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A comparison between two activity programmes and their effects upon physical fitness and attitude toward… Meachin, John Basford 1983

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A COMPARISON BETWEEN TWO ACTIVITY PROGRAMMES - AND THEIR EFFECTS UPON PHYSICAL FITNESS AND ATTITUDE TOWARD PHYSICAL ACTIVITY OF GRADE 8 BOYS by JOHN BASFORD MEACHIN B.P.E. U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1973 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Department of Education We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to t h e r e q u i r e d standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA May 1983 (c) John Basford Meachin In presenting t h i s thesis i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements fo r an advanced degree at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the Library s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of t h i s thesis for s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. I t i s understood that copying or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s thesis for f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my written permission. Department of Education The University of B r i t i s h Columbia 1956 Main M a l l Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 Date E-6 (3/81) i i ABSTRACT The purposes of t h i s study were as follows: To determine the e f f e c t s of two f i t n e s s programmes (one comprising gym games a c t i v i t i e s , and the other comprising c i r c u i t t r a i n i n g a c t i v i t i e s ) on physical f i t n e s s and a t t i t u d e s towards physical a c t i v i t y of grade 8 boys. It was hypothesized that: 1. There would be no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n the e f f e c t s of the two programmes on the ph y s i c a l f i t n e s s of grade 8 boys. 2. There would be no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n the e f f e c t s of the two programmes on the a t t i t u d e toward p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y of grade 8 boys when p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n programmes comprising e i t h e r gym games or c i r c u i t t r a i n i n g a c t i v i t i e s . The Canadian Association f o r Health, Physical Education and Recreation Test (C.A.H.P.E.R.) and the Children's Attitude Toward Physical A c t i v i t y Test (C.A.T.P.A.) were administered to 44 grade 8 male physical education students at a high school i n B r i t i s h Columbia. The data for the s i x physical f i t n e s s sub-tests (Sit-ups, Flexed Arm Hang, Standing Long Jump, 50 Metre Sprint and 2400 Metre Endurance Run) and the eight a t t i t u d e sub-tests ( S o c i a l (A), S o c i a l (B), Health and Fitness (A), Health and Fitness (B), Vertigo, Aesthetic, Catharsis and Ascetic) were analysed using a univariate analysis of variance. Results from t h i s study showed that: 1...The. gym games group made a s i g n i f i c a n t l y greater improvement, i n four (Sit-up, Standing Long Jump, 50 Metre Sprint, and 2400 Metre i i i Endurance Run) of the six C.A.H.P.E.R. sub-tests than the c i r c u i t t r a i n i n g group. 2. The C i r c u i t Training group made a s i g n i f i c a n t l y greater improvement i n two (Flexed Arm Hang, and Shuttle Run) of the s i x C.A.H.P.E.R. sub-tests than the gym games group. 3. A s i x week programme of gym games a c t i v i t i e s was followed by a s i g n i f i c a n t d e t e r i o r a t i o n i n a t t i t u d e i n four ( S o c i a l (A), S o c i a l (B), Health and Fitness (B), and Catharsis) of the eight C.A.T.P.A. sub-tests. 4. A s i x week programme of c i r c u i t t r a i n i n g a c t i v i t i e s was followed by a s i g n i f i c a n t d e t e r i o r a t i o n i n a t t i t u d e i n three (Health and Fitness (B), Aesthetic, and A c e t i c ) of the eight C.A.T.P.A. sub-tests. A s i x week programme of e i t h e r gym games or c i r c u i t t r a i n i n g a c t i v i t i e s did not produce a s i g n i f i c a n t change i n a t t i t u d e on the C.A.T.P.A. Vertigo sub-test. i v TABLE OF CONTENTS Page T i t l e Page i Permission Form Abstract i i Table of Contents i v L i s t of Tables v i i L i s t of Figures i x Acknowledgments- x i Dedication x i i CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION TO THE PROBLEM 1 Introduction 1 Statement of the Problem 2 Hypotheses 3 D e f i n i t i o n of Terms 3 Significance of the Study 4 Limitations 5 Delimitations 5 II REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE . 6 Introduction 6 Basic Physical F i t n e s s 6 Physical Fitness Programmes 8 Aerobics 9 Fartlek 9 Interval Training 9 C i r c u i t Training 10 Vita Parcours 11 Gym Games 13 Physical Fitness Evaluation 14 A.A.H.P.E.R. Youth Fi t n e s s Test (1976) . . . 15 C.A.H.P.E.R. Fitn e s s Performance II Test (1980) . . 16 Manitoba Physical F i t n e s s Performance Test (1977) . . 17 Action B.C. Functional Fitness Appraisal Test (1977) . . 17 Cooper's Aerobics Charts (1970) 18 V Page CHAPTER II Attitude Toward P h y s i c a l A c t i v i t y Tests 19 Martens . . . . . . . . . . 20 Kenyan's Attitude Assessment . . . . 21 Simon and Smoll Instrument 23 Smoll, Schutz and Keeney Instrument 24 The B r i t i s h Columbia Assessment of Physical Education 1979 25 i . Psychomotor Domain 26 i i . A f f e c t i v e Domain 26 Summary 28 III METHODS AND PROCEDURES 30 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . 30 Research Design 30 Subjects » 31 Treatment . 31 a) Gym Games 31 b) C i r c u i t Training 33 Instrumentation , 33 1. CAHPER Test 33 2. CATPA Test . 33 Procedures 34 Treatment of the Data 34 IV RESULTS 35 Introduction 35 C.A.H.P.E.R. Test 35 Summary of C.A.H.P.E.R. Test Results 45 C.A.T.P.A. Test 47 Summary of C.A.T.P.A. Test Results 58 V DISCUSSION 63 C.A.H.P.E.R. Test 63 Sit-Up sub-test 63 Flexed Arm Hang sub-test 64 Shuttle Run sub-test 65 Standing Long Jump sub-test 66 50 Metre Sprint sub-test 68 2400 Metre Endurance Run sub-test 69 Summary 70 C.A.T.P.A. Test 70 Soci a l (A) sub-test 71 Social (B) sub-test 72 Health and Fitness (A) sub-test 73 Health and Fitness (B) sub-test 75 Vertigo sub-test 76 Aesthetic sub-test - 77 v i Page CHAPTER V Catharsis sub-test 78 Ascetic sub-test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79 Summary 81 VI SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS . . . . 83 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . 83 Conclusions . 84 Summary 86 Recommendations 86 BIBLIOGRAPHY 88 APPENDIX A 96 APPENDIX B 104 APPENDIX C 122 APPENDIX D 144 v i i LIST DF TABLES Page Table 2.1 C i r c u i t Training Items, Weights, and Repetitions at Each Station 12 3.1 Schedule of Physical Fitness Tests, A t t i t u d e Tests and Treatment Programme . . . . . . 32 4.1 A Comparison of Pretest, Posttest and Mean Difference Scores on the Sit-Up sub-test 37 4.2 A Comparison of Pretest, Posttest and Mean Difference Scores on the Flexed Arm Hang sub-test . . 38 4.3 A Comparison of Pretest, Posttest and Mean Difference Scores on the Shuttle Run sub-test . . . . 40 4.4 A Comparison of Pretest, Posttest and Mean Difference Scores on the Standing Long Jump sub-test 42 4.5 A Comparison of Pretest, Posttest and Mean Difference Scores on the 50 Metre Sprint sub-test . . 43 4.6 A Comparison of Pretest, Posttest and Mean Difference Scores on the 2400 Metre Endurance Run sub-test 45 4.7 A Comparison of Pretest, Posttest and Mean Difference Scores on the S o c i a l (A) sub-test . . . . 48 4.8 A Comparison of Pretest, Posttest and Mean Difference Scores on the S o c i a l (B) sub-test . . . . 50 4.9 A Comparison of Pretest, Posttest and Mean Difference Scores on the Health and Fitness (A) sub-test . . . . . . . . . . 51 4.10 A Comparison of Pretest, Posttest and Mean Difference Scores on the Health and Fit n e s s (B) sub-test 52 v i i i Page Table 4.11 A Comparison of Pretest, Posttest and Mean Difference Scores on the Vertigo sub-test 53 4.12 A Comparison of Pretest, Posttest and Mean Difference Scores on the Aesthetic sub-test . . . . 55 4.13 A Comparison of Pretest, Posttest and Mean Difference Scores on the Catharsis sub-test . . . . 56 4.14 A Comparison of Pretest, Posttest and Mean Difference Scores on the Asc e t i c sub-test 57 4.15 Summary of Comparison of Mean Difference Scores, Standard Deviations and Univariate Analysis of Variance f o r Gym Games and C i r c u i t Training groups on a l l sub-tests of the C.A.H.P.E.R. Physical Fitness Test 60 4.16 Summary of Comparison of Mean Difference Scores, Standard Deviations and Uni v a r i a t e Analysis of Variance for Gym Games and C i r c u i t Training groups on a l l sub-tests of the C.A.T.P.A. At t i t u d e Test 61 4.17 Summary Table of the Results of the C.A.H.P.E.R. and C.A.T.P.A. Tests 62 i x LIST OF FIGURES Page Figure 4.1 A Comparison of Mean and Mean Difference Scores for both Gym Games and C i r c u i t Training groups on the Sit-Up sub-test 36 4.2 A Comparison of Mean and Mean Difference Scores for both Gym Games and C i r c u i t Training groups on the Flexed Arm Hang sub-test 37 4.3 A Comparison of Mean and Mean Difference Scores for both Gym Games and C i r c u i t Training groups on the Shuttle Run sub-test 39 .4.4 A Comparison of Mean and Mean Difference Scores for both Gym Games and C i r c u i t Training groups on the Standing Long Jump sub-test 41 4.5 A Comparison of Mean and Mean Difference Scores for both Gym Games and C i r c u i t Training groups on the 50 Metre Sprint sub-test . 42 4.6 A Comparison of Means and Mean Difference Scores f o r both Gym Games and C i r c u i t Training groups on the 2400 Metre Endurance Run sub-test 44 4.7 A Comparison of Mean and Mean Difference Scores fo r both Gym Games and C i r c u i t Training groups on the S o c i a l (A) sub-test 48 4.8 A Comparison of Mean and Mean Difference Scores for both Gym Games and C i r c u i t Training groups on the S o c i a l (B) sub-test 49 4.9 A Comparison of Mean and Mean Difference Scores for both Gym Games and C i r c u i t Training groups on the Health and Fitness (A) sub-test 50 4.10 A Comparison of Mean and Mean Difference Scores for both Gym Games and C i r c u i t Training groups on the Health and Fit n e s s (B) sub-test 52 4.11 A Comparison of Mean and Mean Difference Scores for both Gym Games and C i r c u i t Training groups on the Vertigo sub-test 53 X Page Figure 4.12 A Comparison of Means and Mean Difference Scores for both Gym Games and C i r c u i t T raining groups on the Aesthetic sub-test 54 4.13 A Comparison of Means and Mean Difference Scores for both Gym Games and C i r c u i t T r a i n i n g groups on the Catharsis sub-test 55 4.14 A Comparison of Means and Mean Difference Scores for both Gym Games arid C i r c u i t T raining groups on the Ascetic sub-test 57 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I wish to acknowledge Dr. Peter Moody, chairman of my committee, for his invaluable assistance, patience, and advice i n the wri t i n g of t h i s t h e s i s . In a d d i t i o n I would l i k e to thank Dr. Richard Mosher and Dr. E r i c Broom for t h e i r support as the s i s committee members. Special thanks are also expressed to colleague Murray W i l l i n g and Dr. Todd Rogers for t h e i r assistance i n the analysis of the data, and to Ms. Peggy Tingey for proof reading. A f i n a l thank you to Marjory P e l l s who has typed for many hours to make t h i s t h e s i s become a r e a l i t y . XII DEDICATION To my wife V i r g i n i a CHAPTER I Introduction to the Problem Introduction The recent emphasis on Gym Games a c t i v i t i e s i n secondary school physical education programmes and the i m p l i c a t i o n s of the P r o v i n c i a l Learning Assessment Programme (1979) find i n g s has resulted i n a re-assessment of the amount of time to be a l l o c a t e d to p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t i e s which require strenuous p h y s i c a l e f f o r t . Some teachers claim that s i g n i f i c a n t increases i n p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s can be attained only through strenuous exercise programmes (e.g. c i r c u i t t r a i n i n g ) , while other teachers advocate student enjoyment of p h y s i c a l education with minimal emphasis on strenuous exercises as being a more productive method of a t t a i n i n g a high l e v e l of p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s . These opposing p r o f e s s i o n a l viewpoints have raised questions which have not as yet been answered. For example. 1. Do programmes of gym games a c t i v i t i e s produce l e v e l s of physical f i t n e s s comparable to those attained through programmes of c i r c u i t t r a i n i n g exercise? 2. To what extent, i f any, i s a t t i t u d e toward p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y deter-mined by the type of a c t i v i t y pursued? The contrasting physical f i t n e s s programmes of strenuous phy s i c a l exercise and gym games a c t i v i t i e s have been discussed i n the B r i t i s h Columbia Assessment of Physical Education (Province of B r i t i s h Columbia Ministry of Education, 1979). In t h i s report a c t i v i t i e s such as weight l i f t i n g , endurance running and c i r c u i t t r a i n i n g are generally recognized 1 2 as vigorous p h y s i c a l exercise; f l o o r hockey, European handball and indoor soccer, which at times are no l e s s p h y s i c a l l y demanding, are i d e n t i f i e d as gym games a c t i v i t i e s . The e s s e n t i a l d i f f e r e n c e between the two types of a c t i v i t y i s i n the placement of emphasis during the conditioning phase of the exercise. For example, the r e s u l t s of c i r c u i t t r a i n i n g exercise are measured a f t e r long and sometimes p a i n f u l t r a i n i n g regimens, while gym games a c t i v i t i e s are measured a f t e r the p a r t i c i p a n t has experienced some e x c i t i n g p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y through the media of speed, a c c e l e r a t i o n , sudden change of d i r e c t i o n or exposure to dangerous s i t u a t i o n s (Kenyon, 1968). Tutko (1979) has stated that vigorous exercise may not be a p r e r e q u i s i t e for a high l e v e l of p h y s i c a l performance, the issue there-fore remains unanswered. The question of a c t i v i t y evaluation has a r i s e n as a r e s u l t of recent developments i n p h y s i c a l education i n the Province of B r i t i s h Columbia (Ministry of Education, B.C., 1979) toward a more r e c r e a t i o n a l l y oriented curriculum. The r e s u l t of t h i s study may a s s i s t p h y s i c a l educators i n developing a balanced programme of p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y for t h e i r students. Statement of the Problem The purpose of t h i s study i s two-fold: 1. To compare the e f f e c t s on p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s of grade 8 boys of d i s c r e t e p h y s i c a l education programmes comprising: a) Selected gym games a c t i v i t i e s , and b) Selected c i r c u i t t r a i n i n g a c t i v i t i e s . 2. To compare the e f f e c t s on a t t i t u d e of grade 8 boys toward phys i c a l a c t i v i t i e s i n a p h y s i c a l education c l a s s , having followed programmes comprising: a) Selected gym games a c t i v i t i e s , and b) Selected c i r c u i t t r a i n i n g a c t i v i t i e s . Hypotheses 1. There w i l l be no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n the e f f e c t s on the f i t -ness of grade 8 boys of two programmes of a c t i v i t i e s , one comprising gym games and the other comprising c i r c u i t t r a i n i n g . 2. There w i l l be no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n the e f f e c t s on the a t t i t u d e of grade 8 boys of two programmes of a c t i v i t i e s , one comprising gym games and the other comprising c i r c u i t t r a i n i n g . D e f i n i t i o n of Terms Gym Games (Appendix A) Recreational type games, for example, crab soccer, f l o o r hockey, and B r i t i s h Bulldog which are vigorous team, and/or tag games, and may be played i n a gymnasium. These games may al s o be defined as p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t i e s which have the following c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s : 1. They aim at the development of muscular and c a r d i o r e s p i r a t o r y f i t n e s s . 2. They enable large numbers of performers to p a r t i c i p a t e simultaneously by employing games of r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t y which provide each team member with exercise. 3. One or more games may be i n progress at the same time i n order to involve a l l members of the c l a s s . C i r c u i t T raining (Appendix A) A s e r i e s of p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t i e s which have the following character-i s t i c s (Morgan and Adamson, 1957): 1. It aims at the development of muscular and c a r d i o r e s p i r a t o r y f i t n e s s . 2. It applies the p r i n c i p l e of progressive overloading, while checking progress against the clock. 3. It enables large numbers of performers to p a r t i c i p a t e simu]taneously by employing a c i r c u i t of a c t i v i t i e s around which each performer proceeds, performing a prescribed a l l o c a t i o n of work at each s t a t i o n . 4. Time and the number of st a t i o n s are r e l a t i v e l y constant: But the number of r e p e t i t i o n s varies as improvement i s made. C.A.H.P.E.R. Test (Appendix B) Canadian Association for Health, Physical Education, Recreation Fitness Performance II Test, comprising a number of p h y s i c a l t e s t s for which national norms are a v a i l a b l e . C.A.T.P.A. Test (Appendix C) Children's Attitude Toward Physical A c t i v i t y Test (Simon and Smoll, 1974), an a t t i t u d e measure which has been used i n a modified form by the Ministry of Education, Province of B r i t i s h Columbia, i n i t s 1979 Assess-ment of Physical Education. 0.W.M.A.R. - One way m u l t i v a r i a t e a n a l y s i s of variance or 2 Hotelling's T i n the case of a two group a n a l y s i s ( H o t e l l i n g , 1931). . Ascetic a c t i v i t y A c t i v i t i e s which require long, strenuous and often p a i n f u l t r a i n i n g and involve s t i f f competition demanding a deferment of many g r a t i f i c a t i o n s (CATPA, 1979). Sign i f i c a n c e of the Study To show e f f e c t s on a t t i t u d e and f i t n e s s of gym games and c i r c u i t t r a i n i n g programmes i n order that teachers may make better informed -programme decisions and a s s i s t i n future curriculum development i n p h y s i c a l education. 5 Limitations This i n v e s t i g a t i o n w i l l be r e s t r i c t e d by the s i z e and nature of the sample. The q u a l i t y of the data obtained w i l l be l i m i t e d by the equip-ment and t e s t i n g procedures employed. Delimitations This study w i l l be conducted i n two r e g u l a r l y scheduled grade 8 physical education classes i n one secondary school i n the lower mainland of B r i t i s h Columbia. The d i r e c t inferences which w i l l be derived from t h i s study are r e s t r i c t e d to the 44 subjects involved i n the study. CHAPTER II Review of the L i t e r a t u r e Introduction The purpose of t h i s chapter w i l l be to review selected studies i n v o l v i n g p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s programmes, p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s measures, and a t t i t u d e s toward physical a c t i v i t y . There have been a number of important co n t r i b u t i o n s to p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y which require discussion and provide research material for t h i s study: The findings of Morgan and Adamson (1957), the i n t r o d u c t i o n of f a r t l e k and i n t e r v a l t r a i n i n g , the programmes of Cooper (1970), and the t e s t i n g procedures of C.A.H.P.E.R. (1980), and C.A.T.P.A. (1979). The following discussion w i l l review pertinent l i t e r a t u r e which has stimulated i n t e r e s t i n physical education curriculum development within the B r i t i s h Columbia school system during the l a s t few years. Basic Physical Fitness Van Aaken (1976), a German i n v e s t i g a t o r who i s an exponent of Long-Slow-Distance (L.S.D.) running, has discussed i n great d e t a i l the need for young people to have a basic l e v e l of p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s , e s p e c i a l l y during adolescence because that i s a time when they are vulnerable to excessive weight gains. Van Aaken suggests long walks, running, c y c l i n g , cross country s k i i n g and other forms of a c t i v i t y which supply the body with the large amounts of oxygen necessary t c s a t i s f y the requirements of the heart, brain and other v i t a l organs. Cooper (1970) suggests that p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s i s a fundamental compo-6 7 nent of a f u l l and active l i f e . Cooper (1970), Yarborough (1981), and Sheehan (1978) state that impositions placed on a person who i s not p h y s i c a l l y f i t include: loss of work or schooling, heart and blood vessel disease, lunq disease, loss of muscle tone and strength, and increased anxiety. Factors contributing to the onset of these d e b i l i t a t i n g conditions reported i n recent medical l i t e r a t u r e (Province of B r i t i s h Columbia M i n i s t r y of Health and Welfare, 1980; B.C. Heart Foundation, 1980; Yarborough, 1981) include: overeating, alcohol and drug consumption, c i g a r e t t e consumption, lack of exercise, and s t r e s s . In a d d i t i o n , the press and i n s t i t u t i o n s concerned for public welfare frequently mention the numerous medical a p p l i c a t i o n s of exercise and i t s impact on healthy l i v i n g . Arthur Lydiard (1978), a world renowned track coach, has found that people under 15 years of age are capable of a considerable amount of aerobic t r a i n i n g . This fact has been a t t r i b u t e d to low body weight and the a b i l i t y to use oxygen more e f f i c i e n t l y than an adult can. Lydiard, while encouraging young people to run, has advised against excessive use of competition as a motive for improvement; he claims that r i v a l r y produces both mental and physical s t r e s s . He advocates instead cross country running and middle-distance running for both sexes as a healthy and natural way to remain p h y s i c a l l y f i t . Other i n v e s t i g a t o r s (Cooper, 1970; Osier, 1978; and Sheehan, 1978) have given various reasons for maintaining p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s ; for example, the reduction of vascular ailments, maintenance of a youthful f i g u r e , suspension of f a t i g u e , freedom from i l l n e s s , and change of l i f e s t y l e . 8 Physical Fitness Programmes Physical educators have assumed f or some time that the most e f f i c i e n t way to achieve a high l e v e l of phys i c a l f i t n e s s i s through a s c e t i c exercise regimens. These assumptions have been confirmed by Cooper (1970), Lydiard (1978), Osier (1978); and Van Aaken (1976). Viru, Urgenstein and Pisuke (1972) have stated i n t h e i r assessment of physical t r a i n i n g programmes, that s p e c i f i c i t y of t r a i n i n g i s fundamental to desired goals. According to a number of authors, (Anderson, 1976; Lydiard, 1978; Osier, 1979; Sheehan, 1978, and Van Aaaken, 1976), there are three basic components which should form part of any programme of physi c a l f i t n e s s . These are: endurance, power and f l e x i b i l i t y and w i l l form part of the ph y s i c a l t r a i n i n g programme assigned to the students of both groups i n t h i s study. Other i n v e s t i g a t o r s have concentrated t h e i r research studies on s p e c i f i c components of p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s . For example, Cooper (1970) has conducted extensive research into the problem of endurance e x e r c i s i n g , and has developed many aerobic exercise programmes. Tutko (1979) has found a c o r r e l a t i o n between psychological and p h y s i o l o g i c a l warm-up procedures. Anderson (1979), Kauzlarich (1979), Staffo r d , Ca r r and Associates (1978), and Stewart and Faulkner (1979) have stated a case for the b e n e f i c i a l e f f e c t s of a warm-up and st r e t c h i n g routine and have found a decrease i n i n j u r y l e v e l s when i n d i v i d u a l s p a r t i c i p a t e . i n such routines p r i o r to strenuous a c t i v i t y . The following a s c e t i c exercise programmes are representative of those derived from t r a d i t i o n a l p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s a c t i v i t i e s : 9 Aerobics Aerobics has been defined by a number of authors (Astrand and Rddahl, 1970; Cooper, 1970; and Yarborough, 1981) as exercises which c a l l for increased oxygen uptake, but f a l l short of the point where the body goes into oxygen debt. The aerobic exercises reported by Cooper cover a wide vari e t y of options and have points charts, age codings, and d e t a i l e d weekly t r a i n i n g regimens to a s s i s t the i n d i v i d u a l i n s e l e c t i n g , maintain-ing and reviewing h i s progress as he p a r t i c i p a t e s i n ph y s i c a l exercise. Fartlek Gosta Holmer i s credi t e d with developing f a r t l e k early i n the 1930's. Fartl e k (speed play) i s perhaps one of the most natural ways of running, the pace and distance are adjusted to the immediate environment and to the i n d i v i d u a l ' s a t t i t u d e of mind and physi c a l a b i l i t y . Holmer, during the development of f a r t l e k , desired a form of running which would take advantage of the Scandinavian forest paths while simultaneously developing speed and endurance. Interval Training Van Aaken (1976) has studied the i n t e r v a l t r a i n i n g programme of Emil Zatopek, many times World and Olympic record holder i n middle and long distance running events. The essence of Zatopek's success was the con-siderable distance he ran i n t r a i n i n g (approximately 40 kilometres a day), the majority of which was completed i n i n t e r v a l s of s i x t y to one hundred r e p e t i t i o n s of 400 metres at a pace of 96 seconds per lap, with a " r e s t " i n t e r v a l of 200 metres at a slower speed between each -lap. Although Zatopek ran i n t e r v a l s he did so many r e p e t i t i o n s (60-100) that h i s t r a i n i n g was r e a l l y a long-fast-distance (L.F.D.) regimen. 