p s , o r between i t e m s . H a n d w r i t t e n r e s p o n s e s t o s e c t i o n s marked " o t h e r " were c o l l a t e d by hand. The f i n a l s e c t i o n o f t h e s u r v e y ( P a r t D) was n o t a n a l y z e d f o r t h i s s t u d y , b u t was i n c l u d e d on t h e s u r v e y f o r t h e c o l l e c t i o n o f i n f o r m a t i o n by t h e Q u e e n s l a n d A r t T e a c h e r s ' A s s o c i a t i o n . R e s p o n s e s f r o m t h e d a t a l i s t e d a s " t e r t i a r y ' were p r i n t e d o u t f i r s t a s raw s c o r e s f o r e a c h i t e m and as p o s i t i o n s on t h e L i k e r t s c a l e , t h e n a s a p e r c e n t a g e . The mean was a l s o c a l c u l a t e d . T h i s p r o c e d u r e was t h e n r e p e a t e d u s i n g t h e r e s p o n s e v a r i a b l e " s e c o n d a r y ' . E a c h g r o u p o f p r i n t o u t s was v i e w e d s e p a r a t e l y t o l o c a t e i t e m s w i t h a s t r o n g measure o f agr e e m e n t o r d i f f e r e n c e , a s i n d i c a t e d by t h e modal r e s p o n s e . N e x t , e a c h i t e m was compared between t h e p r i n t o u t s o f " t e r t i a r y ' a nd " s e c o n d a r y ' t o l o c a t e t h o s e i t e m s o f agreement and d i f f e r e n c e b etween g r o u p s by c o m p a r i n g mean r e s p o n s e s between g r o u p s . No s t a t i s t i c a l c o m p u t a t i o n s o f v a r i a n c e a r e r e c o r d e d . A l t h o u g h " z ' t e s t s were computed on i t e m s s h o w i n g v a r i a n c e , i t was f e l t t h a t f o r t h e d e s c r i p t i v e p u r p o s e s o f t h i s s t u d y , t e s t s o f v a r i a n c e and " z ' were n o t r e q u i r e d . The c o m p l e t e t a b l e s w i t h mean and mode c o m p u t a t i o n s a r e f o u n d i n A p p e n d i x I . DESCRIPTION OF THE POPULATIONS S e c o n d a r y : Of t h e 49 s e c o n d a r y r e s p o n d e n t s , 16 g r a d u a t e d w i t h an end-on g r a d u a t e d i p l o m a i n t e a c h i n g (33%), 31 g r a d u a t e d w i t h a c o n c u r r e n t d i p l o m a o f t e a c h i n g (63%), and two (5%) r e s p o n d e d " o t h e r ' ( u n s p e c i f i e d ) . T h e s e p e r c e n t a g e s g e n e r a l l y r e f l e c t t h e p r o p o r t i o n o f i n t a k e f o r t h e p r o g r a m o p t i o n s ; q u o t a s f o r end-on a r e 15 p e r y e a r and q u o t a s f o r c o n c u r r e n t a r e 30 p e r y e a r . A l l b u t f o u r o f t h e s e c o n d a r y r e s p o n d e n t s were e d u c a t e d i n Q u e e n s l a n d . A l m o s t o n e - h a l f o f t h e g r o u p (47%) have been teaching art for 6-9 years, with 18% having two to f i v e years experience, 16% having between 10 and 20 years experience, and 10% having over 20 years experience. 29 of the 49 secondary art educators (59%) were "heads of department" for art i n t h e i r schools. School art department size varied. One- half (51%) were i n departments of two to three members, 8% were i n single-member departments, 15% were i n departments of between four and six members, and 8% had over six members i n t h e i r department. Perhaps the most s t r i k i n g feature of the populations i s that 59% of respondents were "heads of departments'. This may be due to the fa c t that most teachers i n attendance at the moderation meetings, one of the avenues v i a which the surveys were d i s t r i b u t e d , would have l i k e l y been heads of departments. The general mailing of the professional association newsletters also includes those addressed to "The Art Department' of schools and i t i s l i k e l y that heads of departments would receive the copy. Te r t i a r y : Of the 16 t e r t i a r y respondents, six held Diplomas of Teaching, three held a Bachelor of Education degree and seven had a graduate degree, e i t h e r a t t h e M a s t e r ' s o r D o c t o r a t e l e v e l . F i v e i n t h e g r o u p g r a d u a t e d f r o m an end-on p r o g r a m , s e v e n f r o m a c o n c u r r e n t p r o g r a m , and f o u r r e s p o n d e d " o t h e r ' . W h i l e two o f t h e s e l a t t e r were u n s p e c i f i e d , one r e s p o n d e n t had h a n d w r i t t e n " A r t T e a c h e r ' s C e r t i f i c a t e , i t was a l o n g t i m e ago.' and t h e o t h e r r e s p o n d e d "A.T.C.' Two o f t h e 16 r e s p o n d e n t s r e c e i v e d t h e i r i n i t i a l q u a l i f i c a t i o n i n Q u e e n s l a n d , 11 i n " o t h e r s t a t e s ' and t h r e e r e s p o n d e d " o t h e r c o u n t r y ' . The m a j o r i t y o f t e r t i a r y r e s p o n d e n t s (10) had o v e r 20 y e a r s o f a r t t e a c h i n g e x p e r i e n c e , w i t h t h r e e h a v i n g between 10 and 20 y e a r s e x p e r i e n c e , two h a v i n g between s i x and n i n e y e a r s , and one r e s p o n d e n t h a v i n g f o u r y e a r s e x p e r i e n c e . O n e - h a l f , o r e i g h t o f t h e g r o u p were "heads o f d e p a r t m e n t ' . The s i z e o f a r t d e p a r t m e n t v a r i e d c o n s i d e r a b l y . One r e s p o n d e n t was a s i n g l e - member d e p a r t m e n t , two had two t o t h r e e member d e p a r t m e n t s , s e v e n had f o u r t o s i x member d e p a r t m e n t s , t h r e e had s i x t o f i f t e e n member d e p a r t m e n t s , and t h r e e were i n D e p a r t m e n t s o f o v e r f i f t e e n . I t i s l i k e l y f r o m t h i s t h a t t h e p r o f i l e o f i n s t i t u t i o n s w i t h i n w h i c h t h e r e s p o n d e n t s work wo u l d 48 be v e r y d i v e r s e as w e l l a l t h o u g h f u r t h e r d e t a i l s on i n s t i t u t i o n s were n o t s o l i c i t e d i n t h e s u r v e y . SUMMARY The f o r m a t o f t h e s u r v e y i n s t r u m e n t was m o d e l l e d a f t e r two p r e v i o u s s t u d i e s ( G r e e r , 1979) and ( P a r r , 1980). Items were drawn up f r o m a r t e d u c a t i o n l i t e r a t u r e a s o u t l i n e d i n d e t a i l i n C h a p t e r 2. The i n s t r u m e n t was t h e n s u b j e c t e d t o a p i l o t g r o u p f o r s u g g e s t i o n s . A s e s s i o n was c o n d u c t e d a t t h e O c t o b e r , 1985 m e e t i n g o f t h e E x e c u t i v e o f t h e Q u e e n s l a n d A r t T e a c h e r s ' A s s o c i a t i o n a t w h i c h n i n e members were i n a t t e n d a n c e . The p i l o t g r o u p r e p r e s e n t e d two t e r t i a r y a r t e d u c a t o r s , two a r t o f f i c e r s o f t h e Q u e e n s l a n d D e p a r t m e n t o f E d u c a t i o n and f i v e s e c o n d a r y a r t e d u c a t o r s . The s u r v e y - q u e s t i o n n a i r e was t h e n r e f i n e d by c l a r i f y i n g c o n f u s i n g i t e m s , r e w o r d i n g , and o m i t t i n g m a t e r i a l i r r e l e v a n t t o t h e s t u d y . The r e v i s e d i n s t r u m e n t was t h e n s e n t o u t i n t h e f o r m o f a q u e s t i o n n a i r e v i a two p r o f e s s i o n a l a s s o c i a t i o n n e w s l e t t e r s and t o an a r t m o d e r a t i o n m e e t i n g . T h e r e were a t o t a l o f 71 r e s p o n s e s , o f w h i c h 65 were t h e d e s i r e d p o p u l a t i o n . Of t h e s e , 49 were s e c o n d a r y a r t e d u c a t o r s and 16 t e r t i a r y . The r e s u l t s were c o l l a t e d on a compute program i n these two groups, and items compared n u m e r i c a l l y w i t h i n and between groups t o measure agreement and d i f f e r e n c e s on items. CHAPTER 4 RESULTS OF THE STUDY CONCLUSIONS The f o l l o w i n g summaries address the q u e s t i o n s r a i s e d i n Chapter One. 1. What do s e l e c t e d a r t educa t i o n s c h o l a r s p e r c e i v e as v a l u a b l e content and experiences i n a r t teac h e r p r e - s e r v i c e education? T h i s q u e s t i o n formed the b a s i s of the survey instrument items which were d e t a i l e d i n Chapter Two A f t e r the f o l l o w i n g summary of the r e s u l t s of the s u r v e y - q u e s t i o n n a i r e , some comments w i l l be made concerning these f i n d i n g s i n the l i g h t of what s c h o l a r s and r e s e a r c h e r s have proposed f o r a r t teacher p r e - s e r v i c e e d u c a t i o n . (Refer t o the s e c t i o n e n t i t l e d " D i s c u s s i o n of the f i n d i n g s ' p.71) 2. What do Queensland t e a c h e r s of a r t p e r c e i v e as v a l u a b l e content and experiences i n a r t p r e - s e r v i c e p r e p a r a t i o n ? I t would appear t h a t the secondary a r t educators who responded t o the survey c o n s i d e r e d most items on the q u e s t i o n n a i r e t o be "of v a l u e ' , a o n l y s i x items out of 69 l i s t e d under "Content' and " S t r u c t u r e ' had average responses on the l e s s v a l u e d end of the L i k e r t S c a l e . Those items with a mean response between 1 and 2 on the s c a l e were c o n s i d e r e d t o be the most valued by respondents. (Refer t o Tables 1 and 2). (N.B. A l l items are rank-ordered i n Appendix II.) The h i g h e s t ranked "Content* items a c c o r d i n g t o mean response r e p r e s e n t a broad, a l b e i t c o n v e n t i o n a l , coverage o f t o p i c s f o r a r t teacher e d u c a t i o n . Items i n t h i s l i s t can be c l a s s i f i e d as f i n e a r t s t u d i o areas, a r t h i s t o r y , a r t c u r r i c u l u m , a r t methods and advocacy f o r a r t i n s c h o o l s . Absent from the most valued l i s t are a e s t h e t i c theory, p h i l o s o p h y , newer media and c r a f t s t u d i o areas, and t o p i c s t h a t c o u l d g e n e r a l l y be c l a s s i f i e d as l i b e r a l e d u c a t i o n , such as " a r c h i t e c t u r e * , "psychology', " s o c i o l o g y ' , " i n t e g r a t i o n of s u b j e c t s ' , and the item " l i b e r a l e d u c a t i o n ' i t s e l f . Of the 17 h i g h e s t ranked " S t r u c t u r e ' items ( a c c o r d i n g t o mean response), 11 concerned the nature and involvements of the l e c t u r i n g and t e a c h i n g s t a f f as opposed t o the program i t s e l f . T h i s i n d i c a t e s t h a t the secondary respondents take the r e s p e c t i v e r o l e s of these groups very s e r i o u s l y and have e s t a b l i s h e d some consensus concerning t h e i involvements. I t i s a l s o noteworthy however, t h a t of these 11 items seven concerned the involvements of l e c t u r i n g s t a f f , w h i le o n l y f o u r concerned the involvements of t h e i r own group, secondary t e a c h e r s In P a r t C of the survey, secondary respondents v a l u e d the f i n a l item most h i g h l y which r e f e r s t o the a r t i c u l a t i o n and knowledge of a r t e d u c a t i o n r a t i o n a l e s , g o a l s and a c t i v i t i e s . Three items concerning primary a r t education and primary teache e d u c a t i o n were a l s o h i g h l y r a t e d . Secondary respondents "agreed' t h a t there should be a "double a r t o p t i o n ' i n the p r e - s e r v i c e program, t h a t a r t s u b j e c t courses should be given p r i o r i t y over e d u c a t i o n courses, and resources f o r a r t i n school should be g i v e n p r i o r i t y over community a r t s f u n d i n g . 53 TABLE 1 QUEENSLAND SECONDARY ART EDUCATORS: RANK ORDER ACCORDING TO MEAN RESPONSE 1-2 ON LIKERT SCALE CONTENT OF COURSE Amount o f Emphasis 1 2 3 4 5 GREAT L I T T L E OR DEAL NONE Mean R e s p o n s e Item # C a t e g o r y 1.2 A ( i ) B ( i v ) G 1.3 E ( i i ) 1.4 A ( i i ) E ( i ) 1.5 B ( i i i ) K ( i i i ) K ( i v ) N 1.7 E ( i v ) F H K ( i i ) M 2 A < i i i ) A ( i v ) A ( v i ) K ( v ) D e s c r i p t o r D r a w i n g ( S t u d i o ) A r t C u r r i c u l u m A s s e s s m e n t & E v a l u a t i o n o f S t u d e n t Work R e l e v a n c e o f A r t t o S t u d e n t s i n S c h o o l s P a i n t i n g ( S t u d i o ) R e l e v a n c e o f A r t t o S o c i e t y T e a c h i n g P r o c e s s ( E d . S t u d i e s ) C o n t e m p o r a r y A r t ( c u r r e n t ) ( a r t h i s t o r y ) A u s t r a l i a n A r t H i s t o r y Knowledge o f and P r a c t i c e i n A r t E d u c a t i o n C u r r i c u l u m . S t r a t e g i e s f o r p r o m o t i n g t h e s t a t u s o f a r t i n s c h o o l s S t u d y and a w a r e n e s s o f a r t t e a c h i n g a i d s and r e s o u r c e s E l e m e n t s and p r i n c i p l e s o f d e s i g n Modern A r t H i s t o r y (1900-1980) Knowledge o f and s t u d y o f a r t e d u c a t i o n t h e o r y S c u l p t u r e ( s t u d i o ) P o t t e r y ( s t u d i o ) P r i n t m a k i n g ( s t u d i o ) A b o r i g i n a l A r t H i s t o r y 54 TABLE 2 SECONDARY ART EDUCATORS RANK ORDER ACCORDING TO MEAN RESPONSE - 1-2 ON LIKERT SCALE STRUCTURE OF COURSE 1 2 3 4 5 VERY NOT IMPORTANT IMPORTANT AT A L L Mean R e s p o n s e Item # D e s c r i p t o r C a t e g o r y 1.1 L ( i v ) L e c t u r e r s m a i n t a i n i n v o l v e m e n t i n s c h o o l s 1.3 I ( i i ) L e c t u r e r s i n o t h e r t h a n s t u d i o c o u r s e s have s c h o o l t e a c h i n g e x p e r i e n c e . L ( i ) T e a c h e r s m a i n t a i n i n v o l v e m e n t i n a r t . 1.5 A B r e a d t h o f knowledge i n s t u d i o a r e a s . C I n t e g r a t i o n o f a s p e c t s o f a r t w i t h i n s t u d i o c o u r s e s L ( v i ) T e a c h e r s m a i n t a i n l i a i s o n w i t h o t h e r s c h o o l a r t p r o g r a m s L ( v i i ) T e a c h e r s m a i n t a i n i n v o l v e m e n t w i t h i n - s e r v i c e programmes 1.6 H ( i ) P r a c t i c e t e a c h i n g a t j r / s r l e v e l s o f p r o g r a m I ( i ) L e c t u r e r s i n s t u d i o a r e a s have s c h o o l t e a c h i n g e x p e r i e n c e K ( i i ) L e c t u r e r s m a i n t a i n i n v o l v e m e n t i n a r t e d u c a t i o n i s s u e s . L ( i i ) T e a c h e r s m a i n t a i n i n v o l v e m e n t i n a r t e d u c a t i o n i s s u e s . 