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Art teacher pre-service education : a survey of the attitudes of Queensland secondary, and tertiary.. Garnons-Williams, Victoria 1987

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ART  TEACHER  ATTITUDES  OF  PRE-SERVICE  EDUCATION:  A  Q U E E N S L A N D SECONDARY, AND  SURVEY OF TERTIARY  ART  EDUCATORS by Victoria B.Ed.,  Garnons-Williams  The U n i v e r s i t y  A T H E S I S SUBMITTED THE  of British  IN PARTIAL  R E Q U I R E M E N T S FOR MASTER  OF  Columbia  FULFILLMENT  THE  DEGREE  OF  OF  EDUCATION in  THE  FACULTY  Department  OF  of Visual  GRADUATE  STUDIES  and Performing  Arts  Education We  accept this to  THE  thesis  the required  UNIVERSITY  OF  October  Victoria  as  conforming  standard  BRITISH  COLUMBIA  1987  Garnons-Williams,  1987  THE  i n  tn  presenting  degree  at  this  the  thesis in  University of  partial  fulfilment  of  British Columbia, I agree  freely available for reference and study. I further copying  of  department  this or  publication of  thesis for by  his  or  the  representatives.  It  Department of  ^  PERFORMING ARTS IN EDUCATION  The University of British Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3  DE-60/81)  an advanced  that the Library shall make it  Is  granted  by the head  understood  that  this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without  permission.  n  for  agree that permission for extensive  scholarly purposes may be her  requirements  OCTOBER 10,  1987  of  copying my  my or  written  ABSTRACT This of  art  study  educators  lecturers, structure service  the  of  was  lecturers  and  into  values  about  the  three  groups  pre-service  content  in art  of a  and  and  teacher  pre-  structure,  preparation  selected survey  to  throughout  education.  and  items  both  can  assist  pre-service both  Australia.  areas  study  art  An  within  programmes  and The educators  analysis of and  of  the  agreement between  development  that  t h e o r e t i c i a n s and  well  pre-service  degrees  the  art  as  gleaned  questionnaire.  Queensland  and  were  scholars  secondary  The  of  content  distributed to  d i f f e r e n c e on  teacher  -  of  tertiary  important  program  identifies  groups.  art  scholars  writings  throughout  results  views  secondary,  in art-teacher  incorporated survey  the  education.  issues  from  and  -  considered  Items as  compares  reflect  of  the  p r a c t i t i o n e r s of  art  iii  TABLE OF CONTENTS  P.  Abstract  i i  L i s t of Tables Acknowledgements  v i i viii  CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION TO STUDY  1  Research Q u e s t i o n s  3  Background t o Study  4  Purpose o f t h i s Study  4  D e s i g n o f t h e Study  5  C o n c l u s i o n and Summary  7  CHAPTER 2 REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE  8  1.  Determining t h e nature o f t h e study  8  2.  D e v e l o p i n g t h e Survey Items from a Review of L i t e r a t u r e  17  "Content o f Course' Items  18  " S t r u c t u r e o f Course' Items  26  "Part C  31  Items  iv  CHAPTER 3 CONDUCT OF THE STUDY  37  Survey  38  Items  Limitations Data  41  of the Survey  Analysis  Descriptions  44  Procedures  45  of the Populations  Summary  48  CHAPTER 4 RESULTS OF THE STUDY  50  CONCLUSIONS  50  What  selected a r t education  perceive service What  as valuable  scholars  i n a r t teacher p r e 50  education  Queensland  valuable  teachers  i n a r t teacher  of a r t perceive  as  pre-service 50  education Comparisons What  tertiary  valuable  with  the Greer  a r t educators  f o r a r t teacher  57  Study  perceive  as  pre-service 58  education Measure for  o f agreement  a r t teacher Secondary Tertiary  existing  pre-service  A r t Educator A r t Educator  within  groups  education  64  Respondents  64  Respondents  67  Agreement and  Tertiary  Measure groups  Between  and between  Tertiary  DISCUSSION  a r t educator  A.  between  Tertiary  OF  THE  used  Points  C.  Implications  SUMMARY  AND  for art 74  respondents respondents  groups  of  76  Secondary 77  between  t h e two  respondent scholarship  of the survey  81  f o r discussion f o r t h e development  pre-service FOR  FURTHER  74  81  and t h e a r t e d u c a t i o n  B.  RECOMMENDATIONS  within  respondents  as the basis  teacher  70  FINDINGS  Relationships groups  Secondary  education  a r t educator  Differences and  existing  groups  pre-service  Secondary  of  Respondents  of difference  teacher  Groups  education STUDY  CONCLUSION  87 of a r t 91 92 93  REFERENCES  95  APPENDICES  102  I  A r t teacher preparation  II  Numerical  III  P e r s o n a l comments  results  survey  f o r items  103 108 119  Rank o r d e r o f r e s u l t s  - secondary  respondents Rank o r d e r o f r e s u l t s respondents  - tertiary  vii  LIST I  Queensland  Secondary  Content  Course  Rank 1-2 II  of  Order  Queensland  of  Content  VI  of  Secondary  A c c o r d i n g t o Mean  A r t E d u c a t o r Group: strongest  VIII  agreement  t o High  strongest  according  Differences  to high  between  modal  t h e group  and t e r t i a r y  more  .9  Items within Responses Items  agreement  secondary than  Modal  A r t E d u c a t o r Group:  indicating  Response  Scale  according  Tertiary  group  Scale  Course  indicating  VII  Response  A r t Educators:  on L i k e r t  Group  -  A r t Educators:  A c c o r d i n g t o Mean  Rank O r d e r 1-2  Response  Course  on L i k e r t  Tertiary  A r t Educators:  Scale  Secondary  Rank O r d e r 3-5  TABLES  A c c o r d i n g t o Mean  on L i k e r t  Structure  IV  OF  within responses means o f  respondents of  on t h e L i k e r t  Scale.  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Thanks his  goes  to  assistance  especially  my a d v i s o r , in  had t o  Ron  Macgregor for  and  to  the  presentation  Hawke,  Dr James  for  Brisbane the  to  express  thesis.  this  his  time  and  and to  gratitude  study is  Donna  program  the  in  also to  to  Dr  sessions support  at  Brisbane, extended this  patience, to  also  and  to  study  White f o r  took  which  summer  the  the  Robert Peard  it  for  study,  Thanks  Finally,  and h i s  many m o n t h s  at  presence  input  to  this  during  his  many m a n u s c r i p t s .  analysis during  of  place.  advice for  of  distance  take  his  Gray  the  Appreciation  side,  of  completion  considering  communications  Australia.  the  Dr Graeme C h a l m e r s ,  on  David the  processing  writer  for  and  Dr  the  wishes data  encouragement  complete  this  1 CHAPTER  1  I N T R O D U C T I O N TO In  order  pre-service what for in  to  develop  education  content  and  now  being  adequate  and  as  STUDY  evaluate  programs,  we  structures are  art education Australia,  THE  art  need  basic  to  or  pre-service students. i n other  inundated  with  preparation  of  countries, proposals  teachers'  teacher consider  desirable At  present  "educators  f o r the (Beyer,  are  more 1986,  p.  16,17). One  way  to  put  the  numerous  teacher  pre-service into  subject  the  response educators tertiary way,  from  by  agreement This  and  taken  value  levels  designers  each or  group  of  and  be  and  the  views  i s seen  into  account  differences that  of  to  a r t educators  aware and  have  In  of  in this  what  degree  is  of  them.  as  crucial  several  practitioners  during  a  art  education.  areas  evaluation for  i f the  researchers  more  d i f f e r e n c e between  information  to  and  teacher  will  be  practitioners:  schools of  for art  p e r s p e c t i v e would  s c h o l a r s and  institutions  development Firstly,  two  of  i n secondary  program  valued  views  proposals  program  been  for  course  reasons. are  solicited  revision,  claimed  to  the  exist  2 between art  tertiary  programs  education might  Secondly,  there  practitioners reforms  more  are  puts  them  in place  have  been  claims  suggest  that  tertiary of  or  (1984), the  the  of  why  unknown.  study  program  of  1976).  be  the Two,  resistant  may  two  "Review  should  of  structures  valued  groups  art teacher  unaware  Hickey  in  are  of  have  prealtered  and  remain reasons more the  with  and  Lastly,  there  establish  content of  be of  therefore,  to  and  to,  (1986).  will  there  current  (1984),  latter  f o r areas by  secondary  of  that  literature  c u r r e n t needs  study  agency  Thirdly,  a r t educators  The  1972).  that  change  both  of  supportive of  Queensland,  the  designers  be  Boughton  of  began,  tertiary  the  value  viewpoints  scholars,  to  a r t educators  i n Chapter  This  suggest  (Hiller  inservice  development  outlined  that  context  secondary  views  the  (1981),  reasons  relatively the  of  may  programs  (Eisner,  Australian  practitioners,  Hammond  historic  of  (Goodlad,  viewpoints  specific  service  part  a r t educators,  theoretical  to  likely  i n the  unconvinced  inservice  lessened  i s evidence  are  i f they  be  and  behind  fully  Literature'. the  notion  comparative  types  of  a r t educators pre-service  -  3 educators,  and secondary  designers more  should  directly  developing Research  What  What  secondary  viewpoints and  p r e - s e r v i c e programs.  l e d to the formulation of  content  five  educators  pre-service 4.  do  selected  as valuable  for art  education?  content  a r t educators  What  and experiences  scholars perceive  pre-service  3.  b)  a r t teacher  pre-service  2.  groups  evaluating existing,  concerns  education  teacher  f o r these  questions:  1.  teacher  account  Program  Questions  research  art  when  new  These  art  also  a r t educators.  and experiences perceive  do  Queensland  as v a l u a b l e  for art  education  content perceive  and experiences as valuable  do  tertiary  f o r a r t teacher  education?  What  measure  and between  experiences  o f agreement  groups  i n terms  f o r a r t teacher  exists  within  o f a) c o n t e n t  and  pre-service  education? 5. groups b)  What m e a s u r e and between  experiences  education?  of disagreement  groups  i n terms  f o r a r t teacher  exists  within  o f a) c o n t e n t  pre-service  and  4 BACKGROUND TO 1985,  In  Education  Since  the  Queensland  and  the  amongst  the  focus  an  of  study  broad,  issues identified  fairly  general,  service  education  examination precisely art by  but  was  those  teacher  could  then  teacher  by  be  was  future  THE  P U R P O S E OF  Research broad  areas  one  of  The  tended  to  with  pre-  to  more  t h a t would  results evaluate and  of  presented.  A  content  areas  intentionally  indicated.  needed,  used  entitled  respondents  p r e - s e r v i c e program  and  specific  identify  the  more  experiences  t h a t were  from  such  be  a  valued survey  existing  determine  for  art  directions  development. THIS  STUDY  This  study  was  are  value  differences  tertiary  were  pre-service education  for  there  survey  some d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n  was  a r t educators.  Teacher  some v e r y  educators  that  of  Identifying  i n which  arts  Board  informal  Arts:  1985)  (Duck  concern  STUDY  conducted  "Education Needs'  THE  designed  practitioners  and  to  what  the  content  pre-service  extent and  and  there  education.  discover  between  differences needed  Results  whether  secondary  art education  are  experiences  to  scholars concerning  in art  would  and  give  teacher  5 practitioner suggest order  areas  to  DESIGN  of  OF  THE views  questionnaire of  in-service new  of  were used  that  was  Queensland  within  every  item  response i t was and  specific  was  was  study  as  no  Definitions  of  field  enquiry  into  of  groups.  between  aspects  espoused  In  of groups  preparation.  which  by  then  It  of  art  by  practitioners.  intended this  for  type  has  been  previously.  terms  education  primary  survey  and  and  to  and  areas  to  and  Responses  between  within  also valued  piloting,  educators  describe  describe  survey  collated  i n a r t teacher  is descriptive,  i n Queensland  Art  group were  possible to  were  art  compared  a  after  Educators.  pre-service education  deliberation, done  each  issues  formulate  submitted,  disagreement  theoreticians The  to  secondary Art  also possible to  teacher  models  in  scholars  item  on  program  necessary  selected art education  every  agreement  liaison  and  content.  Tertiary  way,  or  evaluation  or  Australian  this  program  STUDY  researchers  groups  into  implement  The and  input  of or  "scholars' refers  study the  or  occupation  a n a l y s i s of  the  to the  those  whose  critical  teaching  of  art,  6 those  who  Gray's  a r e most a l i g n e d t o t h e  (1985) m u l t i - d i m e n s i o n a l  "•Researchers" publish on and  refer  studies or  a r t teacher  tertiary the  i s the  who  r e p o r t s t h a t make  education,  conduct  of  and  recommendations  including Australian education  in Australia,  survey-questionnaire  on  State  commissions.  common t e r m f o r t h o s e  institutions  levels  model.  to those  Commonwealth t e a c h e r  "Lecturer'  in  will  upper  and  i t e m s and  teaching  in  i s used  both  within  this  study. Limitations  and  delimitations  Some s e l e c t i o n o f  i t e m s and  n e c e s s a r i l y made i n o r d e r t o be  a daunting  made t o  the  literature,  topics.  The  specifically gathering and  f o r the  incorporate  and  the  be  Every  some u n i q u e  survey  questionnaire  generally will  not  recurring topics in  as w e l l as  shortcomings of the  was  questionnaire  length to respondents.  a t t e m p t was general  topics  instrument  method o f  data  o u t l i n e d i n Chapters  2  i n the  art  3. T h e r e were l i m i t a t i o n s  educators  surveyed.  "secondary* first  year  Results  population  collated  group i n c l u d e d o n l y those of teaching  ( o n l y one  from  the  beyond  respondent  of  their was  7 omitted art  on  these  educators  from  other  larger  were  States  number  Conclusion The  grounds).  of  and  collected as "well  for establishing content  pre-service a r t teacher  to  any  f u t u r e changes  as  valued  a  proposed  An  of  the  views  accumulated  basis  for a  questionnaire comparative secondary  areas  of  a  is  preparation  those those  things things  viewpoints  Results  consensus  are and  this  s c h o l a r s have  analysed of  to  and  a  are  to  used  as  the the  Queensland  number  descriptive, difference.  are  study,  been  determine  selected  is  that that  in  the  In  q u e s t i o n n a i r e . Response were  valued  prerequisite  researchers:  of  is  p r e - s e r v i c e programme  art education.  a r t educators  educators.  secure  experience  education  and  s c h o l a r s and  "theoreticians'  a  and  comparative  and  between  practitioners, by  to  i n a r t teacher  effective  "mediation'  by  Queensland  i n order  in  seen  "tertiary  respondents.  f o r what  Queensland.  from  from  Summary  need  viewpoints  Responses  of  tertiary  identifying  art  8  CHAPTER TWO REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE A the  survey  designing of this  undertaken was  of literature  was  study.  t o determine  that  the appropriate starting  evaluation  and development  preparation review  program  Chapter  items will  i n two ways i n  Initially, a study point  i t was  of this  o f t h e major  a r t teacher  Secondly,  was u n d e r t a k e n  both  of these  a  t o formulate the  f o r the survey-questionnaire.  address  nature  f o rthe  i n Queensland.  of literature  specific  used  This  "reviews' i n  turn. 1.  DETERMINING While  using  approach his  one"  alone,  Beyer  changed  without  viewpoints, alludes  reform:  will  once  again  rush  Toward  to  a t t h e expense  and s u s t a i n e d a n a l y s i s ,  an this  to this i n  caution - "In particular,  and r e a c t i o n ,  reflective  STUDY  c o n c e i v a b l y be  "Art i n Education  educators  THE  participants'  i s problematic.  and urges  action,  might  OF  of theorists  of other  article  end?' that  programs  the advice  awareness  T H E NATURE  what  t h e danger  judgement,  of thoughtful,  i s an  (1986, p . 17). M a c G r e g o r s u p p o r t s  ominous this  9 cautionary to  view  pre-service  (1985).  Hiller  this  directly  -  [Teachers]  must  temptation  t o "jump  be a b l e  some  new  this  c a n be done  on  links  panacea  to resist the  on t h e band  i s being  wagons"  promoted.  at pre-service  the a b i l i t y of those  Whether  level  designing  when  depends  the  courses"  (1984, p . 36).  as  Secondly,  using  scholars'  the primary  basis  f o r changes  programs from  i s problematic  the classroom  1983,  C.D.C.,  this,  and a l s o  be  isolated  "Teacher from (p. of  19). 1979  from  both  recommending secondary  education  decisions  about  for  teacher  recommend  those  this,  Eisner, supports  educators  o f becoming  Schools this  and a r t  the content  report by  f o r primary  involved  Other  b u t do n o t o u t l i n e  -  education"  possibility  and  i n making  and s t r u c t u r e  ( p . 23).  may  isolated  Commission  responsible  be c l o s e l y  trainees"  isolation  1984,  teacher  i n the arts  to counteract "that  of their  t h e o r i s t s and classrooms  The A u s t r a l i a n hoped  that  work  pre-service  1985 r e p o r t  are at risk  involved  to  (Gray,  Duck's  indicates  educators  others  because  situation  1985).  and r e s e a r c h e r s '  of  courses  reports  exactly  how  this  is  t o be a c c o m p l i s h e d .  ideas of t h e o r i s t s  By s u b j e c t i n g some o f t h e  concerning  of p r e - s e r v i c e t o those give teachers b)  find  i n the f i e l d ,  some i n p u t i n t o t e a c h e r  o u t whether p r a c t i t i o n e r s  support  we c a n :  a)  e d u c a t i o n , and  Practitioners  a l s o may n o t be aware  o r may n o t a g r e e w i t h , what t h e o r i s t s p r o p o s e o r  what t e a c h e r s  value.  at a comparative  Out o f t h i s  the l i t e r a t u r e ,  s t u d i e s t h a t canvassed teacher dearth Art,  of studies involving  Instant Culture  dealing guidance other  teacher  preparation i n art.  teachers,  reported  t h e r e were few  viewpoints  Chapman p o i n t s t o t h e a r t teachers  (1982p. 1 0 7 ) .  H e r own s t u d y o f  Commission,  Botsman, 1985) were v e r y of investigation,  valuable  of items.  studies p e r t i n e n t t o the intended  pre-service content  i n Instant  preparation, presented  i n terms o f s p e c i f i c i t y  (Schools  about  i n t h e same volume, w h i l e n o t  with teacher  population  areas  came t h e a t t e m p t  study.  In r e v i e w i n g  "The  and s t r u c t u r e  i n the classroom  the ideas of t h e o r i s t s .  within pre-service faculties of,  content  Most  f o c u s and  1983, Duck, 1985,  general,  indicating  but not s p e c i f i c  or structure.  broad  i n terms o f  Greer's  study of  P r o f e s s i o n a l P r e p a r a t i o n Needs o f A r t T e a c h e r s  i n the S t a t e of Arkansas",  (1979), while  s p e c i f i c i n terms of items was  extremely  only meant t o  e v a l u a t e e x i s t i n g teacher p r e p a r a t i o n programs i n Arkansas.  