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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Art education and the educable mental retardate in the high school Schlackl, Joseph Dietrich 1984

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ART EDUCATION AND THE  .  EDUCABLE MENTAL RETARDATE IN THE HIGH SCHOOL by JOSEPH DIETRICH SCHLACKL B.F.A., The U n i v e r s i t y  of Manitoba, 1969  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN FARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE  REQUIREMENTS OF THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS  in  THE  FACULTY.OF GRADUATE STUDIES  Department of V i s u a l and P e r f o r m i n g Faculty  We a c c e p t t h i s  i n Education  c f Education  t h e s i s as conforming  to the r e q u i r e d  THE  Arts  standard  UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA SEPTEMBER 1984  ©Joseph  D i e t r i c h Sch.lac'kl, 1984  In presenting t h i s thesis i n p a r t i a l fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the Library s h a l l make i t f r e e l y available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of t h i s thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It i s understood that copying or publication of t h i s thesis for f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my written permission.  Department  oZJS^fts/f/- & /e/ffo/fZv'Ate, /fa r£  The University of B r i t i s h Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T  1Y3  Date ^ZT^^jiT.  )E-6  (3/81)  *  ^  **7  ABSTRACT T h i s e x p e r i m e n t a l study i n v e s t i g a t e d  the p o s s i b i l i t y o f  measuring p u p i l p r o g r e s s i n a r t a c t i v i t i e s  undertaken by a  r e g u l a r c l a s s and a c l a s s o f E d u c a b l e M e n t a l l y Retarded s t u d e n t s t o determine the e x t e n t t o which E.M.R.s might a s s i m i l a t e c o n c e p t s and complete a c t i v i t i e s programme d e s i g n e d f o r r e g u l a r c l a s s e s . e x p l o r e d was t h a t  from an a r t  The u n d e r l y i n g  assumption  i t may be t h a t E.M.R. s t u d e n t s do n o t  a c h i e v e r e s u l t s comparable w i t h s t u d e n t s i n r e g u l a r a r t c l a s s e s simply, because they do n o t have comparable programme c o n t e n t and q u a l i t y of i n s t r u c t i o n . Two  c l a s s e s , one r e g u l a r a r t Grade 10/11 c o m b i n a t i o n c l a s s  and an E.M.R. c l a s s were a s s i g n e d treatment i d e n t i c a l and scope.  i n nature  The c l a s s e s were a p a r t of the r e g u l a r g r o u p i n g  w i t h i n a s e n i o r secondary s c h o o l  inBritish  Columbia.  The treatment c o n s i s t e d of engaging i n f i f t e e n  assignments  d e l i v e r e d by the i n v e s t i g a t o r o v e r a p e r i o d o f s i x c o n s e c u t i v e months.  The f i r s t  two and the l a s t  p r e - t e s t and p o s t - t e s t  respectively.  and p o s t - t e s t s p r o v i d e d m a t e r i a l s and p o s t - t e s t  two assignments s e r v e d as a A l l i n t e r i m assignments and p r e  f o r a n a l y s i s arid comparison.  r e s u l t s provided within-group gains;  provided material  interim  Pre  assignments  f o r i n f o r m a l between-group comparisons.  E v a l u a t i o n of a l l assignments was performed by t h r e e a r t e d u c a t o r s employing an o b j e c t i v e  s c o r i n g procedure p r e v i o u s l y  familiar  t o each.  I l l  The  evaluative  i n s t r u m e n t p u r p o r t e d t o a s s e s s t h e r e s u l t s of each  assignment on seven c l e a r l y  s t a t e d c r i t e r i a which n o r m a l l y form  part  of the f o c i o f i n s t r u c t i o n i n a r t . A n a l y s i s of the data revealed  t h a t both t h e r e g u l a r  the E.M.R. c l a s s g a i n e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y test r e s u l t s .  to pre-test to post-  S i g n i f i c a n c e l e v e l s reached by t h e r e g u l a r c l a s s on a l l  seven c a t e g o r i e s  were  . 0 0 1 . S i g n i f i c a n c e l e v e l s r e a c h e d by t h e E.M.R.  c l a s s were .0C1 on f i v e c a t e g o r i e s . the  according  c l a s s and  On t h e two r e m a i n i n g  categories  s i g n i f i c a n c e l e v e l s were ^01 and . 0 0 4 . On programme r e s u l t s ( i n t e r i m assignments) performance by E.M.R.s  was comparable to t h a t o f the r e g u l a r c l a s s on b e t t e r than 6 0 % of programme c o n t e n t .  Findings  i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e r e were  significant  d i f f e r e n c e s a t t h e .05 l e v e l between groups on 28 out o f 77 c a t e g o r i e s . However, on t h e r e m a i n i n g 49 c a t e g o r i e s  t h e r e was no s i g n i f i c a n t  d i f f e r e n c e a t the .05 l e v e l . The  f i n d i n g s suggest t h a t E.M.R. s t u d e n t s c a n p e r f o r m a t a l e v e l  comparable to t h a t a c h i e v e d tasks.  Special  l i m i t e d a r t programmes do n o t o f f e r the o n l y a l t e r n a t i v e  f o r the e d u c a t i o n school  and o t h e r  by t h e r e g u l a r c l a s s on most a s s i g n e d a r t  o f the E.M.R. w i t h i n possibilities  the confines  a r e worth  exploring.  of the p u b l i c  iv  TABLE OF CONTENTS  i ii iv vii ii ix  T i t l e Page Authorization Abstract T a b l e o f Contents L i s t of T a b l e s L i s t of F i g u r e s Acknowledgements  .. CHAPTER '  I  '.  . PAGE  DISCUSSION OF THE PROBLEM  I n t r o d u c t i o n and background  1  Art  4  E d u c a t i o n and the E.M.R.  R a t i o n a l e f o r the use o f a r t a c t i v i t y i n E.M.R. programme  6  Areas  7  The of  of c o n c e r n  for testing  e x c l u s i o n o f C o l o u r as an area concern  for testing  I n t e n t o f t h e study The  study  classroom  11 12  i n the g e n e r a l context of assimilation  Research  12  Design  14  Statement o f t h e Problem  14  I d e n t i f i c a t i o n of the "Special C l a s s " i n the study  15  Hypotheses  15  Procedures  16  Pre-testing/Post-testing  16  General  L i m i t a t i o n s and Assumptions  17  V  II  ART EDUCATION AND THE CHILD: Historical  Beginnings  20  Current Status  24  Special Education i n B r i t i s h  III  Columbia  26  Summary  28  CONDUCT OF THE STUDY  29  S e t t i n g o f the Study and P o p u l a t i o n Employed  29  Procedures  IV  30  Summary o f E x p e r i m e n t a l Procedures  31  COLLECTION OF DATA AND DESCRIPTION OF STATISTICAL PROCEDURES  33  The E v a l u a t i v e Instrument  33  I n s t r u c t i o n s t o Judges  35  Scoring Procedures  36  f o r Student A r t Works  D e s c r i p t i o n of S t a t i s t i c a l  Procedures  Inter-judge r e l i a b i l i t y  39  Statistical  39  p r o c e d u r e s f o r a n a l y s i s o f data  A c c e p t a b l e L e v e l s of S i g n i f i c a n c e f o r S t a t i s t i c a l Data  V  42  ANALYSIS OF FINDINGS  43  F i n d i n g s C o n c e r n i n g D i f f e r e n c e s between Pre- and P o s t - t e s t s c o r e s f o r the two Treatment Groups  43  D i s c u s s i o n of P r e / P o s t - t e s t  51  results  Summary o f R e s u l t s D e r i v e d from the Hypothesis concerning Differences between t h e pre and p o s t - t e s t s c o r e s f o r the two treatment groups  52  vi  Findings Concerning D i f f e r e n c e s i n Performance between the two t e s t groups on programme s c o r e s D i s c u s s i o n of programme a d j u s t e d t t e s t  VI  results  . SUMMARY AND IMPLICATIONS OF THE STUDY Summary o f p r o c e d u r e s and major  findings  REFERENCES  APPENDICES APPENDIX A (1) A r t A c t i v i t i e s and R e l a t e d time l i n e i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t h i s study f o r both t e s t groups APPENDIX A (2) Summary o f P r e s e n t a t i o n s t o both t e s t  groups  APPENDIX B Computer programme f o r C h i Square f o r T I 99/4A Computer ( I n t e r - j u d g e r e l i a b i l i t y ) APPENDIX C Computer Programme f o r t t e s t (non-normal) f o r T I 99/ 4A computer APPENDIX D (1) R e p r o d u c t i o n s of a sampling of E.M.R. s t u d e n t s ' works APPENDIX D(2) R e p r o d u c t i o n s o f a sampling of r e g u l a r s t u d e n t s ' works APPENDIX E Supplement to Core C u r r i c u l u m 1984, Special Education Art  vii  • . LIST OF  TABLES PAGE  Table  Table  Table  I  II  III  Post-test (regular class) value and r e l a t e d s i g n i f i c a n c e l e v e l on each of seven c a t e g o r i e s (Inter-judge R e l i a b i l i t y )  38  R e s u l t s on 7 C a t e g o r i e s ( P r e - t e s t and P o s t - t e s t ) f o r R e g u l a r (REG) and S p e c i a l  4C  (SPEC) groups  s i g n i f i c a n c e l e v e l of t v a l u e , P r e - t e s t vs P o s t - t e s t  Table  IV  Results  of a n a l y s i s by  44 adjusted  (a) Contour drawing, Value, (b) Comp #2,  t test  Comp.#l  54  Collage, Perspective  ( c ) N & P space, Photo R e a l i s m , S t a i n e d G l a s s Window (d) Mixed Media, P a i n t i n g S e r i e s  55 .  .  .  56 57  vi i i  LIST OF FIGURES  PAGE  Figure  1  Judges'  Figure  2  PRE-TEST AND POST-TEST MEANS FOR REGULAR CLASS (A)  49  PRE-TEST AND POST-TEST MEANS FOR SPECIAL CLASS (B)  50  Figure  Figure  3  4  Score Card  34  COMPARATIVE MEAN GAINS CONTOUR DRAWING  58  Figure  5  COMPARATIVE MEAN GAINS VALUE  59  Figure  6  COMPARATIVE MEAN GAINS COMPOSITION #1  60  Figure  7  COMPARATIVE MEAN GAINS COMPOSITION #2  61  Figure  8  COMPARATIVE MEAN GAINS COLLAGE  62  Figure  9  COMPARATIVE MEAN GAINS PERSPECTIVE  63  F i g u r e 10  COMPARATIVE MEAN GAINS N & P SPACE  64  Figure i l  COMPARATIVE MEAN GAINS PHOTO REALISM  65  F i g u r e 12  COMPARATIVE MEAN GAINS STAINED GLASS WINDOW  66  F i g u r e 13  COMPARATIVE MEAN GAINS MIXED MEDIA  67  F i g u r e 14  COMPARATIVE MEAN GAINS PAINTING SERIES  68  ix  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  I wish  to e x p r e s s my a p p r e c i a t i o n t o those f r i e n d s and  c o l l e a g u e s who have g i v e n me support d u r i n g the development of t h i s thesis.  Particular  thanks  go to Dr. Ron MacGregor, Dr. Graeme  Chalmers and Dr. James Gray f o r t h e i r  i n v a l u a b l e h e l p and guidance  d u r i n g t h e w r i t i n g ;of t h i s work.  My w i f e J a n e t , Kathy and Blake A t k i n s ,  Derek S q u i r e s , R a l p h T u r n e r , B i l l  Maxon and D a r r a l C l a r k a l s o  recognition for their Ralph Turner procedures The without  interest,  understanding  and s u p p o r t .  s u p p l i e d considerable help with s t a t i s t i c a l  used  i n this  deserve  In a d d i t i o n  and computer  study.  s t u d e n t s I have worked w i t h deserve  recognition, for  t h e i r c o o p e r a t i o n , t h i s study c o u l d not have been e f f e c t e d .  1  CHAPTER I DISCUSSION OF THE PROBLEM  I n t r o d u c t i o n and background When a c h i l d i s p r o f e s s i o n a l l y judged to be a t y p i c a l i t should not n e c e s s a r i l y f o l l o w t h a t t h i n g s the c h i l d needs to l e a r n a r e u n i q u e l y and t o t a l l y d i f f e r e n t from what a l l c h i l d r e n have to l e a r n . ( M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n , B.C., 1977)  W i t h i n the p u b l i c  s c h o o l system t h e r e e x i s t s a group of  s t u d e n t s commonly r e f e r r e d to as the " S p e c i a l C l a s s " . students, u s u a l l y their  inability  i n our p u b l i c  low a c h i e v e r s , have c o n t i n u o u s l y  These  demonstrated  t o cope w i t h the r e g u l a r c l a s s r o o m environment  schools.  T h i s marks them as d i f f e r e n t  and i t i s  t h i s d i f f e r e n c e from the norm t h a t has caused them to be p l a c e d i n the " s p e c i a l " c a t e g o r y . of p r o v i d i n g adequate  The system's  answer t o t h i s  problem  e d u c a t i o n f o r such y o u t h i n the P r o v i n c e  of B r i t i s h Columbia was the implementation o f a branch c f e d u c a t i o n known as " S p e c i a l E d u c a t i o n " (Department B r i t i s h Columbia.  1956).  of Education,  A l l r e g u l a r s u b j e c t s o f the p u b l i c  school  system a r e p e r m i t t e d w i t h i n the framework o f t h i s branch. Among them i s a r t (Emlen, The needs  1970).  o f the a t y p i c a l  have caused much a c t i v i t y  i n our p u b l i c  i n recent years.  school  T h i s a c t i v i t y has  been both " p o l i t i c a l " and " c u r r i c u l a r " i n n a t u r e . associations  system  F o r example  f o r the m e n t a l l y handicapped, comprised c f p e o p l e  2  who  f o r the most p a r t are not e d u c a t o r s , have become p o l i t i c a l l y  visible  at s c h o o l board  purpose of h a v i n g mentally  and  o t h e r p u b l i c meetings f o r the  i n p u t on c u r r i c u l u m d e c i s i o n making where the  handicapped are  concerned.  The s t u d e n t s t h a t you have here now and those coming next year w i l l be e x p e r i e n c i n g a d u l t l i f e i n j u s t a few y e a r s . The s c h o o l y e a r s h o u l d be a p r e p a r a t i o n f o r e n t e r i n g a d u l t l i f e and a c c e p t i n g r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . (Derkach, 1983 , p . l )  Under the g e n e r a l heading  of A d m i n i s t r a t i v e Support  the m e n t a l l y handicapped i n the h i g h s c h o o l the  for  suggestion  i s made t h a t : A person a t the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e l e v e l to f o c u s on the needs of the s t u d e n t s who a r e handicapped and to advocate f o r these s t u d e n t s s h o u l d be a p e r s o n who r e a l l y understands and b e l i e v e s i n i n t e g r a t i o n and n o r m a l i z a t i o n . (Derkach, At the same time,  1983,  p.l)  s c h o o l s charged  w i t h the e d u c a t i o n of  handicapped have r e c e i v e d d i r e c t i v e s to "develop that are non-threatening of  a positive  s e l f - c o n c e p t " (B.C.  Public Education  M i n i s t r y of Ed.,  as an answer to meet the needs of scrambled  put  A r t as an area of study was  for special  Ensher, 1 9 6 9 ;  groups has  Uhlin, 1 9 7 3 ) .  the  to d e s i g n s p e c i a l programmes  i n t o the " S p e c i a l C u r r i c u l u m " , activity  1984)  of S p e c i a l E d u c a t i o n  a t y p i c a l , educators them i n t o use.  activities  and which c o n t r i b u t e to the development  With the f o r m a t i o n of the branch in  the  and  quickly assimilated  f o r the t h e r a p e u t i c v a l u e of a r t long been r e c o g n i z e d  (Naumberg,  A rush to implement new  curriculum  1966;  3  m a t e r i a l s and programmes r e s u l t e d , w i t h much of the c u r r i c u l u m relying  on "hands-on" p r o j e c t s .  growth as r e l a t e d  A c t i v i t y was the key, p e r c e p t u a l  t o a r t e d u c a t i o n was f o r the most p a r t  or a t b e s t o v e r l o o k e d ,  d e s p i t e evidence  p e r c e p t u a l growth i n any s tudent w i t h the e d u c a t i o n  of t h a t  ignored  from some s o u r c e s  that  can not be i g n o r e d when d e a l i n g  student.  L e a r n i n g the mechanics of how we s e e , which i s g e n e r a l l y c a l l e d " p e r c e p t i o n " , has an i n f l u e n c e on what we u n d e r s t a n d when we l o o k . ( L a n i e r , 1982, p.76)  The  mentally  education. expected  r e t a r d e d student  Upon c o m p l e t i o n  to f u l f i l l  i s , before a l l ,  a r o l e as a u s e f u l and p r o d u c t i v e member o f the  the g u i d i n g p h i l o s o p h y  mental'ly' handicapped. iv  hallmarks  (Hunter,  1983).  I n t e g r a t i o n and n o r m a l i z a t i o n a r e t h e  1981).  I n t h i s r e s p e c t t h e t h i n g s t h e mental  ever,  from what a l l s t u d e n t s  learn.  L i p - s e r v i c e has been g i v e n t o the f a c t should  T h i s i s evidenced  o f most a s s o c i a t i o n s f o r the  r e t a r d a t e needs t o l e a r n s h o u l d not be d i f f e r e n t should  requiring  o f s c h o o l i n g the mental r e t a r d a t e i s  community and s o c i e t y as a whole (Derkach, through  a student  l e a r n the same t h i n g s normal s t u d e n t s in practice  implies d i f f e r e n t  this  tends  that special should  not to be the c a s e .  students  learn.  How-  "Special"  from the norm, t h e r e f o r e the approach t o c u r r i c u -  lum p l a n n i n g and implementation Words l i k e n o n - c c m p e t i t i v e  has been d i f f e r e n t  and n o n - t h r e a t e n i n g  in conventional curriculum guides.  