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The impact of computer aided drafting technology on industrial education curriculum in British Columbia… Savage, John Howard 1985

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THE IMPACT OF COMPUTER AIDED DRAFTING TECHNOLOGY ON INDUSTRIAL EDUCATION CURRICULUM IN BRITISH COLUMBIA SECONDARY SCHOOLS by JOHN HOWARD SAVAGE B.Sc, University of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1973 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN THE REQUIREMENTS MASTER PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF FOR THE DEGREE OF OF ARTS i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Department of Education We accept t h i s thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA © John Howard Savage, 1985 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make i t freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It i s understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of ///^usrtZ/AL &DucA77&/J ( /-7A-r?//£c,e^*€ The University of British Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 Date /4 , / ? ; r s ( i l ) ABSTRACT THE IMPACT OF COMPUTER AIDED DRAFTING TECHNOLOGY ON INDUSTRIAL EDUCATION CURRICULUM IN BRITISH COLUMBIA SECONDARY SCHOOLS SAVAGE, JOHN HOWARD, M.A. UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA, 1985 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM The purpose of t h i s study was to i d e n t i f y the pr e r e q u i s i t e s k i l l s most appropriate to t r a i n i n g and/or employment i n computer aided drafting... S p e c i f i c objectives of the study were concerned with: 1. The prevalence of CAD i n s p e c i f i c i n d u s t r i e s . 2. The r e l a t i o n s h i p between the s i z e and/or type of CAD system and the t r a i n i n g required to operate i t . 3. The background and t r a i n i n g of i n d i v i d u a l s operating CAD systems. A. The preferences of employers as to the education of t h e i r CAD operators. 5. The preferences of CAD t r a i n i n g i n s t i t u t i o n s as to the education of CAD t r a i n i n g candidates. 6. The methods by which i n d i v i d u a l s i n industry received CAD t r a i n i n g . 7. The methods of CAD t r a i n i n g preferred by employers. 8. The importance of c e r t a i n s k i l l s r e l a t i v e to CAD employment or t r a i n i n g . 9. The importance of c e r t a i n secondary school d r a f t i n g curriculum items r e l a t i v e to CAD t r a i n i n g or employment. 10. The i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of secondary school curriculum areas to be modified to s u i t the needs of industry and CAD t r a i n i n g i n s t i t u t i o n s . ( i i i ) PROCEDURES The survey questionnaire method was used to obtain data f o r t h i s study. Two p a r a l l e l , closed-form questionnaires were developed from a review of relat e d l i t e r a t u r e and an analysis of current d r a f t i n g standards and techniques. One questionnaire was sent to a l l t r a i n i n g i n s t i t u t i o n s i n B r i t i s h Columbia o f f e r i n g courses i n CAD. The other questionnaire was sent to s i x t y - f i v e businesses i n B r i t i s h Columbia i d e n t i f i e d as users of CAD technology. The responses were analysed to provide information on the impact of CAD technology on secondary school curriculum. The importance of p a r t i c u l a r items was determined through c a l c u l a t i o n of mean p r i o r i t y or ranking l e v e l s . FINDINGS' The businesses surveyed were p r i m a r i l y involved i n mechanical and el e c t r o n i c s d r a f t i n g followed by s t r u c t u r a l , a r c h i t e c t u r a l , and cartographic. Training i n s t i t u t i o n s were concerned with a r c h i t e c t u r a l and c i v i l d r a f t i n g followed by mechanical and s t r u c t u r a l . Data indicated that CAD was being used i n a l l areas of d r a f t i n g . CAD system descriptions indicated that a large number of businesses and tr a i n i n g i n s t i t u t i o n s were using personal computer based CAD systems that were les s expensive and easier to operate than larger mainframe or dedicated systems. Educational i n s t i t u t i o n s indicated that the majority of t h e i r CAD tr a i n i n g candidates were upgrading themselves and that they preferred candidates with a good d r a f t i n g background. Businesses indicated that most of t h e i r CAD operators were draftspersons retrained f o r CAD. Few CAD operators had received formal CAD t r a i n i n g although employers indicated a h i r i n g preference f o r draftspersons with formal t r a i n i n g i n CAD. ( :iy ) Both businesses and t r a i n i n g i n s t i t u t i o n s involved with CAD considered manual d r a f t i n g s k i l l s and good problem solving a b i l i t y to be the most important pre r e q u i s i t e s for CAD t r a i n i n g or employment. With respect to s p e c i f i c d r a f t i n g s k i l l s , there was concensus on the importance of i n d i v i d u a l items. Dimensioning to CSA standards was considered most important followed by the three dimensional representations t y p i f i e d i n sketching, p i c t o r i a l , drawing, a u x i l i a r y views, and developments. Both surveys indicated that c u r r i c u l a r change to r e f l e c t the changing technology was necessary and should include the introduction •£>£ computer aided d r a f t i n g at the secondary l e v e l as well as more d r a f t i n g course time and more emphasis on computational and communication s k i l l s . CONCLUSIONS 1. Drafting, e s p e c i a l l y computer aided d r a f t i n g , should be approached as a necessary s k i l l f o r a wide v a r i e t y of occupations and not as a vocation i n i t s e l f . This would require a conscious e f f o r t to open secondary school d r a f t i n g programs to a l l students, not j u s t those i n i n d u s t r i a l programs. 2. Drafting educators should acquaint themselves with the changing technology of d r a f t i n g including contact with post secondary t r a i n i n g i n s t i t u t i o n s and representative industry. 3. Secondary school d r a f t i n g programs should introduce students to computer aided d r a f t i n g . 4. More emphasis should be placed on dimensioning to CSA standards and on areas of d r a f t i n g that involve viewing an object i n three dimensions. 5. Secondary school curriculum should be modified to include more dr a f t i n g time and place more emphasis on computational and communication s k i l l s . ( w ) ; i - - ; TABLE OF CONTENTS Chapter Page 1 INTRODUCTION 1 Background to the Problem 1 Purpose of the Study 3 Sign i f i c a n c e of the Study 4 Assumptions 5 Delimitations 6 D e f i n i t i o n of Terms 6 Method of Procedure ; . . . 8 Summary 8 Structure of Study 8 2. REVIEW OF RELATED LITERAUTRE 10 Curriculum Development 10 Related Research i n I n d u s t r i a l Education 17 P e r i o d i c a l L i t e r a t u r e of Interest 26 Summary 29 3. METHODS & PROCEDURES 31 Construction of the Questionnaire 31 Selection of the Sample Populations 32 Procedure 33 Treatment of Data 34 4 PRESENTATION OF FINDINGS 35 Survey Response 35 Areas of CAD Use 36 CAD System Description 38 CAD System Ease of Operation 38 CAD System Costs 40 CAD Training Candidates 40 CAD Operator Background 42 CAD Operator Training 42 Business H i r i n g Preferences f or CAD Operations 42 Candidate Preference of CAD Training I n s t i t u t i o n s . . . . 45 CAD Training Methods Preferred by Educational I n s t i t u t i o n s 45 Importance Ranking of Selected Manual, Cognitive, I n d u s t r i a l S k i l l s . . . . 45 ( v i ) Table of Contents (cont'd) Chapter Page 4 (cont'd) Secondary School C u r r i c u l a r Change or Emphasis I d e n t i f i e d as Being B e n e f i c i a l to Student CAD Training or Employment 52 Purpose of Study Reviewed 54 5 SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS & RECOMMENDATIONS 56 Conclusions 58 Recommendations 58 Areas for Fruther Study 60 BIBLIOGRAPHY 61 APPENDIX "A" - Cover Letters 68 APPENDIX "B" - CAD Training S k i l l . Survey . 71 APPENDIX "C" - CAD Operator S k i l l Survey 76 APPENDIX "D" - CAD System Descriptions 81 APPENDIX "E" - Selected Comments from Questionnaires . . . 84 APPENDIX "F" - I n s t i t u t i o n s : i n ^ B r i t i s h Columbia Off e r i n g CAD Training 87 APPENDIX "G" - Industries Using Computer Aided Drafting 89 BIOGRAPHICAL INFORMATION 94 ( v i i ) LIST OF FIGURES Figure Page 1 Survey Response Rate 37 2 Areas of CAD Use 37 3 CAD System Description 39 4 CAD System Ease of Operation 39 5 CAD System Cost Approximations 41 6 CAD Training Candidate Background 41 7 CAD Operator Background 43 8 CAD Operator Training 43 8a Hi r i n g Preferences of Businesses Using CAD 44 8b Candidate Preferences of CAD Training I n s t i t u t i o n s . . . . 44 9 CAD Training Preferences of Educational I n s t i t u t i o n s . . . 46 10 Importance Ranking of Selected Manual S k i l l s Relative To CAD Training or Employment.. . . 46 11 Importance Ranking of Selected Cognitive S k i l l s R elative to CAD Training or Employment 48 12 Importance Ranking of Selected I n d u s t r i a l S k i l l s R elative to CAD Training or Employment 48 13 Importance Ranking of Selected Drafting S k i l l s Taught i n B.C. Secondary Schools i n Relation to CAD Training or Employment. ., . .51-14 Secondary School C u r r i c u l a r Change or Emphasis I d e n t i f i e d as Being B e n e f i c i a l to Student CAD Training or Employment .-53. ( v i i i ) ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I would l i k e to express my appreciation for the advice and guidance offered by my Faculty Advisor, Professor R. LeDuc, and thanks also to Professor W. Logan and Dr. J . Gaskell, the other members of the thesis committee, for t h e i r assistance i n developing t h i s study. I also wish to thank Mr. D. O g i l v i e and Mr. D. Nowoselski for t h e i r assistance with computer programs and word processing. To.Mr. L. Robinson, my sincere appreciation for h i s e f f o r t s on my behalf and to Ms. J . Lowe my thanks for her excellent typing s k i l l s . My s p e c i a l thanks to my wife, Karen, whose cooperation and encouragement made th i s work possible. - 1 -CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION Background to the Problem: Since the early 1970's, governments of many i n d u s t r i a l i z e d nations, recognizing the benefits of computer aided design and manufacturing to t h e i r economies, have promoted i t s adoption by both state and p r i v a t e enterprise. The automated factory, made possible by advances i n microchip technology, has become more a v a i l a b l e at in c r e a s i n g l y l e s s cost to a greater number and wider v a r i e t y of businesses. M i l l i o n s of d o l l a r s have been spent i n Europe, the United Kingdom, Japan, and the United States to encourage the development and adoption of t h i s technology by industry, creating a coincident increase i n the demand f o r t e c h n i c a l expertise. The development of required t r a i n i n g and education f o r t h i s technology has been l e f t to the CAD/CAM vendors, u n i v e r s i t i e s , t e c h n i c a l i n s t i t u t e s , and trade schools with l i t t l e or no assistance from government. As a r e s u l t , education and t r a i n i n g f o r CAD/CAM have become a p r i o r i t y i n these countries. The Canadian government, recognizing the need f or expertise i n these areas, has encouraged p r o v i n c i a l educational i n s t i t u t i o n s to develop appropriate t r a i n i n g programs through i t s S k i l l s Growth Fund and other programs. In B r i t i s h Columbia, there are sixteen i n s t i t u t i o n s presently o f f e r i n g a v a r i e t y of high technology oriented courses. Most of these i n s t i t u t i o n s have been a s s i s t e d through fe d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l grants to develop courses i n computer aided design, d r a f t i n g , and manufacturing through the purchase and i n s t a l l a t i o n of CAD systems. _..2 -The most popular high technology programs, and the ones that promise the most opportunity for employment i n B r i t i s h Columbia, are those that o f f e r computer aided d r a f t i n g . In most cases, t h i s t r a i n i n g i s offered as a part of a d r a f t i n g technology, engineering, or s i m i l a r program, although there i s considerable demand for o f f e r i n g s of computer aided d r a f t i n g as an upgrade course for engineers, a r c h i t e c t s , designers, draftsmen, and other p r o f e s s i o n a l s . There appears to be l i t t l e d i s t i n c t i o n between computer aided design and computer aided d r a f t i n g and i t should be noted that most i n s t i t u t i o n s are o f f e r i n g computer aided d r a f t i n g along with t h e i r regular courses i n design. As the e x i s t i n g technology becomes more integrated, more systems w i l l become a v a i l a b l e that incorporate the design parameters and manufactur-ing c o n t r o l with the d r a f t i n g software. For the purpose of t h i s study, design was considered to be concerned with engineering analysis rather than the act of conceptualizing. At the secondary school l e v e l , educators experience what can be described as a "trickle-down e f f e c t " with regard to high technology innovation and s i m i l a r advances. The computer education a v a i l a b l e at the u n i v e r s i t y l e v e l i n the early 1960's has, i n twenty years, t r i c k l e d down to the secondary school l e v e l . Word processing, which was once a v a i l a b l e only at colleges and trade schools, i s now being taught at the grade seven l e v e l i n some B r i t i s h Columbia school d i s t r i c t s . The same analogy may apply to the computer aided d r a f t i n g technology. If t h i s technology i s to t r i c k l e down in t o the secondary schools, as i t appears to be doing, a r e v i s i o n of present d r a f t i n g curriculum becomes increasingly important. Even without adopting t h i s technology at the secondary l e v e l , s k i l l s - 3 -presently being taught should be examined as to t h e i r s u i t a b i l i t y f o r the technology of the workplace or further t r a i n i n g . Manual d r a f t i n g , as a vocation, i s r a p i d l y disappearing, but the need for appropriate d r a f t i n g s k i l l s may be more important now, for an increasing number of occupations, than ever before. This study w i l l examine two s,tagescof influence on curriculum. The f i r s t area i s that of recognition of changes i n technology and incorp-orating them into the curriculum. As Hildebrand (1974) states, "... i f i n d u s t r i a l a r t s d r a f t i n g programs are to remain e f f e c t i v e and current, i t i s e s s e n t i a l that the I n d u s t r i a l Arts educator s c r u t i n i z e and incorporate new p r a c t i s e s and innovations of industry into the d r a f t i n g programs." (p. 1) The second stage:is i n t r o s p e c t i v e : to examine the present curriculum to determine which areas are most important with respect to the requirements of industry and post secondary education. Hildebrand also supports t h i s , asking, "What have these changes meant for the d r a f t i n g educator? They have indicated a need for c a r e f u l analysis of course content i n an attempt to s e l e c t those elements most relevant i n l i g h t of current i n d u s t r i a l needs." (p. 4) Further support i s offered by Case (1971), "... i t i s necessary f o r i n d u s t r i a l educators to keep abreast of the rapid advancements i n the f i e l d of technology. Not only must they be cognizant of the changes taking place i n industry, they must also f i n d means of implementing these technological changes to update the c u r r i c u l a . " (p. 1) Purpose of the Study: The purpose of t h i s study i s to i d e n t i f y , through a survey of in d u s t r i e s and educational i n s t i t u t i o n s , the p r e r e q u i s i t e s k i l l s most appropriate to t r a i n i n g and/or employment i n computer aided d r a f t i n g . - 4 -S p e c i f i c objectives of the study are: 1. To determine the prevalence of CAD i n s p e c i f i c i n d u s t r i e s . 2 . To determine i f any r e l a t i o n s h i p e x i s t s between the s i z e and/or type of CAD system and the t r a i n i n g required to operate i t . 3. To examine the background and t r a i n i n g of those i n d i v i d u a l s presently operating CAD systems. 4. To determine i f employers have any preferences as to the educational background of future CAD operators. 5. To determine i f CAD t r a i n i n g i n s t i t u t i o n s have any preferences as to the educational background of the i n d i v i d u a l s they teach. 6. To determine the predominant methods by which i n d i v i d u a l s i n industry received t h e i r CAD t r a i n i n g . 7. To determine which method of CAD t r a i n i n g i s preferred by employers. 8. To determine the importance of c e r t a i n psychomotor, cognitive, and i n d u s t r i a l s k i l l s r e l a t i v e to CAD employment or t r a i n i n g . 9. To determine the importance of present secondary school d r a f t i n g curriculum items r e l a t i v e to CAD employment or t r a i n i n g . 10. To i d e n t i f y areas of secondary school curriculum requiring m odification to s u i t the perceived needs of industry and CAD t r a i n i n g i n s t i t u t i o n s . S i g n i f i c a n c e of the Study: Post secondary t r a i n i n g i n s t i t u t i o n s and representative i n d u s t r i e s were asked for information concerning the operation of t h e i r CAD systems and the r e l a t i v e importance of c e r t a i n s k i l l s and curriculum items to further t r a i n i n g or employment i n computer aided d r a f t i n g . The findings - 5 -w i l l enable an informed r e v i s i o n of present curriculum i n d r a f t i n g and a v a r i e t y of re l a t e d subjects. It w i l l also allow educators to better inform students about s p e c i f i c requirements f o r CAD r e l a t e d occupations and w i l l help to strengthen the r e l a t i o n s h i p between industry and educational i n s t i t u t i o n s i n B r i t i s h Columbia. Assumptions: The r e s u l t s of t h i s study are based on the assumption that c e r t a i n factors would not have a s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t on the v a l i d i t y of the information gathered. S p e c i f i c a l l y , these assumptions are: 1. That the i n d u s t r i e s sampled were representative of those i n d u s t r i e s i n B r i t i s h Columbia that employ CAD personnel. 