1.7 K ( i ) L e c t u r e r s m a i n t a i n i n v o l v e m e n t i n a r t p r a c t i c e . K ( i i i ) L e c t u r e r s m a i n t a i n i n v o l v e m e n t i n a r t s o r g a n i z a t i o n s . 1.8 B. D e p t h o f knowledge i n some s t u d i o a r e a s . F I n v o l v e m e n t i n c o n t e n t and media r e l e v a n t t o s c h o o l c i r c u m s t a n c e s . H ( i v ) P r a c t i c e t e a c h i n g more t h a n o n c e a y e a r . 1.9 J . L e c t u r e r s be i n v o l v e d i n t e a c h i n g c h i l d r e n on r e g u l a r b a s i s . 55 The c l o s e c l u s t e r i n g of m a j o r i t y responses w i t h i n both "content' and " s t r u c t u r e ' items made i t p o s s i b l e t o " p r o f i l e ' views on v a r i o u s t o p i c s . For example, w i t h i n the content t o p i c " s t u d i o areas", t h e r e appears t o be a d e f i n i t e h i e r a r c h y of importance, a c c o r d i n g t o the responses. While "drawing" and " p a i n t i n g " r a t e d a "great d e a l ' o f emphasis from the m a j o r i t y (88% and 65% r e s p e c t i v e l y ) , the mean and mode response categ o r y dropped c o n s i s t e n t l y t o items such as " j e w e l l e r y ' , "leatherwork', "media' and "computer a r t ' . Respondents c o n s i d e r e d these areas worthy of "moderate' or " l i m i t e d ' emphasis. S i m i l a r l y , " a r t c u r r i c u l u m ' ranks h i g h e s t i n " E d u c a t i o n a l S t u d i e s ' , and "contemporary' and " A u s t r a l i a n ' a r t h i s t o r y rank h i g h e s t i n the "Knowledge of A r t H i s t o r y ' t o p i c w i t h i n the content s e c t i o n . Secondary a r t educators r a t e d t e a c h i n g " at j r / s r l e v e l s of a program' and "more than once a year' much more h i g h l y than " s h o r t but r e g u l a r times' and "at p r i m a r y / j r / s r l e v e l s of a program' i n the " P r a c t i c e Teaching' t o p i c w i t h i n the s t r u c t u r e s e c t i o n . 56 The s i x items where the mean f e l l on the " l e s s valued' end of the L i k e r t s c a l e are l i s t e d i n Table 3. TABLE 3 QUEENSLAND SECONDARY ART EDUCATORS. RANK ORDER ACCORDING TO MEAN RESPONSE 3-5 ON LIKERT SCALE CONTENT OF COURSE: AMOUNT OF EMPHASIS 1 2 3 4 5 GREAT LITTLE OR DEAL NONE Mean Response Item # D e s c r i p t o r Category 3.2 A ( v i i ) S t u d i o a r e a of a r t : j e w e l l e r y 3.2 A ( x i i ) S t u d i o a r e a of a r t : computer a r t 3.6 A ( v i i i ) S t u d i o a r e a of a r t : l e a t h e r w o r k STRUCTURE OF COURSE 1 2 VERY IMPORTANT 4 5 NOT IMPORTANT AT ALL Mean Response Category 3.1 3.2 3.4 Item # D e s c r i p t o r K(v) L e c t u r e r s m a i n t a i n involvement i n o b t a i n i n g f u r t h e r q u a l i f i c a t i o n s H ( i i i ) P r a c t i c e T eaching f o r s h o r t but r e g u l a r times H ( i ) P r a c t i c e T e a c h i n g : a t a l l l e v e l s o f a program: p r i m a r y / j r . / s r . COMPARISONS WITH THE GREER STUDY While the s t r u c t u r e s of the two st u d i e s are not i d e n t i c a l there are commonalities i n the f i n d i n g s of each study w i t h respect to the v a l u i n g of s t u d i o preferences, c u r r i c u l u m and methods, and p r a c t i c e t e a c h i n g . Those items of s t u d i o content r a t i n g the highest response mean (drawing, p a i n t i n g , s c u l p t u r e , p o t t e r y and printmaking) are remarkably c o n s i s t e n t w i t h those r a t i n g the highest percentage of " d e s i r a b l e * responses i n the Greer Study (1979). "The s i x items r e c e i v i n g the greatest percentage of d e s i r a b l e responses were: (1) p e n c i l , c h a r c o a l , ink and drybrush techniques, (2.5) watercolour p a i n t i n g techniques, (2.5) c l a y s c u l p t u r e techniques, (4) outdoor drawing, (5.5) s t i l l l i f e drawing, and (5.5) linoleum block and wood block p r i n t i n g " , (p. 78) Within the Educational Studies items, a r t cur r i c u l u m rated a high mean. T h i s , too, i s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the Greer Study, where four of the top e i g h t items i n " a r t methods' d e a l t with c u r r i c u l u m . Another of these e i g h t top items i n the "methods' s e c t i o n of Greer's Study was "(3) Methods of e v a l u a t i n g the students' work" (p. 87) which ranked amongst the t h r e e "most valued" items on the Queensland survey. In terms of p r a c t i c e t e a c h i n g , the two s t u d i e s can be compared i n t h a t i n - s e r v i c e educators seem to v a l u e longer p r a c t i c e t e a c h i n g s e s s i o n s f o r p r e - s e r v i c e s t u d e n t s . Where the two p o p u l a t i o n s d i d not agree was on the v a l u e of p r a c t i c e t e a c h i n g "at a l l l e v e l s ' . In the Arkansas group "Student t e a c h i n g was recommended at a l l l e v e l s by a m a j o r i t y [ s i c ] i n - s e r v i c e a r t t e a c h e r s , i n c l u d i n g the elementary, middle s c h o o l , j u n i o r h i g h , and high s c h o o l ' (p. 103). The Queensland group d i d not favour p r a c t i c e t e a c h i n g a t " p r i m a r y / j u n i o r / s e n i o r ' , as d i s p l a y e d by the mean category of 3.4, or " l i m i t e d importance'. 3. What content and experiences do t e r t i a r y a r t educators p e r c e i v e as v a l u a b l e f o r a r t teacher p r e - s e r v i c e education? As w i t h the group of secondary respondents, the t e r t i a r y respondents v a l u e d most items of the survey f o r a r t t e a c h e r p r e - s e r v i c e programs. Only 5 items out of 69 had a mean response category of 3 or lower, t h a t i s , on the " l e s s v a l u e d ' end of the L i k e r t s c a l e . T h o s e i t e m s w i t h a mean r e s p o n s e between 1 and 2 on t h e s c a l e were c o n s i d e r e d mos v a l u e d and f o l l o w i n r a n k o r d e r i n T a b l e s 4 and (N.B. A l l i t e m s a r e r a n k - o r d e r e d f o r t e r t i a r y r e s p o n d e n t s i n A p p e n d i x I I I ) . TABLE 4 TERTIARY ART EDUCATORS: RANK ORDER ACCORDING TO MEAN RESPONSE 1-2 ON LIKERT SCALE CONTENT OF COURSE 1 GREAT DEAL LITTLE OR NONE Mean Response Ca t e g o r y 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9 2 Item # D e s c r i p t o r A ( i ) Drawing ( S t u d i o ) A ( i i ) P a i n t i n g ( S t u d i o ) B ( i v ) A r t C u r r i c u l u m N Knowledge o f and p r a c t i c e i n a r t c u r r i c u l u m and program p l a n n i n g E ( i ) R e levance o f a r t t o s o c i e t y E ( i i ) R e levance o f a r t t o s t u d e n t s i n s c h o o l s K ( i i i ) Contemporary ( c u r r e n t ) a r t h i s t o r y K ( i v ) A u s t r a l i a n a r t h i s t o r y M Knowledge and stu d y o f a r t e d u c a t i o n t h e o r y B ( i i ) T e a c h i n g p r o c e s s (Ed. s t u d i e s E ( i v ) S t r a t e g i e s f o r p r o m o t i n g t h e s t a t u s o f a r t i n s c h o o l s K ( i i ) Modern a r t h i s t o r y (1900- 1980) D I n f l u e n c e o f c u r r e n t changes i n t h e Ed. system F Study and awareness o f a r t t e a c h i n g a i d s and r e s o u r c e s G Assessment and e v a l u a t i o n of s t u d i o a r t work I U n d e r s t a n d i n g o f c u l t u r a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n forms and f u n c t i o n s of a r t P u b l i c r e l a t i o n s w i t h t h e community A b o r i g i n a l a r t h i s t o r y P h i l o s o p h y of a r t TABLE 5 TERTIARY ART EDUCATORS RANK ORDER ACCORDING TO MEAN RESPONSE 1-2 ON LIKERT SCALE STRUCTURE OF COURSE 3 4 5 NOT IMPORTANT AT ALL 1 2 VERY IMPORTANT Mean Response Item # D e s c r i p t o r C a t e g o r y 1.2 L ( i i ) Teachers m a i n t a i n i n v o l v e m e n t i n a r t e d u c a t i o n i s s u e s 1.3 H ( i ) P r a c t i c e t e a c h i n g a t ( j r / s r ) l e v e l s o f a program L ( v i i ) Teachers m a i n t a i n i n v o l v e m e n t i n i n - s e r v i c e programs 1.5 L ( i ) Teachers m a i n t a i n i n v o l v e m e n t i n a r t L ( i v ) Teachers m a i n t a i n i n v o l v e m e n t i n a r t s o r g a n i z a t i o n s 1.6 B Depth of knowledge i n s t u d i o a r e a s C I n t e g r a t i o n o f d i f f e r e n t a s p e c t s o f a r t w i t h i n s t u d i o a r e a s . K ( i i ) L e c t u r e r s m a i n t a i n i n v o l v e m e n t i n a r t e d u c a t i o n i s s u e s L ( v i ) Teachers m a i n t a i n l i a i s o n s w i t h o t h e r s c h o o l a r t programs 1.7 I ( i ) L e c t u r e r s i n s t u d i o have s c h o o l t e a c h i n g e x p e r i e n c e I ( i i ) L e c t u r e r s i n o t h e r c o u r s e s have t e a c h i n g e x p e r i e n c e K ( i i i ) L e c t u r e r s m a i n t a i n i n v o l v e m e n t s i n a r t s o r g a n i z a t i o n s L ( i i i ) Teachers m a i n t a i n i n v o l v e m e n t i n a r t p r e - s e r v i c e programs 1.8 F Involvement i n c o n t e n t and media r e l e v a n t t o s c h o o l c i r c u m s t a n c e s 1.9 E S e p a r a t e , thorough g r o u n d i n g i n d i f f e r e n t a s p e c t s o f a r t G Involvement i n c o n t e n t and media f o r s t u d e n t s own p e r s o n a l development A B r e a d t h o f knowledge i n s t u d i o a r e a s 2 K ( i ) L e c t u r e r s m a i n t a i n i n v o l v e m e n t i n a r t p r a c t i c e . The p a t t e r n of most-valued items i s s i m i l a r t o the l i s t of secondary responses, i n t h a t a broad and f a i r l y c o n v e n t i o n a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of aspects of t e a c h e r e d u c a t i o n i s e v i d e n t . In a d d i t i o n , however, w i t h i n "Content* items are two r e l a t i v e l y u nconventional items not found on the secondary most-valued l i s t - "understanding c u l t u r a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n forms and f u n c t i o n s of a r t ' , and "philosophy of a r t ' . Other items can be c l a s s i f i e d as f i n e a r t s s t u d i o areas, a r t h i s t o r y , a r t c u r r i c u l u m and methods, and advocacy. In the s e c t i o n " S t r u c t u r e of Course', 11 out of 18 items on the most valued l i s t (Table 5) concerned the involvements of t e r t i a r y and secondary s t a f f . Of these 11 items concerning a r t educators' involvements, s i x r e l a t e t o secondary t e a c h e r s and f i v e t o t e r t i a r y a r t educators. The s i x items t h a t d i d not apply t o a r t educators i n c l u d e d the f o l l o w i n g noteworthy items: both t h a t t h e r e be an " i n t e g r a t i o n of d i f f e r e n t a s p e c t s of a r t w i t h i n s t u d i o areas' and a l s o t h a t t h e r e be a "separate, thorough grounding i n d i f f e r e n t a spects of a r t ' . Both these items i n c l u d e d a bracketed e x p l a n a t i o n of the "aspects' 63 r e f e r r e d t o - ( i . e . A r t h i s t o r y , A e s t h e t i c s , M a t e r i a l s and p r o c e s s e s ) . T e r t i a r y educators a l s o r a t e d h i g h l y involvements i n s t u d i o areas " i n depth', " f o r students own pe r s o n a l development', " r e l e v a n t t o school circumstances' and "with breadth'. I t would appear t h a t respondents h o l d a broad view of the purposes of the s t u d i o component of a r t p r e - s e r v i c e e d u c a t i o n as w e l l as p l a c e c o n s i d e r a b l e importance on i t . PART C. There was a str o n g degree of agreement on f o u r items i n t h i s s e c t i o n . These concerned the a r t i c u l a t i o n of a r t educa t i o n r a t i o n a l e s , goals and a c t i v i t i e s , and primary a r t e d u c a t i o n . There was, as w e l l , c o n s i d e r a b l e agreement on 3 other items. 69% of the t e r t i a r y a r t educator respondents " s t r o n g l y agreed' t h a t " a r t teacher p r e - s e r v i c e .... should be a minimum of 4 years d u r a t i o n , 56% of respondents " s t r o n g l y agreed' t h a t "a double a r t o p t i o n should be a v a i l a b l e as w e l l as a p r i n c i p l e t e a c h i n g area and o t h e r - s u b j e c t second t e a c h i n g area' and "adequate resources f o r r e g u l a r i n - s e r v i c e a r t programs have g r e a t e r p r i o r i t y than community s e r v i c e s i n a r t ' . In the f i r s t of these two items, however, 25% of the respondents had "no o p i n i o n ' , a l t h o u g h no one " d i s a g r e e d * . I t i s f a i r l y c l e a r f r o m t h e d a t a t h a t t h e r e s p o n d i n g t e r t i a r y a r t e d u c a t o r s a r e i n agre e m e n t on most o f t h e " c o n t r o v e r s i a l ' i t e m s l i s t e d i n t h e s u r v e y , a s w i t h i n most i t e m s t h e r e were r e s p o n s e c a t e g o r i e s w i t h h i g h p e r c e n t a g e modes and an a c c o m p a n y i n g number o f c a t e g o r i e s where t h e r e were no r e s p o n s e s . 