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African-centred multicultural art education : an alternative curriculum and pedagogy Adu-Poku, Samuel 2002-09-22

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AFRICAN-CENTRED MULTICULTURAL ART EDUCATION: AN ALTERNATIVE CURRICULUM AND PEDAGOGY by SAMUEL ADU-POKU BA. (Art), The University of Science & Technology, Kumasi, Ghana, 1987 D.A.E., The University of Science & Technology, Kumasi, Ghana, 1989 M.Ed., The University of New Brunswick, 1995 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department of Curriculum Studies) (Art Education) We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA January, 2002 © Samuel Adu-Poku, 2002 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada Date DE-6 (2/88) ABSTRACT This dissertation is a contribution to the debate over the centrality or marginality of race and ethnicity in the production and dissemination of knowledge. It calls for more broad-based knowledge and values that represent ethno-cultural diversity in Canada, with special reference to Black/African-Canadians. The study describes the development and implementation of an African-centred Art and Cultural Education Program (AACEP) as an alternative curriculum and pedagogy. The AACEP was developed in response to historical experiences of Black/African-Canadians and research data that revealed systemic exclusion of their artistic and cultural perspectives from mainstream curricula and general school organization. Three major questions relevant to art education, critical multicultural education and the educational experience of Black/African-Canadians in Vancouver, British Columbia are considered: in what ways do school curricula, textbooks and general school organization affect Black/African-Canadian children's participation in visual art and general education; how do Black/African-Canadian students react to a community-based African-centred art and cultural education program; and what impact do the African-centred art and cultural learning experiences have on students in a multi-ethnic public elementary school. Data was generated through the implementation of the AACEP at the Multicultural Familyv Centre (MFC) and an east Vancouver public school. The MFC is a community-based social service provider whose range of services includes a program that fosters positive cultural awareness and increased self-esteem among Black youths in Vancouver. Evidence is based on two years of participatory observation at the MFC and on a two-week art and cultural education workshop. Data was also obtained through interviews with Black/African-Canadian students and parents, MFC's cross-cultural facilitators, students from the east Vancouver school, an art teacher, and the school principal. The study is grounded in Africentric theory, critical education theory and ethnographic research. In response to the first primary question, this study identified seven issues that emerged from participants' perceptions of the education system and its effects on Black/African-Canadian learners. These factors include curricula deficiency, racism and institutional barriers, lack of relevant art and Ill cultural education models, inadequate background preparation of teachers and exclusionary teacher recruitment practices, lack of positive role models, inadequate family and community support and inadequate attention to gender issues. Second, findings from this investigation suggest that culturally relevant curriculum can provide effective means of inducing positive attitudinal change and increased self-confidence among Black/African-Canadian students. This became evident through a review of students' knowledge and views about the program, as well as their attitudes toward their own cultures and other cultural groups. In response to the third primary research question, this study concludes that positive inter-personal and inter-ethnic attitudes could be induced through multicultural art education that focuses on cross-cultural similarities. It was also revealed that the issue of inclusive schooling transcends the calls for curricula and pedagogic reforms. It has socio-economic and political dimensions that raise wider public policy questions. Several conclusions and recommendations are made about multicultural education as it relates to art education, the education of Black African-Canadians, and community-based education programs: 1) incorporation of the experiences and perspectives of Black/African-Canadians and people of colour into mainstream curricula would be valuable for expanded knowledge and multicultural literacy of all students; 2) multicultural art education provides a viable force for ethnic minority students to identify with their cultural heritages and develop their self-esteem; 3) community-centred education processes can provide important resources to facilitate multicultural art education programs in local public schools; and 4) multicultural education must move beyond cosmetic "relevance" to making curriculum and pedagogy genuinely transformative. A recommendation is made for further in-depth research of ethnic groups of students from real-life situations in community-based ethnic settings, and their interactions with school contexts, to build holistic theories of multicultural education. iv TABLE OF CONTENTS Abstract ii Table of Contents v List of Figures viiList of Tables ix Acknowledgements x CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION 1 Statement of the Problem.Defining the Research Questions 10 Purpose of the Study 1 Research Objectives 2 Research Questions 13 Significance of the StudyDefinition of Terms 5 Personal Reflexivity 18 II REVIEW OF LITERATURE , 22 The Socio-historical Context of Black/African-Canadian Children's Education 22 Historical Overview of Black Experience in Canada 2The Black Pioneers of British Columbia 25 The Struggle for Educational Equity 7 Identity Politics and Black Educational Experience 3Explanations for Black Children's Educational Underachievement 40 The Promise of Multicultural and Anti-racist Education 45 Conceptions of Multicultural Education 49 Multicultural Policy in CanadaV Defining Multicultural Education 52 Multiculturalism and Art Education 7 Approaches to Multicultural Art Education 65 Discipline-Based Art Education (DBAE)Multicultural Discipline-based Art Education (MDAE) 68 Post-modern Approaches to Art Education 69 African Art and Multicultural Art Education 73 African-centred Perspective on Gender and Multicultural Education. 76 The African Cosmological Concept 80 Artistic Criticism and Aesthetics of African Art 82 Cross-cultural Functions of Art 84 Summary of the Review of Literature 8 III AFRICENTRICITY AND ART EDUCATION 90 Critique of Eurocentrism in Art EducationAfricentricity and Knowledge. 99 Ancient Egyptian and Nubian Civilizations: Symbolic Legacy of Africa 99 The Africentric Paradigm 10Africentricity, Centrism and Polycentrism 113 Philosophical Underpinnings of Africentricity 115 Critique of the Theoretical and Methodological Conception of Africentricity 119 Summary of Africentricity and Art Education 122 IV RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 124 Research Method 12Site and Context 8 Selection of Participants 130 Data Collection 4 Data Interpretation from a Critical Multicultural Education Perspective 138 vi Summary of the Research Methodology 142 V DESCRIPTION OF THE ART AND CULTURAL CURRICULUM IMPLEMENTATION PROCESS 143 Introduction 14Curriculum Process 4 Rationale 145 Content Selection and Implementation 154 Scope Suggestion and Materials 5 Setting for the Art and Cultural Workshop. 156 Profile of Instructors for the African Art and Cultural Education Program (AACEP) 156 Summary of Description of Art and Cultural Curriculum Process 157 VI PERCEPTION OF THE EDUCATION SYSTEM 158 Curriculum Deficiency 160 Instructional Barriers: Racism, Discrimination, Stereotyping and Media Bias 170 Multicultural Education and Africentric Knowledge 185 Lack of Role Models 196 Teacher Preparation, Recruitment and Pedagogical Strategies 200 Parental Involvements and Community Participation. 208 Gender Issues 216 VII REACTIONS TO THE AFRICAN ART AND CULTURAL EDUCATION PROGRAM 222 Responses of Black/African-Canadian Students to the AACEP 222 Review of Students' Knowledge from the AACEP 223 Views about Program Facilitators and their Teaching Strategies 229 Exploring Cross-cultural Characteristics of Art 232 Specific Effects of Participating in the Various Aspects of AACEP. 235 Responses of Students from an East Vancouver Public School to the AACEP 242 VIII CONCLUSIONS: IMPLICATIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS FOR ART EDUCATION 253 vii Overview 253 Conclusions 4 The Challenges of Inclusive Education: Multicultural Curriculum and Pedagogy 254 7 AACEP: A Journey Toward Cultural Awareness and Multiculturalism 258 Community-based Cultural Education Programs 261 Recommendations: Possible Approaches and Directions for Multicultural Education 262 Limitations and Future Study 267 REFERENCES 270 APPENDIX I: African Art and Cultural Education: An Integrated Unit 286 APPENDIX II: Interview Guide 308 APPENDIX III: Parent/Guardian Consent Form 315 viii LIST OF FIGURES FIGURE 2.1 Bronze Plaque ofOba (King) ofBenin, Nigeria (1600 C.E.) (A Member of the 1897 British Punitive Expedition) 30 2.2 Two Bronze Heads from the Yoruba Kingdom of Ife, Nigeria (1100-1600 C.E.) 31 2.3 Ivory Saltcellar from Edo of Benin, Nigeria (in the British Museum) 32 2.4 Necklace of 108 pieces of Gold from Ashanti People, Ghana (in the British Museum) 33 2.5 Map of North East Africa Showing Egypt and Ancient Nubia 61 2.6 Map of Ancient African Kingdoms Showing Old Ghana, Mali and Songhai . .62 2.7 Map of Africa Showing the Various Countries 63 2.8 Head of the Great Sphinx (Akhet Khufu) and a Pyramid (2590 B.C.E.) 74 2.9 The African Cosmological Concept. 81 3.1 Ancient Egyptian Linen Woven with Colourful Geometric Patterns and Strips Similar to the Ghanaian Kente Cloth (1550-1200 B.C.E.) 100 3.2 Pharaoh and Wife Before the Deity Anubis, God of the Embalmers (1280 B.C.E.) 101 3.3 The Golden Mask from the Valley of the Kings, Tomb of Egyptian Pharaoh Tutankhamum (1325 B.C.E.) 102 3.4 Pottery Vessels of the Ancient Nubians (2000-1550 B.C.E.) 103 3.5 Shawbits from the Tomb of Nubian King Taharka (690-664 B.C.E.) 103 5.1 Kente Cloth, Ashanti People, Ghana 148 5.2 Mask, We People, Ivory Coast (Early 20th Century) 149 5.3 Mask, Mende People, Sende Society, Sierra Leone (Early 20th Century) 150 5.4 Mask, Lumbo People, Gabon (Late 19th Century) 151 5.5 Adinkra Graphic Symbols, Ashanti People, Ghana 152 5.6 Adinkra Cloth, Ashanti People, Ghana 153 6.1 Diagram of Seven Themes, Representing Perceptions of the Education System in British Columbia 159 7.1 Sample of Two-strip Kente Woven by a Student 226 LIST OF TABLES TABLE 1.1 Immigrant Population to Canada by Regions of Birth Showing Periods of Immigration, 1996 .2 2.1 Visible Minority Population in Vancouver CMA, 1996 36 3.1 L. J. Myers'Distinctions Between Traditional African/Euro-Western Worldviews 116 4.1 Attendance Record of Black/African-Canadian Students for the African Art and Cultural Education Program at the Multicultural Family Centre 135 4.2 Background Information of Black/African-Canadian Students 136 6.1 Background Information of Black/African-Canadian Parents/M.F.C. Cross-Cultural Facilitators 161 7.1 Background Information of Students from an East Vancouver Elementary School. 243 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I wish to acknowledge the efforts of my mentors, Dr. Graeme Chalmers, Dr. Rita Irwin, Dr. r Carol P. Christensen and Ms. Yvonne Brown, who provided me with invaluable guidance and unceasing encouragement throughout the course of this research. I particularly wish to express my deepest gratitude to Dr. Chalmers and Dr. Irwin who guided me academically for years and have been my role models both personally and morally. Their warmth and kindness have made my years of study in Canada fruitful and unforgettable. 1 am dedicating this dissertation to my parents, especially to the memory of my mother, and to my beloved wife, Gifty Adu-Poku, for her unconditional loyalty and encouragement. Without her support, I could not have completed this dissertation. To my children, Edmond, Ivan and Kwabena, I am thankful for their affection, patience and the positive social experience they added to my studies. I also would like to express my gratitude to the wonderful people at the Multicultural Family Centre for their support and contribution toward this study. Finally, I am indebted to the students, parents and teachers who allowed me into their classrooms, homes and lives. For their willingness to share their experiences with me, I am extremely grateful. CHAPTER ONE 1 INTRODUCTION Statement of the Problem Despite efforts toward inclusive education, recent studies reveal a disturbing trend of cultural exclusion, racism and other discriminatory practices in multi-ethnic Canadian classrooms (Alladin, 1996; Black Learners Advisory Committee (BLAC), 1994; Dei, 1996; Hamilton, 1997, Kinsella, 1994). While the need for effective multicultural education pedagogy intensifies, Eurocentrism in art education and concerted attacks on multiculturalism (e.g., Bissoondath, 1994; McCarthy & Crichlow, 1993) are inhibiting potentially effective approaches to educational equity in Canada. The debate over content in art education in Canada and the United States is well documented in the literature of the last three decades. This debate is centred primarily on the concerns for more broad-based knowledge and values that represent ethno-cultural diversity in Canadian/American society. Some art educators (Blandy & Congdon, 1987; Chalmers, 1978; Feldman, 1982; Hamblen, 1987; McFee & Degge, 1977) argue that students need tools to recognize, appreciate and cope with the plethora of cultural forms and expressions that a multicultural society generates. Art education involves both the education of artists and education of people about art and its relationship to society. The study of art as a social phenomenon has become the driving force of the notable works of these scholars. Recent statistics in Canada (Statistics Canada, 1996) project that Blacks, third largest visible minority group in Canada in 1991, are expected to become the second largest group by 2016. Of this, a significant proportion is expected to originate from Continental Africa. Visible minorities will account for one in five Canadians, doubling from 10% in 1991 to 20% in 2016. As Table 1.1 shows, atotal of 4,971,090 immigrants lived in Canada by the 1996 Census, out of which some 1,611,795 (or 32.5%) were from Asian-Pacific countries. In total 1,027,220 (or 20.7%) immigrants came from Central and South America, Africa and the Caribbean. Given the changing face of Canada, and the increasing ethno-cultural diversity in its classrooms, there is the need to re-examine school curricula, textbooks and teaching methodologies to meet the needs of ethnic minorities that form the mosaic of Canadian society. 2 Table 1.1 Immigrants Population* to Canada by Region of Birth Showing Periods of Immigration, 1996 Region Total Before '61 1961-'70 1971-'80 1981-'90 1991-'96** Africa 229,305 4,945 25,685 58,150 64,265 76,200 USA 244,695 45,050 50,200 74,015 46,407 29,025 C'tral & S. America 273,815 6,370 17,410 67,470 106,320 76,335 Caribbean 279,405 8,390 45,270 96,025 72,405' 57,313 UK 655,535 265,580 168,140 132,950 63,445 25,420 Other N & W. Europe 514,320 284,205 90,495 59,850 48,095 31,705 Eastern Europe 445,385 175,430 40,855 32,280 111,370 87,900 S. Europe 714,383 228,145 244,380 131,620 57,785 52,455 W. Asia & M. East 210,855 4,975 15,165 30,980 77,685 82,050 Eastern Asia 589,415 20,555 38,865 104,940 172,715 252,340 S.E. Asia 408,980 2,485 14,040 111,700 162,490 118,265 Southern Asia 353,520 4,565 28,875 80,755 99,270 140,055 Oceanea & Others 49,025 4,250 9,240 15,420 10,240 9,875 Total 4,971,090 1,054,945 788,590 996,155 1,092,400 1,039,000 * Non-permanent residents are not included. ** Includes first five months of 1996. Source: Statistics Canada, 1996 Census National Table 3 Multicultural education, however, should neither be conceptualized as a demographic issue nor as a field focusing solely on people of colour. Its importance is grounded on the fact that the field explores broader issues of educational and social significance in relation to ethnicity, race, class, gender and exceptionality and the interaction of these variables (Banks, 1993; Grant & Sleeter, 1993). In this study, my interest was situated mainly in the area of multicultural art education and the dynamics of race and ethnicity. Notwithstanding, the study was inextricably interwoven with the embedded inequalities that flow from gender disparities. The goal of this study was to present an African-centred approach to art and multicultural education as an alternative curriculum and pedagogy. Race plays a significant mediating force in schooling in North America. For Black/African-Canadian youths, research has repeatedly indicated their educational disadvantage in multicultural Canadian society. Children whose ethnic and cultural histories do not coincide with the Eurocentric, middle-class and mainstream standard are often mis-educated or are culturally excluded from full participation in education. Studies by the Black Learners Advisory Council (BLAC, 1994), the Canadian Alliance of Black Educators (CABE, 1992) and the Ontario Royal Commission on Learning (RCOL, 1994) highlight an alarming "dropout" rate in their discussions about "crises among Black youths" with respect to "education and achievement." Textbooks, art curricula, classroom practices and the structural processes of schooling have become targets of multicultural education reform efforts. Many educators (Banks, 1995; DePillars, 1990; Grant, 1992; Nieto, 1996; Parry, 1974; Pieterse, 1992) charge that the portrayal of Blacks and other people of colour in reading materials, historical textbooks and in Western popular culture has been biased, racist, inaccurate and destructive to the welfare of students of colour. Art history and art education have also been neglectful of the artistic traditions of minority students, as well as the diverse cultural, ethnic, contextual and historical content that contribute to a more accurate and comprehensive art education for all students (Banks, 1993, 1992; Chalmers, 1987, 1996; DePillars, 1990; Fehr, 1993; McFee & Degge, 1980). Since decisions about content inclusion and exclusion are crucial to what students would have the opportunity to learn, it is important that educators continually examine the content and form of instructional materials. 4 The foundations of art history, art education, art museum education and the entire art establishment are replete with Eurocentrism and patriarchal attitudes, values and ideals. For nearly two decades since Discipline-Based Art Education (DBAE) was introduced in North America (Greer, 1984), art educators reiterate that its Eurocentric content and formalist methodologies continue to reinforce elitism, gender bias, ethno-cultural stereotypes and the notion of the "universality of art" (Chalmers, 1996; Collins & Sandell, 1988, 1992; Fehr, 1993; Garber, 1995; Hagaman, 1990; Hicks, 1992; Zimmerman, 1990). As an approach to art curriculum, DBAE embraces the four domains of art study. It focuses on the development of abilities of students and teachers: 1) to make art (production); 2) to interpret and analyze art (criticism); 3) to know art's role in the past and contemporary culture (history); and 4) to discuss questions about the nature of art and make informed judgements about it (aesthetics). As an outgrowth of the aesthetic education movement, DBAE initially embraced the elitist and Eurocentric male discourse of art hierarchies (high-art/low-art, or men's art/women's art). Until the emergence of postmodernism, feminism and the multicultural movement, curricula in art history and art education were hardly challenged for their inherent ethnocentrism and for silencing multiple voices and perspectives. DePillars (1990) addresses Eurocentrism in art education by asking whether educational institutions are ready for multiculturalism. His question is grounded on a review of art historical texts (e.g., Gardner, 1959; Janson, 1971) and art curricula which, he maintains, have systematically mis-educated future art educators through the omission and distortion of facts regarding the art and civilization of non-European populations and their descendants in the diaspora. Despite repeated theoretical pronouncements from leading art educators aimed at broadening the curriculum, art education remains primarily Eurocentric, revealing hypocrisy and prejudice of educators. Like DePillars, Ransaw (1990) reviews the depiction of Black people in the past 300 years of paintings by European masters. She notes that, generally, Blacks were never depicted in a respectful manner; they were either ignored, depicted as kind and gentle servants or, as threatening to the Whites. DePillars (1990) asserts that "the dis-Africanization of history and culture ... is the antithesis of multiculturalism" (p. 121). Multiculturalists assert that education, to have integrity, must begin with the proposition that all humans have contributed to world development and the flow of knowledge and information and that most 5 human achievements are the result of mutually interactive international efforts (Asante, 1991). For the sake of equity in education, multiculturalists reiterate the need for inclusive and comprehensive curricula that would mutually benefit all shades of students represented in our classrooms. In order to prevent the psychological and cultural dislocation of ethnic minorities, the educational systems in Canada should address the oppressive aspects of school curricula. The infusion of multiculturalism in art curricula will enable art teachers to connect with all students and provide students the opportunity to express themselves in their own unique ways. In the United States, Dobbs (1989) explains that the reluctance to address the philosophical bias in curriculum choices stems from the training, experiences, values and backgrounds of professionals in the art disciplines, which have largely been shaped by Eurocentric and modernist perspectives. Most of Canada's teaching force is also caught up in the same dilemmas leading to the victimization of Black/African-Canadians and other visible minorities. This situation does not only undermine attempts to reconceptualize curricula and teacher education toward a multicultural agenda, but also makes it difficult for many art educators to cease viewing European culture and art as universal, and to consider the possibilities of other artistic traditions, culturalrealities or, indeed, shared realities. Besides, those art educators who are genuinely interested in infusing multicultural objectives into the art curriculum may not have a clear understanding of multicultural education: how it is defined; how it is being practised; its possible sources of content and pedagogy; its tension points and places; its effects on students' attitudes and self-concepts; and what such