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The effect of a cultural program in the visual arts on students' ethnic attitudes Cipywnyk, Raissa Sonia 1987

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EFFECT OF A CULTURAL PROGRAM IN THE VISUAL ARTS ON STUDENTS' ETHNIC ATTITUDES by . RAISSA S O N I A ' C I P Y W N Y K A THESIS S U B M I T T E D IN PARTIAL F U L F I L M E N T O F THE R E Q U I R E M E N T S FOR THE D E C R E E O F M A S T E R O F ARTS ' : in THE F A C U L T Y O F G R A D U A T E STUDIES Visual .and Per fo rming Arts in Educa t ion W e accept this thesis as c o n f o r m i n g to the requ i red standard THE UNIVERSITY O F BRITISH C O L U M B I A N o v e m b e r 1987 © Raissa Sonia C i p y w n y k , 1987 In p resent ing this thesis in partial fu l f i lment of the requ i rements for an a d v a n c e d degree at The Univers i ty of British C o l u m b i a , I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for re fe rence and study. I further agree that pe rm iss i on for ex tens ive c o p y i n g of this thesis for scholar ly p u r p o s e s may be granted by the H e a d of my Depar tmen t o r by his or her representat ives. It is u n d e r s t o o d that c o p y i n g or pub l i ca t ion of this thesis for f inancial gain shall not be a l l owed w i t hou t my wr i t ten pe rm iss ion . Visual and Per fo rm ing Arts in Educa t ion The Univers i ty of Brit ish C o l u m b i a 2075 W e s b r o o k Place Vancouve r , C a n a d a V6T 1 W 5 Date : N o v e m b e r 1987 A B S T R A C T The purpose , of this research s tudy was to "at tempt to d iscover if a unit of s tudy o n aspects of the visual arts of the p e o p l e of India and Indo -Canad ians c o u l d result in posi t ive at t i tude change toward this target g roup . The basic p rem ise u p o n w h i c h the p rog ram was d e v e l o p e d was that i m p r o v e d ethnic at t i tudes c o u l d be genera ted by f ocuss ing o n similari t ies in bel iefs and pract ices a m o n g the cu l tures of India, I ndo -Canad ians , and ma ins t ream Canad ians as ref lected in their aesthet ic p roduc ts . The research des ign used was a nonequ iva len t con t ro l g roup d e s i g n . Three ' intact sixth grade classes in a large subu rban s c h o o l distr ict c o m p r i s e d the samp le . T w o classes par t ic ipated in the p r o g r a m wh i le the third class was used as a con t ro l g roup . Al l three g r o u p s we re pre- and pos t tes ted o n measures ind ica t ing their at t i tudes towards Indo -Canad ians . A Semant ic Dif ferent ial M e a s u r e and a B o g a r d u s Soc ia l D is tance Scale we re the major ins t ruments . This exper imen ta l des ign was c o m p l e m e n t e d by the obse rva t i on of the two t reatment g roups t h r o u g h o u t the imp lemen ta t i on p e r i o d . The results of the pos t tes t indicate that a s igni f icant posi t ive c h a n g e in s tuden ts ' at t i tudes took p lace as a result of the t reatment . The exp lo ra t ion of cu l tures and cross-cul tura l s imi lar i t ies in bel ie fs and pract ices th rough the visual arts w o u l d there fore appear to be a , p rom is i ng means of improv ing att i tudes towards e thn ic g roups . a ii TABLE OF CONTENTS Acknowledgements i Abstract ii I. The Problem 1 A. Introduction 1 B. Statement of the Problem 3 C. Purpose of the Study 3 D. Research Question 4 E. Definition of Terms 4 F. Design of the Study 5 1. Sample 5 2. Procedure 6 3. instruments 6 4. Limitations 6 II. Review of the Literature 7 III. Conduct of the Study 16 A. Research Methodology 16 B. Research Question and Hypothesis 16 C. Selection of Subjects 17 D. Description of the Schools 18 E. Procedure 19 F. Instrumentation 21 1. The Social Distance Scale 21 2. The Semantic Differential Measure 23 C . Contact Questionnaire 24 H . Data Analysis 25 I. The Treatment 26 J. Limitations 29 IV. Description of the Implementation Process 31 A. Introduction 31 B. School 1 34 1. The Setting 34 2. Activity One: The Reading of an Artifact 35 3. Activity Two: Cultural Symbols 37 4. Activity Three: Clothing as Symbol 41 5. Activity Four: The Clothing of India 42 6. Activity Five: Designing a Culture 44 7. Activity Six: Culture Contact and Culture Change 47 C. School 2 48 1. The Setting 48 2. Activity One: The Reading of an Artifact 49 3. Activity Two: Cultural Symbols 50 4. Activity Three: Clothing as Symbol 55 5. Activity Four: The Clothing of India 57 iii 6. Act iv i ty Five: D e s i g n i n g a Cu l tu re 58 7. Act iv i ty Six: Cu l tu re C o n t a c t and Cu l tu re C h a n g e 62 V. F indings 64 A . Persona l In format ion Sheet 64 B. Test of the H y p o t h e s i s 65 C . C o n t a c t Ques t i onna i r e 68 D. O t h e r F indings 69 1. Ratings o f Ethn ic C r o u p s 69 E. D i s c u s s i o n 71 VI. Summary and C o n c l u s i o n s 74 VII. References 78 VIII. A p p e n d i x O n e , 85 IX. A p p e n d i x T w o 88 X. A p p e n d i x Three 91 XI. A p p e n d i x Four 94 XII. A p p e n d i x Five 129 iv List of Tables Table 1: Pupils Included in the Study 64 Table 2: Manova on Personal Information 64 Table 3: Semantic Differential • .....66 Table 4: Social Distance Scale 66 Table 5: Number of Indo- Canadian Friends Taken Home 67 Table 6: Ranking of Ethnic-Racial Croups 69 v List of Figures 1. Royal Canadian Mounted Police in Dress Uniform 128 2. Indian Officer in Dress Uniform 128 3. Queen Elizabeth II and Prince Philip 128 4. Young Indian Prince 128 5. Indian Cricket Team 128 6. Hockey Players 128 vi ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I w o u l d l ike t o express great apprec ia t ion for the suppor t and assistance g iven by m y adv isor , G r a e m e C h a l m e r s , and c o m m i t t e e m e m b e r s M i c h e a l Foster and Jack K e h o e . Each p r o v i d e d a un ique perspec t i ve o n the preparat ion of this work . Thanks is a lso e x t e n d e d to Char les U n g e r l e i d e r for his gu idance wi th respect to the statist ical po r t i on of this s tudy. His pa t ience and g o o d h u m o r made it an en joyab le and va luab le learn ing e x p e r i e n c e . 1 am also ex t reme ly grateful to Inderjit M e h a t , the teachers w h o s o grac ious ly ag reed to par t ic ipate in the study, and to Sital Dh i l l on and her family. Thei r he lp was immeasu rab le . Finally, d e e p apprec ia t ion is exp ressed to my fe l l ow graduate s tudents and the facul ty m e m b e r s of the Art Educa t ion Depa r tmen t . Rarely have I e n c o u n t e r e d such cons is ten t suppo r t , wa rmth , and g o o d cheer . It was a pr iv i lege to ' be a part of it. V. i i I. THE PROBLEM A. INTRODUCTION W h i l e g o v e r n m e n t and educa t i ona l po l i cy in the last f i f teen years has e m p h a s i z e d that cul tural and racial d ivers i ty is a pos i t ive p h e n o m e n o n , research has s h o w n that as many as 15 per cen t of the p o p u l a t i o n exh ib i t blatantly racist a t t i tudes, wh i l e ano the r 20-25 per cen t have s o m e racist t e n d e n c i e s " (Special C o m m i t t e e o n V is ib le M ino r i t i es in C a n a d a , 1984, p.3). Studies fur ther ind ica te that a substant ia l a m o u n t of this host i l i ty is d i rec ted towards Indo -Canad ians ; m e m b e r s of this e thn ic g r o u p are cons is ten t l y j u d g e d unfavorab ly by o the r Canad ians (Chand ra , 1973 ; Berry, Kal in & Taylor , 1977; Henry , 1978; Li , 1979). This t rend is re f lec ted in the e thn ic at t i tudes of W h i t e C a n a d i a n and o ther v is ib le m inor i t y Canad ian s tuden ts in the s c h o o l s (Ijaz, 1982 ; B ibby & Postersk i , 1985). Af ter c o n d u c t i n g a survey of interracial at t i tudes in O n t a r i o s c h o o l s w i th s tudents b e t w e e n the ages of twe lve and f i f teen, Ada i r and Rosensta lk (1976) f o u n d reason t o state that " t hey ( p e o p l e or ig ina t ing f r om India) are a focus , as a g r o u p , for the m o s t over t racism f o u n d in C a n a d a t o d a y " (p.32). The p r e s e n c e of such at t i tudes has b e c o m e the c o n c e r n of a n u m b e r of s c h o o l boards (Roe , 1982). A m o n g t hose to take ac t i on is the V a n c o u v e r S c h o o l B o a r d , w h i c h has d e v e l o p e d a race relat ions po l i cy of cons ide rab le s c o p e . W h i l e s teps have b e e n taken t o w a r d i m p l e m e n t i n g the po l i cy gu ide l i nes , there con t i nues to be a n e e d for the fo rma t ion of p rog rams w i th in and a m o n g s c h o o l s t o inc rease cul tural unde rs tand ing (Vancouve r S c h o o l Boa rd , 1982) . This s ta tement is s u p p o r t e d by the 1 2 responses to a survey c o n d u c t e d by the Board w h i c h ind ica ted that cu r r i cu lum mater ials w e r e requ i red to in fo rm abou t and represent di f ferent g roups in Canad ian soc ie ty and he lp to imp rove interracial pe rcep t i ons a m o n g s tudents (Fil l ipoff, 1982). It is also impor tan t that p rog rams w h i c h are d e v e l o p e d u n d e r g o eva luat ion in o rder to ascerta in if t hey ach ieve the i n t e n d e d goa l . M a n y curr icu la are d e v e l o p e d o n the assump t i on that negat ive at t i tudes are pr imari ly the result of i gno rance and can there fo re be c h a n g e d by s imp ly p rov i d i ng more in fo rmat ion about certain e thn ic g roups . H o w e v e r , there is little e v i d e n c e to suppo r t this theory (Katz, 1976). Rather, it w o u l d appear that in fo rmat ion w h i c h is p resen ted s h o u l d be s t ruc tured a r o u n d certain gu ide l ines . A m o n g the m o s t impor tan t of these is that emphas is s h o u l d be p laced o n simi lar i t ies a m o n g cu l tu res , and that e thn ic minor i t ies be por t rayed in a pos i t i ve l ight ( K e h o e , 1984). A curr icular area w h i c h meri ts e x p l o r a t i o n in respect to this issue is that o f the visual arts. A n u m b e r of art e d u c a t o r s have p r o p o s e d that the s tudy o f art can con t r i bu te to the d e v e l o p m e n t o f in tercul tura l unde rs tand ing (e.g. C r i gsby , 1977 ; M c F e e & D e g g e , 1977; C h a l m e r s , 1984) . W h i l e the app roaches w h i c h have b e e n e s p o u s e d dif fer s o m e w h a t , m o s t are based o n the assump t i on that art is, in e s s e n c e , a f o r m of c o m m u n i c a t i o n w h i c h ref lects p e o p l e ' s values, at t i tudes and bel ie fs ( M c F e e & D e g g e , 1977) . A s s u c h , its s tudy c o u l d potent ia l ly p rov i de n u m e r o u s learn ing oppor tun i t i es t o e x a m i n e the under l y ing i deo log i ca l s t ructures of var ious e thn ic g r o u p s and c o m p a r e c ross-cu l tu ra l c o m m o n a l i t i e s . This, in turn , c o u l d lead to the i m p r o v e m e n t of e thn i c a t t i tudes. Little empi r i ca l research has b e e n d o n e t o invest igate the val idity of this asser t i on . 3 B. STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM i nc reas ing emphas is is be ing p l aced o n the d e v e l o p m e n t of greater apprec ia t ion a m o n g the var ious cul tural g roups rep resen ted in C a n a d a . H o w e v e r in o r d e r t o fully real ize this goa l , s teps must be taken to gain a bet ter unde rs tand ing of the means by w h i c h more pos i t ive intercultural relat ions may be a c h i e v e d t h r o u g h educa t iona l p rog rams . A l t h o u g h a great deal of work has b e e n d o n e in the soc ia l sc i ences in respec t to the study of the at t i tude cons t ruc t , very little research has b e e n f o c u s s e d o n the actual mod i f i ca t i on of ch i ld ren 's e thn ic at t i tudes (Katz, 1976). S tud ies of an in tervent ion is t nature are f e w and the results o f ten con f l i c t i ng , and t h o s e curr icu la w h i c h are d e v e l o p e d may be based o n u n s o u n d p remises . Exper iments l ink ing educa t i ona l expe r i ences in the visual arts to m e a s u r e d at t i tude c h a n g e are even fewer in number , t h o u g h the s tudy of the art of cul tural g roups has b e e n advoca ted as a means of e n h a n c i n g in te rg roup relat ions. It is there fo re of cons ide rab le impo r t that s teps are taken to invest igate this area m o r e t ho rough l y . C. PURPOSE OF THE STUDY The p u r p o s e of this research s tudy is t o a t tempt to d i scove r if the s tudy of aspec ts of the visual arts of India and Indo -Canad ians can i n d e e d result in pos i t ive at t i tude change t owa rd this target g roup . T h e sys temat ic eva luat ion of a p r o g r a m w i th such a f ocus can potent ia l ly make a con t r i bu t i on to the f o u n d a t i o n u p o n w h i c h future cur r i cu lum materials may be b a s e d . It is p o s i t e d that t he results wi l l a d d to the l i terature of art educa t i on as we l l as the m o r e genera l b o d y of k n o w l e d g e o n the mod i f i ca t i on of e thn ic at t i tudes. 4 D. RESEARCH QUESTION This s tudy examines w h e t h e r a cultural p rog ram in the visual arts wi l l result in a pos i t i ve change in grade six s tuden ts ' at t i tudes t owa rds Indo-Canad ians . The invest igator 's pr inc ipa l hypo thes is is that the goa l of i nc reased unde rs tand ing may be ach ieved th rough he lp ing s tudents to f ind and unders tand similar i t ies a m o n g cul tures. It is further pos i t ed that the s tudy of art is we l l - su i ted to s u c h learn ing in that it can be v i e w e d as a fo rm of c o m m u n i c a t i o n w h i c h ref lects p e o p l e ' s va lues, at t i tudes and bel iefs ( M c F e e & D e g g e , 1977). The f o l l o w i n g research q u e s t i o n wi l l be invest igated: W i l l par t ic ipa t ion in a visual arts cul tural p rog ram result in a pos i t ive change in s ixth grade s tuden ts ' at t i tudes towards Indo-Canad ians? E. DEFINITION OF TERMS Cultural program in the visual arts - This te rm refers to a uni t o f s tudy in the .visual arts that: 1) p rov ides in fo rmat ion abou t the cul tures of India, I ndo -Canad ians and mains t ream Canad ians as re f lec ted in the visual arts 2) accen tua tes cross-cu l tura l s imi lar i tes and e m p h a s i z e s bel ie fs and pract ices c o m m o n t o all p e o p l e and cu l tu res 3) demons t ra tes that cul tural d i f fe rences are di f ferent ia l exp ress ions of similar h u m a n va lues 4) s t rengthens an unde rs tand ing of intercul tural in f luence and cu l ture change 5 Attitude - For the pu rposes of this s tudy, the term "a t t i t ude " wi l l refer to s tuden ts ' d i spos i t i ons t oward or o p i n i o n s abou t rac ia l -e thn ic g roups . T h e f ocus of interest wi l l be o n s tuden ts ' at t i tudes towards Indo -Canad ians . White Canadian students - This term refers to wh i te ch i ld ren of w h i t e parents. Indo-Canadian students - This ca tegory i nc ludes ch i ld ren w h o s e parents o r anscestors or ig inate f r om the Indian subcon t i nen t . Other-Canadian students - This te rm refers to ch i ld ren hav ing at least o n e parent b e l o n g i n g t o a v is ib le minor i ty g r o u p o the r than that of I n d o - C a n a d i a n . Visible minority - This te rm refers to p e o p l e w h o canno t , by vir tue of their c o m p l e x i o n , d isappear into the d o m i n a n t soc ie t y w i th in o n e gene ra t i on . (Adai r & Rosensta lk , 1976) . F. DESIGN OF THE STUDY 1. Sample Three intact s ix th grade c lasses in a large subu rban s c h o o l distr ict c o m p r i s e d the samp le tes ted . A total of s ix ty-n ine s tuden ts w e r e subjects fo r the s tudy. Forty-e ight w e r e W h i t e - C a n a d i a n , n ine w e r e I ndo -Canad ian , and twelve had at least o n e parent w h o b e l o n g e d to a v is ib le minor i ty g r o u p o t h e r than I ndo -Canad ian . 6 2. Procedure The research des ign was a nonequ iva len t c o n t r o l g r o u p des ign . T w o classes rece i ved the t reatment wh i le the third class se rved as a con t ro l g r o u p . Al l three c lasses we re p re tes ted and pos t t es ted o n measures ind icat ing their at t i tudes t owa rds Indo-Canad ians . The t w o t rea tment g roups w e r e a lso o b s e r v e d t h r o u g h o u t the t ime of the s tudy in order to d i sce rn any var iat ion in the app l i ca t ion of the t rea tment and genera l env i ronmenta l c o n d i t i o n s . 3. Instruments Students w e r e pre- and pos t t es ted o n a Seman t i c Di f ferent ia l M e a s u r e and a Bogardus Soc ia l D is tance Sca le . The pos t tes t a lso i nc l uded a con tac t ques t ionna i re adapted f rom o n e used by H e n r y (1978). 4. Limitations The study was l imi ted by a n u m b e r of factors. The samp le was on ly c o l l e c t e d f rom o n e s c h o o l distr ict. N o r was it poss ib le t o r andomly se lect o r assign s tudents to the p rog ram. A n at tempt is there fo re m a d e t o clearly ou t l i ne the s i tuat ion u n d e r s tudy in o r d e r to p rov ide in fo rmat ion abou t the comparab i l i t y of the samp le to o ther popu la t i ons . II. REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE W i t h the increas ing cul tural diversi ty of C a n a d i a n soc ie ty , the goa l of soc ia l unde rs tand ing has taken o n n e w impo r tance in e d u c a t i o n . There exists a g r o w i n g interest in e m p l o y i n g mul t icu l tura l a p p r o a c h e s in the s c h o o l s w h i c h f ocus o n the d e v e l o p m e n t of "pos i t i ve and p roduc t i ve in te rac t ion a m o n g p e o p l e and a m o n g expe r i ences of d iverse cul tural g r o u p s " ( A S C D , 1977, p.3). M u c h of the wo rk w h i c h has b e e n d o n e in the area has ma in ta ined a h igh ly c o n c e p t u a l f ocus , howeve r , and is no t general ly c o m p l e m e n t e d by empi r i ca l s tud ies . Katz (1976) states that " the first and m o s t o b v i o u s p r o b l e m w i th ex is t ing research is the shee r pauc i t y of s tud ies that have a t t emp ted to change ch i ld ren 's e thn ic a t t i t udes" (p. 213). In a c o m p r e h e n s i v e rev iew of s tud ies in the area of racial at t i tudes c o n d u c t e d pr ior t o 1966, Proshansky (1966) f o u n d that on l y e ight mod i f i ca t i on s tud ies had b e e n c o n d u c t e d w i th ch i l d ren , and of these six had b e e n c o n d u c t e d w i th h igh s c h o o l s tudents . Relat ively f ew in tervent ion s tud ies have b e e n c o n d u c t e d w i th ch i ld ren s ince that t ime. A s e c o n d p r o b l e m arises f r o m the fact that curr icular i nnova t ions w h i c h are i m p l e m e n t e d in an a t tempt to i n d u c e pos i t i ve at t i tude c h a n g e towards e thn ic minor i t ies are o f ten no t f o r m e d in re la t ion to the little research w h i c h has b e e n d o n e ( K e h o e , 1984) . M a n y p rog rams w h i c h have b e e n d e v e l o p e d focus o n the p resen ta t ion of i n fo rmat ion abou t o the r cu l tu res . The a s s u m p t i o n w h i c h under l ies these p rog rams is that negat ive at t i tudes are, fo r the m o s t part, a result of i gno rance and can there fo re b e c o u n t e r a c t e d w i th appropr ia te k n o w l e d g e . H o w e v e r empi r i ca l e v i d e n c e abou t the ef fect of such ins t ruc t ion is con f l i c t i ng and inconc lus i ve 7 8 (Katz, 1976). In a s tudy of the genera l ef fects of educa t i on o n in te rg roup behav io r , M c N e i l (1960) n o t e d an unfavorab le change in e thn ic at t i tudes dur ing h igh s c h o o l . Fifty twe l f th -g rade s tudents were re tes ted o n a sen tence c o m p l e t i o n test t w o years after their initial tes t ing ; a genera l increase in p re jud ice towards a n u m b e r of e thn i c g r o u p s was d i s c o v e r e d . Elrod (1968) f o u n d the use of m o v i e s inef fect ive in a c o u r s e w i th s e c o n d a r y s tudents ; and Kagan (1952) f o u n d that in fo rmat ion abou t Jews d e c r e a s e d an t i -Semi t i sm on ly w h e n this i n fo rmat ion was t ied t o d i rect d i s cuss i on abou t d isc r im ina tory at t i tudes. N o att i tude change o c c u r r e d w h e n the researcher d i d n o t . g o b e y o n d the stated subject mat ter desp i te the fact that the pos i t i ve c o n t r i b u t i o n o f Jews to the d e v e l o p m e n t of Chr is t ian i ty was e m p h a s i z e d t h r o u g h o u t the class. In a s tudy c o n d u c t e d w i th sixth grade ch i l d ren , the exper imen ta l g r o u p rece i ved an e n r i c h e d cu r r i cu lum. In add i t ion , they t u to red and in terac ted w i th black ch i ld ren (Lesl ie, Lesl ie & Pender , 1972). ln the first m o n t h of the s tudy they deal t w i th Af r ica past and p resen t ; the s e c o n d m o n t h f o c u s s e d o n f amous b lack persona l i t ies ; and in the f inal m o n t h emphas is was p laced o n future p r o b l e m s of b lacks . N u m e r o u s supp lemen ta ry materials we re p r o v i d e d , i nc lud ing f i lms, records , w o r k s of art, b o o k s , gues t speakers , interest cen te rs , and d isp lays. T w o c o n t r o l g roups w e r e u s e d , o n e of w h i c h s tud ied the regular soc ia l s tud ies cu r r i cu lum, wh i l e the o the r deal t w i th " s t u d e n t pol i t ical act iv i ty" . It was f o u n d that all g roups s h o w e d a dec rease in pre jud ic ia l at t i tudes o n the post tes t , h o w e v e r this is no t supr is ing c o n s i d e r i n g the statist ical analyses p resen ted w e r e h igh ly unusua l ; all of the s tuden ts 9 w h o d e m o n s t r a t e d no change f rom the pre- to the pos t tes t w e r e d r o p p e d f r o m the analysis. This makes the results diff icult to interpret , and it w o u l d appear that the c o n t r o l g r o u p i m p r o v e d as m u c h as the g r o u p w h i c h u n d e r w e n t t he t rea tment . Pos i t i ve results w e r e a lso ach ieved th rough the use of a mul t id isc ip l inary unit d e s i g n e d to mod i f y racial at t i tudes of s e c o n d grade s tuden ts (Ruiz, 1982) . T h e t rea tment c o n s i s t e d of a twe l ve -week in te rvent ion , t en w e e k s of w h i c h f o c u s s e d o n mul t i - leve l s tud ies of each of the cul tures rep resen ted in the class. The s tuden ts w e r e admin is te red a mod i f i ca t i on of the Bogardus Soc ia l D is tance Scale b o t h be fo re and after the t reatment , and the results ind ica ted that the p rog ram was ef fect ive in r e d u c i n g racial b ias. N o con t ro l g r o u p was u s e d , h o w e v e r , and the samp le was ex t reme ly smal l . T h e s e s tud ies vary cons ide rab ly in terms of m e t h o d o l o g y , and it is there fo re dif f icult to establ ish what caused the d i f fe rence in results. It is apparent , h o w e v e r , that s imp ly impar t ing facts to s tudents may not p r o m o t e intercul tura l unde rs tand ing . By cont rast , ins t ruc t iona l p rog rams w h i c h focus o n cultural similar i t ies have p r o v e n t o be success fu l in p r o m o t i n g pos i t i ve in te rgroup at t i tudes. A s tudy c o n d u c t e d by L ichter and J o h n s o n (1969) invest iga ted the ef fect of us ing mu l t ie thn ic readers w h i c h por t rayed Blacks as hav ing midd le -c lass character ist ics in in tegrated s i tuat ions. S tuden ts us ing the curr icu lar materials demons t ra ted a m a r k e d , pos i t i ve c h a n g e in at t i tude t owa rds the target g r o u p . Teachers we re ins t ruc ted not to init iate o r e n c o u r a g e d i scuss ion abou t racial o r e thn ic d i f fe rences. It s h o u l d be n o t e d , h o w e v e r , that the s tuden ts w h o w e r e tes ted we re f r om a c o m m u n i t y w i th a very smal l Black p o p u l a t i o n and h a d little o r n o contac t w i th this minor i ty g r o u p . It is the re fo re 10 h igh ly unl ike ly that the sub jec ts ' racial at t i tudes we re f irmly r o o t e d in d i rect e x p e r i e n c e . The use of a simi lar cu r r i cu lum unit in a repl icat ion of the study at a later date d i d not result in a no t i ceab le ef fect o n s tuden