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An approach to developing comprehensive musicianship in the intermediate grades using the voice and the.. Madhosingh, Donna-Faye 1984

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AN APPROACH TO DEVELOPING COMPREHENSIVE MUSICIANSHIP IN THE INTERMEDIATE GRADES USING THE VOICE AND THE UKULELE  Donna-Faye M. Mu.  Ed., U n i v e r s i t y  A THESIS SUBMITTED  Madhosingh o f New  Mexico,  1971  IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF  THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE DOCTOR OF  OF  EDUCATION  in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Department  We  o f V i s u a l and P e r f o r m i n g A r t s M u s i c E d u c a t i o n Programme  accept to  this  thesis  the required  as  i n Education  conforming  standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA April  1984  (d) D o n n a - F a y e M a d h o s i n g h ,  1984  E-6  In p r e s e n t i n g requirements  this thesis f o r an  of  British  it  freely available  agree t h a t for  understood that for  Library  shall  for reference  and  study.  I  f o r extensive copying of  h i s or copying  f i n a n c i a l gain  be  her or  shall  g r a n t e d by  not  be  of  Visual  and  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h 1956 Main Mall Vancouver,^ Canada V6T 1Y3 Date  (3/81)  August  15,  1984.  Performing Columbia  Arts  make  further this  thesis  head o f  this  It  my  is  thesis  a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my  permission.  Department of  the  representatives. publication  the  University  the  p u r p o s e s may by  the  I agree that  permission  department or  f u l f i l m e n t of  advanced degree at  Columbia,  scholarly  in partial  written  ii  Supervisor:  Dr.  A.  Clingman  ABSTRACT As  the  majority  musicianship  has  levels,  i s a need  there  level.  This  been  study  aimed a t d e v e l o p i n g its  success  of  experimentation  done  at  the  for similar  i s designed  research  to another  education.  with  an  country  instrumental  This  thesis  comprehensive concepts  of  strategy  for  but  The  an  on  grades,  ukulele.  s t r a t e g y , which can  music  The  specialist,  classroom  music  education  in  The  the  of  devised  teaching  Hungary,  Kodaly concepts  interests  utilizing  is  The  programme  the which  Kodaly are  seeks  programme predicting in that i t  adapts  i t not  combines  it  author  in  the be  the  principles  used  teaching dual  media  author's  experience  and  studies  their  necessary in-depth  t h r o u g h p r e p a r a t i o n , p r e s e n t a t i o n and  States  meet  and the  research,  and  v o i c e s and  f o r the  by  in  the  a  the  of v o i c e  the  pupils,  in  programme  from  to  and  to construct  used a p p r o p r i a t e l y  have been a d a p t e d  t e c h n i c a l requirements  and  by  F i n l a n d , the U n i t e d  intermediate  specific  Canada.  music  intermediate  school  elementary  i s unique  research  and  education,  effective  work  high  the  i n H u n g a r y and  from  based  musicianship, music  at  a l s o a p p l i e s i t t o and  programme is  and  musicianship  i n c o r p o r a t e s a v o c a l method d e v i s e d only  comprehensive  university  to produce a  comprehensive  i n music  in  music' Canada.  needs  and  ranges,  and  ukulele.  development  of  reinforcement.  concepts Conceptual  iii understanding  and  intrinsic  aesthetic  appreciation  presented  under  form, t i m b r e ,  performing,  and  and  continually  the  encouraged.  tempo  and  leading  The  headings of l i n e a r  dextral  concept  analyzed  manner  are  based  order  vertical  The  basic  The  aural,  teacher  in  the  cyclical,  presented  by t h e  are pitch,  incorporated  process  to assess  towards  concepts  pitch,  style.  skills  and e v a l u a t e d  in  is in  to  a  be  task-  the competencies gained  by  students. A comprehensive  implemented seven  by  traditional  and  two  music  The  significant  musicianship  programme  programme  v o i c e and u k u l e l e  experiential development grades.  out with  other  results  difference group  grade s i x and  recognition  treatment  of  a  the  of  over  tests  groups, on  one  were on  a  comprehensive study  the  the  and  showed a  comprehensive  traditional  music  (p<.05).  instructional  readiness  post-pitch  programme and t h e  statistically  The  was c a r r i e d  different  programme.  programme g r o u p  r e c o g n i t i o n programme, d e v e l o p e d  author,  Pre-  to  musicianship  pitch  the  students.  administered  of  involvement  a n a l y z i n g and o r g a n i z i n g a c t i v i t i e s .  sequential  oriented  the  are  dynamics,  translatable  /  procedure  presented  i n Phase I . i n Phase  approach  is  II  Following and  designed  begins  with  i s the dual  III.  This  a  vocal  approach  sequential,  t o p r o m o t e a n d enhance t h e  of comprehensive m u s i c i a n s h i p  in  the  intermediate  iv TABLE OF  CONTENTS  ABSTRACT  .  L I S T OF  TABLES  L I S T OF  FIGURES  ii ix x  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS CHAPTER  1.  xi  OVERVIEW OF  Introduction Purpose  THE  PROBLEM  .  ,  .  to the Problem  1 1  of t h e S t u d y  ...  7  Scope of the Study  8  Limits  9  of the Study  M e t h o d and CHAPTER 2 .  Organization  REVIEW OF  Principles  and  THE  10  LITERATURE  12  C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of  Comprehensive  Musicianship  Summary of t h e Term C o m p r e h e n s i v e  12 Musicianship  20  Z o l t a n K o d a l y ' s P r i n c i p l e s and C o n c e p t o f Music Education The C o n s e n s u s o f t h e K o d a l y and t h e C o m p r e h e n s i v e Musicianship Chalmers  Doane U k u l e l e  Manhattanvilie The  Hawaii  Other  Principles  Music  Music  Programmes  of Music  23  Education  28  Programme  Curriculum  36 Project  42  Program  .....  46  I n c o r p o r a t i n g Kodaly Techniques  ....  51  Colour S t r i n g s — Geza S z i l v a y L i s t e n , Look and S i n g •— Aden L e w i s T h r e s h o l d t o M u s i c • - - Mary H e l e n R i c h a r d s  51 53 54  V  CHAPTER  3.  BASES FOR A COMPREHENSIVE PROGRAMME  MUSICIANSHIP 56  R a t i o n a l e f o r t h e Use o f t h e Voice i n a Comprehens i v e M u s i c i a n s h i p Programme i n t h e I n t e r m e d i a t e Grades  56  R a t i o n a l e f o r t h e Use o f t h e U k u l e l e i n a Comprehens i v e M u s i c i a n s h i p Programme i n t h e I n t e r m e d i a t e Grades  59  Model of Requirements  to Develop  Comprehensive  Musicianship  61  C o n c e p t u a l Framework C o n s i s t i n g o f 8 Major Concepts S k i l l Development f o r Comprehensive Musicianship Aural S k i l l s Dextral SKills Translatable Skills  ..  63  Basic  Activity  65 67 69 72  Framework  73  Performing Analyzing Organizing CHAPTER  4.  S C O P E AND S E Q U E N C E  73 77 80 O F T H E V O I C E AND  PROGRAMME Overview  of t h e Three Phases  UKULELE 83 83  Phase I . Phase I I  83 90  Phase I I I  94  Linear P i t c h Sequence f o r S i n g i n g and P l a y i n g  96  Learning Outcomes f o rEach Concept Instructional Objectives f o r the Concepts Teaching Concepts Through a M u l t i p l i c i t y of Activities  97 99 105  vi  CHAPTER 5.  QUALITATIVE EVALUATION OF COMPREHENSIVE  MUSICIANSHIP PROGRAMMES Evaluation  Procedure  Evaluation  Techniques  106  Summary  106  f o r t h e song  "Land o f t h e S i l v e r B i r c h " O b s e r v a t i o n o f a Model C o m p r e h e n s i v e M u s i c i a n s h i p Programme Student CHAPTER 6.  114 118  Compositions  123  QUANTITATIVE EVALUATION OF A COMPREHENSIVE  PITCH RECOGNITION STUDY  127  Methodology  127  P o p u l a t i o n artd Sample Instrumentation Experimental Design T e s t i n g Procedures Analysis Results  .. .  .127 129 130 133 134 134  Discussion  142  Summary  144  CHAPTER 7.  CONCLUSIONS  146  Summary  146  Recommendations  146  Implications  147  of the Study  Conclusions  148  BIBLIOGRAPHY  151  Ukulele Materials  and R e f e r e n c e s  151  Kodaly  Related Materials  153  and K o d a l y  vii  Comprehensive  M u s i c i a n s h i p Resources  Other Resources Appendix  A.  An  ..  161  PHASE I : VOICE  A Sequential  .  Instructional  169  Procedure  169  Example o f T e a c h i n g S p e c i f i c C o n c e p t s T h r o u g h Song " L a n d o f t h e S i l v e r B i r c h "  A n a l y s i s of Concepts Contained Birch" Linear  Pitch  B.  i n "Land o f t h e  the  i n Phase  Silver 198  II)  PHASE I I : VOICE AND  201  UKULELE  ...  211  An Example o f T e a c h i n g S p e c i f i c C o n c e p t s T h r o u g h t h e Song " L a n d o f t h e S i l v e r B i r c h " S p e c i f i c T e c h n i q u e s f o r U k u l e l e Encompassing the C o n c e p t s D u r a t i o n , L i n e a r P i t c h and V e r t i c a l P i t c h i n t h e Song "Land o f t h e S i l v e r B i r c h " Technical  E x e r c i s e s f o r U k u l e l e Without  An  the Analysis  for Ukulele  PHASE I I I : VOICE AND  Example  of Teaching  Song  229  233  A P o s s i b l e C h o r d Sequence C.  211  Music  Notation  Appendix  181  R e a d i n g and W r i t i n g E x e r c i s e s f o r V o i c e  (and U k u l e l e Appendix  157  "The  237  UKULELE  Specific  238  Concepts  Through  Trout"  238  of Concepts Contained House J o i n t  i n "The  Appendix  D.  White  Appendix  E.  Rhythm S y l l a b l e  Appendix  F.  Hand S i g n a l s and  Syllables  Appendix  G.  Madhosingh  Recognition  Pitch  Statement  Trout"  on t h e A r t s  System  251 256 257 258  Test  259  viii  Appendix  H. Means a n d S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n s o f CMP Boys a n d G i r l s A n a l y s i s of V a r i a n c e with Repeated M e a s u r e s f o r CMP G r o u p  260 260  ix  L I S T OF TABLES  Table  Page  1.  Test-Retest R e l i a b i l i t y  2.  Means a n d ( S t a n d a r d  Deviations)  f o r CMP a n d TMP G r o u p s  3.  Means a n d ( S t a n d a r d  Deviations)  f o r Subgroups  4.  Main Repeated Measures A n a l y s i s of V a r i a n c e f o r P r e and P o s t MPRT T e s t S c o r e s o f t h e CMP and TMP G r o u p s  137  R e p e a t e d M e a s u r e s A n a l y s i s o f C o v a r i a c e f o r CMP a n d TMP G r o u p s ' P r e a d P o s t MPRT S c o r e s U s i n g t h e P r e t e s t as the C o v a r i a t e  140  D e p e n d e n t t - t e s t V a l u e s on P r e a n d P o s t f o r CMP a n d TMP G r o u p s . . .  141  5.  6.  f o r MPRT U s i n g  Grade  MPRT '.  5 Pupils  ..  135  .  136 137  Scores  X  L I S T OF FIGURES  Figure  1.  Model  Page  of Requirements  to Develop  Comprehensive  Musicianship 2. 3.  61  T e a c h i n g Concepts Through Activities A d j u s t e d Means f o r CMP  a Multiplicity  and TMP G r o u p s  of 105  on MPRT's  139  xi  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  The for  a u t h o r wishes t o thank the f o l l o w i n g t h e i r s u p p o r t and a s s i s t a n c e :  p e o p l e and  institutions  Dr. A. Clingman, Dr. C. Trowsdale, Dr. H. Ratzlaff, Dr. J. Murray, H.K. Piltz, Dr. M. E l l i o t t , Dr. N. Hersom, S t e v e L a n d e n , Bob P r o s s e r and the Dept. of Performing and V i s u a l A r t s , U.B.C. D.  McLennan, D..  Tupman and  the Vancouver  School  Board.  Denise Bacon ( D i r e c t o r of the K o d a l y C e n t r e of A m e r i c a ) , J e r r y J a c c a r d ( D i r e c t o r of the Kodaly Musical Training Institute), David Woods (Iowa S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y ) and S t e v e n Z v e n g r o w s k i (New York). Ilona  Bartalus  and  the L i s z t  Academy o f M u s i c ,  Lorna McPhee and Lois Choksy e n t h u s i a s m i n t h e t h e u k u l e l e and  Hungary.  for their inspiration and Kodaly f i e l d s r e s p e c t i v e l y .  1  Chapter  1  OVERVIEW OF THE PROBLEM Introduction An best  unceasing  possible  Through  new  music  curricula educators and  David  Woods s a y s  "...it  design  be  made."  programmes  1  on  educators pupils  That  towards  there  have  the  and a e s t h e t i c e n v i r o n m e n t . "  that  a  research  to develop  t o every  need  and  and their  music in  there  is  'stagnated'  a  "...need  a n d do n o t f i l l 2  Robert  by  i nthe design goals.  educator  curriculum  f o r new i d e a s and  i s a l s o v o i c e d by Woods when he s t a t e s t h a t  programs total  and  the  education.  content  improvement  is  provide  music  methods t o a t t a i n  i s of importance  directed  and  observations  effective  i s to  in  methods  constantly strive  efficient  experimentation  for  improving  more  that  of music  experiences  continually  building field,  concern  t o the Problem  their  "...many  obligation to  Garofalo  f o r e d u c a t i o n a l l y sound  concurs  curriculums  'David Woods, "The D e v e l o p m e n t and E v a l u a t i o n o f an Independent School Curriculum Stressing Comprehensive Musicianship at Each Level, Preschool Through Senior High S c h o o l " (Ph.D. dissertation, Northwestern University, 1973), p. 1. 2  I b i d . , p.3.  2 that  deal e f f e c t i v e l y  evident that  by  the  t h e r e has  formation Educators the  real  number o f been  of  with  the  an  attempt  General  for  about  newly developed to  Music  N a t i o n a l Conference  concern  learning  and  Music  In t h e  and  way  model and  of  music  ukulele.  this  study  education  The  by  proponents  a r e combined  provide  b a s e upon w h i c h t h i s  the  B e c a u s e of t h e p l a c e m e n t intermediate  grades  sporadically. teacher  to begin  programme o f study  begins  spirally  learning  the  the of  this  approach  primary  in  order  is  five  need  start and  the to  and  teachers  to  often  i n the taught  systematic  concepts.  music  This  deficiencies  education. along  It  a continuum  As  with  any  must  preassess  student  where  to  on  Robert Garofalo, "Blueprint for Band: Curriculums, Not Just Skilled Performers", J o u r n a l 60 (March 1 9 7 3 ) : 3 9 . 3  voice  f o r the- i n t e r m e d i a t e  experiences.  ascertain  the  Z o l t a n Kodaly  is  progresses  teacher  a  musicianship  with a formal,  in  in  of t h e  t o accommodate m u s i c a l  late  for  built.  music  skills  for  alternative  role  music  sometimes n e c e s s a r y four or  music an  of  of  ideas  search  comprehensive  sequentialled learning  competencies  the  of q u a l i f i e d  the b a s i c c o n c e p t s  situation  offer  principles  t e a c h i n g b a s i c music  out  with  is  i n grade  addresses  which a r i s e  of  It  first,  to  teach  emphasizing  ideas proposed with  to  aims  by  indication  curricular  more  grades  a l s o an  sound classes.  intermediate  curricula  S o c i e t y as p a r t of t h e was  this  is  The  i n g e n e r a l music meaningful  revised  It  3  void.  problems a r i s i n g effective  or  remedy  i n 1982  direction  music."  begin  the  We Need Sound Music E d u c a t o r s  3 continuum. Intermediate education therefore musical music  music  for students crucial  in  high building  of  early  these  establish For  those  s c h o o l as  continue  an  be  when he  bases  the  Kodaly  last  a  formal  system.  t h a t can  students  elective,  i s important.  years  may  i n the p u b l i c s c h o o l  to  growth l a t e r .  classes  They  are  enhance f u r t h e r  continuing foundation  realized  music  to on  the  study  which  to  importance  stated:  Gradually and f r o m c h i l d h o o d t h e e l e m e n t a r y phenomena of m u s i c must be ingrained over the years through p r a c t i c e and s y s t e m a t i c e d u c a t i o n i n t h e p e r c e p t i o n of music. The f o u n d a t i o n s f o r t h i s c a n be l a i d o n l y i n t h e e l e m e n t a r y and s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l s . " Kodaly  continued  he  said,  for  later." The  to stress  "Basic  training  and  author  The  of  accompaniment  melody.  this  neglected  research  u k u l e l e are  v o i c e , which  fullness  ensemble.  importance  of e a r l y  i n youth  training  cannot  be  when  made  up  5  m e d i a o f v o i c e and students.  the  of can  The  ukulele  Chalmers  Doane  especially  i s maturing  tone,  produce  r e p o r t b e l i e v e s t h a t the  when the  suited  and  gaining  combined  effect  of  to  with a  itself  can  supply  calls  it  "...the  dual  intermediate in  strength  the  ukulele  complete  musical  harmony, r h y t h m most  and  adaptable  "Erzsebet Szonyi, Preface to M u s i c a l R e a d i n g and W r i t i n g , t r a n s l a t e d by L i l i H a l a p y , ( L o n d o n : B o o s e y and Hawkes M u s i c Pub. Co., 1973). Z o l t a n K o d a l y , "Who is a Good Musician?", The S e l e c t e d W r i t i n g s of Z o l t a n K o d a l y , ( L o n d o n : B o o s e y and Hawkes M u s i c Pub. Co., 1974), p.198. 5  4 instrument can  i n the world  be t a u g h t  pop  tunes.  to play everything Thus,  versatility  f o r teaching music."  the  2.  a solo  3.  an ensemble  4.  a social  5.  a teaching  voice,  accomplish  jazz  through  and its  is  and  for singing  instrument  as  programme,  supported  can  to  people  t h e f o l l o w i n g f u n c t i o n s by a c t i n g a s :  an accompaniment  growth  from t h e c l a s s i c s  ukulele  1.  The  On i t young  6  instrument  instrument  f o r enjoyment  instrument  the  basis  therefore  maintain  to reinforce  of  the  given  elementary  encouragement  i t s position  and  enriched  ukulele  itself  concepts  of  school  music  t o continue i t s  importance  as  it is  by t h e u n d e r l y i n g accompaniment  of t h e  ukulele. The reach  of  standard grade  ukulele  seven  boards  (21 i n c h e s  students.  availability  All the  in  students,  c a n be c o m f o r t a b l y  attractive  on  school  four or f i v e  length)  the  most  i s inexpensive  These of  students.  length)  and t h e t e n o r  h e l d and p l a y e d  two f a c t o r s ,  the  is  the basic concepts ukulele dynamics,  ukulele  fulfills  —  i n music  linear tempos,  i t s role  suitable  make  the  most  along  ukulele  with very  class.  a r e t o some d e g r e e p o s s i b l e pitches,  forms and d u r a t i o n s .  Ken Whittingham, "The U k u l e l e Yes 2 ( F a l l 1977):10.  for  (23 i n c h e s i n  and s i z e ,  pitches, vertical  with  of the  by most g r a d e s i x and  price  instrument,  financial  The s i z e  ukulele  f o r u s e i n an i n t e r m e d i a t e m u s i c  timbres,  6  and  and w i t h i n t h e  intermediate Ukulele  Ideal  styles,  Socially,  students to  the  a s a means  Teach  Music",  5 of making music  together,  instrumentally. and in  i n the f u t u r e . the students'  provided  for  can provide  Acceptable  lives  by  stepping-stone of  It  v o c a l l y and  enjoyment  emotional  now a s w e l l  this  dual  t o other  instrumentally,  as  just  f o r l e i s u r e time  o u t l e t s that in  media.  or  later  The  f r e t t e d instruments.  a r e needed  life  ukulele  can  tolerance the  and v o i c e  i n an a t t e m p t  i n our s o c i e t y .  Also,  s t u d e n t s c a n be f o s t e r e d ,  dual  media  believes school  approach.  that will  "...a  also a  The v a r i o u s  musics  been  challenged  by  and encouraged  primary  educational  objective  the  nurture  of  exploratory  of a n a l y t i c a l powers."  chosen  development of  philosopher  intelligence...development development  the i n t e l l e c t u a l  educational  is  the  writer  7  with  t o d e v e l o p u n d e r s t a n d i n g and  The  undertake  be  is  o u r m u l t i c u l t u r a l s o c i e t y c a n be e x a m i n e d a n d p e r f o r m e d  instrument  now  of  in  Marc  this Belth  which  expansiveness power...  The v o i c e  and  the of and  ukulele  have  t o a i d i n the development of these  aspects. Kodaly to evolve  said,  "The p u r p o s e o f m u s i c  and expand our i n n e r  could  be  child  developmental,  consisting  attained  of  world."  through a concept spiral,  episodes  8  i s t o understand This  of music  sequential,  (motivic  goal  pitch  he  believed  education  concept  better:  that i s  based  and  groupings) leading t o  M a r c B e l t h , E d u c a t i o n as a D i s c i p l i n e : A Study of the Role of M o d e l s i n T h i n k i n g , (Boston: Allyn and B a c o n , I n c . , 1965), p.41 . 7  Z o l t a n K o d a l y , f r o m t h e s p e e c h "What i s t h e Purpose of School Music S o c i e t i e s " , The K o d a l y C o n c e p t o f M u s i c E d u c a t i o n by H e l g a S z a b o , ( L o n d o n : Boosey & Hawkes M u s i c Pub., 1969), p . 4 . 8  6 mastery.  Music  intelligence, Kodaly and  said,  education aesthetics,  "...can  nothing  only  less...".  characteristics its  thus d e a l s  plus  ear be  the  the  training  acquired  This  9  with  of  and  performance  which  through  many-sided  work  approach  a d d i t i o n of  development  assumes  t i m e and  effort  the  above  to  achieve  goals. The  used that  strategies devised  by  the  music  a teacher  would  be  required  to  skills  are  organizing Music.  specialist.  without  able  and  herein  the  only  There  i s no  r e q u i r e d music  instigate  this  grouped under  analyzing  can  as  be  attempt  knowledge  programme  the  t o presume and  skills  successfully.  headings  delineated  appropriately  of  in Creating  The  performing, Curriculum  in  1 0  The certain  author basic  acquired.  without  to)...build  on  this  embarking Phase  on  supports first  sand."  dual  before  skills this  by  g i v i n g him  1 1  the  media of  ( v o i c e ) and  Phases  "To  teach  preparatory it  I I and  instrument should  III  to I  Zoltan Kodaly, "Epilogue to Pentatonic Kodaly Concept of Music E d u c a t i o n , p.34.  begin before  i n Phase I I .  ( u k u l e l e and  9  an  training...(is  i n Phase  ukulele  be  a child  i s necessary  alone  and  any  concepts  saying  voice  voice  beginning  and  Therefore,  programme w i t h the  I  that  musicianship  Kodaly  instrument  building  believes  Music  voice)  IV",  The  Stefan E d e l s t e i n , L . C h o k s y , P. Leheman, N. Sigurdsson and D. Woods, Creating Curriculum in Music, (Menlo Park, C a l i f o r n i a : A d d i s o n - W e s l e y Pub.Co., 1980). 1 0  Z o l t a n Kodaly, "Children's Z o l t a n K o d a l y , p.123. M  of  Choirs",  The  Selected  Writings  .7 are  designed  to  musicianship. one  of  include  The  i t s major  musicianship  Music  Music  the  programmes  in  students..." correlation promoting  Conference towards  of a l l periods,  presented  here  The The music  purpose  grades u s i n g  as  Project  sponsored  supplied  a  basic  for  comprehensive  This  indicates the  concept  i n the U n i t e d  outlined  needs,  and l i s t e n i n g  styles,  forms  by  to  g e n e r a l music  in  part  developing  such  with Kodaly p r i n c i p l e s  musicianship s k i l l s ,  c o n c e p t s and t o c r e a t e  to a l l  to  music  and  and c u l t u r e s .  The  the interdependency of activities.  develop  classes  through  t h e Music  significant  the  of t h e Study  s t u d y was  portrayed  by  encouraging the  an  of a  the  alternative  i n the intermediate  t h e d u a l m e d i a o f u k u l e l e and v o i c e .  musicianship,  coupled  Purpose  of t h i s  programme  concepts  their  of music  has a s  i s "...challenging  demonstrates  t h e s e a s p e c t s and a d i v e r s i t y  Conference  programme a s  of performing, c r e a t i n g  music  programme  National  comprehensive  of  a l l schools.  music  and d i r e c t e d  1 2  of  incorporation  attached to this  The c o m p r e h e n s i v e Educators  principles  Educators National  goals  v a l u e of and the emphasis States.  the  Comprehensive  Contemporary  Educators National the  theory,  programme.  Conference,  principles Its  Music  and  i d e a l s were  t o p r e s e n t a programme t o d e v e l o p  develop  an a t m o s p h e r e  an  understanding  of  music  f o r c o n t i n u e d c o g n i t i v e and  C h a r l e s L . G a r y a n d B e t h L a n d i s , The C o m p r e h e n s i v e Music Programme,Washington, D.C.: M u s i c E d u c a t o r s N a t i o n a l C o n f e r e n c e , 1973), p . 2 . 1 2  8 affective Phase  g r o w t h on  I  of  the  musicianship reinforces the  ukulele music part  pathway  programme  skills  and  voice  the  and  ukulele.  of  the  or  be  taught  musicianship. develop  voice.  basic Phase I I  i n Phase I  using  i s a more a d v a n c e d v o i c e  i n c l u d e d as p a r t  as was  to  u s i n g the  skills  Phase I I I  added  programme  designed  through  basic  programme t h a t may course  was  chiefly  expands the  to comprehensive  enrichment. addressed  The both  of  the  and  general  e f f e c t i v e n e s s of qualitatively  a  and  quantitatively.  S c o p e of This teaching class  study v o i c e and  based  on  musicianship  and  following 1.  undertaken  ukulele in the  the  principles  Zoltan Kodaly.  Study to  develop  a  intermediate and The  concepts study  structure for general  of  music  comprehensive  consisted  of  the  characteristics  of  steps:  From t h e i) ii) iii) iv) v)  2.  was  the  study  of  the  literature  to:  identify principles and comprehensive m u s i c i a n s h i p identify Kodaly  principles method  and  i n v e s t i g a t e u k u l e l e music investigate the U n i t e d  characteristics  the  programmes  K o d a l y programmes i n H u n g a r y , F i n l a n d , S t a t e s a n d Canada  i n v e s t i g a t e m u s i c programmes b a s e d on musicianship  U t i l i z e the w r i t e r ' s experiences with m u s i c i a n s h i p and K o d a l y c o n c e p t s by: i)  of  comprehensive comprehensive  r e p o r t i n g on d i r e c t e x p e r i e n c e s w i t h c o m p r e h e n s i v e m u s i c i a n s h i p and K o d a l y c o n c e p t s u s e d i n ukulele and v o i c e i n g e n e r a l m u s i c c l a s s e s  9 ii)  3.  reporting on a p i t c h r e c o g n i t i o n t e s t g i v e n and a f t e r t h e t e a c h i n g o f a comprehensive recognition unit  Develop a general music comprehensive m u s i c i a n s h i p  structuring P h a s e . I l l , an a d v a n c e d programme the v o i c e and u k u l e l e  iii) iv)  d e v i s i n g an e v a l u a t i o n p r o c e s s w i t h each phase  Limits  The  study  using  structuring Phase II as a reinforcement and e x p a n s i o n o f c o n c e p t s and skills of the first p h a s e u s i n g t h e d u a l media o f v o i c e and u k u l e l e  ii)  This  programme b a s e d on s e l e c t e d and K o d a l y p r i n c i p l e s by:  d e v e l o p i n g Phase I , a p r e p a r a t i o n programme, the v o i c e as the prime i n s t r u m e n t  i)  before pitch  t o run  using  concurrently  of the Study  was:  1.  l i m i t e d t o c u r r i c u l u m development c l a s s i n the intermediate grades  2.  principally developing  3.  limited to s e l e c t e d Kodaly principles of music education and the proposals put forth by t h e C o n t e m p o r a r y M u s i c P r o j e c t and i t s o f f s h o o t s i n the area of comprehensive m u s i c i a n s h i p  4.  applied to the voice medium i n P h a s e I and t h e d u a l media of v o i c e and u k u l e l e i n Phase I I and I I I  5.  l i m i t e d t o the w r i t e r ' s a p p l i c a t i o n s of t h e programme p r o p o s e d  research  f o r the g e n e r a l music ( g r a d e s 4 t o 7)  concerned with content c o n c e p t s and s k i l l s  literature  and s t r a t e g i e s f o r  and  observations  was:  1.  limited t o a c c e s s i b l e K o d a l y m a t e r i a l s from Hungary, F i n l a n d , t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s and C a n a d a  2.  limited to relevant material in comprehensive musicianship and comprehensive music programmes growing out of the Contemporary Music P r o j e c t i n the United States  10 3.  limited  t o u k u l e l e programmes  Method and The phases the  w r i t e r developed  f o r v o i c e and  intermediate  i n Canada  Organization  a m u s i c programme c o n s i s t i n g  u k u l e l e f o r the  grades based  general  music  of  three  classes  of  on:  1.  an adaptation of approach t o music  selected principles education,  of  2.  principles and musicianship,  characteristics  comprehensive  3.  direct experiences of the musicianship implementation  4.  some c o m p r e h e n s i v e m u s i c i a n s h i p effect  The based  and  framework  Lehman,  Music  w h i c h was  This  study  for  pitch,  utilized  The  writer with and  by  the  the  and  by  the  a grant  from the  activities  content  was  age  group,  on  the  broad  and  were o r g a n i z e d  c h o s e n by  ukulele  programme  was  the  but  Edelstein,  Ford  style, as  author  conceptual of  timbre,  suggested  linear dynamics  under  organization.  singing  scope of musics a v a i l a b l e .  headings.  for i t s appropriateness its suitability and The  for  skills  are  the The the The  to  this  playing  i t s representation in basic  in  Foundation.  headings  under d i f f e r e n t  of d i f f i c u l t y ,  and/or  of  Project incorporates essentially  activities  i t s level  in  team's common e l e m e n t s o r  d u r a t i o n , form,  Comprehensive M u s i c i a n s h i p concepts  already  Woods i n C r e a t i n g C u r r i c u l u m  e i g h t major concept  pitch,  the  team  t h r e e c a t e g o r i e s o f p e r f o r m a n c e , a n a l y s i s and  same  Kodaly  comprehensive  programmes  t h r e e phases of  t h a t s e t up  supported  vertical  tempo.  on  the  Sigurdsson  base a p p r o a c h u s i n g  of  the  documented.  t o some e x t e n t  Choksy,  and  in effect  the  listed  11 under  aural,  dextral  M a n h a t t a n v i l i e Music up for  and  Curriculum  in three consecutive the  as  they  of  the  most p a r t arise  of  three  levels  consists  of  more  than  abilities pupils' and  and  An  was  A  study  achievement programme treatment  on  was  of  this  study  programme and  a  spread  levels  extent pitch  are  programme of  altered One  is  set  concepts  to serve  of  The  is  needs  purposes  i s omitted.  Phase I I  the  necessary  class  advent  average  musical  listed  the  the  With  be  the  in  concurrently i f a  in  then  the were  was  to which  of  intermediate  knowledge  and  t o meet a l l t h e  as easy  included students  had  r e c o g n i t i o n w i t h i n the  i f there  before  pitch  m u s i c programme and Finally,  run  level.  component  t o see  scores for  be  designated  ( E ) , medium  (M)  (D).  the  undertaken  w h i c h may  a p p r o a c h may  The  evaluation  ascertaining  may  circumstances.  one  has  a levels  needs.  teaching  is highly l i k e l y .  usually  difficult  tasks.  this  The  insure that nothing  consists  music c l a s s  The  s e q u e n t i a l but  hierarchy i s to  as  Project.  phases.  in individual  mainstreaming  translatable  and  is after  a  assist  pentatonic in  a comprehensive The  group  the  the  scale mean  musicianship  receiving  this  a  traditional  c o n c l u s i o n s , r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s and  implications  the  to a group r e c e i v i n g  in  accomplished  difference  recognition.  compared  to  results  addressed.  noted.  Possible  f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h were  applications  suggested.  of  the  12  Chapter  2  REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE P r i n c i p l e s and C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of Comprehensive M u s i c i a n s h i p The  term  some t i m e . of  Music  this  term  " c o m p r e h e n s i v e m u s i c i a n s h i p " h a s been  Zoltan Kodaly i n Budapest  i n a 1953 a d d r e s s  in  at the L i s z t  g i v e s us some i n s i g h t  use f o r Academy  i n t o h i s concept of  when he s a y s ,  You w i l l n o t be a good m u s i c i a n i f y o u s h u t yourself up l i k e a h e r m i t and pursue m e c h a n i c a l e x e r c i s e s , but o n l y i f y o u have l i v e d a m a n y - s i d e d m u s i c a l life and have particularly close contact with c h o i r s and orchestras. 1  He a l s o  s t a t e s t h a t , "...the  earned  o n l y by a s u s t a i n e d m a n y - s i d e d e f f o r t . "  comprehensive m u s i c i a n s h i p many-faceted stressed for  approach  broad  of  music  good  musician  is  evident.  Even  education.  built  before  training  because  they  have  1  Zoltan  Kodaly,  i s a Good M u s i c i a n ? " ,  2  Ibid.,  p.198.  be  that  upon  a  1953, K o d a l y  as a n e c e s s i t y  The m a j o r i t y o f m u s i c i a n s ,  are half-musicians  "Who  can  His belief  2  involves basic training  and comprehensive m u s i c a l  a worthwhile  says,  title  not  been  p.190.  he  wholly  13 developed  musically.  encouraged interest  broad and  Curriculum It  seems  of  that  In  World.  in  school  full  White  growth  House J o i n t The  since  term  the  project  of a f e l t  Music  and  college  Educators  1959,  their  National  World,  Music  comprehensive  broadening  usually was  has  been  from  Basic  requirement stated  so  has  been Music  1963  to  from  t h e Young Composers P r o j e c t , initiated  and  put  1968  to  also  D.)  prominent Project, 1973.  the s t u d e n t s .  Belle Pitts, The M u s i c Y o r k : S i l v e r B u r d e t t Co.,  The and  by  the  composers  into  t o work w i t h , compose by  a  1973.  funded  thirty-one  to  i n the  (See A p p e n d i x  Contemporary  of  provided  necessary.  been  the a r t s .  financially  and  their  Conference a d m i n i s t e r e d the grant  i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s  Lilla (New  of  "...a broader scope  musicianship the  compositions performed  3  and  the F o r d F o u n d a t i o n  F o r d F o u n d a t i o n , was schools  about  of  supported the p r o j e c t In  by  curriculums""  every c h i l d  instigation  breadth  of m u s i c i a n s  of as a fundamental  Statement  Pitts  book The  of  need  another  e x p e r i e n c e t h a n has  of  her  definition  to accomplish t h i s  thought  Belle  3  modern  comprehensive  f u n d e d by  in  and  i s now  Lilla  experiences,  understanding  the  order  1944,  music  e v o l v e d because  repertoire  musicianship  also  varied  as  e d u c a t o r s t o u n d e r s t a n d one  music  the  early  i n the Changing  horizons.  for  and  depth  m u s i c i a n s h i p has music  As  This  f o r and  have  encouraged  C u r r i c u l u m i n the 1944).  Changing  "Contemporary M u s i c P r o j e c t -- C o m p r e h e n s i v e M u s i c i a n s h i p , A P r o j e c t of the Music Educators National Conference, Music E d u c a t o r s J o u r n a l , 59 (September 1973):34.  14 young  composers  music  Project"  Creativity  was  teachers. changed  i n Music  t h e o u t l o o k s on In  Education".  2.  to encourage  3.  to reduce compartmentalization  4.  to c u l t i v a t e  5.  to discover  been  1965,  central  Project. four  In  the  1969,  elementary,  college  —  to  musicianship.  creative  The  begun  contemporary The  to link  music  elements" approach.  organization encompassed encompassed  5  Ibid.,  of sound  p.34.  has  Contemporary  to  selected  and  fourteen  to  develop  Music  teachers— university  or  comprehensive  Project  b e c a u s e p e o p l e had  Contemporary  This  was  not  Project  (CMP)  and  described  and m e l o d y . texture.  Music  i t s only  e l e m e n t s were  intensity  harmony a n d  education  Musicianship  These  b o t h rhythm  of  later  the  was  aspect  Project  Music  duration,  fivefold:  Music  alone.  Contemporary  (pitch),  of. t h e  programmes  Contemporary  Project  idiom  a p p r o a c h t o music  secondary  devise  Music  creative  music  "Young  5  g r a n t s were g i v e n  as t h e C o m p r e h e n s i v e  mistakenly  talent  programmes  seven  the t i t l e  discrimination  a comprehensive  to  the  the contemporary  and  contemporary  I t s p u r p o s e was  t o i n c r e a s e t h e e m p h a s i s on music i n the p u b l i c s c h o o l s  taste  1963,  t o "Contemporary  1.  Since  to  broadened  o f b o t h s t u d e n t s and  Composers for  and a l s o  was  Project  with  intent.  encouraged a defined  timbre.  referred  as The  "commonfrequency  horizontal  as movement t h r o u g h t i m e and The The  vertical  organization  expressive q u a l i t i e s  were  1 5 designated treated  as  as  volume, an  historically, musicianly  dynamics  element.  socially  behaviours  and  Style  and  timbre.  and  Form  context  aesthetically.  The  was  also  were d e a l t CMP  with  encouraged  by  ...developing a b r o a d b a s e of c o m p e t e n c i e s t h r o u g h a reasonable balance of experiences in analysis (listening and evaluation): composition (and i m p r o v i s i n g ) and p e r f o r m i n g , a s well as scholarship ( r e s e a r c h ) and c o m m u n i c a t i o n ( t e a c h i n g ) . 6  Norman  Dello  Joio,  the  director  of  "...comprehensive m u s i c i a n s h i p can  be  one  without  can  Rudolf  build  for  Radocy  musicianship  the  future  conducted  i n June  an  1971  and  t h e CMP,  that s o l i d  base  rejecting  evaluation found  proposed  of  on the  that which  past."  7  comprehensive  that  ...teachers can e s p o u s e a p h i l o s o p h y of C o m p r e h e n s i v e Musicianship, teach in accordance with o b j e c t i v e s and show measureable gains in the learning of their students without sacrificing traditional 'musical learning.' 8  T h e r e has CMP a  not  a conscious  effort  to d e f i n e comprehensive musicianship  living,  Robert  been a l m o s t  growing e f f o r t  and  not  just  on  t h e p a r t of  in order  that  i t be  a stagnantly defined  term.  Werner s t a t e s t h a t  Defining Comprehensive M u s i c i a n s h i p i s n e v e r an e a s y t a s k , even f o r t h o s e o f us i n v o l v e d on a day-to-day basis with its implementation. Comprehensive M u s i c i a n s h i p has t o do b o t h w i t h t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n and content of the i n s t r u c t i o n a l programs a t a l l l e v e l s and most i m p o r t a n t , w i t h t h e g o a l s and a t t i t u d e s that l i e behind the t e a c h e r s ' e f f o r t s . 9  6  Ibid  p. 39.  7  Ibid  r  p.34  B  Ibid  r  p.41 .  the  16 At  the Music E d u c a t o r s  music  educators  defined that  because  music  through  varied  i t then  becomes  educators  should  and  the  jargon. attempt  means o f  interpretations as  i n A t l a n t a i n 1976,  its  But,  to d e f i n e  that propose  classroom  have been d e v i s e d .  shown t h e  performed value  Robert  on  such  i t more  t h a t k i n d of  f o r band, o r c h e s t r a , c h o i r ,  been  E x p e r i m e n t s and  i s , a c h i e v i n g the  that  synthesis  neglected  One is  improvising. the  end  i t "...commits us  of o u r  activities.  attitudes  with  should  the  that music  these  are  a l l the  other  integration  Robert Personified", Ibid.,  of  "synthesis".  in a  educators  activities  scrutiny  teaching."  wide v a r i e t y feel  has  a  select  few.  Separate  i n the take  musical  and to are  Therefore,  in  synthesis. place  of  If they  programme, c r e a t i n g s h o u l d  activities  1 0  been  have been l e f t  seldom accomplished.  of a c t i v i t i e s  elements.  of  of  i m p l i e s composing, a r r a n g i n g  a t a l l i t i s u s u a l l y by  9  1 0  necessity  This  Traditionally,  integration  have  "heart"  never-ending  techniques  activity  a comprehensive m u s i c i a n s h i p along  and  the  creating.  t o be  t o the  imposes  o f programmes and  undertaken  observations  the  that  This  and  i n them.  comprehensive m u s i c i a n s h i p ,  revision  as  theory  researchers  i s said  and  are  programmes and  what  states  clearly  programme.  guitar,  Werner p r e s e n t s  He  not  suggested  musicianship  S u c h programmes  have  they  was  implementation.  of c o m p r e h e n s i v e  individuals  music  concerned  s t a t e d that comprehensive musicianship  the q u a l i t y  The  Conference  but  progress Not  only  also  elements should  the be  J. Werner, "CMP Means C o m p r e h e n s i v e M u s i c i a n s h i p M u s i c E d u c a t o r s J o u r n a l , 56 (March 1969): 131. p.133.  17 synthesized musical  in a global  learning.  cognitive,  synthesis  The  affective  experienced  and  setting  and  wholeness psychomotor  linked  taking place  i f they  in  this  in theory  of  are  to  result  music,  aspects  then,  --  synthesis.  in  real  —  its  needs  to  be  Walton views  the  c l a s s e s when:  A l l a s p e c t s of music -harmony, polyphony, style, texture, form, structure — combine and become t h e basis for the study of music literature. This s y n t h e s i s i s what i s r i g h t l y c a l l e d m u s i c i a n s h i p . The course of study should p u l l everything together to i n c r e a s e and d e e p e n t h e s t u d e n t ' s i n s i g h t s . 1 1  Comprehensive  musicianship,  i n many ways.  Charles Ball  in  context,  the p r e s e n t  structure it  of m u s i c  a myth.  1 3  says,  simply  however, has  "...comprehensive  means  a p p l i e d t o music  Others  say  i t i s an  t o M u s i c i a n s h i p view music  been  an  teaching  musicianship  understanding  itself."  ideal.  interpreted  Beth  1 2  The  of  Landis  authors  of  the calls  Prelude  as  ...the comprehensive, step-by-step development of musical m a t e r i a l s , both aural and written, in a l o g i c a l s e q u e n c e , a l w a y s p r o c e d i n g from known to the unknown and leading the student in ever widening c i r c l e s t o a f u l l u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the concepts and techniques i n v o l v e d . " 1  This  is  1  Music  in  keeping  t h e CMP's p r i n c i p l e s  of  ' C h a r l e s W. Walton, " T a r g e t i n g the T e a c h i n g E d u c a t o r s J o u r n a l , 67 ( J u n e 1981):40. Charles Educators  1 2  Music  with  Ball, "The J o u r n a l , 56  comprehensive  of  Answer L i e s i n Improved ( F e b r u a r y 1969):59.  Theory", Teaching",  B e t h L a n d i s , " C o m p r e h e n s i v e M u s i c i a n s h i p - A Look i n the C r y s t a l B a l l " , M u s i c E d u c a t o r s J o u r n a l , 58 ( J a n u a r y 1970) :48. 1 3  'Linda Mankin, Mary Claire Wellman & A n g e l a M. Owen, P r e l u d e t o M u s i c i a n s h i p : F u n d a m e n t a l C o n c e p t s and S k i l l s , (New Y o r k : H o l t , R i n e h a r t and W i n s t o n , 1979), p . v . 1  18 musicianship.  David  musicianship  as  understanding has  also  ability  to  patterns says  a l l  teaching  musicians  p e r c e p t i o n of m u s i c . described  discriminate which  cites  helping  and  been  Boyle  are  musicianship  as and  "...an respond  increase  The  1 5  term  to  tonal  the  learned  and  in music."  term  their  "musicianship"  a w a r e n e s s of and  expressively organized  i s synonymous w i t h  comprehensive  rhythmic 1 6  Linton  "musicality"  and  that, This discrimination ability is based on an understanding of the s t r u c t u r e of music and the relationship and f u n c t i o n s o f e l e m e n t s o f m u s i c which c o m p r i s e t h a t s t r u c t u r e , a s w e l l a s on a sensitivity to the a e s t h e t i c or e x p r e s s i v e p u r p o s e o f o r g a n i z e d patterns. 1 7  So  i t would  same g o a l an  aim  says,  of a comprehensive m u s i c i a n . that  strives  needed  best  is a certain f o r an  f o r but  a perfectly  f o r even the  There are  one  "Obviously,  ideal;  seem t h a t t h e r e a r e many t r a c k s l e a d i n g t o  can  T h i s goal appears to  never  fully  good m u s i c i a n find  shortcomings  amount of a g r e e m e n t  effective,  is  well-rounded  attains. an in  on  the be  Kodaly  unattainable themselves."  1 8  what i n g r e d i e n t s  music  programme.  The  D a v i d B o y l e , "Teaching Comprehensive M u s i c i a n s h i p at the C o l l e g e L e v e l " , M u s i c E d u c a t o r s J o u r n a l , 57 ( J u l y 1971): 330. 1 5  Melinda Edwards, "An I n s t r u c t i o n a l O b j e c t i v e s Model f o r Teaching Comprehensive M u s i c i a n s h i p in a Senior High School E l e c t i v e M u s i c C o u r s e " , (D.Ed, d i s s e r t a t i o n , C o l u m b i a U n i v e r s i t y T e a c h e r s C o l l e g e , 1979), p.6 , 6  S t a n l e y L i n t o n , "The D e v e l o p m e n t of a P l a n n e d Program f o r Teaching M u s i c i a n s h i p i n the High School C h o r a l C l a s s " , Council f o r R e s e a r c h i n M u s i c E d u c a t i o n B u l l e t i n 10 (Summer 1967):8. 1 7  1 8  Kodaly,  "Who  i s a Good M u s i c i a n ? " ,  p.199.  19 common-elements  a p p r o a c h , as mentioned  t h e CMP a n d i n g e n e r a l texts.  The  t h e CMP are  four  states  basic  a l l the avenues  comprehensive  listening,  activities  by  of concern l i e s  variety  styles,  music  i s also  Musical the their  total  education, its  considered  make  sufficient."  and their  music  e x p e r i e n c e i n which be  developed  performing. musical music  These  knowledge. of  Serious  a  wide  contemporary  c a n be a c h i e v e d by  i n f o r m e d judgments  a b o u t music  allowing b a s e d on  o f m u s i c , a n d e n c o u r a g i n g them t o f u n c t i o n  make  the  Werner  1 9  current  important i n the r e p e r t o i r e presented.  "Instruction  to  of  presenting  Jerome B r u n e r , w i t h  says,  object  programmes  to  in  another goal,  knowledge  as m u s i c i a n s .  creating  i s s u p p o r t e d by  should  p e r i o d s and c u l t u r e s .  independence,  students  of musical  students to integrate  Another area of  authors  musicianship  analyzing,  allow  earlier,  this  i s a provisional learner  says  general  that  or  statement  state  problem  comprehensive  on  that  has as  solver  self-  musicianship  s h o u l d p r o d u c e a p e r s o n who i s a b l e  " . . . t o make i n d e p e n d e n t v a l u e judgments about music, judgments based on a t h o r o u g h knowledge o f a l l t h e elements i n the musical process, involving creator, performer, and l i s t e n e r . This i s p e r h a p s t h e most s i g n i f i c a n t a b i l i t y any s t u d e n t c a n g a i n from h i s music e d u c a t i o n . " > 2 0  All repeatedly  comments, refer  however, to  the  on  need  comprehensive for a  musicianship,  t h o r o u g h knowledge o f ,  Jerome Bruner, Toward a T h e o r y o f I n s t r u c t i o n , ( C a m b r i d g e , M a s s a c h u s e t t s : B e l k n a p P r e s s , 1967), p . 5 3 . 1 9  2 0  p.131.  Werner,  "CMP  Means C o m p r e h e n s i v e  Musician  Personified",  20 understanding musical he to  o f and s k i l l  development  says  is restricted.  the elements  so t h a t  of music  Labuta  reminds  us  applied  examination.  basic  that  fundamental  be s t a t e d 1.  3.  following  2. 3.  abilities skills  Students  when t h e y c a n a p p l y  as are  them.  of musicianship l i e s i n  2 2  "Comprehensive M u s i c i a n s h i p "  principles  of  comprehensive  musicianship  as f o l l o w s :  o r d e r t o d e v e l o p m u s i c i a n s h i p t h e CMP p r o p o s e d  1 .  