an infusion means for a curriculum field. These questions and analyses present a great challenge to educators who are ideologically predisposed to particular cultural traditions and/or who are generally unprepared to work in such tension-ridden and contested terrain. A clear understanding of multicultural education issues is particularly important to consider in art education because most art teachers have substantial, if not total, autonomy in the areas of curriculum planning and implementation. Multicultural education calls for a thorough examination of existing curricula in order to ensure that information and perspectives not considered in the past will indeed be considered. Included in this call is the demand for reforms in teacher education programs to ensure that future teachers are fully equipped with the necessary tools to function in multicultural educational settings. Daniel (1996) questions 6 the effectiveness of school curricula and pedagogy that assume that cultural harmony can be achieved by avoiding discussions about diversity and difference. Daniel suggests that it is imperative for educators to strive for balanced curricula in a multicultural environment in order to achieve a more inclusive education. This study raises critical curricula issues that would challenge art educators, teachers, teacher educators, school boards and decision makers to move beyond their comfort zones in order to tackle the issue of multiculturalism in education. Critics contend that the disciplines of art education must not simply be modified to include minorities and feminist concerns, but must be re-constructed to provide epistemological equality within art (Collins & Sandell, 1992; Hagaman, 1990; Hicks, 1992; hooks, 1990; Huber, 1987; Garber, 1990, 1995). This implies that art educators must scrutinize the grounds of knowledge claims in the art of diverse cultures, focusing particularly on historical accounts of imbalances and how and why they were created. While such insightful criticisms have helped to bring the issues of cultural diversity in art to the forefront, they fall short of informing educational practitioners, particularly teachers and community-based educators, in very practical terms, about how to deal specifically with the increasing ethno-cultural diversity in Canadian classrooms and with the educational problems and issues encountered by children of African descent living in multiethnic/multiracial Canada. Liberal multiculturalism or "uncritical" multiculturalism focuses on equal opportunity by masking existing unequal playing fields or structural inequities. They avoid sensitive issues or the forces that continue to create and perpetuate social inequities. Culture is presented in the abstract, divorced from the history and socio-economic realities that shape our identity and behaviour. Critical multiculturalism, on the other hand, focuses on collective experience of marginalized groups. It empowers schools and students to address issues of racism and the imbalance of power in the production, distribution and dissemination of knowledge. It provides a scaffold for the full expression of all forms of artistic talents. It requires teachers and educators who will seek the appropriate centrality for Black/African immigrant students in the classroom and "rupture the established concepts, paradigms and content of the conventional school curriculum" (Dei, 1996, p. 103) that sustain educational inequity and Black students' underachievement. This research will assist teachers not only to create environments that will foster positive inter-group 7 attitudes but also materials that could close the cultural and information gaps in order to assist children of African parentage or ancestry to locate their identity and space within a multicultural Canadian society. It aims at helping art educators to integrate the artistic, historical and cultural knowledge of Black/African-Canadians who have been left in the margins of the visual arts curricula. For many Canadians, research in terms of race is still largely an unsettling issue. Yet much of the available research data demonstrates significant differences that Black/African-Canadians and other minority youths experience in Canadian education systems (Alladin, 1995; BLAC, 1994; Brathwaite, 1989; Carby, 1986; Cheng, 1995; Dei, Mazzuca, Mclsaac & Zine, 1997). Raising alarm about the oppressive aspects of school curricula and historical inequity in Canadian education systems does not nullify the positive changes that have taken place in ethnic and race relations in this country during the last four decades. Instead, it is intended to show that while much has been achieved, more remains to be done (given the existing "vertical mosaic"1 in Canada) in order to achieve educational equity. It must be acknowledged that there are many people in the Euro-Canadian American educational systems that are doing their utmost, in various capacities, to promote inclusive education and educational equity. Despite progress in the educational systems and in race relations, institutional and structural discrimination has persisted. The slogan, "celebrating diversity" often glosses over the realities of a "vertical mosaic" behind a rhetorical smokescreen and a facade of good intensions. The areas in education that critically need reform to reflect Canada's multicultural policy include the issues of curricula choices, pedagogy, teacher recruitment, teacher education and representation in school textbooks. However, many educators and administrators have shown persistent resistance to change. It must be made clear that any criticism in this study is directed, for the most part, at the educational systems and social practices and not at the purposeful intent of specific individuals. My objective is not to blame, but rather to achieve a holistic understanding of Black/African-Canadian artistic and educational experience in order to recommend appropriate alternatives that would meet students' needs. 'This term is often traced to John Porter who applied it in the argument that ethnic/racial affiliation and immigration are important determinant of social class in Canada, and that visible minorities tend to be at the lower ranks regardless of their educational training and qualifications. See Porter, J. (1965). Vertical Mosaic. Toronto: University of Toronto Press. 8 Multicultural education, in this study is conceptualized to encompass anti-racist education and critical pedagogy. This concept is represented in Nieto's (1996) Affirming Diversity: It entails a direct challenge to the societal power structure that has historically subordinated certain groups and rationalized the educational failure of these groups as being the result of their inherent deficiencies. Multicultural education as conceptualized here challenges all educators to make the schools a force for social justice in our society, (p. xvi) Viewed in these terms, the construct is rescued from the perception that it concerns itself only with the production of the passive consciousness of culture divorced from societal power relations. From the right, critics of Canadian multiculturalism argue that the legitimization of cultures and traditions other than those of the dominant group constitutes a real threat to national unity (e.g., Bissoondath, 1994; Porter, 1972) and this is mitigated by a plea for "Canadianism," a version of the "melting pot" idea. This argument however, is grounded on an illusive assumption that Canada has been historically and sociologically united. The fact that the nation was already sharply divided along the lines of class, gender and ethnicity (i.e., English, French, East Europeans, Asians, First Nations and Blacks) before the advent of multiculturalism is conveniently ignored. Also ignored are: the contradiction between our national democratic ideology and the pervasive inequities in the distribution of knowledge, power and social justice; the failure of the educational systems to equitably educate children across race, ethnic, class and gender lines; and the fact that multiculturalism offers a more realistic and egalitarian vision of social relations. In fact, Canadian multiculturalism seeks ways to unite the country based on mutual respect for the cultural agency of all its peoples. Therefore, what is disuniting Canada is exclusion and hate, not multiculturalism. The incisive analyses of both Chalmers' (1996) Celebrating Pluralism and Nieto's (1996) Affirming Diversity make very clear that monocultural education ill prepares students to function in a democratic/pluralistic society and in an employment market that is increasingly oriented toward cultural diversity. Supporters of multicultural education argue that "multicultural literacy" (the knowledge, attitudes and skills needed to function in a diverse world) is essential for students to operate effectively in the "global village" during this new century. Baldwin (1986) therefore argues that multiculturalism cannot be reduced to an exclusive "otherness" that references "minorities" as either a problem to be resolved, through benevolent assimilation, or as a threat to be policed and eliminated. 9 This study addresses multicultural education from a critical perspective with emphasis on "Africentricity."2 It engenders the understanding of African art and culture from an African-centred perspective. Africentricity means placing African ideals at the centre of our approach to problem solving and any analysis that involves African culture and behaviours (Asante, 1987). The underlying assumption in this study is that students of African descent are placed in a stronger position to learn if they are situated at the centre rather than at the margins of school curricula and pedagogy. In other words, children of African descent cannot truly know their potentialities if they continue to exist in a borrowed space; they must gain their own cultural spaces, in order to achieve the necessary transformation to participate fully in a multicultural society. Africentricity is grounded on the assumption that there are multiple centres of culture, knowledge and history and that no single group can claim a centre stage except in the context of incomplete description. The Africentric theory posits that all reality is in unity, and that each group or culture constitutes its own centre, but these "polycentres" coalesce to form a whole. A holistic education connects and builds on these multiple-centres of knowledge. Africentrists locate students within the context of their own cultural references so that they can relate socially and psychologically to school curricula and other cultural perspectives. A person educated in a truly centric fashion comes to view all groups' contributions as significant and useful for understanding our world. It must be stressed, however, that non-hegemonic discourses (such as African-centred, Asia-centred and critical pedagogies) do not necessarily represent a dichotomy between Eurocentric and alternative worldviews. African-centred ideas and tenets are not novelor distinct to African culture and the theoretical discourse. Africentric paradigm emphasizes interdependency and a holistic approach to studying phenomena. Africentricity represents a range of beliefs rather than a fixed ideology. By emphasizing its liberatory character and inclusive models, this study attempts to avoid the tendency of the concept becoming dogmatic and limiting. A knowledge of African art and cultural heritage is essential not only for raising the cultural awareness of Black students, but also for the promotion of cultural understanding and positive inter-group 2 Although the term "Afrocentricity" has been used by many Black scholars including Asante (1988), who is credited for developing the Afrocentric paradigm, I view the term "Africentricity" as a more explicit concept that does not repeat the "Afro" prefix which has generated quite a lot of discussion among Americans of African descent. 10 relations among students of diverse backgrounds. It is undeniable that culture is dynamic and that people must be open to new possibilities of dynamism, moving and flowing. Yet, it is also important that people move and flow from some base rather than float in the air (Asante, 1998). It is my conviction that the educational systems can respond effectively to the diversity within and among all social groups if there is a priori understanding of the impact of structural processes of education on various groups. Also, many art teachers may be in a better position to respond positively to multicultural education if they are exposed to alternative models, or have personal experiences in multicultural curricula and pedagogy. Teachers and students, who already have the understanding and experience of multicultural education, represent the vanguard of a new paradigm. They can bring colleagues and students into action with multicultural education, so that changes in beliefs, ideology and motivations can follow. Defining the Research Questions The journey to my dissertation research began through my volunteer experience as an African art instructor to some high schools and community groups in New Brunswick and British Columbia as well as through the expertise I have acquired in multicultural education research as a doctoral student. Despite efforts toward inclusive education, personal experience and current research reveal a disturbing trend of cultural exclusion and other discriminatory practices in multi-ethnic Canadian classrooms (Dei, 1996; Hamilton, 1997). While several reports have been produced on ethnic minorities, there remains a dearth of research on the education of African-Canadians in British Columbia leaving no research underpinnings for meaningful policy formulation. My dissertation aims at bridging these gaps, while promoting inter-group harmony among students of diverse cultural backgrounds and collaboration between family, community and school. In Vancouver, I have had a long-term voluntary experience with African-Canadian children at the Multicultural Family Centre (MFC) located in the heart of east Vancouver. The MFC is a community-based social service provider with a wide range of programs, support and services aimed at improving access to health care and social services for immigrant and refugee communities in Vancouver and its surrounding districts. The Centre's services to the African community include the African children's program which fosters positive cultural identity and increase self-confidence in academic and social 11 abilities among Black children and youths. After working with the children and youths for some time, I began to identify with their problems and concerns, particularly with regard to the conflicts of values that some of them experience between the home and school cultures. I also became concerned about the cultural discontinuity and marginalization of the children's cultural heritage in school. Following this, 1 expressed to the MFC staff and the members of my dissertation committee a desire to conduct a study about the African children's art and cultural activities at the MFC and their educational realities in the public school classroom. The parents, the MFC staff and members of my committee responded favourably to my proposal by providing insightful suggestions, which helped in the formulation of this research. I became committed to learning how to facilitate a collaborative research process with the school, the home and the Black/African-Canadian community. My research questions and objectives thus evolved through my encounter with the African-Canadian community at the MFC. Purpose of the Study My study develops and implements a community-based model of an African-centred multicultural art education as an alternative curriculum and pedagogy. It has two main purposes. Firstly, as a backdrop to the development of the curriculum, I identify and examine the cultural and educational barriers to Black/African-Canadian students' participation and attainment in education and their implications for multicultural education policy in Canada, with special reference to Vancouver. A major reason why multicultural education has been criticized as the production of passive consciousness of culture (Banks, 1992; Giroux, 1993; Solomon & Levine-Rasky, 1996) and subject to different interpretations is that the construct has not been adequately grounded in a causal analysis of school failure among subordinated group students (Nieto, 1996). Understanding the socio-political realities of Black/African-Canadian children's educational experience in multiethnic/multiracial Canada is therefore crucial for any effective educational policies sympathetic to their needs. Secondly, I investigate the effects of a collaborative "African-centred" multicultural art curriculum on: (1) Black students' attitudes and self-concepts as they unfold at the MFC and (2) inter-group relations among students of diverse backgrounds in a multi-ethnic elementary school art classroom in east 12 Vancouver, British Columbia. This multidisciplinary curriculum unit integrates hands-on art activities with knowledge of Africa's geography, Oral Tradition and history. This is accomplished through deliberations with my network of participants - an art teacher, African-Canadian parents from the MFC and two MFC Cross-cultural Facilitators serving as an advisory team. As part of the study, I document the process of doing community-based participatory research as it unfolds with the curriculum advisory team. Community-based participatory research suggests a way in which communities without socio-political power can use research to support their struggle for self-determination by gaining control of information that can influence decisions regarding their lives (Bopp & Bopp, 1985; Stull & Schensul, 1987). An African-centred approach to multicultural art curriculum is among many possible ways to illustrate multicentric education (Dei, 1996). A collaborative approach to a multicultural art curriculum with an infusion of Africentricity demonstrates a practical example of an inclusive education that transforms, rather than provides an appendage to, the curriculum. Primary issues include the conceptualization of multicultural education and Africentricity as relevant educational philosophies and pedagogies. Africentric methodology or Africology, particularly as described by Asante (1990), best serves this research. This methodology promises to deliver voices that have been previously shut out of normative educational research. Africology eclectically embraces liberationist tenets of critical ethnography and feminist research. It enables me to situate African art and culture at the centre rather than the periphery of multicultural education research. Research Objectives The objectives of the study are to: 1. Identify and examine the artistic, cultural and educational experience of Black/African-Canadian children in Greater Vancouver, Canada. 2. Evaluate the impact of an African-centred multicultural art program on Black/African-Canadian learners. 3. Identify ways by which the Black community can work with schools to broaden the curricula to embrace multicultural art education, with particular reference to Africentric art and culture. 13 4. Foster understanding of African art and culture and, thereby, promote healthy inter-group relations among students of diverse cultural and ethnic backgrounds. 5. Document the process of doing community-based participatory research, including its strengths and obstacles. Research Questions The following questions were addressed in the study: 1. In what ways do school curricula, textbooks and the general school organization influence Black/African-Canadian children's participation and attainment in art and education? 2. What content and teaching methodology is appropriate for an African-centred multicultural art curriculum? 3. How do Black/African-Canadian children react to the African Art and Cultural Education Project at the Multicultural Family Centre? 4. What is the impact of an African-centred multicultural art program on children at a multi-ethnic elementary school in Vancouver, British Columbia? 