Open Collections

UBC Theses and Dissertations

UBC Theses Logo

UBC Theses and Dissertations

An approach to music education based on the indications of Rudolf Steiner : implications for grades 1-3 1990

You don't seem to have a PDF reader installed, try download the pdf

Item Metadata

Download

Media
UBC_1990_A8 E83.pdf [ 13.03MB ]
Metadata
JSON: 1.0055108.json
JSON-LD: 1.0055108+ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 1.0055108.xml
RDF/JSON: 1.0055108+rdf.json
Turtle: 1.0055108+rdf-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 1.0055108+rdf-ntriples.txt
Citation
1.0055108.ris

Full Text

AN APPROACH TO MUSIC EDUCATION BASED ON THE INDICATIONS OF RUDOLF STEINER: IMPLICATIONS FOR GRADES 1-3 By Linda Ann Ledbetter Eterman A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Department, of Visual and Performing Arts Education We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A p r i l 1990 Copyright Linda Ann Ledbetter Eterman In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of f.^+J a*.*/ The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada DE-6 (2/88) ABSTRACT This study provides an introduction to Rudolf Steiner's ideas on music and music education and describes how these ideas have been adapted and applied i n Grades One through Three i n North American Waldorf Schools. Included i n the study are: Steiner's basic philosophical concepts r e l a t i n g to music and music education; Steiner's r a t i o n a l e for aesthetic and music education; a d e s c r i p t i o n of the Waldorf approach to music teaching; r e s u l t s of a questionnaire sent to twenty-three Waldorf Schools i n North America; a comparison of Steiner's key ideas on music education with those of Orff, Kodaly, and Dalcroze. i i TABLE OF CONTENTS ABSTRACT i i LIST OF GRAPHS AND TABLES v i LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS v i i i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ix PREFACE X Chapter I. INTRODUCTION 1 A. Background 1 B. Purpose of Study 3 C. Methodology 14 D. Si g n i f i c a n c e of Study 15 E. Limitations 16 F. Glossary 17 I I . BASIC PHILOSOPHICAL CONCEPTS RELATING TO MUSIC EDUCATION 19 A. C h i l d as S p i r i t u a l Being 19 B. C h i l d as Four-Fold Being 20 C. Thinking, Feeling, and W i l l i n g 21 D. C h i l d Development 21 E. Recapitulation 33 I I I . RATIONALE FOR AESTHETIC EDUCATION 35 A. Unity of Science, Art, Religion 19 B. Importance of P l a s t i c and Performing Arts 42 IV. RATIONALE FOR MUSIC EDUCATION 47 A. S p i r i t u a l Nature of Music 47 B. Musical Nature of Chi l d 49 V. MUSIC TEACHING IN WALDORF SCHOOLS 55 A. Curriculum 55 B. Elements of Music 68 1. Melody 68 2. Rhythm 81 3. Harmony 87 i i i C. A c t i v i t i e s of Music 88 1. Singing 88 2. Movement 92 3. Playing of Instruments 95 a. Overview of Steiner's Ideas 95 b. Gartner Instruments 99 i Philosophy and Development 99 i i Lyres 105 c. Choroi Instruments 105 i Philosophy and Development 105 i i Flutes 109 i i i Lyres 114 iv Klangspiels 119 d. Other Instruments 119 e. Str i n g Program 119 4. Improvisation 123 5. Reading Music Notation 124 a. The Use of Images and Metaphor to Teach Musical Notation 124 b. Solfege 129 6. Importance of "Live" Music 130 7. Integration of Music with Other Subject Matter 131 D. Role of Teacher 135 1. Natural Authority 136 2. A r t i s t 139 VI. RESULTS OF QUESTIONNAIRE 143 VII. COMPARISON OF THE WALDORF SCHOOL APPROACH TO MUSIC EDUCATION TO THE ORFF, KODALY, AND DALCROZE APPROACHES 232 A. Primary Purpose of Music Education 232 B. Curriculum 234 C. Musical Development of the Chi l d 236 D. The Teaching of Melody 239 E. Teaching of Rhythm 243 F. The Teaching of Harmony 244 G. Singing 246 H. Movement 247 I. Playing of Instruments 249 J. Improvisation 252 K. Integration of Media 253 L. Importance of "Live" Music 2 54 M. Role of Teacher 256 N. Reading Musical Notation 257 O. Integration of Subject Matter 260 P. Conclusions 260 iv VI11. CONCLUSIONS 264 BIBLIOGRAPHY 271 APPENDIXES 281 A. ORIGIN AND GROWTH OF THE WALDORF SCHOOLS 281 B. UNIQUE FEATURES OF THE WALDORF SCHOOLS 286 C. MUSIC CURRICULA FROM FIVE WALDORF SCHOOLS 288 D. SOME CHOROI IMPROVISATION EXERCISES 308 E. STORIES 314 F. LIST OF CHOROI AND GARTNER WORKSHOPS 333 G. SAMPLE QUESTIONNAIRE 334 H. COMPARISON CHART 340 v LIST OF GRAPHS AND TABLES Graphs/Tables Page 1. Stages of C h i l d Development 32 2. Educational Background of Music Teachers 149 3. Educational Background of Class Teachers 149 4. Number of Male and Female Teachers 150 5. Number of C e r t i f i e d Teachers 151 6. Number of Instruments Teachers Play 152 7. Instruments Played By Respondents 153 8. Sel f - E v a l u a t i o n : Level of Musical Accomplishment 154 9. Number of Teachers Teaching Music to S p e c i f i c Grades 155 10. Music Teaching Experience of Respondents 156 11. F a m i l i a r i t y with Steiner's Ideas on Music and Music Education . 157 12. Influence of Steiner's Ideas on Teaching of Music 158 13. Number of Teachers Who Indicated that Music Was Taught by S p e c i a l i s t and/or Class Teacher 159 14. Number of Teachers Who Indicated that Music Should be Taught by Music Teacher and/or Class Teacher 160 15. Time Devoted to Music Instruction 166 16. Perceived Importance of Music Education to Community 167 17. Perceived Quality of Music Program 168 18. Perceived Quality of Music Education Compared with Perceived Importance of Music Education to Community.... 169 19. Perceived Quality of Instruction i n Music Education i n Waldorf Teacher Training I n s t i t u t e s 170 20. Perceived Strengths and Weaknesses of Program 171 Graphs/Tables Page 21. F a m i l i a r i t y with Choroi Impulse 173 22. F a m i l i a r i t y with Werbeck Method 174 23. Instruments Used—Winds 176 24. Instruments Used—Strings 177 25. Instruments Used—Percussion 178 26. Reasons f or not using Choroi or Gartner Instruments 179 27. Commencement of String Program 182 28. Number of Teachers Who Would Use Orff Instruments 183 29. Number of Teachers Who Would Use Kodaly Hand Signals 186 30. Number of Teachers Who Would Recommend Piano as an Instrument of Study i n Grades One Through Three 188 31. Number of Teachers Using "Mood of the F i f t h " Music 191 32. Number of Teachers Who Believe that Beat Should Be De-emphasized i n Grades One Through Three 196 33. Use of Recorded Music i n Grades One Through Three 198 34. Use of S t o r y t e l l i n g 199 35. Grades i n which Theory and Musical Notation Are Introduced 201 36. Teachers Who Experience D i f f i c u l t y / N o D i f f i c u l t y i n Finding Appropriate Song Material 203 37. Sources of Song Material 205 38. A n t i c i p a t i o n of D i f f i c u l t y i n Integrating Waldorf Approach to Music Education into the Public School System 216 v i i LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS Figure Page 1. Descent of Melody 63 2. C e n t r a l i t y of Tone "A" 77 3. Gartner A l t o Lyre 102 4. Gartner Flugel-Kantele or "Wing" Kantele 103 5. Gartner Childrens' Harp 104 6. Choroi In t e r v a l Flutes I l l 7. Choroi Pentatonic and Diatonic Flutes 112 8. Choroi Kinderharp 116 9. Choroi Bordun Lyre 117 10. Choroi Solo Lyre 118 11. Choroi Klangspiel 121 12. Bamboo Flute 122 v i i i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Without the help, guidance, and support of many i n d i v i d u a l s , t h i s t h e s i s could not have been completed. I extend my thanks to the teachers and par- ents of the Vancouver Waldorf School for the unique opportunity to work at the school from 1980-1988, f i r s t as a class teacher and l a t e r as a music s p e c i a l i s t ; the students of the school who taught me so very much; A l l e n Clingman, coordinator of the Music Education Program at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, who helped me design the project and lent me needed en- couragement; musicians and teachers who gave of t h e i r time to be interviewed; Waldorf School teachers throughout North America and Canada who responded to the questionnaire to investigate music teaching i n Waldorf Schools, Grades One to Three; the Rudolf Steiner Centre for allowing me generous access to i t s l i b r a r y and materials; Steven Roboz and Charles McWilliam who answered my numerous questions and helped me to locate hard- t o - f i n d books and lectures; Hugh E l l i s who read several d r a f t s of the manuscript and made valuable suggestions; Jean Higgins who provided the i l l u s t r a t i o n s ; Norbert Visser, Geert Mulder, Andrea Pronto, Christoph- Andreas Lindenberg, J u l i a n Pook and Margaret Preston for t h e i r ideas and i n s p i r a t i o n ; my husband, Marijn Eterman who not only demonstrated i n f i n i t e patience and understanding, but also assisted me with German t r a n s l a t i o n , word processing, and presentation graphics. ix PREFACE The intent of t h i s t h e s i s i s to present, not to defend, an approach to music education based on Steiner's world-view. The author was a teacher i n the Vancouver Waldorf School for eight years from 1980-88, both as a c l a s s teacher and as a music s p e c i a l i s t . Thus, the author has worked within the philosophy of the school and i s sympathetic with many of i t s ob j e c t i v e s . However, views stated by Steiner and Waldorf music educators i n t h i s document are not necessarily the views of the author. The author has, i n many cases quoted Steiner d i r e c t l y , instead of paraphrasing him, i n order that the reader may form his/her own int e r p r e t a t i o n s . The author believes that because t h i s approach to music i s p r a c t i c e d today, i t s philosophy and ap p l i c a t i o n deserves to be explored. It i s hoped that one day, the approach w i l l be evaluated for i t s e f f e c t i v e n e s s . x CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION A. Background In Europe, i n the e a r l y 1900s, three main approaches to music education began to emerge. In 1914, Emile Jaques-Dalcroze (1865-1950), a Swiss educator, published an essay o u t l i n i n g s i x t y - s i x exercises for movement, solfege, and improvisation. "Eurythmics," the name Dalcroze gave to h i s approach, was introduced to the United States i n 1915. In 1924, i n Germany, C a r l Orff (1865-1982) founded his "Guentherschule." The f i r s t e d i t i o n of O r f f ' s Schulwerk was published i n 1930. Although the Hungarian Zoltan Kodaly (1882-1967) did not develop his methods of teaching music u n t i l 1950, he was renowned as a composer i n the early 1900s. He composed h i s famous Psalme Hunqarias i n 1923, followed by Harv Janos i n 1926. Another approach to music education was developed within the Waldorf School movement, inaugurated i n 1919 i n Stuttgart, Germany. The Waldorf Schools are based on the educational ideas of Rudolf Steiner (1861-1925), an Aus- t r i a n philosopher. (See Appendix A on the "Growth and O r i g i n of the Waldorf Schools.") Today, the Orff, Kodaly, and Dalcroze approaches to music education are known to music educators and are widely used. However, the Steiner approach to education and music education i s a t r a d i t i o n which i s not 1 2 widely known today outside of the Waldorf School movement, and i t i s often neglected i n discussion of c u r r i c u l a r matters f o r elementary c h i l d r e n . Yet, many students today are introduced to music through the Steiner/Waldorf approach. At present, according to a member of the Execu- t i v e of the Anthroposophical Society, the organization that oversees the a c t i v i t i e s i n s p i r e d by Steiner, the Waldorf Schools educate approximately 100,000 pu p i l s i n 459 Waldorf Schools i n twenty-seven c o u n t r i e s . 1 In North America alone, about ten thousand students attend seventy-four Waldorf 2 Schools. The c h i l d r e n educated i n these Waldorf Schools are exposed to music i n a unique fashion. The author believes that t h i s approach, which has evolved over the seventy years since the f i r s t Waldorf School opened, deserves exploration and recognition. It i s hoped that by documenting various aspects of t h i s approach to music education, the Steiner/Waldorf t r a d i t i o n w i l l become better known i n the f i e l d of music education, and thus be a v a i l a b l e f o r disc u s s i o n and evalua- t i o n . This study should be of i n t e r e s t to any teacher of elementary music. ^Jorgen Smit, personal le t te r dated May 5, 1989. ^M. S . Eterman, unpublished survey for the Associat ion of Waldorf Schools in North America, 1987. 3 B. Purpose of the Study Steiner believed that the c h i l d around age six or seven (at the change of teeth) experiences an important t r a n s i t i o n i n s o c i a l and i n t e l l e c t u a l awareness. At approximately age nine, around Grade Four, according to Steiner, the c h i l d experiences another such developmental change. Although music i s taught i n Steiner Schools from Kindergarten through Grade Twelve, the author has chosen to l i m i t t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n to that period between these two presumed milestones, the primary grades, Grades One through Three. The purposes of t h i s study are: 1) to investigate the basic concepts upon which music education i n the primary grades i n the Waldorf School i s based, i . e . , Rudolf Steiner's ideas regarding c h i l d development, education, music, and music education. 2) to analyze how Steiner's ideas have been assimilated, interpreted, and developed by some music educators within the Waldorf School movement i n North America i n Grades 1-3. 3) to compare t h i s approach to music education with the O r f f , Kodaly, and Dalcroze approaches. The founder of the Waldorf Schools, Rudolf Steiner, son of a railway worker, was born i n 1861 i n Austria, and died i n 1925. In h i s l i f e t i m e , he was recognized as a seer, sculptor, painter, a r c h i t e c t , and an expert i n the works of Goethe. He gave approximately 6000 lectures on subjects as diverse as a g r i c u l t u r e (bio-dynamic farming), education, s p e c i a l education, the a r t s (music, drama, eurythmy, speech), r e l i g i o n , n u t r i t i o n , medicine, 4 and economic and s o c i a l issues. In 1913, he founded a movement he termed "anthroposophy," or the "Wisdom of Man." The educational and philosophical concepts upon which music education i n the Waldorf School are based are v i r t u a l l y unknown outside the movement, e s p e c i a l l y i n North America. Very l i t t l e research has been c a r r i e d out to evaluate the effectiveness of Waldorf Schools. The author was able to f i n d only two studies, both of which were administered i n Europe. In 1967, Ogletree compared the creative a b i l i t i e s of students of Waldorf Schools to students i n p u b l i c schools i n England, Scotland, and Germany. Ogletree concluded that students from Waldorf Schools scored s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher on c r e a t i v i t y t e s t s than t h e i r state school peers, a f t e r taking into 3 consideration socio-economic class and c u l t u r a l d i f f e r e n c e . In another study financed by the Bonn government, German researchers surveyed 1460 former Waldorf School pupils born i n 1946 and 1947. Twenty-three percent of the students had passed the "Arbitur," the u n i v e r s i t y entrance exam, three times the percentage of those of students of the public school. Eighty percent of the students had completed professional t r a i n i n g (51% 4 academic and 24% vocational). Why have Steiner's ideas been neglected? Sarah Whitmer Foster, i n her do c t o r a l d i s s e r t a t i o n "The Waldorf Schools: An Exploration of an Enduring A l t e r n a t i v e School Movement," blamed "the s c a r c i t y of a r t i c l e s i n American educational p u b l i c a t i o n s , the ' s p i r i t u a l ' aspect of Steiner's ideas, and ^Earl J . Ogletree, "A Cross-Cultural Exploratory Study of the Creativeness of Steiner and State School Pup i l s in England, Scotland and Germany" (Ph.D. d i s s . , Wayne State Un ivers i ty , 1967), 7. 4 " B e s t e E ins i ch ten , " Per Spiegel 51 (December 14, 1981): 70-73. 5 the lack of organizing concepts for understanding Steiner's o r i g i n a l works 5 and r e l a t i n g them to education" for the u n f a m i l i a r i t y of Steiner's ideas. John Davy, former head of Emerson College, t r a i n i n g c ollege f o r Waldorf School teachers, c i t e d the paucity of l i t e r a t u r e t r a n s l a t e d i n t o English f o r the obscurity of the movement. Davy surmised that Waldorf educators have been too busy with the tasks of e s t a b l i s h i n g schools, administration, and teaching, to p u b l i c i z e t h e i r s chools. 6 E a r l Ogletree of Chicago State U n i v e r s i t y believed that the obscurity of the Waldorf Schools was due to "Steiner's unusual theory of human development. Curriculum p r a c t i c e s i n 7 Steiner Schools are based on that theory." Stewart Easton, h i s t o r y pro- fess o r , C i t y College New York argued that because Steiner l e c t u r e d on so many subjects, he i s not known for one p a r t i c u l a r d i s c i p l i n e , and i n t h i s Q age of s p e c i a l i z a t i o n , his ideas have been l o s t . Another author blamed the i n s u l a r , s e l f - s u f f i c i e n t character of the movement i t s e l f f o r i t s obs c u r i t y . Joscelyn Godwin, Professor of Music at New York's Colgate U n i v e r s i t y , describes anthroposophy, the name Steiner gave to h i s world- view, as "an i n t e g r a l philosophy that covers every department of human existence, and tends to t h r i v e i n more or less self-contained com- . . 9 munities." ^Sarah Whitmer Foster, "The Waldorf Schools: An Exploration of an Enduring A l te rnat i ve School Movement" (Ph.D. d i s s . , The F lor ida State Univers i ty , 1981), 7. ^John Davy, "The Movement That Everyone Tries to Forget," The Times Educational Supplement. (March 23, 1973): 18. ^Ogletree, Earl J . , "Rudolf Steiner : Unknown Educator," Elementary School Journal . 74 (March 1974): 345. ^Stewart C. Easton, Man and World in the Light of Anthroposophy (Spring Va l ley , New York: The Anthroposophic Press, 1975), 9. ' j o s c e l y n Godwin, The Harmonies of Heaven and Earth (Rochester, New York: Inner Tradit ions In te rnat iona l , L t d . , 1987), 6 Another reason for the u n f a m i l i a r i t y of t h i s philosophy i s that Steiner's w r i t i n g s t y l e i s exceedingly d i f f i c u l t to understand and i n t e r p r e t , even for those who speak and read German. Through t r a n s l a t i o n into another l a n - guage, much i s undoubtedly missed. Steiner's world-view focussed p r i m a r i l y on s p i r i t u a l aspects. Steiner wrote of his f r u s t r a t i o n at the d i f f i c u l t y of explaining h i s eso t e r i c experiences and thoughts to others: Care must often be taken not to overlook the fact that to a c e r t a i n extent, i n descriptions of supersensible experiences, [ s p i r i t u a l experiences i n which one sees beyond the v i s i b l e ] , the distance separating the actual fact from the language used to describe i t i s greater than i n descriptions of ph y s i c a l ex- perience. The reader must be at pains to r e a l i z e that many an expression i s intended as an i l l u s t r a t i o n , merely i n d i c a t i n g i n a d e l i c a t e way the r e a l i t y to which i t r e f e r s . 1 ^ Steiner cautioned h i s readers not to accept his ideas on "b l i n d f a i t h , " but to accept only what rings true out of the reader's l i f e experience. In a l e t t e r to a Fr a u l e i n M., he lamented that his concepts were destined to be misinterpreted. Steiner claimed, "I have been much misunderstood, and s h a l l no doubt be much misunderstood i n the future, too. That l i e s i n the very nature of my p a t h . " 1 1 A f t e r Steiner's death, there was perhaps a "conspiracy of s i l e n c e . " Some belie v e that Steiner's p o l i t i c a l and s o c i a l ideas threatened to rock the 12 very foundations of society. In addition, the North American public 1 u Rudol f Ste iner , Knowledge of the Higher Worlds and i t s Attainment, t rans, authorized by Rudolf Steiner Nachlassverwaltung (New York: The Anthroposophic Press, 1977), 220. ^Rudol f Ste iner , Story of My L i f e , ed. H. Co l l i son (London: Anthroposophical Press, 1928), v i i . ^ L . Eterman, unpublished interviews of Waldorf music teachers, professional musicians, and a eurythmist, 1988-90, 60. 7 a f t e r World Wars I and II was perhaps not generally accepting of Steiner's works, most of which were published i n German, nor of an educational system which was i n i t i a t e d i n Germany. Steiner's ideas have not found universal acceptance. Many considered, and s t i l l consider, Steiner to be a "flake" and a p s e u d o - i n t e l l e c t u a l . C S . Lewis, at f i r s t , expressed disapproval of his f r i e n d Owen B a r f i e l d ' s i n - volvement with anthroposophy. However, he f i n a l l y conceded that the movement was rather benign. "There i s . . . a reassuring Germanic dullness 13 about i t which would soon deter those who were looking for t h r i l l s . " Franz Kafka attended some of Steiner's lectures i n Prague. In h i s diary of 1911, he recorded h i s u n f l a t t e r i n g impressions of Steiner. He derided Steiner f o r , amongst other practices, sending the i l l to a r t g a l l e r i e s to meditate upon colours, for his d a i l y d i e t of "two l i t e r s of emulsions of 14 almonds and f r u i t s " Kafka was also scathing i n h i s c r i t i c i s m of Steiner's plays. In h i s diary entry, "My Meeting with Rudolf Steiner," 15 Kafka r i d i c u l e d Steiner's every move. Kafka's biographer believed that Steiner f a i l e d to give Kafka the paternal encouragement he desperately needed.^"6 A w r i t e r for The English Review, Hermon Ould, termed Steiner "a very poor playwright." Steiner's plays, he f e l t , had no form and were merely "a s e r i e s of dialogues." Ould stated that even though the plays expound upon a possibly v a l i d philosophy, Steiner had no r i g h t , with hi s ^Rosemary Dinnage, "Benign Dott iness: the World of Rudolf S te ine r , " New Society 2 (July 2, 1981): 10. ^Max Brod, e d . . The Diar ies of Franz Kafka 1910-1913. trans. Joseph Kresh (New York: Schocken Books, 1976), 57. 1 5 I b i d , 54-59. 1 6 Ronald Hayman, Kafka: a Biography (New York: Oxford Univers i ty Press, 1981), 93. 8 apparent lack of t a l e n t i n the medium of theater, to i n f l i c t h i s plays upon 17 the p u b l i c . Psychologist C. G. Jung read many of Steiner's books but declared that he found nothing of use i n them. Jung believed that Steiner's followers were u n c r i t i c a l and conjured up many unfounded and thus 18 f a l s e ideas. Also amongst Steiner's detractors were the German communists who, a f t e r the r e v o l u t i o n of 1917, forbade t h e i r members to attend Steiner's l e c t u r e s . The Nazis who formed t h e i r party i n 1920, frequently interrupted h i s l e c t u r e s . I t i s claimed that Steiner was p h y s i c a l l y attacked by a group of 19 young Nazis i n Munich i n 1922. At the advent of World War I I , H i t l e r 20 closed down a l l Waldorf Schools. Steiner's ideas, often communicated through poetry, parable, metaphor, and image, found a receptive audience amongst some segments of society i n h i s day. Hermann Hesse, along with 90 prominent writers, businessmen, and a r t i s t s , signed Rudolf Steiner's Proclamation to the German People i n 1917, 21 which o u t l i n e d Steiner's plan for a new s o c i a l order. (See Appendix A i n "Origin and Growth of the Waldorf Schools.") Owen B a r f i e l d , poet and the author of History i n English Words and Poetic D i c t i o n , described Steiner's 1 7Hermon Ould, "Caviare" The English Review 34 (January to June 1922): 447-453. ^Gerhard Wehr, Jung: A Biography, t rans. David M. Weeks. (Boston: Shambhala, 1987, 465-466. ^ ' c o l i n WiIson, Rudolf Steiner . The Man and His V i s i o n . (Wellingborough, Northamptonshire: The Aquarian Press, 1985), 151 . . 20Johannes Tautz, The Founding of the F i r s t Waldorf School i n S t u t t g a r t (Spring V a l l e y , New York: C o u n c i l of the P e d a g o g i c a l S e c t i o n , 1982), 1. 21 Johannes Hemleben, Rudolf Steiner (Reinbek bei Hamburg: Rowalt Taschenbuch Verlag GmbH, 1963), 119. 9 world view as neo-Romanticism or ". . . Romanticism grown up." He was a t t r a c t e d to Steiner's philosophy because i t affirmed and transcended his 22 own theories of semantics and of poetry. For Steiner, he had great respect. "I acknowledged Rudolf Steiner with reverence as ' i l maestro d i 23 c o l o r che he san'—master of those who know." He cautioned readers of Steiner not to "believe" Steiner l i t e r a l l y , but to enter into the thought and f e e l i n g s which l i e behind the words, the message behind the metaphor. I cannot think i t i s unduly paradoxical to say, that i t i s r e - a l l y a kind of betrayal of the founder of anthroposophy [Steiner's world-view] to believe what he said. He poured out h i s assertions because he trusted his hearers not to b e l i e v e . B e l i e f i s something which can only be applied to systems of ab- s t r a c t ideas. To become an anthroposophist i s not to b e l i e v e ; i t i s to decide to use the words of Rudolf Steiner (and any others which may become available) for the purpose of r a i s i n g oneself, i f p o s s i b l e , to a kind of thinking which i s i t s e l f be- yond words, which precedes them, i n the sense that ideas, words, sentences, propositions, are only drawn out of i t . This i s the source of a l l meaning whatsoever. And i t can only take the form of l o g i c a l ideas and propositions and grammatical sen- tences, at the expense of much of i t s o r i g i n a l t r u t h . For to be l o g i c a l i s to make one l i t t l e part of your meaning pre c i s e by excluding a l l the other parts. To be an anthroposophist i s to seek to unite oneself, not with any groups of words, but with t h i s concrete thinking, whose existence can only be f i - n a l l y proved by experience. It i s to r e f r a i n from u n i t i n g one- s e l f with words, i n the humble endeavour to unite oneself with 24 the Word. A modern writer, Saul Bellow, integrated many of Steiner's ideas i n t o h i s work. In h i s 1976 P u l i t z e r Prize winning book, Humbolt's G i f t , Bellow "Owen B a r f i e l d , Romanticism Comes of Age (London: Anthroposophical Publ ishing Company, 1941), 11. 2 3 I b i d . 2 4 I b i d , 61. 10 25 portrays the main character as a serious student of Steiner. In the forward to The Boundaries of Natural Science (eight lectures given by Steiner i n 1920), Bellow declared that Steiner " i s more than a thinker, he i s an i n i t i a t e . " Bellow agreed with B a r f i e l d ' s statement that western c i v i l i z a t i o n was "a world of outsides without i n s i d e s . " According to Bellow, Steiner's main contribution was that he showed that true knowledge cannot be obtained by i n t e l l e c t u a l concepts alone but through observation and inner i m a g i n a t i o n . 2 6 Steiner's ideas on music and music education perhaps remain unknown espe- c i a l l y to those outside the movement, simply because a basic understanding of Steiner's world-view i s needed to organize concepts i n t o some sort of context or matrix. The student of Steiner must sort through an unusual conceptual paradigm. Steiner's thoughts on music cannot e a s i l y be sepa- rated from hi s composite complex philosophy. Another reason for lack of knowledge about Steiner's conception of music and music education could well be that unlike Kodaly, Orff, and Dalcroze, Steiner was an educator, philosopher, a r t i s t , sculptor, poet, dramatist, and a non-musician. He did not o f f e r easy-to-follow formulas, "recipes," techniques, or even a d e t a i l e d sequenced curriculum, only hints and i n d i c a - t i o n s of an approach to music and to c h i l d r e n . He spoke about the e f f e c t of music on the human being. In his lectures, Steiner focussed p r i m a r i l y on the r e l a t i o n s h i p of the teacher and the c h i l d and on why the art of mu- 2 5 S a u l Bellow, Humbolt's G i f t (New York: Avon Books, 1975). 2 ^Saul Bellow, foreword to The Boundaries of Natural Science by Rudolf Steiner (Spring Val ley , New York: Anthroposophical Press, 1969). v i i - x i i i . T 11 s i c , and a l l of the ar t s , are important to c h i l d development. B e l i e v i n g that education as a whole should be an ar t , Steiner was adamant that no " a r t i f i c i a l methods," or contrived exercises, e s p e c i a l l y when teaching music and other a r t s , be allowed to enter the classroom. He believed that a l l i n s t r u c t i o n should be given i n an a r t i s t i c manner. He established an approach to education, an art of education, i n which the a r t s , and e s p e c i a l l y music, played an e s s e n t i a l and i n t e g r a l part. Therefore, Steiner's approach cannot be c a l l e d a system or method. It does not lend i t s e l f to d e f i n i t i o n , only c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n . Furthermore, music teaching i n the Waldorf School can only be f u l l y under- stood from the basis of the whole Waldorf School education. In the Waldorf School, subjects are integrated; a l l learning i s connected. The world i s viewed as a whole and not i n i t s separate parts. In addition, Steiner's references to music are d i f f i c u l t to f i n d without e f f o r t . Except for h i s book, The Inner Nature of Music, material i s scat- tered amongst Steiner's myriad books and lectu r e s . However, i n Steiner's day, many musicians seemed intrigued by his thoughts on music. Paul Baumann, composer, became the f i r s t music teacher i n the 27 Waldorf School. Valborg Werbeck-Svardstrom, a Swedish opera singer, de- veloped a method of "uncovering the voice" as opposed to teaching singing, 2 8 based on Steiner's guidelines. E l s i e Hamilton, a composer who had per- ^ G i s b e r t Husemann and Johannes T a u t z , P e r L e h r e r k r i e s um R u d o l f S t e i n e r i n d e r E r s t e n W a l d o r f S c h u l e 1919-1925 ( S t u t t g a r t : V e r l a g F r e i e s G e i s t e s l e b e n GmbH: 1977) , 87 . ^ V a l b o r g W e r b e c k - S v a r d s t r o m , U n c o v e r i n g the V o i c e : A Path Towards C a t h a r s i s i n t h e A r t o f S i n g i n g , t r a n s . P . L u b o r s k y ( L o n d o n : R u d o l f S t e i n e r P r e s s , 1980) . 12 sonal conversations with Steiner, experimented with Greek i n t e r v a l s and d i f f e r e n t tunings. Kathleen Schlesinger, a musicologist who also met 29 Steiner, researched the old Greek instruments. Instrument b u i l d e r s such as Lothar Gartner^ 0 and Norbert Visser"^ 1 b u i l t many d i f f e r e n t instrumental prototypes, some of which are used i n the Waldorf Schools today. Edmund 32 Pracht composed exercises and music for the Gartner l y r e . Some contemporary musicians claim to have been influenced and impressed by Steiner's views on music. Yugoslavian v i o l i n virtuoso Miha Pogacnik founded IDRIART, I n s t i t u t e for the Development of I n t e r c u l t u r a l Relations through Music, an organization which holds i n t e r n a t i o n a l music f e s t i v a l s with the aim of bringing people from a l l over the world together f or musi- c a l experiences. Several professional Vancouver musicians have stated that 33 Steiner's ideas underlie t h e i r work. One of these musicians professed that Steiner made her aware of a s p i r i t u a l dimension. What he has to say i s so f i l l e d with meaning, so deep, and so thought out, and so f i l l e d with t h i s whole p i c t u r e that t h i s world consists of another r e a l i t y that we cannot see, but ex- i s t s . This nourishes us as human beings and then we take t h i s i n t o our being and take i t on stage with us and hope that i t i s also transformed then through our music. Who I am, what I have l i v e d , what I have suffered, makes my i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of Bach more meaningful. I think what Steiner's words have done.... i s that as a r t i s t s we had t h i s i n k l i n g , t h i s f e e l i n g , t h i s e x p e r i - "L. Eterman, unpublished interviews, 6. ^Edmund Pracht, Goldene Leier . Heft 4. Einfuhrung in das Le iersp ie l (Konstanz, West Germany: W. Lothar Gartner, 1955), 5. ^Norber t V isser , "Bui ld ing Choroi Musical Instruments, a Musical and Social Impulse," Curative Education and Social Therapy 2 (Midsummer 1983): 37-41. 3 2 P r a c h t , 19-63. 3 3 L . Eterman, unpublished interviews. 13 ence of something we could not define, then we'll read some passage by Steiner. He has defined i t for us. It echoes, i t r e s o n a t e s . ^ Albert Schweitzer, musician, as well as physician, philosopher, and humanitarian, met with Steiner i n 1902 or 1903. The following quote i s a t t r i b u t e d to Schweitzer i n Lambarene, November 1960: My meeting with Rudolf Steiner led me to occupy myself with him from that time f o r t h and to remain always aware of h i s s i g n i f i - cance. . . . We both f e l t the same o b l i g a t i o n to lead men once again to true inner culture. I have r e j o i c e d at the achieve- ments which hi s great personality and h i s profound humanity have brought about i n the world. Conductor Bruno Walter found his own thoughts confirmed i n Steiner's works. The epilogue of h i s book, Of Music and Music-Making, which he wrote i n 1955 at the end of h i s career, was a t r i b u t e to Rudolf Steiner. As a musician, I was, at f i r s t , amazed, and l a t e r deeply g r a t i f i e d to learn that i n the l i g h t that i s shed on music by anthroposophy, the dark s t r i v i n g of my young days and my subsequent conscious search for knowledge had indeed put me on the r i g h t path, and that my thoughts on the o r i g i n and nature of music, the thoughts of a musician though they are, can hold t h e i r own i n the face of anthroposophy. More than that: i n the sublime cosmology of Rudolf Steiner, these thoughts f i n d an incomparably deeper and wiser confirmation; my more i n t u i t i v e i n s i g h t s are given c e r t a i n t y by being placed i n a universal context such as my musicianship by i t s e l f could never have provided. . . . 35 3 4 I b i d , 19. ^Bruno Walter, Of Music and Music Making, trans, by Paul Hamburger (New York: W. W. Norton and Company, 1961), 212 14 Throughout my e n t i r e being, I f e e l a rejuvenation which strengthens and invigorates my r e l a t i o n to music, and even my music-making.^ Godwin praised the Waldorf School for i t s emphasis on music: Steiner himself wrote some of the clearest explanations ever made of the nature of music. . . . His insigh t s into music as a manifestation of r e a l i t i e s of a higher order convinced him of i t s o v e r r i d i n g importance to healing and education a l i k e . . . . Music provides one of the closest images of that world; hence i t s value f o r reawakening the soul's prenatal knowledge of s p i r i t u a l r e a l i t i e s . Therefore one cannot begin too soon to make t h i s a r t an accepted and loved part of a c h i l d ' s l i f e , and t h i s i s done today i n the many Waldorf Schools that follow Steiner's p r i n c i p l e s . 3 7 C. Methodology: Steiner's theories on education, the arts, music, and music education have been taken from h i s lectures and books and matched with some i n t e r p r e t a - t i o n s and p r a c t i c e s of h i s successors i n the f i e l d . A r t i c l e s and books which i n t e r p r e t Steiner's concepts have been reviewed. C u r r i c u l a from Wal- dorf Schools, notes from conferences, lectures, courses, and correspondence with key people i n the f i e l d have also provided information. Interviews of pr o f e s s i o n a l musicians influenced by Steiner, Waldorf music teachers, cl a s s teachers, and a eurythmist also helped to give a picture of current b e l i e f s and p r a c t i c e s . Working as a music s p e c i a l i s t i n a Waldorf School, teaching 3 6 I b i d , 213. 3 7 Godwin, 39. music Grades One through Eight for f i v e years, and also Grades One through Twelve i n the l a s t year with the school, the author has gained valuable ex- perience f o r t h i s project. A questionnaire was sent to the twenty-three English language Waldorf Schools which were members of the North American Waldorf School A s s o c i a t i o n and which had been i n existence for more than ten years when the study was c a r r i e d out. Information from class teachers and music s p e c i a l i s t s from these schools helped to characterize how music i s taught i n established Waldorf Schools today. D. Significance of Study Rudolf Steiner's ideas about education, music, and music education are v i r t u a l l y unknown. This study may be of i n t e r e s t to those musicians and music educators who wish to know more about Steiner's philosophy of music education and the manner i n which t h i s philosophy has evolved within the Waldorf School movement. No study has been undertaken, to the author's knowledge, to l i n k Steiner's philosophy on music teaching to current prac- t i c e s . It i s hoped that the study w i l l not only create greater i n t e r e s t i n Waldorf School music education, but also that researchers w i l l be en- couraged to evaluate t h i s approach to music education i n the future. Waldorf primary classroom teachers are usually required to teach music to t h e i r own students. Some of these teachers may have l i m i t e d background i n music and/or music education and may not be f u l l y aware of Steiner's ideas on these subjects. It i s hoped that t h i s study, by o u t l i n i n g Steiner's views on music and music education and how these ideas have been i n t e r - preted i n North America, w i l l provide these teachers with a basis on which to make c u r r i c u l a r decisions i n t h e i r own schools. E. Limitations As mentioned, Steiner delivered over six thousand lectures i n German within the twenty years of h i s career, some of which are not yet t r a n s l a t e d . Steiner's i n i t i a l l ectures, i n the e a r l y 1900s, which included l e c t u r e s on a r t , were not even recorded by stenographers. Later transcribed l e c t u r e s were most often l e f t unrevised by Steiner. In addition, Steiner o f f e r e d h i s ideas v e r b a l l y to i n d i v i d u a l s who asked for h i s advice. Consequently, i t i s conceivable that some of his thoughts were not passed on accurately. Furthermore, i t i s possible that many of Steiner's ideas about music may have died with him, and that the i n d i c a t i o n s given i n lectures do not rep- resent a l l that he had to say on the subject. Steiner was scheduled to 3 8 give a conference on music shortly before his death i n 1925. Considering these circumstances, i t i s indeed p l a u s i b l e that some of Steiner's ideas on music and music education are unavailable, have been overlooked, are l o s t , or perhaps have been misinterpreted. 5 ° E r i k a V . A s t e n , p r e f a c e t o The Inner Nature of M u s i c and the E x p e r i e n c e of Tone by R u d o l f S t e i n e r , t r a n s . M a r i a S t . G o a r , e d . A l i c e W u l s i n ( S p r i n g V a l l e y , New Y o r k : The A n t h r o p o s o p h i c a l P r e s s , 1983) , v i i i . 17 Even though a l l twenty-three member schools contacted responded to a questionnaire on Waldorf music teaching, two member schools i n existence l e s s than ten years, one French language school, and the l e s s e stablished "sponsored" and "federation" schools also a f f i l i a t e d with the Waldorf School A s s o c i a t i o n were not approached. Furthermore, the author was able to interview only a few subjects within the Vancouver area. A small sample, therefore, was taken and generalizations may only be made on t h i s b a s i s . F. Glossary Anthroposophy: The name Rudolf Steiner gave to his world-view. Steiner derived the term from the Greek "anthropos" or "man" and "sophia" or "wisdom." Also c a l l e d "science of the s p i r i t , " anthroposophy, according to Steiner, i s the "Wisdom of Man," the wisdom contained i n every aspect of the human being. Basic concepts include: 1) existence of a s p i r i t u a l world; 2) the etern a l nature of the human being; 3) b e l i e f i n the s p i r i t u a l evolution of humankind; 4) four- f o l d nature of the human b e i n g — p h y s i c a l body, e t h e r i c body, a s t r a l body, and ego. A s t r a l "body": That aspect of the human being which c a r r i e s the conscious- ness, the " f e e l i n g " l i f e . Body: A combination of cooperative parts. The word "body" may be used i n the sense of "a body of men," or "a body of opinion." Steiner spoke of the ph y s i c a l body, etheric body (body of l i f e - f o r c e s ) , and the as- t r a l body (body of consciousness). Change of Teeth: The period of childhood around age seven i n which the c h i l d loses i t s "baby" teeth. Ego: The "eternal" member of the human being which passes through death. E t h e r i c "body": That aspect of the human being which c a r r i e s the l i f e - forces of growth development and which d i f f e r e n t i a t e s the l i v i n g hu- man being from the corpse. Eurythmy: Inaugurated by Rudolf Steiner i n 1912 and incorporated into the Waldorf Schools i n 1919, eurythmy i s a form of movement described as v i s i b l e speech and v i s i b l e music. The eurythmist portrays the inner movements of music and speech. Sound i s not only heard, but seen through movement i n eurythmy. The arms and hands are the primary 18 modes of expression i n eurythmy. Instead of moving from one f i x e d p o s i t i o n to another, the eurythmist portrays a flow of movement. Eu- rythmy i s an art form which can be enjoyed as an a r t , but i t i s also u t i l i z e d as an educational t o o l and a form of therapy. Feeling: One of the three functions of the soul; i t pertains to the breathing and blood c i r c u l a t i o n , the chest, the heart and the emo- t i o n a l or a f f e c t i v e domain of man. Fourfold man: The f u l l y formed human b e i n g — t h e physical body, the ethe r i c body, the a s t r a l body, and ego. Higher members of the human being's nature: According to Steiner, the three higher members are c a l l e d S p i r i t - S e l f , L i f e - S p i r i t , and S p i r i t - Man, and are s t i l l i n the course of development. These higher mem- bers of every human being are gradually being formed through the mas- tery of the a s t r a l , e t h e r i c and physical members. The " I " or "ego" completes the seven-fold p o t e n t i a l . Indications: A term used by anthroposophists to denote guidelines given by Steiner. "Indication" i s defined by the Merriam-Webster d i c t i o n a r y as "an o u t l i n e of p o l i c y or conduct." "Mood of the Fi f t h " : Translation of Steiner's term "Erleben der Quinte." Steiner s p e c i f i e d that music for the c h i l d before the age of nine should contain the notes DE GAB DE and should be neither major or minor. A gentle, flowing rhythm i s also recommended. A con t r o v e r s i a l issue amongst some Waldorf educators, "Mood of the F i f t h " music has been interpreted as music which may 1) begin and end on any note other than the tonic ("G"); 2) begin and end on "A" or be centered around "A"; 3) consist of descending phrases; 4) involve open, non-tempered tuning; 5) contain melismatic passages. Physical body: That aspect of the human being which i s r e l a t e d to the min- e r a l world. Spiritual World: In Steiner's view, the immanent world of beings and a c t i v i t i e s normally unaccessible to the bodily senses. "Steiner Schools" or "Waldorf Schools": A worldwide educational approach inaugurated by Rudolf Steiner i n 1919. (See Appendix B> "Unique Features of the Waldorf Schools") Supersensible experience: The s p i r i t u a l experience of seeing beyond the v i s i b l e world. Thinking: the cognitive function of the soul; one of the three functions of the soul; i t pertains to the human being's i n t e l l e c t , (the cogni- t i v e domain), nerve-system, head. Willing: S e l f - d i r e c t i o n and con t r o l ; one of the three functions of the soul; i t pertains to the human being's limb (psychomotor) and metabolic system. CHAPTER II BASIC PHILOSOPHICAL CONCEPTS RELATING TO MUSIC EDUCATION Several concepts form the foundation of Steiner's philosophy of music and music education for ch i l d r e n i n Grades One, Two and Three. Steiner believed that the c h i l d : A) i s a s p i r i t u a l being, descended from the s p i r i t u a l world. B) i s a f o u r - f o l d being. C) possesses soul f a c u l t i e s of thinking, f e e l i n g , and w i l l i n g . D) develops sequentially through several stages of development. E) r e c a p i t u l a t e s the evolution of humankind i n i t s growth. A. C h i l d as a S p i r i t u a l Being Steiner claimed that there i s a s p i r i t u a l world, a world from which the hu- man being descends at b i r t h and which he enters a f t e r death. This unseen world was perceived by Steiner as p o t e n t i a l l y accessible to every human be- ing. F i r s t , . . . there i s behind the v i s i b l e , an i n v i s i b l e world, hidden to begin with from the senses and from the kind of th i n k i n g that i s fettered to the senses. And secondly, that by the due development of forces slumbering within him i t i s pos- s i b l e for man to penetrate into t h i s hidden w o r l d . ^ 3 9 Rudo l f Steiner . Occult Science, trans. George and Mary Adams (London: Rudolf Steiner Press, 1969), 31 . 19 20 B. C h i l d as f o u r - f o l d being Central to Steiner's outlook i s his conception of the f o u r - f o l d nature of the human being. According to Steiner, the human being c o n s i s t s of a phys- i c a l body, an e t h e r i c "body" (growth or l i f e - f o r c e ) , a s t r a l body (the soul- body, consciousness which leaves the physical organism during sleep), and the " I " (das "Ich"] the "ego." The " I " i s the essence, the core, the "soul kernel" of the human b e i n g — t h a t part of the human being which i s e t e r n a l . This fourth member distinguishes the human being from the animal world. Humankind, according to Steiner, i s the "crown of c r e a t i o n . " Steiner r e l a t e d the " I " to the "Divine Being." . . . as the drop i s to the ocean, so i s the " I " to the Divine. Man can f i n d the Divine with himself, because his own and most 40 e s s e n t i a l being springs from the Divine. In the future, Steiner anticipated that three other members, already semi- n a l l y present, but not yet developed, would gradually and s e q u e n t i a l l y evolve. Steiner designated these members as S p i r i t - S e l f , L i f e - S p i r i t , and 41 Spirit-Man. . According to Steiner, the human being i s also a t h r e e - f o l d being c o n s i s t i n g of body, soul, and s p i r i t . Steiner explained that the p h y s i c a l , e t h e r i c and soul-body rooted the human being to the p h y s i c a l world. The three higher members of the human being which Steiner were 42 r e l a t e d to the s p i r i t . 4 0 I b i d , 50 . ^ R u d o l f S t e i n e r , Theosophy. t r a n s , a u t h o r i z e d by R u d o l f S t e i n e r N a c h l a s s v e r w a l t u n g ( L o n d o n : R u d o l f S t e i n e r P r e s s , 1922), 42 . 4 2 I b i d , 4 3 . 21 C. Thinking, Feeling, and W i l l i n g The human being also has three functions or f a c u l t i e s of s o u l — t h i n k i n g , f e e l i n g , and w i l l i n g , b a s i c a l l y the cognitive, a f f e c t i v e , and psychomotoric domains. Steiner i n s i s t e d that the development of these three q u a l i t i e s were extremely important i n education. Where we have chi l d r e n of primary school age, we have to deal with the c h i l d ' s soul. Now [the] soul manifests, roughly speaking, through thinking, f e e l i n g and w i l l i n g . And i f one can thoroughly understand the play of thinking, f e e l i n g and w i l l — t h e soul's life-:-within man's whole nature, one has the 43 basis for the whole of education. Thinking i s bound up, i n Steiner's view, to the nerves, to nervous a c t i v - i t y . F eeling i s affe c t e d by the rhythmic nature of the breathing and blood system. The w i l l i s d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d to the metabolism, to movement, and to the l i m b s . 4 4 D. C h i l d Development Steiner contended that the four aspects of the human being (the p h y s i c a l , e t h e r i c , a s t r a l , and ego) are present as i f i n seed form at b i r t h . In seven-year stages, these "bodies" gradually becomes manifest. At each seven-year stage, i t i s e s s e n t i a l , Steiner believed, to provide a s o l i d foundation through education for the development of w i l l i n g (age 0-7), f e e l i n g (age 7-14), and thinking (age 14-21). ^ R u d o l f Steiner , The S p i r i t u a l Ground of Education, trans, by permission of Marie Steiner (London: Anthroposophical Publ ishing Company, 1947), 41. 4 4 I b i d , 44. According to Steiner, the f i r s t s i x or seven years of l i f e before the change of teeth (the loss of the f i r s t teeth), the e t h e r i c or growth forces 45 are occupied with the b u i l d i n g up of the physical body. The ph y s i c a l body, Steiner assumed, i s shaped and preserved from d i s i n t e g r a t i o n into i t s chemical constituents by the "etheric" or " l i f e " forces which also provide 46 the forces reguired for physical growth i n the young c h i l d . During t h i s time, the c h i l d i s " i n the highest degree and by h i s whole na- 47 ture a being of sense. He i s a sense organ." The c h i l d r e a d i l y soaks up the impressions from the environment which influences the e t h e r i c body and moulds the being of the c h i l d . Every gesture, every musical sound, every expression of the people surrounding the c h i l d , maintained Steiner, i s 48 imprinted on the being of the c h i l d . The surrounding impressions r i p p l e , echo, and sound through the whole organism because the c h i l d i s not so inwardly bound up with i t s body as i s the case i n l a t e r l i f e , but l i v e s i n the environment with h i s s p i r i t u a l and soul nature. Hence the c h i l d i s receptive to a l l the impressions coming from the en v i - ronment . ̂ 4 - * R u d o l f S t e i n e r , B a l a n c e i n T e a c h i n g , t r a n s . F e l l o w s h i p and T h r e e f o l d Communit ies ( S p r i n g V a l l e y , New Y o r k : M e r c u r y P r e s s , 1982), 44 . 4 ^ R u d o l f S t e i n e r , The E d u c a t i o n of the C h i l d , t r a n s . George and Mary Adams ( L o n d o n : R u d o l f S t e i n e r P r e s s , 1975) , 24. 4 7 R u d o l f S t e i n e r , E s s e n t i a l s of E d u c a t i o n , t r a n s , a u t h o r i z e d by R u d o l f S t e i n e r N a c h l a s s v e r w a l t u n g ( L o n d o n : R u d o l f S t e i n e r P r e s s , 1968), 32 . 4 8 I b i d . 4 9 I b i d . According to Steiner, i f the proper atmosphere for the c h i l d was not cre- ated f o r the c h i l d during the f i r s t seven years of l i f e , teachers and par- 50 ents would never be able to repair the damage. However, the c h i l d i s not viewed as a "tabula rasa," a blank s l a t e , but as a being i n the process of loosening i t s e l f from the hereditary body. In f a c t , Steiner saw the hereditary forces struggling with the e t e r n a l i n d i - v i d u a l i t y of the c h i l d . Henry Barnes, a Waldorf School teacher, likened the process to a sculptor "forming the organism according to the i n d i v i d u a l 51 plan that corresponds to the c h i l d ' s p a r t i c u l a r human p o t e n t i a l . " Because of the nature of the c h i l d at t h i s stage, the c h i l d learns, Steiner 52 contended, p r i m a r i l y through imitation. Steiner strongly deplored the i n t e l l e c t u a l i s m of kindergarten classes of his day. He adamantly main- tain e d that the world of the kindergarten should consist "simply and s o l e l y of the external i m i t a t i o n of the external p i c t u r e of what grown-up people do." He posited that by allowing the c h i l d to l i v e i n a p i c t o r i a l , dream- l i k e state, the organism might grow up to be strong and have the opportu- 53 n i t y to develop i n t e l l e c t u a l c a p acities needed for l a t e r l i f e . The c h i l d , according to Steiner, learns through play. ^ s t e i n e r . The Education of the C h i l d . 24. ^Henry Barnes, "An Introduction to Waldorf Education," Teachers College Record 81 (Spring 1980): 327. 5 2 I b i d . -^Rudolf Ste iner , A Modern Art of Education, t rans. Jesse Dar re l l and George Adams (London: Rudolf Steiner Press, 1972), 118-119. 24 If with a genuine knowledge of Man one sees and senses c h i l d - nature on the way from play to life-work, one w i l l d i v i n e upon an intermediate s t a t i o n the r e a l nature of teaching and of learning. For i n the c h i l d , play i s the earnest manifestation of that inner impulse to a c t i v i t y wherein man has his true ex- istence. . . . But i t i s the i d e a l of educational and teaching p r a c t i c e to awaken i n the c h i l d the sense to learn with the same earnestness of ap p l i c a t i o n with which, so long as play i s 5 4 the sole content of the inner l i f e , he plays. In t h i s period of l i f e , the limb and metabolic systems (manifestations of the " w i l l " ) are i n the process of developing. The c h i l d i s " f u l l of l i f e ; " the e t h e r i c , or l i f e forces, are forming him/her. However, Steiner's idea of the " w i l l " embraces more than the development of psychomotor c a p a c i t i e s . He postulated that "when we ' w i l l ' there i s always something deeply, uncon- 55 s c i o u s l y present i n the a c t i v i t y . " " W i l l " i s related, i n Steiner's view, to a r e l i g i o u s q u a l i t y . In the f i r s t stage of l i f e , because the c h i l d has only r e c e n t l y descended from the s p i r i t u a l world, Steiner believed, he/she 56 i s "'homo r e l i g i o s u s , ' a being of r e l i g i o n . " By t h i s , Steiner implied that "the devotion of the body of the c h i l d to i t s environment i s a r e l i g i o u s experience. And yet i t i s a r e l i g i o u s e xperience—transplanted 57 i n t o the sphere of nature." The c h i l d assumes that the world i s good and moral and needs to have t h i s moral, r e l i g i o u s f e e l i n g affirmed through CO his/her experience. - ^ R u d o l f S t e i n e r , " E d u c a t i o n and A r t , " Anthroposophy ( L o n d o n : The A n t h r o p o s o p h i c a l P u b l i s h i n g Company, May 1923) , 1. ^ R u d o l f S t e i n e r , S tudy o f Man, t r a n s . Daphne Harwood and H e l e n Fox ( L o n d o n : R u d o l f S t e i n e r P r e s s , 1966) , 86 . ^ S t e i n e r , The E s s e n t i a l s of E d u c a t i o n . 40 . 5 7 I b i d , 34 . 4 6 I b i d , 40 . 5 8 S t e i n e r , S tudy o f Man. 134. The second period of l i f e , from age 7 - 14, begins with the change of teeth. Steiner saw t h i s as a very important event. The teeth represent something that i s developing i n the whole human organism. . . . there i s a shooting-forth into form, the human soul-being i s working at the second bodily nature, l i k e a scu l p t o r working at the moulding of h i s material. An i n n e r ^ unconscious, p l a s t i c moulding process i s a c t u a l l y going on. Steiner postulated that at t h i s time, the freeing of the e t h e r i c or growth forces occurs. These forces, which are no longer needed for growth are free to work independently, and are manifested "as an increase i n the power of forming ideas, and i n the formation and r e l i a b i l i t y of the memory."60 At the change of teeth, the eth e r i c body, which up u n t i l that time concentrated on the b u i l d i n g up of the physical body, becomes free and independent and i s able to a f f e c t the c h i l d ' s a s t r a l b e i n g . 6 1 The hereditary body has been transformed. Just as the f i r s t teeth are driven f o r t h , so the whole f i r s t body i s driven f o r t h . And at the same time of change of teeth, the c h i l d stands before us with a body which i n contrast to the body he was born with, i s e n t i r e l y newly formed. The body of his b i r t h has been cast f o r t h l i k e f i r s t teeth, and a new body i s formed. 6 2 - ' ' s t e i n e r , The Essent ia ls of Education. 52. ^ R u d o l f Ste iner , Roots of Education, trans. Helen Fox (London: Rudolf Steiner Press, 1968), 59. ^ R u d o l f Ste iner , Soul Economy and Waldorf Education, trans. Roland Everett (Spring Va l ley , New York: Anthroposophic Press, 1986), 111. ^ S t e i n e r . The Roots of Education. 15. 26 Only a f t e r t h i s change of teeth should the c h i l d take on regular school work, according to Steiner. From b i r t h to the change of teeth, the c h i l d was capable only of taking i n impressions and i m i t a t i n g . However, the c h i l d between the change of teeth and adolescence does not allow the im- pressions to reverberate into his/her being as much as before. Instead, the c h i l d i s a c t i v e i n transforming those impressions into images and p i c t u r e s . Steiner believed that the inner being of the c h i l d , i n s p i r e d through imagination and f e e l i n g from seven to fourteen, i s best reached through the a r t s . To quote Steiner, "Between the change of teeth and puberty, the c h i l d i s an a r t i s t , a l b e i t i n a c h i l d - l i k e way."