UBC Theses and Dissertations

UBC Theses Logo

UBC Theses and Dissertations

Similarities and differences in perceptions held by secondary art teachers, secondary art students and… Pentland, Kathleen Ann 1990

Your browser doesn't seem to have a PDF viewer, please download the PDF to view this item.

Item Metadata

Download

Media
831-UBC_1990_A8 P46.pdf [ 4.9MB ]
Metadata
JSON: 831-1.0055103.json
JSON-LD: 831-1.0055103-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 831-1.0055103-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: 831-1.0055103-rdf.json
Turtle: 831-1.0055103-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 831-1.0055103-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 831-1.0055103-source.json
Full Text
831-1.0055103-fulltext.txt
Citation
831-1.0055103.ris

Full Text

SIMILARITIES AND DIFFERENCES IN PERCEPTIONS HELD BY SECONDARY ART TEACHERS, SECONDARY ART STUDENTS AND ANIMATORS ON THE ROLE AND CHARACTER OF ANIMATION IN ART EDUCATION by KATHLEEN ANN PENTLAND B.A. U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1980 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Department of V i s u a l and Performing A r t s i n E d u c a t i o n We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming t o the r e q u i r e d standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA J u l y , 1990 © KATHLEEN ANN PENTLAND, 1990 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada DE-6 (2/88) ABSTRACT The purpose of t h i s study was t o d i s c o v e r s i m i l a r i t i e s and d i f f e r e n c e s i n o p i n i o n s h e l d by secondary a r t t e a c h e r s , secondary a r t students and animators on the r o l e and c h a r a c t e r of animation i n a r t education. The problem was t o determine whether the r e l a t i v e n e g l e c t of animation as a p a r t of the a r t c u r r i c u l u m has come about because the techniques and concepts a s s o c i a t e d w i t h i t are seen as d i f f i c u l t and/or unnecessary t o implement by t e a c h e r s ; or whether students are u n f a m i l i a r and u n i n t e r e s t e d i n animation as a f i e l d of study; or whether animation, i n the o p i n i o n of p r o f e s s i o n a l animators, i s not a s u i t a b l e s u b j e c t f o r study. The study was conducted with f i v e secondary a r t t e a c h e r s , nine secondary a r t students and th r e e p r o f e s s i o n a l animators. Informants responded v e r b a l l y t o q u e s t i o n s posed by the r e s e a r c h e r . These responses were documented on a tape r e c o r d e r and l a t e r t r a n s c r i b e d f o r a n a l y s i s . Responses from the informants generated data r e l a t i n g t o f i v e areas of animation: 1 ) d e f i n i n g animation, 2 ) potent images, 3 ) p o p u l a r c u l t u r e , 4 ) c a r e e r s and 5 ) backgrounds. i i The study showed t h a t although animation i s a p a r t of s t u d e n t s 1 popular c u l t u r e and students are i n t e r e s t e d i n i t , t e a c h e r s are not c u r r e n t l y t e a c h i n g i t . T e c h n i c a l d i f f i c u l t i e s prevent them from doing so, d e s p i t e the f a c t t h a t they acknowledge animation as an important a r t form. The ot h e r f i n d i n g s i n t h i s study are t h a t both t e a c h e r s and stud e n t s are o f t e n not c o n s c i o u s l y aware t h a t they are watching animation; and t h a t t h e r e are many misconceptions and p r e j u d i c e s a s s o c i a t e d with the medium. I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r a r t education are d i s c u s s e d . i i i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I would s i n c e r e l y l i k e t o thank Ron MacGregor f o r a l l h i s time, p a t i e n c e , kindness and guidance t h a t he so g r a c i o u s l y o f f e r e d me. I would a l s o l i k e t o thank Theo Goldberg and K i t Grauer f o r bei n g a p a r t of my committee and o f f e r i n g t h e i r time and su g g e s t i o n s . I would a l s o l i k e t o thank Don Bergland and R i t a I r w i n f o r t h e i r h e l p and e f f o r t s d u r i n g the i n i t i a l stages of t h i s t h e s i s . I a l s o thank Jim Gray f o r h i s years of a d v i c e and h e l p of g e t t i n g me through the bureaucracy and r e d tape. i v TABLE OF CONTENTS A b s t r a c t i i Acknowledgements i v Ta b l e of Contents v L i s t of T a b l e s v i i L i s t of F i g u r e s v i i i Chapter I. I n t r o d u c t i o n t o the Study 1 A. I n t r o d u c t i o n 1 B. Statement of the Problem 2 C. Purpose of the Study 3 D. J u s t i f i c a t i o n 3 E. Research Questions 6 F. Design of the Study 7 1. Sample 7 2. S e t t i n g 8 3. Methods of Data C o l l e c t i o n and A n a l y s i s 8 4. L i m i t a t i o n s 8 5. D e l i m i t a t i o n s 9 6. D e f i n i t i o n s 9 Chapter I I . Review of the L i t e r a t u r e 14 Chapter I I I . Conduct of the Study 30 A. Sample 30 B. S e t t i n g 31 C. Procedure 31 D. Methods of Data C o l l e c t i o n 3 3 E. Methods of Data A n a l y s i s 3 3 F. P r e l i m i n a r y E x p l o r a t i o n s 33 Chapter IV. A n a l y s i s of the R e s u l t s 37 A. I n t r o d u c t i o n 37 B. Category I: D e f i n i n g Animation 37 C. Category I I : Potent Images 47 D. Category I I I : Popular C u l t u r e s 53 E. Category IV: Careers 62 F. Category V: Backgrounds 70 G. Summary 76 1. D e f i n i n g Animation 77 2. Potent Images 77 3. Popular C u l t u r e 78 4. Careers 78 5. Backgrounds 79 v Chapter V. I n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the R e s u l t s 81 A. I n t r o d u c t i o n 81 B. Category I: D e f i n i n g Animation 81 C. Category I I : Potent Images 85 D. Category I I I : Popular C u l t u r e 89 E. Category IV: Careers 92 F. Category V: Backgrounds 95 G. Summary 97 Chapter VI. Summary and Conclusions 99 I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r A r t Education 104 References 108 Appendix A 115 Appendix B 117 v i LIST OF TABLES Ta b l e 1 S u b j e c t s v i i LIST OF FIGURES F i g u r e 1 How would you d e f i n e animation? 37 2 Can you name or d e s c r i b e d i f f e r e n t s t y l e s of animation? 39 3 Can you g i v e me s p e c i f i c examples of where animation i s used today? 41 4 Why do you t h i n k these memories are potent? 48 5 How have cartoon c h a r a c t e r s i n f l u e n c e d your l i f e s i n c e your childhood? 53 6 Imagine our c u l t u r e without the i n v e n t i o n of animation. How would our l i v e s be d i f f e r e n t ? 58 7 What c a r e e r s do you t h i n k t h a t an animation background would h e l p prepare a student f o r ? 62 8 What e d u c a t i o n a l background do you t h i n k t h a t a student would need who wanted to become an animator? 67 v i i i CHAPTER I. INTRODUCTION TO THE STUDY A. INTRODUCTION An important d e s i r e d outcome of a r t e d u c a t i o n i s t o have st u d e n t s become v i s u a l l y l i t e r a t e . The a p p l i c a t i o n s of such a statement are very broad. For example, some stu d e n t s w i l l be t a k i n g a r t simply because i t i s enjoyable, and they view a r t as a hobby. Others w i l l want a c a r e e r such as commercial a r t , i l l u s t r a t i o n or s p e c i a l e f f e c t s i n f i l m . Some may want t o become p r a c t i s i n g a r t i s t s . Then t h e r e are those students who take a r t simply because they were p l a c e d t h e r e . In any a r t room the t a l e n t s and o b j e c t i v e s of each student w i l l v ary t o the extremes. Therefore, a ph i l o s o p h y f o r a r t e d u c a t i o n ought t o be broad enough t o i n c l u d e a wide range of o b j e c t i v e s . V i s u a l l i t e r a c y can pr o v i d e such a framework. V i s u a l l y l i t e r a t e students are ab l e t o make c h o i c e s based on knowledge r a t h e r than ignorance ( L a n i e r , 1980). "The purpose of a r t t e a c h i n g i s the l i t e r a t e c i t i z e n , one who i s a f f e c t i o n a t e l y knowledgeable about a l l the v i s u a l a r t s of p a s t and pr e s e n t and of oth e r c u l t u r e s and our own." ( L a n i e r , 1980, p.19). Although the author agrees with L a n i e r ' s view of v i s u a l l y l i t e r a t e c i t i z e n s , the author does not support h i s d i a l o g i c c u r r i c u l u m a t the expense of the s t u d i o c u r r i c u l u m . 1 I n t r o d u c t i o n t o the Study/2 A e s t h e t i c l i t e r a c y i s u s u a l l y promoted as a means t o p r o v i d e students w i t h the t o o l s t o b e t t e r d e a l w i t h the a r t i n t h e i r p e r s o n a l l i v e s . T h i s forms p a r t of t h e i r p o p u l a r c u l t u r e . Animation c o n t r i b u t e s t o students' popular c u l t u r e i n the areas o f a d v e r t i s i n g , t e l e v i s i o n , movies, rock v i d e o s , v i d e o games, T - s h i r t s , p o s t e r s , e t c . and as such, becomes an a r t form worthy of study w i t h i n popular c u l t u r e . Yet i t i s u n l i k e l y t h a t many a r t teach e r s are a d d r e s s i n g animation s u f f i c i e n t l y i n t h e i r programs. An understanding of the b e l i e f s , v a l u e s and assumptions of a r t t e a c h e r s , a r t students and animators on the r o l e and c h a r a c t e r of animation i n a r t e d u c a t i o n may b e t t e r i l l u m i n a t e the s u b j e c t . By showing what i s t he case, the study may c o n t r i b u t e t o p o l i c y making and the es t a b l i s h m e n t of aims f o r the f i e l d . B. STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM At the end of the t w e n t i e t h century, animation p r o v i d e s some of the most powerful and popular images i n the v i s u a l v o c a b u l a r y of the p u b l i c a t l a r g e . Yet i t i s an area t h a t i s r e l a t i v e l y n e g l e c t e d i n the secondary a r t programs of p u b l i c s c h o o l s . The problem i s t o determine whether t h i s r e l a t i v e n e g l e c t has come about because the techniques and concepts a s s o c i a t e d with animation are seen as d i f f i c u l t and/or unnecessary t o implement by t e a c h e r s ; or whether students are u n f a m i l i a r and u n i n t e r e s t e d i n animation as a f i e l d o f study; I n t r o d u c t i o n t o the Study/3 or whether animation, i n the o p i n i o n of p r o f e s s i o n a l animators, i s not a s u i t a b l e s u b j e c t f o r s c h o o l study. C. PURPOSE OF THE STUDY The purpose of t h i s r e s e a r c h study i s t o address t h a t problem and t o p r o v i d e evidence with regard t o the b e l i e f s , v a l u e s and assumptions of secondary a r t te a c h e r s , secondary a r t students and p r o f e s s i o n a l animators on the t o p i c of animation. The c o l l e c t e d data w i l l e l u c i d a t e s i m i l a r i t i e s and d i f f e r e n c e s between these groups. I t i s hoped t h a t t h i s study w i l l c l a r i f y the needs and b e l i e f s of each t a r g e t group and the c u r r e n t s t a t u s of animation as an a r t form. An i n v e s t i g a t i o n t h a t a s sesses c u r r e n t a t t i t u d e s i n animation can make a c o n t r i b u t i o n towards p o l i c i e s and p r o s p e c t s t h a t may be used t o b r i n g about a more comprehensive secondary a r t program. D. JUSTIFICATION The j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r t h i s study i s an urgent one. I t p e r t a i n s t o mass media, popular c u l t u r e and the r e l a t i o n s h i p t h a t animation has with both of them. Today North American s o c i e t y i s bombarded with imagery t h a t i s e i t h e r e n t i r e l y or p a r t i a l l y animated. More p a r t i c u l a r l y , s t u d e n t s ' p o p u l a r c u l t u r e i s f i r m l y entrenched i n the mass media. T h i s mass media has "become a primary i n s t i t u t i o n f o r h o l d i n g s o c i e t y t o g e t h e r no l e s s important than government, e d u c a t i o n and law" I n t r o d u c t i o n t o the Study/4 ( L a n i e r , 1982, p.110). L a n i e r wrote t h a t mass media are abso r b i n g a r t forms a n d . . . t h i s power g i v e s them a unique a b i l i t y t o i n f l u e n c e our a t t i t u d e s and id e a s about the world. Therefore, we sh o u l d be c a r e f u l t o examine what these media are t e l l i n g us, whether we are watching a commercial...or a motion p i c t u r e (1982, p.113). Bregman b e l i e v e s t h a t an animation c l a s s would be m o t i v a t i n g and r e l e v a n t t o students simply because of the many hours a c h i l d spends watching t e l e v i s i o n (1977). Johnson p o i n t s out t h a t i n 1949 over 80% of the broadcast audience l i s t e n e d t o r a d i o , and t h a t by 1950 over 40% were watching t e l e v i s i o n (1981). W r i t i n g i n 1977, he f u r t h e r s t a t e s t h a t by the time of g r a d u a t i o n , a student has watched 15,000 hours of t e l e v i s i o n compared t o 12,000 hours of c l a s s time (Johnson, 1981). Jim P i c k e r , an academy award winner f o r h i s c l a y animated f i l m Sundae i n New York, t r a c e s h i s i n t e r e s t i n animation back t o h i s youth, where such c h a r a c t e r s as Gumby and D a f f y Duck were a p a r t of h i s l i f e ( K i r k p a t r i c k , 1984). T a x e l b e l i e v e s t h a t the essence of c u l t u r e i s t o be found i n both the i n t e l l e c t u a l and m a t e r i a l symbols of s o c i e t y (1982). Furthermore, "many a n t h r o p o l o g i s t s . . . b e l i e v e t h a t people i n a l l s o c i e t i e s are more l i k e l y t o respond t o c u l t u r a l symbols r a t h e r than o b j e c t i v e r e a l i t y " (1982, p.23). T h i s view i s r e i n f o r c e d by the extent t h a t animated propaganda f i l m s i n f l u e n c e d people d u r i n g World War I I . There has been "no such p a t r i o t i c f e r v o r l i v e or on f i l m . . . s i n c e then" Introduction to the Study/5 (Heraldson, 1975, p.62). Even though society r e a l i z e s that mass media present u n r e a l i s t i c images, Foster believes they s t i l l "have a serious subconscious e f f e c t on a person's image of r e a l i t y " (1979). He believes that the "camera always l i e s - or at best gives only a p a r t i a l truth" (Foster, 1979, p.18). To summarize: arguments by the theoreticians and p r a c t i t i o n e r s suggest that there i s much to be gained from having secondary art education include the study of animation, because i t plays a major r o l e i n the students' popular culture. Not only would i t be relevant and motivating, i t i s a necessity. Students must learn to r e a l l y "see" and become c r i t i c a l thinkers, so that they can make informed choices. The a l t e r n a t i v e i s to accept b l i n d l y the c o n f l i c t i n g and often s e l f - s e r v i n g messages of whoever controls the medium at any one time. J u s t i f i c a t i o n for t h i s study u t i l i z e s the "contextualist" point of view for i t s t h e o r e t i c a l underpinning. There are several features relevant here. The f i r s t of these i s that the contextualist view uses the student, not the a r t , as a s t a r t i n g point. About t h i s , Eisner wrote that the contextualist " u t i l i z e s the p a r t i c u l a r needs of the students or the society as a major basis for forming objectives" (1972, p. 2). Second, the goals and content of a r t are to be determined by the context, t h i s being the c h i l d , the community and the larger society (Eisner, 1972). And l a s t l y , the determined needs depend on a person's values. For example, I n t r o d u c t i o n t o the Study/6 two t e a c h e r s c o u l d assess the same s i t u a t i o n and come up w i t h completely d i f f e r e n t g o a l s and contents due t o t h e i r d i f f e r e n t v a l u e s . In s h o r t , the c o n t e x t u a l i s t v iewpoint t a k e s the p o s i t i o n t h a t a r t should be r e l e v a n t t o the stu d e n t ' s l i f e e x p e r i e n c e . E. RESEARCH QUESTIONS T h i s study c o n s i s t s of one main r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n , t o g e t h e r w i t h f i v e subquestions. 1. What are the s i m i l a r i t i e s and d i f f e r e n c e s i n p e r c e p t i o n s h e l d by secondary a r t te a c h e r s , secondary a r t stu d e n t s and animators on the r o l e and c h a r a c t e r of animation i n a r t education? a. What are the s i m i l a r i t i e s and d i f f e r e n c e s i n p e r c e p t i o n s h e l d by secondary a r t teachers, secondary a r t stu d e n t s and animators w i t h i n the category: D e f i n i t i o n s ? b. What are the s i m i l a r i t i e s and d i f f e r e n c e s i n p e r c e p t i o n s h e l d by secondary a r t teachers, secondary a r t students and animators w i t h i n the category: Potent Images? c. What are the s i m i l a r i t i e s and d i f f e r e n c e s i n p e r c e p t i o n s h e l d by secondary a r t teachers, secondary a r t stu d e n t s and animators w i t h i n the category: Popular C u l t u r e ? I n t r o d u c t i o n t o the Study/7 d. What are the s i m i l a r i t i e s and d i f f e r e n c e s i n p e r c e p t i o n s h e l d by secondary a r t t e a c h e r s , secondary a r t s t u d e n t s and animators w i t h i n the category: Careers? e. What are the s i m i l a r i t i e s and d i f f e r e n c e s i n p e r c e p t i o n s h e l d by secondary a r t t e a c h e r s , secondary a r t s t u d e n t s , and animators w i t h i n the category: Backgrounds? F. DESIGN OF THE STUDY 1. Sample Three d i f f e r e n t groups comprised the sample t e s t e d . These i n c l u d e d secondary a r t t e a c h e r s , secondary a r t s t u d e n t s and p r o f e s s i o n a l animators. a. F i v e secondary a r t teachers, each from a d i f f e r e n t s c h o o l w i t h i n one s c h o o l d i s t r i c t . b. Nine secondary a r t students between the ages of f i f t e e n and e i g h t e e n , w i t h i n one s c h o o l d i s t r i c t . Two students a t each of f o u r s c h o o l s , and one student a t the f i f t h s c h o o l . c. Three p r o f e s s i o n a l animators, each working f o r a d i f f e r e n t company, w i t h i n one c i t y . I n t r o d u c t i o n t o the Study/8 2 . Setting The environment f o r each i n t e r v i e w was d i f f e r e n t . Teachers were i n t e r v i e w e d a f t e r s c h o o l i n t h e i r classroom, o f f i c e , or home w h i l e the students were i n t e r v i e w e d d u r i n g or a f t e r s c h o o l i n an empty classroom. The animators were i n t e r v i e w e d i n t h e i r o f f i c e s d u r i n g work hours. 3. Methods of Data C o l l e c t i o n and Analysis The c o n t e n t s of the i n t e r v i e w s were r e c o r d e d on a tape r e c o r d e r . F i e l d notes were a l s o taken d u r i n g each i n t e r v i e w . The tapes were t r a n s c r i b e d and a domain a n a l y s i s ( c f . Spradley, 198 0) was performed on the c o l l e c t e d d a t a . 4. Limitations T h i s study was l i m i t e d by a number of f a c t o r s . The f i r s t of thes e i s t h a t the a r t teachers s e l e c t e d the students t o be i n t e r v i e w e d . Next, two teachers chose not t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n the study, c a u s i n g two of seven p o s s i b l e s c h o o l s t o be e l i m i n a t e d , thus narrowing the scope of t h i s study. The l a s t l i m i t a t i o n has t o do with the students. One student f a i l e d t o appear f o r the i n t e r v i e w , while another was o n l y a v a i l a b l e f o r a l i m i t e d p e r i o d of time, and may not have p r o v i d e d a complete n a r r a t i v e . I n t r o d u c t i o n t o the Study/9 5 . D e l i m i t a t i o n s In the conduct of t h i s study, s e v e r a l d e l i m i t a t i o n s were adopted. F i r s t l y , a d e l i b e r a t e c h o i c e was made t o i n c l u d e o n l y one s c h o o l d i s t r i c t . Secondly, c h o i c e s were made w i t h r e g a r d t o who would be i n t e r v i e w e d . Teachers were s e l e c t e d on the b a s i s of t h e i r t e a c h i n g experience and the l i k e l i h o o d t h a t they had taught animation. Students were chosen who were s e n i o r and a r t i c u l a t e a r t majors, with a stake i n the v i s u a l a r t s . Animators were s e l e c t e d by how w e l l e s t a b l i s h e d t h e i r company was and how much p r o f i l e t h e i r f i l m s and companies had. 6. D e f i n i t i o n s Animation - The technique of c r e a t i n g movement i n inanimate o b j e c t s or drawings through the medium of f i l m or v i d e o . Animators - In the t e x t of t h i s t h e s i s , the term 'animators' r e f e r s t o 1) one f i l m maker who used t o be an animator but who now predominantly produces animated f i l m s ; 2) one f i l m maker who produces animated f i l m s , but doesn't have an animation background and does not c o n s i d e r h i m s e l f t o be an animator; and 3) one animator. C e l Animation - A t r a n s p a r e n t sheet of c e l l u l o s e a c e t a t e i s used as a support or o v e r l a y f o r drawings, l e t t e r i n g , e t c . ( S i l v a , 1979). I n t r o d u c t i o n t o the Study/10 C l a s s i c a l Animation - T h i s term a l s o r e f e r s t o f u l l - m o t i o n , f u l l animation, c h a r a c t e r animation or t r a d i t i o n a l animation. I t i s e x e m p l i f i e d by the Disney s t y l e of animation. T h i s s t y l e i s complete i n i t s c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n and complexity. Clavmation - T h i s i s a trademark name f o r what i s u s u a l l y known as c l a y or p l a s t i c i n e animation. Computer Animation - T h i s occurs when e l e c t r o n i c equipment c r e a t e s shapes and designs by ma n i p u l a t i n g i n p u t images. These i n p u t images can be r o l l e d , t w i s t e d , undulated, e t c . and then c o l o u r e d ( S i l v a , 1979). Computer Graphics - T h i s term d e s c r i b e s the g e n e r a t i o n of g r a p h i c imagery by a computer. T h i s i n c l u d e s f o u r areas of i n v e s t i g a t i o n : 1) g r a p h i c a l data a n a l y s i s , 2) g r a p h i c a l data s y n t h e s i s , 3) g r a p h i c a l data m a n i p u l a t i o n and 4) p a t t e r n r e c o g n i t i o n (Linehan, 1983). Cut-Out Animation - T h i s i s "a drawing or p a r t of a drawing t h a t i s made on t h i n i l l u s t r a t i o n board i n s t e a d of e e l s . I t can be p l a c e d on a background or used i n combination w i t h drawings or e e l s " ( S i l v a , 1979, p.141). I n t r o d u c t i o n t o the Study/11 Data - In computer animation, " o b j e c t s " w i t h i n the animation are c a l l e d data. These data are r e p r e s e n t e d w i t h i n the computer as a s e t of numbers. Dimensional Animation - T h i s i s the animation of t h r e e -d i m e n s i o n a l o b j e c t s . I t may a l s o be c a l l e d stop a c t i o n , stop frame or stop motion. T h i s i n c l u d e s c l a y , p l a s t i c i n e , c l a y m a t i o n , puppet, d o l l animation, or found o b j e c t s . F l i m s y Animation - T h i s i s a type of animation t h a t u t i l i z e s d i f f e r e n t r e n d e r i n g techniques on paper. T h i s i n c l u d e s c h a l k , p a s t e l , crayons, f e l t pens, c h a r c o a l , p e n c i l , p a i n t s , e t c . F l i p b o o k - T h i s occurs when drawings d e p i c t i n g motion are sequenced on paper. The pages are hand h e l d and ' f l i p p e d * i n one c o r n e r t o c r e a t e a sense of motion. Although the drawings may be f i l m e d , the term u s u a l l y r e f e r s t o manual viewing. L i m i t e d Animation - A technique i n which o n l y one p a r t of a c h a r a c t e r or s u b j e c t moves. I t i s f r e q u e n t l y r e f e r r e d t o as " i l l u s t r a t e d r a d i o " . Motion D e f i n i t i o n - In computer animation, once the data have been generated, the animators begin s e t t i n g the motion, o f t e n i n the form of a v e c t o r motion t e s t . I t i s used t o view o b j e c t s i n motion (McDevitt, 1986). I n t r o d u c t i o n t o the Study/12 P i x i l a t i o n - "A technique of s h o o t i n g l i v e a c t i o n a t v a r i o u s speeds from s i n g l e - f r a m e t o h a l f speed...that shows l i v i n g t h i n g s moving l i k e animated o b j e c t s " ( S i l v a , 1979, p.144). Real-Time - T h i s i s used i n video g r a p h i c s and v i d e o animation. By t h i s means, the a r t i s t can produce an image and view i t i n s t a n t a n e o u s l y without w a i t i n g f o r f i l m t o be p r o c e s s e d . S p e c i a l E f f e c t s - T h i s i s any shot t h a t i s u n o b t a i n a b l e by s t r a i g h t forward motion p i c t u r e techniques. They i n c l u d e "mechanical c o n t r i v a n c e s t h a t superimpose, bl e n d and o v e r p r i n t f i l m images one atop another" (Heraldson, 1975, p.168). Three-Dimensional Animation - In computer animation t h i s r e f e r s t o s e q u e n t i a l g r a p h i c a l images t h a t are composed of t h r e e - d i m e n s i o n a l " o b j e c t s " w i t h i n a t h r e e - d i m e n s i o n a l "world space" (Donkin, 1986). T r a d i t i o n a l Animation - T h i s i s g e n e r a l l y thought of as f u l l c h a r a c t e r animation t h a t i s complete i n i t s c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n and complexity. The imagery f o r t h i s k i n d of animation has not been produced by a computer. I n t r o d u c t i o n t o the Study/13 V e c t o r - T h i s term i s used i n r e f e r e n c e t o computer g r a p h i c s and animation. I t r e f e r s t o images comprised of contour l i n e s or w i r e frames. CHAPTER I I . REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE The l i t e r a t u r e review has been d i v i d e d i n t o seven c a t e g o r i e s . They ar e : 1) The H i s t o r y of Animation, 2) E l e c t r o n i c Images, 3) Research F i n d i n g s , 4) American Cinematography, 5) A r t E d u c a t i o n , 6) School A r t s , and 7) Secondary A r t Guide 8 - 1 2 . The History of Animation An h i s t o r i c a l review may h e l p the reader b e t t e r understand how animation a r r i v e d a t where i t i s today. The h i s t o r y of animation i s r e a l l y the h i s t o r y of f i l m and technology. S i l v a (1979) b e l i e v e s t h a t any study on the h i s t o r y of f i l m s t a r t s w i t h the cave p a i n t i n g s i n France and Spain, because the a r t i s t s were t r y i n g t o p o r t r a y a sense of movement. The f i r s t p r o j e c t e d hand drawing occ u r r e d i n 70 B.C. a c c o r d i n g t o L u c r e t e i u s (Heraldson, 1975). The f i r s t t r u l y animated image was produced by an i n v e n t i o n c a l l e d a magic l a n t e r n i n 1736 by a Dutch s c i e n t i s t ( S i l v a , 1979) . T h i s was the forerunner of the modern s l i d e p r o j e c t o r . But i t was not u n t i l 1824 t h a t the p e r s i s t e n c e of v i s i o n t h e o r y was born. A l s o , i n t h a t same year, the f i r s t photograph was produced. 