5. What is the process and nature of doing community-based participatory research as it unfolds with teachers, parents, African community members and MFC facilitators? Significance of the Study Multicultural education in the past has often been superficial and has presented culture as divorced from societal power relations; this has continued to reinforce ethno-cultural stereotypes. Advocates of multicultural and anti-racism education (Dei, 1996; Stuhr, Petrovich-Mwaniki & Wasson, 1992) demand that art educators look beyond the celebration of heroes and holidays and develop curriculum and readings to transform, rather than add on to, the curriculum. This research is significant in that it provides an example of how educators can integrate the art, literature, history, culture, language, resistance and philosophy of the peoples who have been left in the margins of the curriculum. I emphasize "polycentrism" as an inclusive ideology that connects African knowledge with other forms of knowledge to achieve cultural pluralism and effective multiculturalism. This is based on the assumption that there are multiple centres of culture and knowledge that are relevant to multicultural education. The curriculum model presented in this study allows Black/African-Canadians to respond to the cultural and artistic needs of their children that are being neglected in the formal school system. It looks beyond current curriculum practices with their top-down approach, to suggest an exciting and innovative grassroots model of partnership among the community, family and school in the delivery of multicultural education. Research on education systems that marginalize subordinate groups demonstrates that changes rarely come from within, without the support of external forces (BLAC, 1994). This explains the critical importance of a bottom-up approach to dealing with issues affecting the needs of the Black/African-Canadian community. The active and direct involvement of those most concerned with the education of Black learners (i.e., parents, the community, teachers and Black/African-Canadiah students) is a key to successful implementation of any program directed to their needs. Top-down policy that dictates classroom action is perceived as a challenge to teachers' personal sensibilities and an affront to their professional autonomy (Solomon & Levine-Rasky, 1994; Troyna, 1993). The research provides an opportunity for understanding: (1) how parents, the community and the school can collectively mediate against the conflicts of values or cultural maladjustment experienced by some Black/African-Canadian children as they strive to situate their identities within home and school cultures; (2) how identity-based knowledge is constructed, disseminated and how it affects Black students, as well as the cross-cultural learning of non-African students; and (3) the effectiveness of collaboration as a pragmatic approach to multicultural education and research. Collaboration in multicultural education enables parents and other stakeholders to have some input regarding what their children/students learn. By having a choice, parents become more committed to the school than they would be had the school and curriculum been assigned. This study fosters cultural understanding among students of diverse ethnic backgrounds, thereby promoting healthy inter-group relations. These insights present serious implications not only for art education but also for multicultural education as a whole. This research is a wake-up call for schools and educators to re-examine current approaches to multicultural education and to be receptive to alternative non-hegemonic approaches, both 15 within and beyond academia, that may contribute to a more comprehensive and equitable education. As this study extends the debate over the centrality or marginality of ethnicity in the production and dissemination of knowledge, my findings will enable a re-examination of assumptions in provincial and district multicultural education policies. Therefore, it is hoped that the study will be useful to relevant branches of the ministries responsible for Multiculturalism and Education and Training (e.g., multicultural and immigrant service organizations, curriculum and policy development, community and education outreach and anti-racism) and school boards in British Columbia. Definition of Terms Black: In this study, "Black" refers to dark-skinned and mulatto people of African descent. Obviously some African immigrants (e.g., White South Africans, Indo-Ugandan, Indo-Tanzanians; and North African Arabs) do not fall into this category; also, African-Canadians are not always immigrants in the very modern use of the term since some have long historical roots in Canada. Because of the disparaging connotation often associated with the term "Black," some authors try to avoid its use and use terms such as Afro-Canadians or African-Canadians. Ethnic identity politics in places such as United States and Canada has resulted in many scholars with ancestry in Africa preferring to be called African-Americans and African-Canadians respectively instead of "Blacks." Historically in the United States, people of African descent have been referred to, over the years, as Negroes, Afro-Americans, Blacks and African-Americans. While "Black" may be, admittedly, distasteful in some of its English and other language usage, we cannot shy away from it, for as far as Black/Africans are concerned; skin colour overrides most attributes of their human individuality in Canadian society. Culture: Culture can be understood as the ever-changing values, traditions, social and political relationships and worldview created and shared by a group of people bound together by a combination of factors that can include a common history, geographic location, language, social class and/or religion and how these are transformed by those who share them. Thus, it includes not only tangibles such as food, holidays, dress and artistic expression, but also less tangible manifestations such as communication style, attitudes, values and family relationships. Diaspora: The concept of "diaspora" (from the Greek diaspeirein, to scatter) has traditionally been applied to the dispersion of the Jews after the conquests of Palestine and is roughly linked with exile or bondage of people originally belonging to one nation or having a common culture. Accordingly, it 16 is often remarked that the forces, which have mostly driven Black-Africans abroad (i.e., slavery, Western colonialism, cultural imperialism and capitalism) are not unlike those that scattered the Jews. The concept of the African (Black) diaspora is a metaphor that can serve as a useful guiding thread for substantive analysis of dispersed Africans outside the continent in Europe, the Americas and the rest of the world. African diaspora in Euro-Western societies cannot be fully understood apart from political, historical and structural legacies of slavery and imperialism. It must be noted however, that many Africans were dispersed globally by choice, through adventure, for economic reasons and to seek knowledge long before European contact with the New World and their inauguration of the trade in human cargo. Ethnicity/Ethnic Origin: For the purpose of this study, "Ethnicity" refers to socially selected cultural (rather than biological or physical) attributes which people employ to describe themselves and which others, in turn, use to describe them. Eurocentrism: It is an ideology or body of myths, symbols, ideas and practices that exclusively or predominantly values the worldview, existence and cultural manifestations (e.g., history, politics, art, language, music, literature, technology, economics, etc.) of people of European origin and that devalues and subordinates the cultural manifestations of people from all other lands of origin. Hegemony: A process of domination whereby the ruling class is said to exercise political control through its intellectual and moral leadership over allied classes (Bocock, 1986). Lower Mainland: This includes the cities/municipalities of Vancouver, Burnaby, Richmond, New Westminster, North Vancouver City and District, West Vancouver, Maple Ridge, Pitt Meadows, Langley City and District, Surrey, White Rock, Delta, Coquitlam, Port Coquilam and Port Moody. For variety, the term Greater Vancouver is used interchangeably with the Lower Mainland in this study. Multiculturalism: The term first came into vogue in Canada during the 1960s to counter "biculturalism," a term popularized by the Royal Commission on Bilingualism and Biculturalism. It has, to a considerable extent, replaced the term cultural "pluralism," although that term is still favoured in Quebec. Multiculturalism is used in at least three senses: to refer to a society that is characterized by ethnic or cultural heterogeneity; to refer to an ideal of equality and mutual respect among a population's ethnic or cultural groups; and to refer to government policy proclaimed by the Canadian government in 1971 and subsequently by a number of provinces. 17 Prejudice and Discrimination: Ethnic and racial prejudice usually refers to an unsubstantiated negative prejudgement of individuals or groups because of their ethnicity, race, or religion. Discrimination is the exclusion of individuals or groups from full participation in society because of their ethnicity, race or religion. Prejudice (an attitude) and discrimination (behaviour) are usually linked, but are distinct phenomena. In a vicious cycle, prejudice frequently leads to discriminatory behaviour while discrimination reinforces or creates social and economic inequalities that then reinforce prejudices. Race: There are some disagreements among scholars over the meaning and existence of race. In this study "race" refers to the distinction of human population based on "socially perceived" physical traits (e.g., phenotype, skin colour, hair texture). These attributes are not intrinsically meaningful in view of overwhelming evidence in support of one human race from the standpoint of biology. But over time, people have given these attributes qualities that have become entrenched. Race is here seen as a social construct, arguably a social myth. Racism: The disagreement among scholars over the meaning of "race" does not extend to its derivative, racism. It refers to the doctrine that some races are innately superior or inferior to others. Because racism indiscriminately includes groupings such as religious sects, linguistic groups and cultural groups under its concept of "race," it can be regarded as a virulent form of ethnocentrism (the belief that one's own ethnic group is superior to others). Racism is based on the assumption that organic, genetically transmitted differences between human groups are intrinsically related to the presence or absence of certain social, psychological or cultural traits of that group. It is also predicted on the false assumption that human beings are naturally and permanently comprised of separate, pure races (e.g., Mongoloid, Caucasoid) and that the physical, mental and cultural qualities of each group are determined by its supposed genetic constitution. Individual racism is a belief by one individual about another person's "racial" inferiority. Institutional racism exists when the political, economic and social institutions of a society operate to the detriment of a specific individual or group in a society because of their alleged genetic makeup. Cultural racism is the expression of the superiority of a socially defined race's culture over that of another race. Visible Minority: Following the Canada Employment Equity Act, visible minorities are "persons, other than Aboriginal people, who are non-Caucasian in race or non-White in colour." Specifically, the Act identifies the following groups as visible minorities: Blacks, Chinese, South Asians, Arabs and West Asians, Filipinos, Southeast Asians, Latin Americans, Japanese, Koreans and Pacific Islanders. 18 Personal Reflexivity Personal reflexivity involves providing details about the researcher's personal investment in the study and in making explicit the assumptions that guide the research. Patti Lather (1991) argues that personal reflexivity is crucial when doing openly value-based inquiry. This study is openly ideological because it deals with the debate over the centrality or marginality of race, ethnicity and culture in the production and dissemination of knowledge. 1 entered this research fully aware that my personal location and investment has a significant bearing on the research process, including how data is gathered and treated. According to Hunt (1992), researchers' intentions, perceptions and actions must be included in the research process because they are the "most powerful and sensitive means for recording and interpreting our research" (p. 116). For a multicultural education research, the issues of race, ethnicity, class, gender, culture, sexuality and other social peculiarities present a specific window for understanding and interpreting data. This is so because knowledge can be understood in relation to one's subject location, politics, desires and interests. 1 am not a disinterested party in relation to calls for multicultural art education and inclusive school curriculum in Canada. My African cultural ancestry, historical background and lived experiences have informed and influenced my position on multicultural education in Euro-Canadian American contexts. My social and political positions are relevant to this study because I have a stake in the success of Black/African-Canadian students. I could not pretend to be a fly on the wall or subscribe to a naturalistic discourse of distance, neutrality and detached involvement in order to deal with my subjectivity. As a critical ethnographer, I believe the passive observer rule could be another means of colluding with unequal power relations in society. As a parent of three children and guardian of an African-Canadian youth, I share a common experience and concern of many African-Canadian parents over the challenges of bringing up Black youths in Vancouver, Canada. Having survived a gang attack on my family, coupled with my numerous encounters with school authorities, the police and the courts of law, 1 cannot pretend to be oblivious to the issues. I acknowledge that my structural relations with participants, both as an "insider" and "outsider" influenced the kinds of questions I asked and the responses I received, the things I observed and created blind spots for other ways of being seen. My cross-cultural experience 19 resonates familiar issues of cultural alienation in the colonial and post-colonial education I have received in Ghana, my birthplace, as well as in Euro-Western education in Canada. As I walk through my experiences as a student, a professional teacher, a graduate student and now on the verge of becoming a professional art educator, I have learned that the educational system is mediated by power structures in society. As a result, schooling neither provides young Black/African-Canadians with confidence and pride in their cultural heritage nor encourages their full participation in the education process. My frustrations are not so much about what the post-colonial or Eurocentric curriculum have taught me, but with what was not taught. For instance, I have wondered recently why studying English Shakespearean literature was valued over African oral traditional poetry; why learning about the history of the British empire was more relevant than learning about the history of the empires of Western Sudan or the Ashanti empire in Ghana; why learning about the European art masters was more important than being taught about traditional African craftspeople and their artefacts; and why the Western canons about art and design were privileged over the African aesthetics of relative proportion. I also have to struggle with the fact that, in discussing issues of multicultural art education and representation of the "other," I have to employ the language of those who hold positions of power in society. The stripping away of my native language and culture with the substitution of English assimilation was done, obviously, for what were perceived to be good reasons -improvement of educational achievement and economic and social mobility. Nevertheless, I have come to know that loosing one's culture and language is an unnecessarily high price to pay for academic success and social acceptance. Evidence demonstrates that language differences per se are not necessarily barriers to learning. In fact, Nieto (1996) argues that the language and culture that children bring to school are assets that must be used in their education. Rather, the way in which teachers, schools and educational systems perceive native language may be even more crucial to a student's level of achievement. Today, my immersion into academia may provide me some advantage as well as responsibilities. However, the contradiction that comes with this position is obvious. As a Black African and a minority member of Canadian society, my race and ethnicity intersects with my academic position to limit my access to the full benefits that come with my educational attainment. I share with many "others" the common historical experience of the subjugation of our existence through the devaluing and de-privileging 20 of our histories and ancestral knowledge within Euro-Canadian/American education systems. I further acknowledge that my social immersion into Eurocentrism, while culturally dis-empowering, paradoxically, becomes a source of my educational and political empowerment. For instance, my heightened awareness of power inequities within schools has come about because of my participation in the academy. In the course of my graduate studies, I was attracted to courses such as Historical and Social Foundations of Art Education, Multiculturalism, Anti-racism and Education, Seminar on Women and Education, History of Race Relations and Multiculturalism in Canada and Curriculum Issues in Contemporary Art Education. These courses stimulated my intellectual interest in multicultural education and anti-racism education. They enabled me to begin to look at my world differently and be critical of art education theory and practice, as well as the entire art establishment for its exclusionary practices. It was through my graduate courses that post-modern theories, critical theory, feminist theory, anti-racism theory, Africentric theory and many other theoretical paradigms became meaningful to me. I began to appreciate the need to appropriate my experience of "difference" and "otherness" as a legitimate political ideology and to acknowledge the important connections between African ways of knowing and other forms of knowledge that are grounded in historical material experiences. Consequently, I became actively involved locally in multicultural art education and in raising people's consciousness about African art and culture as well as multicultural education issues. My position of "otherness" ironically, became my source of empowerment. As important as these factors were, they do not tell the whole story. While pursuing my graduate studies at University of British Columbia, I had the good fortune of having some progressive and open-minded professors in art education who were interested in minority issues and multicultural education. The issues I was concerned about they had been writing about years earlier; therefore, the congruence between their ideas and my interest was very close. My encounter with some members of the education faculty who were interested in minority education no doubt encouraged me to venture into this tension-ridden terrain. My vision in this study was to unveil the ways in which students, particularly Black/African-Canadians, are victims of the education system, rather than to act as a catalyst for the improved efficiency of schools in their continuous victimization of ethnic minorities. This study, therefore, is not a disinterested piece of work; it grows out of my passion for inclusive education and my desire to ensure that Black/African-21 Canadians, like other cultural groups in Canada, are fairly treated and represented in knowledge production and dissemination. I am conscious of limitations in Africentric and critical ethnographic interpretations. At one point they are liberatory because they open doors to what has been previously hidden and undermine existing conventions of representations; yet they can also be restrictive in the sense that they can appropriate the data to the researcher's interests, so that other significant elements may be silenced. Although what is documented is my interpretation of what I heard and witnessed from participants, the strength of the study lies in the careful accumulation and re-presentation of evidence and in attention to reciprocity - the negotiation of meaning with participants in the study. Throughout the study, I have made the effort to make reflexivity a fundamental theme. The pointed effort to reveal my own value perspectives and subjectivity situates my study within a critical ethnographic research tradition. However, I am conscious that this openness could make this study susceptible to criticisms. CHAPTER TWO 22 REVIEW OF LITERATURE The Socio-historical Context of Black/African-Canadian Children's Education This chapter presents an overview of literature related to Black/African-Canadian artistic and educational experience. It includes an overview of theoretical work that attempts to identify, analyze and explain the barriers to Black children's participation and achievement in art and in education. The chapter looks at some definitions and approaches to multicultural education and how it is conceptualized in art education. Part of the literature focuses on the American experience because more people are writing about education and the issues of race, ethnicity, class and gender, which have longer history of attention in the United States. It is also because multicultural education indicates similar patterns, themes and approaches in both Canada and the United States. The chapter also situates the study in an Africentric paradigm, drawing attention to African art and aesthetics as valid sources for multicultural art education. Historical Overview of Black Experience in Canada This section discusses the educational experiences of Black/African-Canadians, past and present and their struggle for educational equity. I analyze some of the causes of educational underachievement, among Black/African students, which call for curriculum reform as a means of addressing racial and ethno-cultural inequities. Many Black educational activists in Canada maintain that Blacks cannot know where they are heading until they know where they have been (i.e., their historical roots in Africa and in Canada) (Alexander & Glaze, 1996). A historical perspective is an essential component in the analysis of any social situation and this is especially pertinent in the light of Black/African-Canadian experience in Canada. Blacks, like the Chinese, Jews, Ukrainians, Japanese, Italians and Germans, have had a long history in Canada and North America. The earliest records show that Africans visited and inhabited North and South America long before European settlers "discovered" the "New World" (Van Sertima, 1976). Slavery became a familiar fact in early Canada just as it was in the United States. Although some Blacks 23 arrived as early as the 1600s as slaves, the majority came to Canada voluntarily as free Negroes, preferring the uncertainties of pioneer life, to slavery in the United States or the West Indies. Most Black pioneer settlers in the 18th and 19th centuries settled in Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Ontario, the prairies and British Columbia. The Black presence became more visible following the abolition of racial quotas in immigration in the 1960s that led to an influx of non-White immigrants from developing countries (Whitaker, 1991). In addition, the 1976 Immigration Act, which initiated the establishment of an inland refugee determination system, in line with the UN Convention for Refugees, also led to a substantial increase in the proportion of immigrants and refugees from Africa, Asia, Latin America and the Caribbean. Notwithstanding the long history and growing presence of Blacks, Asians, First Nations Peoples and other visible minorities, Canada's education has continued to be dominated by Eurocentric curriculum, reflecting the cultural hegemony of the British and French as "founding nations." Representation in art and art history has also been Eurocentric and discriminatory against African art and other non-Western art forms. While Euro-Western art is placed into the category of high art or fine art, African art forms are classified as crafts or under folk art traditions giving the impression that the latter is inferior to the former. During the 18th and 19th centuries, Blacks were lured into Canada through promises (from Britain) of freedom, justice, formal education and equality with their White counterparts. But they soon came up against racial attitudes similar to those found in the United States and from which they were fleeing. In fact, these rights had to be dearly won. Prior to the 1960s, official policies, written and unwritten, served to ensure that Black children would not integrate with Whites. Thus, racial discrimination and stereotypes of past generations were reinforced (Boyko, 1997; Whitaker, 1991). The legacy of race science and its colour scale theories which held great sway between the mid-nineteenth and twentieth centuries, continued to define social and educational policy as well as the relationship between White and non-Whites in Canada. Due to racial hostilities, many of the pioneer Black settlers and their descendants returned to the United States following the American Civil War and the Reconstruction. Ironically, however, Canadian classrooms are devoid of the story of the inhuman treatment of Africans and other visible minorities, of how their dignity was stolen and their culture destroyed and of how Africans resisted such treatment even if it meant sacrificing their lives. As a result, many Black children do not 24 know their people's story and neither do