ts ' at t i tudes, h o w e v e r di f ferent cu r r i cu lum materials w e r e used ove r a cons ide rab ly shor ter p e r i o d of t ime (Lichter, J o h n s o n & Ryan, 1973). Salyachiv in 's research (1972; 1973) also reveals the impo r tance of emphas i z i ng similar i t ies across cul tures. Salyachiv in e x a m i n e d the effects of two factors o n s tudent at t i tudes at grades f ive, six, e ight and e leven . The first was w h e t h e r there was var iat ion in s tuden ts ' at t i tudes w h e n the similar i t ies of a coun t ry we re s t ressed rather than the d i f fe rences , and the s e c o n d was w h e t h e r the o rder of p resen ta t ion of pos i t i ve and negat ive material was an in f luenc ing factor. Seventy- f ive s l ides of Tha i land w e r e used in the s tudy. The s l ides, w h i c h s h o w e d simi lar i t ies to and d i f fe rences f r o m C a n a d a , a lso had a pos i t ive or negat ive d i m e n s i o n to t hem. The o n e result w h i c h was cons is ten t across all measures was that s t ress ing similari t ies was the m o s t ef fect ive way of ach iev ing m o r e pos i t i ve att i tudes t owa rds the target cu l tu re . W h i l e the Salyachiv in s tud ies f o c u s s e d o n a coun t r y o f w h i c h the s tudents had little p rev ious k n o w l e d g e , c o m p a r a b l e results have a lso b e e n genera ted by p rog rams dea l i ng w i th m o r e famil iar cu l tu res . A n eva luat ion of a f i lm cur r i cu lum d e v e l o p e d by Bet te H o o d for grades f ive and six s tudents in Brit ish C o l u m b i a revea led a s igni f icant overal l i m p r o v e m e n t in s tuden ts ' e thn ic at t i tudes. In this case , emphas i s was p l aced o n accen tua t ing des i rab le similar i t ies a m o n g var ious e thn ic g roups in C a n a d a ( K e h o e , 1984). The H o o d p rog ram also invo lved an arts c o m p o n e n t of 11 s ing ing and pa in t ing as part of a series of f o l l o w - u p activit ies to the v iew ing of the f i lms. A n o t h e r p i ece of w o r k ind ica t ing the impo r tance of concen t ra t i ng o n cul tural similar i t ies in d e v e l o p i n g inst ruct ional p rograms is a s tudy c o n d u c t e d by Ijaz (1980). Af ter f ind ing that wh i te fifth and sixth graders in S c a r b o r o u g h , O n t a r i o he ld h igh ly negat ive at t i tudes towards Blacks and l n d o - C a n a d i a n s and that s imi lar at t i tudes w e r e he ld by s tuden ts of o ther e thn ic g r o u p s , s tudents in four s c h o o l s par t i c ipa ted in a p rog ram w h i c h f o c u s s e d o n aspects of the Indian cul ture as re f lec ted in the arts. The p rog ram had four ob jec t ives : 1) to p r o v i d e k n o w l e d g e and in fo rmat ion abou t the East Indian cu l ture 2) to el ic i t unders tand ings of a n u m b e r of aspects of the East Indian cul ture 3) to c reate an awareness of similar i t ies and d i f ferences b e t w e e n cul tures and the s o u r c e s of cultural d ivers i ty 4) to e m p h a s i z e the apparen t cul tural d i f fe rences essent ia l ly cons t i tu te di f ferent ial mani festa t ions of similar h u m a n va lues (Ijaz, 1 9 8 1 , p.24) The teach ing m e t h o d c o m b i n e d an activity and exper ient ia l a p p r o a c h . Ro le -p lay ing was impor tan t in all aspects o f the p r o g r a m and there was a s t rong d a n c e c o m p o n e n t . The s tudents also par t i c ipa ted in the mak ing of a n u m b e r of craft i tems. Emphas is was p laced o n hav ing the s tudents rece ive the ins t ruc t iona l c o n t e n t b o t h o n a cogn i t i ve- ra t iona l level and at an e m o t i o n a l and affect ive leve l . A n a t tempt was a lso m a d e to relate the con ten t t o the s tudents ' o w n cu l ture . 12 Findings o n the pos t tes t re f lec ted s igni f icant ly i m p r o v e d at t i tudes toward Indo-Canad ians and an i m p r o v e m e n t of I n d o - C a n a d i a n s tuden ts ' at t i tudes toward their o w n g roup . The results we re ma in ta ined o n a s e c o n d post tes t th ree m o n t h s later. W h i l e the Ijaz p rog ram was highly success fu l , it is diff icult t o ascerta in w h i c h of a n u m b e r of factors i n f l uenced the variable u n d e r s tudy. The p rog ram was genera l ly a nove l learn ing expe r i ence fo r the s tudents . The ins t ruc tor was not a m e m b e r of the regular t each ing staff but an art ist- teacher f r o m India, and the m e t h o d s of ins t ruc t ion w e r e no t ones to w h i c h the s tuden ts were a c c u s t o m e d . Ijaz and Ijaz (1981) state that the success of the p r o g r a m can be at t r ibuted to the d e v e l o p m e n t of an awareness of intercul tural similari t ies and the roots of cul tural diversi ty. They also sugges t that such an awareness may best be ach ieved w i th e lemen ta ry s c h o o l ch i ld ren " t h r o u g h a c o m b i n a t i o n of cogn i t i ve and h ighly exper ien t ia l teach ing t e c h n i q u e s " (p.20). A n area that warrants invest igat ion in respec t t o imp rov ing racial at t i tudes t h rough such means is that of v isual arts e d u c a t i o n . The interest in the d e v e l o p m e n t of m o r e pos i t i ve in teract ion a m o n g p e o p l e of d ive rse cultural g r o u p s is re f lec ted in the l i terature of the f ie ld . Tay lor (1975) states that there is a " n e e d fo r art educa to rs to f o c u s o n the use of the arts as a veh i c l e for unde rs tand ing the cul tural c o m m o n a l i t i e s and variabi l i t ies of a plural ist ic s o c i e t y " (p.9). The bas ic assump t i on w h i c h is m a d e by many key wri ters is that art can be v i e w e d as a f o r m of c o m m u n i c a t i o n t h r o u g h w h i c h " p e o p l e exp ress thei r deep-s t ruc tu re cul tural values and cogn i t i ve pa t te rns " (Wa lsh , 1979 , p.30). V i e w e d in this manner , the s tudy of art can p rov ide n u m e r o u s learning oppo r tun i t i es fo r the d e v e l o p m e n t o f cul tural and intercul tural app rec ia t i on , and has b e e n p r o m o t e d in this capac i ty . For ins tance, 13 M c F e e (1974) states that s tuden ts s h o u l d . b e h e l p e d to see " t h e f unc t i on of art in cul ture as it t ransmits va lues, be l ie fs , and at t i tudes, and ident i f ies cul tural m e a n i n g s " (p.95) in o r d e r to aid in the fo rmat ion of a respect and unde rs tand ing of cul tural p lural ism in soc ie ty . Cha lmers (1974; 1984) further con t r ibu tes t o this o r ien ta t ion by ou t l i n ing the p ivo ta l ro le art plays in t ransmit t ing, susta in ing and c h a n g i n g cu l ture . H e stresses that the s tudy of art s h o u l d inc lude the s tudy of h u m a n values and mean ings , and that no t nearly e n o u g h has been d o n e " t o p r o m o t e art and art educa t i on as an ul t imate un i fy ing e lemen t in a w o r l d as f raught w i th d iv is ion and in a coun t ry as cul tural ly d iverse as C a n a d a " (Cha lmers , 1984, p.23.) . This g r o w i n g c o n c e r n fo r the d e v e l o p m e n t of an apprec ia t ion o f cu l ture t h rough art has resu l ted in the fo rmat ion of a n u m b e r of curr icular o r ien ta t ions . O n e of the m o s t in teres t ing t rends to e m e r g e calls for the d e v e l o p m e n t of p rog rams b a s e d o n an a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l or, m o r e speci f ica l ly , an e thnog raph i c a p p r o a c h to the teach ing of art. C h a l m e r s (1980) presents a case " f o r the s tudy of art as cul tural artifact, and the cultural an th ropo log i s t as a m o d e l for bo th art teachers and art s t u d e n t s " (p.6). H e states that dea l ing w i th the " w h y " of art and the " c o m p a r i t i v e s tudy of the arts, of r e s p o n s e t o the arts, and the p r o d u c t i o n of art f o rms w h i c h matter can he lp us to unders tand each o t h e r " (p.9). A similar s tance is taken by L o e b (1984) w h o wr i tes that the three key ideas in an e thnograph ic a p p r o a c h t o art e d u c a t i o n inc lude (1) the use of e t h n o g r a p h i c in fo rmat ion to e m p h a s i z e c o m m o n n e e d s , c o m m o n p r o b l e m s , and a c o m p a r i s o n of so lu t ions ; (2) the a c c e p t a n c e , i n d e e d ce lebra t ion of d iversi ty; and (3) the s t reng then ing of an unde rs tand ing of h o w cul tural i n f l uences sp read and interact . She further states that mul t icu l tura l p rog rams in art e d u c a t i o n s h o u l d p r o m o t e the f o l l ow ing : 14 ... the qual i t ies of ob jec ts in terms of aesthet ic con ten t , f unc t i on , and craf tsmanship seen as responses to the p r o b l e m s p o s e d by the needs of a soc ie ty , or the pe rcep t i ons of ind iv iduals . The exo t i c aspec ts of certain artifacts f r om strange cul tures are there fo re t e m p e r e d by the ident i f i ca t ion of p r o b l e m s and so lu t ions . Seen in this l ight the ob jec t b e c o m e s a means of c o m m u n i c a t i o n (p.17). Integral to such an a p p r o a c h is hav ing the teachers and s tudents w o r k t o g e t h e r in examin ing art p ieces m a d e outside the c l a s s r o o m and the learn ing of "s t ra teg ies that entai l inqui r ies, d i scou rse , and in fe rences a b o u t patterns of l iv ing, mak ing , us ing , and va lu ing that part icular art ob jec ts requi re o r s u g g e s t " (Fe ldman, 1980 , p.9). It w o u l d s e e m that the use of such an a p p r o a c h in the c l a s s r o o m ho lds a great dea l o f p r o m i s e for the d e v e l o p m e n t of in tercu l tura l unde rs tand ing . The o r ien ta t ion is r o o t e d in the d i scove ry and s tudy o f the in ter re la t ionsh ip b e t w e e n art and cu l ture. Programs d e v e l o p e d o n this p remise c a n be naturally adap ted to f ocus o n the fundamen ta l c o m m o n a l i t i e s a m o n g d i f ferent g roups . The exam ina t i on o f c rosscu l tura l similar i t ies, as re f lec ted in the v isual arts, c o u l d the re fo re p r o v i d e a means for imp rov ing e thn ic at t i tudes. W h i l e little empi r ica l research has b e e n d o n e to invest igate the val idi ty of this asser t ion, it has an inherent l og i c and is s u p p o r t e d by a f e w s tud ies . A n d r e w s (1984) c o n d u c t e d a two-year s tudy in an e lemen ta ry s c h o o l in Bri t ish C o l u m b i a w h i c h f o c u s s e d o n hav ing teachers and s tuden ts w o r k t o g e t h e r as jo in t invest igators in the co l l ec t i on and examina t ion of artifacts a n d relevant i n fo rmat ion assoc ia ted w i th mul t icu l tura l t hemes . A variety of di f ferent cu l tu res we re s tud ied and the s tuden ts 15 d isp layed a " h i g h interest in invest igat ing aspec ts of the i r o w n her i tage and that of o t h e r s " (p.24). The focus of the s tudy was o n cu r r i cu lum change . Wh i l e n o formal assessment of e thn ic at t i tudes t o o k p lace , the researcher states that " t he e x c i t e m e n t and pr ide d i sp layed by teachers , s tudents and paren ts " at a Mul t icu l tura l Arts Festival at the p rog ram 's e n d at tested to the fact that the s c h o o l had " l e a r n e d t o r e c o g n i z e and ce lebra te the c o n c e p t of mul t icu l tura l d ivers i ty " (p.24). Similar results we re also ach ieved in a c o m m u n i t y - b a s e d arts and crafts p rog ram i m p l e m e n t e d in a l o w - i n c o m e racially in tegra ted h o u s i n g d e v e l o p m e n t in P h e o n i x , A r i z o n a ( H a m p t o n , 1979). The p rog ram activi t ies e m p h a s i z e d the invest iga t ion of similarit ies and d i f fe rences a m o n g ind iv iduals and e thn i c g r o u p s t h rough d i scuss ions , d isplays of art i facts, s l ide- lec tures , guest artists and speakers , and a se lc t i on of arts and crafts act iv i t ies. Per iod ic eva luat ions of the p r o g r a m w e r e made by a g r o u p c o m p o s e d of res idents , m a n a g e m e n t , representa t ives f r om a loca l U rban League , and the art is t - teacher in res idence . It was repo r t ed that " t h e d e v e l o p m e n t of a sense of c o m m u n i t y as a result of the p rog ram was a c lear ly obse rvab le p h e n o m e n o n " (p.46) and that pos i t i ve soc ia l in terac t ion o c c u r r e d a m o n g p e o p l e f r om the var ious cul tural g roups rep resen ted in the c o m p l e x du r ing the c lasses, w o r k s h o p s and act ivi t ies. In summary , it w o u l d s e e m that the v isual arts m igh t p rov i de a g o o d f o u n d a t i o n for the d e v e l o p m e n t of a p r o g r a m to i m p r o v e s tuden ts ' e thn ic at t i tudes. A key e l emen t in ach iev ing posi t ive results w o u l d b e t o f ocus o n intercultural s imi lar i t ies and t o e m p h a s i z e that "appa ren t cul tural d i f fe rences essent ia l ly const i tu te di f ferent ia l mani festa t ions of s imi lar h u m a n v a l u e s " (Ijaz, 1981 , p.21). III. CONDUCT OF THE STUDY A. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY The exper imen ta l des ign used was a non -equ i va len t con t ro l g r o u p des ign . T w o intact c lasses se rved as t reatment g roups wh i le a th i rd class se rved as a con t ro l g roup . T h e first s tep i nvo l ved the admin is t ra t ion of a pretest measu r ing the d e p e n d e n t var iab le , the s tuden ts ' at t i tudes towards I ndo -Canad ians . The s e c o n d s tep was the app l i ca t i on of the exper imenta l t reatment (the visual arts cul tural p rogram) . Finally, a pos t tes t was admin i s te red measur ing the d e p e n d e n t var iable again. The use of this exper imenta l des ign was c o m p l e m e n t e d by obse rva t i on of the i m p l e m e n t a t i o n p r o c e s s in o rde r to d iscern any var iat ion in the imp lemen ta t i on p r o c e d u r e and m o r e genera l env i ronmen ta l c o n d i t i o n s . A t t en t i on was f o c u s s e d o n the teachers ' pe r f o rmance , the in teract ion a m o n g the s tudents and thei r react ion to the p rog ram, as we l l as the d iscovery of pract ical p r o b l e m s w h i c h m igh t necess i ta te the mod i f i ca t i on o f the unit at a future t ime. B. RESEARCH QUESTION AND HYPOTHESIS The research s o u g h t t o de te rm ine w h e t h e r par t ic ipa t ion in a cul tural p r o g r a m in the v isual arts w o u l d result in a pos i t ive c h a n g e in g rade six s tuden ts ' at t i tudes towards I ndo -Canad ians . The f o l l o w i n g hypo thes is , s ta ted in the nul l f o r m , was invest iga ted: H : S tuden ts w h o part ic ipate in the v isual arts cul tural p r o g r a m wi l l no t 16 17 d e m o n s t r a t e a s igni f icant pos i t i ve c h a n g e in att i tude towards Indo -Canad ians . C. SELECTION OF SUBJECTS Three intact c lasses w e r e se lec ted f r o m a n u m b e r of c lasses v o l u n t e e r e d by teachers in the Surrey S c h o o l Distr ict. Initial con tac t w i th the teachers was m a d e t h r o u g h the distr ict Mu l t i cu l tu ra l Consu l t an t and his staff. The se lec t i on of the th ree c lasses to part ic ipate in the s tudy was based o n the f o l l o w i n g cri ter ia: (1) the interest and c o o p e r a t i o n of the teachers ; (2) thei r abil i ty to s c h e d u l e the i m p l e m e n t a t i o n of the unit a c c o r d i n g to a similar t ime f rame; and (3) the a m o u n t of p rev ious e x p o s u r e the s tudents had to mult icul tural mater ials and , m o r e impor tant ly , the s tudy of India and Indo -Canad ians . T w o teachers w e r e not asked to part ic ipate b e c a u s e they had spen t an e x t e n d e d p e r i o d of t ime pr ior to the in terv iew w o r k i n g w i th thei r s tudents o n an in tens ive s tudy of the Indian cu l ture. The t w o t reatment g r o u p s in this s tudy are des igna ted S c h o o l 1 and S c h o o l 2, and the teachers as Teacher 1 and Teacher 2. The c o n t r o l g r o u p is des igna ted as S c h o o l 3. In the t w o s c h o o l s in w h i c h c lasses se rved as t reatment g roups b o t h teachers e x p r e s s e d a g e n u i n e interest in the i m p l e m e n t a t i o n of the unit desp i te the fact that ne i ther had a b a c k g r o u n d in the visual arts. The cul ture of India h a d n o t b e e n a sub jec t of s tudy in e i ther c l a s s r o o m t h o u g h b o t h g roups had par t i c ipa ted in the s tudy of o t h e r cu l tures and coun t r ies in a c c o r d a n c e w i th the G r a d e Six Soc ia l S tud ies cu r r i cu lum w h i c h focusses o n the t h e m e " W o r l d N e i g h b o r s " . The s a m e was 18 true of the third class which served as a control group. The final selection of subjects was determined through the use of parental consent forms. While the responses received in Schools 2 and 3 were all positive, four parents in School 1 refused to allow their children to participate in the study. Two of the refusals were accompanied by letters stating that the students should study their own culture before that of others. An alternate activity was provided for the four students during the period of implementation. D. DESCRIPTION OF THE SCHOOLS All three schools in which the study was conducted are located in the School District of Surrey. All have a large number of Indo-Canadian students in attendance as well as members of other visible minority groups, though the school populations are predominantly white. Schools 1 and 3 are located in middle-class communities, while School 2 is in a less affluent area near an industrial section of Surrey. There was no specific multicultural policy in place at any of the schools. The principals stated that curricular decision-making in respect to this issue was generally left to each individual teacher. It was readily apparent, however, that efforts had been directed towards the cause of enhancing interethnic appreciation in School 1. Two extremely large posters were displayed prominently at the main entrance of the school. The first of these consisted of a map of the world dotted with small figures swathed in a variety of folk costumes. These were intended to represent each ethnic group in the school. The second was a chart illustrating what 19 p r o p o r t i o n of the s tudent popu la t i on b e l o n g e d to di f ferent e thn ic b a c k g r o u n d s . These had b e e n made as part of a "Mu l t i cu l tu ra l D a y " invo lv ing the ent i re s c h o o l w h i c h had taken p lace three m o n t h s pr ior to the i ncep t ion of the s tudy. The smal l fest ival had enta i led the display of s tuden t pro jec ts f o c u s s e d o n a cul tural t h e m e , a conce r t , p resenta t ions by representat ives of di f ferent e thn ic g r o u p s , and a mea l cons is t i ng of a variety of t radi t ional e thn ic d ishes . W h i l e this was a sou rce of c o n c e r n to the reseacher, the teacher w h o had vo lun tee red to i m p l e m e n t the unit ins is ted that a range of at t i tudes w o u l d be f o u n d a m o n g her s tuden ts . E. PROCEDURE Three separate meet ings we re he ld w i th each of the teachers to in form t h e m abou t the s tudy and to de te rm ine the p r o c e d u r e s to be f o l l o w e d . T h e mee t i ngs had to be restr ic ted to the s c h o o l day d u e t o a p r o v i n c e - w i d e " w o r k - t o - r u l e " po l i cy w h i c h was in p lace as part of j ob ac t ion taken by the Brit ish C o l u m b i a Teacher ' s Federa t ion . The pr incipals of the s c h o o l s w e r e also to ld of the p u r p o s e and nature of the research. The researcher spen t a p e r i o d of t ime in the c l a s s r o o m o n e a c h of these o c c a s i o n s in o rde r t o he lp the s tudents b e c o m e c o m f o r t a b l e wi th her p r e s e n c e . The researcher was i n t r o d u c e d as a ' s tuden t t eache r ' w h o w o u l d be obse rv i ng the regular c l ass room teacher in o r d e r to gain a bet ter unde rs tand ing of c l a s s r o o m pract ices. Parental pe rm iss ion forms w e r e sent h o m e after the s e c o n d of these mee t ings . A p e r i o d of four days was a l l o w e d for the return of the fo rms. A l l three c lasses w e r e p re tes ted the Friday pr ior t o the b e g i n n i n g o f the i m p l e m e n t a t i o n p e r i o d o n the 20 f o l l o w i n g M o n d a y . T w o at t i tude measures w e r e used o n the pretest - a Soc ia l D is tance Scale and a Semant i c Di f ferent ia l M e a s u r e . A pe rsona l in fo rmat ion sheet a t tached to the ques t ionna i re p r o v i d e d data o n the s tuden t ' s age, gender , e thn ic b a c k g r o u n d , and the length of t ime he or she had l ived in C a n a d a . The teacher admin is te red the ques t ionna i re to the class as a unit. N o a t tempt was m a d e to gain in fo rmat ion f r om s tudents w h o w e r e absen t o n the day of the tes t ing . The teachers we re asked to g o o v e r the ins t ruc t ions and the samp le q u e s t i o n g iven for each measure oral ly in o rde r to insure that the s tudents u n d e r s t o o d what was requ i red of t h e m . They we re also asked to stress that the ques t ionna i re was to be ent i re ly a n o n y m o u s . The s e c o n d part of the s tudy i nvo l ved the app l i ca t ion of the t reatment or the v isual arts cul tural p rog ram. The teachers of t he t w o c lasses serv ing as t rea tment g roups e x p r e s s e d an interest in i m p l e m e n t i n g the unit o n a dai ly basis ove r a th ree -week p e r i o d . Teacher 1 s c h e d u l e d the p r o g r a m for t he first hou r and a half of each m o r n i n g (9:00 to 10:30 a.m). T e a c h e r 2 a l lo t ted the last hou r of the a f te rnoon (1:45 to 2:45 p.m.) to teach ing the unit . Because b o t h teachers e x p r e s s e d a p p r e h e n s i o n abou t their lack of expe r i ence w i th the sub jec t mat ter it was agreed that the researcher w o u l d act as a faci l i tator w h e n e v e r necessary . The Semant ic Di f ferent ia l M e a s u r e and the Soc ia l D is tance Scale w e r e re -admin is te red by the teachers immed ia te l y after the c o n c l u s i o n of the p r o g r a m . The s tudents w e r e a lso asked to g ive their responses to a C o n t a c t Q u e s t i o n n a i r e at this t ime. 21 F. INSTRUMENTATION The c h o i c e of measures used in the s tudy a t tempted t o take in to accoun t the mu l t i d imens iona l nature of the at t i tude cons t ruc t . W h i l e the very de f in i t ion of "a t t i t ude" has b e e n and con t i nues to be a t o p i c of s o m e con t rove rsy , many wr i ters spl i t the c o n c e p t in to three interre lated c o m p o n e n t s : c o g n i t i o n , affect and behav io r (Sued fe ld , 1971). Tr iandis (1971), states that the cogn i t i ve c o m p o n e n t can be " d e s c r i b e d as the p e r s o n ' s ca tegor iza t ions , and re la t ionships b e t w e e n his ca tego r i es " ; the affect ive c o m p o n e n t " b y the way the p e r s o n evaluates the ob jec ts w h i c h are i n c l u d e d in that part icular ca tego ry " ; and the behav iora l c o m p o n e n t by " the behav iora l in tent ions of the p e r s o n t owa rd the ob jec ts i n c l u d e d in a part icular ca tego ry " (p.8). A n at t i tude there fo re invo lves "wha t p e o p l e think abou t , feel abou t , and h o w they w o u l d l ike to behave t owa rd an att i tude o b j e c t " (Triandis, 1971 , p.14). In l ight of this de f in i t ion , it was d e c i d e d to use a n u m b e r of measures w h i c h w o u l d p rov i de a mu l t ip le ind ica to r of the s tuden ts ' at t i tudes. It was h o p e d that this w o u l d allay the p r o b l e m e n c o u n t e r e d in o the r s tud ies, name ly that they d o not " adequa te l y take into a c c o u n t the mu l t i face ted and c o m p l e x nature of e i ther the at t i tude cons t ruc t or the c h i l d " (Katz, 1976 , p.214). 