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An application of Novak’s theory to the design of a learning program in nutrition for children of the… Stanbury, Gladys M. 1979

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AN APPLICATION OF NOVAK'S THEORY TO THE DESIGN OF A LEARNING PROGRAM IN NUTRITION FOR CHILDREN OF THE EARLY PRIMARY LEVELS by GLADYS M. STANBURY Ed., (Elementary), Un i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 19 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Department of Science Education We accept t h i s thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA March, 1979 © Gladys M. Stanbury, 1979 I n p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an a d v a n c e d d e g r e e a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I a g r e e t h a t t h e L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e a n d s t u d y . I f u r t h e r a g r e e t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may be g r a n t e d by t h e Head o f my D e p a r t m e n t o r by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l n o t be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . D e p a r t m e n t o f SCIENCE EDUCATION The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a 2075 w e s b r o o k P l a c e V a n c o u v e r , C a n a d a V6T 1W5 Date March 12, 1979 i i ABSTRACT This study investigated an a p p l i c a t i o n of Novak's theory for the design of curriculum and i n s t r u c t i o n as outlined i n h i s book, A Theory of Education (1977) The theory deals with the development of a curriculum based on a hierarchy of concepts following Ausubel's (1968) notion of cognitive subsumption. Ordering within t h i s hierarchy begins with the most-general, most-inclusive concept and proceeds through a sequence to terminate with the most-specific, l e a s t - i n c l u s i v e ideas. Suitable i n s t r u c t i o n a l strategies and devices can then presumably be selected to teach the curriculum. The p a r t i c u l a r problem addressed by t h i s study was the a p p l i c a -t i o n of Novak's theory to the design of an i n s t r u c t i o n a l program to teach two s p e c i f i c , n u t r i t i o n a l concepts to a group of K / l c h i l d r e n ; the r o l e of sugar i n dental c a r i e s and i n obesity. A review of the l i t e r a t u r e indicated the prevalence of these diseases, t h e i r r e l a t i o n -ship to the dietary habits of c h i l d r e n , and the need to begin appropriate i n s t r u c t i o n i n n u t r i t i o n at an early age. Because the young subjects had l i m i t e d reading s k i l l s , a logo-character, "Sugar Shy," was created and the c h i l d r e n were taught how t h i s logo could be used to i d e n t i f y low-sugar foods. Novak's theory necessitated awareness of the children's concepts relevant to sugar and i t s dietary e f f e c t s p r i o r to the i i i planning of the curriculum. A cognitive assessment was made of each c h i l d before and a f t e r teaching the program. These assessments were based upon pictures drawn by the c h i l d r e n and t h e i r comments about them. The a b i l i t y of c h i l d r e n to c l a s s i f y low-sugar foods was also assessed. Results of t h i s study tended to show that Novak's model could be s u c c e s s f u l l y applied to the development of an i n s t r u c t i o n a l program. The subjects' knowledge of relevant n u t r i t i o n a l concepts, as determined by a post-assessment, increased by approximately 60% and t h e i r a b i l i t i e s to c l a s s i f y foods by 40%. It was argued that the theory should be applicable to any subject at any grade l e v e l . The outcomes also suggested a possible r o l e for Novak's work i n the pre-service and i n - s e r v i c e education of teachers and administrators. Novak's approach was viewed as a p o t e n t i a l l y valuable bridge between educational theory and classroom p r a c t i c e . i v TABLE OF CONTENTS Page ABSTRACT i i TABLE OF CONTENTS i v LIST OF TABLES v i i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS v i i i Chapter 1. INTRODUCTION 1 1.1 General Problem 1 1.2 D e f i n i t i o n s of Terms 3 1.3 Importance of the Problem 4 1.3.1 Background of the Study 4 1.3.2 Purpose of the Study.J :.x.- 5 1.3.3 Signi f i c a n c e of the Study 5 1.4 S p e c i f i c Problems to be Investigated 6 1.5 Limitations of the Study 7 2. LITERATURE REVIEW 9 2.1 Introduction 9 2.2 Novak's Model 9 2.3 Interpretation of Novak's Model 12 V Chapter Page 2.4 N u t r i t i o n Programs for the Primary Grades . . . . . . 22 2.5 Logo Teaching and Learning 24 2.6 Dental Caries 25 2.7 Obesity 26 2.8 Summary 27 3. DESIGN OF THE STUDY 28 3.1 Introduction 28 3.2 Outline of the Learning Program 28 3.3 Subjects 29 3.4 Pre- and Post-Program Cognitive Assessments . . . 29 3.5 The Learning Program 35 3.5.1 C u r r i c u l a r Design 35 3.5.2 I n s t r u c t i o n a l Design 37 3.5.3 Format of the I n s t r u c t i o n a l Program . . . 37 3.5.4 Learning Centre 39 4. OUTCOMES OF THE STUDY 40 4.1 Introduction 40 4.2 Results.of Pre- and Post-Program Cognitive Assessments 41 4.2.1 P i c t o r i a l Assessment of Subsumers . . . . 41 4.2.2 I d e n t i f i c a t i o n of Low-Sugar Foods . . . . 42 4.3 Outcomes of Individual Lessons 48 v i Chapter Page 4.4 Outcomes of Designing the I n s t r u c t i o n a l Program 48 4.5 Other Outcomes 50 4.5.1 Student Teachers 50 4.5.2 Other Teachers 50 4.5.3 Parents 51 5. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS 52 5.1 Conclusions 52 5.2 Recommendations 54 5.3 Summary 55 APPENDIX A - INSTRUCTIONAL PROGRAM 57 BIBLIOGRAPHY 106 v i i LIST OF TABLES Table Page 3- 1 Outline of the Learning Program 30 4- 1 P i c t o r i a l Assessments and Comments 43 4-2 Assessment of Food Sorting Tasks 45 v i i i ACKNOWLEDGEMENT S Several people have assi s t e d me i n the work of t h i s study. I g r a t e f u l l y acknowledge ..their .help. I am indebted to my thesis advisor, Dr. G.L. Erickson for his d i r e c t i o n and guidance and to Dr. W.B. Boldt for h i s support and encouragement as a member of my committee. Among the f a c u l t y and s t a f f of Baker Drive Elementary School, Coquitlam, B r i t i s h Columbia, I am g r a t e f u l f o r the help and cooperation extended to me by the K / l teacher, Miss Lynne Chesters, Mrs. Audrey Overbury and Mrs. Ruth Threinen. The invaluable assistance provided by my thesis t y p i s t , Maryse E l l i s i s appreciated. CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1.1 GENERAL PROBLEM No curriculum t h e o r i s t i n the past has shown the relevance of learning theory i n the design of curriculum . . . a p p l i c a t i o n of learning theories to curriculum design i s ambiguous at best. (Novak, 1977, p. 134) Joseph Novak, i n h i s book A Theory of Education, addressed the above issue of the lack of r e l a t i o n s h i p between learning theories and curriculum design. He drew predominantly upon the work of two t h e o r e t i c a l frameworks, Ausubel's (1968) theory of learning and Johnson's (1967) model for curriculum and i n s t r u c t i o n . In mapping out a correspondence between the c u r r i c u l a r and i n s t r u c t i o n a l theories of Johnson and the cognitive learning theory of Ausubel, Novak produced a unique model for designing i n s t r u c t i o n a l programs. (Hereafter, t h i s correspondence between Ausubel and Johnson w i l l be referred to as Novak's model). Novak argued that p r i o r to Johnson's work (1967), the texts produced by pioneers i n curriculum theory b u i l d i n g , Ralph Tyler (1949), George Beauchamp (1961), and H i l d a Taba (1962) , f a i l e d to 1 2 c l e a r l y d i s t i n g u i s h between curriculum and i n s t r u c t i o n . Johnson stressed the need to separate curriculum from i n s t r u c t i o n ; to sel e c t knowledge from the t o t a l , a v a i l a b l e culture and then to order t h i s knowledge into a curriculum. Appropriate i n s t r u c t i o n a l strategies were to be matched to t h i s curriculum. Ausubel stated that i f new knowledge i s to be learned i n a meaningful way then the new knowledge must be anchored to relevant concepts already within the learner's cognitive structure; he c a l l e d these anchoring concepts "subsumers." According to Ausubel: "The most important si n g l e factor i n f l u e n c i n g learning i s what the learner already knows. Ascertain t h i s and teach him accordingly." (Novak, 1977, p. 24) Ausubel's theory of subsumption required that i n s t r u c t i o n begin with the most general, most i n c l u s i v e concepts and proceed v i a a conceptual hierarchy to the most s p e c i f i c , l e a s t i n c l u s i v e concepts. Novak (1979) indicated that, to the best of h i s knowledge, no one other than u n i v e r s i t y researchers had applied h i s model to the design of a learning program; a search of the l i t e r a t u r e confirmed t h i s statement. The general problem of t h i s study was to apply Novak's model  to the design of an i n s t r u c t i o n a l program. 1.2 DEFINITIONS OF TERMS Concept An abstract general notion which describes some re g u l a r i t y or r e l a t i o n s h i p within a group of fa c t s . (Ref. Novak, 1977, p. 18) E.R.I.C. Educational Resources Information Center. A com-puterized data-base of references to l i t e r a t u r e i n the f i e l d of education. High-sugar Foods Foods which taste excessively sweet to c h i l d r e n , e.g., candies, p a s t r i e s , frozen desserts and ordinary soda pop. K/l Grades kindergarten and f i r s t grade combination; c h i l d r e n of ages f i v e to s i x years. Low-sugar Foods Foods which taste moderately sweet (or not sweet) to c h i l d r e n , e.g., fresh f r u i t s , unsweetened cereals, sugarless gum, and fresh orange j u i c e . Natural Sugar The sugar contained i n foods such as f r u i t , vegetables. Sugar The granulated product, e i t h e r white or brown sold i n grocery stores. 4 1.3 IMPORTANCE OF THE PROBLEM 1.3.1 Background of the Study N u t r i t i o n was chosen i n t h i s study as the subject for the design of a short learning program based upon Novak's model. During the 1976-78 school years I supervised n u t r i t i o n a l studies with c h i l d r e n of the primary grades and t h e i r parents. These experiences led to a further i n t e r e s t i n the problem of teaching n u t r i t i o n a l concepts to young c h i l d r e n and, l a s t summer, an extensive review of the l i t e r a t u r e was undertaken. This review generally indicated that there were no w e l l -documented studies of teaching/learning programs at the kindergarten and lower primary l e v e l s . (Schmidt, 1974, p. 74) Every program uncovered i n the l i t e r a t u r e was based upon the Four Food Groups approach, i . e . , bread and cereals, milk products, f r u i t s and vegetables, and meats. (Shapiro, 1974; Johnson, 1974; Warren, 1972) During a personal interview at the headquarters of the Society for N u t r i t i o n Education i n Berkeley, C a l i f o r n i a (1978), the d i r e c t o r commented that there was v i r t u a l l y nothing to be accomplished by attempting to teach n u t r i t i o n i n schools using programs which are based e n t i r e l y upon the Four Food Groups approach. 5 1.3.2 Purpose of the Study The purpose of t h i s study was to i n t e r p r e t and apply Novak's model to design a program to teach n u t r i t i o n a l concepts to c h i l d r e n of the kindergarten and f i r s t - g r a d e l e v e l s . 1.3.3 Significance of the Study As stated e a r l i e r , Novak documented the lack of d e l i b e r a t e a p p l i c a t i o n of learning theory to curriculum and i n s t r u c t i o n . With the p u b l i c a t i o n of A Theory of Education, Novak provided a possible route to connect theory with classroom p r a c t i c e . As with any theory, however, i t s r e l a t i o n s h i p to r e a l i t y must be established. This study represented an attempt to i l l u s t r a t e the p o t e n t i a l use of Novak's model i n the design of a learning program. While the study focused upon a r e l a t i v e l y small portion of a teaching program, there appeared to be no compelling reasons why the r e s u l t s could not be applied to the large scale c u r r i c u l a r and i n s t r u c t i o n a l design suggested by Johnson (1967). The Seattle Times of January 21, 1979, c a r r i e d two announcements regarding public hearings on what r e s t r i c t i o n s should be placed on the sale of "junk" food i n schools. A f t e r a ser i e s of sessions were held by the United States Department of A g r i c u l t u r e , the Department proposed a nat i o n a l p o l i c y to ban the sale of "competitive foods," such as candy, soda pop, frozen desserts and chewing gum, i n schools that p a r t i c i p a t e d i n the National School Lunch Program. Similar accounts i n our own media indi c a t e that problems of childhood 6 n u t r i t i o n are of equal concern i n Canada. "Results of the survey showed that only 1.4% of the schools (0.9% of the children) c a r r i e d only n u t r i t i o u s foods i n t h e i r vending machines." (Delaney, 1973) In view of the almost t o t a l lack of e f f e c t i v e n u t r i t i o n a l programs for the youngest c h i l d r e n within our public school system, (the most impressionable years) the choice of n u t r i t i o n a l concepts as the subject for a K / l i n s t r u c t i o n a l program seemed timely. I t was hoped that the successful completion of t h i s project, with i t s emphasis upon a l i m i t e d number of n u t r i t i o n a l concepts, might serve as a model for s i m i l a r programs to teach a d d i t i o n a l concepts. An i n s t r u c t i o n a l program, su c c e s s f u l l y taught and learned i n the early-primary years, might s i g n i f i c a n t l y a l t e r our national dietary habits. 1.4 SPECIFIC PROBLEMS TO BE INVESTIGATED The following s p e c i f i c questions were addressed i n t h i s study: (a) Can Novak's model be used to develop a learning package on n u t r i t i o n at the K / l l e v e l ? (b) What are the problems associated with the implemen-t a t i o n of t h i s learning package? (c) What subsumers do K / l c h i l d r e n hold regarding the r o l e of sugar i n n u t r i t i o n ; s p e c i f i c a l l y with respect to the problems of dental caries and of obesity? 7 (d) What concepts does a c h i l d need to meaningfully learn i n order to understand the r o l e of sugar i n dental caries and obesity? (e) Is the conceptual hierarchy, as derived from Novak's model, e f f e c t i v e i n presenting the concepts i d e n t i f i e d i n (d)? (f) What i n s t r u c t i o n a l s t r a t e g i e s , selected according to Novak's model, seem appropriate for the implementation of the curriculum determined i n (e)? (g) What r o l e might an invented character, a logo, play i n the development of the i n s t r u c t i o n a l program generated i n (f)? 1.5 LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY This study was subject to the following l i m i t a t i o n s : (a) The study was conducted with a small number of c h i l d r e n i n an upper-middle cla s s d i s t r i c t . These c h i l d r e n represented a mixture of h i g h - a b i l i t y f i r s t - g r a d e r s and u n c l a s s i f i e d kindergarten c h i l d r e n . (b) The learning package consisted of ju s t one section of a larger i n s t r u c t i o n a l program i n the area of n u t r i t i o n . 