White children know the African Holocaust. Teaching about such a monstrous human brutality should forever remind the world of the ways in which humans have often violated each other. Asante (1991) stresses that, without an understanding of the historical experiences of Black/Africans, schools cannot make any real headway in addressing their problems of the present. Despite their consistent efforts to break into the vicious cycle of discrimination through improved education, the Black leadership in Canada, unlike their counterpart in the United States, never attained a consensus over the issue of school segregation and vocational training that often reinforced separation. Generally, they embraced the missionary curriculum with its hidden agenda and the notion that separate schooling could engender equal education. This situation persisted until the 1950s and long after Blacks in the United States, particularly in the North, had rejected the separate but equal formula in schooling. The Black newspapers in eastern and central Canada performed a useful role toward educating the Canadian Black community and toward the Black liberation struggle, particularly in the decades preceding and following the American Civil War of 1861, but they made a minimal impact in addressing the problems of educational inequities (Winks, 1997). This is particularly true of the Voice of the Fugitive, established in 1851 by Henry Bibb, and the Provincial Freedman, established in 1853 by Samuel Ringgold Ward and later edited by Mary Ann Shadd, the first woman editor of a Canadian newspaper (Walker & Thovaldson, 1979). The Black newspapers encountered numerous problems. Among them were intense competition from English newspapers and from Black newspapers in the United States, the lack of business support and patronage and the issue of parochialism and small readership. But, perhaps what made the Black editors less visible during that period was their non-militant mainstream position on issues. By remaining politically conservative, they missed the opportunity to challenge Canadians to tackle, head-on, sensitive and unsettling issues that were crucial to the survival of the Black community. Canada, has for a long time, pursued a policy of cultural assimilation of its ethnic minority populations, yet at the same time, it has been less willing to structurally integrate these groups into the socio-economic and political sectors of the society. Denied full participation, the contribution of Blacks and other minorities to nation building has been severely stifled. For the country to benefit fully from its large population of immigrants, it will be necessary to chart a new course by endorsing relevant plans, 25 policies, programs and interventions that will enhance immigrants' educational success and contribution to the Canadian social, economic, cultural and political life. The Black Pioneers of British Columbia The story of the Black pioneers of British Columbia stands apart from the larger Black Canadian history. Blacks had played a key role in the formative years of cities and towns in this province, particularly Victoria, Barkerville, Kamloops, Saltspring Island, Peace River Country and the Queen Charlotte Islands. But, unfortunately, they have been unrecognized. Historians have either distorted their history or presented them as minor curiosities of the province's early days. The omission of Blacks' contribution from Canadian history reinforces a common myth that Black presence in Canada is a recent phenomenon. Recognition of the early Black presence and contribution in the province shatters this myth. By 1857, California was a "free" state, yet Blacks were subjected to increasing persecution and abuse of their civil rights, prompting the movement of more than 700 Blacks to Victoria (in the company of White Americans) to seek freedom and economic prospects during the gold rush of 1858 (Walker, 1985). Many of the Black pioneers were well educated. They had acquired various skills and professions in the United States and had brought with them adequate money and property to invest in British Columbia. The Black pioneers were tough, resourceful, aggressive, ambitious and integrated into mainstream society comprising British, Americans, French, Italians, Germans, Jews, Chinese and Indians (Kilian, 1978). Unlike their counterparts in central Canada and the Maritimes (the fugitives and the Loyalists, some of whom arrived as slaves) who encountered hostilities right from the onset, the Black pioneers received some level of acceptance from Victoria's White population. The British and the first Governor of British Columbia, James Douglas, who himself had Black ancestry, were particularly welcoming. Many Blacks settled in other parts of Vancouver Island and established themselves as gold prospectors, merchants, restaurant operators, manual labourers, farmers, barbers, dentists, homesteaders, teachers, policemen, lawyers and journalists (Kilian, 1978). Indeed, their achievements defied the logic of racial essentialism and White stereotypes of the time that characterized Blacks as unambitious, poorly educated, dependent and unqualified to associate as equals in the institutions of white society. 26 In Victoria, Mifflin Wister Gibbs stood out as the representative of the Black community. Twice, in 1866 and 1868, he was elected to serve on the Victoria City Council. He eventually became the council's financial controller. At the time when White American residents of British Columbia threatened a demand for annexation to the United States, the Black community formed the first militia unit - African Rifles - in 1860 to defend the colony against American encroachment. They also formed a fire brigade to begin fire-fighting service. In 1867, Mifflin Gibbs was a delegate for the Yale Convention where terms for British Columbia's entry into the Canadian Confederacy were defined. In 1885, a Barbadian Black named Seraphim Fortes arrived in Vancouver and established himself as a lifeguard on English Bay Beach, near Stanley Park. He is credited with more than a hundred daring rescues of swimmers. At his death, a fountain monument was built in his honour. The irony is that, like the Asians, Jews and Indians, Black pioneers were not fully accepted into white society. Despite the promise of legal equality, discrimination and segregation found expression in the churches, schools, theatres, saloons, restaurants and other public facilities. Whites, especially Americans, often employed physical intimidation and violence to enforce these divisions. At Saltspring for instance, Blacks were compelled to open a separate school for Black children. While certain individual Blacks achieved acceptance, there was a widespread feeling among Whites that Blacks must not mingle with the general society. White prejudice against Blacks was grounded in the legacy of slavery, imperialism, race "science," and Eurocentrism, which gave credence to the notion of white supremacy. By the 1870s, when the gold rush was over, the American Civil War had ended and slavery had been abolished, many Blacks found the United States to be economically more attractive than Vancouver Island and left for the United States. Walker (1985) noted that by the turn of the century, Blacks were so thinly scattered across the province that they rarely came to public notice. The anxieties of the white community were now firmly focused on the Asians - Chinese, Japanese and East Indians whose numbers, energy and "foreignness" alarmed the white society. Nevertheless, Blacks continued to encounter profound institutional discrimination in the areas of housing, employment and education, even with their small population, but rarely was the discrimination publicized. From the 1920s, when the Ku Klux Klan (KKK) established itself in British Columbia, there were • 27 scattered incidents of discrimination and violence against Blacks in the workplace and in housing. Kilian (1978) noted that the KKK fell back on anti-Oriental agitation due to the lack of adequate Black targets. The Black pioneers had played a key role in the early years of the colonies that became British Columbia and yet the province had forgotten them. As Kilian rightly noted, "Fools, knaves and madmemhave given their names to British Columbia's streets and towns; the only monument to the Blacks is a drinking fountain dedicated to Joe Fortes, the lifeguard of English Bay Beach" (p. 12). Until the 1960s, Black settlers in Canada continued to face widespread racial discrimination, segregation and hostilities, particularly in Nova Scotia. African Blacks and other visible minorities were restricted access to Canada through a host of exclusionary immigration regulations. It was only in 1962 that Canada replaced its race-based immigration policy with one that placed emphasis on educational and professional background of immigrants. Nevertheless, it was only after 1970 that Black Africans gained access to Canada in considerable numbers (see Table 1.1). The Struggle for Educational Equity The education which was available to early Black communities through missionary groups was both culturally irrelevant and less vigorous than that provided by the common school of the day. The missionary curriculum was aimed primarily at maintaining a servile and content population (Winks, 1997). The "African Schools" in Nova Scotia, or the "segregated coloured schools" in the Maritimes, Ontario and ,in the prairies, lacked adequate facilities, teachers and relevant curriculum. Although a few of the coloured schools in Ontario followed the public school curriculum, a majority lacked relevant curriculum. This situation was not peculiar to the Black community. It also applied to the First Nations Peoples, Asians and to a lesser extent, "working class European children," as well as East Europeans who were the economic underclass and less desirable immigrants respectively at the time (Owen, 1995). Black children were deliberately restricted to basic reading, writing, sewing and catechism (Pratt, 1972; Winks, 1997). Geography, algebra and grammar, for instance, "were considered unnecessary accomplishments in children who would subsequently be required to perform the meanest tasks" (Pachai, 1987, p. 52). Racism and racial stereotyping in Canadian education systems encouraged low teacher expectations and placement 28 of Black students in dead-end programs, or courses, which severely restricted their life opportunities. The separate school policy that was unofficially practised in many communities was an infringement upon the rights of Black parents and their children. This is because despite fulfilling their tax obligations, many Blacks and other ethnic minorities could neither attend the public schools, nor continue with high school education and post secondary opportunities which were based on the grading systems of the public schools. It is clear that the educational goals for Black children were being set by white society, which intended Blacks to remain ignorant and servile. Black parents persisted in their demand for educational and social equity even as they remained divided over the issue of school segregation and integration. In Ontario, the establishment of the Buxton Mission School in 1850, stood as an exception and benchmark for what Canadian Blacks could achieve. With adequate funding, qualified teachers and support from the Presbyterian mission, the school operated successfully well into the 1900s. It opened its doors to Canadians of diverse ethnic backgrounds, offered multi-centred curriculum and produced many successful Black teachers and professionals (Alexander &Glaze, 1996; Winks, 1997). Like other school subjects, art education in Canada is centred on the Western canon and notions of art. Many art critics and anthropologists, in the past, ignored the artistic accomplishments of Blacks/Africans and erroneously referred to them as "ugly," "primitive" and "childlike," and invalidated its worth as a school subject3. This prejudice continues to be reinforced in representations in art education, art museums and galleries in many Western societies today. A number of English and German art critics, (i.e., Owen Jones, Charles Hercules Read, Ormonde Dalton and Felix von Luschan), however, have consistently challenged such positions and praised the aesthetic excellence of African art forms (e.g., Benin art and Asante ornamental designs) and judged their quality as comparable to the best works of other civilizations (in Barkan, 1997; Eisenhofer, 1997) (see Figures: 2.1, 2.2, 2.3, & 2.4 for sample pictures). Owen Jones, for instance, admired African artists' affinity with nature and hoped that modern art "would return to a more healthy condition ... we must get rid of the acquired and artificial and return to 3 See F. Graeme Chalmers, 1992, and Ira Jacknis, 1976, for a detailed description of Victorian views of African art and the art of the so-called primitive people. 29 and develop natural instincts" (in Jacknis, 1976, p. 106). Art educators and historians (Gardner, 1959; Janson, 1971; Schuman, 1981) have systematically ignored and distorted the long historical traditions of African art and culture and suggested, for instance, that the civilizations of the Nile Valley, Ancient Egypt and Nubia cannot be attributed to Black Africa in spite of abundant historical evidence and similarity of culture. Where African art and culture have been included in mainstream art programs, it is often presented as a token or a heap of anthropological curiosities and exotic ritual celebrations. Across Canada, some Black parents have resisted such portrayal of African culture and demanded structural changes to address concerns about discrimination and prejudice in the schools. Some parents have worked for policy and curriculum changes at the school board level and have been instrumental in the establishment of race relation's policies in Ontario, Nova Scotia and New Brunswick (BEWG, 1993; BLAC, 1994; BUF, 1971; CABE, 1992). Over the period from 1984 to 1994, there has been a plethora of commissions, reports and theoretical pronouncements aimed at breaking down barriers and providing a more inclusive education to emerging and insistent multicultural audiences. In Ontario, the document, For the Love of Learning: A Report of the Royal Commission on Learning, 1994, reflects many of the Black/African community's recommendations vis-a-vis their educational needs (BEWG, 1993; CABE, 1992). The British Columbia's educational reform initiative, Year 2000: A Framework for Learning (BC Ministry of Education, 1992) stresses the need to understand cultural heritage and develop tolerance and respect for the ideas and beliefs of ethnic cultures. Similarly, in A Legacy for Learners: A Report of the Royal Commission on Education, Sullivan (1994) recognized that British Columbia needed multicultural education not only to ensure educational equity and foster healthy inter-group attitudes, but also to "preserve diverse cultural heritages through language instruction and through other studies in history, geography, art, music, or drama to remind us of who we are today and from what culture we once came" (p. 28). These reports inject a new legitimacy for multicultural education in the province. The Black Learners Advisory Committee's (BLAC) report of 1994 is perhaps the most significant event in Nova Scotia's attempts to redress its longstanding educational inequity. This report, like the others, sets the stage for a new educational accountability, Bronze Plaque of Oba (King) of Benin, Nigeria (1600 C.E.) (A Member of the 1897 British Punitive Expedition Note: From World History: Perspectives on the Past (p. 325) by L. S. Krieger, K. Neill and E. Reynolds, 1997, Evanston, Illinois: McDougal Littell. 31 Figure 2.2 Two Bronze Heads from the Yoruba Kingdom of Ife, Nigeria (1100 -1600 C.E.) Note: From World History: Perspectives on the Past (p. 325) by L. S. Krieger, K. Neill and E. 1997, Evanston, Illinois: McDougal Littell. Reynolds, Ivory Saltcellar from Edo of Benin, Nigeria (in the British Museum) Note. From Studies of Benin Art and Material Culture. 1897 -1997. by J. Nevadomsky, 1997, African Arts 30(3). p. 21. 33 Figure 2.4 Necklace of 108 Pieces of Gold from Ashanti People, Ghana (in the British Museum) Note. From World History: Perspectives on the Past (p. 321) by L. S. Krieger, K. Neill and E. Reynolds, 1997, Evanston, Illinois: McDougal Littell. 34 which, if carefully implemented, could serve as a blueprint for positive changes for Black students across Canada. While in theory, many of the provincial documents aim to meet the challenge of inclusiveness in school, the difficult task of converting policy statements into concrete action remains. The calls for inclusive curriculum and alternative pedagogies and the demand for educators to incorporate African-centred ways of knowing should not be viewed merely as a move to replace one hegemonic form of knowledge with another, but rather as one of many possible ways of addressing inequalities inherent in Euro-Canadian/American schools. With Africentricity, Dei (1996) explains, emphasis [is placed] on the value of group unity, mutuality, collective responsibility, community and social bonding. These values can help move education away from an emphasis on individual competitiveness and a privileging of rights of individuals without any matching social responsibilities, (p. 75) These cultural values can be taught using African art, which is a reflection of African culture. The yearning to become familiar with African art and non-Western ways of knowing, stands in conflict with those whose privileges are entrenched in Eurocentrism and Canadianism. This explains why reluctance to implement multicultural education has originated from the very institutions, schools and educators that are charged with its implementation. A nationwide survey by Solomon and Levine-Rasky (1994) shows that Canadian teachers' support for multicultural education varies according to how the innovation is conceptualized. When teachers conceptualize multicultural education as the encouragement of respect for ethnic cultures, support was very high. On the other hand, when multicultural education was perceived as the curriculum mainstreaming of diverse cultural norms, values and traditions, support fell by over 20%. Emerging from these conceptualizations are: the continuous marginalization of multicultural education in the mainstream curricula; the superficiality in its treatment; the failure to engage in more profound meanings of culture; and the preoccupation with inter-group harmony within school and community. The extent to which these pedagogical approaches can ensure equitable learning environments for all students has been the source of much antagonism between multicultural and anti-racist educators. Lack of adequate support and provisions (resource materials and means) to implement and sustain multicultural education initiatives has contributed to restricting the development and articulation of its pedagogy. In multicultural Canada, where all teenage students have the opportunity to attend high school, one would expect that 35 Black students would take advantage of their rights to pursue upward mobility through education. And yet, as noted by Patrick Solomon (1992), we have a paradoxical situation of high educational aspiration and low school performance. Generally, schools are left to determine students' needs, and cultural bias often influences curriculum content, tracking, teaching methods, hiring, parent/school relations, assessment and language policies. The historical "streaming" of black students and other ethnic minorities into vocational programs is a self-fulfilling prophecy on the part of schools, many of which view the presence of Blacks and students of various ethnic minority backgrounds as a Canadian dilemma. While higher educational attainments do not always translate to better employment opportunities for Blacks and other visible minorities in Canada, these groups continue to hold on to the conviction that education is a key ingredient for their successful integration into the Canadian society (Burrell & Christensen, 1987; Hou & Balakrishnan, 1996). Indigenous Black Canadians and Caribbean-Canadians have long histories in the provinces of Nova Scotia, Quebec, Ontario and in the prairies. These groups have also been widely studied over the years (BLAC, 1994; Calliste, 1994a, 1994c; Codjoe, 1995; Pachai, 1987; Pratt, 1972; Walker & Tholvaldson, 1979; Winks, 1997). No group of Canadian Blacks has been more closely and frequently studied than those in Nova Scotia. Yet, as noted by Winks, "for all of this remarkable industry, for all of the data gathered, the informants interviewed, the cards fdled, the computers programmed, little of moment emerged" (p. 384). Black populations of continental African origins are the least studied among Black groups in Canada and particularly in British Columbia. While several reports have been produced on such visible minority groups as East Indians and Chinese, there remains a dearth of research on Blacks and African immigrants in the Lower Mainland (Province of British Columbia, 1992). As shown in Table 2.1, the 1996 Census indicated that Blacks formed only 2.9% of the visible minority population in the Greater Vancouver Regional District (GVRD) of British Columbia compared with the Chinese and Filipinos with the percentage of 49.4% and 7.2% respectively. Given the relative smallness of Black/African community in the Lower Mainland, one could be tempted to explain away this lack of attention. However, the dearth of research on Black/African immigrants is a serious neglect of a group that, arguably, faces higher levels Table 2.1 Visible Minority Population in the Vancouver CMA, 1996 Visible Minority Group Population Percentage Chinese 279,040 49.4 South Asian 120,140 21.3 Filipino 40,710 7.2 Japanese 21,880 3.9 Southeast Asian 20,370 3.6 Arab/West Asian 18,155 3.2 Korean 17,080 3.0 Black 16,400 2.9 Latin American 13,830 2.4 Visible Minority* 6,775 1.2 Multiple Visible Minority** 10,210 1.8 TOTAL 564,590 100 * This includes Pacific Islanders and other visible minority groups not included elsewhere. **This includes those who reported more than one visible minority group. Source: Statistics Canada (1996 Census). The Daily, February 17, 1998, p. 7. 