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An analytic philosophy of design and design education : major paradigms and implications for art & design.. 1989

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AN ANALYTIC PHILOSOPHY OF DESIGN AND DESIGN EDUCATION: MAJOR PARADIGMS AND IMPLICATIONS FOR ART & DESIGN EDUCATION by RAYMOND DOUGLAS ARNOLD A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Department of V i s u a l & Performing A r t s i n Educat i o n We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the r e q u i r e d standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA August, 1989 © Raymond Douglas A r n o l d , 1989 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. VISUAL- -» P 6 R * = © B * M M6> Department of A f e T S 'M. EDPCA~T7QM The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada DE-6 (2/88) ABSTRACT T h i s study i s based on the premise that both the t h e o r e t i c a l and p r a c t i c a l work of c u r r i c u l u m development r e q u i r e s the support of g e n e r a l l y understood and agreed concepts and terminology. The use of the term 'design' w i t h i n the f i e l d s of d e s i g n methodology, a r t & de s i g n education, and the design p r o f e s s i o n s i s a n a l y z e d f o r the purpose of d i s t i n g u i s h i n g and c o r r e l a t i n g the v a r i o u s domains of att a c h e d meanings. T h i s ' A n a l y t i c Philosophy' seeks to c l a r i f y to what extent the term 'design' i s r e l i a b l e when a p p l i e d t o the task of de t e r m i n i n g the purpose and content of d e s i g n - r e l a t e d a c t i v i t i e s w i t h i n a r t c u r r i c u l a . Two major paradigms r e l a t e d t o the notio n s of d e s i g n as a 'problem-solving-process' and as a 'basic human c a p a c i t y ' are i s o l a t e d and o f f e r e d as dominant o r i e n t a t i o n s towards design methodology and d e s i g n c u r r i c u l u m development. Assumptions, b e l i e f s , c l a i m s , and c o u n t e r - c l a i m s seen t o u n d e r g i r d these paradigms are mapped and analyzed along with the d e s i g n - r e l a t e d content of Canadian p r o v i n c i a l secondary a r t c u r r i c u l u m guides. I t i s shown that the term 'design' commonly f i n d s d i f f e r e n t meanings w i t h i n d i f f e r e n t c o n t e x t s and that agreement r e g a r d i n g the meaning of the term i s d i f f i c u l t to e s t a b l i s h both w i t h i n and a c r o s s the v a r i o u s design and a r t & design education domains. I t i s a l s o e v i d e n t that many of the cl a i m s which work to support the t h e o r e t i c a l frameworks of the paradigms cannot be s u b s t a n t i a t e d . I t i s concluded that the n o t i o n of 'design', as a r e s u l t , remains c o n c e p t u a l l y and c o n t e x t u a l l y vague and ambiguous. I t i s f u r t h e r concluded t h a t while such c o n c e p t u a l c o n f u s i o n might be of l i t t l e consequence to the p r a c t i c a l a c t i v i t i e s of the design p r o f e s s i o n s , i t can serve to com p l i c a t e and i n h i b i t communications and work p a r t i c u l a r l y r e l a t e d to design e d u c a t i o n i s s u e s and c u r r i c u l u m development. There f o r e the term 'design' i s seen as u n r e l i a b l e when a p p l i e d to the task of de t e r m i n i n g the purpose and content of d e s i g n - r e l a t e d a c t i v i t i e s w i t h i n a r t c u r r i c u l a . TABLE OF CONTENTS ABSTRACT i i ; I. INTRODUCTION 1 A. A PERSONAL PERSPECTIVE 1 B. BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY 9 C. THE LANGUAGE OF ART EDUCATION 15 D. RATIONALE FOR THE STUDY 21 E. PURPOSE OF THE STUDY 23 F. DESIGN OF THE STUDY 29 G. DATA SOURCES 32 H. DEFINITIONS OF TERMS 33 I I . DESIGN CONCEPTUALIZED 35 A. HISTORICAL OVERVIEW 35 B. DESIGN AS PROBLEM-SOLVING 49 C. SUB-CONCEPTS 66 a. Need 66 b. Problem 69 c. C r e a t i v i t y 77 D. PROBLEM-SOLVING AS A BASIS FOR DESIGN EDUCATION CONCEPTS 88 E. DESIGN AS A BASIC HUMAN CAPACITY 97 a. Concept of 2nd Generation Methods ... 109 b. Concept of 3rd Generation Methods ... 113 F. CURRICULUM STATEMENTS 117 a. Content A n a l y s i s of P r o v i n c i a l Art C u r r i c u l u m Documents 119 I I I . ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION 126 IV. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS 136 V. REFERENCES . . 1 59 I. INTRODUCTION A. A PERSONAL PERSPECTIVE Twenty-five years of experience as a design student, design p r a c t i t i o n e r , and design i n s t r u c t o r has l e d t h i s author to one b a s i c c o n c l u s i o n - i n d e a l i n g with design and design e d u c a t i o n - r e l a t e d i s s u e s , concepts, and language, many d e s i g n e r s , design and a r t education t h e o r i s t s , and classroom t e a c h e r s appear confused about both the b a s i c nature of design and the meanings of a s s o c i a t e d t e r m i n o l o g i e s . Having d e a l t with a wide range of design and design education i s s u e s a c r o s s v a r i o u s d i s c i p l i n e s i n c l u d i n g a r c h i t e c t u r e , commercial and i n d u s t r i a l d e s i g n , stage and d i s p l a y d e sign, f i l m p r o d u c t i o n , and design s t u d i e s at the secondary and post-secondary l e v e l s , I have come to recogn i z e that communications about design theory, a c t i v i t i e s , and programs are o f t e n complicated or s e r i o u s l y impaired by the vague and ambiguous nature of the b a s i c term 'design'. At t h i s time I f i n d l i t t l e reason to argue with Ken Bayne's (1976) c o n t e n t i o n that how one d e f i n e s design depends on what one wants to accomplish. Those who work i n a r c h i t e c t u r e or commercial d e s i g n , f o r example, might be guided by a t a c i t , g e n e r a l agreement r e g a r d i n g the nature and f u n c t i o n of the design p r o c e s s , or they might work i n 1 INTRODUCTION / 2 accordance with r e c o g n i z e d methodologies which might be only a p p r o p r i a t e to t h e i r p a r t i c u l a r d i s c i p l i n e . For a r t i s t s , c raftsmen, and d e s i g n e r s i n other f i e l d s , the i s s u e of being guided by understood and agreed d e f i n i t i o n s and concepts of design may be of l i t t l e consequence - the having or not having of which would not i n f l u e n c e t h e i r work i n any s i g n i f i c a n t way. For a r t and design educators however, the i s s u e might encompass somewhat d i f f e r e n t concerns and i m p l i c a t i o n s . Design e d u c a t i o n t h e o r i s t s such as Ken Baynes and Bruce Archer (1976) have drawn a t t e n t i o n t o what they p e r c e i v e to be s i g n i f i c a n t problems r e l a t e d to both the vagueness of the concept of design and c o n f u s i o n over the meanings of important terms. The e x i s t i n g d i v e r s i t y of n o t i o n s and assumptions which can be found a c r o s s d e s i g n - r e l a t e d d i s c i p l i n e s l e a d s , they maintain, to circumstances i n which the term design can c a r r y s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t meanings, imply d i f f e r e n t g o als and o b j e c t i v e s , and i n f l u e n c e and govern design procedures or c u r r i c u l u m development i n d i f f e r e n t ways w i t h i n d i f f e r e n t domains. My own p r o f e s s i o n a l e x p e r i e n c e tends to support these views. When an a r c h i t e c t r e f e r s t o 'good design' or 'design c r i t e r i a ' he/she might be a l l u d i n g to q u a l i t i e s and requirements q u i t e d i f f e r e n t i n nature and i n t e n t from those p i n p o i n t e d by a f i n e a r t s INTRODUCTION / 3 i n s t r u c t o r when c r i t i q u i n g the 'design c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s ' of a p a i n t i n g or drawing. For a commercial or i n d u s t r i a l designer the a ct or process of d e s i g n i n g might i n v o l v e methods, p r e s c r i p t i o n s , p r i o r i t i e s , procedures, and probl e m - s o l v i n g techniques d i s s i m i l a r to those d e a l t with, or c o n s i d e r e d important, by a design student i n a f i n e a r t s program. And a r t educators, e i t h e r from one i n s t i t u t i o n or d i s t r i c t to another or w i t h i n the same f a c u l t y might h o l d d i s p a r a t e or, as i s sometimes the case, q u i t e c o n t r a d i c t o r y n o t i o n s of what the aim, purpose, and content of d e s i g n - r e l a t e d s t u d i e s or a c t i v i t i e s should be. These ideas can cover a spectrum from v o c a t i o n a l / i n d u s t r i a l t r a i n i n g courses such as d r a f t i n g and commercial design through to c r a f t s , a r c h i t e c t u r a l s t u d i e s , computer g r a p h i c s , and/or aspects of the study of t r a d i t i o n a l f i n e a r t s s u b j e c t s . In t e a c h i n g both commercial design programs at t e c h n i c a l i n s t i t u t i o n s and design courses i n c o l l e g e f i n e a r t s programs I have u t i l i z e d d i f f e r e n t r e f e r e n c e s , set d i f f e r e n t g o a l s and o b j e c t i v e s , focused on d i f f e r e n t v a l u e systems, engaged the students i n d i f f e r e n t types of a c t i v i t i e s , and adopted d i f f e r e n t i n s t r u c t i o n a l approaches, even though both types of programs are c o n s i d e r e d 'design' s t u d i e s . In numerous f a c u l t y and c u r r i c u l u m meetings i t has been evident t h a t d i f f e r e n t , and sometimes q u i t e c o n t r a d i c t o r y n o t i o n s INTRODUCTION / 4 about design and design education have been brought to p l a y i n d i s c u s s i o n s and n e g o t i a t i o n s . Even i n the United Kingdom, which boasts a long h i s t o r y of design education development and reform ( P i p e r , 1975; MacDonald, 1984; Adams, 1984; Baynes, 1984; A l l i s o n , 1982) there remains a lack of consensus over the c e n t r a l i s s u e s of d e f i n i n g design and determining the best ways of f i t t i n g d e s i gn s t u d i e s i n t o both the g e n e r a l and f i n e a r t s c u r r i c u l u m . While a t t e n d i n g a design education conference i n Rugby i n 1987 I was i n t e r e s t e d to see some of the workshops bogged-down i n attempts to f i n d agreement over d e f i n i t i o n s of d e s i g n and design education from which the work of the conference c o u l d move forward. In s p i t e of c o n t i n u i n g disagreement over some of the b a s i c i s s u e s and concepts the B r i t i s h system does, however, o f f e r i t s a r t educators a g e n e r a l model f o r design e d u c a t i o n theory, r e s e a r c h , and c u r r i c u l u m implementation that i s unequalled i n other e d u c a t i o n a l systems. In the U.K. i t i s p o s s i b l e , f o r example, f o r educators to ga i n a degree i n de s i g n education and there are c o n t i n u i n g e f f o r t s t o a r t i c u l a t e design s t u d i e s approaches from elementary through t o post-secondary l e v e l s . Recently the B r i t i s h government, f o r the f i r s t time in h i s t o r y , implemented a comprehensive p o l i c y f o r education c u l m i n a t i n g i n the General C e r t i f i c a t e of Secondary INTRODUCTION / 5 E d u c a t i o n , which p r o v i d e s n a t i o n a l , s t a n d a r d i z e d c u r r i c u l u m s f o r A r t & Design, and C r a f t , Design, and Technology courses. In a d d i t i o n i n - s e r v i c e t e a c h e r - t r a i n i n g programs such as the Design Dimension Project p r o v i d e ongoing o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r B r i t i s h a r t teachers to keep abreast of developments i n design education theory and p r a c t i c e s and agencies such as The Design C o u n c i l and The School C u r r i c u l u m Development Committee, with i t s A r t s i n the Schools P r o j e c t , work c o n s t a n t l y at promoting design s t u d i e s i n the s c h o o l s , funding r e s e a r c h and study programs, and p u b l i s h i n g support m a t e r i a l s . Canadian a r t educators are not i n v o l v e d i n nor do they have access to s i m i l a r programs or support systems. Courses i n design education - comprehensive courses which would int r o d u c e a r t educators to g e n e r a l design and design education theory and p r a c t i c e s - are not o f f e r e d at any Canadian U n i v e r s i t i e s (Bergland, n.d.) and where courses l a b e l l e d 'Design' might be found, they appear to be t i e d to the study of p a r t i c u l a r c r a f t s or a p p l i e d a r t s . S i nce the d i s b a n d i n g of the N a t i o n a l Design C o u n c i l and Design Canada i n the l a t e 1970s Canadian educators have been l e f t without any agency which might support and guide the development of design education c u r r i c u l a or undertake INTRODUCTION / 6 re s e a r c h programs from which educators might b e n e f i t . Some p r o v i n c i a l a r t c u r r i c u l u m s do c o n t a i n design s t u d i e s components or p r e s c r i b e what they c o n s i d e r d e s i g n - r e l a t e d a c t i v i t i e s but these can be s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t i n regards to purpose and content and there appears, at the time of t h i s w r i t i n g , to be l i t t l e i n t e r e s t on the pa r t of educators towards a n a l y z i n g the p l a c e and r o l e of design s t u d i e s w i t h i n Canadian s c h o o l s . In a March, 1987 i s s u e of University Affairs , Bargh and Lehman o u t l i n e d a case f o r e s t a b l i s h i n g a l e g i t i m a t e p l a c e f o r design f a c u l t i e s w i t h i n Canadian u n i v e r s i t i e s but l i t t l e e l s e i n the way of communications or p r o p o s a l s r e g a r d i n g t h i s i s s u e can be found. As an a r t educator with a background of experience i n v a r i o u s d e s i g n f i e l d s I agree with Ken Baynes that the study of design should be viewed as an important dimension of the c u r r i c u l u m - that design e x p e r i e n c e s , whether they be t i e d to a r c h i t e c t u r e , f i n e a r t s , a p p l i e d a r t s , t h e a t r e and f i l m , computer g r a p h i c s , home economics, or i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y s t u d i e s i n v o l v i n g the s o c i a l and hard s c i e n c e s , can provide students w i t h unique and v a l u a b l e ways of l e a r n i n g about t h e i r environment and the means of man i p u l a t i n g i t i n p o s i t i v e ways. I support the c o n t e n t i o n that c o n f u s i o n over the nature of d e s i g n - r e l a t e d concepts and b a s i c terminology INTRODUCTION / 7 can make more d i f f i c u l t work concerned with f i t t i n g design a c t i v i t i e s or programs i n t o e x i s t i n g a r t c u r r i c u l u m s and that t h e r e i s a r e a l need f o r f u t h e r c l a r i f i c a t i o n of the i s s u e s e s p e c i a l l y i f c u r r i c u l u m developers and classroom t e a c h e r s are to f e e l c o n f i d e n t about any work they might do in t h i s regard. As i s the case with d e f i n i n g c r e a t i v i t y i t may not be p o s s i b l e to e a s i l y e s t a b l i s h consensual, o p e r a t i o n a l d e f i n i t i o n s of design and design e d u c a t i o n . I t i s e s p e c i a l l y d i f f i c u l t to p o s i t such d e f i n i t i o n s w i t h i n the process of de v e l o p i n g and implementing design s t u d i e s a c t i v i t i e s w i t h i n formal school c u r r i c u l a . I would t h e r e f o r e argue that the f i r s t s t e p towards f i n d i n g g e n e r a l agreement r e g a r d i n g the purpose and content of design s t u d i e s c u r r i c u l a i s the a n a l y s i s and t e s t i n g of the assumptions, b e l i e f s , and value-systems which underpin a t t i t u d e s and p o s i t i o n s adopted i n r e l a t i o n to design and design e d u c a t i o n . T h i s step w i l l h e l p educators gain an understanding of how p a r t i c u l a r concepts and sub-concepts have developed and may i n f l u e n c e the f i e l d . I t w i l l a l s o h e l p determine how r e l a t e d terminology or language works i n support of those concepts and t e s t , to whatever extent p o s s i b l e , the v a l i d i t y and r e l i a b i l i t y of a s s o c i a t e d c l a i m s and assumptions. INTRODUCTION / 8 I t i s my i n t e n t i o n to present w i t h i n t h i s t h e s i s both a case which v e r i f i e s the need f o r the a n a l y s i s and c l a r i f i c a t i o n of design and design education concepts and terminology, and to apply programs of conceptual and content a n a l y s i s to components of the conceptual system which are seen as r e l e v a n t to the focus of the study. In doing so the author remains r e s p e c t f u l of K a r l Popper"s (1965) dictum: I t i s only i n s e a r c h i n g f o r r e f u t a t i o n s that s c i e n c e can hope to l e a r n and advance. I t i s only i n c o n s i d e r i n g how v a r i o u s t h e o r i e s stand up to t e s t s that i t can d i s t i n g u i s h between b e t t e r and worse t h e o r i e s and so f i n d a c r i t e r i o n of p r o g r e s s , (p.22). INTRODUCTION / 9 B. BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY The Seminar f o r Research i n A r t Education at Penn St a t e U n i v e r s i t y (1966) o f f e r e d an o p p o r t u n i t y f o r s t o c k - t a k i n g . ...There was concurrence that w i t h i n the domain of a r t education r e s e a r c h e r s might concern themselves with q u e s t i o n s r e g a r d i n g i n t e n t or purpose, c l a r i f i c a t i o n of meanings and concepts p e c u l i a r t o what we do i n a r t ed u c a t i o n , as w e l l as the i n t e r - r e l a t i o n s of these concerns. I.Johnson, et a l , (1979). Education systems are c o l l e c t i v e , open-ended e n t e r p r i s e s b u i l t on and supported by a wide range of complicated, i n t e r c o n n e c t e d , and c o n s t a n t l y changing c o n t e x t s and concepts (Geahigan, 1976; Unruh & Unruh, 1984). Knowledge does not remain s t a t i c and because an education system tends to respond t o and r e f l e c t s h i f t s i n a s o c i e t y ' s v a l u e s and p e r c e i v e d needs, the p r o f e s s i o n a l educator must operate w i t h i n a t r a n s i t i o n a l framework of concepts, t h e o r i e s , and c o n t e x t u a l f a c t o r s (Tanner & Tanner, 1984). Many of the b a s i c concepts which u n d e r g i r d such frameworks are i n i t i a t e d out of p a r t i c u l a r p h i l o s o p h i c a l assumptions and b e l i e f s about the value and f u n c t i o n of formal education INTRODUCTION / 10 systems ( H i l l s , 1982). The extent to which c u r r i c u l a adequately and/or a p p r o p r i a t e l y r e f l e c t those n o t i o n s can be seen to depend, i n some measure, on the degree to which the r e l a t e d b a s i c concepts are both d e f i n e d with p r e c i s i o n and c l a r i t y and understood and used with c o n f i d e n c e . These fundamental concepts are b a s i c to any i n t e l l i g e n t thought or d i s c o u r s e about education and even the most primary t h e o r e t i c a l and p r a c t i c a l work r e q u i r e s the support of concepts which are g e n e r a l l y understood and r e l i a b l e ( S o l t i s , 1978; Smith & E n n i s , 1961). An adequately d e f i n e d concept can be seen as an e s s e n t i a l t o o l f o r the p r o f e s s i o n a l educator, p r o v i d i n g b a s i c o r i e n t a t i o n to the form and f u n c t i o n of the system (Brodbeck, 1973). E d u c a t i o n a l d i s c o u r s e c u t s a c r o s s a v a r i e t y of c o n t e x t s i n which d i f f e r e n t s o r t s of i s s u e s may be at stake, though i d e n t i c a l terms may reappear throughout ( S c h e f f l e r , 1960) and the work of e v a l u a t i n g , d e v e l o p i n g , and implementing c u r r i c u l a can be c o m p l i c a t e d by the h i g h l y a b s t r a c t and ambiguous nature of some of the concepts which are used to h e l p determine e d u c a t i o n a l theory and p r a c t i c e ( H i l l s , 1982). Lack of agreement or c o n f u s i o n over the meaning of terms and d e f i n i t i o n s which are intended to c l a r i f y and rep r e s e n t a concept can serve to s e r i o u s l y hinder the tasks of j u s t i f y i n g and p r e s c r i b i n g the form and f u n c t i o n of a INTRODUCTION / 1 1 f i e l d of study, an area of r e s e a r c h , or a course of a c t i o n (Smith & Ennis, 1961; Geahigan, 1976). R e l i a n c e on and use of ambiguous terminology and i l l - c o n s i d e r e d d e f i n i t i o n s can confuse communications between c u r r i c u l u m t h e o r i s t s and p r e c i p i t a t e t h e o r e t i c a l exchanges which can o f t e n be at cross-purposes (MacDonald, 1971). Conceptual e r r o r s , exacerbated by the misunderstanding and misuse of r e l a t e d terms and d e f i n i t i o n s , can be seen to impair the t h e o r e t i c a l and p r a c t i c a l work of an e d u c a t i o n a l system. A theory which i s c o n c e p t u a l l y inadequate - one which can be i n t e r p r e t e d i n many d i f f e r e n t ways or i s d i f f i c u l t to comprehend - can serve to narrow and l i m i t communication w i t h i n the f i e l d (Geahigan, 1976). Dobbs (1971) p o i n t s out that a l l d i s c i p l i n e s w i t h i n education continue to s t r u g g l e with language problems r e l a t e d to d e f i n i t i o n s and d