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Art education and the educable mental retardate in the high school 1984

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ART EDUCATION AND THE . EDUCABLE MENTAL RETARDATE IN THE HIGH SCHOOL by JOSEPH DIETRICH SCHLACKL B.F.A., The Un i v e r s i t y of Manitoba, 1969 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN FARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS OF THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in THE FACULTY.OF GRADUATE STUDIES Department of V i s u a l and Performing Arts i n Education Faculty cf Education We accept t h i s thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA SEPTEMBER 1984 © J o s e p h D i e t r i c h Sch.lac'kl, 1984 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make i t freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It i s understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department oZ JS^fts/f/- & /e/ffo/fZv'Ate, /fa r£ **7 The University of British Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 Date ^ZT^^jiT. * ^ )E-6 (3/81) ABSTRACT This experimental study investigated the p o s s i b i l i t y of measuring p u p i l progress i n art a c t i v i t i e s undertaken by a regular c l a s s and a clas s of Educable Mentally Retarded students to determine the extent to which E.M.R.s might assimilate concepts and complete a c t i v i t i e s from an art programme designed for regular c l a s s e s . The underlying assumption explored was that i t may be that E.M.R. students do not achieve r e s u l t s comparable with students i n regular art c l a s s e s simply, because they do not have comparable programme content and qu a l i t y of i n s t r u c t i o n . Two c l a s s e s , one regular a r t Grade 10/11 combination c l a s s and an E.M.R. cl a s s were assigned treatment i d e n t i c a l i n nature and scope. The classes were a part of the regular grouping within a senior secondary school i n B r i t i s h Columbia. The treatment consisted of engaging i n f i f t e e n assignments delivered by the in v e s t i g a t o r over a period of s i x consecutive months. The f i r s t two and the l a s t two assignments served as a pre-test and post-test r e s p e c t i v e l y . A l l interim assignments and pre and post-tests provided materials for analysis arid comparison. Pre and post-test r e s u l t s provided within-group gains; interim assignments provided material f or informal between-group comparisons. Evaluation of a l l assignments was performed by three art educators employing an objective scoring procedure previously f a m i l i a r to each. I l l The evaluative instrument purported to assess the r e s u l t s of each assignment on seven c l e a r l y stated c r i t e r i a which normally form part of the f o c i of i n s t r u c t i o n i n a r t . Analysis of the data revealed that both the regular c l a s s and the E.M.R. cl a s s gained s i g n i f i c a n t l y according to pre - t e s t to post- test r e s u l t s . S i g n i f i c a n c e l e v e l s reached by the regular c l a s s on a l l seven categories were .001. S i g n i f i c a n c e l e v e l s reached by the E.M.R. class were .0C1 on f i v e c a t egories. On the two remaining categories the s i g n i f i c a n c e l e v e l s were ^01 and .004. On programme r e s u l t s ( i n t e r i m assignments) performance by E.M.R.s was comparable to that of the regular c l a s s on better than 60% of programme content. Findings indicated that there were s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s at the .05 l e v e l between groups on 28 out of 77 categories. However, on the remaining 49 categories there was no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e at the .05 l e v e l . The findings suggest that E.M.R. students can perform at a l e v e l comparable to that achieved by the regular c l a s s on most assigned art tasks. Special l i m i t e d art programmes do not o f f e r the only a l t e r n a t i v e f o r the education of the E.M.R. within the confines of the pu b l i c school and other p o s s i b i l i t i e s are worth exploring. i v TABLE OF CONTENTS i T i t l e Page Authorization i i Abstract i v Table of Contents v i i L i s t of Tables i i L i s t of Figures ix Acknowledgements .. CHAPTER ' '. . PAGE I DISCUSSION OF THE PROBLEM Introduction and background 1 Art Education and the E.M.R. 4 Rationale f o r the use of art a c t i v i t y i n E.M.R. programme 6 Areas of concern f o r t e s t i n g 7 The exclusion of Colour as an area of concern f o r t e s t i n g 11 Intent of the study 12 The study i n the general context of classroom a s s i m i l a t i o n 12 Research Design 14 Statement of the Problem 14 I d e n t i f i c a t i o n of the "Special C l a s s " in the study 15 Hypotheses 15 Procedures 16 Pr e - t e s t i n g / P o s t - t e s t i n g 16 General Limitations and Assumptions 17 V II ART EDUCATION AND THE CHILD: H i s t o r i c a l Beginnings 20 Current Status 24 Special Education i n B r i t i s h Columbia 26 Summary 28 III CONDUCT OF THE STUDY 29 Setting of the Study and Population Employed 29 Procedures 30 Summary of Experimental Procedures 31 IV COLLECTION OF DATA AND DESCRIPTION OF STATISTICAL PROCEDURES 33 The Evaluative Instrument 33 Instructions to Judges 35 Scoring Procedures for Student Art Works 36 Descri p t i o n of S t a t i s t i c a l Procedures Inter-judge r e l i a b i l i t y 39 S t a t i s t i c a l procedures for ana l y s i s of data 39 Acceptable Levels of S i g n i f i c a n c e for S t a t i s t i c a l Data 42 V ANALYSIS OF FINDINGS 43 Findings Concerning Differences between Pre- and Post-test scores for the two Treatment Groups 43 Discussion of Pre/Post-test r e s u l t s 51 Summary of Results Derived from the Hypothesis concerning Differences between the pre and post-test scores for the two treatment groups 52 v i Findings Concerning Differences i n Performance between the two test groups on programme scores Discussion of programme adjusted t tes t r e s u l t s VI . SUMMARY AND IMPLICATIONS OF THE STUDY Summary of procedures and major f i n d i n g s REFERENCES APPENDICES APPENDIX A (1) Art A c t i v i t i e s and Related time l i n e incorporated i n t h i s study for both te s t groups APPENDIX A (2) Summary of Presentations to both t e s t groups APPENDIX B Computer programme for Chi Square f o r TI 99/4A Computer (Inter-judge r e l i a b i l i t y ) APPENDIX C Computer Programme for t test (non-normal) for TI 99/ 4A computer APPENDIX D (1) Reproductions of a sampling of E.M.R. students' works APPENDIX D(2) Reproductions of a sampling of regular students' works APPENDIX E Supplement to Core Curriculum 1984, Special Education Art v i i • . LIST OF TABLES Table I Post-test (regular c l a s s ) value and r e l a t e d s i g n i f i c a n c e l e v e l on each of seven categories (Inter-judge R e l i a b i l i t y ) Table II Results on 7 Categories (Pre-test and Post-test) for Regular (REG) and Special (SPEC) groups 4C Table III s i g n i f i c a n c e l e v e l of t value, Pre-test vs Post-test 44 Table IV Results of analysis by adjusted t t e s t (a) Contour drawing, Value, Comp.#l 54 (b) Comp #2, Collage, Perspective 55 (c) N & P space, Photo Realism, Stained Glass Window . . . 56 (d) Mixed Media, Painting Series 57 PAGE 38 v i i i LIST OF FIGURES PAGE Figure 1 Judges' Score Card 34 Figure 2 PRE-TEST AND POST-TEST MEANS FOR REGULAR CLASS (A) 49 Figure 3 PRE-TEST AND POST-TEST MEANS FOR SPECIAL CLASS (B) 50 Figure 4 COMPARATIVE MEAN GAINS CONTOUR DRAWING 58 Figure 5 COMPARATIVE MEAN GAINS VALUE 59 Figure 6 COMPARATIVE MEAN GAINS COMPOSITION #1 60 Figure 7 COMPARATIVE MEAN GAINS COMPOSITION #2 61 Figure 8 COMPARATIVE MEAN GAINS COLLAGE 62 Figure 9 COMPARATIVE MEAN GAINS PERSPECTIVE 63 Figure 10 COMPARATIVE MEAN GAINS N & P SPACE 64 Figure i l COMPARATIVE MEAN GAINS PHOTO REALISM 65 Figure 12 COMPARATIVE MEAN GAINS STAINED GLASS WINDOW 66 Figure 13 COMPARATIVE MEAN GAINS MIXED MEDIA 67 Figure 14 COMPARATIVE MEAN GAINS PAINTING SERIES 68 ix ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I wish to express my appreciation to those friends and colleagues who have given me support during the development of t h i s t h e s i s . P a r t i c u l a r thanks go to Dr. Ron MacGregor, Dr. Graeme Chalmers and Dr. James Gray for t h e i r invaluable help and guidance during the w r i t i n g ;of t h i s work. My wife Janet, Kathy and Blake Atkins, Derek Squires, Ralph Turner, B i l l Maxon and Darral Clark also deserve recogn i t i o n for t h e i r i n t e r e s t , understanding and support. In addition Ralph Turner supplied considerable help with s t a t i s t i c a l and computer procedures used i n t h i s study. The students I have worked with deserve r e c o g n i t i o n , for without t h e i r cooperation, t h i s study could not have been e f f e c t e d . 1 CHAPTER I DISCUSSION OF THE PROBLEM Introduction and background When a c h i l d i s p r o f e s s i o n a l l y judged to be a t y p i c a l i t should not n e c e s s a r i l y follow that things the c h i l d needs to learn are uniquely and t o t a l l y d i f f e r e n t from what a l l c h i l d r e n have to learn. ( M i n i stry of Education, B.C., 1977) Within the p u b l i c school system there e x i s t s a group of students commonly r e f e r r e d to as the "Special Class". These students, usually low achievers, have continuously demonstrated t h e i r i n a b i l i t y to cope with the regular classroom environment in our public schools. This marks them as d i f f e r e n t and i t i s t h i s d i f f e r e n c e from the norm that has caused them to be placed i n the " s p e c i a l " category. The system's answer to t h i s problem of providing adequate education for such youth i n the Province of B r i t i s h Columbia was the implementation of a branch cf education known as "Special Education" (Department of Education, B r i t i s h Columbia. 1956). A l l regular subjects of the p u b l i c school system are permitted within the framework of t h i s branch. Among them i s art (Emlen, 1970). The needs of the a t y p i c a l i n our p u b l i c school system have caused much a c t i v i t y i n recent years. This a c t i v i t y has been both " p o l i t i c a l " and " c u r r i c u l a r " i n nature. For example associations for the mentally handicapped, comprised cf people 2 who for the most part are not educators, have become p o l i t i c a l l y v i s i b l e at school board and other public meetings for the purpose of having input on curriculum d e c i s i o n making where the mentally handicapped are concerned. The students that you have here now and those coming next year w i l l be experiencing adult l i f e i n just a few years. The school year should be a preparation for entering adult l i f e and accepting r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . (Derkach, 1983 , p . l ) Under the general heading of Administrative Support for the mentally handicapped i n the high school the suggestion i s made that: A person at the administrative l e v e l to focus on the needs of the students who are handicapped and to advocate for these students should be a person who r e a l l y understands and believes in i n t e g r a t i o n and normalization. (Derkach, 1983, p . l ) At the same time, schools charged with the education of the handicapped have received d i r e c t i v e s to "develop a c t i v i t i e s that are non-threatening and which contribute to the development of a p o s i t i v e self-concept" (B.C. M i n i s t r y of Ed., 1984) With the formation of the branch of S p e c i a l Education in Public Education as an answer to meet the needs of the a t y p i c a l , educators scrambled to design s p e c i a l programmes and put them into use. Art as an area of study was quickly assimilated into the "Special Curriculum", for the therapeutic value of art a c t i v i t y for s p e c i a l groups has long been recognized (Naumberg, 1 9 6 6 ; Ensher, 1 9 6 9 ; U h l i n , 1 9 7 3 ) . A rush to implement new curriculum 3 materials and programmes res u l t e d , with much of the curriculum r e l y i n g on "hands-on" p r o j e c t s . A c t i v i t y was the key, perceptual growth as r e l a t e d to a r t education was for the most part ignored or at best overlooked, despite evidence from some sources that perceptual growth i n any student can not be ignored when dealing with the education of that student. Learning the mechanics of how we see, which i s generally c a l l e d " p e r c e p t i o n " , has an influence on what we understand when we look. (Lanier, 1982, p.76) The mentally retarded student i s , before a l l , a student requiring education. Upon completion of schooling the mental retardate i s expected to f u l f i l l a r o l e as a useful and productive member of the community and society as a whole (Derkach, 1983). This i s evidenced through the guiding philosophy of most a s s o c i a t i o n s f o r the mental'ly' i vhandicapped. Integration and normalization are the hallmarks (Hunter, 1981). In t h i s respect the things the mental retardate needs to learn should not be d i f f e r e n t from what a l l students should learn. L i p - s e r v i c e has been given to the fac t that s p e c i a l students should learn the same things normal students should l e a r n . How- ever, i n p r a c t i c e t h i s tends not to be the case. " S p e c i a l " implies d i f f e r e n t from the norm, therefore the approach to c u r r i c u - lum planning and implementation has been d i f f e r e n t from the norm. Words l i k e non-ccmpetitive and non-threatening r a r e l y appear in conventional curriculum guides. However, when dealing 4 with curriculum planning for the handicapped, non-competitive and non-threatening a r t a c t i v i t i e s are to be the key for handicapped student p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the art room (B.C. M i n i s t r y of Ed., 1984). Within the context of t h i s study, E.M.R. are defined as students who as adults would be functioning mentally at the l e v e l s of upper elementary-aged c h i l d r e n (James, 1983). Art Education and the E.M.R. A common stated aim for a r t i n the pub l i c schools when dealing with the a t y p i c a l student i s : To f o s t e r good mental health through c r e a t i v e a c t i v i t i e s which rr.ay lessen fe a r s , pressures, and tensions and promote success, assurance, confidence and a better self-concept. (B. C. Dept. Ed., 1965,p.78) Although statements l i k e these include reference to i n t e l l e c t u a l growth, when t r a n s l a t e d into programmes i n art they tend to favour therapeutic ends. Art education f o r the slow learner, as for the normal c h i l d , i s pri m a r i l y to a s s i s t i n i n t e l l e c t u a l , emotional and s o c i a l growth • through s e l f - e x p r e s s i o n and the development of permanent i n t e r e s t s . (B.C. Dept. Ed., 1965,p.77) The product of art a c t i v i t y would seem to be eminently suited to objective assessment f o r developmental d e f i c i t s as well as the discovery of emotional d i f f i c u l t i e s (Rubin, 1981). Art a c t i v i t y as therapy i s well rooted i n educational ideology (Ensher, 1969; Sperno & Weiner, 1973; Naumberg, 1966 Uhlin, 1973). I t s very nature assures some measure of success for a l l who attempt such a c t i v i t y . However, what goals such a c t i v i t y are to achieve i n a pub l i c school s i t u a t i o n are less than c l e a r . 