10 It i s i n c o r r e c t to compare a l l i n t e r v a l t r a i n i n g to Zatopek'e routine: other schedules permit a v a r i e t y of distances to be linked t o -gether i n one t r a i n i n g session. For example, following a warm-up, a coach may require h i s athletes to complete a t r a i n i n g regimen of 4 x 800, 4 x 400, 4 x 200 and 4 x 100 metres. In recent years i n t e r v a l t r a i n i n g has been used to bring i n d i v i d u a l s up to peak performance, a condition which Osier (1978) and Bannister (1980) have reported as taking s i x to eight weeks from maintenance l e v e l s of f i t n e s s . According to these authors, peak performance terminates four to s i x weeks a f t e r i t i s attained. C i r c u i t Training The f i t n e s s c i r c u i t as designed by Morgan and Adamson (1957) i s commonly termed c i r c u i t t r a i n i n g . It was p r i m a r i l y designed for indoor exercises (weight l i f t i n g , s t a i r running, s i t - u p s , short s p r i n t s ) i n a gymnasium or other areas which could accommodate large numbers of people. The c i r c u i t may consist of a number of s t a t i o n s (8 i n t h i s study) at which various p h y s i c a l exercises are performed. Some st a t i o n s may require apparatus, depending on the type of exercise to be performed. Howell and Morford (1964), Morgan and Adamson (1957), Sobey (1980) and Sorani (1966) have indicated that c i r c u i t t r a i n i n g has three main c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s which d i s t i n g u i s h i t from other exercise programmes: a) i t aims at the development of both muscular and c a r d i o r e s p i r a t o r y f i t n e s s , b) i t applies the p r i n c i p l e s of progressive overload, and c) i t enables large numbers of people to exercise at the same time by employing a c i r c u i t of consecutively numbered exercises around which the p a r t i c i p a n t progresses. Each p a r t i c i p a n t performs a prescribed a l l o c a t i o n of work at 11 each exercise while checking his progress against the clock. Within the framework of the previously mentioned c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , Morgan and Adamson s p e c i f i e d three v a r i a b l e s : number of r e p e t i t i o n s , load, and speed of performance. A c i r c u i t may be adapted to increase p h y s i c a l endurance more than strength, or may develop upper body strength while improving lower body strength only marginally. The c i r c u i t reported by Howell and Morford (1964) (see Table 2.1) comprises t h i r t e e n d i f f e r e n t exercise s t a t i o n s with varying degrees of d i f f i c u l t y ( i . e . , Red C i r c u i t 1-3, to Blue C i r c u i t 1-3). Each p a r t i c i p a n t i s expected to begin at Red C i r c u i t 1 and complete three c i r c u i t s , the time allowed being twenty-five minutes. If the three c i r c u i t s are completed within the time allowed, the p a r t i c i p a n t moves up to Red C i r c u i t 2 the following day. Progress from one step to the next i s made on successive days u n t i l the p a r t i c i p a n t reaches a c i r c u i t which takes longer than twenty-five minutes. In that case, the p a r t i c i p a n t stays on that c i r c u i t u n t i l the twenty-five minute time l i m i t i s beaten. C i r c u i t t r a i n i n g may be very s p e c i f i c (e.g., increase the upper body strength) or general (e.g., exercise a l l the major muscles groups of the body). The Howell and Morford example i s representative of a c i r c u i t t r a i n i n g programme which uses a v a r i e t y of exercises and equipment for general p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s . Vita Parcours Another concept of c i r c u i t t r a i n i n g was developed i n the early 1960's by the V i t a L i f e Insurance Company i n Switzerland (Sobey, 1980). The Parcours c i r c u i t d i f f e r s from the Morgan and Adamson (1957) 12 Table 2.1 C i r c u i t Training Items, Weights, and Repetitions at Each Stat i o n No. Item Wt. Red 1 C i r c u i t 2 3 Wt. Blue 1 C i r c u i t 2 3 To Increase the D i f f i c u l t y 1. Squat Thrust - 10 12 15 - 18 21 25 *2. Two Arm Curl 40# 8 10 12 50# 8 10 12 Reverse c u r l * 3 - Two Arm Press 50# 8 10 12 60# 8 10 12 Press from behind neck *4. Straddle Bench Jumps 15# 15 17 19 25# 17 18 19 *5. La t e r a l Raise 8 10 12 10# 8 10 12 *6. Lying L a t e r a l Raise io# 8 10 12 15# 8 10 12 7. S i t Ups - 10 14 18 - 21 25 30 Arms extended behind head or legs f u l l y bent 8. Bench Step Ups - 15 17 20 - 23 26 30 9. Jump Chins - 1 2 3 - 4 6 8 no. Bench Press 601 6 8 10 - 6 8 10 Very wide g r i p 11. Trunk Extension - 10 12 14 - 16 18 20 *12. Bent Over Rowing 65# 6 8 10 85# 6 8 10 Motion i n c i r c u l a r 13. S t a i r Running - 6 8 10 10# 6 8 10 *These are exercises requiring weights. Three sets are placed at each "red" s t a t i o n and one at each "blue" s t a t i o n . These sets are f i x e d at the weight indi c a t e d for the exercise and marked "red" and "blue". Howell, M.L., and Morford, W.R., " C i r c u i t T r a i n i n g f o r a College F i t -ness Program." Journal of Health Physical Education Recreation, page 31, February, 1964. 13 c i r c u i t i n that Parcours c i r c u i t s are outdoors and are usually b u i l t alon an e x i s t i n g bike or jogging track: They t y p i c a l l y c o n sist of eighteen s t a t i o n s arranged over a course of approximately four kilometres. Each s t a t i o n on the Parcours c i r c u i t provides a p a r t i c u l a r type of exercise ranging from warm-up through s t r e t c h i n g , strength development and cardiovascular conditioning to cool-down. Between each s t a t i o n the opportunity e x i s t s to walk, jog, or run depending on which phase of the c i r c u i t the i n d i v i d u a l i s on. The Parcours Fitness C i r c u i t also includes a system of heart rate monitoring to give the p a r t i c i p a n t an in s t a n t i n d i c a t i o n of body str e s s during the course of the c i r c u i t . Although there i s no r i g i d time schedule, an a b i l i t y l e v e l s system does e x i s t . While i n d i c a t i o n s are that Parcours c i r c u i t s or s i m i l a r outdoor c i r c u i t s are becoming more popular i n various areas of Vancouver, incleme weather during the winter months somewhat c u r t a i l s the use of outdoor f i t n e s s c i r c u i t s and the f i t n e s s devotee i s temporarily driven i n s i d e to ei t h e r the more t r a d i t i o n a l Morgan and Adamson type c i r c u i t t r a i n i n g , or to some form of games or r e c r e a t i o n a l programme. Gym Games Up u n t i l the mid 1970's, Gym Games or minor games as they are some-times r e f e r r e d to, commanded a l e s s e r r o l e i n regular p h y s i c a l education programming than they do today. One reason f o r the existence of t h i s s i t u a t i o n , may be found i n the ph y s i c a l educator's preoccupation with t r a d i t i o n a l team game a c t i v i t i e s such as soccer, f o o t b a l l , basketball and v o l l e y b a l l . During the l a s t seven years, with an increased i n t e r e s t i n l i f e t i m e sports, the p r o l i f e r a t i o n of games of a l l types has become evident. In t h i s study, therefore, an attempt has been made to s e l e c t a 14 number of games s u i t a b l e for the gymnasium and to develop them in t o a physical t r a i n i n g programme which w i l l s a t i s f y the p a r t i c i p a n t s ' d e s i r e , both for enjoyment and for general p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s . There are many types of games which may be adapted from outdoor sports. These games usually require some modifications to r u l e s , equip-ment, and boundaries of play. In p u b l i c school s i t u a t i o n s , c l a s s e n r o l -ment may be a very l i m i t i n g factor, r e s t r i c t i n g what games may be played. Coeducational cla s s e s may also impose some r e s t r i c t i o n s with regard to contact sports. There i s a wide v a r i e t y of Gym Games a v a i l a b l e which may have a l i f e t i m e impact or. the p a r t i c i p a n t s , and serve as an a l t e r n a t i v e to exercise regimens such as C i r c u i t Training, which often require long periods of sustained g r u e l l i n g and r e p e t i t i o u s exercise at incr e a s i n g speeds and loads. Physical Fitness Evaluation During the course of exercise regimens, whether i t be Cooper's aerobic programme, a Fartlek, c i r c u i t t r a i n i n g or gym games, the p a r t i c i -pant w i l l probably wish to know i f progress i s being made i n h i s quest f o r improved p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s . It i s therefore necessary to evaluate progress with both v a l i d and r e l i a b l e measures to i n d i c a t e m o d i f i c a t i o n which may be required to both goals and programmes i n the future. There are many forms of acceptable p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s t e s t s a v a i l a b l e . Some of these t e s t s are easy to administer, for example, the Cooper 12 minute run (also known as the Cooper Test,. Cooper, 1970) and the Federation Internationale De Fo o t b a l l A s s o c i a t i o n (F.I.F.A., 1982) physical f i t n e s s t e s t . A l l that i s required to administer and evaluate these t e s t s i s a 400 metre track and a stop watch. 15 Other more complicated t e s t s require s p e c i a l apparatus and a d e t a i l e d working knowledge of procedures (e.g.,"Work Tests with the B i c y c l e Ergo-meter", Astrand (1972). The purpose of t h i s s e c t i o n i s to i d e n t i f y and examine a number of widely used t e s t s of p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s . P a r t i c u l a r a ttention w i l l be given to t e s t s which are being used or have been used i n the school system of B r i t i s h Columbia. The p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s t e s t s most commonly used i n B r i t i s h Columbia secondary schools have been: the American A s s o c i a t i o n of Health, Physical Education, and Recreation (A.A.H.P.E.R., 1965, 1975, 1976); the Canadian Association of Health, Physical Education and Recreation (C.A.H.P.E.R., 1966, 1980); the Manitoba Physical Fitness Performance Test Manual, and Fitness Objectives (M.P.F.T.M.F.O., 1977); the Action B.C. Functional Fitness Appraisal Test (A.B.C.F.F.A.T., 1977) and Cooper's Aerobic Charts (1970). Instruments considered for i n c l u s i o n i n t h i s study were required to meet the following c r i t e r i a : s i m p l i c i t y of design, a minimum of t e s t i n g apparatus, t e s t i n g of general rather than s p e c i f i c p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s , and a v a i l a b i l i t y of n a t i o n a l norms (preferably Canadian). A.A.H.P.E.R. Youth Fitness Test (1976). The American A l l i a n c e for Health P h y s i c a l Education and Recreation Youth Fitness Test was established i n 1957, with n a t i o n a l norms being a v a i l a b l e for a seven-item t e s t battery. The t e s t s i n d i c a t e d that young people i n the United States were not p h y s i c a l l y f i t . These t e s t s were updated i n 1965, 1975, and again i n 1976. The sub-tests included i n the t e s t battery for boys are: pull-ups, s i t - u p s , s h u t t l e run, standing long jump, 50 yard dash, and distance run (600 yards to 12 minutes depending upon age). A score for each t e s t item i s obtained by matching the raw 16 score with a p e r c e n t i l e table of national norms for each age group. The A.A.H.P.E.R. t e s t i s very s i m i l a r to the C.A.H.P.E.R. Physical Fitness Test and would heve been acceptable for t h i s study had not the C.A.H.P.E.R. t e s t been a v a i l a b l e to provide Canadian norms. C.A.H.P.E.R. Fitness Performance II Test (1980) The t e s t battery for the 1980 f i t n e s s performance te s t was e s t a b l i s h -ed i n 1963. The tes t and norms were also the basis for the Canada Fitness Award, established i n 1970. During the winter of 1978-79, the Measurement and Evaluation Committee of C.A.H.P.E.R. was asked to update the 1966 f i t n e s s performance t e s t and revise the norms to current standards. The primary purpose of the r e v i s i o n to the C.A.H.P.E.R. Fitness Performance Test was to e s t a b l i s h new figures on Canadian youth using t e s t items measured i n metric u n i t s . The committee included i n t h e i r r e v i s i o n 9,000 youths, aged s i x to seven-teen years from a l l ten provinces and both the Yukon and Northwest T e r r i t o r i e s . Two items from the o r i g i n a l t e s t remain unchanged, the one minute speed sit-ups and the flexed arm hang. A t h i r d item, the standing long jump only requires converting inches to centimetres to be updated. The other three items on the t e s t , the s h u t t l e run, 50 metre run, and endur-ance run, were revised from the previous t e s t . A d d i t i o n a l concern of the Measurement and Evaluation Committee was the lack of recent anthropometric data, therefore height and weight were measured to give a d d i t i o n a l data. Selection of the t e s t items by the committee was on the basis of the following c r i t e r i a : c o n t i n u i t y with the o r i g i n a l t e s t items, ease of administration u t i l i z i n g minimal equipment and space, and the option of 17 allowing for comparison with other normative data. The committee also recommended that the t e s t s be of s u f f i c i e n t s i m p l i c i t y so that an i n d i v i d -ual without t r a i n i n g i n the c o l l e c t i o n of f i t n e s s performance data could administer the t e s t s . Manitoba Physical Fitness Performance Test (1977) During 1976, a phys i c a l f i t n e s s survey was undertaken to assess the physical f i t n e s s l e v e l s of Manitoba students. Over 10,000 students with ages ranging from f i v e to eighteen years were tested. The survey attempted to measure 600 students from each age group around the province. The t e s t items included: anthropometric measurements of height, weight and s k i n f o l d ; f l e x i b i l i t y measurement ( s i t and reach); an a g i l i t y run; sit - u p s , flexed arm hang; and a distance run (800 to 2400 metre run dependant upon age). Scoring for each test item included the gathering of raw scores and comparing these scores with a p e r c e n t i l e table of p r o v i n c i a l norms for f each age group. The Manitoba Physical Fitness Test i s very s i m i l a r to the A.A.H.P.E.R. Test (1976), the C.A.H.P.E.R. Test (1980), and the present Canada Fitness Awards Test. The Manitoba Physical Fitness Test was not considered appropriate to t h i s study due to the u n a v a i l a b i l i t y of national norms. Action B.C. Functional Fitness Appraisal Test (1977) The Action B.C. f i t n e s s t e s t includes seven components of f i t n e s s ( c a r d i o r e s p i r a t i o n , strength, endurance, anaerobic work capacity, pulmonary function, f l e x i b i l i t y , balance), and anthropometric assessment. These eight t e s t items are a compilation of v a l i d and r e l i a b l e physical f i t n e s s t e s t s which are presently i n use, for example, Astrand's predicted 18 MVOyTest, and sub-tests reported by the A.A.H.P.E.R. (1976) and C.A.H.P.E.R. (1980) instruments. It would appear that the Action B.C. Functional Fitness Appraisal Test (1977) i s a digest of a v a i l a b l e t e s t i n g materials and norms, which could be used as t e s t i n g regimens i n many physi c a l education and re c r e a t i o n a l programmes. The number of i n d i v i d u a l t e s t s comprising the Action B.C. f i t n e s s t e s t made i t an im p r a c t i c a l instrument for use i n t h i s study. Cooper's Aerobics Charts (1970) The programme introduced by Cooper i n 1970 i s regarded not as a t e s t i n g programme but as a programme of a c t i v i t i e s with simple t e s t s or time schedules, so that p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s can be monitored by i n d i v i d u a l s or large groups. Cooper's most outstanding achievement appears to be the development of the 12 minute run as a te s t of aerobic capacity. Cooper (1970) reports a c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t of .90 with t r e a d m i l l measurements of oxygen consumption and aerobic capacity. This t e s t has been used extensively i n the B r i t i s h Columbia educational system as a te s t of aerobic capacity. Cooper has also developed age adjusted aerobic charts (tables) for many walking, running, c y c l i n g , swimming, and team game sports. These charts l i s t the a c t i v i t y , age, sex, f i t n e s s category, length of exercise, frequency, and a points system which i s dependent upon performance. While Cooper's Aerobics programme appears to be a v a l i d and r e l i a b l e instrument for the development of p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s , ( a l l a c t i v i t i e s are measured using a formula based upon the 12 minute run findings) i t did not meet the c r i t e r i a for t h i s study. 19 After reviewing the t e s t s mentioned above the most appropriate measure of p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s was considered to be the C.A.H.P.E.R. Fitness Performance II Test. Attitude Toward Physical A c t i v i t y Tests Following s e l e c t i o n of a p h y s i c a l performance t e s t , the a t t i t u d e toward p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y of students was reviewed and an inventory of t e s t items was s e l e c t e d . There have been several studies i n v e s t i g a t i n g the problem of a t t i t u d e and i t s r e l a t i o n s h i p to p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y . In 1951, Wear reported a 40-item a t t i t u d e inventory which made a v a l i d and r e l i a b l e assessment of i n d i v i d u a l and group a t t i t u d e s toward p h y s i c a l education (Campbell, 1969). Wear's inventory i s considered one of the pioneer studies concerned with a t t i t u d e and p h y s i c a l education (Campbell, 1969; Martens, 1979), and consequently served as the basis f o r other i n v e s t i g a -tions and r e v i s i o n s . Two of the subsequent i n v e s t i g a t o r s , Brumbach and Cross (1965), revised the 40-item Wear Physical Education inventory, which uses a f i v e -scale forced choice response. Each statement i n the inventory was linked to one of four general objectives which Wear (1955) suggests should be considered i n p h y s i c a l education. These are: S o c i a l aspects, mental and emotional f e e l i n g s , p h y s i o l o g i c a l changes, and general c o n t r i b u t i o n s . The responses to the Wear inventory were evaluated by Brumbach and Cross, following procedures described by L i k e r t (1932). The data provided for a minimum score of 30, ( i n d i c a t i n g a very unfavourable a t t i t u d e toward p h y s i c a l education) and a maximum score of 150 ( i n d i c a t i n g a very favourable a t t i t u d e to p h y s i c a l education). A score of 90 indicates.. 20 a neutral p o s i t i o n . The r e s u l t s of the Brumbach and Cross (1965) i n v e s t i g a t i o n using the Wear (1955) inventory resulted i n scores ranging from a low of 66 to a high of 150. With 75 percent of subjects obtaining scores of over 90, i t was concluded that there was a very favourable a t t i t u d e toward phy s i c a l a c t i v i t y i n the subjects tested. Martens Martens (1979) developed an instrument f o r measuring a t t i t u d e toward p h y s i c a l education i n the elementary school. The purpose of Martens' study was to r e b u i l d an a t t i t u d e scale which had been developed i n 1968 (Martens, 1968) for boys grades 4 to 6 and to extend i t s parameters to include boys and g i r l s , grades 4 to 7. The procedures followed i n the r e v i s i o n process were as follows: the c o l l e c t i o n of statements expressing a t t i t u d e toward physical education, the submission of statements to judges to approve t h e i r s u i t a b i l i t y , the s e l e c t i o n of statements which conformed to the c r i t e r i a and, f i n a l l y , the adoption and administration of a s c a l e . In s e l e c t i n g statements to be placed on the scale, Thurstone's (1929) method of equal appearing i n t e r v a l s was used. This method requires that the t e s t subject be consciously aware of h i s opinions and a t t i t u d e con-cerning a t o p i c . Such scales have been reported as r e l a t i v e l y precise and objective and lend themselves to uniform i n t e r p r e t a t i o n (Richardson, 1960). Further studies toward a t t i t u d e and involvement i n physical a c t i v i t i e s have been conducted by a number of authors i n c l u d i n g McAfee (1955); McCue (1953), and Smith (1974). Of p a r t i c u l a r relevance to t h i s study are the i n v e s t i g a t i o n s conducted by Kenyon (1968); Simon and Smoll (1974); Smoll, Schutz and Keeney (1976), and the Province of B r i t i s h Columbia, Ministry of Education (1979). Kenyon's A t t i t u d e Assessment The Kenyon (1968) a t t i t u d e inventory, a s i x dimensional model, has been evaluated on the basis of f a c t o r and item analysis using Hoyt's (1941) procedures, for which r e l i a b i l i t i e s ranged from .72 to .89 for the six scales. In his report, Kenyon (1968) suggested that considerable problems have existed i n the past concerning two c l o s e l y r e l a t e d items, those of d e f i n i t i o n and measurement of a t t i t u d e . In h i s d e f i n i t i o n of a t t i t u d e , Kenyon (1968) made reference to a number of other sources (Campbell, 1963; Green, 1954; Katz, 1960; Krech, C r u t c h f i e l d and Ballachey, 1962; Lang, 1888; Thomas and Znaniecki, 1918, and Thurstone, 1946). Kenyon concluded that " a t t i t u d e i s held to be a l a t e n t or nonobservable, complex, but r e l a t i v e l y s t a b l e behavioural d i s p o s i t i o n r e f l e c t i n g both d i r e c t i o n and i n t e n s i t y of f e e l i n g toward a p a r t i c u l a r object, whether i t be concrete or a b s t r a c t . " In his d i s c u s s i o n of the measurement of a t t i t u d e , Kenyon has suggested that measurement may depend on some overt behaviour, that i s , a reponse e l i c i t e d by some stimulus. Kenyon has observed that techniques for measuring a t t i t u d e appear to vary widely from d i r e c t questioning to d i r e c t observation and the use of a t t i t u d e scales. Kenyon also reports that Edwards (1957) i n an attempt to reduce the weaknesses of d i r e c t questioning formed a scale which took into con-s i d e r a t i o n p s y c h o l o g i cal issues and measured the degree of e f f e c t with s a t i s f a c t o r y r e l i a b i l i t y . Thurstone (1927, 1928), through his experiments, developed a t t i t u d e scales with a form of i n t e r n a l measurement. Kenyon (1968) reports that further development of a t t i t u d e scales has resulted i n s p e c i f y i n g the f i e l d of influence of psychological i n t e r e s t , develop-ing verbal s t i m u l i to research the area of i n t e r e s t , and thereafter formulating scales of judgment or responses with appropriate samples. The r e l i a b i l i t y and v a l i d i t y of measurement scales have been some-what d i f f i c u l t to e s t a b l i s h according to Kenyon (1968). R e l i a b i l i t y has been determined using i n t e r n a l consistency measures or equivalent forms. V a l i d i t y has been much more d i f f i c u l t to measure since, as a l a t e n t v a r i a b l e , i t cannot be observed d i r e c t l y . V a l i d i t y has therefore had to r e l y upon face or i n t r i n s i c values or the use of reference groups whose att i t u d e s may be i n f e r r e d from the actions of t h e i r members. The assessment of a t t i t u d e toward p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y and sport has, according to Kenyon,been too s p e c i f i c , i n that enquiry has been l i m i t e d to domains i n the school curriculum such as p h y s i c a l education. Kenyon suggests that r e c r e a t i o n a l pursuits outside of the school environment, would also produce v a l i d i n d i c a t o r s of a t t i t u d e toward phy s i c a l a c t i v i t y and sport. The r a t i o n a l e used by Kenyon (1968) for c h a r a c t e r i z i n g p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y i s that exercise can be reduced to more s p e c i f i c or -meaningful components, as found i n the Kenyon instrument, and that the basis for such a procedure was the s p e c i f i c d i v i s i o n of each c l a s s of a c t i v i t y . Kenyon's model has provided a p s y c h o l o g i c a l o b j e c t i v e toward which a t t i t u d e s are held. The subdomains of the Kenyon model are as follows: a) s o c i a l experience, b) health and f i t n e s s , c) p u r s u i t of vertigo, d) aesthetic experience, e) c a t h a r s i s , and f) a s c e t i c experience. These six subdomains served as the basis f o r further studies by Simon and Smoll (1974), Smoll, Schutz and Keeney (1976), and the Province of B r i t i s h Columbia, Ministry of Education (1979). Simon and Smoll Instrument The purpose of the Simon and Smoll (1974) i n v e s t i g a t i o n was to develop an instrument for assessing a t t i t u d e s of elementary school c h i l d -ren toward phy s i c a l a c t i v i t y . Following t h e i r acceptance of Kenyon's model of "Attitude Toward Physical A c t i v i t y " (A.T.P.A.), Simon and Smoll deemed i t appropriate to construct an instrument based on s i m i l a r c r i t e r i a for c h i l d r e n . The instrument, "Children's Attitude Toward Physical A c t i v i t y " (C.A.T.P.A.) excluded the chance subdomain of Kenyon's model, that i s , "games and sports where chance and luck are most important than s k i l l i n determining a winner, such as dice or horse r a c i n g " (Kenyon, 1968). I t was hypothe-size d i n the Simon and Smoll study that c h i l d r e n of elementary school l e v e l have not experienced p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y as chance, as described by Kenyon.