1. The Social Distance Scale T h e Soc ia l D i s tance Scale was d e v e l o p e d by Bogardus (1925) and is a measure w h i c h a t tempts t o ob ta in the behav iora l in ten t ions of r e s p o n d e n t s towards var ious 22 nat ional i t ies. The subjects are g iven a list of g roups and asked to ind icate the n u m b e r of " s t e p s " they w o u l d permi t m e m b e r s of each g roup to m o v e t o w a r d t h e m . The shor tes t s tep (or l onges t d is tance) is " w o u l d let t h e m visit my c o u n t r y " ; the next s tep is " w o u l d let t h e m live in m y c o u n t r y " ; the h ighest s tep (or shor tes t d is tance) is " w o u l d be w i l l ing to marry o n e o f t hem w h e n I g r o w u p " . A list of n ine s teps was p r o v i d e d in this study. A m o n g t hem are s teps of espec ia l re levance to ch i ld ren s u c h as " w o u l d let t hem g o t o m y s c h o o l " and " w o u l d let t h e m play at my h o u s e " . The scale has b e e n used extens ive ly in soc ia l research d u e to its s imp l ic i t y and rel iabil i ty. Bo th Hart ley and Hart ley (1952) a n d T rubow i t z (1969) repor t spl i t-half rel iabi l i ty coef f i c ien ts at .90 o r above . C a m p b e l l (1953) wr i tes: A m o n g soc ia l at t i tude tests, the Soc ia l D is tance Scale is so g o o d , and s o natural ly su i ted to its p u r p o s e , that if Boga rdus had not i nven ted it, s o m e o n e else w o u l d have. Such a s i tuat ion is i n d e e d rare in the soc ia l sc i ences (pp. 88-89). The ease w i th w h i c h it may be admin is te red makes it espec ia l ly c o n d u c i v e t o the tes t ing of y o u n g s tudents . In o rder t o d i sgu ise the f ocus of t he test, ques t i ons w e r e asked abou t f ive d i f ferent g roups : F rench -Canad ians , I ndo -Canad ians ( f rom India), W h i t e - C a n a d i a n s , Japanese-Canad ians , and G e r m a n - C a n a d i a n s . A c o p y of the sca le is p r o v i d e d in A p p e n d i x O n e . 23 Response Mode and Scoring The Bogardus Soc ia l D is tance Scale is a c lass ic examp le of a C u t t m a n scale ( R o b i n s o n , Rusk, & H e a d , 1972). A n s w e r s to each of the s ta tements we re ass igned a sco re of " 0 " or " 1 " , digit 0 ind ica t ing that the r e s p o n d e n t had answe red negat ive ly , and digi t 1 ind ica t ing a pos i t i ve r e s p o n s e . The sub ject rece ived credi t fo r t h o s e s ta tements to w h i c h he o r she gave a pos i t ive r e s p o n s e unt i l a negat ive answer was g iven . A l l s u b s e q u e n t r esponses w e r e ass igned a " 0 " . The s u m of va lues thus o b t a i n e d was taken as a sco re fo r the ind iv idua l . The range of sco res was f rom 0 to + 9 . For the p u r p o s e s of c o m p u t e r analysis the values we re reversed so that a l o w e r sco re ind icates a m o r e pos i t i ve at t i tude. 2. The Semantic Differential Measure The Semant i c Di f ferent ia l M e a s u r e is o n e of the mos t genera l tests fo r the measure of affect (Triandis, 1971). It cons is ts of a ser ies of scales b o u n d by po lar adject ives (e .g . g o o d - b a d , beaut i fu l -ugly) o n w h i c h the sub jec t reacts t o an at t i tude ob jec t . O s g o o d and his assoc ia tes (1957) c o n d u c t e d a cons ide rab le a m o u n t of research o n Seman t i c Di f ferent ia l T e c h n i q u e s and their feasibi l i ty for use w i th e lementa ry level s c h o o l ch i ld ren has b e e n invest iga ted. A s tudy d o n e by Ves ta and D y c k (1966) i nd i ca ted that the test is a re l iable ins t rument w h e n used w i th ch i ld ren as y o u n g as t h o s e in the third g rade. Its s impl ic i ty and the s p e e d w i th w h i c h it may b e c o m p l e t e d make it ex t reme ly usefu l in the tes t ing of e lementa ry s c h o o l age s tuden ts . 24 A n adap ta t ion of the measure d e v e l o p e d by M o r l a n d (1972) was used in this study. Inc luded a m o n g the racial-ethnic c o n c e p t s to be eva lua ted are the re ference terms ' f r i end ' and ' e n e m y ' w h i c h are used to check if the s tuden ts unde rs tand the test. The target g r o u p was o n c e again d i sgu ised by hav ing the sub jec ts evaluate the f o l l o w i n g c o n c e p t s : F rench-Canad ians , Indo-Canad ians ( f rom India), G e r m a n - C a n a d i a n s , Japanese -Canad ians , Wh i t e -Canad ians , and Canad ians . A c o p y of the Semant i c Di f ferent ia l measu re is p rov ided in A p p e n d i x T w o . Response Mode and Scoring Va lues of " 1 " t h rough " 7 " w e r e ass igned t o each of the poss ib le pos i t i ons b e t w e e n the pa i red sets of ad ject ives, digit 1 ind ica t ing the least favourab le pos i t i on and digit 7 ind ica t ing the m o s t favorable. A m e a n s c o r e fo r each c o n c e p t under eva lua t ion was then c o m p u t e d . The range of sco res was f rom +1 to + 7 , 1 ind ica t ing the least favorable sco re and 7 the m o s t favorab le . C. CONTACT QUESTIONNAIRE The con tac t ques t ionna i re used in this s tudy is a m o d i f i c a t i o n of o n e u s e d by Ijaz (1980) w h i c h was or iginal ly adap ted f r om a survey d e v e l o p e d by H e n r y (1978). The p u r p o s e of the ques t ionna i re was to d i scove r " t h e po ten t ia l for racial acqua in tance and actual in te rac t ion a m o n g pup i l s in each of t he s c h o o l c o m m u n i t i e s u n d e r i nves t i ga t i on " (Ijaz, 1980, p.84). W h i l e the theory of i m p r o v i n g in tere thn ic at t i tudes t h r o u g h s t ruc tu red g roup con tac t was not u n d e r spec i f i c inves t iga t ion , it was d e c i d e d t o i n c l u d e this measure in o rder to de te rm ine if it was i n d e e d poss ib l e fo r the s tuden ts to interact w i th Indo -Canad ian ch i l d ren and t o what ex tent they t o o k 25 advantage of this oppor tun i t y . The in fo rmat ion ob ta i ned t h r o u g h the ques t ionna i re p rov ides an ind ica t ion of s tuden ts ' actual behav io rs in respect to the i r I ndo -Canad ian peers . A c o p y of the con tac t ques t i onna i re is p r o v i d e d in A p p e n d i x Three . H. DATA ANALYSIS The data w e r e ana lyzed by means of ch i -square , mult ivariate analysis of var iance and covar iance, and univariate analysis of var iance tests of s ign i f icance as appropr ia te . A mult ivariate analysis of var iance was c o n d u c t e d o n the data o n age and leng th of t ime l ived in C a n a d a co l l ec ted t h r o u g h the pe rsona l i n fo rmat ion shee t in o rde r to ascertain if there we re any s igni f icant d i f fe rences a m o n g the p o p u l a t i o n s in the di f ferent s c h o o l s . This was s u p p l e m e n t e d by a ch i -square o n g e n d e r and e thn ic b a c k g r o u n d . D i f fe rences b e t w e e n pre- and pos t tes t s c o r e s o n the Seman t i c Di f ferent ia l M e a s u r e and the Soc ia l D is tance Scale w e r e tes ted for statist ical s ign i f i cance by mult ivar iate analysis of covar iance for repea ted measures . A g e and length o f r es i dence in C a n a d a w e r e used as covar ia tes s ince the initial analysis revea led that S c h o o l 1 d i f fered s igni f icant ly f r om S c h o o l s 2 and 3 in respect to t hese var iables. The m e a n i n g of the resul ts w e r e c lar i f ied by d o i n g a separate analysis of var iance o n each d e p e n d e n t var iable. W h i l e s tuden ts ' r e s p o n s e s t o I ndo -Canad ians w e r e the ma in variable of interest , sco res we re c o m p u t e d and ana lyzed for each of the rac ia l -ethnic c o n c e p t s in o r d e r to ascertain w h e t h e r any ef fect w h i c h m igh t be d i s c e r n e d was genera l o r spec i f i c . 26 The categorical responses obtained from the contact questionnaire were analyzed by means of the chi-square test to determine whether there were any significant differences among the schools in respect to the actual interaction of white Canadian and Indo-Canadian students. /. THE TREATMENT The treatment developed for the purpose of this study consists of a unit of study in the visual arts which focusses on the symbols and clothing of India, Indo-Canadians, and mainstream Canadians. The unit was constructed around the following objectives: 1) to provide information about the cultures of India, Indo-Canadians, and mainstream Canadians as reflected in the visual arts 2) to accentuate cross-cultural similarities and emphasize beliefs and practices common to all people and cultures 3) to demonstrate that cultural differences are differential expressions of similar human values 4) to strengthen an understanding of intercultural influences and culture change Clothing was chosen as a central focus of the unit for a number of different reasons. The most important of these is the vital role the study of dress and personal adornment can play in culture learning. Clothing is an easily discemable aesthetic object which plays an integral role in objectifying the interrelationship among nature, self, and the sociocultural environment. Horn (1968) states that 27 c lo th ing is, in e s s e n c e , " a s igni f icant non-ve rba l s y m b o l w h i c h c o m m u n i c a t e s and def ines cer ta in aspects of personal i ty , ro le , status, and s i tua t i on " (p. 121). W h a t a p e r s o n wears , h o w , and w h y , p rov ides o thers w i t h valuable v isual in fo rmat ion abou t w h o and wha t they are. It can ind icate their va lues, age , soc ia l ro le , sex ro le , o c c u p a t i o n , and e c o n o m i c status. Its va lue as a t o o l for s tudy ing di f ferent cu l tures is fur ther i nc reased due to the fact that the c o n c e p t of a d o r n m e n t is a universal i ty and there fore p rov ides a basis for c o m p a r i s o n a m o n g g r o u p s . It can ind icate the d e g r e e of intercul tural con tac t a m o n g g r o u p s as we l l (Kaiser, 1985) . The s tudy of c l o th i ng can there fore serve as a veh ic le for the ach ievemen t of greater unde rs tand ing of a cu l tu re 's env i ronmen ta l resou rces , techn ica l d e v e l o p m e n t s , mora l at t i tudes, and standards for j udg ing what is aesthet ical ly p leas ing . The study of dress is part icular ly apt in th is s i tuat ion d u e to the rich her i tage of India in respec t to text i les and c l o th i ng fo rms. Text i les have always he ld a p lace of pa ramoun t i m p o r t a n c e in the Indian cu l ture . T h e symbo ls i nco rpo ra ted into a p i e c e of c l o th ing and the garment itself can p rov ide an a b u n d a n c e of in fo rmat ion abou t the maker , the wearer , and thei r soc ia l and phys ica l env i ronmen ts . Finally, t radi t ional styles of dress c o n t i n u e t o f o r m an impor tan t part of the target g r o u p ' s ident i ty . A n unde rs tand ing of the under l y ing va lues re f lec ted by these ou twa rd s y m b o l s is there fo re of c o n s i d e r a b l e impor tance . The p r e s e n c e of text i le p i eces and c l o th i ng p i e c e s w i th in the I ndo -Canad ian c o m m u n i t y also ensure the accessib i l i ty of tang ib le "ar t i fac ts" w h i c h may be e x a m i n e d and used in the c l a s s r o o m set t ing . 28 The unit has t w o main c o m p o n e n t s : a wr i t ten gu ide of act ivi t ies and an a c c o m p a n y i n g set of s l ides. Bo th parts are c o n s t r u c t e d in such a way as to faci l i tate the d e v e l o p m e n t of the f o l l o w i n g pr inc ip les : (1) that emphas i s be p laced o n simi lar i t ies a m o n g the cu l tures of India, I ndo -Canad ians , and ma ins t ream No r th Amer i cans ; and (2) that Indians and Indo-Canad ians be por t rayed in a pos i t ive manner . It was a s s u m e d that s tudents w o u l d have little expe r i ence in learn ing a b o u t cu l ture t h r o u g h v isual ar t forms and the lessons are there fo re o rgan i zed in a sequent ia l fash ion m o v i n g f rom s imp le to m o r e c o m p l e x ideas and act iv i t ies. S tuden ts are requ i red to part ic ipate in an act ive invest iga t ion of the visual arts of the cul tures u n d e r s tudy. They w o r k indiv idual ly, in smal l g r o u p s , and as an ent i re class. D i scuss i on of ideas, i n fo rmat ion , and artistic endeavo rs f o rm a cri t ical part of the p rog ram. The teachers are also e n c o u r a g e d to br ing in guest speakers and ob ta in "ar t i fac ts" f r o m m e m b e r s of the I ndo -Canad ian c o m m u n i t y . A c o p y of the wr i t ten text is p r o v i d e d in A p p e n d i x Four. The s l ide c o m p o n e n t is d i v i ded in to f ive sec t i ons . The first part, "Tex t i l e s " , cons is ts of s l ides of text i le p ieces inco rpora t ing many of the m o s t c o m m o n s y m b o l s of India. The s e c o n d set of s l ides, " C r a f t s p e o p l e " , s h o w s bo th Indian and N o r t h A m e r i c a n c ra f t speop le at work . The " C l o t h i n g as S y m b o l " sec t i on con ta ins s l ides of p e o p l e of var ious e thn ic or ig ins in s i tuat ions w h e r e c lo th ing has an impor tan t s y m b o l i c f unc t i on p rov id ing in fo rmat ion abou t the soc ia l and phys ica l env i r onmen t . These i nc lude s i tuat ions in w h i c h c lo th ing plays a ro le in ind icat ing the wearer 's re l ig ious be l ie fs , s o c i o - e c o n o m i c status, age, g e n d e r , personal i ty , va lues, and s o for th . 29 Parallels a m o n g India and N o r t h A m e r i c a are d e v e l o p e d th roughou t . The set of visuals en t i t led " C l o t h i n g of Ind ia" p rov ides a m o r e de ta i led examina t ion of s o m e o f the reg iona l and soc ia l var iat ions of dress o n the Indian sub -con t i nen t . The final part, " In tercul tura l I n f l uence" , con ta ins images w h i c h exempl i f y the rec ip roca l re la t ionsh ip b e t w e e n India and N o r t h A m e r i c a in respec t to the exchange of fash ion ideas. Spec ia l a t ten t ion is g iven to h o w Indo-Canad ians have adap ted to the Canad ian env i r onmen t . Examp les of s o m e of the sl ides are p r o v i d e d in A p p e n d i x Five. /. LIMITATIONS The pr imary l imi ta t ion of this s tudy is that s tudents we re no t randomly se lec ted fo r o r ass igned to the expe r imen ta l and con t ro l g roups . The internal val idi ty of the expe r imen t is the re fo re th rea tened by the poss ib i l i ty that g r o u p d i f fe rences o n the post tes t are d u e t o p reex is t i ng g roup d i f fe rences rather than t o a t reatment ef fect . The stat ist ical t e c h n i q u e s e m p l o y e d in analyz ing the data a l l o w e d for the mak ing o f c o m p e n s a t i n g ad jus tments in o r d e r to r e d u c e initial d i f fe rences . It is a lso di f f icul t to ascer ta in w h e t h e r the classes u s e d in the s tudy are representat ive of the access ib le p o p u l a t i o n . A n a t tempt to c o m p e n s a t e for this p r o b l e m is m a d e by p r o v i d i n g in fo rmat ion abou t bo th the c lasses and the teachers i nvo l ved in the s tudy . It is unl ike ly , h o w e v e r , that the c lasses w h i c h u n d e r w e n t the t reatment are c o m p l e t e l y a typ ica l . The teachers w h o v o l u n t e e r e d for par t ic ipa t ion in the s tudy had an interest in e n h a n c i n g intercul tural unde rs tand ing a m o n g their s tudents and there is n o reason to be l ieve that the c lasses d i f fered great ly f r om others in which the program might be implemented. 30 A second limitation of the study arises from the fact that direct questionnaire techniques were used to measure the students' attitudes. A major disadvantage of such measures is that they may be transparent. The subject may therefore attempt to modify his or her responses in order to "(a) please a respected experimenter; (b) make trouble with the study or a disliked experimenter; (c) appear open-minded or 'enlightened'; give a good impression, and so forth" (Triandis, 1971, p.55). While studies on the reliability of the scales utilized suggest a high degree of internal consistency, a number of steps were taken in an attempt to allay these potential problems. First, the fact that the students' responses were to be anonymous was stressed prior to the time of the testing. Second, the subjects were asked to evaluate a number of racial-ethnic concepts in order to disguise the focus of the measure. Third, the Semantic Differential Measure was presented as a method for the "measurement of the meaning of words". Finally, the test was administered by the regular classroom teacher as opposed to the researcher. Notes documenting the nature of students' actual interactions were also taken during the implementation process. IV. DESCRIPTION OF THE IMPLEMENTATION PROCESS A. INTRODUCTION The unit cons is ts of six lessons. A c o p y of the c o m p l e t e text may be f o u n d in A p p e n d i x Four. A brief sumary of the act ivi t ies wi l l be g iven here in o rder to faci l i tate the read ing of the desc r i p t i on of the i m p l e m e n t a t i o n p rocess . Activity One: The Reading of an Artifact The first l esson is i n t e n d e d to he lp s tuden ts beg in t o r ecogn i ze and desc r ibe what cul tural va lues and in format ion may b e de r i ved f rom artifacts in the visual env i ronmen t . Af ter d i scuss ing the c o n c e p t of " c u l t u r e " s tudents are asked to c o n s i d e r al ternate ways to learn abou t a cu l ture o the r than t h rough wr i t ten in fo rmat ion . The class is then d i v i ded in to smal l g r o u p s . Each g roup rece ives a b o x w h i c h they must fill in the next twen ty m inu tes . They are to ld that at that t ime an imaginary guest wi l l p ick up the b o x e s ; they wi l l t hen be used w i th s tudents in his h o m e l a n d w h o are t ry ing to unders tand what life in a Canad ian grade six c l a s s r o o m is l ike. A n y wr i t ten in fo rmat ion wi l l b e of n o use s ince the o the r s tudents d o no t speak the s a m e language . Af ter the s tuden ts have f i l led their boxes wi th "ar t i fac ts" the con ten ts of each con ta iner are p r e s e n t e d and d i s c u s s e d . Activity Two: Cultural Symbols In the s e c o n d l e s s o n s tudents par t ic ipate in an act ive invest igat ion of visual s y m b o l s of b o t h C a n a d a and India. Emphas is is p l a c e d o n hav ing the s tudents c o n s i d e r w h y certa in images are impor tan t and wha t they m igh t m e a n . Var ious symbo l s of India 31 are p resen ted t h r o u g h the use of s l ides of text i le p ieces i nco rpo ra t i ng prevalent images , and in fo rmat ion is g iven o n c ra f tspeop le in b o t h coun t r ies . Paral lels b e t w e e n India and No r th A m e r i c a are s t ressed. The c o n c e p t of " pa t t e rn " is a lso a focus of interest. The s tudents then create their o w n pe rsona l s y m b o l w h i c h is used to d e v e l o p a pat tern o n bo th c l o t h and paper t h r o u g h a hand pr in t ing p rocess similar to o n e used in India. It is h ighly r e c o m m e n d e d that actual text i le p ieces be o b t a i n e d f rom m e m b e r s of the Indo-Canad ian c o m m u n i t y so that s tudents may examine actual artifacts. Activity Three: Clothing as Symbol The p u r p o s e of the third activity is to he lp s tudents r e c o g n i z e w h a t i n fo rmat ion a b o u t an ind iv idua l 's or g r o u p ' s soc ia l and phys ica l env i ronmen ts may be der i ved f r o m their c l o th i ng . S tudents are asked to c o n s i d e r the s y m b o l i c f unc t i on c lo th ing may have in a var iety of s i tuat ions. Sl ides are p resen ted w h i c h d e m o n s t r a t e parallels b e t w e e n India and N o r t h A m e r i c a in the uses of c lo th ing . The s tudents are then requ i red to create an imaginary h u m a n b e i n g and def ine their personal i ty , soc ia l status and ro le, and s i tuat ion. This is f o l l o w e d by the des ign ing and d raw ing of appropr ia te c l o th i ng for the ind iv idual w h o has b e e n d e v e l o p e d . Activity Four: The Clothing of India In the four th activity s tudents first d iscuss a n u m b e r of s l ides of Indian c lo th ing and at tempt to der ive as m u c h in format ion abou t the cul ture as poss ib l e by means of the v isual in fo rmat ion p r o v i d e d . They are then requ i red to g o o n a " fact f i nd ing m i s s i o n " abou t cer ta in aspects of the coun t r y of India and its p e o p l e . Af ter c o m p l e t i n g their invest igat ions, s tudents repor t back to their c lassmates and major 33 po in ts of interest are d i scussed . The s tudents are then led in a d i s c u s s i o n of h o w this in fo rmat ion may be related back to the k ind of c l o th ing w o r n in India. Finally, the pupi ls are asked to c o n s i d e r h o w c l o th i ng is used in simi lar ways in C a n a d a . Activity Five: Designing a Culture The fifth activity invo lves the s tuden ts in the bu i l d i ng of imaginary cu l tu res . S tudents are d i v ided in to large g roups . Each g roup is t h e n requ i red t o create a " c u l t u r e " , tak ing into cons ide ra t i on such factors as the p e o p l e ' s be l ie fs and va lues , their ma in industr ies, the level of t e c h n o l o g y , the phys ica l env i ronmen t , and s o fo r th . Af ter es tab l ish ing the parameters of the " c u l t u r e " the s tudents par t ic ipate in the mak ing of l i fe-size f igures represen t ing m e m b e r s of the cu l tu re after de f i n ing their personal i ty , soc ia l ro le and status, s i tua t ion , and h o w the des ign of the c l o t h i n g can create the imp ress ion they w ish to ach ieve . Activity Six: Culture Contact and Culture Change In the final act ivi ty s tudents are asked t o invest igate the c o n c e p t s of cu l ture con tac t and cu l ture c h a n g e . Sl ides are s h o w n w h i c h demons t ra te the impac t of Indian c lo th ing ideas o n wes te rn fash ions and v ice-versa . Emphas is is p l a c e d o n h o w Indo -Canad ians have adap ted to their n e w soc ia l and phys ica l e n v i r o n m e n t s . Spec ia l cons ide ra t i on is g iven to w h y cer ta in c l o t h i n g p i e c e s s u c h as the tu rban and the pant-sui t have b e e n reta ined. At the c o n c l u s i o n of the l esson s tuden ts are asked to think abou t wha t might h a p p e n if a f igure f r o m o n e of the imaginary cu l tures w h i c h they c rea ted " i m m i g r a t e d " to ano ther of the imaginary cu l tu res , o r if the t w o cul tures s imp ly c a m e in to con tac t w i th o n e another . They are t hen requ i red to des ign a var ia t ion o n an " i m m i g r a n t " f igure 's c lo th ing a c c o m p a n i e d by a wr i t ten 34 exp lana t ion of the changes w h i c h they m a d e . B. SCHOOL 1 1. The Setting Al l of the lessons t o o k p lace in the regular c l a s s r o o m e x c e p t w h e n s tudents w e r e a l l owed to g o into the hal lway to wo rk o n ind iv idua l pro jects . The c lass room was just large e n o u g h to a c c o m o d a t e the s tuden ts and was wel l - l i t ; o n e wal l was c o m p l e t e l y f i l led w i th large w i n d o w s . The rema in ing wal ls w e r e br ight ly d e c o r a t e d w i th n u m e r o u s visuals w h i c h genera l ly c o n s i s t e d of s tudent work . A m o n g these w e r e a large n u m b e r of ove rs i ze Easter eggs m a d e of cons t r uc t i on paper , magaz ine p h o t o g r a p h s , a n d a series of C h i n e s e ink d raw ings . M a n y of t h e m were in danger of fal l ing off t he wal l . The s tudents w e r e seated in t radi t ional r o w fo rmat ions . The teacher ' s desk was at the h e a d o f the class and was p i led h igh w i th papers and b o o k s per iod ica l l y in ter rupted by a p o t t e d plant in n e e d of water . The o n e I ndo -Canad ian pup i l was seated at the back of the c lass. The o n e o t h e r v is ib le minor i ty s tuden t , a F i l ip ino boy , was sea ted direct ly accross f rom h im . The Indo -Canad ian b o y wil l be des igna ted S tuden t 1. 