5 I f t he p r i m a r y g o a l o f e d u c a t i o n i s the development of t h e i n d i v i d u a l ' s f u l l p o t e n t i a l ( V i c t o r i a , 1977) a r t t h e r a p y f a l l s f a r s h o r t o f t h i s g o a l , s i n c e i t me r e l y c o n d i t i o n s the l e a r n e r t o w a r d a s t a t e o f r e a d i n e s s f o r l e a r n i n g . L e v i c ( 1 9 6 7 ) s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e a r t i n s t r u c t o r seeks t o i m p a r t t h e b a s i c p r i n c i p l e s o f d e s i g n , whereas t h e t h e r a p i s t s h o u l d be e q u i p p e d w i t h knowledge c f t h e t e c h n i q u e c f f r e e a s s o c i a t i o n method and t h e a b i l i t y t o r e a d d i s g u i s e d e x p r e s s i o n o f t h e u n c o n s c i o u s . The a r t t e a c h e r ' s e f f e c t i v e n e s s i s q u e s t i o n a b l e when i n v o l u n t a r i l y p l a c e d i n t h e p o s i t i o n o f a r t t h e r a p i s t . A r t t e a c h e r s i n t h e p u b l i c s c h o o l s y s t e m a r e f o r t h e most p a r t u n f a m i l i a r w i t h t h e i d i o s y n c r a t i c needs o f i n d i v i d u a l r e t a r d e d s t u d e n t s . F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e i r e d u c a t i o n and t r a i n i n g as t e a c h e r s does n o t p r e p a r e them t o t a k e c n the r o l e c f a r t t h e r a p i s t . Y e t , due t o t h e n a t u r e o f t h e a r t room and c o n n e c t e d a r t a c t i v i t y w i t h i n , a r t t e a c h e r s have been c h a r g e d w i t h p r o v i d i n g e d u c a t i o n a l a c t i v i t y t o t h e S p e c i a l C l a s s ( K i l i a n , 1 9 8 3 ) . As a r e s u l t , i n an e f f o r t t o a s s u r e s t u d e n t ' s s u c c e s s i n a r t , a r t t e a c h e r s have p r o v i d e d b e l o w - g r a d e - l e v e l a c t i v i t i e s u s i n g e a s i l y h a n d l e d media, as w e l l as r e s t r i c t i n g t h e use of some t o o l s ( M i l l e r & M i l l e r , 1981). Such l e s t r l c t i o n s on t h e E.M.R. may v e r y w e l l i n f l u e n c e f u t u r e p e r f o r m a n c e and s e l f e x p e c t a t i o n s by the s t u d e n t s c o n c e r n e d . such m o d i f i c a t i o n s a r e n o t n e c e s s a r y . . . m e n t a l l y r e t a r d e d s t u d e n t s r e s p o n d t o the same t e a c h i n g t e c h n i q u e s and use t h e same a r t t o o l s and m a t e r i a l s as normal s t u d e n t s . ( M i l l e r & M i l l e r , 1981, p.22) 6 Rationale for the use of a r t a c t i v i t y i n E.M.R.programme Although discussion up to t h i s point has,focused on the therapeutic aspects of a r t , since these might seem to be p a r t i c u l a r l y relevant to E.M.R. students, art education f o r them, as for other gourps, encompasses a wider range cf behaviours and p r i n c i p l e s . One of the major aims cf any art programme i s to pro- vide students with a means to integrate experiences within a formal compositional framework. In any completed v i s u a l statement or work of art there are components which comprise the statement. These components are so interwoven as to make i s o l a t i o n of any one component d i f f i c u l t . However, to gain i n s i g h t into a student's understanding of v i s u a l order or unity i n v i s u a l expression, i t i s useful to analyze the various i n d i v i d u a l components that make up a p a r t i c u l a r student work. By concentrating on selected i n d i v i d u a l parts of the whole, a student's under- standing and connected a b i l i t y to u t i l i z e necessary components may be made more c l e a r (Saskatchewan Dept. of Ed., 1978). The accompanying chart i l l u s t r a t e s a flow of components toward the completed statement. These components have been chosen as i n s t r u c t i o n a l v a r i a b l e s i n t h i s study because they already form part of a recognized programme of a r t and provide the means to make possible comparisons between the performance of regular class-room students and E.M.R.s. 7 ORGANIZATION (of the elements of design) l i n e shape value texture colour COMPOSITIONAL BALANCE VISUAL WEIGHT, COLOUR, PLACEMENT DOMINANCE VARIETY, CONTRAST IMPLIED MOVEMENT UNITY (completed v i s u a l statement) Areas of concern for t e s t i n g The following may serve as d e f i n i t i o n s for t h i s study 1. Organizational Unity r e f e r s to the organization and int e g r a t i o n of the elements of design. Line, shape, value, texture, and colour are elements that are present i n a l l v i s u a l images, regardless of the s i m p l i c i t y or complexity of the image. They are therefore the elements that a l l image makers must deal with when making a v i s u a l statement. 8 I t further follows that the a b i l i t y to organize the elements of design on a given picture plane demonstrates an understanding of the i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s between the various elements that comprise that image (Arnheim, 1974). The whole of the picture plane w i l l be considered when engaged i n image making. There i s to be no background or un-worked space. 2. Compositional Balance (Visual Weight) i s of paramount importance when confronted with the problem of unity i n v i s u a l presentation. For the purpose of t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n balance r e f e r s to an arrived-at g r a v i t a t i o n a l e q u i l i b r i u m much l i k e the working of an apothecary scale. However, rather than achieving balance through an actual p h y s i c a l weighing process, balance i s a r r i v e d at through a v i s u a l judgement on the part of the observer, (Arnheim, 1974) i n which dark areas are perceived as being "heavier" or having more weight than the l i g h t e r areas of the composition. S i m i l a r i l y , areas of intense colour are perceived as having more weight than areas of low i n t e n s i t y colour. Lines executed i n a hard or soft manner may also be perceived as heavy and l i g h t r e s p e c t i v e l y . 9 3. Compositional Balance (placement) deals with the arrangement on the p i c t u r e plane of l i k e and unlike shapes as well as consideration given to the size of s p e c i f i c areas within the plane. A ser.se cf balance can be achieved "through the choice of s i m i l a r shapes, colours, or other c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of form; through the placement of the same - or d i f f e r e n t - forms in close proximity..."(Chapman, 1978) Balance by placement also incorporates the phenomenon known as clo s u r e . Closure i s the tendency of the eye to complete a form that i s only p a r t i a l l y v i s i b l e . Edges that seem to extend beyond t h e i r actual boundaries imply a complete or closed form. A symmetrical arrangement of elements that are approximately equal i n psychological importance suggests e q u i l i b r i u m . (Chapman, 1978, p.39) A furth e r consideration when dealing with balance by placement may be the v i s u a l i z a t i o n of a r a d i a t i n g star whose center i s at the composition's center. Each d i r e c t l y opposite r a d i a t i n g l i n e or point finds a balance i n i t s counterpart. Therefore, an area at the top l e f t of a composition w i l l f i n d i t s counterpart at the bottom r i g h t of the composition. When the counterparts are i d e n t i c a l o p t i c a l u n i t s a symmetrical balance i s achieved. However, when the counterparts are d i s s i m i l a r , such as a small area of strong colour and a large empty space, asymmetrical balance i s achieved (Ocvirk, et a l . , 1968) 10 4. Dominance r e f e r s to the varying degrees of emphasis given tc d i f f e r e n t parts of a composition. A featured part should be i n contrast to i t s surrounding area, thus accenting i t s importance and i t s i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p with other areas within the composition. To conserve the energies of the viewer, a work of art should be rhythmically a r t i c u - l a t e d . . .With a good rhythmical d i s t r i b u t i o n of dominant picture parts,...the duration of the viewer's a t t e n t i o n w i l l be enhanced. (Ocvirk, et al.,1968, p.26) 5. V a r i e t y r e f e r s to the a b i l i t y of a composition to sustain a viewer's a t t e n t i o n . If unity and v a r i e t y are j u d i c i o u s l y used as guiding p r i n c i p l e s f o r c r e a t i n g a work viewers are not l i k e l y to be e a s i l y bored or f u l l y s a t i s f i e d by a quick encounter with i t (Chapman,1978, p.39) V a r i e t y may include d i f f e r e n c e s i n colour, size cf areas, textures, shapes, l i n e s and value as well as external considerations such as varying degrees of ab s t r a c t i o n , and the l i k e . 6. Contrast-Elaboration deals with l i k e snd unlike areas presented in such a manner as to be perceived in opposition by themselves but u n i f i e d i n the whole, thereby heightening the importance of each. 11 This may be i l l u s t r a t e d i n the way the a r t i s t uses v a r i e t y . a) he f i n d s v a r i e t y i n opposition or contrast r e c o n c i l e s the v i s u a l d i f f e r e n c e s tc create unity b) he w i l l elaborate upon forces which are equal i n q u a l i t y and s t r e n g t h . . . u n t i l a s a t i s f a c t o r y s o l u t i o n i s reached. (Ocvirk, e t . a l . , 1968, p.26) 7. Implied Movement i s the i n d i c a t i o n of eye t r a v e l along v i s u a l paths on the surface of the p i c t u r e plane. To create movement on the surface of the picture plane the a r t i s t may employ the d i r e c t i o n and/or boundary of a shape to lead the eye from one p o s i t i o n to another. He/she may incorporate rhythmic r e p e t i t i o n guide the eye through a s s o c i a t i o n a l means. Or he/she may create movement through colours and textures by r e l a t i n g t h e i r values to one another. • The exclusion of Colour as an area of concern for t e s t i n g Colour i s at once one of the most e x c i t i n g but also one of the most complex of v i s u a l phenomena when dealing with image making (Chapman, 1978). Short of studying i t s basic properties, the p r i n c i p l e s of mixing i t in paint and possibly i t s symbolic use an in depth study of colour would require too much time to be of s i g n i f i c a n t value to the novice image maker. Although colour was not excluded as an element for image making for e i t h e r group, i t s formal properties were not considered as an area of concern for t e s t i n g . 12 Intent of the Study The purpose of th i s study was to in v e s t i g a t e the premise that mentally retarded students (E.M.R.) respond tc the same body of content and are capable of using the same art tools and materials as normal students ( M i l l e r & M i l l e r , 1981). The study examined the degree of success achieved by E.M.R. students, compared with the degree of success achieved by students i n a regular high j.chool.art c l a s s , when the ob j e c t i v e for each group was the a s s i m i l a t i o n of a p a r t i c u l a r set of a r t concepts. The study i n the general context of classroom a s s i m i l a t i o n Grouping i s a natural and normal s o c i a l a c t i v i t y usually occurring i n l i n e with the s i m i l a r i t i e s of group members (Bierstedt,1970). The Special Class i s a group i n much the same way as a regular c l a s s . Each member i s a part of the recognized whole. Behaviour and achievement patterns are p r e d i c t a b l e within the group. When group mixing i s imposed established patterns are disrupted and achievement l e v e l s are a l t e r e d . In order to f a c i l i t a t e the i n t e g r a t i o n of Special Education into the mainstream of education as a whole the special c l a s s must move as a unit (Hunter, 1981) and thereby negates imposed group mixing. I t i s e s s e n t i a l that students' achievement p o s s i b i l i t i e s are not r e s t r i c t e d by way of imposed changes i n t h e i r learning environment. To t h i s end the Special Class student must not be placed into . . . 13 learning environments which are geared for and designed f o r the norm. Although i n t e g r a t i o n of the s p e c i a l group as a whole into the p h y s i c a l f a c i l i t i e s of a conventional school i s b e n e f i c i a l to both groups, (Hunter,1981), when dealing with classroom i n s t r u c t i o n , the s p e c i a l student's educational needs w i l l best be served i n the company of other s p e c i a l students. In d i s c u s s i n g the handicapped and i n t e g r a t i o n , K i l i a n states: Whatever the l e v e l of a b i l i t y , the i n - c l a s s routine i s about what i t would be i n a segregated school, However, he goes on to say: the c h i l d r e n often mingle with other pupils - watching or taking part i n games, using the l i b r a r y , ...They move... learning every minute. Like a l l k i d s , they learn r e a d i l y from t h e i r peers, so t h e i r behaviour becomes more appropriate as they watch how other kids get a l o n g . ( K i l i a n , 1983,p.B3) This statement supports the idea of normalization suggested by Gold.