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The place of vacuum forming in secondary sculpture and design programs Glen, Barry Willis 1981

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THE PLACE OF VACUUM FORMING IN SECONDARY SCULPTURE AND DESIGN PROGRAMS by BARRY WILLIS GLEN . E d . , The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF , MASTER OF ARTS i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES DEPARTMENT OF VISUAL AND PERFORMING ARTS IN EDUCATION We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g t o the r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA October 1981 (c) B a r r y Wi 11 i s G l e n , 1981 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f the r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o lumbia, I agree t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and s t u d y . I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be g r a n t e d by the Head o f my Department o r by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Department o f VISUAL AND PERFORMING ARTS IN EDUCATION The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia 2075 Wesbrook Place Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5 October 18, 1981 i i A b s t r a c t The a u t h o r contends t h a t t r a d i t i o n a l methods and m a t e r i a l s used t o t e a c h s c u l p t u r e and d e s i g n a t the secondary l e v e l need t o be supplemented w i t h m a t e r i a l s and p r o c e s s e s w h i c h a r e a p a r t o f e v e r y s t u d e n t ' s contemporary e x p e r i e n c e . The t h e r m a l vacuum f o r m i n g o f p l a s t i c s i s an i n d u s t r i a l p r o c e s s e a s i l y adapted t o f u l f i l l many o f the g o a l s and l e a r n i n g outcomes o f a r t e d u c a t i o n . In the f i r s t p a r t o f the t h e s i s , two q u e s t i o n s a r e posed: "what i s s c u l p t u r e ? " and "what i s t a u g h t as s c u l p t u r e i n the c o n t e x t o f a r t e d u c a t i o n ? " The a u t h o r a r r i v e s a t the answer t o the f i r s t q u e s t i o n t h r o u g h an a n a l y s i s o f two d i v e r g e n t views o f modern s c u l p t u r e c o n t a i n e d i n the w r i t i n g s o f H e r b e r t Read (1964) and R o s a l i n d Krauss ( 1 9 7 7 ) . The w r i t i n g s o f contemporary s c u l p t o r s a r e a l s o c o n s i d e r e d . To answer the second q u e s t i o n , the a u t h o r engages i n a h i s t o r i c a l r e v i e w o f the p l a c e o f s c u l p t u r e and d e s i g n i n a r t e d u c a t i o n s i n c e 1850, w i t h p a r t i c u l a r r e f e r -ence t o t h r e e i n f l u e n t i a l f a c t o r s : the r a t h e r p r a g m a t i c n a t u r e o f s o c i e t y ' s i n t e r e s t s w h i c h a r e o f t e n more u t i l i t a r i a n than a e s t h e t i c ; the r i s e o f the a r t s and c r a f t s movement d u r i n g the l 8 8 0 ' s and the o n - g o i n g c o n f u s i o n be-tween a r t , c r a f t s , and i n d u s t r i a l a r t ; and t h e p r o f o u n d i n f l u e n c e o f t h e Bauhaus on e d u c a t i o n a l thought from the 1920's t o the p r e s e n t . I n n o v a t i o n i n s c u l p t u r e and a r t e d u c a t i o n a r e d i s c u s s e d i n terms o f a phenomenon p e c u l i a r t o our t e c h n o l o g i c a l e r a : t h e r a p i d a c c e l e r a t i o n o f change. The impact o f new m a t e r i a l s and t e c h n i q u e s on the e v o l u t i o n o f modern s c u l p t u r e i s a n a l y z e d i n r e l a t i o n t o f o u r s i g n i f i c a n t e v e n t s : P i c a s s o ' s i n v e n t i o n o f assemblage, the use o f "ready mades" i n a r t , c o n s t r u c t i v i s m , and the a p p l i c a t i o n o f w e l d i n g t o s c u l p t u r e . The a u t h o r c o n s i d e r s some o f the ways i i i i n w hich a r t i s t s have e x p l o i t e d the unique c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f p l a s t i c s i n t h e i r s c u l p t u r e ; c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s such as o p t i c a l p r o p e r t i e s , c a s t i n g and t h e r m o f o r m i n g c a p a b i l i t i e s , and r e i n f o r c e d p l a s t i c ' s h i g h s t r e n g t h combined w i t h l i g h t w e i g h t . The use o f vacuum formed p l a s t i c s i n t h e s i g n i n d u s t r y i s d e s c r i b e d and i l l u s t r a t e d . The second h a l f o f t h i s t h e s i s expands upon the r o l e o f vacuum f o r m i n g i n the secondary a r t p r o -gram. G o a l s and l e a r n i n g outcomes f o r t h e t e a c h i n g o f s c u l p t u r e and des-i g n a r e d i s c u s s e d , and the c r e a t i v e p o t e n t i a l o f vacuum f o r m i n g i s a s s e s s e d i n the l i g h t o f t h i s d i s c u s s i o n . L a t e r s e c t i o n s d e s c r i b e vacuum f o r m i n g i n d e t a i l , i n c l u d i n g mold making, f o r m i n g p r o c e s s e s , f a s t e n i n g and g l u e i n g p r o c e d u r e s , and f i n i s h i n g . P h o tographs o f s t u d e n t work a r e used e x t e n s i v e -l y t o i l l u s t r a t e t h e s e s e c t i o n s . F i n a l l y , p r a c t i c a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s and t h e l i m i t a t i o n s o f vacuum f o r m i n g a r e d e a l t w i t h . The a p p e n d i x i n c l u d e s o n o t e s and t e c h n i c a l d a t a on p l a s t i c s , s a f e t y p r o c e d u r e s , and d r a w i n g s and p r a c t i c a l s u g g e s t i o n s f o r c o n s t r u c t i n g a "budget" vacuum form machine. i v TABLE OF CONTENTS Page A b s t r a c t i i L i s t o f F i g u r e s v i i i Acknowledgements x i i I n t r o d u c t i o n 1 THE NATURE OF SCULPTURE OUTSIDE AND INSIDE ART EDUCATION 6 Towards a D e f i n i t i o n o f S c u l p t u r e 6 The E v o l u t i o n o f Modern S c u l p t u r e . . . . 6 Two C r i t i c a l Views o f Modern S c u l p t u r e , • 9 A D e f i n i t i o n o f S c u l p t u r e and Design 12 S c u l p t u r e and Design i n A r t E d u c a t i o n . . . 13 Pragmatism and S o c i e t a l I n t e r e s t s 14 The A r t s and C r a f t s Movement 19 The Bauhaus Impact on A r t E d u c a t i o n 21 L a t e r Developments i n America 25 I n n o v a t i o n i n S c u l p t u r e and Design E d u c a t i o n 27 The A c c e l e r a t i o n o f Change 27 Contemporary C u l t u r e and A r t E d u c a t i o n 29 Inducements t o I m a g i n a t i v e Development 31 Modern Methods and M a t e r i a l s : I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r S c u l p t u r e 33 V Four Events S i g n i f i c a n t t o Form and P r o c e s s i n 20th C e n t u r y S c u l p t u r e . • • 33 The N a t u r e o f P l a s t i c s and T h e i r Use i n S c u l p t u r e ? 37 Vacuum Forming i n I n d u s t r y *t2 VACUUM FORMING IN THE SECONDARY SCULPTURE AMD DESIGN PROGRAM 58 Vacuum Forming as a P r o c e s s and I t s C o n s i s t e n c y w i t h A r t E d u c a t i o n G o a l s and L e a r n i n g Outcomes . . . . . 58 Goals and L e a r n i n g Outcomes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58 Vacuum Forming as S c u l p t u r a l P r o c e s s 59 G o a l s , L e a r n i n g Outcomes and Vacuum Formi ng , 66 The C r e a t i v e Design P o t e n t i a l o f Vacuum Forming 67 C o l l a g e , Vacuum Forming and B a s i c Design P r i n c i p l e s . , . . , 67 G r a p h i c Design , , 68 Mask Maki ng . . . . . . . , 68 Stage Set Design . , , . 76 Pop A r t S c u l p t u r e . , . , , 79 The P r o c e s s o f Vacuum Forming i n the High School A r t Program 83 Vacuum Form Machine 83 Mold Making 86 Forming P r o c e s s , 88 F a s t e n i n g and G l u e i n g . . . . . 89 F i n i s h i n g . . . . . . • . • • ... • • • • • • 91 P r a c t i c a l C o n s i d e r a t i o n s and L i m i t a t i o n s 93 v i C o n c l u s i o n s and Recommendations 95 C l o s e r I n t e g r a t i o n Between the V i s u a l A r t s and Other S u b j e c t A r e a s 96 S c u l p t u r e and Teacher E d u c a t i o n 98 F o o t n o t e s , • 1 0 0 B i b l i o g r a p h y . . , « 1 0 1 APPENDIX A: The C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f Common T h e r m o p l a s t i c s • 1°5 P o l y s t y r e n e . . . . 105 ABS . . . . , 105 PVC 105 A c r y l i c 105 CAB 1 ° 6 P o l y c a r b o n a t e 106 P o l y p r o p y l e n e . . . . . 106 HD P o l y e t h y l e n e , 1°6 LD P o l y e t h y l e n e 1°6 F i n i s h • 1°6 F u r t h e r T e c h n i c a l I n f o r m a t i o n . . . . . . . . 107 APPENDIX B: S a f e t y . , . . , 1 ° 8 V e n t i l a t i o n . . . . . 108 F i r e Hazards 109 P l a s t e r Masks , . . , 11° APPENDIX C: B u i l d i n g a VFM . . . . . . , I l l Vacuum Box • I l l Vacuum P r e s s u r e . . . . , 112 O u t s i d e Frame 112 Clamping Frame . . . . . . . . . . . 112 H e a t e r Box Operat i o n v i i i LIST OF FIGURES" Page F i g . 1. Roy L e w i s : Mary (1979). F i b e r g l a s s and a e r y 1 i c r e s i n 4 l F i g . 2. The p l a s t i c sheet i s clamped i n the c l a m p i n g frame 45 F i g . 3- Heat causes t h e p l a s t i c t o s o f t e n 45 F i g . 4. The a i r i s e v a c u a t e d 45 F i g . 5. Clamping frame i n p o s i t i o n under the h e a t e r 45 F i g . 6. Clamping frame moves down t o mold and the a i r i s e v a c u a t e d 45 F i g . 7- Commercial vacuum form machine. ( C o u r t e s y o f Custom P l a s t i c s L t d . , Vancouver, B. C.) 47 F i q . 8. Vacuum formed s i gns 48 F i q . 9. Vacuum formed s i gns 48 F i g . 10. Vacuum formed s i g n s 48 F i g . 11. The "Golden A r c h e s " - - a n i n e s c a p a b l e f e a t u r e o f the N o r t h American c u l t u r a l l a n d s c a p e 50 F i g . 12. Wooden l e t t e r form molds. ( C o u r t e s y o f Custom P l a s t i c s , Vancouver B.C.) 51 F i g . 13- P o s i t i o n i n g the molds on t h e vacuum t a b l e 52 F i g . 14. The p l a s t i c sheet s o f t e n s , 52 F i g . 15. The l e t t e r s a r e formed 52 F i g . 16. E x t e r i o r w a l l p a n e l s . ( C o u r t e s y McDonald's R e s t a u r a n t s o f Western Canada Ltd.) . 54 i x F i g . 17. Vacuum formed w a l l m u r a l . ( C o u r t e s y Woodwards S t o r e s L t d . , P a r k Royal Shopping C e n t r e , West Vancouver B. C.) . 5h F i g . 18. D e t a i l o f Woodward's w a l l mural , . 55 F i g , 19. D e t a i l o f F i g , 16. , , . . 55 F i g , 20. Vacuum formed h e a t i n g r e g i s t e r v e n t s 56 F i g . 21. Carved wooden mold f o r s h e l l p u r s e . ( C o u r t e s y o f Custom P l a s t i c s , Vancouver, B.C.). . 56 F i g , 22. The " h i g h f a s h i o n " p u r s e . ( C o u r t e s y o f Custom P l a s t i c s , Vancouver B.C.). . , , , . , , 57 F i g , 23. L o r r a i n e Kong: L i p s t i c k s (_198l). Vacuum formed p l a s t i c , c a r d b o a r d , a c r y l i c and s p r a y e n a m e l 6 2 F i g . 2'4. Vanessa Lee: I n f l a t i o n (1981) . Vacuum formed p l a s t i c and copper enamel. 63 F i g , 25. Ted Eng: G i a n t Key (1981). Styrofoam,, p a p i e r mache and vacuum formed p l a s t i c , , . , 6k F i g . 26. N a t u r a l t e x t u r e s ( b a r k , o y s t e r s h e l l ) r e produced by vacuum f o r m i n g 69 F i g . 27. Form l e t t e r s b e i n g c u t from foam-core board. 69 F i g . 28. Vent h o l e s b e i n g d r i l l e d i n l e t t e r form molds. 70 F i g . 29, L e t t e r molds ready f o r vacuum f o r m i n g 70 F i g , 3 0 . I n k i n g formed l e t t e r s f o r c o n t r a s t . 70 F i g . 31. P l a s t e r p o s i t i v e b e i n g c a s t i n s i d e g r e a s e d p l a s t e r mask form. 72 F i g . 3 2 . P l a s t e r p o s i t i v e removed from n e g a t i v e mold. 72 F i g . 33. P l a s t e r p o s i t i v e s ready f o r vacuum f o r m i n g . 73 X F i g . 34. Vacuum formed " l i f e " mask. 73 ' F i g . 35. P r e s i l k - s c r e e n e d p l a s t i c s . . Ik F i g . 36 . Vacuum formed c o n t o u r image. , , . . . . . . 75 F i g . 37- Vacuum, formed c o n t o u r images. 75 F i g , 38. Molds o f h a r d b o a r d , plywood, and s t a n d a r d lumber y a r d m o l d i n g s , 77 F i g . 39. Vacuum formed m o l d i n g s a p p l i e d t o s t a g e s e t p i l l a r b a s e s ; w a l l d e c o r a t i o n s 77 F i g . 40. D e t a i l o f h a r d b o a r d vacuum form molds showing s m a l l a i r v e n t h o l e s d r i l l e d t o e n s u r e a c c u r a t e r e p r o d u c t i o n , , 77 F i g , 4 l . Vacuum formed w a l l d e c o r a t i o n s and m o l d i n g s f o r The Imaginary I n v a l i d , G l a d s t o n e Secondary School , 1980. '. 78 F i g . 42. C o r r u g a t e d c a r d b o a r d and c u t c a r d b o a r d l e t t e r s f o r G i a n t Key mold • , , , , 81 F i g . 43. Vacuum formed l e t t e r panel, g l u e d i n p l a c e 8 l F i g . kk. Cardboard and p l a s t i c i n e molds f o r L i p s t j c k s , 82 F i g . 45. Trimming and g l u e i n g s t y r e n e l i p s t i c k , forms. 82 F i g . 46. L o r r a i n e Kong: L i p s t j cks 09.811. . . . . . . . . . . . 82 F i g . k~l. M o d e l l i n g w i t h p l a s t i c i n e , . . 84 F i g , 48, The p a p i e r mache c o v e r e d mold ready f o r vacuum f o r m i n g , , 84 F i g , 49, "Penny"/ mold b e i n g vacuum formed i n s i d e a plywood r i n g . . . . . . . 85 F i g , 50. D e t a i l o f I n f l a t i o n 09.8M 85 F i g . C - l , The handmade vacuum'form machine. 115 F i g , C-2,. The vacuum box, 116 F i g . C-3. D r i l l i n g 1 mm vacuum h o l e s i n the f o r m i n g - s u r f a c e . 116 x i F i g . C-4. E n l a r g i n g h o l e s under f o r m i n g s u r f a c e , , , , . . , « 116 F i g . C - 5 . Vacuum hose e x t e n s i o n p i p e . 117 F i g . C-6. Vacuum c l e a n e r hose i n p l a c e , 117 F i g , C~7. W e l d i n g t h e o u t e r frame. 118 F i g . C - 8 . Outer frame, c l a m p i n g frame and vacuum box, 1 18 F i g . C~9. Counter w e i g h t system. 119 F i g . C-1Q. Thumb screws f o r l o c k i n g c o u n t e r w e i g h t s , . . . . . . 119 F i g . C — 11 - Clamping frame h a n d l e and d e f l e c t o r . . . . . . 120 F i g . C-12. Clamping frame h i n g e d e t a i l s , f u l 1 s i z e . 120 F i g . C-13• A d j u s t a b l e h i n g e d e t a i l . , . . . . . . . 121 F i g , C-14. Clamping screw d e t a i l - • - 121 Fig.-C—15- H e a t e r box and c o n t r o l s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 2 2 F i g . C-16. H e a t i n g e l e m e n t s , , , , . , 122 Fig-"C—17- Ceramic t e r m i n a l b l o c k placement i n s i d e c o n t r o l box. 1 2 3 F i g . C-18. i n t e r n a l w i r i n g done w i t h h i g h t e m p e r a t u r e w i r e , , 123 F i g . C - l 9 - Wig-form mold i n p l a c e on vacuum t a l b e , , 124 F i g , C - 2 0 . P l a s t i c sheet b e i n g clamped i n t o frame 124 F i g , C - 2 1 . P l a s t i c r eaches f o r m i n g t e m p e r a t u r e . 125 F i g . C - 2 2 . The formed p l a s t i c head. 125 A l l F i g u r e s , w i t h the e x c e p t i o n o f F i g u r e 7 , were drawn o r photographed and p r o c e s s e d by the a u t h o r . Acknowledgements I would l i k e t o thank t h e members o f my t h e s i s c ommittee, Dr. Graeme Chalmers, P r o f e s s o r Penny G o u l d s t o n e , and P r o f e s s o r Roy Lewis f o r t h e i r g u i d a n c e and encouragement d u r i n g the w r i t i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s . I would a l s o l i k e t o thank Norma Ahrens who, under c o n s i d e r a b l e l a s t minute p r e s s u r e , t y p e d the f i n a l d r a f t i n a t r u l y p r o f e s s i o n a l manner. L a s t l y , I owe a debt o f g r a t i t u d e t o my w i f e , I r e n e , and my c h i l d r e n , C a r o l i n e and Simon, who were s u p p o r t i v e and u n d e r s t a n d i n g w h i l e "Daddy d i d h i s t h e s i s . " 1 INTRODUCTION The w r i t e r ' s aim in t h i s t h e s i s i s to argue the va1 Id i t y . of adapting a process from i n d u s t r y , the thermal vacuum forming of p l a s t i c s , to the teaching of s c u l p t u r e and design at the secondary 1evel. This i s not meant to imply that t r a d i t i o n a l s c u l p t u r e m a t e r i a l s and t r a d i t i o n a l ap-proaches to teaching s c u l p t u r e and design should be replaced, but rather supplemented with m a t e r i a l s and processes that are appropriate, to our age. My purpose i s not to defend a p h i l o s o p h i c a l p o s i t i o n in a r t education. Educational t h e o r i s t s have'debated'philosophical goals f o r decades and, as Efland (1976) s t a t e s , in the f i n a l analysis., they "have to s t r i k e a balance among c h i l d r e n ' s needs, the nature of the subj e c t , and s o c i e t a l I n t e r e s t s " (p. 8 3 ) . How these goals are i n t e r p r e t e d by i n d i v i d u a l a r t teachers, t h e i r preferences f o r t r a d i t i o n a l or contemporary a r t forms, and the kinds of m a t e r i a l s and techniques that they put at the disposal of t h e i r a r t students, w i l l determine t h e i r acceptance or r e j e c t i o n of my proposal. In the f i r s t h a l f of the t h e s i s I w i l l examine the nature of sculp-ture as i t e x i s t s both outside and i n s i d e the educational system. The second h a l f w i l l show how vacuum forming can be used to d i v e r s i f y and strengthen the teaching of scu l p t u r e and design in the secondary a r t program. Vacuum forming came to my a t t e n t i o n a few years ago while searching f o r an economical f a s t method f o r reproducing m u l t i p l e copies of a s i n g l e three dimensional form. M u l t i p l e s of t h i s form were to be used as a r c h i -t e c t u r a l decoration on a " p e r i o d " stage set. Some research and student e f f o r t went i n t o b u i l d i n g a simple vacuum form, machine (.VFM) capable of 2 meeting the stage c r a f t c l a s s e s requirements. Once in possession of the machine, a demand f o r i t s s e r v i c e s was created. For a time i t seemed that nearly a l l our stage sets were designed and b u i l t with vacuum forming as a necessary i n g r e d i e n t . Mask forms, p i c t u r e frames, j e w e l l e r y , head gear, and column c a p i t a l s a l l took shape, spurred on by the natural c u r i o s i t y and inventiveness of my students. Other teachers recognized i t s p o t e n t i a l f o r s o l v i n g some of t h e i r problems. The graphic design teacher formed large l e t t e r s over cut card-board p o s i t i v e s , and then used the vacuum formed l e t t e r s as negative molds in which to cast r e i n f o r c e d f i b e r g l a s s l e t t e r s . The automotive i n s t r u c t o r inquired about making custom formed a c r y l i c windows f o r student v e h i c l e s , and the home economics teachers wondered about students vacuum forming sets of o r i g i n a l molds f o r pouring chocolates. When I introduced my regu-l a r a r t students to the process, i t did not take long before some of them began to include vacuum formed shapes in t h e i r own p r o j e c t s , That i s when I began to speculate s e r i o u s l y about i t s p o t e n t i a l f o r high school a r t in a c r e a t i v e context rather than a u t i l i t a r i a n one. Could vacuum forming be used as a tool to extend a student's c r e a t i v e reach, or would i t be viewed by a r t teachers as too t e c h n i c a l and process oriented? And yet the rapid a c c e l e r a t i o n of t e c h n i c a l processes i n t h i s century has given contemporary a r t i s t s new m a t e r i a l s and techniques which help give form to t h e i r images. Sculpture and design are the areas that have probably been most pro-foundly a f f e c t e d by t e c h n o l o g i c a l change. New m a t e r i a l s discovered by industry have been ingeniously wrought, c a s t , and f a b r i c a t e d i n t o forms sometimes unrecognizable as sc u l p t u r e in the c l a s s i c a l sense. Formal notions of shape, p r o p o r t i o n , s c a l e , s t r u c t u r e , t e x t u r e , and colour have had to be re-defined or abandoned to accomodate s t e e l , p l a s t i c , l i g h t and sound as wel l as stone, bronze and wood. F i g u r a t i v e and repr e s e n t a t i o n a l 3 forms produced by contemporary s c u l p t o r s working in t r a d i t i o n a l jnedia c o e x i s t with s c u l p t u r e s that shimmer, move, or r a d i a t e l i g h t and c o l o u r ; environmental sculptures that redefine natural landforras. or f l o a t unres-t r a i n e d on water or in the a i r ; and cyborg sculptures that react to the viewers presence with sound and movement. My o r i g i n a l i n t e n t i o n was to i n v e s t i g a t e the use of vacuum forming in s c u l p t u r e only. The questions that a r i s e are what do t mean by s.culp-ture and, more importantly, what Is taught as s c u l p t u r e in the context of a r t education? The answer to the f i r s t question, "what i s s c u l p t u r e " , probably can't be given in absolute terms. T r a d i t i o n a l pre-20th century s c u l p t u r e f o l l o w s precepts e s t a b l i s h e d f o r c e n t u r i e s , and although i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s vary about content and meaning, a r t i s t s and c r i t i c s g e n e r a l l y f i n d consensus when d i s c u s s i n g form. From the beginning of the 2 0 t h century, opinions about what does or does not q u a l i f y as s c u l p t u r e become more d i v e r s e as the e f f e c t s of contemporary psychology and new i n d u s t r i a l processes on the form and content of modern s c u l p t u r e are analyzed. The e c l e c t i c nature of modern s c u l p t u r e , hinted at already, f u r t h e r compounds the d i f f i c u l t i e s of a r r i v i n g at a p r e c i s e d e f i n i t i o n . In the f i r s t s e c t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s , I w i l l t r y to r e s o l v e some of these problems, f i r s t l y by t r a c i n g the evolu-t i o n of t r a d i t i o n a l s c u l p t u r e i n t o modern s c u l p t u r e , and secondly, by d i s -cussing the two c r i t i c a l views of modern s c u l p t u r e propounded by Read (1964) and Krauss (1977) . I w i l l then put forward my "working" d e f i n i t i o n of s c u l p t u r e and i t s counterpart, three dimensional design. The answer to the second question, "what i s taught as s c u l p t u r e in the context of a r t education", i s j u s t as e l u s i v e as the f i r s t . There have been, however, some i n f l u e n t i a l f a c t o r s during the e v o l u t i o n of a r t t education which have conditioned p u b l i c expectations as to what should be taught. The rather pragmatic nature of " s o c i e t a l i n t e r e s t s " r e f l e c t e d in the confusion among a r t , c r a f t s , and i n d u s t r i a l a r t s which e x i s t e d f o r over two c e n t u r i e s , was one. The " a r t s and c r a f t s movement" spearheaded by W i l l i a m Morris in England, was another. The profound r o l e played by the Bauhaus School in the r e t h i n k i n g of design education in the secondary school was a t h i r d . In the second s e c t i o n I w i l l trace the more i n f l u e n t i a l h i s t o r i c a l f a c t o r s which have shaped the teaching of what some c a l l s c u l p -ture and othe r s , design in three dimensions. In the t h i r d s e c t i o n , I w i l l d iscuss some reasons why there i s a re-luctance among some a r t teachers to c a p i t a l i z e on innovative m a t e r i a l s and techniques in the sc u l p t u r e and design programs. Some of these a t t i t u d e s can be understood in terms of Steinberg's (1966) sympathetic a n a l y s i s of "the p l i g h t of the p u b l i c . " Eisner's (1976) c o n t r o l l a b l e f a c t o r s by which a teacher could i n f l u e n c e the development of a r t in students form the basis f o r a d i s c u s s i o n on options open to secondary teachers f o r e f f e c t i v e l y i n v o l v i n g t h e i r students in three dimensional a c t i v i t i e s . In the f o u r t h s e c t i o n I look c l o s e l y at the way some contemporary s c u l p t o r s have a s s i m i l a t e d new methods and m a t e r i a l s ( e s p e c i a l l y p l a s t i c s ) i n t o t h e i r conceptions of s c u l p t u r e . In order to show how they have adapted material technology from i n d u s t r i a l processes to t h e i r needs, one such process, the thermal vacuum forming of p l a s t i c s , i s looked at in an indus-t r i a l s e t t i n g . In the second h a l f of t h i s t h e s i s I expand upon the r o l e of vacuum forming in the secondary a r t program. Goals and l e a r n i n g outcomes f o r teaching s c u l p t u r e and design are examined and the c r e a t i v e p o t e n t i a l of vacuum forming i s assessed in the l i g h t of t h i s d i s c u s s i o n . In l a t e r s e c t i o n s I describe vacuum forming in d e t a i l , i n c l u d i n g mold making, 5 f o r m i n g p r o c e s s e s , f a s t e n i n g and g l u e i n g p r o c e d u r e s , and f i n i s h i n g t e c h n i q u e s . Photographs o f s t u d e n t work a r e used t o i l l u s t r a t e t h e s e s e c t i o n s . F i n a l l y , p r a c t i c a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s and l i m i t a t i o n s o f vacuum f o r m i n g a r e d i s c u s s e d . The appe n d i x i n c l u d e s n o t e s on s a f e t y p r o c e d u r e s , t e c h n i c a l d a t a on p l a s t i c s , and s u g g e s t i o n s and drawings f o r c o n s t r u c t i n g a "budget" VFM. f 6 THE NATURE OF SCULPTURE OUTSIDE AND INSIDE ART EDUCATION Towards a D e f i n i t i o n of Sculpture  The E v o l u t i o n of Modern Sculpture T r a d i t i o n a l s c u l p t u r e . T r a d i t i o n a l s c u l p t u r e i s c l a s s i f i e d according to the way in which i t i s created, e i t h e r by carving in the round, carving in r e l i e f , or by b u i l d i n g up form through modelling. Examples of these approaches have been found in a r t i f a c t s belonging to p r e h i s t o r i c c u l t u r e s . In the P a l e o l i t h i c e r a , animal f i g u r e s were carved in r e l i e f on t o o l s , i n c i s e d deeply i n t o cave w a l l s , and modelled from c l a y . Small female f i g u -r i n e s , carved from bone and i v o r y , were apparently used as f e r t i l i t y symbols. Egyptian s c u l p t u r e , spanning 5000 years, e x h i b i t e d the highest q u a l i t y in terms of t e c h n i c a l s k i l l and s e n s i t i v e composition. During the Empire Pe r i o d , s c u l p t u r e in every category f l o u r i s h e d , from p o r t r a i t s c u l p t u r e and dainty f i g u r e s decorating objects of every day use to c o l o s s a l temple statues. The legacy of Greek sc u l p t u r e i s s t i l l a part of contemporary s c u l p t u r e . Greek a r t i s . . . a compact synthesis of opposites, a harmony between profound passion and r a t i o n a l order. Its c l a r i t y and symmetry are not cold but b l a z i n g . Its forms are rigorous and mathematical, yet f u l l of l i f e . (Gardner, 1959, p. 105) U n t i l the end of the 19th century, Greek f i g u r a t i v e s c u l p t u r e provided the main source of i n s p i r a t i o n to western s c u l p t o r s . The formal q u a l i t i e s of t r a d i t i o n a l s c u l p t u r e are those that s t i l l give form in the c l a s s i c a l sense: "shape, p r o p o r t i o n , s c a l e , s t r u c t u r e , t e x t u r e , c o l o u r , context-- those aspects o f the v i s u a l r e a l i t y to which we turn f o r our non l i t e r a r y meanings in o b j e c t s " (Burnham, 1968, p. 110). 