^3 Whereas the c h i l d learned through i m i t a t i o n before the age of seven, he/she now longs f o r a natural authority, a teacher who i s him/herself an a r t i s t ; 64 a " p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n of what i s good, true and b e a u t i f u l . " The c h i l d , ac- 65 cording to Steiner, needs to f e e l that his/her world i s b e a u t i f u l . By a r t i s t i c , imaginative education, Steiner meant that the c h i l d was not only to be involved a c t i v e l y i n the a r t s , but also that the n o n - i n t e l l e c - t u a l p i c t o r i a l presentation of material by the teacher was required. Through the a r t s material can be presented to the c h i l d which can be understood on many d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s . Fixed, f i n i s h e d concepts and r i g i d ideas were to be avoided from ages seven through fourteen, as, of course, ' S t e i n e r , E s s e n t i a l s of E d u c a t i o n . 40 . ' S t e i n e r , The Roots of E d u c a t i o n . 66 . S t e i n e r , Study o f Man. 135. 27 e a r l i e r . These images or pictures would be transformed, metamorphosed i n l a t e r years to more concrete concepts. Just as we provide children with clothing wide enough to allow for t h e i r limbs to grow f r e e l y , so should we as teachers respond to t h e i r inner needs by giving them content not only su i t e d to t h e i r present stage, but also capable of further ex- pansion. If we give the c h i l d concepts which are f i x e d and f i n i s h e d , we do not allow for t h i s inner growth and maturity. Therefore, a l l concepts which we introduce, a l l f e e l i n g s which we invoke and a l l w i l l impulses which we give, must be treated with the same care and foresight with which we clothe our c h i l - 66 dren's limbs. Steiner viewed t h i s phase of growth as a c r i t i c a l learning period. He f e l t strongly that i f ch i l d r e n do not have the r i g h t kind of education, an a r t i s t i c education at t h i s age, no amount of learning i n the future can compensate. We must r e a l i z e : what can be developed between the ages of seven and fourteen can no longer be developed at a l a t e r stage. The forces at work during that period die away; Later a l l that can a r i s e i s a s u b s t i t u t e . 6 7 Within t h i s period of seven to fourteen, another change takes place within the c h i l d around the ninth year, i n Grade Three or Four. Waldorf School teachers r e f e r to t h i s t r a n s i t i o n as the "ninth year change." At t h i s age, Steiner asserted that the c h i l d begins to move more con- s c i o u s l y , with more purpose. The c h i l d becomes more aware of his/her own ^ S t e i n e r , S o u l Economy and Waldorf E d u c a t i o n . 125. ^ 7 R u d o l f S t e i n e r , P r a c t i c a l A d v i c e t o T e a c h e r s , t r a n s . Johanna C o l l i s ( L o n d o n : R u d o l f S t e i n e r P r e s s , 1976) , 19. 28 developing i n d i v i d u a l i t y . Before t h i s time, the c h i l d was more at one with his/her surroundings. Af t e r "crossing the Rubicon of the ninth year," the c h i l d sees himself/herself as an e n t i t y separate from his/her environment. Steiner believed that although around the age of three, the c h i l d i s able to say " I , " the ego does not d i f f e r e n t i a t e i t s e l f from i t s environment u n t i l age nine. 6® Between the ages of nine and ten an important change takes place i n the c h i l d ' s l i f e . For the f i r s t time, he learns to di s t i n g u i s h himself from h i s surroundings i n the r i g h t way. We can then teach him i n t h i s year about l i f e that i s independent of man, the plants and the animals. It i s r e a l l y something tremendous that happens i n the c h i l d ' s nature. . . . Something happens i n the depths of the c h i l d ' s soul. He becomes a d i f - ferent being. He learns how to d i s t i n g u i s h himself from the world, not by means of concepts, but i n his f e e l i n g s . 6 9 An important p h y s i o l o g i c a l transformation heralds i n t h i s change. Breathing and blood c i r c u l a t i o n , according to Steiner, begin to become independent of each other. In a grown up person, the pulse beats are on an average four times as many as the breaths per minute. But t h i s normal r e l a t i o n s h i p i n the human organism between the breathing and the blood rhythms must f i r s t be established i n the period be- tween the change of teeth and puberty. And a l l education must be so arranged that the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the breathing and blood rhythms su i t a b l e to the majesty and development of the human organism may be set up. 7^ 6 8 I b i d , 110. ^ ' R u d o l f S t e i n e r , " E d u c a t i o n and the S c i e n c e of the S p i r i t , " E d u c a t i o n as an A r t , e d . P a u l M. A l l e n ( B t a u v e l t , New Y o r k : S t e i n e r Books , 1970), 4 1 . S t e i n e r , The E s s e n t i a l s of E d u c a t i o n . 54 -55 . 29 Steiner r e l a t e s the autonomy of the breathing and blood c i r c u l a t i o n systems to the development of the f e e l i n g l i f e , or a f f e c t i v e domain of the c h i l d . Breathing and blood c i r c u l a t i o n are the physical bases of the l i f e of f e e l i n g just as the head i s the basis for mental im- agery, for thinking. With the change of teeth, the l i f e of f e e l i n g becomes l i b e r a t e d and therefore, at t h i s stage one can always reach the c h i l d through the element of f e e l i n g , provided that the teaching material i s a r t i s t i c a l l y attuned to the c h i l d ' s nature. 7 Hans Engel of the Camphill Movement (anthroposophical curative movement) described t h i s t r a n s i t i o n i n the l i f e of the c h i l d as a rather d i f f i c u l t milestone. At t h i s age, he has to leave the wondrous confines of the magic world i n which he was so f u l l y at home and which gave him t h i s supremacy over h i s demanding, or often denying, surrounding world. One can also l i k e n t h i s step to a f a l l i n g from para- d i s i a c a l conditions. The c h i l d has to reorientate himself com- p l e t e l y , h i s longing for the l o s t paradise only too often l e t s him experience the new world around him as bare, naked, c r u e l 72 and undesirable. With t h i s change i n the c h i l d ' s organism, i n the breathing, the former har- mony and unity with the world has been disturbed. Engel believed that only beauty can reconnect him with the world again. He must learn to breathe 73 again i n a d i f f e r e n t way. 71 Steiner , Soul Economy and Waldorf Education. 156-157. ^2Hans Heinrich Engel, "Twelve Year O ld , " The Cresset: Journal of the Camphill Movement 17 (Winter 1970): 19. ^ I b i d , 21. 30 Steiner presumed that from ages seven to nine, from roughly Grade One to Grade Three, the c h i l d s t i l l f e e l s at one with the world. The teacher may speak of "plants, animals, mountains, r i v e r s and so on, i n the language of 74 f a i r y t a l e s , appealing above a l l to the c h i l d ' s fantasy." The material 75 must be brought i n " l i v i n g , not dead p i c t u r e s . " In f a c t , Steiner be- l i e v e d that i f teachers make chil d r e n conscious of the d i f f e r e n c e between the inner world and the outer world too early, an awareness the c h i l d re- ceives only a f t e r the "ninth year change," harm i s a c t u a l l y done to the 7 6 c h i l d r e n because they are given r i g i d i n t e l l e c t u a l concepts too soon. The foundation l a i d i n the e a r l y years of a c h i l d ' s education i s c r u c i a l for healthy development. At puberty, around the age of 14, i f the " w i l l " and " f e e l i n g " have been nurtured, and i f the p h y s i c a l , e t h e r i c , and a s t r a l "bodies" have been allowed to develop unhindered, i n t e l l e c t u a l forces begin to awaken i n a wholesome manner. The a s t r a l body i s now free to a s s i s t i n the development of the ego. . . . what has been developed i n pictures between the change of teeth and puberty, and has become the possession of the soul i n an inwardly musical, p l a s t i c sense, i n l i v i n g p i c t u r e s , i s then l a i d hold of by the i n t e l l e c t . . . . the human being has pre- pared what l i e s before the age of puberty i n healthy develop- ment, he has prepared for the i n t e l l i g e n t understanding of what he already possesses. A l l that he has taken hold of i n p i c - tures r i s e s up i n t e l l i g i b l y from his own inner w e l l - s p r i n g s . 7 7 ' ^ S t e i n e r , A Modern A r t of E d u c a t i o n . 168. ^ S t e i n e r , " E d u c a t i o n and the S c i e n c e of the S p i r i t , " 4 1 . 7 6 I b i d , 40 . 7 7 S t e i n e r , The E s s e n t i a l s of E d u c a t i o n . 77. 31 Steiner believed that a young person educated i n the proper manner, gains a degree of mastery of himself/herself, of: freedom through the understanding of his own being. True freedom i s an inner experience, . . . As a teacher, I must say to myself: I cannot impart freedom to the human being; he must experience i t for himself. But what I have to do i s to plant within him something to which his own b e i n g — t h i s I leave untouched—feels attracted and into which i t sinks i t s e l f . . . . In reverence of the Godhead i n every s i n g l e human being, I have l e f t untouched those things that may only be l a i d hold of by himself. I educate everything i n the human being except what belongs to himself, and then wait f o r his own being to lay hold of what I have brought f o r t h within him. . . . If I give an i n t e l l e c t u a l i s t i c education, before puberty, i f I o f f e r abstract concepts or ready-made, sharply-outline observations and not growing, l i v i n g p ictures, I am doing violence to the human being, I am laying b r u t a l hands upon the s e l f within h im. 7 8 The young person wishes, at t h i s stage, to exercise judgement. He/She i s able to view the world i n a more objective way, l i k e a s c i e n t i s t , and no longer regards h i s teachers as unquestioned a u t h o r i t i e s . The teacher, at 80 t h i s stage, must convey the idea to the student that "The world i s true." 7 8 I b i d , 78. 7 9 S t e i n e r , S t u d y of Man. 133. 8 0 I b i d , 136. 32 In summary, here i s Steiner's theory of c h i l d development: TABLE I STAGES OF CHILD DEVELOPMENT 0-7 7-14 14-21 w i l l i n g stage (psychomotoric) f e e l i n g stage (affective) thinking stage (cognitive) a c t i v i t y of w i l l predominant through met abo 1 i sm / movement f e e l i n g nature predominant through rhythmic/blood system thinking predominant through nerve/sense c h i l d i s a l l "sense organ" " a l l head" (nerves r a d i a t e from head) c h i l d i s "breathing" chest/heart c h i l d grows in t o his/her limbs b i r t h of p h y s i c a l body at 7- freeing of etheric body at 14- f r e e i n g of a s t r a l body at 21- f r e e i n g of ego et h e r i c body moulds ph y s i c a l a s t r a l body moulds physical/etheric ego moulds p h y s i c a l / e t h e r i c / a s t r a l c h i l d learns through i m i t a t i o n and play c h i l d learns through "natural authority" and a r t i s t i c a c t i v i t y c h i l d learns through e x e r c i s i n g own judgement to c h i l d "World i s moral" to c h i l d "World i s b e a u t i f u l " to c h i l d "World i s true" c h i l d i s r e l i g i o u s being c h i l d i s a r t i s t i c c h i l d i s s c i e n t i s t 33 E. Recapitulation Another one of Steiner's important concepts about education i s that of r e c a p i t u l a t i o n . He believed that the c h i l d r e c a p i t u l a t e s the stages of development of humankind. In order to educate properly, teachers must choose material and the appropriate mode of presentation to s u i t each phase of growth. Steiner believed that the four members of the human being evolved i n a gradual chronological sequence. At the advent of each stage, humankind re- c a p i t u l a t e d i t s previous development. The f i r s t stage of the development 81 of human consciousness began with the physical being of humankind. The 82 83 et h e r i c or l i f e body developed next, followed by the a s t r a l or soul. Humankind began to receive the "ego" or " I , " the i n d i v i d u a l i t y , i n the pre- 84 sent era. These bodies continue to develop and the c h i l d i n his/her de- velopment passes through these stages. Ernest Heinrich Haeckel (1834-1919), the German zoologist who wrote two major books, Anthropoqenesis (1874) and The Riddle of the Universe (1899) and who generated the "theory of r e c a p i t u l a t i o n , " was most probably a great influence on Steiner. Haeckel theorized that each animal i n i t s embryonic development r e c a p i t u l a t e s the stage of the development of the species. In at l e a s t two sources, Steiner quoted Haeckel's theory: 8 1 S t e i n e r , O c c u l t S c i e n c e . 116-128. 8 2 I b i d , 128-137. 8 3 I b i d , 137-161. 8 4 I b i d , 161-186. 34 "The short ontogenesis or development of the i n d i v i d u a l i s a rapid and b r i e f r e p e t i t i o n , an abbreviated r e c a p i t u l a t i o n of the long process of phylogenesis, the development of the species." 5 ® 6 Steiner stated that i n education, r e c a p i t u l a t i o n must take place i n a modi- f i e d manner. The essence, the fe e l i n g , the archetype of each stages of de- velopment must be experienced by the c h i l d . . . . we s h a l l have to remind ourselves that we must, i n a way, transport the c h i l d back into e a r l i e r ages, though we cannot proceed as though we were s t i l l i n those ages. People were simply d i f f e r e n t then. Nowadays, you w i l l transport the c h i l d back to these e a r l i e r c u l t u r a l ages with quite a d i f f e r e n t d i s - p o s i t i o n of soul and s p i r i t . M.C. Richards explained how t h i s r e c a p i t u l a t i o n of the stages of humankind i s accomplished i n the Waldorf School. The c h i l d learns to paint and to write before he/she i s introduced to writing. The curriculum a l s o follows the unfolding of human consciousness, from the f a i r y t a l e s t o r i e s i n Grade 88 One to current events i n high school. ° s R u d o l f S t e i n e r , The R i d d l e s of P h i l o s o p h y , t r a n s , a u t h o r i z e d by R u d o l f S t e i n e r N a c h l a s s v e r w a l t u n g ( S p r i n g V a l l e y , New Y o r k : A n t h r o p o s o p h i c P r e s s , 1973), 301 . ^ R u d o l f S t e i n e r , T h r e e E s s a y s on Haeckel and Karma, e d . Max G y s i ( L o n d o n : T h e o s o p h i c a l P u b l i s h i n g S o c i e t y , 1914) , 82 . ^ S t e i n e r , P r a c t i c a l A d v i c e to T e a c h e r s . 18. 88Ma r y C a r o l i n e R i c h a r d s , Toward Wholeness : R u d o l f S t e i n e r E d u c a t i o n i n A m e r i c a ( M i d d l e t o w n , C o n n e c t i c u t : Wesleyan U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1960), 70 . CHAPTER III RATIONALE FOR AESTHETIC EDUCATION A. Unity of Science, Art, and Religion Steiner contended that humankind required a r t i s t i c expression to counter the r a t i o n a l , s c i e n t i f i c thinking which he believed had dominated the west- ern world since the f i f t e e n t h century, and which he f e l t was destined to r u l e the twentieth century. To o f f s e t t h i s tendency toward i n t e l l e c t u a l - ism, Steiner was adamant that c h i l d r e n should be offered an a r t i s t i c educa- t i o n which stressed a reverence for l i f e . In a lecture e n t i t l e d Nature and 89 O r i g i n of the A r t s , Steiner related a parable which i l l u s t r a t e d hu- mankind's need f o r a r t . Steiner described a b e a u t i f u l sunset above a snow-covered landscape of frozen lakes and streams, i c i c l e s hanging from bushes and tre e s . As two women witnessed the beauty of the sunset, a messenger from the s p i r i t u a l world emerged from the glow of the sunset, approaching the two women, l i s - tening to t h e i r thoughts and fe e l i n g s . One woman shivered from the cold i n despair, but the other woman was warmed by the stark beauty of the sunset and the stark frozen wasteland. At l a s t , the two women f e l l into a deep sleep. The messenger of the sunset approached the woman who was able to experience the beauty of the sunset, and announced "You are Art." In the night, s p i r i t u a l forms came near to 8 9 R u d o l f Ste iner , "Nature and Or ig in of the A r t s , " Golden Blade 31 (1979), 79-91. 35 36 her and asked to be transformed. The sense of movement was transformed into the Art of Dance, the sense of v i t a l i t y into the Art of Sculpture, the sense of form into the Art of Architecture, the sense of sight i n t o the Art of Painting. Another form approached her, a being without physical f o r m — I n s p i r a t i o n . The woman transmuted t h i s being into the Art of Music. The being was g r a t e f u l and spoke these words: From the human soul, there w i l l flow a r e f l e c t i o n of the t r i c k - l i n g of a spring, of the power of the wind, of the sound of thunder—not a representation of t h i s but something that meets l i k e a s i s t e r a l l these splendours of nature which appear from unknown depths of the s p i r i t . This w i l l spring up from the souls of men. Thus human beings w i l l be able to create something which enriches the earth, and quite new to i t . . . . It w i l l be a seed for the future upon the earth. . . . Through you, . . . feel i n g s , for which a concept i s the ultimate enemy, w i l l f i n d expression on wings of songs and breathe the soul's innermost being into the environment, g i v i n g i t the impress of something that could not otherwise e x i s t . 9 ^ F i n a l l y , another formless being approached her, the S p i r i t of W i l l , which the woman changed into the Art of Poetry. At dawn, when the woman awoke from her dream, she saw the other woman l y i n g beside her, almost frozen from the b i t t e r cold. The woman who had been warmed by the sunset r e a l i z e d that the other woman was "Human Knowledge," who had not been able to experience beauty and was thus perishing from the cold. "Art" cared for "Human Knowledge" and protected her from the e l e - ments. In her safekeeping, "Human Knowledge" grew warm. 9 0Ibid, 8 8 . 37 She now understood that she would have to rescue the science that had become hal f frozen, she learned that she had to warm i t and permeate i t with a l l that she had herself become: bringing f i r s t what she was as Art, and with i t everything that she had passed through during the n i g h t — t o the science which was h a l f frozen. And she observed how, with the speed of the wind, what has been half frozen can return to l i f e when science 91 takes what she can give into i t s knowledge. Steiner ended the parable with Goethe's words: "Only through the dawn of 92 beauty w i l l you f i n d the realm of t r u t h . " Easton i n h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the parable, stated "Knowledge i t s e l f i s condemned to a frozen 93 u n f r u i t f u l n e s s for human l i f e . " In another l e c t u r e , "The Mission of Art," Steiner suggested that h i s contemporaries saw science as a d i s c i p l i n e adhering to s t r i c t laws of l o g i c , and art as a d i s c i p l i n e which catered only to the whims of f e e l i n g . The p r e v a i l i n g view, he thought, was that "truth and beauty have nothing i n common." In Steiner's view, art springs from the same source as knowl- 94 edge. Steiner concurred with Goethe who believed that "beauty i s a mani- f e s t a t i o n of nature's secret laws, which would otherwise remain forever 9 5 hidden." Through a r t , one i s able to penetrate beyond the v i s i b l e to 9 1 I b i d , 9 0 - 9 1 . 9 2 I b i d , 9 1 . 9 3 E a s t o n , 217. 9 4 R u d o l f S t e i n e r , The Metamorphoses of the S o u l , t r a n s . C . Davy and C . von Arm'm ( L o n d o n : R u d o l f S t e i n e r P r e s s , 1983, 116. 9 5 I b i d , 117. 38 perceive the inherent c r e a t i v e forces, "to recreate, with l i v i n g formative force, what the cosmos created f i r s t . " 9 6 Steiner maintained that art and c r e a t i v i t y would not only supplement ab- s t r a c t knowledge, but that the combination would "produce a r e l i g i o u s 97 mood." Not only d i d Steiner advocate a union of art and science (human knowledge), but a fusion of art and r e l i g i o n . Steiner agreed with Goethe that humankind no longer sensed the connection of art to the s p i r i t u a l . In fa c t , Steiner noted that the importance of a r t i s t i c a c t i v i t y had lessened and that even an aversion to true art was prevalent. Art was not seen to be e s s e n t i a l to the human being. "Gradually," Steiner stated, "the conception has aris e n that a r t i s something which does not nec e s s a r i l y 98 belong to l i f e , but i s added to i t as a kind of luxury." Steiner stated that at one time, i n the far distant past, science, a r t , and r e l i g i o n (to which Steiner r e l a t e d the functions of the s o u l — t h i n k i n g , f e e l i n g , and w i l l i n g , r e s p e c t i v e l y — w e r e one, each i n the service of the other. Art, science and r e l i g i o n existed as a "combination of art i n s t i - tute, church and school." Words spoken by the p r i e s t were information, 99 knowledge, r e l i g i o u s r i t u a l , and revelation, supported by the a r t i s t i c . ' ^ R u d o l f S t e i n e r , A r t s and T h e i r M i s s i o n , t r a n s . L i s a D . Monges and V i r g i n i a Moore ( S p r i n g V a l l e y , New Y o r k : The A n t h r o p o s o p h i c P r e s s , 1986), 9 1 . 9 7 I b i d , 9 8 - 9 9 . 9 8 I b i d , 15. " i b i d , 83 . 39 Later, i t was necessary, Steiner declared, for humankind to experience these d i s c i p l i n e s separately. However, i n doing so, humankind gradually l o s t the connection among the t h r e e . 1 0 0 Steiner f e l t that science had be- come cold and r i g i d . Art, divorced from the s p i r i t u a l had evolved i n t o ex- pression without purpose. Religion, unsupported by a r t or science, had de- generated i n t o an empty r i t u a l , without substance or beauty. Not to con- s i d e r the world as a unity of art, science, and r e l i g i o n i s to deny part of the wholeness of human nature and experience—the unity of f e e l i n g , t h i n k i n g , w i l l i n g . Steiner committed himself to a r e c o n c i l i a t i o n of a r t , science, and r e l i g i o n . Marie Steiner stated that " i t was f o r t h i s [union of a r t , science, and r e l i g i o n ] Rudolf Steiner worked among u s . " 1 0 1 A r t , i n Steiner's view, was destined to bridge the gap between science (the material world) and r e l i g i o n (the s p i r i t u a l world). Steiner argued that a r t must stand i n our c i v i l i z a t i o n Vbeside r e a l knowledge on one hand, and 102 on the other, genuine r e l i g i o u s l i f e . " Steiner stated that the task of a r t i s "to carry the s p i r i t u a l divine into the earthly; to fashion the l a t - t e r i n such a way that i t s forms, colors, words, tones, act as a r e v e l a t i o n 103 of the world beyond." The t r u l y s p i r i t u a l cannot be reached merely by t h i n k i n g or by r e l i g i o u s f e e l i n g . Art gives humankind the a c t i v e means of 1 0 0 I b i d , 64 . ^ M a r i e S t e i n e r , i n t r o d u c t i o n t o A r t As Seen i n the L i g h t o f M y s t e r y Wisdom, by R u d o l f S t e i n e r , t r a n s . P a u l i n e Wehrle and Joanna C o l l i s (London: Rudotf S t e i n e r P r e s s , 1984) , 1. ^ 2 R u d o l f S t e i n e r , The A r t s and t h e i r M i s s i o n . 43 . 1 0 3 I b i d , 4 5 . 40 forming a r e l a t i o n s h i p to the s p i r i t u a l - d i v i n e as well as the p h y s i c a l - e a r t h l y . 1 0 4 Steiner f e l t that t h i s connection of a r t i s t i c expression to the s p i r i t u a l was e s p e c i a l l y lacking i n t h i s age because of the emphasis on dead concepts 105 and materialism. Humankind must return to the a r t s for rejuvenation. Art, always a daughter of the divine, has become estranged from her parent. If i t finds i t s way back to i t s o r i g i n s , and i s again accepted by the divine, then i t w i l l become what i t should within c i v i l i z a t i o n within world-wide culture; a boon for mankind. 1 0 6 Because the c h i l d r e n are harbingers of the future, the schools, i n Steiner's view, were to be the veh i c l e for t h i s transformation of cu l t u r e . Our c i v i l i z a t i o n w i l l never receive an impulse of ascent u n t i l more a r t i s introduced into the schools. Not only must the whole teaching be permeated with the a r t i s t i c , but a l i v i n g understanding of a r t s , c a l l e d into being by the teacher's own c r e a t i v e power, must set up a counter-balance to a l l prosaic conceptions of nature and of h i s t o r y . 1 0 7 In another source, Steiner stated, i n 1924, the year before he died, that an a r t i s t i c approach to education, e s p e c i a l l y between the change of teeth 1 0 4 l b i d . 1 0 5 I b i d , 84 1 0 6 I b i d , 116. 1 0 7 S t e i n e r , A Modern A r t of E d u c a t i o n . 194-195. 41 and puberty had to be the focus of any basic change i n the education of c h i l d r e n . 1 0 8 Steiner regretted that European schools i n his time d i d not s t r e s s a f e e l - ing f o r beauty. Steiner charged that i t was of utmost importance to give the c h i l d a sense of beauty and wonder e s p e c i a l l y before his/her ninth year. He i n s i s t e d that the c h i l d a c t i v e l y seeks t h i s and expects the world to demonstrate beauty. The l i t t l e c h i l d entering school "would so g l a d l y admire and wonder, but the power to admire and wonder has been k i l l e d i n him." This type of education, according to Steiner, leads to a f e e l i n g of emptiness and a l i e n a t i o n , a lack of self-understanding. It i s indeed a s t r i k i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of our times, that peo- ple f i n d nothing i n l i f e , and a l l because they have not learned as c h i l d r e n to f i n d l i f e l ovely and b e a u t i f u l . They keep look- ing a l l the time for something that s h a l l increase t h e i r knowl- e d g e — i n the most narrow and barren sense of the word. They f a i l to f i n d the hidden secret beauty that i s everywhere around them, and so lose gradually, a l l connection with l i f e . 1 0 9 With the i n t e l l e c t , Nature i s but understood. Only by a r t i s t i c f e e l i n g i s she made l i v i n g experience. The c h i l d who i s brought up to understanding, ripens to " a b i l i t y " i f understand- ing i s imbued with l i f e ; but the c h i l d who i s brought up to Art w i l l r i p e n to cr e a t i v e work. In his a b i l i t y , his f a c u l t i e s , a man gives himself f o r t h ; i n creative work he grows by h i s own f a c u l t i e s . 1 1 0 1 u a S t e i n e r , The Essent ia ls of Education. 41. ^ ' R u d o l f Ste iner , Supplementary Course--The Upper School (Michael H a l l , Forest Row, Sussex: 1965), 9 . 1 1 0 R u d o l f Ste iner , "Education and A r t , " 2. 42 B. Importance of Performing and P l a s t i c Arts A r t i s t i c expression permeates the e n t i r e curriculum of the Waldorf School. (See Appendix B.) Steiner intended that teachers give meaning and context to every subject through the a r t s . Steiner deduced " . . . i f the world be a work of a r t : then we must apprehend i t a r t i s t i c a l l y , not l o g i c a l l y . " 1 1 1 Thus, i n Waldorf Schools, the c h i l d r e n make and i l l u s t r a t e t h e i r own t e x t - books. Painting, modelling, music, r e c i t a t i o n , movement, drama, are taught as separate subjects, but are often employed i n any lesson from Grade One to Twelve to connect the c h i l d i n an a r t i s t i c manner to the subject matter studied. In addition, architecture i s practiced as "house-building" i n Grade Three, and l a t e r reintroduced i n a three or four week block i n Grade Twelve. The wide range of a r t i s t i c a c t i v i t i e s i s o f f e r e d to educate the "whole c h i l d . " Schopenhauer arranged the arts i n a hierarchy. Steiner's arrangement of the a r t s demonstrates the r e l a t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p of the a r t s . Steiner's or- der begins with the art form, architecture, which Steiner believed had 112 "become most separated from the human being as a whole." At the end of the l i s t are art forms which r e l a t e more to the inner l i f e of the human be- ing. Steiner placed the physical, s t a t i c , p l a s t i c a r t s , those which e x i s t i n space, such as architecture, sculpture, and painting on one end of the s c a l e . On the other end of the scale, Steiner l i s t e d the l e s s tangible a r t s , those which take place i n time, such as music, poetry, and eurythmy. Eurythmy, performed i n both time and space, was positioned l a s t . However, ^ S t e i n e r , S p i r i t u a l Ground of Education. 28. ^ 2 S t e i n e r , Art As Seen in the Light of Mystery Wisdom. 31. 43 some anthroposophists speculated that Steiner implied that i n the future, an a r t form, yet unnamed, w i l l emerge to complete the scale. V i r g i n i a Sease of the Vorstand declared that t h i s art form " w i l l involve the higher 113 aspect of s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s . " Rene Querido of the Rudolf Steiner College i n F a i r Oaks, C a l i f o r n i a , r eferred to t h i s art form as "Brotherhood." 1 1 4 Although i t seems that architecture should perhaps be placed on the bottom of the scale and "brotherhood" at the top, Steiner ranked the a r t s i n t h i s manner i n h i s lecture "Impulses of Transformation for Man's A r t i s t i c Evolu- t i o n . " Physical body Ethe r i c body A s t r a l Body Ego S p i r i t - S e l f L i f e - S p i r i t (Spirit-Man) Architecture Sculpture Painting Music Poetry 115 Eurythmy (Brotherhood) " ^ V i r g i n i a S e a s e , S i n g i n g workshop, D o r n a c h , S w i t z e r l a n d , A p r i l 1986. ^ 4 R e n e Q u e r i d o , l e c t u r e , F a i r O a k s , C a l i f o r n i a , F e b r u a r y 1A, 1988. 1 1 5 I b i d , 3 9 . 44 The arrangement has also be interpreted i n t h i s manner: Music Painting Poetry Sculpture Eurythmy A r c h i t e c t u r e 1 1 6 (Brotherhood) STATIC ARTS TIME ARTS Just as Steiner wished for a balance of art, science, and r e l i g i o n and of the a c t i v i t i e s of thinking, f e e l i n g , and w i l l i n g , he implied that there be a balance i n the curriculum between those performing arts which take place i n time—music, eurythmy, and poetry—and the p l a s t i c , s t a t i c a r t s — p a i n t i n g , sculpture, architecture. The performing a r t s , Steiner designated as "Dionysian" and the p l a s t i c arts as "Apollonian." A Dionysian element i r r a d i a t e s , as i t were, the music-speech i n s t r u c t i o n , while we have more of an Apollonian element i n 117 teaching the p l a s t i c a r t s , painting and drawing. "Dionysian" r e f e r r e d to the q u a l i t y of Dionysius, the god of wine, who rep- 118 resents s o c i a l influence. "Apollonian", r e f e r r e d to the q u a l i t y of Apollo, the sun god, son of Zeus, the god of music, archery, and rev e l a - 119 t i o n . Steiner spoke of the these p o l a r i t i e s as images. Even though 1 1 6 L . E t e r m a n , u n p u b l i s h e d i n t e r v i e w s , 1988-1990, 92 . ^ ^ S t e i n e r , B a l a n c e i n T e a c h i n g . 21 . 1 1 8 T h o m a s B u l f i n c h , B u l f i n c h ' s Mythology (New Y o r k : A v e n e l B o o k s , 1978), 8 . 1 1 9 l b i d , 6 . 4 5 Apollo was the god of music, he also represented l i g h t , c l a r i t y of think- ing, the forces of or d e r l i n e s s . Dionysius symbolized i r r a t i o n a l i t y , the force of f i r e . 1 ^ 0 Steiner cautioned the teachers to balance the Apollonian and Dionysian e l e - ments within the c h i l d when teaching music. Steiner stated "The educa- t i o n a l influence we exert by using the musical element must consist i n a constant harmonizing by the Apollonian element of the Dionysian element 121 w e l l i n g up out of man's nature." Steiner believed that the s c u l p t u r a l - p i c t o r i a l elements i n education fos- 122 tered i n d i v i d u a l i t y and the music-poetic stream promoted s o c i a l i z a t i o n . Through the p l a s t i c a r t s , Steiner contended, the c h i l d learns to know him/herself, but through music and poetry, the c h i l d i s more able to experience and to enter into the fe e l i n g s of others. Steiner described the experience of these two p o l a r i t i e s : Human beings are brought together as one through music and po- etry; they become i n d i v i d u a l s through sculpture and pa i n t i n g . The i n d i v i d u a l i t y i s supported more by the s c u l p t u r a l , p i c t o - r i a l element, and society more by the l i v i n g and weaving i n community through music and poetry. Poetry i s conceived out of the s o l i t u d e of the s o u l — t h e r e alone; and i t i s comprehended through the community of mankind. It i s e n t i r e l y concrete, not at a l l abstract, to assert that with the poetry a man creates he reveals h i s inner being and that t h i s i s met by the deepest inner being of another human being when the l a t t e r takes i n the ^ R e n e Q u e r i d o , l e c t u r e . F a i r Oaks , C a l i f o r n i a , F e b r u a r y 14, 1988. ^ S t e i n e r , P r a c t i c a l A d v i c e to T e a c h e r s . 47 -48 . 1 2 2 I b i d , 49 . 46 created work. Therefore delight i n music and poetry and a l s o 123 yearning f o r them should be encouraged i n the growing c h i l d . The c h i l d who models or paints, however clumsily, awakens by t h i s a c t i v i t y the soul-man i n himself. The c h i l d who i n t r o - duced to Music and to Poetry, f e e l s how the human nature i n him i s taken hold of by an i d e a l element of soul. To his own human 124 nature he receives another. The draftsman, the sculptor, must work more out of his inner f a c u l t i e s , the musician more out of his devotion to the w o r l d . 1 2 5 In the s c u l p t u r a l , p i c t o r i a l realm we look at beauty, we l i v e i t , whereas i n the musical realm we ourselves become b e a u t y . 1 2 6 1 2 3 I b i d . ^ 2 4 R u d o l f S t e i n e r , " E d u c a t i o n and A r t , " 2 . l 2 ^ S t e i n e r , B a l a n c e i n T e a c h i n g . 27 . l 2 ^ s t e i n e r . P r a c t i c a l A d v i c e t o T e a c h e r s . 52. CHAPTER IV RATIONALE FOR MUSIC EDUCATION A. The S p i r i t u a l Nature of Music Steiner believed that music i s an expression of the s p i r i t u a l world, the true home of every human being. Steiner posited that the human being expe- rienced the "music of the spheres" i n dream l i f e , passing through an "ocean 127 of tones" before awakening. Steiner professed that the composer or per- 128 former transposes t h i s music into physical tone. In music, man f e e l s the echoes of the element that weaves and l i v e s i n the innermost core of things, which i s c l o s e l y r e - l a t e d to him. When the human being hears music, he has a sense of well-being, because these tones harmonize with what he has 129 experienced i n the world of his s p i r i t u a l home. Out of music, the most primordial kinship speaks to the soul; i n most inwardly deep sense, sounds of home rebound from i t . From the soul's primeval home, the s p i r i t u a l world, the sounds of music are borne across to us and speak comfortingly and en- couragingly to us i n surging melodies and harmonies. 1 0 Steiner believed that the true a r t i s t maintains that: ^ ' R u d o l f S t e i n e r , The Inner Nature of Music and the E x p e r i e n c e of Tone , e d . A l i c e W u l s i n , t r a n s . M a r i a S t . Goar ( S p r i n g V a l l e y , New Y o r k : A n t h r o p o s o p h i c P r e s s , 1983), 18. 1 2 8 I b i d , 5 . 1 2 9 I b i d , 9 . 1 3 0 I b i d , 21 . 47 48 When the tones of the orchestra sound to me, i t i s as i f I heard the speech of archetypal music whose tones sounded before there were yet human ears to hear them. He can say too: In the tones of a symphony there l i e s a knowledge of higher worlds which i s l o f t i e r and more s i g n i f i c a n t than anything which can be proved by l o g i c , analyzed i n conclusions. 1 1 Steiner concurred with Schopenhauer's idea that the true a r t i s t does not merely copy the objects from the physical world, but "reproduces 132 archetypes." These archetypes, Steiner belxeved, were images of the w i l l . However, according to Steiner, tone i s not an image of the w i l l , but "a d i r e c t expression of the w i l l , i t s e l f , without i n t e r p o l a t i o n of the men- 133 t a l image." Steiner declared that while music i s the "expression of w i l l of nature," other a r t forms are merely "expression of the idea of na- t u r e . " 1 3 4 Because the art of music i s the d i r e c t expression of the w i l l of the world, music, i n Steiner's view, has the power to profoundly a f f e c t the 135 human soul. The musician hears the pulse of the div i n e w i l l that flows through the world; he hears how t h i s w i l l expresses i t s e l f i n tones. The musician thus stands closer to the heart of the 136 world than a l l other a r t i s t s . E l l y Wilke, an anthroposophical writer, claimed that the myth of Orpheus revealed the mystery of music and i t s r e l a t i o n s h i p to the s p i r i t u a l world. ^ R u d o l f S t e i n e r . The I n f l u e n c e of S p i r i t u a l B e i n g s Upon Han, t r a n s , a u t h o r i z e d by R u d o l f S t e i n e r N a c h l a s s v e r w a l t u n g ( S p r i n g V a l l e y , New Y o r k : A n t h r o p o s o p h i c P r e s s , 1982), 186. ^ 3 2 S t e i n e r , Inner N a t u r e of Music and the E x p e r i e n c e o f T o n e . 2 - 3 . 1 3 3 I b i d . 1 3 4 I b i d , 13. 1 3 5 I b i d . 1 3 6 I b i d . 49 Orpheus was the son of Apollo, and knew the music of the heavens. Sent to earth, he was forced to leave Eurydice behind. Eurydice represented that part of the human soul, remaining i n the heavens, which i s too pure to en- t e r i n t o material l i f e . Orpheus, e x i l e d , longed to be reunited with Eury- dice, reunited with the s p i r i t u a l world. Music, Wilke asserted, i s the re- f l e c t i o n of t h i s divine world. A longing for t h i s union with the d i v i n e i s 137 inherent i n every human being. B. Musical Nature of the C h i l d (Age 7-14) Steiner believed that every c h i l d i s innately musical. Man's nature, we s h a l l f i n d , i s such that he i s i n a way, a 138 born musician. Every healthy c h i l d i s inwardly deeply musical. We have only L39* to c a l l upon t h i s musicality by makincj^use of the c h i l d ' s natu- r a l l i v e l i n e s s and sense of movement. Steiner assumed that a l l natural forms are imbued with a hidden music which he termed "the music of the spheres." He stated, "Every plant, every a n i - mal, a c t u a l l y incorporates a tone of the music of the spheres. The forms ^ E l l y W i l k e , " M u s i c a l Development i n the H i s t o r y o f M a n k i n d , " P r e s e n t Age 1: ( June 1936) 26- 3 1 . l 3 8 S t e i n e r , P r a c t i c a l A d v i c e t o T e a c h e r s . 20 . ^ ' R u d o l f S t e i n e r , Human V a l u e s i n E d u c a t i o n , t r a n s . V e r a Compton-Burnet t ( L o n d o n : R u d o l f S t e i n e r P r e s s , 1971) , 77 . 50 of the human body also carry t h i s 'music of the spheres.'" The c h i l d un- consciously absorbs t h i s music into his/her o r g a n i s m . 1 4 0 Steiner stated that the c h i l d ' s p h y s i c a l c o n s t i t u t i o n was impacted by these musical forces of nature, e s p e c i a l l y from age 7-14. 1 4 1 Steiner advised that teachers fos- t e r i n the c h i l d an understanding of how "something c r e a t i v e l i e s i n music, something transcending nature, . . . " The c h i l d must f e e l that he/she 142 "shares i n the creation of nature when he [she] develops music." Steiner claimed that the c h i l d him/herself was a musical instrument, c r e - 143 ated and tuned by the forces of the a s t r a l body. From the change of teeth to puberty, Steiner contended, the a s t r a l body was s t i l l held within the p h y s i c a l and e t h e r i c bodies, permeating the c h i l d ' s being with musical- i t y . 1 4 4 The a s t r a l body, Steiner declared, can only be comprehended by an understanding of the elements of music. Just as the e t h e r i c body works out of cosmic sculpture, the as- t r a l body works out of cosmic music, cosmic melodies. The only t h i n g that i s earthly about the a s t r a l body i s the time, the musical measure. Rhythm and melody come d i r e c t l y from the cos- 145 mos, and the a s t r a l body consists of rhythm and melody. At the change of teeth, the a s t r a l body, according to Steiner, begins to forge i t s connection to the physical body. At t h i s time, Steiner con- ^ S t e i n e r , B a l a n c e of T e a c h i n g . 19. l 4 l S t e i n e r , Human V a l u e s i n E d u c a t i o n . 77. ^ 4 2 S t e i n e r , P r a c t i c a l A d v i c e to T e a c h e r s . 54. ^ S t e i n e r , The E s s e n t i a l s of E d u c a t i o n . 59. ^ S t e i n e r , Human V a l u e s i n E d u c a t i o n . 77. ^ S t e i n e r , The Roots of E d u c a t i o n . 52. tended, the a s t r a l body begins to "play upon the sing l e nerve f i b e r s with 146 the in-breathed a i r , l i k e a v i o l i n bow on the s t r i n g . " Steiner often compared the human being to a l y r e . He stated that "our nerves are r e a l l y a kind of l y r e , a musical instrument, an inner musical 147 instrument that resounds up into the head." He implied that the Greek l y r e was based on t h i s image of the human being. Studying the secrets of music, we can discover what the Greeks, who knew a great deal about these matters, meant by the l y r e of Apollo. What i s experienced musically i s r e a l l y man's hidden adaptation to the inner harmonic-melodic r e l a t i o n s h i p s of cos- mic existence out of which he was shaped. His nerve f i b e r s , r a m i f i c a t i o n s of the spinal cord, are marvelous musical s t r i n g s with a metamorphosed a c t i v i t y . The sp i n a l cord culminating i n the brain, and d i s t r i b u t i n g i t s nerve f i b e r s throughout the body, i s the l y r e of A p o l l o . 1 4 8 Steiner s i n c e r e l y believed that the "human being i s the most perfect musi- c a l instrument." Because the human being i s made up of music, because the phy s i c a l organism i s musical, i t i s possible to connect the sounds of an external musical instrument with the inner musical instrument of "coursing blood and nerve f i b e r . " The human being when experiencing music f e e l s " i t s 149 harmonization with the mystery of h i s own musical instrument." 1 4 ^Rudolf Ste iner , The Kingdom of Childhood, t rans. Helen Fox (London: Rudolf Steiner Press, 1982), 110. 1 4 7 I b i d . 1 4 8 S t e i n e r , The Arts and Their Mission. 37. 149 Ib id . The musical element penetrates the c h i l d i n another w a y — i n the r e l a t i o n - ship between the breathing and heart beat. Steiner declared that "Man i s a 150 musical instrument i n respect to his breathing and blood c i r c u l a t i o n . " Steiner remarked that " a l l rhythm i s based on t h i s mysterious connection between pulse and breath." Since a l l human beings experience t h i s phe- nomenon, thought Steiner, although with i n d i v i d u a l v a r i a t i o n s , people can 151 comprehend each other through the element of rhythm. Because the human being i s a musical instrument, Steiner believed that one day i l l n e s s e s would be described i n a musical manner, as i f one would speak of a piano which was out of tune. Steiner reasoned that natural laws and psychological theories were useless i n explaining the f e e l i n g l i f e of the human being. He was f u l l y aware that some people might regard h i s theory 152 as "purely f a n t a s t i c i f not half crazy." According to Steiner, i t i s e s p e c i a l l y important to teach music to ch i l d r e n from the change of teeth to puberty. As mentioned, the c h i l d from b i r t h to the change of teeth i s a sense organ, and b a s i c a l l y a "homo r e l i g i o s u s , " a "being of r e l i g i o n , " but from the age of 7-14 the c h i l d i s p r i m a r i l y an a r t i s t . The c h i l d grows i n the capacity to transform impressions into im- ages and p i c t u r e s , to make them his/her own, rather than to passi v e l y ab- 153 sorb and accept those impressions. If a c h i l d ' s musical sense i s not ^ S t e i n e r , Human Values in Education. 149. 1 - ^ S t e i n e r , Inner Nature of Music and the Experience of Tone. 67. ^ 2 S t e i n e r , The Roots of Education. 53. ^ S t e i n e r , The Essent ia ls of Education. 40. 53 nourished at t h i s time, the c h i l d w i l l be deprived for l i f e . From age 7 to 14, Steiner asserted that . . . there i s the c u l t i v a t i o n of the sense of beauty and the awakening of the a r t i s t i c f e e l i n g . The musical element must bring to the e t h e r i c body that rhythm which w i l l then enable i t to sense i n a l l things the rhythm otherwise concealed. A c h i l d who i s denied the blessing of having his music sense c u l t i v a t e d during these years, w i l l be the poorer for i t the whole of h i s l a t e r l i f e . If the sense were e n t i r e l y lacking i n him, whole aspects of the world's existence would of necessity remain h i d - den from him. Nor are the other arts to be n e g l e c t e d . 1 5 4 When the c h i l d i s active i n music and when musicality i s c u l t i v a t e d i n the c h i l d , the c h i l d i s "induced to experience i n a l i v i n g way the musical 155 essence of the world i t s e l f . " Because musical c a p a b i l i t i e s are present i n every c h i l d , Steiner i n s i s t e d that a l l c h i l d r e n be given a musical education, even those who appear to be non-musical. Musical a b i l i t i e s could be buried and need only the teacher's loving touch to bring them out. Without music, without t h i s bridge from the inner to the outer world, from the earthly to the s p i r i t u a l , the c h i l d , according to Steiner, may be somewhat retarded i n the development of his/her soul l i f e . He quoted Shakespeare's words as basic t r u t h . "The man that hath no music i n himself . . . i s f i t for treasons, stratagems and 156 s p o i l s ; l e t no such man be trusted!" ^ S t e i n e r , The Education of the Child. 42. ^ S t e i n e r , Practical Advice to Teachers. 52. 1 5 6 I b i d , 48. 5 4 A f t e r puberty, the musical forces continue to resound i n the being of the i n d i v i d u a l . According to Steiner, "What has been taken i n as the music of 1 5 7 the world goes on developing i n the inner being." In summary, Steiner believed that music i s e s s e n t i a l f o r the c h i l d ' s physi- c a l , mental, emotional, and s p i r i t u a l development. The foundation for the removal of a l l obstacles f o r the development of a courageous and appropriate development of our l i f e of w i l l i n adulthood depends upon the r i g h t i n t r o d u c t i o n to music. The p a r t i c u l a r manner i n which the musical element works in t o the organism of man i s thus, that i t eases the f l u c - tuations of nerve a c t i v i t y into the stream of the breath. These reverberate upon the nerve functions. Further, the breathing rhythm int e r a c t s with the rhythms of the c i r c u l a t o r y system, which i n turn work into the rhythm of sleeping and wak- ing. I t i s t r u l y wondrous to behold and understand . . . the inwardly a c t i v e man-creating power of m u s i c ! 1 5 8 ^ ^ S t e i n e r , The E s s e n t i a l s o f E d u c a t i o n . 77. ^ 8 R u d o l f S t e i n e r , D i e Padagogische P r a x i s vom G e s i c h t s p u n k t e g e i s t e s w i s s e n s c h a f t l i c h e r M e n s c h e n e r k e n n t n i s ; q u o t e d i n Magda L i s s a u , The Temperaments and the A r t s : T h e i r R e l a t i o n and F u n c t i o n i n W a l d o r f Pedagogy. 6 8 - 6 9 . CHAPTER V MUSIC TEACHING IN WALDORF SCHOOLS A. Curriculum for Grades One, Two, and Three Two general c u r r i c u l a e x i s t for Waldorf Schools. The Stockmeyer c u r r i c u - 159 lum catalogues various quotes by Steiner about education according to subjects. The von Heydebrand curriculum, compiled by Caroline von Hey- d e b r a n d , 1 6 0 o u t l i n e s the curriculum of the f i r s t Waldorf School i n Stuttg a r t , Germany. In the introduction to von Heydebrand's Curriculum of the F i r s t Waldorf School, G. L. Rowe cautioned teachers that the curriculum may seem "vague, tenuous, f u l l of undefined t e r m s . " 1 6 1 Teachers, he f e l t , must have an understanding of the fundamental p r i n c i p l e s of Waldorf School education which are based on Steiner's conception of the development of the human being. Rowe stated that "The nature of t h i s education i s such that i t does not depend on p r i n c i p l e s which can be a b s t r a c t l y stated, nor yet on 162 methods, nor yet on the way the content of the lessons i s arranged." 1 5 9 E . A . K a r l Stockmeyer , comp. , R u d o l f S t e i n e r ' s C u r r i c u l u m f o r W a l d o r f S c h o o l s , t r a n s . R. E v e r e t t - Z a d e ( L o n d o n : R u d o l f S t e i n e r P r e s s , 1969). ^ C a r o l i n e von Heydebrand, comp. , C u r r i c u l u m of the F i r s t W a l d o r f S c h o o l , t r a n s . E i l e e n H u t c h i n s ( S t u t t g a r t : S t e i n e r S c h o o l s F e l l o w s h i p , L t d . , 1966) . 1 6 ^ G . L . Rowe, " O r i g i n and Use o f the C u r r i c u l u m , " i n C u r r i c u l u m o f the F i r s t W a l d o r f S c h o o l , comp. C a r o l i n e von Heydebrand, 8 . 162Ib,-d. 55 56 According to Steiner, "The curriculum must be a copy of what we are able 163 thus to read i n the evolutionary process of the human being." The cur- riculum was constructed to follow the development of the c h i l d ' s p h y s i c a l , emotional, and mental being. In addition, the teacher i s expected to "read" the c h i l d , to adapt to the needs of the developing c h i l d . The cur- riculum was meant to be a process of a r t i s t i c , dynamic interchange, rather than a r i g i d system or method. The von Heydebrand curriculum for Grade One emphasized a reverence f o r na- t u r e — f o r the earth, the stars, plants, animals. This connection with 164 nature i s fostered through a language arts program based on f a i r y t a l e s . In Grade Two, the chil d r e n are given animal s t o r i e s and legends as well as f a i r y t a l e s . Because the c h i l d i s s t i l l so connected with nature, the animals i n the s t o r i e s should speak as human beings, according to von Heydebrand, because the Grade Two c h i l d i s s t i l l so strongly connected with nature. To balance the story material, legends are t o l d as they express 165 "the p i c t u r e of the human being i n his s t r i v i n g towards completion." In Grade Three, the main theme of the year i s the Old Testament. The c h i l d r e n have lessons i n p r a c t i c a l a c t i v i t i e s such as farming, gardening, and housebuilding i n order that they might be brought to an understanding of the i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p of minerals, plants, animals, and humankind i n the w o r l d . 1 5 6 ^ S t e i n e r , E s s e n t i a l s of E d u c a t i o n . 45 . 1 6 4 v o n H e y d e b r a n d , 18. 1 6 5 l b i d , 2 1 . 1 6 6 I b i d , 2 4 - 2 5 . 57 In a l e c t u r e i n Stuttgart, i n which Steiner gave i n d i c a t i o n s f o r the music curriculum, he gave minimal guidelines for Grades One through Three. Teachers were l e f t free to exercise t h e i r own i n t u i t i o n and c r e a t i v i t y i n c u r r i c u l a r matters. "In the f i r s t , second, and t h i r d classes, you are dealing e s s e n t i a l l y with simple musical measures, and here the point of view should be so to u t i l i z e the musical material that i t acts formatively on the growing human being. Therefore, the point of view to hold i s t h i s , that everything musical i s so d i r e c t e d that i t brings about i n the human being a proper development of a l l connected with voice, tone, and ear t r a i n i n g . This i s now c l e a r . " 1 6 7 The purpose of music education i n the younger grades i s , therefore, not to teach musical l i t e r a c y , but to develop the ear and the voice, to develop l i s t e n i n g s k i l l s . The a c t i v i t i e s of playing and l i s t e n i n g to music served to act "formatively" upon the c h i l d . Music education was to play a part, i n Steiner's view, i n moulding the c h i l d ' s p h y s i c a l and emotional being. Choice of music and musical instruments was, therefore, very important. According to Roy Wilkinson, an experienced classroom teacher, "Music can be 168 the means of bringing a s p i r i t u a l q u a l i t y into the soul . . . " The Stockmeyer and von Heydebrand c u r r i c u l a c a l l e d for s i m i l a r time a l l o t - ments f or music classes. Both c u r r i c u l a s p e c i f i e d that one period ("Stunde") per week (approximately 50 minutes) be devoted to singing i n a l l 169 170 cl a s s e s . According to the von Heydebrand curriculum, two periods a ^ ^ S t e i n e r , quoted i n Stockmeyer, 170. 1 6 8 R o y W i l k i n s o n , The Curricul u m of the Rudolf S t e i n e r School ( F o r e s t Row, Sussex, Great B r i t a i n : Roy W i l k i n s o n , 1973), 27. 1 6 9 I b i d , 162. 58 week were to be spent i n Grades One through Four learning to play the recorder, and also two periods a week learning to play the v i o l i n , i f 171 enough v i o l i n i s t s were a v a i l a b l e . The requirements f or instrumental work were s l i g h t l y d i f f e r e n t i n the Stockmeyer curriculum. In Grade One, only one period was to be devoted to f l u t e s and v i o l i n s . In Grades Two 172 through Four, two periods were to be a l l o t t e d to f l u t e s and v i o l i n s . The von Heydebrand music curriculum for Grade One stated that the c h i l d r e n "can f i r s t of a l l be brought to experience the f i f t h (Erleben der Quinte). Confused, chaotic musical experience can gradually be transformed by 173 movement to inwardly c o n t r o l l e d music f e e l i n g . " The curriculum suggests that " a l l kinds of musical media can be used to awaken and harmonize the 174 c h i l d ' s soul powers." Lessons, given i n large groups, i n the recorders 175 were required. In the German version of the curriculum, these recorders were r e f e r r e d to as "Czakan—oder Blockflote i n D." A "Czakan" i s a German "st o c k f l o t e n " or walking s t i c k , popular i n the la t e 1800s i n A u s t r i a and 176 Hungary, with a detachable wooden f l u t e on top. Lessons i n v i o l i n were 177 also o f f e r e d . 1 7 0 v o n Heydebrand, 99 . 1 7 1 I b i d . ^ 7 2 S t e i n e r , q u o t e d i n Stockmeyer , 162. ^ 7 3 v o n Heydebrand, 20 . 1 7 4 I b i d . 1 7 5 I b i d . 1 7 6 U i l l i A p e l , e d . . H a r v a r d D i c t i o n a r y of Music (Cambridge , M a s s a c h u s e t t s : H a r v a r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1972) , 218. ^ 7 7 v o n Heydebrand, 20 . 59 The c h i l d r e n must learn, according to t h i s curriculum, to discriminate be- tween what i s b e a u t i f u l and what i s not b e a u t i f u l . Therefore, ear t r a i n i n g exercises and "simple rhythmic melody" are introduced at t h i s age. The c h i l d r e n learn selections of music "which s u i t h i s age" by performing the music and through l i s t e n i n g . It i s implied that the c h i l d r e n should not 1V8 read music at t h i s time. Curriculum guidelines for Grades Two and Three are very b r i e f . The curriculum f o r Grade Two i s summed up i n one sentence: "Songs within the compass of the octave should now be added to those i n the compass of the 179 f i f t h . " In Grade Three, the children "should begin to learn how to write music i n the key of C major. Singing exercises should be continued i n a wider compass." 1® 0 Today i n North America, music c u r r i c u l a vary from school to school. Only a few schools contacted by questionnaire worked from a written music c u r r i c u - lum. (See Appendix C, "Music C u r r i c u l a from Five Waldorf Schools.") In most cases, the c u r r i c u l a were drawn up by music s p e c i a l i s t s . One teacher incorporated elements of Dalcroze Eurhythmies and two teachers incorporated elements of the Orff and Kodaly approach. Two North American music educators, Christoph-Andreas Lindenberg, an expe- rienced music teacher, music therapist, lyre-player, and composer, and 1 7 8 v o n Heydebrand, 20 . 1 7 9 I b i d , 23 . 1 8 0 I b i d , 26 . 