UBC Theses and Dissertations

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Grade 7 students' conceptions of division Shandola, Darlene 1990

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ASPECTS OF EROS IN EMILE ZOLA'S GERMINAL By LUKE HESTON SANDFORD B.A., The U n i v e r s i t y  of B r i t i s h  Columbia,  1988  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE  STUDIES  Department o f F r e n c h  We a c c e p t t h i s to  thesis  the required  as c o n f o r m i n g standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA February Luke H e s t o n  1990  Sandford,  1990  In  presenting  degree freely  at  the  available  copying  of  department publication  this  of  in  partial  fulfilment  University  of  British  Columbia,  for  this or  thesis  reference  thesis by  this  for  his thesis  and  scholarly  or for  her  of  French  The University of British C o l u m b i a Vancouver, Canada  Date  DE-6 (2/88)  F e b r u a r y 12,  1990  I  I  further  the  representatives. gain  shall  requirements  agree  that  agree  purposes may  financial  permission.  Department  study.  of  be  It not  that  the  be  an  advanced  Library shall  permission for  granted  is  for  by  understood allowed  the  make  extensive  head  that  without  it  of  copying my  my or  written  i i ABSTRACT According the  first  beings  concepts world  of  to arise  harmony  primary  Germinal  o u t o f Chaos  and  eroticism. Zola's  fear  i s the fear  accomplished  union  that  E r o s was one o f  and r e p r e s e n t e d t h e  necessary  in creating  the  emphasis  the breaking  depiction  human  treatment  textual  chaos.  sexuality,  of  the  French  urges  This  i n s i s t e n c y on along  working  literature:  with class,  o f t h e two g r e a t e s t l i t e r a r y  century  of b o d i l y  on  (and e x p l o i t s ) i n  and o f s o c i a l  to a relentless  ground-breaking  nineteenth  Zola addresses  of anarchy  thanks  This  represents in  Greek m y t h o l o g y ,  and i t s c r e a t u r e s . The  is  to classical  taboos  the  and t h e m i n u t e e x a m i n a t i o n  vivid of the  proletariat. Our  thesis  incontestable from  literary  Zola's  the  erotic  logical  to  This  i n Zola's  elements most  of  extension  and  reading of Germinal.  these  largely timorous bourgeois  o f t h e c o r p o r e a l and  reconcile comprise  novel,  and t h e  stem  reigning  therefore,  which  famous  of  of  depictions  to  impact  Germinal  shattering  essay,  describe,  contradictory text  longevity  his persistent  erotic.  analyze,  the r e v o l u t i o n a r y  successful  traditions--the morals--via  i s that  that  is  an  the the  attempt diverse erotic  i s to provide  to and suban  iii TABLE  OF CONTENTS  Abstract  Table  i i  of Contents  i i i  Acknowledgements  iv  Introduction Chapter  One  Erotic  Chapter  Faces  F a c e s o f t h e Female Under P a t r i a r c h y  5  38  Three  Erotic Chapter  o f t h e P a t r i a r c h a l Male  Two  Erotic Chapter  1  Deviance  69  Four  Eroticism Concluding  and C l a s s  Remarks  Revolution  106 142  Notes  145  Works C o n s u l t e d  150  iv ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The end  realization  of t h i s  thesis  comes v e r y  near  to t h e  o f f o u r y e a r s o f s t u d y and r e s e a r c h i n t h e Department o f  French  at  courses, taught  U.B.C. I  thank  me  Jocelyne  For  over  a l l those those  Baverel,  inspired  me  their  i n my  Department  four  whose  enlightening  years,  superb  reacquaintance  and  agreeable  members  who  have  and,  in  particular,  teaching  of  French  302  language  and  with  French  1iterature. A  grateful  painstaking prunings In  editorial  to  Dr.  talents  and  of the preposterous proved addition,  advisor,  Dr.  instructor, This friends,  salute  Floyd  St.  my  Clair,  whose  i s dedicated  a  Proustian  thanks  supportive  t o my and  t e a c h e r , and a d e a r to  of t h i s  whose  b o t h e- and p r o v o c a t i v e .  my  p a t i e n c e , encouragement,  to the completion  Sarkonak,  propitiously  heartfelt  a warm and e b u l l i e n t thesis  invaluable  I extend  Ralph  extended and  project.  thesis  generous friend.  family  l o v e have  and been  1 INTRODUCTION What  i s naturalism?  the  reader  unfamiliar  Emile  Zola's  gives  some  idea  as t o t h e s i g n i f i c a n t  role  thought  once  played  and l i t e r a r y  of  which  works,  To  advocated  especially century  as  this  France  considered  t o be  sensations structure  a  a  i n which  t o each  of  form,  movement  in  nineteenth-  naturalism  within  beings  be  i t  storms,  (1885)  is  and  unfolds,  a  and n a t u r a l f o r c e s  struggle  with  times i n  and a t o t h e r  S u r p r i s i n g l y , as an passive  "Le n a t u r a l i s m e II d i t :  may  Nature:  seasons,  Germinal  an u n u s u a l l y  was  point  ceci  As  be i n a p o s i t i o n but  Zola  his artistic a close they  for this  inadvertently  quotation.  question,  that  claims  starting  Zola  popular  but  school  role  imaginative  i n molding h i s  ne se p r o n o n c e p a s . est.  C'est  II  au p u b l i c de  l e s conclusions.""'"  Emile  is:  drama  other.  II d e c r i t .  The  not  illustrated  changing  i n concert  creation:  examine.  that this  term  and f a c t u a l d e s c r i p t i o n ,  for truth of  human  resistance  tirer  search  the  at times  literary  was  simple  backdrop  that  Zola  method  i t s most  endlessly,  artist  realistic  of t h i s  i n t h e w r i t i n g s o f Z o l a and G u s t a v e F l a u b e r t .  in  against  as an a r t i s t i c  detailed  Expressed  thus  the d i c t i o n a r y d e f i n i t i o n  with  essay  lying  a literary  t o reach  when  that  he f o r m u l a t e d  this  doctrine, naturalism  a moral  the n a t u r a l i s t  i s our b e l i e f  "verdict"  novelist  most  on a  may  given  certainly  and m o r a l p r o n o u n c e m e n t s may be d i s g u i s e d ,  reading  of h i s t e x t — b e t w e e n  are nonetheless  blindingly  thel i n e s - - r e v e a l s  present.  2 One that  of  of  the role  Germina1  was  thirteenth the  the primordial  great  played  Eros  in a  natural  and s o c i a l  t h e Second  larger  literary  Empire  novel  endeavors:  cycle  but  series,  of a family III.  Germinal  of Zola's;  is  and r e p r e s e n t s t h e  Napoleon  then,  work  do we  mean  when  world?  In Greek  and  t h e god o f l o v e ;  was  instinct  we  living  Within  this  i s not the only  but i t i s undoubtedly  governs  Eros  and p s y c h o s e x u a l  of  t h e s e domains i n t h i s course,  without Greek  personification  represent instinct,  Nyx. what  life.  from  considered  opposed this  of  Eros  as  tend  towards  has  both  Eros we  shall  life  a  draw upon  forces  mythopoeic  be  Thanatos,  t h e name to  of Eros.  puissant,  would  incomplete  the  ancient  t h e son o f t h e g o d d e s s o f  was  human p r o c e s s e s o f c r e a t i o n  Viewed  of Eros  of death,  extraordinarily  that  Thus  analysis  the antithesis  diametrically  theory,  essay.  Thanatos he  and t h e e r o t i c  t h e son o f A p h r o d i t e  heritage;  any d i s c u s s i o n  corresponding  night,  was  acts of s e l f - p r e s e r v a t i o n  mythological  Of  t o Eros  i n Freudian  enjoyment  both  refer  mythology,  uninhibited  are  oeuvre  greatest. What  and  i n human vacuum,  under  context,  erotically-centered  the  i n Zola's  i n t h e t w e n t y - v o l u m e Rougon-Macquart  during  his  by  not w r i t t e n  link  questions  be  a  Freud  chose  universal  For although  to  death  the natural  and r e g e n e r a t i o n i n G e r m i n a l so of  too are the violence  and e p i c  and  ostensibly cataclysm.  perspective,  Germinal  3 is  i n part  if  we  a synthesis  of the E r o t i c  are to appreciate  presiding  genius  Northrop  o f comedy  and o f t h e  Frye s  a s s e r t i o n that "the  1  i s Eros"  Thanatonic:  and t h a t  "Eros  has t o  2 adapt  himself  t o the moral  a l s o make a l l o w a n c e s "presiding In  by  i s Gaea,  functions  interact  with  be  a  reconciled Gaea  where  i n t h e study  and of  explain  science of l i f e  wish  and  Terrible  espouses  a  distinctions  Mother,  or trance  holistic between  view life  of  and  that  Nature  death  and  by  that  i t i s by no related Rather, as a  on t h e n a t u r a l Nature/Mother  to the archetypal  argue  almost  i n Germinal  Mother  . a  amongst New Age  that  of industry  will  could  We a r e aware  channeling.  fury  although  things  are  any s t e r e o t y p i c a l l y  effects  we  i s alive  landscape,  religion  favour  at  since  processes"^  on E a r t h . recent  feel  living  Germinalian  E a r t h / G a e a a p p e a r s t o have r e v e r t e d of  We  Uranus  Goddess  i n which  the t e r r e s t r i a l  environment:  o f E r o s and  "the p l a n e t  t o emphasize  crystals  of the v i o l a t i v e  human  that  chemical  the  has f o u n d  and we  proximity  of the Earth  theory  geophysical  of healing  of Thanatos, the  the T i t a n s .  superorganism  hypothesis  i s to  result and  and  o u r i n t e n t i o n t o embrace  notions it  a  we must  o f t h e e a r t h , who b o r e  Cronus,  scientific  world  practitioners, means  the mythical  description  naturalist  the  with  t h e goddess  as  role  then  tragedy.  i n introducing the notion  James L o v e l o c k ' s  well  of  him Oceanus,  liberty  and  f o r t h e competing  conjunction  Thanatos and  genius"  f a c t s of s o c i e t y "  Zola  status  actually  blurring  between  Eros  the and  4 Thanatos. These many  blurrings  examples  of  of  binary  oxymoron  m e l o d r a m a t i c n a r r a t i v e and part  of  our  choice  of  notions  We first,  words  of  crucial  methodology in  t o an  erotic  have  divided  we  analyze  create)  and  this  sexuality  the  examination  of  Finally,  the  social All  referenced  in  this  the  class  code  of In  of  erotic  focus  on  attempt  of  machismo Chapter  In  fact,  Zola's  to  show  and  men  and  affect  exact  how  the  irony  are  Two  we  is  devoted  and  Zola's  we  In  the  explore  how  (and,  in  discuss  women as v i c t i m s and  chapter  Zola's  four chapters.  nature  Three  in  to  novel.  into  deviance  fourth  as  to  part, female  potential  a  critical  sexual  i n v e s t i g a t e the  ideals. question  revolution.  quotations  taken  from  p a r e n t h e t i c a l l y and  Garnier-Flammarion  to  rise  subtext.  oxymoron,  essay  Chapter  and  be  of the  erotic  role  revolutionaries.  will  give  both  in his erotic  reading  the  irony,  blurring,  nature.  and  and  linguistic  thematic  patriarchy  of  a  distinctions  edition  have been n u m e r i c a l l y  of  Zola's  are 1968.  referenced.  based  novel on  the  A l l other  have t e x t of  been the  quotations  5  CHAPTER EROTIC FACES OF Patriarchy  is  organization a  result,  traced as  such  through  most  described  in  but  of  in  power  the  of  terms  Catherine  relationship  line  the  and  of  as  of  capital,  the  system  focus  i f you  not  only  striking  on  in  concerns bitter  political coalminersand  i t permeates  the the  male power i s a l s o v e r y  one male  "possession"  secondly,  Etienne,  this  will:  thematic  in  society-  backdrop f o r the  Hennebeau, and  since  Within to  are  i s known  worse,  dominant  intend  as  title  i n e v i t a b l y , the  well—for  Maheu;  or  social  family;  i n what  central  Chaval  of  and  Germinal.  i t forms t h e  leadership  thirdly,  the  the  kinship,  i t s bedrock,  i s one  i n t e r e s t s of  workers;  been  in  form  better  however, we  Etienne  erotic  "domination" of  the  has  Zola  firstly,  the  antagonistic  For  patriarchy,  between  terms—for  descent,  patriarchy  Emile  novel:  rivalry  of  genealogical  male  a  head o f  the  definition,  Male  the  i s the  succession.  by  element  power.  a male  as  societies, including,  sociological key  defined  as  history  Western  PATRIARCHAL MALE  concepts  patrilineal  recorded  THE  normally  i n which  ONE  the  representative spokesman much a t  for  stake  6 within  the bourgeoisie  operator the  itself  since  Deneulin,  t h e owner-  o f t h e J e a n - B a r t mine, must t r y v a l i a n t l y  monopolistic  designs  of  t h e Company's  although  ultimately  t o no a v a i l ;  finally,  is  throughout  the novel  a  used  as  to resist  takeover b i d , masculine  means  power  of subjugating  women;  i n o t h e r words, t h e hegemony o f t h e male i n G e r m i n a l  ensures  that,  f o r t h e most p a r t ,  t h e man w i l l  hand o v e r t h e woman, t h e r e b y r e l e g a t i n g inferior  status,  temporary--in Since and  male  assuring  the battle  Germinal  i s painted  should  and  such  come as no s u r p r i s e  pride  bold that  i n i t s extremes.  o f male  essentially obdurate the  virile  strength  Z o l a would  and  terms  potential  competitors,  chosen  as w e l l ;  erotic  (his  impenetrable  (his  castle).  "might "la  raison  domain  he must  fort  on t h e  d e c r e e s an  o f t h e sexes  and o f  a t a l l t i m e s be and  preferably  a l l o t h e r m a l e s as ready  t o defend  h i s physical  and h i s m a t e r i a l i s t i c  ( i n French,  du p l u s  heavily  and even  perpetually  ( h i s queen),  armour),  Finally,  i s right"  and be  by t h e  The macho code i s  erotic, treat  to portray  i s governed  t h e male must  he must  strokes, i t  choose  relies  advocates  i n physical,  financial  his  which  differentiation  perform:  potent,  pride  and d o m i n a n c e .  and i n t r a c t a b l e they  victory--albeit  and s u p e r e p i c  This  a s e x u a l one w h i c h  functions  himself  with q u a s i - m y t h i c a l heroism  code o f machismo, a v a l u e s y s t e m ideals  h e r t o s e c o n d a r y and  of the sexes.  i s concerned  with  have t h e upper  being  concerns  s u b s c r i b e t o t h e maxim o f  to the rules  o f conduct  est toujours l a meilleure"  that  or that  7 "la  force  between they  prime  le droit").  t h e two w a r r i n g  are nonetheless  traditional matters,  including  macho code, w i t h The  i f we  implications of  by  an  pitting best in  Eros  spiritual  activism.  Etienne's  attempt  himself  utility  and i n t o  justice. asceticism  a  vow  proper we  the  terms,  performance  t o be  establish Etienne's  a  the  behavior  struggle i s  ideals  doctrine  forces  of  social such as  of  requires i t s priests  chastity.  parallel  works  and  sexual  a s s o c i a t e d i n t h e West w i t h t h e  which  notion  messianism  unconscious  of  the  political  this  of e g a l i t a r i a n  Since  forum f o r an i n - d e p t h a n a l y s i s  introduce  involve  machismo a t i t s  into  the powerful  component  i s bedeviled  which  then,  institutionalized  Church,  of absolute  of  sublimated  the espousal  has come  Roman C a t h o l i c  Lantier,  a h e r o i c and a b s t e m i o u s  t o channel  The  of the e r o t i c  and p r o v o k i n g i s  f o r c e s of t r a d i t i o n a l  In e r o t i c  into  to the  entails.  so p i v o t a l  t h e terms  i s carefully  within  canon  protagonist, Etienne  against  familial  of a l l e g i a n c e  What makes t h e e r o t i c  struggle,  (or worst)  and  understanding  i n Germinal  of the v i o l e n t  which  an  of the n o v e l .  internal  strike,  p r i d e and i t s v a r i o u s i n j u r i e s i s  are to gain  the novel's  carved  subscription to  in political  sexist  gulf  the miners'  mutual  pledge  this  o f male  t h e macho e t h i c  that  standards  a l l that  the vast  during  by t h e i r  the c r u c i a l  question  critical  classes  linked  patriarchal  Despite  of  this  of Catholic  sexual  between  sacrifice  i s not the orthodoxy, merely  to  erotic  subtext  of  temptations  that  the  and t h e B i b l i c a l  essay  t o uphold  Jesus  8 of  Nazareth  has  underwent.  In  C h r i s t ' s attempt  much  in  common  with  a  role  of  divine  with  sacrifice  i n the  In t h e sexual the  Germinalian  way,  abstention  As  is  tension,  Etienne  the  other  leader  as  in  an  cheek.  He  i n the  must  she  the  cartboys  by  who  in  effect  l'adorait sexual lust  doubts  comme  Jesus"  for  Etienne  violence  his  which  flawed  plague  sense of m a s c u l i n i t y .  of  La  He  "defend  of  the  initially because  political the  humble  proportion  of  her  La M o u q u e t t e i s  h i s Mary M a g d a l e n e In  non-  to turn  his  way,  this  of  Mouquette  rank  the  addition  to  "qui  overtly  a l s o p a r a d o x i c a l l y expunge h i s  shalt  own  of  ideal  of  In t h i s  of  resolve  admonition  the  (272).  heredity  his  the  insignifcant  actually  commandment—"thou  with  to  nemesis,  must  by  to  of  spiritual  spurn—although  advances  partners. erotic  un  symbolic  Etienne's  attain  Bible, i n much  benefit  tension:  Biblical  not  Etienne's  matters,  primary peace  sexual  strike,  to  him  a  also  the  effectiveness  reducing comprise  multitudinous  for  eventually  amorous  compromises  is  above t h e macho d i c t u m  succumbing - t o — t h e  leadership  strike  sexual  temptations.  trait;  attempt  embodied  seductive  heroic  the  terms  necessitating  essential  erotic  must r i s e  come t o  Christian  of  in  to  struggle  i n the  miners'  rooted  death"  violence  an  erotic  as  self-sacrifice  turmoil  to  leadership  universe,  is  the  and  collective.  Etienne's  f a c e of p o w e r f u l l y  forbearance  same  fact,  breaking  the  not  kill"—in  and  to  vulnerable  must t a s t e t h e  Decalogue's order  eliminate and  t o make  the  self-  individualistic  prideful  triumph  of  9 sexual  superiority  truly give  be  a  leader  in to his  transcend  in victorious o f men  unconscious  a t peace  with  before  himself;  instincts  before  Walker's  mythopoeic  he can he  must  he may u l t i m a t e l y  them.  In  refuting  Zola's  novel,  see  .  .  macho combat  Philip  F. W.  . any  J . Hemmings  widespread  or  has s t a t e d  analysis  that  significant  "we  of  cannot  'application  of 4  Christian,  Celtic,  In  of  light  Etienne's be  and Greco-Roman m y t h o l o g y '  the  overtly  character  egregious  evangelical  and  and b e h a v i o r ,  fallacious.  zeal  ( 1 8 2 ) and  refusing  earthly  power  darkness  (285 ).  In a c t u a l  which  motivates  Thus,  even  during  the  Etienne  still  front  of  glimpse  night-time feels  into and  him  increasing  the  be  be t h e C h r i s t  being  in  of  resolve  all-too-human  I t seems  as  a  having  ( 240),  light  i t i s the s p i r i t his political  the  thwarted  dynamics  assertion to  i s shown  forest  t h e need t o "se f a i r e his  this  in  as  i n the of  Eros  ambition.  t h e a d u l a t i o n o f t h e crowd  self-satisfaction  embourgeoisement. not  received  present  of prophecy  as  and c h a r g e s  leadership  to  the g i f t  meeting  Catherine,  steeliness reveals  having  find  Etienne  fact,  Germinal."  elements  we  ( 2 4 1 ) and  Etienne  after  messianic  in  clear  love  as  Vandame,  acclamer"  (289)  interest.  Etienne's  of that  r e t u r n e d , he i s a t l e a s t  since i t  and  his although  This  socialistic  i s instructive in his vanity  in  i n the  incipient Etienne  a Marxist  may  apostle  of t h e R e v o l u t i o n . The  circumstances  involving  La  Mouquette's  eventual  10 seduction  of  reacts with tone  Etienne  are also  revealing:  amusement--but w i t h o u t  initially,  he  d e s i r e - - t o her l a s c i v i o u s  and t o h e r e r o t i c a l l y - c e n t e r e d  antics.  "Elle  promenait  ...  l ' i n d e c e n c e de son costume, d'un comique t r o u b l a n t , avec  ses  bosses  Note  how  chair,  Zola's  attributes very  de  as  to a certain  well.  outbreak  of  collapsed  a  that  bread  and w i n e ,  strike, heap  Biblical  account  t o La  extension, her and h e r with  Mouquette's pourtant,  (165).  Later  witnesses  i s saved  bodily of  sexual  mais  sans  on, a f t e r t h e an  almost  o l d woman dead  "avec  du g e n i e v r e  from  charity  reiterated  i n t h e same  the last  as  Mouquette's  force  demonstrated chapter  Mouquette's  by  when  Previously, de r e t o u r n e r  concupiscent  as  outlined  Supper.  of her potatoes  eat instead. ainsi  sacrifice  This La  Etienne  practical  Mouquette  is  felt  a Requillart"  and  sincere  i n the of  t h e Maheu  i n t e n t i o n s were  and o f  notion  she s e l f l e s s l y  so t h a t  e t un  e q u i v a l e n t of  of the Catholic l i t u r g y  the Last  Christian  La  s i n c e her  the preceding  the roadside,  t h e symbols  ultimate  is  physical  her d i s a b i l i t y  compare  Etienne  on  by  redeemed, t h a t i s , by t h e m i n e r s '  Christ's  La  "l'infirmite"  non, amuse  d'elle"  t h e woman  (258),  "d'etre  Mouquette's  I t i s t h a n k s t o t h e a s s i s t a n c e and g e n e r o s i t y o f La  pain"  may  on  reaction  envie  the  in  Mouquette  Etienne  La  extent  may  "Et i l d i s a i t  l a moindre  hunger.  One  good-natured  advances: avoir  of  l ' i n f i r m i t e " (53).  and h y p e r f e m i n i n i t y - - a n d ,  erotomania--are  Etienne's  exaggeration  jusqu'a  n e c e s s a r i l y borders  strength  weakness  exagerees  gives family  intimidated (264) s i n c e  so e v i d e n t .  It  application  of  11 Christian sexual  caritas  union  which  that  pleasures decision much  t o break  desires eyes  with  off their  and h i s p e r c e i v e d  o f h i s comrades:  Etienne's  i s unsure  l a fLa  second  whether  (277),  drug  complete  addict's  weekends! is  The r e a l  his attraction  Mouquette physical  fact,  psychological of  unapproachability  highly  ironic  frequency the  change  Etienne  to  rien  outset,  this  superiority  In t h e f i n a l  i n Etienne's  heart.  petite  The that  fois,  closet,  Maheu, by  androgyny,  who  de  of the on  however,  unlike  virtue  La  of her  and h e r s e x u a l  Chaval.  inaccessibility i n Germinal. i n Catherine into  f u r n i s h e s much o f  Furthermore,  this  and E t i e n n e ' s consideration  i n t h e mining  inaccessibility  that  of c o c a i n e — e x c e p t  inaccessible  activity  i n the  . . . qu'elle  (277).  qu'une  Catherine  take  sexual  i s serious i n stating  her p a r t i a l  i f we  of sexual  very  of e r o t i c  renouncement  skeleton  erotic drama  d e s p i t e being  f e a r o f g o s s i p and s l a n d e r  a t t h e hands o f A n t o i n e  In  the  an a s s e r t i o n h i g h l y r e m i n i s c e n t  i s erotically immaturity,  thraldom  f o r moral  Mouquette) r e v e r r a i t ,  temps a a u t r e "  takes  h i s own s t r o n g  l a c a u s e de l a p o l i t i q u e "  actuates  h i s carnal  He  "II l u i expliquait  i t i s i n part this  "il  relationship  need  analysis,  reader  towards  Mouquette.  between  couple.  o f embarrassment and  reacts  La  of the c o n f l i c t  compromettait  feelings  finally  tasted  f o r the eventual  as a t e m p o r a r y  i t i s with  Etienne as  aware  t h e way  o f h e r and E t i e n n e  Nevertheless, shame  paves  the  concept  dealings i s the  high  community.  At  i s r e i n f o r c e d by E t i e n n e ' s  12 outsider  status;  ostensibly Indeed,  precludes  o f young  and  unused m i n i n g  of  Etienne's  finirait,  poverty On  a  lovers  political  which  emphasizes  of the mining  required  art for erotic  and  foreboding  activities, Peeping  this  notion  moralistic plutot  of  the  since  thought:  however,  "Peut-etre  que dans  them, l e a d  c a ne  meurt-de-  the  an  what  he  reacts  serrer  like  impassioned an a l i e n a t e d hovels  exacerbates with  Etienne's  the  following pas  l e s cuisses...?" is  (143).  du  (143).  careful  confusement  seul..."  and  Perhaps  n'auraient  narrator  a  sinister  and d e c a y .  qu'elles  in this  "art requis",  ramshackle  ruin  name  a l l t h e young  i s something  is  d'etre  of  f o r these  of  the  existence.  pleasure  by E t i e n n e  moral  moment on, E t i e n n e ' s p h i l o s o p h y join  almost  in  ne r e m u a i t - i l  1'ennui  choice  their  setting  "Est-ce  l e ventre,  de  the miners'  There  background  suggesting  sadness  take  part  watched  a  "Jamais  toujours  that  living.  decadence  moment,  interject: moroses  amid  se boucher  this  taking  about  debris  voyeuristic  by  activities  Tom  industrial  At  is  amorous  of the deserted  place:  Zola's  community  that  comrade.  t o the interminable c y c l e of  the fact  manner,  a  that the c r y s t a l l i z a t i o n  typifies  level,  with  the ruins  takes  "ga" r e f e r s  morphological  people  amid  zeal  engagement  the promiscuously  s'emplissaient  Here,  political  involvement  p i t at Requillart  and l a s s i t u d e  Requillart  his  witnessing  s i elles  (143).  on,  erotic  i t i s while  activities  faim"  later  to  ces idees From  this  becomes one o f " i f you c a n ' t  them and w i t h i n t h e s p a c e  o f two c h a p t e r s he  13 is  fervently  fund  and  naively then,  recommending  g a l v a n i z i n g the political  political  all  centered  on  of  of  sexual  the  Etienne  the  generated  the an  erotic as  Lantier's  prize  for  beset  by  the  male r i t u a l s ,  in  by de  Chaval's  mentions  (71).  diabolical  timely, into  thin  he  nose.  The  according  to  which  to  we  Lucifer,  the  cunning.  son  In the  red  allusion saying  eagles  are  a d d i t i o n , the Latin  les  as  and  to  "ce  own  transcend  as  t o where  in  personality as  au  Chaval  "un  et  sa  grand  is  grand  forts"  (60).  barbiche  nez  en  bee  d e p i c t i o n of  black,  the  with an  eagle  n'est  pas  "aigle"  "aquila/aquilus" ,  colors  a goatee  associated with French  his  i s the  thin, to  portrays  to  traits  noir,  and  representing  Zola  moustaches  then,  i s bony,  French  Etienne  description  visage  in  of  Whereas  contrast  osseux,  have,  friction--is  Maheu  doubt  is  agonizings.  literary  struggling  i s no  " £sj es  drawn  to  related  his  Germinal  erotic  confusion  as  The  that  What  reference  and  with  indeed  in  opposition  physical  dans  figure  like  internal  and  there  regard.  flambaient  d'aigle"  long,  family  is  Catherine  namely  v i n g t - c i n q ans,  later  hell:  courage,  this  mirrored  rouges  contingency  i s neatly sublimated  victor.  doubts  primitive  Zola  It  agon--its  outsider—with  and  maigre  Maheu  conflict  diametrical  virility  stands  libido  dramatic  novel's  by  Chaval--also  Etienne  discipular  of a  action.  Not  the  establishment  proselytizations.  that Etienne's  Much  the  the  may un  a of  and  a  be  a  aigle",  intelligence is ultimately latter  term  14 signifying  dark  opposites the  i s thus  potential  brutally (Chaval this  for  The  in  horse), a  prince  Rosenberg  of  is Christ-like  transcendence  horse-like  Rachelle  illustration  Etienne  spiritual  cheval =  regard,  swarthy.  evident:  satanic, =  explain  and  his  while  power  polar  and  has  Chaval  and  is  virility  o f macho d a r k n e s s .  uses  Jungian  t h e a r c h e t y p a l n o t i o n s o f h o r s e and  In  symbolism  to  devil:  Jung has a l s o s t a t e d t h a t t h e h o r s e i s o f t e n a symbol f o r t h e d e v i l b e c a u s e t h e d e v i l i n f o l k l o r e and l e g e n d sometimes has a h o r s e ' s hoof and t a k e s t h e form o f a h o r s e . M o r e o v e r , he has e x p l a i n e d that the devil's sexual passion is sometimes imparted ^o the horse with which he is associated. Virility to  be  i s in effect  associated  first  day  in  with  the  purported  absence:  Chaval?  Encore  pierres!"  (55).  powerful torse  and  nu,  underground their  mine,  quelque  heat.  first  meeting  contempt  f o r each  flambent  subitement"  goes  on  to  relationship. means  that  order  to  play  other,  Etienne finally  "une  (60); the  Chaval's must  the  de  inability lower  emerge  by  Chaval's  cette sur  is  rosse  de  tas  de  un  portrayed  as  a  to  "se  mettre  (64)  in  the  scorching  i s the f a c t Chaval  ces  animalistic  primary  Etienne's  first  chaud"  and  During  done,  he  significant  Etienne  characteristics  culbutee  start  moins  first  exasperated  fille  the  Also  is  fait-il  creature,  avoir  the  persona.  Maheu  "Que  sexual  of  Chaval's  From  pour  one  role  feel  haines  that an  in  to r i s e  their  instant qui  reaction inimical  above b r u t i s h n e s s  himself to Chaval's  victorious.  during  d'instinct  instinctive  le  He  must  level  in  triumph  15 according own  t o t h e law o f t h e j u n g l e  preconscious  contentious the  of the issues  question  attribute  of  instantly  domineering Etienne  i s thwarted une  jalouse"  (71).  to  prise  de  As C h a v a l  the  Smethurst,  strike  who  sorte  "from  de  dans ce decision  also  extends  this  drama.  violent  Catherine access  since  a t h e a r t he has t h e g r e a t e s t contempt f o r women.  outbursts  and v i o l e n t  mine,  Chaval  strength, (67),  that  ironic  girls  the  male  through  on  often  sexual  Chaval's  whether  jealousy,  than  On E t i e n n e ' s  assertion  characters  occasion,  displays  not  in  first  of  This  jealous  day i n  d'une  perform  misogyny  hard  i n t h e mines i n  i s shared  i n the novel, through  the  fille"  considering the brutally also  lust  l a c k o f e x p e r i e n c e and  " c a n'a p a s l a f o r c e  and women  Although  guilty  acts.  that  Germinal. other  more  excoriates h i s rival's  growling  a most  work  expressed  ritualistic  t o the  primitive  is  with  viewpoint,  most  contempt  of  Catherine.  l e a d e r s h i p , we c o n c u r  can o n l y o f f e r  and  kissing  une  of  exhibition  "II y avait,  has s t a t e d t h a t  however,  this  t o Catherine i s  and E t i e n n e ' s r i v a l r y  of p o l i t i c a l  isa virility  Chaval,  violently  possession,  as  and " d o m i n a t i o n "  Chaval's  by raw machismo:  the competition  Colin  in  by  most  and C h a v a l i s  especially  attraction  threatened  brutality  baiser,  virility,  initial  The  Etienne  t o the "possession"  Etienne's  to satisfy his  yearnings.  separating  relative  relates  Catherine. almost  animalistic  i n order  erotic  even  by most  Etienne i s  frustration  o f an u n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c  of  lapse  or into  16  machismo.  Consider,  f o r example,  his reaction  discerning  Catherine  as  of  being  at  Requillart  on  that  il  eprouvait  un  furieux  motif, his  en  trollop avait  after  mentis  gueuse"  besoin .  and  .  l o v e r s he  .  de  se  . elle  spites  venger  etait  . car  elle  him:  avait  s p i e s on  d'elle,  as  the  novel  excess.  Although  as  during  seen  by  unfolds,  of  ber  capable  his  elle  Chaval  far  the  seduction in  the  exception  than  only  possession"  and  i s tinged with  death:  a  Catherine and  caresses"  when  comes  to  represent  prelude  is  use  equate sex,  on  rule.  and  at  his part then,  one-sided  "prise  swallowing  l'aurait  Chaval  the  prostration,  Even  qu'il  Catherine  of  food, in  the  the  and  verb  above  upon  w i t h i n the very  venomous  rivalry.  the  As  is  are his de and  mangee"  "la tuait  clearly  engulfment.  example  misogyny,  i t s use  "manger"  triumphant  heterosexual  own  heat  the n o t i o n s of  " s i tendre  embracing  from  a  compassion,  Catherine  concern  to  and  greater  de  (189).  Zola's  used  and the  is  of  mine  vulnerability  tenderness  is  lui  l e dehanchement d'une  o f some t e n d e r n e s s  first  collapse  d i s p l a y s of  (145),  or  C a t h e r i n e as a  machismo, a l r e a d y a code o f e x t r e m e s , pushed t o even  such  sans  (78).  Yet  moment  et  a f f r e u s e " (147)  "Assurement,  deja  finally  "Quelle c a t i n !  i n s e c u r e d i s m i s s a l of  Chaval  .  the  spring afternoon:  l a meprisant.  self-righteous  one  upon  author  within i s also  While a  careful  confesses  to  to  "manger"  context to  c o n t e x t o f E t i e n n e and Etienne  used  of  insist  Chaval's  Catherine,  17 "je  ne  peux  besoin an  de  pas  avaler  manger un  to  and  Chaval's  used  the  by  omniscient  that  and  Chaval  at  (239).  substitution symbolic text  of the  in  practising  a  . . .  a  reading  of  activity  that  bar,  que  l'un of  terms  to  eating,  erotic  textual  life-sustaining  forces  frequently  a fight  between  states baldly deux  mangeat  Bellos,  killing of  "the  . . . gives  meaning  Zola it  Etienne  novel's  des  But  indeed  the  David  substitution:  relating  an  it".^  by  Zola  substructure  of  tripartite  equation  just  le  seems  do  inflame  During  opinion  hardly  is also  t e r m s f o r e a t i n g and  to  the  the  avoir  confessions  not  Avantage  i l fallait  In  access  and  the  this  "Manger"  n a r i a t o r and  sans  which  orocentric characters.  " rjrrf] a i n t e n a n t ,  l'autre"  such  undercurrents  competitiveness.  predominately  verres  Although  statement,  (homo)erotic  the  Etienne  petits  homme" ( 6 8 ) .  