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Art teachers' values in the classroom 1986

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ART TEACHERS' VALUES IN THE CLASSROOM by LINDA PRINCIC B.F.A. University of Manitoba, 1967 THESIS SUMBITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE MASTER OF ARTS in THE FACULTY OF GRADUTE STUDIES "Department of Visual and Performing Arts in Education We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA November, 1986 © Linda P r i n c i c , 1986 In presenting t h i s thesis i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the Library s h a l l make i t f r e e l y available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of t h i s thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by h i s or her representatives. I t i s understood that copying or publication of t h i s thesis for f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my written permission. Department of P^cLUjOcd'lCrfl The University of B r i t i s h Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 Date i i ABSTRACT A r t t e a c h e r s , l i k e o t h e r members of s o c i e t y , h o l d c e r t a i n v a l u e s and t h e s e v a l u e s a r e p r o b a b l y e x h i b i t e d w h i l e t e a c h i n g a r t . U s i n g p a r t i c i p a n t o b s e r v a t i o n , t h e s t u d y s o u g h t t o u n c o v e r t h e v a l u e s and t h e c u r r i c u l u m o r i e n t a t i o n s d e m o n s t r a t e d by t h r e e a r t t e a c h e r s i n t h e i r c l a s s r o o m s . D a t a were c o l l e c t e d by means o f f i e l d n o t e s , made w h i l e c l a s s e s were c o n d u c t e d i n e a c h o f t h r e e s c h o o l s . T h e s e n o t e s were s u p p l e m e n t e d by o b s e r v a t i o n s s u p p l i e d by e a c h of t h e t h r e e t e a c h e r s i n i n t e r v i e w s c o n d u c t e d on t h e s c h o o l p r e m i s e s and i n t h e t e a c h e r s ' homes. A s s o c i a t i o n s between i n s t r u m e n t a l v a l u e s , s t y l e o f t e a c h i n g and c u r r i c u l u m o r i e n t a t i o n were examined t o d i s c o v e r c o n s i s t e n c i e s or i n c o n s i s t e n c i e s . I t was f o u n d t h a t two t e a c h e r s e x p r e s s e d v a l u e s w h i c h r e f l e c t e d t h e i r c u r r i c u l u m o r i e n t a t i o n as w e l l as t h e i r o b j e c t i v e s f o r t e a c h i n g a r t and one t e a c h e r e x p r e s s e d v a l u e s w h i c h c h i e f l y r e f l e c t e d h i s c u r r i c u l u m o r i e n t a t i o n . C o n c l u s i o n s f r o m t h e r e s e a r c h s u p p o r t t h e f a c t t h a t e f f e c t i v e c u r r i c u l u m d e v e l o p m e n t s h o u l d c o n t i n u e t o p r o v i d e f l e x i b i l i t y i n o r d e r t o a c c o u n t f o r t e a c h e r s ' v a l u e s . I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r t h e p u b l i c s c h o o l s y s t e m i n d i c a t e t h a t s t u d e n t s a t t e n d i n g p a r t i - i i i cular schools may complete art programs with d i f f e r e n t ideas about the purposes of art and the methods by which i t is c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y taught. i v TABLE OF CONTENTS TITLE PAGE i ABSTRACT i i TABLE OF CONTENTS iv LIST OF FIGURES v i i i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ix CHAPTER PAGE I INTRODUCTION TO THE STUDY 1 Background to the Problem 1 Purpose of the Study 5 Development of Research Questions 6 Methodology of the Study 8 Research Design .12 II REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE 14 Introduction .. 14 The Concept of Value 14 Orientations to Schooling 20 Development of Cognitive Processes 21 Academic Rationalism 23 Personal Relevance 24 Social Adaptation 26 Social Reconstruction 28 Curriculum as Technology 30 Ethnographic Research 31 Review of Ethnographic Practice 37 V III ENTERING THE FIELD 44 Introduction to Fieldwork 44 Meeting the Teachers 46 Role of Participant Observer 47 IV FRED WILLIAMS - CENTRAL SECONDARY 52 Introduction 52 Fred's Background 52 The Art Schedule at Central Secondary 55 The Art Room 56 Fred's Grade Eight Art Program 57 The "Large Grade Eights" 57 The Studio Classes 60 Fred's Manner of Teaching 63 Art in the School 69 A r t i s t s ' Works 71 Art at Home 72 Interpretation and Conclusions 74 V PETER CROWE - NELSON SECONDARY 78 Introduction 78 Peter's Background 78 The Art Schedule at Nelson Secondary 81 The Art Room 82 Peter's Grade Eleven/Twelve Program 83 Peter's Manner of Teaching 88 vi Peter's Ceramic Students 91 Art in the School 95 A r t i s t s ' Works 97 Art at Home 98 Interpretations and Conclusions 99 VI MICHAEL LAURENCE - SUSSEX SECONDARY 103 Introduction 103 Michael's Background 103 The Art Schedule at Sussex 107 The Artrooms 107 Michael's Art Program 108 Sil k Screen Christmas Card 109 Felt Pen Mask Drawings 109 S t i l l L i f e . I l l Ceramic Vase I l l Clay Figure ^ . .112 Art Appreciation 113 Michael's Manner of Teaching 113 Art in the School 121 A r t i s t s ' Works 123 Art at Home 125 Interpretations and Conclusions 126 VII ANALYZING THE DATA 131 Introduction 131 Ethnographic Analysis 131 Domain Analysis 132 v i i Taxonomic Analysis 137 Componential Analysis 138 Contrasts and S i m i l a r i t i e s of the Three Art Teachers 140 Art Teacher's Orientations and Eisner's Curriculum Orientation 143 Summary 149 VIII SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS 150 Summary of the Study 150 Conclusions From the Study 151 Implications for Art Education 153 REFERENCES 156 vi i i LIST OF FIGURES Figure 1. Sources of taste 2 Figure 2. C l a r i f i c a t i o n of Rokeach's concept of values 18 Figure 3. Basic interview questions 50 Figure 4. Grade 11 ceramic course outline 86 Figure 5. Students self-evaluation form 87 Figure 6. Guidelines for examining a r t i s t s ' works . . 114 Figure 7. Anal y t i c a l domain 132 Figure 8. Semantic relationships for art teachers. . .134 Figure 9. Domain analysis worksheet 135 Figure 10 . Domain l i s t 136 Figure 11. Taxonomy of the kinds of things that art teachers do in the classroom 137 Figure 12. Description of kinds of things that art teachers do in the classroom 139 Figure 13. Association between teacher's b e l i e f s and instrumental values 143 Figure 14. Association between teacher's orientation to curriculum, instrumental values and terminal values 146 ix ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I would l i k e to thank the three art teachers who volun- teered to be part of this study. Without their co- operation, an ethnographic research study would have been impossible. The teachers not only provided data, they demonstrated subject knowledge and teaching s k i l l s useful to me as an art teacher. To Dr. Ron MacGregor, my senior advisor, I would l i k e to express my appreciation for his assistance in organizing the study and for his helpful recommendations. A special thanks to my husband, Romeo, who made the arrangements to have the thesis typed and proof-read in Vancouver while I was teaching in Nepean, Ontario. CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION TO THE STUDY Background to the Problem It is l o g i c a l to surmise that teachers in the act of teaching reveal some personal values and b e l i e f s concerning the subject which they teach. Art teachers, in p a r t i c u l a r , reveal their values and b e l i e f s in several ways; choosing the content of their art programs, discussing a r t i s t s ' and students' work, and evaluating students' art work for grades. An art curriculum may be used as a guide or as resource information, but i t is safe to say that teachers may also be relying on their values and b e l i e f s , not only to shape their art program, but to promote s p e c i f i c kinds of art and to evaluate students' work accordingly. Given that art teachers have a certain amount of freedom to choose what they teach and how they teach i t , their values and b e l i e f s d i r e c t l y a f f e c t that art program in some way. However, an individual's value system is not shaped in a vacuum; art teachers, l i k e everyone else, are influenced by their socioeconomic background, their culture, 1 2 and their individual learning state. This amounts to what McFee considers "Sources of Taste" (see Figure 1). Figure 1. Sources of taste Source: McFee, 1970, p. 33. 3 I f a p a r t i c u l a r s e t o f v a l u e s and b e l i e f s i s a r e s u l t o r c o n s e q u e n c e o f t h e i n t e r a c t i o n o f t h e s e i n f l u e n c e s , t h e n a r t t e a c h e r s a l o n g w i t h p a r e n t s , r e l a t i v e s , p e e r s , o t h e r t e a c h e r s , and p u b l i c f i g u r e s a r e a g e n t s i n t r a n s m i t t i n g b e l i e f s and v a l u e s t o s t u d e n t s . A n t h r o p o l o g i s t s s u c h as S p r a d l e y (1980) have d e v i s e d ways of making t h e p r o c e s s of t r a n s m i s s i o n e x p l i c i t . J u s t as i n d i v i d u a l s m a n i f e s t and r e f l e c t p e r s o n a l b e l i e f s , t r e n d s i n a r t e d u c a t i o n have been a r e f l e c t i o n o f v a l u e s and b e l i e f s h e l d by s o c i e t y . When a g r o u p o f M a s s a c h u s e t t s i n d u s t r i a l i s t s l o b b i e d t h e i r s t a t e i n t h e 1870s f o r t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n o f d r a w i n g i n s c h o o l s , W a l t e r S m i t h , Headmaster o f t h e L e e d s S c h o o l o f A r t i n E n g l a n d , was b r o u g h t t o A m e r i c a t o s e t up a r t programs f o r t e a c h e r s and s t u d e n t s . "The p r o b l e m w h i c h f a c e d t h e M a s s a c h u s e t t s B o a r d was t h e c o m p l e t e l a c k o f a r t m a s t e r s , e s p e c i a l l y m a s t e r s t o t e a c h t h e u s e f u l s u b j e c t t e c h n i c a l d r a w i n g t o improve i n d u s t r i a l d e s i g n i n g i n t h e s t a t e " ( M a c d o n a l d , 1970, p. 2 5 4 ) . S m i t h , who was a p p o i n t e d D i r e c t o r o f Drawing f o r t h e B o s t o n S c h o o l s and S t a t e D i r e c t o r o f A r t E d u c a t i o n , was an a d v o c a t e o f t e c h n i c a l d r a w i n g , as e v i d e n c e d i n h i s l e c t u r e p u b l i s h e d i n I n d u s t r i a l D r a w i n g i n t h e P u b l i c S c h o o l s (1875) . Here was a p e r c e i v e d need s h a r e d by an i n f l u e n t i a l g r o u p w i t h i n s o c i e t y who p r e s s u r e d government t o accommodate 4 that need. Government complied by h i r i n g an educator with a similar philosophy about the function of art, who was in a position to d i r e c t l y influence teachers and students through art programs and teacher tr a i n i n g courses. It is possible that Walter Smith's philosophy not only made an impact on taste preferences in the late 1870s, but also paved the way for the strong Bauhaus influence several decades l a t e r . Why did many American art i n s t i t u t i o n s assimilate the ideas of the Bauhaus over a decade before the B r i t i s h did? One could argue that the i n d u s t r i a l path upon which Walter Smith set American art education supplies the answer. (Macdonald, 1970, p. 261) Walter Smith f u l f i l l e d a need. Whether i t was real or imagined is unimportant. The need created a trend which in turn created a l i k i n g or taste for a pa r t i c u l a r style of art. Orientations towards teaching art today are more varied and diverse than in the days of Walter Smith. Art teachers are exposed to numerous theories, plus their own sources of taste (see F i g . 1), and in turn pass on their b e l i e f s and values pertaining to art to their students. Attending to what art teachers say and do in the classroom provides an opportunity to determine what art teachers are saying about 5 art and education to a young generation. Purpose of the Study This study was conducted (1) to id e n t i f y and examine b e l i e f s and values that art teachers exhibit while teaching art; (2) to determine what kind of teaching orientation these b e l i e f s and values produce; and (3) to demonstrate how each teacher's value system is related to the content of the art program and sty l e of teaching, and subsequently, to the responsiveness of the students. Values are absorbed by everyone through day to day l i v i n g in one's own culture. For that reason, values are not always made e x p l i c i t , nor are they always readily apparent. In the act of teaching, teachers may be unaware of the kinds of values and b e l i e f s that they are conveying to students. Conversely, some teachers may be deliberately transmitting certain values and b e l i e f s that they f e e l are important. And in other situations, teachers may reveal values and b e l i e f s about art that apply only when they are teaching in the classroom. Some of these have been categorized by Eisner (1979). Many large corporations spend vast amounts of time and money researching and analyzing groups of consumers known as target markets. Educators at least r e a l i z e the importance 6 of understanding their target market, young people, and to this end have created curriculum guides. Anyone who has taught art is well aware that there i s room for f l e x i b i l i t y in the planning and teaching of art regardless of whether or not a curriculum guide is being used. Much of what art students learn is f i r s t interpreted by teachers and then presented accordingly. Therefore, an essential element in planning art education programs at teacher training l e v e l , and in planning curriculum material for art teachers in schools, is an understanding of how the b e l i e f s and values held by those who teach art influence or a f f e c t the content of the program. Development of Research Questions The material dealt with so far may be summarized as two basic research questions: 1) What are the value systems that art teachers exhibit? 2) What are the teachers' orientations to curriculum? Both questions grow out of the problem faced by every teacher of how to reconcile a personal value system with that imposed by a curriculum guide, or the expectations of a p a r t i c u l a r school or community, or the p r i o r i t i e s held by students. From that general frame, three s p e c i f i c research questions were developed. 7 1. What values and attitudes are expressed by art teachers in classroom settings? 2. To what extent are the values and attitudes expressed by art teachers in classroom settings, as dimensions of their professional l i v e s , consistent with the values and attitudes they espouse personally? 3. To what extent may the values and attitudes expressed by art teachers in classroom settings be considered as s p e c i f i c teaching orientations? The f i r s t research question was addressed by classroom observation of three teachers, followed by examination of f i e l d notes, the conduct of interviews, and assignment to categories devised by Spradley (1980). The second research question was addressed by comparing f i e l d notes taken in classrooms for each teacher with material gathered from interviews with those teachers. Spradley's Developmental Research Sequence (1980) provided a model. The t h i r d research question was addressed by comparing the responses given by individual teachers with the t r a i t s claimed by Eisner (1979) for each of f i v e kinds of educational orientation. 8 Methodology of the Study In this study, I had no d e f i n i t e assumptions about the b e l i e f s and values that teachers might transmit to students in the art cl a s s . An ethnographic approach using participant observation seemed a suitable form of inquiry to gather data. Through participant observation the researcher is able to record the d a i l y a c t i v i t i e s of a person or groups of people to use this information to arrive at a better understanding of what is taking place, and to come to some conclus ions. Ethnography is f i r s t and foremost a descriptive endeavour in which the researcher attempts accurately to describe and interpret the nature of so c i a l discourse among a group of people. (Wilcox, 1982, p. 458) Ethnography can be loosely defined as a method of inquiry. According to Spradley (1980) this process involves twelve steps; 1) locating a s o c i a l s i t u a t i o n , 2) doing participant observation, 3) making an ethnographic record, 4) making descriptive observations, 5) making a domain analysis, 6) making focused observations, 7) making a taxonomic analysis, 8) making selected observations, 9) 9 making a componential analysis, 10) discovering c u l t u r a l themes, 11) taking a c u l t u r a l inventory and 12) writing an ethnography (Spradley, 1980). Spradley c a l l s this process the Developmental Research Sequence. Although participant observation is just one component of the entire research sequence, i t is nonetheless an important step. The f i e l d notes made during this time are the basis for later analysis, interpretations and conclusions. Spradley describes f i v e types of participant observation. The type most f i t t i n g for t h i s research study l i e s somewhere close to the kind of participant-observer who maintains a balance between insider and outsider (Spradley, 1980, p. 60). Rothe sums up the advantages and constraints on t h i s type of researcher. Observer as participant. The observer's role a c t i v i t i e s are made pu b l i c l y known at the outset, are more or less p u b l i c l y sponsored by people in the situation studied, and are i n t e n t i o n a l l y NOT "kept under wraps". The role may provide access to a wide range of information; even secrets may be given to the f i e l d worker when he becomes known for keeping them, as well as conceivably achieve maximum freedom to gather information, but only at the price of 10 accepting maximum constraints upon his reporting. (Rothe, 1979, p. 39) The process of inquiry begins with the researcher observing the informants. The researcher must regard everything which is familiar as strange and worthy of questioning. This is p a r t i c u l a r l y important for researchers who choose to examine professional groups of which they are themselves members. George Spindler, who taught in the public schools, r e f l e c t s on the d i f f i c u l t y of seeing strange events in familiar surroundings as he r e c a l l s s t a r t i n g f i e l d work in the classroom in 1950. "I sat in classes for days wondering what there was to 'observe'" (Spindler, 1982, p. 24) . In order to achieve a comprehensive picture three methods of c o l l e c t i n g ethnographic data are commonly used; participant observation, structured and unstructured interviews, and the examination of l i f e h i s t o r i e s . A state c a l l e d triangulation occurs when these are examined in combination. Because each research method of the so c i a l s c i e n t i s t contains certain biases and r e s t r i c t i o n s , the best strategy is to combine as many methods as possible. Termed triangulation, this permits the 11 s c i e n t i s t to approach his problems with the strongest research armament. (Denzin, 1970, p. 3) Triangulation i s also appropriate as a means to discuss the informants in the study. By observing three persons instead of one, there i s the advantage of being able to compare the findings about one against the other. In this p a r t i c u l a r study, general ethnographic p r i n c i p l e s were put into p r a c t i c e . By v i s i t i n g teachers regularly over a period of twelve to thirteen weeks, there was an additional advantage of maintaining emotional o b j e c t i v i t y about the teachers, the students, and the kind of art programs being taught. The researcher was placed in the position of observing d i f f e r e n t people: teachers and students, and d i f f e r e n t environments: classrooms and schools, from one day to the next. If one were to see the same actors performing plays directed by the same director and written by the same playwright, one would find i t d i f f i c u l t to prevent oneself from becoming immersed in the emotional climate created by the personalities of the participants and the setting in which they perform. Art and theatre c r i t i c s use the term, "psychic distance", to describe the state of mind needed to be able to simultaneously appreciate and objectively evaluate an art work or event. It is helpful to the researcher to maintain 12 a perspective of o b j e c t i v i t y and im p a r t i a l i t y when a fami l i a r c u l t u r a l group is under examination. Research Design The research design incorporated participant observation, structured and unstructured interviews and the examination of l i f e h i s t o r i e s of three high school art teachers to discover the kinds of values and b e l i e f s which are expressed while teaching a r t . From the research questions; 1) what are the values and attitudes expressed by art teachers in classroom settings, 2) how do the values and attitudes of what teachers espouse personally compare to what teachers do in the classroom, and 3) to what extent may values and attitudes be categorized as s p e c i f i c teaching orientations, was derived a research design that c a l l e d for an ethnographic approach to c o l - l e c t i n g data. Within one school d i s t r i c t , three high school art teachers from three d i f f e r e n t schools volunteered to be interviewed and to be observed while teaching. Each teacher was observed for approximately one hour each week for a period of twelve weeks. Taped interviews were conducted with each teacher in his home following the twelve week period of observation. F i e l d notes were made from p a r t i - cipant observation and interviews. 13 The study begins with a look at the concept of value as discussed by Feather (1975) and Rokeach (1973;1979), and a review of Eisner's orientations to schooling (1979). This is followed by an examination of participant observations conducted in the classroom by a variety of educators. Chapter III i s an account of the procedures and events leading up to the entry into three teachers' classrooms. An account of what went on in the classrooms and interviews with the teachers follows, occupying Chapters IV, V and VI. These findings are analyzed in Chapter VII using Spradley's Developmental Research Sequence (1980). In Chapter VIII, conclusions are made concerning teachers' value systems and orientations to schooling, and conclusions are drawn as to the possible ef f e c t teachers' values and orientations might have on students. 14 CHAPTER II REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE Introduction There are two areas in the l i t e r a t u r e of educational research that pertain to th i s study; orientations to schooling and ethnographic research practices. Also, in the l i t e r a t u r e of the s o c i a l sciences, value systems that are practiced or espoused by individuals are examined in so far as these are relevant to the study. This chapter therefore, reviews the d e f i n i t i o n of values as developed by Feather (1975) and Rokeach (1973 & 1979). Eisner's f i v e basic orientations to curriculum (1979) are examined and the work of a number of ethnographic educational researchers is reviewed for methods of c o l l e c t i n g and analyzing data. The Concept of Value It is necessary to define the meaning of the word value as i t is used in the research. Feather (1975) and Rokeach (1973 ; 1979) have done extensive work in describing the concept of value and applying this understanding to the 15 "Value Survey" developed by Rokeach and used by Feather to discover the kinds of values that are held by various groups of people. In Rokeach's (1973) inquiry into the nature of human values, he defines two d i s t i n c t ways in which the concept of value may be used. One way is to say that a person has a value; that he or she values assertiveness or honesty. The other way is to say that an object possesses value; that i t is more useful or more expensive than another object. Rokeach comes to the conclusion that people and objects can represent value, and that they are interdependent to some degree. However, i t is more interesting in terms of research to examine the values held by people about concepts than i t is to study values that objects are said to possess. Rockeach suggests that the number of values held by any one person would l i k e l y be small and i d e n t i f i a b l e as basic human values. It should be possible to assess the importance of values for an in d i v i d u a l , and compare th i s with others within and outside the individual's culture. Furthermore, Rokeach believes that values are key factors influencing an individual's attitude and behaviour. Value is defined as, "an enduring b e l i e f that a s p e c i f i c mode of conduct or end-state of existence is personally or s o c i a l l y preferable to an opposite or converse mode of conduct or end-state of existence" (Rokeach 1973, p. 5). 