2 . Activity One: The Reading of an Artifact 35 The first l esson t o o k p lace o n a M o n d a y m o r n i n g . The s tuden ts d i d no t appear to be cur ious abou t the researcher 's p resence . A n u m b e r g ree ted her casual ly as they w e n t to their seats. Af ter tak ing care of a n u m b e r of h o u s e k e e p i n g matters T e a c h e r 1 began t o o rgan ize the class. She first s p o k e to t hose s tudents w h o w e r e no t a l l owed to part ic ipate in the s tudy and then sent t h e m to the library. This was d o n e each day for the rema inde r of the imp lemen ta t i on p e r i o d . Af ter tak ing a m o m e n t to sett le the remain ing s tudent , she b e g a n the l esson . It was apparent that little preparatory w o r k had b e e n d o n e o n the part of the teacher in respect to the first l esson . A n u m b e r of b o x e s w e r e requ i red fo r the first activity. Prior to the b e g i n n i n g of the class the researcher inqu i red as to w h e t h e r the teacher might n e e d a f ew extra b o x e s that the researcher had in her car. The response was aff i rmative; the teacher had on ly t w o or three smal l e n v e l o p e s . W h e n actual ly c o n d u c t i n g the activi ty, Teacher 1 read direct ly f r om the text. The s tudents s e e m e d qui te in te res ted in answer ing the initial ques t ions . The i r a t tempts to def ine " c u l t u r e " d e m o n s t r a t e d that they had deal t w i th the c o n c e p t p r io r to this t ime. W h i l e the same ch i ld ren m a d e mos t of the responses , the ent i re class l i s tened and ma in ta ined a recept ive at t i tude. Bo th the teacher and the s tudents " t o o k off" o n the idea of h o w a rcheo log is t s might learn abou t cu l ture ; a g o o d d i scuss ion o f scro l ls , d inosaur b o n e s , and artifacts e n s u e d . 36 The d is t r ibu t ion of boxes and the fo rmat ion of g r o u p s c a u s e d a major d i s rup t ion . S tuden t 1 was no t c h o s e n and had to be ass igned to a g r o u p by the teacher . H o w e v e r , his in teract ions w i th the s tudents in the g roup w e r e qu i te pos i t ive after this po in t . The s tuden ts n e e d e d he lp in ge t t ing g o i n g , and T e a c h e r 1 c i rcu la ted f rom g r o u p t o g r o u p of fer ing sugges t i ons . A p r o x i m a t e l y f i f teen m inu tes w e r e spen t pack ing the b o x e s . W h i l e the lesson had g o n e qu i te s m o o t h l y up to this po in t in t ime , it b r o k e d o w n in the c o n c l u d i n g sec t i on . Teacher 1 d id no t appear to have t h o u g h t t h r o u g h the logist ics of u n p a c k i n g the boxes . In fact, it s e e m e d that she was read ing the d i rec t ions for the first t ime, for a l ook of supr ise c r o s s e d her face as she l o o k e d at the next page and she g l a n c e d at the researcher ques t i on ing l y . N o a t tempt was made to he lp the s tudents t ie the u n p a c k i n g p r o c e s s back to the initial p u r p o s e of the activity. Rather than be ing led to make the c o n n e c t i o n b e t w e e n artifacts a n d . 'ment i fac ts ' , they w e r e a l l o w e d t o s imp ly m a k e super f ic ia l s ta tements abou t the ob jec ts w h i c h they u n p a c k e d e.g "It 's ug l y " and " T h e y measu re th ings . " N o genera l iza t ions w e r e d rawn and n o m e n t i o n of the poss ib le re la t ionsh ip b e t w e e n 'art i facts ' and the cul ture f r o m w h i c h they w e r e de r i ved was m a d e . The s tudents themse lves b e c a m e s o m e w h a t unruly and b e g a n to treat the exe rc i se as a joke . A t the e n d of the u n p a c k i n g p rocess T e a c h e r 1 s imp ly asked the s tuden ts t o " R e m e m b e r the w o r d 'ar t i fact ' " and then w e n t o n to q u i z t h e m o n thei r spe l l ing l esson . 37 3. Activity Two: Cultural Symbols Day 7 The researcher arrived at 8:30 a.m. in order to offer any assistance to the teacher which might be required. Teacher 1 arrived shortly after, well-prepared for the day's lesson. The unit was in her hand and she had brought her own slide tray from home already filled with the "Textiles" slides. She proceeded to xerox a copy of the symbols information included in the text for each of the students. After the students arrived, Teacher 1 immediately sent the four non-participants off to the library. Just after they had left, a student informed her that this was a band morning and that the regular class schedule could not be begun until 9:45 a.m. Teacher 1 apologized to the researcher and then sent to the library for the four students. The class worked on spelling until the band members returned from their practice. Teacher 1 quickly got the students involved in an animated discussion of symbols. The concepts of why symbols are used and what they can tell people were well-developed. All the students were eager to share their thoughts and ideas. Since most of them had attended the Vancouver Expo, Teacher 1 had them try to remember the many national and cultural symbols they had seen there. Teacher 1 then read a' list of things to think about when looking at the "Textile" slides. Upon turning on the slide machine it was discovered that the machine was 38 m u c h t o o far back f r om the sc reen and s teps had to be taken to r e m e d y the p r o b l e m . As she was abou t to b e g i n , Teache r 1 abrupt ly b roke off, t u rned to the researcher , and asked if she w o u l d g o ove r the sl ides wi th the s tuden ts . As there was no po l i te way to re fuse, the researcher d id so . The s tuden ts we re at tent ive and ta lked abou t the symbo l s and pat terns wi th little p r o m p t i n g . Af ter v i e w i n g several s l ides the researcher i n f o r m e d the s tudents that all of the images had c o m e f r o m o n e coun t ry , and then asked the pup i l s if they c o u l d f igure o u t w h i c h o n e it m igh t be . A n u m b e r of we l l - t hough t ou t o p i n i o n s w e r e g iven at this po in t , and it was d e c i d e d that it was p robab ly a coun t ry in south-east As ia . M o s t of the s tudents w e r e happy to learn that it was i n d e e d India, h o w e v e r t w o girls s i t t ing nearby v is ib ly ro l led their eyes and sm i rked at the men t i on of the coun t ry ' s n a m e . S tuden t 1 b e a m e d at f ind ing out that it was the coun t ry f r om w h i c h his fami ly had o r ig ina ted . The last ten m inu tes o f the class we re g iven to the b e g i n n i n g of d e s i g n i n g persona l symbo l s under Teacher I s d i rec t i on . She was happy to take over ; it s e e m e d that it was the s h o w i n g and d i scuss ion of the s l ides w h i c h had m a d e her u n c o m f o r t a b l e . She c o n f i r m e d this after c lass, stat ing that she had never w o r k e d in that fash ion be fo re . The s tudents w o r k e d qu ie t ly at their task and appea red qu i te in te res ted in their ass ignment . Eight of t h e m stayed at their desks fo r the first part of recess in o r d e r to c o n t i n u e w i th their p ro jec ts . Day Two The researcher arr ived at 8:30 a .m. in o rde r to set up a d isp lay of Indian artifacts w h i c h had b e e n o b t a i n e d f rom m e m b e r s of the Indo-Canad ian c o m m u n i t y . T e a c h e r 39 1 arr ived short ly after, a rmed w i th several lengths of wh i te c o t t o n shee t ing and an i ron. She qu ick ly set to r ipp ing the c lo th in to smal ler sec t ions for the s tudents to wo rk w i th . She asked the researcher to c o n d u c t the sl ide po r t i on of the lesson o n e m o r e t ime s o that she c o u l d obse rve again and get a bet ter " f e e l " for it. The researcher and the teacher d i s cussed the var ious ob jec ts w h i c h we re o n display. Teacher 1 c o n t r i b u t e d a few p ieces w h i c h had b e e n ob ta i ned f r o m Studen t 1. Teache r 1 b e g a n by rev iew ing the c o n c e p t s w h i c h had b e e n dealt w i th the p rev ious day. She then h a n d e d out the c o p i e s of the s y m b o l i n fo rmat ion and led the s tudents in a d iscuss ion of compa rab le symbo l s w h i c h c o u l d be f o u n d in the mains t ream C a n a d i a n cul ture. The researcher t hen s h o w e d the " C r a f t s p e o p l e " s l ides. The idea of the universal i ty of the act of creat ing visual s y m b o l s and deco ra t i ng the env i r onmen t was s t ressed. S tuden t 1 had his hand wav ing t h r o u g h o u t a lmost all of the q u e s t i o n i n g . The s tuden ts b e c a m e qu i te invo lved in a d i s cuss i on of the w o r t h of m a n - m a d e as o p p o s e d to m a c h i n e - m a d e ob jec ts . The s tudents w e r e then s h o w n the actual artifacts by bo th the teacher and the researcher . The ch i ld ren we re fairly in teres ted bu t n e e d e d p r o m p t i n g in o rder to actual ly pick up and handle the var ious ob jec t s . O n e girl s tated that she d idn ' t th ink they m a d e such "pre t ty t h i n g s " in India. T w o of her peers to ld her no t to be s tup id . M a n y of the s tudents t o u c h e d the p ieces ex t reme ly g inger ly and o n e e x p r e s s e d distate at the way o n e text i le p i e c e s m e l l e d . It had b e e n p a c k e d in mothba l l s . The researcher t hen demons t ra ted the pr in t ing p rocess . The s tudents w e r e s h o w n a 40 n u m b e r of w o o d e n h a n d b l o c k s u s e d for handpr in t ing in India. These gene ra ted m u c h admi ra t ion d u e to their intr icacy. The s tudents qu ick ly caught o n to h o w to m a k e the prints as they had w o r k e d w i th simi lar p rocesses pr ior to this t ime. They spen t the rema inde r of the p e r i o d w o r k i n g o n dup l i ca t ing their des igns in s ty ro foam and mak ing trial pr ints. Day Three The researcher and teacher b o t h arr ived at 8:30 a.m. and w e r e s o o n j o ined by t w o s tudents w h o w a n t e d t o he lp set up and d o s o m e extra w o r k o n thei r pr ints. Teache r 1 and the researcher w o r k e d toge the r w i th t h e m mak ing u p s o m e samp le pa t te rned pr ints o n c l o t h . Af ter the rest of the s tudents w e r e a s s e m b l e d , T e a c h e r 1 o r g a n i z e d t h e m in to stat ions and exp la ined the day 's activity. The prints w h i c h had b e e n m a d e ear l ier that m o r n i n g w e r e used as examp les . The s tudents enthusiast ica l ly set to w o r k and by the e n d of the p e r i o d a lmos t all of t h e m had b o t h a g o o d paper pr int and a c lo th o n e . S tuden t 1 was t rea ted negat ive ly t h r o u g h o u t the activity t ime. M o s t o f the p r o b l e m s e m e r g e d as a resul t of the behav io r of t w o girls w h o d id no t want h im at " the i r " s ta t ion. W h i l e n o spec i f i c racial c o m m e n t s w e r e m a d e they i n f o r m e d e v e r y b o d y in the genera l v ic in i ty that he was " s t u p i d " and a " b a b y " . T e a c h e r 1 to ld t h e m to set t le d o w n . S tuden t 1 had or ig inal ly d e s i g n e d a s y m b o l that i nco rpo ra ted the w o r d s " l l ove Ind ia " , bu t this go t " l o s t " a l ong the way and he m a d e up a n e w o n e w h i c h c o n s i s t e d of g e o m e t r i c pat terns. H e s e e m e d p leased wi th the results of his work , h o w e v e r , and d e c i d e d that he w o u l d g ive the c lo th p iece to his m o t h e r for M o t h e r ' s Day . 41 4. Activity Three: Clothing as Symbol The researcher arrived at 8:45 a.m. to f ind that a n u m b e r of t he s tudents o n c e again had a band pract ice . Teache r 1 o n c e again a p o l o g i z e d . W h e n the s tudents re tu rned Teache r 1 began w i th a rev iew o f the s y m b o l c o n c e p t and then m o v e d o n to ques t i on i ng the s tudents abou t h o w c l o th i ng might be c o n s i d e r e d a s y m b o l that c o u l d p rov ide in fo rmat ion abou t the w e a r e r to o thers . The s tuden ts t hough t of a n u m b e r of d i f ferent s i tuat ions w h e r e c l o t h i n g migh t change in a c c o r d a n c e w i th the o c c a s i o n , the status of the wearer , and s o fo r th . Af ter l is t ing a n u m b e r of these o n the boa rd , Teacher 1 began w i t h the s l ides. A t this po in t it was d i s c o v e r e d that the s l ide m a c h i n e was not w o r k i n g , and a s tuden t had to be sent to the l ibrary in o rde r to ob ta in a rep lacemen t . Teache r 1 a t t emp ted to c o n t i n u e w i th the d i scuss ion unti l the n e w mach ine ar r ived. Teacher 1 w e n t t h rough the s l ides qui te rapid ly wh i l e read ing ques t i ons di rect ly f r o m the text. The similarit ies of the uses o f c l o th i ng across cu l tu res w e r e s t ressed . M a n y of the s tudents e x p r e s s e d surpr ise at learn ing that spor ts l ike cr icket w e r e p layed in India o r that India had an army. S tudent 1 p r o v i d e d add i t iona l i n fo rmat ion . A n u m b e r of the s tudents act ive ly w h i s p e r e d and s n e e r e d w h e n he s p o k e , h o w e v e r the major i ty of the ch i ld ren l i s tened qui te at tent ively. The teacher gave the s tuden ts thei r next ass ignment just be fo re the recess be l l . They l o o k e d qu i te in terested and a f ew v o i c e d their approva l w h e n she p r o m i s e d t h e m t ime in the a f t e rnoon to w o r k o n their pre l iminary d raw ings . 42 Day 2 The first ha l f -hour of the nex t m o r n i n g was g iven over to hav ing the s tuden ts c o m p l e t e their ske tches . A t 9:30 a.m. Teache r 1 had the ch i ld ren m o v e the f ront desks back and sit o n the f l oo r by the b l ackboa rd , b r ing ing their ske tches w i th t hem. She then asked ind iv idua l s tudents to " s h a r e " their wo rk wi th the o thers , exp la in ing w h y they had d r e s s e d their f igures as they had and what i n fo rmat ion c o u l d be de r i ved f rom their c l o th i ng . It was c lear that the s tudents w e r e no t u s e d to g o i n g t h r o u g h any sort of evaluat ive p r o c e s s in respect to their art p ro jec ts . As a c o n c e q u e n c e the first t w o w h o w e r e asked were qu i te e m b a r a s s e d , answer i ng mos t ques t i ons by m u m b l i n g "I d o n ' t k n o w " . The next three s tuden ts b e g a n t o w a r m up to the idea , h o w e v e r , and s o m e appropr ia te rat ionales w e r e p r e s e n t e d . The teacher t h e n asked the s tudents to guess at the in fo rmat ion s tudents had h o p e d to c o n v e y in s o m e of their s ke t ches ; again, s o m e in terest ing ideas w e r e o f fe red. 5. Activity Four: The Clothing of India The four th l esson began just after the c o n c l u s i o n of the th i rd activity. A t 9:45 a.m. Teacher 1 a t t e m p t e d to s h o w the " C l o t h i n g of India" s l ides, but the m a c h i n e was not f unc t i on ing proper ly . A f ter abou t f ive m inu tes of f i dd l ing the p r o b l e m was co r rec ted . T w o s tudents in the back of the class began to w h i s p e r wh i l e the s l ides we re b e i n g r e v i e w e d . O n e of the sl ides was me t w i th a clearly heard " A r e they ever ug l y " . T e a c h e r 1 immed ia te l y raised her v o i c e and to ld t h e m t o s top . She then t o l d t h e m that the s l ides w e r e t o b e taken ser ious ly and that n o m o r e rude 43 c o m m e n t s s h o u l d be heard. The t w o s tudents l o o k e d duly c o w e d but sulky. The rest of the class b e c a m e very quiet . Teache r 1 then h a n d e d out cop ies of the c lo th ing in fo rmat ion . She was qu i te sharp w i th the s tudents w h o had been unruly and the m o o d was tense. The s tudents p r o c e e d e d to read the c lo th ing in fo rmat ion , first si lent ly and then ou t l o u d . The s tuden ts we re then s h o w n a n u m b e r of actual c l o th ing p i eces w h i c h had b e e n o b t a i n e d f rom m e m b e r s of the I ndo -Canad ian c o m m u n i t y . The s tudents we re less re t iscent abou t hand l ing the ob jec ts this t ime and a n u m b e r w e n t so far as to try t h e m o n . M a n y we re vis ibly impressed by the beauty of the fabr ics, bu t there w e r e a f e w negat ive c o m m e n t s m a d e w h i c h f o c u s s e d o n the fact that s o m e of the c lo th ing sme l l ed of i ncense . Student 1 b e a m e d t h r o u g h o u t the p r o c e d u r e and o f fe red a great dea l of in fo rmat ion . Teache r 1 then o rgan i zed the s tudents to d o the ass ignment . Each s tuden t v o l u n t e e r e d to research a di f ferent aspec t o f the Indian cu l tu re . A n u m b e r o f d i f ferent poss ib le areas of interest had al ready b e e n wr i t ten o n the b o a r d by the teacher . S ince little t ime rema ined , the s tuden ts we re to ld to d o it as h o m e w o r k , fo r the next day. Day 2 The day 's lesson began at 9:45 a.m. s ince there was a band prac t ice that m o r n i n g . Teache r 1 had all of the s tudents d o a brief p resen ta t ion of the i r f ind ings. A g o o d n u m b e r of t h e m had g o n e b e y o n d the let ter of the ass ignmen t and p r o d u c e d qu i te ex tens ive repor ts cove r i ng ove r t w o pages o f f o o l s c a p . T e a c h e r 1 t hanked e a c h 44 s tudent as they f in ished and o f ten m a d e a brief c o m m e n t o n wha t they had d i s c o v e r e d . She a lso w r o t e cumula t i ve no tes o n the boa rd dur ing the presenta t ions . Af ter the s tuden ts had f in ished w i t h their ind iv idua l repor ts , Teacher 1 led a d i scuss ion abou t the f ind ings us ing the no tes she had taken . The s tudents l o o k e d at each area and a t tempted to use the in fo rmat ion to infer h o w it might affect c l o th ing and text i le des ign . A n u m b e r of g o o d ideas w e r e v o i c e d desp i te the fact that it appea red that the s tudents w e r e no t used t o w o r k i n g in qui te this manner . 6. Activity Five: Designing a Culture At 10:20 a.m. Teacher 1 w e n t o n t o i n t r oduce the next act iv i ty to t he s tudents . A brief exp lana t ion was g iven and the ch i ld ren w e r e asked to " p u t o n thei r th ink ing c a p s " for the nex t day. Teacher 1 later i n f o r m e d the researcher that she w o u l d a l locate a certain a m o u n t of t ime in the a f t e rnoon to the fo rma t ion of the g r o u p s , the de f in ing of the parameters of the cu l tures, and the t rac ing of the b o d i e s o n t o ca rdboa rd . (The researcher had s u p p l i e d the teacher w i th several large sheets of ca rdboa rd for the next activity.) It was ag reed that b o t h the teacher and the researcher w o u l d mee t at the s c h o o l be fo re class in o r d e r to beg in cu t t ing the f igures ou t of the ca rdboard . Day 2 Teacher 1 and the researcher arr ived at 8:30 a.m. and spen t the ha l f -hour be fo re the b e g i n n i n g of class cu t t ing the fo rms . Af ter the s tuden ts arr ived, the teacher wen t ove r s o m e a n n o u n c e m e n t s and reminders . T e a c h e r 1 and the researcher t hen me t w i th the th ree g r o u p s w h i c h had b e e n f o r m e d the p rev ious day t o he lp t h e m 45 fur ther establ ish their " c u l t u r e s " and o rgan ize t h e m in terms of supp l ies and w o r k i n g ar rangements . S tudents w h o w e r e not " in c o n f e r e n c e " w i th o n e of the adul ts w o r k e d o n ind iv idual ske tches of the i r imaginary p e o p l e . M u c h work had o b v i o u s l y b e e n d o n e the day be fo re ; each of the g roups had a fairly g o o d idea of wha t they w a n t e d to d o , espec ia l ly the t w o smal ler g roups w h i c h c o n s i s t e d of f ive p e o p l e each . T h e larger g r o u p had n ine ch i ld ren in it and was m u c h less o r g a n i z e d . Teache r 1 and the researcher spen t abou t thirty m inu tes w i th this g roup h e l p i n g t h e m d e v e l o p a m o r e c o n c i s e and un i f ied idea of wha t they w i s h e d to d o . S tuden t 1 was in this g roup . A n u m b e r of his sugges t i ons p r o d u c e d a lmost ref lex ive negat ive responses f rom t w o gir ls, h o w e v e r s o m e of the boys t o o k up his cause and a f ew of his ideas we re carr ied t h r o u g h . By 10:30 the s tuden ts we re all b e g i n n i n g wo rk o n their f igures and abou t s e v e n of t h e m c o n t i n u e d t h rough recess. T e a c h e r 1 was ex t reme ly p leased w i th the s tuden ts ' en thus iasm and s u g g e s t e d that t he activi ty be carr ied t h rough the ent i re m o r n i n g . This was m e t w i th a pos i t ive r e s p o n s e w h e n the ch i ld ren re tu rned and they set to w o r k immed ia te l y . The teacher a n d the researcher c o n t i n u e d to c i rcu late a m o n g the g r o u p s , act ive ly he lp ing and o f fe r ing sugges t i ons . S tudent 1 w o r k e d o n a f igure t oge the r w i th a wh i te Canad ian b o y , and the t w o in te rac ted w i th o n e ano ther very successfu l ly . T h e ch i ld ren w e r e genera l ly enthus iast ic and ma in ta ined a h igh ene rgy level for the rema inde r of the m o r n i n g , w o r k i n g abso rbed l y in c reat ing thei r f igures. Day Three T e a c h e r 1 d e c i d e d to s p e n d the ent i re m o r n i n g of this day o n the c rea t ion of the f igures as we l l . The s tudents qu ick ly go t to wo rk o n thei r p ro jec ts after the 46 morning's announcements. Those who finished early helped the others in their group or worked on making a large wall-chart describing and explaining the imaginary cultures. Although one small group of boys began to lose interest in their work, the rest of the students continued to work well. Two groups decided to work through recess. The students were spurred on by the enthusiasm of Teacher 1 as well as other members of the staff and the student body. By this time a number of the other classroom teachers had expressed interest in the project, and several of them and their students "toured" the classroom during recess. The comments were extremely positive and several of the homeroom students launched into complicated explanations of the "cultures" and how the way their group's figures were dressed related to these "cultures". The students continued to work after the break and most of the figures were complete by the end of the morning. Day Four The first half-hour of the morning was spent putting finishing touches on the figures. They were then put on display at the back of the classroom. The students had been fairly successful in keeping their "culture" secret from the other groups, and Teacher 1 was able to lead a highly animated discussion in which the students looked at each group's figures and attempted to infer something about their "culture" through the design of the clothing. The actual creators then read out the description of the culture which they had created and explained it relative to the figures' dress. 