60 E l i s a b e t h Lebret (whose book the Shepherd's Sonqbook for Grades I, I I , and III f o r Waldorf Schools i s widely used i n Waldorf Schools i n the United States and Canada), have written about the Waldorf School music curriculum for Grades One through Three. Instead of l i s t i n g musical s k i l l s and concepts to be learned, the writers focussed p r i m a r i l y upon the type of material to be introduced to the chi l d r e n i n r e l a t i o n to the stages of c h i l d development and the c u r r i c u l a r themes of the year. Lindenberg, w r i t i n g on the music curriculum, divided the stages of c h i l d - hood i n t o three stages. The f i r s t stage, from Grade One to Three, he c a l l e d the "melodic age," i n which the c h i l d eventually moves from the "Mood of the F i f t h " to a f e e l i n g for t o n i c ; the "harmonic age," roughly Grade Four through Grade Eight, i n which the c h i l d experiences harmony and tonal r e l a t i o n s h i p s ; and the "rhythmic age," from Grade Eight through Grade Twelve, i n which "rhythmic beat elements governing movements from within 181 come to the fore." Defending his view that c h i l d r e n Grade One through Three l i v e i n melody, he stated that the c h i l d " l i v e s f r e e l y i n the pure element of melody, improvising to words and sounds without as yet adhering to a s t r i c t beat or tempered i n t e r v a l s . " According to Lebret's curriculum, music for the Grade One c h i l d should be based on the pentatonic scale (DE GAB DE). Lebret's music for the Grade 182 One c h i l d d i d not always end on the t o n i c . Lebret advocated that music i n Grade One be taught i n the context of a story t o l d throughout the year. " ^ C h r i s t o f - A n d r e a s L i n d e n b e r g , "On the Music C u r r i c u l u m : The C h i l d and H e a r i n g , " The C r e s s e t : The J o u r n a l of the C a m p h i l l Movement 17 (Autumn 1971), 17 ^ 8 2 E l i s a b e t h L e b r e t ; S h e p h e r d ' s Songbook f o r Grades I . I I . and III of Waldorf S c h o o l s ( E l i s a b e t h L e b r e t P r i v a t e E d i t i o n , 1975), 6 . 6 1 Recorder was introduced i n Grade One. Melodies played on the recorder, i t was recommended, should always be sung by the c h i l d r e n f i r s t . The c h i l - dren, i n Lebret's view, should be taught a l l vocal and instrumental music by rote. No abstractions or i n t e l l e c t u a l musical concepts should be i n t r o - duced i n Grade One. Lebret, i n explaining the slow pace of the Grade One curriculum, stated Our way of teaching music i s not meant to r e s t r a i n the c h i l d ' s musical development, but to l e t him, as i t were, gently down on a parachute. Lindenberg recommended that the songs which are "within the compass of the f i f t h " be used for the Grade One c l a s s . He endorsed the u t i l i z a t i o n of c a l l s and improvised conversation using one to four notes. Simple rhythms, he believed, can be introduced to the c h i l d r e n "which develop out of the melodies ( i t should not be the other way round.") If other songs not within pentatonic are used, they should, according to Lindenberg, have de- 1 8 4 scending melodic phrases. Lebret believed that Grade Two children no longer want to l i v e i n the "dreaminess" of the music introduced i n Grade One. They d e s i r e a "more outspoken musical language and c e r t a i n l y , a more outspoken end of a song." She declared that at t h i s point, the tonic may be used to end a song, be- cause the c h i l d r e n w i l l no longer accept music ending on the t h i r d or the f i f t h . She recommended for Grade Two that the teacher should f i n d or com- pose material which l i e s i n between major and minor—the pentatonic Scot- 1 8 3 l e b r e t , 9 . 1 8 4 L i n d e n b e r g , 20 . 62 1 fi R t i s h and I r i s h f o l k songs and some modal music. To be avoided are 186 strong cadences and strong chordal accompaniment. Lebret's songs f o r Grade Two include a few songs of the DE GAB DE tone set. However, i n her re p e r t o i r e are songs i n C major, D major, G major, C pentatonic and F pen- t a t o n i c . Lindenberg stated that, i n his opinion, the melody of Grade Two songs can be within the range of an octave. However, most of his Grade Two songs do not yet span a f u l l o c t a v e — u s u a l l y a fourth or a f i f t h — a n d are usually i n the key of D. 1 8 7 Lebret noted that i n Grade Three, the c h i l d r e n w i l l undergo "the ninth year change." Lebret stated, "The nine-year-old has only just s tarted to d i s - cover himself separated from a world that u n t i l now he was n a t u r a l l y united 188 with." According to Lebret, the music chosen must r e f l e c t t h i s change i n the c h i l d ' s being. Thus, i n Grade Three, i t i s time to b i d farewell to the pentatonic realm and to enter into the world of diatonic music. As was mentioned before, i n Grade Three, the Waldorf School c h i l d r e n learn about house-building. Lindenberg compares the C scale to a house. The base note "C" i s the foundation, the high C the roof, the i n t e r v a l s as win- dows and doors, the scale as a st a i r c a s e . 1 8 5 L e b r e t , 32 . 1 8 6 I b i d , 34 . 1 8 7 L i n d e n b e r g , 21 . 1 8 8 L e b r e t , 57 . 63 The d i a t o n i c scale i s born, the root-note becomes experience, the t r i a d can be b u i l t ; i n the same way as the house i s e x p e r i - enced as something d i f f e r e n t from the world, i t s walls and c e i l i n g s c r e a t i n g a space-within-the-space around, so that at the aqe of nine, the octave with i t s t r i a d structures becomes a 189 dwelling place i n the realm of music. Lindenberg i l l u s t r a t e s the progression from the range of the f i f t h i n Grade One, to the octave i n Grade Two, and f i n a l l y to the C scale by the end of Grade Three. Figure 1 Descent of Melody \ ° f ° O J J O o o , 9 . The curriculum of Grades One through Three i s intended to provide a strong foundation for further musical development i n l a t e r grades. In Grades One through Three, the focus of the music lesson i s , p r i m a r i l y , the t r a i n i n g of the voice and the ear. The c h i l d i s considered to be at one with the music. In Grade Four, however, there i s a d i s t i n c t change i n the emphasis of the music lessons. According to Steiner, the student i n Grade Four passes through an important phase which Waldorf educators now r e f e r to as the "ninth year change." The students perceive a d i f f e r e n c e between an inner and an outer world. Because of t h i s new awareness, the teacher must lead the student, according to Steiner, to experience and understand music 1 8 9 L i n d e n b e r g , 22. 64 as an art form. In l a t e r years, the student learns develops music 190 judgement and musical taste. In Grade Four, i t i s assumed that the student must adapt himself to the requirements music. Thus, the study of theory begins i n earnest. The Stockmeyer curriculum advocates that the scale and music notation be taught 191 i n Grade Four, instead of Grade Three as the von Heydebrand curriculum 192 suggests. The von Heydebrand curriculum for Grade Four recommends that the c h i l d continue to develop music reading s k i l l s . Simple melodic, rhythmic, and harmonic concepts should also be studied. In Grade Four, major and minor t h i r d s are now introduced. The c h i l d r e n play and sing rounds and two part songs. In eurythmy cl a s s , the c h i l d r e n experience the 193 major and minor i n t e r v a l s through movement. I t appears that an introduction to the playing of a s t r i n g instrument i s an important feature of the Grade Three and Four music curriculum i n North American Waldorf Schools. Twenty-two out of twenty-three established schools i n North America o f f e r an introduction to the playing of a s t r i n g instrument ( v i o l i n , v i o l a , or c e l l o ) . Thirteen of these programs begin i n Grade Three and eight begin i n Grade Four. One program commenced a f t e r Grade Four. S t r i n g instruments are thought to develop the ear more than 1 9 0 S t o c k m e y e r , 170. 1 9 1 I b i d , 174. ^ 9 2 v o n Heydebrand, 26. 1 9 3 I b i d , 32 . 65 O r f f instruments or the piano, because c a r e f u l l i s t e n i n g i s required to produce the correct p i t c h . In Grade Five, according to von Heydebrand, students study the keys. Simple three-part songs are added to the r e p e r t o i r e . In eurythmy, the students move to pieces written i n d i f f e r e n t keys. Material includes the music of Schumann, Mozart, Haydn and Bach, as well as two-part pieces and 194 rounds. In Grade Six, the student continues with the study of the keys 195 and minor scales. Orchestral work continues, sometimes, wxth the option of switching to a wind instrument. A l t o and tenor recorders are introduced at the Grade Five and Six l e v e l . Steiner believed that Grades Seven and Eight students should be led to exercise musical judgement and musical discrimination. At t h i s age, the study of d i f f e r e n t s t y l e s of music, i . e , music of Beethoven and Brahms, was 196 considered to be important. By Grade Seven, according to the von Heydebrand curriculum, the students should be able to sing songs i n two, three, and four parts with instrumental accompaniment, but also a cappella. Older f o l k songs are included i n the material for Grade Seven and Eight. In eurythmy c l a s s , the Grade Seven student moves to music by Mozart, Bach, C o r e l l i , and Telemann. The von Heydebrand curriculum also recommends that some members of the Grade Seven cla s s provide the music for the eurythmy 197 lessons. The Grade Eight curriculum i s a continuation and extension of 1 9 4 I b i d , 35. 1 9 5 I b i d , 40. 1 9 6 S t o c k m e y e r , 170. 1 9 7 v o n Heydebrand, 43. 66 198 the work of Grade Seven. The bass recorder i s often introduced at the Grade Seven or Eight l e v e l . The students continue to p a r t i c i p a t e i n the school orchestra. The Waldorf School high school begins i n Grade Nine. Steiner believed that a l l high school students should be guided to develop musical t a s t e and an appreciation for the aesthetics of music. Therefore, i n high school, as i n elementary school, both instrumental music and vccal music are usually required subjects. From Grade Nine through Twelve, a l l students sing i n 199 the school mixed choir. Students also play xn the school orchestra. In some North American high schools, students may chose from a v a r i e t y of instrumental groups from recorder ensembles to band. The von Heydebrand curriculum recommended that the students write t h e i r own compositions and perform them for the c l a s s at t h i s a g e . 2 0 0 Steiner gave few s p e c i f i c indications for the upper grades. He stated that "above a l l " instrumental music should be brought to the students i n Grade Ten. However, he d i d not give any explanation. Harmony, i n the form of counterpoint, should also be introduced i n Grade Ten, according to Steiner, and the students should f e e l free to write t h e i r own counterpoint 201 compositions. In Grade Eleven, many c u r r i c u l a include a three-or four- week "block" (see Appendix B, "Unique Features of the Waldorf Schools") c a l l e d "The History of Music" or "The History Through Music." In Grade 1 9 8 I b i d , 4 9 . ^ " s t o c k m e y e r , 172. 2 0 " v o n H e y d e b r a n d , 55 . 2 0 1 S t o c k m e y e r , 173. 6 7 Eleven, Steiner recommended solo-singing. Steiner believed that Grade Twelve students should learn, from t h e i r own experience of performing 202 music, the d i s t i n g u i s h i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of Bach's music. Thus, i n summary, Steiner gave only b r i e f guidelines for the Waldorf School music curriculum. This lack of s p e c i f i c c u r r i c u l a r goals has led to a v a r i e t y of i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s i n the teaching of music i n Waldorf schools. 2 ° 2 l b i d . 6 8 B. Elements of Music 1. Melody Steiner implied that melody i s the most important aspect of music. In his eurythmy course, he stated: The nearer one qets to music, the more one enters into melody. 2 0 3 Melody i s the essence of music. For Steiner, the forces of sound and tone, and colour, serve "to deepen and en l i v e n the l i f e of soul." Steiner believed that i t i s very important to 2 0 4 t r u l y experience the tones and t h e i r i n t e r v a l s . The true s p i r i t of music l i e s , he claimed, i n the i n t e r v a l s . Where does music r e a l l y l i e ? The answer today would doubtless be that the music l i e s i n the tones. But the tones are not the music. Just as the human body i s not the soul, so are the tones not the music. The i n t e r e s t i n g thing i s that the music l i e s between the tones. The tones are only needed i n order that something may l i e between them. The tones are, of course, necessary, but the music l i e s between them. It i s not the C or E which i s e s s e n t i a l , but what l i e s between the two. Such an intermediary element i s , however, only possible i n melody. . . . What i s music? It i s what one does not hear. What you do not hear but yet experience between the tones i s music i n the true sense; i t i s the s p i r i t u a l side of music, whereas the other i s the manifestation of music i n the world of sense. The 2 0 5 audible i s never the musical. 2 0 3 R u d o l f S t e i n e r , Eurythmy as V i s i b t e M u s i c , t r a n s . V . J . Compton-Burnet t ( L o n d o n : R u d o l f S t e i n e r P r e s s , 1977) , 66 . 204, S t e i n e r , A r t As Seen i n the L i g h t of M y s t e r y Wisdom. 100. 205, S t e i n e r , Eurythmy as V i s i b l e M u s i c . 48. 69 In the future, he i n s i s t e d that humankind w i l l be able to "experience what i s behind the tone." Human beings w i l l experience tone as a window i n 206 which one can "enter the s p i r i t u a l world." Egon Lustgarten, a composer of music for eurythmy, r e f l e c t e d on Steiner's thoughts. To t r u l y understand music, Lustgarten believed that the human being may . . . experience melody, not as a succession of s i n g l e tones dependent on the harmonies, but as a continuous motion, the s i n g l e tones the t r a n s i t - p o i n t s . Thus, the i n t e r v a l s , the spaces between the i n d i v i d u a l melody-tones, become the essen- t i a l , while the sounding tones represent merely d i r e c t i n g - points to f i x , as i t were, externally, what i s of prime impor- tance: music m o t i o n . 2 0 7 In each stage of human development through the ages, Steiner claimed, the human being experienced music d i f f e r e n t l y , r e l a t i n g to d i s t i n c t i n t e r v a l s or "moods" of music. Today, music i s dominated by harmony of major and mi- nor t h i r d s . However, i n the far distant past, music was experienced, ac- cording to Steiner, through sevenths. Steiner contended that the smallest i n t e r v a l the human being could discern, at that time, was the seventh. Thirds and f i f t h s i n t e r v a l s did not e x i s t i n t h i s stage of human evolu- t ion. In a l a t e r age, i n Steiner's view, humankind experienced music i n f i f t h s . The i n t e r v a l of the seventh began to f e e l as uncomfortable as i t does to us 2 0 ^ S t e i n e r , A r t As Seen i n the L i g h t of M y s t e r y Wisdom. 100. 2 0 7 g g O n L u s t g a r t e n , " T h e Music Between the T o n e s , " The F o r e r u n n e r 2 ( S p r i n g 1941) 16. 2 u 8 S t e i n e r , Inner N a t u r e of Music and the E x p e r i e n c e of T o n e . 8 5 . today. Steiner stated that the i n t e r v a l of the f i f t h became more agree- 209 able. A s p e c i f i c scale began to emerge. This scale, Steiner contended, consisted of the notes DE GAB DE. C r y p t i c a l l y , he stated, "the f i f t h s 210 throughout the tonal range of d i f f e r e n t octaves were experienced." This type of music Steiner r e f e r r e d to as "Erleben der Q u i n t e " — t r a n s l a t e d as "Mood of the F i f t h . " Steiner maintained that t h i s type of music, i n that time, had the e f f e c t of l i f t i n g the l i s t e n e r outside of him/herself. "Mood of the F i f t h " music was objective; i t had no f e e l i n g for major or minor. Humankind was not ready for the "strange bond between music and 211 human s u b j e c t i v i t y . " Steiner believed that the f i f t h i n t e r v a l serves "to stimulate and enrich the l i f e of the soul. I t i s l i k e a magic wand that conjures up the secrets 212 of the sound world yonder, out of unfathomable depths." Steiner i n f e r r e d that t h i s era of the "Mood of the F i f t h " corresponded to the f i r s t stage of c h i l d development, up to the "ninth year change." Speaking of the future development of humankind and i t s r e l a t i o n s h i p to mu- s i c a l development, Steiner wrote: A l l t h i s i s e x t r a o r d i n a r i l y important when one i s faced with the task of guiding the evolution of the human being regarding the musical element. You see, up to about the age of nine, the 2 0 9 l b i d , 51 . 2 1 0 I b i d . 2 1 1 I b i d , 5 2 . . S t e i n e r , A r t As Seen i n the L i g h t of M y s t e r y Wisdom. 103. 7 1 c h i l d does not yet possess a proper grasp of major and minor moods, though one can approach the c h i l d with them. When en- t e r i n g school, the c h i l d can experience major and minor moods i n preparation for what i s to come l a t e r , but the c h i l d has neither one nor the other. Though i t i s not r e a d i l y admitted, the c h i l d e s s e n t i a l l y dwells i n moods of f i f t h s . N aturally, one can resort i n school to examples already containing t h i r d s , but i f one r e a l l y wishes to reach the c h i l d , musical appreciation must be based on the appreciation of f i f t h s ; t h i s i s what i s important. 2 1^ 5 A f t e r age nine, according to Steiner, the c h i l d i s able to t r u l y appreciate the experience of the t h i r d . Steiner believed that the human being experi- ences the t h i r d as an inward f e e l i n g . He described t h i s f e e l i n g as "intimate; i t i s an experience of the h e a r t . " 2 1 4 Steiner's successors believed, as Steiner did, that the c h i l d r e c a p i t u l a t e s the music h i s t o r y of humankind. Lebret claimed that s t e i n e r i n h i s l e c - tures implied that "man and music are a unity and cannot be considered sep- 215 a r a t e l y , with the development of music running p a r a l l e l to that of man." In music, the process of the descending ego into the p h y s i c a l body i s expressed by a narrowing of i n t e r v a l s mankind i s able to experience. This process i s repeated i n the i n d i v i d u a l development of every human being, hence we have to deal with i t i n e d u c a t i o n . 2 1 6 Anny von Lange, a Dutch musicologist, agreed with Steiner that the theory of r e c a p i t u l a t i o n i s the basis for using the pentatonic scale i n music teaching before the age of nine. She stated that " i n music, the great 2 ^ 3 S t e i n e r , Inner Nature of M u s i c and the E x p e r i e n c e of T o n e . 57-58 . 2 1 4 S t e i n e r , Eurythmy as V i s i b l e M u s i c . 33 . 2 1 5 L e b r e t , 4 . 2 1 6 I b i d , 5 . h i s t o r i c s p i r i t u a l evolution of mankind repeats i t s e l f i n the i n d i v i d u a l . " 217 V i r g i n i a Sease, a member of the Executive which oversees anthroposophical endeavors and also a former c l a s s teacher and musician, f e l t that c h i l d r e n needed to experience music i n the "Mood of the F i f t h , " 21 and then i n pentatonic and diatonic i n order to appreciate modern music. As mentioned, i n the curriculum for the f i r s t Waldorf School, guidelines were given f o r music teaching i n Grades One, Two, and Three i n the von Hey- debrand curriculum. The guidelines pertaining to melodic concepts r e f l e c t the progression from the "Mood of the F i f t h " to di a t o n i c music. Grade One—The curriculum stated that the c h i l d r e n "can f i r s t of a l l be brought to experience the f i f t h (Erleben der Quinte). Confused, chaotic music experience can gradually be transformed by movement to inwardly c o n t r o l l e d musical f e e l i n g . " Song material should be "within the compass of the f i f t h . " 1 9 Grade Two—"Songs within the compass of the octave should now be added to those i n the compass of the f i f t h . " 2 2 0 Grade T h r e e — I n music lessons, the children "should begin to learn how to write music i n the key of C major. Singing exercises should be continued i n a wider compass." 2 1 Steiner reasoned that the notes of the pentatonic scale DE GAB DE be used and that any f e e l i n g for major and minor be avoided. He d i d not r e f e r to t h i s sort of music for chi l d r e n as "pentatonic," but as "Mood of the 2 ^ 7 A n n y von Lange, "Tones A r i s i n g from the H e a r t " f rom Man-Music-Cosmos q u o t e d i n L y r e N e w s l e t t e r 9 (March 1987) : 5 . 2 1 8 y , - r g i n j a s e a s e , s i n g i n g workshop, Dornach , S w i t z e r l a n d , A p r i l 1986. 2 l ' v o n Heydebrand, 19. 2 2 0 I b i d , 23 . 2 2 1 1 b i d , 26 . 7 3 F i f t h . " Beyond these guidelines, the author could f i n d no other melodic i n d i c a t i o n s from Steiner. A number of i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of the "Mood of the F i f t h " seem to have emerged from the work of Waldorf music educators. A "Mood of the F i f t h " melody may: 1) begin and end on any note other than tonic ("G") to avoid the f e e l i n g for major and minor. 2) begin and end on "A" or be centered around "A" 3) consist of descending phrases 4) involve open, non-tempered tuning 5) contain melismatic passages. Some Waldorf music educators believe that music for young c h i l d r e n should not end on the t o n i c or "G" i n the tone set given by Steiner (DE GAB DE). Edmund Pracht, one of the f i r s t composers of children's music for the l y r e , stated that any of these tones could be the c e n t r a l tone; a l l tones, he 222 f e l t were interchangeable ["gemeinsam"] Lebret argued that although the c h i l d i s self-centered, he/she i s not yet a f u l l y integrated being. The ego or " I " of the c h i l d has not f u l l y de- scended i n t o the c h i l d ' s physical body. Lebret maintained that Grade One c h i l d r e n do not want to end on the tonic because t h i s brings the c h i l d too much i n t o the p h y s i c a l . Because of t h i s , Lebret rejected many of the pen- 2 2 2 E d m u n d P r a c h t , H e i l e n d e E r z i e h u n g ( N a t u r a - V e r l a g : A r l e s h e i m , S w i t z e r l a n d , 1956) , 313 . 74 t a t o n i c f o l k songs for the young c h i l d because of the emphasis on the 223 t o n i c . Another idea about the "Mood of the F i f t h " i s that the melody must center around the note "A." In teaching young children, J u l i u s Knierim, a German music t h e r a p i s t , composer, and accomplished l y r e player, stated that the teacher or parent . . . should s t r i v e to gradually f i n d h i s way, ever more surely to the "A." "A" i s the central tone (pitch) of a l l our songs. Indeed, the songs are e s s e n t i a l l y , only expansions of the tone "A", where the f i f t h i n t e r v a l i s the maximum l i m i t of expan-224 sio n . A n a l y s i s of Knierim's book Quintenlieder reveals that a l l t h i r t y - s i x songs begin on "A." Most songs end on "A" as well. Lindenberg, too, s p e c i f i e d that c h i l d r e n ' s songs, e s p e c i a l l y i n Grade One, center around the "A." By using a pentatonic scale based around the tone "A," without a f e e l i n g for major or minor, the c h i l d i s not asked for emotional involvement. He ad- vi s e d teachers to: . . . look for a tone central to a c h i l d ' s experience, mostly being the note "A," and not to base the song on t o n i c "C," or "ground t o n e . 2 2 5 2 2 3 L e b r e t , 6 - 7 . 2 2 4 J u l i u s K n i e r i m , Q u i n t e n l i e d e r ( B i n g h e i m , West Germany: V e r l a g das S e e l e n p h l e g e B e d u r f t i g e K i n d , 1970) , 9 . ( P a s s a g e t r a n s . Karen and P e t e r K l a v e n e s s ) 2 2 ^ L i n d e n b e r g , " O n the M u s i c C u r r i c u l u m : The C h i l d and H e a r i n g , " 21 . 75 Lindenberg believed that i t i s s u f f i c i e n t i n Grade One to l i m i t songs to ju s t one note "A," or songs which swing back and f o r t h from "A" to "E" or "A" to "D." He stated, "the i n t e r v a l of the f i f t h i s more . important than 226 using the f i v e notes of the pentatonic scale a l l at once." Anny von Lange, musicologist, published a book c a l l e d Mensch, Musik und Kosmos i n 1956. She believed that i n pre-Pythagorian time, around 1000 B.C., a seven-tone pentatonic scale was used by the Greeks, containing the notes DE GAB DE. The scale was composed of "wholly symmetrical form of 227 f i f t h s " and was centered around the middle tone "A." According to von Lange, the scale was an image, a metaphor of the human being's r e l a t i o n s h i p to the s p i r i t u a l and also to the material. The inner harmony of the whole form . . . does not r e f l e c t any more so d i s t i n c t l y world-creative occurrences of div i n e beings, but rather man himself, i n the p o l a r i t y of his being turned t o - wards both s p i r i t and m a t t e r . 2 2 Pam Boulding, a music teacher and p r o f e s s i o n a l harpist at the Morning Star Waldorf School i n Gig Harbor, Washington described her work with the c h i l - dren centering music around tone A": When I discovered the centre tone "A" and began to understand i t as the f i r s t tone i n music, and began to f e e l what i t was l i k e playing music for children, always beginning and ending on the "A", understanding the music that i s centered on the "A" for the young c h i l d . That was a r e a l breakthrough for me. I heard of Orff music and how they worked with pentatonic music 2 2 6 I b i d . 2 2 7 v o n Lange, 1. 2 2 8 I b i d , 3 . 7 6 and I understood about pentatonic music. But i t wasn't u n t i l I r e a l l y understood the centre tone "A" and the "Mood of the F i f t h " that I began to see that these are two separate e x p e r i - ences. And so I have f e l t that t h i s i s one of the most impor- 2 2 9 tant things I have brought to the chi l d r e n . The author could f i n d no d i r e c t quotation of Steiner which would i n d i c a t e that he believed that "A" should be the dominant or middle tone for music of c h i l d r e n under the age of nine. One of the leading Waldorf School music teachers i n Europe, P h i l i a Schaub confirmed: I cannot mention or point out any lecture of Steiner where he spoke about the "A," but i f you read the "Lehrplan der Waldorfschule" by Stockmeyer, you can f i n d him speaking about the "Quintenmusik." In t h i s "Quintenmusik," "A" i s the central-tone, e s p e c i a l l y i n connection with the 2 3 0 " P e n t a t o n i k . " Z J U Lindenberg explained the emphasis on the centre tone "A" i n the music mate- r i a l f o r the e a r l y grades: . . . for indeed, Steiner never seems to have ov e r t l y stated that the tone "A" should be central to the elementary grades singing. . . . This "scale" DE GAB DE i s relevant for the young school c h i l d . The c e n t r a l tone i s "A." While Steiner d i d not state that every melody for that age should center around the tone "A" i t i s again by the implication of the p a r a l l e l of the h i s t o r y of music that the "more objective" nature of the "Mood of the F i f t h " i s exemplified i n the use of a c e n t r a l rather than a t o n i c o r i e n t a t i o n tone, as i . e . i n the Gregorian chant before music used the "subjective" mode of expression from 1030 A.D. . . . Thus any music i n the fifth-mood could not p o s s i b l y employ a "ground" note, but would s t i l l use a middle note ( i n Greek "mese"). Any s e n s i t i v e treatment of songs composed i n the mood would lead to an emphasis of the ce n t r a l tone. In ad- d i t i o n , t h i s scale can be divided into two f i f t h s . . . . The " y L . E t e r m a n , u n p u b l i s h e d i n t e r v i e w s , 28. 2 3 0 p h i l i a Schaub, p e r s o n a l l e t t e r d a t e d J u l y 23, 1989. 7 7 tone "A"is c l e a r l y central both i n the scale, also i n the two 231 f i f t h s . J X Lindenberg diagrammed the pentatonic scale i n t h i s way to i l l u s t r a t e the c e n t r a l i t y of the tone "A." Figure 2 The Centrality of the Tone "A" -ho o — . / c r T3J Q ° Q CP) jr*4 - e - • e - • S-ZT O Q O The musicologist Pfrogner reported Anny von Lange's r e c o l l e c t i o n that Steiner had given a diagram of the Greek modes to a musician named W. Lew- erenz. In t h i s diagram, "A" was the note upon which the Greek modes were 232 based. The "A" was r e f e r r e d to as the "sun tone." Lindenberg stated that Steiner, i n a lecture i n Munich on March 17, 1908, r e l a t e d tone "A" to the q u a l i t i e s of the sun. Lindenberg states, "This i s i n s t i n c t i v e l y expe- rienced when working with small c h i l d r e n , that the tone "A" i s sun-like, 2 3 ^ L i n d e n b e r g , p e r s o n a l l e t t e r d a t e d August 22, 1989. 2 3 2 H e r m a n n P f r o g n e r , Lebendige Tonwelt ( M u n i c h : A l b e r t Langen, 1976) , 643 . 78 and as the sun i s the chief reference point for them, as for young school 233 c h i l d r e n , also c e n t r a l . " I t i s quite p o s s i b l e that "A" was the center tone for Greek music. Accord- ing to Curt Sachs, musicologist, the most ancient lyr e s of Greece consisted of three s t r i n g s c a l l e d "nete," "mese," and "hypate," meaning high, middle and low, tuned to fou r t h s — " D , " "A," and "E."^ J* The music h i s t o r i a n Donald Jay Grout corroborated t h i s hypothesis: There i s some reason to suspect that i n a l l the d i f f e r e n t keys one n o t e — t h e "mese" of the Great Perfect System—had s p e c i a l importance as a cent r a l tone of frequent recurrence i n melodies, a tone functioning perhaps somewhat l i k e the dominant (and p o s s i b l y the tonic) i n our system. I f t h i s were the case, the d i f f e r i n g r e l a t i o n s of the other notes to t h i s immutable "dominant" "A" would probably produce a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c set of melodic motives i n each mode, pe c u l i a r to that mode and gi v i n g to i t a s p e c i a l q u a l i t y which could never be deduced s o l e l y from i t s p i t c h or i t s scale s p e c i e s . 2 3 5 I t i s not c l e a r what Steiner or the ancient Greeks meant by "A." Was "A" A440 or a p i t c h higher or lower? However, the idea of "A" as the center tone of the tone set, whether Steiner s p e c i f i c a l l y indicated t h i s or not, appears to be one of c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of musical material for Waldorf Grades One through Three, and e s p e c i a l l y for the younger c h i l d r e n . 2 3 3 L i n d e n b e r g , p e r s o n a l l e t t e r d a t e d August 22, 1989. 2 3 4 C u r t S a c h s , The W e l l s p r i n g of M u s i c (The Hague, N e t h e r l a n d s : M a r t i n u s N i j h o f f , 1962), 160. 2 3 ^ D o n a l d Jay G r o u t , The H i s t o r y o f Western M u s i c (New Y o r k : W. W. N o r t o n and Company, 1960), 16. 79 Another c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of "Mood of the F i f t h " music, e s p e c i a l l y f o r young c h i l d r e n , i s that of the descending melodic phrase. Some Waldorf music educators maintain that the descending melodic phrase mirrors the c h i l d ' s p h y s i o l o g i c a l development. Steiner reasoned that, i n the f i r s t phase of a c h i l d ' s l i f e , he/she i s " e n t i r e l y sense organ, e n t i r e l y head, and a l l i t s development proceeds from 2 3 6 the nerve-senses system." Lindenberg believed that descending melodies of many l u l l a b i e s r e f l e c t the downward growth of the human being, from the head to the limbs. Lindenberg suggested that even i f other songs, not i n the pentatonic scale are used, they should also contain descending melodic phrases. Pam Boulding employed descending phrases, u s u a l l y ending on "A" 237 i n her work with younger children. Some Waldorf educators, e s p e c i a l l y those who use ly r e s to teach music, advocate open tuning. Knierim believed that the f i f t h i n t e r v a l s from "A" 238 up to the "E" and "A" down to the "D" should be sung i n perfect f i f t h s . This idea may to be linked to the theory that the c h i l d r e c a p i t u l a t e s the musical development of humankind. The idea of the tempered scale only came int o being i n the 1700s. Another feature of music used i n Waldorf Schools for the young c h i l d i s that of concluding songs with melismatic phrases. Paul Baumann, the f i r s t 2 3 ^ S t e i n e r , S p i r i t u a l Ground of E d u c a t i o n . 48. 2 3 7 L . E t e r m a n , u n p u b l i s h e d i n t e r v i e w s , 29. 2 3 8 K m " e r i m , 11. 80 music teacher i n the Waldorf Schools, composer of the four volume "Lieder der Waldorfschule" d i d not use the DE GAB DE tone set, or incorporate the idea of "A" as center tone, nor did he use opening tuning or descending melodies i n his compositions for young ch i l d r e n . A l l songs of the f i r s t volume of songs for young chi l d r e n are written i n the keys of D, G, except for one which i s i n Eb. Usually, the songs are within the range of a f i f t h . 239 However, h i s compositions are sprinkled with melismatic phrases. Appar- ently, he had followed Steiner's suggestion that he create text which could be performed i n a "speaking-singing" way, "Sprechgesanglich." One of Bau- man's best known songs, "The Song of the Mother Sun" i n which C h r i s t i a n Morgenstern's poem was set to music, was often sung at school gatherings of former p u p i l s . Bauman seems to incorporate the elements of the Gregorian chant (the l e v e l of musical evolution the c h i l d i s thought to be repeating i n his/her development) into the song by his frequent use of melismatic phrases. Steiner purportedly said that i n t h i s song the "Mood of the F i f t h " ' l i v e d . 2 4 0 E l i s a b e t h Lebret sometimes used t h i s p r i n c i p l e i n her s o n g s . 2 4 1 J u l i u s Knierim often ended his songs with a melodic phrase 242 without t e x t . " 9 P a u l Bauman, L i e d e r d e r W a l d o r f s c h u l e . e r s t e s H e f t f u r d i e K l e i n e n ( D o r n a c h , S w i t z e r l a n d : V e r l a g am Goetheanum, 1970) . ^ G i s b e r t Husemann and Johannes T a u t z , 87 . ^ E l i s a b e t h L e b r e t , S h e p h e r d ' s Songbook f o r Grade I . I I . and III of W a l d o r f S c h o o l s . 2 4 2J UIJ u s K n i e r i m , Q u i n t e n l i e d e r . 81 In short, many Waldorf School music educators advocated breaking away from t r a d i t i o n s and o l d forms, e s p e c i a l l y when teaching young c h i l d r e n . Knierim stated: Only a completely new way of singing and moving w i l l be able to d i s s o l v e the generations-old power of well-known melodies and present to the c h i l d r e n a new form, appropriate to our t i m e . 2 4 3 2. Rhythm/Beat Steiner r e l a t e d the rhythmic element of music to the " w i l l " of the human being. Steiner stated, ". . .we see that since the rhythmic element i s r e l a t e d to the nature of w i l l — m a n must inwardly a c t i v a t e h i s w i l l when he wishes to experience m u s i c — i t i s the rhythmic element that kindles music 244 i n the f i r s t place." Before the change of teeth, Steiner contended, the c h i l d imitates gestures and sounds from his environment. Through imi t a t i n g , Steiner claimed, the c h i l d "forms himself." Thus, rhythm and beat, amongst other impressions, become actual forces which work upon the c h i l d and help to mould the c h i l d ' s p h y s i c a l being. Steiner implies that the c h i l d ' s inner m u s i c a l i t y i s shaped i n these e a r l y years. 2 4 3 K n i e r i m , 13. 2 4 4 S t e i n e r , Inner N a t u r e of M u s i c and the E x p e r i e n c e o f T o n e . 67 . 82 The whole way i n which a c h i l d i s r e l a t e d p a r t i c u l a r l y to rhythm and beat i s d i f f e r e n t before and a f t e r the change of teeth. Previously rhythm and beat were also something which the c h i l d imitated, but which became transformed into a p l a s t i c moulding. Afterwards i t became transformed into an inner musi-245 c a l element. Steiner was not i n favor of teaching the c h i l d r e n rhythmic concepts u n t i l a f t e r the age of nine. He believed that the c h i l d was simply not ready. According to Steiner, before age nine, the c h i l d i s s t i l l at one with rhythm and beat. Only a f t e r age nine i s the c h i l d able to grasp the con- cept of rhythm and beat o b j e c t i v e l y . Steiner asserted that from age nine to understanding of rhythm and beat . . . rienced rhythm and beat unconsciously, 246 t i o n and understanding of i t . " twelve, "the c h i l d develops an whereas e a r l i e r on, the c h i l d expe- i t now develops a conscious percep- Only between his ninth and twelfth year does the c h i l d ac- quire an understanding for rhythm and beat as such, for melody as such. Now he i s no longer so strongly impelled to form him- s e l f inwardly i n accordance with rhythm and beat; afterwards he begins to develop the understanding, the f a c u l t y to comprehend what they a r e . 2 4 The c h i l d w i l l comprehend a ce r t a i n inner rhythm while i t i s s t i l l very young. Aside from t h i s i n s t i n c t i v e l y experienced rhythm, however, the c h i l d should not be troubled u n t i l a f t e r i t i s nine years old with the rhythm that i s experienced, for ' S t e i n e r , q u o t e d i n Stockmeyer , 165. ' S t e i n e r , S o u l Economy and Waldorf E d u c a t i o n . 145. S t e i n e r , q u o t e d i n Stockmeyer , 165. 83 example, i n the elements of instrumental music. Only then should the c h i l d ' s attention be c a l l e d to these t h i n g s . 2 4 8 A f t e r age nine, the c h i l d has integrated his/her musical experiences. Be- fore that age, the c h i l d i s not ready to be grasped by music i n an emo- t i o n a l way, through rhythms which are too strong. In a lecture given i n Dornach at Easter 1923, Steiner warned against introducing rhythms which are too strong before the c h i l d i s ready. Now, [at age nine to ten) much more than formerly, the c h i l d f e e l s the need to be gripped by what i s musical, to be gripped by rhythms. When we observe how the c h i l d takes i n music up to t h i s stage of l i f e between the 9th and 10th years—how what i s musical also l i v e s i n the c h i l d as something e s s e n t i a l l y p l a s t i c , and how t h i s p l a s t i c i t y n a t u r a l l y becomes an inner formative force of the body, passing over e x t r a o r d i n a r i l y eas- i l y i nto what i s dance-like, into movement—then we must rec- ognize how the inner grasping of music as such comes in t o being only between the 9th and 10th years. . . . Of course, these things are not c l e a r l y separated from each other; and those who have i n s i g h t into them w i l l also f o s t e r the musical element be- fore the 9th year, but i n the r i g h t way—tending more i n the d i r e c t i o n which I have just characterized. For the c h i l d be- tween 9 and 10 would get a shock i f the musical element were suddenly to take hold of him, before he was inwardly ready and accustomed to begin gripped i n t h i s strong way. 2 4 9 Steiner reasoned that the c h i l d i s not able to comprehend rhythm and beat u n t i l age nine because the c h i l d has not achieved a balance between his breathing and blood c i r c u l a t i o n . Steiner believed that the foundation f o r a l l rhythm was the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the breathing and the blood c i r c u - l a t i o n . The average adult, he surmised, has a r a t i o of four heart beats ' S t e i n e r , Inner N a t u r e of Music and the E x p e r i e n c e o f Tone . 67 . ' s t e i n e r , q u o t e d i n Stockmeyer , 167. 84 to one breath. Before the age of nine, Steiner implied that the c h i l d has 250 not achieved t h i s balance. Lindenberg, while designating the f i r s t nine years of a c h i l d ' s l i f e as the "melodic age," acknowledges that the young c h i l d , of course, l i v e s strongly i n the limbs, and i s i n constant movement. However, he believed that the rhythm and beat of music should, for the young c h i l d , be derived from the melody. The melodic element, the flow, i n Lindenberg's view, must domi- nate, and not the rhythmic element i n music written i n the "Mood of the F i f t h . " Does t h i s mean that there i s no rhythm or harmony and no beat? A c h i l d uses these elements when gaining mastery of body and limbs, yet a l l too e a s i l y we think we have a manifestation of beat and harmony. Melody has a movement of i t s own and t h i s movement as a type i s predominant i n a c h i l d ' s u n f o l d i n g . 2 5 1 Knierim urged teachers of children below the age of nine not to emphasize the beat: . . . the young c h i l d does not yet have a f i x e d metric sense, i . e . a f e e l i n g for the whole bar or the beat. One should be very conscientious i n de-emphasizing the beat. Only i n as f a r as i t appears by i t s e l f through the dancing and walking may i t play a r o l e . One takes from the c h i l d the freedom of movement which he should s t i l l have, and brings unfavorable consequences to bear i n h i s l a t e r years, i f the adult f e e l i n g s of weight, beat, and exactitude are forced upon him. . . . Be c a r e f u l to avoid pedantry and to avoid strangling the unconscious grace 2 5 0 s t e ] - n e p ( i n n e r N a t u r e of M u s i c and the E x p e r i e n c e o f T o n e . 6 7 . 2 5 1 L i n d e n b e r g , 19. 85 and freedom too early i n the name of the rhythmic s k i l l s to be 2 5 2 learned. * z Musicians and cl a s s teachers interviewed favored de-emphasizing the beat. One musician made the point that strong rhythms a f f e c t the c h i l d too d i - r e c t l y , too p h y s i c a l l y . Even though the task of the teacher, he believed, was to help the c h i l d l i v e into his/her own body, the c h i l d i s not t r u l y 2 53 able t o accept strong rhythms. A c l a s s teacher and music teacher stated that he would only use "rhythm inherent i n the flow of words." He ex- plained why he de-emphasized the beat i n his music lesson: . . . the beat, I regard as the l o g i c a l element. And i t i s l o g i c that i s the anathema to the p a r a d i s i a c a l c h i l d [the c h i l d before the age of nine]. For the simple reason that l o g i c i s something that i s systematic and you can't have anything more systematic that i s regular. Breathing i s not regular. . . . I don't regard rhythm as something that i s regular. That i s b e a t — t h a t i s a machine. True rhythm i s something that i s not constant, i t i s i n c o n s t a n t . 2 5 4 A p r o f e s s i o n a l musician and private music teacher who works out of Steiner's ideas postulated that there are two types of rhythm—etheric rhythm (that which i s rela t e d to breathing, to the l i f e - f o r c e s ) and i n t e l - l e c t u a l rhythm (that which i s rela t e d to steady pulse). I n t e l l e c t u a l rhythm i s beat and the beat i s death. . . . I of- ten r e f e r to the difference between the two i n t h i s way. If you f e e l your pulse on your wrist, i n between each major beat, you experience, you can l i t e r a l l y f e e l the blood beginning to move. And so, i t i s the rhythm, you can l i t e r a l l y f e e l the blood beginning to move. And so, i t i s the rhythmic i n t e r v a l , K n i e r i m , Q u i n t e n l i e d e r . 11. L . E terman, u n p u b l i s h e d i n t e r v i e w s , 62. 2 5 4 I b i d , 76. 86 exactly the same as the melodic i n t e r v a l except that the rhyth- mic i n t e r v a l i s i n time. You are i n a state of movement. You are working with a l i v i n g breathing element. With the other, there i s something hard, very frozen about i t , i n a sense dead. . . . . One l i v e s and breathes and moves, the other i s e n t i r e l y 255 s t a t i c . " Thus, i n presenting songs i n Grades One, Two, and Three i n Waldorf Schools, i t seems that there i s generally no inordinate emphasis on beat. Knierim suggested that parents or teachers walk to the young c h i l d ' s own beat, instead of f o r c i n g t h e i r adult beat upon the c h i l d . The teacher may accelerate or decelerate songs according to the children's mood, the 2 56 weather, or the context of the subject studied. Another rhythmic feature of some songs written for c h i l d r e n Grades One, Two and Three i n Waldorf Schools i s that of changing meter. Knierim's songs are written i n meters of 9/4, 6/4 duple, 6/4 compound, and 4/4. Sometimes the meter changes from, i . e . , 9/4 to 4/4 or 4/4 to 6/5 duple or 9/4 to 6/4 duple to 6/4 compound. The songs are written with no bar l i n e s . E l i s a b e t h Lebret's Shepherd's Sonqbook, too, includes examples of songs which change from 6/8 to 9/8 , 4/4 to 6/8, 12/8 to 9/8. 2 5 5 I b i d , 20 . 2 5 6 K n i e r i m , 8 - 9 . 87 3. Harmony Harmony, i n Steiner's view, i s related to the chest, to the f e e l i n g l i f e of 257 humankind. The element which occupies the middle p o s i t i o n i n music t o - day . . . i s harmony. Harmony s t i r s human f e e l i n g d i r e c t l y . . . . Feeling i t s e l f i s that which occupies the middle p o s i t i o n i n the sum-total of human experience. On the one side f e e l i n g flows out into w i l l and other i t flows out into the world of ideas. . . . Harmony a f f e c t s f e e l i n g d i r e c t l y . Harmony i s ex- perienced by the f e e l i n g s . 2 5 8 Steiner presumed that the c h i l d , up to the age of nine, does not have an 259 appreciation f o r major and minor moods, and that he/she grasps melodies 2 6 0 more e a s i l y than harmonies. According to Steiner, the c h i l d w i l l not be harmed by experiencing music i n these moods. However, Steiner d i d not be- l i e v e that the young c h i l d could t r u l y r e l a t e to t h i s type of music. This appreciation would come, he hinted, only a f t e r the "ninth year change" when the c h i l d i s able to discriminate the inner world from the outer world. Steiner i n s i s t e d that teachers would do the c h i l d r e n a great favor 261 by introducing them to major and minor modes a f t e r age nine. Steiner 262 recommended that the c h i l d r e n sing only i n unison u n t i l age ten. 2 ^ 7 S t e i n e r , Inner Nature of M u s i c and the E x p e r i e n c e of T o n e . 68 . 2 5 8 S t e i n e r , q u o t e d i n Stockmeyer , 171. 2 ^ ' s t e i n e r , Inner Nature of M u s i c and the E x p e r i e n c e of T o n e . 57 . 2 6 0 I b i d , 66 . 2 6 1 I b i d , 58 . 2 ^ 2 R u d o l f S t e i n e r , C o n f e r e n c e w i t h the Teachers o f the W a l d o r f S c h o o l i n S t u t t g a r t . Volume Two, t r a n s . P a u l i n e Wehrle ( F o r e s t Row, E a s t Sussex , Great B r i t a i n : S t e i n e r S c h o o l s F e l l o w s h i p P u b l i c a t i o n s , 1987) , 9 . 88 Lindenberg asserted that songs i n Grades One and Two, and perhaps Grade Three, should not even be harmonized for the c h i l d r e n . He stated that i n these grades, "harmonization superimposes unnecessary f e t t e r s f o r something that s t i l l wants to grow and come into i t s own." Chording on piano or g u i - t a r brings i n the element of major and minor which, according to Linden- 263 berg, should be avoided u n t i l the end of Grade Three. The songs of Lebret, Knierim, and Masters also appear without accompani- ment. However, i t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note that the music written by Paul Bauman, music teacher of the f i r s t Waldorf School, included piano accompa- niment . C. A c t i v i t i e s of Music 1. Singing Singing, according to Steiner, i s an e s s e n t i a l mode of expression for the human being. . . . something i n f i n i t e l y important i n man's harmony with the world i s achieved when he sings. Singing i s a way of reproduc- ing what i s already present i n the world. When the human being sings, he expresses the momentous wisdom out of which the world i s b u i l t . 2 6 4 ' L i n d e n b e r g , 2 1 . S t e i n e r . P r a c t i c a l A d v i c e To T e a c h e r s . 52. 8 9 Steiner believed that the a c t i v i t i e s of singing and instrument playing should be introduced to the chil d r e n as soon as possible i n the c h i l d ' s education so that the c h i l d could experience the "musical element which 265 l i v e s i n t h e i r human form, as i t emancipates and frees i t s e l f . " Teachers were asked to view the c h i l d as a musical instrument. Every c h i l d , Steiner f e l t , was able to f e e l "a kind of well-being i n the 266 sound." He encouraged teachers to imagine what a v i o l i n would f e e l , i f i t could f e e l , as the performer draws the bow across the s t r i n g s . He urged teachers to give c h i l d r e n these " l i t t l e experiences of ecstasy" through 267 singing. He believed i f one was to be a good music teacher, "he w i l l make a point of taking singing with the chil d r e n at the very beginning of t h e i r school l i f e . " 2 6 8 According to the von Heydebrand curriculum, the c h i l d r e n must le a r n to dis- criminate between what i t be a u t i f u l and what i s not b e a u t i f u l through exer- c i s e s i n ear t r a i n i n g . In Grades One and Two "simple rhythmic melody" should be introduced to the children. These melodies "which s u i t h i s age" 2 69 are to be learned by rote. The benefits of children's songs should not be underestimated as part of a c h i l d ' s education, according to Steiner. ^ s t e i n e r . Human V a l u e s i n E d u c a t i o n . 151. 2 6 6 S t e i n e r , The Kingdom of C h i l d h o o d . 111. 2 6 7 I b i d , 112. 2 6 8 s t e i n e r , Human V a l u e s of E d u c a t i o n . 150. von Heydebrand, 20 . 90 Songs should be chosen for t h e i r "beauty of sound." The songs "must make a 270 p r e t t y and rhythmical impression on the senses." The a c t i v i t y of singing, according to Steiner, should not be t i e d , at f i r s t , t o any learning of musical concepts. Teachers may teach " l i t t l e songs quite e m p i r i c a l l y without any kind of theory: nothing more than sim- ply singing l i t t l e songs, but they must be well sung!" Later, Steiner s a i d , songs may be used to teach the ch i l d r e n gradually about melody, 271 rhythm, and beat. Steiner was against the use of " a r t i f i c i a l methods" to teach singing. Children, he thought, should not be made conscious of t h e i r breathing, but that they should shape t h e i r breath i n s t i n c t i v e l y according to the musical phrase. Steiner f e l t teaching children to sing too consciously would be analogous to teaching children to methodically and a n a l y t i c a l l y how to hold a pen. To teach i n t h i s way, was, i n Steiner's view, to t r e a t the human being l i k e a machine. The physical organism must be "free to adapt i t s e l f 272 to what i s r i g h t l y experienced i n the soul." Waldorf music teachers t r y to achieve a c l e a r free tone, without vibrato, without emotionalism. The development of conscious active l i s t e n i n g would help the c h i l d to sing properly, not "methods" which were, to Steiner, too i n t e l l e c t u a l , too sepa- rate from the experience i t s e l f . Steiner urged teachers to wait u n t i l 2 7 0 S t e i n e r , The E d u c a t i o n of the C h i l d . 29. 2 7 1 S t e i n e r , The Kingdom o f C h i l d h o o d . 116. 2 7 2 R u d o l f S t e i n e r , The Renewal o f E d u c a t i o n Through the S c i e n c e o f the S p i r i t ( F o r e s t Row, E a s t S u s s e x , G r e a t B r i t a i n : K o l i s k o A r c h i v e s P u b l i c a t i o n s , 1981), 146-147. 91 c h i l d r e n were older and less vulnerable to subject students to such meth- o d s . 2 7 3 The f i r s t step i n teaching singing and musical ear t r a i n i n g i s to implant i n the c h i l d r e n the habit of l i s t e n i n g c a r e f u l l y . Then one awakens t h e i r f a c u l t y of i m i t a t i o n i n reproducing the music they have heard. The best singing method would be for the teacher to sing to his class with r e a l love for the music. Then when hearing the ch i l d r e n sing a f t e r him, he must be able to point out anything which i s f a u l t y or which needs improving. He must engender a desire i n the c h i l d r e n to copy what they have heard from h i s l i p s , and then he can correct them. 2 7 4 The important thing i s that the c h i l d should learn to l i s - ten; the musical hearing must be trained. The c h i l d must above a l l grow accustomed to hearing r i g h t l y and then the tendency to imitate c o r r e c t l y what i t has heard must be aroused. There again the best method for the teacher i s to lead the singing with a c e r t a i n love, and then go into the points which are at f a u l t . In t h i s way, the p u p i l develops h i s natural need to im- i t a t e what he has heard and he learns from his teacher's cor- 275 r e c t i o n s . Steiner suggested that singing and c r i t i c a l l i s t e n i n g be a l t e r n a t i n g a c t i v i t i e s i n a music lesson. He recommended that one half of the c l a s s 9 7 fi sing while the other h a l f l i s t e n e d . He also advised that the c h i l d r e n be given singing one day and be allowed on the next day to l i s t e n to i n - 277 strumental music. 2 7 3 I b i d , 146. 2 7 4 I b i d , 132. 2 7 ^ S t e i n e r , q u o t e d i n S tockmeyer , 163. 2 7 ^ S t e i n e r , Supplementary C o u r s e . The Upper S c h o o l . (1965) , 5 . 2 7 7 I b i d , 3 . 92 Steiner assumed that the " s p i r i t u a l " element of the music wanted to remain with the c h i l d a f t e r the music had ceased. Steiner asked teachers to con- s i d e r asking the c h i l d r e n to remain quiet for a few minutes a f t e r the music has f i n i s h e d , instead of rushing into another a c t i v i t y . According to Steiner, the older the children, the more important i t i s to include these 278 periods of s i l e n c e . 2. Movement At age three and four, Steiner stated, the c h i l d wants to j o i n his/her "own b o d i l y musical nature i n musical rhythm and r e l a t i o n s h i p with the world." The capacity i s present most strongly i n the human being at the age of three to four. Steiner urged parents to dance, to move with t h e i r c h i l - dren. The c h i l d ' s body should be "permeated" with movement at t h i s c r i t i - c a l age. This would help the children overcome any heaviness i n t h e i r 279 limbs, Steiner predicted. Steiner stated that the b e n e f i t s of dance and movement with the young c h i l d could also "have a powerful influence i n 280 b u i l d i n g up the physical organs." Steiner contended i f t h i s f e e l i n g for music, movement, and rhythm were c u l t i v a t e d by the parents before the c h i l d ' s f i r s t change of teeth, a strong foundation would have been l a i d for the development of the c h i l d ' s 2 7 8 S t e i n e r , Supplementary C o u r s e . The Upper S c h o o l . F o r e s t Row, E a s t S u s s e x : K o l i s k o A r c h i v e s P u b l i c a t i o n s : 1980, 48 . 2 7 ' s t e i n e r , P r a c t i c a l A d v i c e to T e a c h e r s . 20. 2 8 0 S t e i n e r , The E d u c a t i o n of the C h i l d . 29. m u s i c a l i t y i n the future. However, Steiner cautioned teachers not to emphasize t h i s w i l l to movement too e n t h u s i a s t i c a l l y . The movement of e a r l y childhood: . . . c a r r i e s l i f e too strongly, l i f e that i s too stunning, and e a s i l y benumbs consciousness. This strong musical element very e a r l y brings about a c e r t a i n dazed state i n the c h i l d ' s devel- opment . 2 8 2 This impulse has to be balanced, arrested somewhat so that the "music does not a f f e c t the human being too strongly." The Dionysian elements of the 283 music have to be balanced with the Apollonian. Steiner suggested that for the young c h i l d , e s p e c i a l l y from age seven on, a unity of movement, playing instruments, singing should be encouraged. The Greeks, Steiner pointed out, were concerned with the teaching of the whole human being—body, soul and s p i r i t . Through movement, the Greek f e l t r e l a t e d to the world. The Greeks brought t h e i r pupils into movement; they brought them into movement that was i n harmony with the dynamic of the s p i r i t u a l and physical cosmos. 2 8 4 2 8 ^ S t e i n e r , P r a c t i c a l A d v i c e t o T e a c h e r s . 21 . 2 8 2 I b i d , 4 7 . 2 8 3 I b i d , 48 . 2 8 4 R u d o l f S t e i n e r , Deeper I n s i g h t s i n t o E d u c a t i o n : The W a l d o r f A p p r o a c h , t r a n s . R. M . Q u e r i d o ( S p r i n g V a l l e y , New Y o r k : A n t h r o p o s o p h i c a l P r e s s , 1983), 3 . 94 The dances of the Greek gymnast inspi r e d "the hand to play the z i t h e r , 285 i n s p i r i n g speech and word to become song." The musical f e e l i n g was not derived from a s p e c i a l musical t r a i n i n g , but from a harmonizing of a l l as- pects of the organism. This was accomplished because, according to Steiner, these bodily exercises regulated the breathing and blood c i r c u l a - t i o n . When does man best bring his blood into movement by means of the b r e a t h i n g ? — t h e answer would have been that the boy must move, must carry out dance-like movements from his seventh year onwards. . . . The aim of a l l t h i s o r c h e s t r i c was to express the systems of breathing and blood c i r c u l a t i o n i n the human be- ing i n the most perfect way. For the' conviction was that when the blood c i r c u l a t i o n i s functioning properly i t works r i g h t down to the very finger t i p s , and then i n s t i n c t i v e l y the human being w i l l s t r i k e the strings of the z i t h e r or the s t r i n g s of the l u t e i n the r i g h t way.2 6 Steiner invented a form of movement c a l l e d eurythmy i n 1910. Eurythmists are a c t i v e i n the anthroposophical movement i n the f i e l d s of education, cu- r a t i v e work, and a r t i s t i c performance. While performing eurythmy, which has been c a l l e d " v i s i b l e speech and v i s i b l e music," the students i n t e r p r e t speech or music. Each vowel, each consonant, each note i s lin k e d with a gesture which i s interpreted according to the context of the poem or melody. Usually, i n Waldorf Schools, students move to piano music. The students i n t e r p r e t works of the great composers or works written s p e c i f i c a l l y for eurythmical exercises. Eurythmy promotes c a r e f u l l i s t e n - ing, s p a t i a l awareness, awareness of others. " - ' S t e i n e r , A Modern A r t of E d u c a t i o n . 