e s c r i p t i o n s . Frankena (1966) maintains that there are reasonable grounds f o r seeing many of the terms and d e f i n i t i o n s used i n e d u c a t i o n a l language as i l l - c o n s i d e r e d and improperly u t i l i z e d . Smith & Ennis (1961) concur, seeing many of the terms and d e f i n i t i o n s used i n e d u c a t i o n a l d i s c o u r s e as e i t h e r inadequate to the r o l e a s s i g n e d them or improperly used as t o o l s i n work a s s o c i a t e d with c u r r i c u l u m t h e o r i z i n g , e v a l u a t i o n , and development. O r n s t e i n (1977) contends that communications about INTRODUCTION / 12 e d u c a t i o n a l matters have become i n c r e a s i n g l y confused and obscure p a r t i c u l a r l y i n r e l a t i o n to educators making statements about knowledge, s c h o o l i n g , and e d u c a t i o n . H i r s t & P e t e r s (1970), while emphasizing the need f o r educators to develop the a b i l i t y to be d i s c r i m i n a t i n g and p r e c i s e i n the use of words f o r the purpose of understanding a concept, a l s o see a major stumbling block i n the d i v e r s i t y of meanings which can be a t t a c h e d to terms w i t h i n d i f f e r e n t e d u c a t i o n a l c o n t e x t s or domains. I n d i v i d u a l s may d i f f e r widely i n what they b e l i e v e a term to mean or may i n c o r r e c t l y assume there e x i s t s a consensus r e g a r d i n g i t s meaning and f u n c t i o n . D i B l a s i o (1978) c a t e g o r i z e s such terms as 'loaded' and maintains that they can c a r r y a wide v a r i e t y of b e l i e f c l a i m s or supressed premises of b e l i e f . P r o f e s s i o n a l s a c r o s s the general f i e l d of education r e l y to a great extent on the ' s p e c i a l ' or ' t e c h n i c a l ' language of education to f a c i l i t a t e and d e s c r i b e t h e i r work w i t h i n the context of a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , c u r r i c u l u m work, and classroom p r a c t i c e s . P a r t i c u l a r s p e c i a l languages have evolved i n s e r v i c e of d i s t i n c t s u b j e c t areas as w e l l as f o r the g e n e r a l system of education and such languages, with t h e i r embedded t e r m i n o l o g i e s , serve not only to d i r e c t and r e d i r e c t the procedures of the system but a l s o to commit i t s p r a c t i t i o n e r s to c e r t a i n s t r a t e g i e s and methods: INTRODUCTION / 13 ... we f i n d that some e d u c a t i o n a l words have power - the power to r e d i r e c t the procedures and purposes of edu c a t o r s . But words ... do not possess power i n themselves. To a t t a i n t h e i r power, the t o t a l framework of the ideas these words represent must be f u l l y understood by those who use them. Without such an understanding, many e d u c a t i o n a l words become empty slogans; or, even worse, they p r o v i d e the l i c e n c e f o r doing anything under the p r o t e c t i v e b l a n k e t of t h e i r impressive names. In t h i s way, e d u c a t i o n a l abuses and f a i l u r e s can a r i s e i n what seems to be a reasonable and workable e d u c a t i o n a l p l a n . But i f the word i s only as good as the idea behind i t , we as educators should ask o u r s e l v e s more f r e q u e n t l y j u s t what t h i s or that e d u c a t i o n a l term means. To what assumptions, v a l u e s , t h e o r i e s , and s t r a t e g i e s f o r t e a c h i n g dp these words commit us ( S o l t i s , 1978, p.90)? How w e l l a complex e n t e r p r i s e such as a formal e d u c a t i o n system f u n c t i o n s - how w e l l i t e s t a b l i s h e s and c l a r i f i e s i t s b a s i c p h i l o s o p h i e s , v a l u e s , and concepts and transposes them i n t o e f f e c t i v e form and a c t i o n - can be determined by both the degree of p r e c i s i o n with which e s s e n t i a l ideas and i n f o r m a t i o n are t r a n s m i t t e d throughout and by the a b i l i t y of INTRODUCTION / 14 those who depend on and work with such data to understand and t r a n s l a t e i t i n t o e f f e c t i v e p r a c t i c e ( S o l t i s , 1978). Without the support of both g e n e r a l and s p e c i f i c s p e c i a l languages b u i l t on c l e a r and agreed terms and d e f i n i t i o n s , the c o n f i r m a t i o n and promotion of e s s e n t i a l and f o u n d a t i o n a l concepts and b e l i e f s i s a problem. I f the languages of education are to p l a y a v i a b l e r o l e i n , s u p p o r t i n g i t s p r a c t i c a l a n d - t h e o r e t i c a l work, and i f educators are to have c o n f i d e n c e i n the u t i l i t y of those languages, c o n t i n u a l a t t e n t i o n should be p a i d to the t a s k s of c l a r i f y i n g the meanings of b a s i c terms and e s t a b l i s h i n g and m a i n t a i n i n g p r e c i s i o n and c o n f i d e n c e i n t h e i r use ( H i l l s , 1982; Brodbeck, 1973; H i r s t & P e t e r s , 1970). INTRODUCTION / 15 C. THE LANGUAGE OF ART EDUCATION The f i e l d of A r t Education has i t s own d i s t i n c t h i s t o r y of changing c o n t e x t s , s h i f t i n g v a l u e s , and mutable concepts ( E f f l a n d , 1984; Feldman, 1980; McFee, 1966, Hamblen, 1984; K e e l , 1965). Over the span of the l a s t century A r t Education has developed i t s own s p e c i a l language to h e l p d e s c r i b e and support i t s work. T h i s language a l s o has i t s i n h e r e n t and unique problems r e l a t e d to the c l a r i f i c a t i o n of b a s i c concepts and the u t i l i z a t i o n of d e f i n i t i o n s and terminology w i t h i n the language of the f i e l d . Concerns e x i s t r e g a r d i n g the u t i l i t y of the language used to d e s c r i b e the b a s i c concepts and formulae which u n d e r g i r d , or are assumed to u n d e r g i r d , A r t E d u c a t i o n theory and c u r r i c u l a . Some t h e o r i s t s b e l i e v e there are important q u e s t i o n s to be asked r e g a r d i n g both the c l a r i t y and p r e c i s i o n of the language and the r o l e i t i s a b l e to play w i t h i n the workings and communications of the f i e l d . E i s n e r (1968), f o r example, s t a t e s : We do not have i n our p r o f e s s i o n a l d i s c o u r s e , the degree of s p e c i f i c i t y that we need i n order to communicate with p r e c i s i o n . ...We need a language that w i l l i l l u m i n a t e and d e f i n e o p e r a t i o n a l l y those key q u a l i t i e s t h a t we are i n t e r e s t e d i n studying.(p.53) INTRODUCTION / 16 Agreement on the meaning of common terminology i s fundamental t o the success of a support language but a c c o r d i n g to Dobbs (1971) there i s , i n the f i e l d of educ a t i o n , a lack of agreement as to the meaning of many commonly used words and phrases. Under c l o s e s c r u t i n y , c l a i m s Dobbs, many of the most common terms used i n A rt Educati o n d i s c o u r s e can be found to be so o v e r l a i d with m u l t i p l e meanings that t h e i r u t i l i t y to the f i e l d i s s e r i o u s l y compromised. Because of the lack of gen e r a l r e f e r e n t s and common agreements a r t educators tend to spend c o n s i d e r a b l e time working to overcome the r e s u l t i n g c o n f u s i o n . Both the l e x i c o n of s p e c i a l terms and d e f i n i t i o n s which populate the language of a r t educa t i o n and the l a c k of agreement r e g a r d i n g t h e i r meaning and usage have been c i t e d as c o n t r i b u t i n g to conceptual and d e f i n i t i o n a l problems not only w i t h i n the f i e l d i t s e l f but i n r e l a t i o n to communications a c r o s s d i s c i p l i n e s as w e l l . P r a c t i t i o n e r s i n v a r i o u s e d u c a t i o n a l f i e l d s may f i n d i t d i f f i c u l t t o communicate a c r o s s s p e c i a l t i e s or w i t h i n t h e i r own f i e l d due to a v a r i e n c e i n i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s and understandings of b a s i c terms and concepts ( O r n s t e i n , 1977). S c h e f f l e r (1960) warns th a t d e f i n i t i o n s from the f i e l d of s c i e n c e , f o r example, cannot o f t e n be f i t t e d i n t o the s t i p u l a t i v e , d e s c r i p t i v e , or INTRODUCTION / 17 programmatic d e f i n i t i o n s of education without the r i s k of s e r i o u s d i s t o r t i o n and D i B l a s i o (1978) sees problems f o r a r t educators not only i n d e a l i n g with in-house c o n f u s i o n over b e l i e f s and knowledge c l a i m s embodied w i t h i n a r t education language but i n d e a l i n g as w e l l with the language of other f i e l d s with whose b e l i e f c l a i m s they must a l s o r e l a t e . A r t educators, i n the course of i n t e r - d i s c i p l i n a r y communication, might encounter terms which have a number of customary meanings i n d i v e r s e f i e l d s and may become confused i n t r y i n g t o r e l a t e those terms to a r t education while d e a l i n g with t h e i r use i n such areas as psychology, s o c i o l o g y , or p h i l o s o p h y (Dobbs, 1971). In a d d i t i o n , communications between a r t educators and the g e n e r a l p u b l i c might a l s o be made d i f f i c u l t and confused by the sometimes e x c l u s i v e nature of both a r t e d u c a t i o n a l and g e n e r a l e d u c a t i o n a l languages (Hobbs, 1973). For a r t educators the task of f i n d i n g g e n e r a l agreement r e g a r d i n g concepts of design and design s t u d i e s / e d u c a t i o n remains a problem p a r t i c u l a r l y i n r e l a t i o n t o the ways i n which the terms have been or may be used w i t h i n the language of the f i e l d and i n regards to the p l a n n i n g and implementation of design s t u d i e s components of s c h o o l a r t programs. While the term 'design' i s commonly used throughout a r t education d i s c o u r s e and w i t h i n a r t c u r r i c u l u m INTRODUCTION / 18 d e s c r i p t i o n s , there remains, w i t h i n the f i e l d , c o n s i d e r a b l e c o n f u s i o n about what the term means or d e s c r i b e s and how r e l i a b l e i t i s as a working term w i t h i n a r t education communications. While i t might be argued t h a t w i t h i n c e r t a i n d i s c i p l i n e s or f i e l d s of study such as a r c h i t e c t u r e , e n g i n e e r i n g , and c o m m e r c i a l / i n d u s t r i a l design there might be l i t t l e i f any c o n f u s i o n about or arguement over the meaning of the term or how to f o r m a l i z e i t s processes and study, i t appears t h a t w i t h i n the f i e l d of education consensual c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n s of design and/or design s t u d i e s / e d u c a t i o n have yet to be s a t i s f a c t o r i l y s e t t l e d i n t o the work of e s t a b l i s h i n g agreed r a t i o n a l e s , g o a l s , and o b j e c t i v e s f o r design as p a r t of a r t c u r r i c u l a . A l a c k of consensus appears to e x i s t a c r o s s e d u c a t i o n a l systems and t h i s i s p e r c e i v e d as a problem i s s u e even w i t h i n those systems which boast an e x t e n s i v e background of design education r e s e a r c h and development. Baynes and Archer (1976), working out of the Design r e s e a r c h U n i t of the Royal C o l l e g e of A r t , argue t h a t the conceptual ambiguity of 'design' p r e s e n t s a major problem f o r a r t educators attempting to keep pace with changing v a l u e s , needs, and methods w i t h i n g e n e r a l and a r t e d u c a t i o n . In a recent e d i t o r i a l i n Canadian review of Art Education, Webb (1987) drew a t t e n t i o n to the problems educators have in INTRODUCTION / 19 t r y i n g t o communicate about design and design education a c r o s s systems and c u l t u r e s : T a l k i n g r e c e n t l y with an E n g l i s h a r t educator about design, I became more aware than usual that we do not speak the same language. I do not mean t h i s j u s t in the " c h e e r i o chum" versus "catch you l a t e r " sense. The p o i n t i s that the present c o n n o t a t i o n s of p a r t i c u l a r terms emerge from a h i s t o r y of use, and the e f f e c t s can be s u b t l e indeed. ... Although language may p r o v i d e f o r s u b t l e t y , that s u b t l e t y may be l a y e r e d to the p o i n t where l a r g e r complexes of meaning are a f f e c t e d , and shared understanding i s threatened. ... The p o i n t i s t h a t , although words are i d e n t i c a l , the c o n n o t a t i o n s of the terms design and design education i n the U n i t e d Kingdom are at v a r i a n c e with those with which Canadian a r t teachers have commerce.(p.1) Webb's statement draws a t t e n t i o n to the f a c t that there i s concern w i t h i n the f i e l d r e g a r d i n g the a n a l y s i s of h e l d concepts of design and design education and the ways i n which those concepts, d e f i n i t i o n s , and t e r m i n o l o g i e s might i n f l u e n c e a r t and design c u r r i c u l u m development. P h i l o s o p h i c a l o r i e n t a t i o n s towards, and concepts about INTRODUCTION / 20 e d u c a t i o n a l content and s t r a t e g i e s can become embedded w i t h i n the terminology of the languages educators use (Smith & Ennis, 1961). Such terminology can c a r r y i n d i v i d u a l and/or c o l l e c t i v e p r e d i l e c t i o n s about what i s to be done and why i t i s to be done. D e c i s i o n s i n f l u e n c e d by changing v a l u e s and c o n d i t i o n s can be embodied i n the ongoing r e v i s i o n of the d e f i n i t i o n s of r e l e v a n t terms ( S c h e f f l e r , >960). A p r o f e s s i o n a l educator's c o n f i d e n c e i n the value and u t i l i t y of the language can be t i e d d i r e c t l y to h i s or her b e l i e f t h a t the language's e s s e n t i a l terms and phrases are g e n e r a l l y used to t a l k about, and d e s c r i b e , the same t h i n g s (Smith & E n n i s , p.10). An important b a s i s f o r choosing a p a r t i c u l a r concept and d e f i n i t i o n f o r e d u c a t i o n a l purposes should be a c o n s i d e r a t i o n of those consequences which r e s u l t from t h e i r adoption and use. INTRODUCTION / 21 D. RATIONALE FOR THE STUDY P h i l o s o p h i c a l r e s e a r c h i s systematic i n q u i r y i n t o q u e s t i o n s of meaning and value r e l a t e d to knowledge i n and about v i s u a l a r t s . Systematic i n q u i r y i m p l i e s a l o g i c a l system of a s k i n g a q u e s t i o n or d e f i n i n g an i s s u e or i n g e n e r a l d e l i n e a t i n g a conceptual area to be i n v e s t i g a t e d . ( C a r d i n a l e , 1979, p.3 ) To maximize the u t i l i t y of the languages of education and h e l p i n s u p p o r t i n g i t s c a p a c i t y f o r c o n t r i b u t i n g p o s i t i v e l y to the p r a c t i c a l and t h e o r e t i c a l processes of the f i e l d i t i s important to s c r u t i n i z e t h e i r s t r u c t u r e and usage f o r the purposes of determining where c l a r i t y and meaning might be l a c k i n g ( O r n s t e i n , 1977). In order to move beyond the c o n s t r a i n t s imposed by p r e d i l e c t i o n s f o r t h i n k i n g or framing problems i n c e r t a i n ways, the way we use e s s e n t i a l terms and e x p r e s s i o n s i n e d u c a t i o n a l d i s c o u r s e should be c r i t i c a l l y examined (Smith & E n n i s , P r e f a c e ) . If ambiguous language and terminology serves to cause p a r t i c u l a r problems w i t h i n c u r r i c u l u m t h e o r i z i n g and p l a n n i n g - i f there are i n s t a n c e s where i n d i v i d u a l s or groups d i f f e r i n t h e i r understanding of terms and concepts and i f the process of determining the form and content of a program of study i s c o m p l i c a t e d and/or i n f l u e n c e d i n any way INTRODUCTION / 22 because of a lack of agreement - then an a n a l y s i s of how b a s i c terms and d e f i n i t i o n s have and do f u n c t i o n w i t h i n that process can be seen as warranted. INTRODUCTION / 23 E. PURPOSE OF THE STUDY T h i s study i s based on acceptance of the f o l l o w i n g premises: 1. The study of design, i n some way, i s an e d u c a t i o n a l concern of a r t c u r r i c u l a . 2. Vague and ambiguous terms and concepts are i n s u f f i c i e n t f o r determining the aims, purposes, and content of a c u r r i c u l u m . T h i s study c e n t e r s around e x p l o r i n g and mapping the conce p t u a l and l o g i c a l t e r r a i n of the f i e l d s of design theory, design methodology, and design education theory and c u r r i c u l u m development, with a p a r t i c u l a r concern f o r examining the ways i n which the b a s i c concept of 'design' has or has not been d e f i n e d or d e s c r i b e d . The purpose of t h i s study i s to t e s t the f o l l o w i n g hypotheses: 1. The concept of 'design' i s vague and ambiguous; i t l a c k s any d e f i n i t i o n that f i n d s consensus w i t h i n or a c r o s s the f i e l d s of design theory and methodology or a r t '& design e d u c a t i o n . 2. The b a s i c term 'design' i s u n r e l i a b l e when a p p l i e d to d i s c o u r s e r e l a t i n g to design and/or design education or to the work of determining the aim, purpose, and content INTRODUCTION / 24 of d e s i g n - r e l a t e d a c t i v i t i e s w i t h i n a r t c u r r i c u l a . 3. The ways i n which d e s i g n - r e l a t e d s t u d i e s and a c t i v i t i e s are (or are not) d e s c r i b e d or p r e s c r i b e d w i t h i n Canadian p r o v i n c i a l a r t c u r r i c u l u m documents r e f l e c t s a gen e r a l l a c k of agreement r e g a r d i n g the b a s i c concept of design and the ways i n which the study of design c o u l d be accounted f o r w i t h i n a r t c u r r i c u l u m s . The i n t e n t i o n of t h i s study i s to undertake the f o l l o w i n g program of a n a l y s i s as a means of drawing c o n c l u s i o n s r e g a r d i n g the hypotheses: 1. I d e n t i f y the major paradigms or conceptual o r i e n t a t i o n s that have informed the development and adoption of contemporary concepts of design and design e d u c a t i o n . 2. O u t l i n e the conc e p t u a l c o n s t r u c t s of such paradigms by i s o l a t i n g and a n a l y z i n g u n d e r l y i n g c l a i m s , assumptions, and premises. 3. Determine i f such c l a i m s and r e l a t e d arguments have a b a s i s i n f a c t or are u n s u b s t a n t i a t e d . 4. Examine the f i e l d of design e d u c a t i o n theory and c u r r i c u l u m development f o r statements, t h e o r i e s , or c l a i m s concerned with the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the d e f i n i t i o n of design and the development and implementation of design s t u d i e s programs i n s c h o o l s . 