8 While these l i m i t a t i o n s should be considered when i n t e r p r e t i n g the r e s u l t s of t h i s study, t h e o r e t i c a l l y there should be no reason to deny a p p l i c a t i o n of the r e s u l t s of t h i s study to any subject at any grade l e v e l . CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1 INTRODUCTION This chapter reviews the l i t e r a t u r e i n four areas. F i r s t , a statement of Novak's model and i t s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n ; second, references to n u t r i t i o n a l educational programs for primary c h i l d r e n ; t h i r d , logo learning and f i n a l l y the r o l e of sugar i n dental caries and obesity. 2.2 NOVAK'S MODEL This material was reproduced i n i t s e n t i r e t y with the kind permission of the author. NOVAK'S MODEL FOR CURRICULUM AND INSTRUCTION Cu r r i c u l a r Design I n s t r u c t i o n a l Design Selection c r i t e r i a f o r knowledge i n our culture Stress on concepts implies need to i d e n t i f y major and minor concepts i n a f i e l d of study,. Ordering c r i t e r i a f o r knowledge selected Meaningful learning and progressive d i f f e r -e n t i a t i o n require the most general, most i n c l u s i v e concepts be presented early and subsequent information be provided to c l a r i f y meaning and show connections to subordinate concepts. (Recall d i s t i n c t i o n 9 10 Novak's Model for Curriculum and In s t r u c t i o n (continued) C u r r i c u l a r Design I n s t r u c t i o n a l Design Curriculum intended learning outcomes (ILO's) I n s t r u c t i o n a l planning system Selection of exemplars (instrumental content) between l o g i c a l arid psychological order i n Chapter 4). Superordinate learning and i n t e g r a t i v e r e c o n c i l i a t i o n require that subordinate concepts.be presented i n a manner that allows a s s o c i a t i o n with more i n c l u s i v e concepts (superordinate concepts), and meanings of apparently disparate concepts w i l l be c l a r i f i e d to show d i s t i n c t i o n s and r e l a t i o n s h i p s between subordinate concepts ( i n t e g r a t i v e r e c o n c i l i a t i o n ) . For young learners, care must be taken to assure that primary abstractions are a v a i l -able i n the learners' cognitive structures p r i o r to i n s t r u c t i o n i n concepts r e q u i r i n g secondary, abstractions. Although Johnson does not specify the form of ILO's, Ausubel's theory would indi c a t e that these should be concepts to be learned, for with them we e f f e c t meaningful learning. In other words, Johnson's "curriculum matrix" produced by the curriculum development system should be a matrix of concepts. To the extent possible, t h i s matrix should suggest h i e r a r c h -i c a l and subordinate r e l a t i o n s h i p s between concepts, although t h i s feature i s i n part confounded with the sequence i n which concepts are taught and the s p e c i f i c examplars used i n i n s t r u c t i o n . S k i l l s , a t t i t u d e s , and values should be considered e s p e c i a l l y as they bear on learning of the concepts s p e c i f i e d . Ausubel's theory requires that examples used meet the following conditions: (1) necessary motor s k i l l s are a v a i l a b l e or pr a c t i c e d , (2) relevant primary abstractions are a v a i l -able or taught, (3) secondary abstractions presented do not ignore (1) and (2) above, and 11 Novak's Model for Curriculum and I n s t r u c t i o n (continued) C u r r i c u l a r Design I n s t r u c t i o n a l Design (4) e x p l i c i t a s s o c i a t i o n between new l e a r n -ing and e x i s t i n g cognitive structure i s provided (cognitive bridging). Selection of teaching approaches Concrete props, when needed, require teach-ing approaches that introduce these props i n proper order. Development of primary and secondary abstrac-tions w i l l be somewhat i d i o s y n c r a t i c , hence teaching approach must allow for varying rates of learning, for a l t e r n a t i v e exemplars, v a r i a t i o n i n exposure to concrete props, and adjustment to motivation patterns of students. Actual learning outcomes Achievement w i l l be a function of the general cognitive maturation (degree of o v e r a l l cognitive structure d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n ) but p r i m a r i l y dependent on i n i t i a l or developed relevant subsumers i n learner's cognitive structure. Presence of meaningful learning set w i l l lead to growth i n relevant subsumers i n contrast to rote learning, and should f a c i l i t a t e problem solving c a p a b i l i t i e s to the extent that progressive d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n and i n t e g r a t i v e r e c o n c i l i a t i o n s of relevant con-cepts has occurred. Evaluation Rate of new learning w i l l depend on q u a l i t y of e x i s t i n g or developed relevant subsumers, and motivation for learning. Transfer of learning to new problem solving s i t u a t i o n s w i l l be a function of the degree of concept d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n , superordinate subsumption, and i n t e g r a t i v e r e c o n c i l i a t i o n achieved. Genie v a r i a t i o n i n learners w i l l be confounded with achievement of the above. Feedback to curriculum planning Concepts selected may require (1) more general cognitive structure development than t y p i c a l l y present i n the learners, (2) a l t e r n a t i v e 12 Novak's Model for Curriculum and Instr u c t i o n (continued) C u r r i c u l a r Design I n s t r u c t i o n a l Design Feedback to i n s t r u c t i o n sequences of concept presentation, (3) better c l a r i f i c a t i o n of r e l a t i o n s h i p s between con-cepts i n the matrix and/or better d e s c r i p t i o n of s a l i e n t aspects of the concept(s). F a i l u r e to achieve concept mastery (as e v i -denced by lack of transfer to novel, relevant problems) may indic a t e a curriculum problem as above or (1) poor s e l e c t i o n of exemplars (not e a s i l y or extensively linked to e x i s t i n g cognitive structure of l e a r n e r s ) , (2) i n -appropriate pacing leading to r o l e learning or f a i l u r e to lea r n (too fast) or boredom and decline i n motivation (too slow), (3) necessity for p r o v i s i o n for more motor s k i l l development, greater use of concrete props for primary concept development, more extensive development of secondary abstractions and/or r e l a t i o n s h i p s among the l a t t e r , (4) Selection of a l t e r n a t i v e i n s t r u c t i o n a l s t r a t e g i e s to better achieve above items, for example, t u t o r i a l assistance where e x i s t i n g relevant cognitive development of learners i s highly v a r i a b l e or unusually i d i o s y n c r a t i c . 2.3 INTERPRETATION OF NOVAK'S MODEL (a) Concept I d e n t i f i c a t i o n and Selection Novak's model i s b r i e f and e x p l i c i t on t h i s topic; the only problems presented had to do with i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of major and minor concepts. Novak (p. 142)"*" recommended Gowin's work to a s s i s t teachers "'"All page notations r e f e r to Novak, 1977. 13 to "unpack" the knowledge of a d i s c i p l i n e . Once "unpacked," the researcher i s supposedly able to i d e n t i f y major and minor concepts but neither Novak nor Gowin indicated the s p e c i f i c procedures for doing so. In the absence of prescribed c r i t e r i a to i d e n t i f y major and minor concepts the designer of an i n s t r u c t i o n a l program i s obliged to make purely a r b i t r a r y decisions regarding the r e l a t i v e importance of concepts. (b) Concept Sequencing Novak's model (p. 137) suggested that concepts must be considered according to t h e i r degree of g e n e r a b i l i t y and inclusiveness. Meaningful learning (p. 25) requires new information to be linked with e x i s t i n g concepts or "subsumers" (or, subsuming concepts). Progressive d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n (p. 86) consists of the development and elaboration of relevant, subsuming, subordinate concepts as a r e s u l t of the a s s i m i l a t i o n of new concepts, i . e . , as meaningful learning proceeds (p. 26). Advance organizers are concepts which are "more general, more abstract and more i n c l u s i v e " (p. 78) than the learning material that i s to follow. I f relevant subsumers are a v a i l a b l e , advance organizers act as a cognitive bridge to l i n k these subsumers with new material to be learned. If relevant, subsuming concepts are not a v a i l a b l e , advance organizers can anchor new learning and lead to the development of a subsuming concept which can function to f a c i l i t a t e subsequent relevant learning (p. 78). 14 Psychological ordering of concepts (pp. 94-96) requires not only the presentation of concepts from the general to the more s p e c i f i c but also that they be arranged to allow for i n t e g r a t i v e r e c o n c i l i a t i o n Novak (p. 90) has accepted Ausubel's notion of i n t e g r a t i v e r e c o n c i l i a -t i o n ; an e x p l i c i t exploration of r e l a t i o n s h i p s between concepts, noting s i g n i f i c a n t s i m i l a r i t i e s and differences and r e c o n c i l i n g r e a l or apparent inconsistencies. An i n s t r u c t i o n a l program must e x p l i c i t l y i l l u s t r a t e how new meanings compare and contrast with more r e s t r i c t e d e a r l i e r meanings, and how higher order concepts take on new meanings. "Integrative r e c o n c i l i a t i o n i s best achieved when i n s t r u c t i o n deals with concepts at a l l l e v e l s of the conceptual hierarchy i n a c y c l i c fashion" (p. 90). For example, i n the learning program developed i n t h i s study the most general, most i n c l u s i v e superordinate concept was, "We are what we eat." One of the most s p e c i f i c , l e a s t i n c l u s i v e subordinate concepts was, "Sugar can cause dental c a r i e s . " In the process of enabling the c h i l d r e n to meaningfully learn the r o l e of sugar regarding dental c a r i e s , a number of intervening concepts and exemplars were used. Lesson No. 1 i n Appendix I of t h i s report describes a lesson based upon children's experiences during " t r i c k i n g or t r e a t i n g " on Halloween. A comparison of ways of ordering the concepts found i n that lesson follows: 15 No. 1 We are what we eat. No. 2 There i s a v a r i e t y of foods. No. 3 Some foods are sweet No. 4 We tend to prefer sweet foods. No. 5 Sweet foods contain sugar. No. 6 Some foods may harm us. No. 7 Sugar can cause dental c a r i e s No. 8 Sugar can cause obesity. The above sequence may be considered as a more or le s s l o g i c a l ordering of concepts. What follows i s a psychological ordering of the concepts presented i n the lesson. (Numbers of the corresponding logically-sequenced concepts appear i n parentheses). The lesson was a discussion centred about what the c h i l d r e n had received at Halloween and what happened to i t . "We got a l o t of s t u f f . " (No. 2) "We l i k e the sweet things best." (Nos. 3 & 4) "My mommy would only l e t me eat one candy at dinnertime." (No. 6) "Sugar makes things sweet." (No. 5) "Sugar can give you c a v i t i e s . " (No. 7) "Sugar can make you f a t . " (No. 8) "Too much sugar i s not good for us." (No. 1 implied) In subsequent lessons a number of subordinate concepts were meaningfully learned, c o g n i t i v e l y l i n k e d , and underwent progressive 16 d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n : e.g., "Candies are sweet. Sweetness i s caused by sugar. Candies contain sugar. Sugar causes c a v i t i e s i n teeth. Candies cause c a v i t i e s . If you want to avoid c a v i t i e s avoid candies and sugar." Other exemplars (syrups, frozen desserts, soda pop) were also used. Thus the i n s t r u c t i o n dealt with concepts at d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s of the conceptual hierarchy i n a c y c l i c fashion. Similar treatment was given to the r o l e of sugar i n obesity. During the i n s t r u c t i o n a l program the superordinate concept, "We are what we eat," underwent i n t e g r a t i v e r e c o n c i l i a t i o n . By the end of the program several c h i l d r e n had asked about the role s of other foods, e.g., the natural sweetness of apples and oranges. As a r e s u l t of " c y c l i n g up and down the conceptual ladder" (p. 91) and encountering a number of exemplars, some c h i l d r e n began to show some i n d i c a t i o n of a grasp of the need for a v a r i e t y of foods and for some consideration of the kinds and amounts of foods consumed; the higher order concept had taken on new meaning for them. Novak's model (p. 138) indicated that primary abstractions must be present i n the learner's cognitive structure p r i o r to the introduction of concepts re q u i r i n g secondary abstractions. He considers primary abstractions (p. 121) as concepts whose meanings derive from s p e c i f i c , concrete, empirical props. The learning of primary concepts usually includes the a c q u i s i t i o n of verbal l a b e l s , e.g., "sugar." Secondary abstractions (p. 121) are concepts whose meanings are acquired by the learner applying the concept to exemplars rather than using exemplars to acquire the concept. For example, having learned that the presence of the Sugar Shy logo indicates a food with a 17 r e l a t i v e l y lower sugar content, and having seen the logo on a v a r i e t y of fresh f r u i t s , the learner can acquire the secondary abstraction that a l l fresh f r u i t s contain r e l a t i v e l y low l e v e l s of sugar. (c) Intended Learning Outcomes This topic appeared straightforward i n Novak's model (p. 138); learning outcomes are concepts to be learned. Novak (p. 151) pointed out one dilema i n curriculum and i n s t r u c t i o n a l planning. He warned, Any a r b i t r a r y curriculum planning decisions p e r t a i n -ing to the sequencing of concepts to be presented might r e s u l t i n undesirable or unmotivating i n s t r u c t i o n a l a l t e r n a t i v e s , and conversely, a r b i t r a r y decisions on topics or a c t i v i t i e s i n i n s t r u c t i o n a l planning might obviate any chance for concept d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n or i n t e g r a t i v e r e c o n c i l i a t i o n . The above statement was interpreted by t h i s i n v e s t i g a t o r to imply that the achievement of learning outcomes depends upon the h i e r a r c h i a l and subordinate r e l a t i o n s h i p s between concepts i n the curriculum matrix, the sequence i n which the concepts are presented, and the s p e c i f i c exemplars and strategies used i n i n s t r u c t i o n . (d) I n s t r u c t i o n a l Planning: Selection of Exemplars Four r e q u i s i t e s for examples used i n i n s t r u c t i o n were outlined i n Novak's model (p. 138). The only one of these which t h i s researcher considered i n need of further i n t e r p r e t a t i o n was item No. 2, "relevant primary abstractions are a v a i l a b l e or taught." 