50. 2 8 6 I b i d , 51 . 95 However, eurythmy i n the Waldorf School i s taught as a separate subject from Kindergarten to Grade Twelve. It cannot be part of the music lesson, as eurythmy i s only taught i n Waldorf Schools by tra i n e d eurythmists. 3. Playing of Instruments a. Overview of Steiner's ideas Not only d i d Steiner regard the human being as a musical instrument, he also believed that musical instruments are r e l a t e d to the f a c u l t i e s of the human s o u l — t h e thinking, the f e e l i n g and the w i l l i n g . Steiner's theory was that "the orchestra i s an image of man." He explained: The wind instruments prove that the head of man experiences mu- s i c . The s t r i n g instruments are l i v i n g proof that music i s ex- perienced i n the chest, p r i m a r i l y expressed i n the arms. A l l percussion instruments . . . are evidence of how the musical element i s expressed . . . i n the limb system. Also, however, everything connected with the wind instruments has a more i n t i - mate r e l a t i o n to the element of melody than that which i s con- nected with the s t r i n g instruments, which have a r e l a t i o n to the element of harmony. That which i s connected with percus- sion possesses more inner rhythm and r e l a t e s to the rhythmic element. An orchestra i s an image of man. 2 8 7 Therefore, Steiner linked wind instruments with melody (the head, nerve- sense, t h i n k i n g ) , s t r i n g instruments with harmony (the chest, breathing and blood c i r c u l a t i o n , f e e l i n g ) , and percussion instruments with rhythm (the S t e i n e r , Inner Nature of M u s i c and the E x p e r i e n c e of T o n e , 74-75. 96 limbs and metabolism, the " w i l l " ) . He implied that a l l three realms were necessary i n music-making, but i n a balanced way. Steiner f e l t that the piano was "a kind of memorizing instrument . . . the worst possible thing for a c h i l d . " The piano d i d not allow for the being 288 of the c h i l d to flow into i t , l i k e the v i o l i n or recorder In addition, the piano, he believed, was not b u i l t out of t h i s "image of man." The music instruments are derived from the s p i r i t u a l world; the piano, however, i n which the tones are a b s t r a c t l y l i n e d up next to each other, i s created only i n the physical world by man. A l l instruments l i k e the f l u t e or v i o l i n o r i g i n a t e musically from the higher world. . . . The piano a r i s e s out of a materi- a l i s t i c experience of music. . . . i t i s the one instrument that a c t u a l l y , i n a musical sense, must be overcome. Man must get away from the impressions of the piano i f he wishes to ex- perience the actual musical element. 2 9 Steiner stressed that musical i n s t r u c t i o n , for the younger c h i l d , should always begin with song. However, instruments were to be introduced "as e a r l y as po s s i b l e , " so that "the ch i l d r e n should come to f e e l what i t means for t h e i r own musical being to flow over into the objective 290 instrument . . . " In t h i s way, the unity of the singing, playing and moving to music i s fostered i n the Waldorf Schools. Steiner recommended that every c h i l d , even the most unmusical ones, learn to play a musical instrument. He proposed that c h i l d r e n begin with a blow- ing instrument, although Steiner did admit that t h i s experience could be a 2 8 8 S t e i n e r , The Kingdom of C h i l d h o o d . 116. 2 8 ' s t e i n e r , Inner N a t u r e of Music and the E x p e r i e n c e of Tone. 75. 2 9 0 S t e i n e r , The Kingdom of C h i l d h o o d . 116. 97 " h a i r - r a i s i n g " one for the teacher! The benefit f or the c h i l d r e n i n t h i s experience i s that the c h i l d ' s breathing, " t h i s whole co n f i g u r a t i o n of the a i r , which otherwise he encloses and holds within him along the n e r v e - f i - bres, cannot be extended and guided." By blowing, Steiner believed that the c h i l d could f e e l h i s whole being expanded. A s i m i l a r phenomenon occurs when the c h i l d plays the v i o l i n . Steiner stated that " . . . he f e e l s how 291 the music i n him passes over into the strings through the bow. " Steiner d i d not mention the use of percussion instruments for c h i l d r e n . Lindenberg stated that ch i l d r e n before the age of nine i n the Waldorf Schools are considered to be i n the "melodic" age preparing to enter the "harmony age." According to Lindenberg, beat, and thus percussion i n s t r u - 292 ments, are not emphasized before puberty. The f i r s t Waldorf Schools offered recorder and v i o l i n i n Grades One to Three. The Stockmeyer curriculum indicated: Recorder (taught i n classes) and V i o l i n s ( i f enough v i o l i n i s t s are a v a i l a b l e i n the c l a s s ) : from class 1-4, each two 293 lessons. According to the Stockmeyer curriculum, t h i s e a r l y instrumental experience was meant to prepare the ch i l d r e n for a f u l l instrumental program i n the l a t e r grades. 2 9 1 I b i d , 112. 2'2L jnder iberg , 17. 2 9 3 s t e j n e r q U O t e d i n Stockmeyer , 162. 98 Ensemble playing of suitable c h i l d r e n from classes 5-8: 2 lessons a week. School Orchestra consisting of s u i t a b l e p u p i l s from classes 9 to 12: 2 lessons a week.2 4 Caroline von Heydebrand's curriculum emphasized v i o l i n s and " f l u t e s . " Grade 1—one p e r i o d — f l u t e s and v i o l i n s Grades 2, 3, 4—two p e r i o d s — f l u t e s and v i o l i n s The von Heydebrand curriculum also led to a f u l l instrumental program. Grades 5-12—one period—From the 5th c l a s s onwards there 295 should be an orchestra for the more advanced. The curriculum recommended that the c h i l d r e n sing as often as possible, accompanied by the instruments i n use i n the school. Vocal and instrumen- t a l music were thus introduced simultaneously. The curriculum stated that some percussion instruments could be added as wished. These instrumental cla s s e s , of " f l u t e " ("Czakans" or recorders i n D") or v i o l i n , were consid- ered mandatory i n the f i r s t three grades. It was suggested that some students may wish to play the v i o l i n at t h i s age. In l a t e r grades, smaller 296 voluntary ensembles were offered. 29*1 b i d . 2 ' ^ v o n Heydebrand, 9 9 . 2 9 6 I b i d , 20. Steiner emphasized that the q u a l i t y of instruments was of utmost considera- t i o n . I n f e r i o r instruments would serve to s p o i l the c h i l d ' s musical ear. " I f we want to t r a i n the children's ear," he said, "we cannot be c a r e f u l 297 enough about the q u a l i t y of the instrument." Many new instruments have developed from Steiner's ideas on music and music education with t h i s emphasis on q u a l i t y . Two instrument-making companies, "Choroi" and "Gartner," now produce instruments for use i n the Waldorf Schools. b. Gartner Instruments i . Philosophy and development In 1926, two years a f t e r Rudolf Steiner's death, Edmund Pracht, composer, and Lothar Gartner, instrument maker, both members of the Youth Section of the Anthroposophical Movement, collaborated to create new instruments based 298 on Steiner's world-view. Even though the instruments were developed a f t e r Steiner's death, there i s evidence that Gartner d i d work within Steiner's recommendations on the creation of new instruments. Edmund Pracht acknowledged the influence of an instrument maker, Franz Thomastik, (1883-1951), a Viennian who had been given some in d i c a t i o n s by Steiner on 299 instrument b u i l d i n g . Steiner's biographer, Gunther Wachsmuth, wrote 2 9 7 R u d o l f S t e i n e r , C o n f e r e n c e w i t h the Teachers of the U a l d o r f S c h o o l i n S t u t t g a r t . Volume One, t r a n s . P a u l i n e Wehrle ( F o r e s t Row, E a s t Sussex , Great B r i t a i n : S t e i n e r S c h o o l s F e l l o w s h i p P u b l i c a t i o n s , 1986) , 128. 2 9 8 E l i s a b e t h G a r t n e r , " R u d o l f S t e i n e r ' s M u s i c a l Impulse and the C r e a t i o n of the L e i e r , a New M u s i c a l I n s t r u m e n t , " t r a n s . Joan C o l l i s , a r t i c l e sent w i t h p e r s o n a l l e t t e r d a t e d August 8, 1988 2 " E d m u n d P r a c h t , G o l d e n e L e i e r . H e f t 4 . E i n f u h r u n g i n das L e i e r s p i e l . 68 . 100 that from August 29 - September 6, 1921, Steiner gave lecture s on anthroposophy i n Vienna. At t h i s conference, new instruments developed by Tomastik were p l a y e d . 3 0 0 In 1928, at an anthroposophical conference i n London, two instruments made by Lothar Gartner, a bass l y r e and a bass glockenspiel (each two meters 301 high), were presented. From the ly r e prototype, an ensemble of soprano, a l t o , tenor-bass l y r e s grew. Kanteles and children's l y r e s were created f o r music education and music therapy. The instruments were to be tools with which- one could r e a l i z e the idea of musical archetypes i n i t i a t e d by Goethe and Steiner. In addition, Gartner and Pracht wished to b u i l d instruments which were based on the human being as the "archetypal musical instrument." Gartner wanted to b u i l d "a house fo r sound, g i v i n g form to the gesture of l i s t e n i n g . " The tones were to 302 carry an element of " l i g h t . " Playing of the l y r e was to serve the purpose of stimulating the imagina- t i o n . The main aim was "to s p i r i t u a l i z e the human soul; i t s h a l l educate the human soul to be open to the s p i r i t , i t s h a l l transform the human 303 s o u l . " The l y r e was b u i l t to be a meditative instrument, to nourish the 3 0 0 G u n t h e r Wachsmuth, l i f e and Work of R u d o l f S t e i n e r (New Y o r k : W h i t t i e r B o o k s , I n c . , 1955), 419 . 3 0 1 G a r t n e r , 3 . 3 0 2 I b i d , 2 . 3 0 3 I b i d , 2 . 101 inner experience, not an instrument on which v i r t u o s i t y could be f l a u n t e d . 3 0 4 E l i z a b e t h Gartner, the wife of Lothar Gartner, wrote that the true impor- tance of the l y r e has not been perceived yet, and "Neither i s i t s contribu- t i o n to the musical education of the c h i l d through the various phases of 305 development properly understood." According to Eliz a b e t h Gartner, Rudolf Steiner r e f e r r e d to Apollo, the sun god, as that being of thinking, f e e l i n g , and w i l l i n g , who brought healing through the st r i n g s of h i s l y r e . For the young c h i l d who l i v e s i n a noisy and alienated world, the l y r e , Gartner believed, could bring a measure of harmony. 3 0 6 Edmund Pracht died i n 1974 and Lothar Gartner i n 1979. At the 60th anniversary of the founding of the Gartner company, i n 1986, twenty thou- 307 sand Gartner l y r e s had been sold around the world. 3 0 4 I b i d , 3 . 3 0 5 I b i d , 2 . • ^ E l i s a b e t h G a r t n e r , "Form und Ton a l s h e i l e n d e , OTdnende K r a f t e , " a r t i c l e sent w i t h p e r s o n a l l e t t e r d a t e d August 8, 1988, 1 . • ^ ' " F i r m e n im G e s p r a c h - - S e c h z i g J a h r e l e i e r b a u - - i m D i e n s t m u s i k s c h o p f e r i s c h e n und menschenbiIdenden Bemuhens," Das H u s i k i n s t r u m e n t 9 (1986) : 1. 102 Figure 3 Gartner A l t o Lyre partner Alto Lyre 103 Figure 4 Gartner Flugel-Kantele or "Wing" Kantele 104 Figure 5 Gartner Children's Harp ;ner Children4* 105 i i . Lyres The Gartner company makes two d i f f e r e n t s t r i n g instruments for c h i l d r e n — the " f l u g e l - k a n t e l e " or "wing" kantele and the " k i n d e r l e i e r " or "children's l y r e . " The "flugel-kantele" has ten s t r i n g s and can be tuned to the pen- t a t o n i c (DE GAB DE) or diatonic scale (C-E). The "children's harp" has twelve s t r i n g s which may be tuned pentatonically (DE GAB DE GAB DE) or d i a - t o n i c a l l y . ( C - G ) 3 0 8 c. Choroi Instruments i . Philosophy and Development The Choroi company seems to have a more defined educational philosophy than the Gartner company. The word "Choroi" i s derived from the Greek word "Choros" meaning "chorus" or "a dance i n a r i n g . " "Choroi" i s the p l u r a l of "Choros." The name was chosen to denote the ancient Greek idea of music 309 making—the inte g r a t i o n of singing, playing instruments, and movement. The Choroi company has created three d i f f e r e n t types of instruments— s t r i n g , wind and percussion (lyres, f l u t e s , and xylophones and glocken- s p i e l s ) , perhaps according to Rudolf Steiner's idea of balancing thinking, f e e l i n g , and w i l l i n g i n music making. Norbert V i s s e r , a Dutch instrument maker and professional musician who now l i v e s and works i n the curative community of Scorleward, the Netherlands, • ^ " G a r t n e r p r o m o t i o n a l m a t e r i a l . 3 u ' N o r b e r t V i s s e r , workshop i n F a i r Oaks, C a l i f o r n i a , J u l y 1982. 106 developed the l i n e of Choroi instruments i n the 1960's. He explained the concept of "Choroi": The ancient Greeks knew the concept of Choroi as an expression meaning music as such. In our modern times, music has f a l l e n apart i n t o a number of separate a c t i v i t i e s , such as singing, playing of instruments, composing. The element of movement we today only know as the separate a c t i v i t y of dancing. With the word Choroi, we again wish to express: Music as a means of ex- pression through the musical instrument, through the human voice, through composing, and improvising, through tone-move- ment, i n intimate communicating with the surrounding room- w o r l d . 3 1 0 P e d r o l i and Bloch explained why the Choroi instruments were e s p e c i a l l y suited to the young c h i l d . During pre-school years, every sound of earthly matter, every rhythmic movement, becomes wonderful "music," f u l l of r i d d l e s , to which they want to l i s t e n again and again. This a t t i t u d e p e r s i s t s i n a dominating way up to the ninth year. . . . The Choroi instruments seek i n a way appropriate to our time, to breathe new l i f e into t h i s primeval musical a c t i v i t y ("singing, playing, speaking, and dancing t o g e t h e r . " ) 3 1 1 With t h i s aim, V i s s e r designed f l u t e s , l y r e s , harps, and xylophones which are used i n the Waldorf Schools. Visser termed these instruments "new" instruments, even though l y r e s , f l u t e s , and harps are some of the oldest instrumental forms known to humankind. In ancient Greece, the l y r e was as- sociated with the ordered r i t e s of Apollo, the son of Zeus, and the f l u t e 3 ^ N o r b e r t v i s s e r , u n p u b l i s h e d a r t i c l e on C h o r o i i n s t r u m e n t s , d a t e d March 29, 1988, 1. ^ T h o m a s p e d r o l i and Dietmar B l o c h , " P l a y i n g w i t h C h o r o i F l u t e s : An I n t r o d u c t i o n , " t r a n s . P e t e r K l a v e n e s s ( C h o r o i p r o m o t i o n a l m a t e r i a l ) , 9 -10 . 107 with Marsyas. The designers of the Choroi instruments have modified these ancient instruments and assigned to them new functions. Choroi instruments are made by individuals with p h y s i c a l and mental handi- caps who l i v e i n curative communities i n Finland, Sweden, Denmark, Germany, 312 Holland, and Switzerland. (See Appendix H, " L i s t of Choroi and Gartner Workshops.") The author v i s i t e d the Scorlewald workshop i n July, 1985, and observed how each worker was responsible for a s p e c i f i c part of the production process. Machines are adapted, and even invented, to serve the needs of the handicapped. The workers often gather i n a group at the end of the day and play t h e i r instruments. The Choroi instruments, created from the work of two d i s c i p l i n e s , instrument-making and c u r a t i v e work with the handicapped, were created for two reasons: to help renew music education and to give meaning and purpose to the l i v e s of the 313 handicapped. Choroi builds approximately 14,000 wooden f l u t e s (1000 i n t e r v a l f l u t e s , 8000 pentatonic f l u t e s , and 5000 d i a t o n i c f l u t e s ) and approximately 1200 s t r i n g instruments (300 bordun l y r e s , assorted l y r e s , 314 and c h i l d r e n ' s harps) per year. The connection to Steiner i n the case of Choroi was i n d i r e c t . V i s s e r never knew Steiner, but had worked with instrument makers who followed Steiner's ideas on v i o l i n making. In 1952, Visser worked with a v i o l i n maker from Nurnberg, Germany, Karl Wieder who had helped to produce a c e r t a i n type of 3 l 2 V i s s e r , B u i l d i n g C h o r o i M u s i c a l Ins t ruments . 37 . 3 1 3 I b i d . 3 ^ 4 K a r i n S c h e r t u n d , p e r s o n a l l e t t e r d a t e d August 18, 1988. 108 315 v i o l i n c a l l e d the "Thomastik" v i o l i n . The "Thomastik" v i o l i n was cre- ated by Franz Thomastik who b u i l t his v i o l i n based on the C e l t i c crwth from 316 ancient p r i n c i p l e s , known, said Visser, since 300 B.C. V i s s e r believed that such changes i n musical instrument making were pre- d i c t a b l e . Thomastik had searched for years to discover a new q u a l i t y of 317 tone. In June 1922, Steiner was i n Vienna and v i s i t e d Thomastik's stu- dio. According to Visser, he offered some advice to the instrument maker. Steiner saw a t r a d i t i o n a l v i o l i n , that had been opened, and he indicated a new form: *"""̂ »»» instead of the t r a d i t i o n a l . The remarkable thing however, i s that one didn't experience t h i s new form t i l l 1953 as I had my f i r s t meeting with K a r l Weidler i n Nurnberg. I asked Karl Wiedler to b u i l d such an i n - strument, and there we began g i v i n g concerts on such i n s t r u - ment. Of course, t h i s i s only a "subtle" i n d i c a t i o n . This p r i n c i p l e of an organic form (instead of mechanic form) devel- oped i n the many other models: wind, s t r i n g , p e r c u s s i o n . 3 1 8 I t i s assumed that Steiner's ideas about instruments were not recorded i n written form and i t i s not within the scope of t h i s t h e s i s to provide spe- c i f i c plans for instrument making. Vi s s e r used Steiner's i n d i c a t i o n s and the r e s u l t s of the work of Thomastik and Weidler to develop new models of v i o l i n s , v i o l a s , and c e l l o s i n partnership with another instrument maker, Joseph Musil. These experiences formed a basis for experimentation with new forms of instruments. In 1959, i n response to questions from thera- p i s t s and educators, Visser designed various types of f l u t e s , l y r e s , harps, 3 1 5 V i s s e r , 38 . 3 ^ N o r b e r t V i s s e r , p e r s o n a l l e t t e r d a t e d September 1988. 3 1 7 V i s s e r , 38 . 3 ^ 8 V i s s e r , p e r s o n a l l e t t e r d a t e d September 1988. 109 319 and xylophones. . Later developments include new v i o l i n s , v i o l a s , c e l - , . , . 320 l o s , and even c l a r i n e t s . i i . F l utes Choroi has developed three d i f f e r e n t types of f l u t e s f o r young c h i l d r e n — the i n t e r v a l f l u t e , the pentatonic f l u t e , and the d i a t o n i c f l u t e . Other larger f l u t e s are also made for adults. The instruments are c a l l e d " f l u t e s " to d i s t i n g u i s h them from t r a d i t i o n a l recorders. The f l u t e s were invented to help a handicapped boy at the Zonnehuis Stenia 321 i n Holland learn to speak. Visser believed that i n ancient times human beings spoke i n a singing way. Searching for t h i s "sung" tone, he devel- oped a "D" f l u t e with a large mouthpiece, so that the c h i l d had to open his mouth quite wide to be able to produce a sound. Thus the c h i l d ' s breath 322 becomes sound. The f l u t e s help the ch i l d r e n to regulate t h e i r breath- ing. Because of the wide mouthpiece, the breath flows u n r e s t r i c t e d , un- forced, out of the c h i l d into the instrument. The instrument becomes an extension of the c h i l d . The c h i l d i s not required to "tongue" when playing these instruments. The i n t e r v a l , pentatonic, and d i a t o n i c f l u t e s a l l have t h i s type of mouthpiece. The f l u t e s , made of pear wood, have a warm and ^ V i s s e r , 3 8 . 3 2 0 V i s s e r , p e r s o n a l l e t t e r d a t e d September 1988. 3 2 1 V i s s e r , B u i l d i n g C h o r o i M u s i c a l Ins t ruments , 38 . 3 2 2 I b i d , 3 9 . 110 mellow sound, i n contrast to the sometimes harsh and s t r i d e n t tones of t r a - d i t i o n a l wooden recorders and p l a s t i c recorders. The c h i l d r e n sing the songs they learn on t h e i r f l u t e s . In the lesson, there i s usually an a l t e r n a t i o n between singing and playing. Each a c t i v i t y 3 2 3 i s meant to support the other. The teacher creates a mood i n which the f l u t e s and other instruments are treated with reverence and awe. Stories are used to introduce the i n s t r u - ments and the instruments are handed out i n a ceremonious way. The c h i l - dren learn to o i l t h e i r f l u t e s , to warm them up before playing them, and to put them away c a r e f u l l y i n f l u t e bags which the c h i l d r e n have kn i t t e d them- selves. The c h i l d learns that musical instruments are not toys. By learn- ing to care for the instruments, the c h i l d learns respect for musical i n - struments and respect for the art of music i t s e l f . The simpler i n t e r v a l f l u t e serves as an introduction to the pentatonic f l u t e . The i n t e r v a l f l u t e s are generally introduced i n Grade One. The d i - atonic f l u t e s are presented to the children i n Grade Three. ' P e d r o l i and B l o c h , 12. I l l Figure 6 Choroi Interval Flutes 112 Figure 7 Choroi Pentatonic and Diatonic Flutes 113 The i n t e r v a l and pentatonic f l u t e s were meant to be played by c h i l d r e n i n a large group. This group tone (Gesamklang) helps to develop the c h i l d ' s p l a y i n g "with an awareness of the whole of which he i s a part." Later, when the c h i l d enters t h i r d grade and i s given a diatonic f l u t e , he/she i s 324 ready f o r more i n d i v i d u a l expression. The i n t e r v a l f l u t e s have only one hole and are capable of producing two tones, one tone when the hole i s closed and the other when the hole i s open. There are three types of i n t e r v a l f l u t e s : D-A f l u t e , D-G f l u t e and E-B f l u t e . The f l u t e s encompass the pentatonic scale DE GAB. For a c l a s s of t h i r t y , 10 sets of these instruments are used. With the i n t e r v a l and pentatonic f l u t e s , no abstract musical concepts are given. The c h i l d r e n simply experience music making through improvisational a c t i v i t i e s which are l i m i t e d only by the teacher's imagination. Later i n the f i r s t grade, or perhaps i n the second grade, the c l a s s teacher and/or music teacher introduces the pentatonic f l u t e with i t s range of DE GAB DE. By the end of the year, the class i s able to play simple melodies by ear and improvise t h e i r own melodies. The f l u t e , considered i n Choroi, an extension of the human voice i s almost always used with singing. Through these singing and instrumental experiences, the c h i l d r e n absorb musical concepts that they w i l l be led to understand consciously i n l a t e r years. They experience rhythm and beat, melody, form, dynamics, and timbre 3 2 4 I b i d , 10. 114 through these playing these instruments. Learning of musical notation begins i n Grade Three as the children are introduced to the d i a t o n i c f l u t e . i i i . Lyres The Choroi company makes two spe c i a l s t r i n g instruments f o r c h i l d r e n — t h e "kinderharp" and the "bordun l y r e . " The kinderharp i s a small seven s t r i n g instrument (tuned DE GAB DE) created for chi l d r e n under the age of nine or ten. Because the instrument has no sound hole, the sound i s quite s o f t . The Choroi bordun l y r e i s an unusual instrument which has a layer of ten t r e b l e or melody s t r i n g s which cross a layer of s i x bass (bordun or drone) s t r i n g s . In the middle of the instrument, near the sound hole, both the t r e b l e and bass s t r i n g s may be played together. The bordun l y r e , thus, has three d i s t i n c t sounds: the t r e b l e strings near the tuning pegs, the bass s t r i n g s near the bridge which can play rhythmic or melodic o s t i n a t i , and t r e b l e and bass s t r i n g s together i n the middle part of the instrument. The 325 l y r e may be tuned to pentatonic or diatonic scales, or to chords. The Choroi company also make soprano and a l t o l y r e s f o r teachers to use. The bordun l y r e s were created out of a demand for a small harp which could be played with large sweeping movements. The woodwork teacher from the En- gelberg Waldorf School i n Germany wanted to f i n d an instrument which the upper classes could make for the kindergarten c h i l d r e n . At the same time, J u l i u s Knierim had been thinking about designing a pentatonic s t r i n g i " C h o r o i : The Bordun Lyre (Choroi promotional m a t e r i a l ) , 1. 115 instrument. V i s s e r v i s i t e d the school and helped to fashion the kinder- . 326 harp. The author tuned the upper strings of the bordun l y r e to the pentatonic scale (DE GAB DE) and the bass strings to D and G. Some c h i l d r e n were able to pick out melodies by ear on the melody s t r i n g s , while others strummed the middle s t r i n g s or the drone s t r i n g s . The instrument can also be tuned to a d i a t o n i c scale, i . e . , the scale of D with D and A as the drone. The l y r e s may also be tuned to d i f f e r e n t chords. Both the kinderharp and the bordun l y r e lend themselves to improvisation a c t i v i t i e s , e s p e c i a l l y i f the instruments are tuned to the pentatonic sc a l e . Ostinato patterns, melodic or harmonic, may be employed. Improvi- sati o n i s e a s i l y combined with movement. Children are able to move around the room, strumming, singing, and improvising. (See Appendix D, Improvi- sa t i o n . ) 'Visser, Building Choroi Musical Instruments. 39. 116 Figure 8 Choroi Kinderharp Choroi KincUrf iarp Figure 9 Choroi Bordun Lyre 118 Figure 10 Choroi Solo Lyre Ckx>rov 5oLo Ufc 119 i v . Choroi Xylophones and Glockenspiels (Klangspiels) These instruments consist of wooden or brass or aluminum tone bars sus- pended over hand-held wooden resonators. The resonators and bars may be 327 f i t t e d onto a resonator box to create a xylophone or glockenspiel. The "klangspiels" may be combined with Choroi f l u t e s and l y r e s . The "hand- held k l a n g s p i e l s " may be used i n a v a r i e t y of games. d. Other Instruments In some schools, e s p e c i a l l y those with l i m i t e d budgets, f l u t e s and l y r e s s i m i l a r to the Choroi and Gartner prototypes are produced l o c a l l y . In the Z e i s t Waldorf School i n Z e i s t , the Netherlands, bamboo f l u t e s were made by the Grade Four cl a s s f or the Grade One chi l d r e n . The g u i l d of recorder makers supported t h i s process by t r a i n i n g teachers i n the construction of these instruments. e. S t r i n g Program In most Waldorf Schools, the study of a s t r i n g instrument i s mandatory. In some schools, pr i v a t e lessons are required. Most established Waldorf Schools o f f e r a s t r i n g program beginning i n Grades Three and Four. (See Question #27, "Results of Questionnaire.") The music teacher, c l a s s teacher, and parent, taking i n consideration the size, temperament, and C h o r o i : K l a n g s p i e l s ( C h o r o i p r o m o t i o n a l m a t e r i a l ) , 3 . 120 personal choice of the c h i l d , decide which s t r i n g instrument, (e i t h e r a v i - o l i n , v i o l a , or c e l l o ) , the c h i l d w i l l play. Karen Landers of the Washington Waldorf School i n Bethesda, Maryland de- s c r i b e d the s t r i n g program i n her school i n which the c h i l d r e n are i n t r o - duced to the v i o l i n , v i o l a , or c e l l o through s p e c i a l s t r i n g classes i n Grade Three. Strings are offered as a f i r s t instrument i n t h i s school for the following reasons: 1) Younger c h i l d r e n are too small for most wind and brass i n - struments. S t r i n g instruments come i n h a l f and three-quarter s i z e s . 2) In order to produce a good tone on a s t r i n g instrument, a rather long period of study i s usually required. It i s assumed that younger ch i l d r e n are able to imitate the hand p o s i t i o n more e a s i l y than older children. 3) A f t e r learning the rudiments of s t r i n g playing, students are surprised at how easy i t i s to t r a n s f e r to another i n s t r u - ment . In the t h i r d grade, students are required to take two s t r i n g classes a week. V i o l i n , v i o l a , and c e l l o classes meet separately but o c c a s i o n a l l y 328 combine together for performance. In Grade Six or Seven, i n some schools, the c h i l d r e n j o i n the orchestra. Some students are given the option to switch to a wind or brass instrument at t h i s age. • " " K a r e n L a n d e r s , " C h o o s i n g Instruments i n a Waldorf S c h o o l , " G a t h e r i n g : Washington W a l d o r f S c h o o l N e w s l e t t e r 4 (March 1986) : 6 .  122 Figure 12 Bamboo Flute Bamboo Flute 123 4. Improvisation There i s no mention of improvisation i n Steiner's lectures on music and mu- s i c education. However, improvisation i s a major part of the Choroi impe- tus. Many Waldorf teachers who use Choroi instruments i n t h e i r teaching have incorporated improvisation exercises and musical games into t h e i r pro- grams. (See Appendix D.) Steiner stated that the children should sing what they play; that a l l i n - strumental work should a r i s e from song i n the early grades. Those of Steiner's successors who i n i t i a t e d Choroi movement have s t r i v e n to i n t e - grate the playing, singing, and moving to music, through the invention of new hand-held instruments. Improvisation i s intimately linked with l i s t e n i n g and movement. The Choroi f l u t e s were created, Visser contended, to help the human being to " l i s t e n , to hear" e s p e c i a l l y one's "inner music;" to be aware of one's inner dance. When playing the Choroi f l u t e s , Visser asserted that the performer must ask, "What music wishes to be played on my instrument?" and then, "How do I move with the instrument to express t h i s music?" Teachers are encouraged to ask the c h i l d r e n to walk as they play t h e i r f l u t e s . V i s s e r spoke of f e e l i n g , sensing the melodies within oneself and connecting t h i s "inner mu- 329 s i c " with the outer movements needed to play the instrument. ^ " N o r b e r t V i s s e r , i n t r o d u c t i o n t o P l a y i n g with C h o r o i F l u t e s , by Thomas P e d r o l i and D i e t m a r B l o c h ( C h o r o i p r o m o t i o n a l m a t e r i a l ) , 3 . 124 Steiner suggested that teachers employ the tone set DE GAB DE with c h i l d r e n below the age of nine. This pentatonic scale has no dissonances and thus, lends i t s e l f to use i n improvisation. Many Choroi instruments, e s p e c i a l l y those for younger ch i l d r e n , are constructed to accommodate t h i s p a r t i c u l a r scale. The i n t e r v a l f l u t e , pentatonic f l u t e , and kinderharp encompass the scale. The bordun l y r e can be tuned to DE GAB DE. By omitting the C and F, the k l a n g s p i e l can be made pentatonic. Improvisation exercises, which are presented as games often connected to s t o r i e s and integrated with main lesson topics, introduce music i n a joy- f u l , p l a y f u l manner with the assurance of success. The a c t i v i t i e s provide opportunities for the c h i l d r e n to develop motor s k i l l s and l i s t e n i n g s k i l l s , p r e r e q u i s i t e s i n the learning of musical notation. In the Waldorf School, the s o c i a l aspect of improvisation i s an important aspect. Empha- s i s i s placed on awareness of others: eye contact, choosing, l i s t e n i n g , and responding c a r e f u l l y and thoughtfully. 5. Reading Musical Notation a. Use of Image and Metaphor to Teach Musical Notation Steiner stated that a l l learning i n the elementary years must develop from the imagination. And so between the change of teeth and puberty you must ed- ucate out of the very essence of imagination. For the q u a l i t y that makes a c h i l d under seven so wholly into a sense-organ now becomes more inward; i t enters the soul l i f e . The sense-organs 125 do not think; they perceive pictures, or rather they form p i c t u r e s from the external objects. And even when the c h i l d ' s sense experiences have already a q u a l i t y of soul, i t i s not a thought that emerges but an image, a l b e i t a soul image, an imaginative p i c t u r e . Therefore, i n your teaching, you must work i n p i c t u r e s , i n images. 3 3 0 A l l the c h i l d ' s forces, now that he has passed through the change of teeth, s t r i v e towards what i s inwardly p l a s t i c and p i c t o r i a l . And we support t h i s picture-forming element, when we ourselves, i n everything we impart to the c h i l d , approach him i n a p i c t o r i a l way. 3 1 Steiner also pointed out that, at the change of teeth, there i s no abrupt transformation of the physical organism of the c h i l d , that a l l change and growth takes place gradually i n the c h i l d . The c h i l d slowly changes from an i m i t a t i v e being to one who looks upon his/her teachers as natural 332 a u t h o r i t i e s . The c h i l d i s gradually led from i m i t a t i o n i n the f i r s t grades to more independence i n music-making. A f t e r the "ninth year change," music must be presented to the c h i l d i n a d i f f e r e n t way. The c h i l d i s no longer one with the music, but must now ac- commodate himself/herself to the requirements of music. The c h i l d begins to view music as an a r t . Now the c h i l d ' s attention w i l l be directed to the claims of mu- s i c , therefore the lesson w i l l be directed more towards the a e s t h e t i c aspect. Previously "the c h i l d " was the c h i e f thing, and everything was done to get him to learn to sing and hear. Now that the c h i l d has passed through the f i r s t three classes where he himself was the f i r s t consideration, he must conform S t e i n e r , The Kingdom of C h i l d h o o d . 40. S t e i n e r , q u o t e d i n Stockmeyer , 167. •Ste iner , S p i r i t u a l Ground of E d u c a t i o n . 6 1 . 126 to the demands of music as an a r t . That i s the main considera- 3 3 3 t i o n from the educational point of view. The von Heydebrand and Stockmeyer c u r r i c u l a do not c a l l f o r the learning of abstract musical notation u n t i l Grade Three. Grades One and Two are spent l a r g e l y i n im i t a t i o n of the t e a c h e r — l e a r n i n g to sing, to play instruments, to l i s t e n to music, to move to music. The ch i l d r e n develop a r e p e r t o i r e of songs, s k i l l s , movements through i m i t a t i o n . By Grade Three, the c h i l d i s ready to begin the process of symbolizing his/her aural experience. To understand the Waldorf School approach to learning music notation, i t i s use f u l to understand Steiner's thoughts on teaching reading. When a c h i l d enters a Waldorf School i n Grade One, he/she i s not immediately introduced to reading as such. In the course of the year, the c h i l d learns the alpha- bet through l i s t e n i n g to s t o r i e s — a s s o c i a t i n g the l e t t e r " f " with a p i c t u r e of a f i s h , the l e t t e r "m" with "mouth," and so on. Through t h i s method of teaching, the c h i l d i s taken through the pi c t u r e - w r i t i n g stage of humankind, where "people painted something on the page which reminded them of the o b j e c t . " 3 3 4 By teaching the l e t t e r s a b s t r a c t l y , Steiner believed that "we are gi v i n g him things that l i e r i g h t outside h i s nature and to 3 3 5 which he has not the s l i g h t e s t r e l a t i o n s h i p . " In a d dition, Steiner suggested that the writing and painting of the l e t t e r s precede reading. 3 3 3 S t e i n e r , q u o t e d i n Stockmeyer , 170. 3 3 4 S t e i n e r , The Kingdom o f C h i l d h o o d . 4 1 . 3 3 5 I b i d , 40 . 127 . . . i t i s quite wrong to teach reading before wr i t i n g , f o r i n wri t i n g , e s p e c i a l l y i f i t i s developed from the painting-draw- ing, drawing-painting, that I have spoken of, the whole human being i s a c t i v e . The fingers take part, the p o s i t i o n of the body, the whole man i s engaged. In reading, only the head i s occupied and anything which only occupies a part of the organ- ism and leaves the remaining parts impassive should be taught as l a t e as possi b l e . The most important thing i s f i r s t to bring the whole being into movement, and l a t e r on the s i n g l e In Steiner's view, reading should evolve from the o r a l t r a d i t i o n . The c h i l d should hear s t o r i e s , l i s t e n to language, r e c i t e poetry, take part i n plays. Writing, according to Steiner, should precede reading. In teaching musical notation, t h i s sequence appears to be followed by most Waldorf School teachers. The c h i l d must f i r s t learn to l i s t e n , t o move, before any reading of music i s presented. In Grade Three, when the reading of music i s taught, the c h i l d r e n write music i n t h e i r music books. Steiner d i d not prescribe any set procedures, r u l e s , or methods f o r teach- ing musical notation (or any other subject matter). The mode of teaching was l e f t e n t i r e l y up to the teacher. However, Steiner d i d state that the- ory and musical notation i s best derived from the music i t s e l f . Of greatest importance . . . w i l l be the fo s t e r i n g of music i n an elementary way through teaching the chil d r e n s t r a i g h t out of the musical fa c t s without any bemusing theory. The c h i l d r e n should gain a c l e a r idea of elementary music, of harmonies, melodies and so on through the a p p l i c a t i o n of elementary f a c t s through the analyzing by ear of melodies and harmonies, so that with music we b u i l d up the whole a r t i s t i c realm i n the same e l - ementary way as we do the sc u l p t u r a l , p i c t o r i a l realm where we s i m i l a r l y work up from the d e t a i l s . 3 7 3 3 6 I b i d , 4 4 - 4 5 . 3 3 7 S t e i n e r , P r a c t i c a l A d v i c e t o T e a c h e r s . 48-49 . 128 Lebret contended that the teaching of notation should be based on the development of the ear. She believed that the learning of notation should be a process i n which the abstract i s bridged by means of p i c t u r e s and images. In t h i s way, the c h i l d ' s i n t e l l e c t u a l forces are awakened 3 3 8 slowly. Another Waldorf School teacher, Marjorie Watson agreed that the v e h i c l e of story and the p i c t o r i a l element should be used to introduce the abstract notation. She claimed that the ch i l d r e n soon forget the story and r e l a t e the notation to the sound. In t h i s manner of learning, the c h i l d 339 takes pleasure i n w r i t i n g out musical phrases. Image and metaphor, through the p i c t o r i a l image and the story, are used as a means for teaching musical notation, f o r introducing instruments, for a context f o r improvisation. Many of these s t o r i e s involve a hero, a jour- ney, or a quest. Some teachers spin t h e i r s t o r i e s for the f u l l three years or longer. The s t o r y t e l l i n g device provides a measure of co n t i n u i t y to the lessons and the c h i l d r e n look forward to hearing the new addi t i o n to the story. Concepts are given i n the warm and i n v i t i n g cushion of the story, and thus perhaps more r e a d i l y absorbed. Within the s t o r i e s , other media such as color and movement and, of course, drama may be incorporated. (See Appendix E, Stories.) 3 3 8 L e b r e t , The S h e p h e r d ' s Songbook. 58. • " y M a r j o r i e Watson, " T h e M u s i c Lessons i n the F i r s t T h r e e C l a s s e s , " C h i l d and Man E x t r a c t s ( F o r e s t Row, S u s s e x , Great B r i t a i n : S t e i n e r S c h o o l s F e l l o w s h i p P u b l i c a t i o n s , 1975), 75 . 129 b. Solfege Solfege, the Curwen-Kodaly hand signs, are generally not taught i n Waldorf Schools i n Grades One through Three. (See "Questionnaire Results," Graph 27.) Some Waldorf music s p e c i a l i s t s do teach solfege, but a f t e r absolute p i t c h names are taught. Lebret maintained that i n Grade Three, the c h i l d s t i l l wants to experience the uniqueness of a s p e c i f i c tone. Lebret, i n her lessons, connected children's names with the tones. The r e l a t i v e note names, she believed, convey to the c h i l d the r e l a t i o n s h i p of the note to the scale, but do not communicate i t s essence. Lebret explained that to represent "A" with a s p e c i a l and d i s t i n c t person named Ann i s quite d i f f e r e n t from c a l l i n g her "do" which would r e l a t e to a function of her being, not the kernel of the l i v i n g being of "Ann." In t h i s way, Lebret believed, the c h i l d r e n are taught that a human being i s "an i n d i v i d u a l i t y i n a s p e c i a l place." Lebret was i n favor of solfege i n l a t e r grades, but believed that the q u a l i t y of the notes should be experienced deeply i n Grade Three, so that l a t e r on, the children would have a f e e l i n g for the 340 d i f f e r e n c e i n q u a l i t y between a C scale, for example, and a G scale. Boulding was adamantly against using Curwen-Kodaly hand signs because she f e l t that i t was another language and not a musical language at that. Hand signs, i n her opinion, were too i n t e l l e c t u a l and detracted from the music i t s e l f . 3 4 1 3 4 0 L e b r e t , 71 . 3 ^ L . E t e r m a n , u n p u b l i s h e d i n t e r v i e w s , 36 . 130 The eurythmy curriculum c a l l s for the teaching of "gestures" of the C scale 342 and performing simple melodies within the scale i n Grade Three. These body and arm movements can only be taught by a t r a i n e d eurythmists, therefore the music teacher i s not allowed to incorporate them i n t o the music lessons. Teaching the Curwen-Kodaly hand signs i n Grade Three may serve to confuse the c h i l d r e n by introducing yet another system. Reg Down, a eurythmist i n the Vancouver Waldorf School, saw no basic c o n f l i c t , however. In h i s view, eurythmy i s an a r t i s t i c form and the hand signs and solfege are means to the end of learning about music. He also recommended that the signs be introduced when the children are learning musical 343 notation. 6. Importance of "Live" Music In the younger grades, e s p e c i a l l y i n Grades One, Two, and Three, only " l i v e " music i s offered to the c h i l d r e n . Godwin stated that i n 1923, 344 Steiner "condemned the gramophone as a source of music." According to Steiner, the human being should be the source of a l l music for the young c h i l d . Down explained his i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of Steiner's idea: 3 * ^ v o n Heydebrand, 25 . 3 4 3 l b i d , 13. 3 4 4 G o d w i n , 4 8 . 131 Once you get i n t o using music from a machine, t h i s i s unmusi- c a l . I f something unmusical i s brought into the schools we are • 345 not t a l k i n g about music or music education. By l i s t e n i n g to records, tapes, or to the radio, the c h i l d does not experi- ence music as form of communication between audience and performer. In the view of an anthroposophist and professional musician who was interviewed, a performance i s a co-creation of an audience and a performer. The member of an educated audience should be able to be so attuned that they can "co- create with the performer, meet the performer on t h i s higher l e v e l of . a r t . " 3 4 6 In Waldorf Schools, an e f f o r t i s made to o f f e r many " l i v e " performances to the students. Waldorf p u p i l s , i n t h e i r eurythmy lessons, move to masterpieces usually performed by a p i a n i s t . Emphasis i s on s p a t i a l awareness and musical form. 7. Integration of Music with Other Subject Matter Steiner remarked that "Art, a f t e r a l l , i s there f or her own sake." How- ever, i n the same breath, he advocated that the a r t i s t i c and the academic d i s c i p l e s complement one another i n the curriculum. According to Steiner, a r t i s t i c a c t i v i t y promotes the c h i l d ' s natural p r o c l i v i t y f o r learning and knowledge seeks a r t i s t i c expression. Art and knowledge must presented to 3 4 ^ L . E t e r m a n , u n p u b l i s h e d i n t e r v i e w s , 11. 3 4 6 I b i d , 23 . 132 the c h i l d r e n side by side i n order that a l l learning form a whole, a u n i t y . 3 4 7 A r t i s t i c subjects cannot be taught i n i s o l a t i o n . A l l t h i s w i l l not be attained i f the a r t i s t i c simply runs alongside the remaining education and the other l e s s o n s , — i f i t i s not made or g a n i c a l l y one with these. For a l l teaching and education should form a whole. Knowledge, culture of l i f e , exercises i n p r a c t i c a l s k i l l , should open out in t o the inner need for Art; and the a r t i s t i c l i f e i t s e l f should bear the 348 longing to learn, and to observe, and to acquire s k i l l . The e s s e n t i a l feature of Waldorf School education i s that every a c t i v i t y has i t s place within the organism of the whole school. . . . The organization of the school i s so conceived that each a c t i v i t y has i t s r i g h t f u l place and time and f i t s with the whole. And i t i s from t h i s point of view that i n d i v i d u a l sub- 349 j e c t s of i n s t r u c t i o n are introduced into the school. Steiner f e l t that not only should there be in t e g r a t i o n of subject matter, but also that teachers of d i f f e r i n g d i s c i p l i n e s work together cooperatively to create a h o l i s t i c approach to learning. . . . a school ought to be an organism i n which each sin g l e feature i s an i n t e g r a l part of the whole. The threads of the d i f f e r e n t a c t i v i t i e s which must be c a r r i e d on i n order that the whole organism of the Steiner may l i v e , are drawn together i n the very frequent teacher's meetings. 3 0 In The Curriculum for the F i r s t Waldorf School, von Heydebrand emphasized the importance the integ r a t i o n of subject matter i n order to enhance 3 4 7 S t e i n e r , " E d u c a t i o n and A r t , " 2 . 3«5 I B L - D . 3 4 y S t e i n e r , A Modern A r t of E d u c a t i o n . 202. 3 5 0 I b i d , 207. 133 lea r n i n g . She stated, " I t i s of very great importance to lead apparently separate spheres of i n s t r u c t i o n into r e l a t i o n s h i p with one another and to 351 associate them i n a unity." Music can help the c h i l d with many subjects. She maintained that the c h i l d ' s "language sense for lengthened or sharpened tones can be fostered by singing, long before t h i s s e n s i b i l i t y 352 i s made use of i n s p e l l i n g . " Math must be taught i n an a c t i v e manner, 353 "counting, through rhythmic movement, singing, clapping, and jumping." Foreign languages, usually, French and German i n English speaking schools i s taught from Grade One when the speech organs are considered malleable and the c h i l d r e n are able to imitate. The Heydebrand curriculum was emphatic that i n Grades One through Three, languages should be learned through "the spoken word," through p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n songs, singing games, and poems. The curriculum advised the teacher to " f i r s t of a l l bring to 354 the ear, the rhythm, melody, and sound of the foreign language." Music i s often integrated into the main lesson work i n a Waldorf School. In the younger grades, singing, movement, speech, and instrumental playing i s woven into the f a i r y t a l e s and fables. Music i s frequently featured as part of the annual cl a s s play. In her book, Toward Wholeness, Mary Caro- l i n e Richards describes how a Grade Five Sacramento Waldorf School cl a s s teacher used music and poetry to enrich the botany lesson. The c h i l d r e n wrote music to be played on t h e i r recorders to express "The Seed's Awaken- ing." They wrote poems on the theme. The music and poetry were entered 3 ^ v o n Heydebrand, 18. 3 5 2 I b i d . 3 5 3 I b i d , 19 134 i n t o t h e i r main lesson books and i l l u s t r a t e d with colored p e n c i l draw- 355 ings. According to Steiner, students benefit greatly when c l a s s teachers and mu- s i c s p e c i a l i s t s work together. Steiner gave an example i n which a c l a s s teacher was explaining and demonstrating consonance and dissonance, beauti- f u l and l e s s b e a u t i f u l sounds. Steiner believed that, i n t h i s case, the music teacher could work with the class teacher to enhance the experience of the students. It w i l l then be good i f the music teacher could conduct a very s i m i l a r conversation, though oriented more towards the musical and i f he too could go over the same ground once more. From t h i s , the c h i l d r e n w i l l discover that the same things are r e - peated not only by one teacher but also by another so that they f i n d they are learning the same from both teachers. This should help to give the school a more cooperative character. In t h e i r weekly meetings, the teacher should discuss a l l these things so as to bring about a c e r t a i n unity i n the lesson. 3 5 6 Steiner suggested that music teachers work together with subject teachers as well to ensure an e f f e c t i v e and powerful learning process. In discus- sions with Waldorf School teachers i n 1919-1920, Steiner suggested that anthroposophy would be served well i f teachers: . . . were to t r y to connect the music, singing, and eurythmy lessons with the c r a f t lessons. It w i l l have an extraordinary good e f f e c t on the children. . . . Every kind of a c t i v i t y used to be based on musical a c t i v i t y , such as threshing, hammering, and p l a s t e r i n g . We hardly hear i t anymore. . . . I think we R i c h a r d s , 115. ' S t e i n e r . P r a c t i c a l A d v i c e t o T e a c h e r s . 62. 135 can r e i n s t i t u t e that. That i s the sort of thing 1 have i n mind . 357 when I say that s p i r i t s h a l l enter into things again. Steiner believed that t h i s working together would lead to a more aesthetic view of music. In Steiner's I l k l e y course on June 23, 1921, Steiner stated: . . . we must move more towards an a r t i s t i c conception of l i f e . We need something more than art, applied arts or handicraft lessons, we need some kind of aesthetics. . . . In order to i n - troduce pupil s to aesthetics of music—which would have to be given i n an elementary way—various colleagues would have to work together, forming a kind of sub-group, so that the handicraft lessons could lead over i n t o applied a r t s and then in t o the musical sphere—but i n such a way that the aesthetic side of music rather than i t s t h e o r e t i c a l side would be c u l t i v a t e d . Steiner proposed that the music teacher work with the speech or r e c i t a t i o n teacher so that c h i l d r e n could be exposed to the musical aspects of poetry. 358 He advised that the music lesson follow the speech lesson or v i c e versa. D. The Role of Teacher Between the ages of seven and fourteen, Steiner stated the teacher must play two main r o l e s — t h a t of a "natural authority" and " a r t i s t . " He also b e l i e v e d that the r o l e of the teacher was one of a "healer." • ^ ^ S t e i n e r , C o n f e r e n c e s w i t h the Teachers of the W a l d o r f S c h o o l i n S t u t t g a r t . 1919-1920. Volume O n e . 9 0 . ' S t e i n e r , P r a c t i c a l A d v i c e t o T e a c h e r s . 51. 1. Teacher as "Natural Authority" Steiner gave four p r i n c i p l e s f or teachers of a l l subjects ( i n c l u d i n g music) and a l l ages: 1) "The teacher must be a man of i n i t i a t i v e i n everything that 3 5 9 he does, great and small." Steiner f e l t that every word, every gesture, every feature of his/her work must be worthy of i m i t a t i o n . The teacher must be f u l l y conscious of his/her be- havior with the c h i l d r e n . Carelessness or laziness has no i -i 360 place i n the classroom. 2) "The teacher should be one who i s interested i n the being 3 6 1 of the whole world and of humanity." The teacher, according to Steiner, cannot i s o l a t e him/herself from the rest of the world and then go about the business of teaching. Steiner wanted his teachers to be interested i n a l l the concerns of hu- manity as well as the cares of those entrusted to his/her 362 care. 3) "The teacher must be one who never makes a compromise i n h i s 3 6 3 heart and mind with what i s untrue." The teacher i s not a mere transmitter of knowledge, but stands before the c h i l d as a 3 5 9 I b i d , 199. 3 6 0 I b i d . 3 6 1 I b i d . 3 6 2 1 b i d . 3 6 3 I b i d , 199-200. 137 representative of humanity, an example to follow. The teacher must be "true i n the depths of his being." The teacher must be s t r i v i n g a f t e r t r u t h h i m / h e r s e l f . 3 6 4 4) "The teacher must never get s t a l e or grow sour." A l l teaching, to be e f f e c t i v e , must be taught with a degree of 365 warmth, freshness and enthusiasm. According to Steiner, the content of the lessons was always secondary to the i n t e g r i t y of the teacher as a person. Teachers teach by who they are, 366 not by what they do or what they know. Steiner believed: "What must r e a l l y l i v e i n the children, what must v i b r a t e and we l l into t h e i r very hearts, not t h e i r w i l l , and l a s t l y i n t o t h e i r i n t e l l i g e n c e , i s what dwells i n the teacher i n the f i r s t place simply by v i r t u e of what he i s as he stands before the c h i l d , by v i r t u e of his p a r t i c u l a r nature, character and a t - t i t u d e of soul . . . " 3 6 7 Between the ages of seven to fourteen, t h i s q u a l i t y of i n t e g r i t y i s very important because the c h i l d no longer unconsciously imitates; he/she wants to see the teacher as a natural authority. Steiner believed that the teacher must be, for the c h i l d , "a mediator between the d i v i n e and himself 368 i n h i s helplessness." The c h i l d does not need f a c t s and l o g i c . 3 6 4 I b i d , 200. 3 6 5 1 b i d , 200. 3 6 6 S t e i n e r , S t u d y o f Man. 23 . 3 ^ 7 S t e i n e r , E s s e n t i a l s of E d u c a t i o n . 26. • ^ S t e i n e r , S p i r i t u a l Ground of E d u c a t i o n . 15. 138 O £L Q According to Steiner, "The c h i l d needs us, needs our humanity." In f a c t , Steiner believed that only one who has developed a s p i r i t u a l 370 philosophy of l i f e can be a true educator. Authority, as opposed to authoritarianism, should be engendered, not through d r i l l , but by "acting 371 i n a way that w i l l help t h e i r f e e l i n g for authority to a r i s e . . . " Id e a l l y , the teacher i s for the c h i l d "incarnate goodness, incarnate t r u t h , incarnate beauty." As a natural authority, the teacher imparts a love f o r 372 goodness and an abhorrence of e v i l . According to Steiner, authority should never be enforced. Authority should be the natural r e s u l t of the 373 rapport between teacher and c h i l d . This f e e l i n g f o r natural authority i s created by bringing love to teaching. Steiner urged h i s teachers to give the c h i l d " a r t i s t i c love and lo v i n g 374 a r t . " The teacher who can bring love to his/her c h i l d r e n w i l l teach 375 c h i l d r e n who say, "for that teacher I w i l l do the hard things, too." For Steiner, however, for the teacher just to love the chi l d r e n was not enough. The important thing i s that the teacher should not only be able to love the c h i l d but to love the method he uses, to love h i s whole procedure. . . . To love teaching, to love educating, and 3 6 9 l b i d . 3 7 0 I b i d , 130. 3 7 ^ S t e i n e r , P r a c t i c a l A d v i c e f o r T e a c h e r s . 83 . 3 7 2 S t e i n e r , E s s e n t i a l s o f E d u c a t i o n . 83 . 3 7 3 S t e i n e r , S o u l Economy and W a l d o r f E d u c a t i o n . 159. 3 7 4 S t e i n e r , S p i r i t u a l Ground of E d u c a t i o n . 15. S t e i n e r , B a l a n c e i n T e a c h i n g . 58. 139 to love i t with o b j e c t i v i t y — t h i s constitutes the s p i r i t u a l foundation of s p i r i t u a l , moral and physical education. Through natural authority, the teacher guides the c h i l d to knowledge and s k i l l . To c l a r i f y h i s views on education, Steiner c i t e d the German word "erziehen," which means to "draw out." He believed i n self-education i n the sense that one " s e l f , " one person, educates or draws out the p o t e n t i a l of the other. By teaching through love and through natural authority, the i n d i v i d u a l i t y of the c h i l d i s l e f t to develop. The e s s e n t i a l being of what we draw f o r t h i s l e f t untouched. We do not smash a stone when we want to draw i t out of water. Education does not demand that we s h a l l i n any way i n j u r e or overpower the human being who has entered the world, but lead him onwards to the experience of that stage of cul t u r e reached by humanity at large . . . 