from the norm.  rarely  appear  However, when d e a l i n g  4  with curriculum planning non-threatening  f o r t h e handicapped,  n o n - c o m p e t i t i v e and  a r t a c t i v i t i e s a r e to be the key f o r handicapped  student p a r t i c i p a t i o n  i n the a r t room (B.C. M i n i s t r y of Ed., 1984).  W i t h i n the c o n t e x t o f t h i s  s t u d y , E.M.R. a r e d e f i n e d as s t u d e n t s  who as a d u l t s would be f u n c t i o n i n g m e n t a l l y a t t h e l e v e l s o f upper elementary-aged  children Art  (James, 1983).  E d u c a t i o n and the E.M.R.  A common s t a t e d aim f o r a r t i n the p u b l i c dealing with the a t y p i c a l  s c h o o l s when  student i s :  To f o s t e r good mental h e a l t h through c r e a t i v e a c t i v i t i e s which rr.ay l e s s e n f e a r s , p r e s s u r e s , and t e n s i o n s and promote s u c c e s s , a s s u r a n c e , c o n f i d e n c e and a b e t t e r s e l f - c o n c e p t . (B. C. Dept. Ed., 1965,p.78) Although intellectual  statements  l i k e these  include reference to  growth, when t r a n s l a t e d  i n t o programmes i n a r t they  tend to f a v o u r t h e r a p e u t i c ends. A r t e d u c a t i o n f o r t h e slow l e a r n e r , as f o r the normal c h i l d , i s p r i m a r i l y t o a s s i s t i n i n t e l l e c t u a l , e m o t i o n a l and s o c i a l growth • through s e l f - e x p r e s s i o n and the development of permanent i n t e r e s t s . (B.C. Dept. Ed., 1965,p.77) The suited  product  o f a r t a c t i v i t y would seem t o be e m i n e n t l y  to o b j e c t i v e assessment f o r developmental  w e l l as the d i s c o v e r y o f e m o t i o n a l  difficulties  d e f i c i t s as (Rubin,  1981).  Art  activity  as t h e r a p y  ideology  (Ensher,  1969; Sperno & Weiner, 1973; Naumberg, 1966  U h l i n , 1973). all  who attempt  are to a c h i e v e  i s w e l l rooted i n educational  I t s very nature assures such a c t i v i t y . i n a public  some measure of s u c c e s s f o r  However, what g o a l s such  s c h o o l s i t u a t i o n a r e l e s s than  activity clear.  5  If  the primary  individual's far  full  potential  short of t h i s  toward  impart  i s the development of t h e  (Victoria,  1977) a r t t h e r a p y  g o a l , s i n c e i t merely  a state of readiness  Levic to  goal of education  (1967)suggests  c o n d i t i o n s the l e a r n e r  f o r learning.  that the a r t instructor  the basic p r i n c i p l e s  s h o u l d be e q u i p p e d  seeks  o f d e s i g n , whereas the t h e r a p i s t  w i t h knowledge c f the technique  a s s o c i a t i o n method and t h e a b i l i t y of the unconscious.  falls  to read  The a r t t e a c h e r ' s  q u e s t i o n a b l e when i n v o l u n t a r i l y  placed  cf free  disguised expression  effectivenessi s i n the position of a r t  therapist. Art  teachers  i n t h e p u b l i c s c h o o l system a r e f o r t h e most  p a r t u n f a m i l i a r w i t h t h e i d i o s y n c r a t i c needs o f i n d i v i d u a l students.  Furthermore,  does n o t p r e p a r e Yet,  a r t teachers  activity an  them t o t a k e  due t o t h e n a t u r e  within,  as w e l l  to assure  student's  as r e s t r i c t i n g  (Kilian, success  activities  art activity  with providing educational 1 9 8 3 ) . As a r e s u l t , i n i n a r t , a r t teachers  have  using easily  media,  t h e u s e o f some t o o l s  o n t h e E.M.R. may v e r y w e l l  p e r f o r m a n c e and s e l f  as t e a c h e r s  cn the role c f a r t t h e r a p i s t .  have been charged  below-grade-level  Such l e s t r l c t i o n s  e d u c a t i o n and t r a i n i n g  o f t h e a r t room a n d c o n n e c t e d  to the Special Class  effort  provided  their  retarded  handled  (Miller & Miller, influence future  e x p e c t a t i o n s by t h e s t u d e n t s  concerned.  such m o d i f i c a t i o n s a r e n o t n e c e s s a r y . . . m e n t a l l y r e t a r d e d s t u d e n t s r e s p o n d t o t h e same t e a c h i n g t e c h n i q u e s a n d u s e t h e same a r t t o o l s a n d m a t e r i a l s as n o r m a l s t u d e n t s . ( M i l l e r & M i l l e r , 1981, p.22)  1981).  6  R a t i o n a l e f o r the use of a r t a c t i v i t y Although  d i s c u s s i o n up  i n E.M.R.programme  to t h i s p o i n t h a s , f o c u s e d on  the  t h e r a p e u t i c a s p e c t s of a r t , s i n c e these might seem to be particularly  r e l e v a n t t o E.M.R. s t u d e n t s , a r t e d u c a t i o n f o r them,  as f o r o t h e r gourps,  encompasses a wider  and p r i n c i p l e s .  of the major aims c f any a r t programme i s t o p r o -  One  range  cf  behaviours  v i d e s t u d e n t s w i t h a means to i n t e g r a t e e x p e r i e n c e s w i t h i n a f o r m a l compositional  framework.  In any  completed  visual  work of a r t t h e r e are components which comprise These components are so interwoven one  component d i f f i c u l t .  student's understanding  o r d e r or u n i t y  to a n a l y z e the v a r i o u s  or  statement.  as to make i s o l a t i o n o f  components t h a t make up a p a r t i c u l a r on s e l e c t e d  the  However, to g a i n i n s i g h t of v i s u a l  expression, i t i s useful  statement  any  into a  in visual individual  student work.  By c o n c e n t r a t i n g  i n d i v i d u a l p a r t s of the whole, a s t u d e n t ' s under-  s t a n d i n g and connected  ability  may  be made more c l e a r  (Saskatchewan Dept. of Ed.,  The  accompanying c h a r t i l l u s t r a t e s  the completed  statement.  instructional variables  to u t i l i z e necessary  components 1978).  a flow of components  toward  These components have been chosen in this  study because they a l r e a d y  p a r t of a r e c o g n i z e d programme of a r t and p r o v i d e the means to make p o s s i b l e comparisons  between the performance  r e g u l a r c l a s s - r o o m s t u d e n t s and E.M.R.s.  of  as form  7  ORGANIZATION ( o f the elements o f d e s i g n ) line shape value texture colour COMPOSITIONAL BALANCE VISUAL WEIGHT, COLOUR, PLACEMENT DOMINANCE  VARIETY, CONTRAST IMPLIED MOVEMENT UNITY (completed v i s u a l  statement)  Areas o f c o n c e r n f o r t e s t i n g The  f o l l o w i n g may serve  1.  Organizational Unity  integration  as d e f i n i t i o n s refers  for this  study  t o the o r g a n i z a t i o n and  o f the elements of d e s i g n .  L i n e , shape,  t e x t u r e , and c o l o u r a r e elements t h a t a r e p r e s e n t  value,  in a l l visual  images, r e g a r d l e s s  o f the s i m p l i c i t y or c o m p l e x i t y  They a r e t h e r e f o r e  the elements t h a t a l l image makers must  d e a l w i t h when making a v i s u a l  statement.  of t h e image.  8  It  further  f o l l o w s t h a t the a b i l i t y  to o r g a n i z e the  of d e s i g n on a g i v e n p i c t u r e p l a n e demonstrates  an  understanding  of the i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s between the v a r i o u s elements comprise  that  image (Arnheim,  elements  that  1974).  The whole of the p i c t u r e p l a n e w i l l be c o n s i d e r e d when engaged i n image making. un-worked  2.  There  i s to be no background or  space.  C o m p o s i t i o n a l Balance  importance  ( V i s u a l Weight) i s of paramount  when c o n f r o n t e d w i t h the problem  presentation.  F o r the purpose  of t h i s  r e f e r s to an a r r i v e d - a t g r a v i t a t i o n a l working  of an apothecary  balance through  1974)  investigation  a visual  balance  e q u i l i b r i u m much l i k e  p r o c e s s , balance i s  judgement on the p a r t of the o b s e r v e r ,  i n which dark a r e a s are p e r c e i v e d as b e i n g " h e a v i e r "  or h a v i n g more weight  than the l i g h t e r a r e a s o f the  composition.  Similarily,  areas of i n t e n s e c o l o u r are p e r c e i v e d as h a v i n g  more weight  than areas of low i n t e n s i t y c o l o u r .  executed and  light  the  However, r a t h e r than a c h i e v i n g  an a c t u a l p h y s i c a l weighing  a r r i v e d a t through (Arnheim,  scale.  of u n i t y i n v i s u a l  i n a hard or s o f t manner may respectively.  Lines  a l s o be p e r c e i v e d as heavy  9  3.  C o m p o s i t i o n a l Balance  (placement)  d e a l s w i t h the arrangement  on the p i c t u r e p l a n e of l i k e and u n l i k e  shapes as w e l l as  c o n s i d e r a t i o n g i v e n to the s i z e of s p e c i f i c  a r e a s w i t h i n the  plane. A ser.se c f b a l a n c e can be a c h i e v e d "through s i m i l a r shapes, through  the c h o i c e o f  c o l o u r s , or o t h e r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of form;  the placement  o f the same - o r d i f f e r e n t  - forms i n  c l o s e proximity..."(Chapman, 1978) Balance as  by placement  also  i n c o r p o r a t e s the phenomenon known  closure. C l o s u r e i s the tendency of the eye to complete a form t h a t i s o n l y p a r t i a l l y visible. Edges t h a t seem t o extend beyond t h e i r a c t u a l b o u n d a r i e s imply a complete o r c l o s e d form. A symmetrical arrangement o f elements t h a t a r e a p p r o x i m a t e l y equal i n p s y c h o l o g i c a l importance suggests e q u i l i b r i u m . (Chapman, 1978, p.39) A f u r t h e r c o n s i d e r a t i o n when d e a l i n g w i t h b a l a n c e by  placement  may be the v i s u a l i z a t i o n o f a r a d i a t i n g  c e n t e r i s a t the c o m p o s i t i o n ' s radiating  center.  l i n e or point finds a balance  s t a r whose  Each d i r e c t l y  opposite  i n i t s counterpart.  T h e r e f o r e , an a r e a a t the top l e f t o f a c o m p o s i t i o n w i l l c o u n t e r p a r t a t the bottom r i g h t of the c o m p o s i t i o n . counterparts are i d e n t i c a l achieved.  When the  o p t i c a l u n i t s a symmetrical  balance i s  However, when the c o u n t e r p a r t s a r e d i s s i m i l a r ,  a s m a l l a r e a of s t r o n g c o l o u r and a l a r g e empty asymmetrical  balance  find i t s  space,  i s a c h i e v e d ( O c v i r k , e t a l . , 1968)  such as  10  4.  Dominance r e f e r s t o the v a r y i n g  d i f f e r e n t parts of a composition. contrast and  to i t s surrounding  area,  i t s i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p with  degrees o f emphasis g i v e n t c A f e a t u r e d part should  thus a c c e n t i n g  other  be i n  i t s importance  areas w i t h i n  the  composition.  To conserve the e n e r g i e s o f the viewer, a work of a r t s h o u l d be r h y t h m i c a l l y a r t i c u l a t e d . . .With a good r h y t h m i c a l d i s t r i b u t i o n o f dominant p i c t u r e p a r t s , . . . t h e d u r a t i o n o f the viewer's a t t e n t i o n w i l l be enhanced. ( O c v i r k , e t a l . , 1 9 6 8 , p.26)  5.  V a r i e t y r e f e r s t o the a b i l i t y  of a composition  to s u s t a i n  a viewer's a t t e n t i o n . I f u n i t y and v a r i e t y a r e j u d i c i o u s l y used as g u i d i n g p r i n c i p l e s f o r c r e a t i n g a work v i e w e r s are not l i k e l y t o be e a s i l y bored o r f u l l y s a t i s f i e d by a q u i c k e n c o u n t e r w i t h i t (Chapman,1978, p.39)  V a r i e t y may textures,  include d i f f e r e n c e s i n colour,  shapes, l i n e s and v a l u e  considerations  such as v a r y i n g  and  the l i k e .  6.  Contrast-Elaboration  as w e l l as e x t e r n a l  degrees of a b s t r a c t i o n ,  deals with  i n such a manner as to be p e r c e i v e d but  unified  size c f areas,  like  snd u n l i k e a r e a s  presented  i n o p p o s i t i o n by themselves  i n the whole, t h e r e b y h e i g h t e n i n g  the importance o f each.  11  T h i s may  be  illustrated  i n t h e way  the a r t i s t  uses v a r i e t y .  a) he f i n d s v a r i e t y i n o p p o s i t i o n or c o n t r a s t r e c o n c i l e s the v i s u a l d i f f e r e n c e s tc c r e a t e u n i t y b) he w i l l e l a b o r a t e upon f o r c e s which are equal i n q u a l i t y and s t r e n g t h . . . u n t i l a s a t i s f a c t o r y s o l u t i o n i s reached. ( O c v i r k , e t . a l . , 1968, p.26)  7.  Implied  paths on on the  Movement i s the  the  i n d i c a t i o n of eye  s u r f a c e of the p i c t u r e p l a n e .  To  t r a v e l along  c r e a t e movement  s u r f a c e of the p i c t u r e p l a n e the a r t i s t may  employ  the d i r e c t i o n and/or boundary of a shape t o l e a d the eye position guide the  to a n o t h e r . eye  He/she  • The  incorporate  through a s s o c i a t i o n a l means.  movement through c o l o u r s and to one  may  t e x t u r e s by  one  rhythmic r e p e t i t i o n  Or he/she  relating  their  e x c l u s i o n of C o l o u r  i s at once one  as an area  may  create  values  of c o n c e r n f o r t e s t i n g  of the most e x c i t i n g but  a l s o one  the most complex of v i s u a l phenomena when d e a l i n g w i t h making (Chapman, 1978).  Short  of s t u d y i n g  the p r i n c i p l e s of m i x i n g i t i n p a i n t and  to the n o v i c e  A l t h o u g h c o l o u r was  not  i t s basic properties,  p o s s i b l y i t s symbolic  image maker.  e x c l u d e d as an element f o r image  making f o r e i t h e r group, i t s formal considered  as  an area  of  image  i n depth study of c o l o u r would r e q u i r e too much time to be  s i g n i f i c a n t value  not  from  another.  Colour  an  visual  p r o p e r t i e s were  of c o n c e r n f o r t e s t i n g .  use of  12  I n t e n t o f the Study The purpose o f t h i s study was t o i n v e s t i g a t e the premise t h a t m e n t a l l y r e t a r d e d s t u d e n t s (E.M.R.) respond tc the same body of c o n t e n t and are c a p a b l e o f u s i n g the same a r t t o o l s and m a t e r i a l s as normal s t u d e n t s ( M i l l e r & M i l l e r , study examined  1981).  The  the degree of s u c c e s s a c h i e v e d by E.M.R. s t u d e n t s ,  compared w i t h the degree o f s u c c e s s a c h i e v e d by students i n a r e g u l a r h i g h j.chool.art c l a s s , when the o b j e c t i v e f o r each group was the a s s i m i l a t i o n of a p a r t i c u l a r  The  set of a r t concepts.  study i n the g e n e r a l c o n t e x t o f c l a s s r o o m a s s i m i l a t i o n  Grouping i s a n a t u r a l and normal s o c i a l a c t i v i t y occurring  i n l i n e w i t h the s i m i l a r i t i e s  (Bierstedt,1970). as a r e g u l a r c l a s s .  usually  o f group members  The S p e c i a l C l a s s i s a group  i n much the same way  Each member i s a p a r t of t h e r e c o g n i z e d  whole.  B e h a v i o u r and achievement p a t t e r n s a r e p r e d i c t a b l e w i t h i n the group. When group m i x i n g i s imposed e s t a b l i s h e d p a t t e r n s are d i s r u p t e d and achievement  l e v e l s are a l t e r e d .  In o r d e r t o f a c i l i t a t e  the i n t e g r a t i o n o f S p e c i a l E d u c a t i o n  i n t o the mainstream  of e d u c a t i o n as a whole the s p e c i a l  must move as a u n i t  (Hunter, 1981) and t h e r e b y negates imposed  mixing.  It i s essential  not r e s t r i c t e d  class group  t h a t s t u d e n t s ' achievement p o s s i b i l i t i e s a r e  by way of imposed  changes  in their  learning  To t h i s end the S p e c i a l C l a s s s t u d e n t must n o t be p l a c e d  environment.  into  .  l e a r n i n g environments  which a r e geared  .  .  13  f o r and designed f o r the  norm. Although  i n t e g r a t i o n of the s p e c i a l group  the p h y s i c a l f a c i l i t i e s groups,  (Hunter,1981),  the s p e c i a l  as a whole  into  of a c o n v e n t i o n a l s c h o o l i s b e n e f i c i a l when d e a l i n g w i t h c l a s s r o o m  s t u d e n t ' s e d u c a t i o n a l needs w i l l  i n the company of o t h e r s p e c i a l  instruction,  best be s e r v e d  students.  In d i s c u s s i n g the handicapped  and i n t e g r a t i o n ,  Kilian  states: Whatever the l e v e l o f a b i l i t y , the i n - c l a s s r o u t i n e i s about what i t would be i n a segregated s c h o o l , However, he goes on t o say: the c h i l d r e n o f t e n mingle w i t h o t h e r p u p i l s - watching or t a k i n g p a r t i n games, u s i n g the l i b r a r y , ...They move... l e a r n i n g e v e r y minute. L i k e a l l k i d s , they l e a r n r e a d i l y from t h e i r p e e r s , so t h e i r b e h a v i o u r becomes more a p p r o p r i a t e as they watch how o t h e r k i d s get a l o n g . ( K i l i a n , 1983,p.B3) T h i s statement  supports the i d e a of n o r m a l i z a t i o n suggested by  Gold.