5. Undertake a l i m i t e d content a n a l y s i s of a v a i l a b l e Canadian p r o v i n c i a l a r t c u r r i c u l u m guides with a t t e n t i o n INTRODUCTION / 25 to d e f i n i t i o n s of design, r a t i o n a l e s f o r design a c t i v i t i e s , and s t a t e d goals and o b j e c t i v e s f o r d e s i g n - r e l a t e d a c t i v i t i e s . Compare with s e l e c t e d c u r r i c u l u m models from other e d u c a t i o n a l systems. Using a model adapted from S o l t i s ' s (1980) d e l i n e a t i o n of ' A n a l y t i c S t r a t e g i e s ' determine which of the f o l l o w i n g c a t e g o r i e s best d e s c r i b e s the ' A n a l y t i c S i t u a t i o n ' which e x i s t s i n r e l a t i o n to the c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n of 'design' w i t h i n the concerned f i e l d s : a. Generic Type - Undisputed model ca s e ( s ) of the concept of 'design' are r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e , but g e n e r i c f e a t u r e s shared by model s p e c i e s are not c l e a r l y s p e l l e d out. b. Differential Type - The concept of 'design' seems to have more than one meaning and t h e i r i d e n t i t i e s and the b a s i s f o r d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g between them aren't c l e a r . c. Conditions Type - Undisputed model cases don't seem to be r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e and standard i n s t a n c e s of the concept of 'design' can e a s i l y be made by changing a context c o n d i t i o n , (p.90 - 120). On the b a s i s of the d e t e r m i n a t i o n of the ' A n a l y t i c S i t u a t i o n ' c o n s i d e r i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r the development and implementation of design s t u d i e s and a c t i v i t i e s w i t h i n a r t c u r r i c u l a . I n t r o d u c t i o n / 26 a r t c u r r i c u l a . Make recommendations f o r f u r t h e r study and re s e a r c h r e l a t e d to the c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n of 'design' and the r e l a t e d development of design s t u d i e s programs and educat i o n c u r r i c u l a . f o l l o w i n g diagram c h a r t s the a n a l y s i s procedure: EXPLORE FIELD(S) •USE OF TERM •CONCEPTUAL BASES MAJOR PARADIGMS, CONCEPTUAL ORIENTATIONS ASSUMPTIONS, BELIEFS, CLAIMS, COUNTER-CLAIMS •SUBSTANTIATED? •RELIABLE? CONCLUSIONS RE: VAGUENESS, AMBIGUITY, RELIABILITY CONTENT ANALYSIS: CURRICULUM DOCUMENTS IMPLICATIONS RE: • COMMUNICATIONS •CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT GENERAL CONCLUSIONS & RECOMMENDATIONS INTRODUCTION / 27 T h i s study w i l l , i n p a r t , take the form of a 'Reported D e f i n i t i o n ' and w i l l seek to both analyze and c l a r i f y core concepts, terminology, and d e f i n i t i o n s . I t w i l l serve to f u r t h e r c l a r i f y the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the use of language and the h o l d i n g of presumptions or p r e s u p p o s i t i o n s r e l a t e d t o the meaning of terms and concepts and the development and a r t i c u l a t i o n of r a t i o n a l e s , g o a l s , and o b j e c t i v e s f o r d e s i g n - r e l a t e d a c t i v i t i e s w i t h i n a r t & design c u r r i c u l a . I t i s not the i n t e n t i o n of t h i s study to o f f e r or p o s i t any new O p e r a t i o n a l , S t i p u l a t i v e , or C r i t e r i a - A t t a c h m e n t d e f i n i t i o n s of 'design' or 'design education' even though one or more of these might emerge as a consequence of the a n a l y t i c procedures. I t i s a l s o r e c o g n i z e d that the sampling of c u r r i c u l u m statements i s l i m i t e d due to time c o n s t r a i n t s and a v a i l a b i l i t y of the documents and does not, t h e r e f o r e , r e p r e s e n t a view of design education approaches beyond those a v a i l a b l e documents r e f e r e n c e d . Because of the chance of r e v i s i o n or replacement d u r i n g the time of t h i s study the documents r e f e r e n c e d might not represent present p o s i t i o n s on design s t u d i e s on the p a r t of c e r t a i n school systems or i n s t i t u t i o n s . INTRODUCTION / 28 Any c o n c l u s i o n s drawn from data or communications i n c l u d e d i n t h i s study do not n e c e s s a r i l y apply to s i t u a t i o n s or c o n d i t i o n s which might e x i s t beyond the sources of the data. INTRODUCTION / 29 F. DESIGN OF THE STUDY T h i s study w i l l undertake an A n a l y t i c P hilosophy of a p a r t i c u l a r aspect of the f i e l d of education - one that i s seen as c l o s e l y i n t e r r e l a t e d to and i n f l u e n c e d by a t t i t u d e s , v a l u e s , and p r a c t i c e s o u t s i d e the f i e l d of e d u c a t i o n . T h i s study r e c o g n i z e s the e s s e n t i a l i n t e r a c t i v e nature of the r e l a t i o n s h i p between design, d e s i g n methodolgy, and a r t & design education and sees the t h e o r e t i c a l and p r a c t i c a l concerns of a l l these f i e l d s as c o n s t i t u t i n g the e s s e n t i a l domain of study f o r t h i s t h e s i s . In c l a r i f y i n g the concept of A n a l y t i c P h i l o s o p h y Green (1971) o f f e r s the f o l l o w i n g statement: ... i t i s p r i m a r i l y concerned with the c l a r i f i c a t i o n of concepts and t h e i r r e l a t i o n s . Consequently, q u e s t i o n s of ph i l o s o p h y tend always to be framed i n terms of concepts to be an a l y z e d and p a t t e r n s of t h i n k i n g to be c l a r i f i e d . ... The a n a l y s i s of a concept i s the d e s c r i p t i o n of i t s use. I t i s d e s c r i b i n g when the concept a p p l i e s , when i t does not, how i t s s u b t l e nuances i n c l i n e us t o t h i n k one way or another when we use i t , the d e l i c a t e d i f f e r e n c e s of meaning i t r e c e i v e s i n d i f f e r e n t c o n t e x t s , and how the l i k e n e s s e s and d i f f e r e n c e s INTRODUCTION / 30 between those contexts l e a d us to one or another use of the concept. ... One way to study a concept i s to examine how i t i s r e l a t e d to o t h e r s , which concepts are connected to i t , and which ones are not. ... Hence the p r i n c i p l e : A concept i s the l o c u s of i n f e r e n c e s p e r m i t t e d by the v a r i o u s uses of a term (p. .1.0 - 1 1 ) . Park (1963) sees A n a l y t i c Philosophy, p a r t i c u l a r l y as i t a p p l i e s to educat i o n , as a means "... to u n s n a r l the l o g i c a l and l i n g u i s t i c t a n g l e s i n ped a g o g i c a l knowledge" (p. 7 - 8 ) . He f u r t h e r argues that a l l e d u c a t i o n a l o b j e c t i v e s appear to be value judgements of some kind and t h a t i t i s important to i s o l a t e and analyze the e x p l i c i t and i m p l i c i t p r e s u p p o s i t i o n s which might u n d e r l i e p a r t i c u l a r p h i l o s o p h i e s or p o i n t s - o f - v i e w . Phenix (1975) a l s o p o i n t s out that education i s grounded i n the search f o r meaning and suggests that the primary goal of any p h i l o s o p h y of education or c u r r i c u l u m i s to d i s t i n g u i s h and c o r r e l a t e the v a r i o u s domains of meaning. Green (1971) argues that we should analyze a concept by stu d y i n g the meanings of i t s r e l a t e d terms and that t h i s i s best accomplished by l o o k i n g at the ways i n which the term (concept) i s used (p. 11). INTRODUCTION / 31 And f i n a l l y , Jaeger (1988) suggests a process of examining examples and c o n t r a s t s as a means of c l a r i f y i n g n o t i o n s and concepts - an a n a l y s i s and comparison of paradigmatic examples which i l l u s t r a t e the t y p i c a l uses of a term and which are assumed to i l l u s t r a t e what a term means or when i t should or should not be a p p l i e d . INTRODUCTION / 32 G. DATA SOURCES In regards to the c o l l e c t i o n and a n a l y s i s of statements, communications, and data, t h i s study i s concerned with drawing m a t e r i a l from those c o n t e x t s i n which concepts, sub-concepts, and d e f i n i t i o n s of design and design education are found and c o n s i d e r e d a p p r o p r i a t e to i t s focus and i n t e n t . For t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n the f o l l o w i n g sources w i l l be ex p l o r e d f o r r e l e v a n t m a t e r i a l : 1. P u b l i c a t i o n s r e l a t e d to design and design education theory, h i s t o r y , and p r a c t i c e . 2. Research and working papers r e l a t e d to de s i g n s t u d i e s c u r r i c u l u m development. 3. C u r r i c u l u m statements, g u i d e l i n e s , and communications from Canadian, B r i t i s h , and A u s t r a l i a n sources. 4. P r o f e s s i o n a l j o u r n a l s , c o n s u l t a t i v e documents, and p o s i t i o n papers r e l a t e d to design, design education, the h i s t o r y of d e s i g n , and a r t & design c u r r i c u l u m theory and development. INTRODUCTION / 33 H. DEFINITIONS OF TERMS CONCEPT - A b s t r a c t i o n from observed phenomena: A term that s t a t e s the commonalities among those observed o b j e c t s or events and d i s t i n g u i s h e s them from other o b j e c t s or events. CONCEPTUAL CONSTRUCT - Concepts combined i n t o meaningful p a t t e r n s : A complex a b s t r a c t i o n which i s not d i r e c t l y o b s e r v a b l e . CRITERIA-ATTACHMENT DEFINITION - A t t a c h i n g c r i t e r i a to a term. The c r i t e r i a do not gi v e the meaning of a term but they t e l l how a term should be a p p l i e d i n the view of the person g i v i n g t h i s k i nd of d e f i n i t i o n . D e f i n i t i o n i s judged on the b a s i s of the j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r a t t a c h i n g the c r i t e r i a to the concept expressed by the use of the term. Since t h e i r acceptance o f t e n i m p l i c i t l y embodies value judgements, these c r i t e r i a can be j u s t i f i e d or u n j u s t i f i e d . OPERATIONAL DEFINITION - A d e f i n i t i o n which equates a concept with the r e s u l t s of c e r t a i n measurements. Makes i t p o s s i b l e to p i n down the meaning of any term i n a way that w i l l e l i m i n a t e vagueness. RELIABLE TERM - A term which c a r r i e s the same meaning i n INTRODUCTION / 34 every usage or circumstance. Such a term can be depended on and used with a high degree of c o n f i d e n c e . REPORTED DEFINITION - Reporting a meaning: attempting to give an a c c u r a t e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of the usage of a term f o r some i n d i v i d u a l or, more commonly, f o r some group, s u b c u l t u r e , or language community. Since usage changes over time, so do Reported D e f i n i t i o n s . They can be c o r r e c t or i n c o r r e c t . STIPULATIVE DEFINITION - S t i p u l a t i n g that a p a r t i c u l a r word s h a l l express some concept. The meaning of a term f o r a given s i t u a t i o n or set of s i t u a t i o n s . The c r i t e r i o n i s g e n e r a l l y convenience. II. DESIGN CONCEPTUALIZED A. HISTORICAL OVERVIEW In E n g l i s h the term 'design' can c a r r y many meanings while most European languages do not have a s i n g l e e q u i v a l e n t word. The term, as d e f i n e d by a r c h i t e c t s , a r t i s t s , e d ucators, engineers, or c r a f t s p e o p l e can encompass a wide v a r i e t y of n o t i o n s r e g a r d i n g methodologies, a c t i v i t i e s , and/or pr o d u c t s . I t can be used as a noun to d e s c r i b e an o b j e c t l i k e a p l a n , drawing, or r e p r e s e n t a t i o n , or as a verb to d e s c r i b e a way of t h i n k i n g or p a r t i c u l a r way of doing t h i n g s . Baynes (1976) has suggested that how one d e f i n e s design depends on what one wants to accomplish and that d e f i n i t i o n s which have meaning and u t i l i t y f o r one p a r t i c u l a r f i e l d or d i s c i p l i n e might not be meaningful or u s e f u l f o r another. Concepts of design can range from broad p h i l o s o p h i c a l n o t i o n s to p r e s c r i p t i o n s f o r p a r t i c u l a r methodologies. Papanek (1970), f o r example, views design i n terms of an u n f o l d i n g , ever changing philosophy - a way of l o o k i n g at the world i n general and l e a r n i n g how to change i t . Baynes (1976) sees design as i n v o l v i n g a l l the c r e a t i v e work that goes i n t o the making of a m a t e r i a l c u l t u r e while Mason 35 DESIGN CONCEPTUALIZED / 36 (1979) p e r c e i v e s design as a c l o s e i n t e r m i n g l i n g of economics, a e s t h e t i c s , and c r a f t s m a n s h i p . Yoemans (1984) t a l k s of design i n terms of a p a r t i c u l a r f u n c t i o n of p e r c e p t i o n while Munari (1972) d e f i n e s i t simply as communication. Roberts (1982) maintains that design i s a g e n e r a l l y misused shorthand term which d e s c r i b e s the e f f o r t s of a l l the t r a d i t i o n a l a r t s u b j e c t s . Such a d i v e r s i t y of c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n s and d e f i n i t i o n s adds to ongoing c o n f u s i o n r e g a r d i n g the proper a p p l i c a t i o n of the term w i t h i n g e n e r a l and s p e c i a l languages. Brendendieck, i n an address d e l i v e r e d at the I n t e r n a t i o n a l Design Conference i n Aspen in 1977, drew a t t e n t i o n to the ambiguity of both the root term and the s u p p o r t i n g sub-terms on which a d e f i n i t i o n should be b u i l t and compared the s i t u a t i o n to the way i n which language i s developed and used w i t h i n the f i e l d of s c i e n c e : Over a p e r i o d of c e n t u r i e s , s c i e n c e has b u i l t up theory and method and a c o n s t a n t l y e v o l v i n g terminology to keep pace with i t s stages of development. There i s a never ending adjustment among " f a c t " , theory, and terminology, one of the main c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of progress i n any f i e l d . In the area of d e s i g n i n g , however, we f i n d a very d i f f e r e n t mental c l i m a t e . T y p i c a l d i s c u s s i o n s DESIGN CONCEPTUALIZED / 37 u s u a l l y abound i n such vague and nebulous terms as "rhythm", "balance", " p r o p o r t i o n " , and "harmony", with the recent a d d i t i o n of r e f e r e n c e s t o " f u n c t i o n " , "requirements", " a n a l y s i s " , e t c . Compared to the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y more p r e c i s e d e f i n i t i o n s of s c i e n c e , which make agreement between i n d i v i d u a l s p o s s i b l e , such terminology o f f e r s a harsh c o n t r a s t . I t i s r e a d i l y seen that the ambiguity of such words l e a v e s them open to any and every i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , and that agreement between persons employing these terms becomes next to i m p o s s i b l e . There seems to have been l i t t l e e f f o r t to d e f i n e terms or to come to agreement r e g a r d i n g c o n s c i o u s or unconscious assumptions. But u n t i l such an e f f o r t i s made, progress w i l l remain slow i n the f i e l d . For progress depends on communication among the p r a c t i t i o n e r s , and communication, to a l a r g e extent, depends on agreement as to the meaning of b a s i c terms, (p. 73-78) Wit h i n a r t education d i s c o u r s e and communications the term design can be found to d e s c r i b e and p r e s c r i b e a v a r i e t y of d i f f e r e n t and sometimes c o n f l i c t i n g concepts of e i t h e r whole programs of study or s p e c i f i c p r o c e s s e s or a c t i v i t i e s w i t h i n a r t , technology, home economics, i n d u s t r i a l a r t s , media, DESIGN CONCEPTUALIZED / 38 g r a p h i c s , and even computer s t u d i e s c u r r i c u l a . Yet while the term f i n d s c o n s i d e r a b l e use w i t h i n the f i e l d of a r t e d u c a t i o n , the wide v a r i e t y of meanings and n o t i o n s found a t t a c h e d to i t and the l a c k of g e n e r a l agreement about those meanings poses p a r t i c u l a r problems to the work of e s t a b l i s h i n g what the form and f u n c t i o n of design s t u d i e s / a c t i v i t i e s might or should be w i t h i n the g e n e r a l framework of e s t a b l i s h e d and/or developing a r t c u r r i c u l a . Agreed d e f i n i t i o n s of 'design' and sub-concepts such as 'a d e s i g n ' , 'design awareness', 'design c a p a c i t y ' , 'design p r o c e s s ' , 'design method', ' a p p l i e d d e s i g n ' , 'design s t u d i e s ' , and 'design e d u c a t i o n ' , which might f u n c t i o n as f o u n d a t i o n a l concepts f o r c u r r i c u l u m development, remain i l l u s i v e . Baynes (1976) sees t h i s c o n c e p t u a l / d e f i n i t i o n a l c o n f u s i o n as an o b s t a c l e to the task of keeping a r t c u r r i c u l a at pace with changing s o c i a l v a l u e s , c o n d i t i o n s , and needs: At the p h i l o s o p h i c a l l e v e l t here i s an area of great c o n f u s i o n about terminology, but t h i s o n l y c o n c e a l s an even g r e a t e r area of d i f f i c u l t y about understanding the nature of design and i t s r e l a t i o n s with a r t , home economics, h a n d i c r a f t , technology, and other school s u b j e c t a r e a s , (p.21) In regards to p l a c i n g a concept of design w i t h i n an DESIGN CONCEPTUALIZED / 39 e d u c a t i o n a l context the B r i t i s h Design C o u n c i l (1987), which has a long h i s t o r y of involvement with design education i s s u e s , has a l s o drawn a t t e n t i o n to the problem of f i n d i n g agreed d e f i n i t i o n s of design and r e l a t e d sub-concepts which would have u t i l i t y f o r c u r r i c u l u m development: The term design undoubtedly g i v e s r i s e to problems of d e f i n i t i o n . While those who are p r o f e s s i o n a l l y engaged i n design may have a c l e a r idea of i t s meaning (and even amongst them, there w i l l be d i f f e r e n c e s of emphasis and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n ) , t o the world at l a r g e there i s no such consensus. Some see i t as concerned with d e c o r a t i o n and ornamentation, and may, i n the s c h o o l c o n t e x t , a s s o c i a t e i t with p a r t i c u l a r a spects of a r t . Others t h i n k of i t i n terms of c r a f t s , such as p o t t e r y , or work with t e x t i l e s , while o t h e r s , t h i n k i n g of the growth of c r a f t , design and technology (CDT) as a s u b j e c t i n secondary s c h o o l s , t h i n k of design as to do with c o n s t r u c t i o n or technology. Others s t i l l t h i n k of i t as p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g and a s s o c i a t e i t with s c i e n c e , (p.3.2) In an 1980 r e p o r t , Design Education at Secondary L e v e l , the C o u n c i l again focused on the the c o n c e p t u a l / d e f i n i t i o n a l i s s u e which i t b e l i e v e s should be taken i n t o account when DESIGN CONCEPTUALIZED / 40 attempting to e s t a b l i s h a consensual d e f i n i t i o n of the term design f o r e d u c a t i o n a l purposes: ... 'design' can embrace the a c t i v i t i e s and products of the a r c h i t e c t , the craftsman, the de c o r a t o r and the a r t i s t . I t can d e s c r i b e the work of the t e x t i l e d e s i g n e r , the s i l v e r s m i t h , and the c r e a t o r of stage or t e l e v i s i o n s e t t i n g s . One can 'design' a machine, a system, a p u b l i c a t i o n , an e l e c t r i c a l c i r c u i t or an experiment (p.4) In the process of o u t l i n i n g the problem he b e l i e v e s education f a c e s i n adapting e x i s t i n g s u b j e c t t r a d i t i o n s to a growing r e c o g n i t i o n of design a c t i v i t y as a v i a b l e medium f o r e d u c a t i o n , Baynes (1976) has argued t h a t the major d i f f i c u l t i e s f a c i n g teachers i n a r t and design education i s c o n f u s i o n about the c e n t r a l concept of design i t s e l f : A d e f i n i t i o n of design t h a t would be u s e f u l to a designer might not h e l p an h i s t o r i a n and might p o s s i b l y outrage a p h i l o s o p h e r . ... For the teacher ... the problem i s even more acute. He i s l i k e l y to come i n t o c o n t a c t not only with h i s own con c e p t i o n of what design i s , but a l s o with the separate c o n c e p t i o n s of each of the c h i l d r e n he teaches. These, i n t u r n , w i l l have come from f a m i l y background, popular mythology, and the mass media. DESIGN CONCEPTUALIZED / 41 The s i t u a t i o n i s not helped by the e x i s t e n c e of c o n f l i c t i n g views w i t h i n the design p r o f e s s i o n s and between v a r i o u s groups of e d u c a t i o n a l i s t s . ... The p a r t of me t h a t i s a d e s i g n e r seeks a narrow and o p e r a t i o n a l d e f i n i t i o n ; the p a r t of me that i s h i s t o r i a n seeks f o r a d e f i n i t i o n that w i l l r e f l e c t the way i n which the word has a c t u a l l y been used i n the p a s t ; and the p a r t of me that i s i n v o l v e d i n t e a c h i n g looks f o r something which w i l l be broad enough to f i t the a s p i r a t i o n s of l i b e r a l education.