3 7 7 2. Teacher as " A r t i s t " The c h i l d , Steiner asserted, i s a natural sculptor and a musician. Steiner believed that, e s p e c i a l l y a f t e r the change of teeth, when the c h i l d i s i n the s o - c a l l e d " f e e l i n g " stage, the c h i l d needed teachers who were also 378 a r t i s t s , namely " a r t i s t s " of l i f e . A l l teaching, Steiner claimed, should be imbued with the a r t i s t i c element i n order to c u l t i v a t e t h i s ' S t e i n e r , S p i r i t u a l Ground of E d u c a t i o n . 59 . S t e i n e r , E s s e n t i a l s of E d u c a t i o n . 87 . ' s t e i n e r . S o u l Economy and Waldorf E d u c a t i o n . 160. 140 379 q u a l i t y within the c h i l d . Steiner was convinced that the c h i l d should be reached not only through the i n t e l l e c t , but through the " f e e l i n g " and 380 " w i l l i n g , " through a r t i s t i c and p r a c t i c a l a c t i v i t i e s . Catherine Carmack, a Waldorf music teacher, stated that i n order to teach and to 381 learn e f f e c t i v e l y , the "head, heart, and hands" must be involved. By approaching the elementary school c h i l d through the a r t i s t i c element, through a r t i s t i c teaching, the teacher attempts to reach the whole c h i l d , not j u s t the i n t e l l e c t . Steiner f e l t that i n order to reach the inner na- ture of the c h i l d , to make a connection from teacher to p u p i l , the teacher 382 must be e f f e c t i v e i n communicating i n parables, i n " l i v i n g p i c t u r e s . " The Waldorf School teacher thus employs the media of s t o r y t e l l i n g , art work, music, and poetry. The lesson i t s e l f may be likened to a work of art or a musical performance of tension and release, of ebb and flow, or i n - breathing and out-breathing, according to the needs and mood of the c h i l - dren. Steiner spoke of a "musical" connection between teacher and c h i l d , e s p e c i a l l y during the ages of seven through fourteen. The tasks assigned to the c h i l d , according to Steiner, must be of an imaginative and p i c t o r i a l nature. Steiner suggested that "rhythm, measure, and even melody" must be the basic mode of teaching. The teach as a r t i s t , must have t h i s musical S t e i n e r , P r a c t i c a l A d v i c e t o T e a c h e r s . 12. ' s t e i n e r . The Roots of E d u c a t i o n . 13. L . E t e r m a n , u n p u b l i s h e d i n t e r v i e w s , 3 . ! S t e i n e r , The E d u c a t i o n of the C h i l d . 34 . 141 q u a l i t y within him/herself. This q u a l i t y , said Steiner, must pervade the 383 whole l i f e of the teacher. Steiner was adamant that teachers teach c h i l d r e n , not r i g i d methods. He asserted that he d i d not wish to turn teachers into "teaching machines, but 384 i n t o free independent teachers." Each teacher must be free to use his/her own c r e a t i v i t y and his/her own s t y l e of teaching. Steiner stood f i r m l y against the use of " a r t i f i c i a l methods." He urged that a "natural r e l a t i o n s h i p " be c u l t i v a t e d between teacher and student. Steiner was e s p e c i a l l y annoyed by musical "aunts and uncles" who t r i e d to impose t h e i r methods on the c h i l d r e n . Steiner spoke of bringing the inner s p i r i t of the 385 subject matter to the c h i l d r e n — n o t the dead outward form. The teacher as a r t i s t must teach a p a r t i c u l a r group of c h i l d r e n at a p a r t i c u l a r time, to adapt his/her s t y l e to s u i t the changing moods of the c h i l d r e n . No method could substitute for t h i s a b i l i t y to read the nature of the c h i l d r e n . Steiner wanted Waldorf School teachers to be f l e x i b l e and adaptable. Steiner even ascribed the r o l e of healer to teachers. He pointed out that i n ancient Greece, the words "healer" and "educator" were connected. To be educated, according to Steiner, i s to be whole, or healed; to achieve " f u l l humanity"; to r e a l i z e one's own p o t e n t i a l . The teacher leads the students 3 8 3 S t e i n e r , A Modern A r t of E d u c a t i o n . 121. 3 8 4 S t e i n e r , P r a c t i c a l A d v i c e t o T e a c h e r s . 201. ^ S t e i n e r , q u o t e d i n S tockmeyer , 163. 3 8 ^ S t e i n e r , S p i r i t u a l Ground of E d u c a t i o n . 64. 142 not only to knowledge, but also to a knowledge grasped h o l i s t i c a l l y and 387 a r t i s t i c a l l y . Hilda Deighton, i n an a r t i c l e on the Waldorf School music curriculum, stated her b e l i e f that music education i n p a r t i c u l a r was therapeutic. She claimed "the animating power of music can have a beneficent r e s u l t on the c h i l d ' s organism by s t i r r i n g the l i f e g i v i n g 388 forces of t h i s being." In the author's opinion, the b e l i e f that those who teach music have the capacity to heal i s a wide-spread conviction amongst the members of the Waldorf School community. S t e i n e r , The Roots of E d u c a t i o n . 82. ^ " " H i l d a Deighton, "Rudolf S t e i n e r Curriculum: Music," I n t r o d u c t i o n t o Waldorf E d u c a t i o n : C u r r i c u l u m and Methods, ed. E a r l J . Og l e t r e e (Washington D. C : U n i v e r s i t y Press of America, 1971), 365. CHAPTER VI RESULTS OF QUESTIONNAIRE TO TWENTY-THREE WALDORF SCHOOLS The purpose of the questionnaire (see Appendix G) was to present a p o r t r a i t of music education i n North American Waldorf Schools. The information gathered may serve as a p o t e n t i a l foundation for future study. Grade One, Two, and Three teachers and primary music s p e c i a l i s t s i n the twenty-three established English language Waldorf Schools i n existence for more than ten years from the United States and Canada were asked to complete the questionnaire. (Two member schools had been i n existence for l e s s than ten years when the study was c a r r i e d out. One French language Waldorf School was also not included.) At least one Grade One, Two, or Three c l a s s teacher or music teacher from twenty-two schools responded. A Grade Six cl a s s teacher answered general questions about the music program on behalf of the f a c u l t y i n the case of the twenty-third school. Thus, a t o t a l of f o r t y - s i x teachers who taught music to the primary grades (twelve Grade One teachers, t h i r t e e n Grade Two teachers, t h i r t e e n Grades Three teachers, and eight music s p e c i a l i s t s } returned a questionnaire. The r e - spondents are responsible for the music i n s t r u c t i o n of 59 (85.5%) of the 69 targeted c l a s s e s . Each school was assigned a code ( l e t t e r A through W). Class teachers and music teachers were also give a code ( l e t t e r A through D). Therefore, each response was i d e n t i f i e d by a two-letter code, i . e . AA, (Grade One teacher of school A), AD (music s p e c i a l i s t of school .A). 143 144 It was assumed that English i s a not a f i r s t language f o r some respondents. Interpretations of the author of respondents' comments w i l l be placed within brackets. Although the questionnaire was intended to be an anonymous survey, 17 out of the 47 respondents (34%), including the Grade Six teacher, chose to give t h e i r names. Ten respondents wrote notes of encouragement such as: * This i s a wonderful project you're doing, and I get i n s p i r e d just think- ing about what you are contributing to the movement. (Gr. 1) * Those areas I l e f t blank, I didn't f e e l equipped to answer. Hope t h i s i s h e l p f u l ! (Gr.l) * Good luck on t h i s important project and share with us what your findings are! (Gr. 2) * Thanks, you've set me thinking about my program. (Gr. 2) * Good luck. I would most c e r t a i n l y l i k e to read your t h e s i s when i t i s completed. (Gr. 2) * I am very sorry for returning t h i s so l a t e . Third Grade has been a very busy year. I hope i t helps. Good luck! (Gr. 3) * Can't say. I am very pressed for time. Wish I could think more deeply about t h i s . Good luck. (Gr. 3) * I wish you well i n t h i s important work! (music s p e c i a l i s t ) * Sorry that I r e a l l y don't have time to f i l l i n t h i s page. I t was a l l I could do to do the r e s t — h o p e i t helps and good luck. (music s p e c i a l i s t ) * This i s a thorough questionnaire—but many of the questions would take a conference to answer adequately. I hope my l i m i t e d responses are of some use. Good luck! Keep i n touch. (music s p e c i a l i s t ) 145 Only three respondents were c r i t i c a l of the survey. "What good do these quizzes [questions] do for classroom work?" (Gr. 2) "I f i n d i t d i f f i c u l t to rate these things on a scale. Sorry, I can't be more h e l p f u l . Some questions c a l l for comparison I'm not i n a p o s i t i o n to make. (Gr. 3) One Waldorf School teacher cautioned that music teaching should only be seen within the context of the whole Waldorf School education and Steiner's ideas about c h i l d development. "The understanding and appreciation for Waldorf education w i l l come, not from an understanding and appreciation of an i n d i v i d - ual part of i t s a l b e i t e f f e c t i v e curriculum, but rather from e n t i r e approach to the developing human being. Any q u a n t i f i c a - t i o n of an i n d i v i d u a l d i s c i p l i n e within t h i s context can by d e f i n i t i o n not be accurate." [The respondent makes a point well-grounded i n Waldorf values. The author has endeavored i n t h i s t h e s i s to give a picture of the various aspects of Steiner's philosophy i n regard to the developing human being i n order to avoid the danger pointed out by t h i s contributor. However, the author believes that studying an i n d i v i d u a l d i s c i p l i n e within the context of the Waldorf School philosophy i s , nevertheless, a v a l i d pursuit.] 146 The questionnaire was designed to explore the following key i n v e s t i g a t i v e questions: 1) What are the a t t r i b u t e s and q u a l i f i c a t i o n s of those who teach music i n Waldorf Schools Grades One to Three? 2) Is music i n Waldorf Schools taught by clas s teachers or music s p e c i a l i s t s ? Who do teachers f e e l should teach music i n Grades One to T h r e e — c l a s s teachers or music s p e c i a l i s t s ? 3) What can be determined about the q u a l i t y of the music programs i n the schools (time spent on music i n s t r u c t i o n , perceived strengths and weak- nesses, commitment of community to music education, perceived q u a l i t y of i n s t r u c t i o n , p r o f e s s i o n a l development and perceived q u a l i t y of music educa- t i o n programs i n Waldorf teacher t r a i n i n g ) ? 4) How f a m i l i a r are teachers with the Choroi and Werbeck i n i t i a t i v e s ? Are Choroi and Gartner i n i t i a t i v e s well known and are t h e i r instruments widely used i n Waldorf Schools? What other instruments, besides Choroi i n - struments, are used i n the schools? 5) What are teachers' opinions on s p e c i f i c matters of pedagogy? 6) What, according to the teachers, i s the main purpose of music educa- t i o n i n Waldorf Schools? 147 7) Do Waldorf School teachers believe that the Waldorf approach to music education i s relevant i n today's society? Do Waldorf School teachers be- l i e v e that Waldorf music education can e a s i l y be integrated i n t o the public school system? 8) Which of Steiner's ideas had the most impact on teachers? 148 Questionnaire Results Investigative Question #1: What are the a t t r i b u t e s and q u a l i f i c a t i o n s of those who teach music i n Wal- dorf Schools Grades One to Three? Question #1; What i s your educational background? Because the Waldorf School i s a pri v a t e system, degrees and/or state or p r o v i n c i a l teacher c e r t i f i c a t i o n do not constitute a p r e r e q u i s i t e of employment. On the whole, music teachers have more q u a l i f i c a t i o n s to teach music and c l a s s teachers have had more Waldorf teacher t r a i n i n g . The eight music s p e c i a l i s t s held a t o t a l of three Bachelor of Music degrees, two Bachelor of Music Education degrees, and two conservatory diplomas. Two music s p e c i a l i s t s d i d not have a degree i n music. Only two music s p e c i a l - i s t s had Waldorf teacher t r a i n i n g . No class teachers held degrees i n mu- s i c . Thirty-one out of the t h i r t y - e i g h t teachers had acquired Waldorf teacher t r a i n i n g . Twenty-eight teachers held a Bachelor's degree and sev- enteen held a Master's degree. Seven teachers d i d not have degree status. 149 GRAPH 2 EDUCATIONAL BACKGROUND OF MUSIC TEACHERS Typ« o i Training GRAPH 3 EDUCATIONAL BACKGROUND OF CLASS TEACHERS Typ« ol Training (WTT = Waldorf Teacher Training) Question #2: Male? Female? 150 A l l music s p e c i a l i s t s were female. A s u r p r i s i n g l y high percentage of male teachers was evident i n the primary grades. Because some music i s usually taught i n the main lesson i n Waldorf Schools, both boys and g i r l s w i l l perhaps benefit from observing males i n the r o l e of teaching music i n the primary grades. Two respondents d i d not state t h e i r gender. The response of the Grade Six teacher was not included. GRAPH 4 NUMBER OF MALE AND FEMALE TEACHERS GR 1 rOCl GR 2 E33 GR 3 ESS nUS TCHRS 151 Question #3: Are you a c e r t i f i e d teacher i n your province or state? Less than 50% of Grade One, Two, and Three teachers were c e r t i f i e d to teach i n t h e i r province or state while only 50% of the music teachers were c e r t i - f i e d . Oddly, Grade Three teachers held the lowest number of teaching cer- t i f i c a t e s . GRAPH 5 NUMBER OF CERTIFIED TEACHERS Question #4: Instrument(s) you play? A l l but three respondents claimed to play an instrument. However, i t i s p o s s i b l e that those teachers who did not respond to the questionnaire are a l s o the teachers who do not play a musical instrument. Even so, many teachers (68%) played more than one instrument. Every music teacher played 152 more than two instruments. The r e s u l t s seem to indic a t e that many teachers work toward t h e i r own musical development. GRAPH 6 NUMBER OF INSTRUMENTS TEACHERS PLAY (M represents music s p e c i a l i s t , x clas s teacher) Number of Instruments Number of Teachers Playing 0 instrument 2 xx 1 instrument 13 xxxxxxxxxxxxx 2 instruments 15 MMxxxxxxxxxxxxx 3 instruments 8 MMxxxxxx 4 instruments 7 MMMxxxx 5 instruments 2 Mx Not s u r p r i s i n g l y , a great majority of the teachers played the recorder, the instrument introduced to the ch i l d r e n i n Grade One. 153 GRAPH 7 INSTRUMENTS PLAYED BY RESPONDENTS Instruments Played Best Instrument 35 recorder MMMMxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxx Mxxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxx 12 piano MMMMMxxxxxxx MMMMxxxxx 9 gu i t a r Mxxxxxxxx Mxxxxx 6 f l u t e MMxxxx Mxx 6 v i o l i n MMxxxx Mx 3 l y r e Mxx X 3 winds MMx 3 none XXX 2 banjo XX X 2 Choroi f l u t e Mx 2 dulcimer XX X 2 kinderharp XX 2 s t r i n g s Mx X 2 v i o l a Mx 1 c l a r i n e t M M 1 sax M M 1 accordion X X 1 trumpet X X 1 voice X X 1 brass M 1 harpsichord M 1 klan g s p i e l s M 1 organ M 1 percussion M 1 c e l l o X 1 drums X 1 kantele X 1 mandolin X 1 xylophone X Music teachers considered themselves more accomplished as musicians than the c l a s s teachers. Three ranked themselves as very accomplished. Most 154 c l a s s teachers (16) described themselves as average. Ten placed themselves as beginner and ten as beginner with some s k i l l s . Two c l a s s teachers d i d not respond to t h i s question. These were, i n f a c t , the same people that do not play any instruments. Question #6 Do you consider yourself a very accomplished musician on your major instrument, an accomplished musician on your major instrument, an av- erage musician, a beginner with some s k i l l s and knowledge of theory, a be- ginner? GRAPH 8 SELF-EVALUATION: LEVEL OF MUSICAL ACCOMPLISHMENT 17 Class teachers r / y i Music teochers Question #7: Are you currently a cla s s teacher? T h i r t y - n i n e respondents, including one Grade Six teacher, were c l a s s teachers. 155 Question #8: To which grades do vou teach music? T h i r t y - s i x c l a s s teachers of Grades One, Two, and Three taught t h e i r own music. A l l eight music s p e c i a l i s t s who responded teach music i n a l l three primary grades, except for one music s p e c i a l i s t who teaches Grades One and Two. Out of these twenty three classes taught by a music s p e c i a l i s t , nine c l a s s teachers indicated that they, too, taught music to the c l a s s . GRAPH 9 NUMBER OF TEACHERS TEACHING MUSIC TO SPECIFIC GRADES 156 Question # 9 : How long have you taught music? Most teachers had at least one to f i v e years music teaching experience. Eight c l a s s teachers were very inexperienced. Seven teachers were quite experienced. A l l but one music s p e c i a l i s t had taught for more than ten years. Five c l a s s teachers did not respond to t h i s question. GRAPH 10 MUSIC TEACHING EXPERIENCE OF RESPONDENTS Less than 1 Yr 1 to 5 yrs 5 to 10 yrs [ W I Class teachers Music teachers More than 10 yrs Question #10; How f a m i l i a r are you with Steiner's ideas on music and music education? Music teachers considered themselves very f a m i l i a r or quite f a m i l i a r with Steiner's ideas on music and music education. Most cla s s teachers were at l e a s t somewhat f a m i l i a r . No teacher was unfamiliar with Steiner's ideas. GRAPH 11 F A M I L I A R I T Y WITH S T E I N E R ' S IDEAS ON MUSIC AND MUSIC EDUCATION 26 24 22 20 16 16 14 12 10 B 6 4 • 2 . 0 . Very familiar Quite familiar Somewhat •familiar Have heard o i rt L^vH Class Teachers rvxj Music Teachers No familiarity 158 Question #11: If vou are at least somewhat f a m i l i a r with Steiner's ideas on music and music education, what influence have these ideas had on your teaching of music? Seven music teachers and seventeen class teachers ( i n a l l , 52%) claimed that Steiner's ideas d i d have a great deal of influence on t h e i r teaching of music. No teacher stated that Steiner had very l i t t l e or no influence on his/her teaching of music. Two teachers d i d not respond to t h i s question. GRAPH 12 INFLUENCE OF S T E I N E R ' S IDEAS ON TEACHING OF MUSIC 159 Investigative question #2: Is music i n Waldorf Schools taught by cla s s teachers or music s p e c i a l i s t s ? Who do teachers f e e l should teach music i n Grades One to T h r e e — c l a s s teachers or music s p e c i a l i s t s ? Question #16; Is music i n the primary grades i n your school taught by a s p e c i a l i s t or the clas s teacher? In many classes, teachers indicated that both the music s p e c i a l i s t and c l a s s teacher taught music i n the primary classes. Ten c l a s s teachers and f i v e music teachers declared that the music teacher only, i t i s assumed, taught music to the c l a s s . In only t h i r t e e n classes d i d the c l a s s teacher have the f u l l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of teaching the c l a s s . In some cases, i t was indica t e d that the s p e c i a l i s t was the Grade Three s t r i n g teacher. GRAPH 13 NUMBER OF TEACHERS WHO INDICATED THAT MUSIC WAS TAUGHT BY S P E C I A L I S T AND/OR CLASS TEACHER 160 Question #17: Who should teach music i n grades 1-3? A l l teachers but one expressed an opinion on t h i s issue. Twenty-nine teachers (63%) agreed that the clas s teachers should carry the main respon- s i b i l i t y f o r music education. However, fourteen (30%) teachers f e l t that the i d e a l was both—working together of the music teacher and cl a s s teacher. Seven teachers (15%), including three out of the eight music s p e c i a l i s t s , believed that the music teacher should teach music i n the younger grades. Three teachers f e l t that i f the class teacher was not able to teach music, the music teacher should teach music i n that grade. GRAPH 14 NUMBER OF TEACHERS WHO INDICATED THAT MUSIC SHOULD BE TAUGHT BY MUSIC TEACHER AND/OR CLASS TEACHER 20 Music teacher Class teacher Both B88S8 Music teachers r \ . N . l Class teachers Comments from those who believed the class teacher should teach music: * Music i s taught by s p e c i a l i s t a f t e r Grade 5, class teacher 1-4. Not separate from the res t of learning. (Gr. 1) 161 * I t should be a part of every main lesson. A part of l i f e . (Gr. 1) * The (cla s s teachers) could better concentrate on the needs of the c l a s s . (Gr. 1) * Music teaching i s s t i l l an intimate and pervasive a c t i v i t y that permeates whole of 1-3 curriculum and pedagogical approach. (Gr. 1) * Authority! (Gr. 1) * Joy and human i n t e r a c t i o n are more important than technique at t h i s time. S p e c i a l t y teacher i n music unnecessary as yet. (Gr. 2) * Can come out of c l a s s work and be incorporated i n a l l lessons n a t u r a l l y . (Gr. 2) * Class teacher knows where chi l d r e n are; what they need; can be i n t e - grated i n t o a l l lessons. [Additional comment at the end of questionnaire] I think the advantage of cla s s teacher teaching music i n Grade 1-2 i s that i t helps him/her l i v e more musically, also.] (Gr. 2) * I t i s a given that the c l a s s teacher w i l l sing with his c h i l d r e n . When an extra person comes i n , the chi l d r e n have trouble (I feel) adjusting to another voice. Perhaps, too, music should not be treated as something "extra", but should be embedded i n everything we do at t h i s young age. (Gr. 2) * The teacher can bring a musical content appropriate to the main lesson material and integrate i t with the lessons i n such a way that the musical aspect i s n ' t an i s o l a t e d experience. (Gr. 2) * (Music), singing comes as a d i r e c t experience between people. (Gr. 2) * I d e a l l y , the c l a s s teacher, i f p o s s i b l e — m a i n l y because Dr. Steiner urged the c l a s s teacher to teach the children as many subjects as possi b l e . (Gr. 3) * So that the c h i l d r e n can experience t h e i r teacher's joy of music and so that the teacher can s p e c i f i c a l l y and immediately t a i l o r the musical expression to the c l a s s ' needs. Music should be an expression not a sub- j e c t f o r s c r u t i n y i n these lower grades. (Gr. 3) 162 * The c l a s s teacher can e a s i l y incorporate the music into the curriculum. (Gr. 3) * Because i t ' s an i n t e g r a l part of the lesson, the c l a s s teacher "uses" music as a bridge for t r a n s i t i o n s and to integrate with the main lesson block. I t needs to be a natural between c l a s s and teacher. (Gr. 3) * Music should not be a s p e c i a l subject but should be one of the ways a teacher works with the content of the l e s s o n — i . e . , woven into the whole experience. (Gr. 3) * Class teacher has s p e c i a l connection with c h i l d r e n to develop at t h i s time. (Gr. 3) * Class teacher, i f able, gives c h i l d f e e l i n g a l l comes from my c l a s s teacher. At t h i s age, they have natural f e e l i n g f o r authority. (Gr. 3) * Class teacher has s p e c i a l connection with c h i l d r e n to develop at t h i s time. (Gr. 3) * The c l a s s teacher can t i e the music curriculum more e f f e c t i v e l y to main lesson and i s often more s e n s i t i v e to needs of c h i l d r e n on a day-to-day ba- s i s . (Gr. 3) * Children benefit from seeing expertise i n music (and a l l other subjects) i n the c l a s s teacher. Also allows f o r greater i n t e g r a t i o n with curriculum and day. Also more continuous and personal t r a i n i n g comes from c l a s s teachers. (Gr. 3) * Connection to chi l d r e n i s more important than teaching c e r t a i n tech- niques. Music i s a part of the whole—not a s p e c i a l subject at t h i s age. (Gr. 3) * There i s no music teacher i n the younger grades—not necessary. (Gr. 6) * Class teacher, i f capable. S p e c i a l i s t i f c l a s s teacher can't. (music s p e c i a l i s t ) * Class teacher. (music s p e c i a l i s t ) 163 Comments from those who believed both classroom teacher and music specialist should teach music: * I think that music should be taught by a person who knows the "ins and outs" of music. However, the cl a s s teacher should d e f i n i t e l y b ring the joy of music to the c h i l d r e n . I [respondent i s a male] am a r o l e model to my young boys i n the classroom. In our school, two people are bringing music to the c h i l d r e n — o n e from heart realm and the other from the head realm. (Gr. 1) * Both. It should be taught by a professional and during the course of the d a y — s i n g i n g , recorder playing as part of the day. (Gr.l) * Class teacher for singing and recorder; grade 3 also needs a v i o l i n teacher. (Gr. 1) * I use music i n my morning exercises but I expect the music teacher to teach my c h i l d r e n the recorder and a l l - s c h o o l songs. [Additional comment at end of questionnaire] This i s my f i r s t year as a cl a s s teacher so I am s t i l l f i n d i n g my way, but I am very g r a t e f u l that music i s a part of the main lesson everyday. (Gr. 1) * Some cl a s s teachers do not have the s k i l l s to present i t i n an enthusi- a s t i c way. They need to be replaced. That does not mean no songs or recorder playing i n main lesson. (Gr. 2) * The more the better. (Gr. 2) * The c l a s s teacher can best bring appropriate songs for the various main lesson subjects but, f o r me, the s p e c i a l i s t can begin, i n second grade to bring more d i r e c t i o n to the development of music s k i l l s . (Gr. 2) * Because [they both] have something to o f f e r . (Gr. 2) * Both. The d a i l y p r a c t i c e i s so necessary as i s guidance by a s p e c i a l - i s t . [Additional comment at end of questionnaire] I teach music as an i n - t e g r a l part of the education. My perspective i s of one who i s a novice. (Gr. 2) * Both. Music deserves a place i n the classroom a c t i v i t i e s each day but the c l a s s teacher may not be able to give the depth, or may not be s k i l l e d enough to go beyond merely singing with the cl a s s and/or playing recorders with them. (Gr. 3) 164 * Class teacher: because of so much deep, d a i l y contact with the c h i l d r e n . S p e c i a l i s t : because so few class teachers i n our school are "musical," l e t alone f a m i l i a r with Choroi. (music s p e c i a l i s t ) * 1 think that a working together of the music and cl a s s teacher i s best, (music s p e c i a l i s t ) * Both. (music s p e c i a l i s t ) * Ideal i s both—cooperatively. Most cla s s teachers have needed advice and guidance. Many t r y to use music but run in t o problems they cannot solve without guidance, and often they run out of i n s p i r i n g teaching mate- r i a l , (music s p e c i a l i s t ) Comments from those who believed a music specialist should teach music: * S p e c i a l i s t . (Gr.l) * More through overview of subject: wider range of t a l e n t s . (Gr. 2) * S p e c i a l i s t . (Gr. 3) * S p e c i a l i s t — b e c a u s e many clas s teachers don't have CONFIDENCE i n music. Children need someone who " l i v e s and breathes i t . " (Gr. 3) * S p e c i a l i s t . (music s p e c i a l i s t ) * Class teachers often have d i f f i c u l t i e s with the pentatonic sequence, (music s p e c i a l i s t ) * To r e a l l y teach music—ear t r a i n i n g , theory, and true musicianship i s needed. Singing and playing notes on an instrument i s wonderful f o r clas s teachers to do but i t i s often far from r e a l l y MUSICAL. (music s p e c i a l i s t ) 165 Comments from those who believe that either the class teacher or music spe- c i a l i s t should teach music: * Whoever i s better able! (Gr. 1) * I t depends on the a b i l i t y of the c l a s s teacher. I personally need some guidance from our s p e c i a l i s t . But i f I didn't, I would want more co n t r o l . (Gr. 2) Investigative question #3: What can be determined about the q u a l i t y of the music programs i n the schools (time spent on music i n s t r u c t i o n , perceived strengths and weak- nesses, commitment of community to music education, perceived q u a l i t y of i n s t r u c t i o n , p r o f e s s i o n al development and perceived q u a l i t y of music educa- t i o n programs i n Waldorf teacher t r a i n i n g ) ? Question #14: How much music i s taught per week i n your school i n grades 1 - 3 as a subject? (See Question 15) Question 15: Approximately, how much time i s devoted to music during main lesson? It i s assumed that commitment to the music education program i s expressed i n part i n the amount of time devoted to i t s study. According to the province of B r i t i s h Columbia, 180 minutes of f i n e arts education (art, music, drama, dance) i s required i n the elementary grades. Most students i n public schools receive 60 to 80 minutes of music per week. 166 The Waldorf School curriculum places great emphasis on music and much time i s accorded to t h i s study. Waldorf School c h i l d r e n i n Grades One, Two and Three, receive approximately f o r t y - f i v e minutes per week of music during the main lesson i n which music i s i n t e r r e l a t e d with other subject matter. In addition, music i s taught as a subject i n Grade One (average 90 min- utes), Grade Two (average 130 minutes), Grade Three (average 110 minutes). GRAPH 15 TIME DEVOTED TO MUSIC INSTRUCTION 180 z s •s e o 130 - 120 - 170 - 160 - 1S0 - 140 - 100 - 110 - 40 - 30 - 20 - 10 - 0 - 90 - 80 - 70 - 50 - 60 - Grade 1 Grade 2 Grade 3 I V V I During Main Lesson IV. V J As a Subject 167 Question #18: In your opinion, how important i s q u a l i t y music education to your school community? Q u a l i t y music education appears to be a p r i o r i t y i n Waldorf Schools. The average score was 4.6 on a scale of 5. Most teachers (70%) f e l t that music education was very important to the school community. No teacher perceived that music education was of l i t t l e or no importance to t h e i r school com- munity. GRAPH 16 PERCEIVED IMPORTANCE OF MUSIC EDUCATION TO COMMUNITY 26 24 22 20 18 16 14 12 • 10 . 8 • 6 . 4 . 2 . 0 • _ezz£ 1 1 P Very tmportant Important Somewhat important Little importance I X >H Music teachers Class teachers Not important 168 Question #19; How would you rate the q u a l i t y of your school's music educa- t i o n program? On the average, teachers rated the q u a l i t y of t h e i r school's music educa- t i o n program, 3.7 on a fi v e - p o i n t scale. A majority of teachers (32%) rated the q u a l i t y of t h e i r school's music program as very good. Ten teach- ers (21%) ranked t h e i r music program as excellent. Only f i v e teachers de- scribed t h e i r program as f a i r , while one teacher rated the school's program as poor. GRAPH 17 PERCEIVED QUALITY OF MUSIC PROGRAM Excellent Very Good Good F Music teachers l \ \ l Class teachers 169 GRAPH 18 PERCEIVED QUALITY OF MUSIC EDUCATION COMPARED WITH PERCEIVED IMPORTANCE OF MUSIC EDUCATION TO COMMUNITY For twenty-eight teachers (60%), the importance of music education to the community d i d not match the perceived q u a l i t y of the program. Seventeen teachers (36%) believed that t h e i r program matched community expectations. Only two respondents (4%) f e l t t h e i r program surpassed expectation. In the chart, responses are grouped by schools. Perceived Importance Quality Perceived Importance Quality AA +++++ +++ AB +++++ ++ BA +++++ ++++ BB +++++ +++ CA +++++ +++++ CB +++ ++ DB ++++ ++++ DC +++ +++ DD +++++ +++ EC +++++ ++++ F +++++ +++++ GB +++++ +++++ HA +++ +++ HB ++++ + HC +++++ +++ IB +++++ ++++ JB +++++ ++++ JC +++++ ++ KC +++++ ++++ KD +++++ ++++ LA +++++ ++ LB +++++ ++++ LC ++++ ++++ LD ++++ ++++ MA +++++ +++++ MC +++++ ++ MD +++++ +++++ ND +++++ ++++ OA +++++ +++ OB ++++ +++ QA +++++ ++++ QC +++ +++ RD +++++ +++++ SA +++++ ++++ SB +++++ +++ SC + + + + + + +++ TA ++++ +++++ TB +++++ +++ TC +++++ +++ UA +++++ +++++ UB +++++ +++++ UC ++++ +++++ UD +++++ +++++ VD +++++ +++++ WA ++++ +++ WC ++++ ++++ 170 Question #20; If vou trained as a Waldorf School teacher, how would you rate your i n s t r u c t i o n i n music education? Of the t h i r t y teachers who had experienced Waldorf teacher t r a i n i n g , twelve (40%) considered t h e i r t r a i n i n g to be f a i r , while f i v e teachers (16%) claimed that t h e i r t r a i n i n g was poor. Only two teachers found the q u a l i t y of t r a i n i n g e xcellent. GRAPH 19 PERCEIVED QUALITY OF INSTRUCTION I N MUSIC EDUCATION I N WALDORF TEACHER TRAINING INSTITUTES Excellent Very Good Good Fair Poor \s s\ Music teachers l \ \ l Class teachers 171 Question #21: Strengths and weaknesses O v e r a l l , the areas of singing and recorder playing appear to be the areas of greatest strength. Other aspects of the program such as l y r e , movement, improvisation, theory, and curriculum did not rank highly as strengths. Pr o f e s s i o n a l development was seen as the greatest need. GRAPH 20 PERCEIVED STRENGTHS AND WEAKNESSES OF PROGRAM 5 Singing Recorder Lyre Movement Improv Theory Curriculum Pro D. Many teachers commented on the need f or professional development f o r c l a s s teachers who teach music. Two teachers f e l t that t h e i r p r o f e s s i o n a l development i n music education was strong or average. * Strong. We had a major conference here. (Gr. 3) * Strong. P r o - D — i n i t i a t i v e of i n d i v i d u a l teacher. (Gr. 2) * Average. We are a very mature school. Professional development i s not so necessary because we have so many experienced teachers. We have teacher i n - s e r v i c e Waldorf teacher t r a i n i n g program. (Gr. 6) 172 However, others c a l l e d for more help for teachers who have l i t t l e or no t r a i n i n g . Three teachers even commented on t h i s t o p i c v o l u n t a r i l y at the end of the questionnaire. * The question of t r a i n i n g of teachers to do music even i f they have had no musical background i s so important. I f e e l many teachers have been put o f f by musicians. They are made to f e e l inadequate so they don't t r y . In my teacher t r a i n i n g sessions, my main goal i s to make that teacher f e e l comfortable i n the world of music—make them f e e l capable i n making t h e i r own songs. Then the teacher w i l l have confidence to be c r e a t i v e and w i l l grow with the c l a s s . (Additional comment at the end of q u e s t i o n n a i r e — music s p e c i a l i s t ) * More Choroi/Waldorf music conferences urgently needed to bring t h i s ap- proach to wider and wider c i r c l e s of children and t h e i r teachers. (Additional comment at the end of questionnaire—music s p e c i a l i s t ) * What a c t i v i t i e s do you as a music teacher engage i n to develop your mu- s i c teaching a b i l i t i e s ? (Additional comment at the end of questionnaire, Gr. 2) * (Rated professional development as very weak.) We are s t r i v i n g to teach out of the Choroi impulse i n the younger grades but there are very few cur- riculum i n d i c a t i o n s or p r a c t i c i n g trained teachers to help us. (Music s p e c i a l i s t ) * (Rated professional development as weak.) Although i t seems appropriate to me f o r cl a s s teachers to teach music i n Grades 1-3, to make that e f - f e c t i v e , I think i t would be important to carry an ongoing p r o f e s s i o n a l de- velopment and regular sharing of work of grades 1-3. (Gr. 1) * (No r a t i n g given) Pro-D development—we must i n i t i a t e i t . (Gr. 2) Investigative question #4: How f a m i l i a r are teachers with the Choroi and Werbeck i n i t i a t i v e s ? Are Choroi and Gartner instruments widely used i n Waldorf Schools? What other instruments, besides Choroi instruments, are used i n the schools? Question #12; How f a m i l i a r are you with the Choroi impulse i n music educa- tion? Although Steiner's ideas seemed to be quite well known to most teachers, most were only somewhat f a m i l i a r with the Choroi approach to teaching music within the Steiner movement. GRAPH 21 FAMILIARITY WITH CHOROI IMPULSE Very familiar Quite Familiar Somewhat familiar Have heard of Choroi No familiarity S\ Musk: teachers IX>J Class teachers 174 Question #13: How f a m i l i a r are vou with the Werbeck method of teaching? Many teachers were not f a m i l i a r with the Werbeck method of teaching singing. Only six teachers professed to be very f a m i l i a r or quite f a m i l i a r with the approach. GRAPH 22 FAMILIARITY WITH WERBECK METHOD Very fomilior Quite familiar Somewhat familiar Have heard of Werbeck No familiarity ! • v l Music teachers l \ \ l Class teachers Question #23: Which of the following instruments, i f any, are used i n which grades i n your school? To determine, i n part, the extent of the Choroi influence i n the Waldorf Schools, the author wished to fi n d out how many teachers used the Choroi and Gartner instruments i n t h e i r schools. In a few cases, several teachers from the same school answered the questionnaire, and did not agree on the instruments used i n the school i n s p e c i f i c grades. Whenever a discrepancy appeared, the answer of the teacher of that s p e c i f i c grade was considered the more v a l i d . It i s p o s s i - ble that some teachers i n the same school, i . e . , used pentatonic f l u t e s i n Grades One through Three, and other t r a d i t i o n a l recorders i n Grades One through Three. In school A and C, t h i s could be the case. Therefore, i n these two schools, both respondent's choices were indicated. However, some trends can be discerned. The Choroi pentatonic f l u t e i s used i n Grade One or Two i n at least twenty out of the twenty-three schools (86%). I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note that music s p e c i a l i s t s teach i n those three schools which use t r a d i t i o n a l recorders e x c l u s i v e l y , from Grades One through Three. The other Choroi f l u t e s , the i n t e r v a l and d i a t o n i c f l u t e s , were not as popular. The i n t e r v a l f l u t e i s used i n only f i v e schools (22%). The d i a - t o n i c f l u t e i s employed i n only two schools (9%). The Choroi kinderharp i s taught i n the primary grades i n seven schools (30%) while the Choroi bordun l y r e i s used i n only two schools (9%). Some schools indicated that the bordun l y r e i s u t i l i z e d i n the older grades. In eleven schools (48%), the Choroi xylophones, or klangspiels, are used. Five of these schools use these instruments i n t h e i r Grade One classes only. Five schools (22%), four of which employ music s p e c i a l i s t s , use Orff i n - struments i n the primary grades. 176 F i f t e e n schools (65%) use miscellaneous percussion instruments. Five of these schools do not introduce these instruments u n t i l Grade Two. GRAPH 23 INSTRUMENTS USED W I N D S ("Y" in d i c a t e s "Yes") CODE TOTAL: AA AB B CA CB D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W CHOROI RECORDERS GR1 GR2 GR3 7 10 18 Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y CHOROI PENT FLUTES GR1 GR2 GR3 17 18 7 Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y CHOROI INT. FLUTES GR1 GR2 GR3 DIAT. FLUTES GR1 GR2 GR3 Y Y Y Y 177 GRAPH 24 INSTRUMENTS USED S T R I N G S CHOROI CHOROI GARTNER LYRES KINDERHARPS KANTELES CODE GR1 GR2 GR3 GR1 GR2 GR3 GR1 GR2 GR3 TOT: 0 3 4 9 5 3 1 2 1 AA AB B CA CB D E F Y Y Y G Y H Y Y I J K L M N Y Y Y O Y Y Y P Y Y Q Y Y Y R S Y T U V Y Y Y W 178 GRAPH 25 INSTRUMENTS USED P E R C U S S I O N CHOROI XYL ORFF XYL PERCUSSION CODE GR1 GR2 GR3 GR1 GR2 GR3 GR1 GR2 GR3 TOT: 11 6 6 2 4 4 11 16 15 AA Y Y Y AB Y Y Y B CA Y Y Y CB Y Y D E Y Y Y F Y Y Y Y Y Y G H Y Y Y I J Y K Y Y Y Y Y Y L Y Y Y Y Y Y M N Y Y Y Y Y Y O Y Y Y Y Y Y P Y Y Y Y Y Y Q Y Y Y Y R S Y Y T Y Y Y Y U V Y Y Y Y Y Y W Y Y Y Y Y Question #24 If you do not use Choroi or Gartner instruments i n your school, what do you suppose i s the reason? A majority of respondents had no comment at a l l on t h i s issue. Given that Choroi instruments are imported from Europe and are now quite expensive, 179 lack of funds was c i t e d as the main reason why Choroi instruments were not used. Nine c l a s s teachers claimed that t h e i r school d i d not choose to use Choroi instruments because of lack of understanding. Q u a l i t y was a concern i n only two cases. Only three respondents chose t r a d i t i o n a l instruments because they believed that they were better. Only eight schools out of the 23 schools o f f e r a l y r e program. Six of those schools employ Choroi or Gartner instruments. One school uses only Gartner l y r e s , three schools use Choroi kinderharps one school uses Choroi bordun l y r e s , and one school uses both Choroi kinderharp and bordun l y r e s . Two schools use l y r e s made by l o c a l instrument makers. GRAPH 26 REASONS FOR NOT USING CHOROI OR GARTNER INSTRUMENTS 30 A B C 0 E OTHER NO COMMENT Class teachers ES3 Music teachers 180 A. Lack of understanding of instruments B. Lack of funds C. T r a d i t i o n a l instruments better D. Concern about q u a l i t y E. Our school uses instruments made by a l o c a l instrument maker, and they are comparable to Choroi and Gartner instruments General comments: * They are too l i t t l e known to the group as a whole so that when budget gets talk e d about they'd be considered a luxury. (Gr. 2) * Lack of desire. (Gr. 2) * I personally do not care f o r the sound of Choroi instruments. (Gr. 3) * I would use them much more i f I had the money. (music s p e c i a l i s t ) Comments about Choroi/Gartner lyres: Two teachers defended t h e i r choice of Choroi instruments f o r use i n the classroom. * We use Choroi kinderharps, not from any well considered choice, but only because we enjoyed a v i s i t and demonstration of the kinderharps by J u l i u s Knierim. He gave a program for our students using these (and also some lar g e r instruments) and the kinderharps seemed most suited to our purpose. I use them only i n grades 1-2-3 where i t helps me to l i m i t myself to the pentatonic, at least during harp classes! (music s p e c i a l i s t ) * We d i d not choose the Choroi bordun l y r e s . We chose the Gartner l y r e s because they had a wider range. We could tune them d i a t o n i c a l l y . They seemed more v e r s a t i l e . (Gr. 6) 181 Comments about Choroi flutes: Although most schools use Choroi pentatonic f l u t e s , some teachers have questions about the sound q u a l i t y , the cost, the d u r a b i l i t y , and the a d a p t a b i l i t y of the instruments: * We used t r a d i t i o n a l recorders t h i s year, i n part, because they were $60 each—much too expensive f o r our parents. (Gr. 1) * Students use a wooden German-made recorder throughout 8 grades, use only pentatonic notes i n Grades 1-3. (Gr. 1) * The Choroi f l u t e s , though sweet and gentle i n tone, seemed harder f o r c h i l d r e n to use. They were often breathy and c a l l e d f o r more breath con- t r o l than the f i r s t grades could manage. Also, they were too l i m i t e d , be- ing s t r i c t l y pentatonic, since they t r a v e l l e d along with the students f o r the f i r s t several years. Too many f a v o r i t e f o l k tunes use the d i a t o n i c s c a l e — e v e n Frere Jacques. Also the mouthpieces were too e a s i l y destroyed by l i t t l e teeth marks—the wood didn't seem as r e s i s t a n t . (music s p e c i a l i s t ) * Simple economics. Teaching t r a d i t i o n a l recorders from the beginning saves our burdened parents the purchase of a second recorder. The t r a d i - t i o n a l recorder can be used quite well for the pentatonic sequence. (music s p e c i a l i s t ) 182 Question #27: Do you have a s t r i n g ( v i o l i n , v i o l a , c e l l o ) program? I f so. when does your program start? Twenty-two schools (95%) have s t r i n g programs. Thirteen schools (57%) begin t h e i r programs i n Grade Three. The s t r i n g program s t a r t s i n Grade Four i n eight schools (35%). Only one school introduces s t r i n g s i n a l a t e r grade. GRAPH 27 COMMENCEMENT OF STRING PROGRAM GR1 GR2 CR3 0R4 LATER 183 Investigative question #5: What are teachers' opinions on s p e c i f i c matters of pedagogy? Question #25; Would you use Orff instruments i n grades 1-3 i n your school? Most Waldorf School teachers (76%) d i d not respond to t h i s question. How- ever, f i f t e e n teachers (33%) would use Orff instruments, i f a v a i l a b l e . Six teachers (13%) would not use the instruments. However, there were no nega- t i v e comments about the Orff instruments. GRAPH 28 NUMBER OF TEACHERS WHO WOULD USE ORFF INSTRUMENTS VS J?\ Music teachers l \ x j Class teachers 184 Don't Know: * I don't know. (Gr. 1) * Don't know. (Gr. 1) * I am not f a m i l i a r with these. (Gr. 1) * I am not well-versed i n Or f f . (Gr. 1) * I am not f a m i l i a r with Orff instruments. (Gr 2) * I don't know enough about them. (Gr. 2) * I don't know them. (Gr. 2) * Don't know what they are. (Gr. 2) * Don't know them. (Gr. 2) * Don't know. (Gr. 3) * Or f f ? (Gr. 3) Yes: * I would! (Gr.l) * I would i f we could a f f o r d i t . (Gr. 1) * Would love to! Need money. (Gr. 2) * Maybe sometimes. I would not make a dogma out of i t any which way. (Gr. 2) 185 * By music teacher presently. (Gr. 3) * Sometimes, perhaps i n some l i m i t e d way. (Gr. 3) * Very l i m i t e d — i t r e a d i l y becomes too percussive and non-melodic, (music s p e c i a l i s t ) * My way not the Orff way, no regular beat, always a moment of alertness, (music s p e c i a l i s t ) * I do use them. (music s p e c i a l i s t ) * Possibly i n 3rd (end of 3rd). (music s p e c i a l i s t ) N o : * Use i n 4th grade. (Gr. 1) * Only with proper t r a i n i n g . (Gr. 3) Other comments from those who did not give a yes or no answer: * We do not use Orff instruments, but t h i s was not a conscious decision. (Gr. 6) * We have Choroi instruments and are happy with them. (music s p e c i a l i s t ) * Up to music d i r e c t o r . (Gr.l) 186 Question #26; Do vou use Kodaly hand signals to teach sight-singing? Most Waldorf School teachers do not use Kodaly hand signals to teach s i g h t - singing. Only two teachers claimed to use the hand s i g n a l s . One Grade One teacher stated that he/she used Kodaly hand signs " i n Grade 1, don't know i n 2 and 3." GRAPH 29 NUMBER OF TEACHERS WHO WOULD USE KODALY HAND SIGNALS iv s I Music teachers Those teachers who remarked that they were unfamiliar with Kodaly hand signs: * I am not f a m i l i a r with Kodaly hand signals. (Gr. 2) * Don't know what they are. (Gr. 2) * Stop t h i s l You are making me aware of how l i t t l e we know! (Gr. 2) 187 Some teachers expressed some i n t e r e s t i n incorporating Kodaly hand signs i n t o t h e i r curriculum: * I would l i k e to learn more about i t . (Gr.l) * I would l i k e to learn more about t h i s and i t s appropriateness i n grades 1-3. (Gr.l) * Hope to begin soon! (Gr.l) * A former music teacher did, i t worked for her. (Gr. 3) Those opposed to teaching Kodaly hand signs during main lesson: * Not during my main lesson [ i n which there i s ] singing and recorder p l a y i n g . (Gr. 2) * Not by c l a s s teachers. (Gr. 3) The music s p e c i a l i s t s who commented were against the idea of using Kodaly hand signs i n the music lesson to teach sight singing: * Seems one too many systems—use other, simpler methods. (music s p e c i a l - i s t ) * These movements i n t e r f e r e with the eurythmy movements, (music s p e c i a l i s t ) * I work with the Dalcroze Solfege System which has i t s own movement, (music s p e c i a l i s t ) * A b i t " i n t e l l e c t u a l . " I teach out of l i s t e n i n g and i m i t a t i o n rather than sight i n the younger grades. (music s p e c i a l i s t ) 188 Question #28; Is piano recommended as an instrument i n Grades 1-3? Most teachers would not recommend the piano as an instrument i n Grades One through Three. GRAPH 30 NUMBER OF TEACHERS WHO WOULD RECOMMEND PIANO AS AN INSTRUMENT OF STUDY I N GRADES ONE THROUGH THREE l y • l Music teachers ix . x j Class teachers R e a s o n s f o r n o t r e c o m m e n d i n g p i a n o : * Too i n t e l l e c t u a l . (Gr.l) * To work educationally, the piano cannot provide so well that which one wants to develop i n the f i r s t two years. (Gr. 2) * They are not making the tone themselves—too mechanical. (gr. 3) 189 * Too " f i x e d " and percussive, although for a very g i f t e d c h i l d i t could be quite s a t i s f y i n g I suppose. We prefer the so f t e r , freer tones of Choroi. Also, harmony doesn't r e a l l y come i n u n t i l Grade 4. (music s p e c i a l i s t ) * Piano i n s t r u c t i o n should s t a r t at end of Grade 3 or i n Grade 4. (music s p e c i a l i s t ) * Piano i s a non-inspired instrument whose mechanics should not be tackled before the c h i l d ' s 10th year. (music s p e c i a l i s t ) Even the music s p e c i a l i s t who answered "yes" to t h i s question q u a l i f i e d the answer: * Only when parents ask for i t — a n d then only from middle of second grade on—never f o r f i r s t graders. Some of those who would not recommend the piano were not adamant i n t h e i r views: * Not heavily discouraged. (Gr.l) * No, generally but depends on student. (Gr. 2) * But c h i l d r e n who have them at home often come i n with songs they have picked out by ear and play them. (Gr. 2) * If asked, I do not recommend, but I d i d not speak to parents on the sub- j e c t . (Gr. 3) * Several c h i l d r e n are taking piano lessons i n Grade Three. We do not recommend i t however. (Gr. 3) 190 Those who would recommend piano sometimes under certain circumstances: * In some s i t u a t i o n s . It i s not a s o c i a l instrument. (Gr. 2) * Sometimes. Has been very p o s i t i v e for some 3rd graders. (Gr. 3) 191 Question #29; Do vou use "Mood of F i f t h " music i n grades 1-3? Most teachers seem f a m i l i a r with the term "Mood of the F i f t h " and p r a c t i - c a l l y a l l teachers to use t h i s type of music, at le a s t i n Grade One. GRAPH 31 NUMBER OF TEACHERS USING "MOOD OF FIFTH" MUSIC 34 IV v i Music teachers IX. xj Class teachers Yes: * Yes, not always. (Gr. 1) * I t has a soothing e f f e c t . (Gr. 1) * I do use some of the t r a d i t i o n a l d i a t o n i c songs (to f i t i n t o assembly singing, e t c . ) . Pentatonic music i s the only kind a c h i l d can experience f u l l y up to the age of 9. (Gr. 1) * Grades 1-2, mostly. (Gr. 2) 192 * Most of the time, not always. (Gr. 2) * Profoundly healing i n our noisy, chaotic timesJ (music s p e c i a l i s t ) * I use "Mood of the F i f t h " music 90% of the time. (music s p e c i a l i s t ) Sometimes: * Folk music i s also important. (Gr.l) * Yes, but not always. (Gr.l) * Yes, but not always. (Gr. 2) * D e f i n i t i v e l y 1st, 2nd mixed, because of q u a l i t y of songs. (Gr. 2) * Often, but not always. (Gr. 2) * There doesn't yet seem to be enough of a v a r i e t y of music of t h i s type that can be applied to the curriculum so I r e l y and have r e l i e d on other music as well i n each of grades 1, 2, and 3. (Gr. 2) * Most of the time, not always. (Gr. 2) * I t helps the chi l d r e n to develop t h e i r hearing more c a r e f u l l y . (Gr. 2) * Mostly, because I did not completely understand i t . I can grasp the notes of the pentatonic scale, but I was t o l d i t i s much more than t h a t — t o do with how i t begins, ends . . . (Gr. 3) * Not by Grade 3, although we s t i l l sing f o l k songs i n pentatonic. (Gr. 3) * Mostly i n preschool and grade 1. (music s p e c i a l i s t ) 193 Characterizations of "Mood of the Fifth" music: Several ideas emerged from the question " B r i e f l y , what does the term 'Mood of the F i f t h ' mean to you?" Melody centered around tone "A" * Pentatonic music f l o a t i n g around middle tone (usually A) not ending or r e s o l v i n g . (Gr.l) * Pentatonic revolving around "A" without tonic r e s o l u t i o n . (Gr.l) * Center music around "A" moving up and down the i n t e r v a l of a f i f t h . I t r y to compose with t h i s i n mind and I also usually end on "A" i n 1st and e a r l y 2nd. (Gr. 2) * Not only to use the pentatonic scale (appropriate for young c h i l d r e n ) , but imbuing a l l singing and playing with the open, f l o a t i n g , e t h e r i c , 'mood' of the i n t e r v a l 1-5, anchored i n the golden sun-tone of A. (music s p e c i a l i s t ) * Although the f i f t h s ray out i n both d i r e c t i o n s from the c e n t r a l tone "A", there i s no f e e l i n g of coming home to one tone i n p a r t i c u l a r . (music s p e c i a l i s t ) * Using "A" as a center, using DE GAB D. Hovering around A. Do not end on the home tone. (music s p e c i a l i s t ) F l o a t i n g q u a l i t y * Pentatonic music (without C or F) which doesn't "land" on home tone, but ends f l o a t i n g . (Gr.l) * The melody i s not as f i x e d and more flowing, a q u a l i t y we are t r y i n g to work with the younger c h i l d r e n . (Gr. 2) * F l o a t i n g music. (Gr. 2 ) 194 * Whole step i n t e r v a l s , hovering within and around s p e c i f i c tones, cre- a t i n g an "unearthly," undefined, soaring q u a l i t y . (Gr. 2 ) * Promotes and r e t a i n s dreaminess when melody of songs uses f i f t h s , p a r t i c u l a r l y to end the piece. (Gr. 3) * Not bringing c h i l d too strongly down to earth so to speak. Preserves mood of innocence. Develops l i s t e n i n g ear. (gr. 3) * See Rudolf Steiner's indications Human Experience of Tone. A musical language without semi-tones, not or not always ending i n the basic a tone (which we experience i n the a s t r a l body, our ph y s i c a l existence). That i s for grade 4! (music s p e c i a l i s t ) Pentatonic * Pentatonic. (Gr.l) * Pentatonic. (Gr.l) * Singing within the pentatonic scale. (Gr.l) * Pentatonic scale songs. (Gr. 3) * P e n t a t o n i c — d e v o i d of major and minor i n t e r v a l s . (Gr. 3) * Pentatonic scale i n instrumental and s i n g i n g — l e s s incarnated sound, more f i t t i n g to e a r l y ages. (Gr. 3) * Pentatonic. (Gr 6) 195 Openness of the i n t e r v a l of the 5th * Looking toward the future with open question. (Gr.l) * I t means to mood created when one r e a l l y l i s t e n s into the 5th i n t e r v a l ; an open, ungrounded q u a l i t y . T h e o r e t i c a l l y a piece could e x h i b i t t h i s q u a l i t y without being pentatonic. (Gr. 2) * A s p e c i f i c i n t e r v a l creating a mood harkening to ancient consciousness. (Gr. 2) * I t means to me the general f e e l i n g or e f f e c t of hearing the i n t e r v a l of the f i f t h as i t i s incorporated i n the music. (Gr. 2) * I t means using pentatonic music which doesn't have a sense of f i n a l i t y but rather openness. I t i s dreamier, les s self-conscious, permitting one to l i v e i n tone or sound much l i k e i n painting working with c o l o r vs. form. (Gr. 3) * Using the i n t e r v a l of the f i f t h — I use i t i n some songs and games. (Gr. 3) * Promotes and ret a i n s dreaminess when melody of songs uses f i f t h s , p a r t i c u l a r l y to end the piece. (Gr. 3) * Music based around the perfect 5th i n t e r v a l . (music s p e c i a l i s t ) 196 Question #30: Is the beat de-emphasized i n teaching music Grades One through Three? Twenty-six teachers, (56%), f i v e of whom are music s p e c i a l i s t s , believed that the beat should be de-emphasized when teaching music to younger c h i l - dren. Eleven teachers (24%) do not de-emphasize the beat i n t h e i r teach- ing. Nine c l a s s teachers (20%) did not comment on t h i s issue. GRAPH 32 NUMBER OF TEACHERS WHO BELIEVE THAT BEAT SHOULD BE DE-EMPHASIZED IN GRADES ONE THROUGH THREE I V V I Music teachers i x . x j Class teachers Those who feel that the beat i s de-emphasized in teaching music Grades One through Three: * Beat, yes. Rhythm, no. (Gr.l) * Too easy f o r the c h i l d r e n to get caught up i n the beat rather than the l i g h t e r aspect of the music. I use music to get them away from beat. (Gr.l) * Too incarnating. But we practice rhythmic walking and clapping. (Gr.l) 197 * Rhythm and beat need to looked at and what q u a l i t i e s they bring. (Gr. 2) * Melody l i v e s strongly i n children (head). Harmony predominates i n the middle grades (trunk). Beat enters r i g h t l y i n the l a t e r grades (limbs). Rhythm may be brought to awareness. (music s p e c i a l i s t ) * Melody i s most important at t h i s age. (music s p e c i a l i s t ) * No percussion bands! Natural beat. (music s p e c i a l i s t ) Those who feel that the beat i s not de-emphasized in teaching music Grades One through Three: * But l e t ' s c a l l i t rhythm. (Gr. 2) * Begins i n earnest i n Grade 2. (Gr. 2) * I t ' s very hard to a v o i d — t h e children are exposed to so much "catchy" music elsewhere. Folk songs, e s p e c i a l l y l i v e l y ones, seem a natural de- l i g h t and r e s t i n the steady beat. But we don't stress "rhythmic s k i l l s " u n t i l l a t e 3rd and 4th up. (music s p e c i a l i s t ) Question #31: Is recorded music used i n Grades One through Three? An overwhelming majority of Waldorf School teachers do not use recorded mu- s i c to teach music i n Grades One through Three. Many expressed strong opinions on t h i s issue. 