o v e r t l y homosexual  add  deux  is  is  in  actually  through  killing,  and  substructure  the  is  the  sexual in  fact  sex  are  constructed. The oxymoronic eating  at  since once  consumer  and  each  represents the  macho  of  domination  ethic  erotic  only  sex  i s at  rites  of  fertility.  its  extension  the  and  states when  contains  the  that  it  is  But  and  antithesis:  the  of  life  the  the  violence.  Put  activity  procreative  and  is  the  consumed.  of  women's  more b l u n t l y , creative  enshrined  becomes l i n k e d  of  reinforcement  perpetuation  sexual  Eros  and own  of  same t i m e  the  enslavement through tyranny Zola's  food  death/disappearance  Similarly, male  term  of  with  the  in  and the  forces  18  of  Thanatos  which  when  accurately  during veux  mating  Etienne's  Je  on  own  confused  d i s que  presence  t o vengeance, and  je  at this  i n an  threatened  t h e macho m i n d s e t  of rape.  forms  violent  may  behavior  necessary,  but never  relations,  which  using  force  Chaval,  i n order  his diabolical  Crucial Germina1 Chaval  force  i s the  thus  know, a l c o h o l  the  Alcohol Zola's  affords  elements  us  significant  or  sexual  i s not reduced t o appeal  t o anyone;  of  a  f o r the  of  i n order  demons t o be  the  unleashed.  i n the novel.  not As we  judgement by b r i n g i n g that  are normally  and t h e r e b y t u r n i n g  a normally into  full  p r i m a r y — though  personality  glimpse  that  Whereas  o r two  level  within  macho b e h a v i o r i n  tranquil  the  dark  c h a r a c t e r s ' m o n s t r o u s and s u b c o n s c i o u s  therefore  acceptable  of a l c o h o l .  f o r E t i e n n e ' s rage  elements  certain  provocation,  one  a t an u n c o n s c i o u s  beastly  hero  at the s l i g h t e s t  o f t e n weakens a p e r s o n ' s  the surface  repressed  presence  and i n t e r n a l  becomes  exclusive—triggers  to  a drink  of h i s i n h e r i t e d  Alcohol  Etienne  of a t a v i s t i c  disruptive  needs  somehow  of male-female  his erotic  becomes v i o l e n t  often  be  to  macho n e m e s i s , i s .  t o the notion  often  Etienne  t o prove  to assert h i s  For t h i s  a t times  are sacrosanct.  (146).  of d e f i l e m e n t spurs  but also  i n the context  term  of Chaval  jeune"  not only  virility  a  "Non, non, j e ne  trop  scene  attempt  rape,  misconduct  suis  repudiate of  violent  seduction of Catherine: te  hidden  him  on  describes the sexual  his initial pas!  borders  loose  character. recesses  forces.  of  I ti s  two o f t h e t h r e e c l a s h e s between  19 Etienne  and  Chaval  the  run  by  of  pub these  takes  release  of  the  "beast  mining  be  As M a a r t e n  Van  Chaval's flames is  a  male  subconscious following  Avantage: tandis  que  leurs  following  we  leur dont yeux"  braise  an  ideal  The  main s o u r c e o f  the  location  principal  third  f o r the alcohol  forum  unchained  for  for the  a l l to  . . . exprime'nt  erotico-meurtrieres qui g et a l a mort".  audience  Zolian  which  for  as  fan  fires  evidenced  une  these  Indeed,  between t h e  subterranean,  on  to  of  sans  Etienne  helps  conflicts.  link  est  As w e l l ,  audience  during these  the  and the  there of  the  in  the  at  the  passages.  have  the  description  entendit face on  le  rouge  voyait  description un  of  se  oeil  interieure"  gonflait  comme  (303).  the  Tartaret: a ces t r o u s ,  l e s ames c r i m i n e l l e s  a de  Compare Le  of  ronflement  l e s flammes,  (396).  osaient risquer  flammes,  the  an  ready-made  direct  and  "On  interieur,  qui  a  pride  parallel  First,  de  is  strikingly  (In f a c t ,  " l a b e t e humaine  fisticuffs,  of  Avantage,  Buuren m a i n t a i n s , t h e s e d i s p l a y s  passions  there  the  i n E t i e n n e ' s murder of  temporarily  a s s o c i e e au mal  occasions  is  of  o f e r o t o - c o m p e t i t i v e b e h a v i o r where  violence within  exception  urges.)  may  de  culminates  underground,  displays  combinaison  premises  his wife.  community  within"  witness. raging  place  the  and  which  unconscious  animalistic  on  Rasseneur  conflicts,  Chaval,  for  occur  en  train  Revealing  par  fight leur d'un  "La n u i t , juraient  are  brasier  les trous  preceding  de  haleine,  with  the  l e s braves y voir  gresiller the  clairs  des  dans l a  repetitions  20  "brasier  interieur/braise  "oeil/yeux",  and " t r o u s " .  afforded  glimpse  a  interieure",  In t h e f i r s t  into  the  hell  exclusively,  according t o miners'  criminals;  i n t h e second,  to  hell  are replaced  of  the homoerotic  In  effect,  conflicts  by b u r n i n g  competition  description, of  hells,  legend,  the holes eyes  "flammes", we a r e  reserved  f o r female  sexual  i n t h e ground leading  inherent  leading  to the  "hell"  i n t h e macho  code.  E t i e n n e i s i n t h e t h r o e s as much o f h i s i n t e r n a l as he i s o f h i s e x t e r n a l  ones:  Une voix abominable, en l u i , 1'assourdissait. C e l a m o n t a i t de s e s e n t r a i l l e s , b a t t a i t dans sa tete a coups de m a r t e a u , une b r u s q u e f o l i e de m e u r t r e , un b e s o i n de g o u t e r au s a n g . Jamais l a crise ne 1 ' a v a i t s e c o u e ainsi. Pourtant, i l n ' e t a i t pas i v r e . E t i l l u t t a i t c o n t r e l e mal hereditaire, avec le frisson desespere d'un f u r i e u x d'amour q u i se d e b a t au b o r d du v i o l . II f i n i t p a r se v a i n c r e , i l l a n g a l e c o u t e a u d e r r i e r e l u i . . . . (398) This  i s as c l o s e  macho e t h i c power,  as  homosexual for  revenge  without Chaval's any  as  Zola  comes  metaphorically intercourse. and  his  encompassed  Here, innate  t h e emboldening  of  a  truly  bloodlust  and dynamogenic  fair  penetration,  destructive the  the  phallic  extraordinary  fear  come  sizes  male  to  effects  act  the  of need fore  of a l c o h o l .  weapon—eliminating as  His primary of  the  the  and f o r  unconscious  fight—acts  substitute,  penile  in  Etienne's  t r e a c h e r o u s use o f a dangerous  chance  defining  o f c o m p e t i t i o n between m a l e s f o r c o n t r o l  Etienne's unconscious phobias. by  to erotically  a  fear  rape  his knife. associated  trigger for i s of death by  Chaval's  Keeping  i n mind  with  " l e s grands  21 chevaux" in  (and  conjunction  section  of  rivalry,  manipulations  of  of the  resisting  the  sex  and  the  obsessional.  his  primitive  no  struggle, a  underground.  other  "un  orgueil,  final  l'orgeuil  the  widespread  Etienne  is  but  on  need  the  du  impregnation,  thereby  Chaval's  heterosexual  devotion.  Part  himself  i s one  of  Zola's  primary  plus  and  kill  This  is  why  fort"  of  last  resulting  Chaval's  able to  relish to  genetic  i n f l u e n c e of  a  to other  sires-  "real"  sexual  in in  Catherine  place  According  century  a female  he  Catherine  that takes  (483).  engage  relegating  until  E t i e n n e and  permanent  to  Catherine's and  Chaval's  to i n f a n t i l e  and  infertile  treacherous  and  diabolical  because  transcend  h i s animal  nature.  he  i s unwilling  t o r e n o u n c e and  In  fact,  a  is  rape  i s at  by  effectively  gains heroic stature  nineteenth  born  man  i s ultimately  Germinal ,  the death  supposed  sexual a c t i v i t y  he  a  prove  during  to  erroneous  first  capable  Chaval  is  to  to  Etienne  offspring  intercourse  previous  and  first  thus  Etienne  fight  telegony--the sire  is  choice.  Victorious,  previous  l o v e and  in  d e r n i e r v i v a n t " (482)  of  there  obvious  erotic  "serait  theory  that  more  death  has  third  entire  Etienne  struggle  "grand"  the  to  Catherine's  literally au  for  conclude  component  adjective  heterosexual.  equating  on  uses the  name  we  to  internal  unquestionably  by  novel),  of winning  Etienne's  Zola  Chaval's  addition  connotations  bordering  that  homoerotic  in  The  fact  with  the  substantial  of  the  caricature  of  the  macho e t h i c  status.  gone  awry,  22 jealous  to the point  point  of d r i v i n g  home.  Above  revealed  by  women;  Chaval  is  Levaque  by  one  rampant  moral of  (134).  "Lorsque  aiment  a  etre  satisfaction violence.  adult  example  practise to  just  direct  castration  and  looks  directed  violent  against  instance,  the  having  as r u t h l e s s l y  Etienne pernicious  non, c ' e s t (144),  as  qu'elles i f  Lydie  i s right"  comme by  sexual  o f imminent  and m o n s t r o u s  learned  chief of  on b a t une  all-too-common  equation  applies i n  t o women and c h i l d r e n as i t does  between  males.  a t t h e hands  down upon t h e b l o o d y  role,  on t h e t h r e a t  "battait  tape  the onset  following  disent  depends  t h e "might  competition  misogynistic  before  apostolical  as t h e d e p r a v e d  (271),  and  Although  e t excite d'avoir  d'abord"  coterie,  of Maigrat  code i s  cowardice.  as " d e l a s s e  bourrees  that  their  a t one p o i n t t h e Maheus' n e i g h b o u r  necessarily  legitime"  more  les filles  prepubescent  femme  physical  enunciates  Jeanlin,  from  t h e macho  violence  In an o t h e r  uncharacteristically  his  and  the  political  maxim:  male  of  to the  of c h i v a l r y or of g a l l a n t r y a r e thus  i s also described  his  and c r u e l  and d i s t r a u g h t C a t h e r i n e  i n the novel,  s a femme"  insanity  a l l , the hypocrisy this  up  characters  of  a naked  any n o t i o n s  swallowed  sur  of v i o l e n t  scene  Finally,  after the  o f La B r u l e , Mme  Maigrat  below:  En h a u t , a l a f e n e t r e , Mme M a i g r a t ne b o u g e a i t toujours pas: m a i s , sous l a d e r n i e r e l u e u r du couchant, l e s defauts brouilles des vitres deformaient sa f a c e blanche, q u i semblait rire. B a t t u e , t r a h i e a chaque h e u r e , l e s e p a u l e s p l i e e s du m a t i n au s o i r s u r un r e g i s t r e , p e u t - e t r e riaite l l e . . . . (362-63)  23 In  this  case,  erotomaniac one  the  wife-beating  becomes  the  fitting  of t h e most p o w e r f u l As  a  Maigrat  to  is  of  male  shopkeeper,  the  extender  narrow  due  not  foodstuffs, payment  to  also  his de  sa  laides  complaisantes" the  the  other  has  an  fusion  La  viciousness  rod  for  the and  of  the  monstrous  as  such  macho  monopolistic  capitalistic  greed  unfair  social  is  and  of  equated  the  quite as  to  has  is  be  combined common  a  almost  a l l the  most  gruesome Maigrat by  ferocious  Maigrat's  literally  a result,  and  literary  unfettered In  to  Hennebeaus,  provoked  more  ou  fussent  Pierronne,  the  of  une  sa f i l l e  Like Jeanlin,  seems  capitalism.  sexual  voulait  the  of  comes t o  with  accept  He  qualities  elements  advantage;  availability  La  Jeanlin.  which  ethic  metaphorical  is  Zola  or  for  His tyranny  qu'elles  Gregoires  he  despotic  puppet  materialism  emasculated.  nature  a  envoyer  then,  the  macho  monopolistic  mineur  qu'a  Dansaert  of  exploitative  and  the  negative  c a s t r a t e d and aberrant  un  Maigrat,  of  the  pourvu  Mouquette, like  the  w i l l i n g n e s s to  belles, In  his  short  control  "Quand  treachery  characters  ends:  his  ou  capitalists  feline  lightning  of  to  in  is  universe.  Chaval's  company.  i l n'avait  (110).  interclass  the  of  credit,  erotomania  bourgeois  to  of  in  mining  usury:  prolongation femme,  the  his ability  but  for  of  revenge,  Germinalian  Maigrat credit,  corrupted  female  reprehensible  of  and  of  tyranny  power.  interests  only  the  also  application  the  victim  f o r c e s i n the  supplement  brutality,  misogynist  with  h i s bloody  a and and  case, venery death  24 is  one  of  the  most  r e v o l u t i o n a r y and  g r i p p i n g scenes  in  the  novel. Other  characters  castration given  a  or  of  and is  as  described  characters  erotic  ideal  shot  being are  seem  throughout  be  at But  signifying androgyny  is  one  capitalism  (see  and  a  sabotage Chapter in  of  the  premise,  he  is  Etienne  his  this  the of  and  Chaval's  Clearly,  the  male  are only  few male  Zola's  Saint  on  the  passivity: the  for a  Germinal).  an  recues",  Maheu  surface as  i n terms of e f f e m i n a c y  perpetuation  thus  wives;  anarchistic exploits  to  By  are  heart.  to  nature,  Pierron  d e s c r i p t i o n of  threat the  his  balanced  Souvarine  think and  to s e l l  "idees  Fittingly,  too  logical  indirect  Souvarine's  patriarchal of  despite is  social  industrial  second  a  and  the  Souvarine's proponent  extension  guarantor  a as  c l o s e r a n a l y s i s of  Yet he  is  ultimate  immoral  seems t o be  novel.  Three  jungle.  by  sterile.  Maheu  his  not  subversive  law  During  must  much  androgyny  seditious  with  weakness  as his  the  and  and  erotically  qualities  odds  only is  as  of  and  b o d i l y organ,  androgynous  saboteur.  role  virile  and  consistently f u l f i l l s  to  order  fixes"  passive  Toussaint  i n h i s key  The  "idees  the  i s forced  eunuchized  symbolic  anarchist,  in  Hennebeau  husbands,  his  f a r between: who  the  as  who  figure  is  with  the  Deneulin,  operation;  cuckold  undergo  Souvarine,  countenance;  mining  Gregoire,  and  also  e n t r e p r e n e u r i a l impotence,  independent portrayed  Germinal  emasculation:  girlish  display  in  of more  of  of  this  machismo: violent  25 confrontation  at  Darwinistically plus  fort It  paint  asserts  de v i v r e "  must  be  represents to  that  operation  in  factions  Company,  with  the  the  of  respectaient  homines" as  man  (299) and who  "mes  enfants"  Deneulin  as  since  i s a widower  the  he  sexist  perpetuate  and  genealogical he  which  across  Within  of h i s  of h i s  influence and  en  of the  monopolistic  assertion  that  l u i l'homme  "autoritaire, paternel  de  l'allure pour  with  the p a t r i a r c h a l  i s as v u l n e r a b l e  two d a u g h t e r s  rules  of  who,  ses  thus  In n e g o t i a t i o n s  rendered  contains repeats  this  the countryside,  term  during  as h i s mine  will  to  representing  a  with  h i s miners, (301),  a term  English  as  the connotation during  which  to  fail  in  i n French  system,  according  phallocracy,  surname,  adequately  Zola  to  Deneulin  profitability  line  is  M.  as " e p e r d u de son i m p u i s s a n c e "  also  length  p a t r o n i z i n g l y r e f e r s t o h i s employees  cul-de-sac.  "powerlessness",  gallop  and  "se m o n t r a i t  father's  although  "impotence".  who  arcane  i s portrayed  c ' e s t au  struggling against a l l  surtout  de f a m i l l e "  their  group.  the narrator's  too  (299).  "pere  who  s o f a r as t o d e s c r i b e  each  bottom  despite  Deneulin a  t o some  the devouring  "les  (299),  going  integrity  face  goes  capitalist  But  brusque"  Zola  within  inclinations.  (299),  Souvarine  and d o w n - t o - e a r t h p o r t r a i t  i t s ruthless  ouvriers  is  y en a un de t r o p ,  that  diverse  preserve  i t  (396).  the independent  courage"  "il  and h i s c a p i t a l i s t s ,  separate  odds  Avantage,  stressed  a reasonably  socialists three  the  the  of  miners'  Deneulin  once  26 again  has  (319).  " l a conscience  As i f t o c o u n t e r b a l a n c e  managerial of  immediate  inadequacy,  (299),  "Tas de  bandits,  vous  redevenus  l e s plus  utterance  has t h e F r e n c h  its at  very  core.  wall,  that  threatened. most  characters: savaient  Macho attempts  engages  compliance  long  of  sans  Paul  Negrel,  this  desperate  i s right," a t i s shown  i s indeed t o  productive  capacity i s  i s a c t u a l l y the  a l l the  capitalistic  mais des b r u t e s  at the core  serons  q u i ne  (325). o f M. Hennebeau' s frustration.  by h i s w i f e , an u n u s u a l  c r e a t u r e who  series  of e x t r a m a r i t a l a f f a i r s  h e r husband.  Hennebeau  In  fact,  Hennebeau  h i s wife, although de r o u l e r  (210).  i s having  h e r husband's  During an  Moreover, t h i s  common  t o both  with has  the never  he f a n t a s i z e s  sa t e t e  entre l e s  the chronology of  illicit  affair  nephew and t h e c h i e f  the Voreux mine. knowledge  of  doute,  able t o " l a prendre,  Mme  how  nous  of h i s  sexual  deux s e i n s q u ' e l l e e t a l a i t " Germinal,  own  f o r h i s domestic  been s e x u a l l y i n t i m a t e w i t h about being  note  of the workers  i s also  i n contempt  in a  quand  e t q u i c r e v a i e n t de f a i m "  t o compensate  control  however, D e n e u l i n  sympathetic  posturing  i s held  h i s very  "Des b r u t e s  pas l i r e  t o stammering  e q u i v a l e n t o f "might  H i s assessment and  qa,  verrez  o f male and  h i s admiration  workers s e i z e  (307);  impuissance"  and macho when h i s back  i s when  accurate  upon  and i s r e d u c e d  A t t h e same t i m e ,  h i s most p a t r i a r c h a l  the  He  forts!"  son  feelings  insists  macho t h r e a t s when t h e s t r i k i n g mine:  these  Deneulin  "gouvernements f o r t s "  de  with  engineer at  quasi-incestuous l i a i s o n i s  workers  and  managers.  Deneulin  27 jokes  about  i twhile  the  horror  of h i s  La  Levaque,  seems  "traces really  Indeed,  pride,  Hennebeau's  perverse simplement qu'elle  1 ' eut  avait-il  marital  servility  d'impuissance" and  class  Hennebeau strikers;  rage  partner: cela  car  elle  where  by  impotent  Nevertheless, a r e such  from "Sa  wife's  femme  avait  sentence  ainsi  s e t out.  i s fundamentally t h e male  les  t h a t Hennebeau's  are clearly  seeking  le fait  e t p e u t - e t r e meme y  sauvegardait  Unable  that  his  aggravait a peine  i s inextricably  compensates rendered  comfort  l a famille;  again.  i l n'hesita plus"  t o come.  cold  and t o a d y i s m  once  a b l o o d y war  and s e l f - h a t r e d  Hennebeau's p a i n  he  f o r Hennebeau's wounded male  dans  (341-42)  (340) t h a t  of fighting  I t i s i n this  conflicts  considerations  straw  de p l u s ,  (348).  terms,  l e s linges"  "Des l o r s ,  sexual  choisi  t o know t h e  h i s d i s c o v e r y of  t o take  avantage,  apparences"  erotic  un amant  As s o o f t e n  (126).  upon  f o r the violence  of  "c'est  i t i s only  internalized  choice  that  he does have some  miners:  i s eventually able  too well  Hennebeau's  a d u l t e r y , although  i s the last  a trigger  in  i s the last  the business  the intransigent  fear  de c o c u "  souillant  on w i t h  this  all  M. Hennebeau  abominables  (342);  know  of his wife's  gets  with  a une t e t e  t o be t h e c a s e ,  suspicions.  he  qu'il  f o rdinner—much to  and La Maheude, La P i e r r o n n e , and  struck  presence,  vrai  specifics  with  host--,  although  military-like pourtant  at the Gregoires  In  "une f u r e u r  p e r s p e c t i v e on l a b o r linked  with  t o confront revenge  i n t h e bedroom,  sexual  h i s wife,  against  the  he s e e k s t o  28 define  a  he  lost  has  his  hypermasculine yet  resolve  only  in  dompte,  win  role  i l ne  the  of  restait  a  remplir  son  moment  represents  the  been c a l l e d  his  reaction  Etienne's conditions  ecrase"  a  cause:  The  epic  revenge through Throughout the  primary  society  the  backdrop  to  It  channel  straight, When we dans  une  no  and  the  i s as  their  of  the  i f the  first  to  a moral  the  d' homme  .  .  .  and  inherent  one  libidos  of of  strict becomes  in military  officers  , le visage  root  macho code  were in a  and  e n c o u n t e r Hennebeau, f o r example, he noire  the  weak.  constitutes  tightness  qu'on  seeking  a u s t e r i t y which  s o l d i e r s and  se  camps i n  authority  testosterone-inspired  redingote  et  same b a s i c  the  to  working  insecurity  put  violence  of  and  aveugle  opposing  have  ideal  similar  living  military  hierarchical display  very  qu'on  this  In many ways,  power o v e r t h e  Rigid  brutal  correct,  macho  orgeuil  the  f o r men  form  the  "Son  a s s e r t i o n of  to  is  masculine  practise.  for  on  bete  his  if  etait  Hennebeau  often.  pride  une  Germinal,  For  once t o o  war  "L'homme  return;  in r e a l i t y  pride  the  career-oriented  (353).  of  Since  strengthens  1  male  d'etre  battle  combine  affairs.  point  opportunities  into  discipline  devoir"  motivations  injured  he  1 administrateur  coalminers:  l'idee  (90).  Germinalian  l u i que  wounded  the  his wife,  and  r e b e l l i o u s thoughts  of  revoltait,  en  into question of  own  larger  battlefield.  salaried administrator:  resolu  has  the  another b a t t l e with  to  his  i d e n t i t y on  forced ramrod-  rigidity! is  "serre  a u t o r i t a i r e et  29 correct"  (126);  a  militairement  son  consistently makes  no  little champ  "boutonne  mention  of  (Hennebeau grew up school, of  initial de to  soumission" play  a  increase  (230).  his  the  Perhaps  sexual  frustrations  erection,  would  have  the  miners'  exaggerated plays the  an  novel's  events.  Pierron Pierronne, in  a  chief  i s the  i s an  at  a  sham:  merely  role  in  Without other  Le  plus  In  "un  less  this  and  affair Voreux.  his  efforts serve  to  raideur  facheux"  (261).  without  so  much  hostile  d e s t r u c t i v e outcome Hennebeaus's  terminal  i n Germinal. hypocritical  The  seeks  "Cette  catastrophic  with  he  only  Dansaert,  cuckoldry,  culmination  i t , t h e r e would be  yet  espoir  consequences.  respect of  his  erotically-  instantaneous  result  the  one  and  cuckold  attractive  his  miners:  attitude,  the  in  series  positions.)  disastrous  resulted in a  poorly-concealed foreman  and  are  le  mining  promoted t o a  dissatisfaction  derring-do  pride,  integral  past.  role  the  is  service in his  compensation  l'effet  rebellion.  macho  miners  of  flexible on  He  Zola  front  with  intense  placed  a  sadistic  erotic  emphasis  even  administrative  the  at  more  (210). though  then  simply  "preparer  s t r u g g l e d through  was  Etienne  produisit  a  to  Unable t o dominate h i s w i f e , and  attempt  autoritaire  for  is  s t r u g g l e with  relieve  military  and  with  dominant  Hennebeau's  bataille"  low-paying  negotiations  colored  to  official  toughness  i s poised  militairement",  engineer  and  Hennebeau's  de  he  i n semi-poverty,  became an  boring  later,  no  of  drama.  His wife,  La  woman i n v o l v e d the  implications  cowardly of  this  30 liaison closer  are  analysis  there  are  Pierron's In f a c t , he  he in  sterility  tacit  acceptance  of  unwilling  and  ingratiate  the  symbol his  status  aptly  ga  i s most de  compliance in-law:  "Ce  Pierron  must  he  to  associated male the  In  foreman  des de  wrath  the  continue  me  stentorian  by  preter of  La  i s on  pigeon;  the  femme"  snow-white  voice  a u d i b l e above  the  motherthe  end,  perquisites In Z o l a ' s  as a r e s u l t  literary  of  equivalent  abyss. du  of C a p i t a l  hair  His  of Dansaert i f  lowest rung  bonds o f w o r k e r s '  with  maintenant  t o t h e enemy.  "obeissance  Mirou  "Pierron  In  luxurious  moral  cuckold  (122).  ( 382 ).  Zolian  weapon-  Pierron's  dominance  the  the  i t is  Pierron  Maheude:  sa  that  foreman  His  au p o r i o n ,  deshonore"  an u n f a t h o m a b l e the  La  in  strike,  authority.  Brule,  capitulation  respects,  him  i n the  stool  but  infidelity.  to the mining  lapins  better-organized forces  at  cowardice  purposes.  on  enjoying  Pierron  unbreakable  moral  with  interclass  self-castration,  many  among t h e  cher  the  accept  of p l u n g i n g i n t o  and  t h e m i n e r s ' most e f f e c t i v e  commented  with e r o t i c  s i n of  affair),  rabbits  nefarious  cochon-la  hierarchy  normally  of  own  moins  earns  their  participant  himself  l'epouser donnait  l u i coute  is  of  for a  of  s o b r i q u e t of  f o r m e r l y made g i f t s  away  Four  h i s w i f e ' s brazen  coerced  h i m s e l f the  to  Chapter  w r i t e s t o Hennebeau, a d v i s i n g  fertility—for  avant  implications  n o t i o n s of  order  gives  the  (see  also  assuring  who  of  class-related  i t i s he who  i s an  thus  chiefly  soldat"  complements  solidarity: and  shouts  (329)  beard of  the  the  t h e mine and  with  a  rampaging  31 mob  of  workers  militaire" the  O l d Testament;  wayward  son e n t e t e m e n t a Jehovah-like  h i s name  as b e i n g  a patriarchal  his  dans  (328) and r e s e m b l e s  interpreted is  i s "raidi  ( l e pere  children  figure  word  destroying  temple  industrial  ritual.  In f a c t ,  a  hold  t h e mob,  as i f r e m i n d i n g  their the  docile  best  over  history  of e x p l o i t a t i o n  of a l l p o s s i b l e worlds  military  and b u s i n e s s  of  and were  males  expression. whether on  at  male,  portrayals  of  imperial  unhealthy men  forms  playfulness, characterize "ducasse."  attitudes  rarely  resolute  must  or  t h e miners  during  When t h e d i s c i p l i n e  like  the  Le V o r e u x .  of the w e l l these  industry  and  sundry  o f what  seems  t o be  such  as b e i n g  narrow  male  relaxed  carefree the holiday  and  behavior. o r happy  i s the antithesis  and  t o be  Throughout  authoritarian  shown  self-  h i s duty,  t o guard  towards  stoicism  exuberance,  of  preserves  be s u r e  Hennebeau  glimpse  of t r a d i t i o n a l  are very  their  a  i s perhaps  fulfilling  yet unfeeling.  captains  emerges  negative  like  of  that  o f male  i s t h e u l t i m a t e symbol  various  officers own  t h e male  He  In Z o l a ' s day,  forms  forces assigned  powerful  them  the exclusive  acceptable  a l l times,  rigidity  disciplined  f o r them.  were  be  h i s words do have  and p o v e r t y  or i n business,  of the m i l i t a r y  This m i l i t a r y  since  today,  i n the m i l i t a r y  captain  These  socially  Even  h i s guard  Zola's  careers  may  t o prevent  the  capitalistic temporary  from  f o r God.  "god" who a t t e m p t s  from  devoir  Quandieu)  a pun on t h e F r e n c h  and b u l l y i n g  du  spirits period  of the that of the  o f t h e Emperor's s o l d i e r s i s  32 severely by  tested, that  t h e mob,  silence  Zola  de  i s when  they  pointedly refers  la  discipline  the equation  of proud  protecting  capital  and  property.  this  silence  with  sounds  heard  Voreux  .  longue"  .  longs  only  sounds  unceasing  of  Silence  for  industrial dangerous the  eerie  Zola  sublimation calm  destruction. insult  The  before  thwarted  energy  which  Zolian  finally  wave o f k i l l i n g .  i n an  and  amid  the  amorously "  par  {  representing rest  storm  of  unleash  foremost  only  also  a  silence i s of  blood  only  i t sphallic  serves  not  violence  Jung d e f i n e s l i b i d o  Nature.  but  can t o l e r a t e  orgy  of  omniscient  with  and o f a n g e r ;  soldier  must  a r d e n t de  . . . desespere  unproductive  Although  first  so  the p r o v e r b i a l  engaging  libido  but a l s o  of l i b i d o  before  et plus  phenomenon i n t h e m i d s t  "unnatural at  grosse  "Le  (281).  communing  machinery  of  de l a campagne n o i r e , ou i l  i s a rare  is  the d u t i e s of  t h e sadness  plus  rentrait  industry  couples  thereby  p l u s que l e s o u f f l e  p e r d u s au f o n d  silence  with  triste  same c o u n t r y s i d e :  d'une h a l e i n e  que d e s b a i s e r s "  Clearly,  (416),  Compare  in this  " [Hennebeau]  bruits,  n'entendait  not  times  "On n ' e n t e n d a i t  (146);  silence  et  t h e n a t u r a l and p e r v a s i v e l y e r o t i c  . respirait  (39);  l'homme" ces  at other  to " l e hautain  militaire"  completing  macho  a r e sworn a t and t a u n t e d  and  s o much  when h i s blade  in a  as a " n a t u r a l  the  purposes  of  9 life", the  l i b i d o may  mythological  instinct.  In  ^ u s t as e a s i l y  (and F r e u d i a n ) this  way,  the  ] o i n forces with  Thanatos,  r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of the death limbic  nature  of  Zola's  33 equations  of  erotica  inextricably  bound  of  human  animal.  Nowhere  is this  in  the  the  account  Jules,  the  simple: 05).  "acte  soldier:  l e manche d'os,  blood  and to  occupation depths  mayhem defend  the  human  evolutionary  vestige  control  of  basic  respect,  J e a n l i n may  "dans  his  i s immaterial:  of  the  gratuit",  ou en  of  ruse  ancienne"  de  be  humain  (198).  These  totally  limbic  Jeanlin  human  light  emotions.  represents  and  obscure  a  et  is  stunted  ( 404-  is  lust  cowardly  under  most  enemy  and  sex.  a  has as  In  and  par  describes vive  ladder, obscure  l'animalite  adresse  portray  human  as d'un  d'origine"  Jeanlin  almost  malignant  this  Jeanlin  l'animalite  living  the  position  1'intel1igence  lost a  for  evolutionary  repris  the  primitive  responsible  la  descriptions  Cast  mot  primitive  the  the  previously  he  ce  noires"  which  stem  lentement  since  voyait,  galante,  Jeanlin  hunger,  retournait  parallel  of  uses t h i s scene t o probe  d'avorton  Zola  qui  ne  seen t o o c c u p y a r e t r o g r a d e  sauvage,  than  murder  On  Jeanlin's  brain  scale  "1'intelligence  . . .  system,  emotions,  (276).  avorton  higher  the  degenerescence  d'une  having  Zola  clearly  . . . l u i enfonca  lettres  territory  are  instincts  his  la devise  whether  limbic  developmental sa  or  more  "Jeanlin  grave  violence  primitive  couteau grand o u v e r t .  etait  and  illustrated  Jeanlin's  'Amour',  attempting  et  the  Whether t h i s murder s a t i s f i e s  for  on  sex  within  equation  young B r e t o n  c o u t e a u , que  stressed:  together  of  dans l a g o r g e son du  is  in  a l l trace  a of  "abortion,"  sexuality  and  34 violence. It  i s Etienne  gathering also  food  order  as  we  to  plays  become  Maheus' "on  effect his  the  symbolic and  "des  jeux  their  compensate  rabbit,  natural  it  Catherine's nourishment.  In various  forces  on  erotic  level,  rather  as is  than  we  have  patriarchal  instinctive  allegiance  is  forced  It  pregnant  symbolically  bites  reject  sustenance  subhuman  and  degenerate,  in  fecundity.  vivid  the  to  animal  if  versions to  i n order to  and  who  a  is  Lydie,  sexual behavior.  Jeanlin to  by  indulging  with  symbol o f t e r r e s t r i a l  thus  a  to  but  Jeanlin  on  Jeanlin  of the p e r p e t u a l l y  c o n f r o n t a t i o n w i t h human Germinal  since  activities;  the  victimized  (141)  in  maintained  illustrates  i s reduced  potency,  same bed  has  a child  vicieux"  for  subtextual  the  clearly  in  Jeanlin  mirror  This  Fuller  urges  i n check  of  sharing  he  Jeanlin  monstrous  role  Jeanlin  erotic  also  Jeanlin  the  selfishly  animal  t o keep  Carol  tormentor  breast,  tries  them  chiens  an o b v i o u s is  unconscious  sterile),  stunted  violent  Pologne,  an  petits  i s the c h i e f  fertility;  direct  on  by  for  famine.  monsters.  level  thus  his  own  house.  elders'  for  concentrate he who  de  collective  structural  e n v i r o n m e n t " O n (and  of  to task  apostle;  internal  of s o c i a l  imitating  is  Marxian  overcrowded  Jeanlin  Etienne  i s emphasized  prepubescent in  a  own  relationship  that  seen,  fragmentary  Etienne's  the  Etienne's  have  the  takes  i n the midst  represents  which,  who  and of  dramatic the  macho  male, code.  portrait with This  of his  code  35 ultimately  aims  castration  and  effeminacy,  and  economic  political  and  to  repress  and  emasculation, moral  these  they  may  degree  over  said  to  the  gain  laws  Eroticism  any  of  the  attempts  to  achieve  physical  potency/virility  Sterility,  as  frustration, characters, logical which  heroic  both  camps  are  of  of  the  for  unifying  traditions  o f b u s i n e s s and  must  be  a  of  male  loser";  in  "losers"--especially t h e number o f m a l e in  the  account  second the  male-dominated Suffice  arenas  i t to  military  of  The  is  are  according  to  to  opposed the  most  the  " f o r every  harsh winner  t h e r e must  most i n t e r e s t i n g the  number  much  a  be  aspect of  male  greater  than  be  examined  essay,  where  we  women  i n the  traditionally  of  of coalmines an  male  system,  machismo  terms—is  this  many  diametrically  i s that  and  sexual  This  T h i s anomaly w i l l  presence  that  for  dominator  who  thought.  and  value  combat  f o r every  in erotic  say  jungle.  courage  bourgeois.  since  "winners."  vengeful  punishment  and  Germinal  chapter  transcendence  s i n c e moral  otherwise  dominated.  psychology  Etienne  Darwinian  patriarchal  factors,  someone o r s o m e t h i n g  and  and  Patriarchy  important  there  f o r only  anti-sexuality the  the  novel's  subscribe.  real  a r e more v i c t i m s o f  inseparable in Zolian  proletarian  consequence  wield  spiritual  status,  nonetheless  both  of  of  f o r t h e a c t i o n s o f e v e r y male  metaphor  is  men  fears  sterility,  they  are v i c t o r s ,  natural  forms a b a c k d r o p  to  Although  power,  male  leading  doom.  t h e code o f machismo t h a n be  counteract  and  union  analysis  take  into  meetings.  