(p.23) Programs of study which c o n s t i t u t e what are g e n e r a l l y c o n s i d e r e d to be the t r a d i t i o n a l s u b j e c t areas w i t h i n e s t a b l i s h e d a r t c u r r i c u l u m s do not appear to s u f f e r from the same kind or degree of c o n c e p t u a l / d e f i n i t i o n a l c o n f u s i o n . I f there remains any c o n f u s i o n or l a c k of agreement r e g a r d i n g the b a s i c concepts of d i s c i p l i n e s and/or f i e l d s of study such as drawing, p a i n t i n g , printmaking, s c u l p t i n g , p o t t i n g , weaving, or photography, the i s s u e s do not appear to be as complex or as c o n t r o v e r s i a l as i s the case with design and i t s r e l a t e d sub-concepts. In many ways the problems educators c o n f r o n t when t r y i n g to work with or f i n d agreed d e f i n i t i o n s and concepts f o r d e s i g n and design r e l a t e d a c t i v i t i e s are not u n l i k e those a s s o c i a t e d with f i n d i n g DESIGN CONCEPTUALIZED / 42 meaningful or a p p r o p r i a t e ways to account f o r a e s t h e t i c s or c r e a t i v i t y w i t h i n an e d u c a t i o n a l c o n t e x t . Many a r t c u r r i c u l u m s d e s c r i b e and/or p r e s c r i b e some kind of design r e l a t e d g o a l or a c t i v i t y whether i t be a f o u n d a t i o n a l e x p l o r a t i o n of the elements and p r i n c i p l e s of design w i t h i n a g e n e r a l program of a r t s t u d i e s , or as a p a r t i c u l a r s u b j e c t area such as commercial or a p p l i e d d e s i g n . In some subject areas or programs of study the term design might not even be a t t a c h e d t o a c t i v i t i e s which might u s u a l l y be thought of as design r e l a t e d and i n other cases courses which d e a l p r i m a r i l y with p a r t i c u l a r a p p l i e d a r t or c r a f t s u b j e c t matter are given the gen e r a l l a b e l of 'Design'. Design programs of some kind or another are c o n s i d e r e d an important aspect of formal v i s u a l a r t t r a i n i n g w i t h i n f o u n d a t i o n a l s t u d i e s programs i n a r t sc h o o l s and c o l l e g e s around the world and e d u c a t i o n a l systems such as those i n Great B r i t a i n and A u s t r a l i a have shown c o n s i d e r a b l e concern f o r the a r t i c u l a t i o n of design a c t i v i t i e s through a l l l e v e l s of primary, secondary, and post-secondary education (Design C o u n c i l , 1976,1977,1978,1985,1987; Education Department of Southern A u s t r a l i a , 1978,1984; Department of Education, Queensland, 1984,1985). In order to c l a r i f y the e v o l u t i o n of design education concepts and to b e t t e r understand the ways i n which design DESIGN CONCEPTUALIZED / 43 c u r r i c u l u m s may have been planned and implemented, i t would be u s e f u l to focus on the ge n e r a l h i s t o r i c a l context i n which these developments have taken and are t a k i n g p l a c e . W i thin t h i s broad context i t i s apparent t h a t one issue which has had a s i g n i f i c a n t impact on the development and implementation of design s t u d i e s / e d u c a t i o n i s that to which Baynes has p o i n t e d - the problem of d e f i n i n g the b a s i c concept of design i t s e l f . The g e n e r a l l y h e l d contemporary n o t i o n of d e s i g n , which appears to be very broad and amorphous, owes i t s genesis t o the i d e o l o g i c a l , s o c i a l , and i n d u s t r i a l changes which were brought about by the I n d u s t r i a l R e v o l u t i o n . U n t i l the emergence of mass p r o d u c t i o n techniques the process of 'designing' and making goods and a r t i f a c t s adhered to a long t r a d i t i o n of h i g h l y i n d i v i d u a l i z e d ' c r a f t ' s k i l l s and methods which tended to s e r v i c e p e r s o n a l or s t r i c t l y l o c a l or r e g i o n a l demands. Agains t the background of i n c r e a s i n g s c i e n t i f i c enquiry and i n d u s t r i a l development which c h a r a c t e r i z e d the 19th cen t u r y , t r a d i t i o n a l systems of a p p r e n t i c e s h i p and s k i l l s t r a i n i n g had to adapt to the demands of a more e g a l i t a r i a n s o c i e t y . The t r a d i t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s of the narrowly focused craftsman were e v e n t u a l l y pushed a s i d e and made i r r e l e v a n t by the emerging e x p e r t i s e of someone c a l l e d a 'designer' - a p r o f e s s i o n a l who DESIGN CONCEPTUALIZED / 44 understood both the promise and the c a p a b i l i t i e s of the new mass-production and d i s t r i b u t i o n techniques and changing needs and e x p e c t a t i o n s of s o c i e t i e s i n t r a n s i t i o n . With the i n e x o r a b l e s h i f t of patronage from a few to the many the concept of c r a f t s m a n s h i p was reformed i n t o a new concept of 'design s p e c i a l i s m ' . In response to the workings of 19th century s c i e n c e and i n d u s t r y and the demands of the new economic and s o c i a l environment which was being forged as a r e s u l t of those e f f o r t s , contemporary concepts of design and the r o l e of the designer were born. Through the V i c t o r i a n era a number of i n f l u e n c i a l a r t i s t s and d e s i g n e r s , most notabl y those who f o l l o w e d the l e a d of prominant designer W i l l i a m M o r r i s , remained preoccupied with and commited to the p r e s e r v a t i o n of t r a d i t i o n a l approaches to ornamentation and s u r f a c e e l a b o r a t i o n . The 'Arts and C r a f t s ' movement of t h i s p e r i o d represented the b e l i e f that i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n was an a e s t h e t i c curse which was d e s t r o y i n g human purpose and c u l t u r e and i t s advocates remained adamantly opposed to any degree of r e c o n c i l i a t i o n between a r t and i n d u s t r y . They promoted a r e t u r n to pre-19th c e n t u r y c r a f t p r a c t i c e s and v a l u e d h i g h l y the i n d i v i d u a l i z e d , h i g h l y - s k i l l e d p r o d u c t i o n of goods and artwork. DESIGN CONCEPTUALIZED / 45 By the beginning of the t w e n t i e t h century the c l a i m that mass p r o d u c t i o n was r a t h e r a b a s i s f o r the e v o l u t i o n of a new, more a f f l u e n t and c h a l l e n g i n g c u l t u r e than a t h r e a t to the e x i s t e n c e of c u l t u r e had been more or l e s s accepted by i n d u s t r i a l i z e d s o c i e t i e s . The Art Nouveau movement, which spanned the t u r n of the century, represented both a breaking away from the dominance of h i s t o r i c a l forms and m o t i f s and a r e p u d i a t i o n of the i m i t a t i v e n e s s of V i c t o r i a n d e s i g n . By the 1920s concepts of design as a marriage between t h e o r i e s of a r t and the p r a c t i c e s of i n d u s t r y p r o v i d e d the b a s i s on which the r a t i o n a l e and goals f o r the Bauhaus sc h o o l i n Germany were formulated. The Bauhaus philosophy proposed a break from any connection with the past and the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of what was assumed would be a v a l u e - f r e e and c u l t u r e - f r e e approach to l e a r n i n g - an o r i e n t a t i o n which would be independent of s o c i a l and c u l t u r a l p r e c o n c e p t i o n s . A fundamental goal of the Bauhaus was to h e l p d e s i g n e r s l e a r n how to work with the machine and the u l t i m a t e t e s t of the d e s i g n e r ' s e x p e r t i s e was h i s / h e a b i l i t y to adapt the process of design to the p o t e n t i a l and demands of mass-production. The concept of f o u n d a t i o n a l s t u d i e s - knowing, understanding, and a p p l y i n g the elements and p r i n c i p l e s of design - was born i n the Bauhaus program and remains an i n f l u e n c i a l f o r c e i n the p l a n n i n g of a r t programs at a l l l e v e l s of a r t & design education around the world. DESIGN CONCEPTUALIZED / 46 E s s e n t i a l to the Bauhaus concept i s an emphasis on f i n d i n g s o l u t i o n s to f u n c t i o n a l problems s t a t e d w i t h i n the parameters of a p r e s c r i b e d design 'program'. I t i s assumed th a t design work conducted w i t h i n such parameters w i l l y i e l d a value and c u l t u r e - f r e e s o l u t i o n which w i l l s a t i s f y s t a t e d , predetermined f u n c t i o n a l requirements. The t r a d i t i o n of 'systematic' design, embodied w i t h i n what has been termed the contemporary 'design methods movement', owes i t s genesis to the Bauhaus ph i l o s o p h y and c u r r i c u l u m concept (Maser, 1987,-Skerl, 1987). By the 1950s noti o n s about design moved c l o s e r towards that of a ' s c i e n t i f i c ' and t o t a l l y o b j e c t i v e p r o c e s s . The t e a c h i n g s of the Hochschule fur G e s t a l t u n g at Ulm underscored a growing acceptance on the p a r t of a r t i s t s , d e s i g n e r s , and a r c h i t e c t s of the b e l i e f t h a t the process of design c o u l d be r a t i o n a l l y determined - that the process c o u l d be c l e a r l y and e x p l i c i t l y s t a t e d and p r e c i s e l y c o n t r o l l e d (Rowe, 1987). These assumptions, which have so g r e a t l y i n f l u e n c e d design theory, p r a c t i c e , and education over the l a s t t h i r t y years have come to be r i g o r o u s l y q u e s t i o n e d and t e s t e d through the 1960s and '70s, p a r t i c u l a r l y by t h e o r i s t s and educators working or i n t e r e s t e d i n the emerging f i e l d of 'Design Methodology' (Cross, 1984). Many of these concerned p a r t i e s b e l i e v e DESIGN CONCEPTUALIZED / 47 'systems' approaches to design and design s t u d i e s tend to deny what they c o n s i d e r to be the ' s u b j e c t i v e ' , e s s e n t i a l aspect of design a c t i v i t y . Out of t h i s broad h i s t o r i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e two major design paradigms or c o n c e p t u a l o r i e n t a t i o n s can be i s o l a t e d and c o n s i d e r e d as dominant f a c t o r s i n the f o r m u l a t i o n of assumptions, b e l i e f s , t h e o r i e s , and methodologies r e l a t e d to the p r a c t i c e of design and the e v o l u t i o n of design education approaches over the past f o r t y y e a r s . The f i r s t paradigm or c o n c e p t u a l o r i e n t a t i o n tends to d e f i n e design i n terms of u t i l i t a r i a n , f u n c t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s which are undertaken by t r a i n e d , s p e c i a l i s t d e s i g n e r s a p p l y i n g r e f i n e d s k i l l s through predetermined and systematic methodologies. In p a r t i c u l a r t h i s concept p i n p o i n t s the 'problem-solving-process' as the fulcrum around which the design process t u r n s . The second (and h i s t o r i c a l l y the most embryonic) concept proposes design be c o n c e p t u a l i z e d i n r e l a t i o n to a p e r c e p t i o n of 'design c a p a c i t y ' or 'design c a p a b i l i t y ' as a fundamental human c a p a c i t y that i s as b a s i c to human development as numeracy and l i t e r a c y . T h i s c a p a c i t y , i t i s h e l d , i s d e f i n e d i n terms of a p e r c e i v e d human p r e d i s p o s i t i o n towards shaping the environment to s a t i s f y needs r e l a t e d to s u r v i v a l , comfort, and p e r s o n a l and c u l t u r a l e x p r e s s i o n . How these c o n c e p t u a l o r i e n t a t i o n s have DESIGN CONCEPTUALIZED / 48 developed, have been embraced by the design and design e d u c a t i o n f i e l d s , and how they have or might continue to inform the development of a r t and design c u r r i c u l a i s the concern of the f o l l o w i n g a n a l y s i s . DESIGN CONCEPTUALIZED / 49 B. DESIGN AS PROBLEM-SOLVING Over the l a s t one hundred years two p a r t i c u l a r themes have informed theory r e l a t e d to the c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n of design as a p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g - p r o c e s s : the a s s o c i a t i o n i s t i c / m e c h a n i s t i c o r i e n t a t i o n of the l a t e 19th century which r e l a t e d p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g behaviours d i r e c t l y to what were c o n s i d e r e d i r r e d u c i b l e l a w l i k e r e l a t i o n s h i p s t h a t governed a l l mental processes; and the b e h a v i o u r a l - n o n m e n t a l i s t i c p o i n t - o f - v i e w which r e j e c t e d the n o t i o n of governing inner mental processes and saw human behaviour e x p l a i n a b l e only i n terms of e m p i r i c a l l y measureable f a c t o r s . Under the d o c t r i n e of a s s o c i a t i o n i s m i t was h e l d that the s o l e mechanism of l e a r n i n g l a y i n the a s s o c i a t i o n of impressions that were re p e a t e d l y presented, i n combination, to the senses. Mental images, s e n s a t i o n s , and f e e l i n g s , were seen as necessary and c r i t i c a l a s pects of the process of l e a r n i n g . C r e a t i v i t y was p e r c e i v e d as a l a r g e l y random event and c r e a t i v e p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g as a s e r i e s of a s s o c i a t i o n s producing new attachments which l e a d to new i n s i g h t s about the problem (Rowe, 1987; Cross, 1984). The b e h a v i o u r i s t p o s i t i o n , which evolved on G e s t a l t n o t i o n of h o l i s t i c o r g a n i z i n g p r i n c the h e a l s of the i p l e s (Rowe, DESIGN CONCEPTUALIZED / 50 p.44) attempted to observe human behaviour by e m p i r i c a l methods and i n turn c o r r e l a t e environmental f a c t o r s or s t i m u l i with what were b e l i e v e d to be c o n s i s t a n t and q u a n t i f i a b l e p a t t e r n s of human response and behaviour. T h i s view of p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g served as a b r i d g e to the development of stage-process models which, i t was b e l i e v e d , would serve to adequately d e s c r i b e man's i n t e r a c t i o n s with h i s environment and c o u l d t h e r e f o r e be used i n h e l p i n g to e s t a b l i s h g u i d i n g p r i n c i p l e s f o r the process of d e s i g n i n g . The n o t i o n of design as a r e d u c i b l e p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g - p r o c e s s - a process which can be reduced to a s e r i e s of stages of systemized behaviours or a c t i v i t i e s and which a f f o r d s the designer more c o n t r o l over and p r e c i s i o n i n the p u r s u i t of s u c c e s s f u l s o l u t i o n s to understood design problems - has found a wide degree of acceptance w i t h i n the f i e l d s of design and a r t & design c u r r i c u l u m development over the past 50 y e a r s . Many proble m - s o l v i n g models r e f e r e d to by d e s i g n e r s and a r t & design educators are anchored to an assumption that the whole process of design can be c l e a r l y d e l i n e a t e d and e x p l i c i t l y s t a t e d , and that m e t h o d o l o g i c a l parameters can be e a s i l y determined and p r e s c r i b e d . I t i s f u r t h e r assumed that the formal s t r u c t u r i n g of the design p r o c e s s w i l l p r o v i d e means f o r adequately d e a l i n g with the growing complexity and s h i f t i n g emphasis and focus of design DESIGN CONCEPTUALIZED / 51 problems r e l a t e d to contemporary l i f e (Rowe, p.51-74). The s p e c i f i c aims of 'stage-process design' are to reduce the degree of design e r r o r , r e - d e s i g n , and de l a y , and to make p o s s i b l e more i m a g i n a t i v e , advanced, and s u c c e s s f u l d e s i g n . In g e n e r a l , i t i s assumed that such a C a r t e s i a n view of d e s i g n i n g - where i t i s important to break a problem down i n t o fragments and so l v e each of these s e p a r a t e l y before attempting some grand s y n t h e s i s - would make the process e f f i c i e n t and r e l i a b l e . A process which i s c o n c e p t u a l i z e d as a s t r u c t u r e d movement from a set of givens to the reachin g of p r e - s e t goals promises the kind of a c c e s s i b i l i t y and p o t e n t i a l f o r o p e r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n which makes i t p a r t i c u l a r l y a t t r a c t i v e to d e s i g n e r s and educ a t o r s . Seeing design i n terms of formal systems of data a n a l y s i s , needs assessment, problem d e f i n i t i o n , and agreed p r e c r i p t i v e methods i s an o r i e n t a t i o n which owes much of i t s c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n to b e h a v i o u r i s t psychology. B e h a v i o u r i s t - b a s e d r i g i d - s t a t e models of pr o b l e m - s o l v i n g behaviour have g r e a t l y i n f l u e n c e d the development of models of p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g approaches to design a c t i v i t y . In the l a t e 1950s and e a r l y 1960s d e s i g n and design e d u c a t i o n t h e o r i s t s , f o l l o w i n g the l e a d of b e h a v i o u r i s t theory which p o s t u l a t e s that human behaviour can only be adequately DESIGN CONCEPTUALIZED / 52 e x p l a i n e d i n terms of observable, measureable, and r e p l i c a b l e p a t t e r n s of behaviour, attempted to d e f i n e and d e s c r i b e the c r e a t i v e p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g process through the mapping of the l o g i c a l s t r u c t u r e of c o g n i t i v e a c t i v i t e s which were assumed to be t a k i n g p l a c e . T h e o r i s t s working i n the f i e l d s of a r c h i t e c t u r e , e n g i n e e r i n g , urban d e s i g n , a p p l i e d a r t s , commercial d e s i g n , and a r t and design education developed stage-process models of d e s i g n which f o r m a l i z e d the procedures and a c t i v i t i e s a s s o c i a t e d with, and deemed necessary t o , the a c t i v i t y of d e s i g n . T h i s concept of 'design-as-problem-solving-process' became common to many p r o f e s s i o n s and d i s c i p l i n e s . R i t t e l (1984) has l a b e l l e d t h i s 'systems-approach' to d e s i g n , with i t s heavy r e l i a n c e on exhaustive data c o l l e c t i o n , data a n a l y s i s , and s o l u t i o n s y n t h e s i s , as the "1st Generation Design Method" (p.317-328). T h i s b a s i c ' a n a l y s i s - s y n t h e s i s ' o r i e n t a t i o n towards design methodology found wide agreement and acceptance i n the 1960s and served to inform much of the design and design e d u c a t i o n - r e l a t e d r e s e a r c h of that p e r i o d . Many v a r i e n t s of the b a s i c A n a l y s i s - S y n t h e s i s - E v a l u a t i o n model were p o s i t e d i n t o theory and r e s e a r c h i n c l u d i n g e l a b o r a t i o n s of the b a s i c stage and stage-sequence concepts (Archer, 1984). T h e o r i s t s such as Jones, Asimow, Archer, Luckman, Alexander, Maver, DESIGN CONCEPTUALIZED / 53 Maldonado, and Gugelot developed v a r i o u s forms of stageprocess models f o r design which have and continue to i n f l u e n c e a r c h i t e c t u r e , d e sign, and design education (Cross, 1984). These models are e s s e n t i a l l y m o r p h o l o g i c a l and i n the main seek to q u a n t i f y each a c t i v i t y and phase r e l a t e d to the design process as w e l l as t r a n s f o r m those f a c t o r s which might normally be c o n s i d e r e d s u b j e c t i v e i n nature i n t o o b j e c t i v e , q u a n t i f i a b l e aspects of an a r t i c u l a t e d set of p r e s c r i b e d s t a ges. Many of the models were b u i l t on the primary assumption that i t i s p o s s i b l e to e s t a b l i s h both agreed p r i n c i p l e s and and norms which would be worthy of c o n t i n u e d emulation. A c c o r d i n g to these p r i n c i p l e s , procedures determined by t h e o r i e s r e g a r d i n g behaviours which were assumed to be common to a l l p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g type design a c t i v i t y would allow the designer to minimize r i s k s imposed by preconceptions and s u b j e c t i v e judgements, f a c t o r s which are p e r c e i v e d to be t h r e a t e n i n g to the g e n e r a t i o n of good design s o l u t i o n s (Darke, 1984). Jones and Luckman (1984), f o r example, have p o s i t e d the f o l l o w i n g models of the 'design process* which tend to exemplify the a n a l y s i s - s y n t h e s i s o r i e n t a t i o n t o d e s i g n - a s - p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g - p r o c e s s and can be seen as t y p i c a l of 1st Generation Design approaches as d e f i n e d by R i t t e l (1984): DESIGN CONCEPTUALIZED / 54 SYSTEMATIC DESIGN: 1. ANALYSIS: L i s t i n g of a l l design requirements and the r e d u c t i o n of these to a complete set of l o g i c a l l y r e l a t e d performance s p e c i f i c a t i o n s . 2. SYNTHESIS: F i n d i n g p o s s i b l e s o l u t i o n s f o r each i n d i v i d u a l performance s p e c i f i c a t i o n and b u i l d i n g up complete designs from these with l e a s t p o s s i b l e compromise. 3. EVALUATION: E v a l u a t i n g the accuracy with which a l t e r n a t i v e designs f u l l f i l performance requirements f o r o p e r a t i o n , manufacture, and s a l e s before the f i n a l d esign i s selected.(Jones,p.11) THE PROCESS OF DESIGN: 1. ANALYSIS: The c o l l e c t i o n and c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of a l l r e l e v a n t i n f o r m a t i o n r e l a t i n g t o the design problems at hand. 2. SYNTHESIS: The f o r m u l a t i o n of p o t e n t i a l s o l u t i o n s to p a r t s of the problem which are f e a s i b l e when judged a g a i n s t the i n f o r m a t i o n c o n t a i n e d i n the a n a l y s i s stage. 3. EVALUATION: The attempt to judge by use of some c r i t e r i o n or c r i t e r i a which of the f e a s i b l e s o l u t i o n s i s the one most s a t i s f a c t o r i l y answering the problem. (Luckman,p.84) DESIGN CONCEPTUALIZED / 55 In the l a t e 1960's growing acceptance of what were p e r c e i v e d to be d i f f i c u l t i e s inherent to attempts to q u a n t i f y what are e s s e n t i a l l y s u b j e c t i v e f a c t o r s w i t h i n the design process caused a s h i f t i n the way design i s g e n e r a l l y c o n c e p t u a l i z e d . Focus in d e s i g n - r e l a t e d theory and r e s e a r c h moved away from the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n and d e s c r i p t i o n of stages and stage-sequence models and more towards viewing design as a h o l i s t i c p r o c e s s . Less a t t e n t i o n was p a i d to normative theory and methodology and more to the development of models f o r design which took i n t o account those f a c t o r s which were re c o g n i z e d as s u b j e c t i v e l y based and thus l e s s q u a n t i f i a b l e . Assumptions which undergirded the a n a l y s i s - s y n t h e s i s models were examined more c r i t i c a l l y and c h a l l e n g e d on the b a s i s of a growing r e c o g n i t i o n of the f a i l i n g s of the u n i f i e d approach, the most c r i t i c a l being, a c c o r d i n g to Darke (p.177), the l a c k of a t t e n t i o n p a i d to the a c t u a l process of design as i t occurs or u n f o l d s i n ' r e a l ' s i t u a t i o n s . L o b e l l (1975) d e l i n e a t e s the i s s u e i n the f o l l o w i n g terms: I t i s t r u e that the c o n s c i o u s mind cannot j u g g l e the numbers of v a r i a b l e s necessary fo r a complex design problem, but t h i s does not mean that systematic methods are the.only a l t e r n a t i v e . Design i s a h o l i s t i c p r o c e s s . I t i s a process of p u t t i n g together complex v a r i a b l e s whose connec t i o n i s not apparent t o any d e s c r i b a b l e system of l o g i c . I t i s DESIGN CONCEPTUALIZED / 56 p r e c i s e l y f o r that reason that the most powerful l o g i c s ever known have t r a d i t i o n a l l y been used i n the design process, t h a t i s , the powerful l o g i c s of the deep s t r u c t u r e s of the mind which operate f r e e of the l i m i t a t i o n s of space, time, and c a u s a l i t y , and which have t r a d i t i o n a l l y been r e s p o n s i b l e f o r most c r e a t i v e work i n a l l of the s c i e n c e s and a r t s . In d esign we b r i n g a l o t of data to the mind, much of i t u n q u a n t i f i a b l e , and we allow that data to d i p in and out of the deeper s t r u c t u r e s of the mind, each time coming up with new i n t e g r a t i o n f orged by the powerful l o g i c s of the deep mind. However, we cannot c o n s c i o u s l y f o r c e these deep p a r t s of the mind to f u n c t i o n , j u s t as we h e l p the body l e a r n how to r i d e a b i c y c l e . The way t h i s l e a r n i n g i s done i s through p r a c t i c e not through the co n s c i o u s memorizing of steps i n a system. ... Systematic methods i n design o f t e n o r i g i n a t e from people who are unable to achieve the necessary l e t t i n g go i n order to have access t o deep s t r u c t u r e s , e i t h e r through l a c k of n a t u r a l a b i l i t y or through poor e d u c a t i o n . F i n d i n g t h i s process mysterious ( p a r t i c u l a r l y s i n c e they have never experienced i t ) they seek to demystify i t through the establishment of a l i s t of steps, which, i f f o l l o w e d , guarantee a DESIGN CONCEPTUALIZED / 57 design s o l u t i o n (p.122). Nutt (1975) has a l s o commented on the ways i n which many design t h e o r i s t s have come to view normative design methods: Linbolm (1965) s t a t e s that normative methods f a i l , at l e a s t i n the p u b l i c s e c t o r , because: they are not w e l l adapted to man's l i m i t e d a b i l i t y to d e f i n e ; the investments in data and a n a l y s i s cannot be j u s t i f i e d ; f a i l u r e to agree on e v a l u a t i o n c r i t e r i a , at a l l l e v e l s , does not permit a r a t i o n a l s e l e c t i o n among a l t e r n a t i v e s ; and normative methods are unable to capture or d e s c r i b e even a moderately complex design problem i n i t s e n t i r e t y . ( p . 