16 If values are expressed through an individual's behavior, i t should be possible to observe words and actions which communicate the values esteemed by an in d i v i d u a l . Some values may be more apparent than others, indicating a p r i o r i t y structure or value system defined by Rokeach as, "an enduring organization of b e l i e f s concerning preferable modes of conduct or end-states of existence along a continuum of r e l a t i v e importance" (1973, p. 5). Values may change or fluctuate to some extent throughout the l i f e t i m e of an i n d i v i d u a l , but are generally regarded by Rokeach as f a i r l y stable concepts that provide continuity amid a changing environment. Rokeach defines values as b e l i e f s . Feather (1975) suggests that since values are t y p i c a l l y associated with a state of emotion and b e l i e f s are usually associated with being neutral, Rokeach's d e f i n i t i o n i s unusual. Rokeach argues that values may be c l a s s i f i e d as prescriptive b e l i e f s whereby a means or end of action is considered to be desirable or undesirable, rather than descriptive or evaluative b e l i e f s which can be validated as true or f a l s e . Feather summarizes Rokeach's value d e f i n i t i o n . A value (or b e l i e f about the desirable), therefore, involves some knowledge about the means or ends considered to be desir- able; i t involves some degree of affe c t 17 or f e e l i n g , because values are not neutral but are held with personal fe e l i n g and .generate af f e c t when challenged; and i t involves a behavioral component because a value that is activated may lead to action. (Feather, 1975, p. 5) Rokeach sub-divides values as instrumental values, r e f e r r i n g to ways of conduct; "honesty, love, responsi- b i l i t y , and courage" (Feather, 1975, p. 5), and terminal values which include "such concepts as freedom, equality, world at peace, and inner harmony" (Feather, 1975, p. 5). Terminal values can have a personal focus or a s o c i a l focus. Instrumental values can have a moral focus or be concerned with competence or s e l f - a c t u a l i z a t i o n . The following figure i l l u s t r a t e s the concept of value and the kinds of i n s t r u - mental and terminal values incorporated by Rokeach in the Value Survey. Rokeach defines Instrumental Values for the Value Survey as; ambitious, broad-minded, capable, cheerful, clean, courageous, forgiving, h e l p f u l , honest, imaginative, independent, i n t e l l e c t u a l , l o g i c a l , loving, obedient, p o l i t e , responsible and s e l f - c o n t r o l l e d . The Terminal Values are i d e n t i f i e d as; comfortable l i f e , an exciting l i f e , a sense of accomplishment, a world at peace, a world of beauty, equality, family security, freedom, happiness, 18 Figure 2. C l a r i f i c a t i o n of Rokeach's concept of values B e l i e f s Values (prescriptive beliefs) Instrumental Values (ways of conduct) / \ moral competence or focus s e l f - a c t u a l i z a t i o n Terminal Values (end state) personal s o c i a l focus focus inner harmony, mature love, national security, pleasure, salvation, self-respect, s o c i a l recognition, true friendship and wisdom. Besides being something which is desirable, a value i s something which is preferred, and therefore, any value that one might hold constitutes a preference. Values also function as standards and thereby influence the way one presents himself or herself to others (Goffman, 1959). Consequently, values serve as a basis to judge one's own behavior as well as others. Rokeach d i f f e r e n t i a t e s values from other concepts such as attitudes, needs, interests, s o c i a l norms, and value-orientations. The following summary by Rokeach is an extended d e f i n i t i o n of values and the value system. 19 To say that a person has a value is to say that he has an enduring prescriptive or proscriptive b e l i e f that a s p e c i f i c mode of behavior or end-state of existence is pre- ferred to an oppositive mode of behavior or end-state. This b e l i e f transcends attitudes toward objects and towards situations; i t is a standard that guides and determines action, attitudes toward objects and situations, idealogy, presentations of s e l f to others, evaluations, judgements, j u s t i f i c a t i o n s , comparisons of s e l f with others, and attempts to influence others. Values serve adjustive, ego-defensive, knowledge, s e l f - a c t u a l i z i n g functions. Instrumental and terminal values are related yet are separately organized into r e l a t i v e l y enduring h i e r a r c h i a l organizations along a continuum of importance. (Rokeach, 1973, p. 28) It is the instrumental values defined by Rokeach which are of primary interest in this study. Instrumental values are behavior-orientated and should be apparent in the words and actions of teachers. Through participant observation, i t should be possible to i d e n t i f y the values that predom- inate in the act of teaching. From the material collected a 20 value system may be established for each teacher, indicated by the rep e t i t i o n of certain values, as well as the exclu- sion of other values. Orientations to Schooling It is l o g i c a l to surmise that i f values influence preferences then values influence orientations to schooling. The manner in which teachers organize curriculum, teach their subject area, and interact with students r e f l e c t s teachers' basic values and orientation to the schooling procedure. A leaning towards a par t i c u l a r orientation should be related to the value system of each teacher. As Rokeach explains, values work together as a guiding system in the way we conduct ourselves. "Value hierarchies or p r i o r i t i e s are organizations of values enabling us to choose between alte r n a t i v e goals and actions, and enabling us to resolve c o n f l i c t " (Rokeach; 1979, p. 49). There are a number of orientations to schooling that are evident in today's schools. Some of these approaches are rooted in history, and other orientations are the result of contemporary trends in educational thinking. Whatever the o r i g i n , orientations to schooling exhibited by individual teachers can be i d e n t i f i e d and grouped for closer examination. Eisner (1979) outlines f i v e basic orientations 21 to curriculum which are described below and used as models to establish the nature of the three teachers' approaches to teaching and their related value systems. Development of Cognitive Processes One orientation to curriculum is based on the b e l i e f that education should nurture the Development of Cognitive Processes. Appropriately, schools function, "(1) to help children learn how to learn, and (2) to provide them with the opportunities to use and strengthen the variety of i n t e l l e c t u a l f a c u l t i e s that they possess" (Eisner, 1979, p. 51). This view i s based on the b e l i e f that facts and theories are in a constant process of change and modifi- cation. Consequently, to memorize facts and theories becomes useless, and does not help the student to learn how to deal with new data. Process or "how to" becomes the essential learning outcome of this kind of education. Jerome Bruner in "On Knowing: Essays for the Left Hand" (1970) supports this view. It is as true today as i t was when Dewey wrote that one cannot foresee the world in which the c h i l d we educate w i l l l i v e . Informed powers of mind and a sense of potency in action are the only 22 instruments we can give the c h i l d that w i l l be invariable across the transform- ations of time and circumstance, (p. 405) Eisner traces the Development of Cognitive Processes to the early 1900s from the work of phrenologists, faculty psychologists, and the "progressive era" of American educ- ation. It was believed that mental operations could be strengthened through practice, and that they were trans- ferable. "What transfers is not content, but process: the a b i l i t y to use the variety of processes that the curriculum strengthened through exercise" (Eisner, 1979, p. 52). Working within a problem-centered framework of a cognitive processes curriculum, teachers would a s s i s t students to define problems, and to u t i l i z e the appropriate methods and materials needed to analyze and solve those problems. Students could work i n d i v i d u a l l y , in groups or with the c l a s s . Problem solving operations in art might include the transferring of one conceptual modality to another: such as, a visual concept to a verbal concept. Group discussions would be an integral component of the process, enabling students to "practice" this mental process. Learning to c r i t i c a l l y analyze and come up with solutions i s a major goal of the cognitive process. Teachers would have the important function of d i r e c t i n g the c r i t i c a l analysis at a l e v e l that would not only teach 23 cognitive processes, but would be challenging and stimulating for students. Academic Rationalism For those who believe that the goal of education is to foster students' a b i l i t y to reason, and thereby develop in humans wisdom, a sense of j u s t i c e , and a committment to "duty", there i s a very old orientation to curriculum which Eisner c a l l s Academic Rationalism. The fundamental purpose of education from this orientation is to teach those subjects which are deemed worthy and s i g n i f i c a n t for the development of man's i n t e l l e c t u a l powers. Hutchins (Eisner, 1979) argues that such a curriculum which he c a l l s a " l i b e r a l education" would lead men and women to l i v e an i n t e l l i g e n t and democratic l i f e . Core subjects in the arts and sciences are viewed as important d i s c i p l i n e s to study for they represent a basic education, as well as a forum to exercise rat i o n a l a b i l i t i e s . It is believed that only the best content of these subject areas should be taught. Hutchins stresses the importance of choosing the right educational content. The prime object of education i s to know what is good for man. It is to know 24 t h e goods i n t h e i r o r d e r . T h e r e i s a h i e r a r c h y o f v a l u e s . The t a s k o f e d u c a - t i o n i s t o h e l p us u n d e r s t a n d i t , e s t a - b l i s h i t , and l i v e by i t . ( H u t c h i n s , 1970, p. 354) P r o p o n e n t s o f a c a d e m i c r a t i o n a l i s m f a v o u r a d i a l e c t i c a p p r o a c h t o t h e s t u d y o f t h e s e works. S t u d e n t s would go t h r o u g h a p r o c e s s o f c r i t i c a l a n a l y s i s i n o r d e r t o a c h i e v e t h e a b i l i t y t o r a t i o n a l i z e and a r g u e i n t h e manner o f t h e g r e a t w r i t e r s and t h i n k e r s o f our t i m e . The l e a r n i n g f o c u s i n a r t c l a s s e s would l i k e l y be on t h e a p p r e c i a t i o n o f a r t and a r t h i s t o r y w i t h t h e e m p h a s i s on t h e r e c o g n i z e d a r t i s t s o f t h e W e s t e r n t r a d i t i o n . A r t t e a c h e r s would need s k i l l s t o h a n d l e d i s c u s s i o n s , and t h e y would e s p e c i a l l y need t o have a t h o r o u g h knowledge o f W e s t e r n a r t . P e r s o n a l R e l e v a n c e A c u r r i c u l u m o r i e n t a t i o n t h a t i n v o l v e s t h e i n t e r a c t i o n o f t h e t e a c h e r and s t u d e n t i n c r e a t i n g a m e a n i n g f u l e d u c a t i o n a l e x p e r i e n c e i s c a l l e d P e r s o n a l R e l e v a n c e . In t h i s a p p r o a c h t o s c h o o l i n g t h e c o n c e p t o f i n d i v i d u a l i t y i s o f p r i m e i m p o r t a n c e . A m a j o r r a t i o n a l e f o r t h i s o r i e n t a t i o n 25 is the notion that children develop from the inside out. Education is regarded as a process of leading forth from the native a b i l i t y that the c h i l d possesses; thus the image of the teacher is not so much that of a sculptor, someone who gives shape to formless clay, but rather that of a good gardener who cannot change the basic endownment children possess, but who can provide the kind of environment that can nurture whatever aptitudes they bring with them into the world. (Eisner, 1979, p. 58) Trad i t i o n a l c u r r i c u l a are rejected because they are thought to be irrelevant or meaningless to students, and because they do not c u l t i v a t e each student's unique talents and q u a l i t i e s . Personal Relevance orientation would encourage students to explore areas which hold their interest, and teachers would be expected to support and encourage them in this learning process. To accommodate the i n d i v i d u a l i t y of each student's education, classes would have to be small, and determined by interest in subject rather than by age. Teachers would have the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of establishing a rapport with each student in order to f u l l y understand his or her needs. The onus is then on the 26 teacher to get to know each student well, establish individual needs, and subsequently guide each student along his or her unique educational pathway. Social Adaptation The orientation to schooling that advocates that the function of education i s to serve the needs and interests of society is referred to by Eisner as Social Adaptation. In this r o l e , schools must become sensitive to the needs of society and provide programs which w i l l meet or s a t i s f y those demands. In his "12th Annual Report to the Massachusetts Board of Education" in 1848, Horace Mann argues for an educational system that responds to society's needs. I proceed, then, in endeavoring to show how the true business of the school- room connects i t s e l f , and becomes ident- i c a l , with the great interests of society. The former is the infant, immature of those interests; the l a t t e r , their devel- oped, adult state. As "the c h i l d is father to the man" so may the training of the schoolroom expand into the i n s t i t u t i o n s and fortunes of the state. (Mann, 1970, p. 211) 27 A c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of Social Adaptation i s the tendency for schools to be modeled along the lines of business and industry. This may be apparent in the physical structure of the f a c t o r y - l i k e school, the management techniques used by school administrators, and the view of learning as a quanti- f i a b l e , measureable product. Emphasis on e f f i c i e n c y and evaluation a f f e c t , in turn, curriculum goals and the way in which subjects are taught. Curriculum content is also d i r e c t l y affected by a s o c i a l adapatation orientation to schooling. An example of how schools responded to the needs and interests of society is the major change that occurred in science and mathematics programs as a result of the American public's reaction to the Russians' launching of Sputnik I in 1957. Educators were urged to improve and enrich those subjects which would help produce s c i e n t i s t s needed for the advancement of space technology. The development of career education programs in high schools i s also an example of change brought about by public pressure. In this s i t u a t i o n , a curriculum did not become altered but an entire new program was introduced. Teachers who implement new or changed courses, and who teach in schools where Social Adaptation i s the leading orientation are reinforcing the concept that education i s the servant of society, and that the interests and needs of society are worthwhile directions for schools to follow. 28 Social Reconstruction There are those who view schooling as a vehicle for developing in students c r i t i c a l awareness of society's i l l s . Advocates of Social Reconstruction would bring controversial issues into school programs so that students would have opportunities to become cognizant of these concerns. It is hoped that as students became adult members of their society, they could i n i t i a t e change in the very structure of society. Some controversial areas of study for students to examine are mentioned by Eisner; " r e l i g i o u s values, sexual preferences, p o l i t i c a l corruption, and race prejudice" (p. 63) . If Social Reconstruction i s to take place, advocates believe that schools would have to become independent of the public educational system. John Galtung (1979), an adherent of peace education holds that t r a d i t i o n a l schooling leads to a one way communication from teacher down, rather than a multi-directed communication system in which students can interact in any d i r e c t i o n . So not only would the content of cu r r i c u l a have to change, but the learning environment of the classroom would have to be altered to increase and foster communication from the student l e v e l . Teachers would need to assume the role of f a c i l i t a t o r s to encourage students to speak up and form decisions. 29 The school should c u l t i v a t e those a t t i - tudes and s k i l l s that w i l l enable the young to build a better nation -- indeed a better world -- than the one in which they l i v e . This means, at least for some arguing this view, that the school w i l l have to change i t s structure so that i t becomes in form what i t hopes i t s students w i l l learn. (Eisner, 1979, p. 64) In order to bring about change in society, i t is necessary for educators of this orientation to be sensitive to the problems of society. In science c l a s s , students might focus on the e t h i c a l and moral problems brought about by recent developments in genetic engineering. Recent events concerning this p a r t i c u l a r issue would be researched, examined and discussed in the classroom. In the art cl a s s , the c r i t i c a l examination of symbols and images, and how they r e f l e c t and a f f e c t society could be undertaken. There is an underlying assumption that the present s t a t e - o f - a f f a i r s in society, whether i t be in the world or art or p o l i t i c s , is either wrong or misguided. Value judgements and value p r i o r i t i e s become highly questionable. 30 Curriculum as Technology The orientation to schooling that looks upon curriculum planning as a means-end endeavor to affect student achievement/behavior i s described by Eisner as Curriculum as Technology (1979) . School subjects are systematized so that teachers and administrators know what is being taught and what behavioral objectives w i l l be achieved by students. It is believed that once curriculum goals have been defined, i t should be possible to measure students' r e s u l t s , and thereby develop a standardization of acceptable achievement l e v e l s . There i s a p a r a l l e l between this orientation of schooling and i n d u s t r i a l management techniques. Increased productivity, standardization, and greater e f f i c i e n c y , combined with increased control over the system by adminis- trators are the goals shared by i n d u s t r i a l managers and school administrators who favour a technological approach. This orientation appears to make schooling a more exacting and s c i e n t i f i c endeavor, which is viewed by proponents as a highly desirable model. With emphasis on means-ends, the curriculum as technology approach influences teachers' values. Technique i s never neutral. And tech- niques patterned after s c i e n t i f i c models are p a r t i c u l a r l y l i k e l y to produce speci- 31 f i c consequences for the form, content, and aims of schooling. (Eisner, 1979, p. 68) Such consequences can include behavioral objectives which are c h i e f l y f a c t u a l , since i t i s easier to test for and evaluate operations which have only one answer. Art teachers who support Curriculum as Technology would need to define s p e c i f i c learning outcomes for s k i l l s , techniques and knowledge with frequent tests and evaluations to determine student achievement. Ethnographic Research In an attempt to better understand the way in which people behave, so c i o l o g i s t s and anthropologists have developed ethnographic methods of research. These methods, often i d e n t i f i e d as n a t u r a l i s t i c or q u a l i t a t i v e methods of inquiry are useful to educators who are concerned with examining "classroom processes as they occur more or less naturally over moderately long periods of time" (Eisner, 1979, p. 12). It is to the benefit of the researcher to gather data about students and teachers in the setting where interaction occurs, the school classroom. "The s o c i a l s c i e n t i s t cannot understand human behavior without under- standing the framework within which the subjects interpret their thoughts, feelings and actions" (Wilson, 1977, p. 32 249) . Participant observation has evolved from the research methods of the c u l t u r a l anthropologist who must understand "the customary ways of thinking and behaving that are c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of a p a r t i c u l a r population or society" (Ember & Ember, 1977, p. 8). The anthropologist l i v e s in the society he or she is studying as a member in order to understand and get to know that society's language and customs. Educators have borrowed the t a c t i c s of the anthro- pologist, treating the classroom as i f i t were an unknown culture in order to interpret l i f e within i t . George Spindler was one of the f i r s t educators to look at what anthropology could do for educational research in 1963 with the publication of Education and Culture - Anthropological Approaches. Spindler views education as a goal-oriented process that occurs within the c u l t u r a l context of the school. The anthropology of education i s the attempt to understand better what the teacher i s doing and of what the educa- tion process consists, by studying the teacher as a c u l t u r a l transmitter and education as a process of c u l t u r a l transmission. (Spindler, 1963, p. 43) 33 Two art educators who share Spindler's viewpoint are McFee and Degge. They not only see teaching as a process of c u l t u r a l transmission, but they believe that art is an expression of the c u l t u r a l value system. "Culture is a pattern of behaviors, ideas and values shared by the group. The vis u a l arts are a means of communicating, teaching, and transmitting these c u l t u r a l ideas and values" (McFee & Degge, 1977 , p. 272) . The concept that teachers and schools act as agents in transmitting the society's c u l t u r a l values is one often presented by ethnographers but not necessarily shared by educators who view schools as an i n s t i t u t e of change or reform (Wilcox, 1982). Ethnographers have tended to concentrate their attentions on the values and b e l i e f s that are passed down i m p l i c i t l y rather than on the body of knowledge contained within the curriculum. There is ample opportunity for teachers to impart their value system to students through their approach to the subject matter and in their day to day interaction with students. This value system is part of what is sometimes ca l l e d the "hidden curriculum", and can be in c o n f l i c t with what teachers think they are teaching. There is also the view that schools are structured along the li n e s of a large corporation, and that they prepare students to assimilate into the adult working world. 