7 These formal q u a l i t i e s are l a r g e l y the ones s t i l l emphasized in a r t education. Form and s t y l e in 20th century s c u l p t u r e . The remarkable p r o l i f e r a -t i o n of s c u l p t u r e s t y l e s in the 20th century owe t h e i r e x i s t e n c e to many f a c t o r s , among which are science, technology, and modern psychology, with i t s e x p l o r a t i o n s of the unconscious mind. Technology and modern m a t e r i a l s probably had t h e i r greatest impact on form. In 1909, the I t a l i a n F u t u r i s t , Umberto Boccioni t r i e d to r e l a t e the forms of the human body to those of the machine--the 20th century symbol of movement. A n a l y t i c a l Cubism, with i t s multi-viewed geometrical basis encouraged a r t i s t s to seek greater rap-port with c l e a n , machine-like shapes. Burnham c r e d i t s Alexander Archipenko, as e a r l y as 1915, with "the f i r s t systematic r e - t h i n k i n g of the f u n c t i o n of space in s c u l p t u r e " (P. 1^9). Archipenko defined the four elements of h i s sculptures as l i g h t , transpar-ency, space, and the concave. But the denial of formalism came with the C o n s t r u c t i v i s t ' s r e j e c t i o n of s o l i d volumes as an expression of space. Naum Gabo's a b s t r a c t s c u l p t u r e s , composed of c l e a r p l a s t i c and nylon s t r i n g emphasized l i g h t , a i r , and transparent v i r t u a l volumes. Lazlo Moholy-Nagy's k i n e t i c s c u l p t u r e s a l s o replaced t r a d i t i o n a l volume and mass with l i g h t and movement. His l i g h t andspace modulators bear strong resemblance to experimental designs in three dimensions. Henry Moore f i n d s h i s s c u l p t u r a l point of departure, not in the man-made a b s t r a c t i o n s of geometry, but in.the forms of nature created by growing things and the a c t i o n s of the elements. Moore uses the c o n s t r u c t i v i s t notion of "space as volume" rather than "space as emptiness" in a d i f f e r e n t way. His sculptures create interdependence between s o l i d s and v o i d s , between p o s i t i v e and negative volumes. Alexander Calder's mobile s c u l p t u r e s , pro-p e l l e d by c a p r i c i o u s wind c u r r e n t s , create t h e i r own v i r t u a l volumes. His 8 sculptures are t r u l y k i n e t i c . Modern m a t e r i a l s and technology gave substance to the works of contem-porary s c u l p t o r s in the United States during the mid 20 th century. Hunter (1959) observed that in the f o r t i e s . . . America's most impressive s c u l p t o r s were abstrac-t i o n i s t s and welders in metal, who expressed t h e i r deepest commitment to modernism in terms of r a d i c a l new techniques (p. 1 6 6 ) . Their s t y l e s were based on a synthesis of c o n s t r u c t i v i s t and e x p r e s s i o n i s t , or in some cases, s u r r e a l i s t , devices. (p. 176) These s c u l p t o r s included Smith, Ferber, L l p t o n , Rozak, Hare and Lassaw. Contemporary sc u l p t u r e has a l s o evolved in other d i r e c t i o n s . Pop Art s c u l p t u r e , with i t s whimsical p o r t r a y a l of popular American mass c u l t u r e request a kind of t o t a l acceptance on the part of the viewer. The Pop A r t i s t s " r e j e c t e d nothing except a l l of our previous e s t h e t i c canons" (Solomon, 1966, p. 7 3 ) . The sculptures of Johns, Dine, Oldenburg, Segal, Wesselman and Raushenberg derive t h e i r form from an a s t o n i s h i n g range of m a t e r i a l s , t r a d i t i o n a l , s y n t h e t i c or r e c y c l e d , together w i t h found and r e p l i c a t e d o b j e c t s . Environmental s c u l p t u r e runs the gamut from Edward Kinholz' The P o r t a b l e War Memorial to Robert Smithson's conceptual e a r t h work, S p i r a l J e t t y . The science of cybernetics has been the i n s p i r a t i o n of another s c u l p t u r a l form, cyborg a r t . Cyborg sculptures respond to temperature change, l i g h t , sound, or the very presence of the viewer through a complex system of e l e c t r o n i c devices. The " s c u l p t o r as t e c h n i c i a n " emerges. Summary.. It i s d i f f i c u l t (and r i s k y ) to c l a s s i f y the works of modern sc u l p t o r s because there are so many v a r i a b l e s , and because no s c u l p t o r s , regardless of how strong t h e i r d e s i r e to be avant garde, can expunge a l l 9 traces of "formalism" from t h e i r work. The p u b l i c , f o r instance, was dismayed at f i r s t by the incongruous nature of Smi.th.s6n' s Spi r a l J e t t y , yet the s p i r a l form owes i t s proportions in a r t to the golden s e c t i o n , a canon of Greek a r c h i t e c t u r e . Contemporary s c u l p t o r s f a l l roughly i n t o four broad groups. The f i r s t group i s made up of those who subscribe, more or l e s s , to the tenets of formalism. Their s c u l p t u r e i s often f i g u r a t i v e and they choose to work in t r a d i t i o n a l media such as stone, wood, p l a s t e r , c l a y or bronze. The second group emphasizes the formal q u a l i t i e s of t r a d i t i o n a l s c u l p t u r e , but p r e f e r to work, with modern processes and m a t e r i a l s . Their sculptures may be f i g u r a t i v e or non-representational. The t h i r d group has redefined the concepts of formal volume and space, yet s t i l l p r e fers t r a d i t i o n a l .materials. Their s c u l p t u r e s are often a b s t r a c t and non-objective. Hepworth. and Moore might be placed in t h i s group. The f o u r t h group has abandoned or redefined formal notions of s c u l p t u r e . They use everything at t h e i r d i s p o s a l , i n c l u d -ing science and technology to create new s c u l p t u r a l forms. What then i s sculpture? Is there a d e f i n i t i o n s u i t a b l y comprehensive to include much of what i s taking place in a r t education under the label "three dimensional design," or w i l l i t be necessary to define each area separately? Two C r i t i c a l Views of Modern Sculpture Process, form, and content in a r t . Works of a r t can be described in terms of three c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s : process, (what and how m a t e r i a l s are used by the a r t i s t ) form, and expressive content. There seems to be, however, a p o l a r i z a t i o n among a r t i s t s and c r i t i c s as to what s c u l p t u r e r e a l l y i s or should be. There are those l i k e Read (.1964). who f e e l that a l l s c u l p t u r e should conform in large measure to formal c l a s s i c a l i d e a l s , and there are 10 those, l i k e Burnham (1968) and Krauss (.1977) who are more open to three dimensional c r e a t i o n s which do not e a s i 1 y s a t i s f y these formal c r i t e r i a . Form and process in s c u l p t u r e . Michaelange1o defined s c u l p t u r e as the form set free from w i t h i n a piece of marble by the s c u l p t o r ' s hammer and c h i s e l , a purely subtract i've process. His sentiments were passionate-l y echoed by Read (.1964) f i v e c e n t u r i e s l a t e r : If the a r t and the word that s i g n i f i e s the a r t (sculpture] have any p r e c i s e meaning, they i n d i c a t e a s o l i d m a t e r i a l that i s carved (or, by a p e r m i s s i b l e extension of meaning, moulded) to represent an i n t e g r a l mass in space, i , e , occupying space. (p, 106) Read f u r t h e r defines those f a c t o r s that must be present to evoke the " s p e c i f i c p l a s t i c sens i b i 1 i ty that is s c u l p t u r e " (p. 107). They are: a sensational awareness of the t a c t i l e q u a l i t y of surfaces; a sensa-t i o n a l awareness of the volume or the mass encompassed by an integrated s e r i e s of plane surfaces; and an acceptable sensation of the ponder-a b i l i t y or g r a v i t y of the mass, i . e . and agreement between the appear-ance and the weight of the mass, (p. 107) He contends that the " l i g h t Modulators" of Moholy-Nagy and much of the other " l a b o r a t o r y a r t " of the Bauhaus might resemble s c u l p t u r e , but by h i s c r i -t e r i a , they e x i s t only as e x e r c i s e s in static-dynamic r e l a t i o n s . They are examples of purely conceptual a c t i v i t i e s , not a e s t h e t i c ones, Read a l s o had serious r e s e r v a t i o n s about s c u l p t u r e produced by contemporary a r t i s t s working with welded metals whose forms were e s s e n t i a l l y " l i n e a r " , open, and ignored the p r i n c i p l e of "containment." He wondered what gains t h e i r approach might have, over a more t r a d i t i o n a l one. From i t s inception in p r e h i s t o r i c times down through the ages and un-t i l comparatively r e c e n t l y , s c u l p t u r e was conceived as an a r t of s o l i d 11 form, of mass, and i t s v i r t u e s were r e l a t e d to s p a t i a l occupancy, (p. 250) Moholy-Nagy 1s understanding of scu l p t u r e ' s f u n c t i o n , that.of volume c r e a t i o n , was b a s i c a l l y d i f f e r e n t in only one respect, that of " v i r t u a l volume" rather than Read's " s o l i d forms." Moholy-Nagy says As man faces h i s material and experiences i t , he f i n d s out that s c u l p -ture i s the best form, the o r i g i n a l form, f o r taking possession of v o l -ume. Compared with volume, everything e l s e — t e c h n i c a l handling, weight, s t r u c t u r e , r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a l idea, l i k e n e s s , expression, p r o p o r t i o n , rhythm, consistency, c o l o r , t e x t u r e - - i s secondary, belonging to the sphere of mastery of d e t a i l s . ( 1 9 6 5 , P- 218) The r e l a t i v e importance of expressive content, however, i s one s i g n i f i c a n t aspect of s c u l p t u r e over which Moholy-Nagy and Read d i f f e r markedly. Expressive content. For Read, expressive content reveals i t s e l f in two ways: one i s " v i t a l i s m , " the intense magical l i f e of t h e i r own which, f o r him, the sculptures of Henry Moore seem to possess; the other i s the cap a c i t y f o r a l l works of a r t to " p e r s i s t as objects of contemplation . . . or f a s c i n a t i o n " (p. 2 7 2 ) . This seems vaguely reminiscent of Hegel's concept of absolute beauty. For Moholy-Nagy, expressive content simply i s n ' t important. Sculpture and temporal experience. Krauss (1977) s t a r t s with the view put forward by Gotthold Lessing in h i s 18 th century a e s t h e t i c t r e a t i s e LaocoBn which a s s e r t s that s c u l p t u r e i s an a r t concerned with the "deployment of bodies in space", the notion that r e l a t i o n s h i p s formed between the sep-arate parts of a v i s u a l object are simultaneously given to the viewer, and, most importantly f o r Krauss, that a l l bodies not only e x i s t in space but a l s o in time. Krauss sees the d i f f e r e n c e s between the s c u l p t u r e of Brancusi 12 and Gabo, not simply as d i f f e r e n c e s between the way forms occupy space, but the ways that d i f f e r e n t forms imply d i f f e r e n t temporal c o n d i t i o n s . Into any s p a t i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n there, w i l l be folded an i m p l i c i t statement about the nature of temporal experience. . . . £sjculpture is a medium p e c u l i a r l y located at the juncture between s t i l l n e s s and motion, time a r r e s t e d and time passing. From t h i s t e n s i o n , which defines the very c o n d i t i o n of s c u l p t u r e , comes i t s enormous expressive power. (p. 5) Krauss does not see formal 1st i.c canons as being necessary f o r a l l con-temporary s c u l p t o r s . The very conceptual ideas that seemed unaesthetic to Read are at the core of what she recognizes as modern s c u l p t u r e . Her ideas are echoed in Chapman's (1978) comments about the formal r e l a t i o n s h i p s be-tween design elements and p r i n c i p l e s and other v i s u a l phenomena. These r e l a t i o n s h i p s in themselves do not give a r t i t s expressive power. Rather i t i s our capacity to perceive such phenomena as connections with l i f e that gives them evocative power. (p. 39) Although Read refused to accept the Bauhaus " l a b o r a t o r y a r t " as s c u l p t u r e , Krauss places Moholy-Nagy alongside the c o n s t r u c t i v i s t s Gago, Pevsner, L i s s i t s k y and B i l l . They viewed s c u l p t u r e as "an i n v e s t i g a t o r y tool in the s e r v i c e of knowledge" (p. 6 7 ) . A Defln i t ion of Sculpture and Pes i gn Recognizing the ambiguities in terminology and meaning between " s c u l p -t u r e " and "design in three dimensions", I propose to include s c u l p t u r e as a sub-category of the l a t t e r . I w i l l use the term " s c u l p t u r e " to describe three dimensional forms "expressive of human f e e l i n g " , to paraphrase Langer (.1957). The term "three dimensional design" or more simply "design" w i l l 13 describe the process of manipulating m a t e r i a l s in accordance with design elements and p r i n c i p l e s to produce forms in space. C r e a t i v e experimentation w i l l take precedence over u t i l i t a r i a n notions. A vacuum form machine can produce u t i l i t a r i a n forms, but these are the proper domain of i n d u s t r i a l education. In a r t education i t i s important that process and form in three dimensional design be f u l l y explored, but i t i s v i t a l that expressive con-tent be a part of any s c u l p t u r a l forms created by a r t students. Sculpture and design w i l l , however, be treated concurrently throughout the remainder of t h i s t h e s i s , and the reader w i l l be the f i n a l a r b i t e r as to whether or not a three dimensional form under d i s c u s s i o n i s a s c u l p t u r e . Summary. The s i g n i f i c a n c e of the preceding d i s c u s s i o n about the nature of s c u l p t u r e i s that a r t educators r e f l e c t the ambivalent f e e l i n g s and a t t i -tudes that a r t i s t s and c r i t i c s have about the subject. Most a r t teachers, while l a c k i n g the s e n s i b i 1 i t i e s of p r a c t i c i n g a r t i s t s , tend to agree with Read's emphasis on t r a d i t i o n and formalism in s c u l p t u r e . Of those who a c t u a l -ly teach (or t a l k about) s c u l p t u r e making, some use t r a d i t i o n a l methods and m a t e r i a l s such as modelling c l a y , p l a s t e r , and wood, and t h e i r students create t r a d i t i o n a l s c u l p t u r a l forms. Yet many teach s c u l p t u r e as a kind of design in three dimensions which h i s t o r i c a l l y has more in common with the Bauhaus approach. It i s the assumed u t i l i t a r i a n goal underlying the Bauhaus approach to design which causes doubts f o r some as to i t s l e g i t i m a c y in a r t education. S t i l l , many of the " c o n s t r u c t i o n s " and student "models" i l l u s t -rated in Moholy-Nagy's V i s i on in Mot ion (19&5) have s c u l p t u r a l beauty even i f they a l l e g e d l y lack "expressive content." Sculpture and Design in Art Education Why do secondary school design and s c u l p t u r e programs owe more to the German Bauhaus of Walter Gropius than to the i n f l u e n c e of contemporary a r t -i s t - s c u l p t o r s ? In order to understand t h i s paradox, i t i s f i r s t necessary 14 to review the place of design and scu l p t u r e in the h i s t o r i c a l e v o l u t i o n of ar t education, and the on-going confusion between a r t , . i n d u s t r i a l a r t and c r a f t s . Pragmatism and S o c i e t a l Interests Walter Smith and i n d u s t r i a l drawing. Logan (.1955)., Saunders ( .1970), Eisner ( 1 9 7 2 ) , Chapman ( 1 9 7 8 ) , and others have charted the progress of American a r t education from the e a r l y 19 th century to the. present. I't did not e x i s t in any o f f i c i a l l y sanctioned way u n t i l Boston i n d u s t r i a l i s t s and merchants lobbied the l e g i s l a t u r e to make drawing, mainly d i r e c t e d towards i n d u s t r i a l purposes, required in the schools, The I n d u s t r i a l Drawing Act of 1870 was subsequently passed, and Walter Smith was imported from the South Kensington Museum and T r a i n i n g School of Art Masters i n England to become supervisor of drawing f o r Boston's P u b l i c Schools and the Massachusetts State!Dfepartment of Education. " P i c t u r e making", considered a f i n e a r t , was taught to c h i l d r e n of wealthy parents, a small m i n o r i t y of the educable p u b l i c , in p r i v a t e schools, and was thought of mainly as a female accomplish-ment. The boys were provided with the kind of l i b e r a l a r t s education nec-essary f o r c o l l e g e entrance and p r o f e s s i o n a l careers. The f i n e a r t s , which represented an upper c l a s s l e i s u r e time c u l t u r e did not f i t the purposes of education f o r the vast m a j o r i t y of young people from the working c l a s s e s , which was to prepare them f o r employment in f a c t o r i e s , shops, and in the home. In the eyes of the Boston School Committee, Smith's approach would accomplish t h i s . His approach was predicated on the b e l i e f that "drawing was the basis of a l l i n d u s t r i a l a r t " , that any average person could learn to draw; and that geometry was the basis f o r a l l drawing. It i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note that although Smith was at one time a p r o f e s s i o n a l s c u l p t o r , no thought was given to three dimensional design in his curriculum which con-s i s t e d of copying natural and ornamental forms from p r i n t s and drawings. 15 European i n d u s t r i a l a r t s education. The system of i n d u s t r i a l a r t s education in Europe was well e s t a b l i s h e d in the 1 8 8 0 1s as a report f o r the French government by Marius Vachon in 1888 reveals (1923). His mandate was to v i s i t a l l of the p r i n c i p a l schools, museums, s o c i e t i e s , and f a c t o r i e s of the " a r t i s t i c " i n d u s t r i e s " throughout Europe and present the French gov-ernment with an o u t l i n e as to how they might reorganize t h e i r i n d u s t r i a l a r t s schools f o r t r a i n i n g craftsmen and p r o f e s s i o n a l s in the " a r t i s t i c war with Germany." As in Smith's c u r r i c u l u m , the i n d u s t r i a l a r t s schools emphasized drawing as the backbone of t h e i r programs. Vachon perceived these schools f a l l i n g i n t o three c a t e g o r i e s : The f i r s t were schools f o r apprentices and workmen, the o r g a n i z a t i o n of which was simple and e x c l u s i v e l y p r a c t i c a l ; the second grade schools t r a i n e d young men f o r predetermined p r o f e s s i o n s and were more t h e o r e t i c a l than p r a c t i c a l ; the t h i r d were c a l l e d "Schools of Decorative A r t s " and were e s t a b l i s h e d as p r o f e s s i o n a l schools to preserve standards and status in the community. These l a s t foreshadowed the develop-ment of the Weimar Bauhaus in 1919, f o r they were run p a r a l l e l to the schools of f i n e a r t s , but added studios of d e c o r a t i v e p a i n t i n g , ornamental s c u l p t u r e in stone and wood, and t e x t i l e and f u r n i t u r e design, to the c l a s s i c a l studios of p a i n t i n g , s c u l p t u r e , and a r c h i t e c t u r e . The kindergarten i n f l u e n c e on a r t education. C r a f t s entered elementary a r t programs in North America through the kindergarten t h e o r i e s of Frederick Froebel. By the 1 8 7 0 's h i s c h i l d - c e n t r e d p r a c t i c e s were w e l l e s t a b l i s h e d in p r i v a t e kindergartens. Besides having a c l a y bin f o r modelling, c h i l d r e n were given Froebel's " G i f t s " ; three dimensional cubes, cones, spheres, c y l i n -ders, b u i l d i n g blocks and coloured b a l l s of yarn. They b u i l t cork and s t i c k s t r u c t u r e s , wove with paper s t r i p s and d i d c u t t i n g , f o l d i n g and pasting ex-e r c i s e s . E l i z a b e t h Peabody remarked that education begins in the "doing" 16 and then proceeds to the " l e a r n i n g . " Dewey echoed these sentiments in h i s w r i t i n g s and the "progressive education movement" l a t e r adopted as t h e i r slogan the catch phrase, " l e a r n i n g by doing." Logan observed that Froebel's kindergarten was almost "an a r t academy f o r c h i l d r e n " (p. 8 1 ) , and that both Kandinsky and Frank Lloyd Wright were exposed to the " G i f t s " in an e a r l y kindergarten s e t t i n g . He sees decided p a r a l l e l s between t h i s e a r l y manipulation of m a t e r i a l s and the adu l t v e r s i o n which evolved much l a t e r i n t o the Bauhaus. A r t s , c r a f t s , and manual t r a i n i n g . As high school c u r r i c u l a began to r e f l e c t the need f o r a t r u l y general education, a l b e i t not a t r u l y c h i l d centred one, c r a f t a c t i v i t i e s began to pe r c o l a t e upwards from the kinder-gatens and elementary schools i n t o the high schools. The j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r a r t in the secondary schools was as a l e i s u r e time a c t i v i t y , as a hobby, coupled w i t h the 19 th century idea that the study of c l a s s i c a l a r t was en-a b l i n g and character b u i l d i n g . In the p u b l i c mind, however, a r t was iden-t i f i e d with manual t r a i n i n g and i n d u s t r i a l a r t . In 1884 the National Education A s s o c i a t i o n e s t a b l i s h e d an Art and an I n d u s t r i a l A r t Department and maintained s p e c i a l programs in each area. The Connecticut V a l l e y Art and I n d u s t r i a l Teacher's A s s o c i a t i o n was organized in 1888 , the Western Drawing Teacher's A s s o c i a t i o n in 1893 , and the Eastern Art Teacher's A s s o c i a t i o n (which absorbed the Connecticut V a l l e y A s s o c i a t i o n s ) in 1899-P r a c t i c a l l y a l 1 memberships included teachers of drawing, manual a r t s , i n d u s t r i a l and mechanical drawing; and j o i n t programs were coordinated in most school systems. An. apparent f u s i o n of a r t and manual t r a i n i n g i s r e f l e c t e d in the philosophy of Gustaf Larson ( l 8 9 4 ) , p r i n c i p a l of the Sloyd T r a i n i n g School in Boston, where manual t r a i n i n g was e s p e c i a l l y designed f o r c r e a t i v e growth and the development of ph y s i c a l s k i l l among 17 elementary school c h i l d r e n . The p u p i l must be led to see and to f e e l the simple beauty of p r o p o r t i o n , of harmony of p a r t s , as w e l l as the grace of o u t l i n e . . . and importance must be given to fre e hand modelling in wood of s o l i d form. (p. 510) The Sloyd Knife was the tool with which students w h i t t l e d these " s c u l p t u r -a l " forms. It i s important, however, to keep the inf l u e n c e of a r t education on secondary school students in perspective f o r , as Eisner (1972) reminds us, less than f i v e percent of the school age population a c t u a l l y attended high school by 1900. The major impact of new t h e o r i e s and p r a c t i c a l approaches was in the elementary school. Integration of c r a f t s i n t o the curriculum. The major influe n c e of the Progressive Education Movement in the elementary schools was r e l a t e d to Both c r a f t s and a r t in everyday l i f e a c t i v i t i e s , in accord w i t h Dewey's philosophy, American Indian c r a f t s were studied through students d i g g i n g , shaping and f i r i n g t h e i r own c l a y , and by students spinning f l a x , dying i t with natural dyes, and weaving i t into f a b r i c . H i s t o r y was studied in a s i m i l a r " c r e a t i v e " manner through student w r i t t e n and produced p l a y s , care-f u l l y researched and constructed costumes, learned f o l k dances, and models of h i s t o r i c a l a r c h i t e c t u r a l s t r u c t u r e s such as f o r t s , feudal c a s t l e s and the 1i ke. Legge (.1914) put forward the case f o r manual t r a i n i n g in the E n g l i s h elementary school. He noted w i t h regret that America and the Colonies (notably eastern Canada) were f a r more enlightened in t h e i r approach to elementary education based on " l i f e as i t i s l i v e d , " Among the reasons that Legge gives f o r j u s t i f y i n g his approach., the f o l l o w i n g two sum up the opposite stances taken by a r t educators and those involved with c r a f t s 18 and i n d u s t r i a l a r t : 1. To a f f o r d scope f o r s e l f - e x p r e s s i o n through the e x e r c i s e of the motor a c t i v i t i e s . 