37 of racial stereotype and discrimination than other visible minorities owing to their higher visibility and the legacy of slavery. Furthermore, several issues concerning the education of Black/African-Canadians in the Lower Mainland lack the necessary research finding for any meaningful policy formulation. My focus in this dissertation is on Black Canadian children from Continental African origin who are emerging as a visible minority group in Greater Vancouver and whose education, like their Black counterparts elsewhere, presents a Canadian dilemma (Brathwaite, 1989). Ogbu (1986) classifies this group of Blacks as voluntary immigrants and yet unlike other voluntary immigrants, they encounter major barriers to their intellectual and social advancement in Canada. Identity Politics and Black Educational Experience Racial stereotypes and the White image of a Black's place in society have tended to subject all Blacks in Canada, irrespective of their differences, to common experiences that have tended to shape their identities, educational experiences and activities in Canada. Walker and Thorvaldson (1979) argue that: Because they [Black Canadians with parental origins from countries of Africa] share their colour, image and many of their experiences not only with each other but with the descendants of Canada's earlier black settlers, the new black immigrants must be considered not just as "new Canadians" ... but as "new black Canadians." (p. 39) Racial essentialism is problematic because it distorts and ignores the complex and diverse intellectual reflections, histories, cultural practices, artistic creations, social classes and other experiences that describe the social reality of Black people. While it is true that the lives of indigenous Black/African-Canadian students, those from continental Africa and the Caribbean, are intertwined by race and diaspora experiences, there are certain issues around which they converge and diverge. Eurocentrism has been insidious in essentializing Blacks and has created a common alienation among Blacks of continental Africa and the diaspora. Hicks (1994) points out the weakness in current multicultural art education approaches in the United States that ignore the dynamics of cultural formation of various ethnic groups who are the participants of local education systems. Through her teaching experience, she discovers that the identities of African-American students are located within the American context rather than continental Africa. Therefore linking African-American students with African culture, she notes, is a "dislocation of 38 pedagogy" for students whose identities are formed by diaspora experiences and assimilation within the host society. Whilst her argument seems to provide the basis for resisting racial essentialism, it fails to engage in a historical analysis of racial identity vis-a-vis the experiences of Black people in America and elsewhere. What are the underlying reasons for African-American students' rejection of an African cultural heritage? What have they internalized of the African imagery in American society? What ' impressions and impact have the negative imageries of continental Africa created among African-American students? Whose interest does the unbalanced representation and distortion of the continent, both in school texts and mass media, serve? Racism and the systematic disparagement of African culture in Euro-Canadian/American society create widespread dislocation and disorientation among persons of African descent. This explains why some scholars, students and artists of African descent rush to deny their "Blackness" or their African identity in order to gain acceptance into the Euro-Canadian/American norm. If a child concludes that there is something wrong with her/his culture, then her/his self-concept and cultural pride is severely diminished. This is so because one's basic identity is one's self-identity, which is ultimately one's cultural identity; without a strong cultural identity, one is lost. Racial stereotyping in Eurocentric curriculum and pedagogy has produced aberrations of perspectives among persons of colour. Ironically, however, the reality of Eurocentrism and racism in Euro-Canada/American society also provides legitimate grounds for the discussion of shared realities and "enabling solidarity" among African-Canadians, African-Americans, continental Africans and the diaspora. The solidarity and liberation of all people of African heritage was the main mission of W. E. B. Du Bois in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries in the United States. Similarly, the Harlem Renaissance, an African consciousness movement in the United States, accentuated by Marcus Garvey, challenged the social order and asked Blacks in American to consider a return to Africa, their motherland (Clarke, 1985). An enabling solidarity, according to Dyson (1994), appeals to the richly varied meanings of cultural practices, the contradictions, the diversity of authentic roles within Black cultural identities and the ever-changing historical experience in supporting the vision of Black identity and Black/African-Canadian artistic, educational and cultural experience. Due to historical continuity, the complexities of racial identity and the reality of racism in society, it is neither appropriate to ignore the solidarity among 39 Blacks and the link of African-Canadians with African culture nor to place an ideological blockade on critical dissenters who will situate their identities within a Euro-Western context rather than Africa. Black/African-Canadian students are not a homogeneous group. However, some commonalities exist in the educational experiences of students born in Africa and the diaspora, including those of mixed parenthood. Research by Dei, Holmes, Mazzuca, Mclsaac and Campbell (1995) shows that Caribbean students are less inclined than African immigrant students to identify with Africa due primarily to negative and unbalanced representation of the continent both in school texts and in the mass media. Caribbean students were more concerned with "social labelling" of Black students as "trouble-makers," and about the attempts by schools to place students from the Caribbean in English skill development (ESD) classes. Students born in Canada, particularly to mixed parents, raised questions of identity. Continental African students and their parents, on the other hand, were more concerned about the broad issues of language, religion, culture and the negative image about the continent that mainstream school and popular media discourses present to unsuspecting students and Canadian audiences. Students, who speak with distinctly different accent and dialects, pointed to inter-group discrimination and prejudices among their peers. Also, concerns about racial discrimination, the lack of representation of Black/African perspectives, histories and experiences, the absence of Black teachers and a prevailing culture of Eurocentric dominance in the school system, were shared by all Black youths. The above findings suggest that diverse students of African heritage can relate to the tenets of African-centred education. It seems possible that African-centred education could bring all people of African descent from the margins to the centres of post-modern history. Despite differences among Black groups, many diaspora scholars (e.g., Asante and Asante, 1985; Diop, 1978) have argued that Africans and their descendants in the diaspora form a single cultural river with numerous tributaries characterized by their specific responses to history and the environment. Just as we can speak of European art and culture despite the differences, so do we understand African art and cultures based on the knowledge of common characteristics and differences. People of African descent share a common experience drawn from the devastating legacy of slavery and colonialism; a common struggle for liberation against political, cultural and economic domination; and a common origin traced from Africa, the ancestral home of all Black 40 people. Baldwin (1986) contends that to speak of "Black people and Black experience outside the context of African culture is utterly meaningless" (p. 24). Asante (1987) also points out that the culture and history of African-Canadians, African-Americans and Blacks in the diaspora represent developments in African culture and history, inseparable from place and time. Making this claim, however, does not deny the African-Caribbean, African-Canadian and African-American histories and cultures in their own right. A viable multicultural pedagogy and politics must affirm both common cultural characteristics and differences. African-Canadians must be exposed not only to mainstream knowledge that assimilates them into "Canadianism" but also to Africentric knowledge that affirms their "Africanness" as their hyphenated identity depicts. Explanations for Black Children's Educational Underachievement It is common knowledge supported by a large body of research that the structural process of delivering education has different impact on various groups in Canada. Various causes have been attributed for the relatively high incidence of school failure and "dropouts" among Black students in Euro-Canadian/American contexts (Dei, Mazzuca, Mclsaac, & Zine, 1997). Traditionally, the theories of "genetic inferiority" and "cultural deprivation" have been advanced to explain the school failures of Black students and children from culturally diverse and deprived backgrounds. With these theories, often referred to as "deficit models," school failure is blamed either on the students themselves, who are said to be genetically inferior, or on the economic and cultural disadvantages of their communities, which deprive them of the necessary preparation (Bereiter & Englemann, 1966). Such a perspective overlooks the complex interrelationship between the economic, social, educational and political factors contributing to school failure. Cultural deprivation or the socio-pathological perspective was employed as a justification in the residential school system in Canada where Native Indian children were forcibly removed from their homes and families in order to "exorcize" them of their "malignant" cultures (Boyko, 1997; Moodley, 1995) . This explanation of school failure has long been discredited not only as ethnocentric and scientifically unfounded, but also for its inadequate explanation of the failures of so many students (Nieto, 1996) . Scientists and social reformers have concluded that differences in educational attainment among 41 groups are social artefacts created through historical, socio-political and educational inequities. Stephen Gould's (1996) masterwork, The Mismeasure of Man, effectively and thoroughly contributes toward deflating pseudoscientific explanations of intellectual attainments among Black children. It undermines, for instance, The Bell Curve and the hereditarian IQ theory, or those who would classify and rank people according to their supposed genetic gifts or limits. William Ryan (1972) also challenges the theory of genetic inferiority and cultural deprivation. He argues that: We are dealing, it would seem, not so much with culturally deprived children as with culturally depriving schools. And the task to be accomplished is not to revise, amend and repair deficient children, but to alter and transform the atmosphere and operations of the schools to which we commit these children, (p. 61) School failures of Blacks and other minorities may be caused by the structures of schools, which are static, classist, sexist and racist and which represent the interests of the dominant classes. The emphasis of Euro-Western education has been on moulding and shaping children from non-European backgrounds so as to fit into an educational process designed for middle-class White children. Such an approach to schooling is inherently problematic because many of these children live in different conditions that directly affect their schooling, including their interactional and learning styles (B. Young, 1990). Not acknowledging these differences often results in schools and teachers labelling children's behaviour as deficient instead of making provisions for them in the curriculum. Ogbu (1986) and Nieto (1996) talk about the cultural incongruence between the home and the school and explain that it is the school's perception of the students' values, skills, expectations, language, culture, race and class as inadequate and negative and the subsequent devalued status of these characteristics in the academic environment, that help to explain school failure. Research on teachers' interaction with students, and particularly teacher expectations, has shown that students' performance is influenced by subtle messages from teachers about students' worth, intelligence and capability (Rosenthal & Jacobson, 1968). Expectations of students' achievements are often based on the social class and race of the students. Because of racial stereotypes, the academic abilities of Black children and visible minorities are often underestimated. Due to systemic discrimination as well as administrative complexities, formal education is unable or unwilling to respond to the particular 42 learning styles, or specific problems of Black/African-Canadian learners with varying socio-economic backgrounds. Research by Dei, Mazzuca, Mclsaac and Zine (1997) tells us that students who perceive a lack of curriculum content devoted to their history, interest and experience are likely to disengage or 'fade-out' from school. If Black/African-Canadian students can relate to what they are learning at school, they are likely to learn better. But unfortunately, many Black/African-Canadians have lost their cultural centeredness and exist in a borrowed space. Their existential relationship to the dominant culture defines what and who they are at any given moment (Asante, 1998). In art education, researchers have examined differences in aesthetic perceptions of ethnic groups (Gayle, 1972; Irwin & Farrell, 1996; Neperud, Serlin & Jenkins, 1986). Although the debate about a distinct Black aesthetics is far from over, Irwin and Farrell (1996) and Neperud, Serlin and Jenkins (1986) suggest that most ethnic groups possess aesthetic values central to their culture. Therefore, cultural discontinuity or the marginalization of minority students' cultures is detrimental to their artistic development. If a school system, as a matter of course, neglects the individual backgrounds, histories language, interactional and learning styles of its students, and categorizes and labels those who do not fit the norm, then one should expect failure to be the outcome. It is important in these instances that culture is treated as a mutable process rather than as unchanging product. That is, while we examine how culture may influence learning and therefore achievement in school, we must be wary of overgeneralizations that lead to gross stereotypes, which in turn may lead to erroneous conclusions about individual students' abilities and intelligence. Although culture is indeed integral to the learning process, it affects every individual differently, given differences in social class, family structure, psychological and emotional differences, birth order, residence and a host of individual distinctions. Learning occurs in various forms, as there is uniqueness among individual students. Some students learn in combination of preferred modes as supported by the theory of multiple intelligences (Gardner, 1983). From a pedagogical perspective, therefore, good teaching practices address the various intelligences as appropriate, reaching each student's preferred learning modes and challenging all students to develop intelligences they have not yet fully refined. In the United States, Twiggs (1990) observes that many teachers overtly or covertly tend to 43 characterize minority children, particularly those from poor socio-economic backgrounds, as unruly, lazy, inferior and dumb. As a result, they expect little from them since they believe that such students have no worthwhile aspirations. Black males, especially, endure the most of this negative attitude. They are often labelled in early grades as troublemakers even before they ever get into trouble and may be targeted for suspension as they progress through school. This prejudicial attitude is not peculiar to American White teachers. Canadian teachers have either inherited or imported similar attitudes as is evident from the study Push Out or Drop Out? The dynamics of Black/African-Canadian Students' Disengagement from School by Dei, Holmes, Mazzuca, Mclsaac and Campbell (1995). Blacks and minority teachers whose socio economic class, training and experiences are modelled from Eurocentric perspectives may also disapprove that which defies the Eurocentric middle-class norm. Even more destructive is the fact that Black children are deprived of the knowledge of Black/African artistic, cultural and historical traditions. Contrary to the notion that Black students disengage from school partly as a result of low self-esteem, Dei, Mazzuca, Mclsaac and Zine (1997) discovered in their study that Black students are rather 'pushed out' because they have a strong sense of cultural pride and self-esteem which schools ignore, devalue, or seek to contain through complex administrative processes and assimilation into the Eurocentric norm. Thus, Black/African-Canadians are faced with an educational dilemma. On one hand, Black students and their parents recognize the importance of finishing school for employment and social mobility; on the other hand, their interpretations of the curriculum and the operations of the school systems cause them to disengage from school. If teacher education in the future is to present a model of the positive incorporation of racial, ethnic and gender diversity, its student body, faculty, curricula and pedagogy must become culturally diversified and receptive to multicultural perspectives. For far too long, minority groups have been underrepresented as teachers and role models in Canadian classrooms. Black students of Continental African origin constitute a unique case. Some have to deal with memories of their homeland; isolation as a result of being newcomers to Canada; the challenges of adjusting to their new environment where native culture, native language and foreign accents are devalued; and the problems of discrimination and racial stereotyping. Due to differences in objectives, history, values and practices, incompatibilities between the home culture and the school culture become profound, 44 leading to "cultural clash" which may produce school failure (Nieto, 1996). With the unique experiences of Blacks in Canada and the experience of a long history of discrimination, it is important that appropriate modifications in curriculum and instruction are made to ensure greater cultural congruence and the possibility for success. Without sensitivity to the intellectual and cultural needs of Blacks and other minorities, Canadian educational systems have proceeded as if the needs of Black/African-Canadian children are the same as those of middle-class White children. In 1971 the Black United Front (BUF) of Nova Scotia, outlined the long-standing causes of low Black educational attainment and high dropout rate. In a brief to the Royal Commission on Education, 1971, BUF blamed Black learners low achievement and school drop-outs on the dominance of Eurocentric curriculum and systematic lack of "Africentric" curriculum; lack of Black teachers, administrators and role models; insensitivity of White teachers to the needs of Black students; inappropriate testing methods for Black students; use of prejudicial texts, remarks and racial slurs; systemic streaming of Black children into general, vocational or dead-end programs; and the lack of pre-schooling for Black children (BLAC, 1994, p. 30). Many of the conditions that existed in the 1970s have continued to limit Black/African-Canadian students' educational participation and attainment not only in Nova Scotia, but also in other provinces as well. The BLAC Report (1994) on the education of African Nova Scotians also reiterates similar concerns based on evidence from the grass roots. It states that: Clear deficiencies that exist include the shortage of policies affecting race relations at the Board and school levels; the need for school curriculum and policies to accommodate cultural diversity; the need to realign the relationship between the home and the school; the lack of any development of creative and resourceful programs for teachers' professional training, maturation and growth in a multicultural and multiracial society; a scarcity of Black role models in the [educational] systems, methods to respond to racial harassment and the assessment of students for placement; the lack of an effective process to evaluate text books for bias and the absence of materials to engender more positive attitudes in the African Nova Scotia student. (BLAC, 1994, p. 14) The protracted outbreaks of racial violence in Cole Harbour District High School in Halifax, Nova Scotia, in 1989, 1991 and 1997 (Hamilton, 1997), for example, attest to the consistent hostility to Black learners in the province. 