14 Review of the L i t e r a t u r e / 1 5 In 1829, a s c i e n t i s t / a r t i s t invented the phenakistoscope. T h i s was a mechanism where p i c t u r e s were p l a c e d on a s p i n n i n g d i s c t o g i v e the i l l u s i o n of motion. Soon, major c i t i e s around the world had v a r i a t i o n s of t h i s i n v e n t i o n , such as the animatoscope or zoetrope. Next, due t o the commercial success of the phenakistoscope, the f i r s t p a r l o u r t h e a t r e was opened i n P a r i s . The next major i n v e n t i o n occurred i n 1888, when Fri e s e - G r e e n e i n v e n t e d the motion p i c t u r e camera. However, i t was E d i s o n who p e r f e c t e d i t (Heraldson, 1975). During t h i s same time, Eastman in v e n t e d motion p i c t u r e f i l m . Simultaneously, w h i l e cameras and f i l m were being invented, t h e r e was the i n t r o d u c t i o n of the f i r s t comic a r t . Joseph P u l i t z e r headed the "New York World" newspaper and bought a f o u r c o l o u r r o t a r y p r e s s t o p r i n t r e p r o d u c t i o n s of famous artworks i n h i s p u b l i c a t i o n . For t e c h n i c a l reasons, t h i s was not p o s s i b l e and the p r e s s was used t o c o l o u r i z e i l l u s t r a t i o n s i n s t e a d . T h i s form of imagery became very popular. T h i s i s important f o r two reasons: f i r s t l y , t h i s was the b i r t h of a new a r t s t y l e t h a t was popular; and secondly, t h e r e was now a new group of i l l u s t r a t o r s c a l l e d comic s t r i p a r t i s t s . I t was t h i s group t h a t became the f i r s t animators, between 1900 - 1910. Review of the L i t e r a t u r e / 1 6 E x a c t l y who produced the f i r s t animated f i l m i s u n c l e a r . H eraldson b e l i e v e s t h a t i t was Cohl i n P a r i s (1975) and S i l v a t h i n k s t h a t i t was the American O u t c a l t (1979) . The f i r s t a n imation s t u d i o and the f i r s t s t u d i o animated s e r i e s were produced and made i n 1913. Now i t was time f o r the f i r s t s t a r i n animation. T h i s was F e l i x the Cat and he was the h o t t e s t c a r t o o n s t a r of the 1920's, p a r a l l e l i n g the a n t i c s o f C h a p l i n and Keaton ( S i l v a , 1979). However, by 1929, F e l i x ' s c a r e e r was over w i t h the i n v e n t i o n of sound. Disney d e v i s e d the a c t u a l t i m i n g system t o be used i n the f i r s t sound animation, Steamboat W i l l i e . By 1932, Disney had a l s o produced the f i r s t c o l o u r f i l m . I t i s important t o note t h a t animation was f i r s t used as a f i l l e r and a d v e r t i s i n g v e h i c l e f o r s i l e n t movies. When the f i l m i n d u s t r y began, th e r e were no t h e a t r e s , so f i l m s were shown i n whatever p l a c e c o u l d be found. The f i r s t animated f i l m s were made with speed i n mind and not a r t i s t i c m e r i t . However, animation q u i c k l y evolved i n t o a h i g h l y s k i l l e d and marketable e n t e r p r i s e . Short and medium len g t h animated f i l m s were produced d u r i n g the 1930's and 1940*s. The most important f i l m of t h i s time was Snow White (1937) due t o i t s " t e c h n i c a l achievements and t i m e l y a r r i v a l d u r i n g the d e p r e s s i o n " (Heraldson, 1975). T h i s p e r i o d i s known as the 'Golden Age' of Hollywood. In Review of the L i t e r a t u r e / 1 7 the 1940's, animation was used as a propaganda t o o l t o h e l p the war e f f o r t . T h i s was a time when t h e r e was a s i n g l e n e s s of f o c u s . The 1940's was a l s o a time when animators r e a c t e d a g a i n s t the Disney s t y l e and began branching o f f i n d i f f e r e n t d i r e c t i o n s . In the 1950's, t e l e v i s i o n became a p a r t of our c u l t u r e . I t had been i n v e n t e d i n 1925, but due t o the d e p r e s s i o n , i t was not pursued u n t i l years l a t e r . At t h i s time, r e c e n t box o f f i c e f a i l u r e s became Saturday morning c a r t o o n s , w h i l e o l d f i l m s were chopped f o r t e l e v i s i o n . New companies were pr o d u c i n g animated f i l m s i n s t y l e s d i f f e r e n t from the Disney s t y l e . The Disney s t u d i o s had turned t o producing l i v e - a c t i o n f i l m s t o save money. T h i s time i s viewed as a low p e r i o d f o r animation. "Some T.V. cartoon programs no more resembled animated cartoons than a s l i d e show resembles a motion p i c t u r e " (Heraldson, 1975, p.82). By the 1970*s d i f f e r e n t animation s t y l e s and s p e c i f i c t e c h n i q u e s had been developed. S i l v a (1979) c i t e s s e v e r a l d i f f e r e n t animation s t y l e s : 1) photographic, 2) t h r e e -d i m e n s i o n a l , 3) o b j e c t s , 4) puppet, 5) paper c u t - o u t s , 6) s l i d e , 7) computer and 8) c e l . A l s o i n c l u d e d i n t h i s l i s t a r e t echniques such as: 9) f l i m s y , 10) p i n s c r e e n , 11) p i x i l a t i o n , 12) sand, 13) p a i n t i n g on f i l m , 14) g l a s s , and 15) slow-motion and f a s t forward m a n i p u l a t i o n s . Some of Review of the L i t e r a t u r e / 1 8 t h e s e c a t e g o r i e s may ov e r l a p , as d i f f e r e n t people have d i f f e r e n t names f o r the p a r t i c u l a r s t y l e of animation t h a t they produce. S p e c i f i c techniques i n v o l v e d i n producing an animated f i l m a re many, but b a s i c steps have been summarized by S i l v a (1979). The stages of p r o d u c t i o n are : 1) s c r i p t , 2) s t o r y board, 3) sound t r a c k , 4) path of a c t i o n , 5) l a y i n g out the background, 6) rough drawings, 7) c l e a n i n g up, 8) i n k i n g and opaquing and 9) f i l m i n g . The p r o d u c t i o n p e r s o n n e l r e q u i r e d f o l l o w s the p r o d u c t i o n s t e p s : 1) producer, 2) d i r e c t o r , 3) c h a r a c t e r d e s i g n e r , 4) lay o u t a r t i s t , 5) background a r t i s t , 6) key animator, 7) in-betweener, 8) clean-up a r t i s t , 9) i n k e r and e l e c t r o s t a t i s t , 10) opaquer or c o l o u r i s t , 11) checker, 12) cameraman, 13) e d i t o r and 14) p r o d u c t i o n manager. The h i s t o r y of animation i s the h i s t o r y of technology and i t s p o p u l a r c u l t u r e . From i t s humble beginnings and i t s "Golden Age" t o the d e c l i n e of the 1950's, animation has always had i n s t a n t appeal and was re c o g n i z e d f o r i t s p e r s u a s i v e a b i l i t y f o r s e l l i n g . E l e c t r o n i c Imagery The i n t r o d u c t i o n of e l e c t r o n i c images has had an o u t s t a n d i n g e f f e c t on animation. I t i s b e l i e v e d t h a t the f i r s t computer animations were made on the Whirlwind computer i n 1951 a t MIT Review of the L i t e r a t u r e / 1 9 (Halas and Manvell, 1971). Since then, v i d e o and computer technology grew, comprising what has been c a l l e d t he "two most important t e c h n o l o g i e s developed by man" (Lee, 1984, p.107). "The synergy of the two was the p l a c e t o be i n the e a r l y s e v e n t i e s " (Lee, 1984, p.107). In the 1960's a c h a r a c t e r g e n e r a t o r was made. T h i s machine e l e c t r o n i c a l l y generated h i g h q u a l i t y l e t t e r s . U n t i l t h a t time, t e l e v i s i o n s t a t i o n s used t r a d i t i o n a l g r a p h i c forms. There were two advantages t o the c h a r a c t e r generator. F i r s t , i t saved the a r t i s t time and second, the type c o u l d be produced i n " r e a l time". Next, the f i r s t d i g i t a l drawing and p a i n t i n g system f o r t e l e v i s i o n was in v e n t e d . In the 1970's, the Media/Study program a t B u f f a l o , New York was a mecca f o r computer imagery ( G a r t e l , 1985). At t h i s time i n d u s t r y was g e t t i n g i n v o l v e d too, but f o r the purposes of entertainment, a d v e r t i s i n g and t e l e v i s i o n . NYIT marketed t h e i r own p a i n t system c a l l e d "Images" t h a t produced t h r e e d imensional r o t a t i o n s and complex animations ( G a r t e l , 1985). By 1979, Lyon and Lamb developed the "Video Animation Systems IV" where p e n c i l t e s t s c o u l d be f i l m e d and then immediately viewed (Lee, 1984). T h i s system l e d t o the development of the Sony BVH 2500. T h i s machine can c r e a t e i m p r e s s i v e g r a p h i c s and s p e c i a l e f f e c t s and Lee (1984) c a l l s i t the bes t t h i n g t o date f o r vi d e o animation. Review of t h e L i t e r a t u r e / 2 0 By 1980 the f i e l d of e l e c t r o n i c imagery was wide open ( G a r t e l , 1985). Not o n l y was p r i v a t e i n d u s t r y c o n t i n u i n g t h e i r r e s e a r c h , government grants were a v a i l a b l e t o o . Up u n t i l t h i s time, however, a r t i s t s were not y e t on the scene. G a r t e l , an a r t i s t h i m s e l f , b e l i e v e d t h a t the a r t i s t and programmer had t o merge (1985) . "In computer a r t , as i n any of the t r a d i t i o n a l media, the elements of c o n t r a s t , form and composition must be mastered i f the work i s t o communicate an i d e a " ( G a r t e l , 1985, p.36). Another r e v o l u t i o n happened when the p e r s o n a l computer a r r i v e d . T h i s was due t o the v i d e o and e d i t i n g systems t h a t allow f o r r e a l time animation ( G a r t e l , 1985). By 1985, museums were e x h i b i t i n g computer generated imagery w h i l e i n d u s t r y was u t i l i z i n g i t . The f o u n d a t i o n of e l e c t r o n i c a r t had been b u i l t , but was s t i l l a t the ground f l o o r ( G a r t e l , 1985). The problem seemed t o be the massive amount and r a t e a t which new d i s c o v e r i e s were b e i n g made. The "amount of i n f o r m a t i o n a v a i l a b l e today i s so v a s t t h a t no one has the time t o read e v e r y t h i n g " (Lee, 1984, p.110). Over a r e l a t i v e l y s h o r t p e r i o d of time, computers had become a p a r t of the animation process. So much so, t h a t animators had t o p l a y a never ending game of c a t c h up w i t h the computer i n d u s t r y . Research Findings Graduate r e s e a r c h done at Ohio S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y on Computer animation d u r i n g the 1980"s w i l l now be reviewed. I n c l u d e d Review of the L i t e r a t u r e / 2 1 here are f i v e s t u d i e s . Stredney (1982) d i s c u s s e s the use of computers t o generate a n a t o m i c a l l y animated i l l u s t r a t i o n s f o r me d i c a l purposes. Wedge d e t a i l s t h r e e d i m e n s i o n a l animation and views the computer as not j u s t a replacement f o r the p e n c i l or a labour s a v i n g d e v i c e , but r a t h e r as a t o o l w i t h i t s own unique p r o p e r t i e s (1985). He b e l i e v e s t h a t "computer g r a p h i c s promises t o impact the f i e l d of c h a r a c t e r animation i n a r e v o l u t i o n a r y way" (Wedge, 1985, p.12). Ven B a e r l e shares t h i s viewpoint. She b e l i e v e s t h a t i t i s l e g i t i m a t e f o r computer generated images t o look computer made. The " s t r e n g t h s of computer generated animation l i e . . . w i t h (the) c o n v i n c i n g r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s of t h r e e - d i m e n s i o n a l space and movements, an e f f e c t t h a t t r a d i t i o n a l animators f i n d p a r t i c u l a r l y d i f f i c u l t t o achieve" (Van B a e r l e , 1985, p.2). McDevitt o u t l i n e d the corpora t e approach t o animation. Presented i n t h i s r e s e a r c h are steps t o produce a computer animation. They are as f o l l o w s : 1) c l i e n t , 2) d e s i g n ( s t o r y b o a r d ) , 3) data g e n e r a t i o n , 4) motion d e f i n i t i o n , 5) c o l o u r and l i g h t i n g , 6) c a l c u l a t i o n s and 7) r e c o r d i n g (McDevitt, 1986). McDevitt b e l i e v e s t h a t the knowledge bases f o r computer and t r a d i t i o n a l animation are the same. They a r i s e from an a r t i s t i c background, i n c l u d i n g the elements and p r i n c i p l e s of design, composition, balance and c o l o u r (McDevitt, 1986) . Donkin f e e l s t h a t "animation i s now a v i t a l p a r t o f t e l e v i s i o n g r a p h i c s . . .commercial advertisements. . .the Review of the L i t e r a t u r e / 2 2 f e a t u r e f i l m industry...(and) the g e n e r a l realm of animation" (1986, p . l ) . Animation has come a long way. The g o a l of the animator now i s t o push t o the l i m i t of the r e s o u r c e s a v a i l a b l e . S e v e r a l p r o f e s s i o n a l j o u r n a l s o f f e r another p e r s p e c t i v e . These i n c l u d e American Cinematoqrapher. A r t Education, and School A r t s . American Cinematoqrapher T h i s j o u r n a l i s designed f o r people i n the f i l m i n d u s t r y . The content of the j o u r n a l p r o v i d e s reviews of c u r r e n t f i l m s and f i l m i n g techniques. For the purposes of t h i s study, s e v e r a l i s s u e s ( V o l . 61, Nos. 2, 6, 8 and 10, 1980; V o l . 64, Nos. 9 and 11, 1983; V o l . 65, Nos. 4, 5, 7 and 8, 1984; V o l . 66, Nos. 1, 4, 6, 11 and 12, 1985; V o l . 67, No. 10, 1986) were reviewed i n depth. The c o n t r a s t i n content between 1980 and 1986 i s n o t i c e a b l e . In 1980 " s p e c i a l e f f e c t s " was the t o p i c of o n l y a few a r t i c l e s . Among numerous movies d i s c u s s e d , the on l y animated f e a t u r e s of t h i s time i n c l u d e d S t a r Trek and The  Empire S t r i k e s Back. Both these f i l m s are noteworthy because of t h e i r major impact and i n f l u e n c e as a new k i n d of movie genre. By 1983 and 1984, the content of American Cinematocrrapher had changed. In those two years a r t i c l e t o p i c s expanded t o Review of the L i t e r a t u r e / 2 3 i n c l u d e animation, computer g r a p h i c s , s p e c i a l e f f e c t s , v e c t o r g r a p h i c s , c l a y animation and video animation. During t h i s p e r i o d the number of animated f i l m s d i s c u s s e d had grown. These i n c l u d e d : Dragon's L a i r . Spacehunter. Superman I I I . The  Day A f t e r . Wargames. Return of the J e d i . Ghostbusters, Indiana  Jones and the Temple of Doom. Dream F l i g h t , S t a r Trek IV. A Never Ending St o r y . Gremlins, The L a s t S t a r f i g h t e r and Dune. Animation w i t h i n the f i l m i n d u s t r y was e x p e r i e n c i n g a boom. Between 1985 and 1986 j o u r n a l a r t i c l e s on t o p i c s r e l a t i n g t o animation were i n c r e a s i n g . The t o p i c s i n c l u d e d : computer animation, t i t l e s of the T w i l i g h t Zone, t h r e e d i m e n s i o n a l animation, v i d e o e f f e c t s f o r 2010, computer g r a p h i c s , academy award nominees f o r v i s u a l e f f e c t s , s p e c i a l e f f e c t s f o r V, Cocoon, s p e c i a l e f f e c t s , e l e c t r o n i c imagery and e l e c t r o n i c c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n . A l s o , 1986 was the year t h a t a new s e c t i o n c a l l e d " e l e c t r o n i c " was added. The f i l m s d i s c u s s e d i n 1985 and 1986 t h a t u t i l i z e d animation were: Cocoon. Back t o the Fut u r e . E x p l o r e r s , 2010, L i f e f o r c e , P o l t e r g e i s t I I . Invaders, Labrynth, Legend, Howard the Duck r The F l y and S t a r Trek IV. Animation was e x p e r i e n c i n g a major p e r i o d of growth i n the f i l m i n d u s t r y between 1980 and 1986. I t i s d i f f i c u l t , i f not im p o s s i b l e , t o imagine t h i s p a s t decade without the i n f l u e n c e of f i l m s such as St a r Trek. The Empire S t r i k e s Back, and Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom. These f i l m s have Review of the L i t e r a t u r e / 2 4 become a major p a r t of our popular c u l t u r e . Much of the imagery of such f i l m s was c r e a t e d through the a r t of animation. I t i s important t o make th r e e d i s t i n c t i o n s here. The f i r s t of t h e s e i s t h a t the author has not seen a l l the movies l i s t e d i n the j o u r n a l , so t h e r e f o r e had t o accept the judgment of American Cinematoqrapher i n some cases as t o which f i l m s had used animation as best p o s s i b l e . Second, o n l y a s p e c i a l i s t i n t h i s area can t e l l which segments of a f i l m have been animated, so t h e r e may be important examples t h a t have not been covered here. T h i r d , i n the rea d i n g s , the author has not come a c r o s s a c l e a r d i s t i n c t i o n between s p e c i a l e f f e c t s and animation. I t i s d i f f i c u l t t o t e l l where one ends and the ot h e r begins. As a r e s u l t of these t h r e e f a c t o r s , the m a t e r i a l produced probably exceeds t h a t r e p o r t e d . Art Education F i n d i n g s from the j o u r n a l A r t Education w i l l now be reviewed. During 1979 and 1980 t h e r e was no mention of animation. However, i n 1983 th e r e was a m i n i - i s s u e ( V o l . 36, No. 3) on computer g r a p h i c s . T o p i c s here i n c l u d e d : 1) a r t e d u c a t i o n and a t e c h n o l o g i c a l s o c i e t y , 2) computer g r a p h i c s , 3) arcade games and 4) c r e a t i v e computers. Key i s s u e s are c o n t a i n e d w i t h i n t h e s e a r t i c l e s : 1) A r t teach e r s have a f e a r of computers i n the a r t room (White, 1983). 2) We are on the t h r e s h o l d of a Review of the L i t e r a t u r e / 2 5 new s o c i a l order (White, 1983) t h a t i s not going t o go away (Lineham, 1983). 3) Computers can generate imagery. "The imagery i s t h e r e . A r t educators need t o o r g a n i z e and t e a c h t h i s new v i s u a l language" (Madeja, 1983, p.17, and 4 ) . L i t t l e has been w r i t t e n i n a r t education on t h i s t o p i c (Hubbard and Lineham, 1983). These a r t i c l e s a l s o c e n t e r on the uses of computers i n the a r t room t h a t are p a r t i c u l a r l y i n t e r e s t i n g . Lineham and Hubbard f e l t t h a t computers c o u l d be used f o r i n s t r u c t i o n , e v a l u a t i o n t e s t i n g and f i l i n g (1983). Madeja f e l t t h a t computers c o u l d be u s e f u l i n the areas of design, a r t games and s l i d e shows (1983). Lineham a l s o p o i n t s t o the p o s s i b i l i t y of use i n the areas of a r c h i t e c t u r e , medical i l l u s t r a t i o n s , games and mathematical models (1983). S q u i r e s i s the o n l y author g e n e r a l l y a g a i n s t a computer i n the artroom, although he sees i t s p o t e n t i a l i n animation (1983). To conclude, by 1983, A r t Education welcomed the new f r o n t i e r of computer g r a p h i c s . However, the a p p l i c a t i o n s of t h i s new a r t form v a r i e d not only broadly but p e c u l i a r l y , and the use of animation was mentioned on l y once. T h i s i s p r o b a b l y a p p r o p r i a t e though, s i n c e American Cinematocrrapher i t s e l f had o n l y one a r t i c l e on s p e c i a l e f f e c t s i n 1980. The 1985 and 1986 i s s u e s of A r t Education c o n t a i n many more a r t i c l e s on computer g r a p h i c s . For example, i n 1985 t h e r e was another m i n i - i s s u e on t h i s s u b j e c t ( V o l . 38, No.2). The t o p i c s of t h i s i s s u e i n c l u d e d : 1) a d o l e s c e n t s ' computer a r t , Review of the L i t e r a t u r e / 2 6 2) microcomputer g r a p h i c s and the Koala pad, 3) computers and a r t , and 4) computer g r a p h i c s a t c o l l e g e . Two themes t h a t p r e v a i l i n t h i s 1985 i s s u e are t h a t the b i g g e s t o b s t a c l e towards pr o g r e s s i s o u r s e l v e s , and t h a t the e r a t h a t we l i v e i n demands computer imagery (Clements, 1985). The 1986 ( V o l . 39, No. 1) t o p i c s i n c l u d e d : 1) microcomputer g r a p h i c s f o r the g i f t e d , and 2) computers and a r t . In these a r t i c l e s , t h e r e i s no mention of animation but t h a t o u t l i n e d i n the phenkistoscope a r t i c l e s , which was narrow i n i t s scope. The 1987 and 1988 j o u r n a l e n t r i e s i n A r t E d u c a t i o n take a sudden t u r n , but i n a s u r p r i s i n g d i r e c t i o n . During these two years t h e r e i s o n l y one a r t i c l e on microcomputer g r a p h i c s (Young-blood, 1988) and t h e r e i s no r e f e r e n c e t o animation i n i t . In summary, A r t Education d i d r e f l e c t the i n t e r e s t s of American Cinematoqrapher i n s e v e r a l ways. F i r s t i t showed the l a c k of i n t e r e s t i n animation i n 1980. Second, i t expressed the urgent need f o r computer g r a p h i c s by 1986 and t h i r d , almost e n t i r e l y l o s t i n t e r e s t i n i t . School Arts The author w i l l now review the j o u r n a l e n t r i e s i n School A r t s . In 1974 and 1977 t h e r e was one a r t i c l e on b a s i c animation f o r the elementary s c h o o l (Bregman, 1977) . In 1979 and 1980 t h e r e were two more a r t i c l e s of the same "how t o " genre (Bregman, 1979; F o l i n o , 1979). In 1985, t h e r e was a m i n i - i s s u e ( V o l . Review of the L i t e r a t u r e / 2 7 84, No. 6) on the t o p i c of computer g r a p h i c s . The t o p i c s here i n c l u d e d : s e t t i n g up a computer s t a t i o n , c l o s e d - c i r c u i t c a l l i g r a p h y , microcomputer g r a p h i c s and the computer g r a p h i c e v o l u t i o n . Here i t i s suggested t h a t computers can produce h i g h r e s o l u t i o n images t h a t can be used i n animation (Sasowsky, 1985). In 1986 t h e r e was another theme i s s u e ( V o l . 