when  that musical knowledge i s s y n t h e s i z e d through the i n t e g r a t i o n o f a c t i v i t i e s and c o n c e p t s t h a t t h e common-elements a p p r o a c h ( t h e b a s i c concepts .which make up m u s i c ) i s t h e b e s t a p p r o a c h t o d e v e l o p musical understanding that m u s i c i a n l y behaviors (having p u p i l s function as musicians) n e e d t o be e x p e r i e n c e d t o t r u l y u n d e r s t a n d and a p p r e c i a t e m u s i c .  2.  In  2 1  which  with t h i s  their  musicians."  concepts  without  the students'  and d e v e l o p  the true test  Summary o f t h e Term The  concepts  Walton agrees  t h e y c a n be b e t t e r  assumed t o have g r a s p e d  can  i n music  " . . . t e a c h e r s must h e l p d e v e l o p  identify  'tools'  base  abilities  were  that  the  needed:  ability t o s y n t h e s i z e m u s i c a l knowledge, s k i l l s and understandings a b i l i t y t o d i s c r i m i n a t e musical r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n order t o d e v e l o p i n d e p e n d e n c e and s e l f - d i r e c t i o n a b i l i t y t o t h i n k c r e a t i v e l y and i m a g i n a t i v e l y 2 3  2 1  Charles  W.  2 2  Joseph A. Band, (West p.218.  Walton,  "Targeting the Teaching  of Theory",  p.40.  School 1972),  Labuta, Teaching Nyak, New York:  M u s i c i a n s h i p i n the High Parker Pub. Co. I n c . ,  21  The based  basic  are  p r e m i s e s on w h i c h c o m p r e h e n s i v e  consistent  emphasized  in  the  with  most  literature  or u n b a l a n c e d i n t h e i r  distortion  o f programmes.  2. 3. 4.  an e v o l v i n g  term is  that  presentation  are  sometimes  and c a n c a u s e  the  such premises a r e :  a non-static as  individual musical  goal  term the  that  the  cultures;  a  use broad  as  i t i s currently  instruction. integrated  because  it  philosophy  is  is  c a n n e v e r be In o r d e r  music  base  biographical,  stylistic  encompassing  aural,  of  develop musicianship,  an  umbrella  approach to music.  always  musician  in  a  of  used  by  and  is  of  comprehensive  from  a l l  musical  and  styles,  knowledge -and  skill  translatable  then, music  must  be  an  ultimate towards of  musicianship periods  and  historical, development  skills.  viewed  It  state  t o d e v e l o p d e p t h and b r e a d t h  and v o c a b u l a r y ;  dextral  understood,  r e a c h e d c o m p l e t e l y , but  proponents of  It is  interpreted  A comprehensive  strive.  learning  encourage  of music  a holistic,  teachers.  which a l l can musical  musicianship,  theory  implies  evolution  to  they  The proper study of music i s music i t s e l f — thus m u s i c s h o u l d be a p p r o a c h e d t h r o u g h t h e a c t u a l p i e c e o f m u s i c and n o t some o t h e r c h a n n e l . The f o c u s o f i n s t r u c t i o n i s on t h e i n d i v i d u a l student i n o r d e r f o r him t o g a i n i n d e p e n d e n c e . Comprehensive musicianship s e r v e s b o t h music and t h e . s t u d e n t , n o t one o r t h e o t h e r . S t u d e n t s l e a r n i n d i v e r s e ways a n d a t d i f f e r e n t s p e e d s and t h e r e f o r e need many a v e n u e s o f l e a r n i n g in order t o come c l o s e r t o a c h i e v i n g t h e i r g o a l s .  Comprehensive is  Four  is  programmes but a r e r e -  because  overlooked  1.  music  musicianship  in  In o r d e r a  broad  C o n t e m p o r a r y Music Project, P r o c e d u r e s f o r E v a l u a t i o n of I n s t i t u t e s f o r Music i n Contemporary E d u c a t i o n , (Washington, D.C.: M u s i c E d u c a t o r s N a t i o n a l C o n f e r e n c e , 1967), p . 1 . 2 3  22 context. Comprehensive education ideas.  that The  lays particular  when c o m b i n e d  the  listener.  is  i n the  the  In  must  the  be  elements into  whole  i n a new  were  introduced  have  led  in  musicianship programme concept, these  varied  and  a mood o r (the  feeling  analysis)  this  believe that  In o r d e r  to  are  complete,  in  by  and  which  education  i n the  the  they  only  to experience  are  required  in  to  creating  A l l types,  styles  and  background.  are  analyze,  must  be  overall  perspective  i n music,  aspects  about music  are  the  required.  historical  a  use  improvising  and  to accomplish  And  a  and  In o r d e r  developed.  the  illustrating  of  music  skills  of  such  periods  involved, basic musicianship  translatable)  in  evaluate  compositions,  past  comprehensive  students  many i n s t a n c e s  the  concepts  ways  in  put  viewing  of Not  one  When t h e a n a l y s i s  multitude  as  learner  compare,  achieved  i n music  the  instances  approach.  of  analysis,  experiencing  a  to  i t s p a r t s , t h a t deeper  narrow way  developed  of  individually,  in  experiential  activities  meaning  from a n o t h e r .  The  music  relatedness  achieve  aspect  of  experiments  concepts  arranging.  compare.  perspective.  expected but  to  a s y n t h e s i s i s then  and  the  little  proponents  differentiated  context,  to  concepts  order  and  a concept  breakdown  for a particular  back  on  s y n t h e s i s of  musicianship  must c o n s t a n t l y r e l a t e  of  the  ensuing  grasped.  comprehensive  aspect  stress  is  synthesis, present  I t i s through  w h o l e , and  meaning  then,  e l e m e n t s of m u s i c have  but  this  musicianship,  provide  (aural,  finally, and  a  a l l the dextral  to gain  an  biographical  23 Developing but  comprehensive m u s i c i a n s h i p  n e i t h e r i s i t an i m p o s s i b l e  avenues  for  accomplishing emphasis  in  musicianship. his  own  There  developing the  are  synthesis  is  education  Each teacher  procedure  comprehensive student's create  i t  music  i s no "magic  Some v i s i o n  necessary  is  being  right  given  philosophy  and  the  for  to  more  developing  goal  will  have  espoused.  d e d i c a t i o n to the  combined  aforementioned  environment  basic  and  of the ideas  but the teacher's  musicianship  of the  More  who c h e r i s h e s t h i s  formula",  task,  and a d e d i c a t i o n t o  mandatory.  f o r the a p p l i c a t i o n  potential,  the  task.  i s n o t an e a s y  with  the  i n g r e d i e n t s , can  developing  comprehensive  musicianship. The process same with  comprehensive of refinement.  goal  and  musicianship  concept  is  I t i s p e r c e i v e d a s many  encompasses  d e p t h and b r e a d t h  knowledge,  skills  s t i l l , i n the  routes and  to  the  understanding  i n each.  Zoltan Kodaly's Principles and C o n c e p t o f M u s i c E d u c a t i o n Zoltan educator,  Kodaly, author  Hungary and d i e d Kodaly German  tried  folksongs. its great  experience  composer, linguist,  i n 1967.  From  through  i n Hungary  Through t h e i r  own r i c h was  and  t o break  music  a  1905 t o  by c o l l e c t i n g efforts  belief  1906  they  Bela  the  t h e rhythms and m e l o d i e s  Bartok  and  of the predominance of  and p u b l i s h i n g H u n g a r i a n strove  to  give  located in i t s folk  in  music  was born- i n 1882 i n Kecskemet,  the b a r r i e r  h e r i t a g e of music  Kodaly's  ethnomusicologist,  need  for  indigenous  Hungary  culture.  So  Hungarians  to  to their  country  24 that  he  incorporated  compositions. preschool folk  these  Among  to high  his  school  themes  writings  were  students,  into vocal  permeated with  his  own  works,  for  the  Hungarian  idiom. Kodaly  just  b e l i e v e d t h a t music  a select  musically.  few.  In o r d e r  to accomplish  should  with  he composed F i f t y  this  Kodaly  saying,  provides  should  "It  the best  In  with  is  start  conjunction sing  believed  a  to  Nursery  of every  long  with  music  teachers  very  young.  the c h i l d ' s  truth  education..."  that  own  singing  2 4  i s . the concept the language  that the c h i l d t h a t he  speaks  t o w h i c h he c a n r e l a t e .  Kodaly  like  He  begin  educated  that  To a s s i s t  f o r the  accepted  this  literacy,  human b e i n g .  he e m p h a s i z e d  Songs  education  and t h e rhythm  that musical  t h e masses must be  t h e young c h i l d .  t o music  with  be f o r a l l t h e p e o p l e n o t  this  i n h i s mother-tongue —  listens  right  begin  s t r e s s e d t h a t music  voice,  should  T h i s means t h a t  education  and  folk  linguistic  literacy,  i s the  said,  In 1 6 9 0 . . . ( t h e ) i d e a t h a t everybody could learn to read and w r i t e h i s own l a n g u a g e was a t l e a s t a s b o l d as t h e i d e a t o d a y t h a t e v e r y b o d y s h o u l d " l e a r n t o r e a d music. Nevertheless, this i s something no less possible. 2 5  Along  with  Kodaly  stressing  believed  countries  should  the value  that be  of the Hungarian musical  composed  2 5  Ibid.,  p.201.  of  quality  from  a l l  taught.  "Kodaly, i n Preface to Writing" by E r z s e b e t Szonyi, K o d a l y , p.201. 2  music  culture,  t h e Volume " M u s i c a l R e a d i n g and The S e l e c t e d W r i t i n g s o f Z o l t a n  25 That  Kodaly's  existence  i s stated  philosophy  of l i f e  i n the f o l l o w i n g  encouraged  a  well-rounded  quotation:  E v e r y a r t o f f e r s s o m e t h i n g t h a t i s i t s own and cannot be f o u n d i n any o t h e r . Look i n t o a l l a s p e c t s o f l i f e , o t h e r a r t s and s c i e n c e s t o o . 2 6  Kodaly  encouraged  h e l p one a n o t h e r  people  t o be " s o c i a l  human b e i n g s " and  because  ... e v e r y p e r s o n ' s w o r t h i s m e a s u r e d by how much he can help h i s f e l l o w men a n d s e r v e h i s c o u n t r y . Real art i s one o f t h e most p o w e r f u l f o r c e s i n t h e r i s e of mankind and he who r e n d e r s i t a c c e s s i b l e t o a s many people as p o s s i b l e i s a b e n e f a c t o r of h u m a n i t y . . . 2 7  Thus e m o t i o n a l be  growth  tomorrow's  establish  teachers  a firm  music ~ i i n t o  i s important as  they  bond o f sympathy  their  lives."  f o r today's must with  These  2 8  be  s t u d e n t s who equipped  the people  social  labels  a well-trained  h e a r t one may become what K o d a l y  operator" void  i n the f i e l d  as "heart" t r a i n i n g .  of music  o f t h e human a s p e c t  people  i n music.  comprehensive music  Kodaly  they  listed  the  training  a w e l l - t r a i n e d ear  2.  a well-trained  Kodaly,  2 7  Ibid  p.199.  Ibid  p.167.  2 8  "Who  through  did four  also  the motions but called  these  not acquire a corner  as d e v e l o p i n g :  Musician?  growth  t e r m s a "machine  intelligence  i s a Good  so a s t o b r i n g  I f one does n o t have  Kodaly  because  1.  2 6  going  of f e e l i n g .  "half-musicians"  training  —  "... t o  and e m o t i o n a l  a s p e c t s Kodaly  will  p. 198.  stones  full of  26 3.  a well-trained  heart  4.  a well-trained  hand  Kodaly  thought  majority  a well-trained  of  together,  musicians.  2 9  hand was  All  four,  in constant equilibrium.  recommends  the  use  of  t h e most d e v e l o p e d  "sol-fa"  he  says,  Kodaly  emphasized  Kodaly chose  and  singing  and  the  s c i e n c e of  selected  the s o l - f a  i n chamber c h o i r s .  training  the  he  form  and  such  as  playing  First  and  foremost  ear.  three tools  system  develop  To a c c o m p l i s h t h e above,  harmony a l o n g w i t h v a r i e d m u s i c a l e x p e r i e n c e s chamber music  must  i n the  f o r t e a c h i n g music.  w i t h t h e m o v e a b l e doh  First  because  he  he felt  that, T h r o u g h t h e use o f s o l - f a t h e s i n g e r i s p r e s e n t e d w i t h an e x a c t d e f i n i t i o n o f t h e t o n a l f u n c t i o n o f e a c h n o t e rather t h a n i t s e x a c t p i t c h , and t h u s i t p r o v i d e s f o r c e r t a i n t y of i n t o n a t i o n . I t a l s o d e f i n e s the melodic, and l a t e r , h a r m o n i c s i g n i f i c a n c e of what i s sung by r e l a t i n g i t t o the o v e r a l l t o n a l s c h e m e . 3 0  Then he  adapted  Curwen  (1816-1880)  adopted  a rhythm  Joseph  Cheve  The  incorporated  He  Ibid.,  3 0  Hawkes Pub".  t h e hand  England. system  felt  Kodaly songs  signs  used  (See A p p e n d i x similar  (1804-1864) i n F r a n c e .  children's  composers.  in  syllable  materials  authentic  2 9  and  a background  by  i n and  and  he  Emile-  E.)  were a u t h e n t i c f o l k  games,  John  Finally  used  (See A p p e n d i x  advocated and  to that  F.)  by  music  music,  of  experience with  great music  p.197.  Z o l t a n Kodaly C h o r a l Method, Co. , 1 962) , p. 4. "  (New  York:  Boosey  and  27 was  needed  children group.  in order b e c a u s e of  He  saw  every  honour  t o compose  composer  Emphasizing development teaching  this  process  the  with  chant  soh-mi-lah  keeping  simple notes  with  duple f o r the  gradually  depending  and  his on  should  that  starting  i n n e r r h y t h m s -the e i g h t h note Kodaly's  which  i s thought  t o be  their  to an  as  the c h i l d  f o r music  and  refined  the U n i t e d using unique  the  running  to  in  being pace.  with  the  matured.  or  children.  more  complex,  his  ideas.  in a s l i g h t l y  The  six  Kodaly  and  and  with  first.  to f i v e  circumstances  Using  rhythms  began  States, Australia them  the  t o the c h i l d ' s n a t u r a l  simple  these  the  child's  t h e q u a r t e r note  universal  education  to  the  "moving"  rhythms were p r e s e n t e d limited  geared  of development.  ideas  changed  ideas  task  arrangement of  being  were l a t e r  as  the  with  the p r o g r e s s i o n from  be  paralleled  but  impetus  such  important  age  In h i s o p i n i o n , i t was  at various stages  advised  used  for  material for this  as an  encouraged  i n t o a sequence  young v o i c e was  the  colleagues  adopted  he  increased  i d e a s and  countries  the c h i l d ,  meter  w r o t e music  children.  books w r i t t e n u s i n g  mi-re-doh  In  for children  education  pace  Kodaly  l a c k of H u n g a r i a n  the c h i l d ' s  notes  music.  t h a t music  he  walking first  for  new  should attend.  abilities  concept  keeping  The  of  and  the  composing  which  growth  t o judge  range  notes  and  provided  the  students Today,  and  native  and  various  Japan  different  of  have format  languages.  28 The The  C o n s e n s u s o f t h e K o d a l y and t h e C o m p r e h e n s i v e M u s i c i a n s h i p P r i n c i p l e s of Music E d u c a t i o n  Kodaly  principles is  principles  intersect  i n the types  definitely  of  music,  introduction  music  China  to  Music  for  a  i n c l u d e music  has  become been  then  from  Debussy."  Contemporary  broader  of v a r i e d  with  repertoire  3 1  utilized. with  states  Norman  scope  gains  Although  mother-tongue  that  Kodaly  songs and  "...pentatony  is  i t i s t h e key t o many Gregorian  Dello  stated  musicianship  s u c h a r e a o f agreement  Joio,  in  of  1973,  musical  s t y l e s and times  Both  agree  more  musical  through  director  of  there  Music  that  knowledge,  3 2  a To  curriculum  Project  through  the is  repertoire."  i n t h e music  an  foreign  chant,  that  aim of t h e Contemporary  Kodaly.  one  One  the ancient  Project,  a major  comprehensive  be  to world l i t e r a t u r e :  literatures,  has  to  beginning  he  musical  "...need  the  i n many ways.  specifies  pentatonic  and  as i t  broadening skills  and  understanding. Another Roach,  in  area of consensus speaking  "Development and  form  3 1  of  comprehensive  of c o n c e p t s of p i t c h ,  i s of paramount  Kodaly,  a  i s t h e common-elements a p p r o a c h .  duration,  importance.  "A H u n d r e d Y e a r  outlook  Plan",  These  says  intensity, are  the  that, timbre,  building  p.162.  "Contemporary Music P r o j e c t - Comprehensive M u s i c i a n s h i p , A Project of t h e Music E d u c a t o r s N a t i o n a l C o n f e r e n c e " , Music E d u c a t o r s J o u r n a l , 59 (September 1973):34. 3 2  Donald Comprehensive 1973):40. 3 3  W. Roach, "Contemporary Music Outlook", Music E d u c a t o r s J o u r n a l ,  Education: A 60 (January  29 blocks  of  approach  a l l music."  presented in  Kodaly  3 3  the  form  Although  he d i d n o t use t h i s  duration  or  rhythm  development sol-fa  of  of  term,  syllables  inner  believed  i n a common-elements  basic  singing  the approach  are  spoken  h e a r i n g and p i t c h  exercises  low  voices  as  well  as songs;  i s discerned;  exercises  and  Exercises,  song.  Erzsebet  exercises  and  and  form  is  referring  Szonyi  says,  perfection  discrimination levels  studied  to  the  develops music  teacher."  3 8  a  of form.  sense  comprehension  Kodaly  are  the  through  are  used  "The  Thus,  333  musicality  i n small  also  through  Kodaly's  vocal Reading  of  the  form a r e a s u s e f u l  they are p l e a s a n t t o every beginner, p r o v i d i n g for  sung;  t i m b r e of t h e h i g h , m i d d l e and  In  their  i s s i m i l a r : the  and  and hand s i g n s a r e a t t e n d e d t o ; dynamic  in  training.  believed  a  valuable  that  as  aid  improvising  t h e common-elements b a s i c t o  considered  fundamental  in  both  approaches. The  student's  musicianly believed  participation  behaviours i s another this  voice.  The  teacher  to  participate.  was  comprehensive choose  the  Kodaly  provides  children  should learn  Erzsebet ( L o n d o n : Boosey  point  best accomplished  singing  3 f t  direct  said,  the  of  through  "It is a  best s t a r t  t o read music  music  through  agreement.  Kodaly  i n the beginning with the  musicianship  medium  in  long t o music before  advocates which  allow  the  the c h i l d  will  accepted  truth  education; they  Szonyi, Kodaly's P r i n c i p l e s and Hawkes, 1 9 7 3 ) , p.71 .  are  that  moreover, provided  in Practice, ~~ "  30 w i t h any one  of  form  instrument."  the g o a l s  of  i s the performance  singing,  Although  In c o m p r e h e n s i v e m u s i c i a n s h i p  3 5  playing  Kodaly  an  instrument,  insisted  prerequisites,  such  as  that reading  and  he  accompanied  the v o i c e i n s i n g i n g  such  activities  conducting Other  into  he  and  creating  improvising with writing  conducting.  left  until  other  music  were  of movement  Kodaly  encouraged  clapping,  tapping  and  putting  such  as  creating  and  in  comprehensive  encouraged  Creating  i m p r o v i s i n g , and  understanding  i n the  t h e use  games.  time,  be  combinations.  stressed  By  be  encompassed  the  of music  through  student  in  elements  felt  musician's more  achieved.  alone.  c o n c e n t r a t i o n and  developed  e n a b l i n g the p u p i l s  compose.  Kodaly  underlined  w o u l d be  the  be  free  to  Through  insight  Kodaly  i m p r o v i s i n g w i t h the v o i c e  rhythmic skills,  composing,  analyzing incorporated listening  comprehensive m u s i c i a n s h i p proponents  and  felt  in  programmes.  and  encouraged as  and  were  evaluating.  position  encourage  beating  or  writing  a s p e c t s of b e i n g a m u s i c i a n ,  musicianship  and  as  singly,  analyzing,  arranging  however,  w h i c h may  moving  instruments  accomplished, by  did  of m u s i c  programmes  as  also well  dictation,  a keen e a r would  use  these  skills  be to  that,  ...it i s f i r s t and f o r e m o s t t h e composer who needs an i n t e r n a l e a r a s keen as p o s s i b l e . . . H o w can he h e a r and w r i t e down a c c u r a t e l y what is sounding within the s o u n d s c o m i n g from o u t s i d e ? 3 6  Kodaly, W r i t i n g , p.201. 3 5  3 6  Kodaly,  "Preface"  "Who  to  the  Volume  i s a Good M u s i c i a n ? " ,  M u s i c a l Reading  p.197  and  31 Of  listening  and  e v a l u a t i n g Kodaly  emphasized  that:  I n d i v i d u a l s i n g i n g and l i s t e n i n g t o m u s i c (by means of a c t i v e and p a s s i v e w e l l - a r r a n g e d e x p e r i e n c e s ) d e v e l o p s the ear t o s u c h an e x t e n t t h a t one u n d e r s t a n d s music one has h e a r d w i t h a s much c l a r i t y a s t h o u g h one were l o o k i n g at a s c o r e . 3 7  The  Seminar  Northwestern  statements  should  into musical "Training in  Comprehensive  University  "essential" training  on  be  practice  t a k i n g on  p o i n t s of  musicianship  This  in  one  goal of a u r a l of more  roles  of  of  also  i s an  the musician  their  analytical  penetrating  document  of c o m p o s i t i o n  and  insight  states  essential  of c o m p r e h e n s i v e m u s i c i a n s h i p . . . "  the  item  real  that appears  literature  courses  composition bring  3 8  declared  place at  3 9  that, element  Thus  i s prevalent in  the both  view.  Another  designed  t h a t , "The  structure..."  i n the  1965  the achievement  the development  student  in  M u s i c i a n s h i p t h a t took  this  and  with another.  i n the  "integration".  meant t h a t t h e o r y ,  other  meaning  is  incessantly  r e q u i r e d music  to each p a r t through  In  history, courses  comprehensive the  college  performance,  were combined  interrelating  one  to  aspect  Edwards comments t h a t ,  I n t e g r a t i o n i s the c e n t r a l p r i n c i p l e around which the comprehensive musicianship philosophy revolves. It means that the basic areas of musicianship analyzing, performing, and creating -should be e x p e r i e n c e d as u n i f i e d a c t i v i t i e s r a t h e r than studied s e p a r a t e l y i n a random f r a g m e n t e d m a n n e r . " 0  3 7  3  Music  Ibid.,  p.204.  ""Contemporary Music P r o j e c t , CMP 2, E d u c a t o r s N a t i o n a l C o n f e r e n c e , 1965),  3 9  Ibid.,  p.38.  (Washington, pp.46-47.  D.C.:  32 Integration  was  called  education  music  an  important  p a r t of K o d a l y ' s  a many-sided  effort  approach.  and  said  that  Kodaly musical  experience  as v a r i e d as  possible is indispensible.  He  that  aspects  music  together,  all  constant theory, and  equilibrium.  training  i m p r o v i s i n g , a n a l y z i n g , composing, c o n d u c t i n g ,  arranging  a l l be  concept.  teaching  musicianship  accommodated  Thus,  method.  reading,  he  ear  in  singing,  may  Sight  must d e v e l o p  training,  moving  Kodaly  of  believed  i n one  approved  Edwards  states  of  lesson a  that  f o l l o w i n g the.  highly  in  the  integrated  comprehensive  approach,  The student's ability to synthesize his musical knowledge depends on how t h o r o u g h l y t h e t e a c h e r has i n t e g r a t e d t h e a r e a s of m u s i c i a n s h i p and how well he has t a u g h t f o r r e l a t i o n s h i p s among t h e s e a r e a s . " Both  the  Kodaly  on  the  individual  focus student  should  knowledge Kodaly  and  begin  comprehensive m u s i c i a n s h i p student.  Werner"  2  suggests  t o make j u d g e m e n t s of h i s own  experience  expressed  musical  and  as  a c r e a t o r , performer  s e v e r a l ways  for  the  approach that  b a s e d on and  individual  the his  listener. to  achieve  independence:  Try to sing, however s m a l l y o u r v o i c e , f r o m w r i t t e n music w i t h o u t the a i d of an instrument. This will sharpen y o u r e a r . . . Y o u must l e a r n t o u n d e r s t a n d music on p a p e r t o o . L e a r n t h e b a s i c laws of harmony early. Do not be frightened by words like; theory, figured bass, counterpoint. D e v e l o p i n g the ear i s the most important thing of *°Melinda Edwards, "An I n s t r u c t i o n a l Teaching Comprehensive M u s i c i a n s h i p in a E l e c t i v e M u s i c C o u r s e " , p.2. "'Ibid  p. 4.  n CMP " Werner, P e r s o n i f i e d " , p.33. 2  O b j e c t i v e s Model f o r Senior High School  Means  Comprehensive  Musicianship  33 all."  3  Thus,  realization  of  skills  to h e l p each  student  another  p o i n t of  One  of  the  comprehensive programme  the  it...'"" trained  key  to  t o do  course  be  The  and  wisest is  t h e CMP  " Kodaly,  create  "Who  fully  were not  believe  failure.  He  the  Kodaly  in  leader.  both  s e t s of  comprehensive teach  l a c k of enough  well-  that  the  finest  into  practice  far  as  teacher,  of  ho  with  to  say  then,  is a  principles. are  closely  i s comprehensive musicianship  achieved  For a  The  the  to  even goes so  the  the  them  Van  more  Kodaly  Slyke,  Means  approach  "The  main g o a l of  knowledgeable,  i s a Good M u s i c i a n ? " ,  *"Werner, "CMP Personified, p.33.  truly  a t t i t u d e s that l i e  believed  put  of  Comprehensive  integrated  for  to  and  various channels. to  reiteration  teacher  g o a l s and  The  was  nobody  enthusiasm.  of  and  r e g u l a t i o n s i s s u e d f r o m above a r e  The 'CMP's.goal  is  is  comprehensive  r e q u i r e s a comprehensive musician  i n c a r r y i n g out  goals  aligned.  3  the  efforts.  concern  there  figure  program  doomed t o  "...with  e v e r y t h i n g d e p e n d s on  through  realization  d i d not  the  and  independent  embryonic  i n h i s a p p r o a c h and  teacher's  if  the  I f the  has  and  conviction that  the  the  professional teachers.  curricula value  of  Kodaly's  1  t o become m u s i c i a l l y  o u t c o m e s of  was  seemed  musicianship  f o r knowledge, u n d e r s t a n d i n g  teacher.  it  musicianship behind  major  curricula  importance  need  consensus.  the  musicianship  the  better  the  rounded  p.186.  Comprehensive  Musicianship  34 musical  adult  population  music  as s t u d e n t s . " *  that  Kodaly's  amateur. produce but  "...first to  people  concern see  an  and a r t i s t i c  Kodaly  6  complete  had s i m i l a r  involvement  goals.  was  the  education  t o whom m u s i c  a way o f l i f e . " "  social  Kodaly  5  He w i s h e d a  t h r o u g h more  Choksy  musically system  full  This,  training  said,  i n music.  book, . The K o d a l y Method Education  from  philosophy concurs  Infant  could  was n o t a way t o make a  living  of the c h i l d .  musicians  not merely  goal.""  Kodaly  7  only play hearts.  could  only  His  It i s interesting is  showing  said  with t h e i r  that  that  music  the  at a sol-fa  and  not  with  education.  Boyle  comprehensive primary  c o m p e t i t i o n , "They their  heads  They a r e n o t m u s i c i a n s b u t m a c h i n e o p e r a t o r s . " "  Another  major  agreement  in  the  Music Kodaly  p e r f o r m e r s s h o u l d be t h e  disparingly fingers  Choksy's  Comprehensive  when he s a y s , "Development o f competent  goal  t o the highest  t o note  subtitled  to Adult  chief  be a c c o m p l i s h e d t h r o u g h a  a l s o aims a t a comprehensive  with Kodaly  literate  wanted t o a i d i n t h e w e l l - b a l a n c e d  development  he  states  that  was t o d e v e l o p t h e power o f m u s i c a l c o m p r e h e n s i o n degree.  in  two a p p r o a c h e s  and  8  t o music  " James K. Van S l y k e , as quoted by Woods i n "The D e v e l o p m e n t and E v a l u a t i o n o f an I n d e p e n d e n t School Curriculum Stressing Comprehensive M u s i c i a n s h i p a t Each L e v e l , P r e s c h o o l T h r o u g h S e n i o r H i g h S c h o o l " , p.136. 5  " L o i s C h o k s y , The K o d a l y Method , (Englewood J e r s e y : P r e n t i c e - H a l l ^ I n c . , 1974), p . 1 5 . 6  Cliffs,  New  * J. D a v i d B o y l e , "CMP's Summer Workshops - C o m p r e h e n s i v e Musicianship f o r Teachers", Music Educators J o u r n a l , 59 (July 1971):67. 7  " Kodaly,"Who 8  i s a Good M u s i c i a n ? " , p.196.  35 education  i s i n the area  of pedagogy.  Choksy  proposes  that:  K o d a l y r e p r e s e n t s a body o f living, growing thought about music education. I t s h o u l d n o t be f r o z e n i n t o one rigid pedagogy. Within the c l e a r l y defined philosophy of Kodaly many s e q u e n c e s , many t e a c h i n g t e c h n i q u e s s h o u l d be p o s s i b l e . 1 , 9  She  believes  determine plans.  their Kodaly  teacher these also  that  to  teachers  own  sequences and  provided  assess  principles. outlined  students  their  their  to  meet  particular  students.  twenty-one  teachers  t h e needs, From to  abilities  comprehensively.  a  long-range  a plan  to utilize  principles are  to develop  their  and i n t e r e s t s  1 9 6 8 t o 1 9 7 3 t h e CMP g a v e develop  goals,  a n d i t i s up t o t h e  and d e v i s e  a r e encouraged  own  own  The c o m p r e h e n s i v e m u s i c i a n s h i p  and teachers  music  write  upon  the basic principles  his  curricula  teaching  must d e c i d e  variety  of  of  own their  grants  to  approaches t o  F o r Werner,  Comprehensive musicianship represents basically an attitude o r an approach t o music education which offers a solid yet flexible enough framework upon which the s t r e n g t h s and weaknesses of both t h e f a c u l t y and s t u d e n t s c a n be adapted. 5 0  Mitchell  asserts  musicianship) resourcefulness  has  that, no  and  set  "By  definition  methodology,  inventiveness  in  for  (comprehensive i t  endlessly  Lois C h o k s y , The K o d a l y C o n t e x t , ( E n g l e w o o d J e r s e y : P r e n t i c e - H a l l , I n c . , 1981), p.177. ft9  thrives  on  variegated  Cliffs,  New  Robert Werner, "The C o n t e m p o r a r y Music P r o j e c t : The Development of t h e Theory of Comprehensive M u s i c i a n s h i p " , (paper p r e s e n t e d a t t h e CMP Conference on College Music Curricula, A r l i e House, Va., October 28, 1970), p.5. 5 0  36 situations."  5 1  Although basic  disciplinary  musicianship  differ,  it  education  is  and  and  have some b a s i c allied  combined  into  choice  apparent  those  closely  the  of  ideas  tactics,  that  the  of  tools  comprehensive  in certain  It  is  such.as the  C h a l m e r s Doane U k u l e l e  primarily Canada  through  f o r the  U k u l e l e Method recordings groups The  produced  offers  t o the c l a s s r o o m  Classroom  the  Yes!",  j o u r n a l s and  of  musicianship because  proponents  the  two  is  are  can  be  proposing.  Programme  His  been  two  Encore,  disseminated  of  and and  of  Classroom  the  various  adult  f o r the  which  newsletters  throughout  books,  5 3  backbone  ukulele  programme.  Doane  is  the  special  interest  teacher.  not  intended  a  ukulele  classroom  teaching,  because of  sparsely scattered instructions.  t o be  method  a self-teach Doane has  'William Mitchell, "Observations on Symposium", MENC H i s t o r i c a l C e n t r e , M c K e l d i n of M a r y l a n d , p . 3 . n.d. 5  method  purposely  Chalmers Doane, C l a s s r o o m U k u l e l e Method, rev. ( W a t e r l o o , O n t a r i o : W a t e r l o o M u s i c Co. L t d . , 1980). Chalmers Doane, U k u l e l e Encore, W a t e r l o o M u s i c Co. L t d . , 1975).  for  the Arlie House Library, University  5 2  5 3  may music  t h a t they  investigator  U k u l e l e Method, is  principles  h i s H a l i f a x student  provide  ukulele  goals  workshops h e l d a n n u a l l y  Ukulele  "Ukulele  for achieving  reach  Programme has  years.  and  5 2  organization  The  nine  t h a t Doane and  have  president,  provincial  last  to  fundamental a s p e c t s  C h a l m e r s Doane U k u l e l e The  media  Kodaly's  i n common.  a programme  the  (Waterloo,  ed.  Ontario:  37 done t h i s  to  teachers  he  has  instrumental that  personally  identified  such  as  chords needs."  teachers  to  in  CMP  attend  trained.  avenues Doane pursues  w r i t t e n and  as  encourage  and  in-service  Through both  aural development  Kodaly  programmes.  a u r a l , i s a l s o a major concern.  For  ' p i c i n g ' , rhythmic  strumming,  by  emphasized according  5 4  ear, He  should  be  o u t l i n e s the  with  vocal  and  similar  to  Theory,  both  Doane,  sight reading  "Areas  and  changing  to the  student's  four o b j e c t i v e s of h i s u k u l e l e  course  follows: 1. 2. 3.  t o t e a c h the b a s i c s k i l l s of u k u l e l e p l a y i n g to present ear t r a i n i n g i n d i r e c t l y to teach the b a s i c concepts of theory  4.  to i n c r e a s e the  The  5 5  lessons which provide  s t r u c t u r e f o r s t a r t i n g the programme which can  implemented  by a k n o w l e d g e a b l e t e a c h e r .  songs presented music  Doane  enjoyment of music  method book c o n s i s t s of t h i r t y  skeletal  no  student's  a r e w e l l known t o t h e  is  given,  cautions  the  teacher  to  only  be  I t i s assumed that  the  teacher  j u s t words, chords  a  as  and  proceed  in  many  cases  starting pitches. slowly  with  the  assignments i n t h i s book. Doane's of  songs  provides skills book  a  book, U k u l e l e  arrangements convenient  introduced may  5  and  second  for  initial  be p e r f o r m e d  Ibid.,  the  by  is essentially a  voice  and  ukulele.  repertoire  for  the  i n the method book.  The  selections  groups or s o l o i s t s .  "Chalmers Doane, Classroom  5 5  Encore,  Ukulele  Method,  He  p.4. <  It  technical in  verifies  p.3.  book  this that  38 all  the  ukulele of  arrangements  groups before  importance  terms  of  piloted  pedagogy,  specifics  framework o f  musicianship:  levels  scales,  patterns,  improvisation,  solo  are  skills,  s i n g i n g and  t h e same t i m e . the  particularly  instrumental  An  example  the  close  similarity  and  the  only  provides  5 6  aural  within in  the  For  a basic  skills  strumming  and  techniques,  playing  both the v o i c e  of beginning  to help  and a c c e s s i b l e e n t r y  assists  identified  training,  i s the concept  overcome  by  and  ear,  into vocal  of elementary  interest  development.  C h a l m e r s Doane, U k u l e l e  of  song  His  t h e s t r i n g s " , an  E n c o r e , p.3.  b a s e d on  position  children.  harmonization  comment  vocal  weaknesses.  harmonization  school  students,  developed  initial  first  ukulele  frequently  ukulele  of " s i n g i n g  of the instrument's  range  i n what  levels".  growth  of  capability.  c a n be f o u n d  c l a s s r o o m , Doane has  effective  vocal  terms  "workshop  of  s t a r t s with  techniques  of t h i s  It i s  5 6  theory.  background  i n a general  with  i t h a s been  in  musical  skills, ear  until  Because of t h e d e f i c i e n c i e s which  music  and  areas  reading  book."  evaluated  presently  ten  Doane programme  in  and  t h e programme a s t h e  conceptual  exist  or curriculum  o f t h e Doane c u r r i c u l u m  six  at  into this  used  i s a d d e d t o t h e programme i n  by t e a c h e r s  teachers,  The  way  i n b u i l d i n g an o p e r a t i o n a l  known w i t h i n  chord  "...successfully  nothing  materials  i n classrooms  The  been  finding their  t o Doane t h a t  effectiveness  are  have  that,  range  T h i s not but  also  "When y o u c a n  39 harmonize... the emphasis  world  in his  resource  i n n o v a t i v e programme  pool  of d e v e l o p e d  t h e Doane programme The was  recently  it.  introduced  from  playing  instruments, Doane  major  area  of  of  Reading  some t h r e e y e a r s classroom  note  also  techniques  promotes  as  an  this  from the  curriculum, evolution.  for U k u l e l e  of c o n t i n u o u s of  without  revision  teachers  gradual  5 8  using  inclusion  ukulele's  of  companion  guitar.  experiential  a l l the m u s i c a l  Program  the the  and  steady  experience is  starts  concepts.  use  of  the  ukulele  His curriculum contains  following: 1.  varied  2.  l i t e r a c y s k i l l s with a s t a r t i n g point in the of D, a beginning determined by the i n s t r u m e n t ' s open s t r i n g t u n i n g of A, D F# B and m o v i n g t h r o u g h t h e k e y s of G, C, F, Bb and A  3.  right the beat  4.  adaptation techniques  5.  6.  time  s i g n a t u r e s i n simple  of  right  hand  chords for a l l keys: diminished utilizing barr ing.  key  music  theory: "A  guitar  notation, New  and  Look a t  intervals, the  to  mandolin  major, minor, dominant basic patterns and  Marven Shields, A Music (Waterloo, O n t a r i o : Waterloo Music 5 8  time  hand strumming t e c h n i q u e s , l a r g e l y u n i q u e instrument, which i n c l u d e on-beat, o f f and s y n c o p a t e d a c c e n t p a t t e r n s  C h a l m e r s Doane, (1979):9. 5 7  4  to  such  in a process  t h e m a n d o l i n and  incorporating  a  materials, content  A Music  the a c t u a l  Interesting  relevant  the  is s t i l l  published only after  resulting  indicates  5 7  approach.  B e c a u s e an a  is yours."  and  scale  Keyboard", U k u l e l e  Reading Program Co., 1982).  Yes,  for Ukulele.  40  structure, transposition, and harmony in terms of chord modulation  introductory sequence and  7.  the study of s c a l e s as c e n t r a l t o the development of instrumental playing skills including their harmonization as a requirement for combining melody and harmony in solo performance  8.  p l a y i n g by e a r , m e l o d i c a l l y and harmonically the introduction of improvisation as a teachable musical skill  9.  singing  While h i s r e p e r t o i r e c o n s i s t s m a i n l y of popular  music,  instrument its first  jazz  folk  capacity  repertoire.  I t m u s t be  to u t i l i z e  a relatively  nine  in  i t s infancy.  for  the  recorder  trained classical  songs, the of  sophisticated  rather,  of  this approach,  the  string  repertoire like  ready at hand. have  already a  a v a i l a b l e for the method has  as  5 9  that  is  fact  that  some  made  a  start  on  of  still  available  The  Doaneadapting  musical  styles  to learn  pieces,  instrument.  i t s goal  t o become a m u s i c i a n . "  instrument  a mass b a s i s ,  range  this  enlargement  No  repertoire suggests that  Doane  substantial  remembered that  pre-existing  century  a d a p t a b i l i t y of  o l d , on  lies  be  twentieth  to twelve years  specialists  gradually The  but  and  s u g g e s t s the  for students  will  and  For  "...not him  a musician  is,  . . . s o m e o n e who thinks he is a musiciah...when a student t h i n k s enough of his own ability to play, s i g h t r e a d , w r i t e o r s i n g m u s i c t h a t he c o u n t s h i m s e l f as being a m u s i c i a n , then the t e a c h e r ' s main job has been a c c o m p l i s h e d . 6 0  C h a l m e r s Doane, 2(1977): 1 . 5 9  "President's  Message",  Ukulele  Yes,  2  41 The  aesthetic attributes  f o r h i s method a r e a d d r e s s e d  when Doane  says: M u s i c c r e a t e s i n t h e human s o u l an e m o t i o n a l response capable of extreme and d i r e c t c o m m u n i c a t i o n w i t h o u t the use of l a n g u a g e . The u k u l e l e i s one o f the best means of starting students along the road to t h i s end. 6 1  The  Doane programme  education. for  I t s Canadian content  use i n Canadian  the  i s a unique Canadian approach to  programme  makes  s c h o o l s but i t s broad  adaptable  a the  focus  of v a r i o u s s t y l e s on t h e p e r f o r m i n g  organizing activity  beginnings  and  consideration  has  author, found  however,  has  i t t o be a v e r y  music.  Some  programme Appendix  of  Ibid.,  p.1.  6 1  Ibid.,  p.1.  of  given  exciting useful in  i s manifested  makes  by  his  The r e c o r d i n g s  show  Due t o  the  i t s grass little  Doane  roots serious  programme.  The  i t f o r s e v e r a l y e a r s and  and p r o d u c t i v e and e s s e n t i a l the  base  c o u n t r i e s as w e l l .  repertoire to  attractive  o f r e a d i n g and p l a y i n g and  of a r r a n g i n g .  are incorporated  6 0  activities  p e r s o n a l l y used  the  A, B a n d C.  outlook  of performance.  quality been  conceptual  f o r musics of other  Doane's c o m p r e h e n s i v e m u s i c i a n s h i p inclusion  i t especially  music  phases  way  of  aspects presented  teaching o f Doane's here  in  42  Manhattanville Music The  Curriculum  Programmes  MMCP I n t e r a c t i o n a n d t h e MMCP S y n t h e s i s a r e t w o o f t h e  major products (MMCP).  o f t h e M a n h a t t a n v i l l e Music  From  1965  Arts and Humanities  to  Curriculum  Programme  1970 t h i s p r o j e c t was s p o n s o r e d  Programme  of the United  States  by t h e  Office  of  Education. The early  MMCP I n t e r a c t i o n i s a c o m p r e h e n s i v e  childhood.  " I t has been developed  in musicianship f o r c h i l d r e n grades."  The  w i t h no  focus  emphasis  implemented  by  t h e day.  exclusive are  on  i s on sound notation.  the classroom  The authors  learning plan.  oriented  judgmental group  as a basic  the pre-primary  experience  and  and  to  the creative,  individual  painting and theatre.  This  singing, The authors  personal  programme  c a n be  guiding and i n i t i a t i n g  them  with  many  theactivities discovery,  experiences  primary  i n an a u r a l  s t a t e t h a t t h e programme  Although  aspects, other  a n d on music  teacher  musical activities and.integrating during  programme f o r  Interaction i sprocess-oriented accentuating  6 2  involvement. form  of  music  activities i s n o tan  in the  book  exploratory  and  a r e presented  listening activities,  such  as  dancing,  state,  ...the study must p r o v i d e t h e c h i l d w i t h the fullest experiences i n music as d i c t a t e d by t h e nature o ft h e art. He m u s t become i n v o l v e d i n t h e t o t a l process, composing, performing, conducting, listening with c r i t i c a l awareness, and e v a l u a t i n g . 6 3  Americole Biasini, Ronald Thomas & Lenore Pogonowski, MMCP I n t e r a c t i o n , ( B a r d o n i a , New Y o r k : Media M a t e r i a l s , I n c . , 1970), p . v . 6 2  6 3  Ibid.,  p.5,6.  43  The  f i v e areas with which  this  curriculum  deals  are  as  follows: 1. 2. 3.  experience w i t h i n the c r e a t i v e process development of s e n s i t i v i t y t o sounds understanding of basic concepts of musical elements a c q u i s i t i o n of simple s k i l l s which allow the c h i l d to operate as a c r e a t i v e m u s i c i a n development of p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e s toward music and  4. 5.  self. " 6  The  developmental  exploration, planned  phases  guided  exploration,  i m p r o v i s a t i o n and  with sample encounters, and  evaluation  teacher  of musical  exploratory  r e a p p l i c a t i o n . Each  principal  making  i t  relatively  easy  free  improvisation,  phase  is laid  out  procedures  f o r the  classroom  to follow.  needing  more m a t e r i a l or w i s h i n g  intermediate grades. encounters. sources,  A  The skill  is  to extend  These include mental  g l o s s a r y of terms,  bibliography,  and  information a teacher might MMCP S y n t h e s i s  on  list  It  a knowledgeable  Ibid.,  discography  teachers  encounters  into the  and  vocal  furnish  sound  additional  need. the other hand, emphasizes  concept  in the processes  S y n t h e s i s , which  to c o l l e g e level,  musician.  p.9.  The  for  the process  incorporates a s p i r a l approach  these musical concepts. intermediate grades  given  of unconventional  development as w e l l as e x p e r i e n c e  musicianship.  6 4  are  ideas, objectives,  An a l t e r n a t e s e r i e s o f e n c o u n t e r s  and  exploration  is  of  in presenting suitable  from  r e q u i r e s the teacher to  be  44  The  Synthesis  strategies concepts  grouped  t o be  form, p i t c h under  vocabulary  to  rhythm.  The  dextrous  and  teacher  accomplish  given.  the  s i x t e e n c y c l e s or  Each c y c l e  under  f o r each c y c l e .  to g i v e the  of  in fours.  encountered  and  aural,  consists  the  skills  subtitles f o r each  translative Sample  direction  i n how  tasks.  Of  additional  bibliography  and  contrasting  sounds,  value are  complementary  they  believe in  the 1.  explore that  these  needs  i n music  n e e d s can  be  met  index,  under  concept  headings  index,  such  Music  The  3.  Music  • as  sounds, d u r a t i o n , dynamics, ostinati, and  so  on.  t h e MMCP have education. by  viewing  polyphony,  importance The  music  education  must be comprehended from within and flourish as an outward e x p r e s s i o n of t h e i n d i v i d u a l through taking the part of a musician — c r e a t i n g m u s i c i n v a r i o u s ways and r e s p o n d i n g t o m u s i c i n v a r i o u s ways.  music e x p e r i e n c e is a very individualistic happening as each child brings his own m u s i c a l background t o the music c l a s s . must be r e l e v a n t t o t h e c h i l d a s eliminate what the c h i l d hears school.  in  authors  f o l l o w i n g ways:  2.  4.  felt  environment  are  s o u n d s , m a c h i n e s , mood, p o r t r a i t s  that  the  presented  or p o s s i b l e e x t e n s i o n s  fugues,  of  then  of  are  animal  major p r o d u c t i o n s  listed  examples  modes, m o t i v e s ,  two  dynamics,  are  listening  pitch,  These  c a n o n s and  are  and  musical  f o l l o w e d by a l i s t  the c y c l e  extensive discography  the  timbre,  t o s e t up  Suggested  of  cycle  strategies  Sometimes o p t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s  listed.  consists  spirals  we cannot o u t s i d e of  A u r a l d i s c r i m i n a t i o n i s of paramount importance in the music e x p e r i e n c e . The w r i t e r s do not advocate imposing values on t h e c h i l d but  45 stress intelligent sensitivity. 5.  The  process  idea  i s , "Totality  i sessential musicality  to  of experience  t h e development  i s d e f i n e d as " r e f i n e d  Thomas u n d e r l i n e s t h a t m u s i c i a n s h i p be  facilitated  diverse  emphasis  a t music  curricula Synthesis teachers  the a c q u i s i t i o n  ideas put f o r t h  different looking  by  cannot  in  the  musical  of m u s i c a l i t y . . . " sensitivity". be a c q u i r e d  of s k i l l s  6 5  Ronald but can  and data  through  experiences.  The  Steven  with  The m u s i c programme must be h i g h l y s t r u c t u r e d a n d yet open-ended allowing for personal embellishments.  pervading  where  listening  on  t h e above  education  and r e a s s e s s is still  in  Zvengrowski using  6 6  new  aspects.  has s t i m u l a t e d o t h e r s  their being  interested  musicianship  i n t h e MMCP a r e n o t  processes  o f music  but place  This  a  new way o f  t o review  their  education.  The  r e v i s e d , a d a p t e d a n d implemented by  i t s basic  patterned  philosophy.  his spiral  For  example,  c y c l e for developing  t h e g u i t a r on t h e MMCP S y n t h e s i s .  Ronald B. Thomas, MMCP S y n t h e s i s : A S t r u c t u r e f o r M u s i c E d u c a t i o n , ( E l i n o r a , New Y o r k : M e d i a , I n c . , 1970), p . 2 1 . ~ 6 5  S t e p h e n Z v e n g r o w s k i , "The T r e a t m e n t o f I d i o m a t i c S o n o r i t y in Selected Compositions f o r t h e G u i t a r as a C u r r i c u l u m Source for Comprehensive Musicianship", (Ph.D. Dissertation, N o r t h w e s t e r n U n i v e r s i t y , 1978). 6 6  46 The The  Hawaii  Hawaii  Music  Group  programme  is  curriculum.  