of Germinalian  male  36 psychology  and  overtones  associated  resources and  from  Nature  of  desire;  lusts.  the  Yet  and  i s f o r the  patriarchal  and  to  true  are  nominally  t h a t the  vicious female eats  of  feminine.  To  stereotypical  praying  mantis  young.  It  who is  feminine devours for  her  this  done  "winners"  the  other  hand  Goddess.  assignment  du des  aussi  pere,  et  parents."  1 1  bien  fait  la  Despite  a  beaten are  only  by  female  temporary  much  mate  or  in "la  i t is  la  synthese  revenge fixtures  who Borie  de  la  immediate  of  mere et  androgyny  i s overwhelmed  and in  sow  Jean  limited end  the  conclusion  figure  this  like  the  that  at the  M a c h i n e / M o n s t e r , male power i n t h e  indeed  is  mechanical  Natural  reason  "renvoie  and  in  traits,  Germinal  of the  relentless  a c e r t a i n extent,  mechanical cataclysm  dangereuse  female  ( " l a m a c h i n e " and  t h a t the  celle  a of  industry  gender  Earth  like  a passive  Gaea, t h e  vagaries  is  and  fulfillment  i s on  considers  qu'a  the  instincts  of  gender-  thrusting  Machine's  Earth  Machine  m o n s t r o u s m a c h i n e does have some d e s t r u c t i v e l y  and  her  the  sexual  F r e n c h grammar, b o t h Machine and terre")  of  mineral  and  capitalistic  pregnant  the  of  symbols  most p a r t  to  representation  owing  only  sexual  r o l e s of  perpetual  corporeal  Thus,  terrestrial  extraction  the  temporarily  fertile  Freudian  anthropomorphic  with  masculine  the  respective  conscious  Earth  by  the  The  submit  represented form;  heat,  the  to  the  Earth.  Machine  in  acknowledge  with  its phallic  animal  forced  must  remarkably  the  breathing  its  the  are  oriented:  male  power  fury. the  Male  Germinalian  37  landscape; bound by  they  are  only  the r e p r e s s i v e r u l e s  fleetingly  triumphant  o f t h e macho  ethic.  victors  38  CHAPTER TWO EROTIC FACES OF THE FEMALE UNDER PATRIARCHY Le roman e s t l e s o u l e v e m e n t des s a l a r i e s , l e coup d'epaule donne a l a societe, q u i c r a q u e un instant: en un mot l a l u t t e du c a p i t a l e t du travail. C ' e s t l a q u ' e s t 1 ' i m p o r t a n c e du l i v r e , je l e veux p r e d i s a n t l ' a v e n i r , p o s a n t j.^ q u e s t i o n l a p l u s i m p o r t a n t e du v i n g t i e m e s i e c l e . Despite  this  statement  primarily  concerned with  of  and c a p i t a l ,  labor  novel  i s i n fact  make  any  taking  an e p i c  reference  within  t h e novel  indicates that  as  much f r o m  i t s radical  the  t o pain  character,  archetypal—even more  in  assuming  keeping passive  portrayed  within  the  A l t h o u g h t h e a u t h o r does n o t  revolution,  as i t does  from  of a r e b e l l i o n  an e r o t i c  reading  b i t e does come  from  i t s portraiture of  the bourgeoisie.  Zola  fiery  a  i s very  p i c t u r e o f f e m a l e b e h a v i o r and radical  creations  stereotypical—representations with  is  between t h e f o r c e s  i t s revolutionary  a diversified  ranging  Germinal  p o r t r a y a l o f women t h r o w i n g o f f t h e  proletariat assaulting  careful  that  t o t h e concept  a larger  of patriarchy  struggle  the r e b e l l i o n  of  shackles  the novelist  multifarious.  direct  place  by  traditional  and f a t a l i s t i c  female  sexist  back of  to  women  philosophy  acceptance  o f male  39 hegemony.  To  reliance  with  characters time  large  which  are  Zola  fervent  literary  reveals  defenders  the  result  of h i s g r i p p i n g  eroticism The female  should  lives  house  himself  be  must  that  century  his  of  radical  although  in  addition  is  also  a  female  a t t h e same  subscriber  to  t o be t h e p r e s e r v e  female  But  from  characters,  Zola  traditionalist depictions  as  a  of female  and d r u d g e r y w h i c h  swift:  her  once  he  to  labor  It  most  part  of  labor  by t h e f a c t  of  the  female female  Moreover, i n household underground  industrial cooking  a t home.  becomes t h e Maheus'  is facilitated  i n the mines.  expend e n e r g y  substantial  of  i n the in  accurate.  Any  that  family  picture  taking  exhaustion.  division  learn  f o r t h e use o f  i s quite  performed  typify  chores  throughout  allow  do s e e f e m a l e s  be  soon  sleeping  the r e s u l t a n t  novel  to the already  disproportionate  law  s e e male c h a r a c t e r s we  we  f o r the morning  awaken  French  industry;  of t o t a l  waiting  ascendancy  to the t o i l  d i d indeed  i n Zola's  do we  the point  Etienne  of  i s responsible  noted  to  duties  be  seem  and t r u e - t o - l i f e  Germina1  and  i n heavy  once  would  of h i s major yet Zola  to  f o r a day o f e x h a u s t i n g  exploitation  labor,  in  Maheu  nineteenth labor  role  introduction  preparation  not  traits;  self-  and s e n s u a l i t y .  Catherine Maheu  creative  several  and  of p a t r i a r c h a l values.  perspective  plays  the independence  endows  and s u p e r s t i t i o n s w h i c h  more  the  extent,  protofeminist  paradoxically  myths of  a  and  This  labor i s cleaning  sexist  and  i s even  reinforced  lodger:  his political  that  "son l i n g e  by  etait  40  lave, en  raccommode,  ordre;  les  enfin,  bons  soins  example  of  subservience argument it  ses boutons i l sentait  d'une  male  power  are occupied  This  expense.  and c l e a n i n g o f t h e c o a l .  the  account  of Catherine's  the  pain  excruciating It  i s owing  back-breaking Catherine's factors  stoically  t o an  endless  menstrual  cycle  with  with  natural  sterility.  the are  Zola's  It  naturalistic  novel's  womenfolk  overtly  sensual  is  endure  diet  is  such as  even  that more  into  and m e t a p h o r i c a l l y  positioned  i n a gray  area  the  same way a s h e r main  in  conflict  fall  fecundity, a  situation  i s akin be  kept  in  mind  that  "crime"  we may  divide  c a t e g o r i e s , t h o s e 'who  fertile, sterile. these  love interest,  h i s primitive  to unnaturally  s e r i o u s human  Accordingly,  between  Environmental short of  two b r o a d  and/or  hours,  just  i s t h e most world.  of long  t h a t the onset of  delayed.  female  should  nonfertile  with  jobs  to realize  succession  landscape  sterility/anticreativity in  would be t h a t  tasks, while the  toil  industrialism  i n the Germinalian  enforced  counter-  One has o n l y t o r e a d  heavy  work, and an u n b a l a n c e d  havoc  The s e x i s t  t h a t of the menfolk.  associated  wreaking that  than  female  and c o s m e t i c  sorting  classic  through  heavy  the  must  is a  of a f f a i r s  the truly  own  mises  de l u i l a p r o p r e t e e t  acquisition  by more m e n i a l  women  ses a f f a i r e s  (177).  inequitable state  i s t h e men who p e r f o r m  women  autour  femme"  and a t f e m a l e  to this  recousus,  macho  and  those  who a r e  Catherine  Maheu i s  two camps,  i n much  Etienne Lantier, i s heredity  and h i s  41 potential  messianic  gray  as  and  area female In  a  source  in  part  conditions. of  Nature  and  survive  should a  far  cents  excuses" heavy  works  ever  result,  as  the  to  shock  (65).  is  also  characteristic  up  that  of  the  Zola's  resulting boy.  her  Etienne  h i s male  job  la  on  the his  Lui, surpris,  mine,  i t also to  Etienne's  further  Maheu's a n d r o g y n y  not  the  order  to  the  mines  at  day  poids  in  the  elle  la  etait  de  reins,  Le  honteux, b e g a y a i t  only  that for Of  des  Catherine's her  delayed  course,  this  initial  study  the  Maheu  we  to  dramatic  mistaking  to  t o work i n t h e  seems r e a s o n a b l e the  of  male c h a r a c t e r s ,  androgyny.  increase  i n Chapter  Catherine  by  of gender i s i n p a r t a t t r i b u t a b l e  but  was  or  in  first  impression  physical  the  endures the h a r s h e s t  replacait.  the  against  "criminal"  in  is  inhumane  tormented  "D'une p e s e e des  responsible  blurring  aim  from  (We  With  this  puberty  goes  t h e male work c l o t h e s t h a t C a t h e r i n e must don depths  uses  in  prostitution  doggedly  has  f o r her  hard  is  s t r o n g e s t of  et  One  workload  Catherine  derails:  soulevait  too  of  metaphorically  lose  she  even  onset  universe, this  take  kilogrammes.  menses but  she  thus  to  mine when h i s c a r t  sept  is  she  with  berlinej  physical  Zolian  having  As  conditions  [la  author  t e n s i o n f o r both  the  Pathetically,  of  so  because the  thought  going  dramatic  case,  In  "unnatural".  Montsou.  of  The  protagonists.  Catherine's  delayed  cycle  transcendentalism.  surmise tension  Catherine  implications  of  for a  Catherine  Three.) are  once  again  in f u l l  Zolian  42 paradox: is  d e s p i t e her  also  the  the  most  novel,  Abused she  a  "Chaval des  on  heureuses"  (311).  defend  n'etait  from  This  defending sexist  notion  sign  of  that  the  to  perhaps  hardened  life  possible  to  suggest  nowhere  to  run  illuminating enjoyed  to  or  consider  by m a l e s and  difficult  to  characters alternative industrial  imagine  off  work  during  decline,  first  i t  she  as  to  others:  is  to  le be  to  be  s i n c e i t i s based  on  sees  no  across  the  period this  any  this  of  point  her  own  to  more degrees  of  mass  i s what  her  i t is  are s l a v e s with accurate of  and  freedom  I t would be the  countryside of  virgin  Indeed, w h i l e  be  relative  or  at  a  alternative  overall  would  seems  chains  respectively.  although  of  "logic"  Catherine  miners  the  a  far  to deflower  community.  Catherine  setting  as  des  q u i 1 ' a v a i t eue  honor  the  she  females  "Peut-  meme i l l a b a t t a i t ,  spurious the  the  hide,  Chaval,  guere,  invective  illogical  off  mining that  goes  the  virility.  because  i n the  rencontrait  the  be  cast  (70).  been s y s t e m a t i c a l l y v i c t i m i z e d  than  to  utmost  unwilling  oppression,  of  has  less  l e s hommes"  homme, c e l u i  sort  character in  a regular basis:  bien sur;  Moreover,  i s nothing  female  et  even  from  son  someone who  years.  on  She  "man"  c'etait  ( 329 ).  the  seems  her  h e r o i c s , she  boyfriend, Antoine  n'en  guere g e n t i l ,  Mais  expected  a  possessive  raison,  premier"  the  choses  avait  fois.  over  les  beaten  stubbornly  Herculean  fatalistic  t o be  qu'il  femmes  and  subir  a violently  comes t o e x p e c t  etre  is  passive  "prete  by  above-mentioned  other  most  female  i n search  unemployment Etienne  is  of and  doing  43 at  the o u t s e t of the n o v e l .  a  young  woman  prostitution abusive less are of  just  partner  mobile bound  and  by  the is  pas  gueuse?"  (402).  rascally status  concludes  proof de  ca,  la  who  de  the  equated  i s presumably "in  summed up  i n t h e word  i n g r a i n e d r e s i g n a t i o n and  sexually  limited  charged  various  Catherine  ways, i s most  might  box  continue  her  Company.  It  rage  and  her  only  protest  seek  et  nonviolent  beggarwoman  or  prefer to s u f f e r reason  that  a the  Francis  deportment  on  to bare  fatalism  of  in  their  This  which  become her  the  these  together  fury  is  character worried  of  and  that  can their  normally  La  and  manifested  i s involved:  and  revenge  women  i n the  notorious  moody;  ample b u t t o c k s ;  threats  when  lies  anger which  c h i l d r e n ' s ear;  vociferous is  a  age-old  sessions.  depending  M o u q u e t t e would p r o b a b l y Maheu  and  expression  likely  la battrait,  f o r women's s u c c e s s f u l o v e r c o m i n g  rage,  gossip  suffering  submissiveness."^  own  only  to  the  their  finds  The  they  une  for this  i n the  suppressed  because  and  l e s chemins comme  not  key  of  free  an  ne  being  Germinal,  novel  on  :  freedom  would  into  i l s'arreterait  rouler  with  indeed  that  "II  imagine  out  less  patriarchy.  battre,  que  t o walk  simply  thereof:  to  forced  Women a r e  universe of  easy  being  were  The  release  in  code  When  It  women m i g h t be  of  Germinalian  las  trollop,  quo?  Catherine  s u r v i v e i f she  ample  is  i t would be  l e a v e Montsou.  mieux  relationships  as  sexist  i l serait  valait-il  Heck  to  i n the  Catherine  quand  such  But  La  Constance  Brule against  manifest  would the their  internalized  44 frustrations  and  attenuated.  I t i s through  is  made  on  this  male-dominated respond that  in  self-hatred  way  authoritarian  world,  they  males  all  creative  side  the  know how  will  of  female  which  abduct  the g e n e r a l  Maigrat  the  soldiers the  Zola's  rampage  Gregoire, of  of  warpath  miners'  women  and  and  progress  do in  i n the  recognize:  in  a  the  end  only  way  the  women's  violence that plays  insistency power,  across and  upon  fertile  Women  beetfields,  at the  entrance  to  its  away by  and  the  and Le  Cecile  mine, c a s t r a t e bricks  Voreux. even  f r e n z y of the  the  i s in defiance  hurl  peak,  lead  attack  Crevecoeur  shopkeeper,  reaches  i s carried  the  a f e m a l e m i n e r who  order  the  rage  on  i t i s h i s p o r t r a y a l o f women  the  strip  strike  guarding  Catherine  that  they  ultimately prevails.  lecherous  miners'  as  released  fears.  For  on  solidarity  these  u l t i m a t e weapon i s e r o t i c a l l y - b a s e d men's d a r k e s t  effectively  Living  violent  only  be  feminine  score.  and  the  can  By meek  at  the  the time  little  mob:  E l l e n ' a u r a i t pu d i r e p o u r g u o i , e l l e s u f f o q u a i t , e l l e c r e v a i t d'une e n v i e de m a s s a c r e r l e monde. Est-ce que ga n ' a l l a i t pas etre bientot fini, c e t t e s a c r e e e x i s t e n c e de m a l h e u r ? E l l e en a v a i t a s s e z , d ' e t r e g i f l e e e t c h a s s e e p a r son homme, de p a t a u g e r a i n s i qu'un c h i e n p e r d u dans l a boue des cherains. . . . (419) This  i s a dramatic  violence, energy  an  in  water--in  example  much  manipulates  example  the  order  of  of the  the  same  four  basic  to achieve  way  emotional release that  catharsis  cf  Nature  elements—earth, terrestrial  pent-up in  through negative Germinal  air, fire,  and  c a t h a r s i s through  the  45 release just  of the c a t a c l y s m i c  as  novel, by  women  relentless  Similarly, breaking own  are silenced  so t o o a r e Gaea  the  ainsi  economic  this  boiling  of  when industrial  being  fitting result be  La  Maigrat return  that this of f a l l i n g  castrated  like  the  since  reach  t h e i r own  q u i se v e n g e a i t , q u i  parce  qu'on  lui  long-term  past  past  Zola's food  which  erotic  Brule  achieve  the roof  and  to  desperate  i t i s thematically should  d i e as a  of h i s s t o r e , thereupon t o  o f La B r u l e , and a b e t t e d  a fitting  comes  loving  In  ideal.  sexually corrupt character  I t i s indeed  the Earth  by a d u l t e r y and  and c r e d i t  favors,  In  i n the r e s u l t i n g  i s supplanted  f o r sexual  from  lust.  w o r k e r s who h e l p  t o share  which  environmental  are ignored,  point  exchanges  a t t h e hands  La  avait  from a s s e r t i n g t h e m s e l v e s .  activity  c h a r a c t e r , who i s a i d e d  Levaque.  grace  i t is  s u n d r y d e v i a t i o n s from  in  resources.  i s the point  those  able  terms,  women  l a terre  growth  erotic  sexual  i n the  of the Earth a l s o exacts her  the  and who a r e f o r b i d d e n  Since  eventually  point  profits  other  mineral  d e s i r e becomes c o r r u p t and p e r v e r s e  without  procreative  by men  For  s y s t e m a t i c a l l y abused  of  de l a v e i n e ,  back as i f t o s u p p o r t  growth  revenge.  (474).  terms,  consequences  "C'etait  l e sang  natural  normal h e a l t h y  strikes  exploited  and t h e E a r t h  and t h e Goddess  une a r t e r e "  This  and  exploitation  f u r i o u s revenge:  tranche  of Nature's  t h e women o f G e r m i n a l  point  lachait  power  witch-  by L a M o u q u e t t e and  fall  closest  t h e most  to  from  capitalistic  incarnating the  46 mysteriously addition, sexually  destructive  La  Levaque  active  and  and  as  At  mutilation,  chooses  the  attitude  aspects  Mouquette  are  likely  moment female  t h e m o u t h p i e c e s f o r what we personal  vengeful  La  such  concupiscence. Zola  and  are  of  Gaea:  in  both  young  and  targets for Maigrat's  of  Maigrat's  bourgeois  presume t o be  death  and  characters to the n o v e l i s t ' s  t o w a r d s male s e x u a l c o r r u p t i o n and  be own  excess:  "Qu-ont e l l e s done au b o u t de ce b a t o n ? " demanda C e c i l e , qui s ' e t a i t enhardie jusqu'a r e g a r d e r . L u c i e e t Jeanne d e c l a r e r e n t que ce d e v a i t e t r e une peau de l a p i n . "Non, non," murmura Mme Hennebeau, " i l s a u r o n t pille la charcuterie, on dirait un debris de pore." (363) This  passage  is  especially  Maigrat's  mutilated  frequency  and  sufficiently and  with  worst  a  scrap  It  unable  is  deal  fear,  a  female  is  the  and  overt  system  evidenced  Lydie  is  comparisonp i g of  the  characters properly:  instances  sexual  that  energy.  irrevocably  even  civilization.  fumblings,  skin--the  are their  moral. a l l these  response:  sexual  reality  equates  blackmail  rabbit  bourgeois  violence,  further  sexual  prepubescent  limbic  and  is a  that  suffused with  with  Maigrat  it  rabbit  sexual the  perceive  physical  semi-sophisticated equation  to  a  warrant  again  significant  are  to  since  with  Maigrat's  pork:  Once  i s both  violence  food,  of  both  of  promiscuous  symbolically  must  nature  order.  blindness  penis  telling  in  This by  "se  laissait  too  links  sex,  age  of  continual  Lydie  female  Women  the  Zola's  during  of  limbic  descriptions and prendre  of  Jeanlin's avec  le  47 tremblement where  delicieux  Chaval  virtually  l'affolait, instinct et  cette  (146). womenfolk  at  are sexually northern  i s accosted Levaque  and  v i r g i n a l - - f inery: .  apprendre  a  thinly  .  when  stripped laughter  a  sexual one at  This  au  toute  i s another aborted  i t i s rape  t h e men  look  upon  La B r u l e  c u l , de l a pour l u i  example  of a  homosexual  rape,  a purely  female  from  i s s e t upon,  mineworker  Cecile  bourgeois-  nue,  female  one must  a  a similar  her bare  scene  takes  w h i p p e d , and buttocks  group  In  the  o f young  about  Piolaine  the symbolic  i n La M o u q u e t t e ' s  (84).  nature  consider  "ce q u i e t a i t  of l e v i t y . La  done  o f f her  mine  inherent  dedain"  "moons"  When  way  with  and d e r i s i o n .  exhibitionism, du  t ' en m e t t r e  of  their  a t La P i o l a i n e ,  va  bien,  1'homme"  pillage  tearing  un  t h e rampaging  At the Crevecoeur  while  Finally, contempt  instance  de  that  on  (356).  dans  veulent  countryside.  dramatization  in this  les filles  as t h e y  Foutez-moi-la  vivre!"  perspective. place  .  du male  l e s muscles  conquerante  obsessed  "On  In t h e scene  " £l] a p e u r  a l lsurprising  are intent  veiled  although  lorsque  as she a r r i v e s  La  dentelle!  qui raidit  French  and  (141).  Catherine,  1'approche  i s not  the  Gregoire  rapes  meme  sentent  It  1'instinct"  peur  de d e f e n s e ,  qu'elles  across  de  her;  elle  first  boys  who  however,  On t h e s e c o n d in a  chez  moment  triple  v i o l e n c e and  d i s p l a y of anal  1'extreme  instance,  expression  La  are t e l l i n g  Mouquette jokes  t h e atmosphere  occasion,  of a  here i s  she exposes h e r s e l f  of antibourgeois  fury:  "II  48 n'avait  rien  farouche"  d ' o b s c e n e , ce d e r r i e r e ,  (346).  flashes  the  precipitates  In  the  Emperor's  of p r i s o n e r s .  final own  a wholesale  rush  Clearly,  e t ne  instance,  soldiers, upon t h e  each  La  the  Mouquette  forces  vulgarity male  It  becomes more and law  of a  is  and  represents  oppressor  force also  of  the  Mouquette  as  to  this as  the  that  "the  which  the  taking  place against a higher  more a u d a c i o u s .  As  f a r as  power  be  Mouquette's  turned  a d d i t i o n , her  against  with  Zakarian  symbol  the  the  full  shamelessness i s  bourgeois  Richard  abstract  La  punished  guilt-ridden  reason  being  In  act  and  concerned,  must  Mouquette  get  are  the  rire,  stakes  sexual  such  patriarchy.  challenge for  order  female  and  an  "mooning" t a k e s  pas  La  troops  backdrop of e v e r - i n c r e a s i n g v i o l e n c e : as  faisait  of  erotic refers  code. to  La  Licentiousness  14 without La  moral  guilt"  Mouquette's  bourgeois  of  Mouquette l i e s  the  as  an  exhibition  strengthen coalminers. are  their  shot  as  As  end, in  belief her  the  own  belly  would  basic  kind,  total  that La  only  La  never  Piolaine, serve  depravity  however, La  of her  of  dans l e v e n t r e "  r e s i d e n t s of  the  of  Accordingly,  enormous  rump  that  rejection  approach  "deux b a l l e s  reflection  concludes  "total  world.""^  f o r the  in  a  Petrey  the  her  proletarian  Amongst seen  signals  i n the  a womb. of  Sandy  bourgeois  symbolically  serve  that  represents  and  dead  did  antics  behavior  modesty  annihilation  (421),  and  of  to the  Mouquette's  exuberant p h y s i c a l  d e s i r e s and o f h e r l a r g e r - t h a n - l i f e p h y s i c a l a t t r i b u t e s . L a r g e r - t h a n - l i f e a t t r i b u t e s a r e most p r o n o u n c e d i n  the  49 case of her. as  La  M o u q u e t t e , but  The  widow D e s i r  steatopygic,  buttocks  and  that  by  draws  protagonists  in  cave  involving  people  two  potentia,  perpetually  alluring.  During  points  that et  located one  la  amid  of  the  a  to  use  to  ete,  un  Mouquette' s natural and  de  desire  cycle  her  powerfully  en  son  munificent,  such,  mur  of  is  to  close is  shown seasons. to  a  of  elle de  the  c r e a t i v e feminine  Her  yet  forces  crevaient mine  mine-  outdoor  amorous  Zola  to  milieu du  i s also  describe  La  des  bles  en  plaisir,  en  (53).  La  parallel is  with  the  bountiful  f r e e f r o m shame.  humane  y  Requillart  sensuality and  Zola  shack  semaine" in  sexually  la  to  in  her  phrase  la  sexual  Mother  end,  herself.  "au  be  large  only  se d o n n a i t  Earth  simple  rites  "toute  miners'  erotomania:  hiver,  fertility  enormes  unused  turn  and  description,  that  Mouquette  female  those  this  not  the  amoureux  the  desire  and  Zola  of  Great  initial  the  revealing  promiscuous  compagnie  La  the to  the  cartoon-like  derriere  (53),  for  Mouquette's contre  and,  le  of  well.  impossibly of  of  important  depict  with  et  as  to  portrayed  reminiscent  referring  centers  careful  also  1  ruins  also  almost  Mouquette s  perhaps  activities--but  an  archetype  culotte"  the  most  fertile  also  fatness  breasts  which  " l a gorge  (53),  passait"  the  La  means r e s t r i c t e d  the  style  endowed  is  no  excessive  the  in  paintings  This  veste  of of  a  organs.  la  having  Germinal  primitive  by  C o n s t a n c e Maheu a r e  i s as  fashion,  out  and  extension  deliberately  Rubenesque  they are  extension  a t work w i t h i n  the  of  As the  Earth  50 itself:  " t o u t e une v i e g e r m a i t ,  (154). (to  Here we  sprout,  produce  description region,  Zola's  the  de  first  shoots,  of Etienne's  According  separer  his  la  and  Van B u u r e n ,  reproduction  comme phenomene v e g e t a l , de l ' a c t e  associe  phenomene  animal/vegetable erotic  ideal  is  into  and  faceless Zola  subordinate become  of  La  an  to  almost  Mouquette, the  pursued  of  male  than  by  and  whereas  who  qu'il  Zola's  promiscuous  with  she  erotic  enters  the Earth  does  with  her  To h i s c r e d i t ,  s e l f - c o n t a i n e d female  female  accessory  process,  f o r a great  remains such  i t i s the v i r g i n a l visions  having  t o the joy of sex.  focus  immorality  a guilt-free  and  i s uncharacteristically  very  banter,  her g u i l t - r i d d e n  whorehouses,  moral  partners.  the frequent  sexual  ironically,  of  s e x , La M o u q u e t t e  her  t h e male  perfunctory  sexual  element  of communication  around  natural  although  miners'  aspersions Somewhat  a  sexuel  Mouquette's  attempts a p o r t r a y a l of v i r t u a l l y i t i s now  valorisee  a n i m a l . T h i s  Zola's  having  level  Nature  of  of  and i n t e r c h a n g e a b l e  pleasure;  La  description  with  rut  fundamental  aspect  profound  du  prend  Germinal.  i t i s as i f , when  a more  below  is a  striking  his  nature:  split  throughout  Another ethos  negatif  sexual  "Zola  humaine,  positivement au  "germer"  i n the coalmining  political  t o Maarten  terre"  i n t h e n o v e l , an a p t  springtime  of  de c e t t e  use o f t h e v e r b  germinate)  first  springtime  development. soin  have  jaillissait  free as  from  deal any  prostitution.  Catherine  o f wenches La M o u q u e t t e  and  who  is  squalid  i s able to  51 live  and l o v e w i t h Zola  also  uninhibited the  widow  towards "une  relative  brings  female Desir,  the  f o r t e mere mais  whose  de  very  with  name  indicates  ans,  jour  to  and  her  attitude  in life:  she i s  d'une  verdeurqu'elle  rotondite  de  a v a i t encore s i x  de l a s e m a i n e , d i s a i t - e l l e , e t  l e dimanche"  amusement  steatopygia  i n h i s d e s c r i p t i o n of  t o be t a s t e d  cinquante  d'une t e l l e  six a la fois  of  s e x u a l i t y i n t o play  amoureux, un pour chaque  reacts  notions  the e r o t i c pleasures  tonneau,  les  impunity.  (170).  such  an  Once a g a i n ,  imposing  and  Etienne  suggestive  sight: [f] 1 ne p u t s'empecher de s o u r i r e en l a r e g a r d a n t , t e l l e m e n t e l l e l u i p a r u t v a s t e , a v e c une p a i r e de s e i n s d o n t un s e u l r e c l a m a i t un homme pour e t r e embrasse; ce q u i f a i s a i t d i r e que, m a i n t e n a n t , s u r l e s d i x g a l a n t s de l a s e m a i n e , e l l e en p r e n a i t deux chaque s o i r , a c a u s e de l a b e s o g n e . (243) The  reference  humor; idea  t o sex as work  what  i s relevant  o f sex as  religion--"six  "art"--new  readership  of  unaccustomed  found,  Zola's  to vivid  be  a  l a fois  that  i s , to  Rougon-Macquart and t o r r i d  the  temple  Great  of e r o t i c i s m .  Feminine  otherness—whether  they  discussion  miners' i s the  l e dimanche."  La  the series,  are l i k e  previously  priestesses at  They a r e t h e • i n c a r n a t i o n s  Roundness—women's are  ("tonneaux") o r as "une v e s s i e  middle-class  d e s c r i p t i o n s of p r o l e t a r i a n  T h e s e two f e m a l e c h a r a c t e r s  the  as  a r e t h e p r a c t i t i o n e r s o f a new  desire. high  discounted  to the present  M o u q u e t t e and t h e widow D e s i r found  may  described  de s a i n d o u x "  of  physiological as  barrels  (171), a tub of  52 lard.  In t h e f i n a l  Desir the  characters  their natural  their  social  notion  i n the novel:  environment  class.  This  of i n s t i n c t s being  differentiates perverse  them  bourgeois  But for  desire  i t i s only  pleasure  i s also  consumerism  stocks  desire  their  both  v a l u e s of  i s based  f r e e l y indulged,  what  on t h e  and t h i s i s what  frustrated,  l i n k s these  Whereas  sterile,  or  classes  of desire  that i s  i s the  t o the miners,  is  two s o c i a l  and c o n t r o l sex  largely  only  inexpensive  the bourgeois  supplanted  and m a t e r i a l i s m .  the giving  and w i t h t h e s e x u a l  the regulation  drive  t h a n any o f  counterparts.  available  sexual  characters'  by  ostentatious  Bourgeois d e s i r e  i s manifested  of l a v i s h dinner  p a r t i e s or the a c q u i s i t i o n of  and bonds.  Interestingly, only  within  name  of Desiree,  as  and t h e widow  t h e y a r e i n harmony  female  from  class-determined.  by  La M o u q u e t t e  a r e more a t e a s e w i t h t h e i r own s e n s u a l i t y  other  with  analysis,  well  purely  on vein  the root  o f t h e widow  one o f P h i l o m e n e  the Tartaret of  mineral  industrial  exceeding miners  t h e name  find  word  Desir,  even  region,  deposits.  creation,  simple  a focus  greed.  to the sweltering  heat  conditions  n e a r Le T a r t a r e t :  region  l a fosse,  de  d e s i r / d e s i r e not but a l s o  and Z a c h a r i e ' s  as i n t h e name o f t h e s e c t i o n  bordering desired  we  i n the  children,  o f t h e J e a n - B a r t mine  " l a veine This  Desiree",  latter  of intense  desire  the i sa  exploitation  Note  the reaction  of the  which  characterizes  working  "Lorsqu'ils  l e s mineurs  du  p a r l a i e n t de c e t t e  pays  p a l i s s a i e n t et  53 baissaient  l a voix,  ( 305 ).  Indeed,  veine  Desiree"  to  feeding  against  a small  Gaea.  the p a r a s i t i c  force  semantic  eventually  of  the  of unrestrained  l a v i e d e s m e u r t - l a - f aim  power  i s i n league  planet virile  itself.  To Maheu  forces, resulting  complement plays  Mother.  accentuates  her  predominant  motifs  characterize  most  in  word  French;  "stomach" dualities of  "sein"  To  ample  and  often  reinforce  t o shed  some l i g h t  population  female  sexual ofthe  power,  although  counter  t o these  Constance  role  of  Great  parallel,  Zola  bringing  and  community.  may i n d i c a t e  out these  on t h e Z o l i a n  on p r o f o u n d l y  that  " b r e a s t " and "womb"  "ventre"  hunger  out the  nourishment  i n t h e mining  point  Clearly,  takes  impersonnel  Earth,  this  thereby  t h e word We  nominally  the forces  o f Mother  fertility  "womb".  vampire  l e nourrissaient!"  runs  h a s t h e meanings o f b o t h  e r o t i c i s m and f o o d .  starving  with  Nature  a  a ce d i e u qui  the  "Le t r a v a i l  i n Germinal,  o f t h e mothers  similarly,  of  and a r c h e t y p a l  bosom,  of  "artere  i n c a l a m i t y and b l o o d s h e d .  the notion  the structural  from " l a  (although  capitalistic  nevertheless  Proletarian  The  i s clear:  and i n harmony  and p o t e n t ,  same f e m a l e  au c a p i t a l ,  Masculine  jump  capital:  qui  The d i c h o t o m y  l'enfer"  Ultimately,  antifertile  d e s comptes  (290).  de  triggers  presence  demanderait sucait  parle  aforementioned  that  wrath  upon h e r b l o o d ,  "productive")  avaient  the  artery"  and h e l l i s h  retaliates  s'ils  i t i s only  tranchee/slashed vengeful  comme  both  euphemistic  sensual  equation  f o r food  within a  vital  and  erotic  54 overtones. pleasure food  Zola's  provided  of  life  emphasizes dividing  women a r e by  line  not  p h y s i c a l intimacy  itself.  the  sources  Although  equation  between  to  the  o n l y of the  but  i t seems such  a l s o of the  very  self-evident,  Zola  great  concepts  of  sexual  effect  sexual  that  and  the  alimentary  p l e a s u r e o f t e n becomes b l u r r e d . This  i s how  qualities longing she  as for  is  her  social  f o r an  references dramatic issue  justice:  duties  to  is  fashion,  gorged  with  being  milk  crushed  Zola  by  In  one  not  presence "Et  o f mind o f h e r  elle  enorme des highly  excessive Maheude's the  1'enfant,  that  in the  flow bosom. baby  of  this  a  as  is  abound,  i n the  demi  is  indeed  also  ironic  very  when  the  Estelle,  saint-like sous  author  threatened by  Zolian  n i c k of time  o f t h e word The  is  grand even  her  constant  comes v e r y  etouffee  i t  Estelle,  close  weight of her  the  as  the that  nearly  a  C h i e f among  sleeping  contentedly,  a  Mother,  in his In  instance, a  context:  milk  should  suck.  Z o l a ' s use  infant  It  is relentless  saved  and  maintaining  breast-feeding  older sister,  s e i n s " (105).  poetic  implying  rocks  sauva  of  insubstantial  m o t h e r ' s b r e a s t , o n l y t o be  admirable  Proletarian  demands  oxymorons  purring the  such  integrity,  Great  giving  however,  and  of  of  i s motherhood.  personal  the  that  art  possess  f a m i l y of ten people.  indeed, the  can  As  by  extended  child;  Maheu  fidelity,  occupied  multiple  youngest  to  sexual  kept  household  Constance  la  own  by  the  Alzire: coulee  "coulee" i s seems  to  be  much  by  an  weight  of  La  the  bring  hand  that  about  its  55  strangulation. great  effect  The u s e o f oxymoron by Z o l a  lurk  behind  even  most  revered  symbol,  Death  and l i f e  united  with  throughout  t h e most  Germinal;  comforting  within  t h e most  a r e two s i d e s  Thanatos  i s a trademark  used t o  danger  of acts,  may  thus  within the  d o c i l e of sacred  t o t h e same  and t h e b r e a s t  coin:  of l i f e  cows.  