2. That the educational i n s t i t u t i o n s sampled were representative of those B r i t i s h Columbia i n s t i t u t i o n s o f f e r i n g t r a i n i n g i n CAD. 3. That the survey p a r t i c i p a n t s were honest, competent, and informed i n t h e i r responses. 4. That the survey instruments did c o l l e c t the information for which they were intended. 5. That the researcher would be unbiased and accurate i n M s reporting. The study also assumed the following conditions: 1. That the information gathered would be of assistance i n r e v i s i n g curriculum i n B r i t i s h Columbia secondary schools. 2. That CAD technology i s a s i g n i f i c a n t factor i n determining curriculum. 3. That curriculum change i n t h i s context would be b e n e f i c i a l to students, education, and industry. 4. That informed opinion would be a useful measure or i n d i c a t o r of the p r e r e q u i s i t e s k i l l s f o r CAD. - 6 -Delimitations: The following l i m i t a t i o n s were applied to t h i s study: 1. The survey of CAD operators was l i m i t e d to those i n d u s t r i e s i n B r i t i s h Columbia that u t i l i z e computer aided d r a f t i n g systems. Compilation of the sample was done through the assistance of the B r i t i s h Columbia Innovations O f f i c e , the Drafting Technology Department at Cariboo College, and Technology West Magazine. 2. The survey of CAD t r a i n i n g i n s t i t u t i o n s was l i m i t e d to those i n s t i t u t i o n s i n B r i t i s h Columbia that offered computer aided d r a f t i n g as a course i n i t s e l f or as a part of the t r a i n i n g for a r e l a t e d d i s c i p l i n e and ;that were a c t i v e l y i n s t r u c t i n g students i n CAD. 3. The survey questionnaires were mailed i n A p r i l , 1985 and inform-a t i o n gathered over a two month period. Results are r e l a t i v e to conditions present during t h i s time. 4. Questionnaires that were not returned within the established time frame of the study were not included. D e f i n i t i o n of Terms: Computer Aided Drafting (CAD) — d r a f t i n g done with the a i d of a computer where entry of data i s made p r i m a r i l y through graphic construction at the terminal and output i s made through an e l e c t r o n i c p l o t t e r . Computer Aided Design — for t h i s study, design done with the aid of ••: computer where entry of data enables an analysis of s p e c i f i c design parameters. Computer Aided Manufacturing (CAM) — computer con t r o l of an integrated machining process, usually v i a a CAD terminal. - 7 -Computer Integrated Manufacturing (CIM) — complete control of the engineering, design, and manufacturing process through a computer terminal. Course — organized subject matter i n which i n s t r u c t i o n i s offered within a f i x e d time period and for which c r e d i t toward graduation or c e r t i f i c a t i o n i s usually given. Computer — any machine capable of accepting information, performing numerical and l o g i c a l manipulations and displaying the r e s u l t s . Curriculum — the planned composite e f f o r t of any school to guide p u p i l learning toward predetermined learning outcomes. Hardware — the mechanical, magnetic, e l e c t r i c a l , and e l e c t r o n i c devices from which a computer i s constructed. HVAC — acronym f or heating, v e n t i l a t i n g , and a i r conditioning. Industry — for t h i s study, any business employing personnel to operate CAD systems. The combination of organizations and f a c i l i t i e s that, through the e f f e c t i v e coordination of c a p i t a l , management, and labour, produces goods to meet the needs and desires of soc i e t y . I n d u s t r i a l Education — for t h i s study, education r e l a t i n g to the methods, processes, and materials of industry. P r o f e s s i o n a l — for t h i s study, a person with post-secondary education i n an applied d i s c i p l i n e . Software — computer programs and c o l l e c t i o n s thereof, including compilers and assemblers which can be used to generate other programs. Technology — i n d u s t r i a l science; the science or systematic knowledge of the i n d u s t r i a l a r t s , e s p e c i a l l y as applied to manufacturing. Vocational Education — education r e l a t i n g to the a c q u i s i t i o n of s p e c i f i c s k i l l s f o r an occupation. - 8 -Method of Procedure: The following procedure was used to conduct t h i s study: 1 . S i x t y - f i v e firms u t i l i z i n g CAD systems i n B r i t i s h Columbia and f i f t e e n educational i n s t i t u t i o n s o f f e r i n g t r a i n i n g i n computer aided d r a f t i n g i n B r i t i s h Columbia were selected for the survey sample populations. 2. Two p a r a l l e l , modified, closed-form questionnaires were mailed with a cover l e t t e r and a stamped return envelope to the selected firms and i n s t i t u t i o n s . 3. The r e s u l t s from the returned questionnaires were compiled and graphed to permit a n a l y s i s . 4. Conclusions and recommendations concerning c u r r i c u l a r r e v i s i o n were made according to the r e s u l t s of the survey. Summary: The use of computer aided d r a f t i n g and design technology i n industry i s s t e a d i l y increasing i n B r i t i s h Columbia. As a r e s u l t , d r a f t i n g personnel are being replaced by CAD technologists and other professionals with CAD s k i l l s . Post secondary educational i n s t i t u t i o n s have been encouraged to provide the necessary CAD s k i l l s but secondary school curriculum has remained unchanged. This study was designed to i d e n t i f y secondary school curriculum items that should be changed or adopted to meet the needs of CAD t r a i n i n g i n s t i t u t i o n s and employers. -Structure of Study: The balance of the study i s divided into four more chapters plus Bibliography and Appendices. Chapter Two, following, presents a review of - 9 -the l i t e r a t u r e dealing with curriculum development i n I n d u s t r i a l Education, current research and research methods i n I n d u s t r i a l Education, and p e r i o d i c a l l i t e r a t u r e of i n t e r e s t . Chapter Three discusses the methods and procedures used i n the study. The findings of the study are presented i n Chapter Four and include bar graphs of the survey data. Chapter Five summarizes the study and presents s p e c i f i c conclusions and recommendations. The Appendices include cover l e t t e r s , questionnaires, d i r e c t o r i e s of CAD t r a i n i n g i n s t i t u t i o n s and firms using CAD, and selected comments and CAD system descriptions from returned questionnaires. - 10 -CHAPTER TWO REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE The review of the l i t e r a t u r e i s divided into three areas. The f i r s t of these i s concerned with curriculum development and the r e l a t i o n s h i p between industry and education. The second area i s concerned with recent research and research methods i n i n d u s t r i a l education, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the f i e l d s of d r a f t i n g , computer graphics, and r e l a t e d t o p i c s . The t h i r d area concentrates on t e c h n i c a l l i t e r a t u r e , journals, and p e r i o d i c a l s having to do with computer aided d r a f t i n g and s i m i l a r technological innovations, e s p e c i a l l y i n r e l a t i o n to education. Curriculum Development: Every curriculum researcher seems to have a d i f f e r e n t concept or d e f i n i t i o n of curriculum to the extent that Eisner (1975) suggests that consistency i n curriculum development theory would be a major accomplish-ment. For the purposes of t h i s study, a number of current theories and influences were reviewed with the i n t e n t i o n of providing a workable t h e o r e t i c a l and p r a c t i c a l framework for c u r r i c u l a r r e v i s i o n i n I n d u s t r i a l Education. Stenhouse (1975) o f f e r s three current d e f i n i t i o n s f o r curriculum, "Curriculum i s ' a l l the planned experiences provided by the school to a s s i s t the pupils i n a t t a i n i n g the designated learning outcomes to the best of t h e i r a b i l i t i e s . " 1 (Neagley and Evans 1967, 2); "Curriculum i s the planned composite e f f o r t of any school to guide p u p i l learning toward predetermined learning outcomes." (Inlow 1966, 7); "In view of the shortcomings of the currently popular d e f i n i t i o n , i t i s here s t i p u l a t e d that curriculum i s a structured ser i e s of - 11 -intended learning outcomes. Curriculum prescribes (or at l e a s t a n t i c i p a t e s ) the r e s u l t s of i n s t r u c t i o n . " (Johnson 1967, 130). He then o f f e r s h i s own tentative d e f i n i t i o n of curriculum, "A curriculum i s an attempt to communicate the e s s e n t i a l p r i n c i p l e s and features of an educational proposal i n such a form that i t i s open to c r i t i c a l scrutiny and capable of e f f e c t i v e t r a n s l a t i o n into p r a c t i s e . " (p. 4) Expanding on t h i s , he adds, "A curriculum i s the means by which the experience of attempting to put an educational proposal into p r a c t i s e i s made p u b l i c l y a v a i l a b l e . It involves both content and method, and i n i t s widest a p p l i c a t i o n takes account of the problem of implementation i n the i n s t i t u t i o n s of the educational system." (p. 5) H i c k l i n g (1979) focuses on those who define curriculum as a plan, "For a d e s c r i p t i o n of what curriculum i s , we turn to Young (1977), who defines curriculum as "... a plan o u t l i n i n g the objectives and content of a subject which i s a v a i l a b l e to learners i n school." (p. 8) Resnick (1975) states that "... a curriculum can be thought of as a ser i e s of a c t i v i t i e s e x p l i c i t l y designed to change the knowledge and competence of those who engage i n i t . " (p. 36) And Heasley 1974) views curriculum as "... a plan of experiences designed by and for educators to nurture various aspects of the t o t a l development of c h i l d r e n . " (p. 44) A l l of these d e f i n i t i o n s are somewhat c i r c u l a r , s i m i l a r to the o l d adage that curriculum i s "what i s taught". This w r i t e r f e e l s that a d e f i n i t i o n of curriculum should also i n d i c a t e that curriculum i s always influenced by an external culture to the benefit of that culture. Bowles and G i n t i s (1976) suggest that such a r e l a t i o n s h i p e x i s t s i n western society. "We have been able to show more than a correspondence between the s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s of production and the s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s of education at a p a r t i c u l a r moment. We have shown that changes i n the structure of education are associated h i s t o r i c a l l y with changes i n the s o c i a l organization of production. The f a c t that changes i n the structure of production have p a r a l l e l changes i n schooling establishes a strong prima f a c i e case for the causal importance of economic structure as a major determinant of educational s t r u c t u r e . " (p. 224) I t i s t h i s external influence that develops or changes curriculum. - 12 -Curriculum w i l l continuously evolve to r e f l e c t the culture of the society that i t serves. Ralph Tyler (1978) also alludes to t h i s , s t a t i n g , "As society demands more of our schools we must be more inventive i n devising f e a s i b l e programs — based, as Rubin in d i c a t e s , on r a t i o n a l p o l i c i e s — that w i l l meet the new conditions." "... attack serious educational problems throughtfully [ s i c ] , system-a t i c a l l y , and p e r s i s t e n t l y , using more e f f e c t i v e l y the a v a i l a b l e resources. This i s an evolutionary process l i k e those i n the past that have made our schools responsive to continuing s o c i a l change." (p. 186-7) As our society becomes more technological, there i s a tendency f o r curriculum to become more humanistic i n response to the associated socio--l o g i c a l problems, but the demand for relevance i n education i n t e n s i f i e s . Peterson and Park (1975) sense the possible los s of humanistic values depending on how education reacts to t h i s pressure. "Career education, the most expansive human resources development program the government has ever proposed, could, depending on the value systems which i t espouses, be the near f i n a l step i n subordinating the education system to the production system. It i s possible that h i s t o r i a n s of the future w i l l look upon our time as another Dark Age, t h i s time blanketed by industry rather than the church. There are, however, a l t e r n a t i v e s . I t i s almost i n e v i t a b l e that, as systems grow, t h e i r boundaries begin to overlap and they merge into supersystems. This i s not n e c e s s a r i l y bad. The growing interchange between education and the other sectors of society i s p o t e n t i a l l y b e n e f i c i a l . The question i s , can education enter into c o l l a b o r a t i v e e f f o r t s — yet preserve humanistic values and goals?" (P. 283) The s h i f t away from c l a s s i c a l education i n Western c i v i l i z a t i o n probably began i n the 17th Centure but the i n c l u s i o n of i n d u s t r i a l c u r r i c u l a only began i n the mid-1800's. I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note that the l a s t major change of great s i g n i f i c a n c e at the secondary l e v e l was the addition of vocational education at t h i s time. This was i n d i r e c t response to increasing i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n and the need for a competent workforce. Wirth (1966) explaing the s i t u a t i o n at the turn of the century, - 13 -1... new courses of a technical nature were demanded as the i n c r e a s i n g l y complex technology and larger bureaucratic i n s t i t u t i o n s required new l e v e l s of s k i l l that could not be acquired i n c i d e n t a l l y on the job." (p. 204) John Dewey (1938) explains the lack of relevancy of t r a d i t i o n a l education, s t a t i n g , "The notion that some subjects and methods and that acquaintance with c e r t a i n f a c t s and truths possess educational value i n and of themselves i s the reason why t r a d i t i o n a l education reduced the material of education so l a r g e l y to a d i e t of predigested materials." (p. 46) Dewey looked upon t r a d i t i o n a l education as being ' c u l t u r a l ' and he thought that vocational education, i f approached i n a humanistic, l i b e r a l way, could engender a much broader understanding of that culture. Wirth (1966) explains, "Dewey used the term semivocational to ind i c a t e that no pretensions would be made to turn out expert technicians. The high school should present studies that would permit the exploration of i n t e r e s t s and capacities to youth who approached i t as merely an avenue to work. A range of vocational experiences should be.provided. In addition, every student, regardless of h i s job o r i e n t a t i o n , should be well grounded i n non-vocational subject matter. An i n t e l l e c t u a l adjustment to the p o l i t i c a l , economic, r e l i g i o u s , c u l t u r a l , and s o c i a l aspects of l i f e also had to be made. The s p e c i a l i z a t i o n and complexity of modern industry made i t ever more d i f f i c u l t f o r men to see t h e i r work i n terms of the s o c i a l whole. The goal he projected was an education that would equip students to emerge from the schools with a broad understanding of the nature of industry and technology, a respect for the d i g n i t y of work, and an awareness of the s o c i a l implications of change. They would have some in s i g h t s into the nature of the economic system, and of the rol e s of management and labour unions." (p. 230) Today, the external culture that so profoundly a f f e c t s our educational goals i s changing at an ever increasing rate such that educators are faced with preparing students for occupations that may not even e x i s t yet. To accomplish t h i s they must stay abreast of changes i n t h e i r subject matter, keeping the curriculum relevant and providing as broad an information base as possible for t h e i r students. Trump and M i l l e r (1977) i n a paper on the - 14 -future of I n d u s t r i a l Arts claim that, "... the dominant objective of I n d u s t r i a l Arts should be that of providing an understanding of American industry and an awareness of i t s changing technology. Programs using t h i s as the basic objective are i d e n t i f i e d with a technology approach. In i t s simplest form t h i s approach redefines the old approach of 'a degree of s k i l l ' as an understanding of the necessity for s k i l l f u l use of tools rather than s k i l l i n the use of t o o l s . " (p. 84) These views are not new i n the f i e l d of curriculum development. Bruner (1960) i n The Process of Education proposes that, "... the curriculum of a subject should be determined by the most fundamental understanding that can be achieved of the underlying p r i n c i p l e s that give structure to the subject. Teaching s p e c i f i c topics or s k i l l s without making clear t h e i r context i n the broader fundamental structure of a f i e l d of knowledge i s uneconomical i n several deep senses." (p. 30) Perhaps Bruner i s r e i t e r a t i n g some of Whitehead's Aims of Education (1929), "The r e s u l t of teaching small parts of a large number of subjects i s the passive reception of disconnected ideas, not illumined with any spark of v i t a l i t y . ' Let the main ideas which are introduced into a c h i l d ' s education be few and important, and be thrown into every combination p o s s i b l e . " (p. 2) One of the probelms of implementation r e l a t i v e to t echnologically imposed c u r r i c u l a r change (appropriate to I n d u s t r i a l Education) i s discussed by Stenhouse (1975). " I t seems to be f a i r and h e l p f u l to describe as reference groups those groups outside the school which create and curate knowledge and s k i l l s and values. Reference i s indeed made to them as sources of standards..." "... there i s an implication that i n the pressure of school s i t u a t i o n s teachers may develop within the educational process cultures which, to a greater or l e s s e r degree, lose touch with the reference group cultures they are meant to represent to the p u p i l s . " (p. 13) These comments may be e s p e c i a l l y applicable to the secondary school s i t u a t i o n which can be so r e s i s t a n t to change. There i s very l i t t l e i ncentive for teachers, e s p e c i a l l y I n d u s t r i a l Education teachers, to update t h e i r programs or t h e i r teaching methods and yet i t i s so important for - 15 -them to do so. Even at the turn of the century, Carlton (1908) stated, "Both industry and the students are injured by the i s o l a t i o n of the high school, the college, and the u n i v e r s i t y from the p r a c t i c a l a f f a i r s of the i n d u s t r i a l and commercial world." (p. 92) He even went so f a r as to suggest that, " A l l teachers should work a portion of the time, i n order that they may come into actual contact with the i n d u s t r i a l and economic l i f e and problems of today." (p. 92) Dewey (1938) also maintained that educators should have f i r s t - h a n d experience or knowledge of t h e i r subject areas. "... education i n order to accomplish i t s ends for both the i n d i v i d u a l learner and for society must be based on experience — which i s always the actual l i f e experience of some i n d i v i d u a l . " (p. 89) Trump and M i l l e r (1977) q u a l i f y t h e i r view on the necessity of upgrading I n d u s t r i a l Education teacher q u a l i f i c a t i o n s , s t a t i n g , " I f the proposals for an I n d u s t r i a l Arts curriculum based on technology are incorporated into the comprehensive secondary school program, I n d u s t r i a l Arts w i l l undoubtedly take on a new image. I t s p o s i t i o n i n general education w i l l be s o l i d i f i e d and i t s i n t e g r a t i o n with other subject-matter areas w i l l be axiomatic. I t w i l l necessitate r e t r a i n i n g of teachers and the opening of the I n d u s t r i a l Arts c u r r i -culum to the e n t i r e school." (p. 85) Burns and Brooks (1970), concerned about the time lag involved with the introduction of new material i n education, also point to the need f o r i n -service r e t r a i n i n g , "Perhaps a l l of t h i s demands new approaches to teacher t r a i n i n g and c e r t a i n l y some system of i n - s e r v i c e r e t r a i n i n g of teachers and administrators. If f i n a n c i a l obstacles prevent schools from u t i l i z i n g proper methods and i n s t r u c t i o n a l materials, then some basis f o r f i n a n c i a l assistance to school d i s t r i c t s must be i n i t i a t e d . " (p. 10) Malcolm Skilbeck (1975) expands on the concerns of Burns and Brooks, Cautioning against p o l i c i e s of t r a d i t i o n , "One way of overcoming the staleness and mindless conservatism that r e s u l t when schools refuse to examine,reflect upon, and appraise the s o c i e t i e s i n which they are functioning i s to introduce a un i v e r s a l - 16 -programme of i n - s e r v i c e education. Apathy and narrowness are n a t u r a l consequences of i s o l a t i o n and neglect. The teacher who i s l e f t alone to 'get on with i t ' can a l l to e a s i l y continue throughout hi s career to reproduce the a t t i t u d e s , techniques and information with which he himself was imbued as a student." (p. 31) It appears, then, that the i n t e r e s t s of society, students, and the educational system would be best served through continuing i n - s e r v i c e teacher t r a i n i n g and that i t must become a p r i o r i t y of school systems to provide incentive f o r teachers to p a r t i c i p a t e i n that t r a i n i n g . Although there i s recurrent mention of using external sources for curriculum innovation i n education there i s also implied caution. Educators are advised, for various reasons, to be acutely aware of the reasons that they use to j u s t i f y changes i n the curriculum. As Apple (1979) warns, "In whose i n t e r e s t i s c e r t a i n knowledge (facts, s k i l l s , and propensities and d i s p o s i t i o n s ) taught i n c u l t u r a l i n s t i t u t i o n s l i k e schools?" (p. 16) V . . . h i s t o r i c a l l y , curriculum theory and development has been strongly connected to and influenced by economic needs and changes." (p. 68) "... the consciousness of curriculum workers themselves as well as other educators can be seen as l a t e n t l y p o l i t i c a l and often somewhat conservative. This i s , they use forms of thought that at l e a s t p a r t i a l l y stem from and can t a c i t l y act to maintain the e x i s t i n g s o c i a l and economic substructure and d i s t r i b u t i o n of power i n a corporate society such as our own." (p..118) E l i s e Boulding (1978) concurs with Apple o f f e r i n g the following i n s i g h t , "... educators i n :their d a i l y work are f a r more affe c t e d by ... the technological f u t u r i s t s . The technologists operate i n s i d e mega-bureaucracies and produce solutions to the problems of human welfare that frequently worsen human conditions." (p. 57) Francis Keppel (1969), a former U.S. Commissioner of Education also warns about change i n education, - 17 -"Change i s not automatically f o r the better. In education's h i s t o r y new fads and c u l t s have often given the appearance of progress while f a i l i n g to transform education for the good of society. I t i s imperative to review a l l programs for change with a c r i t i c a l eye for the consequences, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n a time of revolution, when the pace of change discourages pause for r e f l e c t i o n . " (p. 73) In conclusion, i t appears that there i s a d e l i c a t e tension between curriculum developers who prefer a broader, more generalized approach to curriculum change and various outside influences who demand s p e c i a l i z a t i o n . The most l o g i c a l framework for c u r r i c u l a r change i n I n d u s t r i a l Education would acknowledge the d i r e c t i o n s of the society i t serves with emphasis on ident-i f i a b l e p r e r e q u i s i t e s and keepihg' students vocational options maximized. Educators and curriculum t h e o r i s t s cannot predict the future and should be wary of changing curriculum to meet predictions. The functioning member of our society must be prepared to continuously educate himself as the demands of the workplace change. He can only accomplish t h i s i f educators are prepared to do the same. Related Research i n I n d u s t r i a l Education: The. r e l a t e d research i s divided into two areas. The f i r s t area i s concerned with s i m i l a r research methods and the second area reviews current research i n d r a f t i n g curriculum. Similar Research Methods: For t h i s area of re l a t e d research, the writer made a v i s u a l search of the Un i v e r s i t y Microfilms International D i s s e r t a t i o n Abstracts f o r both master's and doctoral d i s s e r t a t i o n s . A l l t i t l e s from 1967 to 1984 under I n d u s t r i a l and Vocational Education were examined and those dealing with curriculum development or teaching p r a c t i c e s i n r e l a t i o n to i n d u s t r i a l requirements were selected. Almost a l l of these u t i l i z e d a survey of industry which was often accompanied by a comparative survey of education. - 18 -A number of these were reviewed f o r the purpose of developing an appropriate questionnaire and find i n g the most appropriate methods and procedures f o r conducting a s i m i l a r survey. There are r e l a t i v e l y few research studies i n I n d u s t r i a l Education and even fewer that are involved i n surveying industry. \:fnte";^.est'lt)iffialT'e','','li<>wevBr appears to be the most popular and the most successful survey method .used i n I n d u s t r i a l Education curriculum development. Hoover (1967) designed and mailed p a r a l l e l questionnaires to selected metalworking i n d u s t r i e s and to colleges o f f e r i n g courses i n metalworking. His survey concluded that there \?as a discrepancy between the i n s t r u c t i o n offered at the colleges and the knowledge and s k i l l s required by industry. He also noted that new processes were taught by lec t u r e , plant v i s i t , and contemporary p u b l i c a t i o n and that these processes were only c o n d i t i o n a l l y being met and that I n d u s t r i a l Arts teacher education i n s t i t u t i o n s were not changing to meet the needs of industry. P a r d i n i (1967) made a s i m i l a r study to Hoover's that compared the metalworking processes used i n industry with those being taught i n I n d u s t r i a l Arts teacher education. His recommendations suggested the expansion of course content through the use of educational media, resource people, and i n d u s t r i a l v i s i t a t i o n s . Berry (1967) used a questionnaire check l i s t sent to selected manu-fac t u r i n g i n d u s t r i e s and companies i n New England to i d e n t i f y course content for I n d u s t r i a l Arts which was r e f l e c t i v e of current i n d u s t r i a l technology. Most notable of h i s findings was that l e s s than 10% of industry was using new processes such as numerical c o n t r o l . - 19 -Rincfc (1968) developed an open form questionnaire f o r i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of c u r r i c u l a r items re l a t e d to a v i a t i o n repair and service courses. His procedure involved a jury of representative people from a v i a t i o n schools and a v i a t i o n indoistry who ranked the importance of the topics selected f o r i n c l u s i o n i n the questionnaire. A f t e r r e v i s i o n , the questionnaire was sent to representative i n d u s t r i e s . He concluded that there was l i t t l e d ifference between the requirements of industry and what was being taught i n the tech n i c a l and secondary schools. Moon (1968) surveyed industry i n the state of Oregon to i d e n t i f y p r i n c i p a l process operations used i n industry that could be considered c u r r i c u l a r components of an I n d u s t r i a l Education curriculum that r e f l e c t e d the technology. The following selected conclusions and recommendations are applicable to t h i s study: "-The technological phase of the I n d u s t r i a l Arts curriculum should not only be oriented to the materials of industry but also to the technological concepts which are re l a t e d to the process operations of i n d u s t r i a l technology. -The technological concepts upon which the I n d u s t r i a l Arts curriculum should be based are to be found i n the p r i n c i p a l process . operations of the Forming, Casting, and Molding, Shaping by Cutting, Assembly, and A u x i l l i a r y areas of i n d u s t r i a l a c t i v i t y . -The I n d u s t r i a l Arts laboratory should be designed to permit the a p p l i c a t i o n of these technological concepts. -The curriculum and the laboratory f a c i l i t i e s f o r I n d u s t r i a l Arts should have a multi-range of a c t i v i t i e s and be so f l e x i b l e that they can r e a d i l y change to keep pace with a changing technology. - I t i s recommended that the c u r r i c u l a r components i d e n t i f i e d i n t h i s study be considered as elements of the I n d u s t r i a l Arts curriculum that w i l l r e f l e c t the technology." (p. 128-9) Hildebrand (1974) mentions a study done by Richard Wilson f o r the I n d u s t r i a l Education Department at the Iowa State University, - 20 -"Wilson surveyed 297 in d u s t r i e s , a r c h i t e c t s , and firms f o r the purpose of determining the number of a r c h i t e c t u r a l draftsmen needed i n the state of Iowa and to i d e n t i f y the s k i l l s and knowledge i n which the draftsmen exhibit competency. His findings indicated that employers desired draftsmen to be p r o f i c i e n t i n verbal commun-i c a t i o n s , s p e l l i n g , l i s t e n i n g , and note taking. I t was f e l t that advanced arithmetic, plane geometry, basic algebra, as well as various d r a f t i n g p r a c t i c e s , were also e s s e n t i a l . " (p.. 29) Baker (1970) conducted a survey of I n d u s t r i a l Arts teacher education i n s t i t u t i o n s and industry to determine the degree of u t i l i z a t i o n of computer technology. He determined that the computer was widely accepted and used i n business applications but i n I n d u s t r i a l Arts teacher education i t was v i r t u a l l y ignored. He found that i t was extremely d i f f i c u l t to secure q u a l i f i e d personnel to teach computer classes with i n d u s t r i a l a p p l i c a t i o n s . A survey of the consumer e l e c t r o n i c s service industry was conducted by Seigler (1970) to determine the knowledge and s k i l l requirements to be considered i n the development of a t r a i n i n g program for service technicians. Thorton (1971) used a survey of i n d u s t r i a l p l a s t i c s firms to enable the se l e c t i o n of course materials for s p e c i f i c i n d u s t r i a l p l a s t i c s courses and to plan a curriculum for t r a i n i n g teachers and technicians i n i n d u s t r i a l p l a s t i c s . Polette (1972) sent questionnaires to industry and to teacher education i n s t i t u t i o n s to determine areas of agreement concerning the development of a woodworking power machine maintenance curriculum. White (1975) conducted a study of curriculum developers i n I n d u s t r i a l Education. He surveyed and compared a national population of developers with a representative population from a sing l e state. Some of his findings are relevant to t h i s study. He noted that there was l i t t l e time a v a i l a b l e for curriculum development, that s e l e c t i n g content was a major problem, and that information was d i f f i c u l t to obtain. Porschia (1975) also used a - 21 -questionnaire to determine core curriculum needs for an i n d u s t r i a l technology program i n the areas of b u i l d i n g and construction, d r a f t i n g and design, machine too l s , automotive, e l e c t r o n i c s , p r i n t i n g , and metal f a b r i c a t i o n . He surveyed personnel d i r e c t o r s i n industry and depart-mental administrators of i n d u s t r i a l technology programs at colleges and u n i v e r s i t i e s . The problem of keeping c u r r i c u l a r materials up to date has been ••...[;• addressed by some researchers. Morgan (1978) u t i l i z e d a questionnaire that dealt with possible future changes i n the s k i l l s and knowledge r: required f or jobs i n the automotive manufacturing industry and Weiking (1979) developed a trend i n d i c a t o r to enable forecasting of future changes i n job requirements for the automotive industry and allow dducators s u i t a b l e lead time for programme changes. As P i c k l e (1983) states, "While I n d u s t r i a l Education curriculum and methodology must be c o n t i n u a l l y modified to r e f l e c t the technological developments occurring i n industry, the updating process has been hindered as the rate of technological change i n industry has accelerated." (p. 25) The use of a jury i n the development of a questionnaire or i n the analysis of the survey r e s u l t s appears to be f a i r l y common. Moore (1979) used a panel of experts to develop, a survey questionnaire for the metal manufacturing industries i n the state of Maine. 