(1972) and adopted as a guiding philosophy by many associations for the mentally handicapped (Derkach, 1983). 14 The Research Design Statement of the Problem The Special Class, under the d i r e c t i o n of the s p e c i a l c l a s s teacher tends to engage i n a r t a c t i v i t y leading towards the comple- t i o n of some project, much along the l i n e s of a "shop" programme. The end r e s u l t , the product, i s stressed as being a l l important. This occurs i n spite of arguments (Lowenfeld, 1957) on the growth and development of c h i l d r e n that claim the process i s more important than the product. Toe l i t t l e a t t e n t i o n i s given to the actual development of the c h i l d ' s perceptual and c o g n i t i v e a b i l i t i e s while too much a t t e n t i o n i s focused on the c o r r e c t use of materials (Naumberg, 1973). In part t h i s may be a t t r i b u t a b l e to lack of confidence f e l t by the s p e c i a l class teacher. The services of a s p e c i a l i s t a r t teacher might aid i n the maximization and a c c e l e r a t i o n of perceptual development since the s p e c i a l c l a s s teacher i s generally neither trained i n a r t education nor in possession of a general understanding of the a r t s . I t nay be, therefore, that E.M.R. students do not achieve r e s u l t s comparable with students i n regular a r t classes simply because they do not have comparable q u a l i t y of i n s t r u c t i o n . ( M i l l e r & M i l l e r 1981). The problem may therefore be stated as follows: Is i t possible to measure progress i n art exercises undertaken by a regular c l a s s and by a c l a s s of E.M.R.s to determine the extent to which 'E.M.R.s may a s s i m i l a t e concepts and complete a c t i v i t i e s from an a r t programme designed for normal classes? 15 I d e n t i f i c a t i o n of the "Special Class" i n the study The designation E.M.R. i s applied to students whose I.Q.'s f a l l w i t h i n a 50 - 75 range (James, 1983). Data for the E.M.R. cla s s i n t h i s study show that they a l l f i t within these tolerances. Student No. Age I.Q". 1. 19 50-60 2. 18 62-67 3. 18 65-75 4. 17 55-60 5. .16 62-70 ; 6. 16 60-70 7 . 15 55-60 8. 15 51-56 9. 15 55-60 10. 14 68-72 11. 13 62-64 Wechsler I n t e l l i g e n c e Scale for Children-Revised (WISC-R) Hypotheses: For research purposes, the problem Is restated i n the form of three hypotheses. A. There w i l l be no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n performance i n pre and pos t ^ t e s t r e s u l t s i n a r t tasks undertaken by an E.M.R. c l a s s . B. There w i l l be no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n pre and post-test r e s u l t s by a regular a r t c l a s s , when that c l a s s i s given material i d e n t i c a l to that given the E.M.R. c l a s s . C. There w i l l be no s i g n i f i c a n t differences i n the r e l a t i v e degree of performance by regular c l a s s and E.M.R. class members on assigned art tasks according to the following c r i t e r i o n v a r i a b l e s : 16 1. organizational unity 2. v i s u a l weight 3. placement 4. dominance 5. v a r i e t y 6. contrast 7. movement Procedures Two.classes within one B r i t i s h Columbia high school taught by the same i n s t r u c t o r , formed the two groups studied. The normal c l a s s served as a c o n t r o l group providing an i n d i c a t i o n of normal progress. The E.M.R. c l a s s served as the tes t group. The i n s t r u c t o r used the same lessons and relevant lesson aids (Appendix A(1), A(2) to present i d e n t i c a l content to a regular (norm) grade 10/11 com- bina t i o n introductory class and an E.M.R. c l a s s . Three expert judges applied numerical ratings, to resultant student art works, which were subject to a two-tailed t tes t (non-normal) to determine whether s i g n i f i c a n t progress i n performance resulted on the part of each group. Pr e - t e s t i n g / P o s t - t e s t i n g Members from both groups, E.M.R. and norm, were asked to execute i d e n t i c a l pre and post- t e s t assignments. They consisted of a freehand l i n e drawing as well as a tempera (painting) composition. Choice of subject matter f o r compositions was l i m i t e d to a v a i l a b l e objects i n the art studio. Following the execution of studio lessons over a si x month period a l l works from both groups were numbered, randomized, and assessed on seven dimensions by three judges, a l l high school teachers of art i n the same school. 17 Although research has suggested that a minimum of f i v e lessons i s necessary for the e f f e c t s of a p a r t i c u l a r treatment to become apparent (Burkhart, 1965), i t i s the w r i t e r ' s b e l i e f that time to a s s i m i l a t e information i s also of paramount importance. To t h i s end d a i l y lessons and follow-up c l a s s time for completion were supplied over a period of s i x consecutive months. The lessons are summarized i n Appendix A.; General L i m i t a t i o n s and Assumptions 1. This study deals s p e c i f i c a l l y with a r t education, i t s aims fo r the general education (B.C. M i n i s t r y of Ed., 1979) of the i n d i v i d u a l within the confines of the p u b l i c school system, and the extent to which these are a p p l i c a b l e to E.M.R. students. Art therapy, while acknowledged to be of enormous benefit to the mentally handicapped, (Ensher, 1969; Sperno & Weiner, 1973; Naumberg, 1966; Uhlin, 1973) i s for the purpose of t h i s study, i r r e l e v a n t . The primary goal of education i s the development of an i n d i v i d u a l ' s f u l l p o t e n t i a l (B. C. M i n i s t r y of Ed., 1979). Schooling i s to become a means of personal f u l f i l l m e n t , to provide a context in which i n d i v i d u a l s discover and develop t h e i r unique i d e n t i t i e s . C u r r i c u l u m — i s a pervasive and enriching experience with implications for many dimensions of personal development. (Eisner & Vallance, 1974, p.105) Art therapy f a l l s far short of t h i s goal, since i t supposedly merely conditions the learner toward a;state of readiness for learning. (Levic, 1967). 18 Reporting on Art Therapy programmes, Canadian Press writes: I t ' s o prevention for emotional i l l n e s s The c h i l d i s allowed to express aggression i n a safe way... ar t therapy i s a ...way to treat emotional problems. (Toronto (CP), 1978) Arnheim's words are also i n s t r u c t i v e : shapeless emotion i s not the desirable end r e s u l t of education and therefore cannot be used as i t s means. (Arnheim, 1974. p.207) 2. E.M.R., that group of learners i d e n t i f i e d as educable mentally retarded within the boundaries of the p u b l i c school system, was the test group. No other group under the general heading of Special Education i s considered i n t h i s study. L i t e r a t u r e describing studies that have been done i n ar t education with the handi- capped deals mainly with the m u l t i p l y handicapped, (Rubin, 1981), or with the more severely mentally handicappped such as T.M.R. groups as reported by M i l l e r and M i l l e r (1982). 3. E.M.R. students need to learn the same things as do students i n the general stream of pub l i c schooling. Art education for the slow learner, as for the normal c h i l d , i s p r i m a r i l y to a s s i s t i n i n t e l l e c t u a l emotional and s o c i a l growth through s e l f - e x p r e s s i o n and ... development. (B.C. Dept. of Ed., 1965) . > v The Ministry of Education expects that a l l pupils w i l l have an opportunity i n school to p a r t i c i p a t e i n one or more f i e l d s of the a r t s . This is a r e q u i r e - ment i n elementary schools and a d e s i r a b i l i t y i n the secondary school experience. (B.C.Ministry of Ed., 1979) Emphasis mine 19 Thus the r a t i o n a l e for Art education for the E.M.R. may be said to be s i m i l a r to the ra t i o n a l e f o r art education f o r normal classes i n that perceptual growth i n any student can not be ignored when dealing with the education of that student (Lanier, 1982). 4. The re s u l t a n t products of student a r t a c t i v i t y may be viewed as evidence of the measure of student growth. It serves as the conclusion to an undertaken learning experience,and thus aids i n the f o s t e r i n g of growth. Apart from physical maturation, growth i s only made apparent i n expression i n audible or v i s i b l e signs and symbols, of which art works form one part. (Read, 1945). 20 CHAPTER II ART EDUCATION AND THE CHILD H i s t o r i c a l beginnings Interest i n the c h i l d as a r t i s t has i t s o r i g i n s in the 19th century. T y p i c a l of those a t t i t u d e s were the views on education held by Johann P e s t a l o z z i . Describing h i s methods as "the psychologizing of learning", he was convinced that there were great benefits to be gained for the c h i l d by the p r a c t i c e of drawing. the wish to draw and the capacity of measuring, which are developed n a t u r a l l y and e a s i l y i n the c h i l d (as compared to the t o i l with which he i s taught reading and writing) must be restored to him with greater art or more force; i f we would not injure him more than the reading can ever be worth. (Sutton, 1967, p.30) His i n s i s t e n c e that methods of teaching must be based upon the study of the c h i l d has influenced numerous educators. F r i e d r i c h Froebel, founder of the Kindergarten Movement, was obviously among the influenced. Writing in 1826, he s t a t e s : The word and the drawing, therefore, belong together inseparably, as l i g h t and shadow, night and day, soul and body do. The f a c u l t y of drawing i s , therefore, as much innate i n the c h i l d , i n man, as i s the f a c u l t y of speech, and demands i t s development arid c u l t i v a t i o n as imperatively as the l a t t e r ; experience shows t h i s c l e a r l y i n the c h i l d ' s love of drawing, in the c h i l d ' s i n s t i n c t i v e desire for drawing. (Sutton, 1967, p.36) 21 The introduction of colouring books into p u b l i c school systems of Germany resu l t e d from concepts o r i g i n a t e d by the Kingergarten Movement. In 1843, Horace Mann of Massachusetts toured Europe to acquire insi g h t into the European educational systems. In his "Seventh Annual Report" he extols the high standards of hand w r i t i n g i n the Prussian Schools and puts t h i s down to extra t r a i n i n g of the hand and eye a r i s i n g from the i n c l u s i o n of drawing i n the curriculum. He a l s o describes how a simple drawing can communicate more information than any amount of words and f u r t h e r that drawing develops the t a l e n t of observing. Observation as r e l a t e d to perception has an influence on understanding what i s being looked at (Lanier, 1982). Thus i t may be said that the act of drawing influences an i n d i v i d u a l ' s a b i l i t y to understand and i s thereby an e s s e n t i a l element i n the education of any student. A f t e r the disastrous showing of B r i t i s h manufactured a r t i c l e s in the World's F a i r of 1851, England attacked the problem by completely reforming her schools of design i n the f a i t h that i n s t r u c t i o n in a r t as applied to industry could be reduced to r a t i o n a l methods, could be treated accord- ing to recognized educational p r i n c i p l e s , and so no longer need be l e f t to the fancy of each i n d i v i d u a l nor to the b l i n d caprice of the hour. (Green, 1966, p.3) 22 Succeeding World F a i r s demonstrated the success England had achieved. Art as a subject for study i n p u b l i c schools was therefore considered to be of paramount importance to the welfare of the nation. However, the art programmes were to be p r i m a r i l y s k i l l - o r i e n t e d and directed toward the service of industry (Pappas, 1970, p.13). The United States, whose showings i n these F a i r s ranked close to the bottom, followed England's lead for purely u t i l i t a r i a n reasons, and i n 1870 the newly appointed Standing Committee on Drawing sought out a highly q u a l i f i e d supervisor of drawing. Thus Walter Smith, art master ,at Leeds, and p r o f e s s i o n a l s c u l p t o r , came to America. Smith's plan encompassed a l l grades, and by progressive developmental stages c a r r i e d art i n s t r u c t i o n from elementary learning at the lowest grade to pre-professional t r a i n i n g i n the highest. It was predicated cn the b e l i e f that drawing was the basis of a l l i n d u s t r i a l a r t and that any average person could l e a r n to draw. By basing a r t i n s t r u c t i o n on p r i n c i p l e s that could be stated and consequently could be taught and learned, he attempted to place drawing as a pedagogical t o o l i n the hands cf every teacher. In 1873, with Smith at the helm, the Massachusetts Normal Art School was e s t a b l i s h e d . I t was to provide s p e c i a l l y t r a i n e d art teachers who would d i r e c t the e f f o r t of teachers in the common schools. 