Eros  has  has become a  weapon o f d e a t h and d e s t r u c t i o n . Havelock with  nudity  one  Ellis  Zola  nutritive  side  of l i f e , of  what  and on  Zolian  obsession  he  In so d o i n g ,  "On t h e  i s repulsive  the other  chastity,  of f l e s h .  this  i s ill-considered:  over-emphasises  obsession  nakedness  that  and b r e a s t - f e e d i n g  hand  timid  considers  hand,  i n the  with  over-emphasises  he has r e v e a l e d  the the  a certain  17 flabbiness often its  in hisart.  reduced, at l e a s t  most  times  fundamental  resorts  mothers  with  to  . . . "  i n plebeian  and f e r a l  horse  suckling  children:  t h e Bon-Joyeux d a n c e h a l l  et  blondes  comme d e s s a c s  become  equine  t h e bags  motif  i s also  that  feeding i s  i n the novel, to  Accordingly,  and  simile  Without  to  of oats  upon  (173); which  to describe  foals  Zola  dans also  l a litiere refers  nourriciere"  chaude"  (79).  t o L a Maheude's  troughs,  "avec l e s  de bonne  de bonne  who  t o catch  In a s i m i l a r  "mamelle  (127) and t o "son c o r p s  This  La Mouquette,  her sleep  betes,  longues  feed.  up  t o the horses'  women  women's b r e a s t s  away from h e r work i n t h e mine as a c a r t g i r l next  describe  inhibitions,  steals on  Zola a t  " s o r t a i e n t des mamelles  d'avoine"  used  circles  level.  imagery  at  have  I t i s true  bete  light, bete trop  56 feconde" least  (498).  a  good  La  Maheude  beast.  If  she  archetypically  significant  extent  role  in  her  protectress it  i s her  that own  her  family.  the  number  by  the  that for  she  While of  and  now  suffering Zolian  no  as  a  to  a  feed  forces  as  of  symbols.  patriarchal Thus poverty  is  that  children  are  arms:  "Les  femmes,  aux  this  use  to the  strike  a l l the  It  is  more  i s also  extremes  by  such  an  and  her  the  and  be  long  put  that  of  causes  In  the  indeed  work long-  in so  the much  jungle  of  lead  to  consequences sein  than  just of  extreme  in  run,  to  Maheu f a m i l y  "un  an  counterbalanced  to  may  the  increase  philosophy  symbolic the  to  killing  in  catastrophic  Once a g a i n ,  is  that  . . . tombant a  parody  female  of  corporeal  practicalities  of  capitalism.  it  vengeance,  well,  she  at  paradoxically  that  enough  is  nourisher,  that  income  old  she  up  mother,  starvation.  (235-36)  to  caught  opinion  hyperfertility  with  pushed  are  but  then  i s slowly  household  phenomenon e n t a i l s .  fertility  mare,  i s eventually  protracted  result  ventre"  the  practical  naturalism,  jusqu'au  that  i s of  industry  of  overpopulation this  she  children  mining  beast,  Mare  fruitiferous  in total  r a n g e hope i s of here  Great  a  a  i s unable to r e a l i z e  mouths  i s , when t h e  be  is  hyperfertility  increase  the  of  may  the  bitter  provokes  as  the  reality  of  novel's  working-class  illustrated  transformed femmes cheveux  in  the  mass  scene  i n t o f l a g s o f war  avaient epars,  paru,  pres  depeignes  par  oppression  where in their d'un la  women  and to  starving mothers'  millier course,  de aux  57 guenilles lasses  montrant  d'enfanter petit  entre  ainsi  qu'un  drapeau  this  thought with  and child  that  of  l i k e l i h o o d , t o Zola's  indifference role In  Even La  an  of s o c i a l  bourgeois  Brule  several  the  agony  women  section  to  closer  move  intense  this  Cecile  is  slowly  exacerbated  take  o f f h e r work  become  the butt  might  indicate primary  as f o r i n s t a n c e protective  i t i s t h e women  who must  fire by  Catherine  by a 45° C e l s i u s layer  o f h e r male  region  incessantly.  the noxious  clothes  exclusively  to the Tartaret burns  bourgeois  of the mining  as t h e miners  mine,  when  a t t h e hands o f men,  almost  F o r example,  and c l o s e r  also  bare  vulnerability i s universal:  of the Jean-Bart  strangled  may  in  nudity  buttocks  decorum—its  Gregoire's  since  t h e ones  subterranean  but,  dimensions—a  breast  are susceptible,  of nudity.  Desiree  shock,  o f f e m a l e v u l n e r a b i l i t y and s u f f e r i n g .  However,  are also  desperate  Although  bare  bourgeois  It is  the greatest  community who s u f f e r d i s p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y they  (344). and  as w e l l .  exposed  l'agitaient,  o f La P i o l a i n e  strength,  class,  threatens  trimmings.  has  to a r t i f i c i a l  i s the depiction  terms  readers  male  contempt,  have been  residents  clearly  symbolize  t h e semi-naked  would  all  express  tenaient  e t de v e n g e a n c e "  t o the bourgeois  may  Quelques-unes  de d e u i l  only  chest  femelles  l e soulevaient,  sight  the novel  de  l e s bras,  not  within  nue, d e s n u d i t e s  des meurt-de-faim.  leur  female  l a peau  fumes,  endure  work t h e i s forced where an  As C a t h e r i n e her t o r t u r e i s  heat which o b l i g e s  her t o  by l a y e r ,  her t o  co-workers'  leaving  taunts.  This i s  58 Zola's it  vivid  is  depiction  the metaphorical  cruelty,  and  conditions, community the  as w e l l ,  une  autorite  with  courbee  of the mining  the disproportionate l o t Working-class group  women a r e  f o r they  jeopardy.  Henri  are the  Mitterand  p o i n t when he m a i n t a i n s  e s t l a femme, celle  that  sur laquelle  de l'homme,  of  pese  qu'il  soit  .,18  epoux ou son amant. Later  while  on i t i s no a c c i d e n t t h a t C h a v a l  she i s " v e t u e  les  jambes"  but  i t leaves  presumably  a peine,  (408).  lasciviousness  epithet  h e r open which,  culminate  male  variant  female While  "gueuse"  form women  same  satisfy standard  to sexist  according  simply  male  held  i n contempt  lust,  perpetuated  a by  (409).  We a r e d e a l i n g w i t h  of sexual  sexual  desire,  f o r having  a l l  would  The u s e o f t h e  "beggar",  traditional almost  fears,  "comme une g u e u s e , a  also contains implications a r e o b j e c t s o f male  o f o b s c e n i t y and  is in itself  means  dans  i s not only p a t h e t i c ,  sent  instance  Catherine  de coups de p i e d  charges  de M a r c h i e n n e s "  i n this  evicts  t o her worst  i n her being  "gueux"  time  characters.  meurtrie  Her s e m i - n u d i t y  c e t t e maison p u b l i q u e  the  mental  by t h e m e n f o l k  us on t h i s  4.  abuse,  objectionable  double  supplementaire,  alone:  These  i n Germinal.  de t o u t e s  f o r women  physical  an a l r e a d y v i c t i m i z e d  seems t o c o n c u r plus  of  are i n fact  of p a t r i a r c h a l  "la  reserved  poverty.  endured  characters  within  sufferers  hell  unremitting  although  female  victims  son  of a h e l l  yet of  sexist:  the  whereas t h e debauchery. they  are at  the potential to perverse  double  the novel's  the l i t e r a r y  male  a p p l i c a t i o n of  59  the  a g e - o l d Madonna-whore d u p l e x i t y ,  has  no  real  society neatly  or  male  equivalent  i n France  summarized  in either  during  in Carol  a female dichotomy  the  present-day  1860s.  Fuller's  This  article  that  Western  dichotomy  "The  is  Infertile  Rabbit": jjr} he u l t i m a t e j u s t i f i c a t i o n o f a f e m a l e i n t h e c o r o n l i e s i n h e r p r o d u c t i o n o f o f f s p r i n g , whereby she establishes economic security, demonstrates her own " f e m a l e n e s s " by f e r t i l i t y , and p r o v e s h e r man's v i r i l i t y . I n f e r t i l e , she r e m a i n s o n l y as a love object f o r sex/pleasure, greatly diminished i n t h e e y e s o f jt^he male and t h e community as w e l l as i n h e r own. Another fertility rabbit is  in  striking  symbol  Germinal  i s Pologne,  k e p t by t h e R a s s e n e u r s .  being  tormented  grazes outside. the by  the  it  is  very  metaphorical  boys  sexual  comforter.  such  hostility  warmth  and  derive  pleasure  rabbit?  Fittingly,  tormentor  Jeanlin  brutality.  from  and  spectrum. violently  stoning i t  since,  is  on  a  Pologne r e p r e s e n t He  i s the  destructive  and  softness  differentiation.  and  in turn  s y m b o l i c warmth  she  becomes mellowed  softness.  Yet  constitutes  are  led to  else  would  symbolically  Jeanlin slightly  who  infer  less  than  stunted,  anti-fertile  forces;  Pologne's  epic  of the  of  children  defenceless  becomes  o p p o s i t e ends  embodiment  she  as O t h e r — t h a t e n g e n d e r s Why  a  as  is  that  We  as  stones  S o u v a r i n e who He  and  pregnant  i s introduced  throwing  i t i s indeed difference--woman  male  chief  of  vulnerability  the p e r p e t u a l l y  Pologne  young  animal's  presence this  by  female  I t i s t h e androgynous  frightened  that  of  scale,  fertility  depraved, she  is  and a  60  victimized  symbol  of  natural  and  unrestrained  female  hyperfertility. It her  i s Pologne s  pregnant  1  downfall  Jeanlin,  when  Bebert,  commencement  being  and  chased  Lydie:  de  grossesse,  rattrapee"  (279).  Pregnancy  freedom,  situation  of  a  breasts  rendered Jeanlin. babies, rabbit The  After Pologne  stew  "pour  are  fulfilling  is  their  no l o n g e r  "pour  useless role  disposable  when  dont  transformed  i lfait  to  babies at Pologne i s  of  into  stillborn  a nourishing  une bouche i n u t i l e " females,  whether  they  of being  or  capable  of  machines,  and  of t h i s  role  are  baby  Jennings  par e x c e l l e n c e l'eloge tout  de  (394).  animal  the f u l f i l l m e n t  As C h a n t a l  l a mission  un  by t h e s u b j u g a t i o n  succession  unless  primary  as a h i n d r a n c e  on t h e way.  to a  clear:  possible.  Zola,  maternite,  are  eu  she i n c u r s a t t h e hands o f  ne pas n o u r r i r  indeed  therefore  birth  i s summarily  implications  human,  are  giving  by  l'auraient  community w i t h  ones  by t h e i n j u r i e s  pas  i l s ne  paralleled  t o be  occasion  n'avait  i s described  little  proves  another  jamais  i n the mining  and more  sterile  on  that  "Si elle  closely  t h e women t r a p p e d  their  condition  rightly  remarks,  l a femme  est l a  au l o n g de son  oeuvre,  20 et  qu'il  shortly  finit after  capable  of  Etienne's  making  actually  love  reduced  Once h i s s e e d  impregnated,  Finally to  Similarly,  f o r the f i r s t  being  virility.  symbolically manhood.  par d i v i n i s e r . "  fertile,  resolving  i s planted  Catherine  time  thereby  a  woman  proving  Catherine  Etienne's within  as  dies  both  crisis  is of  h e r and t h e  61 encompassing  "womb" o f  redundant--from expeditiously  e q u a t e s sex  and  are  surprising  that  Zola  mass  masse, la  upheaval qui  vieille  fervor  undercurrent. symbols  of  pumping  and  vulnerable are  should  un  one  (the  1'echappement  de  by  la  the  clearly  has  mentions and are  of  son  haleine  detruite, s i le souffle s'etait arrete"  afresh the  by  end,  waters this  the  is  powers  of  exception  sounds  only  can  night-time  the  the  and  Earth,  rather  than  the the  associated highly they  fosse,  que  grosse  que  les (233).  The  is  erotically  committed  male.  brought  about  of  rule.  Gaea's  male v o i c e .  abortof acient use  by  such In  side  extreme the  of  et  eaux  landscape  silence this  destructive,  male  Germinalian  the  Deluge  overcome  the  of  the  toujours  auraient  the  sexual  Gaea u n l e s s  avait  la  a  that  other  haleine  themselves  forces  de  en  revolutionary  soufflant vie  levee  since  le  of  la  not  crussing  cette  longue,  silence  de  eventual de  " i l n'y  pompe  It i s  so  d'une  pump  the  linked  d'emporter  equipment)  durable:  reste  the  inextricably  death  the  final  Zola  water  and  to  miners  destruction and  is  reinforces  miscarriage.  (391)  point,  penetrative  steadfast  and  instant  pourrie"  industry  to  only  sex  refer  striking At  of  "1'avortement  menace  the  not  becomes she  " b r e e d e r s " but  in abortion  societe  of  Zola  concepts  as  avait  role  anew.  the  they  Catherine's  perspective--and  o f women as  as  of  male  death  are  Earth,  off.  notion  Nowhere closely  the killed  paternalistic  the  broken In  rushing Although  the  force  context  great is of  the the  62 novel,  the  tranchee," natural this  Earth  reacts  against  renewal  The c a r n a g e  final"  inherently  the  associated  Company's  men,  women,  truly  abortion In  out milk  was  have  waters of the g e n t l e breast  very  and  water  into  This  that  on a day o f b r u t a l  occurs  l a puberte  fluids is  within  the bodies  intimately  connected  o f G a e a s own w a t e r s .  that  "je  1  l'arrangerai  3 thus  deposit  amours  avec  pour  final  circle:  the  a l s o have t h e  v i o l e n t and s n u f f  as  violence:  symbolized  dans  by  development  "c'etait  l a secousse  le flot de  female  cette  flow of  characters  and p a r a l l e l e d by t h e n a t u r a l This  explains  que  Catherine  h i s revolutionary  of  to the  This  a momentous  of the novel's  cycle  sacrifice  I t i s as i f t h e n a t u r a l  with  the  injustice.  full  blood,  period,  (427).  years  i s the t r a n s u b s t a n t i a t i o n of  qui crevait enfin,  abominable"  spring.  appease  o f human l i f e  sacrificial  menstrual  to  Gaea.  p o t e n t i a l to turn  same l i f e .  of  womb and t h e n u r s e ' s m i l k i n  as t h e s o u r c e s  first  journee  of  come  we  f o r the  an appeasement  Zolian  terms  terms  the ultimate  powers  Catherine's  de  aimed  represents  terrestrial  both  o v e r t h e one h u n d r e d  of C a p i t a l ,  yet contradictory  that  artere  accompanying  the return  of gross  ample  innate  i n epic  i s a welcome a l l e v i a t i o n  supporting the  spilled  and m a c h i n e r y  supreme  with  existence  ogre/vampire/monster  and s u f f e r i n g  are necessary  Whereas much o f t h e b l o o d of  f o r "une  an e x p l o i t a t i v e m i s u s e o f r e s o u r c e s ,  and human.  "avortement  in retribution  je au  seed  why  puisse  fond."  Zola  stated  obtenir  91  of education  Etienne  ses may  within the  63  Earth,  thence  generation  of  perishes, This of  now  of  able  love  ancient  water:  develop  soldiers.  is  scene the  to  to  be  amidst  death  die,  triumphs  i n the  ou  naguere l e Voreux"  etait  Despite however, novel, but  this  thereby  marking  a  new  things  to  inspirational  "un  the  in  come. and  so  of  although  she  fertilized  by  of the  earth,  her  air,  power o f  a  new  eventually  place within  l a c boueuse q u i  lover.  a fusion  fire,  and  Gaea u l t i m a t e l y occupa  la  place  (459). flood  eternal  cycle  detailed  beginnings  takes  but  climactic  springs  insurrection of  of  hope  of  truly  elements  may  form  the  Catherine,  Greek  Catherine  as  of  at  the  dawning  not  of  bloody  conclusion only  revolutionary  Germinal Nowhere  i s but else  heartbreakingly  violence,  is  of  a  of  the  new  day,  seasons.  an  embryonic  Zola's  The shape  prose  so  poetic:  Maintenant, en plein ciel, le soleil d'avril r a y o n n a i t dans sa g l o i r e , e c h a u f f a n t l a t e r r e q u i enfantait. Du flanc nourricier jaillissait la v i e , l e s b o u r g e o n s c r e v a i e n t en f e u i l l e s v e r t e s , les champs tressaillaient de la poussee des herbes. De toutes parts, des graines se gonflaient, s'allongeaient, gercaient l a plaine, t r a v a i l l e e s d'un b e s o i n de c h a l e u r e t de l u m i e r e . Un debordement de seve coulait avec des voix c h u c h o t a n t e s , l e b r u i t des germes s ' e p a n d a i t en un grand b a i s e r . E n c o r e , e n c o r e , de p l u s en plus d i s t i n c t e m e n t , comme s ' i l s se f u s s e n t r a p p r o c h e s du s o l , les camarades tapaient. Aux rayons enflammes de l'astre, par cette matinee de j e u n e s s e , c ' e t a i t de c e t t e rumeur que l a campagne e t a i t grosse. (502) Zola's is  meaning  heavy w i t h  flowers; as  and  Etienne's  is clear: child;  last  and  the  s e e d s become buds become l e a v e s  everywhere former  It i s spring at  the  sap  workmates  of  are  life  i s flowing.  "rapproches  du  Earth become Just  sol,"  so  64  too  has Z o l a  Nature  itself.  obvious that  achieved  a rapprochement  Readers  of Zola  Levaque  simultaneous  est enceinte"  description  Catherine's  menstruation  of  and t h e w r a t h  soldiers  pregnancy peace born of  cannot  c o n n e c t i o n between C o n s t a n c e  "La  of  calendar points  resonances  month  21st - A p r i l  of  des i n s u r r e c t i o n s :  murs  des  maisons  necessities  de Z o l a  of epic  Zola's  creative  and d e s t r u c t i v e ,  that  dramatic  such  heroic  t h e female  powerfully a  be t h e f i r s t  As  Republican  Auguste  Dezalay  exercee  apparait  comme  as  aussi  dans  l a simple poussee des 0  b a l a n c e and symmetry  use o f female  erotic  i n Germinal.  fatalism,  Constance  and n o b l e  ultimately power,  Although  complex and r i c h .  they  Maheu,  i n the novel  Even though  female also credit i s so  women a r e p r o n e t o  mixture are also  both  Etienne  I t i s t o Zola's  described  traditional  and r e s i g n a t i o n ,  and C a t h e r i n e  status.  psychology  stereotypically  avant  sur l e s  i s t h e o b v i o u s p r o t a g o n i s t o f t h e n o v e l , many  characters, achieve  will  r e b o r n and  du p r i n t e m p s . "  regulate  Lantier  of spring  l a poussee  6  The  as  violence  des g e r m i n a t i o n s  bourgeoises  e t des f e u i l l e s  the bloody  18th).  celui  herbes  near  Just  the French  i s " l e mois  creatrice  bloom.  her c h i l d  d'etre  1'imagination  with  Zola's  a g e , c o n c e i v e d i n t h e v e r y month  the seventh  o u t , Germinal  b u t make t h e  Maheu's b a n a l u t t e r a n c e  terrestrial  to the Earth:  (March  with  o f Gaea, s o t o o does L a L e v a q u e ' s  o f a new r e v o l u t i o n a r y Germinal,  help  (498) w i t h  coincides  mirror the f e r t i l e  returned  o f human n a t u r e  of capable  passivity, of great  65 strength  and e n d u r a n c e .  narrative natural or  nor f e m i n i s t  interaction  i n hatred,  purports  misogynistic  Although  with but  of  the bulk  Women's thus  attempting  o f women  a l a r g e r oppressed  of  an  insidious  female embracing  the t i r e l e s s  libido  form  of ownership  so dear  this Zola  obstacle  Germinalian  respect, seems  an  i s absorbed  t o o a r e a t times  on  by  faced  This i s  t h e message o f revolution.  of patriarchy  a revolution,  the a l l -  victimized  sub-  o f r e b e l l i o n i s t h e whole-  threat  exemplified  "religion" to  of bourgeois  of sexual  freedom  t h e maintenance  of the  i s not quite  emphasizing  Desir.  to the p a t r i l i n e a l  t o the hearts  female c o n d i t i o n  the author  intent  revenge.  o f L a M o u q u e t t e and t h e widow  structures  fundamental  violence  o f unabashed e r o t i c i s m ,  a serious  represents  sexual  class.  constitues  thus  indeed  and t h e s u b s e q u e n t  increasingly  The n a t u r a l  novel  with the  i n open r e b e l l i o n .  Promiscuity  male s u p r e m a c i s t s .  complete  their  within  group w i t h i n  by  view,  o f f the shackles  reaction  hearted  The  t o complete h i s t a l e of c l a s s t o throw  i n love  and i t does  f o r conveying  a revolution  more  a p i c t u r e of  peace.  reality  by men, men  too-natural  even  at  domination  techniques  i n order  constitutes  An  or  of the novel's  tables  one o f Z o l a ' s  eroticism  a t war  women s e e k i n g  and p e r p e t u a t e d  chauvinist  and women, w h e t h e r  raw and p u l s a t i n g  fury  the turned  men  o f male  male  i ti s instead  unvarnished  excesses  castrative  women  whether  for a  i s neither  diatribe;  between  to describe  provide  Germinal  of enslavement.  so r a d i c a l .  In  In f a c t ,  t h e "sex e q u a l s  death"  66 formula  by  killing  off  Mouquette--even though life  to  save  after  experiencing Zola  women's  neuroses  Catherine  "fertile"  seems  mysteries  to  such  indeed  have  an  While  great  as  La  by g i v i n g h e r own  herself--sacrificed time.  unconscious  as p r e g n a n c y ,  be  such  love for the f i r s t  and l e s b i a n i s m .  may  characters  she d i e s h e r o i c a l l y  Catherine—and  also  miscarriage,  female  terror  childbirth,  Zola's  enough  of  abortion,  own i g n o r a n c e and  a t times  t o warrant  c h a r g e s o f s e x i s m , however i n a d v e r t a n t , we must keep i n mind that  Zola  which,  presumably,  neurotic writing out  was w r i t i n g  heritage Germinal  of  would of  more  Given  was t o shock  was  spirit  considered  crime,  when  women  worlds  of a r t ,  hardly  be  to  less  drifting  on we  and r e l i g i o n ,  apply  when  rather  excluded  of  By  succeeds.  time  right  t h e vanguard  describe  aim i n  complacency.  routinely  would  same  the bourgeoisie  age, a  economics,  the  primary  male f e a r s , he  legitimate  readership  share  Zola's  Zola's  still  politics,  Instead,  traditionalist"  a  were  positioned  misogyny.  of  male  and f r i g h t e n  p l a y i n g on e x i s t i n g the  or  gynophobia.  i t s characteristic  relentlessly  beating  f o r a predominately  wife  than  a  from t h e Zola can  Judaeo-Christian  the  the philosophy  term held  "radical by  Zola  t o w a r d s women, a s e v i d e n c e d  by t h e complex and c o n t r a d i c t o r y  range  of female  i n Germinal.  wryly  points  Christ-like And,  just  characters  out, "Zola's leader,  as Z o l a ' s  Messianic  are mirrored paternalistic  As Naomi S c h o r so  politics,  centred  i n h i s sexual brand  on a  politics.  of s o c i a l i s m  does  67 not  win high  brand  of  marks  feminism  from  Marxist  i s hardly  critics,  likely  his paternalistic  t o w i n an  endorsement  o f woman as O t h e r  i s redeemed  from N.O.W."  23  Zola's by  his  traditional  obvious  suffering. some  would  say  seduction,  enough  the  positive  traits  the  sacrosanct  archetypal The  portrait  the  of  conjunction  As an e r o t i c  with  pioneer,  or a l l u d e t o the fears of  departure on  of intimacy, between  of  women  i n Germinal  Zola's  heart  considerable-  c a s t r a t i o n , and r a p e — f e a r s  focusing  bond  in  to  for  the  misogynistic  larger  warmth,  archetypal  which  and  light,  more  and on  mother/Gaea  and  child/Humankind.  patriarchy of  and f a t a l i s m .  points  also  sensitivity  t o show women's  to describe  violence—while female  poetic  greater—strengths  menstruation,  formed  and  enough  passivity  i s intrepid  have  compassion  He i s b o l d  stereotypical he  fear  i s an i n d i r e c t  ultrasexist  of the novel's  Germinalian  casting  age.  In t h i s  revolution  universe.  accordance  aside  y e t powerful sense,  Anna  women  and a r e t h u s  It i s forthis  with  the f e t t e r s  complete  Krakowski's  La  c o n d i t i o n de l a femme dans 1'oeuvre d ' E m i l e  critique form t h e  the focus of  reason  in  of  t h a t we a r e  conclusion i n Zola;  Zola e t a i t convaincu qu'on ne p o u v a i t pas l u t t e r pour 1' e m a n c i p a t i o n de l a femme en t a n t que t e l l e s a n s p a r t i c i p e r en meme temps aux r e v e n d i c a t i o n s des t r a v a i l l e u r s . I I a a u s s i s a i s i que s e u l l e combat r e v e n d i c a t i f ne r e s o u d r a p a s l e p r o b l e m e , qu'il y faut avant tout une education de comportement a l'interieur du f o y e r , un libre consentement guide p a r l e sentiment e t l e r e s p e c t , conditions indispensables a l'egalite d e s deux partenaires. A 1'epoque ou l a femme e t a i t e n c o r e  68 en p l e i n a s s e r v i s s m e n t i l t e n a i t l e langage d e s p l u s f e r v e n t s s o c i o l o g u e s f e m i n i s t e s modernes. ?  69  CHAPTER THREE EROTIC DEVIANCE The  blaze  towards to  of a n a r c h i s t i c  the conclusion  seek  sacrifice  understand helpful at  to  the causes  of t h i s  t h e mine as b r e a k i n g  activity  costs at  indirectly punish  those  In  people  terms  question  process  i t s profitable i s like  of cause  does  not  analysis, guilty  Instead, combination  guilty  of  the of  of  a  rape  the  of  and  Since  environmental the  mining  the planet  other  itself  to  speedy  ethos  stereotypical  the concept  throughout  transgressing  moral  extraction  law o f n a t u r e .  this  to  and  "need" t o  "unnatural"  and e r o t i c .  nebulous  with  of mineral  Hence t h e E a r t h ' s  and e f f e c t ,  lend  purposes:  In o r d e r  operations,  a  erupts  destruction, i t i s  i s unconcerned with  industrial  i s often  punishment.  a fundamental  Voreux  both  punishment  those  Le  of  has two b r o a d  vengeful  of i t s i n h a b i t a n t s .  practices,  white"  exact  t o view t h e i n d u s t r i a l  social  d e s t r u c t i o n which  of Germinal  and  t h e o m n i p o t e n t Company or  physical  the novel.  simplistic  application "natural"  at  work  o f c r i m e and  of  laws in  nineteenth  This  "black  and  justice for of  behavior.  Germinal century  is  a  French  70 middle-class  values  mitigated  to a  author's  semiliberal doctrine  holds  contradictory  a  conservative  of such  reacted  indignation  "Zolaesque" "lewd",  to  and  able  t o assuage however,  largely  itself Zola  too  that  shared  and human  critics  depictions the  half  when  adjective  of t h i s  century  readership  a l l was  their  with  o f " c o a r s e " and  middle-class  knowing  Zola  of  century  that  the f i r s t  by t h e  liberal  types  the connotations  from  Zola's  both  erotic  condemnation  as d i c t i o n a r i e s  attest.  of  various  Zola's  extent  naturalism.  the nineteenth  came t o a c q u i r e  will  done,  towards  Unsurprisingly,  Germinal  of e r o t i c  assortment  attitudes  sexuality.  certain  was  said  fundamental  and  moral  b e l i e f s. In acts (or  particular,  a r e viewed a r e seen  treated  total the  sexual author's  among degree  the  incest,  erotic  of  sexual  choosing  complexity,  involved.  Broadly  but  for diversity  license  mate.  shows  that  and t o t h e need Once  they  marriage i s  signs  Unmarried people  by Z o l a , speaking,  in erotic  corresponds  sexual  promiscuity i s  ideal,  he  "punished"  interclass  institutionalized  freedom a  and  or  prostitution,  within  i n allowing  sensual  and a r e  negatively, or n e u t r a l l y  character  fidelity  orientations  i n themselves):  some o f h i s c h a r a c t e r s .  youthful before  positively,  erotic  i n the novel  Owing t o i t s i n h e r e n t  on  flexibility  negatively  adultery,  either  depending  following  as p u n i s h m e n t  homosexuality, relations.  the  of  some  behavior  are given a  both  to  their  f o r experimentation  are married,  however,  71 partners In  are expected  this  shift  respect,  t o be a t once  the working-class  of middle-class  erotic  ideal.  transfer, barren  portrays  the  bourgeois  the  Gregoires,  daughter; symbolically ideal  banal  of  goal  M.  yet  base  In  of  fact,  value  as v i r t u a l l y  has two  and  Zola's  sympathetic  semi-charitable,  child.  erotic  t h e most  ironic  erotic  families  Deneulin,  Hennebeaus,  without  i s that  theoretical  the  class-based  Tellingly,  characters,  and  this  fertile.  a most  t h e epitome  h i s bourgeois  i n comparison.  and  Maheus--in  values—become  To u n d e r s c o r e  Zola  faithful  of  daughters;  have  only  one  p e r n i c i o u s , are  Zola's  self-abnegation,  most  lofty  this  is a  but  n e v e r a t t a i n e d by any o f t h e n o v e l ' s  mature  understanding  sexual  characters. A  key  deviance which  "to regard  highly  very by  i n Germinal  denouement Zola  socialist  as  ideology—is  world  of  justice  the the  by  corrupt,  equality  "abominari", of i l l  ethic  accounts  popular  uprising  degenerate,  and  figures.  envisioned  by  and  decadentThe  the  "new"  novel's  free  from  The c a t a s t r o p h i c c l i m a x o f  purification, both  omen  and t o t h e  i s s e e n a s a more " n a t u r a l " p l a c e ,  i s an e r o t i c  Biblical  "abominable",  The " o l d " s o c i e t y — p o r t r a y e d  c o r r u p t i o n and d e v i a n c e .  novel  sexual  of i t s bourgeois  and  to  This notion  to Zola's  threatened  the barrenness  approach  i n the L a t i n  omen".  of the novel.  hence  sexual  both  being  revolutionaries  roots  as an i l l  pertinent  Zola's  i s h i s u s e o f t h e word  has i t s e t y m o l o g i c a l  meaning is  to  of  i n much t h e same way as the  Flood  and  of  the  72 destruction  o f Sodom and Gomorrha r e p r e s e n t  retribution  a g a i n s t human i n i q u i t y  The  word  various  "abominable"  contexts  description  in  the  and  and  narrative,  M. Hennebeau  semi-incestuous  Etienne voix  very  cette Cecile  close  en  Zola's  (Mme  of  h i s age.  (Le  Tartaret  is  violence homoerotic  Chaval s  an  and  overtones),  l a secousse  to local male  of  of  synonyms  interpretative  key  of Zola's  bourgeois  to own  ideals  the circumstances  towards  legend,  lesbianism  where  "wicked"  character's expression of  incestuous  description Chaval's  !"§73j\  use  and d i v e r g e n c e  de  scene o f  abomination  array  attitude  ("une  £3 9 8} ), a t t h e  ("dans  vast  the author's  Zola's  b a r when  throat  1  instances cited,  a t h i s own w i f e ' s  (Etienne  abominables  the r e i g n i n g p a t r i a r c h a l  i s , according  h i s nephew),  traces  persistent  the  are s e n t ) , a bourgeois  revulsion  as i n t h e  of h i s wife's  "Quelle  and  In t h e f i v e  respectively  ell  W  {j427} ) , and a t t h e murder  the convergence  are  girls  period  French—provides  sexual values with  s  du  positive  to s l i t t i n g  "abominable"--considering  understanding  a  in  i n the  ("crachant  a t t h e Avantage  Hennebeau:  frequent  in  f  proof  ),  first  abominable"  Gregoire  available  notably  l u i , 1 ' assourdissai t"  o f Catherine's journee  [305J )  ("des  ["34oJ  les linges"  comes  finds  infidelity  abominable,  moment  most  o f t h e T a r t a r e t r e g i o n o f t h e mine  where  souillant  "abominations."  i t s d e r i v a t i v e s appear  s o u f r e e t des vapeurs abominables" scene  cosmic or d i v i n e  depravity  of e r o t i c a l l y - c h a r g e d  relationship  Catherine's  (her l o v e r  has  long-delayed  frequent  entry  into  womanhood  (delayed  conditions), of  a  and a b o u r g e o i s f e m a l e ' s  virginal  sexual  young  woman  describe  overly  wedding  plans:  (213).  In a d d i t i o n ,  inhabits  of a  " i l rougit Zola  t h e mine (290).  "monstrueux"  a r e thus  uses  occasions forces  them  represent  of  Nature  procreative),  in  either  of gross  erotic  crimes  infractions  nephew's  Minotaur  cette  and, t o a l e s s e r  indications  to his  monstrueuse"  immonde,  deviance  against  of  since These  the  creative  i s inherently Zola's  idole  extent,  junctures.  (e.g. homosexuality  or  her  to the c a p i t a l i s t  "Abominable"  clear  The word  reaction  de s o n i m a g i n a t i o n  critical  has  way by M. Hennebeau  involvement  refers  living  t o t h e murder  novelist).  as "ce p o u r c e a u  at  and  virgin  yet suspicious  enthusiastic  monstrueuse"  Zola  (death  i n a revealing  h i s own f l e e t i n g  wife's  who  used  working  reaction  c o n n o t a t i o n s f o r t h e mythopoeic  "monstrueux" i s a l s o to  73 o f subhuman  because  own  nonerotic  commandments. The  traditional  represents lens  is  "monstre," the  Volcan  "Cinq  (167).  which  pub d u r i n g  des g e s t e s  "Monstre" scene,  no  i s indeed  matter  the  t o describe  l e rebut  how  prostitution  Revealing  of  the miners'  of  t o focus h i s n a t u r a l i s t  condition.  appearance  i s used  avec  deviance  way f o r Z o l a  sexual  another  chanteuses,  defilaient,  this  an o b v i o u s  on t h e human  right  female  i n i t s own  closely-related  t h e female  "ducasse"  des f i l l e s  singers at  celebrations:  publiques  e t un d e c o l l e t a g e  de  de  Lille,  monstres"  an u n u s u a l  c h o i c e o f words f o r  sleazy  tawdry  or  these  women  74 actually  are i n Zola's  imitating  bourgeois  stressing  great  same  and v o r a c i o u s  mythopoeic  and v i r i l e  seen,  infidelity  soon  notwithstanding treacherous innate  nature,  misgivings  noir. qui  bogeyman novel  her  le  c o u aux  t o whom  we  and d e v i a t o r y  fascinating  mineur"  cornerstones  sexual  mineur  filles"  implications  early  the  and  has  grave  i s also the in  "1'Homme  l a fosse et  on  shadowy in  the  f o r the e r o t i c  y e t t o come.  of  Chaval,  (70), a  s e t the stage  with  homosexuality.  belief  very  sexual  o f h e r own  also  q u i r e v i e n t dans  vilaines  for  abusive  or lesbian  superstitious  punishments  (We e x p l o r e  archetypal  "vieux  chapter.)  