198 GRAPH 33 USE OF RECORDED MUSIC IN GRADES ONE THROUGH THREE 40 YES NO IS S\ Music teachers l \ ~ v l Class teachers Those who do not use recorded music to teach music: * Never! (Gr.l) * I don't have a video to teach the c h i l d r e n about the l e t t e r "A." You can't expect a human being to imitate a machine and l a t e r expect them to perform as human beings. (Gr.l) * Yuck! (Gr. 2) * I wonder sometimes i f i t would be use f u l . (Gr. 2) * Never. (Gr. 6) * No "plug-in" music, please! (music s p e c i a l i s t ) * Never. (music s p e c i a l i s t ) * E l e c t r o n i c music i s an "imitation." Not t r u l y a l i v e and resonant and ever newly created. (music s p e c i a l i s t ) 199 Question #32; Do you use s t o r y t e l l i n g to introduce songs, s k i l l s , and con- cepts? Most Waldorf School teachers use s t o r y t e l l i n g to introduce songs, s k i l l s , and concepts. A l l but one music s p e c i a l i s t indicated that they use t h i s teaching approach. GRAPH 34 USE OF STORYTELLING LXy\ Music teochere l \ N J Class toachei Comments from those who use storytelling to introduce songs, skills, and concepts: * I t grabs the c h i l d r e n and holds t h e i r i n t e r e s t . (Gr.l) * Necessary. (Gr. 2) * Not as much as I should. (Gr. 2) * Use of imagination equally valuable i n music lesson as any other lesson. (Gr. 3) 200 * Did to introduce recorder i n f i r s t grade. Haven't much besides. (Gr. 3) * A l o t ! (Gr. 3) * Yes, but not too much or too long. I f e e l Waldorf c h i l d r e n get too many s t o r i e s . (music s p e c i a l i s t ) * Works great! (music s p e c i a l i s t ) * E s p e c i a l l y Grade One reacts well, playing recorder while l i v i n g i n a p i c t u r e , i m i t a t i n g teacher's movements while not quite brainconscious [aware] (music s p e c i a l i s t ) Those who use storytelling occasionally: * Sometimes, usually. (Gr.l) * Sometimes, but not so much i n 1st grade. (Gr.l) * Yes and no. Not a l l songs are introduced with s t o r i e s . (Gr. 2) * Sometimes, i t i s done. (Gr. 2) * Sometimes. (Gr. 2) * Sometimes. (Gr. 2) * Songs, yes. S k i l l s and concepts are not taught. (Gr. 3) Teacher who does not use storytelling to introduce songs, s k i l l s and con- cepts: * Not i n main lesson. (Gr. 2) 201 Question #33; When do vou begin teaching music theory and musical nota- tion? Most teachers f e l t that Grade Three was the appropriate age to teach music theory and music notation. A l l music s p e c i a l i s t s introduced music theory and music notation i n Grade Three. GRAPH 35 GRADES IN WHICH THEORY AND MUSICAL NOTATION IS INTRODUCED IV VI Music teachers GR3 GR4 l \ xj Class teochere LATER Comments from those class teachers who believe that music theory and musi- cal notation should be introduced at Grade Three: * Grade 3 or 4. (Gr. 1) * I may wait t i l l 4th grade to begin with my c l a s s . (Gr. 1) * Meets developmental needs at age 9-10. (Gr. 2) * Second ha l f of t h i r d grade. (Gr. 2) 202 * I personally l i k e to wait t i l l a f t e r Easter i n 3rd or beginning of 4th. (Gr. 2 ) * In a simple way, i t could be introduced i n 3rd. More d i r e c t l y with s t r i n g s program i n 3rd grade. (Gr. 3) * Children are t r a n s c r i b i n g songs which are f a m i l i a r . Sight reading and composition of songs may be possible by t h i r d term. (Grading and composi- t i o n of songs may be possible by t h i r d term). (Gr. 3) * [Music teacher] introduced i t . (Gr. 3)) * Musical notation by Jan. of Gr. 3—elementary music theory from begin- ning, i . e . , ear t r a i n i n g , "echoing," i n t e r v a l s , s t o r i e s , etc. (music s p e c i a l i s t ) * Ties i n well with the creation theme, the F a l l , and mankind's need for a more conscious r e l a t i o n to the s p i r i t u a l world (embodied, i n t h i s case, by music). (music s p e c i a l i s t ) * Introduce at end of three, concentrate i n 4 and 5. (music s p e c i a l i s t ) * Music notation i n Grade Three i f done along same p r i n c i p l e s as learning a.b.c.'s i n Grade One. See Shepherd's Sonqbook, E. Lebret, l a s t chapter, [music concepts taught i n a p i c t o r i a l way] (music s p e c i a l i s t ) There were no comments from those eight teachers who f e l t that music nota- t i o n should be introduced i n Grade Four. 203 Question #34: Do you f i n d i t d i f f i c u l t to f i n d appropriate song material? Most of the teachers d i d not have d i f f i c u l t y f i n d i n g appropriate song mate- r i a l . GRAPH 36 TEACHERS WHO EXPERIENCE D I F F I C U L T Y / N O D I F F I C U L T Y I N FINDING APPROPRIATE SONG MATERIAL? 30 YES NO IV • I Music teachers IN- -VI Class teachers * Lebret books, rounds, are a "Godsend." (Gr. 2) * I f i n d the Lebret books quite enough i n themselves. (Gr. 2) * The c h i l d r e n and I write songs; other teachers are a help. (Gr. 2) * The experienced c l a s s teachers are always w i l l i n g to share t h e i r mate- r i a l . (Gr.l) * Not p a r t i c u l a r l y [ d i f f i c u l t to f i n d song m a t e r i a l ] , (Gr. 3) 204 * Can always use more sources. (Gr. 2) Sometimes * Nevertheless, I would appreciate a greater v a r i e t y and would e s p e c i a l l y wish to see German material translated. (Gr.l) * Sometimes, . . . could use more. (Gr. 3) * There i s much to choose from, but the search to f i n d what i s j u s t r i g h t i s d i f f i c u l t at times. (music s p e c i a l i s t ) * Sometimes. (music s p e c i a l i s t ) Yes: * I f more was e a s i l y accessible, I would sing more with the c h i l d r e n . Be- ing only sort-of-musical, i t i s d i f f i c u l t to 1) f i n d appropriate music e a s i l y 2) learn i t well enough to decide i f I want to use i t . (Gr. 3) * Much a v a i l a b l e i s r e a l l y quite boring. (Gr. 2) * Gets ea s i e r i n 3—many f i n e rounds and f o l k songs. (Gr. 3) 205 Question #35; From which sources do vou derive your song material? GRAPH 37 SOURCES OF SONG MATERIAL Lebret IV y l Music teachers Folk songs Own songs IV NJ Class teachers Other Many teachers mentioned Shepherd's Song Book by E l i z a b e t h Lebret; Sing Through the Days and Sing Through the Seasons compiled and edited by the Society of Brothers; Spring, Summer, Autumn, Winter, Gateways, S p i n d r i f t — booklets by Margaret Meyerkort; and Waldorf Song Book by Brien Masters. Sources of materials mentioned: S h e p h e r d ' s Song B o o k : * Shepherd's Song Book. (Gr.l) * Sometimes I change endings [of E. Lebret's songs] to make mood of f i f t h . (Gr.l) 206 * In 1-3 Shepherd's Song Book. (Gr. 3) * Shepherd's Song Book. (Gr. 3) * I have much respect for Elizabeth Lebret. I do not use much of her mu- s i c because I use my own. (music s p e c i a l i s t ) Sing Through the Seasons and Sing Through the Days; * Sing Through the Seasons. (Gr.l) * Sing Through the Day—I rewrote the music to f i t the Choroi f l u t e and k l a n g s p i e l . I l i k e the words. (Gr.l) * The two books by the Fathers—Songs Through the Seasons, Songs Through the Days. (Gr. 3) * Sing Through the Day and Sing Through the Seasons. (Gr. 3) * Sing Through the Seasons. (Gr. 3) * Sing Through the Seasons. (Gr. 3) Margaret Meyercourt books: * The booklets published by Wynstone Press: Spring, Summer, Autumn, and Winter, Gateways, S p i n d r i f t . (For kindergartens, but excellent for Grade 1 and 2). (Gr.l) * Seasonal kindergarten songs. (Gr.l) * Spring, Summer, Autumn, Winter books by Margaret Meyerkort (kindergarten). (Gr. 2) 207 * I used music from the kindergarten books i n f i r s t grade: Spring, Summer, etc. (Gr. 3) Waldorf Song Book by Brien Masters: * In Grade 3, Waldorf Song Book. (Gr. 3) * Waldorf Song Book. (Gr. 3) Other Specific Sources Used by Waldorf Teachers: * Margaret Preston, J u l i u s Knierim, C h r i s t a Muller, Johanne Russ, May Lynn Channer. (Gr.l) * A l l the World Around Songs. (Gr. 3) * Clump-a-Dump, Sing i t Yourself, 220 Pentatonic Songs. (Gr. 3) Other: * I look everywhere. (Gr.l) * Whatever I f i n d or hear that's appropriate. (Gr.l) * Folk songs from a l l over the world. Almost anything I can f i n d that ap- p l i e s to our school work (blocks, seasons, etc.) and i s appropriate for the age and i s not too complicated musically. (Gr. 2) * Other books of pentatonic songs. (music s p e c i a l i s t ) * I use many sources. (Gr.l) 208 * I have hundreds of books that I work from and constantly am searching music stores for the " r i g h t " materials. (music s p e c i a l i s t ) * Endless! (music s p e c i a l i s t ) Material from Colleagues: * D i r e c t o r of music—great resource. (Gr.l) * M a t e r i a l from colleagues. (Gr. 2) * Dina Winter and Irene Goldzer gave me many songs when I took classes from them. (Gr. 2) * Vast wealth of music written by Waldorf teachers around the world! (Gr. 2) * School c o l l e c t i o n . (Gr. 3) * Sharing resources with other teachers. (Gr. 3) * C o l l e c t i o n gathered by various teachers, music and clas s teachers. (Gr. 3) 209 Investigative Question #6 What, according to the teachers, i s the main purpose of music education i n Waldorf Schools? Question #36: What i s the main purpose of music education i n the primary grades? The development of musical a b i l i t y ( l i s t e n i n g , vocal, breathing, movement s k i l l s ) was ranked as one of the primary purposes of music education i n the Waldorf School. Ten teachers (22%) mentioned the importance of teaching l i s t e n i n g s k i l l s . Many Waldorf School teachers focused on s o c i a l develop- ment and aesthetic education as primary purposes of music education. Other teachers f e l t that music helped the c h i l d i n the course of his/her development. Some teachers believed that music helped to forge a r e l a t i o n - ship with the year's curriculum. Others maintained that music served as a balance to the more i n t e l l e c t u a l subjects. Several teachers mentioned that music gave the c h i l d r e n joy i n t h e i r l i v e s . Others c i t e d the r o l e of music i n s p i r i t u a l development. Development of Sense of Self/Social Development: * Development of poise and posture; development of s e l f . (Gr.l) * Learning to be a member of a group. (Gr. 1) * Gives self-confidence. (Gr. 1) 210 * To help the c h i l d f i n d a proper r e l a t i o n s h i p within the p h y s i c a l body. The sense of well-being transforming to harmony i n the s o c i a l sphere. (Gr. 1) * S o c i a l i z a t i o n and i n d i v i d u a l i z a t i o n s k i l l s . (Gr. 2) * S o c i a l s k i l l s . (Gr. 2) * S o c i a l harmony (singing together). (Gr. 2) * I t i s such a s o c i a l i z i n g a c t i v i t y and immediately brings harmony i n the c l a s s s e t t i n g . (Gr. 3) * Music has such a harmonizing and loosening e f f e c t on the c l a s s . It brings them together. (Gr. 3) * I t i s a s o c i a l experience. (Gr. 3) * Group experience. (Gr. 3) * Harmony—both inner and s o c i a l . (Gr. 3) * Harmonizing s o c i a l l y . (music s p e c i a l i s t ) * Helping the c h i l d r e n to f i n d a pure balancing within themselves and amongst one another. (music s p e c i a l i s t ) A e s thetic Education: * We don't c a l l i t education. We simply sing and enjoy music. (Gr.l) * Beauty. (Gr. 1) * Form sense of aesthetics. (Gr. 1) 211 * I t i s a very important part of the a r t i s t i c work i n the e a r l y grades. (Gr. 1) * Music appreciation. (Gr. 2) * Enriching the emotional l i f e . (Gr. 2) * Beauty (rounds, quartets, e t c . ) . (Gr. 2) * Allow c h i l d to experience h i s musicality almost e f f o r t l e s s l y . (Gr. 2) * To have musical experiences that a l l ch i l d r e n can be successful at and that they can experience t r u t h and beauty through music. (Gr. 2) * In a c e r t a i n way, everything i n the world has a musical q u a l i t y about i t and the c h i l d r e n sense t h i s very deeply. Children are very musical. (Gr. 3) * I t works on the f e e l i n g l i f e of the c h i l d . (Gr. 3) * Tunes the c h i l d each morning. Works on middle system where c h i l d ' s con- s c i o u s n e s s ] i s . Brings beauty, aliveness, gesture, and movement. (Gr. 3) * Imagination, " l e v i t y . " (Gr. 3) * Creating a love for music which becomes an i n t e g r a l part of each c h i l d ' s l i f e forever. (music s p e c i a l i s t ) C h i l d development: * Fostering the c h i l d ' s development. (Gr. 1) * Promotes proper development. (Gr. 2) * One of the keystone formative influences. (Gr. 3) 212 * Creation of e t h e r i c body. (Gr. 3) * Not forming good players p r i m a r i l y but keeping a s t r a l body from harden- ing by the use of pentatonic music. (music s p e c i a l i s t ) Relation to Curriculum: * Leading the c h i l d into a r e l a t i o n to his/her environment and a deeper r e l a t i o n to the year's curriculum. (Gr. 1) * Connects c h i l d ' s soul experience to the curriculum. (Gr. 3) Balance to Academic Subject in Curriculum: * To bring breathing, movement, rhythm, dexterity, and joy to the c h i l d and to balance t h i s a r t i s t i c aspect with more i n t e l l e c t u a l aspects of cur- riculum. (Gr. 2) * Absolutely necessary to the teaching of the whole c h i l d — b a l a n c i n g of academic course work with rhythmic or heart f a c u l t i e s . (Gr. 3) * To nurture the musical aspects of child r e n , s p i r i t u a l l y , psychologi- c a l l y , s o c i a l l y , and p h y s i c a l l y . (music s p e c i a l i s t ) Development of Musical Ability: * To give the g i f t of music, including rhythm, beat, i n t e r v a l s , and a l l the s p e c i f i c musical s k i l l s . I f e e l that through music, we open up a l l sorts of horizons, i . e . , German or I t a l i a n f o l k songs, s p i r i t u a l , c l a s s i c a l music, e t c . (Gr. 2) * Possible future playing a b i l i t y . (Gr. 2) 213 * In a d a i l y way to help the ch i l d r e n learn to make music. (Gr. 2) * Opening c h i l d r e n to the p o s s i b i l i t y of tone, key, harmony, the unity of singing/playing together. (Gr. 3) L i s t e n i n g : * Development of hearing and attention; development of aural i m i t a t i o n rather than v i s u a l i m i t a t i o n . (Gr. 1) * Awakens auditory realm. (Gr. 1) * T r a i n i n g of senses. (Gr. 1) * B u i l d l i s t e n i n g . (Gr. 2) * Learning to l i s t e n . (Gr. 2) * To develop l i s t e n i n g . (Gr. 3) * I t contributes to the refinement of the senses. (Gr. 3) * To provide a l i s t e n i n g experience. To work with a sense of hearing and movement. (music s p e c i a l i s t ) * Learning to l i s t e n a c t i v e l y . (music s p e c i a l i s t ) Voice: * Development of voice. (Gr. 1) * Developing and placing the voice. (music s p e c i a l i s t ) 214 Movement: * Development of movement. (Gr. 2) * To bring . . . movement . . . to the c h i l d . (Gr. 2) * To work with a sense of hearing and movement. (music s p e c i a l i s t ) Correct Breathing: * Aids development of correct breathing. (Gr. 1) * To bring breathing . . . to the c h i l d . (Gr. 2) * Breathing. (Gr. 3) Enjoyment: * I t i s healing, harmonizing, brings joy. (Gr. 1) * Joy! Expression. (Gr. 2) * A c h i l d who sings i s a happy c h i l d . (Gr. 2) * To help the c h i l d r e n express the joy of childhood. (Gr. 3) * Enjoyment f or ch i l d r e n , experience music through " f e e l i n g . " (Gr. * Joy! (music s p e c i a l i s t ) 215 S p i r i t u a l Development: * Strengthens the incarnating etheric body and prepares for the r i g h t incarnation of the a s t r a l . (Gr. 1) * To awaken (remind) the c h i l d of r e l a t i o n s h i p to s p i r i t u a l world. (Gr. 2) * I t nurtures the s p i r i t . (Gr. 3) * After-death. (Gr. 3) * Strengthens the soul of the c h i l d . (Gr. 3) 216 INVESTIGATIVE QUESTION #7: Do Waldorf School teachers believe that the Waldorf approach to music edu- cat i o n i s relevant i n today's society? Do Waldorf School teachers believe that Waldorf music education be integrated e a s i l y into the p u b l i c school system? Question #37: Do you think i t would be d i f f i c u l t to integrate the Waldorf approach to music education into the public school system? The teachers were almost evenly divided on t h i s issue. Many who d i d not think Waldorf music education could be integrated doubted that the underly- ing philosophy would be understood or accepted by colleagues i n the public school system. Others believed that some aspects could be integrated. S t i l l others believed that integration of the Waldorf approach depended on the a t t i t u d e of the teachers concerned. Others d i d not know enough about the p u b l i c school system to comment. GRAPH 38 A N T I C I P A T I O N OF D I F F I C U L T Y I N INTEGRATING WALDORF APPROACH TO MUSIC EDUCA- TION INTO THE P U B L I C SCHOOL? YES NO YS S | Mjaic teachers l \ x j Class teochers 217 Those who believed Waldorf music education would be d i f f i c u l t to integrate into public schools: * Probably—they would be goal oriented about performing music. (Gr. 1) * I t h i n k that only teachers that work out of S p i r i t u a l Science can t r u l y understand and agree with i t . (Gr. 1) * I f one i n s i s t e d on p u r i t y , one's reasons would be inspected [suspected], and tossed out as ludicrous. If one didn't i n s i s t , one's e f f o r t s would be rendered i n e f f e c t i v e through mixture with barbaric music, methods, and un- derstanding. (Gr. 1) * Because most people do not know about i t and i t i s part of the whole Waldorf approach. (Gr. 1) * Organ transplants are not always successful nor appropriate. (Gr. 2) * Because they don't believe i n i t . (Gr. 2) * To a c e r t a i n degree, yes, simply because the general a t t i t u d e toward ev- ery subject whether math or music seems to be: more, e a r l i e r , and through the t h i n k i n g . Music comes only during music period and does not permeate the school day and every subject of the school day. (Gr. 2) * I t h i n k mechanically someone could do i t but without the understanding of c h i l d r e n and t h e i r development that i s behind t h i s approach i t would have a shallow e f f e c t . (Gr. 2) * Waldorf education i s not a method. One must have a p i c t u r e of the developing c h i l d and teach out of a l i v i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p with the c h i l d . (Gr. 3) * The s p i r i t of the Waldorf approach could be brought to p u b l i c school c h i l d r e n . But many of our songs are of a s p i r i t u a l n a t u r e — a reverence for God, f e s t i v a l s . This s p i r i t u a l connection might not be allowed i n the ,• p u b l i c schools. (Gr. 3) * T r a d i t i o n i s against i t . The picture of c h i l d development i s inherent, and i t s value i s not as v i s i b l e without that p i c t u r e . Recorder work and c l a s s teacher singing could be more r e a d i l y incorporated. (Gr. 3) 218 * Yes, at f i r s t — w o u l d need to see r e s u l t s . (Gr. 3) * Because the p u b l i c school teacher would work from his/her own i n s i g h t i n t o Waldorf Education, which cannot well be expected, then i t becomes a "method," "un-alive.". (music s p e c i a l i s t ) * The c u l t u r e i s too conditioned by the popular media. (music s p e c i a l i s t ) Those who believed Waldorf education would not be d i f f i c u l t to integrate into public schools: * Music i s , of course, an a r t i s t i c a c t i v i t y . (Gr. 1) * Because "lessons" can be quick, spontaneous, and goal-oriented. Biggest problem would be g e t t i n g instruments. (Gr. 2) * You can spend 10-15 minutes each morning playing. (Gr. 2) * But i t seems as though i t would take cooperation throughout a school. (Gr. 3) * Not i f combined with other music. Sing rote, for example, would not be so hard i n K or 1st. (Gr. 3) * A l l aspects of Waldorf Education can be integrated i n t o the Public School. (Gr. 3) * As long as the music teacher i s given the freedom. (Gr. 3) * Much of i t just makes good sense. (Gr. 3) * I have done volunteering i n the public schools and have found great eagerness i n the c h i l d r e n . (music s p e c i a l i s t ) * I f e e l there are other music education programs that have s i m i l a r goals and l i k e methods. (music s p e c i a l i s t ) 219 Yes/no: * Yes and no. One would have to convince administrators of the necessity f o r funding and one would have to work with the r e c e p t i v i t y of the teachers and teacher's unions. It a l l depends on the people involved. (Gr. 1) * Yes and no. Unless a c e r t a i n view i s taken of the c h i l d , what might i n - tend to be a Waldorf approach, could quickly turn into something e l s e . (Gr. 2) * On the one hand, i t would be quite easy i f i t was wanted. What could be more natural than c h i l d r e n making music together i n a classroom. But, I know of a p u b l i c school teacher with a b e a u t i f u l voice who has never sung with her c l a s s . (Gr. 3) * Depends e n t i r e l y on the public school and the "Waldorf" music teacher involved. T h e o r e t i c a l l y , i t should be possible with some a d u l t - l e v e l education/explanation. (music s p e c i a l i s t ) Those who had no opinion about the v i a b i l i t y of integrating the Waldorf ap- proach into the public school system: * I don't r e a l l y know enough to comment. (Gr. 1) * I don't know. (Gr. 2) * Why not! A c t u a l l y , i t i s very d i f f i c u l t to answer because I don't know what the p u b l i c schools do. (Gr. 2) * I don't know the music program of the public schools to judge that. (Gr. 2) * Probably. (Gr. 3) 220 Question #38: Do vou think Waldorf Music Education i s relevant today? One teacher f e l t that the approach to Waldorf music education could not be separated from the whole of Waldorf education i t s e l f . I think i t i s relevant i n as much as i t i s part of the complete p i c t u r e of Waldorf Education. Waldorf music education would, I f e e l , lose some of i t s relevance and effectiveness i f i t were not supported by and supporting Waldorf Education, i n i t s t o - t a l i t y . According to nine Waldorf School teachers, the Waldorf approach to music education i s relevant because i t counters s o c i e t a l influences ( e s p e c i a l l y the influences of the media). Following t h i s theme, f i v e teachers believed that music presented through the Waldorf School approach was even a thera- peutic measure for our time and society. Five teachers, in c l u d i n g three music s p e c i a l i s t s , believed that music helped to balance i n t e l l e c t u a l i s m . Four teachers stated that the music curriculum helped to support the over- a l l development of the c h i l d . Counters S o c i e t a l Influences: * I t i s e s p e c i a l l y relevant so that human beings s t i l l have an idea of mu- s i c , that i t comes from the human being, not from the stereo or radio or MTV. (Gr. 1) * Because many c h i l d r e n would never be exposed to l i v e music or music-mak- ing. (Gr. 1) * The q u a l i t i e s as mentioned above [in question #36—learning to l i s t e n , development of movement, enriching the emotional l i f e , s o c i a l s k i l l s , and 221 beauty] are drowned i n our society and sober sense-experiences to enrich the development of the soul are more urgent than ever. (Gr. 2) * More relevant because of bombardment of media on our senses. Music a l - lows a human q u a l i t y into our l i v e s . (Gr. 2) * Turn on the radio and l i s t e n to what i s c a l l e d art today. (Gr. 2) * I t i s softening and comforting to children who l i v e i n an ever more hardening and le s s than i d e a l world. (Gr. 2) * Provide a harmony and balance for today's c h i l d . (Gr. 2) * More than ever. Many ch i l d r e n do not experience harmony, rhythm, and a connection to nature i n t h e i r home l i v e s . They experience s t r e s s , dishar- mony, and mechanical sounds v i a TV and radio and other machines. They be- come closed and hardened too young. (Gr. 3) * Today's c h i l d r e a l l y needs what our education provides. (music s p e c i a l - i s t ) Brings healing: * We are a s i c k people. Music i s a prime healer. (Gr. 1) * Even a therapeutic measure for our time. (Gr. 2) * Music hath charms . . . (Gr. 2) * We need to give back f a c u l t i e s of music to the culture i f we wish i t to reform/heal i n a p o s i t i v e way. (Gr. 3) * For those who seek i t , i t promotes health and sound s o c i a l i n s t i n c t s as well as a n a t u r a l l y joyous experience. (music s p e c i a l i s t ) 2 2 2 Balances intellectualism in our society: * Because we l i v e i n a very i n t e l l e c t u a l world. If music i s brought to the c h i l d r e n i n an i n t e l l e c t u a l way, i t w i l l lose i t s beauty. You can't hand out brochures, f o r example, about painting. It must be taught through gesture. An eye for beauty must be taught through gesture. M u s i c a l i t y i s the same way. It must be taught through i m i t a t i o n . (Gr. 1) * More so than ever. Children are more open to e x p e r i e n t i a l a c t i v i t i e s . (Gr. 3) * I t i s s t r i v i n g to do more than i n s t r u c t and entertain. (music s p e c i a l - i s t ) * Non-Waldorf approach i n music-teaching i s mostly (with rare exceptions) very i n t e l l e c t u a l . (music s p e c i a l i s t ) * A much more " l i v i n g " r e l a t i o n to music than a more t r a d i t i o n a l approach, (music s p e c i a l i s t ) Follows development of child: * Children love music and Waldorf music education speaks to them. (Gr. 1) * Progression of music from pentatonic to rounds and d i a t o n i c to p a r t s — appropriate for c h i l d development. Musical t r a i n i n g on instruments impor- tant i n d i v i d u a l l y and as a group experience. (Gr. 3) * Pentatonic music i s d e f i n i t e l y more sui t a b l e to children's state of soul before the 9th year change. The curriculum i n general gives a broad range of experiences and s k i l l s i n music for a l l c h i l d r e n , regardless of t a l e n t or background. (Gr. 3) * Nurtures s p i r i t and soul of c h i l d at each changing phase of childhood; s o c i a l awareness. (music s p e c i a l i s t ) 223 Investigative question #8 Which of Steiner's ideas had the most impact on teachers? Question #39; Which of Steiner's ideas have had the most impact on vou as a teacher of music? Steiner's thoughts on c h i l d development and the nature of the c h i l d seemed to have the greatest impact on Waldorf School teachers. Other ideas which influenced the teachers were Steiner's conception of the c h i l d as a s p i r i t u a l being, the t h r e e f o l d nature of the human being, and the s p i r i t u a l nature of music. The books Study of Man and Balance i n Teaching were men- tioned as sources of i n s p i r a t i o n . Several teachers believed that a l l of Steiner's ideas were h e l p f u l i n t h e i r teaching. C h i l d Development: * As a c l a s s teacher, I have been most influenced by the nature of the hu- man being, the growing c h i l d . (Gr. 1) * The nature of the growing c h i l d ; how ch i l d r e n learn. (Gr. 1) * What l i t t l e I know s p e c i f i c a l l y about music education f i t s b e a u t i f u l l y with Steiner's ideas of c h i l d development and, of course, with the c u r r i c u - lum i t s e l f . (Gr. 2) * He was a genius, e s p e c i a l l y i n devising a curriculum that c u l t i v a t e s so- c i a l i z a t i o n and i n d i v i d u a l i z a t i o n simultaneously. (Gr. 2) * Teaching to imagination and l e v e l of development. (Gr. 2) * The nature of the human being c e r t a i n l y has had great impact. How music a f f e c t s the c h i l d , how to rhythmically move a lesson by including music. (Gr. 2) 224 * Steiner's p i c t u r e of the development and gradual incarnation of the c h i l d i s the foundation of my work with the clas s i n music. From i t , I choose my songs, both from c h i l d ' s need and in keeping with curriculum gui d e l i n e s that are appropriate at ce r t a i n ages. (Gr. 3) * B a s i c a l l y , Steiner's pictures of the unfolding human being, and how "Waldorf" music addresses each phase of childhood, provide the foundation from which I work. (music s p e c i a l i s t ) * The idea of man's development through the ages and how i t follows the development of the c h i l d i n childhood. Then how music can appeal to c h i l - dren and work on t h e i r very being! (music s p e c i a l i s t ) The C h i l d as a S p i r i t u a l Being: * The idea that the growing c h i l d i s s t i l l close to the s p i r i t u a l world, has a past karma, and that the way a c h i l d learns d i f f e r s from an adult. (Gr. 1) * In my case, teaching my chi l d r e n aged 6 or 7, I hold the thought that before they were born, they were hearing music i n the s p i r i t u a l world. B e l i e v i n g t h i s , i t i s r e a l l y important that we s t r i v e to present b e a u t i f u l music to the c h i l d r e n . Also, b e l i e v i n g i n past l i v e s , I think that a c h i l d i n my c l a s s could have been a "Mozart." I can't just give them "skim milk." (Gr. 1) * Enthusiasm i n music teaching leading to a f t e r death seeds sprouting. (Gr. 1) * Child's need f o r re-connection to s p i r i t u a l world. (Gr. 3) * This i s a broad question. The whole of anthroposophy gives a l i v i n g p i c t u r e of the human being as a s p i r i t u a l being as well as an e a r t h l y be- ing. Waldorf education and music education help the c h i l d to f i n d his/her way in t o body and the world. (Gr. 3) 225 Threefold nature of human being [Thinking, Feeling, Willing]: * The human being i s a threefold e n t i t y . (Gr. 2) * To involve the whole c h i l d i n a t h r e e f o l d way has been most b e n e f i c i a l to my teaching as a whole as well as music i n p a r t i c u l a r . To centre the teaching to the soul of the c h i l d i n an imaginative, rhythmical, and p r a c t i c a l way has been most e f f e c t i v e . (Gr. 3) Spiritual Aspects of Music: * The cosmos i s music. To recognize t h i s i n us i s music education. I don't know i f Steiner writes t h i s per se. (Gr. 3) * Music i s always there—we are the vessels that incarnate i t . I t ' s l i k e hopping onto a t r a i n — t h e music sounds—and o f f [we go] again. (Gr. 1) Influence of certain books: * The longer one works with the Study of Man i n i t s broadest sense the more a l l the a c t i v i t i e s become profound i f brought i n a l i v e l y way and not dogmatic. (Gr. 2) * Steiner's book, Study of Man, i s one that I am always enlightened by each time I read i t . (Gr. 2) * I have been working a l o t with Balance i n Teaching c u r r e n t l y . (Gr. 3) Other: * Anthroposophy as a p a t h — a l l education i s self-education. (Gr. 1) * The music lessons as a matter of authority. (Gr. 1) 226 * I'm mostly interested i n the moral implications. (Gr. 1) * Breathing and rhythmic aspects as healing. (Gr. 2) * I suppose t h i s i s hard for me to answer because I don't see myself as a teacher of music, but as a teacher who uses music to teach the whole c h i l d . (Gr. 2) * Joyl Joy! Joy!! (Gr. 2) * The need for rhythm and harmony i n a c h i l d ' s l i f e ; the importance of the f e e l i n g l i f e i n elementary grades; need for unself-conscious s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n i n e a r l y elementary years. (Gr. 3) * Study of e t h e r i c body and my speech t r a i n i n g at Emerson. (Gr. 3) * In the lower grades, we teach through the limbs, we do. (music s p e c i a l - i s t ) * This question i s too big for me to answer now. (music s p e c i a l i s t ) A l l : * A l l , but i n general terms. I would appreciate a deeper understanding of music and music education i n a p r a c t i c a l way. (Gr. 1) * A l l . (Gr. 1) * A l l . (Gr. 2) * I think a l l of these ideas interweave to give me an overview of how mu- s i c nurtures our soul l i f e . I see the harmony i t brings to our c l a s s . (Gr. 2) * I would need to write a book here! A l l h i s thoughts are enlightening and i n s p i r i n g . They have to be applied i n each d i f f e r e n t school community somewhat d i f f e r e n t l y , however. (music s p e c i a l i s t ) 227 Question #40: Any area I have missed? Questions I should have asked? A few c l a s s teachers seemed g r a t e f u l for the opportunity to teach music to t h e i r own c l a s s e s : * This i s my f i r s t year as a class teacher so I am s t i l l f i n d i n g my way, but I am very g r a t e f u l that music i s a part of the main lesson everyday. (Gr. 1) * I think the advantage of class teacher teaching music i n Grades 1-2 i s that i t helps him/her l i v e more musically, also. (Gr. 2) * I teach music as an i n t e g r a l part of the education. My perspective i s of one who i s a novice. (Gr. 2) Three teachers, two of which were music s p e c i a l i s t s , were concerned about teacher t r a i n i n g . (See question #21—Strengths and Weaknesses) Many respondents wished the author luck. Three respondents were c r i t i c a l of the questionnaire. (See preface to questionnaire) Summary Class teachers generally taught music to t h e i r own classes. Eight music s p e c i a l i s t s who were employed s o l e l y as primary music teachers responded to the questionnaire. The r e s u l t s of the questionnaire indicate a strong commitment to music education. 2 2 8 * Music education was considered to be a high p r i o r i t y by the school community. * Most schools devote a great deal of time to music education. * Most classroom teachers play or are learning to play a musical instrument themselves. They model for the students that learning to play an instrument i s a worthwhile a c t i v i t y . * In some schools, both the clas s teacher and music teacher teach music to the c l a s s . * Most teachers ranked t h e i r singing and recorder programs as "very strong" or "strong." * The curriculum o f f e r s the ch i l d r e n the opportunity to play i n s t r u - ments appropriate to t h e i r age. Instrumental t r a i n i n g i s usually be- gun i n Grade One with the pentatonic f l u t e and/or the kinderharp, Gartner l y r e , or bordun l y r e . A s t r i n g program i n Grades Three or Four was i n i t i a t e d i n a majority of Waldorf Schools. * Within the schools, most teachers share a common philosophy. Most have acquainted themselves with Steiner's ideas on music and music education. The questionnaire demonstrated that although the Choroi and Gartner move- ments d i d have an impact i n North American schools, lack of funds and lack of understanding of the instruments and t h e i r techniques seemed to be pre- venting the teachers from purchasing and using the instruments. The Choroi pentatonic f l u t e was the most popular Choroi instrument. The Werbeck method for singing was not at a l l widely known. Other s i g n i f i c a n t r e s u l t s : * Teachers indicated that preparation for music teaching i n Waldorf teacher t r a i n i n g i n s t i t u t e s was, i n some cases, inadequate. Profes- s i o n a l development for teachers i s an area which perhaps needs more attention within the movement. * A high proportion of male teachers was noted. Male teachers involved i n music-making with t h e i r classes may serve as p o s i t i v e r o l e models for both boys and g i r l s . In music pedagogy, teachers remain f a i t h f u l to some of Steiner's ideas: * Beat i s generally de-emphasized. * L i t t l e or no theory i s taught u n t i l a f t e r age nine. * "Mood of the F i f t h " music i s generally used with the younger classes. * S t r i n g programs are introduced i n Grades Three or Four. However, i n the f i r s t music curriculum, s t r i n g s were to be introduced i n Grades One. 230 A wind instrument (usually a pentatonic f l u t e ) i s taught to the c h i l - dren from Grade One. Singing and instruments are introduced concurrently. Singing and recorder playing are e s p e c i a l l y emphasized and are regarded as strengths of most programs. The piano i s not recommended as an instrument for the younger c h i l - dren. Recorded music i s not used at a l l i n Waldorf Schools. S t o r y t e l l i n g i s often a media chosen to introduce songs, s k i l l s , and concepts. Music i s integrated with academic subject matter i n main lessons. A great deal of time i s devoted to music as well as the other a r t s . Although other approaches of music teaching are permitted, generally, no other system (Orff, Kodaly, Dalcroze) i s used i n Waldorf Schools, although one music teacher does use Dalcroze techniques. Most teach- ers are unfamiliar with the Kodaly hand signs and Or f f instruments. Teachers stated several goals for music education i n the primary grades i n the Waldorf School, a l l compatible with Steiner's philoso- p h y — s e l f / s o c i a l development; development of musical s k i l l s such as 231 l i s t e n i n g , voice, movement; correct breathing; enjoyment; s p i r i t u a l development. The ideas of Steiner which had the greatest impact on teachers were those which addressed the nature of the c h i l d and c h i l d development. On the question of whether or not the Waldorf School approach to music education could be integrated into the pu b l i c school, roughly half the teachers believed i t was possible and half d i d not recommend i t . Those who believed the approach could not be integrated c i t e d the pressure of i n t e l - l e ctualism, lack of understanding of the Steiner philosophy of c h i l d devel- opment, disallowing r e l i g i o u s music i n pu b l i c schools. CHAPTER VII COMPARISON OF THE WALDORF APPROACH TO THE ORFF, KODALY, AND DALCROZE APPROACHES In order to further delineate the Waldorf School approach to music education, some main ideas of Steiner were compared with those of O r f f , Kodaly, and Dalcroze. Comparisons and contrasts were made i n regard to ph i l o s o p h i c a l questions such as the purpose of music education, musical development of the c h i l d , curriculum matters, and the r o l e of teacher. The methods of teaching the musical elements of melody, rhythm, and harmony were also correlated, as well as the a c t i v i t i e s of m u s i c — s i n g i n g , speech, movement, playing instruments, improvisation, integration of media, and reading musical notation. (See Appendix H for Comparison Chart.) A. Primary Purpose of Music Education Steiner, O r f f , Kodaly, and Dalcroze agreed that music education was e s s e n t i a l i n the l i v e s of a l l children. However, each approach emphasizes very d i f f e r e n t aspects of music education. According to Steiner, the human being experiences his/her "own true home," the s p i r i t u a l world, when engaged i n music-making. The purpose of the Waldorf approach to music education i s to lead the c h i l d to a deep appreciation and love of music so he/she may be permitted to experience 232 2 3 3 his/her "own true home," the s p i r i t u a l world, when engaged i n l i s t e n i n g to music or i n the re-creation of music. The O r f f approach, on the other hand, serves p r i m a r i l y to develop the c h i l d ' s c r e a t i v i t y . Arnold Walter stated that the aim of O r f f ' s integrated approach to music education " i s the development of a c h i l d ' s c r e a t i v e 389 f a c u l t y which manifests i t s e l f i n the a b i l i t y to improvise." The Orff approach helps to develop i n d i v i d u a l s who are capable of combining musical 390 elements and media m a creative manner. Kodaly's main goal was to help Hungarian students to achieve musical l i t e r a c y , "to provide s k i l l s i n music reading and wr i t i n g to the e n t i r e 391 population of a country." The purpose of Kodaly's system of music education was not to create virtuoso musicians, but to make music-making 392 a v a i l a b l e to every c i t i z e n of Hungary. . . . the struggle to move from an i l l i t e r a t e c u l t u r e i n t o one with w r i t i n g i s our most urgent task. To reach a written, up- to-date cul t u r e , the outdated musician—half-gypsy and h a l f - i l l i t e r a t e — m u s t be eliminated most urgently. 3 8 v A r n o l d W a l t e r , I n t r o d u c t i o n t o O r f f - S c h u l w e r k . M u s i c f o r C h i l d r e n . Book I . P e n t a t o n i c . ( M a i n z , Germany: B . S c h o t t ' s Sohne, 1955), i i . 3 ' ^ S h e h a n , P a t r i c a , " M a j o r Approaches to M u s i c E d u c a t i o n , " M u s i c E d u c a t o r ' s J o u r n a l ( F e b r u a r y 1986) : 52 . 3 v 1 B e t h L a n d i s and P o l l y C a r d e r , The E c l e c t i c C u r r i c u l u m i n A m e r i c a n M u s i c E d u c a t i o n : C o n t r i b u t i o n s o f D a l c r o z e . K o d a l y . and O r f f (Washington, D . C : M u s i c E d u c a t o r s N a t i o n a l C o n f e r e n c e , 1972) , 4 1 . 3 v 2 R i c h a r d J o h n s t o n , K o d a l y and E d u c a t i o n I I I . Z o l t a n K o d a l y i n N o r t h A m e r i c a ( W i l l o w d a l e , O n t a r i o : The A v o n d a l e P r e s s , 1986), 4 1 . 3 y 3 Z o l t a n K o d a l y , The S e l e c t e d W r i t i n g s of Z o l t a n K o d a l y . t r a n s . L i l i H a l z p y and F r e d M a c n i c o l ( L o n d o n : Boosey and Hawkes M u s i c P u b l i s h e r s , L t d . , 1974) 2 3 4 As a professor of music, Dalcroze was f r u s t r a t e d by the lack of fundamental musical s k i l l s of h i s p u p i l s . Dalcroze sought to introduce an approach which would help ch i l d r e n achieve comprehensive musicianship through solfege, improvisation, and eurythmics (movement). He wished to decompartmentalize the musical experience, to "synthesize and r e l a t e experiences i n composition, performance, a n a l y t i c a l l i s t e n i n g , and 194 theory." J B. Curriculum Steiner d i d not prescribe a r i g i d method for teaching music. He gave " i n d i c a t i o n s , " guidelines based p r i m a r i l y on h i s theory of c h i l d development. Within these guidelines, the teacher was free to use imagination, i n s p i r a t i o n , and i n t u i t i o n to design a program based on the needs of the children's l e v e l of development. The i n i t i a l music curriculum, written by a teacher of the f i r s t Waldorf School, also o f f e r e d only a b r i e f o u t l i n e of educational goals. Orf f granted teachers the freedom to r e a l i z e t h e i r own programs within a framework which allowed both teachers and students freedom to create. According to William K e l l e r i n h i s Orff-Schulwerk: Introduction to Music For Children "The Orff-Schulwerk i s not a method, rather, i t i s an 3 9 5 i n d i c a t o r , a signpost." O r f f , i n describing the nature and purpose of 3 9 ^ l a n d i s and C a r d e r , 9 . 3 ^ W i l h e l m K e l l e r , O r f f - S c h u l w e r k : I n t r o d u c t i o n t o Music f o r C h i l d r e n ( M a i n z : B . S c h o t t Sohne, 1963) , 5 . 235 his approach, compared the development of Schulwerk to a wild flower f l o u r i s h e d because of nourishment and need, not because of a pre-set plan. Those who look f or a method or a ready-made system are rather uncomfortable with the Schulwerk; people with a r t i s t i c temperament and a f l a i r for improvisation are fascinated by i t . They are stimulated by the p o s s i b i l i t i e s inherent i n a work which i s never quite f i n i s h e d , i n fl u x , constantly , , . 396 developing. In contrast to the Steiner and Orff approaches to music education, the Kodaly system i s very structured. There i s a recommended set sequence of 397 rhythmic and melodic concepts to be taught. According to Choksy, the teaching of each concept must be f i r s t prepared, then made conscious, and f i n a l l y r einforced. Thus, extensive r i g i d planning i s an e s s e n t i a l element of the Kodaly Method. 3 9 8 Dalcroze would probably agree with Steiner that the teacher must use imagination and c r e a t i v i t y to t a i l o r the music lesson to the s p e c i f i c needs of a p a r t i c u l a r group of child r e n . Because of t h i s , unlike Kodaly, i t i s 399 rare that lessons are repeated. There i s a general sequence of musical concepts to be developed i n the Dalcroze method; however, one cannot say what constitutes a year's curriculum. A l l students, no matter what age, must t r a v e l through the same s k i l l s and understanding, and ^ ' " C a r l O r f f , " T h e S c h u l w e r k - I t s O r i g i n s and A i m s , " t r a n s . A r n o l d W a l t e r , i n The E c l e c t i c C u r r i c u l u m i n A m e r i c a n M u s i c E d u c a t i o n . Beth L a n d i s and P o l l y C a r d e r , 152. 3 9 ^ E r z s e b e t S z o n y i , K o d a l y P r i n c i p l e s i n P r a c t i c e : An Approach t o M u s i c E d u c a t i o n t h r o u g h the K o d a l y Method ( L o n d o n : B o s s e y and Hawkes Music P u b l i s h e r s , L t d . , 1973), 34 . 3 9 8 C h o k s y , The K o d a l y Method (Englewood C l i f f s , New J e r s e y : P r e n t i c e H a l l , 1988) , 153. 3 9 9 I b i d , 122. 236 these are continually improved and r e f i n e d , even i n the professional musician. Remember what i s 'taught' must be met and explored over and over again i n new contexts and new . f , 400 musical examples. C. Musical Development of the C h i l d Steiner, Orff, and Kodaly expressed t h e i r respective theories on the musical development of c h i l d r e n . A l l three believed that c h i l d r e n r e c a p i t u l a t e , i n some manner, the musical development of humankind. Dalcroze made no comment on t h i s issue. Steiner was very s p e c i f i c about his theory of c h i l d development, ch a r a c t e r i z i n g each period of childhood. Steiner speculated that humankind evolved through stages, and that at each stage, humankind was able to hear d i f f e r e n t i n t e r v a l s . The phases of childhood also correspond to these various stages of the development of humankind. Thus, Steiner believed, c h i l d r e n respond to music d i f f e r e n t l y at various stages of development. Children before the age of nine, according to Steiner, are more receptive to music i n the "Mood of the F i f t h " — m u s i c based on DE GAB DE, the i n t e r v a l of the f i f t h — b e c a u s e t h i s type of music corresponds to the period of musical h i s t o r y before the introduction of the t h i r d . From t h i s simple scale, the c h i l d progresses to the d i a t o n i c , then into the modes, and f i n a l l y into more complex melodic and harmonic structures. 4 0 0 V i r g i n i a Hoge Head, "More Than Mere Movement: D a l c r o z e E u r h y t h m i e s , " M u s i c E d u c a t o r s J o u r n a l ( F e b r u a r y 8 6 ) , 46 . 237 Walter stated that much of O r f f ' s work with c h i l d r e n i s based on a d i f f e r e n t view of r e c a p i t u l a t i o n . . . . we encounter the fundamental law of biogenesis that the i n d i v i d u a l r e c a p i t u l a t e s the development of the species, both before and a f t e r b i r t h . This i s the cornerstone on which Orf f ' s Schulwerk i s being based. [Emphasis Walter's] If the c h i l d has an innate hereditary capacity to r e c a p i t u l a t e the development of language and i f also has an innate capacity to r e c a p i t u l a t e the development of music—there e x i s t s , then a natural way of a s s i m i l a t i n g m u s i c . 4 0 1 Walter explained that, according to Orff, the c h i l d r e l a t e s f i r s t to speech and movement. Rhythm i s the f i r s t element of music with which the c h i l d i s 402 concerned, followed by melody, then harmony. In contrast, some int e r p r e t e r s of Steiner's ideas claim that c h i l d r e n r e l a t e most strongly to melody (age 0-9), then harmony (age 9-14), then rhythm. Kodaly also assumed that the c h i l d r e c a p i t u l a t e s , i n some way, the musical development of humankind. He did not seem to emphasize t h i s theory as much as Steiner and O r f f . Landis and Carder stated: Like Orff, Kodaly believed that the i n d i v i d u a l c h i l d reenacts the musical development of his race, from p r i m i t i v e musical responses to a highly developed l e v e l of m u s i c i a n s h i p . 4 0 3 ^ A r n o l d Walter, "The Orff Schulwerk in American Education," in Orff Re-Echoes, ed. Isabel McNeil l Carley (American Orff-Schulwerk Associat ion, 1977), 22. 4 0 2 I b i d . ^ L a n d i s and Carder, 42. 238 Steiner, Kodaly, and Orff believed that e a r l y musical experiences were important to the c h i l d . Kodaly and Steiner shared the conviction that c h i l d r e n at each age l e v e l experience music phenomena i n markedly d i f f e r e n t ways, and linked the curriculum and musical content to the development of the c h i l d . According to Steiner, the c h i l d from 0-7 i s a "sense organ." At t h i s age, according to Steiner, musical impressions, as a l l other sensory impression, have great impact on the c h i l d . Steiner, however, belie v e d that to i n t e l l e c t u a l i z e the musical experience, to teach the reading and w r i t i n g of music, too early, was harmful to the c h i l d . Kodaly placed great emphasis on early music education. In f a c t , Kodaly argued that optimally, music education should begin "nine months before the 404 b i r t h of the mother." The c r i t i c a l age f o r learning, Kodaly believed, was from age three to seven. He f e l t what was not experienced at t h i s 405 stage could never be made up at a l a t e r stage. Or f f expected that h i s "Schulwerk" be taught i n early c h i l d h o o d . 4 0 ^ Steiner contended that the c h i l d between 7-14 i s i n the " f e e l i n g " age of childhood. Steiner believed the c h i l d from 7-14 i s "an a r t i s t " and i s best educated through the a r t s . The c h i l d i s able at t h i s stage to create his/her own music. Kodaly agreed that the period between s i x and sixteen was the "most susceptible period." If a c h i l d was not exposed to the 4 0 4 J o h n s t o n , 68. 4 0 5 K o d a l y , 129. 4 0 6 L a n d i s and Carder, 72. 239 " l i f e - g i v i n g stream of music " during t h i s time, music would not be important to him/her i n the f u t u r e . 4 0 7 Dalcroze d i d not have a s p e c i f i c theory of c h i l d development. His exercises and techniques, modified to s u i t the teaching s i t u a t i o n , are employed at every grade l e v e l from elementary to high s c h o o l . 4 0 8 D. The Teaching of Melody According to Steiner, melody i s the most important element of music for the young c h i l d . Lindenberg designated the period between b i r t h and age 9 as the "melodic age," for the c h i l d . Steiner recommended that the chi l d r e n i n Grade One begin with music within the compass of the f i f t h which he termed "Mood of the F i f t h . " Steiner indicated that the tones DE GAB DE be used with young c h i l d r e n . Many Waldorf music teachers base t h e i r melodies around tone "A" or other notes i n the t o n i c . Descending melodies are also frequently used when teaching younger c h i l d r e n . Some music written f o r Waldorf Schools conclude with melismatic phrases. Music i n the "Mood of the F i f t h " was thought to correspond with the development of the c h i l d as he/she r e c a p i t u l a t e s the music h i s t o r y of humankind. 4 0 7 K o d a l y , 120. 4 0 8 M e a d , 45 . 240 Likewise, Landis and Carder linked O r f f ' s use of the pentatonic scale with the theory of r e c a p i t u l a t i o n . In keeping with h i s theory that the course of music h i s t o r y i s r e l i v e d i n the development of each i n d i v i d u a l , he considered the pentatonic mode appropriate to the mental development of the young c h i l d . 4 0 9 The Kodaly method also used the pentatonic scale extensively. The so-mi chant, and the perfect fourth, according to Choksy, appear to be a 410 u n i v e r s a l phenomenon amongst the children of the world. The pentaton i s one of the basic scales of f o l k music i n Hungary and i n most of the world, although the pentaton of Hungarian music tends to be minor i n character, or la-centered, while the usual American pentatonic song i s major, or do- centered. 4 1 1 Followers of the Kodaly and Waldorf approach believe that descending melodies are best for young ch i l d r e n . Choksy i n her book on the Kodaly Method stated that descending melodies were easier f or c h i l d r e n to sing 412 accurately. Steiner d i d not require the use of f o l k songs with the primary grades. Many of the melodies of Waldorf School music teachers are newly composed and are r e l a t e d to classroom topics, nature, seasons, and f e s t i v a l s . Some 4 0 9 L a n d i s and C a r d e r , 82 . 4 1 0 C h o k s y , 13. * " l b i d . 4 1 2 I b i d . favor a breaking away from old forms and t r a d i t i o n s i n order to create melodies which they believe are more appropriate to the c h i l d ' s l e v e l of development. On the other hand, Kodaly strongly advocated the use of f o l k songs. Kodaly believed that, on the whole, Hungarian f o l k songs should be the mainstay of the Kodaly song r e p e r t o i r e . The more of them [fol k songs] we implant i n t o young souls, the more c l o s e l y we l i n k them to the nation. No masterpiece can replace t r a d i t i o n s . Far le s s can cheap imitations or d i s t o r t i n g t r a n s c r i p t i o n s . 4 1 3 The music education of Hungarian c h i l d r e n must be founded on 414 Hungarian music. To understand other people we must f i r s t understand ourselves. Nothing i s better for that than our own f o l k songs. And to know other people, t h e i r f o l k songs o f f e r the best means as w e l l . 4 1 5 O r f f also chose material with a n a t i o n a l i s t i c f l a v o r , and advocated that 416 teachers teach music from t h e i r own culture. There i s no set sequence given by Steiner f or teaching melodic concepts or the names of the notes. This i s l e f t to the i n d i v i d u a l teacher. The 4 1 3 K o d a l y , 145. 4 1 4 I b i d , 146. 4 1 5 J o h n s t o n , 62 . 4 ^ L a n d i s and C a r d e r , 74. 242 Curwen hand signs are generally not taught i n Waldorf Schools. However, body and arm gestures for each p i t c h of the C scale are introduced i n Grade Three i n eurythmy c l a s s . In Waldorf Schools, these gestures are only be taught by tr a i n e d eurythraists. Because of t h i s , there i s no carry-over i n t o the music classroom. In the Kodaly system, there i s a r i g i d method for teaching melodic concepts. The melodic i n t e r v a l s are introduced s e q u e n t i a l l y — s o , mi, l a , do, re, l a 1 # do 1, so^, fa, t e, fe, t a , se. The learning of the pentatonic 417 scale i s followed by major and then minor scales. The Orff approach does not prescribe a method or sequence for teaching melodic concepts. 418 Many O r f f teachers borrow Curwen hand signs used i n the Kodaly method. In the Dalcroze approach, solfege i s one of the three important elements of music education. Unlike Kodaly and Orff, Dalcroze employed the f i x e d "do." The student i s encouraged to f i x the tone "C" into tonal memory, to develop absolute p i t c h . Dalcroze believed that i n s t i n c t should precede the i n t e l l e c t . Thus solfege i s taught through l i s t e n i n g , through singing, and 419 through hand signs. ^ ' S z o n y i , 34 . 4 ^ L o i s Choksy et a l , T e a c h i n g M u s i c i n the Twent ie th C e n t u r y (Englewood C l i f f s , New J e r s e y : P r e n t i c e H a l l , 1986), 102. 4 ^ L a n d i s and C a r d e r , 23 . 243 E. Teaching of Rhythm In Waldorf music education, the beat i s not emphasized u n t i l a f t e r the age of nine. Reading of rhythms i n Waldorf Schools i s usually deferred u n t i l Grade Three or Four. On the other hand, the Kodaly, Orff, and Dalcroze approaches emphasize beat and rhythm from the beginning of musical t r a i n i n g . Rhythmic development i s the most important aspect of the Orff and Dalcroze approaches. Orff found i n the Eurhythmies of Jaques-Dalcroze more than one p r i n c i p l e he was able to share. Most important of these i n i t s e f f e c t on O r f f ' s work was the idea that rhythm i s the strongest of the elements of music; that the most p r i m i t i v e and most natural musical response of the human personality are rhythmic i n nature; and that the l o g i c a l s t a r t i n g point f or education i n music i s rhythm. . . . Since rhythm i s the shared element i n speech, movement, and music, i t i s the l o g i c a l s t a r t i n g point i n "Schulwerk." 4 2 0 In the Kodaly system, the children are taught rhythmic concepts at a very e a r l y age. In Hungary, the children learn to step quarter, eighth, and h a l f notes i n nursery school. By the time the c h i l d enters preschool, 421 he/she has acquired a considerable repertoire of rhythmic patterns. In the c h i l d ' s grade school years, a recommended sequence of rhythmic elements 422 i s taught. 4 2 0 I b i d , 72. 4 2 1 S z o n y i , 34 . 4 2 2 I b i d , 28. 244 The Dalcroze approach teaches rhythmic p r o f i c i e n c y through exercises i n movement which demand a high degree of muscular control and mental a l e r t n e s s . Children are expected, for example, to walk the beat and clap the rhythm, and to clap the beat and walk the rhythm. To teach note values, the ch i l d r e n march to quarter notes, run to eighth notes and t r i p l e t s played by the teacher. Whole notes and h a l f notes are demonstrated by a step-dip and a step followed by three leg movements. Eventually, c h i l d r e n learn what Dalcroze termed "independence of c o n t r o l " — the a b i l i t y to express d i f f e r e n t rhythms at the same time with d i f f e r e n t body pa r t s . The r i g h t hand may beat 3/4 while the l e f t hand beats 4/4. The feet may walk i n 12/8 meter. F. The Teaching of Harmony The teaching of harmony i s postponed i n the Waldorf School u n t i l a f t e r age nine. Even the teacher's chordal accompaniment of the gui t a r and piano for the c h i l d ' s singing i s not encouraged. Some Waldorf educators consider only l y r e counterpoint accompaniment to be acceptable. Canons are genera l l y not introduced to chil d r e n i n Waldorf Schools u n t i l Grade Three. Some teachers of the Kodaly method introduce singing i n two parts even i n the f i r s t grade. It i s believed that part-singing helps the c h i l d r e n to 424 sing i n tune. According to Choksy, the teaching of simple descants, 4 2 \ a n d i s and C a r d e r , 22. 