45 The Promise of Multicultural and Anti-racist Education Multicultural and anti-racist education, both advocate greater opportunity for educational success of students of diverse background in Canada. Multicultural educators link the issues of culture with school processes. They examine minority children's underachievement and stress that equality in education can be attained by: attuning teaching strategies to culturally different ways of perceiving and learning (Smith, 1983); developing culturally relevant curricula (Fleras & Elliott, 1992); providing basic knowledge of students' own cultures (Hoopes & Pusch, 1979); and improving the students' self-image, usually by valuing the students' culture (Fleras & Elliott, 1992). Anti-racist education links the issues of identity and power with schooling process. It integrates the institutional structures of society including teaching, learning, educational administration and how local communities (e.g., parents, families, community groups) interact with these structures. Both multiculturalism and anti-racism promote the removal of bias and ethnocentrism from texts and the curriculum. They'also emphasize the contributions of minorities to the development of Canada as a nation (Fleras & Elliott, 1992). However, the major emphasis of multicultural education has been on reducing individual racism while anti-racist education has been on reducing institutional racism. I find the goals of multicultural education and anti-racism education largely compatible, complementary and reinforcing. A rigid dichotomy, which would create an obstacle to greater equality in education, is therefore unnecessary. Multicultural education is a means to enrich the lives of all students by helping them to understand and value their own ethnicity, gain an appreciation of the ethnic cultures of others and to share their cultural heritage. A critical multicultural education perspective explores the promises of both multicultural education and anti-racist education. It links issues of culture with education and aims at promoting educational equity and inter-group harmony. However, it recognizes that education is not apolitical and therefore advocates the need to challenge its content and form. Critical multiculturalism brings to multicultural education a sharp institutional analysis that might otherwise be missing. African-centred knowledge embedded in African art and culture is one window through which the goals of multicultural education could be achieved. African-centred knowledge involves "the epistemic saliency, values, belief systems and world views of society which are imparted to the younger generation 46 by community elders" (Dei, 1996, p. 95). Africentricity brings us to understand that the interrelationship of art and knowledge with cosmology, society, religion, medicine and tradition stands alongside the interactive metaphors of discourse as principal means of achieving a measure of knowledge about experience. Thus, through the knowledge of African art and culture, connections could be built between the home culture and the school culture, as well as between mainstream art and other artistic traditions in order to enhance students' self-esteem and success. African-centred curriculum according to Carol Lee (1994) is culturally situated and aims at cultivating a sense of mutual interdependence among students, teachers, parents and the wider community. School, work and communities are interwoven in the articulation of the experiences and social practices of all stakeholders in the school. Curriculum and pedagogy are informed by a holistic integrated view of schooling. The school promotes education for the interest of the public rather than simply for private interest, individual enrichment or self-improvement. Nevertheless, it does not negate individual self-worth and the right of self-determination by other groups. For the art educator, the challenges are: to raise these issues for classroom discussion; to provide students the opportunity to experience appropriate cultural education which gives them an intimate knowledge of ethno-cultures; and to honour and respect the history and culture of all people. African art education will speak to continental African students in a familiar voice because it will provide the opportunity for them to experience identity-based knowledge that connects with their experiential realities. It also has the potential of connecting with mainstream culture due to cross-cultural commonalities and similarities in the social functions of art. The art historian, Dissanayake (1988, 1992) and socio-anthropological theorists (Banks, 1993; Chalmers, 1996) argue that there are far more similarities than differences among cultural and ethnic groups. Ironically, however, due to ethnocentrism, too much . emphasis is placed on the differences than on the commonalities. African art in a multicultural curriculum will increase self-awareness and facilitate the search for personal identities among Black students and will serve as a bridge to understanding mainstream art and other art forms (e.g., Asian art, First Nations art and Islamic art). McFee (1986) argues that all groups need and use art forthe purpose of identity, continuity, change and to enhance their cultural values. As students become well informed through the knowledge of African art and culture, they gain some understanding which empowers them to question the dominance of 47 European art in the school curriculum. Multiculturalism is a positive dynamic force, a philosophy that should permeate all curricula. It is based on the concept that each and all of the diverse cultures now present in Canada have something of value to offer and share with other cultures, as we strive to build a new and better way of life together. A multicultural curriculum may be taught in a way that will perpetuate racial stereotyping. As a reform movement that challenges institutionalized paradigms and practices in education, multicultural education stands the risk of being appropriated by the establishment. The way out of this dilemma is for educators to become vigilant in the multicultural education process. Anti-racist teaching would incorporate appropriate pedagogical methods, attitudes, knowledge (e.g., multicultural content) and the necessary skills to bring about learning that will challenge racism and change the bias of the traditional ethnocentric education to which we are accustomed in Canada. Research in the pedagogy of African-American teachers of African-American students, has shown how teachers employ students' cultural knowledge and experiences as a bridge to the dominant culture with the aim of overcoming some of the debilitating and negative messages to which their students are subjected in schools and society. This "emancipatory" pedagogy empowers students to think critically, analyze the inherent values of dominant cultures and work actively for social justice (King, 1991; Ladson-Billings, 1994). Emancipatory art education should reflect the multiple and collective origins of art and art historical knowledge and correct repressive and monovocal art historical text portrayals of historically marginalized cultures and groups. It should also require a liberative student-teacher relationship that will open up art history, art criticism, aesthetics and art production to critical analyses and reconstruction. Such critical interactions, according to Freire (1970), stimulate both students and teachers to be producers of knowledge rather than passive receptors of pre-formulated and privileged knowledge of others. Africentricity needs to move from the conceptual stage to its practical application where teachers are taught to put Black/African-Canadian students at the centre of curriculum and instruction. In effect, students should be shown how to see with new eyes and hear with new ears. Black/African-Canadian students must learn to interpret and centre phenomena in the context of African heritage while non-African-Canadian students are taught to see that their own centres are not threatened by the presence or 48 contributions of others. Dei (1996) reiterates this point by arguing that, "Euro-Canadian/American schools need a new form of education that will particularly assist Black youth to reinvent their "Africanness" within a diaspora context and create a way of being and thinking that is congruent with positive African traditions and values" (p. 90). This suggestion applies to all Black youths in Canada because firstly, racial discrimination negatively affects all Black children, though in varying degrees, and secondly, because the struggle for social justice and educational equity is a collective endeavour. Africentrism is a form of intervention against white supremacist racism in the academy that has led to the trivialization, distortion, or exclusion of African history and art, as well as the underachievement of many Black students. This prejudice and biased omission gave the world the false impression that Africa did not possess any history, artistic excellence, civilizations and institutions of value to study as contributions to knowledge, world history and civilization. Without an inclusive art education, Black/African-Canadians bring almost nothing to the multicultural table but a darker version of whiteness. Inclusiveness means dealing foremost with equity and justice with regard to the intellectual and cultural needs of all students; having a multiplicity of artistic and cultural perspectives represented as integral part of mainstream art education; and reforming school, classroom practices and learning materials to meet the challenges of diversity. Africa is rich with many art forms and has greatly influenced European art styles, particularly cubism. The contribution of Africans to world art and history, knowledge and civilization should, therefore, be acknowledged and celebrated in a multicultural curriculum. Five hundred years of Western European contact with continental Africa was intertwined with slavery, imperialist plunders of African art and treasures (e.g., Ancient Egyptian and Nubian art, Benin court art and Ashanti gold ornaments), artistic borrowing and cultural appropriation (Coombes, 1994). Historical injustice against the people of Africa and the diaspora calls not only for a continuous dialogue about the protection and restitution of cultural patrimony, but also for the transformation of art curricula to meet the needs of Black/African-Canadian students and other visible minority students. 49 Conceptions of Multicultural Education Multicultural Policy in Canada Canada has always been an ethnically heterogeneous society. Apart from the First Nations people, all other Canadians are either immigrants or can trace their ethnic backgrounds from the places (country or area) of origin of their ancestors (James, 1995). Since the arrival of the "founding" peoples, the French and the British in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries respectively, the Canadian identity into which immigrants are socialized and incorporated has evolved from Anglo-conformity, melting pot, mosaic, two-nations, to multiculturalism. In the decade and a half after 1945, 96% of immigrants came from Europe (mainly due to post-war dislocation), the United States and Australasia. Immigration to Canada from other parts of the world was discouraged or prohibited at this time. In 1962, Canada replaced its ethnic-based immigration policy with a less discriminatory "colour blind" Immigration Act which resulted in a dramatic shift in the country of origin of Canada's immigrants (see Table 1.1). Significant changes in immigration levels and patterns and the English-French tensions in the 1960s posed a great challenge to the well-established concept of Canadian identity grounded largely on British institutions and values. In response to these developments, the federal government in October 1971 adopted the Royal Commission on Bilingualism and Biculturalism's recommendations, which inaugurated the policy of multiculturalism for Canada. The new policy of multiculturalism contained the government's concern for the integration and the protection of ethnic groups and their rights to preserve and develop their own culture and values within the Canadian context (Friesen, 1985). Initially, the government provided aid to support ethnic organizations, including cultural centres, festivals, both ethnic and multicultural publications and a series of histories of twenty ethnic groups. While some people received this policy with enthusiasm and saw it as the biggest accomplishment in our journey toward social equity, others greeted it with disappointment (Fleras & Elliot, 1992). The influx of non-European immigrants in the 1970s and 1980s, re-awakened latent fears and hostilities toward non-White immigrants. The government responded to this with the passage of both the Human Rights Bill and the Canadian Multicultural Act. The Multicultural Act recognizes our cultural diversity and states that we are all free to maintain and share our cultural heritage and to participate fully 50 and equally in our national life. The multicultural policy issued by the House of Commons (pp. 8550-8581) according to Friesen (1985) contained the following guarantees: 1 The government of Canada will support all of Canada's cultures and will seek to assist, resources permitting, the development of those cultural groups which have demonstrated a desire and effort to continue to develop, a capacity to grow and contribute to Canada, as well as a clear need for assistance; 2 The government will assist members of all cultural groups to overcome cultural barriers to full participation in Canadian society; 3 The government will promote creative encounters and interchange among all Canadian cultural groups in the interest of national unity; and 4 The government will continue to assist immigrants to acquire at least one of Canada's official languages in order to become full participants in Canadian society. . . . (Friesen, 1985, pp. 1-2) Some provinces, Ontario, Manitoba, Saskatchewan, Alberta and British Columbia, became supporters of multiculturalism on the grounds that it makes Canada stronger and more of a "global village." Notwithstanding, some ethno-cultural groups still view Canada's multiculturalism as tokenistic for not extending the promotion of ethnic cultures to embrace heritage languages. Multiculturalism within a bilingual framework creates tensions and contradictions between the taken-for-granted cultural and linguistic assimilation to English or French and the plurality that multiculturalism promises. Since language is an integral part of culture, the critics ask: What is cultural preservation without linguistic preservation? This demand led to the introduction of non-official language or Heritage Language instruction, both in and outside school hours by the various provincial ministries of education. The group to take greatest advantage of these multicultural programs were those of European origin and relatively long residence in Canada: Ukrainian, Italian and Polish Canadians. People committed to national unity, or "Canadianism" foresees multiculturalism as a further institutionalization and deepening of political and economic inequalities for minority cultural groups. Porter (1979) for instance, saw the integration of non-official languages and non-European cultural values into the Canadian classrooms as detrimental to the culture of science and technology and to the upward mobility of children of non-European origin. What this argument ignores are the facts that the nation has been historically divided along ethnic, class and gender lines, as well as the pervasive inequalities in social 51 justice, the distribution of knowledge and power. The French, especially those in Quebec, like the First Nations, view multiculturalism as harbouring a hidden agenda to neutralize their distinctive claims: cultural hegemony as a "founding nation" and Aboriginal treaty rights respectively (Sanders, 1987). In Quebec, the term "cultural pluralism" was preferred to "multiculturalism." The "two-nation" definition of Canada, now discarded elsewhere in Canada, was much closer to the hearts of Quebec than "multiculturalism." By the end of the 20th century, Canadian national identity had evolved through several stages: "Anglo-conformity," "melting pot," "mosaic," "two nations" to "multiculturalism." Friesen (1985) perceives educational institutions' role as critical in fostering understanding of cultural differences for all Canadian citizens. Equality of education requires a serious re-examination of the hidden curriculum with the aim of including components of various cultures in the school curriculum and activities. In Canada, most urban school boards, as in Toronto, Ottawa, Winnipeg and Vancouver, have implemented some reform with the aim to provide a more inclusive curriculum. However, because education is a provincial responsibility, the federal government has little power to ensure any uniformity in the implementation of multicultural education policies. This situation has led to the implementation of various models of multicultural education in Canada that leaves much to be desired. In the Legacy of Learners, the report of the Royal Commission on Education for British Columbia, Sullivan (1988) acknowledges that with multicultural policy, the social agenda constructed for schools should be more complex and broadened to accommodate cultural, racial, ethnic, religious, gender and linguistic differences. Sullivan emphasizes that: This commitment to multiculturalism means that we also look to schools to foster healthy inter-group attitudes, to break down cultural stereotyping and to organize themselves in ways that ensure equality of treatment and equality of access for all minorities. This commitment means, too, that we look to schools to preserve cultural heritages through language instruction and studies in history, geography, art, music and drama, to remind us who we are today and from what culture we once came. Similarly, it means also that we look to schools to help solve the special learning problems faced by some minorities. And, finally, we look to the schools to do all these things without obscuring their larger educational vision, (p. 28) With the enormous challenges to schools and educators, multiculturalism needs to be approached as a progressive, innovative and a dynamic program that can affectively influence various levels of Canadian society. In developing a school program for a multiethnic setting, Wright and Coombs (1991) 52 suggest six areas that may form the foundation for dealing reasonably with the complex task of providing equal opportunity for all Canadians. First, "developing a conception of person or humanity" may enable us to recognize the common needs of society. Second, "developing a sense of self-worth" may assure people that their values, abilities and contributions are important and appreciated. Third, "developing a sense of society" is important to ensure that collective rights and responsibilities stand as the key to the cohesion of community. Fourth, "developing an understanding of the concepts of prejudice, stereotyping and racism" is an important strategy for dealing with them. Fifth, "developing an understanding of what harms people" is important to reveal all other factors that hurt people both physically and psychologically. Finally, "promoting good reasoning" is an important virtue, which enables individuals to understand social justice and participate fully in society. These principles, according to Wright and Coombs, cut across all cultural and ethnic groups when designing programs. The future direction and success of multiculturalism requires both the government and public support and as Bagley, Coard and Friesen (1988) explain, "If multiculturalism is to work, it needs support from the grass roots" (p. 30). To determine the grass root requires not only an understanding of internal structures of construction of ethno-cultural groups, but also the examination of the historical and social foundations of the content of a school curriculum and the structures that shape Canadian society. Nieto (1996) argues that multicultural education should not only concern itself with culture at the superficial level but also be active in challenging the societal power structure that has historically subordinated ethnic minorities and rationalized the educational failure of members of marginalized groups as being the results of their perceived inherent deficiencies. Defining Multicultural Education There is a massive body of literature, theoretical pronouncements and research about providing education grounded in multicultural perspectives, with no consensus on what exactly constitutes multicultural education. Due to ambiguity curricula frameworks, textbooks and teacher education programs that claim to be "multicultural" often lack any coherent guiding philosophy. Consequently, diversity is incorporated simplistically into the art curriculum, often within a Eurocentric framework. Teachers' support for multicultural education, however, depends on the ways the innovation is understood 53 and conceptualized. What is understood by the term multicultural education is varied, both in terms of theory and practice. It has become a slippery signifier onto which diverse groups project their hopes and fears. As noted by Grant and Sleeter (1993), some theorists focus their work primarily on ethnic groups of colour. Others conceptualize multicultural education more broadly to encompass race, class, gender and exceptionality - and the interactions of these variables - as important components of the field (Banks & Banks, 1993). As an open concept, multicultural education is subject to multiple interpretations and often contradictions, thus permitting critics to reject its effectiveness as an aid in deciding educational policy, or to view it as a concept without theoretical underpinnings. Multicultural education seems to have lost its focus as it struggles to accommodate more issues. For instance, race and gender issues bump on each other frequently. There is also a weak link between theory and practice, which is interpreted as weak theory. Despite Canada's early multicultural history, it is difficult to speak of a distinctively Canadian model of multicultural education. Multicultural education in Canada has evolved as a collection of perspectives cross-fertilized by American and British variants (Moodley, 1995). Different images of Canadian society have attracted different responses from the provincial school systems. Officially, Canada abandoned the policy of assimilation in managing diversity when it embraced multiculturalism in 1971. Nevertheless, many criticize multicultural ideas as little more than a glossy veneer that quietly endorses a more deceptive variant of assimilation. Various models of multicultural education have been advanced or practised in Canada (Coombs, 1986; Fleras & Elliot, 1992; McLeod, 1981; Ouellet, 1992; Young, 1979). Generally, they can be synthesised into five major approaches or meanings that represent the various ways that multicultural education is taught in English-speaking countries: 1) Human relations approach; 2) Education of the culturally different; 3) Education for cultural pluralism; 4) Specific group studies approach; and 5) Multicultural and social reconstructionist approach (EMC-SR) (Grant & Sleeter, 1989; Sleeter & Grant, 1988): 1) Human Relations Approach: This approach seeks to foster cultural understanding and positive relationships among individual members of diverse racial and cultural groups, to strengthen each student's self-concept and to increase school and social harmony. This is a liberal pluralistic view that sees cultural diversity as intrinsically valuable and beneficial to society. The human relations 54 curriculum includes lessons about stereotyping, discrimination, ethnocentrism and individual differences and similarities. The human relations approach is grounded on an assumption that knowledge about cultures reduces inter-group conflict and increases opportunities for minorities. Teacher education based on this model prepares teachers to honour diverse student backgrounds and to promote cooperative learning and harmony among students. However, institutional discrimination, or real conflicts between groups, are often glossed over in lieu of supporting the "I'm OK, You're OK, Everybody is OK" ideology (Sleeter, 1992; Solomon & Levine-Rasky, 1994). 2) Education of the Culturally Different: This approach helps fit students into the existing social structure and culture. It builds bridges between the students' backgrounds and the schools. This approach accommodates students who are exceptional and/or culturally different by altering regular teaching strategies to match students' learning styles and by using culturally relevant materials. Education that prepares teachers for teaching culturally different children would, by extension, not question the dominant culture's traditional aims. Rather, the emphasis would be on techniques for building bridges between children and their schools and helping students to master an official language and adapt to the norms of the dominant culture. The problem of cultural discontinuity remains for the student (McLeod, 1992). 3) Education for Cultural Pluralism: This approach promotes social equality and cultural pluralism. It stresses that all cultures warrant equal respect and value. Curriculum, in this approach, is organized around the contributions and perspectives of different cultural groups. Cultural content can be assessed from the perspective of the "insider." It pays close attention to equity in terms of gender, race, religion, sexual orientation, social class, language, age and physical ability. This approach to multicultural education also builds on students' learning styles, adapts to their skill level and actively involves students in thinking and analyzing life situations. It encourages native language maintenance for students whose first language is not English and multilingual acquisition for all students (Banks, 1993; Moodley, 1995; Nieto, 1996). 