(1972) and adopted many a s s o c i a t i o n s  as a g u i d i n g p h i l o s o p h y by  f o r the m e n t a l l y handicapped  (Derkach,  1983).  t o both  14 The  Statement of The  the  Research Design  Problem  S p e c i a l C l a s s , under the  d i r e c t i o n of the  t e a c h e r tends to engage i n a r t a c t i v i t y t i o n of some p r o j e c t , much a l o n g the The  end  leading  special class  towards the  l i n e s of a "shop" programme.  r e s u l t , the p r o d u c t , i s s t r e s s e d  as b e i n g a l l i m p o r t a n t .  T h i s o c c u r s i n s p i t e of arguments ( L o w e n f e l d , 1957) growth and  development of c h i l d r e n t h a t  important than the p r o d u c t .  Toe  the a c t u a l development of the abilities  of m a t e r i a l s In p a r t f e l t by  the  generally  c h i l d ' s perceptual  t h i s may  be  regular  the  u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the  The  cognitive use  problem may  s e r v i c e s of a s p e c i a l i s t acceleration  arts.  art classes  in  I t nay  of  possession  be,  a c h i e v e r e s u l t s comparable  s i m p l y because they do  instruction. (Miller & Miller  therefore  be  stated  as  follows:  to measure p r o g r e s s i n a r t e x e r c i s e s c l a s s and  confidence  s p e c i a l c l a s s teacher i s  t h a t E.M.R. s t u d e n t s do not  have comparable q u a l i t y of  possible  to  i s f o c u s e d on the c o r r e c t  t r a i n e d i n a r t e d u c a t i o n nor  with students i n regular  The  and  a t t r i b u t a b l e to l a c k of  development s i n c e neither  therefore,  i s more  (Naumberg, 1973).  special class teacher.  of a g e n e r a l  the  attention i s given  t e a c h e r might a i d i n the m a x i m i z a t i o n and perceptual  on  c l a i m the p r o c e s s  little  w h i l e too much a t t e n t i o n  comple-  a s s i m i l a t e c o n c e p t s and  from an a r t programme d e s i g n e d f o r normal  1981).  Is i t  undertaken by  by a c l a s s of E.M.R.s to determine the  to which 'E.M.R.s may  complete  classes?  not  a  extent  activities  art  15  I d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f the " S p e c i a l C l a s s " The fall  designation  within  class  i n the study  E.M.R. i s a p p l i e d  t o s t u d e n t s whose I.Q.'s  a 50 - 75 range (James, 1983).  i n t h i s study show t h a t  Data f o r the E.M.R.  they a l l f i t w i t h i n  these  tolerances. Student No.  Age  I.Q".  1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11.  19 18 18 17 .16 16 15 15 15 14 13  50-60 62-67 65-75 55-60 62-70 60-70 55-60 51-56 55-60 68-72 62-64  Wechsler  I n t e l l i g e n c e Scale  for Children-Revised  ;  (WISC-R)  Hypotheses: For of t h r e e  research  purposes, the problem I s r e s t a t e d  i n t h e form  hypotheses. A. There w i l l be no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n performance i n p r e and p o s t ^ t e s t r e s u l t s i n a r t t a s k s undertaken by an E.M.R. c l a s s . B. There w i l l be no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n p r e and p o s t - t e s t r e s u l t s by a r e g u l a r a r t c l a s s , when t h a t c l a s s i s g i v e n m a t e r i a l i d e n t i c a l to t h a t g i v e n the E.M.R. c l a s s . C. There w i l l be no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e r e l a t i v e degree of performance by r e g u l a r c l a s s and E.M.R. c l a s s members on a s s i g n e d a r t t a s k s a c c o r d i n g t o the f o l l o w i n g c r i t e r i o n variables:  16  1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.  organizational v i s u a l weight placement dominance variety contrast movement  unity  Procedures T w o . c l a s s e s w i t h i n one B r i t i s h Columbia h i g h s c h o o l t a u g h t by the same i n s t r u c t o r ,  formed t h e two groups s t u d i e d .  The normal  c l a s s served  as a c o n t r o l group p r o v i d i n g an i n d i c a t i o n of normal p r o g r e s s . The E.M.R. c l a s s  s e r v e d as the t e s t group.  the same l e s s o n s and r e l e v a n t  lesson aids  to p r e s e n t i d e n t i c a l c o n t e n t to a r e g u l a r bination  The i n s t r u c t o r  (Appendix A ( 1 ) , A ( 2 ) (norm) grade 10/11 com-  i n t r o d u c t o r y c l a s s and an E.M.R. c l a s s .  applied numerical ratings, to resultant which were s u b j e c t  used  Three e x p e r t judges  s t u d e n t a r t works,  to a two-tailed t test  (non-normal)  whether s i g n i f i c a n t p r o g r e s s i n performance  t o determine  r e s u l t e d on t h e p a r t  of each group.  Pre-testing/Post-testing Members from both groups, E.M.R. and norm, were asked t o execute i d e n t i c a l p r e and p o s t - t e s t a s s i g n m e n t s . of a f r e e h a n d l i n e drawing as w e l l as a tempera composition. was  limited  They  consisted  (painting)  C h o i c e of s u b j e c t matter f o r c o m p o s i t i o n s to available objects  i n the a r t s t u d i o .  F o l l o w i n g the e x e c u t i o n of s t u d i o  l e s s o n s over a s i x month  p e r i o d a l l works from both groups were numbered, randomized, and a s s e s s e d on seven dimensions by t h r e e j u d g e s , a l l h i g h t e a c h e r s of a r t i n the same s c h o o l .  school  17  Although i s necessary apparent  r e s e a r c h has  suggested  t h a t a minimum of f i v e  f o r the e f f e c t s of a p a r t i c u l a r  (Burkhart,  treatment  1965), i t i s the w r i t e r ' s b e l i e f  to become  that  time  to a s s i m i l a t e i n f o r m a t i o n i s a l s o of paramount importance. t h i s end  daily  l e s s o n s and  f o l l o w - u p c l a s s time  for  General 1.  T h i s study  To  completion  were s u p p l i e d over a p e r i o d of s i x c o n s e c u t i v e months. are summarized i n Appendix  The  lessons  A.;  L i m i t a t i o n s and  Assumptions  d e a l s s p e c i f i c a l l y w i t h a r t e d u c a t i o n , i t s aims  f o r the g e n e r a l e d u c a t i o n  (B.C. M i n i s t r y of Ed.,  1979)  of  the  i n d i v i d u a l w i t h i n the c o n f i n e s of the p u b l i c s c h o o l system, the e x t e n t  lessons  and  to which these a r e a p p l i c a b l e to E.M.R. s t u d e n t s .  A r t t h e r a p y , w h i l e acknowledged to be of enormous b e n e f i t to m e n t a l l y handicapped, (Ensher, Naumberg, 1966; irrelevant.  U h l i n , 1973)  The  individual's f u l l  primary  1969;  Sperno & Weiner,  potential  1973;  i s f o r the purpose of t h i s  g o a l of e d u c a t i o n  the  study,  i s the development of  (B. C. M i n i s t r y of Ed.,  an  1979).  S c h o o l i n g i s to become a means of p e r s o n a l f u l f i l l m e n t , to p r o v i d e a c o n t e x t i n which i n d i v i d u a l s d i s c o v e r and develop t h e i r unique identities. C u r r i c u l u m — i s a p e r v a s i v e and e n r i c h i n g experience with i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r many dimensions of p e r s o n a l development. ( E i s n e r & V a l l a n c e , 1974, p.105) A r t therapy  falls  merely c o n d i t i o n s the learning.  (Levic,  f a r s h o r t of t h i s g o a l , s i n c e i t  supposedly  l e a r n e r toward a ; s t a t e of r e a d i n e s s f o r  1967).  18  R e p o r t i n g on A r t Therapy programmes, Canadian P r e s s w r i t e s : I t ' s o p r e v e n t i o n f o r emotional i l l n e s s The c h i l d i s a l l o w e d t o express a g g r e s s i o n i n a s a f e way... a r t therapy i s a ...way t o t r e a t e m o t i o n a l problems. (Toronto (CP), 1978) Arnheim's words are a l s o  instructive:  shapeless emotion i s n o t the d e s i r a b l e end r e s u l t of e d u c a t i o n and t h e r e f o r e cannot be used as i t s means. (Arnheim, 1974. p.207)  2.  E.M.R., t h a t group o f l e a r n e r s i d e n t i f i e d as educable  r e t a r d e d w i t h i n the boundaries the t e s t group. Special Education  mentally  o f t h e p u b l i c s c h o o l system, was  No other group under t h e g e n e r a l heading o f i s considered i n t h i s  study.  Literature describing  s t u d i e s t h a t have been done i n a r t e d u c a t i o n w i t h the h a n d i capped d e a l s mainly w i t h the m u l t i p l y handicapped,  (Rubin,  1981),  o r w i t h t h e more s e v e r e l y m e n t a l l y handicappped such as T.M.R. groups as r e p o r t e d by M i l l e r and M i l l e r 3.  (1982).  E.M.R. s t u d e n t s need t o l e a r n the same t h i n g s as do s t u d e n t s  i n the g e n e r a l stream o f p u b l i c s c h o o l i n g . A r t e d u c a t i o n f o r the slow l e a r n e r , as f o r the normal c h i l d , i s p r i m a r i l y t o a s s i s t i n i n t e l l e c t u a l e m o t i o n a l and s o c i a l growth through s e l f - e x p r e s s i o n and ... development. (B.C. Dept. of Ed., 1965) . The M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n e x p e c t s t h a t a l l p u p i l s w i l l have an o p p o r t u n i t y i n s c h o o l t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n one o r more f i e l d s of t h e a r t s . This i s a r e q u i r e ment i n elementary s c h o o l s and a d e s i r a b i l i t y i n t h e secondary school e x p e r i e n c e . ( B . C . M i n i s t r y o f Ed., 1979) >v  Emphasis mine  19  Thus the r a t i o n a l e to  be s i m i l a r  f o r A r t e d u c a t i o n f o r the E.M.R. may be s a i d  t o the r a t i o n a l e  f o r a r t e d u c a t i o n f o r normal c l a s s e s  i n t h a t p e r c e p t u a l growth i n any s t u d e n t  can not be i g n o r e d when  d e a l i n g w i t h the e d u c a t i o n of t h a t s t u d e n t 4.  The r e s u l t a n t  as evidence  ( L a n i e r , 1982).  p r o d u c t s of s t u d e n t a r t a c t i v i t y may be viewed  o f the measure of s t u d e n t growth.  as the c o n c l u s i o n t o an undertaken a i d s i n the f o s t e r i n g of growth. growth i s o n l y made apparent  I t serves  l e a r n i n g experience,and Apart  from p h y s i c a l  thus  maturation,  i n expression i n audible or v i s i b l e  s i g n s and symbols, of which a r t works form one p a r t . (Read, 1945).  20  CHAPTER I I  ART  Historical  THE  CHILD  has  i t s o r i g i n s i n the  beginnings  Interest century.  EDUCATION AND  i n the c h i l d  as a r t i s t  T y p i c a l of those a t t i t u d e s were the views on  h e l d by Johann P e s t a l o z z i . psychologizing  of  Describing  l e a r n i n g " , he was  g r e a t b e n e f i t s to be g a i n e d f o r the  h i s methods as  convinced that c h i l d by  19th  education "the  there  were  the p r a c t i c e of  drawing. the wish to draw and the c a p a c i t y of measuring, which are developed n a t u r a l l y and e a s i l y i n the c h i l d (as compared to the t o i l w i t h which he i s taught r e a d i n g and w r i t i n g ) must be r e s t o r e d to him w i t h g r e a t e r a r t or more f o r c e ; i f we would not i n j u r e him more than the r e a d i n g can e v e r be worth. ( S u t t o n , 1967, p.30)  His the  i n s i s t e n c e t h a t methods of t e a c h i n g  study of the  c h i l d has  F r i e d r i c h Froebel, obviously  among the  must be based upon  i n f l u e n c e d numerous e d u c a t o r s .  founder of the K i n d e r g a r t e n influenced.  Writing  Movement,  i n 1826,  he  was  states:  The word and the drawing, t h e r e f o r e , belong t o g e t h e r i n s e p a r a b l y , as l i g h t and shadow, n i g h t and day, s o u l and body do. The f a c u l t y of drawing i s , t h e r e f o r e , as much i n n a t e i n the c h i l d , i n man, as i s the f a c u l t y of speech, and demands i t s development arid c u l t i v a t i o n as i m p e r a t i v e l y as the l a t t e r ; e x p e r i e n c e shows t h i s c l e a r l y i n the c h i l d ' s l o v e of drawing, i n the c h i l d ' s i n s t i n c t i v e d e s i r e f o r drawing. ( S u t t o n , 1967, p.36)  21  The  i n t r o d u c t i o n of c o l o u r i n g books i n t o p u b l i c s c h o o l  systems of Germany r e s u l t e d from concepts  o r i g i n a t e d by  the  K i n g e r g a r t e n Movement. In 1843, insight  Horace Mann of Massachusetts  t o u r e d Europe to a c q u i r e  i n t o the European e d u c a t i o n a l systems.  Annual Report" he e x t o l s the h i g h standards the P r u s s i a n S c h o o l s  eye a r i s i n g  curriculum.  He a l s o d e s c r i b e s how  more i n f o r m a t i o n than any the t a l e n t of  Observation understanding be s a i d  from the  of  i n c l u s i o n of drawing i n the a simple  drawing can  amount of words and  communicate  f u r t h e r t h a t drawing  observing.  as r e l a t e d to p e r c e p t i o n has  what i s b e i n g  an i n f l u e n c e on  l o o k e d at ( L a n i e r , 1982).  Thus i t may  t h a t the a c t of drawing i n f l u e n c e s an i n d i v i d u a l ' s  to understand of any  of hand w r i t i n g i n  and p u t s t h i s down to e x t r a t r a i n i n g  the hand and  develops  In h i s "Seventh  and  i s thereby  an e s s e n t i a l  element i n the  ability  education  student.  A f t e r the d i s a s t r o u s showing of B r i t i s h manufactured i n the World's F a i r of 1851, completely  r e f o r m i n g her  England  s c h o o l s of  a t t a c k e d the problem design  i n the f a i t h t h a t i n s t r u c t i o n i n a r t as a p p l i e d to i n d u s t r y c o u l d be reduced to r a t i o n a l methods, c o u l d be t r e a t e d a c c o r d i n g to r e c o g n i z e d e d u c a t i o n a l p r i n c i p l e s , and so no l o n g e r need be l e f t to the fancy of each i n d i v i d u a l nor to the b l i n d c a p r i c e of the hour. (Green, 1966, p.3)  articles by  22  Succeeding World F a i r s demonstrated the s u c c e s s E n g l a n d had achieved.  A r t as a s u b j e c t  f o r study i n p u b l i c  schools  was  t h e r e f o r e c o n s i d e r e d to be of paramount importance to the w e l f a r e of the n a t i o n . primarily industry  However, the a r t programmes were t o be  s k i l l - o r i e n t e d and d i r e c t e d toward (Pappas, 1970,  p.13).  The U n i t e d S t a t e s , whose showings to  the bottom,  i n these F a i r s  f o l l o w e d England's l e a d f o r p u r e l y  r e a s o n s , and i n 1870 Drawing  the s e r v i c e of  the newly  close  utilitarian  a p p o i n t e d S t a n d i n g Committee on  sought out a h i g h l y q u a l i f i e d  s u p e r v i s o r of drawing.  W a l t e r Smith, a r t master ,at Leeds, and p r o f e s s i o n a l to  ranked  Thus  s c u l p t o r , came  America. Smith's p l a n encompassed a l l grades, and by  developmental s t a g e s c a r r i e d a r t i n s t r u c t i o n  from e l e m e n t a r y  l e a r n i n g at the lowest grade to p r e - p r o f e s s i o n a l highest.  I t was  p r e d i c a t e d cn the b e l i e f  b a s i s of a l l i n d u s t r i a l l e a r n to draw.  progressive  training  t h a t drawing was  i n the the  a r t and that any average p e r s o n c o u l d  By b a s i n g a r t i n s t r u c t i o n on p r i n c i p l e s  that  c o u l d be s t a t e d and c o n s e q u e n t l y c o u l d be t a u g h t and l e a r n e d , he attempted to p l a c e drawing as a p e d a g o g i c a l t o o l  i n the hands c f  every teacher. In  1873, w i t h Smith a t the helm,  School was  established.  t e a c h e r s who  would  common s c h o o l s .  direct  I t was  the M a s s a c h u s e t t s Normal A r t  to p r o v i d e s p e c i a l l y  the e f f o r t  trained art  of t e a c h e r s i n the  23  Although seemingly  s u c c e s s f u l , o p p o s i t i o n was  Many t e a c h e r s and members of the p u b l i c thought s p e c i a l t y and argued  d i s m i s s e d and r e t u r n e d t o England  growth.  e d u c a t i o n to t h i s  Walter Smith was in  p o i n t was  o r no c r e d i t  r e p r o d u c t i o n which  subsequently  1882. m a i n l y to s e r v e  or b e n e f i t  I t seemingly s e t the ground  low l e v e l  They  High s c h o o l t e a c h e r s were not p r e p a r e d to  f o l l o w through w i t h Smith's p l a n .  little  a  spent on drawing a t the expense of more  "important" s u b j e c t s .  ends g i v i n g  t h a t drawing was  l a y o u t s i d e the realm of p u b l i c e d u c a t i o n .  t h a t time was  Art  mounting.  