R e s u l t s from the Greer study were  d e s c r i p t i v e of what a r t t e a c h e r s thought  was  " d e s i r a b l e ' or " u n d e s i r a b l e ' f o r p r e p a r a t i o n i n terms of what was  a l r e a d y o f f e r e d i n the S t a t e ' s  p r e - s e r v i c e programs, not what was theorists.  proposed by  N e v e r t h e l e s s , i t p r o v i d e d a u s e f u l model  f o r the present study and some comparisons are made between the r e s u l t s of the two  s t u d i e s i n Chapter  where i t i s shown t h a t s e v e r a l t r e n d s were between the p o p u l a t i o n s surveyed. important Greer's  4,  supported  The most  c o n t r i b u t i o n t o the present study  was  r a t i o n a l e , which concurred with the  r a t i o n a l e f o r the survey i n Queensland:  namely,  t h a t p r e - s e r v i c e program d e s i g n e r s must be aware of what t e a c h e r s v a l u e i n t h e i r p r e p a r a t i o n i n order to "design b e t t e r programs' and e f f e c t a more collaborative effort.  However, the use of the  content of e x i s t i n g programs to formulate the survey was present study.  items  on  seen as r a t h e r l i m i t i n g f o r the There i s some evidence t h a t t e a c h e r s  t e a c h as they themselves were taught i n p r e - s e r v i c e ,  which  (1981) c a l l s  Hammond  89). H i c k e y  development"  (p.  as  she claims  well  when  "a s e l f - p e r p e t u a t i n g  (1984) s u p p o r t s  "training  institutions  has s e t t h e p a t t e r n  methodology"  ( p . 59).  that  some o f t h e i t e m s  beyond most  that  which  existing With  ascertain  program  how  brief  value Many  that  provide  informed, may  overview  theory  have  education  overseas.  obtained  situation i n my  study  theoretical  their  degrees  has a  long  influential  personnel, (Braben, perhaps  history  such  concerning l e d me t o may n o t  context work i n  i n art  and Queensland i n of importing  curricula,  1982).  views.  proposals.  s c h o l a r s who  Australia,  particular,  that  supportive  of the literature  a n d many  to  theoretical  s c h o l a r s work i n a  Australia,  elsewhere  be a b l e  receptive, or  the populations  a r t education  suggested  crucial  of a r t educator  will  be t o c u r r e n t  Australia  from  and  the foundations f o r  designers  some o f t h e c u r r e n t  outside  i t was  to current  A u s t r a l i a n and Queensland  believe  case,  i n content  programs.  practitioners A  may  refer  in tertiary both  a more p r e c i s e p r o f i l e  viewpoints,  the  In t h i s  this  key and  and i d e o l o g i e s  I t has been  wholesale  importation i s  counter-productive article  "Art  Australia,  I  teacher  and  the  suspect,  art  and  I  teacher that and  their  studies  courses  necessarily  tendency  of  metaphors  they  in his  Art  systems been or  Because create  for  "Changing  and  the  i t , they  improved  of  have  i n the  English  USA  the  p.  very  been  60). fact  imported  is  documents  conflicting of  is  or  (1983,  Mackrell  Context  from  than  that  and  art-  argue  terminology  education  resisted.  of  quasi-scientific  rather  suggested  that  in  I would  programmes  context of  i n the  Forces",  and  innovations  are  thesis  Education  Political  i n the  USA,  guarantee  borrow  destructive  reason  this  to  potentially  ideologies  i n the  Indeed,  education  even  Australian  in professional  management  has  and  cautions  assume  art-teacher  It  English  outlined  her  England,  i f they  preparation.  Australian  the  that  in  misguided  constructive  that  are  have  themselves,  in  Mason,  some o b s e r v a t i o n s "  however,  innovations kind  preparation  USA:  educators  the  inappropriate.  Social  views  and  states  most are  part not  Australians  committed  to  did i t .  not Ideas  and  v a l u e s c a n be u s e d b u t a r e mocked.  sceptism  o f t h e Bush t r a d i t i o n  of the Digger distrust If art  this  combine t o c r e a t e ....  i s so, then A u s t r a l i a n o r Queensland would n o t l i k e l y  theoretical  supported  and t h e c y n i c i s m  ...(1981, p. 2 0 7 ) .  educators  current  tradition  The  value  thinking.  T h i s would  by Hammond i n h i s a r t i c l e  Ideologies:  c u r r e n t emphasis  external seem t o be  " A r t Education  i n Australia', i n  w h i c h he c l a i m s t h a t t h e o r i s t s  are "largely  by  (1981, p . 8 8 ) . I t  a r t educators  was t h o u g h t  i n Australia"  t h a t a survey  s u b s t a n t i a t e these specific  areas  views,  viewpoints factor. programs,  concerning  Prior  suggests  changes t o t h e Queensland  their  a r t educators'  p r e p a r a t i o n an unknown  t o 1976, p r e p a r a t o r y c o l l e g e  syllabi,  and c l a s s r o o m  legislated. that  may  and h e l p t o l o c a t e  s t r u c t u r e make s e c o n d a r y  p r o g r a m s were c l o s e l y centrally  o f some a r t e d u c a t o r s  of contention.  Recent, dramatic educational  ignored  teachers'  work  a l i g n e d because they  were  Mackrell  (1981, p . 171)  "change, when i t d i d o c c u r ,  come a s a c o n s e q u e n c e o f d i r e c t i o n  tended  of central  a d m i n i s t r a t o r s a n d i t was a p p l i e d u n i f o r m l y  to  throughout Teacher also and  a state."  Education  documents with  view  between  this,  o f autonomy  "with art  autonomy  education,  bureaucratic will  almost  This  autonomy  divergence teacher  i n the f i e l d of  a r t teacher alter  does  of  education (1982,  i t s concept"  not necessarily  of a r t educators'  not guarantee like  other  contact  education  awareness  t h e system  more autonomy  ROSBA  that  and t h e r e l i n q u i s h i n g  viewpoints  preparation, but, along  One close  with the  education  for institutions  certainly  process,  62).  p.  groups  this  was d i s s o l v e d  He c o n c l u d e s  control,  (1982)  and u n i f o r m i t y o f  f o r teacher  i n 1976.  ofA r t  1890-1976'  b u t e x p l a i n s how  a r t educators,  institutions  "Survey  i n Queensland  i tthe close contacts  granting  does  Braben's  concerning  other  of viewpoints  factor  groups  t o secondary  system  a  factors, between  of the past.  contributing between  with  indicate  adopted  s t r u c t u r e s (Review  a r t educators.  educators  was t h e s h i f t i n g  under  The  the Radford,  o f School-Based  A major  dissolved  was t h e g r a n t i n g o f  first  (1976)).  change  which  ROSBA  state  then  Assessment  for art  of responsibility f o r  writing  a r t curriculum  classroom were  teacher.  t o be b a s e d  syllabi  that  flexibility newly  These  could  by t h o s e  who  thought  have  a l t e r e d as w e l l .  Needs" between  tertiary  Board  1985).  t h e views  seemed  recommendations major  Queensland  much  i n that  ideas  that  what  Research existed  concerning  by a r t e d u c a t i o n of  this  offering  development  a r t pre-service  issues,  Furthermore,  indication  prerequisite to  and  specific  canvassed  Some  study  Education,  a r t educators  proposed  would  been  informal  agreement  study.  f o r the future  of the  has a l r e a d y  a n d on what  and r e s e a r c h e r s .  information  curriculum  Identifying  had n o t been  some o f t h e c u r r e n t scholars  much  of Teacher  How  a r t educators,  two g r o u p s  as  The  f o r pre-service  o f secondary  not established  these  the courses.  i n the recent,  and t h e A r t s :  (Duck,  much  and i t i s l i k e l y  This  programs  government  t h e needs  be v a l u a b l e  ascertained  "Education  was  would  the Queensland  taught  changed  they  by  work  broad  of the teacher  a r t educator  generally  and t h e  be i n t e r p r e t e d w i t h  undoubtedly  secondary  curriculum  on extremely  altered role  designer  to the schools  program.  of the  2.  DEVELOPING THE  SURVEY ITEMS FROM A REVIEW  OF  LITERATURE In t h i s the survey  section,  items w i l l  the  literature  be b r i e f l y  that  determined  outlined.  Laura  Chapman's I n s t a n t A r t , I n s t a n t C u l t u r e (1982) provided  i n v a l u a b l e guidance  major source f o r s p e c i f i c teacher pre-service  Australian  was  the  items, mainly because  art  e d u c a t i o n i s mentioned  considerable d e t a i l . t h e i d e a s and  f o r t o p i c s and  Other  sources often  r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s made by  a r t e d u c a t i o n r e s e a r c h was  items as w e l l ,  in particular  the  in supported  Chapman. gleaned f o r  unpublished  c o m p i l a t i o n o f n o t e s made by G e o f f Hammond on Teacher  P r e p a r a t i o n ' a t a seminar  Australian 1985.  h e l d by  "Art  the  I n s t i t u t e of A r t Education i n Perth i n  These notes  r e p r e s e n t e d recommendations  i s s u e s c o n s i d e r e d i m p o r t a n t by d e l e g a t e s f r o m  and each  State. Three major a s p e c t s of a r t t e a c h e r programs appeared  i n the  were t h e e l e m e n t s  t h a t were s u g g e s t e d  in  literature.  pre-service  First,  there  for inclusion  a p r o g r a m - t h e s e were sometimes c o u r s e s ( i . e .  " s o c i o l o g y ' ) o r sometimes c o n c e p t s f o r promoting  the  ( i . e . "strategies  status of a r t i n s c h o o l s ' ) .  Second,  there  structure content  Third,  general  there  or local  either  the course  should  be  related  were  some t h i n g s  identified related  ( i . e . "that  of 4 years'  to  courses  duration')  or a r t  of in-school a r t  of organisation, although  overlap, these  made o n t h e s u r v e y  the  ( i . e . "that  controversies that  For t h e sake  separately  i n which  o f knowledge i n s t u d i o  generally ( i . e . funding  some o f t h e a s p e c t s  to the  be p r e s e n t e d  as a whole  a minimum  programs).  were  that  should  have a breadth  areas').  teaching  items  o f t h e p r o g r a m , o r t h e way  or topics  students  as  were  and w i l l  three  be  divisions  addressed  here.  "CONTENT OF COURSE' ITEMS Content the in  items  literature. terms  o f what  were  by  However, should  be  f a r t h e most i t was  but not necessarily  programs.  Keeping  that  i s a connection  in  there  schools  and what  between what  i s experienced  secondary  and p r e - s e r v i c e c o n t e n t The  overview  assumption  i s practised  i n pre-service,  i n the literature  items.  "content'  i n school  i n mind t h e u n d e r l y i n g  topics  survey  in  in pre-service  recurring  into  generally  taught  curricula,  prolific  regarding were  of  both  developed  content  presented teacher to  i n t h e diagram,  know  Build  most  f o r each  inclusion A.  where  item,  this  outline along  Studio  were  found  leatherwork  and  notably  could  or crafts.  also  others.  pottery, fibre  which  of the  Proponents  arts  i s  subjects  drawing,  elective  Senior Syllabus, arts,  printmaking  be  loosely  termed  These  applied  arts are  by R i c h a r d s o n  Lanier  fine  with  i n t h e Queensland  as jewellery,  proposed  survey.  rationales f o r  included, that  offerings  arts  "How  but  i n the  o f some  - The h i s t o r i c a l  and s c u l p t u r e , along  applied  survey,  with  painting,  and  i n  warranted:  a r t education  such  by B o u g h t o n  o f the items  follows i s a brief  sources  of  with  an a r t  (1986, p . 33), was  concurrently with  correlates  should  art" outlined  an A r t Teacher"  developed  What  about  "what  (1984), C h a p m a n  of the study  (1984), F e l d m a n  (1978)  o f newer  (1976) a n d  media,  Jones  (1980) p r o m p t e d t h e i n c l u s i o n o f f i l m , v i d e o , T . V and  photography.  medium in  f o r doing  Computer  a r t projects  curriculum planning  century"  A r t was  added  ... t o be  as "a considered  f o r t h e end o f t h e t w e n t i e t h  (1982, p . 31). C o m m e r c i a l a r t was  listed  in  the  Greer  Approaches B.  Australian and  the  of  content  these  of  also  of  1978,  used  themselves  pre-service. reference  items.  The  the  deemed  were  1979,  Teacher  "Education  survey  The  (1977,  concern  with  course'  faculties.  i n c l u d e d i n the  Employment  employers  -  Eisner  s t r u c t u r e and the  Council art  Review  or  institutions,  Reports,  of  study  "constant'  education  aspects  in  The  to  some  four  areas  Studies*  "essentials'  in  reports. C.  to  general  Greer's  separate  Report,  "structure of  section  - As  Commission  Queensland  r e p o r t s were  the  within  Bassett  with  of  the  housed  Chapman  (1978).  g e n e r a l l y the  Schools  Education,  same  are  Studies  studies i n teacher  times  mostly  h i g h l i g h t e d by  to Art i n Education  these  required  1983)  and  Education  showed,  often  study  neophyte "Parr  graduates  "employment pre-service.  prospects  expectations  (1972) c o n s i d e r s k n o w l e d g e functioning of  teacher.  Report' who  and  The  the  1980  school  were  now  teachers  prospects'  was  a  that  necessary  about  crucial  Australian  r e c e i v e d many c o m m e n t s  of  Arts from  indicated  topic  for  21  D. as  Current  a whole  this is  - The AIAE  as a valuable  given  such  states  of the forces  which  a r e shaping  local  level"  (1985)  included  f o rp r e - s e r v i c e , and i t  a t t e n t i o n by a r t e d u c a t o r s  Degge i i .  Lanier  at the federal,  school  Role  considered  a s Hammond  very  This  important  (1981), Mason  -  by  (1983),  McFee  (1977). relevance  this  list  i i i .  state  of the A r t Educator  of a r tto society -  of a r tt o students  This  o f important  public  "increasing'  (1976)  as the starting  a r tactivities.  seminar  and economic  (1982, p . 9 9 ) .  (1972) a n d F e l d m a n  suggest  arts'  education  relevance  such  a l s o be  political  i.  scholars  should  - social,  A r t Advocacy  has been  art  notes  "Art teachers  E.  emphasis  and  seminar  system  as E i s n e r .  aware  and  i n the educational  concept  considerable  Chapman  -  changes  relations  o r "enhancing  i n particular  point  f o r effective  was a l s o o n t h e A I A E  issues. - Chapman  lists  p u b l i c awareness  as one o f h e r recommendations  education  i n schools  (1982, p . 159-60)  .  of the  f o r improving Degge  states:  -  Helping the  our  art education  importance  establishing  students,  about  what  iv.  outlining  these  F.  Art  considers are  of  Queensland as  of as  administrators and  a  "Assessment  seems  perceptions  of  the  status  deal  of  in Instant  of  art  time  Art,  Instant  aids  and  resources  employ  familiar  with  -  Chapman  teachers  of  resources  art  for  42). student  Education  well of  as  a r t work  formally."  in Art" art  area,  -  i n Queensland  Secondary  problem  secondary  i t s value  the  good  evaluation should  Board  with  159).  (p.  "methods  amongst  a  specifically  Teacher  functionally  an  spends  teaching  art"  talk  178).  Evaluation of  this  learned  i t "imperative...to  G.  saw  and  in altering  ) thoroughly  teaching  that  Chapman  (1982, p .  Culture  Review  -  of  substantive  S t r a t e g i e s f o r promoting  schools  (who  step  (1979, p .  others  and  parents,  i s being  necessary  understand  responsibility  on-going  their  a  in  and  students  be  devoting  booklet  for  educators.  1978  recommends  taught  (p.  Schools  The  iv)  The  Studies time  to  also produce  distribution  23 H.  Elements  and P r i n c i p l e s o f Design  practice,  criticism  reference  t o the "formal  Study ten  done  years  included major  and a e s t h e t i c  theory  properties'  -  Studio  often  make  o f a r t works.  (1975) s h o w e d t h a t f o r a t l e a s t  by C l a r k  the majority t h e elements  of a r t education  textbooks  and p r i n c i p l e s o f design  as a  component. I.  functions  Cultural  differences  i n forms and  of art:  Many a r t e d u c a t o r s ,  (1978), M c F e e a n d D e g g e  Chalmers  including  (1977) a n d  Hammond  (1981) h a v e s u g g e s t e d s h i f t i n g  t h e emphasis  curriculum  anthropologically  based.  t o one t h a t  The p a r t i c u l a r wording  was c h o s e n  i n case  with  terms  such  J.  Aesthetic  literacy' education" mentioned art  as " c u l t u r a l theory  based  were  i n Duck's  - Lanier single  Report  into  identifies purpose  "Aesthetic  of a r t  i s also focus f o r  (1985, p . 7 ) .  - This  disciplines  chronological  on t h e c h r o n o l o g i c a l  not familiar  as a d e s i r e d  i n Queensland  A r t History  item  anthropology'.  (1980, p . 1 1 ) . " A e s t h e t i c s '  o f t h e major  breakdown  f o r the survey  a r t educators  as the "proper  education K.  one  i s more  i n a r t  item  was  included  as  of a r t education. periods  structure  was  The  loosely  o f many p r e -  service Hickey  a r t history  i n "Some r e c e n t  history  and c r i t i c i s m  "Architecture' art  history  Proponents  a n d Ward  a  that  scholars  would  educators"  approach  N.  group,  t o theory  within  emphasis  (1978),  item  in  Adams,  included take  a r t education.  of A r t Education "As a  are probably than  less  most  (1982, p . 102). T h e i t e m was i n c l u d e d t o of  this.  A r t Curriculum/Program  ( i . e .Eisner  saying  was  f o r instance)  to studying  and research  are considered  program to  (1978),  a r t educators  important (1971);  (1974) a n d o t h e r s ) . by  be Chalmers  and study  some a f f i r m a t i o n  texts,  item  "environment'.  - Chapman makes t h e c l a i m t h a t  receptive  areas  on  of Art - This  (Efland  Knowledge  professional  seek  (1984, p . 58-65).  as a separate  a r e based  Philosophy  *  Theory  to teaching a r t  i n schools'  listed  of this  philosophical M  approaches  (1982).  L. some  was  a s commented on by  a s i t has r e c e i v e d renewed  curriculums  as  courses,  "Curriculum  - i s an a r e a  integrate their  Chapman  Planning  i n many  Hardiman  knowledge  These  a r t education and Z e r n i c h  sums u p t h e i m p o r t a n c e  development o f study  -  that about  - planning  an a r t  can help  teachers  a r t , about  students and other i n f o r m a t i o n d e r i v e d from t h e i r coursework i n e d u c a t i o n " O.  (1982, p. 97).  I n t e g r a t i o n of A r t with Other  Subjects  There i s some c o n t r o v e r s y between s c h o l a r s on t h i s point.  While s c h o l a r s such as Lewis (1976) support  i n t e g r a t i o n between the a r t s , L a n i e r would discourage educators  it.  E i s n e r has suggested  t h a t some a r t  c o n s i d e r a r t o b j e c t i v e s i n the wider  context o f general education  - he r e f e r s t o t h i s as  a " c o n t e x t u a l i s t ' viewpoint  (1971).  so f a r as t o l i n k r i g i d with a r t education's  Hammond goes  " s t r a t i f i c a t i o n of s u b j e c t s '  weakened s t a t u s i n s c h o o l s  (1981, p. 90). P.  