4 2 4 J o h n s t o n , 85 . 245 425 melodic o s t i n a t i , and canons does not begin u n t i l Grade Two. Choksy does not introduce harmony u n t i l the c h i l d r e n are very f a m i l i a r with do- 426 pentatonic and la-pentatonic scales. When introduced to do-mi-so and 427 la^-do-mi, the c h i l d r e n begin to learn about t r i a d i c harmony. In the Or f f approach, harmony i s created by the c h i l d r e n by simple l e v e l and broken bordun patterns played on the Or f f instruments as e a r l y as Grade 428 One. In Jane Frazee's Orff curriculum, vocal o s t i n a t i and melodic 429 canons are introduced i n Grade Two. In Dalcroze pedagogy, there seems to be no set time f o r introducing harmony. In the study of harmony, Dalcroze led h i s students to sing arpeggiated chords from bass to soprano. A simple chord sequence such as tonic-dominant-tonic could be sung i n that way, and then more complex chord sequences could be i n t r o d u c e d . 4 3 0 4 2 5 C h o k s y , The K o d a l y Method. 84 . 4 2 ^ C h o k s y e t a l , T e a c h i n g M u s i c i n the Twent ie th C e n t u r y . 86 . 4 2 7 S z o n y i , 53 . 4 2 8 J a n e F r a z e e , D i s c o v e r i n g O r f f (New Y o r k : S c h o t t M u s i c C o r p o r a t i o n , 1987) , 107. 4 2 9 I b i d , 109. 4 3Plandis and C a r d e r , . 2 6 . 246 G. Singing Steiner, Kodaly, and Orff emphasized the a c t i v i t y of singing i n t h e i r respective approaches to music education. Steiner believed that c h i l d r e n should sing for the joy of singing i n the younger grades. Through the a c t i v i t y of singing, teachers o f f e r the c h i l d r e n " l i t t l e experiences of ecstasy." Singing was not to be used i n the younger grades to teach theory, nor were " a r t i f i c i a l methods" which make the c h i l d r e n aware of t h e i r breathing to be employed. Singing f o r the young c h i l d , Steiner believed, had a therapeutic e f f e c t on the c h i l d , helping the c h i l d to f e e l i n harmony with the world and with himself. The love of singing and of melody, to Steiner, was the s t a r t i n g point of a c h i l d ' s music education. Singing motivated the c h i l d r e n to move to music and to play instruments as extensions to themselves. Singing i n the Kodaly method i s the medium i n which musical concepts, are introduced. In Kodaly's view, the voice i s "the instrument which i s most immediately a v a i l a b l e to man and i s the best means of approaching and 431 appreciating music." O r f f believed that singing develops from speech, from chanting and c a l l - r e - 432 sponse patterns. Even though Orff instruments are a prominent feature of the O r f f approach, they are not meant to overshadow the most important instrument—the human voice. In Orff-Schulwerk, according to Jos Wuytack, 431Szonyi, 32. 432Landis and Carder, 81. 247 the voice i s the " f i r s t instrument to be trained, developed, and used as a medium of musical e x p r e s s i o n . " 4 3 3 Wuytack seemed to agree with Steiner that singing i s connected to the s p i r i t u a l . When one sings, both the body and soul are joined and the s p i r i t touches the body. To sing i s to transform a breath stream i n t o sound and therefore singing i s linked to the most elemental l i f e - f u n c t i o n , breathing. The voice i s the noblest and most precious organ. Because by singing man r a i s e s h i s 434 voice, and thus r i s e s above himself. Dalcroze d i d not seem to stress singing i n his approach. Movement was the primary mode of expression and of teaching concepts. H. Movement Steiner maintained that the very small c h i l d , around the age of three, wants to dance, and encouraged parents to c u l t i v a t e t h i s tendency before the change of teeth. Movement a c t i v i t i e s and singing games and dances are incorporated as part of the music lesson. Choroi music educators t r y to integrate the experiences of singing, movement, and instrumental playing. Steiner created a movement form c a l l e d eurythmy described as v i s i b l e speech and v i s i b l e movement. In Waldorf Schools, eurythmy i s taught as a separate subject by a tr a i n e d eurythmist. ' • " J o s Wuytack, " A p o l o g i a f o r O r f f - S c h u l w e r k , " i n O r f f R e - E c h o e s , e d . by I s a b e l M c N e i l l C a r l e y ( A m e r i c a n O r f f - S c h u l w e r k A s s o c i a t i o n , 1987), 59 . « * I b i d . 248 Of the four educators, Kodaly probably placed the least emphasis on movement as a means of learning music. Choksy does advocate the use of singing games and dances. Kodaly endorsed MaqyaGyermekjatck qyuitemenv (A C o l l e c t i o n of Hungarian Children's Games) which united song and 435 movement. Although Orff derived many of his movement ideas from Dalcroze Eurhythmies, movement i s not the main emphasis of the Orff-Schulwerk. In O r f f ' s approach, "elemental" movement—movement which i s natural and untrained, such as jumping, walking, running, s k i p p i n g — i s incorporated i n t o the music lessons. Body percussion such as stamping,, "patschen," clapping, and snapping are employed to help children hear and learn rhythms, to give c h i l d r e n p r a c t i c e i n performing movement sequences which are l a t e r t r a n s f e r r e d to the instruments, or to provide rhythmic accompaniment to a poem or song. Children are often asked to create t h e i r own movement sequences, i n d i v i d u a l l y , i n partners, or i n groups, to in t e r p r e t the form of a piece of music. Dalcroze believed that "the source of musical rhythm i s the natural 437 locomotor rhythms of the human body." Dalcroze recognized the connection between bodily movement and musical response, and employed movement as the primary means of learning musical concepts. Through movement, Dalcroze linked l i s t e n i n g , theory, solfege, and composition. The 4 3 5 K o d a l y , 133. 4 3 6 L a n d i s and C a r d e r , 84 . 4 3 7 I b i d , 7. 249 s u b t l e t i e s of dynamics and phrasing were also addressed through movement. 4 3 8 I. Playing of Instruments Steiner advocated the use of instruments early i n the c h i l d ' s music education. Steiner favored instruments such as the recorder or v i o l i n which he believed would help the chi l d r e n with t h e i r breathing and l i s t e n i n g s k i l l s . The Choroi movement invented gentle-sounding instruments such as the Choroi f l u t e and l y r e s . O r f f ' s instrumentarium consists of xylophones, metallophones, glockenspiels and an assortment of non-pitched percussion instruments. Jane Frazee stated that the instruments give "aural and v i s u a l reinforcement of p i t c h 439 r e l a t i o n s h i p s . " Recorders are often added to the ensemble. Some teachers incorporate dulcimers, guitars, piano, c e l l i , and bowed p s a l t r y to 440 complement the barred instruments. In Dalcroze Eurhythmies, the human body i s considered the f i r s t instrument 441 to be t r a i n e d . Dalcroze r e a l i z e d that "The students themselves were the instruments, . . . not the piano, v i o l i n , f l u t e , voice, or drum, but the 4 3 8 I b i d , 9 . 4 3 9 F r a z e e , 25 . 4 4 0 I b i d . 4 4 1 C h o k s y e t a l , 3 1 . 250 students themselves." 4 4 2 The piano i s the instrument used for accompanying 443 . . 444 movement and for the children's improvisations. Kodaly maintained that other voices, rather than instruments, were the best accompaniment for s i n g i n g . 4 4 5 However, Kodaly advised that the xylophone with removeable bars be used to teach the melodic i n t e r v a l s as they are taught i n sequence. The recorder may also be taught to r e i n f o r c e absolute 446 p i t c h names. Steiner, O r f f , and Kodaly were adamantly opposed to the use of the piano i n the classroom. Kodaly believed that the piano was not a help, but a hindrance i n learning to sing i n tune. "A tempered piano, even i f i t i s tuned d a i l y (though i t i s p r a c t i c a l l y always out of tune), cannot lead to 447 co r r e c t singing." Orff stated that "The use of the piano (as against the o l d keyboard instruments such as harpsichord, clavichord, or spinet) i s to be deplored as i t bars the way towards the tonal and s t y l i s t i c 448 o r i g i n a l i t y of t h i s kind of music-making." 4 4 2 I b i d , , 30 . 4 4 3 L a n d i s and C a r d e r , 11-12. 4 4 4 I b i d , 26 . 4 4 5 i b i d , 50 . 4 4 6 I b i d , 6 0 . 4 4 7 K o d a l y , 150-151. 4 4 8 C a r l O r f f , I n t r o d u c t i o n t o M u s i c f o r C h i l d r e n . P e n t a t o n i c I . by C a r l O r f f and G u n i l d Keetman ( L o n d o n : S c h o t t and C o . , L t d . , 1950), i i . Kodaly d i d not endorse the learning of the piano u n t i l the students had ac- quired a good vocal foundation and were able to hear the music on the p a g e . 4 4 9 "Literacy i s taken to the instrument rather than acquired on i t . " 4 5 0 Szonyi stated that Kodaly recommended that c h i l d r e n learn to play a s t r i n g 451 or a wind instrument. Steiner also advocated that the c h i l d r e n learn to play the v i o l i n and/or recorder, beginning i n Grade One. A l l Waldorf Schools contacted i n the study begin i n s t r u c t i o n i n the pentatonic f l u t e or recorder i n Grade One. S t r i n g programs commence i n most Waldorf Schools i n Grade Three or Four. Unlike the Kodaly method, the Waldorf School begins i n s t r u c t i o n on these instruments before the students are introduced to any form of musical notation. Dalcroze believed that the study of a musical instrument should take place 452 only a f t e r considerable ear t r a i n i n g and movement experience. He stated, " I t i s v e r i t a b l e nonsense to have the c h i l d begin the study of instrumental music before he has manifested, e i t h e r n a t u r a l l y or by 453 t r a i n i n g , some knowledge of rhythm and tone." 4 4 9 L a n d i s and C a r d e r , 60 . 4 5 0 C h o k s y et a l , 339. 4 5 1 S z o n y i , 63 . 4 ^ 2 L a n d i s and C a r d e r , 10. 4 ^ 3 E m i l e J a q u e s - D a l c r o z e , " T e a c h i n g Music Through F e e l i n g , " E t u d e 39 ( June 1921) 368; q u o t e d i n L a n d i s and C a r d e r , 10. 252 J. Improvisation In h i s writings and lectures, Steiner did not mention improvisation. However, the Choroi movement embraced improvisation as an i n t e g r a l part of i t s approach. Improvisation games emphasize l i s t e n i n g , motor s k i l l s , movement with instruments, and s o c i a l awareness. Improvisation through the media of speech, movement, voice, and instruments i s c e n t r a l to O r f f ' s philosophy. Improvisation was not the main focus of Kodaly's work. Kodaly believed that i n order to improvise, the students needed a knowledge of musical v o c a b u l a r y . 4 5 4 Improvisation i s one of the three cornerstones of the Dalcroze approach. In short, the aim of Dalcroze improvisation i s "to produce s k i l l f u l ways of using movement materials (rhythm) and sound materials (pitch, scale, harmony) i n imaginative, 455 spontaneous, and personally expressive combinations to create music." Students use a l l sorts of media i n improvisation—"movement, speech, story, 456 song, percussion, s t r i n g s , winds, piano, or a l l of these combined." The impetus f o r improvisation may come from a story, a poem, movement, or a v i s u a l image. 4 5 7 The Dalcroze approach recognizes the i n d i v i d u a l i t y and c r e a t i v i t y of the students by encouraging the expression of f e e l i n g s 458 through improvisation, instead of the mere im i t a t i o n of musical c l i c h e s . 4 5 4 C h o k s y et a t , 337. 4 5 5 I b i d , 6 1 . 4 5 6 I b l d . 4 5 7 I b i d , 62 . 4 5 8 I b i d , 65 . 253 K. Integration of Media Steiner stated that the children should sing what they play; that a l l instrumental work should a r i s e from song i n the e a r l y grades. Those of Steiner's successors who i n i t i a t e d Choroi movement have s t r i v e n to integrate the playing, singing, and moving to music through the invention of new hand-held instruments. Because of the idea of integration of media, the Choroi approach i s , i n some way, s i m i l a r to the Orff approach. However, O r f f ' s "elemental music" was a union, not only of the elements of music but of theatre, speech, dance, and music. These d i s c i p l i n e s were often combined within one work of a r t . Dancers were expected to play instruments and instrumentalists were 4 5 9 expected to dance. The synergy of a c t i v i t i e s , media, and materials create a new whole. The r e a l goal of the Schulwerk i s attained i n one's enjoyment of the f r u i t f u l combination of personal and interpersonal resources. Creating, reproducing, and l i s t e n i n g to music are not separate and exclusive areas of work, but are presented as one e n t i t y i n the elementary musical experience of a l l . . . \ 460 p a r t i e i p a n t s. The Steiner approach, i n p r a c t i c e , does not go as far as O r f f . Children i n Waldorf Schools usually learn speech from the c l a s s teacher, music from the music and/or cl a s s teacher, and eurythmy (movement) from the eurythmy 4 5 9 C h o k s y e t a l , 94 . 4 6 0 K e l t e r , 5 . 254 teacher. Each c l a s s , however, performs a play every year i n which the various d i s c i p l i n e s are sometimes combined i n one presentation. Dalcroze believed that the elements of music should not be taught i n a fragmented manner. The three basic musical s t u d i e s — i m p r o v i s a t i o n , solfege, and Eurhythmies—were not to be taught i n i s o l a t i o n . When solfege and improvisation are integrated with eurhythmies, students have experienced the method as Dalcroze intended. They have studied the music aur a l l y , o r a l l y , and p h y s i c a l l y and then expressed i t c r e a t i v e l y on t h e i r own. 1 Choksy claimed that the Kodaly Method sought "a balance between [among] 462 singing, clapping, playing, thinking, writing, and creating." L. Importance of "Live" Music Steiner and his predecessors discouraged the use of e l e c t r o n i c media i n the elementary music classes. The Orff, Kodaly, and Dalcroze programs, too, are based an active, rather than a passive approach, to music teaching. However, the Orff and Kodaly approaches, do i n some cases introduce music l i s t e n i n g v i a recordings i n the t h i r d grade. 4 6 1 M e a d , 44. 4 6 2 C h o k s y , 157. 255 463 Choksy, i n The Kodaly Method, recommends a l i s t of songs i n Grades One and Grade Two 4 6 4. For Grade Three, Choksy suggests a l i s t of songs such as "Simple G i f t s " matched to the "related composition," Appalachian Spring by Aaron C o p l a n d . 4 6 5 Jane Frazee i n her book, Discovering Orff, advises that c h i l d r e n l i s t e n to piano pieces played by the teacher, such as Minuet i n G and Gavotte from French Suite No. 5 by Bach i n Grade One, 4 6 6 and Menuet from Piano Sonata No. 10 i n Grade Two. 4 6 7 Grade Three chi l d r e n l i s t e n to a recording of a AC. Q rondo piece, La V i l l a g e o i s e by Rameau. The Dalcroze approach to l i s t e n i n g involves using the ear and the body. The c h i l d moves to music provided by the teacher. From preschool through Grade Two, the material consists of "singing games, finger play, percussion play, and s t o r i e s with a musical accompaniment that invoke rhythmic mime a c t i v i t i e s . " 4 6 9 No mention was made of the use of recordings i n Grade T h r e e . 4 7 0 4 6 3 I b i d , 4 7 . 4 6 4 I b i d , 6 5 . 4 6 5 I b i d , 8 9 . 4 6 6 F r a z e e , 8 0 . 4 6 7 I b i d , 116. 4 6 8 I b i d , 149. 4 6 9 C h o k s y et a l , 154. 4 7 0 C h o k s y , 198-215. 2 5 6 M. Role of Teacher Some Waldorf Schools do employ a music s p e c i a l i s t . However, Waldorf elementary classroom teachers, e s p e c i a l l y those teachers of Grades One, Two, and Three, are expected to sing and play recorders with t h e i r classes, usually as part of the opening morning exercises. The teacher acts, therefore, as a p o s i t i v e r o l e model, a "natural authority," but also as an a r t i s t . The students learn, through example and imitation, that making music i s a fundamental human a c t i v i t y . Because the Waldorf School approach i s h o l i s t i c , the classroom teacher en- deavors to integrate music and other a r t i s t i c a c t i v i t i e s with the main lesson t o p i c studied. The class teachers, music s p e c i a l i s t ( s ) i f employed, and eurythmy teacher, often plan cooperatively i n order that lessons and concepts may r e l a t e to a common theme. The O r f f , Kodaly, and Dalcroze approaches stress the importance of music s p e c i a l i s t s to teach music i n the primary grades. While teachers of the Waldorf School approach are expected to study Steiner's theories of c h i l d development and to work on t h e i r own s p i r i t u a l development, the emphasis with O r f f , Kodaly, and Dalcroze i s the study of pedagogical techniques. Many colleges and u n i v e r s i t i e s o f f e r three summer courses i n which a teacher may earn Kodaly or Orff c e r t i f i c a t i o n . New York City's Dalcroze School of Music t r a i n s teachers i n Eurythmics. Other i n s t i t u t i o n s o f f e r summer courses i n Dalcroze's techniques. The Or f f teacher serves as a cat a l y s t for the children's c r e a t i v i t y through providing plenty of opportunities for improvisation i n the media of speech, 2 5 7 movement, song, and instruments commensurate with his/her own degree of a b i l i t y . 4 7 1 The Kodaly method stresses the systematic sequential teaching of concepts. In order f o r learning to take place, the Kodaly teacher insures that t h i s sequence i s followed c a r e f u l l y — t h a t every concept i s prepared, made conscious, and reinforced. The Kodaly teacher functions as a transmitter of musical s k i l l s and knowledge. The Dalcroze teacher speaks l i t t l e , but teaches much. In the lesson, the Dalcroze teacher, improvising at the piano, gives commands to which the student i s expected to respond qui c k l y and accurately. Dalcroze wished to empower the student to make 472 his/her own a r t i s t i c decisions. N. Reading Musical Notation Steiner d i d not advocate the symbolization of language or music u n t i l a f t e r the "ninth year change." For Steiner, i t was important that musical sounds be experienced f i r s t , then symbolized. This preparation period for learning musical notation i n the Waldorf School p a r a l l e l s the preparation for learning reading and wr i t i n g language—speech, then writing, and reading. In Steiner's view, an extended period of ear t r a i n i n g and of f i n e and gross motor development u n t i l age nine i s necessary before the abstract symbols of music are introduced. Steiner students sing often and play t h e i r instruments from memory u n t i l Grade Three, when musical notation i s L a n d i s and C a r d e r , 8 6 - 8 7 . ! C h o k s y , 118. 258 introduced. The c h i l d r e n make "music books" i n which they p r a c t i c e writing the C scale and rhythms. In the Dalcroze approach, the purpose of musical notation i s to communicate 473 and store musical ideas, but not the essence of music i t s e l f . A prolonged period of musical experience, usually two or three years of Eurhythmies, i s also considered necessary before the introduction of 474 musical notation. Mead stated: Students must develop a storehouse of aural and kinesthetic images that can be translated into symbols and, upon r e c a l l , be performed at w i l l . This i s the key to music r e a d i n g . 4 7 5 Many Waldorf, Kodaly, and Dalcroze educators introduce musical notation by some form of p i c t o r i a l representation. Students of the Dalcroze approach 476 represent long notes with dashes and short notes with dots. Many Waldorf School teachers use s t o r i e s and pictures to bridge the gap to abstract notation. P i c t o r i a l representation i s used by Kodaly teachers as w e l l , e s p e c i a l l y to teach rhythmic notation. Helga Szabo, i n the Kodaly Concept of Music Education, reported that i n an e a r l y textbook by Kodaly, p i c t u r e s of large boots represented quarter notes and small boots 477 represented eighth notes. 4 7 3 L a n d i s and C a r d e r , 24. 4 7 4 C h o k s y et a l , 338. 4 7 5 M e a d , 43 . 4 7 6 L a n d i s and C a r d e r , 24. 4 7 7 I b i d , 58. 259 Or f f and Kodaly believed i n teaching the c h i l d r e n from the very beginning to learn to read and write music. Orff f e l t that l i t t l e time should be wasted before musical notation was introduced: In order to achieve freedom i n performance, the c h i l d r e n must play from memory. The teacher should nevertheless i n s t r u c t them i n musical notation r i g h t from the beginning, s t a r t i n g with the speech exercises where only rhythmic notation i s necessary. At f i r s t , musical notation should p r i m a r i l y be used to write down o r i g i n a l inventions of melody and r hythm. 4 7 8 Children are introduced to musical notation i n the Kodaly Method at age 479 s i x , but only a f t e r the c h i l d r e n have gained r e p e r t o i r e of rhythmic and melodic p a t t e r n s . 4 8 0 Unlike Kodaly, Orff did not i n i t i a t e a system of teaching musical notation. Many of the p u p i l s who were i n O r f f ' s o r i g i n a l classes were engaged i n p r i - vate lessons. Therefore, the teaching of music l i t e r a c y was not a 481 necessity. However, Orff d i d incorporate the teaching of musical notation i n his approach, but l i k e Dalcroze, i t was regarded as a way of s t o r i n g i d e a s — i n O r f f ' s case, ideas of the children's improvisations. 4 7 8 C a r l O r f f i n i n t r o d u c t i o n t o M u s i c f o r C h i l d r e n . P e n t a t o n i c I . i i . A 7 9 C h o k s y et a l , 340 . 4 8 0 L a n d i s and C a r d e r , 46 . 4 8 1 C h o k s y et a l , 340 . o 260 Integration of Subject Matter Steiner strongly believed that musical a c t i v i t i e s , as well as other a r t i s t i c a c t i v i t i e s , should be related to other subjects i n the curriculum so that the c h i l d could experience l i f e as a unity, as a whole. This process i s f a c i l i t a t e d by the cooperative planning with fellow teachers. Although O r f f , Kodaly, and Dalcroze might agree with Steiner, none emphasized the in t e g r a t i o n of academic subject matter into the lessons, or the use of music, and other arts , to enhance the academics. P. Conclusions In t h i s century, Steiner, Orff, Kodaly, and Dalcroze developed d i s t i n c t approaches to music education. Through comparing the ideas of these educators, several s i m i l a r i t i e s and contrasts i n key areas of music teaching have been noted. In several areas, Steiner's approach i s s i m i l a r to at l e a s t one other approach. Steiner believed i n the importance of singing, movement, speech, a sequential curriculum, the freedom and c r e a t i v i t y of the i n d i v i d u a l teacher, and " l i v e " music. Steiner, l i k e Kodaly and O r f f , d i d not recommend the use of the piano. The "Choroi" movement advocated, as Orff, improvisation and the unity of media. However, the Waldorf approach appears to be s t r i k i n g l y d i f f e r e n t from other approaches i n many ways. Difference i n philosophy can be noted i n the main purpose of music education; the musical development of the c h i l d ; the teaching of melody, rhythm and beat, harmony, and musical notation; 261 i n t e g r a t i o n of music into subject matter; song r e p e r t o i r e ; instrumentation; r o l e of the teacher; and teacher t r a i n i n g . Steiner would most probably endorse many of the ideas of O r f f , Kodaly, and Dalcroze. A l l educators seemed to agree that singing and movement were absolutely e s s e n t i a l to the c h i l d ' s musical experience and musical development. Orf f and Steiner believed that speech i s very important to the c h i l d . Unlike the Orff approach, speech i n Waldorf Schools i s treated as a separate d i s c i p l i n e . Orff, Steiner, and Dalcroze gave teachers a great deal of freedom i n the s e l e c t i o n and presentation of musical m a t e r i a l . A l l approaches appear to favour " l i v e " music. However, Waldorf School teachers are adamantly opposed to any recorded music i n the primary grades. Kodaly and Orff would most l i k e l y agree with Steiner's statement that the use of the piano should be minimal i n the lower grades. The "Choroi" movement, l i k e the Orff approach, emphasizes improvisation. "Choroi" also stresses unity of movement, song, and instrumental work. Or f f would have added speech to t h i s l i s t . One aspect which sets Steiner's approach apart from the others i s the emphasis upon the presumed s p i r i t u a l nature of the c h i l d and of music. The primary purpose of music education i n a Waldorf School i s to enable the c h i l d to discover his/her own inner world or "own true home" through music- making. Every facet of music teaching within the Waldorf School i s governed by t h i s objective. Steiner and O r f f , and to a lesser degree, Kodaly, applied the theory of r e c a p i t u l a t i o n set out by Ernst Haeckel i n 1899 to explain and j u s t i f y the 2 6 2 musical development of the c h i l d . Steiner believed that humankind experienced sevenths and then f i f t h s i n the past, and now i s able to hear t h i r d s and seconds. Steiner thought the c h i l d should, i n i t s musical development, follow these stages. The theory of biogenesis i s a l s o , i n Arnold Walter's (1977) words, the "cornerstone of O r f f ' s Schulwerk." However, O r f f ' s idea of r e c a p i t u l a t i o n d i f f e r s g r eatly from Steiner's point of view. O r f f believed that the c h i l d i n his/her development r e l a t e s f i r s t to speech and movement, to the simple and then the complex. Steiner, i n contrast to Orff, Kodaly, and Dalcroze, set f o r t h a complex philosophy of c h i l d development on which h i s ideas on education and music education are based. Steiner's approach was b a s i c a l l y a developmental approach. He argued that music should be taught i n d i f f e r e n t ways to d i f f e r e n t age groups. Steiner and Kodaly believed i n " c r i t i c a l learning periods" i n c h i l d development. They both claimed that i f music was a neglected subject i n a c e r t a i n periods i n a c h i l d ' s l i f e , the los s could not be compensated f o r i n l a t e r years. Steiner diverged from the mainstream i n h i s teaching of melody, beat/rhythm, and harmony. Even though Steiner d i d advocate the use of pentatonic music, he s p e c i f i e d that only DE GAB DE be used. Music i n the "Mood of the F i f t h , " defined by Steiner's successors as free-flowing music which i s centered around "A," i s recommended for the young c h i l d . Contrary to the O r f f , Kodaly, and Dalcroze approaches, a f e e l i n g for the t o n i c i s not introduced u n t i l Grade Three i n Waldorf Schools. Steiner's ideas on beat/rhythm contrast sharply with those of Kodaly, O r f f , and Dalcroze. The beat i n Waldorf Schools i s de-emphasized, e s p e c i a l l y i n Grades One and Two. 263 Steiner advised that harmony, even i n the form of rounds sung or played by the c h i l d r e n , not be introduced to the chi l d r e n u n t i l Grade Three. Contrary to O r f f , Kodaly, and Dalcroze programs, the learning of musical notation i s delayed u n t i l Grade Three i n the Steiner approach. In t h i s way, the Waldorf School approach i s s i m i l a r to the Suzuki method, where music i s f i r s t learned by rote. Musical notation i n the Waldorf School i s taught through pictures and through s t o r y t e l l i n g . Some Waldorf School educators favor breaking away from t r a d i t i o n a l music i n order to teach c h i l d r e n music written i n the "Mood of the F i f t h , " usually composed by the teacher. This thought i s i n sharp contrast to O r f f and Kodaly's endorsement of time-tested f o l k music. Steiner i n s i s t e d that music based on reverence, nature, the seasons, and subject matter i n the classroom be taught to the chil d r e n . Many Waldorf Schools use Choroi and Gartner instruments which are, of course, not found i n Orff, Kodaly, or Dalcroze based programs. S t r i n g instruments, v i o l i n , v i o l a , and c e l l o , are introduced to the c h i l d r e n i n Grade Three or Four. The children learn recorder i n Grade One instead of i n l a t e r grades as i n some Kodaly and Orff programs. A s t r i v i n g towards higher s p i r i t u a l development i s expected of a l l Waldorf School teachers, including music teachers. This aspect i s not at a l l mentioned i n the other approaches. CHAPTER VIII CONCLUSIONS Those educators who have investigated the Waldorf School approach to music education have ra i s e d a number of issues: relevance of Steiner's approach i n today's world; the use of theory of r e c a p i t u l a t i o n as a basis for the curriculum; the de-emphasis of beat i n the primary grades; the postponement of the teaching of solfege and musical notation; and the u t i l i z a t i o n of some newly composed songs i n the "Mood of the F i f t h " i n l i e u of f o l k song r e p e r t o i r e . The Steiner approach to music teaching does not appear to have changed a great deal since the Waldorf Schools were inaugurated i n 1919. Steiner's successors have elaborated somewhat on Steiner's o r i g i n a l ideas. For example, many c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of "Mood of the F i f t h " music have evolved over the time. The Choroi and Gartner instruments were b u i l t a f t e r Steiner's death i n 1925. However, for the most part, Steiner's o r i g i n a l ideas s t i l l seem to be followed quite f a i t h f u l l y . One might argue that the education has not kept pace with the changes and trends i n today's society. One c r i t i c i s m of the music program i s that only western music i s studied i n the schools. In our m u l t i - c u l t u r a l , p l u r a l i s t i c society, i t may be argued that music may be the means i n which some degree of appreciation and tolerance of other cultures and modes of expression may be fostered. 264 Even though f o l k songs are taught i n the Waldorf School, the "Mood of the F i f t h " music seems to be an i n t e g r a l and important part of the curriculum. The Steiner approach has been c r i t i c i z e d by those who b e l i e v e i n the value of time-honored f o l k songs for children. Steiner did not mention the use of f o l k songs for the younger children. In Grades One and Two, c h i l d r e n i n most Waldorf Schools sing and play many songs composed i n the "Mood of the F i f t h . " These songs are newly composed songs which usually begin and/or end on "A," use the tone set DE GAB DE, and have a flowing rhythm. Another c o n t r o v e r s i a l aspect of the Steiner approach i s the de-emphasis of the beat before the age of nine. The i n t e r n a l i z a t i o n of the beat i s considered to be an e s s e n t i a l objective of most music education philosophies. To suggest that children before the age of nine cannot f e e l and experience the beat i s , to many music educators, absurd. Music educators outside the Waldorf School movement may disagree with the idea of delaying the teaching of musical notation u n t i l Grade Three. To do so, some claim, may retard the c h i l d ' s musical development. Young c h i l d r e n are able, i t may be debated, to decode the abstract musical notation with ease. The teaching of solfege a f t e r absolute note names may also seem preposterous to some. The use of the theory of r e c a p i t u l a t i o n to j u s t i f y the u t i l i z a t i o n of the pentatonic scale, s p e c i f i c a l l y DE GAB DE, i s also challenged by many. The i n t e r v a l of the f i f t h as a s t a r t i n g point for the musical experience i n e a r l y childhood i s also questioned. 266 On the other hand, those who support the music education program i n the Waldorf Schools point to i t s strengths: an environment which encourages a r t i s t i c and musical expression; the emphasis on the beauty of sound; the teaching of respect f o r instruments; the importance of the s o c i a l element i n music-making; the use of art and s t o r y t e l l i n g to teach abstract musical concepts; the integ r a t i o n of the art s into the curriculum. The Waldorf School community i s strongly committed to music education. Because of t h i s , the Waldorf School provides an environment i n which a r t i s t i c expression, including musical expression, i s valued and a c t i v e l y encouraged. Much time i s devoted to vocal and instrumental t r a i n i n g . In most schools, the c h i l d r e n are required to learn how to play the recorder as well as a s t r i n g instrument. In some schools, the students are even required to take p r i v a t e lessons. The c h i l d r e n are given ample opportunities to perform with t h e i r classes or, i n some cases, i n d i v i d u a l l y , i n weekly assemblies and monthly f e s t i v a l s . High standards of performance are expected. In the Waldorf School, a great deal of emphasis i s placed on the q u a l i t y and type of music to s u i t each age. Music i s thought to influence the development of the ph y s i c a l , mental, emotional and s p i r i t u a l being of the c h i l d . For t h i s reason, music for the young c h i l d e s p e c i a l l y , i s selected fo r i t s inherent beauty, ease of singing, and melodic flow. The c h i l d r e n are taught to take care of and respect musical instruments. In Grade One, c h i l d r e n make cases for t h e i r recorders. The o i l i n g and cleaning of the recorders i s a r i t u a l i n i t s e l f . 267 Improvisation a c t i v i t i e s i n a Waldorf School s e t t i n g are meant to teach more than musical s k i l l s . The children, through improvisation and through l i s t e n i n g are made more aware of each other. They learn to work cooperatively as a group and to l i s t e n to each other. The use of s t o r y t e l l i n g and p i c t o r i a l representation to teach musical s k i l l s and concepts i s , i n the author's opinion, a strength of the program. The s t o r i e s serve to immediately capture the children's a t t e n t i o n and maintain t h e i r i n t e r e s t . Concepts are learned and r e c a l l e d much more e a s i l y through the s t o r i e s . As p u b l i c school educators struggle to f i n d a means through which the arts can be integrated into the curriculum without s a c r i f i c i n g depth of s k i l l and conceptual development, the Waldorf School may provide a u s e f u l model. Music, as with a l l the a r t s , i s taught as a subject ( i n most schools at l e a s t two or three time a week). However, music i s part of the whole approach and cannot be separated from the whole. Music i s woven i n t o the main lesson i n the primary grades as well as foreign language, c r a f t , and other lessons. The c l a s s teacher i s expected to sing and play recorder with his/her c l a s s as part of the d a i l y morning exercises. Class teachers and music s p e c i a l i s t s often work together to coordinate programs. The students see a l l t h e i r teachers as " a r t i s t s . " 2 6 8 The author suggests these questions for possible study: * Does the approach improve l i s t e n i n g s k i l l s and vocal production of the primary ch i l d ? * How does the Waldorf School approach to music education compare with the Kodaly, O r f f , and Dalcroze approaches i n actual practice? * Does the emphasis on music and the other a r t s i n Waldorf Schools enhance or hinder the academic performance of the students? * Do the c h i l d r e n have a p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e about music i n the Waldorf School? * What i s the v a l i d i t y of Steiner's ideas about c h i l d development as r e l a t e d to music education ( i . e . , no reading of music u n t i l Grade Three, de-emphasis on the beat, etc.)? * Does involvement i n music-making a c t u a l l y a f f e c t the c h i l d ' s breathing and sleeping? * Does the lack of emphasis on beat i n the e a r l y grades a f f e c t rhythmic development i n l a t e r years? 269 Does the prolonged period of musical experience help the c h i l d r e n to understand musical concepts? Does the use of s t o r y t e l l i n g , image, and metaphor help the c h i l d r e n to understand and r e t a i n musical concepts? Does the emphasis on instrumental music (recorder, kinderharp, kantele, s t r i n g instruments) i n the younger grades a f f e c t musical performance i n l a t e r years? Does the Waldorf School approach to music education succeed i n i n s t i l l i n g a l i f e - l o n g love of music-making? Are alumni of Waldorf Schools a c t i v e i n professional or amateur performance groups? Waldorf Schools have been i n existence for seventy years. No study has ever been undertaken to evaluate the effectiveness of the Waldorf School approach to music education, perhaps because many of the goals ( s p i r i t u a l development, "musicality" for example) cannot be measured. The musical experience i n the Waldorf School i s considered q u a l i t a t i v e , not qu a n t i t a t i v e . The Waldorf School approach i s based on the b e l i e f of the inner experience of the human being. Steiner never set out external learning outcomes or objectives to be obtained. As a r e s u l t , h i s ideas, i n t h i s m a t e r i a l i s t i c age, are d i f f i c u l t for the modern person to understand. However, some aspects may be accessible to research. Researchers may f i n d 270 the i n v e s t i g a t i o n of the whole Waldorf School music education curriculum and i t s implementation worthwhile. 271 CHAPTER IX BIBLIOGRAPHY Books and Pamphlets Apel, W i l l i , ed. Harvard Dictionary of Music. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 1972. Asten, E r i k a V. Preface to The Inner Nature of Music and the Experience of Tone, by Rudolf Steiner. Spring Valley, New York: The Anthroposophical Press, 1983. B a r f i e l d , Owen. Romanticism Comes of Age. London: Anthroposophical Publishing Company, 1941. Bellow, Saul. Foreword to The Boundaries of Natural Science, by Rudolf Steiner. Spring V a l l e y , New York: Anthroposophical Press, v i i - x i i i . Bellow, Saul. Humbolt's G i f t . New York: Avon Books, 1975. Brod, Max. The Diar i e s of Franz Kafka 1910-1913. Translated by Joseph Kresh. New York: Schocken Books, 1976. Brugge, Peter. Die Anthroposophen. Hamburg: Spiegel Verlag, 1984. Bulfinch, Thomas. Bulfinch's Mythology. New York: Avenel Books, 1978. Choksy, Lois et a l . Teaching Music i n the Twentieth Century. Englewood C l i f f s : Prentice H a l l , 1986. Choksy, L o i s . The Kodaly Method. Englewood C l i f f s , New Jersey: Prentice H a l l , 1988. Choroi: Klangspiels. Choroi promotional material. Choroi: The Bordun Lyre. Choroi promotional material. Easton, Stewart C. Man and World i n the Light of Anthroposophy. Spring Va l l e y , New York: The Anthroposophical Press, 1975. Firmen i n Gesprach—Sechzig Jahre Leierbau—im Dienst musikschopferischen und menschenbildenden Bemuhens," Das Musikinstrument, Sonderdruck aus Heft 9, 1986, Verlag Erwin Bochinsky, Frankfurt am Main. Foster, Sarah Whitmer. "The Waldorf Schools: An Exploration of an Enduring A l t e r n a t i v e School Movement." Ph.D d i s s . : The F l o r i d a State University, ,1981. 272 Frazee, Jane. Discovering O r f f . New York: Schott Music Corporation, 1987. Godwin, Joscelyn. The Harmonies of Heaven and Earth. Rochester, New York: Inner T r a d i t i o n s International, Ltd., 1987. Grout, Donald Jay. The History of Western Music. New York: W. W. Norton and Company, 1960. Hayman, Ronald. Kafka: a Biography. New York: Oxford U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1981. Hemleben, Johannes. Rudolf Steiner. Reinbek bei Hamburg: Rowalt Taschenbuch Verlag GmbH, 1963. Husemann, Gisbert and Johannes Tautz. Der Lehrerkreis um Rudolf Steiner i n der Ersten Waldorfschule 1919-1925. Stuttgart: Verlag Freies Geistesleben GmbH, 1977. Johnston, Richard. Kodaly and Education I I I , Zoltan Kodaly i n North America. Willowdale, Ontario: The Avondale Press, 1986. K e l l e r , Wilhelm. Orff-Schulwerk: Introduction to Music For Children. Mainz: B. Schott Sohne, 1963. Knierim, Maja. "Teaching the Choroi Flute," from Pentatonic and Inte r v a l Flutes for Kindergarten and the Early Grades by Par Ahlbom, Anna Widmark, and Maja Knierim, translated by Karen and Peter Klaveness. Choroi promotional material, 1986. Knierim, Maja. "The Interval Flutes as Precursors of the Pentatonic Fl u t e " i n Choroi by Geert Mulder et a l , Choroi promotional material. Kodaly, Zoltan. The Selected Writings of Zoltan Kodaly. Translated by L i l i Halzpy and Fred Macnicol. London: Boosey and Hawkes Music Publishers, Ltd., 1974. Landis, Beth and P o l l y Carder. The E c l e c t i c Curriculum i n American Music Education: Contributions of Dalcroze, Kodaly, and O r f f . Washington, D.C: Music Educator's National Conference, 1972. Ogletree, E a r l J . "A Cross-Cultural Exploratory Study of the Creativeness of Steiner and State School Pupils i n England, Scotland, and Germany." Ph.D. d i s s . : Wayne State University, 1967. Orf f , C a r l . Introduction to Music for Children, Pentatonic I, by Ca r l Orff and Gunild Keetman. London: Schott and Co., Ltd., 1950. Or f f , C a r l . "The Schulwerk—Its O r i g i n and Aims." Translated by Arnold Walter, i n The E c l e c t i c Curriculum i n American Music Education: Contribution of Dalcroze, Kodaly, and Orff, by Beth Landis and P o l l y Carder. Washington, D.C: Music Educator's National Conference, 1972. 273 P e d r o l i , Thomas and Deitmar Bloch. Playing with Choroi Flutes; An Introduction. Translated by Karen and Peter Klaveness. Choroi promotional material, 1985. Pfrogner, Hermann. Lebendige Tonwelt. Munich; Albert Langern, 1976. Pracht, Edmund. Goldene Leier, Heft 4, Einfuhrung i n das L e i e r s p i e l . Konstanz, West Germany: Verlag des A t e l i e r s fur Leierbau W. Lothar Gartner, 1955. Pracht, Edmund. Heilende Erziehung. Arlesheim, Switzerland: Natura- Verlag, 1956. Preston, Margaret. A New String Experience. F a i r Oaks, C a l i f o r n i a : Rudolf Steiner College, 1984. Richards, Mary Caroline. Toward Wholeness: Rudolf Steiner Education i n America. Middletown, Connecticut: Wesleyan Un i v e r s i t y Press, 1980. Rowe, G. L. "Origin and Use of the Curriculum" i n Curriculum of the F i r s t Waldorf School, comp. Caroline von Heydebrand, 8. Sachs, Curt. The Wellspring of Music. The Hague, the Netherlands: Martinus H i j h o f f , 1962. Steiner, Maria. Introduction to Art as seen i n the Light of Mystery Wisdom, by Rudolf Steiner. Translated by Pauline Wehrle and Johanna C o l l i s . London: Rudolf Steiner Press, 1984, 1-6. Steiner, Rudolf. Art As Seen in the Light of Mystery Wisdom. Translated by Pauline Wehrle and Johanna C o l l i s . London: Rudolf Steiner Press, 1984. . The Arts and t h e i r Mission. Translated by L i s a D. Monges and V i r g i n i a Moore. Spring Valley, New York: Anthroposophic Press, 1986. . Balance i n Teaching. Translated by Fellowship and Threefold Communities. Spring Valley, New York: Mercury Press, 1982. . Conferences with the Teachers of the Waldorf School i n Stuttgart 1919-1920, Volume One. Translated by Pauline Wehrle. Forest Row, East Sussex, Great B r i t a i n : Steiner Schools Fellowship Publications, 1986. . Conferences with the Teachers of the Waldorf School i n Stuttgart. 1921 - 1922, Volume Two. Translated by Pauline Wehrle. Forest Row, East Sussex, Great B r i t a i n : Steiner Schools Fellowship Publications, 1987. . Deeper Insights i n Education; The Waldorf Approach. Translated by R. M. Querido. Spring Valley, New York: Anthroposophical Press, 1983. 274 . "Education and the Science of the S p i r i t . " In Education as an Art, ed. Paul M. A l l e n , trans. Michael and Eli z a b e t h Tapp, 19-49. Blauvelt, New York: Steinerbooks, 1970. . The Education of the C h i l d . Translated by George and Mary Adams. London: Rudolf Steiner Press, 1965. . The E s s e n t i a l s of Education. Translation authorized by Rudolf Steiner Nachlassverwaltung. London: Rudolf Steiner Press, 1968. . Eurythmy as V i s i b l e Music. Translated by V. J . Compton-Burnett. London: Rudolf Steiner Press, 1977. . Human Values i n Education. Translated by Vera Compton-Burnett. London: Rudolf Steiner Press, 1971. . The Influence of S p i r i t u a l Beings Upon Man. Trans l a t i o n authorized by Rudolf Steiner Nachlassverwaltung. Spring V a l l e y , New York: Anthroposophic Press, 1982. . The Inner Nature of Music and the Experience of Tone. Edited by A l i c e Wulsin. Translated by Maria St. Goar. Spring V a l l e y , New York: Anthroposophic Press, 1983 . Kingdom of Childhood. Translated by Helen Fox. London: Rudolf Steiner Press, 1982. . Knowledge of Higher Worlds and I t s Attainment. Trans l a t i o n authorized by Rudolf Steiner Nachlassverwaltung. Spring V a l l e y , New York: The Anthroposophic Press, 1977. . A Modern Art of Education. Translated by Jesse D a r r e l l . London: Rudolf Steiner Press, 1972. . Occult Science. Translated by George and Mary Adams. London: Rudolf Steiner Press, 1969. . The Metamorphosis of the Soul. Translated by C. Davy and C. von Arnim. London: Rudolf Steiner Press, 1983, 116-131. . P r a c t i c a l Advice to Teachers. Translated by Johanna C o l l i s . London: Rudolf Steiner Press, 1976. . Renewal of Education Through the Science of the S p i r i t . Forest Row: Sussex, Great B r i t a i n : Kolisko Archives Publications, 1981. . Riddles of Philosophy. Translation authorized by Rudolf Steiner Nachlassverwaltung. Spring Valley, New York. The Anthroposophic Press, 1973. . The Roots of Education. Translated by Helen Fox. London: Rudolf Steiner Press, 1968. 275 . Soul Economy and Waldorf Education. Translated by Roland Everett. Spring Valley, New York: Anthroposophic Press, 1986. . S p i r i t u a l Ground of Education. Translated by permission of Marie Steiner. London: Anthroposophical Publishing Company, 1947. . Story of My L i f e , ed. H. C o l l i s o n . London: The Anthroposophical Press, 1928. . Study of Man. Translated by Daphne Harwood and Helen Fox. London: Rudolf Steiner Press, 1966. . Supplementary Course—The Upper School. Forest Row, Sussex, Great B r i t a i n : Michael H a l l , 1965. . Supplementary Course—The Upper School. Forest Row, Sussex, Great B r i t a i n : Kolisko Archives Publications, 1980. . Theosophy. Translation authorized by Rudolf Steiner Nachlassverwaltung. London: Rudolf Steiner Press, 1922. . Three Essays on Haeckel and Karma. Edited by Max Gysi. London: Theosophical Publishing Society, 1914. . The Threefold S o c i a l Order. Translation authorized by Rudolf Steiner Nachlassverwaltung. New York: The Anthroposophical Press 1975 . "To the German Nation and the C i v i l i z e d World." Appendix to Towards S o c i a l Renewal, trans, authorized by Rudolf Steiner Nachlassverwaltung. London: Rudolf Steiner Press, 141-146. Stockmeyer, E. A. Karl , comp. Rudolf Steiner's Curriculum for Waldolf Schools. Translated by R. Everett-Zade. London: Rudolf Steiner Press, 1969. Szonyi, Erzsebet. Kodaly P r i n c i p l e s i n Practice: An Approach to Music Education through the Kodaly Method. London: Boosey and Hawkes Music Publishers, Ltd., 1973. Tautz, Johannes. The Founding of the F i r s t Waldorf School i n Stuttgart. Spring Valley, New York: Council of the Pedagogical Section, 1982. V i s s e r , Norbert. Introduction to "Playing with Choroi F l u t e s " by Thomas Pe d r o l i and Dietmar Bloch. Choroi promotional material. von Heydebrand, Caroline, comp. Curriculum of the F i r s t Waldorf School. Translated by E i l e e n Hutchins. Stuttgart: Steiner Schools Fellowship Ltd., 1966. Wachsmuth, Gunther. L i f e and Work of Rudolf Steiner. New York: Whittier Books, Inc., 1955. 276 Walter, Arnold. "The Orff Schulwerk i n American Education," i n Orff Re- Echoes . Edited by Isabel McNeill Carley. American Orff-Schulwerk Association, 1977. Walter, Arnold. Introduction to Orff-Schulwerk. Music for Children, Book I, Pentatonic. Mainz, Germany: B. Schott's Sohne, 1955. Walter, Bruno. Of Music and Music Making. Translated by Paul Hamburger. New York: W. W. Norton and Company, 1961. Wehr, Gerhard. Jung: A Biography. Translated by David M. Weeks. Boston: Shambhala Publication, 1987. Werbeck-Svardstrom, Valborg. Uncovering the Voice: A Path Towards Catharsis i n the Art of Singing. Translated by P. Luborsky. London: Rudolf Steiner Press, 1980. Wilkinson, Roy. The Curriculum of the Rudolf Steiner School. Forest Row, Sussex, Great B r i t a i n : Roy Wilkinson, 1973. Wilson, C o l i n . Rudolf Steiner, The Man and His V i s i o n . Wellingborough, Northamptonshire: The Aquarian Press, 1985. Wuytack, Jos. "Apologia for Orff-Schulwerk," Or f f Re-Echoes, ed. by Isabel McNeill Carley. American Orff-Schulwerk Association, 1987, 58-62. A r t i c l e s And P e r i o d i c a l s Barnes, Henry. "An Introduction to Waldorf Education." Teachers College Record 81 (Spring 1980): 323:336. Davy, John. "The Movement that Everyone T r i e s to Forget." The Times Educational Supplement (March 23, 1973): 18. Dinnage, Rosemary. "Benign Dottiness: The World of Rudolf Steiner." New Society 2 (July 2, 1981): 7-10. Engle, Hans Heinrich. "Twelve Years Old." The Cresset: Journal of the Camphill Movement 17 (Winter 1970): 19-28. Gartner, El i s a b e t h . "Form und Ton a l s heilende, Ordenende Krafte." A r t i c l e sent to author, August 1988. Gartner, El i s a b e t h . "Rudolf Steiner's Musical Impulse and the Creation of the Leier, a New Musical Instrument." Translated by Joan C o l l i s . A r t i c l e sent to author, August 1988. Gebert, A l l i s o n . "From the Third Grade." Chicago Waldorf School Newsletter ( F a l l 1984): 8-10. 277 Jaques-Dalcroze, Emile. "Teaching Music Through Feeling." Etude 39 (June 1921): 368. Quoted i n Beth Landis and P o l l y Carder. The E c l e c t i c Curriculum i n American Music Education: Contributions of Dalcroze, Kodaly, and Orff, 10. Washington, D.C: Music Educator's National Conference, 1972. Landers, Karen. "Choosing Instruments i n a Waldorf School." Gathering: Washington Waldorf School Newsletter 4 (March 1986): 6-7. Lindenberg, Christoph-Andreas. "On the Music Curriculum: The C h i l d and Hearing." The Cresset, the Journal of he Camphill Movement 17 (Autumn 1971): 17-28. Lustgarten, Egon. "The Music Between the Tones." The Forerunner 2 (Spring 1941): 15-17. Mead, V i r g i n i a Hoge. "More Than Mere Movement: Dalcroze Eurhythmies." Music Educators Journal (February 1986): 42-46. Ogletree, E a r l J . "Rudolf Steiner: Unknown Educator." Elementary School Journal 74 (March 1974): 345-351. Ould, Hermon. "Caviare," The English Review 34 (January to June 1922): 447-453. Shehan, P a t r i c i a . "Major Approaches to Music Education," Music Educators' Journal (February 1986): 26-31. Steiner, Rudolf. "Education and Art," Anthroposophy. London, England: The Anthroposophical Publishing Company, May 1923, 1-2. . "Nature and O r i g i n of the Arts." Golden Blade 31 (1979): 79- 91. V i s s e r , Norbert. "Building Choroi Musical Instrument, a Musical and S o c i a l Impulse." Curative Education and So c i a l Therapy 2 ( M i d s u m m e r 1983): 37-41. von Lange, Anny. "Tones Ari s e from the Heart" from Man-Music-Cosmos i n Lyre Newsletter 9 (March 1987): 1-5. Watson, Marjorie. "The Music Lessons i n the F i r s t Three Classes," C h i l d and Man Extracts. Forest Row, East Sussex, Great B r i t a i n : Steiner Schools Fellowship Publications, 1975, 75-77. Wilke, E l l y . "Musical Development i n the History of Mankind." Present Age 1 (June 1936): 26-31 278 Unpublished Materials Eterman, L. Unpublished interviews of Waldorf music teachers, professional musicians, and a eurythmist, 1988-1990. Eterman, M. S. Unpublished survey for the Ass o c i a t i o n of Waldorf Schools i n North America, 1987. V i s s e r , Norbert. Unpublished a r t i c l e on Choroi instruments, dated March 29, 1988. Other Sources Gartner, El i s a b e t h . Personal l e t t e r to author dated August 8, 1988. Krause, Helmut. Personal l e t t e r to author dated June 1982. Lindenberg, Christof-Andreas. Personal l e t t e r to author dated August 22, 1989. Querido, Rene. Lecture. F a i r Oaks, C a l i f o r n i a , February 14, 1988. Schaub, P h i l i a . Personal l e t t e r to author dated July 23, 1989. Scherlund, Karin. Personal l e t t e r to author dated August 18, 1988. Sease, V i r g i n i a . Singing workshop, Dornach, Switzerland, A p r i l 1986. Smit, Jorgen. Personal l e t t e r to author dated May 5, 1989. V i s s e r , Norbert. Personal l e t t e r to author dated September 1988. Bibliography of Waldorf Music Books Ahlbom, Par. Soltrumman Och Andra Visor. Jarna: Telleby Verkstader, 1968. Bauman, Paul. Lieder der Waldorfschule, Erstes Heft fur die Kleinen. Dornach, Switzerland: Philosophisch-Anthroposophischer Verlag am Goetheanum, 1970. Braithwaite, Walter. A Book of Songs, Volume One. Edited by Michael Vaughan. Forward by Yehudi Menuhin. Stourbridge Worcs., Private E d i t i o n , 1970. . Edited by Michael Vaughan. A Book of Songs, Volume Two. 279 Garff, Heiner and Marianne. Fahr, Mein S c h i f f l e i n , Fahre. Bingenheim, West Germany: Verlag Das Seelenpflege-Bedurftige Kind, 1978. J a f f k e , Christoph and Magda Maier, ed. Early One Morning: Folk Songs, Rounds, Ballads, Shanties, S p i r i t u a l s and Plantation Songs, Madrigals. (Stuttgart: Buchversand H. Krausz, 1987.) Knierim, J u l i u s . Ouintenlieder. Bingenheim, West Germany: Verlag Das Seelenphlege-Bedurftige Kind, 1970. Kunstler, A l o i s . Das Brunnlein sinqt und saget: Lieder und Melodien fur Kinder. Bingenheim, West Germany: Verlag Das Seelenpflege-befurftige Kind, 1977. Kunstler, A l o i s and Olga. Sonne, Sonne scheine. Bingenheim: Verlag Das Seelenpflege-bedurftige Kind, 1982. Lebret, E l i s a b e t h . Pentatonic Songs for Nursery, Kindergarten, and Grades I and I I . E l i s a b e t h Lebret, 1971. Lebret, E l i s a b e t h . Shepherd's Songbook for Grades I, I I , and III of Waldorf Schools. E l i s a b e t h Lebret Private E d i t i o n , 1975. Masters, Brian. The Waldorf Song Book. Edinburgh, Scotland: F l o r i s Books, 1987. Meyercourt, Margaret, comp. Autumn: Poems, Songs, Stories c o l l e c t e d by Kindergarten Teachers from Steiner Schools i n B r i t a i n for use i n t h e i r work. Brookthorpe, United Kingdom: Wynstones Press, 1983. . Gateways: Morning, Evening, Birthdays, Fairytales—Poems, Songs, Sto r i e s c o l l e c t e d by Kindergarten Teachers from Steiner Schools i n B r i t a i n f or use i n t h e i r work. Brookthorpe, United Kingdom: Wynstones Press, 1983. . S p i n d r i f t : A V o l u m e o f M i s c e l l a n e o u s P o e m s , S o n g s , S t o r i e s c o l l e c t e d by Kindergarten Teachers from Steiner Schools i n B r i t a i n f o r use i n t h e i r work. Brookthorpe, United Kingdom: Wynstones Press, 1983. . Spring: Poems, Songs, Stories c o l l e c t e d by Kindergarten Teachers from Steiner Schools i n B r i t a i n for use i n t h e i r work. Brookthorpe, United Kingdom: Wynstones Press, 1983. . Summer: Poems, Songs, Stories c o l l e c t e d by Kindergarten Teachers from Steiner Schools i n B r i t a i n for use i n t h e i r work. Brookthorpe, United Kingdom: Wynstones Press, 1983. . Winter: Poems, Songs, Stories c o l l e c t e d by Kindergarten Teachers from Steiner Schools i n B r i t a i n for use i n t h e i r work. Brookthorpe, United Kingdom: Wynstones Press, 1983. Miedaner-Peereboom-Voller, Mieke. Rhvthmische Lieder Mit Leierbegleitung (Rhythmical Songs with Lvre-Accompaniment for Ball-and Ring-Swings. 280 Translated by J . Russ and Mrs. Murray. Ze i s t , The Netherlands: A. J. Miedaner, 1976. Muller, C h r i s t a . Seasonal Songs. Book 1. Willy Muller, ed. Eugene, Oregon: Eugene Waldorf School. Russ, Johanne. Clump-a-and Dump Snickle-Snack. Spring V a l l e y , New York: The Mercury Press, 1977. Swinger, Marlys, a r r . Sing Through the Day. Compiled and edited by the Society of Brothers. Rifton, New York: The Plough Publishing House, 1968. Swinger, Marlys, a r r . Sing Through the Seasons. Compiled and edited by the Society of Brothers. Rifton, New York: The Plough Publishing House, 1968. 281 APPENDIXES APPENDIX A ORIGIN AND GROWTH OF THE WALDORF SCHOOLS By the end of 1917, Europe was i n chaos. World War I, the "war to end a l l wars" had been i n progress f o r three years and was, i n fac t , e s c a l a t i n g . In A p r i l 1917, the United States entered the War declaring that "the world must be safe f or democracy." In Russia, the Bolshevik Revolution was taking place. Against t h i s background, Rudolf Steiner introduced h i s 482 concept of the "threefold s o c i a l order." In 1917, he published a 483 proclamation "To the German Nation and the C i v i l i z e d World" i n German, Austrian, and Swiss newspapers signed by ninety leading c i t i z e n s which out l i n e d h i s ideas f or a new s o c i a l order. Rudolf Steiner f e l t , at t h i s time, that r e l i g i o u s i n s t i t u t i o n s and governmental systems of democracy, bolshevism, and socialism, were incapable of solving the problems of humanity. In essence, Steiner believed that c u l t u r a l - r e l i g i o u s , economic, and p o l i t i c a l realms should i n t e r a c t independently and i n freedom. He was 484 against the idea of state control of business and of education. 