4. What measure o f agre e m e n t e x i s t s w i t h i n g r o u p s and between g r o u p s i n t e r m s o f a) c o n t e n t and b) e x p e r i e n c e s f o r a r t t e a c h e r p r e - s e r v i c e e d u c a t i o n ? SECONDARY ART EDUCATOR RESPONDENTS The r e s u l t s o f t h e s u r v e y showed e v i d e n c e o f s u b s t a n t i a l a g r e e m e n t on most i t e m s between t h e r e s p o n d e n t s i n t h i s g r o u p . The d a t a showed t h a t 51 o f t h e 79 i t e m s i n P a r t B and C o f t h e s u r v e y had a r e s p o n s e c a t e g o r y w i t h a mode o f 50% o r l a r g e r . I n f a c t , 76 o u t o f 79 i t e m s had o v e r a 50% r e s p o n s e r a t e w i t h i n one c a t e g o r y o f t h e mode, e i t h e r t o i t s r i g h t o r l e f t . W i t h i n t h e g r o u p o f s e c o n d a r y a r t e d u c a t o r s , t h e r e were n i n e i t e m s t h a t had a mode c a t e g o r y w h i c h r a t e d a r e s p o n s e o f o v e r 75%. T h e s e i t e m s were c o n s i d e r e d the areas of most agreement w i t h i n the group and are l i s t e d i n Table 6. Items whose mode ranked h i g h l y i n terms of percentage tended t o be those t h a t were "most val u e d ' or whose response category was towards the h i g h l y valued end of the L i k e r t S c a l e . T h i s i s not to say t h a t a l l items with a category whose response mode was 50% or l a r g e r f e l l under " s t r o n g l y agree', "very important', or "great d e a l of emphasis', but t h a t t h e r e were few t h a t were not. 50% of secondary respondents r a t e d the s t u d i o areas of " f i b r e a r t s ' and "leatherwork' as "moderately important'. However, these were the onl y 2 items with a mode category as low as "3' on the s c a l e . What the high modal percentages i n d i c a t e s i s a hig h degree of consensus with the group, e s p e c i a l l y on the items most va l u e d f o r a r t p r e - s e r v i c e e d u c a t i o n . 66 TABLE 6 SECONDARY ART EDUCATOR GROUP: ITEMS INDICATING STRONGEST AGREEMENT WITHIN GROUP ACCORDING TO HIGH MODAL RESPONSES Item # D e s c r i p t o r Mode % PART B CONTENT OF COURSE A ( i ) B ( i v ) S t u d i o a r e a o f a r t : d r a w i n g 88% E d u c a t i o n s t u d i e s : a r t c u r r i c u l u m E ( i i ) a r t advocacy: r e l e v a n c e of a r t t o s t u d e n t s i n s c h o o l s G. Assessment and e v a l u a t i o n of p u p i l s ' work i n a r t STRUCTURE OF COURSE H ( i ) P r a c t i c e T e a c h i n g : a t a l l l e v e l s o f a program ( j r . / s r . ) I ( i i ) L e c t u r e r s i n p r e - s e r v i c e c o u r s e s have had s c h o o l t e a c h i n g e x p e r i e n c e : l e c t u r e r s i n o t h e r c o u r s e a r e a s t h a n s t u d i o K ( i v ) L e c t u r e r s i n p r e - s e r v i c e programs m a i n t a i n i n v o l v e m e n t i n s c h o o l s L ( i ) A r t t e a c h e r s i n s c h o o l s m a i n t a i n awareness o f and i n v o l v e m e n t i n a r t PART C STATEMENTS Every r e g i o n s h o u l d have a s p e c i a l i s t a s s i g n e d t o i t s p r i m a r y s c h o o l s w i t h e x p e r t i s e i n P r i m a r y A r t E d u c a t i o n I t i s e s s e n t i a l t h a t a p r o s p e c t i v e a r t t e a c h e r t o be a b l e t o a r t i c u l a t e why i t i s i m p o r t a n t t o t e a c h a r t and be a b l e t o o f f e r r e a s o n s f o r t h e amount... and k i n d of a t t e n t i o n g i v e n t o a c t i v i t i e s i n t h e a r t program. 86% 76% 84% 76% 82% 88% 76% 82% 88% Mode Response Ca t e g o r y 1 g r e a t d e a l o f emphasis 1 g r e a t d e a l o f emphasis 1 g r e a t d e a l o f emphasis 1 g r e a t d e a l o f emphasis 1 v e r y i m p o r t a n t 1 v e r y i m p o r t a n t 1 v e r y i m p o r t a n t 1 v e r y i m p o r t a n t 1 s t r o n g l y agree 1 s t r o n g l y agree TERTIARY ART EDUCATOR RESPONDENTS T e r t i a r y a r t e d u c a t o r s showed c o n s i d e r a b l e a g r e e m e n t w i t h i n t h e g r o u p on a m a j o r i t y o f i t e m s . F o r t y - t h r e e o f t h e 79 i t e m s i n P a r t s B and C o f t h e s u r v e y had a r e s p o n s e c a t e g o r y w i t h a mode o f 50% o r l a r g e r . S e v e n t y - f o u r o u t o f 79 i t e m s had a r e s p o n s e r a t e o f o v e r 50% w i t h i n one c a t e g o r y o f t h e mode, e i t h e r t o i t s r i g h t o r l e f t . The 10 i t e m s w i t h a mode c a t e g o r y w h i c h r a t e d a r e s p o n s e o f 75% o r l a r g e r were c o n s i d e r e d t h e a r e a s o f most ag r e e m e n t w i t h i n t h e g r o u p . T h e s e a r e l i s t e d i n T a b l e 7. The c a t e g o r y i n w h i c h t h e s e h i g h p e r c e n t a g e modes o c c u r i s " g r e a t d e a l o f e m p h a s i s ' , " v e r y i m p o r t a n t ' o r " s t r o n g l y a g r e e ' . T h i s i n d i c a t e s t h a t g r e a t e s t c o n s e n s u s i s t o be f o u n d on t h e a s p e c t s o f a r t p r e - s e r v i c e e d u c a t i o n most v a l u e d by t e r t i a r y r e s p o n d e n t s . A l t o g e t h e r , 10 i t e m s had a mode c a t e g o r y o f 3 on t h e s c a l e and 3 i t e m s had a mode c a t e g o r y on t h e " l e s s v a l u e d ' end o f t h e s c a l e , b u t o f t h e s e 13, o n l y 4 i t e m s had a mode c a t e g o r y whose r e s p o n s e r a t e was 50% o r l a r g e r . T h i s i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e most a g r e e m e n t w i t h i n t h e g r o u p i s on t h o s e t h i n g s most v a l u e d f o r p r e - s e r v i c e . However, i n " s t u d i o a r e a s of a r t ' , 69% of respondents fe l t "pottery', 62% of respondents fe l t "printmaking' and 56% of respondents f e l t "fibre arts" were worthy of only "moderate emphasis'. 50% of tert iary respondents f e l t that "lecturers obtaining further qualif ications was only "moderately important'. TABLE 7 TERTIARY ART EDUCATOR GROUP: ITEMS INDICATING STRONGEST AGREEMENT WITHIN GROUP ACCORDING TO HIGH MODAL RESPONSES ITEM# DESCRIPTOR MODE MODE RESPONSE % CATEGORY PART B CONTENT OF COURSE A ( i ) s t u d i o a r e a o f a r t : 88% 1 drawing B ( i v ) e d u c a t i o n s t u d i e s : 88% 1 a r t c u r r i c u l u m N Knowledge of and 81% 1 p r a c t i c e i n a r t c u r r i c u l u m and program p l a n n i n g STRUCTURE OF COURSE H ( i ) P r a c t i c e t e a c h i n g a t a l l l e v e l s ( j r / s r ) 75% 1 -very i m p o r t a n t L ( i i ) T eachers m a i n t a i n i n v o l v e m e n t i n a r t e d u c a t i o n i s s u e s 87% 1 - v e r y i m p o r t a n t L ( v i i ) T eachers m a i n t a i n i n v o l v e m e n t i n i n - s e r v i c e 75% 1 - v e r y i m p o r t a n t PART C STATEMENTS D Every r e g i o n s h o u l d have a s p e c i a l i s t a r t t e a c h e r a s s i g n e d 87% 1 - s t r o n g l y agree E P r i m a r y and e a r l y c h i l d h o o d p r e - s e r v i c e programs s h o u l d i n c l u d e a t l e a s t one: ( i ) p e r s o n a l d e v e l o p - 87% 1 - s t r o n g l y agree ment a r t c o u r s e ( i i ) a r t c u r r i c u l u m 75% 1 - s t r o n g l y agree c o u r s e I t i s I e s s e n t i a l t h a t a 94% 1 - s t r o n g l y agree p r o s p e c t i v e a r t t e a c h e r be a b l e t o a r t i c u l a t e why i t i s i m p o r t a n t t o t e a c h a r t and be a b l e t o o f f e r r e a s o n s f o r t h e amount and k i n d of a t t e n t i o n g i v e n t o a c t i v i t i e s i n t h e a r t program - g r e a t d e a l - g r e a t d e a l - g r e a t d e a l of emphasis o f emphasis of emphasis AGREEMENT BETWEEN GROUPS OF SECONDARY AND TERTIARY RESPONDENTS Secondary and t e r t i a r y a r t educator respondents had considerable agreement on most of the items i n the survey. The m a j o r i t y of items t h a t were rated as "most v a l u a b l e ' i n terras of content and s t r u c t u r e , appear on both secondary and t e r t i a r y l i s t s (Tables 1, 2, 4 and 5). While there are s l i g h t d i f f e r e n c e s i n the exact order of ranking, the m a j o r i t y of items are ranked "most v a l u a b l e ' commonly by both the groups. As w e l l , of the seven items of "content' and f i v e items of " s t r u c t u r e ' t h a t are not rated commonly on the "most valued' end of the s c a l e , e i g h t are rated by both groups w i t h i n .4 of each other. For example, on the highest mean l i s t f o r "content of course' items, t e r t i a r y respondents r a t e d "Philosophy of A r t ' at category 2 on the s c a l e , and secondary respondents rated t h i s item at 2.2, showing a very small d i f f e r e n c e of .2 on the s c a l e . So while the "most valued' l i s t s d i f f e r somewhat, t h i s d i f f e r e n c e i s minimalized when the e n t i r e number of items i s compared according t o means between groups. In f a c t , 52 items scored w i t h .2 of each other on the L i k e r t s a l e when means between groups were compared. Not o n l y was the general ranking of items a l i g n e d on the v a l u e s c a l e by both groups, but a l s o the p r o f i l e of v a l u e s p l a c e d on items w i t h i n separate t o p i c s . T h i s i s p a r t i c u l a r l y n o t i c e a b l e i n the "content of course' items, where the l e a s t d i f f e r e n c e was shown of mean p o s i t i o n s on the L i k e r t s c a l e . In f a c t , 36 out of 42 items were c l o s e l y a l i g n e d . In the "content of course' s e c t i o n , both groups r a t e d the " s t u d i o areas of a r t ' s i m i l a r l y with "drawing', " p a i n t i n g ' and " s c u l p t u r e ' r a t i n g the " g r e a t e s t emphasis', "printmaking', "photography', and " f i b r e a r t s ' r a t i n g a " c o n s i d e r a b l e emphasis', "media' a "moderate emphasis', and " j e w e l l e r y ' , "computer a r t ' and "leatherwork' r a t i n g only a l i m i t e d emphasis. S i m i l a r l y , the r e l a t i v e v a l u i n g by both groups of items i n " E d u c a t i o n a l s t u d i e s ' can be seen, w i t h " a r t c u r r i c u l u m ' and " t e a c h i n g p r o c e s s ' most valued, and " s o c i o l o g y ' and "psychology' moderately v a l u e d . " A r t advocacy' r o l e s are a l l h i g h l y v a l u e d by both groups, as i s the "study and awareness of a r t t e a c h i n g r e s o u r c e s ' . A r t H i s t o r y items are p r o f i l e d s i m i l a r l y by secondary and t e r t i a r y respondents w i t h "contemporary' and " A u s t r a l i a n ' rated most v a l u a b l e , f o l l o w e d by "modern', " A b o r i g i n a l ' , "Western', " c l a s s i c a l * and " a r c h i t e c t u r e " . In both groups, "Eastern' a r t h i s t o r y was ranked lowest i n terms of mean responses. Three items i n the "content of course' s e c t i o n t h a t ranked between "moderate' t o "considerable' emphasis by both groups were " a e s t h e t i c theory', "philosophy of a r t ' and "current research i n a r t education'. There was l e s s agreement between secondary and t e r t i a r y a r t educator respondents i n the " s t r u c t u r e of course' s e c t i o n of the survey than i n the "content of course' s e c t i o n . S t i l l , the m a j o r i t y of items showed consensus, i n tha t 16 out of the 27 items had mean p o s i t i o n s on the L i k e r t s c a l e w i t h i n .4 of each other between the two groups. Most of these 16 items are t o be found on the "most valued' end of the s c a l e , and are found i n common on the rank or d e r i n g l i s t s f o r each group. There was, however, two "considerably' to "moderately' important items t h a t a l i g n e d . Secondary respondents ra t e d "involvement i n content and media f o r own p e r s o n a l d e v e l o p m e n t ' a t 2 .1 on mean and t e r t i a r y r e s p o n d e n t s r a t e d t h i s i t e m a t 1 . 9 on mean. B o t h g r o u p s r a t e d " t h a t a r t c u r r i c u l u m be a p a r t o f s t u d i o c o u r s e s ' a t 2 . 2 on mean. I n P a r t C o f t h e s u r v e y , s e c o n d a r y and t e r t i a r y o p i n i o n was m o s t l y a l i g n e d , w i t h o n l y two i t e m s o u t o f 10 showing more t h a n a d i f f e r e n c e o f .3 on t h e L i k e r t s c a l e when means were compared. Most a g r e e m e n t was f o u n d on t h e f i n a l i t e m , w h i c h s t a t e d t h a t i t was e s s e n t i a l t h a t p r o s p e c t i v e a r t t e a c h e r s be a r t i c u l a t e a b o u t t h e i r c u r r i c u l u m and t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f a r t e d u c a t i o n . B o t h g r o u p s " a g r e e d ' t h a t " p r i m a r y and e a r l y c h i l d h o o d p r e - s e r v i c e p r o g r a m s s h o u l d i n c l u d e a t l e a s t one a r t c u r r i c u l u m c o u r s e ' and t h a t "a d o u b l e - a r t o p t i o n s h o u l d be a v a i l a b l e * i n s e c o n d a r y p r e - s e r v i c e e d u c a t i o n p r o g r a m s . B o t h g r o u p s " d i s a g r e e d * t h a t " a r t c o u r s e s t h a t d e v e l o p i n d i v i d u a l and p e r s o n a l e x p r e s s i o n s h o u l d be g i v e n more e m p h a s i s t h a n a r t c u r r i c u l u m c o u r s e s ' . W h i l e t h e above d e s c r i p t i o n s g i v e a g e n e r a l o u t l i n e o f agr e e m e n t between s e c o n d a r y and t e r t i a r y a r t e d u c a t o r r e s p o n d e n t s , i t s h o u l d be n o t e d t h a t exact comparisons on each item can be made by r e f e r r i n g to the s t a t i s t i c a l data i n Appendix I I . 