34 Timothy Sieber in "Schoolrooms, Pupils and Rules: The Role of Informality in Bureaucratic S o c i a l i z a t i o n " (1979) defines one function of the school as a modifier of behavior appropriate to large organizations. "In s o c i a l i z i n g the pu p i l , the school simply lays the groundwork and imparts the set of basic, often unspoken understandings that later come to inform the child' s role behavior in the public sphere" (Sieber, 1979, p. 281). Thus the school educates the student to successfully interact with "large scale organi- zations" (Sieber, 1979, p. 218). Where large portions of the population originate from outside the English-American mainstream, schools often have a problem of c u l t u r a l c o n f l i c t in which learning d i f f i - c u l t i e s are created by mutual misunderstandings. Problems for minority groups arise when language is not understood or is used d i f f e r e n t l y , (Heath, 1978), when the ways in which people s o c i a l l y interact vary (Erickson & Mohatt, 1982), or when the values and b e l i e f s of the group are not shared by the majority (Hanna, 1982). If the participant observer can id e n t i f y patterns of speech and behavior and value systems that are apparent in the behavior of pa r t i c u l a r teachers, i t may be possible for teachers as a whole to examine their approaches to students and their methods of teaching with the aim of better s u i t i n g the needs of these groups. In the process of teaching and learning, nothing should 35 be taken for granted. Careful scrutiny of day to day events and interactions between teachers and students reveal attitudes, values and expectations of which teachers, administrators and parents may not be cognizant (Spindler, 1982). Participant observation provides opportunities to see patterns of language and behavior that r e f l e c t teachers' values and b e l i e f s . The preliminary phase of deciding on a research topic is characterized by Smith (1978) as orig i n a t i n g from four attitudes or positions; an i n t u i t i v e f e e l for the problem, a model as a guide to an end in view, foreshadowed problems, and competing theories. It may be that in undertaking a s p e c i f i c study a researcher is motivated by more than one attitude. The methods used in participant observation are organized within a broad framework of related a c t i v i t i e s ; "observation in the se t t i n g , informant interviewing, document analysis, a r t i f a c t analysis, and informal counting of events" (Alexander, 1982, p. 63). Researchers can combine these a c t i v i t i e s or concentrate on one or more depending on the area and si t u a t i o n to be studied. An i n - depth analysis of a culture would benefit from combining as many as possible participant observation a c t i v i t i e s . from the ethnographer's point of view, the gathering of many di f f e r e n t kinds of 36 data has been seen to increase the v a l i d - i t y and r e l i a b i l i t y of the study, and the uniqueness of each setting and each area of study has been thought to require a tailor-made set of methods and techniques. (Wilcox, 1982, p. 460) The strategies and procedures used for one study do not guarantee r e l i a b i l i t y and v a l i d i t y within a d i f f e r e n t study. Factors such as the s u b j e c t i v i t y of the researcher, the nature of the research problem, the setting in which the research takes place, the role of the researcher in the set t i n g , the length of time in the f i e l d , the cooperation of the informants, shape procedures and results to some degree. However, to enhance c r e d i b i l i t y , researchers must bring to their study a combination of data-collecting procedures that are suitable to their p a r t i c u l a r research problem. For decades, reputable enthnographers have used a variety of strategies to reduce threats to r e l i a b i l i t y and v a l i d i t y . This has been a major source for one of the defining c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of present-day ethnography - i t s multimodality. (Le Compte & Geotz, 1982, p. 55) 37 Review of Ethnographic Practice Each of the following ethnographic studies, conducted within the l a s t ten years i s discussed b r i e f l y in respect to the research problem, the se t t i n g , the research procedure, and findings. The studies focus on the school environment, from a remedial reading group in an urban elementary school to a high school and i t s community in a small town. Underlying each research study, there exists the premise that the business of schooling r e f l e c t s the wider c u l t u r a l context of the society which supports and maintains the educational system. During the 1950s, Spindler spent six months observing and studying a f i f t h grade teacher, Roger Harker. The study involved a comprehensive look at the teacher from four points of view; from that of the teacher, his superiors, the grade f i v e children, and the researcher. Data collected for the six month study were extensive and included personal, autobiographical, and psychological data on the teacher, ratings on him by his superiors and himself, observation in the classroom, formal and informal interviews with students including ratings of the teacher, his ratings for each student, sociometric data from the children about one another, and interviews with students and superiors who rated the teacher. 38 What became increasingly apparent as the study progressed was the discrepancy between how the teacher and his superiors viewed Harker's interaction with children, and how the students and Spindler viewed the same interactions. Harker was regarded by himself and his superiors as being " f a i r and just to a l l children" (Spindler, 1982, p. 28). The children and Spindler saw favouritism and d i s c r i m i - nation. Spindler's analysis of Harker's behavior was in d i r e c t opposition of how Roger Harker perceived himself. He was informing Anglo middle-class children that they were capable, had bright futures, were s o c i a l l y accept- able, and were worth a l o t of trouble. He was also informing lower-class and non-Anglo children that they were less capable, less s o c i a l l y acceptable, less worth the trouble. He was defeating his own declared educational goals. (Spindler, 1982, p. 26) Two years of fieldwork in a small town resulted in Growing Up American: Schooling and the Survival of Community (1982) by Alan Peshkin. The study began in the 39 high school and broadened out into the community. We [research team] operated simultan- eously on three l e v e l s : that of the pre- sent, by means of participant observation, with the emphasis on observation; that of the past, by means of newspapers, photo- graphs, minutes, reports, year-books, membership l i s t s , and records; and that of the generally i n d e f i n i t e past, present and future, by means of interview sched- ules and mailed questionnaires. (Peshkin, 1982, p. 52) Peshkin's study discovered that the high school functioned largely as an agent of continuing the status quo and the "raison d'etre" for the small rural community. "I concluded that a sense of community existed in Mansfield and the Mansfield High School functioned to sustain this sentiment" (Peshkin, 1982, p. 61). By extending p a r t i - cipant observation into the community Peshkin demonstrated how teachers, administrators, and school boards interacted and cooperated with the attitudes and values of their community. Erickson and Mohatt examined two classroom teachers, one Indian and the other non-Indian, in the Odawa Indian Reserve in northern Ontario in which most of the elementary 40 students were Indian. The study began with a hypothesis based on other researchers' findings which stated that in Indian communities overt authority is not used in exercising authority over individuals. Generally what Erickson and Mohatt found through participant observation and video-taping was that the Indian teacher accommodate Odawa pr i n c i p l e s of communicative etiquette while teaching "mainstream" English-American curriculum. The non-Indian teacher exercised overt authority at the beginning of the year, but la t e r restructured his classroom so that he would c a l l on groups rather than in d i v i d u a l s . Thus, he decreased his use of dir e c t authority. "He introduced 'privatized' arenas for contact with students, and as the year progressed these became the predominant arenas for academic s k i l l instruc- t i o n " (Erickson & Mohatt, 1982, p. 168). Both teachers were successful in adapting to the c u l t u r a l l y mixed s i t u a t i o n of teaching an English-American curriculum to a native North American Indian population. The implications from the study are useful for teachers who teach pupils whose cultures are di f f e r e n t than their own. It may well be that by discovering the small differences in so c i a l relations which make a big difference in the int e r - actional ways children engage the content 41 of the school curriculum, anthropologists of education can make p r a c t i c a l contribu- tions to the improvement of minority children's school achievement and to the improvement of the quality of everyday school l i f e for such children and their teachers. (Erickson & Mohatt, 1982, p. 170) In a study of a remedial reading group in a school situated in a lower urban neighbourhood in New York state, Gearing and Epstein examined the influence of a hidden cur- riculum on the students' and teacher's performance. The researchers discovered, as a result of a three week "probe", that two propositions of a hidden curriculum were being enacted consistently and without contradiction: "(1) 'People are not equal...', and (2) 'We...are losing... (and) i f we are patient and deliberate, we can cut our losses...'" (Epstein & Gearing, 1982, p. 265). Gearing and Epstein worked through three stages of ethnographic inquiry beginning with general orientation, defining an event structure, and focusing on "the internal structure of s e l e c t i v e parts of the event structure" (p. 242). Interaction between teacher and students was recorded then translated into graphs for analysis. Implications from the study indicate that a process of c u l t u r a l 42 transmission was occurring. School classrooms tend strongly to r e p l i c a t e in microcosm the wider com- munity, but s e l e c t i v e l y . One gets the sense that, in part through the oper- ations of hidden curriculums, the society at large is busily r e p l i c a t i n g i t s e l f across the generations, "warts and a l l " . (Epstein & Gearing, 1982, p. 267) Warren conducted a case study of a Spanish-American b i c u l t u r a l , b i l i n g u a l elementary school in southern C a l i f o r n i a near the Mexican border. The school was chosen because of i t s eight year-old b i l i n g u a l program. Warren's focus was the "role of schooling processes in structuring, r e i n f o r c i n g , or muting a b i c u l t u r a l experience" (Warren, 1982, p. 384). Data were obtained from records of the Mexican children's school experience, and observation was carried out in the school and at the d i s t r i c t administrative l e v e l . Results of the study indicated that administrators, parents, teachers and students were r e l a t i v e l y pleased with the program. Parents viewed bilingualism as an employment opportunity for their children. The "language-maintenance b i l i n g u a l model" at the school helped students to retain 43 their native language and sel f - r e s p e c t . The constant a v a i l a b i l i t y to pupils of their mother tongue affords them a more open relationship with teachers and more freedom in their evolving adaption to a b i c u l t u r a l environment. Of more import- ance, the maintenance model affirms the equal worth of ethnic backgrounds and the i n s e p a r a b i l i t y of language and culture. (Warren, 1982, p. 405) What becomes apparent, then, is that ethnographic methods of inquiry about school phenomena are useful in gathering data that are bound up in the day to day a c t i v - i t i e s and events of the school and therefore, may not always be realized by the pa r t i c i p a n t s . If schooling r e f l e c t s the c u l t u r a l values and b e l i e f s of society at large, as the preceding studies indicate, the researcher's task is to extricate information that w i l l lead to a clearer under- standing of the processes and content of classroom teaching. And i f schooling also r e f l e c t s the values and b e l i e f s of the teacher, expressed in ways that at times are congruent and at others incongruent, with those of the curriculum, participant observation methods should reveal some of these too. 44 CHAPTER III ENTERING THE FIELD Introduction to Fieldwork The f i r s t step in the fieldwork was to find a school d i s t r i c t that would allow me to enter their high schools for the purpose of observing art teachers. The school d i s t r i c t that I was p a r t i c u l a r l y interested in answered my i n i t i a l written request with a l e t t e r stating that the proposal was being forwarded to their Assistant Superintendent of Program and Development for his consideration (12.7.83). In the second week of August I received a l e t t e r from the Assistant Superintendent asking for more information. His request for more d e t a i l s prompted me to rewrite parts of the research proposal with an expanded account in Intent, Methods of C o l l e c t i n g Data, and Data Handling Procedures. In t h i s p a r t i a l l y revised proposal I stated that I wished to observe three teachers for a period of twelve to thirteen weeks; teachers, schools and school d i s t r i c t would remain anonymous. I included a sampling of questions that I would be asking, described Spradley's method of data c o l l e c t i n g , and suggested that v a l i d i t y would be maintained through 45 triangulation and through teachers' response to my written account of them. September had arrived and I was anxious to get approval from the school d i s t r i c t so that I could begin observation before the end of the month. Less than two weeks l a t e r , I was informed that the revised proposal was approved and from this point on Jim Novak, an assistant in the Office of Program Development, would be my l i a i s o n with the school d i s t r i c t and the teachers in the d i s t r i c t . Jim's plan was to present my proposal at a forthcoming meeting of the Longford Art Teachers' Association (L.A.T.A.) and ask for three volunteers. I f e l t that the study might appear rather intimidating to teachers i f I did not present i t myself. However, I was relieved to have been accepted by the school d i s t r i c t . Several days la t e r I had the names of three art teachers who had expressed interest in the study. A l l three teachers were male and had completed post graduate work in art education. They were Fred Williams of Central Secondary, Peter Crowe of Nelson Secondary, and Michael Laurence of Sussex Secondary. 46 Meeting the Teachers As soon as possible I contacted the three teachers and arranged to meet them in their respective schools to explain my study further, and to set up some kind of schedule that would enable me to observe them as they taught grade eight or nine classes every week. Each school had a d i f f e r e n t d a i l y schedule: two schools were on a semester system and one was not. Nonetheless, within the week I had arranged to observe a class of grade eights at Central and a class of grade nines at Sussex. My one problem was with Peter Crowe's classes at Nelson. Peter taught only grades eleven and twelve in specialized programs: ceramics and media. The time of the media class c o n f l i c t e d with times when classes were taught at Central and Sussex, which l e f t only ceramics classes to observe. I was concerned about the age spread between grade eights and grade elevens and twelves, but eventually decided that an older group of students might provide an interesting contrast. With time running out, I decided to go ahead with observing Peter Crowe and his grade 11/12 ceramic c l a s s . During my f i r s t week of observation I decided that once a week with each class would not be s u f f i c i e n t . Two of the classes were meeting every day for art, and therefore would be accomplishing a f a i r amount of work. I was worried that 47 I might lose the continuity of these art a c t i v i t i e s . Also, the grade eights at Central who took art met en masse for a dis c u s s i o n / l e c t u r e / s l i d e session with two art teachers; Fred Williams and Gord Randall. I decided to observe this class, as well, because of the predominantly verbal interaction that took place between students and teacher. Thus began a routine of v i s i t i n g each of the schools twice a week u n t i l mid-December. Role of Participant Observer It was my intention to be as unobtrusive as possible while observing in the classrooms. My aim was for teachers and students to carry on as usual regardless of my presence. At no time did I speak to the class as a whole or exercise any authority or d i s c i p l i n e . For the most part, I listened and made notes. When the teachers were not too busy, I chatted with them informally, sometimes asking questions about their program or background. On many occasions the teachers volunteered information. Less frequently, I would chat with students, avoiding any negative comments about behavior or art work. Each of the three teachers introduced me to their classes as a university student doing research. Fred Williams explained to the grade eights that I was there to 48 obvserve him teaching. These students v i r t u a l l y ignored me except on a few occasions when some of them asked for advice as I was making the round of the art tables to observe them at work. At the end of one studio cl a s s , a boy stayed to chat with Fred and confessed that although art wasn't his best subject, i t was his favourite. I was seated about two arm lengths away from him. It was as i f I wasn't there at a l l . I was of l i t t l e s ignificance and c e r t a i n l y no threat to the grade eights. Michael Laurence introduced me to the grade nines as a university researcher. However, he implied that I was there to observe students. I didn't contradict t h i s statement for the simple reason of wanting to avoid any c o n f l i c t or embar- rassment. The grade nines, who were mainly female, were comfortable and responsive to adults. I was not asked for advice by this c l a s s . Instead, I was sometimes drawn into "bread and butter" conversations as I observed them at work.- Even though Michael had indicated that I was there to observe them, the grade nines did not f e e l threatened or uneasy. After pottery vases had been marked and handed back to the c l a s s , Michael l e f t the room for a while (15.12.83). Dennis* poorly constructed vase was the object of jests from other boys who decided to destroy i t by dropping i t out of the second storey art room window. Most of the class giggled with approval, several of the g i r l s ignored the 49 whole episode; only one or two students even glanced my way. The grade elevens and twelves reacted to my presence with more c u r i o s i t y than the younger students. Peter Crowe explained to them that there came a time in every Master's student's l i f e at which he or she had to write a thesis, and that he was the object of my thesis research (30.9.83). The presence of adults did not affe c t the behavior of the c l a s s . Whenever Peter l e f t the room, students carried on with what they were doing. Several of the students made an e f f o r t to become f r i e n d l y ; one of them frequently asked for advice. This boy came to the class late in the semester and treated me as a neutral advisor. Most of the g i r l s treated me with p o l i t e tolerance, while two of the g i r l s sought me out as a li s t e n e r to their pottery problems. However, they did not want advice. Pam, one of the students, treated me as an equal and someone who understood the concerns of an a r t i s t . The grade elevens and twelves responded to my presence as an observer according to their individual needs. To the majority of the students in the study, I was a non-threatening figure of l i t t l e consequence to them or to their art work. What follows is an account of each of the three teachers, beginning with a biographical sketch. Many values and b e l i e f s are learned as one grows from a c h i l d to an adult through the home, school and society at large. 50 Finding out from each of the three teachers what had been memorable in their growing years was a highly relevant part of the study. Figure 3 l i s t s the kinds of questions each teacher was asked during interview sessions. Figure 3 . Basic interview questions When did you become interested in art? What kind of art were you exposed to when you were young? What kind of art training/education have you had? Why did you become an art teacher? What are your b e l i e f s about the benefits of art as a school subject? What are the objectives (goals) of your art program? What kind of art do you l i k e teaching the most? What kind of art do you l i k e to do? Describe the artwork in your home. Next i s a description of the content of the three art courses. This provides a background within which teachers carry on the process of teaching, and the content may also reveal a value or an orientation to schooling. An account of the teacher's approach to students is given which describes what the teachers say to students when they explain an assignment, give advice, mete out d i s c i p l i n e or 51 make comments that do not pertain to the art program. Teachers discussed the role of art in the school. A br i e f description is given of the kind of artwork that the teachers displayed in their own homes. Statements by teachers about the role of art in the school are compared to what took place in the classroom and an examination of the kind of artwork found in the home provides more opportun- i t i e s for similar comparisons. A summary and some conclusions are made about each teacher which examines the teachers' orientation to schooling, overt and covert values and teaching s t y l e or method. These three components are discussed to show how they are integrated by each teacher to r e f l e c t his value system and school o r i e n t a t i o n . A statement is made concerning teaching performance based on values and b e l i e f s , school orientation and teaching methods and the responsive- ness of students to each teacher's teaching. 52 CHAPTER IV FRED WILLIAMS - CENTRAL SECONDARY Introduct ion Fred Williams, a young man in his early t h i r t i e s , had been teaching at Central Secondary School for ten years at the time of this study. This chapter describes Fred's background, the way in which the grade eight art course was structured and the art room. Greater d e t a i l i s given on the various art projects that the grade eights did and the man- ner in which Fred taught these projects and behaved towards students. What follows is an account of Fred's b e l i e f about the value of art in the school, the kind of artwork Fred presented to the grade eights in class and a description of the artwork found in Fred's home. Interpretation of the data concludes this chapter. Fred's Background A l l of Fred's schooling occurred in Southport c i t y . Fred began to develop a special interest in art in elementary school. 53 Question: (20.1.84) When did you become interested in art? Fred: Well, i t became one of the things at school I could do well. So, I suppose i t was noticed by a teacher in grade f i v e . Anyways, I got some recognition for i t . Q: Were you exposed to art outside of school when you were young? Fred: Oh, g a l l e r y art you know. But I was in Saturday art classes at the art school. In high school Fred was influenced by a strong art program and several teachers who later "became major influences in art education" (20.1.84) in the Southport area. It was during this time that Fred made a committment to a r t . Fred: My natural progression was to go out and take painting and drawing with and , and go out and continue the myth and t r a d i t i o n , whatever. I r e a l l y f e e l there is a regional t r a d i t i o n in painting and drawing. 54 Q: Do you think that art here is s t y l i s t i c a l l y d i s t i n c t from other parts of Canada? Fred: Oh no! I don't think s t y l i s t i c a l l y . I just think the love of i t ' s there. There's a l o t of strong landscape people, and you know, some of them are expressionists, some of them are r e a l i s t s . But there i s d e f i n i t e l y a t r a d i t i o n in a l l the art that's happening here. I f e e l a part of that. Q: What made you go into education i f you were interested in art? Fred: There was a structured art school, The Southport School of Art was gone to s h i t . . .It was go and do your own thing and come to a c r i t i q u e every second week. I didn't f e e l I was ready for that. I l i k e things struc- tured and I had been used to structure with the strong people that I had who had an art education background. I was not academic material, but I got into Southport University. After graduating from university with a Bachelor of Education Fred began to teach at Central, and he had been there for almost ten years at the time of this study. After 55 several years of teaching at Central, Fred returned to Southport University to work on a Masters degree. The decision to attend graduate school was partly prompted by Fred's interest in teaching at a community college, and partly by a need to be challenged. Several comment that Fred made about his reasons for working towards a M. Ed. was "boredom". "It's a mental s i t u a t i o n , and I was very interested in philosophical concerns" (20.1.84). The Art Schedule at Central Secondary Central was the only secondary school in Longford D i s t r i c t not on a semester system; courses began in the beginning of September and ended in mid-June. The school day was divided into 20 minute modules. A l l the grade eights taking art, known as the "large grade eights", met once a week for two modules (40 minutes) while the studio grade eight classes met twice a week for three modules (60 minutes). The large grade eights of close to 60 students broke down into three studio classes; two were taught by Fred Williams, and one was taught by Gord Randall, the other grade eight art teacher. Fred and Gord co- instructed the large grade eights. 