Current Research - T h i s item was i n c l u d e d  as a " n u l l ' item, as many s c h o l a r s and r e s e a r c h e r s q u e s t i o n the v a l u i n g o f r e s e a r c h by those a t the classroom  level;  E i s n e r , i n "Can e d u c a t i o n a l  r e s e a r c h inform e d u c a t i o n p r a c t i c e ? * (1983)  suggests  t h a t i t i s "good i d e a s ' and not c u r r e n t r e s e a r c h t h a t i s valued by p r a c t i t i o n e r s . g e n e r a l l y supported Chapman, 1982). defend  T h i s seems t o be  (Day and D i B l a s i o , 1983,  Although  the l a t t e r g e n e r a l l y  r e s e a r c h , they acknowledge t h a t t e a c h e r s may  remain s k e p t i c a l o f i t s v a l u e .  26 Q. that  Liberal  many p r e - s e r v i c e  insufficient important that  an  "key' in  survey  i n order  population  are  important  Similarly,  and  "Breadth'  - There  of  has  studio  service.  Chapman  of  of  scope'  of  "Teachers'.  B.  those  to  Items  studio K  and  been  were  A  "Depth'  of  (1982) c r i t i c i z e s programs',  as  the  does  of  the  B  ask  and  of  experience  in  identify  what  for  sources  for  follow: studio  some c o n t r o v e r s y necessary  set  "breadth'  the  for inclusion and  considered  involvements  Some o f  experience  "depth  L  for  of  polarization  consider  items  items  "structure  example, they  of  Questions  i f any  "depth'  rationales  and  type  or  and  experience the  the  considered important  "Lecturers'  A  suggests  i s needed  number  viewpoints.  For  how  the  confined to  occurred.  experience  Items  and  education  manageable,  show  pre-service. things  keep  to  respondents  the  to  for profiling  studio  with  ITEMS  q u e s t i o n s were  pairs  cope  program,  liberal  COURSE*  attempt  entire  course'  i n to  "have  this.  "STRUCTURE OF In  rigor"  in their  a wide-ranging  (1984) c l a i m s  - Hiller  a r t educators  academic  concepts  accomplish  the  Education  for  about pre-  "narrowness Hiller,  who  advocates studio  "giving  students  experience  t o cope  demands  expected  school'  (1985., p . 59).  C. within  highlights of  DBAE  courses  this  i s also  some o f t h o s e pre-service,  of  secondary  aspects  ofa r t  in particular,  i n her a r t i c l e  supported,  who  i n the  - Lovano-Kerr,  Education'  breadth of  the variety  of different  concept  f o r Teacher  concept  with  of a r t teachers  Integration studio  an adequate  "Implications  (1985, p . 220).  This  interestingly  enough,  the "studio  model' i n  emphasize  notably Michael  by  (1980) a n d S c h u l t z  (1980). D. -  A r t curriculum as a part  Chapman  of studio  courses  (1982, p . 91) i m p l i e s t h a t m e t h o d s  courses  (referred  t o as c u r r i c u l u m courses  are  often  " a t odds'  the  value  and type  result  of a  concerns on  within  activities  method  such  studio  courses  of activities.  of integration the studio  area  of a different  courses.  advocate of  lack  with  i n Queensland)  While  integration, an item would  T h i s may  of  nature  felt  be v a l u a b l e .  be a  curricular  as well  Chapman d o e s i t was  i n terms o f  as a  focus  within the not d i r e c t l y  that  the inclusion  E.  Separate,  aspects that  of  prepare  balanced or  of  AIAE  be  in-depth  s t u d i e s i n the  history  of  seminar Duck  to  the  be  doubtful  of  in  views  to  these  Arts  Report,  (1985),  trained  to  the  was  situation  p.  and  and  media  for  model  to  their of  debate  emphasis  (Hickey,  "teacher  -  However, Training  of  courses  reported  "artist"  strongly states degree  "the  was  predominant  89).  issues.  staff]  considerable  of  from  17).  (p.  - The  relevant  gleaned  states that  in Australia  Education  similar  media  art pre-service  i n content  i s under  (1982,  item  instances"  this"image  "troublesome'  and  [some c o l l e g e  teaching  programs  a  on  their  is still  pre-service  - This  development  which  currently,  of  grounding  (1985)  Involvement  training,  t h e r e f o r e appears  i n content  notes  i n some  personal  Review  thorough  study  classroom  G.  Chapman  She  art  art.  applicability  own  90).  (p.  circumstances  the  " i n programs not  Involvement  school  that  different  may  separate  F.  Also,  Chapman c l a i m s  in  studio courses  a r t theory"  aspects  the  -  grounding  teachers,  with  advocate  to  art  thorough  "until  as  1984). artist'  the or  in art  latest  Botsman  teachers  competence  as  i n the  are art  form  taught  artist, Such  a  to  little  a  survey  H. mainly  and  of  will  as  well  this  as  Schools  controversy  from  Commission  regarding  at  views  that  such  term  perspective  the  be  made"  experience on  1979.  help  of  dissatisfied  having  into  survey.  were in  first  (1982) who establish The  who  graduated  for  the  item  schooling  art curriculum.  experiencing  the  items  The  some t e a c h e r s  without  of  recommended  (1985) a l s o c i t e s with  basis  formulated  C  - These  Chapman  would  considered  the  was  105).  (p.  was  i n Part  a l l levels  from  professional  forming  models  Report,  practica  incorporated  the  dichotemy  Practice teaching gleaned  of  in points-of-view  item,  statement  expected  progress  dichotomy  significant, this  that  proposed a  long-  Duck  report  were from  art classes at  pre-service  a l l grade  levels. I.  That  experience the  AIAE  -  lecturers  This  seminar  item notes  have  was  school  included  teaching as  (1985) w h i c h s t a t e d " t h e r e was  comment  that with  backgrounds"  inappropriate 17).  training  or  in Duck  considerable  some c o l l e g e p o s i t i o n s w e r e  (p.  item  (1985), a s w e l l a s t h e  Report,  people  an  occupied  employment  by  J.  That  children report  on a  every  three  13).  The  years  Duck  secondments  realistic  process" That  practice,  the  heading topics  introduced lecturing  " i t was  ...secure  staff  maintain  obtaining  section  further  items  ( p . 17).  o f t h e Chapman  related  listed  as a r e s u l t  stating  by t e a c h e r  a matter  o f one o f  which  was  valuable  f o r teachers  of  education  frequently raised was  added  Viewpoint"  study  (1982) w h i c h s h o w e d t h a t a m a j o r i t y o f t e a c h e r s it  to  under  "The n a t u r e  "Art practice" "Teacher  - in  arts  not d i r e c t l y  by  employed  discussions"  to  involvements  issues,  formulated  also  temporary  19).  the various  was  term  argued  i n order  i n c l u d e d i n t h e Duck R e p o r t this  a  (1979, p .  basis"  positions  Although  were  training  appreciation of the school  (p.  institutions  result  should  schools,  structure,  of  Commission  f o r , say, a t least  a r t education  qualifications.  Schools  reports that  lecturers  organizations,  this  - The  full-time  to teaching  teaching  course  on a  lecturers  a  art  involved i n teaching  "the s t a f f  teach  study  maintain  K.  that  should  college  be  regular basis  recommends  institutions  that  lecturers  o f a r t t o be  in as  a  felt  practising  artists, would as  a r e some A u s t r a l i a n  (1984)).  an o m i s s i o n  included  be n o t e d  That  arts  section  similar  ( p . 89-91),  with  obtaining other  i n - s e r v i c e programs.  items a r e  i n an attempt t o  a s a r e s u l t o f t h e Duck s u r v e y ,  PART  C Part  "Liaison with  further  school a r t  These  set f o r lecturers  recommendation  i n Chapman  C of the survey concerning  issues  identified  as general  or local  or  related  a r t teaching  that  schools" but i s  (1982, p . 152).  had  issues  or  been  controversies.  to the pre-service generally.  other  incorporated  statements  issues  They  course  as a  are outlined  These whole as  follows: A. programs,  "In A r t teacher a r t subject  pre-service  courses  -  a r t pre-service  was  a  due  involvements  variance.  also  that,  " i n - s e r v i c e " was n o t  determine added  (1986),  be n o t e d  maintain  organizations,  t o those  this  Chapman  (Boughton  also  issues,  liaison  that  of the survey.  A r t teachers  qualifications, programs,  scholars  I t should  a r t , a r t education  programs,  with  at the printery,  i n this  L. in  i t must  seem t o be a t v a r i a n c e  Hiller, to  although  should  training be g i v e n  more  emphasis The  than  topic  within  p r e - s e r v i c e h a sbeen At present  33%, e d u c a t i o n  near  18%.  Teachers'  for  a r t courses B.  should  diploma C. personal  service  "Art courses expression  because education  towards  art.  Chapman  publication  -  that  courses  D. a n d E .  Although  the survey  This trend  more  the  emphasis  i t e m was in art pretwenty  also  years,  (1978), h a s  personal  this  years  i n Queensland.  a n d Chapman  developing  4  individual and  o f the past  (1972)  The AIAE  Currently,  be g i v e n  acknowledges  Items  balance  courses  t oa t least  develop  a historical  ( p . 101,  the  duration".  i n art.  should  teachers  the Queensland  that  i n a r t i s 3 years  o u t l i n e d by E i s n e r  been in  o f 4 years  a r t curriculum courses."  included  as  statement,  practicum  pre-service training  preparation  o f teaching  30%,  near  recommended a n i n c r e a s e  teacher  o f a r t courses  b e 50%.  should  "Art teacher  seminar  than  courses  A s s o c i a t i o n suggested  b e a minimum  o f courses  controversial i n  the balance  1982 p o l i c y  Intheir  Art  for  courses."  o f t h e p r o p o r t i o n a l emphasis  Queensland. is  education  expertise  i n h e r 1982  102). Primary  A r t Education  was i n t e n d e d  Items  f o r secondary and  tertiary  a r t educators,  literature or  of "blame-laying'  suggestions  dissatisfied Duck  study  as  that  with  was  i s s u e s were  Two  two  groups  items  104)  p.  were in art.  on p r i m a r y  general  i n the  1985,  situation  mostly  selected  evidence  (Botsman  the primary  (1985).  The  arts  considered  f o r the survey.  They  are  follows: D.  "Every  teacher  assigned  expertise report to  these  concentrated  education, "key'  there  region  teachers  "The p r o v i s i o n  i n Primary  [upgrading  i n the arts  programs  should  personal  (ii)  a r t curriculum  This  item  content report that  ways  personal  Duck support  generally  of achieving  and e a r l y  childhood pre-service one:  a r t course  course"  formulated  so a s t o be  as a c r i t i c i s m  skills,  The  i n s c h o o l s ] " (p. 1 0 ) .  development  "attention  with  areas  t o i s s u e s f o r secondary lists  was  include at least  (i)  was  schools  of Specialist  schools  one o f t h e b e s t  "Primary  specialist art  A r t Education".  considered  E.  have a  to i t sprimary  i n Primary  states,  should  i s focused  similar  teachers.  of primary  The  teaching  Duck  pre-service  on t h e development  rather than  in  of  competencies"  15).  (p.  Elsewhere  practical problems  competence (p.  Items program in  and c o n f i d e n c e a r e l i s t e d  F . a n d G.  Australia, some  different  from  following  two  Australian  however, as  6).  items.  involves  i n the report,  Queensland  In Queensland,  a r t pre-service  and i n o t h e r  a r t teacher pre-service aspects those items  o f programming i n North  have  situation,  education that are  American  direct  and thus  States  models.  application were  The  to the  included  i n the  survey. "In 3 year  F. art  option should  Primary  Teaching  Teaching during of  Area."  Duck's  program, time  enough  pre-service  be done  must  p.  16).  was  away  spend  t o warrant be  that with  Queensland 19%  teaching area,  program  subject  of the opinions  i n t h e major  students  programs,  as well  and other  T h e s u g g e s t i o n was  complex  1985,  Area  investigation  i n a second  Math.  be a v a i l a b l e  One  specialization  Currently,  pre-service  double-  as an a r t Second  expressed t h e second i n the  area  arts.  pre-service  of their such  made t h a t the entire  spent  a  course  as E n g l i s h the arts time  were  within  i n t h e one a r e a  or  a  (Duck,  G.  "Art teachers  preparation subject  program 3 year  than  (1982)  Braben  pre-service  of  A r t Teaching  program  trained  added  professional a 3 year  concurrent  course  o f t h e two  diploma  coursework  simultaneously.  Hickey  a quality  individuals"  (1985, p . 5 8 ) .  refutes  - "End-on  (1984,  "Adequate  programs  one year  and c a t e r different  i n particular,  diploma  o f t h e time  courses are  constraint"  have  resources f o rregular  greater priority  maintenance/establishment art."  Hiller,  that  p.38).  H. art  because  of  a r t  area  maintained  product  to the specializations  program  art,  teaching  respectively  unsatisfactory  o r degree i n  involving  education, and second  this  types  Context  The " c o n c u r r e n t '  of studies  produce  graduates."  of a r t teacher  on t o a 3 year  a r t studies.  methods  t o teach the  The "end-on'  education,  "both  an end-on  i n h i s "Historical  i n Queensland".  program  from  equipped  the nature  programs  i s a one-year  education  is  are better  outlines  of  graduating  Institute  of A r t Education  Preparation  (Perth,  1985)  than t h e  o f community  Part of the discussion  in-school  services i n  during the Australian  Seminar  on A r t Teacher  c e n t r e d around t h e  priorities  of funding  recommendation in-school than  was  f o r a r t education.  made by s e v e r a l d e l e g a t e s  a r t programs  community  arts  should  services.  considerable controversy I. teacher teach  A  have g r e a t e r There  priority  was  surrounding  "It i s essential  that  this  issue.  that a prospective a r t  be a b l e t o a r t i c u l a t e why  a r t and be a b l e t o o f f e r  i t i s important  reasons  to  f o r the  amount and k i n d o f a t t e n t i o n g i v e n t o a c t i v i t i e s i n the a r t program." Culture  Chapman i n I n s t a n t A r t , I n s t a n t  s t a t e s "The p r o s p e c t i v e t e a c h e r  able to identify perceive,  what s t u d e n t s  should  was  activities,  as t h e s e  "A r e v i e w  (p. 97).  t o t e a c h a r t ' ) as w e l l  This  as  have been s e e n a s r e c u r r i n g  needs i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e .  is  to  adapted t o i n c l u d e r a t i o n a l e s ( i . e .  i t i s important  but  be a s k e d  f o r t h e amount and k i n d o f a t t e n t i o n  g i v e n t o v a r i o u s aims and c o n t e n t "  "why  be  j u d g e and c r e a t e , and be a b l e t o o f f e r  good r e a s o n s  statement  should  As H i l l e r  of rationale  what seems t o me  says  i s certainly  necessary  t o be o f g r e a t e r  t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f an a b i l i t y  priority  amongst  our  teachers  t o d e s i g n programmes and t e a c h w i t h  specific  rationale  i n mind"  (1984, p . 3 8 ) .  a  CHAPTER  3  CONDDCT O F T H E STDDY  This  study  presents d e s c r i p t i v e data  s u r v e y - q u e s t i o n n a i r e on a r e a s o f c o n t e n t of  from  a  and t y p e s  s t r u c t u r e s that a r e considered important i n  secondary  a r t t e a c h e r p r e - s e r v i c e programs.  Two  g r o u p s were s u r v e y e d :  pre-service Australian  tertiary  and Queensland  a r t educators  educators. result  The s u r v e y  of a literature  instrument search that  secondary a r t  was d e v e l o p e d  as a  identified  p r o p o s a l s o f b a s i c a n d d e s i r a b l e components f o r a r t p r e - s e r v i c e p r o g r a m s made by a r t e d u c a t i o n s c h o l a r s and  researchers.  treated  The r e s p o n s e s  comparatively  respondent  t o items  have b e e n  w i t h i n and between t h e two  groups i n order t o l o c a t e areas o f  agreement and d i f f e r e n c e . deliberative  The p u r p o s e i s t o be  i n o r d e r t o make i n f o r m e d  proposals f o r  t h e d e v e l o p m e n t a n d improvement o f a r t t e a c h e r p r e service  e d u c a t i o n w i t h a minimum o f c r i t i c i s m o f  present  circumstances.  The two m a j o r r e f e r e n c e s f o r  the data-gathering technique Good's E s s e n t i a l s Borg  and G a l l ' s  Introduction  and p r o c e d u r e s  o f Educational Research  E d u c a t i o n a l Research:  (5th e d i t i o n ,  1984).  were  (1972) and  An  As w e l l , t h e  design  of  studies  the  conducted  Australia,  Arkansas"  needs  SURVEY  Arts  Teacher  source  Perth  of  study  of  and  after  States the  art teachers  1979)  for  Art  The  two  other  and  professional i n the  Parr  state  of  Report  1980).  and  were  (Personal Service  1985.  Data),  on  were -  was  a  at  the  into  Part  B  4  included  on  Art  (which  Content items  example,  -  Part  Teacher  Pre-  of  seemed the  according  Course, best  various  and  and  Part  D  In  Part  B  studio  to  2  Structure  subdivided areas  A  solicited  Association Questions). subdivided  scholarship,  sections  c o n t r o v e r s i a l statements)  also  held  2.  (Views C  "Art  Conference  education  separate  Part  on  Australian  sources  art  i n Chapter  seminar  Annual  Other  unpublished  grouped  (Professional  Several  held  Preparation),  opinions  topics  items  Education's  outlined fully  items  United  Council,  i n May,  published  for  of  Preparation"  Institute  Items  patterned  ITEMS  One  as  "A  (Greer,  (Australian  was  i n the  namely,  preparation  in  survey  even of  general of  Course.  further art,  the  -  39 breakdown subject  of periods  other  groupings.  The  survey  deals  content  generally  dealing  with  in  o f a r t h i s t o r y , and  course  items),  structures  pre-service  concern  (44  with  and  program 12  and i n c l u d e s  and p r o p o r t i o n s  of  content  A n a d d i t i o n a l 15  programs.  the professional  involvements  items  items  of a r t  educators. 5 point  A respect  i t was  commissioned By  using  items Part  Likert  patterned  as "highly  scale,  o r none'  was  at a l l ' .  "strongly  agreed'  mid-point  of the scale  named  The  "no  letter  questionnaire transmittal Report,  used. the Parr  this  Report  Council  1980.  in  prioritized  to "not valued  at a l l ' .  "great  deal  o f emphasis'  important'  In Part  for this  to  t o "not  C the scale  to "strongly  In  was  disagree', section  named  with  the  of the  opinion'. of transmittal  was  used  In  respondents  and "very  important  survey  after  valued'  B t h e naming  "little  was  by t h e A u s t r a l i a n A r t s  5 point  a  scale  adapted  from  introducing the the letter  i n the Australian Arts  Tertiary Visual  Arts  (1980).  of  Council  Parr  with  The  survey  instrument  the  a s s i s t a n c e of  was  piloted  eight of  the  and  revised  Queensland  Art  Teachers'  A s s o c i a t i o n (QATA) E x e c u t i v e  members.  Five  secondary  were  were  Department tertiary items,  of  and  members  One  addressed, with  (B.S.S.S.) regional  As  Board  as  teachers  tertiary section identify  of  groups  this  In  not  this  the  data  just  level way  a and  i t was  to  QATA  pre-  fifty  were  Studies her  the  visits  State.  