a  at  under  the  of E d u c a t i o n C u r r i c u l u m Research  and  the  was  University  unified  The  Program  Program  s p o n s o r s h i p of the C o l l e g e Development  Music  K-12  programme  i s divided  to kindergarten  and  g r a d e s two  and  3 equivalent  six;  zone  4  equivalent and  3  Music and  C,  equivalent  make up  each  but  be  most p e r t i n e n t  used  study  levels.  Because  vocal  instrumental,  and  Band P e r f o r m a n c e Performance  Zone  s e v e n and  and  four,  eight;  twelve.  five,  i s zone  and  and  zone  5  1,  2  Zones  Classroom B  or  C  the p r e c e d i n g or h i g h e r  s e v e n and 3,  to  five  s i x i s d e s i g n a t e d zone eight.  because  Comprehensive  Comprehensive  are a p p l i c a b l e  equivalent  a book d e s i g n a t e d A,  t h e programme d e v e l o p e d the  2  z o n e s : zone 1  of  in this  3,  book  The  zone  the  grade  study i s both  Musicianship  Through  M u s i c i a n s h i p Through  Choral  t o some e x t e n t .  3: For  and  grade  i n grade  to t h i s  zone  total  musicianship  five  to grades  overlapped into  F o r example,  can  one;  The  M u s i c i a n s h i p Through  Each grade c o n t a i n s c a n be  Hawaii.  into  t e n , e l e v e n and  the Comprehensive  letter  level.  grade  to grades  to grades nine,  series.  grade  zone  of  comprehensive  equivalent  three;  developed  a  each  level,  student text.  A,  B and The  C,  there  student text  i s both  a  teacher  text  i s b o t h a songbook and  a  workbook. The students  introduction who  t o e a c h book  participate  states,  "It is  in t h i s course w i l l  have  assumed  that  successfully  47 completed  earlier  substance." year  into  require  quarters.  one  tone,  Tone Each  the  section  subconcepts  as  concepts, singing,  notating,  a checklist  the  may  basic concepts  plus  additional Each s e c t i o n  f o r the  i s encouraged the  pitch,  have  use.  of c u l t u r e s ,  to s e l e c t  other  timbre.  instruments, t o be  teacher's The  styles  songs  form.  terms, m a t e r i a l s ,  activities  teacher's  one  listed  and  and  playing  i n the  school  are  duration key  similar  s e c t i o n s which  A section  discussing,  The  As  dividing  several  objectives,  represent a variety  supplement  The  of  recordings  to  has  of  melody, harmony, t e x t u r e , t o n a l i t y  lists  such  teacher  four u n i t s  unit  studied.  teacher's d i s c r e t i o n .  ends w i t h  of  Each  t o be  i n c l u d e s the  analyzing,  the program or c o u r s e s  o r more l e s s o n s t o c o m p l e t e .  rhythm,  activities  of  Zone 3 c o n s i s t s  6 7  o r more c o n c e p t s as  courses  and  used  edition  songs and  at  and  periods.  recordings  course.  s t a t e d i n the  preface:  A major premise of t h e H a w a i i M u s i c P r o g r a m i s t h a t music should be experienced and studied through participation i n many d i f f e r e n t m u s i c i a n l y r o l e s , a l l of which require a high degree of individualized activity. S i n c e a g o a l of t h e p r o g r a m i s t o h e l p e a c h student discover one o r more r o l e s t h r o u g h w h i c h he may p a r t i c i p a t e most successfully, attention should initiate procedures t h a t w i l l permit each student to p r o g r e s s a t h i s own r a t e o f learning. This may be accomplished as t h e m u s i c a l s t r e n g t h s and w e a k n e s s e s of s t u d e n t s a r e identified,and as students develop their own p e r s o n a l s k i l l s as i m p r o v i s e r s , composers, i n s t r u m e n t a l i s t s , l i s t e n e r s , d a n c e r s , and a n a l y s t s . 6 8  William Hughes, Comprehensive M u s i c i a n s h i p Through C l a s s r o o m M u s i c , Zone 3, (Menlo P a r k , C a l i f o r n i a : A d d i s o n - W e s l e y Pub.Co., 1974), p . i i i . 6 7  Ibid.,  p.v.  48  At given  prescribing  apply The  t h e end o f e a c h u n i t  ways t o a s s e s s  the concepts teacher  according  is  review Series,  they free  t o h i s own  B e t t y M. of  have to  evaluation  students  extend  individually  is  as they  situations.  or  modify  these  procedures  of  Texas,  Austin,  needs.  Kanable, U n i v e r s i t y  that  worksheet  s t u d i e d t o new m u s i c a l  Comprehensive M u s i c i a n s h i p  says  philosophy  a summary  i t i s true to the  i n her  Through Classroom  comprehensive  Music  musicianship  in that,  The (comprehensive musicianship) a t t i t u d e i s one o f openness t o a l l m u s i c a l styles and traditions as resources for developing musical understandings; i t a l l o w s f o r f l e x i b i l i t y i n t h e c h o i c e o f m a t e r i a l s and teaching approaches. in the student-centred, experience-oriented classroom. 6 9  Zone 4 and 5: C o m p r e h e n s i v e M u s i c i a n s h i p  Through  Band  Performance These composition  zones c o n s i s t for full  of f i v e  or s i x u n i t s each c o n t a i n i n g  band a s a c o r e  a  study.  The u n i t s a r e c o n s i d e r e d t o be m o d e l s f o r t h e s t u d y o f musical concepts. Each unit includes objectives... Activities for comprehensive musicianship, and evaluation guides... Activities f o r f u l l band and s m a l l ensembles a r e p r o v i d e d and c o r r e l a t e d . 7 0  The  compositions  a r e chosen  to  broaden  understanding  of  Betty M. Kanable, book review of "Comprehensive Musicianship Through Classroom Music S e r i e s " , J o u r n a l of R e s e a r c h i n M u s i c E d u c a t i o n , 23 ( A p r i l 1975):92. 6 9  Brent Heisinger, Performance, Zone 4, Pub. Co., 1973), p . v . 7 0  C o m p r e h e n s i v e M u s i c i a n s h i p T h r o u g h Band (Menlo Park, C a l i f o r n i a : Addison-Wesley  49 concepts,  portray diverse musical  material.  The purpose of the  students  in  the  others, study  and  provide  of music.  extend  Small  knowledge  to  ensembles  of chamber music,  groups  groups and  acquire  are  designed  the  small  small ensemble performances basic notation fundamental orchestration and  4.  basic rehearsal techniques  t o determine  t o what e x t e n t  i s expected  Included  aloud  in  the  t o have a notebook  i s expected  activities  rhythmic  and  identifying aurally),  students  and  conduct  reinforce  and  The student i s experiences  a t the end.  I t s purpose  o b j e c t i v e s have been met. copy  are  of  the  score  include:  melodic and  preferred  playing  describing,  excerpts  researching,  comparing,  Every  notebook.  for analysis,  I n some e x e r c i s e s t h e  sing  songs  counting  and  parts.  on an instrument,  taking  improvising,  ear,  appraising,  improvising,  1 b id. , p . v i i .  performing  by  student  intervals, practise and  dictation,  listening,  71  start  7 1  t o sing melodic  using any method  Other  involve  group  homework e x a m p l e s a n d e n s e m b l e e x e r c i s e s . student  to  about:  1. 2. 3.  student  to  r e f i n e performances. from  concert  f o r a n a l y s i s , p r a c t i c e and  Each unit has evaluation questions is  is  opportunities to rehearse  small  understanding  also expected  small  performance  composing, give students  s t y l e s and to provide  analyzing  transposing, (visually  and  identifying, interpreting,  composing,  mapping,  transcribing,  synthesizing and d i s c u s s i n g .  50 Zone 5: C o m p r e h e n s i v e This consists  M u s i c i a n s h i p Through  of f o u r  books  Choral  (A, B, C and  Performance  D)  designed  for  grades nine through twelve. The rationale underlying the program emphasizes the interdependence of musical knowledge and musical performance...The curriculum i s s e q u e n t i a l l y planned so t h a t p r i m a r y u n d e r s t a n d i n g s a r e r e v i s i t e d , e x p a n d e d and r e i n f o r c e d . In this way, students grasp the w h o l e n e s s o f m u s i c , t h e i n t e r r e l a t e d n e s s o f making and thinking music. 7 2  Each  book  contains  concepts  identified  included  in  difficulty,  each  musical  seven in  teacher  style  i s encouraged  unique part Western end  of t h i s  music.  of e a c h u n i t  which a r e l i s t e d  The  the  unit,  be c o n s i d e r e d a c e n t r a l  Hawaii  core  3. 4.  7 2  Choral Wesley  f o r one  t o supplement method  purpose  one  varied  and e t h n i c  choral  f o r each of the  The in  four  E a c h book  year's study. w i t h h i s own  can  However, t h e material.  i s the i n c o r p o r a t i o n  a t the b e g i n n i n g of the u n i t  Music  of p e r f o r m i n g  derivation.  of the e v a l u a t i o n  basic  compositions  terms  of  One non-  procedures at the  i s t o d e t e r m i n e t o what e x t e n t  musicianship philosophy 1. 2.  -  series.  are  Summary o f The H a w a i i M u s i c The  units  the  objectives  have  been  met.  the  comprehensive  Program Program  follows  i n the f o l l o w i n g  respects:  It i s sequential. I t e n c o u r a g e s c o n t i n u i t y o f programme from K to 12. It i s child-centred — allows i n d i v i d u a l i z a t i o n . I t f o c u s e s on m u s i c a s t h e s t u d y o f m u s i c .  Brent Heisinger, Comprehensive M u s i c i a n s h i p Through P e r f o r m a n c e , Zone 5, ( M e n l o Park, California: AddisonPub.Co., 1973), p . v .  51 5. 6. 7.  I t c o v e r s a d i v e r s i t y of musics. I t e n c o u r a g e s t e a c h e r and s t u d e n t i n p u t . It allows pupils to participate in musicianly roles. I t i n t e g r a t e s c o n c e p t s and a c t i v i t i e s . I t i s comprehensive i n that i t covers concepts, basic skills, music knowledge and performance. I t c o n s i d e r s e v a l u a t i o n an e s s e n t i a l p a r t of teaching and l e a r n i n g . I t s main purpose is to h e l p the student understand m u s i c and t h e r e b y a i d t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f c o m p r e h e n s i v e musicianship.  8. 9. 10. 11.  The  Hawaii Music  each a s s i g n e d the  same  series  to d i f f e r e n t  philosophy.  areas  The  i s " . . . t o e n h a n c e by  existing  musical  Other  I.  Project staff  Colour  Strings  teachers This  educator  with  the  a  The  focus  (student  on m u s i c a l  book and  based  violin  efforts  concepts  in  to  this  already  Techniques  handbook  of  an  success  was  art of  method d e v i s e d produced  grant  in  1978,  many c o n c e r t s  7 3  Ibid.,  7 0  Geza Szilvay, 1980).  in  from the  i t s implementation  I n t e r n a t i o n a l S o c i e t y of Music  Fazer,  their  people,  7 3  the  the  a l l committed  I n c o r p o r a t i n g Kodaly  Geza S z i l v a y  help  zones, but of  ten  for  parents)  Kodaly  music  Education.  and  7 a  of  purpose  activities".  Programmes  and  consisted  given  Educators  by  the  Hungarian  Helsinki,  Finland  F i n n i s h M i n i s t r y of was  a t t e s t e d to at  i n London,  i n Europe, U n i t e d  Ontario  States  and  p.v. Colour  Strings, Violin,  (Helsinki,  Finland:  52 Australia,  and  pedagogical (Mini the  by  the  Finnish  television  fiddlers  In  keeping  education  series  in musicland),  I n t e r n a t i o n a l Year  a t an  of  with early  Broadcasting  the  the age,  Company's  "Viuluviikarit  w h i c h was  Kodaly Szilvay  concept starts  of  with  s t a t e s t h a t he  the  by  means o f c h i l d r e n ' s s o n g s . "  says  sol-fa  syllables,  exercise."  the  "...songs  b e l i e v e d one  after  he  is  can  read music,  " n o t e - p i c t u r e " and not  hear  internally is  pictured indicates note.  but  learned  a bird,  mother,  to the c h i l d  This i s later r e d and  green  Szilvay  is  says,  well-chosen  "A  e.g.  of d i f f e r e n t with  Ibid.,  p.4.  7 6  Ibid.,  p.5.  added  the  Although  He  only  feels  concept  string  a b i g bear.  see this  for  each  to lowest  Each  of  the p i t c h q u a l i t y  to coloured s t r i n g s  of  thicknesses according to  of  in  to  instrument  versa.  highest  the c o n t e n t  collection  words and  t o have t h e c h i l d  Thus t h e  something about  p r o v i d e a b a c k g r o u n d and  7 5  f a t h e r and  with  Kodaly,  the a u d i o - v i s u a l c a p a c i t y to  i t .  from  transferred  concerned  of  vice  with  oriented.  t o p l a y an  attempts  music  them t o p l a y  As  7 5  be  group  s o u n d and  i s enhancing —  might  is  Szilvay a  of  early-preschool  sung b o t h  taught  h i n d e r i n g the development  string  blue,  hear  be  be  signs  method  should  honour  starting  "...aims t o t e a c h  should  hand  Szilvay's  7 6  Kodaly  a  and  in  Child.  He  Szilvay  musiikkimaassa"  produced  aged c h i l d r e n . instrument  38-part  these of  the  yellow, pitch.  of h i s programme when  s o n g s and  musical  c o n t r i b u t e t o t h e b a s i s of  pieces the  is  he  will  future  53 emotional is  life  to develop  well  of not  rounded  progress  the only  beyond t h e  for  teacher's  very  knowledge and He  child's  a p p e a r s t o be  S z i l v a y ' s goal  7 7  personality.  method the  child."  c h i l d r e n - one  of  this  method  with  the  be  a  t o demand  development.  a p p r o a c h would  i n keeping  not  leaves a great  Since  teaching  a l s o to develop  teachers  rate  s e q u e n t i a l and  imagination.  but  cautions  normal  young c h i l d r e n a d i f f e r e n t  older  skill  i n music  The  d e a l of  room  i s devised  for  needed  with  b a s i c p r e m i s e s but  on  a  more s o p h i s t i c a t e d l e v e l .  II.  Listen, This  Look and  Kodaly  correlated  listening  Lewis  cyclical hearing,  by  Aden  Lewis  7 8  b a s e d method c o n s i s t i n g of  sequence s i m i l a r Aden  Sing  to  programme  music  literacy  learning experiences games,  volumes  accompany  t h e H u n g a r i a n method  promotes  singing,  to  six  each  initiated through  activities  a  follows a  by  Kodaly.  sequential  i n v o l v i n g rhythmic  creative  and  movement, and  and inner  writing  activities. The and  r e c o r d e r s may  usual hand  programme  "tools" s i g n s , and  ( s o h mi  7 7  of  the  doh)  appropriate  K o d a l y method, s u c h a s syllables and  the  are  used.  sound b e f o r e  The  resonator  bells  levels.  The  rhythm  syllables,  pitch  sequence  s i g h t procedures  are  p.7.  Aden Lewis, Listen, (Morristown,New J e r s e y : S i l v e r 7 B  o r i e n t e d although  incorporated at  sol-fa  l a r e and  Ibid.,  be  is vocally  Look and S i n g , Grades 1 B u r d e t t Pub.Co., 1983).  to  6,  54 followed. has  This series  a correlated  enough t o a l l o w content. the  It  primary  of m a t e r i a l s i s a l s o  listening the  programme.  teacher  to  could  Each  volume  i n c o r p o r a t e h i s own  i s p o s s i b l e t h a t the  grades  valuable in that i t  implement  small  materials  regular classroom this  is  programme  and  teacher  with  in  little  outside assistance.  III.  Threshold Mary  Kodaly in is  to Music  Helen  Richards  method of m u s i c  and  on  with  Kodaly  the  and  achieving  As  The use  melodic of  greater  devised  a  and  reading music.  then  learning  step-by-step  music  Charts  She  provided  procedures.  Richards  alleges  t o Music  Mary California: 7 9  Helen Fearon  and  on  hand  the  schools programme syllables  pentatonic  signals.  literacy  here  h e a r i n g , then basic  Both  i s a means t o  Richards  first  assist to  help  they  to understand was  rhythm  based  "The  public  the  has  feeling  instrument  for  teachers  in  7 9  to  and  Threshold  of  to adopt  system, her  using  t h a t music  states,  material  age  the Kodaly  process  first  i n the  understanding.  presenting  a n y o n e o f any  f o r use  syllables  i s the v o i c e . "  are  the  p a t t e r n s are  concur  musical  of  foundation  sol-fa  Richards  Richards  one  with  a sound r h y t h m i c  movement.  scale  was  education  the U n i t e d S t a t e s . based  - Mary H e l e n  devised  and  may  classroom regulate  the  teaching  be  for  training  used  to read music.  f o r the  Richards, Threshold Pub., 1964), p . v i i i .  first  However,  t h r e e grades  to Music,  (Palo  the  where  Alto,  55 "...teachers material are  i n each  to  Richards gradually vital  the  primary  grades  must  master  p r e s e n t e d i n a l l of the p r i m a r y grades  t o t e a c h the music  confidently."  Four  be  of  work  of t h e i r  own  grade  the  i f they  accurately  and  8 0  cautions  and c a r e f u l l y , points  that  "...the  but w i t h g r e a t  f o u n d a t i o n must be enthusiasm."  built  8 1  stressed are:  1.  The j o y of music must enthusiastic teacher.  be  communicated  2.  The c h i l d  3.  The elements of music a r e f e l t . to respond t o music they see in respond t o the music they h e a r .  4.  Two-part  by  an  i s the musical instrument.  activity  P. x.  8 0  Ibid.,  8  'Ibid.-,. P- 129.  8 2  Ibid.,  P. 129.  i s t h e most  C h i l d r e n must the same way  useful  teaching  learn they  tool.  8 2  56  Chapter BASES FOR A COMPREHENSIVE  Rationale The  v o i c e , the  experimentation Because a c h i l d prior  with  part  instrument.  tones  with  vocal  effectively  with  the v o i c e .  "...the  f r e e and a c c e s s i b l e instrumental  human  1  i s the voice cost  w h i c h makes  and  the  undergone birth.  and  free  development Pitch  supports  but  voice, the f i n e s t  and C a r d e r  also unique  of  pitch  recognition,  can this  some  instrument  i t a p e r s o n a l and  intonation  Kodaly  Landis  a voice  i s the l o g i c a l  t o everyone.... s h o u l d be  playing."  has  o f ways from  with  independence.  relationships  says,  a variety  encourages  intervalic  he  in  Not o n l y  of the person  and  PROGRAMME  instrument,  i t , the v o i c e  Singing  perception  first  comes t o s c h o o l e q u i p p e d  experience  is  MUSICIANSHIP  f o r t h e Use o f t h e V o i c e  child's  w i t h which t o b e g i n . it  3  be  taught  statement  when  of a l l instruments, the  foundation  say of Kodaly's  to  method  that: The b a s i c mode o f i n s t r u c t i o n singing. He believed that  Helga (London: Boosey 1  i n Kodaly's the v o i c e  Szabo, The K o d a l y C o n c e p t & Hawkes, 1969), p.4, 20.  method i s i s t h e most  of Music  Education,  57 i m m e d i a t e and p e r s o n a l way o f expressing oneself in music... students s h o u l d be t a u g h t t o u s e t h e i r v o i c e s as well as p o s s i b l e . Pure tone and accurate i n t o n a t i o n a r e r e q u i r e d . Development of i n n e r h e a r i n g contributes to this i d e a l . . . 2  Kodaly  maintains  later  "He who  t o p l a y an i n s t r u m e n t  piece  more  is...(an) processes and  that  more  singing music  quickly." effective  so t h a t  will  grasp  Bennett  3  way  to  singers...must  instrumentalists."  says  first,  does  and o n l y  meaning o f e v e r y that,  "Singing  engage c h i l d r e n  c a n be more c l e a r l y  "Choral experience than  the r e a l  actively  powerfully experienced."  because  to sing  Reimer  these p r o c e s s e s  discrimination  because  i s taught  understood  Long a l s o commends  4  c o r r e l a t e s more band  i n music  teaching  highly  with  or o r c h e s t r a experience  listen...more  carefully  than  do  5  Instrumentalists,  as J a r v i s e x p l a i n s ,  . . . i d e n t i f y with t h i s personal experience i n learning the importance of the v o i c e in attaining basic musicianship ...Dizzy Gillespie acknowledged the importance of b e i n g able t o say (sing) a musical phrase. Many r e s e a r c h s t u d i e s e m p h a s i z e t h e v a l u e of vocalization. 6  Beth Landis a n d P o l l y C a r d e r , The E c l e c t i c C u r r i c u l u m i n A m e r i c a n M u s i c E d u c a t i o n : C o n t r i b u t i o n s o f D a l c r o z e , K o d a l y and O r f f , ( W a s h i n g t o n , D.C.: M u s i c Educators National Conference, 1972), p . 5 0 . 2  3  S z a b o , The K o d a l y  "Bennett Reimer, ( A p r i l 1976):22. 5  Music  Concept  of Music  "Patterns",  Music  Educators  Newell H. L o n g , " P e r f o r m a n c e and M u s i c E d u c a t o r s J o u r n a l , 58 ( J u l y 1 9 7 2 ) : 5 1 .  William Jarvis, "Say I t J o u r n a l , 67 ( J a n u a r y 1 9 8 0 ) : 4 4 . 6  E d u c a t i o n , p.20.  To  Play  Journal,  58  Discrimination",  I t " , Music  Educators  58 Roger S e s s i o n s hearing"  concurs  development  with  when he  Kodaly's  concept  of  "inner  says,  The listener's real and u l t i m a t e r e s p o n s e t o music consists not merely in hearing i t , but inwardly reproducing it; and his understanding of music consists of the ability to do this in his imagination. 7  This  i s a part Speech  of  singing  therapists  assistance  of  discriminate  and  the  discrimination.  process. reading  singing  Gladys Uhl  frequently  in  his  suggests  writings,  reiterated  specialists  voice  between c o n s o n a n t s and  Kodaly, and  the  in  that vowel  developing "To  the  Schumann's  the  auditory  s i n g w e l l one  sounds."  encouraged  William  notice  must  8  use  of  the  voice  ideas:  T r y t o s i n g , however s m a l l y o u r voice, from written music without the aid of an i n s t r u m e n t . This w i l l sharpen your e a r . . . S i n g i n c h o i r s o f t e n , particularly the middle parts. This will h e l p you t o become a b e t t e r and b e t t e r m u s i c i a n . . . T h e f i n g e r s s h o u l d f o l l o w t h e w i l l of t h e h e a d and not t h e o t h e r way around... Music teaching in Latin countries s t a r t s with singing and t h e r e f o r e t h e i r i n s t r u m e n t a l p l a y i n g a l s o has the n a t u r e of s i n g i n g . 9  L o i s Choksy with  the  states  child's  were t o e x p r e s s t h e  own  that  "...musical  natural  e s s e n c e of  instrument this  —  education  one  in  one  it  "Self  8  G l a d y s Uhl, "Singing Helps C h i l d r e n Learn E d u c a t o r s J o u r n a l , 56 ( A p r i l 1969):45.  How  Kodaly, "Who i s a Good M u s i c i a n ? " , Z o l t a n K o d a l y , p.186-191. 9  1 0  Choksy,  The  Kodaly Context,  p.7.  The  begin  voice...If  Roger Sessions quoted by Malcom T a i t , E d u c a t o r s J o u r n a l , 67 (March 1980):50  Music  must  the  7  Music  of  learning  word,  i n Sound", to  Selected  Read",  Writings  59 could that  only  be  singing  —  singing."  i s the  best  way  music  to t r a i n  accepted  within  "Singing  i s essential in training  its  the  C h a l m e r s Doane s a y s t h a t  1 0  education  c o n t r i b u t i o n s to developing  embraced a s  one  of  the  Rationale The  ukulele  intermediate conjunction context, vocal  with  the  roles  capability  the  ukulele One level to  can of  another  stretching ukulele an  by  its  individual  child  child  can  Doane,  says,  Because  1 2  v o i c e has  classroom it  the to  can  of  been  in be  voice.  f o s t e r and  the  used In  nature.  Because  in  this  enrich  accompanying  rhythm, m e l o d i e s and  the  tool. large  it  has  harmonies  the  functions. teaching can  but  the  i t be  i t can  cope w i t h  "Singing  a l s o be the  so  the  ukulele at  carried  on  inexpensive  Chalmers Doane, quoted M u s i c " , U k u l e l e Y e s , 2 1(1977):1 1 2  also  l i e i n s o l o , ensemble and  encountered  relatively  Chalmers 5(1980):5. 1 1  the  only  well  Ukulele  an  instrumental  above  pretty He  ear." the  because  as  11  fact  approach.  music  employed role  producing  Not  problems  is  be  advantages of  is i t s size.  the  instrument,  ukulele  assume t h e the  Use  general  can  through  of  musicianship,  practical  group p l a y i n g of a p u r e l y the  musical  of  ukulele  for  the  for the  major  is  community."  in this  is  the  ear  m a j o r media  the  grades  experience  Other  in  the  "The  f r o m one played  guitar.  that a cost.  this  school The  the  Strings",  i n "The  Ukulele  age  location  without  the  Also,  the  district  tone  or  of  the  Ukulele  Yes,  Ideal  to  Teach  60 ukulele  is  soft  and therefore not i r r i t a t i n g  home when t h e c h i l d  on  pedagogical both  a  fretted  advantages.  on  visualizing  string The  instrument  ukulele  linear and v e r t i c a l pitches so  possible  in the  i s practising.  From t h e t e a c h e r ' s p o i n t o f view, semitones  to parents  the instrument.  has  i s capable  that  Another  the tones and  of producing  a l l the  advantage  definite  basics  are  f o r the teacher  i s t h a t a l l s t u d e n t s a r e l e a r n i n g t h e same i n s t r u m e n t  and so t h e  problem  bands  of  diversity  of  orchestras  encounter  i s eliminated.  students  for playing  g u i t a r which  for then  other  fretted  may be o f f e r e d i n h i g h  In keeping the  instrumentation  ukulele  be a d a p t e d  instruments  ukulele,  advantageous.  and  A broad  from of  youhg  the classics the  1 3  Chalmers  as  the  The p o t e n t i a l  media  the  together  voice, i s also  r e p e r t o i r e i s a t t a i n a b l e on t h e u k u l e l e .  people  "The  t o jazz and pop t u n e s . "  t o develop comprehensive  Doane, "Focus  ukulele's  c a n be t a u g h t  ukulele's overall versatility  this approach  such  using first  both  D o a n e a c k n o w l e d g e s t h i s when he s a y s , limitless...and  prepares  musicianship orientation,  t o many a c t i v i t i e s .  finally  and  school.  i n t e g r a t i n g and reinforcing concepts the  as  The u k u l e l e a l s o  with the comprehensive  can  such  1 3  to play  range  is  everything  Therefore,  because  i t i s suited to assist in musicianship.  '80'", U k u l e l e Y e s ,  5(1980):2.  61  Model  of Requirements  to D e v e l o p Comprehensive  Musicianship  t  The  f o l l o w i n g model  contribute is  equally  i s an o v e r v i e w o f t h e  t o the o v e r a l l  goal  of the a p p r o a c h .  important to the t o t a l  programme.  components Each  that  component  62 0  MODEL OF REQUIREMENTS TO DEVELOP COMPREHENSIVE MUSICIANSHIP ( F i g u r e 1)  Comprehensive  Basic  Musicianship  Musician  Skills  Aesthetic  aural dextral translatable  Attributes  perceiving responding Concepts  X  Performing -singing -playing -moving -chanting Analyzing Organizing -composing -arranging -improvising  durat ion linear pitch vertical pitch tempo timbre form dynamics style  Sequences Pitch - tritonal D u r a t i o n - rhythm Performance Analyt i c a l Organizational  Repertoire Folk Renaissance Baroque Classical Romantic Modern Popular  Developmental Procedures b a s e d on growth development of c h i l d s p i r a l n a t u r e of l e a r n i n g continuous progress m u l t i p l i c i t y of e x p e r i e n c e s varying a b i l i t y levels  63  Conceptual  The  concepts  separated for  clarify 1.0  to  into eight  their  ukulele.  Framework o f t h e E i g h t  be  dealt  with  categories.  Major  in  Concepts  this  T h e s e c a t e g o r i e s were  u s e f u l n e s s i n a d a p t i n g them t o b o t h Each  and  concept  identify  is  approach  broken  the c o n t e n t  down  t o be  selected  t h e v o i c e and  the  subconcepts  to  into  covered.  Duration  1.1  Beat  1.2  Meter accented and twos, t h r e e s and f o u r s  i n groups  of  1.3  Rhythm - p i t c h e d o r n o n - p i t c h e d p a t t e r n s o f l o n g e r s h o r t e r d u r a t i o n s - " g r o u p e d t o g e t h e r and w h i c h may p u n c t u a t e d by s i l e n c e s . " *  or be  unaccented  beats  1  2.0  are  Linear 2.1  Pitch  Relative 2.1.1 2.1.2 2.1.3 2.1.4  and  Absolute  of P i t c h e s  h i g h e r or lower than a g i v e n p i t c h t h e same a s a g i v e n p i t c h p i t c h e s a s c e n d i n g stepwise or s k i p w i s e p i t c h e s descending s t e p w i s e or s k i p w i s e  2.2  Phrases  2.3  Melodic  ostinati  2.4  Intervals  2.5  S c a l e s , tone  2.6  Melody without  2.7  Two  2.8  Imitation different  1 f l  Position  s e t and  tonal  harmonic  o r more s i m u l t a n e o u s  Edelstein  of melody pitch  centre  support  - monbphonic  melodies  - polyphonic  at  same  the  pitch  et a l , C r e a t i n g C u r r i c u l u m i n Music,  or  p.25.  64 3,0  Vertical 3.1  Pitch  Chords three simultaneously 3.1.1 3.1.2 3.1.3 3.1.4 3.1.5  3.2  pitches  Perfect Imperfect Plagal  3.3  Modulation  3.4  Harmonic l i n e may  accompaniment and ground bass - a melodic be s u p p o r t e d by a h a r m o n i c a c c o m p a n i m e n t  s t o p s - two n o t e s  sounding s i m u l t a n e o u s l y  Form 4.1  Motives  4.2  Phrases  4.3  Themes  4.4  P e r i o d s - two o r more  4.5  Introduction  4.6  Coda  4.7  Types 4.7.1 4.7.2 4.7.3 4.7.4 4.7.5  of  A B - binary A B A ternary A B A C A rondo Theme a n d v a r i a t i o n s Ballads - strophic  Classification 5.1.1 5.1.2 5.1.3 5.1.4  phrases  forms  Timbre 5.1  sounding  Cadences  3.5 D o u b l e  5.0  more  Triads Four note chords Seventh chords Tonic chord Chord c l u s t e r s  3.2.1 3.2.2 3.2.3  4.0  or  Strings Woodwinds Percussion Brass  65 5.1.5 5.2  6.0  Voice  type  Determinants of 5.2.1 5.2.2  Size Shape  5.2.3  Material  5.3  Tone Q u a l i t y  5.4  Role  i n musical  timbre  expression  Dynamics  7.0  6.1  Levels  - pp, p, mp,  6.2  Gradual  and sudden  6.3  Expressive  Unity Variety  6.3.3  Form  f, f f  changes  quality  6.3.1 6.3.2  mf,  contributing to:  Tempo  8.0  7.1  Fast,  slow and medium  7.2  Gradual  7.3  Contribution to expressive  o r sudden  7.3.1 7.3.2  Unity Variety  7.3.3  Form  - Speed  maintained  changes quality  Style 8.1  Cultural  8.2  Historical  Basic  Skill  Music,  being  of  time.  The p e r i o d s and  environmental  Development  level  first  and  f o r Comprehensive  a temporal,  concentration  aural art  and  awareness  form,  as  the  attention  demands  for certain  of r e q u i r e d c o n c e n t r a t i o n  increase  Musicianship  may  span  be of  a  high  periods of short the  at  pupils  66 increases. time to  the  Thus t h e  p u p i l s are  able  task  i s to  to concentrate,  judge start  the with  period  of  t h a t and  try  gradually increase i t . The  basic  musicianship  musicianship  are  translatable  merely  to  be  listed  rather in  "Land of each  amount  time  In  with  they  are  the  dextral  types  seldom used  each o t h e r .  This  specific  the  Birch".  skill  Silver  of  skill  time  at  one  the  The  of  and  skills in  the  separately  but  i s exemplified  here  concepts  with  c a t e g o r i e s are  itself  and  vocally  and  skills  with  occurs  the  song  listed  advanced  what  any child  than  one  he  f o r the  can  what he  i s able is  i s able  The to  able  b e n e f i t of  p l a y on can  early  for  play  an  skills the  the  experience child  t o make.  Gross  are  is  the  thus  ear  written  delays last  to  presents  very  simple  aurally.  without  other. by  the  the  to decipher  instrument  from  from  as  problem read  same always  therefore  Translatable s k i l l s  child  not  develop  motor and  neglected.  the  to aptitude,  a l s o develop  fine  given  t h e r e f o r e do  according  i s t o somehow a d v a n c e a l l t h e  stopping the  to  and  aural skills  before  sometimes a r e  compared  always  s o u n d s t h a t he  instruments.  i n t h a t what t h e  challenge  The  develop  Dextral  p l a y i n g of  not  consideration  same r a t e .  motor d e v e l o p m e n t  develop  c a t e g o r i e s are  or  i s born  experiments  what  reality  for teaching  guidance.  when  comprehensive  headings of a u r a l ,  strategies  three  progress  the  the  develop  example. The  and  under  to  T h e s e h e a d i n g s were u s e d e f f e c t i v e l y  i n combination  the  skills  to t r y to d i f f e r e n t i a t e  developed.  MMCP programme.  or  teacher's  The  retarding Therefore,  will  be  score.  more The  67 child  can  t h a n he come  listen  can  sing, play  together  at  (translating). score  — by  m o t i v e and the  skills Aural  can  This  can  the  student;  be  However, t h e  in order  be  done the  In  e n h a n c e d as  skills as  the  of  this  the  way  must  weakest  link  the  written  theme, o r m o t i v e  pupil  the  an  play  music  skills  simplifying  recording  depend a g r e a t  linear  amount of  remember  what  this  in a  key  theme  or  o r c h e s t r a l arrangement  d e x t r a l and  aural  i n many d i f f e r e n t  taught  and  a  translatable  skills  be  mi  the  lah  perfect  fourths  their  progress fourth  within but  position through  within  the  challenged.  perfect  framework  f o r m of  the  phases  d i a t o n i c --  they doh  rhythmic  to a  memory p l a y s  doh. to  vantage p o i n t tonic.  ti,  to  The  soh;  and  A l l are according  As  then e x p e r i e n c e  important  of  experience  pentatonic.  secondary part an  deal  experienced,  re  f a h and  tortic  be  l a h , to re;  the  to  consolidate  tp  the  a  and  soh,  of  to  what t h e  need t o  ensure  such  example,  great  fourth could  with  relation  a  students  ways t o  or  for  means t h a t  For  involves  a l l have a d i f f e r e n t in  This  sounds l i k e ,  skills  followed  t o n a l memory  required.  like  A l t h o u g h t o n a l memory p l a y s duration,  on  pitch.  p r a c t i c e d i n the  same p r o c e d u r e c o u l d to  is  fourth  sounds  Thus,  deal  vertical  develop these  understanding. formally  perfect  chord  To  concepts  and  repetition  a  dominant  practice.  of  by  w e l l as  three  to d e v e l o p the  main  having a  much more complex  Skills  certain  to  read.  some t i m e  selection.  concepts  the  or  then p l a y i n g  Aural  and  a u r a l l y analyze  i.e. presenting  readable  of  t o and  the  students perfect  mi.  i n the  concept  r o l e here.  For  68  the  students  or another rhythmic given  student  rhythms;  speech  class;  used  notating  as  the  rhythms  themselves  such  rhythms  syllables; doing  saying  set  dance  of duration i s also relative.  to the half  i s twice the  note  clearer.  sounds  they  i s half  speed.  i t s speed.  the  tempo  beat  other notes are related,  The hear  is  students  simply  ask  t o each tempo beat.  The  .and the  a s _ [ _ J _ Q_ __L .  The  t h a t we c a n a s c e r t a i n t h e t i m e  tempo b e a t s c a n be w r i t t e n a s inserted  through clapping  rhythms;  note value t o which  many  with  dictating  I f the q u a r t e r note  becomes  how  to  relationships  value of a given note. and  rhythms;  to the q u a r t e r note  in relation  these  amount of e x p e r i e n c e  s a y i n g the rhythm  The concept  quarter note  g i v e n by t h e t e a c h e r  be a c c o m p l i s h e d  moving  in relation  i s through  may given  freely  etc.  eighth note  It  the  rhythms;  routines,  This  writing  to  a rhythm  requires a certain  elements.  themselves  The  to repeat correctly  Pupils  rhythm  beats  i n Hungary with  daily  p r a c t i c e a n d a t t e n t i o n t o d u r a t i o n h a v e b e e n known t o l i s t e n t o , memorize and notate a t h i r t y - t w o beat very  short  time  span.  rhythm  dictation  within  a  T h i s again r e q u i r e s c o n c e n t r a t i o n and  practice. Aurally, style, and  the other concepts,  a r e much s i m p l e r t o d e v e l o p .  linear  pitch  and  Dynamics i s an e n t i t y and  style.  Timbre  form,  It  their  unto  increases in difficulty  For example,  timbre  and  Form i s l i n k e d t o d u r a t i o n  similarities  itself  i s a concept  dynamics,  and  but i s linked  t h a t i s easy  differences.  somewhat  t o form  to discern aurally.  a s i t becomes more  restrictive.  in order to gradually increase aural discrimination  69 difficulty,  the  differences  differences within Aural  skills  classes  of  of  are listed  strategies f o r developing  between  classes  instruments. in the  Phase  to  develop  I  and  s p e c i f i c concepts using  the S i l v e r B i r c h " under the heading  items  needs t o lead t o  basic  comprehensive musicianship  aural  II  t h e song  "skills".  skills  teaching "Land  Some s p e c i f i c  contributing  to  would be t o :  describe basic elements of form ( s i m i l a r i t i e s , differences, question-answer, number of phrases, e t c . ) - identify the tonal  centre  - identify a closing  cadence  - d i s t i n g u i s h between acceptable  and unacceptable  tone  quality - i d e n t i f y d y n a m i c s - p p , p , mp, - identify legato  and  mf, f , f f  staccato  - identify modulations - i d e n t i f y beat, meter and rhythm - identify  patterns  pitches  - i d e n t i f y t h e way p i t c h e s  move  - i d e n t i f y mood differentiate between acceptable and unacceptable improvisations and compositions Dextral  Skills  Dextral  skills  through singing, to music begin produce with  music.  playing  very  certain  are  early  pitches  those  involving  o r b o d i l y movement. i n l i f e developing  an instrument  movement  Singing  and moving  muscular control to  a n d t o move p a r t s  Because playing  muscular  o f t h e body i n time  requires  fine  motor  70 co-ordination, presented.  many  It i s therefore  deficiencies  from  skills  of  are  e m p h a s i z e d and develop five  holding  memory be  form  the  the  In  other  correct  to  for  established attention  to  be  a  on  that  time  dextral being  the  translatable  Dextral  correctly,  using  the  positions,  eventually  the  skills  must  the  skills,  correct  is  finger  to  stages  no  will  be  take forming  be  as  holding  positions  and  put  are  being  all  their  Technical  note,  the  attention  can  along  Exercises with  or  few  muscular Once  place  in  priority  f o c u s of  used  become a u t o m a t i c  possible  first  them.  to  correct  such  the  positions  (See are  taken  position  skills  basic  students  ones t o d e t e r m i n e w h e t h e r played.  are  the  m u s c l e movement  must  established  coordination.  Without Music N o t a t i o n . ) A u r a l  solidify  a m o d e l as  to  the  to  during  skills  while  allowing  muscular  perfect  re-  students  beginning  foreign  The  taught,  corrections  students  are  are  skills.  short  thus  the  dextral  some  student's holding  dextral  positions  other  as  Every  when  positions  fewer  technical  quickly  care  i n the  are  very  With  that  checked c o n s t a n t l y  words,  skills  basic  shift  i f great  must be  be  Students  However,  and  these initial  i s necessary  patterns  problems  need t o  changing  students.  other  movements and  aside  teacher  needs  and  t h e n on  necessary  imitator  lessons.  may  a l l that  will The  ukulele,  finger positions.  muscle  class  above  and  correct  required.  isolate  immediately.  from  be  to  For  importance  be  and  unencountered  necessary  time.  very d i f f i c u l t .  reteaching  the  to  utmost  r e p e t i t i o n s may  could  for  time  corrected  set  muscle  previously  chord,  the is  the  ukulele  finger  playing  in order  to gain  any  71 facility  on t h e i n s t r u m e n t .  positions  are  instrument. students, faults  greater  An i n c o r r e c t but  will  Some  the  as  basic  musicianship  more  the  correct  chance  position  the  hamper  The  for  may  technical  the  feel  facility easier  difficulties  i n Phase  on t h e  for  increase  skills  to  develop  some these  comprehensive  I are:  -  to sing  -  t o repeat  -  to improvise  -  to sing  and p l a y  using  -  to sing  and p l a y  i n a legato  -  to sing  and p l a y  basic  ternary  forms  -  to sing  and p l a y  c a d e n c e s - V I,  I V I , V7 I,  -  to sing  and p l a y  with acceptable  tone  -  to sing  using  - correct  basic  the progress of the p u p i l s . dextral  s o n g s by  Some b a s i c  the  rote  a given  vocally  hand  dextral angle  rhythm o r melody a n d on melody  d y n a m i c s - p , mp, mf, f style  I V  quality  signs  skills  i n Phase I I a r e : the ukulele  -  left  hand thumb p o s i t i o n  -  left  hand  finger  position  -  left  hand  finger  placement  -  r i g h t hand p o s i t i o n  -  r i g h t hand p l a c e m e n t  -  r i g h t hand w r i s t  -  r i g h t hand  -  general  body  or s t a c c a t o  forms - r o n d o , b i n a r y a n d  of holding  finger  bells  - behind - curved  f o r strum  action  position  fingers  on f i n g e r  f o r strumming  action  neck o f i n s t r u m e n t  f o r strum f o r strum  board  72 -  right  -  left  hand b a r r  chords  the  left  i s u s u a l l y weaker  Since,  hand d i g i t  handed p e o p l e , to  be  hand  finger strength,  developed.  correct  and  in right-  coordination  need  to  highest)  the  v  skills  of the u k u l e l e key  F and G p e n t a t o n i c , to  any  problem  real  of  D  and t h e O r f f  in this  start  I n Phase  key s i g n a t u r e s  with  to  the  approach i s (lowest t o  i n C major, as  instruments  will  G and A p e n t a t o n i c .  I leading  the s t r i n g s being  of b e g i n n i n g  the ukulele  since  i n Phase  I I . The u k u l e l e major,  Instead  the recorder  proceed  are covered  i n Phase  A-D-F#-B.  case with  outset.  facility  the right  Both guidance and p r a c t i c e a r e r e q u i r e d f o r  Skills  Translatable  tuned  than  hand p o s i t i o n .  Translatable  use  movement  i s the  which p l a y  i n C,  D pentatonic  I this  and  does not cause  need n o t be  used  at  the  F o r example,  2 = ^  °  IT.  -Q. IT -V-  U  The  tritonal  approach  key,  f o l l o w i n g the simple  deals  first  visual  s p a c e mi i s i n t h e s p a c e a b o v e . or the is  clef  s i g n s a r e not r e q u i r e d  ukulele  i n Phase  with  rules,  doh, r e and mi i n e a c h  s u c h a s , i f doh i s i n  For t h i s  concept  a  key s i g n a t u r e s  b u t become n e c e s s a r y  when p l a y i n g  I I . The r e l a t i o n s h i p o f f r e t s  to semitones  a l s o e s t a b l i s h e d here a l l o w i n g  the p u p i l s to create  chromatic  73 scale  patterns. Some  basic  musicianship  skills  that  develop  the  t r a n s l a t a b l e aspect a r e : - to read notes from the s t a f f - to read  rhythms  - to w r i t e notes on the s t a f f - to w r i t e rhythms - to transpose - to i d e n t i f y on a s t a f f , doh, or t o n a l c e n t r e - to r e c o g n i z e or  a w r i t t e n rhythm p a t t e r n t h a t i s sung  played  - tp w r i t e from memory a melody using known notes - to i d e n t i f y the terms piano,  f o r t e and mezzo  - to i d e n t i f y the terms l e g a t o and s t a c c a t o , and how to w r i t e them i n music The  b a s i c a u r a l , d e x t r a l and t r a n s l a t a b l e s k i l l s , that  in the development through The  the  of  comprehensive  performing,  s k i l l s are in a c t u a l i t y  musicianship  are  help  taught  a n a l y z i n g and o r g a n i z i n g a c t i v i t i e s . inseparable  from the a c t i v i t i e s , but  have been i s o l a t e d here t o show the s i g n i f i c a n t p a r t i n a comprehensive m u s i c i a n s h i p  they  play  programme.  ACTIVITY FRAMEWORK Performing The  -- P l a y i n g , S i n g i n g and Moving performing  a c t i v i t i e s a r e g e n e r a l l y the ones on which  most a t t e n t i o n i s focussed. it  signifies  t o the teacher  In many ways t h i s t h a t the students  is  justified  as  can or cannot do  74 what  they  were  imitators  and  taught. devise  sometimes w i t h o u t doing.  There music  rhythm  a l o n e , or  imitation In  have n e v e r r h y t h m and  activities  are  instruments  and  sizes  individual  heard  response,  are  in  melody combined.  the  good  actually  s t u d e n t s are asked  b e f o r e , as  to  sight-reading  H e r e no  amount of  task.  t h e more  the concepts,  delegated  to  and  chances  and  shapes,  i n t o a l l phases of  Orff  few.  skills.  the  playing  percussion,  These s h o u l d  melody  i n c l u d e drums finger  pitched-percussion  Body movement c a n  t h e programme, and  students  the  II  wood b l o c k s , s t i c k s ,  resonator b e l l s ,  the  utilizing  classroom  body p e r c u s s i o n .  r e c o r d e r , t o name a  of  cymbals,  instruments  be i n c o r p o r a t e d  s h o u l d not  be  overlooked  u k u l e l e i s i n t r o d u c e d i n Phase I I .  The  performing  s t u d e n t s must be wrong,  of what t h e y the  are  correct  t h e u k u l e l e i s i n t r o d u c e d i n Phase  activities  once the  a c q u i r e the  where  employed  understanding  Thus, u n t i l  and  they  children  a c o m p r e h e n s i v e m u s i c i a n s h i p programme t h e more t y p e s of  of  various  to  instances  could accomplish  performance have  means  most  much u n d e r s t a n d i n g  are  perform  However,  and  able to d i s c e r n  why.  discrimination  activities  All  thus  require whether  performance  becomes  the  aural  the  skills.  sound  depends keynote  on of  is  The  right  this. all  or  Aural  performing  activities. Dextral part  of  skills,  every  requiring  performing  movement o f  the  pitch  singing,  while  those  t h r o a t and correct  muscular  activity.  Such  diaphragm  to  finger  movement, a r e  requirements produce  movement  the  r e q u i r e d to  also  include correct produce  75 the of  correct  n o t e on t h e r e c o r d e r  the feet with  The  dextral  when c a l l e d what  to  skills  must  upon.  Often  do,  programmme acquire  but  commands.  o f t h e music  be n e a r l y  muscles  time  necessary  (See T e c h n i c a l as  an  example  do  i n order  dance.  to function knows  not respond adequately.  technical  quick  muscular  of  t o do a  r e s u l t s when t h e mind  for  Exercises  and c o - o r d i n a t i o n  required  automatic  frustration  the  must a l l o w the  Ukulele  the beat  or u k u l e l e ,  drills  responses  Without  isolating  in  Music  and  order to  to  mental  Notation  promoting  A  for  dextral  skills.) Translatable and/or  by  reading.  improvisation  playing  the one  movement, w h e t h e r  require  skills  those  and along  with  attention  i t be f r e e o r c o n s t r u c t e d  Singing  from  with  on h e a r i n g  skills  must be a s a u t o m a t i c  begin  reading  aural  and  the  accuracy. linear  visually  music  translatable music  the  later  and r e a d i n g  phases  the highness or lowness of the  does  skills.  But  this  because area  Thus,  of  becomes  to  allow  the notes the d e x t r a l the  voice  to concentrate aural  f o r judging  Hand s i g n s  dance,  is  Using  the students  The t r a n s l a t a b l e s k i l l s  p i t c h sequence.  It  which t o d e a l .  The  In  requires translatable  a t one t i m e t h a t  aspects.  pitches  by i m i t a t i o n ( r o t e ) o r  as p o s s i b l e .  allows  translatable in  written  incorporated  t o focus  invaluable  or p l a y i n g  a u r a l and d e x t r a l s k i l l s .  o f t h e most d i f f i c u l t  note  i n performing a c t i v i t i e s .  a l s o do n o t r e q u i r e  singing  many s k i l l s  pitch  requiring reading  rhythms a r e n o t a l w a y s u s e d  general, not  skills,  are  on t h e  development  is  p i t c h a c u i t y and taught  a r e used notes  to  following  t o demonstrate  in  relation  to  76 each  other.  mi.  