56 The Art Room Fred's art room, where his grade eight classes met twice a week for their studio program, was a multi-func- t i o n a l room with an assortment of tables including a drafting table. The room was f a i r l y crowded with supplies and art work on shelving and in cupboards on either side. At each end of the room there was either a chalkboard or a f l i p chart, and more open shelving with supplies and books. Some audio visual equipment stood at one end by the h a l l door and a connecting storage room. From an open metal framework on the c e i l i n g hung six e l e c t r i c a l outlets. The framework also provided storage for various supplies and some artwork. Current student art work was displayed on available wall space. There was no teacher's desk in the room, and Fred would generally d i r e c t his talking from the end near the h a l l door and the connecting storage room. The long h a l l outside the classroom, known as "the ga l l e r y " had several large cork boards, one f u l l of art news and related coming events, and the other of students' work. The remaining h a l l space was hung with a c r y l i c paintings done by senior students. Fred would conduct informal c r i t i q u e s out there, with students examining their own work. 57 Fred's Grade Eight Art Program The grade eight art program was divided into two parts; studio sessions held in the all-purpose art room, and large group lecture sessions held in a regular double classroom. The large group sessions were mainly used to view s l i d e s or films, introduce concepts in ar t , and develop a language for talking about a r t . Art projects were worked on during studio time. There was a general p a r a l l e l between the art projects and what was presented at the large grade eight sessions. For the purpose of convenience, the studio classes and the large grade eights are discussed separately. The "Large Grade Eights" "Pigs" Students had been learning about; colour, shape, l i g h t , pattern, perspective and l i n e , and had written these terms down in their sketchbooks. The f i l m "Pigs" was shown so that students could interpret their experience of the f i l m in a group l i n e drawing. After they viewed the f i l m , students were divided into groups and were given a limited time to draw a continuous l i n e drawing on a large sheet of paper. Each student in the group was told to draw for 30 seconds, and those waiting their turn were encouraged to coach the drawer. Fred reviewed attributes of l i n e such as 58 texture, pattern and depth, and explained that at the end of class they would review a l l the drawings and select a winner. When students were asked by Fred why they liked one drawing they responded with comments such as "no scr i b b l e s " and " i t has depth". Fred summed up their responses by saying that the drawing they had selected had "good l i n e quality" and "unity". Fred explained to the clas s , "We want you to think about elements. That's why we had you do t h i s " (26.9.83). "Why Man Creates" The f i l m "Why Man Creates" was introduced to the class by Gord Randall. He explained to the students that at the end of class he would ask them questions about c r e a t i v i t y and encouraged students to take notes. After the f i l m Fred and Gord asked what was the message. Fred summed up the students' answers by saying that new ideas are not always accepted by others. He then suggested to students that they could be creative in their sketchbooks. Elements and Pr i n c i p l e s of Design During this session the second half of a series of sl i d e s on the elements and pr i n c i p l e s of design was shown to the class. Slides of drawings, paintings, and sculpture were grouped under the following attributes; colour, texture, pattern, perspective, 59 point of view, motion, sequence, and juxtaposition. The theme of the presentation was how visual e f fects created messages. Sequencing This session involved a second group drawing based on a short f i l m showing a dramatized close-up of a kernel of corn gradually exploding into popcorn. The class was not told what the object was, but told that they would be working in small groups using pastels to draw their own version of sequencing. Fred suggested that the image should change with each drawer. As Fred and Gord made the rounds giving advice to each group, Fred reminded students to be creative. Near the end of c l a s s , one student from each group was asked to speak about their group's drawing to the rest of the cl a s s . Point of View Fred asked students to look at art work as a way of gathering information. Slides of cave paintings, Egyptian a r t , and early C h r i s t i a n art were shown to demonstrate t h i s . "Image makers find order in a confused world" (14.11.83). Then s l i d e s of early and contemporary photographs were shown to i l l u s t r a t e how a r t i s t s focus on an image and create a point of view. 60 What i s Sculpture? A preview of sculpture served as an introduction to studio sessions in which students would be working three dimensionally. Fred and Gord started by asking students what the difference i s between sculpture and two dimensional art work. A series of s l i d e s showing a wide variety of sculptures was presented to show the grade eights the diverse range of three dimensional art work. Some examples included; student work (grade eight clay monster), Picasso's bronze cast goat, buildings, l i g h t sculpture made of neon tubing, and environmental sculpture. The Studio Classes As with the large grade eights, the smaller studio classes are discussed chronologically. Included with the art projects is some of the homework that Fred p e r i o d i c a l l y assigned to the c l a s s . Tone Drawing Fred began this project by reviewing the concept of balance along with sketches of household objects done by students at home. The class gathered around one of the large art tables and Fred held up each sketch asking two questions of the drawer, "Is the object balanced?", and "Is the drawing balanced?" He asked the class what was the predominant element of design in most of the drawings, and they replied that i t was l i n e . Fred concluded the c r i t i q u e 61 with "We have to recognize elements of design in our drawings so that we can design more e f f e c t i v e l y " (27.9.83). A tone drawing was then assigned, with emphasis on devel- oping contrasting tones. Fred told students to use a l i n e drawing of a shoe that they had recently completed and to begin to shade i t to create strong contrasting areas in the picture. Colour Tone Drawing This was a continuation of the shoe drawing that was shaded to create contrast. Fred introduced colour by giving the students a demonstration of blending using analogous and complementary colours, and cross- hatching. He showed similar work done by another grade eight class and challenged this group to be more creative. "Your thinking can make your drawing unique" (3.10.83). While pupils were busy colouring their shoe drawings, Fred c a l l e d up each student to check off the homework drawing which had been assigned previously. When the colour tone drawings were completed and graded about two weeks l a t e r , Fred posted the more successful ones on the b u l l e t i n board in the g a l l e r y wall outside the art room. He gathered the class around the display for a c r i t i q u e . Each drawing received three l e t t e r grades, one each for colour, contrast, and craftmanship. 62 Creative Line Drawing On a 24" X 19" sheet of newsprint students were asked to find an object in the room and draw i t in a creative way. They were reminded of the f i l m on c r e a t i v i t y . "How do you get ideas? Looking at one thing and seeing another!" (13.10.83). Students were told not to shade the drawing. In the following week after a shading and shadow demonstration by Fred, students were instructed to measure off a six inch square in their creative l i n e drawings and then shade i t . The demonstration took up most of the classroom time, leaving the students about 20 minutes to work. The project continued into another week when students transferred the six inch square onto Mayfair paper as a complete drawing to be shaded. Completed drawings were given l e t t e r grades for imagination, tone, and craftmanship. Paper Masks The s h i f t from two dimensional to three dimensional art work was preceded by the introduction of sculpture in the large grade eights. Students began this project by drawing a classmate's p r o f i l e . Using coloured board, magazines, tissue paper, and newspapers, they had to build a r e l i e f of that p r o f i l e . Fred urged them to be inventive in finding new ways to create r e l i e f . He also told them that this project would prepare them for a styrofoam sculpture that they would be doing after the Christmas holidays. The masks were marked for students' 63 a b i l i t y to create r e l i e f , imagination, and craftmanship. What has been presented indicates something of the nature of Fred's curriculum content and associated a c t i v i t i e s . What follows is a closer look at Fred's approach to students, his attitude towards the role of art in the school, the integration of a r t i s t s ' works in the art program, and a description of the kind of art work in Fred's \ home. Fred's Manner of Teaching A large portion of the classroom time was spent by Fred Williams in talking to the cl a s s . When Fred c a l l e d the class to pay attention, students quickly s e t t l e d down to l i s t e n . One of his favourite openings was, "Listen up, Guys!" (26.9.83). This loud c a l l to order was character- i s t i c of Fred's blunt but personal approach when speaking to the class or to individuals. Although Fred's demeanor was brusque, he generally maintained a f r i e n d l y tone. This was evident when he praised the class and/or individual students for working well and completing successful art projects. For example, after announcing at the beginning of a studio period that he had marked the pencil crayon drawings, he e n t h u s i a s t i c a l l y added, "Half the people got an A; f a n t a s t i c i " (18.10.83). 64 On many occasions, Fred demonstrated his positive approach to students and their artwork. During one studio period, the class was busy shading in tones in a l i n e drawing. After about ten minutes of drawing, Fred interrupted the class to discuss how the other grade eight class had handled the same project. He asked the class to look for and point out successful tonal q u a l i t i e s in these other grade eight drawings. Fred further explained what kind of toning, contrasting and technical s k i l l s were needed to create an e f f e c t i v e tone drawing. He then asked the students to reexamine their own artwork, adding that the drawings were well on their way to a successful completion. "These (drawings) are gonna be fant a s t i c when they're finished" (15.11.83). Fred l e t his grade eights know that he had confidence in their a b i l i t y to produce sa t i s f a c t o r y artwork. Fred's p o s i t i v e approach towards the grade eights was apparent even when he was admonishing them. He often used the "sandwich approach" to c r i t i c i s m ; by putting a negative remark between two posit i v e comments. When a student teacher had l e f t after a session of practice teaching, Fred informed me that he was upset about the way the grade eights had behaved in class when the student teacher was ins t r u c t i n g . He expressed his displeasure to the class by saying that although the students had "settled down" at the 65 beginning of the year, they did not behave well for the student teacher. He ended his two minute lecture by saying, "I know (that) you can behave well" (15.11.83). Fred l e t the students know that their behavior was unacceptable, and at the same time, he reaffirmed his confidence in their a b i l i t y to behave well now and in the future. The class responded to this lecture by working more earnestly than usual. Fred consistently emphasized the importance of thinking and talking about a r t . One studio period began with Fred shouting good-naturedly. "Time has come for evaluation. Look at your f i r s t drawing and your l a s t ! " (10.13.83). The class took a few minutes to p u l l out past artwork. Fred verbally pounced on one of the boys. "Robertson! What's the difference between your f i r s t and l a s t drawing?" Robertson grinned but couldn't come up with an answer. Several students volunteered answers such as; "better balance" and "better use of perspective". Fred agreed and added that the class was learning to compose. He concluded with a p o s i t i v e comment. "The difference (between the f i r s t and the l a s t drawing) may be just in the (improved) craftmanship" (10.13.83). The class went back to work with renewed vigour. The talking that Fred did may be categorized into the following areas; giving instructions, doing demon- 66 str a t i o n s , discussing students' and a r t i s t s ' works and reviewing concepts and terminology. Instructions were s p e c i f i c , projects in progress were reviewed routinely, and completed projects were followed by a c r i t i q u e . The running shoe drawing went through two stages star t i n g from the o r i g i n a l l i n e drawing of a students's footwear to an abstract drawing with contrasting areas of colour, value and pattern. Throughout the colouring procedure, Fred reminded students to be inventive and to develop new ways of creating colour and pattern. The grade eights were f i r s t told to f i l l in the running shoe drawings with coloured pencils. Fred showed the class how to use the coloured pencils by drawing on a large sheet of paper on an easel set in front of the classroom. He demonstrated tech- niques such as drawing colour on colour, cross-hatching, colouring with lines and shading, using complementary and analogous colours. Fred then challenged the class to colour the running shoe drawings in d i f f e r e n t and imaginative ways. "Your thinking can make your drawing unique" (4.10.83). When the drawings were completed and marked, Fred displayed a selection of them in "the gal l e r y " and the class was ushered out into the h a l l to look at them. Individual students were also asked to pick out a drawing that they li k e d and explain why to the cl a s s . Fred also asked questions such as; "Why do those shoes stand out?" 67 (13.10.83). Then he made br i e f comments about every drawing by s i n g l i n g out the outstanding attributes of each, i . e . , Fred explained that the shoe in David's drawing was done in cool colours which was an e f f e c t i v e contrast against the warm back-ground colours. The contrast of cool and warm helped to separate ground from figure. Fred followed a step by step process of explaining, demonstrating, reviewing and c r i t i q u i n g for a l l art projects. When Fred reviewed individual student progress with the class i t often developed into a kind of pep talk to urge students to think and work more c r e a t i v e l y . When the grade eights were in the middle of building their paper masks, Fred gathered the class around the two front tables. He began by picking one mask that was s t i l l very f l a t and barked, "What kind of r e l i e f do we have here? Zippo! That's an 'E'!" The class immediately ceased s h u f f l i n g and became a l e r t . Fred continued, "I know why i t isn't good. You don't l i k e doing i t ! " (13.12.83). The accused student, Emily, blushed and nodded. She explained that she had missed a couple of classes and that she was finding the project d i f f i c u l t . Fred nodded. The cl a s s , resumed s h u f f l i n g , and Fred went on to point out some masks which had successfully achieved a strong three dimensional qu a l i t y . He gave individual advice urging students to be inventive in finding new ways to build r e l i e f , and he 68 reminded everyone about the importance of craftsmanship. The progress review and pep talk ended with Fred asking the c l a s s , "What can I get out for you?" Students cheerfully responded with items such as glue, s c i s s o r s , tissue paper, etc. As they proceeded to gather up their masks from the front tables and c o l l e c t supplies, Fred c a l l e d out, "Can you draw on them (masks)? Why not? Can you paint on them? Why not?" (13.12.83). The class shouted out "yes" to both questions. The half awake group of students who had entered the art room at 8:10 a.m. were chatting happily and working a c t i v e l y by 8:30 a.m. Fred's pep talks were c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of his team approach to motivating students. When cajo l i n g the class to do better, he often switched from the pronoun "you" to "we" and back again. This was apparent when Fred led a discus- sion about artwork, as well as when he admonished students. During a c r i t i q u e of drawings done by former grade eleven students, Fred asked the cla s s , "How i s this shaded? Is i t shaded well?" The grade eights o r i g i n a l l y thought that he drawings were outstanding, but through Fred's questioning, the class began to see that some of the drawings were not done very well at a l l . Fred commented about one poorly shaded drawing. "He (the grade eleven student) didn't under- stand what tone is i " Fred described the techniques used by the grade elevens as being no d i f f e r e n t than what the 69 grade eights were doing. The c r i t i q u e lasted about ten minutes and ended with, "Okay, I've got some pencils and erasers. Let's go! (1.11.83). An example of how Fred involved the whole class in the scolding of a student occurred when the grade eights were handing in sketchbooks. While students scurried to f i n d their sketchbooks, a boy came up to Fred and explained that he couldn't find his sketchbook. Fred turned the private concern into a public one by addressing the class loudly, "We've got a problem here! Larry can't find his sketch- book! What are we going to do?" A b r i e f lecture followed aimed at any student who might be careless about the sketch- book assignments. Larry's problem became the potential problem of everyone in the c l a s s . Fred finished with a warning, also addressed to the c l a s s . The only way to get a f a i l i n g grade in art is not to hand in work. "A" i s for dynamic, outstanding (work). "B" i s r e a l l y good. "C+" i s better than average. "D" i s bad and "E" i s an unthinkable mark! (10.13.83) Art in the School Fred Williams believed that the art program was an important course in the school curriculum. "Art is impor- 70 tant in general education. Kids can learn to be creative problem solvers" (19.1.84). Over the years at Central, Fred had worked to modify and develop the art program. Fred valued art in the high school as an important and worthwhile endeavor. That was not the attitude he f i r s t encountered. In the beginning when I started teaching, there was a t r a d i t i o n of the grade 12's being a b i t slow and that sort of thing, and I inherited that t r a d i t i o n . (19.1.84) Consequently, Fred set out to change the attitude towards the art program by changing the curriculum content at a l l levels to sui t his standards. Once I was there f i v e years. . .Well, I've got kids l i k e John Kramer who's had me for f i v e years and now he's a fine potter. I plugged him into pottery two years ago. (19.1.84) The most unusual feature of the grade eight art program was the time a l l o t t e d to talking about art in the large grade eight sessions. About sixt y students met with Fred and Gord Randall in a regular double classroom primarily to view and discuss a r t . "Advantages (of the large grade 71 eights) i s that they are f a m i l i a r with terms and they're not scared o f f " ( 9 . 2 6 . 8 3 ) . Besides the large group sessions, the grade eights sometimes spent as much as 30 minutes d i s - cussing art work in their sessions. The large amount of time spent in discussing art served to add to i t s c r e d i - b i l i t y as a valuable subject area. Fred was an a c t i v i s t as far as art in school was concerned. He worked to s e l l the art program by making students' art work highly v i s i b l e , and by teaching students how to talk about a r t . Fred wanted students to f e e l that art was an interesting and worthwhile program. He explained that because art was an option i t was essential to off e r an exciting and d i v e r s i f i e d program. "We cover a l l the bases because we know we're going to lose half of them (grade eights)" ( 1 9 . 1 . 8 4 ) . A r t i s t s ' Works When discussing a r t i s t s ' works with students, Fred concentrated on the artwork rather than the a r t i s t . During s l i d e viewing sessions, the grade eights were not always told who the a r t i s t was. Slides of a r t i s t s ' works were presented because they addressed a theme. Colour, texture, pattern, perspective, point of view, motion, sequence, and juxtaposition were i l l u s t r a t e d by s l i d e s of various art 72 works when Fred and Gord Randall were teaching the grade eights about the elements and p r i n c i p l e s of design. H i s t o r i c a l and contemporary examples of photography were shown in one of the large grade eight sessions to i l l u s t r a t e point of view. Fred began the class with a br i e f survey of early art work as a lead into photography. A r t i s t s ' names and t i t l e s of photos were not mentioned. Instead, Fred described how, as photography evolved, i t turned away from imitating painting to focus on presenting a point of view. "Image makers find order in a confused world. Photography changed our viewpoint. Photography introduced sequencing" (14.11.83). A r t i s t s ' works were not presented to the grade eights as a separate, unrelated topic. Slides were always shown in relationship with present or future student a c t i v i t y . After showing the series on photography, Fred suggested that the next time students took photographs they consider their point of view, and the message that they might be transmit- ting to the viewer. Art at Home The art work that Fred had collected and displayed in his townhouse could be grouped into three general categories; contemporary West Coast paintings, drawings or 73 p r i n t s , h i s t o r i c a l and contemporary ceramics, and Fred's own work which included ceramics, drawings and paintings. The two most conspicuous art works; an a c r y l i c landscape painting by Fred and an o i l p o r t r a i t by Fred Varley, were placed side by side on the longest l i v i n g room wall. Fred's own work was mixed in with other art work and could be found in every room. It included drawings in pencil and pastel, a c r y l i c paintings, and ceramics, some of which was very s c u l p t u r a l . There were several paintings and prints done by former Southport University instructors, and three West Coast Indian prints done by B i l l Reid. A variety of ceramic pieces, including an 1860s English honey pot, and a sculptural vase by Fred were displayed in the l i v i n g room. On open shelving in the kitchen stood a display of functional ceramics from 1940 Gundy Hotelware to contemporary teapots done by Fred. The upstairs h a l l , bedroom, and bathroom were also hung with a variety of pr i n t s , paintings and drawings. Fred's art c o l l e c t i o n reflected his interest in cera- mics and West Coast a r t . His own artwork could be divided into two categories; two-dimensional work, which was mainly landscape, and three-dimensional work, which was represented by ceramic pieces. The grade eights did not make pottery nor did they draw or paint landscapes during my observation period. However, there were some s i m i l a r i t i e s between 74 Fred's art c o l l e c t i o n and the grade eight artwork. Both were prominently displayed and both showed concern for craftsmanship. As well, the Varley p o r t r a i t was done in an inventive and unique manner as most p o r t r a i t painters in Varley's time did not use a variety of colour in rendering skin tones. Inventiveness was stressed by Fred and was apparent in student artwork. Fred's art c o l l e c t i o n , although d i f f e r e n t in kind to the grade eight artwork, showed similar q u a l i t i e s of inventiveness and craftsmanship. Interpretations and Conclusions Fred Williams habitually spoke to the grade eights in a d i r e c t , almost gruff, no-nonsense manner. He worked at motivating students to produce imaginative and well-crafted artwork through reviews and/or c r i t i q u e s which he often turned into pep t a l k s . In e f f e c t , Fred's manner of speaking, his method of teaching (explaining, demonstrating, etc.) combined with his p o s i t i v e approach towards student behavior and achievement created an enthusiastic environment in the classroom. The high l e v e l of interaction between the grade eight students and the teacher was an indicator of their enjoyment of the program. The large amount of time that Fred spent talking to the grade eights appeared to promote a desire by students to do 75 a r t . In one of the studio sessions, Fred a c t u a l l y talked for most of the period. Three areas were covered; a c r i t - ique in "the g a l l e r y " , and explanation of a sketchbook- homework assignment and instructions for a new art project. The actual time that students had l e f t for drawing was f i f t e e n minutes out of a s i x t y minute time block. At the end of the class several boys stayed behind. One of them asked i f he could have some more homework. Another boy began to chat with Fred and volunteered, "You know, art isn't my best subject but i t ' s my favourite" (10.13.83). Two boys used their spare period to work on a r t . Fred's abrupt but informal manner combined with l o t s of talking and discussion seemed to be e s p e c i a l l y appealing to the grade eight boys. The pep talks that Fred gave to the grade eights served another purpose besides motivating students to do better work. Fred imparted an underlying message to students during these talks; successful artwork is not a matter of luck or talent, but largely a matter of successful problem solving. Fred taught the elements and p r i n c i p l e s of design and demonstrated technical s k i l l s which enabled students to create sophisticated artwork. Central Secondary was f u l l of student art which reinforced another underlying message; solving v i s u a l problems may be d i f f i c u l t , but i s a worth- while task. 76 Fred set up the grade eight curriculum so that s p e c i f i c v i s u a l problems were handled by students one at a time. For example, when the grade eights were told to colour in the running shoe l i n e drawings, several decision-making steps had already been covered. Questions such as where to put the drawing of the shoe on the paper, what size to make the shoe and from what angle to draw the shoe had been solved and completed by the students. The class was able to con- centrate on colour and as a re s u l t , the drawings showed a wide variety of colour contrast, shading techniques and texture. A similar teaching pattern of having students tackle one visu a l problem before going on to another took place with every studio assignment. The artwork that Fred showed the grade eights, whether in the form of s l i d e s , prints in books or films, represented a much larger variety of h i s t o r i c a l and contemporary a r t i s t s than Fred had in his home. Fred's art c o l l e c t i o n was primarily composed of his own work and contemporary Canadian a r t i s t s . However, Fred's c o l l e c t i o n and the student artwork at Central Secondary were similar in two respects. In each place, the wall p r o l i f e r a t e d with drawings and paintings and the three-dimensional artwork consisted mainly of ceramics which ranged from t r a d i t i o n a l , functional pieces to sculptural work. In conclusion, Fred Williams' grade eight art program 77 at Central Secondary was based around a great deal of verbal communication flowing mainly from teacher to students. Fred emphasized, throughout the large grade eight sessions and in the studio classes, the importance of developing a language for talking aobut a r t . With this language, he taught (explained, demonstrated, discussed) how the elements and pr i n c i p l e s of design could be used by students in their own artwork. As well, Fred's b e l i e f that art in school is an opportunity for students to become creative problem solvers was apparent in the inventive methods many students employed to draw, colour and sculpt. 