2 . To give i t £the child^j something to do which It recognizes, as d e f i n i t e l y u s e f u l . (p. 15) Drawing in Legge's cur r i c u l u m serves as an a i d or complement to the p r a c t i c a l work, which includes modelling in c l a y , sand, modlex and putty. Like h i s American counterparts, many subject areas are represented in the three dim-ensional models i l l u s t r a t e d in h i s book, The Thinking Hand. These include models of wood and wire to i l l u s t r a t e s c i e n t i f i c p r i n c i p l e s , h i s t o r i c a l models to b u i l d i n g s , b a t t l e f i e l d s , and bridges, and models of h a b i t a t i o n s , i n c l u d i n g i r o n i c a l l y , a "red i n d i a n " settlement. The " c l a y .model 1ing" s e c t i o n shows an i n t r i g u i n g c o l l e c t i o n of hats, tea pots, shoes, i r o n s , s h e l l s , and swords, a l l f a i t h f u l l y r e p l i c a t e d . They seem, however, to be e x e r c i s e s in copy work s t r e s s i n g "manual d e x t e r i t y " rather than c r e a t i v i t y , and have l i t t l e s i m i l a r i t y to the Pop Art s c u l p t u r e s of the 1950's and 60's. Arthur Dow. Arthur Dow's Compos i t ion (.1899). introduced the p r i n c i p l e s and elements of design i n t o a r t education. He defined "composition" in the c r e a t i o n of a work of "space a r t " as "the p u t t i n g together of l i n e s and masses" (p.5 ) . By masses, he r e a l l y meant shapes, f o r h i s concern was with two dimensional a r t only. Although Dow f e l t that the "study of composition of l i n e , mass, and colour leads to a p p r e c i a t i o n of a l l forms of a r t and of the beauty of nature" (p. k), a r t teachers under his t u t i l a g e mostly adapted h i s t h e o r i e s to manual a r t s and c r a f t s p r o j e c t s across the country, well into the 1 9 2 0 's. The sp1 i t between i n d u s t r i a l and a r t education. In s p i t e of Dewey's concepts of i n t e g r a t i o n and c o r r e l a t i o n of the f i n e and manual a r t s , l a t e r 19 continued through the work of Royal B a i l e y Farnum, separate i n t e r e s t s and points of view emerged at the A s s o c i a t i o n s annual meetings: A r t groups seemed preoccupied with the " f i n e n e s s " of the a r t s and shop teachers espoused the value of t r a i n i n g boys d i r e c t l y f o r l o c a l industry. The sys-tem favoured by European a r t i s t s , designers, and a r c h i t e c t s which saw shop-work, drawing, and a r t experiences taught in a c l o s e l y r e l a t e d manner was never f u l l y accepted. In 1917, the i n d u s t r i a l drawing teachers e s t a b l i s h e d a separate o r g a n i z a t i o n , the National Society f o r the Promotion of Indus-t r i a l Education. T h e i r i n t e n t i o n was to secure f e d e r a l funds f o r support of v o c a t i o n a l education, and they succeeded in 1918 with the passage of the Smith-Hughes Act. Funding is s t i l l a source of envy and misunderstand-ing between a r t and shop teachers today. The A r t s and C r a f t s Movement Wi11i am Morr i s. W i l l i a m Morris exerted an i n d i r e c t i n f l u e n c e on the teaching of c r a f t s in E n g l i s h p u b l i c schools. Alarmed by the mass production of rubbish and the f a l l of the En g l i s h craftsman due to the excesses of the i n d u s t r i a l r e v o l u t i o n , he founded an a s s o c i a t i o n of craftsmen with the ob-j e c t of r e v i v i n g the En g l i s h Guild System and r e - e s t a b l i s h i n g the high stan-dards and a e s t h e t i c worth of hand made a r t i c l e s . His a s s o c i a t i o n f a i l e d , but the A r t s and C r a f t s movement which evolved was widely supported by educators and much of i t s philosophy was a s s i m i l a t e d by the schools, s t r e n g t h -ening t h e i r a r t s and c r a f t s programs. The f o l k and c r a f t h e r i t a g e in America. Chapman r e f e r s to the influenc e that the f o l k and c r a f t h e r i t a g e , brought to America by non-English speaking immigrants in the e a r l y 1900's, had on a r t education. It bo l s t e r e d the c r a f t component in a r t programs, promoting i n d i v i d u a l expression and design based on immigrant t r a d i t i o n s , and much of i t s more p r a c t i c a l aspects evolved 20 i n t o i n d u s t r i a l a r t s and home economics. I t d i d , a c c o r d i n g t o Chapman, f o s t e r the m i s c o n c e p t i o n t h a t a r t was p r i m a r i l y a manual sk i . 11 , non a c a d -emic, and t h e r e f o r e i n a s e n s e , second r a t e . A r t s and c r a f t s i r i t e g r a t i o n i n t o the communi.ty. D u r i n g the d e p r e s s i o n p e r i o d , f u n d i n g f o r a l l non e s s e n t i a l s c h o o l programs was c a l l e d i n t o ques-t i o n . A r t programs were p a r t i c u l a r l y v u l n e r a b l e t o c r i t i c i s m . E i s n e r sug-g e s t s t h a t t h e emphasis on i n t e g r a t i n g and c o r r e l a t i n g a r t i n t o d a i l y l i v i n g and i n t o the community o u t s i d e the s c h o o l d u r i n g the 1 9 2 0 's and 3 0 1 s was a t l e a s t p a r t l y m o t i v a t e d by a d e s i r e t o j u s t i f y a r t programs as more than mere f r i l l s . The G o l d s t e i n ' s A r t i n Everyday L i f e (1925) e x e m p l i f i e d t h e s e e f f o r t s . The Owatonna A r t E d u c a t i o n P r o j e c t (.1935 - 1938) c r e a t e d an a r t a c t i v i t y i n a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s m a l l c i t y , based on t h e n a t u r a l a e s t h e t i c i n t e r -e s t s o f the p o p u l a t i o n , both i n t h e community and w i t h i n the s c h o o l . I t em-b r a c e d c i t y p l a n n i n g , a r c h i t e c t u r e , i n t e r i o r d e s i g n , l a n d s c a p i n g , c l o t h i n g d e s i g n , u t e n s i l d e s i g n , a d v e r t i s i n g , r e c r e a t i o n and e x h i b i t i o n s . The i n f l u e n c e o f contemporary a r t . I t i s n o t a b l e t h a t the contemporary a r t w o r l d had l i t t l e impact on a r t e d u c a t i o n d u r i n g the f i r s t p a r t o f the 2 0 t h c e n t u r y . A l f r e d S t e i g l i t z had shown the works o f P i c a s s o , Van Gogh, P i c a b i a , R o d i n , M a t i s s e , Cezanne, T o u l o u s e - L a u t r e c and R e n o i r i n h i s g a l l e r y by 1905. The e x h i b i t i o n o f "The E i g h t " i n 1908 showed American p a i n t e r s -> devoted t o v i g o r o u s l y common p l a c e s u b j e c t s i n p r o t e s t a g a i n s t the g e n t i l i t y o f f a s h i o n a b l e p a i n t i n g . The "Armoury Show" o f 1913 i n t r o d u c e d I m p r e s s i o n -ism, Fauvism, F u t u r i s m , and Cubism t o an u n r e c e p t i v e New York p u b l i c . Change i n e d u c a t i o n a l t hought was s l o w i n e v o l v i n g , and what d i d t a k e h o l d most r e a d i l y i n t h e minds o f e d u c a t o r s and p u b l i c a l i k e was an i n d u s t r i a l and commercial o r i e n t a t i o n t o the a r t s r a t h e r than a c h i l d c e n t r e d f i n e a r t s o r i e n t a t i o n . The time would soon be r i p e f o r p l a n n i n g a s c h o o l 21 c u r r i c u l u m t h a t would r e f l e c t t h e s e w i d e l y h e l d s e n t i m e n t s . The Bauhaus Impact on A r t E d u c a t i o n The impact o f the Bauhaus on e d u c a t i o n a l thought was c o n s i d e r a b l e from the l a t e 1930's u n t i l w e l l i n t o the 1950's. The Bauhaus e x e m p l i f i e d i d e a s t h a t were modern, p r o g r e s s i v e , and e x p e r i m e n t a l on the one hand, y e t p r a c t i c a l , e m p h a s i z i n g t r a d i t i o n a l v a l u e s o f c r a f t s m a n s h i p on t h e o t h e r : and they were t a u g h t i n a d i s c i p l i n e d , w e l l s t r u c t u r e d manner. F o u n d a t i o n s . The Bauhaus r e s o l v e d two extreme views w h i c h emerged as a consequence o f the i n d u s t r i a l r e v o l u t i o n : One was t h e " w o r s h i p " of the machine and i t s e n d l e s s c a p a c i t y f o r mass p r o d u c t i o n and huge p r o f i t s , r e -g a r d l e s s o f any a r t i s t i c o r s o c i a l consequences; the o t h e r was an e q u a l l y f e r v e n t r e j e c t i o n o f t h e machine and the advocacy o f a r e t u r n t o m e d i e v a l c r a f t s m a n s h i p and the g u i l d system. The l a t t e r v i e w , h e l d by M o r r i s , was soon r e j e c t e d and gave way t o the more moderate one o f C h a r l e s Ashbee. He saw the machine as n o t h i n g more than a t o o l f o r p r o d u c t i o n t h a t c o u l d be m a stered by the a r t i s t - c r a f t s m a n . H i s v i e w found ready a c c e p t a n c e by European a r c h i t e c t s whose e d u c a t i o n a l t r a d i t i o n s t a u g h t the i n t e r - r e l a t e d -ness o f a r t , c r a f t , and t e c h n o l o g y . T h i s l e d t o the f o u n d i n g o f the Deut-s c h e r Werkbund (1907 " 191*0 by Herman M u t h e s i u s , f o r t h e "improvement o f p r o d u c t i o n t h r o u g h c o l l a b o r a t i o n . o f a r t , i n d u s t r y and c r a f t s " ( S c h e i d i g , 1967, p. 9 ) . S t r a n g e l y , no "Werkbund S t y l e " e v o l v e d . That s t y l e had t o w a i t u n t i l W a l t e r G r o p i u s , a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the " f u n c t i o n a l " group a t the Werkbund, founded t h e Weimar Bauhaus i n 1919-Bauhaus p h i l o s o p h y . The Bauhaus was formed as a d e s i g n s c h o o l aimed a t f i n d i n g s o l u t i o n s f o r the problems of h o u s i n g , urban p l a n n i n g , and h i g h q u a l i t y , u t i l i t a r i a n mass p r o d u c t i o n , a l l needed i n a Germany i m p o v e r i s h e d by the F i r s t World War. The " a r c h i t e c t - c r a f t s m a n " , p e r s o n i f i e d by G r o p i u s ' 22 a s s o c i a t e Adolf Meyer, was the ideal Bauhaus man. In s p i t e of I t s prac-t i c a l o r i e n t a t i o n , development of the i n d i v i d u a l was never ignored by the Bauhaus s t a f f . Johannes Itten (1975) a Swiss educator, a r t i s t and teacher of the basic design course at the school i n s i s t e d that "imagination. and c r e a t i v e a b i l i t y must f i r s t of a l l be l i b e r a t e d and strengthened. . . . It was e s s e n t i a l to b u i l d up the i n d i v i d u a l student as a w e l l Integrated c r e a t i v e person" (p. 8 ) . Handicraft was considered the natural t r a i n i n g device f o r mass production and the. natural technique f o r experimental models leading to i n d u s t r i a l products. Imagination and i n s p i r a t i o n were nurtured through music, drama, and p a i n t i n g under the guidance of F e i n i n -ger, Kandins.ky, and Klee. Other notab.le inst r u c t o r s : and contributors, to the Bauhaus idea include A l b e r s , Marcks, Moholy-Nagy, Breuer, Van Der Rohe, Van Doesburg and Mondrlan. Canaday (.1964) s t a t e s : The Bauhaus was probably the most e f f e c t i v e c o - o r d i n a t i n g f a c t o r In the c h a o t i c p i c t u r e of modern a r t , and i t developed teaching methods in connection with t h i s c o o r d i n a t i o n that are now dIssemlnated a 11 over the world. (p. 433). The Weimar Bauhaus moved to Dessau In 1923 , was forced to c l o s e by the Nazis, in 1933 , and f i n a l l y reopened in Chicago under the d i r e c t i o n of Moholy-Nagy. The new Bauhaus. Renamed the Chicago I n s t i t u t e of Design, the. new Bauhaus underwent some sub t l e changes in emphasis. The spectacular a r c h i -t e c t u r a l accomplishments of Gropius at Dessau were not repeated. Moholy-Nagy re f e r r e d to t h i s d i f f e r e n c e when he described the achievements of the o l d Bauhaus as d e v i s i n g p r i n c i p l e s to cope with mass production of m a t e r i a l s and the c r e a t i o n of the " i n d u s t r i a l designer." New goals were needed f o r the Chicago experiment. " I t became evident that not the s p e c i a l i s t , but 23 the man i n t o t o , i n a l l h i s v i t a l i t y and p o t e n t i a l i t y must become the meas-ure o f a l l e d u c a t i o n a l a p p r o a c h e s " (p. 6 3 ) . Commenting on s p e c i a l i s t s and the r a p i d e x p a n s i o n o f i n d u s t r y , he o b s e r v e d : W i t h g r o w i n g i n d u s t r i a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s t h e e n t i r e e d u c a t i o n a l system a t t a i n e d a v o c a t i o n a l a s p e c t . S c h o o l s l o s t s i g h t of t h e i r b e s t p o t e n -t i a l q u a l i t y : u n i v e r s a l i t y . (p. 15) In d e s c r i b i n g the methodology o f the c r e a t i v e a p p r o a c h , Moholy-Nagy e x p l a i n s : The p o l i c y i s , f i r s t , not t o dominate the s t u d e n t , second, t o p r o v i d e him w i t h the o p p o r t u n i t y t o become c o n s c i o u s o f t h e w o r l d and h i m s e l f t h r o u g h e x e r c i s e s which s i m u l t a n e o u s l y t r a i n t h e i n t e l l e c t u a l and e m o t i o n a l s p h e r e s . . . . [ t h e s e ] e x e r c i s e s a r e b u i l t around h i s p o t e n t i a l i t i e s , and t o o l s and m a t e r i a l s . (p. 65) Bauhaus i nf 1 uetice on educat i o n a 1 t h o u g h t . I t i s not s u r p r i s i n g , as Chapman (1978) and o t h e r s have n o t e d , t h a t t h e Bauhaus approach alm o s t be-came an e d u c a t i o n a l d o c t r i n e by t h e mid 19^0's. The " P r o g r e s s i v e s " c o u l d e a s i l y f i n d j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r t h e i r i d e a s c e n t e r i n g on " l e a r n i n g by d o i n g " and " a r t as e x p e r i e n c e . " Those t e a c h e r s w i t h a s t r o n g c r a f t s o r i e n t a t i o n and a d e s i r e t o emphasize q u a l i t y workmanship c o u l d see i n t h e Bauhaus method a r e - e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f t h e s e t r a d i t i o n a l i d e a l s . Those who were c r i t i c a l o f t h e American t r a d i t i o n a l 19th c e n t u r y a p proach t o the s t u d y o f a r t i n the s c h o o l s c o u l d i d e n t i f y w i t h the avant garde a r t i s t s who formed the o r i g i n a l Bauhaus. I n d u s t r i a l i s t s were e a s i l y persuaded as t o the v a l u e o f c o u r s e s d e s i g n e d t o e x p l o r e the c a p a b i l i t i e s o f new m a t e r i a l s and the new t e c h n o l o g y i n a r a t i o n a l manner. And p r o b a b l y most i m p o r t a n t , the Bauhaus approach r e i n f o r c e d t h a t n o t i o n o f p r a c t i c a l i t y t h a t was so d e e p l y r o o t e d i n the N o r t h American c o n s c i o u s n e s s . By t h e 1950's, however, what was o r i g i n a l l y i n t e n d e d as a m e t h o d i c a l , 2k almost s c i e n t i f i c approach to education, with c h i l d r e n conscious of t h e i r design d e c i s i o n s , and capable of applying d i s c o v e r i e s to new s i t u a t i o n s , degenerated i n t o a rather wide open, poorly d i r e c t e d i m p r o v i s a t i o n , l a c k i n g in s t r u c t u r e . It may seem a r t i f i c i a l to think of s c u l p t u r e and design as separate e n t i t i e s in a r t education. In f a c t , p r i o r to the Bauhaus, there were no c l e a r d i s t i n c t i o n s , only confusion among a r t , manual t r a i n i n g , c r a f t s , and i n d u s t r i a l a r t . Much of t h i s confusion s t i l l remains. The Bauhaus i n f l u -ence on a r t education during the 1 9 ^ 0 's and 5 0 ' s d i d , however, give design studies a s i g n i f i c a n c e of t h e i r own. Summary. I have suggested that the major influences on the teaching of s c u l p t u r e and design in contemporary secondary schools were twofold: the a r t s and c r a f t s m e n t a l i t y common to most European and North American s o c i e t i e s and the d e s i r e to master ( f o r p r o f i t ) the technology which r e s u l t e d from the I n d u s t r i a l Revolution. The Bauhaus developed a unique experimental approach which encompassed both and was eagerly received by a r t educators. Much of the design work done by Bauhaus students both in Germany and l a t e r in Chicago was three dimensional and undeniably s c u l p t u r a l In form. Nine-teenth and e a r l y 2 0 t h century a r t and s c u l p t u r e had l i t t l e Impact on a r t education p r i o r to 19^0. There has probably always been some t r a d i t i o n a l s c u l p t u r e taught to a small m i n o r i t y of students since the beginning of the 19th century, but almost e x c l u s i v e l y in p r i v a t e schools or in a r t academies, and seldom in p u b l i c education before the beginning of the 2 0 t h century. The "modelling" that was q u i t e common in the elementary schools at t h i s time was nearly always a three dimensional i l l u s t r a t i o n of some other area of knowledge, and not done f o r i t s own sake, save in Froebel's kindergarten. It was as i f s c u l p t u r e was too a e s t h e t i c , too f a r removed from r e a l i t y f o r 25 p u b l i c school students to be able to grasp Hegelian notions of "pure" form and "high a r t " as a r e v e l a t i o n of the Divine. Cli.ve B e l l ' s (Langer, 1957, p. 33) dictum of " s i g n i f i c a n t form" echoed these sentiments during the 1920's. A more contemporary approach to teaching s c u l p t u r e and design had to await the p u b l i c acceptance of Dewey's pragmatic w r i t i n g s about education and a r t rooted in personal experience, and the development of the Bauhaus approach which made them f e a s i b l e . Later Developments in America A f t e r the fragmentation of Bauhaus method during the 1 9 5 0 1s no c l e a r d i r e c t i o n emerged f o r teaching design and sc u l p t u r e in secondary schools.. Two phenomenon d i d develop, however, which had a considerable impact on a r t education during the next two decades: One was the re-emergence during the 1960's of that l a t e n t d e s i r e of the p u b l i c f o r hand c r a f t e d goods and a r e s u r r e c t i o n of the c r a f t movement; the other was a new consciousness of man's r e l a t i o n s h i p to hi s environment, both natural and " b u i l t . 1 . 1 The re-emergence of c r a f t s . The f i r s t phenomenon gave impetus to ceramics and t e x t i l e courses w i t h i n the c r a f t component, of secondary a r t programs, and art-metal and j e w e l l e r y making as an extension of i n d u s t r i a l education. Sculpture was i n c i d e n t a l to the making of pots and glazes, on the one hand, and macramed, bat i k e d , t i e dyed, p r i n t e d , and hand made fab-r i c s on the other. J e w e l l e r y making s t r e s s e s two dimensional design and "a r t - m e t a l " was a catch phrase which included tooled copper, metal enamel-ing, welded junk s c u l p t u r e , and foundry techniques f o r c r e a t i n g ornamental wrought i r o n . While serious a r t i s t s continued to e x p l o i t the s c u l p t u r a l p o t e n t i a l of c l a y , f i b e r , welded metal, and a host of s y n t h e t i c m a t e r i a l s , the p u b l i c was saturated with " c r a f t f a i r s " and " f e s t i v a l s " which in turn r e i n f o r c e d the notion that a r t in the schools was synonymous with c r a f t s . 26 Design education. The second phenomenon stemmed from the a r c h i t e c -t u r a l - t e c h n i c a l component,of Bauhaus theory and p r a c t i c e , and can be iden-t i f i e d in the recent advocacy, p a r t i c u l a r l y in B r i t a i n , of "Design Educa-t i o n . " Green (1974) sees the c e n t r a l f u n c t i o n of Design Education as one of problem s o l v i n g . Problem s o l v i n g i s c e n t r a l to a r t and design a c t i v i t i e s and l e a r n i n g and discovery but, more than anything e l s e , i t i s a fundamental part of everyday l i f e . (p. 12) For Baynes (1977) design studies emerge as a t h i r d f o r c e b r i d g i n g the gap between science and the humanities. i t deals with "the making and doing" aspects of human a c t i v i t y . Design education solves the dilemma ra i s e d by C P . Snow (1959) when he coined the phrase "the two c u l t u r e s " to describe the s c i e n t i f i c and t e c h n i c a l community on the one hand and the l i t e r a r y and a r t i s t i c on the other, and the absence of communication between them. Envi-ronmental design has an even wider concern. Baynes f e e l s s t r o n g l y that because man's environment has a profound e f f e c t on the i n d i v i d u a l and s o c i e t y and that because t h i s environment i s i n c r e a s i n g l y man a l t e r e d and man-made, then the s o c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the designer i s one of the basic tenets of design education at a l l l e v e l s . These areas of s o c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y are a m p l i f i e d in the w r i t i n g s of McFee and Degge (.1977) -The broad p h i l o s o p h i c a l questions r a i s e d by proponents of design edu-c a t i o n have a bearing on a r t education in general and may e v e n t u a l l y i n f l u -ence the form in which i t i s taught. There are, however, no c l e a r d i r e c t -ives f o r the teaching of s c u l p t u r e other than those general ones that re-emphasize the Bauhaus experimentation i m p l i c i t in Green's "problem s o l v i n g . " What then are the options open to secondary a r t teachers in t h e i r e f f o r t s to e f f e c t i v e l y involve students in three dimensional a c t i v i t i e s ? 27 Why might there be reluctance on the part of some a r t teachers to e x p l o i t the host of m a t e r i a l s and techniques o f f e r e d to a r t as an out-growth of t e c h n i c a l advancement in industry? Is i t important f o r teachers to take a contemporary stance in t h e i r l e a r n i n g of a r t , or do concepts f i r m l y rooted in t r a d i t i o n make a more l o g i c a l basis from which to understand contemporary phenomena? The f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n w i l l explore p o s s i b l e ans-wers to these and other questions r e l a t e d to innovation in a r t education. Ihnovat ion in Scu1pture and Pes ign Educat ion  The A c c e l e r a t i o n of Change Few of us are capable of coping with a c c e l e r a t e d change on a continu-ing b a s i s . Yet i t i s endemic to our era. Change i s not a new phenomena in i t s e l f . It i s the i n c r e d i b l e a c c e l e r a t e d rate of change in t h i s century that i s the new phenomena. H e r a c l i t u s ' r i v e r of time has become a raging t o r r e n t . A l v i n T o f f l e r (.1971) o u t l i n e d the manifestations of unregulated, a c c e l e r a t e d change. They are: "the death of permanence", t r a n s i e n c e , and novelty. The l i m i t of adaptation physica11y and p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y to these phenomena i s " f u t u r e shock." T o f f l e r defines " f u t u r e shock" as: the s h a t t e r i n g s t r e s s and d i s o r i e n t a t i o n that we induce in i n d i v i d u a l s by s u b j e c t i n g them to too much change in too short a time. (p. 2) S t y l e in the a r t s i s as a f f e c t e d by a c c e l e r a t i n g change as i s any other area of. human endeavour. T o f f l e r says: In the past one r a r e l y saw a fundamental change in an a r t s t y l e w i t h i n a man's l i f e t i m e . A s t y l e or school endured, as a r u l e , f o r generations at a time. Today the pace of turnover in a r t i s v i s i o n -b l u r r i n g - - t h e viewer s c a r c e l y has time to "see" a school develop, to learn i t s language, so to speak, before i t vanishes. (p. 173) The s c u l p t o r , Alexander Archipenko (Burnham, 1968) s a i d much the same 28 thing in I960: U n l i k e past eras, our contemporary mechanization and speed f o r the economy of time are the causes f o r rapid changes of form in modern a r t . The production of the Egyptian S t y l e e x i s t e d f o r over 5000 years; the Gothic, 500; Modern Cubism, 10 years. Now in our tempo, a r t seems to be d e t e r i o r a t i n g i n t o a seasonal performance. . . . The h i s t o r y of a r t has known no such turbulent period or v a r i e d s t y l i s t i c experimentation as in the present day. (p. 117) Resistance to change and "the p i i g h t of the p u b l i c . " Rapid changes in a r t i s t i c s t y l e can unexpectedly leave an a r t i s t with outmoded perceptions of a contemporary's work. Steinberg in h i s essay "Contemporary Art and the P l i g h t of the P u b l i c " (Battcock, 1966) c i t e s Paul Signac's condemnation of Matisse's pa i nt ? ng The Joy of L i f e , and l a t e r Matisse's e q u a l l y strong de-nunciation of P i casso's Demo i sel1es d'Av i gnon, c a l l i n g i t a hoax. S t e i n -burg points out t h a t : whenever there appears an a r t that i s t r u l y new and o r i g i n a l , the men who denounce i t f i r s t and loudest are a r t i s t s . Obviously, because they are the most engaged. (p. 28) Steinburg says that the word:., " p u b l i c " does not designate any p a r t i c u l a r people: i t r e f e r s to a r o l e played by people, or to a r o l e i n t o which people are t h r u s t or forced by a given experience. And only those who are beyond experience should be exempt from the charge of belonging to the p u b l i c . . . . As to the "p1ight"--here I mean simply the shock of discomfort, or bewilderment or the anger or the boredom which some people always f e e l , and a l l people sometimes f e e l , when confron-ted with an u n f a m i l i a r new s t y l e . (p. 30-31) 29 Some general goals of a r t education. If the p i i g h t of the. p u b l i c i s one of dismay and d i s o r i e n t a t i o n brought on by r a p i d l y changing values, the p l i g h t of teachers, and s p e c i f i c a l l y teachers of a r t , Is; no less e n v i -able. They are charged with the r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of enabling t h e i r s t u -dents to express t h e i r f e e l i n g s v i s u a l l y and a c q u i r i n g the necessary s k i l l s to do so, of teaching students to become c r i t i c a l l y aware of t h e i r v i s u a l surroundings, of teaching them to appreciate t h e i r a r t i s t i c h e r i t a g e , and of developing t h e i r students awareness of the a r t i s t ' s , role. In s o c i e t y . Few ar t educators would f i n d f a u l t with these exemplary goals. The danger s t i l l e x i s t s , however, that time and Innovation may pass us by. These goals may not be properly r e a l i z e d i f we adopt the kind of t r a d i t i o n a l approach to education r e f l e c t e d by some stagnant s o c i e t i e s where "the past crept forward i n t o the present and repeated i t s e l f in the f u t u r e " ( T o f f l e r , p. 3 9 9 ) -Gontemporary Culture and Art Education How important i s a contemporary stance f o r a r t teachers? Art educators such as McFee, Feldman, and Wilson f e e l that contemporary c u l t u r e i s the most s i g n i f i c a n t f a c t o r in a student's l i f e and must ther e f o r e be. the l o g i c a l s t a r t i n g point f o r any kind of e f f e c t i v e a r t teaching. Wilson (.1974} maintains: The i n d i v i d u a l ' s c u l t u r e educates f a r more comprehensively and e f f e c t -i v e l y than any school or even twenty years s c h o o l i n g . . . . values taught by c u l t u r e are so deeply i n c u l c a t e d , that values promulgated by school are r e j e c t e d . (p. 262) Feldman underscores the importance of the v i s u a l image as educator and trans;-m i t t e r of popular c u l t u r e through the mass media. Wilson seems to concur as he a s s e r t s : For the a r t classroom to be e f f e c t i v e , i t w i l l f i r s t have to begin 30 e d u c a t i o n i n t h e way the c u l t u r e does, and second, I t w i l l have t o r e l a t e i t s a c t i v i t i e s t o t h o s e of the o u t s i d e c u l t u r e . (p. 2631 High s c h o o l a r t t e a c h e r s have g r e a t freedom i n s h a p i n g t h e i r programs.. In most c a s e s they s e t the s t a n d a r d s . A r t c u r r i c u l a , u n l i k e t h o s e f o r many academic s u b j e c t s , a r e w r i t t e n w i t h the utmost o f f 1 e x i b 11 i.ty and c r e a t i v e freedom f o r s t u d e n t s and t e a c h e r s a l I k e . But In the f i n a l a n a l -y s i s i t i s the p r e f e r e n c e s and a t t i t u d e s o f a r t t e a c h e r s — perhaps more than i n many o t h e r s u b j e c t a r e a s — w h i c h determine, the way i n wfuch t h e i r s u b j e c t i s p r e s e n t e d t o s t u d e n t s . E i s n e r ' s cont r o l 1 a b l e f a c t o r s . E i s n e r (1976). I d e n t i f i e d a number o f c o n t r o l l a b l e f a c t o r s by which an a r t t e a c h e r c o u l d I n f l u e n c e the d e v e l o p -ment o f a r t i n s t u d e n t s . A l t h o u g h \ do not Intend t o work, t h r o u g h them a l l s y s t e m a t i c a l l y a t t h i s p o i n t , 1 w i l l d i s c u s s the f i r s t one here and r e f e r t o the o t h e r s a t v a r i o u s p o i n t s , t h r o u g h o u t t h e t h e s i s . P a r a p h r a s e d , they a r e : 1. What k i n d s o f s t i m u l a t i o n and atmosphere a r e c o n d u c i v e t o i m a g i n -a t i v e development? What Is r e q u i r e d t o encourage s t u d e n t s t o s p e c u l a t e , v i s u a l l y , t o t a k e a r t i s t i c r i s k s ? 