'The r e s u l t s of the survey were used to e s t a b l i s h a p r i o r i t y order of competencies i n a metals curriculum. Parmalee (1979) also used a jury of q u a l i f i e d people to v a l i d a t e the items of h i s questionnaire before surveying manufacturers of avi a t i o n / a v i o n i c s equipment. His survey was designed to determine e l e c t -ronics topics required for study by service technicians. Awotunde (1982) used a questionnaire mailed to public u t i l i t i e s and manufacturing companies to determine the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of in-plant - 22 -t r a i n i n g . He concluded that, regardless of the type of company or i t s s i z e , t r a i n i n g decisions were based upon s k i l l shortages, changes i n technology, and company growth. Although the preceding studies were selected for t h e i r common use of the survey technique i n determining I n d u s t r i a l Education c u r r i c u l a , there i s recurrent mention of c e r t a i n items pertinent to t h i s study. The f i r s t of these i s the fac t that almost a l l of the studies were done because of technological change. The second recurring item i s the acknowledgement of the increasing rate of technological change and t h i r d i s the implied i n a b i l i t y of present curriculum development methods to deal e f f e c t i v e l y with the rapid change i n technology. In summary, the preceding studies w i l l a t t e s t to the popularity and success of the survey method of research i n I n d u s t r i a l Education. Curriculum development i n I n d u s t r i a l Education i s v i r t u a l l y impossible without input from representative industry and the most important c u r r i -culum development t o o l at t h i s time appears to be the survey questionnaire. Drafting Curriculum Research: For t h i s area of l i t e r a t u r e review, an Educational Resources Infor-mation Center (ERIC) search was made and the Comprehensive D i s s e r t a t i o n Abstracts were used. Merl Case (1971) mentions two studies concerned with computer graphics. Hornbuckle (1967) did a study on the designing of equipment with the aide of a computer and Barber (1967) made a study of i n s t r u c t i o n a l methods required to implement r e l i a b l e manufacturing and computer systems. Case mentions that h i s i n i t i a l search revealed a minimal amount of research concerning computer graphics, e s p e c i a l l y i n education, but a great quantity of - 23 -p e r i o d i c a l l i t e r a t u r e . He concludes h i s l i t e r a t u r e review with the following: "A number of good curriculum studies have been made f o r other areas of I n d u s t r i a l Arts, but few were found which r e l a t e to teaching the new methods of d r a f t i n g . In l i g h t of the l i m i t e d number of research studies on computer graphics, they are of minimal use i n the development of computer graphics curriculum. The l i t e r a t u r e review does i n d i c a t e that there needs to be a change i n our d r a f t i n g curriculum to incorporate the current p r a c t i s e s used by industry. I t i s a r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the teacher educator to take the lead i n the development and improvement of curriculum for the preparation ofhteachers I n th i s area of I n d u s t r i a l .Arts. V (p. 41) Case (1971) u t i l i z e d two questionnaires; one for i n d u s t r i a l educators and one for personnel working with computer graphics i n industry. The r e s u l t s of h i s study allowed him to state a number of conclusions, i m p l i c a t i o n s , and recommendations. Some of these have been selected for t h e i r relevance to t h i s study. " - I n s u f f i c i e n t funds and lack of f a c i l i t i e s were the primary reasons for not o f f e r i n g computer graphics courses within the I I n d u s t r i a l Arts department. -A majority of the schools have equipment a v a i l a b l e , with the exception of a p l o t t e r and co n t r o l , to teach a course i n computer graphics. -A number of the p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n s t i t u t i o n s did not have an :vu in s t r u c t o r within the I n d u s t r i a l Arts department q u a l i f i e d to teach computer graphics. -The primary a p p l i c a t i o n of computer graphics i n industry i s to depict engineering drawings. -Speed, cost-saving, and accuracy are the primary reasons for the use of computer graphics i n industry. -Computer graphics, as a new method of defining items g r a p h i c a l l y , does not preclude the need for a basic understanding of pr o j e c t i o n . - I f I n d u s t r i a l Arts departments are to a t t a i n t h e i r objective of in t e r p r e t i n g contemporary industry, curriculum must be revised to r e f l e c t those processes being u t i l i z e d by industry." (p. 128—1-35) - 24 -Hildebrand (1974) made a comparison of i n d u s t r i a l d r a f t i n g practices with those taught i n I n d u s t r i a l Arts for the purpose of determining the relevance of curriculum to i n d u s t r i a l p r a c t i c e . He constructed two questionnaires; one for industry and one for I n d u s t r i a l Arts teacher education i n s t i t u t i o n s . He was interested i n knowing where industry acquires draftsmen, how educators keep themselves and t h e i r curriculum up to date, what differences there were between i n d u s t r i a l and c u r r i c u l a r d r a f t i n g p r a c t i c e s , and which areas of d r a f t i n g were changing enough to warrant curriculum content r e v i s i o n . Hildebrand's conclusions are pertinent to the d i r e c t i o n of t h i s study. "1. Drafting students need a general understanding of a l l facets of i n d u s t r i a l processes with s p e c i a l emphasis on a p p l i c a t i o n of d r a f t i n g knowledge, p r i n c i p l e s , and p r a c t i c e s . 2. English, mathematics, s t a t i s t i c s , and problem solving and c r e a t i v e a b i l i t i e s are a must f o r any person employed i n :". ' i n d u s t r i a l d r a f t i n g . 3. A l l new equipment, materials, ..processes, and practices which can f i n a n c i a l l y be provided should be introduced i n the I n d u s t r i a l Arts d r a f t i n g program. Current areas such as a u t o s h i f t d r a f t i n g tables, c a l c u l a t o r s , computers, metric measurement and dimension-ing, and the reproduction processes (microfilm and microfiche) are e s p e c i a l l y important. 4. With I n d u s t r i a l Arts i n s t i t u t i o n s d i r e c t l y or i n d i r e c t l y t r a i n -ing approximately one-fourth of a l l i n d u s t r i a l draftsmen, i t i s e s s e n t i a l for I n d u s t r i a l Arts i n s t i t u t i o n s to e s t a b l i s h a close working r e l a t i o n s h i p with industry. A system f o r curriculum development and/or r e v i s i o n should be developed to ensure that I n d u s t r i a l Arts i n s t i t u t i o n s maintain a close approximation of i n d u s t r i a l p r a c t i c e s . " (p. v) Hildebrand recommended that further study be directed towards the use of computer graphics i n industry and i t s e f f e c t on I n d u s t r i a l Arts d r a f t i n g curriculum and also that a system for d r a f t i n g curriculum r e v i s i o n be - 25 -developed to keep course content current with i n d u s t r i a l p r a c t i c e s . Ward (1979) surveyed i n d u s t r i a l concerns for the purpose of developing curriculum for a Drafting and Design Technology Program for a Northwest F l o r i d a j u n i o r college. His recommendations were quite s i m i l a r to those of Hildebrand. "1. Drafting and Design Technology educators should make concentrated e f f o r t s to develop and maintain communications with l o c a l :' i n d u s t r i a l concerns. 2. I n d u s t r i a l expertise should be considered a p o t e n t i a l resource for program development and should be used to supplement and upgrade dr a f t i n g and design technology programs. 3. Follow-up studies should be conducted p e r i o d i c a l l y to e s t a b l i s h c r i t e r i a for determining the effectiveness of d r a f t i n g and design technology programs as perceived by industry personnel employing graduates of such programs. 4. Pe r i o d i c updating of programs should be accomplished through the use of questionnaires. 5. Drafting and Design Technology educators should stay current with i n d u s t r i a l developments and progress." (p. 68) P i c k l e (1983) surveyed high technology industries and i n d u s t r i a l technology educational i n s t i t u t i o n s i n order to i d e n t i f y a high technology curriculum. He found that there was a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between i n d u s t r i a l needs for high technology and the courses being offered at representative educational i n s t i t u t i o n s . The most conducive course for implementing a high technology program i n the curriculum was i d e n t i f i e d as Computer Aided Design. Ayers (1971) conducted a survey of technical schools and industry i n Ohio to confirm that the schools did provide s u f f i c i e n t s k i l l s i n Mathematics and Science for d r a f t i n g technicians to meet i n d u s t r i a l require-ments. Groom (1982) used computer graphics as a teaching t o o l f o r f i r s t -- 26 -semester engineering graphics. The treatment group learned a d d i t i o n a l :". information and improved t h e i r a t t i t u d e toware computer graphics while performing as w e l l as the control group on short-term weekly quizzes and better on the long-term examination. Very few studies have been done that p e r t a i n d i r e c t l y to the d r a f t i n g curriculum at the secondary school l e v e l . One of these has been done by Tedesco (1974) who surveyed senior high schools and a r c h i t e c t u r a l firms i n Orange County,.California to compare the dr a f t i n g techniques being taught with those being used p r o f e s s i o n a l l y . He found s i g n i f i c a n t differences i n l e t t e r i n g p r a c t i c e s with regard to speed, l e g i b i l i t y , and s t y l e techniques. A r c h i t e c t s were more concerned with codes, c a l c u l a t i o n s , specifications,, and construction methods while d r a f t i n g teachers placed more emphasis on perspective, rendering, and presentation drawings. Another secondary school study was made by McMillan (1981) which found a p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n between d r a f t i n g and mathematical a b i l i t i e s . She also noted that there was no differe n c e between male and female students i n t h e i r mathematical or dr a f t i n g a b i l i t i e s . P e r i o d i c a l L i t e r a t u r e of Interest: There i s a vast amount of p e r i o d i c a l l i t e r a t u r e dealing with computer aided d r a f t i n g and rela t e d technology but very l i t t l e of i t i s concerned with the s k i l l s or t r a i n i n g involved. This writer examined the abstracts presented i n a l l back issues of the Canadian Manufacturer's Association CAD/CAM newsletter to locate a r t i c l e s that dealt with the impact of t h i s technology on education. Other p e r i o d i c a l s that presented r e l a t e d a r t i c l e s included I n d u s t r i a l Education, Technology West, Canadian Repro-Draft, Byte, Engineering Digest, Design Engineering, Fine Homebuilding, Computing Now, and Popular Computing magazines. Newspaper a r t i c l e s from the Vancouver Sun were also included i n t h i s survey. - 27 -Keenan (1982) i n an a r t i c l e on student CAD t r a i n i n g stated that p i l o t CAD t r a i n i n g programs at f i v e vocational t e c h n i c a l schools i n Minnesota resulted i n more complete d r a f t i n g graduates. The exposure to CAD reduced the amount of on-the-job t r a i n i n g required and provided them with more marketable s k i l l s . The program was i n i t i a t e d when a committee of people from education and industry i d e n t i f i e d computer graphics as an area of vocational t r a i n i n g necessary to meet the requirements of l o c a l industry. Instructors f i n d the CAD systems easy to l e a r n and highly motivational for students. The I.T.T. Technical I n s t i t u t e i n Dayton, Ohio also found that p o t e n t i a l employers wanted graduates with CAD s k i l l s . (Engraf newsletter, June, 1984). Brummel (1984) i n a d e s c r i p t i o n of student d r a f t i n g programs i n Ontario mentions the introduction of CAD at the secondary l e v e l . The objective with CAD was to introduce and acquaint students with CAD systems p o t e n t i a l and remove the mystique of the equipment rather than shortcut on technique or i n s t r u c t i o n . Apparently the introduction was successful as an a r t i c l e i n The Vancouver Sun newspaper reported i n May, 1985, that the Accugraph Corp. of Toronto had closed a deal with the Ontario M i n i s t r y of Education to develop a b i l i n g u a l CAD package for the province's schools. An advertisement for the Vancouver Vocational I n s t i t u t e i n the February, 1985, e d i t i o n of Canadian Repro-draft magazine makes the following claim: "Among the 500 best jobs for the future, according to a McGraw-H i l l p u b l i c a t i o n of the same name, i s that of a computer aided d r a f t -ing technician. Author Marvin Creton estimates some 300,000 of these technicians w i l l be required i n the U.S. over the next ten years. Drawing from the U.S. f i g u r e , we can a n t i c i p a t e Canada's need at about 30,000. Then, there are thousands more a r c h i t e c t s , engineers, - 28 -i n t e r i o r designers, and pattern makers who w i l l need computer > aided d r a f t i n g i n t h e i r work. The demand for t h i s s k i l l i s staggering." (p. 11) The a r t i c l e mentions that the college a n t i c i p a t e s the eventual l i n k i n g of t h e i r CAD system with the computer aided manufacturing equipment i n i t s machine shop. This appears to be the technological trend i n industry. Blauth (1981) predicts that CIM (computer-integrated manufacturing) w i l l provide the greatest p o t e n t i a l technology f o r improving i n d u s t r i a l p r o d u c t i v i t y i n the 1980's, using the synergism of CAD and CAM. He concludes h i s address with the following statement: "The i n t e g r a t i o n of engineering's CAD database with manufacturing's CAM database w i l l y i e l d the ultimate benefit to p r o d u c t i v i t y by encouraging "designing for manufacturability' and by optimizing production e f f i c i e n c i e s . " (p. 19) Jadrnicek (1984), Adlard (1984), and Lardner (1983) a l l mention the advent of CIM as the replacement for CAD/CAM. Lardner maintains that the t r a n s i t i o n into CIM w i l l be the key to regaining manufacturing competitiveness and Adlard also mentions increased a b i l i t y to compete i n world markets. Computer integrated manufacturing w i l l s t i l l require CAD s k i l l s . O i l i n g (1983), i n a study of numerical control education i n the U.S., acknowledges the threat of automation to the u n s k i l l e d worker and d i r e c t s the educational system to disseminate new technological developments to the labour force as quickly as pos s i b l e . He states, "Education, where problems ultimately a r i s e from i n d u s t r i a l , economic, and s o c i a l changes, must f i n d ways of preparing i t s students to meet these ever-changing conditions and demands. The society, where i n d u s t r i a l f a c i l i t i e s become highly automated, needs more knowledge power than phy s i c a l power p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the area of Computer Aided Design and Computer Aided Manufacturing (CAD/CAM)." (p. 22) - 29 -"A deliberate and systematic e f f o r t must be made not only to keep pace with but to a n t i c i p a t e the increased educational demands of the changing i n d u s t r i a l world." (p. 24) Pipes (1982) i n a supportive assessment of the applications of CAD/CAM technology also i d e n t i f i e d a major problem of education and t r a i n i n g i n t h i s technology i n the United Kingdom. Bartholemew (1983) surveyed the technological education a v a i l a b l e i n B r i t i s h Columbia. Labour market predictions that indicated a shortage of s k i l l e d workers over the next decade prompted an assessment of the implications of high technology and the implementation of a number of appropriate t r a i n i n g programs. Summary: The review of the l i t e r a t u r e established that a v a r i e t y of influences determine the c u r r i c u l a of our schools. Business i n t e r e s t s , i n general, were proponents of more s p e c i a l i z e d curriculum while curriculum developers favoured a more moderate and f l e x i b l e approach. : The d i s t i n c t i o n between curriculum that i s r e f l e c t i v e of society and one that i s s p e c i a l i z e d i s not c l e a r . Educators were urged to develop curriculum that provided a broad base of inform-ati o n and s k i l l s that would allow a continuum of learning throughout t h e i r students' l i v e s . Studies of curriculum content i n I n d u s t r i a l Education were p r i m a r i l y concerned with keeping course material current and r e l a t i v e to the needs of l o c a l industry. The research seemed designed to increase s p e c i a l i z a t i o n f o r l o c a l industry, at l e a s t at the post secondary l e v e l . The questionnaire survey was the predominant and most economical method of gathering information from industry and educators for these studies. The number of studies dealing with d r a f t i n g curriculum was very small and most were concerned i n some way with adjusting to the rapid changes i n d r a f t i n g technology. Only two studies were located that dealt with - 30 -d r a f t i n g curriculum i n secondary schools and neither of these was concerned with changes i n the technology. There were no studies located at t h i s time that were concerned with secondary school curriculum adaptation to the changing technology of d r a f t i n g . Current p e r i o d i c a l l i t e r a t u r e indicates a growing need f o r d r a f t i n g technicians with CAD s k i l l s and a demand for the appropriate t r a i n i n g programs. Using CAD i n t h e i r d r a f t i n g programs, i n s t r u c t o r s f i n d increased motivation and better job opportunities for t h e i r students. - 31 -CHAPTER THREE METHODS AND PROCEDURES The main purpose of t h i s study was to i d e n t i f y the p r e r e q u i s i t e s k i l l s and knowledge most appropriate for t r a i n i n g and/or employment i n computer aided d r a f t i n g and to make recommendations for the necessary secondary school c u r r i c u l a r r e v i s i o n . The data was obtained through the use of survey questionnaires sent to s i x t y - f i v e B r i t i s h Columbia firms using CAD technology and to f i f t e e n educational i n s t i t u t i o n s o f f e r i n g t r a i n i n g i n computer aided d r a f t i n g . Construction of the Questionnaire: The questionnaires were developed through comparison with the survey instruments used i n s i m i l a r studies. The topics were selected from an analysis of curriculum guide, d r a f t i n g textbook, and standard manual items. The w r i t e r made a number of r e v i s i o n s a f t e r interviewing college and u n i v e r s i t y i n s t r u c t o r s , CAD software developers, CAD operators, high technology personnel, and CAD vendors as w e l l as completing a 120 hour college CAD course. The two questionnaires are v i r t u a l l y i d e n t i c a l except for wording appropriate to the respondents. The i n t e n t i o n was to e l i c i t the same type of information from two d i f f e r e n t populations. F i n a l r e v i s i o n s were made on the recommendations of the thesis committee. In order to generate the greatest response to the survey, the questionnaire was kept as b r i e f as possible and used only closed form ranking or multiple choice questions. Provision was made for respondents to add items or to make comments or suggestions. - 32 -A p i l o t study was made to test the questionnaire. The respondents were a college CAD i n s t r u c t o r , a CAD operator, a CAD software developer, and a CAD system vendor. A l l of the respondents were interested and cooperative. Interviews a f t e r the completion of the questionnaire did not generate any further r e v i s i o n . The questionnaires were designed to obtain the following information: 1. The areas of d r a f t i n g where CAD use i s more prevalent. 