18 In the process of i n s t r u c t i o n a l planning a teacher usually makes some guesses, based upon p r i o r experience, regarding the relevant subsumers l i k e l y to be held by the intended learners. This i n v e s t i g a t o r decided to l a b e l such guessed-at subsumers as "assumed subsumers." In order to r e f i n e the i n s t r u c t i o n a l planning process i t i s necessary to assess the degree to which relevant subsumers are held, i . e . , to convert "assumed subsumers" into "confirmed subsumers" (author's term). Posner (1977) and the Cognitive Structure Group at Corn e l l U n i v e r s i t y outlined a number of ways of assessing cognitive structure (word as s o c i a t i o n , conceptual map and tree construction, the generation of propositions, c l i n i c a l interviews, and problem solving tasks). A l l of these techniques are time-consuming and they pose s p e c i a l problems for K - l ch i l d r e n who are f u n c t i o n a l l y i l l i t e r a t e . Some of these techniques (e.g., c l i n i c a l interviews) demand highly s k i l l e d p r a c t i t i o n e r s as well as time. (e) Selection of Teaching Approaches Novak (p. 138) stated. "Concrete props, when needed, require teaching approaches that introduce these props i n proper order." By "proper order," Novak (p. 154) indicated that experience with concrete props was required whenever the learner i s confronted with new concepts or with concepts that cannot be r e a d i l y associated with e x i s t i n g concepts i n cognitive structure, i . e . , with superordinate concepts of a more general, more i n c l u s i v e nature. He saw the dependence upon concrete props as a function of the degree of r e l a t i v e cognitive structure d i f f e r -19 e n t i a t i o n (p. 153). Further, he claimed that concept structure d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n i s to a large extent re l a t e d to age. Around twelve years of age most c h i l d r e n enter Piaget's stage of formal operations and can see the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between secondary abstractions without concrete props. According to Novak (p. 153) the need for concrete props was indicated whenever (regardless of age) the learner has inadequately d i f f e r e n t i a t e d cognitive structure i n the subject area. (f) Actual Learning Outcomes Novak's model (p. 139) stated that achievement was a function of the general cognitive maturation (degree of o v e r a l l cognitive struc-ture d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n ) that had occurred. These outcomes were considered to be p r i m a r i l y dependent upon the i n i t i a l or developed r e l a t i v e sub-sumers i n the learner's cognitive structure. Desired learning outcomes should include an increase i n numbers of r e l a t i v e subsumers accompanied by t h e i r progressive d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n and i n t e g r a t i v e r e c o n c i l i a t i o n The learner's problem-solving c a p a b i l i t i e s should be enhanced as a r e s u l t of t h i s learning. (g) Evaluation According to Novak (p. 188), "two kinds of evaluation are needed i n education." The f i r s t type, "summative evaluation" attempts to determine" what knowledge and s k i l l s an i n s t r u c t i o n a l program has imparted to students. The second type, "formative evaluation," i s a continuous monitoring of an i n s t r u c t i o n a l program as i t i s being developed to check on how well the i n s t r u c t i o n a l program 20 i s f u l f i l l i n g the purposes of the curriculum plan. Formative evaluation compares intended learning outcomes of an i n s t r u c t i o n a l program with the actual learning outcomes of i n d i v i d u a l students. Novak (p. 189) claimed that, educational evaluation, " i s i n a shambles." He c i t e d a lack of connection between evaluation and learning theory and curriculum theory or i n s t r u c t i o n a l theory. He suggested that i f Ausubel's learning theory were used as a base for evaluation theory then test items would measure concept d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n and i n t e g r a t i v e r e c o n c i l i a t i o n . In t h i s investigator's opinion, the work of the Cognitive Assessment Group of Posner (1977) could possibly make a s i g n i f i c a n t contribution to both formative and summative evaluation. This group has investigated a number of ways of assessing cognitive structure, i . e . , word ass o c i a t i o n , conceptual mapping, conceptual tree construc-t i o n , generation of propositions, p r o p o s i t i o n a l analysis of c l i n i c a l interview protocal, and problem solving tasks. (h) Feedback to Curriculum Planning Of the three considerations which Novak (p. 139) f e l t should be applied to curriculum r e v i s i o n as a r e s u l t of feedback from the outcomes of an i n s t r u c t i o n a l program, only the f i r s t one, "Concepts selected may require more general cognitive structure development than t y p i c a l l y present i n the learners," seemed to require i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . If a learning program did not produce the expected outcomes then one possible source of improvement might l i e i n an examination of 21 the subsumers held by the learners. Novak (p. 78) suggested that i f relevant, subsuming concepts were not present i n the learner's cognitive structure advance organizers could help develop these subsumers. Again, t h i s investigator was led back to a consideration of Ausubel's statement (Novak, 1977, p. 24) regarding the r o l e of subsumers as the most important single factor i n f l u e n c i n g learning. (i) Feedback to Instruction The most i n t e r e s t i n g feature of t h i s component of Novak's model (p. 139) was h i s reference to the assessment of concept mastery as evidenced by transfer to novel, relevant problems. According to Novak (p. 105), the most s a l i e n t issue i n an exploration of problem solving was how h i e r a r c h i a l l y arranged cognitive structures (conceptual structures) functioned. He postulated (p. 108) that good problem-solving a b i l i t y required well-defined concepts r e l a t i v e to the problem to be solved. The person considered good at solving new problems probably had a tendency to develop higher order concepts with great g e n e r a b i l i t y and inclusiveness which became relevant to a wide array of problems. Problem-solving a b i l i t y was also considered contingent upon the adequacy of p r i o r learning. In summary, Novak (p. 108) viewed problem-solving as e s s e n t i a l l y a s p e c i a l case of meaningful learning. For him, hope for improvement of problem-solving c a p a b i l i t i e s lay with improvement of the process of meaningful learning and i n rewarding successful problem-solvers more than rote memorizers. 22 This researcher surmised that the placement of concept-mastery, and i t s l i n k s with problem-solving, i n t h i s p a r t i c u l a r (terminal) section of the model indicated problem-solving as a device to be used i n formatively assessing an i n s t r u c t i o n a l program, i . e . , i f problem-solving c a p a b i l i t i e s were not enhanced, the program designer should re-examine the i n s t r u c t i o n a l component of the learning program. The remainder of t h i s section of Novak's model (p. 139) indicated s p e c i f i c areas of an i n s t r u c t i o n a l program to be considered i n such an examination. 2.4 NUTRITION PROGRAMS FOR THE PRIMARY GRADES Schmidt, i n summarizing an exhaustive review of the l i t e r a t u r e published between 1963 and 1973, stated: The l i t e r a t u r e about n u t r i t i o n education i s voluminous with contributions from educators, n u t r i t i o n -i s t s , p s y c h i a t r i s t s , and others. The l i t e r a t u r e contains substantial discussions about n u t r i t i o n but no research studies concerned with teaching n u t r i t i o n to kindergarten c h i l d r e n were found. (Schmidt, 1974, p. 29) A search of the most recent l i t e r a t u r e which included entries into 1978, produced r e s u l t s that tended to p a r a l l e l those of Schmidt, i . e . , materials and reports were found but evidence of research was lacking. The t o t a l number of E.R.I.C. entries dealing i n any way with the n u t r i t i o n of primary c h i l d r e n was l i m i t e d ; few of the references a v a i l a b l e were of value to t h i s study. The following references were considered relevant. 23 The concept that n u t r i t i o n education should begin early was supported by the work of Niedermeyer and Moncrief (1975). Johnson reported: Results of t h i s phase indicated that c h i l d r e n below the f i f t h grade might be more amenable to changes i n dietary habits and a t t i t u d e s due to n u t r i t i o n i n s t r u c t i o n . (1974, p. 12) Two reports, one by Project Head Start (1976) and the other a submission to the U.S. Federal Trade Commission by the Council on Children, Media and Advertising (1976) also stressed the need to provide n u t r i t i o n education i n the early years. Shapiro (1974), i n a report which evaluated a n u t r i t i o n s e r i e s presented v i a t e l e v i s i o n , indicated that the impact of the program appeared to decline with the age of the student. The i n c l u s i o n of multi-sensory a c t i v i t i e s i n n u t r i t i o n a l programs for young c h i l d r e n was recommended by Warren (1972),, Schmidt (1974) , and Mclntyre (1975). Another report by Project Head Start (1969) also supported t h i s view. Several references suggested that nutrition-education a c t i v i t i e s should be integrated with other subject areas, notably the work of Warren (1972), Karsch (1977), and Schmidt (1974) . A d d i t i o n a l support f o r t h i s r a t i o n a l e was provided by Perryman (1972) and by McAffee (1974) . 24 Mclntyre made one comment which hinted at the possible s u i t -a b i l i t y of an Ausubelian approach to the teaching of n u t r i t i o n : The c h i l d ' s maturation l e v e l and previous experiences determine what i s meaningful to him. (1975, p. 39) The idea of using a logo as a teaching device within a n u t r i t i o n a l program derived from the proposal made by the Council on Children, Media and Advertising (1976) . This report was based upon attempts to use a "N u t r i t i o n Computer" (a robot figure) to present n u t r i t i o n a l information to c h i l d r e n . The Council wanted the robot to appear i n T.V. food commercials directed at c h i l d r e n under twelve years. Only eight subjects were used i n t h e i r research. They attempted to use the logo to convey information about c a l o r i e s , proteins, vitamins, and minerals, simultan-eously, to four and f i v e year-olds by means of shading and numeric data. The r e s u l t s of t h i s 1976 project were obviously not convincing to fede r a l a u t h o r i t i e s (no such logo has yet appeared on commercial T.V.). 2.5 LOGO TEACHING AND LEARNING Since the use of a logo as an i n s t r u c t i o n a l device seemed appropriate to t h i s study, a review of the l i t e r a t u r e on t h i s topic was undertaken. A thorough search of the E.R.I.C. system and other appropriate l i t e r a t u r e revealed no studies on logo learning. The r e s u l t s of an E.R.I.C. search and a hand search of the card catalogues at the Univ e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia revealed no entries on, or rela t e d to, t h i s t o p i c . 25 2.6 DENTAL CARIES Ample evidence was found i n the l i t e r a t u r e to support the choice of dental caries as a subject for t e s t i n g Novak's model. N i z e l (1977) suggested that the most prevalent health problem i n the United States today i s "rotten" teeth. He estimated that the annual cost of t r e a t i n g dental c a r i e s exceeded four b i l l i o n d o l l a r s : an a d d i t i o n a l sixteen b i l l i o n d o l l a r s would be required to treat a l l of the c a v i t i e s i n the United States, i n the year 1977. In h i s advice to p a e d i a t r i c -ians he made the following recommendation: . . . emphasize to the mother the need for teaching and conditioning the c h i l d to eat well-balanced, varied, adequate di e t s of natural foods with np_ between-meal dental decay producing sugar-rich snacks. (1977, p. 155) In his work on d i e t and dental c a r i e s , Andlaw stated: Although various sugars are r e a d i l y broken down to acids by o r a l b a c t e r i a , sucrose i s considered to be the most important i n r e l a t i o n to dental c a r i e s . (1977, p. 47) In the conclusions to h i s research he indicated that the elimin-a t i o n of sucrose from the d i e t resulted i n almost complete arrest of dental c a r i e s . In a comparison of the snack-food eating habits of mothers and c h i l d r e n , Clancy (1977) examined the consumption of eighteen foods. 26 Sucrose was implicated as a major contributor to plaque formation and subsequent tooth decay. Of p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t were the negative c o r r e l a t i o n s between dental caries and the intake of f r u i t j u i c e s , f r u i t (apples and oranges), and sugarless gum. Although Clancy considered the r o l e of chewing gum i n the causation of dental caries questionable, she noted that the chewing of regular gum may be a good in d i c a t o r of the t o t a l use of sugar-rich foods i n snacks. 2.7 OBESITY As was the case with dental c a r i e s , evidence to i n d i c a t e the need for the i n c l u s i o n of obesity i n a n u t r i t i o n a l program for young ch i l d r e n was r e a d i l y obtained. G i f f t (1972) suggested that obesity i s the most widespread form of malnutrition i n the United States. (Because of s i m i l a r i t i e s i n d i e t there i s good reason to suspect that her findings apply equally to Canada.) According to G i f f t , i t i s w e l l documented that obese c h i l d r e n w i l l run a great r i s k of remaining obese a l l t h e i r l i v e s . Unfortunately, the author noted, the notion that a f a t c h i l d i s a healthy c h i l d i s s t i l l widespread. She suggested i t was unfair to encourage chubbiness i n a toddler and small c h i l d and then to suddenly condemn i t as he approaches adolescence. G i f f t ' s research indicated that the best hope for c o n t r o l l i n g obesity l i e s i n f i n d i n g ways to prevent i t . K n i t t l e (1975) proposed that a c r i t i c a l period of adipose ti s s u e development occurs somewhere between b i r t h and age two and t h i s time 27 period has important consequences for the future development of the s i z e of the f a t deposits i n the adult. He suggested that a second c r i t i c a l period occurs at the pubescent and adolescent periods. These findings tended to support the need for n u t r i t i o n a l education i n the primary grades. Indeed, K n i t t l e ' s data c l e a r l y indicated that d i e t a r y regimens i n childhood-onset obesity should be i n s t i t u t e d p r i o r to age s i x i f a l i f e l o n g h i s t o r y of obesity i s to be avoided. Yudkin (1972) showed that sugar supplies approximately one-f i f t h of the average eater's c a l o r i e s ; for c h i l d r e n , as much as f i f t y percent. He claimed that the consumption of sugar on top of an ordinary d i e t not only increased the r i s k of obesity but also the r i s k of n u t r i t i o n a l d e f i c i e n c i e s . Cleave (1975) contended that "the sole cause of obesity l i e s i n the consumption of ref i n e d carbohydrates." 2.8 SUMMARY The review of the l i t e r a t u r e indicated: 1. The r o l e of sugar i n the n u t r i t i o n of c h i l d r e n i s of i n t e r n a t i o n a l concern; 2. Sugar i s implicated as a major contributor to the diseases of dental caries and of obesity; and 3. There i s a need for nutrition-education programs aimed at the early-primary c h i l d . CHAPTER 3 DESIGN OF THE STUDY 3.1 INTRODUCTION This study explored an a p p l i c a t i o n of Novak's model of c u r r i c -ular and i n s t r u c t i o n a l design. Two tasks were completed; the design of a learning program to teach n u t r i t i o n a l concepts to K / l c h i l d r e n and, the teaching of t h i s program to a group of these c h i l d r e n . Pre- and post-program cognitive assessments of the subsumers held by the c h i l d r e n regarding the r o l e of sugar i n dental c a r i e s and obesity were made. The learning program required fourteen school days for i t s completion, including the two cognitive assessments. The teaching of the i n s t r u c t i o n a l program took twelve consecutive, d a i l y lessons of approximately half-hour duration. Each lesson was presented at the same time (1:30 p.m.) each day. 3.2 OUTLINE OF THE LEARNING PROGRAM An o u t l i n e of the learning program developed i n t h i s study appears as Table 3-1 of t h i s report. The format of t h i s o u t l i n e i s presented i n two columns and consists of the conceptual framework 28 29 (Novak, 1978, pp. 137-139) on the l e f t and teaching strategies on the r i g h t . The adaptation of the conceptual framework to the subject of sugar i n foods preceded the s e l e c t i o n of appropriate teaching s t r a t e g i e s . 