5. What measure of d i f f e r e n c e e x i s t s w i t h i n groups and between groups i n terms of a) content and b) experiences f o r a r t teacher p r e - s e r v i c e education? DIFFERENCES WITHIN THE SECONDARY RESPONDENT GROUP The responses t o two items i n the survey i n d i c a t e d disagreement. Both items were i n Part C, the s e c t i o n of the survey t h a t s o l i c i t e d opinions on c o n t r o v e r s i a l statements. These two items concerned the length and type of p r e - s e r v i c e program most valued. They were: c i $ £ II U U U CO •U H> O 4J -H to < a to o 1 2 3 4 5 PART C I 1 1 B. A r t teacher p r e - s e r v i c e 29% 10% 26% 12% 24% t r a i n i n g should be a minimum of 4 years d u r a t i o n G. A r t teachers graduating 16% 12% 37% 16% 18% from an end-on p r e p a r a t i o n program are b e t t e r equipped to teach the subject than 3 year t r a i n e d concurrent graduates. W i t h r e f e r e n c e t o t h e s e c o n d i t e m (G) i t s h o u l d be n o t e d t h a t a c h e c k was done on t h e p e r s o n a l d a t a t o s e e i f t h e r e s p o n s e s c o u l d be matched up t o t h e t y p e o f p r o g r a m f r o m w h i c h t h e r e s p o n d e n t had g r a d u a t e d . No c o m m o n a l i t y was f o u n d , as an a l m o s t e q u a l number o f "end-on* and " c o n c u r r e n t ' g r a d u a t e s " a g r e e d ' and " d i s a g r e e d ' . A n o t h e r i t e m i n P a r t C t h a t showed some d i f f e r e n c e , b u t n o t a s much as t h e p r e v i o u s two o u t l i n e d , was " a r t c o u r s e s t h a t d e v e l o p i n d i v i d u a l and p e r s o n a l e x p r e s s i o n s h o u l d be g i v e n more e m p h a s i s t h a t a r t c u r r i c u l u m c o u r s e s " . W i t h i n P a r t B o f t h e s u r v e y - " C o n t e n t o f C o u r s e ' and " S t r u c t u r e o f C o u r s e ' , t h e r e was l e s s v a r i a n c e i n r e s p o n s e s t o i t e m s , b u t some i t e m s had a more e v e n d i s t r i b u t i o n w i t h r e s p o n s e s a t e a c h e x t r e m e o f t h e s c a l e and f o r t h i s r e a s o n a r e w o r t h m e n t i o n i n g . I t i s i m p o r t a n t t o k e e p i n mind, however, t h a t t h e m a j o r i t y o p i n i o n s t i l l f a l l s t o w i t h i n one c a t e g o r y o f t h e mode. I n " c o n t e n t o f c o u r s e ' , r e s p o n s e s were more s c a t t e r e d i n t h e f o l l o w i n g i t e m s : A. S t u d i o a r e a s - c o mputer a r t C. Employment P r o s p e c t s and e x p e c t a t i o n s o f e m p l o y e r s . I n " S t r u c t u r e o f C o u r s e ' i t e m s , t h e f o l l o w i n g showed a s c a t t e r i n g o f r e s p o n s e s : H ( i ) P r a c t i c e t e a c h i n g a t a l l l e v e l s o f a s c h o o l a r t p r o g r a m ( p r i m a r y / j r / s r ) H ( i i ) P r a c t i c e t e a c h i n g f o r 5 o r more weeks a t one t i m e H ( i i i ) P r a c t i c e t e a c h i n g f o r s h o r t b u t r e g u l a r t i m e s K ( v ) L e c t u r e r s i n p r e - s e r v i c e p r o g r a m s m a i n t a i i n v o l v e m e n t i n o b t a i n i n g f u r t h e r q u a l i f i c a t i o n s . DIFFERENCES WITHIN THE TERTIARY RESPONDENT GROUP A l t h o u g h t h e g r o u p o f 16 t e r t i a r y a r t e d u c a t o r i s s t a t i s t i c a l l y s m a l l , w h i c h n o r m a l l y presumes g r e a t e r v a r i a n c e i n t e r m s o f r e s p o n s e s , t h e r e was a g r e e m e n t w i t h i n t h e g r o u p on most i t e m s . I n f a c t , t h e r e were o n l y two i t e m s t h a t showed d i s a g r e e m e n t i n r e s p o n s e . They were: PART B STRUCTURE OF COURSE H < i i ) P r a c t i c e t e a c h i n g f o r 5 o r more weeks a t one t i m e . J L e c t u r e r s i n p r e - s e r v i c e p r o g r a m s be i n v o l v e d i n t e a c h i n g c h i l d r e n on a r e g u l a r b a s i s R e s u l t s f o r i t e m H ( i i ) , " p r a c t i c e t e a c h i n g ' , were q u i t e p o l a r i z e d , i n d i c a t i n g c o n s i d e r a b l e d i s a g r e e m e n t w i t h i n t h e g r o u p . I n t h e s e c o n d i t e m , r e s p o n s e s were l e s s p o l a r i z e d , b u t d i d d i s p l a y a l a c k o f c o n s e n s u s . DIFFERENCES BETWEEN THE GROUPS OF SECONDARY AND TERTIARY RESPONDENTS T h e r e were a t o t a l o f 17 i t e m s o u t o f 79 on t h e s u r v e y t h a t had a d i f f e r e n c e i n mean r e s p o n s e t h a t was .5 o r g r e a t e r on t h e s u r v e y ' s L i k e r t s c a l e . T h i s d i s t a n c e o f .5 on t h e s c a l e was c h o s e n a s t h e minimum, i n terras o f mean, w h i c h c o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d t o show d i s a g r e e m e n t o r v a r i a n c e between g r o u p s . As s u c h , i t i s s t i l l r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f o n l y o n e - h a l f o f one p o s i t i o n on t h e v a l u e s c a l e , w h i c h m i g h t be, i n 6% 25s 25̂  12% 19'- some i n s t a n c e s , t h e m i d - d i f f e r e n c e between " v e r y i m p o r t a n t ' and " c o n s i d e r a b l y i m p o r t a n t ' . The a n a l y s i s w h i c h f o l l o w s w i l l o n l y a d d r e s s t h o s e i t e m s w i t h a mean d i f f e r e n c e o f .9 o r g r e a t e r on t h e s c a l e ( R e f e r t o T a b l e 8 ) . Of t h e 5 i t e m s t h a t show more t h a n a .9 d i f f e r e n c e between g r o u p s on t h e L i k e r t s c a l e , two i n v o l v e t h e l e c t u r i n g s t a f f o f p r e - s e r v i c e p r o g r a m s and two i n v o l v e p r a c t i c e t e a c h i n g i s s u e s . The r e m a i n i n g i t e m , w h i c h i s f o u n d i n P a r t C o f t h e s u r v e y , e x h i b i t s t h e g r e a t e s t d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e v a l u a t i o n g i v e n i t by s e c o n d a r y and t e r t i a r y r e s p o n d e n t s . (1.6 d i f f e r e n c e o f means on t h e s c a l e ) . The t e r t i a r y r e s p o n d e n t s f a v o u r a 4 y e a r a r t p r e - s e r v i c e p r o g r a m , a s t h e r e i s a h i g h p e r c e n t a g e mode (69%) i n t h e " s t r o n g l y a g r e e ' c a t e g o r y . S e c o n d a r y r e s p o n d e n t s r a t e d i t l e s s f a v o u r a b l y and show a d i s p e r s i o n i n t h e i r r e s p o n s e s , and i t must be n o t e d t h a t 26% o f r e s p o n d e n t s r e g i s t e r e d "no o p i n i o n ' . As w e l l , t h e r e a r e s c a t t e r e d r e s p o n s e s f r o m t h e s e c o n d a r y g r o u p t o t h e two p r a c t i c e t e a c h i n g i t e m s t h a t show t h e g r e a t e s t d i f f e r e n c e i n v a l u i n g between t h e two g r o u p s . I n s p i t e o f t h i s , i t a p p e a r s t h a t t h e t e r t i a r y g r o u p g e n e r a l l y f a v o u r s h o r t e r , more r e g u l a r p r a c t i c e t e a c h i n g s e s s i o n s ( I t e m H ( i i i ) i n " S t r u c t u r e o f C o u r s e " ) whereas t h e m a j o r i t y o f t h e s e c o n d a r y g r o u p g i v e a h i g h e r r a t i n g t o t h e l o n g e r p r a c t i c e t e a c h i n g s e s s i o n s . ( I t e m H ( i i ) i n " S t r u c t u r e o f C o u r s e ' ) . T e r t i a r y r e s p o n d e n t s a l s o r a t e d " p r a c t i c e t e a c h i n g ' a t a l l t h r e e l e v e l s o f t h e a r t p r o g r a m ( p r i m a r y / j r / s r ) a s " c o n s i d e r a b l y i m p o r t a n t ' , whereas s e c o n d a r y r e s p o n d e n t s i n t h e m a j o r i t y r a t e d t h i s a s " m o d e r a t e l y u n i m p o r t a n t ' . However, a s m e n t i o n e d e a r l i e r , s e c o n d a r y r e s p o n s e s t o t h i s i t e m were somewhat s c a t t e r e d a c r o s s t h e s c a l e . On t h e o t h e r hand, on t h e 2 i t e m s c o n c e r n i n g l e c t u r e r s t h a t showed t h e l a r g e s t d i f f e r e n c e between g r o u p means, s e c o n d a r y r e s p o n d e n t s showed c o n s i d e r a b l e c o n s e n s u s . I n f a c t , b o t h i t e m s , " t h a t l e c t u r e r s m a i n t a i n i n v o l v e m e n t i n s c h o o l s ' , and "be i n v o l v e d i n t e a c h i n g c h i l d r e n on a r e g u l a r b a s i s ' had h i g h p e r c e n t a g e modes i n t h e " v e r y i m p o r t a n t ' and " c o n s i d e r a b l y i m p o r t a n t ' c a t e g o r y . T e r t i a r y r e s p o n d e n t s , however, showed some s c a t t e r i n g o f r e s p o n s e s t h r o u g h o u t c a t e g o r i e s , b u t r a t e d t h e i t e m s o f o n l y m o d e r a t e i m p o r t a n c e . 80 TABLE 8 DIFFERENCES BETWEEN THE GROUP MEANS OF SECONDARY AND TERTIARY RESPONDENTS OF MORE THAN .9 ON THE LIKERT SCALE PART B STRUCTURE OF COURSE 1 2 3 4 5 MEAN DIFF- ITEM RESPONSE BREAKDOWN Sec. 3 .4 1.1 H ( i ) P r a c t i c e Teaching:at 22 8 20 8 41 Sec.% T e r t . 2 .3 a l l l e v e l s of a 56 6 6 12 19 T e r t . % ( p r i m a r y / j r / s r ) Sec. 3 .2 1.0 H ( i i i ) P r a c t i c e Teaching f o r 26 18 5 18 35 Sec.% T e r t . 2 .2 s h o r t but r e g u l a r 50 12 12 12 12 T e r t . % t i n e s Sec. 1 .1 1.0 K( i v ) L e c t u r e r s i n p r e - 88 12 0 0 0 Sec.% T e r t . 2 .1 s e r v i c e programs 38 31 19 6 6 T e r t . % m a i n t a i n involvement i n s c h o o l s Sec. 1 .9 .9 J L e c t u r e r s i n p r e - 53 24 10 6 6 Sec.% T e r t . 2 .8 programs be i n v o l v e d 25 19 25 12 19 T e r t . % i n t e a c h i n g c h i l d r e n on a r e g u l a r b a s i s Sec. 2 .5 .6 H ( i i ) P r a c t i c e Teaching: 39 16 12 16 16 Sec. % T e r t . 3 .1 f o r 5 or more weeks 25 19 6 19 31 T e r t . % a t a time Sec. 2 .1 .6 L ( i v ) Teachers m a i n t a i n 37 29 22 10 2 Sec.% T e r t . 1 .9 involvements i n a r t s 62 25 12 0 0 T e r t . % o r g a n i z a t i o n s Sec. 2 .4 .5 E That students get a 31 29 18 16 6 Sec.% T e r t . 1 .9 s e p a r a t e , thorough 37 44 12 6 0 T e r t . % grounding i n d i f f e r e n t a s p e c t s of a r t ( i . e . H i s t o r y , A e s t h e t i c s , M a t e r i a l s and pro c e s s e s ) PART C STATEMENTS Sec. 3 1.6 B A r t t e a c h e r p r e - 29 10 26 12 24 Sec.% T e r t . 1 .4 s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g 69 25 0 6 0 T e r t . % courses should be a minimum of 4 years d u r a t i o n Sec. 1 .8 .6 E ( i ) Primary and e a r l y 59 16 16 6 2 Sec.% T e r t . .1 .2 c h i l d h o o d p r e - s e r v i c e 75 25 0 0 0 T e r t . % programs should i n c l u d e at l e a s t one: ( i ) p e r s o n a l develop- ment a r t course. DISCUSSION OF THE FINDINGS The f i r s t i s s u e t o be a d d r e s s e d i s (A) t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e f i n d i n g s , w h i c h r e f l e c t s e c o n d a r y and t e r t i a r y v i e w p o i n t s on a r t t e a c h e r p r e - s e r v i c e e d u c a t i o n , and t h e v i e w s o f s c h o l a r s w h i c h f o r m e d t h e b a s i s o f t h e s u r v e y . T h i s w i l l be f o l l o w e d by (B) g e n e r a l p o i n t s f o r d i s c u s s i o n , and (C) i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f p r e - s e r v i c e p r o g r a m s i n l i g h t o f t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e s t u d y . A. RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN THE TWO RESPONDENT POPULATIONS AND THE ART EDUCATION SCHOLARSHIP USED AS THE BASIS OF THE SURVEY. The f o l l o w i n g p o i n t s w h i c h p r e f a c e t h i s p a r t o f t h e d a t a a n a l y s i s s h o u l d be k e p t i n mind w h i l e r e a d i n g t h e f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n : ( i ) T h a t t h e s e p a r t i c u l a r r e s p o n d e n t s may n o t be r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f t h e whole p o p u l a t i o n o f s e c o n d a r y and t e r t i a r y a r t e d u c a t o r s i n Q u e e n s l a n d , A u s t r a l i a o r e l s e w h e r e , b u t o n l y o f t h o s e who were m o t i v a t e d t o r e s p o n d t o t h e s u r v e y . ( i i ) T h a t s u r v e y i t e m s do n o t f u l l y r e p r e s e n t any one a r t e d u c a t i o n s c h o l a r ' s v i e w p o i n t . W h i l e i t e m s were drawn f r o m t h e l i t e r a t u r e , many a r e t r e a t e d g e n e r a l l y . With these p o i n t s i n mind, there are s e v e r a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s between the views of respondents and a r t education s c h o l a r s h i p t h a t are worth n o t i n g . I t would appear from the r e s u l t s t h a t the two groups of respondents favour a f a i r l y t r a d i t i o n a l , " f i n e a r t s ' emphasis w i t h i n the s t u d i o component of a r t teacher education. This can be seen by the high mean category of drawing, p a i n t i n g , and s c u l p t u r e items as opposed to c r a f t areas such as f i b r e a r t s , p o t t e r y and p a r t i c u l a r l y , j e w e l l e r y and leatherwork. Even l e s s emphasis was given t o newer media-film, T.V., video, photography and computer a r t , e s p e c i a l l y amongst the t e r t i a r y a r t educators. Commercial a r t s , however, received more support from secondary than t e r t i a r y a r t educators. Nevertheless, t h i s g e n e r a l l y seems to i n d i c a t e an h o n o u r i f i c view of a r t s t u d i o t h a t Lanier (1979), Chapman (1978), Degge (1979), and others have s t r o n g l y c r i t i c i z e d . Aspects of a r t c u r r i c u l u m , as included i n four items of "content', a l l r e f l e c t e d a high v a l u i n g by the respondents and have been h i g h l i g h t e d as important i n the l i t e r a t u r e (Chapman, (1982) i n p a r t i c u l a r ) . Respondents a l s o seemed to favour the i n c l u s i o n of c u r r i c u l u m w i t h i n s t u d i o areas, which has been suggested by Boughton (1986) and Lovano- Kerr (1985). Most respondents a l s o i n d i c a t e d t h a t "knowledge and study of a r t education theory' should be g i v e n c o n s i d e r a b l e emphasis. Although "knowledge of c u r r e n t r e s e a r c h i n a r t edu c a t i o n ' r a t e d l e s s emphasis than the p r e v i o u s item by .7 on the s c a l e , i t s t i l l r a t e d on the "more va l u e d ' end of the s c a l e . T h i s would seem t o c o n t r a d i c t s c h o l a r s h i p , ( H i l l e r , 