to an  utilitarian  individual's  r u l e s f o r copybook and  t o some degree  smiliar  i s s t i l l prevalent  today. The p e r i o d from 1860 the  western w o r l d .  which  i t was  to 1900  was  one c f enormous v i t a l i t y  C o n c e p t i o n s of knowledge and c o n d i t i o n s  o b t a i n e d were r e f o r m u l a t e d .  The work of  i n p a r t i c u l a r caused e d u c a t o r s t o see the growing new  light.  merely  The  child  under  Darwin  child  in a  d e v e l o p s t o m a t u r i t y , he does not  grow.  For  John Dewey, America's roost i n f l u e n t i a l an organism  through an environment.  As c o n d i t i o n s w i t h i n the  environment  changed they posed  problem was  a c h a l l e n g e which was  that  a problem  t e a c h e r needed to u n d e r s t a n d  lived  p h i l o s o p h e r on  e d u c a t i o n , the c h i l d was  The  in  both i n and  f o r that c h i l d .  The  r e s o l v e d through i n t e l l i g e n t the c h i l d  to know what  action.  conditions  24  were l i k e l y  to c h a l l e n g e him  i n o r d e r to a r r a n g e  the environment  so t h a t an e d u c a t i o n a l l y p r o b l e m a t i c  s i t u a t i o n would  Thus e d u c a t i o n became c h i l d  (Dewey, 1958).  The  centered  result.  consequences of these views f o r a r t e d u c a t i o n were h i g h l y  significant. wants and  C h i l d r e n i n the s c h o o l system were persons  r.eeds, not o b j e c t s to be s t u f f e d .  i n t e l l i g e n c e to be opened the gates  The  desired creative  embodied i n a l l c h i l d r e n through  for art education,  f o r a r t was  to f o s t e r the g e n e r a l c r e a t i v e a b i l i t i e s .  with  the  schools  the i d e a l medium  Through a r t , c h i l d r e n  were p r o v i d e d w i t h o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r c r e a t i v e s e l f - e x p r e s s i o n , thereby  enhancing  their  E.M.R. s t u d e n t s , use  development.  l i k e a l l s t u d e n t s , may  of a v e h i c l e f o r s e l f - e x p r e s s i o n , found  i n t h a t t h i s a c t i v i t y may  Current  enhance t h e i r  b e n e f i t from  the  i n a r t education,  development.  Status  In January r i c u l u m was  c f 1960,  a r t i n the B r i t i s h Columbia s c h o o l c u r -  d e a l t a severe  blow.  The  r e p o r t of the Chant  Commission s t a t e d i n i t s recommendations t h a t the g e n e r a l of the s c h o o l system should  aim  be  " t h a t of promoting the i n t e l l e c t u a l development of the p u p i l s and t h a t t h i s s h o u l d be the major emphasis throughout the whole programme" ( R e p c r t of the Royal Commision on E d u c a t i o n , Victoria: P r o v i n c e of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1960.)  25  T h i s statement  in i t s e l f  appears  to be e d u c a t i o n a l l y sound.  However, the r e p o r t goes on t o p l a c e degrees  of v a l u e cn  s u b j e c t areas w i t h a s e r i e s d e s i g n a t e d to be of l e s s e r Art  i s c i t e d as one In  latter.  C h i l d r e n Be L e a r n i n g ? ( B . C. M i n i s t r y of Ed.,  t h i s document the a r t s a r e c a s t i n t o a s u b o r d i n a t e r o l e  s e r v e merely  as r e i n f o r c e m e n t  F i n e A r t s i s t o be used relationships  involving  mathematics.  The  approach.  to the l e a r n i n g of some to r e i n f o r c e c o n c e p t s  space and  Although  the m i n i s t r y has  significant  v a l u e c f the " a e s t h e t i c e x p e r i e n c e " a v a i l a b l e  Curriculum,  changes i n elementary  to acknowledge the  concerning  i n the F i n e A r t s i n e d u c a t i o n , the M i n i s t r y i s s u e d  a statement  i n March of 1979,  full  from an a r t programme.  F o l l o w i n g overwhelming c r i t i c i s m Of the M i n i s t r y stance  of  r e c o g n i z e d seme v e r y  uses of a r t , the p r e s c r i b e d c u r r i c u l u m f a i l s  to  i n the  shape f o r the s k i l l s  1977), o f f e r s no  1976)  skill.  f o l l o w i n g document Guide t o the Core  (B. C. M i n i s t r y o f Ed.,  its  importance.  November of 19,76, the B . C . M i n i s t r y of E d u c a t i o n i s s u e d  What Should Our In  of the  particular  on the f i n e a r t s and  the  curriculum. The M i n i s t r y has taken the p o s i t i o n t h a t t h i s i s a v i t a l l y important a s p e c t of a s t u d e n t ' s e d u c a t i o n but t h a t because of the r i c h and d i v e r s e p o t e n t i a l i t has f o r l e a r n i n g , the development of p r o v i n c i a l l y p r e s c r i p t i v e c o u r s e s i s not d e s i r a b l e . Instead, g e n e r a l c u r r i c u l u m p o l i c y guides w i l l be p r e p a r e d and s c h o o l s are asked to ensure t h a t w i t h i n these s p e c i f i c s i g n i f i c a n t l e a r n i n g e x p e r i e n c e s are p r o v i d e d . I t w i l l do no s e r v i c e to c h i l d r e n i f the f o c u s on b a s i c s k i l l s l e a d s to a n e g l e c t or d e n i g r a t i o n of the a r t s i n the t o t a l e d u c a t i o n of the s t u d e n t . (B. C. M i n i s t r y of Ed., 1979)  core  26  The of  subcommittee f o r A r t (8-12) was  1977.  A new  c u r r i c u l u m guide f o r B r i t i s h Columbia's  s c h o o l a r t programmes was the f i r s t annual  d r a f t was  to be composed.  made a v a i l a b l e  B.C.A.T.A. c o n f e r e n c e .  subsequent r e v i s i o n , the new  S p e c i a l E d u c a t i o n and The  has  1984  devoted  goals.  By  to B.C.  a r t guide was  related  a r t teachers at input  instruction  one  page to v i s u a l a r t s a c t i v i t y  addressed  two  retarded c h i l d  and  related educational  as Appendix E.  applications  i n the s c h o o l .  T h i s appears  Goguen, 1980). responsibility of  T h i s appears  mentally  Columbia made a v a i l a b l e by students  the  to  Dumb i n Winnipeg, Manitoba (Csapo &  to be  the f i r s t  admission  of  f o r p r o v i d i n g e d u c a t i o n f o r some handicapped  the p r o v i n c e c f B r i t i s h  foster  t o be c o n t i n u i n g .  f o r the purpose of sending B.C.  the I n s t i t u t i o n f o r the Deaf and  public  Art education for  the educable  an a p p r o p r i a t i o n of funds was  Legislature  i n the  f o l l o w e d by a r t e d u c a t i o n t o  Special Education in B r i t i s h  B.C.  reference  in art.  main areas of c o n c e r n .  i n d i v i d u a l growth have both circumvented  1890  1984.  S p e c i a l E d u c a t i o n Supplement to the Core C u r r i c u l u m  utilitarian  In  the  t h e r e i s no  For more than a c e n t u r y a r t as an a r e a of study  its  1980  and  released in  volume guide  A copy of t h i s page i s p r e s e n t e d  s c h o o l has  secondary  the s p r i n g of  Following teacher  W i t h i n the pages of t h i s two to  e s t a b l i s h e d i n December  Columbia.  children  27  During the y e a r s of 1910 t o 1920 both Vancouver and V i c t o r i a School D i s t r i c t s  p i o n e e r e d programmes i n s p e c i a l  the m e n t a l l y r e t a r d e d , t h e deaf and the b l i n d . in  1922 when programmes  education f o r  This  culminated  f o r the deaf and b l i n d were combined  a r e s i d e n t i a l and day s c h o o l programme  into  under the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of  the P r o v i n c i a l Department o f E d u c a t i o n . The  Putman-Weir Survey  of 1925, a commission o f i n q u i r y ,  recommended m o d i f i c a t i o n of t h e c u r r i c u l u m f o r the m e n t a l l y r e t a r d e d , and t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t However, not u n t i l  of s p e c i a l  facilities.  1956 d i d s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n emerge as an  i n t e g r a l p a r t of a school d i s t r i c t ' s The  s c h o o l s and  Department of E d u c a t i o n  responsibility.  That  year  i n t r o d u c e d s p e c i a l a p p r o v a l as p a r t of  the b a s i c grant t o s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s . . C l a s s e s f o r m e n t a l l y r e t a r d e d c h i l d r e n were p e r m i t t e d t o o p e r a t e as an i n t e g r a l p a r t o f t h e p u b l i c s c h o o l system (B.C. Dept. of E d u c a t i o n , The for to  Chant Report  changing  the e x i s t i n g  special education.  receive f u l l  o f 1960, a l t h o u g h  full  of recommendations  s c h o o l system, devoted  In f a c t , n o t u n t i l  little  r e c o g n i t i o n w i t h t h e c r e a t i o n of a S p e c i a l  became a p r i o r i t y  were i n i t i a t e d .  concern  attention  1969 d i d S p e c i a l  D i v i s i o n w i t h i n the Department o f E d u c a t i o n . handicapped  1956).  Education  Education  The e d u c a t i o n o f the  and numerous programmes  In 1972, Remedial and E.M.R. programmes were  combined under the t i t l e step r e f l e c t e d an attempt  L e a r n i n g A s s i s t a n c e Programmes.  This  t o keep as many c h i l d r e n as p o s s i b l e  28  integrated attempt  i n the mainstream of e d u c a t i o n .  resulted  secondary  school  Unfortunately, this  i n the c r e a t i o n of work o r i e n t e d c o u r s e s  a t the  level.  T h i s was seen by many t e a c h e r s , p a r e n t s and s t u d e n t s as a dumping ground f o r a l l types o f problem s t u d e n t s r a n g i n g from severe d i s c i p l i n e cases to those w i t h e m o t i o n a l problems as w e l l as f o r . those who a r e g e n e r a l l y j u s t not c a p a b l e c f completing a r e g u l a r programme. (Csapo & Goguen, 1980, p.9) T h i s s p e c i a l programme,  i n many d i s t r i c t s  the o n l y  E d u c a t i o n programme, became the d e p o s i t o r y f o r most  Special  atypical  s t u d e n t s , i n c l u d i n g the E.M.R. Throughout the 1970s p a r e n t a l and g e n e r a l p u b l i c o p i n i o n had  caused  most s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s  to i n t e g r a t e , w i t h s u p p o r t , a l l  but the most s e v e r e l y handicapped  into regular schools.  The  o b j e c t i v e s of s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n are viewed as the same as those f o r normal c l a s s e s .  This s h i f t  i n p h i l o s o p h y may  be s a i d t o be sounded by  the M i n i s t r y of E d u c a t i o n as f o l l o w s : E d u c a t i o n i n the F i n e A r t s i s ^ a n e s s e n t i a l p a r t o f the development of every student (B.C. M i n i s t r y of Ed., 1984)  Summary T h i s c h a p t e r has p r e s e n t e d educators  over the l a s t  a b r i e f overview  100 y e a r s , t h a t r e l a t e  of  i d e a s h e l d by  to c h i l d  development.  I t a l s o c o n t a i n s r e f e r e n c e s t o s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n programmes, the importance content  of p o l i t i c a l  of these  Emphasis mine  programmes.  motives  indicating  that i n f l u e n c e the form and  29  CHAPTER I I I  CONDUCT OF THE  S e t t i n g of the Study The  and P o p u l a t i o n Employed  study took p l a c e w i t h i n a s c h o o l d i s t r i c t  B r i t i s h Columbia. setting.  STUDY  A district  h i g h s c h o o l p r o v i d e d the p h y s i c a l  The time a l l o t m e n t f o r the study was  mid September 1983  and  in  between  the end of F e b r u a r y 1984.  The  two  p a r t i c i p a t i n g groups were the .school's S p e c i a l C l a s s , and one A r t (elective) introductory art class,  scheduled f o r  one out of seven b l o c k s on a s i x day r o t a t i n g c y c l e . participated  i n the experiment  The  37 s t u d e n t s was  s t u d e n t s of both sexes.  A t o t a l of  i n every p r e s e n t e d l e s s o n and  regular  and  subsequent  participated  art activity.  Furthermore,  c o n d u c t e d w i t h i n the framework of a  i n t r o d u c t o r y a r t programme, some s t u d e n t s chose  take the same assignment w i t h i n the department  and  a r t works from s t o t a l each of the two  class  However, due t o sometimes poor a t t e n d a n c e a t  s c h o o l over a p e r i o d c f s i x months not every s t u d e n t  s i n c e the study was  each  throughout.  engaged i n the p r o j e c t : 26 i n the normal  11 i n the E.M.R. c l a s s .  classes  f o r an e q u a l l e n g t h of time  scheduled p e r i o d , and were t a u g h t by the same i n s t r u c t o r C l a s s e s comprised  10/11  groups.  more than once. resulted  This  to  i s standard p r a c t i c e  i n the c r e a t i o n of 446  of 15 d i f f e r e n t  under-  assignments  student  undertaken  by  30  Materials  f o r the 15 l e s s o n s were r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e  the l e s s o n s comprised a r e g u l a r programme  f o r t h a t time  and s t a n d a r d a r t s u p p l i e s , n o r m a l l y a v a i l a b l e  since period  i n the a r t room,  were used.  Procedure  i n the C l a s s r o o m  Members o f t h e E.M.R. group were informed t h a t they would be a c t i v e l y engaged i n an a r t programme a grade 10/11 c o m b i n a t i o n a r t c l a s s . was to be o f s i x o r more months. any o b j e c t i o n t o p a r t i c i p a t i n g voiced.  that  i s normally intended f o r  The d u r a t i o n of t h i s  They were f u r t h e r asked  i n such a s t u d y .  i f they had  No o b j e c t i o n s were  On t h e c o n t r a r y , they were keen t o p a r t i c i p a t e .  the E.M.R. group  programme  Both  and one o f t h r e e grade 10/11 c o m b i n a t i o n a r t c l a s s e s  chosen a t random i n t u r n began t h e programme a t a p p r o x i m a t e l y the same t i m e . The  first  two assignments  s e r v e d as p r e - t e s t s .  Students were p r o v i d e d w i t h an assortment  of d i f f e r e n t  such as a shoe, a c a r b u r e t t o r , and a c o a l - o i l  objects  lamp, and asked t o draw  one o r more o f t h e s e o b j e c t s w i t h p e n c i l on m a n i l a creme paper, 1.8" X 24" i n s i z e . The  No f u r t h e r i n s t r u c t i o n was g i v e n .  second assignment  r e q u i r e d the use of b l a c k tempera  p a i n t and b r u s h on m i l l board, s i z e 8-1/2" X 10". asked t o draw o r p a i n t i n s t r u c t i o n was g i v e n . (180  minutes)  the person s i t t i n g  Students were  n e a r e s t them.  The two assignments  occupied four  No f u r t h e r periods.  31  Following  the i n i t i a l  two assignments s t u d e n t s from both  groups began.work on the r e g u l a r programme and c o n t i n u e d to  do so f o r e l e v e n assignments.  Appendix  A.  The l e s s o n s a r e o u t l i n e d i n  Upon the c o n c l u s i o n o f the l a s t assignment, s t u d e n t s  completed two assignments which s e r v e d as p o s t - t e s t s t o the  study.  M a t e r i a l and i n s t r u c t i o n  identical  t o the p r e - t e s t  assignments was p r o v i d e d . I n s t r u c t i o n f o r p r e and p o s t - t e s t s f o r both groups was i d e n t i c a l , as p r e v i o u s l y  stated.  however was a d j u s t e d , f i r s t ,  Instruction  f o r programme c o n t e n t  to meet E.M.R. group needs, and second,  to  meet i n d i v i d u a l  E.M.R. s t u d e n t needs.  The main  in  t h i s adjustment was t h e adjustment f o r language  d e f i c i e n c i e s on t h e p a r t o f the E.M.R. group.  F o r example when  p r e s e n t i n g the concept of n e g a t i v e and p o s i t i v e to  factor  space i n image making  a r e g u l a r c l a s s t h e t e r m i n o l o g y used would be n e g a t i v e and p o s t i v e  space.  However, when a d d r e s s i n g the same c o n c e p t w i t h an E.M.R.  c l a s s the t e r m i n o l o g y used t o d e s c r i b e t h e concept would be simplified positive  t o t h e n e g a t i v e space b e i n g r e f e r r e d  space as b l a c k o r t h e p o s i t i v e  t o as w h i t e and the  space as t h e f i l l e d - i n  p a r t s and the n e g a t i v e space as the empty o r l e f t - o v e r  parts.  Summary o f E x p e r i m e n t a l P r o c e d u r e Two  c l a s s e s , one r e g u l a r A r t 10/11 c o m b i n a t i o n c l a s s and a  Special Class  (E.M.R.) were a s s i g n e d t r e a t m e n t s  i n n a t u r e and scope.  The c l a s s e s were a p a r t  g r o u p i n g w i t h i n a s e n i o r secondary  school.  identical  of the r e g u l a r  32  The treatment c o n s i s t e d of f i f t e e n  assignments  w i t h the f i r s t  two and l a s t  respectively.  