23 Although seemingly s u c c e s s f u l , opposition was mounting. Many teachers and members of the public thought that drawing was a s p e c i a l t y and lay outside the realm of p u b l i c education. They argued that time was spent on drawing at the expense of more "important" subjects. High school teachers were not prepared to follow through with Smith's plan. Walter Smith was subsequently dismissed and returned to England in 1882. Art education to t h i s point was mainly to serve u t i l i t a r i a n ends g i v i n g l i t t l e or no c r e d i t or benefit to an i n d i v i d u a l ' s growth. I t seemingly set the ground rules f or copybook and s m i l i a r low l e v e l reproduction which to some degree i s s t i l l prevalent today. The period from 1860 to 1900 was one cf enormous v i t a l i t y i n the western world. Conceptions of knowledge and conditions under which i t was obtained were reformulated. The work of Darwin in p a r t i c u l a r caused educators to see the growing c h i l d i n a new l i g h t . The c h i l d develops to maturity, he does not merely grow. For John Dewey, America's roost i n f l u e n t i a l philosopher on education, the c h i l d was an organism that l i v e d both i n and through an environment. As conditions within the environment changed they posed a problem for that c h i l d . The problem was a challenge which was resolved through i n t e l l i g e n t action. The teacher needed to understand the c h i l d to know what conditions 24 were l i k e l y to challenge him i n order to arrange the environment so that an educationally problematic s i t u a t i o n would r e s u l t . Thus education became c h i l d centered (Dewey, 1958). The consequences of these views for art education were highly s i g n i f i c a n t . Children i n the school system were persons with wants and r.eeds, not objects to be s t u f f e d . The desired c r e a t i v e i n t e l l i g e n c e to be embodied i n a l l c h i l d r e n through the schools opened the gates for art education, for art was the i d e a l medium to f o s t e r the general c r e a t i v e a b i l i t i e s . Through a r t , c h i l d r e n were provided with opportunities for c r e a t i v e s e l f - e x p r e s s i o n , thereby enhancing t h e i r development. E.M.R. students, l i k e a l l students, may benefit from the use of a v e h i c l e f o r s e l f - e x p r e s s i o n , found i n a r t education, i n that t h i s a c t i v i t y may enhance t h e i r development. Current Status In January c f 1960, art in the B r i t i s h Columbia school cur- riculum was dealt a severe blow. The report of the Chant Commission stated i n i t s recommendations that the general aim of the school system should be "that of promoting the i n t e l l e c t u a l development of the p u p i l s and that t h i s should be the major emphasis throughout the whole programme" (Repcrt of the Royal Commision on Education, V i c t o r i a : Province of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1960.) 25 This statement in i t s e l f appears to be educationally sound. However, the report goes on to place degrees of value cn p a r t i c u l a r subject areas with a s e r i e s designated to be of lesser importance. Art i s c i t e d as one of the l a t t e r . In November of 19,76, the B.C.Ministry of Education issued What Should Our Children Be Learning?(B. C. M i n i s t r y of Ed., 1976) In t h i s document the arts are cast into a subordinate r o l e to serve merely as reinforcement to the learning of some s k i l l . Fine Arts i s to be used to r e i n f o r c e concepts in the r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n v o l v i n g space and shape f o r the s k i l l s of mathematics. The following document Guide to the Core Curriculum, (B. C. M i n i s t r y of Ed., 1977), o f f e r s no s i g n i f i c a n t changes i n approach. Although the m i n i s t r y has recognized seme very elementary uses of a r t , the prescribed curriculum f a i l s to acknowledge the f u l l value cf the "aesthetic experience" a v a i l a b l e from an art programme. Following overwhelming c r i t i c i s m Of the M i n i s t r y concerning i t s stance in the Fine Arts i n education, the M i n i s t r y issued a statement i n March of 1979, on the f i n e a r t s and the core curriculum. The M i n i s t r y has taken the p o s i t i o n that t h i s i s a v i t a l l y important aspect of a student's education but that because of the r i c h and diverse p o t e n t i a l i t has for learning, the development of p r o v i n c i a l l y p r e s c r i p - t i v e courses i s not d e s i r a b l e . Instead, general curriculum p o l i c y guides w i l l be prepared and schools are asked to ensure that within these s p e c i f i c s i g n i f i c a n t learning experiences are provided. It w i l l do no service to c h i l d r e n i f the focus on basic s k i l l s leads to a neglect or denigration of the arts in the t o t a l education of the student. (B. C. M i n i s t r y of Ed., 1979) 26 The subcommittee for Art (8-12) was e s t a b l i s h e d i n December of 1977. A new curriculum guide for B r i t i s h Columbia's secondary school art programmes was to be composed. By the spring of 1980 the f i r s t d r a f t was made a v a i l a b l e to B.C. art teachers at the annual B.C.A.T.A. conference. Following teacher input and subsequent r e v i s i o n , the new art guide was released i n 1984. Within the pages of t h i s two volume guide there i s no reference to Special Education and r e l a t e d i n s t r u c t i o n i n a r t . The 1984 Special Education Supplement to the Core Curriculum has devoted one page to v i s u a l arts a c t i v i t y and r e l a t e d educational goals. A copy of t h i s page i s presented as Appendix E. For more than a century art as an area of study i n the p u b l i c school has addressed two main areas of concern. Art education for i t s u t i l i t a r i a n a p p l i c a t i o n s followed by art education to f o s t e r i n d i v i d u a l growth have both circumvented the educable mentally retarded c h i l d i n the school. This appears to be continuing. Special Education in B r i t i s h Columbia In 1890 an appropriation of funds was made a v a i l a b l e by the B.C. L e g i s l a t u r e f or the purpose of sending B.C. students to the I n s t i t u t i o n f o r the Deaf and Dumb i n Winnipeg, Manitoba (Csapo & Goguen, 1980). This appears to be the f i r s t admission of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r providing education for some handicapped c h i l d r e n of the province cf B r i t i s h Columbia. 27 During the years of 1910 to 1920 both Vancouver and V i c t o r i a School D i s t r i c t s pioneered programmes i n s p e c i a l education for the mentally retarded, the deaf and the b l i n d . This culminated in 1922 when programmes for the deaf and b l i n d were combined into a r e s i d e n t i a l and day school programme under the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the P r o v i n c i a l Department of Education. The Putman-Weir Survey of 1925, a commission of inq u i r y , recommended modi f i c a t i o n of the curriculum f o r the mentally retarded, and the establishment of spe c i a l schools and f a c i l i t i e s . However, not u n t i l 1956 did s p e c i a l education emerge as an i n t e g r a l part of a school d i s t r i c t ' s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . That year The Department of Education introduced s p e c i a l approval as part of the basic grant to school d i s t r i c t s . . Classes f o r mentally retarded c h i l d r e n were permitted to operate as an i n t e g r a l part of the public school system (B.C. Dept. of Education, 1956). The Chant Report of 1960, although f u l l of recommendations for changing the e x i s t i n g school system, devoted l i t t l e a t t e n t i o n to s p e c i a l education. In f a c t , not u n t i l 1969 d i d Special Education receive f u l l r e cognition with the cre a t i o n of a Special Education D i v i s i o n within the Department of Education. The education of the handicapped became a p r i o r i t y concern and numerous programmes were i n i t i a t e d . In 1972, Remedial and E.M.R. programmes were combined under the t i t l e Learning Assistance Programmes. This step r e f l e c t e d an attempt to keep as many c h i l d r e n as possible 28 integrated i n the mainstream of education. Unfortunately, t h i s attempt r e s u l t e d i n the c r e a t i o n of work oriented courses at the secondary school l e v e l . This was seen by many teachers, parents and students as a dumping ground f o r a l l types of problem students ranging from severe d i s c i p l i n e cases to those with emotional problems as well as fo r . those who are generally just not capable cf completing a regular programme. (Csapo & Goguen, 1980, p.9) This s p e c i a l programme, i n many d i s t r i c t s the only Special Education programme, became the depository f o r most a t y p i c a l students, in c l u d i n g the E.M.R. Throughout the 1970s parental and general p u b l i c opinion had caused most school d i s t r i c t s to integrate, with support, a l l but the most severely handicapped into regular schools. The objectives of s p e c i a l education are viewed as the same as those f o r normal c l a s s e s . This s h i f t i n philosophy may be said to be sounded by the M i n i s t r y of Education as follows: Education i n the Fine Arts is^an e s s e n t i a l part of the development of every student (B.C. M i n i s t r y of Ed., 1984) Summary This chapter has presented a b r i e f overview of ideas held by educators over the l a s t 100 years, that r e l a t e to c h i l d development. It also contains references to spe c i a l education programmes, i n d i c a t i n g the importance of p o l i t i c a l motives that influence the form and content of these programmes. Emphasis mine 29 CHAPTER III CONDUCT OF THE STUDY Setting of the Study and Population Employed The study took place within a school d i s t r i c t i n B r i t i s h Columbia. A d i s t r i c t high school provided the p h y s i c a l s e t t i n g . The time allotment for the study was between mid September 1983 and the end of February 1984. The two p a r t i c i p a t i n g groups were the .school's Special Class, and one Art 10/11 ( e l e c t i v e ) introductory a r t c l a s s , scheduled f o r one out of seven blocks on a s i x day r o t a t i n g c y c l e . The cla s s e s p a r t i c i p a t e d i n the experiment for an equal length of time each scheduled period, and were taught by the same i n s t r u c t o r throughout. Classes comprised students of both sexes. A t o t a l of 37 students was engaged i n the project: 26 in the normal c l a s s and 11 i n the E.M.R. c l a s s . However, due to sometimes poor attendance at school over a period cf s i x months not every student p a r t i c i p a t e d i n every presented lesson and subsequent art a c t i v i t y . Furthermore, since the study was conducted within the framework of a regular introductory a r t programme, some students chose to under- take the same assignment more than once. This i s standard p r a c t i c e within the department and r e s u l t e d in the cr e a t i o n of 446 student art works from s t o t a l of 15 d i f f e r e n t assignments undertaken by each of the two groups. 30 Materials for the 15 lessons were r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e since the lessons comprised a regular programme f o r that time period and standard a r t supplies, normally a v a i l a b l e i n the art room, were used. Procedure i n the Classroom Members of the E.M.R. group were informed that they would be a c t i v e l y engaged i n an a r t programme that i s normally intended for a grade 10/11 combination art c l a s s . The duration of t h i s programme was to be of s i x or more months. They were fu r t h e r asked i f they had any objection to p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n such a study. No objections were voiced. On the contrary, they were keen to p a r t i c i p a t e . Both the E.M.R. group and one of three grade 10/11 combination art classes chosen at random i n turn began the programme at approximately the same time. The f i r s t two assignments served as p r e - t e s t s . Students were provided with an assortment of d i f f e r e n t objects such as a shoe, a carburettor, and a c o a l - o i l lamp, and asked to draw one or more of these objects with p e n c i l on manila creme paper, 1.8" X 24" i n s i z e . No further i n s t r u c t i o n was given. The second assignment required the use of black tempera paint and brush on m i l l board, size 8-1/2" X 10". Students were asked to draw or paint the person s i t t i n g nearest them. No further i n s t r u c t i o n was given. The two assignments occupied four periods. (180 minutes) 31 Following the i n i t i a l two assignments students from both groups began.work on the regular programme and continued to do so for eleven assignments. The lessons are ou t l i n e d i n Appendix A. Upon the conclusion of the l a s t assignment, students completed two assignments which served as post-tests to the study. M a t e r i a l and i n s t r u c t i o n i d e n t i c a l to the pre-test assignments was provided. I n s t r u c t i o n f o r pre and post-tests f o r both groups was i d e n t i c a l , as previously stated. I n s t r u c t i o n f o r programme content however was adjusted, f i r s t , to meet E.M.R. group needs, and second, to meet i n d i v i d u a l E.M.R. student needs. The main f a c t o r i n t h i s adjustment was the adjustment for language d e f i c i e n c i e s on the part of the E.M.R. group. For example when presenting the concept of negative and p o s i t i v e space i n image making to a regular c l a s s the terminology used would be negative and postive space. However, when addressing the same concept with an E.M.R. class the terminology used to describe the concept would be s i m p l i f i e d to the negative space being r e f e r r e d to as white and the p o s i t i v e space as black or the p o s i t i v e space as the f i l l e d - i n parts and the negative space as the empty or l e f t - o v e r parts. Summary of Experimental Procedure Two c l a s s e s , one regular Art 10/11 combination c l a s s and a Special Class (E.M.R.) were assigned treatments i d e n t i c a l in nature and scope. The classes were a part of the regular grouping within a senior secondary school. 