3.3 SUBJECTS The subjects for t h i s study were an i n t a c t K / l c l a s s i n the researcher's school. There were fourteen kindergarten c h i l d r e n with heterogeneous learning c a p a b i l i t i e s , and ten f i r s t - g r a d e c h i l d r e n diagnosed i n the preceding month of June as having above average learning c a p a c i t i e s , as measured on l o c a l , d i s t r i c t - w i d e t e s t s . Most of the c h i l d r e n could count up to 100 and some had already completed the grade one reading program at the time the data was c o l l e c t e d (January-February). 3.4 PRE- AND POST-PROGRAM COGNITIVE ASSESSMENTS Id e n t i c a l pre- and post-program assessments of the cognitive structures of the learners was c a r r i e d out as follows: (a) Subsumers Relevant to Sugar, Dental Caries, and Obesity Evidence of these subsumers was gathered p i c t o r i a l l y and o r a l l y during a modified c l i n i c a l interview. Each c h i l d was brought into the unoccupied health room, seated at a table and a given a blank sheet of paper and a box of crayons. The c h i l d was then asked to draw a 30 TABLE 3.1 OUTLINE OF THE LEARNING PROGRAM Cu r r i c u l a r Design (Ordering of Concepts) I n s t r u c t i o n a l Design (Teaching Procedures) Lesson No. 1 Gathering of subsumers relevant to n u t r i t i o n Discussion re Halloween An overview presentation of con-cepts ( i ) to (x) Cutting out pictures of foods Lesson No. 2 Review of Lesson No. 1 Emphasis upon concepts ( i i ) , ( i i i ) , (iv) and (v) Sorting of pictures of sweet foods onto a red paper mat and not-sweet foods onto a green one 2A - Concept of red (stop) and green (go) as used i n t r a f f i c l i g h t s Discussion 2B - Concept of red (stop eating) and green (go ahead and eat) applied to foods 2C - Concept of natural sweetness* * - Concept introduced by c h i l d r e n Pictures from the red mat placed i n an envelope marked with a red s t i c k e r and the names of the pu p i l s ; those from the green mat into an envelope with a green s t i c k e r Lesson No. 3 Review of lessons No. 1 and No. 2 Emphasis upon concept 2C * - sugar content of composite foods based upon sugar con-tents of the components (candy apple) Discussion of a l l work to date Pupils work i n groups of 4: 2 pupils work with the green envelope from lesson No. 2; 2 with the red 31 Table 3.1 (continued) C u r r i c u l a r Design (Ordering of Concepts) I n s t r u c t i o n a l Design (Teaching Procedures) * - The dentist as a "helper" Lesson No. 4 (Optional a f t e r 4A) Review of Lesson No. 3 (extending back to the s a l i e n t concepts of Lessons No. 1 and No. 2) Emphasis upon concept 2A 4A - Concept of r e l a t i v e numbers of sweet and not-sweet items advertised (more items on the red posters) 4B - Concept of a bar graph (reviewed) 4C - Concept of counting by 10's to 100 (review for nearly a l l students) 4D - A symbol (sticker) on a graph representative of more than 1 item 4E - Concept of place values for numbers larger than 10 (review for some) Pupils paste pictures onto a poster board of the appropriate color Teacher discussion of work i n progress Teacher l a b e l s posters, "Sweet" and "Not Sweet" Comparison of numbers of items on red and green posters Counting of items on posters i n modules of 10 Placement of one s t i c k e r on bar graph for each module of 10 items Discussion of concepts that can be extracted from a bar graph 4F - Q u a l i t a t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p s (more than/less than) can be obtained from graphs 32 Table 3.1 (continued) C u r r i c u l a r Design (Ordering of Concepts) I n s t r u c t i o n a l Design (Teaching Procedures) Lesson No. 5 Review of Lesson No. 4 ( a l l n u t r i t i o n a l concepts back to Lesson No. 1) Emphasis upon concepts represented by the bar graphs Relationship of the graph to sweetness of foods Posters from Lesson No. 3 Bar graph from Lesson No. 4 Discussion 5A - "Sweet" synonymous with "high sugar" and "not-sweet" with "low sugar" 5B - Meaning and s i g n i f i c a n c e of "wink" Introduction of the "Sugar Shy" puppet 5C - meaning and s i g n i f i c a n c e of "shy" 5D - Configuration of the face of "sugar shy" Puzzle card No. 1 5E - Sugar Shy i s asexual Review of concept ( v i i ) Introduction of ACT I of "The Drama of Sugar Shy" Lesson No. 6 Review of Lesson No. 5 Emphasis upon 5A, 5B, 5C, and 5E Special emphasis upon 5D Discussion, Posters and Graph ACT I of the drama - d r i l l Review concept ( v i i ) Review concept 2D (natural sugars) Review of Puzzle Card No. 1 from Lesson No. 5 Creation of Sugar Shy puppets by c h i l d r e n 32 , Table 3.1 (continued) C u r r i c u l a r Design (Ordering of Concepts) I n s t r u c t i o n a l Design (Teaching Procedures) Lesson No. 7 Review of Lesson No. 6 Posters and Graph Reinforcement of concepts ( v i i ) and (ix) Discussion 7A - Meaning of the word "too" as used i n ". . . get too f a t " Introduction of the "Sugar Shy Song" 7B - Avoidance of offence to "plump" people Lesson No. 8 Review of s a l i e n t concepts to date Emphasis upon concepts ( v i i i ) and (iv) and 5A Review of the processes of observation and c l a s s i f i c a t i o n 8A - D i f f e r e n t i a t i o n and i n t e -grative r e c o n c i l i a t i o n of the word "shy" as used with sugar Posters and Graph New materials added to postets D r i l l ACT I - chorus D r i l l song with actions and puppets Introduce ACT II of the drama Lesson No. 9 Review of s a l i e n t concepts to date Emphasis upon concepts ( v i i i ) , and (ix) and 5A 9A - Discrimination between Sugar Shy and other faces Posters and Graph Discussion Review ACT I D r i l l ACT II 32 Table 3.1 (continued) C u r r i c u l a r Design (Ordering of Concepts) I n s t r u c t i o n a l Design (Teaching Procedures) 9B - Association of Sugar Shy with D r i l l song with actions and the color "green" puppets 9C - E x t i n c t i o n of the color red Presentation of Puzzle Card No . 2 Presentation of Puzzle Card No . 3 (Faces of Sugar Shy colored i n green) Lesson No. 10 Review of Lesson No. 9 Discussion, Posters and Graph Emphasis on concept 9A and 8A D r i l l of ACTS I and II Introduction of concept (x) The Sugar Shy logo can be Review of the.song . used to i d e n t i f y low-sugar foods Review Puzzle Cards No. 4 and No. 5 10A - Green equates with Sugar Drawing of Sugar Shy logos on the Shy who equates with low- green (low-sugar) posters sugar foods Association of Sugar Shy with the color green Lesson No. 11 Review of Lesson No. 10 Discussion Emphasis upon concepts, (x), 9C and 10A Posters with logos drawn on them Review of ACTS I and II Singing of the song Green, logo s t i c k e r s a f f i x e d to a new set of pictures 33 Table 3.1 (continued) C u r r i c u l a r Design (Ordering of Concepts) I n s t r u c t i o n a l Design (Teaching Procedures) Lesson No. 12 Review of Lesson No. 11 Posters with drawn logos Significance of the green, Pictures with green, logo s t i c k e r s Sugar Shy s t i c k e r s from Lesson No. 11 Processes of observation and Discussion c l a s s i f i c a t i o n Sorting of pictures into high and Test of concept mastery low-sugar p i l e s using the logo to i d e n t i f y the low A f f i x i n g Sugar Shy s t i c k e r s to p l a i n , wrapped packages Sorting of these packages Song 34 picture to show what might happen to a person who eats "a l o t of sugar." Upon completion of the picture they were asked to make a statement regarding the p i c t u r e ; these comments were written on each picture by the researcher and observers. This same task was assigned to the c h i l d r e n the day before and the day a f t e r the i n s t r u c t i o n a l program was presented. (b) Logo Learning and Food I d e n t i f i c a t i o n Part of the learning program involved teaching c h i l d r e n how to i d e n t i f y an invented logo character, "Sugar Shy," and the a p p l i c a t i o n of t h i s logo to i d e n t i f y foods with lower sugar contents. The degree of i n t e g r a t i v e r e c o n c i l i a t i o n of the concepts relevant to the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n and a p p l i c a t i o n of the logo was assessed by an exercise i n s o r t i n g . Since the subjects had no previous contact or experience with the logo there was no expectation that they would undergo i n t e g r a t i v e r e c o n c i l i a t i o n - of the logo i n the pre-assessment. The logo was used i n both assessments as a means of d u p l i c a t i n g the pre- and post-assessments i n an attempt to determine the extent to which any r e c o n c i l i a t i o n might have occurred as a r e s u l t of i n s t r u c t i o n . The subjects were i n d i v i d u a l l y confronted with an assortment of twelve d i f f e r e n t food products, s i x with r e l a t i v e l y high sugar content and s i x with r e l a t i v e l y low l e v e l s of sugar. The food items were placed i n exactly the same configuration for the s t a r t of every sorting exercise, see Appendix A. The s i x low-sugar items each c a r r i e d the "Sugar Shy" logo on a c i r c u l a r , green s t i c k e r , approximately 15 mm i n diameter. Three of the high-sugar foods c a r r i e d i d e n t i c a l green "Happy Face" s t i c k e r s and the remaining three, "Sad Faces." "Sugar Shy" "Happy Face" "Sad Face" Each c h i l d was t o l d that some of the foods on the table had, "a l o t of sugar" i n them, and others, "only a l i t t l e b i t , " of sugar. The subject was then asked to sort the foods into two containers; the, " l o t of sugar," p i l e and the, " l i t t l e b i t of sugar" p i l e . The time required to complete the task and also, the number of times a c h i l d changed his/her mind p r i o r to f i n a l placement were recorded. A c h i l d who had completed the task was not permitted to associate with those waiting to be tested. A sample of the pre- and post-assessment data sheet can be found i n Appendix A. 3.5 THE LEARNING PROGRAM 3.5.1 C u r r i c u l a r Design The f i e l d of human n u t r i t i o n i s so extensive that i t was necessary to r e s t r i c t t h i s study to the early childhood years. As 36 suggested i n Novak's model, the major and minor concepts to be taught were i d e n t i f i e d . A conceptual hierarchy was established which i t was hypothesized would r e s u l t i n the meaningful learning of these concepts by the ch i l d r e n . This hierarchy, beginning with the most i n c l u s i v e concept; follows: (i ) We are what we eat. ( i i ) There i s a v a r i e t y of foods. ( i i i ) Some foods are sweet. (iv) We tend to prefer sweet foods. (v) Sweet foods contain sugar. (vi) We cannot l i v e on sweet foods alone. ( v i i ) Some foods may harm us. ( v i i i ) Sugar can cause dental c a r i e s . (ix) Sugar can cause obesity. (x) A logo can be used to i d e n t i f y foods with lower sugar contents. A set of lesson plans based upon t h i s hierarchy was developed p r i o r to the s t a r t of the i n s t r u c t i o n a l program but modifications were made to these plans as the program was presented, i n response to p u p i l in-put and reaction. The f i n a l sequence of presentation of concepts within the learning program appears i n Appendix B. The Intended Learning Outcomes of Novak's Model as applied to t h i s program were r e s t r i c t e d to the learning of only two concepts, i . e . , the r o l e of sugar i n obesity and i n dental c a r i e s . An a n c i l l i a r y concept to be learned was the a p p l i c a t i o n of a logo to the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of low-sugar foods. 37 3.5.2 I n s t r u c t i o n a l Design The i n s t r u c t i o n a l planning for the program used i n t h i s study followed the recommendations of Novak's model. The researcher was aware of the motor s k i l l s possessed by the subjects and a l l manipulative tasks assigned were considered within t h e i r c a p a b i l i t i e s . A v a r i e t y of p h y s i c a l props, e.g., p i c t u r e s , charts, graphs, puppets and games, was used throughout the program and these were introduced at appropriate times. Integration with other subject areas, e.g., language a r t s , arts and c r a f t s , music and mathematics, were d e l i b e r a t e l y b u i l t into the program. An o u t l i n e of the i n s t r u c t i o n a l techniques used i n each lesson p a r a l l e l s the cognitive hierarchy and i s presented i n Table 3.1. 3.5.3 Format of the I n s t r u c t i o n a l Program The twelve lessons of the i n s t r u c t i o n a l program followed a common design. (a) Learning Objectives This section l i s t e d the p r i n c i p a l learning objectives of each lesson. (b) I n s t r u c t i o n Items i n t h i s section provided d i r e c t i o n to the researcher regarding the sequencing of the concepts to be presented and the teaching strategies and devices to be used. 38 (c) Notes In general, items under t h i s heading provided the r a t i o n a l e for the i n s t r u c t i o n a l format of each lesson. The r e l a t i o n s h i p s between items i n the lesson plan to Novak's model were indicated i n t h i s section. (d) Observer's Comments This researcher was fortunate i n that the presentation of each lesson was c r i t i c a l l y observed by at l e a s t two (sometimes more) adult observers who made notes on the progress and events of the lesson. This degree of observation occurred because the K / l c l a s s was assigned two student-teachers, i n addition to the classroom teacher, for the e n t i r e time of the learning program. Immediately following each lesson the observers de-briefed.the researcher and together t h e i r observations were discussed; a d d i t i o n a l observations were frequently added by the researcher. As a r e s u l t of these sessions the modifications were made i n the program as i t progressed. (e) Researcher's Comments This section contains the s a l i e n t outcomes of each lesson as perceived by the researcher. When possibl e , these outcomes were expressed i n terms of Novak's model. Many of these comments were suggestions and recommendations f o r the improvement of any successive attempts to teach the program. 