3 0 2 ) In regards to the ways i n which b e h a v i o u r a l theory or behavioural-based e x p l a n a t i o n s inform c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n s of d e s i g n , Rowe (1987) asks the f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n s : What i s i t about a d e f i n i t i v e p r o g r e s s i o n of a c t i v i t y that a u t o m a t i c a l l y r e s u l t s i n a s p e c i f i c , f u r t h e r a c t i v i t y ? Through what mechanism or means do we advance from a n a l y s i s to s y n t h e s i s ? How i s i t that unique s o l u t i o n s are o f t e n rendered to problems, when the i n f o r m a t i o n p r o c e s s i n g that takes p l a c e seems so s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d ? As f a r as they go, staged-process models do i l l u m i n a t e c e r t a i n commonly DESIGN CONCEPTUALIZED / 58 observable f e a t u r e s of design a c t i v i t y ; yet the i l l u m i n a t i o n i s at a compa r a t i v e l y low l e v e l . ( p . 5 0 ) Rowe's q u e s t i o n s serve to d e f i n e one of the c e n t r a l concerns h e l d by t h e o r i s t s i n regards to models of design methodology and study which suggest a thorough a n a l y s i s of data, requirements, and mutual i m p l i c a t i o n s be undertaken be f o r e any move i s made towards f o r m u l a t i n g a s o l u t i o n . H i l l i e r (1984) and Darke (1984) o f f e r , i n c o n t r a s t , the n o t i o n of design as a process i n which i t i s p o s s i b l e , and perhaps more n a t u r a l f o r a des i g n e r , to generate a s o l u t i o n or concept before the data i s analyzed or the requirements worked out. T h i s concept i s e x e m p l i f i e d w i t h i n what Darke (p.179) c a l l s her ' c o n j e c t u r e - s y n t h e s i s ' model of design - a model which r e c o g n i z e s the p o s s i b l e s u b j e c t i v e b a s i s or nature of the proposed s o l u t i o n s or ' c o n j e c t u r e s ' and assumes that these can be i n f l u e n c e d by any number of f a c t o r s i n c l u d i n g e m o t i o n a l / i n t u i t i v e responses to s o c i a l environments, p e r s o n a l p r e d i s p o s i t i o n s and v a l u e s , c r e a t i v e responses and p e r s p e c t i v e s , or p e r s p e c t i v e s i n f l u e n c e d or determined by education and s k i l l s - t r a i n i n g e x p e r i e n c e s . Darke c a l l s these f a c t o r s 'primary generators' and her c o n j e c t u r e - s y n t h e s i s model of design emphasizes the need to rec o g n i z e these f a c t o r s . T h i s model, because i t i s not t i e d t o an assumption t h a t DESIGN CONCEPTUALIZED / 59 pro b l e m - s o l v i n g behaviours can only be e x p l a i n e d i n co n c r e t e , measureable terms, d e f i n e s a more l i b e r a l , open-ended concept of the design p r o c e s s . S u b j e c t i v e (and perhaps n o n - q u a n t i f i a b l e ) f a c t o r s are seen as c r i t i c a l a s p e c t s of that process and, i n c o n t r a s t to the a n a l y s i s - s y n t h e s i s o r i e n t a t i o n , the c o n j e c t u r e - a n a l y s i s model at t e n d s more to both-the wide v a r i e n c e that might e x i s t i n the ways i n d i v i d u a l d e s i g n e r s approach a given design s i t u a t i o n and the ways i n which s u b j e c t i v e responses to those s i t u a t i o n s might i n f l u e n c e both judgements and the f o r m u l a t i o n of goals and c o n j e c t u r e s . Darke's r e s e a r c h i n t o the ways i n which a r c h i t e c t s approach design s i t u a t i o n s has l e d her to conclude that 1st Generation or a n a l y s i s - s y n t h e s i s models have l i t t l e i f any r e a l a p p l i c a t i o n t o the process of d e s i g n i n g : One of the shortcomings of the e a r l y phase of design methods r e s e a r c h was t h a t i t c o n c e n t r a t e d on design morphology, a sequence of boxes b e a r i n g p a r t i c u l a r l a b e l s , r a t h e r than the way p a r t i c u l a r d e s i g n e r s f i l l e d the boxes with concepts, and the source of the d e s i g n e r ' s concepts (p. 187). Darke suggests that d e s i g n e r s do not s t a r t , and are not i n c l i n e d t o s t a r t , with a c o n s i d e r a t i o n of a l i s t of f a c t o r s or predetermined performance l i m i t a t i o n s . Rather, she DESIGN CONCEPTUALIZED / 60 c l a i m s : ... they have to f i n d a way of reducing the v a r i e t y of p o t e n t i a l s o l u t i o n s to the as yet i m p e r f e c t l y understood problem, to a small c l a s s of s o l u t i o n s that i s c o g n i t i v e l y manageable. To do t h i s they f i x on a p a r t i c u l a r o b j e c t i v e or small group of o b j e c t i v e s , u s u a l l y s t r o n g l y v a l u e d and s e l f - i m p o s e d , f o r reasons that r e s t on t h e i r s u b j e c t i v e judgement ra t h e r than being reached by process of l o g i c . ... I t i s c l e a r i n most cases that the design concept was a r r i v e d at before the requirements were worked out i n d e t a i l , and n e c e s s a r i l y so, s i n c e these requirements c o u l d only become o p e r a t i o n a l i n the context of a p a r t i c u l a r s o l u t i o n .'(p. 187) Akin (1984) a l s o b e l i e v e s that no model based p r i m a r i l y on q u a n t i f i a b l e f a c t o r s i s complex enough to r e p r e s e n t the r e a l - l i f e c o m p l e x i t i e s of the design p r o c e s s , and Lawson's re s e a r c h (1984), which focuses on design s t r a t e g i e s , appears to support Darke's c o n c l u s i o n s r e g a r d i n g p r e - a n a l y s i s c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n : ... i t seems q u i t e reasonable to suppose t h a t d e s i g n e r s would evolve a methodology which does not DESIGN CONCEPTUALIZED / 61 depend on the completion of problem a n a l y s i s before s y n t h e s i s can begin (p.206). Many t h e o r i s t s and educators concerned with the a p p l i c a t i o n of design methodologies to a r c h i t e c t u r e , a p p l i e d d e s i g n , and a r t & design education appear to agree with the b a s i c n o t i o n of d e s i g n - a s - p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g - p r o c e s s . Design education l i t e r a t u r e y e i l d s many concepts and r a t i o n a l e s f o r design s t u d i e s c u r r i c u l a which appear to be anchored to t h i s f o u n d a t i o n a l concept. For example, i n d i s c u s s i n g how a r t and design education should respond to the changing r o l e of the a r t i s t / d e s i g n e r i n contemporary s o c i e t y , Green (1974) o u t l i n e s h i s s p e c i f i c d e f i n i t i o n o f , and c r i t e r i a f o r , de s i g n : Design i s a human a c t i v i t y i n which everyone i s i n v o l v e d ; i t i s a process of i d e n t i f y i n g needs and e s t a b l i s h i n g c r i t i c a l p r i o r i t i e s . . . . A l l d esign d e c i s i o n s r e l a t e to the proble m - s o l v i n g p r o c e s s : such a process i s c l e a r l y c l o s e to the fundamental processes of our l i v e s . ... Experience of pr o b l e m - s o l v i n g i s common to education, the design p r o c e s s , and d a i l y l i f e , and i s t h e r e f o r e c e n t r a l to any ideas r e l a t e d to design e d u c a t i o n . . . . T h i s u n i v e r s a l process of pro b l e m - s o l v i n g i s what design i s a l l about. We are a l l i n v o l v e d i n the c r i t i c a l DESIGN CONCEPTUALIZED / 62 process of de s i g n , (p.7-8) Horrocks (1969) has attempted to r e l a t e design process to the task of h e l p i n g students f i n d a means of i n d e n t i f y i n g and g i v i n g p r i o r i t y to those a s p e c t s of the p h y s i c a l and s o c i a l environment which should be understood and perhaps changed; Prob l e m - s o l v i n g i s a b a s i c human a c t i v i t y i n which we are a l l engaged - the designer extends the p o t e n t i a l of pr o b l e m - s o l v i n g by adopting a methodical approach. Problem-solving p l a y s a prominant r o l e i n the a c t i v i t i e s and e d u c a t i o n a l experiences we are d i s c u s s i n g . I t i s a r a t i o n a l , d ecision-making p r o c e s s , and i n some asp e c t s d i f f e r s from many t r a d i t i o n a l forms of a r t and c r a f t e d ucation which have been most concerned with i r r a t i o n a l , i n t u i t i v e e x p e r i e n c e s . ...Problem-solving can be used as the v e h i c l e f o r immediate experience - f o r example, where m a n i p u l a t i o n of a m a t e r i a l p r o v i d e s a d i r e c t s o l u t i o n . At the other extreme i t can p r o v i d e the b a s i s f o r a prolonged p r o j e c t i n v o l v i n g much p r e l i m i n a r y r e s e a r c h and o r g a n i z a t i o n of information.(p.37-38) Design education t h e o r i s t s such as Baynes and Harahan have, DESIGN CONCEPTUALIZED / 63 however drawn a t t e n t i o n to what they see as the l i m i t a t i o n s of design c u r r i c u l a based on a r i g i d concept of d e s i g n - a s - p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g . Baynes (1982) s t a t e s : I t i s easy to agree with those who say that d e s i g n e r s are e s s e n t i a l l y p roblem-solvers but i t i s e q u a l l y easy to see t h a t i n terms of e d u c a t i o n t h i s begs a whole s e r i e s of c r u c i a l q u e s t i o n s . Whose problems? Can d e s i g n e r s s o l v e a l l kinds of problems? Are some problems i n s o l u a b l e anyway? I t seems a p i t y that many of the models of design a c t i v i t y used i n g e n e r a l education are s t i l l so narrow, (p.113) The problems of adopting the concept of d e s i g n - a s - p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g as the foundation of design c u r r i c u l u m development and of t r a n s p o s i n g to or imposing onto p r e s c r i b e d c u r r i c u l a are a l l u d e d to by Harahan (1978): Terms such as 'problem-solving' and 'open-ended pro b l e m - s o l v i n g ' are o f t e n used to d e s c r i b e students' experiences i n design e d u c a t i o n . In design r e s e a r c h a l s o , much time has been spent i n examining d e s i g n e r s ' behaviour and methodology. But i n an e d u c a t i o n a l context, although the open-ended approach can be a p p l i e d i n t e r e s t i n g l y , one f e e l s terms l i k e these are o f t e n misunderstood. In DESIGN CONCEPTUALIZED / 64 p a r t i c u l a r there i s , as one might perhaps expect, a great d e a l of v a r i a t i o n i n the extent to which teachers d i r e c t students towards c e r t a i n kinds of understandings, and i n the extent to which they leave students themselves to 1 b r i d g e - t h e - g a p ' between t h e i r i n t i t i a l understanding and a s o l u t i o n to a given problem. ... the whole q u e s t i o n of the way i n which open-ended pr o b l e m - s o l v i n g i s used as a technique f o r l e a r n i n g i n sc h o o l s needs to be th r o r o u g h l y i n v e s t i g a t e d i f i t i s to be p r o p e r l y understood. ... In recent years there has been a f a i r l y widespread use of p r o f e s s i o n a l d e sign methodologies i n schools as v e h i c l e s f o r l e a r n i n g . Often, equating design e d u c a t i o n with a ' l o g i c a l approach' to work or c u r r i c u l u m s t r u c t u r e seems to have given r i s e to misunderstanding and p r e j u d i c e . ...Problem-solving i s o f t e n understood to c o n s i s t of a s e r i e s of s e q u e n t i a l s t e p s , but i t would seem that these steps would be b e t t e r termed p a t t e r n s and, f u r t h e r , they do not appear t o be automatic or mechanical. ...Much has been w r i t t e n about design methodology, but the s o l u t i o n of a problem i n an e d u c a t i o n a l context should, i t seems to me, be p r i m a r i l y concerned with those aspects of the student's response t o the problem that i n v o l v e a DESIGN CONCEPTUALIZED / 65 search f o r d e c i s i o n s as to how to proceed. In other words, a student must be helped to develop h i s own methodology, i n c o n t r a s t to the frequent i n s t a n c e s i n which students and teach e r s see methodology as a c l o s e d p r e s c r i p t i o n r a t h e r than an encouragement to look f o r f u r t h e r p o s s i b i l i t i e s , (p.3) In order to f u r t h e r c l a r i f y the b a s i c concepts on which the a n a l y s i s - s y n t h e s i s and c o n j e c t u r e - a n a l y s i s models of design methodology are based i t would be u s e f u l t o i s o l a t e and analyze some sub-concepts which are c o i n c i d e n t a l t o both and which serve as f o u n d a t i o n a l b i n d i n g agents i n the s t r u c t u r i n g of more general d e s i g n and design e d u c a t i o n concepts. DESIGN CONCEPTUALIZED / 66 C. SUB-CONCEPTS Notions of 'need', 'problem', and ' c r e a t i v i t y ' are i n t e g r a l t o many statements and/or models r e l a t e d to design methodology and design s t u d i e s concepts. In many cases these sub-concepts serve as the b a s i c conceptual elements on which the more g e n e r a l concepts are developed. However, even while i t i s o f t e n h e l d that such subconcepts are necessary to any g e n e r a l and/or p a r t i c u l a r n o t i o n s of design and the design process i t i s p o s s i b l e to view them, in t h e i r own r i g h t , as being somewhat vague and ambiguous i n the c o n c e p t u a l sense. I f these sub-concepts are h e l d as c r i t i c a l p l a y e r s i n the task d e f i n i n g and/or v a l i d a t i n g broader concepts then there i s a l s o value i n examining how r e l i a b l e they might be i n t h e i r given r o l e s . a. Need Papanek (1970) has s t a t e d " A l l design must f i l l a human need" and t h e r e f o r e an understanding of how man has emphasized and de-emphasized p a r t i c u l a r needs and has d e v i s e d means f o r s a t i s f y i n g those needs i s e s s e n t i a l to the task of determining how p r e s e n t and f u t u r e needs might be attended to through the p r o c e s s of design (p. 47). Archer and E g g l e s t o n have p i n p o i n t e d the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of needs as DESIGN CONCEPTUALIZED / 67 an e s s e n t i a l and l e g i t i m i z i n g aspect of the design p r o c e s s : There can be no s o l u t i o n without a problem; and no problem without c o n s t r a i n t s ; and no c o n s t r a i n t s without a pressure or a need. Thus design begins with a need. E i t h e r the need i s a u t o m a t i c a l l y met, and there i s no problem, or the need i s not met because of c e r t a i n o b s t a c l e s or gaps. The f i n d i n g of means to overcome these o b s t a c l e s or gaps c o n s t i t u t e s the problem. (Archer,1984;p.59) At the heart of the matter i s the design p r o c e s s . T h i s i s the process of problem s o l v i n g which begins with a d e t a i l e d p r e l i m i n a r y i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of a problem and a d i a g n o s i s of the needs that have to be met by a s o l u t i o n , and goes through a s e r i e s of stages i n which v a r i o u s s o l u t i o n s are c o n c e i v e d , e x p l o r e d , and e v a l u a t e d u n t i l an optimum answer i s found that appears to s a t i s f y the necessary c r i t e r i a as f u l l y as p o s s i b l e w i t h i n the l i m i t s and o p p o r t u n i t i e s a v a i l a b l e . (Eggleston,1976;p.17) Terminology r e l a t e d to concepts of need sometimes d i f f e r s . For example, Archer (1984) r e f e r s to needs as 'design g o a l s ' (p.349) while Jones (1984) c a l l s them 'performance s p e c i f i c a t i o n s ' (p.349). In the f i e l d s of e n g i n e e r i n g and DESIGN CONCEPTUALIZED / 68 a r c h i t e c t u r e they are o f t e n c a t e g o r i z e d as the 'design c r i t e r i a ' . Whatever the l a b e l t here remains the q u e s t i o n to what extent the no t i o n s of 'need' or 'needs' have acheived concensual c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n i n r e l a t i o n to design theory and design methodology. Alexander and Poyner (1984) b e l i e v e that the assessment of need i s more problematic than might be g e n e r a l l y assumed because the b a s i c concept of need i s not w e l l d e f i n e d (p. 125). The whole n o t i o n of f i n d i n g ways to meet needs i s s t i l l a h i g h l y ambiguous one and a c c o r d i n g l y , they m a i n t a i n , c o n s t i t u t e s a c e n t r a l , unattended problem of d e s i g n : ... people are n o t o r i o u s l y unable to assess t h e i r own needs. Suppose then we t r y to assess people's needs by watching them. We s t i l l cannot be sure we know what people r e a l l y need. We cannot decide what i s ' r e a l l y ' needed, e i t h e r by ask i n g q u e s t i o n s , or by o u t s i d e o b s e r v a t i o n , because the concept of need i s not w e l l d e f i n e d . At the present the word need has a v a r i e t y of meanings. When i t s a i d t h a t people need a i r to breathe, i t means t h a t they w i l l d i e w i t h i n minutes i f they don't get i t . When someone says "I need a d r i n k " , i t means he w i l l f e e l b e t t e r i f he has one. When i t i s s a i d t h a t people 'need' an a r t museum the meaning i s almost wholly obscure. The DESIGN CONCEPTUALIZED / 69 statement that a person needs something has no w e l l - d e f i n e d meaning. We cannot decide whether such a statement i s t r u e or f a l s e (p. 125). Engineers, a r c h i t e c t s , d e s i g n e r s , and a r t i s t s may see the concept of 'need' i n d i f f e r e n t terms than s o c i a l s c i e n t i s t s and e d u c a t o r s . In pedagogical language f o r example, need i s u s u a l l y a ge n e r a l motive e x p r e s s i o n used t o r e f e r to any kind of motive or goal seeking behaviour. P e r c e p t i o n s of b a s i c needs are h i s t o r i c a l l y , c u l t u r a l l y , p o l i t i c a l l y , p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y , and g e o g r a p h i c a l l y determined and the c r i t i c a l c h a l l e n g e f a c i n g those who wish t o c l a r i f y and d e f i n e need f o r the purpose of mapping design a c t i v i t y i s to f i n d the means of understanding and d e a l i n g with c o n s t a n t l y changing c o l l e c t i v e and p e r s o n a l v a l u e s , p r i o r i t i e s , and p e r c e p t i o n s of needs. b. Problem The l a r g e l y unexplored b r i d g e or i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p between the concepts of 'need' and 'problem' can be seen as a c r i t i c a l but g e n e r a l l y ignored aspect of the c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n of the design p r o c e s s . Any attempt t o c l a r i f y the conceptual interdependence of the two concepts tends t o move i n a c y c l i c a l f a s h i o n , beginning with an a n a l y s i s of those f a c t o r s which might determine need, DESIGN CONCEPTUALIZED / 70 through a s e r i e s of q u e s t i o n s r e g a r d i n g the s i n g u l a r n o t i o n of problem and how i t might be s e t t l e d i n t o the wider concept of d e s i g n - a s - p r o b l e m s o l v i n g - p r o c e s s , then back to the i s s u e of d e f i n i n g need. There are many q u e s t i o n s which can be seen as r e l e v a n t to the i s s u e of f i n d i n g agreement about the concept of problem. What, i n the