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An approach to developing comprehensive musicianship in the intermediate grades using the voice and the.. 1984

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AN APPROACH TO DEVELOPING COMPREHENSIVE MUSICIANSHIP IN THE INTERMEDIATE GRADES USING THE VOICE AND THE UKULELE Donna-Faye Madhosingh M. Mu. Ed., U n i v e r s i t y of New Mexico, 1971 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF EDUCATION in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Department of V i s u a l and Performing A r t s i n Education Music E d u c a t i o n Programme We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the r e q u i r e d standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A p r i l 1984 (d) Donna-Faye Madhosingh, 1984 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f the requirements f o r an advanced degree a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and study. I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be g r a n t e d by t h e head o f my department o r by h i s o r her r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s understood t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be a llowed w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Department of V i s u a l and Performing A r t s The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver,^ Canada V6T 1Y3 Date August 15, 1984. E-6 (3/81) i i S u p e r v i s o r : Dr. A. Clingman ABSTRACT As the m a j o r i t y of e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n i n comprehensive m u s i c i a n s h i p has been done at the u n i v e r s i t y and high school l e v e l s , t here i s a need f o r s i m i l a r r e s e a r c h at the elementary l e v e l . T h i s study i s designed to produce a s p e c i f i c programme aimed at d e v e l o p i n g comprehensive m u s i c i a n s h i p and p r e d i c t i n g i t s success i n music e d u c a t i o n . The work i s unique in that i t i n c o r p o r a t e s a v o c a l method d e v i s e d i n Hungary and adapts i t not only to another c o u n t r y but a l s o a p p l i e s i t to and combines i t with an i n s t r u m e n t a l programme from Canada. T h i s t h e s i s i s based on r e s e a r c h by the author i n comprehensive m u s i c i a n s h i p , and the Kodaly p r i n c i p l e s and concepts of music e d u c a t i o n , which are used to c o n s t r u c t a s t r a t e g y f o r an e f f e c t i v e music t e a c h i n g programme i n the i n t e r m e d i a t e grades, u t i l i z i n g the d u a l media of v o i c e and u k u l e l e . The s t r a t e g y , which can be used a p p r o p r i a t e l y by the music s p e c i a l i s t , i s d e v i s e d from the author's r e s e a r c h , classroom music t e a c h i n g experience and s t u d i e s in music' education i n Hungary, F i n l a n d , the U n i t e d S t a t e s and Canada. The Kodaly concepts have been adapted to meet the needs and i n t e r e s t s of i n t e r m e d i a t e p u p i l s , t h e i r v o i c e s and ranges, and the t e c h n i c a l requirements necessary f o r the u k u l e l e . The programme seeks in-depth development of concepts through p r e p a r a t i o n , p r e s e n t a t i o n and r e i n f o r c e m e n t . Conceptual i i i / understanding and i n t r i n s i c involvement l e a d i n g towards a e s t h e t i c a p p r e c i a t i o n are encouraged. The concepts are presented under the headings of l i n e a r p i t c h , v e r t i c a l p i t c h , form, timbre, dynamics, tempo and s t y l e . The b a s i c a u r a l , t r a n s l a t a b l e and d e x t r a l s k i l l s are i n c o r p o r a t e d i n the performing, a n a l y z i n g and o r g a n i z i n g a c t i v i t i e s . The c y c l i c a l , s e q u e n t i a l and concept based process p r e s e n t e d i s to be c o n t i n u a l l y analyzed and e v a l u a t e d by the teacher i n a t a s k - o r i e n t e d manner i n order to assess the competencies gained by the s t u d e n t s . A comprehensive p i t c h r e c o g n i t i o n programme, developed and implemented by the author, was c a r r i e d out with grade s i x and seven s t u d e n t s . Pre- and p o s t - p i t c h r e c o g n i t i o n t e s t s were a d m i n i s t e r e d to two d i f f e r e n t treatment groups, one on a t r a d i t i o n a l music programme and the other on a comprehensive m u s i c i a n s h i p programme. The r e s u l t s of the study showed a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e of the comprehensive m u s i c i a n s h i p programme group over the t r a d i t i o n a l music programme group (p<.05). The i n s t r u c t i o n a l procedure p r e s e n t e d begins with a v o c a l r e a d i n e s s programme i n Phase I. F o l l o w i n g i s the dual approach of v o i c e and u k u l e l e i n Phase II and I I I . T h i s s e q u e n t i a l , e x p e r i e n t i a l approach i s designed to promote and enhance the development of comprehensive m u s i c i a n s h i p i n the intermediate grades. i v TABLE OF CONTENTS ABSTRACT . i i LIST OF TABLES ix LIST OF FIGURES x ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS x i CHAPTER 1. OVERVIEW OF THE PROBLEM . , . 1 I n t r o d u c t i o n to the Problem 1 Purpose of the Study ... 7 Scope of the Study 8 L i m i t s of the Study 9 Method and O r g a n i z a t i o n 10 CHAPTER 2 . REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE 12 P r i n c i p l e s and C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of Comprehensive M u s i c i a n s h i p 12 Summary of the Term Comprehensive M u s i c i a n s h i p 20 Z o l t a n Kodaly's P r i n c i p l e s and Concept of Music Educ a t i o n 23 The Consensus of the Kodaly and the Comprehensive M u s i c i a n s h i p P r i n c i p l e s of Music Educ a t i o n 28 Chalmers Doane U k u l e l e Programme 36 M a n h a t t a n v i l i e Music C u r r i c u l u m P r o j e c t 42 The Hawaii Music Program ..... 46 Other Programmes I n c o r p o r a t i n g Kodaly Techniques .... 51 Colour S t r i n g s — Geza S z i l v a y 51 L i s t e n , Look and Sing •— Aden Lewis 53 T h r e s h o l d to Music•-- Mary Helen Ri c h a r d s 54 V C H A P T E R 3. B A S E S FOR A C O M P R E H E N S I V E M U S I C I A N S H I P PROGRAMME 56 R a t i o n a l e f o r t h e U s e o f t h e V o i c e i n a C o m p r e h e n - s i v e M u s i c i a n s h i p P r o g r a m m e i n t h e I n t e r m e d i a t e G r a d e s 56 R a t i o n a l e f o r t h e U s e o f t h e U k u l e l e i n a C o m p r e h e n - s i v e M u s i c i a n s h i p P r o g r a m m e i n t h e I n t e r m e d i a t e G r a d e s 59 M o d e l o f R e q u i r e m e n t s t o D e v e l o p C o m p r e h e n s i v e M u s i c i a n s h i p 61 C o n c e p t u a l F r a m e w o r k C o n s i s t i n g o f 8 M a j o r C o n c e p t s .. 63 B a s i c S k i l l D e v e l o p m e n t f o r C o m p r e h e n s i v e M u s i c i a n s h i p 65 A u r a l S k i l l s 67 D e x t r a l S K i l l s 69 T r a n s l a t a b l e S k i l l s 72 A c t i v i t y F r a m e w o r k 73 P e r f o r m i n g 73 A n a l y z i n g 77 O r g a n i z i n g 80 C H A P T E R 4. S C O P E AND S E Q U E N C E OF T H E V O I C E AND U K U L E L E PROGRAMME 83 O v e r v i e w o f t h e T h r e e P h a s e s 83 P h a s e I . 83 P h a s e I I 90 P h a s e I I I 94 L i n e a r P i t c h S e q u e n c e f o r S i n g i n g a n d P l a y i n g 96 L e a r n i n g O u t c o m e s f o r E a c h C o n c e p t 97 I n s t r u c t i o n a l O b j e c t i v e s f o r t h e C o n c e p t s 99 T e a c h i n g C o n c e p t s T h r o u g h a M u l t i p l i c i t y o f A c t i v i t i e s 105 v i CHAPTER 5. QUALITATIVE EVALUATION OF COMPREHENSIVE MUSICIANSHIP PROGRAMMES 106 E v a l u a t i o n Procedure Summary 106 E v a l u a t i o n Techniques f o r the song "Land of the S i l v e r B i r c h " 114 Obs e r v a t i o n of a Model Comprehensive M u s i c i a n s h i p Programme 118 Student Compositions 123 CHAPTER 6. QUANTITATIVE EVALUATION OF A COMPREHENSIVE PITCH RECOGNITION STUDY 127 Methodology 127 P o p u l a t i o n artd Sample .127 Instrumentation 129 Experimental Design 130 T e s t i n g Procedures 133 A n a l y s i s . . 134 R e s u l t s . 134 D i s c u s s i o n 142 Summary 144 CHAPTER 7. CONCLUSIONS 146 Summary 146 Recommendations 146 I m p l i c a t i o n s of the Study 147 C o n c l u s i o n s 148 BIBLIOGRAPHY 151 U k u l e l e M a t e r i a l s and References 151 Kodaly and Kodaly R e l a t e d M a t e r i a l s 153 v i i Comprehensive M u s i c i a n s h i p Resources 157 Other Resources . . 161 Appendix A. PHASE I: VOICE . 169 A S e q u e n t i a l I n s t r u c t i o n a l Procedure 169 An Example of Teaching S p e c i f i c Concepts Through the Song "Land of the S i l v e r B i r c h " 181 A n a l y s i s of Concepts Contained i n "Land of the S i l v e r B i r c h " 198 L i n e a r P i t c h Reading and W r i t i n g E x e r c i s e s f o r Voice (and U k u l e l e i n Phase II) 201 Appendix B. PHASE I I : VOICE AND UKULELE ... 211 An Example of Teaching S p e c i f i c Concepts Through the Song "Land of the S i l v e r B i r c h " 211 S p e c i f i c Techniques f o r U k u l e l e Encompassing the Concepts D u r a t i o n , L i n e a r P i t c h and V e r t i c a l P i t c h i n the Song "Land of the S i l v e r B i r c h " 229 T e c h n i c a l E x e r c i s e s f o r U k u l e l e Without Music N o t a t i o n 233 A P o s s i b l e Chord Sequence f o r U k u l e l e 237 Appendix C. PHASE I I I : VOICE AND UKULELE 238 An Example of Teaching S p e c i f i c Concepts Through the Song "The T r o u t " 238 A n a l y s i s of Concepts Contained i n "The T r o u t " 251 Appendix D. White House J o i n t Statement on the A r t s 256 Appendix E. Rhythm S y l l a b l e System 257 Appendix F. Hand S i g n a l s and S y l l a b l e s 258 Appendix G. Madhosingh P i t c h R e c o g n i t i o n Test 259 v i i i Appendix H. Means and Standard D e v i a t i o n s of CMP Boys and G i r l s 260 A n a l y s i s of V a r i a n c e with Repeated Measures f o r CMP Group 260 ix LIST OF TABLES Table Page 1. T e s t - R e t e s t R e l i a b i l i t y f o r MPRT Using Grade 5 P u p i l s .. 135 2. Means and (Standard D e v i a t i o n s ) f o r CMP and TMP Groups . 136 3. Means and (Standard D e v i a t i o n s ) f o r Subgroups 137 4. Main Repeated Measures A n a l y s i s of Va r i a n c e f o r Pre and Post MPRT Test Scores of the CMP and TMP Groups 137 5. Repeated Measures A n a l y s i s of Covar i a c e f o r CMP and TMP Groups' Pre ad Post MPRT Scores Using the P r e t e s t as the C o v a r i a t e 140 6. Dependent t - t e s t V a l u es on Pre and Post MPRT Scores f o r CMP and TMP Groups . . . '. 141 X LIST OF FIGURES F i g u r e Page 1 . Model of Requirements to Develop Comprehensive M u s i c i a n s h i p 61 2. Teaching Concepts Through a M u l t i p l i c i t y of A c t i v i t i e s 105 3. Adj u s t e d Means f o r CMP and TMP Groups on MPRT's 139 xi ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The author wishes to thank the f o l l o w i n g people and i n s t i t u t i o n s f o r t h e i r support and a s s i s t a n c e : Dr. A. Clingman, Dr. C. Trowsdale, Dr. H. R a t z l a f f , Dr. J . Murray, H.K. P i l t z , Dr. M. E l l i o t t , Dr. N. Hersom, Steve Landen, Bob Prosser and the Dept. of Performing and V i s u a l A r t s , U.B.C. D. McLennan, D.. Tupman and the Vancouver School Board. Denise Bacon ( D i r e c t o r of the Kodaly Centre of America), J e r r y J a c c a r d ( D i r e c t o r of the Kodaly M u s i c a l T r a i n i n g I n s t i t u t e ) , David Woods (Iowa S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y ) and Steven Zvengrowski (New Y o r k ) . I l o n a B a r t a l u s and the L i s z t Academy of Music, Hungary. Lorna McPhee and L o i s Choksy f o r t h e i r i n s p i r a t i o n and enthusiasm i n the the u k u l e l e and Kodaly f i e l d s r e s p e c t i v e l y . 1 Chapter 1 OVERVIEW OF THE PROBLEM I n t r o d u c t i o n t o the Problem An unceasing concern of music educators i s t o provide the best p o s s i b l e e x p e r i e n c e s f o r p u p i l s i n music ed u c a t i o n . Through c o n t i n u a l l y improving methods and content and by b u i l d i n g new c u r r i c u l a on o b s e r v a t i o n s and r e s e a r c h i n the f i e l d , music educators c o n s t a n t l y s t r i v e to develop and design more e f f i c i e n t and e f f e c t i v e methods to a t t a i n t h e i r g o a l s . David Woods says " . . . i t i s of importance to every music educator that e xperimentation d i r e c t e d towards improvement i n c u r r i c u l u m design be made." 1 That there i s a need f o r new ideas and programmes i s a l s o v o i c e d by Woods when he s t a t e s that "...many programs have 'stagnated' and do not f i l l t h e i r o b l i g a t i o n to the t o t a l and a e s t h e t i c environment." 2 Robert G a r o f a l o concurs that t h e r e i s a "...need f o r e d u c a t i o n a l l y sound c u r r i c u l u m s 'David Woods, "The Development and E v a l u a t i o n of an Independent School C u r r i c u l u m S t r e s s i n g Comprehensive M u s i c i a n s h i p at Each L e v e l , P r e s c h o o l Through Senior High Sch o o l " (Ph.D. d i s s e r t a t i o n , Northwestern U n i v e r s i t y , 1973), p. 1. 2 I b i d . , p.3. 2 that d e a l e f f e c t i v e l y with r e a l l e a r n i n g about music." 3 I t i s evident by the number of newly developed or r e v i s e d c u r r i c u l a that there has been an attempt to remedy t h i s v o i d . The formation of the General Music S o c i e t y as p a r t of the Music Educators N a t i o n a l Conference i n 1982 was a l s o an i n d i c a t i o n of the concern f o r d i r e c t i o n and sound c u r r i c u l a r ideas f o r problems a r i s i n g i n g e n e r a l music c l a s s e s . In the search f o r a more e f f e c t i v e and meaningful way to teach music i n the i n t e r m e d i a t e grades t h i s study aims to o f f e r an a l t e r n a t i v e model of music e d u c a t i o n by emphasizing the r o l e of the v o i c e and u k u l e l e . The ideas proposed by comprehensive mu s i c i a n s h i p proponents are combined with the p r i n c i p l e s of Z o l t a n Kodaly to provide the base upon which t h i s approach i s b u i l t . Because of the placement of q u a l i f i e d music teachers i n the i n t e r m e d i a t e grades f i r s t , primary music i s o f t e n taught s p o r a d i c a l l y . I t i s sometimes necessary f o r the- intermediate teacher to begin i n grade four or f i v e with a formal, systematic programme of t e a c h i n g b a s i c music s k i l l s and concepts. T h i s study addresses the need to accommodate m u s i c a l d e f i c i e n c i e s which a r i s e out of t h i s l a t e s t a r t i n music education. I t begins w i t h the b a s i c concepts and progresses along a continuum of s p i r a l l y s e q u e n t i a l l e d l e a r n i n g e x p e r i e n c e s . As with any l e a r n i n g s i t u a t i o n the t e a c h e r must preas s e s s student competencies i n order to a s c e r t a i n where to begin on the 3 R o b e r t G a r o f a l o , " B l u e p r i n t f o r Band: We Need Sound Curri c u l u m s , Not J u s t S k i l l e d Performers", Music Educators J o u r n a l 60 (March 1973):39. 3 continuum. Intermediate music c l a s s e s may be the l a s t formal music education f o r students i n the p u b l i c s c h o o l system. They are t h e r e f o r e c r u c i a l t o e s t a b l i s h bases t h a t can enhance f u r t h e r m u s i c a l growth l a t e r . For those s t u d e n t s c o n t i n u i n g to study music i n h i g h s c h o o l as an e l e c t i v e , a foundation on which to c o n t i n u e b u i l d i n g i s important. Kodaly r e a l i z e d the importance of these e a r l y years when he s t a t e d : G r a d u a l l y and from c h i l d h o o d the elementary phenomena of music must be i n g r a i n e d over the years through p r a c t i c e and s y s t e m a t i c e d u c a t i o n i n the p e r c e p t i o n of music. The foundations f o r t h i s can be l a i d only i n the elementary and secondary s c h o o l s . " Kodaly c o n t i n u e d to s t r e s s the importance of e a r l y t r a i n i n g when he s a i d , " B a s i c t r a i n i n g n e g l e c t e d i n youth cannot be made up f o r l a t e r . " 5 The author of t h i s r e s e a r c h r e p o r t b e l i e v e s that the dual media of v o i c e and u k u l e l e are e s p e c i a l l y s u i t e d to i n t e r m e d i a t e s t u d e n t s . The v o i c e , which i s maturing and g a i n i n g i n s t r e n g t h and f u l l n e s s of tone, when combined with the u k u l e l e accompaniment can produce the e f f e c t of a complete musical ensemble. The u k u l e l e i t s e l f can supply harmony, rhythm and melody. Chalmers Doane c a l l s i t "...the most adaptable "Erzsebet S z o n y i , P r e f a c e to M u s i c a l Reading and W r i t i n g , t r a n s l a t e d by L i l i Halapy, (London: Boosey and Hawkes Music Pub. Co., 1973). 5 Z o l t a n Kodaly, "Who i s a Good Musici a n ? " , The S e l e c t e d W r i t i n g s of Z o l t a n Kodaly, (London: Boosey and Hawkes Music Pub. Co., 1974), p.198. 4 instrument i n the world f o r t e a c h i n g music." 6 On i t young people can be taught to p l a y e v e r y t h i n g from the c l a s s i c s to jazz and pop tunes. Thus, the u k u l e l e can accomplish through i t s v e r s a t i l i t y the f o l l o w i n g f u n c t i o n s by a c t i n g as: 1. an accompaniment f o r s i n g i n g 2. a s o l o instrument 3. an ensemble instrument 4. a s o c i a l instrument f o r enjoyment 5. a t e a c h i n g instrument to r e i n f o r c e concepts The v o i c e , as the b a s i s of the elementary school music programme, i s t h e r e f o r e given encouragement t o continue i t s growth and maintain i t s p o s i t i o n of importance as i t i s supported and e n r i c h e d by the u n d e r l y i n g accompaniment of the u k u l e l e . The u k u l e l e i t s e l f i s inexpensive and w i t h i n the f i n a n c i a l reach of most s c h o o l boards and s t u d e n t s . The s i z e of the standard u k u l e l e (21 inches i n length) i s s u i t a b l e f o r most grade four or f i v e s t u d e n t s , and the tenor u k u l e l e (23 inches i n length) can be c o m f o r t a b l y h e l d and p l a y e d by most grade s i x and seven s t u d e n t s . These two f a c t o r s , p r i c e and s i z e , along with the a v a i l a b i l i t y of the instrument, make the u k u l e l e very a t t r a c t i v e f o r use i n an i n t e r m e d i a t e music c l a s s . A l l the b a s i c concepts i n music are to some degree p o s s i b l e on the u k u l e l e — l i n e a r p i t c h e s , v e r t i c a l p i t c h e s , s t y l e s , timbres, dynamics, tempos, forms and d u r a t i o n s . S o c i a l l y , the u k u l e l e f u l f i l l s i t s r o l e with i n t e r m e d i a t e students as a means 6Ken Whittingham, "The U k u l e l e I d e a l to Teach Music", U k u l e l e Yes 2 ( F a l l 1977):10. 5 of making music t o g e t h e r , v o c a l l y and i n s t r u m e n t a l l y , or j u s t i n s t r u m e n t a l l y . I t can pr o v i d e enjoyment f o r l e i s u r e time now and i n the f u t u r e . Acceptable emotional o u t l e t s that are needed i n the students' l i v e s now as w e l l as i n l a t e r l i f e can be pr o v i d e d f o r by t h i s dual media. The u k u l e l e i s a l s o a stepping-stone to other f r e t t e d i n s t r u m e n t s . The v a r i o u s musics of our m u l t i c u l t u r a l s o c i e t y can be examined and performed with instrument and v o i c e i n an attempt t o develop understanding and t o l e r a n c e i n our s o c i e t y . A l s o , the i n t e l l e c t u a l development of the students can be f o s t e r e d , c h a l l e n g e d and encouraged i n t h i s dual media approach. The e d u c a t i o n a l p h i l o s o p h e r Marc B e l t h b e l i e v e s that "...a primary e d u c a t i o n a l o b j e c t i v e which the scho o l w i l l undertake i s the n u r t u r e of expansiveness of i n t e l l i g e n c e . . . d e v e l o p m e n t of e x p l o r a t o r y power... and development of a n a l y t i c a l powers." 7 The v o i c e and u k u l e l e have been chosen by the w r i t e r t o a i d i n the development of these a s p e c t s . Kodaly s a i d , "The purpose of music i s to understand b e t t e r : to evolve and expand our inner w o r l d . " 8 T h i s goal he b e l i e v e d c o u l d be a t t a i n e d through a concept of music education that i s c h i l d developmental, s p i r a l , s e q u e n t i a l , concept based and c o n s i s t i n g of ep i s o d e s ( m o t i v i c p i t c h groupings) l e a d i n g t o 7Marc B e l t h , E d u c a t i o n as a D i s c i p l i n e : A Study of the Role of Models i n T h i n k i n g , (Boston: A l l y n and Bacon, Inc., 1965), p.41 . 8 Z o l t a n Kodaly, from the speech "What i s the Purpose of School Music S o c i e t i e s " , The Kodaly Concept of Music Education by Helga Szabo, (London: Boosey & Hawkes Music Pub., 1969), p.4. 6 mastery. Music edu c a t i o n thus d e a l s with the development of i n t e l l i g e n c e , a e s t h e t i c s , ear t r a i n i n g and performance which Kodaly s a i d , "...can only be a c q u i r e d through many-sided work and nothing l e s s . . . " . 9 T h i s approach assumes the above c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s p l u s the a d d i t i o n of time and e f f o r t to achieve i t s g o a l s . The s t r a t e g i e s d e v i s e d h e r e i n can o n l y be a p p r o p r i a t e l y used by the music s p e c i a l i s t . There i s no attempt to presume that a teacher without the r e q u i r e d music knowledge and s k i l l s would be a b l e to i n s t i g a t e t h i s programme s u c c e s s f u l l y . The r e q u i r e d s k i l l s are grouped under the headings of performing, o r g a n i z i n g and a n a l y z i n g as d e l i n e a t e d i n C r e a t i n g C u r r i c u l u m i n M u s i c . 1 0 The author b e l i e v e s that b e f o r e b e g i n n i n g any instrument c e r t a i n b a s i c m u s i c i a n s h i p s k i l l s and concepts should be a c q u i r e d . Kodaly supports t h i s by s a y i n g "To teach a c h i l d an instrument without f i r s t g i v i n g him p r e p a r a t o r y t r a i n i n g . . . ( i s t o ) . . . b u i l d on s a n d . " 1 1 T h e r e f o r e , i t i s necessary to begin b u i l d i n g t h i s programme with the v o i c e alone i n Phase I before embarking on the d u a l media of v o i c e and u k u l e l e i n Phase I I . Phase I ( v o i c e ) and Phases II and I I I ( u k u l e l e and v o i c e ) 9 Z o l t a n Kodaly, "Epilogue to P e n t a t o n i c Music IV", The Kodaly Concept of Music E d u c a t i o n , p.34. 1 0 S t e f a n E d e l s t e i n , L.Choksy, P. Leheman, N. Sigurdsson and D. Woods, C r e a t i n g C u r r i c u l u m i n Music, (Menlo Park, C a l i f o r n i a : Addison-Wesley Pub.Co., 1980). M Z o l t a n Kodaly, " C h i l d r e n ' s C h o i r s " , The S e l e c t e d W r i t i n g s of Z o l t a n Kodaly, p.123. . 7 are designed to i n c l u d e the p r i n c i p l e s of comprehensive m u s i c i a n s h i p . The Music Educators N a t i o n a l Conference has as one of i t s major g o a l s the i n c o r p o r a t i o n of comprehensive m u s i c i a n s h i p programmes i n a l l s c h o o l s . T h i s i n d i c a t e s the value of and the emphasis a t t a c h e d to t h i s concept i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s . The comprehensive music programme as o u t l i n e d by the Music Educators N a t i o n a l Conference i s " . . . c h a l l e n g i n g to a l l s t u d e n t s . . . " 1 2 and d i r e c t e d towards t h e i r needs, encouraging the c o r r e l a t i o n of performing, c r e a t i n g and l i s t e n i n g to music and promoting music of a l l p e r i o d s , s t y l e s , forms and c u l t u r e s . The programme presented here demonstrates the interdependency of these a s p e c t s and a d i v e r s i t y of music a c t i v i t i e s . The Purpose of the Study The purpose of t h i s study was to develop an a l t e r n a t i v e music programme f o r g e n e r a l music c l a s s e s i n the i n t e r m e d i a t e grades u s i n g the du a l media of u k u l e l e and v o i c e . Comprehensive m u s i c i a n s h i p , as p o r t r a y e d through the Contemporary Music P r o j e c t sponsored by the Music Educators N a t i o n a l Conference, s u p p l i e d a s i g n i f i c a n t p a r t of the theory, p r i n c i p l e s and concepts i n d e v e l o p i n g such a programme. I t s i d e a l s were coupled w i t h Kodaly p r i n c i p l e s to present a programme to develop b a s i c m u s i c i a n s h i p s k i l l s , develop an understanding of music concepts and to c r e a t e an atmosphere f o r co n t i n u e d c o g n i t i v e and 1 2 C h a r l e s L. Gary and Beth L a n d i s , The Comprehensive Music Programme,Washington, D.C.: Music Educators N a t i o n a l Conference, 1973), p.2. 8 a f f e c t i v e growth on the pathway to comprehensive m u s i c i a n s h i p . Phase I of the programme was designed to develop b a s i c m u s i c i a n s h i p s k i l l s c h i e f l y through u s i n g the v o i c e . Phase II r e i n f o r c e s and expands the b a s i c s k i l l s taught i n Phase I using the v o i c e and u k u l e l e . Phase I I I i s a more advanced v o i c e and u k u l e l e programme t h a t may be i n c l u d e d as p a r t of the general music course or added as enrichment. The e f f e c t i v e n e s s of a p a r t of the programme was addressed both q u a l i t a t i v e l y and q u a n t i t a t i v e l y . Scope of the Study T h i s study was undertaken to develop a s t r u c t u r e f o r t e a c h i n g v o i c e and u k u l e l e i n the i n t e r m e d i a t e g e n e r a l music c l a s s based on the p r i n c i p l e s and concepts of comprehensive m u s i c i a n s h i p and Z o l t a n Kodaly. The study c o n s i s t e d of the f o l l o w i n g s t e p s : 1. From the study of the l i t e r a t u r e t o : i ) i d e n t i f y p r i n c i p l e s and c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of comprehensive m u s i c i a n s h i p i i ) i d e n t i f y p r i n c i p l e s and c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the Kodaly method i i i ) i n v e s t i g a t e u k u l e l e music programmes i v ) i n v e s t i g a t e Kodaly programmes i n Hungary, F i n l a n d , the U n i t e d S t a t e s and Canada v) i n v e s t i g a t e music programmes based on comprehensive m u s i c i a n s h i p 2. U t i l i z e the w r i t e r ' s e x p e r i e n c e s with comprehensive m u s i c i a n s h i p and Kodaly concepts by: i ) r e p o r t i n g on d i r e c t e x p e r i e n c e s with comprehensive m u s i c i a n s h i p and Kodaly concepts used i n u k u l e l e and v o i c e i n g e n e r a l music c l a s s e s 9 i i ) r e p o r t i n g on a p i t c h r e c o g n i t i o n t e s t given before and a f t e r the t e a c h i n g of a comprehensive p i t c h r e c o g n i t i o n u n i t 3. Develop a g e n e r a l music programme based on s e l e c t e d comprehensive m u s i c i a n s h i p and Kodaly p r i n c i p l e s by: i ) d e v e l o p i n g Phase I, a p r e p a r a t i o n programme, using the v o i c e as the prime instrument i i ) s t r u c t u r i n g Phase II as a reinforcement and expansion of concepts and s k i l l s of the f i r s t phase using the dual media of v o i c e and u k u l e l e i i i ) s t r u c t u r i n g P h a s e . I l l , an advanced programme using the v o i c e and u k u l e l e i v ) d e v i s i n g an e v a l u a t i o n process to run c o n c u r r e n t l y with each phase L i m i t s of the Study T h i s study was: 1. l i m i t e d t o c u r r i c u l u m development f o r the general music c l a s s i n the i n t e r m e d i a t e grades (grades 4 to 7) 2. p r i n c i p a l l y concerned with content and s t r a t e g i e s f o r d e v e l o p i n g concepts and s k i l l s 3. l i m i t e d to s e l e c t e d Kodaly p r i n c i p l e s of music ed u c a t i o n and the p r o p o s a l s put f o r t h by the Contemporary Music P r o j e c t and i t s o f f s h o o t s i n the area of comprehensive m u s i c i a n s h i p 4. a p p l i e d to the v o i c e medium i n Phase I and the dual media of v o i c e and u k u l e l e i n Phase II and III 5. l i m i t e d t o the w r i t e r ' s a p p l i c a t i o n s and obser v a t i o n s of the programme proposed The r e s e a r c h l i t e r a t u r e was: 1 . l i m i t e d to a c c e s s i b l e Kodaly m a t e r i a l s from Hungary, F i n l a n d , the U n i t e d S t a t e s and Canada 2. l i m i t e d to r e l e v a n t m a t e r i a l i n comprehensive m u s i c i a n s h i p and comprehensive music programmes growing out of the Contemporary Music P r o j e c t i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s 10 3. l i m i t e d t o u k u l e l e programmes i n e f f e c t i n Canada Method and O r g a n i z a t i o n The w r i t e r developed a music programme c o n s i s t i n g of three phases f o r v o i c e and u k u l e l e f o r the g e n e r a l music c l a s s e s of the i n t e r m e d i a t e grades based on: 1. an a d a p t a t i o n of s e l e c t e d p r i n c i p l e s of the Kodaly approach to music e d u c a t i o n , 2. p r i n c i p l e s and c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of comprehensive m u s i c i a n s h i p , 3. d i r e c t e x p e r i e n c e s of the w r i t e r w i t h comprehensive m u s i c i a n s h i p implementation and 4. some comprehensive m u s i c i a n s h i p programmes a l r e a d y i n e f f e c t and documented. The framework f o r the three phases of the programme was based to some extent on t h a t set up by the team of E d e l s t e i n , Choksy, Lehman, Sigurdsson and Woods i n C r e a t i n g C u r r i c u l u m i n Music which was supported by a grant from the Ford Foundation. T h i s study u t i l i z e d the team's common elements or conceptual base approach using the e i g h t major concept headings of l i n e a r p i t c h , v e r t i c a l p i t c h , d u r a t i o n , form, s t y l e , timbre, dynamics and tempo. The a c t i v i t i e s were o r g a n i z e d as suggested under the three c a t e g o r i e s of performance, a n a l y s i s and o r g a n i z a t i o n . The Comprehensive M u s i c i a n s h i p P r o j e c t i n c o r p o r a t e s e s s e n t i a l l y the same concepts and a c t i v i t i e s but under d i f f e r e n t headings. The content was chosen by the author f o r i t s a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s to t h i s age group, i t s l e v e l of d i f f i c u l t y , i t s s u i t a b i l i t y f o r p l a y i n g on the u k u l e l e and/or s i n g i n g and i t s r e p r e s e n t a t i o n i n the broad scope of musics a v a i l a b l e . The b a s i c s k i l l s are l i s t e d 11 under a u r a l , d e x t r a l and t r a n s l a t a b l e as d e s i g n a t e d i n the M a n h a t t a n v i l i e Music C u r r i c u l u m P r o j e c t . The programme i s set up i n t h r e e c o n s e c u t i v e phases. The t e a c h i n g of the concepts i s f o r the most p a r t s e q u e n t i a l but may be a l t e r e d t o serve needs as they a r i s e i n i n d i v i d u a l c i r c u m s t a n c e s . One of the purposes of the h i e r a r c h y i s to i n s u r e t h a t nothing i s o m i t t e d . Phase II c o n s i s t s of three l e v e l s which may run c o n c u r r e n t l y i f a c l a s s c o n s i s t s of more than one l e v e l . With the advent of mainstreaming t h i s i s h i g h l y l i k e l y . The average intermediate music c l a s s u s u a l l y has a spread i n m u s i c a l knowledge and a b i l i t i e s and a l e v e l s approach may be necessary to meet a l l the p u p i l s ' needs. The l e v e l s are l i s t e d as easy ( E ) , medium (M) and d i f f i c u l t (D). An e v a l u a t i o n component was i n c l u d e d to a s s i s t i n a s c e r t a i n i n g the extent to which students had accomplished the t a s k s . A study on p i t c h r e c o g n i t i o n w i t h i n the p e n t a t o n i c s c a l e was undertaken to see i f there i s a d i f f e r e n c e i n the mean achievement s c o r e s b e f o r e and a f t e r a comprehensive m u s i c i a n s h i p programme f o r p i t c h r e c o g n i t i o n . The group r e c e i v i n g t h i s treatment was then compared to a group r e c e i v i n g a t r a d i t i o n a l music programme and the r e s u l t s noted. F i n a l l y , the c o n c l u s i o n s , recommendations and i m p l i c a t i o n s of t h i s study were addressed. P o s s i b l e a p p l i c a t i o n s of the programme and f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h were suggested. 12 Chapter 2 REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE P r i n c i p l e s and C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of Comprehensive M u s i c i a n s h i p The term "comprehensive m u s i c i a n s h i p " has been i n use f o r some time. Z o l t a n Kodaly i n a 1953 address at the L i s z t Academy of Music i n Budapest g i v e s us some i n s i g h t i n t o h i s concept of t h i s term when he says, You w i l l not be a good musician i f you shut y o u r s e l f up l i k e a hermit and pursue mechanical e x e r c i s e s , but only i f you have l i v e d a many-sided musical l i f e and have p a r t i c u l a r l y c l o s e c o n t a c t with c h o i r s and o r c h e s t r a s . 1 He a l s o s t a t e s t h a t , "...the t i t l e of good musician can be earned o n l y by a s u s t a i n e d many-sided e f f o r t . " 2 H i s b e l i e f t h a t comprehensive m u s i c i a n s h i p i n v o l v e s b a s i c t r a i n i n g b u i l t upon a many-faceted approach i s e v i d e n t . Even before 1953, Kodaly s t r e s s e d broad and comprehensive musical t r a i n i n g as a n e c e s s i t y f o r a worthwhile music e d u c a t i o n . The m a j o r i t y of musicians, he says, are h a l f - m u s i c i a n s because they have not been wholly 1 Z o l t a n Kodaly, "Who i s a Good Mu s i c i a n ? " , p.190. 2 I b i d . , p.198. 13 developed m u s i c a l l y . As e a r l y as 1944, L i l l a B e l l e P i t t s encouraged broad and v a r i e d music e x p e r i e n c e s , breadth of i n t e r e s t and depth of understanding i n her book The Music C u r r i c u l u m i n the Changing World. 3 I t seems that the modern d e f i n i t i o n of comprehensive m u s i c i a n s h i p has evolved because of a f e l t need of musicians and music educators to understand one another by broadening t h e i r h o r i z o n s . In order to accomplish t h i s "...a broader scope of music r e p e r t o i r e and experience than has u s u a l l y been p r o v i d e d f o r i n s c h o o l and c o l l e g e c u r r i c u l u m s " " was necessary. B a s i c m u s i c i a n s h i p i s now thought of as a fundamental requirement to the f u l l growth of every c h i l d and has been s t a t e d so i n the White House J o i n t Statement about the a r t s . (See Appendix D.) The term comprehensive m u s i c i a n s h i p has been prominent s i n c e the i n s t i g a t i o n of the Contemporary Music P r o j e c t , a p r o j e c t funded by the Ford Foundation from 1963 to 1973. The Music Educators N a t i o n a l Conference a d m i n i s t e r e d the grant and a l s o supported the p r o j e c t f i n a n c i a l l y from 1968 to 1973. In 1959, the Young Composers P r o j e c t , a l s o funded by the Ford Foundation, was i n i t i a t e d and put t h i r t y - o n e composers i n t o s c h ools i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s to work with, compose f o r and have t h e i r compositions performed by the s t u d e n t s . T h i s encouraged 3 L i l l a B e l l e P i t t s , The Music C u r r i c u l u m i n the Changing World, (New York: S i l v e r Burdett Co., 1944). "Contemporary Music P r o j e c t -- Comprehensive M u s i c i a n s h i p , A P r o j e c t of the Music Educators N a t i o n a l Conference, Music Educators J o u r n a l , 59 (September 1973):34. 14 young composers and a l s o broadened the o u t l o o k s on contemporary music of both s t u d e n t s and t e a c h e r s . In 1963, the t i t l e "Young Composers P r o j e c t " was changed to "Contemporary Music P r o j e c t f o r C r e a t i v i t y i n Music E d u c a t i o n " . I t s purpose was f i v e f o l d : 1. to i n c r e a s e the emphasis on the c r e a t i v e aspect of music i n the p u b l i c s c hools 2. to encourage the contemporary music idiom 3. to reduce c o m p a r t m e n t a l i z a t i o n 4. to c u l t i v a t e t a s t e and d i s c r i m i n a t i o n 5. to d i s c o v e r c r e a t i v e t a l e n t 5 Since 1965, a comprehensive approach to music education has been c e n t r a l t o the programmes of. the Contemporary Music P r o j e c t . In 1969, g r a n t s were given t o s e l e c t e d t e a c h e r s — four elementary, seven secondary and f o u r t e e n u n i v e r s i t y or c o l l e g e — to d e v i s e programmes to develop comprehensive m u s i c i a n s h i p . The Contemporary Music P r o j e c t l a t e r was r e f e r r e d to as the Comprehensive M u s i c i a n s h i p P r o j e c t because people had mi s t a k e n l y begun to l i n k the Contemporary Music P r o j e c t with contemporary music a l o n e . T h i s was not i t s only i n t e n t . The Contemporary Music P r o j e c t (CMP) encouraged a "common- elements" approach. These elements were d e f i n e d as frequency ( p i t c h ) , d u r a t i o n , i n t e n s i t y and timbre. The h o r i z o n t a l o r g a n i z a t i o n of sound was d e s c r i b e d as movement through time and encompassed both rhythm and melody. The v e r t i c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n encompassed harmony and t e x t u r e . The e x p r e s s i v e q u a l i t i e s were 5 I b i d . , p.34. 1 5 d e s i g n a t e d as volume, dynamics and timbre. Form was a l s o t r e a t e d as an element. S t y l e and context were d e a l t with h i s t o r i c a l l y , s o c i a l l y and a e s t h e t i c a l l y . The CMP encouraged m u s i c i a n l y behaviours by ...developing a broad base of competencies through a reasonable balance of experiences i n a n a l y s i s ( l i s t e n i n g and e v a l u a t i o n ) : composition (and i m p r o v i s i n g ) and p e r f o r m i n g , as w e l l as s c h o l a r s h i p (research) and communication ( t e a c h i n g ) . 6 Norman D e l l o J o i o , the d i r e c t o r of the CMP, proposed that "...comprehensive m u s i c i a n s h i p can be that s o l i d base on which one can b u i l d f o r the f u t u r e without r e j e c t i n g the p a s t . " 7 Rudolf Radocy conducted an e v a l u a t i o n of comprehensive m u s i c i a n s h i p i n June 1971 and found that ...teachers can espouse a philosophy of Comprehensive M u s i c i a n s h i p , teach i n accordance with o b j e c t i v e s and show measureable gains i n the l e a r n i n g of t h e i r s tudents without s a c r i f i c i n g t r a d i t i o n a l 'musical l e a r n i n g . ' 8 There has been almost a c o n s c i o u s e f f o r t on the p a r t of the CMP not to d e f i n e comprehensive m u s i c i a n s h i p i n order that i t be a l i v i n g , growing e f f o r t and not j u s t a s t a g n a n t l y d e f i n e d term. Robert Werner s t a t e s t h a t D e f i n i n g Comprehensive M u s i c i a n s h i p i s never an easy task, even f o r those of us i n v o l v e d on a day-to-day b a s i s with i t s implementation. Comprehensive M u s i c i a n s h i p has to do both with the o r g a n i z a t i o n and content of the i n s t r u c t i o n a l programs at a l l l e v e l s and most important, with the g o a l s and a t t i t u d e s t h at l i e behind the t e a c h e r s ' e f f o r t s . 9 6 I b i d p. 39. 7 I b i d r p.34 B I b i d r p.41 . 16 At the Music Educators Conference i n A t l a n t a i n 1976, concerned music educators s t a t e d that comprehensive m u s i c i a n s h i p was not d e f i n e d because i t then becomes j a r g o n . But, they suggested that music educators should attempt to d e f i n e i t more c l e a r l y through the q u a l i t y and means of i t s implementation. The i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of comprehensive m u s i c i a n s h i p are as v a r i e d as the i n d i v i d u a l s that propose that kind of programme. Such programmes f o r band, o r c h e s t r a , c h o i r , g u i t a r , theory and classroom music have been d e v i s e d . Experiments and o b s e r v a t i o n s have been performed on such programmes and r e s e a r c h e r s have shown the value i n them. Robert Werner p r e s e n t s what i s s a i d to be the "heart" of comprehensive m u s i c i a n s h i p , that i s , a c h i e v i n g the " s y n t h e s i s " . He s t a t e s that i t "...commits us to the never-ending s c r u t i n y and r e v i s i o n of our a t t i t u d e s and techniques i n t e a c h i n g . " 1 0 T h i s s y n t h e s i s imposes the n e c e s s i t y of a wide v a r i e t y of a c t i v i t i e s . One a c t i v i t y that music educators f e e l has been n e g l e c t e d i s c r e a t i n g . T h i s i m p l i e s composing, a r r a n g i n g and i m p r o v i s i n g . T r a d i t i o n a l l y , these a c t i v i t i e s have been l e f t to the end of programmes and are seldom accomplished. If they are undertaken at a l l i t i s u s u a l l y by a s e l e c t few. T h e r e f o r e , i n a comprehensive m u s i c i a n s h i p programme, c r e a t i n g should progress along with a l l the other a c t i v i t i e s i n the s y n t h e s i s . Not only should the i n t e g r a t i o n of a c t i v i t i e s take p l a c e but a l s o the i n t e g r a t i o n of elements. Separate musical elements should be 9Robert J . Werner, "CMP Means Comprehensive M u s i c i a n s h i p P e r s o n i f i e d " , Music Educators J o u r n a l , 56 (March 1969): 131. 1 0 I b i d . , p.133. 17 s y n t h e s i z e d i n a g l o b a l s e t t i n g i f they are to r e s u l t i n r e a l m u sical l e a r n i n g . The wholeness of music, then, — i t s c o g n i t i v e , a f f e c t i v e and psychomotor as p e c t s -- needs to be experienced and l i n k e d i n t h i s s y n t h e s i s . Walton views the s y n t h e s i s t a k i n g p l a c e i n theory c l a s s e s when: A l l a s p e c t s of music -- harmony, polyphony, s t y l e , t e x t u r e , form, s t r u c t u r e — combine and become the b a s i s f o r the study of music l i t e r a t u r e . T h i s s y n t h e s i s i s what i s r i g h t l y c a l l e d m u s i c i a n s h i p . The course of study should p u l l e v e r y t h i n g together to i n c r e a s e and deepen the student's i n s i g h t s . 1 1 Comprehensive m u s i c i a n s h i p , however, has been i n t e r p r e t e d i n many ways. C h a r l e s B a l l says, "...comprehensive m u s i c i a n s h i p i n the present c o n t e x t , simply means an understanding of the s t r u c t u r e of music a p p l i e d to music i t s e l f . " 1 2 Beth Landis c a l l s i t a myth. 1 3 Others say i t i s an i d e a l . The authors of Prelude to M u s i c i a n s h i p view music t e a c h i n g as ...the comprehensive, s t e p - b y - s t e p development of musical m a t e r i a l s , both a u r a l and w r i t t e n , i n a l o g i c a l sequence, always p r o c e d i n g from known to the unknown and l e a d i n g the student i n ever widening c i r c l e s to a f u l l u nderstanding of the concepts and techniques i n v o l v e d . 1 " T h i s i s i n keeping with the CMP's p r i n c i p l e s of comprehensive 1 ' C h a r l e s W. Walton, " T a r g e t i n g the Teaching of Theory", Music Educators J o u r n a l , 67 (June 1981):40. 1 2 C h a r l e s B a l l , "The Answer L i e s i n Improved Teaching", Music Educators J o u r n a l , 56 (February 1969):59. 1 3 B e t h L a n d i s , "Comprehensive M u s i c i a n s h i p - A Look in the C r y s t a l B a l l " , Music Educators J o u r n a l , 58 (January 1970) :48. 1 ' L i n d a Mankin, Mary C l a i r e Wellman & Angela M. Owen, Prelude to M u s i c i a n s h i p : Fundamental Concepts and S k i l l s , (New York: H o l t , R i n e h a r t and Winston, 1979), p.v. 18 m u s i c i a n s h i p . David Boyle c i t e s t e a c h i n g comprehensive m u s i c i a n s h i p as h e l p i n g a l l musicians i n c r e a s e t h e i r understanding and p e r c e p t i o n of m u s i c . 1 5 The term "musicianship" has a l s o been d e s c r i b e d as "...an awareness of and learned a b i l i t y to d i s c r i m i n a t e and respond to t o n a l and rhythmic p a t t e r n s which are e x p r e s s i v e l y o r g a n i z e d i n m u s i c . " 1 6 L i n t o n says m u s i c i a n s h i p i s synonymous with the term " m u s i c a l i t y " and t h a t , T h i s d i s c r i m i n a t i o n a b i l i t y i s based on an understanding of the s t r u c t u r e of music and the r e l a t i o n s h i p and f u n c t i o n s of elements of music which comprise t h a t s t r u c t u r e , as w e l l as on a s e n s i t i v i t y to the a e s t h e t i c or e x p r e s s i v e purpose of organized p a t t e r n s . 1 7 So i t would seem that there are many t r a c k s l e a d i n g to the same goal of a comprehensive m u s i c i a n . T h i s goal appears to be an aim t h a t one s t r i v e s f o r but never f u l l y a t t a i n s . Kodaly says, " O b v i o u s l y , a p e r f e c t l y good musician i s an u n a t t a i n a b l e i d e a l ; f o r even the best can f i n d shortcomings i n t h e m s e l v e s . " 1 8 There i s a c e r t a i n amount of agreement on what i n g r e d i e n t s are needed f o r an e f f e c t i v e , well-rounded music programme. The 1 5 D a v i d Boyle, "Teaching Comprehensive M u s i c i a n s h i p at the C o l l e g e L e v e l " , Music Educators J o u r n a l , 57 ( J u l y 1971): 330. , 6 M e l i n d a Edwards, "An I n s t r u c t i o n a l O b j e c t i v e s Model f o r Teaching Comprehensive M u s i c i a n s h i p i n a S e n i o r High School E l e c t i v e Music Course", (D.Ed, d i s s e r t a t i o n , Columbia U n i v e r s i t y Teachers C o l l e g e , 1979), p.6 1 7 S t a n l e y L i n t o n , "The Development of a Planned Program f o r Teaching M u s i c i a n s h i p i n the High School C h o r a l C l a s s " , C o u n c i l f o r Research i n Music Education B u l l e t i n 10 (Summer 1967):8. 1 8 K o d a l y , "Who i s a Good M u s i c i a n ? " , p.199. 19 common-elements approach, as mentioned e a r l i e r , i s supported by the CMP and i n g e n e r a l by a l l the authors of c u r r e n t music t e x t s . The four b a s i c avenues of musi c a l experience i n which the CMP s t a t e s comprehensive m u s i c i a n s h i p should be developed are l i s t e n i n g , a n a l y z i n g , c r e a t i n g and performing. These a c t i v i t i e s a llow s tudents to i n t e g r a t e t h e i r musical knowledge. Another area of concern l i e s i n p r e s e n t i n g music of a wide v a r i e t y of s t y l e s , p e r i o d s and c u l t u r e s . S e r i o u s contemporary music i s a l s o c o n s i d e r e d important i n the r e p e r t o i r e presented. M u s i c a l independence, another g o a l , can be a c h i e v e d by a l l o w i n g the students to make informed judgments about music based on t h e i r t o t a l knowledge of music, and encouraging them to f u n c t i o n as m u s i c i a n s . Jerome Bruner, with t h i s g e n e r a l statement on educ a t i o n , says, " I n s t r u c t i o n i s a p r o v i s i o n a l s t a t e that has as i t s o b j e c t to make the l e a r n e r or problem s o l v e r s e l f - s u f f i c i e n t . " 1 9 Werner says that comprehensive m u s i c i a n s h i p programmes should produce a person who i s a b l e " . . . t o make independent value judgments about music, judgments based on a thorough knowledge of a l l the elements i n the m u s i c a l p r o c e s s , i n v o l v i n g c r e a t o r , performer, and l i s t e n e r . T h i s i s perhaps the most s i g n i f i c a n t a b i l i t y any student can ga i n from h i s music e d u c a t i o n . " 2 0 > A l l comments, however, on comprehensive musicianship, r e p e a t e d l y r e f e r to the need f o r a thorough knowledge o f , 1 9Jerome Bruner, Toward a Theory of I n s t r u c t i o n , (Cambridge, Massachusetts: Belknap Press, 1967), p.53. 2 0Werner, "CMP Means Comprehensive M u s i c i a n P e r s o n i f i e d " , p.131. 20 understanding of and s k i l l base i n music concepts without which mus i c a l development i s r e s t r i c t e d . Walton agrees with t h i s when he says "...teachers must h e l p develop the students' a b i l i t i e s to i d e n t i f y the elements of music and develop t h e i r s k i l l s as ' t o o l s ' so that they can be b e t t e r m u s i c i a n s . " 2 1 Students are assumed to have grasped b a s i c concepts when they can apply them. Labuta reminds us that the t r u e t e s t of m u s i c i a n s h i p l i e s i n a p p l i e d e x a m i n a t i o n . 