1981; Chapman, 1982) who c l a i m t h a t t e a c h e r s , i n p a r t i c u l a r , do not p l a c e much importance on r e s e a r c h and i s s u e s i n a r t ed u c a t i o n . In the s e c t i o n concerning a r t educator involvements i n a r t educ a t i o n i s s u e s , both respondent groups r a t e d secondary and t e r t i a r y involvements i n a r t educa t i o n i s s u e s as " c o n s i d e r a b l y important' t o "very important', which would f u r t h e r c o n t r a d i c t s c h o l a r s h i p . A r t advocacy i s s u e s are deemed important by s c h o l a r s and respondents a l i k e , as are "understanding of c u l t u r a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n forms and f u n c t i o n s of a r t ' , and " a e s t h e t i c theory'. In f a c t , o n l y 6 % o r f e w e r r e s p o n d e n t s r a t e d t h e s e a r e a s a s " n o t v a l u e d ' , o r between 3 and 5 on t h e s c a l e . A r t h i s t o r y i t e m s , a s o u t l i n e d p r e v i o u s l y , were r a n k e d h i e r a r c h i c a l l y by t h e r e s p o n d e n t s , w i t h " E a s t e r n ' a r t h i s t o r y r a t e d o n l y " m o d e r a t e l y i m p o r t a n t * . Chapman ( 1 9 8 2 , p. 1 5 0 ) i n p a r t i c u l a r , c l a i m s v a l u e i n i t s i n c l u s i o n i n t h e c u r r i c u l u m , b u t i t i s unknown a s t o w h e t h e r t h e e x t e n t o f c o v e r a g e she m i g h t p r o p o s e w o u l d be d i f f e r e n t t h a n t h e s u r v e y r e s p o n s e w o u l d s u g g e s t . Emphasis on " c o n t e m p o r a r y a r t ' was c o n s i d e r e d h i g h l y v a l u a b l e , w h i c h s u p p o r t s t h e v i e w s o f Degge ( 1 9 7 9 ) and Hammond ( 1 9 8 1 ) . " T e a c h e r s o b t a i n i n g f u r t h e r q u a l i f i c a t i o n s ' was c o n s i d e r e d o n l y " m o d e r a t e l y i m p o r t a n t ' by s e c o n d a r y r e s p o n d e n t s , and was r a t e d somewhat more v a l u a b l e t o t e r t i a r y r e s p o n d e n t s . H i l l e r ( 1 9 8 4 ) has p o i n t e d o u t t h a t t e a c h e r s need e n c o u r a g e m e n t t o be i n v o l v e d i n f u r t h e r s t u d y , and Duck ( 1 9 8 5 ) i d e n t i f i e d t h a t , i n Q u e e n s l a n d , t h e r e a r e few a v e n u e s f o r g a i n i n g f u r t h e r a r t e d u c a t i o n q u a l i f i c a t i o n s . N e v e r t h e l e s s , i t a p p e a r s t h a t t h e s e Q u e e n s l a n d s e c o n d a r y t e a c h e r s i n p a r t i c u l a r p l a c e o n l y m o d e r a t e v a l u e i n u t i l i z i n g t h e a v e n u e s f o r f u r t h e r s t u d y t h a t may be a v a i l a b l e t o them. " L e c t u r e r s o b t a i n i n g f u r t h e r q u a l i f i c a t i o n s ' was a l s o r a n k e d a s " m o d e r a t e l y i m p o r t a n t ' by b o t h s e c o n d a r y and t e r t i a r y a r t e d u c a t o r s . W h i l e t h i s may be due t o t h e same f a c t o r s , i t a l s o h as i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f p r o g r a m s a s o u t l i n e d l a t e r i n t h i s c h a p t e r . Whether " l e c t u r e r s s h o u l d be i n v o l v e d i n t e a c h i n g c h i l d r e n on a r e g u l a r b a s i s ' i s w o r t h y o f comment. The s e c o n d a r y r e s p o n d e n t s i n p a r t i c u l a r a g r e e w i t h t h e B o a r d o f T e a c h e r E d u c a t i o n (1978) and t h e S c h o o l s C o m m i s s i o n (1979) t h a t t h i s i s q u i t e i m p o r t a n t , b u t i t w o u l d a p p e a r t h a t t e r t i a r y r e s p o n d e n t s a r e d i v i d e d on t h i s i s s u e . R e s p o n d e n t s g e n e r a l l y " d i s a g r e e d * t h a t " a r t c o u r s e s t h a t d e v e l o p i n d i v i d u a l and p e r s o n a l e x p r e s s i o n s h o u l d be g i v e n more e m p h a s i s t h a n a r t c u r r i c u l u m c o u r s e s ' . T h i s i m p l i e d b a l a n c e o f e m p h a s i s has been a r e c u r r i n g i s s u e i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e and i t a p p e a r s t h a t t h e r e s p o n d e n t s w o u l d a g r e e w i t h t h e l i t e r a t u r e t h a t o v e r e m p h a s i s o f s t u d e n t s ' d e v e l o p m e n t a s an a r t i s t i n p r e - s e r v i c e may be a d i s s e r v i c e t o them ( B r a b e n , 1982, p . 68). The r e s u l t s o f t h e s u r v e y t o t h e i t e m " a r t t e a c h e r s g r a d u a t i n g f r o m an end-on p r e p a r a t i o n p r o g r a m a r e b e t t e r e q u i p p e d t o t e a c h t h e s u b j e c t t h a n 3 y e a r t r a i n e d c o n c u r r e n t g r a d u a t e s ' showed c o n s i d e r a b l e d i s a g r e e m e n t , w i t h a h i g h p r o p o r t i o n o f "no o p i n i o n ' r e s p o n s e s . T h i s w o u l d seem t o s u p p o r t B r a b e n ' s v i e w t h a t " i t w o u l d seem t h a t t h e d u a l s y s t e m o f t r a i n i n g a r t t e a c h e r s [ i n Q u e e n s l a n d ] w i l l be p r a c t i s e d f o r some t i m e t o come, w i t h s u p p o r t e r s f o r and a g a i n s t " (1982, p . 68). T h e r e was one i t e m t h a t a d d r e s s e d an u n d e r l y i n g i s s u e i n a r t e d u c a t i o n i n w h i c h a l l g r o u p s a p p e a r t o be i n a g r e e m e n t . " I t i s e s s e n t i a l t h a t a p r o s p e c t i v e a r t t e a c h e r be a b l e t o a r t i c u l a t e why i t i s i m p o r t a n t t o t e a c h a r t and be a b l e t o o f f e r r e a s o n s f o r t h e amount and k i n d o f a t t e n t i o n g i v e n t o a c t i v i t i e s i n t h e a r t p r o g r a m ' . W h i l e t h e p a r t i c u l a r s , a s e v i d e n c e d by some o f t h e v i e w p o i n t s r e g i s t e r e d i n t h i s s u r v e y , may need t o be more f u l l y c l a r i f i e d , a r t e d u c a t o r s - s e c o n d a r y , t e r t i a r y and s c h o l a r s - a r e adamant t h a t by t h e end o f a r t p r e - s e r v i c e e d u c a t i o n , p r o s p e c t i v e t e a c h e r s s h o u l d be a r t i c u l a t e i n t e r m s o f t h e i r c u r r i c u l u m and t h e v a l u e o f a r t e d u c a t i o n . SUMMARY I t w o u l d seem, on p a p e r a t l e a s t , t h a t t h e g r o u p s o f a r t e d u c a t o r s t h a t r e s p o n d e d t o t h e s u r v e y w o u l d n o t be u n s u p p o r t i v e o f some o f t h e c u r r e n t s u g g e s t i o n s i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e f o r s h i f t s i n t h e c o n t e n t and s t r u c t u r e o f a r t t e a c h e r p r e - s e r v i c e e d u c a t i o n . O b v i o u s a g r e e m e n t between g r o u p s o f s e c o n d a r y and t e r t i a r y r e s p o n d e n t s on most i t e m s , and t h e m o d e r a t e t o h i g h v a l u a t i o n o f most i t e m s w o u l d t e n d t o s u p p o r t t h i s . T h e r e were a few a r e a s o f d i f f e r e n c e . One i n p a r t i c u l a r was t h e h o n o u r i f i c v a l u i n g , i n t e r m s o f e m p h a s i s , o f t h e " f i n e a r t s ' s t u d i o a r e a s o v e r t h e " c r a f t ' and "newer m e d i a ' s t u d i o a r e a s i n t h i s component o f p r e - s e r v i c e . S e c o n d a r y r e s p o n d e n t s d i d n o t p l a c e g r e a t v a l u e on o b t a i n i n g f u r t h e r q u a l i f i c a t i o n s , w h i c h some A u s t r a l i a n s c h o l a r s c r i t i c i z e . T e r t i a r y r e s p o n d e n t s were s t r o n g l y d i v i d e d on w h e t h e r o r n o t l e c t u r e r s s h o u l d t e a c h c h i l d r e n on a r e g u l a r b a s i s , w h i c h was h i g h l y f a v o u r e d by b o t h s e c o n d a r y a r t e d u c a t o r s and s c h o l a r s . A l l g r o u p s s t r o n g l y s u p p o r t e d t h e n o t i o n t h a t p r o s p e c t i v e a r t t e a c h e r s must be a r t i c u l a t e a b o u t t h e i r c u r r i c u l u m and t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f a r t e d u c a t i o n . B. POINTS FOR DISCUSSION The l a r g e s t i s s u e t o be a d d r e s s e d i n l i g h t o f t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e s u r v e y i s t h e s t r o n g a g r e e m e n t 88 between the groups of t e r t i a r y and secondary a r t educators on the nature of p r e - s e r v i c e . Without doing a formal e v a l u a t i o n of e x i s t i n g programs, but having an i n f o r m a l f a m i l i a r i t y with some, i t would appear t h a t t h i s a t t i t u d e r e f l e c t s a " s t a t u s quo' v a l u a t i o n of a r t e d u c a t i o n and p r e - s e r v i c e . As t h e r e i s no p r i o r i t e m i z e d study of a t t i t u d e s c o n c e r n i n g Queensland p r e - s e r v i c e t h a t can be used as a comparison, i t i s not e a s i l y a s c e r t a i n e d whether a t t i t u d e s or needs have changed i n t h i s r e s p e c t , but c e r t a i n l y the c u r r e n t needs appear f a i r l y t r a d i t i o n a l . Perhaps i t can be viewed, as Hammond (1981) has s t a t e d , t h a t p r e - s e r v i c e i s a " s e l f - p e r p e t u a t i n g development' or t h a t t e a c h e r s i n the f i e l d r e f l e c t the v a l u e s of the program undertaken. C e r t a i n l y i t i s more d i s t u r b i n g t h a t those i n the p r e - s e r v i c e programs who responded t o the survey have a s i m i l a r , c o n v e n t i o n a l view of what content and experiences are of v a l u e i n programs, f o r the development or change of programs depends on t h e i r support. Perhaps the c l u e s as t o why t h i s o c curs can be found i n the survey background p r o f i l e s . Again, i t i s to be r e i t e r a t e d t h a t these p a r t i c u l a r respondents may not r e p r e s e n t a l l t e r t i a r y s t a f f . However, w i t h i n the g roup , t he re i s a d e f i n i t e age and expe r i ence p r o f i l e . The m a j o r i t y o f t e r t i a r y respondents had over 20 yea r s of a r t t e a c h i n g e x p e r i e n c e , and over one-ha l f had not gone beyond the B a c h e l o r ' s l e v e l o f s tudy i n t h e i r q u a l i f i c a t i o n s . These f a c t o r s , compared w i th the moderate v a l u a t i o n ( i n terms o f response on the survey ) o f g a i n i n g f u r t h e r q u a l i f i c a t i o n s , may e x p l a i n the r e l a t i v e conse r va t i sm of v i ewpo in t on i tems most v a l ued f o r the p r e - s e r v i c e educa t i on o f a r t t e a c h e r s . T h i s would p o s s i b l y p o i n t more t o l e c t u r e r s ' l a c k o f awareness o f c u r r e n t t h i n k i n g by a r t e d u c a t i o n s c h o l a r s than l a c k o f s u p p o r t . In f a c t , the survey responses i n d i c a t e t h a t t he r e i s a t l e a s t moderate suppor t f o r most s c h o l a r l y sugges t i ons f o r p r e - s e r v i c e t h a t were s e l e c t e d f o r the q u e s t i o n n a i r e . C o n s i d e r a b l e importance was g i ven t o s t u d i o p r a c t i c e i n p r e - s e r v i c e , ye t the nature o f t h a t expe r i ence was shown t o be h i e r a r c h i c a l by both t e r t i a r y and secondary r e s p o n s e s . C r a f t a reas and newer media were v a l ued f a r l e s s than t r a d i t i o n a l " f i n e a r t s ' a r e a s . T h i s may a l s o i n d i c a t e a l a c k of awareness on the p a r t o f the survey p o p u l a t i o n s , p a r t i c u l a r l y w i t h new m e d i a . U n f a m i l i a r i t y may c a u s e a c e r t a i n amount o f s k e p t i c i s m a s t o t h e v a l u e o f s t u d y o f newer media s u c h as f i l m , v i d e o and c o m p u t e r i m a g e r y . Some o f t h e a r e a s o f d i s a g r e e m e n t between s e c o n d a r y and t e r t i a r y a r t e d u c a t o r s may be t r a n s l a t e d a s somewhat s e l f - s e r v i n g . F o r example, t h e p r e f e r a b l e l e n g t h o f t i m e f o r a p r e - s e r v i c e p r o g r a m was s e e n as c u r r e n t l y a d e q u a t e by s e c o n d a r y t e a c h e r s and p r e f e r a b l y e x t e n d e d by one y e a r by t e r t i a r y l e c t u r e r s . A n o t h e r example w o u l d be t h e l e n g t h o f p r a c t i c u m s ; t h e l o n g e r p r a c t i c u m t i m e was f a v o u r e d by t e a c h e r s and t h e s h o r t e r p r a c t i c u m by l e c t u r e r s , w h i c h w o u l d c a u s e l e s s d i s r u p t i o n o f r o u t i n e r e s p e c t i v e l y . A f u r t h e r a r e a o f d i f f e r e n c e was w h e t h e r l e c t u r e r s s h o u l d be i n v o l v e d i n t e a c h i n g c h i l d r e n and i n v o l v e d w i t h s c h o o l s on a r e g u l a r b a s i s . T e a c h e r s r a t e d t h e s e i t e m s v e r y h i g h l y and l e c t u r e r s r a t e d them o f l e s s i m p o r t a n c e . C e r t a i n l y i t w o u l d t a k e c o n s i d e r a b l e e f f o r t on l e c t u r e r s ' p a r t s t o a r r a n g e f o r t h i s t o h a p pen. C. I M P L I C A T I O N S FOR T H E D E V E L O P M E N T OF ART T E A C H E R PRE-SERVICE EDUCATION The f i r s t and most o b v i o u s q u e s t i o n t o a s k i s how c l o s e l y d o e s t h e e x i s t i n g p r o g r a m match t h e v i e w s e x p r e s s e d a s "most v a l u e d ' by t h e r e s p o n d e n t s . I f t h e r e i s a g r e a t d e a l o f s i m i l a r i t y , p e r h a p s a c a u s a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s u c h a s Hammond (1981) s u g g e s t s c a n be f o u n d . I f n o t , and t h e r e i s a s t r o n g l i k e l i h o o d o f t h e l a t t e r , i t c o u l d be t h a t t h e c u r r e n t p r o g r a m i s n o t m e e t i n g e v e n t h e t r a d i t i o