4) Single Group Studies Approach: This approach promotes social structural equality and immediate recognition of the cultures of groups whose identities are at risk. Usually implemented in the form of ethnic studies, or women's studies, this approach assumes that because of past curriculum biases, knowledge about particular oppressed groups should be taught separately from conventional classroom knowledge in either separate units or separate courses. The single group approach seeks to raise people's consciousness concerning an identified group by teaching both its members and all others about the history, culture and contributions of that group, as well as how 55 that group has been oppressed by, or has worked with, the dominant group in society. Although the ultimate goal of such programs is the accommodation and maintenance of diversity, they can be exclusionary in their group-specific nature (Dei, 1996; McLeod, 1992). 5) Multicultural and Social Reconstructionist Approach: This approach extends previous approaches and teaches students to critically analyze social inequality and oppression by helping them to develop skills for social action. This approach encompasses "anti-racist education" and "critical pedagogy." It entails direct challenge to societal power structure, racism and social inequalities. This approach promotes social structural equality and cultural pluralism and prepares students to work actively toward equality for all people (Grant, 1992, pp. 21-22; Nieto, 1996, p. xvii; Turner, 1994, p. 408). These notions of multicultural education contain many contradictions and the categories are not mutually exclusive, or as distinct as their labels seem to suggest. Culture is the central category while inequality, power and racism are infrequently mentioned. In Canada, McLeod (1992) identifies three approaches to multicultural education namely: ethnic specific, problem oriented and cultural/intercultural models. The ethnic specific model has the characteristics of single group studies approach. Ethno-cultural groups in Canada that have established separate school programs include the Ukrainian, Hutterite and Mennonite schools in Alberta, Chinese, Hebrew and Greek schools in Ontario and Quebec and Punjabi and Hebrew schools in British Columbia (Moodley, 1995). There is a crucial difference between segregated schools imposed by the dominant group and those developed from within subordinated communities. The goals of the latter are generally to provide excellent and affirming educational experiences for students who have been dismissed, or isolated by the traditional schools, whereas the goals of the former are usually to maintain social hierarchies. Taking into account a variety of multicultural perspectives, self-segregated schools face some serious challenges and criticism. These include a tendency to create new myths in place of old ones, and the segregation of students by ethnicity, race and gender. A problem-oriented approach involves proactive and reactive programs that help immigrants to adapt to Canadian society and to respond to issues of racism and other forms of inequality. Many of the immigrant service providers in Canada have adopted this approach to cultural education. The cultural/intercultural model promotes education for cultural pluralism. Its overarching values are equality of access and shared 56 ownership. In Canada, multicultural education is located within a consensus paradigm. For most educators, differences are to be gently reaffirmed along guiding threads of similarities. Some teachers' non-commitment to multicultural education signals their ideological opposition to the national policy of multiculturalism. As noted earlier, one study found that, as long as multicultural education is conceptualized as the encouragement of respect for minority cultural traditions, rather than curriculum mainstreaming of diverse cultural traditions, its support among educators from the dominant group remained high (Solomon & Levine-Rasky, 1994). Such conceptualization of multicultural education is based on the belief that multiculturalism may undermine the dominant culture, Eurocentrism or Anglo-centrism in Canadian society. Thus, defence of "Canadianism" may well be a thinly veiled disguise for Anglo-conformity. The dominant culture does not necessarily mean the culture of the predominant ethnic group in terms of demographics but rather, it refers to the social practices and representations that affirm the central values, concerns and interests of the social class in control of the material and cultural capital of society. Some of what Jean Baker Miller (1976) has to say about the relationship between dominant and subordinate groups would appear to explain the general lukewarm attitude of mainstream Canadians toward multicultural education: A dominant group, inevitably, has the greatest influence in determining a culture's overall outlook - its philosophy, morality, social theory, [education] and even its science. The dominant group, thus, legitimizes the unequal relationship and incorporates it into society's guiding concepts ... It follows from this that dominant groups generally do not like to be told about, or even quietly reminded of the existence of inequality. 'Normally' they can avoid awareness because their explanation of the relationship becomes so well integrated in order terms; they can even believe that both they and the subordinate group share the same interests and, to some extent a common experience. . . . Clearly, inequality has created a state of conflict. Yet, dominant groups will tend to suppress conflict. They will see any questioning of the 'normal' situation as threatening; activities by subordinates in this direction will be perceived with alarm. Dominants are usually convinced that the way things are, is right and good, not only for them but, especially, for the subordinates. All morality confirms this view and all social structure sustains it. (pp. 6-8) This situation vividly elucidated by Miller above, engenders continuous marginality of multicultural education to the mainstream curricula, thereby undermining efforts to explore and engage in deeper analysis of culture and power. In order for art educators to transcend their articulated conservative conceptualizations of 57 multiculturalism toward a more holistic and inclusive model, concerted effort must be made to: move multicultural curricula beyond superficial practices to a deeper level of literacy embedded in cultural pluralism and cultural group studies such as Africentric, Asiacentric and Aboriginalcentric pedagogies; move from institutional marginalization of minority cultural knowledge forms to curriculum centrality; and develop an understanding that the movement from ethno-cultural injustices to social justice will be conflictual, disharmonious and resisted by opponents. To bring about any real change in the relationship between Black/African-Canadian students and students from other cultural groups, multiculturalists must adopt not only the liberal pluralistic approaches but also eclectic approaches that incorporate the transformative political agenda embedded in single-group studies approach (i.e., African-centred knowledge and Asian-centred knowledge), cultural pluralism and the social reconstructionist approach. A truly holistic and inclusive approach will avoid competition and judgement. A commitment to multicultural education reflects the premise that those secure in their cultural heritage will concede a similar right to others whose cultural identities are at risk. Multiculturalism and Art Education Since the adoption of the policy of multiculturalism for Canada in 1971, there has been a growing expectation that schools will broaden their agenda to embrace cultural, ethnic, religious, gender and linguistic differences. Unfortunately, schools have made little progress in reforming the art curricula to better serve children from diverse cultural backgrounds, particularly Black children who have experienced a long history of racial discrimination in Canada. Multicultural art education calls for the restructuring of art and art education from its Eurocentric focus to reflect the multicultural background of students. The Getty Centre for Education in the Arts, through its Discipline-Based Art Education project (DBAE) has had tremendous influence on art education curricula in North America. Although DBAE has evolved from an elitist concept to a dynamic curriculum movement that is open to multiple views, it falls short of assuming a more aggressive and proactive role in serving the needs of minorities. Multicultural education concerns itself with the relationship between cultures, between student and teacher, between school and society. It concerns itself not only with the understanding of cultural 58 differences, but also with the positive endorsement of such differences. It creates opportunity for the recognition of similarities that exist between individuals and groups, the plurality of the ethnic and cultural backgrounds of these individuals and the acceptance of such plurality. As Best (1986) notes, "the identity of a human being and the character of his thoughts and feelings cannot intelligibly be regarded as independent of his culture" (p. 34). He also points out that the failure to try to understand the different criteria of other societies creates a tendency to depreciate them. Cultural expression through the arts is central in promoting the presence, identity and socio-political involvement of the Black community in Canada. As an educational tool, art at its fundamental level is multidimensional. It is timeless and dynamic, like an organism that continually develops meaning over time and space as their various contexts provide (Chanda, 1998). Re-imagining historical and cultural meanings as dynamic will allow us to move away from our personal, egocentric viewpoint and embrace a broader construct that relates to a collective history. Many art educators (e.g., DiBlasio & Park, 1983; Feldman, 1976) point out that art programs can help build a positive ethnic self-image by reinforcing the artistic heritage of these students. Art does not only bridge the gap between cultures and promote the transmission of cultural heritage (Boughton, 1986), but it is also a strong means of fostering unity and enhancing cross-cultural understanding of similarities and differences. Although there are different conceptions and functions of art among cultures, there are also common concepts and functions that could be identified. Both the differences and commonalities must be celebrated in multicultural art education. There is a presumption that inter-group conflict can be reduced with cultural literacy, especially, when it affirms and celebrates cultural differences and similarities (Solomon & Levine-Rasky, 1994). It is this understanding and appreciation of differences that Grigsby (1986) says creates bonds between people. Multicultural art education instils a sense of integrity and dignity in children and, as Feldman (1976) adds, renews cultural identity and pride from generation to generation. Although building pride in one's cultural roots through positive exposure to artistic heritage may not automatically rehabilitate individuals who have experienced years of marginalization, it can, in the long run, help to validate the existence of a particular self with particular heritage (Collins & Sandell, 1992). Through the discipline-59 based methods of art teaching, students from all cultures could gain knowledge of the art from other cultures by understanding the context in which the art was created and the function of the work of art in that society. This understanding, laying the groundwork, could help them extend this learning to their own cultures and discover through art that culture is not a hermetically sealed unit. They would be enabled to see that, behind the cloud of cultural diversity, there are common interests. Consequently, as DiBlasio and Park (1983) note, including art exemplars from diverse ethnic groups during instruction would not only benefit the mainstream culture but would also serve to bolster ethnic pride and reinforce collective cultural identity among the minority group. This is a major "multicultural" argument - the belief that incorporating other forms of knowledge and cultural perspectives into the dominant curriculum will benefit all students. The vast majority of students are ignorant or misinformed about the bountiful reservoirs of African-Canadian, African-American and continental African histories, cultures and contributions to the world. Many Canadians are ignorant not only about the ideas and achievements of Martin Luther King, Cheikh Anta Diop and countless other Black personalities who have helped to shape the course of society, but also about the history of Canadian Blacks and their contribution, particularly during the settlement of Nova Scotia, Ontario, the prairies and British Columbia. Raised on a diet of Western history, colonial discourses, Eurocentrism, "Tarzan books and films" (which have resurfaced recently in a more subtle tone), racist myths and fears, stereotypes and sensational news media, many unsuspecting youths in North America have come to conceive of Africa as a jungle, a large village, a land of the grotesque, or at best a poor country inhabited by wild animals and "savages" and "tribal people." But in fact, Africa of a Hollywood movie is often very different from the Africa that really exists. Palaeontologists make us aware that human life started in Africa many millions of years ago and then spread to the rest of the world. Africa is where humans first learned to use fire, make tools and create art. It is truly the cradle of civilization. Africa is the land of lost kingdoms and ancient cities. The empires of the Nile flourished in Egypt and Nubia from 3100 until 400 B.C.E. (Krieger, et al., 1997) (see Figure 2.5 for map). The kingdom of Ethiopia has been traced to about 300 B.C.E. The royal empires of Western Sudan - Ghana, Mali and Songhai - and their ancient cities of Awdoghast, Gao, Jenne, Kumbi Saleh, Tangier and Timbuktu thrived between 500 C.E. and 1700 C.E. (see Figure 2.6 for map). At their peak, these empires rivalled those of 60 Europe at the time. Modern Africa is the home to about 14 per cent of the world's population and with more than 1000 different languages. It is the second largest continent consisting of 54 different independent and separate countries (see Figure 2.7 for current map of Africa). This enormous diversity coupled with the artificially created national boundaries by the colonial powers (during the Berlin Congress of 1884-85), creates unique challenges regarding political stability, peaceful coexistence and economic development. The task of reclaiming African humanity is a significant dimension of the Africentric vision and of the process of de-colonization. Teaching children facts about Black people and their cultures will encourage students to develop awareness of themselves, others and the existing social structure that impact on their lives. It may also provide information and the tools for improving relations among ethnic groups that have historically lived in physical and psychological isolation from each other. In order to achieve the goals of multicultural art education, Twiggs (1990) stresses the need for educators to become familiar with the culture of their students, both lived-in and inherited cultures. For the Black/African-Canadian students, ideas such as mutual interdependence, group unity, resilience and the role of religion, extended family traditions and motherhood must be considered when designing an African-centred art curriculum. The sources and promotion of traditional African education are community based, originating in the symbolic interchanges in village life (Asante & Asante, 1985). Stuhr, Petrovich-Mwaniki and Wasson (1992) advance five positions, which are relevant for teaching art in a multicultural context: 1) a student/community-centred education process in which the teacher must access and utilize the students' socio-cultural values and beliefs and those of the cultures of the community when planning art curricula; 2) an approach that acknowledges teaching as a cultural and social intervention and which alerts teachers to be aware of their own cultural and social biases; 3) an anthropologically-based method for identifying socio-cultural groups and their accompanying values and practices which influence aesthetic production; 4) the use of culturally responsive pedagogy that represents the socio-cultural and ethnic diversity existing in the classroom, community and the nation; and 5) a focus on the dynamic complexity of factors that affect all human interactions such as physical and mental ability, class, gender, age, politics, religion and ethnicity. These socio-anthropological positions seek a more democratic approach whereby 61 Figure 2.5 Map of Northeast Africa showing Egypt and Ancient Nubia Note: From Nubia: Ancient Kingdoms of Africa (p. 11) by J. L. Haynes, 1992, Boston: Museum of Fine Arts. 62 Figure 2.6 Map of Ancient African Kingdoms showing Ancient Ghana, Mali and Songhai Note: From World History: Perspectives on the Past (p. 321) by L. S. Krieger, K. Neill and E. Reyno 1997, Evanston, Illinois: McDougal Littell. 63 Figure 2.7 Map of Africa showing Various Countries Note: From Contemporary Art of Africa (p. 18) by A. Magnin and J. Soulillou (Eds.), 1996, New York: Harry N. Abrams, Inc., Pub. 64 the disenfranchised are also given a voice in art education process. This study is in line with the multicultural education principles outlined by Stuhr, Petrovich-Mwaniki and Wasson. It suggests the infusion of Africentric art content into the mainstream curriculum through a student/community-centred approach, and with culturally responsive pedagogy, that meets the needs of Blacks and minority students. As Zimmerman (1990) indicates, "African art can be used as a vehicle for understanding distinctions between appreciating a work of art from any culture and understanding its cultural origins and the context in which it was created" (p. 9). It can therefore be included as a strand in a pluralistic approach to art education. Collins and Sandell (1992), however, argue that the arts of non-mainstream cultures are not insulated against ideological bias and oppressive elements. Therefore, they caution advocates of pluralistic approaches to multicultural education to be critical of other forms of artistic and cultural knowledge that mimics the gender bias and imperialistic disposition of Western art. While the argument of non-neutrality of non-Western art forms seems plausible, it must be emphasized that power has been the underlying factor behind the hierarchical distinction between Western and non-Western art. Those with power have used it to enhance the status of their art at the expense of the powerless. African art is presented here as a non-hegemonic source of a multicentric curriculum. Its ideological and philosophical positions are examined to identify any ambiguity, contradiction and biases. Africa is rich in every aspect of human art. As the cradle of civilization and the home of many art forms, it has shared its spirit with every continent. Best (1986) states that: It is the consciousness of other cultures which allows us more fully to appreciate our own and to extend our understanding of rationality and humanity by imaginatively entering into the activities of other societies which have some significant relation to art in ours . . . The contribution of education, or of engagement with the arts of other cultures is to stimulate a process of dialectical interaction . . . With open mind and willingness to learn one can extend and enrich one's artistic conceptions in an encounter with another culture, (pp. 41-42) With the experience of a long history of racial discrimination and educational inequities and underachievement, Black/African students need a form of multicultural education to compensate for educational inequity as well as a broader view of world art history and contributions. The dominance of Eurocentrism in art education has not served Black students well. Their cultural background, identity and heritage are often marginalized in the curriculum. African art within multicultural environment will not 65 only permit the use of African-centred knowledge and pedagogy but will also provide identity-based knowledge that speaks directly to those struggling to define themselves within the mosaic of multi cultures in Canada. It also has the potential of enhancing cross-cultural learning and for connecting students' experiences with mainstream culture leading students and educators not only to question the dominance of Eurocentric curricula but also to actively seek for cultural equity through inclusive curricula. Approaches to Multicultural Art Education A variety of curriculum approaches and teaching methodologies and strategies have been suggested for teaching art in a multicultural classroom. Among them are: the Discipline-Based Art Education (DBAE), Multicultural Discipline-based Art Education (MDAE) and Feminist Approaches to art education. Both DBAE and MDAE profess a discipline-based approach to art teaching and they could be employed to teach art in a multicultural classroom. The difference is that MDAE assumes a more cross-cultural perspective, however, these models, if skilfully implemented, could help art educators become more competent in handling the challenges of multicultural art education. One of the main goals of feminist art educators is to uncover mechanisms by which gender discrimination is perpetuated in art education, in order to develop effective strategies to counter it. Feminist art education analyzes social systems and their representations of women and minorities in the art world and explores alternative approaches to art education. It is a political ideology with varied perspectives within a broader political struggle. These approaches are not mutually exclusive. Despite their ideological differences, these models share a common focus in dealing with the socio-cultural aspects of art education. Discipline-Based Art Education (DBAE) Discipline-based art education (DBAE) is undoubtedly the most discussed and written about approach to art education in the recent past in North America. The Getty Centre for Education in the Arts (GCEA), now the Getty Education Institute for the Arts, became a catalyst for reform in art education by arguing that: art education is as fundamentally important for personal development as training in Mathematics, English and Science. It nurtures imaginative cognition. It develops understanding and appreciation 66 of man's highest artistic achievements. It deepens understanding of culture and history. And it sharpens perceptive and analytical skills that are vital for higher order mental tasks. (GCEA, 1984, p.l) Although the idea of DBAE had first evolved during the 1960s, its theory was not fully developed or integrated with actual practice in the