2 2 Summary of the Term "Comprehensive M u s i c i a n s h i p " The fundamental p r i n c i p l e s of comprehensive m u s i c i a n s h i p can be s t a t e d as f o l l o w s : 1. that musical knowledge i s s y n t h e s i z e d through the i n t e g r a t i o n of a c t i v i t i e s and concepts 2. that the common-elements approach (the b a s i c concepts .which make up music) i s the best approach to develop musical understanding 3. that m u s i c i a n l y b e h a v i o r s (having p u p i l s f u n c t i o n as musicians) need to be experie n c e d to t r u l y understand and a p p r e c i a t e music. In order to develop m u s i c i a n s h i p the CMP proposed that the f o l l o w i n g a b i l i t i e s were needed: a b i l i t y to s y n t h e s i z e m u s i c a l knowledge, s k i l l s and understandings a b i l i t y to d i s c r i m i n a t e musical r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n order to develop independence and s e l f - d i r e c t i o n a b i l i t y to t h i n k c r e a t i v e l y and i m a g i n a t i v e l y 2 3 2 1 C h a r l e s W. Walton, " T a r g e t i n g the Teaching of Theory", p.40. 2 2 J o s e p h A. Labuta, Teaching M u s i c i a n s h i p i n the High School Band, (West Nyak, New York: Parker Pub. Co. Inc., 1972), p.218. 1 . 2. 3. 21 The b a s i c premises on which comprehensive m u s i c i a n s h i p i s based are c o n s i s t e n t with most music programmes but are r e - emphasized i n the l i t e r a t u r e because they are sometimes overlooked or unbalanced i n t h e i r p r e s e n t a t i o n and can cause the d i s t o r t i o n of programmes. Four such premises a r e : 1. The proper study of music i s music i t s e l f — thus music should be approached through the a c t u a l p i e c e of music and not some other c h a n n e l . 2. The focus of i n s t r u c t i o n i s on the i n d i v i d u a l student i n order f o r him to gain independence. 3. Comprehensive m u s i c i a n s h i p serves both music and the . student, not one or the o t h e r . 4. Students l e a r n i n d i v e r s e ways and at d i f f e r e n t speeds and t h e r e f o r e need many avenues of l e a r n i n g i n order to come c l o s e r to a c h i e v i n g t h e i r g o a l s . Comprehensive m u s i c i a n s h i p , as i t i s c u r r e n t l y understood, i s an e v o l v i n g theory of music i n s t r u c t i o n . I t i s an umbrella term that i m p l i e s a h o l i s t i c , i n t e g r a t e d approach to music. I t i s a n o n - s t a t i c term because i t i s always i n a s t a t e of e v o l u t i o n as the p h i l o s o p h y i s i n t e r p r e t e d and used by i n d i v i d u a l t e a c h e r s . A comprehensive musician i s an u l t i m a t e m u s i c a l g o a l t h a t can never be reached completely, but towards which a l l can s t r i v e . In order t o develop depth and breadth of musical l e a r n i n g proponents of comprehensive m u s i c i a n s h i p encourage the use of music from a l l s t y l e s , p e r i o d s and c u l t u r e s ; a broad base of m u s i c a l knowledge -- h i s t o r i c a l , b i o g r a p h i c a l , s t y l i s t i c and v o c a b u l a r y ; and s k i l l development encompassing a u r a l , d e x t r a l and t r a n s l a t a b l e s k i l l s . In order to develop m u s i c i a n s h i p , then, music must be viewed i n a broad 2 3Contemporary Music P r o j e c t , Procedures f o r E v a l u a t i o n of I n s t i t u t e s f o r Music i n Contemporary E d u c a t i o n , (Washington, D.C.: Music Educators N a t i o n a l Conference, 1967), p.1. 22 c o n t e x t . Comprehensive m u s i c i a n s h i p , then, i s a concept of music educ a t i o n that l a y s p a r t i c u l a r s t r e s s on the r e l a t e d n e s s of i d e a s . The elements of music have l i t t l e meaning i n d i v i d u a l l y , but when combined in the s y n t h e s i s , present a mood or f e e l i n g to the l i s t e n e r . I t i s through the breakdown (the a n a l y s i s ) of t h i s whole, and the ensuing s y n t h e s i s of i t s p a r t s , that deeper meaning i s grasped. In order to achieve t h i s a n a l y s i s , comprehensive m u s i c i a n s h i p proponents b e l i e v e that the l e a r n e r must c o n s t a n t l y r e l a t e and compare. In order to compare, one aspect must be d i f f e r e n t i a t e d from another. When the a n a l y s i s of the elements f o r a p a r t i c u l a r aspect are complete, and put back i n t o c o n t e x t , a s y n t h e s i s i s then a c h i e v e d by viewing the whole in a new p e r s p e c t i v e . The narrow way i n which concepts were i n t r o d u c e d and developed i n music e d u c a t i o n i n the past have l e d to experiments i n e x p e r i e n c i n g i n s t a n c e s of the concepts i n a m u l t i t u d e of ways as i n the comprehensive m u s i c i a n s h i p approach. Not only are students i n such a programme expected to experience many i n s t a n c e s i l l u s t r a t i n g a concept, but they are r e q u i r e d to a n a l y z e , e v a l u a t e and use these concepts i n c r e a t i n g compositions, i m p r o v i s i n g and a r r a n g i n g . A l l types, s t y l e s and p e r i o d s of music provide a v a r i e d e x p e r i e n t i a l background. In order to accomplish a l l the a c t i v i t i e s i n v o l v e d , b a s i c m u s i c i a n s h i p s k i l l s ( a u r a l , d e x t r a l and t r a n s l a t a b l e ) must be developed. And f i n a l l y , to gain an o v e r a l l p e r s p e c t i v e i n music, the h i s t o r i c a l and b i o g r a p h i c a l a s p e c t s about music are r e q u i r e d . 23 Developing comprehensive m u s i c i a n s h i p i s not an easy task, but n e i t h e r i s i t an i m p o s s i b l e t a s k . Some v i s i o n of the ba s i c avenues f o r de v e l o p i n g i t are necessary and a d e d i c a t i o n to acc o m p l i s h i n g the s y n t h e s i s i s mandatory. More and more emphasis i n music e d u c a t i o n i s being given to developing m u s i c i a n s h i p . Each teacher who c h e r i s h e s t h i s g o a l w i l l have h i s own procedure f o r the a p p l i c a t i o n of the ideas espoused. There i s no "magic formula", but the teacher's d e d i c a t i o n to the comprehensive m u s i c i a n s h i p p h i l o s o p h y combined with the student's p o t e n t i a l , and the aforementioned i n g r e d i e n t s , can c r e a t e the r i g h t environment f o r de v e l o p i n g comprehensive m u s i c i a n s h i p . The comprehensive m u s i c i a n s h i p concept i s s t i l l , i n the proc e s s of refinement. I t i s p e r c e i v e d as many routes to the same goal and encompasses knowledge, s k i l l s and understanding with depth and breadth i n each. Z o l t a n Kodaly's P r i n c i p l e s and Concept of Music Education Z o l t a n Kodaly, a composer, e t h n o m u s i c o l o g i s t , music educator, author and l i n g u i s t , was born- i n 1882 i n Kecskemet, Hungary and d i e d i n 1967. From 1905 to 1906 Bela Bartok and Kodaly t r i e d to break through the b a r r i e r of the predominance of German music i n Hungary by c o l l e c t i n g and p u b l i s h i n g Hungarian f o l k s o n g s . Through t h e i r e f f o r t s they s t r o v e to gi v e Hungary i t s own r i c h h e r i t a g e of music l o c a t e d i n i t s f o l k c u l t u r e . So grea t was Kodaly's b e l i e f i n the need f o r Hungarians to experie n c e the rhythms and melodies indigenous to t h e i r country 24 that he i n c o r p o r a t e d these f o l k themes i n t o h i s own compositions. Among h i s w r i t i n g s were v o c a l works, f o r pre s c h o o l to hig h s c h o o l students, permeated with the Hungarian f o l k idiom. Kodaly b e l i e v e d that music should be f o r a l l the people not j u s t a s e l e c t few. T h i s means t h a t the masses must be educated m u s i c a l l y . In order to accomplish t h i s he emphasized that music education should begin with the young c h i l d . To a s s i s t teachers with t h i s he composed F i f t y Nursery Songs f o r the very young. Kodaly s t r e s s e d t h a t music e d u c a t i o n begin with the c h i l d ' s own v o i c e , s a y i n g , " I t i s a long accepted t r u t h that s i n g i n g p r o v i d e s the best s t a r t to music e d u c a t i o n . . . " 2 4 In c o n j u n c t i o n with t h i s i s . the concept that the c h i l d should s i n g i n h i s mother-tongue — the language t h a t he speaks and l i s t e n s to and the rhythm t o which he can r e l a t e . Kodaly b e l i e v e d t h at m u s i c a l l i t e r a c y , l i k e l i n g u i s t i c l i t e r a c y , i s the r i g h t of every human being. He s a i d , In 1690...(the) idea that everybody c o u l d l e a r n to read and w r i t e h i s own language was at l e a s t as bold as the idea today that everybody s h o u l d " l e a r n to read music. N e v e r t h e l e s s , t h i s i s something no l e s s p o s s i b l e . 2 5 Along with s t r e s s i n g the value of the Hungarian mu s i c a l c u l t u r e , Kodaly b e l i e v e d that composed music of q u a l i t y from a l l c o u n t r i e s should be taught. 2"Kodaly, i n P r e f a c e to the Volume "Musical Reading and W r i t i n g " by E r z s e b e t Szonyi, The S e l e c t e d W r i t i n g s of Zoltan Kodaly, p.201. 2 5 I b i d . , p.201. 25 That Kodaly's p h i l o s o p h y of l i f e encouraged a well-rounded e x i s t e n c e i s s t a t e d i n the f o l l o w i n g q u o t a t i o n : Every a r t o f f e r s something t h a t i s i t s own and cannot be found i n any ot h e r . Look i n t o a l l a s p e c t s of l i f e , o ther a r t s and s c i e n c e s t o o . 2 6 Kodaly encouraged people to be " s o c i a l human beings" and h e l p one another because ... every person's worth i s measured by how much he can h e l p h i s f e l l o w men and serve h i s co u n t r y . Real a r t i s one of the most powerful f o r c e s i n the r i s e of mankind and he who renders i t a c c e s s i b l e to as many people as p o s s i b l e i s a b e n e f a c t o r of humanity... 2 7 Thus emotional growth i s important f o r today's students who w i l l be tomorrow's t e a c h e r s as they must be equipped "... to e s t a b l i s h a f i r m bond of sympathy with the people so as to b r i n g music ~ i i n t o t h e i r l i v e s . " 2 8 These s o c i a l and emotional growth a s p e c t s Kodaly l a b e l s as "h e a r t " t r a i n i n g . I f one does not have a w e l l - t r a i n e d heart one may become what Kodaly terms a "machine o p e r a t o r " i n the f i e l d of music — going through the motions but v o i d of the human aspect of f e e l i n g . Kodaly a l s o c a l l e d these people " h a l f - m u s i c i a n s " because they d i d not a c q u i r e a f u l l t r a i n i n g i n music. Kodaly l i s t e d the four corner stones of comprehensive music t r a i n i n g as d e v e l o p i n g : 1. a w e l l - t r a i n e d ear 2. a w e l l - t r a i n e d i n t e l l i g e n c e 2 6 Kodaly, "Who i s a Good M u s i c i a n ? p. 198. 2 7 I b i d p.199. 2 8 I b i d p.167. 26 3. a w e l l - t r a i n e d h eart 4. a w e l l - t r a i n e d h a n d 2 9 Kodaly thought a w e l l - t r a i n e d hand was the most developed i n the m a j o r i t y of m u s i c i a n s . A l l f o u r , he says, must develop t o g e t h e r , i n constant e q u i l i b r i u m . To accomplish the above, he recommends the use of " s o l - f a " and the s c i e n c e of form and harmony along with v a r i e d m u s i c a l e x p e r i e n c e s such as p l a y i n g chamber music and s i n g i n g i n chamber c h o i r s . F i r s t and foremost Kodaly emphasized t r a i n i n g the e a r . Kodaly s e l e c t e d three t o o l s f o r t e a c h i n g music. F i r s t he chose the s o l - f a system with the moveable doh because he f e l t t h a t , Through the use of s o l - f a the s i n g e r i s presented with an exact d e f i n i t i o n of the t o n a l f u n c t i o n of each note r a t h e r than i t s exact p i t c h , and thus i t p r o v i d e s f o r c e r t a i n t y of i n t o n a t i o n . I t a l s o d e f i n e s the melodic, and l a t e r , harmonic s i g n i f i c a n c e of what i s sung by r e l a t i n g i t to the o v e r a l l t o n a l scheme. 3 0 Then he adapted and i n c o r p o r a t e d the hand s i g n s used by John Curwen (1816-1880) i n England. (See Appendix F.) F i n a l l y he adopted a rhythm s y l l a b l e system s i m i l a r to t h a t used by Emile- Joseph Cheve (1804-1864) i n France. (See Appendix E.) The m a t e r i a l s Kodaly advocated were a u t h e n t i c f o l k music, a u t h e n t i c c h i l d r e n ' s songs and games, and music of great composers. He f e l t a background i n and experience with music 2 9 I b i d . , p.197. 3 0 Z o l t a n Kodaly C h o r a l Method, (New York: Boosey and Hawkes Pub". Co. , 1 962) , p. 4. " 27 was needed i n order to judge new music. Kodaly wrote music f o r c h i l d r e n because of the lack of Hungarian m a t e r i a l f o r t h i s age group. He saw composing for c h i l d r e n as an important task to which every composer should a t t e n d . In h i s o p i n i o n , i t was an honour to compose f o r c h i l d r e n . Emphasizing that music education should be geared to the development of the c h i l d , he encouraged the arrangement of the t e a c h i n g process i n t o a sequence that p a r a l l e l e d the c h i l d ' s growth and a b i l i t i e s at v a r i o u s stages of development. Using t h i s concept he a d v i s e d s t a r t i n g with "moving" rhythms i n keeping with the c h i l d ' s inner rhythms -- the q u a r t e r note being the walking pace and the e i g h t h note being the running pace. The f i r s t books w r i t t e n using Kodaly's ideas began with the notes mi-re-doh but were l a t e r changed to the c h i l d ' s n a t u r a l chant soh-mi-lah which i s thought to be u n i v e r s a l with c h i l d r e n . In keeping with the p r o g r e s s i o n from simple to more complex, simple duple meter rhythms were pre s e n t e d f i r s t . The range of notes f o r the young v o i c e was l i m i t e d to f i v e or s i x notes and g r a d u a l l y i n c r e a s e d as the c h i l d matured. Kodaly provided the ideas and the impetus f o r music e d u c a t i o n and h i s students and c o l l e a g u e s used and r e f i n e d these i d e a s . Today, v a r i o u s c o u n t r i e s such as the U n i t e d S t a t e s , A u s t r a l i a and Japan have adopted h i s ideas using them i n a s l i g h t l y d i f f e r e n t format depending on t h e i r unique circumstances and n a t i v e languages. 28 The Consensus of the Kodaly and the Comprehensive M u s i c i a n s h i p P r i n c i p l e s of Music E d u c a t i o n The Kodaly p r i n c i p l e s and the comprehensive m u s i c i a n s h i p p r i n c i p l e s i n t e r s e c t i n many ways. One such area of agreement i s i n the types of music to be u t i l i z e d . Although Kodaly d e f i n i t e l y s p e c i f i e s b eginning with mother-tongue songs and p e n t a t o n i c music, he then s t a t e s that "...pentatony i s an i n t r o d u c t i o n to world l i t e r a t u r e : i t i s the key to many f o r e i g n m u s i c a l l i t e r a t u r e s , from the a n c i e n t G r e g o r i a n chant, through China to Debussy." 3 1 Norman D e l l o J o i o , d i r e c t o r of the Contemporary Music P r o j e c t , s t a t e d i n 1973, t h a t there i s a "...need f o r a broader scope of mus i c a l r e p e r t o i r e . " 3 2 To i n c l u d e music of v a r i e d s t y l e s and times i n the music c u r r i c u l u m has become a major aim of the Contemporary Music P r o j e c t as i t has been with Kodaly. Both agree that through broadening r e p e r t o i r e one g a i n s more musical knowledge, s k i l l s and understanding. Another area of consensus i s the common-elements approach. Roach, i n speaking of a comprehensive outlook says t h a t , "Development of concepts of p i t c h , d u r a t i o n , i n t e n s i t y , timbre, and form i s of paramount importance. These are the b u i l d i n g 3 1 K o d a l y , "A Hundred Year P l a n " , p.162. 3 2"Contemporary Music P r o j e c t - Comprehensive M u s i c i a n s h i p , A P r o j e c t of the Music Educators N a t i o n a l Conference", Music Educators J o u r n a l , 59 (September 1973):34. 3 3 D o n a l d W. Roach, "Contemporary Music E d u c a t i o n : A Comprehensive Outlook", Music Educators J o u r n a l , 60 (January 1973):40. 29 b l o c k s of a l l m u s i c . " 3 3 Kodaly b e l i e v e d i n a common-elements approach presented i n the form of b a s i c s i n g i n g t r a i n i n g . Although he d i d not use t h i s term, the approach i s s i m i l a r : the d u r a t i o n or rhythm s y l l a b l e s are spoken and sung; the development of inner h e a r i n g and p i t c h d i s c r i m i n a t i o n through s o l - f a and hand s i g n s are attended t o ; dynamic l e v e l s are used i n e x e r c i s e s as w e l l as songs; timbre of the hi g h , middle and low v o i c e s i s d i s c e r n e d ; and form i s s t u d i e d through v o c a l e x e r c i s e s and song. In r e f e r r i n g to Kodaly's 333 Reading E x e r c i s e s , E r z s e b e t Szonyi says, "The m u s i c a l i t y of the e x e r c i s e s and t h e i r p e r f e c t i o n i n small form are as u s e f u l as they are p l e a s a n t to every beginner, p r o v i d i n g a v a l u a b l e a i d f o r the t e a c h e r . " 3 8 Kodaly a l s o b e l i e v e d t h a t i m p r o v i s i n g develops a sense of form. Thus, the common-elements b a s i c to music comprehension are c o n s i d e r e d fundamental i n both approaches. The student's d i r e c t p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n music through m u s i c i a n l y behaviours i s another p o i n t of agreement. Kodaly b e l i e v e d t h i s was best accomplished i n the beginning with the v o i c e . The comprehensive m u s i c i a n s h i p advocates allow the teacher to choose the medium through which the c h i l d w i l l p a r t i c i p a t e . Kodaly s a i d , " I t i s a long accepted t r u t h that s i n g i n g p r o v i d e s the best s t a r t to music e d u c a t i o n ; moreover, c h i l d r e n should l e a r n to read music before they are provided 3 f t E r z s e b e t S z o n y i , Kodaly's P r i n c i p l e s i n P r a c t i c e , (London: Boosey and Hawkes, 1 973), p.71 . ~~ " 30 with any i n s t r u m e n t . " 3 5 In comprehensive m u s i c i a n s h i p programmes one of the goals i s the performance of music which may be i n the form of s i n g i n g , p l a y i n g an instrument, moving or conducting. Although Kodaly i n s i s t e d t h a t instruments be l e f t u n t i l other p r e r e q u i s i t e s , such as reading and w r i t i n g music were accomplished, he d i d however, encourage the use of movement accompanied by the v o i c e i n s i n g i n g games. Kodaly encouraged such a c t i v i t i e s as b e a t i n g time, c l a p p i n g , tapping and conducting s i n g l y , and i n combinations. Other a s p e c t s of being a m u s i c i a n , such as c r e a t i n g and a n a l y z i n g , were s t r e s s e d and encouraged i n comprehensive m u s i c i a n s h i p programmes. C r e a t i n g encompassed composing, a r r a n g i n g and i m p r o v i s i n g , and a n a l y z i n g i n c o r p o r a t e d l i s t e n i n g and e v a l u a t i n g . By p u t t i n g the student i n the musician's p o s i t i o n comprehensive m u s i c i a n s h i p proponents f e l t more i n s i g h t i n t o and understanding of music would be achieved. Kodaly a l s o encouraged c r e a t i n g through i m p r o v i s i n g with the v o i c e as w e l l as i m p r o v i s i n g with rhythmic elements a l o n e . Through d i c t a t i o n , he f e l t w r i t i n g s k i l l s , c o n c e n t r a t i o n and a keen ear would be developed e n a b l i n g the p u p i l s be f r e e to use these s k i l l s to compose. Kodaly u n d e r l i n e d t h a t , . . . i t i s f i r s t and foremost the composer who needs an i n t e r n a l ear as keen as possible...How can he hear and w r i t e down a c c u r a t e l y what i s sounding w i t h i n the sounds coming from o u t s i d e ? 3 6 3 5 K o d a l y , " P r e f a c e " to the Volume M u s i c a l Reading and W r i t i n g , p.201. 3 6 K o d a l y , "Who i s a Good M u s i c i a n ? " , p.197 31 Of l i s t e n i n g and e v a l u a t i n g Kodaly emphasized t h a t : I n d i v i d u a l s i n g i n g and l i s t e n i n g to music (by means of a c t i v e and p a s s i v e w e l l - a r r a n g e d e x p e r i e n c e s ) develops the ear to such an extent that one understands music one has heard with as much c l a r i t y as though one were - l o o k i n g at a s c o r e . 3 7 The Seminar on Comprehensive M u s i c i a n s h i p that took place at Northwestern U n i v e r s i t y i n 1965 d e c l a r e d i n one of t h e i r " e s s e n t i a l " statements t h a t , "The goal of a u r a l and a n a l y t i c a l t r a i n i n g should be the achievement of more p e n e t r a t i n g i n s i g h t i n t o m u s i c a l s t r u c t u r e . . . " 3 8 T h i s document a l s o s t a t e s t h a t , " T r a i n i n g i n the p r a c t i c e of composition i s an e s s e n t i a l element i n the development of comprehensive m u s i c i a n s h i p . . . " 3 9 Thus the student t a k i n g on the r o l e s of the musician i s p r e v a l e n t i n both p o i n t s of view. Another item that appears i n c e s s a n t l y i n the comprehensive m u s i c i a n s h i p l i t e r a t u r e i s " i n t e g r a t i o n " . In the c o l l e g e designed courses t h i s meant that theory, h i s t o r y , performance, composition and other r e q u i r e d music c o u r s e s were combined to b r i n g r e a l meaning to each p a r t through i n t e r r e l a t i n g one aspect with another. Edwards comments t h a t , I n t e g r a t i o n i s the c e n t r a l p r i n c i p l e around which the comprehensive m u s i c i a n s h i p p h i l o s o p h y r e v o l v e s . I t means that the b a s i c areas of m u s i c i a n s h i p a n a l y z i n g , performing, and c r e a t i n g -- should be e x p e r i e n c e d as u n i f i e d a c t i v i t i e s r a t h e r than s t u d i e d s e p a r a t e l y i n a random fragmented manner." 0 3 7 I b i d . , p.204. 3 ""Contemporary Music P r o j e c t , CMP 2, (Washington, D.C.: Music Educators N a t i o n a l Conference, 1965), pp.46-47. 3 9 I b i d . , p.38. 32 I n t e g r a t i o n was an important p a r t of Kodaly's approach. Kodaly c a l l e d music edu c a t i o n a many-sided e f f o r t and s a i d that musical experience as v a r i e d as p o s s i b l e i s i n d i s p e n s i b l e . He b e l i e v e d that a l l a s p e c t s of music t r a i n i n g must develop together, i n constant e q u i l i b r i u m . S i g h t r e a d i n g , ear t r a i n i n g , s i n g i n g , theory, i m p r o v i s i n g , a n a l y z i n g , composing, c o n d u c t i n g , a r r a n g i n g and moving may a l l be accommodated i n one l e s s o n f o l l o w i n g the. Kodaly concept. Thus, he approved of a h i g h l y i n t e g r a t e d t e a c h i n g method. Edwards s t a t e s that i n the comprehensive m u s i c i a n s h i p approach, The student's a b i l i t y to s y n t h e s i z e h i s musical knowledge depends on how thoroughly the teacher has i n t e g r a t e d the areas of m u s i c i a n s h i p and how w e l l he has taught f o r r e l a t i o n s h i p s among these a r e a s . " Both the Kodaly and comprehensive m u s i c i a n s h i p approach focus on the i n d i v i d u a l student. Werner" 2 suggests that the student should begin to make judgements of h i s own based on h i s knowledge and experience as a c r e a t o r , performer and l i s t e n e r . Kodaly expressed s e v e r a l ways f o r the i n d i v i d u a l to achieve m u s i c a l independence: Try to s i n g , however s m a l l your v o i c e , from w r i t t e n music without the a i d of an instrument. T h i s w i l l sharpen your ear...You must l e a r n to understand music on paper too. Learn the b a s i c laws of harmony e a r l y . Do not be f r i g h t e n e d by words l i k e ; theory, f i g u r e d bass, c o u n t e r p o i n t . Developing the ear i s the most important t h i n g of *°Melinda Edwards, "An I n s t r u c t i o n a l O b j e c t i v e s Model f o r Teaching Comprehensive M u s i c i a n s h i p i n a S e n i o r High School E l e c t i v e Music Course", p.2. " ' I b i d p. 4. " 2Werner, Pe r s o n i f i e d " , p.33. n CMP Means Comprehensive M u s i c i a n s h i p 33 a l l . " 3 Thus, r e a l i z a t i o n of the need f o r knowledge, understanding and s k i l l s to h e l p each student to become m u s i c i a l l y independent i s another p o i n t of consensus. One of the major outcomes of the embryonic comprehensive m u s i c i a n s h i p c u r r i c u l a was the r e a l i z a t i o n and r e i t e r a t i o n of the importance of the t e a c h e r . I f the teacher were not t r u l y comprehensive i n h i s approach and d i d not f u l l y b e l i e v e i n the programme i t seemed to be doomed to f a i l u r e . Comprehensive m u s i c i a n s h i p has to do "...with the goals and a t t i t u d e s that l i e behind the t e a c h e r ' s e f f o r t s . The i n t e g r a t e d comprehensive m u s i c i a n s h i p course r e q u i r e s a comprehensive musician to teach i t . . . ' " " 1 Kodaly's concern was f o r the l a c k of enough w e l l - t r a i n e d p r o f e s s i o n a l t e a c h e r s . He b e l i e v e d that the f i n e s t c u r r i c u l a and the wisest r e g u l a t i o n s i s s u e d from above are of ho value i f there i s nobody to put them i n t o p r a c t i c e with c o n v i c t i o n and enthusiasm. Kodaly even goes so f a r as to say t h a t e v e r y t h i n g depends on the l e a d e r . The teacher, then, i s a key f i g u r e i n c a r r y i n g out both s e t s of p r i n c i p l e s . The g o a l s of the CMP and the Kodaly approach are c l o s e l y a l i g n e d . The 'CMP's.goal i s comprehensive m u s i c i a n s h i p achieved through v a r i o u s channels. For Van S l y k e , "The main goal of the program i s to c r e a t e a more knowledgeable, b e t t e r rounded " 3 K o d a l y , "Who i s a Good M u s i c i a n ? " , p.186. *"Werner, "CMP Means Comprehensive M u s i c i a n s h i p P e r s o n i f i e d , p.33. 34 musical a d u l t p o p u l a t i o n through more complete involvement i n music as s t u d e n t s . " * 5 Kodaly had s i m i l a r g o a l s . Choksy s t a t e s that Kodaly's " . . . f i r s t concern was the m u s i c a l l y l i t e r a t e amateur. He wished to see an education system that c o u l d produce a people to whom music was not a way to make a l i v i n g but a way of l i f e . " " 6 Kodaly wanted to a i d i n the well-balanced s o c i a l and a r t i s t i c development of the c h i l d . H i s c h i e f goal was to develop the power of m u s i c a l comprehension to the highest degree. T h i s , he s a i d , c o u l d only be accomplished through a f u l l t r a i n i n g i n music. I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note that Choksy's book, . The Kodaly Method i s s u b t i t l e d Comprehensive Music Education from I n f a n t to A d u l t showing that the Kodaly p h i l o s o p h y a l s o aims at a comprehensive music e d u c a t i o n . Boyle concurs with Kodaly when he says, "Development of comprehensive musicians not merely competent performers should be the primary g o a l . " " 7 Kodaly s a i d d i s p a r i n g l y at a s o l - f a c o m p e t i t i o n , "They only p l a y with t h e i r f i n g e r s and not with t h e i r heads and h e a r t s . They are not musicians but machine o p e r a t o r s . " " 8 Another major agreement i n the two approaches to music " 5James K. Van S l y k e , as quoted by Woods i n "The Development and E v a l u a t i o n of an Independent School Curriculum S t r e s s i n g Comprehensive M u s i c i a n s h i p at Each L e v e l , Preschool Through Senior High S c h o o l " , p.136. " 6 L o i s Choksy, The Kodaly Method, (Englewood C l i f f s , New J e r s e y : P r e n t i c e - H a l l ^ Inc. , 1974), p.15. * 7 J . David Boyle, "CMP's Summer Workshops - Comprehensive M u s i c i a n s h i p f o r Teachers", Music Educators J o u r n a l , 59 (J u l y 1971):67. " 8Kodaly,"Who i s a Good M u s i c i a n ? " , p.196. 35 e d u c a t i o n i s i n t h e a r e a o f p e d a g o g y . C h o k s y p r o p o s e s t h a t : K o d a l y r e p r e s e n t s a body o f l i v i n g , g r o w i n g t h o u g h t a b o u t m u s i c e d u c a t i o n . I t s h o u l d n o t be f r o z e n i n t o one r i g i d p e d a g o g y . W i t h i n t h e c l e a r l y d e f i n e d p h i l o s o p h y o f K o d a l y many s e q u e n c e s , many t e a c h i n g t e c h n i q u e s s h o u l d be p o s s i b l e . 1 , 9 She b e l i e v e s t h a t t e a c h e r s must d e c i d e upon t h e i r own g o a l s , d e t e r m i n e t h e i r own s e q u e n c e s a n d w r i t e t h e i r own l o n g - r a n g e p l a n s . K o d a l y p r o v i d e d t h e b a s i c p r i n c i p l e s a n d i t i s up t o t h e t e a c h e r t o a s s e s s h i s s t u d e n t s a n d d e v i s e a p l a n t o u t i l i z e t h e s e p r i n c i p l e s . The c o m p r e h e n s i v e m u s i c i a n s h i p p r i n c i p l e s a r e a l s o o u t l i n e d a n d t e a c h e r s a r e e n c o u r a g e d t o d e v e l o p t h e i r own c u r r i c u l a t o meet t h e n e e d s , a b i l i t i e s a n d i n t e r e s t s o f t h e i r p a r t i c u l a r s t u d e n t s . From 1968 t o 1973 t h e CMP g a v e g r a n t s t o t w e n t y - o n e t e a c h e r s t o d e v e l o p a v a r i e t y o f a p p r o a c h e s t o t e a c h i n g m u s i c c o m p r e h e n s i v e l y . F o r W e r n e r , C o m p r e h e n s i v e m u s i c i a n s h i p r e p r e s e n t s b a s i c a l l y an a t t i t u d e o r an a p p r o a c h t o m u s i c e d u c a t i o n w h i c h o f f e r s a s o l i d y e t f l e x i b l e e n o u g h f r a m e w o r k upon w h i c h t h e s t r e n g t h s a n d w e a k n e s s e s o f b o t h t h e f a c u l t y a n d s t u d e n t s c a n be a d a p t e d . 5 0 M i t c h e l l a s s e r t s t h a t , "By d e f i n i t i o n ( c o m p r e h e n s i v e m u s i c i a n s h i p ) h a s no s e t m e t h o d o l o g y , f o r i t t h r i v e s on r e s o u r c e f u l n e s s a n d i n v e n t i v e n e s s i n e n d l e s s l y v a r i e g a t e d ft9Lois C h o k s y , The K o d a l y C o n t e x t , ( E n g l e w o o d C l i f f s , New J e r s e y : P r e n t i c e - H a l l , I n c . , 1 9 8 1 ) , p . 177. 5 0 R o b e r t W e r n e r , "The C o n t e m p o r a r y M u s i c P r o j e c t : The D e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e T h e o r y o f C o m p r e h e n s i v e M u s i c i a n s h i p " , ( p a p e r p r e s e n t e d a t t h e CMP C o n f e r e n c e on C o l l e g e M u s i c C u r r i c u l a , A r l i e H o u s e , V a . , O c t o b e r 2 8 , 1 9 7 0 ) , p . 5 . 36 s i t u a t i o n s . " 5 1 Although d i s c i p l i n a r y t a c t i c s , the media f o r a c h i e v i n g b a s i c m u s i c i a n s h i p and the c h o i c e of t o o l s to reach goals may d i f f e r , i t i s apparent that Kodaly's p r i n c i p l e s of music education and those of the comprehensive m u s i c i a n s h i p proponents have some b a s i c i d e a s i n common. I t i s because the two are c l o s e l y a l l i e d i n c e r t a i n fundamental a s p e c t s that they can be combined i n t o a programme such.as the i n v e s t i g a t o r i s proposing. Chalmers Doane U k u l e l e Programme The Chalmers Doane U k u l e l e Programme has been disseminated p r i m a r i l y through p r o v i n c i a l workshops h e l d a n n u a l l y throughout Canada f o r the l a s t nine y e a r s . H i s two books, Classroom U k u l e l e Method 5 2 and U k u l e l e E n c o r e , 5 3 and the v a r i o u s r e c o r d i n g s that Doane and h i s H a l i f a x student and a d u l t u k u l e l e groups have produced p r o v i d e the backbone for the programme. The o r g a n i z a t i o n " U k u l e l e Yes!", of which Doane i s the p r e s i d e n t , o f f e r s j o u r n a l s and n e w s l e t t e r s of s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t to the classroom u k u l e l e t e a c h e r . The Classroom U k u l e l e Method, a u k u l e l e method f o r classroom t e a c h i n g , i s not intended to be a s e l f - t e a c h method because of s p a r s e l y s c a t t e r e d i n s t r u c t i o n s . Doane has purposely 5 ' W i l l i a m M i t c h e l l , "Observations on the A r l i e House Symposium", MENC H i s t o r i c a l Centre, McKeldin L i b r a r y , U n i v e r s i t y of Maryland, p.3. n.d. 5 2 C h a l m e r s Doane, Classroom U k u l e l e Method, rev. ed. (Waterloo, O n t a r i o : Waterloo Music Co. L t d . , 1980). 5 3 C h a l m e r s Doane, U k u l e l e Encore, (Waterloo, O n t a r i o : Waterloo Music Co. L t d . , 1975). 37 d o n e t h i s t o e n c o u r a g e t e a c h e r s t o a t t e n d i n - s e r v i c e w i t h t e a c h e r s h e h a s p e r s o n a l l y t r a i n e d . T h r o u g h b o t h v o c a l a n d i n s t r u m e n t a l a v e n u e s D o a n e p u r s u e s a u r a l d e v e l o p m e n t s i m i l a r t o t h a t i d e n t i f i e d i n CMP a n d K o d a l y p r o g r a m m e s . T h e o r y , b o t h w r i t t e n a n d a u r a l , i s a l s o a m a j o r c o n c e r n . F o r D o a n e , " A r e a s s u c h a s ' p i c i n g ' , r h y t h m i c s t r u m m i n g , s i g h t r e a d i n g a n d c h a n g i n g c h o r d s b y e a r , s h o u l d b e e m p h a s i z e d a c c o r d i n g t o t h e s t u d e n t ' s n e e d s . " 5 4 He o u t l i n e s t h e f o u r o b j e c t i v e s o f h i s u k u l e l e c o u r s e a s f o l l o w s : 1. t o t e a c h t h e b a s i c s k i l l s o f u k u l e l e p l a y i n g 2. t o p r e s e n t e a r t r a i n i n g i n d i r e c t l y 3. t o t e a c h t h e b a s i c c o n c e p t s o f t h e o r y 4. t o i n c r e a s e t h e s t u d e n t ' s e n j o y m e n t o f m u s i c 5 5 T h e m e t h o d b o o k c o n s i s t s o f t h i r t y l e s s o n s w h i c h p r o v i d e a s k e l e t a l s t r u c t u r e f o r s t a r t i n g t h e p r o g r a m m e w h i c h c a n o n l y be i m p l e m e n t e d b y a k n o w l e d g e a b l e t e a c h e r . I t i s a s s u m e d t h a t t h e s o n g s p r e s e n t e d a r e w e l l known t o t h e t e a c h e r a s i n many c a s e s n o m u s i c i s g i v e n , j u s t w o r d s , c h o r d s a n d s t a r t i n g p i t c h e s . D o a n e c a u t i o n s t h e t e a c h e r t o p r o c e e d s l o w l y w i t h t h e a s s i g n m e n t s i n t h i s b o o k . D o a n e ' s s e c o n d b o o k , U k u l e l e E n c o r e , i s e s s e n t i a l l y a b o o k o f s o n g s a n d a r r a n g e m e n t s f o r t h e v o i c e a n d u k u l e l e . I t p r o v i d e s a c o n v e n i e n t i n i t i a l r e p e r t o i r e f o r t h e t e c h n i c a l s k i l l s i n t r o d u c e d i n t h e m e t h o d b o o k . T h e s e l e c t i o n s i n t h i s b o o k may b e p e r f o r m e d b y g r o u p s o r s o l o i s t s . He v e r i f i e s t h a t 5 " C h a l m e r s D o a n e , C l a s s r o o m U k u l e l e M e t h o d , p . 3 . 5 5 I b i d . , p . 4 . < 38 a l l the arrangements have been " . . . s u c c e s s f u l l y used with u k u l e l e groups before f i n d i n g t h e i r way i n t o t h i s book." 5 6 I t i s of importance to Doane that n o t h i n g i s added to the programme i n terms of pedagogy, m a t e r i a l s or c u r r i c u l u m u n t i l i t has been p i l o t e d i n classrooms by teachers and ev a l u a t e d i n terms of e f f e c t i v e n e s s i n b u i l d i n g an o p e r a t i o n a l musical c a p a b i l i t y . The s p e c i f i c s of the Doane c u r r i c u l u m can be found i n what are known w i t h i n the programme as the "workshop l e v e l s " . For teachers, s i x l e v e l s are p r e s e n t l y i d e n t i f i e d w i t h i n a basic c o n c e p t u a l framework of ten ar e a s of growth i n s k i l l s and m u s i c i a n s h i p : s c a l e s , reading s k i l l s , strumming techniques, chord p a t t e r n s , s o l o s k i l l s , ear t r a i n i n g , p l a y i n g by ear, i m p r o v i s a t i o n , s i n g i n g and the o r y . The Doane programme s t a r t s with both the v o i c e and u k u l e l e at the same time. Because of the d e f i c i e n c i e s which f r e q u e n t l y e x i s t i n the music background of beginning u k u l e l e students, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n a g e n e r a l classroom, Doane has developed v o c a l and i n s t r u m e n t a l techniques to h e l p overcome i n i t i a l weaknesses. An example of t h i s i s the concept of " s i n g i n g the s t r i n g s " , an e f f e c t i v e and a c c e s s i b l e entry i n t o v o c a l harmonization based on the c l o s e s i m i l a r i t y of the instrument's f i r s t p o s i t i o n range and the v o c a l range of elementary school c h i l d r e n . T h i s not only p r o v i d e s the i n t e r e s t of song harmonization but a l s o a s s i s t s a u r a l development. H i s comment t h a t , "When you can 5 6 C h a l m e r s Doane, U k u l e l e Encore, p.3. 39 harmonize... the world i s y o u r s . " 5 7 i n d i c a t e s a major area of emphasis i n h i s approach. Because an i n n o v a t i v e programme such as t h i s s t a r t s without a resource p o o l of developed m a t e r i a l s , content and c u r r i c u l u m , the Doane programme i s s t i l l i n a process of steady e v o l u t i o n . The r e c e n t l y i n t r o d u c e d A Music Reading Program f o r U k u l e l e 5 8 was p u b l i s h e d only a f t e r some three years of continuous r e v i s i o n r e s u l t i n g from the a c t u a l classroom experience of t e a c h e r s using i t . I n t e r e s t i n g to note a l s o i s the g r a d u a l i n c l u s i o n of r e l e v a n t p l a y i n g techniques from the u k u l e l e ' s companion instruments, the mandolin and the g u i t a r . Doane promotes an e x p e r i e n t i a l use of the u k u l e l e i n c o r p o r a t i n g a l l the musical concepts. His c u r r i c u l u m c o n t a i n s the f o l l o w i n g : 1. v a r i e d time s i g n a t u r e s i n simple time 2. l i t e r a c y s k i l l s with a s t a r t i n g p o i n t i n the key of D, a beginning determined by the instrument's open s t r i n g t u n i n g of A, D F# B and moving through the keys of G, C, F, Bb and A 3. r i g h t hand strumming techniques, l a r g e l y unique to the instrument, which i n c l u d e on-beat, o f f - beat and syncopated accent p a t t e r n s 4. a d a p t a t i o n of r i g h t hand g u i t a r and mandolin tech n i q u e s 5. chords f o r a l l keys: major, minor, dominant and d i m i n i s h e d u t i l i z i n g b a s i c p a t t e r n s and barr i n g . 6. music theory: n o t a t i o n , i n t e r v a l s , s c a l e 5 7 C h a l m e r s Doane, "A New Look at the Keyboard", U k u l e l e Yes, 4 (1979):9. 5 8Marven S h i e l d s , A Music Reading Program f o r U k u l e l e . (Waterloo, O n t a r i o : Waterloo Music Co., 1982). 40 s t r u c t u r e , t r a n s p o s i t i o n , a n d i n t r o d u c t o r y h a r m o n y i n t e r m s o f c h o r d s e q u e n c e a n d m o d u l a t i o n 7. t h e s t u d y o f s c a l e s a s c e n t r a l t o t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f i n s t r u m e n t a l p l a y i n g s k i l l s i n c l u d i n g t h e i r h a r m o n i z a t i o n a s a r e q u i r e m e n t f o r c o m b i n i n g m e l o d y a n d h a r m o n y i n s o l o p e r f o r m a n c e 8. p l a y i n g b y e a r , m e l o d i c a l l y a n d h a r m o n i c a l l y a n d t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n o f i m p r o v i s a t i o n a s a t e a c h a b l e m u s i c a l s k i l l 9. s i n g i n g W h i l e h i s r e p e r t o i r e c o n s i s t s m a i n l y o f t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y p o p u l a r m u s i c , j a z z a n d f o l k s o n g s , t h e a d a p t a b i l i t y o f t h i s i n s t r u m e n t s u g g e s t s t h e c a p a c i t y o f s u b s t a n t i a l e n l a r g e m e n t o f i t s r e p e r t o i r e . I t m u s t b e r e m e m b e r e d t h a t t h i s a p p r o a c h , t h e f i r s t t o u t i l i z e a r e l a t i v e l y s o p h i s t i c a t e d s t r i n g i n s t r u m e n t f o r s t u d e n t s n i n e t o t w e l v e y e a r s o l d , o n a m a s s b a s i s , i s s t i l l i n i t s i n f a n c y . No p r e - e x i s t i n g r e p e r t o i r e l i k e t h a t a v a i l a b l e f o r t h e r e c o r d e r l i e s r e a d y a t h a n d . T h e f a c t t h a t some D o a n e - t r a i n e d s p e c i a l i s t s h a v e a l r e a d y made a s t a r t o n a d a p t i n g c l a s s i c a l r e p e r t o i r e s u g g e s t s t h a t a r a n g e o f m u s i c a l s t y l e s w i l l g r a d u a l l y b e a v a i l a b l e f o r t h e i n s t r u m e n t . T h e D o a n e m e t h o d h a s a s i t s g o a l " . . . n o t t o l e a r n p i e c e s , b u t r a t h e r , t o b e c o m e a m u s i c i a n . " 5 9 F o r h i m a m u s i c i a n i s , . . . s o m e o n e who t h i n k s h e i s a m u s i c i a h . . . w h e n a s t u d e n t t h i n k s e n o u g h o f h i s own a b i l i t y t o p l a y , s i g h t r e a d , w r i t e o r s i n g m u s i c t h a t h e c o u n t s h i m s e l f a s b e i n g a m u s i c i a n , t h e n t h e t e a c h e r ' s m a i n j o b h a s b e e n a c c o m p l i s h e d . 6 0 5 9 C h a l m e r s D o a n e , " P r e s i d e n t ' s M e s s a g e " , U k u l e l e Y e s , 2 2 ( 1 9 7 7 ) : 1 . 41 The a e s t h e t i c a t t r i b u t e s f o r h i s method are addressed when Doane says: Music c r e a t e s i n the human s o u l an emotional response capable of extreme and d i r e c t communication without the use of language. The u k u l e l e i s one of the best means of s t a r t i n g students along the road to t h i s e n d . 6 1 The Doane programme i s a unique Canadian approach to music e d u c a t i o n . I t s Canadian content makes i t e s p e c i a l l y a t t r a c t i v e f o r use i n Canadian s c h o o l s but i t s broad c o n c e p t u a l base makes the programme adaptable f o r musics of other c o u n t r i e s as w e l l . Doane's comprehensive m u s i c i a n s h i p outlook i s manifested by h i s i n c l u s i o n of v a r i o u s s t y l e s of performance. The r e c o r d i n g s show a focus on the performing a c t i v i t i e s of read i n g and p l a y i n g and the o r g a n i z i n g a c t i v i t y of a r r a n g i n g . Due to i t s grass r o o t s beginnings and q u a l i t y of r e p e r t o i r e l i t t l e s e r i o u s c o n s i d e r a t i o n has been given t o the Doane programme. The author, however, has p e r s o n a l l y used i t f o r s e v e r a l years and found i t t o be a very e x c i t i n g and p r o d u c t i v e way of t e a c h i n g music. Some of the u s e f u l and e s s e n t i a l a s p e c t s of Doane's programme are i n c o r p o r a t e d i n the phases presented here i n Appendix A, B and C. 6 0 I b i d . , p.1. 6 1 I b i d . , p.1. 42 M a n h a t t a n v i l l e M u s i c C u r r i c u l u m P r o g r a m m e s T h e MMCP I n t e r a c t i o n a n d t h e MMCP S y n t h e s i s a r e t w o o f t h e m a j o r p r o d u c t s o f t h e M a n h a t t a n v i l l e M u s i c C u r r i c u l u m P r o g r a m m e ( M M C P ) . F r o m 1965 t o 1970 t h i s p r o j e c t was s p o n s o r e d b y t h e A r t s a n d H u m a n i t i e s P r o g r a m m e o f t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s O f f i c e o f E d u c a t i o n . T h e MMCP I n t e r a c t i o n i s a c o m p r e h e n s i v e m u s i c p r o g r a m m e f o r e a r l y c h i l d h o o d . " I t h a s b e e n d e v e l o p e d a s a b a s i c e x p e r i e n c e i n m u s i c i a n s h i p f o r c h i l d r e n o f t h e p r e - p r i m a r y a n d p r i m a r y g r a d e s . " 6 2 I n t e r a c t i o n i s p r o c e s s - o r i e n t e d a c c e n t u a t i n g p e r s o n a l i n v o l v e m e n t . T h e f o c u s i s o n s o u n d a n d o n m u s i c i n a n a u r a l f o r m w i t h n o e m p h a s i s o n n o t a t i o n . T h i s p r o g r a m m e c a n b e i m p l e m e n t e d b y t h e c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r g u i d i n g a n d i n i t i a t i n g m u s i c a l a c t i v i t i e s a n d . i n t e g r a t i n g t h e m w i t h many a c t i v i t i e s d u r i n g t h e d a y . T h e a u t h o r s s t a t e t h a t t h e p r o g r a m m e i s n o t a n e x c l u s i v e l e a r n i n g p l a n . A l t h o u g h t h e a c t i v i t i e s i n t h e b o o k a r e o r i e n t e d t o t h e c r e a t i v e , d i s c o v e r y , e x p l o r a t o r y a n d j u d g m e n t a l a s p e c t s , o t h e r e x p e r i e n c e s a r e p r e s e n t e d s u c h a s g r o u p a n d i n d i v i d u a l s i n g i n g , l i s t e n i n g a c t i v i t i e s , d a n c i n g , p a i n t i n g a n d t h e a t r e . T h e a u t h o r s s t a t e , . . . t h e s t u d y m u s t p r o v i d e t h e c h i l d w i t h t h e f u l l e s t e x p e r i e n c e s i n m u s i c a s d i c t a t e d b y t h e n a t u r e o f t h e a r t . He m u s t b e c o m e i n v o l v e d i n t h e t o t a l p r o c e s s , c o m p o s i n g , p e r f o r m i n g , c o n d u c t i n g , l i s t e n i n g w i t h c r i t i c a l a w a r e n e s s , a n d e v a l u a t i n g . 6 3 6 2 A m e r i c o l e B i a s i n i , R o n a l d T h o m a s & L e n o r e P o g o n o w s k i , MMCP I n t e r a c t i o n , ( B a r d o n i a , New Y o r k : M e d i a M a t e r i a l s , I n c . , 1 9 7 0 ) , p . v . 6 3 I b i d . , p . 5 , 6 . 43 T h e f i v e a r e a s w i t h w h i c h t h i s c u r r i c u l u m d e a l s a r e a s f o l l o w s : 1. e x p e r i e n c e w i t h i n t h e c r e a t i v e p r o c e s s 2. d e v e l o p m e n t o f s e n s i t i v i t y t o s o u n d s 3. u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f b a s i c c o n c e p t s o f m u s i c a l e l e m e n t s 4. a c q u i s i t i o n o f s i m p l e s k i l l s w h i c h a l l o w t h e c h i l d t o o p e r a t e a s a c r e a t i v e m u s i c i a n 5. d e v e l o p m e n t o f p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d m u s i c a n d s e l f . 6 " T h e d e v e l o p m e n t a l p h a s e s o f m u s i c a l e x p l o r a t i o n a r e f r e e e x p l o r a t i o n , g u i d e d e x p l o r a t i o n , e x p l o r a t o r y i m p r o v i s a t i o n , p l a n n e d i m p r o v i s a t i o n a n d r e a p p l i c a t i o n . E a c h p h a s e i s l a i d o u t w i t h s a m p l e e n c o u n t e r s , p r i n c i p a l i d e a s , o b j e c t i v e s , p r o c e d u r e s a n d e v a l u a t i o n m a k i n g i t r e l a t i v e l y e a s y f o r t h e c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r t o f o l l o w . An a l t e r n a t e s e r i e s o f e n c o u n t e r s i s g i v e n f o r t e a c h e r s n e e d i n g m o r e m a t e r i a l o r w i s h i n g t o e x t e n d t h e p r o c e s s i n t o t h e i n t e r m e d i a t e g r a d e s . T h e s e i n c l u d e m e n t a l e n c o u n t e r s a n d v o c a l e n c o u n t e r s . A g l o s s a r y o f t e r m s , l i s t o f u n c o n v e n t i o n a l s o u n d s o u r c e s , b i b l i o g r a p h y , a n d d i s c o g r a p h y f u r n i s h a d d i t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n a t e a c h e r m i g h t n e e d . T h e MMCP S y n t h e s i s o n t h e o t h e r h a n d , e m p h a s i z e s c o n c e p t a n d s k i l l d e v e l o p m e n t a s w e l l a s e x p e r i e n c e i n t h e p r o c e s s e s o f m u s i c i a n s h i p . I t i n c o r p o r a t e s a s p i r a l a p p r o a c h i n p r e s e n t i n g t h e s e m u s i c a l c o n c e p t s . T h e S y n t h e s i s , w h i c h i s s u i t a b l e f r o m i n t e r m e d i a t e g r a d e s t o c o l l e g e l e v e l , r e q u i r e s t h e t e a c h e r t o b e a k n o w l e d g e a b l e m u s i c i a n . 6 4 I b i d . , p . 9 . 44 The S y n t h e s i s c o n s i s t s of s i x t e e n c y c l e s or s p i r a l s and s t r a t e g i e s grouped i n f o u r s . Each c y c l e c o n s i s t s of the musical concepts to be encountered under the s u b t i t l e s timbre, dynamics, form, p i t c h and rhythm. The s k i l l s f o r each c y c l e are l i s t e d under a u r a l , dextrous and t r a n s l a t i v e f o l l o w e d by a l i s t of vocabulary f o r each c y c l e . Sample s t r a t e g i e s are then presented to give the teacher d i r e c t i o n i n how to set up the environment to accomplish the t a s k s . Suggested l i s t e n i n g examples are g i v e n . Sometimes o p t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s or p o s s i b l e extensions are l i s t e d . Of a d d i t i o n a l value are the c y c l e index, concept index, b i b l i o g r a p h y and e x t e n s i v e d i s c o g r a p h y under headings such • as c o n t r a s t i n g sounds, complementary sounds, d u r a t i o n , dynamics, p i t c h , modes, motives, canons and fugues, o s t i n a t i , polyphony, animal sounds, machines, mood, p o r t r a i t s and so on. These two major p r o d u c t i o n s of the MMCP have importance i n that they e x p l o r e f e l t needs i n music e d u c a t i o n . The authors b e l i e v e t h a t these needs can be met by viewing music education in the f o l l o w i n g ways: 1. Music must be comprehended from w i t h i n and f l o u r i s h as an outward e x p r e s s i o n of the i n d i v i d u a l through t a k i n g the p a r t of a musician — c r e a t i n g music i n v a r i o u s ways and responding to music in v a r i o u s ways. 2. The music experience i s a very i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c happening as each c h i l d b r i n g s h i s own m u s i c a l background to the music c l a s s . 