2. The s i z e and/or type of the CAD systems i n use. 3. The ease of operation of the d i f f e r e n t CAD systems. 4. The amount of money invested i n the CAD systems. 5. The education of the people operating CAD systems. 6. The educational background of candidates f o r CAD t r a i n i n g . 7. The methods whereby CAD operators received t h e i r CAD t r a i n i n g . 8. The most s u i t a b l e methods to receive CAD t r a i n i n g . 9. The preferences of industry as to the education or experience of t h e i r CAD operators. 10. The importance of c e r t a i n manual, cognitive, and i n d u s t r i a l s k i l l s r e l a t i v e to successful CAD t r a i n i n g or employment. 11. The importance of c e r t a i n d r a f t i n g s k i l l s and techniques r e l a t i v e to CAD t r a i n i n g or employment. 12. The areas of secondary school curriculum to be emphasized or modified to better prepare students for careers i n v o l v i n g CAD. Selection of the Sample Populations: The sample of businesses using CAD systems i n B r i t i s h Columbia was extremely d i f f i c u l t to assemble. B r i t i s h Columbia industry i s p r i m a r i l y resource based. Forestry, mining, f i s h i n g , and tourism constitute the - 33 -l a r g e s t portion of the p r o v i n c i a l economy. The recession of recent years has done l i t t l e to encourage investment i n new technology and government attempts of encourage secondary industry have had l i t t l e success. As a r e s u l t , the number of companies u t i l i z i n g CAD technology i n B r i t i s h Columbia i s predictably small. There i s no dir e c t o r y of businesses i n B r i t i s h Columbia that use CAD. In order to do t h i s study, a d i r e c t o r y had to be assembled. The B r i t i s h Columbia Innovations o f f i c e offered the mailing l i s t f o r the now defunct Western Foundation for the Advancement of I n d u s t r i a l Technology. B r i t i s h Columbia Research did have a f a i r l y large sample of high technology oriented companies but could not divulge proprietory information, and most CAD system vendors had c o n f i d e n t i a l customer l i s t s . Through employer l i s t s provided by some of the colleges and c a r e f u l scrutiny of advertise-ments.-in engineering and high technology magazines a modest di r e c t o r y was assembled. The s i x t y - f i v e businesses selected do not represent a random sample, however, they do represent the majority of such businesses i n B r i t i s h Columbia. The f i f t e e n i n s t i t u t i o n s o f f e r i n g CAD t r a i n i n g represent the t o t a l number that o f f e r such courses i n B r i t i s h Columbia. One more has since invested i n t h i s technology, but w i l l not be o f f e r i n g courses u n t i l t h i s f a l l . This information i s r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e at most secondary school counselling o f f i c e s . Procedure: The questionnaires, together with a cover l e t t e r and a stamped, addressed return envelope, were sent to the s i x t y - f i v e businesses and the f i f t e e n educational i n s t i t u t i o n s on A p r i l 10, 1985. A f t e r four weeks,;.a - 34 -follow-up l e t t e r with another questionnaire and stamped return envelope was sent to those who had not responded to the f i r s t questionnaire. Any questionnaires returned a f t e r June 10, 1985 were not included i n the study. For v a l i d r e s u l t s , the percentage of return of questionnaires from the two populations was t e n t a t i v e l y set at 60% Treatment of Data: The returned questionnaires were tabulated and the r e s u l t s presented i n graphical format to permit comparison between the two populations. Where questions required the ranking of p a r t i c u l a r items according to importance or preference, the value of 1 was given to the most important or most preferred and the value of 5 was given to the l e a s t important. When c a l c u l a t i n g the mean l e v e l of importance or preference, values between 1.0 and 2.0 would indicate an item of high importance while a value between 4.0 and 5.0 would i n d i c a t e low importance. The comparison between populations was not the intent of the study but i s added to increase the understanding of the problem. - 35 -CHAPTER FOUR PRESENTATION OF FINDINGS The purpose of t h i s study was to determine, through a survey of industry and educational i n s t i t u t i o n s , the p r e r e q u i s i t e s k i l l s and knowledge for t r a i n i n g and/or employment i n the f i e l d of computer aided d r a f t i n g . Two p a r a l l e l , closed form questionnaires were sent to representative businesses and educational i n s t i t u t i o n s and the returned data tabulated and analyzed. The survey was intended to i d e n t i f y areas of c u r r i c u l a r strengths and weaknesses i n the secondary school system and also to acquaint educators with technological trends i n industry. The data from the two populations was tabulated separately to show possibly, divergent points of view. Survey Response: S i x t y - f i v e businesses i n B r i t i s h Columbia, i d e n t i f i e d as users of CAD technology, were sent questionnaires. Of these s i x t y - f i v e , four firms or s i x percent were no longer i n business and the questionnaires were returned. The f i g u r e of s i x percent corresponds very well to a recent a r t i c l e i n the business section of The Vancouver Sun which mentioned that s i x percent of B r i t i s h Columbia industry had l e f t the province i n the l a s t year. Of the remaining sixty-one businesses, f i f t y or 82% returned the questionnaires. Nine of these (15% of the sample) were not d i r e c t users of CAD (some were software developers or consultants), nine more were i n the process of evaluating or i n s t a l l i n g CAD.systems, and the remaining thirty-two (52% of the sample) provided completed questionnaires. Nine of the f i f t e e n educational i n s t i t u t i o n s (60%) returned completed - 36 -questionnaires. The sample of f i f t e e n i n s t i t u t i o n s represents the t o t a l number of i n s t i t u t i o n s o f f e r i n g CAD t r a i n i n g of any kind at t h i s time i n B r i t i s h Columbia. Included with the s i x non-respondents are a l l three B r i t i s h Columbia u n i v e r s i t i e s . This may be a r e s u l t of the timing of the study which coincided with the end of the academic year. Unfortunately the r e s u l t s may tend to be somewhat biased i n favour of the regional colleges whose returned questionnaires form the greater part of the i n s t i t u t i o n a l data. A graph of the survey response i s included as Figure 1. Areas of CAD Use: The businesses surveyed indicated that t h e i r major use of CAD was for mechanical and e l e c t r o n i c s d r a f t i n g . Both of these areas received 50% response. (Many of the businesses surveyed indicated involvement i n more than one area of d r a f t i n g producing a survey t o t a l that exceeds 100%) The next major area was s t r u c t u r a l (37%), followed by a r c h i t e c t u r a l and cartographic (survey, mapping, topography) with 34% each. A few businesses had s p e c i f i c uses f o r CAD not included i n the survey. These include two firms involved i n naval architecture, one i n f l u i d i c s , and one i n producing process flowsheets. The educational i n s t i t u t i o n s had s i m i l a r emphasis i n t h e i r CAD t r a i n i n g courses. A r c h i t e c t u r a l and c i v i l d r a f t i n g both received 56% response, followed by mechanical and s t r u c t u r a l at 44% each. Process piping was the only area of CAD t r a i n i n g not included i n the survey to be mentioned by an i n s t i t u t i o n . The graphics and HVAC (heating, v e n t i l a t i o n , and a i r condition-ind) areas received low response from both populations. The data f o r t h i s question should not be used to in d i c a t e the prevalence of CAD i n s p e c i f i c f i e l d s ; rather i t should indicate that CAD i s being used. - 37 -P e r C e n t o f S a m p l e 0 - 1 0 - 2 0 - 3 0 - 4 0 - 5 0 - 6 0 - 7 0 - 8 0 - 9 0 - 1 0 0 R e s p o n s e R a t e H^ HHSS^ ^^ ffTo^ 81 S 2% C o m p l e t e d Q u e s t i o n n a i r e s S ^ ^ ^ ^ H ^ B i i n N l % _ 6 _ 0 j o I n c o m p l e t e Q u e s t i o n n a i r e s f " " " 3 0 % C A D B u s i n e s s s u r v e y -C A D T r a i n i n g s u r v e y -F i g u r e 1. S u r v e y r e s p o n s e r a t e . M e c h a n i c a 1 E l e c t r i c a l / E l e c t r o n i c s C a r t o g r a p h i c G r a p h i c s / P i c t o r i a l s C i v i l S t r u c t u r a 1 H V A C A r c h i t e c t u r a l O t h e r P e r C e n t o f S a m p l e 0 - 1 0 - 2 0 - 3 0 - 4 0 - 5 0 - 6 0 - 7 0 - 8 0 - 9 0 - 1 0 0 i H i n o i B H i i i i B i f ~ 5 s% 31111111111I11IJ MIMIMIIU1111M111IJ111 tl IMII 67% 56~%" JIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIINIIIIIIIIII 44%_ • i i i B H H " 34%" i m i i i i i i i i i i i m m i i i i i i i i i n i i 44% M i i ~ i 6 % l i i i i i n i i i i i m i 22% • i i i i i i T 5 % j i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i m i i i m i i i i i i i i i i i 78% 67% ] l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l 33% WKBuaam ~34%" j i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i m i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i 77% • i f "12% JIIIIIII n% C A D B u s i n e s s s u r v e y -C A D T r a i n i n g s u r v e y -F i g u r e 2 . A r e a s o f C A D u s e , - 38 -i n v i r t u a l l y a l l areas of d r a f t i n g . The tabulated responses from the business survey only serve to describe that sample population. S i m i l a r l y , the response from the t r a i n i n g i n s t i t u t i o n s describes the emphasis of i t s CAD courses. A graph of the response to t h i s question i s included as Figure 2. CAD System Description: The question dealing with the type of CAD system being used was designed mainly to determine the degree to which personal computers were being used for CAD purposes i n industry and for t r a i n i n g purposes. Few businesses or educational i n s t i t u t i o n s can a f f o r d the massive investment required for dedicated or mainframe CAD systems. The personal computer based CAD systems appear to be performing nearly as well as the large systems and at much less cost. Fourteen businesses (44%) and f i v e i n s t i t u t i o n s (56%) indicated that t h e i r systems were personal computer based. Rather than attempting to describe the various combinations of hardware and software i n use, t h i s writer has included an appendix of CAD system.descriptions offered by the questionnaire respondents. This w i l l be of much more use to educators i n determining CAD system and t r a i n i n g requirements. Figure 3 presents the graph of the response to t h i s question. CAD System Ease of Operation: It was o r i g i n a l l y thought that there might be a r e l a t i o n s h i p between the s i z e or complexity of a CAD system and the r e l a t i v e ease of operating i t . Many of the early mainframe CAD systems were plagued with programming problems and were d i f f i c u l t to operate i n comparison to the personal computer systems that are entering the market now. The response to t h i s question - 39 -P e r C e n t o f S a m p l e 0 - 1 0 - 2 0 - 3 0 - 4 0 - 5 0 - 6 0 - 7 0 - 8 0 - 9 0 - 1 0 0 P C - b a s e d , s i n g l e u s e r - ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ P C - b a s e d , m u l t i - u s e r - j m n m m i n n i i n i m m m m i n i i i n n i 5 6 % M i n i c o m p u t e r b a s e d - J J J J J ^ 1 % ° D e d i c a t e d s y s t e m - J J I J I J I ^ I I ^ ^ ° M a i n f r a m e s y s t e ^ ^ , ^ C A D B u s i n e s s s u r v e y - H M C A D T r a i n i n g s u r v e y - M i l i u m F i g u r e 3 . C A D s y s t e m d e s c r i p t i o n . P e r C e n t o f S a m p l e 0 - 1 0 - 2 0 - 3 0 - 4 0 - 5 0 - 6 0 - 7 0 - 8 0 - 9 0 - 1 0 0 v e r y e a s y t o u s e -r e l a t i v e l y s i m p l e - j in m i H H i i i n m i i i i i i m MI H MIMIII _ _5_6_%_ m o d e r a t e l y d i f f i c u l t - J J S S m i i J u m m _ 3 3 % . d i f f i c u l t - * " 66% f r u s t r a t i n g -C A D B u s i n e s s s u r v e y - H B H C A D T r a i n i n g s u r v e y - m i n i u m F i g u r e 4 . C A D s y s t e m e a s e o f o p e r a t i o n . - 40 -in d i c a t e s that t h i s may be the case. Figure 4 i l l u s t r a t e s that most of :. the CAD systems i n the survey sample are considered as r e l a t i v e l y easy to operate but there i s a small number of each group that suggest some degree of d i f f i c u l t y . When these i n d i v i d u a l questionnaires were analyzed, i t appeared that 88% of the businesses and 67% of the educational i n s t i t u t i o n s that expressed d i f f i c u l t y i n operating t h e i r CAD systems had large mainframe or dedicated systems. Only 14% of the businesses and 11% of the educational i n s t i t u t i o n s u t i l i z i n g personal computer based CAD systems expressed any d i f f i c u l t y of operation. CAD System Costs: The cost of a CAD system i s r e l a t i v e to the number of work stations that i t can support. The large mainframe and dedicated systems have the power to handle a large number of users simultaneously and, for considerably les s cost, personal computers can be networked to perform almost as w e l l . Those survey respondents who indicated system costs i n excess of $75,000. included two with networked personal computer systems. The important aspect of t h i s portion of the survey i s the large number of businesses (40%) and educational i n s t i t u t i o n s (44%) with CAD systems i n operation for le s s than $25,000. System costs are indicated i n Figure 5. CAD Training Candidates: The educational i n s t i t u t i o n s responding to t h i s question indicated that the majority of the i n d i v i d u a l s seeking t r a i n i n g i n computer aided d r a f t i n g had s k i l l s or t r a i n i n g i n a re l a t e d area and were upgrading them-selves. Draftspersons were mentioned most often (78%) followed by professionals and others (teachers). The professionals and others have been assessed together because a l l of the others mentioned i n the question-naires were professionals of some sor t . (See Figure 6) - 41 -P e r C e n t o f S a m p l e 0 - 1 0 - 2 0 - 3 0 - 4 0 - 5 0 - 6 0 - 7 0 - 8 0 - 9 0 - 1 0 0 l e s s t h a n $ 1 0 , 0 0 0 -$ 1 0 , 0 0 0 t o ^ 5 . 0 0 0 - j ™ ™ _ z _ 3 « $ 2 5 , 0 0 0 t o $ 5 0 , 0 0 0 - : $ 5 0 , 0 0 0 t o $ 7 5 , 0 0 0 - ™ 6 % o v e r $ 7 5 n 0 0 - • ^ ^ ™ ^ " ^ ™ a ^ ™ H B 5 3 2 * ' i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i m i m i i i m i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i 56% c o n t i n u i n g 1 e a s e - j | | | | m n % C A D B u s i n e s s s u r v e y -C A D T r a i n i n g s u r v e y -F i g u r e 5 . C A D s y s t e m c o s t a p p r o x i m a t i o n s . h i g h s c h o o l g r a d u a t e -d r a f t s p e r s o n -t e c h n i c i a n / t e c h n o l o g i s t -c o m p u t e r s p e c i a l i s t -p r o f e s s i o n a l -P e r C e n t o f S a m p l e 0 - 1 0 - 2 0 - 3 0 - 4 0 - 5 0 - 6 0 - 7 0 - 8 0 - 9 0 - 1 0 0 j i i i i i i i i i i i m i m i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i 4 4 ? ° i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i m i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i m i i 78% i i i m m i i i i i i i i 22% i i i i i i i n i i i i i m i 22% o t h e r - niiiiiniiiiiiifi 22% F i g u r e 6. C A D t r a i n i n g c a n d i d a t e b a c k g r o u n d . - 42 -CAD Operator Background: Businesses indicated that t h e i r CAD operators were usually d r a f t s -persons retrained for t h e i r CAD systems. None of the respondents had obtained CAD draftspersons d i r e c t l y from an educational i n s t i t u t i o n . The other i n d i v i d u a l s using the CAD systems were engineers, a r c h i t e c t s , designers, and technicians. (See Figure 7) CAD Operator Training: Only 12% of the business survey indicated that t h e i r operators had received t h e i r t r a i n i n g through an educational i n s t i t u t i o n . The rest had obtained t r a i n i n g through s e l f - t e a c h i n g , in-house courses, vendor courses, or a combination of these. This i s an i n d i c a t i o n of the lack of a v a i l a b i l i t y of appropriate courses for employees at the time that the t r a i n i n g was required. Most of these people would have needed t r a i n i n g before there were any courses a v a i l a b l e p u b l i c l y . In support of t h i s , most of the businesses surveyed indicated that they would prefer to h i r e a draftsperson with CAD s k i l l s . Figure 8 i n d i c a t e s the t r a i n i n g of present CAD operators and Figure 9 indicates the h i r i n g preferences of the businesses surveyed. Business H i r i n g Preferences for CAD Operators: The time and cost of t r a i n i n g a person to operate a CAD system would be expected to influence an employer to h i r e a draftsperson already trained i n CAD, yet a s u r p r i s i n g number indicated that they would prefer to t r a i n a good draftsperson, technician, or p r o f e s s i o n a l on the firm's CAD system. The mean ranking f o r t h i s item i s j u s t s l i g h t l y i n favour of a CAD d r a f t s -person, followed c l o s e l y by a regular draftsperson or technician/technologist. (See Figure 8a) - 43 -P e r C e n t o f S a m p l e 0 - 1 0 - 2 0 - 3 0 - 4 0 - 5 0 - 6 0 - 7 0 - 8 0 - 9 0 - 1 0 0 r e t r a i n e d d r a f t s p e r s o n -C A D d r a f t s p e r s o n -t e c h n i c i a n / t e c h n o l o g i s t -c o m p u t e r s p e c i a l i s t -p r o f e s s i o n a 1 -66% 22% 22% F i g u r e 7. C A D o p e r a t o r b a c k g r o u n d . P e r C e n t o f S a m p l e 0 - 1 0 - 2 0 - 3 0 - 4 0 - 5 0 - 6 0 - 7 0 - 8 0 - 9 0 - 1 0 0 s e l f - t a u g h t - B H H B 47% c o l l e g e t r a i n i n g - M H 12% t e c h . i n s t i t u t e c o u r s e s - : u n i v e r s i t y c o u r s e s - : p o s t - g r a d u a t e c o u r s e s - : s y s t e m s u p p l i e r c o u r s e s -i n - h o u s e c o u r s e s -F i g u r e 8 . C A D o p e r a t o r t r a i n i n g . - 44 -M e a n R a n k i n g L e v e l . - 5 4 3 2 1 d r a f t s p e r s o n -C A D d r a f t s p e r s o n -t e c h n i c i a n / t e c h n o l o g i s t -c o m p u t e r s p e c i a l i s t -p r o f e s s i o n a l -o t h e r -4.60 4.87 2.30 | 2.17 2.38 3.09 F i g u r e 8 a . H i r i n g p r e f e r e n c e s o f b u s i n e s s e s u s i n g C A D , 6 - -h i g h s c h o o l g r a d u a t e -d r a f t s p e r s o n -t e c h n i c i a n / t e c h n o l o g i s t -c o m p u t e r s p e c i a l i s t -p r o f e s s i o n a l -o t h e r -M e a n R a n k i n g L e v e l . 