n a l n eeds o f t e a c h e r s , n e v e r mind p e r f o r m i n g a l e a d e r s h i p r o l e i n i m p l e m e n t i n g new d i r e c t i o n s i n p r e - s e r v i c e . I t w o u l d seem l i k e l y t h a t i n - s e r v i c e t o i n c r e a s e a w a r e n e s s o f new t h e o r y and m e d i a i s n eeded a t b o t h s e c o n d a r y and t e r t i a r y l e v e l s i n o r d e r t o i n c o r p o r a t e i n n o v a t i o n s e f f e c t i v e l y i n t o t h e s e o r g a n i z a t i o n s . C e r t a i n l y , a s t a r t i n g p o i n t w o u l d be t o t r y t o i n c o r p o r a t e t h o s e c h a n g e s i n t o e x i s t i n g p r o g r a m s t h a t t e a c h e r s w o u l d a l r e a d y s u p p o r t a s e v i d e n c e d by t h e i r r e s p o n s e s t o t h e s u r v e y . L i a i s o n between t e r t i a r y and s e c o n d a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s i s e s s e n t i a l t o i n c r e a s e t h e c r e d i b i l i t y o f t h e p r e - s e r v i c e p r o g r a m . Whether o r n o t t h i s t a k e s t h e f o r m o f " r e g u l a r t e a c h i n g o f c h i l d r e n " o r some o t h e r f o r m o f " i n v o l v e m e n t i n s c h o o l s ' , i t i s c l e a r t h a t t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r l i a i s o n l i e s w i t h t h e t e r t i a r y community. C o n s i d e r a t i o n o f t h e v a l u e p l a c e d on i n t e r a c t i o n b etween l e c t u r e r s , c h i l d r e n and s c h o o l s by s e c o n d a r y t e a c h e r s a s r e f l e c t e d i n t h e s t u d y s h o u l d i n d i c a t e t o t e r t i a r y e d u c a t o r s t h e wisdom o f making t h e e f f o r t t h a t t h i s w o u l d r e q u i r e . RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FURTHER STUDY The s c o p e o f t h i s s t u d y p r e v e n t e d s i n g l e i s s u e s c o n c e r n i n g a r t p r e - s e r v i c e t o be c a n v a s s e d i n d e p t h . T h e r e a r e s e v e r a l i s s u e s i n d i c a t e d by t h e f i n d i n g s , however, t h a t c o u l d b e a r f r u i t f u l i n v e s t i g a t i o n . T h e s e a r e l i s t e d a s : 1. Awareness and a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d s t h e s t u d y o f " c r a f t ' a r e a s o f a r t and newer media w i t h i n t h e s e c o n d a r y and t e r t i a r y p o p u l a t i o n s . 2. The f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h and s u p p o r t f o r p a r t i c u l a r m o d e l s o f a r t e d u c a t i o n f o r p r e - s e r v i c e p r o g r a m s s u c h a s D i s c i p l i n e - B a s e d , A e s t h e t i c E d u c a t i o n , and M u l t i - A r t s , i n o r d e r t o compare them t o t h e p r o f i l e p r o g r a m i n d i c a t e d by t h i s s u r v e y . 3. The c a n v a s s i n g o f p a r e n t , s c h o o l s t a f f and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d s p a r t i c u l a r c o n t e n t and e x p e r i e n c e s f o r p r e - s e r v i c e and s c h o o l a r t e d u c a t i o n t o i n d i c a t e where a d v o c a c y i s n e e d e d . 4. A more r e p r e s e n t a t i v e sample and s u r v e y ( t o a l l o w f o r p r e d i c t i v e c o n c l u s i o n s ) on i t e m s i d e n t i f i e d by t h i s s t u d y a s p o s s i b l e l o b b y a c t i o n s . T h e s e w o u l d i n c l u d e , f o r Q u e e n s l a n d , making t h e T e a c h i n g D i p l o m a ( S e c . A r t ) i n c o r p o r a t i v e o f b o t h P r i n c i p a l and S e c o n d t e a c h i n g a r e a s , and t h e a s s i g n i n g o f s p e c i a l i s t a r t t e a c h e r s t o P r i m a r y r e g i o n s . SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION T h i s s t u d y showed t h a t t h e r e was c o n s i d e r a b l e a g r e e m e n t w i t h i n and between t h e p o p u l a t i o n s o f s e c o n d a r y and t e r t i a r y a r t e d u c a t o r s on what c o n t e n t and e x p e r i e n c e s a r e v a l u e d f o r a r t t e a c h e r p r e - s e r v i c e e d u c a t i o n . The p r o f i l e o f "most v a l u e d ' i t e m s on t h e s u r v e y was a s t r o n g l y t r a d i t i o n a l one f o r b o t h g r o u p s , w i t h a " f i n e a r t s ' s t u d i o component, a r t c u r r i c u l u m and methods f o c u s , and i t e m s t h a t r e f l e c t e d a s p e c t s o f a r t e d u c a t i o n a d v o c a c y . However, t h e r e were v e r y few i t e m s on t h e 94 survey t h a t were "no t v a l u e d ' , which i n d i c a t e s some suppor t o f t h i n g s suggested by s c h o l a r s f o r p r e- s e r v i c e programs. Whether the va lues r e f l e c t e d i n the f i n d i n g s r e s u l t f rom a " s e l f - p e r p e t u a t i n g deve lopment ' o r a l a ck of awareness due t o l i m i t e d f u r t h e r s tudy amongst the p o p u l a t i o n s , i t i s c l e a r t ha t i n n o v a t i o n s i n p r e - s e r v i c e programs must be accompanied by e x t e n s i v e i n - s e r v i c e and l i a i s o n . The f i r s t p r i o r i t y f o r e x i s t i n g programs i s t o i n c o r p o r a t e those changes i n p r e - s e r v i c e t h a t t e a che r s a l r e a d y support - as r e f l e c t e d i n t h e i r responses t o the survey - t h a t are not c u r r e n t l y i n e v i d e n c e . In o the r words, deve lope r s must ensure t h a t p r e - s e r v i c e programs r e f l e c t (as a minimum standard ) those t h i n g s t eache r s and l e c t u r e r s agree to be a sound b a s i s f o r a r t t eache r p r e - s e r v i c e e d u c a t i o n . REFERENCES Adams, E. and Ward, C. 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(1984). E i g h t g u i d e l i n e s f o r s e l e c t i n g a r t c u r r i c u l u m c o n t e n t , S t u d i e s i n A r t E d u c a t i o n , 25(4), pp. 232-237. L e w i s , H.P. (1976). C r y s t a l g a z i n g , f o r e c a s t i n g and w i s h f u l t h i n k i n g : t h e f u t u r e o f t h e a r t s i n p u b l i c e d u c a t i o n . The A r t s , Human Dev e l o p m e n t and E d u c a t i o n , E . E i s n e r , e d . pp. 115-133. L o v a n o - K e r r , J . (1985). I m p l i c a t i o n s o f DBAE f o r u n i v e r s i t y e d u c a t i o n o f t e a c h e r . S t u d i e s i n A r t E d u c a t i o n , 26(4), pp.216-223. McFee, J . and Degge, R. (1977). A r t , c u l t u r e , and e n v i r o n m e n t : A c a t a l y s t f o r t e a c h i n g . C a l i f o r n i a : Wadsworth. M a c G r e g o r , R. (1985). An o u t s i d e v i e w o f d i s c i p l i n e d - b a s e d a r t e d u c a t i o n . S t u d i e s i n A r t E d u c a t i o n , 26(4), pp.241-246. M a c k r e l l , R . J . (1981). C h a n g i n g and c o n f l i c t i n g v i e w s o f a r t e d u c a t i o n i n t h e c o n t e x t o f s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l f o r c e s . U n p u b l i s h e d M a s t e r s T h e s i s , L a T r o b e U n i v e r s i t y , M e l b o u r n e , A u s t r a l i a . Mason, R. (1983). A r t T e a c h e r P r e p a r a t i o n i n E n g l a n d , A u s t r a l i a and t h e U.S.A.: some o b s e r v a t i o n s . J o u r n a l o f E d u c a t i o n f o r T e a c h i n g , 19(1) pp.55-62. M i c h a e l , J.A. (1980). S t u d i o a r t e x p e r i e n c e : The h e a r t o f a r t e d u c a t i o n . A r t E d u c a t i o n , 33(2), pp.15-20. P a r r , J . (1980). T e r t i a r y v i s u a l a r t s e d u c a t i o n i n A u s t r a l i a . Sydney: V i s u a l A r t s B o a r d . R e p o r t t o t h e A l b e r t a D e p a r t m e n t o f E d u c a t i o n (1981). O v e r v i e w o f i s s u e s i n a r t e d u c a t i o n : A r e p o r t s u b m i t t e d t o t h e A l b e r t a D e p a r t m e n t o f E d u c a t i o n S e c o n d a r y A r t Ad Hoc C u r r i c u l u m C o m m i t t e e . U n p u b l i s h e d m a n u s c r i p t , Edmonton, A l b e r t a . R i c h a r d s o n , D. (1984). A r t , c r a f t a nd d e s i g n i n s c h o o l s : A c u r r i c u l u m framework R -12. A d e l a i d e : E d u c a t i o n D e p a r t m e n t o f S o u t h A u s t r a l i a . 102 Shultz, L. (1980). A studio curriculum for art education. Art Education, 33(6), pp. 10-15. 103 APPENDIX I ART TEACHER PREPARATION SURVEY ..105 P A R T B VIEWS O N A R T T E A C H E R PRE- S E R V I C E P R E P A R A T I O N : 6. Contvnt of Course: With regard to art teacher preparation programi a number of issues are listed below. For each issue, you are asked to indicate: How much emphasis, in your opinion, should it be given in an art teacher pre-service preparation program. Indicate your answers by circling the most appropriate num- bers opposite each issue. In addition, space is provided for you to express any other issues you teel BTB important that are not listed here. EMPHASIS ON: 1 2 3 4 5 A. Knowledge of and participation in the following studio areas of art (i) drawing (ii) painting (iii) sculpture (iv) pottery fibre arts (vi) printmaking (vii) jewellery (viii) leatherwork lix) media (film, video, TV) U l photography (xi) commercial arts (xii) computer art ixiii) Other: (please specify) 3 4 3 4 1 2 3 B. Educational Studies (i) psychology (ii) sociology (iii) teaching process (general) (iv) art curriculum (v) Other (please specify) Employment prospects and expectaitons of emoloyers (school and government administrators) 1 2 3 4 5 14 QATA NEWSLETTER NOVEMBER 1985 Influence of current changes in the education system as a whole: E. Art advocacy role of the art teacher: (i) relevance of art to society: (ii) relevance of art to students in schools: (iii) public relations with the community (iv) strategies for promoting the status of art in schools: (vi) Other: F. Study and awareness of art teaching aids and resources, such as films, books, videos, slide sets, etc.: G. The assessment and evaluation of pupils' work in art: H. The principles of form and structure in art (theory of the elements and principles of design). I. The understanding of cultural differences in forms and functions of art. J. Education in aesthetic responses towards different forms of art (Aesthetic theory) K. Knowledge of art history: (i) classical ipre-20thC) (ii) modern (1900-1980) (iri) contemporary (current) (iv) Australian (v) Aboriginal (vi) Western (vit) Eastern (viti) architecture (ix) Other (please specify) I 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1.2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 106 L. That Art teachers in schools main- tain awareness of and involvement in: (i) Art (ii) Art Education Issues (iii) Pre-service Programs (iv) Arts organizations iv) Obtaining further qualifications (vi) liaison with other school art programs. (vii) In-service Programs M. A D D I T I O N A L 'Structure of Program' ISSUES O F I M P O R T A N C E : t I E — z< o — 2 < 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 P A R T C 10. For each statement listed below, circle a number to show how much you are in agreement or disagreement. I < A. IN A R T T E A C H E R P R E - S E R V I C E training programs, art subject courses should be given more emphasis than education courses. 1 2 3 4 5 3 Q E. Primary and early childhood pre- service programs should include at least one: (0 personal development art course (ii) art curriculum course In 3 year pre-service programs, a double-art option should be avail- able as well as an art Primary Teaching Area and other subject Second Teaching Area. , Art teachers graduating from an end-on preparation program are better equipped to teach the sub- ject than 3 year trained concurrent graduates. H. Adequate resources for regular in- school art programs have greater priority than the maintenance/ establishment of community services in art. 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 tt is essential that a prospective art teacher be able to articulate why it is important to teach art and be able to offer reasons for the amount and kind of attention given to activities in the art program. 1 2 3 4 5 PART D Your opinion is also solicited on the following question: What do you see as the most valuable contribution an art education profes- sional association can make to art teachers in the field after the completion of their pre-service program? B. Art teacher pre-service training courses should be a minimum of 4 years duration. 1 2 3 4 5 C. Art courses that develop individual and personal expression should be given more emphasis than an curriculum courses. 1 .2 3 4 5 D. Every region should have a specialist a n teacher assigned to its primary schools with expertise in Primary Art Education. 