3. Music must be r e l e v a n t to the c h i l d as we cannot e l i m i n a t e what the c h i l d hears o u t s i d e of s c h o o l . 4. A u r a l d i s c r i m i n a t i o n i s of paramount importance in the music e x p e r i e n c e . The w r i t e r s do not advocate imposing v a l u e s on the c h i l d but 45 s t r e s s i n t e l l i g e n t l i s t e n i n g with s e n s i t i v i t y . 5. The music programme must be h i g h l y s t r u c t u r e d and yet open-ended a l l o w i n g f o r perso n a l embellishments. The pervading idea i s , " T o t a l i t y of experience i n the musical process i s e s s e n t i a l to the development of m u s i c a l i t y . . . " 6 5 where m u s i c a l i t y i s d e f i n e d as " r e f i n e d s e n s i t i v i t y " . Ronald Thomas u n d e r l i n e s that m u s i c i a n s h i p cannot be a c q u i r e d but can be f a c i l i t a t e d by the a c q u i s i t i o n of s k i l l s and data through d i v e r s e e x p e r i e n c e s . The ideas put f o r t h i n the MMCP are not new but place a d i f f e r e n t emphasis on the above a s p e c t s . T h i s new way of lo o k i n g at music edu c a t i o n has s t i m u l a t e d o t h e r s to review t h e i r c u r r i c u l a and r e a s s e s s t h e i r p rocesses of music edu c a t i o n . The Syn t h e s i s i s s t i l l being r e v i s e d , adapted and implemented by teacher s i n t e r e s t e d i n i t s b a s i c p h i l o s o p h y . For example, Steven Z v e n g r o w s k i 6 6 p a t t e r n e d h i s s p i r a l c y c l e f o r developing m u s i c i a n s h i p u s i n g the g u i t a r on the MMCP S y n t h e s i s . 6 5 R o n a l d B. Thomas, MMCP S y n t h e s i s : A S t r u c t u r e f o r Music Ed u c a t i o n , ( E l i n o r a , New York: Media, Inc., 1970), p.21. ~ 6 6 S t e p h e n Zvengrowski, "The Treatment of Idi o m a t i c S o n o r i t y i n S e l e c t e d Compositions f o r the G u i t a r as a Cur r i c u l u m Source f o r Comprehensive M u s i c i a n s h i p " , (Ph.D. D i s s e r t a t i o n , Northwestern U n i v e r s i t y , 1978). 46 The Hawaii Music Program The Hawaii Music Program was developed under the spon s o r s h i p of the C o l l e g e of E d u c a t i o n C u r r i c u l u m Research and Development Group at the U n i v e r s i t y of Hawaii. The t o t a l programme i s a u n i f i e d K-12 comprehensive m u s i c i a n s h i p c u r r i c u l u m . The programme i s d i v i d e d i n t o f i v e zones: zone 1 e q u i v a l e n t to k i n d e r g a r t e n and grade one; zone 2 e q u i v a l e n t to grades two and t h r e e ; zone 3 e q u i v a l e n t to grades f o u r , f i v e and s i x ; zone 4 e q u i v a l e n t t o grades seven and e i g h t ; and zone 5 e q u i v a l e n t to grades nine, t e n , e l e v e n and twelve. Zones 1, 2 and 3 make up the Comprehensive M u s i c i a n s h i p Through Classroom Music s e r i e s . Each grade c o n t a i n s a book d e s i g n a t e d A, B or C and each l e t t e r can be o v e r l a p p e d i n t o the p r e c e d i n g or higher grade l e v e l . For example, grade s i x i s d e s i g n a t e d zone 3, book C, but can be used i n grade f i v e , seven and e i g h t . The zone most p e r t i n e n t to t h i s study i s zone 3, because of the grade l e v e l s . Because the programme developed i n t h i s study i s both v o c a l and i n s t r u m e n t a l , the Comprehensive M u s i c i a n s h i p Through Band Performance and Comprehensive M u s i c i a n s h i p Through C h o r a l Performance are a p p l i c a b l e to some e x t e n t . Zone 3: For each l e v e l , A, B and C, there i s both a teacher t e x t and a student t e x t . The student t e x t i s both a songbook and a workbook. The i n t r o d u c t i o n to each book s t a t e s , " I t i s assumed that students who p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h i s course w i l l have s u c c e s s f u l l y 47 completed e a r l i e r courses of the program or courses of s i m i l a r s u b s t a n c e . " 6 7 Zone 3 c o n s i s t s of four u n i t s d i v i d i n g the s c h o o l year i n t o q u a r t e r s . Each u n i t has s e v e r a l s e c t i o n s which r e q u i r e one or more le s s o n s to complete. A s e c t i o n may have one or more concepts to be s t u d i e d . The b a s i c concepts are l i s t e d as tone, rhythm, melody, harmony, t e x t u r e , t o n a l i t y and form. Tone i n c l u d e s the subconcepts of p i t c h , d u r a t i o n and timbre. Each s e c t i o n l i s t s concepts, o b j e c t i v e s , key terms, m a t e r i a l s , a c t i v i t i e s such as s i n g i n g , d i s c u s s i n g , p l a y i n g instruments, a n a l y z i n g , n o t a t i n g , p l u s a d d i t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s to be used at the t e a c h e r ' s d i s c r e t i o n . Each s e c t i o n i n the teacher's e d i t i o n ends with a c h e c k l i s t f o r the t e a c h e r ' s use. The songs and r e c o r d i n g s r e p r e s e n t a v a r i e t y of c u l t u r e s , s t y l e s and p e r i o d s . The teacher i s encouraged to s e l e c t other songs and r e c o r d i n g s to supplement the course. As s t a t e d i n the p r e f a c e : A major premise of the Hawaii Music Program i s that music should be experienced and s t u d i e d through p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n many d i f f e r e n t m u s i c i a n l y r o l e s , a l l of which r e q u i r e a h i g h degree of i n d i v i d u a l i z e d a c t i v i t y . S ince a goal of the program i s to h e l p each student d i s c o v e r one or more r o l e s through which he may p a r t i c i p a t e most s u c c e s s f u l l y , a t t e n t i o n should i n i t i a t e procedures t h a t w i l l permit each student to p r o g r e s s at h i s own r a t e of l e a r n i n g . T h i s may be accomplished as the m u s i c a l s t r e n g t h s and weaknesses of students are i d e n t i f i e d , a n d as students develop t h e i r own p e r s o n a l s k i l l s as i m p r o v i s e r s , composers, i n s t r u m e n t a l i s t s , l i s t e n e r s , dancers, and a n a l y s t s . 6 8 6 7 W i l l i a m Hughes, Comprehensive M u s i c i a n s h i p Through Classroom Music, Zone 3, (Menlo Park, C a l i f o r n i a : Addison-Wesley Pub.Co., 1974), p . i i i . I b i d . , p.v. 48 At the end of each u n i t a summary e v a l u a t i o n worksheet i s gi v e n p r e s c r i b i n g ways to as s e s s students i n d i v i d u a l l y as they apply the concepts they have s t u d i e d to new m u s i c a l s i t u a t i o n s . The teacher i s f r e e to extend or modify these procedures a c c o r d i n g to h i s own needs. Betty M. Kanable, U n i v e r s i t y of Texas, A u s t i n , i n her review of Comprehensive M u s i c i a n s h i p Through Classroom Music S e r i e s , says that i t i s t r u e to the comprehensive m u s i c i a n s h i p p h i l o s o p h y i n t h a t , The (comprehensive m u s i c i a n s h i p ) a t t i t u d e i s one of openness to a l l m u s i c a l s t y l e s and t r a d i t i o n s as resou r c e s f o r d e v e l o p i n g m u s i c a l understandings; i t a l l o w s f o r f l e x i b i l i t y i n the c h o i c e of m a t e r i a l s and te a c h i n g approaches. i n the s t u d e n t - c e n t r e d , e x p e r i e n c e - o r i e n t e d c l a s s r o o m . 6 9 Zone 4 and 5: Comprehensive M u s i c i a n s h i p Through Band Performance These zones c o n s i s t of f i v e or s i x u n i t s each c o n t a i n i n g a composition f o r f u l l band as a core study. The u n i t s are c o n s i d e r e d t o be models f o r the study of mu s i c a l concepts. Each u n i t i n c l u d e s o b j e c t i v e s . . . A c t i v i t i e s f o r comprehensive m u s i c i a n s h i p , and e v a l u a t i o n g u i d e s . . . A c t i v i t i e s f o r f u l l band and small ensembles are p r o v i d e d and c o r r e l a t e d . 7 0 The compositions are chosen to broaden understanding of 6 9 B e t t y M. Kanable, book review of "Comprehensive M u s i c i a n s h i p Through Classroom Music S e r i e s " , J o u r n a l of Research i n Music E d u c a t i o n , 23 ( A p r i l 1975):92. 7 0 B r e n t H e i s i n g e r , Comprehensive M u s i c i a n s h i p Through Band Performance, Zone 4, (Menlo Park, C a l i f o r n i a : Addison-Wesley Pub. Co., 1973), p.v. 49 c o n c e p t s , p o r t r a y d i v e r s e m u s i c a l s t y l e s a n d t o p r o v i d e c o n c e r t m a t e r i a l . T h e p u r p o s e o f t h e s m a l l e n s e m b l e s i s t o i n v o l v e s t u d e n t s i n t h e p e r f o r m a n c e o f c h a m b e r m u s i c , s t a r t s t u d e n t s c o m p o s i n g , g i v e s t u d e n t s o p p o r t u n i t i e s t o r e h e a r s e a n d c o n d u c t o t h e r s , a n d p r o v i d e s m a l l g r o u p s f o r a n a l y s i s , p r a c t i c e a n d s t u d y o f m u s i c . S m a l l g r o u p s a r e d e s i g n e d t o r e i n f o r c e a n d e x t e n d u n d e r s t a n d i n g a n d r e f i n e p e r f o r m a n c e s . T h e s t u d e n t i s a l s o e x p e c t e d t o a c q u i r e f r o m t h e s m a l l g r o u p e x p e r i e n c e s k n o w l e d g e a b o u t : 1. s m a l l e n s e m b l e p e r f o r m a n c e s 2. b a s i c n o t a t i o n 3. f u n d a m e n t a l o r c h e s t r a t i o n a n d 4. b a s i c r e h e a r s a l t e c h n i q u e s 7 1 E a c h u n i t h a s e v a l u a t i o n q u e s t i o n s a t t h e e n d . I t s p u r p o s e i s t o d e t e r m i n e t o w h a t e x t e n t o b j e c t i v e s h a v e b e e n m e t . E v e r y s t u d e n t i s e x p e c t e d t o h a v e a c o p y o f t h e s t u d e n t n o t e b o o k . I n c l u d e d i n t h e n o t e b o o k a r e s c o r e e x c e r p t s f o r a n a l y s i s , h o m e w o r k e x a m p l e s a n d e n s e m b l e e x e r c i s e s . I n some e x e r c i s e s t h e s t u d e n t i s e x p e c t e d t o s i n g m e l o d i c i n t e r v a l s , p r a c t i s e c o u n t i n g a l o u d u s i n g a n y m e t h o d p r e f e r r e d a n d s i n g s o n g s a n d p a r t s . O t h e r a c t i v i t i e s i n c l u d e : p e r f o r m i n g o n a n i n s t r u m e n t , t a k i n g r h y t h m i c a n d m e l o d i c d i c t a t i o n , i m p r o v i s i n g , t r a n s p o s i n g , i d e n t i f y i n g a n d p l a y i n g b y e a r , a n a l y z i n g ( v i s u a l l y a n d a u r a l l y ) , d e s c r i b i n g , a p p r a i s i n g , i d e n t i f y i n g , i n t e r p r e t i n g , l i s t e n i n g , i m p r o v i s i n g , c o m p o s i n g , m a p p i n g , t r a n s c r i b i n g , r e s e a r c h i n g , c o m p a r i n g , s y n t h e s i z i n g a n d d i s c u s s i n g . 7 1 1 b i d . , p . v i i . 50 Zone 5: Comprehensive M u s i c i a n s h i p Through Ch o r a l Performance T h i s c o n s i s t s of four books (A, B, C and D) designed f o r grades nine through twelve. The r a t i o n a l e u n d e r l y i n g the program emphasizes the interdependence of mu s i c a l knowledge and musical performance...The c u r r i c u l u m i s s e q u e n t i a l l y planned so that primary understandings are r e v i s i t e d , expanded and r e i n f o r c e d . In t h i s way, students grasp the wholeness of music, the i n t e r r e l a t e d n e s s of making and t h i n k i n g m u s i c . 7 2 Each book c o n t a i n s seven u n i t s - one f o r each of the b a s i c concepts i d e n t i f i e d i n the s e r i e s . The four compositions i n c l u d e d i n each u n i t , are v a r i e d i n terms of performing d i f f i c u l t y , m u s i c a l s t y l e and e t h n i c d e r i v a t i o n . Each book can be c o n s i d e r e d a c e n t r a l core f o r one year's study. However, the teacher i s encouraged to supplement with h i s own m a t e r i a l . One unique p a r t of t h i s c h o r a l method i s the i n c o r p o r a t i o n of non- Western music. The purpose of the e v a l u a t i o n procedures at the end of each u n i t i s to determine to what extent the o b j e c t i v e s which are l i s t e d a t the beginning of the u n i t have been met. Summary of The Hawaii Music Program The Hawaii Music Program f o l l o w s the comprehensive m u s i c i a n s h i p p h i l o s o p h y i n the f o l l o w i n g r e s p e c t s : 1. I t i s s e q u e n t i a l . 2. I t encourages c o n t i n u i t y of programme from K to 12. 3. I t i s c h i l d - c e n t r e d — a l l o w s i n d i v i d u a l i z a t i o n . 4. I t focuses on music as the study of music. 7 2 B r e n t H e i s i n g e r , Comprehensive M u s i c i a n s h i p Through C h o r a l Performance, Zone 5, (Menlo Park, C a l i f o r n i a : Addison- Wesley Pub.Co., 1973), p.v. 51 5. I t covers a d i v e r s i t y of musics. 6. I t encourages teacher and student i n p u t . 7. I t allows p u p i l s to p a r t i c i p a t e i n m u s i c i a n l y r o l e s . 8. I t i n t e g r a t e s concepts and a c t i v i t i e s . 9. I t i s comprehensive i n t h a t i t c o v e r s concepts, b a s i c s k i l l s , music knowledge and performance. 10. I t c o n s i d e r s e v a l u a t i o n an e s s e n t i a l p a r t of t e a c h i n g and l e a r n i n g . 11. I t s main purpose i s to h e l p the student understand music and thereby a i d the development of comprehensive m u s i c i a n s h i p . The Hawaii Music P r o j e c t s t a f f c o n s i s t e d of ten people, each a s s i g n e d to d i f f e r e n t areas and zones, but a l l committed to the same p h i l o s o p h y . The purpose of t h e i r e f f o r t s i n t h i s s e r i e s i s " . . . t o enhance by a focus on m u s i c a l concepts a l r e a d y e x i s t i n g musical a c t i v i t i e s " . 7 3 Other Programmes I n c o r p o r a t i n g Kodaly Techniques I. Colour S t r i n g s 7 a (student book and handbook f o r t e a c h e r s and p a r e n t s ) T h i s Kodaly based v i o l i n method d e v i s e d by the Hungarian music educator Geza S z i l v a y was produced i n H e l s i n k i , F i n l a n d with the h e l p of an a r t grant from the F i n n i s h M i n i s t r y of E d u c a t i o n . The success of i t s implementation was a t t e s t e d to at the I n t e r n a t i o n a l S o c i e t y of Music Educators i n London, O n t a r i o i n 1978, the many c o n c e r t s g i v e n i n Europe, U n i t e d S t a t e s and 7 3 I b i d . , p.v. 7 0 G e z a S z i l v a y , C o l o u r S t r i n g s , V i o l i n , ( H e l s i n k i , F i n l a n d : Fazer, 1980). 52 A u s t r a l i a , and by the F i n n i s h B r o a d c a s t i n g Company's 38-part p e d a g o g i c a l t e l e v i s i o n s e r i e s " V i u l u v i i k a r i t musiikkimaassa" (Mini f i d d l e r s i n m u s i c l a n d ) , which was produced i n honour of the I n t e r n a t i o n a l Year of the C h i l d . In keeping with the Kodaly concept of s t a r t i n g music educ a t i o n at an e a r l y age, S z i l v a y s t a r t s with e a r l y - p r e s c h o o l aged c h i l d r e n . He s t a t e s t h a t he "...aims to teach them to p l a y the instrument by means of c h i l d r e n ' s s o n g s . " 7 5 As with Kodaly, S z i l v a y says the "...songs should be sung both with words and i n s o l - f a s y l l a b l e s , and hand s i g n s might be added to the e x e r c i s e . " 7 6 S z i l v a y ' s method i s group o r i e n t e d . Although Kodaly b e l i e v e d one should be taught to p l a y an instrument only a f t e r he can read music, S z i l v a y attempts to have the c h i l d see a " n o t e - p i c t u r e " and hear a sound and v i c e v e r s a . He f e e l s t h i s i s not h i n d e r i n g the development of the a u d i o - v i s u a l c a p a c i t y to hear i n t e r n a l l y but i s enhancing i t . Thus the concept f o r each s t r i n g i s l e a r n e d — e.g. from h i g h e s t s t r i n g to lowest i s p i c t u r e d a b i r d , mother, f a t h e r and a b i g bear. Each of these i n d i c a t e s to the c h i l d something about the p i t c h q u a l i t y of the note. T h i s i s l a t e r t r a n s f e r r e d to c o l o u r e d s t r i n g s of yellow, b l u e , red and green of d i f f e r e n t t h i c k n e s s e s a c c o r d i n g to p i t c h . S z i l v a y i s concerned with the content of h i s programme when he says, "A well-chosen c o l l e c t i o n of songs and m u s i c a l p i e c e s w i l l p r o v i d e a background and c o n t r i b u t e to the b a s i s of the f u t u r e 7 5 I b i d . , p.4. 7 6 I b i d . , p.5. 53 emotional l i f e of the c h i l d . " 7 7 S z i l v a y ' s goal i n music teaching i s to develop not only knowledge and s k i l l but a l s o to develop a w e l l rounded p e r s o n a l i t y . He c a u t i o n s t e a c h e r s not to demand pro g r e s s beyond the c h i l d ' s normal r a t e of development. The method appears to be s e q u e n t i a l and leaves a great d e a l of room f o r the t e a c h e r ' s i m a g i n a t i o n . S i n c e t h i s method i s d e v i s e d f o r very young c h i l d r e n a d i f f e r e n t approach would be needed with o l d e r c h i l d r e n - one i n keeping w i t h the b a s i c premises but on a more s o p h i s t i c a t e d l e v e l . I I . L i s t e n , Look and Sing by Aden L e w i s 7 8 T h i s Kodaly based method c o n s i s t i n g of s i x volumes and a c o r r e l a t e d l i s t e n i n g programme to accompany each f o l l o w s a sequence s i m i l a r to the Hungarian method i n i t i a t e d by Kodaly. Aden Lewis promotes music l i t e r a c y through s e q u e n t i a l and c y c l i c a l l e a r n i n g e x p e r i e n c e s i n v o l v i n g rhythmic movement, inner h e a r i n g , s i n g i n g , games, c r e a t i v e a c t i v i t i e s and w r i t i n g a c t i v i t i e s . The programme i s v o c a l l y o r i e n t e d although resonator b e l l s and r e c o r d e r s may be i n c o r p o r a t e d at a p p r o p r i a t e l e v e l s . The u s u a l " t o o l s " of the Kodaly method, such as rhythm s y l l a b l e s , hand s i g n s , and s o l - f a s y l l a b l e s are used. The p i t c h sequence (soh mi l a re and doh) and the sound before s i g h t procedures are 7 7 I b i d . , p.7. 7 B A d e n Lewis, L i s t e n , Look and S i n g , Grades 1 to 6, (Morristown,New J e r s e y : S i l v e r B urdett Pub.Co., 1983). 54 f o l l o w e d . T h i s s e r i e s of m a t e r i a l s i s a l s o v a l u a b l e i n that i t has a c o r r e l a t e d l i s t e n i n g programme. Each volume i s small enough to allow the teacher to i n c o r p o r a t e h i s own m a t e r i a l s and c o n t e n t . I t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t the r e g u l a r classroom teacher i n the primary grades c o u l d implement t h i s programme with l i t t l e o u t s i d e a s s i s t a n c e . I I I . T h r e s h o l d to Music - Mary Helen R i c h a r d s Mary Helen R i c h a r d s was one of the f i r s t to adopt the Kodaly method of music e d u c a t i o n f o r use i n the p u b l i c schools i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s . As with the Kodaly system, her programme i s based on a sound rhythmic foundation u s i n g rhythm s y l l a b l e s and movement. The melodic p a t t e r n s are based on the p e n t a t o n i c s c a l e with the use of s o l - f a s y l l a b l e s and hand s i g n a l s . Both Kodaly and Richards concur t h a t music l i t e r a c y i s a means to a c h i e v i n g g r e a t e r m u s i c a l understanding. R i c h a r d s here has d e v i s e d a s t e p - b y - s t e p process of f i r s t h e a r i n g , then f e e l i n g and then r e a d i n g music. She s t a t e s , "The b a s i c instrument f o r l e a r n i n g music i s the v o i c e . " 7 9 C h a r t s are p r o v i d e d to a s s i s t c l a s s r o o m teachers i n p r e s e n t i n g m a t e r i a l and to h e l p r e g u l a t e the teaching procedures. Richards a l l e g e s they may be used f o r t r a i n i n g anyone of any age to understand and to read music. However, the T h r e s h o l d to Music was d e v i s e d f o r the f i r s t t h ree grades where 7 9 M a r y Helen R i c h a r d s , T h r e s h o l d to Music, (Palo A l t o , C a l i f o r n i a : Fearon Pub., 1964), p . v i i i . 55 ".. . t e a c h e r s i n each of the primary grades must master the m a t e r i a l to be presented i n a l l of the primary grades i f they are to teach the music work of t h e i r own grade a c c u r a t e l y and c o n f i d e n t l y . " 8 0 Richards c a u t i o n s t h a t "...the foundation must be b u i l t g r a d u a l l y and c a r e f u l l y , but with great e n t h u s i a s m . " 8 1 Four v i t a l p o i n t s s t r e s s e d a r e : 1. The joy of music must be communicated by an e n t h u s i a s t i c t e a c h e r . 2. The c h i l d i s the mus i c a l instrument. 3. The elements of music are f e l t . C h i l d r e n must l e a r n to respond to music they see i n the same way they respond to the music they hear. 4. Two-part a c t i v i t y i s the most u s e f u l t e a c h i n g t o o l . 8 2 8 0 I b i d . , P. x. 8 'Ibid.-,. P- 129. 8 2 I b i d . , P. 129. 56 Chapter 3 BASES FOR A COMPREHENSIVE MUSICIANSHIP PROGRAMME Ra t i o n a l e f o r the Use of the V o i c e The v o i c e , the c h i l d ' s f i r s t instrument, has undergone expe r i m e n t a t i o n with tones i n a v a r i e t y of ways from b i r t h . Because a c h i l d comes to sc h o o l equipped with a v o i c e and some p r i o r e x p e r i e n c e with i t , the v o i c e i s the l o g i c a l instrument with which t o begin. Not only i s the v o i c e c o s t f r e e but a l s o i t i s p a r t of the person which makes i t a p e r s o n a l and unique instrument. S i n g i n g encourages the development of p i t c h p e r c e p t i o n and v o c a l independence. P i t c h r e c o g n i t i o n , i n t e r v a l i c r e l a t i o n s h i p s and i n t o n a t i o n can be taught e f f e c t i v e l y with the v o i c e . Kodaly supports t h i s statement when he says, "...the human v o i c e , the f i n e s t of a l l instruments, f r e e and a c c e s s i b l e to everyone.... should be the foundation to i n s t r u m e n t a l p l a y i n g . " 1 L a n d i s and Carder say of Kodaly's method t h a t : The b a s i c mode of i n s t r u c t i o n i n Kodaly's method i s s i n g i n g . He b e l i e v e d that the v o i c e i s the most 1Helga Szabo, The Kodaly Concept of Music Education, (London: Boosey & Hawkes, 1969), p.4, 20. 57 immediate and p e r s o n a l way of e x p r e s s i n g o n e s e l f i n music... students should be taught to use t h e i r v o i c e s as w e l l as p o s s i b l e . Pure tone and accurate i n t o n a t i o n are r e q u i r e d . Development of inner hearing c o n t r i b u t e s to t h i s i d e a l . . . 2 Kodaly maintains that "He who i s taught to s i n g f i r s t , and on l y l a t e r to p l a y an instrument w i l l grasp the r e a l meaning of every p i e c e more q u i c k l y . " 3 Bennett Reimer says t h a t , " S i n g i n g i s . . . ( a n ) e f f e c t i v e way to a c t i v e l y engage c h i l d r e n i n music pro c e s s e s so that these p r o c e s s e s can be more c l e a r l y understood and more p o w e r f u l l y e x p e r i e n c e d . " 4 Long a l s o commends te a c h i n g s i n g i n g because "Choral e x p e r i e n c e c o r r e l a t e s more h i g h l y with music d i s c r i m i n a t i o n than does band or o r c h e s t r a experience because singers...must l i s t e n . . . m o r e c a r e f u l l y than do i n s t r u m e n t a l i s t s . " 5 I n s t r u m e n t a l i s t s , as J a r v i s e x p l a i n s , . . . i d e n t i f y with t h i s p e r s o n a l experience i n l e a r n i n g the importance of the v o i c e i n a t t a i n i n g b a s i c m u s i c i a n s h i p ...Dizzy G i l l e s p i e acknowledged the importance of being a b l e t o say (s i n g ) a musical phrase. Many r e s e a r c h s t u d i e s emphasize the value of v o c a l i z a t i o n . 6 2 B e t h Landis and P o l l y Carder, The E c l e c t i c C u r r i c u l u m i n American Music E d u c a t i o n : C o n t r i b u t i o n s of D a l c r o z e , Kodaly and O r f f , (Washington, D.C.: Music Educators N a t i o n a l Conference, 1972), p.50. 3Szabo, The Kodaly Concept of Music E d u c a t i o n , p.20. "Bennett Reimer, " P a t t e r n s " , Music Educators J o u r n a l , 58 ( A p r i l 1976):22. 5 N e w e l l H. Long, "Performance and Music D i s c r i m i n a t i o n " , Music Educators J o u r n a l , 58 ( J u l y 1972):51. 6 W i l l i a m J a r v i s , "Say I t To Play I t " , Music Educators J o u r n a l , 67 (January 1980):44. 58 Roger Ses s i o n s concurs with Kodaly's concept of "inner h e a r i n g " development when he says, The l i s t e n e r ' s r e a l and u l t i m a t e response to music c o n s i s t s not merely in h e a r i n g i t , but inwardly reproducing i t ; and h i s understanding of music c o n s i s t s of the a b i l i t y to do t h i s i n h i s i m a g i n a t i o n . 7 T h i s i s a p a r t of the s i n g i n g p r o c e s s . Speech t h e r a p i s t s and r e a d i n g s p e c i a l i s t s n o t i c e the a s s i s t a n c e of the s i n g i n g v o i c e i n d e v e l o p i n g a u d i t o r y d i s c r i m i n a t i o n . Gladys Uhl suggests that "To s i n g w e l l one must d i s c r i m i n a t e between consonants and vowel sounds." 8 Kodaly, i n h i s w r i t i n g s , encouraged the use of the v o i c e and f r e q u e n t l y r e i t e r a t e d W i l l i a m Schumann's i d e a s : Try to s i n g , however small your v o i c e , from w r i t t e n music without the a i d of an instrument. T h i s w i l l sharpen your e a r . . . S i n g i n c h o i r s o f t e n , p a r t i c u l a r l y the middle p a r t s . T h i s w i l l h e l p you to become a b e t t e r and b e t t e r musician...The f i n g e r s should f o l l o w the w i l l of the head and not the other way around... Music t e a c h i n g i n L a t i n c o u n t r i e s s t a r t s with s i n g i n g and t h e r e f o r e t h e i r i n s t r u m e n t a l p l a y i n g a l s o has the nature of s i n g i n g . 9 L o i s Choksy s t a t e s that "...musical l e a r n i n g must begin w i t h the c h i l d ' s own n a t u r a l instrument — the v o i c e . . . I f one were to express the essence of t h i s e d u c a t i o n i n one word, i t 7Roger Ses s i o n s quoted by Malcom T a i t , " S e l f i n Sound", Music Educators J o u r n a l , 67 (March 1980):50 8 G l a d y s Uhl, " S i n g i n g Helps C h i l d r e n Learn How to Read", Music Educators J o u r n a l , 56 ( A p r i l 1969):45. 9 K o d a l y , "Who i s a Good M u s i c i a n ? " , The S e l e c t e d W r i t i n g s of Z o l t a n Kodaly, p.186-191. 1 0Choksy, The Kodaly Context, p.7. 59 c o u l d only be — s i n g i n g . " 1 0 Chalmers Doane says that "The f a c t t h a t s i n g i n g i s the best way to t r a i n the ear i s p r e t t y w e l l accepted w i t h i n the music education community." 1 1 He a l s o says, " S i n g i n g i s e s s e n t i a l i n t r a i n i n g the m u s i c a l e a r . " 1 2 Because of i t s c o n t r i b u t i o n s to d e v e l o p i n g m u s i c i a n s h i p , the v o i c e has been embraced as one of the major media i n t h i s approach. R a t i o n a l e f o r the Use of the U k u l e l e The u k u l e l e i n the g e n e r a l music classroom i n the i n t e r m e d i a t e grades i s p r a c t i c a l because i t can be used i n c o n j u n c t i o n with the major instrument, the v o i c e . In t h i s c o n t e x t , the u k u l e l e can be employed to f o s t e r and e n r i c h the v o c a l experience through i t s r o l e as an accompanying t o o l . Other r o l e s f o r the u k u l e l e l i e i n s o l o , ensemble and l a r g e group p l a y i n g of a p u r e l y i n s t r u m e n t a l nature. Because i t has the c a p a b i l i t y of producing rhythm, melodies and harmonies the u k u l e l e can assume the above f u n c t i o n s . One of the advantages of t e a c h i n g the u k u l e l e a t t h i s age l e v e l i s i t s s i z e . Not o n l y can i t be c a r r i e d from one l o c a t i o n to another by the c h i l d but i t can a l s o be p l a y e d without the s t r e t c h i n g problems encountered on the g u i t a r . A l s o , the u k u l e l e i s r e l a t i v e l y i n e x p e n s i v e so that a s c h o o l d i s t r i c t or an i n d i v i d u a l c h i l d can cope with the c o s t . The tone of the 1 1 C h a l m e r s Doane, " S i n g i n g the S t r i n g s " , U k u l e l e Yes, 5(1980):5. 1 2 Chalmers Doane, quoted i n "The U k u l e l e I d e a l to Teach Music", U k u l e l e Yes, 2 1(1977):1 60 u k u l e l e i s s o f t a n d t h e r e f o r e n o t i r r i t a t i n g t o p a r e n t s i n t h e home when t h e c h i l d i s p r a c t i s i n g . F r o m t h e t e a c h e r ' s p o i n t o f v i e w , v i s u a l i z i n g t h e t o n e s a n d s e m i t o n e s o n a f r e t t e d s t r i n g i n s t r u m e n t h a s d e f i n i t e p e d a g o g i c a l a d v a n t a g e s . T h e u k u l e l e i s c a p a b l e o f p r o d u c i n g b o t h l i n e a r a n d v e r t i c a l p i t c h e s s o t h a t a l l t h e b a s i c s a r e p o s s i b l e o n t h e i n s t r u m e n t . A n o t h e r a d v a n t a g e f o r t h e t e a c h e r i s t h a t a l l s t u d e n t s a r e l e a r n i n g t h e same i n s t r u m e n t a n d s o t h e p r o b l e m o f d i v e r s i t y o f i n s t r u m e n t a t i o n s u c h a s b a n d s a n d o r c h e s t r a s e n c o u n t e r i s e l i m i n a t e d . T h e u k u l e l e a l s o p r e p a r e s s t u d e n t s f o r p l a y i n g o t h e r f r e t t e d i n s t r u m e n t s s u c h a s t h e g u i t a r w h i c h may b e o f f e r e d i n h i g h s c h o o l . I n k e e p i n g w i t h t h e c o m p r e h e n s i v e m u s i c i a n s h i p o r i e n t a t i o n , t h e u k u l e l e c a n b e a d a p t e d t o m a n y a c t i v i t i e s . T h e p o t e n t i a l f o r i n t e g r a t i n g a n d r e i n f o r c i n g c o n c e p t s u s i n g f i r s t t h e v o i c e , t h e n t h e u k u l e l e , a n d f i n a l l y b o t h m e d i a t o g e t h e r i s a l s o a d v a n t a g e o u s . A b r o a d r e p e r t o i r e i s a t t a i n a b l e o n t h e u k u l e l e . D o a n e a c k n o w l e d g e s t h i s when h e s a y s , " T h e u k u l e l e ' s r a n g e i s l i m i t l e s s . . . a n d y o u h g p e o p l e c a n b e t a u g h t t o p l a y e v e r y t h i n g f r o m t h e c l a s s i c s t o j a z z a n d p o p t u n e s . " 1 3 T h e r e f o r e , b e c a u s e o f t h e u k u l e l e ' s o v e r a l l v e r s a t i l i t y i t i s s u i t e d t o a s s i s t i n t h i s a p p r o a c h t o d e v e l o p c o m p r e h e n s i v e m u s i c i a n s h i p . 1 3 C h a l m e r s D o a n e , " F o c u s ' 8 0 ' " , U k u l e l e Y e s , 5 ( 1 9 8 0 ) : 2 . 61 Model of Requirements to Develop Comprehensive M u s i c i a n s h i p t The f o l l o w i n g model i s an overview of the components that c o n t r i b u t e t o the o v e r a l l goal of the approach. Each component i s e q u a l l y important to the t o t a l programme. 62 0 MODEL OF REQUIREMENTS TO DEVELOP COMPREHENSIVE MUSICIANSHIP ( F i g u r e 1) Comprehensive M u s i c i a n Bas i c M u s i c i a n s h i p S k i l l s A e s t h e t i c A t t r i b u t e s a u r a l d e x t r a l t r a n s l a t a b l e Performing - s i n g i n g - p l a y i n g -moving - c h a n t i n g A n a l y z i n g O r g a n i z i n g -composing - a r r a n g i n g - i m p r o v i s i n g Concepts X durat ion l i n e a r p i t c h v e r t i c a l p i t c h tempo timbre form dynamics s t y l e p e r c e i v i n g responding R e p e r t o i r e Folk Renaissance Baroque C l a s s i c a l Romantic Modern Popular Sequences P i t c h - t r i t o n a l D u r a t i o n - rhythm Performance A n a l y t i c a l O r g a n i z a t i o n a l Developmental Procedures based on growth development of c h i l d s p i r a l nature of l e a r n i n g continuous progress m u l t i p l i c i t y of experiences v a r y i n g a b i l i t y l e v e l s 63 Conceptual Framework of the E i g h t Major Concepts The concepts to be d e a l t with i n t h i s approach are separated i n t o e i g h t c a t e g o r i e s . These c a t e g o r i e s were s e l e c t e d f o r t h e i r u s e f u l n e s s i n adapting them to both the v o i c e and the u k u l e l e . Each concept i s broken down i n t o subconcepts to c l a r i f y and i d e n t i f y the content to be covered. 1.0 D u r a t i o n 1.1 Beat 1.2 Meter - accented and unaccented beats i n groups of twos, t h r e e s and fours 1.3 Rhythm - p i t c h e d or non-pitched p a t t e r n s of longer or s h o r t e r d u r a t i o n s - "grouped together and which may be punctuated by s i l e n c e s . " 1 * 2.0 L i n e a r P i t c h 2.1 R e l a t i v e and Absolute P o s i t i o n of P i t c h e s 2.1.1 higher or lower than a given p i t c h 2.1.2 the same as a given p i t c h 2.1.3 p i t c h e s ascending stepwise or skipwise 2.1.4 p i t c h e s descending stepwise or skipwise 2.2 Phrases 2.3 Melodic o s t i n a t i 2.4 I n t e r v a l s 2.5 S c a l e s , tone set and t o n a l c e n t r e 2.6 Melody without harmonic support - monbphonic 2.7 Two or more simultaneous melodies - polyphonic 2.8 I m i t a t i o n of melody at the same p i t c h or d i f f e r e n t p i t c h 1 f l E d e l s t e i n et a l , C r e a t i n g C u r r i c u l u m i n Music, p.25. 64 3,0 V e r t i c a l P i t c h 3.1 Chords - t h r e e or more p i t c h e s sounding s i m u l t a n e o u s l y 3.1.1 T r i a d s 3.1.2 Four note chords 3.1.3 Seventh chords 3.1.4 Tonic chord 3.1.5 Chord c l u s t e r s 3.2 Cadences 3.2.1 P e r f e c t 3.2.2 Imperfect 3.2.3 P l a g a l 3.3 Modulation 3.4 Harmonic accompaniment and ground bass - a melodic l i n e may be supported by a harmonic accompaniment 3.5 Double stops - two notes sounding s i m u l t a n e o u s l y 4.0 Form 4.1 Motives 4.2 Phrases 4.3 Themes 4.4 P e r i o d s - two or more phrases 4.5 I n t r o d u c t i o n 4.6 Coda 4.7 Types of forms 4.7.1 A B - b i n a r y 4.7.2 A B A - t e r n a r y 4.7.3 A B A C A - rondo 4.7.4 Theme and v a r i a t i o n s 4.7.5 B a l l a d s - s t r o p h i c 5.0 Timbre 5.1 C l a s s i f i c a t i o n 5.1.1 S t r i n g s 5.1.2 Woodwinds 5.1.3 P e r c u s s i o n 5.1.4 Brass 65 5.1.5 V o i c e type 5.2 Determinants of timbre 5.2.1 S i z e 5.2.2 Shape 5.2.3 M a t e r i a l 5.3 Tone Q u a l i t y 5.4 Role i n musi c a l e x p r e s s i o n 6.0 Dynamics 6.1 L e v e l s - pp, p, mp, mf, f , f f 6.2 Gradual and sudden changes 6.3 E x p r e s s i v e q u a l i t y c o n t r i b u t i n g t o : 6.3.1 U n i t y 6.3.2 V a r i e t y 6.3.3 Form 7.0 Tempo 7.1 F a s t , slow and medium - Speed maintained 7.2 Gradual or sudden changes 7.3 C o n t r i b u t i o n t o e x p r e s s i v e q u a l i t y 7.3.1 U n i t y 7.3.2 V a r i e t y 7.3.3 Form 8.0 S t y l e 8.1 C u l t u r a l and environmental 8.2 H i s t o r i c a l B a s i c S k i l l Development f o r Comprehensive M u s i c i a n s h i p Music, being a temporal, a u r a l a r t form, demands a high l e v e l of c o n c e n t r a t i o n and awareness f o r c e r t a i n p e r i o d s of time. The p e r i o d s of r e q u i r e d c o n c e n t r a t i o n may be short at f i r s t and i n c r e a s e as the a t t e n t i o n span of the p u p i l s 66 i n c r e a s e s . Thus the t e a c h e r ' s task i s to judge the p e r i o d of time the p u p i l s are a b l e to c o n c e n t r a t e , s t a r t with that and t r y to g r a d u a l l y i n c r e a s e i t . The b a s i c m u s i c i a n s h i p s k i l l s to develop comprehensive m u s i c i a n s h i p are l i s t e d under the headings of a u r a l , d e x t r a l and t r a n s l a t a b l e merely to t r y to d i f f e r e n t i a t e the types of s k i l l s to be developed. These headings were used e f f e c t i v e l y i n the MMCP programme. In r e a l i t y they are seldom used s e p a r a t e l y but r a t h e r i n combination with each o t h e r . T h i s i s e x e m p l i f i e d here i n the s t r a t e g i e s f o r t e a c h i n g s p e c i f i c concepts with the song "Land of the S i l v e r B i r c h " . The s k i l l c a t e g o r i e s are l i s t e d f o r each example. The three s k i l l c a t e g o r i e s are not always given the same amount of time or c o n s i d e r a t i o n and t h e r e f o r e do not always progress at the same r a t e . The a u r a l s k i l l s develop from the time one i s born and develop a c c o r d i n g to a p t i t u d e , experience and guidance. D e x t r a l s k i l l s a l s o develop e a r l y as the c h i l d experiments v o c a l l y with sounds t h a t he i s a b l e to make. Gross motor development oc c u r s b e f o r e f i n e motor and t h e r e f o r e d e l a y s the p l a y i n g of i n s t r u m e n t s . T r a n s l a t a b l e s k i l l s are the l a s t to develop and sometimes are n e g l e c t e d . The problem thus presents i t s e l f i n t hat what the c h i l d i s a b l e to read i s very simple when compared to what he i s a b l e to decipher a u r a l l y . The c h a l l e n g e i s to somehow advance a l l the s k i l l s without r e t a r d i n g or s t o p p i n g any one f o r the b e n e f i t of the o t h e r . T h e r e f o r e , what the c h i l d can p l a y on an instrument by ear w i l l be more advanced than what he can p l a y from the w r i t t e n s c o r e . The 67 c h i l d can l i s t e n to and a u r a l l y a n a l y z e much more complex music than he can s i n g , p l a y or read. However, the three s k i l l s must come together at some time i n order to develop the weakest l i n k ( t r a n s l a t i n g ) . T h i s can be done by s i m p l i f y i n g the w r i t t e n s c o r e — i . e . p r e s e n t i n g the main theme, or motive i n a key readable by the student; having the p u p i l p l a y t h i s theme or motive and then p l a y i n g a r e c o r d i n g of an o r c h e s t r a l arrangement of the s e l e c t i o n . In t h i s way the d e x t r a l and t r a n s l a t a b l e s k i l l s can be enhanced as w e l l as the a u r a l s k i l l s c h a l l e n g e d . A u r a l S k i l l s A u r a l s k i l l s depend a great d e a l on t o n a l memory f o r such concepts as l i n e a r and v e r t i c a l p i t c h . T h i s means that a c e r t a i n amount of r e p e t i t i o n i s r e q u i r e d . For example, to remember what a p e r f e c t f o u r t h sounds l i k e , or what the tortic and dominant chord sounds l i k e i n v o l v e s a g r e a t deal of p r a c t i c e . To d e v e l o p these s k i l l s students need to experience the concepts i n many d i f f e r e n t ways to ensure and c o n s o l i d a t e understanding. Thus, a p e r f e c t f o u r t h c o u l d be experienced, f o r m a l l y taught and p r a c t i c e d i n the form of soh, tp doh. The same procedure c o u l d be f o l l o w e d w i t h l a h , to r e ; re to soh; and mi to l a h w i t h i n the framework of the p e n t a t o n i c . A l l are p e r f e c t f o u r t h s but a l l have a d i f f e r e n t vantage p o i n t a c c o r d i n g to t h e i r p o s i t i o n i n r e l a t i o n t o the t o n i c . As students p r o g r e s s through the phases they then experience the p e r f e c t f o u r t h w i t h i n the d i a t o n i c -- doh to fah and t i , t o mi. Although t o n a l memory p l a y s a secondary part i n the concept of d u r a t i o n , rhythmic memory p l a y s an important r o l e here. For 68 t h e s t u d e n t s t o r e p e a t c o r r e c t l y a r h y t h m g i v e n b y t h e t e a c h e r o r a n o t h e r s t u d e n t r e q u i r e s a c e r t a i n a m o u n t o f e x p e r i e n c e w i t h r h y t h m i c e l e m e n t s . T h i s may b e a c c o m p l i s h e d t h r o u g h c l a p p i n g g i v e n r h y t h m s ; w r i t i n g g i v e n r h y t h m s ; d i c t a t i n g r h y t h m s t h e m s e l v e s t o t h e c l a s s ; s a y i n g t h e r h y t h m s y l l a b l e s ; s a y i n g s p e e c h r h y t h m s ; f r e e l y m o v i n g t o r h y t h m s ; d o i n g s e t d a n c e r o u t i n e s , e t c . T h e c o n c e p t o f d u r a t i o n i s a l s o r e l a t i v e . T h e e i g h t h n o t e i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e q u a r t e r n o t e i s t w i c e t h e s p e e d . T h e q u a r t e r n o t e i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e h a l f n o t e i s h a l f i t s s p e e d . I t i s t h r o u g h t h e s e r e l a t i o n s h i p s t h a t we c a n a s c e r t a i n t h e t i m e v a l u e o f a g i v e n n o t e . I f t h e q u a r t e r n o t e i s t h e t e m p o b e a t a n d u s e d a s t h e n o t e v a l u e t o w h i c h o t h e r n o t e s a r e r e l a t e d , n o t a t i n g r h y t h m s b e c o m e s c l e a r e r . T h e s t u d e n t s s i m p l y a s k t h e m s e l v e s how many s o u n d s t h e y h e a r t o e a c h t e m p o b e a t . T h e t e m p o b e a t s c a n b e w r i t t e n a s . a n d t h e r h y t h m b e a t s i n s e r t e d s u c h a s _ [ _ J _ Q_ __L . P u p i l s i n H u n g a r y w i t h d a i l y p r a c t i c e a n d a t t e n t i o n t o d u r a t i o n h a v e b e e n k n o w n t o l i s t e n t o , m e m o r i z e a n d n o t a t e a t h i r t y - t w o b e a t r h y t h m d i c t a t i o n w i t h i n a v e r y s h o r t t i m e s p a n . T h i s a g a i n r e q u i r e s c o n c e n t r a t i o n a n d p r a c t i c e . A u r a l l y , t h e o t h e r c o n c e p t s , f o r m , d y n a m i c s , t i m b r e a n d s t y l e , a r e m u c h s i m p l e r t o d e v e l o p . F o r m i s l i n k e d t o d u r a t i o n a n d l i n e a r p i t c h a n d t h e i r s i m i l a r i t i e s a n d d i f f e r e n c e s . D y n a m i c s i s a n e n t i t y u n t o i t s e l f b u t i s l i n k e d s o m e w h a t t o f o r m a n d s t y l e . I t i s a c o n c e p t t h a t i s e a s y t o d i s c e r n a u r a l l y . T i m b r e i n c r e a s e s i n d i f f i c u l t y a s i t b e c o m e s m o r e r e s t r i c t i v e . F o r e x a m p l e , i n o r d e r t o g r a d u a l l y i n c r e a s e a u r a l d i s c r i m i n a t i o n 69 d i f f i c u l t y , t h e d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n c l a s s e s n e e d s t o l e a d t o d i f f e r e n c e s w i t h i n c l a s s e s o f i n s t r u m e n t s . A u r a l s k i l l s a r e l i s t e d i n t h e P h a s e I a n d I I t e a c h i n g s t r a t e g i e s f o r d e v e l o p i n g s p e c i f i c c o n c e p t s u s i n g t h e s o n g " L a n d o f t h e S i l v e r B i r c h " u n d e r t h e h e a d i n g " s k i l l s " . Some s p e c i f i c i t e m s t o d e v e l o p b a s i c a u r a l s k i l l s c o n t r i b u t i n g t o c o m p r e h e n s i v e m u s i c i a n s h i p w o u l d b e t o : d e s c r i b e b a s i c e l e m e n t s o f f o r m ( s i m i l a r i t i e s , d i f f e r e n c e s , q u e s t i o n - a n s w e r , n u m b e r o f p h r a s e s , e t c . ) - i d e n t i f y t h e t o n a l c e n t r e - i d e n t i f y a c l o s i n g c a d e n c e - d i s t i n g u i s h b e t w e e n a c c e p t a b l e a n d u n a c c e p t a b l e t o n e q u a l i t y - i d e n t i f y d y n a m i c s - p p , p , mp, mf, f , f f - i d e n t i f y l e g a t o a n d s t a c c a t o - i d e n t i f y m o d u l a t i o n s - i d e n t i f y b e a t , m e t e r a n d r h y t h m p a t t e r n s - i d e n t i f y p i t c h e s - i d e n t i f y t h e way p i t c h e s m o ve - i d e n t i f y m o o d d i f f e r e n t i a t e b e t w e e n a c c e p t a b l e a n d u n a c c e p t a b l e i m p r o v i s a t i o n s a n d c o m p o s i t i o n s D e x t r a l S k i l l s D e x t r a l s k i l l s a r e t h o s e i n v o l v i n g m u s c u l a r m o v e m e n t t h r o u g h s i n g i n g , p l a y i n g o r b o d i l y m o v e m e n t . S i n g i n g a n d m o v i n g t o m u s i c b e g i n v e r y e a r l y i n l i f e d e v e l o p i n g m u s c u l a r c o n t r o l t o p r o d u c e c e r t a i n p i t c h e s a n d t o move p a r t s o f t h e b o d y i n t i m e w i t h m u s i c . B e c a u s e p l a y i n g a n i n s t r u m e n t r e q u i r e s f i n e m o t o r 70 c o - o r d i n a t i o n , many p r e v i o u s l y unencountered problems are p resented. I t i s t h e r e f o r e necessary to i s o l a t e these t e c h n i c a l d e f i c i e n c i e s from time to time. For u k u l e l e , i n i t i a l d e x t r a l s k i l l s are of utmost importance and need to be taught, r e - emphasized and c o r r e c t e d immediately. Students very q u i c k l y develop set h o l d i n g and f i n g e r p o s i t i o n s . With some students f i v e r e p e t i t i o n s may be a l l that i s necessary to s o l i d i f y the muscle memory and from then on changing t h a t muscle movement c o u l d be very d i f f i c u l t . However, i f great c a r e i s taken to form the c o r r e c t muscle p a t t e r n s i n the b e g i n n i n g stages no r e t e a c h i n g w i l l be necessary and fewer c o r r e c t i o n s w i l l be r e q u i r e d . The t eacher must be as p e r f e c t a model as p o s s i b l e f o r the i m i t a t o r s t u d e n t s . Every student's h o l d i n g p o s i t i o n i n the c l a s s needs to be checked c o n s t a n t l y d u r i n g the f i r s t few l e s s o n s . In other words, d e x t r a l s k i l l s must take p r i o r i t y above other s k i l l s when the students are forming muscular movements and p o s i t i o n s that are f o r e i g n to them. Once the c o r r e c t b a s i c p o s i t i o n s are e s t a b l i s h e d the focus of a t t e n t i o n may s h i f t to other s k i l l s . The t r a n s l a t a b l e s k i l l s can be put a s i d e f o r a s h o r t time while the b a s i c p o s i t i o n s are being e s t a b l i s h e d thus a l l o w i n g the students to p l a c e a l l t h e i r a t t e n t i o n on muscular c o o r d i n a t i o n . (See T e c h n i c a l E x e r c i s e s Without Music N o t a t i o n . ) A u r a l s k i l l s are used along with the d e x t r a l ones to determine whether the c o r r e c t note, or chord, i s being p l a y e d . D e x t r a l s k i l l s , such as h o l d i n g the u k u l e l e c o r r e c t l y , using the c o r r e c t f i n g e r p o s i t i o n s and f i n g e r p l a y i n g p o s i t i o n s , e v e n t u a l l y must become automatic i n order to gain any 71 f a c i l i t y on the instrument. The more c o r r e c t the the b a s i c p o s i t i o n s are the g r e a t e r the chance f o r f a c i l i t y on the instrument. An i n c o r r e c t p o s i t i o n may f e e l e a s i e r f o r some studen t s , but as the t e c h n i c a l d i f f i c u l t i e s i n c r e a s e these f a u l t s w i l l hamper the pro g r e s s of the p u p i l s . Some b a s i c d e x t r a l s k i l l s to develop comprehensive m u s i c i a n s h i p i n Phase I a r e : - to s i n g songs by r o t e - to repeat a giv e n rhythm or melody - to improvise v o c a l l y and on melody b e l l s - to s i n g and p l a y using dynamics - p, mp, mf, f - to s i n g and p l a y i n a l e g a t o or s t a c c a t o s t y l e - to s i n g and p l a y b a s i c forms - rondo, b i n a r y and t e r n a r y forms - to s i n g and p l a y cadences - V I, IV I, V7 I, I V - to s i n g and p l a y with a c c e p t a b l e tone q u a l i t y - to s i n g u s i n g hand s i g n s Some b a s i c d e x t r a l s k i l l s i n Phase II a r e : - c o r r e c t angle of h o l d i n g the u k u l e l e - l e f t hand thumb p o s i t i o n - behind neck of instrument - l e f t hand f i n g e r p o s i t i o n - curved f i n g e r s - l e f t hand f i n g e r placement on f i n g e r board - r i g h t hand p o s i t i o n f o r strumming - r i g h t hand placement f o r strum - r i g h t hand w r i s t a c t i o n f o r strum - r i g h t hand f i n g e r a c t i o n f o r strum - g e n e r a l body p o s i t i o n 72 - r i g h t hand d i g i t movement - l e f t hand barr chords Since, the l e f t hand i s u s u a l l y weaker than the r i g h t i n r i g h t - handed people, f i n g e r s t r e n g t h , f a c i l i t y and c o o r d i n a t i o n need to be developed. Both guidance and p r a c t i c e are r e q u i r e d f o r c o r r e c t hand p o s i t i o n . T r a n s l a t a b l e S k i l l s v T r a n s l a t a b l e s k i l l s are covered i n Phase I l e a d i n g to the use of the u k u l e l e i n Phase I I . The u k u l e l e i n t h i s approach i s tuned to the key of D major, the s t r i n g s being (lowest to h i g h e s t ) A-D-F#-B. Instead of begin n i n g i n C major, as i s the case with the r e c o r d e r and the O r f f instruments which p l a y i n C, F and G p e n t a t o n i c , the u k u l e l e w i l l s t a r t with D p e n t a t o n i c and proceed to G and A p e n t a t o n i c . In Phase I t h i s does not cause any r e a l problem s i n c e key s i g n a t u r e s need not be used at the o u t s e t . For example, 2 = ^ ° IT. U -Q. IT -V- The t r i t o n a l approach d e a l s f i r s t w ith doh, re and mi i n each key, f o l l o w i n g the simple v i s u a l r u l e s , such as, i f doh i s i n a space mi i s i n the space above. For t h i s concept key s i g n a t u r e s or c l e f s i g n s are not r e q u i r e d but become necessary when p l a y i n g the u k u l e l e i n Phase I I . The r e l a t i o n s h i p of f r e t s to