78 CHAPTER V PETER CROWE - NELSON SECONDARY Introduction Before becoming an art teacher, Peter Crowe was a potter. This chapter b r i e f l y describes Peter's background, the way in which the courses were scheduled at Nelson S.S. and the state of the art room. More information is given about art projects that the grade eleven and twelve ceramic students did and to the manner in which Peter explained these projects and behaved towards students. This i s f o l - lowed by statements made by Peter about his b e l i e f s concerning the value of art in school and a description of the artwork that Peter displayed in his home. The chapter closes with interpretations and conclusions based on the data. Peter's Background Peter was raised on a ranch and attended a one room school u n t i l grade s i x . He completed a non-academic grade eleven program, and worked for a couple of years at jobs 79 requiring manual labour. During his high school years and a f t e r , Peter belonged to a l o c a l art club which was occasionally v i s i t e d by a r t i s t s from bigger centers. One instructor in p a r t i c u l a r had a major influence on Peter, who spent parts of two summers and a winter workshop session under his d i r e c t i o n . That was the beginning of my art t r a i n - ing. It was the f i r s t sort of sense that I would probably go to art school. . .We did painting, drawing, and design, and (I) started ceramics because i t was t o t a l l y new to me. I was working three dimensionally, probably for the f i r s t time. (9.1.84) Peter described his high school art teacher as an "ex- drafting teacher and ex-sign painter" (9.1.84) who "taught me a l o t of good draftmanship and a l o t of caring about my work" (9.1.84). This teacher influenced Peter's teaching " i n the way in which I responded to kids because he was a very open person" (9.1.84). At the age of 20 Peter began taking courses at a community college in Southport c i t y . Courses were chosen by Peter to gain academic q u a l i f i c a t i o n s for university entrance. With this program, Peter was able to enter Southport University where he completed a Bachelor of 80 Education with a major in art education. After graduation Peter started teaching at Nelson Secondary in the Longford School D i s t r i c t . Five years l a t e r he went back to Southport University to complete a Master's program. At the beginning of his community college career Peter set up a studio and began to turn out a volume of pottery to s e l l and make money. This experience helped Peter decide to go into teaching. "I did reasonably well, but what i t taught me was the loneliness of i t " (9.1.84). Peter was also influenced by his father, who f e l t that an academic degree would better q u a l i f y Peter to find a job. During his beginning years of teaching at Nelson, Peter was strongly influenced by an older teacher, Jack Benoit, who taught among other things, sculpture. Jack never taught with a textbook or on a formal basis, but lik e d to work with students i n d i v i d u a l l y . This one-to-one, personal approach appealed to Peter. "What he was doing was working with the people, not the subject" (9.1.84). Jack "got them (students) to make one piece of sculpture after 130 hours of work and carried i t to a very professional l e v e l " (9.1.84). Each piece of sculpture was done in a s l i g h t l y d i f f e r e n t medium, and Peter was most impressed by the r e s u l t s . "The f i r s t time I can remember seeing a display case f u l l of students' work, I couldn't believe kids did i t " (9.1.84). Jack Benoit and others l i k e him influenced Peter to 81 change his s t y l e of teaching to a more individual approach. "I used to teach every kid how to do every technique (in pottery) because I thought i t was important. . .1 have learned over a number of years from people I have a great deal of respect for in a r t i s t i c terms and educational terms to deal with the in d i v i d u a l " (9.1.84). The Art Schedule at Nelson Secondary Nelson Senior Secondary operated on a semester system with each day divided into f i v e rotating blocks. Each block was approximately one hour and twenty minutes in length. Students taking Ceramics Eleven met once a day at a dif f e r e n t time period in "A" block. "A" block was designated as home room period, consequently the group of about twenty students, consisting of grade elevens and a few grade twelves who were taking ceramics, were Peter Crowe's home room c l a s s . The majority of Peter's students were taking ceramics for the f i r s t time. Each student had a locked storage area to keep clay which they had to buy from Peter. Glaze material, tools, potter's wheels and k i l n s were available at no cost. The room was s t r i c t l y a ceramics studio, used only for that purpose by this c l a s s , an adult night school session and sometimes grade eights. 82 The Art Room The ceramics room, about a double classroom in s i z e , contained four large wooden tables covered in canvas, and one large metal table with bins holding glaze ingredients. There were four k i l n s at the back of the room, two of which were used by this c l a s s . Six e l e c t r i c potter's wheels stood side by side along the back wall. Locked cupboards at the front of the room contained expensive or toxic glaze chem- i c a l s , and to o l s . A locked cupboard above one of the two sinks housed scales for weighing glaze ingredients. Peter kept the keys for these cupboards and for a small storage room at the back of the room in a f i l i n g cabinet by the front desk. The cabinet was usually l e f t open during "A" block. The front b u l l e t i n board was f i l l e d with information sheets on p r a c t i c a l procedures such as k i l n operation, methods for shaping clay, operation of the potter's wheel. The ceramics room was always very dusty and generally messy. Tools, paper towels, b i t s of clay, and sometimes pieces of ceramics lay on the tables, and on the side counters. Open, free standing shelving near the back of the room was f u l l of ceramic pieces, many of which were either broken, cracked or poorly formed. Most of these pieces remained untouched throughout the twelve week observation period. Two large p l a s t i c garbage cans containing unwanted 83 or broken ceramic pieces remained untouched for about six weeks. Although not required to do so, students almost always sat at the same table in the same spot. Peter seldom sat down at a l l , except to work at the potter's wheel. He did not use the teacher's desk at the front of the room, but made his home base in his media classroom. Peter's Grade Eleven/Twelve Program The ceramics class accommodated two levels of students; those taking ceramics for the f i r s t time (grade elevens) and those taking ceramics for the second time (grade twelves). Grade elevens, who made up the majority, were required to follow a format which involved various methods of working with the clay. At the beginning of the semester this group had to use three methods of building ceramic pieces; slab, c o i l , and pinch. Peter placed no r e s t r i c t i o n or require- ments on what students had to make, as long as the three methods were employed. Grade twelve students worked on their own. Most of them threw pots on the wheel, and one g i r l made sculptural pieces with clay. With approximately an hour and twenty mintues each day for doing ceramics, the grade eleven students had a generous allotment of time to do the three projects using the slab, c o i l , and pinch 84 techniques. At the end of September (30.9.83) Peter announced to the class that they (those who hadn't t r i e d i t yet) could go ahead and use the potter's wheels. If the six wheels were busy, students could sign for a wheel on the front chalkboard. The signing up procedure wasn't needed, for only on one occasion were a l l six wheels in use at the same time. Out of the class of twenty students, a group of f i v e (grade elevens and twelves) used the potter's wheels on a regular basis. Peter was f u l l y aware that students had more than ample time to complete their projects. By l i m i t i n g the required projects, grade eleven students could do several pieces using the same technique and select the best to be marked, or take the opportunity to experiment and try other things such as the potter's wheel, and use modeling clay to create sculptural forms. The amount of work each student produced was not a condition imposed by Peter, but rather a decision that had to be made by the student. A l l grade eleven students were required to work with a glaze recipe which required measuring and mixing the glaze ingredients, f i r i n g a test t i l e , and rating the results to be handed in along with a test t i l e to Peter. A s u f f i c i e n t amount had to be made so that the glaze could be used by other students. To explain this project, which involved 85 demonstrating how to use the scale, how to measure and mix glaze ingredients, and a warning about the t o x i c i t y of certain chemicals and glazes, Peter had the class gather round the metal table. This was the only time that Peter demonstrated for the class (grade twelves had seen i t the year before). Peter gave very l i t t l e formal instruction to the c l a s s . Most of his teaching was directed towards individuals who had either asked for help or indicated interest in a p a r t i c u l a r area. Near the end of October Peter had outlined on the front chalkboard six projects for the grade elevens, to be completed for their f i r s t report card. These are outlined in Figure 4. As a way of reviewing students* work for report card evaluation, Peter had each student f i l l out a "Self- Evaluation Form". On the sheet students were asked to sketch a l l their attempted projects, remark on the l e v e l of completion, mark each project out of 10, make comments on loss, damage or completion of each project (optional), write a paragraph on their performance, l i s t the number of absences and la t e s , and assign a l e t t e r grade for themselves. Peter explained that the "Self-Evaluation Form" J (see Figure 5) enabled him to r e c a l l the work that students had done, and that this was more p r a c t i c a l and e f f i c i e n t than having each student hand in a l l their work (2.11.83). 86 F i g u r e 4. Grade 11 c e r a m i c c o u r s e o u t l i n e C e r a m i c s 11 1. PRIMITVE PROJECT a b u r n i s h e d c l a y p r o j e c t f i r e d i n sawdust and c h a r c o a l b r i q u e t t e s . 1 - 2 p i e c e s . 2. RAKU FIRE 1 bowl o r c o n t a i n e r shape made w i t h g r o g g e d c l a y f i r e d i n p r o p a n e k i l n . 3 . COIL PROJECT a s l a b b u i l t p r o j e c t o f ; a box a c a s s e r o l e a l i d d e d j a r , e t c . 4. GLAZE MAKING 1 cup o f g l a z e f r o m r e c i p e p r o v i d e d 5. MAJOR PROJECT OF YOUR OWN DESIGN must be drawn and d i s c u s s e d w i t h i n s t r u c t o r P e t e r was r e s p o n s i b l e f o r N e l s o n ' s y e a r b o o k . D u r i n g t h e months o f September and O c t o b e r , c l a s s r o o m t i m e was f r e q u e n t l y i n t e r r u p t e d f o r y e a r b o o k b u s i n e s s . S i x g i r l s i n t h e c e r a m i c s c l a s s had v o l u n t e e r e d t o d e l i v e r s c h o o l p i c t u r e s t o homeroom t e a c h e r s , c o l l e c t money f o r p i c t u r e s and f o r t h e y e a r b o o k . Y e a r b o o k - r e l a t e d b u s i n e s s a l s o t o o k P e t e r o u t o f t h e c l a s s f o r b r i e f p e r i o d s p a r t i c u l a r l y i n t h e month o f O c t o b e r . I t was n o t u n u s u a l t o s e e s t u d e n t s w o r k i n g a t o t h e r s u b j e c t s i n t h e c e r a m i c s s t u d i o . P e t e r d i d n o t f o r b i d t h i s 87 Figure 5. Student self-evaluation form CERAMICS 11/12 SELF EVALUATION FORM DATE NAME DRAW A SKETCH OF EACH PROJECT ATTEMPTED TO THIS POINT IN THE COURSE. MARK EACH PROJECT WITH A LABEL AS TO LEVEL OF COMPLETION. MARK YOURSELF ON EACH PROJECT OUT OF A POSSIBLE' 10. WRITE ANY EXPLANATION YOU WISH ABOUT THE LOSS, DAMAGE, OR COMPLETION OF EACH PROJECT. WRITE A BRIEF PARAGRAPH ON YOUR PERFORMANCE IN THIS COURSE HOW MANY ABSENCES HAVE YOU HAD? HOW MANY LATES WHAT LETTER GRADE DO YOU THINK YOU DESERVE? A B C+ C C- D E I THIS FORM IS INTENDED TO ASSIST IN REMINDING YOUR INSTRUCTOR OF YOUR EFFORTS AND YOUR OPINION OF YOUR PERFORMANCE. . . . YOU MAY NOT GET THE MARKS YOU ESTIMATE USE THE OTHER SIDE OR ATTACH ANOTHER SHEET AS NEEDED. . . . 88 a c t i v i t y , nor did he put pressure on students to discontinue this p r a c t i c e . On any given day there might be one or two students working on another subject, one or two others s i t t i n g and chatting without working on anything, two to six students throwing pots on the wheel, one or two glazing, someone making glaze, several students sculpting, and the rest would be building pots or bowls by hand. This general kind of a c t i v i t y remained f a i r l y consistent whether Peter was in the room or not. Peter spent much of his time in the room walking around the tables answering students' questions, giving advice, teasing and joking with others, and t e l l i n g anecdotes about potters, events connected with the school or with work, former students, and s k i i n g . Peter's Manner of Teaching Peter behaved in a carefree and relaxed manner towards his students. He was f r i e n d l y , chatty, and a tease. Some- times his teasing was shocking to students, and on numerous occasions eyes would go wide, as a student struggled to keep his or her reaction under contr o l . Peter saw humour in almost any s i t u a t i o n , and enjoyed the reaction to his comments. After Maria threw her f i r s t pot, she complained to Peter, "What do I do with this ugly thing?" Peter pretended to be indignant and exclaimed, "It's 89 not ugly! It's b e a u t i f u l ! Your f i r s t pot i s l i k e your f i r s t baby, you can't put i t back!" (30.9.83). He then advised her how she could improve i t by tidying up the bottom. Sometimes Peter played the role of the class clown. Several times during Friday clean up, he grabbed three yard- s t i c k s and began smacking them on table legs, shouting good naturedly, "It's time to clean up, you t e r r i b l e people!" (5.11.83). What made this behavior so funny was the contra- sting reaction of the students. They would slowly move to clean up as i f nothing unusual were taking place, often s t i l l chatting with their neighbours. However, they kept a safe distance from the yardsticks, and they did clean up more than usual. The usual clean up for most students involved as l i t t l e e f f o r t as possible. Peter was fond of t e l l i n g anecdotes. When the grade eleven students were gathered around the metal table for a lecture on mixing glazes, Peter warned them, in a serious, quiet manner about glaze t o x i c i t y . He recounted the tragedy of an American dentist and some members of his family who died of lead poisoning they ingested from the lead glazes on their Mexican pottery. "So i f you want to get r i d of ?" concluded Peter with a shrug and a big grin (14.10.83) . The class's response was restrained; only one or two 90 groans were uttered. Most anecdotes were stories about former pupils who were also good at ceramics. Some of these ex-students had set up their own pottery studios. During a few classes Peter threw pots. Some of the throwing students would watch or work alongside Peter, chat- ting with him and l i s t e n i n g to his anecdotes. Peter worked quickly and d e f t l y , turning out well-crafted pieces. One such session began with Peter announcing to no one in p a r t i c u l a r , "I f e e l l i k e throwing!" (25.10.83). And from one large lump of clay, Peter made four pots s t a r t i n g from the top and working down. The largest was an 18 inch high vase. This impressive performance was watched very care- f u l l y by the student potters. Peter did not instruct students as to the amount of work they had to do. He gave out assignments which allowed for various levels of productivity. "I don't want them to work for me. I want i t to come from inside" (19.10.83). Peter described the difference between students in terms of productivity. "The average student does just what he i s t o l d . The above average student does more because he wants to. The super student does l o t s " (14.10.83). Students were not told to work, so i t was up to the individual to set his or her l e v e l of accomplishment. Consequently, during class time, some students were working at various stages of making ceramics, while some would be doing homework or no work at 91 a l l . The majority of the grade elevens and twelves were not very interested in partaking in any a c t i v i t y which did not involve making ceramics or s o c i a l i z i n g . Peter employed a t a c t i c that worked well in getting students to do things. Betty, who had accumulated a number of pots by mid October, asked Peter i f her work could be f i r e d . Peter checked around to see what else was ready to be f i r e d , and said, yes, her pots could be f i r e d that night i f she made a k i l n wash. Betty sighed and wanted to know what was involved. Peter explained. She didn't understand the concept of equal parts by weight. Peter offered a comparison, "If your boy- friend is the same weight as me, then we are of equal parts by weight" (11.10.83). The analogy was met with no comment, a small smile, and some eye r o l l i n g . Betty successfully made the k i l n wash, and applied i t under Peter's supervision. "The way I get students to work is outlaze them" (5.10.83). Peter's Ceramic Students From the manner in which Peter talked about and treated students, I have categorized them into four groups; the outcasts, the workers, the academics, and the a r t i s t s . The outcasts were a very small group of students who had d i f f i - 92 culty f i t t i n g into the school environment, and were f a i l i n g or had f a i l e d many school subjects. The workers, the majority, were those headed for technical t r a i n i n g or jobs after grade twelve. The academics, a smaller group, were those students in the university entrance program. The a r t i s t s were a few students who were very productive in the ceramics courses, loaded their time-table with other art courses, and contemplated a career in the visua l arts f i e l d . The a r t i s t s sometimes came from other categories; the outcasts, the academics, or the workers. Peter described the a r t i s t s either as potters or sculptors. There were two outcasts in the ceramics c l a s s . Sandy eventually dropped out, and Brandon became one of the a r t i s t s . Sandy had a problem connecting with his environ- ment, and was under the care of a psychologist and a socio- l o g i s t when he was put into Peter's ceramic c l a s s . Sandy spent his time sketching complex organic forms, and working clay without completing anything. Peter treated Sandy in a warm, f r i e n d l y manner by of f e r i n g words of encouragement or advice whenever he walked by his table. He did not tease Sandy. Brandon was a year or two older than the other ceramics students, and had come as a dropout from another high school in the d i s t r i c t . For the f i r s t two months or so Brandon almost always arrived l a t e . He would chat with the g i r l s at 93 the back of the room, and take his time organizing himself to work on the wheel. Brandon's behaviour began to change noticeably about half way through the semester. He no longer was coming l a t e , and he had become highly productive, turning out one pot after another on the wheel. To encourage Brandon to take pottery seriously, Peter had d e l i b e r a t e l y treated him as i f he was one of the a r t i s t s . Peter introduced Brandon to a l o c a l potter. He also l e t Brandon have free clay in exchange for extra r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s , such as loading and f i r i n g the k i l n . At the same time, Peter teased him about a l l the pottery he was turning out. Sometimes, when a student asked Peter for information he would turn that student over to Brandon. When Betty wanted some molds Brandon had been using, Peter responded with a big grin, "Ask Brandon. He's hiding them" (7.12.83). Betty had never worked with a mold before, and Brandon ended up explaining the process and helping her. Peter maneuvered Brandon into situations in which he had to take on r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and leadership. The workers and the academics made up the majority of the ceramic students, most of whom were g i r l s . It was a pol i c y of the school to encourage students to take f i v e subjects each semester so that they would have classes in a l l f i v e time blocks scheduled each day. For some of this group, the ceramics course was taken to f i l l up their f i f t h 94 block. Six g i r l s in the group helped Peter at the beginning of the year with yearbook and photo orders. This a c t i v i t y was done during ceramic studio time. Peter enjoyed teasing these g i r l s . When Janice asked Peter to check the bowl that she had thrown on the wheel, he chuckled, "Do you s t i l l want me to check your bottom?" (2.12.83). One of the a r t i s t s was Pam, who sculpted clay into figures. Pam took her art very seriously, worked in t e n t l y , and produced some very complex, sophisticated work. Peter did not tease her. Pam seldom asked for advice, and i f she did Peter would give her a straight answer. Pam came into the ceramics program as an a r t i s t . She had made up her mind to attend the Southport School of Art once she completed high school. Peter hoped that a l l students would benefit from taking the ceramics course. "I do intend to make a r t i s t s out of them, but (for them) to become productive hobbyists rather than unproductive U.I.Cs (unemployment insurance c o l l e c t o r s ) " (5.10.83). Peter had had a few students over the years go on to become f u l l y involved in the production of ceramics, and this pleased him. In the class that I observed, Brandon and Pam showed promise. Peter's predica- ment was that i t was hard to convince Brandon and others l i k e him that i t was possible to earn a l i v i n g making pottery. Peter counteracted t h i s attitude in two ways. He 95 would talk about his former students who were working in the ceramics f i e l d by t e l l i n g humorous anecdotes about them. He also arranged every year to have his ceramics class v i s i t a pottery studio. Art in the School Peter believed that art in the senior grades could lead some students into careers in a r t . He also believed that art courses were not usually viewed as part of career development. The hard part, I think, i s that in education, e s p e c i a l l y in a r t , we are not always taken as sort of an option [career option]. . .as being taken just as an e l e c t i v e , but something you can do just for fun. And I don't mind that. I think i t s very important that we take i t just for fun, and perhaps you do i t as a hobby. But you can't neglect the most important person; the one who is taking i t seriously and wants to do i t as a professional. (9.1.84) Nelson Secondary had a strong vocational program that 96 prepared students d i r e c t l y for jobs. When I had decided to observe the grade eleven/twelve ceramic cl a s s , Peter took me for an impromptu tour of various departments within the school; auto repair, typing and business, welding, and media and a r t . These departments and programs made Nelson unique in the school d i s t r i c t , something that Peter emphasized to me during the tour. Peter looked upon the art program as just as useful or more so than a s t r i c t l y academic program. I think good art students have a better chance at getting jobs, to t e l l you the truth, right now, than serious academic students. My reasons for that are; there seems to be more jobs in the creative areas. There's more media jobs. There's more jobs that require taste and judgement than there are jobs that require you to know Canadian history or to have an academic background. ( 9 . 