5 4 3 2 — 5.00 5.20 2.43 1.43 2.67 3.33 F i g u r e 8 b . C a n d i d a t e p r e f e r e n c e s o f C A D t r a i n i n g i n s t i t u t i o n s . - 45 -Candidate Preference of CAD Training I n s t i t u t i o n s : I n s t i t u t i o n s indicated that they strongly preferred to teach computer aided d r a f t i n g to regular draftspersons. Instructors obviously do not have a choice of who they teach.a:, This aspect i s usually c o n t r o l l e d through the admission requirements of the i n s t i t u t i o n , however they #jf©jaaM&v., f i n d i t more rewarding to teach the i n t r i c a c i e s of t h e i r CAD system to someone with some background i n d r a f t i n g or design. (See Figure 8b) CAD Training Methods Preferred by Educational I n s t i t u t i o n s : Question 6 of the questionnaire sent to educational i n s t i t u t i o n s asked for respondents to i n d i c a t e the best method of receiving CAD t r a i n i n g . Figure 9 presents the response to t h i s question. The tabulated data i s s i m i l a r to the data from Question 1 i n that i t only serves to describe the sample population. The respondents i n t h i s case were obviously biased i n favour of t h e i r p a r t i c u l a r method of t r a i n i n g . The sample's high proportion of regional colleges mentioned previously i s r e f l e c t e d i n the 78% response to t h i s t r a i n i n g method. I t i s notable that the i n s t i t u t i o n s sampled did give c r e d i t to vendor's courses and 1 in-house t r a i n i n g as v i a b l e methods of CAD t r a i n i n g . Even self- t e a c h i n g received an 11% response. Importance Ranking of Selected Manual, Cognitive, and I n d u s t r i a l S k i l l s : The CAD operator may require c e r t a i n s k i l l s that are not necessary for manual d r a f t i n g . In an e f f o r t to determine i f t h i s i s so and to .. i d e n t i f y such s k i l l s , businesses and educational i n s t i t u t i o n s were asked to rank the importance of c e r t a i n selected s k i l l s i n r e l a t i o n to CAD t r a i n i n g or employment. The s k i l l s were loosely categorized as- manual, - 46 -P e r C e n t o f S a m p l e 0 - 1 0 - 2 0 - 3 0 - 4 0 - 5 0 - 6 0 - 7 0 - 8 0 - 9 0 - 1 0 0 s e l f - t a u g h t -c o l l e g e t r a i n i n g -t e c h , i n s t i t u t e c o u r s e s -u n i v e r s i t y c o u r s e s -p o s t - g r a d u a t e c o u r s e s -s y s t e m s u p p l i e r c o u r s e s -i n - h o u s e c o u r s e s -IIIIIIII 11/ 78% 111III lilllllll 1111111M Milt 44% l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l 33% llllllll 11% 111111111 lllllll 22% l l l l l l l l H % F i g u r e 9 . C A D t r a i n i n g p r e f e r e n c e s o f e d u c a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s M e a n R a n k i n g L e v e l 5 4 3 2 1 k e y b o a r d s k i l l s - 5 H ^ H ^ H H n i m i i i i _ i._8_9__ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ ^ m a n u a l d r a f t i n g s k i l l s - jiyIn111•••••••• |ji±iII»li*±'Li1JJ'±'U'a 1U.1 •••••••• I f i ± ' ' l • 1 1 p e r s p e c t i v e drawing-H^HHffloo^ w o r d P r o c e s s i n g - " " " " ™ 3.67 o t h e r - • f i ^ : 6 " ° " :____o_o_ C A D B u s i n e s s s u r v e y - l ^ ^ H C A D T r a i n i n g s u r v e y - m i i i l l l l l l l F i g u r e 1 0 . I m p o r t a n c e r a n k i n g o f s e l e c t e d m a n u a l s k i l l s r e l a t i v e t o C A D t r a i n i n g o r e m p l o y m e n t . - 47 -cognitive, or i n d u s t r i a l and the respondents were asked to rank the :'. importance of the items i n each category. Following the ranking, respondents were asked to i d e n t i f y the. si n g l e most important, s k i l l , i f any, from the previous categories. In order to accommodate the i n c l u s i o n of c e r t a i n s k i l l s not mentioned, a blank response l a b e l l e d "other" was added to the manual and cognitive categories. To present a v i s u a l image of the ranking for t h i s question, bar graphs were prepared that show h o r i z o n t a l bars whose length corresponds d i r e c t l y to the mean l e v e l of importance accorded that s k i l l . An item of very l i t t l e importance could receive a mean ranking of 5.00 and would not generate a bar on the graph. An item of high importance could receive a mean ranking of 1.00 and would generate a f u l l length bar on the graph. (A s i m i l a r treatment of data was used to generate the bar graphs i n Figure 8a and Figure 8b) For the manual s k i l l s category, both businesses and t r a i n i n g i n s t i t u t i o n s c i t e d manual drafting.as the most important p r e r e q u i s i t e s k i l l followed by keyboard s k i l l s , perspective drawing and word processing, i n that order of rank. The ranking was the same i n both surveys as shown i n Figure 10. Figure 11 shows the ranking of selected cognitive s k i l l s . Although both surveys considered a n a l y t i c geometry to be the most important, they d i f f e r e d s l i g h t l y on t h e i r second choice. Businesses considered computa-t i o n a l s k i l l s as next i n importance while the t r a i n i n g i n s t i t u t i o n s selected communication s k i l l s . Both surveys considered computer programming to be the l e a s t important cognitive s k i l l . - 48 -c o m p u t a t i o n a l s k i 11 s• c o m m u n i c a t i o n s k i 1 I s a n a l y t i c g e o m e t r y s k i l l s -c o m p u t e r p r o g r a m m i n g -o t h e r -M e a n R a n k i n g L e v e l 5 4 - — - - 3 2 1 2.18 linmi1111u111iniiiiiinm 3_. j . I • • • • • B B l l 2.71 tin m III u in n i n MI M I H in HI HIIIIJ i n HI _ _2_. I I _ _ ^ • H B H E z n a a r a n - Y. §9 ~ l i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i m i i m i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i 1.44 ]IIIIIIIHHIII111IJIUU _ 3 5.56 : 5.00 F i g u r e 11. C A D B u s i n e s s s u r v e y -C A D T r a i n i n g s u r v e y -I m p o r t a n c e r a n k i n g o f s e l e c t e d c o g n i t i v e s k i l l s r e l a t i v e t o C A D t r a i n i n g o r e m p l o y m e n t . w e l d i n g / m e t a l f a b r i c a t i o n -m a c h i n i n g -h o u s e f r a m i n g / f i n i s h i n g -m i l l w o r k / c a b i n e t m a k i n g -e l e c t r i c i t y / e l e c t r o n i c s -M e a n R a n k i n g L e v e l 5 4 3 2  1 2 .47 IIIIIIIIHIIHIIHimmilllll 3 .14 • i i i i H i B B i B H ~2. i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i m m m i i i i i i m i i i i i i i i 2 . 1 4 • i i i i i i i l s.Yo i i i i i i i i i i i m i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i m i n i i i .67 3 .28 2TI4""" llllllllllll 4 . 2 8 C A D B u s i n e s s s u r v e y -C A D T r a i n i n g s u r v e y -F i g u r e 1 2 . I m p o r t a n c e r a n k i n g o f s e l e c t e d i n d u s t r i a l s k i l l s r e l a t i v e t o C A D t r a i n i n g o r e m p l o y m e n t . - 49 -Many educators and businesses f e e l that a knowledge of i n d u s t r i a l methods and processes i s very important for a draftsperson. A number of such iareas of i n d u s t r i a l knowledge were placed i n a t h i r d category of selected i n d u s t r i a l s k i l l s i n order to determine i f there was any s p e c i f i c area that should receive emphasis i n preparing students for CAD. The ranking of these items was r a d i c a l l y d i f f e r e n t between surveys. Businesses considered the e l e c t r o n i c s area to be of most importance followed very c l o s e l y by machining and metal f a b r i c a t i o n . Least important were millwork and cabinetmaking s k i l l s . This writer f e e l s that the ranking of these p a r t i c u l a r s k i l l s by business i s r e l a t i v e to the areas of industry that the businesses are involved.in. An analysis of the response to t h i s p a r t i c u l a r question does i n d i c a t e that t h i s i s the case. A comparison of the response to Question 2, (which describes the areas of CAD use), to the ranking of these s k i l l s by business does indi c a t e a strong c o r r e l a t i o n . As with the response to Question 2, the ranking of t h i s category only serves to describe the survey population. The ranking of i n d u s t r i a l s k i l l s by the t r a i n i n g i n s t i t u t i o n s s i m i l a r l y i ndicates course emphasis, again corresponding very c l o s e l y to the response to Question 2. The educational i n s t i t u t i o n s surveyed indicated r e s i d e n t i a l framing and f i n i s h i n g s k i l l s to be the most important, followed by machining, metal f a b r i c a t i o n , millwork, and cabinetmaking. E l e c t r o n i c s s k i l l s were considered l e a s t important for CAD t r a i n i n g . (See Figure 12) Of a l l the s k i l l s mentioned, the s i n g l e most important s k i l l was considered to be manual d r a f t i n g by both the business survey (53%) and the t r a i n i n g survey (67%). A number of items were mentioned here that could a l l be loo s e l y categorized as problem solving a b i l i t i e s . These include - 50 -a d a p t a b i l i t y , s p a t i a l a n a l y s i s , design techniques, thinking a b i l i t y , etc. If these are grouped together they form 33% of the t r a i n i n g survey response and 32% of the business survey response to t h i s question. To summarize the response to t h i s question, both businesses and t r a i n i n g i n s t i t u t i o n s involved with CAD consider manual d r a f t i n g s k i l l s and good problem solving a b i l i t y to be the most important p r e r e q u i s i t e s f or CAD t r a i n i n g or employment. Importance of Selected Drafting S k i l l s i n Relation to CAD Training  or Employment: Question 9 of the survey asked respondents to i n d i c a t e the importance, r e l a t i v e to CAD t r a i n i n g or employment, of c e r t a i n d r a f t i n g s k i l l s presently being taught as part of the d r a f t i n g curriculum i n B r i t i s h Columbia secondary schools. These s k i l l s were selected from the 1977 B r i t i s h Columbia I n d u s t r i a l Education Curriculum Guide. A rank of 5 Indicated the s k i l l to be of low importance and a rank of 1 indicated the s k i l l to be very important. The mean p r i o r i t y r a t i n g of each item was calculated f o r both surveys and displayed i n bar graph format i n Figure 13. As shown on the graph, businesses and t r a i n i n g i n s t i t u t i o n s were remarkably consistent i n t h e i r assessment of d r a f t i n g s k i l l importance. The only areas of marked contrast were cam and gear development (0.56 difference) and ve r n i e r protractor reading (0.53 d i f f e r e n c e ) . The advent of computer aided d r a f t i n g technology has made the a c q u i s i t i o n of c e r t a i n d r a f t i n g s k i l l s a questionable pursuit. It would seem that such f i n e motor s k i l l s as tracing, inking, l e t t e r i n g , and drawing consistent linework would be of much l e s s importance i n d r a f t i n g courses. The response to Question 9 indicates that t h i s i s true to a c e r t a i n degree. What i s more - 51 -> Mean P r i o r i t y L e v e l 5 4 3 2 1 iHH_H_9BB ~3~ ~1 8 cam and g e a r d e v e l o p m e n t - ^ ^mmn _3.22  d i m e n s i o n i n g t o CSA s t d .- H^HSKHS_2j°g0__ i s o m e t r i c / o b l i q u e d r a w i n g - j B j m v e r n i e r p r o t r a c t o r r e a d . - ^^HSmVoo r e s i d e n t i a l p l a n s t o c o d e - ggSS?!Si L^ c o n s i s t e n t l e t t e r i n g s t d . - g ^ f g J 9 _ t o p o g r a p h i c map p 1 o t t i n g - ^ n ^ ^ ^ S i j J g . . _ f r e e h a n d s k e t c h i n g - ] i IJ i H I UIJIIIIHIII II IN U HI Ml I) HI Mill t r a c i n g / i n k i n g n e a t l y - g S E ^  d i h e d r a l a n g l e c a 1 c . - j i S S  d r a w i n g c o n s i s t e n t I i n e s - | S S S j J L . . . . . . p a r a l l e l / r a d i a l l i n e d e v . - B S ^ ^ E ^ _ _ _ _ _ _ s e c o n d a r y a u x . v i e w s - H ^ H ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ H d e v . v i e w s by r e v o 1 u t i o n - " " B p e r s p e c t i v e d r a w i n g -IIIJ^JIUHIIJIIIIIIIIIIMIIMIIJI_2^1a. CAD B u s i n e s s su rvey-HiHI CAD T r a i n i n g s u r v e y - i m i m i l l l F i g u r e 13 . I m p o r t a n c e r a n k i n g o f s e l e c t e d d r a f t i n g s k i l l s t a u g h t i n B . C . s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l s i n r e l a t i o n t o CAD t r a i n i n g o r e m p l o y m e n t . 1 - 52 -important i n t h i s question i s the importance given c e r t a i n other items. Dimensioning to CSA standards was given the highest p r i o r i t y r a t i n g , followed very c l o s e l y by p i c t o r i a l drawing (isometric/oblique), a u x i l i a r y views, revolutions, perspective drawing, and freehand sketching. A l l of these items, except for dimensioning, require the a b i l i t y to think i n three dimensions. In other words, d r a f t i n g educators should be emphasizing the three dimensional aspect of d r a f t i n g ; the fa c t that the image on paper represents a s o l i d object that can be manipulated and viewed from d i f f e r e n t angles, not n e c e s s a r i l y the t r a d i t i o n a l orthographic angles. Secondary School C u r r i c u l a r Change or Emphasis I d e n t i f i e d as Being  B e n e f i c i a l to Student CAD Training or Employment: Figure 14 displays the tabulated response to Question 10 of the survey questionnaire. CAD t r a i n i n g i n s t i t u t i o n s and businesses using CAD were asked to' i d e n t i f y which areas of the secondary school curriculum, i f any, that they would change or emphasize to better prepare students for further t r a i n i n g and/or careers i n CAD. The introduction of computer aided d r a f t i n g at the secondary l e v e l was i d e n t i f i e d by 78% of the i n s t i t u t i o n s and 72% of the businesses as the best method of preparing students. This was followed by the introduction of more d r a f t i n g courses. The business survey indicated that a knowledge of i n d u s t r i a l processes was j u s t as important as more dra f t i n g courses while the t r a i n i n g i n s t i t u t i o n s were more concerned with better Math and English s k i l l s . The low response by both surveys to cont-inuing with present programs indicates a need for some c u r r i c u l a r r e v i s i o n i n t h i s respect. - 5 3 -P e r C e n t o f S a m p l e 0 - 1 0 - 2 0 - 3 0 - 4 0 - 5 0 - 6 0 - 7 0 - 8 0 - 9 0 - 1 0 0 c o n t i n e p r e s e n t p r o g r a m s - " ^ ^ z z m a t h e m a t i c s e m p h a s i s - J!Siiimimiljililliyi_ _4_4_% m o r e E n g l i s h a n d ^ ^ - JHJM c o m p u t e r p r o g r a m m i n g - J ^ J J J J J ^ ^ ^ i n d u s t r i a l p r o c e s s e s - j J J J i t i i i ^ ^ ^ IBHJHHB 25% m o r e d r a f t i n g c o u r s e s - iiyijimiiiMniMHimymninniij_56_%_ c o m p u t e r a i d e d d r a f t i n g - • 11 n m 1 n n 1 ymmiinnimiii HIM HI M 1 n 111111 iimnn o t h e r - " U L M f c M Jlllttl 11 11% C A D B u s i n e s s s u r v e y - M H C A D T r a i n i n g s u r v e y -m m n m F i g u r e 1 4 . S e c o n d a r y s c h o o l c u r r i c u l a r c h a n g e o r e m p h a s i s i d e n t i f i e d a s b e i n g b e n e f i c i a l t o s t u d e n t C A D t r a i n i n g o r e m p l o y m e n t . - 54 -Purpose of the Study Reviewed: The survey indicated that: 1. Computer aided dr a f t i n g was i n use for v i r t u a l l y a l l d i s c i p l i n e s . In business and i n the t r a i n i n g i n s t i t u t i o n s . A large proportion of the businesses surveyed were involved i n e l e c t r o n i c s . The t r a i n i n g i n s t i t u t i o n s surveyed did not make e l e c t r o n i c s d r a f t i n g a major part of t h e i r curriculum. 2. Large dedicated or mainframe CAD systems can be more d i f f i c u l t to operate than personal computer based systems. Personal computer based systems were generally considered simple or easy to use. 3. The i n d i v i d u a l s presently operating CAD systems were usually regular draftspersons retrained f or CAD. 4. Employers would prefer to h i r e draftspersons with CAD s k i l l s . 5. CAD t r a i n i n g i n s t i t u t i o n s prefer to t r a i n draftspersons or people with some background i n d r a f t i n g or design. 6. Most CAD operators had taught themselves or received t r a i n i n g through a CAD system vendor or through in-house t r a i n i n g . 7. Employers would prefer that CAD t r a i n i n g be l e f t to appropriate t r a i n i n g i n s t i t u t i o n s . 8. That manual d r a f t i n g s k i l l s and problem solving a b i l i t y were the most important manual and cognitive s k i l l s f o r CAD and that necessary i n d u s t r i a l s k i l l s were s p e c i f i c to the type of business involvement. 