semitones i s a l s o e s t a b l i s h e d here a l l o w i n g the p u p i l s to c r e a t e chromatic 73 scale patterns. Some basic musicianship s k i l l s that develop the translatable aspect are: - to read notes from the s t a f f - to read rhythms - to write notes on the s t a f f - to write rhythms - to transpose - to i d e n t i f y on a s t a f f , doh, or tonal centre - to recognize a written rhythm pattern that i s sung or played - tp write from memory a melody using known notes - to i d e n t i f y the terms piano, forte and mezzo - to i d e n t i f y the terms legato and staccato, and how to write them in music The basic aural, dextral and translatable s k i l l s , that help in the development of comprehensive musicianship are taught through the performing, analyzing and organizing a c t i v i t i e s . The s k i l l s are in a c t u a l i t y inseparable from the a c t i v i t i e s , but have been i s o l a t e d here to show the s i g n i f i c a n t part they play in a comprehensive musicianship programme. ACTIVITY FRAMEWORK Performing -- Playing, Singing and Moving The performing a c t i v i t i e s are generally the ones on which most attention i s focussed. In many ways t h i s i s j u s t i f i e d as i t s i g n i f i e s to the teacher that the students can or cannot do 74 what they were taught. However, most c h i l d r e n are good i m i t a t o r s and d e v i s e means to a c q u i r e the c o r r e c t response, sometimes without much understanding of what they are a c t u a l l y d o i n g . There are i n s t a n c e s where the students are asked to perform music they have never heard b e f o r e , as i n s i g h t - r e a d i n g rhythm alone, or rhythm and melody combined. Here no amount of i m i t a t i o n c o u l d accomplish the t a s k . In a comprehensive m u s i c i a n s h i p programme the more types of performance a c t i v i t i e s employed the more chances the students have of understanding the concepts, and u t i l i z i n g the s k i l l s . Thus, u n t i l the u k u l e l e i s i n t r o d u c e d i n Phase II the p l a y i n g a c t i v i t i e s are d e l e g a t e d to classroom p e r c u s s i o n , melody instruments and body p e r c u s s i o n . These should i n c l u d e drums of v a r i o u s s i z e s and shapes, wood b l o c k s , s t i c k s , f i n g e r cymbals, i n d i v i d u a l resonator b e l l s , O r f f p i t c h e d - p e r c u s s i o n instruments and r e c o r d e r , to name a few. Body movement can be i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o a l l phases of the programme, and should not be overlooked once the u k u l e l e i s i n t r o d u c e d i n Phase I I . The performing a c t i v i t i e s r e q u i r e a u r a l s k i l l s . The students must be a b l e to d i s c e r n whether the sound i s r i g h t or wrong, and why. A l l performance depends on t h i s . A ural d i s c r i m i n a t i o n thus becomes the keynote of a l l performing a c t i v i t i e s . D e x t r a l s k i l l s , those r e q u i r i n g muscular movement, are a l s o p a r t of every performing a c t i v i t y . Such requirements include movement of the t h r o a t and diaphragm to produce the c o r r e c t p i t c h while s i n g i n g , c o r r e c t f i n g e r movement r e q u i r e d to produce 75 the c o r r e c t note on the re c o r d e r or u k u l e l e , and c o - o r d i n a t i o n of the fe e t with the beat of the music r e q u i r e d to do a dance. The d e x t r a l s k i l l s must be n e a r l y automatic i n order to f u n c t i o n when c a l l e d upon. Often f r u s t r a t i o n r e s u l t s when the mind knows what to do, but the muscles do not respond adequately. A programmme must allow time f o r t e c h n i c a l d r i l l s i n order to a c q u i r e the necessary quick muscular responses to mental commands. (See T e c h n i c a l E x e r c i s e s Without Music N o t a t i o n f o r U k u l e l e as an example of i s o l a t i n g and promoting d e x t r a l s k i l l s . ) T r a n s l a t a b l e s k i l l s , those r e q u i r i n g r e a d i n g note p i t c h e s and/or rhythms are not always used i n performing a c t i v i t i e s . In g e n e r a l , movement, whether i t be f r e e or c o n s t r u c t e d dance, does not r e q u i r e r e a d i n g . S i n g i n g or p l a y i n g by i m i t a t i o n ( r o t e ) or by i m p r o v i s a t i o n a l s o do not r e q u i r e t r a n s l a t a b l e s k i l l s . But p l a y i n g and s i n g i n g from w r i t t e n music r e q u i r e s t r a n s l a t a b l e s k i l l s along with a u r a l and d e x t r a l s k i l l s . I t i s because of the many s k i l l s i n c o r p o r a t e d at one time that t h i s area becomes one of the most d i f f i c u l t with which to d e a l . Thus, to al l o w a t t e n t i o n to focus on h e a r i n g and reading the notes the d e x t r a l s k i l l s must be as automatic as p o s s i b l e . Using the v o i c e to begin r e a d i n g music a l l o w s the students to c o n c e n t r a t e on the a u r a l and t r a n s l a t a b l e a s p e c t s . The a u r a l development i s i n v a l u a b l e i n the l a t e r phases f o r judging p i t c h a c u i t y and p i t c h a ccuracy. The t r a n s l a t a b l e s k i l l s are taught f o l l o w i n g the l i n e a r p i t c h sequence. Hand s i g n s are used to demonstrate v i s u a l l y the highness or lowness of the notes i n r e l a t i o n to 76 each other. The sequence i s g e n e r a l l y t r i t o n a l , e.g. doh re mi. In such t r i t o n a l p a t t e r n s students can r e l a t e each p i t c h as f o l l o w s : doh i n r e l a t i o n t o mi i s lower doh i n r e l a t i o n to re i s lower re i n r e l a t i o n to mi i s lower re i n r e l a t i o n to doh i s h i g h e r mi i n r e l a t i o n to re i s hig h e r mi i n r e l a t i o n to re i s hig h e r re i s the p i v o t a l note between doh and mi , » o b ~ O » = .a ° r „ 0 F ° Y 0.0 6 f rn J r m The r e l a t i o n s h i p s of the three p i t c h e s i s thus e s t a b l i s h e d . They are performed (sung), moved to (hand s i g n e d ) , v i s u a l i z e d and w r i t t e n ( s t a f f n o t a t e d ) . Other t r i t o n a l groupings are doh re l a h , and doh l a h , soh,. Once the t r i t o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s are l e a r n e d they are l i n k e d to other notes where new r e l a t i o n s h i p s are e s t a b l i s h e d i n a four tone sequence, e.g. doh re mi l a h , ; doh re l a h , soh,; and doh re mi soh. These four tone sequences are then r e l a t e d t o a f i f t h tone and r e s u l t s i n the penta t o n i c s c a l e . The doh note i s . i n d i c a t e d by a key — p" . Once the v i s u a l placement of the notes i s e s t a b l i s h e d and the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between them, the t r a n s l a t i n g s k i l l s become automatic. The a u r a l aspect, the inner h e a r i n g of a tone i n r e l a t i o n s h i p to another tone, a l s o becomes automatic as t o n a l memory- i s developed. The pr o c e s s takes time and p r a c t i c e . Therefore, 77 t h i s f i r s t phase i s a very important c o r n e r s t o n e and needs a c e r t a i n amount of " d i g e s t i o n " before proceding to Phase I I . A n a l y z i n g — L i s t e n i n g , D e s c r i b i n g , I d e n t i f y i n g , Comparing and D i s t i n g u i s h i n g Between — Reading, W r i t i n g and Moving (when the purpose i s a n a l y t i c a l ) A n a l y z i n g a c t i v i t i e s should be i n progress a great deal of the time. L i k e o r g a n i z i n g , i t tends to be put a s i d e because of the time element. Often t e l l i n g the students i n s t e a d of asking them to a n a l y z e and d i s c o v e r f o r themselves seems a more e f f i c i e n t use of time. But t e l l i n g does not ensure understanding. A comprehensive m u s i c i a n s h i p programme r e q u i r e s the p u p i l s to t h i n k and search f o r answers. Because of t h i s process they come to a g r e a t e r understanding of music. T h i s does not mean stu d e n t s should d i s c o v e r e v e r y t h i n g themselves. I t does mean, however, that the t o o l s necessary f o r the i n q u i r y need to be e x p e r i e n c e d , f o r m a l l y taught and r e i n f o r c e d through use and p r a c t i c e . A n a l y s i s i s one means of r e i n f o r c i n g the b a s i c elements or concepts which are the b u i l d i n g blocks of music. Jus.t as c h i l d r e n g r a d u a l l y develop a number sense i n mathematics, so they g r a d u a l l y develop a rhythm and p i t c h sense i n music. A n a l y z i n g a c t i v i t i e s are r e q u i r e d to a s s i s t i n the understanding and a p p l i c a t i o n of concepts. The l i s t e n i n g a c t i v i t y demands c o n c e n t r a t i o n and focus of a t t e n t i o n on c e r t a i n a s p e c t s of the music. The teacher may d i r e c t the s t u d e n t s to i d e n t i f y a u r a l l y the number of beats i n each measure ( d u r a t i o n ) ; the i n t e r v a l l i c leaps w i t h i n a s e c t i o n ( l i n e a r p i t c h ) ; the number of chords used i n a phrase ( v e r t i c a l 78 p i t c h ) ; the number of phrases i n a song (form); the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of i n s t r u m e n t a t i o n i n a symphony (timbre); the use of dynamics i n a s e c t i o n (dynamics); the tempo changes w i t h i n a sonata (tempo); and the repeated rhythmic p a t t e r n i n a Habanera ( s t y l e ) . One problem with the l i s t e n i n g a c t i v i t y i s how to a s c e r t a i n whether or not the p u p i l s are a c t u a l l y l i s t e n i n g . Because of t h i s dilemma, w r i t t e n q u i z z e s h e l p students to pay c l o s e r a t t e n t i o n and judge f o r themselves whether they are a n a l y z i n g c o r r e c t l y as w e l l as inform the teacher how each p u p i l ' s a n a l y z i n g a b i l i t i e s are d e v e l o p i n g . L i s t e n i n g a c t i v i t i e s need to be geared very c a r e f u l l y to the concepts a l r e a d y taught. Immediate feedback i s c r u c i a l to i n s p i r e c o n f i d e n c e i n l i s t e n i n g a b i l i t i e s . I d e a l l y , a f t e r the papers of a l i s t e n i n g a c t i v i t y have been c o l l e c t e d a r e p l a y i n g of the m a t e r i a l and an o r a l p r e s e n t a t i o n of the c o r r e c t answers (by teacher or p u p i l s ) would have more impact than d e l a y i n g feedback u n t i l the next p e r i o d . The l i s t e n i n g q u i z z e s may be s h o r t , consuming l i t t l e time, but r e a p i n g b i g d i v i d e n d s i n l e a r n i n g because of t h e i r p o s s i b l e frequency. The l i s t e n i n g a c t i v i t y encourages development of a u r a l s k i l l s . D e x t r a l s k i l l s may a l s o be u t i l i z e d i f movement i s i n c l u d e d while l i s t e n i n g and i n t e r p r e t i n g the music. T r a n s l a t a b l e s k i l l s may be r e q u i r e d d u r i n g the l i s t e n i n g a c t i v i t y i n the form of d i c t a t i o n . D e s c r i b i n g i s another aspect of a n a l y z i n g t h a t can i n c l u d e v e r b a l , w r i t t e n or d e x t r a l s k i l l s . For example, the students c o u l d say what they t h i n k the mood of a p i e c e i s , w r i t e a d e s c r i p t i o n , or move t o the music i n such a way as to show the 7 9 mood of the p i e c e . A l l the concepts can be d e s c r i b e d in v a r i o u s ways. Another aspect of a n a l y z i n g i s i d e n t i f y i n g . T h i s a c t i v i t y c o u l d r e q u i r e the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of the t i t l e of a p i e c e of music or the number of times a motive appears i n a s c o r e . I t can be a w r i t t e n (words or n o t e s ) , v e r b a l (sung or expressed i n words) or d e x t r a l ( p l a y e d or moved to) response. In the d e x t r a l response the students c o u l d move i n s i m i l a r ways to s i m i l a r sounds they hear i n the music. Comparing i s an a n a l y t i c a l a c t i v i t y which r e q u i r e s two items (notes, b a r s , motives, themes, phrases, s e c t i o n s or whole p i e c e s ) . I t may i n v o l v e comparing concepts p r e v i o u s l y s t u d i e d and a p p l y i n g them to the above. For example, the rhythm of one s e c t i o n i n a p i e c e can be i s o l a t e d , compared to another s e c t i o n and s i m i l a r i t i e s noted. Comparisons need to be f o r m a l l y taught i n order to be a s s u r e d that the students are c o n s c i o u s l y aware of s i m i l a r i t i e s . Comparing can be done f o r the performance and o r g a n i z i n g a c t i v i t i e s as w e l l . D i s t i n g u i s h i n g between r e q u i r e s that students focus t h e i r a t t e n t i o n on the d i f f e r e n c e s i n what they hear and/or see. T h i s can and should be done i n performing and o r g a n i z i n g a c t i v i t i e s as w e l l . A l l concepts can be a n a l y z e d to note t h e i r d i f f e r e n c e s by a p p l y i n g a u r a l and t r a n s l a t a b l e s k i l l s . For example, the l i n e a r p i t c h i n "Land of the S i l v e r B i r c h " l i n e s one and four i s d i s t i n g u i s h e d between by the p e r f e c t f i f t h s i n the f i r s t l i n e and minor t h i r d s i n the f o u r t h l i n e . Reading, w r i t i n g and moving, as apparent above, a l s o come 80 under the heading of a n a l y t i c a l a c t i v i t i e s . In reading a score f o r a n a l y t i c a l purposes, students may determine many t h i n g s they w i l l need to know when performing that p i e c e — e . g . the time s i g n a t u r e . W r i t i n g music f o r the purpose of a n a l y s i s i s another way of h e l p i n g students become more aware of c e r t a i n concepts. For example, students may be asked to notate a l l the p e r f e c t f o u r t h s they hear or see i n a theme. T h i s a c t i v i t y r e q u i r e s t r a n s l a t a b l e s k i l l s (and a u r a l s k i l l s i f the item i s presented a u r a l l y i n s t e a d of v i s u a l l y ) . Moving, when the purpose i s a n a l y t i c a l , g e n e r a l l y e n t a i l s l i s t e n i n g to a passage and i n t e r p r e t i n g i t f o r one, or a combination of concepts. Through movement students c o u l d analyze the l i n e a r p i t c h , d u r a t i o n , tempo and dynamics of a p i e c e of music. L i n e a r p i t c h c o u l d be k i n e s t h e t i c a l l y d e s c r i b e d through the l e v e l or h e i g h t a t which they move; d u r a t i o n , through f e e t , body or hand movement; tempo, through the speed a t which they move; and dynamics, through the s t r e n g t h l e v e l s e x h i b i t e d . A n a l y z i n g a c t i v i t i e s h e l p to develop and r e i n f o r c e c o ncepts. Through the students' c o n c e n t r a t e d e f f o r t s to r e c a l l c o ncepts, analyze and c o n s c i o u s l y use them, understanding emerges. The a n a l y z i n g a c t i v i t i e s , then, a l l o w students to p r a c t i s e a process of i n q u i r y which can be used i n a l l musical endeavors. O r g a n i z i n g '-- Composing, Improvising and A r r a n g i n g The o r g a n i z i n g a c t i v i t i e s i n t h i s comprehensive m u s i c i a n s h i p programme are i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o a l l phases ( I , II 81 and I I I ) . They are a l s o i n t e g r a t e d i n t o each s k i l l category ( a u r a l , d e x t r a l and t r a n s l a t a b l e ) at one time or another. A l l s k i l l s and concepts are f i r s t prepared through experience, i n t r o d u c e d f o r m a l l y , and p r a c t i c e d before they are used i n composing, i m p r o v i s i n g or a r r a n g i n g . In t h i s way the o r g a n i z i n g a c t i v i t i e s a c t as c u l m i n a t i n g and t e s t i n g stages, ensuring t h e i r value in the main body of the music c u r r i c u l u m . In the case of i m p r o v i s i n g , a u r a l and d e x t r a l s k i l l s are r e i n f o r c e d , complimented by s y n t h e s i s and p r a c t i c e d . Sometimes i t may be d e s i r o u s to memorize an i m p r o v i s a t i o n and notate i t , thereby u s i n g t r a n s l a t a b l e s k i l l s . A r r a n g i n g may, or may not, encompass t r a n s l a t a b l e s k i l l s depending on i t s purpose. However, performing an arrangement r e q u i r e s a u r a l and d e x t r a l s k i l l s . Composing n e c e s s a r i l y r e q u i r e s a u r a l and t r a n s l a t a b l e s k i l l s , as composing i m p l i e s h e a r i n g the sounds t h a t are to be produced and n o t a t i n g those sounds. The composer or other p u p i l s may perform the c ompositions r e q u i r i n g u t i l i z a t i o n of d e x t r a l s k i l l s . The o r g a n i z i n g a c t i v i t i e s i n c o r p o r a t e the use of concepts. The e i g h t concepts l i s t e d i n the c o n c e p t u a l framework are c o n s i d e r e d i n each a c t i v i t y , no matter how b r i e f l y . For example, the tempo of an i m p r o v i s a t i o n i s e s t a b l i s h e d and then g e n e r a l l y i s not c o n s c i o u s l y thought of as other concepts are brought to a t t e n t i o n . D u r a t i o n , l i n e a r p i t c h , dynamics, timbre and s t y l e are d e a l t with i n any o r g a n i z i n g a c t i v i t y . V e r t i c a l p i t c h may or may not be i n c l u d e d . 82 The o r g a n i z i n g a c t i v i t i e s not o n l y l e t the students know i f they have mastered the use of the concepts and s k i l l s but a l s o a c t as an e v a l u a t i o n f o r the t e a c h e r . The teacher then has an i n d i c a t i o n of whether the students understand the concepts, have developed adequate s k i l l s , and what techniques need to be employed f o r r e t e a c h i n g , p r a c t i c i n g and r e i n f o r c i n g these concepts and s k i l l s . Through the c a r e f u l and s y s t e m a t i c a p p l i c a t i o n of s t r a t e g i e s to develop m u s i c i a n s h i p , success i n the v a r i o u s a c t i v i t i e s i s more l i k e l y t o o c c u r . Because of t h i s , e x p e r i e n c i n g the joy of music and the message i t c a r r i e s i s p o s s i b l e through any of the avenues of performing, a n a l y z i n g or composing. 83 Chapter 4 SCOPE AND SEQUENCING OF THE VOICE AND UKULELE PROGRAMME Overview of the Three Phases Phase I The p r o c e s s i n g depends... g r e a t l y on the t o t a l p r e v i o u s , s t o r e d experience i n that p a r t i c u l a r b r a i n . 1 B a s i c m u s i c i a n s h i p s k i l l s and concepts are extremely important i n any music programme as they are the foundation f o r comprehensive m u s i c i a n s h i p . The main purpose of Phase I i s to teach the b a s i c m u s i c i a n s h i p s k i l l s and concepts as e f f i c i e n t l y and e f f e c t i v e l y as p o s s i b l e i n order that they may be a p p l i e d to the dual media of v o i c e and u k u l e l e i n Phase I I . Phase I uses only the v o i c e medium to a v o i d the mechanical i n t e r f e r e n c e of an instrument. To c o n s t r u c t the broad base r e q u i r e d f o r a comprehensive m u s i c i a n s h i p programme, a u r a l , d e x t r a l and t r a n s l a t a b l e s k i l l s need to be experienced and d e a l t with using d e l i b e r a t e , mastery l e a r n i n g techniques, such as those d e v i s e d by the f o l l o w e r s of Kodaly. T h i s process can a l l be ' L e s l i e A Hart, "The New 'Br a i n ' Concept of L e a r n i n g " , Phi D e l t a Kappan, 59 (February 1978). 84 accommodated u s i n g the v o i c e . J a r v i s says, "Many i n s t r u m e n t a l i s t s may i d e n t i f y with t h i s p e r s o n a l experience i n l e a r n i n g the importance of the v o i c e i n a t t a i n i n g b a s i c m u s i c i a n s h i p . " 2 The consensus of o p i n i o n r e g a r d i n g a programme beginning by te a c h i n g b a s i c m u s i c i a n s h i p s k i l l s u s i n g the v o i c e i s widespread. Gordon says, "To p l a y an instrument before you can au d i a t e or move i s r i d i c u l o u s . " 3 Kodaly had the same viewpoint when he s a i d , "To teach a c h i l d an instrument without f i r s t g i v i n g him p r e p a r a t o r y t r a i n i n g . . . i s t o b u i l d upon sand." 4 Gagne says of l e a r n i n g i n g e n e r a l t h a t , " I f l e a r n i n g at any l e v e l i s t o occur w i t h g r e a t e s t f a c i l i t y , c a r e f u l a t t e n t i o n must be p a i d to i t s p r e r e q u i s i t e s . " 5 Research i n r e a d i n e s s procedures p r i o r to l e a r n i n g an instrument a l s o supports t h e i r i n s t i g a t i o n . N o b l e 6 , from the r e s u l t s of h i s r e s e a r c h , s t r e s s e s the value of being able to recog n i z e t o n a l and rhythm p a t t e r n s i n n o t a t i o n a l form before 2 W i l l i a m C. J a r v i s , "Say I t to Play I t " , Music Educators J o u r n a l , 67 (September 1980):44. 3Edwin Gordon, The Psychology of Music Teaching, (Englewood C l i f f s , New J e r s e y : P r e n t i c e - H a l l , Inc., 1971), p.123. "Kodaly, "Who i s a Good M u s i c i a n ? " , p.196. 5 R o b e r t Gagne, The C o n d i t i o n s of L e a r n i n g , 2nd ed., (New York: H o l t , R i n e h a r t and Winston Inc., 1970), p.274. 6Robert Noble, "A Study of the E f f e c t s of a Concept Teaching C u r r i c u l u m on Achievement i n Elementary School Beginning Bands", Washington, D.C.: Department of Hea l t h , Education and Welfare, O f f i c e of E d u c a t i o n , Bureau of Research, 1969). 85 l e a r n i n g to manipulate a musical instrument. Because note reading i t s e l f i s two-dimensional, rhythm and p i t c h , F r o s e t h 7 suggests t h a t students should c o n c e n t r a t e on i n t e r p r e t i n g rhythm n o t a t i o n independent of p i t c h n o t a t i o n before they read f o r t h e i r instrument. T h i s they can do by u s i n g body p e r c u s s i o n or classroom instruments. Thus, The r e s e a r c h r e s u l t s of Froseth...and G o r d o n . . i n d i c a t e that any student can p r o f i t from i n s t r u m e n t a l music i n s t r u c t i o n j u s t as soon as he has developed the music r e a d i n e s s which can reasonably be expected from knowledge of h i s l e v e l s of musical a p t i t u d e . 8 Gordon concludes through h i s r e s e a r c h : Instrumental music r e a d i n e s s , then, i n the form of a developed sense of t o n a l i t y and meter and of an e s t a b l i s h e d v o c a b u l a r y of t o n a l and rhythmic p a t t e r n s , must be developed b e f o r e a student can be expected to l e a r n to perform w e l l on a musical i n s t r u m e n t . 9 MacKnight, i n her r e s e a r c h s t a t e s , " C o n t r o l over the instrument and mastery of n o t a t i o n a l symbols are o f t e n s u b s t i t u t e d f o r an understanding of m u s i c . " 1 0 T h e r e f o r e , i n her experiment she i n i t i a t e d a t o n a l p a t t e r n t r a i n i n g as opposed to note i d e n t i f i c a t i o n t r a i n i n g and used such techniques as s i n g i n g i n s o l - f a , c h a n t i n g rhythm s y l l a b l e s , and a conceptual approach. 7James F r o s e t h , "An I n v e s t i g a t i o n of the Use of M u s i c a l A p t i t u d e P r o f i l e Scores i n the I n s t r u c t i o n of Beginning Students i n Instrumental Music", (Ph.D. d i s s e r t a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y of Iowa, 1968). 8Gordon, The Psychology of Music Teaching, p.123. 9 I b i d . , p.125. , 0 C a r o l B. MacKnight, "Music Reading A b i l i t y of Beginning Wind I n s t r u m e n t a l i s t s A f t e r Melodic I n s t r u c t i o n " , J o u r n a l of Research i n Music E d u c a t i o n , 23 1( 1975):53. 86 The r e s u l t s r e v e a l e d s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n favour of the experimental approach i n d i c a t i n g to t h i s author that t h i s aspect i s p o s s i b l y where the f i r s t phase of a programme should b e g i n . P u p i l s s h o u l d be encouraged to read with musical understanding u s i n g the v o i c e r a t h e r than to read m e c h a n i c a l l y with an instrument. Two experiments that lend support t o the v o c a l i z a t i o n of music along w i t h i n s t r u m e n t a l performance are reported by T a t t i n g and McGarry. T a t t i n g 1 1 i m p l i e s that the experimental group of students r e c e i v i n g s i g h t - s i n g i n g i n s t r u c t i o n along with i n s t r u m e n t a l l e s s o n s l e a r n e d to re a d music more e f f e c t i v e l y than those students who r e c e i v e d o n l y s i g h t reading i n s t r u c t i o n . McGarry concludes h i s experiment by s a y i n g : V o c a l i z a t i o n as a t e a c h i n g procedure i s s i g n i f i c a n t l y e f f e c t i v e i n de v e l o p i n g performance s k i l l s f o r in s t r u m e n t a l music s t u d e n t s below average a b i l i t y . . . v o c a l i z a t i o n i s p a r t i c u l a r l y e f f e c t i v e i n the absence of t h i s b i a s ( p r i v a t e l e s s o n s ) . . . v o c a l i z a t i o n had a l e v e l l i n g i n f l u e n c e which narrowed the achievement range w i t h i n performing groups, thereby f a c i l i t a t i n g s e l e c t i o n of r e p e r t o i r e , the f o r m u l a t i o n of l e s s o n p l a n s , and e f f o r t s to s u s t a i n i n t e r e s t d u r i n g r e h e a r s a l s . 1 2 T h e r e f o r e , i t seems p o s s i b l e t h a t d e v e l o p i n g b a s i c s k i l l s and concepts using the v o i c e p r i o r to p l a y i n g an instrument c o u l d 1'Warren F r e d e r i c k T a t t i n g , "An I n v e s t i g a t i o n of the E f f e c t i v e n e s s of Teaching Melodic Aspects of Music Reading By Means of D i c t a t i o n " , (Ph.D. d i s s e r t a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y of Minnesota, 1 975). 1 2 R o b e r t J . McGarry, "A Teaching Experiment to Measure the Extent to Which V o c a l i z a t i o n C o n t r i b u t e s to the Development of S e l e c t e d Instrumental Music Performance S k i l l s " , (Ed. D. d i s s e r t a t i o n , New York U n i v e r s i t y , 1967). 87 r e s u l t i n more e f f i c i e n t and e f f e c t i v e i n s t r u m e n t a l programme i n Phase I I . Another reason f o r i n c l u d i n g v o c a l i z a t i o n p r i o r to and alo n g with i n s t r u m e n t a l performance l i e s i n the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of music. Many conductors and educators u t i l i z e the s i n g i n g approach to h e l p the p r o d u c t i o n of tone on instruments as w e l l as to a s s i s t i n p h r a s i n g . I f t e a c h e r s are going t o use t h i s method of r e l a t i n g i n s t r u m e n t a l p l a y i n g to the v o i c e then some p r i o r t r a i n i n g w i t h concepts u s i n g the v o i c e i s advantageous. The b a s i c m u s i c i a n s h i p s k i l l s i n Phase. I encompass a u r a l , d e x t r a l and t r a n s l a t a b l e s k i l l s as c a t e g o r i z e d i n the M a n h a t t a n v i l l e Music Cu r r i c u l u m P r o j e c t . 1 3 The degree to which these s k i l l s are mastered determines the l e v e l of m u s i c i a n s h i p that i s reached. The concepts i n t h i s programme c a t e g o r i z e d under the headings d u r a t i o n , l i n e a r p i t c h , v e r t i c a l p i t c h , dynamics, timbre, tempo, form and s t y l e were adopted from the authors of C r e a t i n g C u r r i c u l u m i n M u s i c . 1 " As the r e q u i r e d s k i l l s and concepts are the b a s i s of f u r t h e r l e a r n i n g , a high degree of mastery i s necessary. The teacher e v a l u a t e s the l e v e l of mastery and d e c i d e s the many ro u t e s and r e p e t i t i o n s needed to develop competence i n these b a s i c m u s i c i a n s h i p s k i l l s . In l e a r n i n g the b a s i c m u s i c i a n s h i p s k i l l s and concepts i n Phase I, the p u p i l s are exposed to the a e s t h e t i c p r o p e r t i e s of 1 3 R o n a l d B. Thomas, M a n h a t t a n v i l l e Music Curriculum P r o j e c t -- S y n t h e s i s . 1 " E d e l s t e i n et a l , C r e a t i n g C u r r i c u l u m i n Music. 88 shape, space, l i n e , c o l o u r , s t y l e and t e x t u r e , and the f e e l i n g s they e l i c i t . The a e s t h e t i c p r o p e r t i e s and the r e s u l t a n t a t t i t u d i n a l e f f e c t s p l a y an important r o l e i n the Kodaly concept of e d u c a t i n g the whole c h i l d as w e l l as with the comprehensive m u s i c i a n s h i p a d v o c a t o r s . But, because the experimenter f e e l s t h a t " A l l new powers b r i n g enjoyment to the p o s s e s s o r . . . " 1 5 the a e s t h e t i c or a t t i t u d i n a l a s p e c t s of a programme w i l l not be d e a l t with here. P o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e s and f e e l i n g s f o r music can be b u i l t by the c a r e f u l and p r e c i s e treatment of s k i l l s and concepts. Barzun says that what we should be worried about i s "...the course that leads nowhere because i t aims only to please by f o o l i n g around with the a r t . . . " . 1 6 G a r o f a l o , i n h i s book B l u e p r i n t f o r B a n d , 1 7 c l a i m s t h a t a t t i t u d e s , a p p r e c i a t i o n s and h a b i t s are by-products of h i s programme t h a t encompasses understanding, knowledge and s k i l l s . The f i r s t phase cov e r s the reading s k i l l s necessary f o r the b e g i n n i n g u k u l e l e and v o i c e programme. The author p o s i t s that i t i s through'the attempt to master some of the a u r a l , d e x t r a l and t r a n s l a t a b l e s k i l l s i n Phase I using the f a m i l i a r v o c a l instrument t h a t the students' chances of success when the u k u l e l e i s i n t r o d u c e d are enhanced. 1 5 J a c q u e s Barzun, "Art and E d u c a t i o n a l I n f l a t i o n " , A r t i n B a s i c E d u c a t i o n , (Washington, D.C.: C o u n c i l f o r B a s i c Education, 1979) , p.12. 1 6 I b i d . , p.12. 1 7 R o b e r t J . G a r o f a l o , B l u e p r i n t f o r Band: A Guide to Teaching Comprehensive M u s i c i a n s h i p Through School Band Performance, ( P o r t l a n d , Maine: J . Weston Walch, 1976). • »l 89 Phase I may r e q u i r e two months or two years depending on the l e v e l s of achievement i n s k i l l s and co n c e p t u a l development of the group. I t i s always the teacher's dilemma as to whether a c l a s s i s "ready" f o r the next phase of a programme. F o r t u n a t e l y , i n t h i s music programme, when the m a j o r i t y of students have reached an a c c e p t a b l e standard, the group may move on to the next phase c a r r y i n g w i t h i t the few remaining students who have not achieved t h a t standard. Because of the s p i r a l , c y c l i c a l nature of the programme, slower students w i l l get a chance to review b a s i c s k i l l s and concepts i n the next phase as they are re-encountered. The more adept students w i l l have a chance to c o n s o l i d a t e and expand on b a s i c s k i l l s and concepts. The c o g n i t i v e , psychomotor and a f f e c t i v e development w i l l a l s o be allowed to pro g r e s s at the students' r a t e s of growth. The l e v e l at which Phase I i s geared i s as simple as the s t r u c t u r e of music w i l l a l l o w . I t i s founded on the most b a s i c s k i l l s , concepts and subconcepts as i t s p i r a l s upwards i n t e r r e l a t i n g a c t i v i t i e s , concepts and con t e n t . The f o l l o w i n g are some examples of concepts t h a t can be i n t r o d u c e d , developed and p r a c t i s e d u s i n g the Canadian f o l k s o n g , "Land of the S i l v e r B i r c h " . Each one must be ex p e r i e n c e d , brought to the students' c o n s c i o u s awareness by d i r e c t t e a c h i n g and e x p l a n a t i o n , and repeated i n order to develop wider and deeper understanding. Each major concept w i l l be numbered c o n s e c u t i v e l y and each subconcept numbered a f t e r the decimal p o i n t as f o l l o w s : e.g. D u r a t i o n 1.0 beat 1.1 90 meter 1.2 rhythm 1.3 A c t i v i t i e s w i l l be c a t e g o r i z e d i n t o three a r e a s : P = Performance a c t i v i t y 0 = O r g a n i z i n g a c t i v i t y A = A n a l y z i n g a c t i v i t y S k i l l s w i l l be d e s i g n a t e d as: a = a u r a l d = d e x t r a l t = t r a n s l a t a b l e Phase II (Voice and Beginning U k u l e l e Programme) If the r e q u i r e d b a s i c m u s i c i a n s h i p s k i l l s have been achieved i n Phase I, the b e g i n n i n g u k u l e l e s k i l l s should be the focus here. However, b a s i c a u r a l and t r a n s l a t a b l e s k i l l s and the e i g h t major concepts w i l l be r e i n f o r c e d u s i n g the u k u l e l e . The only new element i n i t i a l l y w i l l be the d e x t r a l s k i l l s r e q u i r e d to p l a y the u k u l e l e . D u r a t i o n concepts can be performed by p l u c k i n g i n d i v i d u a l s t r i n g s or by strumming chords. The l i n e a r p i t c h sequence may be presented using one, two or t h r e e keys (D, G or A major) depending on the l e v e l of the group. Within a group there may be more than one l e v e l . The lowest l e v e l c o u l d p l a y i n D major, the middle group c o u l d cope with D and G major, and the top group c o u l d handle D, G and A major. Thus a l l groups c o u l d be . 9 1 • e q u a l l y c h a l l e n g e d . The v e r t i c a l p i t c h sequence i n v o l v i n g a u r a l and v i s u a l i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of chords c o u l d again be handled i n three l e v e l s of a b i l i t y as the t h r e e keys, D, G and A major are i n c o r p o r a t e d . When a c h i l d i s unable to p l a y every chord i n a key he may be a b l e to s i n g one note of the chord and thus f u l f i l l some performance c r i t e r i o n u n t i l he can p l a y i t . Doane c a l l s t h i s " s i n g i n g the s t r i n g s " (choosing one s t r i n g to s i n g while the chords change). Another p o s s i b i l i t y i s to s i n g the root ( t o n i c ) of the chord and " p i c " (pluck w i t h f i n g e r ) i t on the u k u l e l e at the same time. S i n g i n g the s t r i n g s and s i n g i n g the r o o t s a l s o enhances a u r a l development. Form, timbre, dynamics, tempo and s t y l e are a l l i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o the f i r s t t h r e e c oncepts. Music, i n most i n s t a n c e s , comprises a l l the concepts and cannot be r e a l i s t i c a l l y s e p a r a t e d . For f o c u s s i n g on a s p e c i f i c s k i l l , or making the c h i l d aware of a c e r t a i n subconcept, an item may be e x t r a c t e d and then put back i n t o the s e l e c t i o n . T h i s r e s u l t s i n the whole, p a r t , whole approach. T h i s s y n t h e s i s a l s o assumes th a t the f i n a l whole p r e s e n t a t i o n w i l l be d i f f e r e n t from the i n i t i a l whole, as more i n s i g h t and understanding of concepts are a t t a i n e d . E s s e n t i a l l y Phase II i s a r e p e t i t i o n of Phase I with the a d d i t i o n of the u k u l e l e . D e x t r a l s k i l l s need a great d e a l of a t t e n t i o n throughout Phase I I . E x e r c i s e s f o r these are i n the s e c t i o n " T e c h n i c a l E x e r c i s e s f o r U k u l e l e Without Music N o t a t i o n " . E x e r c i s e s can be p l a y e d m u s i c a l l y r e - e n f o r c i n g d e s i g n a t e d concepts. For example, f i n g e r p a t t e r n s f o r 92 s t r e n g t h e n i n g f i n g e r s , and f o r g a i n i n g d e x t e r i t y and a f e e l f o r the f i n g e r b o a r d can be done u s i n g the meters 2, 3 and 4. Many v a r i a t i o n s of accent c o u l d a l s o be used. The r e c y c l i n g of concepts at higher l e v e l s i n v a r i e d ways p l a y s an important part i n d e v e l o p i n g comprehensive m u s i c i a n s h i p . S i n g l e strumming chords with a steady tempo i s a p r e r e q u i s i t e t o more d i f f i c u l t strum p a t t e r n s j u s t as keeping a steady tempo while s i n g i n g or c l a p p i n g i s a p r e r e q u i s i t e to strumming with a steady tempo. The l e f t hand and r i g h t hand s k i l l s need to be p r a c t i s e d f o c u s s i n g on one hand at a time. I f the l e f t hand technique r e q u i r e s a l l the c h i l d ' s a t t e n t i o n , the l e f t hand should be p r a c t i s e d s e p a r a t e l y , then combined with the r i g h t hand (which should i n i t i a l l y be kept as simple as p o s s i b l e ) . For example, while the c h i l d i s l e a r n i n g the l e f t hand c o n f i g u r a t i o n s f o r chords the r i g h t hand should p l a y s i n g l e strums. Once the l e f t hand becomes somewhat automatic, the focus can then s h i f t to the r i g h t hand strumming p a t t e r n which can be i n c r e a s e d i n d i f f i c u l t y t o a double strum. The r i g h t hand strum p a t t e r n s are sequenced under "A P o s s i b l e Chord Sequence f o r U k u l e l e " . The second phase, l i k e the f i r s t , i s merely one route to d e v e l o p i n g a u r a l , d e x t r a l and t r a n s l a t a b l e s k i l l s but with the a d d i t i o n of the u k u l e l e medium. The sequence can be a d j u s t e d to a c e r t a i n extent to the p u p i l s ' needs, and does not have to be adhered to r i g i d l y . The a u r a l s k i l l s are n a t u r a l l y more developed than the o t h e r s . Thus, t h i s suggests two routes of development: 1. a u r a l / d e x t r a l ( h e a r i n g , s i n g i n g or p l a y i n g ) 93 2. t r a n s l a t a b l e / a u r a l / d e x t r a l ( r e a d i n g or w r i t i n g / h e a r i n g / s i n g i n g or p l a y i n g ) In the f i r s t r o u t e , the ear leads i n d i s c r i m i n a t i n g what p i t c h e s i t wants to hear the v o i c e s i n g or the u k u l e l e p l a y . There i s i n the performer's mind a p r e c o n c e i v e d idea of the sounds he wants to produce. T h i s approach r e l i e s a great d e a l on t o n a l and rhythmic memory which can be developed through " t r i a l and e r r o r " , r e p e t i t i o n and m u s i c a l e x p e r i e n c e s . In the second route, the performer looks at the score or w r i t e s the s c o r e , hears the w r i t t e n notes and p l a y s a c c o r d i n g l y . The second route r e q u i r e s more steps as the performer i s compelled to d e a l with the r e a d i n g p r o c e s s . I d e a l l y , both routes need to be developed s i m u l t a n e o u s l y with equal a t t e n t i o n . T h i s i s p o s s i b l e i n a l l phases of t h i s programme through the a c t i v i t i e s of performing, a n a l y z i n g and o r g a n i z i n g . A u r a l s k i l l s need' t o be developed i n c o n j u n c t i o n with d e x t r a l and t r a n s l a t a b l e s k i l l s . The i n s t r u c t i o n a l procedures and a c t i v i t i e s are designed to encourage t h i s dual development. Phase II has s k i l l s and concepts i n t e g r a t e d . The l i n e a r p i t c h sequence f o r s i n g i n g and p l a y i n g develops a l o n g a continuum b e g i n n i n g with two p i t c h e s doh and re ( f o r note reading D E; G A; A B and f o r a u r a l p r e s e n t a t i o n any major second) and c o n t i n u e s to i n c l u d e a l l the notes of the p e n t a t o n i c s c a l e . As seen i n the " L i n e a r P i t c h Sequence f o r S i n g i n g and P l a y i n g " s e c t i o n , a range from low A (lowest note on the u k u l e l e ) to high F# i s encompassed. A wide s i n g i n g range i s thus encouraged. P u p i l s can p l a y and s i n g t h e i r p e n t a t o n i c 9 4 songs i n three keys using s i n g l e notes or chords. The time l i n e f o r t h i s sequence w i l l d i f f e r with each group. I t may take advanced groups p a r t of a year. An o r d i n a r y c l a s s , with mixed l e v e l s , w i l l n e c e s s a r i l y r e q u i r e more time than an advanced group. The phases do not i n d i c a t e the grade or the years spent on the instrument but simply i n d i c a t e achievement l e v e l . The goal i s not to f i n i s h each phase i n r e c o r d time, but r a t h e r to teach s k i l l s and concepts e f f e c t i v e l y . The goal i s to develop comprehensive m u s i c i a n s h i p at whatever l e v e l the c h i l d i s c a p a b l e . The b a s i c s l e a r n e d thoroughly, and i n t e g r a t e d and s y n t h e s i z e d through a myriad of a c t i v i t i e s , w i l l stand a p u p i l i n good stead f o r continued growth i n the h i g h s c h o o l . Rushing through a c u r r i c u l u m without p r o v i d i n g adequate experiences f o r concept and s k i l l development w i l l not accomplish the g o a l of comprehensive m u s i c i a n s h i p . T h e r e f o r e , the t i m i n g of any c u r r i c u l u m r e s t s with the teacher's e x p e r t i s e i n a s s e s s i n g p r o g r e s s each step of the way. (See E v a l u a t i o n Procedure Summary) Phase I I I Phase I I I takes the p u p i l s f u r t h e r up t h i s s p i r a l c u r r i c u l u m t o i n c l u d e a melodic sequence of major s c a l e s , minor s c a l e s and modes. The p i t c h e s and t h e i r placements on the s t a f f f o r the most p a r t w i l l a l r e a d y be known. I t i s a matter of p u t t i n g them together i n the c o r r e c t o r d e r . For example, the notes of the D major s c a l e have a l l been covered i n Phase II i n the p e n t a t o n i c . The notes of the G major s c a l e w i l l a l s o have 9 5 been covered. The only new note to be i n t r o d u c e d i s G'. The notes of the A major s c a l e have been covered except f o r G#' and A'. The major s c a l e s of C, E and B are then added. Minor s c a l e s , along with the Dorian and A e o l i a n ( n a t u r a l minor) modes make up the new m a t e r i a l i n Phase I I I . Because c e r t a i n s c a l e s are s p e c i f i e d does not p r e c l u d e the i n t r o d u c t i o n of other s c a l e s as the teacher sees f i t . These may be d i s c o v e r e d a u r a l l y or t h e o r e t i c a l l y . Summary The three phases are boundless as each one can be extended with m a t e r i a l s and a c t i v i t i e s . The programme i s an ongoing s e q u e n t i a l l e a r n i n g c y c l e of p r e p a r i n g concepts, p r e s e n t i n g them and p r a c t i s i n g t h e i r a p p l i c a t i o n s with the v o i c e and/or u k u l e l e . Each phase has a s k i l l component ( a u t a l / d e x t r a l / t r a n s l a t a b l e ) and an a c t i v i t y component ( p e r f o r m i n g / a n a l y z i n g / o r g a n i z i n g ) . The concepts, s k i l l s and a c t i v i t i e s are c o n t i n u o u s l y i n t e g r a t e d . L i n e a r P i t c h Sequence f o r S i n g i n g and P l a y i n g The f o l l o w i n g l i n e a r p i t c h sequence i s a p p r o p r i a t e f o r Phases I, II and I I I . I t need not be s t r i c t l y adhered to but o f f e r s a g u i d e l i n e f o r i n t r o d u c i n g and i n t e g r a t i n g l i n e a r p i t c h e s . 96 LINEAR PITCH SEQUENCE FOR SINGING AND PLAYING:* Phase I and II -- Pe n t a t o n i c S o l - f a d r d r m d r 1, d l , s f d r 1 , s, • d r m 1, d r m 1 , s, d r m s d r m s 1 d r m s l l , s , D Major D E D E F# D E B, D B , A , D E B , A, D E F# B, D E F# B, A, D E F# A D E F# A B DEF#AB,A, G Major G A G A B G A E, G E, D, G A E, D, G A B E, G A B E,D, G A B D G A B D E GABDEE,D, A Major (both octaves) A B A B C# A B F#, A F#,E, A B F#,E, A B C# F#, A B C# F#,E, ABC#E ABC#EF# ABC#EF#F#,E, O -4- -6h O -e- = o •kz -e- Phase I I I —• D i a t o n i c D major s c a l e ( a l l p i t c h e s have been covered i n Phase I and I I ) G major s c a l e -- i n t r o d u c e C and G' A major s c a l e -- i n t r o d u c e A' Dorian mode A e o l i a n mode * Any note below the t o n a l c e n t r e ( f i n a l note) i s designated by a comma f o l l o w i n g the s o l - f a s y l l a b l e or the l e t t e r name. Any note an octave or more above the t o n a l c e n t r e i s designated by an apostrophe f o l l o w i n g the s o l - f a s y l l a b l e or the l e t t e r name. 9 7 Learning Outcomes f o r Each Concept (Adapted from the goals i n C r e a t i n g C u r r i c u l u m i n M u s i c 1 8 ) I D u r a t i o n Students w i l l : 1 . Develop and demonstrate awareness of beat and w i l l d e t e c t and i n d i c a t e beat, i f p r e s e n t , i n music, speech and environmental sound. 2. Be aware of the f u n c t i o n of a c c e n t u a t i o n i n music. 3. Develop an awareness of rhythm as a fundamental source of motion i n music and a s e n s i t i v i t y to v a r i o u s rhythmic phenonmena. 4. Develop an awareness of meter as an o r g a n i z i n g f o r c e i n music and a s e n s i t i v i t y to v a r i o u s m e t r i c p a t t e r n s and combinations. 5. Develop a s e n s i t i v i t y to extended simultaneous use of d i f f e r e n t rhythmic or m e t r i c p a t t e r n s . II L i n e a r P i t c h Students w i l l : 1 . Develop a s e n s i t i v i t y to sound and p i t c h as fundamental elements of music. 2. Develop a s e n s i t i v i t y to the r i s e and f a l l of p i t c h p a t t e r n s and c o n t o u r s and to the r e l a t i o n s h i p between p i t c h contour and o v e r a l l m usical e f f e c t . 3. Develop a s e n s i t i v i t y f o r the phrase as a m u s i c a l e n t i t y . 4. Develop an a b i l i t y to r e c o g n i z e i n t e r v a l s , s c a l e s and t o n a l c e n t r e . They w i l l be a u r a l l y f a m i l i a r with and s e n s i t i v e to these phenomenon and w i l l understand t h e i r f u n c t i o n and use i n music. 5. Develop a s e n s i t i v i t y to melodic l i n e s and to t h e i r use i n musical c o m p o s i t i o n s . They w i l l be f a m i l i a r w ith monophonic and polyphonic t e x t u r e s and be a b l e to d i s t i n g u i s h these from homophony. E d e l s t e i n et a l , C r e a t i n g C u r r i c u l u m i n Music. 98 I I I V e r t i c a l P i t c h Students w i l l : 1 . Be s e n s i t i v e to the v e r t i c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s of p i t c h that produce harmony and to the use of harmony i n m u s i c a l c o m p o s i t i o n . They w i l l be f a m i l i a r with v a r i o u s harmonic t r a d i t i o n s and p r a c t i c e s . 2. Develop an a b i l i t y to r e c o g n i z e t o n a l c e n t e r . They w i l l be a u r a l l y f a m i l i a r with and s e n s i t i v e to the phenomenon of t o n a l i t y and w i l l understand i t s f u n c t i o n and use i n music. 3. Develop a s e n s i t i v i t y to the uses of harmony to accompany m u s i c a l l i n e s . They w i l l be f a m i l i a r with homophonic t e x t u r e and w i l l be a b l e to d i s t i n g u i s h i t from monophony and polyphony. 4. Develop a s e n s i t i v i t y to the simultaneous e x i s t e n c e of two or more t o n a l c e n t e r s or to the r e l a t i v e weakness or non-existence of t o n a l c e n t e r . They w i l l be f a m i l i a r with v a r i o u s c o m p o s i t i o n a l p r a c t i c e s r e l a t i n g to these phenomena. IV Form Students w i l l : 1. Develop a s e n s i t i v i t y to the e x i s t e n c e of u n i t y and v a r i e t y i n music and an a b i l i t y to i d e n t i f y the sources of u n i t y and v a r i e t y i n m u s i c a l compositions. 2. Develop a s e n s i t i v i t y t o the e x i s t e n c e of s t r u c t u r a l u n i t s i n music and a f a m i l i a r i t y with the uses of such u n i t s i n m u s i c a l c o m p o s i t i o n . 3. Develop a s e n s i t i v i t y to form and s t r u c t u r e w i t h i n and between small and l a r g e u n i t s i n music. They w i l l be f a m i l i a r with the s t r u c t u r a l p r i n c i p l e s by which the elements of music are combined to produce the phenomenon of form, and w i l l be knowledgeable with r e s p e c t to the v a r i o u s formal s t r u c t u r e s i n which music has been and c o n t i n u e s to be o r g a n i z e d . V Timbre Students w i l l : 1. Be s e n s i t i v e to d i f f e r e n c e s i n timbre and w i l l r e c o g n i z e d i s t i n c t i v e timbres. 2. Be f a m i l i a r with the f a c t o r s t h a t determine or i n f l u e n c e timbre. 3. Be f a m i l i a r with the r o l e of timbre as an e x p r e s s i v e element in music and with the f u n c t i o n of timbre i n d e f i n i n g m u s i c a l form. 99 VI Dynamics Students w i l l : 1. Be s e n s i t i v e to d i f f e r e n c e s i n dynamic l e v e l s and to changes i n dynamics. 2. Be f a m i l i a r with the f a c t o r s t h a t determine or i n f l u e n c e dynamics. 3. Be f a m i l i a r with the r o l e of dynamics as an e x p r e s s i v e element i n music and with the f u n c t i o n of dynamics i n d e f i n i n g musical form. VII Tempo Students w i l l : 1. Be s e n s i t i v e to d i f f e r e n c e s i n tempo and to changes i n tempo. 2. Be f a m i l i a r with the r o l e of tempo as an e x p r e s s i v e element i n music and with the f u n c t i o n of tempo in d e f i n i n g m u s i c a l form. VI I I S t y l e Students w i l l : 1. Develop a s e n s i t i v i t y to s t y l e i n music and an a b i l i t y to r e c o g n i z e the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s t h a t d e f i n e m u s i c a l s t y l e . 