1 . 8 4 ) Peter not only believed that art programs in the school trained students for s p e c i f i c jobs, but he f e l t that the creative thinking process used in a r t i s t i c problem solving was a valuable a t t r i b u t e . That's where you're going to see more art - that's in the creative process and 97 creative thinking that's necessary to learn. I think y o u ' l l even see i t in the computer f i e l d . In computers you don't need programmers. They are a dime a dozen. You need the person who can think or see a problem or see something that we're going to need and create a concept which w i l l be programmable. (9.1.84) A r t i s t s ' Works Peter never d i r e c t l y lectured to students about a r t i s t s working in ceramics, past or present. Instead, he would bring up a type of glazing or style of pottery or method of throwing done by an a r t i s t i f a student commented or referred to a similar c h a r a c t e r i s t i c in his or her work. Peter would chat about the a r t i s t in a casual, off-hand manner. The information was often related in the form of an anecdote. Nancy came to class one day and asked Peter i f he had seen the t e l e v i s i o n program, "That's Incredible", aired the previous evening. There had been a potter who made teapots with his feet and toes. Peter compared this man with a Korean potter at the time of Ghenghis Khan with one arm and one eye who threw large pots, and also did some innovative f i r i n g . He did not mention the potter's name. 98 Generally, contemporary and h i s t o r i c a l information about a r t i s t s ' works was secondary to student work, and was brought to individual student attention only when that student made a comment or showed an interest in some p a r t i - cular process or s t y l e . Art at Home The artwork that Peter lik e d to do for himself at the time of the observation was painting and ceramics. Peter added that ceramics had been the most constant art a c t i v i t y in his adult l i f e . But the problem with i t . . .I'm at a point, at a very c r u c i a l sort of point that I've been staggering around for prob- ably four or f i v e years. I can't reach the l e v e l of accomplishment in ceramics that I want to on a part time basis. (9.1.84) As Peter led me about his home talking about his c o l l e c t i o n he remarked that he r e a l l y hadn't kept examples of ceramic pieces that he had made over the years u n t i l his wife urged him to do so. Peter admitted that for him the making of art was the most s a t i s f y i n g part of the a r t i s t i c process. Once something was made his interest in i t dimin- 99 ished. The artwork that Peter had in his home consisted of his own ceramics and paintings, some two dimensional l o c a l a r t i s t s ' works, some West Coast Indian p r i n t s , and a c o l l e c - tion of rare ceramic pieces. Every wall had a picture or pictures on i t . Pottery could be found on just about every piece of furniture, p a r t i c u l a r l y in the dining room where i t was crowded on the buffet. Peter estimated that he had about 300 paintings stored in the crawl space of his s p l i t l e v e l bungalow. However, i t was the ceramics which were the most v i s i b l e in Peter's home. Interpretations and Conclusions Peter Crowe used two d i f f e r e n t approaches when talking to students. To the class as a whole and to no one in p a r t i c u l a r , he usually spoke in a non-serious and joking manner. Occasionally, he addressed the class seriously, as he did during most of the glaze demonstration (14.10.83). To individual students who requested advice or asked questions, Peter would either respond in his joking manner or in a serious and quiet way. Whichever way Peter responded to individual pupils appeared to depend on the student. Those pupils who were very serious about their artwork or who were very quiet in c l a s s , i . e . , Sandy and 100 Pam, were spoken to quietly and seriously. Those pupils who demonstrated ta l k a t i v e and out-going behavior were usually teased and spoken to in loud enough tones for the entire class to hear. Few students would laugh outright at Peter's jokes, some ignored his chatter altogether, while others kept their reaction down to ey e - r o l l i n g and grinning. In general, the class reacted cautiously to Peter. Many times, i t seemed that Peter was the immature, fun-loving student and the grade elevens and twelves were the serious adults who tolerated this character in their midst. In the process of touring the artroom and chatting to students, which was Peter's main classroom a c t i v i t y , Peter would stop to look at what students were doing. Those students who were making simple things that did not require a great deal of thought or s k i l l were not told by Peter to abandon their work or redo i t . Instead, they were teased or were told a joke or anecdote. The same treatment was accorded to those who did no work or who worked on homework from another subject area. As a re s u l t , the quality of work that the ceramics class did varied enormously from simple, poorly done pieces to sophisticated sculpture and well- formed pottery made on the potter's wheel. By giving some pupils help and advice and disregarding the work of other pupils, Peter divided the students into two categories, a r t i s t s and non-artists. Peter had stated 101 in private that "the super student does l o t s " (14.10.83). If " l o t s " can be interpreted as high productivity and high q u a l i t y artwork, then the a r t i s t s in Peter's ceramic c l a s s , such as Pam and Brandon, c e r t a i n l y matched the description of "super student" and therefore, they had greater status than the non-artists. Peter's ceramics curriculum was based on a minimum course outline. Its requirements represented the minimum amount of work that students needed to do in order to pass. The ceramic pieces did not have to be done in any p a r t i c u l a r order nor were there any due dates for individual projects. This kind of curriculum structure promoted individual differences within the same class and i t encouraged the independent and self-motivated students, l i k e Pam, to follow their interests regardless of what other students were doing. There was a s i m i l a r i t y between the crowded and somewhat untidy arrangements of ceramics in Peter's artroom and in Peter's home. Once a ceramic piece had been made, Peter mentioned that he lost interest in i t . "The act is important in a r t . It's l i k e sex, i t ' s the act that's c r u c i a l , not the product" (9.1.84). This b e l i e f was consis- tent with the lack of attention that finished ceramics received at home and at school where there was no attempt to display or exhibit student work. What was inconsistent 102 about the art in Peter's home and the art that students saw in school was the fact that Peter's house was f u l l of drawings, p r i n t s , paintings and ceramics done by various a r t i s t s and yet there was no h i s t o r i c a l or appreciation component to the ceramics program in school. Peter Crowe practiced an individual approach when dealing with students. Peter's concern that the potential a r t i s t s be encouraged to produce was consistent with the attention he paid to promising students. However, because of t h i s , student a c t i v i t y varied greatly from doing l i t t l e work to doing as much work as time and money would permit. Some students responded to the ceramic course as a place to "goof-off" (12.2.83) while others saw i t as a place to pursue a serious interest in ceramics. Whatever the attitude and qu a l i t y of work no student was reprimanded and consequently, the environment in the artroom was very relaxed and usually cheerful. 105 CHAPTER VI MICHAEL LAURENCE - SUSSEX SECONDARY Introduction Although Michael Laurence was the oldest of the three art teachers, he had taught for almost the same length of time. This came about as a result of a career switch Michael had made from structural engineer to teacher. This chapter follows the same basic format as Chapters IV and V. Michael's background, the course structure and the two art rooms that were used are b r i e f l y described. More attention is given to the art program, to Michael's s t y l e of teaching and to his manner towards students. An account of the kind of art history that Michael presented to the grade nines, his b e l i e f s concerning the value of art in school and kind of artwork in his home precedes interpretations and conclus ions. Michael's Background Michael was born in the late 1920s in a small farming v i l l a g e (population about 10000 in England. His f i r s t 104 schooling took place in the small school which was situated in the "centuries old" (6.1.84) v i l l a g e square. Upon passing his Eleven Plus examinations, Michael went to gram- mar school. "The education we received there was r e a l l y very, very good basic education" (6.1.84). Michael described the kind of art he was exposed to in his early years. Question: (6.1.84) I would l i k e to find out the kind of art you would have seen as a boy in school? Michael: P r a c t i c a l l y nothing. Q: What about at home? Michael: P r a c t i c a l l y nothing. My parent were not. . .um. . . You would c a l l them not a r t i s t i c , not musical. . .But my father was an extraordinary gift e d craftsman in wood. He was always making furniture. And we never had the same furniture two months running because he'd make furniture and give i t away from the sheer pleasure of making i t . He would make very ornate, i n l a i d coffee tables, desks, chairs, chest of drawers. . .beautifully crafted. He did quite a b i t of restoration work on v i l l a g e churches, too (6.1.84). 105 At age 18, Michael's education was interrupted by the outbreak of World War I I . He enli s t e d in the B r i t i s h Infantry and began an eight month o f f i c e r t r a i n i n g program. The i n t e l l e c t u a l l e v e l was extremely tough, and the physical side was even tougher. . .People were weeded out pretty rapidly. . .We took in 120 o f f i c e r cadets each month to form a company, to function as infantry. . .Out of each company they reckoned to graduate no more than about 30. (6.1.84) After receiving his commission, Michael was sent to Ireland to do border p a t r o l . Soon a f t e r , Michael, now a second lieutenant with 500 men under his command, was ordered to North A f r i c a where he spent almost two years. Michael was next sent to I t a l y , f i r s t on a forced route march through S i c i l y , then as part of an assault force which landed at Salerno. After a b r i e f time there, Michael and another assault force were flown into Athens. Here Michael received a shrapnel would in his right hand which required surgery. Michael spent six months recuperating after which he was sent back to Greece, then again to I t a l y where "the Germans o f f i c i a l l y quit" (6.1.84), and on to Greece for eight months. It was while f i g h t i n g in Europe, p a r t i c u l a r l y in I t a l y , that Michael had the opportunity to view old churches. "And 106 you would get into some very small v i l l a g e s with incredibly beautiful churches" (6.1.84). At the end of the war Michael was 24 years old and anxious to go to university. "But I couldn't get into university. The university had been decimated" (6.1.84). Michael accepted a job with an engineering firm in West A f r i c a , and was able to earn a degree in str u c t u r a l engineering with the company. Eight years l a t e r , Michael and his wife decided to emigrate to Canada where Michael continued his engineering l i n e of work on the west coast and in a big c i t y in eastern Canada. He began to grow d i s s a t i s - f i e d with his job, and some years l a t e r he entered Southport University to complete a Bachelor of Education degree. Question: Why did you decide to get involved with art education? Michael: Well, fine arts have always been a big interest and with traveling around I was able to get into museums. Q: Do you think i t was your travels that got you int e r - ested? Michael: Oh, yes. And in the time that I was in England. . . because England had g a l l e r i e s a l l over the place. (6.1.84) 107 Later, while teaching f u l l time at Sussex, Michael attended an American university during summer months and winter evening sessions and earned a master's degree in art education. The Art Schedule at Sussex The majority of courses at Sussex were semestered. The day was divided into f i v e blocks with each block approxi- mately one hour long. The grade nine art class met every day in "B" block. The Artrooms Michael's art room handled many d i f f e r e n t kinds of art a c t i v i t y , except ceramics, which was carried on in a pottery studio two doors down the h a l l . There was access to a stor- age room at the front of the art room and a darkroom at the opposite end. Students worked on 2' X 3 ' laminated tables. The tables were rearranged to accommodate d i f f e r e n t a c t i v i - t i e s , but most of the time they were pushed together side by side in a square around the room so that students faced towards the centre. The art room was tidy and organized. In the front there was Michael's desk, cupboard space, a door to the 108 storage area, open shelving and a table with a cutting board on i t . On one side of the room, beneath a row of windows, were open shelves with some supplies. There were cupboards across the back of the room, with a long counter and a sink. A l l counters including the one with the sink were unclut- tered and clean. Students' art work was predominantly displayed on available wall space. Several commercially i l l u s t r a t e d posters on colour properties were attached to the b u l l e t i n board behind Michael's desk. The ceramics room contained eight narrow tables seating two to four students, two k i l n s , and four potter's wheels. Top and bottom cupboards along the front of the room held supplies, glaze ingredients and clay. A sink was situated on t h i s counter near the door. An old teacher's desk and a f i l i n g cabinet stood in the back corner. The f i l i n g cabinet contained tools and was kept locked. Low, open shelving ran under the windows. Hand drawn instructions on how to throw pots were displayed above the windows. Open shelving on the opposite wall near the k i l n s was used for storing and drying students' clay vases and figures. The room was neatly organized and clean. Michael's Art Program During the observation period, students were involved 109 in six projects and related a c t i v i t i e s . Since a l l students generally worked at the same time on the same project with similar d i r e c t i o n s , the art program i s described by project in chronological order. S i l k Screen Christmas Card This project was well under way when I began observing the class at the end of September. Many stages were involved in the making of the Christmas card; designing, simplifying, registering on the s i l k screen, and p r i n t i n g . Students started by selecting a drawing from a number of drawings they had done in their sketchbooks. The drawng had to be approved by Michael. Students worked in pairs for the p r i n t i n g . A p r i n t i n g station had been set up in the large h a l l outside the classroom. Michael was kept very busy checking drawings for approval, helping individuals register their p r i n t s , cutting eight 6" X 5 1/2" cards for students when they were ready to p r i n t , showing students how to handle the ink, and he always kept an eye on students who were p r i n t i n g . F e l t Pen Mask Drawings The grade nines saw two films, one on abstraction and 110 one on colour as an introduction to this assignment. Students were given 9" X 11 1/2" paper on which to draw an abstracted face. In marking these drawings Michael was looking for a recognizable, but d e f i n i t e l y abstracted face, interesting use of colour, and a relationship between "figure and ground" (13.10.83). On the chalkboard, Michael had printed some information on colour. COLOURS Complementary - opposites e.g. R & G , Y & P , O & B Analagous - beside e.g. G & B, P & R, R & 0, 0 & Y, G & Y, R, 0 & Y Monochromatic - one colour Triad - 3 colours Y R B, 0 G P Michael did not t e l l students exactly how they might achieve a stronger or more exciting drawing when they asked for advice, but he would probe them with questions about what they had learned about colour so sthat students could find their own solutions. However, when one g i r l asked i f she had to f i l l in her whole paper with a face, Michael's answer was a d e f i n i t e "Yes" (6.10.84). There was a comple- tion deadline for this project. I l l S t i l l L i f e Before students completed their mask drawings, Michael had set up in the middle of the room a s t i l l l i f e of various bot t l e s , dried plants, a stuffed b i r d . Students who had finished their mask drawings were given a sheet of 12" X 9" cartridge paper, a 4-B p e n c i l , and told to st a r t drawing from the s t i l l l i f e . Each student received similar d i r e c t i o n s , "Don't draw everything" (13.10.83). They were instructed to select a few objects only, and told to develop the drawing through shading. Marking was based on pri n c i p l e s of composition, and how successfully students developed tones as opposed to l i n e . Michael's comment to a boy who was working with l i n e was, "It's not only the way to draw, but that's what we're studying now" (14.10.83). Going from student to student giving advice and encouragement, Michael would remind students to look c a r e f u l l y . The students were mainly concerned with getting a likeness. Ceramic Vase The ceramic vase was planned by Michael but started by a student teacher in the pottery studio. In their sketch- books students had lined off sixteen rectangles, and were instructed to draw hald a vase changing the outline sequen- 112 t i a l l y . Students selected the shape they preferred, checked i t with the student teacher, and proceeded to build their vase to an approximate height of 9" with c o i l s of clay. Michael's comment on the preliminary vase drawing was that i t almost guaranteed students successful r e s u l t s . Without a plan to guide them "The clay pushes them around" (24.11.83). The building of the vase continued under Michael's d i r e c t i o n after the student teacher l e f t . Students selected their glaze colour from a group of glazes that Michael had mixed for them. Clay Figure Students who finished their vases went right into another clay project; the making of a small figure. Some had d i f f i c u l t y with creating correct proportions and getting the clay to sti c k together. Michael repeatedly advised individuals not to work this way. "They won't care them (clay figures) from one block of clay and, as a r e s u l t , the pieces won't stic k together. I've told them, but some of them l i k e Sara i n s i s t on doing i t in sections" (2.12.83). About a t h i r d of the class appeared to enjoy this project very much, as evidenced by the care and concentration they exhibited while modeling the clay. The making of the 113 figures was interrupted by students in order to glaze their vases. There was a deadline for the completion of the clay figures as there was for the other projects. Art Appreciation Michael showed the grade nines slides of h i s t o r i c a l and contemporary artwork (mainly drawings and paintings). He asked students questions so that they could ar r i v e at an understanding about the art work. Michael explained the h i s t o r i c a l context for the older works, and the symbolism for others. He had the class analyze the compositions according to the "rule of thirds" (8.12.83). He demon- strated how a r t i s t s can achieve special emphasis or meaning through the use of symbolism, colour, and composition. Michael had notes on the chalkboard which described a method for appreciating a r t . These are shown as Figure 6. Michael's Manner of Teaching Michael's relationship with students was reserved and business-like. Generally, when talking to the class as a whole or to individuals, Michael kept his comments to the subject or project at hand. Projects were explained b r i e f l y and to the point. The way in which Michael introduced the batik project i s an example. 114 Figure 6. Guidelines for examining a r t i s t s ' works Art Appreciation A. 3 Basic Functions of Art 1. S a t i s f i e s individual needs for expression . 2. S a t i s f i e s s o c i a l needs for display, celebration, communication 3. Enhances u t i l i t a r i a n objects B. Structure in ART WORKS 1. Elements of design present in the work 2. Why the elements are organized 3. Viewers contribution to the work C. ELEMENTS OF DESIGN 1. LINE 4. TEXTURE 2. SHAPE 5. COLOUR 3. FORM (space) 6. TONE D. PRINCIPLES OF DESIGN 1. BALANCE symmetrical/asymmetrical 2. UNITY 3. VARIETY 4. RHYTHM 5. MOVEMENT static/formal dynamic/informal 6. DOMINANCE & SUB-DOMINANCE 115 Figure 6. Cont. E. 3 BASIC PURPOSES OF ART 1. FORMALISM - deals with fundamental design for their own sake 2. EXPRESSIONISM - expresses personal ideas & reactions 3. INSTRUMENTALISM - attempts to persuade the viewer F. RULES OF COMPOSITION 1. Rule of 3rds 2. Space in front 3. Horizon G. PROCESS OF CRITICISM 1. Description 2. Analysis 3. Interpretation 4. Judgement description a) What do I see? b) What lines (shape, colours, etc.) has the a r t i s t used? analysis c) How is the work organized? d) What is happening in the work? interpretation e) How does the a r t i s t make me think? f) Does the a r t i s t succeed in communication the message? g) Does the work resemble any other I have h) Where did the a r t i s t find the idea presented? 