85, No. 7) . The t o p i c s i n c l u d e d : 1) computer g r a p h i c s , 2) microcomputers and 3) e l e c t r o n i c imagery. A l l these a r t i c l e s a re e x p l a n a t o r y and make no r e f e r e n c e t o animation. During 1987 and 1988 t h e r e was one m i n i - i s s u e c a l l e d "Images from Machines" ( V o l . 87, No.3). The t o p i c s here were: 1) computer g r a p h i c s , and 2) the magic of animation. To summarize, School  A r t s has maintained an i n t e r e s t i n computer g r a p h i c s . From 1985 u n t i l 1987 the r e were r e g u l a r f e a t u r e s on the s u b j e c t . Animation, however, was h a r d l y mentioned, l e t alone e x p l a i n e d , as was the case i n the e a r l i e r "how-tos". Beyond the j o u r n a l s , i t i s of i n t e r e s t t o note v a r i o u s areas where animation showed up on a computer sear c h . They covered a wide range of s u b j e c t matter: a r c h i t e c t u r e , medicine, d r a f t i n g , mathematics, s c i e n c e and E n g l i s h . These were the l a r g e r c a t e g o r i e s , with many s m a l l e r ones. T h i s i s of i n t e r e s t because these d i f f e r e n t areas see u s e f u l a p p l i c a t i o n s of animation t o t h e i r s u b j e c t , or i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r t h e i r d i s c i p l i n e . Review of the L i t e r a t u r e / 2 8 B.C. Secondary Art Curriculum Guide The placement and emphasis t h a t the c u r r e n t B.C. secondary a r t c u r r i c u l u m guide a t t r i b u t e s t o animation p r o v i d e s a narrow view of the a r t form. Animation i s mentioned under "content a r e a s " i n a r t foundations and drawing and p a i n t i n g and w i t h i n the " l e a r n i n g outcomes" of imagery and h i s t o r i c a l and contemporary developments. I t i s a l s o d i s c u s s e d under "content" i n g r a p h i c s , and i n the l e a r n i n g outcomes of the v a r i o u s content areas. What s t r u c t u r a l l y seems i n a p p r o p r i a t e , i s the g r a p h i c s category i t s e l f . For example, g r a p h i c s i s comprised o f : 1) r e l i e f p r i n t i n g , 2) i n t a g l i o p r i n t i n g , 3) g r a p h i c design, 4) screen p r i n t i n g , 5) l i t h o g r a p h y and 6) photography and film-making. Webster's d i c t i o n a r y (1971) d e f i n e s g r a p h i c a r t as "any form of v i s u a l a r t i s t i c r e p r e s e n t a t i o n " (p.241). The c u r r i c u l u m guide demonstrates t h a t i t i s i n agreement with the d e f i n i t i o n by s t a t i n g t h a t " g r a p h i c s i n the t w e n t i e t h century has a c q u i r e d a v e r y broad meaning" (1983, p.120). But why does the guide's d i v i s i o n s t a r t or end where i t does? Graphics i s such a l a r g e area t h a t i t seems a p p r o p r i a t e f o r media ( f i l m , v i d e o , photography, etc.) t o comprise i t s own content area. W i t h i n the guide, i n broad terms, animation was d i s c u s s e d t h i r t y - t h r e e times, y e t o n l y d i r e c t l y named twelve times. A l s o , these d i s c u s s i o n s on animation l a c k e d depth i n techniques, v o c a b u l a r y and p e r c e p t i o n s . For example, "cartoon drawing" was l i s t e d as an oc c u p a t i o n , y e t the term i s not l i s t e d i n the v o c a b u l a r y Review of the L i t e r a t u r e / 2 9 s e c t i o n . A l s o , an incomplete l i s t i n g of the s t y l e s of animation i s p r o v i d e d . L a s t l y , r e f e r e n c e s t o animation and p o p u l a r c u l t u r e , T.V., movies, and r e l a t e d d i s c i p l i n e s are h a r d l y mentioned, l e t alone e l a b o r a t e d upon. In c o n c l u s i o n , even though animation i s d i s c u s s e d i n t h r e e c o n t e n t areas w i t h i n the guide, i t s r e p r e s e n t a t i o n i s weak and incomplete. A r e o r g a n i z a t i o n of the guide t h a t would p r o v i d e media wi t h i t s own content area would b e t t e r e l u c i d a t e and r e c o g n i z e i t s s t a t u s as an a r t form. The l i t e r a t u r e review r e i n f o r c e s the view t h a t the h i s t o r y of animation i s the h i s t o r y of technology and i t s r e l a t i o n s h i p t o p o p u l a r c u l t u r e . Computers have q u i c k l y become p a r t of the animation process and have a c c e l e r a t e d the amounts and k i n d s of imagery a v a i l a b l e . While f i l m j o u r n a l s r e c o g n i z e and e x p l o i t the v a l i d i t y of animation, a r t j o u r n a l s a r e narrow and s p o r a d i c i n t h e i r coverage. Even the c u r r i c u l u m guide p r o v i d e s incomplete coverage while acknowledging animation as an a r t form t h a t p l a y s a r o l e i n popular c u l t u r e . T h i s schism i s the b a s i s f o r t h i s t h e s i s . CHAPTER I I I . CONDUCT OF THE STUDY A. SAMPLE Seventeen people p a r t i c i p a t e d i n t h i s p r o j e c t . F i v e were a r t t e a c h e r s , nine were a r t students and t h r e e were p r o f e s s i o n a l animators (see Table 1). The t e a c h e r s who were s e l e c t e d had taught between t h i r t e e n and twenty years and were e i t h e r the o n l y a r t te a c h e r a t t h e i r s c h o o l , or the t e a c h e r most l i k e l y t o have taught animation because of the breadth of t h e i r t e a c h i n g background. Each teacher taught a t a d i f f e r e n t s c h o o l . The students who were i n t e r v i e w e d were between the ages of f i f t e e n and eighteen. Since one s c h o o l was a j u n i o r h i g h , the most s e n i o r students t h e r e were i n grade t e n . The main c r i t e r i o n f o r student s e l e c t i o n was t h a t they be s e n i o r , a r t i c u l a t e , a r t majors who have a stake i n the v i s u a l a r t s . Teachers were r e s p o n s i b l e f o r s e l e c t i n g the students t h a t they thought b e s t f i t the c r i t e r i a . Animators were s e l e c t e d on the b a s i s o f how w e l l e s t a b l i s h e d t h e i r company was. T h i s was t o ensure t h a t the businesses were s u c c e s s f u l l y marketing t h e i r p r o d u c t s and t h a t t h e i r work was l o c a l l y r e a d i l y v i s i b l e . In keeping w i t h the u s u a l p r a c t i c e i n n a t u r a l i s t i c i n q u i r y , a l l informants and p l a c e s have been gi v e n i n v e n t e d names, t o p r e s e r v e anonymity. 30 Conduct of the Study/31 T a b l e 1 Informants Name Subject Group Mike L i n d a Lou t e a c h e r s Wayne Bob L i l Marty Sarah C o l l e e n C h r i s students Mel Wally Susan Jim Ed Andrew animators Matt B. SETTING The study was conducted a t d i f f e r e n t l o c a t i o n s . The t e a c h e r s were i n t e r v i e w e d a f t e r s chool i n t h e i r classroom, o f f i c e or home. Students were i n t e r v i e w e d d u r i n g the l a s t b l o c k of the day o r a f t e r s c h o o l i n e i t h e r an empty artroom or classroom. Animators were i n t e r v i e w e d i n t h e i r o f f i c e s d u r i n g work hours. C. PROCEDURE The i n t e r v i e w time f o r each person was arranged i n advance and a t a time t h a t was convenient t o each of them. A reminder phone c a l l was p l a c e d by the r e s e a r c h e r t o the p a r t i c i p a n t s on the morning of t h e i r i n t e r v i e w . Teachers were asked t o Conduct of the Study/32 pass on the reminder t o t h e i r s t u d e n t s . At the time o f the i n t e r v i e w , a b r i e f and i n f o r m a l d i s c u s s i o n was i n i t i a t e d by the r e s e a r c h e r t o put the informants a t ease. Teacher and animator informants were seen i n d i v i d u a l l y and f o r one s e s s i o n each. Students, however, were c o - i n t e r v i e w e d , w i t h the e x c e p t i o n of one i n t e r v i e w where one student f a i l e d t o appear. The r a t i o n a l e , procedure and e x p e c t a t i o n s f o r the study were e x p l a i n e d . P a r t i c i p a n t s were encouraged t o ask q u e s t i o n s when they d i d n ' t understand a term, statement or q u e s t i o n . The tape r e c o r d e r was turned on and the p r o j e c t began. D e f i n i t i o n s were pr o v i d e d so t h a t terminology was c l e a r and c o n s i s t e n t . Each q u e s t i o n was repeated or r e - e x p l a i n e d u n t i l p a r t i c i p a n t s were c l e a r on what was being asked. P a r t i c i p a n t s were asked f i v e c a t e g o r i e s of q u e s t i o n s . The c a t e g o r i e s were: 1) d e f i n i n g animation, 2) potent images, 3) po p u l a r c u l t u r e , 4) c a r e e r s and 5) p e r s o n a l backgrounds. S t a n d a r d i z e d examples of each q u e s t i o n were g i v e n t o a l l p a r t i c i p a n t s t o make e x p l i c i t the q u e s t i o n b e i n g asked. F r e q u e n t l y w h i l e answering a q u e s t i o n , p a r t i c i p a n t s would r e f e r t o a p r e v i o u s q u e s t i o n , p o s s i b l y i n a p r e v i o u s category, t o add some i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t they had not thought of a t t h a t time. The e n t i r e p e r i o d spent with each i n d i v i d u a l informant was approximately between one and two hours. I n t e r v i e w s w i t h Conduct of the Study/33 t e a c h e r s u s u a l l y took about one hour, but the l o n g e s t was about two. Even though students were c o - i n t e r v i e w e d , t h e i r i n t e r v i e w s were u s u a l l y no more than one hour. Animators took the l o n g e s t t o i n t e r v i e w : u s u a l l y , between one and a h a l f and two hours. D. METHODS OF DATA COLLECTION Documentation of the procedure c o n s i s t e d of audio tapes and observer notes. Each e n t i r e i n t e r v i e w was re c o r d e d on a tape r e c o r d e r f o r l a t e r t r a n s c r i p t i o n and a n a l y s i s . E. METHODS OF DATA ANALYSIS The tapes comprising the seventeen informants* p r o j e c t p a r t i c i p a t i o n were t r a n s c r i b e d i n t o notes. These notes were compiled along w i t h the observer notes. Domain a n a l y s i s of the v e r b a l responses and the data c o l l e c t e d was used t o determine the s i m i l a r i t i e s and d i f f e r e n c e s i n the p e r c e p t i o n s h e l d by secondary a r t tea c h e r s , secondary a r t stu d e n t s and animators on the r o l e and c h a r a c t e r of animation i n a r t ed u c a t i o n . F. PRELIMINARY EXPLORATIONS B e f o r e embarking on the i n t e r v i e w component of t h i s t h e s i s , the author e x p l o r e d " r e a l world" animation p r a c t i c e s t o sharpen her p e r c e p t i o n s and g a i n a d d i t i o n a l background i n the s u b j e c t . L o c a l animation and t e l e v i s i o n s t u d i o s , t e l e v i s i o n , Conduct of the Study/34 and post-secondary i n s t i t u t i o n s were v i s i t e d i n f o r m a l l y , and p r o v i d e d m a t e r i a l t h a t was l a t e r u s e f u l i n u n derstanding and i n t e r p r e t i n g responses from the p a r t i c i p a n t s i n the study. L o c a l animation: Nine animation and t e l e v i s i o n s t u d i o s were i n v e s t i g a t e d i n t h i s way. The r e s u l t s of these f i n d i n g s were q u i t e r e v e a l i n g . In summary, computer generated imagery became a v a i l a b l e l o c a l l y i n the mid 1980*s and a r t i s t s were r e t r a i n e d on the job t o u t i l i z e the computers. I t i s c u r r e n t l y f e l t t h a t the b e s t background f o r t h i s k i n d of job i s a predominantly d e s i g n o r i e n t e d one, along with a f i n e a r t s and computer background. A d e s i g n background however, i s p r e f e r r e d t o a computer background. The t r a d i t i o n a l animation houses are c u r r e n t l y v e r y busy, and i t i s f e l t t h a t the demand f o r hand drawn f i l m s i s not about t o disappear. T r a i n i n g i n animation i n c e n t r e s o u t s i d e Vancouver i s p r e f e r r e d by the i n d u s t r y , although the o c c a s i o n a l s e l f - t a u g h t person e x i s t s . Respondents g e n e r a l l y f e l t t h a t Vancouver i s a very good p l a c e t o be a t p r e s e n t f o r animators. T e l e v i s i o n programs: The t e l e v i s i o n programs viewed t o e l u c i d a t e c u r r e n t p r a c t i c e s i n animation have been d i v i d e d i n t o c a t e g o r i e s . These i n c l u d e : e d u c a t i o n a l programs, t a l k shows, s i t u a t i o n comedies, s c i e n c e / i n f o r m a t i o n , news, c h i l d r e n s * shows, amateur s p o r t s , Conduct of the Study/35 p r o f e s s i o n a l s p o r t s , r e l i g i o u s programs and commercials. To summarize, v i r t u a l l y a l l t e l e v i s i o n s programs use animation i n t he form of t i t l e s and c r e d i t s . Many shows i n c o r p o r a t e an animated logo t h a t moves o f f and on the s c r e e n . While c h i l d r e n s ' programs are almost e x c l u s i v e l y animated, big-money p r o f e s s i o n a l s p o r t s are gi v e n a s l i c k appearance through the use of animation. Animation i s a l s o used e x t e n s i v e l y i n diagram form t o e x p l a i n a process. S i m i l a r l y , a l l t e l e v i s i o n commercials use animation i n some way. The s t a t e - o f - t h e - a r t today seems t o be f l a s h y logos and t i t l e s t h a t move and t w i s t on and o f f the screen. I t appears t h a t t e c hnology has advanced t o the p o i n t where animation and s p e c i a l e f f e c t s go hand-in-hand. E d u c a t i o n a l b odies: C u r r e n t l y , l o c a l post-secondary i n s t i t u t i o n s do not view animation as a necessary a r t form. Only one post-secondary i n s t i t u t i o n o f f e r s animation a t a p r a c t i c a l l e v e l : none of them o f f e r courses t h a t e x p l o r e the f i e l d from a c r i t i c a l or p h i l o s o p h i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e . In summarizing the " r e a l world" p r a c t i c e s of animation, t h e r e seems t o be a c o n s i d e r a b l e gap between the s t a t e of a f f a i r s i n t he commercial world, and c u r r e n t e d u c a t i o n a l p r a c t i c e s . The boom time experienced by l o c a l animation s t u d i o s i s r e f l e c t e d i n the amount of a i r time animation g e t s on Conduct of the Study/36 t e l e v i s i o n . However, t h i s i n t e r e s t i s not r e f l e c t e d i n the p h i l o s o p h y or p r a c t i c e s of the post-secondary i n s t i t u t i o n s . CHAPTER IV. ANALYSIS OF THE RESULTS A. INTRODUCTION T h i s study i s based on one main r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n , broken down i n t o f i v e sub-questions. T o p i c s e x p l o r e d w i t h i n the sub-q u e s t i o n s are: 1) d e f i n i n g animation, 2) potent images, 3) p o p u l a r c u l t u r e , 4) c a r e e r s and 5)backgrounds. In t h i s c h a p t e r the data have been analyzed i n t h r e e ways. The f i r s t method i s an adapted domain a n a l y s i s as o u t l i n e d by James Spradley (1980). The second way i s through a yes/no format. T h i s was needed because some of the q u e s t i o n s simply i n v i t e d yes/no responses. The l a s t method of a n a l y s i s i s i n paragraph format. T h i s format was r e q u i r e d f o r two reasons: 1) the k i n d s of responses generated d i d not f i t i n t o domain a n a l y s i s or the yes/no format and 2) the breadth and scope of the answers was too d i v e r s e t o e a s i l y c a t e g o r i z e . B. CATEGORY I: DEFINING ANIMATION F i g u r e 1 Q u e s t i o n 1: How would you d e f i n e animation? Cover Term Semantic Included Terms R e l a t i o n s h i p defining animation (teachers) is a process whereby 1 inanimate appears to move (3) 2 frame by frame (2) 3 definitions are cloudy (1) 37 A n a l y s i s o f the Results/38 ( F i g u r e 1 cont'd) defining animation (students) is a process whereby 1 movement 2 unreal 3 cartoons 4 serious/light 5 simple language 6 funnies 7 frames of images 8 your mind creating (4) (2) (2) (2) (1) (1) (1) (1) (animators) 1 creation of life 2 art of drawn movements 3 absolute control 4 having fun 5 frame/frame (3) (1) (1) (1) (1) In g e n e r a l , t e a c h e r s , students and animators are a b l e t o p r o v i d e a d e f i n i t i o n of animation. Students, however, are the l e a s t p r e c i s e and focus on terms such as c a r t o o n s , f u n n i e s and simple language. Susan t y p i f i e d the s t u d e n t s ' responses when she s a i d , "I'm not r e a l l y sure e x a c t l y what i t i s . . . c a r t o o n s I guess... Disney f i l m s . " Of t h i s k i n d of a t t i t u d e , Ed, who i s one of the animators, s a i d , "People tend t o f o c us on one type of animation. . .and they see t h a t . . .as the d e f i n i t i o n . . . i t ' s r e a l l y only a segment." To summarize, t e a c h e r s d e f i n e d animation i n t e c h n i c a l terms and one t e a c h e r p o i n t e d out t h a t d e f i n i t i o n s are cloudy. Although the animators p r o v i d e d s i m i l a r t e c h n i c a l d e f i n i t i o n s , the overwhelming response was "the c r e a t i o n of l i f e . " Student responses make up the most d i v e r s e answers t o t h i s q u e s t i o n i n t h a t some responses are a p p r o p r i a t e , some are not and some are simply not p r e c i s e enough. A n a l y s i s of the R e s u l t s / 3 9 F i g u r e 2 Q u e s t i o n 2 : Can you name or d e s c r i b e d i f f e r e n t s t y l e s of animation? Cover Term Semantic R e l a t i o n s h i p Included Terms styles of animation (teachers) are produced as 1 pixiIat ion (5) 2 eel (4) 3 three-dimensional (3) 4 cut-out (3) 5 claymation (3) 6 computer (2) 7 fIi pbook (2) 8 draws itself (2) 9 hand drawn (2) 10 doll/puppet (2) 11 s I i de (1) 12 pin/shadow (1) 13 variations (1) 14 scratch on fiIm (1) 15 s t i l l photography (1) 16 video (1) (students) 1 claymation/ plasticine (4) 2 computer (3) 3 eel (1) 4 renderings (1) 5 fIi pbook (1) 6 puppet (1) 7 funnies (1) 8 cartoons (1) (animators) 1 dimensional (3) 2 cut-out (3) 3 eel (2) 4 flimsy/paper (2) 5 computer (2) 6 pixilation (2) 7 pinscreen (1) 8 sand (1) 9 paint on film (1) 10 paints itself (1) 11 glass (1) 12 special effects (1) In t o t a l , two of the informant groups were capable of naming a s u b s t a n t i a l number of animation s t y l e s , but as i n d i v i d u a l s A n a l y s i s of the Results/40 they c o u l d not. Teachers named a t o t a l o f s i x t e e n s t y l e s , s t u d e n t s named e i g h t and animators named twelve. Teachers named between t h r e e and eleven s t y l e s each, but some were not c o r r e c t . Students named between zero and f o u r s t y l e s each and again, some answers were not c o r r e c t . And l a s t l y , animators were a b l e t o name between f i v e and eleve n s t y l e s each. Some t e a c h e r s questioned what the c o r r e c t name would be f o r a p a r t i c u l a r s t y l e . For example, t h r e e t e a c h e r s asked i f p i x i l a t i o n i n c l u d e d o b j e c t s and/or people. Two were unsure of the d i f f e r e n c e between claymation and p l a s t i c i n e . L a s t l y , o n l y one tea c h e r urged c a u t i o n with r e g a r d t o usage of the term s p e c i a l e f f e c t s due to the grey area between i t and animation. Students were the l e a s t capable of naming d i f f e r e n t s t y l e s of animation. Three students c o u l d not name any s t y l e s , one c o u l d name onl y one, two c o u l d name onl y two and t h r e e s t y l e s , and o n l y one c o u l d name f o u r . A l s o , two of the st u d e n t s ' answers were i n c o r r e c t . Although each animator d i d not p r o v i d e a completely comprehensive l i s t of s t y l e s , they were p r e c i s e i n t h e i r d e s c r i p t i o n s of those s t y l e s . Ed was a b l e t o c a t e g o r i z e s t y l e s . He e x p l a i n e d t h a t "dimensional a n i m a t i o n . . . i s g i v e n l o t s of d i f f e r e n t names... puppet, model...claymation [but] i t ' s a l l the same t h i n g . " With regards t o s p e c i a l e f f e c t s , A n a l y s i s of the R e s u l t s / 4 1 he went on t o say t h a t i t i s "a h y b r i d a r e a . . . i t r e l a t e s t o the p e r c e p t u a l r e a l i t y of animation." I n d i v i d u a l l y , t e a c h e r s , s t u d e n t s and even the animators were not a b l e t o p r o v i d e a comprehensive l i s t of animation s t y l e s . Students, however, were the weakest at t h i s t a s k . F i g u r e 3 Q u e s t i o n 3: Can you g i v e me s p e c i f i c examples of where animation i s used today? Cover Term Semantic Included Terms R e l a t i o n s h i p animation use today (teachers) occurs in 1 movies - full and short (5) 2 television - entertainment (5) 3 television - ads (4) 4 Saturday morning (3) 5 special effects (2) 6 educational (2) 7 scientific (1) 8 fiIm schools (1) 9 rock videos (1) 10 video games (1) 11 slide (1) 12 pre and post films (1) 13 video production (1) 14 children's films (1) (students) 1 television - shows (6) 2 television - ads (5) 3 Sat. a.m. & after school (4) 4 movies (4) 5 education (2) 6 comic books (2) 7 journal ism/newspaper (2) 8 art (1) 9 schools (1) 10 logos (1) 11 flipbooks (1) 12 movie shorts (1) 13 cartoons (1) 14 expo (1) A n a l y s i s of the Results/42 ( F i g u r e 3 cont'd) animation use today (animators) occurs in 1 industry (3) 2 television programming (3) 3 movies - features and short (3) 4 logos and titles (3) 5 commercials (2) 6 education (2) 7 museums (1) 8 art form (1) 9 stadium screen (1) 10 arcade games (1) 11 special effects (1) Informant groups as a whole were ab l e t o l i s t a s u b s t a n t i a l number of p l a c e s where animation i s used today, but not as i n d i v i d u a l s . Most p a r t i c i p a n t s were not a b l e t o p r o v i d e a comprehensive l i s t . The main areas of use t h a t a l l p a r t i c i p a n t s agreed upon are t e l e v i s i o n and movies. I t i s of i n t e r e s t t o note t h a t the animators p l a c e d logos and t i t l e s i n i t s own category while no other group d i d . A l s o , animators l i s t e d i n d u s t r y as a major area of use and o n l y a few responses from, the other groups c o u l d be p l a c e d i n t h a t c a t e g o r y . S e v e r a l people f e l t t h a t not o n l y i s animation used e x t e n s i v e l y , but t h a t i t i s making a comeback. One of the s t u d e n t s , Marty, f e e l s t h a t " i t ' s used everywhere... everybody uses i t . " Another student, C o l l e e n , agreed. She f e e l s t h a t " t h e y ' r e s t a r t i n g t o do more" animations. One of the t e a c h e r s , Mike, b e l i e v e s t h a t "the f i l m i n d u s t r y . . . i s a growing t h i n g here...both [in] s p e c i a l e f f e c t s and animation." Ed commented t h a t "some people say t h a t a d u l t animation i s coming back." In summary, teache r s and students i n d i v i d u a l l y were not a b l e t o name a s u b s t a n t i a l number of examples of A n a l y s i s of the R e s u l t s / 4 3 where animation i s used today. T h i s l i s t comprises s l i d e animation, rock v i d e o s , arcade games, s p e c i a l e f f e c t s , logos and c r e d i t s , i n d u s t r y and screens such as the one i n f r o n t of B.C. P l a c e Stadium. Question 4 : Do you c o n s i d e r animation t o be as important an a r t form as drawing, p a i n t i n g , ceramics, e t c . ? Teachers Yes ( 5 ) Students Yes ( 7 ) No ( 2 ) Animators Yes ( 3 ) With the