2. Be knowledgeable with r e s p e c t to the f a c t o r s t h a t i n f l u e n c e s t y l e and w i l l be f a m i l i a r with d i v e r s e m u s i c a l s t y l e s of past and p r e s e n t . I n s t r u c t i o n a l O b j e c t i v e s f o r the Concepts to be Taught (based on C r e a t i n g C u r r i c u l u m i n M u s i c 1 9 ) I D u r a t i o n A. Beat Students w i l l : 1. Demonstrate the beat by stamping, t a p p i n g , c l a p p i n g , snapping, p a t s c h i n g and marching to music while 1 9 1 b i d . 100 s i n g i n g or l i s t e n i n g . (These movements c r e a t i n g sound o f f the body are c a l l e d body p e r c u s s i o n . ) 2. Represent beat i n n o t a t i o n and w i l l t r a n s l a t e such n o t a t i o n i n t o sound. Meter Students w i l l : 1. Demonstrate v a r i o u s meters by s i n g i n g , moving and using body p e r c u s i o n . 2. A u r a l l y and v i s u a l l y i d e n t i f y and d i s t i n g u i s h between v a r i o u s meters. 3. Notate music i n v a r i o u s meters 4. Improvise and compose music i n v a r i o u s meters. Rhythm Students w i l l : "1. Perform rhythm p a t t e r n s . 2. I d e n t i f y and d i s t i n g u i s h between v a r i o u s d u r a t i o n a l values of notes and r e s t s . 3. Notate rhythm p a t t e r n s . 4. Organize d u r a t i o n a l v a l u e s of notes and r e s t s , and combine them i n u n i t s of v a r i o u s l e n g t h s . 5. Perform and notate rhythmic o s t i n a t i . L i n e a r P i t c h Students w i l l : 1. D i s t i n g u i s h between h i g h e r and lower p i t c h e s . 2. Demonstrate melodic contours by p h y s i c a l movement. 3. Reproduce melodic contours represented by t r a d i t i o n a l and n o n t r a d i t i o n a l n o t a t i o n . 4. Compare and d e s c r i b e melodic c o n t o u r s . 5. Represent melodic contours g r a p h i c a l l y or by n o t a t i o n 6. Improvise and compose u t i l i z i n g s p e c i f i c melodic c o n t o u r s . 7. Perform p i t c h p a t t e r n s and phrases m u s i c a l l y . 8. Represent p i t c h p a t t e r n s and phrases by movement. 9. I d e n t i f y and analyze p i t c h p a t t e r n s and phrases by using t r a d i t i o n a l or invented symbols. 10. Notate p i t c h p a t t e r n s and phrases by u s i n g t r a d i t i o n a l or i n v e n t e d symbols. 11. Improvise and compose mus i c a l phrases. 12. Perform melodic o s t i n a t i . 13. Given a u r a l or v i s u a l examples, i d e n t i f y , compare or notate melodic o s t i n a t i . 14. Create melodic o s t i n a t i . 15. Demonstrate v a r i o u s i n t e r v a l s u s i n g the v o i c e , 101 movements and g r a p h i c r e p r e s e n t a t i o n . 16. Given a u r a l or v i s u a l s t i m u l i , i d e n t i f y , c l a s s i f y or notate v a r i o u s i n t e r v a l s . 17. Improvise or compose music emphasizing s p e c i f i e d i n t e r v a l s or i n t e r v a l s p a t t e r n s . 18. Compare, analyze and d e s c r i b e v a r i o u s usages of stepwise p a t t e r n s i n a u r a l or notated examples of musical c o m p o s i t i o n s . 19. Improvise or compose music emphasizing s p e c i f i e d stepwise p a t t e r n s . 20. I d e n t i f y the t o n a l c e n t e r of melodies. 21. Perform monophonic music from v a r i o u s p e r i o d s and c u l t u r e s . 22. Compare and a n a l y z e g i v e n a u r a l or v i s u a l examples of monophonic music. 23. Notate or g r a p h i c a l l y r epresent examples of monophonic music. 24. Improvise and compose monophonic music. 25. Perform v o c a l canons from v a r i o u s s t y l e p e r i o d s and c u l t u r e s . 26. Improvise and compose canons. 27. Perform p o l y p h o n i c music from v a r i o u s s t y l e p e r i o d s and c u l t u r e s . 28. Given a u r a l or v i s u a l examples, i d e n t i f y , compare and analyze v a r i o u s kinds of polyphonic music. 29. Notate or g r a p h i c a l l y r e p r e s e n t examples, of polyphonic music. 30. Improvise and compose p o l y p h o n i c music. I l l V e r t i c a l P i t c h Students w i l l : 1. Given a u r a l or v i s u a l examples, i d e n t i f y chord changes. 2. I d e n t i f y and a n a l y z e t r i a d s and other chord changes. 3. Sing the notes of the chord. 4. Sing the r o o t s of c h o r d s . 5. I d e n t i f y the t o n i c chord as the t o n a l c e n t r e . 6. Perform s p e c i f i e d cadences. 7. Notate s p e c i f i e d cadences. 8. Given a u r a l or v i s u a l examples, i d e n t i f y and d e s c r i b e v a r i o u s types of cadences. 9. Improvise and compose music i l l u s t r a t i n g v a r i o u s types of cadences. 10. Perform homophonic music from v a r i o u s s t y l e p e r i o d s and C u l t u r e s . 11. Given a u r a l or v i s u a l examples, i d e n t i f y v a r i o u s kinds of homophonic music. 12. Perform s p e c i f i e d modulations. 13. Given a u r a l and v i s u a l examples, i d e n t i f y , d e s c r i b e and c l a s s i f y m o d ulations. 14. Notate modulations i n s p e c i f i e d m u s i c a l examples. 102 15. Improvise and compose music i l l u s t r a t i n g s p e c i f i c modulat i o n s . IV Form Students w i l l : 1. I d e n t i f y and perform r e c u r r i n g rhythmic or p i t c h motives. 2. Given a u r a l examples, i d e n t i f y motives and notate them. 3. Given a u r a l or v i s u a l examples, compare and analyze motives and the ways i n which they are used. 4. Use o r i g i n a l or g i v e n motives when i m p r o v i s i n g or composing music. 5. I d e n t i f y and perform themes from m u s i c a l compositions. 6. Given a u r a l examples of musical c o m p o s i t i o n s , compare and analyze themes and the ways i n which they are used. 7. Use o r i g i n a l or given themes when i m p r o v i s i n g or composing melodies. 8. I d e n t i f y i n t r o d u c t i o n s and codas i n music performed. 9. I d e n t i f y and compare b i n a r y and t e r n a r y forms i n music they l i s t e n t o , perform and c r e a t e . 10. Given a u r a l or v i s u a l examples, a n a l y z e and d e s c r i b e b i n a r y and t e r n a r y forms. 11. Improvise and compose words demonstrating c l e a r l y i d e n t i f i a b l e b i n a r y or t e r n a r y form. 12. I d e n t i f y and compare other forms such as rondos, themes and v a r i a t i o n s , canons, fugues and b a l l a d s . 13. Analyze and d e s c r i b e the rondos, themes and v a r i a t i o n s , canons, fugues and b a l l a d s they l i s t e n t o , perform and c r e a t e . V Timbre Students w i l l : 1. I d e n t i f y , compare and c l a s s i f y sound sources and timbres. 2. Improvise, dramatize, compose and perform works u t i l i z i n g s p e c i f i c timbres or t i m b r a l combinations. 3. Compare and d e s c r i b e the i n f l u e n c e of the s i z e , shape and m a t e r i a l of a sound source on i t s r e s u l t i n g timbre. 4. I d e n t i f y , d e s c r i b e and compare v a r i o u s means of tone p r o d u c t i o n . 5. Compose, improvise and perform words i l l u s t r a t i n g v a r i o u s means of tone p r o d u c t i o n . 6. Respond to uses of timbre by means of movement. 7. Given a u r a l or v i s u a l examples, d e s c r i b e and compare v a r i o u s composers' uses of timbre. 103 8. Through i m p r o v i s a t i o n or c o m p o s i t i o n , i l l u s t r a t e v a r i o u s s p e c i f i c uses of timbre. VI Dynamics Students w i l l : 1. Demonstrate v a r i o u s dynamic l e v e l s and changes i n dynamics and u t i l i z e them i n the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of music. 2. s Given a u r a l or v i s u a l examples, i d e n t i f y , compare and d e s c r i b e v a r i o u s dynamic l e v e l s and changes i n dynamics. 3. Improvise, dramatize, compose and perform works u t i l i z i n g v a r i o u s s p e c i f i c dynamic p a t t e r n s . VII S t y l e Students w i l l : 1. Perform, with a p p r o p r i a t e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , music of v a r i o u s s t y l e s . 2. Given a u r a l or v i s u a l examples, d e s c r i b e , analyze and compare v a r i o u s ways i n which d u r a t i o n , p i t c h , timbre, dynamics, tempo and form are o r g a n i z e d and combined i n v a r i o u s s t y l e s . 3. Through l i s t e n i n g and study, d e s c r i b e and analyze the e x t r a - m u s i c a l f o r c e s . 4. Analyze through l i s t e n i n g and i l l u s t r a t e through composition v a r i o u s f u n c t i o n a l a p p l i c a t i o n s of music. 5. Through l i s t e n i n g , i d e n t i f y , a n a l y z e and c l a s s i f y examples of popular music and e t h n i c music of v a r i o u s c u l t u r e s . They w i l l i n d i c a t e the s p e c i f i c uses of the elements of music on which these c o n c l u s i o n s are based. 6. Given a u r a l examples of compositions i n s p i r e d by or based on f o l k music, or e t h n i c music of v a r i o u s c u l t u r e s , analyze and d e s c r i b e how composers have u t i l i z e d these idioms i n t h e i r works. 7. Improvise or compose examples of popular music or works i n f l u e n c e d by f o l k or e t h n i c music. 8. D e s c r i b e , analyze and compare a u r a l or v i s u a l examples of music of v a r i o u s s t y l e s , p e r i o d s or c u l t u r e s . VIII Tempo Students w i l l : 1. Demonstrate v a r i o u s tempos and tempo changes and u t i l i z e them i n the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of music. 2. Given a u r a l or v i s u a l examples, i d e n t i f y , compare and d e s c r i b e v a r i o u s tempos and tempo changes. 104 3. Improvise, dramatize, compose and perform works u t i l i z i n g v a r i o u s s p e c i f i c tempo p a t t e r n s . 4. Respond to v a r i o u s tempos and tempo changes when moving t o music. 5. Given a u r a l or v i s u a l examples, d e s c r i b e and compare v a r i o u s composers' uses of tempo and tempo changes. 6. Through i m p r o v i s a t i o n or composition, i l l u s t r a t e v a r i o u s s p e c i f i c uses of tempo and tempo changes. Teaching Concepts Through a M u l t i p l i c i t y of A c t i v i t i e s The f o l l o w i n g model i l l u s t r a t e s the many avenues a v a i l a b l e f o r e x p e r i e n c i n g , t e a c h i n g and r e i n f o r c i n g concepts i n a comprehensive m u s i c i a n s h i p programme. 1 0 5 TEACHING CONCEPTS THROUGH A M U L T I P L I C I T Y OF A C T I V I T I E S ( F i g u r e 2) P e r f o r m i n g A n a l y z i n g O r g a n i z i n g P e r f o r m i n g s i n g i n g p l a y i n g m o v i n g A n a l y z i n g listening identifying describing comparing di st ingui shing between moving N when the reading ( purpose is writingJ analytical O r g a n i z i n g c o m p o s i n g a r r a n g i n g i m p r o v i s i n g 106 Chapter 5 EVALUATION OF COMPREHENSIVE MUSICIANSHIP PROGRAMMES EVALUATION PROCEDURE SUMMARY E v a l u a t i o n , as e x h i b i t e d i n q u a l i t y music programmes, o f t e n determines e v e n t u a l outcomes. I t can be an as s e t to both the student and the t e a c h e r . Most e v a l u a t i o n i n music should be for m a t i v e e v a l u a t i o n . Formative e v a l u a t i o n i s conducted d u r i n g the i n s t r u c t i o n a l procedure and c o n s i s t s of "...the o b s e r v a t i o n of student progress and d i f f i c u l t y i n l e a r n i n g f o l l o w e d by adjustment i n i n s t r u c t i o n a l procedures to improve that p r o g r e s s . " 1 The other type of e v a l u a t i o n i s summative. I t i s conducted a f t e r the i n s t r u c t i o n a l procedure i s completed " . . . t o make judgements about the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of the l e a r n i n g , the i n s t r u c t i o n , or the c u r r i c u l u m . " 2 The students should know e x a c t l y what the e x p e c t a t i o n s are f o r every s t e p of the programme i n order to s t r i v e to achieve the standards s et by the t e a c h e r . These d i r e c t i o n s and 1 E d u c a t i o n a l Researcher, 2(March 1973), p.7, quoted i n David P r a t t , C u r r i c u l u m : Design and Development, (Harcourt, Brace and Jovanovich, Inc. , 1980), p.228. 2 I b i d . , p.228. 107 e x p e c t a t i o n s a i d i n g i v i n g impetus t o a c c o m p l i s h i n g the task. Every music p e r i o d should be e v a l u a t e d i n d i v i d u a l l y by the students to a s c e r t a i n what accomplishments were made. T h i s type of g e n e r a l , o v e r a l l e v a l u a t i o n of how the l e a r n i n g i s proceeding may be c a r r i e d out through student and teacher e v a l u a t i o n . I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g again to note t h a t Bruner s a i d , "Kids are not very sure about what they know, or about how they know t h i n g s . " 3 With t h i s g e n e r a l type of e v a l u a t i o n students may r e a l i z e t h a t they do know something. T h i s a l s o h e l p s to b u i l d c o n f i d e n c e i n what they know. The more common type of e v a l u a t i o n , that of i n d i v i d u a l t e s t i n g , e i t h e r w r i t t e n or o r a l , i s a l s o v a l u a b l e i n l e t t i n g the students know what they know and l e t t i n g t e a c h e r s know what the students know. Short o r a l t e s t s can be done p e r i o d i c a l l y by i n d i v i d u a l l y t e s t i n g f i v e or s i x p u p i l s on a concept or s k i l l . T h i s informs the teacher immediately as to the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of h i s t e a c h i n g and whether t o back-track or c o n t i n u e . T h i s method i s used f r e q u e n t l y i n Hungarian music c l a s s e s . An example of t h i s c o u l d be to ask i n d i v i d u a l s t o c l a p d i f f e r e n t p a t t e r n s u s i n g the rhythm element being s t u d i e d i n the l e s s o n . Small groups or the whole c l a s s c o u l d a l s o be e v a l u a t e d i n t h i s way. W r i t t e n t e s t s can be a d m i n i s t e r e d at i n t e r v a l s f u r t h e r apart than o r a l t e s t s because they u s u a l l y take more time. But some w r i t t e n work i n the form of p r a c t i c e , or s h o r t q u i z z e s can 3Jerome Bruner, Psychology Today, " S c h o o l i n g C h i l d r e n i n a Nasty C l i m a t e " , Interview by E l i z a b e t h H a l l , (New York: Z i f f - Davis Pub.Co., January 1982), p.59. 108 be done almost every p e r i o d r e q u i r i n g l i t t l e time and with good r e s u l t s . For example, to w r i t e rhythms in s t i c k n o t a t i o n r e q u i r e s very l i t t l e time. The p u p i l s can see the answers put on the board by t h e i r peers and mark t h e i r own papers. The teacher can have immediate feedback by walking around the room to see what students are having t r o u b l e and what the problems are . Short q u i z z e s can be handed i n to the teacher to mark p e r i o d i c a l l y f o r f u r t h e r feedback to teacher and s t u d e n t s . The goal i n a l l t e s t i n g is-100 per cent accuracy or mastery of what i s being taught. Bloom says, Most students (perhaps 90 per cent) can master what we teach. Our b a s i c i n s t r u c t i o n a l task i s to d e f i n e what we mean by mastery of a s u b j e c t and to d i s c o v e r methods and m a t e r i a l s to h e l p the l a r g e s t p r o p o r t i o n of our students reach i t . " C e r t a i n a s p e c t s of music r e q u i r e t h i s , o t h e r s approximate i t . For example, i f the teacher s i n g s a s h o r t melodic passage and the students are r e q u i r e d to w r i t e i t i n m u s i c a l n o t a t i o n , 100 per cent accuracy i s expected. But i f the students are asked to compose a four bar phrase c e r t a i n a s p e c t s cannot be measured. Whether the teacher l i k e s the melody c r e a t e d or not i s a p u r e l y p e r s o n a l o p i n i o n . But the c o r r e c t n e s s of the t h e o r e t i c a l a s pects are indeed measureable. I t i s t h i s dichotomy i n music the emotional and i n t e l l e c t u a l — t h a t o f t e n causes teachers to choose one s i d e or the o t h e r . The i n t e l l e c t u a l s i d e should not be n e g l e c t e d because t e a c h e r s want a l l c h i l d r e n to " l o v e " "Handbook of Formative and Summative E v a l u a t i o n of Student L e a r n i n g , (1971), p.47, Bloom quoted i n P r a t t , Curriculum: Design and Development, p.219. 109 music. The emotional s i d e should not be n e g l e c t e d because teachers b e l i e v e a knowledge of the rudiments i s mandatory to the understanding of music. Both should e x i s t s i d e by s i d e with equal emphasis. Kodaly makes t h i s p o i n t time and time a g a i n . One without the other r e s u l t s i n an unbalanced m u s i c i a n . How can we t e s t f o r f e e l i n g ? How can we t e l l a c h i l d i s s i n g i n g or p l a y i n g m u s i c a l l y ? R i c h a r d C o l w e l l 5 , to i l l u s t r a t e t h a t people can d i s c r i m i n a t e m u s i c a l i t y , p l a y e d a tape of a p i a n i s t performing f i v e e x c e r p t s , each i n two d i f f e r e n t ways — once " m u s i c a l l y " and the second time " u n m u s i c a l l y " or v i c e v e r s a . I t was i n t e r e s t i n g to note that even though the p l a y i n g of the e x c e r p t s was t e c h n i c a l l y i d e n t i c a l , a l l present were ab l e to d i s t i n g u i s h which p l a y i n g of the e x c e r p t was " m u s i c a l " and which was not. C h i l d r e n 1 s d i s c r i m i n a t i o n i n t h i s area was a l s o n o t i c e d by the experimenter. T h i s somehow i n t r i n s i c a b i l i t y to d i s c r i m i n a t e m u s i c a l i t y i s being f u r t h e r researched. Although the a e s t h e t i c e v a l u a t i o n of performing or o r g a n i z i n g (composing, i m p r o v i s i n g and a r r a n g i n g ) i s somewhat p o s s i b l e i t has to be handled i n a d i f f e r e n t manner than t e c h n i c a l and t h e o r e t i c a l a s p e c t s . Numbers do not always s u f f i c e . Teachers may wish to d e v i s e a system of t h e i r own u s i n g words to d e s c r i b e the s i t u a t i o n such as e x c e l l e n t , good, average, f a i r or poor, or simply pass or f a i l . G e n e r a l l y , e x c e l l e n t should be r e s e r v e d f o r the t r u l y o u t s t a n d i n g p u p i l s . Other words that d e s c r i b e the 5 L e c t u r e on " E v a l u a t i o n of School Programmes" on February 20, 1982 i n Kamloops, B.C. f o r the BCMEA Conference. 110 mood c r e a t e d c o u l d be used — j o y f u l , urgent, sombre, e t c . The performances c o u l d be recorded on tape and p l a y e d back to the whole c l a s s f o r t h e i r e v a l u a t i o n . V i d e o t a p i n g c o u l d be used i f the v i s u a l a s p e c t , such as movement, i s i n c o r p o r a t e d . E l l i o t E i s n e r 6 says that we must search f o r new ways to e v a l u a t e the a r t s . He a l s o suggests using some of the new technology to do t h i s . E v a l u a t i o n s h o u l d be done by a l l concerned i n the l e a r n i n g p r o c e s s . I n d i v i d u a l students should e v a l u a t e t h e i r own work c o n s t a n t l y . They should a l s o e v a l u a t e t h e i r peers' works and i n t u r n be e v a l u a t e d by t h e i r peers. The teacher i s the o v e r a l l examiner e v a l u a t i n g students, the c u r r i c u l u m and c u r r i c u l u m implementation. A l i s t of p o s s i b l e t e s t forms suggested by Labuta i s as f o l l o w s : 1. I n f o r m a t i o n examinations a. t r u e - f a l s e b. m u l t i p l e c h o i c e c. matching d. completion e. s h o r t answer f. essay 2. L i s t e n i n g t e s t s 3. Student r e p o r t s a. book r e p o r t s b. m u s i c a l a n a l y s e s c. p r o j e c t r e p o r t d. r e s e a r c h paper e. term paper 4. I n t e r v i e w 6 E l l i o t W. E i s n e r , The E d u c a t i o n a l Imagination, (New York: Macmillan Pub., Co., Inc." 1979), p.17. 111 a. o r a l examination b. conference 5. Performance measures a. r a t i n g s c a l e s b. check l i s t s c. a d j u d i c a t o r s form d. v i d e o t a p e s c a l e s e. t r y o u t f. a p p l i e d examinations ( j u r i e s ) 6. A c t i v i t y i n v e n t o r i e s (what do you do, c o l l e c t , e t c . ? ) a. books b. records c. p r a c t i c e r o u t i n e d. l i s t e n i n g h a b i t s e. music f i l e 7. Anecdotal records 8. Student l o g s 9. D i r e c t o b s e r v a t i o n ( i n f o r m a l ) 10. S e l f - e v a l u a t i o n 11. A t t i t u d e s c a l e or o p i n i o n n a i r e 7 The types of e v a l u a t i o n may take any of the above forms and should be as comprehensive i n scope as are the o b j e c t i v e s of the programme. S i n c e , as Taba says, "The scope of e v a l u a t i o n determines what types or l e v e l s of l e a r n i n g are emphasized..." 8 a v a r i e t y of t e s t i n g procedures i s r e q u i r e d to t e s t a comprehensive m u s i c i a n s h i p programme. A l l of the e v a l u a t i o n procedures l i s t e d by Labuta may be used a t some time d u r i n g the course of t h i s comprehensive m u s i c i a n s h i p programme. The 7 J o s e p h A. Labuta, Guide to A c c o u n t a b i l t y i n Music I n s t r u c t i o n , (West Nyack, New York: Parker Pub.Co., Inc., 1974), pp. 127, 128. 8 H i l d a Taba, C u r r i c u l u m Development: Theory and P r a c t i c e , (New York: H a r c o u r t , Brace and World, Inc., 1962), p.313. 112 teacher needs to look at the i n s t r u c t i o n a l o b j e c t i v e s and decide on ways of e v a l u a t i n g them. C r e a t i n g C u r r i c u l u m i n M u s i c 9 l i s t s twenty-three e v a l u a t i v e c r i t e r i a t h a t are l i n k e d to s p e c i f i c i n s t r u c t i o n a l o b j e c t i v e s throughout the book. These c r i t e r i a are mainly the teacher's judgement as to whether the task has been completed c o r r e c t l y , (e.g. #14 "The performance must r e v e a l a c l e a r awareness of beat..." and #7 "The performance must r e f l e c t h i g h standards of m u s i c i a n s h i p with r e s p e c t to tone q u a l i t y , i n t o n a t i o n , dynamics, p h r a s i n g , s t y l e , e x p r e s s i o n , and other a s p e c t s of musical i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . " 1 0 The M a n h a t t a n v i l l e Music C u r r i c u l u m Program Synthesis S t a t e s t h a t e v a l u a t i o n procedures a l s o emerge from the s t a t e d o b j e c t i v e s . Thomas says that i n any comprehensive musicianship type programme: One of the major p r i n c i p l e s of t h i s c u r r i c u l u m d e a l s with the t o t a l i t y of e x p e r i e n c e from the musical and e d u c a t i o n a l p o i n t s of view. The g r a d i n g system should be c o n s i s t e n t with t h i s p r i n c i p l e i n every way. For example, to emphasize an e v a l u a t i o n of s k i l l development s e p a r a t e l y from the t o t a l musical e x p e r i e n c e which i n c l u d e s a t t i t u d e s , c o g n i t i o n and a e s t h e t i c s e n s i t i v i t y i s to c r e a t e d i s t o r t e d h i e r a r c h y of v a l u e s which can u l t i m a t e l y narrow the e n t i r e l e a r n i n g e x p e r i e n c e . 1 1 The Hawaii Music Program uses a summative e v a l u a t i o n procedure by i n c l u d i n g e v a l u a t i o n m a t e r i a l s at the end of each 9 E d e l s t e i n et a l . , C r e a t i n g C u r r i c u l u m i n Music. 1 0 I b i d . , p.226. 1 1Thomas, S y n t h e s i s , p. 12. 113 u n i t . They s t a t e t h a t , "These p r e s c r i b e ways f o r you to assess students i n d i v i d u a l l y as they a p p l y the concepts they have s t u d i e d to new musi c a l s i t u a t i o n s . " 1 2 Although not l i s t e d under the subheading e v a l u a t i o n , d a i l y assessment i s co n s i d e r e d through worksheets with most l e s s o n s and a c h e c k l i s t f o r the teacher to record student responses throughout the lesson and to r e c o r d impressions i n r e l a t i o n t o each o b j e c t i v e . The c h e c k l i s t i s a three p o i n t s y s t e m — 1 = h i g h l y a c c e p t a b l e , 2 = to some degree and 3 = not at a l l . The problem of a c c o u n t a b i l i t y i s prominent i n today's l i t e r a t u r e and with parents and s c h o o l boards. In the book A c c o u n t a b i l i t y and O b j e c t i v e s f o r Music E d u c a t i o n 1 3 the authors l i n k e v a l u a t i o n and o b j e c t i v e s by u s i n g the o b j e c t i v e s as t e s t i n g d e v i c e s t o form a check l i s t . The students r e c e i v e numbers to i n d i c a t e how w e l l they performed the t a s k : 1. can achieve the o b j e c t i v e w i t h 100 per cent accuracy 2. can achieve the o b j e c t i v e with 75 per cent accuracy 3. can achieve the o b j e c t i v e with 50 per cent accuracy 4. needs much h e l p 5. should drop the course and l i s t e n to r e c o r d s In an attempt t o encourage a m u l t i p l i c i t y of e v a l u a t i o n 1 2 Hawaii Music Program, Zone 3, p.v. 1 3 J . A . L i v i n g s t o n , M.D. Poland, R.E. Simmons, A c c o u n t a b i l i t y and O b j e c t i v e s f o r Music E d u c a t i o n , (Costa Mesa, C a l i f o r n i a : E d u c a t i o n a l Media P r e s s , 1973). 114 methods to s u i t t h i s comprehensive m u s i c i a n s h i p programme, and the needs and a b i l i t i e s of s t u d e n t s , some examples of ways of a s s e s s i n g development f o l l o w . EVALUATION TECHNIQUES FOR "LAND OF THE SILVER BIRCH" (Phase I) Each item to be t e s t e d w i l l be number r e f e r e n c e d to correspond with the s e c t i o n "An Example of Teaching S p e c i f i c Concepts Through the Song 'Land of the S i l v e r B i r c h ' " . E v a l u a t i o n procedures s p e c i f i e d f o r each item are as f o l l o w s : 1.1 i C l a p beat of song while s i n g i n g . Grade on two p o i n t s c a l e - s a t i s f a c t o r y / u n s a t i s f a c t o r y ; the beat should be steady and exact. Notate beat on board while s i n g i n g the song. Grade on a three p o i n t s c a l e - g o o d / s a t i s f a c t o r y / n e e d s improvement; assess a c c o r d i n g to s t e a d i n e s s and accurate t i m i n g . 1.2 i i i Conduct two beats i n a bar while c l a s s s i n g s . Conduct with c o n f i d e n c e , steady, accurate t i m i n g and c o r r e c t motions. Grade oh a f i v e p o i n t s c a l e - e x c e l l e n t / g o o d / s a t i s f a c t o r y / f a i r / u n s a t i s f a c t o r y . Retest p u p i l s i n the bottom two c a t e g r o i e s at a l a t e r date. F i v e p u p i l s can be t e s t e d a t one time i n f r o n t of the c l a s s . P u p i l s can s i n g l y conduct i n f r o n t of the c l a s s . Each c l a s s member has a c l a s s l i s t and grades h i s p e e r s a c c o r d i n g to how he t h i n k s they performed on a f i v e p o i n t s c a l e as above. 1.3 v i P u p i l s prepare paper .Teacher c l a p s a rhythm ( r e p e t i t i o n s are more numerous i n b e g i n n i n g s t a g e s ) . P u p i l s notate rhythm. Grade p u p i l s as to c o r r e c t (100% accuracy) or i n c o r r e c t . Answer may be put on board f o r p u p i l s to check, papers may be handed to peers f o r checking or the teacher may c o l l e c t the papers and check them. A f t e r completing f i v e of the above p a t t e r n s p u p i l ( s ) c l a p s back p a t t e r n s c o n s e c u t i v e l y . Grade p u p i l s as to accuracy and steady beat. Deduct one p o i n t f o r each mistake from a t o t a l of 10. Any mark l e s s than 8 repeats the t e s t at a l a t e r date a f t e r more p r a c t i s e . 1 15 2.1.1 h P u p i l s i n g s bar 1,2 and 13 us i n g words. Grade a c c o r d i n g to c o r r e c t i n t o n a t i o n , rhythm, and e n u n c i a t i o n . Grade a c c o r d i n g to each on a 5 p o i n t s c a l e . P u p i l s s i n g bar 1, 2 and 13 on tape without g i v i n g names. A f t e r a l l students have taped these bars p l a y tape back to c l a s s . E v a l u a t e as above. Guess name of person s i n g i n g . 2.1.5 b P u p i l s prepare s t a f f l i n e s by marking o f f four bars on one l i n e . The tone set i s sung by the teacher and p u p i l s and notated on the board, (d r m s 1 1,). The teacher s i n g s bars 5, 6, 7 and 8. P u p i l s w r i t e notes on prepared s t a f f l i n e s . As a v a r i a t i o n , teacher may change the song r h y t h m i c a l l y or m e l o d i c a l l y and p u p i l s notate the v a r i a t i o n . From a t o t a l of 10 marks one mark i s deducted f o r each e r r o r i n d u r a t i o n or p i t c h . P u p i l s may be presented with the score of the song i n which t h e r e are a set number of mistakes. P u p i l s are asked t o l o c a t e and c o r r e c t the mist a k e s . One mark i s given f o r each e r r o r d e t e c t e d . One mark i s given f o r each e r r o r c o r r e c t e d . 2.2 i P u p i l s are asked to w r i t e short answers to q u e s t i o n s such as how many phrases are there i n the song? On what word does each phrase end? Which two phrases are almost the same? Which phrase has a wide i n t e r v a l i n i t ? Which phrase fades away? 2.3 i One p u p i l performs the melodic o s t i n a t o while another p u p i l s i n g s the melody of the song. Then they a l t e r n a t e p a r t s . Both p u p i l s are judged on t h e i r a b i l i t y to h o l d t h e i r part s e c u r e l y . I n t o n a t i o n , adherence to the rhythmic s t r u c t u r e and a musical performance are a s s e s s e d . They are marked on a three s c a l e system - g o o d / s a t i s f a c t o r y / n e e d s improvement. 2.4 i P u p i l s w r i t e the d i s t a n c e of each i n t e r v a l f o r one phrase or the whole song. (e.g. D to A = P e r f e c t 5th) P u p i l s a l s o s t a t e the s o l - f a names f o r each i n t e r v a l . As a v a r i a t i o n , p u p i l s are grouped i n t o s i x e s and each person i s assig n e d a note (d r m s 1 1,) Each p u p i l s i n g s h i s note as i t occurs i n the song. Each group i s graded a c c o r d i n g to accuracy of p i t c h and rhythm on a three 116 po i n t s c a l e - g o o d / s a t i s f a c t o r y / u n s a t i s f a c t o r y . Groups not a c h i e v i n g at l e a s t a s a t i s f a c t o r y , p r a c t i s e and repeat t e s t l a t e r . 2.5 i v Given the w r i t t e n score of the song, p u p i l s notate the tone set on the s t a f f and l a b e l s c a l e . C i r c l e t o n a l c e n t r e . Given t h r e e tone s e t s on s t a f f l i n e s , p u p i l s are asked to i d e n t i f y which one i s f o r t h i s song. One mark i s given f o r each response. 2.6 I n d i v i d u a l s s i n g the song or s p e c i f i c phrases without any accompaniment. I n t o n a t i o n i s graded on a f i v e p o i n t s c a l e : 1 = 100% accurac y 2 = 75% ac c u r a c y 3 = 50% ac c u r a c y 4 = u n s a t i s f a c t o r y - repeat t e s t at a l a t e r date 3.1.1 v Three p u p i l s , each s i n g i n g one note of the t r i a d , s i n g the three t r i a d s as s p e c i f i e d . P u p i l s give t h e i r names and s i n g the t r i a d s on the tape. They may p l a y i t back and retape u n t i l they are s a t i s f i e d with t h e i r performance. The c l a s s grades the performance on a seven p o i n t s c a l e - A B C+ C C- D E. x Each p u p i l then w r i t e s what notes he sang on s t a f f l i n e s or on the board g i v i n g a b s o l u t e l e t t e r names. 3.1.2 i i Teacher p l a y s major and minor chord i n s u c c e s s i o n in r o o t p o s i t i o n and i n v e r s i o n s . P u p i l s i d e n t i f y as to major or minor by w r i t i n g t h e i r response on paper. One mark f o r each note i n the chord c o r r e c t l y i d e n t i f i e d i s g i v e n . v Each p u p i l s i n g s the notes of the chord played bythe teacher as a s o l i d chord. One mark i s given f o r each note sung c o r r e c t l y . 3.1.4 x P u p i l p l a y s the t o n i c chord on the b e l l s every time i t occurs i n the song. From a score of 10 deduct one mark f o r p l a y i n g the t o n i c chord a t the wrong time and one mark f o r not p l a y i n g the t o n i c chord when i t should occur. 3.2 i v Teacher p l a y s the song on the piano with c h o r d a l accompaniment. P u p i l s from m u l t i p l e c h o ice 117 answers c i r c l e the chord at the end of each phrase. 3.4 i In groups of four, p u p i l s s i n g melody of song and ground bass note "A" (two on each p a r t ) . Grade o v e r a l l performance s a t i s f a c t o r y or u n s a t i s f a c t o r y . 4.1 i v Compose motives u s i n g the same p i t c h p a t t e r n s as i n the song but changing the rhythmic p a t t e r n s . C o r r e c t p i t c h p a t t e r n s = 10 marks; c o r r e c t rhythmic p a t t e r n s = 10 marks. Sing motives on tape. Teacher grades a c c o r d i n g to c o r r e c t n e s s i n s i n g i n g what each p u p i l wrote on a f i v e p o i n t s c a l e . 4.2 i i P u p i l s c r e a t e movements i n groups of two or t h r e e . Videotape each group. Teacher and c l a s s a d j u d i c a t e each performance. 4.5 i i i P u p i l s perform t h e i r i n t r o d u c t i o n i n groups of f i v e . Grade as to s u i t a b i l i t y - yes or no; and o v e r a l l e f f e c t - s a t i s f a c t o r y or u n s a t i s f a c t o r y . 4.7 i v P u p i l s compose a d d i t i o n a l v e r s e s . Grade as to c o r r e c t s y l l a b i c a t i o n - s a t i s f a c t o r y / n e e d s a few changes/needs many changes. S u i t a b i l i t y of words i s s a t i s f a c t o r y / u n s a t i s f a c t o r y . 5.4 i i L i s t e n t o two r e c o r d i n g s of song. Write a d e s c r i p t i o n of each and compare them a c c o r d i n g to t i m b r a l e f f e c t s . Say which r e c o r d i n g you p r e f e r and why. Grade g o o d / s a t i s f a c t o r y / u n s a t i s f a c t o r y a c c o r d i n g to p u p i l s a b i l i t y to a u r a l l y d i s c r i m i n a t e timbre and g i v e a j u s t i f i a b l e reason f o r the a p p r e c i a t i o n of one above another or e q u a l l y l i k i n g both. 6.1 x i P u p i l s move a c c o r d i n g to the sound of the drum being pl a y e d at d i f f e r e n t dynamic l e v e l s . Move i n groups of f i v e . Videotape each group. Play back videotape without sound. P u p i l s determine a t what dynamic l e v e l the drum i s p l a y i n g - pp, p, mp mf, f f f . Each group i s graded a c c o r d i n g to how w e l l the c l a s s i s a b l e to d i s c e r n at what dynamic l e v e l t h e drum i s p l a y i n g . 100% of the time =1 75% of the time = 2 50% of the time = 3 l e s s than 50% of the time = 4 118 6.2 i On the score p u p i l s mark i n the dynamics they wish to use. They then perform i t u s i n g t h e i r dynamics. Grade as to a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s s a t i s f a c t o r y / u n s a t i s f a c t o r y . 7.2 i i P u p i l s w r i t e why the song should or should not have any tempo changes i n i t a f t e r having e x p l o r e d i t s p o s s i b l e uses. T h i s i s a p e r s o n a l d e c i s i o n . Some e d i t i o n s s p e c i f y a tempo change, o t h e r s do not. Since t h i s q u e s t i o n i s mainly i n c l u d e d to make p u p i l s a n a l y z e t h e i r p r e f e r e n c e most answers w i l l be a c c e p t a b l e and a s s e s s e d as s a t i s f a c t o r y or u n s a t i s f a c t o r y . 8.1 i v P u p i l s w r i t e a s t o r y about what they t h i n k has happened i n the song. Teacher and students l i s t e n to s t o r i e s being read and together determine i f i t i s f e a s i b l e , Mark p o s s i b l e or not p o s s i b l e f o r each. OBSERVATION OF A MODEL COMPREHENSIVE MUSICIANSHIP PROGRAMME Some of the ideas put f o r t h i n t h i s t h e s i s were used with the grade s i x and seven students of the CMP group and are d e s c r i b e d i n chapter 6. O r g a n i z i n g a c t i v i t i e s of composing and a r r a n g i n g p r o v i d e d a s t a r t i n g p o i n t f o r the f o l l o w i n g e x e r c i s e example. The r e s u l t a n t compositions and arrangements were i n t u r n performed and a n a l y z e d . Students were asked t o compose music u s i n g given the p i t c h e s mi re and doh i n the keys of D major or G major. They c o u l d use the f o l l o w i n g rhythm elements: They were asked s p e c i f i c a l l y to end on the t o n i c . Compositions are numbered to r e t a i n the anonymity of the p u p i l s . A l l students were to compose without the use of the u k u l e l e i n order to encourage i n t e r n a l i z a t i o n of sound. A f t e r the e i g h t bar 1 19 composition was completed i t was checked by the teacher f o r t e c h n i c a l e r r o r s . P u p i l s then p r a c t i s e d t h e i r compositions on the u k u l e l e . They were allowed to change any p a r t of t h e i r p i e c e a f t e r p l a y i n g i t . T h i s was done by some students to make i t e a s i e r to play or to enhance t h e i r i d e a s . The teacher chose a t random compositions to be put on overhead t r a n s p a r e n c i e s . When a student's composition appeared on the screen he/she was asked to p l a y i t f o r the c l a s s . Then the whole c l a s s p l a y e d the co m p o s i t i o n . Sometimes rhythms and p i t c h p r o g r e s s i o n s were reviewed before p l a y i n g . T h i s formed p a r t of the a n a l y t i c p r o c e s s . Sometimes the p i e c e was sung u s i n g hand s i g n s . A f t e r performing the p i e c e (using v o i c e and/or u k u l e l e ) an a n a l y s i s of the concepts c o n t a i n e d t h e r e i n took p l a c e . Such as an a n a l y s i s of the composition that f o l l o w s : b tittii} i. j j i i ; ; J^FI ± -e- J J\ J J j The a n a l y z i n g a c t i v i t i e s of i d e n t i f y i n g , d e s c r i b i n g , comparing and d i s t i n g u i s h i n g between were used to d i s c o v e r the components of the composition. D u r a t i o n (1.0) and L i n e a r P i t c h (2.0) - the m, r, d sequence occurs four times i n d i f f e r e n t forms — i . e . some notes are repeated - the d, r, m sequence occurs two times - the d to m s k i p o c c u r s two times - the m to d s k i p never o c c u r s 120 - begins on m; ends on d - the m, r, d i n bar 1 i s r e v e r s e d i n bar 2 to d,r,m - bar 1 and bar 6 c o n t a i n the same p i t c h e s but the rhythm i s d i f f e r e n t - when bars 4 and 8 are compared one g i v e s the f e e l i n g of f i n a l i t y and the other does not - when bars 3 and 7 are compared the use of augmentation i s noted - i n t e r v a l s i n the p i e c e a r e : m r =M2; r d =M2; d r =M2; r m =M2; d m =M3; unisons d, r and m - rhythm elements used - J~) J J - r e c u r r i n g rhythm p a t t e r n - J J t J a n J J J J J - m, r, d p a t t e r n s compared i n bars 1, 3 and 6 show bars 3 and 6 a s i m p l i f i c a t i o n of bar 1 - bar 2 and 5 c o n t a i n the same p i t c h p a t t e r n of d, r and m - the meter i s 4/4 Form (4.0) - four two-bar phrases Timbre (5.0) - p i c melody with thumb ( p i z z i c a t o ) Tempo (7.0) ' - moderato When the p i e c e had been p a r t i a l l y a n a l y z e d , f u r t h e r i n s i g h t s as to what e f f e c t s the student d e s i r e d were added. For example, v e r t i c a l p i t c h (3.0) was added with the a n a l y s i s of chords. I t was determined by the students t h a t the t o n i c and dominant seventh chords would be used to match the notes i n the p i e c e . Thus harmony (chords p l a y e d on the u k u l e l e ) was added. Some students went even f u r t h e r to add a second p a r t to c r e a t e a duet. They were allowed to use more p i t c h e s than i n the o r i g i n a l c o m p o s i t i o n . Dynamics (6.0) were then decided upon to give added i n t e r e s t . S t y l e (8.0) was d i s c u s s e d -- mood, e f f e c t c r e a t e d , e t c . 121 When the above had been decided the p u p i l was asked t o present the composition to the c l a s s . Other p u p i l s were r e c r u i t e d to a s s i s t i n the p r e s e n t a t i o n . The composer was a l s o r e s p o n s i b l e f o r a r r a n g i n g the p i e c e . I t sometimes r e q u i r e d two or three p u p i l s e.g. one to p i c the f i r s t p a r t , one to p i c the second p a r t and one to p l a y the chords. The composer c o u l d choose to conduct these p u p i l s or play a p a r t . The p i e c e was presented on a tape or l i v e b e f o r e the c l a s s . One pie c e was chosen and performed by the whole c l a s s at a sch o o l c o n c e r t . In the above process the o r g a n i z i n g a c t i v i t i e s of composing and a r r a n g i n g p l a y e d a major r o l e . A l l concepts were c o n s i d e r e d to v a r y i n g degrees depending on the p i e c e . L i s t e n i n g to p u p i l compositions, i d e n t i f y i n g , d e s c r i b i n g , Comparing and d i s t i n g u i s h i n g between were a l l employed i n the a n a l y z i n g a c t i v i t i e s . The performing a c t i v i t y of p l a y i n g the u k u l e l e was used as w e l l as encouragement to i n c l u d e s i n g i n g i n the arrangement. For example, a t i t l e c o u l d be s e l e c t e d and l y r i c s — w o r d s or j u s t vowels or nonsense s y l l a b l e s — w r i t t e n . Movements t o accompany the p i e c e c o u l d be added to complete the performance a c t i v i t i e s . Through composing and ar r a n g i n g a m u l t i p l i c i t y of a c t i v i t i e s can be i n v o l v e d . (See a l s o Teaching Concepts Through a M u l t i p l i c i t y of A c t i v i t i e s ) The students were s u r p r i s e d that they c o u l d compose p i e c e s t h a t sounded w e l l . They thus gained c o n f i d e n c e i n t h e i r a b i l i t y to make music. A l l p i e c e s were p l a y a b l e and p u p i l s were p r a i s e d f o r t h e i r i n d i v i d u a l e f f o r t s . Through the a n a l y s i s p u p i l s became aware of what they a c t u a l l y composed and gained i n s i g h t 1 2 2 i n t o p r e v i o u s l y m y s t i c a l a c t i v i t i e s , t h a t o f c o m p o s i n g a n d a r r a n g i n g . 123 TWO NOTE STUDENT COMPOSITIONS • J J 1—* J ' J J — - f - — - ^ 3. W J J i-J— r * J • S-9r— &A— Y j / n J *—J-' J / « !) r. / • /} " • 0 -W V j ' J ' -J— J-t J i — \ — e — 124 THREE NOTE STUDENT COMPOSITIONS i J J i i ' I I J J J—I •U <l ' ' J - - p j J. / y * y :=t= .'1 V " i ' * -a- - - ... . l|4 I . i V \ ' * J J y J J 1 J J J — i — - ^ 0  0 FF= : I J J * 1 •D'l * * Jfc J J j * * — h - ' ' ' * ' / U j - ? — e h 1 1 to. * * # * y d ^ * y - ' d to'/ t } — 1 J 7̂  77 <9 _ i 2 / _ v — * - J — J — t * - y * ' * 1 25 FOUR NOTE STUDENT COMPOSITIONS i i I I a n y ' • J ) A T J J J J\ AT 1 J J J 1 — n i l | l | / — / - / / ly (1, 1 J # J 1 J J ' J J . ; J * - :rf-t is l : — r - — r ~ i - J  1 I 1 ,—7 n , 1 i H i , fl ./X-ii L —4- -T"I—' J * J '— •//'I fjn | 7 1 y / J J | 1 J  J i J J B ]/%'! , i I t- \ i e -4- 1 1 r F r f 1 / J j f | | , J U J -fl  127 Chapter 6 QUANTITATIVE EVALUATION OF A COMPREHENSIVE PITCH RECOGNITION TREATMENT METHODOLOGY The S p e c i f i c Problem I n v e s t i g a t e d : In t h i s p i l o t study encompassing one aspect of a comprehensive m u s i c i a n s h i p programme, the main area of i n t e r e s t was i n the students' a b i l i t y to a s c e r t a i n p i t c h e s w i t h i n the pe n t a t o n i c s c a l e . Main Q u e s t i o n : Does encountering p i t c h e s i n a v a r i e t y of ways as s p e c i f i e d i n t h i s comprehensive p i t c h r e c o g n i t i o n study enable students t o s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n c r e a s e t h e i r a b i l i t y to i d e n t i f y p i t c h e s ? P o p u l a t i o n and Sample The two s e n i o r c l a s s e s i n an elementary s c h o o l i n the Vancouver Lower Mainland area were s e l e c t e d f o r a d m i n i s t e r i n g two music programmes. One c l a s s , c o n s i s t i n g of 26 grade seven p u p i l s (13 g i r l s and 13 boys) was randomly a s s i g n e d to the t r a d i t i o n a l music treatment (TMT). A second c l a s s c o n s i s t i n g of 9 grade s i x p u p i l s (4 g i r l s and 5 boys) and 21 grade seven p u p i l s (9 g i r l s and 12 boys) was assign e d t o the comprehensive m u s i c i a n s h i p treatment (CMT). Since i t i s mandatory by law that 128 a l l grade s i x and seven students r e c e i v e music t r a i n i n g i t was i m p o s s i b l e to t e s t a group that had no music c l a s s e s d u r i n g the treatment p e r i o d . E s s e n t i a l l y , then, both groups were treatment groups, one on a t r a d i t i o n a l music treatment and the other on a comprehensive m u s i c i a n s h i p treatment, both using v o i c e and u k u l e l e . There were no obvious d i f f e r e n c e s between the two c l a s s e s at the o u t s e t except that one c l a s s c o n s i s t e d of grade s i x and seven p u p i l s and the other o n l y grade seven p u p i l s . Students at t h i s p a r t i c u l a r s c h o o l , f o r c l a s s purposes, are grouped heterogeneously by t e a c h e r s a c c o r d i n g to academic a b i l i t y as w e l l as on s o c i a l , p h y s i c a l and emotional f a c t o r s . T h i s a p p l i e d to s p l i t c l a s s e s as w e l l . The t e a c h e r s a s s i g n i n g students to these two c l a s s e s were unaware that these groups would be used i n t h i s study. The achievement l e v e l of the students i n the two c l a s s e s ranged from those t h a t s c o r e d i n the f i r s t p e r c e n t i l e to the n i n e t y - n i n t h p e r c e n t i l e on the B r i t i s h Columbia M i n i s t r y grade seven mathematics and rea d i n g t e s t s . The grade s i x e s a l s o showed a s i m i l a r spread i n t h e i r academic standing as r e g i s t e r e d on the Canadian T e s t s of B a s i c S k i l l s . A c c o r d i n g to the r e s u l t s of these t e s t s the students as a group appeared to represent a c r o s s - s e c t i o n i n a p t i t u d e and achievement. A n a l y s i s of c o v a r i a n c e was proposed should mathematical equating of groups be necessary. The p r e t e s t was given to the two groups (56 s t u d e n t s ) . The p o s t - t e s t was a d m i n i s t e r e d to 24 grade sevens on the TMT (12 g i r l s and 12 boys) and 28 grade s i x / s e v e n s on the CMT (5 boys 129 and 4 g i r l s i n grade s i x and 10 boys and 9 g i r l s i n grade seven). A g i r l and a boy i n the TMT group and 2 boys in the CMT group l e f t f o r other s c h o o l s b e f o r e the p o s t - t e s t was g i v e n . The g e n e r a l i z a b i l i t y of the study i s l i m i t e d because of the small sample s i z e . See chapter 7 f o r f u r t h e r assumptions. Instrumentation The author d e v i s e d a 36-item p i t c h r e c o g n i t i o n t e s t e n t i t l e d the Madhosingh P i t c h R e c o g n i t i o n Test (MPRT), which i n c l u d e d tones from the p e n t a t o n i c s c a l e with "D" t o n a l c e n t r e . (See Appendix G.) Each of the 36 items c o n s i s t e d of two tones played on the piano three times preceded by an ascending and descending p e n t a t o n i c s c a l e (D E F# A B D' B A F# E D B, A, B, D). The i n t e r v a l s were s e l e c t e d randomly. Each item took approximately 30 seconds to play.. P u p i l s were asked to w r i t e the two tones i n s o l - f a s y l l a b l e s on a p r e v i o u s l y numbered answer sheet. Both tones i n an item had to be c o r r e c t f o r one p o i n t . Each group took a p r e t e s t and scores were recorded. A f t e r a treatment p e r i o d of approximately four months a p o s t - t e s t , i d e n t i c a l t o the p r e t e s t , was a d m i n i s t e r e d to a l l . A Hoyt e s t i m a t e of i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y ( i . e . r e l i a b i l i t y ) f o r the MPRT was o b t a i n e d u s i n g p r e t e s t scores with the Laboratory of E d u c a t i o n a l Research Test A n a l y s i s Package (LERTAP). 1 An e s t i m a t e of t e s t - r e t e s t r e l i a b i l i t y was obtained 1 L.R. Nelson, Guide to LERTAP Use and I n t e r p r e t a t i o n , (Dunedin, New Zealand: Dept. of E d u c a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y of Otago, 1974). 1 30 usi n g a separate sample of 40 grade f i v e s t u d e n t s . Students wrote the MPRT and a f t e r a two week i n t e r v a l wrote a m o d i f i e d v e r s i o n of the t e s t (items were re o r d e r e d and the t e s t was given on paper of a d i f f e r e n t c o l o u r and dimension). Using the SPSS-x Pearson c o r r e l a t i o n p r o c e d u r e 2 a Pearson product moment c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t was obtained f o r the pre- and p o s t - t e s t scores of the 40 s t u d e n t s . Two p i t c h e s of the p e n t a t o n i c s c a l e were randomly s e l e c t e d to make up each item of a r e l a t i v e p i t c h t e s t c o n s i s t i n g of 36 q u e s t i o n s . The s u b j e c t s were then r e q u i r e d to name both p i t c h e s i n the order p l a y e d . The MPRT c o n t a i n e d p i t c h e s which c o u l d be re c o g n i z e d without s u b j e c t s having " p e r f e c t " or "absolute" p i t c h . However, i t seems u n l i k e l y p u p i l s would be able to recog n i z e many p i t c h e s without having some understanding of the r e l a t i o n s h i p of the two given p i t c h e s to each other or to the tone s e t . Experimental Design The dependent v a r i a b l e was the MPRT sco r e s f o r the p r e t e s t and p o s t - t e s t (24 on the CMT and 28 on the TMT). A three-way a n a l y s i s of v a r i a n c e (ANOVA) with repeated measures 3 was used to analyze the e f f e c t s of the independent v a r i a b l e f a c t o r s gender, programme (CMT and TMT) and time (pre and post) as w e l l as t h e i r i n t e r a c t i o n s . Grade l e v e l s cores were f i r s t t e s t e d to see i f 2SOSS Inc., SPSS-x, User's Guide, (New York: McGraw H i l l , 1983). 