39 3.5.4 Learning Centre A learning centre was established within the K / l classroom following the introduction of Sugar Shy i n Lesson No. 5. A t o t a l of s i x game-like a c t i v i t i e s were created for use by c h i l d r e n at the centre. Access to the centre for the K / l group was provided with the cooperation of the classroom teacher. The researcher's duties as p r i n c i p a l of the school did not allow more than the half-hour per day of i n s t r u c t i o n a l time but the creation of the learning centre provided c h i l d r e n with opportunities to review and to l e a r n at t h e i r own pace using a v a r i e t y of exemplars and i n s t r u c t i o n a l devices, i n keeping with the recommendations of Novak's model. In addition, the classroom teacher developed much of her own program about a n u t r i t i o n a l theme to r e i n f o r c e the work of t h i s program and maintain the i n t e g r a t i o n with other subject areas. A d e s c r i p t i o n of the learning centre and i t s a c t i v i t i e s i s included i n Appendix B. CHAPTER 4 OUTCOMES OF THE STUDY 4.1 INTRODUCTION The general problem of t h i s study was to apply Novak's model to the design of an i n s t r u c t i o n a l program. A number of s p e c i f i c problems as i d e n t i f i e d i n Chapter 1 were investigated. Novak's model was used to develop a learning program on n u t r i -t i o n at the K / l l e v e l . A number of the subjects were i n i t i a l l y f a m i l i a r with the r o l e of sugar as a causative agent i n dental c a r i e s but only s i x of the twenty-two subjects mentioned obesity i n the pre-program assessment; for others, an array of r e q u i s i t e subsumers was devised to permit cognitive bridging. A conceptual hierarchy was derived from Novak's model to present the r e q u i s i t e concepts to those c h i l d r e n who did not hold them i n i t i a l l y . Once the necessary con-ceptual hierarchy had been established, i n s t r u c t i o n a l s t r a t e g i e s deemed appropriate for the implementation of the curriculum were devised. A logo character was created i n accordance with Novak's recommendation of providing a v a r i e t y of exemplars and concrete props. 40 41 4.2 RESULTS OF PRE- AND POST-PROGRAM COGNITIVE ASSESSMENTS 4.2.1 P i c t o r i a l Assessment of Subsumers Children were instructed to draw a p i c t u r e to show the e f f e c t s of eating too much sugar and then to comment upon t h e i r drawings. Comments made by c h i l d r e n to the interviewer about each picture were analyzed to a s c e r t a i n references to obesity and dental c a r i e s . A remark such as, "Suzy was eating too much sugar. She got a hole i n her tooth," was considered as evidence of a subsuming concept regarding sugar and dental c a r i e s . "Pooh floated up to space with honey. He i s f a t , " was accepted as an awareness of a r e l a t i o n s h i p between the consumption of sweets and obesity. A comment such as, "I had a l i t t l e b i t of sugar i n my f e e t , " was interpreted as i n d i c a t i o n of a lack of confirmed subsumers regarding the r o l e of sugar i n dental c a r i e s and obesity. The r e s u l t s of. the assessment of the comments which accompanied the pictures are summarized i n Table 4.1. While the pre- and post-assessments were not considered as strong evidence of the effectiveness of the program, i t did provide some i n d i c a t i o n of change i n the subsumers held by the c h i l d r e n . The most obvious d i f f e r e n c e between the two assessments was the increase i n the numbers of c h i l d r e n who mentioned both dental ca r i e s and obesity from 0% (0/23) i n the pre-assessment to approximately 60% (15/23) i n the post. There was a decline i n the number of students who mentioned neither disease from 9 of the 23 (approximately 40%) to 42 zero i n the post-assessment. Only 3 p u p i l s , No. 8, No. 9 and No. 11 f a i l e d to show any difference i n t h e i r subsumers following the teaching of the program. Subject No. 22 was absent for the pre-assessment but present for the post-evaluation; her remarks were not included i n t h i s report. Some differences between the r e s u l t s of kindergarten c h i l d r e n and f i r s t - g r a d e r s were noted. In the f i r s t assessment only 36% (5/14) of the kindergarten subjects showed confirmation of relevant subsumers and a l l of these were r e s t r i c t e d to dental c a r i e s . However, 90% (9/10) of the f i r s t - g r a d e r s demonstrated awareness of some r e l a t i o n s h i p between sugar and dental caries or obesity i n t h i s same assessment. One of the concepts presented i n the hierarchy had to do with the u n s u i t a b i l i t y of sweet foods as the only items of d i e t . Although t h i s t r a n s i t i o n a l concept was not designed to be assessed, i t was noted with i n t e r e s t that the comment, "getting s i c k " appeared only once i n the i n i t i a l assessment but s i x times i n the f i n a l . 4.2.2 I d e n t i f i c a t i o n of Low-Sugar Foods The r e s u l t s of i d e n t i c a l pre- and post-program s o r t i n g tasks were assessed for the degree to which the subjects had meaningfully learned the concept of the logo character "Sugar Shy" as an i d e n t i f i e r of low-sugar foods. The r e s u l t s of these assessments are summarized i n Table 4.2 The data of Table 4.2 indicated several features of i n t e r e s t to t h i s researcher. 43 TABLE 4.1 PICTORIAL ASSESSMENTS AND COMMENTS Subj ect PRE-PROGRAM ASSESSMENT Concepts Mentioned Dental Caries (only) Obesity (only) Both Neither POST-PROGRAM ASSESSMENT Concepts Mentioned Dental Caries (only) Obesity (only) Both Neither 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 x x X GRADE ONE x X X X X X X X X X X X X X X Sub-Totals 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 x KINDERGARTEN x x X X X X X X X X X X 44 Table 4.1 (continued) Subject Dental Caries (only) Obesity (only) Both Neither Caries (only) Obesity (only) Both Neither 20 X X 21 X X 22 Absent for pre-evaluation - data excluded 23 X X 24 X X Sub-Totals 5 0 0 8 4 1 8 0 Group Totals 8 6 0 9 4 4 15 0 45 TABLE 4.2 ASSESSMENT OF FOOD SORTING TASKS PRE-PROGRAM ASSESSMENT POST-PROGRAM ASSESSMENT Al t e r a t i o n s Sorting A l t e r a t i o n s Sorting Incorrect of Time Incorrect of Time Subj ect Placements Placements (min) Placements Placements (min) GRADE ONE 1 2 0 2 0 0 1 2 4 0 5 0 0 3 3 2 0 3 0 0 2 4 6 1 3 0 0 1 5 5 1 3 0 0 3 6 3 0 2 0 0 1 7 4 0 2 0 0 1 8 6 0 2 9 0 2 9 6 0 2 5 0 2 10 1 0 4 0 0 2 Averages 3 3.9 0.2 2.8 1.4 0.0 1.8 KINDERG^ L R T E N 11 2 1 1 0 0 1 12 6 0 2 0 0 1 13 3 0 1 6 0 1 14 9 0 3 0 0 2 15 7 0 2 2 0 2 16 5 0 1 6 0 1 17 3 0 1 3 0 18 8 1 3 5 0 3 19 4 0 2 3 0 2 20 3 0 o 0 2 2 46 Table 4.2 (continued) PRE-PROGRAM ASSESSMENT POST-PROGRAM ASSESSMENT Alterations Sorting Alterations Sorting Incorrect of Time Incorrect of Time Subj ect Placements Placements (min) Placements Placements (min) 21 9 3 3 6 0 3 22 Absent f or pre-evaluation - date i excluded 23 3 0 2 3 0 2 24 9 4 3 8 2 4 Averages 5.5 0.7 2.0 3.2 0.3 1.5 Group Averages 4.8 1 0.5 2.4 2.4 0.2 1.9 47 (a) Incorrect Placements In the pre-assessment, none of the subjects c l a s s i f i e d a l l of the food items c o r r e c t l y . In the post-assessment twelve of the twenty-three subjects managed to sort a l l items c o r r e c t l y . The average number of errors i n placement committed by the group i n the pre-assessment (4.8) was double that of the post (2.4). The average numbers of errors committed by the kindergarten c h i l d r e n (5.5 i n pre; 3.2 i n post) were considerably larger than those of the f i r s t - g r a d e r s (3.9 i n pre; 1.4 i n post). Three subjects, No. 8, No. 13 and No. 16, showed an increase i n the number of inc o r r e c t placements i n the post-assessment; two remained constant, No. 17 and No. 23; the remaining eighteen subjects demonstrated a dec l i n e . (b) A l t e r a t i o n s of Placements Most c h i l d r e n showed l i t t l e evidence of in d e c i s i o n regarding placement, once they had made t h e i r i n i t i a l s e l e c t i o n s . The f i r s t -graders showed no v a c i l l a t i o n s i n the post-assessment. During the second assessment i t seemed to the researcher that some ch i l d r e n made p o s i t i v e choices but may have then been confused i n t r y i n g to remember which p i l e was for high-sugar and which for low-sugar items. No assistance was offered these subjects. (c) Sorting Times Sorting times were taken only to the nearest minute. There appeared to be v i r t u a l l y no dif f e r e n c e between the times taken by both groups i n ei t h e r assessment. The average times for the whole group may be considered as i d e n t i c a l (pre, 2.4 min; post, 1.9 min). 48 4.3 OUTCOMES OF INDIVIDUAL LESSONS For convenience, these outcomes were placed within the comments for each i n d i v i d u a l lesson as i t appears i n Appendix B. Since the researcher was unable to be present i n the classroom while c h i l d r e n were working at the learning centres, no outcomes have been reported. 4.4 OUTCOMES OF DESIGNING THE INSTRUCTIONAL PROGRAM The task of designing the i n s t r u c t i o n a l program yielded several outcomes of p o t e n t i a l value to the design process. As previously indicated, the i n s t r u c t i o n a l program was developed by following Novak's recommendations as c l o s e l y as possible, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n regard to the development of a conceptual hierarchy. The researcher found that t h i s procedure resulted i n clearer and more precise statements of objectives and once these had been defined the task of s e l e c t i n g s u i t a b l e i n s t r u c -t i o n a l s t rategies was r e a d i l y accomplished. Although a set of det a i l e d lesson plans was created by, these procedures the researcher's experience i n teaching K / l c h i l d r e n tempered the presentation of each lesson. In p r i o r teaching, recognition had always been given to the contributions of ch i l d r e n to the teaching/ learning s i t u a t i o n , but from the s t a r t of t h i s program the researcher was acutely perceptive and receptive to expressions of relevant subsumers. As a r e s u l t of the input of chi l d r e n , the conceptual hierarchy, while keeping i t s general format, was modified to accommodate the perceived needs of chi l d r e n . 49 In summary, the s p e c i f i c problems posed i n Chapter 1 contributed to the outcomes relevant to program design as follows: (a) The outcomes of the pre- and post-assessments indicated that the design was successful. (b) The researcher also taught concurrently, other subject material, e.g., science and l i t e r a t u r e to c h i l d r e n of the intermediate grades. Almost r e f l e x i v e l y she found h e r s e l f employing Novak's model to the design of lessons. Novak's theory was, i n f a c t , discussed with a small group of c h i l d r e n i n an enrichment c l a s s ; considerable understanding of the importance of subsumers was revealed i n conversation by these c h i l d r e n . (c) The design of the pre- and post-assessments pointed up the need for more sophisticated instruments for these purposes. For example, at times there were discrepancies between the observers' i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of a diagram and the c h i l d ' s dictated message about the diagram. (d) In the researcher's opinion, the originally-planned con-cepts supplemented by additions suggested by the c h i l d r e n e.g., "natural sugar," contributed to the program's success. Novak's theory would suggest that a r e s t r i c t e d array of concepts could lead to extensive rote-reception learning. The e f f e c t s of any v a r i a t i o n i n the number and/or sequence of concepts would require separate studies. 50 (e) The enthusiastic response of the ch i l d r e n to the logo, "Sugar Shy," contrary to the findings c i t e d i n the l i t e r a t u r e review, indicated the s u i t a b i l i t y and d e s i r a b i l i t y of incorporating such devices into i n s t r u c t i o n a l programs for the K / l l e v e l . 4.5 OTHER OUTCOMES 4.5.1 Student Teachers The two student teachers, who worked i n the K / l classroom during the development of the i n s t r u c t i o n a l program, received several u n a n t i c i -pated b e n e f i t s . They observed an experienced teacher preparing and presenting the lessons and then contributed to the on-going processes of assessment and modification of the program. These young teachers were impressed by the controls b u i l t into the project and the need to keep accurate and complete records. One of them repeated one of the lessons and her performance was videotaped by her colleague and l a t e r evaluated by both students and t h e i r sponsor. 4.5.2 Other Teachers As previously indicated, the K / l teacher developed much of her own classroom work around a n u t r i t i o n a l theme. A second-grade teacher also introduced the topic of n u t r i t i o n into her program. Both of these teachers provided " n u t r i t i o n a l " p a r t i e s on St. Valentine's day with low-sugar foods i n place of the t r a d i t i o n a l sweets. Several colleagues 51 throughout the d i s t r i c t expressed i n t e r e s t i n the i n s t r u c t i o n a l program and the outcomes of t h i s study. 4.5.3 Parents No attempts were made to involve parents d i r e c t l y i n t h i s study. The only communication with the home occurred i n c i d e n t a l l y when the chi l d r e n talked about what they were doing i n school. Parents who had occasion to v i s i t the school did mention the n u t r i t i o n a l studies and appeared highly supportive. CHAPTER 5 CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS 5.1 CONCLUSIONS The following conclusions were drawn from the experiences of designing and presenting the learning program used i n t h i s study. (a) Novak's model of c u r r i c u l a r and i n s t r u c t i o n a l design was suc c e s s f u l l y used to design a learning program on n u t r i t i o n at the K / l l e v e l . (b) The o v e r a l l outcomes of t h i s study tended to support the contention that t h i s theory can be applied to any subject at any grade l e v e l . (c) The learning program was implemented with few problems. The only problems of concern tended to be l o g i s t i c , e.g., the r e s t r i c t i o n of the researcher's time to one-half an hour per day. Any minor problems associated with the teaching of i n d i v i d u a l lessons have been d e t a i l e d i n Appendix C. (d) The K / l subjects i n t h i s study held some i n i t i a l , relevant subsumers regarding sugar, dental caries and obesity. 52 53 First-grade pupils appeared to hold more of these subsumers and these tended to be concerned with both diseases. The kindergarten c h i l d r e n seemed aware of the r o l e of sugar i n dental c a r i e s only. (e) A l l of the concepts presented i n the learning program appeared to be of value i n the ..meaningful learning of the two prime concepts. Those concepts incorporated into the c u r r i c u l a r design appeared to be both r e q u i s i t e and minimal. (f) The conceptual hierarchy was e f f e c t i v e i n presenting the concepts. The outcomes suggested that not a l l concepts were meaningfully learned by a l l c h i l d r e n . However, the fac t that none of the subjects i n i t i a l l y mentioned both obesity and dental c a r i e s but approximately 60% did so on the post-program assessment, was taken as p o s i t i v e i n d i c a t i o n of the program's eff e c t i v e n e s s . Further support was offered by data which showed a d e c l i n e ' i n the number of students who mentioned neither disease from an i n i t i a l 40% to zero i n the post-program assessment. (g) The i n s t r u c t i o n a l s t r a t e g i e s , selected according to Novak's model and d e t a i l e d i n Appendix C, appeared well-suited to the curriculum. (h) The "Sugar Shy" logo played a s i g n i f i c a n t r o l e i n the i n s t r u c t i o n a l program. The name and design of the logo appealed to ch i l d r e n . I t served as a thematic prop which aided the bridging of concepts and f a c i l i t a t e d the introduction of other teaching devices and st r a t e g i e s . The effectiveness of the logo as an aid to the i d e n t i f i -c a tion of low-sugar foods was attested to by the fac t that the food-sorting c a p a b i l i t i e s of the group increased by 40%. 