- Explanations of the s i x subdomains were kept as simple as possible, as determined by C a r r o l l , Davies and Richman (1971) and Thorndike and Lorge (1944). Following evaluation of Kenyon's s i x sub-domains and objective p a i r s , i t was found necessary to s e l e c t antonyms to d i s t i n g u i s h between each subject, therefore, i f the o r i g i n a l wording was not appropriate a sui t a b l e replacement could be made. The following p a i r s were used i n the Simon -and Smoll (1974) instrument: good-bad, of no use-useful, not pleasant-pleasant, bitter-sweet, nice-awful, happy-sad, d i r t y - c l e a n , 24 and steady-nervous.' The t o t a l number of subjects taking part i n the Simon and Smoll study was 992. The study was conducted on a t e s t - r e t e s t basis with a six week i n t e r v a l between t e s t dates. The C.A.T.P.A. instrument was subjected to r e l i a b i l i t y measures s i m i l a r to those employed i n the Kenyon model. Using Hoyt r e l i a b i l i t i e s , r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s yielded figures ranging from .80 to .89. Simon and Smoll (1974) noted i n t h e i r report that there i s pro-b a b i l i t y of a t t i t u d e change over time, therefore only a s i x week period was interposed between the t e s t and r e t e s t . Between-day r e l i a b i l i t y was determined using the Pearson Product-Moment c o r r e l a t i o n s , and the mean scores and rankings of the subdomains were examined. Results i n d i c a t e d that the subjects, as a group, responded s i m i l a r l y on both the t e s t and r e t e s t . Following these t e s t i n g procedures the instrument was considered appropriate for use within the school phy s i c a l education system. Smoll, 5chutz and Keeney Instrument The purpose of the Smoll, Schutz and Keeney (1976) study was to investigate the i n t e r - r e l a t i o n s h i p of c h i l d r e n ' s a t t i t u d e s , involvement, and p r o f i c i e n c y i n phys i c a l a c t i v i t y using paired sets of v a r i a b l e s . The a t t i t u d e scale used was a semantic d i f f e r e n t i a l scale based on the Kenyon (1968) model previously discussed. Various motor performance tasks, (the 50 yard s p r i n t , the standing long jump, and the s o f t b a l l throw) were administered to assess the subjects' l e v e l of motor pro-f i c i e n c y . The fundamental s k i l l s of running, jumping and throwing, which are a c t i v i t i e s found i n a l l c h i l d r e n ' s games and sports, were therefore 25 measured, and could be analysed using the American Association for Health Physical Education and Recreation Youth Fitness Test Manual (1965). The a t t i t u d e and the involvement data were analysed with regard to t h e i r r e l i a b i l i t y . The i n t e r n a l consistency of the a t t i t u d e scales, as determined by Hoyt's (1941) r e l i a b i l i t y was .85, which compares favour-ably with Simon and Smoll's (1974) f i g u r e s of .80 to .89, and Kenyon's (1968) figures of .72 to .89. R e l i a b i l i t y information for the involve-ment questionnaire using Spearman's rank order c o r r e l a t i o n s ranged from .49 to .63, i n d i c a t i n g a low but adequate r e l i a b i l i t y for the questionnaire responses. Klesius (1968) has shown i n h i s report that the r e l i a b i l i t i e s of performance measures have consistent values of .90 and above. The most appropriate procedure for the t e s t that Smoll, Schutz and Keeney (1976) could f i n d was canonical c o r r e l a t i o n a n a l y s i s which ind i c a t e s the strength and the r e l a t i o n s h i p between two composite va r i a b l e s . The r e s u l t s suggested that there was "a strong r e l a t i o n s h i p between the a t t i t u d e domain and a combination of the involvement and performance domains. Further analysis indicated that the basis of t h i s a s s o c i a t i o n was the strength of the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the a t t i t u d e and involvement domains, and that a t t i t u d e and performance were unrelated" (Smoll, Schutz and Keeney (1976)). The B r i t i s h Columbia Assessment of Physical Education 1.979 The M i n i s t r y of Education Province of B r i t i s h Columbia conducted an assessment of Physical Education during the spring of 1979, with approxi-mately 3000 students i n grades 3, 7 and 11 taking part. Two of the areas investigated were those of the psychomotor and a f f e c t i v e domains. The purpose of the assessment by the Mini s t r y of Education was to ensure that accurate information would be a v a i l a b l e to forecast future developments i n phy s i c a l education, i . Psychomotor Domain Various measures were selected from e x i s t i n g c r i t e r i a i n the areas of anthropometry, f i t n e s s and motor a b i l i t y . Examples of these c r i t e r i a include measures of height, weight and body composition; 12 minute run; flexed arm hang; speed s i t - u p s ; g r i p strength; standing long jump, and s i t and reach. Procedures and norms for the above have been published by A.A.H.P.E.R. (1976), Action B.C. (1977) and, C.A.H.P.E.R. (1980). Other items on the t e s t battery included motor a b i l i t y measures, the wall pass (Latchow, 1954; and Scott, 1939), throw for form (Province of B r i t i s h Columbia, M i n i s t r y of Education, 1979), and the 50 foot hop (Keough, 1965). Each t e s t was administered using the recommended procedures (Province of B r i t i s h Columbia, Mini s t r y of Education, 1979). i i . A f f e c t i v e Domain The a f f e c t i v e domain was assessed through .an adaptation of the previously discussed C.A.T.P.A. inventory (Simon and Smoll, 1974). Four changes were made to the C.A.T.P.A. inventory: a) The semantic d i f f e r -e n t i a l scale was reduced from eight b i p o l a r a d j e c t i v e p a i r s to f i v e ; b) The s o c i a l and health and f i t n e s s subdomains were each s p l i t i n t o two components for the purpose of better c l a r i f i c a t i o n ; c) the term "taking part" used by Kenyon i n the o r i g i n a l inventory and the l a t e r C.A.T.P.A. version, included i n only two subdomains, health and f i t n e s s and c a t h a r s i s , was integrated i n a l l s i x subdomain d e s c r i p t i o n s ; and d) the 27 grade 3 inventory was modified i n two ways ( i . e . "happy faces" was used instead of semantic d i f f e r e n t i a l scale, and c a t h a r s i s and a s c e t i c sub-domains were removed from the t e s t completely, as i t was f e l t that students at the grade 3 l e v e l would not be able to comprehend these concepts). Tests i n the psychomotor and a f f e c t i v e domains were administered using the recommended procedures (A.A.H.P.E.R., 1976; Action B.C., 1977; Province of B r i t i s h Columbia, Ministry of Education, 1979; C.A.H.P.E.R. 1980; Durnin and Womersley, 1974; Keough, 1965; Latchow, 1954; Parizkova, 1961; Scott, 1939; Simon and Smoll, 1974), and r e s u l t s were obtained and i n t e r p r e t e d by a panel of educators and informed members of the p u b l i c who judged the strengths and weaknesses in d i c a t e d by the data. The r e s u l t s of the psychomotor t e s t were rated for performance on a f i v e - p o i n t s cale ( i . e . , weak, marginally s a t i s f a c t o r y , s a t i s f a c t o r y , very s a t i s f a c t o r y , and strong). The percentage of students scoring above the mid-point of the acceptable range was considered the p r i n c i p a l c r i t e r i o n i n assigning these r a t i n g s . The o v e r a l l assessment of the performance of students i n grades 3, 7 and 11 i s summarized as weak. The grade 11 males were rated as s a t i s f a c t o r y on a l l but f l e x i b i l i t y , where they were rated as marginally s a t i s f a c t o r y . Sex d i f f e r e n c e s generally favoured the males i n a l l areas except f l e x i b i l i t y , where the females rated c o n s i s t e n t l y higher than the males. A f f e c t i v e domain r e s u l t s were very p o s i t i v e i n respect to student enjoyment of p h y s i c a l education with a d e f i n i t e bias toward l i f e t i m e sports a c t i v i t i e s (such as swimming, camping and h i k i n g , kayaking and canoeing, snow and i c e sports and racquet s p o r t s ) . The importance and 28 frequency of p h y s i c a l education also r e f l e c t e d a high p o s i t i v e response with 90?o of the grades 7 and 11 students s t a t i n g that t h e i r preference for three or more classes per week. Att i t u d e toward p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y brought a p o s i t i v e response from a l l grade l e v e l s with p a r t i c u l a r emphasis on the values associated with s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n . P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n physical a c t i v i t i e s f or t h e i r a s c e t i c q u a l i t i e s rated lowest. Two subdomains revealed d i f f e r e n c e s between males and females: a) while there was no d i f f e r e n c e between the sexes i n the vertigo sub-domain at the grade 3 l e v e l , males showed a much higher value at the grade 11 l e v e l ; and b) aesthetic aspects of p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y were appreciated more p o s i t i v e l y by females than by males i n a l l grades, although the greatest d i f f e r e n c e observed was at the grade 11 l e v e l . The 1979 physical education assessment was p r i m a r i l y concerned with providing information on the current status of students at grades 3, 7 and 11. This was accomplished through the evaluation of r e s u l t s on a number of t e s t s i n v o l v i n g students, teachers, parents and administrators. It may therefore be concluded that the a t t i t u d e component selected for t h i s study (C.A.T.P.A. Test) has a proven h i s t o r y of acceptance i n i t s r e l a t i o n s h i p to physical education and p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y studies. Summary A number of physical f i t n e s s programmes have been discussed which according to various authors measure three basic f i t n e s s elements: endurance, both cardiovascular and c a r d i o r e s p i r a t o r y ; power, including that of muscular strength; and f l e x i b i l i t y . The two f i t n e s s programmes of primary i n t e r e s t to t h i s study, Gym Games and C i r c u i t Training, were introduced. Gym Games were i d e n t i f i e d as r e c r e a t i o n a l oriented a c t i v i t i e s , and C i r c u i t Training as a s c e t i c exercises. The evaluation of p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s has taken i n t o account a number of c r i t e r i a : r e l i a b i l i t y , v a l i d i t y , s u i t a b i l i t y of t e s t inventory, s i m p l i c i t y of design, and a v a i l a b i l i t y of n a t i o n a l norms. The most appropriate p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s t e s t appears to be the Canadian Association for Health Physical Education and Recreation (1980) Fitness Performance II Test. A review of various a t t i t u d e t e s t s indicated that the most approp-r i a t e measure of a t t i t u d e for secondary school students i s the modified Children's Attitude Toward Physical A c t i v i t y Test (1979). This t e s t was used by the Minis t r y of Education Province of B r i t i s h Columbia i n an assessment of Physical Education during the spring of 1979. CHAPTER III Methods and Procedures Introduction The purpose of t h i s study i s to determine i f two d i s c r e t e programmes of a c t i v i t y , namely Gym Games and C i r c u i t Training, have d i f f e r e n t i a l e f f e c t s on the a t t i t u d e s and f i t n e s s of grade 8 boys. This chapter w i l l present the design of the study; information concerning the subjects; a d e s c r i p t i o n of the exercise programme, des-c r i p t i o n s of the C.A.H.P.E.R. and C.A.T.P.A. instruments; the procedures u t i l i z e d i n the c o l l e c t i o n of the data; and the means by which the data were treated. Research Design The subjects for t h i s study were 44 grade 8 boys r e g u l a r l y assigned to two compulsory physical education c l a s s e s i n a secondary school i n Burnaby, B r i t i s h Columbia. This study employed a two-group experimental pretest-posttest design. This design was selected for the following reasons: 1. The study involved a comparison of two experimental groups; 2. The sample (N = 44) was considered too small to conduct a c o n t r o l group experiment; 3. The students had varying degrees of a t h l e t i c a b i l i t y ; 4. Although the students were not randomly selected f or p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h i s study, (for example, band students were eliminated due to timetable problems), they may be regarded as normal and t y p i c a l of grade 8 boys attending the school. 30 31 Subjects The 44 boys who took part i n t h i s study comprised two regular ph y s i c a l education classes and ranged i n age from 13 to 14 years. The school where the study took place i s a j u n i o r - s e n i o r secondary school which e n r o l l s both boys and g i r l s from grades 8-12. There were no g i r l s e n r olled i n e i t h e r c l a s s . Treatment A schedule of p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s t e s t s , a t t i t u d e t e s t s , and treatment programmes i s shown i n Table 3.1-The treatment programme was conducted over a s i x week period (May-June 1982) during the regular one hour p h y s i c a l education cla s s e s i n the school, and was administered to: a) the Gym Games group, and b) the C i r c u i t Training group. Both experimental groups were given a warm-up, comprising j o i n t mobility and s t r e t c h i n g exercises before each treatment period. The treatment was followed by a cool-down period employing exercises s i m i l a r to the warm-up procedures'. a) Gym Games These a c t i v i t i e s were c a r r i e d out i n the school gymnasium or on the school tennis courts adjacent to the gymnasium area depending on the weather and the type of a c t i v i t y being performed. The a c t i v i t i e s are described l a t e r i n Appendix A. One or more of these a c t i v i t i e s were completed each day. As an i n c e n t i v e , each student who remained ac t i v e for the length of the d a i l y treatment period (35 minutes) was promised a C+ grade, and the f i v e students who showed the most improvement from the pretest to the posttest were promised an A grade f o r t h e i r e f f o r t s during the experi-32 Table 3.1 Schedule of Physical Fitness Tests, Attitude Tests and Treatment Programme TREATMENT GROUPS GYM GAMES CIRCUIT TRAINING TIMETABLE PHYSICAL PRETEST FITNESS ATTITUDE PRETEST PHYSICAL FITNESS ATTITUDE A p r i l CAHPER CATPA CAHPER CATPA 23 Fitness Performance Test Fitness Test Performance 7 . '„ 27 29 II Test II Test TREATMENT PROGRAMME TREATMENT PROGRAMME May Warm-up, Stretching Exercises Gym Games Cool-down Warm-up, Stretching Exercises C i r c u i t Training Cool-down 3 June 11 PHYSICAL POST- FITNESS TEST ATTITUDE POST-TEST PHYSICAL FITNESS ATTITUDE CAHPER CATPA CAHPER CATPA June Fitness Performance II Test Test Fitness Test Performance II Test 14 16 18 33 mental period. b) C i r c u i t Training These a c t i v i t i e s were c a r r i e d out i n the school gymnasium (weight l i f t i n g and s t a i r climb), tennis courts (20 metre s p r i n t ) , and the school f i e l d (endurance run) using the appropriate equipment. The exercises are described i n Appendix A. The incentives offered to the Gym Games group were also offered to :the C i r c u i t Tr.aininq -group. Instrumentation The C.A.H.P.E.R. and C.A.T.P.A. t e s t s administered i n t h i s study were conducted by the i n v e s t i g a t o r . 1. CAHPER Test This t e s t of p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s comprised the following items: height and weight, flexed arm hang, s h u t t l e run, speed s i t - u p s , standing long jump, 50 metre s p r i n t and 2400 metre endurance run. The C.A.H.P.E.R. t e s t i s a measure of general p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s and i n v e s t i g a t e s items of speed, strength, power, a g i l i t y , endurance and body s i z e . National norms are a v a i l a b l e for t h i s t e s t . 2. CATPA Test This t e s t of a t t i t u d e comprised the following items: p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y as a s o c i a l experience (2 t e s t s ) , p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y for health and f i t n e s s (2 t e s t s ) , p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y as a t h r i l l but i n v o l v i n g some r i s k (Vertigo), p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y as the beauty i n human movement (Aesthetic), p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y for the release of tension ( C a t h a r s i s ) , p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y as long and hard t r a i n i n g (Ascetic e x e r c i s e ) . This test was recently used (Province of B r i t i s h Columbia, M i n i s t r y of Education, 1979) for the-assessment of student-attitude toward 34 p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y i n the B r i t i s h Columbia school system. Procedures As i n d i c a t e d i n Table 2.1, pretests of the C.A.H.P.E.R. and C.A.T.P.A. instruments were conducted over three days, A p r i l 23, 27 and 29, 1982. The phy s i c a l t e s t s were conducted on the school f i e l d and/or i n the gym-nasium as pre v i o u s l y indicated, while the a t t i t u d e t e s t was conducted i n a classroom. The procedures for each t e s t were c a r r i e d out according to the i n s t r u c t i o n s and have been out l i n e d i n Appendices B and C. The treatment programme was conducted over a s i x week period May 3 to June 11 and consisted of: warm-up, s t r e t c h i n g exercises, gym games or c i r c u i t t r a i n i n g , and a cool-down. The procedures for each phase of the treatment are ou t l i n e d i n Appendix A. Following the period of treatment a posttest, i d e n t i c a l to the pre-t e s t , was administered to both groups over a three day period, June 14, 1&. and 18. Treatment' of the "Data ., A l l the data with the exception of the measurements of height and 2 weight on the C.A.H.P.E.R. Test, were analysed using a Hote l l i n g ' s T (H o t e l l i n g , 1931). Following computation of the data using the 2 Hotel l i n g ' s T formula, a univariate t t e s t was performed (Hummel and Sl i g o , 1971) to determine which v a r i a b l e s have important group-mean -di f f e r e n c e s . PHAPTER IV Results Introduction This study was designed to i n v e s t i g a t e two problems: 1. To compare the e f f e c t s on the p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s of grade 8 boys of two d i s c r e t e physical education programmes based upon a) selected gym games a c t i v i t i e s , and b) selected c i r c u i t t r a i n i n g a c t i v i t i e s . 2. To compare the e f f e c t s on a t t i t u d e toward p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t i e s of grade 8 boys who have p a r t i c i -pated i n p h y s i c a l education programmes comprising: a) selected gym games a c t i v i t i e s , and b) selected c i r c u i t t r a i n i n g a c t i v i t i e s . The r e s u l t s of t h i s study are presented i n the following sequence: 1. The mean d i f f e r e n c e scores, standard deviations, and u n i v a r i a t e analysis of variance for the s i x items of the C.A.H.P.E.R. t e s t ( i . e . , s i t - u p s , flexed arm hang, s h u t t l e run, standing long jump, 50 metre s p r i n t , and 2400 metre endurance run). 2. The mean d i f f e r e n c e scores, standard deviations, and u n i v a r i a t e analysis of variance-for the eight items of the C.A.T.P.A. t e s t ( i . e . , s o c i a l experience (A), s o c i a l experience (B), health and f i t n e s s (A), health and f i t n e s s (B), v e r t i g o , a e s t h e t i c , c a t h a r s i s , and a s c e t i c a t t i t u d e ) . C.A.H.P.E.R. Test Hypothesis 1 s t a t e s : there w i l l be no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n e f f e c t on p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s of d i s c r e t e p h y s i c a l education programmes comprising e i t h e r gym games or c i r c u i t t r a i n i n g . A comparison of the means, and mean d i f f e r e n c e scores for the 35 36 C.A.H.P.E.R. t e s t of ph y s i c a l f i t n e s s i s i l l u s t r a t e d i n Figures 4.1 -4.6. The u n i v a r i a t e analysis of variance i n d i c a t e s that for the i n d i v i d -ual t e s t r e s u l t s to be s i g n i f i c a n t at the .01 l e v e l , ai _t = 2.58, there-fore Hypothesis 1 must be reject e d . Sit-Up Figure 4.1 i l l u s t r a t e s the means and mean di f f e r e n c e scores obtained by the gym games and c i r c u i t t r a i n i n g groups on the s i t - u p sub-test. 5 5 l C i r c u i t Training - " " " " Sit-Up Score (60 seconds) 53 51 49 47 45, t Gym Games Pretest Posttest Figure 4.1 A Comparison of Mean and Mean Difference Scores for both Gym Games and C i r c u i t Training groups on the Sit-Up sub-test The r e s u l t s of the s i t - u p shb-test i n d i c a t e that the gym games group made s i g n i f i c a n t l y greater improvement (Jb = 5.74) than did the c i r c u i t t r a i n i n g group. These changes i n d i c a t e that a r e l a t i o n s h i p may e x i s t between the t r a i n i n g programme and increased performance. The means and mean d i f f e r e n c e scores as shown i n Table 4.1 i n d i c a t e an improvement of 6.77 r e p e t i t i o n s for the gym games group and an improve-ment of 3.77 r e p e t i t i o n s for the c i r c u i t t r a i n i n g group. 37 Table 4.1 A Comparison of Pretest, Posttest and Mean Difference Scores on the Sit-up sub-test Physical A c t i v i t y Pretest X Posttest X M e a n d i f f e r e n c e (X Gym Games 45.68 C i r c u i t Training 51.45 D) 52.45 55.23 6.77 3.77 It would appear from the r e s u l t s that gym games a c t i v i t i e s may have been more e f f e c t i v e than c i r c u i t t r a i n i n g a c t i v i t i e s on grade 8 boys during the s i x week study period toward improvement of s i t - u p performance. Flexed Arm Hang Figure 4.2 i l l u s t r a t e s the means, and mean d i f f e r e n c e scores obtained by the gym games and c i r c u i t t r a i n i n g groups on the flexed arm hang sub-t e s t . 66 65 64 63 Flexed Arm Hang 62 score (seconds) 61 60 59 58 57 56 55 54 53 52 C i r c u i t Training / / / / / / ^ / ^ ' / ^ " / Gym Games Pretest Posttest Figure 4.2 A Comparison of Means and Mean Difference Scores for both Gym Games and C i r c u i t Training groups on the Flexed Arm Hang sub-test The r e s u l t s of the flexed arm hang sub-test i n d i c a t e that the 38 c i r c u i t t r a i n i n g group made a s i g n i f i c a n t l y greater improvement (t = 7.64) than did the gym games group, These changes i n d i c a t e that a r e l a t i o n s h i p may e x i s t between the t r a i n i n g programme and increased performance. The means and mean di f f e r e n c e scores shown i n Table 4.2 i n d i c a t e an improvement of 12.40 seconds for the c i r c u i t t r a i n i n g group and an improvement of 5.95 seconds for the gym games group. Table 4.2 A Comparison of Pretest, Posttest and Mean Difference Scores on the Flexed Arm Hang sub-test Physical A c t i v i t y Pretest Posttest X Mean Difference (Xp N Gym Games C i r c u i t Training 53.55 52.64 58.59 65.05 5.95 12.40 It would appear from the r e s u l t s that c i r c u i t t r a i n i n g a c t i v i t i e s may have been more e f f e c t i v e than gym games a c t i v i t i e s on grade 8 boys during the s i x week study period toward improvement of flexed arm hang performance. Shuttle Run Figure 4.3 i l l u s t r a t e s the mean and mean d i f f e r e n c e scores obtained by the gym games and c i r c u i t t r a i n i n g groups on the s h u t t l e run sub-t e s t . 