fidelity  of Zola's  most  in effect-  proof  Catherine  are introduced  i n the following  Since  their  with  monstrously  In a d d i t i o n ,  Catherine's  an  t o make l o v e  break-up  be i r r e f u t a b l e  as i f t o d e l i b e r a t e l y  crimes the  For Catherine  latter's  . . . [lj e v i e u x tord  chose  as t o t h e r a m i f i c a t i o n s o f f e m a l e  of  have  own, i n much t h e  Greeks  " l o o s e woman", w h e t h e r p r o s t i t u t e  nucleus  thus  c o n s t i t u t e s punishment  would  depravity.  capital  between  Minotaur.  after  the  of  time  Sacrifices to  and d a u g h t e r s — v i r g i n s ,  prostitution  so  connection  appetite.  ancient  and p r o m i s c u i t y .  Etienne  The  sons  appease t h e horrendous As  sexual  seems t o be  a t t h e same  e r o t i c i s m of t h e i r  way as t h e l e g e n d a r y  nubile to  Germinalian  monster/vampire  exaggerated  The a u t h o r  hyperindignation while  the omnipresent  monstrousness the  imagination.  i n marriage  erotic  ideal,  forms  one o f t h e  i t i s not s u r p r i s i n g  75 that be  his so  p o r t r a y a l s of  the  overwhelmingly  negative:  Hennebeau,  and  Maigrat  are  the  who  engage  in  novel  with  the  exception  participants and  they  in  are in  hypocrite,  prone  Etienne  the  lucrative  with  mine.  Her  of h i s w i f e ' s for  the  In  the  most La  activities,  all  marital advantage  "unnatural"  fidelity of  and,  their  p u n i s h m e n t meted o u t their  neighbors,  greed  and  lust  undergoes  the  emasculation  f o r the  as  perpetrates  on  settlement.  This  a the  the  important, and  of  food  contempt.  been  amply  of  female  the  aware  process.  Pierrons  are  a l l notion  of  The  unfair resultant  population  erotic  Maigrat,  from whose  himself  castration  sexual  at  informing  documented, of  a and  foreman  take  drink.  at  having  is fully  renounce  punishment  of  while  t o s p y i n g and  they  and  result  state  sexual  P i e r r o n s i s p h y s i c a l abuse  already  symbolic  of  workmates i n t h e  food  ostracism, have  shameless  bullying  universe,  to  trois"-  diseases  P i e r r o n , who  equally  access  the  and  i s reduced  since  a  i n terms o f g i f t s  Company, b e t r a y i n g h i s own  especially  is  accusations  cowardly  naturalist  a  reprehensible  transmitted  husband,  Bouteloup,  "menage and  in  relations-  and  Pierronne  family,  the  cuckold  Zolian  Levaque,  Madame  characters  sexual  odious  socially  affair,  Dansaert,  La  hurling  Maheu  married  voluntary  the  to  Pierronne,  extra-marital  Germinal.  the  tremendously wine,  of  La  only  Levaque,  regarding  and  the  entirely  three  individuals  impropriety  of  an  a d u l t e r e r / a d u l t e r e s s should a l l  and  blackmail  of  extortion is  the  he  mining  exacerbated  76 by  Maigrat's  supply  of  Nature  who  as  death  ability  food.  In  allows  situation, role  own  of  she  fits  she  is  character into  to Paul  ostensibly  the  the  reasons.  passion Once  to  a  again,  life the of  r e s e n t m e n t do  build  advantage  be  after  to  terms  both  sterile  and  punishment bolts  M.  property. hell  i s so  in  thus  no  is  yet,  in  sudden  of  incestuous  meaning  and  monotony.  of  the  case  rage  acquiescent.  power  and  control,  in  that  then,  time.  they  convenient  earthquakes  and In  are  a  their  lightning  swallow  doomed t o c o n t i n u e  bloodless marriage:  still  t h a t husband  Interestingly, no  and  i s no m a t e r i a l  and  learn  virility,  are  past  Hennebeaus a r e  intimate  couple. there  this  the  when we  and  add  aware  complacent  delusions  sexually  to  since there  of marriage  simply own  simultaneously:  (f)rigidity  husband  being  fertility  their  that  adultery i s pathological,  domestic  been  They a r e  perverse  a d u l t e r e s s and  Her  up w i t h i n him  sky,  gruesome  and  bankrupt  the  of  in his  and  attempts  i s uncertain:  from  power  She  Hennebeau's  never  of  Earth's  for  c h i l d — n o t surprising  have  Hennebeau  wife;  had  "unnatural"  c h o s e n t h e wrong husband  of  the  Mother  of having  twenty-five years  without wife  Madame  cuckold  infidelities  despite  the  is  the  starving.  Negrel.  result  it  this  culminates  i n v e t e r a t e bourgeois  figure  wrong  of  In  usurp  food  influence  s e v e r a l c a t e g o r i e s of deviance  both  mother  the  and  to  to  universe,  harvest:  attempt  a t t h e hands o f t h e The  And  the  life  shopkeeper  "natural"  for  Maigrat's  source  a  as  living  in fact,  up  their through  this  is  77 the  most  effective  punishment  Zola  could  have  devised  for  affair  from  them. What her  differentiates  previous  Paul  Negrel  confidant the  ones i s M.  Hennebeau's  f o r Mme  elle  coded  willing  as  one  she  point  forbidden  the  innocentait  Since  her  1'enfant,  l a route"  de  bitter  thoughts  on  the  leur  reigning  community  accouplement" of  M.  of  example  class-based  triggers.  Hennebeau trouva  and  dans  bourgeois  to  Paul's ses  bras"  elle  who  is At  in  Mme  be  the  avait  does  the  (125)  of  desperate  and  as  sexual  author's  use  comments mining  ultimate an  ironic  values  that  of  the  word  inevitability  of  Mme  ("Naturellement,  f213J ) m i g h t  "le  the  and  equal  poison,  i n the  as  dans vert,  sex  Hennebeau's  seen  the  mordu fruit  represents  (341)  the  £M. Hennebeauj  not o n l y  sex  a  a r e two  innocent.  au p r e m i e r  transfer  describe affair  an  "II  hypocrisy  Similarly,  "naturellement"  there  Hennebeau  patriarcales"  representation  Zola  Mme  nephew:  Hennebeau.  "moeurs  i s obviously  although  is  Thus,  therefore  the  And  auquel  incestuous  may  of  theirs  qu'on mord  (341).  deviant  becoming  i n E v e - l i k e t e r m s as t a s t i n g  young  vole  poison  (340),  i n f l u e n c e on  of  thereby  Z o l a d e s c r i b e s him as "ce P a u l  corrupting  presque  but  loneliness,  i t  d'appetit, ainsi  food,  becomes a  involved,  ce r e v e i l sur  nephew, he i n i t i a l l y  l a mere"  i s described  fruit  Although  relationship.  players  portrayed  latest  nature.  Hennebeaus's  devenait  incestuous  Hennebeau's  i s i t s quasi-incestuous  son she n e v e r h a d .  dont  Mme  well  un be  soir, taken  i l se as  an  78 ironic of  tongue-in-cheek  the  joke.  incestuous  In  aside, with  no  way  relationship  to  and  shoulders  o f a "femme o i s i v e  contempt  hypocrisy, and  the  places  be  perverse  his  he  does  for  Mme  even  others  take  Of  mutilated  course,  penis  Etienne's  marry  eldest  son. parents,  a  workers. sisterly  them f e e l  before  bed  friends. idea  the and  old  d'une e x e c u t i o n  blame  upon  the  of  and  (213).  her  To  underscore  predatory  bourgeois  a g a i n s t a trough  a  barn  she  who of  from  the  when  she  rampaging  recognizes  Maigrat's  pork.  Assuredly,  the  across  Catherine  and  La  that  E t i e n n e moves i n t o t h e  Maheude  even  love with facile"  departure  moves  out  Etienne's the  become  becomes  member  they  the  through  of  pay  though  It  adoption  Etienne's  his the  great  Etienne  to  the  of  new  a  surrogate sister,  fraternity  of  i s much l i k e  being  fought  a  two  undressing simply  "toute n a t u r e l l e  having  to  i n as  comes t o c o n s i d e r  t o be  the  order  i s no wonder t h a t t h e  l i p service  after  Maheu  of  symbolic  embarrassment when  Catherine (400)  in  moving  roommate C a t h e r i n e  so much shame and  o f making  the  view  f o r Etienne.  Indeed,  bulk  shadow  son  c o - w o r k e r and  or  and  following  Catherine  comrade  sordid  Zacharie--who  hard-working As  this  than  piece  Since  boarder  while  consider  less  in  a  Levaque--we  of  Maheu  herself  casts  son,  Philomene  replacement  of  a  butt  is clear.  also  as  a  the  anything  lean  refuge  relationship.  household Maheus'  her  being  porcine connection Incest  has  novelist  et f i n i e "  i t is also  as  the  Hennebeau  Zola  miners.  the  naturalism being  and  the et  beaten  79  Chaval wall  i n hand-to-hand  between  delay les  first  separa,  Once the  again,  vague Zola  s i n g l e word  death  sexual  cette  une  after  intercourse  combines  Etienne  punishment  Etienne's  feelings  seem  t o be  f o r each  are Etienne's  ambition,  which  resistance century incest  literary that  well  as  critic  they  felt  d'amitie"  (401).  an  the e n t i r e  sexual the  too fraternal f o r n o v e l , such remain  would  largely  d e t e r m i n a t i o n and  of h i s sexual  both  Jules  Catherine's  execution,  which  own p o l i t i c a l  brotherly  energies i s  and  sisterly  Perhaps i t i s t h e n i n e t e e n t h Lemaitre's  lovemaking:  i n one a n o t h e r ' s  sole vestige of higher  de l a  o f sex and d e a t h i n  remain  he had n o t become h e r l o v e r ,  which  avait  i l y  h i s disappointment  Etienne's  pudeur  Knowing t h a t C a t h e r i n e and  other  incest.  explains  and  being  a large part  to symbolic  Catherine that  as  to further  i n long-delayed  The o b s t a c l e s  insurmountable  sublimated,  as  almost  the case.  into  engaged  ineffable  "Une  A r e we t o c o n s i d e r  for incest?  hold during  ou  the notions  having  serves  e t beaucoup  "execution".  "logical"  only  some  together:  ancienne  repugnance  with  t o take  encounter  pudeur  finally  Eros  is still  them, an o b s t a c l e w h i c h  their  colere,  combat, t h e r e  "And  own  aversion  with I  regard  would  the i n s t i n c t i v e  presence  being  to to  prefer modesty  almost  the  h u m a n i t y w h i c h t h e w r i t e r has a l l o w e d 25  to  exist  notes and  with  in his bestial reference  Catherine's  poem".  B u t , as H e n r i  t o the incestuous  relationship,  component  Mitterand i n Etienne  80 l e d e s i r q u i n a i t e n t r e l e s deux j e u n e s gens ne peut etre desormais qu'un desir incestueux. S o e u r , C a t h e r i n e ne p e u t e t r e amante. Maheu . . . e s t en meme temps un o b s t a c l e i n f r a n c h i s s a b l e a 1 ' a c c o m p l i s s e m e n t du d e s i r . Pour que 1'ombre de l ' i n c e s t e , e t son i n t e r d i t , d i s p a r a i s s e n t , i l f a u t que Maheu meure. C ' e s t l u i q u i empec^g E t i e n n e de t o u c h e r C a t h e r i n e , e t non pas C h a v a l . Thus i n c e s t and  represents  Etienne's  one  mutual  inaccessibility  which  already  sexual  powerful  There Etienne  are  and  also  La  allusions  Maheude,  own  erotic  agenda.  temptations  with  to  becoming  "apres si  truly  ete  plus  j ' a i m e mieux que du  r e g r e t pour  both could hold  La  only lead moral  Hennebeau,  and  Etienne  Jeanlin  and  is  as  to  add  an  novel's  as  endowed w i t h  rumors know, has  i f Zola to  included  the  long  list  are her this of  the  In  of  La  Maheude,  b i e n pu  arriver,  the  words tres  pas?  fait,  simple  that  Mais  aurions  acknowledgement  such  incestuous  Paul  Maheus—with  in  Negrel this  the  working-class  stereotypical  from  behavior  the degree t o which over  road  aujourd'hui,  c a r nous en  counterparts  Bonnemort—are  we  between  along  superiority  the  incest  i s confronted  indicates  bourgeois and  the  these  who,  pas  The  Etienne  erotic  Etienne  though  n'est-ce  se s o i t  to misery  regard.  mysteriously  incest  (498).  and  their  It  symbolic  homme, ca a u r a i t  ca ne  Maheude  even  jeune,  sur"  inaccessibility,  to  messianic. mon  in Catherine  strengthens  Pierronne  Oedipal  l a mort de  j'avais  La  which  elements  drama.  by  of  key  further  spread  possibility  the  erotic  presumably hidden  of  and  they Mme  incestuous  exception  of  characters  middle-class  sexual  81 attributes. An  even  blacker  shadow  androgyny  and  spectres  of  unwritten  belief  the  ruthless  sexual  Catherine  is itself  social  order.  Etienne's  of the n o v e l .  in  of the opposite  mistakes  Catherine  t h e mine.  That  immaturity  resemble  Maarten  Van  In f a c t ,  working  mentions,  fraternelle  homme/femme,  q u i e s t tou j o u r s ,  personal fact  in  potentielles.  What  that  interest.  androgyny  seems  Throughout  meme  t o be  the novel  tensions,  and t o c a s t  doubts  obstacle  t o be  condition  which  dedication  on  either  as  surmounted,  or  represents  linked  to  as  une  de  i n Etienne's i s the  serves t o  sexual  and d e v i a n t side  sexual desires.  illusion,  semi-innate  destructive  "la  source  increase  optical a  As  for his erotic  people's an  at  difference  phenomenon to  subversive  the  lure  this  frustrations,  shown  la  Zola,  a  characters'  is  terms  gender o f C a t h e r i n e  heighten  Epicenism  should  surprising.  i s interesting  reaction t o the slippery  day i n  of her p h y s i c a l  political  chez  Etienne  his first  conditions,  efface  at the  f o r example,  a young male i s n o t i n i t s e l f Buuren  besets  o f them a r e d e s c r i b e d  boy d u r i n g  solidarite  discordes  both  also  especially  i f o n l y by v i r t u e  h e r abysmal  Souvarine  of d i s t u r b i n g  androgyny  s e x as when,  f o r a young  by  Zola's  threat to the established  Moreover,  Catherine,  and  form  relationship,  beginning terms  a  by t h e  It i s  t h a t androgyny, as p e r s o n i f i e d  anarchist,  and  i n Germina 1  homosexuality.  anarchy which poses a grave  patriarchal  times  i s cast  of  an  physical political Nature.  82 Androgyny  may  be  hermaphroditism  is  kingdoms,  but  a  "natural"  widespread  i t i s nevertheless  scale  as a murderous e a r t h q u a k e  which  constitute  phenomena. area  of  author  entirely  In t h i s  profound since  in  distress  he  the on  promotes  in  animal  t h e same  would  f o r Zola  t h e man  i t  to  the  both of  destructive  appear  t o be an  and  rank  plant  Germinalian  yet highly  androgyny  that  and  o r a deadly typhoon,  "natural"  sense,  deviation  Zola  of  the  literary  superstition. Zola  projects  thoughts  this  i n the mining  Catherine  avec  lui  de r i s q u e r  vint  Zola  find  about  work?  so  superstitious  There  a s , f o r example,  o f words  superstitious  of  way,  and a t l e a s t  Etienne's  Catherine's own  struggle  way t o r o m a n t i c a l l y  glimpses  superstitieuse  (52).  Etienne's  simple  i n the text less  Catherine  be  What  does  enquiry  t o suggest  than  eccentric,  the  thirteenth  i n t h e mine o r i n d e e d any o t h e r exemplifying  irrational  fears.  E t i e n n e i s l u c k y enough t o c h a n c e upon  approximately  he i s emboldened  the  i l apercut  l'idee  i s anything  having  cliche  i t i s because  same s i z e ,  this  choice  about  to enter the elevator  someone  "Quand  i s nothing obvious  such  that  pit:  into  he f i r s t  une d e r n i e r e demande"  this  Perhaps  superstition  son a i r doux de g a r g o n ,  that  such  of  o f h i s p r o t a g o n i s t E t i e n n e when  Catherine  person  notion  t h e same  initially  age, a p p r o x i m a t e l y  approximately  t h e same sex  t o ask f o r a j o b a g a i n s t t h e odds. androgyny t o prove  link  would  be  in parallel  h i m s e l f a man.  a young c o u p l e b o t h  the  What  unsure  In with  better  of t h e i r  83 respective  erotic  The  rest  progressive mind  of  end  with  to  male  attempt  Zola  a boy  at  In  Etienne's  i t i s not  this  the  until  the  misconception  is  i s made by Maheu i n t h e  with  the  represents  image.  and  that  reference  in  3  projected  as  Company's  workers  by  Chapter  chapter  fact,  the  a  out  the  In  I,  of  starts  of  corrected. chapter  Part  sharpening  Catherine  very  paths?  to  start  mine;  sociological  replacing  presumably  females  this  verisimilitude  same  is  since  an  female  28  mine  labor  convenient our  was and  belief  only  is  terms  replacing  glisser  in of  gender.  Etienne  partout,  comme ceux  peau  besogne"  (152).  part  trouble  to  Etienne's steely  and  make  arms may  We  note  in  work  in  at  petite  ses  bras  femme,  Etienne  of  too  this  in  his  work;  powerful.  we are  meaning  look  like He  may  mine  some Zola's  after  his de  beau  et  etre  menaient  conclude thus  in  l u i permettait fins  f e r sous  rudement  u n f a m i l i a r with  character.  his  avaient  to  particular the  Not  (53)  subjected  taille  ils  i s not  him  Fleurance"  is  with  gender:  i l s p a r a i s s a i e n t en  tellement  androgyny  integral  But  Catherine's  grande  "Sa  d'une  delicate,  of  France.  he  hard  et  demands o f b a c k b r e a k i n g signs  in  of  "la  but  apprenticeship:  blancs la  ephemerality  employment,  description  se  the  Etienne  of  banned  t i m e l y r e f e r e n c e o f Maheu's i s i n a c c o r d  in  intermediacy  brief  eventually  the p h y s i c a l  t h a t any p h y s i c a l  manifestations  Indeed, explicit  a woman's b u t  la  Zola  goes  and  to  an  some  unequivocal:  they  seem e f f e m i n a t e  of  in  are  in  fact  comparison  84 with  Antoine  intent  or  Toussaint  since  political  status.  the novel, account  of  The s l i g h t e s t  more g l o r i o u s . insight  read a  than  young  triumph  Endowed w i t h  but  such  the  man's  author's  notions of dual  on a s u p e r f i c i a l  suggestion  s e r v e s t o make h i s f i n a l  and  Maheu  i s only t o tease the reader with  sexuality the  Chaval  quest  o f androgyny  level, is for heroic  in this  i n v i r i l e manhood  a g r e a t e r degree of  h i s comrades, E t i e n n e  hero  that  much  sensitivity  i s in this  way a more  attractive protagonist. 3 of Part  Chapter as an a c c o u n t identity. hired bon  case  par  amused  Mouquette  and  laugh it  at  widow  one  i n h e r own  narrative  with  of  with  Etienne  interpreted  joy, saying  sight  where  a  a  her  has  the  few  reaction  i s one  character  has y e t t o become  virgin.) reaction  fought  occasions  of  i s indeed  and  Compare near  where (At t h i s  t h e end  beaten  grand-chose,  s i tu  able  Chaval  of  savais,  La few to  erroneous;  Catherine  is  point i n the  nonchalance the novel,  Chaval, on h e r after  a t t h e Avantage  where C a t h e r i n e d e c l a r e s h e r w o r t h l e s s n e s s : pas  the  involved with  this  to  similar to  of t h e extrabuxom  This  sexuality.  t o be  "vous e t e s un  i s one o f amusement, the  sexual  i s about  Catherine's  Desir.  physical  Catherine  is still  Etienne  perds  be  o f f a s p e r s i o n s o f g e n d e r c o n f u s i o n , however  secure  part  the  i n the novel  i s also  and  gender  smile  that  (54).  exemple!"  of mistaken  Etienne's  moments  h e r hand  fact  f o r Catherine's true  she i n d i c a t e s  on, he s h a k e s  this  i n actual  of E t i e n n e ' s quest  After  bougre,  I may  and  "Tu JTEtienneJ ne  quelle  patraque  je  suis,  guere  plus  que  j e ne  fichue (401).  is  deviendrai  Catherine  indifference as  and amusement  i f  she  Even when  her  the descent  bodily  peau,  warmth  a etre  ascent  at  brushes  against  she  the  exclaims:  closely  t h e workday budding  "Mais  girl  bestial  working  introduction  conditions  to  the  disturbing  implication  androgynous  figure  corresponding and  that  monstrous Anna  the  the  working  yet fascinating  study  feminin  necessitated  is  the  that,  primary  subject.  in  o f Z o l a ' s works i s t h a t  des f a c u l t e s  his and  simultaneous  androgyne.  The  in  the  general,  and h e l l i s h o n e underground--  particular,  In t h i s  conclusions  t o which  hell-fire  a  conditions  woman,  When  t u y a mis l e  of  i s inherently a bestial  androgynous  Krakowski's  feminist sexe  to  here  that  i t i s as i f  world  of  finally  garb.  a riddle  solution;  mysteries  sous l a  realizing  Vrai!  the subterranean  to interpret  i n mining  must  into  Catherine  Etienne  breasts,  Etienne  initiation  f o r her  against  that  oui...  workable  It  I t i s not u n t i l the  ( 6 1 ) , i t i s as i f she has been a  guilt.  "Qu'as-tu  temps!"  find  gender-related  immaturity.  ca?" (57).  a boyish-looking  s i mal  bien s u r ! "  herself  of a female:  Catherine's  i s i n fact  Catherine  of  from  t h e p i t , he i s u n a b l e  comme  end  une femme,  blames  i s pressed  as t h a t  chaud  beurre,  to self-flagellating  physical  into  de  circle,  mistakenly  Etienne  sous  jamais  has come f u l l  environmentally-retarded  during  85 que deux  grosse  in  regard, her  is a one o f  landmark  " c e t t e a t t r i b u t i o n au  et dispositions  du s e x e  masculin  86 est  a  la  seems  base  much  de  more  toute  sa  willing  androgyny;  i t i s as  disturbing  attraction  conception  to  toy  i f he, to  de  with  as  l a femme."  female  a man,  the  than  felt  masculine  a  29  Zola  with  male  profound  side  of  yet  sexual  fantasies. Catherine's also  serves  person:  to  "Ces  culotte  boyishness,  sur  heighten  his  erotic  vetements  de  garcon,  cette  chair  genaient"  (70).  additional  temptation  have  the  The  latent  triumphant  de  lure  murder de  for Etienne  the  for Etienne  of  for  attain  his  rival  an  easily  exploitative  of  gender  "race"  and,  and  sterilization in  question,  and  the  act,  working  et  le  s i n c e he  an  does  self-defense--and  his  indicate  i n h i s own in  women  that in  t r u e manhood,  life  fully  androgyny  by  killing  procreative  i s shown t o  perform  tasks  be  more  i f Z o l a were condemning with  sinister  and  overtones  sterility.  Germinalian  eventual  cette  His  consequently,  tragic  a  arousal.  o f a f e m a l e c h a r a c t e r must be  symbolic  as  represents  s t a t u s and  practice  the  et  overcome  i t i s as  that within  veste  l'excitaient  engaging  having  capitalist  in stating  possible  of  Etienne, her  homoerotic  Female  by m a l e s ;  confusion  sterilization highly  result  performed  an  secure  and  intercourse.  "unnatural"  to  to in  androgyne  heroic  sexual deviance  heterosexual  cette  of C a t h e r i n e  he must r e p u d i a t e (homo)sexual  interest  Chaval--in  possession  to  troubling  fille,  of  propensity  subsequent p r i s e order  although  as  a  viewed both warning  In  feel  universe,  disappearance  class.  We  the as  a  of  the  of  the  contrast,  La  87 Mouquette, physique  who  despite  physically few  succeeds  demanding  exceptions  resolute  her  own  work  to this  and  i n maintaining  overt  work  death  of  her  Zolian  rule.  even  vetements  d'homme"  lamenting  the harsh  parent  husband, (495).  La  interclass  relationship  seems a p p r o p r i a t e t o prone  miners  to  mention  the  dissembling  and l y i n g ,  she  is  Marchiennes.  going  l a connaissait,  elle  etait  albeit  and humorous  deviousness  deviant It  of  is  in  surreptitiousness that  single-  and La P i e r r o n n e ' s  of  her  notes, elle  Four,  but i t  of the gossipDansaert  and La  which  On  female  cousin  in  "on p l a i s a n t a i t , c a r avait  (163).  guise  deviousness.  i n matters  a  t o overcome i t .  visit  l a cousine;  concept  seems t o be  s o f a r as t o d e c l a r e one day  so w r y l y  and  ses  who does most o f t h e n e c e s s a r y  o f f to  impropriety  dans  within  i n Chapter  m a i t r e p o r i o n au V o r e u x "  i n banal  after  Zola  poverty  affair  going  As Z o l a  underground  the reaction  illicit  I t i s the l a t t e r  Great  case,  of Dansaert  follows  Pierronne.  on  of  i s so  the  "lamentable  In t h i s  of our d i s c u s s i o n  Maheude,  forced  f a m i l y and one woman's a t t e m p t  Most  that  Her s e x u a l i t y  looks  reality  less  C a t h e r i n e ' s - - i s one o f t h e  P r o l e t a r i a n M o t h e r who i s v i r t u a l l y the  hyperfeminine  i n the mine--albeit  than  that  her  des moustaches, Again,  i s equated  with  t h e whole,  primarily  androgyny sexual  i t is  this  characterizes the  o f gender. fact of  the i n d u s t r i a l  owing  to  the  deviousness  and  Souvarine  the  androgynous  anarchist  operations  at  t h e Montsou  mines a r e  88 brought  to  a  crashing  halt.  frequently  uses t h e a d j e c t i v e  the  "serre"  term  relentlessly particular his  use  traits  of  some  drive time one  (248),  de  and  this  point.  f o r "normal" focus,  sexual  actively  and s h a m e l e s s l y ground  capitalism's  not only  or helpless  of  industrial  that  i s also  blonde  de  that  enough  may  of s t e r i l i t y  also  o f p a t r i a r c h a l and i n d u s t r i a l  indeed covers.  Souvarine  are supported a fixed link  by  like It  books  razing  monopolistic people  Most that  i s only  i s a maniacal  Zola.  threat  t o the  s o c i e t y , most  The n o v e l i s t  once  again  between t h e a p p e a r a n c e and p h y s i c a l  of h i s characters, acts.  he i s  exploitation.  pillars  subsequent  on  be  t o become t h e c o g s i n t h e w h e e l s  various  reality  has no  n o t even  a l l those  hero,  establishes  uses t o  and has b u t  hell-bent  asexual  which  mains  (392) a r e  since  of  in  fille"  "ses  the author  As  of  a i r de  fille"  a l l the vestiges  is  physical  i s androgynous,  exterminatory,  but  that  the  (246),  His personality realm  C h a v a l and  unremitting  " £uj n  blonde"  Zola  differentiates a  r e l a t i o n s or marriage,  infrastructure,  that  Hennebeau,  to describe  phrases  the neutral  foolish  M.  Souvarine  extermination.  within  such  fille  o f t h e ambiguous  home  the  epithets  "sa f a c e  situated  to  mentioning  the machinist.  visage  way  "grand" t o d e s c r i b e  the n o v e l i s t  androgynous  "son  t h e same  on t h e one t r a i t  Souvarine  delicates" only  focusing character,  of  (155),  when  In  of  and t h e i r  inner  the characters  are p a r t i a l l y  when  Zola's  motivations  i n Germinal are  judgeable  figures  and  by  approach  their heroic  89 status gives  that rise  they  assume  to literary  Despite  these  the complexity  frequent  manipulations  characterizations--the  Brule  the  Rasseneur—some tendencies. heartbreak  i s given  Souvarine's resulting  a railway line  used  point  the q u e s t i o n a b l e c o n c l u s i o n t h a t of  antierotic  betrayed being  cosmic  t h e cause  the  formulate  nous  "Quand  homme,  1 ' homme  Anarchy  i s not simply  by  an  i l y etait  antierotic  expression busy  avait  .  .  Instead,  i n Germinal.  Souvarine  manifestation  of the destructive  same  La  as  Brule  represents  terrestrial  bloodthirstiness.  of  i s also  sabotage  in parallel  side a  etions  goes  on t o clearer  mourir"  sterility led  i s himself o f Gaea,  Consequently,  d'un (445 ).  i t i s the  human  bloody  l e coeur  i l pouvait  than  Nous  i n even  an e x i s t e n c e o f c h a s t e  eunuch:  for  .  dans  having  rather  Souvarine  une femme  fini,  of  contempt  punition. (438).  result  of the forces of entropic destruction  a t work  way  a  h i s own v e r s i o n o f a n t i - e r o t i c i s m  terms:  draws  her execution i s the r e s u l t  society's  aimer"  wife-  Souvarine  subversion,  notre  de  Emperor.  political  "C'etait  the  i n t h e bombing o f  as  of  is  o f h i s former  vengeance  expression  terrorism: coupables  of  of  anarchistic  of departure  f o r her r o l e  by t h e R u s s i a n  o f La  level-headedness  the execution  i n - a n a r c h y , Annouchka, hanged  o f two-  fury  t o Souvarine's  erotic  from  by Z o l a  never-ending  middle-of-the-road depth  which  verisimilitude.  dimensional or  of personality  a  active  that are parallel  i n much t h e  incarnation  of  Souvarine's a c t  with Maigrat's  emasculation.  90 The  industrial  the  crucial  suffering "Ah!  trembler  four  l a main,  also  very  as  the  industry,  n i femme, ou  l a sienne!" that  into  which  i l faudra  at  which the  Messiah  for profit-centered Souvarine's  Zola  paints  t h e machine: qui  fasse  l a v i e des  between  three  Is i t coincidence  immolation  give  died  Machine  industry;  and  that  t h e same hour on  as  the an  according  of the mining  Cross?  economic to  this  equipment  crucifixion.  as i n s p i r e d a p o r t r a i t  Machine-as-Savior  as he does  at  of the n o v e l :  the c o n c l u s i o n  human  t o be consumed by t h e  actually  almighty  resonances of c a p i t a l i s t  the  that the mining i n f r a s t r u c t u r e  Jesus  Zola  conjecture,  sees  of  prendre  accounts of C h r i s t ' s c r u c i f i x i o n time  to  (438).  i t i s dug.  Perhaps  has  blind  i t i s not u n t i l  i n the afternoon  and e m a s c u l a t e s  n i ami! r i e n  by S o u v a r i n e a c t u a l l y b e g i n s  earth  Biblical  castrates  the immobilization  l e jour  note  o'clock  sabotaged  of  n i parents,  ou d o n n e r  We  in effect  machinery  accompanying  rien,  autres  saboteur  of the death of the  of the budding  pregnant  Earth  £ A | U f o n d de s a chambre e v e n t r e e , on a p e r c e v a i t l a machine, assise carrement s u r son m a s s i f de maconnerie: l e s cuivres luisaient, l e s gros membres d'acier avaient un a i r de muscles indestructibles, 1'enorme bielle, repliee en l ' a i r , r e s s e m b l a i t au p u i s s a n t genou d'un g e a n t , c o u c h e e t t r a n q u i l l e dans s a f o r c e . . . . Des detonations souterraines e c l a t a i e n t , toute une a r t i l l e r i e monstrueuse canonnant l e g o u f f r e . . . . Et l ' o n v i t l a m a c h i n e , d i s l o q u e e s u r s o n m a s s i f , les membres ecarteles, lutter contre l a mort: e l l e marcha, e l l e d e t e n d i t s a b i e l l e , son genou de g e a n t e , comme p o u r s e l e v e r ; mais e l l e e x p i r a i t , broyee, e n g l o u t i e . Seule, l a h a u t e cheminee de t r e n t e metres r e s t a i t debout, secouee, p a r e i l l e a un mat dans l ' o u r a g a n . On c r o y a i t q u ' e l l e a l l a i t  91 s ' e m i e t t e r e t v o l e r en p o u d r e , l o r s q u e , t o u t d'un coup, e l l e s ' e n f o n c a d'un b l o c , bue p a r l a t e r r e , fondue a i n s i qu'un c i e r g e c o l o s s a l : e t r i e n ne d e p a s s a i t , pas meme l a p o i n t e du p a r a t o n n e r r e . ( 458 ) Even a c u r s o r y passage  and  reveals  superficial  the  desperate  lurking  behind  Zolian  anthropomorphism  "membres" obvious genou" the  to  describe  quotation--,  The g r e a t  remote  locale  terrestrial  at  like  least  on  but  crimes  one  This i s  projections  to the  t o the "puissant and  "geante"  indeed  showing h i s  reside  i n the physical the presence  bielle",  finality  i n some  h e r e and  o f so many  " l a haute  cheminee",  t h e v o r a c i o u s machine  example  of  Zola's  are applied  similar  throughout  punishments.  of c a s t r a t i o n . of a n a r c h i s t i c a  passive,  prototypically  brilliant  Souvarine judge  hands-off  bourgeois  man  erotic  this  and m a c h i n e  sterility  Gregoire  like  family  and  Similar  case,  the  engender t h e  the emasculator  and m o r a l i s t .  This  logic  the novel. In  that,  suffers  as t h e v o r a c i o u s and v e n a l M a i g r a t .  p r o m i s c u i t y of both  role not  level,  in  i t s Minotaur-like, ogreish  Furthermore,  an e r o t i c  merit  corrupted  is  Monster  mat", and " l e p a r a t o n n e r r e " — l e a d s us t o c o n c l u d e  symmetry a s t h e y  his  above  t h e use of  is finally  may  much  symbols--"la  much t h e same f a t e is  but  the  From  "geant"  the author  the  Machine.  comparison  both  i s very  now.  phallic  uses  Paris,  erotic  machine's  god o f c a p i t a l  henchman  immediate  obvious "le  the  of a g i a n t - - Z o l a  of  i t s finest.  and t h e d i r e c t  hand.  the  at  of  presence  (or within) a highly  "muscles"  above  examination  fulfills  H i s , however, that but  of the  rather  a  92 vicious he  damn-the-consequences  likens  bring  to a necessary  about  an  murmura-t-il, (247). that  Compare  "Nicolas etait  un  les  the  monstrous  as  being  is  to  years  refer  to  106  mythical  Gaea.  As  Zola  of  l'on  own  en  complet, Is  felling  resources.  Zola  suffering,  tempset  death  indeed  of to  have  a  (38)  o f t h e Maheu since  meaning  and is  and  ce  d'abattage"  of e x p l o i t a t i v e  and  peine,  sacrifice  French,  of t r e e s ,  fate  a  the  i s revealing  in  besoin"  l e sang bu  early  s i x ans  sang,  the  ans  blood-letting  "cent  a  and  grandfather:  foncait  an  du  of  quarante  "abattage"  years  terms  we  are  dealing  i n c o n j u n c t i o n and  destructive shows,  Man-made m o n s t e r s c a n n o t forces  en  genealogical history  the  which  the  the the  physical  simultaneously  i n d u s t r y and t h e two  106  concepts  linked.  of c a p i t a l  monstrously  de  multivocal  mineral  inextricably  the ogre  to  of  o f human s a c r i f i c e  In  the  use  la terre  ( 37-38 ).  this  refers  "Oh!  description  merely  encapsulated  of  age que  terrorism  Earth:  Bonnemort's  roches"  does  of animals,  extracting  fait?  aplatissement  les  conveniently  slaughter  able  un  the  Zola's  Voreux,  or  author's  ca  social  meant t o a p p e a s e Gaea  of  Rouge,  (blood-)Red  Zola  the  The  term  par  que  Maheu,  le  le  capital  nature?  