9. That secondary school d r a f t i n g courses should be revised to place more emphasis on dimensioning to CSA standards aiid'i'the"••three dimensional aspects of d r a f t i n g . - 55 -That secondary schools should introduce computer aided d r a f t i n g , o f f e r more dr a f t i n g courses, and emphasize good computational and communication s k i l l s . - 56 -CHAPTER FIVE SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS, AND RECOMMENDATIONS The purpose of t h i s study was to survey representative businesses using computer aided d r a f t i n g technology and to survey i n s t i t u t i o n s o f f e r i n g t r a i n i n g i n computer aided d r a f t i n g i n order to assess the impact of t h i s technology on secondary school curriculum. A closed-form s t y l e questionnaire was sent to s i x t y - f i v e businesses and f i f t e e n i n s t i t u t i o n s involved with CAD and the returned data tabulated and presented i n bar graph format to f a c i l -i t a t e e asier i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the r e s u l t s . The questionnaire was designed to a s c e r t a i n the t r a i n i n g and background of CAD personnel, the type of CAD equipment i n use, the areas of dr a f t i n g using CAD, the t r a i n i n g and h i r i n g preferences of business, the importance of various s k i l l s , and the areas of secondary school curriculum to be changed or emphasized to r e f l e c t the technology. The survey instrument was tested and revised before being d i s t r i b u t e d to the survey p a r t i c i p a n t s . The review of the l i t e r a t u r e was divided into three areas. The f i r s t area reviewed the ph i l o s o p h i c a l background to curriculum development. Educators were urged to keep curriculum up-to-date on the basis that curriculum content should r e f l e c t the needs of the society that i t serves. A broad base of knowledge and s k i l l s was considered more important than s p e c i a l i z a t i o n because of the r a p i d l y changing requirements of technology and the r e s u l t i n g obsolesence of s p e c i a l i z e d s k i l l s . The second area of review was concerned with r e l a t e d research i n I n d u s t r i a l Education. A r e l a t i v e l y small number of studies have been done - 57 -that are concerned with c u r r i c u l a r revision, i n I n d u s t r i a l Education. Most of these u t i l i z e a survey of l o c a l industry to asc e r t a i n the status or needs of present curriculum. Survey studies i n d r a f t i n g curriculum development were mainly concerned with the impact of the changing technology of d r a f t i n g , but not at the secondary l e v e l . The review established the survey questionnaire as the predominant method of i d e n t i f y i n g c u r r i c u l a r development items i n I n d u s t r i a l Education. P e r i o d i c a l l i t e r a t u r e indicated a need for appropriate t r a i n i n g i n computer aided d r a f t i n g f i e l d s and mentioned a number of successful programs. The survey of businesses i n B r i t i s h Columbia u t i l i z i n g CAD required the compilation of a CAD dir e c t o r y as no published compilation could be found. This d i r e c t o r y as well as one for CAD t r a i n i n g i n s t i t u t i o n s i n B r i t i s h Columbia i s included as an appendix to t h i s study. The survey generated an 82% response rate from industry and a 60% response from t r a i n i n g i n s t i t u t i o n s . A number of returned questionnaires from business could not be used as the respondents did not yet have a CAD system i n operation. Removing these businesses from the sample generates a 75% response rate. 1 The survey was sent, together with a covering l e t t e r and stamped return envelope on A p r i l 10, 1985. Non-respondents were sent another questionnaire, together with a cover l e t t e r and stamped return envelope on May 10, 1985. Questionnaires received a f t e r June 10, 1985 were not included i n the survey. - 58 -Conclusions: The survey indicated that businesses i n a wide v a r i e t y of endeavours are using computer aided d r a f t i n g systems and that they are r e t r a i n i n g t h e i r present d r a f t i n g and professional personnel to operate the systems. They do i n d i c a t e , however, that they would prefer to h i r e i n d i v i d u a l s , predominantly draftspersons, with computer aided d r a f t i n g s k i l l s should they require CAD operators. Training i n s t i t u t i o n s are o f f e r i n g computer aided d r a f t i n g courses with emphasis on t r a d i t i o n a l areas of d r a f t i n g and prefer to teach i n d i v i d u a l s with good background i n manual d r a f t i n g or r e l a t e d areas. Manual d r a f t i n g s k i l l s and good problem solving a b i l i t i e s were i d e n t i f i e d i n both surveys as the major prer e q u i s i t e s f or CAD success. Selected B r i t i s h Columbia secondary school d r a f t i n g curriculum items were rated and both surveys placed more importance on dimensioning to CSA standards and viewing objects three dimensionally than on other areas. C u r r i c u l a r change to r e f l e c t the changing technology was deemed necessary and included the introduction of computer aided d r a f t i n g at the secondary l e v e l as well as the i n c l u s i o n of more dr a f t i n g course time and more emphasis on computational and communication s k i l l s . Recommendations: ; To the extent that business.interests and post secondary educational// requirements are i n d i c a t i v e of the need.for.curriculum m o d i f i c a t i o n at the secondary l e v e l , the r e s u l t s of the survey would support the following recommendations: 1. That students and educators be counselled to approach d r a f t i n g , e s p e c i a l l y computer aided d r a f t i n g , as a necessary s k i l l f o r a wide v a r i e t y of occupations and not as a vocation i n i t s e l f . This would require a conscious e f f o r t to open secondary school - 59 -d r a f t i n g programs to a l l students, not j u s t those i n i n d u s t r i a l programs. 2. That d r a f t i n g educators i n B r i t i s h Columbia secondary schools should acquaint themselves with the changing technology of d r a f t i n g . 3. That wherever economically possi b l e , secondary school d r a f t i n g programs should introduce students to computer aided d r a f t i n g . The choice of system should r e f l e c t the growing trend i n industry to u t i l i z e personal computer based systems. 4. That d r a f t i n g educators should maintain contact with post secondary t r a i n i n g i n s t i t u t i o n s - i n an e f f o r t to standardize secondary d r a f t i n g curriculum emphasis. 5. That the increased number of course-hours necessary to accommodate the recommendations of t h i s study could be included i n an i n d u s t r i a l technology course at the senior secondary l e v e l . This course could focus on i n d u s t r i a l methods and processes, applicable codes and standards, and on the development of appropriate mathematics and communication s k i l l s f o r design. 6. That secondary school d r a f t i n g courses become more involved i n develop-ing the computational and communication s k i l l s necessary f o r post-secondary d r a f t i n g programs. 7. That secondary d r a f t i n g courses place more emphasis on the areas of d r a f t i n g that involve viewing or manipulating an object i n three dimensions as opposed to the t r a d i t i o n a l orthographic representation. These would include p i c t o r i a l (isometric/oblique) projections, p a r a l l e l and r a d i a l l i n e developments, producing views by revolution, perspective drawing, and freehand sketching. - 60 -8. That secondary d r a f t i n g courses place more emphasis on dimensioning to CSA standards and on following s p e c i f i c codes and standards i n the preparation of drawings. 9. That the B r i t i s h Columbia secondary school I n d u s t r i a l Education guide should be amended to include content based on the recommend-ations of t h i s study. The review of the l i t e r a t u r e f o r t h i s study indicated a tension e x i s t i n g between proponents of s p e c i a l i z a t i o n i n education and other more moderate fa c t i o n s . While there are obvious p o l i t i c a l overtones to t h i s debate (the in t e r e s t s of the worker and business are seldom the same) t h i s w r i t e r f e e l s that the adoption of the preceding recommendations would be i n the best i n t e r e s t s of those concerned and would allow enough f l e x i b i l i t y to keep d r a f t i n g curriculum current and responsive to change. Areas f o r Further Study: The development of t h i s study suggested a number of areas f o r further i n v e s t i g a t i o n : 1. A survey of i n d i v i d u a l s operating computer aided d r a f t i n g systems i n order to assess the extent of t h e i r s k i l l s and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . 2. A study to determine the extent to which computer aided production technology has changed s k i l l requirements and employment demand. 3. 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" A r c h i t e c t u r a l Drafting Needs as Indicated by Selected Iowa Industries, A r c h i t e c t s , and Engineering Firms." Ubpublished report for the Iowa State University, Department of I n d u s t r i a l Education, 1968. Wirth, A.G.. -John Dewey as Educator. New York: Wiley and Sons, 1966. - 68 -APPENDIX "A" - 71 -A P P E N D I X " B " - 72 -CAD T r a i n i n g S k i l l Survey Name of Person Completing Survey: P o s i t i o n : Name of T r a i n i n g I n s t i t u t i o n : Comments Concerning Survey: - 73 -CAD TRAINING SKILL SURVEY 1. Which areas of d r a f t i n g do you emphasize i n your CAD courses? 4. Mechanical E l e c t r i c a l / E l e c t r o n i c s Survey/Mapping/Topographic C i v i l S t r u c t u r a l HVAC A r c h i t e c t u r a l Other (please s p e c i f y ) ( Which of the ( ( ( ( ( How would you ( ( ( ( ( What would be ( ( ( ( ( ( B r i e f l y d e s c r i b e your system i n the space below. f o l l o w i n g would best d e s c r i b e your CAD system? s m a l l , p e r s o n a l computer based, s i n g l e user, p e r s o n a l computer based, m u l t i - u s e r , minicomputer based, m u l t i - u s e r , d e d i c a t e d computer system, l a r g e mainframe system. d e s c r i b e the ease of o p e r a t i o n of your CAD system? very easy to use, s e l f t e a c h i n g , many prompts, r e l a t i v e l y simple, some o r i e n t a t i o n r e q u i r e d , moderately d i f f i c u l t , programming knowledge h e l p f u l d i f f i c u l t , e x t e n s i v e t r a i n i n g r e q u i r e d , f r u s t r a t i n g , many programming problems. the approximate c o s t of your system? l e s s than $10,000 $10,000 - $25,000 $25,000 - $50,000 $50,000 - $75,000 over $75,00 0 c o n t i n u i n g (lease or upgrading) 5. Which of the f o l l o w i n g would best d e s c r i b e the t r a i n i n g or - background of most of your candidates f o r CAD t r a i n i n g ? ( ) high s c h o o l graduate ( ) d r a f t s p e r s o n (from i n d u s t r y ) ( ) t e c h n i c i a n or t e c h n o l o g i s t ( i . e . - a BCIT graduate) ( ) computer s p e c i a l i s t (computer s c i e n t i s t , a n a l y s t , programmer or s i m i l a r ) ( ) p r o f e s s i o n a l (engineer, a r c h i t e c t , etc.) ( ) other (please s p e c i f y ) - 74 -6. Which of the f o l l o w i n g would d e s c r i b e the b e s t way(s) i n which a person c o u l d r e c e i v e CAD t r a i n i n g ? ( ) s e l f taught ( ) community c o l l e g e d r a f t i n g w i t h CAD ( ) t e c h n i c a l i n s t i t u t e CAD courses ( ) u n i v e r s i t y courses i n CAD ( ) post graduate courses i n CAD ( ) CAD system s u p p l i e r courses i n CAD ( ) in-house courses i n CAD 7. Of the f o l l o w i n g , rank i n order of p r e f e r e n c e from 1 to 6 those i n d i v i d u a l s t h a t you would p r e f e r t o t r a i n on your CAD system. ( ) high s c h o o l graduate ( ) d r a f t s p e r s o n (from i n d u s t r y ) ( ) t e c h n i c i a n or t e c h n o l o g i s t ( i . e . - a BCIT grad.) ( ) computer s p e c i a l i s t (computer s c i e n t i s t , programmer, a n a l y s t , or s i m i l a r ) ( ) p r o f e s s i o n a l (engineer, d e s i g n e r , a r c h i t e c t , or s i m i l a r ) ( ) other 8. In order to be more s u c c e s s f u l at computer a i d e d d r a f t i n g , i t may be b e n e f i c i a l or even necessary to possess c e r t a i n knowledge or s k i l l s b e f o r e undertaking any CAD t r a i n i n g . F o l l o w i n g are three groups of r e l a t e d s k i l l s . P l e a s e rank the importance of these s k i l l s r e l a t i v e t o p r e p a r a t i o n f o r CAD t r a i n i n g . (where 1 i s the most important and 5 i s the l e a s t important) Manual S k i l l s ( ) - keyboard s k i l l s ( ) - manual d r a f t i n g s k i l l s ( ) - p e r s p e c t i v e drawing/rendering ( ) - word p r o c e s s i n g .( ) - other C o g n i t i v e S k i l l s ( ) - computational s k i l l s ( ) - communication s k i l l s (composition, reading) ( ) - a n a l y t i c geometry s k i l l s ( ) -•computer programming ( ) - other I n d u s t r i a l S k i l l s ( ) - welding and metal f a b r i c a t i o n ( ) - machining ( m i l l i n g , t u r n i n g , shaping, etc.) ( ) - r e s i d e n t i a l framing and f i n i s h i n g ( ) - millwork and cabinetmaking ( ) - b a s i c e l e c t r i c i t y and e l e c t r o n i c s In each of the groups above, you have i n d i c a t e d one s k i l l as more important than the r e s t . Which, i f any, of these would you c o n s i d e r to be the s i n g l e most important s k i l l ? - 75 -9. F o l l o w i n g i s a l i s t of some of the s k i l l s being taught i n d r a f t i n g at the s e n i o r secondary l e v e l i n B.C. s c h o o l s . On a s c a l e from 1 to 5, i n d i c a t e the importance of these s k i l l s r e l a t i v e to p r e p a r a t i o n f o r CAD t r a i n i n g . S k i l l D e s c r i p t i o n high - IMPORTANCE - low 1 2 3 4 5 - cam and gear development (.)..(!) (. ) (.)'(.) - dimensioning to CSA-standards i ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) (, ) - i s o m e t r i c and o b l i q u e drawing ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) - v e r n i e r p r o t r a c t o r r e a d i n g ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) - drawing r e s i d e n t i a l p lans to code ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) - l e t t e r i n g to a c o n s i s t e n t standard ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) - p l o t t i n g t opographic maps ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) - freehand s k e t c h i n g ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) - t r a c i n g and i n k i n g n e a t l y ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) - c a l c u l a t i n g d i h e d r a l s g e o m e t r i c a l l y ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) - drawing c o n s i s t e n t and e a s i l y r e p r o d u c i b l e l i n e s ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) - p a r a l l e l and r a d i a l l i n e developments ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) - secondary a u x i l i a r y views ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) - d e v e l o p i n g views by r e v o l u t i o n ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) - p e r s p e c t i v e drawing ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) 10. Which of the f o l l o w i n g would be the best method of p r e p a r i n g students i n secondary schools f o r f u r t h e r t r a i n i n g and/or c a r e e r s i n CAD? ( ) continue w i t h present programs ( ) p l a c e more emphasis on mathematics. ( ) modify programs to i n c l u d e more E n g l i s h and Math. ( ) prugramsi should i n c l u d e more computer programming. ( ) i n d u s t r i a l methods and processes should be emphasized. .( ) more courses i n d r a f t i n g . ( ) computer aided d r a f t i n g should be taught. ( ) other THANK YOU FOR TAKING THE TIME TO COMPLETE THIS SURVEY. YOUR CO-OPERATION IS GREATLY APPRECIATED. - 76 -APPENDIX "C" - 77 -CAD Operator S k i l l Survey - Industry Name of Person Completing Survey: P o s i t i o n : Company: Comments Concerning Survey: - 78 -CAD OPERATOR SKILL SURVEY - INDUSTRY 1. Which areas o f d r a f t i n g are you i n v o l v e d i n ? ( ) Mechanical ( ) E l e c t r i c a l / E l e c t r o n i c s ( ) Survey/Mapping/Topographic ( ) G r a p h i c s / R e n d e r i n g / P i c t o r i a l s ( ) C i v i l ( ) S t r u c t u r a l ( ) HVAC ( ) A r c h i t e c t u r a l ( ) Other (please s p e c i f y ) 2. Which of the f o l l o w i n g would best d e s c r i b e your CAD system? ( ) s m a l l , p e r s o n a l computer based, s i n g l e user. ( ) p e r s o n a l computer b a s e d m u l t i - u s e r . ( ) minicomputer based, m u l t i - u s e r . ( ) d e d i c a t e d computer system. ( ) l a r g e mainframe system. 3. How would you d e s c r i b e the ease of o p e r a t i o n of your CAD system? ( ) very easy t o use, s e l f t e a c h i n g , many prompts. ( ) r e l a t i v e l y simple, some o r i e n t a t i o n r e q u i r e d . ( ) moderately d i f f i c u l t , programming knowledge h e l p f u l . ( ) d i f f i c u l t , e x t e n s i v e t r a i n i n g r e q u i r e d . ( ) f r u s t r a t i n g , many programming problems. 4. What yo u l d be the approximate c o s t of your system? ( ) l e s s than $10,000 ( ) $10,000 - $25,000 ( ) $25,000 - $50,000 ( ) $50,000 - $75,000 ( ) over $75,000 ( ) c o n t i n u i n g ( l e a s e or upgrading) Could you g i v e a b r i e f d e s c r i p t i o n of your p r e s e n t system i n the space below? 