e x c e p t i o n of two students, a l l of the informants f e l t t h a t animation i s an important a r t form. However, the reasons g i v e n and the depths of t h e i r b e l i e f s v a r i e d on t h i s p o i n t . Teachers b e l i e v e t h a t animation i s an important a r t form f o r the f o l l o w i n g reasons: 1 ) i t can p r o v i d e a student w i t h a sense of power, 2) you can c r e a t e otherwise i m p o s s i b l e s i t u a t i o n s , 3) i t pr o v i d e s room f o r p e r s o n a l e x p r e s s i o n , 4 ) i t can ev o l v e from other d i s c i p l i n e s and 5) media i n g e n e r a l make up an important a r t form. Mike, a tea c h e r , d i s c u s s e d t h i s l a s t t o p i c i n depth. I t h i n k media, p e r i o d , i s the a r t form of the t w e n t i e t h and t w e n t y - f i r s t century...yet...media i n g e n e r a l . . . i s the l e a s t understood and the l a s t taught...we are i n a Catch 22 p o s i t i o n of not wanting t o get i n v o l v e d with i t . . . I don't know q u i t e whether we don't know whether i t ' s a category or what...the one b i g problem w i t h i t i s i t ' s . . . v e r y expensive...I'd say the c o s t of not doing i t i s t h a t we have a whole g e n e r a t i o n or two of people who are simply v i c t i m s of the media A n a l y s i s of the Results/44 r a t h e r than being p a r t i c i p a n t s i n i t . . . m o s t commercials are designed nowadays t o s e l l you a way of l i f e . Students were g e n e r a l l y not as a r t i c u l a t e i n t h e i r answers. They f e l t t h a t animation i s an important a r t form because: 1) d e s i g n i n g takes s k i l l , 2) i t ' s a g r e a t a r t form, 3) i t ' s a good p u b l i c a r t form, 4) many people use i t and 5) i t ' s an advanced t o p i c t h a t combines many t h i n g s . The two students who f e l t t h a t animation was not important f e l t t h a t way because: 1) i t ' s more of a fun t h i n g and 2) i t depends on whether you l i k e i t or not. Although the animators agreed t h a t animation i s an important a r t form, t h e i r responses v a r i e d as t o why t h i s i s so. Andrew doesn't t h i n k t h a t animation i s " q u i t e as pure as . . . p a i n t i n g and w r i t i n g " because i t r e l i e s h e a v i l y on the i n p u t of o t h e r s . As such, he f e e l s t h a t animation i s "a more complex a r t form." Matt b e l i e v e s t h a t animation p a r a l l e l s movies and photography i n importance. Ed e l a b o r a t e d on the importance of animation. I t h i n k t h a t i t ' s an...unrecognized medium by ...people i n the s o - c a l l e d f i n e a r t s . . . t o me animation was an o p p o r t u n i t y t o go one s t e p beyond...just something hanging on a w a l l . . . t o g i v e imagery...a motion...and change...I t h i n k people i n the f i n e a r t s don't a p p r e c i a t e what i t takes t o do t h a t , t o imagine t h a t . Ed went on t o e x p l a i n why be b e l i e v e s t h a t t h i s a t t i t u d e c o n t i n u e s . "In [the f i n e a r t s ] realm they don't o f t e n c a r e t h a t much about an audience...but i n . . . a n i m a t i o n , because of A n a l y s i s of the R e s u l t s / 4 5 the expense... t h e r e • s a tendency t o r e a l l y c o n s i d e r the audience as one of the i n g r e d i e n t s . " In summary, the v a s t m a j o r i t y of informants f e l t t h a t animation i s an important a r t form. Teachers and animators were v e r y a r t i c u l a t e as t o why they b e l i e v e t h i s t o be so. G e n e r a l l y , students agree with the other responses, but they were vague i n a r t i c u l a t i n g those responses. A l l informants have a wide range of d i f f e r e n c e i n the depths of t h e i r b e l i e f s on t h i s i s s u e . Q u e s t i o n 5 : Do you t h i n k animation i s r e a l l y mostly meant f o r c h i l d r e n ? Teachers No (4) Yes (1) Students No (4) Yes (2) Unsure (3) Animator No (3) The m a j o r i t y of informants b e l i e v e t h a t animation i s not mostly meant f o r c h i l d r e n . Eleven p a r t i c i p a n t s b e l i e v e t h a t i t i s not, t h r e e b e l i e v e t h a t i t i s and t h r e e are unsure. Only one t e a c h e r b e l i e v e s t h a t i t i s designed mostly f o r c h i l d r e n , y e t i n responding, acknowledged t h a t t h e r e e x i s t s a b i g a d u l t audience. A n a l y s i s of the Results/46 Students make up the group t h a t are the most v a r i e d i n t h e i r responses. Of i n t e r e s t i s t h a t they commented on the d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s of meaning t h a t animations can p r o v i d e . On t h i s t o p i c C o l l e e n s a i d with regard t o ...some of the cartoons from the f o r t i e s . . . y o u have t o be o l d . . . t o r e a l l y understand what t h e y ' r e s a y i n g . . . t h e r e 1 s a whole d i f f e r e n t s e t of humor t h a t i s meant f o r adults...even though t h e y ' r e geared towards c h i l d r e n . C h r i s agrees. He f e e l s t h a t with r e g a r d t o "Wylie Coyote ...you can laugh a t [him] s t i l l [because] t h e r e ' s a d i f f e r e n t l e v e l . " Sarah b e l i e v e s t h a t animation i s . . . b e t t e r than a T.V. show...they're r e a l l y expressive...weird...some are warped...some are f o r k i d s . . . l i k e Teenage Mutant N i n i a T u r t l e s . . . I know a l o t of people who a c t u a l l y watch them...and they're about t h i r t y . I t seems t h a t the students who are unsure of whether or not animation i s mostly meant f o r c h i l d r e n , f e e l t h a t way because they see animation i n t h e i r own popular c u l t u r e ; t h i s being Saturday morning and a f t e r s c h o o l c a r t o o n s , t e l e v i s i o n programs and movies, e t c . Yet they are c o n s c i o u s t h a t i t a t t r a c t s a t t e n t i o n among a d u l t s . Animators f e e l s t r o n g l y t h a t animation i s mostly designed f o r a d u l t s . Andrew b e l i e v e s t h a t even though " i t ' s g r e a t f o r k i d s . . . [ t h e ] content i s designed f o r a d u l t s . . . i n Europe . . . i t ' s q u i t e d i f f e r e n t . . . a n i m a t i o n i s t r e a t e d t h e r e almost the same way t h a t . . . cinema i s . " Matt responded "no ... A n a l y s i s of the Results/47 whoever t h i n k s t h a t should get a l i f e . . . t h e golden age was not s p e c i f i c a l l y f o r c h i l d r e n . . . a n i m a t o r s made [ f i l m s ] f o r themselves." Ed spoke i n depth on the l e v e l s of meaning i n animation. I t h i n k animation i s meant for...human beings ...we l i v e i n a c u l t u r e where we segment age... t o o . . . r i g o r o u s l y and i t leads t o a . . . l a c k of connection...we f o r g e t t h a t no matter how o l d we are, we are always a c h i l d . . . a good f i l m works f o r everybody... the best f i l m s have... m u l t i p l e l e v e l s of r e a l i t y . . . a l o t of i t i s made f o r c h i l d r e n . . . b u t i t ' s funny how those molds have a way of g e t t i n g away. To conclude, the m a j o r i t y of informants b e l i e v e t h a t animation i s designed mostly f o r a d u l t s . T h i s i s evidenced by the m u l t i p l e l e v e l s of meaning t h a t can be d e r i v e d from good animations. Students are the only group t h a t are w i d e l y d i v e r s e and unsure of t h e i r responses t o t h i s q u e s t i o n . C. CATEGORY I I : POTENT IMAGES Q u e s t i o n 1: Name the most memorable animated f i l m s you have seen. Teachers (39) Students (25) Animators (19) Every informant e a s i l y named memorable animated f i l m s . Each t e a c h e r named between two and eleven f i l m s , w h i l e students found i t more d i f f i c u l t t o r e c a l l the names of f i l m s . Even A n a l y s i s of the Results/48 so, they s t i l l named between one and s i x f i l m s each. Animators named between f i v e and e i g h t f i l m s each. For a l l p a r t i c i p a n t s , the most memorable f i l m s were e a r l y Disney, e a r l y Warner Bros., 1940's f i l m s i n g e n e r a l and Bambi Meets  G o d z i l l a . F i g u r e 4 Que s t i o n 2: Why do you t h i n k these memories are potent? Cover Term Semantic Included R e l a t i o n s h i p Terms potency (teacher) resides in 1 brilliant classics (2) 2 captures imagination (1) 3 makes you feel good (1) 4 context (1) 5 humor (1) 6 allegory (1) (students) 1 humor (8) 2 bizarre/outrageous (4) 3 story (3) 4 technical (2) 5 scary (1) 6 entertaining (1) 7 you can relate (1) (animators) 1 dreams/magic (3) 2 unbound graphically/ stretch the bounds (2) 3 mass experience (1) 4 crazy humor (1) 5 deep dark subject (1) 6 good stories (1) 7 personal vision (1) The r e s u l t s of t h i s q u e s t i o n i l l u s t r a t e t h a t people f i n d a nimation t o be potent f o r i n d i v i d u a l reasons, although s t u d e n t s ' and animators' answers c o n t a i n themes. A n a l y s i s of the Results/49 Overwhelmingly, students l i k e animation f o r i t s humor, but a l s o f o r i t s outrageousness and the k i n d s of s t o r i e s animated f i l m s t e l l . Animators f i n d these memories t o be p o t e n t mostly because of t h e i r magical or dream-like q u a l i t i e s , but a l s o because they see the medium as being unbounded g r a p h i c a l l y . The o n l y s i m i l a r i t y i n the t e a c h e r s ' responses i s t h a t two of them f i n d the c l a s s i c s t o be potent. Although t h e r e are t r e n d s amongst the informant groups g e n e r a l l y , informants f i n d animation t o be potent f o r i n d i v i d u a l reasons. Question 3: Do these memories have p e r s o n a l meanings f o r you? Teachers Yes (2) No (2) S p l i t (1) Students Yes (3) No (5) Unsure (1) Animators Yes (3) Each informant group was f a i r l y evenly s p l i t i n t h e i r responses t o t h i s q u e s t i o n with the e x c e p t i o n of the animators. E i g h t informants s a i d t h a t these memories d i d have p e r s o n a l meanings, seven s a i d no and two were unsure. The t e a c h e r s who s a i d t h a t the memories d i d have p e r s o n a l meanings s a i d so f o r s e v e r a l reasons. Those reasons i n c l u d e : 1) i t ' s moments t h a t touch a chord and t h a t are p a r t of our c u l t u r a l h e r i t a g e , 2) t h e y ' r e i n t e l l e c t u a l l y s t i m u l a t i n g and 3) f o r the f a n t a s y and dream-like q u a l i t y . Mike f e e l s t h a t "we tend t o A n a l y s i s of the Results/50 j u s t see f i l m s as f i l m s , we don't see them as b e i n g a r t [or] as v e r y important developers of our c u l t u r a l h e r i t a g e . " One of the t e a c h e r s who d i d not f i n d the memories t o be p e r s o n a l s a i d t h a t a l l they d i d was remind him of h i s c h i l d h o o d . The student responses were e q u a l l y d i v e r s e i n t h e i r c o n t e n t . The stud e n t s who s a i d yes r e f e r r e d t o the r o l e t h a t memories p l a y and c i t e d "the f a m i l y ones [th a t a r e ] . . . s o . . . i n d i c a t i v e of our l i f e . " Four students s a i d no, and one student s a i d no, not t h a t she knew o f . The animators gave s e v e r a l reasons as t o why these memories have p e r s o n a l meanings. I n c l u d e d here i s the f e e l i n g t h a t the f i l m s are: 1) a snapshot of a time and p l a c e , 2) an i n t e r i o r landscape and 3) because i t s t r i k e s a chord. Ed b e l i e v e s t h a t " e v e r y t h i n g has p e r s o n a l meanings i f i t a f f e c t s you." In summary, teach e r s and students are s p l i t i n t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n of whether or not animation memories have p e r s o n a l meaning and animators are not. Ques t i o n 4: Do you l i k e watching animated f i l m s ? Teachers Yes (4) No (1) Students Yes (5) No (1) Depends (3) Animators Yes (3) The v a s t m a j o r i t y of informants l i k e watching animated f i l m s . Twelve informants s a i d yes, two s a i d no and t h r e e s a i d t h a t i t depends. Four out of f i v e t e a c h e r s s a i d yes. The te a c h e r A n a l y s i s of the R e s u l t s / 5 1 who s a i d no, s a i d so because i t reminded him of comic books and t o him t h a t seemed c h i l d l i k e . A t e a c h e r t h a t d i d say yes, added t h a t she d i d n ' t l i k e watching c h i l d r e n ' s c a r t o o n s . Another te a c h e r came t o the r e a l i z a t i o n t h a t he l i k e d the medium because i t moves so q u i c k l y , and as such, you don't n o t i c e the t r a n s i t i o n s or the c u t s the way one would i n r e g u l a r l i v e - a c t i o n f i l m s . Students were d i v e r s e i n t h e i r responses. F i v e s a i d yes, they l i k e watching animated f i l m s , one s a i d no and t h r e e s a i d i t depends. The students who responded a f f i r m a t i v e l y w i l l be quoted f i r s t . L i l f e l t t h a t she c o u l d " r e l a t e b e t t e r t o The  Simpsons...than...most...television sitcoms [because] t h e y ' r e more r e a l than the Huxtable f a m i l y . " C o l l e e n f e e l s t h a t "you can get s i c k of sitcoms... but you j u s t can't stop watching c a r t o o n s . " C h r i s f e l t t h a t animations "make you f o r g e t the r e a l world...they take you away f o r awhile." Jim was the one student who s a i d t h a t he d i d n ' t l i k e watching animated f i l m s . He used t o l i k e them, but "not anymore... t h e y ' r e too l o n g . . . t o o c h i l d l i k e . " Marty i s an example of the student who s a i d , " I t depends on what the f i l m i s . . . I watched p a r t of Bambi, I c o u l d n ' t watch t h a t , i t ' s too corny." The animators a l l s a i d t h a t they enjoyed watching animated f i l m s , but one s a i d so with some q u a l i f i c a t i o n s . Andrew s a i d t h a t he has A n a l y s i s of the Results/52 ...sometimes been very d i s a p p o i n t e d . . . [ t h e y can be] too long and e s o t e r i c . . . y o u could've put i n a few f e e t of t h a t U k r a i n i a n f o l k dance r i g h t i n the middle of t h i s t h i n g and nobody would've n o t i c e d i t . In summary, almost everyone l i k e s watching animated f i l m s , a l t h o u g h some p a r t i c i p a n t s don't l i k e watching f i l m s they c o n s i d e r t o be c h i l d l i k e . Q u e s t i o n 5: Do you ever go t o see an animation f i l m f e s t i v a l or an animated f i l m ? Teachers Yes (3) No (2) Students Yes (8) No (1) Animators Yes (3) The m a j o r i t y of informants go t o see animated f i l m s or f i l m f e s t i v a l s . Fourteen people s a i d t h a t they do and t h r e e s a i d t h a t they don't. Two of the t e a c h e r s simply are not i n t e r e s t e d i n animated f i l m s w h ile the other t h r e e have not made the e f f o r t r e c e n t l y . Students gave d i f f e r e n t answers than the t e a c h e r s . Susan found i t embarrassing t o get dragged t o an animation f i l m by her mother. Jim s a i d t h a t the o n l y reason t h a t he saw Roger Rabbit was because he had no c h o i c e , s i n c e he was on a plane. He then admitted "but I was t h i n k i n g about s e e i n g i t anyways." Mel, L i l and Wally a l l expressed i n t e r e s t i n going t o a f e s t i v a l even though they had never been. C h r i s and C o l l e e n had been t o a f e s t i v a l and enjoyed A n a l y s i s of the Results/5 3 i t . C h r i s a l s o mentioned t h a t he thought t h a t the f e s t i v a l s s h o u l d a d v e r t i s e b e t t e r . Marty and Sarah had never heard of animation f e s t i v a l s . As might be p r e d i c t e d , a l l t he animators go t o see animated f i l m s and f e s t i v a l s both l o c a l l y and elsewhere. To summarize: w h i l e respondents went t o see animated f i l m s , some teachers simply d i d not l i k e them and the r e s t d i d not make the time t o go. Students g e n e r a l l y went t o see animated f i l m s , would l i k e t o go t o f e s t i v a l s , o r had never heard of them. The animators were r e g u l a r a t t e n d e r s of animated f i l m s . D. CATEGORY I I I : POPULAR CULTURE F i g u r e 5 Question 1: How have cartoon c h a r a c t e r s i n f l u e n c e d your l i f e s i n c e your childhood? Cover Term Semantic R e l a t i o n s h i p Included Terms animation influences (teachers) have been evident in 1 selling - morals, responses, gestures (1) 2 Fred Flintstone echoed my father (1) 3 enjoying Disney (1) 4 identifying - drew, read, made mode Is (1) 5 nothing (2) (students) 1 Superman-towels, lunchkit, posters (4) 2 Mickey Mouse-ahollie, shirt, drew (3) 3 Bambi - sheets (2) 4 Wonderwoman -towels, underoos (2) 5 Garfield - slippers, lunchkit (2) 6 Snoopy - lunchkit (2) 7 Sesame Street - items (1) 8 Star Wars - poster (1) 9 comic book collection (1) A n a l y s i s of the R e s u l t s / 5 4 ( F i g u r e 5 cont'd) animation influences (students) have been evident in 10 Spiderman - hero 11 Popeye - shoes 12 Smurf - toys 13 toys - play along with the (1) (1) (1) T.V. program 14 miscellaneous - caps, cups. (1) mugs 15 Batman 16 Star Trek (1) (1) (1) (animators) 1 Disneymania 2 acting like Superman 3 drawing Popeye (1) (1) (1) The informant groups v a r i e d i n t h e i r responses t o t h i s q u e s t i o n . Three out of f i v e t eachers gave responses i n the realm of a t t i t u d e s , f e e l i n g s and gestu r e s w h i l e two s a i d t h e r e had been no such i n f l u e n c e s i n t h e i r l i v e s . L i n d a s a i d t h a t the F l i n t s t o n e s "echoed the way t h a t my f a t h e r t r e a t e d my mother . . . i t r e i n f o r c e d h i s sense of m a s c u l i n i t y . . . h e was the meat p r o v i d e r . . . I hated t h a t . " Lou remembers drawing the Disney c h a r a c t e r s [and]...making p l a s t i c i n e models of Woody Woodpecker." Mike f e e l s t h a t "animation i s put on t o s e l l a toy...you are s o l d a way of l i f e . . . m o r a l s , responses and g e s t u r e s . . . how many times have you s a i d . . . t h a t ' s a l l f o l k s ? " Students gave mostly m a t e r i a l i s t i c responses t o the q u e s t i o n posed. Sarah s a i d t h a t she used t o be a "Mickey Mouse-a h o l l i c . " Wally confessed t h a t a t age s i x , Spiderman was h i s hero. "I had Spiderman e v e r y t h i n g . . . I almost i d o l i z e d him." Mel e x p l a i n e d t h a t he had s t a r t e d a comic book c o l l e c t i o n A n a l y s i s of the Results/55 t h r e e y e a r s ago as an investment. From t h i s he has c u r r e n t l y saved enough money f o r h i s f i r s t term of u n i v e r s i t y . Jim remembered p l a y i n g with toy cartoon c h a r a c t e r s w h i l e he watched the show. Susan s a i d , "No, I never had any of those s t u p i d nightgowns with a b i g Mickey Mouse...1 t h i n k those are a l i t t l e s i l l y . . . m i n e * s Snoopy!" A l s o , two students mentioned e i t h e r the l i v e - a c t i o n movie s e r i e s S t a r Wars or S t a r Trek. Wally mentioned the l a t t e r , but then c o r r e c t e d h i m s e l f and s a i d t h a t i t was not animated. C h r i s however, kept S t a r Wars i n h i s l i s t of i n f l u e n c e s . Cartoon c h a r a c t e r i n f l u e n c e s are m a t e r i a l i s t i c and p l e n t i f u l w i t h i n the student responses. Only one animator f e l t s t r o n g l y t h a t c a r t o o n c h a r a c t e r s had an i n f l u e n c e on h i s l i f e and t h i s was i n the form of c o l l e c t i n g Disneymania. In summary, some t e a c h e r s f e e l t h a t c a r t o o n c h a r a c t e r s have i n f l u e n c e d them i n the realm of a t t i t u d e s , g e s t u r e s and f e e l i n g s . The other t e a c h e r s say t h a t t h e r e has been no i n f l u e n c e . Students say t h a t the i n f l u e n c e has been a predominantly m a t e r i a l i s t i c one, as so does one animator. Q u e s t i o n 2: Do you t h i n k animation i s used e x t e n s i v e l y today i n a l l forms of media? Teachers Yes (4) No (1) Students Yes (8) Animators Yes (2) No (1) A n a l y s i s of the Results/56 Informants f e e l predominantly t h a t animation i s used e x t e n s i v e l y i n a l l forms of media. Only two informants s a i d no. Teachers f e e l s t r o n g l y about t h i s . Lou f e e l s t h a t animation i s married with other mediums. Wayne does a c a r t o o n u n i t because he r e c o g n i z e s "the p o p u l a r i t y and v a l i d i t y of working with i t i n grade e i g h t and n i n e / t e n . 