11.4GJ \ Shuttle Run score (seconds) 0 .30 .20 .10 11.00 10.90 .80 •70 .60 .50 .40 .30 .20 .10 10.00 •> 0 C i r c u i t Training X N Gym Games Pretest Posttest Figure 4.3 A Comparison of Mean and Mean Difference Scores f o r both Gym Games and . C i r c u i t T r a i n i n g groups . on the Shuttle Run sub-test The r e s u l t s of the s h u t t l e run sub-test i n d i c a t e that the c i r c u i t t r a i n i n g group made a s i g n i f i c a n t l y greater improvement (t = 9.50) than did the gym games group. These changes i n d i c a t e that a r e l a t i o n s h i p may e x i s t between the t r a i n i n g programme and increased performance. The mean and mean di f f e r e n c e scores shown i n Table 4.3 i n d i c a t e an improvement of -0.75 seconds for the c i r c u i t t r a i n i n g group against an increase of +0.18 seconds for the gym games group. 40 Table 4.3 A Comparison of Pretest, Posttest. and Mean Difference Scores on the Shuttle Run sub-test Physical . A c t i v i t y Pretest X Posttest X Mean Difference ( X ^ Gym Games 10.03 10.21 + 0.18 C i r c u i t Training 11.35 10.61 - 0.75 It would appear from the r e s u l t s that c i r c u i t t r a i n i n g a c t i v i t i e s may have been more e f f e c t i v e than gym games a c t i v i t i e s on grade 8 boys during the s i x week study period toward improvement of s h u t t l e run performance. 41 Standing Long Jump Figure 4.4 i l l u s t r a t e s the mean and mean di f f e r e n c e scores obtained by the gym games and c i r c u i t t r a i n i n g groups on the standing long jump sub-test. Standing Long Jump score (centimetres) 203 2 1 200 199 8 7 - 6 5 4 3 2 1 190 0 C i r c u i t Training Gym Games Pretest Posttest Figure 4.4 A Comparison of Mean and Mean Difference Scores for both Gym Games and C i r c u i t Training groups on the Standing Long Jump sub-test The r e s u l t s of the standing long jump sub-test i n d i c a t e that the gym games group made a s i g n i f i c a n t l y greater improvement (t = 2.61) than did the c i r c u i t t r a i n i n g group. These changes i n d i c a t e that a r e l a t i o n -ship may e x i s t between the t r a i n i n g programme and increased performance. The means and mean d i f f e r e n c e scores shown i n Table 4.4 i n d i c a t e an improvement of 3.68 centimetres for the gym games group and an improvement of 1.22 centimetres for the c i r c u i t t r a i n i n g group. 42 Table 4.4 A Comparison of Pretest, Posttest and Mean Difference Scores on the Standing Long Jump sub-test Physical A c t i v i t y Pretest X Posttest X Mean Difference (X n^ Gym Games C i r c u i t Training 190.41 200.82 194.10 202.13 3.68 1.22 It would.appear from the r e s u l t s that gym games a c t i v i t i e s may have been more e f f e c t i v e than c i r c u i t t r a i n i n g a c t i v i t i e s on grade 8 boys during the s i x week study period toward improvement of standing long jump performance. 50 Metre Sprint Figure 4.5 i l l u s t r a t e s the mean and mean d i f f e r e n c e scores obtained by the gym games and c i r c u i t t r a i n i n g groups on the 50 metre s p r i n t sub-test. 8.0 7.9 .8 .7 .6 .5 .4 .3 .2 .1! 7 - Oi 50 Metre Sprint score Gym Games C i r c u i t Training O -- Pretest Posttest Figure 4.5 A Comparison of Mean and Mean Difference Scores for both.Gym Games and C i r c u i t Training groups on the 50 Metre Sprint sub-test 43 The r e s u l t s of the 50 metre s p r i n t sub-test i n d i c a t e that the gym games group made a s i g n i f i c a n t l y greater improvement (t = 3.70) than did the c i r c u i t t r a i n i n g group. These changes i n d i c a t e that a r e l a t i o n s h i p may e x i s t between the t r a i n i n g programme and increased performance. The means and mean di f f e r e n c e scores shown i n Table 4.5 i n d i c a t e an improvement of -0.36 seconds for the gym games group and an improve-ment of -0.21 seconds f o r the c i r c u i t t r a i n i n g group. Table 4.5 A Comparison of Pretest, Posttest and Mean Difference Scores on the 50 Metre Sprint sub-test Physical A c t i v i t y Pretest X Posttest X Mean Difference (X^y Gym Games 7.96 7.59 -0.36 C i r c u i t Training 7.70 7.49 -0.21 It would appear from the r e s u l t s that gym games a c t i v i t i e s may have been more e f f e c t i v e than c i r c u i t t r a i n i n g a c t i v i t i e s on grade 8 boys during the s i x week study period toward improvement of 50 metre s p r i n t performance. 44 2400 Metre Endurance Run Figure 4.6 i l l u s t r a t e s the mean and mean d i f f e r e n c e scores obtained by the gym games and c i r c u i t t r a i n i n g groups on the 2400 metre endurance run sub-test. 13.00 12.50 .40 .30 .20 .10 12.00 .50 .40 .30 .20 .10 11.00 .50 .40 0 2400 Metre Endurance Run score (Minutes and Seconds) Gym Games C i r c u i t Training \ Pretest Posttest Figure 4.6 A Comparison of Mean and Mean Difference Scores f o r both Gym Games and C i r c u i t T raining groups on the 2400 Metre Endurance Run sub-test The r e s u l t s of the 2400 metre endurance run sub-test i n d i c a t e that the gym games group made a s i g n i f i c a n t l y greater improvement (t = 8.89) than did the c i r c u i t t r a i n i n g group. These changes i n d i c a t e that a r e l a t i o n s h i p may e x i s t between the t r a i n i n g programme and increased performance. The mean and mean d i f f e r e n c e scores shown i n Table 4.6 i n d i c a t e an improvement of -0.90 minutes for the gym games group and an improvement of -0.52 minutes f o r the c i r c u i t t r a i n i n g group. 45 Table 4.6 A Comparison of Pretest, Posttest and Mean Difference Scores on the 2400 Metre Endurance Run Physical A c t i v i t y Pretest X Posttest X Mean Difference (X^y Gym Games C i r c u i t Training 12.29 11.37 10.59 10.45 -0.90 -0.52 It would appear from the r e s u l t s that gym games a c t i v i t i e s may have been more e f f e c t i v e than c i r c u i t t r a i n i n g a c t i v i t i e s on grade 8 boys during the s i x week study period toward improvement of 2400 metre endurance run performance. Summary of the C.A.H.P.E.R. Jest. Results Table 4.15 i s a summary df Comparison of Mean Difference Scores, Standard Deviations and Univariate Analysis of Variance for gym games and c i r c u i t t r a i n i n g groups on a l l sub-tests of the C.A.H.P.E.R. Physical Fitness Test. The gym games group showed a s i g n i f i c a n t l y greater improvement dh . fo u r . ( s i t - u p s , standing long jump, 50 metre s p r i n t and 2400 metre endurance run) of the s i x ' t e s t s than did. the c i r c u i t t r a i n i n g group. The c i r c u i t t r a i n i n g group showed a s i g n i f i c a n t l y greater improvement on two (flexed arm hang and sh u t t l e run) than did the gym games group. The mean scores i n d i c a t e that the c i r c u i t t r a i n i n g group had better scores on f i v e ( s i t - u p s , flexed arm hang, standing long jump, 50 metre s p r i n t and 2400 metre endurance run) of the s i x sub-tests. The gym games group had a better score on one (sh u t t l e run) of the s i x sub-tests. These r e s u l t s would seem to i n d i c a t e that i n s p i t e of the non-46 s e l e c t i v e assignment of p u p i l s to regular p h y s i c a l education cla s s e s , the students with better a t h l e t i c a b i l i t y on the C.A.H.P.E.R. t e s t were those i n the c i r c u i t t r a i n i n g group. The group which showed the more s i g n i f i c a n t improvement on the s i x sub-tests, however, was the gym games group. Indications are that the i n c e n t i v e o f f e r e d to both groups i n t h i s study (everyone had the opportunity to gain an 'A' grade for his per-formance improvement) was only of i n t e r e s t to a few students. This group comprised those students who were r e g u l a r l y 'A' grade p u p i l s . Eight out of the ten 'A' grades given f or improvement went to students who r e g u l a r l y achieved an 'A' grade for p h y s i c a l education. The majority of students showed i n i t i a l exuberance for the bribe but when they found that an 'A' grade required hard work, t h e i r enthusiasm subsided. A l l the students taking part i n the study, however, were able to improve s u f f i c i e n t l y to gain at l e a s t a C+ grade. It may therefore be assumed that the incentive offered to grade 8 boys i n t h i s study resulted i n a p o s i t i v e attempt to increase performance. Students i n both the gym games group and the c i r c u i t t r a i n i n g group had better performance r e s u l t s than the average Canadian student of the same sex and age on a l l items on the C.A.H.P.E.R. tes t (1980). The i n d i c a t i o n s are that there i s a r e l a t i o n s h i p between the t r a i n -ing programme and increased performance, and that students p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n a disc r e t e programme of gym games a c t i v i t i e s may s i g n i f i c a n t l y improve t h e i r performance over a comparable group who follow a programme of c i r c u i t - t r a i n i n g . 47 C.A.T.P.A. Test Hypothesis 2 stat e s : there w i l l be no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n e f f e c t on a t t i t u d e toward physical a c t i v i t i e s following p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n programmes comprising e i t h e r gym games or c i r c u i t t r a i n i n g a c t i v i t i e s . A comparison of mean and mean di f f e r e n c e scores for the C.A.T.P.A. test of a t t i t u d e i s i l l u s t r a t e d i n Figures 4.7 - 4.14. Table 4.16 provides a summary of the d i f f e r e n c e of the mean, standard deviations and the univariate a n a l y s i s of variance on the eight C.A.T.P.A. a t t i t u d e t e s t items. The un i v a r i a t e a n a l y s i s of variance i n d i c a t e s that there i s a differe n c e at the .01 l e v e l of s i g n i f i c a n c e Ot = 2.58) for a l l but one of the var i a b l e s tested (vertigo i s not s i g n i f i c a n t at the .01 l e v e l ) , when considering the e f f e c t s of p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y programmes on a t t i t u d e , therefore Hypothesis 2 must be reject e d . S o c i a l (A.) Figure 4.7 i l l u s t r a t e s mean and mean d i f f e r e n c e scores obtained for the gym games and c i r c u i t t r a i n i n g groups on the s o c i a l (A) sub-test. This sub-test measures s o c i a l a t t i t u d e toward meeting new people when taking part i n a ph y s i c a l a c t i v i t y . 48 S o c i a l (A) score 4.4 .3 .2 .1 4.0 3.9 .8 .7 .6 3.5 0 \ Gym Games \ C i r c u i t Training L Pretest Posttest Figure 4.7 A Comparison of Mean and Mean Difference Scores for both Gym Games and C i r c u i t Training groups on the S o c i a l (A) sub-test The r e s u l t s of the s o c i a l (A) sub-test show a s i g n i f i c a n t (t_ = 28.44) decrease i n a t t i t u d e for the gym games group. The mean and mean d i f f e r -ence scores for the gym games group shown i n Table 4.7 in d i c a t e a d e t e r i o r a t i o n i n a t t i t u d e of -0.70 and for the c i r c u i t t r a i n i n g group a d e t e r i o r a t i o n i n a t t i t u d e of -0.20. Table 4.7 A Comparison of Pretest, Posttest and Mean Difference Scores on the S o c i a l (A) sub-test Physical A c t i v i t y Pretest X Posttest X Mean Difference ( X ^ Gym Games 4.3 3.6 -0.70 C i r c u i t Training 3.8 3.6 -0.20 It would appear from the r e s u l t s that a s i x week programme of gym games may s i g n i f i c a n t l y d e t e r i o r a t e the a t t i t u d e of grade 8 boys toward s o c i a l (A) experiences. 49 S o c i a l (B) Figure 4.8 i l l u s t r a t e s the mean and mean dif f e r e n c e scores obtained for the gym games and c i r c u i t t r a i n i n g groups on the s o c i a l (B) sub-test. This sub-test measures s o c i a l a t t i t u d e toward being with f r i e n d s when taking part i n p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t i e s . S o c i a l (B) score 4.4 .3 .2 .1 4.0 3.9 .8 .7 .6 .5 .4 .3 .2 3.1 C i r c u i t Training \ \ Gym Games \ \ \ Pretest Posttest Figure 4.8 A Comparison of Means and Mean Difference Scores f o r both Gym Games and C i r c u i t Training groups on the S o c i a l (B) sub-test The r e s u l t s of the s o c i a l (B) sub-test show a s i g n i f i c a n t (t = 6.98) decrease i n a t t i t u d e f o r the gym games group. The means and mean d i f f e r e n c e scores for the gym games group shown i n Table 4.8 i n d i c a t e a d e t e r i o r a t i o n i n a t t i t u d e of -0.80, and for the c i r c u i t t r a i n i n g group a d e t e r i o r a t i o n i n a t t i t u d e of -0.60. 50 Table 4.8 A Comparison of Pretest, Posttest and Mean Difference Scores on the S o c i a l (B) sub-test Physical A c t i v i t y Pretest X Posttest X Mean Difference (Xp\, Gym Games 4.2 3.4 -0.80 C i r c u i t Training 4.4 3.8 -0.60 It would appear from the r e s u l t s that a s i x week programme of gym games may s i g n i f i c a n t l y deteriorate the a t t i t u d e of grade 8 boys toward s o c i a l (B) experiences. Health and Fitness (A) Figure 4.9 i l l u s t r a t e s the means and mean d i f f e r e n c e scores obtained for the gym games and c i r c u i t t r a i n i n g groups on the health and f i t n e s s (A) sub-test. This sub-test measures a t t i t u d e toward p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n phy s i c a l a c t i v i t i e s for better health. i 4.3 .2 .1 4.0 3.9 .8 .7 . .6 .5 .4 .3 .2 3.1 Health and Fitness (A) score \ \ C i r c u i t Training > \ \ \ Gym Games \ \ ol Pretest Posttest Figure 4.9 A Comparison of Means and Mean Difference Scores for both Gym Games and C i r c u i t Training groups on the Health and Fit n e s s (A) sub-test The r e s u l t s of the h e a l t h and f i t n e s s (A) sub-test show a s i g n i f i c a n t (_t = 21.96) decrease i n a t t i t u d e f o r the c i r c u i t t r a i n i n g group. The means and mean d i f f e r e n c e scores f o r the c i r c u i t t r a i n i n g group shown i n Table 4.9 i n d i c a t e a d e t e r i o r a t i o n i n a t t i t u d e of -0.80, and f o r the gym games group a d e t e r i o r a t i o n i n a t t i t u d e of -0.10. Table 4.9 A Comparison of P r e t e s t , P o s t t e s t and Mean D i f f e r e n c e Scores on the Health and F i t n e s s (A) sub-test P h y s i c a l A c t i v i t y P r e t e s t X P o s t t e s t X Mean D i f f e r e n c e ( X ^ Gym Games 3.8 3.7 -0.10 C i r c u i t T r a i n i n g 4.2 3.4 -0.80 I t would appear from the r e s u l t s t h a t a s i x week programme of c i r c u i t t r a i n i n g may s i g n i f i c a n t l y d e t e r i o r a t e the a t t i t u d e of grade 8 boys toward h e a l t h and f i t n e s s (A) experiences. Health and F i t n e s s (B) Figure 4.10 i l l u s t r a t e s the means and mean d i f f e r e n c e scores obtained f o r the gym games and c i r c u i t t r a i n i n g groups on the h e a l t h and f i t n e s s (B) s u b - t e s t . This sub-test measures a t t i t u d e toward p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t i e s which a s s i s t the body to get i n b e t t e r c o n d i t i o n . 0 52 Health and Fitness (B) score 3.8 .7 .6 .5 .4 3.3 Gym Games C i r c u i t Training 0 Pretest Posttest Figure 4.10 A Comparison of Means and Mean Difference Scores for both Gym Games and C i r c u i t Training groups on the Health and Fitness (B) sub-test The r e s u l t s o f the health and f i t n e s s (B) sub-test show a s i g n i f i c a n t ( t _ = 1.50) improvement i n a t t i t u d e f o r the gym games group. The means and mean d i f f e r e n c e scores for the gym games group shown i n Table 4.10 in d i c a t e an improvement i n a t t i t u d e of 0.30, and for the c i r c u i t t r a i n i n g group an improvement i n a t t i t u d e of 0.10. Table 4.10 A Comparison of Pretest, Posttest and Mean Difference Scores on the Health and Fitness (B) sub-test Physical A c t i v i t y Pretest X Posttest X Mean Difference ( X ^ Gym Games C i r c u i t Training 3.5 3.5 3.8 3.6 0.30 0.10 It would appear from the r e s u l t s that a s i x week programme of gym games may s i g n i f i c a n t l y improve the a t t i t u d e of grade 8 boys toward health and f i t n e s s (B) experiences. Vertigo Figure 4.11 i l l u s t r a t e s the means and mean d i f f e r e n c e scores obtained 53 for the gym games and c i r c u i t t r a i n i n g groups on the vertigo sub-test. This sub-test measures at t i t u d e toward p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t i e s that are dangerous, f a s t and require changes i n d i r e c t i o n . Vertigo score 3.6 .5 .4 .3 .2 .1 < ° 1 . Gym Games C i r c u i t T r a i n i n g Pretest Posttest Figure 4.11 A Comparison of Means and Mean Difference Scores for both Gym Games and C i r c u i t Training groups on the Vertigo sub-test The r e s u l t s of the vertigo sub-test show that t h i s t e s t was not s i g n i f i c a n t (t - 1.68) at the .01 l e v e l (t = 2.58). The means and mean diff e r e n c e scores shown i n Table 4.11 i n d i c a t e d e t e r i o r a t i o n i n a t t i t u d e of -0.20 for the gym games group, and for the c i r c u i t t r a i n i n g group a de t e r i o r a t i o n i n a t t i t u d e of -0.10. Table 4.11 A Comparison of Pretest, Posttest and Mean Difference Scores on the Vertigo sub-test Physical A c t i v i t y Pretest X" Posttest X Mean Difference (X n^ Gym Games C i r c u i t Training 3.5 3.3 3.3 3.2 -0.20 -0.10 It would appear from the r e s u l t s that a s i x week programme of either gym games or c i r c u i t t r a i n i n g may not a l t e r the a t t i t u d e of grade 8 boys 54 i n any s i g n i f i c a n t way. Vertigo was the only sub-test i n t h i s study that was not s i g n i f i c a n t with e i t h e r group. Aesthetic Figure 4.12 i l l u s t r a t e s means and mean dif f e r e n c e scores obtained for the gym games and c i r c u i t t r a i n i n g groups on the aesthetic sub-test. This sub-test measures a t t i t u d e toward p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t i e s which have b e a u t i f u l and graceful movements. 3 . 2 | J: ^ Gym Games Aesthetic score 3.0 2.8 .6 .4 .2 2.0 1.8 .6 .4 .2 1.0 v ^ C i r c u i t Training \ 0 Pretest Posttest Figure 4.12 A Comparison of Means and Mean Difference Scores for both Gym Games and C i r c u i t Training groups on the Aesthetic sub-test The r e s u l t s of the ae s t h e t i c sub-test show a s i g n i f i c a n t (t = 15.31) de t e r i o r a t i o n i n a t t i t u d e of the c i r c u i t t r a i n i n g group. The means and mean differ e n c e scores for the c i r c u i t t r a i n i n g group shown i n Table 4.12 ind i c a t e a d e t e r i o r a t i o n i n a t t i t u d e of -1.40, and for the gym games group a d e t e r i o r a t i o n i n a t t i t u d e of -0.40. 55 Table 4.12 A Comparison of Pretest, Posttest and Mean Difference Scores on the Aesthetic Sub-test Physical A c t i v i t y Pretest X Posttest X Mean Difference ( X ^ Gym Games 3.1 2.4 -0.40 . C i r c u i t Training 2.8 1.7 -1.40 It would appear from the r e s u l t s that a s i x week programme of c i r c u i t t r a i n i n g may s i g n i f i c a n t l y d e t e r i o r a t e a t t i t u d e of grade 8 boys toward a e s t h e t i c experiences. Catharsis Figure 4.13 i l l u s t r a t e s means and mean d i f f e r e n c e scores obtained for the gym games and c i r c u i t t r a i n i n g groups on the c a t h a r s i s sub-test. This sub-test measures a t t i t u d e toward p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t i e s to reduce str e s s from emotional problems. X Catharsis score 4.2 .1 4.0 3.9 .8 .7 .6 .5 .4 .3 .2 3.1 0 Gym Games'^-. C i r c u i t Training Pretest Posttest Figure 4.13 A Comparison of Means and Mean Difference Scores for both Gym Games and C i r c u i t T r a i n i n g groups on the Catharsis sub-test 56 The r e s u l t s of the c a t h a r s i s sub-test show a s i g n i f i c a n t (t = -23.54) d e t e r i o r a t i o n i n a t t i t u d e of the gym games group. The means and mean di f f e r e n c e scores for the gym games group shown i n Table 4.13 indic a t e a d e t e r i o r a t i o n i n attitud e of -0.70, and for the c i r c u i t t r a i n i n g group an improvement i n at t i t u d e of +0.20. Table 4.13 A Comparison of Pretest, Posttest and Mean Difference Scores on the Catharsis sub-test Physical A c t i v i t y Pretest X Posttest X Mean Difference (X n^ Gym Games C i r c u i t Training 4.2 3.2 3.5 3.4 -0.70 +0.20 It would appear from the r e s u l t s that a s i x week programme of gym games may s i g n i f i c a n t l y d e t e r i o r a t e a t t i t u d e of grade 8 boys toward ca t h a r s i s experiences. The a t t i t u d e of grade 8 boys p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n a c i r c u i t t r a i n i n g programme of s i m i l a r duration improved, but not to a s i g n i f i c a n t l e v e l . Ascetic Figure 4.14 i l l u s t r a t e s means and mean d i f f e r e n c e scores obtained by the gym games and c i r c u i t t r a i n i n g groups on the a s c e t i c sub-test. This sub-test measures a t t i t u d e toward p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t i e s which have long and hard p r a c t i c e s at the expense of more pleasing a c t i v i t i e s . 57 Ascetic score 3.0 2.9 .8 .7 .6 .5 .A .3 .2 .1 2.0 1.9 ol Gym Games \ \ \ \ \ C i r c u i t Training ^ \ \ Pretest Posttest Figure 4.14 A Comparison of Means and Mean Difference Scores for both Gym Games and C i r c u i t Training groups on the Asc e t i c sub-test The r e s u l t s of the a s c e t i c sub-test show a s i g n i f i c a n t (t = 17.91) de t e r i o r a t i o n i n a t t i t u d e of the c i r c u i t t r a i n i n g group. The means and mean di f f e r e n c e scores for the c i r c u i t t r a i n i n g group shown i n Table 4.14 indicate a d e t e r i o r a t i o n i n a t t i t u d e of -0.90, and for the gym games group a d e t e r i o r a t i o n i n a t t i t u d e of -0.10. Table 4.14 A Comparison of Pretest-,- P c s t t e s t and Mean Difference Scores on the Asc e t i c sub-test Physical A c t i v i t y Pretest X Posttest X Mean Difference (Xp^ Gym Games 3.0 2.9 -0.10 C i r c u i t Training 2.8 1.9 -0.90 58 It would appear from the r e s u l t s that a s i x week programme of c i r c u i t t r a i n i n g may s i g n i f i c a n t l y d e t e r i o r a t e a t t i t u d e of grade 8 boys toward a s c e t i c experiences. Summary of. the. C.A.T.P.A. Test Results The gym games group showed a s i g n i f i c a n t l y negative a t t i t u d e toward phys i c a l a c t i v i t y on three ( s o c i a l (A), s o c i a l (B), and cath a r s i s ) of the eight sub-tests. The gym games group also showed a p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e on one (health and f i t n e s s (B)) of the eight sub-tests. The r e s u l t s obtained by the c i r c u i t t r a i n i n g group showed a s i g n i f i c a n t l y negative a t t i t u d e i n three (health and f i t n e s s (A), aesthetic, and as c e t i c ) of the eight sub-tests. There was one (vertigo) of the eight sub-tests which was not s i g n i f i c a n t for e i t h e r group i n t h i s study. The mean scores i n d i c a t e that the gym games group had a more p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e toward p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y on s i x (health and f i t n e s s (A), health and f i t n e s s (B), vertigo, a e s t h e t i c , catharsis., and a s c e t i c ) of the eight sub-tests. The r e s u l t s obtained by the c i r c u i t t r a i n i n g group showed a more p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e to one ( s o c i a l (B)) of the eight sub-tests. On one ( s o c i a l (A)) of the eight sub-tests the mean scores for bcth the gym games and c i r c u i t t r a i n i n g groups were i d e n t i c a l . The r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e that students p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n d i s c r e t e programmes of gym games or c i r c u i t t r a i n i n g show a s i g n i f i c a n t l y negative a t t i t u d e toward p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t i e s . Table 4.15 presents a summary of the comparison of mean dif f e r e n c e scores, standard deviations, and un i v a r i a t e a n a l y s i s of variance for gym games and c i r c u i t t r a i n i n g groups on a l l the sub-tests of the 59 C.A.H.P.E.R. Physical Fitness Test. Table 4-16 presents a summary of the comparison of mean dif f e r e n c e scores, standard deviations, and u n i v a r i a t e analysis of variance for gym games and c i r c u i t t r a i n i n g groups on a l l sub-tests of the C.A.T.P.A. Attitude Test. Table 4-17 presents a summary of the r e s u l t s of the C.A.H.P.E.R. and C.A.T.P.A. Tests. Table 4-15 Summary of Comparison of Mean Difference Scores, Standard Deviations and Univariate Analysis of Variance for Gym Games and C i r c u i t Training Groups on a l l sub-tests of the C.A.H.P.E.R. Physical Fitness Test Variable Group** XD SD t * P Sit-Ups Gym Games C i r c u i t Training 6.77 3.77 8.93 6.80 5.74 .01 Flexed Arm Hang Gym Games C i r c u i t Traininq 5.95 12.40 21.21 7.51 -7.64 .01 Shuttle Run Gym Games C i r c u i t Traininq 0.18 -0/75 0.69 -9.50 .01 Standing Long Jump Gym Games C i r c u i t Training 3.68 1.22 14.63 13.92 2.61 .01 50 Metre Sprint Gym Games C i r c u i t Training -0.36 -0.21 0.73 0.48 3.70 .01 2400 Metre Endurance Run Gym Games C i r c u i t Training -0.90 -0.52 0.53 0.75 8.89 .01 t * ='2.58 S i g n i f i c a n t at .01 ** The group underlining indicates s i g n i f i c a n t l y superior group performance for the var i a b l e measured Table 4-16 Summary of Comparison of Mean Difference Scores, Standard Deviations and Univariate Analysis of Variance for Gym Games and C i r c u i t Training groups on a l l sub-tests of the C.A.T.P.A. Attitude Test Variable Group** t * * p " ' So c i a l (A) Gym Games C i r c u i t Training -0.70 0.80 -28.44 .01 So c i a l (B) Gym Games C i r c u i t Training -0.80 -0.60 1.78 2.51 - 6.98 .01 Health and Fitness (A) Gym Games C i r c u i t Traininq -0.10 2.03 21.96 .01 Health and Fitness (B) Gym Games C i r c u i t Training 0.30 0.10 1.97 1.75 6.69 • .01 Vertigo Gym Games C i r c u i t Training -0.20 CO 110 3.12 2,64 - 1.68 not s i g n i f i c a n t Aesthetic i Gym Games C i r c u i t Traininq -0.40 -1.40 2.74 3.84 15.31 .01 Catharsis Gym Games C i r c u i t Training -0.70 •0.20 1.94 2.63 -23.54 .01 . Ascetic Gym Games C i r c u i t Traininq -0.10 -0.90 4.24 3.77 17.91 .01 t * = 2.58 S i g n i f i c a n t at .01 ** The group underlining indicates s i g n i f i c a n t change i n group a t t i t u d e f o r the va r i a b l e mentioned 62 Table 4-17 SUMMARY TABLE OF THE RESULTS OF THE C.A.H.P.E.R.. AND C.A.T.P.A. TESTS Variable C.A.H.P.E.R. P o s i t i v e or Negative Means between Pretest and Posttest Scores Gym Games C i r c u i t Training Mean Difference Group Showing Scores the S i g n i f i c a n t Gym C i r c u i t Change Games Trainino Sit-Up + + 6.77 3.77 Gym Games Flexed Arm Hang + + 5.'95 12.40 C i r c u i t Training Shuttle Run - + 0.18 -0.75 C i r c u i t Training Standing Long Jump + • + 3.68 1.22 Gym Games 50 Metre Sprint + + -0.36 -0.21 Gym Games 2400 Metre Endurance Run + . + -0.90 -0.52 Gym Games C.A.T.P.A/' S o c i a l (A) - - -3.50 -1.18 Gym Games S o c i a l (B) - - -3.86 -2.86 Gym Games Health and (A) Fitness - -0.40 -3.86 C i r c u i t Training Health and (B) Fitness + + 1.50 0.68 Gym Games Vertigo - - -1.04 -0.72 Not S i g n i f i c a n t Aesthetic - - -2.68 -6.04 C i r c u i t Training Catharsis - + -3.18 0.40 Gym Games Ascetic - - -0.36 -5.09 C i r c u i t Training CHAPTER V Discussion This chapter w i l l present a discussion of the r e s u l t s presented i n Chapter IV. F i r s t , each item on the C . A . H . P . E . R . t e s t w i l l be discussed followed by a discussion of the C . A . H . P . E . R . t e s t as a battery. Second, each item on the C . A . T . P . A . t e s t w i l l be discussed followed by a d i s -cussion of the C . A . T . P . A . t e s t as a battery. C . A . H ; P . . F : . R . Test The following hypothesis w i l l be discussed: There i s no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n the e f f e c t on p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s of two d i s c r e t e physioal a c t i v i t y programmes, one comprising gym games and the other c i r c u i t t r a i n i n g a c t i v i t i e s . Sit-Up sub-test The s i g n i f i c a n t improvement of the gym games group over the c i r c u i t t r a i n i n g group (almost double) on the s i t - u p sub-test was most unexpected since s i t - u p s was one of the items included i n the c i r c u i t t r a i n i n g t r e a t -ment programme. The following three reasons are suggested to explain the apparent s u p e r i o r i t y of the gym games group on t h i s sub-test. F i r s t , the gym games a c t i v i t i e s of crab soccer, murder b a l l , and B r i t i s h Bulldog produced more sustained vigorous exercises for the abdominal muscles than did c i r c u i t t r a i n i n g exercises; second, the s i t - u p s performed i n t h i s treatment programme by the c i r c u i t t r a i n i n g group (the s i t - u p was per-formed with the knees bent, and the elbows meeting the knees during the ac t i o n phase of the s i t - u p ) , compared unfavourably with the s i t - u p 63 64 reported by Anderson (1975). Anderson administered r e h a b i l i t a t i o n to injured basketball players and found that the abdominal s i t - u p exercise was most e f f e c t i v e when performed with the knees bent, the abdominal muscles r a i s i n g the upper body to about a 30° angle. Anderson found that any movement past 30° brings the hip f l e x o r s i n t o action, reducing the eff e c t i v e n e s s of the s i t - u p . Third, Sobey (1980) i n h i s research on c i r c u i t t r a i n i n g with v i s u a l l y impaired students i n Colorado found that programmes of s i t - u p exercises performed on an i n c l i n e d board produced p o s i t i v e gains i n performance over s i m i l a r exercise programmes performed on the f l a t . It appears from the fin d i n g s of Anderson (1975) and Sobey (1980) that there would have been further improvement by the c i r c u i t t r a i n i n g group on the s i t - u p sub-test i f the programme of s i t - u p exercises had been performed more e f f e c t i v e l y . Flexed Arm Hang sub-test The s i g n i f i c a n t improvement of the c i r c u i t t r a i n i n g group over the gym games group was expected since the c i r c u i t t r a i n i n g programme con-tained two items ( m i l i t a r y press and upright rowing) s p e c i f i c a l l y included to improve upper body strength. S t a f f o r d , Carr and Associates (1976) have found that improvements i n p h y s i c a l performance are s p e c i f i c a l l y r e l a t e d to exercises which are performed during the t r e a t -ment programme, and gains i n performance are consistent with the i n t e n s i t y at which these exercises are performed. The Staff o r d , Carr and Associates (1976) study favours i s o t o n i c exercises over isometric exercises. This preference i s supported by Rasch and Morehouse (1957) who compared the e f f e c t s of pressing and c u r l i n g dumbbells with a s t a t i c movement, for the same time, at two-thirds of each subject's strength. The gains i n strength of the subjects p r a c t i c i n g i s o t o n i c exercises were s i g n i f i c a n t l y greater than for those employing isometric contractions. Sobey (1980) and Sorani (1966) have found that a t t i t u d e toward exercise regimens and the amount of e f f o r t (time, distance and r e p e t i t i o n s ) put into e x e r c i s i n g are s p e c i f i c a l l y r e l a t e d to increases i n p h y s i c a l improvement of those muscles being exercised, providing that the s p e c i f i c i t y of the exercise i s not contaminated by undue s y n e r g i s t i c muscle act i o n . The exercises i n t h i s study which were d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d to improve-ment i n muscular strength of the upper body, ( i . e . , m i l i t a r y press and upright rowing) appear to have s u f f i c i e n t l y i s o l a t e d those muscles required to produce a s u b s t a n t i a l gain i n performance for the c i r c u i t t r a i n i n g group on the flexed arm hang sub-test. The r e s u l t s of t h i s sub-test concur with the findings of Rasch and Morehouse (1957), Sobey (1980), Sorani (1966), and S t a f f o r d , Carr and Associates (1976) i n reporting improvements of upper body strength. Shuttle Run sub-test The s i g n i f i c a n t improvement of the c i r c u i t t r a i n i n g group over the gym games group was anticipated as a g i l i t y was required on a number of treatment items, for example: s t a i r climb, squat thrust and 20 metre s p r i n t . In c o n t r a s t , gym games a c t i v i t i e s produced more strength, power, and endurance gains as a r e s u l t of crab soccer, murder b a l l , B r i t i s h Bulldog, and other vigorous games. It would appear that p r a c t i c i n g a g i l i t y - t y p e exercises w i l l produce a s i g n i f i c a n t improvement i n c i r c u i t 66 t r a i n i n g a c t i v i t i e s . It i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note that the gym games group was fas t e r on both the pretest and posttest r e s u l t s , but t h e i r perform-ance deteriorated during the study period, which o f f e r s a d d i t i o n a l evidence of the u n s u i t a b i l i t y of d i s c r e t e recreational-type a c t i v i t i e s toward a g i l i t y performance. In t h e i r f i n d i n g s , Astrand (1971) and Raven, Gettman, Pollock, and Cooper (1976) report gains i n performance following a g i l i t y - t y p e exercise, programmes. Astrand (1971) reported on an i n t e r v a l t r a i n i n g programme for Swedish soccer players which included i n t e r v a l s of s p r i n t i n g and s t a i r climbing. The r e s u l t s of the programme showed s i g n i f i c a n t gains i n a g i l i t y as measured by a decrease i n elapsed time on a sh u t t l e run t e s t . Raven, Gettman, Pollock, and Cooper (1976) report improvements i n soccer players following a programme of s t a i r climbing, squat thrusts, and relay games, as measured by the I l l i n o i s A g i l i t y Run (Cureton, 1970). Yarborough (1981) found i n his research with a co l l e g e f o o t b a l l team that p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n an exercise programme which included relay games, t r a i n -ing c i r c u i t s and c a l i s t h e n i c - t y p e a c t i v i t i e s produced an increase i n performance on the A.A.H.P.E.R. (1976) s h u t t l e run. Following a n a l y s i s of the above i n v e s t i g a t i o n s , the s i g n i f i c a n t improvement of the c i r c u i t t r a i n i n g group i n t h i s study should be accepted with some caution. It has been reported i n other studies that d i s c r e t e programmes of p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y which include some t y p i c a l gym game a c t i v i t i e s (relay games.) have produced improvements i n performance on measures of a g i l i t y . Standing Long Jump sub-test The s i g n i f i c a n t improvement of the gym games group over the c i r c u i t 67 t r a i n i n g group was the l e a s t s i g n i f i c a n t of any score on the C.A.H.P.E.R. t e s t . The r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e programmes of d i s c r e t e gym games may produce mean diff e r e n c e s considerably higher than those of d i s c r e t e c i r c u i t t r a i n -ing programmes on measures of explosive power of the legs. These r e s u l t s are contrary to the findings of Morgan and Adamson (1957) who found s i g n i f i c a n t improvement with students following p a r t i c i -pation i n a four week c i r c u i t t r a i n i n g programme on the standing long jump t e s t . Howell and Morford (1964) reported improvements i n performance f o r measures of explosive muscle power i n the legs for students e x e r c i s i n g on the University of B r i t i s h Columbia .(SU-.B..C.)'.Circuit. The d i s c r e t e c i r c u i t t r a i n i n g programme of t h i s study contains only three exercises (squat thrusts, s i t - u p s and s t a i r running) included i n the U.B.C. C i r c u i t , which appear to increase strength and a g i l i t y . Comparisons with studies of gym games are d i f f i c u l t as research has generally concentrated on improvements of the standing long jump with ei t h e r c i r c u i t t r a i n i n g or weight t r a i n i n g techniques. Reynolds (1976), i n his study of weight t r a i n i n g has found that athletes s p e c i a l i z i n g i n strength t r a i n i n g require a six-month period_to reach t h e i r peak perform-ance, a period which i s i n excess of the time allowed for performance gains i n t h i s study. It i s speculated that greater improvements i n performance would be made by the c i r c u i t t r a i n i n g group the- longer the students p e r s i s t e d with c i r c u i t t r a i n i n g exercises. The report of Howell and Morford (1964) in d i c a t e s that c i r c u i t t r a i n i n g encourages a p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e i n students, and suggests that progressive goals can be achieved over an extended period of time at the i n d i v i d u a l ' s own chosen work rate. 68 50 Metre Sprint sub-test The s i g n i f i c a n t improvement of the gym games group over the c i r c u i t t r a i n i n g group was not expected on t h i s sub-test. However, following a n a l y s i s of the standing long jump, a t e s t item which also uses explosive power, i t was not unreasonable to assume that the gym games group would achieve more s i g n i f i c a n t gains on t h i s sub-test. Two f a c t o r s which may have p o s i t i v e l y a f f e c t e d t e s t scores for both groups are: a) the gravel running track used i n the programme was con-s t a n t l y maintained by the l o c a l Parks Board maintenance crews thus ensuring e x c e l l e n t conditions for running, and b) the weather was i d e a l for s p r i n t i n g on both the pretest and posttest days, being sunny and wind-l e s s . Reference to reports concerning explosive power have been documented i n the discussion of the standing long jump sub-test. A d d i t i o n a l i n -formation provided by Kauzlarich (1979), i n h i s f i n d i n g s with p r o f e s s i o n a l soccer p l a y e r s ? i n d i c a t e s that following p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a c i r c u i t t r a i n -ing programme of eight weeks duration (6 days a week), the players showed s i g n i f i c a n t improvement on the 4 x 10 metre s h u t t l e run, 50 yard s p r i n t , and 400 metre run. Fardy (1977) reports that an eight to twelve week pre-season conditioning treatment i s necessary for s i g n i f i c a n t aerobic and anaerobic change. Fardy suggests that during t h i s phase there should be as much fun as p o s s i b l e , with exercises gradually i n c r e a s i n g i n i n t e n s i t y u n t i l maximum performance i s achieved. The evidence provided by Kauzlarich and Fardy adds to the speculation that c i r c u i t t r a i n i n g programmes of longer duration increase the p h y s i c a l performance of p a r t i c i p a n t s . The a t t i t u d e of a l l p a r t i c i p a n t s i n t h i s 69 study was p o s i t i v e to the 50 metre s p r i n t sub-test. A considerable number of students wanted a second attempt to see i f they could beat t h e i r f i r s t attempt on both the pr e t e s t and posttest t r i a l s . 2400 Metre Endurance Run sub-test The gym games group showed a s i g n i f i c a n t improvement over the c i r c u i t t r a i n i n g group on t h i s sub-test. When comparing norms supplied by Cooper (1970) for the 1.5 mile t e s t for youths and converting these scores to metric equivalents, 68?o of the students on the posttest achieved above average i n performance. The reason for the s i g n i f i c a n t improvement of the gym games group on the 2400 metre endurance run may be a t t r i b u t e d to a number o f . f a c t o r s : a) The performance l e v e l of the c i r c u i t t r a i n i n g group was higher during the t e s t i n g period, therefore the a b i l i t y to improve may have been reduced, b) The a t t i t u d e of the c i r c u i t t r a i n i n g group to a s c e t i c a c t i v i t y d eteriorated s i g n i f i c a n t l y during the course of treatment, and c) The Cardiovascular conditioning e f f e c t was more pronounced with the gym games group than with the c i r c u i t t r a i n i n g group. Cooper (1970) reports.that r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s of .90 have been obtained between the 12 minute run (a s i m i l a r t e s t of endurance to the 2400 metre run) and maximum oxygen uptake measurements. Cooper (1970) has reported f i g u r e s of 51.6+ (Ml/kg/min) for youths i n the " e x c e l l e n t " category, on the 12 minute run, and 42.6-51.5 (Ml/kg/min) for those i n the "good" category. Astrand (1972) reports the maximum oxygen uptake range of 52-56 (Ml/kg/min) for youths as " e x c e l l e n t " , and 44-51 (Ml/kg/min) as "good". It would appear from the f i n d i n g s of the studies mentioned above and the r e s u l t s obtained i n t h i s study that many students i n the gym 70 games and c i r c u i t t r a i n i n g groups were i n the "good" or "e x c e l l e n t " categories i n maximum oxygen uptake. Summary The gym games group showed a s i g n i f i c a n t improvement on four ( s i t -ups, standing long jump, 50 metre s p r i n t , and 2400 metre endurance run) of the s i x C.A.H.P.E.R. sub-tests. The c i r c u i t t r a i n i n g group showed a s i g n i f i c a n t improvement on two (flexed arm hang, and sh u t t l e run) of the s i x sub-tests. Gym games a c t i v i t i e s appear to have produced a more rapid increase i n performance than those obtained by the c i r c u i t t r a i n i n g group. The c i r c u i t t r a i n i n g programme, which was designed to enhance the development of cardiovascular f i t n e s s , and develop progressive overload within a s p e c i f i c period of time, should have produced more s i g n i f i c a n t f i t n e s s r e s u l t s . However, two reasons appear to have had an influence on the r e s u l t s : a) The s i x week treatment period may have been too short to allow for maximum improvement of the c i r c u i t t r a i n i n g p a r t i c i p a n t s , and b) the a t t i t u d e of the c i r c u i t t r a i n i n g group toward a s c e t i c a c t i v i t i e s may not have been conducive to improvement of. p h y s i c a l performance. Smoll, Schutz and Keeney (1976) have suggested i n t h i s regard that a t t i t u d e toward phys i c a l a c t i v i t y i s strongly dependent upon the r e l a t i o n -ship between involvement and performance domains. It i s speculated that p h y s i c a l performance gains with the c i r c u i t t r a i n i n g group would have been higher i f the students' mental involvement had been more p o s i t i v e than the t e s t r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e . C.A.T.P.A. Test The following hypothesis w i l l be discussed: There i s no s i g n i f i c a n t 71 d i f f e r e n c e i n the e f f e c t on a t t i t u d e of two d i s c r e t e p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y programmes, one comprising r e c r e a t i o n a l and the other a s c e t i c a c t i v i t i e s . S o c i a l (A) sub-test There was a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n the a t t i t u d e change exper-ienced by the gym games group, who showed a pretest to posttest decline i n t h e i r a t t i t u d e toward taking part i n p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t i e s which gave them a chance to meet new people. The low scores for both gym games and c i r c u i t t r a i n i n g groups may be explained i n a number of ways. For example, i n response to i n c i d e n t a l verbal questioning by the i n v e s t i g a t o r during the treatment period, two gym games students suggested that the p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t i e s would have been easier i f they could have exercised with the g i r l s . Eight students i n the c i r c u i t t r a i n i n g group found the p h y s i c a l exercises hard work, and a c i r c u i t t r a i n i n g student found the exercises "boring". Most of the students p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the study had attended the same elementary schools, therefore there were only a l i m i t e d number of new people to meet. There were no students i n e i t h e r c l a s s who were complete strangers to each other, that i s , from a d i f f e r e n t country, province, or school d i s t r i c t . Tutko (1979) and Yarborough (1981) have suggested that the s o c i a l exuberance experienced when meeting new or old friends with a common i n t e r e s t , u s u a l l y diminishes when more vigorous a c t i v i t y i s introduced and s o c i a l encounters are replaced with hard work. Tutko (1979) reports a 30?o drop-out rate for c o l l e g e freshmen on an exercise regimen that was programmed to become progressively harder during a twelve week period. Yarborough (1981) reported that attendance at the Spring F o o t b a l l camp < 72 for freshmen entering college i n Memphis showed a remarkable decrease of 18?o a f t e r two weeks of hard physical exercise. Contrary to these reports Campbell (1969) stated that no r e l a t i o n s h i p e x i s t s between a t t i t u d e scores and f i t n e s s items. Smoll, Schutz and Keeney (1977) have found s i m i l a r evidence to Campbell (1969) lending support to the suggestion that there must be other f a c t o r s which affected the Tutko and Yarborough studies. While no evidence has been presented, i t i s speculated that a high per-centage of the drop-outs made a subjective judgment for themselves and decided that the p h y s i c a l e f f o r t was beyond t h e i r c a p a b i l i t i e s or d e s i r e . Changes i n a t t i t u d e may therefore be a n t i c i p a t e d as the p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y i s increased i n i n t e n s i t y . S o c i a l (B) sub-test It i s not s u r p r i s i n g , following the r e s u l t s and discussion of s o c i a l (A), that t h i s t e s t also showed the gym games group had a s i g n i f i c a n t change i n a t t i t u d e toward taking part i n ph y s i c a l a c t i v i t i e s which gave them a chance to be with t h e i r f r i e n d s . The comments s o l i c i t e d from students with respect to s o c i a l (B) corresponded to those received i n the questionnaire for s o c i a l (A), for example, two students of the c i r c u i t t r a i n i n g group and one student of the gym games group suggested that the presence of t h e i r g i r l f r i e n d s would help them i n t h e i r e f f o r t s to improve t h e i r p h y s i c a l performance. General comments from both groups indi c a t e d that the exercises were boring or too hard, and there was the suggestion that the gym games students should be permitted to t r y c i r c u i t t r a i n i n g , and c i r c u i t t r a i n -ing students should be permitted to play gym games. Subjective observations, p a r t i c u l a r l y with the c i r c u i t t r a i n i n g group 73 suggested that a small group or paired system of f r i e n d s would always and without exception, complete the t r a i n i n g c i r c u i t together. Similar observations were not always possible with the gym games group. However, i f the i n v e s t i g a t o r selected team captains and allowed the captains to pick teams, team members were usually made up of close friends of the captain, or friends of succeeding players who were picked for the team. Smith (1974) reporting on a study conducted at two high schools i n F l o r i d a , found very p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e s towards weight t r a i n i n g pro-grammes. Smith a t t r i b u t e d these a t t i t u d e s to the f a c t that students had found something out about t h e i r bodies and were w i l l i n g to work hard and pass through a d d i t i o n a l psychological and p h y s i o l o g i c a l b a r r i e r s to maintain any p h y s i c a l l y pleasing change. Both Osier (1978) and Van Aaken (1976) found i n t h e i r studies of a t h l e t e s at the Olympic l e v e l of competition that running or e x e r c i s i n g with f r i e n d s reduced emotional s t r e s s l e v e l s through comradeship. Students i n t h i s study would appear to be a t y p i c a l of the B r i t i s h Columbia p r o v i n c i a l norm ( B r i t i s h Columbia Assessment of Physical Educa-t i o n , 1979). Results concerning grade 8 boys i n t h i s study have shown a poor s o c i a l a t t i t u d e to meeting new people or being with t h e i r f r i e n d s . These r e s u l t s are contrary, however, to s u b j e c t i v e observations noted during the treatment period where f r i e n d s appeared to be a very important part of c l a s s behaviour. Health and Fitness (A) sub-test There was a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n a t t i t u d e of the c i r c u i t t r a i n i n g group, while taking part i n p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t i e s ( i . e . the t r e a t -ment programme) to make them h e a l t h i e r . Both the gym games and c i r c u i t 74 t r a i n i n g groups had poor scores on t h i s sub-test. As the r e s u l t s of t h i s study have shown, the c i r c u i t t r a i n i n g group's a t t i t u d e toward t h e i r treatment programme was for the most part negative. Comments were s o l i c i t e d from students concerning t h e i r per-ception of health. Students i n the c i r c u i t t r a i n i n g group did not think that i t was "healthy" to run around the school f i e l d eight times and follow i t with 10 x 20 metre s p r i n t s ( e s p e c i a l l y i n the r a i n ) . When asked by the i n v e s t i g a t o r what they thought being hea l t h i e r was, students i n both groups gave such examples as not having a cold or being s i c k . There were no r e p l i e s which ind i c a t e d that freedom from muscle or bone in j u r y was also healthy. In his research on health and f i t n e s s a c t i v i t i e s , Cooper (1970) reports that the "Aerobics" programme has not only had the e f f e c t of changing a considerable number of sedentary people into "joggers", but has become a p r a c t i c e of preventative medicine. Lydiard (1978) i n h i s capacity as a running coach found that i f he wished his runners to stay healthy he had to c o n d i t i o n t h e i r a t t i t u d e to accept the values of relaxed t r a i n i n g , which kept them free from i n j u r y , and therefore, reduced the amounts of emotional s t r e s s i n t h e i r l i v e s . Students i n t h i s study did not i n d i c a t e a p o s i t i v e i n t e r e s t i n p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t i e s which made them h e a l t h i e r . The gym games group, for example, had a pronounced a t t i t u d e toward combative games such as murder b a l l and B r i t i s h Bulldog, where p h y s i c a l i n j u r y was more i n c l i n e d to happen, than to soccer or relay games. Both groups showed reluctance toward warm-up and s t r e t c h i n g exercises (Appendix A) which were designed to help prevent i n j u r y . 