The  sequence  In s u c h t r i t o n a l  i s generally  tritonal,  p a t t e r n s s t u d e n t s can r e l a t e  e.g.  doh r e  each p i t c h as  follows: doh doh re re mi mi re  i n r e l a t i o n t o mi i s l o w e r i n r e l a t i o n t o re i s lower i n r e l a t i o n t o mi i s l o w e r i n r e l a t i o n t o doh i s h i g h e r i n r e l a t i o n to re i s higher i n r e l a t i o n to re i s higher i s t h e p i v o t a l n o t e between doh a n d mi  r  6  The  0  „ 0.0  Y  f  They  F  O  J  rn  relationships  ~ °  b  of the three  performed  and  written  (staff  re  l a h , and doh l a h , s o h , .  are doh  established  pitches  ( s u n g ) , moved  notated).  they a r e l i n k e d  Other Once  then  i n a four  related  is  thus  tone  to a f i f t h  signed),  tritonal  groupings  the t r i t o n a l  sequence, soh.  tone  established.  t o (hand  t o o t h e r n o t e s where  r e l a h , s o h , ; a n d doh r e mi  are  » o °  r m  are  learned  , = .a  »  are  doh  r e l a t i o n s h i p s are new  e.g.  These  visualized  relationships doh r e mi l a h , ;  four  and r e s u l t s  tone  sequences  i n the p e n t a t o n i c  scale. The  doh n o t e  placement between aural another  of  is.indicated  the  them, t h e aspect, tone,  developed.  The  notes  is  by a key —  p" .  established  and t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p s  translating  the also  inner  become  h e a r i n g of a tone  becomes  process  skills  automatic  takes  as  Once t h e  visual  automatic.  The  i n r e l a t i o n s h i p to tonal  t i m e and p r a c t i c e .  memory-  is  Therefore,  77 this  first  certain  phase  amount o f  Analyzing  the  time.  the  time  them t o  activities  element.  use  use  should  not  Often  telling  and  discover  of  time.  think  and  search  basic  experienced,  practice. elements  music.  in music.  attention direct  concepts  which  are  gradually develop  application activity  on  aspects  the  certain students  to  the  are  of  this  music.  This  themselves.  f o r the  of  inquiry through  reinforcing building  a  number  a r h y t h m and  r e q u i r e d to  the  b l o c k s of sense  pitch  assist  in  sense  in  the  focus  of  concepts.  demands c o n c e n t r a t i o n and  identify  ( d u r a t i o n ) ; the  pitch);  the  ensure requires  reinforced  of  gradually develop  listening  e a c h measure (linear  and  and  more  B e c a u s e of of  necessary  f o r m a l l y taught  a  programme  of  asking  not  should discover everything  means  they  seems  does  understanding  Analyzing a c t i v i t i e s  understanding The  so  i n s t e a d of  f o r answers.  one  or  a g r e a t d e a l of  a s i d e because  students  Analysis is  Jus.t as c h i l d r e n  mathematics,  put  telling  tools  a  Comparing  themselves  But  come t o a g r e a t e r  mean s t u d e n t s  be  t o be  the  needs  t o Phase I I .  in progress  for  d o e s mean, h o w e v e r , t h a t t h e  and  be  and  (when t h e p u r p o s e i s  A comprehensive m u s i c i a n s h i p  to  they  to  Moving  L i k e o r g a n i z i n g , i t tends  pupils  need  proceding  R e a d i n g , W r i t i n g and analytical)  understanding.  It  before  —  efficient  does  "digestion"  cornerstone  Listening, Describing, Identifying, and D i s t i n g u i s h i n g Between  analyze  process  important  —  Analyzing  the  i s a very  the  music.  aurally  intervallic  number of c h o r d s  the  The  teacher  number o f b e a t s  leaps within a  used  i n a phrase  may in  section (vertical  78 pitch);  the  number  of  phrases  in  classification  of  instrumentation  use  in  a  of  dynamics  within  a sonata  (tempo);  Habanera  (style).  how  ascertain  to  listening. students  One  activities  concepts  already confidence  papers  of  of  the  (by  teacher  feedback short,  until  an  pupils)  the  next  consuming  activity  encourages development  a l s o be  utilized  interpreting during  the  the  listening  Describing verbal, could  say  written  what t h e y  description,  or  feedback  but  the  of  is  crucial after  i n the  aspect  of  think  the  mood  move t o  the  music  For of  a  the  delaying may  be in  listening skills  listening  may  to  answers  Dextral  while  be  and  required  dictation.  analyzing  skills.  The  skills  form of  than  the  replaying  big dividends  skills.  i s included  to  quizzes  frequency. aural  the  developing.  correct  reaping  Translatable  dextral  inform  Ideally,  of  help  themselves  carefully  listening  possible  activity  i s another or  The  i f movement  music.  are  have more i m p a c t  time,  because of  may  their  abilities  is  actually  have been c o l l e c t e d a  would  learning  for as  presentation  in a  quizzes  well  very  changes  pattern  are  judge  abilities.  period.  little  the  activity  written  as  Immediate  oral  (timbre); tempo  pupils  and  geared  activity  the  listening  dilemma,  in l i s t e n i n g  the  (form);  rhythmic  the  correctly  taught.  and  or  not  n e e d t o be  listening  material  the  pupil's analyzing  Listening  inspire  repeated  attention  analyzing  each  or  this  closer  whether t h e y a r e  a  of  symphony  (dynamics); the  whether  pay  how  and  song  in a  problem with  Because to  teacher  section  a  that  can  include  example,  the  students  piece  i n s u c h a way  is, as  write  t o show  a the  79  mood o f  the  piece.  A l l the  c o n c e p t s can  be  described  in  various  ways. Another aspect could  require  music can  or be  the  the  response  students  Comparing items  (notes,  pieces). and  It  applying  section  an  bars, may  notes),  move  in  title  analytical  the can  in  activity  themes, p h r a s e s ,  above. be  For  example, t h e  isolated,  compared  assured  that  attention can as by  and  on  should  well.  Comparing  minor  the  can  between  students  be  i n what  and  to  similar  two  whole studied  rhythm o f  one  section taught  consciously  aware  performance  be  that  students  and  analyzed  and/or  and  the  Silver  the  perfect  fourth  R e a d i n g , w r i t i n g and  focus  their  see.  This  organizing  activities  to note t h e i r  differences  translatable skills.  by  t h i r d s i n the  are  they hear  done i n p e r f o r m i n g  between  dextral  formally  done f o r t h e  requires  differences  aural  in  well.  p i t c h i n "Land of  distinguished and  be  as  A l l c o n c e p t s can  applying  linear  the  It  the  to another  order  Distinguishing  In  concepts p r e v i o u s l y  in  activities  of  expressed  s e c t i o n s or  C o m p a r i s o n s need t o be  organizing  a piece  which r e q u i r e s  noted.  similarities.  activity  score.  ways  similarities  of  a  response.  and  t o be  of  (sung or  similar  i n v o l v e comparing  in a piece  This  music.  motives,  them t o  the  verbal  o r moved t o )  could  i n the is  of  times a motive appears  (played  sounds t h e y hear  is identifying.  identification  (words o r  dextral the  analyzing  number o f  a written  words) o r  of  Birch" lines fifths  in  For one the  example, and  the  four  first  is  line  line.  moving,  as  apparent  a b o v e , a l s o come  80 under for will  the heading  analytical need  For  purposes,  activities.  s t u d e n t s may  t o know when p e r f o r m i n g  signature. way  of a n a l y t i c a l  W r i t i n g music  In  reading a  determine  that  many t h i n g s  piece — e . g .  f o r the purpose  fourths  students  they hear  translatable aurally  or  see  skills  instead  analytical,  of  may in a  asked  of a n a l y s i s  visually).  skills  students  tempo and  d y n a m i c s of a p i e c e of m u s i c .  analyze  described  the  strength  speed  levels  Analyzing concepts.  The  practise  a  a  linear  i s presented purpose passage  level  is and  Through  pitch, duration,  Linear pitch  the  requires  could  or h e i g h t a t  body o r hand movement; dynamics,  be  which tempo,  through  the  exhibited. activities the  analyze  emerges.  feet,  to  perfect  of c o n c e p t s .  a t w h i c h t h e y move; and  Through  concepts,  the  the  through  t h e y move; d u r a t i o n , t h r o u g h through  when  listening  movement  kinesthetically  item  or a c o m b i n a t i o n  could  concepts.  activity  i f the  Moving,  entails  i t f o r one,  This  time  i s another  to n o t a t e a l l the  theme.  (and a u r a l  generally  interpreting  be  they  the  o f h e l p i n g s t u d e n t s become more aware o f c e r t a i n example,  score  to  develop  and  students' concentrated e f f o r t s  and  analyzing process  help  of  consciously activities, inquiry  use  them,  then,  which can  allow  be  used  reinforce to  recall  understanding students  to  in a l l musical  endeavors.  O r g a n i z i n g '-- Composing, The  organizing  musicianship  programme  I m p r o v i s i n g and activities are  in  Arranging this  incorporated into  comprehensive a l l phases  ( I , II  81  and  III).  (aural, skills  They a r e dextral  and  also  and  integrated  translatable)  concepts  are  first  introduced  formally,  and  composing,  improvising  or  activities  act  value  i n the In  the  may  be  thereby  using  d e p e n d i n g on requires  and  produced p u p i l s may dextral  perform  organizing  eight  considered  their  skills  practiced. and  are  Sometimes notate  it,  encompass t r a n s l a t a b l e performing  an  skills  arrangement  skills. requires hearing  those  aural  the  compositions  and  translatable  sounds t h a t  sounds.  The  are  to  composer or  requiring  style  incorporate  activity,  each  i s not  brought  activities  in  generally  may  organizing  ensuring  dextral  improvisation  not,  listed  the  pitch  and  concepts  example,  and  the  in  be  other  utilization  of  skills.  The The  synthesis  However,  implies  notating  the  used  curriculum. and  necessarily  and  are  skills.  dextral  composing  All  experience,  they way  category  another.  through  this  aural  may  i t s purpose.  aural  as  or  time or  before In  music  t o m e m o r i z e an  may,  Composing skills,  by  translatable  Arranging  one  skill  t e s t i n g stages,  improvising,  complimented  desirous  and  the  each  prepared  arranging.  culminating  c a s e of  at  practiced  main body o f  reinforced, it  as  into  tempo o f  dealt  or may  not  with be  the no  thought  Duration, i n any  matter  of  linear  how  of  concepts.  framework briefly.  is established as  other  are For  and  then  concepts  are  p i t c h , dynamics,  organizing  included.  use  conceptual  improvisation  consciously  to a t t e n t i o n . are  an  in  the  activity.  timbre  Vertical  82 The they act  organizing a c t i v i t i e s  have as an  mastered  e v a l u a t i o n f o r the  indication  o f whether  developed  adequate  employed concepts  t h e use  for and  Through strategies  to  the  l e t the  concepts  teacher.  The  and  skills,  and  what  practicing  students skills  teacher  but  then  also  has  an  the concepts,  techniques and  know i f  need  reinforcing  have to  be  these  skills. the  careful  develop is  experiencing  the  composing.  of  only  students understand  reteaching,  activities  possible  the  not  through  and  musicianship,  more  likely  j o y o f m u s i c and any  systematic  of  to  success occur.  the  application in  the  Because  message  it  the avenues of p e r f o r m i n g ,  of  various of  this,  carries  is  a n a l y z i n g or  83  Chapter SCOPE AND AND  4  SEQUENCING OF THE VOICE UKULELE PROGRAMME  Overview  of the Three  Phases  Phase I The processing depends... g r e a t l y on the total previous, stored experience i n that p a r t i c u l a r b r a i n . 1  Basic important  musicianship i n any m u s i c  skills  and  skills  as p o s s i b l e i n o r d e r  t h e v o i c e medium  and c o n c e p t s that they  To  comprehensive  musicianship  translatable deliberate,  construct  skills  the  broad  programme,  learning  followers  of  techniques,  Kodaly.  This  be a p p l i e d t o Phase  the  Delta  'Leslie A H a r t , "The New ' B r a i n ' C o n c e p t Kappan, 59 ( F e b r u a r y 1 9 7 8 ) .  I  uses  as  process  for  dextral  and d e a l t  by  to  as e f f i c i e n t l y  required  aural,  such  is  i n t e r f e r e n c e o f an  base  need t o be e x p e r i e n c e d  mastery  may  II.  to a v o i d the mechanical  instrument.  extremely  a r e the foundation f o r  t h e d u a l m e d i a o f v o i c e a n d u k u l e l e i n Phase only  are  The main p u r p o s e o f Phase I  the b a s i c musicianship  effectively  concepts  programme a s t h e y  comprehensive m u s i c i a n s h i p . teach  and  with  those can  a  and using  devised a l l be  of Learning", Phi  84 accommodated  using  instrumentalists learning  the  identify of  says,  the  this  says,  personal  voice  skills  in  said,  "To  him p r e p a r a t o r y  Gagne  says  of  teach  with  instrument results recognize  in  experience i n  his  in  readiness  basic  is  general  to that,  viewpoint  upon  first  sand."  4  " I f l e a r n i n g a t any  prior  a t t e n t i o n must  in  E d w i n G o r d o n , The P s y c h o l o g y C l i f f s , New J e r s e y : P r e n t i c e - H a l l ,  to  Noble  s t r e s s e s the value  l e a r n i n g an ,  6  from  of being  notational  William C. J a r v i s , "Say I t t o P l a y J o u r n a l , 67 ( S e p t e m b e r 1980):44.  "Who  is  you can  without  build  careful  instigation.  2  "Kodaly,  same  by  5  t o n a l and rhythm p a t t e r n s  3  voice  before  an i n s t r u m e n t  procedures  their  research,  the  had t h e  greatest f a c i l i t y ,  a l s o supports  of  using  Kodaly  a child  paid to i t s prerequisites." Research  3  training...  learning  i s t o occur  I t " , Music  the  able to  form  before  Educators  o f M u s i c T e a c h i n g , (Englewood I n c . , 1971), p.123.  i s a Good M u s i c i a n ? " ,  p.196.  R o b e r t Gagne, The C o n d i t i o n s o f L e a r n i n g , 2nd Y o r k : H o l t , R i n e h a r t a n d W i n s t o n I n c . , 1970), p.274. 5  "Many  attaining  "To p l a y an i n s t r u m e n t  i s ridiculous."  giving  be  with  musicianship  Gordon  o r move  he  level  Jarvis  2  basic  widespread.  when  voice.  c o n s e n s u s o f o p i n i o n r e g a r d i n g a programme b e g i n n i n g  teaching  audiate  may  importance  musicianship." The  the  ed.,  (New  Robert Noble, "A Study of the E f f e c t s of a Concept Teaching Curriculum on Achievement i n Elementary School Beginning Bands", Washington, D.C.: Department of Health, Education and W e l f a r e , O f f i c e of E d u c a t i o n , Bureau of Research, 1969). 6  85 learning  to  manipulate  reading  itself  suggests  that students  notation  independent  their  is  instrument.  classroom  a  musical  instrument.  two-dimensional,  r h y t h m and  should concentrate  of p i t c h T h i s they  instruments.  notation can  Because  do  by  on  pitch,  Froseth  interpreting  before  they  note 7  rhythm  read  for  u s i n g body p e r c u s s i o n  or  Thus,  The r e s e a r c h r e s u l t s o f F r o s e t h . . . a n d G o r d o n . . i n d i c a t e t h a t any s t u d e n t c a n p r o f i t from instrumental music i n s t r u c t i o n j u s t a s s o o n a s he has d e v e l o p e d t h e music readiness which can reasonably be expected from knowledge of h i s l e v e l s of m u s i c a l a p t i t u d e . 8  Gordon c o n c l u d e s  through  his research:  I n s t r u m e n t a l m u s i c r e a d i n e s s , t h e n , i n t h e form of a developed sense of tonality and meter and of an e s t a b l i s h e d v o c a b u l a r y of t o n a l and r h y t h m i c p a t t e r n s , must be d e v e l o p e d b e f o r e a s t u d e n t c a n be e x p e c t e d to l e a r n t o p e r f o r m w e l l on a m u s i c a l i n s t r u m e n t . 9  MacKnight, instrument  and  substituted experiment note in  in  chanting  of  a tonal  training rhythm  states,  notational  understanding  initiated  identification  sol-fa,  research  mastery  f o r an she  her  and  "Control symbols  of m u s i c . "  1 0  syllables,  such and  are  the often  Therefore,  pattern training used  over  i n her  as opposed  techniques  to  as s i n g i n g  a conceptual  approach.  J a m e s F r o s e t h , "An I n v e s t i g a t i o n of the Use of Musical A p t i t u d e P r o f i l e S c o r e s i n t h e I n s t r u c t i o n of B e g i n n i n g S t u d e n t s i n I n s t r u m e n t a l M u s i c " , (Ph.D. d i s s e r t a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y of Iowa, 1968). 7  8  G o r d o n , The  9  Ibid.,  Psychology  Teaching,  p.123.  p.125.  Carol B. MacKnight, Wind I n s t r u m e n t a l i s t s A f t e r Research i n Music E d u c a t i o n , , 0  of M u s i c  "Music R e a d i n g A b i l i t y of B e g i n n i n g Melodic Instruction", J o u r n a l of 23 1( 1975):53.  86 The  results  favour  revealed  statistically  of the e x p e r i m e n t a l  that  this  programme with  aspect should  musical  mechanically Two music  begin.  with  an  with  and  those  where  using  instrumental Tatting  receiving  who  McGarry concludes  be  to  this  first  author  phase  encouraged  of a  to  the v o i c e r a t h e r than  received  to  the  performance 1 1  read  t o read  sight-singing  only  h i s experiment  vocalization are  reported  of by  i m p l i e s that the experimental  lessons learned to read  students  the  Pupils should  that lend support  McGarry.  group of students  indicating  differences in  instrument.  experiments  instrumental  possibly  understanding  along  Tatting  is  approach  significant  instruction  along  with  m u s i c more e f f e c t i v e l y  than  sight  reading  instruction.  by s a y i n g :  Vocalization as a t e a c h i n g procedure i s s i g n i f i c a n t l y effective i n developing performance skills for instrumental music students below average ability...vocalization is particularly effective in the absence of this bias (private lessons)...vocalization had a levelling influence which narrowed the achievement range w i t h i n p e r f o r m i n g groups, thereby f a c i l i t a t i n g s e l e c t i o n of r e p e r t o i r e , the formulation of lesson plans, and efforts to sustain interest during r e h e a r s a l s . 1 2  Therefore, concepts  i t seems p o s s i b l e t h a t d e v e l o p i n g using  the  voice prior  basic  skills  t o p l a y i n g an i n s t r u m e n t  and could  'Warren Frederick Tatting, "An I n v e s t i g a t i o n of the Effectiveness of Teaching M e l o d i c A s p e c t s o f M u s i c R e a d i n g By Means of Dictation", (Ph.D. d i s s e r t a t i o n , University of Minnesota, 1 975). 1  R o b e r t J . M c G a r r y , "A T e a c h i n g E x p e r i m e n t t o Measure t h e E x t e n t t o Which V o c a l i z a t i o n C o n t r i b u t e s t o t h e D e v e l o p m e n t of Selected Instrumental Music Performance Skills", (Ed. D. d i s s e r t a t i o n , New York U n i v e r s i t y , 1967). 1 2  87 result  i n more e f f i c i e n t  and e f f e c t i v e  i n s t r u m e n t a l programme i n  Phase I I . Another along of  with  music.  to  prior  of  relating with  and  these  skills  that  is  under  the  and  The  In Phase  tempo,  concepts  "Edelstein  use  this  i s advantageous. encompass  The  1 3  in this  some  aural, in  the  degree t o which of  musicianship  programme c a t e g o r i z e d  pitch,  vertical  were a d o p t e d  i n Music. "  As  1  the  pitch, from t h e required  a r e the b a s i s of f u r t h e r l e a r n i n g , a high  i s necessary.  evaluates  the l e v e l  t h e many r o u t e s a n d r e p e t i t i o n s  needed t o  i n these  The t e a c h e r  basic musicianship  Ronald B. Thomas, P r o j e c t -- S y n t h e s i s . 1  to  categorized  form a n d s t y l e  the p u p i l s a r e exposed  1 3  going  the l e v e l  l e a r n i n g the basic musicianship I,  as w e l l  as  linear  Creating Curriculum  competence  on i n s t r u m e n t s  are  Project.  concepts  duration,  mastery and d e c i d e s  develop  singing  i n Phase. I  skills  and  the  the v o i c e  are mastered determines  degree of mastery of  skills  Curriculum  headings  of  using  translatable  timbre,  to  i n the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n utilize  of tone  If teachers  concepts  reached.  dynamics,  lies  prior  i n s t r u m e n t a l p l a y i n g t o the v o i c e then  M a n h a t t a n v i l l e Music  skills  vocalization  educators  the production  basic musicianship  dextral  authors  and  in phrasing.  training The  including  conductors  help  to assist  method  for  i n s t r u m e n t a l performance Many  approach as  reason  skills  skills. and  concepts  in  t o the a e s t h e t i c p r o p e r t i e s of  M a n h a t t a n v i l l e Music  et a l , Creating Curriculum  i n Music.  Curriculum  88 shape,  space,  they  elicit.  attitudinal of  line,  be  or a t t i t u d i n a l  by  concepts. "...the by  Barzun  course  fooling  Blueprint habits  around  are  The  first  beginning  u k u l e l e and  through'the  and  translatable that  skills the  feels  s h o u l d be  1 6  will  the  1 5  not  be  f o r music  can  of  skills  and  w o r r i e d about  is  i t aims o n l y to p l e a s e  Garofalo,  in  his  book  appreciations  programme  that  and  encompasses  skills. reading s k i l l s  to master  i n Phase students'  i s introduced are  experimenter  treatment  v o i c e programme.  attempt  concept  comprehensive  feelings  attitudes,  his  phase c o v e r s the  is  ukulele  claims that of  the  programme and  what we  art...".  knowledge and  it  instrument  1 7  the  by-products  understanding,  a  precise  that  resultant  to the p o s s e s s o r . . . "  attitudes  and  the  feelings  i n the Kodaly  because the  enjoyment  the  and  as w e l l as w i t h  l e a d s nowhere b e c a u s e  with  for Band,  role  a s p e c t s of  says  that  t e x t u r e , and  properties  But,  Positive  the c a r e f u l  and  important  powers b r i n g  with here.  built  p l a y an  advocators.  " A l l new  dealt  aesthetic  t h e whole c h i l d  musicianship  aesthetic  The  effects  educating  that  colour, style  I  The  author  some of using  chances  necessary  posits  the a u r a l ,  the of  f o r the  dextral  familiar success  that  vocal  when  the  enhanced.  J a c q u e s B a r z u n , " A r t and E d u c a t i o n a l Inflation", Art in B a s i c E d u c a t i o n , ( W a s h i n g t o n , D.C.: Council for Basic Education, 1979) , p.12. 1 5  1 6  Ibid.,  p.12.  Robert J. Garofalo, B l u e p r i n t f o r Band: A G u i d e T e a c h i n g C o m p r e h e n s i v e M u s i c i a n s h i p T h r o u g h S c h o o l Band Performance, ( P o r t l a n d , Maine: J . Weston W a l c h , 1976). 1 7  •  »l  to  89 Phase the  I may  levels  r e q u i r e two months o r two  of achievement  of  the group.  a  class  "ready"  for  in this  music  s t u d e n t s have r e a c h e d on  t o the next  who  have  cyclical chance they  The be  achieved  nature  when  standard,  cognitive, allowed  slower  level  at  The more a d e p t  of music  skills,  concepts  interrelating  at the students'  which Phase  will  allow.  and  the  some e x a m p l e s o f c o n c e p t s practised  using  conscious  a w a r e n e s s by  direct  repeated  in  subconcept e.g.  to develop  numbered a f t e r Duration beat  teaching  1.0 1.1  be  wider  numbered  the decimal  get  a  phase as  will  have  a  and c o n c e p t s . will  also  r a t e s of growth. i s as simple as the on t h e most  i t  spirals The  f o l k s o n g , "Land o f  be e x p e r i e n c e d ,  will  will  development  and c o n t e n t .  E a c h one must  Each major concept  students  brought and  basic upwards  following  t h a t c a n be i n t r o d u c e d ,  the Canadian  of  t h e g r o u p may move  students  as  Birch".  order  majority  i n the next  I t i s founded  concepts  programme.  students  I i s geared  subconcepts  activities,  whether  Because of the s p i r a l ,  and c o n c e p t s  psychomotor and a f f e c t i v e  to progress  as t o a  on  development  i t t h e few r e m a i n i n g  standard.  basic s k i l l s  structure  and  that  of  t o c o n s o l i d a t e and e x p a n d on b a s i c s k i l l s  The  are  with  o f t h e programme,  t o review  phase  programme,  phase c a r r y i n g  not  next  an a c c e p t a b l e  are re-encountered.  chance  the  depending  and c o n c e p t u a l  I t i s a l w a y s t h e t e a c h e r ' s dilemma  is  Fortunately,  in skills  years  developed  the  Silver  to the students' explanation,  and d e e p e r  and  understanding.  consecutively p o i n t as f o l l o w s :  and  each  90 meter  1.2  rhythm Activities  will  be  1.3  categorized  P = Performance 0  Skills  will  be a  areas:  activity  = Organizing  A = Analyzing  into three  activity activity  designated  as:  = aural  d = dextral t  = translatable  Phase (Voice If  the  achieved focus the  only  strings  or  depending  on  more t h a n middle  group  the one  one,  level.  h a n d l e D,  be  skills  have  should  been  be  translatable skills  r e i n f o r c e d using will  be  p e r f o r m e d by  chords.  two  level  group c o u l d  could  skills  the  the  the and  ukulele.  dextral  skills  ukulele.  strumming  using  be  initially  c o n c e p t s can by  presented  the  ukulele  b a s i c a u r a l and  element  to play  Programme)  musicianship  beginning  However,  new  Ukulele  basic  i n Phase I , t h e  Duration  the  required  here.  required  be  Beginning  e i g h t major c o n c e p t s w i l l  The  be  and  II  of  or  three  the  The  linear  keys  group.  lowest  cope w i t h G and  The  A major.  pitch  (D,  Within  level  D and  plucking  G  could  G  individual sequence  or  A  major)  a group there play  major,  in D  and  may  may  major,  the  Thus a l l g r o u p s c o u l d  top be  91  .  equally and  challenged.  visual  three  levels  he  of  calls  ability  be  this  able  chords could the  to  "singing  the  root  (tonic)  the  three  ukulele  the  roots  at  the  one  realistically making  the  extracted  and  initial  and  first  final  w h o l e , as  back  the  play  one  and  it.  string  is  to  with  a  thus Doane  to  sing  sing  the  f i n g e r ) i t on  strings  tempo  and  three  concepts.  the  concepts  focussing  and  singing  on  a  style Music,  i n t o the  presentation i n s i g h t and  be  in  most be  specific  skill,  or  item  This  synthesis will  all  cannot  selection.  This  are  and  a c e r t a i n s u b c o n c e p t , an  whole a p p r o a c h .  more  can  chord  in  development.  For  whole  he  " p i c " (pluck  Singing  a l l  aware o f  then put  whole, p a r t , the  chord  separated. child  until  Another p o s s i b i l i t y  dynamics,  comprises  are  n o t e of  same t i m e .  instances,  A major  sing  the  i n t o the  in  every chord  the  incorporated  G and  handled  to play  of  timbre,  k e y s , D,  be  i s unable  a l s o enhances a u r a l  Form,  involving aural  again  s t r i n g s " (choosing  chords change).  the  that  as  p i t c h sequence  some p e r f o r m a n c e c r i t e r i o n  while  the  of  When a c h i l d  may  fulfill  vertical  identification  incorporated. key  The  •  also  of  be  results in assumes  different  understanding  may  from  the  concepts  are  I  the  attained. Essentially the  Phase I I  addition  of  attention  throughout  section  "Technical  i s a r e p e t i t i o n of  ukulele. Phase  Notation".  Exercises  designated  concepts.  Dextral II.  Exercises can For  be  skills  Exercises for played example,  Phase  with  need a g r e a t  f o r these are Ukulele musically finger  deal in  Without  of the  Music  re-enforcing patterns  for  92 strengthening the  fingerboard  variations concepts in  fingers, can  of a c c e n t  at higher  developing  strum  patterns  done u s i n g  could  tempo  just  as  hand  and  one  a l l  practised  s e p a r a t e l y , then  chords  the  t o strumming hand  child's  be  kept  as  simple  the  as  left  hand s h o u l d p l a y  the  right  which  hand  difficulty sequenced  strumming to a double  under  The  "A  second  developing aural, addition a  of  the  certain  adhered developed  The  P o s s i b l e Chord phase,  like  dextral  and  the  tempo w h i l e  s i n g i n g or  the  The others.  t o be  practised  left  hand  technique  right  hand s h o u l d hand  strums.  focus can can  then  be  hand  shift  aural/dextral  for left  to  the  increased  strum  in  patterns are  for Ukulele". i s merely skills  skills  one  but be  are  the to  have t o  be  two  playing)  to  adjusted  naturally  suggests  ( h e a r i n g , s i n g i n g or  route with  does not  development: 1.  example,  Once t h e  sequence can  this  For  be  (which  configurations  n e e d s , and  Thus,  tempo.  need  the  translatable  aural  steady  left  first,  The  a  possible).  right  part  difficult  Sequence  to the p u p i l s '  rigidly. than  strum.  u k u l e l e medium.  extent  to  pattern  important  of  more  to  hand  hand becomes somewhat a u t o m a t i c ,  Many  recycling  the  single  4.  strumming  the  with  for  Single  with  attention, combined  i s learning  right  The  skills If  a feel  3 and  ways p l a y s an  a steady  hand a t a t i m e .  initially  used.  is a prerequisite  right  requires  the c h i l d  be  and  2,  musicianship.  keeping  on  the  the meters  in varied  focussing  while  also  is a prerequisite  left  should  for gaining dexterity  comprehensive  with a steady  The  be  levels  chords  clapping  and  more  routes  of  93 2.  translatable/aural/dextral hearing/  In  the  pitches There  is  in  and  and  second  route  Aural  and  and  pitch  a continuum  note  reading  As  D E;  continues seen  i n the  section,  ukulele)  t o h i g h F#  encouraged.  a  A  to  be  the  as  a  great  developed  score  the  through In  the  accordingly.  both  is  the The  compelled  routes  need  attention. the  the deal  or w r i t e s  performer  equal  play.  i d e a of  experiences.  plays  developed The  to  This i s activities  to encourage  dual  with  procedures  development.  integrated.  two  pitches  playing  (for  f o r a u r a l p r e s e n t a t i o n any  major  from  doh  notes  Sequence low  i s encompassed. play  A  A  the  for  pentatonic  Singing  (lowest  wide and  of  and  develops re  Pitch  can  this  f o r s i n g i n g and  with  "Linear  in conjunction  instructional  i n c l u d e a l l the  Pupils  relies  Ideally,  be  B and  range  ukulele  organizing.  sequence  G A;  the  programme t h r o u g h  concepts  beginning  Playing"  thus  and  at  and  with  to  designed  skills  along  scale.  looks  this  need'  are  linear  s e c o n d ) and  musical  translatable skills.  Phase II has  s i n g or  process.  a n a l y z i n g and  activities  The  and  simultaneously  skills  i n d i s c r i m i n a t i n g what  which can  notes  i n a l l phases of  leads  This approach  performer  reading  writing/  mind a p r e c o n c e i v e d  memory  written  the  performing,  dextral  voice  r e q u i r e s more s t e p s  developed  possible of  the  deal with  be  the  or  playing)  ear  performer's  rhythmic  route,  second  the  error", repetition  score, hears  to  the  the  wants t o p r o d u c e .  tonal  "trial  route,  i t wants t o h e a r  s o u n d s he on  first  s i n g i n g or  (reading  singing  sing their  and  n o t e on  the  range  is  pentatonic  94  songs  in three The  keys u s i n g s i n g l e  time  line  group.  I t may  class,  with  than  an  advanced  the  years  advanced  mixed  levels,  time,  whatever  The level and  activities,  will  i n the  providing will  not  Therefore, expertise Evaluation  on  but  thoroughly,  growth  group.  sequence  p h a s e s do  goal  rather  to  is  in  skills  or  indicate  and  comprehensive The  good  musicianship learned  a myriad  for  skill  of c o m p r e h e n s i v e  of  of  continued  a curriculum and  step  concepts  basics  stead  through  each  time  the grade  simply  without  development  musicianship.  curriculum rests with  in assessing progress  ordinary  t o f i n i s h each phase i n  f o r concept  goal  t i m i n g of any  An  each  r e q u i r e more  but  not  Rushing  the  with  s y n t h e s i z e d through  pupil  school.  Procedure  differ  indicate  capable.  i n t e g r a t e d and  accomplish  not  teach  adequate experiences  the  is  i s to develop  the c h i l d  high  will  instrument  The  stand a  chords.  g r o u p s p a r t of a y e a r .  The  goal  or  w i l l necessarily  the  level.  effectively. at  this  take  spent  achievement record  for  notes  the  the  teacher's  way.  (See  Summary)  Phase I I I Phase  III  takes  curriculum  to  s c a l e s and  modes.  for  the  putting notes the  pupils  include a melodic  most  The  part  them t o g e t h e r of  the  the D major  pentatonic.  The  their  a l r e a d y be  i n the c o r r e c t scale notes  up  s e q u e n c e of m a j o r  p i t c h e s and will  further  known.  order.  the  G major  spiral  scales,  p l a c e m e n t s on  the  minor staff  I t i s a matter For  have a l l been c o v e r e d of  this  scale  example,  of the  i n Phase I I i n  will  also  have  95 been  covered.  The  only  n o t e s of t h e A major  scale  A'.  The  scales, make are as  major  along  up  scales  with  new n o t e  t o be i n t r o d u c e d  h a v e been c o v e r e d of  C,  the Dorian  t h e new m a t e r i a l  except  sees  The  f o r G#'  and  E and B a r e t h e n a d d e d .  and A e o l i a n  i n Phase  III.  f i t . T h e s e may  be  Minor  ( n a t u r a l minor)  modes  Because c e r t a i n  scales  s p e c i f i e d does not p r e c l u d e t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n the teacher  i s G'.  of other  discovered  scales  aurally  or  theoretically. Summary The  three  with materials sequential and  p h a s e s a r e b o u n d l e s s a s e a c h one c a n be e x t e n d e d and a c t i v i t i e s .  learning  cycle  The  of p r e p a r i n g  practising their applications  Each  phase  has  and  an  activity  The  concepts,  Phases I , I I and I I I . offers pitches.  a  and a c t i v i t i e s  guideline  linear  an  ongoing  concepts,  presenting  the voice  and/or  them  ukulele.  (autal/dextral/translatable)  are continuously  for Singing  pitch  sequence  introducing  integrated.  and P l a y i n g i s appropriate f o r  I t need n o t be s t r i c t l y for  is  (performing/analyzing/organizing).  P i t c h Sequence  following  with  component  component  skills  Linear The  a skill  programme  and  adhered  integrating  to  but  linear  96 LINEAR PITCH SEQUENCE FOR SINGING AND Phase  I a n d I I --  D Major  Sol-fa  PLAYING:*  Pentatonic  G Major  A Major  (both  d r  D E  G A  A B  d  r m  D E F#  G A B  A B C#  d  r 1,  D E B,  G A E,  A B F#,  D B,A ,  G E, D,  A F#,E,  D E B , A,  G A E, D,  A B F#,E,  D E F# B,  G A B E,  A B C# F#, A B C# F#,E,  d l , s d  f  r 1 , s,  • d r m 1, d  r m 1 , s,  D E F# B, A,  G A B  d  r m s  D E F# A  G A B D  ABC#E  d  r m s 1  D E F# A B  G A B D E  ABC#EF#  DEF#AB,A,  GABDEE,D,  ABC#EF#F#,E,  drmsll,s,  O -4-  •kz Phase  -e-  E,D,  -6h  octaves)  O = o  -e-  I I I —• D i a t o n i c  D major  scale  ( a l l pitches  have been c o v e r e d  G major  scale  -- i n t r o d u c e  C a n d G'  A major  scale  -- i n t r o d u c e  A'  Dorian Aeolian  i n Phase  I and I I )  mode mode  * Any n o t e below t h e t o n a l c e n t r e ( f i n a l n o t e ) i s d e s i g n a t e d by a comma f o l l o w i n g t h e s o l - f a s y l l a b l e o r t h e l e t t e r name. Any note an o c t a v e o r more above t h e t o n a l c e n t r e i s d e s i g n a t e d by an a p o s t r o p h e f o l l o w i n g t h e s o l - f a s y l l a b l e o r t h e l e t t e r name.  97  L e a r n i n g Outcomes f o r E a c h  Concept  (Adapted from the g o a l s i n Creating Curriculum in M u s i c  1 8  )  I Duration Students 1.  2. 3. 4. 5.  II  will:  Develop and demonstrate awareness o f b e a t and w i l l d e t e c t and i n d i c a t e b e a t , i f p r e s e n t , i n m u s i c , s p e e c h and e n v i r o n m e n t a l s o u n d . Be aware of t h e f u n c t i o n o f a c c e n t u a t i o n i n m u s i c . D e v e l o p an a w a r e n e s s o f rhythm as a f u n d a m e n t a l s o u r c e of m o t i o n i n music and a sensitivity to various r h y t h m i c phenonmena. Develop an a w a r e n e s s o f meter as an o r g a n i z i n g f o r c e i n music and a s e n s i t i v i t y t o v a r i o u s m e t r i c patterns and c o m b i n a t i o n s . Develop a s e n s i t i v i t y t o e x t e n d e d s i m u l t a n e o u s use o f d i f f e r e n t rhythmic or m e t r i c p a t t e r n s .  Linear  Pitch  Students 1. 2. 3. 4.  5.  will:  Develop a sensitivity to sound and pitch as fundamental e l e m e n t s of music. Develop a sensitivity t o t h e r i s e and f a l l of p i t c h p a t t e r n s and c o n t o u r s and t o t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between p i t c h contour and o v e r a l l m u s i c a l e f f e c t . Develop a sensitivity f o r the phrase as a m u s i c a l entity. D e v e l o p an a b i l i t y t o r e c o g n i z e i n t e r v a l s , s c a l e s and tonal centre. T h e y w i l l be a u r a l l y f a m i l i a r w i t h and sensitive to these phenomenon and will understand t h e i r f u n c t i o n and use i n m u s i c . Develop a sensitivity t o m e l o d i c l i n e s and t o t h e i r u s e i n m u s i c a l c o m p o s i t i o n s . They will be familiar w i t h monophonic a n d p o l y p h o n i c t e x t u r e s and be a b l e t o d i s t i n g u i s h t h e s e f r o m homophony.  Edelstein  et a l , C r e a t i n g  Curriculum in Music.  98 III  Vertical  Pitch  Students  will:  1.  2.  3.  4.  IV  Be sensitive to the v e r t i c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s of p i t c h t h a t p r o d u c e harmony and t o the use of harmony in musical composition. They will be familiar with v a r i o u s h a r m o n i c t r a d i t i o n s and p r a c t i c e s . D e v e l o p an a b i l i t y t o r e c o g n i z e tonal center. They will be aurally familiar w i t h and s e n s i t i v e t o t h e phenomenon of tonality and will understand its f u n c t i o n and u s e i n m u s i c . Develop a sensitivity to the uses of harmony t o accompany m u s i c a l l i n e s . They w i l l be familiar with homophonic t e x t u r e and w i l l be a b l e t o d i s t i n g u i s h i t from monophony and p o l y p h o n y . D e v e l o p a s e n s i t i v i t y t o t h e s i m u l t a n e o u s e x i s t e n c e of two o r more t o n a l c e n t e r s or t o t h e r e l a t i v e weakness or non-existence of tonal center. They will be f a m i l i a r with various compositional p r a c t i c e s r e l a t i n g t o t h e s e phenomena.  Form Students 1. 2. 3.  V  will:  D e v e l o p a s e n s i t i v i t y t o the e x i s t e n c e of unity and variety i n music and an ability to i d e n t i f y the s o u r c e s o f u n i t y and v a r i e t y i n m u s i c a l c o m p o s i t i o n s . D e v e l o p a s e n s i t i v i t y t o the e x i s t e n c e of structural u n i t s i n m u s i c and a f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h t h e u s e s of s u c h units in musical composition. D e v e l o p a s e n s i t i v i t y t o form and s t r u c t u r e w i t h i n and between s m a l l and l a r g e u n i t s i n m u s i c . They w i l l be f a m i l i a r w i t h t h e s t r u c t u r a l p r i n c i p l e s by which the elements of music are combined to produce the phenomenon of f o r m , and will be knowledgeable with respect to the various formal s t r u c t u r e s i n which m u s i c has been and c o n t i n u e s t o be o r g a n i z e d .  Timbre Students 1. 2. 3.  will:  Be sensitive to differences in timbre and will recognize d i s t i n c t i v e timbres. Be familiar with the factors that determine or influence timbre. Be f a m i l i a r w i t h t h e r o l e of t i m b r e a s an expressive element i n music and w i t h t h e f u n c t i o n of t i m b r e i n d e f i n i n g m u s i c a l form.  99 VI  Dynamics Students 1. 2. 3.  VII  Be s e n s i t i v e t o d i f f e r e n c e s i n d y n a m i c l e v e l s and to changes i n dynamics. Be familiar with the factors that determine or i n f l u e n c e dynamics. Be f a m i l i a r w i t h t h e r o l e o f d y n a m i c s a s an e x p r e s s i v e e l e m e n t i n m u s i c and w i t h t h e f u n c t i o n o f d y n a m i c s in d e f i n i n g m u s i c a l form.  Tempo Students 1. 2.  VIII  will:  will:  Be s e n s i t i v e t o d i f f e r e n c e s i n tempo and t o c h a n g e s i n tempo. Be familiar with t h e r o l e o f tempo a s an e x p r e s s i v e e l e m e n t i n m u s i c and w i t h t h e f u n c t i o n of tempo in d e f i n i n g m u s i c a l form.  Style Students 1. 2.  will:  D e v e l o p a s e n s i t i v i t y t o s t y l e i n m u s i c and an a b i l i t y to recognize the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s t h a t d e f i n e m u s i c a l style. Be k n o w l e d g e a b l e w i t h respect to the factors that influence style and will be f a m i l i a r with d i v e r s e m u s i c a l s t y l e s of p a s t a n d p r e s e n t .  I n s t r u c t i o n a l O b j e c t i v e s f o r the C o n c e p t s t o be T a u g h t (based I A.  on C r e a t i n g C u r r i c u l u m  in Music  1 9  )  Duration Beat Students 1.  19  will:  Demonstrate snapping,  1 bid.  t h e b e a t by s t a m p i n g , tapping, clapping, patsching and marching to music while  100  2.  singing or l i s t e n i n g . ( T h e s e movements c r e a t i n g o f f t h e body a r e c a l l e d body p e r c u s s i o n . ) Represent beat i n n o t a t i o n and will translate n o t a t i o n i n t o sound.  sound such  Meter Students 1.  will:  3.  Demonstrate v a r i o u s meters by u s i n g body p e r c u s i o n . A u r a l l y and v i s u a l l y i d e n t i f y and various meters. Notate music i n v a r i o u s meters  4.  Improvise  2.  and  compose m u s i c  singing,  moving  distinguish  and  between  i n v a r i o u s meters.  Rhythm Students "1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Linear  Perform rhythm p a t t e r n s . Identify and distinguish between v a r i o u s d u r a t i o n a l v a l u e s o f n o t e s and r e s t s . Notate rhythm p a t t e r n s . O r g a n i z e d u r a t i o n a l v a l u e s of notes and rests, and combine them i n u n i t s o f v a r i o u s l e n g t h s . Perform and n o t a t e rhythmic o s t i n a t i . Pitch  Students 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15.  will:  will:  D i s t i n g u i s h between h i g h e r and l o w e r p i t c h e s . D e m o n s t r a t e m e l o d i c c o n t o u r s by p h y s i c a l movement. Reproduce m e l o d i c c o n t o u r s r e p r e s e n t e d by t r a d i t i o n a l and n o n t r a d i t i o n a l n o t a t i o n . Compare a n d d e s c r i b e m e l o d i c c o n t o u r s . R e p r e s e n t m e l o d i c c o n t o u r s g r a p h i c a l l y o r by n o t a t i o n Improvise and compose utilizing specific melodic contours. P e r f o r m p i t c h p a t t e r n s and p h r a s e s m u s i c a l l y . R e p r e s e n t p i t c h p a t t e r n s and p h r a s e s by movement. Identify and analyze pitch p a t t e r n s and p h r a s e s by u s i n g t r a d i t i o n a l or i n v e n t e d symbols. N o t a t e p i t c h p a t t e r n s and p h r a s e s by u s i n g t r a d i t i o n a l or i n v e n t e d s y m b o l s . I m p r o v i s e and compose m u s i c a l p h r a s e s . Perform melodic o s t i n a t i . G i v e n a u r a l or v i s u a l examples, i d e n t i f y , compare or notate melodic o s t i n a t i . Create melodic o s t i n a t i . Demonstrate various intervals using the voice,  101 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. Ill  movements and g r a p h i c r e p r e s e n t a t i o n . Given a u r a l or v i s u a l s t i m u l i , i d e n t i f y , classify or notate various i n t e r v a l s . Improvise or compose music emphasizing specified i n t e r v a l s or i n t e r v a l s p a t t e r n s . Compare, analyze and describe various usages of stepwise patterns in aural or n o t a t e d examples o f musical compositions. Improvise or compose music emphasizing specified stepwise p a t t e r n s . I d e n t i f y t h e t o n a l c e n t e r of m e l o d i e s . Perform monophonic music from various p e r i o d s and cultures. Compare and a n a l y z e g i v e n a u r a l o r v i s u a l examples of monophonic m u s i c . N o t a t e o r g r a p h i c a l l y r e p r e s e n t e x a m p l e s o f monophonic music. I m p r o v i s e and compose monophonic m u s i c . Perform vocal canons from v a r i o u s s t y l e p e r i o d s and cultures. I m p r o v i s e and compose c a n o n s . P e r f o r m p o l y p h o n i c m u s i c from various style periods and c u l t u r e s . Given a u r a l o r v i s u a l e x a m p l e s , i d e n t i f y , compare and a n a l y z e v a r i o u s k i n d s of p o l y p h o n i c m u s i c . Notate or graphically represent examples, of polyphonic music. I m p r o v i s e and compose p o l y p h o n i c m u s i c .  Vertical Students 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14.  Pitch will:  Given aural or visual examples, identify chord changes. I d e n t i f y and a n a l y z e t r i a d s and o t h e r c h o r d c h a n g e s . Sing the notes of the c h o r d . Sing the r o o t s of c h o r d s . I d e n t i f y t h e t o n i c c h o r d as t h e t o n a l c e n t r e . Perform s p e c i f i e d cadences. Notate s p e c i f i e d cadences. G i v e n a u r a l o r v i s u a l e x a m p l e s , i d e n t i f y and describe v a r i o u s types of cadences. I m p r o v i s e and compose music i l l u s t r a t i n g v a r i o u s t y p e s of c a d e n c e s . Perform homophonic music from v a r i o u s s t y l e p e r i o d s and C u l t u r e s . G i v e n a u r a l or v i s u a l examples, i d e n t i f y v a r i o u s k i n d s of homophonic m u s i c . Perform s p e c i f i e d modulations. G i v e n a u r a l and v i s u a l examples, identify, describe and c l a s s i f y m o d u l a t i o n s . N o t a t e m o d u l a t i o n s i n s p e c i f i e d m u s i c a l examples.  102 15.  IV  Improvise and modulat i o n s .  compose  music  illustrating  specific  Form Students 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13.  will:  Identify and perform recurring rhythmic or pitch motives. Given aural examples, identify motives and n o t a t e them. Given a u r a l or v i s u a l examples, compare and analyze m o t i v e s and t h e ways i n w h i c h t h e y a r e u s e d . Use original or given motives when i m p r o v i s i n g o r composing music. I d e n t i f y and p e r f o r m themes from m u s i c a l c o m p o s i t i o n s . G i v e n a u r a l examples of m u s i c a l c o m p o s i t i o n s , compare and analyze themes and t h e ways i n w h i c h t h e y a r e used. Use o r i g i n a l or given themes when i m p r o v i s i n g or composing m e l o d i e s . I d e n t i f y i n t r o d u c t i o n s and c o d a s i n m u s i c performed. I d e n t i f y and compare b i n a r y and t e r n a r y f o r m s i n m u s i c t h e y l i s t e n t o , p e r f o r m and c r e a t e . Given aural o r v i s u a l e x a m p l e s , a n a l y z e and d e s c r i b e b i n a r y and t e r n a r y f o r m s . Improvise and compose words demonstrating clearly i d e n t i f i a b l e b i n a r y or t e r n a r y form. Identify and compare other forms such as rondos, themes and v a r i a t i o n s , c a n o n s , f u g u e s and b a l l a d s . Analyze and describe the rondos, themes and v a r i a t i o n s , c a n o n s , f u g u e s and b a l l a d s t h e y l i s t e n t o , p e r f o r m and c r e a t e .  