2. S h o u l d a r t i s t i c s k i l l s be t a u g h t as p a r t o f s t r u c t u r e d e x p e r i e n c e s o r s h o u l d they be d e v e l o p e d w i t h i n t h e c o n t e x t of p e r s o n a l a r t i s t i c p roblems? 3. How h i g h o r low s h o u l d a t e a c h e r s e t h i s e x p e c t a t i o n s , a t the v a r -i o u s s t a g e s of c h i l d development? What s k i l l s can a c h i l d cope w i t h w h i l e o t h e r s a r e s t i l l d e v e l o p i n g ? k. How s h o u l d n o n r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a l problems and problems o f r e p r e s e n -t a t i o n a l i 1 l u s i o n be d e a l t w i t h ? 31 Inducements to Imaginative Development If contemporary c u l t u r e i s to be the s t a r t i n g point f o r a r t education, then to teach s c u l p t u r e and design e f f e c t i v e l y , a r t teachers must look outside the a r t room. It means recognizing that contemporary s c u l p t o r s use contemporary processes and m a t e r i a l s , and t h i s r e a l i t y must be r e f l e c t e d to some degree i n s i d e the artroom. In 1046, the American s c u l p t o r Theodore Roszak commented: Working methods and mater Lais should always be proper to the age in which the a r t i s t works; m a t e r i a l s should both give to and receive from the a r t i s t s concepts. ( I r v i n g , 1970, p. 17) It seems obvious that the kinds of s t i m u l a t i o n which encourage a r t i s t i c r i s k taking must come from students contemporary c u l t u r e rather than a remote past. Chichura and Stevens (.197*0 used k i n e t i c s c u l p t u r e as the core of a high school program with, high m o t i v a t i o n a l p o t e n t i a l . They found that t h e i r students were uninspired by t r a d i t i o n a l m a t e r i a l s and approaches to s c u l p t u r e , and at the same time were completely unaware of the modern m a t e r i a l s and processes used in the contemporary a r t world. Not a l l a r t teachers would agree that students can't be i n s p i r e d by t r a d i t i o n a l mater-i a l s and approaches, but a t r a d i t i o n a l a t t i t u d e can i n a d v e r t e n t l y separate students from contemporary a r t , and leave them with the f e e l i n g that i t i s i n s u b s t a n t i a l and lacks the real value of t r a d i t i o n a l a r t . The f e a r of technology. I suspect that a basic d i s t r u s t or f e a r of technology prevents some a r t teachers from venturing outside the r e l a t i y e comfort of an a r t curriculum based on conventional precepts. Probably t h i s i s promoted by a real or imagined lack of e x p e r t i s e . Chichura and Stevens chose a s c u l p t u r a l form i n v o l v i n g a high degree of technology which, u t i l i z e d heat, 1ight, e l e c t r i c a l , mechanical, and sound energy; and 32 a wide range of materia 1s, from wood, stone, and metal to g l a s s , p l a s t i c s , and found o b j e c t s . By t h e i r own.admission, they and t h e i r students were, forced to seek e x p e r t i s e beyond the art:room. This often involved col 1abor-a t l o n w i t h the science and i n d u s t r i a l a r t s departments. Just as p r o f e s s i o n a l s c u l p t o r s have turned to engineers, s c i e n t i s t s , and people in industry f o r a s s i s t a n c e , so must teachers seek s o l u t i o n s outside t h e i r classroom. (p. h5\ Chichura and Stevens used t e c h n o l o g i c a l b a r r i e r s to create a s t i m u l a t i n g le a r n i n g environment which, involved students and teachers; in an interdepen-dent, h i g h l y m o t i v a t i o n a l atmosphere. There i s evidence that the f i n e and p r a c t i c a l a r t s . a r e developing in concert rather than in o p p o s i t i o n in some, high schools,. Saunders (1970) points to "the trend towards, open space sharing of the f i n e afidi. i ndustr i.a 1 a r t s being designed i n t o our newer secondary schools [which i s J re-estab-l i s h i n g these areas of overlapping and i n t e r a c t i o n " (p. 8)_. This has often been true of the graphics areas in both i n d u s t r i a l education and a r t education which are f r e q u e n t l y taught by the same i n s t r u c t o r to the same students. Fine and i n d u s t r i a l a r t departments in f a c u l t i e s , of education sometimes share s t a f f and f a c i l i t i e s . It i s not uncommon f o r teachers with a predominantly i n d u s t r i a l education or home economics back-ground to f i n d themselves drawn i n t o a r t education. I know one design and ceramics teacher, two sculptors, and two graphic a r t s teachers who have "defected" from i n d u s t r i a l education to a r t . They have a b i l i t i e s that s u i t them p a r t i c u l a r l y w e l l f o r teaching three dimensional design. It should be noted that many i n d u s t r i a l a r t s and home economics teachers are i n t i m i d a t e d by the a e s t h e t i c demands required in t h e i r teaching areas. Rather than leave the i n d u s t r i a l arts, teacher a d r i f t to use second hand 33 ideas, a r t teachers can be a part of a mutual exchange to combine t h e i r c r e a t i v i t y with the i n d u s t r i a l ' o r home economics teacher's technology. The s c u l p t o r David Smith spent much of h i s l i f e welding b o i l e r s and locomotives in heavy industry w h i l e , at the same time, accomplishing a p r o l i f i c a e s t h e t i c output in welded s c u l p t u r e . In 1950 he recognized the importance of, as Hausman ( 1 9 7 ° ) : put i t "beginning at the point where, we are" (p. 2 0 9 ) . When asked how he would teach s c u l p t u r e , Smith s a i d : I would f i r s t s t a r t the teaching of a r t by doing, developing fluency in expression. I would teach, contemporary a r t , contemporary concepts. —because that i s the world the student l i v e s in--before any accent was made on the h i s t o r y of a r t . (McCoy, 1973 , P- 64) What are some of the modern m a t e r i a l s and processes used by twentieth century s c u l p t o r s that could be adapted by teachers in a r t education? Modern Methods and M a t e r i a l s :  l.mpl i cat ions For Scul ptiire  Four Events S i g n i f i c a n t to Form and Process in 2 0 t h Century Sculpture In t h i s s e c t i o n , I w i l l deal as narrowly as p o s s i b l e with the m a t e r i a l s and processes of modern s c u l p t u r e . I w i l l not attempt an a n a l y s i s of the. many divergent movements in modern s c u l p t u r e , but w i l l use commonly accepted " l a b e l s " as sign posts to d i r e c t my d i s c u s s i o n . Of the s i g n i f i c a n t events which have influenced the form of s c u l p t u r e in t h i s century, there are four which have s p e c i a l importance. The f i r s t three deal with the ways in which a s c u l p t o r organizes h i s raw material and the l a s t i s an i n d u s t r i a l process which r e v o l u t i o n i z e d metal s c u l p t u r e . Assemblage. Although Picasso's Cubism has had a momentous impact on a l l modern a r t , h i s discovery and use of "assemblage", f i r s t in r e l i e f com-p o s i t i o n s in 1914 and l a t e r in f u l l y three dimensional c o n s t r u c t i o n s during 3h the 1930's, was perhaps equal 1y Important: i t redefined the a d d i t i v e approach to s c u l p t u r e which f o r c e n t u r i e s had been confined to modelling plTable substances such as c l a y or wax. One e a r l y example of assemblage, V161 in (1914), i s a r e l i e f f a b r i c a t e d of painted lead sheets. By 1916 Jean Arp had begun using cut out and painted wooden r e l i e f elements on shaped wooden background forms such as ih Forest. Max Ernst's Dada r e l i e f F r u i t of Long Experience done in 1919 i s an assemblage of painted wood scraps s i m i l a r to that used by Picasso in h i s 1914 Musical Instruments. In 1914 Picasso had already extended h i s ideas of assemblage to include ready-made o b j e c t s , as in the small bronze Glass of Absinthe which i n c l u -ded a real spoon balanced on top as an i n t e g r a l part of the s c u l p t u r a l form. As Read (1964) observed of Dada: Very s i g n i f i c a n t f o r the f u t u r e development of s c u l p t u r e was the o b l i t e r a t i o n of any formal d i s t i n c t i o n between the p a i n t i n g , the r e l i e f , the scu1pture-in-the-round and the ready-made o b j e c t . Indeed, c e r t a i n works of the Dadaists may be c l a s s i f i e d i n d i f f e r e n t l y as p a i n t -ings or s c u l p t u r e , and to separate them f o r the sake of a t i d y h i s t o r y of e i t h e r category i s to destroy t h e i r h i s t o r i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e , (p. 1^6) The assemblage technique combined with the ready-made was adopted by Dada, S u r r e a l i s t , and Pop s c u l p t o r s a l i k e during the next f o r t y years. Ready-mades. The second event, almost contemporaneous with the ap-pearance of Picasso's assemblages, was the use of common manufactured objects as s c u l p t u r e s by Marcel Duchamp. His B i c y c l e Wheel (1913) and widely condemned Fountain (a tipped-up u r i n a l on a p e d e s t a l , 1917) t r a n s -formed ordinary objects into the realm of a r t by the mere f a c t of t h e i r having been i n s c r i b e d by the a r t i s t s . The idea of the ready-made survived 35 in the s u r r e a l box s c u l p t u r e of Joseph. Cornel 1 in the 19^0's, described by Read as "compacted t r e a s u r i e s of c u r i o s i t i e s . " (p. 2641, the wooden assemblages of Louise Nevelson in the 50's and 6 0 1 s , and the. various ob-j e c t s of f u r n i t u r e , b r i c - a - b r a c and "contemporary a r t i f a c t s " used by the Pop Art s c u l p t o r s during the 1960's. An i n t e r e s t i n g p a r a l l e l can be. made, between Jim Dine's ready-made sink mounted on a wal1, Black. Bathroom ( I962) and Duchamps Fountain (1917)• The M i n i m a l i s t s c u l p t o r s Dan F l a v i n and Carl Andre used styrofoam planks, f i r e b r i c k s , and f l u o r e s c e n t tubes as ready-mades in t h e i r works. C o n s t r u c t i v i sm. C o n s t r u c t i v i s m was concerned more w.ith_ o r g a n i z i n g space than with o r g a n i z i n g m a t e r i a l s , but because of the tenets l a i d down in Gabo's 1920 manifesto, i t i n v i t e d the use of m a t e r i a l s , u n t i l then, not u s u a l l y a s sociated w i t h s c u l p t u r e : g l a s s , c l e a r p l a s t i c , nylon f i l a m e n t s , chromed rods and t h i n planar surfaces. These were assembled or constructed according to almost geometrical and mathematical laws. As Read (.1964) says, "new m a t e r i a l s l i k e g l a s s and p l a s t i x were f o r the f i r s t time used to ex-press a new sense of space and dynamic rhythm, and a l s o a sense of s o c i a l relevance" (p. 1 0 1 ) . The/used m a t e r i a l s in tune with t h e i r time. Gabo's Constructed Head No. 1 was assembled from t h i n i n t e r l o c k i n g wooden planes in 1915. His brother, Antoine Pevsner, b u i l t a s i m i l a r piece, Head of a  Woman in 1925 , a f t e r the manifesto, constructed of i n t e r l o c k i n g planes made of transparent p l a s t i c . Moholy Nagy sought to develop what he c a l l e d "a d i r e c t experience of space i t s e l f . " This was evident in the sculptures and "1 ight-space modulators" that he constructed of glass., p l a s t i c s and various metals from 1920 through the 1 9 4 0 's. The mobiles of Alexander Calder, done during t h i s same peri o d , echoed c o n s t r u c t i v i s t notions of space as v i r t u a l volume. Si t u a t e d on the extreme end of the t e c h n o l o g i c a l 36 spectrum are s c u l p t o r s 1ike N i c o l as Schtiffer who attempt to employ l i g h t , movement, and sound, c o n t r o l l e d by computers to create sculptures respon-s i v e to the envi ronment. Microtemps 16 (1966) and Chronos 8 (1967) which use p r o j e c t o r s , m i r r o r s , motors and computers are examples of t h i s cyber-n e t i c a r t . Constructivism's i n f l u e n c e can be seen in the welded s c u l p t u r e of "the new i r o n age" which f l o u r i s h e d i n America during the 1940's and 50's. Welded metals. P r i o r to the 1920's, metal s c u l p t u r e had been confined to the procedure of c a s t i n g molten m a t e r i a l s , l i k e bronze, so that the f i n i s h e d work was always several steps away from the o r i g i n a l c r e a t i o n of the p l a s t e r model, and was f o r c e d , by t e c h n i c a l l i m i t a t i o n s , to a c e r t a i n density of form. This d e n s i t y i n c a s t i n g was to a large degree obviated by the invention of ceramic s h e l l c a s t i n g in the 1970 1s, but the open space necessary to the concepts of c o n s t r u c t i v i s m could not be r e a l i z e d f u l l y i n metal u n t i l the invention of welding. Krause (1977) t e l l s us that J u l i o Gonzales, a s c u l p t o r and a s s o c i a t e of P i c a s s o , had by the l a t e 1920's perfected a technique of making s t a b l e and permanent s c u l p t u r e by d i r e c t l y welding together metal sheets and rods, thereby s h o r t -c i r c u i t i n g the c a s t i n g process and making p o s s i b l e a much more l i n e a r and f r a g i l e s t y l e . . . . And i n Gonzales' hands, the t e c h n i c a l innova-t i o n of " d i r e c t - m e t a l " s c u l p t u r e contained w i t h i n i t a d i r e c t i v e to make transparent or open s c u l p t u r e , or as Gonzales put i t , "to draw in space." (p. 132) Picasso's f i r s t metal s c u l p t u r e Construction in Metal Wire was welded f o r him by Gonzales in 1930. Thereafter, Picasso used the process h i m s e l f , and in 1931 produced Head of a Woman which combined assemblage, ready-mades, and the technique of welding to produce what Read c a l l e d the f i r s t of the 37 "icons of a s c i e n t i f i c age" Cp, 7QL, Read quotes Roland Penrose's d e s c r i p -t i o n of Picasso's process: Pieces of s c r a p - i r o n , s p r i n g s , saucepan l i d s , s i e v e s , b o l t s and screws picked out with discernment from the rubbish heap, could mysteriously take t h e i r place in these c o n s t r u c t i o n s , w i t t i l y and c o n v i n c i n g l y coming to l i f e with a new p e r s o n a l i t y . (p. 69) The s c u l p t o r s who have followed Picasso's and Gonzales' lead have been many. As has been mentioned e a r l i e r , the Americans Smith, Ferber, Lassaw, U p t o n , Roszak and Hare, p r e c i p i t a t e d the "new iron age" in the United S t a t e s ; Lynn Chadwi.ck was prominent In England during the 1960's; and even Moore and Hepworth, both with a p r e d i l e c t i o n f o r t r a d i t i o n a l s c u l p t u r e m a t e r i a l s , have produced welded pieces. Twentieth century s c u l p t o r s have fused, puddled, shaped, and bui.lt up sta in less s tee 1 , i r o n , brass, bronze, aluminum, and lead to create forms which often seem to defy g r a v i t y . Weld-ing allows the supporting base to be e l i m i n a t e d ; ponderous masses can be supported by slender s t a l k s . Summary. The concepts of assemblage, the ready-made, c o n s t r u c t i v i s m , and the process of welding have allowed s c u l p t o r s to produce a wide v a r i -e t y of forms impossible to create using t r a d i t i o n a l s c u l p t u r a l methods and media. The Nature, of P l a s t i c s and T h e i r Use in Scu1pture Other m a t e r i a l s created by modern science and technology have contr i b u t e d to innovation in contemporary s c u l p t u r e , e s p e c i a l l y p l a s t i c s . Thermoplastics and thermosetting p l a s t i c s . P l a s t i c s are natural or s y n t h e t i c polymers that f a l l i n t o two general c a t e g o r i e s ; thermoplastics and thermosetting p l a s t i c s . Thermoplastic resins must be softened by heat before they can be shaped. They wi 11 harden when cool but w i l l soften 38 again i f reheated. S u f f i c i e n t heat w i l l cause them to become f l u i d . This group includes a c r y l i c s , v i n y l s , polyethylene, eel 1 u l o s t i c s , pol y s t y r e n e , ABS, polypropylene, and the f1uorcarbons, Thermosetting resins u s u a l l y begin in a l i q u i d s t a t e at room temperature and are formed by the a p p l i c a -t i o n of e i t h e r chemical or p h y s i c a l heat which, causes them to polymerize and harden. Once formed, however, they w i l l not re-soften w i t h f u r t h e r a p p l i c a t i o n s of heat. They are often used f o r c a s t i n g in molds. Thermo-s e t t i n g r e s i n s include p o l y e s t e r s (often r e i n f o r c e d w i t h glass f i b e r s ) , epoxies, a l k y d s , s i l i c o n e s , caseins and urethanes. The p l a s t i c s used by s c u l p t o r s are numerous, but the most common are c l e a r c a s t i n g r e s i n s , f i l l e d and r e i n f o r c e d p o l y e s t e r and epoxy r e s i n s , thermoformable sheet p l a s t i c s such as a c r y l i c s , v i n y l , and styrene, and expanded p l a s t i c foams, both f l e x i b l e and r i g i d . Thelma Newman t r e a t s the te c h n i c a l aspects of p l a s t i c from the a r t i s t ' s point of view in her e x c e l -lent books, P l a s t i c s as an Art Form (.1969) and P l a s t i c s as Scul p t u r e , (J97*0_, Other books d e a l i n g with p l a s t i c s are l i s t e d in the b i b l i o g r a p h y . S c u l p t u r a l q u a l i t i e s of p l a s t j e s . There are four general character-i s t i c s of p l a s t i c s that are most commonly e x p l o i t e d by a r t i s t s working with three dimensional forms. They are: (_a) o p t i c a l p r o p e r t i e s , (b) c a s t i n g p r o p e r t i e s , (c) strength, and d u r a b i l i t y , and (d) thermoforming c a p a b i l i t i e s . These c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s w i l l be discussed in more d e t a i l as f o l l o w s : 1, The o p t i c a l property that a t t r a c t e d Gabo to p l a s t i c as a scu l p -t u r a l medium, was transparency. This was f i r s t demonstrated in his 1923 scul p t u r e Column, although, he has been c r e d i t e d with experimenting w i t h p l a s t i c ' s unique l i g h t transmission c a p a b i l i t i e s as e a r l y as 1917. Trans-parency in p l a s t i c can be modified by the i n t r o d u c t i o n of transparent dyes i n t o the material i t s e l f , thus presenting the a r t i s t with a. broad p a l e t t e 39 of both v i b r a n t and s u b t l e c o l o u r s . Some p l a s t i c s , notably a c r y l i c , can be made to i n t e r n a l l y transmit or "pipe" l i g h t through the medium by the phenomenon known as " f i b e r o p t i c s . " A s i m i l a r e f f e c t , c a l l e d "edge l i g h t i n g " ; can be created in p l a s t i c sheets. Light entering at one edge i s i n t e r n a l l y r e f l e c t e d as i t passes through the transparent p l a s t i c sheet u n t i l i t emerges at the other edge as a glowing s t r i p e of l i g h t . Louise Nevelson's Transparent Sculpture I, f a b r i c a t e d from c l e a r a c r y l i c sheet, e x p l o i t s t h i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c . Some s c u l p t o r s use tr a n s l u c e n t p l a s t i c s i.n combination w i t h c o l o r and l i g h t to i l l u m i n a t e t h e i r works i n t e r n a l l y , so that they r a d i a t e an i r i d e s c e n t glow. Martin Friedman (.1969) described the large i l l u m i n a t e d vacuum formed sculptures of Craig Kaufman as achiev-ing "aureole surface and vaprous c o l o u r " (p. 3 0 ) . Other a r t i s t s have i n -corporated cast a c r y l i c lenses into t h e i r work p e r m i t t i n g them to create c o n t r o l l e d v i s u a l d i s t o r t i o n as a dynamic element in t h e i r s c u l p t u r e s . 2. The a b i l i t y to cast a f l u i d material at room temperature which can be combined with dyes, opaque col o r a n t s and other a d d i t i v e s o f f e r s some s c u l p t o r s the ideal s o l u t i o n to t h e i r design problems, A wide range of inorganic and m e t a l l i c f i l l e r s can be added to po l y e s t e r and epoxy res i n s which add strength and e l a s t i c i t y , change the d e n s i t y , or simulate t r a d i -t i o n a l c a s t i n g m a t e r i a l s such as marble, bronze, copper and aluminum. This produces a s c u l p t u r a l medium f a r l i g h t e r than t r a d i t i o n a l m a t e r i a l s . An extension of c a s t i n g i s the c o n t r o l l e d foaming of polyurethane resins to produce pre-determined shapes i n s i d e a mold or freeform organic shapes without a mold. One ingenious use of cast f i b e r g l a s s i s evident in the "earthprobe" r e l i e f s created by B r i t f s h r a r t i s t Mark Boyle, Susan Mertens described the methods used by Boyle in her review of hi s S e a t t l e e x h i b i t i o n (.The_ 40 Vancouver Sun, May 13, 1 9 8 l ) . The works. . . f u n c t i o n l i k e pages from a huge textbook on e s t h e t i c seeing. . . . He has devised as e f f e c t i v e a teaching a i d as I've encountered. The e f f e c t of h i s World Series "earthprobes", as they're c a l l e d , i s remarkable. Each i s o l a t e s a 6 x 6 foot area of the earth's surface--a square of stony, ploughed Sardinian f i e l d , of E n g l i s h l o r r y p a r k , of Ce.ntral A u s t r a l i a n Desert--and presents i t as a boxed w a l l work. Only the thi n n e s t surface s k i n has come from the real s i t e — d u s t , sand, small debris--but the f i b e r g l a s s base, cast from the underlying ground formation, creates such a stunning sense of depth that i t ' s d i f f i c u l t to b e l i e v e Boyle has not simply excavated the s i t e and shipped the e n t i r e area back i n t a c t . (p. F 1) In h i s preoccupation with i n d i v i d u a l and t r a n s i e n t forms and h i s b e l i e f that the study of the p a r t i c u l a r can lead to a new understanding of the u n i v e r s a l , Mertens sees Boyle as "soundly in the t r a d i t i o n of hi s l a t e 18th century countryman, John Constable" (p. F 1 ) . 3- Strength and d u r a b i l i t y are the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of p o l y e s t e r and epoxy r e s i n s r e i n f o r c e d w i t h g l a s s f i b e r . Processes used in industry to manufacture large s t r u c t u r a l forms from s e p t i c tanks to boat h u l l s are modified by s c u l p t o r s to create both t r a d i t i o n a l and a b s t r a c t a r t forms in the s t u d i o . Frank G a l l o ' s c u r i o u s l y aloof epoxy and glass women contrast with the intimacy and s o c i a l commentary generated by Arlene Love's s o c i a l groupings of stereotyped American females, such as Two Women at a Table (.1965). Roy Lewis' Mary ( 1 9 7 9 ) , made from f i b e r g l a s s and a c r y l i c r e s i n , combines the q u a l i t i e s of c l a s s i c a l s c u l p t u r e with the detached impersonal-i t y of a fashion designer's mannequin; a provocative blend of t r a d i t i o n a l and contemporary values ( F i g . 1 ) . Robert Mallary's a b s t r a c t e x p r e s s i o n i s t i c 11 F i g . 1. Roy r e s i n , 1979. Lewi s: Mary, f i b e r g l a s s and a c r y l i c 42 s c u l p t u r e The J u g g l e r (1962) i s s t r o n g l y r e m i n i s c e n t o f the power and l o a t h i n g g e n e r a t e d by the p a i n t i n g s o f Chaim S o u t i n e and l a t e r , F r a n c i s Bacon. 4. The ease w i t h w h i c h t h e r m o p l a s t i c s can be shaped a t f a i r l y low t e m p e r a t u r e s (300 deg. F.) i s a n o t h e r s i g n i f i c a n t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c . T h i s c o n t r a s t s w i t h the extreme h e a t s needed t o c u t , f u s e , and c a s t m e t a l s . One such method, vacuum f o r m i n g , w i l l be d e s c r i b e d i n an i n d u s t r i a l con-t e x t t o show how e a s i l y such a p r o c e s s can be adapted f o r s c u l p t u r e and d e s i g n . Vacuum Forming i n I n d u s t r y There a r e many uses f o r vacuum f o r m i n g i n o u r consumer o r i e n t e d s o c i e t y . The p a c k a g i n g i n d u s t r y p o r t i o n s out c o u n t l e s s s m a l l a r t i c l e s from e l e c t r o n i c components t o n e e d l e s and t h r e a d i n c o n v e n i e n t " b u b b l e p a c k s . " The b u t c h e r h e r m e t i c a l l y s e a l s t h e Sunday r o a s t o n t o a vacuum formed p l a s t i c meat t r a y . Fishermen s o r t and t r a n s p o r t t h e i r c a t c h t o market i n 100 g a l l o n vacuum formed p o l y e t h e l e n e t u b s . M o t o r i s t s a r e s u r r o u n d e d by h i g h impact vacuum formed p l a s t i c i n the shape o f i n s t r u -ment p a n e l s , d a s h b o a r d s , door p a n e l s , head l i n e r s , and i n some c a s e s , t h e s h e l l o f the c a r i t s e l f . A d v e r t i s e r s use vacuum formed s i g n s f o r d i s p l a y and p r o m o t i o n . The t h e a t r e and t e l e v i s i o n i n d u s t r i e s make e x t e n s i v e use o f vacuum formed s t a g e and s e t p r o p s . A r c h i t e c t s i n c o r p o r a t e vacuum formed l i g h t i n g p a n e l s , s k y l i g h t domes, and d e c o r a t i v e w a l l p a n e l s ( e x t e r i o r and i n t e r i o r ) i n t o commercial and r e s i d e n t i a l b u i l d i n g d e s i g n s . B a t h t u b and shower e n c l o s u r e s a r e formed from h i g h impact A.B.S. p l a s t i c s h e e t i n g , as a r e luggage s e t s , s m a l l b o a ts and canoes, and r e c r e a t i o n a l v e h i c l e s . G iven l a r g e enough p l a s t i c s h e e t s , i t i s not i n c o n c e i v a b l e t h a t whole room modules c o u l d be formed i n m i n u t e s . h3 The key to vacuum forming's commercial success i s i t s a b i l i t y to reproduce three dimensional forms cheaply and in q u a n t i t y , from a mater-i a l that i s l i g h t , strong, and c o l o u r f u l . In the f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n I w i l l d escribe the vacuum forming process in some d e t a i l and examine i t s use in the sign industry as r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of many other commercial f i e l d s . The vacuum forming process. Vacuum forming equipment in i t s simplest form c o n s i s t s of a vacuum box with an a i r o u t l e t , a heating panel, a vacuum pump and a mold. The mold, which i s p a r t i a l l y hollow underneath and d r i l l e d through with a number of f i n e holes, i s placed over the a i r o u t l e t . The p l a s t i c sheet to be formed is placed over the open top of the box and clamped down by the frame, thus s e a l i n g o f f the box and making i t i n t o an a i r t i g h t compartment ( F i g . 