1 1 Mike f e e l s t h a t i t ' s so s o p h i s t i c a t e d i n a l o t of cases [ t h a t ] we don't r e a l i z e we're watching animation...one begins t o r e a l i z e t h a t t h ey're i n every, almost, commercial and f i l m and rock video t h a t one sees...animation i s i n e v e r y t h i n g t h a t you s e e . . . i t ' s j u s t t h a t we don't r e c o g n i z e i t . C o n t r a r y t o t h i s p e r s p e c t i v e , Linda f e e l s t h a t animation i s not used as much as i t c o u l d be. A l l of the students b e l i e v e t h a t animation i s used e x t e n s i v e l y i n media. Mel f e e l s t h a t i t ' s " d e f i n i t e l y i n everywhere ...even more so now." C o l l e e n f e e l s s i m i l a r l y . "You see more and more of i t i n a d v e r t i s i n g 'cause i t . . . c a t c h e s you r i g h t away." Susan and Jim s a i d t h a t animation i s used i n newspapers and p o l i t i c a l cartoons. The animators are i n agreement t h a t animation i s used e x t e n s i v e l y today. The one animator who s a i d no, s a i d so o n l y i n terms of the amount of animation footage used i n c o n t r a s t t o l i v e - a c t i o n footage. Ed s a i d t h a t animation i s "used e x t e n s i v e l y but i t ' s not... a p p r e c i a t e d c o n s c i o u s l y . " A n a l y s i s o f the Results/57 To conclude, the v a s t m a j o r i t y of informants f e e l t h a t animation i s used e x t e n s i v e l y today i n a l l forms of media. Que s t i o n 3: Do you t h i n k animation i s a major i n f l u e n c e i n students' popular c u l t u r e ? Teachers Yes (2) No (2) Unsure (1) Students Yes (5) No (2) Unsure (1) Animators Yes (2) No (1) Every informant group i s s p l i t f a i r l y e v e n l y i n t h e i r responses t o t h i s q u e s t i o n . In t o t a l , nine informants s a i d yes, f i v e s a i d no and two were unsure. Teachers are very s p l i t i n t h e i r responses. Linda s a i d no, u n l e s s the q u e s t i o n i n c l u d e d a d v e r t i s i n g . Mike f e e l s t h a t animation i s the overwhelming i n f l u e n c e and t h a t the c u r r e n t example i s i n the t e l e v i s i o n show Teenage Mutant N i n i a T u r t l e s . "High s c h o o l k i d s don't want t o t e l l you, but they do go home and watch i t . " Wayne agrees t h a t " f a v o r i t e c h a r a c t e r s are very, v e r y p o p u l a r [and t h a t the] whole T - s h i r t c r a z e has momentum and... borrows from animation c h a r a c t e r s . " Students are e q u a l l y s p l i t i n t h e i r responses. Marty f e e l s t h a t animation has an i n f l u e n c e on h i m s e l f and h i s f r i e n d s . A n a l y s i s of the Results/58 C h r i s doesn't b e l i e v e t h a t "anybody t h i n k s about i t c o n s c i o u s l y , i t ' s j u s t t h e r e . . . j u s t another form of e ntertainment." Susan r e l a t e d t h a t everybody r e a l l y l i k e s The Simpsons... t h e r e ' s a couple of people who l i k e the N i n j a T u r t l e s . . . which are r i d i c u l o u s i f you ask me...it's k i n d of neat t o see a cartoon change i n t o r e a l l i f e . In c o n t r a s t , C o l l e e n f e e l s t h a t animation " i n f l u e n c e s k i d s more." The animators were l e s s s p l i t i n t h e i r responses than the o t h e r s u b j e c t s . Ed b e l i e v e s t h a t s tudents are "very i n f l u e n c e d by t r e n d s . " Andrew f i n d s the "Simpsons...almost u g l y [and] honest [and] c l o s e r t o r e a l l i f e " but was s t i l l unsure of whether t o answer yes or no. To conclude, a l l informant groups are e x t e n s i v e l y s p l i t i n t h e i r responses t o whether animation i s a major i n f l u e n c e i n s t u d e n t s ' p o p u l a r c u l t u r e . F i g u r e 6 Q u estion 4: Imagine our c u l t u r e without the i n v e n t i o n of animation. How would our l i v e s be d i f f e r e n t ? Cover Term Semantical Included Terms R e l a t i o n s h i p life without animation (teachers) would be expressed through 1 slower paced society (1) 2 no justification for dreams (1) 3 no Walt myth (1) 4 kinder, gentler society (1) 5 think and read better (1) 6 less visually quick and literate (1) 7 more stuntmen (1) A n a l y s i s of the R e s u l t s / 5 9 ( F i g u r e 6, cont'd) life without animation (students) would be expressed through 1 nothing to laugh about (2) 2 movies more adult oriented (2) 3 more puppets (1) 4 ideas in your head (1) 5 kids less violent (1) 6 creative people different jobs (1) 7 forced to use imagination (1) 8 couldn't sell toys as easily (1) 9 PeeWee Herman cease to exist (1) 10 commercials not as memorable (1) 11 no Disneyland (1) (animators) 1 more serious, dark, dreary (2) 2 without wonder, awe, magic -lives poverty stricken (1) 3 people need stories, dreams (1) 4 less laughs, joyful moments (1) V i r t u a l l y each i n d i v i d u a l has h i s / h e r own answer t o t h i s q u e s t i o n . Teachers p r o v i d e d seven answers, st u d e n t s e l e v e n and animators f o u r . Wayne b e l i e v e s t h a t t e l e v i s i o n would be l o s t without animation while Mike f e e l s t h a t s o c i e t y would be " l e s s v i s u a l l y l i t e r a t e . " L inda b e l i e v e s t h a t the " m a n i p u l a t i o n of time and i l l u s i o n . . . w o u l d be m i s s i n g . " Lou wonders "how [Walt] would have c r e a t e d t h a t myth" acknowledging t h a t Disney c h a r a c t e r s make up "a b i g chunk of everyone's c h i l d h o o d . " L i l commented t h a t "PeeWee Herman would pr o b a b l y cease t o e x i s t . . . w i t h o u t a l l the a n i m a t i o n . . . t o keep the k i d s ' a t t e n t i o n . " Mike f e e l s t h a t without animation t h e r e would probably j u s t be news. Wally p e r c e i v e s t h a t animation p r e s e n t s l i f e " i n a simple way." Susan f e e l s t h a t "probably when you're a k i d you'd be f o r c e d t o use your i m a g i n a t i o n . " Matt v i s u a l i z e s the world as b e i n g "dark and A n a l y s i s of the Results/60 d r e a r y " without animation. F i n a l l y , Ed b e l i e v e s t h a t "we'd be more serious...without...wonder, awe, magic...our l i v e s would be much more poverty s t r i c k e n . " To summarize, b a s i c a l l y each i n d i v i d u a l has h i s / h e r own o p i n i o n of what l i f e would be l i k e without animation. Q u e s t i o n 5: Do you t h i n k t h a t j u s t because something makes up a p a r t of our popular c u l t u r e , i t makes i t worthy of study? Teachers Yes (4) No (1) Students Yes (5) No (1) Unsure (2) Animators Yes (3) The m a j o r i t y of informants responded yes t o t h i s q u e s t i o n . Twelve informants s a i d yes, two s a i d no and two were unsure. Teachers f e l t q u i t e s t r o n g l y about t h i s t o p i c . L i n d a f e e l s t h a t students " i n t e r e s t s . . . c a n be transposed as a t e a c h i n g t o o l . " She went on t o say t h a t s o c i e t y doesn't view animation as an important p a r t of c u l t u r e . . . s o c i e t y . . . v i e w s i t as, not an a r t form, as an entertainment f a c t o r . . . w h i c h i s why i t hasn't earned i t s p l a c e i n B.C. c u r r i c u l u m s . Lou c a l l s animation a p s e u d o - r e a l i t y and t h a t "we take the be h a v i o r of Bugs Bunny 'What's up doc? 1 and put i t i n t o our r e a l r e p e r t o i r e . " As such, animation becomes worthy of study. Wayne f e e l s t h a t " i t c o u l d be...a minor u n i t of study i n a fo u n d a t i o n s course." Mike s t a t e d t h a t "we're now e i g h t y years A n a l y s i s of the R e s u l t s / 6 1 i n t o i t . . . i t ' s been popular f o r a long p e r i o d of time... p o p u l a r . . . i t ' s k i n d of a cheap shot... i t ' s not o n l y j u s t p o p u lar, i t i s c u l t u r e . " Students were s p l i t i n t h e i r responses t o t h i s q u e s t i o n . Wally f e e l s t h a t "something such as [animation] has an i n f l u e n c e on a person or a group." L i l agrees - " i t ' s something t h a t ' s happening i n t h e i r l i v e s . " C o l l e e n r e f u t e s t h a t and s t a t e s t h a t i t "depends on how s i g n i f i c a n t i t i s . " Mel was the student who s a i d no t o the q u e s t i o n , because he doesn't f e e l t h a t t h e r e are "any r e a l g r e a t animation a r t i s t s . . . [ t h e r e ' s ] no Michelangelo." The animators unanimously agreed on the q u e s t i o n . However, Andrew i s not "so sure t h a t [animation] has...the same d e p t h . . . i n terms of l i t e r a t u r e . . . a b o u t the human c o n d i t i o n . " Ed f e e l s t h a t " e v e r y t h i n g t h a t a f f e c t s people" i s worthy of study. In summary, the m a j o r i t y of informants f e e l t h a t a s p e c t s of popular c u l t u r e are worthy of study. A n a l y s i s of the Results/62 E. CATEGORY IV: CAREERS F i g u r e 7 Question 1: What c a r e e r s do you t h i n k t h a t an animation background would h e l p prepare a student f o r ? Cover Term Semantical Included Terms R e l a t i o n s h i p animation background (teachers) would have consequences for 1 sales/promotion (4) 2 film-making, tv, video (4) 3 computer graphics (2) 4 art form (2) 5 science/medical (2) 6 teaching (1) 7 set design (1) 8 design (1) 9 any art career (1) 10 visualize end product (1) 11 precise record keeping (1) (students) 1 commercial art (6) 2 fiIm making, tv, cartooning (4) 3 advertising (4) 4 career that needs plan (2) 5 design (2) 6 creative release (1) 7 art director (1) 8 education (1) 9 writing (1) 10 any career (1) (animators) 1 computer animation (2) 2 any media (1) 3 live action films (1) 4 painting/illustration (1) 5 design (1) 6 architecture (1) 7 job that requires: crazy, obsessive. analytical, perfectionist persistent, thorough initiative (1) Many c a r e e r s were named where i t i s f e l t t h a t an animation background would h e l p prepare a student. Teachers named e l e v e n c a r e e r s i n t o t a l and between two and f i v e c a r e e r s each. A n a l y s i s o f the Results/63 Students named t e n i n t o t a l and between two and t h r e e each. L a s t l y , animators named seven i n t o t a l and named between one and t h r e e c a r e e r s each. The major c a t e g o r i e s t h a t t e a c h e r s named were sales/promotion and film-making. The minor c a r e e r c a t e g o r i e s were computer g r a p h i c s , s c i e n c e / m e d i c a l and a r t forms. Students named a d v e r t i s i n g , film-making and commercial a r t as t h e i r major c a t e g o r i e s and any c a r e e r t h a t would need a p l a n or d e s i g n as t h e i r minor category. The o n l y major c a r e e r c a t e g o r y f o r the animators i s computer animation, but even then, not everyone agreed. In summary, sal e s / p r o m o t i o n , film-making and commercial a r t are the t h r e e c a r e e r areas t h a t a l l informant groups agreed upon. Teachers p e r c e i v e the g r e a t e s t number of c a r e e r p o s s i b i l i t i e s and animators the l e a s t . Q u e stion 2: Do you t h i n k t h a t a student's v i s u a l l i t e r a c y would be extended due t o an animation background? Teachers Yes (5) Students Yes (7) Unsure (1) Animators Yes (3) A l l informant groups are i n agreement i n t h e i r responses t o t h i s q u e s t i o n , with the e x c e p t i o n of one student who was undecided. Two teach e r s gave q u a l i f i c a t i o n s w i t h t h e i r responses. Wayne f e e l s t h a t , " i t c o u l d . In terms of oth e r f a c t o r s , t h e r e might be other forms of e d u c a t i o n b e t t e r A n a l y s i s of the Results/64 s u i t e d . . . o t h e r t o p i c s are more important f o r t e a c h i n g v i s u a l l i t e r a c y . " Bob doesn't " t h i n k animation i s as important as f i l m i t s e l f . . . i t ' s a smal l p a r t of i t . " Lou f e e l s t h a t an animation background would enhance, extend and e n r i c h "your v i s u a l v o c a b u l a r y . " Linda f e e l s t h a t i t would depend on the te a c h e r because students "normally view a t the f i r s t l e v e l , the entertainment f a c t o r . " Students d i s c u s s e d d i f f e r e n t i s s u e s i n response t o t h i s q u e s t i o n . Wally f e e l s t h a t animation i s a si m p l e r area of a r t . . . a s opposed t o drawing... p a i n t i n g . . . [ t h e r e ] you have your i d e a and then you pa i n t . . . a n d you have a l l your m a t e r i a l s . But, w i t h animation you j u s t , w e l l I guess t h a t ' s about the same t h i n g . . . i t ' s not a complex...area of a r t . C h r i s f e e l s t h a t v i s u a l l i t e r a c y c o u l d be extended i f you know about the t e c h n i c a l p a r t s . . . b u t t h e r e [are] so many potato-heads t h a t j u s t s i t t h e r e . . . t h e y ' r e not any smarter...'cause t h e y ' r e not r e a l l y t h i n k i n g about i t . C o l l e e n b e l i e v e s t h a t a f i n e a r t s background would be more u s e f u l t o extend a student's v i s u a l l i t e r a c y . Animators focused on d i f f e r e n t f e a t u r e s of the q u e s t i o n . Andrew b e l i e v e s t h a t animation's " g r e a t e s t v a l u e [ i s ] i n the understanding of processes and t h i n g s t h a t a re not A or B." Ed e x p l a i n e d t h a t Once you know how f i l m s [are] made [you're] not j u s t l o o k i n g i n a window...in a news program...what r e a l l y h a p p e n e d . . . i t 1 s a b i t s c a r y . . . e v e r y t h i n g Analysis of the Results/65 i s . . . c r e a t e d . . . i l l u s i o n . . . i t ' s as r e a l as you make i t . The majority of respondents believe that a student's v i s u a l l i t e r a c y could be extended due to an animation background. The teachers a l l said yes, but mostly with q u a l i f i c a t i o n s i n t h e i r responses. Students provided diverse answers, as did the animators. Question 3: Do you think that studying animation would help a student become a better creative problem solver? Teachers Yes (4) No (1) Students Yes (6) Unsure (2) Animators Yes (1) Unsure (2) Eleven out of sixteen informants believe that studying animation would help a student become a better creative problem solver, four are unsure and one said no. Teachers' responses varied. Lou feels that animation would help i n t h i s way because " i t doesn't have the same boundaries...as regular film-making." Wayne agrees, but with h e s i t a t i o n ; he doesn't view i t as the t o t a l answer. Mike discussed t h i s t o p i c i n depth: You do a l l those...higher l e v e l thinking s k i l l s i n order to extrapolate an answer...how much the person had to understand t e c h n i c a l l y i n order to achieve even a few seconds of film...another prime example A n a l y s i s of the Results/66 of the ignorance of people who don't get i n v o l v e d i n media...we al l o w media t o r e g u r g i t a t e . . . the b e t t e r the consumer i s , the h i g h e r the l e v e l of the product. In answering t h i s q u e s t i o n , Bob spoke about animation i n g e n e r a l . Animation i s on the whole f r u s t r a t i n g , t e d i o u s and...a p a i n . . . I t h i n k i t appeals much more t o . . . younger students... t h e r e • s b e t t e r use of people's time...why spend t h r e e months t o l e a r n something you can l e a r n i n twenty minutes?... on the whole f r u s t r a t i n g . . . i t wasn't...for me, but f o r . . . t h e k i d s t h a t d i d i t . . . a c t u a l l y , they d i d a p r e t t y n i c e job of i t . . . t h e time t h a t i s spent j u s t t o show a l i t t l e b i t of movement and change... t h e r e ' s l o t s of othe r ways t o do i t . Students a l s o p r o v i d e d a v a r i e t y of responses. L i l s a i d , "Sure. ..'cause you have t o g i v e i t l i f e . . . i t ' s a problem . . . j u s t t o make i t move and make i t . . . i n a n a t u r a l way." Sophie f e e l s t h a t "any k i n d of a r t might h e l p you i n problem s o l v i n g . " Joe f e l t t h a t animation c o u l d h e l p , but he c o u l d n ' t see how i t would a l o t . The animators were mostly unsure i f s t u d y i n g animation c o u l d h e l p i n problem s o l v i n g . Andrew was one of the unsure ones, ye t addressed t h i s i s s u e i n a d i s c u s s i o n on a f i l m . Roger Rabbit was r e a l l y q u i t e a breakthrough . . . i n terms o f . . . o p t i c a l work and e f f e c t s . . . i t l ooks seamless... but... t o a c t u a l l y do t h a t . . . they poured over f i f t y m i l l i o n d o l l a r s i n t o t h i s and t i e d up probably the best b r a i n s i n the country... students w i l l see t h a t and t h i n k •wow - I'm going t o do t h a t ' . A n a l y s i s of the Results/67 Ed f e l t t h a t s t u d y i n g animation would h e l p and s t a t e d t h a t " i f i t ' s one t h i n g you f i n d i n animation, i t ' s problems." While s e v e r a l informants f e e l t h a t s t u d y i n g animation would h e l p a student become a b e t t e r c r e a t i v e problem s o l v e r , a number of them have r e s e r v a t i o n s about the matter. F i g u r e 8 Q u e s t i o n 4: What e d u c a t i o n a l background do you t h i n k a student would need who wanted t o become an animator? Cover Term Semantical R e l a t i o n s h i p Included Terms educational background for animation (teachers) would require 1 art - drawing, design composition 2 technical 3 creative problem solving 4 communication 5 watching animation 6 imagination 7 motivation 8 individual stamp 9 theatre 10 math 11 story t e l l i n g 12 sc r i p t s 13 high level ski I Is 14 media course (students) 1 art (6) 2 technical (3) 3 writing-creative (3) 4 creative thinking (2) 5 music (2) 6 acting (2) 7 watch animation (2) 8 science (1) 9 math (1) 10 career prep (1) 11 nothing (1) (animators) 1 technical (3) 2 art-drawing (3) 3 story t e l l i n g (2) 4 l i t e r a t u r e (2) 5 cultural s e n s i t i v i t y (1) A n a l y s i s of the R e s u l t s / 6 8 ( F i g u r e 8 cont'd) educational background for animation (animators) would require 6 take yourself seriously 7 guru 8 real world 9 art school 10 music 11 drama 12 study movement Themes became apparent from the responses t h a t the informant groups gave i n answering t h i s q u e s t i o n . Teachers gave f o u r t e e n answers, students eleven and animators twelve. The main e d u c a t i o n a l backgrounds t h a t t e a c h e r s f e l t were needed f o r f u t u r e animators were a r t (drawing, d e s i g n and composition) and t e c h n i c a l e x p e r t i s e . S i x s t u d e n t s agreed w i t h the need of an a r t background. A l l of the animators p l a c e d a r t and t e c h n i c a l e x p e r t i s e as the main s k i l l s r e q u i r e d . The next h i g h e s t c a t e g o r i e s i n c l u d e d : c r e a t i v e w r i t i n g and t h i n k i n g , s t o r y t e l l i n g , music, drama and l i t e r a t u r e . Numerous other a t t r i b u t e s were named, but they were o n l y put f o r t h by one p a r t i c i p a n t each. With the e x c e p t i o n of some of the students, everyone sees a h i g h need f o r an a r t background and t e c h n i c a l e x p e r t i s e t o be an animator. However, t h i s i s the o n l y background t h a t the m a j o r i t y of informants agreed upon. The r e s t of the data i s d i s p e r s e d between the informant groups. For example, Mel was the o n l y student t o f e e l than an e d u c a t i o n a l background was not r e q u i r e d . A n a l y s i s of the Results/69 T h e r e 1 s so many a r t i s t s out t h e r e t h a t can j u s t draw and p a i n t . . . t h e y don't need...any education...they can take courses but I don't t h i n k i t w i l l h e l p as much as them working on i t . Ed was the o n l y other p a r t i c i p a n t t o d i s c u s s t h i s t o p i c . He f e e l s t h a t animation i s " d i f f i c u l t t o do i n h i g h school...you don't l e a r n anything about i t u n t i l the r e a l world." In summary, a r t and t e c h n i c a l e x p e r t i s e are the o n l y e d u c a t i o n a l background experiences t h a t the m a j o r i t y of informants are i n agreement upon. Question 5: Do you t h i n k t h a t an animation background would b e t t e r prepare a g e n e r a l a r t student (non-art major) f o r h i s / h e r f u t u r e c a r e e r ? Teachers Yes (4) No (1) Students Yes (5) No (1) Unsure (2) Animators Yes (1) No (2) Although more people s a i d yes than no t o t h i s q u e s t i o n , the responses are s t i l l d i v e r s e . Ten informants s a i d yes, f o u r s a i d no and two were unsure. Four out of f i v e t e a c h e r s s a i d yes and they s a i d so f o r the f o l l o w i n g reasons: 1) you'd a p p r e c i a t e and r e s p e c t f i l m , 2) nothi n g i s wasted and 3) animation would be a g r e a t p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g e x p e r i e n c e . Mike spoke i n d e t a i l r e g a r d i n g t h i s l a s t statement. Rather than c a r r y i n g a p r e j u d i c e s a y i n g , oh, wasn't he having fun making a f i l m , you might ...have...respect f o r a film-maker...and say A n a l y s i s of the Results/70 ...he's a very b r i g h t and t a l e n t e d and c r e a t i v e i n d i v i d u a l r a t h e r than saying, oh, he's j u s t some a r t s i e f a r t s i e dude. Students were more d i v e r s e i n t h e i r answers t o t h i s q u e s t i o n . Mel f e l t t h a t " i t would h e l p . . . j u s t t o get another dimension t o t h e i r t h i n k i n g . " C h r i s f e e l s t h a t i t would h e l p " i f you're g o i n g t o have t o work with people... t h e r e ' s a l o t of teamwork." L a s t l y , Marty f e e l s t h a t any a r t e x p e r i e n c e makes you a f r i e n d l i e r person. Two out of t h r e e animators do not b e l i e v e t h a t an animation background would be u s e f u l t o other c a r e e r s . Ed was the onl y animator who thought " t h a t the more you know the b e t t e r you are as a human b e i n g . " In summary, the informant groups were f a i r l y s p l i t i n t h e i r responses t o whether o r not an animation background would b e n e f i t other c a r e e r s . The m a j o r i t y of teach e r s f e l t t h a t i t would be b e n e f i c i a l , the m a j o r i t y of animators s a i d t h a t i t would not, and the students were s p l i t between yes, no and unsure answers. F. CATEGORY V: BACKGROUNDS 1. Teachers A l l of the t e a c h e r s i n t h i s study had taught between t h i r t e e n and twenty y e a r s . A l l but one had an e x t e n s i v e a r t t r a i n i n g background. Three out of f i v e d i d have s p e c i f i c t r a i n i n g i n f i l m . Four out of f i v e had taught a wide range o f a r t cour s e s . Two te a c h e r s had p r e v i o u s l y taught a s p e c i f i c communications/media course while two others had taught e i t h e r A n a l y s i s of the Resu l t s / 7 1 f i l m or photography. Four out of f i v e t e a c h e r s had taught animation i n the past, but none had r e c e n t l y . Two of them had taught i t because they were t e a c h i n g the one d i s t r i c t media course. T h i s o c c u r r e d i n the same s c h o o l , and had the same course number, but was taught a t d i f f e r e n t times. Of the f o u r t e a c h e r s who had taught animation, t h r e e f e l t t h a t the stud e n t s responded very w e l l t o the u n i t . Lou f e l t t h a t the be s t p a r t about t e a c h i n g animation " i s watching the k i d s being t u r n e d on...the p r o d u c t i o n i s r e a l l y a l o t of f u n . " Mike f e e l s t h a t the best p a r t i s "the l e v e l of involvement. . . [they] have e m o t i o n a l l y responded t o i t and they want t o know how t h i s works." Bob was the only teacher who f e l t n e g a t i v e l y about t h i s . "There i s no best part...maybe students* excitement f o r t h e i r f i l m when they get i t back f o r about t e n minutes. . .not many of them ever wanted t o do i t a g a i n . " Each t e a c h e r who had taught animation r e a d i l y e x p l a i n e d what was the worst p a r t about t e a c h i n g i t . Lou f e e l s t h a t i t ' s "the t e c h n i c a l h u r d l e s . . . t h e o l d Super 8 cameras went out of focus too e a s i l y . . . a n d you don't know u n t i l e i g h t t o t e n days when i t comes back." Linda f e e l s t h a t the worst p a r t about t e a c h i n g animation i s "not having enough hands t o f i x a l l the cameras and check the l i g h t i n g and the exposures... students [are] . . .too impatient t o do s t o r y boarding c o r r e c t l y . . .1 t h i n k i t ' s r e a l l y hard t o teach. " Mike b e l i e v e s t h a t the worst p a r t about t e a c h i n g animation i s "the c o s t . . . i t ' s tremendously expensive i n time and i n having the proper equipment t o do the A n a l y s i s of the Results/72 job, because...kids have very s o p h i s t i c a t e d t a s t e and they want t o produce something on a s h o e s t r i n g . 1 1 L a s t l y , Bob f i n d s t h a t animation i s d i f f i c u l t t o teach f o r d i f f e r e n t reasons. He f e e l s t h a t the hard p a r t i s " t r y i n g t o make i t e x c i t i n g . . . c u t the tedium of the r e p e t i t i o n . . . t h o u g h a c t u a l l y , some of the s t u f f they d i d was dynamite." Teachers are i n agreement t h a t animation i s d i f f i c u l t t o t e a c h . Teachers were then asked what i t would take f o r them t o teach animation on a r e g u l a r b a s i s . Four out of f i v e t e a c h e r s s a i d t h a t they would need the proper equipment, two r e q u i r e d a se p a r a t e room f o r f i l m i n g , one s a i d t h a t the p r o c e s s i n g time must be shortened and one r e q u i r e d a u n i t of study or a workshop on the s u b j e c t . In Bob's case, the equipment l i s t was e x t e n s i v e . He s a i d t h a t he "would need t o have...a v i d e o animation camera, a l l the equipment, i n c l u d i n g . . . v i d e o e d i t o r . . . i n c l u d i n g user f r i e n d l y computer programs." Lou spoke f o r everyone when he s a i d t h a t he would need " a l l the f r u s t r a t i o n s taken away" before he would t e a c h animation on a r e g u l a r b a s i s . The t e a c h e r s were then asked how t h e i r students responded t o an animation u n i t . Of the f o u r who had taught animation, a l l responded p o s i t i v e l y . Lou s a i d t h a t "the k i d s who are doing i t a r e always keen." Linda exclaimed t h a t her students " l o v e d i t . . . l o v e d i t . . . l o v e d i t . " Mike compared h i s stu d e n t s t o a A n a l y s i s o f the Results/73 "bottomless p i t . Once you open the door they a l l run l i k e a th u n d e r i n g herd...they a r e . . . i n v o l v e d up t o t h e i r p r o v e r b i a l e a r s . " Bob responded t h a t students r e a c t e d " p o s i t i v e l y " t o an animation u n i t . O v e r a l l , t e a c h e r s say t h a t students respond e n t h u s i a s t i c a l l y t o an animation u n i t . However, as Lou p o i n t s out "the f r u s t r a t i o n comes from the l a c k o f good r e s u l t s . " The l a s t q u e s t i o n posed t o teach e r s was whether or not they f e e l t h a t t h e r e are many jobs a v a i l a b l e i n animation. Three t e a c h e r s s a i d no, one s a i d yes and one was unsure. The t e a c h e r s who s a i d no, s a i d so because they f e l t t h a t animation was a ve r y c o m p e t i t i v e f i e l d and t h a t o n l y a top student c o u l d make i t . Bob d i d n ' t t h i n k t h a t t h e r e are many jobs a v a i l a b l e . "I don't see i t as a core of an a r t program. .. i t ' s a very p e r i p h e r a l s u b j e c t and i t shouldn't be g i v e n the time when t h e r e ' s so many other important t h i n g s t h a t can be done w i t h the time." On the other s i d e of the i s s u e , Mike e x p l a i n e d t h a t t h e r e are "many more jobs than I ever thought...I don't t h i n k we as t e a c h e r s . . . q u i t e r e a l i z e the depth of involvement . . . i n the l a s t f i f t e e n years, more of my k i d s have media r e l a t e d jobs t h a n . . . a r t j o b s . " 2. Students The students i n t h i s study were between grades t e n and twelve and between the ages of f i f t e e n and seventeen. With the A n a l y s i s of the Results/74 e x c e p t i o n of two students, a l l of them are a r t majors who are p l a n n i n g a c a r e e r i n the v i s u a l a r t s . Even so, they a l l s a i d t h a t a r t would always be an i n t e g r a l p a r t o f t h e i r l i v e s . Seven of the students had never made an animated f i l m . Of the two t h a t had, one was made d u r i n g elementary s c h o o l and the ot h e r was made r e c e n t l y . The r e c e n t animation was a p i x i l a t i o n v i d e o . T h i s animation wasn't v e r y s u c c e s s f u l because the teacher l e f t "the i n s t r u c t i o n s a t home...