A l l i n t e r i m assignments as w e l l as pre and  provided  materials  r e s u l t s provided material  two s e r v i n g as p r e - t e s t and p o s t - t e s t  f o r a n a l y s i s and comparison.  withih-group gains;  f o r informal  between-group  be found i n Appendix  D.  Pre and p o s t - t e s t  i n t e r i m assignments  provided  comparisons.  R e p r o d u c t i o n s of s e l e c t e d s t u d e n t s ' study may  post-tests  works produced d u r i n g  the  33 CHAPTER IV  COLLECTION OF DATA . AND DESCRIPTION OF STATISTICAL  The Using outline and  criteria  for a provincial  curriculum  (Saskatchewan Dept. of Ed., 1978) a s c o r e c a r d was  made a v a i l a b l e f o r use by t h r e e a r t e d u c a t o r s  were a s s i g n e d  designed  s e r v i n g as judges  a r t works produced i n f i f t e e n  s c o r e c a r d i s reproduced  Scores The  E v a l u a t i v e Instrument  developed  i n e v a l u a t i n g student The  PROCEDURES  assignments.  as F i g u r e 1.  on a s c a l e from one t o t e n p o i n t s .  b a s i s f o r each r a t i n g was as f o l l o w s :  Score  1  the f a c t o r  i s completely  Sccre  2 ..... the f a c t o r  Score  3 ..... the f a c t o r i s p r e s e n t  Score  4 ..... the f a c t o r i s r e c o g n i z a b l e and p e r c e p t i b l y  Score  5 ..... the f a c t o r  Score  6 ..... the f a c t o r i s r e c o g n i z a b l e w i t h good development so as t o d i s p l a y i t s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c f e a t u r e s  Score  7 ..... the f a c t o r i s r e c o g n i z a b l e w i t h v e r y good development so as to d i s p l a y i t s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c f e a t u r e s .  Score  8 ..... f a c t o r i s r e c o g n i z a b l e w i t h e x c e l l e n t development so as to d i s p l a y i t s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c f e a t u r e s  Score  9  Score  10 .... the f a c t o r has been e x p l o i t e d t o a very h i g h degree; the student has demonstrated h i g h p r o f i c i e n c y i n how the f a c t o r can best be used.  i s present  lacking  in a negligible  form  but i n an u n d e r d e v e l o p e d  i s recognizable with  satisfactory  form  developed development  the f a c t o r i s r e c o g n i z a b l e w i t h s u p e r i o r development so as to d i s p l a y i t s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c f e a t u r e s  34  FIGURE" 1  Judges* Score Card  SCORE CARD  STUDENT WORK #  rating  from 1 t o 10 ( l o w t o h i g h )  10 i s p o s s i b l e  JUDGE IDENTITY #  1.  Organizational Unity  2.  Compositonal visual  3.  weight  Compositional balance placement  4.  5.  balance  Dominance  . Variety  6.  Contrast  7.  Movement  35  U s i n g a system  of n u m e r i c a l g r a d i n g t h a t was f a m i l i a r  judges-'engaged'within  to " a l l -  t h e study would seem t o minimize d i s c r e p a n c i e s  i n e v a l u a t i o n between i n d i v i d u a l e v a l u a t o r s . All  t h r e e judges were a r t t e a c h e r s w i t h i n the s c h o o l where the  study took p l a c e and were f a m i l i a r w i t h the 1 to 10 r a t i n g Its  use as a means of a s s i g n i n g and measuring  student progress  in art activity  e v a l u a t i o n of  had been c o n t i n u o u s  c o n s e c u t i v e s c h o o l y e a r s by each of the t h r e e  scale.  over  nine  judges.  I n s t r u c t i o n s t o Judges Judges were i n s t r u c t e d t o l i m i t  t h e i r o b s e r v a t i o n and  subsequent  e v a l u a t i o n o f s t u d e n t a r t images s p e c i f i c a l l y i n  accordance  w i t h the s t a t e d  o u t l i n e d on Pages 7 - 11.  seven a r e a s o f concern  Each o f the seven areas f o r t e s t i n g was  d i s c u s s e d a t a group meeting.  To ensure  u n d e r s t a n d i n g c o n c e r n i n g t h e seven identical  t o those summarized  each o f the t h r e e judges. for  discussion.  judge had t h e same  test areas, stated  definitions  These d e f i n i t i o n s were used as g u i d e l i n e s  Judges agreed  t o use the s t a t e d d e f i n i t i o n s o f the  p r e s e n t e d student a r t works.  was g i v e n to the judges,  t h a t each  i n Chapter One were made a v a i l a b l e to  seven areas of concern as a guide of  for testing  in light  t o t h e i r marking or g r a d i n g No f o r m a l t e s t of o f the p r e v i o u s  reliability familiarity  t h a t a l l judges had w i t h the e v a l u a t i v e i n s t r u m e n t .  36  S c o r i n g Procedure All  f o r Student  A r t Works  works were i d e n t i f i e d and numbered on the back and random  d i s t r i b u t i o n of each of the 15 assignments was made, so t h a t a l l works were randomly d i s t r i b u t e d and compiled  to form  s e p a r a t e c o l l e c t i o n s of student work, one f o r each  finally  three  judge.  T h i s i n s u r e d t h a t each judge had a body of work to e v a l u a t e t h a t was c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the range c f a b i l i t i e s  d i s p l a y e d by both  groups of s t u d e n t s . Score  c a r d s were reduced  i n s i z e and arranged  on 8-1/2" X 14"  paper so as to f i t n i n e s e p a r a t e s c o r e c a r d s on each s h e e t . sheets were compiled w i t h c o p i e s of the s t a t e d d e f i n i t i o n s  These to form  a booklet. Each judge was a s s i g n e d one of the t h r e e c o l l e c t i o n s o f works to s c o r e a c c o r d i n g t o the seven was d i s c u s s e d a g a i n and judges F o l l o w i n g an i n i t i a l asked  f o r comrrents  Questions  categories.  Each of the c r i t e r i a  began t h e i r s c o r i n g p r o c e d u r e .  s c o r i n g of some dozen p i e c e s , judges  or questions p e r t a i n i n g  to the s c o r i n g  such as the f o l l o w i n g were t y p i c a l .  m a t e r i a l manipulation?  Should we  Judges were a g a i n d i r e c t e d  w i t h the same areas of c o n c e r n d e a l t w i t h the judges'  inability  to e a s i l y  group a p a r t i c u l a r work was t a k e n . i d e n t i t y were s u p p l i e d .  of e x e c t i o n ?  t h e i r s c o r i n g to f a l l  for testing.  procedure.  Are we to c o n s i d e r  l o o k f o r neatness  to l i m i t  were  General  in line  comments  i d e n t i f y from  which  No c l u e s as to s t u d e n t  work  Following questions, scoring continued.  Judges met on two s e p a r a t e o c c a s i o n s to complete t h e s c o r i n g of all  s t u d e n t works.  e n t e r e d cn a t a b l e .  Number s c o r e s from  judges'score  c a r d s were  37  D e s c r i p t i o n of S t a t i s t i c a l Inter-judge  reliability  F o l l o w i n g the c o m p l e t i o n The u s u a l p r a c t i c e judges  i s to use  inequalityof  Procedures  of j u d g i n g , s c o r e c a r d s were  i n demonstrating  degree of agreement among  correlation analysis.  the two  groups,  and  In t h i s c a s e , however, the  the i a c k of assurance  n a l s between n u m e r i c a l  scores precluded t h i s .  t e s t was  results  employed.  The  computer programme used was i s reproduced  Post-test test  i n the  formula  value values  w r i t t e n f o r i n p u t to the TI-99/4A  i n Appendix  scores o f f e r e d  inter-  from the r e g u l a r c l a s s p o s t - t e s t s  WHERE 0 = observed AND E = expected  computer and  of equal  I n s t e a d a C h i Square  were s u b j e c t e d t o the C h i Square programme e x p r e s s e d  The  collected.  B.  sufficient  i n f o r m a t i o n input to  inter-judge r e l i a b i l i t y . Where p r e - t e s t s and p o s t - t e s t s are e q u i v a l e n t forms of the same t e s t , i t i s l e g i t i m a t e t o compute g a i n s whether o r not the g a i n s or the c o r r e s p o n d i n g p o s t - t e s t s c o r e s are the data used w i t h any of the s t a n d a r d e r r o r of d i f f e r e n c e f o r m u l a s . . . For the same data and the same f o r m u l a , g a i n s and p o s t - t e s t s c o r e s w i l l r e s u l t i n the same t . ( E n g e l h a r t , 1972, R e s u l t s on the seven  20.66, 11.95, 14.29, and  p.444)  (7) c a t e g o r i e s were 18.29, 12.06, 12.06, 31.92.  With 18 degrees  of freedom,  2 x  is significant  a t the  .05  level  f o r 28.87.  Only one  out of s e v e n . ( 7 ) , the c a t e g o r y of Movement, y i e l d e d a  (1)  significant  difference. the b i n o m i a l p r o b a b i l i t y of 1 i n 7 i s s i g n i f i c a n t  at  .05  38  As s r e s u l t , one might e l e c t from f u r t h e r results  data a n a l y s i s .  t o e x c l u d e Movement  However, as a g e n e r a l  from twenty (20) s i g n i f i c a n c e  to y i e l d one (1) t e s t  tests  rule,  are expected  t h a t appears t o be s i g n i f i c a n t  2 ( W i l l o u g h b y , 1977).Therefore the x  result  as a r r i v e d a t  2 f o r c a t e g o r y 7 (movement),x significant difference A satisfactory  = 3 1 . 9 , does not n e c e s s a r i l y  imply a  i n the judges' marking o r g r a d i n g  results.  l e v e l o f i n t e r - j u d g e agreement i s t h e r e f o r e presumed.  TABLE I POST-TEST x  (REGULAR CLASS)  VALUE and RELATED SIGNIFICANT LEVEL on EACH o f SEVEN CATEGORIES (Inter-Judge R e l i a b i l i t y )  CATEGORY  1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.  x  UNITY WEIGHT PLACEMENT DOMINANCE VARIETY CONTRAST MOVEMENT  = (number of rows = ( 2 ) (9) =18 .05 l e v e l i s 28.87  SIGNIFICANCE LEVEL  18.29 12.06 12.06 20.66 11.95 14.29 31.92  -  df  2  df = 18  1) (number of columns - 1)  .01 l e v e l  i s 34.80  .44 .84 .84 .30 .85 .71 .02  39  Statistical  procedures  f o r a n a l y s i s of data  Number s c o r e s from P r e - t e s t s and P o s t - t e s t s from b o t h groups o b t a i n e d identification  from judges'  score cards, entered  onto  t a b l e s , were employed as data and e n t e r e d  the TI99/4A computer.  Using  test  into  the TI99/4A S t a t i s t i c s command  module, data were e n t e r e d under D e s c r i p t i v e S t a t i s t i c s . Since this  study made use of only two p o p u l a t i o n s and  these p o p u l a t i o n s were f u r t h e r unequal,  n e i t h e r the standard  ANOVA nor ANCOVA was used as the s t a t i s t i c a l analyze obtained data. (Ferguson, The  procedure to  Instead, adjusted t t e s t s  1959, p.144) were a p p l i e d . results obtained  i n the T I 99/4A S t a t i s t i c s  from " D e s c r i p t i v e S t a t i s t i c s " , Command Module  (Mean Ml and M2, v a r i a n c e VI and V2, and number NI and N2), were recorded  as data and e n t e r e d  i n t h e computer programme d e t a i l e d i n  Appendix C, which combines t h e two above-mentioned for calculating  t.  t h i s programme were The  formulas  The t v a l u e s and F r a t i o s r e s u l t i n g  from  recorded.  S i g n i f i c a n c e L e v e l C a l c u l a t o r i n the S t a t i s t i c s command  module was then used to compute the s i g n i f i c a n c e  level of various  2 v a l u e s of p r e v i o u s l y computed s t a t i s t i c s i n T a b l e s I , I I , and I I I .  (x , F, and t ) as o u t l i n e d  40 TABLE I I Results  on 7 C a t e g o r i e s ( P r e - t e s t and P o s t - t e s t ) f o r R e g u l a r (REG)' and S p e c i a l (SPEC) groups  CATEGORY  NAME  N  UNITY  REG/PRE POST  28 38  1.668 2.404  1.441  .163  11  SPEC/PRE POST  25 35  6.214 4.119  1.508  .133  24 34  REG/PRE POST.  28 38  2.360 1.470  1.605  • 09  SPEC/PRE-,, 25 POST 35  4.4 4.28  1.027  .463  REG/PRE POST  28 38  1.107 2.418  2.184  • 019  SPEC/PRE POST  25 35  4.078 3.795  1.074  •417  REG/PRE POST  28 38  4.852 3.457  1.403  -168  SPEC/REG POST  25 35  5.113 3.543  1.443  •16 "  REG/PRE POST  28 38  .078 4.09  5.243  .001.  =r±  SPEC/PRE '25 POST 35  1.96 2.95  1.505  • 15  4rr  REG/PRE POST  28 38  2.56 2.825  1.103  SPEC/PRE POST  25 35  5.366 3.689  1.454  REG/PRE POST  28 38  2.122 5.975  2.815  .003  SPEC/PRE POST  25 35  3.481 4.078  1.172  •347  WEIGHT  PLACEMENT  DOMINANCE  VARIETY  CONTRAST  MOVEMENT  N  df  l  "  1  •N, - 1  VARIANCE  .01 .05  SIG.LEVEL  df.+  27  :  27 ~ 37 .24 34 37 ~: 27 24 34.  .  •=• 11=rr: 37 .  24 =7T 34 37 27  34 24  3_7 27 155  24 34  ?rr  yr 27 34. ~ 24  41  The P r e / P o s t - t e s t  scores  were used t o t e s t the h y p o t h e s e s :  A. There w i l l be no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n performance i n p r e and p o s t - t e s t r e s u l t s i n a r t tasks undertaken by an E.M.R. c l a s s on each c f the f o l l o w i n g c r i t e r i o n v a r i a b l e s : 1. o r g a n i z a t i o n a l u n i t y 2. v i s u a l weight 3... placement 4. dominance 5. v a r i e t y 6. contrast 7. movement B. There w i l l be no s i g n i f c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n p r e and p o s t - t e s t r e s u l t s by a r e g u l a r a r t c l a s s , when t h a t c l a s s i s g i v e n m a t e r i a l i d e n t i c a l to t h a t g i v e n t h e E.M.R. c l a s s , on each of t h e f o l l o w i n g c r i t e r i o n v a r i a b l e s : 1. o r g a n i z a t i o n a l u n i t y 2. v i s u a l weight 3. placement 4. dominance 5. v a r i e t y 6. contrast 7. movement. The programme scores  ( i . e . r e s u l t s a c h i e v e d cn each of the  i n t e r i m assignments) were used t o t e s t the h y p o t h e s i s : C. There w i l l be no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n the r e l a t i v e degree of performance by r e g u l a r c l a s s and E.M.R. c l a s s members on a s s i g n e d a r t tasks according to the f o l l o w i n g c r i t e r i o n variables: 1. o r g a n i z a t i o n a l u n i t y 2. v i s u a l weight 3. placement 4. dominance 5. v a r i e t y 6. contrast 7. movement  42  Acceptable  Levels of S i g n i f i c a n c e  for Statistical  Data  "The h i g h e r t h e l e v e l of s i g n i f i c a n c e s p e c i f i e d , the l e s s l i k e l y i t i s t h a t e r r o r s of the f i r s t k i n d i . e . r e j e c t i n g when one ought t o a c c e p t the h y p o t h e s i s w i l l occur." ( E n g e l h a r t , 1972, p.253)  T h e r e f o r e , t h e .01 l e v e l o f s i g n i f i c a n c e acceptance post-test  o r r e j e c t i o n of each h y p o t h e s i s s c o r e s from b o t h  test  in  was used  f o r the  c o n n e c t i o n w i t h p r e and  groups.  However, t h e " r e j e c t i o n of a n u l l h y p o t h e s i s a t the 5 p e r c e n t , o r even the 10 p e r c e n t , l e v e l may j u s t i f y a d e c i s i o n t o change t o some new method of i n s t r u c t i o n which r e q u i r e s no more e f f o r t and expense than t h e one now used." ( E n g e l h a r t , 1972, p.253) T h e r e f o r e , t h e .05 l e v e l o f s i g n i f i c a n c e acceptance  o r r e j e c t i o n o f each h y p o t h e s i s  the programme (E.M.R. v e r s u s  regular).  was used  f o r the  i n connection  with  43  CHAPTER V ANALYSIS'OF FINDINGS  This  chapter deals  with the recording  o b t a i n e d from s t a t i s t i c a l  Findings  procedures o u t l i n e d  Concerning D i f f e r e n c e s  i n Chapter I V .  between P r e - and P o s t - t e s t  f o r the two Treatment The n u l l h y p o t h e s i s  and a n a l y s i s o f r e s u l t s  scores  Groups  ( H A ) i s restated Q  There w i l l be no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n performance i n p r e and p o s t - t e s t r e s u l t s i n a r t t a s k s u n d e r t a k e n by an E.M.R. c l a s s on each c f the f o l l o w i n g c r i t e r i o n v a r i a b l e s : 1. o r g a n i z a t i o n a l u n i t y 2 . v i s u a l weight 3. placement 4. dominance 5. v a r i e t y . 6. contrast 7. movement The n u l l h y p o t h e s i s ( H Q B ) i s r e s t a t e d  There w i l l be no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n p r e and p o s t - t e s t r e s u l t s by a r e g u l a r a r t c l a s s , when t h a t c l a s s i s g i v e n m a t e r i a l i d e n t i c a l t o t h a t g i v e n the E.M.R. c l a s s , on each o f t h e f o l l o w i n g c r i t e r i o n v a r i a b l e s : 1. o r g a n i z a t i o n a l u n i t y 2. v i s u a l weight 3. placement 4. dominance 5. v a r i e t y . 6. contrast 7. movement The.results  o f the a n a l y s i s by r e v i s e d  c r i t e r i o n v a r i a b l e s are presented  t t e s t f o r each of the  i n Table I I I .  44 TABLE I I I SIGNIFICANCE LEVEL OF t. VALUE PRE-TEST vs POST--TEST ;  PRE/POST MEANS  NAME  CATEGORY  PRE/POST-REG**  UNITY  15.521  64  .001  2.2/7.7  PRE/POST-SPEC***  UNITY  3.876  58  .001  3.8/6.2  PRE/POST-REG  WEIGHT  12.267  64  .001  2.7/7  PRE/POST-SPEC  WEIGHT  4.570  58  .001  3.4/5.9  PRE/POST-REG  PLACEMENT  13.636  64  .001  2.5/6.9  PRE/POST-SPEC  PLACEMENT  5.461  58  .001  2.8/5.7  PRE/POST-REG  DOMINANCE  4.743  64  .001  4/6,5  PRE/POST-SPEC  DOMINANCE  21572  58  .01  4/5.5  PRE/POST-REG  VARIETY  10.610  64  .001.  