47 7. Activity Six: Culture Contact and Culture Change Teache r 1 b e g a n the next l esson w i th a brief i n t r oduc t i on to the c o n c e p t s of accu l tura t ion and intercul tural con tac t . S tuden ts w e r e asked t o de f ine the terms as best they c o u l d ; these def in i t ions w e r e t hen d i s c u s s e d . It was apparen t that the teacher d id no t feel comfo r t ab le w i th her exp lana t ions of the c o n c e p t s , for she tu rned to the researcher at th is po in t and asked if she m igh t " take a c rack " at exp la in ing it. The researcher c o m p l i e d and w e n t t h r o u g h a n u m b e r of examp les w i th the s tudents . Teache r 1 t hen s h o w e d the " Intercul tura l I n f l uence" sl ides t o t he s tuden ts , read ing the ques t i ons d i rect ly f r om the text. A n u m b e r of t h e m w e r e surpr ised to f ind that p e o p l e in India w o r e wes te rn c l o t h i n g and that Indian fash ions had i n f l uenced N o r t h A m e r i c a n m o d e s of dress. A d i s c u s s i o n of h o w and w h y s u c h e x c h a n g e s might be m a d e e n s u e d . W h e n asked w h y I ndo -Canad ians m igh t c h o o s e t o retain aspects of their e thn ic d ress , o n e s tudent s ta ted that it w o u l d be " h a r d " to c h a n g e if y o u w e r e o l d . The re was genera l a c k n o w l e d g e m e n t of this fact a m o n g the rest of the pup i ls . A n o t h e r s tudent v o l u n t e e r e d that it w o u l d b e dif f icult if a cer ta in aspec t of dress was impor tan t because it c o u l d " r e m i n d y o u of y o u r r e l i g i o n " . She p romp t l y he ld up a cruc i f ix she w o r e a r o u n d her neck . Teache r 1 t h e n asked the s tudents to imag ine what m igh t h a p p e n t o thei r c l o th ing if m e m b e r s of the di f ferent cul tural g r o u p s w h i c h they had c rea ted met . The ch i ld ren had s o m e dif f iculty ge t t ing g o i n g and Teacher 1 actual ly pa i red off t w o very d i f ferent f igures and asked t h e m to g ive s o m e spec i f i c ideas about this 48 e n c o u n t e r . A n u m b e r of the s tudents began to of fer ideas at this po in t and a g o o d d i s c u s s i o n of w h y certa in changes m igh t take p lace d e v e l o p e d . The s tudents w h e r e t hen asked to talk abou t wha t might h a p p e n if just o n e of the f igures w e n t to live w i th m e m b e r s of ano the r cul tural g r o u p . There was genera l ag reemen t that the " i m m i g r a n t " w o u l d change the most , bu t w o u l d p robab ly retain cer ta in aspects of his o r her dress that w e r e impor tan t to h im or her. The s tuden ts f i n i shed by actual ly c h o o s i n g an " i m m i g r a n t " f r o m o n e cul tural g r o u p and d raw ing a ske tch of h o w they be l i eved their c lo th ing migh t c h a n g e as a func t i on of l iv ing in a " h o s t " cul ture c h o s e n f rom a m o n g the o the r t w o g roups . The s tuden ts qu ick ly set t o w o r k and many of t h e m c o m p l e t e d several drawings. W h e n Teache r 1 ca l led u p o n t h e m to share the i r w o r k they we re eager to d o so , and many of t h e m i n c l u d e d brief wr i t ten rat ionales abou t w h y they had c h o s e n to change the des ign the c lo th ing the way they had . C. SCHOOL 2 1. The Setting Al l of the lessons in S c h o o l 2 t o o k p lace in the h o m e r o o m . The c l ass room was very large, w i th h igh ce i l ings and amp le r o o m to m o v e a r o u n d . Little a t tempt had b e e n m a d e to deco ra te the c l a s s r o o m . The o n l y ar twork d i sp layed was a ser ies of " t o t e m p o l e " des igns h u n g we l l a b o v e eye leve l . A few maps and pos ters m a d e up the rest of the v isuals. W o o d f igured m o r e p rominen t l y than c o n c r e t e and , a l t hough the su r round ings w e r e s o m e w h a t run d o w n as a f unc t i on of age , 49 everything was very neat and clean throughout the time of the study. Students were seated in rows except for two clusters of four seats each in the center of the room. The privilege of sitting in a "cluster" was awarded on a rotating basis to students. The same eight children remained in the center during the implementation period. Teacher 2's desk was at the head of the class. The four Indo-Canadian children were all seated at different points in the room. They did not attempt to stick together during school hours. 2. Activity One: The Reading of an Artifact The first class started a few minutes late due to the fact that there had been an unexpected switch in teachers for a French class. Teacher 2 apologized and quickly organized the class for the first lesson. He appeared to be well-prepared; there were copious notes scrawled in the margin of the text and he had brought several shoe-boxes with him for the first activity. Teacher 2 began by asking the students to think about and then write their own definition of culture in their notebooks. He then requested that they look up the word "culture" in the dictionary. This was followed by a discussion of various methods by which we can learn about "culture". Initially the students were puzzled by the question regarding how to learn about culture without the help of written or oral speech, however Teacher 2's questions soon led them to consider pictures, music, clothing, and so forth. The students were eager to participate in the question answering process and appeared interested in the discussion. 50 After exp la in ing the task of f i l l ing the b o x e s , Teacher 2 d i v i ded the class into several g roups . The ch i ld ren qu ick ly set a b o u t mak ing lists of wha t ob jec ts m igh t best represent their dai ly l ives. They s o o n had their boxes f i l led. As they w o r k e d , Teacher 2 w r o t e a list o n the b lackboard w h i c h ou t l i ned the basic features of an " imag inary s o c i e t y " e .g . hot , dry, o n e - r o o m h o u s e s , l ight c l o th ing , da rk -sk inned p e o p l e . W h e n the s tudents had f in ished f i l l ing b o x e s , Teache r 1 asked t h e m to imag ine what ch i ld ren in this soc ie ty might th ink if they w e r e to unpack the b o x e s w h i c h had just b e e n f i l led. Several s tudents immed ia te l y r e s p o n d e d us ing examp les ob ta i ned f r o m thei r co l l ec t i ons . This was f o l l o w e d by each p e r s o n in each g r o u p present ing s o m e t h i n g f rom their b o x and exp la in ing w h y they had i n c l u d e d it. The s tudents we re attent ive and l i s tened to each o the r careful ly. Teacher 2 q u e s t i o n e d all the ch i ld ren and m a d e many pos i t ive c o m m e n t s t h r o u g h o u t the p r o c e d u r e . Af ter the p resen ta t ions , Teacher 2 b rough t the activity to a c l o s e by o n c e again asking the s tuden ts h o w they might learn a b o u t a cul ture. H e i n t r o d u c e d the w o r d "ar t i fact" at this po in t , and s t ressed h o w m u c h c o u l d be learned t h r o u g h ob jec ts in the v isual env i ronmen t . The final f e w m o m e n t s we re spen t put t ing all the "ar t i fac ts" used in the activi ty back in their respec t i ve p laces. 3. Activity Two: Cultural Symbols Day 7 Teacher 2 was no t fee l ing we l l but d e c i d e d t o g o ahead w i th the nex t l esson . H e 51 began by asking the students to put away their math books and to take a minute to stretch their legs. He conducted a small exercise ritual of his own at the head of the class. One of the boys began to act up and was quietly but firmly sent out to the school ground to run a few laps and "burn off" some energy. The rest of the children sat down in their seats. Teacher 2 began the lesson by asking the students to look up the definition of "symbol" in the dictionary and then write it in their notebooks. This was followed by a discussion of some of the different definitions which had been found. When the teacher called for some examples of symbols almost all the students managed to offer at least one. Teacher 2 asked those students who had not answered to look around the room or even at their own person in order to find an example. This resulted in an active and animated search of the general environment. The next twenty minutes were spent viewing the slides. Teacher 2 was quite obviously under the weather and the heat of the afternoon did nothing to raise energy levels. It was also clear that Teacher 2 was not entirely comfortable dealing with the slides. He asked the researcher several times if there was anything she would like to add. The students were quick to pick out different symbols in the "Textile" slides and Teacher 2 soon led them to the conclusion that the country from which the pieces had been derived was India. He then distributed a copy of the symbol information included in the text to each of the students. After going over the information with the pupils, Teacher 2 asked each of them to create a list of some major symbols of Canada. Similarities and differences among the symbols of the two countries were discussed. The students were then asked to 52 b e g i n w o r k i n g o n creat ing their o w n pe rsona l s y m b o l . Day Two Teache r 2 began by ask ing a n u m b e r of the s tudents to p resent the s y m b o l s w h i c h they had c rea ted the day be fo re . Af ter they had g iven brief exp lana t ions he asked the rest of the class to c o n s i d e r what the s y m b o l s m igh t m e a n and what they c o u l d tell us abou t the ind iv iduals w h o had c rea ted t h e m . A n u m b e r of the s tudents m a d e a g o o d at tempt at r e s p o n d i n g t h o u g h it was c lear that they w e r e no t used to dea l ing w i th their o w n ar twork in this manner . A t 2:00 p .m. the teacher wen t ove r the " C r a f t s p e o p l e " s l ides w i th the s tudents . H e was still s o m e w h a t hesi tant abou t w o r k i n g w i th the v isuals. H e l o o k e d at the researcher several t imes for " c o n f i r m a t i o n " , bu t after a f e w m inu tes he s e e m e d to w a r m up to the task and b e g a n to " a d l i b " to the ques t i ons and ideas i n c l u d e d in the text. The s tudents t hen ga the red at the back o f the class in o r d e r to l ook at the artifacts w h i c h the researcher had o b t a i n e d f rom m e m b e r s of the Indo-Canad ian c o m m u n i t y . These we re s u p p l e m e n t e d by a n u m b e r of c l o th ing p i eces and smal l brass art icles w h i c h the teacher had m a n a g e d to f ind in his and his n e i g h b o r s ' h o m e s . The s tudents w e r e genera l ly qu i te de l i gh ted w i th the d isp lay, and w h e n the teache r asked the t w o Indo -Canad ian girls if they w o u l d m o d e l o n e of the saris, t hey eager ly d id so . Several of the o the r girls c l a m m o r e d for a turn. O n e b o y l o o k e d qu i te s t u n n e d w h e n he was to ld that all o f the text i le p i eces had b e e n d o n e by hand and exp ressed d isbel ie f . The o thers l aughed at h i m . 53 The researcher t hen d e m o n s t r a t e d the pr int ing p rocess . Severa l of the ch i ld ren w a n t e d to c o n t i n u e l ook i ng at the artifacts but w e r e f inally d rawn away by the voca l admi ra t ion e x p r e s s e d ove r the w o o d e n handpr in t ing b l ocks . The s tudents w e r e at tent ive and qu ick ly m o v e d to their seats t o wo rk o n dup l i ca t i ng thei r des igns in s t y ro foam. T e a c h e r 2 qu ick ly set up c o l o r stat ions a r o u n d the r o o m and several of the ch i ld ren had a r o u g h print c o m p l e t e d by the e n d of the p e r i o d . Day Three The researcher arr ived in the early a f te rnoon to f ind that Teache r 2 was away sick. The secretary c o n v e y e d his a p o l o g i e s ; she had t r ied to reach m e several t imes t h r o u g h o u t the day. The subst i tu te teacher i n f o rmed m e that Teache r 2 had br ie fed h im o n the s tudy and that he w o u l d be m o r e than happy t o a t tempt to carry o n w i th the i m p l e m e n t a t i o n p rocess . S ince it was an activi ty day and n o n e w material was b e i n g i n t r o d u c e d it was d e c i d e d to g o ahead w i th the l e s s o n . The researcher and the subst i tu te teacher o n c e again d e m o n s t r a t e d h o w to create a pr int w i th the s ty ro foam p ieces . The s tudents we re fairly at tent ive but it was c lear that they w e r e hot and t i red. Several of t hem kept a t tempt ing to t h r o w the subst i tu te off by g iv ing h im false names , creat ing imaginary tasks, and s o fo r th . A n u m b e r of t he b o y s qu ick ly b e c a m e d i senchan ted w h e n their initial efforts d id no t w o r k and ins is ted they w a n t e d to "g i ve u p " . They r e m a i n e d at o n e stat ion t h r o u g h o u t m o s t of the hour , but a n u m b e r of o the r s tuden ts w h o w i s h e d to use the c o l o r at the stat ion e n d e d up dea l ing wi th t h e m and several squabb les t o o k p lace . The major i ty of the pup i ls e n j o y e d the activity, h o w e v e r , and w o r k e d enthusiast ica l ly fo r the ent i re hour . 54 The c lean-up at the e n d of the pe r iod was qu ick ly a c c o m p l i s h e d ; it was c lear that the ch i ld ren w e r e used to he lp ing put the r o o m to o rder at the e n d of the day. Five s tudents s tayed voluntar i ly after the bel l in o r d e r to f inish c lean ing up the s ink area. Day Four Earlier in the w e e k Teacher 2 and the researcher had arranged to b r ing in a gues t speaker for this day. The researcher m a d e con tac t w i th a y o u n g w o m a n in the Indo-Canad ian c o m m u n i t y and she ag reed t o d o an hou r - l ong p resen ta t ion . T e a c h e r 2 was still away ill, but it was d e c i d e d to carry t h rough w i th the p resen ta t i on . M s . Dh i l l on ' s p resen ta t ion cons i s ted o f three t radi t ional Indian dances , a br ief ex lpana t ion of Indian re l ig ion , a shor t f inger p u p p e t pe r fo rmance , and an exp lana t ion of the sari and turban as we l l as a d e m o n s t r a t i o n of h o w they are w o r n . S h e w o r e an e labora te " p e a c o c k " d a n c e c o s t u m e and a great dea l o f jewelry, T h e s tudents were ex t reme ly p leased w h e n they w e r e ab le t o r e c o g n i z e her c o s t u m e as represent ing the nat ional s y m b o l of India. The s tudents we re very apprec ia t ive and h igh ly attentive as ide f r om t w o boys w h o n e e d e d a f e w w o r d s f r o m the subst i tu te teacher . M s . Dh i l l on c h o s e t w o s tudents f r om the a u d i e n c e t o be m o d e l s for the demons t ra t i on of h o w the turban and sari are w o r n . She and the researcher had c o n s u l t e d br ief ly be fo re the class abou t w h i c h ch i l d ren w o u l d b e g o o d cand ida tes . T h e turban d e m o n s t r a t i o n w e n t we l l . T h e b o y w h o was c h o s e n was qu i t e embarassed init ial ly, bu t M s . Dh i l l on had f ive o t h e r boys h e l p i n g to w i n d the c l o t h 55 and he became less self-conscious as they became involved in the process. When they had finished, he chose to wear the turban for the rest of the hour. Several of the girls volunteered to wear the sari, and Ms. Dhillon ended up having four of them model it and a number of headpieces. The presentation finished with a short question period after which the substitute teacher whisked the children outside for some sports. There was general consensus among the students as they left that the class had been "cool" and "neat" and several of them hung behind for a moment to thank Ms. Dhillon. 4. Activity Three: Clothing as Symbol Teacher 2 began the class by asking the students to describe what had occurred the previous Friday as he had been away. A number of the children launched into a description of the guest speaker's presentation and several positive comments were made. Teacher 2 made some positive comments of his own about a number of the prints which had been hung around the room. Teacher 2 then asked the researcher if she could introduce the next lesson since he hadn't had time to prepare due to his illness. The researcher agreed to do so and briefly reviewed the concept of symbolism with the students. The students were then asked to think of as many situations as they could where clothing might act as a symbol. Several children quickly responded with such examples as "a wedding dress", "a queen", and so forth. This was followed by the showing and discussing of the "Clothing as Symbol" slides. The students appeared to be quite interested and were obviously impressed by the similarities in the use of clothing between India and North 56 A m e r i c a . Teache r 2 had b e e n g o i n g ove r the text as the researcher and the s tudents s p o k e and t o o k o v e r the class at this po in t . H e led the s tudents to think of several m o r e examp les of h o w c lo th ing might p r o v i d e in format ion abou t the wearer and his o r her cu l ture and then wen t o n to exp la in the next ass ignment . The s tudents qu ick ly set to w o r k and mos t had a r o u g h ske t ch c o m p l e t e d by the end of the class. Teacher 2 i n f o rmed t h e m that they w e r e to c o m p l e t e the ass ignment as h o m e w o r k for the next day. Day 2 Teache r 2 b e g a n the hou r by hav ing the s tuden ts d iscuss the ske tches they had b e e n ass igned to d o the p rev ious day. H e asked the ch i ld ren to f o rm a c i rc le in the m i d d l e of the c lass, b r ing ing their d raw ings w i th t h e m . It was c lear that ne i ther the s tuden ts o r the teacher w e r e a c c u s t o m e d to d i scuss ing their art p ro jec ts , h o w e v e r a n u m b e r of the ch i l d ren gave a g o o d exp lana t ion of w h y they had d ressed thei r p e o p l e as they had o n c e they o v e r c a m e their initial shyness at d isp lay ing thei r wo rk . O n e of the I n d o - C a n a d i a n boys had d rawn a p ic ture of an Indian p r ince pray ing in a t e m p l e , and a n u m b e r of the o the r d rawings por t rayed e thn ic c o s t u m e s . The o ther pup i l s l i s tened at tent ively w h e n it c a m e his turn to p resen t his p ic tu re and there w e r e a n u m b e r of " c o o l s " ve rba l i zed a round the c i rc le . The o t h e r I ndo -Canad ian ch i ld ren d r e w m o r e typ ica l ado lescen t images i nc lud ing a p ro -wres t le r type f igure, a " F r e n c h m a i d " , and a teacher . 57 5. Activity Four: The Clothing of India The next l e s s o n was b e g u n immed ia te l y after the d i scuss ion of the drawings d o n e in the p rev ious lesson . Teache r 2 p r o c e e d e d to g o t h rough the " C l o t h i n g of Ind ia" s l ides w i th the s tudents and an in terest ing d i scuss ion of the d i f fe rences a m o n g the c l o t h i n g p i eces in respec t t o reg ion , and soc ia l and e c o n o m i c status e m e r g e d . T e a c h e r 2 asked the s tudents to try and th ink of similar d i f fe rences w h i c h migh t be f o u n d in C a n a d a or the U n i t e d States. O n e s tuden t immed ia te l y p o i n t e d out that there was a d i f fe rence in the way farm p e o p l e and city p e o p l e d ressed and an a rgumen t o v e r the val idi ty of this s ta tement t o o k p lace. It was finally d e c i d e d that it d e p e n d e d o n whe the r the farmer was w o r k i n g o u t d o o r s o r not . O t h e r examp les s o o n f o l l o w e d . This was f o l l o w e d by hav ing the s tudents l ook at and hand le a d isp lay of c l o th ing p i eces o b t a i n e d f rom m e m b e r s of the Indo -Canad ian c o m m u n i t y . The ch i ld ren w e r e qu i te exc i t ed by the co lo rs and the f ine qual i ty of the mater ia l . O n e girl s ta ted that she " c o u l d n ' t b e l i e v e " h o w l ight and si lky the material was . A n u m b e r of the girls d r a p e d the scarves a r o u n d their heads and o n e of the Indo-Canad ian girls p r o c e e d e d to he lp a f r iend wrap a sari p i ece a r o u n d herself . Several observan t s ta tements w e r e m a d e in reply to the ques t i ons abou t w h o might wea r spec i f i c ga rments and why . A n u m b e r of the s tudents d e c i d e d that the mos t e labora te ly pa t te rned yet de l icate mater ia l w o u l d be w o r n by " impor tan t , r ich p e o p l e " o n " s p e c i a l d a y s " . Seven of the s tudents r ema ined after class in o rde r the he lp the researcher and the teacher pack the th ings away. 58 6. Activity Five: Designing a Culture Day One Teache r 2 was no t in teres ted in hav ing all of the s tudents d o research abou t India s ince they we re already invo lved in d o i n g repor ts o n a coun t ry of their c h o i c e as part of their Socia l S tud ies c o u r s e . A n u m b e r of the s tuden ts had c h o s e n As ian coun t r ies . It was d e c i d e d to have these s tudents present their pro jects just pr ior to the t ime a l lo ted to the i m p l e m e n t a t i o n of the unit for the next f ew days. The researcher arr ived at 12:45 p .m. in o r d e r to see the t w o oral repor ts s c h e d u l e d for the first h o u r of the a f t e rnoon . The first repor t was abou t India and the s e c o n d abou t Ko rea . The p resen ta t ion a b o u t India was g iven by o n e of the Indo -Canad ian girls and a w h i t e - C a n a d i a n f r iend . The Korean repor t was g iven by a Ko rean -Canad ian girl. The p resenta t ions genera l ly c o n s i s t e d of fairly s tandard e n c y l o p e d i c fare, w i th the s tuden ts read ing ou t coun t less d e m o g r a p h i c f igures, the names of the major c i t ies, and a w e a t h e r repor t . A c o m p o n e n t i n c l u d e d in b o t h presenta t ions , howeve r , was the m o d e l l i n g and exp lana t ion of t radi t ional p ieces of c l o th i ng der i ved f r o m the t w o coun t r i es u n d e r study. A g o o d desc r i p t i on of w h e r e and w h y the garments might be w o r n was g iven in b o t h cases. The rest of the s tudents w e r e qu i te at tent ive b e c a u s e they had to answer ques t i ons u p o n the c o m p l e t i o n of the p resen ta t ion . There was a great deal of exc i t emen t at the e n d s ince there w e r e free f o o d samp les . O r d e r was re -es tab l i shed at abou t 2:00 p .m. w h e n Teacher 2 asked the s tuden ts to " b r a i n s t o r m " as m u c h in fo rmat ion as they c o u l d about India. The ca tegor ies es tab l i shed in the text w e r e used e .g . phys ica l 59 env i ronmen t , c l imate, ro le of w o m e n , and so for th. T h o s e s tudents w h o had d o n e the repor t abou t India p r o v i d e d m u c h of the in fo rmat ion . Teacher 2 then asked the s tudents to c o n s i d e r h o w these di f ferent aspects of the soc ia l and phys ica l env i ronmen ts of India might affect the des ign of the c lo th ing . The s tudents readily m a d e the c o n n e c t i o n b e t w e e n the phys ica l e n v i r o n m e n t and c l o th i ng and , w i th s o m e p r o m p t i n g , they b e g a n to r e s p o n d to ques t ions abou t h o w the soc ia l env i ronmen t m igh t have an ef fect as we l l . Teacher 2 then asked the s tudents to g o th rough the same p rocess w i th C a n a d a and Korea . Teache r 2 c o n c l u d e d by i n t roduc ing the next act ivi ty to the s tuden ts . H e asked t h e m to c o n s i d e r all the factors w h i c h they had invest igated in c o n d u c t i n g their oral reports and in the d i scuss ions they had du r ing the last f ew days. A n i m p r o m p t u list was c rea ted o n the cha l kboa rd of s o m e of the m o s t impor tan t parameters w h i c h s h o u l d be es tab l i shed in laying ou t the " c u l t u r e " and h o w these m igh t affect the des ign of the c lo th ing . W h i l e n o g roups w e r e f o r m e d at this po in t , the s tuden ts immed ia te l y b e g a n t o talk a m o n g themse lves and set p lans for the d e v e l o p m e n t of their " cu l t u res " . Day Two The a f te rnoon b e g a n wi th ano the r oral repor t abou t India p resen ted by an Indo -Canad ian b o y w o r k i n g w i th a w h i t e - C a n a d i a n f r iend. The repor t was no t very we l l p repa red . N e i t h e r o f the t w o boys had d o n e as m u c h w o r k as his par tner had e x p e c t e d h im to , and the read ing of the in fo rmat ion w h i c h they had m a n a g e d t o pul l t oge the r was constant ly p u n c t u a t e d by "I t hough t y o u d i d that " and "That was you r j o b " . The mos t pa in fu l part of the expe r i ence was the s h o w i n g of a 60 f i lmstr ip for w h i c h they had fo rgo t ten to get the a c c o m p a n y i n g tape. This necess i ta ted thei r spon taneous l y mak ing u p a " s c r i p t " to g o w i th the visual po r t i on . M u c h of what they said per ta ined to the c l o t h i n g the p e o p l e in the images w e r e wear ing , e .g . " Y o u can tell it 's a city b e c a u s e the p e o p l e are wear ing a lot of d i f ferent k inds of c l o t h i n g " and "It mus t be h o t - he 's wear ing a t u rban " . O n e image was of an e lder ly Indian man w a s h i n g his c l o thes in the river. There was s o m e laughter in the f ront row. Teacher 2 immed ia te l y to ld the s tudents invo lved no t to " s h o w their i g n o r a n c e " by d o i n g such a "s i l l y " th ing . The t w o boys then c o n t i n u e d w i th their report . As s o o n as the presenta t ion was c o m p l e t e d T e a c h e r 2 qu ie t ly asked the t w o s tuden ts w h o had l aughed w h y they had d o n e s o . They v is ib ly s q u i r m e d for a m o m e n t and then o n e finally b lu r ted ou t that it was b e c a u s e it was " w e i r d " . At this po in t Teache r 2 p o i n t e d out that s o m e o n e f r o m India w o u l d f ind many Canad ian c u s t o m s strange and that t o laugh at s o m e o n e because they we re di f ferent was " a s ign of i g n o r a n c e " , add ing that p e o p l e of the i r age and educa t i on s h o u l d k n o w better. The s tudents w e r e very qu ie t and b o t h a p o l o g i z e d w i t hou t b e i n g asked to d o s o . Teache r 2 then had the s tudents split in to g r o u p s fo r the rema inder of the pe r i od in o r d e r to d iscuss their " cu l t u res " . By the e n d of the pe r iod mos t of the s tudents had the parameters of their " c u l t u r e " la id ou t and had al ready b e g u n their pre l iminary ske tches for the f igures. 