[and] he d i d n ' t b r i n g them." However, Marty s a i d " i t looked o k a y . . . i t was k i n d of j e r k y . " Students were asked i f they would l i k e t o make an animated f i l m . S i x students s a i d yes and thr e e s a i d no. The students who s a i d no used the f o l l o w i n g reasons: 1) animation i s too t e c h n i c a l and 2) they don't have the p a t i e n c e f o r the b o r i n g r e p e t i t i o n . On the other s i d e , L i l thought t h a t " i t would be fu n . . . i t would be neat t o see something t h a t you c r e a t e d come to l i f e . " Mike s a i d " t h a t ' s what I was t h i n k i n g of doing ...next year when I have more time f o r a major p r o j e c t . " C h r i s showed concern when he s a i d "yes...I'd l i k e t o . . . b u t t h e r e ' s n o t h i n g a c c e s s i b l e around here...no equipment t o do i t . . . t h e s t r e s s i n t h i s s c h o o l i s on computers and math...no one knows how t o teach animation." The l a s t q u e s t i o n asked was whether students f e l t t h a t t h e r e were many jobs a v a i l a b l e i n animation. Seven st u d e n t s A n a l y s i s of the Results/75 responded yes and two responded no. The students who s a i d no s a i d so due t o the i m p r a c t i c a l i t y and narrowness of the f i e l d . The students who responded yes d i d so because of t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n of p o s s i b l e openings i n a d v e r t i s i n g , the entertainment f i e l d and computers. 3. Animators The animators became i n v o l v e d i n the f i e l d i n d i f f e r e n t ways. Ed experimented b r i e f l y with h i s f a t h e r ' s movie camera a t age 12 but d i d n ' t get r e i n t r o d u c e d t o the medium u n t i l y e a r s l a t e r a t a r t s c h o o l . Andrew s t a r t e d by drawing c a r t o o n s f o r magazines and then h i s ideas simply became lo n g e r and he r e q u i r e d a d i f f e r e n t format. Matt s a i d t h a t h i s i n t e r e s t i n animation began as a c h i l d watching c a r t o o n s . Matt was the o n l y animator who had ever made an animated f i l m i n h i g h s c h o o l ; s i g n i f i c a n t l y , i t was a t the same s c h o o l where the two t e a c h e r s had taught the communications/media course. The animators were f i r s t a t t r a c t e d t o the f i e l d f o r the f o l l o w i n g reasons: 1) fantasy, 2) humor, 3) the m i l i e u , 4) the range of p o s s i b i l i t i e s i t p r o v i d e d and 5) e a r l y viewings as a c h i l d . Ed and Andrew decided t o become animators d u r i n g a r t s c h o o l when they took a r e q u i r e d course i n i t . They r e c e i v e d t h e i r t r a i n i n g from the same l o c a l a r t s c h o o l w h i l e Matt r e c e i v e d h i s f i l m t r a i n i n g through a couple of p a r t - t i m e f i l m courses, (Matt i s the producer who i s not an animator). A n a l y s i s of the Results/76 One day a t the community c o l l e g e , Matt saw a p o s t i n g f o r a p a r t - t i m e 'go-fer' p o s i t i o n a t a l o c a l animation house, and t h a t was how h i s c a r e e r began. A l l t h r e e s a i d t h a t i t was d i f f i c u l t g e t t i n g t h e i r c a r e e r s e s t a b l i s h e d . Andrew mentioned t h a t when he began, which was i n 1956, t h e r e were no other animators around. Ed s a i d t h a t i n animation, as i n a l l the a r t s , t h e r e ' s a two t o f o u r year i n i t i a t i o n p e r i o d c a l l e d p o v e r t y . During t h i s time, animators w i l l p i c k up b i t s of work here and t h e r e . Since t h a t time, however, they a l l f e e l t h a t t h e i r c a r e e r s have gone w e l l . The animators f e l t t h a t Sheridan C o l l e g e and Emily C a r r School of A r t are the best p l a c e s t o get t r a i n e d . Other s i t e s of p o t e n t i a l t r a i n i n g i n c l u d e Calgary, Concordia ( M o n t r e a l ) , the NFB, York, Shanghai, and v a r i o u s c e n t r e s i n e a s t e r n Europe. A f i n a l s u g g e s t i o n was t h a t "you j u s t do i t on your own". A l l t h r e e agreed t h a t c u r r e n t l y , animation makes a good c a r e e r c h o i c e . Ed s a i d t h a t t h e r e ' s "more happening now than ever b e f o r e . . . [ i t ' s a t the] l e a d i n g edge." Matt noted t h a t i t d i d make a good c a r e e r c h o i c e , but not i f you want t o become r i c h . G. SUMMARY Important p o i n t s from the informant responses w i l l now be summarized through the c a t e g o r i e s p r o v i d e d i n the t e x t . A n a l y s i s of the R e s u l t s / 7 7 1. D e f i n i n g Animation D e f i n i t i o n s surrounding animation are not c l e a r . Teachers d e f i n e animation i n t e c h n i c a l terms w h i l e students are d i v e r s e and not always c o r r e c t . Although the animators named the h i g h e s t number of animation s t y l e s , no one p a r t i c i p a n t was a b l e t o p r o v i d e a complete or near complete l i s t o f s t y l e s . Teachers and students were not ab l e t o p r o v i d e a s u b s t a n t i a l l i s t of where animation was c u r r e n t l y used. Although the m a j o r i t y of p a r t i c i p a n t s f e l t t h a t animation i s an important a r t form, t h e i r reasons v a r i e d as t o why. While t e a c h e r s and animators p e r c e i v e d t h a t the m a j o r i t y of animation i s designed f o r a d u l t s , students h e l d d i f f e r e n t o p i n i o n s on t h i s t o p i c . 2. Potent Images Every informant c o u l d e a s i l y name memorable animated f i l m s . They l i k e d animation f o r d i f f e r e n t reasons. Students l i k e d i t f o r the humor and b i z a r r e q u a l i t i e s , animators because of the magic. Teachers were d i v e r s e i n t h e i r reasons. Animators were the o n l y group who f e l t t h a t t h e i r animation memories were p e r s o n a l . Teachers and students were d i v e r s e i n t h e i r responses t o t h i s t o p i c . P r a c t i c a l l y everyone l i k e d watching animated f i l m s , but some of the informants d i d not l i k e watching " c h i l d i s h cartoons". Teachers saw animated f i l m s l e a s t o f t e n ; students would e i t h e r have l i k e d t o , or d i d v i s i t f i l m f e s t i v a l s . A n a l y s i s of the Results/78 3. Popular C u l t u r e Most t e a c h e r s f e l t t h a t cartoon c h a r a c t e r s have i n f l u e n c e d them i n the realm of a t t i t u d e s , f e e l i n g s and g e s t u r e s . Students have been i n f l u e n c e d m a t e r i a l i s t i c a l l y w h i l e animators have been i n f l u e n c e d i n a v a r i e t y of ways. The m a j o r i t y of informants b e l i e v e d t h a t animation i s used e x t e n s i v e l y today i n media. Yet, they expressed d i v e r g e n t o p i n i o n s as t o whether or not animation i s an i n f l u e n c e i n s t u d e n t s ' popular c u l t u r e . Each informant had h i s / h e r own p e r c e p t i o n as t o what l i f e would be l i k e without animation. The m a j o r i t y of informants f e l t t h a t a s p e c t s of p o p u l a r c u l t u r e were worthy of study. 4. Careers S a l e s and promotion, f i l m and commercial a r t were the t h r e e c a r e e r s f o r which a l l informants agreed an animation background would be h e l p f u l . The m a j o r i t y of informants b e l i e v e d t h a t an animation background would extend a student's v i s u a l l i t e r a c y . However, informants were s p l i t on whether or not an animation background would h e l p a student i n c r e a t i v e problem s o l v i n g . An a r t background and t e c h n i c a l e x p e r t i s e were the main areas of t r a i n i n g t h a t p a r t i c i p a n t s p e r c e i v e d an animator would need t o have. The m a j o r i t y of t e a c h e r s f e l t t h a t an animation background would be u s e f u l i n o t h e r c a r e e r s , the m a j o r i t y of animators f e l t t h a t i t would not, and students were d i v e r s e i n t h e i r o p i n i o n s on t h i s A n a l y s i s of the Results/ 7 9 p o i n t . 5. Backgrounds The t e a c h e r s i n t h i s study were both experienced and d i v e r s e i n t h e i r areas of a r t e x p e r t i s e , with the e x c e p t i o n of one. Although f o u r out of f i v e t e a c h e r s had p r e v i o u s l y taught animation, none was c u r r e n t l y . Teachers f e l t t h a t the bes t p a r t about t e a c h i n g animation i s the p o s i t i v e way t h a t the stud e n t s respond t o i t while the worst p a r t i s the t e c h n i c a l h u r d l e s . Teachers were d i v e r s e i n t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n s of c a r e e r p o s s i b i l i t i e s w i t h i n the f i e l d . The students i n t h i s study were s e n i o r , a r t i c u l a t e a r t majors who have a stake i n the v i s u a l a r t s . Only two students had ever made an animated f i l m and one of these had not been s u c c e s s f u l due t o t e c h n i c a l d i f f i c u l t i e s . S i x students would have l i k e d t o make an animated f i l m and t h r e e would not. Reasons f o r not wanting t o make one are the t e c h n i c a l and r e p e t i t i v e nature of the medium. The m a j o r i t y o f students p e r c e i v e d animation t o be an area w i t h s u b s t a n t i a l c a r e e r p o t e n t i a l . In summarizing the animators' backgrounds, s e v e r a l themes became apparent. Only one of them had made an animated f i l m i n h i g h s c h o o l . The other two evolved i n t o the f i e l d from e x p e r i e n c e s a t a r t s c h o o l . They agreed t h a t animation can be A n a l y s i s of the Results/80 a d i f f i c u l t f i e l d t o get s t a r t e d i n , but t h a t a t the time of the study, the f i e l d was e x p e r i e n c i n g a growth p e r i o d . CHAPTER V: INTERPRETATION OF THE RESULTS A. INTRODUCTION In t h i s s e c t i o n , each of the responses w i l l be i n t e r p r e t e d and p r e s e n t e d i n the same sequence as i n Chapter IV: 1) d e f i n i n g animation, 2) potent images, 3) po p u l a r c u l t u r e , 4) c a r e e r s and 5) backgrounds. Not a l l informants e l a b o r a t e d on every q u e s t i o n ; f r e q u e n t l y some simply responded yes or no. T h e r e f o r e , the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n may d i s c u s s t r e n d s based on the e l a b o r a t i o n s of onl y some of the respondents. In t h i s c hapter, an i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of each of the q u e s t i o n s w i l l be p r o v i d e d and any c o n t r a d i c t i o n s , p r e c o n c e i v e d o p i n i o n s or p r e j u d i c e s r e s u l t i n g from the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n w i l l be d i s c u s s e d . B. CATEGORY I: DEFINING ANIMATION Q u e s t i o n 1: How would you d e f i n e animation? From the a n a l y s i s of the responses t o t h i s q u e s t i o n , i t became e v i d e n t t h a t i n d e f i n i n g animation, the t h r e e groups addressed d i f f e r e n t i s s u e s . Teachers d e f i n e d animation i n t e c h n i c a l terms o n l y , w h i l e animators d e f i n e d animation a l s o i n terms of the s p i r i t of the a r t form. Although students were the l e a s t a r t i c u l a t e and l e a s t a c curate i n d e f i n i n g animation, 81 I n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the Results/82 t h e i r d e f i n i t i o n s more c l o s e l y p a r a l l e l e d the animators' d e f i n i t i o n s i n s p i r i t . However, students were the on l y informant group t o express s t e r e o t y p i c a l o p i n i o n s . For example, students d e f i n e d animation as a simple language, c a r t o o n s and the f u n n i e s . However, as the animators p o i n t e d out, animation i s a complex a r t form and ca r t o o n s comprise o n l y one aspect of the f i e l d . To conclude, some of the responses t o t h i s q u e s t i o n r e i n f o r c e the p o i n t t h a t f o r the non-expert, d e f i n i t i o n s of animation are cloudy. Question 2: Can you name or d e s c r i b e d i f f e r e n t s t y l e s o f animation? Teachers and students i n p a r t i c u l a r , are not educated i n the d i f f e r e n t s t y l e s of animation. C o n s i d e r i n g t h a t t e a c h e r s are not t e a c h i n g animation, t h i s should not come as a s u r p r i s e . Claymation r e c e i v e d the h i g h e s t number of student responses i n the naming of d i f f e r e n t s t y l e s . Presumably t h i s i s due t o the p o p u l a r i t y of claymation advertisements l i k e The  C a l i f o r n i a R a i s i n s . However, i t does seem odd t h a t a l l of the animators d i d not name most of the animation s t y l e s . Perhaps those l e a s t used animation techniques such as p i n s c r e e n , g l a s s and sand are e x a c t l y t h a t - unique a r t forms t h a t are r a r e l y used. I t c o u l d a l s o mean t h a t animators are so i n v o l v e d i n t h e i r own realm t h a t something o u t s i d e t h e i r immediate world doesn't come t o mind q u i c k l y . L a s t l y , why d i d one animator l i s t s p e c i a l e f f e c t s as an animation s t y l e ? Does s p e c i a l e f f e c t s comprise i t s own category w i t h i n the realm of I n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the R e s u l t s / 8 3 animation or i s t h e r e a d i f f e r e n c e i n o p i n i o n w i t h i n the f i e l d w i t h r e g a r d t o t h i s ? I t appears t h a t not o n l y are s t y l e s c l o u d y t o students and teachers, but somewhat t o animators as w e l l . Q u e s t i o n 3 : Can you g i v e me s p e c i f i c examples of where animation i s used today? Overwhelmingly, tea c h e r s and students do not see the extent t o which animation i s used today. I n d u s t r y and logos and t i t l e s were the main examples excluded from mention. The e x c l u s i o n of i n d u s t r y seems somewhat understandable because st u d e n t s and t e a c h e r s may not be i n v o l v e d i n i t . But f a i l i n g t o l i s t logos and t i t l e s i s not understandable because they are a h i g h l y v i s i b l e p a r t of c u r r e n t c u l t u r e . A l s o of i n t e r e s t , why d i d n ' t a l l of the animators l i s t the m a j o r i t y of p l a c e s where animation i s c u r r e n t l y used? I t seems odd t h a t a l l of them were not able t o name most of those p l a c e s . Why do animators appear t o have l i m i t e d v i s i o n i n t h i s area? I t does not seem r i g h t t o c r i t i c i z e t e a c h e r s and students when the p r o f e s s i o n a l s , although more a s t u t e a t the t a s k , are g u i l t y of s i m i l a r shortcomings. Question 4: Do you c o n s i d e r animation t o be as important an a r t form as drawing, p a i n t i n g , ceramics, e t c . ? Teachers acknowledge t h a t animation i s an important a r t form, but p r o v i d e reasons f o r t h i s t h a t are narrow i n scope: f o r the sense of power t h a t i t p r o v i d e s a student, because a I n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the Results/84 student can c r e a t e the unusual and because of the room f o r p e r s o n a l e x p r e s s i o n . Only one teacher p r o v i d e d a reason t h a t r e l a t e d t o animation's context w i t h i n technology and s o c i e t y . Teachers i n t h i s study take a narrow p e r s p e c t i v e on animation's r o l e i n today's s o c i e t y . C o n s i d e r i n g t h a t most t e a c h e r s were not ab l e t o name many p l a c e s where animation i s used today, i t i s u n l i k e l y t h a t they are going t o c o n s i d e r i t t o be important i n a wider p e r s p e c t i v e . Students s a i d t h a t animation i s an important a r t form probably because of the p e r s p e c t i v e t h a t they see i t from, t h i s b e i n g t h e i r popular c u l t u r e - movies, t e l e v i s i o n and a d v e r t i s i n g . Student responses, however, contained numerous p r e j u d i c e s . L i l s a i d t h a t "a l o t of the t h i n g s t h a t people don't c o n s i d e r t o be a r t , I do." C o l l e e n s a i d t h a t she would r a t h e r p a i n t because animation i s "too t e c h n i c a l . " Mel f e e l s t h a t animation i s " e a s i e r t o draw" because animators "don't have t o show r e a l i s m . " G e n e r a l l y , t e a c h e r s do not see animation as being important i n a wider p e r s p e c t i v e , and students do. Question 5: Do you t h i n k animation i s r e a l l y mostly meant f o r c h i l d r e n ? By f o u r out of f i v e t eachers answering no t o t h i s q u e s t i o n , the t e a c h e r s i n t h i s study are acknowledging t h a t animation i s much more than j u s t Saturday morning c a r t o o n s . Yet, as a group, they were weak a t naming other areas of use. T h i s seems t o be a c o n t r a d i c t i o n i n terms. Teachers were the on l y group t h a t d i d not address d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s of meaning I n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the Results/85 a s s o c i a t e d w i t h good animations. Why i s t h i s so? Do t e a c h e r s f e e l t h a t the 1940's/golden a g e / c l a s s i c animations were designed f o r c h i l d r e n ? The animators made i t c l e a r t h a t these f i l m s were not. L a s t l y , students were the o n l y group t h a t d i s c u s s e d shows l i k e The Simpsons and Teenage Mutant N i n i a  T u r t l e s i n answering t h i s q u e s t i o n . T h i s r e i n f o r c e s the o p i n i o n t h a t students are aware of animation because they see i t around them, and i t i s an i n t e g r a l p a r t o f t h e i r c o n v e r s a t i o n and f o l k l o r e . In summary, t e a c h e r s don't t h i n k t h a t animation i s made mostly f o r c h i l d r e n , y e t a r e n ' t p r e c i s e a t s t a t i n g why t h i s i s so. Meanwhile the responses of stud e n t s r e i n f o r c e the view t h a t animation i s p a r t o f t h e i r p o p u l a r c u l t u r e . C: CATEGORY I I : POTENT IMAGES Question 1: Name the most memorable animated f i l m s you have seen. I t seems t h a t everyone has experienced the magic of animation. A l l but one p a r t i c i p a n t responded e n t h u s i a s t i c a l l y , w i t h a s m i l e and a s t o r y of an experience t h a t t r i g g e r e d a s p e c i a l memory. Of i n t e r e s t , a l l of the informant groups' f a v o r i t e f i l m s i n c l u d e the e a r l y Disney and Warner Bros, and 1940's animated f i l m s . The review of the l i t e r a t u r e e l u c i d a t e s the p o i n t t h a t when t e l e v i s i o n f i r s t became popular, i t was g e n e r a l l y these e a r l y animated f i l m s t h a t were f i r s t e d i t e d f o r t e l e v i s i o n . The i n t r i g u i n g q u e s t i o n i s , which f i l m s d i d the t e a c h e r s see as c h i l d r e n ? As very s m a l l c h i l d r e n , they I n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the Results/86 l i k e l y saw the 1940's f i l m s , but as they got o l d e r , they p r o b a b l y experienced " i l l u s t r a t e d r a d i o " . T h i s may e x p l a i n why t e a c h e r s made so many q u a l i f y i n g statements w i t h r e g a r d t o " c h i l d i s h " animated f i l m s . Regardless, everyone had exp e r i e n c e d the magic. Que s t i o n 2: Why do you t h i n k these memories are potent? The r e s u l t s of t h i s q u e s t i o n e l u c i d a t e the k i n d s of f e e l i n g s t h a t animation i s capable of producing i n people. Good animations have a s t r o n g and powerful e f f e c t on people. The informants i n t h i s study s a i d t h a t these memories were potent because of t h e i r a s s o c i a t i o n s with dreams and magic, b r i l l i a n c e , p e r s o n a l f e e l i n g s , t h e i r a b i l i t y t o ca p t u r e the im a g i n a t i o n , t o make the viewer f e e l good, and t o pr e s e n t b i z a r r e and outrageous humor. People l i k e t o be e n t e r t a i n e d , they l i k e t o laugh, they l i k e t o have dreams and experience magic. Ap p a r e n t l y animation i s capable of p r o v i d i n g a l l of t h i s . Q u e stion 3: Do these memories have p e r s o n a l meanings t o you? With the e x c e p t i o n of the animators, the oth e r informant groups p r o v i d e d d i v e r s e p e r c e p t i o n s on whether these memories were p e r s o n a l or not. Of the p a r t i c i p a n t s t h a t s a i d no, o n l y one c o u l d e l a b o r a t e as t o why t h i s was so. T h i s t e a c h e r s a i d t h a t the o n l y meaning t o him was t h a t i t reminded him of h i s I n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the R e s u l t s / 8 7 c h i l d h o o d . G e n e r a l l y , i t appears t h a t informants i n t h i s study who are u n c l e a r i n d e f i n i n g animation, naming i t s s t y l e o r where i t i s c u r r e n t l y used, are e q u a l l y ambiguous about i t s p e r s o n a l meanings. Does t h i s mean t h a t u n l e s s you are v e r y aware of animation's r o l e i n our s o c i e t y you are not going t o be aware of i t i n r e l a t i o n t o y o u r s e l f ? T h i s statement appears t o be t r u e . Presumably, due t o the animators working w i t h i n the f i e l d , they f e e l p a r t i c u l a r l y c l o s e t o the medium and as such, do a s s o c i a t e p e r s o n a l meanings wi t h t h e i r memories. Qu e s t i o n 4 : Do you l i k e watching animated f i l m s ? The m a j o r i t y of informants l i k e d watching animated f i l m s . G e n e r a l l y , those who d i d not l i k e watching animated f i l m s d i d not l i k e them because they f e l t t h a t they were too c h i l d i s h . I t appears t h a t some persons do focus on Saturday morning c a r t o o n s as a k i n d of standard, as one of the animators p r e v i o u s l y s a i d . Q u e s t i o n 5: Do you ever go t o see an animation f i l m f e s t i v a l or an animated f i l m ? Although informants overwhelmingly acknowledged t h a t they do see animated f i l m s , some p r e j u d i c e s and important a s p e c t s of f i l m v iewing became ev i d e n t . I t appears t h a t i f a workshop or f e s t i v a l o u t i n g were planned, the t e a c h e r s i n t e r v i e w e d i n I n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the Results/88 t h i s study would be w i l l i n g p a r t i c i p a n t s . Only one t e a c h e r d e c l a r e d h i m s e l f not i n t e r e s t e d i n p a r t i c i p a t i n g . T h i s same te a c h e r , Bob, s a i d t h a t the o n l y reason he r e n t e d Roger Rabbit was because i t was the l a s t v i d e o t o r e n t . R e a l i s t i c a l l y , t h i s seems h i