most b a s i c sense, i s a problem? Are there d i f f e r e n t c l a s s e s or types of problems which are not g e n e r a l l y r e c o g n i z e d but should be understood i n r e l a t i o n to d e f i n i n g the broader concept of ' d e s i g n - a s - p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g - p r o c e s s 1 ? I f i t can be argued that t h e r e are d i f f e r e n t problem types and that i t i s important to understand t h e i r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and to d i f f e r e n t i a t e between them before engaging i n the design p r o c e s s , why would such c l a s s i f i c a t i o n be c r i t i c a l to our g e n e r a l understanding of design and the design process? These q u e s t i o n s draw a t t e n t i o n t o the c o n c e p t u a l l i n k that e x i s t s between the concepts of need and problem, p a r t i c u l a r l y as regards t h e i r importance to the task of c o n c e p t u a l i z i n g and d e f i n i n g d e sign as a p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g - p r o c e s s . Thorndike s t a t e s that a 'problem' e x i s t s i f an organism wants (needs?) something but the a c t i o n s necessary to o b t a i n i t are not immediately obvious. DESIGN CONCEPTUALIZED / 71 Rowe (1987) and Harahan (1978) suggest that a problem i s a d e s c r i p t i o n of the process of sensing gaps or d i s t u r b i n g m i s s i n g elements (needs?). Both statements seem to suggest that a d e f i n i t i o n of problem depends on a p r i o r r e c o g n i t i o n of need and that i f pro b l e m - s o l v i n g i s to be re c o g n i z e d as a f u n c t i o n of the design process then the r e c o g n i t i o n of the nature of the r e l a t i o n s h i p between need and problem i s c r i t i c a l to any acceptance of that concept. For the a r t & design teacher the i s s u e of b u i l d i n g p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g a s p e c t s i n t o d e s i g n - r e l a t e d classroom a c t i v i t e s can be h i g h l y p r o b l e m a t i c . K i m b a l l (1982) has suggested t h a t design problems are never c l e a r c u t or black and white i n nature but i n v a r i a b l y shades of grey. A s i n g l e design problem i s a complex of a thousand or more sub-problems which are i n f l u e n c e d or determined by the mosaic of p e r s o n a l v a l u e s and f e l t needs, i n d i v i d u a l and/or c o l l e c t i v e v i s i o n s of d e s i r e a b l e f u t u r e s , and c o n s t a n t l y changing s o c i a l and t e c h n o l o g i c a l f a c t o r s (Archer, p.17). Kimb a l l c l a i m s that a n a l y s i s of any d e s i g n - r e l a t e d problem w i l l i l l u m i n a t e the u n d e r l y i n g l a y e r s of c o n d i t i o n s and concepts which determine i t s for m a t i o n : Any problem, on c l o s e i n s p e c t i o n , c o n t a i n s an almost u n l i m i t e d v a r i e t y of degrees of problem. ... design problems e x i s t on a continuum ranging between a DESIGN CONCEPTUALIZED / 72 t o t a l problem and a non-problem, and the d i f f e r e n c e between the two l i e s simply i n the number of q u a l i f i c a t i o n s t h a t modify the b a s i c problem. ... The f a c t that design problems ( l i k e a l l problems I suspect) are so f l e x i b l e makes i t p o s s i b l e f o r the teacher to d e v i s e a problem of any degree of complexity f o r a p a r t i c u l a r s u b j e c t . (P. 17-18). I t has been suggested that to f a c i l i t a t e a b e t t e r ' f i t ' between the process or a c t i v i t y of design and the environment i n which i t takes p l a c e the d i v e r s e v a l u e s , needs, and views of both those who design and those who are designed f o r must be taken i n t o account (Jaques & T a l b o t , 1975). In t h i s context ' p r o b l e m - i d e n t i f i c a t i o n ' can be viewed as a c r i t i c a l component of the design p r o c e s s . The importance of t h i s 'pre-problem-solving' stage of design should, a c c o r d i n g to Jaques & T a l b o t , be recognized and a s s i g n e d a l a r g e r r o l e than i s p r e s e n t l y the case w i t h i n design a c t i v i t i e s : Problem i d e n t i f i c a t i o n must begin by attempting to i d e n t i f y the v a r i e t y and c r i t i c a l i t y of those views, and to assess the i m p l i c a t i o n s of c o n f l i c t s w i t h i n them. We can say t h e r e f o r e t h a t problem i d e n t i f i c a t i o n must begin by r e l a t i n g the i n i t i a l d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n with the p e r t i n e n t views of what the DESIGN CONCEPTUALIZED / 73 s i t u a t i o n i s and what i t ought to be. ... Design c u r r e n t l y l a c k s even the most b a s i c competance i n problem i d e n t i f i c a t i o n , and much design i s based on l a i s s e z - f a i r e assumptions about what are the a c c e p t a b l e or r i g h t s o l u t i o n s . ( p . 1 1 1 ) . Thomson (1975) sees d i f f i c u l t i e s inherent i n what he c a l l s the 'weaving' nature of the design process - the weaving of knowledge, data, and assumptions i n t o the ' f a b r i c ' of a plan of a c t i o n or s o l u t i o n . These d i f f i c u l t i e s , a c c o r d i n g to Thomson, are due i n p a r t to a g e n e r a l l a c k of understanding of the range of problem types that can be encountered when e s t a b l i s h i n g or working through design o p e r a t i o n s . The i n a b i l i t y to d i s t i n g u i s h one p a r t i c u l a r problem from other s i m i l a r problems i s , he b e l i e v e s , a d i r e c t cause of many of the c o n c e p t u a l and o p e r a t i o n a l t r a p s which can hinder or render i n v a l i d a design o p e r a t i o n (p.159-164). In s e a r c h i n g f o r ways to circumvent such t r a p s Thomson has formulated a taxonomy of what he b e l i e v e s are the most b a s i c problem-types: COMPLEX PROBLEMS - s o l u t i o n s are w e l l d e s c r i b e d by t h e i r parameters and v a l u e s . D e s i g n i n g a car might be an example of a complex problem. DESIGN CONCEPTUALIZED / 74 RANDOMLY COMPLEX PROBLEMS - d e s c r i b e the behaviour of some o b j e c t w i t h i n a f i e l d of other o b j e c t s . S a t i s f i e s the requirement (need) to reduce a l a r g e f i e l d of b e h a v i o u r a l events to a few r e l i a b l e and d e s c r i b a b l e parameters. PROBLEMS OF ORGANIZED COMPLEXITY - d e a l with o v e r l a p p i n g concerns of i n t e r e s t groups. Attempts an agreement of a v a r i e t y of concerns f o r a s p e c i f i c course of a c t i o n . Thomson terms these ' s o f t ' problems. Rowe (1987) has a l s o p o s i t e d i n t o the f i e l d h i s own taxonomy of problem-types which serves to c h a r a c t e r i z e the d i s t i n c t i o n s made by other t h e o r i s t s : WELL-DEFINED PROBLEM ~ those f o r which ends, or go a l s are a l r e a d y p r e s c r i b e d and apparent; t h e i r s o l u t i o n r e q u i r e s the p r o v i s i o n of a p p r o p r i a t e means. R i t t e l r e f e r s to t h i s c l a s s of problem as 'tame' and s t a t e s that they can be e x h a u s t i v e l y formulated ... and s o l v e d by a knowledgeable man without the need f o r f u r t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n . ILL-DEFINED PROBLEM - those where both the ends and means of s o l u t i o n are unknown at the outset of the pro b l e m - s o l v i n g e x e r c i s e , at l e a s t i n t h e i r e n t i r e t y . Although the general t h r u s t of the problem may be c l e a r , c o n s i d e r a b l e time and DESIGN CONCEPTUALIZED / 75 e f f o r t i s spent t r y i n g to c l a r i f y what i s r e q u i r e d . A l a r g e p a r t of the p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g a c t i v i t y c o n s i s t s of problem d e f i n i t i o n and r e d e f i n i t i o n . WICKED PROBLEMS - Those without a d e f i n i t i v e f o r m u l a t i o n or the p o s s i b i l i t y of becoming f u l l y d e f i n e d . A d d i t i o n a l q u e s t i o n s can always be asked which leads to a process of c o n t i n u a l r e f o r m u l a t i o n . There i s no e x p l i c i t b a s i s f o r the t e r m i n a t i o n of the p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g a c t i v i t y - any time a s o l u t i o n i s proposed i t can, to some extent, be developed s t i l l f u r t h e r - and any s o l u t i o n s proposed are not n e c e s s a r i l y c o r r e c t or i n c o r r e c t . P l a u s i b l e a l t e r n a t i v e s o l u t i o n s can always be p r o v i d e d . While Thomson and h i s c o l l e a g u e s i n the f i e l d s of design theory and methodology are attempting t o v a l i d a t e the process of p r o b l e m - i d e n t i f i c a t i o n , there i s , c o i n c i d e n t a l l y , some l i m i t e d degree of a t t e n t i o n being p a i d the i s s u e by those concerned with p l a c i n g i t i n t o an e d u c a t i o n a l c o n t e x t . Roberts (1982) has s t a t e d that he b e l i e v e s some school-based p r a c t i t i o n e r s have found taxonomies of problem-types u s e f u l to t h e i r classroom work and K i m b a l l (1982) has w r i t t e n about the s t r u c t u r i n g of design problems and r e l a t e d i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r the development of d e s i g n - r e l a t e d l e s s o n s and u n i t s . Maser (1987) has formulated a model f o r 'design p l a n n i n g ' DESIGN CONCEPTUALIZED / 76 which recommends a n a l y s i s of problem type, s t r u c t u r e , and f u n c t i o n which might have i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r design s t u d i e s c u r r i c u l u m s and Horrocks (1969) has proposed a systematic approach to p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g a c t i v i t i e s i n the classroom which emphasizes the importance of having the teacher and students undertake a process of i s o l a t i n g , d e f i n i n g , and understanding a problem before any attempt i s made to move towards d e v i s i n g a s o l u t i o n . In d i r e c t r e f e r e n c e to the c e n t r a l concept of d e s i g n - a s - p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g - p r o c e s s Green (1974) has proposed a model f o r p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g i n which problem and n e e d s - i d e n t i f i c a t i o n are r e l a t e d d i r e c t l y to an a n a l y s i s of t e c h n o l o g i c a l , economic, and s o c i a l f a c t o r s . Papanek (1970), who c o n c e p t u a l i z e s design i n terms of an i n t e g r a t e d s e r i e s of s i m u l t a n e o u s l y o c c u r i n g ' b i o l o g i c a l ' f u n c t i o n s (as opposed to a more commonly h e l d concept of a s e r i e s of p r e s c r i b e d mechanical o p e r a t i o n s ) , sees the need f o r the education of s t u d e n t - d e s i g n e r s as ' h o r i z o n t a l - g e n e r a l i s t s ' r a t h e r than as ' v e r t i c a l s p e c i a l i s t s ' . A c c o r d i n g to Papanek the g e n e r a l i s t - d e s i g n e r must, of n e c e s s i t y , be capable of i s o l a t i n g and d e f i n i n g problems i n r e l a t i o n to t h e i r degree of complexity and the context of what he terms the 'human f a c t o r ' - the b i o l o g i c a l , p s y c h o l o g i c a l , and k i n e s t h e t i c senses of mankind. Papanek contends, however, that most design DESIGN CONCEPTUALIZED / 77 c u r r i c u l u m s f a l l " ... lamentably short of p r o v i d i n g p r a c t i c e i n t h i s a r e a " (p.55) and appears to be c o r r e c t i n t h i s assessment as there i s l i t t l e evidence to i n d i c a t e at t h i s p o i n t t h a t the work of t h e o r i s t s such as Jones and Thomson has served, to any s i g n i f i c a n t degree, to inform or i n f l u e n c e theory, r e s e a r c h , and c u r r i c u l u m development r e l a t e d to design e d u c a t i o n . c. C r e a t i v i t y For some t h e o r i s t s c r e a t i v i t y i s a p r e - c o n d i t i o n of design a c t i v i t y or the design p r o c e s s : unless the s i t u a t i o n a l l o w s fo r s u b j e c t i v e responses and c r e a t i v e behaviours on the p a r t of the designer the a c t i v i t y does not q u a l i f y as a 'design a c t i v i t y ' . Archer, f o r example, sees the c r e a t i v e element as the " ... essence and nature of d e s i g n i n g " (1984). He c o n s i d e r s c r e a t i v i t y to be t h a t e s s e n t i a l aspect which serves to d i s t i n g u i s h the a c t of d e s i g n i n g from other p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g a c t i v i t i e s (p.4). Luckman (1984) a l s o sees c r e a t i v i t y as c r i t i c a l t o the d e s i g n a t i o n of an a c t i v i t y as e x p l i c i t d e s i g n a c t i v i t y : The process of design i s the t r a n s l a t i o n of i n f o r m a t i o n i n the forms of requirements, c o n s t r a i n t s , and exp e r i e n c e s i n t o p o t e n t i a l s o l u t i o n s which are c o n s i d e r e d by the designer to DESIGN CONCEPTUALIZED / 78 meet r e q u i r e d performance c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . Here we s h a l l i n s i s t t h a t some c r e a t i v i t y or o r i g i n a l i t y must enter i n t o the process f o r i t to be c a l l e d d e s i g n . I f the a l t e r n a t i v e s o l u t i o n can be w r i t t e n down by s t r i c t c a l c u l a t i o n , then the process that has taken p l a c e i s not design.(p.84) According to L o b e l l ' s (1975) view of design process the design act and the design process are t y p i c a l examples of e x t e n s i o n s of the c r e a t i v e a c t and the c r e a t i v e p r o c e s s . L o b e l l q u e s t i o n s the v a l i d i t y of systematic design methods which are based on the assumption that design procedures can be adequately formulated on predetermined r u l e s or e s t a b l i s h e d methodologies. As an a l t e r n a t i v e to what he p e r c e i v e s to be the r i g i d , i n f l e x i b l e nature of such methods, he o f f e r s a concept of design process which accounts f o r what he c a l l s the workings of 'deeper s t r u c t u r e s of the mind'. T h i s concept views any e s t a b l i s h e d ' l o g i c ' which seeks to p r e - f o r m u l a t e or p r e - q u a n t i f y thought and methods i n the s e r v i c e of design as not adequate to the task of c o n n e c t i n g the d i s p a r a t e systems of thought which the deeper s t r u c t u r e s of the mind b r i n g i n t o p l a y d u r i n g design a c t i v i t y . The mind, L o b e l l c l a i m s , works with l o g i c s i n f i n i t e l y more complex and powerful than any which can be measured or represented on paper: DESIGN CONCEPTUALIZED / 79 ... i f i t i s accepted that design i s a c r e a t i v e a c t i n t h a t i t b r i n g s together two or more d i s p a r a t e m a t r i c e s or systems of thought which can only be connected by the powerful l o g i c s of the deeper s t r u c t u r e s of the mind then the q u e s t i o n i s , how do we o b t a i n access to these l e v e l s of the mind in order to design? Another p h r a s i n g of the q u e s t i o n would be: what kind of design process would be sympathetic to the l o g i c a l powers the mind a c t u a l l y has?(p.126) While Archer, L o b e l l , and Luckman appear to b e l i e v e that the degree to which a p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g a c t i v i t y a l l o w s and/or i n v i t e s a designer to apply s u b j e c t i v e / c r e a t i v e i n s i g h t s and behaviours determines i t s q u a l i f i c a t i o n as 'design a c t i v i t y ' , Thomas and C a r r o l l (1984) have a r r i v e d at s i m i l a r c o n c l u s i o n s through the a n a l y s i s of the ways i n which d e s i g n e r s themselves appear to a s s e s s problems i n terms of t h e i r w e l l - d e f i n e d n e s s or i l l - d e f i n e d n e s s . Thomas and C a r r o l l looked at how d e s i g n e r s c a t e g o r i z e d given problems r e l a t i v e t o the extent to which they appeared to allow f o r s u b j e c t i v e i n p u t . T h e i r r e s e a r c h i n d i c a t e s t h a t d e s i g n e r s tend to view i l l - d e f i n e d problems as those which allow f o r s u b j e c t i v e / c r e a t i v e input and o r i g i n a l thought and w e l l - d e f i n e d problems as those which do not. T h e r e f o r e , d e s i g n e r s tend to see i l l - d e f i n e d problems as design DESIGN CONCEPTUALIZED / 80 problems and w e l l - d e f i n e d problems as something e l s e . Thomas and C a r r o l l o u t l i n e the gen e r a l i s s u e i n the f o l l o w i n g terms: ... there are c e r t a i n human conventions by which they may stay w i t h i n the formal system. But, there i s no law of the u n i v e r s e that says that they MUST stay w i t h i n that formal system. I f they VIEW the problem as a l l o w i n g c r e a t i v i t y , they may change the gro u n d r u l e s . They might decide that i n order to prove the theorum, they w i l l assume i t s converse and show how absurd the r e s u l t would be. The goal of the problem was not w e l l - s p e c i f i e d . C o n v e r s e l y , something which we t y p i c a l l y t h i n k of as a design problem, such as d e s i g n i n g a house, might be VIEWED otherwise. Suppose that an a r c h i t e c t g i v e s a c l i e n t a q u e s t i o n a i r e to f i l l out concerning t h e i r requirements f o r a house. Suppose f u r t h e r that t h i s a r c h i t e c t has a standard set of f e a t u r e s and v a r i a t i o n s which are detrmined by the q u e s t i o n a i r e r e s u l t s . In f a c t t h i s i s NOT d e s i g n . Much of what we c a l l p r o g r e s s may be viewed as a process of r e n d e r i n g i l l - s t r u c t u r e d design problems as more w e l l - s t r u c t u r e d procedures f o r accomplishing the same r e s u l t s - without r e q u i r i n g d e s i g n . DESIGN CONCEPTUALIZED / 81 We have t h e r e f o r e been to a h i g h l y p r o b l e m - s o l v e r - o r i e n t e d p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g d e f i n i t i o n of d e s i g n . For us design i s a type of p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g i n which the problem-solver views h i s / h e r problem or a c t s as though there i s some i l l - d e f i n e d n e s s i n the g o a l s , i n i t i a l c o n d i t i o n s , or a l l o w a b l e transformations.(p.221-222) Darke's model of design as a c o n j e c t u r e - s y n t h e s i s process can be r e l a t e d to these c o n c l u s i o n s r e g a r d i n g the i n t e r a c t i v e nature of p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g and c r e a t i v i t y . Darke argues that d e s i g n e r s are not n a t u r a l l y i n c l i n e d to u t i l i z e r i g i d , predetermined stage methods and that adherence to such models would l i k e l y impair or l i m i t the design process by l e a v i n g l i t t l e room f o r the designer to apply s u b j e c t i v e / c r e a t i v e a s p e c t s to the a c t i v i t y . Designers, she c l a i m s , n a t u r a l l y tend to f i r s t f i x on c o n j e c t u r e s and/or o b j e c t i v e s which are s t r o n g l y valued and s e l f - i m p o s e d f o r reasons which r e s t on s u b j e c t i v e responses or judgements r a t h e r than on p r e s c r i b e d l o g i c s or imposed, pre-determined methodologies. I t appears then that concepts of design which c o n s i d e r c r e a t i v i t y as c r i t e r i a l t o the design process tend to formulate t h e i r d e f i n i t i o n s i n regards to the i d i o s y n c r a t i c nature of the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the d e s i g n e r , with DESIGN CONCEPTUALIZED / 82 h i s / h e r h e l d v a l u e s and i n a t e c a p a b i l i t i e s , and the problem i t s e l f . W i t hin t h i s context the f o l l o w i n g f a c t o r s appear to be c o n s i d e r e d most important i n regards to t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p and to any subsequent d e f i n i t i o n of design or design p r o c e s s : 1. The degree to which the problem i s open-ended or i l l - d e f i n e d . 2. The d e s i g n e r ' s p e r c e p t i o n of the problem as w e l l - d e f i n e d or i l l - d e f i n e d . 3. The d e s i g n e r ' s responses or r e a c t i o n s to the problem r e l a t i v e to i t s c a t e g o r i z a t i o n as a w e l l - d e f i n e d or i l l - d e f i n e d problem (the degree to which the problem all o w s f o r s u b j e c t i v e / c r e a t i v e i n p u t ) . 4. The ways i n which the problem might i n f l u e n c e , l i m i t , or govern the responses or behaviours of the d e s i g n e r . 5. The extent to which the designer b e l i e v e s i t i s p o s s i b l e to a l t e r a w e l l - d e f i n e d problem i n t o a more i l l - d e f i n e d problem. 