75 From i n c i d e n t a l observations by the i n v e s t i g a t o r as well as from questionnaire r e s u l t s , i t appears that remaining healthy was..not of major concern to grade 8 students i n t h i s study. From t h e i r comments, they did not appear to understand that to remain i n good p h y s i c a l condition i s possibly good preventative medicine. Health and Fitness (B) sub-test There was a s i g n i f i c a n t change i n a t t i t u d e experienced by the gym games group toward taking part i n ph y s i c a l a c t i v i t i e s to get the body i n better condition. The health and f i t n e s s (B) sub-test was the only item which showed unanimous p o s i t i v e r e s u l t s i n the study toward a t t i t u d e . The scores for both the gym games and c i r c u i t t r a i n i n g groups were considerably below the means reported i n the B r i t i s h Columbia Assessment of Physical Education (1979). It was expected that there would be some consistency between the gym games and c i r c u i t t r a i n i n g groups when repor t i n g a t t i t u d e scores for health and f i t n e s s (A), and health and f i t n e s s (B). The inconsistency may be the r e s u l t of students' perception of a "healthy body" as per-t a i n i n g to health and f i t n e s s (A), and "body i n better c o n d i t i o n " as pertaining to health and f i t n e s s (B). Posttest a n a l y s i s appears to in d i c a t e that for grade 8 boys, to get the "body i n better c o n d i t i o n " was more important than remaining "healthy". Further confirmation of the p o s i t i v e r e a c t i o n by the gym games and c i r c u i t t r a i n i n g groups to the question of get t i n g the "body i n better condition" i s supplied by the findings of Smoll, Schutz and Keeney (1976), who reported that "a strong r e l a t i o n s h i p e x i s t s between a t t i t u d e and a combination of the involvement and performance domains". Sobey (1980) 76 found "a point of diminishing return", at which point the r e c r e a t i o n a l type athletes separate themselves from the serious athletes. The incent-ive offered to students i n t h i s study would probably begin to take e f f e c t i n such a s i t u a t i o n ; those students wishing to gain an "A" grade would produce more e f f o r t than other students. Tutko (1979) has stated that p h y s i c a l condition i s a state of mind, and performance i s i n part r e l a t e d to continual "involvement i n the aame or sport" being played. The inference that may be a t t r i b u t e d to health and f i t n e s s (B) from the r e s u l t s of t h i s study i s that grade 8 students have a p o s i t i v e reaction to health and f i t n e s s . s o f a r as body condition i s concerned. Students i n the gym games group had a more p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e toward getting t h e i r "body i n better c o n d i t i o n " than did the c i r c u i t t r a i n i n g group. Vertigo sub-test There was no s i g n i f i c a n t change i n a t t i t u d e experienced by e i t h e r the gym games or c i r c u i t - t r a i n i n g groups toward taking part i n e x c i t i n g physical a c t i v i t i e s that could be dangerous because of fast movement and quick changes i n d i r e c t i o n . Both groups showed a negative reaction to t h i s sub-test. It appears from the r e s u l t s on t h i s sub-test that the grade 8 boys who took part i n t h i s experiment did not a t t r i b u t e any great importance to vertigo as a contributory factor i n t h e i r perception of phys i c a l a c t i v i t y . This s i t u a t i o n i s pos s i b l y due to the fac t that, a) ph y s i c a l education programmes tend to be conservative (due to r e s t r a i n t s imposed by school boards, and f i s c a l p o l i c y ) , and b) time and f a c i l i t y considera-tions which l i m i t some of the more enjoyable r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s , 77 for example, canoeing, s a i l i n g , and archery, to the senior grades i n the school where the study was conducted. Brumbach and Cross (1965) have found i n t h e i r research that p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e s to high school p h y s i c a l education increase during succeeding years of p a r t i c i p a t i o n ; improvement may therefore be a t t r i b u t e d to a greater s e l e c t i o n of p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t i e s i n the higher grades. Brumbach and Cross (1965) also state that a t t i t u d e toward p h y s i c a l education i s s i g n i f i c a n t l y p o s i t i v e i n high schools with a small enrolment ( 300). The high school i n t h i s study has over 1000 students. The inference from the Brumbach and Cross study i s that grade 8 students w i l l probably per-ceive physical education as more e x c i t i n g when they complete more years at high school. Smoll, Schutz and Keeney (1976) concur with the f i n d -ings of Brumbach and Cross (1965) when reporting that strength of the r e l a t i o n s h i p between a t t i t u d e and involvement may help produce improved performance. The r e s u l t s of t h i s study i n d i c a t e grade 8 boys p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n d i s c r e t e programmes of r e c r e a t i o n a l and a s c e t i c exercise had negative att i t u d e s toward ve r t i g o . Aesthetic sub-test There was a s i g n i f i c a n t change i n a t t i t u d e experienced by the c i r c u i t t r a i n i n g group toward taking part i n p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t i e s which have b e a u t i f u l and graceful movements. A negative a t t i t u d e toward t h i s sub-test was expected, as grade 8 boys appear to lack appreciation of beauty, taste, or a r t , instead they derive much pleasure out of games of combat. Students' comments suggest contact sports such as f o o t b a l l , rugby, and i c e hockey as the most popular, and bowling, gymnastics and 78 dance as the l e a s t popular physical a c t i v i t i e s . It i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note that McAfee (1955) found that a t t i t u d e s of sportsmanship i n grade s i x , seven and eight boys deteriorated as they moved from grade to grade. McAfee (1955) suggests that t h i s may be due to students being denied proper guidance regarding sportsmanship. To corre c t such an a t t i t u d e teachers may have to teach grade 8 boys to appreciate aest h e t i c p r i n c i p l e s of l i f e and reduce the amount of hard, vigorous contact sports nomally included i n the curriculum at t h i s age l e v e l . In support of McAfee's (1955) hypothesis regarding "proper guidance", Smith (1974) reports that he has seen "few people who experience a s e l f enhancing process i n a p h y s i c a l education c l a s s . " The reasons, therefore, for the poor showing of both the gym games and c i r c u i t t r a i n i n g groups may be that grade 8 boys i n t h i s study were immature and/or ignorant of the aesth e t i c q u a l i t i e s of l i f e . Catharsis sub-test There was a s i g n i f i c a n t change i n a t t i t u d e experienced by the gym games group toward taking part i n p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t i e s to reduce s t r e s s from emotional problems. It i s understood from the l i t e r a t u r e (Cooper, 1970; Sheehan, 1978; and Van Aaken (1976) that s t r e s s can have both p o s i t i v e and negative e f f e c t s depending on the a c t i v i t y . In t e s t s conducted on college students, St a f f o r d , Carr and Associates (1978) and Tutko (1979) found that hard, vigorous t r a i n i n g reduced stress and gave r e l i e f from exhaustion, u l c e r s , and a g i t a t i o n . In contrast, Van Aaken (1976) found that a n t i - s t r e s s measures i n youths demand c e r t a i n r i s k s i t u a t i o n s . Van Aaken suggests that j o y f u l play, sports, and r e c r e a t i o n a l experiences would produce 79 r e l i e f from stress problems. An i n t e r e s t i n g s i t u a t i o n e x i s t s i n t h i s study. The gym games group p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n constant win-lose s i t u a t i o n s with games of various types following each other, found themselves i n a very competitive environment and i n a high s t r e s s s i t u a t i o n . The c i r c u i t t r a i n i n g group, showing a d i s l i k e f o r a s c e t i c exercise and having higher absolute performance on a l l but one sub-test, found themselves i n a d a i l y exercise programme which was l e s s competitive and also found t h e i r s t r e s s s i t u a t i o n a c t u a l l y improved. These r e s u l t s suggest that while the c i r c u i t t r a i n i n g group did not enjoy a s c e t i c exercise they benefited from a reduction i n s t r e s s . The competitive nature of the gym games exercises also produced b e n e f i t s , as shown i n the C.A.H.P.E.R. t e s t s i n d i c a t e d s i g n i f i c a n t gains i n per-formance by the gym games group, however the ph y s i c a l e f f o r t may have been too demanding for the gym games group, r e s u l t i n g i n a s i g n i f i c a n t d e t e r i o r a t i o n of a t t i t u d e toward c a t h a r s i s . These conclusions concur with the findings of Campbell (1969) and Smoll, Schutz and Keeney (1976) who report that a t t i t u d e and performance are v i r t u a l l y unrelated. Ascetic sub-test There was a s i g n i f i c a n t change i n a t t i t u d e experienced by the c i r c u i t t r a i n i n g group toward p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t i e s which have long hard pr a c t i c e s , and require s a c r i f i c e s of time that would otherwise have been used for pleasure. It would appear that the s t r i c t exercise regimen of c i r c u i t t r a i n i n g did not correspond with grade 8 boys' perception of i n t e r e s t i n g p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y . Smith (1974) found that pubescent and adolescent males generally want to be as p h y s i c a l as p o s s i b l e . Smith (1974) found that 80 j u n i o r high school boys were constantly involved i n sparring, mock-f i g h t i n g , and other vigorous a c t i v i t i e s which are to be found i n many gym games a c t i v i t i e s such as tag, b a l l hockey and wrestling. Van Aaken (1976) found that the masculine i n s t i n c t s displayed by ea r l y teenage boys, when entering a weight or c i r c u i t t r a i n i n g programme, may soon disappear due to t h e i r low body weight and s l i g h t l y developed musculature, making the l i f t i n g of heavy weights d i f f i c u l t . A s i m i l a r s i t u a t i o n was observed i n t h i s study with the c i r c u i t t r a i n i n g group. The enthusiasm shown at the beginning of the programme of exercises slowly deteriorated during the s i x week treatment period. The f i n a l r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d that a s i g n i f i c a n t change i n a t t i t u d e had occurred. To encourage a p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e toward hard phy s i c a l exercise Anderson (1975) has found that j o i n t f l e x i b i l i t y i n teenage boys i s more important than b u i l d i n g power. Anderson's findings concur with those of Van Aaken (1976) who has expressed caution when deciding upon a weight l i f t i n g programme at the expense of f l e x i b i l i t y exercises for e a r l y teenage boys. Anderson suggests a warm-up and s t r e t c h i n g programme p r i o r to hard p h y s i c a l exercise w i l l g r e atly enhance students' a t t i t u d e and ultimately p h y s i c a l performance. The warm-up and s t r e t c h i n g exercises p r a c t i c e d i n t h i s study were s i m i l a r to those reported by Stewart and Faulkner (1979). Only minor i n j u r i e s were reported during the treatment period, a l l r e s u l t a n t from gym games a c t i v i t i e s . The a t t i t u d e of the c i r c u i t t r a i n i n g group toward a s c e t i c p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t i e s concur with the findings of Campbell (1969), and Smoll, Schutz and Keeney (1976) as reported i n the c a t h a r s i s sub-test di s c u s s i o n . 81 Summary The s o c i a l a t t i t u d e s of the gym games and c i r c u i t t r a i n i n g groups declined during the t e s t i n g period. Results obtained from t h i s study concur with the findings of Tutko (1979) and Yarborough (1981) who report that s o c i a l a t t i t u d e decreases as hard work increases. Attitudes toward health and f i t n e s s produced a mixed re a c t i o n from students who i d e n t i f i e d "health" as being free from i l l n e s s , and " f i t n e s s " as being a t h l e t i c a l l y f i t . Neither group showed s i g n i f i c a n t changes on the vertigo sub-test. Brumbach and Cross (1965), and Smoll, Schutz and Keeney (1976), found i n t h e i r studies that a more p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e toward vertigo may occur i n succeeding school years for grade 8 boys, as senior programmes of phys i c a l a c t i v i t y are more r e c r e a t i o n a l l y oriented. Aesthetic a t t i t u d e i n grade 8 boys was the most negative of the C.A.T.P.A. sub-test r e s u l t s . Male students i n grade 8 appear to be more comfortable i n a p h y s i c a l l y combative s i t u a t i o n such as i s experienced i n f o o t b a l l , rugby and gym games (e.g., murder b a l l and B r i t i s h Bulldog). Art, and beauty of movement were far removed from the concerns of students i n t h i s study. The r e s u l t s of the c a t h a r s i s sub-test were supported by the fin d i n g s of Campbell (1969); Smoll, Schutz and Keeney (1976); S t a f f o r d , Carr and Associates (1976); Tutko (1979), and Van Aaken (1976), who found that a t t i t u d e and performance are v i r t u a l l y unrelated. The c i r c u i t t r a i n i n g group benefited from a programme of a s c e t i c exercise which produced some r e l i e f from s t r e s s . The c i r c u i t t r a i n i n g group displayed a s i g n i f i c a n t l y negative 82 a t t i t u d e toward the a s c e t i c sub-test p o s s i b l y due to reasons suggested by Smith (1974), who found that boys at the j u n i o r high school l e v e l generally want to be as p h y s i c a l as possi b l e , and r e v e l i n games such as tag, b a l l hockey, and wrestling as opposed to l e s s provocative a c t i v i t i e s such as c i r c u i t t r a i n i n g . The r e s u l t s on t h i s sub-test have shown that the c i r c u i t t r a i n i n g group's a t t i t u d e and performance are v i r t u a l l y unrelated. These r e s u l t s are supported by the findings of Campbell (1969), and Smoll, Schutz and Keeney (1976). CHAPTER VI Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations Summary The purposes of t h i s study were two-fold: 1. To compare the e f f e c t s on p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s of grade 8 boys of di s c r e t e p h y s i c a l education programmes comprising: a) Selected gym games a c t i v i t i e s , and. b) Selected c i r c u i t t r a i n i n g a c t i v i t i e s . 2. To compare the e f f e c t s on a t t i t u d e of grade 8 boys toward physi c a l a c t i v i t i e s i n an education c l a s s , having followed p h y s i c a l education programmes comprising: a) Selected gym games a c t i v i t i e s , and b) Selected c i r c u i t t r a i n i n g a c t i v i t i e s . Two hypotheses were examined: 1. That there w i l l be no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n the e f f e c t s on the f i t n e s s of grade 8 boys of two programmes of a c t i v i t i e s , one com-p r i s i n g gym games and the other comprising c i r c u i t t r a i n i n g . 2. That there w i l l be no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n the e f f e c t s on the a t t i t u d e of grade 8 boys of two programmes of a c t i v i t i e s , one com-p r i s i n g gym games and the other comprising c i r c u i t t r a i n i n g . The two t e s t s used were the Canadian Asso c i a t i o n f o r Health, Physical Education and Recreation t e s t (1980), and the modified Children's Attitude Toward Physical A c t i v i t y t e s t (1979). The students were grade 8 boys i n a regular high school phy s i c a l education c l a s s i n B r i t i s h 83 84 Columbia. To i n v e s t i g a t e the hypotheses a univariate a n a l y s i s of variance was performed on: 1. The s i x p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s sub-tests hypothesized to discriminate between the two groups of students involved i n the study. 2. The eight a t t i t u d e sub-tests hypothesized to discriminate between the two groups of students involved i n the study. The r e s u l t s of the above two analyses i n d i c a t e d the following: 1. The gym games group improved s i g n i f i c a n t l y on four out of the s i x p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s sub-tests. The c i r c u i t t r a i n i n g group improved s i g n i f i c a n t l y on two out of the s i x p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s sub-tests. 2. S t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between groups on the a t t i t u d e t e s t proved that the gym games group showed s i g n i f i c a n c e on four of the eight a t t i t u d e sub-tests. The c i r c u i t t r a i n i n g group showed s i g n i f i c a n c e on three of the eight a t t i t u d e sub-tests. One sub-test, vertigo was not s i g n i f i c a n t . Conclusions This study led to the following conclusions: 1. The treatment, and experimental period of t h i s study (6 weeks) appear to have produced more p o s i t i v e p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s r e s u l t s for the gym games group than was the case with the c i r c u i t t r a i n i n g group. Subjective observations during the experimental period suggest that the gym games group's greater involvement from the outset was the deciding f a c t o r i n the f i n a l a n a l y s i s . The p r o b a b i l i t y of the c i r c u i t t r a i n i n g group producing better p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s r e s u l t s over a longer period of time does not however, seem unreasonable. 85 2. Grade 8 boys are generally happier when they are involved i n combative a c t i v i t i e s such as sparring, mock f i g h t i n g , p u l l i n g and tugging as opposed to the non-combative p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t i e s such as weight l i f t i n g and running. 3. Gym games appear to encourage a more relaxed atmosphere within the gymnasium than the more regimented c i r c u i t t r a i n i n g a c t i v i t i e s . 4. Results obtained on the a t t i t u d e t e s t s were p o s i t i v e on only three occasions: c i r c u i t t r a i n i n g (health and f i t n e s s (B) and c a t h a r s i s ) , gym games (health and f i t n e s s (B)). 5. The reasons for such negative a t t i t u d e s toward p h y s i c a l education may be a t t r i b u t e d to three f a c t o r s : the teacher involved, the e x p e r i -mental programme, and the i n d i v i d u a l student a t t i t u d e toward p h y s i c a l education. While there i s undoubtedly a l o t of influence exerted by the teacher and the subject material contained within the curriculum, students do have a r e s p o n s i b i l i t y to produce the best r e s u l t s possible at any and every task presented to them at school. 6. A s o l u t i o n for improving p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s and a t t i t u d e toward p h y s i c a l education for grade 8-boys i s perhaps within the school system at present, but unfortunately not at the grade 8 l e v e l ; that s o l u t i o n i s , a l i f e t i m e sports concept, where students may s e l e c t t h e i r own programme of p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s to s u i t t h e i r own i n t e r e s t s . This s o r t of programme also has i t s problems from an administrative point of view, that i s , time, money, and f a c i l i t i e s . Sometimes i t i s j u s t not p o s s i b l e to o f f e r a wide s e l e c t i o n of events due to one or more of these con-s t r a i n t s . Physical educators t r y to o f f e r the best programme a v a i l a b l e , but unfortunately that does not always s a t i s f y the students concerned. 86 Summary This study s et out to combine a strenuous physical..exercise,programme ( c i r c u i t t r a i n i n g ) w i t h more r e c r e a t i o n a l l y o r i e n t e d a c t i v i t i e s (gym games) to see i f improvement i n p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s and a t t i t u d e was p o s s i b l e . While the experimental programme may have c o n t r i b u t e d to increa s e s i n p h y s i c a l performance, a t t i t u d e d e t e r i o r a t e d , suggesting a con c l u s i o n that hard p h y s i c a l e x e r c i s e s , which may have b e n e f i c i a l h e a l t h and f i t n e s s e f f e c t s , do not have p o s i t i v e acceptance i n the o v e r a l l context of p h y s i c a l education, as viewed by grade 8 boys. Recommendations I t i s recommended t h a t research concerned with p h y s i c a l performance and a t t i t u d e of high school students should consider the f o l l o w i n g p o i n t s f o r f u t u r e study: 1. That the instruments used to determine p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s and/or a t t i t u d e s of students be sp o r t o r i e n t e d . 2. That a m u l t i v a r i a t e a n a l y s i s o f the s t a t i s t i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n be considered. 3. That the treatment p e r i o d be i n c r e a s e d so tha t a d d i t i o n a l changes i n p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s or a t t i t u d e may be observed. 4. That a follow-up study be conducted on the same students t o observe changes i n p h y s i c a l performance and a t t i t u d e i n succeeding school years. 5. 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London: University of Western Ontario, 1973. 96 APPENDIX A LESSON PLANS, TRAINING PROGRAMME AND DAILY RECORDS FOR CIRCUIT TRAINING AND GYM GAMES ACTIVITIES Lesson Plan - C i r c u i t T r a i n i ng Warm-up: These exercises prepare the body for the more demanding f l e x i b i l i t y and c i r c u i t t r a i n i n g a c t i v i t i e s to follow. The exercises begin at the neck and gradually work down the body to the feet, gently moving a l l the major j o i n t s of the body. F l e x i b i l i t y : Following the warm-up the body w i l l be receptive to increased p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y , blood c i r c u l a t i o n w i l l have increased, and body t i s s u e w i l l be warmer. Muscles w i l l now be more manipulable and a greater range of movement w i l l be p o s s i b l e through the e n t i r e range of a c t i v i t i e s . C i r c u i t T r a i n i n g : The c i r c u i t for t h i s study c o n s i s t s of a number of exercises s p e c i f i c a l l y designed to improve general p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s . The c i r c u i t i s c a r r i e d out i n three areas: school f i e l d , school tennis courts, gymnasium. Each s t a t i o n i s numbered. The weights to be l i f t e d , r e p e t i t i o n s and time w i l l have been worked out by each i n d i v i d u a l p r i o r to the commencement of the treatment period. 97 WARM-UP AND JOINT EXERCISES .1. Head: 1. Head slowly forward and back 2. " " side to side 10 Repetitions •2. Shoulder: 1. 2. 3. 4. Arm rotations forward " " back Shrug shoulders Shoulder blades together at back 10 II II II 3. , Trunk: 1. Twist the shoulders and head from side to side arms hanging loose 20 2. Left knee to left blbow right knee to right elbow 10 3. Left knee to right elbow twist the trunk 10 Right knee to left elbow twist the trunk 10 4. Hip rotations to the left, to the right 10 Knee: Bend the legs, hands covering the knees rotate to the left, to the right 10 Ankle: 1. Standing on one foot rotate the other foot to the left, to the right 2. Same position, foot down and up 3. " " " left, right 4. Change the legs and repeat numbers 1, 2 and 3 10 10 10 98 S p e c i f i c Muscle Stretching Exercises for the Upper and Lower Leg £>. Quadriceps: Start i n the s i t t i n g p o s i t i o n with one leg stretched out, the other leg bent and tucked tc your side> foot i n plantar f l e x i o n . S i t i n that p o s i t i o n for 30 seconds. To increase the i n t e n s i t y , twist to the opposite side of the leg which i s bent and lean back on your side with your arms above your head. Keep i n t h i s p o s i t i o n a further 30 seconds and then repeat with the other l e g . Repeat twice each l e g . 7. Hamstrings: Adjacent to a bench or other s u i t a b l e appurtenance, i n the standing p o s i t i o n r a i s e one leg i n a f u l l y extended p o s i t i o n , u n t i l i t i s between hip and shoulder height, depending on your f l e x i b i l i t y , place the extended leg upon the bench. Hold the toes with the hand on the same side of the leg and gently ease the foot toward you, r e l a x i n g the leg muscles as you do so. Maintain the p o s i t i o n f o r one minute then change l e g s . Repeat twice each l e g . 8. Hamstring-Quadriceps: S t a r t i n a standing p o s i t i o n and assume a s p l i t streching p o s i t i o n , supporting your weight with both arms and legs. Relax i n t h i s p o s i t i o n f o r 30 seconds then r a i s e your body s l i g h t l y by using your arms and isometric leg contraction, then allow g r a v i t y to s t r e t c h both hamstring and quadricep for a further 30 seconds. Reverse the s p l i t . Two r e p e t i t i o n s each l e g . .9. Gastrocnemius-Tibialis A n t e r i o r : Stand i n front of a w a l l . Place a board 10 mm (4 inches) i n depth on the f l o o r . With your toes on the board and your heels on the ground, slowly r a i s e up on your toes, then relax. Repeat for one minute. 