seen  QATA  as  to This  an secondary  members.  secondary,  instrument of  with  represents  include primary,  teaching  on  was  group  g e n e r a l l y and  for personal  respondent.  sent  School  throughout  teacher  by  via several  further  a r t member,  art teachers,  the  supervised  were  A  Secondary  were  Education.  fifty  for distribution  QATA m e m b e r s  was  a  Confusing  distributed  envelopes.  in-service  avenue  and  one  material  in Art  was  and  Association newsletter  teacher  advantage art  survey  stamped a  editing  hundred  v i a the  Officers,  irrelevant  lecturer  revised  agencies.  and final  tertiary  The  latter  the  Art  two  i n art education.  omissions,  another  sent  Education  lecturer  altered,  a r t educators,  and  included  descriptive experience possible to  a  nature of  to  each  separate  41 the  population  study. two  The  into  total  the groups  number  4 tertiary  means,  involved  in this 53  o f r e t u r n s was  a r t educators,  by  these  49  and  secondary. As  well,  Australian  Institute 1985.  December,  professional educators, would  be  the survey  Since  i t was  hoped  for  population  art  secondary  educators  LIMITATIONS 1.  QATA  academic  disadvantage involved  that it,  this  tertiary art  the majority t h e 17  The t o t a l  v i a a l l these a r t educators  THE  of  returns, number means  returns 12  of  were  returns  was:  - 49,  Tertiary  SURVEY  newsletter  questionnaire  the  Of  in  Timing The  the  Newsletter  the  16.  -  OF  that  group.  a r t educators.  through  t h e membership o f  a s s o c i a t i o n i s mostly  in this  Queensland  distributed  of A r t Education  tertiary each  was  was year.  sent  that  contained  out very  This  was  newsletter particular as without  reporting.  had space issue.  survey-  t o t h e end o f  considered  by t h e r e s e a r c h e r ,  in final  near  the  a  as t e a c h e r s  However,  would  be  the editor  of  f o r the questionnaire i n I t was  decided  to publish  the professional association's  assistance would  not  with have  printing  and  received a  mailing  wide  the  survey  circulation  in  the  State. The  AIAE  the  end  newsletter of  the  institutions was  not  year.  do  not  considered  retrospect, returns,  was  Since have  a  however,  timing of  Board  had  some d i f f i c u l t i e s  scheduled  were  involving  student  allowed in  which  format to  was  spend  work  the  o f f and  have  survey  day  at  13  small a  Studies  free,  could and  and  be  teachers  member,  process  with  past  had  plenty  of  However,  schools,  took  after a l l .  art  i n the  the  of  meetings  done.  i t at  this  the  a r t teachers  their  to  In  number  factor  moderation  day  collecting  Nevertheless,  time.  teachers'  a  near  vacation,  in circulating  of  the  the  been  School  a r t work  changed,  the  the  to  very  tertiary  extended  due  The  part  teachers  an  at  Secondary  also.  the  factor  might  The  questionnaire  also circulated  were  time  of  to  this  required  dropping end  time  student  the  day.  complete  a  questionnaire. 2.  Follow-up A  the  visual  February  procedures "ad'  QATA  was  placed  newsletter  on (see  the  back  Appendix  cover C)  of  and  a  reminder more  sent  response  compilation computing  needed. 3. of  data  really  sufficient  that  t o give  follow-up  of data  t o determine  believe  voluntarily  initial  College  o f Advanced  t h e number o f the information  was  attempted.  respond  their  t o the nature  what  t o such  method  individual  of returns  population,  considered  that  people  surveyed. t h e anonymity  follow-up  t o respond.  impossible, on t h e  However,  was t o u s e  The t e r t i a r y  since  results  inferences  the proportion  adequate.  teachers  c a n be assumed t o  was d e p e n d a n t  a n d n o t t o make  be  are  on t h e s u b j e c t s  i n t e n t i o n o f the survey  entire  surveys  of the distribution,  of people  descriptively,  cannot  lecturers or  t h e data  views  i n d i v i d u a l s made t h e number  collection  o r p r a c t i c e , but assuming  truthfully,  willingness the  a t the Brisbane  method  approximate  and  one  collection  answering  of  an  Limitations of the survey-questionnaire  guaranteed  Due  After  Only  and c o n s u l t a t i o n with t h e  No f u r t h e r  This  who  of data  i t was a p p a r e n t  was  newsletter.  was f o r t h c o m i n g .  staff  Education, results  o u t v i a t h e AIAE  f o r the  of returns population  was was,  in  particular,  has  been  kept  i n mind  DATA A N A L Y S I S All  program  numbered  Personal such  numerical program order  boxes  final  study,  variable  was  (Part  survey  items  were  given  sheet.  The  analyses i n between  responses t o by hand.  The  D) w a s n o t included  on t h e  o f i n f o r m a t i o n by t h e Association. listed  as  "tertiary'  a s raw s c o r e s f o r e a c h  on t h e L i k e r t  T h e mean was a l s o then  and  groups,  collated  b u t was  the data  out f i r s t  a  numbered.  survey  Handwritten  " o t h e r " were  as p o s i t i o n s  percentage.  was  response,  within  items.  from  onto  - each  numbered,  a written  A r t Teachers'  were p r i n t e d  this  a s an a r t t e a c h e r do y o u  f o r the collection  procedure  "blocks'  also  of the survey  Responses  and  entered  response  responses  forthis  Queensland  and  the results.  f o r one o r two v a r i a b l e  marked  section  survey  years  o r between  analyzed  were  e q u i v a l e n t s on a Master  t o compare  sections  item  were  required  allowed  groups,  t o items  and each  data  which  sample  when a n a l y z i n g  as numerical  a s "how many  have?"  small  PROCEDURES  responses  computer was  a statistically  scale,  then  calculated.  item  as a This  repeated using the response  "secondary'.  Each  group  of printouts  was  viewed  separately  measure the  o f agreement  modal  between to  response.  between  those  groups  groups.  No  recorded. showing  Next,  by comparing  statistical  mean  purposes  with  mean  and  difference between  of variance are  computed  that  on  items  f o r the  study,  tests  not required.  a n d mode  "secondary'  responses  were  of this  compared  The  computations  of complete  a r e found i n  OF T H E P O P U L A T I O N S  Secondary: graduated  with  O f t h e 49 an end-on  secondary  graduate  respondents,  16  diploma i n  (33%), 31 g r a d u a t e d w i t h a c o n c u r r e n t (63%), a n d t w o (5%) r e s p o n d e d  diploma  of teaching  "other'  (unspecified).  reflect  the proportion  options;  and  by  I.  DESCRIPTION  teaching  as i n d i c a t e d  computations  "z' tests  a strong  i t e m was  o f agreement  and " z ' were  Appendix  of  each  v a r i a n c e , i t was f e l t  variance  with  of "tertiary'  items  Although  descriptive  quotas  items  or difference,  the printouts  locate  tables  to locate  quotas  These  percentages  of intake  f o r end-on  f o r t h e program  a r e 15  p e r year and  f o r c o n c u r r e n t a r e 30 p e r y e a r .  the secondary  Queensland.  respondents  Almost  were  generally  A l l but four  educated i n  one-half o f t h e group  (47%)  have  been t e a c h i n g a r t f o r 6-9 y e a r s , w i t h 18% having two to  f i v e y e a r s e x p e r i e n c e , 16% having between 10 and  20 y e a r s e x p e r i e n c e , and 10% having over 20 y e a r s experience.  29 of the 49 secondary a r t educators  (59%) were "heads of department" f o r a r t i n t h e i r schools. half  School a r t department s i z e v a r i e d .  One-  (51%) were i n departments of two t o t h r e e  members, 8% were i n single-member  departments, 15%  were i n departments of between f o u r and s i x members, and 8% had over s i x members i n t h e i r  department.  Perhaps the most s t r i k i n g f e a t u r e of the p o p u l a t i o n s i s t h a t 59% of respondents were "heads of  departments'.  T h i s may  be due t o the f a c t  that  most t e a c h e r s i n attendance a t the moderation meetings, one of the avenues v i a which the surveys were d i s t r i b u t e d , would have l i k e l y been heads of departments.  The general m a i l i n g of the  professional a s s o c i a t i o n newsletters also  includes  those addressed t o "The A r t Department' of s c h o o l s and i t i s l i k e l y t h a t heads of departments would r e c e i v e the copy. Tertiary:  Of the 16 t e r t i a r y respondents, s i x  h e l d Diplomas of Teaching, t h r e e h e l d a B a c h e l o r of E d u c a t i o n degree and seven had a graduate degree,  either the  a t the Master's  group  from  graduated  or Doctorate  from  an end-on  a c o n c u r r e n t program,  "other'.  While  unspecified,  one respondent  Certificate,  the  responded  other  received  Queensland,  11  "other  i n "other  country'.  experience,  with  years,  initial  20  e x p e r i e n c e , two h a v i n g and one r e s p o n d e n t  experience.  One-half,  "heads  o f department'.  varied  considerably.  member  department,  The s i z e  four  seven  departments,  t h r e e had s i x t o f i f t e e n  departments,  and t h r e e were  institutions  within  s i x and nine years  was a  two h a d two t o t h r e e  It i s likely  from  which  a n d 20  were  o f a r t department  departments,  fifteen.  10  o f t h e group  respondent  had four  responded  of a r tteaching  between  having  i n  tertiary  between  or eight  One  qualification  and t h r e e  years  three having  ago.' and  o f t h e 16  The m a j o r i t y o f  (10) h a d o v e r  years  long time  Two  states'  respondents  were  had handwritten " A r t  i t was a  their  seven  responded  latter  "A.T.C.'  respondents  Five i n  program,  and four  two o f t h e s e  Teacher's  level.  single-  member  t o s i x member member  i n Departments this  that  of over  the profile of  the respondents  work  would  48 be v e r y  d i v e r s e as w e l l  institutions  were  although  not s o l i c i t e d  further i n the  details  on  survey.  SUMMARY The  format  modelled and  after  education  the  previous Items  literature  instrument  Queensland  1985  were  was  then A  was  (Greer,  drawn up  1979)  from a r t  i n detail  in  represented  Association  i n attendance. two  tertiary  and  secondary  questionnaire confusing irrelevant sent  was  items,  then  refined  rewording,  association  meeting.  responses,  of which 49  were  group two a r t  of  The  Education  survey-  clarifying  revised  instrument  was  o f a q u e s t i o n n a i r e v i a two n e w s l e t t e r s and t o an a r t  There 65  by  nine  and o m i t t i n g m a t e r i a l  The  out i n t h e form  moderation  these,  Department  a r t educators.  t o the study.  professional  The p i l o t  at  of the  a t which  a r t educators,  of the Queensland  pilot  conducted  of the Executive  officers five  subjected to a  s e s s i o n was  meeting  A r t Teachers'  members w e r e  Of  studies  as o u t l i n e d  f o r suggestions.  October,  then  instrument  2.  The group  two  1980).  (Parr,  Chapter  of the survey  were  secondary  were  a total  the desired  of  71  population.  a r t educators  and  16  tertiary.  The r e s u l t s were c o l l a t e d  on a compute  p r o g r a m i n t h e s e two g r o u p s , and i t e m s compared numerically  within  and between g r o u p s t o m e a s u r e  a g r e e m e n t and d i f f e r e n c e s on  items.  CHAPTER 4 RESULTS OF THE STUDY CONCLUSIONS The raised  1.  f o l l o w i n g summaries a d d r e s s  i n C h a p t e r One.  What do s e l e c t e d a r t e d u c a t i o n  perceive as v a l u a b l e content teacher  pre-service  This question instrument After  items  scholars  and e x p e r i e n c e s  in art  education? formed t h e b a s i s o f t h e survey  w h i c h were d e t a i l e d  i n Chapter  Two  t h e f o l l o w i n g summary o f t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e  survey-questionnaire, concerning  these  some comments w i l l  findings i n the l i g h t  s c h o l a r s and r e s e a r c h e r s teacher  o f what  (Refer t o the  " D i s c u s s i o n o f t h e f i n d i n g s ' p.71)  What do Q u e e n s l a n d t e a c h e r s  valuable content  be made  have p r o p o s e d f o r a r t  pre-service education.  section entitled  2.  the questions  and e x p e r i e n c e s  o f a r t p e r c e i v e as i n a r t pre-service  preparation? I t would appear t h a t t h e secondary a r t educators most i t e m s  who r e s p o n d e d t o t h e s u r v e y  considered  on t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e t o be " o f v a l u e ' ,  a  only  s i x i t e m s o u t o f 69 l i s t e d  "Structure' end  had a v e r a g e  of the Likert  under  " C o n t e n t ' and  r e s p o n s e s on t h e l e s s v a l u e d  Scale.  T h o s e i t e m s w i t h a mean  r e s p o n s e between 1 and 2 on t h e s c a l e  were  c o n s i d e r e d t o be t h e most v a l u e d by r e s p o n d e n t s . ( R e f e r t o T a b l e s 1 and 2 ) . rank-ordered The  (N.B.  A l l items a r e  i n Appendix I I . )  h i g h e s t ranked  "Content*  items a c c o r d i n g t o  mean r e s p o n s e  r e p r e s e n t a broad,  albeit  conventional,  coverage  f o r a r t teacher  education. fine art  of topics  Items i n t h i s  list  a r t studio areas, a r t history, methods and a d v o c a c y  f r o m t h e most v a l u e d l i s t philosophy,  are aesthetic  newer m e d i a and c r a f t  education,  "sociology', "liberal  "integration  education'  Absent  theory,  s t u d i o a r e a s , and  be c l a s s i f i e d  such as " a r c h i t e c t u r e * ,  as  a r t curriculum,  f o r a r t i n schools.  topics that could generally  Of  c a n be c l a s s i f i e d  as  liberal  "psychology',  of subjects',  and t h e i t e m  itself.  t h e 17 h i g h e s t r a n k e d  "Structure'  ( a c c o r d i n g t o mean r e s p o n s e ) ,  items  11 c o n c e r n e d t h e  n a t u r e a n d i n v o l v e m e n t s o f t h e l e c t u r i n g and teaching This  staff  as opposed t o t h e program  indicates that  the secondary  itself.  respondents  take  the  r e s p e c t i v e r o l e s of these  and  have e s t a b l i s h e d some c o n s e n s u s c o n c e r n i n g  involvements. of these of  11  involvements  seven concerned  staff,  while  of t h e i r  own  In P a r t C of t h e valued  the  final  the a r t i c u l a t i o n rationales, concerning  the  involvements  only f o u r concerned group, secondary  survey,  secondary  and  knowledge o f a r t  g o a l s and  activities.  a r t education  the  teachers  respondents  "agreed'  that there  to  education  Three and  e d u c a t i o n were a l s o h i g h l y r a t e d .  art  thei  i t e m most h i g h l y w h i c h r e f e r s  primary  respondents  seriously  I t i s a l s o n o t e w o r t h y however, t h a t  items  lecturing  groups very  items  primary  teache  Secondary  should  be  a  "double  o p t i o n ' i n the p r e - s e r v i c e program, t h a t a r t  subject  courses  should  education  courses,  should  given p r i o r i t y  be  funding.  and  be  given p r i o r i t y  resources over  over  f o r a r t i n school  community  arts  53  Amount  of  TABLE 1 Q U E E N S L A N D SECONDARY ART E D U C A T O R S : RANK ORDER A C C O R D I N G TO MEAN R E S P O N S E 1-2 ON L I K E R T S C A L E CONTENT OF COURSE Emphasis  1  2  4  3  GREAT DEAL Mean R e s p o n s e Category  Item  #  1.2  A(i) B(iv) G  1.3  E ( i i )  1.4  A ( i i ) E(i) B(iii)  1.5  K(iii) K(iv) N  1.7  E(iv) F H K(ii) M  2  5 L I T T L E OR NONE  A<iii) A(iv) A(vi) K(v)  Descriptor Drawing (Studio) Art Curriculum Assessment & E v a l u a t i o n of S t u d e n t Work Relevance of A r t t o Students in Schools Painting (Studio) Relevance of A r t t o Society Teaching Process (Ed. Studies) Contemporary A r t (current)(art history) Australian Art History Knowledge o f and P r a c t i c e i n Art Education Curriculum. Strategies f o r promoting the status of a r t i n schools Study and awareness o fa r t t e a c h i n g a i d s and resources Elements and p r i n c i p l e s o f design M o d e r n A r t H i s t o r y (1900-1980) Knowledge o f and study o fa r t education theory Sculpture (studio) Pottery (studio) Printmaking (studio) Aboriginal Art History  54  RANK  1  2  TABLE 2 SECONDARY ART EDUCATORS ORDER A C C O R D I N G TO MEAN R E S P O N S E 1-2 ON L I K E R T S C A L E S T R U C T U R E OF COURSE  3  4  VERY IMPORTANT Mean R e s p o n s e Category 1.1 1.3  1.5  1.6  1.7  1.8  1.9  5 NOT  Item  #  L(iv)  -  IMPORTANT AT A L L  Descriptor  Lecturers maintain involvement in schools I ( i i ) Lecturers i n other than studio c o u r s e s have s c h o o l t e a c h i n g experience. L(i) Teachers maintain involvement in art. A Breadth o f knowledge i n s t u d i o areas. C Integration of aspects ofa r t with i n studio courses L(vi) Teachers maintain liaison with o t h e r school a r t programs L(vii) Teachers maintain involvement w i t h i n - s e r v i c e programmes H(i) Practice teaching at jr/sr l e v e l s o f program I(i) L e c t u r e r s i n s t u d i o areas have school teaching experience K(ii) Lecturers maintain involvement in a r t education issues. L(ii) Teachers maintain involvement in a r t education issues. K(i) Lecturers maintain involvement in a r t practice. K(iii) Lecturers maintain involvement in arts organizations. B. D e p t h o f k n o w l e d g e i n some studio areas. F Involvement i n content and media r e l e v a n t t o s c h o o l circumstances. H(iv) P r a c t i c e t e a c h i n g more t h a n once a year. J. L e c t u r e r s be i n v o l v e d i n t e a c h i n g c h i l d r e n on r e g u l a r basis.  55  The within  close clustering of majority  both  " c o n t e n t ' and " s t r u c t u r e ' i t e m s made i t  possible to "profile' example, w i t h i n there  responses  v i e w s on v a r i o u s  the content topic  topics.  "studio  For  areas",  a p p e a r s t o be a d e f i n i t e h i e r a r c h y o f  importance, according  t o the responses.  "drawing" and " p a i n t i n g "  rated  emphasis from t h e m a j o r i t y respectively),  a "great  While deal' of  ( 8 8 % and 65%  t h e mean and mode r e s p o n s e  category  dropped c o n s i s t e n t l y t o items such as " j e w e l l e r y ' , "leatherwork',  "media' and "computer a r t ' .  Respondents c o n s i d e r e d  t h e s e areas worthy o f  "moderate' o r " l i m i t e d ' emphasis. curriculum' and  ranks highest  Similarly,  i n "Educational  "art  Studies',  " c o n t e m p o r a r y ' and " A u s t r a l i a n ' a r t h i s t o r y  highest within  i n t h e "Knowledge o f A r t H i s t o r y ' the content  rank  topic  section.  Secondary a r t educators r a t e d t e a c h i n g " a t jr/sr  l e v e l s o f a p r o g r a m ' and "more t h a n o n c e a  y e a r ' much more h i g h l y t h a n t i m e s ' and " a t p r i m a r y / j r / s r the  "short  but regular  l e v e l s o f a program' i n  " P r a c t i c e Teaching' t o p i c within  section.  