6. The extent to which the designer i s concerned with the nature of the problem ( i f the i s s u e of s u b j e c t i v e / c r e a t i v e input i s c o n s i d e r e d important or n o t ) . A r c h e r ' s , Luckman's, L o b e l l ' s , and Darke's t h e o r i e s imply that the design process owes i t s g e n e s i s to the i n t e r a c t i o n DESIGN CONCEPTUALIZED / 83 between the d e s i g n e r ' s b a s i c c a p a b i l i t i e s and the c h a r a c t e r of the problem and that the d e f i n i t i o n of an a c t i v i t y as a design process depends on the degree to which the problem a l l o w s f o r s u b j e c t i v e / c r e a t i v e i n p u t . In a d d i t i o n there i s the added i m p l i c a t i o n that there e x i s t s a c r i t i c a l l o c u s i n the r e l a t i o n s h i p at the p o i n t at which the designer f i r s t encounters a problem and determines both to what extent he/she can respond on a s u b j e c t i v e / c r e a t i v e l e v e l or i f i t might be p o s s i b l e to convert a w e l l - d e f i n e d problem i n t o an i l l - d e f i n e d one. Furt h e r e x p l o r a t i o n of the nature of t h i s f i r s t c r i t i c a l encounter and i t s i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r the u n f o l d i n g of the design process might prove v a l u a b l e t o both c r e a t i v i t y and design methodology r e s e a r c h . While such c l a i m s and i m p l i c a t i o n s p i n p o i n t the c r i t i c a l r o l e which a d e s i g n e r ' s s u b j e c t i v e / c r e a t i v e responses p l a y i n the design process and while such t h e o r i e s p o s i t i n t o the f i e l d of design methodology what seems to be a convenient means of d e f i n i n g design a c t i v i t y and process, these p o i n t s - o f - v i e w do l i t t l e i f anything i n terms of c l a r i f y i n g q u e s t i o n s r e l a t e d to determining e i t h e r the r e a l nature and o r i g i n s of c r e a t i v i t y or i f i t i s indeed p o s s i b l e to e v e n t u a l l y educate f o r c r e a t i v i t y f o r the purpose of enhancing design a b i l i t i e s . DESIGN CONCEPTUALIZED / 84 Notions r e g a r d i n g the p r i m a l r o l e of c r e a t i v e c a p a b i l t i e s w i t h i n the design process and c l a i m s which see the design p r o c e s s as an e x t e n s i o n of the c r e a t i v e process nonetheless d o v e t a i l c o n v e n i e n t l y with dominant t h e o r i e s and concepts w i t h i n the f i e l d of c r e a t i v i t y r e s e a r c h i t s e l f . These tend to c o l l a p s e around three p a r t i c u l a r areas of f o c u s : the C r e a t i v e Person, the C r e a t i v e Process, and the C r e a t i v e Product. The f i e l d of c r e a t i v i t y r e s e a r c h and theory encompasses a wide ranging complex of o r i e n t a t i o n s , assumptions, and r e s e a r c h evidence which has not yet c o a l e s c e d i n t o an i n t e g r a t e d and u n i f i e d theory of c r e a t i v i t y (Rosner, 1974). S e v e r a l g e n e r a t i o n s of r e s e a r c h has f a i l e d t o y i e l d e i t h e r a consensual d e f i n i t i o n of c r e a t i v i t y or agreement on the most v a l i d and r e l i a b l e means of determining what c r e a t i v e c a p a b i l t i e s , p r o c e s s e s , and products r e a l l y a r e . In t h i s r e g a rd P f e i f f e r (1979) s t a t e s : D e s p i t e the accumulation of knowledge and i n f o r m a t i o n on the s u b j e c t of human c r e a t i v i t y by educators and s c i e n t i s t s i n recent years, one f i n d s a p e r v a s i v e sentiment amongst earnest and per p l e x e d w r i t e r s t h at the very meaning of the word c r e a t i v i t y i s fundamentally u n c l e a r . ... No one d e f i n i t i o n has e v i d e n t l y proven g e n e r a l enough to accomodate the DESIGN CONCEPTUALIZED / 85 broadly d i v e r s i v e experiences and experimental f i n d i n g s of v a r i o u s i n q u i r e r s , yet s p e c i f i c enough to suggest c r i t e r i a f o r s o r t i n g out the d i s t i n c t l y c r e a t i v e aspects of experience, (p.129) Issues r e l a t e d to measuring the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of c r e a t i v e i n d i v i d u a l s , determining when a pr o s s e s i s c r e a t i v e or not, d e c i d i n g whether or not a product can be c o n s i d e r e d a v a l i d i n d i c a t o r of c r e a t i v i t y , or a g r e e i n g that what i s i s o l a t e d and measured has anything to do with c r e a t i v i t y , remain h i g h l y p r o b l e m a t i c and c o n t e n t i o u s . In a n a l y z i n g the n o t i o n of c r e a t i v i t y i n terms of i t s r o l e as a c r i t e r i a f o r a d e f i n i t i o n of design a case can be made fo r seeing a conceptual l i n k e x i s t i n g between concerns w i t h i n the f i e l d of design methodology (Archer, L o b e l l , Luckman, and Darke) and some r e l a t e d to the f i e l d of c r e a t i v i t y r e s e a r c h . A number of assumptions and b e l i e f s appear to be common to both domains and although the l e g i t i m a c y of using c r e a t i v i t y as a necessary c o n d i t i o n of design has been brought i n t o s e r i o u s q u e s t i o n by the l a c k of g e n e r a l agreement about the nature of c r e a t i v i t y , i t can be suggested that these shared concerns and assumptions might serve as the b a s i s f o r f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h d i r e c t e d at e x p l o r i n g the r e l a t i o n s h i p between design and c r e a t v i t y . The DESIGN CONCEPTUALIZED / 86 f o l l o w i n g appear to be elements of thought common to both f i e l d s : 1. The form and d i r e c t i o n of an a c t i v i t y i s determined by the nature of the i n t e r a c t i o n between a r t i s t (designer) and medium (problem). 2. A c r i t i c a l f e a t u r e of the c r e a t i v e (design) a c t i s the absence of any r u l e s ( p r e s c r i b e d methodologies) - the f o l l o w i n g of which would l e a d to a p r e - s p e c i f i e d end ( p r o d u c t ) . 3. The a r t i s t (designer) i s the ' f i r s t ' cause (Heyfron, 1985) of the c r e a t i v e (design) process - i t i s the d e s i g n e r ' s h e l d v a l u e s , i n a t e c a p a b i l i t i e s , and p r e d i s p o s i t i o n s which are at p l a y i n response to the problem and which determine the nature of both the 'co n j e c t u r e ' and the subsequent search f o r the means to make i t concre t e (design a c t i v i t y or process) - how a designer responds to the inherent 'freedom' (or lack of i t ) w i t h i n a s i t u a t i o n to r e g i s t e r a p e r s o n a l v i s i o n or s o l u t i o n . While i t might be argued that there are d e s i g n - r e l a t e d circumstances i n which e i t h e r the ambiguous nature of s u b j e c t i v e / c r e a t i v e responses i s taken f o r granted or the lack of an agreed, p r e c i s e d e f i n i t i o n of c r e a t i v i t y i s not c o n s i d e r e d a hinderance to p a r t i c u l a r design procedures, i t DESIGN CONCEPTUALIZED / 87 might serve some purpose to r e c o g n i z e and analyze whatever problems might be inherent i n b u i l d i n g a framework for d e s i g n c u r r i c u l a around a concept of design which c o n s i d e r s c r e a t i v i t y an e s s e n t i a l c r i t e r i a . I f i t i s argued that c r e a t i v e behaviours ( i n c l u d i n g those which take p l a c e i n s i d e a formal e d u c a t i o n a l s e t t i n g ) are a necessary c o n d i t i o n of design a c t i v i t y then the f a c t t h a t the b a s i c nature and f u n c t i o n of those behaviours i s not w e l l understood, or understood at a l l , o f f e r s j u s t cause f o r seeing the development of r e l a t e d g o als and o b j e c t i v e s as h i g h l y p r o b l e m a t i c and unresolved i s s u e . While a r t i s t s , d e s i g n e r s , a r c h i t e c t s , and t h e o r i s t s might be n a t u r a l l y p r e d i s p o s e d to accept the c r i t i c a l r o l e c r e a t i v i t y p l a y s as the "essence and nature' of design, and while they might t a c i t l y agree that without c r e a t i v i t y the design process might be something other than what i t i s assumed to be, the f a c t remains that the concept of c r e a t i v i t y i s a vague and ambiguous one and that any statements about, or concepts and models f o r design which in any way r e l a t e to the n o t i o n of c r e a t i v i t y as a necessary p r e - c o n d i t i o n should be c o n s i d e r e d i n t h i s l i g h t . DESIGN CONCEPTUALIZED / 88 D. PROBLEM-SOLVING AS A BASIS FOR DESIGN EDUCATION CONCEPTS From the e a r l y p a r t of the 19th century and on design has, in the main, g e n e r a l l y been c o n s i d e r e d a p r a c t i c a l process or a c t i v i t y . T h i s i s i n c o n t r a s t to views r e g a r d i n g p h i l o s o p h y , the a r t s , and the s o c i a l s c i e n c e s which tend to be as more concerned with knowing, e x p r e s s i n g , and s p e c u l a t i n g . In the main design s t u d i e s have tended to m i r r o r these p o i n t s - o f - v i e w . With the i n d u s t r i a l r e v o l u t i o n came a need to make the study of design more a matter of formal s c h o o l i n g than had p r e v i o u s l y been the case. Design s t u d i e s courses began to be i n c l u d e d i n school c u r r i c u l u m s and usurp t r a d i t i o n a l c r a f t s a p p r e n t i c e s h i p approaches. In the 1830's Schools of Design were e s t a b l i s h e d i n Great B r i t a i n with the o s t e n s i b l e purpose of encouraging an improvement of design i n r e l a t i o n to the manufacture of mass-produced goods. (Lawrence,1982) Over the l a s t one hundred and f i f t y years there have been many s h i f t s i n e d u c a t i o n a l p h i l o s o p h y and i d e o l o g y and the r o l e and p l a c e of design s t u d i e s w i t h i n the sc h o o l s has g e n e r a l l y been, as with a l l s u b j e c t areas, determined by the e d u c a t i o n a l p h i l o s o p h y of the day. A s i g n i f i c a n t p e r i o d i n the h i s t o r y of design e d u c a t i o n was the 1870's when a f i n e r d i s t i n c t i o n between the f i n e a r t s and "design began to be DESIGN CONCEPTUALIZED / 89 d e f i n e d . Educators such as F o r b r i n g e r and Walter Smith, responding i n t h e i r f a s h i o n to the changing v a l u e s and p r i o r i t i e s p r e c i p i t a t e d by the i n d u s t r i a l r e v o l u t i o n , helped focus more a t t e n t i o n on the need f o r education to keep pace with the times by commiting i t s e l f more f o r m a l l y to the t r a i n i n g of design s p e c i a l i s t s . The e v o l u t i o n of ' a p p l i e d a r t s ' c u r r i c u l u m s sat w e l l a l o n g s i d e the p r e v a i l i n g a r t education p h i l o s o p h y of the day which emphasized the mastery of f a c t u a l , s y s t e m a t i c a l l y o r g a n i z e d i n f o r m a t i o n and the in s t r u m e n t a l uses of a r t (Hamblen,1984). Yet, even while a r t education has responded to s h i f t s i n s o c i a l and economic p r i o r i t i e s with concomitant changes i n f o u n d a t i o n a l concepts and g u i d i n g p r i n c i p l e s , the study of design has not, d u r i n g the same span of time, s i g n i f i c a n t l y a l t e r e d i t s b a s i c goals and p r i o r i t i e s from those e s t a b l i s h e d i n the 1870's. The p e r c e p t i o n of design s t u d i e s as a f u n c t i o n of t r a i n i n g students i n s k i l l s and methods a p p r o p r i a t e to s p e c i a l i s t a p p l i c a t i o n s w i t h i n i n d u s t r y , c r a f t s , a r c h i t e c t u r e , and commercial and i n d u s t r i a l design remains dominant and mainly d e f i n e d i n terms of the requirements of of those domains. The concept of design as a f u n c t i o n a l , p r a c t i c a l a c t i v i t y has served to inform and i n f l u e n c e the p l a n n i n g and implementation of what have become t r a d i t i o n a l and entrenched approaches to the study of DESIGN CONCEPTUALIZED / 90 design w i t h i n many i n d u s t r i a l a r t s , c r a f t , technology, a p p l i e d a r t , home economics, and even f i n e a r t s programs. Baynes (1982) has p o i n t e d out that design, as we tend to see i t , i s i n e x o r a b l y bound up i n the economic, c u l t u r a l , t e c h n o l o g i c a l , and i n d u s t r i a l f a b r i c of contemporary l i f e and, because of the c r i t i c a l r o l e design p l a y s a t a l l l e v e l s , e d u c a t i o n a l systems should be very concerned with f i n d i n g ways to make the study of design an i n t e g r a l p a r t of the e d u c a t i o n a l experiences by which c h i l d r e n l e a r n about the world and the way i t works. Many education p o l i c y statements, c u r r i c u l u m p r o f i l e s , and communications r e l a t e d to de s i g n and design education theory p r o v i d e evidence that p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g i s seen as the cor e , or one of the core concerns of design s t u d i e s programs. When many c u r r i c u l u m statements or design education t h e o r i e s are unpacked and analyzed the process of pro b l e m - s o l v i n g can o f t e n be seen as the conc e p t u a l b a s i s on which d e f i n i t i o n s of design and design education are made. Eg g l e s t o n (1976), f o r example, holds a not uncommon concept of design as an i n t e r a c t i v e process shared between those who make t h i n g s and those who use them. Acco r d i n g to Eg g l e s t o n , the 'design p r o c e s s ' , d e f i n e d i n the f o l l o w i n g terms, i s at the heart of what sc h o o l s should o f f e r i n the way of design s t u d i e s : DESIGN CONCEPTUALIZED / 91 (Design) ... i s the process of problem-solving which begins with a d e t a i l e d p r e l i m i n a r y i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of a problem and a d i a g n o s i s of the needs that have to be met by a s o l u t i o n , and goes through a s e r i e s of stages i n which v a r i o u s s o l u t i o n s are conceived, e x p l o r e d , and e v a l u a t e d u n t i l an optimum answer i s found t h a t appears t o s a t i s f y the necessary c r i t e r i a as f u l l y as p o s s i b l e w i t h i n the l i m i t s and o p p o r t u n i t i e s a v a i l a b l e . (P.17) The r e l e v a n c e of the design process to the needs of tw e n t i e t h - c e n t u r y o c c u p a t i o n s , Eggleston c l a i m s , i s unmistakable and f o r educ a t i o n systems to not address those needs by p r o v i d i n g d e s i g n - r e l a t e d experience and t r a i n i n g would be i r r e s p o n s i b l e . K i m b e l l (1982), whose book has been adopted as a g u i d i n g t e x t by many a r t and design educators has a l s o based h i s approach to design s t u d i e s around the concept of de s i g n - a s - a - p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g - p r o c e s s . In regards to secondary school a r t and design courses Kimbell proposes that design e d u c a t i o n be seen as an ex t e n s i o n of h a n d i c r a f t i n the sense that t e c h n i c a l competance i s used as the medium f o r the development of ' d e s i g n - t h i n k i n g ' s k i l l s . Design education, K i m b e l l c l a i m s : DESIGN CONCEPTUALIZED / 92 ... i s about making c h i l d r e n t h i n k ( i . e . recognize and s o l v e problems) i n the context of m a t e r i a l s and t o o l s . The a c q u i s i t i o n of t e c h n i c a l competance goes hand i n hand with the experience of employing that competance i n the s o l v i n g of design problems. Consequently much of the a r t of composing a design course f o r young c h i l d r e n l i e s i n f i n d i n g or c o n c o c t i n g problems that may s u c c e s s f u l l y be t a c k l e d with very p r i m i t i v e t o o l s k i l l s , (p.12) Green (1974) o f f e r s a concept of design education which c e n t e r s around the n o t i o n s of d e v e l o p i n g c r i t i c a l understandings of human needs and with p r o v i d i n g e d u c a t i o n a l experiences which w i l l h e l p determine whether or not those needs have been met. Green sees the 'design process' as c r i t i c a l to the u l t i m a t e shaping of the b u i l t or designed environment and f e e l s t h a t ' r e s p o n s i b l e ' design s o l u t i o n s are not the r e s u l t of c a s u a l , i n t u i t i v e a c t i v i t y but r a t h e r of an educated, p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g methodology: ... i t i s a process of i d e n t i f y i n g problems and needs and e s t a b l i s h i n g c r i t i c a l p r i o r i t i e s . I t r e q u i r e s r e s e a r c h , data c o l l e c t i o n , o r g a n i z a t i o n of r e s o u r c e s , and r a t i o n a l a n a l y s i s and measurement. And as a s o l u t i o n e v o l v e s , by r a t i o n a l s y n t h e s i s or p r a c t i c a l t x i a l and e r r o r , i t takes on a form and DESIGN CONCEPTUALIZED / 93 has t o be t e s t e d and e v a l u a t e d . ... A l l design d e c i s i o n s r e l a t e to the pr o b l e m - s o l v i n g p r o c e s s : the b a s i c process of i d e n t i f y i n g a problem then t e s t i n g a proposed s o l u t i o n . Such a process i s c l e a r l y c l o s e to the fundamental processes of c r e a t i v e education and our d a i l y l i v e s . ... Experience of prob l e m - s o l v i n g i s common to e d u c a t i o n , the design process and d a i l y l i f e , and i s t h e r e f o r e c e n t r a l to any ideas r e l a t e d to design e d u c a t i o n , (p. 7-9) Green b e l i e v e s the designer to be the 'decision-maker' who determines " a l l aspects of the environment" (p.9) and emphasizes the importance of a r t i s t / d e s i g n e r s adopting an e f f i c i e n t and s o c i a l l y r e s p o n s i b l e r o l e w i t h i n the workings of mass s o c i e t y . Other design educators agree with the concepts of design as a p r a c t i c a l a c t i v i t y and of the de s i g n e r as an educated s p e c i a l i s t . Black (Piper,1973) sees design and design a c t i v i t i e s i n the sc h o o l s i n these terms: Design i s a pro b l e m - s o l v i n g a c t i v i t y concerned with i n v e n t i o n and with formal r e l a t i o n s h i p s , with the elegant s o l u t i o n s to problems which are at l e a s t p a r t i a l l y d e f i n a b l e i n terms of day-to-day p r a c t i c a b i l i t y , (p.34) The c e n t r a l t a s k s of c o l l e g e s DESIGN CONCEPTUALIZED / 94 of design i s to imbue the student with an a p p r e c i a t i o n of p r o f e s s i o n a l i s m , with the c a p a c i t y to study a problem i n depth, with the a b i l i t y to advance from a n a l y s i s to s y n t h e s i s , to be s u f f i c i e n t l y s e l f - c r i t i c a l , and to be able to d i s p a s s i o n a t e l y e v a l u a t e h i s s o l u t i o n , (p.38) Both Black and Kestelman (Piper,1973) have attempted to c l a r i f y the r o l e design s t u d i e s should p l a y w i t h i n the ge n e r a l c u r r i c u l u m by d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g between f i n e a r t s and design concerns. Kestelman sees 'the A r t s ' as a g r a t u i t o u s a c t i v i t y which appeals s o l e l y to the imagi n a t i o n , i n v o l v e s emotions, and has no m a t e r i a l l i m i t a t i o n s or planned ends i n view. In c o n t r a s t he s t a t e s "... the design s u b j e c t s , are i n the f i r s t p l a c e s p e c i f i c a l l y designed f o r some u t i l i t a r i a n end, whether f o r a r t i c l e s of use or f o r the a d v e r t i s i n g and promotion of such a r t i c l e s " , (p.48) Horrocks (1969) a l s o s t a t e s : A d e s i g n e r can be d e f i n e d simply as a person who s o l v e s problems. ... - the designer extends the p o t e n t i a l of pr o b l e m - s o l v i n g by adopting a methodical approach. ... I t i s a r a t i o n a l , decision-making process, and i n some as p e c t s d i f f e r s r a d i c a l l y from many t r a d i t i o n a l forms of a r t and c r a f t education which have been more concerned DESIGN CONCEPTUALIZED / 95 w i t h i r r a t i o n a l , i n t u i t i v e e x p e r i e n c e s . ... i t can p r o v i d e the b a s i s f o r a prolonged p r o j e c t i n v o l v i n g much p r e l i m i n a r y r e s e a r c h and o r g a n i z a t i o n of m a t e r i a l s . T h i s range of experience i n i t s extended and immediate forms i s seen as the b a s i c essence of the intended a r t room a c t i v i t y . ( p . 3 7 ) In the same document, K i n g s l a n d a l s o supports the n o t i o n of p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g as the core of design a c t i v i t y and concludes that such a c t i v i t i e s can be adapted to any l e v e l of l e a r n i n g to provide ' u s e f u l ' e d u c a t i o n a l e x p e r i e n c e s , (p. 15) A l l the aforementioned statements e x p l i c a t e p o s i t i o n s r e g a r d i n g the nature of design and the f u n c t i o n of design a c t i v i t i e s w i t h i n the s c h o o l s which appear to be s o l i d l y entrenched i n 1st g e n e r a t i o n c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n s of design and design methods. The Design C o u n c i l , which p l a y s a l a r g e r o l e i n promoting and a d v i s i n g design education development i n the B r i t i s h e ducation system has tended, at l e a s t i n many of i t s p o l i c y and working committee statements, to agree with f u n c t i o n a l i s t c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n s of design and design e d u c a t i o n . In framing a concept of 'Conceptual Design' the C o u n c i l has s t a t e d : DESIGN CONCEPTUALIZED / 96 ... (design) i n v o l v e s i d e n t i f y i n g needs or requirements, weighing up and a n a l y z i n g p o s s i b l e s o l u t i o n s ( i n c l u d i n g those t h a t are a l r e a d y known) and coming to a p r o p e r l y thought out d e c i s i o n as to what design or designs w i l l be most prom i s i n g . (Yoemans,1984) In i t s 1981 r e p o r t the Design C o u n c i l i d e n t i f i e d the p r i n c i p l e s on which i t s E d u c a t i o n Advisory Committee b e l i e v e s good design education i n schools should be based. In p i p o i n t i n g design ' a c t i v i t i e s ' as the most s i g n i f i c a n t aspect of design e d u c a t i o n , the c o u n c i l goes on to o u t l i n e the f o l l o w i n g d e f i n i t i o n of 'design a c t i v i t i e s ' : Design a c t i v i t i e s ... vary i n form and emphasis, but they have i n common the aim of g i v i n g the student an experience o f : 1. Examining a given problem or s i t u a t i o n i n order to i d e n t i f y and s t a t e the o p p o r t u n i t i e s and d i f f i c u l t i e s i n v o l v e d . 