10. Gastrocnemius-Soleus-Achilles: Stand i n front, of a wall approximately 90 mm (3 feet) away, legs s p l i t . Lean on the wall, keeping your heels f i x e d on the f l o o r . Stay i n that p o s i t i o n 30 seconds. (Gastrocnemius-Soleus S t r e t c h ) . Keep the same p o s i t i o n , bend the knee, 30 seconds. ( A c h i l l e s s t r e t c h ) . Repeat other l e g . Two r e p e t i t i o n s each l e g . 9 9 CIRCUIT TRAINING EXERCISES Sit-up - The subject l i e s with t h e i r back on the f l o o r , knees bent so that a piece of paper can be j u s t about held behind the knees, and with the arms folded across the chest. The subject s i t s up u n t i l t h e i r forearm touches the knee. The exercise i s repeated the required number of times. Upright Rowing - The subject s e l e c t s the appropriate weight which i s about 3 0 ? o of h i s weight. The subject stands erect, grasping the bar with the hands about s i x inches apart, r e s t i n g on the thighs. The bar i s p u l l e d up near the chin keeping the elbows above the hands at a l l times. The bar i s then lowered to the s t a r t i n g p o s i t i o n . The exercise i s repeated the required number of times. Leg Press - The Universal apparatus i s needed for t h i s exercise. The subject s e l e c t s the appropriate weight which should be approxi-mately 7 0 ? o of t h e i r body weight. The subject s i t s down at the leg press s t a t i o n . The legs are extended f u l l y at the knee j o i n t , and returned to the s t a r t i n g p o s i t i o n with c o n t r o l of the weights (Universal A t h l e t i c Sales Co., 1 9 7 2 ) . S t a i r Running - Using the bleachers i n the gym the subject runs up to the top and down again, t h i s c o n s t i t u t e s one r e p e t i t i o n . 2 0 Metre Wind Sprints - This exercise may be arranged as an indoor or out-door a c t i v i t y . The distance of 2 0 Metres i s repeated as many times as required. Endurance' Run - The distance around the goal posts on the school f i e l d has been measured at 3 0 0 Metres, therefore an endurance run may be c a l c u l a t e d as a m u l t i p l i c a t i o n of t h i s distance,-for example:. -4 x 3 0 0 Metres. M i l i t a r y Press - A b a r b e l l weighing 50% of the subject's weight i s l i f t e d to a position.about chin height, with palms faced forward. The upper arm extensions ( t r i c e p s ) are flexed and the bar l i f t e d above the head. Repeat the required number of r e p e t i t i o n s . Squat Thrusts - The subject stands upright. The exercise begins with the legs bending u n t i l the hands touch the ground, the legs are then propelled backwards, the weight taken on the hands, the legs then return to t h e i r o r i g i n a l p o s i t i o n and the subject stands up. Repeat the required number of r e p e t i t i o n s . CIRCUIT TRAINING PROGRAMME AND DAILY RECORD Station Exercise CIRCUIT A Week 0-2 May 3-14 DAYS CIRCUIT B Week 3-4 May 17-28 DAYS CIRCUIT C % Week 5-6 BODY May 31-June 11 WEIGHT DAYS Sets REPS 1 2 3 4 5 Sets REPS 1 2 3 4 5 Sets REPS 1 2 3 4 5 1 300 metres (Endurance) 1 4 1 6 1 8 2 20 metre (Sprint) 1 6 1 8 1 10 3 Sit-up 3 10 3 15 3 20 4 M i l i t a r y Press 3 8 3 10 3 12 50 5 Upright Rowing' 3 8 3 10 3 12 30 6 Leg Press 3 8 3 10 3 12 70 7 Squat Thrust 3 3 10 3 15 3 20 8 S t a i r Climb 3 8 3 10 3 12 Time Allowance for c i r c u i t (mins.) 35 35 35 101 Lesson Plan - Gym Games Warm-up: Identical exercises to c i r c u i t training. F l e x i b i l i t y : Identical exercises to c i r c u i t training. Gym Games: Gym games consist of a number of indoor games which appear to be played more for enjoyment than for improvement in physical fitness. . Some of the games, of which there are nine, w i l l be reported two, possibly three times depending on time constraints. Proposed Gym Games 1. Crab Soccer 2." Skittle Soccer 3. Floor Hockey 4. Dodge Ball 5. British Bulldog 6. Murder Ball 7. Vowling Relay 8. European Handball 9. Indoor Track and Field Meet 102 GYM GAMES Crab Soccer - Equipment: 1 Soccer B a l l The c l a s s i s divided i n t o two teams. Each team i s then sub-divided i n t o teams of four, two teams of four are then designated the crabs and the remaining teams of four are assigned goal-keeping duties. The goalkeepers go to each end of the gym and the crabs p o s i t i o n themselves inbetween the goalkeepers crawling around on t h e i r hands and feet, backs to the f l o o r . The goalkeepers e i t h e r l i n k arms or hold hands forming a l i n e across the end of the gym, past which the crabs have to kick a Soccer b a l l , to score a goal. Only the people on the end of the goalkeep l i n e may handle the b a l l , the others have to e i t h e r kick i t or head i t . One or more of the teams (goalkeepers or crabs) reverse r o l e s every three or four minutes. A l l c l a s s members are involved a l l the time. Most goals wins. Floor Hockey - Equipment: Hockey s t i c k s , goal nets, leather puck or b a l l Normal hockey s t i c k s and a leather puck or b a l l are used. The game i s known under another name as st r e e t hockey. Two teams are formed and subdivided i n t o two s h i f t s . S h i f t s change every f i v e minutes. The purpose of the game i s to score goals. The most goals wins. Dodge B a l l - Equipment: V o l l e y b a l l s The c l a s s i s divided i n t o two teams i n the gymnasium. Each side has i t s own home t e r r i t o r y which co n s i s t s of an area one t h i r d of the gym, the other t h i r d i s no-mans-land. Each side i s per-mitted to use i t s own area plus no-mans-land. The idea i s to throw the v o l l e y b a l l and h i t an opposing player below the waist at which point that player r e t i r e s . The l a s t team i n wins. B r i t i s h Bulldog - Equipment: None The c l a s s i s divided i n t o two teams. The majority, team A, l i n e s up at one side of the gym, while team B, the r a b b i t s , who number 2 or 3 students, attempt to stop team A ge t t i n g from one side of the gymnasium to the other. Each time the r a b b i t s catch a member of team A they have to l i f t him o f f the ground, at t h i s point the team A member becomes a'rabbit. Gradually the number of r a b b i t s increases and team A members decrease. The l a s t team A member to be caught i s the winner. 103 Murder B a l l - Equipment: 2 mats, 1 Medicine B a l l . The c l a s s i s divided into two. The mats are placed approximately at the top of each key on the bask e t b a l l court. The b a l l i s i n i t i a l l y placed i n the middle of the bask e t b a l l court and the teams are at opposite ends of the gymnasium. At the whistle each team has four minutes to get the medicine b a l l on the opposing mat, to score a goal. Any number of rounds could constitute a game. S k i t t l e Soccer - Equipment: 4 s k i t t l e s , 2 soccer b a l l s The c l a s s i s divided into four, to make teams of f i v e . Two basketball courts are used to mark the boundaries. A s k i t t l e i s placed at the top of each of the four keys. The idea i s to score a goal by knocking the s k i t t l e over. No permanent goal-keeper i s allowed. Goalkeepers may only stop the b a l l with t h e i r f e e t . Bowling Relay - Equipment: 4 s k i t t l e s , 4 soccer or broomballs The c l a s s i s divided i n t o four to make teams of f i v e . The s k i t t l e s are placed 20 metres from a base l i n e . P a r t i c i p a n t s are allowed as many r o l l s as they wish to knock down the s k i t t l e . Each p a r t i c i p a n t has to knock down the s k i t t l e to score. The f i r s t team to f i n i s h wins the game. European Handball - Equipment: 1 European Handball or V o l l e y b a l l This game i s an adaptation of the European game and consists of two equally divided teams. Hcckey goals are placed at each end of the gym, goalkeepers are allowed. The game i s a passing game s i m i l a r to Basketball however the players are only allowed four steps while c a r r y i n g the b a l l . There i s a no shooting area approximately the s i z e of the basketball key i n front of each goal. To score you may throw the b a l l or p r o p e l l i t i n any way using the .hand-.or f i s t , , i n t o the goal. . Highest-score wins. A l l c l a s s members are involved. 104 . APPENDIX B ANTHROPOMETRIC MEASURES AND TESTS OF PHYSICAL FITNESS' a) Standing Height Equipment Metric measuring tape, p l a s t i c 90 degree square. Procedure The subject who i s i n bare or stocking feet should stand with his back to the measuring tape, heels together, and feet pointing comfortably out. The subject's back should be as s t r a i g h t as possib l e , which may be achieved by rounding or rela x i n g the shoulders and manipulating the posture. The subject should s t r e t c h upward to the f u l l e s t extent, aided by gentle t r a c t i o n by the measurer on the mastoid processes. With the subject i n t h i s p o s i t i o n , he i s then i n s t r u c t e d to "take a deep breath and stand t a l l " . He i s then t o l d to "relax" and the measurement i s taken by plac i n g the t r i a n g l e against the tape and r e s t i n g on the subject's head. The measurement should be recorded to the nearest 0.5cm. Controls Attach the measuring tape to a wall so that the zero point of the tape r e s t s against the f l o o r . An area without baseboard mouldings should be located for t h i s item and a hard surfaced f l o o r i s required. Make c e r t a i n that the subject's heels do not leave the f l o o r . S t r i p s of tape may be placed on the f l o o r to provide e a s i l y i d e n t i f i a b l e l o c a -tions for the subjects to place t h e i r feet. b) Body Weight Equipment Balance or spring s c a l e Procedure The subject who i s i n l i g h t gymnasium dress i s asked to stand i n the middle of the sc a l e platform and to be as s t i l l as possible. Weight should be evenly d i s t r i b u t e d on both feet. The weight should be measured and recorded to the nearest 0.1 kg. Canadian Association for Health Physical Education and Recreation Fitness Performance Test Manual, Ottawa, 1980. PERSONAL DATA GYM GAMES GROUP Subject Height (cm) (years) 13 14 Weight (kg) (years) 13 14 Fat % of Body Weight (years) 13 14 Percentile Height Weight (years) 13 14 13 14 1 167.6 59.0 10.0 60 70 2 177.8 71.6 18.0 95 95 3 160.1 56.6 21.0 30 60 4 165.1 44.4 10.0 80 35 5 162.5 61.2 • •. v. • - 21.0 70 90 6 165.1 72.5 18.0 80 95 7 8 165.1 155.0 46.2 43.0 12.0 8.0 50 15 25 15 9 175.3 58.0 12.0 95 85 10 170.2 59.8 7.0 70 70 11 162.6 50.7 14.0 40 35 12 165.1 55.3 11.0 50 55 13 165.0 46.2 9.0 80 45 14 175.2 64.8 10.0 90 85 15 155.0 44.0 14.0 35 35 16 152.4 40.8 9.0 10 10 17 160.0 68.0 20.0 30 90 18 152.4 47.6 13.0 25 50 19 170.2 64.0 10.0 70 85 20 167.6 65.7 26.0 60 85 21 147.3 40.3 11.0 . 10 20 22 167.6 55.3 11.0 60. 55 i. 1287.7 2316.5 414.2 800.8 108.0 187.0 475.0 730.0 455.0 835 160.96 165.46 51.78 57.2 13.5 13.36 59.38 52.14 56.88 59 SD 8.32' 6.83 10.32 9.07 3.84 5.47 29.31 24.47 27.03 27 X2 69.25 46.63 106.52 82.26 14.75 29.94 85.90 598.98 730 .'86 758 PERSONAL DATA CIRCUIT TRAINING GROUP • S u b j e c t H e i g h t W e i g h t F a t % o f P e r c e n t i l e (cm) (kg) Body Weight Height Weight (years) (years) (years) (years) . 13 14 . 13 14 13 14 13 14 13 14 1 162.6 47.1 9.0 40 25 2 157.5 44.4 11.0 20 15 3 165.1 50.3 11.0 50 35 4 170.2 46.7 5.0 70 25 5 175.3 77.9 18.0 95 95 6 137.2 32.6 8.0 5 5 7 170.2 64.3 13.0 70 85 8 172.7 59.8 12.0 80 70 9 162.6 60.7 16.0 40 75 10 170.2 52.1 10.0 70 45 11 167.6 49.8 9.0 60 35 12 162.6 55.7 14.0 70 80 13 162.6 50.7 14.0 70 65 14 163.9 50.4 10.0 45 35 15 165.1 58.0 12.0 50 65 16 165.1 49.4 7.0 50 35 17 165.1 73.4 25.0 50 95 18 170.2 50.3 8.0 70 35 19 172.7 58.9 11.0 85 70 20 162.6 44.4 11.0 70 35 21 167.6 54.4 11.0 85 75 22 169.8 64.7 15.0 90 95 1137.7 2500.8 380.4 815.6 91.0 169.0 485.0 850.0 450.0 745 X 162.53 166.72 54.34 54.37 13.0 11.27 69.29 56.66 64.29 49 11.23 4.15 13.36 7.64 3.02 4.45 27.96 16.90 30.76 23 126.18 17.21 178.42 58.31 9.14 19.80 781.63 285.56 945.92 568 107 CANADIAN ASSOCIATION PHYSICAL EDUCATION AND RECREATION NORMS HEIGHT (cm) - BOYS AGES (Years) P e r c e n t i l e 13 14 95 172 178 90 170 175 85 167 173 80 165 172 75 164 171 70 163 170 65 162 169 60 161 168 55 159 166 50 158 165 45 157 164 40 156 163 35 155 161 30 154 160 25 153 159 20 151 . 157 15 149 155 10 147 153 5 144 149 Mean: 158.3 164.6 Standard Deviation: 8.6 8.9 Sample: 470 464 CANADIAN ASSOCIATION PHYSICAL EDUCATION AND RECREATION NORMS WEIGHT (kg) _ BOYS Pe r c e n t i l e AGES (Years) • 13 ' 14 95 65.0 74.8 90 60.0 68.8 85 58.0 65.5 80 55.1 62.9 75 54.0 61.0 70 52.5 59.2 65 51.0 58.0 60 49.5 56.3 55 48.4 55.2 50 47.5 53.4 45 46.1 52.0 40 45.0 51.3 35 44.0 50.0 30 42.5 48.4 25 41.3 47.0 20 40.1 45.5 15 38.5 44.0 10 37.0 41.9 5 34.8 38.9 48.3 54.7 9.5 10.9 467 459 Mean Standard Deviation: Sample: 109 CANADIAN ASSOCIATION PHYSICAL HEALTH EDUCATION RECREATION (C.A.H.P.E.R. TEST) THE ONE MINUTE SPEED SIT-UPS Gymnastics mat and stopwatch. The subject assumes a back-lying p o s i t i o n on the mat, f i n g e r s i n t e r l a c e d behind h i s head. The knees are bent at an angle of approximately 60 degrees and the feet are held f l a t on the f l o o r by a partner. The subject s i t s up and touches both elbows to h i s knees. He then returns to the s t a r t i n g p o s i t i o n so that the hands behind the neck contact the mat. The score i s the number of complete executions performed i n 60 seconds. Count when the elbows touch the knees. Allow one t r i a l . The partner s i t s on the performer's feet with h i s legs spread to each side of the performer. He places h i s hands on.the calves of the subject's legs j u s t below the back of the knee to prevent the subject from s l i d i n g and to maintain the s t a r t i n g p o s i t i o n of the legs throughout the t e s t . The subject's buttocks must remain on the f l o o r at a l l times (no rocking). The hands must-contact the mat with each execution. The s i t - u p s do not need to be performed continuously. 110 THE FLEXED ARM HANG Equipment: A doorway gym bar or h o r i z o n t a l bar placed approximately 1.8m from the f l o o r ; a bench or ch a i r , a stopwatch, and a mat to be placed under the bar. Start The subject takes a reverse grip on the bar (palms toward f a c e ) . He i s a s s i s t e d to the p o s i t i o n on the bar so that h i s eyes are at the l e v e l of the bar. The arms are f u l l y bent. Hands are shoulder width apart. Performance The subject holds himself i n t h i s hanging p o s i t i o n as long as he i s able. Scoring The t o t a l period of time that the subject can maintain the exact p o s i t i o n i s recorded to the nearest second. Controls The subject must keep the eyes at the l e v e l of the bar. When the subject's head drops below the bar, the tes t i s terminated. One t r i a l i s allowed. The t e s t e r i n d i c a t e s v e r b a l l y when 30 seconds have elapsed and each 5 seconds t h e r e a f t e r . Dry .the bar a f t e r each.subject has performed. Hand chalk or towel should be a v a i l a b l e . Do not allow the subject's head to come forward to contact the bar. A v e r t i c a l p o s i t i o n must be maintained. I l l THE STANDING LONG JUMP Equipment A 3 metre e n s o l i t e or hard surface tumbling mat and a tape measure. Star t The subject assumes a p o s i t i o n with the feet s l i g h t l y apart and the toes behind the take-off l i n e . Performance The hips, knees and ankles should be bent enough so that the subject can vigorously push with h i s legs, and swing with his arms to a s s i s t i n performing as well as possible. The subject should be encouraged to make the down, up and forward drive as continuous as p o s s i b l e . Scoring Measurement i s i n cm to the nearest cm from the take-off l i n e to the heel of the foot nearest the take-off l i n e . A metre s t i c k should be placed behind the heels and extending perpendicularly across the measuring tape. Controls The suggested take-off angle should be between 30 and 45 degrees. Two v a l i d t r i a l s are allowed, the better t r i a l recorded. The measurement recorded on the f i r s t t r i a l should be indicated to the performer. If any part of the body touches behind the heels, the jump w i l l be considered i n v a l i d . Two p r a c t i c e t r i a l s are allowed. Subjects should not be required to perform two measured t r i a l s i n succession, a r o t a t i o n through the group being tested i s suggested. The s t a r t i n g l i n e i s located on the mat. The measuring tape should be located o f f centre on the r i g h t side of the mat. 112 THE SHUTTLE RUN Equipment Three wooden blocks (5cm x 7.6cm x 7.6 cm) and a stopwatch c a l i b r a t e d to one-tenth of a second. One block i s placed beside the subject on the s t a r t i n g l i n e and two blocks placed on the l i n e 10m away. The space a l l o t t e d to the s h u t t l e run should allow adequate running area beyond the f i r s t l i n e . Start The subject l i e s face down, hands at the sides of the chest and the forehead on the s t a r t i n g l i n e . Performance On the s i g n a l , the subject jumps to h i s feet and runs 10m to the l i n e , picks up one block of wood and returns to the s t a r t l i n e . The subject sets the block he i s carry i n g down across the l i n e , picks up another wood block and returns to the l i n e 10m away from where he exchanges the block he i s carrying for another and then runs back across the f i n i s h l i n e . Scoring Measurement i s i n seconds to the nearest tenth of a second from the s t a r t i n g s i g n a l u n t i l the subject's chest crosses the f i n i s h l i n e . Controls The te s t should be taken i n gym shoes or barefoot. A 'ready' warning s i g n a l i s given p r i o r to the s t a r t i n g s i g n a l . Two t r i a l s with s u f f i c i e n t r e s t between are allowed and the better t r i a l i s recorded. When demonstrating t h i s item i n d i c a t e that rapid movement of the feet to stop and s t a r t i n a new d i r e c t i o n i s most e f f i c i e n t . Two subjects may be tested simultaneously. 113 THE 50 METRE PUN Equipment A 50m Straightaway with markers or stakes placed at the s t a r t and the f i n i s h l i n e ; a stopwatch c a l i b r a t e d to one-tenth of a second and a s t a r t i n g f l a g . Start A standing p o s i t i o n i s assumed. Performance On the s t a r t i n g s i g n a l , 'read', 'go', the s t a r t e r drops the f l a g and the runner s p r i n t s the 50m distance as fast as he can. Scoring The elapsed time from the s t a r t i n g s i g n a l to the passage of the runner's chest across the f i n i s h l i n e i s recorded to the nearest tenth of a second. Controls The t e s t i s performed i n gym shoes. Only one runner i s tested at a time on a course, but one t e s t e r may time two runners on adjacent courses with a s p l i t timer or two stopwatches. Students should be i n s t r u c t e d to run past a marker located 5 metres beyond the "actual f i n i s h l i n e . 114 THE ENDURANCE RUN Equipment a 50m square with markers or stakes placed at each of the corners, a stopwatch and a s t a r t i n g f l a g . S t a r t A standing p o s i t i o n i s assumed. Performance The subject i s informed of the number of laps required for his age group. On the s t a r t i n g s i g n a l the subject runs the required number of laps to complete the corre c t distance. ages 6-9 4 laps ( 800m) ages 10-12 8 laps (1600m) ages 13-17 12 laps (2400m) -Scoring The elapsed time from the s t a r t i n g s i g n a l to the passage of the runner's chest across the f i n i s h l i n e i s recorded to the nearest second. Controls Subjects may s t a r t from any of the four corners of the square at which a timer i s s i t u a t e d . The t e s t i s performed i n gym shoes. A maximum of eight runners may be timed by one timer. A l l subjects performing t h i s item must be running the same number of laps. Subjects should be encouraged to complete the distance i n as short a time as possible but also informed that they may walk or stop and rest i f necessary. 115 CANADIAN ASSOCIATION FOR HEALTH PHYSICAL EDUCATION AND RECREATION -FITNESS PERFORMANCE II TEST ITEMS GYM GAMES GROUP RESULTS (PRETEST) Subject Shuttle Standing Sit-up Flexed 50 Metre 2400 Metre Run Long Jump Arm Hang Sprint Endurance (sec) (cm) (sec) (sec) - Run (min/sec) 1 9.0 220 49 66 7.2 11.42 2 9.7 184 45 48 7.6 11.04 . 3 10.3 180 44 59 7.7 10.56 4 10.0 190 50 . 65 7.3 11.08 5 10.5 150 60 50 8.4 12.09 6 11.0 165 48 63 8.7 12.15 7 11.9 142 32 43 8.2 11.48 8 9.0 226 38 65 7.2 12.19 9 11.0 197 55 74 10.8 11.58 10 10.0 210 50 69 7.2 12.19 11 9.7 193 53 70 7.6 11.16 12 10.0 170 48 24 8.4 12.04 13 10.5 210 52 61 8.3 11.52 14 9.0 195 45 49 7.7 11.02 15 10.0 182 52 48 7.7 12.36 • 16 9.0 207 25 27 7.9 12.41 17 9.7 200 51 47 7.9 11.55 18 10.0 185 46 64 8.0 12.19 19 9.0 250 45 60 7.1 11.02 20 10.6 183 48 38 7.9 13.17 21 10.7 165 39 59 • 8.4 12.49 22 10.0 185 30 29 7.9 11.26 220.6 4189.0 1005.0 1178.0 175.1 262.00 X 10.03 190.41 45.68 53.55 7.96 12.30 0.75 24.23 8.22 14.10 0.76 0.63 X 1 0.56 ' 587.15 67.58 198.70 0.58 0.39 116 CANADIAN ASSOCIATION FOR HEALTH PHYSICAL EDUCATION AND RECREATION FITNESS PERFORMANCE II TEST ITEMS GYM GAMES GROUP RESULTS (POSTTEST) Subject .Shuttle Standing -Sit-up •Flexed 50 Metre 2400 Metre Run Long Jump Arm Hang Sprint Endurance (sec) (cm) (sec) (sec) Run (min/sec) 1 9.8 198 65 65 6.9 10.10 2 10.2 195 46 64 7.2 11.32 3 10.0 - 197 46 58 7.2 11.02 4 10.3 199 60 90 7.6 11.04 5 10.2 168 60 35 8.2 11.01 6 10.3 170 37 54 8.1 11.02 7 11.1 159 46 60 7.7 10.58 8 9.9 210 50 80 7.3 11.30 9 9.9 201 57 77 7.6 10.57 10 10.2 210 50 59 7.6 11.31 11 9.7 210 61 66 7.5 10.05 12 10.8 187 59 68 8.1 10.33 13 10.2 211 60 42 7.7 10.45 14 9.7 209 53 60 7.0 10.00 15 10.2 • 189 58 - 59 7.4 10.39 16 11.0 193 41 34 7.8 11.30 17 10.4 180 52 32 7.6 10.54 18 10.2 186 47 51 ' 7.8 11.45 19 9.7 237 50 100 6.5 10.00 20 ' 11.0 170 42 39 8.7 12.34 21 10.1 173 52 30 8.4 11.37 22 9.7 210 62. 66 7.1 10.12 i. 224.6 4270.0 1154.0 1289.0 167.0 241.40 10.21 194.10 52.45 58.59 7.59 11.-00 0.42 18.63 7.51 18.08 0.50 0.56 X 1 0.18 347.08 56.34 . 327.06 0.25 0.32 117 CANADIAN ASSOCIATION FOR HEALTH PHYSICAL EDUCATION AND RECREATION FITNESS PERFORMANCE I I TEST ITEMS CIRCUIT TRAINING GROUP RESULTS (PRETEST) j b j e c t S h u t t l e Standing S i t - u p Flexed 50 Metre 2400 Metre Run Long Jump Arm Hang S p r i n t Endurance (sec) (cm) (sec) (sec) Run (min/sec) 1 12.5 205 58 60 7.5 11.21 2 12.1 190 . 57 79 8.0 10.36 3 12.1 190 38 32 7.4 11.12 4 11.6 215 37 33 7.2 12.10 5 11.0 205 33 15 7.4 12.35 6 11.8 180 39 45 8.4 11.22 7 10.7 210 50 56 7.1 11.05 8 12.1 200 44 50 7.6 10.29 9 11.5 190 47 : 49 7.9 11.36 10 13.3 190 •50 48 9.9 12.19 11 13.3 210 62 58 8.0 10.44 12 10.7 190 51 55 7.4 10.47 13 10.9 225 70 78 7.0 11.06 14 10.7 215 60 70 6.7 9.56 15 11.4 210 52 32 8.1 11.06 16 9.4 200 52 65 8.0 12.05 17 11.1 173 43 11 8.6 12.32 18 12.1 195 48 69 8.1 11.21 19 . 9.0 210 58 75 6.9 10.07 20 11.6 190 61 26 7.5 11.25 21 - 11.9 - 220 58 73 7.6 10.40 22 11.2 205 64 . 79 7.1 10.03 £ 249.8 4418.0 1132.0 1158.0 169.4 ^247.00 X 11.35 / 200.82 ' 51.45 52.64 7.7 11.22 0.92 ' 12.95 •9.50 20.19 0.68 0.78 0.85 167.69 90.25 407.60 0.46 0.61 118 CANADIAN ASSOCIATION FOR HEALTH PHYSICAL EDUCATION AND RECREATION FITNESS PERFORMANCE II TEST ITEMS CIRCUIT TRAINING GROUP RESULTS (POSTTEST) Subject Shuttle Standing Sit-up Flexed 50 Metre 2400 Metre Run Long Jump Arm Hang Sprint Endurance (sec) (cm) (sec) (sec) (min/sec) 1 10.1 195 62 72 7.6 11.00 2 11.1 210 60 92 7.7 10.26 3 10.5 235 38 33 7.3 9.56 4 10.3 198 38 57 7.9 10.26 5 10.7 203 39 25 7.2 12.16 6 11.0 170 55 121 8.0 10.22 7 10.1 212 54 58 6.7 10.19 8 10.2 210 54 61 7.1 10.15 9 10.9 185 58 45 7.7 10.27 10 11.3 197 56 60 7.9 11.26 11 11.1 . 190 72 67 8.2 10.05 12 11.4 185 48 50 7.5 12.23 13 9.6 225 73 93 7.0 10.55 14 10.4 227 71 95 6.4 9.21 15 10.2 215 60 55 8.1 10.15 16 11.5 . 185 55 64 7.9 10.21 17 12.4 170 30 18 8.2 12.33 18 - 10.6 200 57 89 7.7 11.56 19 9.7 213 62 90 6.9 9.38 20 10.3 190 55 36 7.2 10.27 21 10.2 215 50 66 7.4 10.16 22 9.6 217 68 84 7.1 9.38 £ 233.42 4447.0 1215.00 1431.0 164.78 226.59 X 10.61 202.13 55.23 - 65.05 7.49 10.30 0.67 17.13 11.22 24.97 . 0.49 0.88 0.44 293.30 125.81 623.59 0.24 0.78 119 A COMPARISON OF MEANS AND STANDARD DEVIATIONS FOR THE GYM GAMES GROUP, CIRCUIT TRAINING GROUP AND C.A.H.P.E.R. Physical Fitness Sub-Domain Gym Games — S X 5D C i r c u i t T r a i n i n X g SD . C.A.H J .P.E.R. SD Sit-ups ( t o t a l ) 52.45 '7.51 55.23 11.22 41.30 9.00 Flexed Arm Hang (sec.) 58.59 18.08 65.05 24.97 48.00 20.20 Shuttle Run (sec.) 10.21 0.42 • 10.61 0.67 11.80 0.90 Standing Long Jump (cm). 194.10 18.63 202.13 17.13 187.60 27.70 50 Metre Sprint (sec.) 7.59 0.50 7.49 0.49 8.10 0.70 2400 Metre Endurance Run (min-sec.) 11.00 0.56 10.30 0.88 12.46 2.10 120 CANADIAN ASSOCIATION PHYSICAL EDUCATION AND RECREATION NORMS FOR BOYS AGE: 13 Percentile Shuttle Standing Flexed 50 2400 Run Long Jump Sit-up Arm Hang Metres Metres (sec) (cm) (sec) . .(sec) . (min-sec) 95 10.9 211 56 77.5 7.4 10:40 90 11.2 205 53 70.8 7.6 11:07 85 11.4 200 51 67.5 7.7 11:21 80 11.5 195 49 62.3 7.8 11:37 75 11.6 193 48 59.6 7.9 11:49 70 11.7 189 46 55.5 8.0 12:00 65 11.8 185 45 51.4 8.1 12:13 60 11.9 183 44 47.8 8.2 12:22 55 12.0 180 43 44.7 8.3 12:36 50 12.1 177 41 41.4 . 8.4 12:51 45 12.2 173 40 39.5 8.5 13:08 40 12.4 170 39 35.8 8.6 13:21 35 12.5 167 38 33.0 8.7 13:40 30 12.7 164 37 29.3 8.8 13:57 25 12.9 159 35 25.7 8.9 14:27 20 13.1 156 34 22.3 9.0 15:01 15 13.5 151 32 18.8 9.2 15:35 10 13.7 146 29 17.4 9.5 16:32 5 14.3 134 25 7.9 9.8 18:03 Mean: 12.3 174.8 41.2 42.9 8.5 13:22 Standard Deviation: 1.0 26.3 9.8 21.9 0.9 2:22 Sample: 469. 