32 The treatment consisted of f i f t e e n assignments with the f i r s t two and l a s t two serving as pre-test and post - t e s t r e s p e c t i v e l y . A l l interim assignments as well as pre and post-tests provided materials for an a l y s i s and comparison. Pre and p o s t - t e s t r e s u l t s provided withih-group gains; interim assignments provided material for informal between-group comparisons. Reproductions of selected students' works produced during the study may be found in Appendix D. 33 CHAPTER IV COLLECTION OF DATA . AND DESCRIPTION OF STATISTICAL PROCEDURES The Evaluative Instrument Using c r i t e r i a developed f o r a p r o v i n c i a l curriculum o u t l i n e (Saskatchewan Dept. of Ed., 1978) a score card was designed and made a v a i l a b l e f o r use by three art educators serving as judges i n evaluating student a r t works produced i n f i f t e e n assignments. The score card i s reproduced as Figure 1. Scores were assigned on a scale from one to ten points. The basis for each r a t i n g was as follows: Score 1 the fac t o r i s completely lacking Sccre 2 ..... the fac t o r i s present i n a n e g l i g i b l e form Score 3 ..... the f a c t o r i s present but i n an underdeveloped form Score 4 ..... the f a c t o r i s recognizable and p e r c e p t i b l y developed Score 5 ..... the f a c t o r i s recognizable with s a t i s f a c t o r y development Score 6 ..... the fac t o r i s recognizable with good development so as to di s p l a y i t s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c features Score 7 ..... the f a c t o r i s recognizable with very good development so as to display i t s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c features. Score 8 ..... f a c t o r i s recognizable with e x c e l l e n t development so as to display i t s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c features Score 9 the fac t o r i s recognizable with superior development so as to display i t s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c features Score 10 .... the fac t o r has been exploited to a very high degree; the student has demonstrated high p r o f i c i e n c y i n how the fac t o r can best be used. 3 4 FIGURE" 1 Judges* Score Card SCORE CARD STUDENT WORK # ra t i n g from 1 to 10 (low to high) 10 i s possible JUDGE IDENTITY # 1. Organizational Unity 2. Compositonal balance v i s u a l weight 3. Compositional balance placement 4. Dominance 5. . V a r i e t y 6. Contrast 7. Movement 35 Using a system of numerical grading that was f a m i l i a r to " a l l - judges-'engaged'within the study would seem to minimize discrepancies in evaluation between i n d i v i d u a l evaluators. A l l three judges were art teachers within the school where the study took place and were f a m i l i a r with the 1 to 10 r a t i n g s c a l e . Its use as a means of assigning and measuring evaluation of student progress i n art a c t i v i t y had been continuous over nine consecutive school years by each of the three judges. I n s t r u c t i o n s to Judges Judges were in s t r u c t e d to l i m i t t h e i r observation and subsequent evaluation of student a r t images s p e c i f i c a l l y i n accordance with the stated seven areas of concern f o r t e s t i n g o u t l i n e d on Pages 7 - 11. Each of the seven areas f o r t e s t i n g was discussed at a group meeting. To ensure that each judge had the same understanding concerning the seven test areas, stated d e f i n i t i o n s i d e n t i c a l to those summarized i n Chapter One were made a v a i l a b l e to each of the three judges. These d e f i n i t i o n s were used as guidelines for d i s c u s s i o n . Judges agreed to use the stated d e f i n i t i o n s of the seven areas of concern as a guide to t h e i r marking or grading of presented student art works. No formal t e s t of r e l i a b i l i t y was given to the judges, i n l i g h t of the previous f a m i l i a r i t y that a l l judges had with the evaluative instrument. 36 Scoring Procedure for Student Art Works A l l works were i d e n t i f i e d and numbered on the back and random d i s t r i b u t i o n of each of the 15 assignments was made, so that f i n a l l y a l l works were randomly d i s t r i b u t e d and compiled to form three separate c o l l e c t i o n s of student work, one for each judge. This insured that each judge had a body of work to evaluate that was c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the range cf a b i l i t i e s displayed by both groups of students. Score cards were reduced i n s i z e and arranged on 8-1/2" X 14" paper so as to f i t nine separate score cards on each sheet. These sheets were compiled with copies of the stated d e f i n i t i o n s to form a booklet. Each judge was assigned one of the three c o l l e c t i o n s of works to score according to the seven categories. Each of the c r i t e r i a was discussed again and judges began t h e i r scoring procedure. Following an i n i t i a l scoring of some dozen pieces, judges were asked f o r comrrents or questions p e r t a i n i n g to the scoring procedure. Questions such as the following were t y p i c a l . Are we to consider material manipulation? Should we look for neatness of exection? Judges were again d i r e c t e d to l i m i t t h e i r scoring to f a l l i n l i n e with the same areas of concern f o r t e s t i n g . General comments dealt with the judges' i n a b i l i t y to e a s i l y i d e n t i f y from which group a p a r t i c u l a r work was taken. No clues as to student work i d e n t i t y were supplied. Following questions, scoring continued. Judges met on two separate occasions to complete the scoring of a l l student works. Number scores from judges'score cards were entered cn a table. 3 7 D e s c r i p t i o n of S t a t i s t i c a l Procedures Inter-judge r e l i a b i l i t y Following the completion of judging, score cards were c o l l e c t e d . The usual p r a c t i c e i n demonstrating degree of agreement among judges i s to use c o r r e l a t i o n a n a l y s i s . In t h i s case, however, the inequalityof the two groups, and the iack of assurance of equal i n t e r - n a l s between numerical scores precluded t h i s . Instead a Chi Square test was employed. The r e s u l t s from the regular cl a s s p o s t - t e s t s were subjected to the Chi Square programme expressed i n the formula WHERE 0 = observed value AND E = expected values The computer programme used was written f o r input to the TI-99/4A computer and i s reproduced i n Appendix B. Post-test scores o f f e r e d s u f f i c i e n t information input to test inter-judge r e l i a b i l i t y . Where pre-tests and post-tests are equivalent forms of the same t e s t , i t i s legitimate to compute gains whether or not the gains or the corresponding p o s t - t e s t scores are the data used with any of the standard error of difference formulas... For the same data and the same formula, gains and post-test scores w i l l r e s u l t i n the same t . (Engelhart, 1972, p.444) Results on the seven (7) categories were 18.29, 12.06, 12.06, 20.66, 11.95, 14.29, and 31.92. With 18 degrees of freedom, 2 x i s s i g n i f i c a n t at the .05 l e v e l for 28.87. Only one (1) out of seven.(7), the category of Movement, y i e l d e d a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e . the binomial p r o b a b i l i t y of 1 in 7 i s s i g n i f i c a n t at .05 38 As s r e s u l t , one might e l e c t to exclude Movement from further data a n a l y s i s . However, as a general r u l e , r e s u l t s from twenty (20) s i g n i f i c a n c e t e s t s are expected to y i e l d one (1) test that appears to be s i g n i f i c a n t 2 (Willoughby, 1977).Therefore the x r e s u l t as a r r i v e d at 2 for category 7 (movement),x =31.9, does not n e c e s s a r i l y imply a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n the judges' marking or grading r e s u l t s . A s a t i s f a c t o r y l e v e l of inter-judge agreement i s therefore presumed. x VALUE and RELATED SIGNIFICANT LEVEL on EACH of SEVEN CATEGORIES TABLE I POST-TEST (REGULAR CLASS) (Inter-Judge R e l i a b i l i t y ) CATEGORY 2 SIGNIFICANCE LEVEL x 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. UNITY WEIGHT PLACEMENT DOMINANCE VARIETY CONTRAST MOVEMENT 18.29 12.06 12.06 20.66 11.95 14.29 31.92 .44 .84 .84 .30 .85 .71 .02 - df = 18 df = (number of rows = (2) (9) =18 .05 l e v e l i s 28.87 1) (number of columns - 1) .01 l e v e l i s 34.80 39 S t a t i s t i c a l procedures for analysis of data Number scores from Pre-tests and Post-tests from both test groups obtained from judges' score cards, entered onto i d e n t i f i c a t i o n t a b l e s , were employed as data and entered into the TI99/4A computer. Using the TI99/4A S t a t i s t i c s command module, data were entered under Descriptive S t a t i s t i c s . Since t h i s study made use of only two populations and these populations were further unequal, neither the standard ANOVA nor ANCOVA was used as the s t a t i s t i c a l procedure to analyze obtained data. Instead, adjusted t t e s t s (Ferguson, 1959, p.144) were applied. The r e s u l t s obtained from "Descriptive S t a t i s t i c s " , in the TI 99/4A S t a t i s t i c s Command Module (Mean Ml and M2, variance VI and V2, and number NI and N2), were recorded as data and entered i n the computer programme d e t a i l e d i n Appendix C, which combines the two above-mentioned formulas for c a l c u l a t i n g t . The t values and F r a t i o s r e s u l t i n g from t h i s programme were recorded. The S i g n i f i c a n c e Level Calculator i n the S t a t i s t i c s command module was then used to compute the s i g n i f i c a n c e l e v e l of various 2 values of previously computed s t a t i s t i c s (x , F, and t) as outlined i n Tables I , I I , and I I I . 40 TABLE II Results on 7 Categories (Pre-test and Post-test) for Regular (REG)' and Special (SPEC) groups CATEGORY NAME N VARIANCE SIG.LEVEL df.+ UNITY REG/PRE POST 28 38 1.668 2.404 1.441 .163 11 27 SPEC/PRE 25 POST 35 6.214 4.119 1.508 .133 24 34 WEIGHT REG/PRE POST. 28 38 2.360 1.470 1.605 • 09 : ~ 27 37 SPEC/PRE-,, 25 POST 35 4.4 4.28 1.027 .463 .24 34 PLACEMENT REG/PRE POST 28 38 1.107 2.418 2.184 • 019 ~ : 37 27 SPEC/PRE 25 POST 35 4.078 3.795 1.074 •417 . 24 34. DOMINANCE REG/PRE POST 28 38 4.852 3.457 1.403 -168 •=• =rr: 11 37 SPEC/REG 25 POST 35 5.113 3.543 1.443 •16 " . =7T 24 34 VARIETY REG/PRE POST 28 38 .078 4.09 5.243 .001. =r± 37 27 SPEC/PRE '25 POST 35 1.96 2.95 1.505 • 15 4rr 34 24 CONTRAST REG/PRE POST 28 38 2.56 2.825 1.103 3_7 27 SPEC/PRE 25 POST 35 5.366 3.689 1.454 155 ?rr 24 34 MOVEMENT REG/PRE POST 28 38 2.122 5.975 2.815 .003 yr 27 SPEC/PRE 25 POST 35 3.481 4.078 1.172 •347 ~ 34. 24 df N l " 1 •N, - 1 .01 .05 41 The Pre/Post-test scores were used to test the hypotheses: A. There w i l l be no s i g n i f i c a n t differences in performance i n pre and post-test r e s u l t s in a rt tasks undertaken by an E.M.R. clas s on each c f the following c r i t e r i o n v a r i a b l e s : 1. org a n i z a t i o n a l unity 2. v i s u a l weight 3... placement 4. dominance 5. v a r i e t y 6. contrast 7. movement B. There w i l l be no s i g n i f c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n pre and post-test r e s u l t s by a regular art c l a s s , when that c l a s s i s given material i d e n t i c a l to that given the E.M.R. c l a s s , on each of the following c r i t e r i o n v a r i a b l e s : 1. organizational unity 2. v i s u a l weight 3. placement 4. dominance 5. v a r i e t y 6. contrast 7. movement. The programme scores ( i . e . r e s u l t s achieved cn each of the interim assignments) were used to tes t the hypothesis: C. There w i l l be no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n the r e l a t i v e degree of performance by regular c l a s s and E.M.R. clas s members on assigned a r t tasks according to the following c r i t e r i o n v a r i a b l e s : 1. org a n i z a t i o n a l unity 2. v i s u a l weight 3. placement 4. dominance 5. v a r i e t y 6. contrast 7. movement 42 Acceptable Levels of S i g n i f i c a n c e for S t a t i s t i c a l Data "The higher the l e v e l of s i g n i f i c a n c e s p e c i f i e d , the less l i k e l y i t i s that errors of the f i r s t kind i . e . r e j e c t i n g when one ought to accept the hypothesis w i l l occur." (Engelhart, 1972, p.253) Therefore, the .01 l e v e l of s i g n i f i c a n c e was used f o r the acceptance or r e j e c t i o n of each hypothesis i n connection with pre and post-test scores from both t e s t groups. However, the " r e j e c t i o n of a n u l l hypothesis at the 5 percent, or even the 10 percent, l e v e l may j u s t i f y a d e c i s i o n to change to some new method of i n s t r u c t i o n which requires no more e f f o r t and expense than the one now used." (Engelhart, 1972, p.253) Therefore, the .05 l e v e l of s i g n i f i c a n c e was used f o r the acceptance or r e j e c t i o n of each hypothesis i n connection with the programme (E.M.R. versus r e g u l a r ) . 43 CHAPTER V ANALYSIS'OF FINDINGS This chapter deals with the recording and analysis of r e s u l t s obtained from s t a t i s t i c a l procedures outlined i n Chapter IV. Findings Concerning Differences between Pre- and Post- t e s t scores for the two Treatment Groups The n u l l hypothesis ( H Q A ) i s restated There w i l l be no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n performance i n pre and post-test r e s u l t s i n a r t tasks undertaken by an E.M.R. clas s on each c f the following c r i t e r i o n v a r i a b l e s : 1. or g a n i z a t i o n a l unity 2. v i s u a l weight 3. placement 4. dominance 5. v a r i e t y . 6. contrast 7. movement The n u l l hypothesis (HQB) i s restated There w i l l be no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s in pre and post-test r e s u l t s by a regular a r t c l a s s , when that c l a s s i s given material i d e n t i c a l to that given the E.M.R. c l a s s , on each of the following c r i t e r i o n v a r i a b l e s : 1. or g a n i z a t i o n a l unity 2 . v i s u a l weight 3. placement 4. dominance 5. v a r i e t y . 6. contrast 7. movement The.results of the ana l y s i s by revised t test for each of the c r i t e r i o n v a r i a b l e s are presented i n Table I I I . 44 TABLE III SIGNIFICANCE LEVEL OF t. VALUE PRE-TEST vs; POST--TEST NAME CATEGORY t df * SIG. LEVEL PRE/POST MEANS PRE/POST-REG** UNITY 15.521 64 .001 2.2/7.7 PRE/POST-SPEC*** UNITY 3.876 58 .001 3.8/6.2 PRE/POST-REG WEIGHT 12.267 64 .001 2.7/7 PRE/POST-SPEC WEIGHT 4.570 58 .001 3.4/5.9 PRE/POST-REG PLACEMENT 13.636 64 .001 2.5/6.9 PRE/POST-SPEC PLACEMENT 5.461 58 .001 2.8/5.7 PRE/POST-REG DOMINANCE 4.743 64 .001 4/6,5 PRE/POST-SPEC DOMINANCE 21572 58 .01 4/5.5 PRE/POST-REG VARIETY 10.610 64 .001. 