5.2 RECOMMENDATIONS S p e c i f i c recommendations rel a t e d to i n d i v i d u a l lessons within the i n s t r u c t i o n a l program appear i n Appendix C. The following broad recommendations were based upon the t o t a l experience of t h i s project. 1. Replicate the study with d i f f e r e n t sized groups of K / l c h i l d r e n from a v a r i e t y of socio-economic s t r a t a . 2. Improve the design of instruments to assess the sub-sumers held by ch i l d r e n . Such instruments should be simple to administrate and provide immediate feed-back. 3. Replicate the learning program i n classrooms where teachers are a v a i l a b l e to c h i l d r e n during the enti r e school day. 55 4. Investigate the e f f e c t s of teaching the program over various periods of time. 5. Investigate, over time, the retention of concepts learned v i a the program. 6. Investigate and develop other n u t r i t i o n a l programs applicable to the primary grades, e.g., the possible r o l e of sugar i n h y p e r a c t i v i t y . 7. Explore ways of increasing parent involvement i n any n u t r i t i o n a l program, e.g., send assignment sheets to be completed at home; i n v i t e parents to a n u t r i t i o n a l "open house" at the beginning and the end of an i n s t r u c -t i o n a l program. 8. Produce publications to educate teachers and administra-tors about Novak's model. 5.3 SUMMARY The benefits which the researcher derived from t h i s study are numerous. As a r e s u l t of t h i s study the researcher developed an improved understanding and appreciation of the work of Dr. Novak. In addition to designing and teaching a learning program t h i s p r i n c i p a l has applied Novak's theory to the observation and evaluation of classroom teachers. I t has proved an e f f e c t i v e 56 device for analyzing the progress and outcomes of a lesson. In follow-up discussions the appraisal was explained to the teachers and constructive suggestions were r e a d i l y understood and well-received. The researcher has also applied the theory to evaluate scope and sequence charts for textbook s e r i e s . Novak's theory i s a p o t e n t i a l l y valuable t o o l f o r school administrators. In t h i s researcher's opinion, Novak's theory of education could provide teachers with a new mode of evaluating and improving current classroom p r a c t i c e s . During t h i s study, Novak's theory was explained to teachers and other colleagues and i t was favourably, and often, e n t h u s i a s t i c a l l y received. The i n t e r e s t expressed by these educators suggests that Novak's theory of c u r r i c u l a r and i n s t r u c t i o n a l design could p r o f i t a b l y form part of any teacher-education program, both pre- and i n - s e r v i c e . Novak's work has already offered much to help bridge the gap between educational theory and the design of learning programs. The p o s i t i v e responses of classroom teachers to even a l i m i t e d awareness of Novak's theory suggested to t h i s researcher what could be i t s most s i g n i f i c a n t implication; a bridge between educational t h e o r i s t s and classroom p r a c t i t i o n e r s . APPENDIX A INSTRUCTIONAL. PROGRAM Lesson No. 1 Obj e c t i v e s : To gather children's subsumers r e l a t i v e to the r o l e of sugar i n n u t r i t i o n . I n s t r u c t i o n : 1. "How many of you went out on Halloween?" 2. "What kinds of things did you get?" 3. "Which things were you allowed to eat?" 4. "When were you allowed to eat them?" 5. "What might happen to us i f we had only Halloween things to eat a l l the time?" Seatwork: Supply c h i l d r e n with magazines, papers, etc. Instruct them to cut out pictures of things s i m i l a r to (not n e c e s s a r i l y i d e n t i c a l ) with what they received on Halloween. Children work i n groups of four. Group places cut-outs i n an envelope. Notes: This lesson plan follows Novak's model i n the following ways: 57 58 1. The order of questioning i s psychological i n that i t begins with a general experience that i s l i k e l y common to a l l of the ch i l d r e n . It i s an experience enjoyable to p r a c t i c a l l y every c h i l d . 2. Discussions a r i s i n g from the questions provide some evidence of the subsumers held by the c h i l d r e n r e l a t i v e to sugar and n u t r i t i o n . 3. Question 5 either reviews or introduces the broadest concept of t h i s program, i . e . , we are what we eat. 4. The questions also follow a l o g i c a l progression. Observer's Comments: 1. Some c h i l d r e n experienced d i f f i c u l t y i n : (a) f i n d i n g pictures i n the magazines (b) c u t t i n g out pict u r e s , (pictures often too small for the degree of muscular coordination, e.g., one walnut) 2. Answers to question No. 5 dealt e x c l u s i v e l y with c a v i t i e s ( t h e i r term) and sickness. (No reference to obesity). The f i r s t set of drawings made by the c h i l d r e n as part of the pre-assessment did indic a t e some references to obesity (approximately 30%). Teaching time approximately 10 A c t i v i t y time approximately 20 minutes. minutes. Researcher's Comments: 1. The c h i l d r e n held many subsumers r e l a t i v e to sugar i n the d i e t . The subordinate concept of sugar and dental c a r i e s was most evident. The superordinate concept, "We are what we eat," was indicated to some degree by t h e i r remarks regarding "getting s i c k , " a r e s u l t of eating too many sweets. 2. The need for an extensive c o l l e c t i o n of magazines con-ta i n i n g s u i t a b l e pictures was indicated. 3. For those c h i l d r e n with poor muscular coordination a k i t of pre-cut, s u i t a b l e pictures could be prepared for s o r t i n g instead of c u t t i n g out. Novak's model indicated, "necessary motor s k i l l s must be a v a i l a b l e or p r a c t i c e d . " (p. 138) 4. If t h i s a c t i v i t y were extended over two or three sessions more subsumers might be e l i c i t e d and some concept d i f f e r -e n t i a t i o n might take place. Lesson No. 2 Objectives: 1. To review Lesson No. 1. 2. To c l a s s i f y pictures into sweet (sugared) and not-sweet (not-sugared) categories. 60 Instruction: 1. Talk about the pictures that the c h i l d r e n cut out at the end of Lesson No. 1. Identify examples of things that are sweet (sugared) and those that are not. Demonstrate and d r i l l . 2. Instruct c h i l d r e n to sort t h e i r pictures into two p i l e s . Things that they think are sweet go onto the red paper mat; pictures of things that are not sweet are placed on a green paper mat. Children work i n groups of four as before. 3. Teacher c i r c u l a t e s and a s s i s t s with c l a s s i f i c a t i o n , where necessary. 4. Each group placed items from red mat into red color-coded envelopes, items from green mat into green color-coded envelope. Seatwork: Children place t h e i r sorted pictures into the red (sweet) envelope and the green (not sweet) envelope. Notes: 1. The primary abstraction that sweetness i s due to sugar i s one of the subsumers needed for t h i s lesson. (This 61 subsuming concept appeared to be. held by a l l of the c h i l d r e n a f t e r the completion of Lesson No. 1 and the review of i t at the s t a r t of Lesson No. 2). Other assumed subsumers were the concepts of the colors red and green. (Check f o r color blindness). 2. I t i s e s s e n t i a l that c h i l d r e n understand the i n s t r u c t i o n s , hence the demonstrations and d r i l l i n item 1. 3. The colours red and green of the mats and envelopes corres-pond to the colors of t r a f f i c l i g h t s , with which most ch i l d r e n are f a m i l i a r . The r e i n f o r c i n g concept being developed i s , green for "go" (go ahead and eat) and red for "stop" (stop eating). An e x c i t i n g example of i n t e g r a t i v e r e c o n c i l i a t i o n occurred when the c h i l d r e n applied the sub-ordinate concept of red, "stop," green, "go," to begin b u i l d i n g the superordinate concept i n which the colors were applied to the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of foods. 4. Cognitive bridging i s provided i n the review of the previous lesson. (This bridging by review i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the s t a r t of each lesson i n t h i s program; no further mention i s made of t h i s feature). 5. The broad, most-inclusive concept, "we are what we eat" i s narrowed i n t h i s lesson to include the more subordinate concept that foods can be c l a s s i f i e d as sweet or not-sweet. 62 The review of Lesson No. 1 further d i f f e r e n t i a t e d the concept that we tend to l i k e sweet foods but we cannot l i v e on these alone. 6. The c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of foods as sweet or not sweet i s an a r b i t r a r y one. In t h i s lesson c h i l d r e n are taught to apply the "more or l e s s " p r i n c i p l e i n t h e i r d e l i b e r a t i o n s . In the event of a stalemate, the teacher decides, high, low, or discard. Observer's Comments 1. Children e a s i l y r e c a l l e d material of Lesson No. 1. 2. L i t t l e d i f f i c u l t y i n sorting and i n placing pictures on the appropriately colored mats. 3. Teacher's help was required by only four or f i v e p u p i l s . 4. Children cooperated well i n group work. 5. Children appeared highly interested, animated and responsive. 6. Much enthusiasm was generated with the c o r r e l a t i o n between the red and green mats and t r a f f i c s i g n a l s . 7. Development lead to introduction of term "natural".sugar. (Children's question regarding sweetness of apples). Researcher's Comments The ready r e c a l l of Lesson No. 1 was due In part to rote-reception learning but meaningful learning and concept d i f f e r e n -t i a t i o n were also taking place as evidenced by the fa c t that they were able to c l a s s i f y the pictures on the basis of previous discussions. Lesson No. 3 Obj ective: To review Lessons No. 1 and No. 2. Instruction: 1. Informal discussion of a l l work to date. 2. Stress the scheme for c l a s s i f y i n g foods as sweet or not-sweet. Refer to pictures that have been cut out. Seatwork: 1. Each group of four pupils has a red and a green envelope containing cut-out pictures (Lesson No. 2). Assign two pupils to work with the red envelope and two with the green. 2. Provide two poster-sized pieces of B r i s t o l board, one red and one green. Each group pastes i t s pictures on the appropriate poster. 3. Teacher c i r c u l a t e s ; discusses the task with the c h i l d r e n ; l a b e l s each poster with a f e l t pen (sweet, not-sweet). Notes: 1. Nothing new i s introduced i n t h i s lesson; progressive concept d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n takes place. 2. Item 5 provides a Language Experience approach to the teaching of reading and w r i t i n g . 3. The pause i n i n s t r u c t i o n allows for e x p l i c i t a s s o c i a t i o n between new learning and e x i s t i n g cognitive structures i . e . , cognitive bridging. Novak's model recommends con-s i d e r a t i o n of pacing on the way to achieving concept mastery. Capable students can a s s i s t the le s s capable (under teacher's d i r e c t i o n ) u n t i l concept mastery i s achieved. Enrichment for capable students may be pro-vided by asking them to cut out other sweet things not necess a r i l y present at Halloween. Observer's Comments 1. Review procedures appeared to o f f e r no problems i n under-standing green/go, red/stop as i t applied to sugar i n foods; well understood by most c h i l d r e n . 65 2. One c h i l d asked i f a candied apple would be considered sweet or not-sweet. Much discussion followed—concensus was that the apple i t s e l f was n a t u r a l l y sweet (low sugar) but the candied coating would be high sugar. Many expressed a reluctance to eat candied apples i n future. 3. Children raised the importance of dental v i s i t s to con t r o l and correct c a v i t i e s . Teacher led discussion around to the h e l p f u l r o l e played by d e n t i s t s . (Dentist not to be feared). 4. When asked, 10 of the 24 ch i l d r e n indicated that they had a sugar bowl on the table at home. 5. When asked i f they could use as much sugar from the bowl as they wanted one c h i l d r e p l i e d , "Yes, but I'm going to qui t . " Researcher's Comments 1. The ready acceptance of the s i g n i f i c a n c e of the red and green coding colors indicated further a s s i m i l a t i o n of t h i s concept and increased i n t e g r a t i v e r e c o n c i l i a t i o n . 2. The candied apple episode indicated the development of a secondary abstraction which suggested that composite foods should be considered on the basis of the sugar l e v e l s of 66 the components. Other examples were chocolate-covered r a i s i n s and peanuts. 3. The concept of the r o l e of the dentist as a helper was spontaneously introduced by the ch i l d r e n . The researcher c a p i t a l i z e d on t h i s i n t e r e s t and exploited the "teachable moment" and provided cognitive bridging between t h i s new learning and e x i s t i n g subsumers r e l a t i n g sugar to c a v i t i e s . 4. The "sugar bowl" question was not i n the lesson plan but again the researcher allowed the introduction of t h i s topic and knowingly went " o f f task." It was hoped that by so doing c h i l d r e n would begin to consider the a p p l i c a t i o n of the concepts presented i n the learning program to the home environment. 5. The one c h i l d ' s comment, "I'm going to q u i t , " implied support for in t e g r a t i v e r e c o n c i l i a t i o n of the super-ordinate concept, "We are what we eat." Lesson No. 4 Objectives: 1. Review Lesson No. 3. 2. Introduce bar graphing. 67 Instruction: 1 . Pin up a l l charts made by the ch i l d r e n . 2 . Teacher reviews and d r i l l s the words "sweet" and "not-sweet" and the sorting exercise. 3 . Teacher counts with c h i l d r e n the numbers of sweet and not-sweet items. 4 . Item for item, the teacher uses red and green s t i c k e r s to incorporate the foods represented on the charts into a large bar graph. Red (sweet) items tend to predominate. Stickers may be grouped into bunches of ten on the graph. Notes: 1 . The review indicated i n items 1 and 2 teach the ch i l d r e n some of the sources of sweet (sugared) and not-sweet (not sugared) foods. A s s i m i l a t i o n and in t e g r a t i v e r e c o n c i l i a t i o n of previous concepts took place. 2 . Integration with mathematics began i n items 3 and 4 . The concept of one-to-one correspondence may be new to many chi l d r e n . 3 . The concept of getting a mathematical (more than, le s s than), q u a l i t a t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p from a graph was also l i k e l y new 68 to many c h i l d r e n . This topic was a n c i l l a r y to the o v e r a l l objectives of the program and was not labored at that time. It was considered as merely an introduc-t i o n to graphs. Observer's Comments: 1. When questioned about the high-sugar items and what they might do, a l l c h i l d r e n mentioned c a v i t i e s or holes i n teeth and i n addition some pupils suggested they might "get f a t . " 2. The review discussion cycled back to Halloween and the words used to describe the high and low-sugar foods. The researcher stressed examples of foods containing natural sugar. 3. L i t t l e d i f f i c u l t y was encountered by most c h i l d r e n i n creating the two bar graphs based upon modules of ten items. Children were a c t i v e l y involved i n counting, putting on s t i c k e r s , answering questions. 