473 475 469 434 409 121 CANADIAN ASSOCIATION PHYSICAL EDUCATION AND RECREATION NORMS FOR BOYS AGE: 14 Shuttle Standing Flexed 50 2400 Percentile Run Long Jump Sit-up Arm Hang Metres Metres (sec) (cm) (sec) (sec) (min-sec) 95 10.6 224 56 80.8 7.2 9:57 90 10.7 217 53 72.5 7.3 10:21 85 10.9 213 50 66.9 7.4 10:43 80 11.0 209 49 63.1 7.5 11:00 75 11.2 206 47 .61.1 7.6 11:09 70 11.3 203 46 59.6 7.7 11:22 65 11.4 . 201 45 56.8 7.7 11:34 60 11.5 197 43 54.0 7.8 11:50 55 11.6 193 43 51.6 7.9 12:08 50 11.7 190 42 48.7 8.0 12:16 45 11.8 187 41 45.8 8.1 12:29 40 11.9 185 40 42.7 8.2 12:40 35 12.0 181 38 39.9 8.3 13:03 30 12.1 178 37 36.3 8.4 13:25 25 12.3 174- 35 33.8 - 8.5 13:51 20 12.5 171 34 31.0 8.6 14:11 15 12.7 166 33 26.8 8.8 14:40 10 13.0 155 30 21.8 8.9 15:26 5 13.5 145 25 12.5 9.2 16:38 Mean: 11.8 187.6 41.3 48.0 8.1 12:46 Standard Deviation: 0.9 27.7 . 9.0 20.2 0.7 2:10 Sample: 461 . 462 .461 458 428 403 122 APPENDIX C MODIFIED CHILDREN'S ATTITUDE TOWARD PHYSICAL ACTIVITY C.A.T P.A. TEST) Introduction The "Attitude Toward Physical A c t i v i t y " questionnaires administered to the students assessed t h e i r values held towards actual p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y . Physical a c t i v i t i e s were defined as, "...games, sports and dance such as: tag, bike r i d i n g , h i k i n g , soccer, swimming, gymnastics and square dancing". If one of the goals of the Physical Education program i s to aid i n the development of p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e s towards p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y , with the a n t i c i p a t i o n that t h i s p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e w i l l contribute to a continuing involvement i n . p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y i n l a t e r years, then an assess-ment r e s t r i c t e d to a t t i t u d e s towards Physical Education i s not s u f f i c i e n t . Thus the necessity to measure values held for both Physical Education and p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y . Inventory D e s c r i p t i o n The a t t i t u d e s held towards Physical Education were measured through several questions on the Student Questionnaires. To measure the a t t i t u d e s held towards p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y , an adaptation of Simon and Smoll's (1974) Childrens' Attitude Towards Physical A c t i v i t y (CATPA) inventory was u t i l i z e d . The CATPA inventory, i n turn, i s a modification for c h i l d r e n of Kenyon's (1968) a t t i t u d e inventory. This inventory was chosen as i t has a strong t h e o r e t i c a l base, a high degree of i n t e r n a l con-sistency, adequate test r e - t e s t r e l i a b i l i t y , and i s commonly used throughout North America and thus comparative data i s a v a i l a b l e . Furthermore, i t i s one of the few a v a i l a b l e instruments that "assesses attitudes-towards ph y s i c a l a c t i v i t y , although there are numerous.scales which attempt to measure at t i t u d e s towards Physical Education. The Kenyon inventory i s based on Kenyon's model of p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y as a multidimensional socio-psychological phenomenon comprised of the following s i x sub-domains: a) a s o c i a l experience ( a c t i v i t i e s whose primary purpose i s to provide a medium for s o c i a l i n t e r c o u r s e ) , b) health and f i t n e s s t h e i r c o n t r i b u t i o n f i t n e s s ) , ( a c t i v i t i e s c h aracterized p r i m a r i l y by to improvement of one's health and physical 123 c) the pursuit of vertigo (physical experiences providing, at some r i s k to the p a r t i c i p a n t , an element of t h r i l l through the medium of speed, a c c e l e r a t i o n , sudden change of d i r e c t i o n or exposure to dangerous s i t u a t i o n s ) , d) an aesthetic experience ( a c t i v i t i e s perceived as possessing beauty or a r t i s t i c q u a l i t i e s ) , e) c a t h a r s i s ( a c t i v i t i e s which provide a release of f r u s t r a t i o n -p r e c i p i t a t i n g tension through some v i c a r i o u s means), and f) an a s c e t i c experience ( a c t i v i t i e s which require long, strenuous, and often p a i n f u l t r a i n i n g and involve s t i f f competition demand-ing a deferment of many g r a t i f i c a t i o n s ) . The CATPA inventory was s i m i l a r l y constructed but with s u b s t a n t i a l modifications i n the wording i n order to bring the l e v e l of reading comprehension to that of fourth through s i x t h grade c h i l d r e n . A d d i t i o n a l modifications were made for t h i s assessment and are d e t a i l e d i n the General Report. The inventory c o n s i s t s of questions (beginning "How do you f e e l about...") which are completed with a phrase describing one of the s i x sub-domains. The responses are made to bi p o l a r a d j e c t i v e p a i r s e.g. happy - sad, on a f i v e point s c a l e . The grade 11 inventory measures a t t i t u d e s i n each of Kenyon's s i x sub-domains: S o c i a l experience - Question 1 and 4 Health and f i t n e s s - Question 2 and 6 Pursuit of v e r t i g o - . Question 3 Aesthetic experience - Question 5 Catharsis - Question 7 Ascetic - Question 8 Each page begins with the question "How do you f e e l about the idea i n the box?", followed by-a d e s c r i p t i v e phrase on p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n physi c a l a c t i v i t y as i t r e l a t e s to a p a r t i c u l a r sub-domain. Students responded to each statement v i a f i v e separate f i v e - p o i n t scales u t i l i z i n g b i - polar a d j e c t i v e p a i r s (see example on following page). Because the d e s c r i p t i v e phrases for two of the sub-domains, s o c i a l experience and • health and f i t n e s s , contained two ideas for which d i f f e r e n t values might be held, each was s p l i t i n t o two questions. 124 MODIFIED CHILDREN'S ATTITUDE TOWARD PHYSICAL ACTIVITY Instructions for Administering i Complete i n s t r u c t i o n s f o r administering the inventory follow. They are to be read aloud to the students. The v i s u a l a i d (below) w i l l be needed. It may be drawn on the blackboard or on a large piece of paper so that the e n t i r e c l a s s can see i t . How do you f e e l about the idea i n the box? REFEREE Always Think About the Idea i n the Box If you do not understand t h i s idea, mark t h i s box | | and go to the next page. 1. Good- Bad 2. Of no Use Not 3. Pleasant -Useful Pleasant 4. Nice Awful 5. Happy Sad (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) 125 ATTITUDE INSTRUCTIONS* This questionnaire i s designed to f i n d out how you f e e l about p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y . Physical a c t i v i t i e s are games, sports, and dance such as tag, soccer, hockey, b a l l e t and fi g u r e skating on i c e . Each one of you has a booklet. Do not open i t yet. Please l i s t e n c a r e f u l l y to the i n s t r u c t i o n s . • '•' At the top of each page i n your booklet there i s a box, and i n the box there i s an idea. Down below the box are f i v e d i f f e r e n t p a i r s of words. You w i l l be marking these word p a i r s to show how you f e e l about the idea. This i s not a t e s t , so there are no r i g h t or wrong answers. Read the idea i n the box, for example, REFEREE. Now go down to the f i r s t p a i r of words - Good - Bad. How do you f e e l about Referees? I f you think that they are very good, you would put a "/".here (mark at the end of the scale by good), or, i f you think that they are very bad, you would put a "y" here (mark at the end of the scale by bad). I f you think that referees are pretty good but not super good you would put a ",/" here (indicate) or i f you thought that referees were sort of bad but not r e a l l y bad you would put a " i / " here ( i n d i c a t e ) . I f you think that . referees are neither good nor bad ( i . e . , a neutral f e e l i n g ) then put a ",/" i n the middle. -If you do not understand the idea i n the box put a " v ^ " i n the I do not understand box on the middle of the page. Then go to the next page. If you understand the idea i n the box but not the word p a i r , leave the word p a i r l i n e blank and go on to the next word p a i r . Do you have any questions? It i s important for you to remember several things. F i r s t of a l l , put your r i g h t i n the middle of the space - not on top of the dots. Second, there are f i v e p a i r s of words on each page, so how many "„/"'s w i l l you have on each page? (Five) When I t e l l you to begin, go through the booklet page by page. Read the idea i n the box at the top of the page and f i l l i n how you f e e l about a l l of the word p a i r s before you go on to the next page; Don't go back tc a page a f t e r you have f i n i s h e d i t ; and don't t r y to remember how you answered the other pages. Think about each word p a i r by i t s e l f . As you go through the booklet go f a i r l y q u i c k l y ; don't worry or think too long about any word p a i r . Mark the f i r s t thing that comes in t o your mind, but don't be c a r e l e s s . Remember,-the idea i n the box at the top of each page i s a new idea, so think only about that idea. When you are a l l f i n i s h e d , put down your p e n c i l and go back through the booklet to make sure that you haven't l e f t anything out by mistake. After you have f i n i s h e d checking, turn your booklet over and wait u n t i l everyone i s f i n i s h e d . I f you have any questions r a i s e your hand and I w i l l come around and help you. You may begin. *To be read aloud by the teacher. 126 MODIFIED CHILDREN'S ATTITUDE TOWARD PHYSICAL ACTIVITY Scoring The items are scored using the f i v e point scale shown at the bottom of the t e s t page. To ensure that "5" i s always associated with p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e s and "1" with negative a t t i t u d e s , i t w i l l be necessary to reverse the order of several b i - p o l a r a d j e c t i v e p a i r s . Therefore, for each question, parts 1, 4 and 5 w i l l have to be scored i n reverse. For example: 1. Good • Bad 5 5 4 3 2 1 2. Of no Use . • V Useful 5 1 2 3 4 5 3. Not Pleasant Pleasant 4 1 2 3 4 5 4. Nice • ^ s • Awful 3 5 4 3 2 1 5. Happy Sad 4 5 4 3 2 1 TOTAL 21 The scores can then be added to give a t o t a l score to a maximum of 25. To obtain a., mean score for each sub-domain d i v i d e the score obtained by 5. Using the example above, 21 + 5 = 4.2, g i v i n g 4.2 as the mean value. To obtain the mean score for your c l a s s i n any one sub-domain, add. the mean scores obtained by each student f o r the p a r t i c u l a r sub-domain and di v i d e by. the number of students assessed. These scores can be used i n comparison with p r o v i n c i a l assessment r e s u l t s (see following page). They might a l s o be used to determine any change i n a t t i t u d e over the i n s t r u c t i o n a l year. For t h i s purpose the inventory could be administered i n September and again the following June. 127 MODIFIED CHILDREN'S ATTITUDE TOWARD PHYSICAL ACTIVITY INSTRUCTIONS This questionnaire i s designed to f i n d out how you f e e l about taking part i n p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y . Physical a c t i v i t i e s are games, sports and dance such as tag, bike r i d i n g , h i k i n g , soccer, swimming, gymnastics and square dancing. These p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t i e s may or may not be done as part of your p h y s i c a l education program. At the top of each page i n the booklet there i s a box, and i n the box there i s an idea. Below the box there are f i v e d i f f e r e n t p a i r s of words. You w i l l be marking a %/along the scale between the word p a i r s to show how you f e e l about the idea. This i s not a t e s t . There are no r i g h t or wrong answers. If you do not understand the idea i n the box put a . / i n the I DO NOT UNDERSTAND box at the top of the page. How do you f e e l about the idea i n the box? PHYSICAL ACTIVITY AS A SOCIAL EXPERIENCE Taking part i n p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t i e s which give you a chance to meet new people. Always Think About the Idea i n the Box mark t h i s box • j - ^ j and. go to next page. 1. good '' ' :' : : bad 2. of no use ^ : . . . :, : u s e f u l 3. not pleasant : : : : pleasant 4. nice ji : i : awful 5 happy : : : sad (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) 129 How do you f e e l about the idea i n the box? PHYSICAL ACTIVITY AS A SOCIAL EXPERIENCE Taking part in physical ac t iv i t i e s which give you a chance to be with your friends. Always Think About the Idea i n the Box If you do not understand t h i s idea, mark t h i s box | | and go to next page. 1. good : ••: : : bad 2. of no use : : : useful 3. not pleasant : : : : pleasant 4. nice • ; : : : awful 5. happy ^ . • • •_ sad (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) 130 How do you f e e l about the idea i n the box? PHYSICAL ACTIVITY FOR HEALTH AND FITNESS Taking part i n p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t i e s to make you h e a l t h i e r . Always Think About the Idea i n the Box -If you do not understand t h i s idea, mark t h i s box | [ and go to next page. 1. good : _: bad 2. of no use :. _ : : _ _ useful 3. not pleasant ; : : : pleasant 4. nice : : __: awful 5. happy : ..: : : sad (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) How do you f e e l about the idea i n the box? PHYSICAL ACTIVITY FOR HEALTH AND FITNESS Taking part i n ph y s i c a l a c t i v i t i e s to get Always Think About the Idea i n the Box I f you do not understand t h i s idea, mark t h i s box [ [ and go to next page. • 1. good ; : _ • .: had 2. of no use '• • us e f u l 3. not pleasant : : : :^ ^ pleasa 4. nice ^ : : : ; awful 5 happy ^ : : : : sad (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) 132 How do you f e e l about the idea i n the box? PHYSICAL ACTIVITY AS A THRILL BUT INVOLVING SOME RISK Taking part i n e x c i t i n g p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t i e s that could be dangerous because you move very f a s t and must change d i r e c t i o n quickly. bad useful pleasant awful sad Always Think About the Idea i n the Box I f you do not understand t h i s idea, ma rk t h i s box and go to next page. . good 2. of no use 3. not pleasant 4. nice 5. happy (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) How do you f e e l about the idea i n the box? PHYSICAL ACTIVITY AS THE BEAUTY IN HUMAN MOVEMENT Taking part i n physi c a l a c t i v i t i e s which have b e a u t i f u l and graceful movements. Always Think About the Idea i n the Box I f you do not understand t h i s idea, mark t h i s box t I ' and go to next page t i . good ; ; : • : . • bad 2. of no use : : : : useful 3. not pleasant : : ; ; pleasant 4. - nice : : : : awful 5. happy : ; ; : sad (1) . (2) (3) (4) (5) How do you f e e l about the idea i n the box? PHYSICAL ACTIVITY FOR THE RELEASE OF TENSION Taking part i n p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t i e s to reduce s t r e s s from emotional problems you might have. Always Think About the Idea i n the Box I f you do not understand t h i s idea, mark t h i s box | ^ and go to next page. 1. good : : i bad 2. of no use : : • ; : useful 3. not pleasant : : pleasant 4. nice : : • ; awful 5. happy : ; ; . sad - ^  (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) How do you f e e l about the i d e a i n the box? PHYSICAL ACTIVITY AS LONG AND HARD TRAINING P h y s i c a l a c t i v i t i e s t ha t have long and hard p r a c -t i c e s . To spend t ime i n p r a c t i c e you need to g i ve up o ther t h i n g s you l i k e to do. Always Think About the Idea i n the Box I f you do not understand t h i s i d e a , mark t h i s box } | and go to next page. 1. good ^ ' : ' • ; : ; bad 2 . o f no use : , : • '. . u s e f u l 3 . not p l easan t ; : : ; p l e a s a n t 4 . n i c e ; : ' : : awfu l 5 . happy ; ; : ' r sad (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) 136 MODIFIED CHILDREN'S ATTITUDE TOWARD PHYSICAL ACTIVITY M i n i s t r y of Education Province of B r i t i s h Columbia ATTITUDE INVENTORY . P r o v i n c i a l Results Physical. A c t i v i t y ..Sub-Domain Mean Rank* S o c i a l (a) Taking part i n phys i c a l a c t i v i t i e s which give you a chance to meet new people 4.4 4 S o c i a l (b) Taking part i n p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t i e s which give you a chance to be with your f r i e n d s . 4.6 2 Health and Fitness (a) Taking part i n p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t i e s to make you h e a l t h i e r . 4.5 3 Health and Fit n e s s (b) Taking part i n p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t i e s to get your body i n better c o n d i t i o n . 4.6 1 Vertigo Taking part i n e x c i t i n g p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t i e s that could be dangerous because you move very f a s t and must change d i r e c t i o n quickly. 3.7 7 Aesthetic Taking part i n physical a c t i v i t i e s which have b e a u t i f u l and graceful movements. 3.9 6 Catharsis Taking part i n p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t i e s to reduce s t r e s s from emotional problems you might have. 4.2 5 Ascetic Physical a c t i v i t i e s that have long and hard p r a c t i c e s . To spent time i n p r a c t i c e you need to give up other things you l i k e to do. 3.7 7 * Scores were ranked before the means were rounded o f f , therefore the apparently equivalent means ranked d i f f e r e n t l y . 137 MODIFIED CHILDREN'S ATTITUDE TOWARD PHYSICAL ACTIVITY TEST RESULTS Physical A c t i v i t y Sub-Domain Gym Games Mean Rank* C i r c u i t Training Mean Rank* S o c i a l (a) Taking part i n p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t i e s which give you a chance to meet new people. S o c i a l (b) Taking part i n p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t i e s which give you a chance to be with your f r i e n d s . Health and Fit n e s s (a) Taking part i n p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t i e s to make you h e a l t h i e r . Health and Fit n e s s (b) Taking part i n p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t i e s to get your body i n better condition. Vertigo Taking part i n e x c i t i n g p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t i e s that could be dangerous because you move very f a s t and must change d i r e c t i o n q u i c k l y . Aesthetic Taking.part i n p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t i e s which have b e a u t i f u l and gra c e f u l movements. Catharsis Taking part i n p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t i e s to reduce s t r e s s from emotional problems you might have Asc e t i c Physical a c t i v i t i e s that have long and hard p r a c t i c e s . To spend time i n pr a c t i c e you need to give up other things you l i k e to do. 3.6 3.4 3.7 3.9 3.4 2.3 3.6 2.9 3.6 3.1 3.4 3.6 3.2 1.9 3.4 1.9 * Scores were ranked before the means were rounded o f f , therefore the apparently equivalent means ranked d i f f e r e n t l y . 138 A POSTTEST COMPARISON OF THE MEANS AND STANDARD- DEVIATION FOR THE GYM GAMES GROUP, CIRCUIT'TRAINING GROUP AND C.A.T.P.A. Physical Fitness Sub-Domain Gym Games C i r c u i t Training B r i t i s h Columbia Assessment (1979) C.A.T.P.A. X SD X SD X N/A So c i a l (a) 3.6 0.68 , 3.6 1.06 4.4 S o c i a l (b) 3.4 1.21 3.8 2.06 4.6 Health and Fitness (a) 3.7 1.90 3.4 2.34 4.5 Health and Fitness (b) 3.8 1.68 3.6 1.45 4.6 Vertigo 3.3 3.03 3.2 2.44 3.7 Aesthetic 2.4 2.39 1.7 3.66 3.9 Catharsis 3.6 1.88 3.4 2.61 4.2 Ascetic 2.9 4.32 1.9 3.87 3.7 MODIFIED CHILDREN'S ATTITUDE TOWARD PHYSICAL ACTIVITY PRETEST GYM GAMES GROUP Subject Social Social Health & Health & Vertigo Aesthetic Catharsis Ascetic X X Score (a) » Fitness Fitness Sub-Domains (a) (b) 1 20 19 18 • 18 18 16 20 15 144 18.00 3.60 2 18 16 15 15 14 14 18 15 125 15.62 3.13 3 25 24 22 22 23 20 24 20 180 22.50 4.50 4 18 18 16 14 15 • 15 16 16 128 16.00 3.20 5 23 22 20 20 20 15 22 13 155 19.38 3.88 6 20 18 16 14 16 16 18 18 136 17.00 3.40 7 20 18 18 16 14 14 18 15 133 16.63 3.33 8 25 25 24 24 20 15 24 14 171 21.38 4.28 9 22 23 20 20 23 16 24 16 164 20.50 4.10 10 22 18 18 16 20 15 19 16 144 18.00 3.60 11 25 25 20 20 16 15 25 16 162 20.25 4.05 12 18 17 17 15 19 12 16 10 124 15.50 3.10 13 18 18 15 13 13 . 10 19 10 116 14.50 2.90 14 24 23 20 20 23 15 23 14 162 20.25 4.05 15 25 25 25 24 20 17 24 18 178 22.25 4.45 16 22 21 20 19 17 14 22 14 149 18.62 3.73 17 24 24 20 19 18 12 24 13 154 19.25 3.85 18 24 22 20 19 14 12 23 12 146 18.25 3.65 19 25 25 25 23 23 12 24 18 175 21.88 4.38 20 20 21 18 17 19 17 22 14 148 18.50 3.70 21 19 18 16 14 14 13 18 15 127 15.88 3.18 22 20 20 16 14 18 12 20 11 131 16.38 3.28 477 460 419 396 397 317 463 323 X 21.68 20.91 19.05 18.00 18.05 14.41 21.05 14.68 D X Score 4.34 4.18 3.81 3.60 3.61 2.88 4.21 2.94 Sub-Domain MODIFIED CHILDREN'S ATTITUDE TOWARD PHYSICAL ACTIVITY POSTTEST GYM GAMES GROUP Subject Social Social Health & Health & Vertigo Aesthetic Catharsis Ascetic X X Score (a) (b) Fitness. • Fitness Sub-Domains • (a) ! •(b) 1 17 15 18 19 16 9 15 16 125 15.63 3.13 2 14 14 15- 15 13 12 16 16 115 14.38 2.88 3 23 21 22 24 23 13 21 13 160 20.00 4.00 4 15 16 14 17 14 14 17 18 125 15.63 3.13 5 20 19 21 . • 20 20 14 18 21 153 19.13 3.83 6 16 16 17 . 18 15 9 • 14 14 119 14.88 2.98 7 16 16 16 17 14 12 18 12 121 15.13 3.03 8 22 19 23 23 21 14 . 21 20 163 20.38 4.08 9 18 18 18 ' 20 17 9 19 9 128 16.00 3.20 10 19 18 21 20 19 8 19 13 137 17.13 3.43 11 22 21 23 24 20 14 22 17 163 • 20.38 4.08 12 14 14 13 16 14 10 . 12 10 103 12.88 2.58 13 15 15 16 16 14 12 17 7 112 14.00 2.80 14 20 18 21 23 17 13 18 15 145 18.13 3.63 15 22 19 23 23 20 14 22 20 163 20.38 4.08 16 19 18 18 23 17 12 19 13 139 17.38 3.48 17 20 21 21 21 20 14 18 15 150 18.75 3.75 18 22 19 23 22 20 12 , 20 20 158 19.75 3.95 19 20 19 21 20 19 10 22 19 150 18.75 3.75 20 16 16 17 16 14 14 15 9 117 14.63 2.93 21 , 15 12 14 16 14 10 14 -10 105 13.13 2.63 22 15 13 15 16 13 9 16 8 105 13.13 2.63 z • 400 ' 377 410 429 374 258 393 315 X 18.18 17.14 18.64 19.50 17.00 11.73 17.86 14.32 Y Score 3.64 3.43 3/73 3.90 3.40 2.35 • 3.57 2.86 Sub-Domain MODIFIED CHILDREN'S ATTITUDE TOWARD PHYSICAL ACTIVITY PRETEST CIRCUIT TRAINING GROUP Subject Social Social Health & Health & Vertigo Aesthetic Catharsis Ascetic X X Sco: • (a) (b) Fitness Fitness Sub-Dom; (a) (b) 1 23 24 25 20 20 19 23 20 174 21.75 4.35 2 23 23 25 22 22 22 25 20 182 22.75 4.55 3 20 25 24 16 14 13 10 12 134 16.75 3.35 4 16 19 17 15 17 14 12 11 121 15.13 3.03 5 16 18 16 15 14 12 14 11 116 14.50 2.90 6 18 23 20 15 13 10 13 14 126 15.75 3.15 7 18 20 19 15 14 12 12 10 120 15.00 3.00 8 20 24 22 .19 16 15 14 16 146 18.25 3.65 9 16 19 18 15 18 18 20 16 140 17.50 3.50 10 15 18 16 14 13 10 13 10 109 13.63 2.73 11 16 19 19 13 12 11 10 10 110 13.75 2.75 12 18 19 19 14 15 15 13 14 127 15.88 3.18 13 21 25 24 20 20 17 18 14 159 19.88 3.98 14 19 22 20 19 18 18 20 17 153 19.13 3.83 15 23 25 24 20 20 20 22 18 172 21.50 4.30 16 20 22 21 20 18 17 19 18 155 19.38 3.88 17 17 24 20 19 19 17 18 19 153 19.13 3.83 18 15 18 16 13 13 11 10 10 106 13.25 2.65 19 23 22 24 21 19 17 19 16 161 20.13 4.03 20 22 24 23 21 20 18 19 15 162 • 20.25 4.05 21 21 25 24 19 19 17 18 14 157 19.63 3.93 22 23 23 25 20 18 15 13 12 149 18.63 3.73 423 481 461 385 372 338 355 X 19.23 .21.86 20.95 17.50 16.91 15.36 16.14 X Score 3.85 4.37 4.19 3.50 3.38 3.07 3.23 Sub-Domain MODIFIED CHILDREN'S ATTITUDE TOWARD PHYSICAL ACTIVITY POSTTEST CIRCUIT TRAINING GROUP l U b j e c t S o c i a l Social Health & Health & Vertigo Aesthetic Catharsis Ascetic X X Sco: (a) (b) Fitness Fitness Sub-dom; (a) (b) 1 23 25 20 24 18 .12 19 11 152 19.00 3.80 2 24 25 21 25 19 • 11 21 13 159 19.88 3.98 3 18 22 17 19 • 16 9 16 7 124 15.50 3.10 4 13 16 12 14 13 8 13 6 95 11.88 2.38 5 14 14 15 13 18 11 14 10 109 13.63 2.73 6 16 15 12 15 11 7 12 10 98 12.25 2.45 7 16 18 18 16 15 5 17 8 113 14.13 2.83 8 20 20 16 ' 18 15 6 17 6 118 14.75 2.95 9 14 19 17 16 14 10 19 9 118 14.75 2.95 10 16 18 16 17 17 11 13 12 120 15.00 3.00 11 14 13 12 13 12 14 11 13 102 12.75 2.55 12 15 13 12 14 10 7 11 5 '.87 10.88 2.18 13 18 20 17 19 16 5 •18 7 120 15.00. 3.00 14 20 19 20 22 18 9 19 10 137 17.13 3.43 15 21 22 . 20 20 18 12 20 11 144 18.00 3.60 16 22 20 21 23 19 14 22 14 155 19.38 3.88 17 18 19 20 18 22 11 20 9 137 17.13 3.43 18 13 14 12 14 11 8 11 10 . 93 11.63 2.33 19 22 22 18 21 16 7 17 8 131 16.38 3.28 20 21 ' 22 19 20 19 12 - 19 12 144 18.00 3.60 21 19 20 21 18 20 7 22 5 132 16.50 3.30 22 20 22 20 21 19 9 19 9 139 17.38 3.48 397 418 376 400 356 204 370 205 "X 18.05 19.00 17.09 18.18 16.18 9.27 16.82 9.32 X Score for 3.61 3.80 3.42 3.64 3.24 1.85 3.36 1.86 3D Sub-Domain 143 APPENDIX D SOCIO-ECONOMIC STATUS OF THE SCHOOL WHERE THE STUDY TOOK PLACE At the time when t h i s study took place (Spring 1982) the subject school had a population of approximately 900. students e n r o l l e d i n grade 8 through 12. Students came from various socio-economic backgrounds. The school comprised students from 29 ethnic groups who came from working middle c l a s s f a m i l i e s , however, the.wealthy, and p r o f e s s i o n a l family were represented, as were the single-parent family on welfare. There was no evidence to suggest that there were any r a d i c a l p o l i t i c a l or r e l i g i o u s groups within the school. The school did contain a number of a c t i v e clubs and p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n these and other e x t r a -c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s such as Soccer and Basketball was normal. Students i n the study comprised r e g u l a r l y c onstituted c l a s s e s of grade 8 boys. 

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