3 W.J. Dixon et a l , BMDP S t a t i s t i c a l Software, (Los Angeles: U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a P ress, 1983). ~~ 131 t h i s c r e a t e d a d i f f e r e n c e w i t h i n the CMT group. When an a n a l y s i s of v a r i a n c e with repeated measures ( i . e . pre and post- MPRT sco r e s as the repeated f a c t o r ) was performed using the BMD:P2V s t a t i s t i c a l programme' to see i f grade was a f a c t o r i n performance, an F r a t i o of 3.07 and a t a i l p r o b a b i l i t y of 0.0923 showed that the grade main e f f e c t was not s i g n i f i c a n t at the .05 l e v e l . I t was from t h i s p o i n t on that the grade s i x e s and sevens were t r e a t e d as one group under the t i t l e CMT group. (See Appendix H f o r f u r t h e r r e s u l t s . ) The two groups were given d i f f e r e n t treatments as o u t l i n e d below. The same t e s t was a d m i n i s t e r e d before and a f t e r treatment to both groups. The a d j u s t e d means on the pre- and post-MPRT's of the CMT and TMT groups were p l o t t e d . The f o l l o w i n g s t a t i s t i c a l hypotheses were i n v e s t i g a t e d : Hypothesis I There i s no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t time f a c t o r d i f f e r e n c e at the .05 l e v e l between the pre- and post- MPRT mean scores f o r a l l s u b j e c t s . Hypothesis II There i s no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t gender f a c t o r d i f f e r e n c e at the .05 l e v e l between the male and female MPRT mean sco r e s f o r a l l s u b j e c t s Hypothesis III There i s no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t programme f a c t o r d i f f e r e n c e at the .05 l e v e l between the CMT and TMT MPRT mean sco r e s f o r a l l s u b j e c t s . " I b i d . 132 Hypothesis IV There i s no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t time by gender i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t at the .05 l e v e l among the MPRT mean c e l l s c ores f o r a l l s u b j e c t s . Hypothesis V There i s no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t time by programme i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t at the .05 l e v e l among the MPRT mean c e l l s c o r e s f o r a l l s u b j e c t s . Hypothesis VI There i s no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t gender by programme i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t at the .05 l e v e l among the MPRT mean c e l l s c o r e s f o r a l l s u b j e c t s . Hypothesis VII There i s no s i g n i f i c a n t time by gender by programme i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t at the .05 l e v e l between the p r e - and post—MPRT mean c e l l s c o r e s f o r a l l s u b j e c t s . Treatment Procedures Both the CMT and the TMT s u b j e c t s were f a m i l i a r with the s o l - f a system and the c o r r e s p o n d i n g hand s i g n s before the p r e t e s t . During the treatment p e r i o d the. TMT group d i d l e a r n some song m a t e r i a l through s o l - f a p r e s e n t a t i o n , but t h i s was i n c i d e n t a l r a t h e r than p a r t of a d e l i b e r a t e p l a n . Both groups performed together at sch o o l a s s e m b l i e s and d i s t r i c t events. Another commonality was the use of the v o i c e and u k u l e l e in the treatments. Both groups met on Tuesdays and Thursdays. The TMT group met from 1:40 to 2:20 P.M. and the CMT group from 2:20 to 3:00 P.M. The CMT group went through t h e • f o l l o w i n g procedure as time p e r m i t t e d d u r i n g the four month treatment. T h i s g e n e r a l l y took p l a c e f o r the f i r s t ten minutes of the two p e r i o d s per week. 133 The ensuing comprehensive p i t c h r e c o g n i t i o n programme was prepared and i n s t i g a t e d by the experimenter. The TMT group d i d not go through t h i s procedure. The CMT group were asked t o : 1. s i n g p e n t a t o n i c s c a l e with hand s i g n s 2. s i n g i n t e r v a l s from each s t e p of the p e n t a t o n i c s c a l e 3. i d e n t i f y from song m a t e r i a l p e n t a t o n i c i n t e r v a l s 4. i d e n t i f y i n t e r v a l s p l a y e d on the piano and u k u l e l e 5. reproduce v o c a l l y and i d e n t i f y p i t c h e s sung by the teacher and i n d i v i d u a l students 6. w r i t e a l l i n t e r v a l s on the s t a f f 7. p l a y a l l i n t e r v a l s on the u k u l e l e 8. reproduce v o c a l l y and i n s t r u m e n t a l l y i n t e r v a l s p l a y e d on u k u l e l e 9. improvise with i n t e r v a l s u s i n g v o i c e and u k u l e l e 10. compose and notate p i e c e s u s i n g some or a l l of the i n t e r v a l s The TMT c o n s i s t e d of the f o l l o w i n g a c t i v i t i e s : 1) l i s t e n i n g to r e c o r d i n g s of songs to be sung and p l a y e d 2) p l a y i n g these songs on the u k u l e l e 3) s i n g i n g the above songs while p l a y i n g the u k u l e l e 4) r e a d i n g to v a r y i n g degrees the music of the above songs 5) composing with some or a l l of the p e n t a t o n i c notes T e s t i n g Procedure Both p r e - and post-MPRT's were given to whole groups at one s i t t i n g i n the a f t e r n o o n by the experimenter. P u p i l s were encouraged to do t h e i r best on t h i s survey type t e s t f o r 134 r e c o g n i z i n g p i t c h e s . The p o s t - t e s t was t r e a t e d s i m i l a r l y i n that p u p i l s were t o l d to t r y t h e i r best on a t e s t to see whether they had improved t h e i r a b i l i t y to r e c o g n i z e p i t c h e s . They were assured that t h i s mark d i d not mean they would pass or f a i l t h e i r music course because i t o n l y i n d i c a t e d t h e i r a b i l i t y t o r e c o g n i z e p i t c h e s which i s but one aspect of music t r a i n i n g . A n a l y s i s Two scores were obtained f o r each of 52 s u b j e c t s . A three way a n a l y s i s of v a r i a n c e with repeated measures was used to analyze the f a c t o r s c o r e s . Hypothesis I to VII Using pre- and post-MPRT s c o r e s f o r the CMT and TMT group boys and g i r l s , a three way repeated measure a n a l y s i s of v a r i a n c e -- group by sex by o c c a s i o n with o c c a s i o n as the repeated f a c t o r was performed using the BMD:P2V s t a t i s t i c a l programme. 5 The computed F r a t i o s and t a i l p r o b a b i l i t i e s under the r e s p e c t i v e n u l l hypotheses were examined f o r sex, group and o c c a s i o n main e f f e c t s and t h e i r i n t e r a c t i o n s . The t a i l p r o b a b i l i t i e s were compared with the .05 c r i t i c a l value to determine whether or not to r e j e c t the r e s p e c t i v e n u l l hypotheses. RESULTS The estimate of i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y r e l i a b i l i t y o btained 5 I b i d . • 135 f o r the p r e t e s t MPRT sco r e s was 0.92. The v a l u e of the t e s t - r e t e s t r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t was 0.88. (See Table 1.) Table 1.Test-Retest R e l i a b i l i t y f o r the MPRT Using Grade 5 P u p i l s V a r i a b l e Cases Mean Std.Dev. C o r r e l a t i o n Test 40 6.63 5.71 0.88 Retest 40 6.65 5.54 Te s t s of Hypothesis I Hypothesis I There i s no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t time f a c t o r d i f f e r e n c e at the .05 l e v e l between the p r e - and post- MPRT mean sco r e s f o r a l l s u b j e c t s . As can be seen from Table 2 and 3 below a l l students made some gain from p r e t e s t mean sc o r e s to p o s t - t e s t mean s c o r e s . A l l improved over time. 136 Table 2. Means and (Standard D e v i a t i o n s ) f o r CMT and TMT Groups CMT TMT A c t u a l P r e t e s t Mean 10.68 7.12 P r e t e s t Std.Dev. (8.57) (7.06) A c t u a l P o s t - t e s t Mean 15.54 8.54 P o s t - t e s t Std.Dev. (8.50) (7.13) Adj u s t e d P r e t e s t Mean 9.15 8 .91 P r e t e s t Std.Dev. (8.57) (7.07) Adjusted P o s t - t e s t Mean 14.00 10.33 P o s t - t e s t Std.Dev. (8.50) (7.13) 1 37 Table 3. Means and (Standard D e v i a t i o n s ) f o r Subgroups CMT(B), TMT(B), CMT(G) and TMT(G) Boys G i r l s CMT TMT CMT TMT P r e t e s t 9. 77 6. 83 1 1 47 7. 42 Std . Dev. (10. 38) (9. 61) (6 .93) (3. 45) P o s t - t e s t 13. 38 8. 08 17 .40 9. 00 Std . Dev. (9. 93) (8. 08) (6 .83) (6. 37) Table 4. Main Repeated Measures A n a l y s i s of V a r i a n c e f o r Pre- v and Post -MPRT Scores of the CMT and TMT Groups SS df MS F Prob. Mean 11196 . 97 1 11196 . 97 9 3 . 85 0 . 00 Gender (G) 8 3 . 84 1 8 3 . 84 0 . 70 o . 41 Programme(P) 6 8 9 . 69 1 6 89 . 69 5 . 78 0 . 02 G X P 2 8 . 60 1 28 . 60 0 . 24 0 . 63 E r r o r 5 7 2 6 . 63 48 119 30 Time (T) 2 4 7 . 08 1 247 .08 30 .60 0 . 00 T X G 1 1 . 33 1 1 1 .33 1 .40 0 . 24 T X P 7 2 . 68 1 72 .68 9 .00 0 . 00 G X T X P 6 . 35 1 6 .35 0 .79 0 . 38 E r r o r 3 . 87 48 8 .07 The F r a t i o of 30.60 ( t a i l p r o b a b i l i t y of 0.00) f o r the time main e f f e c t as shown i n Tab l e 3 i n d i c a t e s gain over time f o r a l l subgroups t e s t e d . Thus one r e j e c t s n u l l h y p o thesis I. 1 38 Tes t s f o r Hypothesis II Hypothesis II There i s no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t gender f a c t o r d i f f e r e n c e at the .05 l e v e l between the pre- and post - MPRT mean scores f o r boys and the pre and post MPRT mean scores f o r g i r l s . As seen i n Table 4 the "F r a t i o of 0.70 and a t a i l p r o b a b i l i t y of 0,41 i n d i c a t e s t h a t the gender f a c t o r was not s i g n i f i c a n t . One t h e r e f o r e f a i l s to r e j e c t the n u l l form of hypo t h e s i s I I . Test s f o r Hypothesis I I I Hypothesis I I I There - i s no s t a t i s i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t programme f a c t o r d i f f e r e n c e at the .05 l e v e l of pre- and post-MPRT mean scor e s between a l l the s u b j e c t s of the CMT group and the TMT group. Because of the lower p r e t e s t mean score f o r the TMT i t was necessary t o a d j u s t the mean sco r e s to more a c c u r a t e l y gauge the d i f f e r e n c e i n gai n s made by the two groups. There appears to be gr e a t e r g a i n s by the CMT group than the TMT -- e.g. the CMT group i n c r e a s e d t h e i r mean score by 4.85 while the TMT only i n c r e a s e d by 1.42. (See F i g u r e 3 f o l l o w i n g . ) 1 39 1 40 There was a s i g n i f i c a n t programme main e f f e c t as noted i n Tabl e 4 with an F r a t i o of 5.78 ( t a i l p r o b a b i l i t y = 0.02). T h i s , t h e r e f o r e , caused a r e j e c t i o n of h y p o t h e s i s I I I . Table 5 below shows a programme main e f f e c t F r a t i o of 12.11 ( t a i l p r o b a b i l i t y of 0.001) which i s s i g n i f i c a n t at the .05 l e v e l . T h i s f u r t h e r evidences the g a i n d i f f e r e n c e a c c o r d i n g to the programme (CMT or TMT) the students were on. Table 5. Repeated Measures A n a l y s i s of Covariance f o r CMT and TMT Groups' Pre- and Post-MPRT Scores Using the P r e t e s t as the C o v a r i a t e Source SS df MS F Prob. P r o g r a m m e ( P ) 93. ,82 1 93. ,82 12. 1 1 0. .001 E r r o r 379. ,47 49 7. .74 T i m e ( T ) 254. ,33 1 254. ,33 31 . 27 0. .000 T X P 76. .48 76. .48 9. 40 o, .003 E r r o r 406. .63 50 8, .13 Dependent t - t e s t v a l u e s were o b t a i n e d on p r e - and p o s t - t e s t s c o r e s f o r each group. As can be noted from Table 6 f o l l o w i n g , the CMT group with a 2 - t a i l e d p r o b a b i l i t y of 0.000 and a t-value of -6.58 showed a s i g n i f i c a n t improvement from pre to p o s t - t e s t r e s u l t s . Whereas the TMT's t - v a l u e was only -1.66 with a 2- t a i l e d p r o b a b i l i t y of 0.110. 141 Table 6. Means and (Standard D e v i a t i o n s ) f o r Dependent t - t e s t Values on Pre- and Post-MPRT Scores f o r CMT and TMT Groups CMT TMT Mean P r e t e s t 10.68 7.12 P r e t e s t St.Dev. (8.57) (7.06) Mean P o s t - t e s t 15.54 8.54 P o s t - t e s t St.Dev. (8.50) (7.13) St . E r r o r of Mean 1.62 1 .44 t- v a l u e -6.58 -1.66 df 27 23 2 - t a i l Prob. 0.000 0.110 T e s t s f o r Hypothesis IV Hypothesis IV There i s no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t time by gender i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t at the .05 l e v e l between the pre- and p o s t - MPRT mean s c o r e s f o r a l l s u b j e c t s . As can be seen from Table 4, the F r a t i o f o r time by gender i n t e r a c t i o n of 1.40 i s not s i g n i f i c a n t at the .05 l e v e l . The t a i l p r o b a b i l i t y of 0.24 i s g r e a t e r than .05 c a u s i n g a r e j e c t i o n of a s i g n i f i c a n t time by gender i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t . T e s t s f o r Hypothesis V Hypothesis V There i s no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t time by programme i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t at the .05 l e v e l between the p re- and post- MPRT mean scores f o r a l l s u b j e c t s . Table 4 i n d i c a t e s that the F r a t i o of 9.00 i s s i g n i f i c a n t w ith a t a i l p r o b a b i l i t y of 0.00 which i s l e s s than .05. One, 142 t h e r e f o r e , can assume a time by programme e f f e c t and r e j e c t h y p o t h e s i s V. (See F i g u r e 3.) T e s t s f o r Hypothesis VI Hypothesis VI There i s no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t gender by programme i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t at the .05 l e v e l between the pre- and post-MPRT mean scores f o r a l l s u b j e c t s . Table 4 a l s o i n d i c a t e s w i t h an F r a t i o of 0.24 and a t a i l p r o b a b i l i t y of 0.63 that there i s no s i g n i f i c a n t gender by programme i n t e r a c t i o n . T h e r e f o r e one f a i l s to r e j e c t hypothesis V I . T e s t s f o r Hypothesis VII Hypothesis VII There i s no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t time by gender by programme i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t at the .05 l e v e l between the p r e - and post-MPRT mean sco r e s f o r a l l s u b j e c t s . T h i s three-way i n t e r a c t i o n with an F r a t i o of 0.79 and a t a i l p r o b a b i l i t y of 0.38, as shown i n Table 4 was n o n s i g n i f i c a n t . One, t h e r e f o r e , f a i l s to r e j e c t h y p o t h e s i s V I I . DISCUSSION A s i g n i f i c a n t f a c t o r i n the MPRT study was the e f f e c t of time. A l l students, whether on the CMT or TMT, made some prog r e s s over time. (See F i g u r e 3.) T h i s supports the idea that as long as students are exposed to music t r a i n i n g over a p e r i o d of time some gains are i n e v i t a b l e . "A second s i g n i f i c a n t f a c t o r 143 was the e f f e c t of programme. Although both groups d i d not achieve the i d e n t i c a l p r e t e s t mean s c o r e , the CMT group improved s i g n i f i c a n t l y but the TMT group d i d not (Table 6) i n d i c a t i n g t h a t the programme probably p l a y e d a r o l e i n the p o s t - t e s t outcome f o r the CMT group. A t h i r d s i g n i f i c a n t f a c t o r was the time by programme i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t . The students i n the CMT group showed a s i g n i f i c a n t improvement while the TMT group d i d not. Thus, i t may be deduced from t h i s study that the CMT group, over time, produced r e s u l t s s i g n i f i c a n t l y b e t t e r than the TMT. Gender was a n o n s i g n i f i c a n t f a c t o r with boys and g i r l s on both programmes performing e q u a l l y w e l l . A l s o , the i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t s of time by gender and programme by gender were n o n s i g n i f i c a n t . The three-way i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t of gender, time and programme, was a l s o n o n s i g n i f i c a n t . T h i s s t a t i s t i c a l study r e p r e s e n t e d an attempt to i n v e s t i g a t e the r o l e t h at a comprehensive m u s i c i a n s h i p programme, u s i n g the v o i c e and u k u l e l e , p l a y s i n i n c r e a s i n g p u p i l s ' a b i l i t y t o recognize p i t c h e s of the p e n t a t o n i c s c a l e . Based on the t e s t r e s u l t s , p i t c h d i s c r i m i n a t i o n was developed to v a r y i n g degrees by t h i s age l e v e l . The d i f f e r e n c e s would appear to be due l a r g e l y to t r a i n i n g as suggested by the r e s u l t s produced by the CMT experiment. It was observed that the 36-item t e s t was long c a u s i n g c o n c e n t r a t i o n problems f o r some students i n both the CMT and TMT groups f o r the p r e - and p o s t - t e s t s . The d i f f i c u l t y of the items was randomized with some e a s i l y i d e n t i f i a b l e p i t c h e s o c c u r r i n g 144 near the end of the t e s t when students were showing signs of f a t i g u e . I t would be worthwhile r e a r r a n g i n g items according to d i f f i c u l t y to see i f t h i s would i n f l u e n c e t e s t s c o r e s . Also* p u p i l s might perform b e t t e r i f the t e s t had been shortened to p o s s i b l y 30 items. M u s i c a l t r a i n i n g and experiences o u t s i d e of school were obvious i n the p r e t e s t r e s u l t s with the top s c o r e s recorded by p u p i l s t a k i n g p r i v a t e music l e s s o n s (e.g. of the top three s c o r e s , two were p i a n i s t s and one was a trumpet p l a y e r ) . Even so, gains were made by a l l p u p i l s r e g a r d l e s s of p r i v a t e l e s s o n s . M u s i c a l a p t i t u d e , which i s d i f f i c u l t to separate from musical e x p e r i e n c e , appeared to play a p a r t here as some students i n the CMT group who d i d not take p r i v a t e l e s s o n s were ab l e to double t h e i r s c o r e s from p r e - t o p o s t - t e s t . Because a l l s t u d e n t s i n t h i s study p a r t i c i p a t e d i n school and d i s t r i c t events the time r e q u i r e d to do more aspects of the c u r r i c u l u m i n depth was not a v a i l a b l e . The q u e s t i o n a r i s e s t h e r e f o r e , as to whether or not a more co n c e n t r a t e d CMT treatment would be more e f f e c t i v e . Approximately twenty minutes a week spread out over a four month p e r i o d was however able to produce some s i g n i f i c a n t g a i n s . SUMMARY It i s u n r e a l i s t i c to measure a comprehensive mu s i c i a n s h i p programme on one a s p e c t , namely p i t c h r e c o g n i t i o n . However, the success of t h i s programme can p r o v i d e needed encouragement to t e a c h e r s by showing t h a t t h i s approach can be b e n e f i c i a l i n t h i s 145 segment of music education and that p o s s i b l y such a programme encompassing the whole spectrum of music educ a t i o n c o u l d be v i a b l e . F u r t h e r s t u d i e s are needed u s i n g d i f f e r e n t age groups and d i f f e r e n t a s p e c t s of the music c u r r i c u l u m to a s c e r t a i n i t s t o t a l e f f e c t i v e n e s s and r a m i f i c a t i o n s . In g e n e r a l , i t appears t h a t a comprehensive p i t c h r e c o g n i t i o n treatment u s i n g the voice and u k u l e l e encourages the development of p i t c h r e c o g n i t i o n b e t t e r than a t r a d i t i o n a l music treatment u s i n g v o i c e and u k u l e l e . 1 46 Chapter 7 CONCLUSIONS Summary Comprehensive m u s i c i a n s h i p , as i t i s d e f i n e d i n Chapter 2, n e c e s s a r i l y demands t h a t the teacher i n t e r p r e t , analyze and develop h i s own programme to s u i t the ages, needs and i n t e r e s t s of the s t u d e n t s . The teacher a l s o needs to keep i n mind that the approach i s through: 1. the " b a s i c elements" (the concepts) and the i n t e g r a t i o n t h e r e o f 2. the a c t i v i t i e s of performing, a n a l y z i n g and o r g a n i z i n g 3. the s y n t h e s i s of the i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s inherent i n music 4. a broad c r o s s - s e c t i o n of musics from a n c i e n t to the p r e s e n t ; from f o l k music to " c l a s s i c a l " composed music; and from s o l o music to o r c h e s t r a l music The time r e q u i r e d to prepare c u r r i c u l a f r e q u e n t l y i n h i b i t s the above t a k i n g p l a c e . T h e r e f o r e , the next best procedure may be f o r te a c h e r s to look at a l r e a d y designed c u r r i c u l a and use the p a r t s that would be s u i t a b l e and b e n e f i c i a l to t h e i r s t u d e n t s . I t i s with t h i s purpose i n mind that t h i s study was c a r r i e d out. G e n e r a l l y speaking, the more students know about a subject 147 the more c o n f i d e n c e they have i n themselves i n handl i n g that s u b j e c t . A comprehensive m u s i c i a n s h i p approach thus s t r i v e s t o s t a r t with the b a s i c s and present them i n such a v a r i e t y of ways that success i n g r a s p i n g some understanding i s l i k e l y . T h i s programme, designed to develop comprehensive mu s i c i a n s h i p , s t r i v e s f o r mastery l e a r n i n g at a l l l e v e l s , c r e a t i n g higher e x p e c t a t i o n s than the " t r a d i t i o n a l " method. RECOMMENDATIONS Comprehensive m u s i c i a n s h i p programmes need to be developed and experimented with at the elementary s c h o o l l e v e l so that many models u s i n g v a r i o u s media can be i n c o r p o r a t e d . Teachers would then be abl e to choose and adapt comprehensive m u s i c i a n s h i p programmes to t h e i r advantage. A l o n g i t u d i n a l study, one i n v o l v i n g the implementation of a comprehensive m u s i c i a n s h i p programme u s i n g the u k u l e l e as a classroom instrument encompassing l i n e a r and v e r t i c a l p i t c h and s o l o and accompanying techniques i n c o n j u n c t i o n with the v o i c e , needs to be res e a r c h e d . The i n s t i g a t i o n and e f f e c t s of the u k u l e l e i n the J u n i o r High and High School s e t t i n g c o u l d be i n v e s t i g a t e d . L i k e w i s e , comprehensive m u s i c i a n s h i p programmes in the primary grades u s i n g v o i c e and classroom instruments c o u l d be examined through r e s e a r c h procedures to note t h e i r e f f e c t i v e n e s s . Teachers need to be encouraged to use comprehensive m u s i c i a n s h i p techniques through r e t r a i n i n g programmes and examples of e f f e c t i v e programmes. Teacher t r a i n i n g c o u l d expose 148 f u t u r e teachers to t h i s mode of t e a c h i n g because of i t s apparent e f f e c t i v e n e s s . Comprehensive m u s i c i a n s h i p implementation problems such as time a l l o t m e n t s , e v a l u a t i o n and a c c o u n t a b i l i t y , s p e c i f i c r e p e r t o i r e and s p e c i a l areas such as mainstreaming and enrichment need to be i n v e s t i g a t e d . S i m i l a r s t u d i e s to t h a t r e p o r t e d i n chapter 6 with p u p i l s i n the lower i n t e r m e d i a t e grades would a s s i s t i n d e f i n i n g at what grades the u k u l e l e and v o i c e programme would best a s s i s t i n music a l l e a r n i n g . I t may be because of p o s s i b l y g r e a t e r r e c e p t i v i t y l e v e l s t h a t younger p u p i l s would produce g r e a t e r g a i n s . S t u d i e s using the medium of re c o r d e r i n p l a c e of the u k u l e l e would h e l p to i n d i c a t e whether a s t r i n g instrument a s s i s t s p i t c h p e r c e p t i o n to a g r e a t e r degree than a woodwind. IMPLICATIONS OF THE CMT AND TMT STUDY 1. M u s i c a l l e a r n i n g can be ac h i e v e d i n the i n t e r m e d i a t e grades through comprehensive m u s i c i a n s h i p programmes using v o i c e and u k u l e l e . 2. Students can s u c c e s s f u l l y accomplish m u s i c a l tasks through performing, a n a l y z i n g and o r g a n i z i n g a c t i v i t i e s i n a comprehensive m u s i c i a n s h i p programme. 3. Kodaly p r i n c i p l e s can be i n c o r p o r a t e d s u c c e s s f u l l y i n a comprehensive m u s i c i a n s h i p programme. 4. B a s i c m u s i c i a n s h i p s k i l l s i n p i t c h r e c o g n i t i o n can 149 be taught through a comprehensive m u s i c i a n s h i p programme with g r e a t e r success than through a t r a d i t i o n a l music programme. 5. The u k u l e l e when used i n c o n j u c t i o n with the v o i c e r e i n f o r c e s the l e a r n i n g of concepts i n the inte r m e d i a t e grades. CONCLUSIONS T h i s study shows that Kodaly's p r i n c i p l e s and the i d e a l s of comprehensive m u s i c i a n s h i p can be interwoven and moulded i n t o one coherent programme. I t was found that t h i s type of programme r e q u i r e s more p r e s e n t a t i o n time than the t r a d i t i o n a l programme because of the m u l t i p l i c i t y of ways i n which concepts are i n t r o d u c e d . T h e r e f o r e , i t i s f e l t t h a t f o r students to reap the g r e a t e s t b e n e f i t s from the programme more time i s needed than i s t r a d i t i o n a l l y g i v e n ( i . e . two p e r i o d s a week on the average). An a d d i t i o n a l c l a s s p e r i o d per week would be a great a s s e t i n t e a c h i n g a comprehensive m u s i c i a n s h i p programme. The te a c h e r s ' p r e p a r a t i o n s are time consuming i n the i n i t i a l stages as w e l l as throughout the s p i r a l continuum. Every concept must be covered i n numerous ways which r e q u i r e s a great d e a l of p l a n n i n g and o r g a n i z i n g . Thus, an important requirement i n working with comprehensive m u s i c i a n s h i p programmes i s the o r g a n i z i n g a b i l i t y of the t e a c h e r . Each programme should be tai l o r - m a d e f o r the students being taught. In order to accomplish t h i s , the author sees the need f o r the teacher h i m s e l f to be a comprehensive musician, l o o k i n g at music from 150 composer, e v a l u a t o r and performer v i e w p o i n t s . T h i s programme can be redesigned by the i n d i v i d u a l teacher having t h i s p e r s p e c t i v e w i t h i n the framework o f f e r e d here. F i n a l l y , i t i s r e a l i z e d t h a t t h i s programme i s not a panacea but one approach to encouraging the development of comprehensive m u s i c i a n s h i p . 151 BIBLIOGRAPHY U k u l e l e M a t e r i a l s , R e f e r e n c e s 1 and Recordings Doane, Chalmers. Classroom U k u l e l e Method. Rev. Ed. Waterloo, O n t a r i o : Waterloo Music Co., L t d . , 1980. . "Focus '80." U k u l e l e Yes 5(1980): 2. . " P r e s i d e n t ' s Message." U k u l e l e Yes 2, 1 (1980): 1 . . " P r e s i d e n t ' s Message." U k u l e l e Yes 2,2(1980): 1. . 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" Music Educators J o u r n a l 60 (September 1973): 55-59. Appendix A A SEQUENTIAL INSTRUCTIONAL PROCEDURE FOR PHASE I: VOICE Major Concept - DURATION Act i v i t y Sub-Concept Content S t u d e n t s a r e e x p e c t e d t o : [ BEAT 1. p e r f o r m the beat u s i n g body p e r c u s s i o n w h i l e l i s t e n i n g or s i n g i n g . 2. echo the t e a c h e r ' s f o u r b e a t s of body p e r c u s s i o n . 3. s i n g o r l i s t e n and do any body p e r c u s s i o n by a l t e r n a t e l y e x t e r n a l i z i n g the b e a t s of one ph r a s e then i n t e r n a l i z i n g the b e a t s of the next phrase. 4. s i n g or l i s t e n and do any body p e r c u s s i o n by a l t e r n a t e l y e x t e r n a l i z i n g f o u r b e a t s then i n t e r n a l i z i n g the f o u r b e a t s 5. n o t a t e the beat on the board or i n notebook w h i l e l i s t e n i n g or s i n g i n g . (Use s t i c k n o t a t i o n ) T r a n s l a t e the beat back i n t o sound. I METER [ S t u d e n t s a r e e x p e c t e d t o : 2, 3 4 4 4 , 6 4 8 169 J . J - 1. stamp or use o t h e r body p e r c u s s i o n to the f i r s t beat of each bar w h i l e s i n g i n g o r l i s t e n i n g to music a) t h i s may be emphasized by p a t s e n i n g the f i r s t beat h e a v i l y and the remaining b e a t s of the bar l i g h t l y . b) p a t s c h the f i r s t beat and snap the r e m a i n i n g b e a t s of the bar. Act i v1ty c) walk w i t h one shoe on and one shoe o f f to demonstrate two be a t s i n a bar. d) f e e l e x t e r n a l l y the f i r s t beat and i n t e r n a l i z e the r e m a i n i n g b e a t s of the bar. 2. d e t e r m i n e i f a p i e c e of music moves i n groups of two's, t h r e e ' s or f o u r ' s 3. conduct i n two's, t h r e e ' s and f o u r ' s . 4. c r e a t e dance s t e p s i n du p l e and t r i p l e meter. 5. do dance s t e p s i n du p l e and t r i p l e meter. 6. d e t e r m i n e i f the music moves i n two's, t h r e e ' s f o u r ' s or s i x's. 7. n o t a t e music i n v a r i o u s meters. . • ( u s i n g s t i c k n o t a t i o n --e.g. |-| • I I I \ I I I I 8. compose and improvise music i n v a r i o u s meters s i n g i n g , moving or u s i n g body p e r c u s s i o n . e.g. a) rondos i n two's and t h r e e ' s b) a rondo c o m p r i s i n g two meters -- p a r t A i n two and p a r t s B, C, D e t c . i n t h r e e . S t u d e n t s a r e e x p e c t e d t o : 1. p e r f o r m q u a r t e r and e i g h t h notes u s i n g body p e r c u s s i o n . (Other elements w i l l be added once once t h i s i s mastered with s i n g i n g o r l i s t e n i n g a c t i v i t i e s . ) 2. say the rhythym s y l l a b l e s w h i l e l i s t e n i n g to music 3. echo f o u r beat rhythm p a t t e r n s g i v e n by t e a c h e r u s i n g body p e r c u s s i o n . 4. echo f o u r beat rhythm p a t t e r n s g i v e n by t e a c h e r u s i n g body p e r c u s s i o n and rhythm s y l l a b l e s . 5. echo f o u r beat rhythm p a t t e r n s by s a y i n g Sub-Concept Content I RHYTHM | Music moves i n lo n g e r and ta = | s h o r t e r d u r a t i o n s which a r e o f t e n grouped t o g e t h e r . and which a r e p u n c t u a t e d by t i - t i = | j - one beat r e s t t a - a t r i p1et i = t i - d i - t i - d i 170 Act i v i ty o n l y the rhythm s y l l a b l e s . 6. s i n g to rhythm s y l l a b l e s the rhythm of f a m i l i a r songs. 7. i d e n t i f y songs from t h e i r rhythms o n l y 8. n o t a t e u s i n g s t i c k n o t a t i o n rhythm p a t t e r n s a f t e r the t e a c h e r has p r e s e n t e d i t a u r a l l y . 9. n o t a t e rhythms of f a m i l i a r songs. 10. compose and im p r o v i s e rhythms. e.g. a) rondo -- each stud e n t w i l l make up a f o u r beat p a t t e r n which i s i n t e r s p e r s e d with a g i v e n p a t t e r n b) compose a rhythmic o s t i n a t o to accompany a song. 11. r e a d rhythms from board, overhead or rhythm c a r d s u s i n g rhythm s y l l a b l e s . 12. read rhythms of f a m i l i a r songs u s i n g rhythm s y l l a b l e s 13. r e a d rhythms by u s i n g body p e r c u s s i o n . Major Concept --I LINEAR PITCH 1 S t u d e n t s a r e e x p e c t e d t o : 1. i dent i f y a p i t c h as b e i n g h i g h e r or lower than a n o t h e r p i t c h . a) upon h e a r i n g two p i t c h e s sung or p l a y e d i ) s i n g them back u s i n g a neutra1 s y 1 1 a b l e i i ) s i n g them back u s i n g s o l - f a s y l l a b l e s and hand s i g n s i i i ) s i n g them back u s i n g numbers e.g. doh = 1, r e = 2, e t c . i v ) s i n g them back u s i n g l e t t e r names. b) i d e n t i f y the i n t e r v a l i ) 1n s o l - f a i i ) i n numbers i i 1) i n 1 e t t e r s i v ) i n i n t e r v a l names e.g.P4 Sub-Concept Content S u c c e s s i v e p i t c h e s may soh mi l a doh re move h i g h e r or lower or s t a y the same. A F# B D E The r i s e and f a l l of the p i t c h w i t h i n a melody g i v e s i t a d i s t i n c t i v e shape or con t o u r D' B E ' E CH Vtf G A A B m r d s 1 3 2 1 5 6 stems up stems down J f 17 1 Act i v i ty c ) n o t a t e the i n t e r v a l on s t a f f 2. move upward or downward or at the same l e v e l w h i l e l i s t e n i n g to music or s i n g i n g songs to i l l u s t r a t e m e l o d i c c o n t o u r s . s i n g m e l o d i c c o n t o u r s from: a) s e p a r a t e l i n e n o t a t i o n and c o n t i n u o u s l i n e n o t a t i o n - - e . g . b) c o n t o u r e d s o l - f a s y l l a b l e s c ) s o l - f a s y l l a b l e s on s t a f f d) l e t t e r names on s t a f f e) n o t e s on s t a f f u s i n g s o l - f a , l e t t e r names or n e u t r a l s y l l a b l e s 4. compare and d e s c r i b e m e l o d i c c o n t o u r s through: a) movement b) w r i t i n g -- i c o n i c and t r a d i t i o n a l n o t a t i o n c) r e a d i n g - - s i n g i n g 5. w r i t e m e l o d i c c o n t o u r s ( p i t c h p a t t e r n s ) a) graph i ca11y b) i n c o n t o u r e d s o l - f a c ) i n s o l - f a on s t a f f d) i n l e t t e r s on s t a f f e) i n notes on s t a f f G. compose and im p r o v i s e v o c a l l y u s i n g s p e c i f i c p i t c h e s and me l o d i c c o n t o u r s a) d r p a t t e r n s : d r m; e t c . b) d e s c e n d i n g , a s c e n d i n g and r e p e a t e d p a t t e r n s 7. p e r f o r m m e l o d i c p a t t e r n s and p h r a s e s : a) when s i n g i n g w i l l b r e a t h at the end of the phrase b) when s i n g i n g w i l l show r i s e and f a l l of dynamics i n phrase and Sub-Concept Content m r d 5 - 2 hand s i g n a l 172 Act i v i t y s t r e s s e d words 8. r e p r e s e n t p i t c h p a t t e r n s and p h r a s e s a) by hand s i g n s b) by drawing p h r a s e s i n the a i r c) by u s i n g body l e v e l s to i l l u s t r a t e h i g h , medium and low 9. i d e n t i f y and a n a l y z e whether p i t c h e s move up or down or r e p e a t by: a) l o o k i n g at the w r i t t e n s c o r e b) l i s t e n i n g to music 10. i d e n t i f y and a n a l y z e phrases by: a) l o o k i n g at the w r i t t e n s c o r e b) l i s t e n i n g to music 11. r e p r e s e n t m e l o d i c c o n t o u r s g r a p h i c a l l y or by n o t a t i o n 12. compose and i m p r o v i s e musical p h r a s e s voca11y. 13. p e r f o r m m e l o d i c o s t i n a t i u s i n g : a) soh and mi b) soh mi and l a c) doh re mi soh and l a d) doh r e ml soh and l a e) to the above add low soh ( s , ) and 1ow 1 a (1,) 14. i d e n t i f y , compare and n o t a t e m e l o d i c o s t i n a t i a u r a l l y o r v i s u a l l y 15. c r e a t e m e l o d i c l i n e s u s i n g : a) body l e v e l s ' and v o i c e s b) n o n t r a d i t i o n a l n o t a t i o n and v o i c e s c) s o l - f a s y l l a b l e s and hand s i g n s d) t r a d i t i o n a l n o t a t i o n and v o i c e s 16. d e m o n s t r a t e v a r i o u s i n t e r v a l s u s i n g v o i c e : a) s i n g a s c e n d i n g -- d r; d m: d s ; d l r s ; d d ' ; r m ; r l ; r d ' ; s , d ; s . r; s , m; 1 , d; 1 , r ; 1 , m; Sub-Concept Content A r e p e a t e d m e l o d i c p a t t e r n d r m s 1 may s e r v e as the s,1, accompaniment to a musical work. The d i s t a n c e between two a s c e n d i n g : musical p i t c h e s P5, M6. m7, c o n s t i t u t e s an i n t e r v a l . Each i n t e r v a l has a d i s t i n c t i v e sound r e g a r d l e s s of which 173 Act i v i t y l . s ; l . l ; s , s; b) s i n g d e s c e n d i n g -- r d: m d: m r ; s ni; s r ; s d; I s ; I m; 1 r ; 1 d; d'd u s i n g so 1 - f a , numbers l e t t e r names and n e u t r a l s y l l a b l e s c) move i n d i r e c t i o n of i n t e r v a l s at v a r i o u s l e v e l s d) n o t a t e i n t e r v a l s i ) i n i c o n s • i i ) i n s o l - f a i i i ) i n l e t t e r names i v ) on s t a f f 17. i d e n t i f y , c l a s s i f y or n o t a t e v a r i o u s i n t e r v a l s a f t e r they a re p l a y e d -- a) g i v e n a m e l o d i c i n t e r v a l a u r a l l y or v i s u a l l y i d e n t i f y the second p i t c h as r i s i ng or f a 11i ng b) g i v e n a m e l o d i c i n t e r v a l i d e n t i f y the notes by l e t t e r names a f t e r b e i n g t o l d the l e t t e r name of the f i r s t note. c) g i v e n a m e l o d i c i n t e r v a l i d e n t i f y both i n t e r v a l s i n so 1-fa d) g i v e n a m e l o d i c i n t e r v a l i d e n t i f y the i n t e r v a l e.g. M2; P4; e t c . e) g i v e n a m e l o d i c i n t e r v a l w r i t e i n s o l - f a the i n t e r v a l a f t e r b e i n g t o l d the the f i r s t note, s y l l a b l e or t o n i c c h o r d f ) g i v e n a m e l o d i c i n t e r v a l w r i t e the i n t e r v a l on the s t a f f 18. i m p r o v i s e or compose music emphasizing s p e c i f i e d i n t e r v a l s or i n t e r v a l p a t t e r n s e.g. u s i n g d r ste p w i s e p a t t e r n ; s k i p - w i s e p a t t e r n s d to m; c o m b i n a t i o n s t e p w i s e and s k i p w i s e p a t t e r n s : i n v e r t e d p a t t e r n s and i n t e r v a l s ; r e t r o g r a d e p a t t e r n s 19. s t u d e n t s w i l l compare, a n a l y z e and d e s c r i b e usages of s t e p w i s e p a t t e r n s i n a u r a l or n o t a t e d examples of musical c o m p o s i t i o n s 20. compare, a n a l y z e and d e s c r i b e v a r i o u s usages of s k i p - w i s e p a t t e r n s i n a u r a l or n o t a t e d examples of musical c o m p o s i t i o n s 21 i m p r o v i s e or compose music u s i n g s t e p - w i s e Sub-Concept Content p i tell i t i s bu i 1 t on . Two p i t c h e s may be sounded s i m u l t a n e o u s l y or suc c e s s i v e l y d e s c e n d i n g : M2; M3; m3; P4; P5; M6; m6: m7; P8. arm, body and hand s i gna1s Use a l l known i n t e r v a l s e.g. compare Hot C r o s s Buns and Mary Had a L i t t l e Lamb 174 Act i v.i ty and / o r skip-wise, p a t t e r n s 22. i d e n t i f y t o n a l c e n t r e of m e l o d i e s e.g. f i n a l note doh (major) and f i n a l note 1 ah (minor) 23. p e r f o r m monophonic music from v a r i o u s c u l t u r e s and p e r i o d s 24. compare and a n a l y z e g i v e n a u r a l or v i s u a l examples of monophonic music 25. n o t a t e or g r a p h i c a l l y r e p r e s e n t examples of monophonic music 26. p e r f o r m v o c a l l y canons from v a r i o u s s t y l e p e r i o d s and c u l t u r e s 27. i m p r o v i s e and compose canons e.g. u s i n g p e n t a t o n i c s c a l e Major Concept -- |VERTICAL PITCH*] S t u d e n t s a r e e x p e c t e d t o : 1. g i v e n a u r a l o r v i s u a l examples, a) i d e n t i f y c h o r d changes. b) s i g n i f y when a new c h o r d i s heard e.g. I V I 2. a n a l y z e and i d e n t i f y t r i a d s and o t h e r c h o r d s and c h o r d p r o g r e s s i o n s a) major and minor t r i a d s b) t o n i c dominant and sub-dominant c) dominant seventh 3. s i n g the notes of the c h o r d s . 4. s i n g the r o o t s of the c h o r d s . Sub-Concept Con tent t o n i c (home tone) a m e l o d i c l i n e may e x i s t monophonic music without harmonic s u p p o r t v a r i o u s c u l t u r e s and p e r i o d s canons a p i ece of mus i c may be c r e a t e d by i m i t a t i o n of a melody by s u c c e e d i n g v o i c e s at the same p i t c h l e v e l C e r t a i n harmonies and harmonic p r o g r e s s i o n s tend to e s t a b l i s h a f e e l i n g of t o n a l c e n t r e or t o n i c . T h i s tendency i s r e f e r r e d to as t o n a 1 i t y . A g i v e n tone t o g e t h e r w i t h the t h i r d and f i f t h above i t c o n s t i t u t e s a s p e c i f i c k i n d of c h o r d c a l l e d a t r i a d . An a d d i t i o n a l t h i r d may be added to t r i a d s p r o d u c i n g a s e v e n t h c h o r d t o n i c c h o r d dominant c h o r d dominant s e v e n t h sub-dom i nant c h o r d 175 Act i v i t y 5. i d e n t i f y t o n a l c e n t r e s -- t o n i c c h o r d s . 6. s i n g cadences (groups a s s i g n e d to each note) 7. n o t a t e cadences and t r i a d s . 8. i d e n t i f y and d e s c r i b e cadences g i v e n a u r a l and v i s u a l examples. 9. i m p r o v i s e and compose music i l l u s t r a t i n g v a r i o u s t y p e s of cadences. 10. p e r f o r m homophonic music from v a r i o u s s t y l e p e r i o d s and c u l t u r e s -- e.g. Baroque, C l a s s i c a l , Romantic Modern, P o p u l a r , Western. F o l k . E t h n i c , e t c . 11. p e r f o r m by s i n g i n g or moving to s p e c i f i e d m o d u l a t i o n s . 12. i d e n t i f y , d e s c r i b e and c l a s s i f y , m o d u a l a t i o n s when g i v e n a u r a l or v i s u a l examples. 13. n o t a t e m o d u l a t i o n s i n s p e c i f i e d m u s i c a l examples. 14. compose and i m p r o v i s e music i l l u s t r a t i n g s p e c i f i c m o d u l a t i o n s . 15. d e v e l o p a s e n s i t i v i t y to two or more t o n a l c e n t r e s s i mu1taneous1y Major Concept - - - | F0R~M~| S t u d e n t s a r e e x p e c t e d to: 1. i d e n t i f y and perform r e c u r r i n g r h y t h m i c or p i t c h m otives. 2 i d e n t i f y m o t i v e s a u r a l l y or v i s u a l l y and n o t a t e . Sub-Concept Content ton i c c h o r d C e r t a i n c h o r d p r o g r e s s i o n s V I tend to e s t a b l i s h a V7 I sense of f i n a l i t y . IV I The f e e l i n g of t o n a l c e n t r e may v a r y from s t r o n g to weak or may be n o n e x i s t e n t Musics from v a r i o u s p e r i o d s , s t y l e s and c u 1 t u r e s The t o n a l c e n t r e may change w i t h i n a g i v e n p i e c e of music. m u s i c a l s e l e c t i o n s t h a t change key e.g. w r i t e Hot C r o s s Buns i n the key of D and G major Two or more t o n a l s i n g known songs i n two c e n t r e s may e x i s t keys a t the same time s i mu1taneous1y. M u s i c a l works o f t e n c o n t a i n m u s i c a l s e l e c t i o n s b r i e f g r o u p i n g s of r h y t h m i c c o n t a i n i n g m o t i v e s or p i t c h p a t t e r n s c a l l e d mot i ves. Motives may f u n c t i o n as i d e n t i f i a b l e elements i n musical c o m p o s i t i o n s 176 A c t i v i t y 3. compare and a n a l y z e motives and the ways i n which they are used. 4. use o r i g i n a l o r g i v e n motives when i m p r o v i s i n g or composing music. 5. i d e n t i f y and perform themes from m u s i c a l c o m p o s i t i o n s . 6. compare a n d ' a n a l y z e themes and the way i n which they a r e used. 7. g i v e n a u r a l examples of musical c o m p o s i t i o n s , i d e n t i f y and n o t a t a t e the b a s i c themes. 8. use o r i g i n a l o r g i v e n themes when i m p r o v i s i n g or composing music. 9. i d e n t i f y and compare b i n a r y , t e r n a r y and rondo forms i n music they l i s t e n t o , perform and c r e a t e . 10. g i v e n a u r a l o r v i s u a l examples, a n a l y z e and d e s c r i b e b i n a r y , t e r n a r y and rondo forms. 11. i m p r o v i s e and compose works d e m o n s t r a t i n g i d e n t i f i a b l e b i n a r y , t e r n a r y and rondo form. Major Concept --ITIMBREI S t u d e n t s a r e e x p e c t e d to: 1. i d e n t i f y , compare, and c l a s s i f y sound s o u r c e s and t i m b r e s . 2. i m p r o v i s e , d r a m a t i z e , compose and p e r f o r m works u t i l i z i n g s p e c i f i c t i m b r e s or t i m b r a l c o m b i n a t i o n s . 3. compare and d e s c r i b e the i n f l u e n c e of the s i z e , shape, and m a t e r i a l of a sound s o u r c e on the r e s u l t a n t sound. 4. i d e n t i f y , d e s c r i b e and compare Sub-Concept Content a l l rhythm symbols and p i t c h e s known to dat M u s i c a l works o f t e n c o n t a i n e.g. C l a s s i c a l Symphony melodies which may f u n c t i o n as i d e n t i f i a b l e themes. e.g. " S u r p r i s e Symphony Most t r a d i t i o n a l m u s i c a l forms a r e based i n i m i t a t i o n or on r e p e t i t i o n and c o n t r a s t . Many s m a l l e r musical works are b i n a r y , t e r n a r y or rondo. Sounds may d i f f e r i n timbre Sound s o u r c e s may be c l a s s i f i e d i n v a r i o u s ways a c c o r d i n g to t i m b r e . Each sound s o u r c e produces i t s own d i s t i n c t i v e t i m b re depending on i t s s i z e , shape, and m a t e r i a l . Tone q u a l i t y i s a f f e c t e d by fam i T i es of o r c h e s t r a l i n s t r u m e n t s f a m i l y of u k u l e l e s c l a s s r o o m i n s t r u m e n t s 177 Act i v i t v v a r i o u s means of tone p r o d u c t i o n . 5. respond to uses of timbre by means of movement. 6. g i v e n a u r a l or v i s u a l examples, d e s c r i b e and compare v a r i o u s uses of timbre. 2 ) t f u n c t i o n i n d e f i n i n g musical form. 7. through i m p r o v i s a t i o n or c o m p o s i t i o n , i l l u s t r a t e v a r i o u s s p e c i f i c uses of t imbre. Major Concept --| DYNAMICS I Stu d e n t s a r e e x p e c t e d t o : 1. demonstrate v a r i o u s dynamic l e v e l s and changes i n dynamics and u t i l i z e them i n the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of music u s i n g a) movement to i l l u s t r a t e loudness. b) body p e r c u s s i o n c) v o i c e s d) c l a s s r o o m p e r c u s s i o n 2. g i v e n a u r a l o r v i s u a l examples, i d e n t i f y , compare, and d e s c r i b e v a r i o u s dynamic l e v e l s and changes i n dynamics. 3. i m p r o v i s e , d r a m a t i z e , compose and perform works u t i l i z i n g v a r i o u s s p e c i f i c dynamic p a t t e r n s -- u s i n g movement, body p e r c u s s i o n , v o i c e s and c l a s s r o o m p e r c u s s i o n . 4. respond t o uses of dynamics by means of movement. 5. g i v e n a u r a l or v i s u a l examples, d e s c r i b e and compare composers' uses of dynamics. Sub-Concept Content a v a r i e t y of f a c t o r s examples of same r e l a t i n g to tone p r o d u c t i o n e.g. p l a y i n g or s i n g i n g t e c h n i q u e s Timbre p r o v i d e s an important s o u r c e of u n i t y and v a r i e t y i n music and s e r v e s ah important It may a l s o p l a y an important r o l e i n m u s i c a l e x p r e s s i o n . M u s i cs c o n t a i n i n g v a r i - ous t i m b r e s ; Music i n which t i m b r a l d i f f e r e n c e a r e e a s i l y d i s c e r n e d . Sounds may d i f f e r i n 1oudness. Changes i n dynamics may dynamics may o c c u r suddenly or gradua11y r e c o r d i n g s --e.g. " S u r p r i s e Symphony" known songs or m e l o d i c or r h y t h m i c p a t t e r n s sound-scapes s t o r i e s poems Dynamics p l a y an important r o l e i n musical e x p r e s s i o n , p r o v i d e s an important s o u r c e of u n i t y and v a r i e t y , and h e l p s i n d e f i n i n g m u sical form 178 A c t i v i t y G. through i m p r o v i s a t i o n or c o m p o s i t i o n , i l l u s t r a t e v a r i o u s s p e c i f i c uses of dynamics. Major Concept --jTEMPO] S t u d e n t s a r e e x p e c t e d t o : 1. demonstrate v a r i o u s tempos and tempo changes and u t i l i z e them i n the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of music. 2. g i v e n a u r a l o r v i s u a l examples, i d e n t i f y , compare and d e s c r i b e v a r i o u s temos and tempo changes 3. i m p r o v i s e , d r a m a t i z e , compose and pe r f o r m works u t i l i z i n g v a r i o u s s p e c i f i c tempo p a t t e r n s . 4. respond to v a r i o u s tempo and tempo changes when moving to music or rhythm p a t t e r n s . 5. g i v e n a u r a l or v i s u a l examples, d e s c r i b e and compare v a r i o u s composers' uses of tempo and tempo changes. 6. I l l u s t r a t e v a r i o u s s p e c i f i c uses of tempo and tempo changes through i m p r o v i s a t i o n and c o m p o s i t i o n . Major Concept --[STYLE | S t u d e n t s a r e e x p e c t e d t o : 1. p e r f o r m ( s i n g o r move) w i t h a p p r o p r i a t e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n music of v a r i o u s s t y 1es. 2. g i v e n a u r a l o r v i s u a l examples, d e s c r i b e , a n a l y z e and compare v a r i o u s ways i n which d u r a t i o n , p i t c h , timbre. Sub-Concept Content pp, p. mp, mf, f , f f Music may move r e l a t i v e l y f a s t or slow i n tempo 1 Changes i n tempo may o c c u r suddenly or gradua11y f a s t , medium s 1 ow mus i c w i t h c o n t r a s t i n g tempos Tempo p l a y s an important r o l e i n musical e x p r e s s i o n , p r o v i d e s an important s o u r c e of u n i t y and v a r i e t y and h e l p s i n d e f i n i n g m u sical form. The elements of music may be o r g a n i z e d and combined i n a wide v a r i e t y of ways to form c h a r a c t e r i s t i c E t h n i c and f o l k p a t t e r n s and idioms. music of v a r i o u s c u l F u n c t i o n a l music -- 1u11ab i es -- marches, e t c . 179 Act i V i t y dynamics, tempo and form are o r g a n i z e d and combined i n v a r i o u s s t y l e s . 