V Timbre Students 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.  will:  Identify, compare and classify sound sources and timbres. Improvise, dramatize, compose and perform works u t i l i z i n g s p e c i f i c timbres or t i m b r a l c o m b i n a t i o n s . Compare and d e s c r i b e t h e i n f l u e n c e o f t h e s i z e , shape and m a t e r i a l of a sound source on i t s resulting timbre. Identify, d e s c r i b e and compare v a r i o u s means of t o n e production. Compose, improvise and perform words illustrating v a r i o u s means o f t o n e p r o d u c t i o n . R e s p o n d t o u s e s o f t i m b r e by means o f movement. Given aural o r v i s u a l e x a m p l e s , d e s c r i b e and compare v a r i o u s c o m p o s e r s ' u s e s of t i m b r e .  103 8.  VI  Through various  improvisation or composition, s p e c i f i c uses of t i m b r e .  illustrate  Dynamics Students 1. 2.  s  3.  VII  Demonstrate various dynamic levels and changes i n d y n a m i c s and u t i l i z e them i n the interpretation of music. Given a u r a l o r v i s u a l e x a m p l e s , i d e n t i f y , compare a n d describe various dynamic levels and changes in dynamics. Improvise, dramatize, compose and perform works u t i l i z i n g v a r i o u s s p e c i f i c dynamic p a t t e r n s .  Style  Students 1. 2.  3. 4. 5.  6.  7. 8. VIII  will:  will:  Perform, with appropriate interpretation, music of various styles. Given a u r a l or v i s u a l examples, d e s c r i b e , a n a l y z e and compare v a r i o u s ways i n w h i c h d u r a t i o n , p i t c h , t i m b r e , d y n a m i c s , tempo and f o r m a r e o r g a n i z e d and combined i n various styles. T h r o u g h l i s t e n i n g and s t u d y , d e s c r i b e and a n a l y z e the extra-musical forces. Analyze through listening and illustrate through c o m p o s i t i o n v a r i o u s f u n c t i o n a l a p p l i c a t i o n s of music. Through listening, identify, analyze and classify examples o f p o p u l a r m u s i c and e t h n i c m u s i c o f v a r i o u s cultures. They w i l l i n d i c a t e t h e s p e c i f i c uses o f t h e e l e m e n t s of music on which these conclusions are based. Given aural examples o f c o m p o s i t i o n s i n s p i r e d by o r b a s e d on folk music, or ethnic music of various cultures, analyze and describe how composers h a v e u t i l i z e d these idioms i n t h e i r works. I m p r o v i s e o r compose examples of popular music or works i n f l u e n c e d by f o l k o r e t h n i c m u s i c . D e s c r i b e , a n a l y z e and compare a u r a l o r v i s u a l examples of m u s i c of v a r i o u s s t y l e s , p e r i o d s o r c u l t u r e s .  Tempo Students 1. 2.  will:  Demonstrate various tempos and tempo changes u t i l i z e them i n t h e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of m u s i c . G i v e n a u r a l o r v i s u a l e x a m p l e s , i d e n t i f y , compare d e s c r i b e v a r i o u s tempos a n d tempo c h a n g e s .  and and  104 3. 4. 5. 6.  Improvise, dramatize, compose and perform works u t i l i z i n g v a r i o u s s p e c i f i c tempo p a t t e r n s . Respond t o v a r i o u s tempos a n d tempo changes when moving t o m u s i c . Given aural o r v i s u a l e x a m p l e s , d e s c r i b e and compare v a r i o u s c o m p o s e r s ' u s e s o f tempo and tempo c h a n g e s . Through improvisation or composition, illustrate v a r i o u s s p e c i f i c u s e s o f tempo a n d tempo c h a n g e s .  Teaching The for  Concepts Through a M u l t i p l i c i t y  f o l l o w i n g model  experiencing,  illustrates  teaching  comprehensive m u s i c i a n s h i p  and  of  t h e many a v e n u e s  reinforcing  programme.  Activities available  concepts  in  a  1 0 5  T E A C H I N G C O N C E P T S THROUGH A M U L T I P L I C I T Y ( F i g u r e 2)  OF  ACTIVITIES  Performing  Analyzing  Organizing  Performing  Analyzing  Organizing  singing  listening identifying describing comparing di st ingui shing between moving N when the reading ( purpose is writingJ analytical  composing  playing moving  arranging improvising  106  Chapter  5  EVALUATION OF COMPREHENSIVE MUSICIANSHIP  EVALUATION PROCEDURE Evaluation, determines student  and  formative the of  the  progress  adjustment  conducted  in  after  The for  every  the  David Brace 2  difficulty  of e v a l u a t i o n i s procedure  the effectiveness  should  of  p.228.  during  observation  improve  by that  summative.  It i s  i s completed  "...to  the  l e a r n i n g , the  2  the  i n order teacher.  to  strive  These  to  achieve  directions  E d u c a t i o n a l Researcher, 2(March 1973), p.7, Pratt, C u r r i c u l u m : Design and Development, a n d J o v a n o v i c h , I n c . , 1980), p.228. Ibid.,  s h o u l d be  followed  to  the  know e x a c t l y what t h e e x p e c t a t i o n s a r e  s t e p o f t h e programme s e t by  learning  procedures  the i n s t r u c t i o n a l  students  in  often  both  e v a l u a t i o n i n music  and c o n s i s t s of "...the  or the c u r r i c u l u m . "  standards  1  type  to  e v a l u a t i o n i s conducted  instructional  make j u d g e m e n t s a b o u t instruction,  Formative  and  The o t h e r  1  Most  procedure  m u s i c programmes,  I t c a n be an a s s e t  teacher.  instructional  progress."  outcomes.  evaluation.  student  SUMMARY  as e x h i b i t e d i n q u a l i t y  eventual  PROGRAMMES  and  quoted i n (Harcourt,  107  expectations a i d i n giving Every  music  students of  period  may be c a r r i e d is  again  they  general  they The  testing, students students  type  either  know what know.  they  This  type  evaluation.  said,  It  "Kids are not know t h i n g s . " realize  to build  know and l e t t i n g  five  or s i x p u p i l s  the teacher  rhythm  3  that  confidence i n  individuals  to  than  oral  some w r i t t e n work  tests  i n t h e form  they  periodically  on a c o n c e p t  classes.  clap  by  or s k i l l .  T h i s method An example o f  different  be e v a l u a t e d  administered  because  know what t h e  patterns  studied i n the lesson.  could also  be  i n l e t t i n g the  or c o n t i n u e .  music  being  done  individual  as t o the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of  i n Hungarian  can  of  teachers  be  to back-track  groups o r t h e whole c l a s s tests  can  immediately  element  that  i s also valuable  testing  c o u l d be t o a s k  Written  evaluation,  tests  frequently  the  of  oral  used  Nasty Davis  helps  Short  is  3  t h a t Bruner  This also  w r i t t e n or o r a l ,  t e a c h i n g and whether  apart  and t e a c h e r  by t h e  i s proceeding  o f e v a l u a t i o n s t u d e n t s may  his  using  individually  know, o r a b o u t how t h e y  more common t y p e  informs  this  note  task.  know.  individually This  student  to  do know s o m e t h i n g .  what  evaluated  the  e v a l u a t i o n o f how t h e l e a r n i n g  s u r e a b o u t what t h e y  With t h i s  be  to accomplishing  what a c c o m p l i s h m e n t s were made.  out through  interesting  very  should  to ascertain  general, overall  impetus  at  usually  of p r a c t i c e ,  in this  intervals  Small way. further  t a k e more t i m e .  But  or short quizzes  can  Jerome Bruner, Psychology Today, " S c h o o l i n g C h i l d r e n i n a Climate", Interview by E l i z a b e t h H a l l , (New Y o r k : Z i f f Pub.Co., J a n u a r y 1982), p . 5 9 .  108 be  done a l m o s t  results.  For  requires  very  on  the board  teacher to are.  of  what  to  peers  The and  immediate are  quizzes  be  i s being  taught.  pupils mark  time  can  by  handed  Bloom  the answers  put  papers.  The  walking  and  notation  around the  what  cent  good  see  i n to the  per  with  stick  own  to teacher  is-100  and  in  their  t r o u b l e and  feedback  in a l l testing  little  rhythms  feedback  having  can  for further  goal  write  time.  their  students  periodically The  little  have  Short  period requiring  example,  by  can  see what  every  the  room  problems  teacher  t o mark  students.  accuracy  or  mastery  says,  Most s t u d e n t s ( p e r h a p s 90 p e r c e n t ) c a n m a s t e r what we teach. Our b a s i c i n s t r u c t i o n a l t a s k i s t o d e f i n e what we mean by mastery of a subject and to discover methods and m a t e r i a l s t o h e l p the l a r g e s t p r o p o r t i o n of our s t u d e n t s r e a c h i t . " Certain For  a s p e c t s of music  example,  if  the  students are  per  cent  a  Whether  the  teacher  not  indeed  c h o o s e one be  likes  opinion.  the e m o t i o n a l to  phrase  But  s i d e or  neglected  i f the  certain  aspects  the  correctness  students cannot  It i s this  other.  because  — The  of  i t .  passage  notation,  t h e m e l o d y c r e a t e d or n o t  intellectual the  approximate  i t in musical  But  measureable. and  others  sings a short melodic  i s expected.  f o u r bar  aspects are  teacher  r e q u i r e d to w r i t e  accuracy  compose  personal  the  require this,  to  measured.  is a  the  purely  theoretical  dichotomy  in  that o f t e n causes intellectual  100  are asked be  and  teachers  side  t e a c h e r s want a l l c h i l d r e n  music  should  to "love"  "Handbook o f F o r m a t i v e and Summative E v a l u a t i o n of Student Learning, (1971), p.47, Bloom quoted in Pratt, Curriculum: D e s i g n and D e v e l o p m e n t , p.219.  109 music.  The  teachers the  believe  One  How  can  singing that  or  once  we  can  I t was  which  was  noticed  five  was  the  discriminate  How  the  second to note  technically  each  handled aspects. devise  experimenter.  This  i s being  and a  situation  musician. we  tell  a child  played i n two  a  is  illustrate  5  tape  different  "unmusically"  of  a  ways  —  or  vice  t h a t even though the p l a y i n g a l l present  excerpt  was  were  able  "musical"  and  somehow i n t r i n s i c  was  ability  further researched. or  organizing  also to  Although  (composing,  i s somewhat p o s s i b l e  it  has  different  manner t h a n  and  theoretical  as  not  of  technical  always s u f f i c e .  their  own  using  Teachers words  e x c e l l e n t , good, a v e r a g e , fail.  fair  may  be  to  to describe  the  or  Generally, e x c e l l e n t should  poor,  pass  or  for  the  truly  outstanding  20,  L e c t u r e on " E v a l u a t i o n of S c h o o l Programmes" on 1982 i n K a m l o o p s , B.C. f o r t h e BCMEA C o n f e r e n c e .  pupils.  to  wish  simply  5  with  arranging)  system such  to  again.  1  Numbers do a  time  C h i l d r e n s d i s c r i m i n a t i o n in t h i s area  musicality  in  side  C o l w e l l , to  identical, the  i s mandatory  and  can  time  because  s i d e by  unbalanced  a e s t h e t i c e v a l u a t i o n of p e r f o r m i n g  improvising  time  Richard  excerpts,  w h i c h p l a y i n g of  not.  by  exist  point  i n an  neglected  rudiments  should  for feeling?  interesting  excerpts  to d i s t i n g u i s h  be  discriminate musicality,  " m u s i c a l l y " and  the  results  not the  makes t h i s  test  performing  versa.  the  other  Both  playing musically?  people  pianist  knowledge of  Kodaly  the  should  of m u s i c .  emphasis.  without  side  a  understanding  equal  of  emotional  be  or  reserved  O t h e r words t h a t d e s c r i b e  the  February  110 mood c r e a t e d c o u l d performances whole c l a s s the  arts.  He  be  joyful,  recorded  such  t h a t we  —  evaluation.  aspect,  says  6  could  used  for their  visual  Eisner  be  must  tape  sombre,  and  played  Videotaping  etc.  using  f o r new  c o u l d be  some o f  ways the  to  new  The  back t o  the  used  as movement, i s i n c o r p o r a t e d . search  a l s o suggests  on  urgent,  if  Elliot  evaluate  technology  the to  do  this. Evaluation process.  Individual  constantly. turn  be  should  They  evaluated  examiner  be  students  should by  evaluating  done by  a l l concerned should  also evaluate  their  peers.  students,  The the  i n the  evaluate their  their  peers'  teacher  is  curriculum  learning own  work  works and the  and  in  overall  curriculum  implementation. A  list  of p o s s i b l e t e s t  forms s u g g e s t e d  by  Labuta  is  as  follows: 1.  Information examinations a. true-false b. multiple choice c. matching d. completion e. s h o r t answer f. essay  2.  Listening  3.  Student r e p o r t s a. book r e p o r t s b. musical analyses c. project report d. r e s e a r c h paper e. term paper  4.  Interview  E l l i o t W. M a c m i l l a n Pub., 6  tests  E i s n e r , The E d u c a t i o n a l Co., I n c . " 1979), p.17.  Imagination,  (New  York:  111 a. b. 5.  o r a l examination conference  Performance measures a. rating scales b. check l i s t s c. a d j u d i c a t o r s form d. videotape scales e. tryout f. applied examinations  6.  A c t i v i t y i n v e n t o r i e s (what etc.?) a. books b. records c. practice routine d. listening habits e.  music  Anecdotal records  8.  Student  9.  Direct  observation  Self-evaluation  11.  Attitude  scale  or  (informal)  opinionnaire  types of e v a l u a t i o n  be a s c o m p r e h e n s i v e  programme.  Since,  as  may  variety  of  Taba  comprehensive  t a k e any  says,  listed  course  this  o f t h e above  procedures  by L a b u t a may comprehensive  "The  scope  of l e a r n i n g  m u s i c i a n s h i p programme.  procedures of  testing  7  forms  i n s c o p e as a r e t h e o b j e c t i v e s  d e t e r m i n e s what t y p e s o r l e v e l s a  collect,  logs  10.  should  do y o u do,  file  7.  The  (juries)  is  are  of  of  of the  evaluation  emphasized..."  required  All  and  the  to  test  8  a  evaluation  be u s e d a t some t i m e d u r i n g  the  musicianship  The  programme.  Joseph A. Labuta, Guide t o A c c o u n t a b i l t y i n Music I n s t r u c t i o n , (West N y a c k , New Y o r k : P a r k e r Pub.Co., I n c . , 1974), pp. 127, 128. 7  Hilda Taba, C u r r i c u l u m D e v e l o p m e n t : T h e o r y and P r a c t i c e , Y o r k : H a r c o u r t , B r a c e and W o r l d , I n c . , 1962), p.313. 8  (New  112 teacher on  needs to look  ways o f  Curriculum  that  are  throughout  the  judgement  as  (e.g.  "The  #14  beat..."  and  musicianship phrasing,  States  "The  o b j e c t i v e s and  the  with  respect  t a s k has  decide  mainly  the  teacher's  been c o m p l e t e d a  clear  reflect  quality,  and  evaluative  instructional objectives  reveal  to tone  expression,  twenty-three  are  p e r f o r m a n c e must  other  correctly,  awareness  high  of  standards  of  i n t o n a t i o n , dynamics, aspects  of  musical  1 0  Manhattanville that  to s p e c i f i c  p e r f o r m a n c e must  #7  lists  9  These c r i t e r i a  t o whether  style,  objectives. type  instructional  in Music  linked  book.  interpretation." The  the  e v a l u a t i n g them.  Creating criteria  at  evaluation Thomas s a y s  Music  Curriculum  procedures that  i n any  Program  a l s o emerge  Synthesis  from t h e  comprehensive  stated  musicianship  programme: One of the m a j o r p r i n c i p l e s of t h i s c u r r i c u l u m d e a l s w i t h t h e t o t a l i t y of e x p e r i e n c e f r o m t h e m u s i c a l and e d u c a t i o n a l p o i n t s of v i e w . The grading system s h o u l d be c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h i s p r i n c i p l e i n e v e r y way. For example, to emphasize an evaluation of s k i l l development separately from the total musical experience which includes attitudes, c o g n i t i o n and a e s t h e t i c s e n s i t i v i t y i s to c r e a t e d i s t o r t e d h i e r a r c h y of v a l u e s which can u l t i m a t e l y narrow the entire learning experience. 1 1  The procedure  9  Hawaii by  including  Edelstein  1 0  1 1  Ibid.,  Music  Program  uses  a  summative  e v a l u a t i o n m a t e r i a l s at  et a l . , C r e a t i n g C u r r i c u l u m  p.226.  T h o m a s , S y n t h e s i s , p. 12.  in  the  end  Music.  evaluation of  each  113 unit.  They  state  that,  students  individually  studied  t o new m u s i c a l  the  subheading  through  record is  as  they  with  to record student impressions  apply  situations."  evaluation,  worksheets  teacher  "These p r e s c r i b e ways f o r y o u t o a s s e s s  a three point s y s t e m —  they  have  not l i s t e d  under  assessment  is  considered  l e s s o n s and a c h e c k l i s t  responses  in relation  concepts  Although  1 2  daily  most  the  throughout  t o each  f o r the  t h e l e s s o n and t o  objective.  1 = highly acceptable,  The c h e c k l i s t 2  =  to  some  d e g r e e and 3 = n o t a t a l l . The  problem  literature  and w i t h  Accountability link  accountability  parents  and  is  school  and O b j e c t i v e s f o r Music  evaluation  testing  of  and  devices  objectives  to  numbers t o i n d i c a t e  form  how  a  by  check  w e l l they  prominent  boards. Education  using list.  performed  the  In 1 3  as  receive  the task:  the objective with  100 p e r c e n t  2.  can a c h i e v e accuracy  the o b j e c t i v e with  75 p e r c e n t  3.  can achieve accuracy  the o b j e c t i v e with  50 p e r c e n t  4.  n e e d s much  5.  should drop  Hawaii  book  the authors  The s t u d e n t s  can achieve accuracy  1 2  the  objectives  1.  In an a t t e m p t  i n today's  help the course  t o encourage  Music  Program,  and l i s t e n a  Zone  to records  multiplicity  of  evaluation  3, p . v .  J.A. Livingston, M.D. Poland, R.E. Simmons, A c c o u n t a b i l i t y and O b j e c t i v e s f o r M u s i c E d u c a t i o n , ( C o s t a Mesa, C a l i f o r n i a : E d u c a t i o n a l M e d i a P r e s s , 1973). 1 3  114 methods the  to  suit  needs and  assessing  this  c o m p r e h e n s i v e m u s i c i a n s h i p programme,  abilities  development  of  item  to  correspond  with  the  Concepts  Through  Evaluation  procedures  some e x a m p l e s  of  ways  of  follow.  EVALUATION TECHNIQUES FOR Each  students,  and  be  "LAND OF tested  section the  "An  Song  specified  THE  will  SILVER BIRCH" be  Example 'Land  of  f o r each  number of the  (Phase  I)  referenced to  Teaching Silver  Specific Birch'".  item a r e as f o l l o w s :  1.1  i C l a p b e a t o f song w h i l e s i n g i n g . G r a d e on two p o i n t scale satisfactory/ unsatisfactory; the beat should be steady and e x a c t . Notate b e a t on b o a r d w h i l e s i n g i n g t h e s o n g . Grade on a three point scale good/satisfactory/needs improvement; a s s e s s a c c o r d i n g t o s t e a d i n e s s and a c c u r a t e t i m i n g .  1.2  iii  C o n d u c t two b e a t s i n a bar while class sings. Conduct with confidence, steady, accurate t i m i n g and c o r r e c t m o t i o n s . G r a d e oh a f i v e point scale - excellent/good/satisfactory/ fair/unsatisfactory. Retest p u p i l s i n the b o t t o m two c a t e g r o i e s a t a l a t e r d a t e . Five p u p i l s c a n be t e s t e d a t one t i m e i n f r o n t of the c l a s s . Pupils can singly conduct in f r o n t of the c l a s s . E a c h c l a s s member has a c l a s s l i s t and g r a d e s h i s p e e r s a c c o r d i n g t o how he t h i n k s t h e y p e r f o r m e d on a f i v e p o i n t s c a l e as above.  1.3  vi  Pupils  prepare paper .Teacher c l a p s a rhythm ( r e p e t i t i o n s are more numerous in beginning stages). P u p i l s n o t a t e rhythm. G r a d e p u p i l s as t o c o r r e c t (100% accuracy) or incorrect. Answer may be p u t on b o a r d f o r p u p i l s t o c h e c k , p a p e r s may be handed t o peers for checking or the teacher may collect the papers and c h e c k them. After completing five of the above patterns p u p i l ( s ) c l a p s back p a t t e r n s c o n s e c u t i v e l y . G r a d e p u p i l s as t o a c c u r a c y and s t e a d y b e a t . Deduct one point for e a c h m i s t a k e from a t o t a l of 10. Any mark l e s s t h a n 8 repeats the test at a later date after more practise.  1 15 2.1.1 h Pupil  s i n g s b a r 1,2 and 13 u s i n g words. Grade a c c o r d i n g t o c o r r e c t i n t o n a t i o n , rhythm, and enunciation. Grade a c c o r d i n g t o e a c h on a 5 point scale. P u p i l s s i n g b a r 1, 2 a n d 13 on tape without giving names. After a l l s t u d e n t s have t a p e d these bars play tape back to class. E v a l u a t e as above. Guess name o f p e r s o n s i n g i n g .  2.1.5  2.2  b Pupils  p r e p a r e s t a f f l i n e s by m a r k i n g o f f f o u r b a r s on one l i n e . The t o n e s e t i s sung by t h e t e a c h e r a n d p u p i l s a n d n o t a t e d on t h e b o a r d , (d r m s 1 1,). The t e a c h e r s i n g s b a r s 5, 6, 7 a n d 8. P u p i l s w r i t e n o t e s on prepared staff lines. As a v a r i a t i o n , t e a c h e r may c h a n g e t h e song r h y t h m i c a l l y o r melodically and pupils notate the v a r i a t i o n . From a t o t a l o f 10 marks one mark i s d e d u c t e d f o r each e r r o r i n d u r a t i o n or p i t c h . P u p i l s may be presented w i t h t h e s c o r e o f t h e song i n w h i c h t h e r e a r e a s e t number of m i s t a k e s . Pupils a r e asked t o l o c a t e and c o r r e c t the mistakes. One mark i s g i v e n f o r e a c h error detected. One mark i s g i v e n f o r e a c h e r r o r corrected.  i  a r e asked to write short answers to q u e s t i o n s s u c h a s how many p h r a s e s a r e t h e r e in t h e song? On what word does e a c h p h r a s e end? W h i c h two p h r a s e s a r e a l m o s t t h e same? W h i c h p h r a s e h a s a wide interval in i t ? W h i c h p h r a s e f a d e s away?  Pupils  2.3  i  One  pupil performs the melodic ostinato while a n o t h e r p u p i l s i n g s t h e melody o f t h e song. Then t h e y a l t e r n a t e p a r t s . Both p u p i l s a r e judged on t h e i r a b i l i t y t o h o l d t h e i r p a r t securely. Intonation, adherence to the r h y t h m i c s t r u c t u r e and a m u s i c a l performance are assessed. They a r e marked on a t h r e e scale system good/satisfactory/needs improvement.  2.4  i  Pupils  w r i t e t h e d i s t a n c e o f e a c h i n t e r v a l f o r one p h r a s e o r t h e whole s o n g . (e.g. D to A = Perfect 5th) P u p i l s a l s o state the s o l - f a names f o r e a c h i n t e r v a l . As a variation, pupils a r e grouped into sixes and each p e r s o n i s a s s i g n e d a n o t e (d r m s 1 1,) Each pupil sings h i s note as i t o c c u r s i n the song. Each group i s graded a c c o r d i n g t o accuracy of p i t c h a n d rhythm on a t h r e e  116 point scale good/satisfactory/ unsatisfactory. Groups not a c h i e v i n g at least a satisfactory, p r a c t i s e and r e p e a t test l a t e r . 2.5  i v Given  2.6  t h e w r i t t e n s c o r e o f t h e song, p u p i l s notate the t o n e s e t on t h e s t a f f a n d l a b e l s c a l e . Circle tonal centre. Given t h r e e tone sets on s t a f f l i n e s , p u p i l s a r e a s k e d t o i d e n t i f y which one i s f o r t h i s song. One mark i s given f o r each response.  Individuals sing t h e song or specific phrases without any accompaniment. Intonation i s g r a d e d on a f i v e p o i n t s c a l e : 1 = 100% a c c u r a c y 2 = 75% a c c u r a c y 3 = 50% a c c u r a c y 4 = u n s a t i s f a c t o r y - repeat t e s t a t a l a t e r date  3.1.1 v Three  x  p u p i l s , e a c h s i n g i n g one n o t e o f the triad, sing the t h r e e t r i a d s as s p e c i f i e d . Pupils g i v e t h e i r names a n d s i n g t h e t r i a d s on t h e tape. They may play i t back and r e t a p e until they are satisfied with their performance. The class grades the p e r f o r m a n c e on a s e v e n p o i n t s c a l e - A B C+ C C- D E . E a c h p u p i l t h e n w r i t e s what n o t e s he s a n g on s t a f f l i n e s o r on t h e b o a r d g i v i n g a b s o l u t e l e t t e r names.  3.1.2 ii  v  Teacher p l a y s major and minor c h o r d i n s u c c e s s i o n in root position and inversions. Pupils i d e n t i f y a s t o major or minor by writing their r e s p o n s e on p a p e r . One mark f o r e a c h note i n t h e c h o r d correctly identified is given. Each pupil sings the notes of the c h o r d p l a y e d bythe t e a c h e r as a s o l i d c h o r d . One mark i s g i v e n f o r e a c h n o t e sung c o r r e c t l y .  3.1.4 x  3.2  iv  Pupil  plays the tonic chord on the b e l l s every time i t o c c u r s i n t h e song. From a s c o r e o f 10 d e d u c t one mark f o r p l a y i n g the t o n i c c h o r d a t t h e wrong t i m e and one mark f o r n o t playing the tonic chord when i t should occur.  Teacher plays t h e s o n g on t h e p i a n o w i t h c h o r d a l accompaniment. P u p i l s from m u l t i p l e choice  117 answers phrase.  circle  t h e c h o r d a t t h e end o f  each  3.4  i  In g r o u p s o f f o u r , p u p i l s s i n g melody o f song and ground bass note "A" (two on e a c h p a r t ) . Grade o v e r a l l performance s a t i s f a c t o r y or unsatisfactory.  4.1  i v Compose m o t i v e s u s i n g t h e same p i t c h p a t t e r n s as i n t h e song b u t c h a n g i n g t h e r h y t h m i c p a t t e r n s . Correct pitch p a t t e r n s = 10 m a r k s ; c o r r e c t r h y t h m i c p a t t e r n s = 10 m a r k s . Sing motives on tape. Teacher grades according to c o r r e c t n e s s i n s i n g i n g what e a c h p u p i l w r o t e on a f i v e p o i n t s c a l e .  4.2  i i Pupils  4.5  i i i Pupils perform their i n t r o d u c t i o n i n groups of five. Grade a s t o s u i t a b i l i t y - y e s o r no; and overall effect s a t i s f a c t o r y or unsatisfactory.  4.7  iv Pupils  compose additional verses. Grade as to correct syllabication -satisfactory/needs a few c h a n g e s / n e e d s many c h a n g e s . Suitability o f words i s s a t i s f a c t o r y / u n s a t i s f a c t o r y .  5.4  i i  to two recordings of song. Write a description of each and compare them according to timbral effects. Say which recording you prefer and why. Grade good/satisfactory/ unsatisfactory according to pupils ability to a u r a l l y d i s c r i m i n a t e t i m b r e and g i v e a j u s t i f i a b l e r e a s o n f o r t h e a p p r e c i a t i o n o f one above a n o t h e r o r e q u a l l y l i k i n g both.  6.1  xi Pupils  Listen  c r e a t e movements i n g r o u p s o f two V i d e o t a p e each group. Teacher a d j u d i c a t e each performance.  or t h r e e . and class  move a c c o r d i n g t o the sound of the drum being played a t d i f f e r e n t dynamic l e v e l s . Move i n g r o u p s of five. Videotape each group. P l a y back v i d e o t a p e w i t h o u t sound. P u p i l s d e t e r m i n e a t what d y n a m i c level the drum i s p l a y i n g - pp, p, mp mf, f f f . E a c h group i s graded according to how well the class i s able to d i s c e r n a t what dynamic l e v e l t h e drum i s p l a y i n g . 100% o f t h e t i m e =1 75% o f t h e t i m e =2 50% o f t h e t i m e =3 l e s s t h a n 50% o f t h e t i m e =4  118 6.2  i  On t h e s c o r e p u p i l s mark i n t h e d y n a m i c s t h e y wish to use. They then perform i t u s i n g t h e i r dynamics. Grade as to appropriateness satisfactory/unsatisfactory.  7.2  i i P u p i l s w r i t e why t h e song s h o u l d o r s h o u l d n o t have any tempo changes in i t after having explored i t s p o s s i b l e uses. This is a personal decision. Some e d i t i o n s s p e c i f y a tempo c h a n g e , o t h e r s do not. Since this question i s m a i n l y i n c l u d e d t o make p u p i l s a n a l y z e t h e i r p r e f e r e n c e most answers will be acceptable and a s s e s s e d as s a t i s f a c t o r y or u n s a t i s f a c t o r y .  8.1  iv Pupils write a story about what they think has happened i n the song. Teacher and s t u d e n t s l i s t e n to s t o r i e s being read and together determine i f i t is feasible, Mark p o s s i b l e or not p o s s i b l e f o r each.  OBSERVATION OF A MODEL COMPREHENSIVE MUSICIANSHIP Some o f t h e i d e a s p u t f o r t h the  grade  six  and  described  i n chapter  arranging  provided  example.  seven 6.  turn performed Students  and  students  thesis  of  point  compositions  were  t h e CMP  Organizing a c t i v i t i e s  a starting  The r e s u l t a n t  in this  were  asked  to  use t h e f o l l o w i n g rhythm  They  were a s k e d  students to  to  g r o u p and a r e and  f o r the f o l l o w i n g e x e r c i s e and  compose  arrangements  were  in  music  using  specifically retain  the  internalization  given the  major.  They  elements:  t o e n d on t h e t o n i c . anonymity  were t o compose w i t h o u t  encourage  with  analyzed.  could  numbered  used  of composing  p i t c h e s mi r e a n d doh i n t h e k e y s o f D m a j o r o r G  are  PROGRAMME  of  the  Compositions pupils.  All  t h e use of t h e u k u l e l e i n o r d e r of  sound.  After  the e i g h t bar  1 19 composition technical the  completed  errors.  ukulele.  piece it  was  after  easier The  i t  P u p i l s then  They  were  playing i t .  allowed  their  compositions  ideas.  teacher  compositions  chose  at  random  the  s c r e e n h e / s h e was a s k e d  the  whole c l a s s  played  progressions of the a n a l y t i c  reviewed  process.  hand  and/or  u k u l e l e ) an a n a l y s i s Such  to play  the composition.  using  place.  signs.  When a s t u d e n t ' s  were  After  as  an  before  appeared  the the  of  This  piece  piece  and  formed  was  sung  (using voice  contained  the  Then  rhythms  playing.  concepts  analysis  make  t o be p u t on  composition  Sometimes  performing  to  i t f o r the c l a s s .  Sometimes  of the  on  t o c h a n g e any p a r t o f t h e i r  t o p l a y or t o enhance t h e i r  on  took  by t h e t e a c h e r f o r  T h i s was done by some s t u d e n t s  transparencies.  part  checked  practised  overhead  pitch  was  therein  composition  that  follows:  b tittii}  i. j j i  i ; ;  J^FI  ±  -e-  J J\ J J j The and of  analyzing a c t i v i t i e s distinguishing  of i d e n t i f y i n g ,  between were u s e d  describing,  comparing  t o d i s c o v e r t h e components  the composition.  D u r a t i o n ( 1 . 0 ) and L i n e a r P i t c h ( 2 . 0 ) - t h e m, r , d s e q u e n c e o c c u r s f o u r t i m e s forms — i . e . some n o t e s a r e r e p e a t e d - t h e d, r , m s e q u e n c e o c c u r s two t i m e s - t h e d t o m s k i p o c c u r s two t i m e s - the m t o d s k i p never o c c u r s  in different  120 - b e g i n s on m; ends on d - t h e m, r , d i n bar 1 i s r e v e r s e d i n b a r 2 t o d,r,m - bar 1 and b a r 6 c o n t a i n t h e same p i t c h e s b u t t h e rhythm i s d i f f e r e n t - when b a r s 4 and 8 a r e c o m p a r e d one g i v e s t h e f e e l i n g of f i n a l i t y and t h e o t h e r d o e s n o t - when b a r s 3 and 7 a r e c o m p a r e d t h e use o f augmentation i s noted - i n t e r v a l s i n t h e p i e c e a r e : m r =M2; r d =M2; d r =M2; r m =M2; d m =M3; u n i s o n s d, r and m - rhythm e l e m e n t s used - J~) J J - r e c u r r i n g rhythm p a t t e r n - J J J J J J J J - m, r , d p a t t e r n s compared i n b a r s 1, 3 a n d 6 show b a r s 3 and 6 a s i m p l i f i c a t i o n of b a r 1 - b a r 2 and 5 c o n t a i n t h e same p i t c h p a t t e r n of d, r and m - t h e meter i s 4/4 t  Form  n  (4.0) - f o u r two-bar  Timbre  phrases  (5.0)  - p i c melody w i t h Tempo  thumb  (7.0) -  (pizzicato)  '  moderato  When insights  piece  I t was  dominant  seventh  pitch  chords  Thus harmony  They  original  partially  the  student  (3.0)  was  by  students  the  would be  used  ( c h o r d s p l a y e d on  even  were  further  allowed  to  t o add use  analyzed,  desired  added w i t h that  further  were a d d e d . the a n a l y s i s the  t o match the  tonic notes  t h e u k u l e l e ) was a second more  For of and  i n the added.  p a r t to c r e a t e a  pitches  than  i n the  give  added  composition.  Dynamics interest.  been  determined  Some s t u d e n t s went duet.  had  t o what e f f e c t s  vertical  chords.  piece.  the as  example,  etc.  a  (6.0)  Style  were  (8.0)  then was  decided  upon  to  d i s c u s s e d -- mood, e f f e c t  created,  121  When present  the the  recruited  above  three  the  second p a r t  pupils  to  presented  to  the  t h e p u p i l was a s k e d t o  class.  the p i e c e .  e.g.  Other  the chords.  before  the  part,  t h e above p r o c e s s  a part.  class.  and  arranging  to  varying  played  activities.  between  were  arrangement. or  as  One  just  vowels  Movements t o accompany  or  include  nonsense  the piece  could  be a d d e d  Through  multiplicity  of a c t i v i t i e s  c a n be i n v o l v e d .  that  students  sounded w e l l .  t o make m u s i c . for  their  became  individual  aware  composing  that  thus gained  A l l pieces  and  analyzing  the ukulele singing  —  and  was  i n the lyrics  written.  t o complete arranging  (See a l s o  they c o u l d  confidence  were p l a y a b l e  efforts.  considered  the a  Teaching  of A c t i v i t i e s )  were s u r p r i s e d They  of composing  the  syllables  activities.  The  concert.  be s e l e c t e d and  performance  Concepts Through a M u l t i p l i c i t y  in  of p l a y i n g  could  was  Comparing  a l l employed  F o r example, a t i t l e  piece  was  Listening to pupil  describing,  to  could  The p i e c e  activities  on t h e p i e c e .  encouragement  one t o p i c  A l l c o n c e p t s were  The p e r f o r m i n g a c t i v i t y  well  —words  role.  identifying,  distinguishing  as  a major  degrees depending  compositions,  used  the organizing  two  The composer  c h o s e n a n d p e r f o r m e d by t h e whole c l a s s a t a s c h o o l In  were  I t sometimes r e q u i r e d  these p u p i l s or play  on a t a p e o r l i v e  pupils  The composer was a l s o  one t o p i c t h e f i r s t  a n d one t o p l a y  conduct  decided  i n the presentation.  f o r arranging  or  choose  been  composition  to assist  responsible  had  Through  compose  pieces  in their  ability  a n d p u p i l s were  praised  the  analysis  pupils  o f what t h e y a c t u a l l y composed a n d g a i n e d  insight  122  into  previously  arranging.  mystical  activities,  that  of  composing  and  123 TWO  NOTE STUDENT COMPOSITIONS  •  — ^  - f -  W  J  ' JJ  i-J—  r *J•  1—*  J  J  —JJ  3.  S-9r—  &A—  Y  j  J  *—J-  'J  /  /n  -W  0 !) /  • /}  « V  j  ' J '  r. " •  -J— J-  t  J i— \ — e —  124 THREE NOTE STUDENT COMPOSITIONS  i  •U <l  '  '  J  J  i i 'I  J  - -  .'1  V  J J—I  *  y  :=t=  j J.  p  I J  / y  "  i  '  *  -a-  --  ... .  V l|4  I  i  .  1J J J — i — -  •D'l * *  j  Jfc J  J  to.  to'/  7^  t  }  1 J 77  <9  \  *  * * #  —  _i2  '  *  J  ^  0  0  1  ' ' ' *' —  *  /_  *  h  -  y  U  d  y  *  -J—J—t  /  j  ^ *  v —  J  I J J * FF=:  *  J  y  J  - ' - y  - ? — e  h  *  1  1  d '  *  1  25  FOUR NOTE STUDENT COMPOSITIONS  n y'  i  i  a  I  I  J J J  • J )  J\ J J  1  l |l |  1J  #  J  1  (1, rf-t ./X-ii  -J  is l — r - — r ~ i L —4/ J J * J '—1  ,—7  y  - " —' J I  J ' J  :  :  T  / —  J  •//'I fjn  | 7\  ]/%'! , i I t-  rFrf  i e  1  1  —ni  AT  A T  J  /  /-  J.  /  ly  J * -  ;  I 1  n ,1  1J  i  H  J i  i  ,  J J  fl  B  |  -41/  J  j  f| |, J U  1  1  J -fl  127  Chapter 6 QUANTITATIVE EVALUATION OF A COMPREHENSIVE PITCH RECOGNITION TREATMENT METHODOLOGY The  Specific In  Problem  this  comprehensive was  Investigated:  pilot  study  ability  to  as  recognition increase  specified study  their  in  two s e n i o r  Vancouver music  pupils  Lower  ability  area  pitches  of  a  of i n t e r e s t within  the  Mainland  (13  traditional  girls  students  music  9 grade  six pupils  pupils  (9  musicianship  girls  to significantly  pitches?  in  an  elementary  a r e a were s e l e c t e d consisting  school  o f 26  boys)  treatment  (TMT).  A second c l a s s  and  boys)  5  was r a n d o m l y  a n d 12 b o y s ) was a s s i g n e d  treatment  (CMT).  Since  and  i n the  f o r administering  13  (4 g i r l s  pitch  a n d Sample  One c l a s s ,  and  i n a variety  comprehensive  to identify  classes  programmes.  this  enable  Population  two  ascertain  Q u e s t i o n : Does e n c o u n t e r i n g p i t c h e s  ways  The  aspect  scale.  Main of  one  m u s i c i a n s h i p programme, t h e main  i n the students'  pentatonic  encompassing  grade  assigned  seven t o the  c o n s i s t i n g of  21  grade  seven  t o t h e comprehensive  i t i s mandatory  by law t h a t  128 all  grade  s i x and  impossible treatment groups,  seven  to test period.  one  students receive  a group  that  Essentially,  on a t r a d i t i o n a l  comprehensive  musicianship  had  music  training  no m u s i c  classes  then, both groups  music  t r e a t m e n t and  treatment,  both  it  was  during  the  were t r e a t m e n t t h e o t h e r on  using  voice  a and  ukulele. T h e r e were no o b v i o u s d i f f e r e n c e s at  the  outset  seven p u p i l s this  except that  and  well to  as on  split  these in  consisted  the other only  grade  seven p u p i l s .  study.  classes  ranged  the n i n e t y -  of  physical  as w e l l .  The  ninth  these  The  cross-section  purposes,  are  assigning  grouped ability  This  students  of the s t u d e n t s i n the  percentile and  level scored  on  the  reading  i n the f i r s t British  tests.  academic  Skills.  aptitude proposed  and  would  grade  standing  be  used two  as  to  Ministry sixes  also  registered  A c c o r d i n g t o the  achievement.  to  percentile  Columbia The  as  applied  achievement  the s t u d e n t s as a group appeared  in  Students at  to academic  teachers  s i x and  these groups  T e s t s of B a s i c  was  of grade  emotional factors.  spread in t h e i r  tests  covariance  and  classes  were unaware t h a t  seven mathematics  the Canadian  class  according  from t h o s e t h a t  showed a s i m i l a r on  for  teachers  classes  this  grade  by  social,  two  two  class  school,  classes  the  one  particular  heterogeneously  between  results  to represent Analysis  s h o u l d m a t h e m a t i c a l e q u a t i n g of  a of  groups  be n e c e s s a r y . The  pretest  post-test girls  and  was 12  was  given  t o t h e two  a d m i n i s t e r e d t o 24 boys)  and  grade  28 g r a d e  groups sevens  (56 s t u d e n t s ) . on  s i x / s e v e n s on  the t h e CMT  TMT (5  The (12 boys  129 and  4 girls  seven). group The  i n grade  A girl left  and  for  a boy  other  generalizability  small  sample  s i x and  size.  of See  10  boys  i n the  TMT  and  9  girls  g r o u p and  2 boys  in  grade  i n the  CMT  schools before  t h e p o s t - t e s t was  given.  the  limited  of  study  chapter  is  because  7 for further  the  assumptions.  Instrumentation The  author  devised  a  entitled  the Madhosingh P i t c h  included  tones  from  Appendix  G.)  (See played  on  the  descending D).  The  E a c h of three  pentatonic  intervals  tones  answer  sheet.  point.  Each group took a  test,  identical  the  Laboratory (LERTAP).  1  of An  L.R. ( D u n e d i n , New 1974). 1  was  by  an  A B D'  on  a  and  internal  obtained  Educational estimate  Nelson, Zealand:  of  two  pretest  Research  test-retest  Test  tones and A,  item  B,  took  to write numbered  correct were  for  one  recorded.  f o u r months a  administered  consistency  using  centre.  previously  scores  which  E D B,  Each  t o be  test  ascending  B A F#  p e r i o d of a p p r o x i m a t e l y  of  tonal  P u p i l s were a s k e d  i t e m had  a pretest  (MPRT),  "D"  randomly.  syllables i n an  Test  c o n s i s t e d of  preceded  (D E F#  recognition  with  items  t o t h e p r e t e s t , was  estimate  MPRT  36  t o play..  Both tones  treatment  A Hoyt for  sol-fa  scale  selected  seconds  t h e two  After  in  times  were  30  the  scale  pitch  Recognition  the p e n t a t o n i c  piano  approximately  36-item  post-  to a l l .  (i.e.  reliability)  scores Analysis  r e l i a b i l i t y was  with  the  Package obtained  G u i d e t o LERTAP Use and I n t e r p r e t a t i o n , Dept. of E d u c a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y of O t a g o ,  1 30 using  a separate  wrote  the  version on  sample  MPRT  and a f t e r  of the t e s t  correlation  correlation  Two  make up e a c h  recognized pitch.  a  was o b t a i n e d  wrote a m o d i f i e d  and the t e s t  c o l o u r and d i m e n s i o n ) . 2  Students  Using  Pearson  was  given  t h e SPSS-x  product  f o r the p r e - and  moment  post-test  students.  item  of a r e l a t i v e  played.  without  However,  then  of  s c a l e were r a n d o m l y s e l e c t e d pitch  test  subjects i t  seems  the  having  having  of  36  pitches  p i t c h e s w h i c h c o u l d be  "perfect"  unlikely  two g i v e n  consisting  r e q u i r e d t o name b o t h  The MPRT c o n t a i n e d  r e c o g n i z e many p i t c h e s w i t h o u t relationship  students.  interval  were r e o r d e r e d  The s u b j e c t s were  the order  five  a two week  p i t c h e s of the pentatonic  questions. in  grade  procedure  coefficient  s c o r e s o f t h e 40  to  (items  paper of a d i f f e r e n t  Pearson  o f 40  pupils  or  "absolute"  w o u l d be a b l e t o  some u n d e r s t a n d i n g  p i t c h e s t o each other  of  the  or t o the  tone s e t . Experimental The and  dependent  post-test  Design  v a r i a b l e was t h e MPRT s c o r e s  (24  on t h e CMT a n d 28 on t h e T M T ) .  analysis  of v a r i a n c e  (ANOVA) w i t h  analyze  the e f f e c t s  of the independent  programme  (CMT a n d TMT) a n d t i m e  interactions.  SOSS 1983). 2  3  Angeles:  Grade  f o r the  level  repeated  Guide,  A three-way 3  was u s e d t o  variable factors  ( p r e and p o s t )  s c o r e s were  I n c . , SPSS-x, U s e r ' s  measures  first  pretest  gender,  as w e l l as t h e i r  tested  (New Y o r k :  to  McGraw  W.J. Dixon e t a l , BMDP S t a t i s t i c a l S o f t w a r e , U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a P r e s s , 1983). ~~  see i f  Hill,  (Los  131 this  created  analysis  a  of v a r i a n c e  MPRT s c o r e s BMD:P2V  showed t h a t  sevens  were  point  as  H for further  treatments  administered  The  from t h i s treated  (See A p p e n d i x  as  b e f o r e and  means  were  o f 3.07  and  t h e g r a d e main e f f e c t  I t was  adjusted  factor)  on  CMT  was  programme' t o see  an F r a t i o  level.  the  w i t h r e p e a t e d measures  statistical  different  within  as t h e r e p e a t e d  performance,  groups  difference  one  on  i f grade  that  group  results.) outlined  after  The  was  using  the  a factor  probability  in  of 0.0923  significant  a t the  .05  the  sixes  and  under  grade  the t i t l e two  to  CMT  group.  g r o u p s were  below.  treatment  t h e p r e - and  performed  not  When an  ( i . e . p r e and p o s t -  a tail  was  group.  The both  given  same t e s t  was  groups.  The  p o s t - M P R T ' s o f t h e CMT  and  TMT  plotted.  following  statistical  hypotheses  were  investigated:  Hypothesis I There i s no statistically significant time f a c t o r d i f f e r e n c e a t t h e .05 l e v e l between t h e p r e - and p o s t MPRT mean s c o r e s f o r a l l s u b j e c t s . H y p o t h e s i s II There i s no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t gender f a c t o r d i f f e r e n c e at the .05 level between the male and f e m a l e MPRT mean s c o r e s f o r a l l s u b j e c t s Hypothesis III T h e r e i s no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t programme f a c t o r difference at the .05 l e v e l between t h e CMT and TMT MPRT mean s c o r e s f o r a l l s u b j e c t s .  "Ibid.  132 H y p o t h e s i s IV T h e r e i s no s t a t i s t i c a l l y significant interaction effect a t t h e .05 l e v e l mean c e l l s c o r e s f o r a l l s u b j e c t s .  t i m e by gender among t h e MPRT  Hypothesis V There is no statistically significant t i m e by programme interaction effect a t t h e .05 l e v e l among t h e MPRT mean c e l l s c o r e s f o r a l l s u b j e c t s . H y p o t h e s i s VI There i s no s t a t i s t i c a l l y significant gender by programme interaction effect a t t h e .05 l e v e l among t h e MPRT mean c e l l s c o r e s f o r a l l s u b j e c t s . Hypothesis VII T h e r e i s no s i g n i f i c a n t t i m e by g e n d e r by programme interaction effect a t t h e .05 l e v e l between t h e p r e and post—MPRT mean c e l l s c o r e s f o r a l l s u b j e c t s .  Treatment Both sol-fa  some  t h e CMT a n d t h e TMT s u b j e c t s  system  pretest.  and  the  material  incidental  rather  performed  together  than p a r t  commonality  treatments.  through  at  sol-fa  with  before the  the. TMT  group  did  presentation, plan.  met on T u e s d a y s  Both  and u k u l e l e  and T h u r s d a y s .  a n d t h e CMT g r o u p  learn  b u t t h i s was  a s s e m b l i e s and d i s t r i c t  1:40 t o 2:20 P.M.  the  signs  of a d e l i b e r a t e  school  familiar  hand  was t h e u s e o f t h e v o i c e  Both groups  g r o u p met f r o m  were  corresponding  During the treatment p e r i o d  song  Another  Procedures  from  groups events. i n the The TMT 2:20 t o  3:00 P.M. The permitted place  CMT g r o u p during  f o r the  went t h r o u g h  the four first  the•following  month t r e a t m e n t .  ten minutes  p r o c e d u r e as time  This  generally  took  o f t h e two p e r i o d s p e r week.  133 The  ensuing  prepared not  go  comprehensive  and  instigated  through  this  by  pitch the  procedure.  recognition  experimenter. The  CMT  The  sing pentatonic  2.  sing intervals scale  3.  identify  from song m a t e r i a l p e n t a t o n i c  4.  identify  intervals  5.  r e p r o d u c e v o c a l l y and i d e n t i f y p i t c h e s t e a c h e r and i n d i v i d u a l s t u d e n t s  6.  write  7.  play  8.  r e p r o d u c e v o c a l l y and p l a y e d on u k u l e l e  9.  improvise  The  a l l intervals a l l intervals  with  c o n s i s t e d of  1)  listening played  to  2)  p l a y i n g these  3)  s i n g i n g the  4)  reading songs  5)  composing  on on  the  Both p r e sitting  in  encouraged  and  the t o do  their  best  pentatonic intervals  piano  and  ukulele  sung by  the  of  intervals ukulele  some or a l l of  activities: s o n g s t o be  sung  and  ukulele p l a y i n g the  the music the  of  ukulele the  pentatonic  above notes  Procedure  post-MPRT's were g i v e n afternoon  the  v o i c e and  using  some o r a l l of Testing  to:  ukulele  songs w h i l e  to v a r y i n g degrees with  the  using  the  group d i d  staff  recordings  above  of  following  s o n g s on  was  signs  instrumentally  pieces  the  on  the  intervals  compose and n o t a t e the i n t e r v a l s TMT  hand  from each s t e p  played  TMT  g r o u p were a s k e d  1.  10.  s c a l e with  programme  by  the on  t o whole g r o u p s a t  experimenter.  