2). The heater panel i s then placed over the p l a s t i c sheet, at a distance of 130-150 mm in order to heat the sheet as uniformly as p o s s i b l e ( F i g . 3). When the sheet has been r a i s e d to a temperature a l i t t l e below i t s melting p o i n t , the heater i s w i t h -drawn and a i r i s evacuated by means of the vacuum pump. This causes the p l a s t i c sheet to be sucked down in t o and over the mold and to form an ac-curate reproduction of the mold contour ( F i g . k). The mold can e i t h e r be male or female or a combination of both. The l i m i t of the draw i s deter-mined by the depth of the vacuum box. When the sheet has cooled and hard-ened, the clamping frame i s released, the formed sheet removed from the mold, and the surplus material trimmed o f f . A more f l e x i b l e system can be obtained by modifying the vacuum box i n t o a t h i n enclosed box whose top i s d r i l l e d through with a pattern of many t i n y (1 mm) holes. The mold s i t s on t h i s vacuum t a b l e ( F i g . 5). A sheet of p l a s t i c i s clamped in a frame that t r a v e l s v e r t i c a l l y between a s t a t i o n a r y heater and the vacuum t a b l e . The advantages of t h i s system a r e t h a t g r e a t e r depths o f draw a r e p o s s i b l e as the downward movement o f the frame p r e - s t r e t c h e s the p l a s t i c o v e r the mold b e f o r e the t a b l e i s e v a c u a t e d ( F i g . 6 ) . A commercial vacuum form machine ( h e n c e f o r t h a b b r e v i a t e d VFM) may be d e s i g n e d w i t h e l a b o r a t e c o n t r o l s t o r e g u l a t e t e m p e r a t u r e and vacuum p r e s -s u r e , a c t i v a t e pneumatic c l a m p i n g frames t h a t move v e r t i c a l l y o r l a t e r -a l l y , and o p e r a t e vacuum t a b l e s t h a t move h y d r a u l i c a l l y upwards i n t o the p l a s t i c s h e et ( F i g . 7 ) . I t can a l s o be equipped w i t h " p l u g a s s i s t s " t h a t push the h e a t e d p l a s t i c s h e et i n t o deep mold c a v i t i e s t o i n s u r e f a i t h f u l r e p r o d u c t i o n w i t h o u t the p l a s t i c t h i n n i n g out due t o o v e r s t r e t c h i n g . P l a s t i c s Forming, e d i t e d by John B e a d l e ( 1 9 7 1 ) , c o n t a i n s a c l e a r l y w r i t t e n a c c o u n t o f sheet and vacuum f o r m i n g (pp. 8 l - 90) t o g e t h e r w i t h a c o n c i s e d i s c u s s i o n o f p l a s t i c s and t h e i r t h e r m oforming c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . A more t e c h n i c a l up t o d a t e r e v i e w o f thermoforming t e c h n i q u e s i s g i v e n by R. L. Brown i n Design and M a n u f a c t u r e o f P l a s t i c P a r t s ( 1 9 8 0 ) . Vacuum f o r m i n g and the s i g n i n d u s t r y . One o f t h e most h i g h l y v i s i b l e p r o d u c t s o f vacuum f o r m i n g i s the o u t d o o r a d v e r t i s i n g s i g n . I t i s o f t e n i l l u m i n a t e d i n t e r n a l l y and has a l l but r e p l a c e d t h e neon s i g n i n modern a d v e r t i s i n g . The p r o l i f e r a t i o n o f vacuum formed s i g n s on banks, gas s t a t i o n s , r e s t a u r a n t c h a i n s , drug s t o r e s , s u p e r m a r k e t s , and even the c o r n e r g r o c e r y s t o r e , r e p r e s e n t s t o some, a s i g n i f i c a n t c o n t r i b u t i o n t o v i s u a l p o l l u t i o n ( F i g s . 8, 9, and 10). O t h e r s , l i k e Burnham ( 1 9 6 8 ) , speak o f "American P y l o n A r t " and see t h e s i g n d e s i g n e r as an "u n d e r g r o u n d " a r t i s t who had i n t h e p a s t an even s h a r p e r eye f o r new e f f e c t s and t e c h n i q u e s • than the ave r a g e s c u l p t o r . F o r m a l l y i t has been the t a s k o f the s i g n maker t o a p p r o p r i a t e d a t e d , c o r n y , modern a r t shapes, r e - v i t a l -45 H E A T E R F i g . 2. The p l a s t i c sheet F i g . 3. Meat causes the is clamped in the clamping p l a s t i c to soft e n , frame. VACUUM F i g . k. The a i r i s evacuated. H E A T E R 31 II II 11 1 VACUUM TABLE.' I L E . — ^ . 11 lil 1.1=31 IE VACUUM t Fi.g_. 5. Clamping frame i.n p o s i t i o n under the heater. F„Lg.. 6_. Clamping frame moves down to mold and the a i r i s evacuated. F i g . 7. Commercial vacuum form machine (courtesy of Custom P l a s t i c s L t d . , Vancouver, B. C.) 48 ID BANK F i g . 8. formed Vacuum s igns. 49 i z i n g them t h r o u g h the t e c h n i q u e s o f the s i g n man's v o c a b u l a r y , (p. 123) The " g o l d e n a r c h e s " ( F i g . 11)' have become an i n e s c a p a b l e f e a t u r e o f the N o r t h American c u l t u r a l l a n d s c a p e . A r t i s t s , such as James R o s e n q u i s t , have d r a m a t i s e d the p u b l i c ' s a m b i v a l e n t f e e l i n g s towards a d v e r t i s i n g and s i g n a r t i n t h e i r own work: My metaphor, i f t h a t i s what you can c a l l i t , i s my r e l a t i o n s t o t h e power o f commercial a d v e r t i s i n g w h i c h i s i n t u r n r e l a t e d t o our f r e e s o c i e t y , the v i s u a l i n f l a t i o n w h i c h accompanies the money t h a t p r o -duces box tops and space c a d e t s . ( R u s s e l l and G a b l i k , 1969, p. I l l ) Custom P l a s t i c s L i m i t e d (Vancouver, B.C.) s p e c i a l i z e s i n thermal v a c u -um formed p l a s t i c s used f o r a wide range o f i n d u s t r i a l a p p l i c a t i o n s . They have r e l i n q u i s h e d the p r o d u c t i o n o f smal1 vacuum formed s i g n s t o indepen-dent s i g n shops, many o f whom o p e r a t e s m a l l VFM's i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h t h e more t r a d i t i o n a l s i l k s c r e e n p r o c e s s e s . Many s i g n s a r e p r e s c r e e n e d w i t h p l a s t i c i n k s w h i c h bond t o the p l a s t i c s i g n s d u r i n g heat f o r m i n g . Other s i g n s a r e formed from c l e a r p l a s t i c , u s u a l l y a c r y l i c , and then s p r a y p a i n t e d on the r e v e r s e s i d e ; the c o l o u r i s then w e l l p r o t e c t e d from e n v i r o n m e n t a l damage. Custom P l a s t i c s do, however, f a b r i c a t e l a r g e s i g n l e t t e r s and have a good i n v e n t o r y o f l e t t e r form molds ( F i g . 12) accumu-l a t e d o v e r a number o f y e a r s . Some o f t h e s e hand c r a f t e d l a m i n a t e d wooden p a t t e r n s were used p r e v i o u s l y i n f o u n d r y c a s t i n g . The p r o c e s s o f f o r m i n g l a r g e p l a s t i c l e t t e r s can be seen i n F i g u r e s 13, 14, and 15. The o p e r a t o r p o s i t i o n s the wooden molds i n p o s i t i o n on the vacuum t a b l e ( F i g . 13). In F i g u r e 14, the 7 mm t h i c k p l a s t i c s h e et can be seen becoming " r u b b e r y " under the c a l r o d h e a t i n g e l e m e n t s , and the formed l e t t e r s a r e shown i n F i g u r e 15. They wi11 be rough c u t from the p l a s t i c s h e et w i t h a bandsaw, F i g . 11. The " g o l d e n a r c h e s " - - a n i n e s c a p a b l e f e a t u r e o f the N o r t h American c u l t u r a l l a n d s c a p e . F i g . 12. Wooden l e t t e r form molds. ( C o u r t e s y o f Custom P l a s t i c s , V ancouver, B. C.) 52 53 then a c c u r a t e l y trimmed and p o l i s h e d by a n o t h e r t e c h n i c i a n . These l e t t e r s were d e s t i n e d f o r use on a t h e a t r e marquee. L i k e any l a r g e c o r p o r a t i o n , McDonald's R e s t a u r a n t s has used t h e i r "M" lo g o i n a v a r i e t y o f ways i n a l l phases o f t h e i r o p e r a t i o n . I t has even become an a r c h i t e c t u r a l element i n t h e i r b u i l d i n g s ( F i g . 1 6 ) , a d e c o r a t i v e w a l l panel r e p e a t e d o v e r and o v e r . Vacuum formed m u l t i p l e s a r e used f o r i n t e r i o r d e c o r a t i o n by o t h e r l a r g e companies. Woodward's S t o r e s has c r e a t e d a f e a t u r e w a l l i n the hardware department o f t h e i r P ark Royal s t o r e i n West Vancouver,, B.C. ( F i g . 1 7 ) . The g e o m e t r i c m o t i f i s i n k e e p i n g w i t h the t o o l s and f a s t e n e r s s o l d t h e r e . Two d e t a i l s o f t h i s r e l i e f a r e shown i n F i g u r e s 18 and 19-A l t h o u g h Custom P l a s t i c s does m a i n l y i n d u s t r i a l vacuum f o r m i n g such as s i n k u n i t s , equipment c o n s o l c o v e r s , and h e a t i n g r e g i s t e r v e n t s (.Fig. 20) t h e y a r e sometimes asked t o make a r t i c l e s o f a l e s s u t i l i t a r i a n n a t u r e . One such item was a l a d i e s p u r s e , i n the shape o f a clam s h e l l , made from b r i g h t l y c o l o u r e d a c r y l i c p l a s t i c , l i n e d w i t h l e a t h e r . The mold was hand c a r v e d by a p a t t e r n make a t g r e a t expense, and the many s m a l l vacuum v e n t -i n g h o l e s a r e c l e a r l y v i s i b l e i n F i g u r e 2 1 . The p u r s e , m o d e l l e d by a s e c r e t a r y ( F i g . 2 2 ) , was commissioned by a New York f i r m and w i l l be a p a r t o f i t s 1982 s p r i n g f a s h i o n l i n e o f a c c e s s o r i e s . 5h F i g . 17. Vacuum formed f e a t u r e w a l l m u r a l . ( C o u r t e s y o f Woodwards S t o r e s L t d . , Park Royal Shopping C e n t r e , West Vancouver, B. C.) F i g . 19. D e t a i l of Figure 16. 56 F i g . 21. Carved wooden mold f o r s h e l l p u r s e . (Photos t h i s page c o u r t e s y o f Custom P l a s t i c s , Vancouver, B.C.) F i g . 22. The " h i g h f a s h i o n " p u r s e . ( C o u r t e s y o f Custom P l a s t i c s , Vancouver, B. C.) 58 VACUUM FORMING IN THE SECONDARY SCULPTURE AND DESIGN PROGRAMS Vacuum Forming as a P r o c e s s  And i t s C o n s i s t e n c y w i t h A r t E d u c a t i o n  G o a l s and L e a r n i n g Outcomes  Goals and L e a r n i n g Outcomes The A r t (8-12) Guid e / R e s o u r c e Book b e i n g p r e p a r e d f o r the B r i t i s h Columbia M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n by the C u r r i c u l u m Development Branch ( d r a f t , J u n e , 1980)' i s b e i n g d e v e l o p e d on the b a s i s o f a c o n c e p t u a l model t h a t i d e n t i f i e s f i v e v i s u a l e x p r e s s i o n a r e a s . They a r e : (a) ceram-i c s , (b) draw i n g and p a i n t i n g , (c) g r a p h i c s , (d) s c u l p t u r e , and (e) t e x t i l I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o n o t e t h a t s c u l p t u r e i s g i v e n the same s t a t u s as the o t h e r v i s u a l e x p r e s s i o n a r e a s ; t h i s has not been the case i n e a r l i e r a r t c u r r i c u l u m g u i d e s i n B r i t i s h Columbia (1965). Each v i s u a l e x p r e s s i o n a r e a i s viewed i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e t h r e e l e a r n i n g domains: c o g n i t i v e , a f f e c t i v e and psychomotor. The t h i r d f a c e t o f t h i s model i s c o m p r i s e d o f the b a s i c d e s i g n e l e m e n t s — c o l o u r , shape, l i n e , t e x t u r e , and f o r m — w h i c h a r e i n t e r -r e l a t e d w i t h each o f the f i v e v i s u a l e x p r e s s i o n a r e a s . The g e n e r a l g o a l s o f a r t e d u c a t i o n , w h i c h I have s t a t e d p r e v i o u s l y , a r e phrased o n l y s i i g h t l y d i f f e r e n t l y i n the Guide / R e s o u r c e Book. The secondary a r t program g o a l s a r e : 1. To s t i m u l a t e and e x t e n d s t u d e n t s ' v i s u a l c u r i o s i t y . 2. To a s s i s t s t u d e n t s i n d e v e l o p i n g a p p r e c i a t i o n f o r t h e i r own a r t i s t i c e ndeavors and t h o s e o f o t h e r s . 3- To d e v e l o p s t u d e n t s ' p o t e n t i a l t o respond c r i t i c a l l y t o v i s u a l and a e s t h e t i c phenomena. 59 k. To e n a b l e s t u d e n t s t o g a i n e x p e r t i s e i n a r t i s t i c p r o c e s s e s . 5. To f o s t e r i n s t u d e n t s an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f the h i s t o r y and h e r i t a g e o f a r t . (p. 6) The e i g h t proposed l e a r n i n g outcomes i n the G u i d e / R e s o u r c e Book d r a f t , w h i c h s t u d e n t s a r e e x p e c t e d t o be k nowledgeable about and be a b l e t o use a r e : (a) imagery, (b) t h e e l e m e n t s and p r i n c i p l e s o f d e s i g n , (c) h i s t o r -i c a l and c ontemporary d e v e l o p m e n t s , (d) reasoned c r i t i c i s m , (e) m a t e r i a l s , ( f ) t o o l s and equipment, (g) p r o c e s s e s , and (h) v o c a b u l a r y . I f i t can be assumed t h a t t h e proposed G u i d e / R e s o u r c e Book r e f l e c t s i n a t l e a s t a broad way, c u r r e n t a c c e p t e d t r e n d s i n a r t e d u c a t i o n , then what i s the r o l e o f vacuum f o r m i n g w i t h i n t h i s g e n e r a l scheme? Vacuum Forming as S c u l p t u r a l P r o c e s s An i m p o r t a n t d i s t i n c t i o n has t o be made between vacuum f o r m i n g as a p r o c e s s and vacuum formed s c u l p t u r e . I am not a d v o c a t i n g the c r e a t i o n o f vacuum formed s c u l p t u r e as an end i n i t s e l f ; nor am I a d v o c a t i n g t h e s t u d y and mastery o f vacuum f o r m i n g as a p r o c e s s . Vacuum f o r m i n g must be viewed as one means o f e f f e c t i v e l y c r e a t i n g t h r e e d i m e n s i o n a l forms w h i c h may h e l p s t u d e n t s i n t h e i r q u e s t f o r s o l u t i o n s t o p a r t i c u l a r s c u l p t u r a l p r o b l e m s . There may be o t h e r p r o c e s s e s t h a t a r e b e t t e r s u i t e d t o a c h i e v e t h e s e ends. But vacuum f o r m i n g does have some unique a t t r i b u t e s . I t i s a p r o c e s s t h a t can r e v e a l form i n unexpected ways. R e l i e f s c u l p t u r e and image t r a n s l a t i o n . A r t i s t s f r e q u e n t l y t r a n s -l a t e images from one media t o a n o t h e r . Sometimes t h i s p r o c e s s o f chang-i n g a form's c o n t e x t r e s u l t s i n a "new" form w h i c h g a i n s i m p o r t a n c e , o r i s a t l e a s t seen i n a d i f f e r e n t l i g h t . Perhaps t h i s t r a n s f o r m a t i o n , as w e l l as the a c q u i s i t i o n o f permanence, i s one reason why s c u l p t o r s t r a n s -form t h e i r images from c l a y , p l a s t e r , o r wax i n t o b r o n z e , aluminum o r 60 c a s t a c r y l i c . B r a n c u s i ' s m e t i c u l o u s l y p o l i s h e d bronze egg p l a c e d i n t h e c e n t r e o f a r e f l e c t i v e metal d i s c i n The B e g i n n i n g o f t h e World ( 1 9 2 4 ) has a p r e s e n c e u n o b t a i n a b l e i n p l a s t e r o r c l a y . The c o l l o g r a p h i s a c o l l a g e o f m a t e r i a l s o f v a r y i n g shapes, t e x t u r e s , and c o l o u r s assembled i n low r e l i e f and then p r i n t e d on damp paper under p r e s s u r e . The p r i n t e d image i s the same i n one sens e . T e x t u r e s , shapes, and p a t t e r n s r e g i s t e r e d i n the i m p r e s s i o n a r e the m i r r o r image o f the o r i g i n a l , but they a r e now u n i f i e d i n c o l o u r and the r e l i e f i s n e g a t i v e l y embossed i n t o the paper. Sometimes a r e l i e f d e s i g n may be b u i l t up from s c r a p s o f t h i c k c a r d o r t h i n wood. The assembled shapes may be p a i n t e d one c o l o u r o r g i v e n heavy c o a t s o f gesso i n o r d e r t o m i n i m i z e the u n i q u e -ness o f the s e p a r a t e e l e m e n t s ; t o impose a sense o f u n i t y which a l l o w s one t o see t h e whole form. Vacuum f o r m i n g can a c c o m p l i s h t h i s same end i n i t s own unique media, p l a s t i c . I t can i n c r e a s e r e l i e f d r a m a t i c a l l y because p l a s t i c s can be formed o v e r o b j e c t s w i t h p r o p o r t i o n a l l y much h i g h e r r e l i e f ( o r more d e e p l y i n d e n t e d ) than t h o s e assembled on a c o l l a g r a p h . The p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r the d r a m a t i c i n t e r p l a y o f l i g h t and c a s t shadows a r e t h e r e f o r e g r e a t l y enhanced. Many v e r y o r d i n a r y m a t e r i a l s can be formed o v e r w i t h o u t mold s e p a r a t i o n d i f f i c u l t i e s . Vacuum f o r m i n g can be used t o c r e a t e more permanent, d u r a b l e forms from images o r i g i n a l l y b u i l t up from t r a c t i b l e y e t impermanent mater-i a l s such as p l a s t i c i n e , u n f i r e d c l a y , p a p i e r mache, b a l s a wood, s t r i n g , and p l a s t i c foams. S c u l p t u r e i n the round. F a b r i c a t i o n o f shapes from component p a r t s may be the s o l u t i o n t o a s t u d e n t ' s d e s i g n problem. Vacuum formed shapes can not be s u c c e s s f u l l y molded " i n the round", but must be formed as two h a l v e s and then j o i n e d t o g e t h e r . T h i s does, however, p r e s e n t c o n s i d e r a b l e 61 l a t i t u d e i n f a b r i c a t i n g a wide a s s o r t m e n t o f t h r e e d i m e n s i o n a l shapes. The g i a n t L i p s t i cks (19 81), by L o r r a i n e Kong ( F i g . 23) and the o v e r s i z e d penny I n f l a t i o n (1981) by Vanessa Lee, ( F i g . 2h) done as s e n i o r h i g h s c h o o l a r t p r o j e c t s , a r e examples o f t h i s a p p roach. Both L i p s t i ck and G i a n t Key (1981) by Teddy Eng ( F i g . 25) show t h e use o f the vacuum formed shapes i n c o m b i n a t i o n w i t h o t h e r m a t e r i a l s . S e r i a l i z a t i o n o f the image. A n o t h e r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f vacuum form-i n g i s i t s c a p a c i t y t o produce m u l t i p l e images. U n l i k e o t h e r r e p r o d u c -t i v e a r t i s t i c p r o c e s s e s , such as s i 1 k s c r e e n i n g , t h e s e images a r e t h r e e d i m e n s i o n a l . S e r i a l i z a t i o n has been e x p l o i t e d by many a r t i s t s , from t h o s e l i k e p r i n t m a k e r s , who want t o produce e d i t i o n s o f t h e i r work, t o t h o s e l i k e Andy Warhol who combine m u l t i p l e images i n a s i n g l e work. H i s c e l e -b r a t e d Camp_b_eJJIJ_s_Sojup_ (1962) i s one example and h i s v a r i o u s s t u d i e s o f M a r i l y n Monro's s e r i a l i z e d image i s a n o t h e r . Three d i m e n s i o n a l m u l t i p l e s have been used by modern s c u l p t o r s , n o t a b l e the " m i n i m a l i s t s . " R i c h a r d S e r r a ' s Cast i ng ( 1 9 6 9 ) , Donald Judd's G a l v a n i z e d I r o n (1965) and Four Boxes 0 9 6 5 ) , C a r l Andre's Reef (.1969) and Robert M o r r i s ' S e c t i o n a l F i b e r G l a s s P i e c e s (1967) a r e s c u l p t u r e s w h i c h Krauss (.1977) says emphasize sheer r e p e t i t i o n as a way o f a v o i d i n g the i n f e r e n c e s o f r e l a t i o n a l c o m p o s i t i o n . To s t r i n g e l ements t o g e t h e r w i t h o u t emphasis or l o g i c a l t e r m i n a t i o n i s c l e a r l y t o d e f e a t the i d e a o f a c e n t r e o r f o c u s t o -ward w h i c h forms p o i n t o r b u i l d . (p. 250) In c o n t r a s t t o t h i s way o f u s i n g r e p e a t e d images i s the vacuum formed w a l l r e l i e f , I n t e r c h a n g e a b l e P a n e l s (1968) by N i c k e Rosen w h i c h i l l u s t r a t e s a v a r i e t y o f c o l o u r f u l p l a s t i c shapes and background p a n e l s combined i n many ways t o c r e a t e i n t e g r a t e d l i n e a r p a t t e r n s . F i g . 23. L o r r a i n e Kong: L i p s t i cks (1981). Vacuum formed p l a s t i c , c a r d b o a r d , a c r y l i c and s p r a y enamel. 63 F i g . 24. Vanessa Lee: p l a s t i c and copper s p r a y I n f l a t i o n (1981) . ename1. Vacuum formed F i g . 25. Ted Eng: G i a n t Key (1981) S y t r o f o a m , p a p i e r mache, and vacuum formed p l a s t i c . 65 Vacuum forming as an intermediate process. For some a r t i s t s , vacuum forming o f f e r s the a b i l i t y to create i n t r i c a t e molds in which to cold cast t h e i r images. These p l a s t i c molds replace those t r a d i t i o n a l l y made from p l a s t e r and used f o r investment c a s t i n g . Because of the wide range of th e r m o p l a s t i c s , a mold ma t e r i a l (such as r i g i d polyethylene) can be chosen which w i l l part e a s i l y from the cast material--which may be another p l a s t i c such as c l e a r a c r y l i c r e s i n or a f i l l e d epoxy. Nicholas Roukes (1970) o u t l i n e s t h i s a p p l i c a t i o n in h i s book C r a f t s in P l a s t i c s , where he combines s i l k s c r e e n , o p t i c a l l y c l e a r c a s t i n g r e s i n and vacuum formed a c r y l i c sheet to produce a l i m i t e d e d i t i o n of twenty-five graphic m u l t i p l e s , t i t l e d Optos 25 (pp. 5 0 - 5 4 ) . Permanence and impermanence in s c u l p t u r e . One c o n t r o v e r s i a l aspect of some modern s c u l p t u r e i s the impermanence of many of the images. A p u b l i c that reacts with dismay at the discovery that many p a i n t i n g s done by the o l d masters are in a s t a t e of advanced d e t e r i o r a t i o n , or that B e r n i n i ' s fountains are eroding away because of the e f f e c t s of i n d u s t r i a l p o l 1 u t i o n , can hardly be blamed f o r looking askance at c o l l a g e s made of scrap paper and b i t s of wood or pop a r t s c u l p t u r e s made from i n f l a t e d v i n y l , or rows of unmortared b r i c k s c a s u a l l y l i n e d up on the f l o o r . Newman (1974) commented on transience in conceptual s c u l p t u r e , which i s ofte n a s i n g l e process o r i e n t e d idea: Whereas once s c u l p t u r e was of stone, marble, or bronze--made to l a s t f o r e v e r — p r o c e s s and concept s c u l p t u r e i s i n t e n t i o n a l l y temporary, t r a n s i t o r y , even f l e e t i n g . L a s t i ng forever i s not a concern and, often enough, i s an end to be avoided. (p. 2) Today's students l i v e in what i s in many ways a t r a n s i t o r y , "throw away" c u l t u r e : Houses with a t h i r t y year l i f e expectancy and consumer a r t i c l e s 66 with b u i l t in s t y l i s t i c obsolescence are j u s t two examples among many. Perhaps i f students can understand the nature of t h i s t r a n s i e n c e , as r e f l e c t e d in the works of many conceptual s c u l p t o r s , they w i l l be b e t t e r able to cope with the a c c e l e r a t i o n of change discussed e a r l i e r in t h i s t h e s i s . O pportunities e x i s t in vacuum forming f o r students to make repeated experiments with r e l a t i v e l y inexpensive, impermanent m a t e r i a l s . Large numbers of a s i n g l e form may be produced q u i c k l y , a l l o w i n g students to assemble composite works on a g i a n t s c a l e , and then d i s c a r d the whole c r e a t i o n a f t e r a few days or weeks. Often in a r t education, the act of doing i s more important than the f i n a l product. Goals, Learning Outcomes and Vacuum Forming. In the l i g h t of t h i s d i s c u s s i o n concerning vacuum forming as a s c u l p -tural Process, i t i s q u i t e c l e a r that as a process used by secondary a r t students, i t i s c o n s i s t e n t with the goals and l e a r n i n g outcomes stated e a r l i e r . Much of t h i s t h e s i s has emphasized the importance of using students' contemporary c u l t u r e as a s t a r t i n g point in t h e i r v i s u a l e x p l o r -a t i o n s of form and content. Vacuum forming i s a process attuned to the demands of our c u l t u r e , and i t has been adequately demonstrated that as an a r t i s t i c process i t can be used to " s t i m u l a t e and extend students v i s u a l c u r i o s i t y . " It i s a l s o a means to "develop students' p o t e n t i a l to respond, c r i t i c a l l y to v i s u a l and a e s t h e t i c phenomena." The eight proposed l e a r n i n g outcomes p e r t a i n to a process only in so f a r a s i t u l t i m a t e l y produces a r t , whether i t i s a graphics process, a s c u l p t u r e process or a p a i n t i n g process. The f i r s t four outcomes, there-f o r e , don't apply so much to the actual process as to the c o g n i t i v e and c r e a t i v e a c t i o n leading up to the a r t product. They a l s o imply a r e f l e c t i v e 67 assessment o f the a r t p r o d u c t ' s v a l u e o r impo r t a n c e t o s t u d e n t and'viewer a l i k e . The l a s t f o u r l e a r n i n g outcomes dea l more w i t h psychomotor s k i l l s and the m a n i p u l a t i o n o f m a t e r i a l s , and h e r e , vacuum f o r m i n g i s e n t i r e l y c o m p a t i b l e w i t h t h e i r i n t e n t . The a r e a where vacuum f o r m i n g can be used most e f f e c t i v e l y i s t h a t one, r e p r e s e n t e d by the c o n c e p t u a l l e a r n i n g model, which i n t e r r e l a t e s t h e el e m e n t s o f d e s i g n w i t h each o f the v i s u a l e x p r e s s i o n a r e a s . Vacuum f o r m i n g a l l o w s s t u d e n t s t o a p p l y the elements and p r i n c i p l e s o f d e s i g n t o the c r e a t i o n o f s c u l p t u r e and t h r e e d i m e n s i o n a l forms i n v a r i e d and s t i m u l a t i n g ways. The C r e a t i v e Design P o t e n t i a l o f  Vacuum Forming Vacuum f o r m i n g i s a p r o c e s s t h a t r e v e a l s form. A l l s t a g e s o f a p r o -j e c t , i n c l u d i n g t h e c r e a t i o n o f a t h r e e d i m e n s i o n a l o b j e c t o r group o f ob-j e c t s c a p a b l e o f b e i n g vacuum formed, r e q u i r e c o n s c i o u s d e s i g n d e c i s i o n s on the p a r t o f the s t u d e n t . And i f the vacuum formed shape i t s e l f i s t o be f u r t h e r p r o c e s s e d , c o l o u r e d , o r assembled w i t h o t h e r elements as p a r t o f a l a r g e r f o r m , f u r t h e r demands a r e p l a c e d on a s t u d e n t ' s d e s i g n a b i l i t i e s . I t i s not my i n t e n t i o n t o p r e s e n t a d i s c o u r s e on the el e m e n t s and p r i n c i p l e s o f d e s i g n , as the r e a d e r has, no doubt, e n c o u n t e r e d them o f t e n enough. But c e r t a i n d e s i g n s i t u a t i o n s seem t a i l o r made f o r t e a c h i n g b a s i c p r i n c i p l e s . In t h e f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n I w i l l d i s c u s s some d e s i g n a p p l i c a t i o n s w i t h which my s t u d e n t s have e x p e r i m e n t e d , and I w i l l s p e c u l a t e on o t h e r , so f a r u n t r i e d , poss i b i 1 i t i e s . C o l l a g e , Vacuum Forming and B a s i c Design P r i n c i p l e s C o l l a g e i s a t e c h n i q u e which u t i l i z e s t he o r g a n i z a t i o n o f sha p e s , l i n e a r e l e m e n t s , c o l o u r s , and t e x t u r e s on a f l a t s u r f a c e . I t i s an e x c e l -l e n t s t a r t i n g p o i n t f o r t e a c h i n g b a s i c t w o - d i m e n s i o n a l d e s i g n , and has been 68 used f o r t h a t purpose by many a r t t e a c h e r s . An o u t g r o w t h o f c o l l a g e i s t h e " r u b b i n g " w h i c h encourages a more i n t i m a t e s t u d y o f t e x t u r e . A f u r t h e r e x t e n s i o n o f c o l l a g e i n t o low r e l i e f , as has been d i s c u s s e d e a r l i e r , i s t h e c o l l a g r a p h . I f t h e e t c h i n g p r e s s used t o p r i n t a c o l l a g r a p h i s r e p l a c e d w i t h a VFM, a n o t h e r d i m e n s i o n i s added. Large t e x t u r e p a n e l s can be assem-b l e d from i n d i v i d u a l modules, w e i g h i n g a f r a c t i o n o f t h o s e r e l i e f s made more t r a d i t i o n a l l y w i t h c l a y o r p l a s t e r . The s i m i l a r i t i e s and d i f f e r e n c e s in t e x t u r e o f o b j e c t s , such as o y s t e r s h e l l s and bark ( F i g . 