61 Day Three The researcher arr ived dur ing the l unch -hou r in o rde r to de l iver the ca rdboa rd f r o m w h i c h the f igures w o u l d be made . A n u m b e r of the s tudents w e r e eat ing in the c l a s s r o o m and immed ia te ly v o l u n t e e r e d to start t rac ing the f igures and cu t t ing t hem out . T w o of t h e m were g iven pe rm iss ion to c o n t i n u e he lp i ng the researcher dur ing the first h o u r of the a f te rnoon wh i le the rest of the class d id a math l esson . At 1:45 p .m. Teache r 2 had all the s tudents o rgan ize themse lves in to thei r g roups . H e c h e c k e d to m a k e sure eve ryone b e l o n g e d s o m e w h e r e and then h a n d e d back the ske tches the s tudents had b e g u n the p rev ious day. The I ndo -Canad ian s tudents w e r e all in di f ferent g roups . T e a c h e r 2 t hen o n c e m o r e r e v i e w e d what had b e e n learned in t he p rev ious lessons abou t the in terre lat ionship b e t w e e n cul ture and c lo th ing and text i le des ign . Sugges t i ons w e r e also m a d e abou t materials and t echn iques w h i c h migh t be used in c reat ing the f igures and their c l o th i ng . Teacher 2 then p o r t i o n e d off a cer ta in part of the r o o m fo r each g r o u p s o that they c o u l d wo rk t o g e t h e r w i th s o m e privacy. The s tudents immed ia te l y set t o w o r k and the rema inder of the a f te rnoon was spen t o n creat ing the f igures. Days Four and Five T e a c h e r 2 d e c i d e d to turn ove r the major part of the next t w o a f te rnoons to the c rea t ion of the f igures in o r d e r t o g ive the s tudents a larger b l o c k of t ime in w h i c h to wo rk . H e stated that s o little of the year 's t ime had b e e n d e v o t e d to art that it w o u l d p robab ly be " a g o o d t h i n g " . Af ter tak ing care of pre l iminary 62 h o u s e k e e p i n g c h o r e s the s tudents were a l l owed to devo te t hemse lves to the mak ing of the f igures. They we re ex t reme ly enthus iast ic . M a n y of t hem came in early the s e c o n d a f te rnoon t o put in s o m e extra t ime . A n u m b e r of t h e m b r o u g h t extra materials s u c h as w o o l and p ieces of c l o th f r o m h o m e in o rde r to embe l l i sh thei r work . Bo th s tuden ts and teachers f r om o the r c lasses w a n d e r e d in du r ing the l unch hou r in o r d e r to take a look at the pro jec ts w h i c h the h o m e r o o m s tudents w e r e happy to d isp lay. T h o s e s tudents w h o f in ished early w e r e put to w o r k mak ing up charts set t ing ou t the parameters of the " c u l t u r e s " and exp la in ing the c l o t h i n g des ign . By the e n d of the s e c o n d a f te rnoon all of the f igures we re in the final stages of c o m p l e t i o n o r f in ished. Day Six The first ten m inu tes of the class w e r e spen t pu t t ing f in ish ing t o u c h e s o n the f igures. T e a c h e r 2 t hen had the s tudents d isp lay the f igures in thei r "cu l tu ra l g r o u p s " . A t this po in t he asked the ch i ld ren t o a t tempt to infer wha t s o m e of the e lemen ts of the di f ferent " c u l t u r e s " m igh t b e , us ing the in fo rmat ion w h i c h c o u l d be de r i ved f r o m the c lo th ing . T h e answers w e r e then c o m p a r e d to the actual parameters w h i c h had b e e n laid ou t by the g roups . There was a great dea l of laughter at s o m e of the w r o n g in ferences w h i c h had b e e n m a d e but , overa l l , the s tudents w e r e p leased wi th the results and the major i ty of guesses w e r e cor rec t . 7. Activity Six: Culture Contact and Culture Change Teacher 2 b e g a n the next l esson immed ia te l y after the c o m p l e t i o n of the p rev ious activity. H e first asked the s tudents to imag ine what w o u l d h a p p e n if t w o very di f ferent cu l tu res met . The " c u l t u r e s " d e v e l o p e d by the s tudents se rved as e x a m p l e s . 6 3 The s tudents w e r e then asked to think up as many e x a m p l e s of e v i d e n c e of intercul tural con tac t as they c o u l d . M a n y ideas w e r e put fo rward after T e a c h e r 2 read out a list w h i c h he had d e v e l o p e d the n ight be fo re . This i nc l uded several cu l inary i tems, the sauna, c l o t h i n g ideas, and so for th. Teacher 2 t hen d i scussed the " Intercul tural In f l uence" s l ides w i th the s tudents . T h e s tudents we re supr ised at the n u m b e r of fash ion ideas w h i c h had c r o s s e d cul tural bounda r i es . The q u e s t i o n abou t w h y certain c l o t h i n g i tems migh t be re ta ined after immigra t ion in to a n e w cul ture e l i c i ted several g o o d responses w h i c h m a d e re fe rence to the ind iv idua l 's age , re l ig ious bel ie fs , c l imate , and o the r var iables. O n e of the I ndo -Canad ian boys c o m m e n t e d that his grandfa ther d idn ' t l ike w e s t e r n c l o th i ng , c la im ing that it was " t o o stiff" and that he was " t o o o l d to c h a n g e , anyway" . O n e s tuden t s ta ted that he certainly w o u l d n ' t give up his jeans in a n o t h e r coun t ry un less it was " rea l ly h o t " , and that he w o u l d at least want to wear t h e m o n spec ia l occas ions . N o t e n o u g h t ime rema ined in the a f te rnoon to have the s tuden ts d raw ske tches of wha t might h a p p e n if " P e r s o n X " in " C u l t u r e A " w e n t t o o n e of the o t h e r cu l tures w h i c h the s tudents had d e v e l o p e d , h o w e v e r Teacher 2 had the s tuden ts d iscuss a var iety of d i f ferent s i tuat ions a n d they appea red t o en joy the exerc ise tho rough ly . V. FINDINGS A. PERSONAL INFORMATION SHEET A g e and length of res idence in C a n a d a w e r e ana lyzed us ing analysis of var iance. The results ind ica ted that s tudents in S c h o o l 1 d i f fered s igni f icant ly f rom those in S c h o o l s 2 and 3 in respect to age [F(2) = 5.664, p .05] and , co r respond ing l y , length of t ime l ived in C a n a d a [F(2) = 4.536, p .05]. S tuden ts in S c h o o l 1 w e r e general ly o l de r ( M = 11.950); on ly three e leven-year o lds w e r e tes ted in S c h o o l 1 as o p p o s e d to th i r teen in S c h o o l 2 and four teen in S c h o o l 3. In cons ide ra t i on of this fact, it was d e c i d e d t o use age and length of C a n a d i a n res idence as covar iates in fur ther analyses. A ch i -square ind ica ted that there w e r e n o signi f icant d i f ferences a m o n g the s c h o o l s in respect to g e n d e r o r e thn ic b a c k g r o u n d . Table 1 Pup i ls included In the study AGE SEX ETHNICITY LENGTH OF RESIDENCE 11 12 13 male female whl te indo other 1-5 6-10 11-13 SCHOOL 1 3 15 2 8 12 17 1 2 20 SCHOOL 2 13 11 10 14 16 4 4 2 3 19 SCHOOL 3 14 10 1 15 10 15 4 6 4 21 TOTAL 30 36 3 33 36 48 9 12 2 7 60 Table 2 \ Manova on Personal Information (by School) SCHOOL (n=20) 1 SCHOOL 2 (n=24) SCHOOL 3 (n=25) VARIABLE MEAN SD MEAN SD MEAN SD DF F SIG OF F AGE 11.950 514 11.485 .509 1 1 .480 .586 2 5 .664 .005* TLENGTH 11.950 510 10.000 3.336 10.960 1 .306 2 4 .536 .014* * ( p < 0 1 ) 64 65 B. TEST OF THE HYPOTHESIS T h e hypo thes is tes ted p red i c ted that there w o u l d be n o s igni f icant c h a n g e in s tuden ts ' at t i tudes after tak ing part in the cul tural p r o g r a m in t he visual arts. T h e resul ts o b t a i n e d o n the Semant i c Di f ferent ia l M e a s u r e clearly ind ica te that the nul l hypo thes is s h o u l d be re jec ted . A mult ivariate analysis of covar iance for r epea ted measures c o n d u c t e d o n the resul ts of the Semant i c Di f ferent ia l M e a s u r e i nd i ca ted a s igni f icant F va lue for the t rea tment ef fect [F(2) = 13.298,p<.01] in respec t t o s tuden ts ' at t i tudes t owa rds Indo -Canad ians . A o n e w a y analysis of var iance re f lec ted a s igni f icant d i f fe rence b e t w e e n S c h o o l 1 ( M = 5.655) and the con t ro l g r o u p ( M = 4.412),[F(2) = 7.153, p < . 0 1 ] . The d i f fe rence b e t w e e n S c h o o l 2 ( M = 5.796) and the con t ro l g r o u p was a lso f o u n d t o be s igni f icant . 66 Table 3 Semantic D i f f e r e n t i a l Measure VARIABLE SCHOOL 1 SCHOOL 2 SCHOOL 3 (n=20) (n-24) (n«25) b I G 0 F MEAN SD MEAN SO MEAN SO F ;F FRIEND PRETEST 6.010 .832 6.221 .515 6.008 .705 POSTTEST 6.274 .708 6.317 .599 6.116 .852 1.543 .221 CANADIANS PRETEST 6.060 1.105 5.938 1.228 5.692 1.220 POSTTEST 6.584 .745 6.396 .740 6.108 1.019 .105 .901 WHITE-CANADIANS PRETEST, 6.040 1.062 6.236 .741 5.644 .848 POSTTEST 6.340 .904 6.217 .915 5.988 .978 1.219 .302 FRENCH-CANADIANS PRETEST 5.725 .984 5.896 .795 5.336 1.053 POSTTEST 5.880 1.215 6.021 .872 5.372 1.249 .169 .845 JAPANESE-CANADIANS PRETEST 5.555 1.387 6.004 .750 5.748 .818 POSTTEST 5.405 1.583 6.003 .895 5.640 1.250 . 206 .814 GERMAN-CANADIANS PRETEST 5.165 1.784 6.067 .750 5.352 1.240 3.731 .029 POSTTEST 5.010 1.887 5.983 .909 4.948 1.757 INDO-CANADIANS PRETEST 4.305 1.662 4.862 1.377 4.816 1.314 POSTTEST 5.655 1.147 5.796 .1.030 4.412 1.821 13.298 .000* ENEMY PRETEST 2.020 1.303 2.183 1.408 2.372 .940 POSTTEST 1.845 1.320 2.313 1.611 1.820 1.024 2.461 .093 *p<.01 67 The results ob ta i ned o n the Soc ia l D is tance Scale are not as c lear-cut . A mult ivariate analysis of covar iance fo r repea ted measures o n the data ob ta i ned t h rough the Soc ia l D is tance Scale revealed a s igni f icant F value for the t reatment effect [F(2) = 8.329, p< .05] . A o n e w a y analysis of var iance c o n d u c t e d to clarify the results ind ica ted a signi f icant d i f fe rence b e t w e e n S c h o o l 2 ( M = 1.958) and the con t ro l g roup ( M = 4.8), [F(2) = 8.239, p<.05] o n at t i tudes towards Indo-Canad ians . W h i l e the results for S c h o o l 1 ind icate a pos i t ive change in s tuden ts ' at t i tudes towards the target g roups f r o m the pretest ( M = 5.8) to the pos t tes t ( M = 3 . 7 5 ) , the increase was not s igni f icant. Table 4 Socia l Distance Measure VARIABLE SCHOOL 1 SCHOOL 2 SCHOOL 3 (n«20 ) (n«24) (n«25 ) MEAN SD MEAN SO MEAN SD F SIG WHITE-CANADIANS PRETEST 1 500 1 235 1 625 1 408 1 880 1 590 POSTTEST 1 750 2 245 1 250 442 2 520 2 765 1 . 161 .319 FRENCH-CANADIANS PRETEST 2 600 2 600 2 292 1 706 4 680 3 237 POSTTEST 2 200 2 042 2 042 1 757 2 920 1 977 4 555 .014* JAPANESE-CANADIANS PRETEST 4 4O0 2 703 2 87S 1 752 3 280 2 407 POSTTEST 3 850 3 048 2 000 1 504 2 320 1 600 241 . 787 GERMAN-CANADIANS PRETEST 3 500 3 236 2 625 2 060 4 640 3 315 POSTTEST 4 300 3 672 2 000 1 504 3 960 3 272 2 230 . 1 16 INDO-CANADIANS PRETEST 5 800 3 502 4 625 2 902 4 7 20 3 208 POSTTEST 3 750 2 468 1 958 1 268 4 COO 3 228 7 068 .002* * (p<01) 68 C. CONTACT QUESTIONNAIRE The results of the con tac t ques t ionna i re revealed that the vast major i ty of the W h i t e C a n a d i a n and O t h e r Canad ian responden ts l ived in c lose prox imi ty to Indo-Canad ians . O f the responden t s , 7 3 . 3 % ind ica ted that I ndo -Canad ian famil ies l ived " in the n e i g h b o r h o o d " , and 6 2 . 2 % ind ica ted that at least o n e Indo-Canad ian family l ived o n thei r street o r in their apar tment b lock . A ch i -square revea led no signi f icant d i f fe rences a m o n g the three s c h o o l s in respect t o this data. A n s w e r s to the ques t i ons per ta in ing t o the a m o u n t of soc ia l in terac t ion b e t w e e n the ch i ld ren and thei r I ndo -Canad ian peers i nd i ca ted that a substant ia l n u m b e r of the s tudents d i d not take advantage of their l iv ing s i tuat ion; 5 3 . 3 % sta ted that they had no c l o s e Indo-Canad ian f r iends w h o m they met ou t of s c h o o l , and 3 5 % ind ica ted that they had never v is i ted an Indo -Canad ian f r iend 's h o m e . N o signi f icant d i f fe rences w e r e f o u n d a m o n g the s tudents in t he three s c h o o l s in respec t to thei r r esponses . A s igni f icant d i f fe rence was f o u n d in respect to the q u e s t i o n " H a v e y o u ever taken an Indo -Canad ian f r iend h o m e ? " ^(,6, N = 59) = 13 .173 , p<T.05. Fifty pe rcen t of the s tudents in S c h o o l 2 answered that they had had an Indo-Canad ian f r iend ove r f ive o r m o r e t imes, as o p p o s e d t o 15 .8% in S c h o o l 1 and 5.0% in S c h o o l 3. Table 5 Friends Taken Home School 1 (n=19) School 2 (n=20) School 3 (n=20) Total none 52 .6% 35 .0% 60.0% 49 . 2% 1-2 times 21 . 1% 15 .0% 25 .0% 20 . 3% 3-4 times 10.5% - 10.0% 6 . 8% 5 or more 15 . 8% 50.0% 5 .0% 23.7% chi-square = 13. 173 D.F.=6 SIG = .04 69 D. OTHER FINDINGS 1. Ratings of Ethnic Groups A n analysis of var iance o n the r e s p o n d e n t s ' rat ings of di f ferent racial-ethnic g roups acco rd i ng to their o w n e thn ic b a c k g r o u n d revea led a s igni f icant d i f ference b e t w e e n Indo -Canad ian s tuden ts ' eva lua t ion of their o w n e thn ic g r o u p ( M = 1.833) and that of W h i t e Canad ian s tudents ( M = 5.667) and O t h e r Canad ian s tudents ( M = 5.803), [F(2) = 8.976, p <.01] o n the Socia l D is tance Scale. Similar results w e r e f o u n d o n the Semant i c Di f ferent ia l M e a s u r e ; I ndo -Canad ian s tuden ts ra ted their o w n g r o u p m u c h m o r e favorably ( M = 6.267) than d i d W h i t e C a n a d i a n ( M = 4.325) or O t h e r C a n a d i a n ( M = 4.933) s tuden ts , [F(2) = 8 .680, p < . 0 1 ] . The W h i t e C a n a d i a n and the O t h e r Canad ian s tuden ts rated the ethnic-rac ia l c o n c e p t " W h i t e C a n a d i a n " mos t favorably and the c o n c e p t " I n d o - C a n a d i a n " least favorably o n b o t h measures . Indo -Canad ian s tudents rated their o w n g r o u p mos t favorably , f o l l o w e d c lose ly by " W h i t e C a n a d i a n " . Table 6 Ratings of Ethnic Groups (Soc ia l Distance - Pretest) WHITE-CANADIANS INOO-C ANAOIANS OTHER-CANA01ANS ETHNIC CONCEPT (n Mean = 48) SD (n Mean •=9) SO Mean 12) s o 0 . F F SIG WHITE-CANADIAN 1.512 1 .288 2 . 222 1 .564 1.9 17 1 .782 2 13065 . 329 FRENCH-CANADIAN 3.313 2 .837 2 .667 1 .937 3.4 17 2 .610 2 . 245 . 784 JAPANESE-CANADIAN 3.375 2.376 3,667 2.121 3 .667 2 .570 2 . 1 10 .896 GERMAN-CANADIAN 3.479 3 .067 3 .889 3.060 3.9 17 2 .875 2 . 144 .866 INDO-CANADIAN 5 .667 3.131 1 .333 SCO 5.083 2 .353 2 8 .976 ooo» *p<.01 Table 7 Ratings of Ethnic Groups fSemantlc D i f f e r e n t i a l - Pretest) WHITE-CANAOIANS INOO-CANAOIANS OTHER-CANADIANS (n=48) (n*9) (n=12) ETHNIC CONCEPT Mean SO Mean SD Mean SO O.F. f SIG CANADIAN 5. .885 1 . 326 5 922 .7 12 5 .850 .887 2 009 . 991 WHITE-CANADIAN ; 6 063 . 885 5 578 1 045 5 867 .868 2 1 . 178 .314 FRENCH-CANADIAN 5 .596 1 .045 5 , 689 . 732 5. 800 .831 2 . 220 .803 JAPANESE-CANADIAN 5 796 1 .070 5 733 .945 5 . 742 .820 2 .024 .997 GERMAN-CANADIAN 5 .421 1 .506 5 .711 .860 5 925 .725 2 .759 .472 INDO-CANADIAN 4. .325 1 .444 6 .267 .409 4 933 1 .074 2 8.680 .COO* •p<.01 71 E. DISCUSSION Prev ious research has ind ica ted that e m p l o y i n g curr icular strategies w h i c h f ocus at tent ion o n cross-cul tura l similar i t ies may p rov ide an ef fect ive means of i n d u c i n g pos i t i ve at t i tude change towards di f ferent target g roups . Salyachivin (1972; 1973) f o u n d that s h o w i n g Canad ian s tudents images w h i c h s t ressed similarit ies b e t w e e n C a n a d a and Thai land i m p r o v e d their a t t i tudes t o w a r d Tha i land. The results of Ijaz's s tudy (1980) ind icate that c o m p a r a b l e results can be ach ieved in respec t to s tuden ts ' at t i tudes towards Indo -Canad ians by hav ing s tudents part ic ipate in dance and ro le -p lay ing activit ies c e n t e r e d o n the d i scove ry of similar i t ies a m o n g di f ferent cu l tures. Stud ies also sugges t that the s tudy of the visual arts may p rov ide a g o o d basis for the d e v e l o p m e n t of p rog rams f o c u s s e d o n the d e v e l o p m e n t of i n te rg roup at t i tudes (And rews , 1984; H a m p t o n , 1979) . In the present invest iga t ion , the results suppo r t prev ious research. The t rea tment used enta i led bo th the v i ew ing of images s h o w i n g parallels b e t w e e n the cu l tu res of India and N o r t h Amer i ca , and the invest iga t ion and d i scuss ion of such paral le ls. It w o u l d appear that a s igni f icant pos i t i ve c h a n g e in s tudents ' at t i tudes t o o k p lace as a result of the t reatment . T h e exp lo ra t i on of cross-cu l tura l similarit ies t h r o u g h the visual arts w o u l d there fore appear to be a p r o m i s i n g means of i n d u c i n g pos i t i ve at t i tude c h a n g e towards target g roups . This s ta tement must be qua l i f ied , h o w e v e r , g i ven that the change in s tuden ts ' at t i tudes in S c h o o l 1 o n the Soc ia l D i s tance Scale was no t large e n o u g h t o ach ieve s ign i f i cance. This might be at t r ibuted to a variety of di f ferent causes. First, it may 72 be d u e t o the way in w h i c h the unit was i m p l e m e n t e d . W h i l e b o t h teachers we re e x p e r i e n c e d and enthusiast ic , Teacher 1 was not cons i s ten t w i th respec t to o rgan iza t iona l efforts. This no t on ly man i fes ted itself in respec t to fo rgo t ten s c h e d u l e s and audio-v isua l e q u i p m e n t , but in the preparat ion fo r and c o n d u c t i n g of act iv i t ies. It s o m e t i m e s appea red that Teacher 1 had not careful ly g o n e ove r the l e s s o n pr ior to its imp lemen ta t i on . She genera l ly read d i rect ly f r o m the text w h e n q u e s t i o n i n g the s tudents and occas iona l l y s e e m e d surpr ised by wha t she f o u n d wr i t ten there. The p rocess was there fo re s o m e w h a t haphazard as c o m p a r e d to the carefu l preparat ion demons t ra ted by Teache r 2 w h o invariably had c o p i o u s no tes and ideas and a s o m e w h a t mo re s p o n t a n e o u s q u e s t i o n i n g style. T e a c h e r 2 also had a m o r e di rect way of dea l ing w i th p r o b l e m a t i c c l ass room inc iden ts of a d iscr iminatory nature. W h e n the t w o s tuden ts l aughed and c o m m e n t e d o n the image of the e lder ly Indian man T e a c h e r 2 t o o k immed ia te ac t i on and m a d e sure the spec i f ics of the inc iden t we re d i s c u s s e d m o r e t h o r o u g h l y at a later t ime. Teacher 1 was m o r e apt t o i gno re such o c c u r e n c e s ; w h e n she d i d take ac t ion it was to make genera l s ta tements such as " B e q u i e t " rather than a t tempt ing to deal w i th the p r o b l e m in its full con tex t . Th i rd , the s tudents in S c h o o l 2 we re a u d i e n c e to a l ec tu re -pe r fo rmance g iven by a m e m b e r of the Indo-Canad ian c o m m u n i t y . W h i l e M s . D h i l l o n was or ig inal ly to have b e e n a gues t in b o t h s c h o o l s , c i r cums tances p reven ted her f r o m v is i t ing S c h o o l 1. The o b v i o u s p leasure the s tudents in S c h o o l 2 der i ved f r om her visit u n d o u b t e d l y had an impac t o n their fee l ings. 73 These variations in the implementation process and teacher behavior may account for the differences among the classes in respect to the results of the Social Distance Scale. One might also speculate on the effects of using intact classes. The environment in the two classrooms was quite different at the outset of the implementation process. It was readily apparent that the one Indo-Canadian student in School 1 was openly "picked on" by the other students, and their hostility often seemed almost reflexive in nature. While the four Indo-Canadian students in School 2 tended to be quiet, particularly the two girls, the researcher was never witness to any overt negative behavior towards them. This observed difference in the original classroom climate is supported to some degree by the results of the pretest. While the differences between the means of the two classes were not significant, the students in School 1 rated the ethnic concept "Indo-Canadian" considerably more negatively on both measures. Students in School 1 had a mean score of 5.8 on the Social Distance Scale as opposed to a mean of 4.6 in School 2, a high score indicating more negative evaluations. Students in School 1 also gave Indo-Canadians a lower rating than students in School 2 on the Semantic Differential Measure, with mean scores of 4.3 and 4.9 respectively, where a higher score indicates a more positive attitude. The results of the contact questionnaire also indicated that White Canadian and Other Canadian students in School 2 tended to interact more with their Indo-Canadian peers. VI. S U M M A R Y A N D C O N C L U S I O N S This s tudy was c o n d u c t e d in o rde r t o de te rm ine w h e t h e r a cul tural p rog ram in the visual arts w o u l d be ef fect ive in i n d u c i n g a pos i t ive change in s ixth g rade s tuden ts ' at t i tudes toward Indo -Canad ians . The t reatment was b a s e d o n p rev ious research w h i c h s u g g e s t e d that at t i tude c h a n g e c o u l d be gene ra ted by f o c u s s i n g s tudent a t tent ion o n cross-cu l tura l similar i t ies in bel iefs and pract ices as re f lec ted in the v isual arts. The pr imary area of interest was the c l o th i ng of India, I ndo -Canad ians , and mains t ream N o r t h Amer i cans . A nonequ iva len t con t ro l g roup d e s i g n was u s e d . Three intact c lasses in the Surrey S c h o o l Distr ic t par t ic ipated in the s tudy. T w o classes u n d e r w e n t the t reatment and o n e class was " u s e d as a con t ro l g r o u p . The p rog ram was i m p l e m e n t e d dai ly ove r a t h ree -week p e r i o d . The s tudents w e r e pre- and pos t t es ted o n a Soc ia l D is tance Scale and a Seman t i c Di f ferent ia l M e a s u r e in o rde r to de te rm ine if there was any c h a n g e in at t i tude t owa rd the target g roup as a result of the t rea tment . This was c o m p l e m e n t e d by observa t ion of c l ass room p r o c e e d i n g s t h r o u g h o u t the i m p l e m e n t a t i o n p rocess . The results ind icate that the p rog ram was ef fect ive in b r ing ing abou t a pos i t i ve change in the s tuden ts ' at t i tudes t owa rd the target g r o u p . G i v e n the apparen t success of the p r o g r a m , o n e migh t specu la te that c o m p a r a b l e resul ts c o u l d be ach ieved by o thers w o r k i n g in simi lar s i tuat ions. It is essent ia l that cer ta in key factors be c o n s i d e r e d , h o w e v e r , in a t tempt ing t o d e t e r m i n e the genera l izabi l i ty of the f ind ings. First, it is impor tan t to no te that the teachers w h o w e r e i nvo l ved v o l u n t e e r e d t o par t ic ipate in the s tudy. They the re fo re had a pr io r 74 75 interest in mul t icu l tura l ism and w e r e mot i va ted to have the unit s u c c e e d . This also resu l ted in their agree ing t o i m p l e m e n t the uni t o n a daily basis. S e c o n d , desp i te s o m e m ino r p r o b l e m s in S c h o o l 1, it is the invest igator 's o p i n i o n that the teachers w e r e very c o m p e t e n t . It was apparen t that b o t h