116 The class had begun n o i s i l y . The grade nines were anxious to find out their marks for two previous projects; the s i l k screen Christmas card and the ceramic vase. Some of the g i r l s had exitedly crowded around Michael's desk requesting their marks. Michael took a few minutes to read off only those marks which were asked for. S a t i s f i e d and mostly pleased with their grades, the group of g i r l s went back to their places. Michael then asked the class i f everyone had completed their clay figure. He announced, "I w i l l f i r e i t after Christmas, and i f i t isn't there. . .?" and he shrugged his shoulders indicating i t was up to them to complete their project and hand i t in on time. The few students who hadn't finished were sent off to the ceramics room. Michael told the class they were f a l l i n g behind schedule in their t o t a l number of projects to be completed for th semester. He promptly announced their next project-- a batik. As Michael held up an example done by a former student, there were murmurs of approval from the c l a s s . Michael then proceeded to cut an 18" square piece of paper, held i t up, and explained that they should figure out their design on paper f i r s t . He cautioned the class that the f a b r i c that they would be using would have three raw edges which would have to be hemmed. "So allow a centimetre or so on each side." There were some mumblings of confusion. 117 Several boys protested that they didn't understand. Michael waited a minute or two for the class to s e t t l e , but did not elaborate. Mary spoke up loudly, but in her usual cheerful manner. "What i s the theme, or can we do anything we want?" Michael said simply, "Anything." "What are we doing?" protested Harry. Michael ignored this question, turned to go into the storeroom behind him and brought out a couple of batiks done by former students to show the cl a s s . He continued his explanation, "Obviously, you can't do d e t a i l s , l i k e teeth or f i n g e r n a i l s . You'll probably forget a l l t h i s so I ' l l explain i t again when you are ready to wax. Remember your rule of composition that we've been studying" (15.12.83). Michael reminded the class that the square paper was to be a master copy to be transferred to f a b r i c , and to allow for a hemmed edge. Once again, there was a swell of com- ments and questions from the c l a s s . Michael turned away and l e f t the room to go into the ceramics studio. Several g i r l s began drawing out ideas in their sketchbooks. The rest of the c l a s s , except for a few boys, began drawing d i r e c t l y on the sheet of square paper. Some of the boys continued to complain to their neighbours. Michael expected students to take directions and follow them up without h e s i t a t i o n . At the beginning of the batik 118 project, he did not repeat himself, and answered only Mary's question, which required a s p e c i f i c answer. It was important to Michael that the grade nines complete a l l their projects, preferably on schedule. There was l i t t l e time spent ingiving instructions or discussing students' work as a group. Michael's time in class was spent mostly in helping individuals and organizing materials. Students who asked Michael for an opinion or advice on their art work were frequently answered with questions which would lead them to analyze their own work, and come up with their own solutions. Michael preferred this approach. "It's easy to t e l l them the answer" (13.10.83). He encouraged students to think independently about their work. During the process of selecting a suitable drawing for s i l k screening, Deborah showed Michael her drawings, and asked him which one was best. Michael asked her to pick out the best. She pointed to one drawing. Michael asked her i f i t was balanced s a t i s f a c t o r i l y . Deborah wasn't able to answer and she couldn't remember a previous discussion on symmetry and asymmetry. Michael told her to go and check her notes. Deborah went back to her desk, searched through her sketchbook, and came back to Michael saying that she couln't find her notes. Michael asked her again how the drawing was balanced. This time Deborah was able to explain 119 in her own words, which s a t i s f i e d Michael (30.9.83). Sometimes the only class-directed instructions were for clean up procedures. The s i l k screens were p a r t i c u l a r l y d i f f i c u l t to clean. Solvent had to be applied to the screen and rubbed vigorously to get a l l the ink o f f . Michael had to speak firmly to the class on several occasions to do a better job. At the end of one messy s i l k screening session, Michael threatened, "We'll have to do a better job of clean- ing up tommorrow or we stop!" (6.10.83). The next day's class began with a b r i e f lecture on cleaning up. Two and a half weeks l a t e r when the s i l k screening had resumed, Michael caught Dennis pouring solvent mixed with s i l k screen ink down the sink. Michael rebuked Dennis sharply, told him to quit s i l k screening, and to go and s i t down. Dennis glumly obeyed. Michael's sense of humour surfaced occasionally when he talked to students i n d i v i d u a l l y . One day Mary was having problems trying to make hair on her clay figure. She complained, "Mr. Laurence, how do you do hair?" Michael patted his p a r t i a l l y bald head, smiled and quietly r e p l i e d , "If I knew, I would have some" (2.12.83). The students who were close enough to hear Michael's reply hesitated momentarily, then roared with laughter. Meanwhile, Michael went back to dipping the bottom of the grade nine vases in hot wax as i f nothing out of the ordin- 120 ary had occurred. Michael expected the i n i t i a t i v e to learn to come from the students, and expressed his disapproval of those who did not cooperate by ignoring them. The art appreciation project involved a l o t of talking about a r t i s t s ' works with the c l a s s . Michael would ask questions about an art work that was being shown on a s l i d e , leading students to analyze the sugject and composition. When he showed a painting of the Last Supper Michael asked, "What's d i f f e r e n t about Christ?" (8.12.83). After several incorrect answers, Michael told the class that Christ's body i s transparent. Michael then asked why and a student immediately r e p l i e d , "He (Christ) i s a s p i r i t " (8.12.83). The class was encour- aged to make guesses when they were stumped, but i t was mainly to a large group of responsive g i r l s that Michael directed his questioning. When Michael discussed the artwork that the class was viewing on s l i d e s , he stood at the front of the room, near the screen with pointer in hand. However, he was positioned in such a way that he faced the g i r l s to his l e f t and angled his back towards four boys who sat on the counter ledge to his extreme r i g h t . The boys were chatting and making inap- propriate remarks now and then. Michael's disapproval of their lack of seriousness was expressed by turning away from them and paying l i t t l e or no attention to their remarks. 121 Art in the School Michael's art program included a variety or projects in which students experienced d i f f e r e n t techniques and materials. However, no matter what the grade nines did, craftmanship was regarded by Michael as one of the most important q u a l i t i t e s for a l l completed work. "I enjoy seeing anything that's well done" (6.1.84). Each project had s p e c i f i c instructions that, i f followed d i l i g e n t l y , could almost guarantee students a reasonably well-crafted product. The two projects which took the longest period of time to complete--the ceramic vase and the s i l k screen Christmas card--were te c h n i c a l l y complex. Successful comp- le t i o n required special attention to craftsmanship. The method by which students were instructed to build their clay vases was an example of Michael's e f f o r t s to have students complete well-crafted art work. Before students handled any clay, they had to draw a series of vase outlines and select one shape to be the blueprint for their f i n a l product. The vases were b u i l t with c o i l s to a s p e c i f i c height, and students were reminded to check back to their o r i g i n a l outline throughout the building process. Out of a l l the vases made by the cl a s s , only one vase, made by Dennis, was poorly constructed. Michael quietly showed i t to me in class and shook his head in disgust, for he had 122 r e p e a t e d l y t r i e d t o g e t D e n n i s t o work more c a r e f u l l y . A l l t h e o t h e r v a s e s were w e l l made, and some were e x a c t d u p l i c a t e s o f t h e o r i g i n a l d r a w i n g . The p r i n t i n g o f t h e C h r i s t m a s s c a r d s r e q u i r e d c a r e f u l a t t e n t i o n t o r e g i s t r a t i o n . Some s t u d e n t s had t o p r i n t as many as f i v e o r s i x c o l o u r s . In o r d e r t o t u r n o u t r e a s o n - a b l y a c c u r a t e p r i n t s , t h e g r a d e n i n e s had t o l i s t e n a t t e n t i v e l y and work c a r e f u l l y , w h i c h e v e r y o n e managed t o do e x c e p t D e n n i s . The s i l k s c r e e n p r o j e c t l i k e , t h e m aking o f t h e c e r a m i c v a s e , had t o be done p r e c i s e l y i n o r d e r t o be s u c c e s s f u l . B e s i d e s d e v e l o p i n g c r a f t m a n s h i p , M i c h a e l v a l u e d t h e a b i l i t y t o r e c o g n i z e and know s o m e t h i n g a b o u t a r t work done by a r t i s t s o f t h e p a s t and p r e s e n t . How t o a p p r e c i a t e a r t was a m a j o r g o a l i n t h e a r t p r o g r a m . The a r t a p p r e c i a t i o n segment i n v o l v e d t h e most c o m m u n i c a t i o n between t e a c h e r and s t u d e n t s . I t was s e t up as a s t r u c t u r e d l e s s o n , and i t r e q u i r e d s t u d e n t s t o r e s e a r c h a p a r t i c u l a r a r t work and s u b m i t an e s s a y f o r marks. T e a c h i n g a b o u t a r t i s t s ' works was not an e a s y t a s k . I f D i a n e r e p r e s e n t e d t h e g e n e r a l f e e l i n g o f t h e c l a s s , t h e g r a d e n i n e s p r e f e r r e d making a r t t o l e a r n i n g a b o u t a r t . D i a n e was a q u i e t , i n d u s t r i o u s w o r k e r , who e n j o y e d a r t i n s c h o o l . In r e p l y t o my q u e s t i o n as t o what a r t a c t i v i t y she d i s l i k e d t h e most she a n s w e r e d , " T e s t s , and h a v i n g t o l e a r n 123 about. . .Well, a c t u a l l y , the essay I didn't l i k e at f i r s t . Trying to figure out painting. . .Maybe, I don't l i k e having to have to know what paintings are about" (14.12.83). Michael structured many hours of classroom time for discus- sion of a r t i s t s ' works. Given the fact that students preferred making art , one might conclude that i t would have been tempting to omit or l i m i t the amount of time for art appreciation. Michael, however, chose to persevere and con- sequently the class was exposed to a variety of a r t i s t i c works. A r t i s t s ' Works Michael did not refer to a r t i s t s ' works when the grade nines were working on their projects. He treated the art appreciation aspect of his program as a formal and separate unit and set aside a s p e c i f i c time for viewing s l i d e s of a r t i s t s ' works. Michael would explain h i s t o r i c a l facts or give background information so that students could see the work in h i s t o r i c a l context. He would also ask students leading questions so that they would go through the process of describing and analyzing. As various art works were shown to the c l a s s , Michael did not always mention the name of the art work or the a r t i s t . The emphasis was on the process of appreciation rather than the a b i l i t y to memorize 124 and r e c a l l . Michael's approach to the painting, The Peaceable Kingdom demonstrated how he lik e d to lead the class step by step to an understanding of an art work. Michael's f i r s t question was, "What's the theme?" The class had a problem understanding the a r t i s t ' s meassage and began taking guesses. Michael responded by shaking his head. F i n a l l y , Mary queried, "There's a story being told?" Michael nodded, "What story?" "We should a l l get along," suggested Harold. Michael nodded and continued, "Where does the idea come from?" "The Bible!" shouted several students (9.12.83). Michael explained to the class that the a r t i s t was strongly committed to the idea of peace. Not only did he paint many paintings on the same theme, but he traveled around the United States promoting peace. H i s t o r i c a l and two dimensional works of art pre- dominated in the art appreciation segment. One painting which Michael spent some time explaining the background was David's Oath of the H o r a t i i . Michael instructed the class to notice how c a r e f u l l y everything was painted, from the figures' muscles to their clothing. "However, does i t seem l i k e a real situation?" Mumblings of No from the c l a s s . Michael resumed, "It's b e a u t i f u l l y painted but lacking 125 f e e l i n g . " He went on to explain that at the time this work was executed, the French Academy dictated how painting should be done. Since a r t i s t s had to mix their paints from powders, painting on the spot was very d i f f i c u l t . Shortly after this painting was completed, tube painting was invented and a number of a r t i s t s rebelled against the Academy's standards. The grade nines remained almost motionless throughout the entire explanation. They were fascinated. Art at Home The art work that Michael had gathered over the years was a combination of his own and an e c l e c t i c mix of European and African artwork spanning four centuries. There was also some work given to him by friends, such as a large batik that hung over the front entrance h a l l . Michael's own work was diverse, ranging from large a c r y l i c paintings, photographs, soapstone carvings, to a quilted bedspread. Every room in Michael's home displayed a variety of art work. The art work in Michael's livingroom was an example of how varied his entire c o l l e c t i o n was. Some of the pieces were a 16th century Spanish music score on parchment which Michael had had restored and framed, a Nigerian wood 126 carving, a 16th century Spanish pocket watch, an I t a l i a n ceramic cardinal, and a reproduction of an old Moorish lamp. Most of these pieces were collected from the many countries that Michael and his wife had li v e d in or had v i s i t e d . Michael's own work included two large a c r y l i c paintings, and a number of soapstone carvings. Michael was proud of his c o l l e c t i o n , and pleased to talk about any of the pieces. As he showed me around, he was able to talk about every item, and i f i t was old, he was able to place i t in h i s t o r i c a l context. Michael could t e l l me where i t came from, what i t was used f o r , what i t may have symbolized, and he could explain s t y l i s t i c character- i s t i c s . The music score, for example, was a working copy, written and used by 16th century Spanish monks. Because i t was a working copy, the beginning l e t t e r wasn't as ornately embellished as was the custom at the time. He also explained the q u a l i t i t e s of parchment and the remarkable d u r a b i l i t y that parchment had shown over time. It was apparent that Michael enjoyed his art c o l l e c t i o n and took pleasure in showing and explaining i t to others. Interpretations and Conclusions Michael's manner of speaking to the class was very business-like in two ways; he spoke calmly, seldom r a i s i n g 127 his voice and he was very d i r e c t and to the point. This combination made Michael appear to be reserved and e f f i c i e n t . However, when Michael spoke to individual students, his demeanour was more relaxed and f r i e n d l y . The only exception to this occurred when Michael admonished a student. When explaining an assignment, Michael seldom repeated himself. If students didn't l i s t e n , they would have d i f f i c u l t y understanding what to do. Sometimes Michael gave directions too rapidly. For example, the batik project was one assignment that appeared to confuse the boys. They did not f u l l y understand what was involved and were unable to s e t t l e down and begin a rough drawing, hence they began to complain and "act-up". Because Michael talked to students more frequently on an individual basis than to the entire c l a s s , he did create opportunities for himself and his students to communicate on a more personal l e v e l . Talking to individual students produced greater student involvement and co-operation than talking to the entire c l a s s , p a r t i c u l a r l y for the boys. Most of Michael's time in the artroom was spent organizing supplies and materials and helping individual students. As a result of Michael's organization, the artroom was always clean and t i d y , supplies and materials were readily accessible (always put in the same place) and each student was able to successfully complete a complicated 128 technical project such as the s i l k screen Christmas card within a set period of time. When students asked Michael for advice, he usually gave serious attention to the question and he was able to help. He often referred to a portion of the elements and p r i n c i p l e s of design that might help a student look at his or her work to analyze i t and improve i t . For the abstract mask drawings, Michael helped students by reminding them how they might use certain colours to create a mood or fee l i n g that corresponded to the type of mask that they had drawn (13.10.83). Michael's organization and his talking to individual students resulted in the fact that most students cheerfully cooperated in doing artwork, some of i t tec h n i c a l l y d i f f i c u l t , which tended to look a l i k e , but which s a t i s f i e d Michael's objectives for that project. In order for students to do well in a r t , i t was essential for them to pay attention to Michael's instructions. The underlying message implied by Michael was that students need to l i s t e n c a r e f u l l y and obey in order to succeed in the art program. The way in which Michael taught the art appreciation section of the art program conveyed a similar underlying message; learning to appreciate art requires patience and good l i s t e n i n g s k i l l s . However, i t was the g i r l s in the grade nine art class who were most w i l - l i n g to follow directions and i t was the boys who were 129 reluctant to l i s t e n and obey. There were two notable features to Michael's art program. F i r s t of a l l , the entire art program was struc- tured so that student work had predictable outcomes. The c o i l vase is a good example. Students who followed Michael's requirements for a nine inch high by f i v e inch wide vase with a smooth texture and a pre-determined shape, produced vases with many similar features. The second notable feature of the art program was the wide variety of projects, i . e . , printmaking, drawing, claywork (pottery and sculpture) and batik. Michael's art program could be described as one that required an extensive range of technical s k i l l s and materials, but which, because of the limi t a t i o n s Michael imposed, tended to encourage students to produce similar looking artwork. Michael's artroom was l i k e his home, clean, tidy and f u l l of artwork. However, the artroom was c h i e f l y decorated with student work while Michael's home was mainly adorned with other a r t i s t s ' works. Michael's art c o l l e c t i o n had a wider ethnic representation than the artwork (slides) that he showed the grade nines. The class was required to view art history s l i d e s , to research an art history topic and to follow up with an essay, a l l of which indicated that Michael put into practice his primary objective in teaching art; "to get kids to have some understanding of art" (6.1.84). 130 Michael Laurence concentrated on two areas i n h i s a r t program, the making of a r t and the understanding of a r t . The making of a r t took more time d u r i n g the semester and in v o l v e d more communication between teacher and i n d i v i d u a l students than between teacher and the c l a s s . The under- standing of a r t took l e s s time and i n v o l v e d more classroom i n s t r u c t i o n (communication between teacher and the e n t i r e c l a s s ) . I f Diane r e f l e c t e d the f e e l i n g s of her f e l l o w classmates, "I don't l i k e having to have to know what p a i n t i n g s are about" (14.12.83) then the students p r e f e r r e d the making of a r t . They responded more f a v o u r a b l y to that p a r t of the a r t program that i n v o l v e d the making of a r t and a one-to-one communication between teacher and student. 131 CHAPTER VII ANALYZING THE DATA Introduct ion An account of what teachers say and do provides an informative and detailed picture of teachers' classroom behavior. However, to determine teachers' values and orientations to curriculum, i t is necessary to do an ethnographic analysis. "It [analysis] refers to the systematic examination of something to determine i t s parts, the relationship to the whole" (Spradley, 1980, p. 85). It is the purpose of t h i s chapter to examine the f i e l d notes by using Spradley's Developmental Research Sequence (1980). The teachers' orientations are then related to Eisner's (1979) teaching orientations to curriculum. Ethnographic Analysis Spradley's entire Developmental Research Sequence consists of twelve steps, but three a n a l y t i c a l steps are p a r t i c u l a r l y relevant to t h i s part of the study; making a domain analysis, making a taxonomic analysis and making a 132 componential analysis. These steps are used as models to analyze the data from the f i e l d notes on the three art teachers. Domain Analysis The f i r s t step in an ethnographic analysis i s the domain analysis. "Cutural domains are categories of meaning" (Spradley, 1980, p. 88), and they i s o l a t e and id e n t i f y names for things. In this study, the focus of attention i s the behavior of the art teachers, and as the f i e l d notes suggest, art teachers can be described in several d i f f e r e n t ways. Figure 7 shows how certain features or e n t i t i e s in a s i t u a t i o n may be related or drawn together to form an a n a l y t i c a l domain. Figure 7. Ana l y t i c a l domain Art Teacher .. . i s a kind of A A sports coach, undercover agent, m i l i t a r y o f f i c e r Spradley has developed this model to account for semantic relationships discovered in f i e l d notes. These semantic 133 relationships are based on a "number of important i n v e s t i - agations into the u n i v e r s a l i t y of such relationships" (Spradley, 1980, p. 93). This model is developed as Figure 8 . Each semantic relationship can be developed into a Domain Analysis Worksheet (see Figure 9). Such a worksheet "helps to v i s u a l i z e the structure of each domain; cover term, included terms, semantic relationships" (Spradley, 1980, p. 93). The completed worksheets are a means to keep a l l the discovered information in front of the investigator during the interpretive phase of the study. The number of semantic relationships uncovered in an ethnographic study can be almost endless. It is necessary, therefore, to seek out only those relationships which pertain d i r e c t l y to the research problem. Figure 10 i s a domain l i s t of the semantic relationships relevant to this study. Domain analysis helps the researcher to c l a r i f y as semantic relationships data from f i e l d notes that might otherwise be d i f f i c u l t to untangle. In th i s study "X i s a kind of Y" and "X i s a way to Y" enabled the researcher to develop a comprehensive l i s t of useful behaviors that describe the teaching act and the values in which these acts are embedded. 134 Figure 8. Semantic relationships for art teachers RELATIONSHIP FORM EXAMPLE 1. Strict Inclusion X is a kind of Y Teaching art (is a kind of) opportunity for art teachers to demonstrate values. 2. Spatial 3. Cause-effect X is a place in Y X is result of Y The art room (is a place in) the high school. Producing artwork (is a result of) art teachers giving students directions. 4. Rationale X is a reason for doing Y Reinforcing values (is a reason for) marking artwork. 5. Location-for- action 6. Function 7. Means-end X is a place for doing Y X is used for Y X is a way to do Y The artroom (is a place for doing) artwork. Teaching art (is used for) earning a living. Teachers demonstrating a technique (is a way to do) artwork. 8. Sequence X is a step (stage) in Y Talking to students (is a step in) getting students to complete their artwork. 9. Attribution X is an attribution (characteristic) of Y Helping students (is an attribute) of art teachers. 