the structure  56  The s i x i t e m s where t h e mean f e l l on t h e " l e s s v a l u e d ' end o f t h e L i k e r t s c a l e a r e l i s t e d i n T a b l e 3. TABLE 3 QUEENSLAND SECONDARY ART EDUCATORS. RANK ORDER ACCORDING TO MEAN RESPONSE 3-5 ON L I K E R T SCALE CONTENT OF COURSE: AMOUNT OF EMPHASIS  1  2  3  4  5  GREAT DEAL  L I T T L E OR NONE  Mean R e s p o n s e Category 3.2 3.2 3.6  Item #  Descriptor  A(vii) A(xii) A(viii)  Studio area of a r t : jewellery S t u d i o a r e a o f a r t : computer a r t Studio area of a r t : leatherwork  STRUCTURE OF COURSE  1  2  4  VERY IMPORTANT Mean R e s p o n s e Category  5 NOT  Item  #  3.1  K(v)  3.2  H(iii)  3.4  H(i)  IMPORTANT AT A L L  Descriptor L e c t u r e r s maintain involvement in obtaining further qualifications P r a c t i c e Teaching f o r short but r e g u l a r times P r a c t i c e Teaching: at a l l l e v e l s o f a program: primary/jr./sr.  COMPARISONS WITH THE GREER STUDY W h i l e t h e s t r u c t u r e s o f t h e two s t u d i e s a r e n o t i d e n t i c a l there are commonalities i n the f i n d i n g s of each study w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e v a l u i n g o f s t u d i o preferences,  c u r r i c u l u m and methods, and p r a c t i c e  teaching. Those i t e m s o f s t u d i o c o n t e n t r a t i n g t h e h i g h e s t response mean (drawing, p a i n t i n g , s c u l p t u r e , p o t t e r y and p r i n t m a k i n g ) a r e remarkably c o n s i s t e n t w i t h those r a t i n g t h e highest percentage of " d e s i r a b l e * responses i n t h e Greer Study  (1979).  "The s i x i t e m s r e c e i v i n g t h e g r e a t e s t p e r c e n t a g e o f d e s i r a b l e responses were: (1) p e n c i l , c h a r c o a l , i n k and d r y b r u s h t e c h n i q u e s , (2.5) watercolour  p a i n t i n g techniques,  sculpture techniques, still  (4)  (2.5) c l a y  outdoor d r a w i n g , (5.5)  l i f e d r a w i n g , and (5.5) l i n o l e u m b l o c k and  wood b l o c k p r i n t i n g " ,  (p. 78)  Within the Educational  Studies items, a r t  c u r r i c u l u m r a t e d a h i g h mean.  This, too, i s  c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e G r e e r Study, where f o u r o f t h e t o p e i g h t i t e m s i n " a r t methods' d e a l t w i t h curriculum.  Another o f t h e s e e i g h t t o p items i n t h e  "methods' s e c t i o n o f G r e e r ' s Study was "(3) Methods  of e v a l u a t i n g the  students'  r a n k e d amongst t h e Queensland  three  work"  ( p . 87)  "most v a l u e d "  be  value  compared  i n that  in-service  longer p r a c t i c e teaching  service  items  students.  Where t h e  the value  t h e two  sessions for  two  of p r a c t i c e teaching  levels'.  In the Arkansas group "Student  recommended a t a l l l e v e l s  in-service  art teachers,  middle school, The  teaching  of  3.  and  What c o n t e n t  service  i n c l u d i n g the  3.4,  or  predid  not  "at a l l  teaching  high  elementary,  school'  "limited  experiences  (p.  favour p r a c t i c e  " p r i m a r y / j u n i o r / s e n i o r ' , as  t h e mean c a t e g o r y  to  a majority [sic]  Queensland group d i d not  at  educators  by  j u n i o r h i g h , and  seem  populations  on  103).  the  studies  educators  a g r e e was  was  on  survey.  In terms of p r a c t i c e t e a c h i n g , can  which  do  displayed  by  importance'.  tertiary  art  p e r c e i v e as v a l u a b l e f o r a r t t e a c h e r  pre-  education?  As  with  tertiary  the  secondary respondents,  respondents valued  for  a r t teacher  out  of  69  group of  had  lower, t h a t  most i t e m s  p r e - s e r v i c e programs.  a mean r e s p o n s e c a t e g o r y  i s , on  the  "less valued'  the  of the  survey  Only  items  of  end  5  3 or of  the  Likert between  scale. 1  and  Those 2 on  valued  and  (N.B.  A l l items  respondents  follow  items  the  scale  i n rank are  with  a mean  were  order  considered  i n Tables  rank-ordered  i n Appendix I I I ) .  response  for  4  mos and  tertiary  TABLE 4 TERTIARY ART EDUCATORS: RANK ORDER ACCORDING TO MEAN RESPONSE 1-2 ON L I K E R T SCALE CONTENT OF COURSE 1 GREAT DEAL Mean R e s p o n s e Category 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4  L I T T L E OR NONE Item #  Descriptor  A(i) A(ii) B(iv) N  Drawing (Studio) P a i n t i n g (Studio) A r t Curriculum Knowledge o f and p r a c t i c e i n a r t c u r r i c u l u m and program planning Relevance of a r t t o s o c i e t y Relevance of a r t t o students i n schools Contemporary ( c u r r e n t ) a r t history Australian art history Knowledge and study o f a r t education theory Teaching process (Ed. s t u d i e s S t r a t e g i e s f o r promoting the status of a r ti n schools Modern a r t h i s t o r y (19001980) I n f l u e n c e o f c u r r e n t changes i n t h e Ed. system Study and awareness o f a r t t e a c h i n g a i d s and r e s o u r c e s Assessment and e v a l u a t i o n o f s t u d i o a r t work Understanding of c u l t u r a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n forms and functions of a r t Public relations with the community Aboriginal art history Philosophy of a r t  E(i) E(ii) K(iii) K(iv) M  1.6  B(ii) E(iv) K(ii)  1.7  D F G  1.8 1.9 2  I  1 VERY IMPORTANT Mean R e s p o n s e Category 1.2 1.3  1.5  1.6  1.7  1.8 1.9  2  TABLE 5 TERTIARY ART EDUCATORS RANK ORDER ACCORDING TO MEAN RESPONSE 1-2 ON LIKERT SCALE STRUCTURE OF COURSE 3 4 5 2 NOT IMPORTANT AT A L L Item  #  Descriptor  L ( i i ) Teachers m a i n t a i n involvement i n art education issues H(i) Practice teaching at (jr/sr) l e v e l s o f a program L(vii) Teachers m a i n t a i n involvement i n i n - s e r v i c e programs L(i) Teachers m a i n t a i n involvement in a r t L(iv) Teachers m a i n t a i n involvement in arts organizations B Depth o f knowledge i n s t u d i o areas C I n t e g r a t i o n of d i f f e r e n t aspects of a r tw i t h i n s t u d i o areas. K(ii) L e c t u r e r s maintain involvement in a r teducation issues L(vi) Teachers m a i n t a i n l i a i s o n s w i t h o t h e r s c h o o l a r t programs I ( i ) L e c t u r e r s i n s t u d i o have school teaching experience I(ii) L e c t u r e r s i n o t h e r c o u r s e s have teaching experience K(iii) Lecturers maintain involvements in arts organizations L(iii) Teachers m a i n t a i n involvement i n a r t p r e - s e r v i c e programs F Involvement i n c o n t e n t and media r e l e v a n t t o s c h o o l circumstances E Separate, thorough grounding i n d i f f e r e n t aspects of a r t G Involvement i n c o n t e n t and m e d i a f o r s t u d e n t s own p e r s o n a l development A Breadth o f knowledge i n s t u d i o areas K(i) Lecturers maintain involvement in a r t practice.  The p a t t e r n o f m o s t - v a l u e d the  list  fairly  of secondary  items  responses,  i s similar to  i n that  a broad  conventional representation of aspects of  teacher education i s evident.  In a d d i t i o n ,  within  relatively  "Content*  unconventional  i t e m s a r e two  i t e m s n o t f o u n d on t h e - "understanding  however,  secondary  most-valued  list  differences  i n f o r m s and f u n c t i o n s o f a r t ' , and  "philosophy of a r t ' . as f i n e  arts  Other  cultural  i t e m s c a n be  " S t r u c t u r e o f Course',  t h e most v a l u e d l i s t involvements  classified  studio areas, a r t history, a r t  c u r r i c u l u m and methods, and a d v o c a c y . section  and  In the  11 o u t o f 18 i t e m s  ( T a b l e 5) c o n c e r n e d  of t e r t i a r y  and s e c o n d a r y  the  staff.  Of  t h e s e 11 i t e m s c o n c e r n i n g a r t e d u c a t o r s ' involvements, five  six relate  to tertiary  included  d i d not apply t o a r t  the following  noteworthy  b o t h t h a t t h e r e be an " i n t e g r a t i o n o f aspects of a r t within  aspects of a r t ' .  items:  different  s t u d i o a r e a s ' and a l s o  t h e r e be a " s e p a r a t e , t h o r o u g h different  t e a c h e r s and  a r t educators.  The s i x i t e m s t h a t educators  t o secondary  that  grounding i n  Both  these  items  included a bracketed explanation of the "aspects'  on  63 referred  to - (i.e. Art history, Aesthetics,  M a t e r i a l s and p r o c e s s e s ) . rated  h i g h l y involvements  depth',  " f o rstudents  "relevant  t o school  breadth'.  T e r t i a r y educators  also  i n studio areas " i n  own p e r s o n a l  circumstances'  development', and  "with  I t would appear t h a t r e s p o n d e n t s h o l d a  broad view o f t h e purposes o f t h e s t u d i o  component  of a r t p r e - s e r v i c e education  place  considerable  i m p o r t a n c e on i t .  PART C. on  four  T h e r e was a s t r o n g  items i n t h i s  articulation activities,  section.  of a r t education  degree o f agreement These concerned t h e  r a t i o n a l e s , g o a l s and  and p r i m a r y a r t e d u c a t i o n .  as w e l l , c o n s i d e r a b l e 69%  as w e l l as  of the t e r t i a r y  T h e r e was,  a g r e e m e n t on 3 o t h e r  a r t educator  " s t r o n g l y agreed' that  items.  respondents  " a r t teacher p r e -  be a minimum o f 4 y e a r s  duration,  56%  of respondents " s t r o n g l y agreed' that  "a d o u b l e  art  option  s e r v i c e .... s h o u l d  principle teaching  teaching area'  in-service community two  should  items,  be a v a i l a b l e a s w e l l area  as a  and o t h e r - s u b j e c t  and "adequate r e s o u r c e s  a r t p r o g r a m s have g r e a t e r services i n art'.  second  f o r regular  priority  In t h e f i r s t  of  than these  however, 25% o f t h e r e s p o n d e n t s had "no  opinion', clear  although  from  educators  the data  with  most  high  number  4.  that  items  items  percentage  between groups  experiences SECONDARY The  i n terms  f o r a r t teacher  ART EDUCATOR results  there  respondents  i n this  t h e 79  items  category  fact,  o u t o f 79  rate  76  or  Within were  were  no  responses.  within  o f a) c o n t e n t  groups  a n d b)  pre-service education?  on most  group.  with  showed items  evidence  The d a t a  a mode  items  o f 50%  had over  of  between t h e showed  that  B and C o f t h e survey  w i t h i n one c a t e g o r y  right  categories  RESPONDENTS  i n Part  response  as  accompanying  exists  o f the survey  agreement  of the  response  modes a n d a n  substantial  a  were  o f c a t e g o r i e s where  tertiary a r t  i n the survey,  What m e a s u r e o f a g r e e m e n t  and  of  on most  listed  there  It i s fairly  the responding  a r e i n agreement  "controversial' within  no o n e " d i s a g r e e d * .  o f t h e mode,  had a  or larger.  a 50%  51  In  response  either  to  i t s  left.  t h e group  nine  response  items  o f secondary that  of over  a r t educators,  h a d a mode  75%.  These  category items  were  there  which  rated  considered  t h e a r e a s o f most a g r e e m e n t w i t h i n t h e g r o u p a n d a r e listed  i n Table  6.  Items whose mode r a n k e d percentage  tended  v a l u e d ' o r whose highly to  t o be t h o s e response  important',  "most  c a t e g o r y was t o w a r d s t h e Scale.  fell  This i s not  under " s t r o n g l y  rated  "leatherwork'  response agree',  o r " g r e a t d e a l o f emphasis', b u t  t h e r e were few t h a t were n o t .  respondents and  t h a t were  a l l i t e m s w i t h a c a t e g o r y whose  mode was 50% o r l a r g e r  that  i n terms o f  v a l u e d end o f t h e L i k e r t  say t h a t  "very  highly  50% o f s e c o n d a r y  the studio areas of " f i b r e as "moderately  arts'  important'.  However, t h e s e were t h e o n l y 2 i t e m s w i t h a mode c a t e g o r y a s low a s " 3 ' modal p e r c e n t a g e s consensus  on t h e s c a l e .  indicates  w i t h t h e group,  What t h e h i g h  i s a h i g h degree o f  especially  on t h e i t e m s  most v a l u e d f o r a r t p r e - s e r v i c e e d u c a t i o n .  66  TABLE 6 SECONDARY ART EDUCATOR GROUP: ITEMS INDICATING STRONGEST AGREEMENT WITHIN GROUP ACCORDING TO HIGH MODAL RESPONSES Item # Descriptor Mode % Mode R e s p o n s e Category PART B CONTENT OF COURSE 1 great deal of S t u d i o a r e a o f a r t : d r a w i n g 88% A(i) emphasis 1 great deal of 86% B(iv) Education studies: art curriculum emphasis E(ii) a r tadvocacy: relevance 76% 1 great deal of emphasis of a r t t o students i n schools G. A s s e s s m e n t a n d e v a l u a t i o n 84% 1 great deal of emphasis o f p u p i l s ' work i n a r t STRUCTURE OF COURSE 1 very important H(i) P r a c t i c e T e a c h i n g : a t a l l 76% l e v e l s o f a program (jr./sr . ) 1 very important I(ii) Lecturers i n pre82% s e r v i c e c o u r s e s have had school teaching experience: l e c t u r e r s i n other course areas than s t u d i o K(iv) Lecturers i n pre88% 1 very important s e r v i c e programs m a i n t a i n involvement i n schools 1 very important L(i) A r t teachers i n schools 76% m a i n t a i n awareness o f and i n v o l v e m e n t i n a r t PART C STATEMENTS E v e r y r e g i o n s h o u l d have 1 s t r o n g l y agree 82% a s p e c i a l i s t assigned t o i t s primary schools with e x p e r t i s e i n Primary A r t Education It i s essential that a 1 s t r o n g l y agree 88% prospective a r t teacher t o be a b l e t o a r t i c u l a t e why i t i s i m p o r t a n t t o t e a c h a r t a n d be a b l e t o o f f e r reasons f o r t h e amount... and k i n d o f attention given to a c t i v i t i e s i n the a r t program.  TERTIARY  A R T EDUCATOR R E S P O N D E N T S  Tertiary agreement  within  had a response  larger. rate  t h e group  o f t h e 79  Forty-three survey  a r teducators  Seventy-four 50%  o f over  either  mode c a t e g o r y  which  larger  were  within  t h e group.  The  modes o c c u r  greatest art  i n P a r t s B and C o f t h e  o u t o f 79  items  one c a t e g o r y  or left. rated  These  T h e 10  or "strongly  pre-service  items  these  e d u c a t i o n most  a  agreement  This  7.  percentage  o f emphasis',  i s t o be f o u n d  with  i n Table  high  agree'.  response  o f 75% o r  o f most  are listed  i s "great deal  had a  o f t h e mode,  a response  i n which  consensus  a mode o f 50% o r  category with  considered the areas  category  important'  on a m a j o r i t y o f i t e m s .  items  within  to i t sright  showed c o n s i d e r a b l e  "very  indicates  that  on t h e a s p e c t s o f  valued  by  tertiary  respondents. Altogether, on  the scale  "less only was  and 3  items items  h a d a mode c a t e g o r y h a d a mode c a t e g o r y  valued'  end o f t h e s c a l e ,  items  h a d a mode c a t e g o r y  4 50%  or larger.  agreement valued  10  within  This  whose  indicates  t h e group  f o rpre-service.  but o f these  that  i s on t h o s e  However,  of 3 on t h e 13,  response  rate  t h e most things  i n "studio  most areas  of a r t ' , 69% of respondents f e l t "pottery', 62% of respondents f e l t "printmaking' and 56% of respondents f e l t "fibre arts" were worthy of only "moderate emphasis'.  50% of t e r t i a r y  respondents  f e l t that "lecturers obtaining further q u a l i f i c a t i o n s was only "moderately important'.  TABLE 7 TERTIARY ART EDUCATOR GROUP: ITEMS INDICATING STRONGEST AGREEMENT WITHIN GROUP ACCORDING TO HIGH MODAL RESPONSES ITEM# DESCRIPTOR MODE MODE RESPONSE % CATEGORY PART B A(i)  CONTENT OF COURSE studio area of a r t : drawing B(iv) education studies: art curriculum N Knowledge o f and practice i n a r t c u r r i c u l u m and program p l a n n i n g STRUCTURE OF COURSE H(i) Practice teaching a t all levels(jr/sr) L(ii) Teachers maintain involvement i n a r t education issues L(vii) Teachers maintain involvement i n in-service PART C STATEMENTS D Every r e g i o n should have a s p e c i a l i s t a r t teacher assigned E P r i m a r y and e a r l y childhood pre-service programs s h o u l d i n c l u d e a t l e a s t one: (i) personal development a r t c o u r s e (ii) a r tcurriculum course I t i s I essential that a prospective a r t t e a c h e r be a b l e t o a r t i c u l a t e why i t i s important t o t e a c h a r t a n d be a b l e to o f f e r reasons f o r t h e amount a n d k i n d of a t t e n t i o n given to a c t i v i t i e s i n the a r t program  88%  1- g r e a t  deal of  emphasis  88%  1-great d e a l of  emphasis  81%  1- g r e a t  emphasis  75%  1-very  important  87%  1- v e r y  important  75%  1- v e r y  important  87%  1- s t r o n g l y  agree  87%  1- s t r o n g l y  agree  75%  1- s t r o n g l y  agree  94%  1- s t r o n g l y  agree  deal of  AGREEMENT BETWEEN GROUPS OF SECONDARY AND TERTIARY RESPONDENTS Secondary and t e r t i a r y a r t e d u c a t o r respondents had c o n s i d e r a b l e agreement on most o f t h e items i n t h e survey.  The m a j o r i t y o f items t h a t were r a t e d as  "most v a l u a b l e ' i n terras o f c o n t e n t and s t r u c t u r e , appear on b o t h secondary  and t e r t i a r y l i s t s  (Tables  1, 2, 4 and 5 ) . While t h e r e a r e s l i g h t d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e e x a c t o r d e r o f r a n k i n g , t h e m a j o r i t y o f items a r e ranked "most v a l u a b l e ' commonly by both t h e groups.  As w e l l , o f t h e seven items o f " c o n t e n t '  and f i v e items o f " s t r u c t u r e ' t h a t a r e n o t r a t e d commonly on t h e "most v a l u e d ' end o f t h e s c a l e , e i g h t a r e r a t e d by both groups w i t h i n .4 o f each other.  F o r example, on t h e h i g h e s t mean l i s t f o r  "content of course' items, t e r t i a r y  respondents  r a t e d " P h i l o s o p h y o f A r t ' a t c a t e g o r y 2 on t h e s c a l e , and secondary  respondents  rated t h i s item a t  2.2, showing a v e r y s m a l l d i f f e r e n c e o f .2 on t h e scale.  So w h i l e t h e "most v a l u e d ' l i s t s  differ  somewhat, t h i s d i f f e r e n c e i s m i n i m a l i z e d when t h e e n t i r e number o f items i s compared a c c o r d i n g t o means between groups.  I n f a c t , 52 items s c o r e d w i t h  .2 o f e a c h o t h e r on  the L i k e r t  between g r o u p s were  compared.  Not aligned  o n l y was  the general  on t h e v a l u e  the p r o f i l e  "content  both  items  groups,  items  but  noticeable in  i t e m s , where t h e  least  shown o f mean p o s i t i o n s on t h e  In f a c t ,  36  out  o f 42  also  within  This i s particularly  of course'  d i f f e r e n c e was scale.  ranking of  o f v a l u e s p l a c e d on  separate t o p i c s . the  s c a l e by  s a l e when means  i t e m s were  Likert  closely  aligned. In the rated  the  section,  both  "studio areas of a r t ' s i m i l a r l y  "drawing', "greatest and  "content of course'  "painting' emphasis',  "fibre  arts'  and  rating  with  "sculpture' rating  "printmaking',  groups  the  "photography',  a " c o n s i d e r a b l e emphasis',  "media' a "moderate e m p h a s i s ' , and " j e w e l l e r y ' , "computer a r t ' and  "leatherwork'  limited  emphasis.  Similarly,  by  both  groups of  be  seen,  with  items  moderately  "study  and  a  relative valuing  " a r t c u r r i c u l u m ' and  "teaching  " s o c i o l o g y ' and  valued.  