this  survey  type  one  P u p i l s were test  for  134 recognizing that  pupils  they  had  assured their  pitches. were t o l d  improved that t h i s  music  recognize  The  post-test  to t r y t h e i r  their  ability  because  p i t c h e s which  best  treated similarly  on  a test  t o see  to recognize p i t c h e s .  mark d i d not  course  was  mean  they  i t only  i s but  one  would  indicated  aspect  whether  They were  pass their  of music  in  or  fail  ability  to  training.  Analysis Two way  s c o r e s were o b t a i n e d  analysis  analyze  the  Hypothesis  repeated  factor  programme.  5  the  post-MPRT s c o r e s a  main  probabilities determine  sex was  way  A  m e a s u r e s was  by  occasion  performed  hypotheses  effects were  whether  and  not  using and  with to  CMT  and  measure  with the  three used  tail  to  reject  group  analysis  occasion  as  .05 the  of the  statistical  probabilities f o r sex,  interactions. the  TMT  BMD:P2V  were e x a m i n e d  their  compared or  f o r the  repeated  computed F r a t i o s  respective null  occasion  three  g r o u p by  The  repeated  subjects.  VII  girls, --  with  52  scores.  p r e - and  and  variance  variance  factor I to  Using boys  of  f o r each of  under  group The  and tail  c r i t i c a l value respective  to  null  hypotheses. RESULTS The  5  estimate  Ibid.  of  internal  consistency r e l i a b i l i t y  obtained  • for  135  t h e p r e t e s t MPRT s c o r e s was 0.92.  retest  Table  reliability  coefficient  1.Test-Retest  Variable  was 0.88.  Reliability  (See T a b l e  Std.Dev.  the  test-  1.)  Grade  5 Pupils  Correlation  5.71  6.63  40  of  f o r t h e MPRT U s i n g  Mean  Cases  Test  The v a l u e  0.88 Retest  6.65  40  Tests of Hypothesis  5.54  I  Hypothesis I  There  is  difference  no  statistically  a t t h e .05 l e v e l  MPRT mean s c o r e s As some All  c a n be s e e n  gain improved  from over  significant  time  factor  between t h e p r e - a n d p o s t -  f o ra l l subjects.  from  Table  2 a n d 3 below a l l  p r e t e s t mean s c o r e s time.  students  made  t o p o s t - t e s t mean s c o r e s .  136  Table  2. Means and ( S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n s )  CMT  Actual  Pretest  Pretest Actual  Post-test  Pretest Adjusted  (8.57)  Std.Dev.  Post-test  Adjusted  10.68  Mean  Mean  Std.Dev.  Pretest  Mean  Std.Dev. Post-test  Post-test  Mean  Std.Dev.  15.54  f o r CMT a n d TMT  TMT  7.12 (7.06) 8.54  (8.50)  (7.13)  9.15  8.91  (8.57)  (7.07)  14.00  10.33  (8.50)  (7.13)  Groups  1 37 Table  3. Means a n d ( S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n s ) f o r S u b g r o u p s C M T ( B ) , TMT(B), CMT(G) a n d TMT(G) Boys CMT 9. 77  Pretest Std.  Dev.  Post-test Std.  Table v  Dev.  (10. 38)  ( 9 . 61)  13. 38  8. 08  ( 9 . 93)  TMT  1 1 47  7. 42  (6 .93)  ( 3 . 45)  17 .40  ( 8 . 08)  9. 00 ( 6 . 37)  (6 .83)  4. M a i n R e p e a t e d M e a s u r e s A n a l y s i s o f V a r i a n c e f o r P r e a n d P o s t -MPRT S c o r e s o f t h e CMT and TMT G r o u p s df  MS  F  Prob.  1 1 1 9 6 . 97  1  1 1 1 9 6 . 97  9 3 . 85  0 . 00  8 3 . 84  1  8 3 . 84  0 . 70  o . 41  6 8 9 . 69  1  6 8 9 . 69  5 . 78  0 . 02  2 8 . 60  1  2 8 . 60  0 . 24  0 . 63  5 7 2 6 . 63  48  2 4 7 . 08  1  2 4 7 .08  30 . 6 0  0 . 00  T X G  1 1 . 33  1  1 1.33  1 .40  0 . 24  T X P  7 2 . 68  1  72 .68  9 .00  0 . 00  G X T X P  6 . 35  1  6 .35  0 .79  0 . 38  Error  3 . 87  48  8 .07  Mean Gender  (G)  Programme(P) G X P Error Time ( T )  The F r a t i o o f 30.60  for  CMT  6. 83  SS  time  Girls TMT  main  effect  (tail  a s shown  a l l subgroups t e s t e d .  119  probability  i n Table  30  of  3 indicates  T h u s one r e j e c t s n u l l  0.00)  f o r the  g a i n over  time  hypothesis I.  1 38 Tests  f o r Hypothesis Hypothesis  II  II  There  i s no  difference MPRT  seen  probability significant.  significant  a t t h e .05 l e v e l  mean  scores  mean s c o r e s As  statistically  in  Table  of  0,41  between  gender  factor  t h e p r e - and p o s t -  f o r boys and t h e p r e and p o s t  MPRT  for girls. 4  the "F  indicates  One t h e r e f o r e  ratio that  fails  of  0.70  the gender  to reject  the  and factor  null  a  tail  was n o t form  of  hypothesis I I .  Tests  f o r Hypothesis I I I Hypothesis I I I There i s no s t a t i s i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t programme f a c t o r d i f f e r e n c e a t t h e .05 l e v e l o f p r e - a n d post-MPRT mean s c o r e s between a l l t h e s u b j e c t s o f t h e CMT group and t h e TMT g r o u p . -  Because necessary difference greater group  o f t h e l o w e r p r e t e s t mean s c o r e  to adjust i n gains  gains  their  by 1.42.  t o more a c c u r a t e l y gauge t h e  made by t h e two g r o u p s .  by t h e CMT g r o u p t h a n  increased  increased  t h e mean s c o r e s  mean  (See F i g u r e  score  f o r t h e TMT i t was  t h e TMT  T h e r e a p p e a r s t o be --  e.g.  by 4.85 w h i l e  3 following.)  the  CMT  t h e TMT o n l y  1 39  1 40 T h e r e was a s i g n i f i c a n t Table  4  This,  with  an  F  ratio  t h e r e f o r e , caused  below  shows  probability This  a  programme  Table  programme  evidences  (CMT o r TMT)  o f 5.78  a rejection main  o f 0.001) w h i c h  further  programme main e f f e c t (tail  gain  the students  at  difference  SS  MS  9 3 . ,82  1  93. ,82  Error  3 7 9 . ,47  49  7..74  Time(T)  2 5 4 . ,33  1  T X P  76. .48  Error  4 0 6 . .63  Dependent scores  t-test  f o r each group. group with  50  of  -6.58 showed a s i g n i f i c a n t  results. tailed  a 2-tailed  Whereas t h e TMT's  probability  o f 0.110.  f o r CMT and Using the F  Prob. 0..001  2 5 4 . ,33  31 . 27  0..000  76. .48  9. 40  o,.003  8,.13  As c a n be n o t e d  CMT  level.  12. 1 1  v a l u e s were o b t a i n e d  the  (tail  were o n .  df  Programme(P)  .05  5  a c c o r d i n g t o the  5. R e p e a t e d M e a s u r e s A n a l y s i s o f C o v a r i a n c e TMT G r o u p s ' P r e - a n d Post-MPRT S c o r e s P r e t e s t as t h e C o v a r i a t e  Source  Table  o f 12.11  the  in  = 0.02).  III.  F ratio  is significant  the  noted  probability  of hypothesis  effect  as  on p r e - and p o s t - t e s t  from  probability improvement  Table  6  following,  o f 0.000 and a t - v a l u e from  t - v a l u e was o n l y  pre to post-test  -1.66  with  a  2-  141 T a b l e 6. Means a n d ( S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n s ) f o r Dependent t - t e s t V a l u e s on P r e - and Post-MPRT S c o r e s f o r CMT a n d TMT G r o u p s CMT Mean  Pretest  Pretest Mean  St.  (8.57)  Post-test  Error  7.12  10.68  St.Dev.  Post-test  TMT  (7.06)  15.54  St.Dev.  o f Mean  8.54  (8.50)  (7.13)  1.62  1 .44  t-value  -6.58  -1.66  df  27  23  2-tail  Tests  Prob.  0.000  0.110  f o r H y p o t h e s i s IV H y p o t h e s i s IV There i s no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t t i m e by gender i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t a t t h e .05 l e v e l between the p r e and p o s t - MPRT mean s c o r e s f o r a l l s u b j e c t s . As c a n be s e e n  interaction tail of  of  probability  a significant  Tests  from T a b l e  1.40  4, t h e F r a t i o  i s not s i g n i f i c a n t  o f 0.24 i s g r e a t e r t h a n t i m e by g e n d e r  f o r t i m e by gender  a t t h e .05 l e v e l . .05 c a u s i n g a  interaction  The  rejection  effect.  f o r Hypothesis V Hypothesis V There is no statistically significant time by programme i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t a t t h e .05 l e v e l between the p r e - a n d p o s t - MPRT mean s c o r e s f o r a l l s u b j e c t s . Table  with  a  4 indicates  tail  that  probability  the F r a t i o o f 0.00 w h i c h  o f 9.00 i s less  is than  significant .05. One,  142 therefore,  c a n assume a t i m e  h y p o t h e s i s V.  Tests  (See F i g u r e  f o r Hypothesis Hypothesis  by  programme  effect  and  reject  3.)  VI  VI  There is no statistically significant g e n d e r by programme i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t a t t h e .05 l e v e l between t h e p r e - and post-MPRT mean s c o r e s f o r a l l s u b j e c t s . Table  4  probability programme  also  indicates  o f 0.63 t h a t  interaction.  w i t h an F r a t i o o f 0.24  there  is  Therefore  no  significant  one f a i l s  and a  tail  gender  to r e j e c t  by  hypothesis  VI.  Tests  f o r Hypothesis VII Hypothesis VII There i s no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t t i m e by gender by programme interaction effect at the .05 level between the p r e - and post-MPRT mean s c o r e s f o r a l l subjects. This  tail  three-way  probability  nonsignificant.  interaction of  0.38,  with  an F r a t i o o f  as  shown  One, t h e r e f o r e , f a i l s  in  to reject  0.79 Table  and 4  a was  hypothesis VII.  DISCUSSION A significant time. progress as of  A l l students, over  time.  l o n g as s t u d e n t s time  factor  i n t h e MPRT s t u d y  whether  (See F i g u r e are exposed  on  the  was  CMT  the o r TMT,  3.) T h i s s u p p o r t s t o music  some g a i n s a r e i n e v i t a b l e .  training  "A s e c o n d  effect  of  made some  the idea that over  a  significant  period factor  143 was t h e e f f e c t achieve  of  the i d e n t i c a l  significantly that  programme.  but  pretest  the  time  for  group  showed  not.  Thus,  group,  over  group  a significant  time,  role  d i d not  group  results  while  this  improved  indicating  the  post-test  factor  The s t u d e n t s  improvement from  in  significant  effect.  be d e d u c e d produced  a  A third  interaction  i t may  groups  d i d n o t ( T a b l e 6)  played  t h e CMT g r o u p .  by programme  both  mean s c o r e , t h e CMT  TMT  t h e programme p r o b a b l y  outcome  Although  in  was t h e the  CMT  t h e TMT g r o u p d i d  study  that  significantly  better  the  CMT  than the  TMT. Gender  was  a nonsignificant  b o t h programmes p e r f o r m i n g effects  of  time  nonsignificant.  by  equally  gender  This  statistical  investigate programme, pupils' Based  the using  ability  degrees  to  due  be  produced It  groups was  by t h i s  largely  was o b s e r v e d  by  interaction gender  effect  of  were  gender,  voice  and  pitch  an  attempt  comprehensive ukulele, of t h e  musicianship  plays in increasing pentatonic  discrimination  age l e v e l .  as  scale.  was d e v e l o p e d t o  The d i f f e r e n c e s  training  to  suggested  would  appear  by t h e r e s u l t s  experiment. that  problems  the  f o r some  36-item students  f o r t h e p r e - and p o s t - t e s t s .  randomized  programme  represented a  to  the  on  nonsignificant.  that  results,  by t h e CMT  concentration  Also,  to recognize pitches  on t h e t e s t  varying  the  well.  interaction  study  role  w i t h b o y s and g i r l s  and  The t h r e e - w a y  t i m e and programme, was a l s o  factor  w i t h some e a s i l y  test  was  i n both  long  t h e CMT and TMT  The d i f f i c u l t y  identifiable  causing  of the items  pitches  occurring  144 near  the  end  of  the  test  fatigue.  I t w o u l d be  difficulty  t o see  pupils  might  possibly  30  pupils  so,  i f this  perform  training  in  two  music  CMT  who  group scores  curriculum  pre-  events  in depth  therefore, treatment  as  to  out  and  take  one  the  signs  of  according  scores.  been  to  Also*  shortened  to  was  of  school  scores of  recorded  the  a trumpet  top  separate as  by  three  player).  r e g a r d l e s s of p r i v a t e to  were  Even  lessons.  from  musical  some s t u d e n t s  i n the  l e s s o n s were a b l e t o  double  to post-test.  the was  in this  study  a  some s i g n i f i c a n t  participated  time  r e q u i r e d t o do  not  available. or  not  more e f f e c t i v e . over  top  (e.g.  private  whether  w o u l d be  a week s p r e a d produce  had  outside  to p l a y a p a r t here  Because a l l s t u d e n t s district  lessons  is difficult  d i d not  from  with  a l l pupils  a p t i t u d e , which appeared  and  test  test  experiences  were p i a n i s t s  experience,  their  influence  the p r e t e s t r e s u l t s  g a i n s were made by  Musical  would  showing  r e a r r a n g i n g items  b e t t e r i f the  and  taking private  scores,  worthwhile  were  items.  Musical obvious  when s t u d e n t s  a  in  school  more a s p e c t s of  The more  question  f o u r month p e r i o d was  arises  concentrated  Approximately  twenty  however  the  CMT  minutes able  to  gains.  SUMMARY It  is  programme on success teachers  of by  unrealistic  t o measure a c o m p r e h e n s i v e  musicianship  one  namely p i t c h  However,  the  encouragement  to  this  aspect,  programme can  showing  that this  provide  recognition. needed  approach can  be  beneficial  in  this  145 segment  of  music  encompassing viable. and  that and  Further  ukulele.  than  of  a s p e c t s of t h e m u s i c  a comprehensive  better  that  and  a  education  using  could  different  curriculum  ramifications.  pitch  encourages  p o s s i b l y s u c h a programme  music  s t u d i e s a r e needed  effectiveness  ukulele  and  t h e whole s p e c t r u m  different  total  education  to  age  traditional  development music  of  treatment  pitch using  its  i t appears  r e c o g n i t i o n treatment using  the  groups  ascertain  In g e n e r a l ,  be  the v o i c e  recognition voice  and  1 46  Chapter  7  CONCLUSIONS Summary Comprehensive m u s i c i a n s h i p , necessarily  demands  that  as i t i s d e f i n e d  the  teacher  d e v e l o p h i s own programme t o s u i t of  the  students.  the  approach 1.  3.  the  The the be the  a  activities organizing  t h e a g e s , n e e d s and a l s o needs t o keep  of  performing,  time r e q u i r e d  f o r teachers parts  interests  i n mind  that  to prepare c u r r i c u l a  place.  t o look  Therefore, at already  that  would  I t i s with  be  this  suitable purpose  and  the and  inherent  from a n c i e n t t o to "classical" solo music to frequently  the next  designed  and  analyzing  interrelationships  broad c r o s s - s e c t i o n of musics the p r e s e n t ; from f o l k music composed music; a n d from o r c h e s t r a l music  above t a k i n g  students.  i n t e r p r e t , a n a l y z e and  "basic elements" (the concepts) integration thereof  the s y n t h e s i s of the i n music  4.  2,  i s through:  the  2.  The t e a c h e r  i n Chapter  best  p r o c e d u r e may  curricula beneficial  i n mind t h a t  inhibits  this  and  use  to their study  was  carried out. Generally  speaking,  t h e more s t u d e n t s  know a b o u t a s u b j e c t  147 t h e more c o n f i d e n c e  they  have  in  themselves  subject.  A comprehensive m u s i c i a n s h i p  start  t h e b a s i c s and p r e s e n t  that  with  success  programme, strives  i n grasping designed  f o r mastery  expectations  than  some  to  handling  approach  them i n s u c h  understanding  develop  learning  in  thus  a l l levels,  the " t r a d i t i o n a l "  o f ways  likely.  comprehensive  at  strives to  a variety is  that  This  musicianship,  creating  higher  method.  RECOMMENDATIONS Comprehensive and  experimented  many  models  would  then  musicianship  musicianship  with  be  able  to  programmes  comprehensive  solo  a t the elementary  to their  the  investigated. the  could  developed  level  so  Likewise,  primary  grades  be e x a m i n e d  programme  techniques  Junior  through  and  The  adapt  Teachers  comprehensive  the implementation using  linear  comprehensive  and School  of a  u k u l e l e as a  i n conjunction with  and High  using  the  and v e r t i c a l  instigation  High  that  advantage.  encompassing  needs t o be r e s e a r c h e d .  in  school  one i n v o l v i n g  musicianship  instrument  in  choose  study,  and accompanying  ukulele  need t o be  u s i n g v a r i o u s m e d i a c a n be i n c o r p o r a t e d .  A longitudinal  classroom  programmes  pitch  and  the v o i c e ,  effects  of t h e  s e t t i n g c o u l d be  musicianship  programmes  v o i c e and c l a s s r o o m  instruments  research  procedures  to  note  their  effectiveness. Teachers musicianship  need  to  techniques  examples of e f f e c t i v e  be  encouraged  through  programmes.  to  retraining Teacher  use  comprehensive  programmes  training  could  and expose  148 future  teachers  to t h i s  mode o f t e a c h i n g  because of i t s apparent  effectiveness. Comprehensive time  allotments,  repertoire  special  lower  ukulele assists  problems  accountability, such  as  s u c h as specific  mainstreaming  Studies would  may  that  programme  be  because  younger  using  t h e medium  help  to  of  whether  to a greater  learning  can  grades  musicianship  programmes  assist in  possibly  AND  in  TMT  greater  place  greater of  instrument  STUDY in  the  comprehensive  using  voice  Students can s u c c e s s f u l l y accomplish through performing, activities  in  analyzing  and  musical  tasks  and o r g a n i z i n g  a comprehensive  musicianship  programme. 3.  Kodaly p r i n c i p l e s in  4.  c a n be i n c o r p o r a t e d s u c c e s s f u l l y  a comprehensive musicianship  Basic  musicianship  skills  programme.  in pitch  the  t h a n a woodwind.  achieved  through  pupils  ukulele. 2.  and  in defining at  a string  degree  be  intermediate  with  would best  of r e c o r d e r  IMPLICATIONS OF THE CMT 1. M u s i c a l  6  p u p i l s would produce  indicate  perception  i n chapter  g r a d e s would a s s i s t  and v o i c e  It  levels  pitch  reported  intermediate  learning.  receptivity gains.  and areas  studies to that  what g r a d e s t h e u k u l e l e musical  implementation  need t o be i n v e s t i g a t e d .  Similar the  evaluation  and  enrichment  in  musicianship  r e c o g n i t i o n can  149 be  taught  through  musicianship than 5.  programme  through  music  success  programme.  in conjuction  the l e a r n i n g  intermediate  comprehensive  with greater  a traditional  The u k u l e l e when u s e d reinforces  a  with  of c o n c e p t s  the v o i c e  in  the  grades.  CONCLUSIONS This  study  shows t h a t  Kodaly's  comprehensive  musicianship  can  one  programme.  coherent  programme  requires  programme b e c a u s e are  introduced.  is traditionally  from  given  (i.e.  class  covered  planning  in  and o r g a n i z i n g .  working  with  organizing  accomplish  for this,  to  ways  be  an  the  author  concepts  i s needed  week  on  the  would be a g r e a t programme.  The stages  concept  must  r e q u i r e s a great d e a l of important  Each being  sees  a comprehensive  a  Every  musicianship  students  of  the t r a d i t i o n a l  i n the i n i t i a l  continuum. which  into  f o r students to reap  p e r week  consuming  of the t e a c h e r . the  type  i n which  musicianship  Thus,  comprehensive  ability  tailor-made  himself  the s p i r a l  numerous  this  than  two p e r i o d s  period  p r e p a r a t i o n s a r e time  as throughout  that  o f ways that  a n d moulded  t h e programme more t i m e  i n t e a c h i n g a comprehensive  as w e l l be  benefits  An a d d i t i o n a l  teachers'  found  Therefore, i t i s felt  than  asset  was  of the m u l t i p l i c i t y  greatest  and the i d e a l s of  be i n t e r w o v e n  more p r e s e n t a t i o n t i m e  the  average).  It  principles  the  requirement  programmes programme  taught. need  musician,  for  looking  In  is  in the  should  be  order  to  the  teacher  a t music  from  150 c o m p o s e r , e v a l u a t o r and p e r f o r m e r can  be  redesigned  perspective realized to  by  the  viewpoints.  individual  w i t h i n t h e framework o f f e r e d  that  encouraging  this  This  teacher here.  programme  having  Finally,  this i t is  programme  i s not a panacea  b u t one a p p r o a c h  the development  of comprehensive  musicianship.  151  BIBLIOGRAPHY  Ukulele  Materials, References  1  and  Recordings  Doane, C h a l m e r s . C l a s s r o o m U k u l e l e M e t h o d . Rev. E d . O n t a r i o : W a t e r l o o M u s i c Co., L t d . , '80."  Ukulele  Yes  .  "Focus  .  " P r e s i d e n t ' s Message." U k u l e l e  Yes  2, 1 ( 1 9 8 0 ) :  1 .  .  " P r e s i d e n t ' s Message." U k u l e l e  Yes  2,2(1980):  1.  . 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" C o m p a r i s o n o f Two A p p r o a c h e s t o T e a c h i n g B e g i n n i n g Band." J o u r n a l o f R e s e a r c h i n M u s i c E d u c a t i o n 31 ( F a l l 1983): 5-13. Woodruff, Asahel. B a s i c C o n c e p t s of T e a c h i n g . C h a n d l e r Pub. Co., 1962.  San  Francisco:  Woods, D a v i d G. "A M o d e l f o r C u r r i c u l u m C o n s t r u c t i o n in Music, the A m e r i c a n I c e l a n d i c P r o j e c t . " M u s i c E d u c a t o r s J o u r n a l 68 (May 1982): 42-44. Wunsch, U s e Gerda. "Brainwriting Importance of Perception in E d u c a t o r s J o u r n a l 60 (September  in the T h e o r y C l a s s : The Taking Dictation." Music 1973): 55-59.  Appendix A  A SEQUENTIAL Major  Concept  -  1.  PROCEDURE  FOR  PHASE  I : VOICE  DURATION  Act i v i t y  Students  INSTRUCTIONAL  Sub-Concept  are expected  to:  Content  [ BEAT  p e r f o r m t h e b e a t u s i n g body percussion while l i s t e n i n g or singing.  2.  echo the teacher's four of body p e r c u s s i o n .  3.  s i n g o r l i s t e n a n d do a n y b o d y p e r c u s s i o n by a l t e r n a t e l y e x t e r n a l i z i n g t h e b e a t s o f one phrase then i n t e r n a l i z i n g the b e a t s of the next phrase.  4.  s i n g o r l i s t e n a n d do a n y b o d y p e r c u s s i o n by a l t e r n a t e l y e x t e r n a l i z i n g four beats then i n t e r n a l i z i n g the four beats  5.  n o t a t e t h e b e a t on t h e b o a r d o r in notebook w h i l e l i s t e n i n g or singing. (Use s t i c k n o t a t i o n ) T r a n s l a t e t h e beat back i n t o sound.  J.  J -  beats  I METER [ Students 1.  are expected to: 2, 3 4 4  stamp o r u s e o t h e r body p e r c u s s i o n to the f i r s t beat of each b a r w h i l e s i n g i n g o r l i s t e n i n g t o music a ) t h i s may b e e m p h a s i z e d by p a t s e n i n g the f i r s t beat h e a v i l y and the remaining beats of the bar l i g h t l y . b) p a t s c h t h e f i r s t beat and snap the remaining beats of the b a r .  4, 6 4 8  169  Sub-Concept  Act i v1ty c) d)  Content  walk w i t h one shoe on and one shoe o f f t o d e m o n s t r a t e two b e a t s i n a b a r . f e e l e x t e r n a l l y t h e f i r s t beat and i n t e r n a l i z e the remaining beats of the b a r .  2.  d e t e r m i n e i f a p i e c e o f m u s i c moves i n g r o u p s o f two's, t h r e e ' s o r f o u r ' s  3.  conduct  4.  create  5.  do d a n c e  6.  d e t e r m i n e i f the music f o u r ' s or s i x's.  7.  notate (using  8.  compose and i m p r o v i s e m u s i c i n v a r i o u s meters s i n g i n g , m o v i n g o r u s i n g body percussion. e . g . a ) r o n d o s i n two's a n d t h r e e ' s b) a r o n d o c o m p r i s i n g two m e t e r s -- p a r t A i n two a n d p a r t s B, C, D e t c . in three.  i n two's, dance  steps  steps  music stick  three's  and f o u r ' s .  i n duple  i n duple  and t r i p l e  and t r i p l e moves  meter.  meter.  i n two's,  i n v a r i o u s meters. n o t a t i o n --e.g. |-| •  three's  . I I I \  • I I I I  I RHYTHM | Students 1.  a r e expected  to: M u s i c moves i n l o n g e r a n d shorter durations which are o f t e n grouped together and w h i c h a r e p u n c t u a t e d by  p e r f o r m q u a r t e r and e i g h t h n o t e s u s i n g body p e r c u s s i o n . ( O t h e r e l e m e n t s w i l l be added once once t h i s i s mastered with singing or listening a c t i v i t i e s . )  - one rest  beat  . | j  echo f o u r beat rhythm p a t t e r n s g i v e n t e a c h e r u s i n g body p e r c u s s i o n .  by  ta-a  4.  echo f o u r beat rhythm p a t t e r n s g i v e n t e a c h e r u s i n g body p e r c u s s i o n a n d rhythm s y l l a b l e s .  by  tr i p1et i =  5.  echo  patterns  by  t o music  =  3.  rhythm  listening  ti-ti  say the rhythym  beat  while  |  2.  four  syllables  ta =  t i-d i-t i-di  saying  170  Act i v i ty only  Sub-Concept the rhythm  syllables.  6.  s i n g to rhythm s y l l a b l e s of f a m i l i a r songs.  7.  identify  8.  n o t a t e u s i n g s t i c k n o t a t i o n rhythm p a t t e r n s a f t e r t h e t e a c h e r has p r e s e n t e d i t aurally.  9.  notate  songs  rhythms  from  the  their  rhythm  rhythms  of f a m i l i a r  only  songs.  10.  compose and i m p r o v i s e rhythms. e.g. a ) r o n d o -- e a c h s t u d e n t w i l l make up a f o u r beat p a t t e r n which i s i n t e r s p e r s e d with a g i v e n p a t t e r n b ) c o m p o s e a r h y t h m i c o s t i n a t o t o accompany a s o n g .  11.  read rhythms from board, overhead or c a r d s u s i n g rhythm s y l l a b l e s .  rhythm  12.  read  rhythms  of  rhythm  13.  read  rhythms  by u s i n g  Major  Concept  Students 1.  familiar  --I LINEAR  songs u s i n g  body  syllables  percussion.  PITCH 1  are expected to:  i dent i f y a p i t c h as b e i n g h i g h e r or lower t h a n another p i t c h . a ) u p o n h e a r i n g two p i t c h e s s u n g o r i)  Content  s i n g them b a c k u s i n g a neutra1 sy11able i i ) s i n g them b a c k u s i n g s o l - f a s y l l a b l e s and hand s i g n s i i i ) s i n g them b a c k u s i n g numbers e.g. d o h = 1, r e = 2, e t c . i v ) s i n g them b a c k u s i n g l e t t e r names. b) i d e n t i f y the i n t e r v a l i ) 1n s o l - f a i i ) i n numbers i i1) in 1etters i v ) i n i n t e r v a l names e.g.P4  S u c c e s s i v e p i t c h e s may move h i g h e r o r l o w e r o r s t a y t h e same.  s o h mi A F#  l a doh  re  B D E  played The r i s e a n d f a l l o f t h e p i t c h w i t h i n a melody gives i t a d i s t i n c t i v e shape o r c o n t o u r  BE'  G A  E CH Vtf  A B  D'  m  r  d  3  2  15  stems stems  17 1  s 1 6  up down  J f  Act i v i ty c) 2.  notate  Sub-Concept the interval  on  Content m r d  staff  move u p w a r d o r downward o r a t t h e same l e v e l w h i l e l i s t e n i n g t o m u s i c or s i n g i n g songs to i l l u s t r a t e m e l o d i c contours. s i n g m e l o d i c c o n t o u r s from: a) s e p a r a t e l i n e n o t a t i o n and c o n t i n u o u s line notation --e.g.  b)  contoured  sol-fa  c)  sol-fa  syllables  d)  letter  names on  syllables  on  5-2  staff  staff  e) n o t e s on s t a f f u s i n g l e t t e r names o r n e u t r a l  sol-fa, syllables  4.  compare and d e s c r i b e m e l o d i c c o n t o u r s through: a ) movement b ) w r i t i n g -- i c o n i c a n d t r a d i t i o n a l n o t a t i o n c) reading - - s i n g i n g  5.  write melodic contours a) g r a p h i ca11y b) i n c o n t o u r e d s o l - f a c ) i n s o l - f a on s t a f f d ) i n l e t t e r s on s t a f f e) i n n o t e s on s t a f f  G.  compose and i m p r o v i s e v o c a l l y u s i n g s p e c i f i c p i t c h e s and m e l o d i c c o n t o u r s a ) d r p a t t e r n s : d r m; e t c . b) d e s c e n d i n g , a s c e n d i n g and repeated patterns  7.  p e r f o r m m e l o d i c p a t t e r n s and p h r a s e s : a ) when s i n g i n g w i l l b r e a t h a t t h e end o f t h e p h r a s e b ) when s i n g i n g w i l l show r i s e a n d f a l l o f dynamics i n p h r a s e and  (pitch  hand  patterns)  172  signal  Act i v i ty stressed  r e p r e s e n t p i t c h p a t t e r n s and p h r a s e s a ) by h a n d s i g n s b ) by d r a w i n g p h r a s e s i n t h e a i r c ) by u s i n g b o d y l e v e l s t o i l l u s t r a t e h i g h , medium and low  9.  i d e n t i f y and a n a l y z e whether p i t c h e s o r down o r r e p e a t by: a) l o o k i n g a t the w r i t t e n s c o r e b) l i s t e n i n g t o m u s i c  10.  i d e n t i f y a n d a n a l y z e p h r a s e s by: a) l o o k i n g a t the w r i t t e n s c o r e b) l i s t e n i n g to music  11.  represent melodic o r by n o t a t i o n  12.  compose and voca11y.  contours  improvise  move  A repeated melodic pattern may s e r v e a s t h e accompaniment to a m u s i c a l work.  d r m s,1,  The d i s t a n c e b e t w e e n two musical p i t c h e s c o n s t i t u t e s an interval. E a c h i n t e r v a l has a d i s t i n c t i v e sound r e g a r d l e s s of w h i c h  ascending: P5, M6. m7,  up  graphically  musical  phrases  perform melodic o s t i n a t i using: a ) s o h a n d mi b) s o h mi a n d l a c ) doh r e mi s o h and l a d) d o h r e ml s o h and l a e ) t o t h e a b o v e add low s o h ( s , ) a n d 1ow 1 a (1,)  14.  identify, ostinati  15.  create melodic lines using: a ) b o d y l e v e l s ' and v o i c e s b) n o n t r a d i t i o n a l n o t a t i o n and v o i c e s c ) s o l - f a s y l l a b l e s and h a n d s i g n s d) t r a d i t i o n a l n o t a t i o n and v o i c e s  16.  demonstrate voice: a)  Content  words  8.  13.  Sub-Concept  s 1  compare and n o t a t e m e l o d i c a u r a l l y or v i s u a l l y  various  intervals  s i n g a s c e n d i n g -- d r ; d d s ; d l r s ; d d ' ; r m ; r l ; r d ' ; s , d;s. r; s , m; 1 , d; 1 , r ; 1 , m;  using  m:  173  Act i v i ty l . s ; l . l ; s , s; s i n g d e s c e n d i n g -- r d : m d : m r ; s ni; s r ; s d; I s ; I m; 1 r ; 1 d; d ' d u s i n g so 1 - f a , numbers l e t t e r names a n d n e u t r a l s y l l a b l e s c ) move i n d i r e c t i o n o f i n t e r v a l s a t various levels d) n o t a t e intervals i) i n icons• i i) in sol - f a i i i ) i n l e t t e r names i v ) on s t a f f b)  17.  identify, c l a s s i f y or notate v a r i o u s i n t e r v a l s a f t e r t h e y a r e p l a y e d -a) g i v e n a m e l o d i c i n t e r v a l a u r a l l y o r v i s u a l l y i d e n t i f y the second p i t c h as r i s i ng o r f a 11i ng b) g i v e n a m e l o d i c i n t e r v a l i d e n t i f y the notes by l e t t e r names a f t e r b e i n g t o l d t h e l e t t e r name o f t h e f i r s t note. c) given a melodic i n t e r v a l i d e n t i f y both intervals i n so 1-fa d) g i v e n a m e l o d i c i n t e r v a l identify the interval e.g. M2; P4; e t c . e) g i v e n a m e l o d i c i n t e r v a l w r i t e i n s o l - f a t h e i n t e r v a l a f t e r being t o l d the the f i r s t note, s y l l a b l e or t o n i c chord f) given a melodic interval write the i n t e r v a l on t h e s t a f f  18.  i m p r o v i s e o r compose m u s i c emphasizing specified intervals or interval patterns e.g. using d r stepwise pattern; skip-wise patterns d t o m; c o m b i n a t i o n s t e p w i s e a n d s k i p w i s e p a t t e r n s : i n v e r t e d p a t t e r n s and i n t e r v a l s ; retrograde patterns  19.  s t u d e n t s w i l l compare, a n a l y z e and d e s c r i b e usages of stepwise p a t t e r n s i n a u r a l o r n o t a t e d examples of musical compositions  20.  compare, a n a l y z e and d e s c r i b e v a r i o u s usages of skip-wise patterns i n aural or n o t a t e d examples o f musical compositions  21  improvise  o r compose m u s i c  using  Sub-Concept  Content  p i t e l l i t i s bu i 1 t on . Two p i t c h e s may b e s o u n d e d simultaneously or success iv e l y  descending: P4; P5; M6;  arm, hand  Use  M2; m6:  M3; m7;  m3; P8.  body and s i gna1s  a l l known  intervals  e . g . c o m p a r e Hot C r o s s B u n s a n d M a r y Had a L i t t l e Lamb  step-wise  174  Sub-Concept  A c t i v.i t y and  /or  skip-wise, p a t t e r n s  22.  i d e n t i f y tonal c e n t r e of melodies e.g. f i n a l n o t e doh ( m a j o r ) and f i n a l n o t e 1 ah (minor)  23.  perform various  24.  c o m p a r e and a n a l y z e g i v e n a u r a l o r v i s u a l examples of monophonic music  25.  notate or g r a p h i c a l l y of monophonic music  26.  p e r f o r m v o c a l l y canons from v a r i o u s s t y l e p e r i o d s and c u l t u r e s  27.  i m p r o v i s e a n d compose c a n o n s e.g. using pentatonic scale  Major  1.  given a) b)  2.  are  -- |VERTICAL expected  aural  or  represent  tonic  a m e l o d i c l i n e may e x i s t without harmonic support  monophonic music from c u l t u r e s and p e r i o d s  Concept  Students  Con t e n t  (home  tone)  monophonic music various cultures and p e r i o d s  examples  canons  a p i e c e o f mus i c may be c r e a t e d by i m i t a t i o n o f a m e l o d y by s u c c e e d i n g v o i c e s a t t h e same p i t c h l e v e l  PITCH*]  to:  visual  examples,  i d e n t i f y chord changes. s i g n i f y when a new chord i s h e a r d e.g. I V I  a n a l y z e a n d i d e n t i f y t r i a d s and o t h e r c h o r d s and c h o r d p r o g r e s s i o n s a) major and minor t r i a d s b) t o n i c d o m i n a n t and s u b - d o m i n a n t c) dominant seventh  3.  sing  the  notes  of  the  chords.  4.  sing  the  r o o t s of  the  chords.  C e r t a i n h a r m o n i e s and h a r m o n i c p r o g r e s s i o n s tend to establish a feeling of tonal c e n t r e or t o n i c . T h i s tendency i s r e f e r r e d to as tona1i t y . A g i v e n tone t o g e t h e r w i t h the t h i r d and fifth above i t c o n s t i t u t e s a s p e c i f i c k i n d of c h o r d called a triad. An a d d i t i o n a l t h i r d may be added to t r i a d s p r o d u c i n g a seventh chord  175  tonic  chord  dominant  chord  dominant seventh sub-dom i n a n t chord  Act i v i ty  Sub-Concept  5.  identify  tonal  c e n t r e s --  6.  sing cadences (groups a s s i g n e d to each and  tonic  chords.  notate cadences  8.  i d e n t i f y and d e s c r i b e c a d e n c e s a u r a l and v i s u a l examples.  9.  i m p r o v i s e and various types  chord  Certain chord progressions tend to e s t a b l i s h a sense of f i n a l i t y .  V I V7 I IV I  The f e e l i n g o f t o n a l c e n t r e may v a r y f r o m s t r o n g t o weak o r may be n o n e x i s t e n t  Musics from v a r i o u s p e r i o d s , s t y l e s and cu1tures  The t o n a l c e n t r e may change w i t h i n a g i v e n p i e c e of music.  musical selections t h a t change key  triads.  compose m u s i c of cadences.  given  illustrating  10.  perform various -- e . g . Modern, Ethnic,  11.  p e r f o r m by s i n g i n g o r m o v i n g to s p e c i f i e d m o d u l a t i o n s .  12.  i d e n t i f y , d e s c r i b e and c l a s s i f y , m o d u a l a t i o n s when g i v e n a u r a l o r v i s u a l  homophonic music from s t y l e p e r i o d s and c u l t u r e s Baroque, C l a s s i c a l , Romantic P o p u l a r , Western. Folk. etc.  13.  notate modulations musical examples.  14.  compose and i m p r o v i s e m u s i c s p e c i f i c modulations.  15.  develop a s e n s i t i v i t y o r more t o n a l c e n t r e s s i mu1taneous1y  Major  ton i c  note)  7.  Content  in  examples. e.g. w r i t e Hot Buns i n t h e k e y D and G major  specified  to  Cross of  illustrating  two  Two o r more t o n a l c e n t r e s may e x i s t s i mu1taneous1y.  sing keys  known s o n g s a t t h e same  i n two time  M u s i c a l works o f t e n c o n t a i n b r i e f g r o u p i n g s of r h y t h m i c o r p i t c h p a t t e r n s c a l l e d mot i v e s .  musical s e l e c t i o n s containing motives  C o n c e p t - - - | F0R~M~|  Students  are  expected  1.  identify rhythmic  2  i d e n t i f y motives and n o t a t e .  to:  and p e r f o r m r e c u r r i n g or p i t c h motives.  aurally  or  visually  M o t i v e s may f u n c t i o n a s i d e n t i f i a b l e elements in musical compositions  176  A c t i v i ty 3.  compare and a n a l y z e m o t i v e s and t h e ways i n w h i c h t h e y a r e u s e d .  all and  4.  u s e o r i g i n a l o r g i v e n m o t i v e s when i m p r o v i s i n g or composing music.  5.  i d e n t i f y and from m u s i c a l  6.  c o m p a r e a n d ' a n a l y z e themes a n d in which they a r e used.  7.  g i v e n a u r a l examples of m u s i c a l i d e n t i f y and n o t a t a t e the b a s i c  8.  u s e o r i g i n a l o r g i v e n themes when i m p r o v i s i n g o r c o m p o s i n g  9.  10.  11.  Content  Sub-Concept  M u s i c a l works o f t e n c o n t a i n m e l o d i e s w h i c h may function as i d e n t i f i a b l e themes.  p e r f o r m themes compositions. the  rhythm symbols p i t c h e s known t o  dat  e.g.  Classical  Symphony  e.g.  " S u r p r i s e Symphony  way  compositions, themes.  music.  i d e n t i f y and compare b i n a r y , t e r n a r y and rondo forms i n music t h e y l i s t e n t o , p e r f o r m and c r e a t e .  Most t r a d i t i o n a l m u s i c a l forms a r e based i n i m i t a t i o n o r on r e p e t i t i o n a n d c o n t r a s t .  given aural a n a l y z e and t e r n a r y and  Many s m a l l e r m u s i c a l w o r k s b i n a r y , t e r n a r y or rondo.  or visual examples, describe binary, rondo forms.  are  i m p r o v i s e a n d compose w o r k s demonstrating i d e n t i f i a b l e binary, t e r n a r y and rondo form.  Major  Concept  Students  are  --ITIMBREI expected  to:  2.  i m p r o v i s e , d r a m a t i z e , compose and p e r f o r m works u t i l i z i n g s p e c i f i c timbres or timbral combinations.  Sound s o u r c e s may be c l a s s i f i e d in various ways a c c o r d i n g t o t i m b r e .  3.  compare and d e s c r i b e the i n f l u e n c e of t h e s i z e , s h a p e , and m a t e r i a l o f a s o u n d s o u r c e on t h e r e s u l t a n t s o u n d .  4.  identify,  Each sound s o u r c e produces i t s own d i s t i n c t i v e t i m b r e d e p e n d i n g on i t s s i z e , shape, and m a t e r i a l . T o n e q u a l i t y i s a f f e c t e d by  compare  sound  differ  i d e n t i f y , c o m p a r e , and s o u r c e s and t i m b r e s .  d e s c r i b e and  classify  S o u n d s may in timbre  1.  177  fam i T i e s  of  orchestral  family  of  classroom  instruments  ukuleles  instruments  Act i v i tv various  means o f t o n e  production.  5.  respond to uses o f movement.  6.  g i v e n a u r a l o r v i s u a l examples, d e s c r i b e a n d compare v a r i o u s uses of timbre. f u n c t i o n i n d e f i n i n g musical form.  2)t  of timbre  Sub-Concept  Content  a v a r i e t y of f a c t o r s r e l a t i n g t o tone p r o d u c t i o n e.g. p l a y i n g or s i n g i n g techniques  examples  by means  Timbre p r o v i d e s an important s o u r c e o f u n i t y and v a r i e t y in music and s e r v e s ah important It in  7.  Concept  Students 1.  may a l s o p l a y a n i m p o r t a n t musical expression.  role Musics c o n t a i n i n g v a r i ous t i m b r e s ; M u s i c i n which timbral d i f f e r e n c e are e a s i l y discerned.  through improvisation or composition, i l l u s t r a t e various specific u s e s o f t imbre.  Major  --| DYNAMICS I  are expected to:  demonstrate v a r i o u s dynamic l e v e l s and c h a n g e s i n d y n a m i c s and u t i l i z e them i n t h e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f m u s i c u s i n g  a) b) c) d)  o f same  movement t o i l l u s t r a t e body p e r c u s s i o n voices classroom percussion  S o u n d s may d i f f e r i n 1oudness. C h a n g e s i n d y n a m i c s may d y n a m i c s may o c c u r suddenly or gradua11y  loudness.  2.  g i v e n a u r a l o r v i s u a l examples, i d e n t i f y , compare, and d e s c r i b e v a r i o u s dynamic l e v e l s and changes i n dynamics.  3.  i m p r o v i s e , d r a m a t i z e , compose a n d p e r f o r m works u t i l i z i n g v a r i o u s s p e c i f i c dynamic p a t t e r n s -- u s i n g movement, b o d y p e r c u s s i o n , v o i c e s and c l a s s r o o m p e r c u s s i o n .  4.  respond t o u s e s of dynamics by means o f movement.  5.  g i v e n a u r a l or v i s u a l examples, d e s c r i b e and compare c o m p o s e r s ' uses of dynamics.  r e c o r d i n g s --e.g. " S u r p r i s e Symphony" known s o n g s o r melodic or rhythmic patterns  sound-scapes stories poems  Dynamics p l a y an i m p o r t a n t r o l e i n musical expression, p r o v i d e s an i m p o r t a n t s o u r c e o f u n i t y and v a r i e t y , and helps in d e f i n i n g musical form  178  G.  Content  Sub-Concept  Activity through improvisation or composition, i l l u s t r a t e v a r i o u s s p e c i f i c uses of d y n a m i c s .  Major  Concept  Students  pp, mf,  --jTEMPO]  are expected  to:  d e m o n s t r a t e v a r i o u s tempos a n d tempo c h a n g e s a n d u t i l i z e them in the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of music.  M u s i c may move relatively fast s l o w i n tempo  2.  g i v e n a u r a l o r v i s u a l examples, i d e n t i f y , compare and d e s c r i b e v a r i o u s temos a n d tempo c h a n g e s  C h a n g e s i n tempo may o c c u r suddenly or gradua11y  3.  i m p r o v i s e , d r a m a t i z e , compose a n d p e r f o r m works u t i l i z i n g v a r i o u s s p e c i f i c tempo p a t t e r n s .  4.  r e s p o n d t o v a r i o u s tempo a n d tempo c h a n g e s when m o v i n g t o m u s i c o r rhythm p a t t e r n s .  5.  g i v e n a u r a l or v i s u a l examples, compare v a r i o u s composers' uses a n d tempo c h a n g e s .  6.  I l l u s t r a t e v a r i o u s s p e c i f i c u s e s o f tempo a n d tempo c h a n g e s t h r o u g h i m p r o v i s a t i o n and composition.  1.  Major  Concept  Students 1.  2.  p . mp, f, f f  or  fast, s 1 ow  medium  1  mus i c w i t h contrasting  tempos  Tempo p l a y s a n important r o l e i n musical expression, p r o v i d e s an i m p o r t a n t source of u n i t y a n d v a r i e t y a n d h e l p s in d e f i n i n g musical form.  d e s c r i b e and o f tempo  --[STYLE |  are expected  to:  perform ( s i n g o r move) w i t h a p p r o p r i a t e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n music of v a r i o u s s t y 1es.  The e l e m e n t s o f m u s i c may be o r g a n i z e d a n d combined i n a wide v a r i e t y of ways t o f o r m c h a r a c t e r i s t i c p a t t e r n s and idioms.  g i v e n a u r a l o r v i s u a l examples, d e s c r i b e , a n a l y z e a n d c o m p a r e v a r i o u s ways in which d u r a t i o n , p i t c h , timbre.  179  E t h n i c and f o l k music of v a r i o u s c u l F u n c t i o n a l music -- 1u11ab i e s -- m a r c h e s , e t c .  Act i V i ty  Sub-Concept  Content  Musical s t y l e i s influenced t o some e x t e n t by v a r i o u s external factors including cultural, social, technological  e.g. types of dances and e c o n o m i c f o r c e s .  d y n a m i c s , tempo and f o r m a r e o r g a n i z e d and c o m b i n e d i n v a r i o u s s t y l e s . 3.  t h r o u g h l i s t e n i n g and s t u d y , d e s c r i b e and a n a l y z e the e x t r a - m u s i c a l f o r c e s t h a t may i n f l u e n c e music s t y l e .  4.  a n a l y z e t h r o u g h l i s t e n i n g and illustrate through composition v a r i o u s f u n c t i o n a l a p p l i c a t i o n s of music.  5.  through l i s t e n i n g , identify, a) a n a l y z e and c l a s s i f y examples o f p o p u l a r m u s i c and e t h n i c music of v a r i o u s c u l t u r e s b) i n d i c a t e t h e s p e c i f i c uses of the elements of music on w h i c h t h e s e c o n c l u s i o n s a r e b a s e d .  6.  7.  8.  V a r i o u s e t h n i c or n a t i o n a l g r o u p s somet imes t e n d to develop d i s t i n c t i v e musical styles. Musical compositions may r e f l e c t the i n f l u e n c e of v a r i o u s n a t i o n a l or e t h n i c t r a d i t i o n s .  popular music -- u s e o f s y n c o p a t i o n  g i v e n a u r a l examples of c o m p o s i t i o n s i n s p i r e d by o r b a s e d on f o l k m u s i c , o r e t h n i c music of v a r i o u s c u l t u r e s , a n a l y z e and d e s c r i b e how c o m p o s e r s h a v e u t i l i z e d t h e s e idioms i n t h e i r works. e.g. Oriental -- p e n t a t o n i c S c o t t i s h music  i m p r o v i s e o r compose e x a m p l e s o f p o p u l a r m u s i c o r works i n f l u e n c e d f o l k or e t h n i c music d e s c r i b e , a n a l y z e and c o m p a r e a u r a l o r v i s u a l examples of music of v a r i o u s s t y l e s , p e r i o d s or c u l t u r e s .  M u s i c a l s t y l e s may be c l a s s i f i e d a s , Medieval, Renaissance Baroque, C l a s s i c a l , Romantic, e t c . V a r i o u s s u b c a t e g o r i e s may a l s o be i d e n t i f i e d as w e l l as Non-Western music, f o l k music and p o p u l a r m u s i c .  180  music --rhythm  m u s i c a l works of various periods. s t y l e s and c u l t u r e s  AN EXAMPLE OF TEACHING S P E C I F I C CONCEPTS THROUGH THE SONG  Tone S e t (1.0  1.1  d  "LAND OF THE SILVER  BIRCH" ( P h a s e  I)  r m s 1 s, 1 , Add i t i ona1 Concepts Incorporated  DURATION |  Act i v i t y  S k i IT  Beat sing  and/or  listen  to song  and t a p b e a t ,  march  beat, a.d  say  rhythm  s y l l a b l e s , p l a y beat  on r h y t h m  do #i by a l t e r n a t e l y e x t e r n a l i z i n g b e a t a n d i n t e r n a l i z i n g beat f o r each phrase. i 1 i  v  do # i i b u t t e a c h e r p e r f o r m s i n t e r n a l i z e beat.  beat  do tt\\\ but a l t e r n a t e and t e a c h e r  two b e a t s  do # i v a l t e r n a t i n g part i cipat ion  every  every  while  two b e a t s  P, A  a.d  P, A  a.d  students  P, A  a,d  teacher  P, A  a,d  P.A.0 P ,A ,0  a.d, t a.d, t  P ,A,0  a,d  P. A,0  a.d, t  form(f )  students  with  without  n o t a t e the beat on the b o a r d o r i n notebook w h i l e l i s t e n i n g t o music or s i n g i n g ( u s e s t i c k n o t a t i o n ) make up an I n d i a n d a n c e feet  in circle  formation  moving tempo(te)  r e a d b e a t from b o a r d o r notebook and p l a y a p e r c u s s i o n i n s t r u m e n t , u s e body p e r c u s s i o n o r s a y t h e beat  'where P = P e r f o r m i n g ; 'where a = a u r a l ;  A=Analyzing;  1  instrument  0=Organizing  d = d e x t r a l ; t = t r a n s 1atab1e  181  Add i t i ona1 Concepts 1 .2  Act  i v i ty  Meter L i s t e n to determine Use the  "Land o f t h e S i l v e r B i r c h " and i f i t moves i n two's o r t h r e e ' s  b o d y p e r c u s s i o n o r p l a y an f i r s t beat of each bar  Perform softly  first  beat  loudly  and  instrument  second  a.d  on  beat  Use a d i f f e r e n t t i m b r e f o r t h e a c c e n t e d than the unaccented beat  dynam i c s ( d y )  beat  P. A  P u p i l s u s e b o d y p e r c u s s i o n on t h e f i r s t bar and i n t e r n a l i z e the second beat  beat  of  the  One h a l f o f t h e c l a s s e x t e r n a l i z e s t h e f i r s t b e a t and t h e o t h e r h a l f o f t h e c l a s s e x t e r n a l i z e s t h e second. Reciprocate procedure. The s e c o n d b e a t s h o u l d be a c c e n t e d .  viii  ix  x  xi  C o n d u c t two b e a t s i n a b a r w h i l e l i s t e n i n g t o "Land of t h e S i l v e r  singing Birch"  a.d  a.d  t imbre(t i )  a.d a.d  Move ( s t e p , jump, b e n d k n e e s , e t c . ) on t h e f i r s t b e a t o f e v e r y b a r ; r e m a i n s t i l l on t h e o t h e r b e a t ( s ) .  1.3  Sk i 1 1  dy  a.d  of f - b e a t  a.d  a.d  and/or  style(s)  P.0  a,d  Use s t i c k n o t a t i o n t o i n d i c a t e m e t e r i n r e l a t i o n t o a c c e n t e d a n d u n a c c e n t e d b e a t s - - e . g . I, | i  dy  P.A.O  a.d, t  S i n g and  te  a.d  te  a.d  Create beats.  