135 Figure 9. Domain analysis worksheet Included Terms Semantic Relationship Cover Term clay pot clay sculpture running shoe drawing tone drawing creative l i n e drawing paper masks s i l k screen Christmas card f e l t pen mask drawings s t i l l l i f e drawing ceramic vase batik > is a kind of artwork hard working cheerful clean creative independent i n t e l l e c t u a l obed ient respons i b l e > is a kind of ->• instrumental value 136 Figure 10, Domain l i s t X i s a kind of Y kinds of art teachers kinds of teaching kinds of things art teachers do in the classroom kinds of art projects kinds of art rooms kinds of values exhibited by art teachers kinds of teacher's backgrounds kinds of teacher's education X is a way to Y ways to teach an art lesson ways to talk to students ways to answer questions ways to organize an artroom ways to get students to clean-up X is a stage in Y stages in an art period X i s a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of Y ch a r a c t e r i s t i c s of art teachers X i s a reason for Y reasons for teaching art 137 Taxonomic Analysis The next a n a l y t i c a l step in the Development Research Sequence is taxonomic analysis. A taxonomic analysis takes the material in the domain analysis one stage further, reducing i t to subsets. The aim of taxonomic analysis is to have as complete a picture as possible of the elements that make up a domain. A taxonomy of kinds of things teachers do in the classroom, as evidenced in the f i e l d notes for this study, appears as Figure 11. Figure 11. Taxonomy of the kinds of things that art teachers do in the classroom A. Talk to class 1. Instruct/explain art project/assignment 2. Admonish 3. Praise 4. Announce clean-up 5. Critique artwork 6. Assign homework B. Talk to individual students 1. Answer questions 2. Give advice 3. Chat a) t e l l anecdotes b) tease c) make jokes 4. Admonish 5. Praise C. Do demonstrations 1. Throw a pot 2. Show a drawing technique D. Non-verbal a c t i v i t y 1. Mark artwork 2. Organize supplies, equipment 3. Tour artroom 138 Componential Analysis The l a s t a n a l y t i c a l step in the Developmental Research Sequence i s to organize and show the contrasts that the researcher can find in the ethnographic study. "A componential analysis includes the entire process of searching for contrasts, sorting them out, grouping some together as dimensions of contrast, and entering a l l this information onto a paradigm" (Spradley, 1980, p. 133). Instead of looking for s i m i l a r i t i e s in each domain, the componential analysis seeks to find d i s s i m i l a r i t i e s that exist among the terms l i s t e d in each domain. The search for contrasts i s a v i t a l stage in this study for i t brings to attention the d i f f e r e n t values and school orientations that the art teachers might exhibit. For example, in "Kinds of Things That Art Teachers Do In the Classroom", a contrast question might be: What is the difference between explaining and informing? A review of the f i e l d notes indicates that art teachers have a sort of sty l e of teaching that r e f l e c t s their value system and their orientations to curriculum. Style of teaching may also r e f l e c t the kind of education and/or teacher tr a i n i n g that art teachers experienced. Figure 12 is a componential analysis description developed from "The Kinds Of Things That Art Teachers Do In 139 Figure 12. Description for kinds of things that art teachers do in the classroom KINDS OF ACTIVITIES Fred Peter Michael Talks to class as a group Talks to individuals Admonishes Praises Chats Does demonstrations Tours artroom Marks artwork Critiques artwork frequently frequently sometimes sometimes sometimes frequently frequently sometimes frequently, with class and with individuals sometimes frequently seldom sometimes, by teasing frequently frequently; throws pots on the wheel most of the time never sometimes, with individuals frequently sometimes sometimes sometimes seldom seldom frequently never sometimes, with individuals and frequently with class for art history Organizes supplies, etc. sometimes seldom frequently 140 The Classroom". It shows where differences occur among the three art teachers. The information i s based on observing the teachers ( F a l l , 1983) and writing down f i e l d notes during and after the observation period. Contrasts and S i m i l a r i t i e s of the Three Art Teachers To complete the a n a l y t i c a l steps of the Developmental Research Sequence, i t i s necessary to work from the figures which i l l u s t r a t e domains, semantic relationships and areas of contrast and put together a h o l i s t i c statement. With the help of the ethnographic analysis, an account can be made of how each of the teacher's orientations to curriculum, values and styles of teaching are interelated. Each teacher stated very d i f f e r e n t objectives (beliefs) about teaching a r t , and this i s refl e c t e d by the values, orientations to schooling and styles of teaching that they exhibited. Each teacher placed emphasis on certain instrumental values (ways of conduct) that matched or did not match their stated teaching objectives. Fred Williams said that his goal as an art teacher was to teach a student "how to be a creative problem solver" (19.1.84). Three of the four art projects that were observed involved creative thinking. The running shoe drawing had to be coloured using as many d i f f - erent and inventive techniques as possible. Students were 141 told to select an object in the room and transform i t into something else in a pencil drawing. Fred reminded the c l a s s , "Let's be inventive. Don't just do the f i r s t thing that pops into your mind" (13.10.83). For the paper mask project, the grade eights were instructed to create unique and experimental ways to obtain volume. High marks and praise were given to those students who produced work that embodied those instructions. Since problem solving centered around the vis u a l a r t s , Fred Williams' objective requires the addition of a modifier; teaching students how to be creative, v i s u a l problem solvers. Peter Crowe talked about two related goals for his ceramic students. He stated that doing ceramics could lead to a s a t i s f y i n g and pleasurable hobby for many and an occu- pation for a few. "I think i t s very important that we take i t (ceramics) for fun, and perhaps you do i t as a hobby. But you can't neglect the most important person; the one who is taking i t seriously and wants to do i t as a profession" (9.1.84). There was a determined e f f o r t by Peter to make ceramics an enjoyable experience. He created a f r i e n d l y environment by joking and teasing students, and by not condemning or reprimanding those students who either did not work with clay or whose work was poorly done. Always cheer- f u l , Peter created a non-threatening atmosphere in the ceramics room. In t h i s atmosphere, students l i k e Brandon (a 142 drop-out from another school) began to work independently at producing more and better pottery on the potter's wheel. Peter Crowe's objectives might be restated as; teaching students to associate working with clay as an enjoyable experience with the hope that one or a few students might independently develop into potters and sculptors. "To get kids to have some understanding of art; to absorb and be aware of the aesthetics around them " (6.1.84), was Michaels Laurence's objective as an art teacher. The instrumental values exhibited by Michael when teaching did not relate d i r e c t l y to the objective. Unless learning about art history and doing art projects can be defined as d i f f i c u l t tasks, one could say that hard working and obedient are ways of conduct to achieve the goal. Michael's art projects such as the silk-screen Christmas card, the clay vase and the batik had complex, step-by-step ins t r u c t i o n s . Success depended on students l i s t e n i n g c a r e f u l l y , following directions exactly and working hard and quickly to f i n i s h the project s a t i s f a c t o r i l y and on time. Given predominantly moral-focused values; hard work and obedience, Michael Laurence's objectives can be restated as; teaching students to work hard and to be obedient while taking art in order to achieve some understanding of art and to appreciate the beauty of art in the world around them. 143 Figure 13. Association between teacher's b e l i e f s and instrumental values B e l i e f s of Teachers Instrumental Values (Objectives for Teaching Art) (Ways of Conduct) Fred Williams: Teaching students Creative, I n t e l l e c t u a l to be creative problem solvers Peter Crowe: Teaching students Cheerful, Independent to enjoy ceramics and providing opportunities for some to develop into professionals Michael Laurence: Teaching students Obedient, Hard-working to understand art and to appreciate the beauty of art around them Art Teacher's Orientations and Eisner's Curriculum Orientation Categorizing each of the teachers' orientations to curriculum (Eisner, 1979) was based on what the teachers said to the students, how they structured their art lessons, what they said in interviews and the kind of instrumental and terminal values that became apparent during the observation period. As with their b e l i e f s about objectives for teaching a r t , each teacher's orientation to curriculum was very d i f f e r e n t . Michael Laurence's orientation to schooling was similar to i n d u s t r i a l management technique, i . e . standardization and 144 e f f i c i e n c y , with a means-end objective. The means-end objective (terminal value) for Michael was to make students appreciate the beauty of art in the world around them. Standardization; each student was required to follow the same procedures and techniques to complete their artwork, resulting in much of the finished artwork, looking a l i k e . E f f i c i e n c y ; Michael's instructions to students were concise and kept short, i . e . , directions were given for making the batik, student grades were entered onto a computer, and artwork, supplies and equipment were always returned to their designated places. Curriculum as technology very accurately describes Michael Laurence's orientation to curriculum. Fred Williams believed that art education should help students become creative problem solvers. For this to happen, teachers need to be doing two things; teaching students how to learn and providing opportunities for them to practice i n t e l l e c t u a l a c t i v i t i e s . The grade eights met once a week for 40 minutes in a regular classroom s o l e l y for the purpose of thinking and talking about a r t . "If we analyze art work, i t can help us understand what we see" (14.11.83). In almost every studio session, Fred reminded the class about the importance of thinking before doing. For example, "Today, think about what's going to be in that back (negative) space" (15.11.83). Fred asked for problem 145 solving that c a l l e d for the practice of transferring one concept to another, i . e . , a visual concept into a verbal concept and vice-versa. This orientation to schooling c l o s e l y resembles Eisner's development of cognitive processes. Peter Crowe described his role as a rancher "who t r i e d to round up the strays" (30.9.83) as important. Attention to the individual was something that Peter attended to in his grade eleven/twelve ceramics course. Since the students had been given a course outline to follow, Peter seldom gave instructions to the cl a s s . Peter never sat down at the teacher's desk. Instead, he roamed the ceramics room teasing and chatting with students and looking for those who needed help. He encouraged students to follow their i n t e r e s t s . Pam did mainly sculpture and Brandon mostly made pots on the wheel. Pam was one of the students who was very serious about her artwork and accordingly, she was one of the few that Peter did not tease. The concept of the importance of the individual and the d i f f e r e n t treatment accorded to various students i s an orientation to curriculum Eisner refers to as personal relevance. Each of the three teachers had a d i s t i n c t style of teaching. The manner in which they spoke to students, and the way in which they organized and structured curriculum revealed c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s associated with other jobs besides 146 Figure 14. Association between teacher's orientation to curriculum, instrumental values and terminal values Teachers Orientation To Curriculum Instrumental Values (ways of conduct) Terminal Values (means-end) Fred Williams: Development of cognitive processes Peter Crowe: Personal relevance Michael Laurence: Curriculum as technology Creative, I n t e l l e c t u a l Wisdom Independent, Cheerful Obedient, Hard-working A sense of accomplish- ment, pleasure A world of beauty teaching. Taken from the a n a l y t i c a l domain that an art teacher " i s a kind of", Fred Williams is a kind of sports coach, Peter Crowe i s a kind of undercover agent and Michael Laurence i s a kind of m i l i t a r y o f f i c e r . Fred Williams behaved in many ways l i k e a coach of a sports team. Students were regularly cal l e d by Fred to gather around him for demonstrations, reviews and c r i t i q u e s (the huddle). When he held progress reveiws, c r i t i q u e s and demonstrations, such as the paper mask review (13.12.83) Fred r a l l i e d his students, exhorting them to the challenge of creative thinking (time-out pep talk.) Fred frequently referred to student artwork as "our drawings" and to students as "us" (27.9.83) d i s c l o s i n g a team-minded 147 a t t i t u d e . When a r t p r o j e c t s s u c h as t h e r u n n i n g shoe d r a w i n g were c o m p l e t e d (13.10.83), F r e d p r a i s e d t h e g r a d e e i g h t s and s u g g e s t e d ways i n w h i c h t h e y c o u l d improve upon t h e i r work (post-game a n a l y s i s ) . F r e d ' s v o i c e , w h i c h was b r i s k and l o u d , added t o t h e image o f an e n t h u s i a s t i c , t e a m - s p i r i t e d s p o r t s c o a c h . P e t e r Crowe d i d n o t behave i n t h e manner o f a t r a d i t i o n a l t e a c h e r where t h e t e a c h e r f u n c t i o n s as t h e a u t h o r i t y f i g u r e i n t h e c l a s s r o o m . He d i d n o t admonish or p u n i s h s t u d e n t s f o r n o t w o r k i n g . He c h a t t e d , t e a s e d and j o k e d w i t h s t u d e n t s as i f he were one o f them. He s e l d o m i n s t r u c t e d t h e c l a s s as a g r o u p ( c e r a m i c p r o j e c t s were g i v e n i n p r i n t e d form) and he s e l d o m gave d i r e c t o r d e r s . "Time t o c l e a n - u p , you t e r r i b l e p e o p l e " (5.11.83) was one o f t h e few k i n d s o f d i r e c t i v e s P e t e r gave t o t h e c l a s s and even t h e n i t was s o f t e n e d t h r o u g h t h e use o f humour. P e t e r a l s o a l t e r e d h i s b e h a v i o r a c c o r d i n g t o t h e s t u d e n t he was d e a l i n g w i t h . He t e a s e d B r a n d o n b u t gave s e r i o u s a d v i c e t o Pam. B e n e a t h P e t e r ' s c a s u a l manner, he was on t h e l o o k o u t f o r p o t e n t i a l " p r o f e s s i o n a l s " (9.1.84). D u r i n g t h e o b s e r v a t i o n p e r i o d , P e t e r n o t e d t h a t he hoped Brandon m i g h t d e v e l o p i n t o a p o t t e r and e n c o u r a g e d him t o p r o d u c e by p r o v i d i n g B r andon w i t h f r e e c l a y and p e r m i t t i n g him t o use t h e p o t t e r ' s wheel f o r most o f h i s p r o j e c t s . B e h a v i n g as i f he were n o t a t e a c h e r b u t s e a r c h i n g and h e l p i n g t a l e n t e d s t u d e n t s w i t h o u t 148 appearing concerned or interested are c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s that helped to i d e n t i f y Peter Crowe as a kind of undercover agent. In many ways Michael Laurence resembled a m i l i t a r y o f f - icer and the art program was run somewhat l i k e a m i l i t a r y operation. Michael organized the art program to follow a schedule with time l i m i t a t i o n s for each project. The expla- nation of the batik project began with a reminder to stud- ents that they were running out of time (15.12.83). The artroom was always kept clean and tidy with a l l items put back in the same place. Also, classroom a c t i v i t i e s were run e f f i c i e n t l y . Instructions were kept concise and to the point, marks were kept on the computer and supplies and equipment were organized ahead of time so that students were able to move from one a c t i v i t y to another without wasting time. The l a t t e r operation was p a r t i c u l a r l y evident during the s i l k screening project. Michael's relationship with his students was much l i k e an o f f i c e r with his cadets. Michael was reserved and straight to the point when talking to the c l a s s . He expected the class to obey even when the f i n a l outcome of the project was not clear to many students, as in the case of the batik explanation (15.12.83). The treatment of students and the organization of the art program revealed that Michael Laurence functioned in his role of teacher much l i k e a m i l i t a r y o f f i c e r in charge of training a unit of 149 cadets. Summary Through the three ethnographic forms of domain, taxonomic and componential analysis, the f i e l d notes were searched for values and b e l i e f s , orientation to curriculum and styles of teaching. Fred Williams promoted c r e a t i v i t y and i n t e l l e c t u a l i s m . Peter Crowe encouraged cheerfulness and independence and Michael Laurence emphasized obedience and hard work. Fred Williams' orientation to curriculum was similar to Eisner's development of cognitive processes. Peter Crowe's orientation resembled the personal relevance approach and Michael Laurence's orientation was organized along the l i n e s of curriculum as technology. And f i n a l l y , each teacher exhibited certain attributes which resembled other types of jobs. Fred Williams was l i k e a team sports coach. Peter Crowe acted as i f he were an undercover agent, and Michael Laurence behaved l i k e a m i l i t a r y o f f i c e r . In a l l three areas of analysis, no two teachers were a l i k e . 150: CHAPTER VIII SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS Summary of the Study The study was conducted (1) to i d e n t i f y and examine b e l i e f s and values that art teachers exhibit while teaching art; (2) to determine what kind of teaching orientation these b e l i e f s and values produce; and (3) to demonstrate how each teacher's value system is related to the content of his art program and his style of teaching, and subsequently, to the responsiveness of the students. Values were ascertained by interviews, and by observing teachers in the classroom. These values were compared to the goals that the teachers claimed to be important in their art programs. Orientations to curriculum based on Eisner (1979) were also revealed by classroom observation. Analysis of data was modeled after Spradley's Developmental Research Sequence (1980). 151 Conclusions From the Study Eisner's orientations to curriculum are not precise, but are useful generalizations. It was somewhat of a surprise, therefore, to find how completely each teacher exhibited the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of one orientation. It would seem more l i k e l y that each teacher would demonstrate c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s from two or as many as three of the orientations. However, as di f f e r e n t as they were in their orientation, each teacher expressed a r t i c u l a t e and clear objectives for teaching a r t . Perhaps years of teaching experience and their post graduate art education t r a i n i n g helped them to formulate these well defined curriculum orientations. Each teacher in the study e l i c t e d d i f f e r e n t behavioral responses from students and d i f f e r e n t kinds of artwork. Fred Williams' class responded favourably to the art * program. In fact, many students, p a r t i c u l a r l y the boys, were eager to do artwork. The art projects that Fred's class completed were notable in two ways; many of the drawings exhibited careful and s k i l f u l attention to the elements of design; drawings and sculpture often displayed inventive methods of creating variety in colour (running shoe drawing), volume (paper masks) and imagination (creative l i n e drawing). Fred Wiliams' team approach to 152 teaching and his curriculum orientation of developing cognitive processess worked together to produce imaginative, well-crafted artwork and a classroom of happy grade eight art students. The variety of artwork that was made by the grade eleven and twelve ceramics students was remarkable in i t s range. From sophisticated sculptural pieces and well-formed pots to "bowling b a l l s with eyes on them" (12.12.83) as described by Pam, Peter Crowe's art program might be summed up as being a l l things to a l l students. If students were interested and self-motivated they tended to be productive and created interesting ceramics. I f , however, students were not interested and not motivated to do so, they produced a quality of ceramics more appropriate to a primary grade p u p i l . Comparisons of levels of s a t i s f a c t i o n between high achievers and low achievers to determine their r e l a t i v e levels of s a t i s f a c t i o n were not undertaken. The acceptance by the teacher of a wide range of artwork, ceramics, in this case i s congruent with a personal relevance curriculum or ientat ion. Most of the artwork that Michael Laurence's grade nines produced was f a i r l y consistent. There was less v a r i a t i o n in the way that students handled l i n e s , tones and colours than was the case for Fred's grade eights. The clay vases were well made (except the one done by Dennis), showing far 153 g r e a t e r c o n s i s t e n c y t h a n t h e c e r a m i c s c r e a t e d by P e t e r ' s g r a d e e l e v e n s and t w e l v e s . In F r e d ' s c l a s s , i t was t h e boys who e x h i b i t e d t h e h i g h e s t l e v e l o f i n t e r e s t and s a t i s f a c t i o n , b u t i n M i c h a e l ' s c l a s s , i t was t h e g i r l s , f a r o u t n u m b e r i n g t h e b o y s , who e x h i b i t e d t h e h i g h e s t l e v e l o f s a t i s f a c t i o n . M i c h a e l ' s t e n d e n c y t o w a r d s a m i l i t a r y s t y l e o f t e a c h i n g and h i s a p p a r e n t t e c h n o l o g i c a l o r i e n t a t i o n t o c u r r i c u l u m b r o u g h t a b o u t a r t w o r k t h a t was p r e d i c t a b l e ( c o n s i s t e n t among most p u p i l s ) and a c o o p e r a t i v e r e s p o n s e f r om t h e g r a d e n i n e g i r l s . I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r A r t E d u c a t i o n I t i s a p p a r e n t f r o m t h e s t u d y t h a t a l t h o u g h a r t t e a c h e r s by d e f i n i t i o n do t h e same t h i n g , t h a t i s , t e a c h a r t , t h e y do n o t n e c e s s a r i l y s h a r e common o b j e c t i v e s , t h e same v a l u e s o r o r i e n t a t i o n t o c u r r i c u l u m and, as w e l l , t h e y have d i f f e r e n t s t y l e s o f t e a c h i n g . G i v e n a l l t h e s e v a r i a b l e s a p r e s c r i b e d c u r r i c u l u m may make l i t t l e d i f f e r e n c e t o t h e way t e a c h e r s c o n d u c t t h e m s e l v e s i n t h e a r t room. I t i s a w e l l known c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f a r t t e a c h e r s t h a t r e g a r d - l e s s o f t h e k i n d o f c u r r i c u l u m t h a t has been p r e s c r i b e d , t h e r e have a l w a y s been s t r o n g d i f f e r e n c e s between them. I t i s q u i t e p r o b a b l e t h a t any a r t c u r r i c u l u m , no m a t t e r how c a r e f u l l y s t r u c t u r e d would be a d a p t e d t o s u i t t h e 154 preferences and value systems of each art teacher. This study provides information to support the assumption that e f f e c t i v e curriculum development must continue to provide f l e x i b i l i t y in order to account for teachers' values. Perhaps, instead of assuming that by following a care- f u l l y constructed curriculum guide, art teachers w i l l be successful at their jobs, we might consider matching teachers to schools where s p e c i f i c objectives have been developed for the student population. As an example, a teacher who stresses obedience and hard work would probably function happily in a school that also stresses moral based instrumental values. In order to achieve the optimum student s a t i s f a c t i o n along with high quality artwork, i t would seem l o g i c a l to have an art teacher teaching students who share the same objectives and values, and who f e e l comfortable with that teacher's s t y l e of teaching and orientation to curriculum. The i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of goals and of teaching styles appropriate to their r e a l i z a t i o n has not been practiced by individual schools within the public system. Schools have simply grown to r e f l e c t the values of those who teach there. This study shows that, as conditions presently stand, the kind of art program a school has is something of a l o t t e r y , and students attending schools in a p a r t i c u l a r geographic area may complete art programs with quite d i f f e r e n t ideas 155 about the purposes of art and the way i t should be taught. 156 REFERENCES Alexander, R.R. (1982). 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