r o l e s a r e a l l h i g h l y v a l u e d by the  the  only  i n " E d u c a t i o n a l s t u d i e s ' can  p r o c e s s ' most v a l u e d , and "psychology'  rating  "Art advocacy' both  groups,  awareness of a r t t e a c h i n g  as i s  resources'.  A r t H i s t o r y items a r e p r o f i l e d s i m i l a r l y by secondary and t e r t i a r y respondents w i t h "contemporary'  and " A u s t r a l i a n ' r a t e d most v a l u a b l e ,  f o l l o w e d by "modern', " A b o r i g i n a l ' , " c l a s s i c a l * and " a r c h i t e c t u r e " .  "Western',  I n both groups,  " E a s t e r n ' a r t h i s t o r y was ranked l o w e s t i n terms o f mean r e s p o n s e s .  Three items i n t h e " c o n t e n t o f  c o u r s e ' s e c t i o n t h a t ranked between "moderate' t o " c o n s i d e r a b l e ' emphasis by both groups were " a e s t h e t i c t h e o r y ' , " p h i l o s o p h y o f a r t ' and " c u r r e n t research i n a r t education'. There was l e s s agreement between secondary and t e r t i a r y a r t e d u c a t o r respondents i n t h e " s t r u c t u r e o f c o u r s e ' s e c t i o n o f t h e survey t h a n i n t h e "content of course' s e c t i o n .  S t i l l , the majority of  i t e m s showed consensus, i n t h a t 16 o u t o f t h e 27 i t e m s had mean p o s i t i o n s on t h e L i k e r t s c a l e w i t h i n .4 o f each o t h e r between t h e two groups.  Most o f  t h e s e 16 items a r e t o be found on t h e "most v a l u e d ' end o f t h e s c a l e , and a r e found i n common on t h e rank o r d e r i n g l i s t s f o r each group.  There was,  however, two " c o n s i d e r a b l y ' t o "moderately' i m p o r t a n t items t h a t a l i g n e d .  Secondary  respondents  r a t e d " i n v o l v e m e n t i n c o n t e n t and media f o r own  personal  respondents  rated  groups  rated  studio  courses'  In  of  10  that be  was  importance  course'  more t h a n  about  and t h a t  include  i n secondary  programs.  Both  develop  should  groups  individual  be g i v e n  .3 o n t h e Most  item,  curriculum Both  at least  which  stated  a r t teachers  and t h e  groups  "agreed'  pre-service one a r t c u r r i c u l u m  option  pre-service "disagreed*  than  should  be  education that  and personal  more e m p h a s i s  tertiary  two i t e m s o u t  prospective  "a d o u b l e - a r t  available*  that  only  and e a r l y c h i l d h o o d  should  of  and  compared.  on t h e f i n a l  their  Both  be a p a r t  a difference of  that  tertiary  o n mean.  secondary  with  means w e r e  found  and  mean.  of a r t education.  "primary  programs  on  aligned,  essential  articulate  that  a t 2.2  s c a l e when  i t was  a t 1.9  item  a r t curriculum  was m o s t l y  agreement  o n mean  C of the survey,  showing  Likert  this  "that  Part  opinion  a t 2.1  development'  "art  courses  expression  a r t curriculum  courses'. While outline art  t h e above  o f agreement  educator  descriptions give  a  between  and  respondents,  secondary  i t should  general tertiary  be n o t e d  that  e x a c t comparisons  on each i t e m can be made by  r e f e r r i n g t o t h e s t a t i s t i c a l d a t a i n Appendix I I .  5.  What measure o f d i f f e r e n c e e x i s t s w i t h i n groups  and between groups i n terms of a) c o n t e n t and  b)  experiences f o r a r t teacher p r e - s e r v i c e education?  DIFFERENCES WITHIN THE  SECONDARY RESPONDENT GROUP  The responses t o two items i n t h e s u r v e y i n d i c a t e d disagreement.  Both items were i n P a r t C,  t h e s e c t i o n of t h e survey t h a t s o l i c i t e d c o n t r o v e r s i a l statements.  o p i n i o n s on  These two items  concerned  t h e l e n g t h and t y p e of p r e - s e r v i c e program most valued.  They were: c  £  i $ U •U  U  H>  PART C B. A r t t e a c h e r p r e - s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g s h o u l d be a minimum of 4 y e a r s d u r a t i o n G. Art teachers graduating from an end-on p r e p a r a t i o n program a r e b e t t e r equipped t o t e a c h t h e s u b j e c t than 3 year t r a i n e d concurrent graduates.  16%  II CO -H  10%  3 1 26%  12%  o 5 1 24%  12%  37%  16%  18%  to <  1 I 29%  U 4J  O  2  a  to  4  With be  noted  to  see  type  reference that  i f the  of  outlined,  Course' variance more  as  however,  course', following  be  the  i t  should  personal  matched  was  found,  C  up  data  to  the  had  as  an  "concurrent'  that as  should  B  of  the  almost graduates  the It  category  responses items:  of were  -  the  more  there  to  opinion mode.  at  in  had  each are  worth  mind,  still In  less  items  reason  keep  of  was  some  responses  more  individual  "Content  but  for this  majority  two  courses".  items,  i s important  the  given  Course',  with  s c a l e and  be  some  previous  develop  survey  "Structure of to  showed  the  that  art curriculum  Part  that  one  on  (G)  respondent  much  expression  mentioning.  within  not  distribution  of  item  the  and  i n Part  i n responses  even  extreme  which  "art courses  that  and  could  "end-on*  but  was  Within  done  commonality  item  personal  emphasis  was  second  "disagreed'.  Another difference,  from  of  and  the  responses  No  number  "agreed'  and  check  program  graduated. equal  a  to  falls  "content  scattered in  the  to of  a  A.  Studio  areas  C.  Employment  -  computer  Prospects  art  and  expectations  of  employers. In showed  "Structure a  Course'  s c a t t e r i n g of  H(i)  a r t program  H(ii)  items,  the  following  responses:  Practice teaching  school  one  of  at  a l l levels  of  a  (primary/jr/sr)  Practice teaching  for  5 or  Practice teaching  for  short  more weeks  at  time  H(iii)  but  regular  times K(v)  Lecturers  involvement  i n p r e - s e r v i c e programs  in obtaining  D I F F E R E N C E S WITHIN  THE  Although  group  is  statistically  greater  variance  agreement there in  the  were  within only  response.  further  TERTIARY  small,  of  two  They  RESPONDENT GROUP  tertiary  art  which  normally  presumes  group items  were:  qualifications.  16  i n terms the  maintai  of  responses,  on that  most  there  items.  showed  educator  In  was fact,  disagreement  PART B  S T R U C T U R E OF  H<ii)  Practice teaching f o r 5 o r more weeks a t one t i m e .  J  Lecturers i n pres e r v i c e programs be i n v o l v e d i n teaching children on a r e g u l a r basis  Results  f o r item  quite  responses lack  of  This  were  19'-  12%  teaching',  were  considerable  the group.  In the second  polarized,  but d i d display  THE  a total  or greater  show  "practice  GROUPS OF  of  i n terras  SECONDARY  i t i s still  items i n mean  on t h e s u r v e y ' s .5  on t h e s c a l e  o f mean, w h i c h  disagreement  position  o f 17  had a d i f f e r e n c e  distance  such, one  BETWEEN  that  minimum, to  less  25^  s  item, a  AND  RESPONDENTS  There  .5  25  consensus.  TERTIARY  survey  6%  indicating  within  were  DIFFERENCES  was  H(ii),  polarized,  disagreement  COURSE  or variance  representative  on t h e v a l u e  scale,  o u t o f 79 o n t h e response  Likert was  scale.  chosen  could  be  that  as t h e  considered  between groups.  As  of only  of  which  one-half  might  be, i n  some  instances,  important' analysis with  and " c o n s i d e r a b l y  which  a mean  (Refer  t h e m i d - d i f f e r e n c e between  follows  difference  t h e 5 items  difference  between  groups  on t h e L i k e r t  and  involve  survey,  scale).  pre-service  i s found  i n Part  difference  (69%)  and  category.  Secondary  favourably  a n d show a d i s p e r s i o n  registered scattered two  be n o t e d  practice  difference spite  that  "no o p i n i o n ' . responses  from  26%  i n valuing  that  that  The  C of the i n the  on t h e 4  year  high agree' i t less  i n their  responses,  respondents there are  the secondary  between  i t appears  of  rated  As w e l l ,  teaching items  of this,  i s a  i n the "strongly respondents  two  programs  favour a  as there  mode  i t must  scale  tertiary  o f means  respondents  program,  scale,  difference  percentage  and  items  .9  teaching issues.  i t by s e c o n d a r y  The t e r t i a r y  a  of pre-service  the greatest  (1.6  respondents.  art  which  exhibits given  staff  practice  item,  valuation  those  .9 o r g r e a t e r o n t h e  show m o r e t h a n  the lecturing  remaining  only address  that  involve two  of  The  8).  to Table  Of  will  important'.  "very  group  to the  show t h e g r e a t e s t  t h e two g r o u p s . the tertiary  In group  generally  favour  shorter,  more  regular  teaching  s e s s i o n s (Item  Course")  whereas t h e m a j o r i t y o f t h e secondary  give  a higher  sessions. Tertiary at  rating  (Item  H ( i i ) i n "Structure  levels  (primary/jr/sr) secondary  as  also  rated  "considerably  However,  as  responses  somewhat  scattered  across the scale.  secondary In  fact,  both  teaching  percentage  showed "that  modes  respondents,  on a  important' however,  throughout  o n l y moderate  basis'  categories,  importance.  On  the other that means,  consensus.  maintain in  had  important'  some  as  were  involved  category.  showed  item  considerable  regular  i n the "very  this  between group  "be  whereas  mentioned  lecturers  lecturers  i n s c h o o l s ' , and  "considerably  responses  difference  items,  children  to this  concerning  respondents  involvement  of  items  the largest  teaching'  important',  secondary  showed  teaching  i n the majority rated  unimportant'.  on t h e 2  group  of Course').  "practice  earlier,  hand,  of  o f the a r t program  respondents  "moderately  i n "Structure  to the longer practice  respondents  a l l three  H(iii)  practice  high and  Tertiary scattering  but rated  of  the  items  80  TABLE 8 DIFFERENCES BETWEEN THE GROUP MEANS OF SECONDARY AND TERTIARY RESPONDENTS OF MORE THAN .9 ON THE LIKERT SCALE STRUCTURE OF COURSE  PART B  MEAN Sec. 3 .4 T e r t . 2 .3  DIFF1.1  H(i)  Sec. Tert.  3 .2 2 .2  1.0  H(iii)  Sec. Tert.  1 .1 2 .1  1.0  K( i v )  Sec. Tert.  1 .9 2 .8  .9  J  Sec. Tert.  2 .5 3 .1  .6  H(ii)  Sec. Tert.  2 .1 1 .9  .6  L(iv)  Sec. Tert.  2 .4 1 .9  .5  E  PART C Sec. 3 T e r t . 1 .4  STATEMENTS 1.6 B  Sec. 1 .8 T e r t . .1 .2  .6  E(i)  ITEM Practice Teaching:at a l l levels of a (primary/jr/sr) P r a c t i c e Teaching f o r short but regular tines Lecturers i n pres e r v i c e programs maintain involvement in schools Lecturers i n prep r o g r a m s be i n v o l v e d in teaching children on a r e g u l a r b a s i s P r a c t i c e Teaching: f o r 5 o r more weeks at a time Teachers maintain involvements i n a r t s organizations That students get a separate, thorough grounding i n d i f f e r e n t aspects of a r t ( i . e . History, Aesthetics, M a t e r i a l s and processes)  Art teacher p r e service training c o u r s e s s h o u l d be a minimum o f 4 y e a r s duration P r i m a r y and e a r l y childhood pre-service programs s h o u l d i n c l u d e a t l e a s t one: (i) personal development a r t c o u r s e .  1 2 3 4 5 RESPONSE BREAKDOWN 8 20 22 8 41 S e c . % 56 6 6 12 19 T e r t . % 26 18 5 18 35 S e c . % 50 12 12 12 12 T e r t . % 88 12 0 38 31 19  0 6  0 Sec.% 6 Tert.%  53 24 10 6 6 Sec.% 25 19 25 12 19 T e r t . % 39 16 12 16 16 S e c . % 6 19 31 T e r t . % 25 19 37 29 22 10 0 62 25 12  2 Sec.% 0 Tert.%  31 29 18 16 37 44 12 6  6 Sec.% 0 Tert.%  29 10 26 12 24 S e c . % 0 Tert.% 69 25 0 6  59 16 16 75 25 0  6 0  2 Sec.% 0 Tert.%  DISCUSSION The  OF  first  relationship secondary  (C)  issue  by  the (B)  viewpoints and  general  the the  the  RELATIONSHIPS  AS  THE  SURVEY.  The the  following  data  reading  analysis the  (i) be  That  should  these  r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of  be  the  or  elsewhere,  but  motivated  to  respond  the  one  items  art education  were  treated  drawn  from  generally.  kept  whole  Australia  any  tertiary  survey  scholars This will  be and  of pre-service the  study.  TWO  RESPONDENT  SCHOLARSHIP  preface  particular  and  That  teacher  this  i n mind  USED  part  of  while  section:  secondary  (ii)  of  EDUCATION  p o i n t s which  following  of  the  reflect  art  survey.  BETWEEN THE  ART  OF  on  views  results  THE  BASIS  (A)  which  development  P O P U L A T I O N S AND THE  is  points for discussion,  f o r the of  addressed  findings,  basis of  in light  A.  be  the  tertiary  implications  programs  to  education,  formed  followed  FINDINGS  between  and  pre-service which  THE  respondents population  a r t educators  to  items  only  of  in  not  of  Queensland,  those  who  were  survey. do  not  fully  represent  scholar's viewpoint. the  may  literature,  many  While are  With t h e s e p o i n t s i n mind, t h e r e a r e s e v e r a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s between the views o f respondents  and  a r t e d u c a t i o n s c h o l a r s h i p t h a t a r e worth n o t i n g . I t would appear from t h e r e s u l t s t h a t t h e groups of respondents  two  favour a f a i r l y t r a d i t i o n a l ,  " f i n e a r t s ' emphasis w i t h i n the s t u d i o component of a r t teacher education.  T h i s can be seen by t h e h i g h  mean c a t e g o r y of drawing, p a i n t i n g , and s c u l p t u r e items as opposed t o c r a f t areas such as f i b r e p o t t e r y and p a r t i c u l a r l y , j e w e l l e r y and Even l e s s emphasis was T.V.,  arts,  leatherwork.  g i v e n t o newer m e d i a - f i l m ,  v i d e o , photography and computer a r t ,  e s p e c i a l l y amongst t h e t e r t i a r y a r t e d u c a t o r s . Commercial a r t s , however, r e c e i v e d more support from secondary  than t e r t i a r y a r t e d u c a t o r s .  N e v e r t h e l e s s , t h i s g e n e r a l l y seems t o i n d i c a t e an h o n o u r i f i c view o f a r t s t u d i o t h a t L a n i e r  (1979),  Chapman (1978), Degge (1979), and o t h e r s have strongly  criticized.  A s p e c t s o f a r t c u r r i c u l u m , as i n c l u d e d i n f o u r items of " c o n t e n t ' , a l l r e f l e c t e d a h i g h v a l u i n g by t h e respondents  and have been h i g h l i g h t e d as  i m p o r t a n t i n the l i t e r a t u r e (Chapman, (1982) i n particular).  Respondents a l s o seemed t o f a v o u r the  inclusion has  of curriculum within studio areas,  been s u g g e s t e d  Kerr  by B o u g h t o n  study  also indicated  of a r t education  c o n s i d e r a b l e emphasis. current  still  scale.  theory'  Although  the previous  that  "knowledge  should  be g i v e n  "knowledge o f  research i n a r t education'  emphasis than it  (1986) a n d L o v a n o -  (1985). Most r e s p o n d e n t s  and  which  i t e m by  r a t e d on t h e "more v a l u e d '  rated  less  .7 on t h e s c a l e , end o f t h e  T h i s w o u l d seem t o c o n t r a d i c t s c h o l a r s h i p ,  (Hiller, teachers,  1981; Chapman,  1982) who c l a i m t h a t  i n particular,  do n o t p l a c e  much  i m p o r t a n c e on r e s e a r c h and i s s u e s i n a r t e d u c a t i o n . In t h e s e c t i o n c o n c e r n i n g in  a r t education  rated  secondary  education "very  a r t educator  i s s u e s , both and t e r t i a r y  involvements  respondent  groups  involvements  in art  i s s u e s as " c o n s i d e r a b l y important'  important',  to  which would f u r t h e r c o n t r a d i c t  scholarship. Art  advocacy  i s s u e s a r e deemed i m p o r t a n t  s c h o l a r s and r e s p o n d e n t s "understanding  alike,  of c u l t u r a l  by  as a r e  d i f f e r e n c e s i n f o r m s and  f u n c t i o n s o f a r t ' , and " a e s t h e t i c t h e o r y ' .  In f a c t ,  only  6% o r fewer  "not  valued', Art  ranked  respondents  hierarchically  "Eastern'  by t h e r e s p o n d e n t s ,  (1982,  only  Chapman  claims  i n i t sinclusion  i s unknown  she  might  as t o whether  propose  would  response  would  art'  was  considered  views  o f Degge  the  considered  tertiary that  study,  Queensland, further  in  particular  to  avenues them.  that  somewhat  place  which  (1985)  t o be  was  secondary valuable  to out  involved i n that, i n  f o r gaining Nevertheless,  secondary  moderate study  by  identified  Queensland  f o r further  supports  has p o i n t e d  qualifications.  only  survey  (1981).  more  (1984)  a r e few avenues  these  the  "contemporary  important'  encouragement  a r t education  appears  on  but  coverage  further qualifications'  Hiller  a n d Duck  there  it  the  need  of  than  a n d Hammond  rated  respondents.  the extent  valuable,  "moderately  a n d was  teachers  further  obtaining  only  respondents,  (1979)  with  i n the curriculum,  Emphasis  highly  were  "moderately  be d i f f e r e n t  suggest.  "Teachers  as  p. 1 5 0 ) i n p a r t i c u l a r ,  important*.  it  areas  as o u t l i n e d p r e v i o u s l y ,  a r t history rated  value  these  3 and 5 on t h e s c a l e .  o r between  h i s t o r y items,  rated  that  value may  teachers  i n utilizing be a v a i l a b l e  "Lecturers was  also  ranked  secondary may  Whether teaching  i n this  " l e c t u r e r s should  t h e Board  Schools  important,  expression  should  curriculum  courses'.  emphasis  has been  has as  involved i n  basis'  appear  i s worthy  i s quite  tertiary  issue.  i n d i v i d u a l and  This  that " a r t  personal  more e m p h a s i s implied  a recurring  (1978) a n d  Education  "disagreed*  be g i v e n  than a r t  balance  issue  of  i n the  literature  and i t appears  that  the respondents  agree  the literature  that  overemphasis  with  students' may  development  as an a r t i s t  be a d i s s e r v i c e t o them The  teachers  graduating  from  would  of  i n pre-service  (Braben,  r e s u l t s of the survey  of  in particular  that  on t h i s  generally  develop  this  (1979) t h a t t h i s  are divided  that  While  o f programs  respondents  but i t would  Respondents  both  i talso  be  of Teacher  Commission  respondents  by  chapter.  The secondary  with  courses  factors,  c h i l d r e n on a r e g u l a r  comment. agree  important'  f o r t h e development  later  qualifications'  a r t educators.  b e d u e t o t h e same  outlined  further  as "moderately  and t e r t i a r y  implications  the  obtaining  1982,  p.  68).  t o the item " a r t  an end-on  preparation  program than  are better  3 year  equipped  trained  concurrent  considerable  disagreement,  "no o p i n i o n '  responses.  Braben's system be for  view  and a g a i n s t " was  one  item  i n a r t education  prospective  particulars,  seem  to teach  t o come,  that  addressed  be a b l e  and k i n d  as evidenced  by  value  will  that  that  need  to  to  why i t  offer  While  given  the viewpoints  t o be more tertiary  fully  and  by t h e e n d o f a r t p r e -  prospective of their  appear  a  some o f t h e  may  underlying  teachers  curriculum  should  be  and t h e  of a r t education. SUMMARY  the  survey,  an  of attention  a r t educators-secondary,  i n terms  dual  to articulate  clarified,  articulate  support  supporters  a l l groups  i n the a r t program'.  