classroom until the 1980s. Through extensive consultations with professionals and academics in the field, the Getty Centre adopted Discipline-Based Art Education (DBAE) in 1982 as a vital approach to ensure a serious place for art in the public schools. In DBAE, four fundamental art disciplines of aesthetics, art criticism, art history and studio production are integrated in a written sequential curriculum whose content leads to cumulative knowledge, skills and understanding in art in grade K to 12 (Dobbs, 1989). Clark, Day and Greer (1987) extended the ideas first set out by Greer (1984) in a monograph sponsored by the Getty Centre. They pointed out that works of art present us with complex meanings and to comprehend such meanings require the cultivation of abilities to explain them. DBAE therefore became an appropriate response to the challenges posed in interpreting works of art. DBAE curriculum seeks to promote egalitarian values. It does not serve only the talented, but also provides for the majority of students and teachers who do not have a particular bent for being creative or artistic. With DBAE, "it is no longer as important to express one's inner self as it is to function as an informed and intellectual member of society" (Moore, 1991, p. 38). Differences of opinion regarding the relegation of studio activity and non-Western art to a minor rather than a central position have generated some levels of confrontation within the field of art education. Those in favour of studio-centred approach to art education (London, 1988; Zessoules, Wolfe, & Gardner, 1988) accused the Getty Centre for promoting DBAE as an elitist approach to art education and for ignoring other cultural perspectives. In their zeal to elevate art to the level of an academic discipline, art educators gave little consideration to issues of gender and diversity that were germane to the socio-cultural foundations of art. As early as the 1970s, Chalmers (1973, 1974, 1978), Grigsby (1977), McFee (1971), and McFee and Degge (1977) drew attention to the sociological and anthropological dimensions of art. But it was not until the early 1990s that the GCEA began to welcome new voices and multiple perspectives on DBAE. In his book Art and Ethnics: Background for Teaching Youth in a Pluralistic Society (1977), Eugene Grigsby, an African-American art educator, demonstrated how art education could be used to heighten awareness and 67 sensitivity of children toward multicultural and multi-environmental perspectives. McFee and Degge (1977) also recommended that art educators learn about other art, exemplified in non-Western traditions. They emphasized that a major purpose of art education is "to give teachers a somewhat broader basis for understanding how art functions in society generally and how functions are varied in meaning and style in any one specific society that has an identifiable culture pattern of values and attitudes" (p. 28). Chalmers, in his three articles, reiterates the need for a socio-cultural foundation of art education that would complement the historical, philosophical and psychological perspectives of the aesthetic education movement. Chalmers is particularly effective in articulating the concern that non-Western cultures were not represented as subject matters for study in DBAE. These works implicitly question the pretence of DBAE to democratic praxis and the notion of a universally applicable objective criterion for evaluation in art. DBAE purports to be universal, both in terms of theoretical content and practice. However, its theoretical underpinning and formalist teaching methodologies are constructed to reflect the attitudes, beliefs, values and biases of the dominant Euro-Western culture. That DBAE emanates from a Eurocentric patriarchal ideology is unquestionable. Its historical component does not offer any insight into the history of the art of non-Western cultures since it focuses only on the history of the art of the West (Calvert, 1988). Dobbs (1989) explains that the Eurocentric perspective of DBAE stems from the training, knowledge, experience and values of professionals in the art disciplines, which in turn have been shaped by the overwhelming emphasis on European art prevalent in their own schooling. Within such context, it is not surprising that art education is perceived from a Eurocentric perspective. The problem, however, is that in a multicultural milieu, such a curriculum acts as a form of oppression for those students whose experiences are incongruent with the world view that such knowledge affirms. Thus, in spite of the promise of DBAE many multiculturalists continue to question whether it is capable of recognizing and addressing issues of diversity. Since the beginning of this decade, there has been an encouraging response in DBAE to embrace issues of feminism and multiculturalism. This is evident from the Getty Centre's DBAE Handbook (Dobbs, 1992), which supports curricula built around diverse art traditions. Under the leadership of Thandiwee 68 Michael Kandall, issues of gender and multiculturalism appeared on the centre stage of Getty's agenda on DBAE (Kandall, 1993). Some of the central themes emerging from the Third Issues Seminar on DBAE included the need to address biases and the problem of context in art education; the need for new curricula materials and images in the classroom; and the need to attain equity and human rights through educational programs (Kandall, 1993). Dwaine Greer (1993) responds to the controversies that have surrounded DBAE since its inception in 1984 by concluding that: DBAE now seems to define art more broadly, includes art of other cultures, seems to no longer promote only the 100 canons of art made by dead white Euro-American males, seems to embrace the "popular arts" as worthy of serious consideration, no longer equates aesthetics only with aesthetic experiences and responses; realizes the limitations of aesthetic scanning, acknowledges that art has social content as well as form and is tolerant of contributions of feminist scholars. If the writers who support DBAE have understood the objections and have responded in a way that satisfies the critics, as the characterization above suggests, the future of DBAE should be bright indeed, (p. 94) Chalmers (1992) points out that DBAE could be effective in addressing multicultural issues in the classroom if art teachers would: Recognize, acknowledge and celebrate racial and cultural diversity in art within our society, while affirming and enhancing self-esteem and pride in one's own heritage. Promote cross-cultural understanding by identifying similarities, particularly in the role and function of art, within and among cultural groups. Address, in all art disciplines and not just art history, issues of ethnocentrism, biases, stereotyping, prejudice, discrimination and racism, (p. 16) The extent to which DBAE serves an art educator depends on his/her background, skill, imagination and creativity. DBAE is a guide to what to teach and not necessarily how to teach. Instructors do not necessarily rely on prescription or formulas, yet they are expected to achieve a natural balance among the four components of DBAE. While it is impossible for an art teacher to discuss all the cultures of the world adequately at any given time, it is possible to examine and understand some of the ways in which culturally different people may respond to the same visual phenomena. Due to the inadequate professional preparation of teachers in multicultural issues, lack of adequate in-service programs, many curriculum concerns of ethnic minorities have been ignored. Multicultural Discipline-based Art Education (MDAE) Multicultural Discipline-based Art Education (MDAE) is the most recent curriculum model, which Dennis Fehr (1993, 1994) offers as an alternative approach to art education in a multicultural milieu. 69 MDAE appears to fill in where DBAE is lacking. It is a tripartite model of art education that focuses on the child, the subject and society. Fehr points out that the ongoing elitist-versus-populist debate over DBAE does not only increase the relevance of multicultural study in the art classroom but also respect for the contributions of minority cultures. The MDAE model is the infusion of multicultural study with discipline-based art education. It provides for studying the cultural context of a work of art and examining its cross-cultural influence in addition to learning the history of the specific work of art. Fehr advocates the accommodation of all the cultures represented in a classroom when teaching art. MDAE emphasizes reaching across cultural boundaries, examining cultural influences, contributions and common interests without looking down upon any culture. Its aim is to afford the art educator the opportunity to recognize and understand the inner realities of the student, discover their ontological values and the realistic ways they attempt to understand the world. It identifies with a "multicultural agenda, which is met more effectively with an art curriculum that emphasizes viewing than with one that emphasizes making" (Fehr, 1993, p. 192). MDAE enables art educators to tap, at regular intervals, into each student's culture in order to identify with all the students and give them the opportunity to express themselves in their own unique ways, thus justifying MDAE's tripartite nature - the child, the subjects and the society. The MDAE model does not nullify DBAE. What it does, according to Fehr, is to rejuvenate the DBAE curriculum to reflect "a confluence of academic content and studio activities within a secure and encouraging environment" (pp. 197-198). Post-modern Approaches to Art Education This study is informed by the work of Black feminist such as Aidoo (1984) hooks (1990), Oyewiimi (1997) and Mohanty (1991). Feminist art education too is an outgrowth of the women's movement and post-modernism. It deals with issues and topics relevant to feminism in the visual arts, taking place in formal classroom and alternative learning environments. Feminist art criticism, arthistory, aesthetics and art production have significant implications for the conception and implementation of art education. In an effort to assert their legitimacy in the art world, feminists have been in the forefront in the development of new methodologies and alternatives to art education (Collins & Sandell, 1984; Gouma-Peterson & 70 Mathews, 1987; Zimmerman, 1990). These researchers have set forth feminist approaches to art education and Collins (1981), Nadaner (1984), Garber (1990) and Hagaman (1990) have situated these position statements within the context of feminist art criticism. Feminist researchers perceive gender as a basic organizing principle that profoundly mediates and shapes our understandings of the world and art, both cognitively and emotionally. Therefore, feminist criticism has been directed toward correcting distortions, generating new theories and exploring alternative approaches to art education. For Frueh (1985), feminist inquiry serves both art criticism and art history "by seeking knowledge about the overlooked meanings of art; by examining our own unacknowledged assumptions and biases and those of previous and contemporary art historians and critics; and by developing ways to write about art that will serve as new models for art critical discourse" (p. 41). In the formalist approach to art criticism from which DBAE derives its features, "meaning is constituted by and gains its identity from, the language system of the work" (Nadaner, 1984, p. 21). Nadaner pointed out that this approach to art criticism, which builds on a careful description of formal properties of art is inadequate even when subjectivity is permitted. This is because it assumes that it is reasonable to apply universal formalist standards to the interpretation of the aesthetic qualities of an African mask, an Impressionist painting and a Byzantine icon without contextual and cultural considerations (Nadaner, 1984). The weakness in the formal approach to art criticism is that it does not consider the variety of socio-cultural factors relevant to art interpretation. Feminists insist that we should always consider what criteria underlie decisions of what counts as "good" art. To the feminist art critic, universal and objective criteria used for the evaluation of art are non-existent due to different values, goals, interests and functions of art (Garber, 1992, p. 213). Garber argued that: Evaluation accordingly must take place in a context that includes consideration of cultural contexts in which the object is being evaluated. Contextual factors include the experiences, ideologies and taste of the period in which the object was made and of the person or group judging it. Feminists ask questions having to do with why painting is considered art while quilting is at best a "mirror art" or craft and why subjects of war are valued above mother and child or flower paintings, (p. 213) Feminist art criticism discusses the dichotomy of craft and art, a categorical split which excluded many female products from the latter designation. Such discussions characteristically do not fit within mainstream, formalist definitions of art. Garber (1990) proposes a feminist approach to art criticism based 71 on contextual theory that recognizes art as a meaningful element of, and response to, culture and society. She argues that, feminist approaches allow the art critic: to analyze social systems and their representations of women and minorities in the art world; to examine the political nature of feminism itself; and to validate subjective experience and self knowledge as necessary for creating awareness among women. Feminist art critics have been influential in their shift toward exploration of narrative in works of art, as opposed to the modernist emphasis upon form. Unlike art historians who traditionally aim at objectivity by writing about various aspects of an artist's life and career, or of a particular period's aesthetic mentality, art critics write about the art of their own time, more often than not, in a subjective manner (Frueh, 1985). The traditional art historical methodology answers questions about art: Who made it? When? Where? How? Feminist and post-modern art criticism, on the other hand, goes beyond these questions to examine the "Whys," which demand analyses of social and conceptual contexts. It is a more inclusive activity, which pursues the acts of recording, analysis and interpretation in new ways. Frueh (1985) argues that in the feminist approach to art criticism, the term art object does not make sense, because a subject-to-subject relationship replaces the standard subject to object relationship. This approach weaves the fabric of it's content out of the critic's subjective, psychological response to a work of art. Aesthetic arguments raised by feminists are organized around female sensibility, or feminine aesthetics and the criteria for evaluation of art. These issues form the foundation for structuring philosophical dialogue in the classroom. A search for a particular female aesthetic, most often referred to as female sensibility, has occupied some feminist theoreticians of literature and art. Collins (1981) defines a female sensibility as "a capacity or disposition of female artist that is discernible in the personality of that artist and which, if evidencing itself in the artist's work, gives to it feminine characteristics" (p. 84). This issue, like the concept of female imagination in literature, has generated vigorous debate between female artists and art critics and eventually divided them into diverse ideological positions: those who are not willing to make separate responses to works of women; those who wish to create separate criteria for works done by women; and those who embrace diverse perspectives drawn from both the male art establishment and the female counter movement. The problem is whether the process and product of the art making experience are different for women than for men. If so, is the origin biologically determined? Is 72 it purely socially constructed, or both? Advocates of integrationist approaches to reform in art history and criticism challenge the validity of the concept on the grounds that it perpetuates a negative stereotype and demonstrates a misunderstanding of art activity. Collins (1981) stresses that "if this concept promises to give us access to reality but serves only to blind us to all perceptions which do not fit our prejudice, then it is not only useless, but dangerously unjust" (p.85). The integrationist approach to feminist reform in art argues for the art teacher to expect and demand similar performance from students regardless of gender. The separatists, those who believe in the existence of an art unique to women, argue that women's political, biological and social experience is different from that of men. The implication is that the art teacher should expect differences in interests, skills and attitudes to occur along the lines of gender, but not to misconstrue the differences as indication of inferiority or superiority of one gender over another. A third model, evolving out of the concept of female sensibility is the pluralistic approach, which involves elements of both integrationism and separatism. Zimmerman (1990) pointed out that, "in the pluralistic approach, gender differences in art are acknowledged but the concept of two separate art worlds is not accepted. Inclusion of female sensibilities, according to a pluralist, would enhance art learning for all students" (p.2). Art teachers in this context are expected to encourage individual differences and help all students develop a full range of individual skills, attitudes and interests. Collins (1981) advocated that art teachers apply all three approaches in the classroom and engage in an ongoing critique of values associated with art and women. Feminist art criticism is a political ideology. It should be understood not as another "approach" or a singular perspective, but as part of a broader political struggle. It is fluid and ongoing, a means of social action stressing alternatives to a patriarchal system of art making, art history, art criticism and aesthetics so embedded in DBAE. It emphasized the relevance of concepts such as class, sex, race and culture in respect of the context in which art is created. The political ideology in feminist criticism drives the way methods are employed and the questions that are asked. To fully understand the art world and provide inclusive curriculum, art teachers need to embrace feminist perspectives and broaden their choices to encompass personal, spiritual and socio-cultural functions of art. 73 African Art and Multicultural Education The art of Africa is like a great river that runs far, wide and deep. It reaches out and connects with other major art forms of many cultures. Understanding its historical, cultural, environmental and its cross-cultural and functions can enhance multicultural art education. Africa is a complex continent rich with many different people representing a wide variety of cultures. A careful analysis of African art will shed some light on the political, economic and socio-cultural themes and characteristics that portray the image of cultural diversity as well as commonalities across cultures. Traditional African art is an instrument of expression in which the socio-religious life of the people is manifested and preserved from one generation to another. The realm of African art can be classified into three hierarchical levels. On the lowest rank of creation are the handicrafts: baskets, headrests, combs, smoking pipes, beadworks, divination objects, calabash bowls and other items of utility, mostly the work of hunters, gatherers and nomads. These are objects that reflect the socio-religious life of the people but which are often judged by outsiders to be lacking substantive aesthetic worth. At the next level are the masks and wooden sculptures, stools, musical instruments, paintings and the creations of agriculturalists and villagers that inspired the Post-Impressionists and Cubists. At the apex are classic works such as the Benin bronze and ivory sculptures, Asante gold ornaments and cult objects (see Figures 2.1, 2.2, 2.3, & 2.4 for sample pictures), the Great Zimbabwe architectural ruins and of course ancient Egyptian and Nubian art, including the great pyramids and the sphinx (see Figure 2.8). Due to modernization and cultural evolution, contemporary African art and artists have taken a new character. The works of leading African artists such as Ablade Glover and Wiz Kudowor (Ghana), Austin Hleza and Margot Horn (Swaziland), Dada Qgam (Botswana), Elias Jengo (Tanzania), Elimo Njau and Theresa Musoke (Kenya), Francis Musango (Uganda), Groupe Bogolan Kasobane (Mali), Penda Gueye (Senegal), Sfiso Ka-Mkame and Michael Miamane (South Africa), Tahir Bushra (Sudan), Tibebe Terffa (Ethiopia) and Tomy Ndebele (Zimbabwe), among others, boldly depict the ongoing evolution of the African art experience using a variety of artistic mediums with influences from Africa, Europe and elsewhere (Pollard, 1996). Some Western critics of contemporary African art have often claimed that traditional art is the only true African art of merit and that contemporary African art 74 Figure 2.8 Head of the Great Sphinx (Akhet Khufu) and a Pryamid (2590 B.C.E.) Note: From Ei>vpt the World of [he Pharaohs (p. 74), by R. Schulz and Ml. Seidel (Eds.), IW8. Germain : Konemann Verlagsgesellschalt. 75 forms are not purely traditional and therefore are irrelevant (Pollard, 1996, p. 19). Ultimately, this attitude reveals considerable condescending ignorance and imperialistic arrogance. If Western critics could not find anything wrong with Pablo Picasso, Matisse, Paul Simon and other European artists borrowing from Africa, why should African artists be confined to one cultural box or be represented through the eyes of the Euro-Western critic? This is unacceptable because Africa, as a cultural entity, is evolving and so are its artists. It could be necessary to attempt to answer two crucial questions using the art of sub-Saharan Africa as a focus for multicultural art education: Why do people make art? What are the functions of art? To respond to the above questions from a cross-cultural perspective, it will be necessary to approach them in ways that acknowledge cultural diversity and, at the same time, celebrate what we have in common. Art educators have a lot to learn from related disciplines of anthropology and sociology if we really want to advance the course of multicultural art education. Judith Blau (1988) argues that by focusing attention on the material and social conditions and functions that drive art production, sociologists of art are able to advance their understanding of why and how people make and use art. This approach will be relevant to multicultural art education because it expands understanding and appreciation of artistic productions from many cultures. African-centred art and knowledge can be integrated with other centred knowledge to achieve multicentric and inclusive education. Almost all visual art forms in traditional Africa are created for their utilitarian value. Thei