en joyed teach ing , w e r e comfo r tab le in the c l a s s r o o m , and we re e x p e r i e n c e d ; Teache r 2 was in his twenty -n in th year as an instructor . Th i rd , the p r e s e n c e of the researcher u n d o u b t e d l y i n f l uenced the imp lemen ta t i on p rocess . The teachers w e r e not comfo r tab le wi th the material they w e r e to teach ; ne i ther had an art specia l ty , and b o t h we re qu ick t o attest to this fact o n a n u m b e r of o c c a s i o n s . The c o n c e p t s invo lved in learn ing abou t cu l ture t h rough art w e r e ent i rely n e w to t h e m . The researcher was there fo re ca l led u p o n to act as a faci l i tator and ins t ruc tor o n several o c c a s i o n s , and w o r k e d qu i te c lose ly w i th the teachers and s tudents t h r o u g h o u t the i m p l e m e n t a t i o n p e r i o d . The i m p l e m e n t a t i o n p rocess was thus bene f i t ed by the p resence of a specia l is t . The success of the unit may the re fo re be at t r ibuted at least in part to a s o m e w h a t un ique w o r k i n g s i tuat ion whe re i n there was o n g o i n g in terac t ion b e t w e e n a researcher-spec ia l is t and t w o c o m p e t e n t , mo t i va ted teachers w h o i m p l e m e n t e d the unit o n a dai ly basis. It is the invest igator 's bel ief that these factors w e r e impor tan t in attaining pos i t i ve results. There is no reason to be l ieve that similar results c o u l d not be gene ra ted by teachers w h o had b e e n fami l iar ized wi th the p rog ram th rough in-serv ices, h o w e v e r , and it is r e c o m m e n d e d that w o r k s h o p s of this nature take p lace . The c o n d u c t i n g o f in -serv ices is adv ised d u e to the relat ive nove l ty of s o m e of the ideas and m e t h o d s used in the unit. A s s ta ted, the t w o teachers in the present s tudy we re not c o m f o r t a b l e w i th s o m e of the material d u e t o a lack of b a c k g r o u n d k n o w l e d g e , and may no t have e v e n a t t emp ted t o i m p l e m e n t it w i t hou t 76 ou ts ide ass is tance. T h e rev is ion of the unit t o m a k e it m o r e spec i f i c m igh t also he lp r e m e d y this p r o b l e m . Bo th teachers felt they c o u l d have u s e d m o r e expl ic i t d i rec t ions , q u e s t i o n s , and examp les d e m o n s t r a t i n g the intent of the activi t ies. O f interest w o u l d be a s tudy d o c u m e n t i n g the reac t ions of s tuden ts w h o s e teachers had b e e n e x p o s e d on l y to in-serv ices c o n d u c t e d w i th rev ised mater ia ls and d id not rece ive daily he lp f r o m an ou ts ide sou rce . The work - to - ru le ac t ion taken dur ing the t ime of the p resen t invest igat ion m a d e it i m p o s s i b l e for the researcher t o w o r k w i th the teachers ou ts ide class hours and thus m o r e c l ose l y repl icate real ist ic t each ing c o n d i t i o n s . It w o u l d a lso be o f benef i t to c o n d u c t a s tudy wi th a m o r e r igorous research des ign us ing sub jec ts w h o we re bo th r a n d o m l y c h o s e n and r a n d o m l y ass igned to the exper imen ta l c o n d i t i o n s . The use of intact c lasses in the present invest igat ion further r educes the general izabi l i ty of the f ind ings and threatens the internal val id i ty of the expe r imen t . A m o r e con t ro l l ed e x p e r i m e n t is necessary in o rde r to d e v e l o p a p rog ram as i n d e p e n d e n t of c h a n c e c i r c u m s t a n c e as poss ib le . It w o u l d appea r , h o w e v e r , that the uni t itself is i n d e e d ef fect ive w h e n p roper l y i m p l e m e n t e d . This sugges ts that the exp lo ra t i on of cu l tures and cross-cu l tura l similar i t ies as re f l ec ted in the visual arts can aid in the d e v e l o p m e n t of m o r e pos i t ive e thn ic at t i tudes. Further wo rk b a s e d o n the results of this s tudy w o u l d no d o u b t be pro f i tab le . W h i l e the focus of the p resen t s tudy was o n Indo-Canad ians , the unit c o u l d be adap ted to cen te r o n o n e o r m o r e o t h e r e thn ic g r o u p s . Research e x a m i n i n g w h e t h e r a c o m p a r a b l e leve l of success c o u l d b e ach ieved w i th p rog rams dea l i ng w i t h o the r e thn ic g r o u p s w o u l d b e ex t reme ly use fu l . It w o u l d also 77 be of c o n s i d e r a b l e benef i t t o de te rm ine if s u c h p rograms c o u l d be success fu l l y i m p l e m e n t e d at d i f ferent grade levels. W h i l e the present s tudy is l imi ted in s c o p e , t he results are p r o m i s i n g and p rov ide a c lear ind ica t ion that the d e v e l o p m e n t of cur r icu la in the visual arts based o n an anti-racist pe rspec t i ve is a val id and wo r t hwh i l e pursui t . Efforts s h o u l d be d i rec ted toward this area b o t h in respect to the c o n d u c t i n g of fur ther research and the d i ssemina t i on of w o r k i n g cu r r i cu lum m o d e l s . The result c o u l d c o u l d con t r i bu te to the g r o w t h of a m o r e posi t ive mult icul tural env i r onmen t in ou r s c h o o l s . VII. REFERENCES Ada i r , D. and Rosens tock , J. (1976). Multiculturalism in the classroom: A survey of interracial attitudes in Ontario schools. Federal D e p a r t m e n t of Secretary of State, C i t i zensh ip Branch , C r o u p U n d e r s t a n d i n g and H u m a n Rights D iv i s ion . A n d r e w s , M . (1984) . A mul t icu l tura l art i m p l e m e n t a t i o n pro ject . Art Education, 36(5), 23-24 . T h e A S C D Mul t i cu l tu ra l Educa t ion C o m m i s s i o n (1977). Encou rag ing mul t icu l tura l e d u c a t i o n . In C A . Gran t (Ed.), Multicultural education: Commitments, issues and applications. W a s h i n g t o n , D . C : A s s o c i a t i o n for Superv i s ion and C u r r i c u l u m D e v e l o p m e n t , 1977. Berry, ]., Kal in , R., and Taylor , D. (1977). Multiculturalism and ethnic attitudes in Canada. O t t a w a : Supp ly and Serv ices. B ibby , R .W. and Postersk i , D . C . (1985). The emerging generation: An inside look at Canada's teenagers. T o r o n t o : Irwin Pub l i sh ing . Boga rdus , E.S. (1925). 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A n t h r o p o l o g i c a l and histor ical c o n c e p t i o n s of art cur r icu la . Art Education, 33(6), 6-9. Fil l ipoff, S.S. (1982). Draft report three of the working committee on race relations. V a n c o u v e r : V a n c o u v e r S c h o o l Dist r ic t N o . 39. Gr igsby , E. (1977). Art and ethnics. D u b u q u e , Iowa: W m . C . B r o w n C o . Pub l ishers . H a m p t o n , C . (1979). The H a y d e n H o u s e p r o g r a m : C o m m u n i t y i nvo l vemen t in the arts. School Arts, 79(2), 44 -47 . Har t ley, E. and Hart ley, R. (1952). Fundamentals of social psychology. N e w York : Knop f . 80 Henry , F. (1978). The dynamics of racism in Toronto: Research report. T o r o n t o : York Univers i ty . H o o d , B. (1979). Exploring likenesses and differences with film. O t t a w a : Na t iona l Film Board of C a n a d a . H o r n , M .J . (1968). The second skin: An interdisciplinary study of clothing. B o s t o n : H o u g h t o n Mi f f l in C o . Ijaz, M . A . (1982). Study on ethnic attitudes of elementary school children toward Blacks and East Indians. Repor t t o the S c a r b o r o u g h Board of Educa t i on , T o r o n t o . (ERIC D o c u m e n t R e p r o d u c t i o n Serv ice N o . ED 204448) Ijaz, M . A . and Ijaz, I.H. (1981). A cul tural p rogram for c h a n g i n g racial at t i tudes. History and Social Science Teacher, 17(1), 17-20. Ijaz, M . A . (1980). Ethnic attitudes of elementary school children toward Blacks and East Indians and the effect of a cultural program on these attitudes. U n p u b l i s h e d doc to ra l d isser ta t ion , Un ivers i ty of T o r o n t o . Kagan , H.E. (1952). Changing the attitude of Christian toward Jew: A psychological approach through religion. N e w York : C o l u m b i a Univ iers i ty Press. Kaiser , S .B. (1985). The social psychology of clothing and personal adornment. N e w York : M a c m i l l a n Pub l i sh ing C o . 81 Katz, P.A. (1976). A t t i tude change in ch i ld ren : C a n the tw ig b e s t ra ightened? In P.A. Katz (Ed.) Towards the elimination of racism. N e w York : P e r g a m o n Press, Inc., 213-237 . K e h o e , J. and H o o d , B. (1979). An evaluation of an anti-prejudice film program. U n p u b l i s h e d paper , Univers i ty of Brit ish C o l u m b i a . K e h o e , J. (1984). A handbook for enhancing the multicultural climate of the school. V a n c o u v e r : W e d g e . Les l ie , L.L., Lesl ie, J .W., and Penf ie ld , D .A. (1972) . The effects of a s tuden t - cen te red spec ia l cu r r i cu lum u p o n the racial a t t i tudes of s ixth graders . Journal of Experimental Education, 41, 63-67 . Li , P. (1979). Pre jud ice against As ians in a C a n a d i a n city. Canadian Ethnic Studies, 11(2), 70 ,77 . L ichter , J . H . , J o h n s o n , D . W . and Ryan, F.L. (1973). Use of p ic tures of mu l t ie thn ic in teract ion to change att i tudes of wh i t e e lementary s c h o o l s tuden ts towards Blacks. Psychological Reports, 33, (2), 367 -372 . L ichter , J .H . and J o h n s o n , D . W . (1969). C h a n g e s in at t i tudes t owa rds N e g r o e s of wh i te e lementa ry s c h o o l s tudents after use of mul t ie thn ic readers. Journal of Educational Psychology, 60, 148 -152 . L o e b , H . (1984). The miss ing d i m e n s i o n . In L o e b , H . , Sl ight, P. and Stanley, N . The visual arts in multicultural education. L o n d o n : Extramural D iv i s ion , S c h o o l of 82 Oriental and African Studies, University of London. McFee, J. and Degge, R. (1977). Art, culture and environment. Dubuque, Iowa: Kendall-Hunt Publishing. McNeil, J.D. (1960). Changes in ethnic reaction tendencies during high school. Journal of Educational Research, 53, 199-200. Morland, J.K. (1972). Racial attitudes in school children: From kindergarten through high school. U.S. Department of Health, Education and Welfare, Office of Education. Osgood, C.E., Suci, j. and Tannenbaum (1957). The measurement of meaning. Urbana: University of Illinois Press. Proshansky, H. (1966). The development of intergroup attitudes. In L.W. Hoffman and M.L. Hoffman (Eds.) Review of child development research. Volume 2. New York: Russel Sage Foundation. Robinson, J.P., RuskJ.C, and Head, K.B. (1972). Measures of political attitudes. Ann Arbor: Center for Political Studies. Roe, M. (1982). Multiculturalism, racism and the classroom: A CEA report. Toronto: Canadian Education Association. Ruiz, A.J. (1982). Modifying racial attitudes of second graders in a multicultural setting using a curriculum approach. (Practicum Report) Florida: Nova 83 Univers i ty . (ERIC D o c u m e n t R e p r o d u c t i o n Serv ice N o . ED 248991) Salyachiv in, S. (1972). Change in international understanding as a function of perceived similarity, conceptual level, and primacy effect. U n p u b l i s h e d doc to ra l d isser ta t ion, Univers i ty of T o r o n t o . Spec ia l C o m m i t t e e o n V is ib le M ino r i t i es in C a n a d i a n Soc ie ty (1984). Equality Now! O t t a w a : Q u e e n ' s Printer of C a n a d a . S u e d f e l d , P. (1971). M o d e l s of at t i tude change : Theor ies that pass in the n ight . In P. Sued fe l d (Ed.) Attitude change: The competing views. N e w York : A l d i n e - A t h e r t o n Inc., 1-63. Taylor , A . (1975). The cul tural r oo t s of art e d u c a t i o n : A repor t and s o m e m o d e l s . Art Education, 28(5), 8-13. Tr iandis, H . C . (1971). Attitude and attitude change. N e w York : John W i l ey & S o n s , Inc. T rubow i t z , J. (1969). Changing the racial attitudes of children N e w York : F.A. Praeger , Publ ishers . V a n c o u v e r S c h o o l Board (1982). Guidelines for imlementation of the VSB race relations policy. V a n c o u v e r : V S B C o m m u n i c a t i o n Serv ices. Ves ta , F.J. and Dyck , W . (1966). C h i l d r e n ' s rat ing o n the semant i c di f ferent ia l . Educational and Psychological Measurement, 26, 605-616 . 84 W a l s h , J.E. (1979). Humanistic culture learning. East -West Cen te r : Univers i ty of Hawa i i Press. VIII. APPENDIX ONE Socia l D is tance Scale 85 86 Social Distance Scale Directions: Below are the names of some groups of people who live in Canada. There are nine sentences to answer about each group of people. When you answer the sentences about each of these groups, think of the people as a whole, not the best or the worst ones you have known. The French Canadians Circle one Yes No Yes No Yes No Yes No Yes No Yes No Yes No 1. I would let them visit our country. 2. I would let them live in our country. 3. I would let them go to my school. 4. I would let them live in my neighborhood. 5. I would let them live next door to me. 6. I would let them play at my house. 7. I would let them come to a party at my house. 87 8. I w o u l d let t hem be my Yes N o best f r iends. 9. I w o u l d be w i l l ing to Yes N o marry o n e of t hem w h e n I g r o w up. N o t e : The focus of the measure was d i s g u i s e d by hav ing the s tudents evaluate the f o l l o w i n g ethnic-racia l c o n c e p t s : French Canad ians , Indian Canad ians ( f rom India), W h i t e Canad ians , Japanese Canad ians , and G e r m a n Canad ians . IX. APPENDIX TWO Semant i c Dif ferent ial M e a s u r e 88 89 Semant i c Di f ferent ia l M e a s u r e D i rec t ions : The pu rpose of this ques t ionna i re is to f ind ou t h o w s tudents fee l about certain w o r d s . O n each of the f o l l ow ing pages y o u wi l l f ind a d i f ferent w o r d and a set of adject ives undernea th it. For e x a m p l e , the w o r d at the t o p of the page might be " f l o w e r " . If y o u feel that the w o r d is very c lose ly re la ted t o o n e of the t w o pairs of adject ives f o u n d o n each l ine, p lace an 'x ' c l o s e t o the adject ive as fo l l ows : beaut i fu l )( : : : : : : ugly beaut i fu l : : : : : : ^ ugly If y o u feel that the w o r d is qu i te c lose ly related to o n e of the t w o pairs of adject ives f o u n d o n each l ine, p lace you r ' x ' as fo l l ows : beaut i fu l : 3( : : : : : u § ' y beaut i fu l : : : : : X : ugly If y o u feel that this w o r d is on ly sl ight ly re lated to o n e of the pairs of adject ives f o u n d o n each l ine, p lace y o u ' x ' as fo l l ows : beaut i fu l : :_X_: : : : u g ' y beaut i fu l : : :_• : )( : : ugly If y o u feel that this w o r d is n o c l o s e r to o n e adject ive than the o ther , o r if the adject ives are unre la ted to the w o r d , p lace the ' x ' in the m i d d l e s p a c e , as fo l l ows : 90 beaut i fu l : : : : :  N o t e : In o rde r to d isgu ise the f ocus of the measure , the f o l l o w i n g c o n c e p t s w e r e eva lua ted : Fr iend, French Canad ians , Indian Canad ians ( f rom India), W h i t e Canad ians , G e r m a n Canad ians , Japanese Canad ians , Enemy, Canad ians . X . A P P E N D I X T H R E E C o n t a c t Q u e s t i o n n a i r e 91 92 C o n t a c t Q u e s t i o n n a i r e 1. A re there any Indian fami l ies ( f rom India) in you r n e i g h b o r h o o d ? a) Yes b) N o c) D o n ' t k n o w 2. H o w many such famil ies live o n you r street o r in your apar tment bu i ld ing? a) N o n e b) 1 to 3 famil ies c) 4 to 10 fami l ies d) M o r e than 10 3. H o w far away d o e s the nearest Indian fami ly live? a) N e x t d o o r b) O n the street c) O n e b lock away d) 2-4 b locks away e) In the same bu i ld ing f) O t h e r (speci fy) g) D o n ' t k n o w 4. Have y o u ever taken an Indian f r iend h o m e ? a) N o b) Yes : 1 to 2 t imes c) Yes: 3 to 4 times d) Yes: 5 times or more 5. Have you ever visited the home of an a) No b) Yes: 1 to 2 times c) Yes: 3 to 4 times d) Yes: 5 times or more 6. Do you have any close friends whom are Indian? a) No, not a really close friend b) Yes, but not here c) Yes, one of two d) Yes, three or more 93 Indian friend? you meet quite often outside school who APPENDIX FOUR The Un i t 94 96 InwducWn I. Art and Culture The purpose of this unit is to use the medium of the • visual i n s , or, more specifically, clothing and textiles, to help students begin to explore the symbols, values, and purposes embodied in the artifacts of both the mainstream Canadian culture and that ol one of Canada's ethnic minorities the Indo-Canadians The overriding goal is to enhance interethnic and interpersonal understanding and appreciation through art education The visual arts are an integral pari ol culture. Art may serve as a means ol communication through which cultural ideas and values may be transmitted and taught, lor it is through art that people express their deep-structure cultural values and cognitive patterns. Chalmers (1974) states that "art, along with its intrinsic aspect. has a function in transmitting, sustaining, and changing culture as well as in decorating and enhancing the environment"(p.21). The study of the social dimension of the an of a culture or subculture can thus provide numerous learning opponunities for the development ol cultural and iniercultural understanding and appreciation The conception ol art used here is a broad, encompassing one; it includes not only the line arts but also such useful and decorative objects as furniture, clothing, textiles and toys. Art may be thought of as "all human-made things that are done purposefully with some attempt to enrich the message, or enhance the object or structure; to aflecl a qualitative and content awareness in the viewer" (r^cfee & Degge, 1977, p. 276). It is closely intermingled with everyday life in terms of objects which are used in the home, festivals. ceremonies and rituals, and as a means of self-expression "Art" is therefore viewed as "cultural artifact" The examination ol clothing and adornment represents a good example ol how art learning can be a vital part ol culture learning. What a person wears, how, and why, provides us with valuable visual information about who and what they are. It can indicate their values, economic status, age, social role, sex role, occupation, and. in some instances, their cultural and regional origins. Clothing is, in essence, a "significant non-verbal symbol which communicates and defines certain aspects of personality. role status and situation" (Horn. 1968, p. 121) The study ol dress is also well-suited to cross-cultural comparison. Not only does il play an important role in objectifying the Interrelationship among nature. sell. and sociocultural environment. but it i s also an obvious outward symbol that is easily discerned Its value as a tool lor studying different cultures is lurthet increased due to the lad that the concept of adornment is a universality and therefore provides a basis lor comparison among groups. It can indicate the degree of intercultural contact among groups as well (Kaiser. 1 9 8 5 ) . ,The study of clothing can therefore serve as a vehicle (or the achievement of greater understanding ol a culture's environmental resources, technical developments, moral attitudes, and standards for judging what is aesthetically pleasing, it is. in essence, a means by which students can be helped to discover more about themselves. their culture. and the social and material Hie 'of others II. How to Implement the Unit A. Guiding Principles As stated earlier, the overriding goal o( the unit is to increase interelhnic understanding and appreciation. In order to achieve this goal, it is critical that certain principles be kept in mind during the implementation process. Among the most important o( these is that emphasis be placed on similarities among cultures rather than on the exotic the bizarre, and the different it is also important that the positive achievements of ethnic minorities and cultural groups be emphasized rather than hardship. persecutions, and poverty. Finally. information should be presented from an insider's point of view, with an emphasis on a "we" rather than a "they" perspective (Kehoe, 1 9 8 4 ) . The unit is designed to help facilitate the application and development of these principles. The activities and visuals have been carefully selected so that similarities among the groups under study are brought to the fore, and the target culture of the Indo-Canadians is presented In a; positive light. Where cultural differences do emerge it is important to create an awareness that they are essentially different ways of expressing common human values B. S c o p e . S e q u e n c e a n d S u g g e s t i o n s The l essons w h i c h are o u t l i n e d i n - i e have b e e n o r g a n i z e d in a s e q u e n t i a l l ash ,on l ead ing from simple 1 0 m o r e comple* ideas and activities. T h e y have a lso b e e n d e s i g n e d 1 0 lit into a four to f i ve -week t ime Irame d e p e n d i n g on h o w much t ime is spent o n an m the classroom. M a n y of the activities could potentially be extended and enriched, however. This could be done in a n u m b e r of different ways The most important way would be to Involve members of the Indo-Canadian community, either through the lending or contribution of resources, or through actual class visits. This would be especially relevant In respect to Activities II and IV. Many women would be happy to . lend textile pieces or garments, or even demonstrate how they are worn. The activities could also be extended to include more cultures and subcultures. Students could become involved in researching the clothing of other ethnic groups Folk dance groups often have traditional costumes c can lead you to appropriate con tac t s m the community The idea of the activity could also be furthered by looking at other art lorms or extending both the research and the production aspects of the activities. Students may want to more fully investigate a culture and how it relates to certain art forms. They may also wish to devote more time to the actual making of products. III. Course Coals Upon completion of the unit students will be able to: - Recognize art as a carrier of culture - Recognize that cultural and personal values are expressed through clothing and textiles - Recognize different functions of clothing Recognize both cross-cultural similarities and differences In values as reflected In clothing and textiles Recognize the importance of intercultural Influence and its contribution to culture change Recognize some cultural symbols and their meanings Activities ACTIVITY I The "Reading" ol an Artifact Introduction: We can learn a great deal about ourselves and others through visual as well as written information. An important first step in helping students to recognize the Interrelationship behveen art and culture Is to develop activities which allow them to employ the skills necessary in "reading" an artifact. It is through looking at artifacts that we may learn about a culture's "mentifacts". i.e.. the ideals and values of the culture Purpose: To help students recognize and describe what cultural values and information may be expressed, in objects with which they are familiar. Procedure: • Ask the students if they can define "culture". - "Brainstorm" with the students as to how it might be defined and about the different' ways in which we can learn about culture. Suggested Questions: What are some of the' ways we learn abouf culture? Can we learn about different cultures in ways other than reading about them? What if we wan! to tell someone else about our culture but we can't talk or write to them? How do archeologists learn about a culture11 - Divide the class into small groups and give each group a cardboard box. Inform the students that in twenty minutes a visitor from another country will pick up the boxes which by then must be filled by the pupils. The visitor will then take the boxes to her country to use in schools with pupils of the same age; these students will be trying to understand what life in a Canadian classroom in the 1980's is like. Any written information will not be of any use as the other students can't read English or any of the second languages students might know. Conclusion: Have each of the groups present the contents of their box. Different items may then be compared and contrasted (Changing Traditions. 