a dance e m p h a s i z i n g  W r i t e and i d e n t i f y the n o t e i n g r o u p s o f two  the  time  first  of  each  two  signature indicating  quarter  Rhythm  i ii  clap  the  rhythm  of  E c h o t e a c h e r by c l a p p i n g two an e x a m p l e has b e e n g i v e n .  the bar  song. phrases  after  182  i11  and s a y  te  P, A  a.d.t  A f t e r t e a c h e r h a s c l a p p e d any two b a r s o f the song say t h e rhythm s y l l a b l e s .  te  P.A  a.d.t  A f t e r t h e t e a c h e r h a s c l a p p e d a n y two b a r s of t h e s o n g i d e n t i f y t h e words t h a t h a v e t h a t rhythm.  te  A  a,t  A f t e r t h e t e a c h e r h a s c l a p p e d two b a r s o f the song p u p i l s w r i t e t h e rhythm u s i n g stick notation.  te  A.O  a,t  Compose studied  te  P,0  a.d.t  1i n e a r pi t c h ( l p )  P,A  a.d.t  Echo t e a c h e r ' s c l a p p i n g rhythm s y l l a b l e s  iv  v  vi  vii  viii  !x  x xi  xii  xiii  xiv  xv  as  i n #11  rhythm rondos u s i n g i n song.  t h e rhythms  A f t e r a song or p a r t o f a song n o t a t e d s i n g the song/or p a r t s  1s s t i c k i n rhythm  syllables.  P.0  I m p r o v i s e rhythm rondos u s i n g t h e rhythms s t u d i e d i n "Land o f t h e S i l v e r B i r c h " .  P,A  a.d.t  Compose a n o s t i n a t o o r o s t i n a t i f o r "Land o f t h e S i l v e r B i r c h " u s i n g t h e rhythms c o n t a i n e d t h e r e i n and p l a y i t w h i l e t h e c l a s s s i n g s t h e song.  P.A.O  a.d,t  Compose s y l l a b l e s o r w o r d s , t o the ost1nato/ostinati.  chant  P,A.O  a.d.t  Pupils sing same t i m e .  a t the  Play  from n o t a t i o n  t h e rhythm  and p l a y  ostinato  Compare a n d d e s c r i b e r h y t h m s p h r a s e s w i t h one a n o t h e r  o f "Land o f t h e  f  a.d  with  of b a r s and  C o m p a r e r h y t h m s o f d i f f e r e n t b a r s by p l a y i n g them o n d i f f e r e n t t y p e s o f drums. Use d y n a m i c s to a c c e n t u a t e d i f f e r e n c e s .  •P  f  ti.dy  a.d.t  A  P.A  t  a.d.t  I 2.0  2.1  LINEAR  PITCH 1  Relative  Positions  o f P i t c h e s and A b s o l u t e  Pitches:  2.1.1  h i g h e r o r lower i ) c o m p a r e b a r 1 t o b a r 2 (D t o A) c o m p a r e b a r 13 t o b a r 1 a n d 2 a s i i) to which goes h i g h e r c o m p a r e n o t e s i n b a r 7 (G F G) s i n g a b o v e u s i n g h a n d movements o r body iv) movements a t c o r r e s p o n d i n g l e v e l s t o i n d i c a t e n o t e s moving h i g h e r o r lower s i n g above u s i n g s o l - f a s y l l a b l e s v) vi ) s 1 ng a b o v e us i ng s o l - f a s y l l a b l e s a n d hand s igns vii) s 1 ng a b o v e us i ng l e t t e r names s i n g a b o v e us i n g words o f s o n g Vi i i ) s i ng a b o v e us i ng r h y t h m s y l l a b l e s ix) s i n g a b o v e us i ng numbers e . g . x) re=2  2.1.2 i) ii) iii) 2.1.3 i) ii) iii) iv) v)  same compare compare compare  notes notes notes  in bar in bar in bar  1 (D D 1 with 1 with  D) notes notes  bar bar  Duration(du)  3 13  a s c e n d i n g s t e p w i s e and s k i p w i s e i d e n t i f y a s c e n d i n g p a t t e r n s i n the song l a b e l p a t t e r n s as to s t e p w i s e o r s k i p w i s e compare a s c e n d i n g p a t t e r n s s i n g a s c e n d i n g p a t t e r n s u s i n g words p l a y a s c e n d i n g p a t t e r n s on melody b e l l s  d e s c e n d i n g s t e p w i s e and s k i p w i s e i) i d e n t i f y d e s c e n d i n g p a t t e r n s i n the song ii) l a b e l p a t t e r n s as t o s t e p w i s e o r s k i p w i s e iii) compare d e s c e n d i n g p a t t e r n s iv) s i n g d e s c e n d i n g p a t t e r n s u s i n g words v) p l a y d e s c e n d i n g p a t t e r n s on m e l o d y b e l l s  A A  a. t a, t  A P.A  a, t a.d.t  P.A P. A  a , d. t a.d.t  P.A P.A P.A P.A  a.d.t a.d.t a.d.t a.d.t  A A A  a, t a, t a. t  A A A P.A P.A  a, t a, t a. t a.d.t a.d,t  A A A P. A P.A  a, t a. t a. t a.d.t a.d.t  2.1.4  184  2.1.5 i) ii)  N o t a t i o n of above: n o t a t e r e l a t i v e p o s i t i o n s of p i t c h e s n o t a t e p i t c h e s and compare p i t c h e s visually using sol-fa letters  0 I. D  A  numbers  L,  3  words  2.2  du  iii)  iv)  v)  vi)  vii)  a, t t  P. A.O  a.d, t  P.A.O  a. t  A ,0  a. t  £Ae be.0.-  Phrases i ) s i n g , d e m o n s t r a t e , d e s c r i b e and compare t h r o u g h movement ( h a n d o r b o d y ) t h e : a ) f i r s t p h r a s e (A=a+a) b) f o u r t h p h r a s e c ) f i r s t two p h r a s e s m e l o d ' i c a l l y e.g. p e r f o r m b o t h p h r a s e s a t t h e same u s i n g two p u p i l s o r g r o u p s i i ) l i n e draw t h e c o n t o u r o f : a) p h r a s e one and f o u r ; d e s c r i b e and compare  b)  A ,0 A,0  du, t e , f. s  p h r a s e two a n d t h r e e d e s c r i b e and compare  notate phrases or d i c t a t ion  on s t a f f  from  memory  A.O  t r a n s p o s e a p h r a s e on s t a f f lines e.g. t o r e l a t i v e minor o r t o n i c major (B m i n o r , D m a j o r ) transpose a phrase l e t t e r names  orally  singing  compose and/or i m p r o v i s e a p h r a s e s i m i l a r melodic contours  words a n d  5  i ng i ng  using  s i n g phrases i n c o r p o r a t i n g dynamics ( t o show t h e r i s e a n d f a l l o f t h e p h r a s e )  dy,  185  s  P.A.O  a, d, t  P,0  a.d. t  a.d, t  2.3  Melodic i)  ii)  iii)  iv)  2.4  Ostinati perform  a given  J Jl  ostinato  IJ  J  du.  -3> J J I A A compose a m e l o d i c o s t i n a t o u s i n g notes of the p e n t a t o n i c s c a l e and perform i t  iii)  iv)  v)  vi)  P.A  a.d.t  du  P.A.O  t  du  A.O  t  du  A  a,t  P.A  a.d.t  name i n t e r v a l s f r o m #1 a f t e r t h e y h a v e been p l a y e d o r sung by s i n g i n g back t h e interval i n s o l - f a a n d t h e n by i n t e r v a l name -- e . g . "s m, m i n o r t h i r d "  P.A  a.d.t  notate intervals played consecutively by t e a c h e r a f t e r b e i n g g i v e n t o n a l c e n t r e and tone s e t : a ) b y i n t e r v a l name e . g . P4 b) b y s o l - f a names e . g . d o h ' s o h ( d ' s ) c ) b y numbers e . g . 8 5 d ) b y l e t t e r names C G  A  a. t  i d e n t i f y i n t e r v a l s from s t a f f n o t a t i o n a s t o i n t e r v a l name, s o l - f a , numbers a n d l e t t e r names  A  a. t  c l a s s i f y i n t e r v a l s as t o major etc. e.g. 1 s = M2; r d = M2  A  a. t  A  a, t  compose w o r d s o r s y l l a b l e s ostinato  f o r melodic  d e s c r i b e and a n a l y z e g i v e n m e l o d i c o s t i n a t o a n d t h o s e c o m p o s e d by p u p i l s  IntervaIs: i ) s i n g and i d e n t i f y a u r a l l y and v i s u a l l y i n t e r v a l s i n t h e s o n g by s o l - f a ( o n s t a f f and w i t h hand s i g n s ) , l e t t e r names and numbers see l i s t o f i n t e r v a l s c o n t a i n e d i n t h e song on p. ( A n a l y s i s of Concepts Contained i n i n "Land o f t h e S i l v e r B i r c h " ) ii)  t , dy  :|j  seconds,  compose a p h r a s e o r p h r a s e s u s i n g specified i n t e r v a l s e.g. ascending or o t h e r i n t e r v a l s i n t h e song  M2  vii)  viii)  2.5  Tonal  ii) iii)  iv) v) vi) vii)  viii)  Melody  s  c o m p a r e number a n d q u a l i t y o f a s c e n d i n g and d e s c e n d i n g i n t e r v a l s e.g. p h r a s e two -- f i v e d e s c e n d i n g i n t e r v a l s four ascending i n t e r v a l s  centre. i)  2.6  i d e n t i f y and compare i n t e r v a l s w i t h i n b a r s and p h r a s e s e.g. p h r a s e one a s c e n d i n g p e r f e c t f i f t h s , p h r a s e f o u r --. a s c e n d i n g minor thirds  S c a l e s and/or  Tone  A  a, t  A  a, t  Set  s i n g t o n e s e t ( 1 a - p e n t a t o n i c -- 1, r m s 1) t o s o l - f a a n d h a n d s i g n s a s c e n d i n g and d e s c e n d i n g  P , A  d  a,d,t  P.A  a.d.t  s i n g tones i n order p r e s e n t e d i n p h r a s e s of song as t e a c h e r or p u p i l p o i n t s t o them on t h e b o a r d  P.A  a,d  notate  A,0  t  P,0  a.d.t  P,A  a.d,t  P.A  a.d.t  P.A  a.d  sing  tone  set  tone  i n any  s e t on  order.  staff  sing  tone  set  to  letter  sing  tone  set  to  numbers  l o c a t e tonal and v i s u a l l y  centre on t h e  names  'la' orally staff  s i n g t o n a l c e n t r e ' l a ' on c u e when t e a c h e r o r p u p i l s t o p s s i n g i n g i n the song Without  Harmonic  Support  anywhere  (Monophonic)  any  accompaniment  P  a.d  rhythm  accompaniment  P  a,d  i)  sing  song  without  ii)  sing  song  with  187  I 3.0  VERTICAL  PITCH |  3. 1 C h o r d s 3.1.1  Tr i ads 1)  ii)  iii)  iv)  l i s t e n to t r i a d s D minor, F and A minor p l a y e d linearly l i s t e n to above v e r t ica11y  triads  major  played  s i n g the t r i a d s l i n e a r l y to: a ) s o l - f a u s i n g hand s i g n s b ) numbers c ) l e t t e r names d) t o i n t e r v a l names s i n g the t r i a d s v e r t i c a l l y with p u p i l s or groups h o l d i n g each note and u s i n g # i i i format 5C(s) 3A(m)  3A(m)  1F(d)  1F(d) 3E(m)  6D(1.)  |F m a j o r j 1C(d)  |D  mi n o r | 6A(1.) | A mi n o r |  v)  From t h e a b o v e c h o r d s d e t e r m i n e what n o t e s c o u l d be s u n g i n e a c h t r i a d by a p u p i l o r g r o u p s w i t h t h e l e a s t amount o f movement e.g. A A A  |D minor! [A minor| |F major"!  IP  IP  lp  vi)  s i n g t h e new a r r a n g e m e n t o f t r i a d s i n My u s i n g s o l - f a a n d h a n d s i g n s n u m b e r s a n d l e t t e r names  lp  P.A  a,d, t  vii)  s i n g the chord progressions t h r o u g h o u t t h e song w i t h one p u p i l o r g r o u p on a g i v e n p a r t  1 p  P  a , d, t  s i n g a s i n My\\ a n d a d d o n e p u p i l o r g r o u p on t h e m e l o d y  lp  P  viii)  ix)  x) xi)  xii)  xiii)  3.1.2  w r i t e t h e t r i a d s i n s o l - f a , numbers a n d l e t t e r names a n d n o t a t e o n s t a f f  A  t  notate  A  t  A  t  A  a. t  A  a, t  A  a.t  what  was s u n g  compare s t a f f t h a t o f Mx  i n My  notation  i n Mix  with  t r i a d s c a n be b u i l t on a n y n o t e o f s c a l e -- l i s t e n t o t r i a d s p l a y e d on the p i a n o o r u k u l e l e on e a c h s t e p o f a n d i d e n t i f y them a s t o m a j o r o r m i n o r notate played  Four Note 1)  i n t e r v a l s from vertically  the song  Chords  l i s t e n t o t h e song p l a y e d on t h e piano or u k u l e l e using three chords D minor, F major and A minor. Identify a u r a l l y how many c h o r d s a r e u s e d  ii)  i d e n t i f y a u r a l l y the q u a l i t y of c h o r d as t o major o r minor  iii)  s i n g each chord l i n e a r l y u s i n g s o l - f a a n d h a n d s i g n s , numbers, names a n d i n t e r v a l names  iv)  v)  a.d.t  part  A  lp  a, t  P.A  a.d.t  s i n g each chord v e r t i c a l l y with p u p i l s o r g r o u p s h o l d i n g e a c h n o t e ( s e e #3.1.1 i v )  P.A  a.d.t  i d e n t i f y c h o r d c h a n g e s p l a y e d on t h e p i a n o o r u k u l e l e -- n o t e when the c h o r d c h a n g e s a n d t o what c h o r d  A  a.t  letter  189  vi)  vii)  .1.4  numbers and on s t a f f  A.O  t  o r g a n i z e the t h r e e chords to show t h e l e a s t amount o f movement b e t w e e n n o t e s w h e n p e r f o r m e d by i n d i v i d u a l s or groups s t a r t i n g with D m i n o r ( s e e #3.1 v)  A.O  t  A  a.d.t  s i n g t h e f i r s t and l a s t c h o r d t o s o l - f a , numbers a n d l e t t e r names  P.A  a.d.t  n o t a t e and l a b e l c h o r d a s t o n i c (home c h o r d ) , l a c e n t r e d ( r o o t n o t e ) and Roman n u m e r a l I  A  t  n o t a t e D minor c h o r d in r o o t , f i r s t and s e c o n d i n v e r s i o n u s i n g s o l - f a , n u m b e r s , l e t t e r names and n o t e s on s t a f f  A  t  P.A  a.d.t  w r i t e chords i n s o l - f a , l e t t e r names and n o t a t e  Ton i c i)  ii)  iii)  iv)  v)  l i s t e n t o t h e f i r s t and l a s t o f t h e s o n g -- a n a l y z e as t o and sameness  sing chord in 0iv in root, and s e c o n d i n v e r s i o n u s i n g n u m b e r s and l e t t e r names  v i ) s i ng with each vii)  viii)  ix)  x)  Chord chord quality  Ip  first, sol-fa,  1p  c h o r d i n #lv v e r t i c a l l y i n d i v i d u a l s or groups h o l d i n g note (use above pr o c e d u r e )  relate first tonic chord  and  last  note  of  song  i d e n t i f y the D minor c h o r d i n r o o t p o s i t i o n and i n v e r s i o n s from staff notation e x p e r i m e n t by w r i t i n g c h o r d s p l a y i n g them on b e l l s  and  e x p e r i m e n t by p l a y i n g c h o r d s and them n o t a t i n g them  on  bells  190  P ,A  a , d, t  A A  a, t a, t  A  a.d.t  P,A,0  a.d,t  xi)  3.2  ii)  iii)  iv)  4.0 4.1  P.A.O  a.d. t  1 i s t e n to the f i n a l p h r a s e of the song and i d e n t i f y and l a b e l t h e f i n a l c h o r d a s t h e t o n i c ( I.)  A  a.t  l i s t e n to the f i n a l c h o r d of the f i r s t p h r a s e i n r e l a t i o n to the I chord; s i n g b o t h c h o r d s and n o t e the s t a r t i n g n o t e s i n r o o t p o s i t i o n ; d i s c o v e r what number t o c a l l A, ( V ) . by c o u n t i n g up t h e s t e p s o f the scale  P.A  a,t  s  A  a . t  s  A  a.t  A  t  lp  P.A  a.d.t  lp  P.A  a.d.t  A  a,t  Cadences i)  3.4  s i n g p i t c h e s w i t h o t h e r p u p i l s to form chords, i d e n t i f y the p i t c h e s u s i n g b e l l s o r p i a n o and n o t a t e  l a b e l D minor to A minor numb'ers I t o V a n d a s an note e.g.  as c h o r d imperfect  cadence  the c h o r d t h a t ends each p h r a s e phrase 1--V,phrase 2--V, phrase 3--I. phrase 4--I  Accompaniment i ) ground bass a ) f r o m t h e t h r e e c h o r d s d i s c o v e r what n o t e o c c u r s i n a 11 (A ) b) an i n d i v i d u a l or group s i n g s t h e n o t e A throughout the song w h i l e another i n d i v i d u a l or group s i n g s the song ii)  sing  and/or  play  iii)  sing #3.1  and/or p l a y v i with the  on  bells  the r o o t s  the t r i a d s melody  as  IP  of  in  FORM"! Mot i v e s 1)  identify aurally recurring and p i t c h p a t t e r n s  du,  rhythmic  191  1p  ii)  iii)  du,  1p  du,  1p  P.A  a.d.t  du,  1p  P,A,b  a.d.t  du,  1p  P.A.O  a.d.t  du,  1p  P.A.O  a.d.t  c r e a t e movements t o i n d i c a t e p h r a s i n g movements a r e r e p e a t e d a s p a t t e r n s a r e r e p e a t e d  du,  1p  P.A.O  a.d.t  do p h r a s e m a r k i n g s i n t h e a i r w h i l e s i n g i n g the song e.g.  du,  1p  P.A.O  a.d.t  p u p i l s or g r o u p s of p u p i l s s p e c i f i e d phrase; a l ! sing  du,  1p  P. A,0  a.d.t  du,  1p  P.A  a.d  du,  1p  A.O  du,  1p  A.O  du,  1p,  identify visually recurring and p i t c h p a t t e r n s sing recurring patterns and s o l - f a hand s i g n s  rhythmic  using  words  i v ) compose or i m p r o v i s e m o t i v e s u s i n g p i t c h or r h y t h m i c p a t t e r n s from the v)  4.2  inverted  Phrases i)  ii)  iii)  iv)  v)  vi)  vii)  4.5  compose or i m p r o v i s e m o t i v e s u s i n g p i t c h p a t t e r n s from the song  song  label e.g.  each l i n e A B Bv C  (phrase) to  indicate  1ikeness  sing a phrase 4  s i n g t h e words o f p h r a s e 2 and 3 a t t h e same t i m e u s i n g i n d i v i d u a l p u p i l s o r groups and n o t e the d i f f e r e n c e at the end o f the p h r a s e s w r i t e b a r s 8 a n d 12 i n : a ) s o l - f a b ) numbers c ) write  phrase  2 and  3 as  letter  names d)  notes  above  Introduction i)  ii)  c r e a t e a rhythmic and/or melodic i n t r o d u c t i o n u s i n g some p a t t e r n / s t h e song add  dynamic  a, t  from  markings  dy  192  a , t  iii)  perform  the introduction  P , (A )  iv)  analyze  and e v a l u a t e  A  v)  4 . 7  Types i)  ii)  iii) iv)  | 5.O 5.1  notate  introduction  introduction  a , d, ( t ) A, (t)  A.O  t  A A  t t  o f Forms a n a l y z e , d e s c r i b e and i d e n t i f y of song as s t r o p h i c identify phrases  repetition  form  du,  lp  A  o f words w i t h i n  '  t  A  t  0  a, t  c l a s s i f y three types of timbre that c o u l d be u s e d e f f e c t i v e l y f o r t h e song  A  a  i d e n t i f y and d e s c r i b e t h e v o i c e q u a l i t y t h a t i s needed t o p r e s e n t t h i s song e.g. s o f t , l o n g i n g , h o p e f u l , homesick, e t c .  A  a.d  note  phrase  4  is labelled  write additional  refrain  words f o r p h r a s e s  1 and 2  TIMBRE | C1 a s s i f i c a t i o n  i)  ii)  iii)  iv)  s i n g and d r a m a t i z e t h e song t o p o r t r a y the f e e l i n g s contained  e x p l o r e drum s o u n d s on same a n d d i f f e r e n t i n s t r u m e n t s and d e c i d e which t i m b r e s a r e most a p p r o p r i a t e f o r a c c o m p a n y i n g , i n t r o d u c i n g and e n d i n g t h e song  5.2 D e t e r m i n a n t s i)  ii)  du,  lp  P,A,0  a,d  du.  lp  P.A  a, d  therein  of Timbre  d i s c o v e r t h r o u g h e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n what e f f e c t s i z e , s h a p e a n d m a t e r i a l h a v e on r e s u l t a n t sound perform  the song w i t h  drum  accompaniment  du  193  P.A  a,t  P,0  a.d  i i i )  5.4  Role  in  p u p i l s d e c i d e on use of introduce, accompany or as d i r e c t e d by pupils  Musical  i)  move  to  listen of the timbre  i i i )  the  v)  | 6.0 6.1  sound  played  by  of  play  various  teacher  A.O  1 p  or  a  P. A,0  du  drum  rhythmic  composition t h e song on  compositions  p u p i l s d e c i d e on use of i n t r o d u c e , accompany or a s d i r e c t e d by pupils  a.d  pupils  A  a  du  A.O  a.t  du  P  a.t  du.1p,vp  A.O  a  du,  P.A  a.d  P.A.O  P.A.0  a.d a.d  ti  P.A.O  a.d  t i  P.A.O  a.d  f  A.O  a.t  A.O  t  to r e c o r d i n g s of v a r i o u s arrangements song and d e s c r i b e and compare the uses  compose a rhythmic rhythm patterns in different timbres  iv)  du,  to teacher  Expression  timbres ii)  recorder end song:  of  using drums  the with  Mx  ukulele to end song; teacher  plays  DYNAMICS I Levels i)  sing  the  dynamic ii)  i i i )  iv)  song  at  three  to  use the  body percussion three dynamic l e v e l s  sing  and  play  the  song to  classroom  illustrate  the  in  M\  percussion  three  dynamic  levels  M\  evaluate to  lp  du.lp  illustrate  sing song and to i l l u s t r a t e  in  vi)  times  sing t h e s o n g a n d u s e movement the above t h r e e dynamic levels  instruments  v)  three  levels  each  and  decide  what  levels  are  suited  phrase  d e v i s e own n o n - t r a d i t i o n a l markings f o r MM  dynamic  vi1) viii)  label  dynamic  markings  s i n g the song u s i n g m a r k i n g s d e c i d e d on  A  t  P.A  a.d.t  P,0  a.d  A  a  P.A.O  a.d  A  a. t  P.A  a.d.t  A  a  0  t  A  t  P,A  a.d  P.O P,0  a.d a.d  A  a  f  A  a  f  A  a  traditionally  the dynamic i n tfv a n d w r i t t e n  ix) play rhythmic patterns contained s o n g o n drums a t v a r i o u s d y n a m i c  in  tiv\\  i n the levels  x) p u p i l s l i t e n t o t h e t e a c h e r p l a y t h e r e c o r d e r u s i n g t h e d y n a m i c m a r k i n g s d e c i d e d on i n #v xi)  6.2  Gradual  move t o drum p a t t e r n s p l a y e d by p u p i l or t e a c h e r at v a r i o u s dynamic l e v e l s  o r Sudden i)  ii) iii) iv)  v)  Dynamic  Changes  a n a l y z e a n d d e c i d e what d y n a m i c c h a n g e c o u l d o c c u r b e t w e e n t h e b e g i n n i n g and end o f e a c h p h r a s e and n o t a t e i t sing  the song  from dynamics  e v a l u a t e dynamics  i n H\  notated  performed in # i i  devise non-traditional t o show c h a n g e s •  dynamic  l a b e l and w r i t e t r a d i t i o n a l t o show c h a n g e s  markings  dynamic  markings  ©  vi)  vii)  6.3  dramatize gradual p l a y e d on a drum  and  sudden dynamic  i m p r o v i s e d y n a m i c c h a n g e s on a drum u s i n g r h y t h m i c p a t t e r n s c o n t a i n e d i n the song  Expressive  Qualities  i)  analyze  the f e e l i n g s  ii)  analyze  the u n i t y a c h i e v e d  iii)  changes  a n a l y z e the v a r i e t y dynamics  dynamics c o n t r i b u t e t o through  achieved  dynamics  through  195  iv)  v)  I 7 ,0 7.1  s e t dynamic markings i n s e c t i o n on f o r m  between  f o r t h e new  dynamics  words  f  composed  A  a, t  A  a.t  TEMPO ] -  Speeds M a i n t a i n e d i)  ii)  7.2  a n a l y z e the c o r r e l a t i o n and form  Gradual i)  ii)  | 8.0  STYLE!  8.1  Cultural  s i n g t h e melody of t h e song a t t h r e e s p e e d s -- f a s t , medium, a n d s l o w ; d e t e r m i n e a u r a l l y what s p e e d i s t h e most a p p r o p r i a t e t o the words and m u s i c  du,1p  P,A  a.d  s i n g t h e song a d d i n g v o c a l c h o r d a 1 accompaniment at t h r e e speeds; e v a l u a t e a u r a l l y t h e most a p p r o p r i a t e s p e e d  du,1p,vp  P,A  a.d  du.lp  P.A.O  a.d  du,1p  A  a  A  t  A  t  A  a  A  t  or  Sudden Changes  e x p l o r e any p o s s i b l e in the i n t r o d u c t i o n ,  iii)  iv)  uses song  of speed changes i t s e l f and c o d a  e v a l u a t e the e f f e c t i v e n e s s or sudden speed changes  and  of g r a d u a l  Environmental  i) determine the song ii)  i n Speeds  from  words who  is singing  d e t e r m i n e f r o m words w h e r e t h e s o n g p l a c e e.g. f o r e s t , lowlands, e t c . d e t e r m i n e from i s p1 a y i ng determine a n d what words and  t h e w o r d s what  takes  instrument  from words t h e message of q u e s t i o n s the song evokes music  the song through  196  v)  8.2  note r e p e t i t i o n contributing to  Historical i)  ii)  iii)  o f words and linear pitches f e e l i n g of l o n g i n g to r e t u r n  A  t  Features  n o t e t h e r e p e t i t i o n of r h y t h m s o f p r i m i t i v e and f o l k m u s i c  typical  n o t e the r e p e t i t i o n of i n t e r v a l s o f p r i m i t i v e and f o l k m u s i c  typical  c o m p a r e how and now  past  Indians  lived  in  the  identify  range of  v)  n o t e the oriental  linear music  vi)  n o t e the m u s i c to  c l o s e r e l a t i o n s h i p of the l o v e of n a t u r e  listen nature  song  pitches  du  A  a.t  lp  A  a.t  A  a , t  A  a.t  lp  iv)  vii)  lp  (pentatonic)  typical  of  A  folk  A  to o t h e r f o l k songs p r a i s i n g and a d e s i r e t o be e m e r s e d i n i t  197  a  198  ANALYSIS OF CONCEPTS CONTAINED IN 1 LAND OF THE SILVER BIRCH' 1.0  DURATION 1.1 1.2 1.3  2.0  J  Beat Meter 1 Rhythm.'elements elements  J ,  /  J , J , / J J ,  ^  LINEAR PITCH tone set - l , d r m s l (DFGAC'D') range - 1, to 1 (D to D')  intervals  sol-fa & hand signs , 1, m  name of interval P5  numbers  letter name  6, 3  3>,  Is  M2  6 5  s l  M2  56  m3  5 3  m d  M3  3 1  r d  M2  2 1  d r  M2  1 2  r 1  P 5  2 6  d 1,  m3  16,  I-  i  ,  A  3> C  c  TT  A  F  Hi 6 1>  199  3.0  VERTICAL Key  - D minor  Cadences  - I V V I  Ostinato  accompaniment  Triads  4.0  PITCH  within  song  and A  minor  - Bordun  - s m d (major)  D and A and  m d 1, (minor)  Form A B B  v  C ;  recurring  A = a + a rhythms  Opens w i t h 5.0  D minor  perfect  J  Jl  ;  fifths  J1J and ends  J;  ; with  minor  accompaniment timbre (experiement w i t h t y p e s a n d s i z e s o f drums) voice timbre possible  echo  incorporated  pp pmf mf mp p .  mp  p -mp  p  •  mp p pp  Tempo steady  8.0  effects  different  Dynamics introduction phrase one p h r a s e two phrase three phrase four coda  7. 0  thirds  Timbre drum  6.0  J~B.&  tempo  beait  (moderato)  STYLE monophonic originally C a n a d i a n f o l k song - I n d i a n - l i k e rhythm accompaniment a p p r o p r i a t e ; c h a r a c t e r i s t i c rhythm o p e n i n t e r v a l - P5; n a r r o w e r i n t e r v a l - m3 p e n s i v e mood c r e a t e d i n l a - p e n t a t o n i c s i m p l e f o l k song s t y l e w i t h r e p e a t e d m o t i v e s strophic - 3 verses  200  LAND  im  E>m  OF  THE  SILVER  233  Sil-fe^  Br  F$m  jg  m  Land o p  BIRCH  m  birch  home.  (  „ p -t-foe,  B.  3  be<x- vet*, F# m  ft"  2 W/ice. sTt'll H-ie  miahhy moose,  w  S k u  n  —  1  1  d  Bloe. lake. anA totk-y  1  —'  s\noC^i  X  at  wan-dere  Will,  n  *  \ r —  - f u m a/ice.  wi'll  mor^  Bm ZZL  i  Boom  e|ee/&  Boom Boomde.de. S>oom Boom  Boom.  Boon  de.de.  Boom Boom Boom  2.  Down in the f o r e s t , deep in the lowlands, My heart cries o u t for thee, h i l l s o f the north. Blue lake and rocky shore, I w i l l return once m o r e .  3.  High on a rocky ledge I ' l l build my wigwam, Close by the water's edge, s i l e n t and s t i l l . Blue lake and rocky shore, I w i l l return o n c e m o r e .  * T h i s song i s documented i n the book F o l k Songs of Canada by E d i t h Fowke and R i c h a r d Johnston, Waterloo Music Co. , 1954 . _.gi follows: y  p  a  s  The words and tune o f t h i s song were c o n t r i b u t e d by M e r r i c k J a r r e t t of Toronto who f i r s t heard i t up i n Muskoka some f i f t e e n years ago. I t i s w i d e l y known throughout Ontario from Lake of the Woods to Ottawa, and a l l through the Muskoka-Haliburton l a k e s . I t has been sung i n summer camps f o r a t l e a s t twenty y e a r s , but no one seems to know when o r where i t o r i g i n a t e d .  201 Linear Pitch Reading and Writing Exercises for Voice and/or Ukulele  J>  (based on Kodaly's 333 Reading Exercises*) Fingering 0, 2  E  , '  — Ex.  >  it  1  4>  1  •7)  | 1  J 1  ¥  •J  ^ -J  3T  V  : ?  -+  te  •>-v  * J \J '  Ex. 7  Me /  -  —  ' -3  if f3  -3  9  fv  * + *7*-  -f-  f  \f—V f  *  J  f-7y — J  ft  Et  7*  f—1/  ^ —  •Zoltan Kodaly, 333 Reading Exercises, Boosey & Hawkes, 1972).  -f-  h—  (Willowdale, Ontario:  1  202  Fingering 1, 3 I  1  1  I/ \  J /  f—  k^  — f—  f  J  w  -+—f  f— f —  f—  f  f  \  ~  u& —^—J-  —#—tf  —r-  —0  _ A*et(c) r  /  W  m <  - 5 H  ' -J  c#  i"ing er ing  ^ —  -  •P }— •"  =$:•  —*~  —f-  a  J—0  •  i~  >  V  \r  2,  -**  • ar  4  •  V  -  I-. -rf  •  •»  -  =5:: w  ~~~~  I  J  1  df  A 4  i  4  —  —1— j—\—  rf  _l  '—rf>——1— r —  > | *  •/  U /  tr—  A f l>  /  l  2—u  /  — t t — f—  —rf —rf.  4  f — f  f—  11  — — * ^—rff— —0  f  f  f  IT  203  n  i  i  i  a n  n  J  n  j. n  i i  LTD  J  Ex. 13  dr d  i  d  n  i  r  r  r  i ,*  rd  i in  rd  r  I  r  rd r r  r~i i  d  dr  n i l  n  d  n  r  dr  d  i ~ * n J  rd  i i  d  r  dr  J  d  n ii  in  Ex. 9  d  d  i  rd  rr  d  d  i  ry ^ n  r  r  r?  dr  dr  d  d  i P 7 ? n  * n  n~r~l J Ex. 14  d 7  r  dr  r n  J  d d r  d  n  I  d  d  rd  r  dr  r  d r r d  r  N  d  n  I  i  i  i  i  n  / / Ex. 12  dr  it  /  n  d  d  ii  r d  n  r  ii  r d r  r  i i  I—i  n  r d r  i  d d  l  Ex. 11  «• J  kJl  d r d d  I  I  r d r r  I  c<  r  d  r  J i l l  r  d  r  d  I 1  d  I  II II  I  ^ Ex. 16  r  d  r  r r r d  r  r  r  r  d  d  d  r  204  Fingering 0, 2, 4  1 d r m"l  or 0, 2, 0  ) DEF* Ex. 48  i  J—  i  4—<—  1  J  -j  '—J  •  -J  Fingering 0, 2, 4  ABC*  4- J: >Q: J iiJj Fingering 1, 3, 0  ^ GAB  -v—* Fingering 0, 2, 4  or 0, 2, 0  n^—,  I JT'  www  - j —  w  w  w  —  l  J  1  —  !  1  ~ J  +—  1  / • •  r  -4—  Ex. 49 — — J J  Fingering 0, 2, 4  ABC?  Fingering 1, 3, 0  GAD  -ft  w 1  —  -r-r-  / >> >  ZZ2Z  rm i  i  m r d r m  n n  rrn  i  X  m r d r m  /  i  r m  rrn • r r r r  /  i  i• i  m d r r r r  M M / /J J  i  r m d  r~rn  i  i Ex. 55  5? r r r r  j  Ex. 52  d  d  r r r r  d  d  m r d r  mrdrmdmm  r  r  205  /\BCt  la  Fingering 3, 0 2  3  z z  tf-—tf-  1  z z z  Ex. 48  ZZZ  Ex. 49  1  l * ' fl —1  L  •J  Ex. 31  4  J  GAE  AB  1  3  F/«  -JJL *  - JLJ  J - J L/  1  >  -J  Ex. 36  3=  CAE  y\Z  I | III  5 F^=f  #  rs  7 7  z z  >—/•  - i — Y  t  —-- J  /  J -J  /  -Ji 4  ,  —  206  1 d i.s.  J)B,A,  J  J  •J•  —J—JJ  J  >J  — 1 — J —J-  —J  J  **  rf  J  /  d'  1  J  TO  i  f  J  f  -J—1  —'—J-  <—rf rf  • J  \— 1  r  4  J  h •" —1 rf-tf—1  *  —J—  —J  /  —rf-rf—J—  —K—  -rf J  JJ /  I  J J JJ  t.9  —1  (—i  J  ' J J\-J—  - J — '  * f - t f  •-J-J-  #  f  AF*E /  /  /  • t M  r>- ' D  A  f  0  8  i  ~tT  Jf J  t f  J  J  t f  - J — ^ —J-  B A  *  ^-4  f  rf  i f  IV '  t  1  —  *—  itf)  -j-  4  f  —  A  >—rf-  f  —  f  *  w w  •  -  f  _  zzz:  f - f * w  j  w —  p  /  -+-  207  Id r  ^  1,3,1  Ex. 57  J —  *  4  -f-  4 f~~ 4  44 4  1  J  4 4 —4I  J—  —j—i  f f—-  —4- t J  /  iJ  -f—  4  f-  -f-  JJ  L  »  4  <  4  *  f-  4—  J  4—  -f-  0  *—  f—  f—  .  -J  1w  jpeB.A,  Ex. 61  r* ri -  /  i.  * —  4  —*— — i — —  "  J 6  —-J -*-4*  4—-4-4—4- 0  J—  L  hit •d—4  5  TX—JL  "2  A -*-4  W  J  —A1  3 -T£>—  6  208  I d. r  1,1  m  Ex. 142  GABE  4-4 ABC*F#  77  23  P i  •H-  r •  —  f  -*—  w  • f -  f-y f *4 f V  f—y * •-W  f  • ~ f -  | d r m  J>EF*"B,A  1,s,|  (  v  —  •  j . 4.— \ry-4-4  >  Ex. 209  'v  G A B El> jot  * / J  :=zz  ABC#F#E  77/  M^-  7  -ff-  "bj—  f - H - f — f -  -y  -—EF  —  =  M  Z  =  ^ -  =  f  —  209  -  ^tztz x> S A B D'  N  ABC*E'  n ^  \ /  i  —*  rf  --rf  r F  y— —  "1—rrfr  _. 0  /  f — ___0  -  0 0  /  rf—  - y  _  •fn  0  f  '  rf  0  rf 1  0  0  J--=-4f rf  / /  /  U \  7^  '  rf  d ,c m s  'rf  1  hi n r 1 J > / £  rf  [s.  *AB  fx (T  rf  0 J  t  GABJ  •E'F*' '  0  >  Ii  1  0  — '  -rf  f-  Lrf-^ 1"!  t *  — 0*  f— '  r  >—4—  u  II  r  0  /  ~i- T f  rf  f  4  r  •  1 II  m  rf>  w  0  Iz  l  1  210  —  m  «-rfGAPD'E'  4  J-4  E  K  v- 1—1 -rf z J  EE  p .  1  3EB  fzz—x^EABC*E'F'V*  l  Ex. 297  —^  *-r-r4-  1  4 4 4-  >> >  d r m s 1 1,  s"/l  JDEF^ABB, A,  5  5 t  —*-? D*  Ex. 321  rf  . rf—•rf—  —J  W  —  f  >-  "  m w  / >-<  1  -  1  4  <  4-  0  r ' F * E  AB  f • At  —f-4-  — f -  f  rf --  <-/  . . -  m  rf  -L-rf(—=•  r  -4=  — - f -L-rf  Appendix B  PHASE I I (VOICE AND UKULELE) AN EXAMPLE OF TEACHING S P E C I F I C CONCEPTS THROUGH THE SONG "LAND OF THE SILVER BIRCH" Additional Concepts  Act i v i t y  Ski 1 1  | 1.0 DURATION | 1.1  Beat i ) s i n g t h e words of t h e song and s i n g l e the chords ii) iii)  a,d,t  strum  s i n g t h e melody o f t h e song u s i n g c h o r d names a n d s i n g l e s t r u m t h e c h o r d s  a.d, t  do #i a n d m a r c h t h e b e a t  a.d.t  i v ) do Hii a n d m a r c h t h e b e a t  a,d. t  v) s i n g t h e words o f t h e song and d o u b l e the c h o r d s  a.d, t  strum  a , d, t  v i ) s i n g t h e melody o f t h e song u s i n g c h o r d names a n d d o u b l e s t r u m t h e c h o r d s vii) viii)  !  do #v a n d march t h e b e a t  a,d. t  do # v i a n d m a r c h t h e b e a t  a.d.t  1.2 M e t e r a.d.t  i ) s i n g t h e s o n g a n d s i n g l e s t r u m on t h e f i r s t beat o f each b a r ii)  sing  song a n d " p i c " low A s t r i n g on  'where P = P e r f o r m i n g ;  A=Analyzing;  'where a = a u r a l ; d = d e x t r a l ;  a ,d, t  0=Organinzing  t = trans 1atable 21 1  Add i t i o n a 1 Concepts the iii)  iv)  v)  first  beat  of each  s i n g o n l y the f i r s t s y l l a b l e of bar a n d t a p t h e u k u l e l e on t h a t  viii)  ix)  1.3  a.d.t  P  a.d.t  P  a.d.t  P  a.d.t  P  a.d.t  lp  P  a.d.t  vp  P  a.d.t  lp  vp,  lp  vp,  lp  vp,  lp  vp,  lp  ||  do #v first  etc.  but double strum a c c e n t i n g e i g h t h note of e a c h bar  n  3  Am n  n  p  the  «=tc  s i n g t h e c h o r d l e t t e r names f o r t h e f i r s t beat of each bar w h i l e s i n g i n g melody of the song s i n g t h e words of the song, s i n g l e strum chords a c c e n t i n g the f i r s t beat march the beat  the  and  h a l f t h e c l a s s c o n d u c t s two b e a t s i n a bar a n d s i n g s t h e words o f t h e s o n g w h i l e the o t h e r h a l f d o u b l e strums c h o r d s a c c e n t i n g the f i r s t b e a t o f t h e b a r a n d s i n g s t h e words - exchange p a r t s  Rhythm i ) " P i c " t h e r h y t h m o f t h e s o n g on t h e low A s t r i n g w h i l e s i n g i n g the rhythm s y l l a b l e s of t h e s o n g t o t h e m e l o d y i i ) strum minor  3  P  vp,  3vii)  a.d.t  s i n g t h e words and s i n g l e strum b e a t s i n each bar a c c e n t i n g the  II  ty  P  lp  J>m  iVi  a .d , t  vp,  two first  Act P  each beat  s i n g o n l y the f i r s t s y l l a b l e of each bar and s i n g l e s t r u m t h e f i r s t c h o r d o f each bar  e.Q. vi)  bar  Sk i 1 1  vp=vertical  pitch:  t h e r h y t h m o f t h e s o n g on t h e D c h o r d w h i l e s a y i n g the rhythm s y l l a b l e s  lp=linear  pitch;  du=duration;  te=tempo;  dy=dynamics;  212  s=style  t i =timbre  iii)  iv)  do in  viii)  ix)  progression  vp  # i v and  sing  the chord  # i v and  sing  t h e words o f  vp,  names  1p  vp,  P  s t r u m and s i n g a l l t h e q u a r t e r n o t e s in the song; i n t e r n a l i z e a l l p t h e r rhythm  lp  P. A  lp  P.A  and  the  song  lp  elements  strum a l l the  2.1  by  P  students  are assigned to strum  strings  PITCH |  Position i)  of  Pitches  s i ng a p h r a s e a) t o words b) t o s o l - f a  specific  throughout the  A  teacher  i n d i v i d u a l p u p i l s compose a n d n o t a t e a rhythm rondo which they then d i r e c t p u p i l s to take part i n  rhythms LINEAR  played  lp,  0  P.O.  1p,  vp song  vp  other  u s i n g rhythm e l e m e n t s i n the song w r i t e a r h y t h m o s t i n a t o p a t t e r n t o s t r u m on u k u l e l e w h i l e s i n g i n g t h e words o f t h e s o n g  xv)  | 2.0  rhythms  i m p r o v i s e rhythm r o n d o s u s i n g open o r c h o r d s D and A m i n o r o r F m a j o r  xiv)  P,A  s i n g every second bar i n t e r n a l l y while d o u b l e strumming c h o r d s c o n t i n u o u s l y throughout  pupils notate on u k u l e l e  xiii)  P  P,A  x ) an i n d i v i d u a l s t r u m s t h e r h y t h m o f a b a r w h i c h i s t h e n i d e n t i f i e d by number a n d n d t a t e d on t h e b o a r d  xii)  i v i ty  P  do # v i i i b u t s i n g eighth notes  xi)  Act  vp,1p  do  vii)  the chord  strum the rhythm of the song u s i n g the c o r r e c t c h o r d p r o g r e s s i o n  v ) do vi)  # i i but use the song  Add i t i ona1 Concepts vp  vp  P.0  P  Add i t i ona1 Concepts c) d) e)  t o l e t t e r names to ukulele f i n g e r i n g s hand f i n g e r s p o s i t i o n to ukulele f i n g e r i n g s hand f i n g e r s p o s i t i o n and r i g h t hand " p i c s "  Act i v i t y  Skill  wh i 1 e 1ef t for notes whi1e l e f t for notes  Levels: E M  p l a y o n l y p h r a s e 1 and 4 p l a y p h r a s e 1 a n d 4, a n d t h e f i r s t beat of each bar i n p h r a s e 2 and 3 D' play a l l the notes  ii)  pupil song a) b) c)  Levels: E M D 2.2  or teacher p l a y s a bar of the on t h e u k u l e l e : p u p i l s echo p l a y the b a r p u p i l s i d e n t i f y t h e b a r i n t h e song p u p i l s n o t a t e t h e b a r on t h e s t a f f l i n e s f r o m memory  P.A  a.d.t  P, A  a.d.t  P. A  a.d.t  i d e n t i f y b a r i n t h e song i d e n t i f y b a r i n t h e song and echo p l a y do M a n d n o t a t e c o r r e c t l y f r o m memeory  Phrases i)  ii)  iii)  iv) v)  one s t u d e n t p l a y s p h r a s e p l a y s p h r a s e 4: c o m p a r e  1 while  one p u p i l p l a y s p h r a s e 2 w h i l e p l a y s p h r a s e 3 - compare n o t a t e p h r a s e s from ( p l a y e d on u k u l e l e )  dictation  notate phrases  memory  play  Leve1s: E M D  phrases  play play play  " E = E a s y : M=Medium:  from  from  another  another  t a.d  memory  p h r a s e 1 a n d 4; n o t a t e p h r a s e s 1,2,3 a n d 4; n o t a t e p h r a s e s 1,2,3 a n d 4 u s i n g s o l o  D=Difficult  214  Add i t i ona1 Concepts technique of p l a c i n g chord f i n g e r i n g s on f r e t s ; n o t a t e (See Advanced T e c h n i q u e s f o r S o l o P l a y i n g "Land o f t h e S i l v e r B i r c h " ) vi)  transpose a phrase t o B minor: a ) s i n g w o r d s i n new k e y b ) s i n g s o l - f a i n new k e y c ) s i n g l e t t e r names i n new k e y d ) n o t a t e i n new k e y e ) p l a y i n new k e y f ) p l a y a n d s i n g i n new k e y  Levels: E M D vii)  viii) i x) x) xi) xii)  compose o r i m p r o v i s e a v a r i a t i o n on a p h r a s e : a ) c h a n g e t h e r h y t h m by a u g m e n t a t i o n o r diminution b ) c h a n g e t h e p i t c h e s by i n v e r t i n g i n t e r v a l s or p l a y i n g i n r e t r o g r a d e  du  notate  du  #vii  s i n g #v i1  du  p i a y #vi i  du  sing  and p l a y  A'vii  du  play rise  and s i n g and f a l l  phrases demonstrating i n dynamics  dy  Levels: E M D  .3 M e l o d i c i)  t r a n s p o s e and n o t a t e p h r a s e 1 and 4 t r a n s p o s e a n d n o t a t e p h r a s e s 1, 2, 3 a n d 4 t r a n s p o s e , n o t a t e a n d p l a y p h r a s e s 1, 2, 3 a n d 4  sing a) b)  p h r a s e s 1 and 4 a l l four phrases a l lfour phrases using chord f i n g e r i n g s instead of note f i n g e r i n g s Ostinati and p l a y a m e l o d i c s i n g words s i n g l e t t e r names  ostinato  du  215  Add i t i ona 1 Concepts c) d) ii)  compose, ostinato seal e  iii)  one g r o u p one g r o u p  and p l a y s and p l a y s  for#ii chords f o r #ii1 t h e melody  while  du  P, A.O  a.d.t  du  A.O  t  du  P , A  a.d.t  P.A  a.d.t  P.A  a.d.t  IntervaIs i)  ii)  iii)  i v) v)  t e a c h e r p l a y s s p e c i f i c i n t e r v a l s from t h e s o n g on t h e u k u l e l e w h i l e p u p i l s : a) l o c a t e t h e i n t e r v a l i n t h e s o n g b) name t h e n o t e s o f t h e i n t e r v a l c ) name t h e i n t e r v a l - e . g . P4 d) p l a y t h e i n t e r v a l s t a t i n g t h e u k u l e l e e) n o t a t e t h e i n t e r v a l on t h e s t a f f  compose o r i m p r o v i s e specific intervals p i ay  a phrase  using  du  Hi i i  l o c a t e and p l a y a l l major t h i r d s i n t h e s o n g ; do t h e same f o r o t h e r intervals  M D Tonal i)  fingerings  g i v e n i s o l a t e d i n t e r v a l s from t h e song on s t a f f l i n e s o r "hand" s t a f f p u p i l s : a) name n o t e s b) name i n t e r v a 1 c ) s i ng i n s o 1 - f a d) p l a y s t a t i n g t h e u k u l e l e f i n g e r i n g s  Leve1s: E  2.5  sings sings  Sk i 1 1  " ,  n o t a t e and p l a y a m e l o d i c using notes of the pentatonic  compose w o r d s o r s y l l a b l e s  iv)  2.4  s i n g s o l - f a names sing ukulele f ingerings  Act i V i ty  deal only ascending deal with deal with  Centre  A.O  P.A  a.d.t  P.A  d. t  P.A,  a,d, t  with a s c e n d i n g p e r f e c t 5ths and and d e s c e n d i n g minor 3rds i n t e r v a l s i n E a b o v e a n d m a j o r 2nds a l l t h e i n t e r v a l s i n t h e song  and Tone S e t  s i n g and p l a y tone s e t from a) s o l - f a s y l l a b l e s  notation  using  216  Add i t i o n a l Concepts b) c)  iv)  l e t t e r names ukulele fingerings for Ukulele)  (See S p e c i f i c  a,d, t  l o c a t e t o n a l c e n t r e on u k u l e l e a n d " p i c " n o t e ; f i n d a n o t h e r t o n a l c e n t r e an o c t a v e above; i f f i n g e r b o a r d i s long enough f i n d a t h i r d tonal centre  P.A,  a.d, t  P. A  a.d. t  n o t a t e t o n a l c e n t r e on s t a f f f i n g e r i n g on f r e t c h a r t  a n d show 0  3.1.1  t/5-Wi  3>'  one group s i n g s and p l a y s t o n a l c e n t r e note t h r o u g h o u t t h e s o n g e x c e p t f o r b a r s 6 a n d 10 where t h e n o t e F i s p l a y e d ; a s e c o n d g r o u p p l a y s the melody o f t h e song and s i n g s  Levels: E M D  3.0 V E R T I C A L  Techniques  P ,A  D  |  Sk i 1 1  l o c a t e i n t h e s o n g where p a r t o f t h e tone s e t o c c u r s c o n s e c u t i v e l y and ng i n t e r v a l s f r o m s o l - f a a) ng l e t t e r names b) ng u k u l e l e f i n g e r i n g s a n d f i n g e r c) 1ent1y d) s i n g w o r d s a n d " p i c "  J2.  v)  Act i v i ty  fret  p l a y t o n a l c e n t r e D a n d F where r e q u i r e d p l a y a l l t h e n o t e s o f the melody play a l l the notes using chord f i n g e r i n g format i ons  PITCH |  Tr iads i)  play the chord f i n g e r i n g s f o r D m i n o r , A minor and F major t r i a d s by p i c i n g the t h i r d , second and f i r s t strings consecutively  lp.  217  a.d  ii)  s i n g the p i t c h e s of the t r i a d s w h i l e p l a y i n g H\ u s i n g s o l - a a n d l e t t e r names  ) notate lines  iv)  v)  Addi t i o n a l Concepts lp  each t r i a d on s t a f f v e r t i c a l l y e.g  ^  ix)  x)  xi)  a.d  m  Am  F  determine from the w r i t t e n triads what p o s i t i o n t h e s e t r i a d s a r e i n e.g. D minor = 1st i n v e r s i o n du,  t e , dy  P,0  a ,d, t  du.  t e , dy  P ,0  a, d, t  P. A  a.d.t  te,  P. A  a.d.t  d i v i d e c l a s s into f i v e groups f o u r g r o u p s e a c h s i n g one o f t h e s t r i n g s and one g r o u p s i n g s t h e melody  lp. te, du, d y  P, A  a.d.t  do MM\ b u t a d d s t r u m m i n g  lp. du,  te dy  P. A  a.d, t  p l a y an a r p e g g i o a l l four s t r i n g s in one beat (A.F s i n g melody w i t h  te,  du, dy  P. A  a.d.t  "pic" the t r i a d s v e r t i c a l l y u s i n g i n d e x f i n g e r on t h i r d s t r i n g , m i d d l e f i n g e r on s e c o n d s t r i n g a n d r i n g f i n g e r on f i r s t s t r i n g - " P i c " two q u a r t e r n o t e s per bar w h i l e s i n g i n g t h e song  E M D  viii)  P.A  Sk i 1 1  A, 0  v i ) do Mv b u t d i v i d e c l a s s i n t o f o u r g r o u p s - t h r e e g r o u p s w i l l e a c h s i n g one of the s t r i n g s w h i l e t h e f o u r t h group s i n g s the melody ( s e e # i i i )  vii)  Act i v i ty  p l a y o n l y D minor and F major p i c o n e t r i a d p e r b a r i n MM do e v e r y t h i n g a s s t a t e d  chords  and n o t a t e  do MM\ b u t p i c t h e s t r i n g b e i n g s u n g on t h e f i r s t b e a t a n d s t r u m t h e c h o r d on t h e s e c o n d b e a t do MM\ s i n g i n g o n l y -use s o l - f a s y l l a b l e s and l e t t e r  lp. t e . du, dy  lp, names  thumb p i c u s i n g from bottom t o top A D' = ) c h o r d names a n d words  218  xii)  xiii)  E  M D  .1.2  p l a y an a r p e g g i o s t r u m u s i n g t h e thumb and f i r s t t h r e e f i n g e r s ( s e e U k u l e l e T e c h i q u e s ) ; one g r o u p s i n g s m e l o d y and one g r o u p p l a y s ; e x c h a n g e  ii)  iii)  iv)  v)  vi)  Act iv i ty  Skill  P.A  a.d.t  lp,te, du, dy  P,A  a.d.t  te  P.A  a.d.t  P.A  a.d.t  P.  a,d  P  a.d  parts  s i n g l e strum the f i r s t beat of e a c h b a r f r o m memory w h i l e s i n g i n g t h e song  p l a y s o n g w i t h s i m p l i f i e d c h o r d s (Dm and F) n o t a t e o n l y Dm a n d F; do a r p e g g i o s t r u m w i t h thumb o n l y do a l l s u g g e s t i o n s p e r f o r m items i n small ensembles; do a l l i t e m s i n t h e key o f Bm a l s o  Four-note i)  Add i t i ona1 Concepts t e , d u . dy  single of t h e  Chords  (major  strum the song from  chord chord  and  minor)  progression markings  s i n g l e strum the c h o r d p r o g r e s s i o n o f t h e s o n g and s i n g m e l o d y t o w o r d s , c h o r d names and s o l - f a  lp, du,  p i c and s i n g e a c h n o t e o f t h e D m i n o r , A m i n o r and F m a j o r c h o r d a neutral s y l l a b l e  lp  te, dy  to  u p o n d o i n g # i i i d e c i d e a u r a l l y what n o t e s a r e p l a y e d an o c t a v e a p a r t  lp  n o t a t e v e r t i c a l l y on s t a f f l i n e s t h e c h o r d s from lowest note t o h i g h e s t as t h e y a r e p l a y e d on t h e u k u l e l e  lp  e a c h o f f o u r s i n g s one s t r i n g throughout the song w h i l e f o l l o w i n g the c h o r d p r o g r e s s i o n ; t e a c h e r may p i c o r s i n g t h e melody s o f t l y  lp. du,  19  ,  te, dy  P  a,t  P.A  a.d.t  Add i t i ona1 Concepts 1.4  Tonic i)  ii)  iii)  iv)  v)  vi)  E M D  vii)  viii) ix)  x)  2  Act i v i t y  Ski 1 1  Chords  p l a y t h e f i r s t and l a s t song; compare a u r a l l y  c h o r d of  P ,A  a.d  lp. du,  te, dy  P. A  a.d.t  s i n g and s t r u m t h e s i m p l i f i e d c h o r d v e r s i o n u s i n g o n l y D minor and F major ( s u b s t i t u t e D minor f o r A minor)  lp, du,  te, dy  P. A  a , d , t  do # i i i b u t do major chords  lp. du,  te, dy  P. A  a.d.t  t e a c h e r s i n g s t h e melody of t h e s o n g w h i l e t h e p u p i l s do # i v a n d s i n g the r o o t o f t h e c h o r d (D) t o 'doh'  lp, du,  te, dy  P, A  a ,d , t  d i v i d e c l a s s into four groups; e a c h g r o u p p i c s one s t r i n g o f t h e D minor c h o r d and s i n g s i t i n s o l - f a whenever the D minor c h o r d a p p e a r s i n the song; t e a c h e r s i n g s the melody  lp, du,  te, dy  P. A  s i n g t h e song and strum o n l y t h e t o n i c c h o r d when i t a p p e a r s i n t h e  not  strum  song  F  a.d.t  do o n l y one p e r f o r m a n c e a c t i v i t y a t a time; i . e . s i n g or p l a y omit # i i i - use a l l three chords p e r f o r m i n small ensembles #vi; perform i n key of B minor n o t a t e the t o n i c f i r s t and s e c o n d  A.O  chord in root, position  P. A  a.d.t  d i s c o v e r i n what p o s i t i o n t h e D m i n o r c h o r d i s p l a y e d on t h e u k u l e l e  P. A  t  improvise m e l o d i c a l l y on the t o n i c c h o r d  P,0  a.d  sing  what  was  written  in #vii  and  rhythmically  Cadences i)  s t r u m two D m i n o r A minor c h o r d s  c h o r d s and  two  a.d  220  Add i t i ona1 Concepts ii)  iii)  iv)  note the f e e l i n g of i n c o m p l e t e n e s s and t h e p u l l b a c k t o t h e D chord n o t a t e D minor and A minor v e r t i c a l l y i n root p o s i s i o n l a b e l them I and V label as an  .4 H a r m o n i c i)  ii)  iii)  iv)  the I and imperfect  minor  vii)  A,  and  0  A.O  V progression cadence  Accompaniment lp, du,  te, dy, s  lp, du,  te, dy,  a r p e g g i o p i c the four s t r i n g s w i t h thumb a n d / o r i n d i v i d u a l fingers and s i n g the song  lp. du,  te, dy, s  a r p e g g i o p i c the c h o r d s u s i n g the t o p t h r e e s t r i n g s w i t h thumb o r i n d i v i d u a l f i n g e r s and s i n g the song  lp. du, s  te, dy,  lp, du,  te, dy, s  p i c the top t h r e e s t r i n g s of the u k u l e l e s i m u l t a n e o u s l y w h i l e s i n g i n g the song  lp, du,  te, dy. s  P.A  one g r o u p p i c s t h e melody o f t h e song w h i l e a n o t h e r group strums u s i n g one o f t h e f o l l o w i n g :  lp, du,  te, dy, s  P.A  lp. du,  te, dy,  P, A  p i c low singing  A to quarter notes while the song (ground b a s s )  s i n g l e strum q u a r t e r and s i n g the song  notes  and  v) p i c a l l f o u r s t r i n g s s i m u l t a n e o u s l y w h i l e s i n g i n g the song vi)  Act i v i t y  s  a) s i ng1e strum  b) c) d) e) f) viii)  double strum a r p e g g i o f o u r s t r i n g strum a r p e g g i o three s t r i n g strum s o l i d four s t r i n g p i c s o l i d three s t r i n g p i c  divide into the s t r i n g s  groups and s i n g f o r a chorda 1  s  Add i t i ona1 Concepts accompaniment w i t h t h e melody; a c c o m p a n y on u k u l e l e E M D  have s m a l l  Act i v i ty  Ski 1 1  group  u s e a r p e g g i o thumb p i c o n l y ; o m i t f o u r s t r i n g and t h r e e s t r i n g p i c do a l l i t e m s s u g g e s t e d do a l 1 i t e m s i n B m i n o r as w e l l  [ 4 . 