education,  the  with  a r t a n d be a b l e  - a r e adamant  to  p.68).  i n this  service  seem  [ i n Queensland]  registered  scholars  showed  proportion of  that  " I t i s essential  f o r t h e amount  activities  would  i n which  a r t teacher  important  reasons to  (1982,  i n agreement.  a high  a r t teachers  p r a c t i s e d f o r some t i m e  issue  is  This  the subject  graduates'  with  " i t would  of training  There  be  that  to teach  groups  I t would  seem,  of a r t educators  on paper that  at least,  responded  that  to the  survey  would  current the  and  education. secondary the  would of  be  unsupportive  suggestions  content  and  not  structure  Obvious and  tend  to  to  support  difference.  One  i n terms  of  areas  over  studio  areas  in this  respondents  obtaining  further  "craft'  and  component d i d not  on  a  scholars.  by  both  A l l groups  c u r r i c u l u m and  items,  of  most  items  a  the  the  "fine  areas  honourific arts'  media'  great value  or  must  on  some  not  respondents lecturers which  was  a r t educators  and  supported  the  few  was  which  secondary  prospective a r t teachers their  most  regular basis,  strongly  of  on  Tertiary  children  favoured  in  pre-service.  qualifications,  whether  highly  groups  were  place  on  teach  for shifts  "newer  of  divided  should  about  of  scholars criticize.  strongly  that  There  emphasis,  the  Secondary  were  between  valuation  this.  the  a r t teacher pre-service  in particular  studio  Australian  of  respondents  high  some o f  literature  agreement  tertiary  moderate  valuing,  i n the  of  be  the  notion  articulate  importance  of  art  education. B. The the  POINTS largest  results  of  FOR  DISCUSSION  issue  the  to  survey  be  addressed  i s the  strong  in light  of  agreement  88 between t h e  groups of t e r t i a r y  e d u c a t o r s on  the  doing a formal h a v i n g an  there  i s no  concerning as  evaluation  this  v a l u a t i o n of  familiarity  a r t education p r i o r itemized  fairly  i t i s not  but  c e r t a i n l y the  (1981) has  the  field  and  reflect  a "status  study of  As  attitudes  that  can  be  current  in  needs be  this  appear  viewed,  that pre-service  values  of  the  those i n the  pre-service  for  the  their  experiences are  of value  in  that  responded  s u r v e y have a s i m i l a r , c o n v e n t i o n a l  c o n t e n t and  is a  program  C e r t a i n l y i t i s more d i s t u r b i n g p r o g r a m s who  as  teachers  undertaken.  the  used  ascertained  development' or t h a t the  quo'  pre-service.  easily  but  some, i t w o u l d  Perhaps i t can stated,  "self-perpetuating  Without  needs have c h a n g e d  traditional.  Hammond  with  Queensland p r e - s e r v i c e  whether a t t i t u d e s or  art  of e x i s t i n g programs,  attitude reflects  a comparison,  respect,  secondary  nature of p r e - s e r v i c e .  informal  appear t h a t  and  view of  to what  i n programs,  development o r change o f programs depends  support.  Perhaps the  o c c u r s can  be  found  i n the  profiles.  Again,  particular  r e s p o n d e n t s may  clues survey  i t i s t o be not  as  t o why  on  this  background  reiterated that represent  all  these  tertiary  staff.  a definite of  However,  r e s p o n d e n t s had o v e r  teaching experience, beyond t h e  and o v e r  Bachelor's  qualifications.  of  level  (in  teachers.  20 y e a r s o f  study  art  had n o t  in  gone  their  compared w i t h r e s p o n s e on  qualifications,  the p r e - s e r v i c e  awareness  the  the may  education s c h o l a r s than the  survey  least  moderate  lack of  responses i n d i c a t e  s u p p o r t f o r most  suggestions for pre-service  on  education  of current  is  majority  T h i s w o u l d p o s s i b l y p o i n t more  lack of  fact,  the  The  r e l a t i v e conservatism of viewpoint  i t e m s most v a l u e d f o r  lecturers'  of  terms of  gaining further  e x p l a i n the  art  group, there  one-half  These f a c t o r s ,  moderate v a l u a t i o n  art  the  age and e x p e r i e n c e p r o f i l e .  tertiary  survey)  within  of  to  thinking  support.  by  In  that there  is  at  scholarly  t h a t were s e l e c t e d  for  questionnaire. Considerable  practice  in pre-service,  e x p e r i e n c e was tertiary  i m p o r t a n c e was g i v e n t o nature  of  that  shown t o be h i e r a r c h i c a l  by  both  arts'  awareness  the  and s e c o n d a r y r e s p o n s e s .  newer m e d i a were v a l u e d "fine  yet  studio  areas.  far  less  T h i s may a l s o  on t h e p a r t  of  the  Craft than  areas  traditional  indicate  survey  and  a lack  populations,  of  particularly cause of  a  with  certain  study  of  computer  amount  such  the  areas  of  somewhat  self-serving.  seen  as  and  tertiary  lecturers.  of  favoured  by  which  and  video  value  and  cause  should  of  by  for this  to  For  example,  by  one  secondary  year  would  by  be  the  time  shorter practicum less  be  disruption area  of  items  on  a  very  importance. on  happen.  was  by  of  difference  involved in  considerable effort  arrange  be  practicum  schools  less  may  example  further  rated these  r a t e d them take  A  between  adequate  longer  the  involved with  Teachers  to  the  would  lecturers  and  lecturers  parts  Another  respectively.  children  would  the  for a pre-service  p r e f e r a b l y extended  teachers  whether  time  currently  practicums;  lecturers,  basis.  may  to  disagreement  as  was  routine  film,  a r t educators  teachers  length  as  tertiary  preferable length of  program  s k e p t i c i s m as  and  translated  it  of  Unfamiliarity  imagery.  secondary  was  media.  newer media  Some o f  the  new  teaching  regular highly  and  Certainly  lecturers'  C.  IMPLICATIONS PRE-SERVICE The  how  and  expressed  there  DEVELOPMENT  OF  most  the as  obvious  e x i s t i n g program  "most  valued'  by  causal  r e l a t i o n s h i p such  as  Hammond  can  found.  needs  If the  program  of  role  pre-service. to  increase  needed  at  latter,  in  and  tertiary  organizations.  would  be  to  programs as  that  secondary  incorporate  innovations  that  evidenced  by  their  and  a  media  levels  is in into  point  changes  would  in  in-service  starting  those  teachers  the  effectively  Certainly, a  incorporate  suggests  directions  theory  these  support  likely  a  traditional  performing  new  to  existing  seem  that  the  new  the  strong  be  of  order  try  mind  is  perhaps  (1981)  even  ask  respondents.  is a  i t could  implementing  I t would  both  there  meeting  never  awareness  to  and  i s not  teachers,  leadership  not,  to  the  similarity,  current  great  of  TEACHER  match  of  likelihood  ART  question  deal  be  is a  THE  EDUCATION  c l o s e l y does  views If  first  FOR  into  already  responses  to  the  survey. Liaison  between  organizations credibility  of  tertiary  i s e s s e n t i a l to the  pre-service  and  secondary  increase program.  the Whether  or  not  this  takes  t h e form  children"  o r some o t h e r  schools',  i ti s clear  liaison  lies  with  Consideration between  that  The  this  scope  concerning  that  placed  "craft'  could  areas  models  such  indicate  o f making t h e  prevented  bear  single  t o be c a n v a s s e d  indicated fruitful  issues  i n depth.  by t h e f i n d i n g s , investigation.  as: and a t t i t u d e s  towards  o f a r t a n d newer  media  with  within  the  and support f o r  of a r t education  as Discipline-Based,  program  the study  populations.  and M u l t i - A r t s ,  the profile  should  secondary  STUDY  study  The f a m i l i a r i t y  particular  by  require.  issues  and t e r t i a r y  2.  Education,  on i n t e r a c t i o n  and schools  FURTHER  of this  Awareness  secondary  to  FOR  are listed  programs  community.  t h e wisdom  a r t pre-service  1. of  would  are several  however, These  the tertiary  educators  of  the responsibility f o r  of the value  RECOMMENDATIONS  There  that  teaching  of "involvement i n  as r e f l e c t e d i n t h e study  tertiary  effort  form  lecturers, children  teachers to  of "regular  i n order  indicated  f o r pre-service Aesthetic t o compare  by t h i s  them  survey.  3.  The  canvassing  administrative and  to  4. (to  attitudes  experiences  education  A  allow  by  would  Teaching  school  where  school  advocacy  is  r e p r e s e n t a t i v e sample  this  conclusions)  study  as  Principal  and  assigning  of  (Sec.  Second  Art)  specialist  content art  and on  survey items actions.  making  the  incorporative of  teaching  areas,  and  art teachers  and  needed.  p o s s i b l e lobby  i n c l u d e , f o r Queensland,  Diploma  staff  particular  f o r p r e - s e r v i c e and  indicate more  parent,  towards  for predictive  identified These  of  to  both  the Primary  regions.  SUMMARY  AND  This  CONCLUSION  study  showed  agreement  w i t h i n and  secondary  and  and  items for  are  education.  on  both  the  survey  groups,  there  between  tertiary  experiences  service  that  valued  profile  was  a  a  "fine  items  reflected However,  aspects there  on  what  of  "most  of content  pre-  valued'  strongly traditional  a r t c u r r i c u l u m and  advocacy.  populations  for a r t teacher  The  with  considerable  a r t educators  component, that  the  was  arts'  studio  methods of  were  art very  one  focus,  and  education few  items  on  the  94 survey  t h a t were " n o t v a l u e d ' ,  support of service the  things  Whether t h e v a l u e s  findings result  further that  s u g g e s t e d by s c h o l a r s f o r  programs.  development'  which i n d i c a t e s  from a  or a l a c k of  The f i r s t  priority  awareness  due t o  already  responses to the evidence.  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Education  Department  R-12. o f South  102 S h u l t z , L.  (1980).  A studio curriculum for a r t  e d u c a t i o n . A r t Education, 33(6), pp.  10-15.  103  ART  APPENDIX I TEACHER PREPARATION  SURVEY  ..105  P A R T B VIEWS O N A R T T E A C H E R P R E SERVICE PREPARATION: 6. Contvnt of Course: With regard to art teacher preparation programi a number of issues are listed below. For each issue, you are asked to indicate:  I  How much emphasis, in your opinion, should it be given in an art teacher pre-service preparation program. Indicate your answers by circling the most appropriate numbers opposite each issue. In addition, space is provided for you to express any other issues you teel BTB important that are not listed here.  EMPHASIS ON:  1 2  Influence of current changes in the education system as a whole:  1  2 3  4 5  E. Art advocacy role of the art teacher:  3 4 5  A. Knowledge of and participation in the following studio areas of art  (i)  relevance of art to society:  1  2 3 4 5  (ii)  relevance of art to students in schools:  1  2 3 4 5  (iii)  public relations with the community  1  2 3 4 5  (iv)  strategies for promoting the status of art in schools:  1  2 3 4 5  (vi)  Other:  (i)  drawing  1  2 3 4 5  (ii)  painting  1  2 3 4 5  (iii)  sculpture  3 4  (iv)  pottery  3  F. Study and awareness of art teaching aids and resources, such as films, books, videos, slide sets, etc.:  1  2 3 4 5  G. The assessment and evaluation of pupils' work in art:  1  2 3 4 5  H. The principles of form and structure in art (theory of the elements and principles of design).  1  2 3 4 5  The understanding of cultural differences in forms and functions of art.  1  2 3 4 5  Education in aesthetic responses towards different forms of art (Aesthetic theory)  1  2 3 4 5  4  fibre arts (vi)  printmaking  (vii)  jewellery  (viii)  leatherwork  lix)  media (film, video, TV)  Ul  photography  (xi)  commercial arts  (xii)  computer art  ixiii)  Other: (please specify)  I.  1  2 3 J.  K. Knowledge of art history:  B. Educational Studies (i)  psychology  (ii)  sociology  (iii)  teaching process (general)  (iv)  art curriculum  (v)  Other (please specify)  Employment prospects and expectaitons of emoloyers (school and government administrators) 14  1  QATA NEWSLETTER NOVEMBER 1985  2 3 4 5  (i)  classical ipre-20thC)  1  2 3 4 5  (ii)  modern (1900-1980)  1  2 3 4 5  (iri)  contemporary (current)  1.2  (iv)  Australian  1  (v)  Aboriginal  1  2 3 4 5  (vi)  Western  1  2 3 4 5  3 4 5  2 3 4 5  (vit)  Eastern  1  2 3 4 5  (viti)  architecture  1  2 3 4 5  (ix)  Other (please specify) 1  2 3 4 5  1  2 3 4 5  1  2 3 4 5  106  t I  3 Q  E —  z<  o — 2 <  L. That Art teachers in schools maintain awareness of and involvement in: (i)  Art  1  2  3  4  5  (ii)  Art Education Issues  1  2  3  4  5  (iii)  Pre-service Programs  1  2  3  4  5  (iv)  Arts organizations  1  2  3  4  5  iv)  Obtaining further qualifications  1  2  3  4  5  liaison with other school art programs.  1  2  3  4  5  In-service Programs  1  2  3  4  5  (vi)  (vii)  E . Primary and early c h i l d h o o d preservice programs should include at least one:  M. A D D I T I O N A L 'Structure of Program' ISSUES O F I M P O R T A N C E :  (0  personal development art course  1  2  3  4  5  (ii)  art curriculum course  1  2  3  4  5  In 3 year pre-service programs, a double-art option should be available as well as an art Primary Teaching Area and other subject Second Teaching A r e a .  1  2  3  4  5  , Art teachers graduating from an end-on preparation program are better equipped to teach the subject than 3 year trained concurrent graduates.  1  2  3  4  5  1  2  3  4  5  H . Adequate resources for regular inschool art programs have greater priority than the maintenance/ establishment of c o m m u n i t y services in art.  tt is essential that a prospective art teacher be able to articulate why it is important to teach art and be able to offer reasons for the amount and kind of attention given to activities in the art program. 1  2  3  4  5  PART C 10. For each statement listed below, circle a number how much y o u are in agreement or disagreement.  to  show  I  PART D  <  Y o u r opinion is also solicited on the following question: What do you see as the most valuable contribution an art education professional association can make to art teachers in the field after the completion of their pre-service program?  A . IN A R T T E A C H E R P R E - S E R V I C E training programs, art subject courses should be given more emphasis than education courses.  1  2  3  4  5  B. Art teacher pre-service training courses should be a m i n i m u m of 4 years duration.  1  2  3  4  5  1  .2  3  4  5  1  2  3  4  5  C.  Art courses that develop individual and personal expression should be given more emphasis than a n curriculum courses.  D. Every region should have a specialist a n teacher assigned to its primary schools with expertise in Primary Art Education. 16  QATA NEWSLETTER NOVEMBER  1985  107  E - <  L. Philosophy of Art (theory of what Art is)  1  2  3  4  5  B. That students have depth of knowledge in some studio areas  1  2  3  4  5  M. Knowledge and study of Art Education theory. (Analysing the practice of teaching Art)  1  2  3  4  5  N. Knowledge of and practice in Art curriculum and program planning  C. That there is an integration of different aspects of art within studio areas {i.e. PAINTING includes history, theory, criticism, materials and processes)  1  2  3  4  5  1  2  3  4  5  D. That art curriculum be a part of studio courses  1 2  E. That students get a separate, thorough grounding in different aspects of art (i.e. Art History, Aesthetics, Materials and processes)  1  2  3  4  5  F. To involve students in content and media relevant to school circumstances  1  2  3  4  5  G. To involve students in content and media for their own personal development  1  2  3  4  5  at all levels of a school art program: (jr/sr.)  1  2  3  4  5  (primary/jr/sr.)  1  2  3  4  5  (>i)  for 5 or more weeks at one time  1  2  3  4  5  (Hi)  for short but regular times  1  2  3  4  5  (iv)  more than once each year of training  1  2  3  4  5  (v)  Other:  1  2  3  4  5  O. Integration of art with other subjects: (i)  expressive arts  1  2  3  4  5  (ii)  other subjects in the school curriculum  1  2  3  4  5  P. Knowledge of current research in Art Education 1  2  3  4  5  Q. Liberal Education (literature, philosophy, history and nature of contemporary society, political science) 1  2  3  4  5  H. To involve students in practice teaching:  R. Any other 'content' issues that are not listed above: 1  2  3  4  5  1  2  3  4  5  1  2  3  4  5  1  2  3  4  5  1  2  3  4  5  1  2  3  4  5  1  2  3  4  5  I.  9. Structure of Course: A series of issues ere listed below. For each issue, you are asked to rate how important it is, in your opinion, for art teacher pre-service training programs. Indicate your answers by circling the most appropriate numbers opposite each issue.  3 * 5  That Lecturers in pre-service programs have had school teaching experience: |i)  lecturers in studio areas  1  2  3  4  5  (H)  lecturers in other course areas  1  2  3  4  5  1  2  3  4  5  J. That Lecturers in pre-service programs be involved in teaching children on a regular basis. K. That Lecturer's in pre-service programs maintain involvement in:  Q  -  2<  A. That students have a breadth of knowledge in studio areas  1  2  3  4  5  1  2  3  4  5  Ii)  Art (Practice)  1  2 3  (ii)  Art Education Issues  1  2  3  (iii)  Arts Organisation  1  2  3  (iv)  Schools  1  2 3  (v)  Obtaining further, qualifications  12  3 4  OATA NEWSLETTER NOVEMBER 1985  APPENDIX I I NUMERICAL RESULTS FOR  ITEMS  The f o l l o w i n g t a b l e s r e p r e s e n t t h e response  rates  f o r each i t e m i n PART B and PART C o f t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e .  The responses a r e e x p r e s s e d i n terms of p e r c e n t a g e o f responses f o r t h e two p o p u l a t i o n s , secondary t e r t i a r y a r t educators. were:  and  T o t a l numbers i n each  group  b) t e r t i a r y = 1 6 .  As w e l l ,  a) secondary = 49,  t h e average response r a t e f o r each group i s shown.  Note  p e r c e n t a g e s have been rounded o f f t o t h e n e a r e s t whole p e r c e n t a g e , w i t h .5's t a k e n t o t h e lower whole p e r c e n t a g ( i . e . 12.5% t a k e n t o 1 2 % ) .  R e f e r t o Chapter 4 f o r t h e  d e s c r i p t i v e a n a l y s i s of t h e r e s u l t s .  R e f e r t o APPENDIX  f o r t h e a c t u a l format o f t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e .  109  PART B:  8.  VIEWS ON ART TEACHER  CONTENT OF EMPHASIS  PRE-SERVICE PREPARATION  COURSE:  ON:  A. Knowledge o f and p a r t i c i p a t i o n studio areas of a r t :  i n the following  a C  4-1 •H  O  i.  drawing  88 88  5 12  8 0  0 0  0 0  % %  sec. tert.  avg. avg  1.2 1.1  i i .  painting  65 38  22 31  12 31  0 0  0 0  % %  sec. sec.  avg. avg.  1.4 1.2  i i i .  