5. Which of the f o l l o w i n g would best d e s c r i b e the t r a i n i n g or background of most of your CAD o p e r a t o r ( 3 ) ? ( ) d r a f t s p e r s o n r e t r a i n e d f o r CAD. ( ) CAD d r a f t s p e r s o n ( ) t e c h n i c i a n or t e c h n o l o g i s t ( ) computer s p e c i a l i s t (computer s c i e n t i s t , programmer, a n a l y s t , or s i m i l a r ) ( ) p r o f e s s i o n a l (engineer, a r c h i t e c t , etc.) ( ) other (please s p e c i f y ) - 79 -6. Which of the f o l l o w i n g would best d e s c r i b e the way i n which most of your CAD o p e r a t o r s r e c e i v e d t h e i r CAD t r a i n i n g ? ( ) s e l f taught ( ) community c o l l e g e d r a f t i n g w i t h CAD ( ) t e c h n i c a l i n s t i t u t e CAD courses ( ) u n i v e r s i t y courses i n CAD ( ) post graduate courses i n CAD ( ) CAD system s u p p l i e r courses i n CAD ( ) in-house courses i n CAD 7. Of the f o l l o w i n g , rank i n order of p r e f e r e n c e from 1 to 6 the i n d i v i d u a l s t h a t you would h i r e or s e l e c t to operate your CAD system. ( ) d r a f t s p e r s o n (to be t r a i n e d on your system) ( ) CAD d r a f t s p e r s o n ( c o l l e g e t r a i n e d ) ( ) t e c h n i c i a n or t e c h n o l o g i s t ( i . e . - a BCIT grad.) ( ) computer s p e c i a l i s t (computer s c i e n t i s t , programmer, a n a l y s t or s i m i l a r ) ( ) p r o f e s s i o n a l ( a r c h i t e c t , d e s i g n e r , engineer, or s i m i l a r ) ( ) other 8. In order to be more s u c c e s s f u l at computer aided d r a f t i n g , i t may be b e n e f i c i a l or even necessary to possess c e r t a i n knowledge or s k i l l s b e f o r e undertaking any CAD t r a i n i n g . F o l l o w i n g are three groups of r e l a t e d s k i l l s . P lease rank the importance of these s k i l l s r e l a t i v e to p r e p a r a t i o n f o r CAD t r a i n i n g . (where 1 i s the most important and 5 i s the l e a s t important) Manual S k i l l s ( ) - keyboard s k i l l s ( ) - manual d r a f t i n g s k i l l s ( ) - p e r s p e c t i v e drawing/rendering ( ) - word p r o c e s s i n g ( ) - other C o g n i t i v e S k i l l s ( ) - computational s k i l l s ( ) - communication s k i l l s (composition, reading)-( ) - a n a l y t i c geometry s k i l l s ( ) - computer programming ( ) - other I n d u s t r i a l S k i l l s ( ) - welding and metal f a b r i c a t i o n ( ) - machining ( m i l l i n g , t u r n i n g , shaping, etc.) ( ) - r e s i d e n t i a l framing and f i n i s h i n g ( ) - millwork and cabinetmaking ( ) - b a s i c e l e c t r i c i t y and e l e c t r o n i c s In each of the groups above, you have i n d i c a t e d one s k i l l as more important than the r e s t . Which, i f any, of these would you c o n s i d e r to be the s i n g l e most important s k i l l ? - 80 -9. F o l l o w i n g i s a l i s t of some of the s k i l l s being taught i n d r a f t i n g at the s e n i o r secondary l e v e l i n B.C. s c h o o l s . On a s c a l e from 1 to 5, i n d i c a t e the importance of these s k i l l s r e l a t i v e to p r e p a r a t i o n f o r CAD t r a i n i n g . S k i l l D e s c r i p t i o n h i g h - IMPORTANCE - low 1 2 3 4 5 - cam and gear development ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) , - dimensioning to CSA standards ( ) , ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) - i s o m e t r i c and o b l i q u e drawing ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) - v e r n i e r p r o t r a c t o r r e a d i n g ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) - drawing r e s i d e n t i a l p lans to code ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) - l e t t e r i n g to a c o n s i s t e n t standard ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) - p l o t t i n g topographic maps ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) - freehand s k e t c h i n g ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) - t r a c i n g and i n k i n g n e a t l y ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) - c a l c u l a t i n g d i h e d r a l s g e o m e t r i c a l l y ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) - drawing c o n s i s t e n t and e a s i l y ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) r e p r o d u c i b l e l i n e s - p a r a l l e l and r a d i a l l i n e ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) developments - secondary a u x i l i a r y views ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) - d e v e l o p i n g views by r e v o l u t i o n ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) - p e r s p e c t i v e drawing ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) 10. Which of the f o l l o w i n g would be the best method of p r e p a r i n g students i n secondary schools f o r f u r t h e r t r a i n i n g and/or c a r e e r s i n CAD? ( ) continue with p r e s e n t programs ( ) p l a c e more emphasis on mathematics ( ) modify programs to i n c l u d e more E n g l i s h and Math ( ) programs should i n c l u d e more computer programming ( ) i n d u s t r i a l methods and processes should be emphasized ( ) more courses i n d r a f t i n g ( ) computer aided d r a f t i n g should be taught ( ) o t h e r THANK YOU FOR TAKING THE TIME TO COMPLETE THIS SURVEY. YOUR CO-OPERATION IS GREATLY APPRECIATED. - 81 -- 82 -CAD SYSTEM DESCRIPTIONS CAD system descriptions as reported i n survey questionnaires: - "IBM-PC XT and IMB-PC AT i n s t a l l e d with Futurenet DASH-1.2 for e l e c t r o n i c s and AutoCAD 2 f o r mechanical package." - "Hewlitt Packard EGS 200 system with HP DMP-42 p l o t t e r . " - "Auto-Troll AD-380 system consists of Sperry-Univac CPU, 3 terminals, a flatbed p l o t t e r , a hard-copier, and a tecwriter." - "Two IBM-PC's; T a l l Grass 12 megabyte hard disk, DMP-42 p l o t t e r , mouse and d i g i t i z e r , with AutoCAD software." - "HP 1000 (512K) computer, HP 7925 (120 megabyte) dis c drive, s i x HP 2648A terminals, using Holguin CAD software, version 2000." - "Intergraph system with VAX 11-730 CPU, colour INTERACT s t a t i o n , VERSATEC 8236 p l o t t e r . " - "IBM-PC, ECAD software, Houston Instrument DMP-52 p l o t t e r . " - "CALMA GDSII graphics system, includes Data General E c l i p s e computer dedicated to CHIPS I.C. design a p p l i c a t i o n ; 2 dual screen work stations and one d i g i t i z i n g s t a t i o n . " - "Software i s Design Oriented Graphics System (DOGS) from PAFEC Ltd., with three Westward #2019 terminals, a Prime 2250 computer, three Houston Instruments d i g i t i z e r s , and one Houston 'Instrument DMP-52 p l o t t e r . " - "An Apple II using ROBOCOM II software and a Roland DXY 880 p l o t t e r . " - "Intergrated Graphics Design System." - "Eagle PC (IBM-PC compatible) with Houston Instrument DMP-42 drum p l o t t e r and d i g i t i z e r t a b l e t . " - "512K, 16-bit graphic processor, 2-80MB hard disks, 800-1600 BPI 9 track tape drive, three graphic work stat i o n s , 19" storage ref r e s h , 2 alphanumerics f o r text input, 60" x 44" d i g i t i z e r , 1 e l e c t r o s t a t i c 22" p l o t t e r , 1 76" x 46" flatbed p l o t t e r . " - "ACCUCAD 2D software running on VAX 11-750, Tektronix 4109 terminal, HP drum p l o t t e r . " - 83 -"IBM-PC XT, 640K RAM, Zenith colour monitor, HP 7475A p l o t t e r . " "IBM-PC with AutoCAD software, d i g i t i z e r , and 11" x 17" p l o t t e r . " "640KIBM-PC with 2 - 360K dis c drives, Electrohome colour monitor, 8087 math coprocesser, DMP-42 Houston Instruments p l o t t e r , Technique a r c h i t e c t u r a l software." "CEADS-CAD 2000, HP 1000 A600 with 512K, 65 Mb dis c drive, HP 2623A raster s t a t i o n , HP 7580A p l o t t e r . " "IBM-PC AT with colour graphics card, Houston Instruments si n g l e pen p l o t t e r , colour monitor, and 10Mb hard disk drive, house and d i g i t i z e r pad." "4Mb Prime 650 with 600Mb disk storage, 13 graphics terminals." "CEADS CAD-2000 software version 1.07, using HP 1000 A-900 CPU, HP 7912 65Mb hard disk, HP 2623A terminals, and a HP 7585B p l o t t e r . " "Systemhouse 2.5D design and d r a f t i n g system using HP1000 mini-computer." "HP 1000F CPU, nine terminals, Holguin and Assoc. software." "2 standalone micro-based high r e s o l u t i o n s t a t i o n s , master storage, ink p l o t t e r / p r i n t e r . " "IBM-PC AT with AutoCAD, software and p l o t t e r . " "Hardware: RNA - 32 b i t desktop Super-Micro, 2Mb RAM, 40Mb hard disk, 7000 Complot d i g i t i z e r , Houston Instruments p l o t t e r , in-house software." "Texas Instrument PC's li n k e d i n a 360M (ETHERNET) l o c a l area network, 20Mb hard disk, p r i n t e r , p l o t t e r , also three IBM-PC's using AutoCAD software." "HP1000 CPU with 7 stat i o n s , using CEADS CADD 2000 software from Holguin and Assoc., ..El Paso, and P.A.D.S. from Advenco Consultants, Coquitlam." "Data General MV10000 CPU, disk and tape drives, Tektronix 4107 work stat i o n s , H.P. p l o t t e r s , p r i n t e r s , ANVIL 4000 software." "Technique software, Apple l i e computers, H.P. p l o t t e r . " - 84 -APPENDIX "E" - 85 -SELECTED COMMENTS FROM QUESTIONNAIRES "CAD i s an e l e c t r o n i c " t o o l " used i n the a p p l i c a t i o n of d r a f t i n g . This survey tends to deal with i t by d i s c i p l i n e s or work s p e c i a l i t i e s ( i n d u s t r i a l s k i l l s ) which I believe does not apply. We have upgrade students such as a r c h i t e c t s , engineers, and draftsmen from a l l areas of expertise i n one class taking CAD. Our system has no s p e c i f i c d i d i c a t i o n . " "I hope t h i s survey w i l l help to somehow organize secondary l e v e l d r a f t i n g programs to prepare students for formal CAD courses. A college CAD consortium should be organized to ensure a consistent l e v e l of t r a i n i n g and q u a l i t y i n the CAD education program. This would also bring together a l l the various programs and equipment fo r a broader ranged CAD survey." "The survey seems ov e r s i m p l i f i e d i n order to make i t general i n a p p l i c a t i o n . Our motto f or CAD t r a i n i n g , "Teach an engineer to use the computer - you can't teach a computer technician to be a designer." "Too long." " F a i l e d to concentrate on organizational and management s k i l l s e s s e n t i a l to CAD e f f i c i e n c y . " "A useful survey. I think CAD should be kept f o r the college l e v e l with an emphasis on standards and drawing analysis at the secondary l e v e l . " "CAD systems are ever-changing beasts. The personal "drawing management s k i l l s " which must be developed are extensive. I believe any attempt to teach a student "CAD s k i l l s " would be detrimental to his/her career f o r two main reasons: 1) This time could be better spent acquiring a good te c h n i c a l t r a i n i n g . This i s a much greater asset than knowing the mechanics of producing a drawing. 2) The i n d i v i d u a l w i l l i n e v i t a b l y have"to be retrained to the p a r t i c u l a r o f f i c e ' s CAD standards and procedures." "Seems to be asking the r i g h t sorts of questions." "The trend i n computer aided d r a f t i n g i s to s i n g l e independant microprocessor based work stations that are easy to learn and inexpensive. In the near future CAD w i l l replace manual d r a f t i n g , so secondary schools should teach d r a f t i n g on CAD s t a t i o n s . " - 86 -"Your system costs are low. A CAD system Is a t o o l not unlike a drawing board; being able to operate a drawing board does not mean you can draw." "... there are already more CAD draftspersons than CAD systems i n B r i t i s h Columbia. Why t r a i n so many kids f o r such a small job market? CAD systems are p r o h i b i t i v e l y expensive and w i l l continue to be for some time to a l l but the larges t of corporations. In any event, a CAD system that requires extensive t r a i n i n g i s a poorly designed system. What we need are people trained i n the basics of design. Anybody can draw. And even with today's crude CAD systems anybody can draw w e l l with only a few hours t r a i n i n g . TEACH DESIGN." - 87 -APPENDIX "F" - 88 -INSTITUTIONS IN BRITISH COLUMBIA OFFERING TRAINING IN COMPUTER AIDED DRAFTING COLLEGES: CAMOSUN COLLEGE 1950 Lansdowne Road V i c t o r i a , B.C. V8P 5J2 (Drafting Department Head) CAPILANO COLLEGE 2055 P u r c e l l Way North Vancouver, B.C. V7H 3H5 (Drafting Department Head) CARIBOO COLLEGE P.O. Nox 3010 Kamloops, B.C. V2C 5N3 (Mr. Gene Turney, Drafting Department Head) KWANTLEN COLLEGE P.O. Box 9030 Surrey, B.C. V3T 5H8 (Mr. John Morrison, Instructor I n d u s t r i a l Drafting/CAD) MALASPINA COLLEGE (Fast Track) 900 F i f t h St. Nanaimo, B.C._ V9R 5S5 (Mr. C l i f f Hinton) NORTHERN LIGHTS COLLEGE 11401 8th St. Dawson Creek, B.C. V1G 4G2 (Mr. D. Berotte, Drafting Instructor) VANCOUVER COMMUNITY COLLEGE 1155 E. Broadway Vancouver, B.C. (Mr. Ron Atkinson, Drafting Department Head) TECHNICAL INSTITUTES: BRITISH COLUMBIA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY 3700 Willingdon Ave. Burnaby, B.C. V5G 3H2 (Mr. A.P. Adamo) CENTRE FOR ADVANCED RESOURCE TECHNOLOGY 1789 O g i l v i e Stv . Prince George, B.C. V2N 1W7 (Drafting Department Head) VOCATIONAL INSTITUTES: PACIFIC VOCATIONAL INSTITUTE 3650 Willingdon Ave. Burnaby, B.C. V5G 3H1 (Mr. Gary Cullen, Instructor) UNIVERSITIES: UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA Dept. of Mech. Engineering Vancouver, B.C. V6T 1W5 UNIVERSITY OF VICTORIA Computer Aided Drafting P.O. Box 1700 . . . V i c t o r i a , B.C. . V8W 2Y2 SIMON FRASER UNIVERSITY Computer Aided Drafting Engineering Science Burnaby, B.C. V5A 1S6 TRADE SCHOOLS: DOWCO CAD SCHOOL 504 Cottonwood Coquitlam, B.C. (Mr. Hugh Dobbie, President) - 39 -APPENDIX "G" - 90 -INDUSTRIES USING COMPUTER AIDED DRAFTING Mr. John Whalen MICROLIGHT COMPUTER SYSTEMS LTD. 4438 Valencia North Vancouver, B.C. V7N 4B1 ALPHA SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH CORPORATION 1545 Columbia St. North Vancouver, B.C. Mr. Tom Pelton, President PELTON ENGINEERING 3991 Smugglers Cove V i c t o r i a , B.C. V8N 4M1 Drafting Department Head A. E. CONCRETE PRECAST PRODUCTS Box 1265 Coquitlam, B.C. V3J 6Z9 Mr. Bryan Dixon APPLIED CAD/CAM COMPUTING 142 W. 15th. North Vancouver, B.C. V6J 4L7 Engineering Department ARMOUR, BLEWETT & PARTNERS 353 Water St. Vancouver, B.C. V6B 1B8 Mr. Anders Ahlgren ASTROGRAPHIC INDUSTRIES LTD. 7541 134A St. Surrey, B.C. V3W 7B3 Mr. W. Trevor Bishop B. C. RESEARCH 3650 Wesbrook Ma l l Vancouver, B.C. V6C 2L2 Ms Mary Lou Perry CADCO GRAPHICS LTD. 525 Seymour St. Vancouver, B.C. V6B 3H6 Mr. Paul S i l u c h HEWLITT PACKARD 10691 Shellbridge Way Richmond, B.C. V6X 2W8 Mr. David McDonald ACCUGRAPH CORPORATION 50 Gervais Drive, Ste 204 Don M i l l s , Ontario M3C 1Z3 Mr. Richard Lengden, System Manager NEWNES MACHINE SHOP Front St. Salmon Arm, B.C. V0E 2T0 Engineering Department ALCAN BUILDING PRODUCTS 620 Audley Blvd. New Westminster, B.C. V3M 5P2 Mr. John B. Coop, System Manager Int e r a c t i v e Graphic Systems KILBORN ENGINEERING (B.C.) LTD. 1380 Burrard St. Vancouver, B.C. V6Z 2H9 Engineering Department ASSOCIATED FOUNDRY LTD. Box 9005 Surrey, B.C. V3T 4X3 Drafting Department AEL MICROTEL LTD. 7018 Lougheed Hwy. Burnaby, B.C. V5A 1W3 - 91 -Mr. James K. Torrance Drafting Supervisor B.C. HYDRO & POWER AUTHORITY 970 Burrard St. Vancouver, B.C. V6Z 1Y3 G.W. M i l l e r B. C. TELEPHONE COMPANY 10-3777 Kingsway Burnaby, B.C. V5H 3Z7 R.E. Wareins MERLIN ENGINEERING GRAPHICS 101A - 255 West 1st. North Vancouver, B.C. V7M 3G8 Gary W. McCue, Manager CAD/CAM Systems BURRARD YARROWS CORPORATION 109 E. Esplanade North Vancouver, B.C. V7L 1A1 Mr. Brian Stroup Chief Engineer C. A.E. MACHINERY 3550 Lougheed Hwy. Vancouver, B.C. V5M 2A3 Engineering Department CANOCEAN RES. 610 Derwent Way New Westminster, B.C. V3M 5P8 R. Relkie WESTCOAST TRANSMISSION LTD. 1333 West Georgia St. Vancouver, B.C. V6E 3K8 James C. Barnum, Partner CARLBERG, JACKSON, PARTNERS 301 - 6th St. New Westminster, B.C. V3L 3A7 Terry Wong, Project Engineer CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES, INC. Ste. 310 - 325 Howe St. Vancouver, B.C. V6C 1Z7 Mr. Ken Lord, Hardware Supervisor DYNAMIC CONTROL SYSTEMS #204 - 13662 104A Ave. Surrey, B.C. V3T 1Y8 Mr. Ralph Struve ELTRON ENTERPRISES LTD. 7583 Vantage Place Delta, B.C. V4G 1A5 Engineering Department H.A. SIMONS LTD. 425 C a r r o l l St. Vancouver, B.C. V6B 2J6 Drafting Department Head BAILEY & ROSE 716 - 850 West Hastings St. Vancouver, B.C. V6C 1E2 Mr. Roger Toren C.R. TOREN LTD. Ste. 206D - 3700 Gilmore Way Burnaby, B.C. V5G 4M1 Engineering Department CANADIAN AIRCRAFT PRODUCTS LTD. 2611 Viscount Way Richmond, B.C. V6V 1M9 Mr. John A. Vole CAD System Manager ROBERT ALLAN LTD. 1496 W. 72nd Ave. Vancouver, B.C. V6P 3E3 Mr. Grian Gorbell Systems Managemenr CARIN DESIGN 261 E. 1st St. North Vancouver, B.C. V6L 1B4 Mr. Roger Bayley, Partner CHANDLER KENNEDY ARCHITECTURAL GROUP 7th Floor - 609 West Hastings St. Vancouver, B.C. V6B 4W4 - 92 -Manager DRAFTING SERVICES 1100 W. 7th Ave. Vancouver, B.C. V6H 1B4 Mr. Nick Fenger, Manager F.N. FENGER & ASSOCIATES LTD. Ste. 303 - 660 Fort St. V i c t o r i a , B.C. V8W 1G8 C E . Carlson HARRISON CARLSON PEARCE 955 Richards Vancouver, B.C. V6B 3B8 Mr. A.C. Hartley HARTECH, COMPUTER GRAPHICS RESOURCES, LTD. 15075 Spences Court Surrey, B.C. V3S 5Z8 Engineering Department HAWKER-SIDDLEY CANADA LTD. Box 4200 Vancouver, B.C. V6B 4K6 Mr. R.D. Smith, General Manager INDALEA, DIVISION OF INDAL 1930 Kingsway Port Coquitlam, B.C. V3C 1S7 Mr. Gerald Cassel, Sales Manager INTERWORLD ELECTRONICS 1348 Marine Drive North Vancouver, B.C. V7P 1T4 Mr. Rex Cadwaladr L.D.P. & E. HOLDINGS 34375 C y r i l St. Abbotsford, B.C. V2S 2H5 Mr. Don Stewart LLOYD CONTROLS LTD. 3046 Westwood St. Port Coquitlam, B.C. V2C 3L7 Mr. K.G. Whale NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL 3904 2. 4th Ave. Vancouver, B.C. V6R 1P5 Mr. Douglas Soon, Manager PACIFICANA DISTRIBUTORS 127 E. 15th North Vancouver, B.C. V7L 2P7 Mr. Rob Sutton R. & S. MACHINE WORKS LTD. 1878 Kent Ave. Vancouver, B.C. V5P 2S7 Mr. Jim Ross, Project Manager INTERNATIONAL SUBMARINE ENGINEERING LTD. 2605 Murray Port Moody, B.C. V3H 1X1 Hank Tung, C.E.T. CAD Group Leader KOCKUMS CANCAR INC. Box 4200 Vancouver, G.C. V6B 4K6 Kyomi Hama, Drafting Supervisor MACDONALD DETTWILER & ASSOC. LTD. 3751 S h e l l Road Richmond, B.C. V6X 2Z9 Ms. Denise F o x a l l , Software Manager PACIFIC MICROCIRCUITS LTD. 1645 140th St. White Rock, B.C. V4A 4H1 Engineering Department PIRELLI CABLES INC. 13340 76th Ave. Surrey, B.C. V3W 2W1 Mr. Rich Matthews Director of Computer Applications R.E. HULBERT & ASSOCIATES 215 14th St. West Vancouver, B.C. V7T 2P9 Mr. Jack Heyrman, President SEATRONICS TECHNOLOGIES LTD. Ste. I l l - 3700 Gilmore Way Burnaby, B.C. V5G 4M1 Mr. Ted Broekhuizen Chief Draftsman Ports & Marine Department SWAN WOOSTER ENGINEERING 1525 Robson St. Vancouver, B.C. V6G 1C5 Engineering Department WESTERN CANADA STEEL LTD. 450 S.E. Marine Drive Vancouver, B.C. V5X 2T2 Chang Lim, Chief Engineer WINDSOR MACHINE CO. LTD. 5771 Production Way Langley, B.C. V3A 4N5 Mr. Manfred Hoff ROBAR IND. LTD. 12945 78th Ave. Surrey, B.C. V3W 2X8 Mr. B. Johnston, Vice President - Graphic Systems SYSTEMHOUSE LTD. 900 W. Hastings St. Vancouver, B.C. V6C 1E5 Engineering Department WEISER INC. 6700 Beresford St. Burnaby, B.C. B5E 1Y2 Engineering Department WESTERN ROBOTICS 1768 E. Hastings St. Vancouver, B.C. V5L 1S9 

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