2 6 ) , can be examined i n a more detached way i f they a r e r e p l i c a t e d i n a somewhat n e u t r a l p l a s t i c med i a. G r a p h i c Design L e t t e r i n g i s an a r e a o f o b v i o u s i m p o r t a n c e t o g r a p h i c s . Vacuum form l e t t e r i n g has a b u i l t i n appeal t o g r a p h i c s d e s i g n s t u d e n t s f o r i t not o n l y i n v o l v e s them w i t h l e a r n i n g about l e t t e r f o r m s , but they a c t u a l l y work w i t h m a t e r i a l s ( F i g . 27) t o c r e a t e m i n i a t u r e r e p l i c a s o f r e a l vacuum formed s i g n s . S t u d e n t s e x p e r i m e n t w i t h a v a r i e t y o f mold m a t e r i a l s : c a r d b o a r d , t h i n m a s o n i t e ( h a r d b o a r d ) , foam-core b o a r d , and s t y r o f o a m c o v e r e d w i t h p a p i e r mache ( F i g s . 2 8 , 2 9 ) . The r e s u l t s a r e sometimes a l i t t l e c r u de by s i g n maker's s t a n d a r d s , but r e a d i l y a c c e p t e d by grade 9 and 10 g r a p h i c s s t u d e n t s . Some s t u d e n t s i n c r e a s e d the c o n t r a s t between l e t t e r s and back-ground by i n k i n g t h e formed l e t t e r s ( F i g . 3 0 ) . T h i s r a i s e s the p o s s i b i l i t y o f u s i n g vacuum formed r e l i e f s u r f a c e s as p r i n t i n g b l o c k s , something t h a t has y e t t o be pursued by my s t u d e n t s . Mask Making Vacuum f o r m i n g r e a d i l y l e n d s i t s e l f t o p r o d u c i n g mask forms. These can be o f s e v e r a l t y p e s , but they seem t o f a l l i n t o two g e n e r a l c a t e g o r i e s : e x a c t r e p l i c a s and i m a g i n a t i v e masks. F i g . 27. Form l e t t e r s from foam-core board. being cut 7 0 71 Exact r e p l i c a s . The most d r a m a t i c k i n d o f r e p l i c a i s the " d e a t h mask, the r e s u l t o f an h i s t o r i c a l r i t u a l e n a c t e d by many c u l t u r e s i n c l u d -in g the a n c i e n t G r e e k s , Romans and the N o r t h American I n d i a n s . I t s coun-t e r p a r t , the " l i f e " mask, can be c r e a t e d i n the a r t room. The p r o c e d u r e i t s e l f , w h i l e not s t r i c t l y c r e a t i v e , can be e x t r e m e l y s t i m u l a t i n g f o r s t u d e n t s , and p r o v i d e s a s t a r t i n g p o i n t f o r more c r e a t i v e a p p l i c a t i o n s such as masks f o r s t a g e use. Making a " l i f e " mask r e q u i r e s t h e use o f p l a s t e r o r p l a s t e r impreg-na t e d gauze bandage. P l a s t e r c o n t a i n s l i m e p r o d u c t s t h a t , i f i m p r o p e r l y h a n d l e d , can cause burns t o a s u b j e c t ' s eyes o r s k i n . The BCATA J o u r n a l ( M a r t i n , ( e d . ) , March, 1981) o u t l i n e s a p r o c e d u r e f o r the s a f e use o f p l a s -t e r media used i n c a s t i n g " l i f e " masks, as p a r t o f a s p e c i a l e d i t i o n d e a l -in g w i t h a r t h a z a r d s i n t h e c l a s s r o o m . T h i s i s o u t l i n e d i n Appendix B. A f t e r the c a s t i n g has been removed and a i r d r i e d o v e r n i g h t , the i n -s i d e i s smoothed, c o a t e d w i t h v a s e l i n e , and f i l l e d w i t h l i q u i d p l a s t e r ( F i g . 31) t o make a p o s i t i v e c a s t i n g o f the s u b j e c t s f a c e . The p o s i t i v e c a s t i n g i s then removed, u s u a l l y d e s t r o y i n g the mold i n the p r o c e s s ( F i g . 3 2 ) , and p r o v i d e d t h e r e a r e no u n d e r c u t s w h i c h may t r a p the heated p l a s t i c s h e e t , t h e p l a s t e r f a c e form i s ready f o r t h e r moforming ( F i g s . 3 3 , 3*0 . I t i s not n e c e s s a r y t o l e t the p l a s t e r p o s i t i v e d r y out c o m p l e t e l y b e f o r e vacuum f o r m i n g . A more e x p e r i m e n t a l approach t o f o r m i n g was t r i e d u s i n g a . 0 3 0 " t h i c k w h i t e s t y r e n e p l a s t i c sheet t h a t was pre s i l k - s c r e e n e d w i t h a g r i d p a t t e r n ( F i g . 35) u s i n g p l a s t i c s i l k s c r e e n i n k . The e x p e c t a t i o n s were t h a t a c o n t o u r l i n e e f f e c t would be superimposed o n t o the mask form; the r e s u l t s f a r exceeded the e x p e c t a t i o n s ( F i g s . 3 b , 3 7 ) . The vacuum formed s c u l p t u r e s t h a t were c r e a t e d p o s s e s s an aura q u i t e removed from t h e o r i g i n a l s u b j e c t s 7 2 F i g . 31. P l a s t e r p o s i t i v e b e i n g c a s t i n s i d e g r e a s e d p l a s t e r mask form. F i g . 32. P l a s t e r p o s i t i v e removed from n e g a t i v e mold. 7 3 F i g . 3*t- Vacuum formed " l i f e " masks. F i g . 35. Pre s i l k - s c r e e n e d p l a s t i c . F i g . 37- Vacuum formed contour i mages. 76 and e x i s t now as a r t works r a t h e r than mere r e p l i c a s . I m a g i n a t i v e masks. P a p i e r mache i s s t i l l p r o b a b l y t h e b e s t way f o r s t u d e n t s t o c r e a t e i m a g i n a t i v e , one o f a k i n d masks. Vacuum f o r m i n g i s b e t t e r s u i t e d t o p r o d u c i n g a q u a n t i t y o f i d e n t i c a l b a s i c mask forms w h i c h can then be e m b e l l i s h e d w i t h t e x t u r e s , h a i r , f e a t h e r s , o r p a i n t . Twelve i d e n t i c a l h a l f - m a s k s were r e q u i r e d f o r The Imaginary I n v a l i d , M o l i e r e ' s 17th c e n t u r y comedy produced by G l a d s t o n e Secondary School i n 1980. One o f my s t a g e c r a f t s t u d e n t s , L o u i s e Moon, f a s h i o n e d a g r o t e s q u e mold, com-p l e t e w i t h w a r t s , from p o t t e r s c l a y . Because t i m e was p r e s s i n g , she d e c i d -ed t o vacuum form i t w i t h o u t p r e - f i r i n g the c l a y . The mold s t o o d up s u r -p r i s i n g l y w e l l , and the f i n i s h e d masks, s p r a y p a i n t e d s i l v e r w i t h deep shadowed eye s o c k e t s , gave t h e a p p r o p r i a t e macabre e f f e c t . A f e a t u r e l e s s p l u g , r o u g h l y p r o p o r t i o n a l t o the human f a c e , can be formed and d e t a i l s vacuum formed s e p a r a t e l y and adhered w i t h g l u e a p p r o p r i a t e f o r the p l a s t i c used. Stage Set Design The p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r vacuum f o r m i n g i n s t a g e s e t d e s i g n a r e many. P r o f e s s i o n a l and u n i v e r s i t y based t h e a t r e s have purchased o r b u i l t t h e i r own VFMs because o f t h e i r g r e a t v e r s a t i 1 i t y i n s o l v i n g t e c h n i c a l p r o b l e m s . E n t i r e s t a g e s e t s can be b u i l t from vacuum formed modules w h i c h p r e s e n t an a u d i e n c e w i t h i l l u s i o n s o f r e a l i t y , r i g h t down t o the l a s t vacuum form-ed b r i c k o r vacuum formed bookcase f i l l e d w i t h vacuum formed books. The scene p a i n t i n g shop i s i n s t r u m e n t a l , o f c o u r s e , i n c o m p l e t i n g t h e i l l u s i o n . The C.B.C. t e l e v i s i o n d e s i g n s t u d i o makes use o f i t s vacuum form machine, c a p a b l e o f f o r m i n g a k f o o t by 12 f o o t p l a s t i c s h e e t , t o c r e a t e w a l l s u r -f a c e s t h a t a r e s t a p l e d d i r e c t l y t o f l a t s i n p l a c e o f c o n v e n t i o n a l c o v e r i n g m a t e r i a l s such as canvas o r t h i n plywood. 77 F i g . 40. D e t a i l o f hardboard vacuum form molds showing s m a l l a i r vent h o l e s d r i l l e d t o i n s u r e a c c u r a t e r e p r o d u c t i o n . F i g . k]. Vacuum formed w a l l d e c o r a t i o n s and m o l d i n g s f o r The Imaginary I n v a l i d , G l a d s t o n e Secondary S c h o o l , 1980. o o 79 High school productions o f f e r a r t and s t a g e c r a f t students many oppor-t u n i t i e s to solve t e c h n i c a l problems not e a s i l y done with t r a d i t i o n a l mat-e r i a l s and approaches. The author prepared a report on the c o n s t r u c t i o n of a VFM f o r high school a r t and s t a g e c r a f t use (Vacuum Form Machine, 1979), much of which i s reproduced in the appendix to t h i s t h e s i s . One of the commonest uses f o r vacuum forming in set design i s the c r e a t i o n of moldings and a r c h i t e c t u r a l ornamentation f o r period i n t e r i o r s . Figures 38, 39, and kO show molds and ap p l i e d decoration used f o r the play The Imaginary  I n v a l i d , p i c t u r e d in f i g u r e k]. The need f o r research by students to pro-duce h i s t o r i c a l l y accurate moldings or a r c h i t e c t u r a l carvings can be c a p i t a l i z e d on by the design teacher; i t i s one avenue by which a r c h i t e c -t u r a l s t y l e s in ornamentation could be taught. Pop Art Sculpture The giant pop a r t sculptures (F i g s . 23, 2k, 25) were made by three Art 12 students, and were based on the theme, "the contemporary a r t i f a c t . " When a s u i t a b l e small object had been chosen by each student, they were required to f i g u r e out an appropriate s c a l e by which t h e i r o b j e c t s could be enlarged to giant proportions. Other students in the c l a s s chose to work in groups while some, i n c l u d i n g the three students whose work I s h a l l d i s c u s s , worked independently. There was no pressure f o r students to choose vacuum forming as a part of t h e i r s c u l p t u r e s ; in f a c t many students chose a wide v a r i e t y of other m a t e r i a l s — w o o d , chicken w i r e , styrofoam, papier mache, f a b r i c s , and f l e x i b l e polyurethane foam- The choice of media had to s u i t each s c u l p t u r e s theme and methods of f a b r i c a t i o n . Giant Key. The key scu l p t u r e was laminated from 25 mm t h i c k sheets of styrofoam. i n s u l a t i o n and then covered with, several coats of papier mache f o r strength. Ted's main problem was how to d u p l i c a t e the name "Kawasaki" 80 and t h e d e t a i l e d e n g r a v i n g on the top o f the key, w h i c h was i d e n t i c a l on both s i d e s . H i s s o l u t i o n was t o c u t the b a s i c shape from c o r r u g a t e d c a r d -b o a r d , which d u p l i c a t e d a l m o s t e x a c t l y the s p a c i n g o f the engraved s t r i a -t i o n s , and superimpose c u t c a r d b o a r d l e t t e r s ( F i g . 42) o n t o a c a r d b o a r d panel l e t i n t o the c o r r u g a t i o n s . The whole " c o l l a g e " was mounted on a p i e c e o f s t y r o f o a m , c u t s l i g h t l y s m a l l e r than the key o p e n i n g , and two c o p i e s were vacuum formed. A n o t h e r p i e c e o f s t y r o f o a m was sandwiched be-tween t h e two formed p l a s t i c h a l v e s and the assemblage was g l u e d i n t o the o p e n i n g ( F i g . 4 3 ) . S e v e r a l c o a t s o f m e t a l l i c b r a s s s p r a y enamel completed t h e s c u l p t u r e . L i p s t i c k s . L o r r a i n e wanted t o compare c h i l d r e n ' s games and a c t i v i t i e s w i t h t h e " c o l o u r i n g games" promoted by the c o s m e t i c i n d u s t r y . The o v e r s i z e c r a y o n - l i p s t i c k s a r e seen by her as a d u l t t o y s . Vacuum f o r m i n g was an o b v i o u s s o l u t i o n t o the t a s k o f r e p r o d u c i n g the same form s i x t i m e s . The box was c o n s t r u c t e d from c a r d b o a r d and p a i n t e d w i t h p o s t e r p a i n t s . The mold ( F i g . 44) d e s i g n e d by L o r r a i n e , was f a s h i o n e d from a t h i c k c a r d b o a r d tube w i t h a p l a s t i c j a r l i d cemented on one end and a d i s k o f foam c o r e board g l u e d on t h e o t h e r . The l i p s t i c k end was m o d e l l e d from p l a s t i c i n e and p a p i e r mache t o t h e j a r l i d . The t h i c k e r banding around t h e bottom end was b u i l t up w i t h paper and t a p e . The tube was then c u t i n h a l f l o n g i -t u d i n a l l y w i t h a bandsaw. The f o r m i n g p r o c e s s was e a s i l y done. A f t e r f o r m i n g , the h a l v e s were trimmed and s t u c k t o g e t h e r w i t h s t y r e n e p l a s t i c cement ( F i g . 4 5 ) . Gold s p r a y enamel f i n i s h e d t h e o u t e r c a s e s , and the l i p s t i c k was s p r a y e d w i t h b r i g h t , g l o s s y , enamel c o l o u r s . The f i n i s h e d s c u l p t u r e i s seen s i t t i n g on a park bench ( F i g . 46) borrowed from a s t a g e s e t . Inf1 a t i o n . Vanessa's enormous."penny" was a r e a l t o u r de f o r c e . She F i g . 43. Vacuum formed l e t t e r panel glued in place. 8 2 F i g . 45. Trimming and g l u e i n g s t y r e n e l i p s t i c k forms. F i g . 46. L o r r a i n e L i p s t i c k s (1981). Kong: 83 was not c e r t a i n that the p l a s t i c i n e from which the coin's r e l i e f was modelled ( F i g , 47), would stand up to the heat generated during vacuum forming; yet too heavy a p r o t e c t i v e layer of papier mache would cause loss of d e t a i l . Two layers of t h i n t r a c i n g paper s t r i p s dipped in c e l l u l o s e w a l l paper paste proved to be the optimum thickness ( F i g . 48). The two sides of the c o i n , which were modelled on hardboard d i s k s , were vacuum formed separately i n s i d e a plywood r i n g to give them the a p p r o p r i -ate thickness ( F i g , 49), Then they were glued together and sprayed with copper enamel• The remarkable d e t a i l i s c l e a r l y v i s i b l e in f i g u r e 50. Vanessa made two complete pennies, but i f she had wished t o , her molds could e a s i l y have been d u p l i c a t e d many times to create a large wall r e l i e f s u i t a b l e f o r the lobby of a f i n a n c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n . The Process of Vacuum Forming In the High School Art Program The process of vacuum forming has been described in some d e t a i l in the preceding s e c t i o n s of t h i s t h e s i s but l i t t l e mention has been made of the kind of VFM used by my students, In t h i s s e c t i o n I w i l l give a b r i e f out-l i n e of how i t was b u i l t and i t s l i m i t a t i o n s . This o u t l i n e w i l l help guide the reader through the f o l l o w i n g d i s c u s s i o n of mold making, forming processes, glueing and f a s t e n i n g , and f i n i s h i n g techniques. A complete i l l u s t r a t e d prat l e a l d i s c u s s i o n of the VFM i s included in the appendix. Vacuum Form Machjne The VFM ( F i g . C-l) was b u i l t by a senior s t a g e c r a f t student, very p r o f i c i e n t in the a r t of welding, and by myself. The school shop teachers were very cooperative in supplying m a t e r i a l s and e x p e r t i s e during i t s c o n s t r u c t i o n . This VFM operates on the p r i n c i p l e s i l l u s t r a t e d in f i g u r e s 5 and 6, Vacuum pressure Is supplied by an i n d u s t r i a l vacuum cleaner of the type used by the j a n i t o r i a l s t a f f in most secondary schools. The vacuum F i g . 48. The p a p i e r mache c o v e r e d mold ready f o r vacuum f o r m i n g . 85 F i g . hS. "Penny" mold b e i n g vacuum formed i n s i d e a plywood r i n g . F i g . 50. D e t a i l o f I n f l a t i o n (1981). 86 hose s l i p s o v e r a s h o r t t a p e r e d metal tube a t the bottom o f the vacuum box. The vacuum box's s u r f a c e i s l a r g e enough t o form a sheet o f p l a s t i c 508 mm by 610 mm (20 i n . by 2k i n . ) , and from O.k mm t o 1.5 mm t h i c k (.015 i n . t o .065 i n . t h i c k ) . The c l a m p i n g frame, two a n g l e i r o n h a l v e s h i n g e d t o g e t h e r , moves v e r t i c a l l y between the h e a t e r box and the vacuum t a b l e . The c l a m p i n g frame i s suspended by t h i n s t e e l c a b l e s a t t a c h e d t o c o u n t e r w e i g h t s w h i c h move up and down i n s i d e t h e e x t e r i o r frame o f t h e VFM. The t h r e e oven-t y p e e l e m e n t s a r e c o n t r o l l e d by r e g u l a r i n f i n i t e s t o v e s w i t c h e s , and rea c h a t e m p e r a t u r e o f about 260 deg. C (500 deg. F . ) . When t h e p l a s t i c s h e et clamped i n the frame i s s o f t and r u b b e r y , the frame i s p u l l e d down m a n u a l l y by one o r two o p e r a t o r s , and makes a s e a l o v e r the vacuum box. The vacuum c l e a n e r i s t u r n e d on and f o r m i n g i s a c c o m p l i s h e d i n s t a n t l y . S t y r e n e p l a s t i c becomes r i g i d i n about 15 seconds. A c r y l i c t a k e s about 60 seconds u n l e s s c o o l e d w i t h a f a n . Mold Making The mold i s the h e a r t o f t h e e n t i r e p r o c e s s . I t can be made o f any-t h i n g t h a t w i l l h o l d i t s shape a t a t e m p e r a t u r e o f about 150 deg. C (300 deg. F.) and w i l l not s t i c k t o the p l a s t i c b e i n g formed. I t must have no u n d e r c u t s which might p r e v e n t the p l a s t i c from s e p a r a t i n g from the mold, and i t s h o u l d p r e f e r a b l y have a s l i g h t l y n e g a t i v e d r a f t , t h a t i s , i t s s i d e s s h o u l d s l o p e inwards from a s l i g h t l y w i d e r base t o a narrower t o p . A hemisphere has a n a t u r a l " b u i l t i n " d r a f t as does a t r u n c a t e d cone o r py r a m i d . MoT d mater i a l s . N a t u r a l o b j e c t s ( F i g . 26) can s e r v e as vacuum form molds p r o v i d e d t h a t they a r e chosen so as not t o have extreme u n d e r c u t s . The t e x t u r e d e t a i l o f f e a t h e r s , l e a v e s , f a b r i c s , n a t u r a l c o r k and many o t h e r m a t e r i a l s can be rep r o d u c e d w i t h s u r p r i s i n g a c c u r a c y i n thermal 87 p l a s t i c s . Commercial molds t h a t must w i t h s t a n d many f o r m i n g s a r e u s u a l l y made from wood, h a r d b o a r d , c a s t epoxy, o r c a s t aluminum. Some o f t h e s e m a t e r i a l s have t h e i r a p p l i c a t i o n s f o r h i g h s c h o o l vacuum f o r m i n g ( F i g . 3 8 ) , but s o f t e r more w o r k a b l e m a t e r i a l s p r o v i d e t h e s t u d e n t w i t h g r e a t e r f l e x -i b i l i t y . P l a s t e r molds vacuum form v e r y w e l l ( F i g . 33) as do molds made from c l a y , both f i r e d and u n f i r e d , as has been d e s c r i b e d p r e v i o u s l y . Shapes b u i l t up i n low r e l i e f from c a r d b o a r d ( F i g . 42) form q u i t e s a t i s -f a c t o r i l y . Even c u t paper shapes w i l l make s u b t l e i m p r e s s i o n s i n t h i n n e r vacuum formed p l a s t i c s . S t y r o f o a m (expanded p o l y s t y r e n e ) i s a v e r s a t i l e mold m a t e r i a l , e a s i l y worked w i t h a sharp k n i f e o r a hot w i r e s t y r o f o a m c u t t e r . A bench hot w i r e c u t t e r i s e a s i l y made, and i s i n d i s p e n s a b l e f o r s t a g e c r a f t work. Ned Bowman shows s e v e r a l v e r s i o n s i n h i s Handbook o f T e c h n i c a l P r a c t i c e  f o r the P e r f o r m i n g A r t s (.1972, pp. 69~79) • A s m a l l b a t t e r y o p e r a t e d p o r t a b l e hot w i r e c u t t e r i s a v a i l a b l e i n hobby s t o r e s , and has been l i s t e d on t h e Vancouver School Board's s u p p l y r e q u i s i t i o n f o r some t i m e . Hot w i r e c u t t i n g o f p l a s t i c foams must be done under p r o p e r l y v e n t i l a t e d c o n d i t i o n s , where the fumes a r e d i r e c t e d away from the o p e r a t o r . For f u r -t h e r comments, see Appendix B. Because i t s m e l t i n g t e m p e r a t u r e i s v e r y s i m i l a r t o t h a t o f t h e p l a s t i c b e i n g formed, s t y r o f o a m must be i n s u l a t e d i n some way t o w i t h s t a n d the s h o r t heat b u i l d up d u r i n g f o r m i n g . Two o r t h r e e l a y e r s o f p a p i e r mache r e a d i l y s o l v e t h i s problem and a l s o add s t r e n g t h t o any f r a g i l e p a r t s o f t h e mold. Foam c o r e board i s a commercial p r o d u c t d e s i g n e d f o r d i s p l a y work. I t i s made o f a t h i n s h eet o f s t y r o f o a m sandwiched between two p i e c e s o f t h i n w h i t e c a r d . I t i s a p p r o x i m a t e l y 5 mm (.3/8 i n . ) t h i c k and can be e a s i l y c u t w i t h a sharp s t e n c i l k n i f e . The c a r d -board s u r f a c e s i n s u l a t e t h e foam c o r e s u f f i c i e n t l y t o w i t h s t a n d f o r m i n g 88 t e m p e r a t u r e s . P l a s t i c i n e seems an u n l i k e l y m a t e r i a l f o r molds as i t becomes v e r y s o f t d u r i n g hand modelling. As has been shown, two o r t h r e e t h i n l a y e r s o f p a p i e r mache g i v e adequate i n s u l a t i o n w i t h o u t o b s c u r i n g f i n e mold d e t a i l s ( F i g . 4 8 ) . Vent h o l e s . In o r d e r f o r the heated p l a s t i c t o a c c u r a t e l y r e p r o d u c e deep d e p r e s s i o n s i n t h e mold o r t o form sharp c o r n e r s i n c r i t i c a l a r e a s , i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o d r i l l vent h o l e s t h r o u g h the mold a t t h e s e p o i n t s ( F i g . 2 8 ) . The h o l e s s h o u l d be as s m a l l as p o s s i b l e ( l mm o r l e s s ) so t h a t they a r e not n o t i c e a b l y r e p r o d u c e d on the formed p l a s t i c ( F i g . kO). The h o l e s can be "back d r i l l e d " w i t h a l a r g e r d i a m e t e r d r i l l t o w i t h i n 5 mm o f the mold s u r f a c e . Vent h o l e s i n p l a s t e r c a s t s can be e a s i l y made by c a s t i n g t h i n music w i r e , p r e v i o u s l y t r e a t e d w i t h a r e l e a s e a g e n t , i n t o the p l a s t e r and l e a v i n g t h e i r ends t o p r o t r u d e from the c a s t i n g . They can then be p u l l e d out w i t h p l i e r s , l e a v i n g a l o n g u n i f o r m h o l e , i m p o s s i b l e t o d r i l l u s i n g c o n v e n t i o n a l means. Forming P r o c e s s A l t h o u g h c o m m e r c i a l l y produced vacuum form machines have t e m p e r a t u r e i n d i c a t o r s and a u t o m a t i c i n t e r v a l t i m e r s t o a s s i s t i n f o r m i n g , the p r o c e s s i t s e l f i s r e a l l y q u i t e s i m p l e , I f e l t t h a t a s t u d e n t ' s thermoforming e x p e r i e n c e would be more d i r e c t i f t h e r e were a minimum o f m e c h a n i c a l d e v i c e s i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o the p r o c e s s . S t u d e n t s must r e l y on v i s u a l judgement when a s s e s s i n g t h e c o r r e c t s o f t n e s s o f the p l a s t i c j u s t p r i o r t o f o r m i n g , and they must p h y s i c a l l y s t r e t c h the r u b b e r y sheet o v e r the mold, a l l i g n i n g the clamp-in g frame t o make an a i r t i g h t s e a l . S t u d e n t s soon g e t the " f e e l " o f the vacuum form machine d e s c r i b e d i n t h i s t h e s i s , and p l a s t i c wastage i s m i n i m a l . Depth o f draw. Because the hot p l a s t i c s t r e t c h e s as i t forms around 89 the mold d u r i n g vacuum f o r m i n g , the depth o f draw s h o u l d not exceed the w i d t h o f the mold o b j e c t . T h i s w i l l i n s u r e t h a t the p l a s t i c w i l l not be s t r e t c h e d t o the p o i n t where i t i s paper t h i n o r r u p t u r e s . When s e v e r a l s m a l l o b j e c t s a r e formed s i m u l t a n e o u s l y , they s h o u l d be spaced s u f f i e n t l y f a r a p a r t on t h e vacuum t a b l e t o a l l o w the p l a s t i c s h e et t o s t r e t c h be-tween them w i t h o u t e x c e s s i v e t h i n n i n g . Some e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n i s always n e c e s s a r y t o d e t e r m i n e t h e best l a y o u t o f the molds on the vacuum t a b l e . When f o r m i n g o v e r p a r t i c u l a r l y b u l k y molds i t i s h e l p f u l t o e l e v a t e the mold ve r y s l i g h t l y on the vacuum t a b l e by r e s t i n g i t on a p i e c e o f w i r e i n s e c t s c r e e n i n g . T h i s a l l o w s the a i r t o be e v a c u a t e d q u i c k l y and com-p l e t e l y from under t h e mold, i n s u r i n g t h a t t h e p l a s t i c i s drawn up t i g h t l y t o t he mold s i d e s a l o n g t h e i r bottom edges. T h i s e x t r a a i r space i s p a r t i c u l a r l y i m p o r t a n t when f o r m i n g t h i c k e r p l a s t i c s . F a s t e n i n g and G l u e i n g There a r e many b a s i c j o i n i n g methods f o r p l a s t i c s . " M e c h a n i c a l 1 i n k a g e " i n v o l v e s the p r o d u c t i o n o f a l i n k between t h e two m a t e r i a l s w h i c h s i m p l y h o l d s the two t o g e t h e r p h y s i c a l l y w i t h n e i t h e r " f l o w " o f e i t h e r m a t e r i a l n or " s t i c k i n g . " " A d h e s i o n " makes use o f a f i l m which adheres t o each o f the m a t e r i a l s t o be j o i n e d . In t h i s case an a d h e s i v e , a s u b s t a n c e d i f f e r e n t from e i t h e r o f the m a t e r i a l s , remains i n the j o i n t . " C o h e s i o n " i n v o l v e s an a c t u a l i n t e r m i n g l i n g o f t h e m o l e c u l e s o f the m a t e r i -a l s b e i n g j o i n e d . Two t e c h n i q u e s i n t h i s c a t e g o r y a r e s o l v e n t w e l d i n g and thermal w e l d i n g . M e c h a n i c a l f a s t e n i n g . Because most o f the p l a s t i c s used f o r vacuum f o r m i n g by a r t s t u d e n t s a r e r e l a t i v e l y t h i n , t he s t a n d a r d m e c h a n i c a l f a s t e n e r s d e s i g n e d f o r p l a s t i c s use such as s e l f t a p p i n g s c r e w s , d r i v e and pop r i v e t s , s p r i n g c l i p s and e y e l e t s a r e o f l i m i t e d use. S t a p l e s have 90 proved v e r y u s e f u l , however, f o r f a s t e n i n g vacuum formed shapes t o s t a n d a r d s t a g e f l a t s . I f the f l a t i s canvas c o v e r e d , s t a p l i n g i n t o s m a l l l i g h t b l o c k s o f s o f t wood, h e l d b e h i n d the c a n v a s , works e f f e c t i v e l y . P l a s t i c shapes can then be removed e a s i l y from the f l a t s u r f a c e w i t h o u t c a u s i n g damage t o the f a b r i c . A d h e s i v e s and c o h e s i v e s . The number o f a d h e s i v e and bonding m a t e r i a l s a v a i l a b l e f o r p l a s t i c s use can e a s i l y l e a d t o c o n f u s i o n . E. P. S t o k e s (1974) c o m p i l e d a number o f t a b l e s showing the a d h e s i v e t y p e s f o r bonding n o n p l a s t i c s t o t h e r m o p l a s t i c s , n o n p l a s t i c s t o t h e r m o s e t t i n g p l a s t i c s , and p l a s t i c s t o p l a s t i c s (pp. 434-485). Newman (1964, pp. 86-90) and Swanson (1965, pp. !I3"II9) have w r i t t e n s i m i l a r l i s t s o f a d h e s i v e s i n f o r m a t i o n . Epoxy g l u e s have tremendous a d h e s i v e p r o p e r t i e s and can be used f o r bond-in g many d i s i m i l a r s u b s t a n c e s t o each o t h e r , i n c l u d i n g p l a s t i c s . Spray a d h e s i v e s , d e v e l o p e d f o r l a y o u t work i n t h e commercial a r t f i e l d , have proved v e r y u s e f u l where a h i g h s t r e n g t h j o i n t i s not n e c e s s a r y . L i g h t w e i g h t vacuum formed s c e n i c e l ements can be q u i c k l y g l u e d t o hardboard s e t p i e c e s ( F i g . 