sculpture  29 38  47 12  24 38  0 12  0 0  % %  sec. tert.  avg. avg.  2 2.2  iv  pottery  24 19  45 6  31 69  0 6  0 0  % %  sec. tert.  avg. avg.  2 2.6  v  fibre  8 19  39 6  51 56  2 19  0 0  % %  sec. tert.  avg. avg.  2.5 2.7  vi  printmaking  29 25  47 12  24 62  0 0  0 0  % %  sec. tert.  avg. avg.  2 2.4  vii  jewellery  0 12  18 6  47 38  9 38  6 6  % %  sec. tert.  avg. avg.  3.2 3.1  v i i i  leatherwork  0 6  2 6  51 25  31 44  % %  sec. tert.  avg. avg.  3.6 3.6  ix  media (film, video, t.v.)  15 12  22 25  41 38  19 25  3 0  % %  sec. tert.  avg. avg.  2.7  X  photography  18 6  31 38  51 44  0 12  0 0  % %  sec. tert.  avg. avg.  2.3 2.6  arts  16 19  110 xi  commercial arts  xii  computer a r t  B.  Educational  18 6  26 19  45 37  12 19  0 19  % %  sec. tert.  avg. avg.  2 .5 3 .2  6 6  22 6  31 44  24 19  16 25  % %  sec. tert.  avg. avg.  3 .2 3 .5  Studies  i  psychology  2 51 12 44  31 19  19 12  23 12  % %  sec. tert.  avg. avg.  2 .6 2 .7  i i  sociology  6 31  29 31  43 12  20 12  2 12  % %  sec. tert.  avg. avg.  2 .8 2 .4  i i i  teaching process (general)  61 63  31 19  8 12  0 6  0 0  % %  sec. tert.  avg. avg.  1 .5 1 .6  iv  art curriculum  86 88  8 12  6 0  0 0  0 0  % %  sec. tert.  avg. avg.  1 .2 1 .2  C.  Employment p r o s p e c t s and expectations of employers  29 19  29 31  22 31  18 6  2 12  % %  sec. tert.  avg. avg.  2 .4 2 .6  D.  Influence current change  39 56  26 19  31 25  2 0  2 0  % %  sec. avg. t e r t • avg.  2 .1 1 .7  E.  Art  i.  relevance of art to society  73 62  16 31  8 6  5 0  0 0  % %  sec. tert.  avg. avg.  1 .4 1 .4  i i  relevance of art to studends i n schools  76 69  18 25  6 6  0 0  0 0  % %  sec. tert.  avg. avg.  1 .3 1 .4  i i i  public relations with t h e community  29 50  35 25  33 19  2 0  2 6  % %  sec. tert.  avg. avg.  2 .2 1 .9  iv  strategies for promoting the status of a r t in schools  53 62  31 25  10 6  5 0  5 6  % %  sec. tert.  avg. avg.  1 .7 1 .6  of  advocacy  r o l e of  the a r t teacher:  Ill  Study o f awareness o f art teaching a i d s and resources  47 31  41 62  9 6  10 0  2 0  % %  sec. tert.  avg. avg.  1 .7 1 .7  Assessment and evaluation of student a r t work  84 50  14 31  0 19  2 0  0 0  % %  sec. tert.  avg. avg.  1 .2 1 .7  Elements and principles of design  53 12  22 44  24 37  0 6  0 0  % %  sec. tert.  avg. avg.  1 .7 2 .4  Understanding cultural differences i n forms and functions of art  29 44  41 31  26 25  5 0  0 0  % %  sec. tert.  avg. avg.  2 .1 1 .8  Aesthetic Theory  22 31  35 38  39 25  2 6  2 0  % %  sec. tert.  avg. avg.  2 .3 2 .1  i. classical (pre-zothc)  18 25  31 31  45 31  6 12  0 0  % %  sec. tert.  avg. avg.  2 .4 2 .3  i i  (1900-1980)  51 56  35 31  12 12  2 0  0 0  % %  sec. tert.  avg. avg.  1 .7 1 .6  i i i ary  contempor(current)  67 56  22 44  12 0  0 0  0 0  % %  sec. tert.  avg. avg.  1 .5 1 .4  iv  Australian  61 69  31 25  8 6  0 0  0 0  % %  sec. tert.  avg. avg.  1 .5 1 .4  v  Aboriginal  29 37  51 37  18 25  2 0  0 0  % %  sec. tert.  avg. avg.  2 1 .9  vi  Western  14 31  53 44  31 12  2 6  0 6  % %  sec. tert.  avg. avg.  2 .2 2 .1  Knowledge o f Art History  modern  112 Eastern  6 25  41 25  37 25  16 19  0 6  % %  sec. tert.  avg. avg.  2 .6 2 .7  v i i i Architecture  8 31  45 12  35 37  12 19  0 0  % %  sec. tert.  avg. avg.  2 .5 2 .4  L.  Philosophy Art  of  29 50  35 6  29 38  2 6  6 0  % %  sec. tert.  avg. avg.  2 .2 2  M.  Knowledge and study o fA r t education theory  51 69  31 19  16 12  0 0  2 0  % %  sec. tert.  avg. avg.  1 .7 1 .4  N.  Knowledge o f and practice i n a r t Ed. curriculum and program planning  61 81  31 6  8 12  0 0  0 0  % %  sec. tert.  avg. avg.  1 .5 1 .3  0.  INTEGRATION  vii  OF ART  WITH OTHER S U B J E C T S  i. Expressive Arts  29 19  37 19  26 44  6 12  2 6  % %  sec. tert.  avg. avg.  2 .2 2 .7  i i Other subjects i n the curriculum  8 19  26 31  47 25  14 12  6 12  % %  sec. tert.  avg. avg.  2 .8 2 .7  P.  Knowledge o f current research i n art education  22 31  35 37  29 25  12 0  2 6  % %  sec. tert.  avg. avg.  2 .4 2 .1  Q.  Liberal tion  6 19  24 37  41 31  22 12  6 0  % %  sec. tert.  avg. avg.  2 .9 2 .4  Educa-  113 9.  S T R U C T U R E OF  COURSE:  2  £3  i  i  1  2  3  4  5  A.  Breadth of knowledge i n studio areas  53 37  45 37  2 25  0 0  0 0  % %  sec. avg. t e r t . avg.  B.  D e p t h o f knowl e d g e i n some studio areas  47 50  29 37  22 12  2 0  0 0  % %  sec. tert.  avg. avg.  1 .8 1 .6  C.  Integration studio areas  69 62  22 25  2 6  6 0  0 6  % %  sec. tert.  avg. avg.  1 .5 1 .6  D.  Art curriculum is a part of studio courses  41 37  18 31  22 19  12 0  6 12  % %  sec. tert.  avg. avg.  2 .2 2 .2  E.  Separate, thorough grounding i n different aspects ofa r t  31 37  29 44  18 12  16 6  6 0  % %  sec. tert.  avg. avg.  2 .4 1 .9  F.  Involvement i n media relevant to school circumstances  53 50  20 25  24 25  2 0  0 0  % %  sec. tert.  avg. avg.  1 .8 1 .8  G.  Involvement i n media f o r own p e r s o n a l development  39 44  31 25  22 31  6 0  2 0  % %  sec. tert.  avg. avg.  2 .1 1 .9  1. 5 1 .9  114 H.  Practice  i. at a l l l e v e l s of a program (jr/ sr. )  76 75  2 19  14 6  2 0  primary/ junior/senior  22 56  8 6  20 6  ii. for 5 or more weeks a t one t i m e  39 25  16 19  s h o r t b u t 26 times 50  iv. more t h a n 63 once a y e a r 62  iii. req.  I.  J.  Teaching:  Lecturers  have  0  % sec. % tert.  avg. avg.  1.6 1.3  8 12  41 19  % sec. % tert.  avg. avg.  3.4 2.3  12 6  16 19  16 31  % sec. % tert.  avg. avg.  2.5 3.1  18 12  5 12  18 12  35 12  % sec. % tert.  avg. avg.  3.2 2.2  16 12  6 0  6 6  8 19  % sec. % tert.  avg. avg.  1.8 2.1  school teaching  6  experience  i. lecturers in studio areas  69 56  12 16 1 9 2 5  0 0  2 0  % sec. % tert.  avg. avg.  1.6 1.7  i i . lecturers in other areas  82 62  6 12  12 19  0 6  0 0  % sec. % tert.  avg. avg.  1.3 1.7  L e c t u r e r s be involved in teaching c h i l d r e n on a regular basis  53 25  24 19  10 25  6 12  6 19  % sec. % tert.  avg. avg.  1.9 2.8  K. L e c t u r e r s i n p r e - s e r v i c e programs m a i n t a i n involvement i n : i. Art (practice)  57 37  24 37  12 19  0 0  6 6  % sec. % tert.  avg. avg.  1 .7 2  ii. A r t e d u c - 69 ation issues 69  14 19  12 6  2 0  2 6  % sec. % tert.  avg. avg.  1 .6 1 .6  57 50  18 25  22 25  2 0  0 0  % sec. % tert.  avg. avg.  1 .7 1 .7  i i i . Arts organizations  115 iv.  Schools  88 38  12 31  0 19  0 6  0 6  % s e c . a v g . 1 .1 % t e r t . a v g . 2 .1  v. Obtaining 16 f u r t h e r q u a l i - 12 fications  14 31  31 50  22 6  16 0  % s e c . a v g . 3 .1 % t e r t . a v g . 2 .5  That a r t  teachers in  maintain involvement  schools  in  76 69  22 12  2 0 19 0  0 0  a v g . 1 .3 % sec. % t e r t . a v g . 1 .5  i i . Art Education issues  53 87  35 6  12 6  0 0  0 0  % s e c . a v g . 1 .6 % t e r t . a v g . 1 .2  i i i . Art preservice programs  31 38  29 56  24 6  12 0  5 0  % s e c . a v g . 2 .3 % t e r t . a v g . 1 .7  iv. Arts orgs.  37 62  29 25  22 12  10 0  2 0  % s e c . a v g . 2 .1 % t e r t . a v g . 1 .5  12 v. obtaining f u r t h e r q u a l i - 12 fications  24 50  45 31  16 6  2 0  % sec. a v g . 2 .7 % t e r t . a v g . 2 .3  vi. liaison with other school art programs  63 62  29 25  8 6  0 6  0 0  % s e c . a v g . 1 .5 % t e r t . a v g . 1 .6  v i i . inservice programs  63 75  29 19  8 6  0 0  0 0  % s e c . a v g . 1 .5 % t e r t . a v g . 1 .3  i.  Art  PART C  A.  I n A r t Teacher 47 Pre-service 31 training programs, a r t subject courses should be g i v e n more emphasis than education courses.  31 31  5 6  16 31  5 0  % s e c . avg % t e r t . avg  B.  A r t teacher 29 pre-service 69 training courses should be a minimum of 4 y e a r s duration  10 25  26 0  12 6  24 0  % s e c . avg % t e r t . avg  C.  A r t courses 12 that develop 12 i n d i v i d u a l and personal expression s h o u l d be g i v e n more emphasis than art c u r r i culum c o u r s e s  18 12  16 6  31 50  22 19  % s e c . avg % t e r t . avg  117 D.  Every region 82 s h o u l d have a 87 specialist art teacher assigned to i t s primary schools with expertise in Primary A r t Education  E.  P r i m a r y and early c h i l d hood p r e service programs should include at l e a s t one:  16 6  2 6  0 0  0 0  % sec. % tert.  avg. avg.  1.2 1.2  i. personal• development  59 75  16 25  16 0  6 0  2 0  % sec. a v g . 1 .8 % t e r t . a v g . 1 .2  ii. art curriculum course  59 81  24 6  16 12  0 0  0 0  % sec. a v g . 1 .6 % t e r t . a v g . 1 .3  In 3 y e a r p r e - 51 service pro56 grams, a double-art option should be a v a i l a b l e a s w e l l a s an art Primary Teaching Area and o t h e r s u b j e c t Second Teaching Area  12 19  31 25  5 0  5 0  % sec. avg. 2 % t e r t . a v g . 1 .7  118 G.  Art teachers 16 graduating 19 f r o m an end-on preparation program a r e better equipped to teach the subject than 3 year t r a i n e d concurrent graduates.  12 6  37 25  16 25  18 25  % sec. % tert.  avg. avg.  3.1 3.3  H.  Adequate resources for regular inschool art p r o g r a m s have greater p r i o r i t y than the maintenance/ establishment o f community services in art.  47 56  22 19  22 12  6 6  2 6  % sec. % tert.  avg. avg.  2 1.9  I.  It i s 88 essential that a prospective a r t t e a c h e r be able to a r t i c u l a t e why i t is important to t e a c h a r t and be a b l e t o o f f e r reasons f o r t h e amount and k i n d o f attention given to activities in the a r t program.  6  5  0  2  % sec.  avg.  1.2  119  APPENDIX I I I P E R S O N A L COMMENTS A s s p a c e was p r o v i d e d i n e a c h s e c t i o n o f t h e s u r v e y questionnaire, the following handwritten comments i n c l u d e d by r e s p o n d e n t s have been c o l l a t e d w i t h i n t h e f o r m a t e s t a b l i s h e d by t h e s u r v e y : [N.B. A l l respondents are represented here]. CONTENT  A. . . . . . . . . . .  STUDIO graphic design theatre c r a f t - t y p e course graphic a r t design design design design calligraphy clothing/body decoration . visual communication . design (general)  B. . . . . .  EDUCATIONAL STUDIES anthropology motivation art criticism design resources f o r classroom c h i l d a r t development  E . ART ADVOCACY . articulate the value of a r t . a r t educator as p r o f e s s i o n a l  LIKERT VALUE ( I F ASSIGNED)  2 1 2 1 2 1 1 3 2 2 2  3 1 1 1  120 K. . . . . .  ART H I S T O R Y P a p u a New G u i n e a Feminist Artists Ancient/Americas theatre, music, l i t e r a t u r e history of film  3  2 .  areas relevant the school  to ethnic  mix o f 2  R. OTHER "CONTENT I S S U E S ' . a r t education systems i n A u s t r a l i a (comparat i v e ) . programs i n t h i s s t a t e ( E l d ) . I d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f student needs . A r t i s t - t e a c h e r i n t h e community . Systems o f a p p r e c i a t i o n and their application . p u b l i c use of a r t g a l l e r i e s . s t a g e s o f c r e a t i v e and mental growth o f c h i l d t o a d u l t . research i n visual literacy . perceptual awareness . i n f l u e n c e s on a r t c u r r i c u l u m or programming . semiotics . c u l t u r a l anthropology H. P r a c t i c e T e a c h i n g . 1 d a y p e r week f o r e n t i r e . country/city  1 1  1 3 2 1  year  I.  Lecturers i n pre-service programs have had s c h o o l teaching experience: yes 1 1 . (recent) a must . d i s g r a c e f u l n o t t o have lecturers with prac. experience  J.  3 2 1 3  That l e c t u r e r s i n pre-service p r o g r a m s be i n v o l v e d i n t e a c h i n g c h i l d r e n on a r e g u l a r basis . t h e y seem t o h a v e l o s t t o u c h .  1  M A d d i t i o n a l " s t r u c t u r e o f program' issues: . separate t r a i n i n g f o r a r t educator v i s u a l a r t i s t s a s aims differ . m a j o r e x p e r i e n c e i n a r t (1-2 y r s ) b e f o r e making a t e a c h i n g decision . v i s i t i n g e x h i b i t i o n s on a r e g u l a r basis.  122  RANK  APPENDIX IV ORDER OF R E S U L T S - SECONDARY CONTENT  Amount  of  OF  RESPONDENTS  COURSE  Emphasis  1  2  GREAT DEAL Mean R e s p o n s e Category  LITTLE NONE Item  #  1.2  A(i) B(iv) G  1.3  E(ii)  1.4  A(ii) E(i) B(iii) K(iii)  1.5  K(iv) N  1.7  E(iv) F H K(ii) M  2.1  A(iii) A(iv) A(vi) K(v) D I  2.2  E(iii) K(vi)  OR  Descriptor Drawing (Studio) A r t Curriculum Assessment & Evaluation o f S t u d e n t Work Relevance of A r t t o Students in Schools Painting (Studio) Relevance of A r t t o Society Teaching Process (Ed. Studies) Contemporary A r t (current)(art history) Australian Art History Knowledge o f and P r a c t i c e i n Art Education Curriculum. Strategies f o r promoting the status of a r t i n schools Study and awareness o fa r t teaching aids and resources Elements and p r i n c i p l e s o f design M o d e r n A r t H i s t o r y (1900-1980) Knowledge o f and study o f a r t education theory Sculpture (studio) Pottery (studio) Printmaking (studio) Aboriginal A r t History Influence of current change Understanding cultural differences i n forms and functions ofa r t public relations w i t h t h e community Western  123  2.3 2.4  L O(i) A (x) J C  K(i) P  2.5  2.6 2.7 2.8  A(v) A(xi) K(viii) B(i) K(vii) A(ix)  2.9 3.2 3.2  B ( i i ) (Xii) Q A(vii) A(xii)  3.6  A(viii)  1  2  Philosophy ofA r t Expressive Arts photography Aesthetic theory Employment p r o s p e c t s and e x p e c t a t i o n s o f employers classical (prezothc) Knowledge o f c u r r e n t research i n a r t education fibre arts commercial a r t s Architecture psychology Eastern media, ( f i l m , video, t.v. ) sociology Expressive Arts Liberal Education Studio area of a r t : jewellery S t u d i o area o f a r t : computer art Studio area of a r t : leatherwork  S T R U C T U R E OF  3  COURSE  VERY IMPORTANT Mean R e s p o n s e Category 1.1 1.3  5 NOT  Item  #  L(iv) I ( i i )  L(i) 1.5  4  A C L(vi)  IMPORTANT AT A L L  Descriptor Lecturers maintain involvement in schools Lecturers i n other than studio courses have s c h o o l t e a c h i n g experience. Teachers maintain involvement in art. Breadth o f knowledge i n s t u d i o areas. Integration of aspects of a r t with i n studio courses Teachers maintain liaison with other school a r t programs  124 L(vii)  1.6  H(i) I(i) K(ii) L(ii)  1.7  K(i) K(iii)  1.8  B. F H(iv)  1.9  J.  2.1  G L(iv)  2.2  D  2.3  L(iii)  2.4  E  2.5  H(ii)  2.7  L(v)  3.1  K(v)  3.2  3.4  H(iii) H(i)  Teachers maintain involvement w i t h i n - s e r v i c e programmes Practice teaching at jr/sr l e v e l s o f program L e c t u r e r s i n s t u d i o areas have school teaching experience Lecturers maintain involvement in a r t education issues. Teachers maintain involvement in a r t education issues. Lecturers maintain involvement in a r t practice. Lecturers maintain involvement in arts organizations. D e p t h o f k n o w l e d g e i n some studio areas. Involvement i n content and media r e l e v a n t t o s c h o o l circumstances. P r a c t i c e t e a c h i n g more t h a n once a year. L e c t u r e r s be i n v o l v e d i n t e a c h i n g c h i l d r e n on r e g u l a r basis. Involvement i n media f o r own p e r s o n a l development Arts orgs. Art curriculum i s a part of studio courses Art pre-service programs Separate, thorough grounding i n different aspects of a r t f o r 5 o r more weeks a t one t i m e obtaining further qualifications Lecturers maintain involvement in obtaining further qualifications Practice Teaching f o r short but r e g u l a r times Practice Teaching: a t a l l levels of a program:(pr/jr/sr)  125  RANK  ORDER OF  APPENDIX V RESULTS - TERTIARY CONTENT OF  1  2  3  GREAT DEAL  Mean R e s p o n s e Category 1.1 1.2 1.3  1.4  COURSE  4  5 LITTLE OR NONE  Item  #  A(i) A(ii) B(iv) N  E(i) E(ii) K(iii) K(iv) M  1.6  RESPONDENTS  B(ii) E(iv) K(ii)  Descriptor Drawing (Studio) Painting (Studio) Art Curriculum Knowledge o f and p r a c t i c e i n a r t c u r r i c u l u m and program planning Relevance of a r t to society Relevance of a r t to students in schools Contemporary (current) a r t history Australian art history Knowledge and s t u d y o f a r t education theory Teaching process (Ed. studies) Strategies f o r promoting the status of a r t i n schools M o d e r n a r t h i s t o r y (1900-  1980)  1.7  D F G  1.8  I  1.9  2 2.1  J K(vi) P  Influence of current changes i n t h e Ed. system Study and awareness o f a r t t e a c h i n g a i d s and resources A s s e s s m e n t and evaluation o f s t u d i o a r t work Understanding of c u l t u r a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n forms and functions of a r t Public r e l a t i o n s with the community Aboriginal art history Philosophy of a r t Aesthetic Theory Western (Art History) Knowledge of Current  126  2.2  A(iii)  2.3  K(i)  2.4  A(vi) B(ii) H K(viii)  2.6  Q A(iv) A(x) C  2.7  A(v) A(ix) B(i) K(vii) O(i)  O(ii)  3.1  A(vii) H(ii)  3.2  A(xi)  3.5  A(xii)  3.6  A(viii)  Research i na r t education Studio area: sculpture Classical art h i s t o r y ( p r e 20th C ) Studio area: printmaking Ed. S t u d i e s : sociology Elements and principles of design Architecture (Art History) Liberal Education Studio area: pottery Studio area: photography Employment p r o s p e c t s and expectations of employers Studio area: fibre arts Studio area: media (film, video, t.v.) Ed. Studies: psychology Eastern (Art History) Integration of a r t with other subjects: Expressive Arts Integration of art: with other subjects i n the curriculum Studio area ofa r t : jewellery Practice Teaching: f o r 5 o r more weeks a t a time Studio area ofa r t : commercial a r t s Studio area ofa r t : computer a r t Studio area ofa r t : leatherwork  127  1  STRUCTURE  2  OF  VERY IMPORTANT Mean R e s p o n s e Category  NOT  Item  1.2  L(ii)  1.3  H(i)  #  L(vii)  1.5  L(i) L( i v )  1.6  B C  K(ii) L(vi)  1.7  COURSE  I(i) I(ii) K(iii)  L(iii)  1.8  F  1.9  E G  A K(i)  IMPORTANT AT A L L  Descriptor Teachers maintain involvement in a r t education issues Practice teaching at (jr/sr) l e v e l s o f a program Teachers maintain involvement i n i n - s e r v i c e programs Teachers maintain involvement in a r t Teachers maintain involvement in arts organizations Depth o f knowledge i n s t u d i o areas Integration of different aspects of a r twithin studio areas. Lecturers maintain involvement in a r t education issues Teachers maintain liaisons with other school a r t programs L e c t u r e r s i n s t u d i o have school teaching experience Lecturers i n other courses have t e a c h i n g e x p e r i e n c e Lecturers maintain involvements i n arts organizations Teachers maintain involvement i n a r t p r e - s e r v i c e programs Involvement i n content and media r e l e v a n t t o school circumstances Separate, thorough grounding i n d i f f e r e n t aspects ofa r t Involvement i n content and m e d i a f o r s t u d e n t s own personal development Breadth o f knowledge i n s t u d i o areas Lecturers maintain involvement in a r t practice.  128  2.1  H(iv)  K(iv)  2.2  D  H(iii)  2.3  H(i)  L(v)  2.5  K(v)  2.8  J  3.1  H(ii)  Practice Teaching: More t h a n once a year Lecturers maintain involvement i n : schools Art curriculum i s a part of studio courses Practice Teaching: short but regular times Practice Teaching: at primary/junior senior levels Art teachers maintain involvement in: obtaining further qualifications Lecturers maintain involvement i n : obtaining further qualifications L e c t u r e r s be involved i n teaching c h i l d r e n on a regular basis. Practice teaching f o r five more weeks a t a t i m e  or  

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