1984). Suggested questions: What can we learn through examining artifacts;1 What picture does each box give of the life of a Canadian grade six student? Whyf ACTIVITY II: Cultural Symbols Introduction: People have always used symbols as a fundamental means of interpreting and codifying knowledge and experience. Graphic patterns and configurations can convey complicated ideas and information about both the outer, real world and a person's inner subjective world. The study of visual symbols can thus tell us a great deal about different cultures and people. India is rich in symbols. Many of them are taken from nature and have a religious meaning. Birds and animals are very popular. Floral and geometric symbols are also important. elephant - is known for his courage and usefulness In war. One of the Hindu gods, Canesh, has an elephant head. He Is the god of wisdom and Is worshipped for averting all obstacles. lion - is a symbol of power and courage. The lion may also stand for royalty. hone • is a symbol of creativity and is full o< secret power. bull - Is a symbol of plenty and fertility. peacock • is a symbol of royalty and virtuous strength. The peacock has also been known as a herald of spring and rainy seasons. It is India's national symbol. parrot - is a symbol of love fish - Is a symbol of fertility and prosperity. All the prominent gods and godesses of the Hindu religion have bird* and anlmali ai their mounts. lotus flower - is a symbol of purity and g o o d n e s s . tree • is protection. a symbol of life. growth. and spiral. . is a symbol of prosperity and growth. circle - is a symbol of the sun, the center of all life. It also symbolizes energy and eternity. Color is also important. Dark colors are usually believed to have negative powers a n d lighter colors positive powers. 5^ Black stands for anger and is generally an unlucky color. It is often used in the magical treatment of certain diseases and ailments, however. Red Is a lucky and desirable color. • A bride Is clothed In red robes. - A letter carrying happy news Is spotted in red. . The family priest places a. red "tlka" on the foreheads of his patrons to give them prosperity. Yellow is also lucky and positive. - Yellow is the color of spring. - Yellow Is the color of divinity. . A child is dressed in yellow robes on his name-day. 107 India is famous lor its beautilul textiles. The textile industry is one of the largest industries in the country. While machine-made fabrics are becoming more prevalent, craftspeople continue to perpetuate more traditional means of textile production and decoration. Symbols are often used in Indian textiles. One way in which symbols are incorporated into the cloth is through hand-printing. Direct printing is practiced all over India where a bleached cotton or silk fabric is printed with the help ol wooden blocks If the background is to be of a light color, the doth is dyed after printing has been completed. Purpose: To help students recognize the function ol symbols. Materials: • "Textile" slides "Craftspeople" slides textile and craft items from India (il possible) paper and colored pencils washed and ironed cotton fabric acrylic paint, styrofoam trays, newspaper Procedure: Day 1 - Ask the students to try and think of as many visual symbols as they can, ie., the heart, the cross, the star, etc. A quick "symbol-hunt" around the school or even the classroom can provide students with ideas. Follow this with a discussion of, symbols. Suggested questions: Why do we use symbols? Where do we see symbols? What do they stand for? How can color be used as ' a symbol? • Show the "Textile" slides. Initiate a discussion of the symbols in the textiles and how they, are used to form patterns. Suggested questions: What might the images in the textiles mean? What do they tell us about the people who made them? Do we use symbols in similar ways? How are the symbols used to create a pattern? What happens when we repeat shapes? How is color used? - This might be loilowed by giving the students copies of the symbols information Have the students try and think of comparable symbols in their own and other cultures. • If possible, students could examine actual textile and craft items from India. These could be discussed in the same manner as the slides. • Consider what makes a gopd visual symbol. If it is to have a clear message it should be simple, eyecatching, easy tp duplicate, etc. - Have the students design their own personal symbol which says something about their personality, goals, lifestyle hobbies, and so oh. Sketches can be made with colored pencils on paper Day 2 Show the students the "Craftspeople" slides. Involve them in a discussion of the images. Emphasize the parallels between the Indian and North American craftspeople. Suggested questions: Why do people decorate fabrics with pattern? What can we learn about people from what they make? Do we value something made 'by hand more than something made by machine? Why or why not? Demonstrate the concept- of hand-printing to the students. Also review how to create pattern. - Have the students reproduce their symbols in styrofoam, the kind used for packing meal in the supermarkets. The styrofoam can be cut in shapes with scissors. and interior lines, circles, and dots can be made by pressing into the styroloam with a pencil. - Acrylic paint, which will not wash out, after it has dried, should be used for printing. The square of cloth should be placed on a thick pad of newspaper, which will help the stamp give a stronger impression. If desired, the cloth may be dipped into a dye solution when it is completely dry. Commercial dyes are available in the grocery store, and large gallon ice cream containers make good dye pots. After the students have created their own individual squares, they might work together on a group project to create a large piece of cloth in the same manner. This could be used as a banner in the school. Conclusion: The students might be asked to display their work. The work could then be discussed as to its relative success in both communicating its message and how the design contributed to the communication process. Suggested Questions: What does the symbol tell you about the person who made it? How did the student use color, line, etc. to communicate his or her message? ACTIVITY III: Clothing as Symbol Introduction: Clothing can tell us a great deal about both the Individual and the culture of which they are a member. What a person wears can give us Information about situations, conditions and events as well as stimulate us visually by the qualities of the design. Clothing can serve a variety of different functions: It can reflect Individualistic expressions - It can define social role and status - It can Indicate economic status • it can act as a political symbol • it can indicate religious affiliation - It can facilitate social rituals it can help reinforce beliefs, customs, and values The act ol dressing oneself can also be an aesthetic act which Is both individual and Is learned from others. Cultures and subcultures have a "language of personal adornment", the form of which depends on environmental resources, technical developments, and cultural standards for |udglng what Is fine and beautlfuKRoach & Eicher, 1979). P u r p o s e : T o help s t uden t s r e c o g n i z e s o m e o l f u n c t i o n s c l o t h i n g may serve in a cu l tu re Materials: - " C l o t h i n g as S y m b o l " s l ides - p a p e r and c o l o r e d penc i l s Procedure: R e v i e w the c o n c e p t o l s y m b o l i s m with the students. Suggested questions: What symbols do people wear that tell us something about them?(ie. wedding ring, cross, turban) What can clothing tell us about the people who wear it? Show the "Clothing as Symbol" slides. Ask the students to provide as much information as possible about the people in the slides through looking at their clothes. Emphasize the parallels in the uses of clothing between India and Canada. Suggested questions: Why are they dressed in a certain way? What cues does it give us about their personality? Their social role or status? The situation they are in? - Make a list on the chalkboard of the similar ways in which clothing is used across cultures (ie. to indicate economic status, social role, occupation, and so on). 113 18 - Select a few slides which contrast greatly and ask the students to consider how each of the design elements ie., color, line, shape, pattern, and texture, are used in the item. Suggested questions: How do they contribute to the effect of the clothing? What adjectives might you use to describe the effect? Ask each student to think up an imaginary human being. They should define the person's personality, their social status and role, and the situation they are in. Have the students design clothing which they feel is appropriate for that individual. This might be accompanied by a written explanation of the drawn work. Conclusion: The work could be displayed and discussed in terms of its success in communicating the intended ideas and how the design of the clothing helped to convey the ideas. 114 19. ACTIVITY IV: Clothing of India Introduction: People in India wear many different types of clothing, depending on the area they live in and their religion. Most Indian clothing is loose and airy, however, as this makes it comfortable to wear in a hot climate. The majority o f clothing is made from cotton, which is grown in India, although wealthy people may wear clothes made of silk. Silk is thought to be more pure than other fabrics; a Hindu must wear silk when taking part in religious activities. In recent years, clothing made out ol artificial fibres such as nylon has begun to replace the natural fibre to some degree. Fabrics may be woven by hand or by machine. While western clothing is becoming increasingly popular, especially among the men, many traditional forms continue to exist. Women's clothing: - Hindu women generally wear the sari. It can be plain and simple or richly embroidered with silk or gold threads, depending on the wearer's economic circumstances and the situation. Some saris are printed with brightly-colored patterns. All colors are used exept (or black which Is rarely worn due to the belief that : il Is a color of ill omen. Brides usually wear red saris, while widows wear white as a symbol of mourning. Changes in fashion are also indicated by color, pattern, border prints, and special decorations such as bows. The cloth for the sari Is usually 1 meter wide and between 4 and 6 meters long. A "choll", or a small, tight-fitting blouse. Is usually worn with the sari. • Mu6llm and Sikh women sometimes wear saris, but more often they wear trousers with a long tunic overtop. The slacks are called a "shalwar" and the tunic "kamlz" A scarf accompanies the ensemble; It Is called a "dupatta". It is sheer fabric and Is often worn in a gentle " V over the shoulders or draped over the he'ad. Sikh women/use the scarf as a head-covering when visiting the temple. The fabric chosen for the "shalwar-kamiz" depends on the wealth and social position of the owner. - Another popular variation is to wear a three-piece outfit consisting of a choli (blouse), dupatta (sari), and skirt (ghaghara). This Is generally worn by women In western 'India. Men's clothing: - Indian men generally wear loose, comfortable trousers similar to western styles with a thin cotton shirt or "kurta". Men from southern regions may wear a "lungl" or a square ol colored cloth which Is wrapped around the waist. Those from the north may wear a "dhoti", a piece of cloth which Is wrapped around the waist and between the legs to make a loose baggy garment. • Formal or ceremonial clothes may consist of •n "achkan" or "sherwanr, a long coat reaching to the knees, with a white cotton pyjama-llke garment. - In the cities, most upper class men wear western-type clothing. - Turbans (pagri) are also worn in many parts of India. The turban generally consists of a long strip of cloth which Is wound around the head In different ways. It serves to protect the head from the sun, to catch perspiration, and may Indicate regional origin or caste. For Sikh men it is a religious duty to wear the turban. It is traditionally believed that hair should not be cut as it is a gilt of Cod. In order to keep "Kesha"(uncut hair) neat and clean, it is necessary to wear a turban, usually made of cotton The color of the turban also has different meanings - Deep blue is worn to remind the wearer that a Sikh's mind should be as broad as the sky is blue; no thoughts of prejudice should be entertained. • White is a saintly color and represents spiritual knowledge. It is also the color of peace and is worn by members of the community who have truly devoted their lives to Cod. - Black is worn to indicate that the wearer is open to Spiritual knowledge and the lessons of life. It may also signify unhapiness and protest against injustice. Other colors may be worn for fashion purposes, ie., to compliment the other colors worn (Bentley, 1986). Purpose To help students recognize both cross-cultural similarities and differences in practices and values as reflected in clothing. Materials: - "Clothing of India" slides; these should be supplemented by slides of India in the "Clothing as Symbol" section. - pencils and paper - clothing items from India (if possible) Procedure: - Show the "Clothing of India" slides. Involve the students in a discussion of what can be learned from the clothing worn by the individuals. Suggested questions: Who might wear this clothing? How do you think a person might feel wearing this clothing? What does the clothing tell you about the person? Their values? The culture? The environment? What might the color mean? The symbols? How are design elements used? What effect do they have? Why is some clothing more western? • C o over the clothing information with the students. Have them try and think of how certain colors, fabrics and designs are used in the mainstream Canadian culture to reflect special days. economic and social status, and so on. If possible, this could be supplemented by and examination of actual clothing items of Indian origin. A guest speaker would be ideal. • Pairs ol students might then go on a fact-finding mission about a certain aspect of the country ol India and its people. These might include the following: . government . international relations . physical environment role ol women . role ol children religion city and village life . festivals - After completing their investigation, students could report their findings to the rest of the class. Major points of interest could be listed on the chalkboard or a large sheet of paper. Conclusion: Involve the students in a discussion of how the information might be reflected in the way people dress. Have them consider similar ways in which the clothing of Canadians is influenced by the social -and physical environment ACTIVITY V: The Designing ol a Culture Purpose: To help students recognize art as a carrier of culture. Materials: - large sheets of cardboard; these may be obtained from shipping companies - boxes used for mattresses would be Ideal • paper and colored pencils - paint, -large felt markers, etc. - large sheets ol white and colored paper Procedure: Day 1 - Review the concepts students have learned in previous lessons, le., the concept of symbolism and how symbols are achieved, the concept of clothing as symbol, etc. - Divide the class Into two or tour groups. - Ask each of the groups to make up an imaginary cultural group. Questions which they might consider might Include: What is the physical environment like' (climate, landscape) When does the cultural .exist' (consider the level of technology) What do the people dof What are their beliefs and valuesf All relevant information should be written down, but kept secret from the other group(s). 121 26. - After deciding on the parameters of the culture, the students can choose a member of that culture whose clothing they wish to represent. Here they should consider personality, social role and status, situation, and how the design a n d color of the clothing can create the effect they wish to achieve. The g r o u p m a y w i s h to further define the circumstances by choosing a theme, ie., a wedding, a festival, and so on. Students c a n work In pairs so they may discuss their Ideas and finish their task more quickly. Have the students make up sketches of their person. Days 2 and 3 - Have students '. construct a life-size form from the cardboard; this can easily be done by having ones student In each pair He down on the cardboard and the other tracing around him or her. When cutting out the form It is Important that a base of at least six Inches Is left at the bottom on which the figure "stands". The figures can then be made to stand up by fitting another strip of cardboard Into the middle of the base at a 90 angle. . If the cardboard Is quite thin it may be reinforced by glueing another strip onto the form's "back". Students may also wish to pose their individuals differently. - Following their initial designs, the students can now proceed to "dress" the figures with clothing constructed from paper and other avallalble resources such as scraps of material. Rather than glueing these on, they might simply be tacked on with small staples or scotch tape. C o n c l u s i o n H a v e the s tuden t s d i sp lay their o w n w o r k they m igh t c h o o s e to c rea te di f ferent e n v i r o n m e n t s or s i tua t ions w i t h thei r f igures . D i s c u s s the s u c c e s s of the d i f ferent g r o u p s i n a c h i e v i n g the e l l e c t w h i c h they d e s i r e d l i K I S S H I A l> A S H M I I I I ' K I N t I ••.II' |-.0.„ If>t <<•' " V v «• y ' " ' « " ACTIVITY VI; Culture Contacl rir\d Culture Change Introduction: "Acculturation" occurs when individuals or groups of individuals come into contact with people from another culture or subculture. In the present day, such contact is becoming more frequent due to advances In communication and transportation. Adoption and adaptation begin to take place with the blending together of cultural elements. Cultural patterns tend to be adopted in a certain way: - Technical patterns are usually the first to be adopted, especially if they are perceived to be more "advanced" than those in common use. - Moral patterns are usually among the last to be adopted since they are more closely linked to important mentifacts such as religious values. - Aesthetic and ritualistic patterns may also be blended with some reluctance. Traditional costumes are often retained lor special occasions. Variables which an individual might consider belore adopting another clothing style might include: The relative advantage of the new style over existing styles. • Comparability, or how similar and" congruent the new style is to one's beliefs and value system, and individual and cultural needs. - The complexity of the new product, or how difficult It is to understand or use. - The "trialability" ol the clothing - whether or not it can be tried on a small-scale basis (Kaiser, 1985). The length ol time an individual has spent with a different group may also influence their willingness to change. Almost all Indo-Canadian men have adopted western dress. It is only occassionally that they may wear a looser shirt such as those worn In India in the home environment. The turban is still worn by many Sikhs, however This may be due to the long tradition o( the turban being worn as a symbol ol religious convictions. Many women have adopted western dress as well. This is especially true of third and fourth generation Indo-Canadians. Older women generally have accepted elements of western dress which help them retain a high degree of modesty, however. The sari Is rarely worn except on special occasions. The pant-suit or shalwar-kamlz Is somewhat more popular as It is easier to wear however among the younger generations its use is often restricted to special situations such as temple visits or weddings. • Decide on a "host" culture and an "immigrant" culture. Have students with figures having fairly similar characteristics pair up "across cultures". Have the students design variations on the figures' clothing which might occur if the two cultures came in contact. This might be accompanied by a written explanation of the changes which they make Conclusion: Have the students decide on how to display their work. This might be followed with a discussion of how the design elements were used to convey the influence of new cultural contacts. REFERENCES Bentley, S. (1986). Religions of our neighbors: Sikhism (Vol. 4). Coqultlam: Bentley West Publishing Co. Chalmers, F.C. (1984). A cultural foundation (or education in the arts. Art Education, 27(1), 20-25. Changing traditions. An Exhibition exploring wider cultural references in teaching the visual arts and other subjects (1984). (Report No. SO 015 894). Birmingham: City of Birmingham Polytechnic. (Eric Document Reproduction Service No. ED 249 131). Horn, M.J. (1968). The second skin: An interdisciplinary study of clothing. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co. Kaiser, S.B. (1985) The social psychology of clothing and personal adornment. New York: Macmillan Publishing Co. Kehoe, |. (1984). A handbook (or enhancing the multicultural climate of the school. Vancouver: Wedge. McFee, |. and Degge, R. (1977). Art, culture and environment. Dubuque, Iowa: Kendall Hunt Publishing Co. Roach, M.E. and Eicher, |.B. (1979). The language of personal adornment. In ). Cordell and R. Schwarz (Eds.), The fabric of culture. The Hague: Mouton Publishers, pp. 7-23. 127 BIBLIOGRAPHY Aryan, K.C. (1981). Basis of decorative element in Indian art. New Delhi: Rekha Prashakan. Bentley, S. (1986). Sikhism. Coqultlam, B.C.: Bentley West Publishing Co. Bhavnanl, E. (1974). Folk and tribal designs of India. Bombay: DB. Taraporevala Sons & Co. Bhushan, J.B. (1958). The costumes and textiles of India. Bombay: D.B. Taraporevala Sons if C O . Dar, S.N. (1969). Costumes of India and Pakistan. Bombay; D B. Taraporevala Sons & Co. Dhamlja. |. (1970) Indian folk arts and crafts. New Delhi: National Book Trust. India. Fairservls, W.A. (1971). Costumes of the east. Riverside, Conn.: Chatham Press, Inc. Hacker, K.F. and Tumbull. K.J. (1982). Courtyard, bazaar, temple: Traditions of textile expression in India. Washington: University of Washington Press. Handa, D.C. (1975). Pahari folk art. Bombay: D.B. Taraporevala Sons & Co. Huyler, S. (1981). Folk art In India today. In B. Cray (Ed.) The arts of India. Ithaca, New York: Cornell University Press. Madryga, R. and Osborne. D. (1986). A sourcebook of India: A multicultural perspective. Vancouver: Wedge. Schuman, J.M. (1981). Art from many htnds: Multicultural art projects. Worcester, Mass.: Davis Publications. Inc. Swarup, S. (1957). The arts and crafts of India and Pakistan. Bombay: D.B. Taraporeval & Sons. V I S U A L S Visuals in the text were derived trom the lollowing sources Bhushan, J.B. (1958). The costumes and textiles ol India Bombay: D.8. Taraporevala t> Sons Co. Hacker, K.F. and Tumbull K..J. (1982). Courtyard bazaar, temple: Traditions of textile expression In India. Washington: University ol Washington Press. Sllversteln, J. (1981). Woven winds: The art of textiles in India. The Gallery Stratford: Stratford, Ontario. Smith, S. (1982). Drawing and sketching. London: Chartwell Books Inc. XII. APPENDIX FIVE Visuals 129 Figure 1. Royal Canadian Mounted Police in Dress Uniform Figure 3. Q u e e n El izabeth II and Pr ince Phi l ip 132 133 Figure 6. Hockey Mayers SLIDE REFERENCES 134 Figure 1.1 Figure 6. Hersee, P. (1985). Greater Vancouver: Touch of magic. Vancouver: Touch of Magic Publishing Co. Figure 5. Talyarkhan, H. (1975). India: The land and its people. Morristown: Macdonald Educational. 

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