clan.  are  dans  avales  Nicolas  dual  dit  eboulement,  os  renewal  with  Nicolas  Maheu  reste  this  of  sacrifice  qu'est-ce  befalls  la:  overdue  act  expurgation  in  the  yet end  two  monsters:  i n confrontation with  purificatory  aspects  there  no  hope t o win and  with  can  be  a g a i n s t the  depuration  at  work  of  contest:  "monstrous" within  the  93 Earth  itself. Souvarine's  androgyny;  own  yet  we  androgynous d u a l i t y bi-  and  monstrousness find  homosexuality.  It  androgyny  is  women:  "La  etait  elle  (156). to  femme avait  But  Also,  we  constant  shown as  ideological  "En  serve  soulevait  la  his  sur  pales,  table,  eyes  as  just  as  albeit  the  rabbit  Pologne  a  the  chaise,  of  ses  windows  Etienne's while  Souvarine's  mains  having  looking  arms the  are  are  put  again  power  to of  the  extase  l e bord  refers  those  of  steel,  to  break  a  table  or  saw  his  and the  le ses de  human  fire a  and  female,  so  hands c a l l e d d e l i c a t e , even t h o u g h t h e y  strength  to  inner  is  test:  s o r t a i t de  a hellish  likened  hidden  to  on  animal  gruesome  etreignaient  Zola into  despite  Une  flamme m y s t i q u e  (248).  he  w h i c h come t o  terrible.  delicates  the  has  Female  more  persona  that  that  comfort,  the  principles  une  rabbit  contrary.  some  devenait  la briser"  being  necessary  to  anarchistic  et  homoeroticism.  of  warmth and  homme"  indifference  effect  the  own  towards  d'un  total  of  camarade,  soothing  attenuate  sa  un  the  i t i s through  Souvarine  attitudes  potential  aspects of Souvarine's  when  Souvarine's  courage  of  this  realms  mind  t o female  to  parlant,  yeux  in  one  of  extend  garcon,  le  physical  related  his  et  his  to  that  by  i s more  protestations  frightening fore  fraternite  fact,  sensitive  true  l u i un  i t i s t o one  keep  In  is  pour  companionship  Souvarine.  charms  la  than  must  difficult  paralleled  his attitude  sexuality  from  i n t o the d i f f e r e n t but  physical  quand  it  stems  too  are  have  the  through  mining  94 equipment. being the  We  the  hell  hell  of  "vilaines  to  Tartarus  lend  performed  act  of  effeminacy.  of  sabotage,  masculine  serves  relationship  of  to  final  proof  of  Souvarine's  r e l a t i o n s h i p with  the depraved  to  consider  Pologne,  himself  eating  eventually  suddenly  overcome  vulnerability  and  l'emporter  de  with  et  to  maintained Souvarine symbol  curious  a  physical  psychosexual  and  is  apocalyptic  eat  upon  symbiotic anarchist,  devourer  entirely and  to  this "une  hearing that  living  in  the  i s the  Souvarine  of  l u i venait  Pologne he  and  female  However, S o u v a r i n e  that  as  consume  symbol  is  first  described  totally  de  does  is actually  in  i s inadvertently which  he  still  S y m b o l i c a l l y , however,  novel's  keeping  antifertile  is  creature with  relations. of  who  convoitise  (280).  and  asexuality  which  Jeanlin  h i s knowledge one  action  desire  l a manger"  seminormal as  the  fertility:  the  Jeanlin,  an  annihilate  dismay  stew w i t h o u t  helping  "a  destructive  performs. by  cannibalistically  the  not  and d e s t r o y e r . " ^  his  react  his  this  figures—rabbit  Zola's  provide  Fuller,  underscore  opposing  to  those  intricately  to  counterpoint  In t h e words o f C a r o l  complexity  also  as  than  i s meant  subsequent  but  for  acts.  intensity  his  rather  burns  homosexual  s t r e n g t h and to  inner f i r e  revenge  specifically  guilty  credence  psychologically  A  (70)  Souvarine's  all-consuming  which  Souvarine's  to  creator  to i n t e r p r e t  c r e a t e d by  filles"  allusion only  prefer  with  anarchist.  primary his It  fertility  function  of  i s through  the  95 vulnerable Souvarine  feminine  of Pologne  that  J e a n l i n and  are linked.  Clearly, the  fertility  then,  we as r e a d e r s  Zolian  picture  subversive.  As C o l i n  of  cannot  androgyne  Smethurst  help but r e c o g n i z e  as  highly  dangerous  states,  Souvarine, l i k e E t i e n n e , walks out o f t h e novel a t the end. He has been responsible f o r the c a t a c l y s m and by t h e v e r y e n o r m i t y o f h i s a c t has taken on m y t h i c a l proportions. By h i s i m p l i e d continued presence i n society and t h e t o t a l m y s t e r y o f h i s u l t i m a t e d e s t i n a t i o n he r e p r e s e n t s most c l e a r l y the f i g u r e intended t o induce the shudder wanted t h e m i d d l e - c l a s s r e a d e r t o experience. Within  and even  sexually and  beyond  ambiguous  this  we  encounter  negatively-charged  erotic  orientation  or d e s c r i b e Schor, overt  that  that  women  homosexuality transcoded  are  more  connected  the  first,  the  dangerously  h o m o s e x u a l , an  t o name d i r e c t l y  drew  homosexuality. with  of  I n t h e words o f Naomi  iconoclast,  o f male  female  refuses  whatsoever.  i n two ways:  into  t h e even  the author  fearless  representations  Zola's  danger  c o n d i t i o n of the true  i n any d e t a i l  "Zola,  mysterious  . . .  author's  male  homosexuality;  the line  at  [ t l hus (latent)  homosexuality second,  is  t h e women  32 separate process weave  t h e men  from  of a l l u s i o n  of  the  into  that  Zola  ways  novel, reader  highly yet, i n is  through  Zolian  ironic  within  other  obliged  to  a  manages t o  his narrative.  uncharacteristic  some  erotically-centered necessary--that  strand  this  circumspection—in  I t i s only  and i m p l i c a t i o n  t h e homosexual  because  t h e men."  ways  It i s sexual such  an  vitally  undertake  an  96  unconscious order  process  t o gain  homosexuality The  of t e x t u a l  insight  characteristics  homoerotic chilling  reading  to  God-forsaken.  ancient  in  towards  of the wintry of  of the  clues necessary  fora  author  Biblical  and f a l l o w l a n d s c a p e  northern  " l a plaine The  cities  the f i r s t  setting  o f p a r t s o f t h e n o v e l , w h i c h opens w i t h a  country  introduction  the  attitude  of the geographical  us w i t h  description  mining  with  the author's  and d e c o d i n g  i n Germinal.  Montsou mine p r o v i d e  the  into  transcoding  rase"  France. (31), bleak,  immediately  account  of  It  black,  creates  God's  is  of an and  resonances  destruction  of  the  o f Sodom and Gomorrha, o s t e n s i b l y as a r e s u l t 33  of  sexual  cities  misconduct.  which  according  interpretation depravity.  is  indeed  were  The  introduces  equated  the  Old Testament. This  like  "crime"  of  ants,  Zola  clear  a t t h e hands  t o a wave  which  that  this  outset,  wickedness  as t h e y  i s repeated  are i n  throughout of  people  dans l a n u d i t e r a s e de l a  connection in  erotic  en s c e n e  and m o r a l  refers  "perdues  the e r o t i c  i s made  motif  Biblical  From t h e v e r y  Sodom,  plain,  immoral  of saying  t h e same way i n G e r m i n a l  of the p l a i n  so many  mise  way  on a  narrow  of  and f o r e b o d i n g  F o r example,  (168);  punishment massacre  i n much  cities  novel.  plaine"  because  a place o f wickedness, t o o . the  cities  traditionally  razed  sterile  are  being  to  are also  the n a r r a t i v e i s Zola's  homosexuality,  the  These  this  between  instance.  o f t h e Emperor's  troops,  nudity  and  After  the  the  priest  97 Ranvier [et^ de  "appelait  l a prochaine ciel"  Voreux  dorment  des  cosmic  divine  from  How  maudites"  mine may  retribution  primitivism  we  which  of  the  unwillingness  this:  How  development people  who  mechanical It  is  rod  of  take  in  can and  The  the  sous  the  lesquels  case, not  but  only  specific, to  sulphurous  the  wrath.  existing  d e p r a v i t y and  a  divine  mourning  anomaly  industrial  dans  and  the  between  retribution  indifference  to  is  de  spend  to  take that  in  such  (and  and  take  coup  this  to  the  left  so  into  unposed, sums  little  over  by  workers'  f o r ) the mines.  precedence  the  provoked  staggering and  industrial  feral  well-being  although  investments,  lives  (66),  i s aroused  such  "le  working-class  moral  question,  capital  fosse"  Company  industry  way  la  reduces  the  Zola's  resources  account  human b e a s t  of  give their  this  f o r God's  into  psychological,  consideration.  In t h i s  hibernal  (homo)sexual  further  rank  physical,  lacs  wickedness--,  in  for  soufflait  brutes.  Finally,  to  and d e s t r u c t i o n ?  must  qui  "ces  (459).  shown  result rape  to  l e feu  linked  the g e n e r a l t o the h i g h l y  account  a  inhumanity.  human  lightning  following  environmental  bestialite  a we  as  What  for  country  as  is specifically  . . .  a l s o r e m i n i s c e n t of the F l o o d - - i t s e l f  swung from  whole  Dieu  l a b o u r g e o i s i e par  and  i s compared  punishment  then  taken  mine  punishment  the  Voreux  excess,  villes  v e n g e a n c e has  de  Here, r e t r i b u t i o n  idleness,  flooded  l e s a s s a s s i n s l a c o l e r e de  extermination  (422).  bourgeois  is  sur  human  indifference  on Why  is on the do  ones? gives  98 simultaneous cosmic  rise  fury.  degeneracy, Germinalian the  human  passions  Do t h e w o r k e r s  slide  of t h e i r  of  which  symbol,  poisonous  "Les  to brutal  homosexuality  or a r e they  system  that  Rougon-Macquart"  concludes Zola's  that social  erotic  premier  d'Emile  Zola,  "Le changement  l a degenerescence  que  into  Biblical  into  and  debauchery  so completely?  Maarten  Van  d e g e n e r a c y was a t t h e h e a r t  ethos:  lieu  them  as t o  own a c c o r d  i s both  dragged  enslaves  as w e l l  de  sexe  Zola  by In  Buuren  o f much o f  symbolise  considere  en  comme  34 caracteristique  de 1 ' epoque  that  a change o f s e x u a l  this  Zolian philosophy Gaea' s  du Second  in  industrial  Germinal  to  dans  l e jour  bas de c e t a p r e s - m i d i  tout  l e noir  Voreux,  se f u t a b a t t u e  sablant  l e s routes,  this  passage  that  force  mining  female  earth.  white machine coal,  seed,  the  This  Germinalian  products  coal  dust,  we  as  is  indeed  with  "sous  le ciel  d'hiver,  t h e seed  volante  and  It i sin  into  the  Instead, soot  barren milky-  this  is  of pulverized  b u t u l t i m a t e l y p o i s o n o u s and  i s the s q u a l i d heart  were s u p p l a n t i n g  de l a  o r sperm o f t h e m a l e -  know. oily  que  l e s arbres,  (90).  sown/driven  humans  and c a r b o n o u s  cosmos;  livide,  i l semblait  l a poussiere  l a terre"  directly  i s n o t t h e p r o c r e a t i v e and  the blackened  prevalent  cancerous.  toute  ensemencant  Yet t h i s that  excess:  is  sur l a p l a i n e , poudrant  operation,  sperm  assume  of degeneracy.  attributable  houille  We  o r i e n t a t i o n w o u l d be c o n s i s t e n t  rebellion  du  Empire."  of perversion  i t i s as i f i n d u s t r i a l  within  fecal  n a t u r a l human c r e a t i v e j u i c e s  byin a  99 ritualized a  cold  and  misguided  this  i s how  from  exposure poisonous  creates  the  equivalent Tartarus, Heaven,  that  and  distort  attempts  the behavior  dust  presence  reflected  the  bounded  Greek  of  of m e t a l l i c  planet.  i s able  fumes,  i n acts  Montsou,  mythological  the  burning  as  this  to reach  J u s t as t h e miners  It i s for this  region  by  drive  of the miners i n  and n o x i o u s  l o c a t e d as f a r below Hades and  to  of p h y s i c a l ailments  to coal  sexuality.  I t i s thus  dormant  in particular.  panoply  Tartaret of  crust.  t h e "coup de b e s t i a l i t e "  a whole  non-procreative  river  wind  and t h e c a r t g i r l s  suffer their  bestial  t h e mines  general  rape of the Earth's  p o l l u t a n t into the temporarily  This into  and b l o o d y  of  because of so t o o i s  "stunted"  reason the hell  the  stream  that  or Zola  Germinalian of  Earth  hells, i s from  Phlegethon,  a  fire:  Le T a r t a r e t , a l a l i s i e r e du b o i s , e t a i t une l a n d e inculte, d'une sterilite volcanique, sous l a q u e l l e , d e p u i s d e s s i e c l e s , b r u l a i t une mine de houille incendiee. Cela se p e r d a i t dans l a legende, des m i n e u r s du p a y s racontaient une histoire: l e f e u du c i e l tombant s u r c e t t e Sodome des e n t r a i l l e s de l a t e r r e , ou l e s h e r s c h e u s e s se souillaient d'abominations; s i bien qu'elles n'avaient pas meme eu l e temps de r e m o n t e r , e t q u ' a u j o u r d ' h u i e n c o r e , e l l e s f l a m b a i e n t au f o n d de cet e n f e r . L e s r o c h e s c a l c i n e e s , r o u g e sombre, se c o u v r a i e n t d'une e f f l o r e s c e n c e d ' a l u n , comme d'une lepre. Du s o u f r e p o u s s a i t , en une f l e u r j a u n e , au bord des f i s s u r e s . La n u i t , l e s b r a v e s q u i o s a i e n t r i s q u e r un o e i l a c e s t r o u s , j u r a i e n t y v o i r d e s flammes, l e s ames c r i m i n e l l e s en t r a i n de g r e s i l l e r dans l a b r a i s e i n t e r i e u r e . Des l u e u r s errantes couraient au r a s du s o l , d e s v a p e u r s chaudes, empoissonnant l ' o r d u r e e t l a s a l e c u i s i n e du d i a b l e , f u m a i e n t c o n t i n u e l l e m e n t . Et, ainsi qu'un m i r a c l e d ' e t e r n e l p r i n t e m p s , au m i l i e u de c e t t e l a n d e m a u d i t e du T a r t a r e t , l a C o t e - V e r t e se dressait avec s e s gazons toujours v e r t s , ses hetres dont les feuilles se r e n o u v e l a i e n t sans  100 cesse, ses champs ou murissaient jusqu'a trois recoltes. C ' e t a i t une serre n a t u r e l l e , chauffee p a r 1' i n c e n d i e des c o u c h e s p r o f o n d e s . Jamais l a neige n'y sejournait. L'enorme bouquet de v e r d u r e , a c o t e des a r b r e s d e p o u i l l e s de l a f o r e t , s'epanouissait dans cette journee de decembre, sans que l a g e l e e en e u t meme r o u s s i l e s b o r d s . ( 303 ) Zola  uses t h i s  quite 1'un  plain. des  a  As  rares  surface niveau  p a s s a g e t o make t h e Buuren has  endroits  thematique  focuses.  du  too to  homosexual  "victims"  humanity. the  The  temptation  Zola's  use  "lepre", moral with  of  of  of  lesbians  goes  and  their  instead  reality,  for or  hellish  else to  a la au  the  choice  to  which  mere  and  verges  on  the  thus  portion  (306).  "abominations", indicates  a  equated  diabolism.  This  of  some  of  is  procreative  harbor  wastes  repeter"  specifically  and  as  l e d women i n t o  pas  and  male  females  industrial  homosexuality  judgmental  fact  of  "diable"  description  strictly  t a b o o would  child-bearing has  of  actually  predominately  n'osait  "enfer",  punishment  in  a period  "souillaient" ,  on  did  est  refoule  author  show how  the  backs  Zola  the  as  criminality,  beyond  passage  d'etre  Zola's  qu'on  words  disease,  depiction  that  bestialite"  "choses  according  filth,  turned  de  "criminelles",  agenda  lieu  homosexuality  inverted  the  au  Gomorrha  i s made  "coup  "ce  However, i t i s upon d e s c r i p t i o n s  contemplate,  metaphorically  out,  connection  l e contenu mythique a p p a r a i t  "shocking"  readership  pointed  roman,  female  E i t h e r male  been  have  ou  metaphorique."^  specifically  have  Van  Sodom-Tartaret  meted women  sexual the  out who  for have  practices  paranoid.  irrational  In fears  101 towards to  (male)  condemn  homosexuals, perhaps  homosexuality  in  explaining  females  his  through  transcoding:  " J ' e n a i r e n c o n t r e dans l e monde, e t j ' e p r o u v e la  main  une  repulsion  instinctive  que  eagerness  a leur  j ' a i quelque  serrer peine  a  36 dominer." most  It  grievous  It  homosexuality Gaea  analysis  to  be  as  of  As  Zolian the  t o the  grain  fecond,  love  judged  if  the  in  i s one  the  of  mais  to  of  and  critically  to  Sodom,  of  and  the  human  ou  le  and  especially Lejeune's  quoted  above  virus  qu'il  treatment Zolian and  faut  is  apt,  connection  "degeneracy".  La C o t e - V e r t e i s t h u s  despite  not  God  "Le germe n ' e s t p l u s l e  "sickness"  and  circumspect: does  Tartaret  implicit  moral  is  Philippe  metaphorical  Tartaret  Lejeune  Le  microbe  isolate  Le  of  Nature:  Lejeune's  between h o m o s e x u a l i t y analysis  le  excess.  the  Germinalian  expression  homosexuality  vitriolic  "germ" w i t h i n  fails  His  such,  description  e x t i r p e r . M . he  same-sex  were i n d e f i a n c e o f b o t h t h e C h r i s t i a n  refers  yet  to  is  herself.  vulnerable  that  "crimes"  courtroom.  of  i s clear  timid  Zola's d i r e c t reference  even  broach  the  subject  of  homosexuality. Despite part  of  the  homosexually  this  e a g e r l y homophobic  n o v e l i s t — p e r h a p s owing assaulted  as  a  "aberration" of homosexuality geophysical boundless the  vindictiveness  anomaly  fertility  neighboring  of  La  which  fields  very  to  Cote-Verte, remains  l a y deep  Zola having 38  young  i s paralled  boy  i n snow.  --the  the been  moral  by t h e " u n n a t u r a l "  the  leafy  on  small  and La  region  green  even  of as  Cote-Verte i s  102 located  directly  Tartaret above  of  i n much  Hell  indeed  above  or  t h e same Mount  underground  way  inferno  as t h e C h r i s t i a n  Heaven i s  t h e apogee o f Z o l i a n s y m b o l i s m when t h e p r i m e  example  terrestrial upon  the  depravity:  fertility hell.  novelist's  way  fertility  nether thus  This of  i s "above"  Le  It i s  barren  Olympus  of  Hades.  natural  as  superposed  of  the  and  regions  emancipates "green"  lending  of  is  human  sexual  the decadent  dweller  region  a  redemption  is  degree  not  of  only  the  geographical  39 verisimilitude  to his literary  way o f p r o v i d i n g bent  they  of  In  the  repression,  push  erotic  descriptions — let It  exists  fear,  alone  attitudes  which  defined  different  social  classes  suffering, the tiny  so t o o i s p r o m i s c u i t y  "coup  homoerotic  de b e s t i a l i t e "  impulses,  male l o r s q u ' u n  but a l s o  to  many  into  overt  love. Germinalian  in fact,  there  held  by  I n t h e same way  primarily attributable to and t h e i r  le betail gives  and r e f u s e s  o f human " p e r v e r s i t y " and  of miners  "qui sentent  too of  of values  subject.  how  heritage  homosexual  i n terms  on t h i s  is a l l  iconoclasm)  typifies  i s a manifestation  apartments  Zola  promiscuity;  split  d e l i b e r a t e overcrowding  famous  also  towards  clearly  lesbianism  (or  Zola's  no m a t t e r  equivocal  a defense—of  a  that  however,  and i g n o r a n c e ,  radicalism  i s ignorance  characters'  end,  homosexuality's  moralistic his  b u t may be  /  salvation f o r h i s characters,  are.  conscious  setting  rise  humain"  families in (40).  not only  The  to latent  refers to " l e desir  s u b i t du  m i n e u r r e n c o n t r a i t une de c e s f i l l e s  a quatre  103 pattes" notion  (66-67);  once a g a i n ,  o f human  evidenced "La  by  erotic  the promiscuous  en  overcrowding especially  Mme  spreading  libido--as  depravity--as  imply  or  "dans  birth.  In  Zolian  sexual  ethic  since  experimental  of  a  prelude  and  an o b v i o u s  indication  of  corruption  does  lesser  and  extent,  not n e c e s s a r i l y  could  argue  that  (421) b e c a u s e ,  La  although  her f e r t i l i t y  scenarios,  Promiscuity  as  promiscuity  suffering-  t o prove  sanctioned  besoins  human  heterosexual  supreme.  phase  One  these  avec  o f La M o u q u e t t e and t h e  l e ventre"  a l l of  i t i s only  of  however,  she f a i l s  i s also  facilities:  des  and, t o a s l i g h t l y  fertility.  giving  best  symptoms  manifestation  Promiscuity,  i s shot  reigns  Overall,  disease--,  Maigrat  hyperactive,  monogamy  of t o i l e t  1'ordure  i n the cases  a  guarantee  Mouquette sexually  or  with  Hennebeau.  by  animality  s'aggravait,  (482).  either  Desir--,  sharing  haleines,  commun"  when  boundless  widow  des  may  This  promiscuite  1' empoisonnement  of  animality.  revoltante  satisfaits  "partes" r e i n f o r c e s the Zolian  however,  nondeviance  by the  through  i s immature and s e c o n d  by  Zola  to  i n i t s youthful  the  commitment  of  marriage. It  i s through  human s e x u a l  Zola's  deviance  complex a n a l y s e s  that the Germinalian  and d e p i c t i o n s o f universe  T h e s e d e v i a t i o n s a r e s y m p t o m a t i c o f an i n d u s t r i a l decline,  operating  the maximization through  Zola's  without  of p r o f i t s  principles  and g u i d e d  a t g r e a t human c o s t .  unfolds.  society i n solely  by  It i s also  c o n t r a d i c t o r y p i c t u r e o f human s e x u a l  foibles  104 that  h i s own  While  he  c o n t r a d i c t o r y nature  shows h i m s e l f  to  be  liberal  his  joyful  occasions—especially  in  sexual  other  abandon--,  conservative nineteenth  and  French  deviance  and  ultimately  being  destructive  elements  strictures deviance  of  tend  towards These  bisexuals,  and  guilty  of  result  Gaea  of  though  or  these  of  terms  weakness  of  of  androgyny  hell-destined as  is  linked  sinners. a  fertility  unfertile,  to  a  to  indicative  "unnatural" the  rite,  is  acts  of  or  the by  often  the  poisonous a  the  symbolic desire. loveless,  against a  and  male  fundamental of  monstrous  female s t r e n g t h ;  abhorrent  Promiscuity,  legal  the  patriarchal  is  and  incite  very  revenge  as  adulterers,  is  and  harsh  performed  they  Incest  is  the  Sexual  desperate  will.  i n n e r weakness, o r  homosexuality  by  are  in  freedom  than  prostitution  female  more  phenomenon  creative  androgynes,  to  his  the  a c t i o n s are  the  by  the  acts  subjugation  preserve in  the  adaptions  youthful even  sexual  conduct;  Similarly,  temptation;  sanctioned  sterile,  human  female  mainly  deviousness, and  of  i s the  impotence human  even  of  culture.  incestuous  world.  manifestation  couched  of  evinced  Nature  homosexuals,  Germinalian  industrial  Adultery  the  some  contemporaries  by  non-procreative  asexuals, those  Mother  of  seems  Z o l a sees  more  Judaeo-Christian  antifertile.  wrath  as  attainment  regulated of  he  his  society,  the  i n n o v a t i v e on  portraits  than  t o homosexual s u f f e r i n g .  sexual  and  occasions  repressed  century  allusions of  on  as a m o r a l i s t i s u n v e i l e d .  practices  although symptomatic  of  ritually of  the  105 mammalian erotic  de-evolution  deviance  and  virtually  of  the  correct  novel's  bourgeois  humankind.  Zola's  picture  i s diverse, contradictory, largely  complete.  insofar  of  own  Mitterand maintains deviance  or  that  of  negative, criticisms  scandalousness  are  only  as t h e n o v e l does s h a t t e r t h e c o m p l a c e n c y o f  morality, primarily parce que s o n t o p o s guerrier et cataclysmique d e t r u i t l e doxa d e s r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s a d m i s e s , l e s e s p e r a n c e s de p a c i f i c a t i o n s o c i a l e , l e s i l e n c e s u r la l u t t e des c l a s s e s . II a r r a c h e l e l e c t e u r a t o u t e s e c u r i t e d u r a b l e , t o u t a u t a n t q.u' i l l e f a i t j o u i r de n ' a v o i r eu p e u r qu'en r e v e . 4  Through h i s r e v o l u t i o n a r y p o r t r a i t s from  idealized  manipulator  behavior,  Zola proves  o f human n e u r o s e s  o f human s e x u a l h i m s e l f t o be a  and f e a r s .  deviance skilled  106  CHAPTER FOUR EROTICISM AND CLASS REVOLUTION Germinal as  is  about  represented  the  by  long-standing  this  rebellion  eroticism  the  a  a  group  tyranny  hard  perceptions  and b i a s e s  i n keeping  working-class-  coalminers—against  quality  pressed  a l l of Zola's  not  to  the author  l e t his  h i s own s o c i a l  a p i c t u r e o f such  outrageous  bourgeois  and t h a t t h e a u t h o r  a  of pugnacious  and v u l g a r  stereotypical proletarian truly  bourgeois  characters.  revolutionary.  i s Zola's  class i t is  that  Zola  consumerism, creates  such  characterizations to  round out h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of t h e oppressed What i s most s u r p r i s i n g  own  standing  and s t e r i l i t y ,  list  of  would  In f a c t ,  materialism, long  gives  c h a r a c t e r s and  color his narrative.  with  What  i s the undercurrent  As a member o f t h e m i d d l e c l a s s , be  paints  the  of the b o u r g e o i s i e .  particular  presumably  much  of  of s t r i k i n g  t h a t permeates almost  settings.  very  revolution  working  class.  i n s i s t e n c e on t r a n s f e r r i n g  sexual  values  to  In t h i s  regard,  at least,  As Hugh Kenner  observes:  some  of h i s Zola i s  107 When you said "bourgeois" in the nineteenth c e n t u r y , you were l e t t i n g i r r i t a t i o n show. I t was the word for people you disliked, who were inferior to you but not inferior enough. So " b o u r g e o i s " came t o mean a l l t h a t Matthew A r n o l d meant by " p h i l i s t i n e , " and more. I t became an a l l purpose s l u r . L i k e t h e t r e e t o a d and t h e swamp a d d e r , t h e " b o u r g e o i s " i s named f o r h i s h a b i t a t , t h e " b o u r g " ; he's an urban i r r i t a n t , like the traffic jam. Whether a f f l u e n t o r t h r e a d b a r e , h e a r t y o r p a l e , he institutionalizes mediocrity. The satisfactions he c r a v e s , e r o t i c o r a e s t h e t i c , w i l l be above a l l undemanding, r e a s s u r i n g . It  i s not  only  different  social  conflict  i n Zola's novel  but  classes  subscribe  themselves  always  as  sexual  behavior  diametrically.  proletariat, within their  social  divergent  commonality which above  origins.  fail  in  they  separating  social same  do  author  is  an  time,  lasting  his  although  two  cross  classes.  One  of  that  least erotic  way.  in  erotic  shall  human  opportunity  of  working-class bourgeois  erotic  enjoyed divide  processes  virtually  terms.  In  " s e g r e g a t i o n i s t " who gulf  between  Zola's primary theses i n  the are  the  differences  several  the  not  and  c r e a t i n g the  of  to  assumption t h a t t h i s or  personal  L a n t i e r the  limitations  embourgeoisement/declassement at  bourgeoisie  thereby  these  differences in  i s some o v e r l a p  attempt  is  complete,  the  there  systems,  vast  in  although  t o r e p u d i a t e the m a t e r i a l advantages  the  Germinal  and  the  characters life,  group  are  codes t o which  the  great  affords Etienne  the  At  exist  that  opposed,  within  also  erotic  erotic  Despite  demonstrated  there  each  rising  are  the  classes  n e v e r be  impossible  this works  bridged  of to  sense,  the  under  the  i n any  real  Zola fraught  with  freedom  the p r i s o n with  desires  like  vastly  more  if  class  or  the  by  either  sexually  the p r o l e t a r i a t  revenge  of  two  looks the  perverse  upon  the  cradle  by  much  to  a  These  oppress  and  was  nineteenth  century  inner  cities  fatigue,  one  of  illness,  of  the  (and North  primary  in  fact  overcrowding,  In  speaking-  exacting  the  indiscriminately,  not  causes  as  unconscious  second, of  today),  apathy,  right,  the  continues  America  middle-  first,  class  multiplying  high  imprison.  reconciled:  t o become n u m e r i c a l l y p r e d o m i n a n t ;  motherhood  own  the  relationships.  o n l y out of i g n o r a n c e , but a l s o out of the sheer desire  very  free--"naturally"  working  class.  riches,  prisoners in their  t o be  more  of  corrupt.  they o s t e n s i b l y  greater  working  represeed  less  phenomena  bourgeois  and  the  banal  wherever  opportunities,  resources  and  miners amorous  much  cultural  and  shown as  are  liberation  the  have  for  unconscious  their  embarrassment  consumerism  than  bourgeoisie  and  is  are  whole  financial  they  quest  conversely,  comparison,  the  this  ironic  There  on  offset  some  an  satisfying  In  to  sterile  universe  the  also  r e p r e s e n t a t i o n than  erotically  a  i n h e a t , whenever and  educational  ways,  level,  is  or,  into  Z o l a shows many o f t h e  them. novel  novel  miners  promiscuously  characters are  trapped  the  extensive  bourgeoisie degree  sex,  political  as  deeper  transcendence  broader  effective  a  of e r o t i c i s m .  in  mobility,  his  On  by  strikes  characters  108 of  so many a n i m a l s  feeling  Yet,  reader  paradoxes.  for erotic  obsessed  the  the  undertaken  search from  shows  and  premature  poverty  in  the  in  the  contributing  to  to  be  so  violence  amongst  109 poor  families.  How  do  we  bourgeois  fears  proletarian  hyperfertility  day-to-day Greer  so  of  strain  the  with  observes,  from  the exploding  will  challenge  the t i r i n g  of  superiority  our s u r v i v a l  potential realities  and h u n g e r ?  "perhaps  populations  the  t h e d i f f e r e n c e between  revolutionary  of overpopulation  candidly  compromise  resolve  of  what  our  own  as t h e b i g g e s t ,  of the  As Germaine  we  the world  in  really  fear  i s that  they  subgroup  richest,  and  greediest  42 and  t h e most numerous g r o u p on e a r t h . " In  painstakingly  familiarized the  real-life  border. read  himself mining  virtually  community  on  the medical  lives.  nineteenth  century  What  and  follows  medical  Germinal,  a l l aspects  of Anzin,  In a d d i t i o n t o h i s s o j o u r n  widely  miners'  with  researching  journal  of l i f e i n the Belgian  i n northern  physical  here  near  i s an  Zola  France,  he  details  of the  excerpt  from  on w o r k i n g - c l a s s  a  sexual  mores: De bonne heure, l e s enfants des charbonniers a p p r e n n e n t a p a r l e r comme l e u r s p a r e n t s , q u i o n t generalement l a mauvaise habitude de t e n i r des conversations trop licencieuses; plus tard, l e s t r a v a u x q u ' i l s e x e c u t e n t en compagnie des o u v r i e r s a d u l t e s , l e s f a m i l i a r i s e n t encore davantage avec les termes e t l e s i d e e s l e s p l u s c y n i q u e s . De s o r t e que, a v a n t meme d ' e t r e a r r i v e s a l ' a g e de l a puberte, i l s sont deja corrompus. . . . I I ne p e u t g u e r e en e t r e a u t r e m e n t l o r s q u e d e s f i l l e s e t des garcons, des l e u r p l u s t e n d r e j e u n e s s e , se trouvent continuellement en p r e s e n c e dans l e s h e u r e s de £r_avail, a u s s i b i e n que dans l e s moments de l o i s i r . In t h i s be  p i c t u r e of enforced  glimpsed  t h e seeds  overcrowding  of bourgeois  and p r o m i s c u i t y c a n  destruction.  It i s a  110 timeless  picture  relevant elite  today  is  fear  i n those  I,  immediate  subgroup .  Chapter  picture  universe.  It  succession  by  ,  social  Part  of  2  here  most  of  the  key  who  obliged  are  presence:  to  " I l s se  tranquille  us  birth  of c h i l d r e n  (in  fact,  Zola  two  youngest  with  Zola  de  of  a  similar  proletarian  erotic  of c h i l d r e n  each avec  to incest, having  without to  in  honte,  t o mention  1'autre"  rapid  other's l'aisance  c h i e n s , g r a n d i s ensemble"  allusions  children,  in  family,  themselves  jeunes  and  o f t h e Maheu  of  s o u l a g e a i e n t sans  seems u n a b l e  1' un  a  introduces  o f o p p o s i t e sexes  Maheu  rate  t o the shamelessness  relieve  are also  as  existence i n the Zolian  elements  d'une p o r t e e de  There  the Other,  44  that  The a u t h o r r e f e r s  bras  higher  presents  reality.  result  the  of working-class is  by  o f t h e w o r l d where t h e r u l i n g  n o t o n l y t h e v a r i o u s members  also  (42).  engulfment  areas  "threatened"  competing  but  of  primarily t o share  Lenore  the  a bed  and H e n r i , t h e  u s i n g the phrase  describe  their  "aux  sleeping  45 position  ).  The  concept  of  violent  and  fertile  forces  i s i n t r o d u c e d when J e a n l i n  breast  (42).  We  amusement  a t t h e menage  Bouteloup, through  whose  the  Zacharie interclass are  a r e made  and  pointed  a trois  tripartite  paper-thin  out;  two  La  bites  anti-  his sister's  t h e young  children's  o f L e v a q u e , L a L e v a q u e , and  passions  activities and  of  walls.  Philomene's  erotic  aware  depraved  are  Zola  makes  illegitimate of  La  Maheude,  clearly  mention  children;  Pierronne the  audible  Great  and  of the  Dansaert  Proletarian  Ill Mother, the  i s shown b r e a s t - f e e d i n g  other  family  pages t h e into  members.  reader  the  characterize  life  By  of  way  Gregoire  is  cooking  and  assorted  luxury,  is  Piolaine. history  Gregoires'  comfortable their of  the  In  financial  Gregoire  himself  s i solide.  