1.9/5.9 PRE/POST-SPEC VARIETY , 5.847 58 .001 2.3/4.7 PRE/POST-REG CONTRAST 8.578 64 .001 2.7/6.3 PRE/POST-SPEC CONTRAST 2̂ .993 58 .004 3.6/5.3 PRE/POST-REG MOVEMENT 8.133 64 .001 1.5/5.8 PRE/POST-SPEC MOVEMENT 3.428 58 .001 2.7/4.5 Graphs- i l l u s t r a t i n g the difference in the pre-tast and post- test means for both groups are presented as figure 2 and 3 on pages 49 and 5Q. *df = (N x +'N2) - 2 ** regular class *** special class 45 (Organizational) u n i t y , H A & H B (1). There i s no s i g n i f i c a n t " *— o o diff e r e n c e i n performance between pre-test and post- t e s t scores f o r (A) Regular Class and (B) Special Class on the c r i t e r i o n "unity". CRITERION GROUP t df PROBABILITY 1 A 15.521 64 .001 B 3.876 58 .001 The s i g n i f i c a n c e l e v e l f o r H Q A & H o B ( l ) was beyond .01 for both groups A and B. The n u l l hypotheses were therefore r e j e c t e d . (VISUAL) WEIGHT H A & H B(2). There i s no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e o o ° in performance between pre-test and post-test scores f o r (A) Regular Class and (B) Sp e c i a l Class on the c r i t e r i o n "weight". CRITERION GROUP t df PROBABILITY 2 A 12.267 64 .001 B 4.570 58 .001 The s i g n i f i c a n c e l e v e l f o r H A & H B(2) was beyond .01 for both ° o o groups A and B. The n u l l hypotheses were therefore r e j e c t e d . 46 Placement, H A & H B(3). There i s no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n the " '— o o performance between pre-test and post-test scores f o r (A) Regular, Class and (B) Spe c i a l Class on the c r i t e r i o n "placement". CRITERION GROUP t df PROBABILITY 3 A 13.636 64 .001 B 5.461 58 .001 The s i g n i f i c a n c e l e v e l for H A & H'-B (3) was beyond .01 for both o o groups A. and B. The n u l l hypotheses were therefore r e j e c t e d . Dominance, H A & H B (4) There i s no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n pe r f o r -: ' 0 o o t- mance between pre-test and post-test scores f o r (A) Regular Class and (B) Special Class on the c r i t e r i o n "dominance". CRITERION GROUP t df PROBABILITY 4 . A 4. ,743 64 .001 B 2. .572 58 .01 The s i g n i f i c a n c e l e v e l for H^A & H^B (4) for Groups A was beyond, while the s i g n i f i c a n c e l e v e l for group B was .01. The n u l l hypotheses were therefore r e j e c t e d . 47 Vari e t y , H^A & H^B (5) There i s no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e in perfo r - mance between pre-test and post-test scores for (A) Regular Class and (B) Special Class on the c r i t e r i o n " v a r i e t y " . CRITERION GROUP t df PROBABILITY 5 A 10. .610 64 .001 B 3. .876 58 .001 The s i g n i f i c a n c e l e v e l f o r H^A & H B- (5) was beyond .01 for both groups A and B. The n u l l hypotheses were therefore r e j e c t e d . Contrast, H^A & H^B (6) There i s no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n pe r f o r - mance between pre-test and post-test scores by (A) Regular Class and (B) Special Class on the c r i t e r i o n "contrast". CRITERION GROUP t df PROBABILITY .6 A 8. .578 64 .001 B 2. .993 58 .004 The s i g n i f i c a n c e l e v e l for H Q A S H Q B A(6).was beyond .01 for both groups A and B . The n u l l hypotheses were therefore rejected. 48 MOVEMENT, H A & H B (7) There i s no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n —-• o o performance between pre-test and post-test scores for (A) Regular Class and (B) Special Class on the c r i t e r i o n "movement". CRITERION GROUP t df PROBABILITY "~ 7 A 8.133 64 .001 B 3.428 58 .001 The s i g n i f i c a n c e l e v e l for H ^ A & H Q B (7) was beyond .01 for both groups A and B . The n u l l hypotheses were therefore r e j e c t e d . 49 FIGURE 2 PRE-TEST AND POST-TEST MEANS FOR REGULAR CLASS (A) 10 1 2 3 4 CATEGORIES Shaded Bars = Pre - Tesc Plain Bars = Pose - Tesc M E A N S Decaile'd on Page 43 FIGURE 3 PRE -TEST AND POST -TEST MEANS FOR SPECIAL CLASS (B) • 1 2 3 4 5 6 . 7 •a. CATEGORIES '* Shaded Bars = Pre- Test Plain Bars = Post - Test Categories detailed on Page 43 51 Discussion of Pre-/Post-test Results The most noticeable feature of the above s e r i e s of findings i s the consistency in mean gains from pre-test to post-test for groups A (Regular) and B ( S p e c i a l ) . Both groups gained consider- ably in a l l of the seven categories. The l e v e l of s i g n i f i c a n c e aptly demonstrates that the s p e c i a l c l a s s and the regular c l a s s can learn from the same programme. Reference to bar graphs in Figure 2 and Figure 3,(page 48 and 49),drawn up to i l l u s t r a t e c l a s s performances revealed by the t e s t i n g of each of the above hypotheses, r e i n f o r c e s the evidence of gain f o r both t e s t groups. The d i f f e r e n c e i n means-from pre-test to p o s t - t e s t however, revealed a somewhat superior performance by group A, the regular c l a s s . The c o n s i s t e n t l y high pre-test means achieved by group B, the s p e c i a l c l a s s , could be the r e s u l t of that group's previous contact with art a c t i v i t y . In that sense, the s p e c i a l c l a s s might be said to be a t y p i c a l . While group A, the regular c l a s s , was comprised of students who f o r the most part have had l i t t l e or no contact with art a c t i v i t y and r e l a t e d i n s t r u c t i o n . i n the classroom, group B, the s p e c i a l c l a s s , was comprised of students who for the most part had previous i n s t r u c t i o n in art a c t i v i t y with t h i s researcher. However, once i n s t r u c t i o n to both groups was complete, group A demonstrated higher post-test means. 52 The d i f f e r e n c e s in mean gains between group A and Group B on pre-test and post^test scores, which i s obvious when viewing Figure 2 and Figure 3, was not a consideration f o r (H A &. H B). In o o fac t such comparisons were d e l i b e r a t e l y avoided. Nevertheless, i t i s i n t e r e s t i n g and perhaps predictable that the r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e that group A, the regular c l a s s , learned more and seemingly at a f a s t e r rate than did group B, the sp e c i a l c l a s s . Summary of Results Derived from the Hypothesis concerning Differences Between pre and post-test scores for the two Treatment Groups The following hypotheses were tested: H A There w i l l be no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n performance i n pre and post-tests r e s u l t s i n a r t tasks undertaken by an E.M.R. c l a s s , on each of the following c r i t e r i o n v a r i a b l e s : 1. or g a n i z a t i o n a l unity 2. v i s u a l weight 3. placement 4. dominance 5. v a r i e t y 6. contrast 7. movement On the basis of r e s u l t s obtained the n u l l hypothesis H^A was rejected at the .01 l e v e l of s i g n i f i c a n c e i n terms of a l l seven c r i t e r i a . H B There w i l l be no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s in pre and post-test r e s u l t s by a regular art c l a s s , when that c l a s s i s given material i d e n t i c a l to that given the E.M.R. c l a s s , on each of the following c r i t e r i o n v a r i a b l e s : 1. organizational unity 2. v i s u a l weight 3. placement 4. dominance 5. v a r i e t y 6. contrast 7. movement 5 3 On the basis of r e s u l t s Obtained the n u l l hypothesis H ^ B was re j e c t e d at the . 0 1 level of s i g n i f i c a n c e i n terms of a l l seven c r i t e r i a . Findings Concerning Differences i n Performance between the two Test Groups on Programme Scores The n u l l hypothesis (H QC) was res t a t e d : C . There w i l l be no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n the r e l a t i v e degree of performance by regular c l a s s and E.M.R. class members on assigned art tasks according to the following c r i t e r i o n v a r i a b l e s : 1. organizational unity 2. v i s u a l weight 3 . placement 4 . dominance 5 . v a r i e t y 6. contrast 7 . movement The r e s u l t s of the analysis by adjusted t test for each of the c r i t e r i o n v a r i a b l e s are presented i n Table IV a,b,c,d. The s i g n i f i c a n c e l e v e l for H ^ C was beyond . 0 5 on 2 8 out of 7 7 categories. The n u l l hypothesis was therefore rejected on those 2 8 categories. The s i g n i f i c a n c e l e v e l for H Q C was not beyond . 0 5 on 4 9 out of 7 7 categories. The n u l l hypothesis was therefore accepted on those 4 9 categories. TABLE I V (a ) 54 NAME CATEGORY* * * : R E G . MEAN S P E C . MEAN C * * d f S I G . L E V E L CONTOUR . 1 7 . 6 4 2 5 . 5 2 6 3 . 5 6 0 45 . 001 * DRAWING •' 2 7 . 0 7 1 ' 4 . 7 8 9 4 . 5 3 3 45 . 001 * ' . 3 . 5 . 6 7 8 4 . 6 6 6 3 . 2 7 5 45 . 0 0 2 * 4 6 4 . 4 2 1 2 . 5 2 0 45 . 02 * 5 5.8.92 4 . 6 3 1 2 . 1 8 4 45 . 0 3 * 6 5 . 8 5 7 3.89-5 3 . 4 7 5 45 . 001 * .. ' 7 5 . 4 6 4 3 . 3 1 5 3 , 0 1 3 45 . 004 * VALUE 1 6 . 8 6 . 9 . 1 3 9 23 . 8 9 2 6 . 0 6 6 . 6 . 7 6 2 23 . 4 5 3 . 5 . 7 3 3 6 . 3 . 6 9 5 23 . 4 9 4 . 3 . 4 5 . 6 . 2 . 6 6 4 23 .01 •*. . 5 4 , 4 6 6 4 . 7 . 2 5 7 23 . 8 . 6 5 . 2 6 . 7 2 . 3 5 4 23 . 0 3 * 7 3 . 8 . 4 . 3 . . 4 8 2 23 . 6 3 COMP #1 1 6 . 4 6 1 5 . 0 9 1 .872 33 . 07 2 5 . 2 3 4 . 4 5 4 1 . 0 9 8 33 . 2 8 3 6 .307 . 4 . 4 5 4 2 . 6 3 6 33 . 01 * 4 5 . 3 8 4 4 . 5 9 0 . 9 8 5 33 . 3 3 . 5 . . 5 . 5 3 8 3 . 8 6 3 2 . 1 3 0 33 . 04 * . 6 4 . 3 8 4 3 . 8 1 3 . 7 1 5 33 •43 ' 7 4 . 7 6 9 4 . 0 4 5 .877 33 .39 •CATEGORIES D E T A I L E D ON PAGE 53 * * d f = ( N L ^ N 2 ) - 2 * > . 0 5 . • TABLE IV (b) 55 NAME . ^CATEGORY REG. MEAN SPEC. MEAN t **df SIG. LEVEL COMP. n 1 7.833 5.666 . 2.822 19. .01 * 2 6.7 5 6.2 .650 19 .52 3 7 5.444 1.858 19 .08 4 6 , 5.2 .752 19 .46 , 5 6.666 5.5 , . .1.553 19 .14 6 : 7.25 5.4 3.00 . 19 .007 * . 7 : 6.916 5-7 1.889 19 . .07 * COLLAGE 1 7.428 6.384 1.629 25 •12 2 7.428 5.923 2.342 25 .03 . * 3 7.428 5.07 6 3.269 25 .003 * • 4 6.571 • 5.076 2.093 25 .05 * 5 6.642 4.07 6 .4.964 25 .001 * 6 7.142 .4.461 3.67 6 25 .001 * 7 : 7.2.14 4.076 . 4.411 25 .001 * PERSPECTIVE 1 8 .222 6.636 2.159 .18 .05 * 2 7.444 6.090 1.53 18 •' . - i * •• 3 6.888 6.181 .750 13 .46 • 4 6.444 4.818 2.063 18 .05 * 5 5.333 5.545 • .227 18 .82 6 5.444 5.818 . .583 13 .57 • 7 . . 6.111 5,4 54 .653 18 .55 ** *CATEGORIES DETAILED ON PAGE 53 ** df = (N 4- N.) - 2 >.05 , • TABLE IV (c) 56 NAME * ^CATEGORY REG. MEAN SPEC. MEAN C **df SIG. LEVEL N. + P.: 1 7.9 .7,6 .647 18 .53 SPACE • 2 7.2 6.3 1.923 18 .07. ' 3 ' • 7.2 •6.6 .923 13 •37 4 . 6.9 6.4 .738 18 • 47- 5 •' 7 5.6 2.039 13 .06 . 6 6.8 5.8 1.276 18 .22 7 5.7 6.1 ' .565 .18. ;•' .58 PHOTO 1 8.666 •:• 7.142 2.185 11 . .05 * REALISM 2 7.5 7.285 .189. 11 .85 3 . 7.5 7.285 .265 . 11 .8 4 7.5 . ' 7.7.14 . .209 11 .84 5 6.666 6.714 ,. 045 11 ,97 6 7.166 7.142 .. -019 11 .99 i 7 6.5 7 .428 .869 11 .4 STAINED 1 9.125 7.333 2.335 21 . 03 * GLASS 2 8.25 7 .142 1.481, 21 .15 WINDOW . 3 7.375 6.285 ' 1.321 21 .2 4 7.375 6.285 1.320 21 .2 5 7 6.714 .355 21 .73 6 7 6.857 .206 21 .84 7 7 .125 6.714 • .611 21 .55. *•** CATEGORIES DETAILED ON PAGE 53 ** df = (Nx + N2) - 2 . >.05 TABLE IV (d) 57 NAME *CATEGORY REG. MEAN.. SPEC. MEAN . t **df SIG. LEVEL MIXED 1 7.5 7.75 .557 28 .53 MEDIA 2 7.2 7.05 .438 28 .67 3 '6.9 6.7 .418 28 .68 4 5.8 . 6.10.5 .48 6 28 .63 , , 5 6.2 4.2 4.366 28 .001 * 6 7.1 5.2 4.022 28 .001 * . 7 6.1 • 4.45 2.7 00 28 .01 * PAINTING 1 7.58 6 7 1 .350. .49 . .18 SERIES 2 7.172 6.363 1.992 49 .05 * 3 6.758 6.272 1.087 49 .28 5.896 5.636 .524 49 .6 5 5,275 4.772 - 1 .077 49 .29 . 6 .' /5.862 6.045 .449 49 .66 - 7 5.137 5.363 .446 49 .66 ^> .05 28 Categories <\ .05 . 49 Categories 77. TOTAL *** CATEGORIES DETAILED ON PAGE 53 ** df = (N + N ) - 2 >.05 58 . FIGURE 4 COMPARATIVE • MEAN GAINS CONTOUR DRAWING 4 5 CATEGORIES M £ A N S Shaded Bars = Sp e c i a l Class P l a i n Bars = Regular Class Categories d e t a i l e d on Page 53. 5 9 FIGURE 5 COMPAARATTVE MEAN GAINS VALUE , . • : : - : r — — 9 CATEGORIES * Shaded B a r s = S p e c i a l C l a s s P l a i n B a r s = R e g u l a r C l a s s " C a t e g o r i e s d e t a i l e d on Page 53 FIGURE 6 COMPARATIVE MEAN GAINS COMPOSITION #1 CATEGORIES Shaded Bars = Special Class Plain Bars = Regular Class Categories detailed on Page 53 61 FIGURE 7 COMPARATIVE MEAN GAINS COMPOSITION #2 M E A N S 3. .4 CATEGORIES Shaded Bars = Special Class Plain Bars = Regular Class Categories detailed on Page 53 FIGURE 8 . COMPARATIVE MEAN GAINS COLLAGE F l CATEGORIES * Shaded Bars = Special Class PLain Bars = Regular Class Categories detailed on Page 53 63 .FIGURE 9 COMPARATIVE MEAN GAINS . PERSPECTIVE — — : ; T— 10 — 8 M — 7 E CATEGORIES Shaded Bars = S p e c i a l Class P l a i n Bars = Regular Class Categories d e t a i l e d on Page 53 64 FIGURE 10 . COMPARATIVE MEAN GAINS N & P SPACE 9 CATEGORIES Shaded Bars = S p e c i a l Class P l a i n 3 a r s = Regular Class Categories d e c a i l e d on Page 53 65 FIGURE 11 COMPARATIVE MEAN GAINS PHOTO REALISM 1 0 2 3. 4 . CATEGORIES Shaded.Bars = S p e c i a l Class P l a i n Bars = Regular Class M E A N S Categories d e t a i l e d on Page -53 66 F I G U R E 12 C O M P A R A T I V E M E A N G A I N S S T A I N E D G L A S S W I N D O W 10 9 8 1 2 3 4 5 6 CATEGORIES Shaded Bars =. S p e c i a l Class P l a i n Bars .= Regular Class Categories d e t a i l e d on Page 53 67 FIGURE 13 COMPARATIVE MEAN GAINS MIXED MEDIA . . ; . ! _ _ 10 . —.' 