4. Researcher introduced (ad hoc) the concept of place value, e.g., "2 groups of 10 and 1 l e f t over = 21 and now we already have 1 i n the 3rd group of ten. Therefore, we must begin counting at 22 for the next c h i l d who adds h i s t o t a l to the graph." Place value concept was apparently r e a d i l y under-stood by many of the grade-one c h i l d r e n . 69 Researcher's Comments: 1. I t was noted with i n t e r e s t that although the subsuming concept of sugar causing obesity was evident i n some of the pre-assessment drawings t h i s lesson marked the f i r s t time that i t was raised o r a l l y . 2. The concept d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n of high and low sugar foods was enhanced by the introduction of a d d i t i o n a l exemplars. 3. The sol v i n g of the bar graphing problem obviously involved a high l e v e l of concept d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n and well integrated secondary abstractions, i . e . , the a b i l i t y to group pictures into modules of ten and r e l a t e each module of ten to a colored s t i c k e r on the graph. Concept mastery was i d e n t i f i e d i n those c h i l d r e n who were able to tr a n s l a t e the graph data back into foods. It appeared to t h i s researcher that f i v e of the ch i l d r e n lacked the cognitive development to handle t h i s sophisticated concept. The researcher suspected these c h i l d r e n were learning much of the material by rote-reception only. Lesson No. 5 Obj e c t i v e s : 1. Review Lesson No. 4. 2. Introduce the hand-puppet, "Sugar Shy." Instruction: 1. Review the posters and the graph prepared i n Lesson No. 4. Stress the terms, sweet and not-sweet. 2. Introduce the c h i l d r e n to "Sugar Shy." Sugar Shy i s constructed as follows: (Using a 10 cm, cardboard disc) P l a s t i c Straw Front Back 3. Teach and d r i l l the meanings of, "wink" and "shy." 4. Introduce Act I of, "The Drama of Sugar-Shy" Teacher plays both roles as follows: 71 The Drama of SUGAR SHY ACT I T. What's your name? C. I'm Sugar Shy! T. That's a funny name. What does i t mean? C. I t means I don't eat too much sugar. T. How much sugar should you eat? C. Very l i t t l e . T. What did you say your name was? C. I'm Sugar Shy! (Or d i n a r i l y , T. w i l l be spoken by the teacher, and C. by the children.) Seatwork: 5. Have the c h i l d r e n complete Card No. 1. Explain the assignment by demonstration. Permit abler students to a s s i s t those needing help. Notes: 1. The work to date followed the Novak model by o f f e r i n g a v a r i e t y of concrete props, introduced at the appropriate times. Thus far the c h i l d r e n have dealt with p i c t u r e s , cut-and-paste posters, bar graphs, puppets and s t e n c i l s . 2. Pupils have many relevant subsumers at t h i s point, some i n i t i a l and some learned. A conceptual hierarchy i s 72 being created which includes at t h i s time: "We are what we eat;" foods can be c l a s s i f i e d as sweet and not-sweet; there are many sources of sweet foods a v a i l a b l e ; and the beginning of the concept that too many sweets may be unfavorable. 3. Enrichment could be offered i n item 5. Those who f i n i s h the assignment early can t r y drawing a body for Sugar Shy. Observer's Comments: 1. Review extended once again back to Halloween (Lesson No. 1). 2. Concepts represented by the graph appeared to be under-stood by most c h i l d r e n . 3. The d e f i n i t i o n s and s p e l l i n g s of the words "wink" and "shy," were taught by ro l e playing, e.g., "A new student i s some-times shy—show us how you might act as a shy new student." A l l c h i l d r e n practiced winking. 4. Sugar Shy puppet was introduced by researcher saying, "I have a new f r i e n d I would l i k e you to meet. My friend's name i s Sugar Shy." Researcher's Comments 1. The classroom teacher extended the introduction of graphing into the mathematics program of t h i s c l a s s . 2. Primary abstractions were developed for the words "shy" and "wink." Even though these words may have already existed as subsumers, the r o l e playing probably served to assimilate them into a f u n c t i o n a l primary concept; and perhaps to advance them toward secondary abstraction status, e.g., r o l e playing a shy student. 3. The phrasing of the introduction of Sugar Shy was d e l i b e r a t e l y chosen to avoid any sexual designation. Lesson No. 6 Obj ec t i v e s : 1. To review Lesson No. 5. 2. To have c h i l d r e n create t h e i r own Sugar Shy puppets. Instruction: 1. Re-teach ACT I of the drama. Review the meanings of the words, "shy" and "wink." 2. Review the s t e n c i l used i n Lesson No. 5. C A R D NO. 1 o 75 Seatwork: 3. Use i n d i v i d u a l diagrams of sketches No. 2, No. 3, and No. 4 of the s t e n c i l to test the a b i l i t y of i n d i v i d u a l students to c o r r e c t l y draw the face of Sugar Shy. 4. Give pupils green (go ahead and eat) c i r c l e s of B r i s t o l board, about 10 cm. i n diameter. Students who can do so should be encouraged to cut out t h e i r own c i r c l e s . 5. Have the ch i l d r e n draw the faces f o r t h e i r own Sugar Shy puppets and attach the p l a s t i c straw to the back with tape. 6. Go through ACT I of the drama with the ch i l d r e n using t h e i r hand-puppets and beginning to respond to the teacher's l i n e s . Notes: No new concepts are introduced i n t h i s lesson; r e p e t i t i o n , d r i l l and reinforcement of concepts already presented. Observer's Comments: 1. Students again expressed an i n t e r e s t i n t a l k i n g about natural sugars. The l i s t of examples was expanded to include common vegetables, e.g., carrots. 76 2. Researcher asked "What might happen i f Sugar Shy ate too much sugar?" T y p i c a l answers; "He might get too f a t , " and, "He would get holes i n h i s teeth." 3. One p u p i l directed the c l a s s i n the r e c i t a t i o n of Act I of the Sugar Shy Drama. 4. Children were given a green c i r c l e (already cut out, to save time) and drew i n the Sugar Shy face. Researcher's Comments: 1. The puppet Sugar Shy was introduced at what t h i s researcher considered to be an appropriate time according to the suggestion made i n Novak's model regarding the introduction of concrete props. Lesson No. 7 Objectives: 1. To review Lesson No. 6. 2. To introduce and teach the Sugar Shy song. Instruction: 1. Repeat the i n s t r u c t i o n of ACT I of the drama using the hand-puppets created i n Lesson No. 6. 77 2. Introduce the Sugar Shy song by singing i t to the chi l d r e n with the accompanying hand gestures. THE SUGAR SHY SONG (To the tune of "Mary Had A L i t t l e Lamb") Sugar Shy i s what I am What I am What I am Sugar Shy i s what I am I am Sugar Shy I don't want holes in.my teeth In my teeth I don't want holes i n my teeth I am Sugar Shy I don't want to get too f a t Get too fat Get too fat I don't want to get too f a t I am Sugar Shy Refrain: 1st verse 3. Teach and d r i l l the meaning of the word "shy" as used i n the song. Notes: 1. Do not embarrass pupils who are already over-weight. Point out that the song says not to get too f a t , (to respond to any taunts). 2. Music i s now incorporated into the program. The tune i s f a m i l i a r and the words simple and r e p e t i t i v e . Observer's Comments 1. Children grasped"; concept of the Sugar Shy Drama Act I. They used the puppet theatre and worked i n pair s to re-create the drama. 2. Researcher introduced Sugar Shy Song by humming tune f i r s t and then adding the words. Children soon joined i n . They appeared to enjoy the r e p e t i t i o n . Researcher's Comments 1. The introduction of music obviously motivated c h i l d r e n to learn the words and thereby extend the progressive d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n and i n t e g r a t i v e r e c o n c i l i a t i o n of previously learned relevant concepts. According to Novak's model, motivation for learning can enhance the rate of new learning. Lesson No. 8 Obj ec t i v e s : 1. To r e i n f o r c e the r o l e of sugar regarding c a v i t i e s and obesity. 2. D r i l l ACT I. 3. D r i l l the song. 4. Introduce ACT I I . Instruction: 1. Discuss the e f f e c t s of too much sugar upon the teeth and body weight, use the charts. 2. D r i l l ACT I i n chorus, using puppets and gestures. 3. Sing the song, using the actions and puppets. Suggest one p u p i l as the choir leader (teacher gets them started and then withdraws). 4. Introduce ACT II i n the same way that ACT I was handled, i . e . , teacher plays both r o l e s and uses a puppet. ACT I I : The Drama of Sugar Shy T. "What's your name?" C. I'm Sugar Shy! 80 T. That's a funny name. What does i t mean? C. I t means I don't eat too much sugar. T. What happens i f you eat too much sugar? (a l o t of sugar) C. I may get f a t . T. What else may happen i f you eat (a l o t of) too much sugar? C. I may get holes i n my teeth T. Do you want to get f a t and have holes i n your teeth? C. No! T. What did you say your name was? C. I'm Sugar Shy! Notes: 1. A review of the processes of observation and c l a s s i f i c a t i o n can be c a r r i e d on during the use of the charts; e.g., "What have I added to your green charts?" 2. Encourage c h i l d r e n to begin bringing pictures of other foods that they think could go onto the charts both red (HI) and green (LO). 3. I t may seem that the pace i s slow; i t i s . Children at t h i s age l i k e and need to make progress by a form of incremental r e p e t i t i o n . A . At about t h i s time, the teacher begins to use the comparison, "Sweet or sugared" and Sugar Shy," i n addition to the already 81 established, "Sweet" and "Not sweet," c l a s s i f i c a t i o n l a b e l s . This comparison d i f f e r e n t i a t e s the meaning of the word, "shy," as used with sugar. Observer's Comments: Lesson proceeded well according to plan. Enthusiasm of pupils continued high. Researcher's Comments: 1. D i f f e r e n t i a t i o n of previously learned concepts con-tinued . 2. Genie v a r i a t i o n appeared to.cause no problems i n the learning of the words of the song and drama. 3. In addition to rote-reception learning, opportunities were provided for discussions which enhanced concept d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n . Lesson No. 9 Obj e c t i v e s : 1. Review ACT I. 2. D r i l l ACT I I . 82 3. Evaluate the a b i l i t y of the c h i l d r e n to i d e n t i f y the Sugar Shy logo. 4. Review the song. Instruction: 1. Choral treatment of ACTS I and II with puppets. Teacher and c h i l d r e n i n i t i a l l y . Student leader appointed for ACT I I ; another to review both acts. Seatwork: 2. Assign worksheets s i m i l a r to the Creature Cards of the E.S.S. u n i t , "Attribute Games and Problems," (1975). (a) Card No. 1 "Color Sugar Shy green." (Card contains three faces, Sad, Happy and Sugar Shy) (b) Card No. 3 A row of three faces of Sugar Shy. "Each of these i s Sugar Shy." Trace them i n green, next, A row of three Sad faces. "None of these i s Sugar Shy." next, A row of three faces, 2 Sad and 1 Sugar Shy. "Which of these i s a Sugar Shy?" Trace Sugar Shy i n green. 83 Notes: 1. Children are now being asked to discriminate between Sugar Shy and other faces. This use of the processes of observation and c l a s s i f i c a t i o n w i l l a s s i s t the ch i l d r e n to d i f f e r e n t i a t e the features of Sugar Shy. The v i s u a l product enables the teacher to t e l l which c h i l d r e n have mastered the learning of the logo. Observer's Comments: 1. Every c h i l d i n the class s u c c e s s f u l l y colored Sugar Shy green - Card No. 1. 2. Three pupils f a i l e d to color the l a s t row c o r r e c t l y by marking the f i r s t f i g u r e i n the row green - Card No. 2. A l l other faces were c o r r e c t l y colored. Researcher's Comments 1. The v i s u a l presentations of the c h i l d r e n permitted the researcher to quickly i d e n t i f y those c h i l d r e n who had not yet developed the primary abstraction of the con-f i g u r a t i o n of the Sugar Shy logo. C A R D ^ o 85 Card No. 3 SUGAR SHY Trace them i n green. None of these i s Sugar Shy. Which of these i s Sugar Shy? Trace Sugar Shy i n green. Lesson No. 10 Objectives: 1. Review of Lesson 9. 2. D r i l l ACTS I and I I . 3. Review the song. 4. Review foods low i n sugar. Instruction: 1. Choral work on song and ACTS as before. New student leaders selected. 2. Review the green charts to stress foods that are of low sugar content. Use the term "Sugar Shy" to help describe these. Draw attention to the Sugar Shy logos drawn on the charts. Review the meaning or message that t h i s log conveys. Seatwork: 3. Review the previous day's work with the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n cards ( s t e n c i l s ) . Assign two new cards as follows: (a) Card No. 4. A row of Sugar Shy (3) "Each of these i s a Sugar Shy." Trace green. A row of three Happy Faces. "None of these i s a Sugar Shy." A row of two Sugar Shys and one Happy Face. "Trace every Sugar Shy i n green." (b) Card No. 5. Same, except second row has 2 Sad and one Happy. Last row has 1 of each kind of face. Notes: 1. If ch i l d r e n cannot read, the d i r e c t i o n s for the cards can (successfully) be given o r a l l y . 2. Tracing Sugar Shy i n green re i n f o r c e s the use of green as the background color for the low-sugar (sugar shy) charts, i . e . , they are learning to associate green with Sugar Shy and Sugar Shy with sugar-shy foods. 3. Let those who have f i n i s h e d early o f f e r assistance i f needed. Ob s erver's C omment s: 1. Researcher reviewed Happy, Sad and Sugar Shy faces with board work p r i o r to assigning Card No. 3. After Card No. 3 was completed the outcomes were discussed. A mini lesson took place with c h i l d r e n who appeared to need help (5); others proceeded to Card No. 4. A l l c h i l d r e n com-88 pleted both cards during the a l l o t e d lesson time. Abler students w i l l i n g l y a s s i s t e d the slower p u p i l s . Researcher's Comments 1. Once again the p i c t o r i a l work aided the researcher i n deter-mining the l e v e l s of concept d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n of the c h i l d r e n . 2. It appeared that f i v e c h i l d r e n were experiencing d i f f i c u l t y . However, working with them on a one-to-one basis and o f f e r -ing a few cues improved t h e i r performance. (Refer back to comments i n Lesson No. 4). 3. Children asked i f they could color non-sugar shy faces red. This indicated that they might be using the red/green, stop/ go color-coding concept to sort foods. Lesson No. 11 Objectives: 1. Review of Lesson No. 10. 2. Review ACTS I and I I . 3. Review the song. 4. Introduce the Sugar Shy s t i c k e r s on p i c t u r e s . 89 Card No. 4 Each of these Sugar Shy. Trace i n green. None of these i s Sugar Shy. Trace every Sugar Shy i n green. 90 Instruction: 1. Choral work on ACTS I and II as before. 2. Class presented with pictures and containers of foods not previously discussed. Teacher discusses the materials with the ch i l d r e n ,and a f f i x e s a green, Sugar Shy s t i c k e r on the sugar-shy foods with the lower sugar l e v e l s . Children take turns s t i c k i n g them on. Pictures and products are l e f t a v a i l a b l e to c h i l d r e n between lessons. 3. Close as usual with the song. Notes: 1. The introduction of the s t i c k e r s reinforces the concept that a green, Sugar Shy logo can serve as an i n d i c a t o r of food with a lower sugar l e v e l . 