g h l y u n l i k e l y . I t may be t h a t Bob, who i s t o t a l l y a g a i n s t animation being taught i n h i g h s c h o o l , had t o r a t i o n a l i z e or f i n d an excuse f o r watching t h i s f i l m . One would t h i n k t h a t an a r t teacher might welcome v i e w i n g such a f i l m , because Roger Rabbit w i l l l i k e l y be remembered and r e s p e c t e d i n the same way t h a t Snow White and F a n t a s i a are. I t i s s i g n i f i c a n t t h a t Bob was g e n e r a l l y u n f a m i l i a r w i t h animation s t y l e s and uses. Jim was the one student who s a i d t h a t he d i d n ' t go t o see animated f i l m s . He d i d see Roger Rabbit, not by c h o i c e , but because i t was shown on a plane. He d i d go on t o admit t h a t he was t h i n k i n g about see i n g i t anyway. I t seems t h a t Jim had t o excuse h i s viewing of an animated f i l m . Susan was a student who does att e n d animated f i l m s , y e t d i s p l a y e d a t y p i c a l p r e j u d i c e toward the medium. She r e c a l l e d how embarrassing i t was t o be dragged t o a Disney f i l m by her mother. Susan and Jim are both Bob's students. I t seems t h a t those p a r t i c i p a n t s who are negative about animated f i l m s have d i f f i c u l t y a d m i t t i n g t h a t they have a c t u a l l y seen one. I t a l s o appears t h a t t h e r e may be a r e l a t i o n s h i p between te a c h e r I n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the Results/89 a t t i t u d e s t o animation and student a t t i t u d e s . D. CATEGORY I I I : POPULAR CULTURE Ques t i o n 1: How have cartoon c h a r a c t e r s i n f l u e n c e d your l i f e s i n c e your childhood? T h i s q u e s t i o n r a i s e d s e v e r a l important t o p i c s . The f i r s t of these i s the d i f f e r e n c e i n the kin d s of responses g i v e n by each group. Students p r o v i d e d much data i n the realm of m a t e r i a l i s t i c items while t e a c h e r s g e n e r a l l y spoke about a t t i t u d e s and f e e l i n g s . Only the youngest animator i n t r o d u c e d m a t e r i a l i s t i c c o n s i d e r a t i o n s , while the o t h e r s mentioned a t t i t u d e s and behaviours. I t may be t h a t a person's age can make a d i f f e r e n c e as t o how animation has a f f e c t e d t h a t i n d i v i d u a l . Perhaps the teach e r s and o l d e r animators were c h i l d r e n p r i o r t o the advent of s o p h i s t i c a t e d t e l e v i s i o n marketing. I t may be t h a t c h i l d r e n who grew up i n the 1970's were a f f e c t e d by marketing i n a way t h a t those who grew up i n the 1950's weren't. The second t o p i c i n v o l v e s s p e c i a l e f f e c t s . Only two students mentioned f i l m s such as Star Wars and S t a r Trek. In these k i n d s of f i l m s , l i v e - a c t i o n and s p e c i a l e f f e c t s go hand-in-hand. In answering t h i s q u e s t i o n Wally c o r r e c t e d h i m s e l f and s t a t e d t h a t S t a r Trek wasn't animated. P r e v i o u s l y , when p a r t i c i p a n t s were asked t o l i s t examples of where animation i s used today, s p e c i a l e f f e c t s was onl y mentioned t h r e e times by a l l informants, while s e v e r a l r e f e r e n c e s were made t o f i l m s I n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the Results/90 such as Batman and E.T. . The p o i n t i s t h a t , i n a l l the q u e s t i o n s asked and answers given, the e n t i r e i s s u e of animation and s p e c i a l e f f e c t s was b a r e l y addressed. The review of the l i t e r a t u r e shows t h a t t h i s k i n d of f i l m i s very p r e v a l e n t , y e t the informants i n t h i s study d i d not address t h i s i s s u e . L a s t l y , Susan i n d i r e c t l y expressed her p r e j u d i c e a g a i n s t animation by s a y i n g she had never owned a Mickey Mouse s h i r t because she f e l t t h a t they were s i l l y . However, i n the next b r e a t h she e x a l t e d her Snoopy s h i r t . The q u e s t i o n of whether or not c a r t o o n c h a r a c t e r s have i n f l u e n c e d the s u b j e c t s * l i f e p r o v i d e d important i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s , c o n t r a d i c t i o n s , and p r e j u d i c e s t h a t go beyond the t o p i c of animation, and touch i n s t e a d on dependency, a l i e n a t i o n , and other s e n s i t i v e , deeply f e l t p e r s o n a l i s s u e s . Q u estion 2: Do you t h i n k animation i s used e x t e n s i v e l y today i n a l l forms of media? The r e s u l t s of t h i s q u e s t i o n produced an i n t e r e s t i n g c o n t r a d i c t i o n . P r a c t i c a l l y everyone f e e l s t h a t animation i s used e x t e n s i v e l y , but, as p r e v i o u s l y d i s c o v e r e d , h a r d l y anyone i s capable of p r o v i d i n g a s u b s t a n t i a l l i s t of where i t i s used. The animators were c o r r e c t when they s a i d t h a t people a r e n ' t c o n s c i o u s l y aware of the f a c t t h a t t h e y ' r e watching animation. I n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the R e s u l t s / 9 1 Question 3: Do you t h i n k animation i s a major i n f l u e n c e i n s t u d e n t s 1 popular c u l t u r e ? A l l t h r e e groups were e x t e n s i v e l y s p l i t i n t h e i r responses t o t h i s q u e s t i o n . Students p r o v i d e d an e x t e n s i v e l i s t of i n f l u e n c e s , y e t many of the informants, i n c l u d i n g the s t u d e n t s , don't p e r c e i v e those as d i r e c t l y r e l e v a n t . Students g e n e r a l l y t a l k e d about i n f l u e n c e s i n the p a s t t e n s e . I t seems t h a t students don't g e n e r a l l y p e r c e i v e these i n f l u e n c e s t o be a f f e c t i n g them c u r r e n t l y . I t i s as i f , i n a v e h i c l e , one chooses t o look o n l y i n the rear-view m i r r o r , so t h a t one can o n l y t e l l where one i s from what has now gone by. Q u e s t i o n 4: Imagine our c u l t u r e without the i n v e n t i o n of animation. How would our l i v e s be d i f f e r e n t ? The t o t a l responses from a l l informants i n d i c a t e d t h a t animation a f f e c t s people i n f o u r domains. The f i r s t of these i s t h a t animation takes c h i l d r e n away from the more important t a s k s such as r e a d i n g , t h i n k i n g and u s i n g t h e i r i m a g i n a t i o n s . The second a t t i t u d e i s t h a t c h i l d r e n would be l e s s v i o l e n t w i t hout the i n f l u e n c e s of animation. The t h i r d a t t i t u d e i s t h a t commercials would have l e s s impact and would be l e s s memorable without animation. The l a s t a t t i t u d e i s t h a t , without animation, our l i v e s would have l e s s l a u g h t e r , humor, wonder, awe and magic. The f i r s t a t t i t u d e i s based on the assumption t h a t most of the animation produced i s of the Saturday morning v a r i e t y , which i t i s not. Secondly, i n r e s e a r c h i n g f o r the review of the l i t e r a t u r e , no r e f e r e n c e was I n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the Results/92 found t h a t supports the view t h a t watching animation makes c h i l d r e n more v i o l e n t . L a s t l y , the responses of the informants t o the i n t e r v i e w q u e s t i o n s p r o v i d e f i r s t hand evidence t h a t commercials would have l e s s impact and t h a t our l i v e s would have a l i t t l e l e s s l a u g h t e r and magic without animation. Question 5: Do you t h i n k t h a t j u s t because something makes up a p a r t of our popular c u l t u r e , i t makes i t worthy of study? The m a j o r i t y of p a r t i c i p a n t s b e l i e v e t h i s statement t o be t r u e . However, the respondents were s p l i t i n t h e i r o p i n i o n on whether or not animation makes up a p a r t of t h a t c u l t u r e . Teachers i n g e n e r a l may not be t e a c h i n g animation because t h e r e i s no c o n v i c t i o n among them t h a t animation makes up a p a r t of t h a t c u l t u r e . I t i s d i f f i c u l t t o see how one c o u l d h o l d such a p o s i t i o n , g i v e n the d a i l y v i s i b l e evidence of animation's presence. E. CATEGORY IV: CAREERS Question 1: What c a r e e r s do you t h i n k t h a t an animation background would help prepare a student f o r ? T h i s q u e s t i o n p o i n t s up the f a c t t h a t , of the t h r e e groups surveyed, t e a c h e r s have the widest p e r s p e c t i v e on a r t s k i l l s , and the p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r r e l a t e d c a r e e r s f o r those s k i l l s . What i s of p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t i s the f a c t t h a t two of the animators l i s t e d computer animation as a c a r e e r f o r which an animation background would be h e l p f u l . Why i s t h i s so? Do I n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the R e s u l t s / 9 3 animators draw a conceptual l i n e between t r a d i t i o n a l and computer generated animation? I s i t because none of the animators i n t h i s study are i n v o l v e d w i t h computer animation? In summary, te a c h e r s have the widest p e r s p e c t i v e on a r t c a r e e r s ; animators have the narrowest. Animators responding t o t h i s q u e s t i o n i n c i d e n t a l l y r e v e a l e d a d i f f e r e n c e i n o p i n i o n on whether or not computer animation i s c o n s i d e r e d t o be a type of animation. Question 2: Do you t h i n k t h a t a student's v i s u a l l i t e r a c y would be extended due t o an animation background? P r e c o n c e i v e d o p i n i o n s s u r f a c e d when informants responded t o t h i s q u e s t i o n . The f i r s t of these i s t h a t even though the v a s t m a j o r i t y of informants responded yes t o t h i s q u e s t i o n , some added a "but" t o the yes. For example, Wayne and Bob both s a i d yes, but they both a l s o f e e l t h a t o t h e r t o p i c s are more important f o r t e a c h i n g v i s u a l l i t e r a c y . During the i n t e r v i e w i t was never suggested t o the informants t h a t animation might be the one or the major v e h i c l e t o t e a c h t h i s . W ally d i s c u s s e d h i s view t h a t animation i s a r a t h e r u n s o p h i s t i c a t e d form of a r t . He l i s t e d the s t e p s r e q u i r e d i n p a i n t i n g and then went t o c o n t r a s t t h i s t o the s t e p s i n v o l v e d i n p r o d u c i n g animation. But as he d i d so, he became aware t h a t the s t e p s were the same. Even a f t e r a r r i v i n g a t t h i s r e a l i z a t i o n , Wally s a i d " i t ' s not a complex area of a r t . . . I n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the R e s u l t s / 9 4 i t 1 s... f a i r l y s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d . 1 1 I t appears t h a t those informants who f e e l n e g a t i v e l y about animation have t r o u b l e s e e i n g i t s v a l u e i n other areas such as v i s u a l l i t e r a c y . These same informants were not a b l e t o name a s u b s t a n t i a l number of p l a c e s where animation i s used today, and gave s i m i l a r i n d i c a t i o n s of l a c k of i n t e r e s t and l a c k of i n f o r m a t i o n about animation as an area of study. Question 3: Do you t h i n k t h a t s t u d y i n g animation would h e l p a student become a b e t t e r c r e a t i v e problem s o l v e r ? Some of the responses generated from t h i s q u e s t i o n r e v e a l e d i n c o n s i s t e n c i e s among the informants. The animators were the most unsure of a l l t h r e e groups i n responding t o t h i s q u e s t i o n . They d e s c r i b e d the processes, s t e p s and the t e c h n i c a l i t i e s i n v o l v e d i n making an animated f i l m , y e t g e n e r a l l y weren't sure i f animation was h e l p f u l f o r c r e a t i v e problem s o l v i n g . I t may be t h a t the m a j o r i t y of animators are too c l o s e t o what they do t o have an o v e r a l l p e r s p e c t i v e of t h e i r f i e l d ; or i t may be t h a t the t r a n s f e r of a b i l i t y from one f i e l d t o another i s i r r e l e v a n t t o what they do. Bob s a i d , "Why spend t h r e e months to l e a r n something you can l e a r n i n twenty minutes?" He went on t o say t h a t "animation i s on the whole f r u s t r a t i n g . . . i t wasn't...for me, but f o r . . . the k i d s t h a t d i d i t . . . a c t u a l l y , they d i d a p r e t t y n i c e job of i t . " I f something i s f r u s t r a t i n g f o r the t e a c h e r t o do, I n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the R e s u l t s / 9 5 i t may w e l l c a r r y over i n t o student behaviour. Though he g i v e s them c r e d i t f o r doing w e l l , t h e i r success comes about i n s p i t e of the p r o j e c t , not because of i t . Bob s a i d t h a t f o r "the time t h a t i s spent j u s t t o show a l i t t l e b i t of movement and change... t h e r e 1 s l o t s of other ways t o do i t . " T h i s r e f l e c t s Bob's own d e f i n i t i o n of animation. He d e f i n e d animation as "the frame by frame d e p i c t i o n of motion, i n f i l m or v i d e o . " What about the dreams and f a n t a s i e s , the s t o r i e s and the humor, the wonder and awe? I t appears t h a t one's a t t i t u d e t o a t o p i c can c o l o r how one d e f i n e s i t . Q u e s t i o n 5 : Do you t h i n k t h a t an animation background would b e t t e r prepare a g e n e r a l a r t student (non a r t major) f o r h i s / h e r f u t u r e c a r e e r ? The i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the responses t o t h i s q u e s t i o n r e i n f o r c e s the o p i n i o n t h a t t e a c h e r s are b e t t e r a t s e e i n g t r a n s f e r a b l e s k i l l s than e i t h e r of the oth e r groups. The m a j o r i t y of te a c h e r s f e e l t h a t an animation background would be b e n e f i c i a l t o other c a r e e r s , the m a j o r i t y of animators f e e l t h a t i t wouldn't, and the students are s p l i t i n t h e i r o p i n i o n s . P. CATEGORY V: BACKGROUNDS 1. Teachers R e g a r d l e s s of who has t r a i n i n g i n animation or who has taught animation and how w e l l students have responded t o i t , t e a c h e r s are not c u r r e n t l y t e a c h i n g animation. They argue t h a t the I n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the Results/96 a p p r o p r i a t e technology must be a v a i l a b l e t o them b e f o r e any are w i l l i n g t o teach i t . However, f o r t h i s t o happen, s u b s t a n t i a l amounts of money would have t o be p r o v i d e d t o purchase equipment. A l s o , t e a c h e r s were s p l i t i n t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n s of animation as a c a r e e r c h o i c e . T h i s seems a p p r o p r i a t e though, s i n c e so few t e a c h e r s r e c o g n i z e the e x t e n t t o which animation i s used today. 2. Students The study produced some evidence t h a t student a t t i t u d e s about animation may r e f l e c t the a t t i t u d e s of t h e i r t e a c h e r s . Susan and Jim, both Bob's students, s a i d t h a t they wouldn't l i k e t o make an animated f i l m because of the b o r i n g r e p e t i t i o n : the same reason t h a t Bob gave. In g e n e r a l , students see animation as c u r r e n t l y making a comeback, as do the animators. The author b e l i e v e s t h a t t h i s may be a r e f l e c t i o n of the i n c r e a s i n g presence of animation as a p a r t of the s t u d e n t s ' everyday e x i s t e n c e . T h i s year's successes promote a c l i m a t e f o r next year's i n n o v a t i o n s , and the market expands as a r e s u l t . 3. Animators I t i s not s u r p r i s i n g t h a t the animators d i d not r e c e i v e an a p p r e c i a t i o n of t h e i r a r t form from t h e i r secondary e d u c a t i o n . Over the p a s t t h i r t y - f o u r years animation has grown l o c a l l y from a p e r i p h e r a l t o a s u b s t a n t i a l a r t form. Although t h e r e I n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the Results/97 i s no one path t o becoming an animator, most animators agree t h a t a formal education i s the best r o u t e . For a student t o become an animator, the evidence of t h i s study suggests t h a t he/she must be extremely d e d i c a t e d , p e r s i s t e n t , thorough, take i n i t i a t i v e and be a p e r f e c t i o n i s t . He/she must a l s o have drawing, s t o r y - t e l l i n g and t i m i n g s k i l l s . SUMMARY Teachers can d e f i n e animation i n t e c h n i c a l terms, y e t they don't acknowledge the s p i r i t of the a r t form. R e g a r d l e s s of t h e i r i n a c c u r a c i e s , students do acknowledge t h i s s p i r i t , y e t they a l s o expressed p r e j u d i c e s . Both t e a c h e r s and students are u n f a m i l i a r w i t h the d i f f e r e n t s t y l e s of animation. Animators d i s a g r e e on whether or not s p e c i a l e f f e c t s i s an animation s t y l e or not. Because t e a c h e r s g e n e r a l l y don't see animation i n a wider p e r s p e c t i v e , they view i t narrowly as an a r t form. Even though s p e c i a l e f f e c t s are used e x t e n s i v e l y today, informants g e n e r a l l y d i d not address t h i s i s s u e . The informants who don't l i k e animated f i l m s g e n e r a l l y focus on Saturday morning "cartoons" as a k i n d of standard t o compare by. There appears t o be a r e l a t i o n s h i p between t e a c h e r and student a t t i t u d e s . How o l d you c u r r e n t l y are makes a d i f f e r e n c e i n how animated f i l m s have a f f e c t e d you. G e n e r a l l y , informants who f e e l n e g a t i v e l y about animation have I n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the Results/98 d i f f i c u l t y s e e i n g i t s value i n e d u c a t i o n . No matter how e x p e r i e n c e d a teacher i s or how w e l l students respond t o animation, t e a c h e r s w i l l not teach i t u n t i l the proper equipment i s a v a i l a b l e t o them. Due t o the amount of animation t h a t students see i n t h e i r popular c u l t u r e , they p e r c e i v e animation as making an impression i n t h e i r l i v e s . The animators f e e l t h a t animation i s a d i f f i c u l t f i e l d t o get s t a r t e d i n , y e t makes a good c a r e e r c h o i c e these days. CHAPTER VI: SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS, AND IMPLICATIONS T h i s study was conducted i n order t o determine whether the r e l a t i v e n e g l e c t of animation i n secondary a r t programs has come about because the techniques and concepts a s s o c i a t e d w i t h i t a r e seen as d i f f i c u l t and/or unnecessary t o implement by t e a c h e r s ; or whether students are u n f a m i l i a r and u n i n t e r e s t e d i n animation as a f i e l d of study; or whether animation i n the o p i n i o n of p r o f e s s i o n a l animators i s not a s u i t a b l e s u b j e c t f o r s c h o o l study. The informants i n t h i s study i n c l u d e d f i v e secondary a r t t e a c h e r s , nine secondary a r t students and t h r e e p r o f e s s i o n a l animators. During the i n t e r v i e w s , informants responded v e r b a l l y t o questions on the r o l e and nature of animation i n a r t education. The r e s u l t s of the study w i l l be summarized i n the f o l l o w i n g t e x t i n the format of the q u e s t i o n c a t e g o r i e s : d e f i n i n g animation, potent images, popular c u l t u r e , c a r e e r s and backgrounds. The r e s u l t s of t h i s study i l l u m i n a t e t r e n d s , d i f f e r e n c e s i n o p i n i o n and a t t i t u d e s t o the r o l e of animation i n a r t education. D e f i n i n g Animation D e f i n i t i o n s surrounding the realm of animation are not c l e a r . Although t e a c h e r s can d e f i n e animation i n t e c h n i c a l terms, they do not acknowledge the s p i r i t of the a r t form as animators do. Students d i d acknowledge t h i s s p i r i t , y e t 9 9 Summary and Conclusions/100 they a l s o expressed i n a c c u r a c i e s and p r e j u d i c e s . The m a j o r i t y of informants were not ab l e t o name a s u b s t a n t i a l number of animation s t y l e s . T h i s f i n d i n g seems l o g i c a l w i t h r e g a r d t o t e a c h e r s and students, s i n c e animation i s not taught. However, i t does seem p e c u l i a r t h a t a l l of the animators were not a b l e t o name the m a j o r i t y of animation s t y l e s . Claymation was the s t y l e most commonly r e f e r r e d t o by the students, r e f l e c t i n g the i n f l u e n c e of the advertisements i n t h e i r p o p u l a r c u l t u r e . D uring the q u e s t i o n s on d e f i n i t i o n s r e l a t e s t o s p e c i a l e f f e c t s , i t became apparent t h a t the animators d i s a g r e e d on whether or not s p e c i a l e f f e c t s i s an animation s t y l e . Each animator was ab l e t o p r o v i d e a s u b s t a n t i a l but not complete l i s t of where animation i s used today. Teachers and students however, are p a r t i c u l a r l y weak a t t h i s same t a s k . I t appears t h a t because some te a c h e r s do not p e r c e i v e animation i n a wider p e r s p e c t i v e , they a l s o view i t narrowly as an a r t form. I n t e r e s t i n g l y , students do acknowledge t h i s wider p e r s p e c t i v e because they are f a m i l i a r w i t h animation as a p a r t of t h e i r popular c u l t u r e . Yet they o c c a s i o n a l l y demonstrated p r e j u d i c e s a g a i n s t animation. A l l o f the t e a c h e r s and animators, with the e x c e p t i o n of one, b e l i e v e t h a t animation i s mostly designed f o r a d u l t s , y e t Summary and C o n c l u s i o n s / 1 0 1 t e a c h e r s a r e n ' t p r e c i s e a t s t a t i n g how t h i s i s so. Student responses were very d i v e r s e i n suggesting who animation i s mostly meant f o r . However, t h e i r statements r e i n f o r c e d the assumption t h a t animation i s a p a r t of t h e i r everyday l i v e s . P otent Images The informants l i k e d animation f o r d i f f e r e n t reasons. Many of them l i k e d animation because they l i k e t o dream, be e n t e r t a i n e d , laugh and experience magic. Those informants who were u n c l e a r i n d e f i n i n g animation, naming the s t y l e s or c u r r e n t uses d i d not c o n s i d e r animation t o have p e r s o n a l meanings. I t appears t h a t i f i n d i v i d u a l s a re unaware of animation's r o l e i n s o c i e t y , t h e i r awareness of i t i n r e l a t i o n t o themselves i s weak. Persons who don't l i k e watching animated f i l m s may be tempted t o use c h i l d r e n ' s c a r t o o n s as a k i n d of standard f o r comparison. A l s o , t h e r e can be a tendency f o r informants who are ne g a t i v e about animated f i l m s t o have d i f f i c u l t y a d m i t t i n g t h a t they'd l i k e t o see one, or t h a t they have seen one. L a s t l y , t h e r e appears t o be a r e l a t i o n s h i p between teacher a t t i t u d e s and those h e l d by t h e i r s t u d e n t s . Popular C u l t u r e There appears t o be a r e l a t i o n s h i p between the age of informants and how animation has a f f e c t e d them. The m a j o r i t y of t e a c h e r s and o l d e r animators f e e l t h a t they have been Summary and Conclusions/102 i n f l u e n c e d through experience of animation i n the realm of a t t i t u d e s , f e e l i n g s and gestures, w h i l e students and the younger animators have been i n f l u e n c e d m a t e r i a l i s t i c a l l y through t o y s , c l o t h i n g , e t c . However, students g e n e r a l l y acknowledge these i n f l u e n c e s i n the p a s t tense. Even though the m a j o r i t y of informants f e l t t h a t animation i s used e x t e n s i v e l y i n media, the t o p i c of s p e c i a l e f f e