39). The most u s e f u l k i n d s o f g l u e f o r bonding p l a s t i c s used i n vacuum f o r m i n g t o t h e m s e l v e s a r e t h o s e t h a t cause c o h e s i o n t h r o u g h s o l v e n t b o n d i n g . Bonding a g e n t s f o r p o l y s t y r e n e i n c l u d e p l a s t i c model cements ( a v a i l a b l e from hobby s t o r e s ) and some t h i c k e n e d a c r y l i c cements such as Weldon 16 , manufactured by I n d u s t r i a l P o l y c h e m i c a l S e r v i c e ( I . P . S . ) , and a v a i l a b l e from p l a s t i c s s u p p l i e r s . A c r y l i c p l a s t i c may be bonded t o i t s e l f w i t h w a t e r t h i n s o l v e n t cements t h a t c o n t a i n a h i g h p e r c e n t a g e o f methylene c h l o r i d e . L o c a l p l a s t i c s companies d i s t r i b u t e cements f o r a d h e s i o n and s o l v e n t bonding c o m p a t i b l e w i t h t h e i r p r o d u c t s . Because some o f t h e s e cements and s o l v e n t s a r e made w i t h c h e m i c a l s u b s t a n c e s w i t h v a r y i n g degrees 91 o f t o x i c i t y , i t i s i m p o r t a n t t o get a t e c h n i c a l d a t a sheet from t h e s u p p l i e r t h a t e x p l a i n s any p o s s i b l e h a z a r d s . G l u e i n g p r o c e d u r e s s h o u l d a lways be c a r r i e d out i n p r o p e r l y v e n t i l a t e d a r e a s , and s t u d e n t s s h o u l d a v o i d s k i n c o n t a c t by u s i n g a p p r o p r i a t e g l o v e s and p r o t e c t i v e c l o t h i n g . For f u r t h e r comments, see Appendix B. The t h e r m a l - m e l t g l u e gun a l s o has numerous uses f o r a d h e r i n g p l a s t i c s t o t h e m s e l v e s and t o o t h e r s u b t a n c e s such as wood o r h a r d b o a r d . Because o f i t s r a p i d c u r i n g t i m e (about one m i n u t e ) , i t i s e x c e l l e n t f o r use i n f a b r i c a t i n g molds from wood and h a r d b o a r d where n a i l s and screws might l e a v e i m p r e s s i o n s i n the formed p l a s t i c . F i n i s h i ng Vacuum formed o b j e c t s may be f i n i s h e d i n a v a r i e t y o f d i f f e r e n t ways, some o f which I have not y e t t r i e d . The f i r s t c h o i c e open t o the a r t i s t i s whether o r not t o vacuum form w i t h w h i t e , c o l o u r e d , o r c l e a r p l a s t i c . T h i s may p r o v i d e a l l the f i n i s h n e c e s s a r y t o the f i n a l form. In the f o l l o w -i n g s e c t i o n , I w i l l b r i e f l y d e s c r i b e some f i n i s h i n g p r o c e s s e s under the h e a d i n g s p a i n t i n g , t e x t u r e s , and s i l k s c r e e n i n g . Pa i nt i ng• Many vacuum formed a r t i c l e s o n l y need a f i n i s h t h a t i s v i s u a l l y s a t i s f y i n g and does not need t o w i t h s t a n d r e p e a t e d h a n d l i n g . Most p i e c e s formed from p o l y s t y r e n e and used f o r s t a g e s e t d e c o r a t i o n f a l l i n t o t h i s c a t e g o r y . L a t e x based scene p a i n t s , a l t h o u g h not v e r y d u r a b l e , a r e p e r f e c t l y adequate. Where some h a n d l i n g o f o b j e c t s i s r e q u i r e d , a c o a t o f a u t o m o t i v e p r i m e r , t h i n w ater base c o n t a c t cement, o r " f l a s h " p r i m e r (used by sash and door p a i n t e r s ) can be a p p l i e d by brush o r s p r a y b e f o r e the f i n i s h c o a t s a r e added. For a more d u r a b l e , h i g h g l o s s f i n i s h , o i l o r l a c q u e r based f a s t d r y s p r a y enamels (.Fig. 23) a r e e f f e c t i v e and easy t o use. M e t a l l i c f i n i s h e s a r e a l s o a v a i l a b l e i n s p r a y cans. Some a c r y l i c 92 and v i n y l based a r t i s t s ' p a i n t s a r e c o m p a t i b l e w i t h common t h e r m o p l a s t i c s , but t e s t s s h o u l d be c a r r i e d out f o r adherence as each p a i n t brand has a s l i g h t l y d i f f e r e n t f o r m u l a t i o n . Bowman (ed. 1972) i n c l u d e s an e x t e n s i v e c h a r t i n t h e p a i n t s and p a i n t i n g s e c t i o n showing t h e s u r f a c e c o m p a t i b i l i t y f o r many d i f f e r e n t p a i n t s and s u r f a c e s , i n c l u d i n g p l a s t i c s (pp. 4 3 _ 1 0 3 ) . P o l y p a i n t media i s a name s i g n i f y i n g the c o m b i n a t i o n o f a p o l y e s t e r r e s i n and o t h e r a d d i t i v e s t o produce a p a i n t i n g v e h i c l e d e s i g n e d e x p r e s s l y f o r p a i n t i n g on p l e x i g l a s s ( a c r y l i c s h e e t ) , p o l y s t y r e n e , o r c a s t p o l y e s t e r r e s i n s h e e t . H o l l a n d e r (1972) g i v e s a f o r m u l a and p r o c e d u r e f o r m i x i n g such a p a i n t i n g v e h i c l e (pp. 7 7 - 7 9 ) • Newman (1964) o u t l i n e s a t e c h n i q u e f o r p a i n t i n g w i t h a s i m i l a r s l o w c u r i n g p o l y e s t e r p a i n t i n g media (pp. 11 9 -121). I have used n e i t h e r o f t h e s e p o l y e s t e r r e s i n v e h i c l e s and t h e r e f o r e cannot c o r r o b o r a t e t h e i r u s e f u l n e s s . T e x t u r e s . Many t e x t u r e m a t e r i a l s can be g l u e d t o vacuum formed o b j e c t s . Spray a d h e s i v e , a p p l i e d t o both s u r f a c e s i n the same manner as c o n t a c t cement, i s e x c e l l e n t f o r a d h e r i n g f a b r i c s and r e f l e c t i v e f i l m s such as m y l a r t o p l a s t i c f orms. T e x t u r e m a t e r i a l s such as sand and v e r m i c u l i t e may be mixed i n t o t h i c k l a t e x p a i n t and a p p l i e d t o s u i t a b l y primed p l a s t i c s u r f a c e s . Some p l a s t i c s h e e t s t h a t a r e a v a i l a b l e f o r vacuum f o r m i n g a r e p r e - f l o c k e d . C o m m e r c i a l l y , such p l a s t i c s a r e used t o g i v e a v e l v e t appear-ance t o packages f o r items such an i n e x p e n s i v e j e w e l l e r y o r c o s m e t i c s i n o r d e r t o make them l o o k more p r e s t i g i o u s and e n t i c i n g t o the consumer. T h i s e f f e c t might l e n d i t s e l f t o c e r t a i n k i n d s o f s c u l p t u r e . S j 1 k s c r e e n . P l a s t i c s i l k s c r e e n i n k s a r e a v a i l a b l e i n a f a i r l y wide c o l o u r range. They a r e e x p e n s i v e but have a good s h e l f l i f e and, because o f the non-porous n a t u r e o f p l a s t i c , t hey l a s t f o r a l o n g t i m e . I; have, a t t h e time o f w r i t i n g , j u s t begun t o e x p e r i m e n t w i t h the p o s s i b i l i t i e s 93 t h a t p r e s i l k - s c r e e n e d c o l o r s and d e s i g n s can o f f e r t o i m a g i n a t i v e a r t s t u d e n t s ( F i g s . 3 6 , 3 7 ) . More t e s t i n g needs t o be done t o f i n d out how t h e s e i n k s work w i t h d i f f e r e n t t h e r m oforming p l a s t i c s and, whether under c e r t a i n c o n d i t i o n s , r e g u l a r s i l k s c r e e n i n k s can a l s o be u t i l i z e d . S i l k -s c r e e n i n g a c t i v i t i e s s h o u l d be c a r r i e d o ut i n a s u i t a b l y v e n t i l a t e d a r e a , d e s i g n e d t o draw t h e fumes o f s o l v e n t s and i n k s away from t h e o p e r a t o r . S a f e t y f a c t o r s a r e d i s c u s s e d more f u l l y i n Appendix B. P r a c t i c a l C o n s i d e r a t i o n s and L i m i t a t i o n s The l i m i t a t i o n s o f the vacuum f o r m i n g p r o c e s s i n s c u l p t u r e and des-ign e d u c a t i o n a r e o f two k i n d s : t e c h n i c a l and c r e a t i v e . The t e c h n i c a l l i m i t a t i o n s have t o do w i t h t he s i z e , t h i c k n e s s , and k i n d s o f p l a s t i c t h a t can be s u c c e s s f u l l y formed. These f a c t o r s can be c o n t r o l l e d by the s i z e o f the c l a m p i n g frame, t h e e f f i c i e n c y o f the h e a t i n g s o u r c e , and the amount o f vacuum t h a t t he machine can draw upon. A more complex VFM i n c o r p o r a t i n g a vacuum pump and su r g e t a n k (see Appendix C) would have a g r e a t e r c a p a c i t y but a t t h e p r i c e o f p o r t a b i l i t y , ease o f o p e r a t i o n and economy. The needs o f the s c u l p t u r e and d e s i g n programs w i l l u l t i m a t e l y d e t e r m i n e the k i n d o f VFM needed. The c r e a t i v e l i m i t a t i o n s o f vacuum f o r m i n g a r e governed by s t u d e n t s ' i m a g i n a t i o n s and t h o s e c o n t r o l l a b l e f a c t o r s i d e n t i f i e d by E i s n e r (.1976) w h i c h d e t e r m i n e t h e k i n d s o f s t i m u l a -t i o n , encouragement, and g u i d a n c e t h a t s t u d e n t s r e c e i v e from t h e i r a r t t e a c h e r s . Grade l e v e l s u i t a b i l i t y . Vacuum f o r m i n g i s a s i m p l e p r o c e s s t h a t can be l e a r n e d e a s i l y by j u n i o r o r s e n i o r h i g h s c h o o l a r t s t u d e n t s . C o l -l a g e , a s s e m b l y , and m o d e l l i n g a r e t h e b a s i c t e c h n i q u e s used by s t u d e n t s t o c r e a t e molds f o r vacuum f o r m i n g . These a c t i v i t i e s a r e fundamental t o the t e a c h i n g o f s c u l p t u r e and d e s i g n i n most secondary a r t programs. 3h They p r o v i d e o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r a r t t e a c h e r s t o t e a c h a r t i s t i c s k i l l s as p a r t o f a s t r u c t u r e d e x p e r i e n c e , as i n the vacuum formed l e t t e r p r o j e c t ( F i g s . 2 7 - 3 0 ) done by g r a p h i c s 9 and 10 s t u d e n t s , o r such s k i l l s can be d e v e l o p e d w i t h i n the c o n t e x t o f complex p e r s o n a l a r t i s t i c problems such as t h o s e r e p r e s e n t e d by the g i a n t pop a r t s c u l p t u r e s i n F i g u r e s 2 3 , ' 2k, and 2 5 , c r e a t e d by s e n i o r a r t s t u d e n t s . Vacuum f o r m i n g i s one way o f i n t r o d u c i n g s t u d e n t s a t a l l l e v e l s t o a r t i s t i c problems t h a t d e a l w i t h n o n r e p r e s e n t a t i o n and r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a l i l l u s i o n . Vacuum f o r m i n g r e p l i -c a t e s form; y e t i t can d i s t o r t o r t r a n s f o r m r e a l i t y . As i s shown i n F i g u r e s 36 and 3 7 , a r e a l i s t i c f a c e assumes an a b s t r a c t p r e s e n c e by b e i n g o v e r l a y e d w i t h a s i l k s c r e e n e d p a t t e r n . The t e x t u r e , shape and p a t t e r n o f r e a l o b j e c t s can be r e p r o d u c e d i n a p l a s t i c media, as can t h e t e x t u r e s , shapes, and p a t t e r n s o f a b s t r a c t forms c r e a t e d by s t u d e n t s from l a t h e t u r n i n g s , s t r i n g , f a b r i c , o r o t h e r d i s c a r d e d m a t e r i a l s . S a f e t y f a c t o r s . The VFM d e s c r i b e d i n Appendix C has fewer i n h e r e n t dangers than most o t h e r p i e c e s o f power equipment used by s t u d e n t s i n t h e a r t room o r i n d u s t r i a l e d u c a t i o n shop, such as k i l n s , p u g m i l l s , g r i n d e r s , power saws and f o u n d r y equipment. Common sense and adherence t o g e n e r a l s a f e t y p r o c e d u r e s r e q u i r e d o f anybody who works w i t h t o o l s and machines i s a l l t h a t i s n e c e s s a r y f o r s t u d e n t s who use the VFM. One s o u r c e o f c o n c e r n , the i n e v i t a b l e s m a l l amounts o f fumes t h a t a r e g i v e n o f f by p l a s t i c s u b s t a n c e s when they a r e h e a t e d , can be a l l a y e d by c h o o s i n g a s u i t a b l e l o c a t i o n f o r o p e r a t i n g the VFM. The machine d e s c r i b e d i n t h i s t h e s i s o p e r a t e s from s t a n d a r d 230 v o l t w e l d i n g o u t l e t s which a r e g e n e r a l l y l o c a t e d i n the i n d u s t r i a l e d u c a t i o n s e c t i o n o f a s c h o o l . Such w e l d i n g a r e a s a r e r e q u i r e d t o be w e l l v e n t i l a t e d and p r o v i d e , t h e r e f o r e , i d e a l s u r r o u n d i n g s f o r vacuum f o r m i n g . S a f e t y f a c t o r s a r e d i s c u s s e d f u r t h e r 95 i n A ppendix B and Appendix C. Cost f a c t o r s . The c o s t o f o p e r a t i n g the VFM d e s c r i b e d i n t h i s t h e s i s i s s m a l l . Because i t uses t h r e e s t a n d a r d r o d - t y p e oven elements f o r h e a t -i n g , i t s power consumption i s comparable t o a h o u s e h o l d oven. P l a s t i c s c o s t s v a r y a c c o r d i n g t o the s heet s i z e used, i t s t h i c k n e s s , and i t s t y p e . P o l y s t y r e n e i s t h e c h eapest and most v e r s a t i l e f o r g e n e r a l a r t and d e s i g n work. The VFM d e s c r i b e d here uses 1/6 o f a s t a n d a r d 1830 mm by 1015 mm s h e e t (72 i n . by kO i n . ) , r a n g i n g i n t h i c k n e s s from . 38 mm t o 1.5 mm. The a p p r o x i m a t e c o s t o f a 1/6 sheet i s e q u i v a l e n t t o t h a t o f a s heet o f p o s t e r b o a r d , o r two s heet o f 8 i n . by 10 i n . b l a c k and w h i t e e n l a r g i n g paper. A c r y l i c i s a p p r o x i m a t e l y f i v e t i m e s as e x p e n s i v e as an e q u i v a l e n t s h eet o f s t y r e n e . T h i s i s , however, s t i l l w i t h i n t h e c o s t range o f many c e r a m i c s , i n d u s t r i a l e d u c a t i o n , and home economics p r o j e c t s , f o r w h i c h s t u d e n t s a r e o f t e n c harged a f e e f o r m a t e r i a l s used o v e r a c e r t a i n l i m i t . The s t u d e n t s t i l l has t h e o p t i o n o f u s i n g l e s s e x p e n s i v e m a t e r i a l s . For j u n i o r g r a d e s , p r o j e c t s can be l i m i t e d t o a s i z e t h a t a l l o w s s e v e r a l t o be formed a t one draw, making the c o s t per p r o j e c t m i n i m a l . M a t e r i a l a v a i l a b i l i t y . Because o f t h e i r w i d e s p r e a d use i n i n d u s t r y , p l a s t i c s a r e a v a i l a b l e from many s o u r c e s i n most a r e a s . The " y e l l o w pages" l i s t l o c a l s u p p l i e r s t o the p l a s t i c s i n d u s t r y . C o n c l u s j ons and Recommendat i ons Cone!us i ons In t h i s t h e s i s , I. have argued t h a t contemporary m a t e r i a l s and p r o -c e s s e s have a v i t a l p l a c e i n any a r t program t h a t hopes t o be r e l e v a n t to o u r s t u d e n t s . Our s o c i e t y i s caught i n the g r i p o f f o r c e s o v e r w h i c h we, as i n d i v i d u a l s , have l i t t l e c o n t r o l . The r a p i d a c c e l e r a t i o n o f change t h a t has come about t h r o u g h developments i n s c i e n c e and t e c h n o l o g y , and 96 t h a t i s r e f l e c t e d i n c h a n g i n g l i f e s t y l e s , u n d e r s c o r e s the importance f o r a r t e d u c a t i o n t o p r e p a r e s t u d e n t s f o r the f u t u r e . T h i s cannot be accom-p l i s h e d w i t h m a t e r i a l s and p r o c e s s e s t h a t r e l a t e m a i n l y t o the p a s t . Contemporary a r t i s t s q u e s t i o n , e x p l o r e , and make a e s t h e t i c judgements about our c h a n g i n g s o c i e t y and attempt t o communicate t h e i r i n n e r f e e l i n g s about our m u l t i - m e d i a age. There must be a p l a c e f o r s i m i l a r approaches i n a r t e d u c a t i o n . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , as I have p o i n t e d out i n t h i s t h e s i s , a r t e d u c a t i o n t r a d i t i o n a l l y has not o p e n l y embraced the avant g a r d e ; i t t a k e s time f o r " r a d i c a l " i d e a s t o become a c c e p t e d by the p o l i t i c i a n s and e d u c a t o r s who a r e the g u a r d i a n s o f our e d u c a t i o n a l system. But o f a l l t he a r e a s t h a t a r e r e p r e s e n t e d i n the e d u c a t i o n a l s p e c t r u m , a r t e d u c a t i o n s h o u l d be the f i r s t t o t a k e the k i n d s o f " a r t i s t i c r i s k s " t h a t we encourage i n our s t u d e n t s . 1 have shown t h a t the t h e r m a l vacuum f o r m i n g o f p l a s t i c s i s a p r o -c e s s t h a t can be used t o f u l f i l l many o f the g o a l s and l e a r n i n g outcomes o f a r t e d u c a t i o n . I t can a l s o p r o v i d e a b r i d g e between the t r a d i t i o n a l m a t e r i a l s and t e c h n i q u e s used i n s c u l p t u r e and d e s i g n e d u c a t i o n and the modern p r o c e s s e s and m a t e r i a l s used by i n d u s t r y t o produce the "contem-p o r a r y a r t i f a c t s " t h a t a r e a p a r t o f our c u l t u r e . Vacuum f o r m i n g , I s u b m i t , does have a r e l e v a n t p l a c e i n secondary a r t e d u c a t i o n . Recommendat i o n s C l o s e r i n t e g r a t i o n between the v i s u a l a r t s and o t h e r s u b j e c t a r e a s . W r i t i n g t h i s t h e s i s has been a s t i m u l a t i n g e x p e r i e n c e f o r me. I t has brought t o l i g h t both p o s i t i v e and n e g a t i v e a t t i t u d e s towards a r t educa-t i o n . I d i s c o v e r e d how the e a r l y i n d i f f e r e n c e t o a r t as h a v i n g l i t t l e r e l e v a n c e f o r g e n e r a l e d u c a t i o n d u r i n g the l a t e 19th c e n t u r y was r e p l a c e d by a more c h a r i t a b l e a t t i t u d e , d u r i n g the e a r l y 2 0 t h c e n t u r y , towards 97 a r t perceived mainly as an extension of c r a f t s or manual t r a i n i n g . Dur-ing the 1930's, 40's and 50 1s, advocates of the Bauhaus imposed a s t r u c -ture on to a r t education based on problem s o l v i n g ; technology and exper-imental design became interwoven with the v i s u a l a r t s . Although the needs of c h i l d r e n have been re-emphasized in most contemporary a r t c u r r i c u l a , the tremendous advances in technology and communications during our own era have put new pressures on a r t teachers and t h e i r students. The inescapable conclusion i s that more and more a r t i s t s — s c u l p t o r s , printmakers, p o t t e r s , photographers, and graphic a r t i s t s - - m u s t be con-versant with the technology, m a t e r i a l s , and processes of our time. Des-ign education i s commonly proposed as a focus f o r teaching about the b u i l t environment and i t s impact on humanity. Green (1974), assessed the problems faced by a r t educators and o f f e r e d the f o l l o w i n g suggestions which f f i n d compel 1ing: If a r t i s a form of expression and communication we should study in depth how ideas can be expressed and concepts communicated v i s u a l l y . If design i s concerned with the f u n c t i o n and appearance of the man-made environment, l a r g e l y three dimensional, we should have experience of the widest range of s t r u c t u r a l problems and the m a t e r i a l s concerned. If our s o c i e t y i s dominated by the products of technology, and the d e c i s i o n s of designers, we should study machine processes, the m a t e r i a l s of technology and have experience of how d e c i s i o n s are made. Visual education in terms of p e r c e p t i o n , communication, f u n c t i o n , s t r u c t u r e and appearance, choice and d e c i s i o n making, cannot be experienced s o l e l y through drawing and p a i n t i n g . The p r a c t i c a l area of study needs to be broad, i n t e r -98 d i s c i p l i n a r y and f l e x i b l e , e x t e n d i n g the f r o n t i e r s o f what we t h i n k c o n s t i t u t e " a r t a c t i v i t i e s . " (p. 12) There must be a c l o s e r w o r k i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p between s c i e n c e , s o c i a l s t u d i e s , and i n d u s t r i a l a r t t e a c h e r s and t h e i r c o l l e a g u e s i n the v i s u a l a r t s . S c u l p t u r e and t e a c h e r e d u c a t i o n . The proposed new c u r r i c u l u m f o r s e c o n d a r y a r t , o u t l i n e d i n the d r a f t A r t ( 8 - 1 2 ) , a G u i d e / R e s o u r c e Book, i d e n t i f i e s s c u l p t u r e as one o f the f i v e a r e a s o f v i s u a l e x p r e s s i o n t o be t a u g h t a t t h e secondary l e v e l , a f f o r d i n g i t a s t a t u s t h a t i t has not p r e v i o u s l y e n j o y e d i n B r i t i s h C o l u mbia. Many p r a c t i s i n g a r t t e a c h e r s have l i t t l e s c u l p t u r e e x p e r i e n c e . They w i l l , u n d e r s t a n d a b l y not have the c o n f i d e n c e t o t e a c h the s c u l p t u r e component o f the new a r t c u r r i c u l u m In the way t h a t the Gu j de/Resource i n t e n d s . Some o f them, i n a l l probab-i l i t y , w i l l i g n o r e t h e new recommendations e n t i r e l y . U n i v e r s i t y departments o f a r t e d u c a t i o n must en s u r e t h a t c o u r s e s i n s c u l p t u r e and t h r e e d i m e n s i o n a l d e s i g n t h a t emphasize a wide v a r i e t y o f t r a d i t i o n a l and contemporary m a t e r i a l s and t e c h n i q u e s , i n c l u d i n g p l a s t i c s , welded m e t a l s , and f o u n d r y p r o c e s s e s , a r e r e a d i l y a c c e s s i b l e t o a r t t e a c h e r s . I f u n i v e r s i t y a r t e d u c a t i o n departments cannot o f f e r t h e s e c o u r s e s because o f b u d g e t a r y r e q u i r e m e n t s o r l a c k o f q u a l i f i e d s t a f f , then they s h o u l d be g i v e n where s t a f f and p r o p e r f a c i l i t i e s a r e a v a i l a b l e . The E m i l y C a r r C o l l e g e o f A r t and Design has e x c e l l e n t s c u l p t u r e and d e s i g n f a c i l i t i e s w h i c h embrace t r a d i t i o n a l s t o n e c a r v i n g , c l a y m o d e l l i n g , c a s t i n g , metal f a b r i c a t i o n and p l a s t i c s c u l p t u r e . There a r e t h r e e vacuum form machines i n the p l a s t i c s s t u d i o , i n c l u d i n g one l a r g e enough t o form 1220 mm by 2kk0 mm (4 f t . by 8 f t , ) s h e e t s o f p l a s t i c . The U. B. C. F a c u l t y o f E d u c a t i o n ' s D i v i s i o n o f I n d u s t r i a l E d u c a t i o n i n Burnaby, B. C. 99 i s e q u i p p e d w i t h s i m i l a r f a c i l i t i e s . R e g i o n a l c o l l e g e s , such as C a p i l a n o C o l l e g e i n N o r t h Vancouver, have s c u l p t u r e programs t h a t c o u l d be i n t e g -r a t e d w i t h a c c r e d i t e d t e a c h e r e d u c a t i o n programs i n a r t e d u c a t i o n . I f e x p r e s s i o n i n t h r e e d i m e n s i o n s i s a t r u l y w o r t h w h i l e p a r t o f a r t e d u c a t i o n , and i f modern t e c h n o l o g y o f f e r s s t u d e n t s new and e x c i t i n g m a t e r i a l s w i t h w h i c h t o c r e a t e s c u l p t u r e t h a t r e f l e c t s t h e i r own p l a c e i n t h e i r own t i m e , then u n i v e r s i t y a r t e d u c a t i o n programs must p r e p a r e t e a c h e r s t o a c c e p t and u t i l i z e such m a t e r i a l s i n t h e secondary a r t program. 1 0 0 F o o t n o t e s ^The a u t h o r r e c o g n i z e s t h a t a t the time o f w r i t i n g t h i s t h e s i s , the A r t ( 8 - 1 2 ) Guide/Resource Book ( 1 9 8 0 ) i s s t i l l b e i n g r e v i s e d . T h e r e f o r e , comments made about t h i s g u i d e a p p l y m a i n l y t o i t s under-l y i n g p r i n c i p l e s , i n t h e knowledge t h a t s p e c i f i c w o r d i n g s may change p r i o r t o i t s p u b l i c a t i o n . 2 School d i s t r i c t s d i f f e r i n t h e degree o f s t r i c t n e s s w i t h which they e n f o r c e s a f e t y s t a n d a r d s i n the a r t room. S a f e t y s t a n d a r d s change and a r e updated as new m a t e r i a l s and p r o c e s s e s a r e i n t r o d u c e d i n t o the sc h o o l system; new haz a r d s a r e d e t e c t e d and o l d ones e l i m i n a t e d . I have put f o r w a r d t he p r o c e d u r e s and recommendations i n t h i s t h e s i s so as t o r e f l e c t as a c c u r a t e l y as p o s s i b l e t h o s e s a f e t y p r o c e d u r e s adopted by the Vancouver School Board. Readers a r e a d v i s e d t o make s u r e t h a t p r o c e d u r e s o u t l i n e d i n t h i s t h e s i s a r e a c c e p t a b l e t o t h e i r own sc h o o l boards and l o c a l j u r i s d i c t i o n s . 