1.9/5.9  PRE/POST-SPEC  VARIETY ,  5.847  58  .001  2.3/4.7  PRE/POST-REG  CONTRAST  8.578  64  .001  2.7/6.3  PRE/POST-SPEC  CONTRAST  2^.993  58  .004  3.6/5.3  PRE/POST-REG  MOVEMENT  8.133  64  .001  1.5/5.8  PRE/POST-SPEC  MOVEMENT  3.428  58  .001  2.7/4.5  Graphs- i l l u s t r a t i n g  t  df *  the d i f f e r e n c e  SIG.  LEVEL  i n the pre-tast  and post-  test means f o r both groups are presented as f i g u r e 2 and 3 on pages 49 and 5Q. *df = (N +'N ) - 2 x  ** regular ***  2  class  special class  45  (Organizational) " difference  and (B) S p e c i a l C l a s s  and p o s t - t e s t  on the c r i t e r i o n  GROUP  t  df  1  A  15.521  64  .001  B  3.876  58  .001  significance level The n u l l  for H  and (B) S p e c i a l C l a s s  2  GROUP  on the c r i t e r i o n  df  difference  "weight".  PROBABILITY  12.267  64  .001  B  4.570  58  .001  The n u l l  rejected.  s c o r e s f o r (A) R e g u l a r  A  significance level °  groups A and B.  o  and p o s t - t e s t  t  "unity".  A & H B ( l ) was beyond .01 f o r b o t h  There i s no s i g n i f i c a n t °  i n performance between p r e - t e s t  CRITERION  Q  scores f o r  PROBABILITY  hypotheses were t h e r e f o r e  (VISUAL) WEIGHT H A & H B ( 2 ) . o o  The  significant  CRITERION  groups A and B.  Class  There i s no  i n performance between p r e - t e s t  (A) R e g u l a r C l a s s  The  unity, H A & H B (1). *— o o  f o r H A & H B(2) was beyond .01 f o r both o o  hypotheses were t h e r e f o r e  rejected.  46  Placement, H A & H B ( 3 ) . " '— o o  There i s no s i g n i f i c a n t  performance between p r e - t e s t Class  and (B) S p e c i a l C l a s s  CRITERION 3  scores  on t h e c r i t e r i o n  GROUP  t  df  "placement".  PROBABILITY  13.636  64  .001  B  5.461  58  .001  f o r H A & H'-B ( 3 ) was beyond o o  The n u l l hypotheses were t h e r e f o r e  Dominance, H A & H B (4) There i s no s i g n i f i c a n t : ' o o 0  mance between p r e - t e s t (B) S p e c i a l C l a s s  CRITERION 4 .  The  f o r (A) R e g u l a r ,  A  The s i g n i f i c a n c e l e v e l groups A. and B.  and p o s t - t e s t  d i f f e r e n c e i n the  and p o s t - t e s t  scores  GROUP  t  df  A  4.,743  64  .001  B  2..572  58  .01  hypotheses were t h e r e f o r e  i n perfort-  f o r (A) R e g u l a r C l a s s and  "dominance".  w h i l e the s i g n i f i c a n c e l e v e l  rejected.  difference  on the c r i t e r i o n  significance level  .01 f o r both  PROBABILITY  f o r H^A & H^B (4) f o r Groups A was beyond, f o r group B was .01. The n u l l  rejected.  47  V a r i e t y , H^A & H^B (5) There i s no s i g n i f i c a n t mance between p r e - t e s t (B) S p e c i a l C l a s s  CRITERION 5  The  and p o s t - t e s t  on t h e c r i t e r i o n  GROUP  "variety".  df  A  10..610  64  .001  B  3..876  58  .001  The n u l l  PROBABILITY  f o r H^A & H B- (5) was beyond .01 f o r both  hypotheses were t h e r e f o r e  C o n t r a s t , H^A & H^B ( 6 ) There i s no s i g n i f i c a n t mance between p r e - t e s t (B) S p e c i a l C l a s s  CRITERION  .6  The  and p o s t - t e s t  on t h e c r i t e r i o n  GROUP  groups A and B .  "contrast".  A  8..578  64  .001  B  2..993  58  .004  The n u l l  i n perfor-  s c o r e s by (A) R e g u l a r C l a s s and  df  for H  rejected.  difference  t  significance level  in perfor-  f o r (A) R e g u l a r C l a s s and  t  significance level  groups A and B.  scores  difference  Q  AS H  PROBABILITY  Q  B A ( 6 ) . w a s beyond .01 f o r both  hypotheses were t h e r e f o r e  rejected.  48  MOVEMENT, H A & H B (7) There i s no s i g n i f i c a n t —-• o o performance between p r e - t e s t and p o s t - t e s t Class  and (B) S p e c i a l C l a s s  CRITERION 7  GROUP  s c o r e s f o r (A) R e g u l a r  on the c r i t e r i o n  "movement".  t  df  A  8.133  64  .001  B  3.428  58  .001  The s i g n i f i c a n c e l e v e l groups A and B .  difference i n  for H ^ A& H  Q  PROBABILITY  "~  B (7) was beyond  The n u l l hypotheses were t h e r e f o r e  .01 f o r b o t h  rejected.  49 FIGURE 2 PRE-TEST AND POST-TEST MEANS FOR REGULAR CLASS (A)  10  M E A N S  1  2  3  4 CATEGORIES  Shaded Bars = Pre - Tesc Plain  Bars = Pose - Tesc  Decaile'd on Page 43  FIGURE 3 PRE -TEST AND POST -TEST MEANS FOR SPECIAL CLASS (B)  •  1  2  3  4  5 •a.  CATEGORIES '* Shaded Bars = Pre- Test P l a i n Bars  = Post - Test  Categories d e t a i l e d  on Page 43  6  . 7  51  Discussion The is  most n o t i c e a b l e  the c o n s i s t e n c y  i n a l l of the  demonstrates t h a t l e a r n from the  the  B (Special).  The  graphs i n F i g u r e  The  group A,  consider-  significance aptly  regular class  can  with art a c t i v i t y .  be  and  the  In t h a t  atypical.  s t u d e n t s who  2 and  Figure  3,(page  a somewhat  p r e - t e s t means a c h i e v e d  sense, the  had  previous  While group A,  the r e g u l a r  superior  by group B,  little  However, once i n s t r u c t i o n to both groups was p o s t - t e s t means.  be comprised  or no c o n t a c t  c l a s s r o o m , group  comprised of s t u d e n t s who  the  contact  c l a s s , was  with  B,  f o r the most  i n s t r u c t i o n in art a c t i v i t y with this  demonstrated h i g h e r  the  evidence  s p e c i a l c l a s s might  r e l a t e d i n s t r u c t i o n . i n the  s p e c i a l c l a s s , was  by  r e s u l t of t h a t group's p r e v i o u s  f o r the most p a r t have had  the  48  the r e g u l a r c l a s s .  c o n s i s t e n t l y high  art a c t i v i t y  the  for  d i f f e r e n c e i n means-from  to p o s t - t e s t however, r e v e a l e d  s a i d to be  l e v e l of  the above hypotheses, r e i n f o r c e s the  special c l a s s , could  of  Both groups g a i n e d  s p e c i a l c l a s s and  of g a i n f o r both t e s t groups.  performance by  to p o s t - t e s t  t o i l l u s t r a t e c l a s s performances r e v e a l e d  t e s t i n g of each of  The  from p r e - t e s t  findings  same programme.  49),drawn up  pre-test  Results  of the above s e r i e s of  seven c a t e g o r i e s .  R e f e r e n c e to bar and  feature  i n mean gains  groups A ( R e g u l a r ) and ably  of P r e - / P o s t - t e s t  researcher.  complete, group A  part  52  The d i f f e r e n c e s pre-test Figure  fact is  i n mean g a i n s between group A and Group B on  and p o s t ^ t e s t  2 and F i g u r e  scores,  which  i s o b v i o u s when v i e w i n g  3, was not a c o n s i d e r a t i o n  f o r (H A &. H B ) . In o o  such comparisons were d e l i b e r a t e l y a v o i d e d .  i n t e r e s t i n g and perhaps p r e d i c t a b l e  group A, the r e g u l a r  c l a s s , learned  that  Nevertheless, i t  the r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e  that  more and seemingly a t a f a s t e r  r a t e than d i d group B, the s p e c i a l c l a s s .  Summary of R e s u l t s  Derived  Between p r e and p o s t - t e s t The  from the H y p o t h e s i s c o n c e r n i n g scores  f o l l o w i n g hypotheses were H A  f o r t h e two Treatment  Differences Groups  tested:  There w i l l be no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n performance i n p r e and p o s t - t e s t s r e s u l t s i n a r t t a s k s undertaken by an E.M.R. c l a s s , on each o f the f o l l o w i n g c r i t e r i o n v a r i a b l e s : 1. organizational unity 2. v i s u a l weight 3. placement 4. dominance 5. variety 6. contrast 7. movement  On the b a s i s  o f r e s u l t s o b t a i n e d the n u l l h y p o t h e s i s H^A  was r e j e c t e d a t t h e .01 l e v e l of s i g n i f i c a n c e i n terms of a l l seven  criteria. H B  There w i l l be no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n p r e and p o s t - t e s t r e s u l t s by a r e g u l a r a r t c l a s s , when t h a t c l a s s i s g i v e n m a t e r i a l i d e n t i c a l to that g i v e n the E.M.R. c l a s s , on each of the f o l l o w i n g c r i t e r i o n v a r i a b l e s : 1. organizational unity 2. v i s u a l weight 3. placement 4. dominance 5. variety 6. contrast 7. movement  53  On the b a s i s  of r e s u l t s Obtained the n u l l h y p o t h e s i s H ^ B  was r e j e c t e d a t t h e . 0 1 l e v e l seven  of s i g n i f i c a n c e i n terms of a l l  criteria.  Findings  Concerning Differences Test  The  i n Performance between the two  Groups on Programme S c o r e s  n u l l hypothesis  ( H C ) was Q  restated:  C. There w i l l be no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n the r e l a t i v e degree o f performance by r e g u l a r c l a s s and E.M.R. c l a s s members on a s s i g n e d a r t t a s k s a c c o r d i n g t o the f o l l o w i n g c r i t e r i o n variables: 1. o r g a n i z a t i o n a l u n i t y 2. v i s u a l weight 3. placement 4. dominance 5. variety 6. contrast 7. movement  The  r e s u l t s o f the a n a l y s i s by a d j u s t e d  c r i t e r i o n v a r i a b l e s are p r e s e n t e d The  significance level  categories. 28  on  i n T a b l e IV a,b,c,d.  f o r H ^ C was beyond  The n u l l h y p o t h e s i s was t h e r e f o r e  . 0 5 on 2 8 out of 7 7 r e j e c t e d on those  categories. The  out  t t e s t f o r each of the  significance level  of 7 7 c a t e g o r i e s . those 4 9 c a t e g o r i e s .  forH  Q  C was n o t beyond  . 0 5 on 4 9  The n u l l h y p o t h e s i s was t h e r e f o r e  accepted  TABLE  NAME  CATEGORY* * *  :  IV  R E G . MEAN  54  (a)  SPEC.  MEAN  C  **df  SIG.  LEVEL  CONTOUR  . 1  7.642  5.526  3.560  45  .001  *  DRAWING  •' 2  7.071  '4.789  4.533  45  .001  *'.  3.  5.678  4.666  3.275  45  .002  *  4  6  4.421  2.520  45  . 02  *  5  5.8.92  4.631  2.184  45  .03  *  6  5.857  3.89-5  3.475  45  .001  *  .. ' 7  5.464  3.315  3,013  45  . 004  *  1  6.8  6.9  .139  23  .89  2  6.06  6.6  .762  23  .45  5.733  6.3  .695  23  .49  3.4  5.6 .  2.664  23  .01  5  4,466  4.7  .257  23  .8.  6  5.2  6.7  2.354  23  .03  7  3.8  .4.3.  .482  23  .63  1  6.461  5.09  1.872  33  .07  2  5.23  4.454  1.098  33  .28  3  6.307  .4.454  2.636  33  .01  4  5.384  4.590  .985  33  .33  5..  5.538  3.863  2.130  33  .04  4.384  3.813  .715  33  •43 '  4.769  4.045  .877  33  .39  VALUE  3  .  4  COMP  #1  .  .  . 6 7  •CATEGORIES **df *  =  (N  >.05  L  D E T A I L E D ON PAGE ^ N  . •  2  )  -  2  53  •*. .  *  *  *  55 TABLE IV (b)  NAME .  ^CATEGORY  COMP. n  5.666 .  2  6.7 5  6.2  3  7  5.444  4  6  5  6.666  5.5 , .  7.25  5.4  3.00  5-7  :  ,  : 6.916  SIG. LEVEL  19.  .01  .650  19  .52  1.858  19  .08  .752  19  .46 ,  .1.553  19  .14  2.822  *  . 19  .007 *  1.889  19  .. .07 *  7.428  6.384  1.629  25  •12  2  7.428  5.923  2.342  25  .03 . *  3  7.428  5.07 6  3.269  25  .003 *  6.571 •  5.076  2.093  25  .05  5  6.642  4.07 6  .4.964  25  .001 *  6  7.142  3.67 6  25  .001 *  7  : 7.2.14  4.076 .  4.411  25  .001 *  1  8 .222  6.636  2.159  .18  .05  2  7.444  6.090  1.53  18  3  6.888  6.181  .750  13  .46  •4  6.444  4.818  2.063  18  .05  5  5.333  5.545 •  .227  18  .82  6  5.444  5.818  . .583  13  .57  . 6.111  5,4 54  .653  18  .55  7 .  ** *CATEGORIES DETAILED ON PAGE 53 ** df = (N 4- N.) - 2 >.05  5.2  **df  1  • 4  •  t  7.833  . 7  PERSPECTIVE  SPEC. MEAN  1  6  COLLAGE  REG. MEAN  , •  .4.461  *  *  •' . - i * ••  *  56 TABLE IV (c)  *  NAME  REG. MEAN  ^CATEGORY  C  **df  .647  18  .53  SIG. LEVEL  1  7.9  • 2  7.2  6.3  1.923  18  .07.  ' 3' •  7.2  •6.6  .923  13  •37  4 .  6.9  6.4  .738  18  • 47-  5.6  2.039  13  .06 .22  N. + P.: SPACE  SPEC. MEAN  5  •'  7  .7,6  6  6.8  5.8  1.276  18  7  5.7  6.1  ' .565  .18.  PHOTO  1  8.666 • : •  7.142  2.185  11  REALISM  2  7.5  7.285  .189.  11  3  . 7.5  7.285  .265  . 11  .209  11  .84  ' 7.7.14  .  ;•' .58 . .05 * .85 .8  4  7.5 .  5  6.666  6.714  ,. 045  11  ,97  6  7.166  7.142  .. -019  11  .99  7  6.5  7 .428  .869  11  .4  STAINED  1  9.125  7.333  2.335  21  . 03  GLASS  2  8.25  7 .142  1.481,  21  .15  WINDOW .  3  7.375  6.285 '  1.321  21  .2  4  7.375  6.285  1.320  21  .2  5  7  6.714  .355  21  .73  6  7  6.857  .206  21  .84  7  7 .125  6.714  • .611  21  .55.  i  *•** CATEGORIES DETAILED ON PAGE 53 ** df = (N + N ) - 2 x  .. >.05  2  .  *  57  TABLE IV (d)  NAME  *CATEGORY  . t  REG. MEAN.. SPEC. MEAN  **df  SIG.  MIXED  1  7.5  7.75  .557  28  .53  MEDIA  2  7.2  7.05  .438  28  .67  6.7  .418  28  .68  6.10.5  .48 6  28  .63  3 4  '6.9 5.8  .  6.2  4.2  4.366  28  .001  *  6  7.1  5.2  4.022  28  .001  * .  7  6.1  4.45  2.7 00  28  .01  *  , , 5  •  PAINTING  1  7.58 6  7  1 .350. .49 .  .18  SERIES  2  7.172  6.363  1.992  49  .05  3  6.758  6.272  1.087  49  .28  5.896  5.636  .524  49  .6  5,275  4.772 -  1 .077  49  .29  5 . 6 .' 7  -  /5.862  6.045  .449  49  .66  5.137  5.363  .446  49  .66  ^> .05  28  Categories  <\ .05 . 49  Categories  77.  ***  CATEGORIES DETAILED ON PAGE 53  ** d f = (N  + N ) - 2  >.05  LEVEL  TOTAL  *  58 . FIGURE 4  COMPARATIVE • MEAN GAINS CONTOUR  DRAWING  M £ A  N S  4 CATEGORIES Shaded Bars = S p e c i a l  Class  Plain  Class  Bars  = Regular  Categories  d e t a i l e d on Page 53.  5  59  FIGURE  5  COMPAARATTVE MEAN GAINS VALUE  ,  .  •  CATEGORIES * Shaded Bars  = Special  Class  Plain  = Regular  Class  Bars  "Categories  detailed  o n P a g e 53  :  :  -  :  r  —  —  9  FIGURE  6  COMPARATIVE MEAN GAINS COMPOSITION #1  CATEGORIES Shaded Bars = S p e c i a l Class P l a i n Bars  Categories  = Regular Class  d e t a i l e d on Page  53  61  FIGURE 7 COMPARATIVE MEAN GAINS COMPOSITION #2  M E A N S  3.  .4  CATEGORIES Shaded Bars = S p e c i a l Class P l a i n Bars  Categories  = Regular Class  d e t a i l e d on Page 53  FIGURE 8 . COMPARATIVE MEAN GAINS COLLAGE  Fl  CATEGORIES * Shaded Bars = Special Class PLain Bars  = Regular Class  Categories d e t a i l e d on Page 53  63 .FIGURE  9  COMPARATIVE MEAN GAINS  .  PERSPECTIVE — —  :  ;  T—  10  —  8  —  7  M  CATEGORIES Shaded B a r s = S p e c i a l  Class  Plain  Class  Bars  = Regular  Categories  d e t a i l e d on Page 53  E  64 FIGURE  10  .  COMPARATIVE MEAN GAINS N & P SPACE  9  CATEGORIES Shaded Bars = S p e c i a l  Class  P l a i n 3ars  Class  = Regular  C a t e g o r i e s d e c a i l e d on Page 53  65  FIGURE  11  COMPARATIVE MEAN GAINS PHOTO REALISM  10  M E  A N S  2  3.  4  . CATEGORIES Shaded.Bars = S p e c i a l  Class  P l a i n Bars  Class  Categories  = Regular  d e t a i l e d on Page -53  66  FIGURE  COMPARATIVE  STAINED  12  MEAN  GLASS  GAINS  WINDOW  10  9  8  1  2  3  4  5  CATEGORIES Shaded Bars =. S p e c i a l  Class  Plain  Class  Bars  .= R e g u l a r  Categories  detailed  on Page  53  6  67  FIGURE 13 COMPARATIVE MEAN GAINS MIXED MEDIA  .  .  ; .  !  _  .  1  2  3  4  5  CATEGORIES " Shaded Bars = S p e c i a l  Class  Plain  Class  Bars  = Regular  Categories  d e t a i l e d on Page 53  6  7  _ 10  —.' 9  68 FIGURE 14 COMPARATIVE MEAN GAINS PAINTING SERIES ;  !  ,  CATEGORIES Shaded Bars = Special Class P l a i n Bars  Categories  = Regular Class  d e t a i l e d on Page 53  .. >;  ;  _,  _ _  1  0  69  Discussion The  of Programme A d j u s t e d  most s t r i k i n g  t test  f e a t u r e from the a d j u s t e d  Results t test  resultsi s  the degree t o which the s p e c i a l c l a s s performed w i t h i n t h e parameters of a r e g u l a r a r t programme. Forty-nine  instances  (64%) r e v e a l e d  no s i g n i f i c a n t  i n performance between t h e two t e s t groups. i n a d d i t i o n t o the E.M.R. C l a s s b e i n g  able  difference  T h i s would suggest  that  to l e a r n from a  r e g u l a r a r t programme, t h e E.M.R. c l a s s i s c a p a b l e o f response comparable t o t h a t o f t h e r e g u l a r c l a s s on more than h a l f the programme content.  In f a c t ,  i n some i n s t a n c e s . mean g a i n s , F i g u r e  t h e E.M.R. c l a s s i s c a p a b l e o f s u p e r i o r R e f e r r i n g t o presented  b a r graphs on comparative  5 demonstrates the s u p e r i o r performance of t h e  E.M.R. c l a s s on t h a t p a r t i c u l a r a r t a c t i v i t y Figures  c o l l a g e , p e r s p e c t i v e , N & P space, and  Conversely,  #1, c o m p o s i t i o n  s t a i n e d g l a s s window.  #2, Figures  13 and 14 ( photo r e a l i s m , mixed media, p a i n t i n g s e r i e s ) appear f o r  the most p a r t t o suggest an equal In c o n s i d e r i n g be  (Value).  