1 2 3 4 5 16 Q A T A N E W S L E T T E R N O V E M B E R 1985 107 L. Philosophy of Art (theory of what Art is) M. Knowledge and study of Art Education theory. (Analysing the practice of teaching Art) N. Knowledge of and practice in Art curriculum and program planning O. Integration of art with other subjects: (i) expressive arts (ii) other subjects in the school curriculum P. Knowledge of current research in Art Education Q. Liberal Education (literature, philosophy, history and nature of contemporary society, political science) R. Any other 'content' issues that are not listed above: 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 9. Structure of Course: A series of issues ere listed below. For each issue, you are asked to rate how important it is, in your opinion, for art teacher pre-service training programs. Indicate your answers by circling the most appropriate num- bers opposite each issue. Q - 2 < A. That students have a breadth of knowledge in studio areas 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 B. That students have depth of know- ledge in some studio areas C. That there is an integration of different aspects of art within studio areas {i.e. PAINTING includes history, theory, criticism, materials and processes) D. That art curriculum be a part of studio courses E. That students get a separate, thorough grounding in different aspects of art (i.e. Art History, Aesthetics, Materials and processes) F. To involve students in content and media relevant to school circumstances G. To involve students in content and media for their own personal development H. To involve students in practice teaching: at all levels of a school art program: (jr/sr.) (>i) (Hi) (iv) (v) (primary/jr/sr.) for 5 or more weeks at one time for short but regular times more than once each year of training Other: I. That Lecturers in pre-service programs have had school teaching experience: |i) lecturers in studio areas (H) lecturers in other course areas J. That Lecturers in pre-service programs be involved in teaching children on a regular basis. K. That Lecturer's in pre-service programs maintain involvement in: Ii) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) Art (Practice) Art Education Issues Arts Organisation Schools Obtaining further, qualifications E - - < 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 * 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 4 OATA NEWSLETTER NOVEMBER 1985 APPENDIX I I NUMERICAL RESULTS FOR ITEMS The f o l l o w i n g t a b l e s represent the response r a t e s f o r each item i n PART B and PART C of the q u e s t i o n n a i r e . The responses are expressed i n terms of percentage of responses f o r the two p o p u l a t i o n s , secondary and t e r t i a r y a r t educators. T o t a l numbers i n each group were: a) secondary = 49, b) t e r t i a r y =16. As w e l l , the average response r a t e f o r each group i s shown. Note percentages have been rounded o f f t o the nearest whole percentage, w i t h .5's taken to the lower whole percentag ( i . e . 12.5% taken t o 12%). Refer to Chapter 4 f o r the d e s c r i p t i v e a n a l y s i s of the r e s u l t s . Refer to APPENDIX f o r the a c t u a l format of the q u e s t i o n n a i r e . 109 PART B: VIEWS ON ART TEACHER PRE-SERVICE PREPARATION 8. CONTENT OF COURSE: EMPHASIS ON: A. Knowledge of and p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the f o l l o w i n g s t u d i o areas of a r t : a 4-1 C •H O i . d r a w i n g 88 5 8 0 0 % s e c . a v g . 1.2 88 12 0 0 0 % t e r t . a v g 1.1 i i . p a i n t i n g 65 22 12 0 0 % s e c . a v g . 1.4 38 31 31 0 0 % s e c . a v g . 1.2 i i i . s c u l p t u r e 29 47 24 0 0 % s e c . a v g . 2 38 12 38 12 0 % t e r t . a v g . 2.2 i v p o t t e r y 24 45 31 0 0 % s e c . a v g . 2 19 6 69 6 0 % t e r t . a v g . 2.6 v f i b r e a r t s 8 39 51 2 0 % s e c . a v g . 2.5 19 6 56 19 0 % t e r t . a v g . 2.7 v i p r i n t m a k i n g 29 47 24 0 0 % s e c . a v g . 2 25 12 62 0 0 % t e r t . a v g . 2.4 v i i j e w e l l e r y 0 18 47 9 6 % s e c . a v g . 3.2 12 6 38 38 6 % t e r t . a v g . 3.1 v i i i l e a t h e r w o r k 0 2 51 31 16 % s e c . a v g . 3.6 6 6 25 44 19 % t e r t . a v g . 3.6 i x m e d i a ( f i l m , 15 22 41 19 3 % s e c . a v g . 2.7 v i d e o , t . v . ) 12 25 38 25 0 % t e r t . a v g . X p h o t o g r a p h y 18 31 51 0 0 % s e c . a v g . 2.3 6 38 44 12 0 % t e r t . a v g . 2.6 110 x i c o m m e r c i a l 18 26 45 12 0 % s e c . a v g . 2 .5 a r t s 6 19 37 19 19 % t e r t . a v g . 3 .2 x i i c o m p u t e r a r t 6 22 31 24 16 % s e c . a v g . 3 .2 6 6 44 19 25 % t e r t . a v g . 3 .5 B. E d u c a t i o n a l S t u d i e s i p s y c h o l o g y 2 51 31 19 23 % s e c . a v g . 2 .6 12 44 19 12 12 % t e r t . a v g . 2 .7 i i s o c i o l o g y 6 29 43 20 2 % s e c . a v g . 2 .8 31 31 12 12 12 % t e r t . a v g . 2 .4 i i i t e a c h i n g 61 31 8 0 0 % s e c . a v g . 1 .5 p r o c e s s 63 19 12 6 0 % t e r t . a v g . 1 .6 ( g e n e r a l ) i v a r t c u r r i - 86 8 6 0 0 % s e c . a v g . 1 .2 c u l u m 88 12 0 0 0 % t e r t . a v g . 1 .2 C. Employment 29 29 22 18 2 % s e c . a v g . 2 .4 p r o s p e c t s and 19 31 31 6 12 % t e r t . a v g . 2 .6 e x p e c t a t i o n s o f e m p l o y e r s D. I n f l u e n c e o f 39 26 31 2 2 % s e c . a v g . 2 .1 c u r r e n t 56 19 25 0 0 % t e r t • a v g . 1 .7 c h a n g e E . A r t a d v o c a c y r o l e o f t h e a r t t e a c h e r : i . r e l e v a n c e o f 73 16 8 5 0 % s e c . a v g . 1 .4 a r t t o s o c i e t y 62 31 6 0 0 % t e r t . a v g . 1 .4 i i r e l e v a n c e o f 76 18 6 0 0 % s e c . a v g . 1 .3 a r t t o s t u d - 69 25 6 0 0 % t e r t . a v g . 1 .4 ends i n s c h o o l s i i i p u b l i c 29 35 33 2 2 % s e c . a v g . 2 .2 r e l a t i o n s w i t h 50 25 19 0 6 % t e r t . a v g . 1 .9 t h e community i v s t r a t e g i e s f o r 53 31 10 5 5 % s e c . a v g . 1 .7 p r o m o t i n g t h e 62 25 6 0 6 % t e r t . a v g . 1 .6 s t a t u s o f a r t i n s c h o o l s I l l S t u d y o f 47 41 9 10 2 % s e c . a v g . 1 .7 a w a r e n e s s o f 31 62 6 0 0 % t e r t . a v g . 1 .7 a r t t e a c h i n g a i d s and r e s o u r c e s A s s e s s m e n t and 84 14 0 2 0 % s e c . a v g . 1 .2 e v a l u a t i o n o f 50 31 19 0 0 % t e r t . a v g . 1 .7 s t u d e n t a r t work E l e m e n t s and 53 22 24 0 0 % s e c . a v g . 1 .7 p r i n c i p l e s o f 12 44 37 6 0 % t e r t . a v g . 2 .4 d e s i g n U n d e r s t a n d i n g 29 41 26 5 0 % s e c . a v g . 2 .1 c u l t u r a l 44 31 25 0 0 % t e r t . a v g . 1 .8 d i f f e r e n c e s i n f o r m s and f u n c t i o n s o f a r t A e s t h e t i c 22 35 39 2 2 % s e c . a v g . 2 .3 T h e o r y 31 38 25 6 0 % t e r t . a v g . 2 .1 Knowledge o f A r t H i s t o r y i . c l a s s i c a l 18 31 45 6 0 % s e c . a v g . 2 .4 ( p r e - z o t h c ) 25 31 31 12 0 % t e r t . a v g . 2 .3 i i modern 51 35 12 2 0 % s e c . a v g . 1 .7 (1900-1980) 56 31 12 0 0 % t e r t . a v g . 1 .6 i i i c o n t e m p o r - 67 22 12 0 0 % s e c . a v g . 1 .5 a r y ( c u r r e n t ) 56 44 0 0 0 % t e r t . a v g . 1 .4 i v A u s t r a l i a n 61 31 8 0 0 % s e c . a v g . 1 .5 69 25 6 0 0 % t e r t . a v g . 1 .4 v A b o r i g i n a l 29 51 18 2 0 % s e c . a v g . 2 37 37 25 0 0 % t e r t . a v g . 1 .9 v i W e s t e r n 14 53 31 2 0 % s e c . a v g . 2 .2 31 44 12 6 6 % t e r t . a v g . 2 .1 112 v i i E a s t e r n 6 41 37 16 0 % s e c . a v g . 2 .6 25 25 25 19 6 % t e r t . a v g . 2 .7 v i i i A r c h i - 8 45 35 12 0 % s e c . a v g . 2 .5 t e c t u r e 31 12 37 19 0 % t e r t . a v g . 2 .4 L. P h i l o s o p h y o f 29 35 29 2 6 % s e c . a v g . 2 .2 A r t 50 6 38 6 0 % t e r t . a v g . 2 M. Knowledge and 51 31 16 0 2 % s e c . a v g . 1 .7 s t u d y o f A r t 69 19 12 0 0 % t e r t . a v g . 1 .4 e d u c a t i o n t h e o r y N. Knowledge o f 61 31 8 0 0 % s e c . a v g . 1 .5 and p r a c t i c e 81 6 12 0 0 % t e r t . a v g . 1 .3 i n a r t E d . c u r r i c u l u m and p r o g r a m p l a n n i n g 0. INTEGRATION OF ART WITH OTHER SUBJECTS i . E x p r e s s i v e 29 37 26 6 2 % s e c . a v g . 2 .2 A r t s 19 19 44 12 6 % t e r t . a v g . 2 .7 i i O t h e r s u b - 8 26 47 14 6 % s e c . a v g . 2 .8 j e c t s i n t h e 19 31 25 12 12 % t e r t . a v g . 2 .7 c u r r i c u l u m P. Knowledge o f 22 35 29 12 2 % s e c . a v g . 2 .4 c u r r e n t 31 37 25 0 6 % t e r t . a v g . 2 .1 r e s e a r c h i n a r t e d u c a t i o n Q. L i b e r a l E d u c a - 6 24 41 22 6 % s e c . a v g . 2 .9 t i o n 19 37 31 12 0 % t e r t . a v g . 2 .4 113 9. STRUCTURE OF COURSE: 2 £ 3 i i 1 2 3 4 5 A. B r e a d t h o f 53 45 2 0 0 % s e c . a v g . 1. 5 knowledge i n 37 37 25 0 0 % t e r t . a v g . 1 .9 s t u d i o a r e a s B. D e p t h o f know- 47 29 22 2 0 % s e c . a v g . 1 .8 l e d g e i n some 50 37 12 0 0 % t e r t . a v g . 1 .6 s t u d i o a r e a s C. I n t e g r a t i o n 69 22 2 6 0 % s e c . a v g . 1 .5 s t u d i o a r e a s 62 25 6 0 6 % t e r t . a v g . 1 .6 D. A r t c u r r i c u l u m 41 18 22 12 6 % s e c . a v g . 2 .2 i s a p a r t o f 37 31 19 0 12 % t e r t . a v g . 2 .2 s t u d i o c o u r s e s E . S e p a r a t e , 31 29 18 16 6 % s e c . a v g . 2 .4 t h o r o u g h 37 44 12 6 0 % t e r t . a v g . 1 .9 g r o u n d i n g i n d i f f e r e n t a s p e c t s o f a r t F. I n v o l v e m e n t i n 53 20 24 2 0 % s e c . a v g . 1 .8 media r e l e v a n t 50 25 25 0 0 % t e r t . a v g . 1 .8 t o s c h o o l c i r c u m s t a n c e s G. I n v o l v e m e n t i n 39 31 22 6 2 % s e c . a v g . 2 .1 media f o r 44 25 31 0 0 % t e r t . a v g . 1 .9 own p e r s o n a l d e v e l o p m e n t 114 H. P r a c t i c e T e a c h i n g : i . a t a l l 76 2 14 2 6 % s e c . a v g . 1.6 l e v e l s o f a 75 19 6 0 0 % t e r t . a v g . 1.3 program ( j r / s r . ) p r ima ry/ 22 8 20 8 41 % s e c . a vg . 3.4 j u n i o r / s e n i o r 56 6 6 12 19 % t e r t . a vg . 2.3 i i . f o r 5 o r 39 16 12 16 16 % s e c . a vg . 2.5 more weeks a t 25 19 6 19 31 % t e r t . a v g . 3.1 one t ime i i i . s h o r t but 26 18 5 18 35 % s e c . a vg . 3.2 r e q . t imes 50 12 12 12 12 % t e r t . a v g . 2.2 i v . more than 63 16 6 6 8 % s e c . a vg . 1.8 once a yea r 62 12 0 6 19 % t e r t . a v g . 2.1 I. L e c t u r e r s have s choo l t e a c h i n g expe r i ence i . l e c t u r e r s 69 12 16 0 2 % s e c . a vg . 1.6 i n s t u d i o 56 1 9 2 5 0 0 % t e r t . a vg . 1.7 a reas i i . l e c t u r e r s 82 6 12 0 0 % s e c . a vg . 1.3 i n o the r 62 12 19 6 0 % t e r t . a vg . 1.7 a reas J . L e c t u r e r s be 53 24 10 6 6 % s e c . a vg . 1.9 i n v o l v e d i n 25 19 25 12 19 % t e r t . a vg . 2.8 t e a c h i n g c h i l d r e n on a r e g u l a r b a s i s K. L e c t u r e r s i n p r e - s e r v i c e programs ma in t a i n invo lvement i n : i . A r t 57 24 12 0 6 % s e c . a vg . 1 .7 ( p r a c t i c e ) 37 37 19 0 6 % t e r t . a vg . 2 i i . A r t e d u c - 69 14 12 2 2 % s e c . a vg . 1 .6 a t i o n i s s u e s 69 19 6 0 6 % t e r t . a v g . 1 .6 i i i . A r t s 57 18 22 2 0 % s e c . a vg . 1 .7 o r g a n i z a t i o n s 50 25 25 0 0 % t e r t . a vg . 1 .7 115 i v . S choo l s 88 12 0 0 0 % s e c . a v g . 1 .1 38 31 19 6 6 % t e r t . a vg . 2 .1 v . O b t a i n i n g 16 14 31 22 16 % s e c . a v g . 3 .1 f u r t h e r q u a l i - 12 31 50 6 0 % t e r t . a v g . 2 .5 f i c a t i o n s That a r t t e a che r s i n s c h o o l s m a i n t a i n invo lvement i n i . A r t 76 22 2 0 0 % s e c . a vg . 1 .3 69 12 19 0 0 % t e r t . a v g . 1 .5 i i . A r t Educ - 53 35 12 0 0 % s e c . a v g . 1 .6 a t i o n i s s u e s 87 6 6 0 0 % t e r t . a v g . 1 .2 i i i . A r t p re- 31 29 24 12 5 % s e c . a vg . 2 .3 s e r v i c e 38 56 6 0 0 % t e r t . a vg . 1 .7 programs i v . A r t s 37 29 22 10 2 % s e c . a vg . 2 .1 o r g s . 62 25 12 0 0 % t e r t . a vg . 1 .5 v . o b t a i n i n g 12 24 45 16 2 % s e c . a vg . 2 .7 f u r t h e r q u a l i - 12 50 31 6 0 % t e r t . a v g . 2 .3 f i c a t i o n s v i . l i a i s o n 63 29 8 0 0 % s e c . a vg . 1 .5 w i th o the r 62 25 6 6 0 % t e r t . a vg . 1 .6 s c h o o l a r t programs v i i . i n - 63 29 8 0 0 % s e c . a vg . 1 .5 s e r v i c e p rog- 75 19 6 0 0 % t e r t . a v g . 1 .3 rams PART C A. In A r t Teacher 47 31 5 16 5 % sec. avg P r e - s e r v i c e 31 31 6 31 0 % t e r t . avg t r a i n i n g programs, a r t subject courses should be given more emphasis than education courses. B. A r t teacher 29 10 26 12 24 % sec. avg p r e - s e r v i c e 69 25 0 6 0 % t e r t . avg t r a i n i n g courses should be a minimum of 4 years d u r a t i o n C. A r t courses 12 18 16 31 22 % sec. avg that develop 12 12 6 50 19 % t e r t . avg i n d i v i d u a l and personal expression should be given more emphasis than a r t c u r r i - culum courses 117 D. Every r e g i o n 82 16 2 0 0 % s e c . a vg . 1.2 shou ld have a 87 6 6 0 0 % t e r t . a v g . 1.2 s p e c i a l i s t a r t t e a che r a s s i g n e d to i t s p r imary s c h o o l s w i th e x p e r t i s e i n Pr imary A r t Educa t i on E. Pr imary and e a r l y c h i l d - hood p re- s e r v i c e programs shou ld i n c l u d e a t l e a s t one : i . p e r s o n a l • 59 16 16 6 2 % s e c . a vg . 1 .8 development 75 25 0 0 0 % t e r t . a v g . 1 .2 i i . a r t 59 24 16 0 0 % s e c . a vg . 1 .6 c u r r i c u l u m 81 6 12 0 0 % t e r t . a vg . 1 .3 cou rse In 3 year p re- 51 12 31 5 5 % s e c . a v g . 2 s e r v i c e p ro- 56 19 25 0 0 % t e r t . a vg . 1 .7 grams, a d o u b l e - a r t o p t i o n shou ld be a v a i l a b l e as w e l l as an a r t P r imary Teach ing Area and o the r s u b j e c t Second Teach ing Area 118 G. A r t t e a c h e r s 16 12 37 16 18 % s e c . a v g . 3.1 g r a d u a t i n g 19 6 25 25 25 % t e r t . a v g . 3.3 f rom an end-on p r e p a r a t i o n program a re b e t t e r equ ipped to t each the s u b j e c t than 3 year t r a i n e d c o n c u r r e n t g r a d u a t e s . H. Adequate 47 22 22 6 2 % s e c . a v g . 2 r e sou r ce s f o r 56 19 12 6 6 % t e r t . a v g . 1.9 r e g u l a r i n - schoo l a r t programs have g r e a t e r p r i o r i t y than the maintenance/ e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f community s e r v i c e s i n a r t . I. I t i s 88 6 5 0 2 % s e c . a vg . 1.2 e s s e n t i a l t h a t a p r o s p e c t i v e a r t t e a che r be a b l e t o a r t i c u - l a t e why i t i s impor tan t t o t each a r t and be a b l e t o o f f e r reasons f o r the amount and k i n d o f a t t e n t i o n g i v e n to a c t i v i t i e s i n the a r t program. 