4 8 2 T a u t z , 4 . 4 8 3 R u d o l f S t e i n e r , " T o the German N a t i o n and the C i v i l i z e d W o r l d , " appendix t o Towards S o c i a l Renewal . t r a n s , a u t h o r i z e d by R u d o l f S t e i n e r N a c h l a s s v e r w a l t u n g ( R u d o l f S t e i n e r P r e s s , London, 1977), 141-146. 4 8 4 T a u t z , 9 -10 . 282 In 1919, Steiner's Threefold Commonwealth (now t i t l e d The Threefold S o c i a l Order) was published. Emil Molt, founder of the successful Waldorf A s t o r i a c i g a r e t t e factory i n Stuttgart, Germany, heard Steiner's l e c t u r e on the t h r e e f o l d s o c i a l order and was inspir e d by his ideas of s o c i a l renewal. Molt wanted to improve the l i v e s of the workers of his firm. To that end, Molt named Herbert Hahn to arrange courses for his workers. The workers, however, wanted education for t h e i r c h i l d r e n . Molt asked Steiner to take 4 8 6 on the leadership of the school. On A p r i l 25th, 1919, Herbert Hahn, Kar l Stockmeyer (a teacher and an anthroposophist), Emil Molt and Rudolf Steiner met together and made the decision to begin the f i r s t Waldorf School i n Stuttgart, Germany. In August, Steiner gave a se r i e s of lectures 487 to teachers selected to launch the school. Since the school was intended to serve the ch i l d r e n of the workers of the Waldorf factory, the 488 name "Waldorf School" was designated. The school was to be founded upon Steiner's view of the human being, anthroposophy. Steiner stated, The f i r s t idea was to provide an education f o r c h i l d r e n whose parents were working i n the Waldorf-Astoria Factory, and as the Director was a member of the Anthroposophical Society, 4 8 5 R u d o l f S t e i n e r , The T h r e e f o l d S o c i a l O r d e r , t r a n s . F r e d e r i c k C . Heckel (New Y o r k : A n t h r o p o s o p h i c a l P r e s s , 1966) . 4 8 6 S t e i n e r , C o n f e r e n c e s w i t h the Teachers of the Waldorf S c h o o l i n S t u t t g a r t 1919-1920. Volume One. 8 . 4 8 7 E a s t o n , 384. 4 8 8 S t e i n e r , C o n f e r e n c e s w i t h the Teachers of the Waldorf S c h o o l i n S t u t t g a r t 1919-1920. Volume One. 8 . 283 he asked me to arrange t h i s education. I, myself, could do t h i s only on the basis of anthroposophy. Steiner set out several conditions for the school: 1) that the school be f r e e of government con t r o l ; 2) that the school be open to a l l regardless of r a c i a l , economic, s o c i a l , and r e l i g i o u s background; 3) that the school o f f e r a twelve-year programme; 4) that the school should be open to both 490 boys and g i r l s . Steiner intended that the school be related to the c u l t u r a l realm of his t h r e e - f o l d concept independent of the government or economic sphere. I t was to be a "Free School," the "Freie Waldorf Schule," an independent school. 491 "We do not want to teach anthroposophical dogmas," Steiner stated. Steiner believed h i s philosophy was able to " i n s t i t u t e a school on universal-human p r i n c i p l e s and not upon the basis of s o c i a l rank, 492 p h i l o s o p h i c a l conceptions or any other s p e c i a l i t y . " In Steiner's day, the Waldorf Schools were r a d i c a l l y d i f f e r e n t from the state schools. In the state schools, students from age eleven were separated into academic and vocational streams. Steiner advocated a twelve-year curriculum which exposed students to a wide v a r i e t y of 4 8 9 S t e i n e r , A Modern A r t of E d u c a t i o n . 26. 4 9 0 B a r n e s , 324. 4 9 ^ S t e i n e r , C o n f e r e n c e s w i t h the Teachers o f the W a l d o r f S c h o o l i n S t u t t g a r t 1919-1920. 17. 4 9 2 S t e i n e r , A Modern A r t o f E d u c a t i o n . 27. 284 4 9 3 subjects. Students were also segregated at that time by sex at the secondary l e v e l i n public s c h o o l s . 4 9 4 Steiner was adamantly against t h i s p r a c t i c e . He stated, " . . . many one-sided views . . . have been held i n 495 the education world—not only that of the separation of the sexes." The movement grew slowly. From 1919 to 1938, eight or more schools were founded i n Germany, but i n 1938, the Nazis closed a l l p r i v a t e schools. A f t e r World War II, from 1945-1951, with the active co-operation of the occupying powers i n Germany, f i v e o l d schools were re-established and twenty new ones begun. Only three new schools were added from 1951-1969. However, i n the eleven years from 1969-1980, the movement grew to seventy s c h o o l s . 4 9 6 Brugge reported that from 1975-1983, the movement i n Germany grew from forty-two schools to eighty schools, from twenty thousand to t h i r t y - s i x thousand p u p i l s . Of these eighty schools, f i f t y - o n e were considered established schools having been i n existence for at le a s t 497 f i f t e e n years. In North America, too, the Waldorf School movement began slowly, but i t s popularity rose dramatically i n the 1970s and 1980s. The f i r s t Waldorf School i n North America opened i n New York i n 1928. In 1945, there were only three Waldorf Schools i n the United States. From 1945-1969, ten new 4 9 3 B a r n e s , 324. 4 9 4 j b i d . 4 9 ^ S t e i n e r , A Modern A r t of E d u c a t i o n . 26. 4 9 6 T a u t z , 2 . 4 9 7 P e t e r Brugge, D i e Anthroposophen (Hamburg: S p i e g e l V e r l a g , 1984), 80 -81 . 285 schools were added. From 1969-1988, f i f t y - s i x new schools were 498 esta b l i s h e d . By 1988, i n the United States and Canada approximately, ten thousand students were en r o l l e d i n seventy-three schools. Twenty-six of these are est a b l i s h e d or "member" schools, accredited by the Association of Waldorf Schools i n North America. Eighteen schools are "sponsored" schools (not yet accredited but sponsored by a member school). Twenty-nine are "federation" or f l e d g l i n g schools (not yet sponsored, but a f f i l i a t e d to the Waldorf School movement). Ten schools have a complete preschool through Grade 12 programme. Canada has only two member schools, each with a complete program (Vancouver and Toronto), and a number of sponsored 499 schools. * y ° M . S . E terman, u n p u b l i s h e d s u r v e y f o r the A s s o c i a t i o n o f W a l d o r f S c h o o l s i n N o r t h A m e r i c a . 4 9 9 I b i d . 286 APPENDIX B UNIQUE FEATURES OF THE WALDORF SCHOOLS The Waldorf School has several features which d i s t i n g u i s h i t from the pu b l i c schools today. * An i n d i v i d u a l classroom teacher i s responsible for the same group of c h i l d r e n from Grade One through Grade Eight, although the ch i l d r e n have lessons with s p e c i a l i t y teachers throughout the day. * The c l a s s teacher begins the day with the main lesson which l a s t s for two hours. For three to four weeks, students study a subject inten- s i v e l y during t h i s time. These periods of time are c a l l e d "main l e s - son" blocks. Steiner established a sequence of these main lesson blocks to correspond with the developmental stages of the c h i l d . Other subjects (music, a r t , drama, movement, gym, foreign languages) often r e l a t e to the theme of the main lesson so that a l l learning i s integrated. * In a Waldorf School, there i s a prolonged period of o r a l language e x p e r i e n c e — l i s t e n i n g to s t o r i e s , r e - t e l l i n g s t o r i e s , dramatization, singing, and r e c i t a t i o n . The teaching of reading as such begins i n Grade Two. * From Grade One to Twelve, the students write and i l l u s t r a t e t h e i r own textbooks. Published textbooks are r a r e l y used i n the elementary school. 287 Music, a r t , c r a f t s , and drama form an i n t e g r a l part of the education. The c l a s s teacher usually begins the day with singing or recorder playing. Eurythmy, a special type of movement conceived by Steiner, i s a lso part of the curriculum for a l l grades. Weekly assemblies and monthly f e s t i v a l s are held. During these gatherings, the students perform music, eurythmy, r e c i t a t i o n , as a c l a s s , i n groups, or i n d i v i d u a l l y . Two foreign languages, usually French and German, are taught beginning i n Grade One. Cooperation, not competition, i s stressed i n every c l a s s . The more able students are encouraged to help the less able. Instead of l e t t e r grades, anecdotal reports are given i n elementary school. There i s usually no headmaster or p r i n c i p a l i n a Waldorf School. The teachers come together once a week (or moreJ) to discuss the running of the school, the children, and pedagogy. In some Waldorf Schools, the school board consists of a majority of teachers. Parental involvement i s stressed. The cl a s s teacher arranges meet- ings at l e a s t once a term to which a l l parents and subject teachers are i n v i t e d . Because the class teacher teaches the same group of c h i l d r e n f or eight years, he/she, i n time, forms a strong r e l a t i o n - ship with the parents of the c l a s s , as with the c h i l d r e n . 288 APPENDIX C CURRICULA FROM FIVE WALDORF SCHOOLS Music Curriculum from the Garden City Waldorf School, Garden City, New York At the Waldorf School, our i n s t r u c t i o n i s aimed not only at unfolding each c h i l d ' s musical t a l e n t s , but also at developing his character and confidence. As well as s i g n i f i c a n t l y a s s i s t i n g and supporting the process of p h y s i c a l and mental development i n the formative years, we believe that music w i l l harmonize and l i f t the inner nature of the children. Music has helped to make our school as healthy as i t i s . Each c h i l d experiences d a i l y recorder playing with his cla s s teacher. This begins i n the f i r s t grade and continues through the c h i l d ' s lower school years, depending on the a b i l i t y of the teacher. By beginning our i n s t r u c t i o n with cl a s s singing and recorder playing, and with games and exercises which involve musical movement, we t r y to develop the w i l l of the c h i l d . The curriculum followed by the two music s p e c i a l i s t s i s as follows: Grade One Unison singing of simple melodies, usually (though not exclusively) penta- t o n i c . Tone matching, usually within the range of the f i f t h . Clapped rhythms of songs and verses. Discovery of the differ e n c e between rhythm and beat. Movement to music, through walking, running, skipping, and clapping. Experience of the simplest note values. Use of simple percussion instruments. Singing c i r c l e games. Choral speaking and singing e a s i l y i n t e r - r e l a t e . Grade Two Development of a l l techniques used i n Grade One. Introduction of rounds and canons i n singing, speech, and with rhythm instruments. Start simple part songs. Start echo clapping. Introduction of the tone ladder. Start recognition of i n t e r v a l s . Sing melodies within range of the octave, often with scale numbers. Introduce singing books which contain the words, but 289 no music, to songs the ch i l d r e n have learned. Simple f o l k dances within the c i r c l e . Grade Three Development of a l l techniques used i n Grades One and Two through d i f f e r e n t materials. More involved part songs and canons. Begin to read notes and to write on the s t a f f . Begin the invention of melodies. Introduce the conductor's beat. Teach more complicated dances, some i n l i n e s and with changing partners. Begin v i o l i n and c e l l o study as a class, i n two s t r i n g groups. Encourage the undertaking of pr i v a t e lessons for those who seem ready. Music Curriculum from the Rudolf Steiner School, New York, New York Grade One Unison singing of simple melodies, usually pentatonic. Tone matching, usually within the range of the f i f t h . Clapped rhythms of songs and verses. Discovery of the difference between rhythm and beat. Movement to music, through walking, running, skipping and clapping. Experience of the simplest note values. Use of simple percussion instruments. Begin simple songs on the pentatonic recorder through imitation. Grade Two Development of a l l techniques used i n Grade One. Introduction of rounds and canons near the end of the school year. Sing melodies within the range of the octave. Continued use of the pentatonic recorder playing a l l the pentatonic songs the c h i l d r e n have already sung. 290 Grade Three More involved rounds and canons. Begin to read notes and to write on the s t a f f . Begin the invention of melodies. Introduce the conductor's beat and a l l the time signatures. Begin the soprano recorder and read notes and simple melodies using the recorder. Begin to sing, clap, and play more complicated rhythms. The c h i l d r e n make t h e i r own music books. Music Curriculum from the Sacramento Waldorf School by Margaret Preston Kindergarten Singing by i m i t a t i o n of teacher using very simple melodies i n the "Mood of the F i f t h . " Many songs i n the beginning w i l l use only one tone (the A). Gradually, the teacher w i l l lead the c h i l d r e n up to the f i f t h above (E'), then down to the f i f t h below (D). As the year progresses, the songs ' w i l l include the notes of the pentatonic scale D,E,G,A,B,D', E'. The c h i l d r e n do not sing any half-steps (F-C) nor do they descend to Middle C. Because so l i t t l e music a c t u a l l y e x i s t s of the kind mentioned above, the . teacher w i l l have to compose many songs. The rhythms should be simple, up to four beats. The subjects can include the f a i r y t a l e world, nature world and seasonal songs. Also the world around us, home, family, helpers, etc. The c h i l d r e n should also have instrumental experience. This should be i n a purely i m i t a t i v e way using simple percussion, f l u t e s , s t r i n g s . The instruments themselves must be pentatonic i n nature but even have the c a p a b i l i t y of using only one or two notes. There should be opportunity for making simple music together i n small groups i n response to gentle rhythms. The aural t r a i n i n g i s e s p e c i a l l y important i n e a r l y years. The c h i l d should be l i s t e n i n g to a c l e a r , sweet tone ( p e r f e c t l y i n tune). This includes the teacher's singing voice or any instrument used. The use of the piano with young c h i l d r e n should be s t r i c t l y forbidden. The c h i l d r e n should not be over-stimulated by complex music. Therefore, a l l music should be of the most simple nature. Do not expose young c h i l d r e n to dramatic works by great composers. There is. (plenty of time for that l a t e r . 291 I t i s of utmost importance that children hear music, s o f t l y and l o v i n g l y played. The loud music of today does not belong i n a c h i l d ' s world. The l a s t part of the music experience for the kindergarten c h i l d includes responding to music with body movement. This area should also include simple c i r c l e games (with singing) from a l l parts of our country and, of course, other countries. The part mentioned above concerning body movement i n response to rhythm and melody can be very free i n nature or i t can be body movements i n the form of eurythmy. The free response would be more of a creative dance type of movement. Here the c h i l d r e n (and the teacher) would respond spontaneously to a f e e l i n g for the rhythm or melody. Running steps or stamping steps, turns, clapping, patschen, t i p t o e , marching, skipping, hopping, etc. could a l l be used i n a cre a t i v e way. There would be more of an open c r e a t i v i t y going on while the music i s being played or sung. This could also be done i n response to rhythmic verse. The use of tapes or records would be completely out of place i n a Waldorf kindergarten. Eurythmy i s a s p e c i a l art form developed by Rudolf Steiner. I t i s body movement i n response to rhythm and melody. It can be very formal (there are gestures f o r a l l sounds of the l e t t e r s ) or i t can be very imaginative using many cre a t i v e dance ideas. For the young children i t usually i s the acting out i n movement of a spe c i a l f a i r y t a l e . The teacher (one tr a i n e d i n the art of eurythmy) would lead the chi l d r e n by imitat i o n through the story using much movement and drama. Many of the more formal eurythmy gestures could be used. It should be said here that eurythmy i s r e a l l y a very separate thing from the music cla s s but surely crosses over i n many respects. One c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the type of music we l i k e to use with young c h i l d r e n i s one that leaves the l i s t e n e r with a longing for more. This i s achieved by the ending of the song asking a question rather than by gi v i n g an answer. In other words, do not end on the home tone (G i n t h i s case). Preferably the ending would be on A,D,B, or E'. Kindergarten c h i l d r e n do not perform i n pub l i c . Sometimes the teacher ar- ranges a very informal program for the parents of the c h i l d r e n . 292 Grade One The c h i l d r e n continue on with music i n the "Mood of the F i f t h " and the pentatonic scale. Everything said i n the kindergarten curriculum pertains also to Grade One. In addition, the c h i l d r e n begin to play the simple pentatonic f l u t e . This i s taught e n t i r e l y by imitation, using the simplest of melodies. No p a r t i c u l a r s t r e s s i s placed on the technique of blowing or the use of the tongue. The c h i l d r e n merely become aware of t h e i r f i n g e r s , t h e i r posture and t h e i r tone. There should be ample opportunity for l i s t e n i n g to each other play i n small groups. There should be rules set i n the beginning for the care of the f l u t e s , when to and when not to play. A l l should be with a loving, tender f e e l i n g f or the instrument and the s o f t , wind-like tone i t produces. (We use the Choroi f l u t e s from Sweden—all pentatonic.) The use of the f l u t e should always be with singing. Later on, the c h i l d r e n w i l l a lso mix i n the use of kantele, glockenspiel, drum, xylophone, etc. One would do t h i s slowly and c a r e f u l l y — n o t too much at once. This would be done i n a n o n - i n t e l l e c t u a l way, using a rhythmic response. One would not give c e r t a i n notes to play or patterns. We do not name the notes as yet (merely saying 1 finger for B, 2 for A, e t c . ) . Included i n the f i r s t grade music lesson would be ample opportunity to match tones. The teacher sings simple patterns, the c h i l d r e n match them e i t h e r as a group or as a si n g l e i n d i v i d u a l . There should be l i s t e n i n g games f o r matching tone patterns of f l u t e and glockenspiel or xylophone. The c h i l d r e n should become e n t i r e l y f a m i l i a r with t h e i r pentatonic scale D,E,G,A,B, D',E'. They should f e e l at home i n the "Mood of the F i f t h " with A as the center tone. They should e a s i l y be able to match the jump from A - E' and down from A - D. We l i k e to keep the subject matter of the songs s t i l l i n the imaginative world, nature, seasonal, etc. We also begin to b u i l d up a heritage of f o l k songs of our country including singing games (as i n the kindergarten). Children at t h i s age do not use books nor printed music. However, they are very aware of form and come to f e e l the rhythm very n a t u r a l l y through the i m i t a t i o n of the teacher. It should be understood that the piano i s used very l i t t l e or not at a l l i n Grade I. Also no records or tapes. Some music, of course, i s used that i s not pentatonic or i n the "Mood of the F i f t h . " However, for the most part, i t i s expected that the f i r s t grader s t i l l should l i v e i n the world of the f i f t h . 293 Some performing i n public i s done by the end of the f i r s t grade year. Generally, they perform only for t h e i r own parents. Grade Two The same general curriculum applies to Grade Two as to kindergarten and Grade One. We use the "Mood of the F i f t h " and much pentatonic music. They progress with the pentatonic f l u t e s , singing, moving to music, instrument playing. The children are given much opportunity to make music i n a n o n - i n t e l l e c t u a l way with the use of instruments and singing. They should get a r e a l f e e l i n g for the form and how each phrase blends together and how does i t end. Now they w i l l want to begin to return to home tone. Toward the end of the year they are given the experience of using music books. They are taught to respect the book. They are taught to follow the words ad f i n d each new s t a r t i n g l i n e . When there i s more than one verse they are taught how to f i n d t h e i r place. We learn to use the song index i n the back of the book. Songs with much r e p e t i t i o n are used, such as: 1) You Turn for Sugar and Tea (Play-party tune from Oklahoma) 2) A l l Night, A l l D a y — S p i r i t u a l 3) Angel Band—Folk song from South Carolina 4) Skip to My Lou—American play-party song 5) We're Going Round the Mountain—Folk song from M i s s i s s i p p i The c h i l d r e n of the second grade are ready to begin performing i n public and usually make a contribution at every assembly. 294 Grade Three A l l that has been written about kindergarten, grades One 1 and Two also pertains to Grade Three. Up u n t i l the age of nine, the c h i l d should not be bothered with anything i n t e l l e c t u a l i n music, nor should be bothered with rhythm. A l l musical experiences should be i m i t a t i v e and p i c t o r i a l i n nature. The c h i l d should be " l i v i n g " i n the "Mood of the F i f t h " and the pentatonic scale. He w i l l be experiencing the singing of simple melodies, the playing of the pentatonic f l u t e , the playing of simple instruments. There w i l l be opportunity for improvising simple melodies. There w i l l be much l i s t e n i n g to each other i n groups and i n solo. The teacher w i l l do much for them to imitate, singing or instrumental. There w i l l s t i l l be as much movement as possible to rhythmic speaking, singing and instrumental pieces. The ch i l d r e n should get a f e e l i n g for form. Sometime during the t h i r d grade year, the ch i l d r e n w i l l show that they are ready to begin a more i n t e l l e c t u a l approach to t h e i r music. The teacher w i l l sense t h i s unrest and desire i n the c l a s s . From a dramatic, p i c t o r i a l image the teacher w i l l bring to the c h i l d r e n the beginning elements of music wri t i n g . In the t h i r d grade i t i s proper to blend i n the main lesson s t o r i e s of the Father God and the s t o r i e s of creation. The cr e a t i v e music teacher can present through an o r i g i n a l story of the Music of the Angels how music came to earth. The c h i l d r e n then embark upon a series of lessons involving the w r i t i n g of music. F i r s t very simply f i n d i n g G A B on the s t a f f . Many songs are then written to acquaint the chi l d r e n with these notes. Note values are c a r e f u l l y brought i n with s t o r i e s of the elves who made walking steps [quarter notes] or running steps [eighth notes] or had to stand s t i l l [quarter note r e s t ] . Each c h i l d makes a music notebook and copies into i t the simple songs with three notes, gradually adding the other notes. I t i s usua l l y done i n t h i s order: G A B then D E then D' E'. Then cousin F and cousin C come to v i s i t the family of notes. F i n a l l y the whole family i s complete when middle C i s added (Grandma C). This ad d i t i o n of middle C i s a most important step. It i s a s p e c i a l act of t h e i r own a r r i v a l here on earth. It i s a most profound and long- a n t i c i p a t e d lesson and must be presented i n t h i s l i g h t . A l l that they are learning i n the scale i s at the same time associated with the correct f i n g e r i n g on the f l u t e (they change to a diatonic f l u t e at t h i s time). They also begin to learn about the keyboard of the Choroi or Orff .instruments. Some classes make very fast progress during t h i s time, others need more time and need to go rather slowly. 295 Another aspect of the t h i r d grade year i s the introduction of harmony through the use of rounds, canons and simple o s t i n a t i . The ch i l d r e n do t h i s i n singing and playing of f l u t e s and instruments and d i v i d e into groups as soon as possible. There i s much l i s t e n i n g to groups and blending of the voice with instruments. The c h i l d r e n are given much music that i s i n the scale of C. We generally do not use sharps or f l a t s i n Grade 3. They do, however, become acquainted with the minor mood and do some songs i n singing only They are able to experience the difference i n f e e l i n g between major and minor. The t h i r d grade also s t a r t s the lessons as a class with the s t r i n g family. There i s much performing expected of t h i s grade at assemblies and parent evenings. Music Curriculum from the Vancouver Waldorf School by Linda Eterman Much of the curriculum has been taken from the Lois Choksy Kodaly Method, Jane Frazee's Orf f Curriculum, and the B r i t i s h Columbia Fine Arts Curriculum. C h e c k l i s t of Expected Achievements i n Music—Grade One Mate r i a l Simple songs i n unison within the pentatonic scale ("Mood of the F i f t h " ) Singing games and dances (action, tone-matching, r i d d l e s , chasing, counting, c i r c l e dances) Finger plays S t o r i e s enhanced by music Songs based on f a i r y t a l e s , c r a f t s and trades, nature, and seasons 296 Musical concepts and s k i l l s The student i s able to: Rhythm: Imitate the movements of teacher or another student simultaneously Demonstrate and i d e n t i f y fast/slow Use a v a r i a t i o n of tempo i n singing and instrumental playing Move to the beat based on the movement of melody (own beat and imposed) Echo short (4 to 8 beat) rhythms performed by the teacher Perform the rhythm of a known song (by clapping, tapping, etc.) Demonstrate long/short sounds on instruments and with voice Demonstrate beat of s i l e n c e (rest) through movement Melody: Demonstrate and i d e n t i f y speaking, singing, whispering voice Demonstrate and i d e n t i f y high and low pitches Match p i t c h / i n t e r v a l s within the pentatonic scale such as so-mi, l a - so-mi, so-la-so, etc. Identify ascending, descending, repeated tones, large skips through hand or body movements Sing most of the Grade One pentatonic r e p e r t o i r e i n tune Form: Recognize repeated patterns i n music (demonstrated through movement) Distinguish between l i k e and unlike phrases (demonstrated through movement) Dynamics: Identify and demonstrate loud/soft sounds 2 9 7 Use v a r i a t i o n of dynamics i n singing and instrument playing Timbre: D i s t i n g u i s h and use d i f f e r e n t q u a l i t i e s of the human v o i c e — s p e a k i n g , singing, whispering, etc. Use body percussion (snapping, clapping, patschen, stamping) Describe various timbres i n instrument used i n cl a s s such as metal sounds (tr i a n g l e s , glockenspiels, e t c . ) , skins (drums), wind ( i n t e r v a l and pentatonic f l u t e s ) , s t r i n g s ( l y r e and harp) Instrumental s k i l l s Kantele: Strum across the strings i n an upward and/or downward motion Strum to beat of song to provide accompaniment Can pluck i n d i v i d u a l notes using index and middle fingers Perform songs of tone sets: d-b (cuckoo interval) b-a I n t e r v a l F l u t e : Hold f l u t e properly with both hands Control breathing i n order to produce an even tone Play according to teacher's hand signals Pentatonic F l u t e : Perform songs of tone sets: d-b (cuckoo in t e r v a l ) b-a b-a-g b-a-g-e-d d-b-e 298 e-d-b-a-g-e-d Perform simple known songs on the pentatonic f l u t e by ear Improvise melodies on the pentatonic f l u t e Tone b e l l s : S t r i k e b e l l properly ( l i k e a hot stove) "Pass" the sound of the tone b e l l to others i n c i r c l e (using eye contact, hand movement) Conduct a tone b e l l melody by pointing to chi l d r e n who hold one tone b e l l each (the "tone b e l l orchestra") Improvise melodies on the "tone b e l l orchestra" Percussion instruments: Play hand drums, t r i a n g l e , b e l l s , wood s t i c k s , etc., i n an appropriate manner Movement S k i l l s Experience movements such as walking, running, hopping, skipping, galloping, stamping, t i p - t o e , etc. Explore movements i n varied tempo Explore contrasting movement and- d i r e c t i o n i n own space such as high/low, up/down, quickly, slowly, etc. Perform actions to accompany songs Perform finger plays Explore "working rhythms" (chopping, hoeing, ironing, s t i r r i n g , hammering, rowing, scrubbing, etc.) Create movements for images such as f a l l i n g leaves, feathers, f l y i n g l i k e a b i r d , etc.) Follow the leader Imitate rhythms or movements performed by the teacher or another student Lead the other c h i l d r e n i n movement 299 Walk to a steady beat ( i n t e r n a l and imposed) P a r t i c i p a t e i n c i r c l e games i n which children form c i r c l e with group, s i t t i n g or standing; form concentric c i r c l e s with partners Checklist of Expected Achievements i n Music—Grade Two Material Simple songs i n unison within pentatonic scale, some songs within the dia t o n i c scale within the range of an octave Continuation of singing games, finger plays, s t o r i e s with music Songs r e l a t i n g to fables, saints, nature, seasons, c r a f t s , and trades Musical Concepts and S k i l l s In addition to mastery of previously introduced concepts and s k i l l s , the student w i l l be able to: Rhythm: Perform rhythm and beat by tapping, clapping, etc. Perform the beat while speaking or singing text Use the symbols for beat such as picture representation and l a t e r D i s t i n g u i s h between louder and sof t e r beats (strong accented beats, unaccented beats) i n preparation for understanding meter) Recognize the "accent" Melody: Ide n t i f y ascending, descending, repeated notes, large skips, of songs through hand or body movements Make simple "melody maps" Conduct melodies for the clas s through hand movements Sing the Grade Two re p e r t o i r e of songs i n tune 300 Form: Demonstrates an understanding of phrase through movement Di s t i n g u i s h between l i k e and unlike phrases Use simple representation or l e t t e r s to i n d i c a t e AB or ABA form Improvise question and answer i n 8 beat phrases using body percussion Improvise i n a rondo form (using instruments) Dynamics: Recognize that increasing or decreasing the speed of the beat makes the music faster or slower Timbre: Perform as part of an ensemble of instruments of d i f f e r e n t tone colors (kantele, pentatonic f l u t e s , tone b e l l s , non-pitched percussion, voice) Improvise an impromptu piece of music while "conducting" an orchestra of these tone colors Instrumental S k i l l s Pentatonic Flute: Produce a good steady tone on a l l notes Play as teacher points to "tone l a d d e r " — c o l o r e d dots on black- board to indicate p i t c h Play by following teacher's hand sig n a l s Perform tunes by ear "Conducts" melody for class by pointing to "tone ladder" or by hand signals Improvise own melodies on the pentatonic f l u t e Kantele/Bordun l y r e (tuned p e n t a t o n i c a l l y ) : Pluck two or more strings together to create a bordun or chord 301 Pluck i n d i v i d u a l notes using index, middle, and r i n g fingers, free and rest stroke b-a-g b-a-g-e-d (by moving hand to d i f f e r e n t positions) d-b-e e-d-b-a-g-e-d Perform simple known songs on the pentatonic kantele by ear Improvise melodies on the pentatonic kantele Tone b e l l s : Sustain very simple ostinato patterns on tone b e l l s for accompaniment Play simple songs by ear Percussion instruments: Sustain very simple ostinato patterns on percussion instruments Movement S k i l l s : Walk with partner to a steady beat Perform simple dance steps such as "promenade," "elbow swing," "two- hand swing," "heel-toe," etc. Perform 4 l e v e l of body percussion i n sequence given by teacher (snap, clap, patschen, stamp) Change partners i n concentric c i r c l e dances Perform l i n e dances—form arches, " c a s t - o f f " Create own movements i n order to dramatize songs ( i . e . , songs r e l a t i n g to fables) 302 Chec k l i s t of Expected Achievements i n Music—Grade Three Material Folk songs, a r t songs, work songs within pentatonic and d i a t o n i c scale, usually within the range of an octave Simple 2 and 3 part rounds Songs with simple o s t i n a t i Hymns, psalms, songs with Old Testament themes, Hebrew songs, gardening and farming songs, songs about time, months, and seasons Musical Concepts and S k i l l s In addition to mastery of previously introduced concepts and s k i l l s , the student w i l l be able to: Rhythm: Ide n t i f y and perform "rhythm" of song D i f f e r e n t i a t e rhythm from beat Id e n t i f y "accent" Conduct songs i n 2/4 time C o n d u c t s o n g s i n 3/4 time Conduct songs i n 4/4 time Discover the appropriate meter f o r a given song (2/4, 3/4, 4/4) Perform «l as " t a " Perform f\ as " t i - t i " Perform ^ as " r e s t " — a s i l e n t beat, indicated by hands to side, palms upward Read rhythms w #«* r from a chart or blackboard Use popsicle s t i c k s to derive phrases of songs of 2/4, 3/4 or 4/4 time I d e n t i f y } J as a " t i e " 303 I d e n t i f y as "half note" Read rhythm charts: Perform simple rhythmic canons Determine where accented beats are (meter) I d e n t i f y "bar l i n e s " Place bar l i n e s i n musical notation I d e n t i f y | | as "measure" Perform simple ostinato while singing Take simple rhythmic d i c t a t i o n Complete a "rhythm book"—made by the student in c l u d i n g i l l u s t r a - t i o n s and text concerning the rhythmic concepts studied i n Grade 3 Melody: Id e n t i f y ^ as G c l e f and t r e b l e c l e f I d e n t i f y as F c l e f and bass c l e f I d e n t i f y " s t a f f " Recognize that the s t a f f has f i v e l i n e s and four spaces Recognize that the l i n e s and spaces are counted from the bottom l i n e or space up Recognize, write, and perform the C scale on the C - f l u t e and tone b e l l s Recognize that stems of notes usually go up below the b l i n e and down above the b l i n e Copy music from the board c o r r e c t l y and neatly Take simple melodic d i c t a t i o n Complete a "melody book"—a book made by the student which includes i l l u s t r a t i o n s and text concerning the melodic concepts studied i n Grade 3 Harmony: Sing rounds Perform rounds on instruments 304 Lead rounds Hold own with another person i n a two-part round Form: Recognize as a "phrase mark Recognize Recognize •I II as a "repeat sign as a "double b a r " — e n d of song Dynamics: Use appropriate dynamics i n a piece of music Timbre: Recognize and name the d i f f e r e n t f a m i l i e s of instruments Instrumental S k i l l s C - f l u t e Read and perform on the C-fl u t e B-A B-A-G C-B-A-G D-C-B-A-G F# E D C F (By t h i s time, the student may have begun p r i v a t e t u i t i o n on an instrument of his/her choice. S t r i n g instruments such as v i o l i n and c e l l o are preferred.) 305 Movement S k i l l s Perform simple successive imitation i n canon Move i n 2/4, 3/4, 4/4 time Create own dances Perform question-and-answer improvisation with body percussion Use body movements to demonstrate symbols of musical notation: quarter notes—walking; eighth notes—running; h a l f n o t e s — s t e p , pause; dotted h a l f n o t e s — s t e p , pause, pause; whole n o t e s — s t e p , pause, pause, pause; sixteenth notes—running with t i n y steps Perform simple f o l k dances, i . e . : Dance of Greeting (Clap, clap, bow); We Stamp With the Left Foot; I See You (Swedish); Oats, Peas, Beans and Barley 306 Music Curriculum from The Waldorf School of Baltimore by Joanne K. Karp General Objectives (Grades One Through E i g h t ) : To learn to understand, appreciate, and perform music through the following: 1) E a r - t r a i n i n g ( l i s t e n i n g , "echoing") 2) Singing 3) Rhythmic movement (Dalcroze Eurhythmies) 4) Learning to play the recorder 5) Introduction to the v i o l i n 6) Improvising (in singing and recorder) 7) Learning to read and write music 8) Studying music theory: Melody-Harmony Interval-Scales Modes-Chords 9) Studying musical form, musical s t y l e s and music periods 10) Composing 11) Attending concerts and musical programs 12) Performing i n assemblies, work-shops, and concerts Grade One Students w i l l begin to develop t h e i r singing, e a r - t r a i n i n g , rhythmic under- standing, improvisation, and recorder playing through the following methods: .Listening 307 Echoing Imitating Games St o r i e s Grade Two Students w i l l review and continue to develop t h e i r musical s k i l l s (as i n Grade One) with emphasis on beginning to write rhythmic notation and improvising t h e i r own music through the following: S i n g i n g — i m p r o v i s i n g using rhythmic notation Playing the recorder using rhythmic notation Singing and playing musical "questions and answers" Grade Three Students w i l l further develop t h e i r singing and recorder s k i l l s and begin le a r n i n g basic musical form and the reading and writing of music. This i s accomplished through the use of: S i n g i n g — u s i n g solfege s y l l a b l e s , numbers and l e t t e r names Signing rounds and canons Playing rounds and canons on the recorder Writing t h e i r own music Reading and singing music composed by themselves In addition to the above, a l l t h i r d grade students w i l l be introduced to the v i o l i n i n a Beginner's V i o l i n c l ass, which w i l l meet twice weekly for a period of three months. 308 APPENDIX D SOME CHOROI IMPROVISATION EXERCISES In Grade One, exercises i n improvisation on the i n t e r v a l f l u t e s are designed to c u l t i v a t e the children's tone-matching a b i l i t i e s . As mentioned e a r l i e r , there are three kinds of i n t e r v a l f l u t e (D-A, E-B, and D-G). Idea l l y , there should be one f l u t e for every c h i l d i n the c l a s s , roughly an equal number of each type of f l u t e . Maja Knierim outlined the structure of a musical game with i n t e r v a l f l u t e s . 5 0 0 In t h i s game adapted by the author, the teacher gives a f l u t e to each student and chooses three students with d i f f e r e n t f l u t e s to be leaders. The leaders stand widely apart i n front of the cla s s or i n three corners of the room. One by one, the rest of the c h i l d r e n play t h e i r f l u t e s , and t r y to match t h e i r tones with one of the leaders' f l u t e s . The c h i l d r e n stand behind t h e i r respective leaders. This process continues u n t i l a l l c h i l d r e n have found t h e i r "homes." The teacher then lead the ch i l d r e n i n an improvised composition conducting the groups—palm down for low tones, hand held v e r t i c a l l y f o r high tones. The c h i l d r e n are l a t e r given the experience of leading the groups. Maja Knierim pointed out that the Choroi f l u t e s can also be a kind of percussion instrument—a " f l u t e drum." By pl a c i n g the fingers of the r i g h t hand over the holes and s t r i k i n g the end of the f l u t e with the palm of the ^ t y l a j a K n i e r i m , " T h e I n t e r v a l F l u t e s as P r e c u r s o r s of the P e n t a t o n i c F l u t e , " C h o r o i . by Geert M u l d e r et a l ( C h o r o i p r o m o t i o n a l m a t e r i a l ) , 16. 309 l e f t hand, an i n t e r e s t i n g sound i s produced—a high tone i f a few holes are covered, a low tone i f a l l holes are covered. Melodies may be improvised 501 above a rhythmic ostinato or a steady beat created by the " f l u t e drum." In another improvisation exercise with i n t e r v a l f l u t e s , the teacher asks f i v e c h i l d r e n to l i n e up i n t h i s order: D (D-A f l u t e with closed hole), E (E-B f l u t e with close hole), G (D-G f l u t e with closed hole), A (D-A f l u t e with open hole), and B (E-B f l u t e with open hole). After the teacher conducts t h i s scale up and down, the children change places to create a new melody. Maja Knierim commented on the purpose of the exercise: The ever-changing note sequences stimulate both the players and the l i s t e n e r s very strongly because of the joyfulness, attentiveness, and excitement they create. A f t e r a while the c h i l d r e n w i l l know from the s t a r t how the melody w i l l sound with a new arrangement of players. They w i l l learn the notes p e r s o n i f i e d by t h e i r friends and remember them.^ 0 2 Maja Knierim also advocates question-and-answer improvisation using i n t e r v a l f l u t e s . The teacher improvises a phrase on the pentatonic f l u t e . 503 The c h i l d r e n answer with a phrase played on t h e i r i n t e r v a l f l u t e s . Norbert V i s s e r recommended that children pretend to carry on conversations 504 with t h e i r f l u t e s regarding the weather, what they want to do, etc. ^ M a j a K n i e r i m , " T e a c h i n g the C h o r o i F l u t e , " P e n t a t o n i c and I n t e r v a l F l u t e s f o r K i n d e r g a r t e n and the E a r l y G r a d e s , by Par Ah I bom, Anna Widmark, and Maja K n i e r i m , t r a n s . P e t e r and Karen K l a v e n e s s ( F a i r O a k s , C a l i f o r n i a : C h o r o i M u s i c a l I n s t r u m e n t s , 1986), 11. 5 0 2 M a j a K n i e r i m , C h o r o i . 19. 5 0 3 I b i d , 24 . S O ^ v i s s e r , i n t e r v i e w J u l y 1985. 310 When teaching the pentatonic f l u t e , the teacher i s encouraged to apply much "echo p l a y i n g " or imita t i o n of short musical motifs i n the beginning. When the c h i l d r e n are f a m i l i a r with the fingering, the c h i l d r e n can experiment with improvisation. In one game designed by Maja Knierim, which incorporates l i s t e n i n g , instrumental s k i l l s , and movement, the c h i l d r e n form d i f f e r e n t groups throughout the room. One group i s designated to be, for example, b i r d s i n a pine f o r e s t , another birds on a mountain. A " c a l l e r " moves from one group to the next, playing two or three note motifs. The c h i l d r e n (birds) repeat the phrase. Now several c a l l e r s are delegated to awaken the f o r e s t . The "birds" begin to " f l y " from area to area while playing t h e i r f l u t e s . Eventually, perhaps through a signal from the teacher, they return to t h e i r place and calm i s r e s t o r e d . 5 0 5 P e d r o l i and Bloch u t i l i z e d t h i s improvisation exercise with f l u t e s . The c h i l d r e n stand i n a c i r c l e . One c h i l d walks through the c i r c l e , i m p r o v i s i n g , a n d e v e n t u a l l y s t a n d s i n f r o n t o f a n o t h e r c h i l d w h o t a k e s his/her place. It i s emphasized that the game should take place with no 506 t a l k i n g — " t h e game i s to be led e n t i r e l y by the tone of the f l u t e . " Helmut Krause, a music teacher and class teacher from the Toronto Waldorf School, uses the following hand signs to ind i c a t e pitches when teaching songs. Krause and his students use the signs for improvisation as well. ^ M a j a K n i e r i m , " T e a c h i n g the C h o r o i P e n t a t o n i c F l u t e , " i n P e n t a t o n i c and I n t e r v a l F l u t e s f o r K i n d e r g a r t e n and the E a r l y Grades by Par Ahlbom, Anna Widmark, and Maja K n i e r i m , ( C h o r o i p r o m o t i o n a l m a t e r i a l ) , 8 - 9 . - > ^ P e d r o l i and B l o c h , " P l a y i n g w i t h C h o r o i F l u t e s : An I n t r o d u c t i o n , " 1 2 . 311 The r i g h t hand i s s p e c i f i e d as the "melody hand." The diagram i s drawn as 507 seen from the children's perspective. Pi The author assigned colors to each note C (yellow), B (orange), A (red), G (purple), F (dark blue), E ( l i g h t blue), D (green). In Grades One and Two, only the notes DE GAB were used. Colored dots were drawn v e r t i c a l l y on the board. By pointing to the dots, the author was able to teach and review songs the c h i l d r e n had learned on t h e i r i n t e r v a l f l u t e s , pentatonic f l u t e s , k l a n g s p i e l , and bordun l y r e . (Colored s t r i p s were place along the pegs of the lyre.) The author and the c h i l d r e n were able to create new melodies on the board by pointing to the dots. Using colored p e n c i l s , the c h i l d r e n drew t h e i r compositions for future reference. Exercises i n bordun l y r e improvisation have also been developed by Waldorf School music educators. In one game, the c h i l d r e n s i t or stand i n a c i r c l e ^ ^ H e l m u t K r a u s e , p e r s o n a l l e t t e r d a t e d June 1982. 312 holding l y r e s . One c h i l d strums his/her l y r e and "passes" the strum to the person on his/her r i g h t or l e f t . The sound then t r a v e l from c h i l d to c h i l d around the c i r c l e . In another l y r e exercise, one person improvises a melody and then, by making eye contact with another person strums the instrument i n a downward fashion, and "passes" the melody to another person i n the c i r c l e who "catches" the melody and begins to improvise. Andrea Pronto, l y r e player and teacher, re l a t e d a game which develops l i s t e n i n g s k i l l s and also encourages movement with the l y r e . Two c h i l d r e n are placed within a c i r c l e of children who are standing holding hands. One c h i l d has a l y r e and the other c h i l d i s bli n d f o l d e d . The b l i n d f o l d e d c h i l d must touch the moving c h i l d who improvises on the l y r e while constantly changing p o s i t i o n . A musical game with klangspiel develops s o c i a l awareness and creates a l i s t e n i n g mood. Each c h i l d i s given a removeable klangspiel ( e i t h e r DE GA or B) and a mallet. One c h i l d begins the game by s t r i k i n g his/her kl a n g s p i e l and "passing" the tone through the c i r c l e to another c h i l d i n the c i r c l e , using eye contact and movement of the klangspiel to i n d i c a t e choice. No speaking i s allowed. The c h i l d who receives the tone "passes" i t on to another c h i l d and so on. When the exercise i s executed i n complete s i l e n c e , a melody emerges. This exercise can also be t r i e d with the d i a t o n i c scale and the twelve-tone scale i n l a t e r grades. The author devised a v a r i a t i o n of the game c a l l e d "Secret Friends" i n which tone-matching s k i l l s were practiced. Two sets of klangspiels are needed fo r t h i s game. Each c h i l d i n the c i r c l e has a "secret f r i e n d " with an i d e n t i c a l sounding kla n g s p i e l . By passing the tones through the c i r c l e , each c h i l d attempts to f i n d his/her secret f r i e n d . The author used s t o r y t e l l i n g extensively to f a c i l i t a t e improvisation. (See Appendix E, Stori e s , "The Island.") In one rondo exercise, l y r e s , f l u t e s , and klangspiels improvise together i n the "A" section. In the other sections, c h i l d r e n played solos or group improvisations. 314 APPENDIX E STORIES In t h i s section, some examples of teaching methods of Waldorf School music teachers w i l l be given to demonstrate the use of images and metaphor, pictures and s t o r y t e l l i n g i n the music lesson. 1. Lebret E l i s a b e t h Lebret, author of Shepherd's Sonqbook for Grade One, Two, and Three of Waldorf Schools employed a va r i e t y of media to teach musical notation. The songs i n Lebret's book are connected by a story about the adventures of a shepherd, h i s flock, and h i s dog. To Lebret, the metaphor of a shepherd, that of a natural authority, i s appropriate to the Grade One, Two, and 508 Three Grade l e v e l . Lebret begins her teaching of melodic notation by making the c h i l d r e n aware of the melodic l i n e . "As the r e a l music occurs i n the i n t e r v a l s , not i n the tones themselves, the melodic l i n e i n i t s movement might be the very 509 f i r s t step into an awareness of 'higher' and 'lower'" 5 0 8 L e b r e t , 3 . 5 0 9 I b i d , 6 8 . 315 To introduce the idea of higher and lower pitches, she suggested that a group of c h i l d r e n move across the room from l e f t to r i g h t while singing and "write" the melody with t h e i r arms i n the a i r . At the end of the phrase, the c h i l d r e n rush back to begin again. These movements can then be produced i n written form i n the children's music books and i l l u s t r a t e d with p i c t u r e s . Lebret suggested that the s t a f f be introduced p i c t o r i a l l y . She taught a three note song about a r i v e r . She explained that she drew a t h i c k long blue l i n e to represent a r i v e r on the board. Above the r i v e r , she sketched brown "reeds," and below the r i v e r , a green meadow. These areas represent the three notes. The short and long "tracks," the melody representing the movement of the c h i l d , are drawn i n . Lebret suggested that the song could be written on the f l o o r as well and the song could then be "walked" through. The c h i l d r e n then draw t h i s portrayal of the song i n t o t h e i r 511 music notebooks. To introduce the f i v e - l i n e music s t a f f , Lebret made a wooden staff out of doweling. Five horizontal wooden s t i c k s or doweling were f i t t e d i n t o two v e r t i c a l poles. The distance between the s t i c k s was wide enough for a c h i l d f i s t to be placed i n between to represent a space i n order that the c h i l d gains an understanding of the concept that the space i s between the l i n e s . To demonstrate a note on a l i n e , the c h i l d grasps the s t i c k . The c h i l d r e n sing the song while producing the tones on the wooden s t a f f . In t h i s way, the s t a f f i s given to the children "with the c h i l d ' s own l i v i n g 5 1 0 i b i d . 5 1 1 I b i d , 69. 316 512 hand, on the basis of hearing." The ch i l d r e n then write t h e i r songs i n t h e i r notebooks, eventually using eleven notes from C-E^" by the end of 513 Grade Three. Absolute p i t c h i s a concept that some chi l d r e n f i n d d i f f i c u l t to grasp ac- cording to Lebret. To make t h i s idea easier to understand, Lebret advocated that the teacher l i n k the names of the notes with the children's f i r s t or l a s t names. Lebret referred to these notes as "family." The "tones" can be c a r r i e d to t h e i r proper places by ch i l d r e n whose names do not s t a r t with the l e t t e r names of the musical alphabet. Only then i s i t time to l i n k a note with a p o s i t i o n on the s t a f f . Lebret explained to the chi l d r e n that G holds the secret of where the tones should be on the s t a f f . The G fi x e s i t s sign on the s t a f f to declare that i t s home i s on the second l i n e and that a l l others must f a l l i n l i n e ! Lebret suggested that the t r e b l e c l e f be drawn on the f l o o r and that the c h i l d r e n 514 have the opportunity to walk i t s form. 2. Preston In a booklet e n t i t l e d "A New Stri n g Experience." Margaret Preston, music s p e c i a l i s t at the Sacramento Waldorf School, outlined her l y r e program for 5 1 2 I b i d . 5 1 3 I b i d . ^ L e b r e t , 70 . 317 the Grade Three Class. C r u c i a l to her program are her s t o r i e s about the instruments and how musical notation came into being. The story, "The F i r s t Harp," an I r i s h t a l e by Padraic Colum, helps the c h i l d r e n to make a connection to the instrument they w i l l play. Another story i n the booklet, "Apollo's Lyre," by Marianna Brike, introduces the notes of the pentatonic scale DE GAB. Preston's own story "Return to Heaven" i s a sequel to "Apollo's Lyre." I t explains how the hero, the Shining One, returns to heaven to teach the Angels to play and sing. However, they soon forget t h e i r notes. They need a way of storing or remembering the music. The matter i s taken up by Father God. Then the Father God did a strange thing. He motioned for some Music Angels to bring him a large, misty cloud. He stood before a cloud of mist. He raised his mighty hands and spread his fingers wide apart. With a large sweep across the cloud with h i s fingers of one hand, he made f i v e l i n e s appear. With a large sweep of the other hand, he made f i v e more l i n e s appear below i t . [On the chalkboard, the s t o r y t e l l e r w i l l do the same with his/her hands.] On the top part, he made a sign which rose up l i k e a fountain. On the bottom, he made another sign 515 which covered a l l f i v e l i n e s . The c h i l d r e n r e c i t e t h i s verse as they write the t r e b l e c l e f i n the a i r or i n t h e i r music notebooks: A fountain of music rose i n the sky And tumbled down before my eye And splashed upon a s t a f f of gold And curled i t s e l f around my s o u l . 5 ^ • ^ M a r g a r e t P r e s t o n , A New S t r i n g E x p e r i e n c e ( F a i r Oaks , C a l i f o r n i a : R u d o l f S t e i n e r C o l l e g e , 1984) , 10. 5 1 6 I b i d . 318 3. Bouldinq Pam Boulding i s a professional harpist, recording a r t i s t , and music teacher at the Morning Star School i n Gig Harbor, Washington. Boulding teaches music notation i n Grade Four. She believes that i n teaching musical notation, the learning of the notes should precede the learning of rhythmic values. She argues that " i t i s much more l o g i c a l to bring i n what these notes are, and who they are, where they are, how they sound, how they look 517 on paper before you learn what i s a half, a whole, a quarter note." Because Boulding always begins and ends her songs on "A," which she r e f e r s to as the "sun tone," she f e e l s that t h i s note i s the f i r s t tone the c h i l d r e n should learn. She teaches the c h i l d r e n a song about the sun which consists of only one note, 'A.' The c h i l d r e n are able, i n Boulding's words, "to f i n d the 'A' from the a i r , because we always began with 'A. ' . . . They could always sing "A' and then f i n d i t on the l y r e . " Boulding explained that her s t o r i e s , songs, and methods of teaching music are determined by what the children seem to need at the moment. She described how she used s t o r y t e l l i n g and pi c t u r e s to teach musical notation to a p a r t i c u l a r Fourth Grade c l a s s : I drew a s t a f f on the board. I drew a b e a u t i f u l sun where the "A" l i v e d . The next note I brought was the "D" for "donkey." The donkey i s the symbol of carrying the heavens on i t s back. We learned about the donkey which c a r r i e d a l l the s t a f f on i t s back. This i s , of course, a f i f t h , going down. Going down i s always the f i r s t progression with me, so i t was natural to go ^ ? L . E terman, u n p u b l i s h e d i n t e r v i e w s , 10. 319 from "A" to "D." So we go from the center to t h i s donkey which i s c a r r y i n g t h i s b e a u t i f u l s t a f f on his b a c k . 5 1 8 Boulding next taught the note B. Because i t was close to Christmas, she connected the "B" with "Baby." "B", as you know, i s the center of the s t a f f . We made a b e a u t i f u l blue mantle that wrapped t h i s note, t h i s b e a u t i f u l golden note wrapped i n Mary's blue mantle. I guess that as far as the p r i n c i p l e s of Steiner are concerned—I waited f o r the signs of what to bring next and when to bring i t . A l l the music and these things came to me as g i f t s just at the r i g h t time. I f e l t , i n a way that i t was a g i f t from the s p i r i t u a l forces to bring t h i s music to the chil d r e n i n t h i s way. They know these sounds and these n o t e s . 5 1 9 The "E" was introduced around the time of "Epiphany." Boulding recognized that these four notes, "B," "A," "E," and "D" were the notes of the Tao," the f i r s t four notes according to ancient Chinese t r a d i t i o n . A f t e r these notes, "G," "F," and "C" were introduced. 5 1 8 I b i d / 30 . 5 1 9 l b i d , 3 1 . 5 2 0 I b i d , 32 . 320 4. Krause To teach melodic notation i n Grade Three, Helmut Krause, a c l a s s teacher at the Toronto Waldorf School, t o l d a story about a cat walking down a path. The hollow dots represented long notes and the s o l i d dots represented short notes. Krause explained: This i s the "A" on the Choroi f l u t e [the recorder used by some Waldorf School c h i l d r e n ] . The middle note from which we move up and down and to which we often return. But cats are very curious creatures. Soon, she jumps on the edge of the path to walk on the l i n e , then back to the safety of the path—but not fo r l o n g . 5 2 0 Krause and the c h i l d r e n created a "path" on the f l o o r . The c h i l d r e n moved as Krause plays a melody on h i s recorder. One day, the cats became inventive, Krause continued. A cat named "Albert" decided he would be the leader and from then on h i s path was c a l l e d "Albert's walk." His f r i e n d , Betsy walked on the l i n e above and was c a l l e d 520Helmut Krause, personal letter-to author-dated June 1982. 321 "Betsy's path- Later, Krause and the c l a s s discovered and named a l l the notes of the G pentatonic scale (DE GAB DE). 5. Watson Marjorie Watson described how she used s t o r y t e l l i n g to teach rhythm notation i n an a r t i c l e i n C h i l d and Man, a magazine for Waldorf teachers 521 and parents. In Grade One, Watson t o l d a story about a king who wanted to protect h i s daughters. He sent f o r h i s s o l d i e r s to march around the c a s t l e . The princesses skipped and played, u n