4,6,7,8,9,10 and 12 demonstrate t h e s u p e r i o r performance of the  r e g u l a r c l a s s on c o n t o u r drawing, c o m p o s i t i o n  11,  progress  performance by both g r o u p s .  t h e r e s u l t s o f t h i s study, i t must  remembered t h a t a l t h o u g h both groups were exposed to and  experienced  the same programme c o n t e n t ,  the d e l i v e r y of t h e programme  70  to the E.M.R. group was a d j u s t e d to meet both group and i n d i v i d u a l needs.  The v a r y n a t u r e of a p a r t i c u l a r group make-up  d i c t a t e s a p a r t i c u l a r d e l i v e r y of c o n t e n t .  The language of  i n s t r u c t i o n v a r i e s a c c o r d i n g t o need. As would be e x p e c t e d ,  v o c a b u l a r y of E.M.R. s t u d e n t s  not comparable a t the same.level  i s generally  to the v o c a b u l a r y of r e g u l a r s t u d e n t s  of the same age group. (James, 1983).  Thus adjustments response  f o r language  d e f i c i e n c i e s , when made apparent  by student  or lack cf  response,  must be made t o e f f e c t  s u c c e s s f u l d e l i v e r y o f programme  content.  F o r example, where the i n s t r u c t o r might r e f e r t o the  s u r f a c e t o be worked as t h e whole of the p i c t u r e plane when a d d r e s s i n g a regular class,  t h e same s u r f a c e might be r e f e r r e d t o as a l l the paper  i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h the whole of the p i c t u r e p l a n e when a d d r e s s i n g an E.M.R. c l a s s . I n - c l a s s prompting needs.  i s determined  by i n d i v i d u a l c l a s s member  When c o n f r o n t e d w i t h a r e g u l a r c l a s s  f o r the purpose of  i n s t r u c t i o n t h e i n s t r u c t o r w i l l vary h i s d e l i v e r y of c o n t e n t to i n d i v i d u a l c l a s s number needs. d u c t i o n and l e s s o n d e l i v e r y sent the t o t a l i t y class.  asks  to i n d i v i d u a l s t h a t make up t h a t  for c l a r i f i c a t i o n p e r t a i n i n g to  the d e l i v e r y of lesson content  to that p a r t i c u l a r  student becomes d i f f e r e n t w i t h the a d d i t i o n of f u r t h e r by  the i n s t r u c t o r .  members w i l l  occur  intro-  t o the c l a s s as a whole does n o t r e p r e -  of c o n t e n t d e l i v e r y  The minute a s t u d e n t  lesson content  F o r example, t h e g e n e r a l  according  Similarily,  differences  i n a classroom  i n delivery  teaching s i t u a t i o n .  instruction t o E.M.R. c l a s s S i n c e t h e range  71  of a b i l i t i e s  between i n d i v i d u a l c l a s s members from the E.M.R. group  g e n e r a l l y encompasses  a span t h a t  i s greater  than t h a t  found i n a  r e g u l a r c l a s s , d e l i v e r y t o the E.M.R. may have a g r e a t e r individual abilities  to i n d i v i d u a l w i t h i n  t h e group.  Similarily  v a r i e t y from  t h e range of  between i n d i v i d u a l s from the E.M.R. group and t h e r e g u l a r  c l a s s group i s g r e a t e r i s commensurately Teacher-class  still,  thus v a r i e t y i n d e l i v e r y between groups  greater. rapport  c a n have a d i r e c t i n f l u e n c e on student  response t o l e s s o n c o n t e n t and i t s d e l i v e r y .  This  i s true f o r the  r e g u l a r c l a s s l e a r n i n g environment and i s o f paramount  importance when  d e a l i n g w i t h c l a s s r o o m p r o c e d u r e s and t h e E.M.R. (James,  1983).  72  CHAPTER VI  SUMMARY AND IMPLICATIONS OF THE STUDY  Summary o f Procedures T h i s study was designed  and Major F i n d i n g s  to i n v e s t i g a t e  t h e premise  t h a t E.M.R.  s t u d e n t s c a n l e a r n w i t h i n the c o n f i n e s o f a r e g u l a r i h t r o d u c t o r y a r t programme.  In order to v e r i f y  or discount the p r o p o s i t i o n that  E.M.R. l e a r n i n g w i l l take p l a c e w i t h i n a chosen r e g u l a r a r t programme, i t was n e c e s s a r y art  class, The  f o r whom t h e programme i s n o r m a l l y  programme was conducted  high s c h o o l . identical to  to i n v o l v e as a c r i t e r i o n group a r e g u l a r  Both groups,  intended.  over a s i x month p e r i o d i n a d i s t r i c t  E.M.R. and r e g u l a r , were exposed t o  l e s s o n c o n t e n t under normal c l a s s r o o m  conditions.  That i s  say, l e s s o n s were p r e s e n t e d and adequate f o l l o w - u p time was  provided f o r completion  of assigned problems.  problems was a s s i g n e d .  The f i r s t  identical,  A t o t a l of f i f t e e n  two and t h e l a s t two problems, b e i n g  s e r v e d as p r e - t e s t s and p o s t - t e s t s .  A t o t a l o f 446 student a r t works was g e n e r a t e d programme.  S i n c e the s e t t i n g  from  the given  f o r the s t u d y was t o be under  normal c l a s s r o o m c o n d i t i o n s , and i t i s s t a n d a r d p r a c t i c e t o a l l o w s t u d e n t s more than one s o l u t i o n t o a p a r t i c u l a r problem, more than f i f t e e n works per student  from each group r e s u l t e d .  some s t u d e n t s were not r e p r e s e n t e d activities the  study.  due t o absence from  Conversely,  i n some  l e s s o n s and f o l l o w - u p a r t  school over  the s i x month d u r a t i o n of  73  Resultant collections, on  s t u d e n t a r t works were randomized to form three  one f o r each o f t h r e e  a one t o t e n b a s i s , u s i n g  categories  or variables.  judges.  score  These were  separate  scored  cards comprised of seven  The s c o r e s were used as data f o r  to s e l e c t e d computer programmes t o determine s i g n i f i c a n t  entry  d i f f e r e n c e s as  follows; A.  between p r e - t e s t and p o s t - t e s t  B . between p r e - t e s t and p o s t - t e s t C.  for regular  class  between E.M.R. and r e g u l a r c l a s s on programme (i.e.  The  f o r E.M.R.  i n t e r i m lesson)  f i n d i n g s on p r e / p o s t - t e s t  performance.  a n a l y s i s i n d i c a t e d t h a t , under  normal c o n d i t i o n s , both t h e E.M.R. student and t h e r e g u l a r  student  will  The  learn within  the confines  o f a r e g u l a r a r t programme.  p r o b a b i l i t y on a l l seven c a t e g o r i e s  f o r b o t h groups was  .001;  thus the n u l l h y p o t h e s e s ( H A , H ^ B ) were r e j e c t e d . Q  On  programme performance, f i n d i n g s i n d i c a t e d t h a t there  significant  d i f f e r e n c e s a t the .05 l e v e l between groups on 28 out o f  77 c a t e g o r i e s . no  were  significant  However, on the remaining 49 c a t e g o r i e s d i f f e r e n c e s at the .05 l e v e l .  there  were  That means p e r f o r m -  ance by E.M.R.s was comparable t o that of t h e r e g u l a r c l a s s i n b e t t e r than 60% o f programme c o n t e n t . There i s however, a danger i n i n t e r p r e t i n g and applying  t h e f i n d i n g s of t h i s  study.  Current  a s s u r e the handicapped and the d i s a b l e d y o u t h full  place  public  i n society  school  (Collins,  movements t o their  1984), i n c l u d i n g a p l a c e  system, (Hunter, 1981)  have g i v e n  i n the  r i s e to the idea  that  74  all  but the most s e v e r e l y  handicapped s t u d e n t s should be  i n t o the r e g u l a r  s c h o o l system (Mackie, 1983).  the  percent  case.  Sixty  might i n d i c a t e  parity  still  falls  T h i s i s not n e c e s s a r i l y  f a r s h o r t of the f i g u r e  i n terms o f l e a r n i n g  the r e l a t i o n s h i p  reference only  of the two groups t e s t e d  data a r e based  Any study  i n c o r p o r a t e s a group or number of groups o f i n d i v i d u a l s  since  i t discounts  group.  individual differences  solely  i n t h i s study, w i t h  to some a s p e c t s of a r t e d u c a t i o n .  to draw c o n c l u s i o n s based on group r e s u l t s  that  ability.  C o n c l u s i o n s drawn from o b t a i n e d s t a t i s t i c a l on  integrated  that  and attempts  i s essentially  limited,  o f members who comprise the  A d i f f e r e n t make-up of groups c o u l d r e s u l t i n d i f f e r e n t  r e s u l t s and r e l a t e d  conclusions-  F o r example, the E.M.R. t e s t group  used i n t h i s study was comprised of members whose I.Q. range some 22 s c o r e p o i n t s between i n d i v i d u a l s . identical  varied  Would the r e s u l t s o f an  p r o c e d u r e y i e l d the same c o n c l u s i o n s  i f the I.Q. range  varied  more o r l e s s than 22 s c o r e p o i n t s ? A l t h o u g h l i m i t a t i o n s appear to be numerous, the of  t h i s study a r e a l s o  implications  s i g n i f i c a n t v a l i d a t i o n o f Gold's a s s e r t i o n  that  The h e i g h t of a r e t a r d e d p e r s o n ' s l e v e l o f f u n c t i o n i n g i s determined by t h e a v a i l a b i l i t y of t r a i n i n g t e c h n o l o g y and the amount o f resources society i s w i l l i n g to a l l o c a t e and not by s i g n i f i c a n t l i m i t a t i o n i n b i o l o g i c a l potential. ( G o l d , 1971, p.l.) For  the most p a r t ,  their teachers. ation  i s possible  students l i v e up t o the e x p e c t a t i o n s o f  T h i s study has i n d i c a t e d within  a regular  that  some degree of n o r m a l i z -  a r t programme.  Special  limited  75  a r t programmes do n o t o f f e r  the o n l y a l t e r n a t i v e  f o r the  e d u c a t i o n of t h e E.M.R. w i t h i n the c o n f i n e s o f t h e p u b l i c s c h o o l , and  other p o s s i b i l i t i e s The  results  suggest  are worth e x p l o r i n g . t h a t E.M.R. s t u d e n t s c a n perform  on an  adequate l e v e l compared t o the norm, on most a s s i g n e d a r t t a s k s . The  s h o r t term  increment  i n learning  E.M.R. s t u d e n t s and r e g u l a r s t u d e n t s .  seemed t o be comparable f o r But l o n g term  to be l e s s t h e norm f o r the E.M.R. groups,  increments  as e v i d e n c e d  seemed  by compar-  a t i v e p o s t - t e s t r e s u l t s . The graphs ( F i g u r e s 2 and 3) show r e a l : differences Although  i n p r o g r e s s between groups from p r e - t e s t t o p o s t - t e s t .  long term memory appears  among E.M.R.s, t h e evidence to warrant The  t o be a t a c o m p a r a t i v e l y  i m p l i e s t h a t i t s presence  some degree of success  i n learning  E.M.R. s c o r e s , h i g h e r than s c o r e s from  pre-test  results,,possibly  through  low l e v e l  i s sufficient art a c t i v i t y .  t h e r e g u l a r group i n  due t o p r e v i o u s a r t a c t i v i t y undertaken by  many members of t h e E.M.R. c l a s s , would seem t o support the p o s i t i v e e f f e c t o f l e a r n i n g through a r t . The  concept  o f " i n t e g r a t i o n " of E.M.R. s t u d e n t s  i n t o the  r e g u l a r mainstream of the p u b l i c s c h o o l must be c a r e f u l l y F u r t h e r r e s e a r c h i n t o t h i s very  important  aspect of public  considered. education  must be the b a s i s f o r any new programme development. The  comparative  justify  r a t e of l e a r n i n g  differences  to E.M.R.s.  f o r E.M.R. s t u d e n t s appears t o  i n d e l i v e r y of r e g u l a r c l a s s  l e s s o n content  However, t h e . d i f f e r e n c e need o n l y be i n d e l i v e r y , n o t i n  content. Adjustment content  i n d e l i v e r y may be n e c e s s a r y  to be f u l l y  understood  i n order  by E.M.R. s t u d e n t s .  f o r programme  76  REFERENCES  Arnheim, R u d o l f . A r t and V i s u a l P e r c e p t i o n , B e r k e l e y : U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a P r e s s ,  1974.  B i e r s t e d t , Robert. The S o c i a l Order, T o r o n t o : M c G r a w - H i l l Bock Company, 1970. Burkhard,  Robert C. E v a l u a t i o n of l e a r n i n g A r t E d u c a t i o n , A p r i l , 1965. 3-5  in Art,  Chapman, Laura H. Approaches to A r t i n E d u c a t i o n , H a r c o u r t Brace J o v a n o v i c h , I n c . , 1978; C o l l i n s , G l o r i a . C h i l d r e n Cross L e a r n i n g T i m e s - C o l o n i s t , March 6, 1984, Csapo M.  &  San.Francisco:  Frontiers DI.  Goguen L. S p e c i a l E d u c a t i o n A c r o s s Canada, Vancouver: C e n t r e f o r Human Development and Research, 1980.  Derkach, L.  A l b e r n i D i s t r i c t A s s o c i a t i o n f o r the M e n t a l l y Handicapped, G u i d i n g P h i l o s o p h y , October, 1983.  Dewey, John. A r t As E x p e r i e n c e , New York; C a p r i c o r n Books, G. P. Putnam's Sons. , 1958.. E i s n e r , E. W. & V a l l a n c e E. C o n f l i c t i n g C o n c e p t i o n s of C u r r i c u l u m , Berkeley: McCutchan P u b l i s h i n g C o r p o r a t i o n , 1974. Emlen, Mary Gay. A r t and the Slow L e a r n e r , S c h o o l A r t s , March, 1970. 10-11. E n g e l h a r t , Max D. Methods of E d u c a t i o n a l R e s e a r c h , Rand McNally and Company, 1972. Ensher,  G a i l , Laurene, Mental R e t a r d a t i o n , J o u r n a l of E d u c a t i o n , December, 1969.  Ferguson,  Chicago:  72-73.  G. A. S t a t i s t i c a l A n a l y s i s i n P s y c h o l o g y and T o r o n t o : McGraw H i l l Book Co. I n c . , 1959.  Education,  Hunter, Don. Handicapped Grow i n Normal S c h o o l , Sun P r o v i n c e , November 1, 1981.,Bl. Green, H. W a l t e r Smith: The F o r g o t t e n Man, A r t E d u c a t i o n , 19 ( 1 ) , 1966, 3-9 G o l d , Marc, W. An End to the Concept of Mental R e t a r d a t i o n : Mental R e t a r d a t i o n , 10 ( 1 ) , 1972, 1-6 I t t e n , J . The Elements of C o l o r , Toronto: Van N c s t r a n d R e i n h o l d Company,  1970.  77  James, P h i l i p . T e a c h i n g A r t To S p e c i a l S t u d e n t s , J . Weston Walch, 1983.  P o r t l a n d , Maine:  K i l i a n , Crawford, H e l p i n g the Handicapped i s a F i n e A r t i n B. C. S c h o o l s , The P r o v i n c e , March 1, 1983., B3. Lanier, Vincent. The A r t s We See New York: Teachers C o l l e g e , Columbia U n i v e r s i t y ,  1982.  L e v i c , Myra, Goldman, M o r r i s , J . & F i n d , P a u l , J . T r a i n i n g f o r A r t T h e r a p i s t s : Community Mental H e a l t h Center and C o l l e g e of A r t J o i n F o r c e s B u l l e t i n of A r t Therapy, 1967. Lowenfeld,  V i c t o r , C r e a t i v e and Mental The M a c m i l l a n Co., 1957.  Growth, New  York:  Mackie, Bob, I n t e g r a t i o n P l a n Working Out B e t t e r than D a i l y Townsman, January 16, 1983.  Expected,  M i l l e r , Pamela, F i n e & M i l l e r , Sidney R., The R e l a t i o n s h i p of Task D i f f i c u l t y to M e n t a l l y Retarded S t u d e n t s ' I n t e r e s t i n A r t , S t u d i e s i n A r t E d u c a t i o n , 23 ( 1 ) , 1981, 22-26 M i n i s t r y of E d u c a t i o n , V i c t o r i a , B.C. Guide To the Core C u r r i c u l u m , M i n i s t r y of E d u c a t i o n , V i c t o r i a , No. 82, March, 1979.  B.C.  M i n i s t r y of E d u c a t i o n , V i c t o r i a , B.C. Special Education, 1984.  1977.  "Schools  Department  Circular"  Supplement to the Core  Naumburg, M. An I n t r o d u c t i o n to A r t Therapy, New York: T e a c h e r s C o l l e g e P r e s s . Columbia U n i v e r s i t y ,  Curriculum  1973.  Naumburg, M. D y n a m i c a l l y O r i e n t e d A r t Therapy: I t s P r i n c i p l e s and P r a c t i c e s , New York: Grume and S t r a t t o n , 1966. O c v i r k , O.G. Bone, R.O. S t i n s o n , R.E. a n d W i g g , P.R. Theory and P r a c t i c e , Dubuque: Wm. C. Brown Company, P u b l i s h e r s , 1968.  A r t Fundamentals,  Pappas, George. Concepts i n A r t and E d u c a t i o n T o r o n t o : C o l l i e r - M a c m i l l a n Canada, L t d . , 1970.. P r o v i n c e of B r i t i s h Columbia, Department of E d u c a t i o n , Elementary S c h o o l Programme f o r Slow L e a r n e r s C l a s s e s , 1965. 77-79.  in Special  78  P r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h Columbia, Department of Education., Slow L e a r n e r s i n S p e c i a l C l a s s e s , V i c t o r i a , 1956. Read, H e r b e r t , E d u c a t i o n Through A r t , New York: Pantheon Bocks, I n c . , 1945. Report o f the R o y a l Commission on E d u c a t i o n , V i c t o r i a : P r o v i n c e of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1960. Rubin, J u d i t h , A. Research i n A r t w i t h t h e Handicapped: Problems and Promises, S t u d i e s i n A r t E d u c a t i o n , 23 ( 1 ) , 1981, 7-12 Saskatchewan Department of E d u c a t i o n , D i v i s i o n I I , A r t , May 1978. Sperno, Ruth and Weiner, C a r o l e , C r e a t i v e A r t s Therapy, C h i l d Today, J u l y , 1973, p. 12 - 17. S u t t o n , G. A r t i s a n o r A r t i s t ? London: Pergamon P r e s s , 1967. U h l i n , Donald, M. A r t f o r E x c e p t i o n a l C h i l d r e n , Dubuque: Wm. C. Brown Company, P u b l i s h e r s , 1973. W i l l o u g h b y , Stephen, S. P r o b a b i l i t y and S t a t i s t i c s , A g i n c o u r t , G.L.C. P u b l i s h e r s L t d . , 1977.  