une  profonde  siecle, function  shares  an  Puis,  the  gourmet  the  small  i s one by  sexuality  if  desire.  to  having  Gregoires t o work Zola  losses,  remonterait,  overt  a  une  la famille  section  of  a  the  valeur, rien  lead day  novel  is  to  a in  some  i n which  Leon  he  faith.  reassures  Dieu n e t a i t 1  qui,  faire"  paid  traces  a c e t t e croyance r e l i g i e u s e , pour  the the  dividends  Montsou s t o c k ,  "ca  La  of  describe  The  t h a t the  short-term  that  its  d e t a i l e d account of and  of  at  e x c l u s i v e l y puts h i s economic  gratitude  this  child,  conspicuous  human  as  ever  one  atmosphere  i l l u m i n a t i n g passage,  and  which  bourgeois  by  operations  such  without  thought  nourrissait of  are  temporary  the  pas  erotic  by  performed  a  investments of  only  chubby  overt  h i s t o r y of the  with  with  to  ten  glimpse  promiscuity  opulence;  mining  stubbornly  Unconcerned  and  only  summary  having  This  Montsou  existence  lives.  duties  follows  sublimation family's  by  rendered  there  ancestors  financial the  the  and  of  prototypically  servants.  reference  Instead, of  and  comfort,  any  the  other  domestic  warmth,  absence  from  spoiled  and  view of a l l  community.  distinguished  who  space  intimate  i n the mining  is  in f u l l  the  licentiousness,  Cecile,  of  an  contrast,  family  contingent  Within  i s afforded  poverty,  Estelle  se  melait  depuis  un  If  the  introduce  the  (99).  112 notion  of working-class  erotomania, a sexual  all  the hallmarks  o f a pagan  religion,  the  corresponding  juxtaposed  introduction  is  to  show  them  as  materialism  and  passive  Deneulin, dont  on  faces  "1'argent engraisse  of  the  scrofulous, and  difference  to  This  terms  paganistic  The  realize  prudently--is of  the  efforts. of  miners,  who  are  The G r e g o i r e s  capital,  slowly  sucked  down  into  the  account  Gregoires'  only  else  elegantly-laid  almost  are tightlyassociated economic  erotically-based worship  What t h e G r e g o i r e s they  a  I n an  dinner  for  work their  t h e vampire  from t h e v e i n s of  unfortunate  Supper,  do n o t  by t h e h a r d  pittance  blood  the  spend--albeit  i n league with  the mines.  of the Last  plump,  class-based  of r e a l  an  and  but a l s o i n  capitalists  d r a i n i n g the l i f e and anyone  deep  lack  and e a r n e d  a r e thus  children,  a  codes,  t h e money  paid  women,  Biblical  and  the  a c t u a l l y produced  are rosy,  a condition  practise  i s that  est celui  sickly,  the bourgeois  t h a t o n l y money c a n buy.  consciously  of  The o v e r w o r k e d  reflects  of s t e r i l i t y ,  whereas  t h e words  are o v e r t l y sexual,  while  workers  of  l e s autres  of e r o t i c  Gregoires altars  pallid,  contrast  stagnation  religion,  In  (102).  are  The m i n e r s  with  to the  of the Gregoires  of degeneracy,  production.  luxuries  family  t o the point  Zolian  gagnent  i n terms  the f u n c t i o n of  at the s t e r i l e  surement"  stark  not only  the point  vous  those  of " r e l i g i o n " .  repressed in  que  l e plus  whereas  then  profiteering.  Maheu  healthy.  terms  worshipping  mania w h i c h has  enough  inversion  the chambertin table  t o be of the gracing  i s in effect  a  113 metaphor  for  a  familiar  distorted.  The  the  shareholders  Montsou  toasts  of workers' blood version  of  ending  cycle  the  This  Earth  of  savour  means  of  the  countryside  control  the  apparatus  bourgeois  this  The work  are  passive reason  and  may  to  the  than  Zola  characters  the  the  be  bourgeois  need  is a  of  and  for  enough  earning  continue tunnels  couloirs  to as  obscurs"  f a m i l i e s simply power t o  being (55);  rapists. up  for  taken  by very  supply  of  of  profitable  sometimes e x a g g e r a t e s t o make h i s  i t i s almost  grow.  the  this  i t i s t r u e t h a t t h e work i n t h e m i n e s i s so that  to  charity,  showing  steady  continuation  as  wealth,  chances  It  of  that  way  masks  cannibals  seed  a  of  life  rape  the  such  any  never-  workers'  as  simply  capital  ensure  the  machine  in  stockholders. of  of  various  miners  greater  is  sharing  vampires,  of  capitalist  bourgeois  Montsou:  industry  the  forces  extra-large  mines'  by  Although  low-paying  have be  the  babies"  operations. point,  run  This  blackened  around of  infinitely  that  good h e a l t h  i n common w i t h  disproportionate  middle-class  "worker  the  decorum—are  risks  slightly  transsubstantiation  nuances  much  characters—behind  p r u d e n c e , and  the  whereby  the  has  defiles  perpetuate  continued  liturgy.  blood,  ceremony  by  the  represents  Christian  cannibalistically fluids.  made t o  ceremony,  i n t o communion wine, a p e r v e r s e  the  Zolian  religious  buy  e s s e n t i a l that  the  to  there  will  family  tree  food  ensure  "un  "dedale"  that  so t h a t t h e  Accordingly, like  dangerous  Zola  dedale  refers  miners  to  the  d ' e s c a l i e r s et  i s derived  from t h e  de  Greek  114 Daidalos, in  the  Crete  bull and  name o f t h e  where  half  man  the to  like  a  lair,  horrifying a  maze  perpetuate mining  and  the  various  often  created  on  The  status  a  and  virginal  descent  of  and  half  youths  work i s t h e r e f o r e i n t o a monster's  industry.  It  i s in  of the m i d d l e - c l a s s e l i t e  overpopulation  direct  quo,  the  contributions  and  symbolic  Gregoires  to  the  bourgeoisie  destitution  is  car  un  connu, des  les buvait"  (111).  indicative  wrapped with  i n the  of  Gregoires  react  to  The  trompes  to  the help  endemic i n  this to  the  of  of  genuine  families  of such  thought,  workers'  the  knowledge  deux  sous,  fixes  is  hypocritically  concern.  La  "la  le vice,  idees  excessiveness that  since  by  d'encourager  social  at  financial  bedeviled  et  prevalence  inequitable  give  qu'un p a u v r e a v a i t  sterility  guise  indignation  refuse  stereotypically  d'etre  fait  of  p o v e r t y - s t r i c k e n mining  crainte  c'etait  result  always  continuelle  also  c o n f i n e d , the  miners'  lethal  labyrinth  community.  As  il  was  golden  behalf  interests  b u i l d e r of the  Minotaur  sacrificed.  narrow f i n a n c i a l  the  mythical which  m a i d e n s were  legendary  Thus i t i s that  Maheude has  the seven  children: - S e p t e n f a n t s , m a i s p o u r q u o i ? bon D i e u ! - C ' e s t i m p r u d e n t , murmura l a v i e i l l e dame. La Maheude e u t un g e s t e vague d ' e x c u s e . Que voulez-vous? on n'y s o n g e a i t p o i n t , ca p o u s s a i t naturellement. E t p u i s , quand c a g r a n d i s s a i t , ca r a p p o r t a i t , ca f a i s a i t a l l e r l a maison. (112) The  use  of the  naturalist  word  novelist  "naturel" often  and  i t s d e r i v a t i v e s by  indicates  a  the  highly-charged  115 situation  in  which  ironically—to case,  seven  with  children  the  shot;  if  inhumanities, families  their  value  of  put  as  we  not  really  to  have  unlucky  and  shares  i n the  genealogical to  one  soon  only  one  that  enough out  the  a  success  in  child,  start  large  of  Nature  as  Gregoires  failure so  too  act  rather  is  c y c l e of  the  basket  the  raped,  and  of do  the they  by  limiting  of  a  truly  i s so v u l n e r a b l e -  sacrifice.  governed but  these  these  the  ritualistic  in  survive  mines, one  this  to  and  f u t u r e s i n c e she  has  But  political  Just  Montsou  eggs  In  excessive  cycle  child —hardly  see—to  prudence  wildly  within  the  actions.  starved, crippled,  poverty.  f o r t u n e on  i n v o k e d — o f ten  daughter.  move  Thus  is  and  seem  t o be  will  " i n v e s t o r " i n the shall  Nature  only  proletariat  entire  offspring  prudent  on  are  violence,  their  does  own.  f o r the  a l l their  their  go  too  their  repression, stake  they  they  of  perpetuated  of  Gregoires'  workers' c h i l d r e n w i l l and  spirit  e x p l a i n human i n s t i n c t s  having  comparison  the  So  Gregoires'  i t is choice  limited  bourgeois  "artistic  propensity  fertillty. Zola  relies  on  his characteristic  47 to  enlarge  portrait  beyond  of  result, each  we  and  i t is in this  bourgeois may  other's  Nowhere  bounds  exaggerated  differences; heightened  the  and  consider  sociological  is this  parallel  of  reason"  often way  the and  the  system  more  Zolian  reality  Gregoires erotic  painting a  diametrically  that  proletarian  while  and  opposed  p i c t u r e of  emerges.  the  Maheus t o  counterparts apparent  As  or  than  a be  foils. in  the  116 contrasting Maheu  portrayals  and C e c i l e  anaemic, latter  in  a  In f a c t ,  representatives  immature,  familial  yet rosy,  state  the deliberate  extend  daughters,  The f o r m e r  i s w e l l - r e s t e d , plump,  denial.  Catherine  i s fatigued,  sexually  thin,  aware;  the  h e a l t h y , y e t presumably  of  erotic  ignorance  and  c o n t r a s t s between t h e s e two  to include their  speech,  d r e s s , and  h a b i t s as w e l l .  Just  as t h e m i n i n g  exaggerated too  Gregoire.  physically  maintained  dietary  of the eldest  are  emphasis  the  Gregoires  on human  bourgeois  noted  achievements  settlement  i s made r e m a r k a b l e  sexuality  residences  and c o r p o r e i t y ,  of  t h e Hennebeaus  f o r the a s t o n i s h i n g c u l i n a r y  of  their  residents.  by an  and  so and  gastronomic  In  t h e space  of  oysters,  of  only  48 fifteen  pages,  pineapple,  scrambled  partridge, charlotte  mention  Rhine  eggs w i t h  wine,  meringue, bourgeois  is  champagne  (221). equates  a  Zola's  most  sex w i t h  middle-class novelist's  settle instead wonder  gorge  salad,  important  As  erotic  this  difference:  themselves  the dividing  with line  characters  gourmet between  there  commun"  in  Germinal  i s put a  The w o r k e r s need  the bourgeois  further  "juge  passage  presents  roast apple  i f to  formula  formula  Zola  trout,  t o human s u f f e r i n g ,  and i t i s i n t h i s of  sausages,  crayfish,  i s unfortunately  microscope.  f o r sex;  that  which  food,  brook  and p e a r s !  indifference  version  symmetrical c l a s s  truffles,  Russian  grapes  underscore also  i s made  that the  under  the  marvelously f o o d b u t must need  dishes.  sex b u t I t i s no  a l i m e n t a r y and e r o t i c  117 hunger becomes so The in  most  the  more  important  novel  animals;  is  here  likely  blurred.  that  it  to  line which  is  cross  over  treatment  the  inequalities  representative thought  which  individual the  of  members  who  losing  lose  is  present unwilling  to  terms  only  of  working  of  by  understand  crossed  beings  in  reflection  of  but  is  also  bourgeois  complexity  to  to  primitive  devoting  much  inequality  preferring  and  from  are  century  class,  see  rutting  themselves  to  or  eroticism.  attitude the  age,  human  violent  souls  callous  direct  nineteenth  i n unabashed  thinking  a  is  who  This  Zola's  in  of  human  line.  not  that  characters  fundamental the  their  this  i n the  separates  the  strain  of  in  themselves  It  is  denied  proletariat  brutes  a  demarcation  proletarian  metaphorical social  of  which  is  Hennebeaus, who  the  roots  particularly are  of  unable  the  or  workers'  unhappiness: Est-ce q u ' i l s n ' e t a i e n t pas t r e s heureux? Des gens loges, chauffes, s o i g n e s aux frais de la Compagnie! Dans son indifference pour ce troupeau, elle ne s a v a i t de l u i que la lecon a p p r i s e , dont e l l e e m e r v e i l l a i t le Parisiens en visite; et e l l e a v a i t fini par y c r o i r e , elle s ' i n d i g n a i t de 1 ' i n g r a t i t u d e du p e u p l e . (218) Indeed, the by  the  use  Madame  she  of  the  Hennebeau,  deserve prime  i n d i v i d u a l i t y of  to  be  example  actually  animal the  treated of  as  the  m i n e r s has  collective  miners  logical  believes  the  such. and  are  term  nothing  This  been swept "troupeau." but  "legon  intellectual  aside  cattle  apprise"  sterility  d i v i s i v e propaganda of  To  the  and is  a  since  Company  118 party  line  Monsieur  she  Hennebeau  According  to  legitimate devoted while  so  him,  own  inassouvie  by  personalities  is  somehow  (349).  mere  of  reproducing lower  class  denied  an  hackneyed  ability  are  hope  to  are  des  hypocrisy  social  whereas  our  simple  beings,  they fact  h i s c l a s s by  his  vivid  As  Sandy  unquestionably  act  and  in  he  reified,  t o c h o o s e and  our  Zola  types,  into  is  have  are  human  characters. was  (349),  souffrance  we  brutes.  any  exclusively  "la  While  of  have  instincts"  by  true  bias  Zola  characters  demands.  This bourgeois  animalistic  "although  miners'  nuanced, t h e i r s  working-class  out,  fashion,  "instincts";  we  the  similar  lives  duplicity:  in transcending  portrayals  the  characterized  while  become  a  cannot  their  complex and and  by  satisfaction  have  are  unidimensional;  points  when  passions"  they  In  unmoved  miners  linguistic  "passions",  succeeds  the  life  des  spouts.  also  "la tranquille  his  have  is  grievances  to  revealed  glibly  guilty  never  which  of  transformed  predictable  freely  Petrey  objects  is  accorded  49 men  in  highter  objectification the  very The  that be  social  situations."  of  working  the  s i n o f w h i c h M. great  h i s sexual willing  to  his  f i v e - c o u r s e meals  just  with  own  submerged  libido:  cadeau  animal  volontiers,  bourgeoisie  is  de  f o r M.  ses  Hennebeau i s  i n t e n s e t h a t he  material  and  fait  the  irony in l i f e  comforts, his  or  guilty.  f r u s t r a t i o n s become so renounce  reification  c l a s s by  Hennebeau i s  class-based  This  wealth,  would  life  of  to r e - e s t a b l i s h contact  gros  "II  leur  en  aurait  appointements,  pour  119 avoir  comme eux, l e c u i r  regret"  (349).  ravings  leads  transferring over  us  of  tone  wonder  one  nonobjective  of  i f the  i s even  i n general,  seminotorious  and  author  of  literary  perhaps  by  taking  characters.  subjective  i t i s interesting  f o r using  is  pathetic  more  e t sans  frustrated  inhibition  h i s most  nature  facile  o f Hennebeau's  bitterness  conjecture  evaluation became  to  h i s own  such  already  the  The whole  the voice  While  d u r , 1' a c c o u p l e m e n t  than  the  analysis  t o note  his literary  and  that  Zola  activities for  r e l e a s e o f s e x u a l e n e r g i e s which remained unspent w i t h i n 50  his  marriage.  spineless not  bourgeois  realize  that  working-class regrets, to  M.  Trapped  arrogance  eroticism.  Hennebeau without  and c l a s s  he i s o n l y  and e r o t i c  seemingly  i n the i s o l a t e d  are couples a care  a partial  The m i n e r s  t o o have  love  et  h i s wife  de t o u t  goujat  son coeur"  pour  voisines"  outdoors,  gifler  (281),  indeed  allow  f o r uninhibited  i s resoundingly  dissatisfied  "churchgoer"  se r e i n s  du p l a i s i r  him a s  domestic  de t o u s  e t prendre  of the working  crisis  a b l e t o make l o v e  "man" enough,  system  and  fields,  of being  erotic  promiscuity,  i s visible  i n the  " s u r des c a i l l o u x ,  s a femme  (349) shows  sensitivity,  i n the world.  M. Hennebeau's whole f a n t a s y o f b e i n g with  does  p i c t u r e of  but a l l that  making  of h i s  envy, Hennebeau  receiving  difficulties;  prison  being  sorely  class, sex  whose  erotic. who  lifestyle  i s the  to  switch  les  by t h e does  outdoors,  Hennebeau's  His wants  sur  tempted  i n the great  violence.  "assez  case from  moral of a the  120 worship  of m a t e r i a l i s t i c  licence. would  Overt  thus  all  enforced  investment  he  from  or  he w i l l  Gregoires  bourgeois  erotic  inhibition,  only  no d e s c e n d a n t s  their  code  hypocrisy,  contrast  standards overt  is  of sexual  children, men  to  children.  Although there marry  ethics.  violence  there  women  Nevertheless,  working-class  women  ina  u s e l e s s n e s s and Overall,  the  sterility  differentiated  rampant  the of  great with once  of t h e i r  violence  within  are i n fact social whom married  many  exerted  or l i v i n g  men, c h i e f l y  youthful  illegitimate  have  vulnerable  against  traditional  pressure they  working-  include not  and w i d e s p r e a d  fidelity  are especially  a t t h e hands  of shoes  These t r a i t s  context,  sexual  is still the  . .  (435) when, i n  a pair  by  terms,  In a d d i t i o n , t h e  sterile  marked  extravagance,  but also  marriage.  considering  de Montsou  charity.  the c l e a r l y  women o f t e n w i t h i n a s e x u a l promiscuity,  active  In g e n e a l o g i c a l  at a l l .  almost  r e p r e s s i o n , and s i l e n c e .  stand  sexual  strategy  Bonnemort  misplaced  on  rejects  de mes p e t i s - e n f a n t s "  d i s p l a y of the u t t e r l y of  class  Gregoire  ironic  from h i s  of the bourgeoisie  that h i s "denier  a crippled  absurdity  In  maintains  have  offer  metaphorical  Leon  i n Old French.  l e s enfants  condemnation  and i s m a i n t a i n e d  speculation—an  also mistakenly  nourrira  within,  of sexual  class-treacherous fantasies  The s t e r i l i t y  Financially,  name means " l i o n "  fact,  o f such  associates.  levels.  his  to the veneration  l e a v e M. Hennebeau open t o h a r s h  middle-class is  mention  power  on  produced together,  t o domestic  as a r e s u l t o f  121 illness,  poverty,  Further, amongst wives  although young  are  proper  unmarried  rampant the  behind  coutait  the  for  financially the  couples, be  promiscuity result  aware  (281) the  condoned  conditions. and  once m a r r i e d ,  faithful  prevalent  husbands  t o each o t h e r  the  sex  thus  young  and  and  to  take  "la  i n the  a  joie  even fields  qui  ne  cost-effective  Marriage  attendant  is  poverty:  seule  constitutes  the  community  out-of-doors,  miners.  with  mining  long-enforced  represents  and  limiting,  in  of  that  walls,  rien"  escape  and  is  is  living  children.  primary  Hennebeau  and  to  c a r e of t h e i r  actually  overcrowed  promiscuity  expected  The  M.  and  is  even  demands o f  more  children  Company: On m a n g e a i t , m a i s s i peu, j u s t e de q u o i s o u f f r i r sans c r e v e r , e c r a s e de d e t t e s , p o u r s u i v i comme s i l ' o n v o l a i t son p a i n . Quand a r r i v a i t l e dimanche, on dormait de fatigue. Les seuls plaisirs, c ' e t a i t de se s o u l e r ou de f a i r e un e n f a n t a sa femme; e n c o r e l a b i e r e vous e n g r a i s s a i t t r o p l e ventre, et l'enfant, plus tard, se f o u t a i t de vous. (178)  Only  the  erotic  intoxicating  r e l e a s e of  ending  mean in  physical  poverty.  crapulous, an this  are  The  overpopulation  are  but  mouth  that  love  can  dull  aftereffects  limited,  additional way  yet temporary e f f e c t s  the  to  the feed  vicious  perpetuated  of  liquor  the p a i n of  of  the  upshot  of  or  never-  former, the  while  latter  for sixteen years. circles  within  the  of  may  It is  poverty  working  the  and  class  in  is  any  Germinal. Conspicuous  by  its  absence  in  the  novel  122 description As  Colin  of  Smethurst  a prominent the  sexual  of  contrast,  Zola  Maheu  La  and  finished  t h e way  which  M.  early  evenings  almost  bon  the  sex,  within  mines.  instead What  ritual naked  indeed  is and  of  of  filth  envious.  no  means  les  off.  consummation  and  noun  These peculiar  camarades  du  plus d'enfants  moment de  i n mind t h a t  a  gone  is  toil.  to her  Once  sexually-charged  chez  the  as  have  meal  so  by  the  evening  which  facile"  The  verb  of  to  In  Hence t h e  frightening need  to  dessert qui suggests  frames  addition,  filthy  cleanse  and  a  lovesexual  i t must  observer, the  and  des  voulait  proletarian  again  food.  to a white-collar look  un  of  Maheus:  l'heure  "planter"  aspect  (349)  the  coron  pour  " d e s s e r t " once  context  to  qu'on n'en  l a journee  agricultural  while  their  in  In  f o r "1'accouplement  almost  making,  scene  members  day  (133).  and  would  tender  occurs  rien"  natural  in  normal  l'on p l a n t a i t  . . le seul  behavior."^  d u r i n g which the w i f e h e l p s p u r i f y  is  are  ou  class  a  Hennebeau  betises,  family  lovemaking  i s paved  egalement  kept  other  bath,  "C'etait  be  at  an  following  pleasure  hierarchy i s gained  Maheude make l o v e a f t e r  Maheu's e v e n i n g  coutait  of  develops  this  ne  i n the bourgeois  participants.  the conquest  instinctual  Symbolically,  .  " Z o l a shows how  or  the  clean,  bourgeois  natural  and  husband  between  remarks,  position  expense  acts  working  after  purify  a  day  before  afterwards.  distinguishes that  the  wash  i n the  the  pere  de  Maheus' famille  presence  of  v e r s i o n of  this  i s reluctant his  children.  to  erotic strip  Although  123 Maheu  and  bodies,  sitting  displaying cette  h i s workmates  their  chair  Toussaint  bare  Maheu, Father,  Alzire  children his  wife.  It  which  dans  so t h a t i s as  their  sterile  Maheu  i s both  conscience, bourgeois  bathe  were  having  and  values  such  as  a i r " (133), Great  en f a m i l l e ,  comme  m a i s o n s du  coron"  i n t h e company o f  using  this  Toussaint  scene  to  integrity  Maheu  not  only  comrades, b u t a l s o from counterparts.  h i s own  sustained  de t o u t e  l e a d e r s h i p and  and c o r r u p t b o u r g e o i s with  homes,  t o h u s t l e t h e two y o u n g e s t  and more v i o l e n t  a t ease  their  archetypal  d'autres  of moral  Constance  earthier  and  Maheu may  i f Zola  seminaked  " l a joie  pas se l a v e r  beaucoup  the q u a l i t i e s  from t h e i r  of  m i s e au g r a n d  idealized  "n'aimait  distinguish  their  steps  i s t h e r e f o r e quick  outside  accentuate  front  of  arms and c h e s t s w i t h  the  se p r a t i q u a i t  (131).  the  proud  l a s s e de t r a v a i l l e u r s ,  Proletarian cela  on  are  peers  the  and w i t h  Zolian  cleanliness,  Toussaint h i s own  transfer  of  steadfastness,  and  decency. The  routine  disturbed  when  Subsequently, by  herself  famille  the  Etienne  t h e men  s'etait  Catherine  wash  refugiee  a l l those  to the general  rituals  moves  in  downstairs  i n t h e u p s t a i r s room:  Nevertheless, adjust  o f t h e Maheu's b a t h i n g  dans  frequently  i s slightly  their  lodger.  and C a t h e r i n e  "Toute  l a pudeur quotidien"  bathes de l a (176).  a t t h e Maheus' home must  o f p r i v a c y by becoming  o f d i s r o b i n g and g r o o m i n g . are  as  l e lavage  resident  lack  ritual  sexually  Although preoccupied  inured to  E t i e n n e and in  each  124 other's  presence,  semi-nudity nu,  ils  point  avait  sexual largely  de  qu'une  ethic  is  because  is  in  because  starting because common  the  from  a  even  is  who  most  l e monde"  the  mineworkers  leur  physical  increase  sleep  and  age;  in  ne  faute,s ' i l (176). is  The  in  fact  of  the  proportion  promiscuous,  often  details  ils  are v i o l e n t , i t  are  i f they  d'etre  proximity  I f they  i f they  intimate  Constance  is  contribute  of  the  as much as  household, ne  n'est-ce  pas?  at  nous eh  s'embarrasser are  Maheu  the  with they one  doit bien,  d'une  who  bathe  are of  to it  together  coarse,  their  often  working-class  obsessed  Zacharie  here  young  pas  car  tout  space;  very  ainsi,  pour  sheer  inherent  l a honte  n'etait  frustrations  girls  tuait  the  ce  village.  and  the  practicalities  the  mining  to  i t is  lives  are  knowledge.  It  she  the  personal  boys  used  d'etre  amongst  by  of  reductions  et  force  determined  part  naturel  chambre  in  become  "L'habitude  mal  inhabitants in  they  bedtime:  trouvaient  faisaient n'y  of  even  the can  notion  even  du  .  divergent principles  of  nous  the  years,  primary  allegiance—if  the  moral  his social  class—must  children,  code  his of  Desiree  and  Achille,  nous  rende, In  financial  has  along  must  "Est-ce  (120-21).  yes,  It is  to the running  II  responsibilities: but  Zacharie  ."  the  children  asking,  qu'il .  ethics.  that  respect?  i l faut  femme.  of  financially  point pas  code  articulates  cost  now with  que  coute,  avant  de  conflict  and p a r e n t a l  his he  a  of  family i s to  be  to  their  over  follow his  own  mother,  125 Philomene. A and  similar  Catherine  divided  any  with  Chaval  In  outright harshness already  daughter's  this  children  so  by  family  acrimoniousness  overtly  of  criticisms:  "II  denaturees"  (237);  her  nature  of  fallait "Ah!  intimated  by  own  become  the  "denature"  to  as  an  act  to  state  as  substitute  prime  mother's  prostitute  of  taking eyes,  which  by  La  the  affairs f o r food  up  with  then,  a  Maheude's des  filles Quand  a  had  ta  (324). of  naturalist  i s the  equation  "pimp".  Catherine  Catherine  note  antithesis  in  the  their  we  aussi!...  be  great  extent,  p o u r t o n maquereau!"  is  of  reduces  mitigated  and  not  remain  certain  derniere  toi  serious  Catherine's  starving  does  Specifically,  la  salope,  be  Sex  is  a  Maheu  etre  Clearly,  context.  decision  To  are  boyfriend,  Catherine  by moving o u t ,  poverty.  faim, tu l a t r a h i s  a  which  her  parents  parents  mere c r e v e de  "naturel",  her  income.  the  increasing  sexual  to  and  Maheude,  A c c o r d i n g l y , t h e Maheus r e a c t w i t h  insufficient  and  La  loyalties,  however,  t o w a r d s C a t h e r i n e , who,  unrelenting  Maheu,  family  case,  interpreted  betrayal.  between  immediate  illegitimate is  erupts  the  her  Chaval.  have  the  over  between  Antoine  the  conflict  In  has  always  her  indeed dreaded  becoming. Since  patriarchal  family values  element  of  working-class  ideals,  parents  and  children  are  the  most  strains  of  poverty  and  of  the  are  these  the  most  important  conflicts  serious  result  frustrations  between of  the  due  to  126 overcrowding. of  Although  La Maheude sometimes  proletarian moralist,  it  i s wrong  dimanche  f o r La  her  own  point  fait  attitude heroic  that  and  she d e c l a r e s  "lacher  sa  she i s r e m a r k a b l y  marriage,  l e mal,  ( 240).  to  when  the role  c'est  confessing souvent  It i s this  cements  sort  t h e bond  idealized  representatives  erotic  "lorsqu'on  n'a  l e s occasions  of r e f r e s h i n g  between  un  f o r t h r i g h t about  that  que  that  famille,  (163) i n t h e p u r s u i t o f s e l f i s h  i n t h e end  monogamous  manque"  Pierronne  de d u c a s s e "  stimulation,  f o r example  plays  and  the reader  ont candid  and t h o s e  of the working  class,  t h e Maheus. In  contrast,  outside such  their  Pierronne which  oppositon  who  feigns  characterize and  stereotypically  sing  h i s wife, and  Dansaert's materially. while t h e i r death.  is  lodger  at La  a  company w i t h the  they  that  Levaque,  La  menage  is  t o excess,  Montsou disgust since  h e r own f a m i l y  selfishly  i s La  the prostitutes  haughty  enjoy  neighbors  to injury, Pierron,  step  promiscuity  This  various  generous y e t i n d i g e n t  To add i n s u l t  and of  hypocritical  t o ensure  It  t h e husband d r i n k s  Pierronne's  In e f f e c t ,  trois  to  on o v e r t o n e s o f  greed.  Bouteloup.  since  completely  influence  takes  and  dare  In t h e m i d s t o f  at the disorder  menage  and keeps  dance  establishments. households  the  negative  Dansaert  affair  treachery,  disgust  their  and  class boundaries. their  duplicity,  Levaque,  beats  Pierronne  respective  virulent  hypocrisy,  La  cake  who  drinking at she  such uses  benefits and wine  slowly  starve to  a t best  seemingly  127 indifferent inspired strike  and  a  company.  and  letter  Theirs  is  wont  the  Etienne's equated  of  to  " le avec  ses  prejudices  semierotic  terms.  revealed  be  to  a  hypocrisy  while  fate  being  of  abandonnant clear:  is  idees  et  This to  In  have  Dansaert, fired  erotic  i t s roots  "lower" t h e i r of  the  (embourgeoisement).  petits,  working  (461). class-gap of  The the  when  M. a  erotic  La  Zolian  a t y o u r own class  bourgeois  for middle-class  ignorant  and  expressed  in  Pierronne  is  du  erotic the  capitaine  judgment  is  peril.  One  would  has  characters  (declassement) than  working  class  discrepancy  in  suffers  standards  This  to  These  segregation  fears.  to  Maheus i s  empoisonner  foreman,  lachete  of  Hennebeau  wallowing  The  une  idea  (218).  class,  however,  cowardly  avec  attributable  continue  "cette  i t i s worse  erotic  "Ils  to  character,  the  in  promiscuity:  bourgeoisie's  end,  for  hommes"  the  that  the  the  Zolian doctrine  impression  members  against  scabs Etienne  sa b i e r e . . . ."  of t h e  mining  labor  (380).  similar  the  the  about  diseases  qui  of  and  i n f l u e n c e on  Rasseneur,  Tartuffian  ses  bridge  and  greed-  denounces  gossip  Volcan"  social  further manifestations  fearful  weasels  jusqu'aux  ideology  fameux  who  wife's  management  malicious  au  This  his  one  incestuous  infectious  refers  seem  family  Etienne  promiscuity.  are  the  ensemble,  socialist  Voreux,  a  of  the  to  alleged  1  sexual  le  also  spreading  par  with  is  is  pourris  prise  encouraging  written  to  Maheus  s'etaient salete  worst  infidelity,  in  which  at  the to  i t i s for  "raise"  is especially  theirs evident  128 in  M.  Hennebeau's  infidelity. in  To  her  sauvegardait question  of  illusion  of  ainsi  apparences"  (348).  by  peur  bas,  a  fear  that  h i s own  son  also  harmony, His  quelque  sundry  to  eroticism  a c t i o n of  having  vieux  hear  death.  all  Cecile's  too  class  well,  sexual  synagogue the  is  one  abandon:  for  erotic  final  Etienne's actually does caused  break  react by  the  a  This of  the  (473) hovel,  paganism of of  in  Zolian  is  the  revealed to  (473).  It  Hennebeau's  instant  .  . .  i s shocked  Hennebeau  points  for  to  knows  working-  for sex-as-religion,  the  heart  of  Nature  a  amid  Requillart. interclass  rule  middle-class  sexual  tomber  Hennebeau  when she  focal  be  cocher"  M.  M.  reality  It  will M.  the  in  femme  permeates  as  this  After a l l ,  (359 ).  " e n t r e r un  embourgeoisement.  the  with  which  son  is  is in  sa  enables de  least "elle  foremost  voir  "man"  I t i s a chapel  example  gradual  a  his wife  Mouque"  i n d u s t r i a l wasteland The  that  n e v e u , dans l a c r a i n t e  dans l a masure du of  see  as  at  It  spinelessness.  peut-etre"  shortcomings  engaging  perpetuating  is  de  latest  class:  philosophy  celle  laquais  of  which  erotic  l u i restait,  interclass  symbolic  appearances,  f e c k l e s s n e s s and  plus  is  les  her  to  nephew, she social  seule  "garder  h i s own own  thinking.  and  with  wife's  stoops  to  "une  all  his  perversity  conjugal  characterized  for  affairs  maintaining  Hennebeau's  of  h i s mind, even t h o u g h she  semi-incestuous  confines  rationalizations  of  erotica  i s provided  Although  erotic  class  perspective to  he  does  fidelity, the  p r o m i s c u i t y of h i s co-workers.  by not he  problems Just  as  129 Zola  describes  being  and  " l a commune h i s t o i r e  garcons  et les f i l l e s  espousing and  Zacharie  "freedom",  "pourrir"—to young  rot,  des p r o m i s c u i t e s  view  so  (120),  Etienne  corrupt—in  i n the f i e l d s  as  du c o r o n , l e s  of working-class  t o o does  spoil,  l o v e r s romping  relationship  p o u r r i s s a n t ensemble"  a middle-class  sexual  Philomene's  that i s  inhibitions  use t h e  verb  h i s own r e a c t i o n t o  o f wheat:  D e p u i s que s a n a t u r e s ' a f f i n a i t , i l se t r o u v a i t b l e s s e d a v a n t a g e p a r l e s p r o m i s c u i t e s du c o r o n . Est-ce qu'on etait des b e t e s , pour e t r e ainsi p a r q u e s , l e s uns c o n t r e l e s a u t r e s , au m i l i e u d e s champs, s i e n t a s s e s qu'on ne p o u v a i t c h a n g e r de c h e m i s e sans m o n t r e r s o n d e r r i e r e aux v o i s i n s ! E t comme c ' e t a i t bon p o u r l a s a n t e , e t comme l e s f i l l e s e t l e s g a r c o n s s'y p o u r r i s s a i e n t f o r c e m e n t e n s e m b l e ! (178) Various short are  relations  becoming  more  by t h e s e  dignity,  and  sexual  metaphors  such  as "betes"  calls  into  somehow  question  more  Whereas  M.  uninhibited carefree notion  and  that  release  and  the connection  free  sexuality  as  available  that  result  views  t h e miners  and  and " p a r q u e s " ,  the idea  content,  of e r o t i c  he i s  promiscuity;  by  using  Etienne  the workers' enough  introduces  are seeking  o r a f f o r d a b l e t o them.  class  is  promiscuity.  