9 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 CATEGORIES " Shaded Bars = S p e c i a l Class P l a i n Bars = Regular Class Categories d e t a i l e d on Page 53 68 FIGURE 14 COMPARATIVE MEAN GAINS PAINTING SERIES . >;. ; ! , ; _, _ _ 1 0 CATEGORIES Shaded Bars = Special Class Plain Bars = Regular Class Categories detailed on Page 53 69 Discussion of Programme Adjusted t test Results The most s t r i k i n g feature from the adjusted t test r e s u l t s i s the degree to which the s p e c i a l c l a s s performed within the parameters of a regular art programme. Forty-nine instances (64%) revealed no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n performance between the two tes t groups. This would suggest that i n a d d i t i o n to the E.M.R. Class being able to learn from a regular art programme, the E.M.R. class i s capable of response comparable to that of the regular class on more than h a l f the programme content. In f a c t , the E.M.R. cl a s s i s capable of superior progress i n some instances. Referring to presented bar graphs on comparative mean gains, Figure 5 demonstrates the superior performance of the E.M.R. cl a s s on that p a r t i c u l a r a r t a c t i v i t y (Value). Conversely, Figures 4,6,7,8,9,10 and 12 demonstrate the superior performance of the regular c l a s s on contour drawing, composition #1, composition #2, coll a g e , perspective, N & P space, and stained glass window. Figures 11, 13 and 14 ( photo realism, mixed media, painting s e r i e s ) appear for the most part to suggest an equal performance by both groups. In considering the r e s u l t s of t h i s study, i t must be remembered that although both groups were exposed to and experienced the same programme content, the d e l i v e r y of the programme 70 to the E.M.R. group was adjusted to meet both group and in d i v i d u a l needs. The vary nature of a p a r t i c u l a r group make-up di c t a t e s a p a r t i c u l a r d e l i v e r y of content. The language of in s t r u c t i o n v a r i e s according to need. As would be expected, vocabulary of E.M.R. students i s generally not comparable at the same.level to the vocabulary of regular students of the same age group. (James, 1983). Thus adjustments f o r language d e f i c i e n c i e s , when made apparent by student response or lack cf response, must be made to e f f e c t successful d e l i v e r y of programme content. For example, where the i n s t r u c t o r might r e f e r to the surface to be worked as the whole of the p i c t u r e plane when addressing a regular c l a s s , the same surface might be r e f e r r e d to as a l l the paper i n conjunction with the whole of the pic t u r e plane when addressing an E.M.R. c l a s s . In-class prompting i s determined by i n d i v i d u a l c l a s s member needs. When confronted with a regular c l a s s f o r the purpose of i n s t r u c t i o n the i n s t r u c t o r w i l l vary his d e l i v e r y of content according to i n d i v i d u a l c l a s s number needs. For example, the general i n t r o - duction and lesson d e l i v e r y to the clas s as a whole does not repre- sent the t o t a l i t y of content d e l i v e r y to i n d i v i d u a l s that make up that c l a s s . The minute a student asks for c l a r i f i c a t i o n p e r t a i n i n g to lesson content the de l i v e r y of lesson content to that p a r t i c u l a r student becomes d i f f e r e n t with the addition of further i n s t r u c t i o n by the i n s t r u c t o r . S i m i l a r i l y , differences i n de l i v e r y to E.M.R. class members w i l l occur i n a classroom teaching s i t u a t i o n . Since the range 71 of a b i l i t i e s between i n d i v i d u a l c l a s s members from the E.M.R. group generally encompasses a span that i s greater than that found i n a regular c l a s s , d e l i v e r y to the E.M.R. may have a greater v a r i e t y from i n d i v i d u a l to i n d i v i d u a l within the group. S i m i l a r i l y the range of a b i l i t i e s between i n d i v i d u a l s from the E.M.R. group and the regular c l a s s group i s greater s t i l l , thus v a r i e t y i n d e l i v e r y between groups i s commensurately greater. Teacher-class rapport can have a d i r e c t influence on student response to lesson content and i t s d e l i v e r y . This i s true f o r the regular c l a s s learning environment and i s of paramount importance when dealing with classroom procedures and the E.M.R. (James, 1983). 72 CHAPTER VI SUMMARY AND IMPLICATIONS OF THE STUDY Summary of Procedures and Major Findings This study was designed to inv e s t i g a t e the premise that E.M.R. students can learn within the confines of a regular ihtroductory a r t programme. In order to v e r i f y or discount the pro p o s i t i o n that E.M.R. learning w i l l take place within a chosen regular a r t programme, i t was necessary to involve as a c r i t e r i o n group a regular a r t c l a s s , f o r whom the programme i s normally intended. The programme was conducted over a s i x month period i n a d i s t r i c t high school. Both groups, E.M.R. and regular, were exposed to i d e n t i c a l lesson content under normal classroom conditions. That i s to say, lessons were presented and adequate follow-up time was provided f o r completion of assigned problems. A t o t a l of f i f t e e n problems was assigned. The f i r s t two and the l a s t two problems, being i d e n t i c a l , served as pre-tests and p o s t - t e s t s . A t o t a l of 446 student art works was generated from the given programme. Since the s e t t i n g for the study was to be under normal classroom conditions, and i t i s standard p r a c t i c e to allow students more than one so l u t i o n to a p a r t i c u l a r problem, more than f i f t e e n works per student from each group r e s u l t e d . Conversely, some students were not represented in some lessons and follow-up art a c t i v i t i e s due to absence from school over the s i x month duration of the study. 73 Resultant student a r t works were randomized to form three separate c o l l e c t i o n s , one f o r each of three judges. These were scored on a one to ten b a s i s , using score cards comprised of seven categories or v a r i a b l e s . The scores were used as data for entry to selected computer programmes to determine s i g n i f i c a n t differences as follows; A. between pre-test and post-test for E.M.R. B . between pre-test and post-test for regular class C. between E.M.R. and regular c l a s s on programme ( i . e . interim lesson) performance. The f i n d i n g s on pre/post-test analysis indicated that, under normal c o n d i t i o n s , both the E.M.R. student and the regular student w i l l learn within the confines of a regular a r t programme. The p r o b a b i l i t y on a l l seven categories for both groups was .001; thus the n u l l hypotheses ( H Q A , H ^ B ) were r e j e c t e d . On programme performance, findings i n d i c a t e d that there were s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s at the .05 l e v e l between groups on 28 out of 77 categories. However, on the remaining 49 categories there were no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s at the .05 l e v e l . That means perform- ance by E.M.R.s was comparable to that of the regular c l a s s i n better than 60% of programme content. There i s however, a danger i n i n t e r p r e t i n g and applying the findi n g s of t h i s study. Current movements to assure the handicapped and the disabled youth t h e i r f u l l place in society ( C o l l i n s , 1984), i n c l u d i n g a place in the public school system, (Hunter, 1981) have given r i s e to the idea that 74 a l l but the most severely handicapped students should be integrated into the regular school system (Mackie, 1983). This i s not ne c e s s a r i l y the case. Sixty percent s t i l l f a l l s f a r short of the figu r e that might i n d i c a t e p a r i t y i n terms of learning a b i l i t y . Conclusions drawn from obtained s t a t i s t i c a l data are based s o l e l y on the r e l a t i o n s h i p of the two groups tested i n t h i s study, with reference only to some aspects of art education. Any study that incorporates a group or number of groups of i n d i v i d u a l s and attempts to draw conclusions based on group r e s u l t s i s e s s e n t i a l l y l i m i t e d , since i t discounts i n d i v i d u a l differences of members who comprise the group. A d i f f e r e n t make-up of groups could r e s u l t i n d i f f e r e n t r e s u l t s and r e l a t e d conclusions- For example, the E.M.R. test group used i n t h i s study was comprised of members whose I.Q. range varied some 22 score points between i n d i v i d u a l s . Would the r e s u l t s of an i d e n t i c a l procedure y i e l d the same conclusions i f the I.Q. range varied more or less than 22 score points? Although l i m i t a t i o n s appear to be numerous, the implications of t h i s study are also s i g n i f i c a n t v a l i d a t i o n of Gold's as s e r t i o n that The height of a retarded person's l e v e l of functioning i s determined by the a v a i l a b i l i t y of t r a i n i n g technology and the amount of resources society i s w i l l i n g to a l l o c a t e and not by s i g n i f i c a n t l i m i t a t i o n i n b i o l o g i c a l p o t e n t i a l . (Gold, 1971, p.l.) For the most part, students l i v e up to the expectations of t h e i r teachers. This study has indicated that some degree of normaliz- ation i s po s s i b l e within a regular art programme. Special l i m i t e d 75 a r t programmes do not offe r the only a l t e r n a t i v e f or the education of the E.M.R. within the confines of the public school, and other p o s s i b i l i t i e s are worth exploring. The r e s u l t s suggest that E.M.R. students can perform on an adequate l e v e l compared to the norm, on most assigned art tasks. The short term increment i n learning seemed to be comparable for E.M.R. students and regular students. But long term increments seemed to be less the norm for the E.M.R. groups, as evidenced by compar- a t i v e post-test r e s u l t s . The graphs (Figures 2 and 3) show r e a l : diffe r e n c e s i n progress between groups from pre-test to po s t - t e s t . Although long term memory appears to be at a comparatively low l e v e l among E.M.R.s, the evidence implies that i t s presence i s s u f f i c i e n t to warrant some degree of success i n learning through art a c t i v i t y . The E.M.R. scores, higher than scores from the regular group i n pre-test r e s u l t s , , p o s s i b l y due to previous a r t a c t i v i t y undertaken by many members of the E.M.R. c l a s s , would seem to support the p o s i t i v e e f f e c t of learning through a r t . The concept of " i n t e g r a t i o n " of E.M.R. students into the regular mainstream of the public school must be c a r e f u l l y considered. Further research into t h i s very important aspect of public education must be the basis for any new programme development. The comparative rate of learning for E.M.R. students appears to j u s t i f y d i f f e r e n c e s i n delivery of regular c l a s s lesson content to E.M.R.s. However, the.difference need only be in de l i v e r y , not in content. Adjustment i n de l i v e r y may be necessary i n order for programme content to be f u l l y understood by E.M.R. students. 76 REFERENCES Arnheim, Rudolf. Art and V i s u a l Perception, Berkeley: U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a Press, 1974. B i e r s t e d t , Robert. The S o c i a l Order, Toronto: McGraw-Hill Bock Company, 1970. Burkhard, Robert C. Evaluation of l e a r n i n g i n A r t , Art Education, A p r i l , 1965. 3-5 Chapman, Laura H. Approaches to Art in Education, San.Francisco: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, Inc., 1978; C o l l i n s , G l o r i a . Children Cross Learning F r o n t i e r s Times-Colonist, March 6, 1984, DI. Csapo M. & Goguen L. Special Education Across Canada, Vancouver: Centre for Human Development and Research, 1980. Derkach, L. A l b e r n i D i s t r i c t A s s o c i a t i o n f o r the Mentally Handicapped, Guiding Philosophy, October, 1983. Dewey, John. Art As Experience, New York; Capricorn Books, G. P. Putnam's Sons. , 1958.. Eisner, E. W. & Vallance E. C o n f l i c t i n g Conceptions of Curriculum, Berkeley: McCutchan Publishing Corporation, 1974. Emlen, Mary Gay. Art and the Slow Learner, School A r t s , March, 1970. 10-11. Engelhart, Max D. Methods of Educational Research, Chicago: Rand McNally and Company, 1972. Ensher, G a i l , Laurene, Mental Retardation, Journal of Education, December, 1969. 72-73. Ferguson, G. A. S t a t i s t i c a l Analysis in Psychology and Education, Toronto: McGraw H i l l Book Co. Inc., 1959. Hunter, Don. Handicapped Grow i n Normal School, Sun Province, November 1, 1981.,Bl. Green, H. Walter Smith: The Forgotten Man, Art Education, 19 (1), 1966, 3-9 Gold, Marc, W. An End to the Concept of Mental Retardation: Mental Retardation, 10 (1), 1972, 1-6 I t t e n , J . The Elements of Color, Toronto: Van Ncstrand Reinhold Company, 1970. 77 James, P h i l i p . Teaching Art To Special Students, Portland, Maine: J . Weston Walch, 1983. K i l i a n , Crawford, Helping the Handicapped i s a Fine Art i n B. C. Schools, The Province, March 1, 1983., B3. Lanier, Vincent. The Arts We See New York: Teachers College, Columbia U n i v e r s i t y , 1982. Levic, Myra, Goldman, Morris, J . & Find, Paul, J . T r a i n i n g for Art Therapists: Community Mental Health Center and College of Art J o i n Forces B u l l e t i n of Art Therapy, 1967. Lowenfeld, V i c t o r , Creative and Mental Growth, New York: The Macmillan Co., 1957. Mackie, Bob, Integration Plan Working Out Better than Expected, Da i l y Townsman, January 16, 1983. M i l l e r , Pamela, Fine & M i l l e r , Sidney R., The Relationship of Task D i f f i c u l t y to Mentally Retarded Students' Interest i n Art, Studies i n Art Education, 23 (1), 1981, 22-26 Mi n i s t r y of Education, V i c t o r i a , B.C. Guide To the Core Curriculum, 1977. M i n i s t r y of Education, V i c t o r i a , B.C. "Schools Department C i r c u l a r " No. 82, March, 1979. M i n i s t r y of Education, V i c t o r i a , B.C. Supplement to the Core Curriculum S p e c i a l Education, 1984. Naumburg, M. An Introduction to Art Therapy, New York: Teachers College Press. Columbia U n i v e r s i t y , 1973. Naumburg, M. Dynamically Oriented Art Therapy: I t s P r i n c i p l e s and P r a c t i c e s , New York: Grume and S t r a t t o n , 1966. Ocvirk, O.G. Bone, R.O. Stinson, R.E. andWigg, P.R. Art Fundamentals, Theory and P r a c t i c e , Dubuque: Wm. C. Brown Company, Publishers, 1968. Pappas, George. Concepts in Art and Education Toronto: C o l l i e r - M a c m i l l a n Canada, Ltd., 1970.. Province of B r i t i s h Columbia, Department of Education, Elementary School Programme for Slow Learners in Special Classes, 1965. 77-79. 