Ontario:  Canadian P r e s s , A r t Cures C h i l d Woes T o r o n t o ( C P ) , 1978.  OTHER Texas I n s t r u m e n t s Home Computer " S t a t i s t i c s " Command Module, 1980. Texas I n s t r u m e n t s T l 99/4A Computer R e f e r e n c e Guide  79 APPENDIX A (1) Art  a c t i v i t e s and r e l a t e d in  this  time l i n e  study f o r both  incorporated  groups.  Pre-testing Sept. 19  drawing  of given o b j e c t s  Sept. 21  b l a c k & white p o r t r a i t  painting  . Programme Contour  Drawing  Sept 23.  i n t r o . contour  drawing  N & P Space Sept 27  i n t r o . negative & p o s i t i v e  Sept. 28  s k e t c h took assignment  Sept. 29  refine  still  life  Oct. 5  transfer s t i l l  (still life  drawing  i n t o b l a c k and white life  space drawing)  and break up  shapes. compositions to b l a c k  c o n s t r u c t i o n paper and c u t away white a r e a s . Mount completed  c u t t i n g on white c a r d .  Perspective Oct. 10  intro. of  Oct. 18  l i n e a r p e r s p e c t i v e . Execute t h e drawing  n i n e b l o c k s w i t h two v a n i s h i n g p o i n t s ,  a p p l i c a t i o n of c o l o u r and v a r i o u s e m b e l l i s h m e n t s to  p e r s p e c t i v e drawing  u s i n g idea o f l a n d s c a p e .  Value Oct. 20  i n t r o . balance. Halloween  Oct. 25  intro.  Nov.  execute  2  Execute  f r e e p o s t e r on  Theme.  "Tone" ( V a l u e ) shading l i g h t  t o dark,  the a c c u r a t e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f  g i v e n tone m o d u l a t i o n .  80 Photo  Realism Nov.  Stained  17  photo r e a l i s m ( g r a p h i n g and tone  Glass  Dec.  6.  review b a l a n c e space.  Composition  s t a i n e d g l a s s window c o m p o s i t i o n .  Theme)  #1  Jan 3.  i n t r o . C l o s u r e and O v e r l a p p i n g i n combination  5.  with s i m p l i f i c a t i o n  inAbstraction,  break up a g i v e n o b j e c t " G u i t a r " i n t o geometric  simple  shapes and c r e a t e a b a l a n c e d  composition Composition  and n e g a t i v e & p o s i t i v e  Execute  (Christmas  Jan  modulation)  (line  drawing)  #2  Jan 9.  apply tone t o g u i t a r  composition  (tempera on c a r d ) Composition  #3  Jan 23.  i n t r o mixed media concept g u i t a r composition  re-interpret  u s i n g drawing, p a i n t i n g , and  collage. Painting Series Feb. 7  i n t r o c o l o u r c h a r t and m i x i n g and  including  tones.  e x e r c i s e s on c o l o u r ( p a i n t ) mixing Feb. 15.  execute  given p a i n t i n g  series.  Post-testing drawing of g i v e n o b j e c t s B l a c k & white  portrait  painting  tints  81  APPENDIX A(2)  Summaries o f P r e s e n t a t i o n s t o both Groups  1.  Contour Drawing:  S t u d e n t s were asked:  What i s a l i n e ?  Can you  point  out a l i n e t o me?  These  q u e s t i o n s w i t h r e l a t e d answers and d i s c u s s i o n c o n c l u d e d w i t h  the f a c t t h a t a l i n e  Can you go and b r i n g me a b a s k e t f u l of l i n e s ?  i s a man made t h i n g , i t i s . a c o n c e p t , and i t  becomes e v i d e n t a t the edge of a s u r f a c e .  Examples o f l i n e drawings  executed by a range o f a r t i s t s  p r e s e n t e d f o r v i e w i n g and d i s c u s s i o n ,  (slides)  Students were next asked t o c a r e f u l l y the l i n e s w i t h i n and around.  look a t t h e i r hand and note  Contour, b o u n d a r i e s around s u r f a c e s  were sought.  A number o f attempts were made s t drawing  paper w i t h o u t  l o o k i n g a t the paper;  the hand, thus r e s u l t i n g  in a setting".  Only  left  drawing.  s t u d e n t s were asked t o draw a  l i n e s were t o be used.  they draw the p e r s o n (and s u r r o u n d i n g space) s i t t i n g M a t e r i a l was 2B p e n c i l  t h e hands cn  r a t h e r , the eyes n e v e r  i n a continuous l i n e  F o l l o w i n g these e x e r c i s e s , "figure  were  on 18" X 24" c a r t r i d g e  paper.  I t was suggested o p p o s i t e them.  82  2.  N & P Space F o l l o w i n g an i n t r o d u c t i o n t o n e g a t i v e and p o s i t i v e  space, students  were asked to execute a l i n e drawing c f a p r e s e n t e d s t i l l sketchbook. to  Once complete  the drawing was reworked  life  in their  i n such a way as  produce a c o m p o s i t i o n w i t h w h o l l y e n c l o s e d shapes.  These  shapes  were then d e s i g n a t e d as e i t h e r w h i t e or b l a c k .  It the  soon became apparent t h a t b l a c k which  i s most o f t e n used as  p o s i t i v e can be i n t e r c h a n g e d w i t h w h i t e , u s u a l l y  space  left  as  background  (negative).  When s t u d e n t s were s a t i s f i e d w i t h t h e i r sketchbook drawing was t r a n s f e r r e d  (re-drawn)  s t u d i e s the  to b l a c k c o n s t r u c t i o n  paper  and the d e s i g n a t e d w h i t e shapes were cut c u t w i t h an e x a c t o k n i f e . The  final  c u t t i n g was mounted on white B r i s t o l b o a r d , p r o d u c i n g a  b l a c k and white c o m p o s i t i o n of the o r i g i n a l  3.  still  life  (18" X 24").  PERSPECTIVE An i n t r o d u c t i o n to l i n e a r p e r s p e c t i v e through the eyes of a r t i s t s  was p r o v i d e d by way of a s l i d e p r e s e n t a t i o n . from P e r u g i n o , 1482 " C h r i s t temporary  architectural  Delivering  rendering.  P r e s e n t e d works v a r i e d  the Keys t o S t . P e t e r " to con-  83  The p r i n c i p l e of l i n e a r p e r s p e c t i v e was made apparent by way c f d i s c u s s i o n and r e l a t e d d e m o n s t r a t i o n . practise exercises,  (drawing  S t u d e n t s were next to  s u c c e s s i v e cubes w i t h two v a n i s h i n g p o i n t s  i n s k e t c h book).  F o l l o w i n g these e x e r c i s e s , the problem was posed. of n i n e boxes ( o r b u i l d i n g s ) a r e seen as n i n e squares Draw how they would appear Cardboard  Three  levels  from the t o p .  from the f r o n t , u s i n g two v a n i s h i n g p o i n t s .  boxes were a v a i l a b l e  f o r s t u d e n t s to s e t up the suggested  scene.  Upon c o m p l e t i o n of drawing  s t u d e n t s were asked  to s e t the twenty-  seven boxes i n a l a n d s c a p e s e t t i n g and add c o l o u r .  4. VALUE Students were i n t r o d u c e d t o the concept c f b a l a n c e w i t h i n a composition.  S e l e c t e d works of a r t were viewed  i n a slide presentation.  V a r i o u s forms of b a l a n c e were p o i n t e d c u t and d i s c u s s e d . were asked The  to execute a b a l a n c e d c o m p o s i t i o n f o l l o w i n g a g i v e n theme.  c h o i c e of medium, was  The  completed  left  to i n d i v i d u a l s .  c o m p o s i t i o n s were then l o o k e d a t by the c l a s s and  the r e s u l t s were d i s c u s s e d . discussion.  Students  The i d e a o£ " s h a d i n g " came up i n  84  Thus Tone ( V a l u e ) became an area f o r c o n s i d e r a t i o n . Following  the p r e s e n t a t i o n and  r e l a t e d d i s c u s s i o n of works of  a r t w i t h r e f e r e n c e to v a l u e i n the c o m p o s i t i o n , to execute  s t u d e n t s were  the a c c u r a t e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of g i v e n tone  asked  modulation.  Small s e c t i o n s of b l a c k & white magazine p i c t u r e s were c u t and as p o i n t s of d e p a r t u r e  5.  Photo  used  f o r student work.  Realism  Students were i n t r o d u c e d to High R e a l i s m  i n Canada.  Contemporary  Canadian a r t i s t s working i n the h i g h r e a l i s m manner were the p o i n t of departure  for this presentation.  To a s s u r e  some measure of success  i n t r o d u c e d to g r a p h i n g  of g i v e n  i n r e a l i s m s t u d e n t s were  images.  B l a c k and White photographs or magazine p i c t u r e s p o i n t of d e p a r t u r e X 16" p e n c i l  6.  f o r student a r t works.  s e r v e d as  the  Completed works were  16"  (2H,2B,HB) drawings on Moyers drawing  white.  Stained Glass F o l l o w i n g a review of balance w i t h i n a c o m p o s i t i o n  and p o s i t i v e  space  u s i n g a Christmas white.  s t u d e n t s were asked theme.  The work was  and  to c r e a t e a b a l a n c e d  negative composition  Shapes were to be d e s i g n a t e d as b l a c k or  done i n student  c a r d s s e r v e d as p o i n t s Of d e p a r t u r e  s k e t c h books. f o r student  Christmas  works.  85  When s k e t c h book work was completed, transferred  the composition  t o b l a c k c o n s t r u c t i o n paper and white  u s i n g an exacto  knife.  The now blank spaces  c o l o u r e d t i s s u e paper s h e e t s .  was  spaces were c u t c u t  were f i l l e d  i n using  The r e s u l t a n t works were d i s p l a y e d  a g a i n s t a window t o a l l o w l i g h t  to pass  through  the t i s s u e paper and  thus take cn the appearance o f s t a i n e d g l a s s .  7.  Composition The  concept  simplification.  #1 o f A b s t r a c t i o n was i n t r o d u c e d t o s t u d e n t s by way of V a r i o u s examples of a b s t r a c t work ( r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a l  a b s t r a c t i o n ) were p r e s e n t e d  i n slide  form  f o r v i e w i n g and d i s c u s s i o n .  D i s c u s s i o n of p r e s e n t e d works made e v i d e n t c l o s u r e and o v e r l a p p i n g i n those works.  Thus s i m p l i f i c a t i o n , c l o s u r e , and o v e r l a p p i n g became  areas o f c o n c e r n  f o r students  Students of d e p a r t u r e composition  were p r e s e n t e d w i t h a number o f g u i t a r s t o serve as p o i n t s f o r t h e i r work.  They were asked  o f " G u i t a r " u s i n g simple geometric  l i n e s were to be  8.  i n t h e i r work.  Composition Students  8" X 15" c a r d .  to create a balanced shapes.  Only  used.  #2  were asked Using  t o t r a n s f e r the r e s u l t s  from comp #1 to a  tempera p a i n t , students were  instructed  86  to apply  tone to the c o m p o s i t i o n  completed work was  9.  Composition The  students  to be aware of b a l a n c e .  to be monochrome.  of c o l l a g e i n image making was  through the study  of s l i d e p r e s e n t a t i o n s  introduced of C u b i s t  from Comp #1  and  #2  on an 8" X 15"  A v a r i e t y of magazine p i c t u r e s was  10  and  paste  image was  composition  c a r d , u s i n g the c o l l a g e a v a i l a b l e to s t u d e n t s  technique.  to c u t  #4)  i d e a of m i x i n g v a r i o u s m a t e r i a l s on a s u r f a c e to c r e a t e discussed.  presented  S u r r e a l i s m , and  American A b s t r a c t  Following  an  A v a r i e t y of sample a r t works i n c o r p o r a t i n g  mixed media was  by way  of s l i d e s .  t h i s p r e s e n t a t i o n and  u s i n g drawing, p a i n t i n g , and  Works from Dada,  Expressionism,  were viewed.  r e l a t e d d i s c u s s i o n students  i n s t r u c t e d to r e - i n t e r p r e t the p r e v i o u s #3)  and  on.  Mixed Media (comp The  to  works.  Students were i n s t r u c t e d to r e - i n t e r p r e t the g u i t a r  up  The  #3  technique  Surrealist  and  g u i t a r composition  collage.  were  (#l,#2,and  87  11.  Painting Series The  for  c o l o u r c h a r t ( o r wheel) as d e s c r i b e d by I t t e n was  i n t r o d u c t i o n to c o l o u r theory  (Itten,  the b a s i s  1970).  F o l l o w i n g a b a s i c i n t r o d u c t i o n to c o l o u r , s t u d e n t s were s e t tasks of c o l o u r m i x i n g . presented  information.  These e x e r c i s e s s e r v e d as r e i n f o r c e m e n t s Colour mixing  c o l o u r s as w e l l as t i n t s and  Students  were next  instructed  to c r e a t e a b a l a n c e d  with c o l o u r .  A p a r t i c u l a r c o l o u r mode was compositions, tone e t c .  eg:  tertiary  composition  T h i s c o m p o s i t i o n was  to t h r e e s e p a r a t e c a r d s 8" X 10".  were to be completed  and  tones.  ( l i n e drawing) i n t h e i r s k e t c h book. transferred  i n c l u d e d secondary  to  Liquid  to be used  The  to be  resultant  tempera p a i n t was  f o r each of the  cards used.  three  T r i a d harmony, complementary harmony, t i n t s  and  APPENDIX B  Computer Programme f o r C h i Square f o r TI-99/4A computer (Inter-judge 100  DIM  V(3,10)  110  CALL CLEAR  120  FOR I = 1 TO 3  130  PRINT "ENTER DATA FOR JUDGE  140  FOR J = 1 TO TO  150  INPUT V ( I , J )  160  V(I,0) = V(1,0)+V(I,J)  170  V ( 0 , J ) =V(0,J) + V ( I , J )  180  V(0,0) = V(0,0) + V ( I , J )  190  NEXT J  200  NEXT I  210  FOR 1 = 1  220  FOR J = 1 t o 10  230  E ='V(I,0) •* V ( 0 , J ) / V ( 0 , 0 )  240  IF  250  A = V(I,J)- E . . .  260  T = T+A-'-A/E  270  NEXT J  280  NEXT I  290  PRINT "CHI SQUARE IS";T  TO 3  E = 0 THEN 2 70  reliability)  89  APPENDIX C  Computer Programme f o r t t e s t (non-norma1) f o r TI-99/4A computer  100  INPUT "FIRST MEAN ":M1  110  INPUT "SECOND MEAN":M2  120  INPUT FIRST VARIANCE":VI  130  INPUT "SECOND VARIANCE" :V2'  132  INPUT "FIRST NUMBER":N1  134  INPUT "SECOND NUMBER":N2  140  PRINT :::  150-  T = ABS(Ml-M2)/SQR(VI/(N-l)+V2/(2-l)  160  PRINT "T VALUE IS";T  170  I F VI  180  F = V1/V2  190  GOTO 210  200  F= V2/V1  210  PRINT "F RATIO IS";F  V2 THEN 200  89a APPENDIX D (1) A SAMPLING CF REPRODUCTIONS OF STUDENTS' WORKS FROM THE E.M.R. CLASS RESULTING FROM THIS STUDY  91  92  B l a c k & White  Portrait  C o m p o s i t i o n #1  93  Stained  Glass  94  Perspective  Value  Composition  #3  95  95a  APPENDIX D (2) A SAMPLING OF REPRODUCTIONS OF STUDENTS' WORKS FROM THE REGULAR CLASS RESULTING FROM THIS STUDY  96  97  98  Composition # 1  Composition  #3  99  Stained  Glass  100  Perspective  Value  101  Composition  #2  Composition  #3  Composition  #4  APPENDIX E Q  Fine Arts  •  A  rtj  Art  A.  The s t u d e n t  recognizes basic  LEVELS P  r e c o g n i z e s ' a v a r i e t y of t y p e s and uses of l i n e s i n art • i d e n t i f i e s c o l o u r s and c o l o u r q u a l i t i e s ( e . g . h u e , i n t e n s i t y and m i x t u r e s ) • d e m o n s t r a t e s an a w a r e n e s s o f t h e t e x t u r e s o f o b j e c t s and m a t e r i a l s • shows an a w a r e n e s s o f s p a c e i n a r t  I  s  J  •  The s t u d e n t p a r t i c i p a t e s art experiences.  actively  • • • • • • •  forms  O X 0 X 0 0 X 0 X 0 X 0 X 0 X 0 X 0 X 0 X  in  • c u t s o r t e a r s p a p e r t o make s h a p e s a n d d e s i g n s • pastes material to form a c o l l a g e t draws s i m p l e , r e c o g n i z a b l e forms • uses m o d e l l i n g m a t e r i a l s r e . g . c l a y , papier-mache) to form a r t objects • c o n s t r u c t s c r a f t items u s i n g a v a r i e t y of m a t e r i a l s a n d modes • employs v a r i o u s a r t m a t e r i a l s and t e c h n i q u e s i n selfe x p r e s s i on • uses a r t t o o l s and m a t e r i a l s a p p r o p r i a t e l y and s a f e l y • shows i n d e p e n d e n c e a n d r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i n d e a l i n g w i t h m a t e r i a l s , w o r k s p a c e , and a r t p r o d u c t s e d e m o n s t r a t e s k n o w l e d g e o f a r t g a l l e r i e s a n d museums  The s t u d e n t about a r t .  0 X 0 X 0  0 X 0 X 0 X 0 X 0 X 0 X 0 X 0 X 0 X 0  X  0 X 0 X 0  X 0  X  X 0  X 0  X  0 X 0 0 X 0  X 0 X 0  X X  0 X 0 0  X 0 X 0  X  0 X 0  X 0  X  X 0  X 0  X  0 0  X 0  X  opinions  i d e n t i f i e s d i f f e r e n t forms of a r t e x p r e s s i o n d e m o n s t r a t e s an a p p r e c i a t i o n f o r a v a r i e t y o f art fofms recognizes basic art techniques e v a l u a t e s own a r t w o r k e x p r e s s e s and e x p l a i n s p e r s o n a l p r e f e r e n c e s i n a r t makes c o n s t r u c t i v e c o m m e n t s a n d c r i t i c i s m s w i t h r e g a r d t o a r t work d e m o n s t r a t e s a w a r e n e s s of the r o l e of the a r t i s t  0 0 0 X 0 0  X 0  X 0  X  X 0  X 0  X 0  X 0  X X  0 X 0 X 0 X 0 X 0 X  

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