2. Stress upon the color green and the extinguishing of the color red i s a deliberate attempt to overcome the c o l o r -code dependency detected i n Lesson No. 10, i . e . , at t h i s stage the program i s only concerned with the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of low-sugar foods by means of a green logo. Observer's Comments 1. Researcher asked during review: (a) " I f I had a food with only a l i t t l e b i t of sugar added to i t would I put a sugar shy s t i c k e r on i t ? " Response: "Yes!" 91 (b) "What kind of a s t i c k e r do we put on any that has only a l i t t l e b i t of sugar i n i t ? " Response: "Sugar Shy." (c) "Would you put a Sugar Shy s t i c k e r on a chocolate bar?" Response: "No!" (d) "How can you be sure that a food has a low-sugar l e v e l ? " Response: " I f i t had a Sugar Shy s t i c k e r on i t ! " (e) "What color i s a Sugar Shy s t i c k e r ? " Response: "Green." 2. Few errors were committed i n sorting and a f f i x i n g s t i c k e r s . (Same f i v e c h i l d r e n needed extra help). Researcher's Comments 1. The ease with which most c h i l d r e n sorted and applied the st i c k e r s was evidence to t h i s researcher of concept mastery, i . e . , the a b i l i t y to solve a novel problem. This mastery indicated w e l l - d i f f e r e n t i a t e d primary abstractions and a high l e v e l of integ r a t i v e r e c o n c i l i a t i o n of secondary abstractions. Lesson No. 12 Objectives: 1. Review of Lesson No. 11. 2. Test of concept mastery. 92 Instruction: 1. Review the products and pictures which were l a b e l l e d with the Sugar Shy s t i c k e r s i n Lesson No. 11. D r i l l the s i g n i f i c a n c e of the s t i c k e r as an i n d i c a t o r of sugar-shy foods. 2. Children required to assign Sugar Shy s t i c k e r s to one-half of the unmarked boxes and then sort out those which contain (supposedly) low sugar foods. 3. Provide a d d i t i o n a l pictures and products for the c h i l d r e n to l a b e l with Sugar Shy s t i c k e r s . Seatwork: 4. Children sort products and pictures into two p i l e s ; those with Sugar Shy s t i c k e r s and those without. Teacher c i r c u -l a t e s to check on the a b i l i t y of the class to do t h i s s o r t i n g . Assistance, as needed, by teacher and those who have completed the task. 5. Close with the song. Notes: 1. Teacher checks to make sure that the sorting i s not being done merely on the basis of the presence or absence of the logo. The s i g n i f i c a n c e of the logo r e l a t i v e to sugar content should be checked. 93 2. During the discussions as to which foods should be l a b e l l e d with the s t i c k e r s , the ch i l d r e n are learning the names of items of food which are i n both the high and low-sugar groups. This i s not one of the objec-t i v e s of the program; i f . i t happens, consider i t a bonus! Do not d r i l l or test f o r i t at t h i s time. Observer's Comments 1. Researcher presented c h i l d r e n with an assortment of twelve various sized packages wrapped i n p l a i n paper. Sample Questions: (a) "We don't know what i s i n t h i s box. Suppose I t e l l you that i t contains a low-sugar food. Which s t i c k e r would you put on the box?" Response: "I'd put on a Sugar Shy s t i c k e r . " Teacher i n v i t e d c h i l d to do so. Next item was said to con-t a i n a high-sugar food. Children agreed that i t would not receive a Sugar Shy s t i c k e r . Procedure repeated u n t i l h a l f of the items c a r r i e d the Sugar Shy logo. (b) Researcher asked, "Suppose you went into a store and found a l l of these packages on the she l f . Which of these packages would contain low-sugar foods?" Response: " A l l the ones with Sugar Shy s t i c k e r s . " 94 2. One c h i l d said that he could eat anything that was i n the family freezer because h i s mother had put a Sugar Shy s t i c k e r on i t . 3. Most c h i l d r e n appeared to have mastered the concept of the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of the logo and i t s s i g n i f i c a n c e as an i d e n t i f i e r of low-sugar foods. Researcher's Comments 1. This researcher was pleased with the apparent l e v e l s of success displayed by the c h i l d r e n during t h i s summative exercise. 2. It appeared that most c h i l d r e n understood that excess sugar consumption could contribute to dental c a r i e s and to obesity. Further, they seemed to appreciate the r o l e that the Sugar Shy logo could play i n a s s i s t i n g them to i d e n t i f y low-sugar foods. 3. This researcher f e l t the c h i l d r e n were now ready for the post-program assessment of t h e i r cognitive structure v i s - a - v i s sugar and n u t r i t i o n . 95 LEARNING CENTRE During the i n s t r u c t i o n a l program a learning centre was set up for the c h i l d r e n to use on t h e i r own. The materials at the centre were changed from time to time. The backdrop for the centre consisted of a white, c e n t r a l portion containing a large, green Sugar Shy logo, flanked by a red poster of higher-sugar foods and a green poster of lower-sugar foods. The green poster also c a r r i e d several Sugar Shy faces as part of the background. The s t a t i o n was introduced a f t e r the c h i l d r e n had encountered Sugar Shy i n the program, i . e . , soon a f t e r Lesson No. 5. A c t i v i t i e s and materials f o r the centre are presented as follows: A c t i v i t y No. 1 "FIND SUGAR SHY" This a c t i v i t y i s designed to teach c h i l d r e n to discriminate between the Sugar Shy logo and other s i m i l a r faces, thereby imprinting and r e i n f o r c i n g the a t t r i b u t e s of the logo. Form (a): 1. Children are presented a bundle of eight envelopes, numbered from one to eight. 2. Each envelope contains a p a i r of cards. One card c a r r i e s the Sugar Shy logo, the other a face which i s s i m i l a r but not i d e n t i c a l . 96 3. Children compare the sketches with the large logo of Sugar Shy on the backdrop and decide which two drawings correspond. 4. A c h i l d i n doubt i s instructed to seek the aid of a classmate. If these two cannot resolve the problem then a t h i r d c h i l d i s i n v i t e d to a s s i s t . If these three are unsuccessful then the teacher's help i s sought. 5. Sketches are returned to the Numbered envelope, (cards carry numbers which correspond to the envelope). Envelope No. Sketches 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 97 Form (b) of A c t i v i t y No. 1: 1. Faces presented three at a time. 2. Faces are drawn on fl a p s of green c l o t h ( f e l t ) pasted by the top edge to a card (minimum s i z e of card i s 5" x 7"). 3. Ch i l d looks at a l l three faces at once, - decides, - l i f t s f l a p to check. If correct a Sugar Shy s t i c k e r i s found under the f l a p . 98 Form (c) of A c t i v i t y No. 1: 1. Ch i l d examines 9 faces at once. 2. Child decides which face(s) are Sugar Shy and l i f t s the f l a t to confirm by the presence of the Sugar Shy s t i c k e r . 5. Sketches are returned to the numbered envelope. (Cards carry numbers which correspond to the envelope). Envelope No. Sketches 100 Form (b) of A c t i v i t y No. 1: 1. Faces presented 3 at a time. 2. Faces are drawn on flaps of green c l o t h ( f e l t ) pasted by the top edge to a card (minimum s i z e of card i s 5" x 7 " ) . 3. Child looks at a l l three faces at once, - decides, - l i f t s f l a p to check. If correct a Sugar Shy s t i c k e r i s found under the f l a p . Card No* 1 Card No. 2 Card No. 3 Card No. 4 101 Form (c) of A c t i v i t y No. 1: 1. Ch i l d examines 9 faces at once. 2. Child decides which face(s) are Sugar Shy and l i f t s the f l a p to confirm by the presence of the sugar Shy s t i c k e r . 102 A c t i v i t y No. 2: "SUGAR SHY IN THE DARK" 1. Children are confronted by an empty cardboard carton l y i n g on i t s side, the bottom toward them. 2. Two hand-holes are cut i n the bottom of the box and covered by a c l o t h or paper f l a p pasted to the bottom of the box. 3. A partner places two cards f l a t , inside the box, and a c h i l d places both hands through the holes and f e e l s the surfaces of the cards. The cards have been prepared (by children) by drawing a face, pouring glue on the ou t l i n e and then s p r i n k l i n g sand into the glue before i t d r i e s . This r e s u l t s i n a raised and roughened outline of each face. 4. Cards are prepared with a Happy Face, a Sad Face and a Sugar Shy logo, (two of each). 5. Any two cards are presented at any one time. 6. Begin with one Sugar Shy and one of the others (e.g., sad). Next, Sugar Shy and a Happy Face (If c h i l d r e n encounter d i f f i c u l t i e s ) . 7. Child i s required to i d e n t i f y the faces by touch. 103 A c t i v i t y No. 3: 'I'M ALL SUGAR SHY!" Form (a) of A c t i v i t y No. 3: Materials: 10 sugar cubes daubed with yellow (1 color) 10 sugar cubes daubed with black (another c o l o r ) . (Do not use red or green for these c o l o r s , they are coded for higher and lower sugar l e v e l s . ) 1 paper or styrofoam cup as a "garbage can." 1 pair of dice, made from sugar cubes, with opposite faces daubed with opposite colors (e.g., a yellow face always opposes a black face) Each player has a card outlined i n one of the co l o r s . Each card has 10 numbered, Sugar Shy logos on i t . The game i s set up on the f l o o r as follows: 0 Garbage Can o 0 0 o o 0 o 0 Yellow Card o o o 0 Black o 0 0 o o 0 0 o of the Sugar Shy logos on the yellow card i s covered by one of the yellow sugar cubes. S i m i l a r l y , for the black. Rules of Play: 1. One player picks up the dice, one i n each hand, while the other looks away. 104 2. Player who looked away has to guess which hand has the color of dice corresponding to h i s card. If successful he wins f i r s t toss of the dice. 3. The object of the game i s to get r i d of your sugar cubes by putting them i n the "garbage can" and thereby expose ALL of your Sugar Shy logos and become ALL Sugar Shy. Winner declares, "I'm ALL Sugar Shy!" 4. Dice are r o l l e d . If the player r o l l s and get two faces of h i s color up, then he places one of h i s sugar cubes (No. 1) i n the "garbage can." If one of each color of face comes up he gets another turn. If two of h i s opponents colors come up he loses h i s turn and the dice go to the opponent. Form (b) of A c t i v i t y No. 3 "I'M ALL SUGAR SHY!" Equipment as before, except: Each die i s marked with one c o l o r . One face of each cube i s marked with a si n g l e dot, the face opposite with two dots. One player becomes "odd" or "even" for the game (decided by the f i r s t throw of the d i c e ) . Rules of Play: 1. To discard a sugar cube the "odd" player must r o l l an odd number i n h i s color. S i m i l a r l y f o r the "even" player. 105 The following rules apply to the outcome of a throw: 2. color correct, odd or even correct, discard a sugar cube; 3. color correct, odd or even i n c o r r e c t , take another turn; 4. color i n c o r r e c t , odd or even correct, take another turn; 5. color i n c o r r e c t , odd or even i n c o r r e c t , lose a turn. Form (c) of A c t i v i t y No. 3 "I'M ALL SUGAR SHY" (For c h i l d r e n who can count up to 12) 1. Use regular dice or sugar cubes so marked (no color coding necessary). 2. Each player becomes, "over 7" or "under 7" for the game (decided by the f i r s t throw of the d i c e ) . 3. To win the p r i v i l e g e of discarding a sugar cube into the "garbage can" you must r o l l over or under 7, whichever. 4. R o l l 7 and the player gets another turn. 5. R o l l i n c o r r e c t l y and lose the dice to the opponent. 106 BIBLIOGRAPHY Andlaw, R.J. "Diet and Dental Caries - A Review," Journal of Human  N u t r i t i o n . 1977, 31, 1, 45-52. Ausubel, David P. Educational Psychology: A Cognitive View. New York: Holt Rinehart and Winston, 1968. Beauchamp, George A. Curriculum Theory. Wilmette, 111.: Kagy Press, 1961, 1968. Clancy, Katherine L. e_t a l . "Snack Food Intake of Adolescents and Caries Development," Journal of Dental Research. 1977, 56, 6, 568-573. Cleave, T.L. The Saccharine Disease. New Canaan, Connecticut: Keats Publishing Inc., 1975. Council on Children, Media and Advertising "To the Federal Trade Commission i n the Matter of a Trade Regulation Rule on Food/ N u t r i t i o n A d vertising." 1976. Available from U n i v e r s i t y Microfilms, Ann Arbor, Michigan. ED 135 456. Delaney, I. " J e t t i s o n Junk Vendors," Canadian Consumer. January 1973, 262. Elementary Science Study Program of the Educational Development Corporation. A t t r i b u t e Games and Problems. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1975. G i f f t , Helen H. et a l . N u t r i t i o n , Behavior and Change. Englewood C l i f f s , New Jersey: P r e n t i c e - H a l l Inc., 1972. 107 Johnson, Glenda N. (Ed.) "Optimizing the Effectiveness of School Food Programs for Feeding and Educating Children i n Northern Carolina: Technical Report." 1974. A v a i l a b l e from Uni v e r s i t y Microfilms, Ann Arbor, Michigan. ED 099 347. Johnson, Mauritz, J r . " D e f i n i t i o n s and Models i n Curriculum Theory," Educational Theory. 17, 2, 127-140. Karsch, Brearley B. " N u t r i t i o n Education i n Day Care," Journal of  Home Economics. 1969, 4, 14-17. K n i t t l e , Jerome L. Childhood Obesity. (Myron Winick, ed.). New York: John Wiley and Sons, 1975. McAfee, O r a l i e et_ a l . "Cooking and Eating with Children: A Way to Learn," Association for Childhood Education International. 1974. Available from Un i v e r s i t y Microfilms, Ann Arbor, Michigan. ED 100 534. Niedermeyer, Fred C. and Moncrief, Michael H. "Primary Graders Study N u t r i t i o n , " Elementary School Journal. 1975, 5, 304-310. N i z e l , A.E. "Preventing Dental Caries: The N u t r i t i o n a l Factors," P e d i a t r i c C l i n i c s of North America. 1977, 24(1), 141-155. Mclntyre, Margaret. "Preschool and Science: Science i s Eating," Science and Children. 1975, 12, 5, 38. Novak, Joseph D. A Theory of Education. I t h i c a , New York: Co r n e l l U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1977. Perryman, John N. "The School Administrator and the Food Service Program," National Association of Elementary School  P r i n c i p a l s . Stock No. 181-05602, 1972. 108 Posner, George J . "The Assessment of Cognitive Structure." Unpub-l i s h e d Research Report No. 5, Co r n e l l U n i v e r s i t y , 1977. Project Head Start. " N u t r i t i o n Education f o r Young Children: Adventures i n Learning - A Guide f o r Teachers and Aides," 1969. Available from U n i v e r s i t y Microfilms, Ann Arbor, Michigan, ED 121 458. Project Head Start. " N u t r i t i o n , Better Eating f o r a Head S t a r t , " 1976. Avai l a b l e from Uni v e r s i t y Microfilms, Ann Arbor, Michigan. ED 135 497. Schmidt, Carolee A.A. "The Development and Evaluation of a Kinder-garten N u t r i t i o n Guide Based on Opinions of Oklahoma Kindergarten Teachers Toward N u t r i t i o n Education," 1974. Avai l a b l e from U n i v e r s i t y Microfilms, Ann Arbor, Michigan. ED 120 563. Shapiro, Sydelle S. et a l . An Evaluation of the Mulligan Stew 4-H  T e l e v i s i o n Series for Extension Service, U.S.D.A. Vol. I I : Report of the Study. United States Department of A g r i c u l t u r e , 1974. Taba, H i l d a . Curriculum Development: Theory and P r a c t i c e . New York: Harcourt Brace and World, 1962. Tyle r , Ralph W. Basic P r i n c i p l e s of Curriculum and Instruction. Chicago: U n i v e r s i t y of Chicago Press, 1949, (1969, 29th impression). Warren, Glenda. " N u t r i t i o n and the Senses," Science and Children. 1972, 9, 5, 22-24. Yudkin, John. Sweet and Dangerous. New York: Peter H. Wyden Inc., 1972. 

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