0 FORMI 4.1  Mot i v e s i) ii)  iii) iv)  v)  vi)  vii) viii)  4.2  locate  repeated p i t c h patterns  s i n g the song i n t e r n a l l y for a s p e c i f i c motive p i c each  motive  s t r u m and s i n g separately  except  separately each  motive  notate motives e i t h e r p l a y e d on u k u l e l e  sung  compose v a r i a t i o n s on any t h e m o t i v e s by: a) c h a n g i n g rhythms b) c h a n g i n g p i t c h e s play  and  sing  or  of  du  A  t  1 p,  du  P, A  a,d, t  1 p,  du  P , A  a.d.t  1 p,  du  P, A  a.d.t  A,0  a, t  lp,  du  lp,  du  1 p,  du  P, A  a.d.t  1 p,  du  A  t  1 p,  du  ends  1 p,  du  P.A  a.d, t  in  lp,  P. A  a.d.t  P. A  a.d.t  #vi  a n a l y z e and e v a l u a t e of o t h e r p u p i 1 s  1 p,  variations  Phrases i)  ii)  iii)  iv)  analyze, locate by l e t t e r s e . g .  and l a b e l A B B C  s i n g song b r e a t h i n g a t of p h r a s e s  the  s i n g s o n g a n d draw p h r a s e s the a i r w h i l e s i n g i n g p i c one  phrase  and  phrases  1 p,  strum  222  du  du  Add i t i ona1 Concepts and v)  vi)  vii)  viii)  sing  the  next  s i n g and w a l k d i r e c t i o n for  in a each  xi) 4.5  iv)  v)  sing a) b) c)  lp.  du  P,A  lp,  du  A,0  p l a y and s i n g p h r a s e 1 and v a r i a t i o n 1; c o n t i n u e w i t h o t h e r p h r a s e s  1p,  du  P.A  evaluate  1 p,  and p i c p h r a s e s u s i n g : so1-fa s y l l a b l e s u k u l e l e f i n g e r numbers l e t t e r names o f n o t e s  add  on e a c h and m e l o d i c )  analyze  variations  instrumental introduction u s i n g the ukulele  Mi  dynamic  evaluate  A  markings strum  each p u p i l ' s  the  introduction  similarities  and  lp,  du  P,0  1p,  du  A,0  lp,  du  1p,  du  lp,  du  0 P.A  A  differences  Forms Strophic  Write P1 ay  du  A  ion  p l a y i n t r o d u c t i o n and and s i n g the song  4.7.5  i1)  and  c r e a t e an (aurally)  Types of  i)  P.A  du  noting 4.7  du  phrase 1p,  i i) notate iii)  1 p,  P,A  n o t a t e p h r a s e s e i t h e r sung o r p l a y e d by t h e t e a c h e r  Introduct i)  1pi,du  different phrase  s t r u m , s i n g a n d walk i n a d i f f e r e n t d i r e c t i o n f o r each  ix) write v a r i a t i o n s phrase (rhythmic x)  Act i v i ty  verses and  s i ng  to  finish  a 11  the  verses  story  1 p,  du  A,0  1 p,  du  P. A ,  Addi t ional Concepts  5.1  Strings i)  ii)  c l a s s i f y u k u l e l e as of instrument  to  type  C l a s s i f y methods of p l a y i n g the u k u l e l e  iii)  compare to o t h e r s t r i n g instruments (e.g. harp  Determinants i)  of  Timbre  and  is also  piced)  Tone Q u a l i t y  t e a c h e r or p u p i l demonstrates p i c i n g t h e s o n g on t e n o r and s t a n d a r d u k u l e l e ; d i s c u s s and c o m p a r e s o u n d s  ii)  t e a c h e r or p u p i l demonstrates s i n g l e s t r u m m i n g t h e s o n g on t e n o r and s t a n d a r d u k u l e l e  iii)  t e a c h e r or p u p i l demonstrates d o u b l e s t r u m m i n g t h e s o n g on t e n o r and s t a n d a r d u k u l e l e  iv)  v)  vi)  5 .3  5k i 1 1  C 1 ass i f i c a t ion  5.1.1  5.2  Act i v i ty  t e a c h e r or p u p i l demonstrates a r p e g g i o s t r u m on t e n o r and s t a n d a r d u k u l e l e ; compare  t e a c h e r or p u p i l demonstrates . s o l i d c h o r d p i c on t e n o r and s t a n d a r d u k u l e l e ; compare experiment u s i n g p e n c i l s , e t c . bouncing o f f s t r i n g s in a set rhythmic p a t t e r n while f i n g e r i n g and s i n g i n g  P. A  a, t  chords  P e r c u s s i on i)  compose a r h y t h m i c f o r drums  a. t  ostinato  224  Addi t i o n a l Concepts ii)  5.4  t r y ft\ on d i f f e r e n t t y p e s s i z e s o f drums and c h o o s e t o accompany t h e s o n g  Role i)  ii)  in Musical  Expression  d e c i d e what t o n e p r o d u c t i o n m e t h o d s b e s t s u i t the song (More than one may be u s e d f o r v a r i e t y i n p r e s e n t a t i o n ) class  or  ensemble performs  arrangement |6.0  and one  (pics,  strums,  the sings  and  plays  drums)  DYNAMICS | 6.1  Levels i)  ii)  iii)  e v a l u a t e what l e v e l s s h o u l d u s e d and w h e r e i n t h e s o n g ; d y n a m i c s on the s c o r e play  using  dynamic  vi)  markings  vii)  6.2  the  d e c i d e on what d y n a m i c l e v e l ( s ) t h e drums s h o u l d be p l a y e d  Gradual i)  dynamic  d e c i d e a t what l e v e l ( s ) t o p l a y i n t r o d u c t i o n and mark on s c o r e p l a y drum p a t t e r n ( s ) a t above dynamic l e v e l s  or  Sudden Dynamic  vp, du, s, f  above c o n t i n u e d for section 6  be mark  i v ) p l a y i n t r o d u c t i o n at the above t h r e e dynamic l e v e l s ; add o t h e r l e v e l s i f necessary v)  lp, te,  s t r u m and s i n g t h e s o n g t h r e e times at t h r e e d i f f e r e n t dynamic l e v e l s - p, mf and f  Changes  f r o m d y n a m i c l e v e l s d e c i d e d on a b o v e d e c i d e i f a more e x p r e s s i v e way o f m a n i p u l a t i n g t h e b a s i c l e v e l s c o u l d be used  Addi t i onal Concepts i i ) s t r u m and s i n g t h e s o n g u s i n g the dynamic l e v e l s and g r a d u a l d e c i d e d on i n #i iii)  iv) v)  /  mf  reverse 6.3  * m?  PP  parts  Uni t y i)  6.3.2  n o t e from p l a y i n g and s i n g i n g t h e song the i n c r e a s e and d e c r e a s e i n dynamics e.g. o v e r a l l f o r m a t i o n of dynamic s t r u c t u r e  Var1ety i)  ii)  note song rise  P  a.d,t  P,A  Expressive Qualitites  6.3.1  a.d.t  A  in #iii  & .JL p  P,A  using  one group s t r u m s and s i n g s a t t h e d y n a m i c l e v e l s d e c i d e d on w h i l e a n o t h e r g r o u p moves a t d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s a c c o r d i n g to t h e dynamic l e v e l p l a y e d e.g.  f[ R  Skill  changes  a d d t h e drums, i n t r o d u c t i o n a n d c o d a and p e r f o r m t h e whole song d y n a m i c s d e c i d e d on e v a l u a t e use of dynamics  Act i v i ty  from p l a y i n g and s i n g i n g t h e t h e i n t e r e s t s u s t a i n e d by t h e and f a l l o f dynamics  n o t e from p l a y i n g and s i n g i n g t h e s o n g t h e f a d i n g away e f f e c t a t t h e e n d c o n t r a s t i n g w i t h the second phrase  226  a a.d.t  Add i t i ona1 Concepts 6.3.3  ii)  n o t e from p l a y i n g and s i n g i n g song that B and B are almost same d y n a m i c l e v e l  the at the  A  a.d.t  A  a.d.t  three  P  a.d.t  d e t e r m i n e what s p e e d ( s ) i s most a p p r o p r i a t e f o r the song  A  a  P,A.O  a,d  A  a  A  a  P.A  a,d,t  P,A,0  a.d.t  n o t e from p l a y i n g and s i n g i n g t h a t A (the opening phrase) i s approximately opposite C (the c l o s i n g phrase)  TEMPO | 7.1  M a i n t a i n e d Speeds i)  ii)  7.2  ii)  7.3  Medium,  at the  o r Sudden Changes  e x p l o r e any changes  possible  in uses  Slow)  Speed of  speed  e v a l u a t e the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of gradual o r s u d d e n s p e e d c h a n g e s i n MS  Contributing  7.3.1  (Fast,  s i n g and p l a y song different speeds  Gradual i)  to Expressive Q u a l i t y  Unity i)  1 8.0  Skill  Form i)  I 7.0  Act i v i ty  n o t e t h a t t h e f a i r l y c o n s i s t e n t tempo r e q u i r e d by t h e drum e f f e c t o f t h e l a s t l i n e tends t o encompass the whole song  STYLE"] 8.1  Cultural i)  ii)  and  Environmental l p , vp, t e . f , du, dy, t i  t h e e f f e c t o f t h e drum b e a t p e r m e a t e s the whole song; n o t e t h e p o s s i b l e u s e o f r h y t h m f o r u k u l e l e s t r u m o r drum ostinato; perform both compose a m e l o d i c and r h y t h m i c o s t i n a t o t o a c c e n t u a t e t h e drum  above c o n t i n u e d f o r s e c t i on 8.1  beat  227  Add i t i o n a l Concepts effect similar on u k u l e l e iii)  iv)  v)  vi)  8.2  last  line;  Sk i 1 1  play  P.A.O  a.d.t  t h e o r i g i n o f t h e s o n g i s unknown but note a c e r t a i n a r e a or s e t t i n g specified by t h e w o r d s and t h e h a u n t i n g m e l o d y note r e p e t i t i o n of rhythms which a common t r a i t i n I n d i a n m u s i c  a. t  is  note the c l o s e r e l a t i o n s h i p of f o l k music to nature; l i s t e n to o t h e r f o l k s o n g s e x t o l l i n g n a t u r e - e.g. "The W i l d G o o s e " ( r e c o r d e d by B a r t l e t t and R u e b s a a t on "The G r e e n F i e l d s o f C a n a d a " ) Features  i)  tell  the  ii)  note  that  iv)  the  note the s i m p l i c i t y of the s t y l e i n k e e p i n g w i t h the s e t t i n g ; f i t accompaniment to the s t y l e  Historical  iii)  to  Act i v i t y  Indian the  story  song  the  song  presents  is pentatonic  n o t e the f e e l i n g s of the p e o p l e r e v e a l e d i n the f o l k s o n g t r a d i t i o n ; l i s t e n to o t h e r C a n a d i a n f o l k s o n g s a n d c o n c e n t r a t e on the f e e l i n g s b e i n g p o r t r a y e d compare t o d a y ' s I n d i a n s w i t h I n d i a n s o f one h u n d r e d y e a r s  the ago  228  229 S p e c i f i c Techniques and E x e r c i s e s f o r U k u l e l e Encompassing the Concepts D u r a t i o n and L i n e a r and V e r t i c a l P i t c h ( b a s e d on t h e s o n g " L a n d o f t h e S i l v e r B i r c h " ) These t e c h n i q u e s and e x e r c i s e s a r e devised s t u d y i n g t h e song "Land o f t h e S i l v e r Birch".  to  prepare  for  A. CHORDS f o r the chords D minor, A minor  1. T e a c h t h e p o s i t i o n s and F m a j o r : anchor  I  4 <  I  JL  D  2.  minor  Practise  minor  3  F  major  t o A minor t o F major  to D to D  minor minor  PATTERNS  Basic  Strum  Elements  single  down  single  up s t r u m  single  up s t r u m  double  strum  triplet  rule:  strum  |* * f | |  strum  quadruple  Strumming  A  S.  progressions:  a) D minor b) D m i n o r B. STRUM  >  3  3 A  H i t  n  strum  Generally  a beat  starts  with  a downward m o t i o n .  230 Strumming Sequence: 1. S i n g l e S t r u m S t r u m s i n g l e s t r u m s on e a c h f o l l o w i n g rhythms: ( A l s o use  I  I *  i)  1 f Am  I *  the  1 f:  Am  *:  1 1| 1  11  chord using Dm a n d F)  Dm  I I  iii)  Dm  Am  I I  •iv)  II:  1 1  1 h  1 |  f\rr> 2.  Double a)  Strums  ( A l s o use  strum double  strums  n n nn  J)rn b)  3.  Am  Single  n I  H  1  )  n  strum  eighths:  of  accented eighths  as  nn  n  and  n j l n  Am Syncopated  even  Am  Am  a)  unaccented,  Double  Strums  s t r u m s i n g l e s t r u m s on q u a r t e r s t r u m s on e i g h t h n o t e s  i)  4.  of  F)  Am  strums  n n  n n  and  n  Dm  strum double illustrated  Combination a)  nn  Aw  n  Dm  n I  1  J5m  n  n  Am  notes  i  In  Am  Strum double  strum a c c e n t i n g  rin rin l i i n rirr-  as  shown  and  double  231 b)  strum and s i n g r \ t JDm'  up s t r u m s  p17  as  indicated  f 7 r| r^ r 7  t  Am  r  c ) s t r u m d o u b l e s t r u m b u t make t h e s e c o n d down silent tS _T 1 ,_ _ | _ „ _ ,_,  nn nn nn nn  up  d) strums  strum  5. Q u a d r u p l e  reading ^ 'r f  Strums  Mr  ri  (sixteenth  b)  strum s i x t e e n t h  and e i g h t h  ^  n)  i  t  m  Combination Patterns  n Single,  indicated  m  m  m  n :  Am Double  note  notes)  notes as  A no  now a s q u a r t e r  r r i r=  strum s i x t e e n t h  m m  ;  strums  a)  i)  6.  the t i e d  strum  notes as  indicated  and Quadruple  a)  strum t h e rhythm  o f t h e song  b)  strum t h e rhythm  using  Strum  on one c h o r d  t h e c h o r d s o f t h e song  c ) one g r o u p s i n g l e s t r u m s t h e f i r s t b e a t o f e a c h b a r u s i n g t h e d e s i g n a t e d c h o r d i n t h e song; the o t h e r g r o u p p l a y s a l l t h e c h o r d s  LINEAR PITCH TECHNIQUE Tone S e t : 1,d r m s 1 o t »» <  D  F  G  A  C  D'  1,  d  r  m  s  1  232 Practise progression: (technical exercises r i g h t hand thumb " p i c " )  f o r the  S i n g and p l a y each exercise at the same n u m b e r s , n o t e names a n d s o l - f a syllables. Do e a c h e x e r c i s e a s c e n d i n g a n d d e s c e n d i n g . a) b) c) d) e)  0,3 1,3 3,3 1,1 ent  on on on on ire  The Linear Pitch s h o u l d be s u n g a n d a) b) c) d) The  exercise i) ii) i ii ) i v) v) vi) vi i)  Simplified  the the the the tone  using  hand  and  finger  D string F# a n d B s t r i n s D, F 3 a n d B s t r i n g s F# a n d B s t r i n g s s e t - 0,3,1,3,1,3  Reading played:  and  Writing  Exercises  in chapter  5  using sol-fa syllables u s i n g l e t t e r names from s t a f f n o t a t i o n from f r e t c h a r t s sequence d d d d d d d  r r r r r r r  m 1, m 1, m s m s 1 m s 1  i s as  follows:  1,  Two-Chord V e r s i o n  Omit a l l A minor Continue to play Chord  time  left  of  Song:  c h o r d s and p l a y D minor i n i t s p l a c e . F c h o r d where i n d i c a t e d .  Positions:  The D m i n o r c h o r d i s p l a y e d w i t h i n d i v i d u a l f i n g e r s rather than barred so that the F c h o r d p o s i t i o n and A minor c h o r d p o s i t i o n i s e a s i e r t o f o r m . The a n c h o r f i n g e r n e v e r n e e d s t o be changed t h r o u g h o u t the song (see page 166)  233 D. F o l k  Pics  1. A r p e g g i o  Thumb P i c  Thumb p i c s  each  string  4  n  rhythm  string  3 21  n  from  4  3  n  lowest  2 1  n  F  chords  2. A r p e g g i o F i n g e r P i c The thumb, f i r s t , s e c o n d a n d t h i r d s t r i n g from lowest t o h i g h e s t . strings  to highest  and f i n g e r s  r  i z 3  A3  Z  n  rhythm  I  n  r  f i n g e r s p i c each  / z J  n n:  chords  Technical  E x e r c i s e s f o r U k u l e l e Without  "Picing" P l a y each e x e r c i s e a s c e n d i n g and d e s c e n d i n g The f i n g e r number a n d f r e t c o r r e s p o n d . E a c h e x e r c i s e i s p l a y e d on a l l f o u r s t r i n g s . 1) 0 2) 0 3) 0 4) 0 5) 0 6) 0 7) 0 8) 0 9) 0 10) 0 1 1 )0 i2) 1  1 1 2 2 1 2 3 3 1 2 3 4 1 3 4 2 4 3 4 2 3 0 2 0 3  Exercises Anchoring  One F i n g e r  1) l ( h o l d ) 2 1 3 1 4 1 2) 2 ( h o l d ) 3 2 4 2 3) 3 ( h o l d ) 4  Music  Notation  234 Exercises Requiring a F i r s t Finger Second F r e t , ( = s l i d e up 1 f r e t ; 1)  0 1 1 1 0  2)  0 1 1 2 1 1 0  3)  0 1 12  4)  0  3 2  1  S l i d e From F i r s t F r e t = s l i d e down 1 f r e t )  to the  10  1 1 2 3 4 3 2  1  10  E x e r c i s e s R e q u i r i n g a F i r s t F i n g e r S l i d e From F i r s t F r e t t o the Third Fret ( = s l i d e up 2 f r e t s ; s l i d e down 2 f r e t s ) 1)  Stretching e.g.  0 1 1 1 0  2)  0  1  1 2  1  1 0  3)  0  1  12  3 2  4)  01  1  10  1 2 3 4 3 2 1  10  Exercises  2(2)/3 finger  = second fret fret  finger"on  second  1 ) 1(hold)  2 2 2 1  2)  1(hold)  2(hold)  3)  l(hold) 2(hold)  3(hold)  4)  !(hold)  3 3(hold)  2(hold)  f r e t ; then s l i d e second finger to third fret  3 3 3 2 1 4 4 4 3 2 1 4 4 4 3 3 2 1  The e x e r c i s e s a r e t o d e v e l o p finger independence, flexibility and strength. They may be done t o v a r i o u s r h y t h m i c p a t t e r n s using the f o l l o w i n g rhythmic elements:  The r i g h t h a n d d e v e l o p m e n t c o i n c i d e s w i t h t h e left hand while doing the above exercises with the thumb first, then the i n d i v i d u a l f i n g e r s and f i n a l l y t h e thumb i n c o n j u c t i o n w i t h the f ingers.  235 "Pic"  a l l the e x e r c i s e s 1) 2) 3) 4 ) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9)  with:  thumb first finger (index) second f inger t h ird f i n g e r thumb and f i r s t f i n g e r (when t h e e x e r c i s e s a r e c o m p r i s e d of an even number of n o t e s ) thumb, f i r s t a n d s e c o n d f i n g e r s (when t h e e x e r c i s e s a r e c o m p r i s e d o f an odd number o f n o t e s ) thumb, f i r s t , s e c o n d and t h i r d f i n g e r s (when t h e e x e r i s e s have f o u r n o t e s ) thumb, f i r s t , s e c o n d , f i r s t (when t h e e x e r c i s e s have four n o t e s ) thumb, f i r s t , s e c o n d , t h i r d , s e c o n d , f i r s t and thumb (when e x e r c i s e s h a v e s i x n o t e s )  More Advanced  Techniques:  Phase  III  "Hammer" a n d " p u l l " w i t h t h e l e f t f i n g e r s : Play a l l the e x e r c i s e s using these techniques; — a l l open s t r i n g s a r e p i c e d or " p u l l e d " w i t h the f i r s t f i n g e r of the l e f t hand --hammer f i n g e r s on s t r i n g s f o r a s c e n d i n g p a s s a g e s —when descending p i c or p u l l with f i n g e r adjacent to the f i n g e r p r e s s i n g the s t r i n g Organizing  Activities  --  Composing,  Improvising  and  Arranging  1) U s i n g a n y s e q u e n c e i n t h e e x e r c i s e s p i c a f o u r b e a t q u e s t i o n and have a p a r t n e r p i c a four beat answer 2) W r i t e a n d p l a y a n e i g h t o r s i x t e e n b e a t c o m p o s i t i o n using p a r t s of the e x e r c i s e s 3) C h o o s e a s e q u e n c e o r p a r t o f a s e q u e n c e f o r t h e A s e c t i o n o f a r o n d o . E a c h p u p i l m a k e s u p h i s own p a r t f o r B,C, e t c . 4) M a k e u p r h y t h m p a t t e r n s f o r e a c h e x e r c i s e . Technical Do  Exercises  f o r Strumming  (Phase  I I and I I I )  a l l e x e r c i s e s on known c h o r d s . 1) s i n g l e strum (down^- ) using l and r in various p a t t e r n s and m e t e r s 2) s i n g l e s t r u m ( u p t ) u s i n g f , 7 and I in various p a t t e r n s and m e t e r s 3) d o u b l e strum ( I I ) using n and r in various p a t t e r n s and m e t e r s 4) d o u b l e s t r u m o f f - b e a t ( f ~ l H I ) i n v a r i o u s meters 5) c o m b i n e s i n g l e a n d d o u b l e s t r u m in various ^patterns and m e t e r s 6) l i l t s t r u m ( H H ) i n v a r i o u s meters >  7)  calypso  strum  ( f l  fl  nfl)  236 8) a r p e g g i o s t r u m u s i n g t h u m b 9) a r p e g g i o strum using thumb, f i r s t , s e c o n d and t h i r d f i n g e r s i n even number t i m e s i g n a t u r e s 10) a r p e g g i o s t r u m using thumb, first, second, third, second and f i r s t f i n g e r s (use i n t r i p l e meter) 11) t r i p l e t s t r u m ( ) i n compound d u p l e meter 12) t r i p l e t s t r u m i n 2 / 4 , 3/4 a n d 4/4 m e t e r s ( e . g . ) 13) s o l d chords using thumb, first, second and t h i r d fingers p i c i n g a l l four strings simultaneously; use v a r i o u s rhythm patterns 14) s o l i d t r i a d s u s i n g f i r s t , s e c o n d a n d t h i r d f i n g e r s on s t r i n g s 3, 2 a n d 1; u s e v a r i o u s r h y t h m patterns 15) r i g h t h a n d damp -- p l a y c h o r d a n d stop vibration of strings by placing the right hand softly on t h e s t r i n g s ; use v a r i o u s rhythm patterns 16) r o l l s t r u m -- s t a r t i n g w i t h t h e f o u r t h f i n g e r on the f o u r t h s t r i n g b r u s h a c r o s s t h e s t r i n g s w i t h one f i n g e r following closely behind the other; a l t e r n a t e r o l l strums w i t h s i n g l e strums Technical Exercises (Phase I I and I I I )  f o r P i c i n g and Strumming  Combinations  1) t h u m b / s t r u m -- p i c n o t e with thumb and strum with index finger; use various rhythms and meters; g e n e r a l l y u s e t h e l o w e s t n o t e f o r t h e thumb p i c o r t h e root of the chord 2) f i n g e r / t h u m b / s t r u m -- f i n g e r p i c s a string, followed by t h e thumb p i c i n g a s t r i n g , f o l l o w e d by a s t r u m ; i n the case of p l a y i n g s c a l e s , the f i n g e r p i c s the first degree of the scale and t h e thumb p i c s t h e f o u r t h s t r i n g f o l l o w e d by t h e strummed c h o r d 3) t h u m b / f i n g e r / s t r u m -- t h u m b p i c s a s t r i n g ( u s u a l l y t h e lowest) followed by the finger picing a string ( u s u a l l y t h e m e l o d y ) f o l l o w e d by t h e s t r u m m e d c h o r d 4) p o i n t i n g t h e s t r u m -- s t r u m t o t h e m e l o d y n o t e ( e . g . i f the melody note i s G strum the fourth, third and second s t r i n g s 5) f i n g e r f i l l with r i g h t h a n d -- p l a y c h o r d p o s i t i o n s w i t h l e f t hand and u s i n g f i r s t f i n g e r of right hand brush two c o n s e c u t i v e s t r i n g s a t a t i m e i n an upward motion  237 . A  Possible I  Chord  V(7)  Sequence  for  IV  Major D  A  D  A7  D  A7  G  D7  G  D7  A  E7  C  D  G7  C  G7  E  F  B7  E  B7  B  A  F#  B  F  C  E7  A  F  G  F# •  E  (barred)  B  (barred)  C7 C7  Minor Em  Bm  Am  Em  Dm  Am  Bm  F#m  Ukulele  Appendix  PHASE  C  I I I ( V o i c e and U k u l e l e )  AN EXAMPLE OF TEACHING S P E C I F I C CONCEPTS THROUGH THE SONG "THE TROUT" BY SCHUBERT Add i t i ona1 Concepts 1.0  Act i v i ty  Sk i 1 1  DURATION 1.1  Beat i)  ii)  iii)  do Mi by a l t e r n a t e l y e x t e r n a l i z i n g and i n t e r n a l i z i n g t h e beat f o r each do # i i but a l t e r n a t e  iv) conduct singing v)  vi) vii)  1.2  a.d(t ) '  s i n g and/or l i s t e n t o song and t a p b e a t ; s a y r h y t h m s y l l a b l e s a n d p l a y b e a t on a rhythm i n s t r u m e n t ; s i n g melody and p i c r o o t of c h o r d t o beat  every  P, A  a,d, t  P, A  a.d. t  P  a.d  phrase  two b a r s  two b e a t s i n a b a r w h i l e and/or listening  a.d, t  s i n g l e s t r u m c h o r d s on t h e b e a t w h i l e s i n g i n g o r l i s t e n i n g t o t h e song do #v a n d m a r c h  beat  n o t a t e beat on b o a r d o r i n notebook one p h r a s e p e r l i n e w h i l e s i n g i n g o r l i s t e n i n g t o the music  P  a.d.t  P,0  a.d, t  Meter i)  listen  to song  'where P = P e r f o r m i n g ; 'where a = a u r a l ; 'where f = f o r m ;  and d e t e r m i n e  A=Analyzing;  d=dextral; dy=dynamics;  i f i t moves  0=0rganizing  t=translatable du=duration;  te=tempo;  ti=timbre; s=style:  238  lp=linear  pitch;  vp=vertical  pitch  Add i t i o n a l Concepts in  two's,  three's or  Act i v i t y  Ski 1 1  four's  ii)  use body p e r c u s s i o n o r p l a y a s i n g l e s t r u m on t h e f i r s t b e a t o f e a c h b a r  iii)  u s i n g s i n g l e s t r u m s on u k u l e l e s t r u m f i r s t b e a t o f b a r h e a v i l y and s e c o n d 1ight1y  P.A  dy  P.A  a,d. t  dy  P.A  a.d.t  dy  P.A  a.d, t  do # i v and s i d e s t e p t o r i g h t w i t h r i g h t f o o t on t h e f i r s t b e a t ; on t h e s e c o n d b e a t b r i n g l e f t f o o t b e s i d e r i g h t f o o t and t a p l e f t t o e on t h e f l o o r ; r e v e r s e f o r t h e n e x t b a r  dy  P, A  a.d.t  vii)  do or  #vi and words  sing  dy  P.A  a.d.t  viii)  do  #iv  c r e a t e own  s  P  iv) v) vi)  .3  u s i n g double do  tfiv  and  and  s t r u m s on  read  beat  the  u k u l e l e do  from  song  beat  #iii  board  to " l o o "  movements  .0  a.d  Rhythm i)  ii)  s i n g the words and the song  clap  do  rhythm  * ' i and  sing  the  the  find  bars  that  have  the  iv)  find  bars  that  have  similar  v)  clap  and  vi)  vii)  viii)  same  a.d  te  of  P.A  a,d, t  rhythm  A  t.  rhythms  A  t  P.A  a.d.t  P . A  a.d  P, A  a ,d, t  te  syllables  iii)  say  rhythm  the p a t t e r n s f o r H i i i  and  iv te  a f t e r t h e t e a c h e r o r s t u d e n t has c l a p p e d any two b a r s o f t h e s o n g and s a y t h e r h y t h m i n r e s p o n s e  clap  a f t e r t h e t e a c h e r o r s t u d e n t has c l a p p e d any two b a r s o f t h e s o n g t h o s e two b a r s b a c k w i t h words  sing  lp,  a f t e r t h e t e a c h e r o r s t u d e n t has c l a p p e d any two b a r s o f t h e s o n g p u p i l s w r i t e rhythm u s i n g s t i c k n o t a t i o n  te  a. t  Addi t i onal Concepts ix)  x)  xi)  xii)  xiii)  xiv)  xv)  xvi)  c o m p o s e own two b a r r h y t h m s u s i n g r h y t h m i c e l e m e n t s i n the song  a.t  f  P.A.O  a.d.t  f  P.A.O  a.d.t  P.A  a.d.t  P.A  a.d.t  sings  P.A  a.d.t  and  P.A  a.d.t  P.A  a.d.t  P.A  a.d,t  i m p r o v i s e q u e s t i o n s and a n s w e r s i n two b a r s w i t h p a r t n e r on t h e u k u l e l e ; r h y t h m i c elements from the song  do # x i i i w h i l e the melody  part  of  compose words f o r # x i i i s i ng and p1 ay i t  use  s o n g on t h e up s t r u m s  compose a r h y t h m i c o s t i n a t o f o r t h e s o n g ; p i c i t on t h e r o o t o f the  class  ostinato  Sk i11  A,0  improvise rondos u s i n g the rhythmic e l e m e n t s o f t h e s o n g on t h e u k u l e l e  p l a y the rhythm of the u k u l e l e u s i n g down and  Act i v i ty  the  chord  vp  p i c r h y t h m s o f two d i f f e r e n t b a r s on two d i f f e r e n t notes simultaneously.  J^INEAR_IPJ_TCH_J  2.1  2.1.1  R e l a t i v e P o s i t i o n s of and A b s o l u t e P i t c h e s higher i)  or  Pitches  lower  a f t e r s i n g i n g words and p i c i n g on t h e u k u l e l e c o m p a r e t h e movement o f t h e f o l l o w i n g notes: a ) p i c k - u p t o e a c h l i n e f o l l o w e d by t h e f i r s t note of the f u l l bar b) l a s t n o t e o f e a c h l i n e i n r e l a t i o n to the f i r s t note i n each l i n e c ) b a r s one and f i v e d) b a r s two, s i x , t e n , f o u r t e e n and e i g h t e e n e ) b a r s e l e v e n , f i f t e e n and n i n e t e e n  240  A d d i t iona1 Concepts f)  bars  thirteen  and  a.d.t  P.A  a.d.t  letter  sing  a t o f above u s i n g  numbers  P,A  a.d.t  i n song  A  t  (repeated  names  P.A  a to f above u s i n g  same  notes)  a l l repeated  notes  s i n g a l l r e p e a t e d n o t e s and i n t e r n a l i z e the o t h e r s w h i l e s i n g i n g through the song  P.A  a.d.t  do  notes  P.A  a.d.t  (rhythms  A  t  A  t  l a b e l p a t t e r n s as t o s t e p w i s e o r s k ' i p w i s e movement  A  t  compare  A  t  # i i and p i c a l l t h e r e p e a t e d  compare b a r s f o r r e p e a t e d may n o t be t h e same) 2.1.3 a s c e n d i n g  stepwise  identify  notes  and s k i p w i s e  ascending  ascending  patterns  i n t h e song  patterns  ascending  patterns using  words  P.A  a.d.t  sing ascending and handsigns  patterns using  solfa  P.A  a.d.t  play  p a t t e r n s on u k u l e l e  P.A  a.d.t  p l a y a s c e n d i n g p a t t e r n s on u k u l e l e a n d s i n g l e t t e r names  P.A  a.d.t  sing  ascending  descending repeat  stepwise  procedure  notate  and s k i p w i s e  f o r 2.1.3  2.1.5 n o t a t i o n o f 2.1,1 i)  syllables  sing  find  2.1.4  5k i 1 1  seventeen  s i n g a t o f above u s i n g s o l f a a n d hand s i g n s  2.1.2  Act i v i ty  relative  t o 2.1.4 positions  du  of p i t c h e s  .241  A.O  t  Addi t i o n a l Concepts using ii)  2.2  Act i v i ty  Ski 1 1  nontraditiona1 notation  n o t a t e p i t c h e s on s t a f f v i s u a 11y u s i ng: a) so 1 f a sy11ab1es b ) l e t t e r names c ) numbers d ) words  du  and compare  Phrases s i n g and demonstrate the phrases compare  the phrases  through  melodically  l i n e draw t h e c o n t o u r d e s c r i b e and compare notate phrases or d i c t a t i o n transpose play  #v o n  of the phrases;  on s t a f f  a phrase  movement  from  on s t a f f  memory  du  P.A  a.d, t  du  P, A  a.d.t  du. t e , f , s  P  a. t  du,  A,0  a, t  f  A. )  lines  ukulele P  a,d, t  transpose a phrase o r a l l y s i n g i n g w o r d s a n d t h e n s i n g i n g l e t t e r names  P.A.O  a.d.t  compose melodic  P, A,0  a.d, t  P.A.O  a,d, t  a phrase u s i n g s i m i l a r c o n t o u r s ; p l a y and/or s i n g i t  i m p r o v i s e on t h e u k u l e l e a p h r a s e using s i m i l a r melodic contours  du,  s i n g and/or p l a y p h r a s e s i n c o r p o r a t i n g d y n a m i c s t o show t h e r i s e a n d f a l l o f t h e p h r a s e s  du, vp s , dy  P.A  a,d, t  p e r f o r m on t h e u k u l e l e a n d / o r s i n g o s t i n a t i b a s e d on r o o t s a n d f i f t h s  du,  P.A  a.d, t  compose a n o s t i n a t o f o r e a c h c h o r d u s i n g the notes of the chord  vp  A.O  a, t  odic  s  Ostinati  242  vp  Add i t i ona1 Concepts Hi) iv)  2.4  and/or  describe composed  sing  P  #ii  and a n a l y z e m e l o d i c by o t h e r p u p i l s  Sk i 1 1 a,d. t a, t  ostinati  Intervals P.A  a,d, t  P, A  a.d.t  a f t e r h e a r i n g the t o n a l c e n t r e and p e n t a t o n i c p i t c h e s n o t a t e on s t a f f lines i n t e r v a l s p l a y e d by t e a c h e r o r s t u d e n t ; l a b e l a) i n t e r v a l name b) s o l f a syllables c ) number o f s t e p i n s c a l e d) l e t t e r names  A  a, t  iv)  identify i n song  intervals  from  A  a, t  v)  classify  intervals  as  i)  ii) iii)  vi)  vii) viii)  2.5  play  Act i v i ty  i d e n t i f y a u r a l l y and v i s u a l l y intervals i n t h e s o n g by: a) s o l f a s y l l a b l e s and h a n d b) l e t t e r names c ) numbers sing  play  compose a p h r a s e from the song play  and/or  n o t e how interval  Tonal i)  and/or  Centre,  sing  notation  types  e.g  specified  major,  A  etc.  A,0  intervals  P  #vi  A  an the  song  and/or  Tone  s i n g tone set to s o l f a and l e t t e r names sing  tone  set  using  iii)  play  tone  set  on  a f t e r the n o t e from  staff  to  using  ii)  iv)  signs  A"1  many t i m e s i s used in Scales  the  signs  ukulele  t e a c h e r or s t u d e n t the t o n e s e t , s i n g  a,t  a.d.t a.t  Set  syllables  hand  a, t  sings any the tonic  243  P.A  a.d.t  P.A  a.d.t  P.A  a.d.t  A  a.d  Addi t ional Concepts v) vi) vii)  viii)  2.6  Skill  sing  tone  set  i n any  order  P,A  a.d.t  play  tone set  i n any  order  P.A  a.d.t  A  a.t  n o t a t e n o t e s from s u n g o r p l a y e d by  the tone s e t as teacher or p u p i l  l i s t e n t o Q u i n t e t i n A Major and note change i n tonal c e n t r e at v a r i a t i o n IV f r o m m a j o r t o m i n o r  Melody  Without  Harmonic  Support  (Monophonic)  i)  sing  song  w i t h o u t any  accompaniment  a.d.t  ii)  sing  song  w i t h rhythm  accompaniment  a.d  [3.0 VERTICAL 3.1  Act i v i ty  PITCH [  Chords  3.1.1  Tr i ads i)  ii)  iii)  iv) v) vi)  viii)  a.d.t  P . A  a.d.t  P, A  a.d.t  P. A  a.d.t  A  t  P.A  a.d.t  in the  P.A  a.d.t  melody  P, A  a.d.t  l i s t e n and p l a y t r i a d s of c h o r d s i n song v e r t i c a 1 1 y (strum t h r e e s t r i n g s for the three notes)  only  s i ng t h e t r i a d s in- r o o t p o s i t i o n , first i n v e r s i o n a n d s e c o n d i n v e r s i o n ( 1 i n e a r 1y ver t i ca11y) play  the t r i a d s  n o t a t e #iv sing  one  sing song do  to  the t r i a d as s t a t e d  #vii  and  linearly  in solfa,  string  triad; sing numbers vii)  P.A  l i s t e n and p l a y t r i a d s of c h o r d s i n song l i n e a r l y ( p i c each note)  add  in a l l positions  numbers and  while playing letter  names,  progression i n #vi a group  and  on  letters  the solfa  and  244  Add i t i ona1 Concept s ix)  a .d, t  P  a , d, t  s i n g each c h o r d v e r t i c a l l y w i t h o t h e r p u p i l s h o l d i n g each note; use s o l f a s y l l a b i w i t h hand s i g n s , numbers a n d l e t t e r names  P , A  a.d.t  arpeggiate chords  P  a.d.t  P  a.d.t  P.A  a . d, t  .1.2 F o u r  ii)  iii)  song Note  play  vi)  vii) viii)  ix)  and p l a y  that  form  intervals  a triad  from  or part  of i t  Chords  the c h o r d s of the song  i v ) do # i i i v)  Ski 1 1  P.A  notate, sing the  i)  Act i v i t y  and s i n g  s i n g each intervals  on each  on u k u l e l e  ukulele note  to  "loo"  c h o r d l i n e a r l y naming t h e e . g . d o h t o mi = m a j o r t h i r d  i d e n t i f y c h o r d of song as t e a c h e r o r s t u d e n t p l a y s them o n t h e u k u l e l e ; n o t e when t h e c h o r d c h a n g e s a n d t o what c h o r d write  the chords  t  in a l l positions,  a , d, t  p l a y the n o t e s of t h e c h o r d s as w r i t t e n above s i n g one s t r i n g a n d p l a y o f t h song; e a c h o f f o u r different string  the chords groups sings  a , d, t a  245  Addi t i o n a l Concepts 3.1.4  Tonic  Chord a.t  s i n g and p l a y t h e t o n i c c h o r d t o s o l f a s y l l a b l e s , numbers a n d l e t t e r names  P.A  a.d.t  iii)  notate  and  A  t  iv)  notate second  chord in root inversion  A  t  P.A  a.d.t  A  t  A  a, t  s i n g t h e two c h o r d s u s i n g g r o u p s o r i n d i v i d u a l s on e a c h n o t e of the c h o r d  P  a.d.t  note  ends  A  a . t  chord  A  a, t  P,A  a.d.t  ii)  v) vi)  l i s t e n to and a n a l y s e c h o r d of the song  sing  and  label  play  relate first tonic chord  the  chord  as  first  and  tonic  position,  (I) first  /'iv v e r t i c a l l y and and  last  note  of  last  and  linearly  song  to  Cadences i)  ii)  iii) iv)  v)  | 4.0  Sk i11  P.A  1)  3.2  Act iv i ty  FORM  |  4.1  Mot 1)  ii)  iii)  l i s t e n t o t h e f i n a l two c h o r d s o f a n d i d e n t i f y and l a b e l (V7 I )  the chord  on  the  which each phrase  note the c h o r d p r e c e d i n g the f i n a l of each phrase; l a b e l cadences  a l l s i n g t h e m e l o d y w h i l e one g r o u p a r p e g g i a t e s t h e c h o r d s and t h e o t h e r p i c s the r o o t s of t h e c h o r d  song  group  ives i d e n t i f y a u r a l l y and v i s u a l l y i d e n t i c a l r e c u r r i n g r h y t h m i c and p i t c h p a t t e r n s  du,  1p  A  a,t  i d e n t i f y a u r a l l y and v i s u a l l y s i m i l a r r e c u r r i n g r h y t h m i c and p i t c h p a t t e r n s  du,  1p  A  a,t  du,  1p  P  a.d.t  sing  recurring  patterns  i n MS and i i  24G  iv)  v) 4.2  ii)  iii) iv) v) vi) vii)  viii)  and/or  sing  and  melodlcally  #iv  du,  l p , vp,  du,  1p,  du, vp,  lp, f  f  Skill  0  a.t  P  a.d.t  i d e n t i f y and l a b e l e.g. A Av B C Cv improvise or "Bv" p h r a s e  compose  compose a n o t h e r create  a  first  "D"  v e r s e and  movements f o r e a c h  perform sing  the  five  a.t  P.O  a.d.t  perform i t  P.O  a.d.t  phrase  0  a.d  P  a.d  P  a.d  or  a  #iv  each  phrase  u s i n g one  breath  n o t a t e the i n v e r s i o n of p h r a s e s t a r t i n g at the f i r s t f u l l bar play  phrases  and  sing  #vii  lp.  one  above  du  A  t  du,. l p  P  a.d.t  du,  0  a,t  0  a.t  P  a,d,t  A  a  0  a,t  0  a,t  P  a.d.t  A  a  Introduction i)  ii) ii1) iv) 4.6  play  rhythmically ones  Act ivi ty  Phrases i)  4.5  a l t e r motives t o c r e a t e new  Addi t ional Concepts du, 1p, vp, f  c r e a t e a r h y t h m i c or m e l o d i c i n t r o d u c t i o n u s i n g some p a t t e r n s or m o t i v e s f r o m t h e s o n g add play  dynamic markings above  H\  to  1p  dy  introduction  evaluate introductions  performed  Coda i) ii) iii) iv)  create add Play  a rhythmic  or melodic  dynamic markins  to  du,  coda  dy  #1  •  coda  e v a l u a t e codas  lp  performed  247  Addi t i o n a l Concepts  Activi ty  Sk i 1 1  5.0 TIMBRE | 5.1  CI a s s i f i c a t i o n l i s t e n t o t h e " Q u i n t e t i n A M a j o r " p l a y e d by v i o l i n , v i o l a , c e l l o , s t r i n g b a s s and p i a n o ; i d e n t i f y which i n s t r u m e n t s p l a y the melody in each variation  A  a  ii)  l i s t e n t o "The T r o u t " p i a n o and sung  played  on t h e  A  a  iii)  l i s t e n t o "The T r o u t " the u k u l e l e and sung  played  on  A  a  A  a  i)  iv)  compare and e v a l u a t e on # i , i i and i i i  5.4 R o l e  in Musical  effect  of  timbre  Expression  d e s c r i b e the voice q u a l i t y that i s needed to p r e s e n t t h i s song  s  A  a  d e s c r i b e t h e a c c o m p a n i m e n t p l a y e d on s t r i n g s , p i a n o a n d u k u l e l e a n d i t s . impact In t h e s o n g  s  A  a  f  A  a  note the range of dynamics throughout t h e s o n g when l i s t e n i n g t o t h e " Q u i n t e t "  A,0  a  iii)  s i n g and p l a y t h e song and d e c i d e dynamic markings to use  A.O  a  iv)  mark d y n a m i c s i n t h e s c o r e ( t h e s e may c h a n g e f r o m v e r s e t o v e r s e )  0  a, t  A  a  1)  ii)  .0 DYNAMICS 1 6.1  Levels 1)  ii)  6.3  note t h e r i s e and f a l l o f phrases r e l a t e to changes i n dynamics  Expressive i)  and  what  Qualities  a n a l y z e the f e e l i n g s dynamics c o n t r i b u t e t o t h e s o n g e . g . f e e l i n g s o f a n g e r --  248  Addlt ional Concepts volume ii)  iii)  a n a l y z e the u n i t y dynamics  achieved  a n a l y z e the v a r i e t y dynamics  A  a  f  A  a.t  f  A  a, t  du.lp  P  a.d.t  du,  l p , vp  P  a,d,t  du,  1 p,  through  achieved  through  between  dynamics  TEMPO | 7.1  Speeds M a i n t a i n e d i) ii)  iii)  sing  at  tempo m a r k i n g  play  and  sing  ii)  7.3  allegretto  marking  repeat at a  faster  mp  P  a , d, t  tempo a  e x p l o r e any p o s s i b l e u s e s o f s p e e d c h a n g e s in the i n t r o d u c t i o n , f i r s t or second s e c t i o n o f the song and the coda  P.A  a.d.t  evaluate effectiveness speed changes  A  a  A  a  song  A  t  place  A  t  A  a.t  or  determine  Sudden Changes  Contribution i)  --  A  Gradual i)  1)  maintaining a  tempo:  i v ) e v a l u a t e and 7.2  (section  p l a y and s i n g a t tempo m a i n t a i n i n g speed  slower  18.0  Sk i 1 1  Increases  iv) a n a l y z e the c o r r e l a t i o n | 7.0  Act i v i ty  compare t o what  the best in  speed  Speed  of gradual or  sudden  to E x p r e s s i v e Q u a l i t y t h e q u i c k tempo ( a l l e g r e t t o ) i s happening i n the song  STYLE I 8.1  Cultural  and  Environmental  i)  determine  who  is singing  ii)  determine  where  iii)  determine  what  the song the p i a n o  i n the takes  accompaniment  249  Addi t i o n a l Concepts is iv) 8.2  trying  determine  to  Act i v i t y  Ski 1 1  portray  from  t h e words  t h e message  Historical i)  i i ) note iii)  iv)  v) vi)  a, t  n o t e t h e r e p e t i t i o n o f m o t i v e s and p h r a s e s w i t h d i f f e r e n t r h y t h m i c elements and/or p i t c h e m b e l l i s h m e n t s t y p i c a l of a r t songs at t h i s t i me use  of accompaniment  n o t e u s e o f theme a n d in Q u i n t e t i n A Major  to enhance  song  variations  t a k e f o u r b a r s o f "The T r o u t " o r compose a s i m p l e f o u r b a r m e l o d y and w r i t e v a r i a t i o n s on i t  a, t  Perform  a.d, t  research  #1v the e r a  to which  this  piece  t  belongs  250  251  ANALYSIS OF CONCEPTS CONTAINED IN 'THE TROUT' 1.0  Duration: 1.1  beat  1.2  meter  1.3  rhythmic elements or components  2.  m,  JI, phrase:  ;  n n  n  j  n  j  4  ;  JI JJJI JI JI  s  /  m  / 2.0  r  m  J l  J  JJJJ  JTJ m  n  jrn  JI  m  n  j  n  J l  J T T i  J J  n  n  n  JI  ; '  JI n  j  *  Linear P i t c h tone set  -  d r m f s,  range  1, t,  fi,  A B Ct D E, F#4 Gt, D#( (key of A major) D( E, Ft, C* (key of G major)  GAB C  - fi,  to f a ;  D#, to D Ct, to C  (key of A) (key of G)  - major 7th intervals: sol-fa s, d  d  s,  d m  interval P 4  numbers 5, 1  P 4  1  5,  M3  1  3  l e t t e r names and staff A major G major (Ft C# Gt) (Ft)  252  m  M 3  d  1  3  s,  t,  M 3  5, 1,  s,  r  P  5,  5  2  e? 1*>  d  f i ,  P  f  t ,  f i ,  P  s ,  m  5  1  & —  4  &  2  4,  5,  P m  d  t ,  2  1,  0  m  r  3  4  3  2  cl  m  3  6 , 1  r  d  M  2  2  1  M  2  7,  6,  1,  fi9-  0  -1  7) a  t ,  M  2  6,  <9 "  1  " 1,  V  7,  1.  t ,  a  2 0  m  '  1 0  f  0  4,  7,  5  n H  7 ,  0  253  1, s,  3.0  M2  Vertical  6, 5,  Pitch:  Key - A major and/or G major Chords - A E7 B7 D (A major) G D7 A7 C (G major) Cadences - I V^ imperfect V7 I  perfect  4.0  Form:  5.0  A A B C C ; five phrases• v v . Timbre: - voice and piano accompaniment - Quintet i n A Major ("Trout") - v i o l i n , v i o l a , c e l l o , s t r i n g bass and piano - Ukuleles - p i c i n g melody and arpeggio or double strum accompaniment  6.0  Dynamics - Pi  7.0 8.0  PP,  crescendo, mf, f  Tempo - allegretto Style - art song; composer s t r i v e s for unity of text, melody and accompaniment - tonal (play in A major or G major) - variations i n Andantino section of Quintet  254  n g l i ' s ^ tr an ?3  Station  The  by M. Marks  Trout  E  ScUUrt  (D.^;  5 X  Nea'-'tij  7h«N»  sfooc/  an-* an-g/er  tf Who  ejcdT  eaek f ^ ^ ; « j  f ;  n  n  >  J 7  ht z Like.  a.  sfreak-ln^  tie*  Ca.st  si\'VCT  in-Tu  A  r  - f * ^  IAJA-  +he.  JO X  G  and  out  n.W I m i n .  J>  a t e a m  bVoofc,  O f  t h a t f^f"  sil-vcr  1><L out-w.'t-fed  Q7)C  ^haf  >  i ' - f — - — • — -  Uy/io - f r o h i c k e J in ihe. £u  •ko.thenzd  £  q v i t k  i*t>vrc.ulti  £  Tine,  crea-furt  pui'ck coo)A  p i s n - e r  sil" l/C  JD  C«A~twf<  b eauf-wit-  fed  U/Ao f?u  ( - L a n d  f l c t x t  sT/ h o c k ,  £  J 7  f r o l - i c K e i i I n ti\</cohered  ^"(^ or*/  fl  Err,  qreuJ I m - p o ~ -  G  7  > A >—•——i  No  Of  ^  To  1  — •  No  n  W><-^  s t o o d o n s l i o f e co/i - j c n t - e d T o CatcJn t h e a l l n f " a n d i r tjn«-\AJCL- - tver i>iaMca r^cc^-«nea c c f r - o n e a if h e - vua. e r Shx.*e.d ccr-js r y s t a l i n Wie (<QC  fat z  ^ r f - ; a  e  3  ±  it  £  fer  T r % s p i t e , a  s t r e a m .  h««k.  Err,  t  last  /  255  A l  i)  j  r  i  1  f — f t  • > • •  J  7  >  J —  1  H\e,  m a d e  G  y ±  —  ^  ^ - j V  -flovrA JD  ^  v  -  —  f  The.  $i-na  3>  //sh  hun^  theK,  6  blood K S t  up i n  dn-  jcr  At  ^<»P  At  G  C  (5  7  ^  C  - boot .  ef\'rv^  :n cast the  Em  a  J>  The  f  when/i6 i<rrl<«J h.'i l i n e vp  Anc/  CA&I  It  —  maei-ci\j  UJa-\c r  22 hou-J  he'd linked l-he. -rrot/i".  ..  hooJ  Mvj  ]>|o©o\  ro^c up in  an -  ,....  •  H e ' d JioolCed -rkc tr-oj'f'.  German  Morels  by C.F.J). S c K u t a r t  ,  DIE FORELLE  In e i n e m B a c h l e i n h e l l e , d a s c h o s s i n f r o h e r E i l d i e l a u n i s c h e F o r e l l e voriiber wie ein P f e i l . I c h s t a n d an dem G e s t a d e und s a h i n s i i s s e r Ruh des m u n t e r n F i s c h l e i n s Bade i m k l a r e n B a c h l e i n z u , des m u n t e r n F i s c h l e i n s Bade i m k l a r e n B a c h l e i n z u . E i n F i s c h l e r m i t d e r R u t e w o h l an dem U f e r s t a n d , und s a h ' s m i t k a l t e m B l u t e , w i e s i c h d a s F i s c h l e i n w a n d . So l a n g ' dem W a s s e r H e l l e , so d a c h t i c h , n i c h t g e b r i c h t , so f a n g t e r d i e F o r e l l e m i t s e i n e r A n g e l n i c h t , so f a n g t e r d i e F o r e l l e m i t s e i n e r A n g e l n i c h t . Doch e n d l i c h w a r d dem D i e b e d i e Z e i t z u l a n g . E r m a c h t d a s B a c h l e i n t i i k k i s c h t r u ' b e , und eh i c h es g e d a c h t , so z u c k t e s e i n e R u t e , d a s F i s c h l e i n , d a s f i s c h l e i n z a p p e l t d r a n , und i c h m i t r e g e m B l u t e s a h d i e B e t r o g n e a n , und i c h m i t r e g e m B l u t e s a h d i e B e t r o g n e a n .  256 Appendix  D  White House J o i n t Statement of t h e A r t s ( C o n f e r e n c e o n A r t s E d u c a t i o n - - S e p t e m b e r 8, 1 9 7 6 ) 1  Whereas the arts provide a necessary contribution to realizing t h e f u l l p o t e n t i a l o f e v e r y human b e i n g a s a n a w a r e , sensitive, responsive individual regardless of h i s t a l e n t s and a b i l i t i e s , his v o c a t i o n o r any s p e c i a l need he m i g h t h a v e , a n d ; Whereas t h e a r t s a r e e s s e n t i a l t o t h e f u l l growth of every c h i l d at a l l l e v e l s f o r c o n s i s t e n t growth and a e s t h e t i c awareness and creative expression t o d e v e l o p a human b e i n g i n t o u c h w i t h t h e world and able to experience the environment and express f e e l i n g s and ideas, and; Whereas the a r t s c o n t r i b u t e t o the humanity of every i n d i v i d u a l nurturing understanding, self-respect, identity, humaneness, and; Whereas education i n the arts should include both the a r t s , and c r e a t i o n and expression i n the various  experiencing a r t s , and;  W h e r e a s t h e a r t s a r e n o t t o be u s e d m e r e l y a s a u x i l i a r y a i d s to increase knowledge i n subject m a t t e r a r e a s b u t must s t a n d a s indispensable d i s c i p l i n e s f o r c o n t r i b u t i o n s which they alone can make, a n d ; Whereas t h e b e l i e f t h a t t h e a r t s a r e b a s i c t o t h e education of all persons causes a r t s educators i n t h e a t r e , dance, music, and the v i s u a l a r t s education f o r a l l through s p e c i a l attention to in-service and pre-service education for specialists and classroom teachers; Therefore, l e t i t b e r e s o l v e d t h i s e i g h t h d a y o f S e p t e m b e r , 1976 on t h e o c c a s i o n o f t h i s W h i t e H o u s e c o n f e r e n c e o n a r t s education that the four associations, the National Art Education Association, National Dance Association, Music Educators National Conference, and the American Theatre Association, representing the Arts Education profession i n the United States a f f i r m t h e i r commitment t o t h e n e c e s s i t y o f a r t s e x p e r i e n c e s f o r a l l c i t i z e n s f o r the f u l l r e a l i z a t i o n of the c r e a t i v e , s e n s i t i v e and a p p r e c i a t i v e potential as human beings and a f f i r m the necessity of a r t s education i n t h e n a t i o n ' s s c h o o l s as b a s i c and essential t o each i n d i v i d u a l ' s education and throughout l i f e as an i n t e g r a l p a r t o f human d e v e l o p m e n t .  Music  'MENC N e w s , " W h i t e Educators Journal  House Joint Statement 62 ( A p r i l 1976):60.  of  the  Arts",  257  Appendix Rhythm S y l l a b l e (adapted  Ta  from  E System  the Hungarian  system)  (tah)  Ti-ti  Tri-ple  t i (tri-ple  Ti-di-ti-di Ta-a  |~1  (tee-tee) tee)  (tee-dee-tee-dee)  (tah-ah)  Ta-a-a  (tah-ah-ah)  Ta-a-a-a  (tah-ah-ah-ah)  O 0O  Tum-ti  I•  Ti-rum  T  Syn-co-pa  PIT FT I  H  i  Sh Sh  I•  (sin-ko-pah)  Ti-di-ti Ti-ti-di  sh  T  258  Appendix  Hand  Signals  and  F  Syllables  KODALY'S VERSION  CURWEN'S ORIGINAL  9-  ta  se  fe  ^  ta  s i  ra  f i  259  Appendix  G  MADHOSINGH P I T C H R E C O G N I T I O N  1.  mi  - doh  19.  s o h -- s o h ,  2.  doh  -mi  20.  s o h •- d o h  3.  soh  - re  21 .  la  - la,  4.  doh  - doh'  22.  mi  - la  •5.  doh  - re  23.  re  - doh'  24.  d o h •- s o h ,  - mi  6.  re  7.  soh  - l a  25.  re  - soh  8.  doh - l a  26.  mi  - soh,  •9.  mi  - re  27.  soh  - l a ,  10.  re  - la,  28.  soh  - mi  29.  re  - soh,  30.  mi  - la,  31 .  doh  1 1 . doh'  - re  12.  re  13.  doh'  14.  la  - mi  32.  la  - doh'  15.  la  - soh  33.  la  - doh  16.  soh  34.  mi  - soh,  17.  la  35.  mi  - doh  18.  doh  36.  re  - doh  - la - mi  -doh' - re - soh  -l a ,  TEST  260 Appendix  Table  H  o f Means and ( S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n s ) o f CMP Boys and on t h e P r e - and Post-MPRT S c o r e s Grade  6B  Grade  Mean  Pretest  Std.Dev.  (7.27)  (3.44)  Post-test  Mean  7.40  16.50  Post-test  Std.Dev .  (5.55)  (3.32)  Analysis  Grade7B  Grade7G  13.63  11.91  10.25  3.60  Pretest  6G  (11 .56) 17.13 (10.49)  of V a r i a n c e w i t h R e p e a t e d Measure f o r t h e CMP G r o u p  ss  Girls  (7.11) 17.73 (7.85)  (Post-Test)  F  df  MS  7231.28  1  7231 .28  57.78  0.0000  (G)  160.85  1  160.85  1 .29  0.2681  (GR)  384.74  1  384.74  3.07  0.0923  213.53  1  21 3.53  1.71  0.2038  3003.39  24  125.14  281.66  1  281.66  36.23  0.0000  17.07  1  17.07  2.20  0.1514  T X GR  0.40  1  0.04  0.05  0.8220  T X GR X G  0.01  1  0.01  0.00  0.9677  186.59  24  7.77  Source Mean Gender Grade  G x GR Error Time  (T)  T X G  Error  Prob.  

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United States 16 37
Canada 5 2
Nigeria 4 1
Germany 4 20
Unknown 4 0
France 4 0
Malaysia 3 0
Philippines 3 0
Finland 2 0
New Zealand 2 0
Poland 2 0
City Views Downloads
Unknown 30 29
Tokyo 23 0
Shenzhen 15 19
Saint Paul 5 0
Ashburn 4 0
George Town 3 0
Beijing 3 6
Leipzig 2 0
Montreal 2 1
San Mateo 2 0
Vancouver 2 0
Vitória 2 1
Berlin 1 1

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