78 Province of B r i t i s h Columbia, Department of Education., Slow Learners i n Special Classes, V i c t o r i a , 1956. Read, Herbert, Education Through Art, New York: Pantheon Bocks, Inc., 1945. Report of the Royal Commission on Education, V i c t o r i a : Province of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1960. Rubin, J u d i t h , A. Research i n Art with the Handicapped: Problems and Promises, Studies i n Art Education, 23 (1), 1981, 7-12 Saskatchewan Department of Education, D i v i s i o n I I , Art, May 1978. Sperno, Ruth and Weiner, Carole, Creative Arts Therapy, C h i l d Today, July, 1973, p. 12 - 17. Sutton, G. A r t i s a n or A r t i s t ? London: Pergamon Press, 1967. Uhl i n , Donald, M. Art for Exceptional Children, Dubuque: Wm. C. Brown Company, Publishers, 1973. Willoughby, Stephen, S. P r o b a b i l i t y and S t a t i s t i c s , Agincourt, Ontario: G.L.C. Publishers Ltd., 1977. Canadian Press, Art Cures C h i l d Woes Toronto (CP), 1978. OTHER Texas Instruments Home Computer " S t a t i s t i c s " Command Module, 1980. Texas Instruments T l 99/4A Computer Reference Guide 79 APPENDIX A (1) Art a c t i v i t e s and r e l a t e d time l i n e incorporated i n t h i s study f o r both groups. Pre-testing Sept. 19 Sept. 21 Contour Drawing Sept 23. N & P Space Sept 27 Sept. 28 Sept. 29 Oct. 5 Perspective Oct. 10 Oct. 18 Value Oct. 20 Oct. 25 Nov. 2 drawing of given objects black & white p o r t r a i t painting . Programme i n t r o . contour drawing i n t r o . negative & p o s i t i v e space sketch took assignment ( s t i l l l i f e drawing) r e f i n e s t i l l l i f e drawing and break up into black and white shapes. tr a n s f e r s t i l l l i f e compositions to black construction paper and cut away white areas. Mount completed c u t t i n g on white card. i n t r o . l i n e a r perspective. Execute the drawing of nine blocks with two vanishing p o i n t s , a p p l i c a t i o n of colour and various embellishments to perspective drawing using idea of landscape. i n t r o . balance. Execute free poster on Halloween Theme. i n t r o . "Tone" (Value) shading l i g h t to dark, execute the accurate i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of given tone modulation. 80 Photo Realism Nov. 17 Stained Glass Dec. 6. Composition #1 Jan 3. Jan 5. Composition #2 Jan 9. Composition #3 Jan 23. Painting Series Feb. 7 Feb. 15. Po s t - t e s t i n g photo realism (graphing and tone modulation) review balance and negative & p o s i t i v e space. Execute stained glass window composition. (Christmas Theme) i n t r o . Closure and Overlapping in combination with s i m p l i f i c a t i o n i n Abstraction, break up a given object "Guitar" into simple geometric shapes and create a balanced composition ( l i n e drawing) apply tone to g u i t a r composition (tempera on card) i n t r o mixed media concept r e - i n t e r p r e t g u i t a r composition using drawing, p a i n t i n g , and c o l l a g e . i n t r o colour chart and mixing including t i n t s and tones. exercises on colour (paint) mixing execute given p a i n t i n g s e r i e s . drawing of given objects Black & white p o r t r a i t painting 81 APPENDIX A(2) Summaries of Presentations to both Groups 1. Contour Drawing: Students were asked: What i s a l i n e ? Can you point out a l i n e to me? Can you go and bring me a b a s k e t f u l of lines? These questions with r e l a t e d answers and discussion concluded with the f a c t that a l i n e i s a man made thing, i t i s . a concept, and i t becomes evident at the edge of a surface. Examples of l i n e drawings executed by a range of a r t i s t s were presented for viewing and discussion, ( s l i d e s ) Students were next asked to c a r e f u l l y look at t h e i r hand and note the l i n e s within and around. Contour, boundaries around surfaces were sought. A number of attempts were made st drawing the hands cn paper without looking at the paper; rather, the eyes never l e f t the hand, thus r e s u l t i n g i n a continuous l i n e drawing. Following these exercises, students were asked to draw a "f i g u r e i n a s e t t i n g " . Only l i n e s were to be used. I t was suggested they draw the person (and surrounding space) s i t t i n g opposite them. Ma t e r i a l was 2B p e n c i l on 18" X 24" cartridge paper. 82 2. N & P Space Following an in t r o d u c t i o n to negative and p o s i t i v e space, students were asked to execute a l i n e drawing cf a presented s t i l l l i f e i n t h e i r sketchbook. Once complete the drawing was reworked i n such a way as to produce a composition with wholly enclosed shapes. These shapes were then designated as e i t h e r white or black. It soon became apparent that black which i s most often used as the p o s i t i v e can be interchanged with white, u s u a l l y l e f t as background space (negative). When students were s a t i s f i e d with t h e i r sketchbook studies the drawing was t r a n s f e r r e d (re-drawn) to black construction paper and the designated white shapes were cut cut with an exacto k n i f e . The f i n a l c u t t i n g was mounted on white B r i s t o l board, producing a black and white composition of the o r i g i n a l s t i l l l i f e (18" X 24"). 3. PERSPECTIVE An int r o d u c t i o n to l i n e a r perspective through the eyes of a r t i s t s was provided by way of a s l i d e presentation. Presented works varied from Perugino, 1482 " C h r i s t D e l i v e r i n g the Keys to St. Peter" to con- temporary a r c h i t e c t u r a l rendering. 83 The p r i n c i p l e of l i n e a r perspective was made apparent by way cf discussion and r e l a t e d demonstration. Students were next to p r a c t i s e exercises, (drawing successive cubes with two vanishing points in sketch book). Following these ex e r c i s e s , the problem was posed. Three l e v e l s of nine boxes (or bu i l d i n g s ) are seen as nine squares from the top. Draw how they would appear from the fro n t , using two vanishing points. Cardboard boxes were a v a i l a b l e f o r students to set up the suggested scene. Upon completion of drawing students were asked to set the twenty- seven boxes in a landscape s e t t i n g and add colour. 4. VALUE Students were introduced to the concept cf balance w i t h i n a composition. Selected works of a r t were viewed i n a s l i d e presentation. Various forms of balance were pointed cut and discussed. Students were asked to execute a balanced composition following a given theme. The choice of medium, was l e f t to i n d i v i d u a l s . The completed compositions were then looked at by the cla s s and the r e s u l t s were discussed. The idea o£ "shading" came up in discussion. 84 Thus Tone (Value) became an area for consideration. Following the presentation and r e l a t e d d i s c u s s i o n of works of art with reference to value i n the composition, students were asked to execute the accurate i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of given tone modulation. Small sections of black & white magazine p i c t u r e s were cut and used as points of departure for student work. 5. Photo Realism Students were introduced to High Realism i n Canada. Contemporary Canadian a r t i s t s working i n the high realism manner were the point of departure for t h i s presentation. To assure some measure of success i n realism students were introduced to graphing of given images. Black and White photographs or magazine p i c t u r e s served as the point of departure for student art works. Completed works were 16" X 16" p e n c i l (2H,2B,HB) drawings on Moyers drawing white. 6. Stained Glass Following a review of balance within a composition and negative and p o s i t i v e space students were asked to create a balanced composition using a Christmas theme. Shapes were to be designated as black or white. The work was done i n student sketch books. Christmas cards served as points Of departure for student works. 85 When sketch book work was completed, the composition was transferred to black construction paper and white spaces were cut cut using an exacto k n i f e . The now blank spaces were f i l l e d i n using coloured t i s s u e paper sheets. The resultant works were displayed against a window to allow l i g h t to pass through the t i s s u e paper and thus take cn the appearance of stained g l a s s . 7. Composition #1 The concept of Abstraction was introduced to students by way of s i m p l i f i c a t i o n . Various examples of abstract work (representational abstraction) were presented i n s l i d e form f o r viewing and discussion. Discussion of presented works made evident closure and overlapping i n those works. Thus s i m p l i f i c a t i o n , closure, and overlapping became areas of concern f o r students i n t h e i r work. Students were presented with a number of guitars to serve as points of departure f o r t h e i r work. They were asked to create a balanced composition of "Guitar" using simple geometric shapes. Only l i n e s were to be used. 8. Composition #2 Students were asked to tr a n s f e r the r e s u l t s from comp #1 to a 8" X 15" card. Using tempera paint, students were i n s t r u c t e d 86 to apply tone to the composition and to be aware of balance. The completed work was to be monochrome. 9. Composition #3 The technique of collage i n image making was introduced to students through the study of s l i d e presentations of Cubist and S u r r e a l i s t works. Students were in s t r u c t e d to r e - i n t e r p r e t the g u i t a r composition from Comp #1 and #2 on an 8" X 15" card, using the c o l l a g e technique. A v a r i e t y of magazine pic t u r e s was a v a i l a b l e to students to cut up and paste on. 10 Mixed Media (comp #4) The idea of mixing various materials on a surface to create an image was discussed. A v a r i e t y of sample art works incorporating mixed media was presented by way of s l i d e s . Works from Dada, Surrealism, and American Abstract Expressionism, were viewed. Following t h i s presentation and r e l a t e d discussion students were ins t r u c t e d to r e - i n t e r p r e t the previous g u i t a r composition (#l,#2,and #3) using drawing, painting, and c o l l a g e . 87 11. Painting Series The colour chart (or wheel) as described by I t t e n was the basis for introduction to colour theory (I t t e n , 1970). Following a basic i n t r o d u c t i o n to colour, students were set tasks of colour mixing. These exercises served as reinforcements to presented information. Colour mixing included secondary and t e r t i a r y colours as well as t i n t s and tones. Students were next i n s t r u c t e d to create a balanced composition ( l i n e drawing) i n t h e i r sketch book. This composition was to be transferred to three separate cards 8" X 10". The r e s u l t a n t cards were to be completed with colour. Liquid tempera paint was used. A p a r t i c u l a r colour mode was to be used f o r each of the three compositions, eg: T r i a d harmony, complementary harmony, t i n t s and tone etc. APPENDIX B Computer Programme for Chi Square for TI-99/4A computer (Inter-judge r e l i a b i l i t y ) 100 DIM V(3,10) 110 CALL CLEAR 120 FOR I = 1 TO 3 130 PRINT "ENTER DATA FOR JUDGE 140 FOR J = 1 TO TO 150 INPUT V(I,J) 160 V(I,0) = V(1,0)+V(I,J) 170 V(0,J) =V(0,J) + V(I,J) 180 V(0,0) = V(0,0) + V(I,J) 190 NEXT J 200 NEXT I 210 FOR 1 = 1 TO 3 220 FOR J = 1 to 10 230 E ='V(I,0) •* V(0,J)/V(0,0) 240 IF E = 0 THEN 2 70 250 A = V ( I , J ) - E . . . 260 T = T+A-'-A/E 270 NEXT J 280 NEXT I 290 PRINT "CHI SQUARE IS";T 89 APPENDIX C Computer Programme for t test (non-norma1) for TI-99/4A computer 100 INPUT "FIRST MEAN ":M1 110 INPUT "SECOND MEAN":M2 120 INPUT FIRST VARIANCE":VI 130 INPUT "SECOND VARIANCE" :V2' 132 INPUT "FIRST NUMBER":N1 134 INPUT "SECOND NUMBER":N2 140 PRINT ::: 150- T = ABS(Ml-M2)/SQR(VI/(N-l)+V2/(2-l) 160 PRINT "T VALUE IS";T 170 IF VI V2 THEN 200 180 F = V1/V2 190 GOTO 210 200 F= V2/V1 210 PRINT "F RATIO IS";F 89a APPENDIX D (1) A SAMPLING CF REPRODUCTIONS OF STUDENTS' WORKS FROM THE E.M.R. CLASS RESULTING FROM THIS STUDY  91 92 Black & White P o r t r a i t Composition #1 93 Stained Glass 94 P e r s p e c t i v e V a l u e C o m p o s i t i o n #3 95 95a APPENDIX D (2) A SAMPLING OF REPRODUCTIONS OF STUDENTS' WORKS FROM THE REGULAR CLASS RESULTING FROM THIS STUDY 96 97 98 Composition # 1 Composition #3 99 Stained Glass 100 Perspective Value 101 C o m p o s i t i o n #2 C o m p o s i t i o n #3 C o m p o s i t i o n #4 APPENDIX E Q Fine Arts • A rtj A r t A . The s t u d e n t r e c o g n i z e s b a s i c L E V E L S • r e c o g n i z e s ' a v a r i e t y o f t y p e s a n d u s e s o f l i n e s i n a r t P I J s 0 X 0 X 0 • i d e n t i f i e s c o l o u r s and c o l o u r q u a l i t i e s ( e . g . h u e , i n t e n s i t y and m i x t u r e s ) O X 0 X 0 • d e m o n s t r a t e s an a w a r e n e s s o f t h e t e x t u r e s o f o b j e c t s and m a t e r i a l s 0 X 0 X 0 X 0 X • shows an a w a r e n e s s o f s p a c e i n a r t 0 X 0 X 0 X 0 X The s t u d e n t p a r t i c i p a t e s a c t i v e l y i n a r t e x p e r i e n c e s . • c u t s o r t e a r s p a p e r t o make s h a p e s and d e s i g n s 0 X 0 X 0 X • p a s t e s m a t e r i a l t o f o r m a c o l l a g e 0 X 0 X 0 X t d raws s i m p l e , r e c o g n i z a b l e f o r m s 0 X 0 X 0 X 0 X • u s e s m o d e l l i n g m a t e r i a l s r e . g . c l a y , p a p i e r - m a c h e ) t o f o r m a r t o b j e c t s 0 X 0 X 0 X 0 X • c o n s t r u c t s c r a f t i t e m s u s i n g a v a r i e t y o f m a t e r i a l s and modes 0 X 0 X 0 X 0 X • e m p l o y s v a r i o u s a r t m a t e r i a l s and t e c h n i q u e s i n s e l f - e x p r e s s i on 0 0 X 0 X 0 X • u s e s a r t t o o l s a n d m a t e r i a l s a p p r o p r i a t e l y and s a f e l y 0 X 0 X 0 X • shows i n d e p e n d e n c e a n d r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i n d e a l i n g w i t h m a t e r i a l s , w o r k s p a c e , a n d a r t p r o d u c t s 0 X 0 X 0 X e d e m o n s t r a t e s k n o w l e d g e o f a r t g a l l e r i e s and museums 0 X 0 X The s t u d e n t f o r m s o p i n i o n s a b o u t a r t . • i d e n t i f i e s d i f f e r e n t f o r m s o f a r t e x p r e s s i o n 0 X 0 X 0 X • d e m o n s t r a t e s an a p p r e c i a t i o n f o r a v a r i e t y o f a r t f o f m s 0 X 0 X 0 X • r e c o g n i z e s b a s i c a r t t e c h n i q u e s 0 X 0 X 0 X • e v a l u a t e s own a r t work 0 X 0 X 0 X 0 X • e x p r e s s e s and e x p l a i n s p e r s o n a l p r e f e r e n c e s i n a r t 0 X 0 X 0 X • makes c o n s t r u c t i v e comments and c r i t i c i s m s w i t h r e g a r d t o a r t work 0 X 0 X 0 X • d e m o n s t r a t e s a w a r e n e s s o f t h e r o l e o f t h e a r t i s t 0 X 0 X

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