c t s was r a r e l y mentioned. T h i s i s perhaps a r e f l e c t i o n of d i f f e r i n g d e f i n i t i o n s , mentioned e a r l i e r , but i t may a f f e c t the degree t o which persons are conscious of what they see when they are watching animation. A l l of the informant groups were d i v e r g e n t i n t h e i r views as t o whether or not animation i s a major i n f l u e n c e i n s t u d e n t s ' p o p u l a r c u l t u r e . Since t e a c h e r s a r e n ' t sure i f animation c o n t r i b u t e s t o t h a t popular c u l t u r e , i t i s not s u r p r i s i n g t h a t they are not t e a c h i n g i t . Careers Informants' responses r e v e a l e d t h a t s a l e s and promotion, f i l m and commercial a r t are the main c a r e e r areas where an animation background would be h e l p f u l . Teachers have the widest p e r s p e c t i v e on c a r e e r s and t r a n s f e r a b l e s k i l l s r e l a t i n g t o animation. The m a j o r i t y of informants b e l i e v e t h a t an animation background would extend a student's v i s u a l l i t e r a c y , Summary and Conclusions/103 y e t they were s p l i t i n t h e i r o p i n i o n of whether or not i t would h e l p i n c r e a t i v e problem s o l v i n g . The i s s u e of whether or not computer animation i s a type of animation was a c c i d e n t a l l y brought t o l i g h t by the animators. G e n e r a l l y , informants who f e l t n e g a t i v e l y about animation do not p e r c e i v e t h a t i t has v a l u e i n education, which i s h a r d l y a s u r p r i s e . Backgrounds No matter how experienced or knowledgeable a t e a c h e r i s or how w e l l students respond, t e a c h e r s are not w i l l i n g t o t e a c h animation u n t i l the proper equipment i s made a v a i l a b l e t o them. Even so, the m a j o r i t y of t e a c h e r s i n t h i s study have taught animation, though none have taught i t r e c e n t l y . Teachers f e e l t h a t the best p a r t about t e a c h i n g i t i s the way t h a t the students respond t o i t , w h i l e the worst p a r t i s the t e c h n i c a l h u r d l e s . Although o n l y two of the students had ever made an animated f i l m , the m a j o r i t y would l i k e t o . Those students who do not want t o , c i t e d the t e c h n i c a l and r e p e t i t i v e nature of the medium as reasons. What students knew about the animated f i l m s of the '30's and '40's, and the amount of animation t h a t s t u d e n t s see around them today leads them t o say t h a t animation i s making a comeback. Summary and Conclusions/104 Secondary a r t c l a s s e s were not the m o t i v a t i o n a l arenas t h a t i n f l u e n c e d the animators t o become what they a r e . Even though the animators f e e l t h a t animation i s a d i f f i c u l t c a r e e r t o get s t a r t e d i n , c u r r e n t l y i t i s f e l t t h a t i t makes a good c a r e e r c h o i c e . I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r A r t E d u c a t i o n Teachers: The i m p l i c a t i o n s of t h i s study on a r t e d u c a t i o n are broad and v a r i e d , y e t i l l u m i n a t e s p e c i f i c a spects t h a t need t o be addressed. The m a j o r i t y of the i m p l i c a t i o n s d i r e c t l y apply t o t e a c h e r s . The f i r s t i m p l i c a t i o n r e l a t e s t o the f a c t t h a t a lthough t e a c h e r s may f e e l t h a t animation i s important and worthy of study, they s t i l l are u n l i k e l y t o t e a c h i t because of t e c h n i c a l problems and high c o s t s . I f t e a c h e r a t t i t u d e s are t o change, they need c o n v i n c i n g t h a t the f i e l d of animation can be addressed w i t h i n the a r t room, i n ways t h a t are a l t e r n a t i v e t o a t e c h n i c a l approach. T h i s c o n v i n c i n g might take the form of p r o v i d i n g t e a c h e r s w i t h an e d u c a t i o n on the a r t of animation i n a broad sense, so t h a t they can r e c o g n i z e animation's r o l e i n s o c i e t y and d i s p e l myths and misconceptions surrounding i t , through d i s c u s s i o n and c r i t i c a l s t u d i e s w i t h t h e i r c l a s s e s . T h i s e d u c a t i o n might i n c l u d e an h i s t o r i c a l overview, so t h a t t e a c h e r s can o b t a i n a wider p e r s p e c t i v e on the f i e l d , and be i n a p o s i t i o n t o i n t e r p r e t t h a t knowledge f o r t h e i r students. Summary and Conclusions/105 T h i s b r i n g s t h i s d i s c u s s i o n t o the second i m p l i c a t i o n . I f one can accept t h a t a g e n e r a l aim of a r t e d u c a t i o n i s t o have stu d e n t s become v i s u a l l y l i t e r a t e , animation should be an area of study because of the r o l e i t p l a y s i n s t u d e n t s ' p o p u l a r c u l t u r e . Whether i t deserves a separate i d e n t i t y , as Media S t u d i e s , or whether i t i s i n c o r p o r a t e d i n e x i s t i n g programs, i s something t o be r e s o l v e d . The t h i r d i m p l i c a t i o n r e l a t e s t o the c u r r e n t secondary a r t c u r r i c u l u m guide. I t appears t h a t f o r animation t o be taught i n secondary a r t rooms, i t would have t o achieve a s t r o n g e r p o s i t i o n / e m p h a s i s w i t h i n the c u r r i c u l u m guide. There would have t o be a r e s t r u c t u r i n g of the c u r r e n t c u r r i c u l u m guide t o accommodate t h i s area. Whether t e a c h e r s i n g e n e r a l would support such a move would r e q u i r e a d i f f e r e n t study from t h i s p r e s e n t one. The evidence of t h i s study suggests t h a t t e a c h e r s are u n l i k e l y t o be u n i f o r m l y i n favour of such a r e s t r u c t u r i n g of the present program of s t u d i e s . The f o u r t h i m p l i c a t i o n t h a t r e l a t e s t o the t e a c h e r s i s the f a c t t h a t s u f f i c i e n t funds need t o be p r o v i d e d t o a l l o w f o r the p u r c h a s i n g of s t a t e - o f - t h e - a r t equipment. However, b e f o r e t h i s w i l l happen, teac h e r s need t o p e r c e i v e t h e r e i s a r e a l need. I t may be t h a t , w i t h i n a s c h o o l d i s t r i c t , one s c h o o l s h o u l d be d e s i g n a t e d as s p e c i a l i z i n g i n Media S t u d i e s , and equipment should be c e n t r a l i z e d t h e r e . The p o l i t i c s of the Summary and Conclusions/106 s c h o o l d i s t r i c t r e q u i r e study, before these k i n d s of d e c i s i o n s are taken. The l a s t i m p l i c a t i o n t h a t r e l a t e s t o t e a c h e r s i s t h a t workshops on animation would be necessary t o p r o v i d e not o n l y t e c h n o l o g i c a l education but a l s o j u s t i f i c a t i o n s as t o why animation should be i n c l u d e d i n secondary a r t programs. Teachers w i l l have t o be convinced of the b e n e f i t s of adding animation t o t h e i r programs before they t r y t o convince a d m i n i s t r a t o r s and parents of these b e n e f i t s . Students: The next s e t of i m p l i c a t i o n s r e l a t e s t o the s t u d e n t s . Animation i s an a r t form t h a t appeals t o many s t u d e n t s . As such, i t becomes an e x c e l l e n t e d u c a t i o n a l r e s o u r c e t o be e x p l o i t e d . Since animation i s a p a r t of s t u d e n t s 1 popular c u l t u r e , i t p r o v i d e s easy access t o t h e i r i n t e r e s t s and a t t i t u d e s . Students need the very same e d u c a t i o n on animation t h a t the t e a c h e r s do i n order t o b e t t e r understand the medium and t o d i s p e l myths, misconceptions and p r e j u d i c e s s u r r o u n d i n g i t . The F i e l d : The l a s t s e t of i m p l i c a t i o n s r e l a t e s t o the f i e l d o f animation i t s e l f . I t appears t h a t animation i n s c h o o l s may be a t a p o i n t where, as a r e s u l t of t e c h n o l o g i c a l and s o c i e t a l change, Summary and Conclusions/107 the f i e l d r e q u i r e s r e d e f i n i t i o n . In a d d r e s s i n g t h i s t o p i c i n the classroom, a t t e n t i o n needs t o be p a i d t o t h i s p o s s i b i l i t y . F l e x i b i l i t y i n a t t i t u d e s , along w i t h a l e r t n e s s t o develop new avenues f o r study, ought t o be common p r a c t i c e among those i n t e r e s t e d i n media s t u d i e s . The evidence c o l l e c t e d i n t h i s study suggests t h a t t h e r e e x i s t s a schism between animation p r a c t i c e s and education p r a c t i c e s . B r i n g i n g animation i n t o e d u c a t i o n a l focus may be a formidable t a s k . However, e d u c a t i n g students t o becoming conscious p a r t i c i p a n t s i n t h e i r c u l t u r e i s not onl y an important g o a l of secondary e d u c a t i o n , i t i s a necessary one. REFERENCES Bealmear, R. (1985) . E e r i e E f f e c t s f o r L i f e f o r c e . American  Cinematographer, 66(6), 60-67. Bishop, B. (1986). A r t Forgery and the Computer. School  A r t s . 85(7), 22-23. Bregman, G. (1977). Animation. School A r t s . 77 (4) , 20-21. Bregman, G. (1979). Simple Two Dimensional Animation. School  A r t s . 79 (4), 42-43. Bregman, G. (1986). VTR i n the Artroom. School A r t s . 85(7), 18. Clements, R.D. (1985). A d o l e s c e n t s ' Computer A r t . A r t  Educa t i o n. 38.(2), 6-9. C u l v e r , J . (1985). Developing a Computer Gra p h i c s Program f o r a C o l l e g e . A r t Education. 3_8(2) , 19-21. Dager, D. (1987). Animation/The A r t of Making Magic. School  A r t s . 87(3), 29-31. Dankin, J.C. (1986). O p t i m i z a t i o n Methods f o r Computer  Animation. Unpublished master's t h e s i s , Ohio S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y . Edlund, R. (1980) . S p e c i a l V i s u a l E f f e c t s f o r Empire. American Cinematographer. 61(6), 552-553. 564-567 and 604-606. E i s n e r , E.W., (1972). Educating A r t i s t i c V i s i o n . New York: H a s t i n g s House, P u b l i s h e r s . 108 E t t i n g e r , L. and Roland, C. (1986). Microcomputer Graphics f o r the G i f t e d . A r t Education. 39(1), 48-51. F a l k , A.E. (1987). Computereyes: High-Tech P o r t r a i t s . School A r t s . 87(3), 20-21. F o l i n o , V.R. (1979). Sand Animation. School A r t s , 79(4), 36-37. F o s t e r , H.M. (1979). The New L i t e r a c y : The Language of F i l m and T e l e v i s i o n . (Stock No. 33339) . Urbana, I l l i n o i s . G a r t e l , L.M. (1985). Computer Graphics E v o l u t i o n : a Survey. School A r t s . 84(6), 35-37. G a r t e l , L. M. (1986) . New T o o l s , New A r t . School A r t s . 85(7), 38-39. Greenberg, R. (1980) . C r e a t i n g Unique S p e c i a l E f f e c t s f o r XANADU. American Cinematographer, 61(8), 820-825. G u r a l n i k , D,.B. (Ed.) (1971). Webster's New World D i c t i o n a r y . Toronto: Popular L i b r a r y . Halas, J . & Manvell, R. (1971) . The Technique of F i l m  Animation, New York: Hastings House, P u b l i s h e r s . H e r a l s o n , D. (1975). C r e a t o r s of L i f e . New York: Drake P u b l i s h e r s Inc. Hubbard, G. (1985). Computer L i t e r a c y and the A r t Program. A r t Education. 38(2), 6-9. 109 Hubbard, G. & Lineham, E. (1983) . Arcade Games, Mindstones, and A r t Education. A r t Education. 3_6(3) , 18-20. J e f f e r s , C.S. (1986). The E l e c t r o n i c R e v o l u t i o n . School  A r t s . 85(7), 36-37. Johnson, J . (1981) . S e t t i n g the Stage f o r the A r t s . T e l e v i s i o n P l a y s a S t a r r i n g Role. M. Engel & J.H. Hausman (Eds.), Curriculum I n s t r u c t i o n i n A r t s &  A e s t h e t i c Education, (pp. 47-50). St. L o u i s : Cemrel Inc. Keeton, M. & McKinley, D. (1983). Communication and Media  E x p l o r a t i o n . ( A v a i l a b l e from the Kentucky S t a t e Department of Education, D i r e c t o r f o r C u r r i c u l u m Development, (2024 C a p i t a l P l a z a Tower, F r a n k f u r t , KY 40602). Kennard, D. (1980). L o c a t i o n and S p e c i a l Photographic E f f e c t s . American Cinematographer. 61(10), 1014-1015, 1042-1043. K i r k p a t r i c k , S. (1984). Clay Animation f o r Sundae i n New York. American Cinematographer. 65(7), 95-100. K l i n e , R. (1980) . The Very S p e c i a l E f f e c t s f o r S t a r Trek. American Cinematographer. 61(2), 144-145, 174-175 and 193-197. L a n i e r , V. (1980). S i x Items on the Agenda f o r the E i g h t i e s . A r t Education. 33.(5), 6-7. L a n i e r , V. (1982) . The A r t s We See, New York: Teachers C o l l e g e Columbia. 110 Lee, N. (1984). Video Animation. American Cinematoqrapher, 65(8), 107-110. Lee, N. (1985). Video E f f e c t s f o r 2010. American  Cinematoqrapher. 66(1), 57-63. L e v i n , S, (1985). Pygmalion T r i e s Again f o r Weird S c i e n c e . American Cinematoqrapher, 66(12), 93-96. Lineham, T. (1983). Computer Graphics: O p p o r t u n i t y f o r A r t i s t i c V i s i o n . A r t Education. 36(3), 11-14. Madeja, S. (1983). Computer Graphics: The New S u b j e c t Matter f o r the A r t Curriculum. A r t Education, 3_6(3) , 15-17. McClain, M.B. (1987). E l e c t r i f y i n g A r t . School A r t s . 87(3), 18-19. McDevitt, M.J. (1986). Computer Graphics O r i e n t a t i o n and  T r a i n i n g i n a Corporate/Production Environment. Unpublished master's t h e s i s , Ohio S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y . M i n i s t r y of Education Curriculum Development Branch (198 3). Secondary A r t Guide 8 - 12. M i n i s t r y of E d u c a t i o n ; B r i t i s h Columbia: P r i n t S e r v i c e s . O'Connell, K. (1985). Microcomputer Graphics Workshop. School A r t s , 84(6), 25-27. Olson, J . & Fechek, U. (1986). E l e c t r o n i c Media: Image and Sound. School A r t s . 85(7), 19-21. P a u l e r - S t o v a l l , D. (1985). A Computer A r t S t a t i o n i n the Artroom. School A r t s , 84(6), 19-22. I l l Robley, L.P. (1983). The Making of Dragon's L a i r . American  Cinematographer. 6 4 ( H ) , 74-78. Robley, L.P. (1983). Computer Graphics f o r Superman I I I . American Cinematographer. 64(9), 68-70. Robley, L.P. (1986). Computer Graphics A i d Animation R e b i r t h . American Cinematographer. 67(10), 73-80. Sasowsky, N. (1985) . The Computer and the A r t Teacher. School A r t s . 84(6), 10-12. S i l v a , R. (1979). World of Animation, Rochester, New York: Kodak. S k l a r , R. (1977). Hollywood: The Dream F a c t o r y . (Newspaper a r t i c l e f o r the E i g h t h Course by Newspaper ( P u b l i s h e r s ' Inc. , 243 12th S t r e e t , Drawer P. , Del Mar, C a l i f o r n i a 92014). Sorensen, P. (1984). Vector Graphics f o r Nightmares. American Cinematographer. 65(5), 89-92. Spradley, J.P. (1980). P a r t i c i p a n t O b s e r v a t i o n . Toronto: H o l t , R i n e h a r t and Winston. S q u i r e s , W. (1983). C r e a t i v e Computers: Premises and Promises. A r t Education, 36(3), 21-23. S t o k r o c k i , M. (1986). Q u a l i t a t i v e I n t e r p r e t a t i o n of a Microcomputer Graphics Course f o r G i f t e d and T a l e n t e d A d o l e s c e n t s . A r t Education, 39(1), 44-47. 112 Stredney, D.L. (1982). The R e p r e s e n t a t i o n of Anatomical  S t r u c t u r e s through Computer Animation f o r S c i e n t i f i c ,  E d u c a t i o n a l A r t i s t i c A p p l i c a t i o n s . Unpublished m a s t e r 1 s t h e s i s , Ohio State U n i v e r s i t y . T a x e l , J . (1982, March). A L i t e r a t u r e Review of the Impact  of Walt Disney Productions Inc. Paper p r e s e n t e d a t the annual meeting of the American E d u c a t i o n a l Research A s s o c i a t i o n , New York. Turner, G. (1985). Academy V i s u a l E f f e c t s Nominees. American  Cinematographer, 66(4), 54-55. Van B a e r l e , S.L. (1985). Computer - Generated. Three- Dimensional Character Animation. Unpublished master's t h e s i s , Ohio S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y . V e t t e r , B. (1985). The Adventures of Mark Twain. American  Cinematographer, 66(11), 74-90. Wedge, J.C. (1985). Role of the Animation i n the G e n e r a t i o n  of 3-Dimensional Computer Generated Animation. Unpublished Master's t h e s i s , Ohio S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y . Wegner, H. (1977). Teaching with F i l m . Bloomington, Indiana: Ph i D e l t a Kappa. White, D.M. (1977). Popular C u l t u r e . What Manner of M i r r o r ? (Newspaper a r t i c l e f o r the E i g h t h Course by Newspaper ( P u b l i s h e r s ' Inc,.m 243 12th S t r e e t , Drawer, P., Del Mar, C a l i f o r n i a 92014). White, D.W. (1983). A r t Education W i t h i n a T e c h n o l o g i c a l S o c i e t y . A r t & Education, 36(3), 6-7. 113 White, D.W. (1985). C r e a t i n g Microcomputer Gra p h i c s w i t h the Koalapad. A r t Education. 38(2), 10-14. Wilson, S.S. (1984). Dimensional Animation f o r C u r i o u s George. American Cinematographer, 65_(4) , 87-92. Worcester, T.K. (1985). Closed C i r c u i t C a l l i g r a p h y . School  A r t s . 84(6), 23-24. Wright, D. & F a r r i s , E. (1980) . Trends i n V o c a t i o n a l  E d u c a t i o n i n the A r t s 1980. Youngblood, M.S. (1988). The Ant and the Grasshopper: A Program f o r Adopting Microcomputer Graphics i n the A r t s . A r t Education, 41(3), 23-24 and 41-45. Z i b i t , M. & Hicks, B. (1978). A M u l t i - P u r p o s e E d u c a t i o n a l  Medium - McPainting. Urbana: I l l i n o i s U n i v e r s i t y . ( S e r v i c e s i n E d u c a t i o n a l A p p l i c a t i o n s of Computers No. 25) . 114 APPENDIX A Consent Form 115 APPENDIX A CONSENT FORM TITLE OF PROJECT: Pe r c e p t i o n s h e l d by a r t t e a c h e r s , a r t students and p r o f e s s i o n a l animators on the r o l e and c h a r a c t e r of animation i n a r t ed u c a t i o n . INVESTIGATOR: Ann Pentland, a graduate student i n V i s u a l and Performing A r t s i n Education under the s u p e r v i s i o n of R. MacGregor. PURPOSE OF PROJECT & PROCEDURES: The purpose of t h i s study i s t o d i s c o v e r the s i m i l a r i t i e s i n p e r c e p t i o n s h e l d by secondary a r t teach e r s and students and p r o f e s s i o n a l animators on the r o l e and c h a r a c t e r of animation i n a r t ed u c a t i o n . A l l s u b j e c t s w i l l respond v e r b a l l y t o the qu e s t i o n s posed by the r e s e a r c h e r . These responses w i l l be documented by f i e l d notes and a tape r e c o r d e r t h a t w i l l l a t e r be t r a n s c r i b e d f o r a n a l y s i s . Students and t e a c h e r s w i l l be in t e r v i e w e d i n the a r t room e i t h e r a f t e r s c h o o l or d u r i n g the l a s t b l o c k . Animators w i l l be i n t e r v i e w e d a t t h e i r p l a c e s of work. CONFIDENTIALITY: In the t h e s i s , s u b j e c t s w i l l not be r e f e r r e d t o by name or i n s t i t u t i o n . Tapes w i l l be era s e d when the p r o j e c t i s completed. TIME REQUIRED: Teachers: 3/4-1 1/2 hours Students: 1/2-3/4 hours Animators: 3/4-1 1/2 hours SUBJECTS ARE ENCOURAGED TO ASK ANY QUESTIONS REGARDING THE INTERVIEW OR PROCEDURES TO ENSURE THAT THEY FULLY UNDERSTAND. SUBJECTS HAVE THE RIGHT TO REFUSE TO PARTICIPATE OR WITHDRAW AT ANY TIME WITHOUT INFLUENCING CLASS STANDING. I, , consent t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n the above d e s c r i b e d r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t , and have r e c e i p t of t h i s form. SIGNED: APPENDIX B Questions Posed by Researcher 117 APPENDIX B Questions Posed by Researcher CATEGORY I: DEFINING ANIMATION 1. How would you d e f i n e animation? 2. Can you name or d e s c r i b e d i f f e r e n t s t y l e s of animation? 3. Can you g i v e me s p e c i f i c examples of where animation i s used today? 4. Do you c o n s i d e r animation t o be an important a r t medium such as drawing, p a i n t i n g , ceramics, e t c . ? 5. Do you t h i n k animation i s r e a l l y mostly meant f o r c h i l d r e n ? CATEGORY I I : POTENT IMAGES 1. Name the most memorable animated f i l m s you have seen? 2. Why do you t h i n k these memories are potent? 3. Do these memories have p e r s o n a l meanings t o you? 4. Do you l i k e watching animated f i l m s ? 5. Do you ever go t o see an animation f i l m f e s t i v a l or an animated f i l m ? CATEGORY I I I : POPULAR CULTURE 1. How have cartoon c h a r a c t e r s i n f l u e n c e d your l i f e s i n c e your c h i l d r e n ? 2. Do you t h i n k animation i s used e x t e n s i v e l y today i n a l l forms of media? 3. Do you t h i n k animation i s a major i n f l u e n c e i n students* p o p u l a r c u l t u r e ? 4. Imagine our c u l t u r e without the i n v e n t i o n of animation. How would our l i v e s be d i f f e r e n t ? 5. Do you t h i n k t h a t j u s t because something makes up a p a r t of our popular c u l t u r e , i t makes i t worthy of study? CATEGORY IV: CAREERS 1. What c a r e e r s do you t h i n k t h a t an animation background would h e l p prepare a student f o r ? 2. Do you t h i n k t h a t a students' v i s u a l l i t e r a c y would be extended due t o an animation background? 3. Do you t h i n k t h a t s t u d y i n g animation would h e l p a student become a b e t t e r c r e a t i v e problem s o l v e r ? 4. What e d u c a t i o n a l background do you t h i n k a student would need, who wanted t o become an animator? 5. Do you t h i n k t h a t an animation background would b e t t e r prepare a g e n e r a l a r t student (non-art major) f o r h i s / h e r f u t u r e c a r e e r ? 118 CATEGORY V: BACKGROUNDS A. Teachers 1. Number of years taught? 2. T r a i n i n g b a c k g r o u n d / s p e c i a l t y areas 3. S u b j e c t s taught? 4. Have you ever taught animation? Why or why not? 5. What i s the best p a r t about t e a c h i n g animation? 6. What i s the worst p a r t about t e a c h i n g animation? 7. What would i t take t o convince you t o te a c h animation on a r e g u l a r b a s i s ? 8. How d i d your students respond t o an animation u n i t ? 9. Do you t h i n k t h e r e are many animation jobs a v a i l a b l e ? B. Students 1. Grade and age? 2. A r t background - are you an a r t major? 3. Do you want a c a r e e r r e l a t e d t o the v i s u a l a r t s ? 4. W i l l a r t probably always be important t o you? 5. Have you ever made an animated f i l m ? 6. I f so, t e l l me about i t : how many times, how long ago, what d i d you do, d i d you enjoy i t ? 7. I f you haven't made an animated f i l m ever, would you l i k e to? Why/why not? 8. Do you t h i n k t h e r e are many jobs a v a i l a b l e as animators? 9. What would you l i k e t o be when you f i n i s h s c h o o l ? C. Animators 1. How d i d you f i r s t get i n t e r e s t e d i n animation? 2. D i d you ever make any f i l m s between grades 1 - 12? 3. When d i d you make your f i r s t f i l m ? D e s c r i b e d the experience: age, who's camera, e t c . 4. What a t t r a c t e d you to the f i e l d ? 5. When d i d you decide t o become an animator? 6. Where d i d you get t r a i n e d ? 7. How was i t f o r g e t t i n g s t a r t e d and f i n d i n g work? 8. How has your c a r e e r gone? 9. What s k i l l s and a b i l i t i e s do students need t o make i t as animators these days? 10. Where are the best p l a c e s t o get t r a i n e d ? 11. Do you t h i n k animation makes a good c a r e e r c h o i c e these days? 119 

Cite

Citation Scheme:

        

Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics

Share

Embed

Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                        
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            src="{[{embed.src}]}"
                            data-item="{[{embed.item}]}"
                            data-collection="{[{embed.collection}]}"
                            data-metadata="{[{embed.showMetadata}]}"
                            data-width="{[{embed.width}]}"
                            async >
                            </script>
                            </div>
                        
                    
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:
http://iiif.library.ubc.ca/presentation/dsp.831.1-0055103/manifest

Comment

Related Items