3. through l i s t e n i n g and study, d e s c r i b e and a n a l y z e the e x t r a - m u s i c a l f o r c e s t h a t may i n f l u e n c e music s t y l e . 4. a n a l y z e through l i s t e n i n g and i l l u s t r a t e through c o m p o s i t i o n v a r i o u s f u n c t i o n a l a p p l i c a t i o n s of music. 5. through l i s t e n i n g , i d e n t i f y , a) a n a l y z e and c l a s s i f y examples of p o p u l a r music and e t h n i c music of v a r i o u s c u l t u r e s b) i n d i c a t e the s p e c i f i c uses of the elements of music on which these c o n c l u s i o n s a r e based. 6 . g i v e n a u r a l examples of c o m p o s i t i o n s i n s p i r e d by or based on f o l k music, or e t h n i c music of v a r i o u s c u l t u r e s , a n a l y z e and d e s c r i b e how composers have u t i l i z e d t h ese idioms i n t h e i r works. 7. i m p r o v i s e or compose examples of p o p u l a r music or works i n f l u e n c e d f o l k o r e t h n i c music 8. d e s c r i b e , a n a l y z e and compare a u r a l or v i s u a l examples of music of v a r i o u s s t y l e s , p e r i o d s or c u l t u r e s . Sub-Concept Content M u s i c a l s t y l e i s i n f l u e n c e d to some e x t e n t by v a r i o u s e x t e r n a l f a c t o r s i n c l u d i n g e.g. types of dances c u l t u r a l , s o c i a l , t e c h n o l o g i c a l and economic f o r c e s . V a r i o u s e t h n i c or n a t i o n a l groups somet imes tend to d e v e l o p d i s t i n c t i v e m u s i c a l s t y l e s . M u s i c a l c o m p o s i t i o n s may r e f l e c t the i n f l u e n c e p o p u l a r music of v a r i o u s n a t i o n a l -- use of s y n c o p a t i o n or e t h n i c t r a d i t i o n s . e.g. O r i e n t a l music -- p e n t a t o n i c S c o t t i s h music --rhythm M u s i c a l s t y l e s may m u s i c a l works of be c l a s s i f i e d as, v a r i o u s p e r i o d s . M e d i e v a l , R e n a i s s a n c e s t y l e s and c u l t u r e s Baroque, C l a s s i c a l , Romantic, e t c . V a r i o u s s u b c a t e g o r i e s may a l s o be i d e n t i f i e d as w e l l as Non-Western music, f o l k music and p o p u l a r music. 180 AN EXAMPLE OF TEACHING SPECIFIC CONCEPTS THROUGH THE SONG "LAND OF THE SILVER BIRCH" (Phase I) Tone Set d r m s 1 s, 1 , (1.0 DURATION | 1.1 Beat i 1 i s i n g and/or l i s t e n to song and tap beat, march beat, say rhythm s y l l a b l e s , p l a y beat on rhythm instrument do #i by a l t e r n a t e l y e x t e r n a l i z i n g beat and i n t e r n a l i z i n g beat f o r each phrase. do # i i but t e a c h e r performs beat w h i l e s t u d e n t s i n t e r n a l i z e beat. do tt\\\ but a l t e r n a t e e v e r y two beats w i t h s t u d e n t s and t e a c h e r Add i t i ona1 Concepts I n c o r p o r a t e d f o r m ( f ) Act i v i t y P, A P, A P, A Ski IT a.d 1 a.d a.d a,d v do #iv a l t e r n a t i n g every two be a t s without t e a c h e r p a r t i c i p a t i o n P, A a,d n o t a t e the beat on the board or i n notebook w h i l e l i s t e n i n g to music or s i n g i n g (use s t i c k n o t a t i o n ) make up an I n d i a n dance i n c i r c l e f o r m a t i o n moving f e e t r e a d beat from board or notebook and p l a y a p e r c u s s i o n instrument, use body p e r c u s s i o n o r say the beat tempo(te) P.A.0 P , A , 0 P , A , 0 P. A,0 a.d, t a.d, t a,d a.d, t 'where P=Performing; A=Analyzing; 0=Organizing 'where a = a u r a l ; d = d e x t r a l ; t = t r a n s 1atab1e 181 1 .2 Meter Add i t i ona1 Concepts L i s t e n to "Land of the S i l v e r B i r c h " and determine i f i t moves i n two's or t h r e e ' s Use body p e r c u s s i o n or p l a y an instrument on the f i r s t beat of each bar Perform f i r s t beat l o u d l y and second beat s o f t l y Use a d i f f e r e n t timbre f o r the a c c e n t e d beat than the unaccented beat Move ( s t e p , jump, bend knees, e t c . ) on the f i r s t beat of every bar; remain s t i l l on the o t h e r b e a t ( s ) . P u p i l s use body p e r c u s s i o n on the f i r s t beat of the bar and i n t e r n a l i z e the second beat One h a l f of the c l a s s e x t e r n a l i z e s the f i r s t beat and the o t h e r h a l f of the c l a s s e x t e r n a l i z e s the second. R e c i p r o c a t e p r o c e d u r e . The second beat s h o u l d be a c c e n t e d . dynam i c s ( d y ) t imbre(t i ) dy of f - b e a t v i i i Conduct two b e a t s i n a bar w h i l e s i n g i n g and/or l i s t e n i n g to "Land of the S i l v e r B i r c h " ix C r e a t e a dance emphasizing the f i r s t of each two s t y l e ( s ) b e a t s . x W r i t e and i d e n t i f y the time s i g n a t u r e i n d i c a t i n g q u a r t e r note i n groups of two x i Use s t i c k n o t a t i o n to i n d i c a t e meter i n r e l a t i o n dy to a c c e n t e d and unaccented beats --e.g. I, | i 1.3 Rhythm i S i n g and c l a p the rhythm of the song. t e i i Echo t e a c h e r by c l a p p i n g two bar phrases a f t e r te an example has been g i v e n . 182 Act i v i ty Sk i 1 1 a.d P. A a.d a.d a.d a.d a.d a.d a.d P.0 a,d P.A.O a.d, t a.d a.d i11 Echo t e a c h e r ' s c l a p p i n g as i n #11 and say rhythm s y l l a b l e s iv A f t e r t e a c h e r has c l a p p e d any two bars of the song say the rhythm s y l l a b l e s . v A f t e r the t e a c h e r has c l a p p e d any two bars of the song i d e n t i f y the words that have th a t rhythm. v i A f t e r the t e a c h e r has c l a p p e d two bars of the song p u p i l s w r i t e the rhythm u s i n g s t i c k n o t a t i o n . v i i Compose rhythm rondos u s i n g the rhythms s t u d i e d i n song. v i i i A f t e r a song or p a r t of a song 1s s t i c k n o t a t e d s i n g the song/or p a r t s i n rhythm s y l l a b l e s . !x Improvise rhythm rondos u s i n g the rhythms s t u d i e d in "Land of the S i l v e r B i r c h " . x P l a y from n o t a t i o n the rhythm of "Land of the xi Compose an o s t i n a t o or o s t i n a t i f o r "Land of the S i l v e r B i r c h " u s i n g the rhythms c o n t a i n e d t h e r e i n and p l a y i t w h i l e the c l a s s s i n g s the song. x i i Compose s y l l a b l e s or words,to chant w i t h the o s t 1 n a t o / o s t i n a t i . x i i i P u p i l s s i n g and p l a y o s t i n a t o at the same time. x i v Compare and d e s c r i b e rhythms of bars and ph r a s e s with one another xv Compare rhythms of d i f f e r e n t bars by p l a y i n g them on d i f f e r e n t types of drums. Use dynamics to a c c e n t u a t e d i f f e r e n c e s . te P, A a.d.t te P.A a.d.t te A a , t te A.O a , t te P,0 a.d.t 1i near P,A a.d.t pi t c h ( l p ) P.0 a.d f P,A a.d.t P.A.O a.d,t P,A.O a.d.t • P a.d.t f A t t i . d y P.A a.d.t I 2.0 LINEAR PITCH 1 2.1 R e l a t i v e P o s i t i o n s of P i t c h e s and A b s o l u t e P i t c h e s : 2.1.1 h i g h e r o r lower compare bar 1 to bar 2 (D to A) compare bar 13 to bar 1 and 2 as to which goes h i g h e r compare notes i n bar 7 (G F G) s i n g above u s i n g hand movements or body movements at c o r r e s p o n d i n g l e v e l s to i n d i c a t e notes moving h i g h e r o r lower s i n g above u s i n g s o l - f a s y l l a b l e s s o l - f a s y l l a b l e s and i ) i i ) i v ) v) v i ) v i i ) V i i i ) i x ) x) s 1 ng hand s 1 ng s ing s i ng s ing above s igns above above above above us i ng us i ng us ing us i ng us i ng l e t t e r names words of song rhythm s y l l a b l e s numbers e.g. re=2 2.1.2 same i ) compare notes i n bar 1 (D D D) i i ) compare notes i n bar 1 w i t h notes i i i ) compare notes i n bar 1 w i t h notes bar bar 3 13 2.1.3 a s c e n d i n g s t e p w i s e and s k i p w i s e i ) i d e n t i f y a s c e n d i n g p a t t e r n s i n the song i i ) l a b e l p a t t e r n s as to s t e p w i s e o r s k i p w i s e i i i ) compare a s c e n d i n g p a t t e r n s i v ) s i n g a s c e n d i n g p a t t e r n s u s i n g words v) p l a y a s c e n d i n g p a t t e r n s on melody b e l l s 2.1.4 d e s c e n d i n g s t e p w i s e and s k i p w i s e i ) i d e n t i f y d e s c e n d i n g p a t t e r n s i n the song i i ) l a b e l p a t t e r n s as to s t e p w i s e or s k i p w i s e i i i ) compare d e s c e n d i n g p a t t e r n s i v ) s i n g d e s c e n d i n g p a t t e r n s u s i n g words v) p l a y d e s c e n d i n g p a t t e r n s on melody b e l l s A A a. t a, t A a, t P.A a.d.t P . A a , d. t P. A a.d.t P.A a.d.t P.A a.d.t D u r a t i o n ( d u ) P.A a.d.t P.A a.d.t A a, t A a, t A a. t A a, t A a, t A a. t P.A a.d.t P.A a.d,t A a, t A a. t A a. t P. A a.d.t P.A a.d.t 184 2.1.5 N o t a t i o n of above: i ) n o t a t e r e l a t i v e p o s i t i o n s of p i t c h e s i i ) n o t a t e p i t c h e s and compare p i t c h e s v i s u a l l y u s i n g s o l - f a l e t t e r s 0 I . D A numbers L, 3 words £Ae be.0.- 2.2 Phras e s i ) s i n g , demonstrate, d e s c r i b e and compare through movement (hand or body) the: a) f i r s t p h r a s e (A=a+a) b) f o u r t h p h r a s e c) f i r s t two phra s e s melod'ically e.g. p e r f o r m both phrases at the same u s i n g two p u p i l s or groups i i ) l i n e draw the c o n t o u r o f : a) phrase one and f o u r ; d e s c r i b e and compare b) phrase two and t h r e e d e s c r i b e and compare i i i ) n o t a t e phrases on s t a f f from memory or d i c t a t ion i v ) t r a n s p o s e a phra s e on s t a f f l i n e s e.g. to r e l a t i v e minor or t o n i c major (B minor, D major ) v) t r a n s p o s e a phra s e o r a l l y s i n g i n g words and l e t t e r names v i ) compose and/or i m p r o v i s e a phrase u s i n g s i m i l a r m e l o d i c c o n t o u r s v i i ) s i n g phrases i n c o r p o r a t i n g dynamics ( t o show the r i s e and f a l l of the phrase) du A ,0 A,0 a, t t P. A.O a.d, t du, t e , f. s P.A.O a. t A ,0 a. t A.O 5 i ng i ng P.A.O P,0 a, d, t a.d. t dy, s a.d, t 185 2.3 M e l o d i c O s t i n a t i i ) p e r f o r m a g i v e n o s t i n a t o J Jl IJ J :|j -3> J J I A A i i ) compose a m e l o d i c o s t i n a t o u s i n g notes of the p e n t a t o n i c s c a l e and perform i t i i i ) compose words or s y l l a b l e s f o r melodic o s t i n a t o i v ) d e s c r i b e and a n a l y z e g i v e n m e l o d i c o s t i n a t o and those composed by p u p i l s 2.4 I n t e r v a I s : i ) s i n g and i d e n t i f y a u r a l l y and v i s u a l l y i n t e r v a l s i n the song by s o l - f a (on s t a f f and w i t h hand s i g n s ) , l e t t e r names and numbers see l i s t of i n t e r v a l s c o n t a i n e d i n the song on p. ( A n a l y s i s of Concepts C o n t a i n e d i n i n "Land of the S i l v e r B i r c h " ) i i ) name i n t e r v a l s from #1 a f t e r they have been p l a y e d or sung by s i n g i n g back the i n t e r v a l i n s o l - f a and then by i n t e r v a l name -- e.g. "s m, minor t h i r d " i i i ) n o t a t e i n t e r v a l s p l a y e d c o n s e c u t i v e l y by t e a c h e r a f t e r b e i n g g i v e n t o n a l c e n t r e and tone s e t : a) by i n t e r v a l name e.g. P4 b) by s o l - f a names e.g. doh' soh (d's) c) by numbers e.g. 8 5 d) by l e t t e r names C G i v ) i d e n t i f y i n t e r v a l s from s t a f f n o t a t i o n as to i n t e r v a l name, s o l - f a , numbers and l e t t e r names v) c l a s s i f y i n t e r v a l s as to major seconds, e t c . e.g. 1 s = M2; r d = M2 v i ) compose a phrase or phra s e s u s i n g s p e c i f i e d i n t e r v a l s e.g. a s c e n d i n g M2 or o t h e r i n t e r v a l s i n the song du. t, dy P.A a.d.t du P.A.O t du A.O t du A a , t P.A a.d.t P.A a.d.t A a. t A a. t A a. t A a, t v i i ) i d e n t i f y and compare i n t e r v a l s w i t h i n bars and p h r a s e s e.g. phrase one a s c e n d i n g p e r f e c t f i f t h s , phrase f o u r --. a s c e n d i n g minor t h i r d s v i i i ) compare number and q u a l i t y of a s c e n d i n g and d e s c e n d i n g i n t e r v a l s e.g. phrase two -- f i v e d e s c e n d i n g i n t e r v a l s f o u r a s c e n d i n g i n t e r v a l s 2.5 Tonal c e n t r e . S c a l e s and/or Tone Set i ) s i n g tone s e t ( 1 a - p e n t a t o n i c -- 1, d r m s 1) to s o l - f a and hand s i g n s a s c e n d i n g and d e s c e n d i n g i i ) s i n g tone set i n any o r d e r . i i i ) s i n g tones i n o r d e r p r e s e n t e d i n p h r a s e s of song as t e a c h e r or p u p i l p o i n t s to them on the board i v ) n o t a t e tone s e t on s t a f f v) s i n g tone s e t to l e t t e r names v i ) s i n g tone s e t to numbers v i i ) l o c a t e t o n a l c e n t r e ' l a ' o r a l l y and v i s u a l l y on the s t a f f v i i i ) s i n g t o n a l c e n t r e ' l a ' on cue when te a c h e r or p u p i l s t o p s s i n g i n g anywhere i n the song 2.6 Melody Without Harmonic Support (Monophonic) i ) s i n g song without any accompaniment i i ) s i n g song with rhythm accompaniment s A a, t A a, t P , A a,d,t P.A a.d.t P.A a,d A,0 t P,0 a.d.t P,A a.d,t P.A a.d.t P.A a.d P a.d P a,d 187 I 3.0 VERTICAL PITCH | 3. 1 Chords 3.1.1 Tr i ads 1) l i s t e n to t r i a d s D minor, F major and A minor p l a y e d l i n e a r l y i i ) l i s t e n to above t r i a d s p l a y e d v e r t ica11y i i i ) s i n g the t r i a d s l i n e a r l y t o : a) s o l - f a u s i n g hand s i g n s b) numbers c) l e t t e r names d) to i n t e r v a l names i v ) s i n g the t r i a d s v e r t i c a l l y w i t h p u p i l s or groups h o l d i n g each note and u s i n g # i i i format 5C(s) 3A(m) 3A(m) 1F(d) 1F(d) 3E(m) 6D(1.) |F majorj 1C(d) |D mi nor| 6A(1.) | A mi nor | v) From the above chords determine what notes c o u l d be sung i n each t r i a d by a p u p i l or groups with the l e a s t amount of movement e.g. A A A |D minor! [A minor| |F major"! I P I P l p v i ) s i n g the new arrangement of t r i a d s i n My u s i n g s o l - f a and hand s i g n s numbers and l e t t e r names v i i ) s i n g the c h o r d p r o g r e s s i o n s throughout the song w i t h one p u p i l or group on a g i v e n p a r t v i i i ) s i n g as i n My\\ and add one p u p i l or group on the melody p a r t i x ) w r i t e the t r i a d s i n s o l - f a , numbers and l e t t e r names and n o t a t e on s t a f f x) n o t a t e what was sung i n My x i ) compare s t a f f n o t a t i o n i n Mix w i t h t h a t of Mx x i i ) t r i a d s can be b u i l t on any note of s c a l e -- l i s t e n to t r i a d s p l a y e d on the p i a n o or u k u l e l e on each s t e p of and i d e n t i f y them as to major or minor x i i i ) n o t a t e i n t e r v a l s from the song p l a y e d v e r t i c a l l y 3.1.2 Four Note Chords 1) l i s t e n to the song p l a y e d on the p i a n o or u k u l e l e u s i n g t h r e e chords D minor, F major and A minor. I d e n t i f y a u r a l l y how many chords a r e used i i ) i d e n t i f y a u r a l l y the q u a l i t y of c h o r d as to major or minor i i i ) s i n g each c h o r d l i n e a r l y u s i n g s o l - f a and hand s i g n s , numbers, l e t t e r names and i n t e r v a l names i v ) s i n g each c h o r d v e r t i c a l l y w i t h p u p i l s or groups h o l d i n g each note (see #3.1.1 i v ) v) i d e n t i f y c h o r d changes p l a y e d on the p i a n o or u k u l e l e -- note when the c h o r d changes and to what c h o r d l p P.A a,d, t 1 p P a , d, t l p P a.d.t A t A t A t A a. t A a, t A a . t A a, t l p P.A a.d.t P.A a.d.t A a . t 189 v i ) w r i t e chords i n s o l - f a , numbers and l e t t e r names and n o t a t e on s t a f f v i i ) o r g a n i z e the t h r e e chords to show the l e a s t amount of movement between notes whenperformed by i n d i v i d u a l s or groups s t a r t i n g w i t h D minor (see #3.1 v) .1.4 Ton i c Chord i ) l i s t e n to the f i r s t and l a s t c h o r d of the song -- a n a l y z e as to q u a l i t y and sameness i i ) s i n g the f i r s t and l a s t c h o r d to s o l - f a , numbers and l e t t e r names i i i ) n o t a t e and l a b e l chord as t o n i c (home c h o r d ) , l a c e n t r e d ( r o o t note) and Roman numeral I i v ) n o t a t e D minor c h o r d in r o o t , f i r s t and s e c o n d i n v e r s i o n u s i n g s o l - f a , numbers, l e t t e r names and notes on s t a f f v) s i n g c h o r d i n 0 i v i n r o o t , f i r s t , and second i n v e r s i o n u s i n g s o l - f a , numbers and l e t t e r names v i ) s i ng c h o r d i n #lv v e r t i c a l l y w i t h i n d i v i d u a l s or groups h o l d i n g each note (use above pr o c e d u r e ) v i i ) r e l a t e f i r s t and l a s t note of song t o n i c chord v i i i ) i d e n t i f y the D minor c h o r d i n r o o t p o s i t i o n and i n v e r s i o n s from s t a f f n o t a t i o n ix ) experiment by w r i t i n g chords and p l a y i n g them on b e l l s x) experiment by p l a y i n g chords on b e l l s and them n o t a t i n g them A.O A.O t t A a.d.t P.A a.d.t A t A t Ip P.A a.d.t 1 p P , A a , d, t A a, t A a, t A a.d.t P,A,0 a.d,t 190 x i ) s i n g p i t c h e s w i t h o t h e r p u p i l s to form c h o r d s , i d e n t i f y the p i t c h e s u s i n g b e l l s or p i a n o and n o t a t e 3.2 Cadences i ) 1 i s t e n to the f i n a l phrase of the song and i d e n t i f y and l a b e l the f i n a l c hord as the t o n i c ( I.) i i ) l i s t e n to the f i n a l c h o r d of the f i r s t p h r a s e i n r e l a t i o n to the I chord; s i n g b o t h chords and note the s t a r t i n g notes i n r o o t p o s i t i o n ; d i s c o v e r what number to c a l l A, ( V ) . by c o u n t i n g up the s t e p s of the s c a l e i i i ) l a b e l D minor to A minor as chord numb'ers I to V and as an imperfect cadence i v ) note the c h o r d t h a t ends each phrase e.g. phrase 1--V,phrase 2--V, phrase 3--I. phrase 4--I 3.4 Accompaniment i ) ground bass a) from the t h r e e chords d i s c o v e r what note o c c u r s i n a 11 (A ) b) an i n d i v i d u a l or group s i n g s the note A throughout the song w h i l e another i n d i v i d u a l or group s i n g s the song i i ) s i n g and/or p l a y on b e l l s the r o o t s of i i i ) s i n g and/or p l a y the t r i a d s as i n #3.1 v i with the melody 4.0 FORM"! 4.1 Mot i ves 1) i d e n t i f y a u r a l l y r e c u r r i n g rhythmic and p i t c h p a t t e r n s P.A.O a.d. t A a . t P.A a , t s A a . t s A a . t A t I P l p P.A a.d.t lp P.A a.d.t du, 1p A a , t 191 i i ) i d e n t i f y v i s u a l l y r e c u r r i n g rhythmic and p i t c h p a t t e r n s i i i ) s i n g r e c u r r i n g p a t t e r n s u s i n g words and s o l - f a hand s i g n s i v ) compose or i m p r o v i s e motives u s i n g p i t c h or r h y t h m i c p a t t e r n s from the song v) compose or i m p r o v i s e motives u s i n g i n v e r t e d p i t c h p a t t e r n s from the song 4.2 P h r a s e s i ) l a b e l each l i n e ( p h r a s e ) to i n d i c a t e 1ikeness e.g. A B Bv C i i ) c r e a t e movements to i n d i c a t e p h r a s i n g movements a r e r e p e a t e d as p a t t e r n s are r e p e a t e d i i i ) do phrase markings i n the a i r w h i l e s i n g i n g the song e.g. i v ) p u p i l s or groups of p u p i l s s i n g a s p e c i f i e d p h r a s e; a l ! s i n g phrase 4 v) s i n g the words of p h r a s e 2 and 3 at the same time u s i n g i n d i v i d u a l p u p i l s o r groups and note the d i f f e r e n c e at the end of the p h r a s e s v i ) w r i t e bars 8 and 12 i n : a ) s o l - f a b) numbers c) l e t t e r names d) notes v i i ) w r i t e phrase 2 and 3 as above 4.5 I n t r o d u c t i o n i ) c r e a t e a r h y t h m i c and/or m e l o d i c i n t r o d u c t i o n u s i n g some p a t t e r n / s from the song i i ) add dynamic markings du, 1 p du, 1 p du, 1 p du, 1 p P.A P,A,b P.A.O a.d.t a.d.t a.d.t du, 1 p du, 1 p du, 1 p P.A.O P.A.O P.A.O a.d.t a.d.t a.d.t du, 1 p P. A,0 a.d.t du, 1 p P.A a.d du, 1 p du, 1 p A.O A.O du, 1p, a, t dy a , t 192 i i i ) p e r f o r m the i n t r o d u c t i o n i v ) a n a l y z e and e v a l u a t e i n t r o d u c t i o n v) n o t a t e i n t r o d u c t i o n 4 . 7 Types of Forms i ) a n a l y z e , d e s c r i b e and i d e n t i f y form of song as s t r o p h i c i i ) i d e n t i f y r e p e t i t i o n of words w i t h i n p h r a s e s i i i ) note phrase 4 i s l a b e l l e d r e f r a i n i v ) w r i t e a d d i t i o n a l words f o r phrases 1 and 2 | 5.O TIMBRE | 5.1 C1 ass i f i c a t i on i ) c l a s s i f y t h r e e types of timbre that c o u l d be used e f f e c t i v e l y f o r the song i i ) i d e n t i f y and d e s c r i b e the v o i c e q u a l i t y t h a t i s needed to p r e s e n t t h i s song e.g. s o f t , l o n g i n g , h o p e f u l , homesick, e t c . i i i ) s i n g and d r a m a t i z e the song to p o r t r a y the f e e l i n g s c o n t a i n e d t h e r e i n i v ) e x p l o r e drum sounds on same and d i f f e r e n t i n s t ruments and d e c i d e which t i m b r e s a re most a p p r o p r i a t e f o r accompanying, i n t r o d u c i n g and e n d i n g the song 5.2 D e t e r m i n a n t s of Timbre i ) d i s c o v e r through e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n what e f f e c t s i z e , shape and m a t e r i a l have on r e s u l t a n t sound i i ) p e r f o r m the song w i t h drum accompaniment P , (A ) a , d, ( t ) A A , ( t ) A.O t du, l p A t A t A ' t A t 0 a, t A a A a.d du, l p P,A,0 a,d du. l p P.A a, d P.A a , t du P,0 a.d 193 i i i ) p u p i l s d e c i d e o n u s e o f r e c o r d e r t o i n t r o d u c e , a c c o m p a n y o r e n d s o n g : t e a c h e r a s d i r e c t e d b y p u p i l s 5.4 R o l e i n M u s i c a l E x p r e s s i o n i ) m o v e t o t h e s o u n d o f v a r i o u s d r u m t i m b r e s p l a y e d b y t e a c h e r o r p u p i l s i i ) l i s t e n t o r e c o r d i n g s o f v a r i o u s a r r a n g e m e n t s o f t h e s o n g a n d d e s c r i b e a n d c o m p a r e t h e u s e s t i m b r e i i i ) c o m p o s e a r h y t h m i c c o m p o s i t i o n u s i n g t h e r h y t h m p a t t e r n s i n t h e s o n g o n d r u m s w i t h d i f f e r e n t t i m b r e s i v ) p l a y r h y t h m i c c o m p o s i t i o n s o f Mx v ) p u p i l s d e c i d e o n u s e o f u k u l e l e t o i n t r o d u c e , a c c o m p a n y o r e n d s o n g ; t e a c h e r p l a y s a s d i r e c t e d b y p u p i l s | 6.0 DYNAM ICS I 6.1 L e v e l s i ) s i n g t h e s o n g t h r e e t i m e s a t t h r e e d y n a m i c l e v e l s i i ) s i n g t h e s o n g a n d u s e m o v e m e n t t o i l l u s t r a t e t h e a b o v e t h r e e d y n a m i c l e v e l s i i i ) s i n g s o n g a n d u s e b o d y p e r c u s s i o n t o i l l u s t r a t e t h e t h r e e d y n a m i c l e v e l s i n M\ i v ) s i n g t h e s o n g a n d p l a y c l a s s r o o m p e r c u s s i o n i n s t r u m e n t s t o i l l u s t r a t e t h e t h r e e d y n a m i c l e v e l s i n M\ v ) e v a l u a t e a n d d e c i d e w h a t l e v e l s a r e s u i t e d t o e a c h p h r a s e v i ) d e v i s e own n o n - t r a d i t i o n a l d y n a m i c m a r k i n g s f o r MM d u , 1 p A .O a d u P . A , 0 a . d A a d u A .O a . t d u P a . t d u . 1 p , v p A .O a d u , l p P .A a . d d u . l p P . A . O a . d P . A.0 a . d t i P . A . O a . d t i P . A . O a . d f A .O a . t A.O t v i 1 ) l a b e l dynamic markings t r a d i t i o n a l l y v i i i ) s i n g the song u s i n g the dynamic markings d e c i d e d on i n tfv and w r i t t e n i n tiv\\ i x ) p l a y r h y t h m i c p a t t e r n s c o n t a i n e d i n the song on drums at v a r i o u s dynamic l e v e l s x) p u p i l s l i t e n to the t e a c h e r p l a y the r e c o r d e r u s i n g the dynamic markings d e c i d e d on i n #v x i ) move to drum p a t t e r n s p l a y e d by p u p i l or t e a c h e r at v a r i o u s dynamic l e v e l s 6.2 Gradual o r Sudden Dynamic Changes i ) a n a l y z e and d e c i d e what dynamic change c o u l d o c c u r between the b e g i n n i n g and end of each phrase and n o t a t e i t i i ) s i n g the song from dynamics n o t a t e d i n H\ i i i ) e v a l u a t e dynamics performed i n # i i i v ) d e v i s e n o n - t r a d i t i o n a l dynamic markings to show changes • v) l a b e l and w r i t e t r a d i t i o n a l dynamic markings to show changes © v i ) d r a m a t i z e g r a d u a l and sudden dynamic changes p l a y e d on a drum v i i ) i m p r o v i s e dynamic changes on a drum u s i n g r h y t h m i c p a t t e r n s c o n t a i n e d i n the song 6.3 E x p r e s s i v e Q u a l i t i e s i ) a n a l y z e the f e e l i n g s dynamics c o n t r i b u t e t o i i ) a n a l y z e the u n i t y a c h i e v e d through dynamics i i i ) a n a l y z e the v a r i e t y a c h i e v e d through dynamics A t P.A a.d.t P,0 a.d A a P.A.O a.d A a. t P.A a.d.t A a 0 t A t P,A a.d P.O a.d P,0 a.d A a f A a f A a 195 i v ) a n a l y z e the c o r r e l a t i o n between dynamics and form v) s e t dynamic markings f o r the new words composed i n s e c t i o n on form I 7 ,0 TEMPO-] 7.1 Speeds M a i n t a i n e d i ) s i n g the melody of the song at t h r e e speeds -- f a s t , medium, and slow; determine a u r a l l y what speed i s the most a p p r o p r i a t e to the words and music i i ) s i n g the song a d d i n g v o c a l chorda 1 accompaniment at t h r e e speeds; e v a l u a t e a u r a l l y the most a p p r o p r i a t e speed 7.2 Gradual or Sudden Changes i n Speeds i ) e x p l o r e any p o s s i b l e uses of speed changes i n the i n t r o d u c t i o n , song i t s e l f and coda i i ) e v a l u a t e the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of gradual or sudden speed changes | 8.0 STYLE! 8.1 C u l t u r a l and Environmental i ) d e t e r m i n e from words who i s s i n g i n g the song i i ) d e t e rmine from words where the song takes p l a c e e.g. f o r e s t , lowlands, e t c . i i i ) d e t e r mine from the words what instrument i s p1 ay i ng i v ) d e t e r m i n e from words the message of the song and what q u e s t i o n s the song evokes through words and music f A a, t A a.t du,1p P,A a.d du,1p,vp P,A a.d d u . l p P.A.O a.d du,1p A a A t A t A a A t 196 v) note r e p e t i t i o n of words and l i n e a r p i t c h e s c o n t r i b u t i n g to f e e l i n g of l o n g i n g to r e t u r n 8.2 H i s t o r i c a l F e a t u r e s i ) note the r e p e t i t i o n of rhythms t y p i c a l of p r i m i t i v e and f o l k music i i ) note the r e p e t i t i o n of i n t e r v a l s t y p i c a l of p r i m i t i v e and f o l k music i i i ) compare how I n d i a n s l i v e d i n the past and now i v ) i d e n t i f y range of song v) note the l i n e a r p i t c h e s ( p e n t a t o n i c ) t y p i c a l of o r i e n t a l music v i ) note the c l o s e r e l a t i o n s h i p of f o l k music to the l o v e of n a t u r e v i i ) l i s t e n to o t h e r f o l k songs p r a i s i n g n a t u r e and a d e s i r e to be emersed i n i t l p A t du A a . t l p A a . t A a , t l p A a.t A A a 197 198 ANALYSIS OF CONCEPTS CONTAINED IN 1 LAND OF THE SILVER BIRCH' 1.0 DURATION J 1.1 Beat 1.2 Meter 1 .'elements J , / J , J , / J J , ^ 1.3 Rhythm ele e ts 2.0 LINEAR PITCH tone set - l , d r m s l ( D F G A C ' D ' ) range - 1, to 1 (D to D') name of letter sol-fa & hand signs interval numbers name intervals , I -1, m P5 6, 3 i , I s M2 6 5 s l M2 5 6 m3 5 3 m d M3 3 1 r d M2 2 1 d r M2 1 2 r 1 P 5 2 6 d 1, m 3 1 6 , 3>, A 3> C c TT A F H i 6 1> 199 3.0 VERTICAL PITCH Key - D minor Cadences - I V D minor and A minor V I O s t i n a t o accompaniment - Bordun D and A T r i a d s w i t h i n song - s m d and m d 1, (major) (minor) 4.0 Form A B B v C ; A = a + a r e c u r r i n g rhythms J Jl ; J1J ; J; J~B.& Opens w i t h p e r f e c t f i f t h s and ends w i t h minor t h i r d s 5.0 Timbre drum accompaniment t i m b r e ( e x p e r i e m e n t w i t h d i f f e r e n t t y p e s and s i z e s o f drums) v o i c e t i m b r e p o s s i b l e echo e f f e c t s i n c o r p o r a t e d 6.0 Dynamics i n t r o d u c t i o n pp p p h r a s e one p- mp p -mp p h r a s e two mf p h r a s e t h r e e mf mp p h r a s e f o u r mp p coda p . • pp 7. 0 Tempo s t e a d y tempo beait (moderato) 8.0 STYLE monophonic o r i g i n a l l y C a n a d i a n f o l k song - I n d i a n - l i k e rhythm accompaniment a p p r o p r i a t e ; c h a r a c t e r i s t i c rhythm open i n t e r v a l - P5; n a r r o w e r i n t e r v a l - m3 p e n s i v e mood c r e a t e d i n l a - p e n t a t o n i c s i m p l e f o l k song s t y l e w i t h r e p e a t e d m o t i v e s s t r o p h i c - 3 v e r s e s 200 L A N D OF THE SILVER BIRCH E>m m jg m F$m im 2 3 3 Land o p S i l - f e ^ b i r c h ( h o m e . „ p -t-foe, be<x- v e t * , Br 3 B. F# m ft" 2 W/ice. sTt'll H-ie miahhy moose, wan-dere at W i l l , w n n u S — 1 1 \ k d 1 — ' * r — i Bloe. lake. anA totk-y s\noC^i X w i ' l l - f u m a/ice. mor^ Bm ZZL Boom e|ee/& Boom Boomde.de. S>oom Boon de.de. Boom Boom Boom Boom Boom. 2. Down in the forest, deep in the lowlands, My heart cries o u t for thee, h i l l s o f the north. Blue lake and rocky shore, I w i l l return once m o r e . 3. High on a rocky ledge I ' l l build my wigwam, Close by the water's edge, s i lent and s t i l l . Blue lake and rocky shore, I w i l l return once m o r e . * This song i s documented i n the book Folk Songs of Canada by Edith Fowke and Richard Johnston, Waterloo Music Co. , 1954 y p . _.gi a s follows: The words and tune of t h i s song were contributed by Merrick J a r r e t t of Toronto who f i r s t heard i t up i n Muskoka some f i f t e e n years ago. It i s widely known throughout Ontario from Lake of the Woods to Ottawa, and a l l through the Muskoka-Haliburton lakes. It has been sung i n summer camps for at l e a s t twenty years, but no one seems to know when or where i t originated. 201 Linear Pitch Reading and Writing Exercises for Voice and/or Ukulele J> E (based on Kodaly's 333 Reading Exercises*) , Fingering 0, 2 ' — Ex. 1 > it 4> 1 •7 ) | 1 J 1 ¥ ^ -J •J 3T V : ? -+ te •>-v * J \ J ' Ex. 7 Me / - — ' -3 9 -3 if fv ft Et 7*- 7* * + * f 3 -f- f f-7- f—1 / -f-f * \f— J V y — J ^ — h— 1 •Zoltan Kodaly, 333 Reading Exercises, (Willowdale, Ontario: Boosey & Hawkes, 1972). 202 Fingering 1, 3 1 I 1 / I J / J \ W w f— — f— f f— f — -+— f f— f f k ̂ ~ \ u& —r- _ A* et( rc) —# —tf —^ —J- —0 J —0 / m — f - — * ~ =$:• < - 5 H c# i ' -J "ing er \r ing 2 , 4 V • ar ^ — a =5 : : - • > i~ -** • V - I-. -rf • •» - w •P I ~~~~ }— •" J 1 A i — —1— j—\— _ l |> * d f 4 4 rf '—rf >——1 — r — 11 •/ — U / 4 —rf —rf. —* ̂—rf f— —0 / tr— / — t t — f— f — f f— f f f A f l IT l> 2 — u 203 n i i i a n J n n i i j. n J LTD dr d d r rd r rd rr d r dr d i i n i , * I r~i i n i ~ * n J J Ex. 13 r r rd r d dr d rd r dr d i i n n i l i i n n i i i n Ex. 9 d d rd rr d d r r dr dr d d i r y ^ n i r? * n i P 7 ? n n~r~l J Ex. 14 d r dr d d rd r r dr d r r d r 7 r n J N d d r d n I I d n i i i i n / / Ex. 12 dr d d r d r r r d r r d r d d it n i i n i i I— i i i n i l / «• J k Jl Ex. 11 d r d d r d r r r d r r d r d d I I I c< J i l l I 1 I I I I I I ^ Ex. 16 r d r r r r d r r r r d d d r 204 Fingering 0, 2, 4 or 0, 2, 0 1 d r m"l ) DEF* i i J — 1 4 —< — '—J - j J • -J Ex. 48 A B C * Fingering 0, 2, 4 4- J: >Q: J i iJj ^ GAB Fingering 1, 3, 0 -v—* Fingering 0, 2, 4 or 0, 2, 0 n^—, I 1 - r - r - — -4— J T ' www - j — 1 w w w w l — J — ! 1 ~ J +— 1 / • • r — — J J Ex. 49 A B C ? Fingering 0, 2, 4 GAD Fingering 1, 3, 0 -ft / > > > Z Z 2 Z rm i i rrn i X r r n • i • i r m i j Ex. 52 m r d r m m r d r m r r r r m d r r r r d n n / i r m / i M M / / J J r ~ r n i i 5? Ex. 55 r r r r d d r r r r d d m r d r m r d r m d m m r r 205 /\BCt Fingering 3, 0 2 3 l a Ex. 48 z z z z z tf-—tf- Ex. 49 1 Z Z Z 1 — 1 Ex. 31 •J l * ' fl L J 4 GAE A B 3 1 F / « -J-J L * - J L J J - J L/1 > - J 3= Ex. 36 CAE y\Z I | III rs 7 7 z z >—/• F̂ =f - i — Y 5# t —--J / J -J / 4 - J i , — 206 1 d i . s . J)B,A, J J •J-• >J J J ** / J — J — J - — 1 —J —J- —J rf J —J —J— 4 r h • " —1 rf1 -tf—1 J / d ' i f —'—J- -J—1 f J rf <—rf TO J • J \— — K — —1 (—i * 1 t. A F * E —rf-rf 9 —J— J JJ -rf / - J — ' * f - t f J ' J J \-J— •-J-J- f # r>- D' B A / / / • t M I J J J f f A J 1 t 4 A i — f — f ~tT Jf * J J t f J t f - J — ^ —J- - IV 0' 8 * i f rf — *— - j - f >—rf- - f _ • w w f - f * / -+-^-4 itf) zzz: w j w — p 207 ^ Id r 1,3,1 Ex. 57 J — * — j -—i J— 1 44 4 J J 4 L » < 4 4 4 —4- J iJ / 4 4— J I -f-4 f~~ f f—- -f— * * — 4 —4- t J 4 -f-f- f- 0 4 — -f-f— f— -J . 1 j p e B . A , w Ex. 61 r * - r i / i . * — " — * — — i — — A 4 J 6 —-J * -*-4- 4—- L-4-4—4- J— 0 - * - 4 W J —A 1 6 hit 5 3 "2 TX—JL •d—4 -T£>— 208 GABE I d . r m 1,1 Ex. 142 4-4 ABC*F# 2 3 7 7 f-y f *4 f f—y * -P •H- r • — f -*— • f - w V • W f • ~ f - i J>EF*"B,A( | d r m 1,s,| Ex. 209 v — • > j. 4.— \ry-4-4 ' v GAB El> j o t * / J : =zz ABC#F#E 7 7 / 7M -̂ -ff- f - H - f — f - -y = M Z = ^ - = "bj— -—EF — f — 209 - \ n ^ "1—rrfr ^ t z t z x> S A B D' / i rf --rf r _ y— — f — —* _. 0 0 - y rf— / N A B C * E ' F •fn / 0 0 f - ___0 rf 0 rf1- 0 J--=-4f rf / / / rf rf 7 ^ ' 0 U \ [s. ' rf * A B d , c m s 1 h i n r fx (T G A B J / £ 1 J > f- 'rf1 J -rf 0 t * I i f— t 0 > rf> Lrf-̂ • E ' F * ' 1"! 1 — r — 0* / 0 ~fTf ' 0 II w >—4— u rf • ' 0 ' i- 4 r II 1 Iz l m r 210 m — p . E E K v- -1—1 l «-rf- J-4 4 -rf z1 J Ex. 297 GAPD'E' E 3EB fzz—x^E- — ^ A B C * E ' F ' V * 1 *-r-r4-4 4 4- > > > d r m s 1 1, s"/l JDEF^ABB, A, 5 5 Ex. 321 t —*-? . rf —• rf— rf — J — f " >- m 4 < D*AB W r ' F * E 1 / > -< w -1 4- 0 f • At — f - f —f-4- rf <-/ . . - rf r — - f - -- m -L-rf (—=• -4= - L - r f Appendix B PHASE I I (VOICE AND UKULELE) AN EXAMPLE OF TEACHING SPECIFIC CONCEPTS THROUGH THE SONG "LAND OF THE SILVER BIRCH" A d d i t i o n a l | 1.0 DURATION | 1.1 Beat i ) s i n g the words of the song and s i n g l e strum the chords i i ) s i n g the melody of the song u s i n g c h o r d names and s i n g l e strum the chords i i i ) do #i and march the beat i v ) do Hii and march the beat v) s i n g the words of the song and double strum the c h o r d s v i ) s i n g the melody of the song u s i n g c h o r d names and doubl e strum the chords v i i ) do #v and march the beat v i i i ) do #vi and march the beat 1.2 Meter i ) s i n g the song and s i n g l e strum on the f i r s t beat of each bar Concepts Act i v i t y S k i 1 1 a , d , t ! a.d, t a.d.t a,d. t a.d, t a , d, t a,d. t a.d.t a.d.t i i ) s i n g song and " p i c " low A s t r i n g on a , d , t 'where P=Performing; A=Analyzing; 0=Organinzing 'where a = a u r a l ; d = d e x t r a l ; t = t r a n s 1 a t a b l e 21 1 Add i t i ona 1 Concepts the f i r s t beat of each bar i i i ) s i n g o n l y the f i r s t s y l l a b l e of each bar and tap the u k u l e l e on that beat i v ) s i n g o n l y the f i r s t s y l l a b l e of each vp, l p 3 bar and s i n g l e strum the f i r s t c h o r d of each bar v) s i n g the words and s i n g l e strum two vp, l p b e a t s i n each bar a c c e n t i n g the f i r s t e.Q. I I | | etc. J>m Am v i ) do #v but double strum a c c e n t i n g the vp, l p f i r s t e i g h t h note of each bar 3- n n n p «=tc v i i ) s i n g the chord l e t t e r names f o r the vp, l p f i r s t beat of each bar w h i l e s i n g i n g the melody of the song v i i i ) s i n g the words of the song, s i n g l e vp, l p strum chords a c c e n t i n g the f i r s t beat and march the beat i x ) h a l f the c l a s s conducts two b e a t s i n a vp, l p bar and s i n g s the words of the song w h i l e the o t h e r h a l f double strums chords a c c e n t i n g the f i r s t beat of the bar and s i n g s the words - exchange p a r t s 1.3 Rhythm i ) " P i c " the rhythm of the song on the low l p A s t r i n g w h i l e s i n g i n g the rhythm s y l l a b l e s of the song to the melody i i ) strum the rhythm of the song on the D vp minor c h o r d w h i l e s a y i n g the rhythm s y l l a b l e s 3 v p = v e r t i c a l p i t c h : l p = l i n e a r p i t c h ; du=duration; te=tempo; dy=dynamics; s = s t y l e 212 Act i V i ty P P P P P P P P P Sk i 1 1 a . d , t a.d.t a.d.t a.d.t a.d.t a.d.t a.d.t a.d.t a.d.t t i =timbre i i i ) do # i i but use the c h o r d p r o g r e s s i o n i n the song i v ) strum the rhythm of the song u s i n g the c o r r e c t c h o r d p r o g r e s s i o n v) do #iv and s i n g the c h o r d names v i ) do #iv and s i n g the words of the song v i i ) s i n g e very second bar i n t e r n a l l y w h i l e d o u b l e strumming chords c o n t i n u o u s l y throughout v i i i ) strum and s i n g a l l the q u a r t e r notes i n the song; i n t e r n a l i z e a l l p t h e r rhythm elements i x ) do # v i i i but s i n g and strum a l l the e i g h t h notes x) an i n d i v i d u a l strums the rhythm of a bar which i s then i d e n t i f i e d by number and n d t a t e d on the board x i ) p u p i l s n o t a t e rhythms p l a y e d by t e a c h e r on u k u l e l e x i i ) i m p r o v i s e rhythm rondos u s i n g open s t r i n g s or chords D and A minor or F major x i i i ) i n d i v i d u a l p u p i l s compose and n o t a t e a rhythm rondo which they then d i r e c t o t h e r p u p i l s to take p a r t i n x i v ) u s i n g rhythm elements i n the song w r i t e a rhythm o s t i n a t o p a t t e r n to strum on u k u l e l e w h i l e s i n g i n g the words of the song xv) s t u d e n t s a r e a s s i g n e d s p e c i f i c rhythms to strum throughout the song | 2.0 LINEAR PITCH | 2.1 P o s i t i o n of P i t c h e s i ) s i ng a phrase a) to words b) to s o l - f a Add i t i ona1 Concepts vp Act i v i ty P vp P , A vp, 1p P,A vp,1p P vp, l p P l p P. A lp P.A P A l p , vp 0 P.O. 1p, vp P.0 vp P c) to l e t t e r names d) to u k u l e l e f i n g e r i n g s hand f i n g e r s p o s i t i o n e) to u k u l e l e f i n g e r i n g s hand f i n g e r s p o s i t i o n and r i g h t hand " p i c s " L e v e l s : E p l a y o n l y phrase 1 and 4 M p l a y phrase 1 and 4, and the f i r s t beat of each bar i n phrase 2 and 3 D' p l a y a l l the notes wh i1e 1ef t f o r notes whi1e l e f t f o r notes i i ) p u p i l or t e a c h e r p l a y s a bar of the song on the u k u l e l e : a) p u p i l s echo p l a y the bar b) p u p i l s i d e n t i f y the bar i n the song c ) p u p i l s n o t a t e the bar on the s t a f f l i n e s from memory L e v e l s : E i d e n t i f y bar i n the song M i d e n t i f y bar i n the song and echo p l a y D do M and n o t a t e c o r r e c t l y from memeory 2.2 Phras e s i ) one stud e n t p l a y s phrase 1 w h i l e another p l a y s phrase 4: compare i i ) one p u p i l p l a y s phrase 2 w h i l e another p l a y s phrase 3 - compare i i i ) n o t a t e phrases from d i c t a t i o n ( p l a y e d on u k u l e l e ) i v ) n o t a t e phrases from memory v) p l a y phrases from memory Leve1s: E p l a y phrase 1 and 4; n o t a t e M p l a y phrases 1,2,3 and 4; n o t a t e D p l a y phrases 1,2,3 and 4 u s i n g s o l o "E=Easy: M=Medium: D = D i f f i c u l t Add i t i ona1 Concepts Act i v i t y S k i l l 214 P.A a.d.t P, A a.d.t P. A a.d.t t a.d t e c h n i q u e of p l a c i n g c h o r d f i n g e r i n g s on f r e t s ; n o t a t e (See Advanced Techniques f o r So l o P l a y i n g "Land of the S i l v e r B i r c h " ) v i ) t r a n s p o s e a phrase to B minor: a) s i n g words i n new key b) s i n g s o l - f a i n new key c) s i n g l e t t e r names i n new key d) n o t a t e i n new key e) p l a y i n new key f ) p l a y and s i n g i n new key L e v e l s : E t r a n s p o s e and n o t a t e phrase 1 and 4 M t r a n s p o s e and n o t a t e phrases 1, 2, 3 and 4 D t r a n s p o s e , n o t a t e and p l a y phrases 1, 2, 3 and 4 v i i ) compose or im p r o v i s e a v a r i a t i o n du on a phrase: a) change the rhythm by augmentation or d i m i n u t i o n b) change the p i t c h e s by i n v e r t i n g i n t e r v a l s or p l a y i n g i n r e t r o g r a d e v i i i ) n o t a t e # v i i du i x) s i ng #v i1 du x) p i ay #vi i du x i ) s i n g and p l a y A ' v i i du x i i ) p l a y and s i n g p h r a s e s d e m o n s t r a t i n g dy r i s e and f a l l i n dynamics L e v e l s : E p h r a s e s 1 and 4 M a l l f o u r p h r a s e s D a l l f o u r p h r a s e s u s i n g c h o r d f i n g e r i n g s i n s t e a d of note f i n g e r i n g s .3 M e l o d i c O s t i n a t i i ) s i n g and p l a y a me l o d i c o s t i n a t o du a) s i n g words b) s i n g l e t t e r names Add i t i ona1 Concepts 215 Add i t i ona 1 Concepts c) s i n g s o l - f a names " , d) s i n g u k u l e l e f i n g e r i n g s i i ) compose, n o t a t e and p l a y a me l o d i c du o s t i n a t o u s i n g notes of the p e n t a t o n i c s e a l e i i i ) compose words or s y l l a b l e s f o r # i i du i v ) one group s i n g s and p l a y s chords f o r #i i 1 w h i l e du one group s i n g s and p l a y s the melody 2.4 I n t e r v a I s i ) t e a c h e r p l a y s s p e c i f i c i n t e r v a l s from the song on the u k u l e l e w h i l e p u p i l s : a) l o c a t e the i n t e r v a l i n the song b) name the notes of the i n t e r v a l c) name the i n t e r v a l - e.g. P4 d) p l a y the i n t e r v a l s t a t i n g the u k u l e l e f i n g e r i n g s e) n o t a t e the i n t e r v a l on the s t a f f i i ) g i v e n i s o l a t e d i n t e r v a l s from the song on s t a f f l i n e s or "hand" s t a f f p u p i l s : a) name notes b) name i n t e r v a 1 c) s i ng i n so 1 - f a d) p l a y s t a t i n g the u k u l e l e f i n g e r i n g s i i i ) compose or improvise a phrase u s i n g du s p e c i f i c i n t e r v a l s i v) pi ay Hi i i v) l o c a t e and p l a y a l l major t h i r d s i n the song; do the same f o r o t h e r i n t e r v a l s L eve 1s: E deal o n l y with a s c e n d i n g p e r f e c t 5ths and as c e n d i n g and de s c e n d i n g minor 3rds M deal w i t h i n t e r v a l s i n E above and major 2nds D deal w i t h a l l the i n t e r v a l s in the song 2.5 Tonal C e n t r e and Tone Set i ) s i n g and p l a y tone s e t from n o t a t i o n u s i n g a) s o l - f a s y l l a b l e s 216 Act i V i ty Sk i 1 1 P, A.O a.d.t A.O P , A t a.d.t P.A a.d.t P.A a.d.t A.O P.A P.A a.d.t d. t P.A, a,d, t b) l e t t e r names c) u k u l e l e f i n g e r i n g s (See S p e c i f i c Techniques f o r U k u l e l e ) l o c a t e i n the song where p a r t of the tone s e t o c c u r s c o n s e c u t i v e l y and a) b) c) ng i n t e r v a l s from s o l - f a ng l e t t e r names ng u k u l e l e f i n g e r i n g s and f i n g e r 1ent1y d) s i n g words and " p i c " l o c a t e t o n a l c e n t r e on u k u l e l e and " p i c " note; f i n d another t o n a l c e n t r e an o c t a v e above; i f f i n g e r b o a r d i s long enough f i n d a t h i r d t o n a l c e n t r e i v ) n o t a t e t o n a l c e n t r e on s t a f f and show f i n g e r i n g on f r e t c h a r t 0 J2. D 3>' v) one group s i n g s and p l a y s t o n a l c e n t r e note throughout the song except f o r bars 6 and 10 where the note F i s p l a y e d ; a second group p l a y s the melody of the song and s i n g s L e v e l s : E M D p l a y t o n a l c e n t r e D and F where r e q u i r e d p l a y a l l the notes of the melody p l a y a l l the notes u s i n g chord f i n g e r i n g format i ons | 3.0 VERTICAL PITCH | 3.1.1 Tr ia d s i ) p l a y the c h o r d f i n g e r i n g s f o r D minor, A minor and F major t r i a d s by p i c i n g the t h i r d , second and f i r s t s t r i n g s c o n s e c u t i v e l y Add i t i onal Concepts Act i v i ty Sk i 1 1 t/5-Wi fret 217 P , A a,d, t P.A, a.d, t P. A a.d. t l p . a.d i i ) s i n g the p i t c h e s of the t r i a d s w h i l e p l a y i n g H\ u s i n g s o l - a and l e t t e r names Addi t i o n a l Concepts lp Act i v i t y Sk i1 1 P.A a.d ) i v ) v) v i ) n o t a t e each t r i a d on l i n e s v e r t i c a l l y e.g s t a f f A, 0 ^ m Am F determine from the w r i t t e n t r i a d s what p o s i t i o n these t r i a d s a re i n e.g. D minor = 1st i n v e r s i o n " p i c " the t r i a d s v e r t i c a l l y u s i n g index f i n g e r on t h i r d s t r i n g , middle f i n g e r on second s t r i n g and r i n g f i n g e r on f i r s t s t r i n g - " P i c " two q u a r t e r notes per bar w h i l e s i n g i n g the song do Mv but d i v i d e c l a s s i n t o f o u r groups - t h r e e groups w i l l each s i n g one of the s t r i n g s w h i l e the f o u r t h group s i n g s the melody (see # i i i ) E p l a y o n l y D minor and F major chords and n o t a t e M p i c one t r i a d per bar i n MM D do e v e r y t h i n g as s t a t e d v i i ) do MM\ but p i c the s t r i n g b e i n g sung on the f i r s t beat and strum the c h o r d on the second beat du, t e , dy du. t e , dy l p . t e . du, dy P,0 P ,0 P. A a , d , t a, d, t a.d.t v i i i ) do MM\ s i n g i n g o n l y -use s o l - f a s y l l a b l e s and l e t t e r names i x ) d i v i d e c l a s s i n t o f i v e groups - f o u r groups each s i n g one of the s t r i n g s and one group s i n g s the melody x) do MM\ but add strumming x i ) p l a y an a r p e g g i o thumb p i c u s i n g a l l f o u r s t r i n g s from bottom to top i n one beat (A.F A D' = ) s i n g melody w i t h c h o r d names and words l p , t e , l p . t e , du, dy l p . te du, dy te, du, dy P. A P, A P. A P. A a.d.t a.d.t a.d, t a.d.t 218 x i i ) p l a y an a r p e g g i o strum u s i n g the thumb and f i r s t t h r e e f i n g e r s (see U k u l e l e T e c h i q u e s ) ; one group s i n g s melody and one group p l a y s ; exchange p a r t s x i i i ) s i n g l e strum the f i r s t beat of each bar from memory w h i l e s i n g i n g the song E p l a y song w i t h s i m p l i f i e d chords (Dm and F) n o t a t e o n l y Dm and F; do a r p e g g i o strum w i t h thumb o n l y M do a l l s u g g e s t i o n s D perform items i n small ensembles; do a l l items i n the key of Bm a l s o .1.2 F o u r - n o t e Chords (major and minor) i ) s i n g l e strum the c h o r d p r o g r e s s i o n of the song from c h o r d markings i i ) s i n g l e strum the c h o r d p r o g r e s s i o n of the song and s i n g melody to words, c h o r d names and s o l - f a i i i ) p i c and s i n g each note of the D minor, A minor and F major c h o r d to a n e u t r a l s y l l a b l e i v ) upon d o i n g # i i i d e c i d e a u r a l l y what notes are p l a y e d an o c t a v e a p a r t v) n o t a t e v e r t i c a l l y on s t a f f l i n e s the c h o r d s from lowest note to h i g h e s t as they are p l a y e d on the u k u l e l e v i ) each of f o u r s i n g s one s t r i n g throughout the song w h i l e f o l l o w i n g the chord p r o g r e s s i o n ; t e a c h e r may p i c or s i n g the melody s o f t l y Add i t i ona1 Act i v i ty S k i l l C oncepts t e , du. dy P.A a.d.t l p , t e , P,A a.d.t du, dy te P.A a.d.t l p , t e , P.A a.d.t du, dy l p P. a,d l p , P a.d lp P a , t l p . t e , P.A a.d.t du, dy 19 1.4 T o n i c Chords i ) p l a y the f i r s t and l a s t c h o r d of song; compare a u r a l l y i i ) s i n g the song and strum o n l y the t o n i c c h o r d when i t appears i n the song i i i ) s i n g and strum the s i m p l i f i e d c h o r d v e r s i o n u s i n g o n l y D minor and F major ( s u b s t i t u t e D minor f o r A minor) i v ) do # i i i but do not strum F major chords v) t e a c h e r s i n g s the melody of the song w h i l e the p u p i l s do #iv and s i n g the r o o t of the c h o r d (D) to 'doh' v i ) d i v i d e c l a s s i n t o f o u r groups; each group p i c s one s t r i n g of the D minor c h o r d and s i n g s i t i n s o l - f a whenever the D minor c h o r d appears i n the song; t e a c h e r s i n g s the melody E do o n l y one performance a c t i v i t y at a time; i . e . s i n g or p l a y M omit # i i i - use a l l t h r e e chords D p e r f o r m i n small ensembles #vi; perform i n key of B minor v i i ) n o t a t e the t o n i c c hord i n r o o t , f i r s t and second p o s i t i o n v i i i ) s i n g what was w r i t t e n i n # v i i i x ) d i s c o v e r i n what p o s i t i o n the D minor c h o r d i s p l a y e d on the u k u l e l e x) improvise m e l o d i c a l l y and r h y t h m i c a l l y on the t o n i c c h o r d 2 Cadences i ) strum two D minor chords and two A minor c h o r d s Add i t i ona1 Concepts Act i v i t y Ski 1 1 220 P , A a.d l p . t e , du, dy l p , t e , du, dy P. A P. A a.d.t a , d , t l p . t e , du, dy l p , t e , du, dy P. A P, A a.d.t a , d , t l p , t e , du, dy P. A a.d.t A.O P. A P. A a.d.t t P,0 a.d a.d i i ) note the f e e l i n g of incomplete- ness and the p u l l back to the D minor c h o r d i i i ) n o t a t e D minor and A minor v e r t i c a l l y i n r o o t p o s i s i o n and l a b e l them I and V i v ) l a b e l the I and V p r o g r e s s i o n as an i m p e r f e c t cadence .4 Harmonic Accompaniment i ) p i c low A to q u a r t e r notes w h i l e s i n g i n g the song (ground bass) i i ) s i n g l e strum q u a r t e r notes and and s i n g the song i i i ) a r p e g g i o p i c the f o u r s t r i n g s w i t h thumb and/or i n d i v i d u a l f i n g e r s and s i n g the song i v ) a r p e g g i o p i c the c h o r d s u s i n g the top t h r e e s t r i n g s w i t h thumb or i n d i v i d u a l f i n g e r s and s i n g the song v) p i c a l l f o u r s t r i n g s s i m u l t a n e o u s l y w h i l e s i n g i n g the song v i ) p i c the top t h r e e s t r i n g s of the u k u l e l e s i m u l t a n e o u s l y w h i l e s i n g i n g the song v i i ) one group p i c s the melody of the song w h i l e another group strums u s i n g one of the f o l l o w i n g : a) s i ng1e strum b) double strum c) a r p e g g i o f o u r s t r i n g strum d) a r p e g g i o t h r e e s t r i n g strum e) s o l i d f o u r s t r i n g p i c f ) s o l i d t h r e e s t r i n g p i c v i i i ) d i v i d e i n t o groups and s i n g the s t r i n g s f o r a chorda 1 Add i t i ona1 Concepts Act i v i t y l p , t e , du, dy, s l p , t e , du, dy, s l p . t e , du, dy, s A, 0 A.O l p . t e , du, dy, s l p , t e , du, dy, s l p , t e , du, dy. s P.A l p , t e , du, dy, s P.A l p . t e , du, dy, s P, A accompaniment w i t h the melody; have small group accompany on u k u l e l e E use a r p e g g i o thumb p i c o n l y ; omit f o u r s t r i n g and t h r e e s t r i n g p i c M do a l l items suggested D do al1 items i n B minor as well [ 4 . 