indulgence  f o r them the  freedom  unrestrained  animal  implicitly  t h e working  of i t s sexual  reason  Etienne  relatively  so  between t h e l a c k o f p r i v a c y and  Hennebeau  through  scenes  i n this  t h i n k i n g and t a s t e s  middle-class,  temptations;  as a  are present  Etienne's  refined  offended  recognizes  means  and e f f e c t  but r e v e a l i n g passage.  consequently he  o f cause  in  t o be  interesting  and  spiritual  sexuality,  the only  By o p i n i n g  that a  130 better  course  "serrer  of e r o t i c  les cuisses"  dangerous  road  eroticism. Etienne rather  is  the  his  fidelity  points the  through  Etienne  i s embarking  upon t h e  and  nature,  heroic  offered of  t o h i s own s o c i a l  way,  freedom  from  That by  a  eventually  Mouquette  symbolic  class.  chastity  anti-  sexuality  he  La  to  however,  the c o n t r a d i c t i o n s  but i s a l s o  community,  of bourgeois  sexuality.  not only  out, "Etienne's  mining  girls  advocating  temptations  i s proof  all-too-human  be f o r young  self-denying  freedom  to  Catherine  a  might  to the s t e r i l i t y  ultimately  than  succumbs  (143),  leading  In  action  and  in his  guarantee  of  As R a c h e l l e R o s e n b e r g  earn  him g r e a t  f o r a b s t i n e n c e on b o t h  respect in  t h e s e x u a l and 52  alimentary The  levels  concept  Germinal. power one  In  t o keep hand,  fact,  have  on  young  lovers  fear,  guilt,  mythopoeic "Zola's but  virility,  the  in a  making  does  like  love  we  Philip  attempt have  the  In t h i s  in  virtues  i t imparts  strength,  a w a r e n e s s o f one's a n i m a l i t y ,  pen,  an  rutting  light  for divine pagan joy,  of  without and i n  i n stating  intensely  physical  of  picture  of Nature,  positive  On t h e  the pain of  positive  i s correct  are  courage,  a  image  t o escape  i s i n some ways a s u b s t i t u t e  one i n  in his artistic  negative  cattle  Walker  tricky  and c o n t r a d i c t o r y .  i n the heart  or inhibitions.  a  everything  undeniably  futile  i n the Zola novel."  i s indeed  confused  the other,  terms,  Eros  the  Zola  population,  indiscriminately poverty;  of promiscuity  the issue  we  overcrowded  i s a mark o f h e r o i s m  that  Grace, ones—  ecstatic 53 and u n i t y w i t h n a t u r e . " How  i3i then les  do we choses  disgust la  de  l a nature"  misere"  o f calm  Etienne's  imposed  "devant  increasing  by " l e s abandons de  (139)?  part,  Etienne's willing  feeling  (142) w i t h  a t t h e s t r e s s e s and p a i n  In  his  r e c o n c i l e o l d Mouque's  there  i s a good  dismissive  of jealous  judgmentalism  t o sublimate  political  deal  h i s sexual  ambition.  since  libido  Nonetheless,  hypocrisy i n  he  i s shown  as  i n t o the pursuit of  as Smethurst  asserts,  h i s [.Etienne's" coming from o u t s i d e t h e community of Montsou provides a motive for his clearer observations of the true state of the miners' existence, provokes t h e r e a c t i o n t h a t something must be done a b o u t t h e s i t u a t i o n , and b e g i n s t h e process of p o l i t i c a l educatiorj^which culminates i n his leadership of the s t r i k e . 1  In  fact,  Etienne,  community, political  i s further  vanite,  autour pour  mains g r a s s e s  takes  leads  t o Etienne's  pedagogic  haine  des  enrage  d'etre  back  sexuality.  in  centre,  sentir le  un c o n t i n u e l  gonflement  t o make  Once a g a i n ,  own  l e haveur  sexual  by  point  aux  sacrifice,  uniquement  and mores mind  an a t t e m p t  that  insisting  a leur place"  manners  his  by h i s  T h i s v a n i t y , as w e l l a s t h e  reality  des bourgeois  homogeneous  f e e l i n g s of s u p e r i o r i t y , both  viendra  of bourgeois  un  I t i s at this to  bourgeois  contradictions  (234).  a  h i s comrades  mecanicien,  in his ability  and e r o t i c .  Etienne  "Devenir  distinct  within  from  de s o i , c ' e t a i t  et noires"  he  adopting  s e t apart  l u i , 1'ancien  pride  brings  an o u t s i d e r  autodidacticism:  monde r o u l e r de  already  with  de  that  "votre  votre  besoin  (393).  helps  Etienne's  r e i n f o r c e the  regard  at erotic  Souvarine  to  human  class betrayal  132 or  at least  with  a rejection  the sternest  into  and  revolution human  i s that  as h a v i n g  encore  highly  de  thus  ceux  de d e n o n c e r q u i rendent  prefers  given  extraction, within  seeds  characteristics  choose  to portray  implications for  Frandon  summarizes,  1'injustice possibles  than  criticize  sociale, l a  de t e l s  locates  the  subterranean because  etroit,  y e t t o come: a  pres  de  Zola i s  >  cause—political decadence. of the  this  "womb" and i n f a c t  of a harvest coin  the  the beginnings  Although  actes  towards demotic sex,  the e f f e c t — s e x u a l  i t i s symbolic  the Earth's  ce  to  underground.  surprising  working  required for  >  initially  uprising  leading  que l a c o r r u p t i o n de q u i l e s commet."~ ~  repression—rather Zola  clout  obvious  Ida-Marie  with  to overpopulation  would  c o n s c i o u s o f h i s own a m b i v a l e n c e  and  dans  not only  blatantly  Y e t , as  e s t . . . soucieux  responsabilite  leads  i t s author  such  both  o f r e p r e s s i v e p o v e r t y and  One o f t h e most s t r i k i n g  sexuality.  "Zola  associated  t o the doors  but t o the numerical  revolution.  the novel  the  t h e key  Promiscuity  overcrowding,  plus  hyperfertility  and o u t o f t h e p r i s o n  bloody of  the  represents  conditions.  i s met  of r e b u f f s .  Paradoxically, promiscuity  of class-based sexual values  setting  nature  of  the r e b e l l i o n germinates  i s not mineral occurs  there  "Une r e b e l l i o n  s i x cents  workers'  metres  like  germait sous l a  terre"  (81). This revolution  t a k e s p l a c e under t h e a e g i s o f  Mother  Nature  i s pregnant  people  herself,  dedicated  to  who the  overthrow  with of  an the  army  of  corrupt  133 bourgeoisie,  an army w h i c h  upholds the i d e a l s  ega1itarianism.  The  soldiers  dedication  and  their  are  demonstrated  the  ruins  of  industrialism with  debris  bring  the  such  a  ce  may  result  and  broken  que  and  ce  creation,  le  l'instinct,  call  appeal  their  of  the  the  speaking  a  the  ambitions  and  Lantier  arms,  miners'  revolution  confrontations. It  to  eroticism  back  to  "Et i l  coup  les  pres  revanche de  de  de l a  fouet  ventres  In t h i s way,  de  Gaea and  de ces the  f o r revenge s i m u l t a n e o u s l y ,  who  becomes  revenge;  " l a resignation  tools  able  ways.  failure  themselves.  need  instinctive  socialist  are  une  le  dans  (141-42).  mutual  littered  wasteland:  la houille, sous  amidst  Although  l a machine e t e i n t e ,  enfants  overcome  to  de  these  activity  miners  industrial  des  Etienne  Although  with  corrupt  the  and  N a t u r e t o them-  landscape  natural  plantait  forces  to  of  qui,  in different  help  machinery,  of  Requillart.  polluted  amour  though  to  a  at  libre  satisfy  these  in  degorger  miners  is  mine  forces  a p e i n e femmes"  It  to Nature—and  f u t , a u t o u r de  l a s de  effectiveness  passionate sexual  abandoned  procreative  puits  filles,  their  the  sterile  semblait  by  numerical  of j u s t i c e  latent he  on  will effect,  is  thanks  term,  need he to  in helps  his  justice.  i s , strictly the  miners  inevitable  Etienne's  f o r acceptance that  (223 ) w i t h h i s  leaves  the  for  i s able  natural  leads he  who  e d u c a t i o n , and  of  temporarily  In  thirst  l a race"  sense  short  catalyst  i t i s he  h i s emphasis  i n the they  de  the  future  miners own  help  political  " l e mineur  n'etait  134 plus  1'ignorant,  l a brute  sol.  Une armee  poussait  moisson  de  eclater  l a terre,  explosion  citoyens  of  subtext:  Jean  dans  les entrailles  des profondeurs  dont  l a semence  jour  de g r a n d  semen/seed  this  revolutionary  un  ecrasee  i s the overthrow  d e s f o s s e s , une  germait  soleil"  constitutes  du  a  et  ferait  (289).  This  crucial  erotic  of the "old" society  through  orgasm.  Borie, i n h i s meticulous  Rougon-Macquart s e r i e s ,  Freudian  makes t h i s  pivotal  analysis  of the  observation:  II e s t deux refoules pour la conscience bourgeoise: l e p e u p l e e t l e c o r p s . . . . L'homme civilise, l e bourgeois . . . e s t l'homme de la nature vaincue, du c o r p s domine. L'homme du p e u p l e , f r u s t e , s i m p l e , v i t au c o n t r a i r e au n i v e a u des instincts. II e s t legitime n a t u r e l , c ' e s t a - d i r e a peu p r e s l a b r u t e . Hence i t i s no wonder t h a t t h e b o u r g e o i s class  rebellion  rutting  monster  dissemination individual social moon  s h o u l d be based  of  class.  Thus  "une  bouches  ouvertes,  repeats  this  aftermath  society: apres again,  de tout  crucial  feasting,  un  word  sexual  des  the i s an  o f an e n t i r e  a pack yeux  luisants, (286).  destruction  ripaille.  of seething des Zola  h i s d e s c r i p t i o n of  a l a v i e sauvage  of these  which  rage  peuple"  "rut" during  activity  by  g a t h e r i n g under t h e f u l l  r u t de  the vengeful  where b o t h  monster  i s like  visages,  r u t , l a grande  orgiastic  a  sharpened  of the c o l l e c t i v e  "on r e t o u r n e r a i t  l e grand  dogma,  o f Vandame  furie  of  are  the night-time  i n the forest  of working-  on t h e n o t i o n o f a d a n g e r o u s  teeth  socialist  incarnation  wolves,  the  whose  picture  of  bourgeois  dans  l e s bois,  . . . " (346 ).  i s likened  a r e symbolic  to  Here  frenzied  o f t h e overthrow  135 not  only  sexual  of  code  strikingly final  monopolistic  de  as  erotic cette  forces  of  of  Earth's  the  the  well.  are  It  and is  only  of  not  is  victory  for  "in  us  this  revolutionary  by  the  end"^  o r Van  a  une  renaissance  7  indetermine  ne  Zola  refers  (391)  renew  of  the  violently  temporarily  germinating  the  to  but  complete  to  1  halted;  for  the  to  agree  this  "1 avortement  i n which  itself  bourgeois  the  pregnant  i t is  because  year a f t e r year  that  proletariat  only  is  destroyed.  that  whatsoever  if  masse"  to  difficult  conclusion  change:  en  ability  possibility  deferred,  As  picture,  levee  Gaea  capitalism,  with  broken  in  terms  wind  David  Bellos's  proletariat  nothing  of  has  politics  quite  or  social  exhausted  itself  Buuren's a s s e r t i o n t h a t vegetale  qui  contrebalance  aura  "cette a l l u s i o n  lieu  dans  guere  la  fin  end  up  in  un  avenir  tragique  du  58 roman ."  True,  monopolistic  power o f  Deneulin's  smaller  resume work on Maheude his  meagre  the  bloody  are  capital  and  i s increased  independent  company;  management's t e r m s ;  Pierron  pension; and  the  the  underground; miners'  fragile  union  extent  of  the  defeat,  is  nevertheless  obvious costs ruined  strikers  i s r e l u c t a n t l y forced  exhausted; Yet  the  to the  machinery,  symbolically  miners'  able  the  expense  the  of  m i n e r s must  i s promoted; Bonnemort  La  loses  fund  organization  victory,  is  crumbles.  even  in brutal  and  considerable.  Besides  the  annihilated to  at the  contingency  Company i n t e r m s o f  and  defeat;  render  l o s s of  investments, the  forces  confidence, the of  workers industry  136 sterile only  by  exacting  daughter.  charitable, she  the  sacrifice  Although  virginal,  becomes  sterility  the  the  and  Cecile naive,  incarnation  that metaphorically  hands  of  community.  Bonnemort, Her  death  of  is  of  the  the  o l d e s t r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of another  W.  "naivete  of  one  Brule's emasculation—as  community—of  F.  Zola  representative  the  youngest  mining  J.  her  archetypal  represents  as  being  to which  of  bourgeois  s t r a n g u l a t i o n at  sage  of  the  mining  expiatory s a c r i f i c e "race"  at  "race",  the  hands  similar  of of  i n many  t h e o l d e s t f e m a l e of  the  Maigrat.  Hemmings'  assertion  that  the  a c q u i t s them o f d e l i b e r a t e v i l l a i n y  miscalculated  Gregoires'  extent  fruits  justifies  the  the  portrayed  i t i s the  the  ways t o La  Cecile,  in punishing  the  Gregoires'  . . .  Gregoires  and  that  so h e a v i l y a t  59 the  end"  seems  disappointing Surely of  i t s lack  b a n a l i t y and  the  Grant  in  absurd  enormity sees  the  harmful"^; chapter, blood  of  of  we  cannibalistic unproductivity  is  short-sightedness  perspicacity  ignorance  as  and  are both  malice.  spilled human  therefore  at  vintage  Elliott i n no  outset  Burgundy  denotes  a  suffering.  parasitic  manifestations  but  the  and  and  imagination.  Likewise,  "unproductive,  drinking  reaction to is  its  hypothesized  Gregoires  miners  of  bourgeois  Gregoires as  the  wilful  in  sense  of while  vampiric The  M.  this the and  Gregoires'  very  harmful  indeed. "L'Homme n o i r " of  Catherine's  i s i n t r o d u c e d as a s u p e r s t i t i o u s  imagination,  an  old  and  blackened  figment  miner  who  137 according (70)  to  as  local a  no  to  the  seek  virginal first  sexual  other  choses q u ' i l  de  ce  ce  cou  Bonnemort  a  been  the  years  yet  h i s blackness  same  that  way  as  overwork  and  Gregoire crippled  are  de  symbolic  since  working-class for  Cecile's sign  and to  she  de  cedait faire  by  "un  is  been  a  casual  he  "vilaine ignorance. disregard  or wrongly, lamb  Her  fille" Her  of  shocking  by  death and  de  because  soot  out  over  and  Cecile and  fresh.  despite  her  villainy social  the  the  through  black,  i n her persona.  "eaten"  complacency  her  the  i n much  old,  white  des  attractive;  decay, worn  a  meurtre,  It i s  so  au  On  Bonnemort and  being  young,  erotic  smug  have  carcinogens.  is  wolf.  skin  the  coup  de  by  a  ca, a l a  ( 357 ).  besmirched  white  On  l a prendre  (472).  spiritual  body  bourgeois  the  of  antitheses,  and  de  fille"  overcome  and  rightly  sacrificial  is  blackened  mind  the  comes t o g e t h e r ,  jeune  fille"  Cecile  purity  de  attemtps  class.  . qui  besoin  jeune  is a  while  a un  .  noir"  sacrificing  tentation inexplicable  finds  thus  physical  deathknell  une  exposure  Paradoxically,  the  blanc  so  he  his  dire,  .  against  twice  c l a s s by  oppressor  Bonnemort  filles"  "l'Homme  h i m s e l f , who  the  Bonnemort  blanc  has  fact,  mains f r o i d e s v e n a i e n t  cou  demence,  vilaines  mechanism  In  oppressed  of  vieux  occasion,  brusque  his  n ' a u r a i t pu  fascination  devant  le  aux  control  Bonnemort  of  "des  l e cou  activity.  representative  C etait  second  than  revenge  occasion,  cou.  "tord  class-based  non-procreative becomes  legend  is  class She  is  monstrous  sounds  ignorance  the of  the  138 bourgeoisie: hands  the resonances  of  Bonnemort—her  instinctive described women's  temptation  as b e i n g previous  The comes  towards  Catherine dramatic the it  to violence  "au b o r d  finally  end  idealized  couple  to  withstand  Thanatos. having  Once  successfully  resurrection:  "Etienne  blancs;  et  on  vieillard"  (491).  It such in  The  a profound  Germinal.  changes,  apparut  s'ecartait,  that  connection  often  brought  on  Eros  proven  there  always as  a  been  significant  function  of  a  tout  devant  ce  to create  and r e v o l u t i o n political  backdrop  I t i s also  differences  social  after  o f h i s and  choose  sexuality  violence.  and  f o r Etienne's  fremissait  against  her too  l e s cheveux  Z o l a would  between  about  and m o b - i n s p i r e d  expression  of  death;  d r a m a t i c a l l y and  i s paved  decharne,  own  H i s age was c h a r a c t e r i z e d by g r e a t  anarchistic have  way  between  has l e f t  the o b s t a c l e course  and  Chaval's  scene  assault  is left  however,  Etienne  i s finally  Catherine  i s not s u r p r i s i n g  when  humiliate  after  love  menstruation  virility  redundant.  when  i n Catherine's  simultaneous  Catherine's relationship, structurally  novel  underground  culminates  navigated  Etienne  equation,  The l o n g - a w a i t e d  Etienne's  like  erotically  this  the  love  the  Bonnemort's  [_39§]), and t h e m i n i n g  to  of  i s as i f h e r a l l - t o o - r e c e n t  weak  at the  o f sex and d e a t h .  of  make  elimination.  (much  attempt  expression  the  status,  du v i o l "  the equation  clearest  i n h e r murder  virginal  aborted  Cecile--reinforce  of rape  of  true that i n sexual  standing;  these  139 differences our  own  class  are  age.^  still Why  1  differences,  Zola's achievement of  the  process  body  evident should  one  to  Zola  not  political  i n Germinal,  politic  scientific  with  researchers  combine  and  the  these other  obvious sexual?  therefore, i s often a  the  body  w h i c h makes f o r g r i p p i n g and  erotic,  a  of  fusion  synthetic  memorable r e v o l u t i o n a r y  drama. Despite author  in  literary  highly conscious  following parent  this  a  childhood  family.  Zola's  own  segregation  Havelock life,  that  the  synthesis, Zola  o f h i s own spent  in  Ellis  referring young  still  remains  an  adult middle-class status of  a  single-  t r a c e s the e f f e c t s  of  poverty  to  Zola  the  the must  poverty  sense  of  isolation  have e x p e r i e n c e d  as  and an  adolescent: During long years a f t e r h i s f a t h e r ' s death, Zola, as a child and youth, suffered from poverty, p o v e r t y almost amounting t o a c t u a l s t a r v a t i o n , the terrible poverty of r e s p e c t a b i l i t y . The whole temper o f h i s work and h i s o u t l o o k on t h e w o r l d are clearly conditioned by this prolonged s t a r v a t i o n of a d o l e s c e n c e . The t i m i d and r e s e r v e d youth—for such, i t i s said, has been Zola's c h a r a c t e r b o t h i n y o u t h and manhood--was s h u t up with his fresh energies i n a garret while the panorama o f t h e P a r i s w o r l d was u n f o l d e d below him. Forced both by circumstances and by temperament t o p r a c t i s e t h e s t r i c t e s t c h a s t i t y and s o b r i e t y , t h e r e was b u t one i n d u l g e n c e l e f t open to him, an o r g y o f v i s i o n . Of t h i s , as we r e a d his b o o k s , we c a n n o t d o u b t t h a t he f u l l y a v a i l e d h i m s e l f , f o r e a c h volume o f t h e Rouqon-Macquart s e r i e s i s an o r g y o f m a t e r i a l v i s i o n . Having harshness  experienced of  "segregationist"  both  indigence, who  warns  the comforts Zola against  of  success  becomes the  dangers  an  and  the  erotic  inherent  in  140 interclass  sexuality.  e m b o u r g e o i s e m e n t, psychosexual segregation of  both  Both  we  find  stance  with  classes  the p r o l e t a r i a t  trapped,  t h e former  passions  blindly paralysed  sterility, personal  the  stark  symbolic  money, f o o d , whereas  amid  by t h e t y r a n n y  adultery  and  incest,  are  a l l fundamental  exist  est  bien,  conclure dans  also  equations  t o make money;  of  or procreate.  que  while These  and i t i s f o r  l e discours  Germinal,  the  lives to  t o make l o v e ,  d i f f e r e n c e s of ideology  "on p e u t  novel  t h e gourmet b o u r g e o i s  o n l y make l o v e t o " e x i s t "  that  and  makes money t o e x i s t ,  exists  the oppressed  symbolic  order.  The p r o l e t a r i a t  while  heated  and t h e  to  i n the complicated  to live,  of  neglect,  anti-eroticism leading  capitalist  Germinal.  are irremediably  crushing  of  by members  in  expression  repressed  sexualite  faced  d i f f e r e n c e s i n Zola's  the  reason  this  class-based  and, f i n a l l y ,  this  Nonetheless,  and d e s c r i b e d  enslaved  perversions  and s e x .  eats  this  the bourgeoisie  satisfied  the bourgeois  plebeian eat;  group  personal  to reconcile  t h e dilemma  analyzed  an  underwent  life.  repression of the highest  The find  h i s own  and  by  Zola  i t difficult  neatly encapsulates  social  latter  Since  un  sur l a  discours  ideologique. Between t h e e x a g g e r a t e d e x t r e m e s o f c l a s s e s i n c o n f l i c t lies  Zola's  Etienne achieve their  own  Lantier  erotic and  ideal,  Constance  principally and  Toussaint  h e r o i c s t a t u s by r e p u d i a t i n g b o t h working-class  peers  and  the  as  embodied  Maheu.  in They  the p r o m i s c u i t y of  a n t i - e r o t i c i s m of the  141 bourgeoisie. ground, comes  a  They  symbolic  close  social  to  systems—is  directly  For  h i s age,  been our is  why  we  The  Zola  i n the  was  Hemming's c o n c l u s i o n  erotic  which This  of to  only  middle  Catherine  bridging  two  of  divergent  Etienne's of  the value  lust his  far-reaching  for near  implications  novel.  a revolutionary  t h e s i s a l l throughout  must r e p u d i a t e  an  results  ultimately  character  underlying  in  attributable  have  other  act  overlap  knowledge.  every  straddle  successful.  erotic  embourgeoisement for  balancing  being  gulf—the  political  successfully  writer. this  statements t o the  That  has  e s s a y , and  contrary,  such  it as  that:  G e r m i n a l , i n s h o r t , i s n e i t h e r a r e v o l u t i o n a r y nor a reactionary work; remaining carefully and intentionally n e u t r a l , Zola left unexamined the f u l l p o l i t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e of the s o c i a l issues he r a i s e d , w h i l e he made t h e i r existence, and gravity, blindingly clear. It is arguable, however, that in 1885 the mere exposure and g r a p h i c p o r t r a y a l of s o c i a l i n j u s t i c e c o n s t i t u t e d in i t s e l f a revolutionary act. It  i s not  only  that  accounts  for  its  the  gripping  graphic  of  reputation  novels  i n French  working-class  literary  portrayal  overwhelming  revolutionary—both  treatment novel's  for  well-deserved  profoundly Zola's  Zola's  of  social  success as  of  one  and  eroticism  which  d u r a b i l i t y and  Germinal of  literature.  literally  power.  injustice  the  and most  It i s also  figurativelyexplains  the  142  CONCLUSION In  the  end,  Germinal future  there i s  has  some  victory.  classic  love  as  of  and  the  true  like the most  every  great  cosmos  left  permeative  synthesis  is  of  an  own  and  should  come  as  equally  fascinated  pas  la  puissance,  la  en  of  i s the  there  be  beyond  the  patriarchy,  of  Zolian victory Eros  and  nevertheless.  and  as  s u c h must  i n h i s own  image  and  is  recreate  fashion.  that  human  of  Zola's  union,  neurosis, repulsed in  the  animal.  s u r e l y used h i s w r i t i n g s  surprise.  and  volupte,  of  Zola,  k e e n l y - f e l t f r u s t r a t i o n s and  tant  of  may  redemption:  Thanatos i n the  Krakowski  chair,  defeat  text  i s a god,  no  of—pervasive  with  erotic  s e x u a l i t y , Zola  because  concur  It  human  creative  compensate f o r h i s own this  of  image  E r o s and  In terms of  denouement  behind.  artist,  in his  in  revolution,  machismo. source  Germinal  even  the  v i c t o r y i s profound, going class  of  T h a n a t o s have been Yet  Although  ambiguity,  This  notions  subjugation,  hope.  But Zola by  concluding  que  telle,  qui  se  human that  mais  leve  worries;  despite—or in  the  end  ne  i l attaque  contre  perhaps seems  eroticism.  "Zola  la  to  We  condamne sa  justice,  toute qui  143 aveugle et r e d u i t l ' e t r e that  enables  heritage  the  of  Etienne  "different";  besoin  la  the  the de  Etienne dans  it  only  through  is  de  mort"  vie":  make  epiphany of  existence.  Zolian  but  pure  doctrine  viewed  from is  s e x u a l i t y as the  ultimate  mutual We Insofar  On  love of must as  Etienne's profoundly The  the  erotic  Zolian  epic  and that  a  fusion  a of  as  "faire  in  a  in  Zola's much o f  the  just  erotic freedom  sexuality.  Love  bourgeois  and  shown between mother this  de  narrow  living,  both  i s more  becomes  than  fertilization  gift  of  animal  just of  teaching  are v i t a l  sythesis the  tout,  and the  people.  Eros  s i n c e they  de  Ils  c h a s t i t y i s not  Germinal,  its  and  is  not  freedom through  represents  Zola  l i f e,  advocacy  of  shoots  fois.  become  Instead,  and  jungle  that  derniere  a f f i r m a t i o n of  felt  is  freedom, " l ' o b s t i n e  liberator—for as  leadership  sociological,  make  the  scale  remember  "erotic"  to  simple.  i t i s of  education  love  has  redemptive  as  a planet  for  of  and  proletarian—especially child.  is  concept  be  Catherine  Darwinian  is  l a v i e une  i n the  anti-eroticism, may  tolerates  s ' a i m e r e n t dans l e d e s e s p o i r  love  sense,  The  it  f o r human  de  as  i s love  evolutionary  that  the  " F a i r e l'amour"  procreative  his  love  razes  thrive; drive  (490).  to  transcend is  that  faire  Catherine  a n i m a l i t e . I t  "different",  love  fittest  vivre,  to it  is  indomitable  and  la  human a n i m a l  beasthood;  difference—as  where  a sa p i r e  of and  coitus.  the  mind,  are  both  and  life-enriching.  the  mythic  the  and  vegetable,  the in  144 much  t h e same  achieving marriage Zola's large  o f melodrama  ideology, part  striking  female sexual  comparison. are  exclusive  the  by  such  of  an  contradictions i n  that  has  narrative  subtext  by Germina 1  have  and one o f i s that of  are the focal that  intimately  sensual  and  contrast, Zolian  men  point of  suffer in  connected sexual.  with Male  i s the  virtually  reduction  o f human  animality.  examined  and l a t e n t .  i n Zolian  portrayals  extent  more  stark  to violent  manifest  interpretation:  made  f o r the brutal  essay  erotic  revolutionary  profoundly  way  instincts  ultimate  through the  and t e n s i o n  Women, i n f a c t ,  to  more  manifest  at  the i n t e r n a l text play a  the richness  impressions  power.  focus  This  Thus,  within  Women, as b e i n g  sexuality,  the  and r e l i g i o n  and p o e t r y .  most  eroticism  reading:  of science  attempt  famous.  most  erotic  i s h i s grand  i n furnishing  of Zola's  Gaea,  Germinal  or discord  One  Zolian  as  the concord  made t h e n o v e l  the  way  two  fundamental  levels  of  Our t h e s i s was t o i l l u m i n a t e  by p r o b i n g  i t s e r o t i c latency.  The  i r o n y , when a l l i s s a i d and done, i s t h a t itself  the reading  gives  way  of love.  to a further  amorous  145 NOTES David  I  for  Bellos,  "From  the  Bowels  of  15  (1979)  :  Modern Language S t u d i e s ,  the  Earth,"  Forum  43.  2 Northrop Princeton  UP,  Frye,  1957)  The  Anatomy  of  Criticism  (Princeton:  181.  3 Eugene 13  Nov.  1989  Linden, :  "How  the  Earth  Maintains  Life,"  Time  114.  4 F. Clarendon  W.  J.  Press,  Hemmings, 1966)  Emile  Zola,  2nd  ed. ,  (Oxford:  109.  5 Rachelle Archetypal  A.  Study  Rosenberg, of  Zola's  "The  Slaying  Germinal,"  of  the  Symposium  Dragon: 26  An  (1972) :  357 . ^  Colin  Arnold, 7  Smethurst,  1974)  38.  Bellos  37.  Zola:  Germinal  (London:  Edward  o M a a r t e n Van De  l a m e t a p h o r e au  B u u r e n , Les mythe  Rougon-Macquart d ' E m i l e  (Paris: Librairie  Jose C o r t i ,  Zola: 1986)  103. 9 C. The  G.  Jung,  Politics  1984)  Human  in  Germaine G r e e r ,  Fertility  (London:  Sex  and  Seeker  &  Destiny: Warburg,  36. 1  0  Function I  salut  of  qtd.  I  Carol of Jean  S.  Fuller,  "The  Symbolic  J e a n l i n , " F r e n c h Review 54.1 Borie,  Zola  et  and  (Oct.  l e s m y t h e s : Ou,  De  ( P a r i s : E d i t i o n s du S e u i l , 1971) 81. 12 13 EF mr ia ln ec i sZ o lS. a , Heck, q t d . i"Love n S m e t and h u r s tWomen 22. i n How  Structural  1980)  :  62.  l a nausee  au  Green i s  my  146 Valley  and  Germinal,"  Research  S t u d i e s 48.1  (1980)  :  58.  14 Richard Study  of  1972)  i t s Primary  Sources  Sandy P e t r e y ,  5  3 (1973) 1  6  1  7  Van  Critical K.  Zakarian,  Zola's  Germinal:  A  (Geneve: L i b r a i r i e  Critical  Droz S.  A.,  113. 1  III,  H.  Hall  "Obscenity  and  Revolution,"  Diacritics  : 25.  Buuren  134.  Havelock  Ellis,  Essays  Emile  on  & Co.,  1986)  "Zola:  The  Man  Z o l a , ed. David  and  his  Baguley  Work,"  (Boston:  G.  71.  18 Henri Cahiers 1  Mitterand,  naturalistes Carol  9  Century  S.  French  42  "Germinal  (1971)  Fuller,  S t u d i e s X,  "The  :  et  les ideologies,"  143.  Infertile  1-2  Les  (1981-82)  Rabbit," :  Nineteenth  342.  20 Chantal naturalistes  Jennings,  46  (1973)  :  "Zola  feministe?"  Les  Cahiers  18.  21 Emile f a b r i q u e de  Zola,  qtd.  Germinal  in Colette  (Paris:  Becker,  Emile  Z o l a : La  Editions  S e d e s , 1986)  55.  theme du  S o u t e r r a i n chez Z o l a , "  22 Auguste Dezalay, E u r o p e 468-69  (avril-mai  "Le  1968)  : 110-21.  23 Essays  Naomi S c h o r , "Mother's Day: Z o l a ' s Women," C r i t i c a l on E m i l e Z o l a , e d . D a v i d B a g u l e y ( B o s t o n : G. K. H a l l  & Co.,  1986)  136.  24 Anna  Krakowski,  l'oeuvre d'Emile  Zola  La  (Paris:  condition A.-G.  de  la  N i z e t , 1974)  femme  dans  248.  25 Jules Emile  Z o l a , ed.  Lemaitre, and  "Emile  Zola,"  Critical  t r a n s . David  Baguley  (Boston:  Essays G.  K.  on Hall  147 & Co., 1986)  59.  Henri mimetique: (1973)  :  Mitterand,  l e s personnages  "Fonction  narrative  de G e r m i n a l , "  et  fonction  Poetique  I V , 16  483.  27 Van  B u u r e n 184.  28 Female 19  May  1874.  accepted 2  underground The  as b e i n g  3 0  Fuller,  3  1  Smethurst  3  2  Schor,  chronology  l a b o r was banned of  Germinal  i n France  i s generally  1866-67.  Krakowski  9  mine  16-17.  " R a b b i t " 343. 44.  "Women" 140.  33 Some Sodom  modern  and Gomorrha  reason  consider violent  f o r Jehovah's  exegeses of t h i s 3  interpretations  4  retribution.  of the d e s t r u c t i o n of inhospitality Suffice  t o be t h e  i t t o say  the  O l d Testament passage a r e m u l t i p l e .  Van B u u r e n 187.  35 Van  B u u r e n 82.  Emile Betrayed  Zola,  q t d . i n John  C.  Lapp,  and t h e F a t a l Woman," PMLA LXXIV  a l s o Laupts,  A l a memoire d ' E m i l e  Zola  "The W a t c h e r  (1959)  : 282. See  ( L y o n : Rey, 1907)  10.  • 37  Philippe Poetique  Lejeune,  "La C o t e - V e r t e  et l e Tartaret,"  X, 40 (1979) 481.  38 See "Un e p i s o d e i n c o n n u de l ' e n f a n c e d ' E m i l e Z o l a , " M e r c u r e de F r a n c e , 1 March 1929, 508. 39 . . . . See L o u i s - L a u r e n t S i m o n i n , L a V i e s o u t e r r a i n e , ou l e s mines e t l e s m i n e u r s ( P a r i s : 1 8 6 7 ) . S i m i l a r phenomena  148 have  been  Hill,  reported  i n S a i n t - E t i e n n e , France,  Staffordshire,  and  i n Burning  England.  40 Henri  Mitterand,  Presses u n i v e r s i t a i r e s  de  Zola  et  France,  le  naturalisme  1986)  (Paris:  100.  41 Hugh  Kenner,  Review 27 Aug. 42  „ Greer  1989,  "Mazes,"  qtd.  i n New  Book  43. . -  Docteur maladies,  les  Times  31.  43  qtd.  York  in  des  H.  a c c i d e n t s e t des  Ida-Marie  mineurs  Boens-Boisseau,  Frandon,  (Lille:  diffprmites  Autour  Librairie  Traite  de  pratique des  houilleurs,  Germinal:  G i a r d , 1955)  des  La  Mine  et  98.  44 Differences expression Ireland, 4  5  of  and  in  birth  political  Israel,  rates  concerns  t o name b u t 44,  105,  a  Germinal  41,  Although  some r u d i m e n t a r y  have  in  led  to  Quebec,  the  Northern  few.  176.  46  have  been  France, clinic  available  i t was opened  Jacobs.  See  not  to  forms o f b i r t h  l e peuple  until  1879  i n mid-nineteenth  that  the  first  may  century  birth  i n Amsterdam under t h e d i r e c t i o n Greer  control  control  o f Dr.  Aletta  356.  47 4  8  Zakarian  115.  Germinal  215-230.  49 Petrey ^ and  For  more  extramarital  (London: until  24.  Weidenfeld  1889—four  detailed  discussion  fulfillment  see  Joanna  & N i c o l s o n , 1978) years  after  the  of  Zola's  Richardson,  127-30. I t initial  intra-  was  publication  Zola not of  149 Germinal--that  Zola  and  Jeanne  Rozerot  became  romantically  involved. 5  1  Smethurst  50.  Rosenberg  352.  52 5  Philip  3  (1959)  Walker,  "Prophetic  myths i n Z o l a , " PMLA LXXIV  : 447.  54 Smethurst 5  5  Frandon  5  6  Borie  5  7  Bellos  32.  99-100.  17. 43.  58 Van  Buuren  113.  59 6  0  Hemmings, 2nd e d . 205. Elliott M. G r a n t , Z o l a ' s  Historical  Study  Germinal: A  ( L e i c e s t e r : L e i c e s t e r UP,  Critical  1962)  and  18.  61 See and b e h a v i o r A.  Beach,  (Baltimore: Wiseman, Row,  The  Anne  McCreary  Juhasz,  (Homewood, I l l i n o i s : ed. ,  Human  Johns Social  Dorsey P r e s s ,  Sexuality  Hopkins  UP,  Psychology  2  Ellis  6  3  Mitterand,  of  67. "Ideologie"  64 Hemmings, 2nd 6  5  Krakowski  69.  ed.  209.  in  1976);  197 6 ). 6  ed. , Sexual  151.  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