101 Bi b l i o g r a p h y B a t t c o c k , G. ( E d . ) . The new a r t . New Y o r k : E. P. D u t t o n , 1966 Baynes, K. Design i n g e n e r a l e d u c a t i o n : a r e v i e w o f developments i n B r i t a i n . A r t E d u c a t i o n , 1977, 30_(8) , pp. 17~21. B e a d l e , J . ( E d . ) . P l a s t i c s f o r m i n g . B a s i n g s t o k e , Hampshire: M a c m i l l a n , 1971 • Bowman, N. A. ( E d . ) . Handbook o f t e c h n i c a l p r a c t i c e f o r the p e r f o r m i n g  a r t s . W i l k i n n s b u r g , P. A.: 1972. Brown, R. L. E. Design and m a n u f a c t u r e o f p l a s t i c p a r t s . New York: John W i l e y and S o n s , 1 9 8 0 . B r u i n s , P. F. ( E d . ) . B a s i c p r i n c i p l e s o f thermofcrming. New Y o r k : Gordon and B r e a c h , 1973-Bunch, C. A c r y l i c f o r s c u l p t u r e and d e s i g n . New Y o r k : Van N o s t r a n d R e i n h o l d , 1972. Burnham, J . Beyond modern s c u l p t u r e . New Y o r k : George B r a z i l l e r , 1968. B r y s o n , N. T h e r m o p l a s t i c s c e n e r y f o r the t h e a t r e . New Y o r k : Drama Book S p e c i a l i s t s , 1970. Canaday, J . Mainstreams o f modern a r t . New Y o r k : H o l t , R i n e h a r t , and W i n s t o n , 1964. Chapman, L. H. Approaches t o a r t i n e d u c a t i o n . New Y o r k : H a r c o u r t B r a c e , 1 9 7 ^ C h i c h u r a , D. B., and S t e v e n s , T. K. Super s c u l p t u r e : u s i n g s c i e n c e , t e c h n o l o g y and n a t u r a l phenomena i n s c u l p t u r e . New Y o r k : Van N o s t r a n d R e i n h o l d , 1974. Dow, A. W. Compos i t i on ( 5 th e d . ) . New Y o r k : Baker and T a y l o r , 1903-E f l a n d , A. D. Changing views o f c h i l d r e n ' s a r t i s t i c development. In E. W. E i s n e r (Ed.) , The a r t s , human development and e d u c a t i o n . B e r k e l e y : McCutchan, 1976, pp. 6 5 - 8 3 . E i s n e r , E. E d u c a t i n g a r t i s t i c v i s i o n . New Y o r k : M a c m i l l a n , 1972. E i s n e r , E. W. (.Ed.). The a r t s , human development, and e d u c a t i o n . B e r k l e y : McCutchan, 1976. F i e l d , D. Recent developments and emerging problems i n E n g l i s h a r t e d u c a t i o n . A r t E d u c a t i o n , 1977, 3p_(8), pp. 5-8. Friedman, M;. ( E d . ) . 14 S c u l p t o r s : the i n d u s t r i a l edge. E x h i b i t i o n c a t a l o g u e , Walker A r t C e n t r e , M i n n e a p o l i s M i n n e s o t a : 1969. 102 G i e d i o n , S. Space, t i m e and a r c h i t e c t u r e . Cambridge, M a s s a c h u s e t t s : H a r v a r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1967. G l e n , B. W. Vacuum form machine. ( A r t e d u c a t i o n p r o j e c t r e p o r t ) . U n p u b l i s h e d m a n u s c r i p t , U n i v e r s i t y o f B. C , 1979. G o l d s t e i n , H., and G o l d s t e i n , V. A r t i n e v e r y d a y I i f e . New Y o r k : 1954. Goodman, E. A r t and the c u r r i c u l u m . A r t E d u c a t i o n , 1977, 3 0 ( 8 ) , pp. 13-16. Green, P. Design e d u c a t i o n : problem s o l v i n g and v i s u a l e x p e r i e n c e . Lon donl B a t s f o r d , 1974. : Hausman, J . J . E l i t i s m i n t h e a r t s and e g a 1 i t a r i a n i s m i n the community. In E i s n e r ( e d . ) , The A r t s . , pp. 199-211. H o l l a n d e r , H. P l a s t i c s f o r a r t i s t s and c r a f t s m e n . New Y o r k : Watson-G u p t h i l l - , 1972. H u n t e r , S. Modern American p a i n t i n g and s c u l p t u r e . New Y o r k : D e l l , 1959. I r v i n g , D. J . S c u l p t u r e : m a t e r i a l and p r o c e s s . New Y o r k : Van N o s t r a n d R e i n h o l d , 1970. I t t e n , A., and I t t e n , J . Design and form: the b a s i c c o u r s e a t the Bauhaus (Rev. e d , ) . London: Thames and Hudson, 1975-K r a u s s , R. Passages i n modern s c u l p t u r e ( c o p y r i g h t 1977). Cambridge, M a s s a c h u s e t t s : M. I. T. P r e s s , 1981. K u l t e r m a n n , U. The new s c u l p t u r e : e n v i r o n m e n t s and assemblages. London: Thames and H u d s o n , 1 9 6 7 . Langer, S. Problems o f a r t . New Y o r k : C h a r l e s S c r i b n e r 1 s Sons, 1957-Legge, J . G. The t h i n k i n g hand. London: M a c m i l l a n and Co. L t d . , 1914. Logan, F. M. Growth o f a r t i n American s c h o o l s . New Y o r k : H a r p e r , 1955 Logan, F. M- Update '75 Growth i.ln American a r t e d u c a t i o n . S t u d i e s i n  A r t E d u c a t i o n , 1975, .1701, PP- 19-26 M a r t i n , U. ( E d . ) . A r t h a z a r d s i n the c l a s s r o o m . BCATA J o u r n a l , 1981, 21_(2). McCoy, G. ( e d . ) . D a v i d S m i t h . New Y o r k : P r a e g e r , 1973. McFee, J . , & Degge, R. A r t , c u l t u r e and e n v i r o n m e n t : A c a t a l y s t f o r  t e a c h i n g . Belmont, C a l i f o r n i a : Wadsworth, 1977-Museum o f Modern A r t . Machine a r t . E x h i b i t i o n c a t a l o q u e , New York: March, 1934. 103 Neumann, E. ( E d . ) . Bauhaus and Bauhaus p e o p l e . New Yor k : Van N o s t r a n d R e i n h o l d , 1970. Newman, T. P l a s t i c s as an a r t form (Rev. e d . ) . New York: C h i l t o n , 1969-Newman, T. P l a s t i c s as s c u l p t u r e . Radnor, Pa.: C h i l t o n Books, 1974. Peabody, E. A p l e a f o r F r o e b e l ' s k i n d e r g a r t e n as the f i r s t grade o f p r i m a r y a r t e d u c a t i o n . B a r n a r d ' s J o u r n a l o f E d u c a t i o n , 1 8 9 0 , p. 675. P i p e r , D. W. ( E d . ) . Readings i n a r t and d e s i g n e d u c a t i o n : 2. London: Davis P o y n t e r , 1973-P r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , Department o f E d u c a t i o n , S e n i o r secondary  c u r r i c u l u m g u i d e , a r t s . V i c t o r i a : 1965. P r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n . A r t ( 8 - 1 2 ) , a  g u i d e / r e s o u r c e book ( d r a f t ) . V i c t o r i a : 1980 Read, H. A c o n c i s e h i s t o r y o f modern s c u l p t u r e . New Y o r k : O x f o r d , 1964. Roukes, N. C r a f t s i n p i a s t i cs-. New Yor k : W a t s o n - G u p t i 1 , 1970. R u s s e l l , J . , & G a b l i k , S. Pop a r t r e d e f i n e d . London: Thames and Hudson, 1969. Saunder, R. A r t , i n d u s t r i a l a r t , and t h e 200 y e a r s war. A r t E d u c a t i o n , 1976, 29 0 ) . , PP. 5-8. S c h e i d i g , W. C r a f t s o f the Weimar Bauhaus. London: S t u d i o V i s t a , 1967-S i e d l e c k i , J . T. P o t e n t i a l h a z a r d s o f p l a s t i c s used i n s c u l p t u r e . A r t  E d u c a t i o n , 1972, 2 5 ( 2 ) , pp. 21-24. Solomon, A. The new a r t . In G. B a t t c o c k (.Ed.), The new a r t . , pp. 6 7 - 8 2 . S t o k e s , E. D. A d h e s i v e b o n d i n g . Modern P l a s t i c s E n c y c l o p e d i a , 1974-1975, pp. 484-485. S u t t o n , G. A r t i s a n o r a r t i s t ? A; h i s t o r y o f the t e a c h i n g o f a r t s and  c r a f t s i n Eng 1 ? sh, s c h o o l s . London: Pergammon P r e s s , 19o7. Swanson, R. S. P I a s t i cs t e c h n o l o g y . B l o o m i n g t o n I l l i n o i s : McKnight & Mc K n i g h t , 1965. T o f f l e r , A- F u t u r e shock; New Yor k : Bantam, 1971. Vach.on, M. Some i n d u s t r i a l a r t s c h o o l s o f Europe and t h e i r l e s s o n s f o r the Un i t e d S t a t e s (.Extracts from the s t u d i e s made f o r t h e French Govt, by Mari.us Vach.on, 1883) . Washington: Department o f the I n t e r i o r Bureau o f E d u c a t i o n B u l l e t i n , Washington p r i n t i n g o f f i c e , No. 48, 1923. 104 Wong, W. P r i n c i p l e s o f t h r e e d i m e n s i o n a l d e s i g n . New York: Van N o s t r a n d R e i n h o l d , 1977. Z a n k e r , F. Design and c r a f t i n e d u c a t i o n . N o r t h g a t e s , L e i c e s t e r : Dryad P r e s s , 1971. 105 APPENDIX A The C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f Common T h e r m o p l a s t i c s A l t h o u g h the VFM d e s c r i b e d i n t h i s t h e s i s u t i l i z e d p o l y s t y r e n e p l a s -t i c a l m o s t e x c l u s i v e l y , t h e r e a r e many more t h e r m o p l a s t i c s a v a i l a b l e , each e x h i b i t i n g i t s own p r o p e r t i e s and c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . Nine o f the most common a r e d i s c u s s e d i n d e s c e n d i n g o r d e r o f t h e i r p r o c e s s i n g f a c i l i t y The f i r s t f i v e a r e w i t h i n the f o r m i n g c a p a b i l i t i e s o f the above VFM. P o l y s t y r e n e P o l y s t y r e n e i n i t s b a s i c form i s a c l e a r m a t e r i a l , however, i t has a low impact s t r e n g t h . To overcome t h i s s h o r t coming, t h e r e has been d e v e l o p e d the s o - c a l l e d " h i g h impact" (.Hi) o r rubber toughened p o l y s t y r e n e T h i s i s an opaque m a t e r i a l , e x c e l l e n t f o r vacuum f o r m i n g and the c h e a p e s t and e a s i e s t m a t e r i a l t o form. A l t h o u g h HI p o l y s t y r e n e s t i l l does not have a p a r t i c u l a r l y h i g h impact s t r e n g t h compared w i t h o t h e r sheet m a t e r i -a l s , i t i s s u f f i c i e n t l y r o b u s t t o be w i d e l y used f o r l e s s c r i t i c a l a p p l i -c a t i o n s . The t h i n n e r s h e e t i n g Is e x t e n s i v e l y used f o r pre-packed f o o d s , and a c l e a r f i l m i s w i d e l y used f o r " b l i s t e r " p a c k s . ABS ABS i s a tough p l a s t i c t h a t forms v e r y r e a d i l y . I t i s o f p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t f o r l a r g e r f o r m i n g a r e a s such as boat h u l l s , c a r b o d i e s and l a r g e c o n t a i n e r s . PVC P o l y V i n y l C h l o r i d e can be o b t a i n e d i n c l e a r as w e l l as opaque s h e e t . A vacuum f o r m i n g grade must be s p e c i f i e d . The t h i n n e r gaugues form w e l l and a r e a l s o used f o r food p a c k a g i n g and b l i s t e r p a c k s . Aery 1i c 106 A c r y l i c i s a tough a t t r a c t i v e m a t e r i a l t h a t i s a v a i l a b l e i n both t r a n s p a r e n t and a wide range o f c o l o u r e d s h e e t s . A t h i c k n e s s o f 1.5 mm i s about the l i m i t f o r the VFM i n t h i s t h e s i s . I t has an i n h e r e n t e l a s t i c i t y , even when s o f t , t h a t p r e v e n t s i t from b e i n g p u l l e d down i n t o i n t r i c a t e mold d e t a i l s , b u t i t forms w e l l o v e r l a r g e r , l e s s d e t a i l e d molds. CAB C e l l u l o s e a c e t a t e b u t y r a t e i s easy t o form and f i n i s h i n the t h i n n e r gauges. I t i s s i m i l a r t o a c r y l i c , but w i t h a h i g h e r impact s t r e n g t h . P o l y c a r b o n a t e P o l y c a r b o n a t e i s a c l e a r p l a s t i c t h a t forms w e l l and has e x c e p t i o n -a l l y h i g h impact s t r e n g t h , r e m a i n i n g tough i n s p i t e o f c o n s i d e r a b l e tem-p e r a t u r e e x t r e m e s . I t i s , however, p r o h i b i t i v e l y e x p e n s i v e and used m a i n l y f o r s p e c i a l i s t a p p l i c a t i o n s i n i n d u s t r y . P o l y p r o p y l e n e P o l y p r o p y l e n e i s a r i g i d tough t r a n s l u c e n t m a t e r i a l , but d i f f i c u l t t o form due t o i t s h i g h and narrow t e m p e r a t u r e s o f t e n i n g range and the f a c t t h a t t h e s h e e t t e n d s t o d i s t o r t i n t o h i l l s and v a l l e y s when i t i s he a t e d . HP P o l y e t h y l e n e I t has s i m i l a r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s t o p o l y p r o p y l e n e , but has a lower m e l t i n g t e m p e r a t u r e and forms more e a s i l y . LP P o l y e t h y 1 e n e A t o u g h , f l e x i b l e m a t e r i a l not p a r t i c u l a r l y s u i t a b l e f o r vacuum f o r m i n g e x c e p t i n low r e l i e f ( s h a l l o w draw) molds. F i n i s h P l a s t i c s h e e t i n g i s n o r m a l l y s u p p l i e d w i t h a p l a i n s u r f a c e f i n i s h , but embossed s u r f a c e p a t t e r n s a r e a v a i l a b l e and d e c o r a t i v e f i l m (such 107 as f l o c k m a t e r i a l ) can be l a m i n a t e d t o the base sheet i n t h e case o f p o l y s t y r e n e , ABS and PVC. A l l o f t h e p l a s t i c s mentioned can be o b t a i n e d i n a range o f c o l o u r s . F u r t h e r T e c h n i c a l I n f o r m a t i o n E x h a u s t i v e l i s t s o f p l a s t i c s , t h e i r p r o p e r t i e s , and uses can be found i n Brown (.1980), the Modern P l a s t i c s E n c y c l o p e d i a (.1974, 1975) and Newman (1969). 103 APPENDIX B S a f e t y Few a r t p r o c e s s e s a r e c o m p l e t e l y f r e e o f r i s k t o t h e a r t i s t . I t i s i m p e r a t i v e t h a t t h e s e r i s k s be m i n i m i z e d when w o r k i n g w i t h s t u d e n t s . Com-p l e t e i n f o r m a t i o n about a p r o c e s s under c o n s i d e r a t i o n , c a r e f u l l y t r a n s -m i t t e d t o s t u d e n t s t h r o u g h o r a l and w r i t t e n i n s t r u c t i o n s , can h e l p c r e a t e a w o r k i n g atmosphere where a c c i d e n t s a r e u n l i k e l y t o o c c u r . The r e p o r t on a r t h a z a r d s i n the c l a s s r o o m p u b l i s h e d i n the BCATA J o u r n a l ( M a r t i n Ed., March, 1981) d e t a i l s many o f the p o t e n t i a l h a z a r d s f a c e d by s t u d e n t s and t e a c h e r s w o r k i n g i n a l l phases o f the v i s u a l a r t s . I t i s an e x c e l l e n t r e f e r e n c e handbook, and a copy s h o u l d be a v a i l a b l e i n e v e r y a r t room. Jerome S i e d l e c k i , an e x p e r t i n e n v i r o n m e n t a l , p u b l i c , and o c c u p a t i o n a l h e a l t h , has w r i t t e n e x t e n s i v e l y about p o t e n t i a l l y hazardous m a t e r i a l s used by a r t i s t s . H i s a r t i c l e on p l a s t i c s i n A r t E d u c a t i o n (Feb. 1972) r e v i e w s the p r o p e r t i e s o f the more common t h e r m o p l a s t i c s and thermo-s e t t i n g p l a s t i c s and documents the dangers i n h e r e n t i n t h e i r improper use. The f o l l o w i n g s h o r t d i s c u s s i o n i s based on the recommendations o u t l i n e d i n the p u b l i c a t i o n s j u s t m e n t i o n e d , and o u t l i n e s some o f the p o s s i b l e h a z a r d s r e s u l t i n g from p r o c e s s e s and a c t i v i t i e s d e s c r i b e d i n t h i s t h e s i s , t o g e t h e r w i t h t h e a p p r o p r i a t e p r e c a u t i o n s t h a t s h o u l d be t a k e n t o p r e v e n t t h e i r h appening. Vent II a t jon No a c t i v i t i e s i n v o l v i n g h e a t i n g p r o c e s s e s , g l u e i n g , o r the use o f s o l v e n t s s h o u l d be a t t e m p t e d w i t h o u t adequate v e n t i l a t i o n . V e n t i l a t i o n can be the c r o s s d r a f t from an open door t o an open window, p r o v i d e d t h a t the fumes and vapours a r e d i r e c t e d away from t h e o p e r a t o r , |n a 109 more confined area, v e n t i l a t i o n should be accomplished by a large e x t r a c -to r fan which exhausts vapours and fumes to the outs i d e . Again, the ex-haust a i r should move away from the student operator. Hot wire c u t t e r . Hot wire c u t t e r s used f o r c u t t i n g expanded p o l y s t y -rene foams should pose l i t t l e hazard i f used in a properly v e n t i l a t e d area. The Vancouver School Board l i s t s a small battery operated s t y r o -foam hot wire c u t t e r on t h e i r 1982 a r t s and c r a f t s r e q u i s i t i o n . Such a tool i s adequate f o r small s c a l e s c u l p t u r e . VFM. The vacuum form machine described in Appendix C i s operated, as p r e v i o u s l y o u t l i n e d in the t e x t , in the adequately v e n t i l a t e d welding area of the metal work shop. in any event, only small amounts of fumes are present while the p l a s t i c i s heating p r i o r to forming. Glueing and sMkscreening. These a c t i v i t i e s should only be done in a properly v e n t i l a t e d area as described e a r l i e r . The BCATA Journal a r t i c l e on saf e t y hazards (March, 1 9 8 l ) , makes recommendations f o r safe glueing procedures (.p. 18} and safe si1kscreening procedures ( p. 9). It a l s o includes a chart that l i s t s the p o t e n t i a l hazards associated with common solvents and the appropriate precautions that should be observed while using them in the classroom (p. 10). F i r e hazards. The VFM in Appendix C i s designed with the heater above the clamping frame. P l a s t i c that overheats cannot melt onto the elements and cause a f i r e hazard. T h i s i s not the case with many VFM1s that a l l o w the p l a s t i c to sag dangerously c l o s e to the heating elements. Nevertheless, a multi-purpose f i r e e x t i n g u i s h e r should always be at hand in case of an emergency. Gloves, p r e f e r a b l y the gauntlet type, should be worn i f long vacuum forming runs are planned as the clamping frame tends to heat up with extended use. The heating elements reach a peak temper-n o a t u r e o f about 260 deg. C when t u r n e d on f u l l . T h i s i s below the f l a s h p o i n t o f most o f t h e p l a s t i c s used, P l a s t e r Masks There i s always some danger p r e s e n t when c a s t i n g a " l i f e " mask. The BCATA J o u r n a l (.March, 1981) o u t l i n e s a s a f e p r o c e d u r e f o r u s i n g p l a s t e r impregnated gauze f o r mask making on page 17- As w e l l as u s i n g l i b e r a l amounts o f v a s e l i n e on any s k i n l i k e l y t o come i n c o n t a c t w i t h the wet p l a s t e r bandage, an added s a f e g u a r d which causes o n l y s l i g h t l o s s i n c a s t i n g d e t a i l , i s the a p p l i c a t i o n o f t h i n p l a s t i c food wrap t o the gr e a s e d f a c e . Eye c u p s , o f the typ e used f o r sun b a t h i n g o r t o p r o t e c t t h e eyes from u l t r a v i o l e t r a y s d u r i n g h o s p i t a l t h e r a p y , can be used f o r f u r t h e r p r o t e c t i o n . A rubber " b a l d " cap w i l l p r o t e c t the s u b j e c t ' s h a i r and p r e v e n t p l a s t e r from e n t e r i n g t h e e a r s . T h i s a c t i v i t y s h o u l d o n l y p r o c e e d under s t r i c t s u p e r v i s i o n . The s u b j e c t s s h o u l d be s e n i o r s t u d e n t s who a r e aware o f the s e r i o u s n e s s o f the e x e r c i s e and who have agreed t o model v o l u n t a r i l y . 111 APPENDIX C B u i l d i n g a VFM A l l vacuum form machines, however s o p h i s t i c a t e d t h e i r c o n t r o l s y s t e m s , i n c l u d e f o u r b a s i c e l e m e n t s : a d e v i c e f o r h e a t i n g the p l a s t i c s h e e t i n g , a frame o r c a r r i e r f o r t r a n s p o r t i n g t h e p l a s t i c between the h e a t e r and t h e vacuum t a b l e , t h e vacuum box o r t a b l e , and a s o u r c e o f vacuum p r e s -s u r e ( F i g s . 2 - 6 ). The VFM d e s c r i b e d here ( F i g . O l ) , was b u i l t w i t h m a t e r i a l s found i n most h i g h s c h o o l i n d u s t r i a l a r t s shops o r was r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e from e l e c t r i c a l s u p p l i e r s . H e a t i n g elements and c o n t r o l s can be " r e c y c l e d " from an o l d s t o v e , a l t h o u g h the ones used here were new. The VFM was d e s i g n e d t o be b u i l t by s e n i o r s t u d e n t s under t h e s u p e r v i s i o n o f a t e a c h e r f a m i l i a r w i t h b a s i c m e t a l - w o r k i n g p r o c e d u r e s , i n c l u d i n g a knowledge o f b a s i c w e l d i n g t e c h n i q u e s . A s e n i o r s t a g e c r a f t s t u d e n t d i d most o f the w e l d i n g on t h i s VFM. Two r e f e r e n c e s t h a t proved t o be v e r y h e l p f u l d u r i n g i t s d e s i g n and c o n s t r u c t i o n were the Handbook o f T e c h n i c a l  P r a c t i c e f o r the P e r f o r m i n g A r t s (Bowman, 1972) and T h e r m o p l a s t i c Scenery  f o r the T h e a t r e ( B r y s o n , 1970). Because t h e d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e VFM's c o n s t r u c t i o n i s l a r g e l y v i s u a l , t h e f i g u r e s a r e grouped t o g e t h e r a f t e r the w r i t t e n t e x t . Vacuum. Box The vacuum box ( F i g . C-2) |s b u i l t from 19 mm plywood s e t i n t o a 19 mm by 75 mm frame. A l l j o i n t s a r e g l u e d and w e l l s e a l e d . I t s o u t s i d e d i m e n s i o n s a r e 570 mm by 465 mm by 75 mm. The a c t u a l f o r m i n g s u r f a c e i s 3 mm h a r d b o a r d , s l i g h t l y s m a l l e r i n s i z e than the vacuum box s u r f a c e . The h a r d b o a r d i s t e m p o r a r i l y p o s i t i o n e d on the box and 1 mm h o l e s a r e d r i l l e d t h r o u g h both h a r d b o a r d and plywood on 13 mm c e n t e s ( F i g . C~3)• The h a r d -112 board i s removed and the holes in the plywood box are enlarged to 3 mm. Vacuum Pressure The means of achieving vacuum pressure i s fundamental to the system Commercial u n i t s use vacuum pumps that evacuate a lar g e r vessel c a l l e d a surge tank. When the VFM i s ope r a t i n g , a large volume of a i r can be instantaneously d i s p l a c e d by "tapping" the vacuum r e s e r v o i r contained in the surge tank. The vacuum in the surge tank i s r e - e s t a b l i s h e d by the s t e a d i l y operating vacuum pump as the next sheet of p l a s t i c i s heat-ing. Large amounts of vacuum pressure in the order of 500 mm of mercury (20 in.) are necessary to form p l a s t i c s from 3 mm to 13 mm in thi c k n e s s . The VFM described here could be equipped with a vacuum pump and surge tank, but f o r most school a p p l i c a t i o n s , the vacuum created by an industr vacuum cleaner of the type used in most high school maintenance depart-ments, i s q u i t e adequate. The VFM described here has a pipe extension below the vacuum box over which the vacuum cleaner hose e a s i l y s l i p s ( F i g . C-5 and C-6). Outside Frame The outside frame which supports a l l of the VFM components i s con-s t r u c t e d of 32 mm s t e e l angle. Its outside dimensions are 610 mm by 710 mm by 140 mm ( F i g . C-7l, The machine was designed to be mounted on a standard 760 mm high t a b l e , p r e f e r a b l y on castors f o r m o b i l i t y . Clamping Frame A simple two piece hinged clamping frame ( F i g . C-8) , 520 mm by 620 mm, made from welded 25 mm s t e e l angle, supported by four counter weights and a pul1ey system seemed the best s o l u t i o n f o r t r a n s p o r t i n g the p l a s t i c between the heater and the vacuum t a b l e . The counter weight are 25 mm round s t e e l bar stock, 460 mm long and each weighing about 2.2 113 kg ( F i g . C~9) • The clamping frame i s negatively balanced so that i t tends to r i s e toward the heater box. Thumb screws ( F i g . C -10) lock the counter weights in any p o s i t i o n so that the frame i s s t a t i o n a r y f o r opening, p o s i t i o n i n g the p l a s t i c , and clamping. There i s no complex system f o r a l l i g n i n g the clamping frame over the vacuum box. This i s done by eye and by f e e l using the handles on the ends of the frame. Four d e f l e c t o r s on the bottom edges of the clamping frame ( F i g . C - l l ) help to p o s i t i o n i t squarely on the vacuum box. Ai r s e a l . The top h a l f of the frame i s s l i g h t l y smaller than the bottom. This forms a " l i p " which causes the p l a s t i c to make an a i r t i g h t seal between i t s e l f and the vacuum box during forming ( F i g . C - 1 2 ) . The hinged frame halves, a d j u s t a b l e f o r t h i c k e r sheets (.Fig. 13), are held t i g h t l y shut on the p l a s t i c sheet by four clamp screws ( F i g . C-14). Heater Box The heater box ( F i g . C-l5) i s located at the top of the machine f o r e f f i c i e n c y of operation and the safety reasons o u t l i n e d in Appendix B. The box i s made from sheet s t e e l and i s l i n e d with 6 mm i n s u l a t i o n board. Heat i ng elements. Heating elements can be wound nichrome w i r e , high i n t e n s i t y heat lamps ( c o s t l y to operate) or canthol rod elements. The canthol rod oven elements used in t h i s machine ( F i g , C-16) are annealed s t a i n l e s s steel. , purchased in f i v e foot lengths and e a s i l y bent to the desired shape, Co n t r o l s . Each of the three elements i s c o n t r o l l e d by an i n f i n i t e s w i t c h , mounted on the fr o n t of the VFM, They operate on 220 - 2k0 v o l t s , and create an e f f e c t i v e temperature range in the heater box from 90 deg. C to 260 deg, C. The 240. v o l t power l i n e i s d i s t r i b u t e d to the switches and then to the elements from ceramic terminal blocks mounted i n s i d e the 114 c o n t r o l box ( F i g . - C-17)• A l l i n t e r n a l w i r i n g i s done w i t h h i g h temper-a t u r e i n s u l a t e d w i r e ( F i g . C- 18). Power s o u r c e . Most a r c w e l d e r s used i n h i g h s c h o o l shops a r e s i n g l e phase 230 v o l t t y p e s , and a r e plugged i n t o heavy-duty r e c e p t a c l e s t h r o u g h -out the shop a r e a . I chose a m a t c h i n g p l u g f o r the VFM's power c o r d w h i c h a l l o w s i t t o be used i n a t l e a s t s i x d i f f e r e n t l o c a t i o n s t h r o u g h o u t t h e s c h o o l . The power c o r d i s #10 t h r e e w i r e cab t i r e c a b l e . A d i f f e r -e n t t y p e o f p l u g i s used f o r 230 v o l t s t o v e c o n n e c t i o n s , but i f t h e r e i s a s u i t a b l y w e l l v e n t i l a t e d a r e a a d j a c e n t t o a s t o v e o u t l e t , then t h i s p o s s i b i l i t y s h o u l d be kept i n mind when w i r i n g the VFM. Ope r a t ion The machine's o p e r a t i o n has been d e s c r i b e d t h r o u g h o u t t h i s t h e s i s . F i g u r e s C-19, C-20, C-21 , and C-22 show the sequence o f s t e p s i n f o r m i n g o v e r o n e - h a l f o f a p o l y s t y r e n e wig form w h i c h has been i n s u l a t e d w i t h a t h i n l a y e r o f p a p i e r mache. 115 F i g . C - l . The handmade vacuum form machine. 116 117 F i g . C-8. Outer frame, c l a m p i n g frame, and vacuum box. 119 F i g . C-10. Thumb screws f o r l o c k i n g c o u n t e r w e i g h t s . 120 F i g . C—11. Clamping frame h a n d l e and d e f l e c t o r . F i g . C-12. Clamping frame h i n g e d e t a i 1 s , f u l 1 s i z e . 121 122 F i g . C-18- I n t e r n a l w i r i n g done w i t h h i g h t e m p e r a t u r e wi r e . F i g . C-19. Wig-form mold i n p l a c e on vacuum t a b l e . F i g . C-20. P l a s t i c sheet b e i n g clamped i n t o frame. F i g . C-21 P l a s t i c reaches f o r m i n g t e m p e r a t u r e . F i g . C-22. The formed p l a s t i c head. 

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