1 1 9 APPENDIX I I I PERSONAL COMMENTS As s p a c e was p r o v i d e d i n e a c h s e c t i o n o f t h e s u r v e y q u e s t i o n n a i r e , t h e f o l l o w i n g h a n d w r i t t e n comments i n c l u d e d by r e s p o n d e n t s have been c o l l a t e d w i t h i n t h e f o r m a t e s t a b l i s h e d by t h e s u r v e y : [N.B. A l l r e s p o n d e n t s a r e r e p r e s e n t e d h e r e ] . CONTENT LIKERT VALUE ( I F ASSIGNED) A. STUDIO . g r a p h i c d e s i g n . t h e a t r e . c r a f t - t y p e c o u r s e . g r a p h i c a r t . d e s i g n . d e s i g n . d e s i g n . d e s i g n . c a l l i g r a p h y . c l o t h i n g / b o d y d e c o r a t i o n . v i s u a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n . d e s i g n ( g e n e r a l ) B. EDUCATIONAL STUDIES . a n t h r o p o l o g y . m o t i v a t i o n . a r t c r i t i c i s m . d e s i g n r e s o u r c e s f o r c l a s s r o o m . c h i l d a r t d e v e l o p m e n t 2 1 2 1 2 1 1 3 2 2 2 3 1 E. ART ADVOCACY . a r t i c u l a t e t h e v a l u e o f a r t . a r t e d u c a t o r a s p r o f e s s i o n a l 1 1 120 K. ART HISTORY . Papua New G u i n e a . F e m i n i s t A r t i s t s . A n c i e n t / A m e r i c a s . t h e a t r e , m u s i c , l i t e r a t u r e 3 . h i s t o r y o f f i l m 2 . a r e a s r e l e v a n t t o e t h n i c mix o f t h e s c h o o l 2 R. OTHER "CONTENT ISSUES' . a r t e d u c a t i o n s y s t e m s i n A u s t r a l i a ( c o m p a r a t i v e ) 3 . p r o g r a m s i n t h i s s t a t e ( E l d ) 2 . I d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f s t u d e n t needs 1 . A r t i s t - t e a c h e r i n t h e community 3 . S y s t e m s o f a p p r e c i a t i o n and t h e i r a p p l i c a t i o n 1 . p u b l i c u s e o f a r t g a l l e r i e s 1 . s t a g e s o f c r e a t i v e and m e n t a l g r o w t h o f c h i l d t o a d u l t . r e s e a r c h i n v i s u a l l i t e r a c y . p e r c e p t u a l a w a r e n e s s 1 . i n f l u e n c e s on a r t c u r r i c u l u m o r programming 3 . s e m i o t i c s 2 . c u l t u r a l a n t h r o p o l o g y 1 H. P r a c t i c e T e a c h i n g . 1 day p e r week f o r e n t i r e y e a r . c o u n t r y / c i t y 1 I . L e c t u r e r s i n p r e - s e r v i c e p r o g r a m s have had s c h o o l t e a c h i n g e x p e r i e n c e : y e s 1 1 . ( r e c e n t ) a must . d i s g r a c e f u l n o t t o have l e c t u r e r s w i t h p r a c . e x p e r i e n c e J . T h a t l e c t u r e r s i n p r e - s e r v i c e p r o g r a m s be i n v o l v e d i n t e a c h i n g c h i l d r e n on a r e g u l a r b a s i s . t h e y seem t o have l o s t t o u c h . M A d d i t i o n a l " s t r u c t u r e of program' i s s u e s : . separate t r a i n i n g f o r a r t educator v i s u a l a r t i s t s as aims d i f f e r . major experience i n a r t (1-2 y r s ) bef o r e making a t e a c h i n g d e c i s i o n . v i s i t i n g e x h i b i t i o n s on a r e g u l a r b a s i s . 122 APPENDIX IV RANK ORDER OF RESULTS - SECONDARY RESPONDENTS CONTENT OF COURSE Amount o f Emphasis 1 2 GREAT DEAL L I T T L E OR NONE Mean R e s p o n s e C a t e g o r y 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.7 2.1 2.2 Item # D e s c r i p t o r A ( i ) D r a w i n g ( S t u d i o ) B ( i v ) A r t C u r r i c u l u m G A s s e s s m e n t & E v a l u a t i o n o f S t u d e n t Work E ( i i ) R e l e v a n c e o f A r t t o S t u d e n t s i n S c h o o l s A ( i i ) P a i n t i n g ( S t u d i o ) E ( i ) R e l e v a n c e o f A r t t o S o c i e t y B ( i i i ) T e a c h i n g P r o c e s s ( E d . S t u d i e s ) K ( i i i ) C o n t e m p o r a r y A r t ( c u r r e n t ) ( a r t h i s t o r y ) K ( i v ) A u s t r a l i a n A r t H i s t o r y N Knowledge o f and P r a c t i c e i n A r t E d u c a t i o n C u r r i c u l u m . E ( i v ) S t r a t e g i e s f o r p r o m o t i n g t h e s t a t u s o f a r t i n s c h o o l s F S t u d y and a w a r e n e s s o f a r t t e a c h i n g a i d s and r e s o u r c e s H E l e m e n t s and p r i n c i p l e s o f d e s i g n K ( i i ) Modern A r t H i s t o r y (1900-1980) M Knowledge o f and s t u d y o f a r t e d u c a t i o n t h e o r y A ( i i i ) S c u l p t u r e ( s t u d i o ) A ( i v ) P o t t e r y ( s t u d i o ) A ( v i ) P r i n t m a k i n g ( s t u d i o ) K ( v ) A b o r i g i n a l A r t H i s t o r y D I n f l u e n c e o f c u r r e n t c hange I U n d e r s t a n d i n g c u l t u r a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n f o r m s and f u n c t i o n s o f a r t E ( i i i ) p u b l i c r e l a t i o n s w i t h t h e community K ( v i ) W e s t e r n 123 L P h i l o s o p h y o f A r t O ( i ) E x p r e s s i v e A r t s 2.3 A (x) p h o t o g r a p h y J A e s t h e t i c t h e o r y 2.4 C Employment p r o s p e c t s and e x p e c t a t i o n s o f e m p l o y e r s K ( i ) c l a s s i c a l ( p r e - z o t h c ) P Knowledge o f c u r r e n t r e s e a r c h i n a r t e d u c a t i o n 2.5 A ( v ) f i b r e a r t s A ( x i ) c o m m e r c i a l a r t s K ( v i i i ) A r c h i t e c t u r e 2.6 B ( i ) p s y c h o l o g y K ( v i i ) E a s t e r n 2.7 A ( i x ) me d i a , ( f i l m , v i d e o , t . v . ) 2.8 B ( i i ) s o c i o l o g y ( X i i ) E x p r e s s i v e A r t s 2.9 Q L i b e r a l E d u c a t i o n 3.2 A ( v i i ) S t u d i o a r e a o f a r t : j e w e l l e r y 3.2 A ( x i i ) S t u d i o a r e a o f a r t : c omputer a r t 3.6 A ( v i i i ) S t u d i o a r e a o f a r t : l e a t h e r w o r k STRUCTURE OF COURSE 1 2 3 4 5 VERY NOT IMPORTANT IMPORTANT AT ALL Mean R e s p o n s e It e m # D e s c r i p t o r C a t e g o r y 1.1 L ( i v ) L e c t u r e r s m a i n t a i n i n v o l v e m e n t i n s c h o o l s 1.3 I ( i i ) L e c t u r e r s i n o t h e r t h a n s t u d i o c o u r s e s have s c h o o l t e a c h i n g e x p e r i e n c e . L ( i ) T e a c h e r s m a i n t a i n i n v o l v e m e n t i n a r t . 1.5 A B r e a d t h o f knowledge i n s t u d i o a r e a s . C I n t e g r a t i o n o f a s p e c t s o f a r t w i t h i n s t u d i o c o u r s e s L ( v i ) T e a c h e r s m a i n t a i n l i a i s o n w i t h o t h e r s c h o o l a r t p r o g r a m s 124 L ( v i i ) 1.6 H ( i ) I ( i ) K ( i i ) L ( i i ) 1.7 K ( i ) K ( i i i ) 1.8 B. F H ( i v ) 1.9 J . 2.1 G L ( i v ) 2.2 D 2.3 L ( i i i ) 2.4 E 2.5 H ( i i ) 2.7 L ( v ) 3.1 K ( v ) 3.2 H ( i i i ) 3.4 H ( i ) T e a c h e r s m a i n t a i n i n v o l v e m e n t w i t h i n - s e r v i c e programmes P r a c t i c e t e a c h i n g a t j r / s r l e v e l s o f p r o g r a m L e c t u r e r s i n s t u d i o a r e a s have s c h o o l t e a c h i n g e x p e r i e n c e L e c t u r e r s m a i n t a i n i n v o l v e m e n t i n a r t e d u c a t i o n i s s u e s . T e a c h e r s m a i n t a i n i n v o l v e m e n t i n a r t e d u c a t i o n i s s u e s . L e c t u r e r s m a i n t a i n i n v o l v e m e n t i n a r t p r a c t i c e . L e c t u r e r s m a i n t a i n i n v o l v e m e n t i n a r t s o r g a n i z a t i o n s . D e p t h o f knowledge i n some s t u d i o a r e a s . I n v o l v e m e n t i n c o n t e n t a n d media r e l e v a n t t o s c h o o l c i r c u m s t a n c e s . P r a c t i c e t e a c h i n g more t h a n o n c e a y e a r . L e c t u r e r s be i n v o l v e d i n t e a c h i n g c h i l d r e n on r e g u l a r b a s i s . I n v o l v e m e n t i n m e d i a f o r own p e r s o n a l d e v e l o p m e n t A r t s o r g s . A r t c u r r i c u l u m i s a p a r t o f s t u d i o c o u r s e s A r t p r e - s e r v i c e p r o g r a m s S e p a r a t e , t h o r o u g h g r o u n d i n g i n d i f f e r e n t a s p e c t s o f a r t f o r 5 o r more weeks a t one t i m e o b t a i n i n g f u r t h e r q u a l i f i c a t i o n s L e c t u r e r s m a i n t a i n i n v o l v e m e n t i n o b t a i n i n g f u r t h e r q u a l i f i c a t i o n s P r a c t i c e T e a c h i n g f o r s h o r t b u t r e g u l a r t i m e s P r a c t i c e T e a c h i n g : a t a l l l e v e l s o f a p r o g r a m : ( p r / j r / s r ) 125 APPENDIX V RANK ORDER OF RESULTS - TERTIARY RESPONDENTS CONTENT OF COURSE 1 2 3 4 5 GREAT L I T T L E OR DEAL NONE Mean R e s p o n s e It e m # D e s c r i p t o r C a t e g o r y 1.1 A ( i ) D r a w i n g ( S t u d i o ) 1.2 A ( i i ) P a i n t i n g ( S t u d i o ) B ( i v ) A r t C u r r i c u l u m 1.3 N Knowledge o f and p r a c t i c e i n a r t c u r r i c u l u m and p r o g r a m p l a n n i n g 1.4 E ( i ) R e l e v a n c e o f a r t t o s o c i e t y E ( i i ) R e l e v a n c e o f a r t t o s t u d e n t s i n s c h o o l s K ( i i i ) C o n t e m p o r a r y ( c u r r e n t ) a r t h i s t o r y K ( i v ) A u s t r a l i a n a r t h i s t o r y M Knowledge and s t u d y o f a r t e d u c a t i o n t h e o r y 1.6 B ( i i ) T e a c h i n g p r o c e s s ( E d . s t u d i e s ) E ( i v ) S t r a t e g i e s f o r p r o m o t i n g t h e s t a t u s o f a r t i n s c h o o l s K ( i i ) Modern a r t h i s t o r y (1900- 1980) 1.7 D I n f l u e n c e o f c u r r e n t c h a n g e s i n t h e E d . s y s t e m F S t u d y and a w a r e n e s s o f a r t t e a c h i n g a i d s and r e s o u r c e s G A s s e s s m e n t and e v a l u a t i o n o f s t u d i o a r t work 1.8 I U n d e r s t a n d i n g o f c u l t u r a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n f o r m s an d f u n c t i o n s o f a r t 1.9 P u b l i c r e l a t i o n s w i t h t h e community A b o r i g i n a l a r t h i s t o r y 2 P h i l o s o p h y o f a r t 2.1 J A e s t h e t i c T h e o r y K ( v i ) W e s t e r n ( A r t H i s t o r y ) P Knowledge o f C u r r e n t 126 R e s e a r c h i n a r t e d u c a t i o n 2.2 A ( i i i ) S t u d i o a r e a : s c u l p t u r e 2.3 K ( i ) C l a s s i c a l a r t h i s t o r y ( p r e 20th C) 2.4 A ( v i ) S t u d i o a r e a : p r i n t m a k i n g B ( i i ) E d . S t u d i e s : s o c i o l o g y H E l e m e n t s and p r i n c i p l e s o f d e s i g n K ( v i i i ) A r c h i t e c t u r e ( A r t H i s t o r y ) Q L i b e r a l E d u c a t i o n 2.6 A ( i v ) S t u d i o a r e a : p o t t e r y A ( x ) S t u d i o a r e a : p h o t o g r a p h y C Employment p r o s p e c t s and e x p e c t a t i o n s o f e m p l o y e r s 2.7 A ( v ) S t u d i o a r e a : f i b r e a r t s A ( i x ) S t u d i o a r e a : m e d i a ( f i l m , v i d e o , t . v . ) B ( i ) E d . S t u d i e s : p s y c h o l o g y K ( v i i ) E a s t e r n ( A r t H i s t o r y ) O ( i ) I n t e g r a t i o n o f a r t w i t h o t h e r s u b j e c t s : E x p r e s s i v e A r t s O ( i i ) I n t e g r a t i o n o f a r t : w i t h o t h e r s u b j e c t s i n t h e c u r r i c u l u m 3.1 A ( v i i ) S t u d i o a r e a o f a r t : j e w e l l e r y H ( i i ) P r a c t i c e T e a c h i n g : f o r 5 o r more weeks a t a t i m e 3.2 A ( x i ) S t u d i o a r e a o f a r t : c o m m e r c i a l a r t s 3.5 A ( x i i ) S t u d i o a r e a o f a r t : computer a r t 3.6 A ( v i i i ) S t u d i o a r e a o f a r t : l e a t h e r w o r k 127 STRUCTURE OF COURSE 1 2 VERY IMPORTANT Mean R e s p o n s e Item # C a t e g o r y 1.2 1.3 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9 L ( i i ) H ( i ) L ( v i i ) L ( i ) L( i v ) B C K ( i i ) L ( v i ) I ( i ) I ( i i ) K ( i i i ) L ( i i i ) F E G A K ( i ) NOT IMPORTANT AT ALL D e s c r i p t o r T e a c h e r s m a i n t a i n i n v o l v e m e n t i n a r t e d u c a t i o n i s s u e s P r a c t i c e t e a c h i n g a t ( j r / s r ) l e v e l s o f a p r o g r a m T e a c h e r s m a i n t a i n i n v o l v e m e n t i n i n - s e r v i c e p r o g r a m s T e a c h e r s m a i n t a i n i n v o l v e m e n t i n a r t T e a c h e r s m a i n t a i n i n v o l v e m e n t i n a r t s o r g a n i z a t i o n s D e p t h o f kno w l e d g e i n s t u d i o a r e a s I n t e g r a t i o n o f d i f f e r e n t a s p e c t s o f a r t w i t h i n s t u d i o a r e a s . L e c t u r e r s m a i n t a i n i n v o l v e m e n t i n a r t e d u c a t i o n i s s u e s T e a c h e r s m a i n t a i n l i a i s o n s w i t h o t h e r s c h o o l a r t p r o g r a m s L e c t u r e r s i n s t u d i o have s c h o o l t e a c h i n g e x p e r i e n c e L e c t u r e r s i n o t h e r c o u r s e s have t e a c h i n g e x p e r i e n c e L e c t u r e r s m a i n t a i n i n v o l v e m e n t s i n a r t s o r g a n i z a t i o n s T e a c h e r s m a i n t a i n i n v o l v e m e n t i n a r t p r e - s e r v i c e p r o g r a m s I n v o l v e m e n t i n c o n t e n t and me d i a r e l e v a n t t o s c h o o l c i r c u m s t a n c e s S e p a r a t e , t h o r o u g h g r o u n d i n g i n d i f f e r e n t a s p e c t s o f a r t I n v o l v e m e n t i n c o n t e n t and me d i a f o r s t u d e n t s own p e r s o n a l d e v e l o p m e n t B r e a d t h o f knowledge i n s t u d i o a r e a s L e c t u r e r s m a i n t a i n i n v o l v e m e n t i n a r t p r a c t i c e . 2.1 H ( i v ) K ( i v ) 2.2 D H ( i i i ) 2.3 H ( i ) L ( v ) 2.5 K ( v ) 2.8 J 3.1 H ( i i ) 128 P r a c t i c e T e a c h i n g : More t h a n o n c e a y e a r L e c t u r e r s m a i n t a i n i n v o l v e m e n t i n : s c h o o l s A r t c u r r i c u l u m i s a p a r t o f s t u d i o c o u r s e s P r a c t i c e T e a c h i n g : s h o r t b u t r e g u l a r t i m e s P r a c t i c e T e a c h i n g : a t p r i m a r y / j u n i o r s e n i o r l e v e l s A r t t e a c h e r s m a i n t a i n i n v o l v e m e n t i n : o b t a i n i n g f u r t h e r q u a l i f i c a t i o n s L e c t u r e r s m a i n t a i n i n v o l v e m e n t i n : o b t a i n i n g f u r t h e r q u a l i f i c a t i o n s L e c t u r e r s be i n v o l v e d i n t e a c h i n g c h i l d r e n on a r e g u l a r b a s i s . 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