0 FORMI 4.1 Mot i ves i ) l o c a t e r e p e a t e d p i t c h p a t t e r n s i i ) s i n g the song i n t e r n a l l y except f o r a s p e c i f i c motive i i i ) p i c each motive s e p a r a t e l y i v ) strum and s i n g each motive s e p a r a t e l y v) n o t a t e motives e i t h e r sung or p l a y e d on u k u l e l e v i ) compose v a r i a t i o n s on any of the motives by: a) changing rhythms b) changing p i t c h e s v i i ) p l a y and s i n g #vi v i i i ) a n a l y z e and e v a l u a t e v a r i a t i o n s of o t h e r pupi1s 4.2 P h r a s e s i ) a n a l y z e , l o c a t e and l a b e l phrases by l e t t e r s e.g. A B B C i i ) s i n g song b r e a t h i n g at the ends of phrases i i i ) s i n g song and draw phr a s e s i n the a i r w h i l e s i n g i n g i v ) p i c one p h r a s e and strum Add i t i ona1 Concepts Act i v i ty Ski 1 1 1 p, du 1 p, du 1 p, du 1 p, du l p , du l p , du A P, A P , A P, A A,0 t a,d, t a.d.t a.d.t a, t 1 p, du 1 p, du P, A A a.d.t t 1 p, du 1 p, du l p , du 1 p, du P.A P. A P. A a.d, t a.d.t a.d.t 222 and s i n g the next v) s i n g and walk i n a d i f f e r e n t d i r e c t i o n f o r each p h r a s e v i ) strum, s i n g and walk i n a d i f f e r e n t d i r e c t i o n f o r each phrase v i i ) n o t a t e p h r a s e s e i t h e r sung or p l a y e d by the t e a c h e r v i i i ) s i n g and p i c p h r a s e s u s i n g : a) s o 1 - f a s y l l a b l e s b) u k u l e l e f i n g e r numbers c) l e t t e r names of notes i x ) w r i t e v a r i a t i o n s on each p h r a s e ( r h y t h m i c and m e l o d i c ) x) p l a y and s i n g phrase 1 and v a r i a t i o n 1; c o n t i n u e w i t h o t h e r phrases x i ) e v a l u a t e and a n a l y z e v a r i a t i o n s 4.5 I n t r o d u c t ion i ) c r e a t e an i n s t r u m e n t a l i n t r o d u c t i o n ( a u r a l l y ) u s i n g the u k u l e l e i i ) n o t a t e Mi i i i ) add dynamic markings i v ) p l a y i n t r o d u c t i o n and strum and s i n g the song v) e v a l u a t e each p u p i l ' s i n t r o d u c t i o n n o t i n g the s i m i l a r i t i e s and d i f f e r e n c e s 4.7 Types of Forms 4.7.5 S t r o p h i c i ) W r i t e v e r s e s to f i n i s h the s t o r y i 1 ) P1 ay and s i ng a 11 v e r s e s Add i t i ona1 Act i v i t y Concepts 1 p i , d u P,A 1 p, du P.A 1p, du A l p . du P,A l p , du A,0 1p, du P.A 1 p, du A l p , du P,0 1p, du A,0 l p , du 0 1p, du P.A l p , du A 1 p, du 1 p, du A,0 P. A , 5.1 C 1 ass i f i c a t ion 5.1.1 S t r i n g s i ) c l a s s i f y u k u l e l e as to type of instrument i i ) C l a s s i f y methods of p l a y i n g the u k u l e l e i i i ) compare to o t h e r s t r i n g i n s t r uments (e.g. harp i s a l s o p i c e d ) 5.2 D e t e r m i n a n t s of Timbre and Tone Q u a l i t y i ) t e a c h e r or p u p i l demonstrates p i c i n g the song on tenor and s t a n d a r d u k u l e l e ; d i s c u s s and compare sounds i i ) t e a c h e r or p u p i l demonstrates s i n g l e strumming the song on tenor and s t a n d a r d u k u l e l e i i i ) t e a c h e r or p u p i l demonstrates double strumming the song on tenor and s t a n d a r d u k u l e l e i v ) t e a c h e r or p u p i l demonstrates a r p e g g i o strum on tenor and s t a n d a r d u k u l e l e ; compare v) t e a c h e r or p u p i l demonstrates . s o l i d chord p i c on tenor and s t a n d a r d u k u l e l e ; compare v i ) experiment u s i n g p e n c i l s , e t c . bouncing o f f s t r i n g s i n a s e t r h y t h m i c p a t t e r n w h i l e f i n g e r i n g chords and s i n g i n g 5 .3 P e r c u s s i on i ) compose a rhy t h m i c o s t i n a t o f o r drums Addi t i o n a l Concepts Act i v i t y 5k i 1 1 224 P. A a, t a. t i i ) t r y ft\ on d i f f e r e n t types and s i z e s of drums and choose one to accompany the song 5.4 Role i n M u s i c a l E x p r e s s i o n i ) d e c i d e what tone p r o d u c t i o n methods b e s t s u i t the song (More than one may be used f o r v a r i e t y i n p r e s e n t a t i o n ) i i ) c l a s s or ensemble performs the arrangement ( p i c s , strums, s i n g s and p l a y s drums) |6.0 DYNAMICS | 6.1 L e v e l s i ) strum and s i n g the song t h r e e times at t h r e e d i f f e r e n t dynamic l e v e l s - p, mf and f i i ) e v a l u a t e what l e v e l s s h o u l d be used and where i n the song; mark dynamics on the s c o r e i i i ) p l a y u s i n g dynamic markings i v ) p l a y i n t r o d u c t i o n at the above t h r e e dynamic l e v e l s ; add o t h e r dynamic l e v e l s i f n e c e s s a r y v) d e c i d e at what l e v e l ( s ) to p l a y i n t r o d u c t i o n and mark on s c o r e v i ) p l a y drum p a t t e r n ( s ) at the above dynamic l e v e l s v i i ) d e c i d e on what dynamic l e v e l ( s ) the drums s h o u l d be p l a y e d 6.2 Gradual or Sudden Dynamic Changes i ) from dynamic l e v e l s d e c i d e d on above d e c i d e i f a more e x p r e s s i v e way of m a n i p u l a t i n g the b a s i c l e v e l s c o u l d be used Addi t i o n a l Concepts l p , vp, du, t e , s, f above c o n t i n u e d f o r s e c t i o n 6 i i ) strum and s i n g the song u s i n g the dynamic l e v e l s and gradual changes d e c i d e d on i n #i i i i ) add the drums, i n t r o d u c t i o n and coda and p e r f o r m the whole song u s i n g dynamics d e c i d e d on i v ) e v a l u a t e use of dynamics i n # i i i v) one group strums and s i n g s at the dynamic l e v e l s d e c i d e d on w h i l e another group moves at d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s a c c o r d i n g to the dynamic l e v e l p l a y e d e.g. f[ R * & .JL / m f m? p P P r e v e r s e p a r t s 6.3 E x p r e s s i v e Q u a l i t i t e s 6.3.1 Uni t y i ) note from p l a y i n g and s i n g i n g the song the i n c r e a s e and dec r e a s e i n dynamics e.g. o v e r a l l f o r m a t i o n of dynamic s t r u c t u r e 6.3.2 V a r 1 e t y i ) note from p l a y i n g and s i n g i n g the song the i n t e r e s t s u s t a i n e d by the r i s e and f a l l of dynamics i i ) n ote from p l a y i n g and s i n g i n g the song the f a d i n g away e f f e c t at the end c o n t r a s t i n g w i t h the second phrase Addi t i onal Act i v i ty S k i l l Concepts P,A a.d.t P a.d,t A a P,A a.d.t 226 6.3.3 Form i ) note from p l a y i n g and s i n g i n g the song that B and B a r e almost at the same dynamic l e v e l i i ) note from p l a y i n g and s i n g i n g t h a t A ( t h e opening phrase) i s a p p r o x i m a t e l y o p p o s i t e C ( t h e c l o s i n g phrase) I 7.0 TEMPO | 7.1 M a i n t a i n e d Speeds ( F a s t , Medium, Slow) i ) s i n g and p l a y song at the t h r e e d i f f e r e n t speeds i i ) determine what speed(s) i s most a p p r o p r i a t e f o r the song 7.2 Gradual or Sudden Changes i n Speed i ) e x p l o r e any p o s s i b l e uses of speed changes i i ) e v a l u a t e the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of gradual or sudden speed changes i n MS 7.3 C o n t r i b u t i n g to E x p r e s s i v e Q u a l i t y 7.3.1 U n i t y i ) note that the f a i r l y c o n s i s t e n t tempo r e q u i r e d by the drum e f f e c t of the l a s t l i n e tends to encompass the whole song 1 8.0 STYLE"] 8.1 C u l t u r a l and Environmental i ) the e f f e c t of the drum beat permeates the whole song; note the p o s s i b l e use of rhythm f o r u k u l e l e strum or drum o s t i n a t o ; perform both i i ) compose a m e l o d i c and rhythmic o s t i n a t o to a c c e n t u a t e the drum beat Add i t i ona1 Act i v i ty S k i l l Concepts A a.d.t A a.d.t P a.d.t A a P,A.O a,d A a A a l p , vp, t e . P.A a,d,t f , du, dy, t i above c o n t i n u e d P,A,0 a.d.t f o r s e c t i on 8.1 227 e f f e c t s i m i l a r to the l a s t l i n e ; p l a y on u k u l e l e i i i ) note the s i m p l i c i t y of the s t y l e i n k e e p i n g w i t h the s e t t i n g ; f i t accompaniment to the s t y l e i v ) the o r i g i n of the song i s unknown but note a c e r t a i n a r e a or s e t t i n g s p e c i f i e d by the words and the h a u n t i n g melody v) note r e p e t i t i o n of rhythms which i s a common t r a i t i n I n d i a n music v i ) note the c l o s e r e l a t i o n s h i p of f o l k music to nature; l i s t e n to o t h e r f o l k s o n g s e x t o l l i n g n a t u r e - e.g. "The W i l d Goose" ( r e c o r d e d by B a r t l e t t and Ruebsaat on "The Green F i e l d s of Canada") 8.2 H i s t o r i c a l F e a t u r e s i ) t e l l the I n d i a n s t o r y the song p r e s e n t s i i ) note that the song i s p e n t a t o n i c i i i ) note the f e e l i n g s of the p e o p l e r e v e a l e d i n the f o l k s o n g t r a d i t i o n ; l i s t e n to o t h e r Canadian f o l k songs and c o n c e n t r a t e on the f e e l i n g s b e i n g p o r t r a y e d i v ) compare today's Indians w i t h the I n d i a n s of one hundred y e a r s ago Add i t i onal Concepts Act i v i t y Sk i 1 1 228 P.A.O a.d.t a. t 229 S p e c i f i c T e c h n i q u e s a nd E x e r c i s e s f o r U k u l e l e E n c o m p a s s i n g t h e C o n c e p t s D u r a t i o n a n d L i n e a r and V e r t i c a l P i t c h ( b a s e d on t h e s o n g " L a n d o f t h e S i l v e r B i r c h " ) T h e s e t e c h n i q u e s a n d e x e r c i s e s a r e d e v i s e d t o p r e p a r e f o r s t u d y i n g t h e so n g " L a n d o f t h e S i l v e r B i r c h " . A. CHORDS 1. T e a c h t h e p o s i t i o n s f o r t h e c h o r d s D m i n o r , A m i n o r a n d F m a j o r : anchor JL 3 A D m i n o r 4 < I > 3 A m i n o r I S. 3 F m a j o r 2. P r a c t i s e p r o g r e s s i o n s : a) D m i n o r t o A m i n o r t o D m i n o r b) D m i n o r t o F m a j o r t o D m i n o r B. STRUM PATTERNS B a s i c S t r u m E l e m e n t s s i n g l e down s t r u m s i n g l e up s t r u m s i n g l e up s t r u m |* * f d o u b l e s t r u m | | t r i p l e t s t r u m q u a d r u p l e s t r u m H i t n S t r u m m i n g r u l e : G e n e r a l l y a b e a t s t a r t s w i t h a downward m o t i o n . 230 S t r u m m i n g S e q u e n c e : 1. S i n g l e S t r u m S t r u m s i n g l e s t r u m s on e a c h c h o r d u s i n g t h e f o l l o w i n g r h y t h m s : ( A l s o u s e Dm a n d F) i ) I * I I * 1 1 D m i i i ) I I Dm • i v ) I I 1 f 1 f: Am Am 1 1 | 1 * : 1 1 Am I I : 1 | 1 h f\rr> 2. D o u b l e S t r u m s ( A l s o u s e Dm a n d F) a) s t r u m d o u b l e s t r u m s o f u n a c c e n t e d , e v e n e i g h t h s : n n n n n n n J)rn Aw Dm Am b) s t r u m d o u b l e s t r u m s o f a c c e n t e d e i g h t h s a s i l l u s t r a t e d n n n n Am n n n n Am 3. C o m b i n a t i o n S i n g l e and D o u b l e S t r u m s a) s t r u m s i n g l e s t r u m s on q u a r t e r n o t e s a n d d o u b l e s t r u m s on e i g h t h n o t e s i ) n I n j n I n i Am Am H ) 1 n l n 1 n I n Am J5m Am 4. S y n c o p a t e d S t r u m a) s t r u m d o u b l e s t r u m a c c e n t i n g a s shown rin rin l i i n rirr- 231 b) strum and s i n g up strums as i n d i c a t e d r \ t p17 f 7 r|7 r^ r t r JDm' Am c) strum double strum but make the second down strum s i l e n t tS _T 1 ,_ _ | _ „ _ ,_, n n nn nn nn ; d) strum r e a d i n g the t i e d strums now as qua r t e r note up strums ^ 'r f M r r i r r i r= 5. Quadruple Strums ( s i x t e e n t h notes) a) strum s i x t e e n t h notes as i n d i c a t e d b) strum s i x t e e n t h and e i g h t h notes as i n d i c a t e d i ) m m ^ i t n ) m n m m A no m n : Am 6. Combination S i n g l e , Double and Quadruple Strum P a t t e r n s a) strum the rhythm of the song on one chord b) strum the rhythm using the chords of the song c) one group s i n g l e strums the f i r s t beat of each bar usi n g the d e s i g n a t e d chord i n the song; the other group p l a y s a l l the chords LINEAR PITCH TECHNIQUE Tone Set: 1,d r m s 1 o D 1, F d t » » G r < A m C s D ' 1 232 P r a c t i s e p r o g r e s s i o n : ( t e c h n i c a l e x e r c i s e s f o r t h e l e f t h a nd and r i g h t hand thumb " p i c " ) S i n g and p l a y e a c h e x e r c i s e a t t h e same t i m e u s i n g f i n g e r n u m b ers, n o t e names a n d s o l - f a s y l l a b l e s . Do e a c h e x e r c i s e a s c e n d i n g and d e s c e n d i n g . a) 0,3 on t h e D s t r i n g b) 1,3 on t h e F# a n d B s t r i n s c ) 3,3 on t h e D, F3 a n d B s t r i n g s d) 1,1 on t h e F# a n d B s t r i n g s e) e n t i r e t o n e s e t - 0,3,1,3,1,3 The L i n e a r P i t c h R e a d i n g a n d W r i t i n g E x e r c i s e s i n c h a p t e r 5 s h o u l d be s u n g a n d p l a y e d : a) u s i n g s o l - f a s y l l a b l e s b) u s i n g l e t t e r names c ) f r o m s t a f f n o t a t i o n d) f r o m f r e t c h a r t s The e x e r c i s e s e q u e n c e i s a s f o l l o w s : i ) d r i i ) d r m i i i ) d r 1, i v) d r m 1, v) d r m s v i ) d r m s 1 v i i ) d r m s 1 1, S i m p l i f i e d T wo-Chord V e r s i o n o f S o n g : Omit a l l A m i n o r c h o r d s and p l a y D m i n o r i n i t s p l a c e . C o n t i n u e t o p l a y F c h o r d where i n d i c a t e d . C h o r d P o s i t i o n s : The D m i n o r c h o r d i s p l a y e d w i t h i n d i v i d u a l f i n g e r s r a t h e r t h a n b a r r e d so t h a t t h e F c h o r d p o s i t i o n a n d A m i n o r c h o r d p o s i t i o n i s e a s i e r t o f o r m . The a n c h o r f i n g e r n e v e r n e e d s t o be c h a n g e d t h r o u g h o u t t h e s o n g ( s e e page 166) 233 D. Folk P i c s 1. Arpeggio Thumb P i c Thumb p i c s each s t r i n g from lowest to h i g h e s t s t r i n g rhythm chords 4 3 2 1 n n 4 3 2 1 n n F 2. Arpeggio F i n g e r P i c The thumb, f i r s t , second and t h i r d f i n g e r s p i c each s t r i n g from lowest to h i g h e s t . s t r i n g s and f i n g e r s r i z 3 A3 Z I n n rhythm chords r / z J n n : T e c h n i c a l E x e r c i s e s f o r U k u l e l e Without Music N o t a t i o n " P i c i n g " Play each e x e r c i s e ascending and descending The f i n g e r number and f r e t c o r respond. Each e x e r c i s e i s p l a y e d on a l l four s t r i n g s . 1) 0 1 2) 0 1 2 3) 0 2 4) 0 1 2 3 5) 0 3 6) 0 1 2 3 4 7) 0 1 3 8) 0 4 9) 0 2 4 10) 0 3 4 1 1 ) 0 2 3 i2) 1 0 2 0 3 E x e r c i s e s Anchoring One F i n g e r 1) l ( h o l d ) 2 1 3 1 4 1 2) 2(hold) 3 2 4 2 3) 3(hold) 4 234 E x e r c i s e s R e q u i r i n g a F i r s t F i n g e r S l i d e From F i r s t F r e t t o t h e S e c o n d F r e t , ( = s l i d e up 1 f r e t ; = s l i d e down 1 f r e t ) 1) 0 1 1 1 0 2) 0 1 1 2 1 1 0 3) 0 1 1 2 3 2 1 1 0 4) 0 1 1 2 3 4 3 2 1 1 0 E x e r c i s e s R e q u i r i n g a F i r s t F i n g e r S l i d e From F i r s t F r e t t o t h e T h i r d F r e t ( = s l i d e up 2 f r e t s ; s l i d e down 2 f r e t s ) 1) 0 1 1 1 0 2) 0 1 1 2 1 1 0 3) 0 1 1 2 3 2 1 1 0 4) 0 1 1 2 3 4 3 2 1 1 0 S t r e t c h i n g E x e r c i s e s e.g. 2 ( 2 ) / 3 = s e c o n d f i n g e r " o n s e c o n d f r e t ; t h e n s l i d e s e c o n d f i n g e r f r e t f r e t f i n g e r t o t h i r d f r e t 1 ) 1 ( h o l d ) 2 2 2 1 2) 1 ( h o l d ) 2 ( h o l d ) 3 3 3 2 1 3) l ( h o l d ) 2 ( h o l d ) 3 ( h o l d ) 4 4 4 3 2 1 4) ! ( h o l d ) 2 ( h o l d ) 3 3 ( h o l d ) 4 4 4 3 3 2 1 The e x e r c i s e s a r e t o d e v e l o p f i n g e r i n d e p e n d e n c e , f l e x i b i l i t y a n d s t r e n g t h . They may be done t o v a r i o u s r h y t h m i c p a t t e r n s u s i n g t h e f o l l o w i n g r h y t h m i c e l e m e n t s : The r i g h t h a n d d e v e l o p m e n t c o i n c i d e s w i t h t h e l e f t hand w h i l e d o i n g t h e a b o v e e x e r c i s e s w i t h t h e thumb f i r s t , t h e n t h e i n d i v i d u a l f i n g e r s and f i n a l l y t h e thumb i n c o n j u c t i o n w i t h t h e f i n g e r s . 235 " P i c " a l l t h e e x e r c i s e s w i t h : 1 ) thumb 2) f i r s t f i n g e r ( i n d e x ) 3 ) s e c o n d f i n g e r 4 ) t h i r d f i n g e r 5) thumb and f i r s t f i n g e r (when t h e e x e r c i s e s a r e c o m p r i s e d o f an e v e n number o f n o t e s ) 6) thumb, f i r s t a n d s e c o n d f i n g e r s (when t h e e x e r c i s e s a r e c o m p r i s e d o f an odd number o f n o t e s ) 7) thumb, f i r s t , s e c o n d and t h i r d f i n g e r s (when t h e e x e r i s e s h a v e f o u r n o t e s ) 8) thumb, f i r s t , s e c o n d , f i r s t (when t h e e x e r c i s e s h ave f o u r n o t e s ) 9) thumb, f i r s t , s e c o n d , t h i r d , s e c o n d , f i r s t a n d thumb (when e x e r c i s e s h a v e s i x n o t e s ) M o r e A d v a n c e d T e c h n i q u e s : P h a s e I I I "Hammer" a n d " p u l l " w i t h t h e l e f t f i n g e r s : P l a y a l l t h e e x e r c i s e s u s i n g t h e s e t e c h n i q u e s ; — a l l o pen s t r i n g s a r e p i c e d o r " p u l l e d " w i t h t h e f i r s t f i n g e r o f t h e l e f t h a n d --hammer f i n g e r s on s t r i n g s f o r a s c e n d i n g p a s s a g e s — w h e n d e s c e n d i n g p i c o r p u l l w i t h f i n g e r a d j a c e n t t o t h e f i n g e r p r e s s i n g t h e s t r i n g O r g a n i z i n g A c t i v i t i e s -- C o m p o s i n g , I m p r o v i s i n g a n d A r r a n g i n g 1) U s i n g any s e q u e n c e i n t h e e x e r c i s e s p i c a f o u r b e a t q u e s t i o n a n d h a v e a p a r t n e r p i c a f o u r b e a t a n s w e r 2) W r i t e and p l a y an e i g h t o r s i x t e e n b e a t c o m p o s i t i o n u s i n g p a r t s o f t h e e x e r c i s e s 3) C h o o s e a s e q u e n c e o r p a r t o f a s e q u e n c e f o r t h e A s e c t i o n o f a r o n d o . E a c h p u p i l makes up h i s own p a r t f o r B,C, e t c . 4) Make up r h y t h m p a t t e r n s f o r e a c h e x e r c i s e . T e c h n i c a l E x e r c i s e s f o r S t r u m m i n g ( P h a s e I I and I I I ) Do a l l e x e r c i s e s on known c h o r d s . 1) s i n g l e s t r u m (down^- ) u s i n g l a n d r i n v a r i o u s p a t t e r n s a n d m e t e r s 2) s i n g l e s t r u m ( u p t ) u s i n g f , 7 and I i n v a r i o u s p a t t e r n s a n d m e t e r s 3) d o u b l e s t r u m ( I I ) u s i n g n a n d r i n v a r i o u s p a t t e r n s a n d m e t e r s > 4) d o u b l e s t r u m o f f - b e a t ( f ~ l HI ) i n v a r i o u s m e t e r s 5) c o m b i n e s i n g l e a n d d o u b l e s t r u m i n v a r i o u s ^ p a t t e r n s and m e t e r s 6) l i l t s t r u m ( H H ) i n v a r i o u s m e t e r s 7) c a l y p s o s t r u m ( f l fl n f l ) 236 8) a r p e g g i o s t r u m u s i n g thumb 9) a r p e g g i o s t r u m u s i n g thumb, f i r s t , s e c o n d and t h i r d f i n g e r s i n e v e n number t i m e s i g n a t u r e s 10) a r p e g g i o s t r u m u s i n g thumb, f i r s t , s e c o n d , t h i r d , s e c o n d a n d f i r s t f i n g e r s ( u s e i n t r i p l e m e t e r ) 11) t r i p l e t s t r u m ( ) i n compound d u p l e m e t e r 12) t r i p l e t s t r u m i n 2/4, 3/4 and 4/4 m e t e r s ( e . g . ) 13) s o l d c h o r d s u s i n g thumb, f i r s t , s e c o n d and t h i r d f i n g e r s p i c i n g a l l f o u r s t r i n g s s i m u l t a n e o u s l y ; use v a r i o u s r h y t h m p a t t e r n s 14) s o l i d t r i a d s u s i n g f i r s t , s e c o n d a n d t h i r d f i n g e r s on s t r i n g s 3, 2 a n d 1; u s e v a r i o u s r h y t h m p a t t e r n s 15) r i g h t h a n d damp -- p l a y c h o r d a n d s t o p v i b r a t i o n o f s t r i n g s by p l a c i n g t h e r i g h t h a n d s o f t l y on t h e s t r i n g s ; u s e v a r i o u s r h y t h m p a t t e r n s 16) r o l l s t r u m -- s t a r t i n g w i t h t h e f o u r t h f i n g e r on t h e f o u r t h s t r i n g b r u s h a c r o s s t h e s t r i n g s w i t h one f i n g e r f o l l o w i n g c l o s e l y b e h i n d t h e o t h e r ; a l t e r n a t e r o l l s t r u m s w i t h s i n g l e s t r u m s T e c h n i c a l E x e r c i s e s f o r P i c i n g a n d S t r u m m i n g C o m b i n a t i o n s ( P h a s e I I and I I I ) 1) t h u m b / s t r u m -- p i c n o t e w i t h thumb a n d s t r u m w i t h i n d e x f i n g e r ; u s e v a r i o u s r h y t h m s a n d m e t e r s ; g e n e r a l l y u s e t h e l o w e s t n o t e f o r t h e thumb p i c o r t h e r o o t o f t h e c h o r d 2) f i n g e r / t h u m b / s t r u m -- f i n g e r p i c s a s t r i n g , f o l l o w e d by t h e thumb p i c i n g a s t r i n g , f o l l o w e d by a s t r u m ; i n t h e c a s e o f p l a y i n g s c a l e s , t h e f i n g e r p i c s t h e f i r s t d e g r e e o f t h e s c a l e a n d t h e thumb p i c s t h e f o u r t h s t r i n g f o l l o w e d by t h e strummed c h o r d 3) t h u m b / f i n g e r / s t r u m -- thumb p i c s a s t r i n g ( u s u a l l y t h e l o w e s t ) f o l l o w e d by t h e f i n g e r p i c i n g a s t r i n g ( u s u a l l y t h e m e l o d y ) f o l l o w e d by t h e strummed c h o r d 4) p o i n t i n g t h e s t r u m -- s t r u m t o t h e m e l o d y n o t e ( e . g . i f t h e m e l o d y n o t e i s G s t r u m t h e f o u r t h , t h i r d a n d s e c o n d s t r i n g s 5) f i n g e r f i l l w i t h r i g h t h a n d -- p l a y c h o r d p o s i t i o n s w i t h l e f t h a n d a n d u s i n g f i r s t f i n g e r o f r i g h t hand b r u s h two c o n s e c u t i v e s t r i n g s a t a t i m e i n an upward m o t i o n M a j o r M i n o r 237 . A P o s s i b l e C h o r d S e q u e n c e f o r U k u l e l e I V ( 7 ) I V D A D A7 D A7 G G D7 G D7 C A E7 A E7 D C G7 C G7 F E B7 E B7 A B F# B F# E ( b a r r e d ) F • C 7 F C7 B ( b a r r e d ) Em Bm Am Em Dm Am Bm F#m Appendix C PHASE I I I ( V o i c e and U k u l e l e ) AN EXAMPLE OF TEACHING SPECIFIC CONCEPTS THROUGH THE SONG "THE TROUT" BY SCHUBERT 1.0 DURATION 1.1 Beat i ) s i n g and/or l i s t e n to song and tap beat; say rhythm s y l l a b l e s and p l a y beat on a rhythm instrument; s i n g melody and p i c r o o t of c h o r d to beat i i ) do Mi by a l t e r n a t e l y e x t e r n a l i z i n g and i n t e r n a l i z i n g the beat f o r each phrase i i i ) do # i i but a l t e r n a t e every two ba r s i v ) conduct two be a t s i n a bar w h i l e s i n g i n g and/or l i s t e n i n g v) s i n g l e strum chords on the beat w h i l e s i n g i n g or l i s t e n i n g to the song v i ) do #v and march beat v i i ) n o t a t e beat on board or i n notebook one phrase per l i n e w h i l e s i n g i n g or l i s t e n i n g to the music 1.2 Meter i ) l i s t e n to song and determine i f i t moves Add i t i ona1 Concepts Act i v i ty P, A P, A P P P,0 Sk i 1 1 a . d ( t ) ' a,d, t a.d. t a.d a.d, t a.d.t a.d, t 'where P=Performing; A=Analyzing; 0 = 0 r g a n i z i n g 'where a = a u r a l ; d = d e x t r a l ; t = t r a n s l a t a b l e 'where f=form; dy=dynamics; du=duration; te=tempo; t i = t i m b r e ; s = s t y l e : l p = l i n e a r p i t c h ; v p = v e r t i c a l p i t c h 238 i n two's, t h r e e ' s or f o u r ' s i i ) use body p e r c u s s i o n or p l a y a s i n g l e strum on the f i r s t beat of each bar i i i ) u s i n g s i n g l e strums on u k u l e l e strum f i r s t beat of bar h e a v i l y and second beat 1 i g h t 1 y i v ) u s i n g double strums on u k u l e l e do # i i i v) do tfiv and read beat from board v i ) do #iv and s i d e s t e p to r i g h t w i t h r i g h t f o o t on the f i r s t beat; on the second beat b r i n g l e f t f o o t b e s i d e r i g h t f o o t and tap l e f t toe on the f l o o r ; r e v e r s e f o r the next bar v i i ) do #vi and s i n g the song to " l o o " or words v i i i ) do #iv and c r e a t e own movements .3 Rhythm i ) s i n g the words and c l a p the rhythm of the song i i ) do * ' i and s i n g the rhythm s y l l a b l e s i i i ) f i n d bars t h a t have the same rhythm i v ) f i n d bars t h a t have s i m i l a r rhythms v) c l a p and say the p a t t e r n s f o r H i i i and i v v i ) a f t e r the t e a c h e r or s t u d e n t has c l a p p e d any two b a r s of the song c l a p and say the rhythm i n response v i i ) a f t e r the t e a c h e r or s t u d e n t has c l a p p e d any two b a r s of the song s i n g those two b a r s back w i t h words v i i i ) a f t e r the t e a c h e r or student has c l a p p e d any two b a r s of the song p u p i l s w r i t e rhythm u s i n g s t i c k n o t a t i o n Add i t i onal Concepts Act i v i ty Ski 1 1 dy dy dy dy dy s te te t e l p , te P.A P.A P.A P.A P, A a,d. t a.d.t a.d, t a.d.t P.A a.d.t P .0 a.d a.d P.A A A P.A P . A a,d, t t. t a.d.t a.d P, A a ,d, t a. t i x ) compose own two bar rhythms u s i n g r h y t h m i c elements i n the song x) i m p r o v i s e rondos u s i n g the rhythmic elements of the song on the u k u l e l e x i ) i m p r o v i s e q u e s t i o n s and answers i n two b a r s w i t h p a r t n e r on the u k u l e l e ; use r h y t h m i c elements from the song x i i ) p l a y the rhythm of the song on the- u k u l e l e u s i n g down and up strums x i i i ) compose a rhythmic o s t i n a t o f o r the song; p i c i t on the r o o t of the c h o r d x i v ) do # x i i i w h i l e p a r t of the c l a s s s i n g s the melody xv) compose words f o r # x i i i o s t i n a t o and s i ng and p1 ay i t x v i ) p i c rhythms of two d i f f e r e n t bars on two d i f f e r e n t notes s i m u l t a n e o u s l y . J^INEAR_IPJ_TCH_J 2.1 R e l a t i v e P o s i t i o n s of P i t c h e s and A b s o l u t e P i t c h e s 2.1.1 h i g h e r or lower i ) a f t e r s i n g i n g words and p i c i n g on the u k u l e l e compare the movement of the f o l l o w i n g n o t e s : a) p i c k - u p to each l i n e f o l l o w e d by the f i r s t note of the f u l l bar b) l a s t note of each l i n e in r e l a t i o n to the f i r s t note i n each l i n e c ) bars one and f i v e d) bars two, s i x , ten, f o u r t e e n and e i g h t e e n e) bars e l e v e n , f i f t e e n and n i n e t e e n Addi t i onal Act i v i ty Sk i11 Concepts A,0 a . t f P.A.O a.d.t f P.A.O a.d.t P.A a.d.t P.A a.d.t P.A a.d.t P.A a.d.t vp P.A a.d.t P.A a.d,t 240 f ) bars t h i r t e e n and seventeen s i n g a to f above u s i n g s o l f a s y l l a b l e s and hand s i gns s i n g a to f above u s i n g l e t t e r names s i n g a to f above u s i n g numbers 2.1.2 same ( r e p e a t e d n o t e s ) f i n d a l l r e p e a t e d notes in song s i n g a l l r e p e a t e d notes and i n t e r n a l i z e the o t h e r s w h i l e s i n g i n g through the song do # i i and p i c a l l the r e p e a t e d notes compare b a r s f o r r e p e a t e d notes (rhythms may not be the same) 2.1.3 a s c e n d i n g s t e p w i s e and s k i p w i s e i d e n t i f y a s c e n d i n g p a t t e r n s i n the song l a b e l p a t t e r n s as to s t e p w i s e or sk'ipwise movement compare a s c e n d i n g p a t t e r n s s i n g a s c e n d i n g p a t t e r n s u s i n g words s i n g a s c e n d i n g p a t t e r n s u s i n g s o l f a and handsigns p l a y a s c e n d i n g p a t t e r n s on u k u l e l e p l a y a s c e n d i n g p a t t e r n s on u k u l e l e and s i n g l e t t e r names 2.1.4 d e s c e n d i n g s t e p w i s e and s k i p w i s e r e p e a t procedure f o r 2.1.3 2.1.5 n o t a t i o n of 2.1,1 to 2.1.4 i ) n o t a t e r e l a t i v e p o s i t i o n s of p i t c h e s Addi t iona1 Concepts Act i v i t y 5k i 1 1 P.A a.d.t P.A a.d.t P,A a.d.t A t P.A a.d.t P.A a.d.t A t A t A t A t P.A a.d.t P.A a.d.t P.A a.d.t P.A a.d.t du A.O t .241 u s i n g n o n t r a d i t i o n a 1 n o t a t i o n i i ) n o t a t e p i t c h e s on s t a f f and compare v i sua 11y us i ng: a) so 1 f a sy11ab1es b) l e t t e r names c) numbers d) words 2.2 P h r a s e s s i n g and demonstrate through movement the phrases compare the phra s e s m e l o d i c a l l y l i n e draw the con t o u r of the phrases; d e s c r i b e and compare n o t a t e phrases on s t a f f from memory or d i c t a t i o n t r a n s p o s e a phrase on s t a f f l i n e s p l a y #v on u k u l e l e t r a n s p o s e a phrase o r a l l y s i n g i n g words and then s i n g i n g l e t t e r names compose a phrase u s i n g s i m i l a r m e l o d i c c o n t o u r s ; p l a y and/or s i n g i t imp r o v i s e on the u k u l e l e a phrase u s i n g s i m i l a r m elodic c o n t o u r s s i n g and/or p l a y p h r a s e s i n c o r p o r a t i n g dynamics to show the r i s e and f a l l of the phrases o d i c O s t i n a t i p e r f o r m on the u k u l e l e and/or s i n g o s t i n a t i based on r o o t s and f i f t h s compose an o s t i n a t o f o r each c h o r d u s i n g the notes of the c h o r d Addi t i o n a l Concepts Act i v i t y Ski 1 1 du du P.A a.d, t du du. t e , f , s du, f P, A P A , 0 a.d.t a. t a, t 242 A. ) P P.A.O a,d, t a.d.t P, A,0 a.d, t du, s P.A.O a,d, t du, vp s , dy P.A a,d, t du, vp vp P.A A.O a.d, t a, t H i ) p l a y and/or s i n g # i i i v ) d e s c r i b e and a n a l y z e m e l o d i c o s t i n a t i composed by o t h e r p u p i l s 2.4 I n t e r v a l s i ) i d e n t i f y a u r a l l y and v i s u a l l y the i n t e r v a l s i n the song by: a) s o l f a s y l l a b l e s and hand s i g n s b) l e t t e r names c) numbers i i ) s i n g and/or p l a y A"1 i i i ) a f t e r h e a r i n g the t o n a l c e n t r e and p e n t a t o n i c p i t c h e s n o t a t e on s t a f f l i n e s i n t e r v a l s p l a y e d by t e a c h e r or student; l a b e l a) i n t e r v a l name b) s o l f a s y l l a b l e s c) number of s t e p i n s c a l e d) l e t t e r names i v ) i d e n t i f y i n t e r v a l s from s t a f f n o t a t i o n i n song v) c l a s s i f y i n t e r v a l s as to types e.g major, e t c . v i ) compose a p h r a s e u s i n g s p e c i f i e d i n t e r v a l s from the song v i i ) p l a y and/or s i n g #vi v i i i ) note how many times an i n t e r v a l i s used i n the song 2.5 Tonal C e n t r e , S c a l e s and/or Tone Set i ) s i n g tone se t to s o l f a s y l l a b l e s and l e t t e r names i i ) s i n g tone se t u s i n g hand s i g n s i i i ) p l a y tone se t on u k u l e l e i v ) a f t e r the t e a c h e r or student s i n g s any note from the tone s e t , s i n g the t o n i c Add i t i ona1 Concepts Act i v i ty P Sk i 1 1 a,d. t a, t P.A a,d, t P, A A a.d.t a, t A a, t A a, t A,0 a , t P a.d.t A a . t P.A a.d.t P.A a.d.t P.A a.d.t A a.d 243 v) s i n g tone s e t i n any o r d e r v i ) p l a y tone s e t i n any o r d e r v i i ) n o t a t e notes from the tone s e t as sung or p l a y e d by t e a c h e r or p u p i l v i i i ) l i s t e n to Q u i n t e t i n A Major and note change i n t o n a l c e n t r e at v a r i a t i o n IV from major to minor 2.6 Melody Without Harmonic Support (Monophonic) i ) s i n g song without any accompaniment i i ) s i n g song w i t h rhythm accompaniment [3.0 VERTICAL PITCH [ 3.1 Chords 3.1.1 Tr i ads i ) l i s t e n and p l a y t r i a d s of chords i n song l i n e a r l y ( p i c each note) i i ) l i s t e n and p l a y t r i a d s of chords in song v e r t i c a 1 1 y (strum t h r e e s t r i n g s o n l y f o r the t h r e e n o t e s ) i i i ) s i ng the t r i ads in- root pos i t ion, f i r s t i n v e r s i o n and second i n v e r s i o n ( 1 i n e a r 1y and ver t i ca11y) i v ) p l a y the t r i a d s l i n e a r l y i n a l l p o s i t i o n s v) n o t a t e #iv i n s o l f a , numbers and l e t t e r s v i ) s i n g one s t r i n g w h i l e p l a y i n g the t r i a d ; s i n g to l e t t e r names, s o l f a and numbers v i i ) s i n g the t r i a d p r o g r e s s i o n i n the song as s t a t e d i n #vi v i i i ) do # v i i and add a group on melody Addi t i o n a l Act i v i ty S k i l l C oncepts P,A a.d.t P.A a.d.t A a . t a.d.t a.d P.A a.d.t P . A a.d.t P, A a.d.t P. A A P.A a.d.t t a.d.t P.A a.d.t P, A a.d.t 244 i x ) n o t a t e , s i n g and p l a y i n t e r v a l s from the song t h a t form a t r i a d or p a r t of i t .1.2 Four Note Chords i ) p l a y the ch o r d s of the song on u k u l e l e i i ) s i n g each c h o r d v e r t i c a l l y w i t h o t h e r p u p i l s h o l d i n g each note; use s o l f a s y l l a b i w i t h hand s i g n s , numbers and l e t t e r names i i i ) a r p e g g i a t e chords on u k u l e l e i v ) do # i i i and s i n g each note to " l o o " v) s i n g each c h o r d l i n e a r l y naming the i n t e r v a l s e.g. doh t o mi = major t h i r d v i ) i d e n t i f y c h o r d of song as t e a c h e r or st u d e n t p l a y s them on the u k u l e l e ; note when the c h o r d changes and to what c h o r d v i i ) w r i t e the chords i n a l l p o s i t i o n s , v i i i ) p l a y the notes of the chords as w r i t t e n above ix ) s i n g one s t r i n g and p l a y the chords of t h song; each of f o u r groups s i n g s a d i f f e r e n t s t r i n g Add i t i ona1 Concept s Act i v i t y P.A Ski 1 1 a . d , t P P , A a , d, t a.d.t P P P.A a.d . t a . d . t a . d , t t a , d , t a , d , t 245 3.1.4 T o n i c Chord 1) l i s t e n to and a n a l y s e the f i r s t and l a s t c h o r d of the song i i ) s i n g and p l a y the t o n i c c h o r d to s o l f a s y l l a b l e s , numbers and l e t t e r names i i i ) n o t a t e and l a b e l c h o r d as t o n i c ( I ) i v ) n o t a t e c h o r d i n root p o s i t i o n , f i r s t and second i n v e r s i o n v) s i n g and p l a y /'iv v e r t i c a l l y and l i n e a r l y v i ) r e l a t e f i r s t and l a s t note of song to t o n i c c h o r d 3.2 Cadences i ) l i s t e n to the f i n a l two chords of the song and i d e n t i f y and l a b e l (V7 I ) i i ) s i n g the two chords u s i n g groups or i n d i v i d u a l s on each note of the chord i i i ) note the c h o r d on which each phrase ends i v ) note the c h o r d p r e c e d i n g the f i n a l c h o r d of each phrase; l a b e l cadences v) a l l s i n g the melody w h i l e one group a r p e g g i a t e s the chords and the o t h e r group p i c s the r o o t s of t h e chord | 4.0 FORM | 4.1 Mot i v e s 1) i d e n t i f y a u r a l l y and v i s u a l l y i d e n t i c a l r e c u r r i n g r h y t h m i c and p i t c h p a t t e r n s i i ) i d e n t i f y a u r a l l y and v i s u a l l y s i m i l a r r e c u r r i n g r h y t h m i c and p i t c h p a t t e r n s i i i ) s i n g r e c u r r i n g p a t t e r n s i n MS and i i Addi t i o n a l Act iv i ty Sk i11 Concepts P.A a . t P.A a.d.t A t A t P.A a.d.t A t A a, t P a.d.t A a . t A a, t P,A a.d.t du, 1p A a , t du, 1p A a , t du, 1p P a.d.t 24G i v ) a l t e r motives r h y t h m i c a l l y and m e l o d l c a l l y to c r e a t e new ones v) p l a y and/or s i n g #iv 4.2 Phrases i ) i d e n t i f y and l a b e l the f i r s t f i v e phrases e.g. A Av B C Cv i i ) i m provise or compose a "D" or a "Bv" phrase i i i ) compose another v e r s e and perform i t i v ) c r e a t e movements f o r each phrase v) p e r f o r m #iv v i ) s i n g each phrase u s i n g one b r e a t h v i i ) n o t a t e the i n v e r s i o n of phrase one s t a r t i n g at the f i r s t f u l l bar v i i i ) p l a y and s i n g # v i i above 4.5 I n t r o d u c t i o n i ) c r e a t e a r h y t h m i c or m e l o d i c i n t r o d u c t i o n u s i n g some p a t t e r n s or motives from the song i i ) add dynamic markings to H\ i i 1 ) p l a y above i n t r o d u c t i o n i v ) e v a l u a t e i n t r o d u c t i o n s performed 4.6 Coda i ) c r e a t e a rhythmic or m e l o d i c coda i i ) add dynamic markins to #1 i i i ) P l a y coda i v ) e v a l u a t e codas performed Addi t i o n a l Act i v i ty S k i l l Concepts du, 1p, 0 a.t vp, f du, l p , vp, f P a.d.t du, 1p, a . t du, l p , P.O a.d.t vp, f P.O a.d.t 0 a.d P a.d P a.d l p . du A t du,. l p P a.d.t du, 1p 0 a,t dy 0 a.t P a,d,t A a du, l p 0 a , t dy 0 a , t • P a.d.t A a 247 5.0 TIMBRE | 5.1 CI as s i f i c a t ion i ) l i s t e n to the "Qu i n t e t i n A Major" p l a y e d by v i o l i n , v i o l a , c e l l o , s t r i n g bass and pian o ; i d e n t i f y which i n s t r u m e n t s p l a y the melody i n each v a r i a t i o n i i ) l i s t e n to "The T r o u t " p l a y e d on the p i a n o and sung i i i ) l i s t e n to "The T r o u t " p l a y e d on the u k u l e l e and sung i v ) compare and e v a l u a t e e f f e c t of timbre on # i , i i and i i i 5.4 R o l e i n M u s i c a l E x p r e s s i o n 1) d e s c r i b e the v o i c e q u a l i t y that i s needed to p r e s e n t t h i s song i i ) d e s c r i b e the accompaniment p l a y e d on s t r i n g s , p i a n o and u k u l e l e and i t s . impact In the song .0 DYNAMICS 1 6.1 L e v e l s 1) note the r i s e and f a l l o f phrases and r e l a t e to changes i n dynamics i i ) note the range of dynamics throughout the song when l i s t e n i n g to the " Q u i n t e t " i i i ) s i n g and p l a y the song and d e c i d e what dynamic markings to use i v ) mark dynamics i n the s c o r e ( t h e s e may change from v e r s e to v e r s e ) 6.3 E x p r e s s i v e Q u a l i t i e s i ) a n a l y z e the f e e l i n g s dynamics c o n t r i b u t e to the song e.g. f e e l i n g s of anger -- Addi t i o n a l A c t i v i ty Sk i 1 1 Concepts A a A a A a A a s A a s A a f A a A,0 a A.O a 0 a, t A a 248 volume I n c r e a s e s i i ) a n a l y z e the u n i t y a c h i e v e d through dynamics i i i ) a n a l y z e the v a r i e t y a c h i e v e d through dynamics i v ) a n a l y z e the c o r r e l a t i o n between dynamics | 7.0 TEMPO | 7.1 Speeds M a i n t a i n e d ( s e c t i o n 1) i ) s i n g at tempo marking -- a l l e g r e t t o i i ) p l a y and s i n g at tempo marking m a i n t a i n i n g speed i i i ) p l a y and s i n g m a i n t a i n i n g a slower tempo: repeat at a f a s t e r tempo i v ) e v a l u a t e and determine the best speed 7.2 Gradual or Sudden Changes i n Speed i ) e x p l o r e any p o s s i b l e uses of speed changes i n the i n t r o d u c t i o n , f i r s t or second s e c t i o n of the song and the coda i i ) e v a l u a t e e f f e c t i v e n e s s of gradual or sudden speed changes 7.3 C o n t r i b u t i o n to E x p r e s s i v e Q u a l i t y i ) compare the q u i c k tempo ( a l l e g r e t t o ) to what i s happening i n the song 18.0 STYLE I 8.1 C u l t u r a l and Environmental i ) determine who i s s i n g i n g i n the song i i ) d etermine where the song takes p l a c e i i i ) d e t e r mine what the p i a n o accompaniment A d d l t i o n a l Act i v i ty Sk i11 Concepts A a f A a . t f A a, t d u . l p P a.d.t du, l p , vp P a,d,t du, 1 p, mp P a , d, t A a P.A a.d.t A a A a A t A t A a . t 249 i s t r y i n g to p o r t r a y i v ) determine from the words the message 8.2 H i s t o r i c a l i ) note the r e p e t i t i o n of motives and phrases with d i f f e r e n t r h y t h m i c elements and/or p i t c h e mbellishments t y p i c a l of a r t songs at th i s t i me i i ) note use of accompaniment to enhance song i i i ) note use of theme and v a r i a t i o n s i n Q u i n t e t i n A Major i v ) take f o u r bars of "The T r o u t " or compose a s i m p l e f o u r bar melody and w r i t e v a r i a t i o n s on i t v) Perform #1v v i ) r e s e a r c h the e r a to which t h i s p i e c e belongs Addi t i o n a l Concepts Act i v i ty Ski 1 1 250 a, t a, t a.d, t t 251 ANALYSIS OF CONCEPTS CONTAINED IN 'THE TROUT' 2. 1.0 Duration: 1.1 beat 1.2 meter 1.3 rhythmic elements or components J l J J J J J JI, m, JTJ phrase: ; n n j m n jrn ; ' n n j JI m n / JI JJJI j n J l J T T i 4 ; JI JI J n n JI s / m r m J n JI n j * 2.0 Linear Pitch tone set - d r m f s, 1, t, f i , - A B Ct D E, F#4 Gt, D#( (key of A major) - G A B C D( E, Ft, C* (key of G major) range - f i , to fa; D#, to D (key of A) Ct, to C (key of G) - major 7th intervals : sol-fa interval s, d d s, d m P 4 P 4 M 3 numbers 5, 1 1 5, 1 3 letter names and staff A major G major (Ft C# Gt) (Ft) 252 m d M 3 3 1 s, t, s , r d f i , t , f f i , s , t , d f r M 3 P 5 P 5 P 5 m 2 m 2 m 3 m 3 5, 1, 5 , 2 1 4 , 7 , 4 4 , 5, 1, 1 4 2 2 7 , e? n 1*> H 0 & — & P 0 ' fi9- V 0 a - 1 7) <9 a " 0 0 1 1 . c l m 3 6 , 1 r d M 2 2 1 t , 1 , 1 , t , M 2 M 2 7 , 6 , 6 , 7 , " 0 253 1, s, M 2 6, 5, 3.0 Vert ica l Pitch: Key - A major and/or G major Chords - A E7 B7 D (A major) G D7 A7 C (G major) Cadences - I V^ imperfect V 7 I perfect 4 .0 Form: A A B C C ; five phrases• v v . 5.0 Timbre: - voice and piano accompaniment - Quintet in A Major ("Trout") - v i o l i n , v io l a , c e l l o , string bass and piano - Ukuleles - picing melody and arpeggio or double strum accompaniment 6.0 Dynamics - P i P P , crescendo, mf, f 7.0 Tempo - allegretto 8.0 Style - art song; composer strives for unity of text, melody and accompaniment - tonal (play in A major or G major) - variations in Andantino section of Quintet 254 n g l i ' s ^ tr an Station ?3 by M. Marks The Trout E ScUUrt ( D . ^ ; 5 X tf ht Nea'-'tij 7h«N» sfooc/ an-* an-g/er W h o ejcdT e a e k f ^ ^ ; n « j f ; n > J 7 z Like. a. sfreak-ln^ si\'VCT A r - f * ^ £ e ^ r f - ; n a ^ and out tie* Ca.st in-Tu +he . I A J A - f e r W><-̂  To n.W I m i n . ± 3 s t o o d o n s l i o f e co/i - j c n t - e d T o CatcJn t h e a l l n f " a n d a t e a m r c c f r - o n e a 1 if t h e - vua. - t e r Shx.*e.d c r y s t a l i n Wie bVoofc, i t JO X ^ c^ « ea r jn«-- \AJCL- v r i > i a M c a -j (<QC G J>7 G — • > A >—•——i > i ' - f — - — • — - O f t h a t pui'ck s i l - v c r c r e a - f u r t Uy/io - f r o h i c k e J in ihe. sT/ No f ^ f " coo)A 1><L out-w.'t-fed £ u • k o . t h e n z d ( - L a n d h o c k , Q7)C £ J D 7 J £ fat z Of ĥaf q v i t k sil" l/C C«A~twf< U/Ao f r o l - i c K e i i I n ti\<- s t r e a m . No i * t > v r c . u l t i b e a u f - w i t - f e d f?u / c o h e r e d ^"(^ or*/ h « « k . £ Err, fl Err, Tine, p i s n - e r qreuJ I m - p o ~ - f l c t x t T r % s p i t e , a t last / 255 l > r 1 i A f — f t i) j  7 J • > • • m a d e H\e, UJa-\c G 1 J — r maei-ci\jf The E m :n cast the $i-na 3> y ± — — ^ v ^ - — ^ ^ - j V C A & I Anc/ when/i6 i<rrl<«J h.'i l i n e vpf The. / / s h hun^ theK, J> a C 6 It -flovrA e f \ ' r v ^ - b o o t . b l o o d K S t up i n d n - j c r At J D 7 (5 C G 22 hou-J he'd linked l-he. -rrot / i " . Mvj ]>|o©o\ ro^c up in an - ^ < » P At .. ,.... • hooJ He'd JioolCed -rkc tr-oj'f'. German Morels , by C.F.J). S c K u t a r t DIE FORELLE In e i n e m B a c h l e i n h e l l e , da s c h o s s i n f r o h e r E i l d i e l a u n i s c h e F o r e l l e v o r i i b e r w i e e i n P f e i l . I c h s t a n d an dem G e s t a d e und s a h i n s i i s s e r Ruh des m u n t e r n F i s c h l e i n s Bade i m k l a r e n B a c h l e i n z u , des m u n t e r n F i s c h l e i n s Bade im k l a r e n B a c h l e i n z u . E i n F i s c h l e r m i t d e r R u t e wohl an dem U f e r s t a n d , und s a h ' s m i t k a l t e m B l u t e , w i e s i c h das F i s c h l e i n w a n d . So l a n g ' dem W a s s e r H e l l e , so d a c h t i c h , n i c h t g e b r i c h t , so f a n g t e r d i e F o r e l l e m i t s e i n e r A n g e l n i c h t , so f a n g t e r d i e F o r e l l e m i t s e i n e r A n g e l n i c h t . Doch e n d l i c h w a r d dem D i e b e d i e Z e i t z u l a n g . E r macht das B a c h l e i n t i i k k i s c h t r u ' b e , und eh i c h es g e d a c h t , so z u c k t e s e i n e R u t e , das F i s c h l e i n , das f i s c h l e i n z a p p e l t d r a n , und i c h m i t regem B l u t e s a h d i e B e t r o g n e a n , und i c h m i t regem B l u t e s a h d i e B e t r o g n e a n . 256 A p p e n d i x D W h i t e House J o i n t S t a t e m e n t o f t h e A r t s 1 ( C o n f e r e n c e on A r t s E d u c a t i o n - - S e p t e m b e r 8, 1976) W h e r e a s t h e a r t s p r o v i d e a n e c e s s a r y c o n t r i b u t i o n t o r e a l i z i n g t h e f u l l p o t e n t i a l o f e v e r y human b e i n g a s an a w a r e , s e n s i t i v e , r e s p o n s i v e i n d i v i d u a l r e g a r d l e s s o f h i s t a l e n t s a n d a b i l i t i e s , h i s v o c a t i o n o r any s p e c i a l n e e d he m i g h t h a v e , a n d ; Wh e r e a s t h e a r t s a r e e s s e n t i a l t o t h e f u l l g r o w t h o f e v e r y c h i l d a t a l l l e v e l s f o r c o n s i s t e n t g r o w t h a nd a e s t h e t i c a w a r e n e s s and c r e a t i v e e x p r e s s i o n t o d e v e l o p a human b e i n g i n t o u c h w i t h t h e w o r l d a n d a b l e t o e x p e r i e n c e t h e e n v i r o n m e n t a nd e x p r e s s f e e l i n g s a n d i d e a s , a n d ; Wh e r e a s t h e a r t s c o n t r i b u t e t o t h e h u m a n i t y o f e v e r y i n d i v i d u a l n u r t u r i n g u n d e r s t a n d i n g , s e l f - r e s p e c t , i d e n t i t y , humaneness, a n d ; W h e r e a s e d u c a t i o n i n t h e a r t s s h o u l d i n c l u d e b o t h e x p e r i e n c i n g t h e a r t s , a n d c r e a t i o n a n d e x p r e s s i o n i n t h e v a r i o u s a r t s , a n d ; Wh e r e a s t h e a r t s a r e n o t t o be u s e d m e r e l y a s a u x i l i a r y a i d s t o i n c r e a s e k n o w l e d g e i n s u b j e c t m a t t e r a r e a s b u t must s t a n d a s i n d i s p e n s a b l e d i s c i p l i n e s f o r c o n t r i b u t i o n s w h i c h t h e y a l o n e c a n make, a n d ; Wh e r e a s t h e b e l i e f t h a t t h e a r t s a r e b a s i c t o t h e e d u c a t i o n o f a l l p e r s o n s c a u s e s a r t s e d u c a t o r s i n t h e a t r e , d a n c e , m u s i c , a nd t h e v i s u a l a r t s e d u c a t i o n f o r a l l t h r o u g h s p e c i a l a t t e n t i o n t o i n - s e r v i c e a n d p r e - s e r v i c e e d u c a t i o n f o r s p e c i a l i s t s a n d c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r s ; T h e r e f o r e , l e t i t be r e s o l v e d t h i s e i g h t h d a y o f S e p t e m b e r , 1976 on t h e o c c a s i o n o f t h i s W h i t e House c o n f e r e n c e on a r t s e d u c a t i o n t h a t t h e f o u r a s s o c i a t i o n s , t h e N a t i o n a l A r t E d u c a t i o n A s s o c i a t i o n , N a t i o n a l Dance A s s o c i a t i o n , M u s i c E d u c a t o r s N a t i o n a l C o n f e r e n c e , a n d t h e A m e r i c a n T h e a t r e A s s o c i a t i o n , r e p r e s e n t i n g t h e A r t s E d u c a t i o n p r o f e s s i o n i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s a f f i r m t h e i r c ommitment t o t h e n e c e s s i t y o f a r t s e x p e r i e n c e s f o r a l l c i t i z e n s f o r t h e f u l l r e a l i z a t i o n o f t h e c r e a t i v e , s e n s i t i v e a n d a p p r e c i a t i v e p o t e n t i a l a s human b e i n g s a n d a f f i r m t h e n e c e s s i t y o f a r t s e d u c a t i o n i n t h e n a t i o n ' s s c h o o l s a s b a s i c and e s s e n t i a l t o e a c h i n d i v i d u a l ' s e d u c a t i o n a n d t h r o u g h o u t l i f e a s an i n t e g r a l p a r t o f human d e v e l o p m e n t . 'MENC News, " W h i t e House J o i n t S t a t e m e n t o f t h e A r t s " , M u s i c E d u c a t o r s J o u r n a l 62 ( A p r i l 1 9 7 6 ) : 6 0 . 257 A p p e n d i x E Rhythm S y l l a b l e S y s t e m ( a d a p t e d f r o m t h e H u n g a r i a n s y s t e m ) Sh Sh s h Ta ( t a h ) T i - t i ( t e e - t e e ) |~1 T r i - p l e t i ( t r i - p l e t e e ) T i - d i - t i - d i ( t e e - d e e - t e e - d e e ) Ta-a ( t a h - a h ) O T a - a - a ( t a h - a h - a h ) 0- T a - a - a - a ( t a h - a h - a h - a h ) O T u m - t i I • T T i - r u m T I• S y n - c o - p a ( s i n - k o - p a h ) P I T T i - d i - t i FT T i - t i - d i I H i 258 A p p e n d i x F Hand S i g n a l s a n d S y l l a b l e s CURWEN'S ORIGINAL KODALY'S VERSION 9-ra t a s e f e ^ t a s i f i 259 A p p e n d i x G MADHOSINGH PITCH RECOGNITION TEST 1. mi - doh 19. s o h -- s o h , 2. doh - m i 20. s o h • - doh 3. s o h - r e 21 . l a - l a , 4. doh - doh' 22. mi - l a •5. doh - r e 23. r e - doh' 6. r e - mi 24. d o h • - s o h , 7. s o h - l a 25. r e - s o h 8. doh - l a 26. mi - s o h , •9. mi - r e 27. s o h - l a , 10. r e - l a , 28. s o h - mi 1 1 . doh' - r e 29. r e - s o h , 12. r e - l a 30. mi - l a , 13. d oh' - mi 31 . d o h - l a , 14. l a - mi 32. l a - doh' 15. l a - s o h 33. l a - doh 16. s o h - d o h ' 34. mi - s o h , 17. l a - r e 35. mi - d o h 18. doh - s o h 36. r e - doh 260 Appendix H Table of Means and (Standard D e v i a t i o n s ) of CMP Boys and G i r l s on the Pre- and Post-MPRT Scores Grade 6B Grade 6G Grade7B Grade7G P r e t e s t Mean 3.60 10.25 13.63 11.91 P r e t e s t Std.Dev. (3.44) (7.27) (11 .56) (7.11) P o s t - t e s t Mean 7.40 16.50 17.13 17.73 P o s t - t e s t Std.Dev . (5.55) (3.32) (10.49) (7.85) A n a l y s i s of V a r i a n c e with Repeated Measure (Post-Test) f o r the CMP Group Source ss df MS F Prob. Mean 7231.28 1 7231 .28 57.78 0.0000 Gender (G) 160.85 1 160.85 1 .29 0.2681 Grade (GR) 384.74 1 384.74 3.07 0.0923 G x GR 213.53 1 21 3.53 1.71 0.2038 E r r o r 3003.39 24 125.14 Time (T) 281.66 1 281.66 36.23 0.0000 T X G 17.07 1 17.07 2.20 0.1514 T X GR 0.40 1 0.04 0.05 0.8220 T X GR X G 0.01 1 0.01 0.00 0.9677 E r r o r 186.59 24 7.77

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