2. Undertaking r e s e a r c h and c o m p i l i n g data on the problem or s i t u a t i o n and the f a c t o r s a f f e c t i n g i t . 3. A n a l y z i n g the i n f o r m a t i o n gained. 4. P r e p a r i n g a b r i e f a g a i n s t which design p r o p o s a l s can DESIGN CONCEPTUALIZED / 97 be t e s t e d , so as to overcome the d i f f i c u l t i e s i n d e n t i f i e d . 5. Proposing responses to the b r i e f and choosing the most a p p r o p r i a t e . Such statements imply v a r y i n g degrees of emphasis w i t h i n what can be c o n s i d e r e d as formal c r i t e r i a f o r design ' a c t i v i t i e s ' or design e d u c a t i o n i n the s c h o o l s , they appear, because of the focus on needs assessment, pr o b l e m - s o l v i n g methodology, and s k i l l - d e v e l o p m e n t , to be a l s o f i r m l y t i e d to 1st g e n e r a t i o n c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n s . E. DESIGN AS A BASIC HUMAN CAPACITY C o i n c i d e n t a l and s i m i l a r concepts which d e f i n e e i t h e r c r e a t i v i t y or design i n terms of u n i v e r s a l human c a p a c i t i e s e x i s t i n both f i e l d s of study. The 'humanistic' concept of c r e a t i v i t y appears to be based on a b e l i e f t h a t everyone posseses a c a p a c i t y f o r c r e a t i v i t y (Maslow,1959; Gardner,1983;) while design t h e o r i s t s such as Baynes (1984), and Daley (1984), see the a p t i t u d e f o r design as a c a p a c i t y s i m i l a r to that which determines language development and which encompasses the a b i l i t y t o envisage a l t e r n a t e p h y s i c a l r e a l i t i e s . DESIGN CONCEPTUALIZED / 98 While the n o t i o n of c r e a t i v i t y remains r e s i s t a n t to measurement and p r e c i s e d e f i n i t i o n i t has been p o i n t e d out t h a t i n many ways v a r i o u s concepts and d e f i n i t i o n s of design and the design process interweave with n o t i o n s of c r e a t i v i t y to form a conceptual c o n s t r u c t i n which c r e a t i v i t y i s seen as the fundamental, a l b e i t u n d e f i n a b l e f u e l t h a t d r i v e s the engine of d e s i g n . C o n c l u s i o n s drawn i n re s e a r c h by Darke (1984) and H i l l i e r (1984) underscore the l i n e of reasoning adopted by design t h e o r i s t s who r e j e c t the e m p i r i c a l approach of the b e h a v i o u r i s t based a n a l y s i s / s y n t h e s i s model of de s i g n , with i t s emphasis on the importance of s p e c i a l i z e d s k i l l s and e s t a b l i s h e d methodologies. The opposing stance tends to c o n c e p t u a l i z e design more i n terms of a n a t u r a l , u n i v e r s a l human c a p a c i t y f o r the i m a g i n a t i v e manipulation of o b j e c t s i n time and space and i n a g e n e r a l sense p e r c e i v e s design a c t i v i t y as a c o l l e c t i v e procedure i n which a l l p a r t i c i p a n t s have a hand i n determining the goals and outcomes of the design p r o c e s s . In the 1970's t h e o r i s t s such as Alexander, Jones, Archer, and R i t t e l began to change t h e i r p o s i t i o n s r e g a r d i n g 'systems' approaches to d e s i g n . Jones (1984), f o r example, turned away from a b e h a v i o u r i s t o r i e n t a t i o n and the l o g i c a l DESIGN CONCEPTUALIZED / 99 frameworks which d e f i n e d h i s e a r l y t h e o r i e s and s h i f t e d h i s focus to f l e x i b i l i t y , random pr o c e s s , and chance - aspects of the a r t s which he began to see as more important to the design process than measured behaviours and predetermined methodologies. These f a c t o r s served to inform h i s developing i n t e r e s t i n r e s o l v i n g the c o n f l i c t s which he saw as e x i s t i n g between r a t i o n a l i t y and i n t u i t i o n , l o g i c and imag i n a t i o n , and order and chance w i t h i n the design p r o c e s s . Other t h e o r i s t s began to t e s t the boundaries of the most commonly-held design concepts and f i r s t - g e n e r a t i o n methodologies. R i t t e l (1984) concluded that concepts of f i r s t - g e n e r a t i o n methods are not, i n the end, very u s e f u l to the a c t of d e s i g n i n g and promoted the idea of second-generation methods which are e s s e n t i a l l y a n t i - e x p e r t i n nature and which advocate a more g e n e r a l , p a r t i c i p a t o r y approach to d e s i g n . Alexander (1984) decided that development and study of design methodology i n g e n e r a l has f a i l e d to c o n t r i b u t e to b e t t e r design and Archer (1984) maintains t h a t l o g i c a l design methods represent an e s s e n t i a l l y ' a l i e n ' mode of rea s o n i n g . Design methods, c l a i m s Archer, should not ape methods of the s c i e n c e s or humanities but should be based on ways of t h i n k i n g which can be r e c o g n i z e d as n a t u r a l to the design process and as d i s t i n c t from other approaches. DESIGN CONCEPTUALIZED / 100 The n o t i o n of design as an innate human c a p a c i t y r e p r e s e n t s a s i g n i f i c a n t s h i f t away from the concepts which undergirded the a n a l y s i s / s y n t h e s i s models of design methodology through the 1950's, 60's, and 70's. T h i s broad n o t i o n of man as a n a t u r a l d esigner evolved as much as a consequence of an i n a b i l i t y to understand and adequately e x p l a i n c e r t a i n f a c t o r s or behaviours which appeared to come i n t o p l a y d u r i n g d e s i g n - r e l a t e d a c t i v i t y as from a l a c k of evidence that system-based methods p o s i t i v e l y advance the p r a c t i c e of design as a whole. R e c o g n i t i o n of the r o l e s u b j e c t i v e l y - b a s e d c o n j e c t u r e s and behaviours p l a y w i t h i n the d e s i g n process opens broader q u e s t i o n s r e g a r d i n g the degree to which t h e i r nature and f u n c t i o n can, and perhaps need to be understood. Daley (1984), i n o u t l i n i n g what she b e l i e v e s i s the c r u c i a l i s s u e of p i n p o i n t i n g knowledge c l a i m s w i t h i n design theory, has posed a number of fundamental q u e s t i o n s which she f e e l s h e l p d e f i n e the g e n e r a l i s s u e of the knowledge which d e s i g n e r s might take to design a c t i v i t i e s : 1. Are the processes by which d e s i g n e r s make t h e i r d e c i s i o n s s u s c e p t i b l e to s y s t e m a t i c measurement? 2. I f so, by what s o r t of examination? 3. Are such processes 'conscious' i n a l l t h e i r f a c e t s ? 4. I f not (and i t seems c l e a r they are not) what are the DESIGN CONCEPTUALIZED / 101 consequences of attempting to t r a n s l a t e them i n t o terms of that which i s examinable i n a s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d sense? 5. What i s the nature of the knowledge which d e s i g n e r s c a r r y with them to the task or a c t i v i t y of d e s i g n i n g ? 6. What i s the nature of the metaknowledge of such s k i l l s and p r a c t i c e s to which design t h e o r i s t s a s p i r e ? (p. 295) The answers to such q u e s t i o n s , c l a i m s Daley, can only be framed i n e p i s t e m o l o g i c a l terms. We can a r r i v e at an understanding of design i n a most general sense through understanding "... how we manipulate our c o n c e p t i o n s of r e a l i t y i n such a way as to make in n o v a t i o n s i n s p a t i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s and c r e a t e wholly-new o b j e c t c o n f i g u r a t i o n s " (p.291). Daley argues: ... an i m a g i n a t i v e m a n i p u l a t i o n of o b j e c t s i n space and time i s a c o n d i t i o n of a l l i n t e l l i g i b l e human experie n c e , and i f we are to understand the r a t h e r s p e c i a l m anipulation d e s i g n e r s perform on the outer f r o n t i e r s of o r d i n a r y understanding, then we must see i t w i t h i n t h i s context - w i t h i n an understanding of the f a c t t h at ' i m a g i n a t i o n ' , i n the e i g h t e e n t h - c e n t u r y sense i s fundamental to a l l experience of the world, and that the most mundane seeing of an understandable world i s , i n a very r e a l sense, a c r e a t i v e a c t . (p.295) ... The c a p a c i t y to DESIGN CONCEPTUALIZED / 102 v i s u a l i z e an as-yet-unmade o b j e c t and to manipulate s p a t i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s l i e s at a fundamental l e v e l of c o g n i t i v e a b i l i t y , and any e x p l a n a t i o n of t h i s c a p a c i t y , or the processes which i t i n v o l v e s , must address i t s e l f to those a priori s t r u c t u r e s which make conc e p t u a l c o n s t r u c t i o n of the world of o b j e c t s p o s s i b l e . .... Only a r e l a t i v e l y small (and perhaps i n s i g n i f i c a n t ) area of that system of knowing and c o n c e i v i n g which makes d e s i g n i n g p o s s i b l e may be amenable to v e r b a l d e s c r i p t i o n . To t a l k of p r o p o s i t i o n a l knowledge i n t h i s area, or to make knowledge c l a i m s about the t h i n k i n g processes of d e s i g n e r s , may be fundamentally wrong-headed. The way d e s i g n e r s work may be i n e x p l i c a b l e , not only f o r some romantic or m y s t i c a l reason, but simply because these processes l i e o u t s i d e the bounds of v e r b a l d i s c o u r s e ; they are l i t e r a l l y i n d e s c r i b a b l e i n l i n g u i s t i c terms, (p.300) Daley's p o i n t i s that i t i s a f a t a l mistake to regard design p r ocesses as s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d l y r a t i o n a l . The designer should be seen not as an i n t e l l e c t u a l simply executuing d e c i s i o n s but as a human being whose e n t i r e mental l i f e i s concerned with the parameters and p r i o r i t i e s r e l a t e d to h i s s o c i a l nature and consequent v a l u e - s t r u c t u r e s . DESIGN CONCEPTUALIZED / 103 Archer (1984) adopts a s i m i l a r p o i n t - o f - v i e w . He b e l i e v e s that the a c t of d e s i g n i n g i s a f u n c t i o n of a c o g n i t i v e system which i s somewhat d i s t i n c t from other way of t h i n k i n g but n e v e r t h e l e s s common to a l l : My present b e l i e f , ... i s that there e x i s t s a d e s i g n e r l y way of t h i n k i n g and communicating that i s both d i f f e r e n t from s c i e n t i f i c and s c h o l a r l y ways of t h i n k i n g and communicating, and as powerful as s c i e n t i f i c and s c h o l a r l y methods of enquiry, when a p p l i e d to i t s own kinds of problems. ... I t i s widely accepted, I t h i n k , that design problems are c h a r a c t e r i z e d by being i l l - d e f i n e d , , , , i n the course of e v o l u t i o n , human beings have found q u i t e e f f e c t i v e ways of d e a l i n g with ( i l l - d e f i n e d problems). I t i s these ways of behaving, deeply rooted i n human nature, that l i e behind design methods (p.57-67). Archer and h i s f e l l o w s r e s e a r c h e r s at the Design Education Research U n i t at the Royal C o l l e g e of A r t i n London are engaged i n an examination of the way i n which we form images, then e x t e r n a l i z e , manipulate, and e v a l u a t e them. T h i s p r o c e s s , they suspect, c o n s t i t u t e s a c o g n i t i v e system comparable with, but d i f f e r e n t from, the v e r b a l language system and Archer (1984) o u t l i n e s the h y p o t h e s i s i n these DESIGN CONCEPTUALIZED / 104 terms: ... we b e l i e v e that human beings have an innate c a p a c i t y f o r c o g n i t i v e m o d e l l i n g , and i t s e x p r e s s i o n through s k e t c h i n g , drawing, c o n s t r u c t i o n , a c t i n g , and so on, that i s as fundamental to thought and reasoning as i s the human c a p a c i t y f o r language* Thus design a c t i v i t y i s not only a d i s t i n c t i v e p r o c e s s , comparable with but d i f f e r e n t from s c i e n t i f i c and s c h o l a r l y p r o c e s s e s , but a l s o operates through a medium, c a l l e d m o d e l l i n g , that i s comparable with but d i f f e r e n t from language and n o t a t i o n , (p.349) Daley's p r o p o s i t i o n s appear to be anchored to the Kantian n o t i o n t h a t c o g n i t i v e s t r u c t u r i n g of a world of 3-dimensional o b j e c t s i s c e n t r a l to human knowledge and understanding and that such s t r u c t u r i n g i s an act of mind (though not a conscious one) r a t h e r than a f u n c t i o n of a world impinged on the mind. Thus the im a g i n a t i v e m a n i p u l a t i o n of o b j e c t s i n space and time i s seen as a c o n d i t i o n of a l l i n t e l l i g i b l e human ex p e r i e n c e . The mind i s t h e r e f o r e not c o n s i d e r e d a p a s s i v e r e c e p t o r but an agent i n an a c t i v e p r o c e s s . Daley p o i n t s t o Bower's (1979) experimental work i n i n f a n t p e r c e p t i o n , which i n d i c a t e s t h a t even i n i n f a n t s only a few weeks o l d there e x i s t s both an DESIGN CONCEPTUALIZED / 105 understanding that o b j e c t s have s o l i d i t y and ex t e n s i o n and e x p e c t a t i o n s about the behaviour of o b j e c t s i n space and time, as proof that human understandings of o b j e c t n e s s , space, and time are f a c t o r s through which experiences are made i n t e l l i g i b l e . T h i s stands i n o p p o s i t i o n to the P i a g e t i a n view that these understandings are l e a r n e d concepts b u i l t up from p a r t i c u l a r e x p e r i e n c e s . In t h i s regard Daley (n.d.) s t a t e s : The b a s i c c o g n i t i v e f e a t u r e s of design c a p a b i l i t y are bound up with i n t e l l e c t u a l development at a l l l e v e l s . The c a p a c i t y to v i s u a l i z e a non-existent o b j e c t and to c o - o r d i n a t e unseen s p a t i a l r e l a t i o n s l i e s at a fundamental l e v e l of c o g n i t i v e a b i l i t y , and any e x p l a n a t i o n of t h i s c a p a c i t y must, i t seems to me, take i n t o account those a priori s t r u c t u r e s which make comprehension of a world of o b j e c t s p o s s i b l e . When de s i g n e r s d e s i g n , they make leaps i n t o primeval l e v e l s of mental l i f e , m a n i p u l a t i n g the c o n s t i t u e n t s of our p i c t u r e of p h y s i c a l r e a l i t y , (p.9) Pi a g e t of course suggested that p r e - s c h o o l c h i l d r e n are in c a p a b l e of imagining viewpoints other than t h e i r own but Baynes (n.d.) has p o i n t e d out that Donaldson has c h a l l e n g e d Piaget by c l a i m i n g that c h i l d r e n can i n f a c t DESIGN CONCEPTUALIZED / 106 'de-centre' e f f e c t i v e l y and imagine the s i t u a t i o n s and experiences of o t h e r s . Baynes sees t h i s as a c r u c i a l i s s u e f o r design e d u c a t i o n . To have design experience, he c l a i m s , i t i s e s s e n t i a l to be ab l e to imagine a l t e r n a t i v e worlds and to foresee the p o s s i b i l i t y of change t a k i n g p l a c e through time. Over the past ten years the focus of Archer's work at the Royal C o l l e g e of A r t has s t e a d i l y s h i f t e d from concern with systems and procedures to g a i n i n g knowledge about the way d e s i g n e r s know what they know and to the a n a l y s i s of mental s t a t e s and thought processes (Baynes, 1985). A s s o c i a t e d r e s e a r c h has l e d to the f o r m u l a t i o n of a g e n e r a l concept of design which i d e n t i f i e s 'design awarenesss' or 'design c a p a b i l i t y ' as a c a p a c i t y of a l l humans. As a r e s u l t of many years of s t r u g g l e with c o n c e p t u a l and d e f i n i t i o n a l problems r e l a t e d t o design and design education Archer has p l a c e d i n the f i e l d a d e f i n i t i o n of design which attempts to account, i n a comprehensive way, f o r a l l the s u b j e c t i v e , o b j e c t i v e , p e r s o n a l , and u n i v e r s a l f a c t o r s which he c o n s i d e r s s a l i e n t to design a c t i v i t y : Design i s that area of human experience, s k i l l and knowledge that r e f l e c t s man's concern with the a p p r e c i a t i o n and a d a p t a t i o n of h i s surroundings i n DESIGN CONCEPTUALIZED / 107 the l i g h t of h i s m a t e r i a l and s p i r i t u a l needs. In p a r t i c u l a r i t r e l a t e s to c o n f i g u r a t i o n , composition, meaning, v a l u e , and purpose i n man-made phenomena (Baynes, 1985). The man-made world, as Papanek (1970) has p o i n t e d out, i s formed and changed i n a c o n t i n u a l , r e c i p r o c a l , i n t e r a c t i v e process with i t s u s e r s . How humans set about changing t h e i r environment to s u i t t h e i r f e l t s o c i a l , p h y s i c a l , economic, and a e s t h e t i c needs i s viewed by Baynes as a process which i s as much a d e f i n i t i o n of 'human-ness' as the use of language or the development of s o c i a l c o n v entions. At the c e n t e r of t h i s ' a b i l i t y ' to change the environment i s the fundamental c a p a b i l i t y t o , as Baynes terms i t , "... imagine that the world might be other than the way i t i s " (1983). 'Design a b i l i t y ' i s seen, i n t h i s c o n t e x t , as the a b i l i t y to imagine, then b r i n g about, d e s i r e d changes i n p l a c e s , p roducts, and communications. The a b i l i t y to v i s u a l i z e or imagine a model of what might be i s c o n s i d e r e d an innate c a p a c i t y which i s not l i n g u i s t i c i n c h a r a c t e r but has been shaped by our p e r c e p t i o n s and has p a r a l l e l p r o p e r t i e s to the p h y s i c a l world as i n t e r p r e t e d through our b a s i c senses. I t i s the nature of man's a b i l i t y to c r e a t e e x t e r n a l e q u i v a l e n t s to i n t e r n a l l y v i s u a l i z e d DESIGN CONCEPTUALIZED / 108 images or models which now i n t e r e s t s many r e s e a r c h e r s and t h e o r i s t s and p r o v i d e s the focus f o r what i s a dev e l o p i n g f i e l d of en q u i r y . Baynes b e l i e v e s that p r o f e s s i o n a l d e s i g n e r s simply f u r t h e r develop or educate t h i s u n i v e r s a l c a p a c i t y f o r 'designing' to a hig h , e c o n o m i c a l l y v i a b l e degree (1983). By i n t e r r e l a t i n g Daley's c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n of design c a p a b i l i t y as a c o g n i t i v e f u n c t i o n which makes i n t e l l i g i b l e p e r c e p t i o n p o s s i b l e with A r c h e r ' s and Bayne's t h e o r i e s i t i s p o s s i b l e to d i s c e r n the emergence of a g e n e r a l i z e d concept of design as a t r a n s f o r m i n g p r o c e s s - a f i n d i n g of ways and means to tr a n s f o r m i n t e r n a l images i n t o c o n c r e t e , e x t e r n a l form. P l a c e d i n an e d u c a t i o n a l context t h i s c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n can be t r a n s l a t e d i n t o goals which might look towards the tr a n s f o r m i n g of t h i s n a t u r a l c a p a c i t y or c a p a b i l i t y i n t o a more r e f i n e d , educated 'design a b i l i t y ' . There appears to be a growing i n t e r e s t i n g a i n i n g an understanding of those f a c t o r s which determine and i n f l u e n c e the ways i n which we p e r c e i v e , i n t e r p r e t , and i n t e r a c t with our environment and which u l t i m a t e l y cause us t o manipulate the man-made world i n the ways we do. Darke b e l i e v e s that the e x p l o r a t i o n of the s u b j e c t i v e DESIGN CONCEPTUALIZED / 109 aspects of design a c t i v i t y - of " l o o k i n g i n s i d e the de s i g n e r ' s head" - c o n s t i t u t e s the most i n t e r e s t i n g d i r e c t i o n f o r design r e s e a r c h to now take (p.187) and Thomas and C a r r o l l b e l i e v e that the a n a l y s i s of the a c t i v i t y of d e s i g n i n g - one which they see as encompassing an important way that humans a c t u a l l y operate i n the world - p r o v i d e s a v i a b l e means f o r b e t t e r understanding complex c o g n i t i v e s t r u c t u r e s and o p e r a t i o n s which are i n n a t e l y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of humans (p. 221). Archer b e l i e v e s that ' d e s i g n e r l y ways of t h i n k i n g ' , deeply rooted i n human nature, are q u i t e a p p r o p r i a t e to d e a l i n g with the i l l - d e f i n e d or untamed problems - those which he conside'rs to be both the r e a l problems of everyday l i f e and those with which the designer should be most concerned. T h i s i m p l i e s that design concepts, p a r t i c u l a r l y as they might i n f l u e n c e design and design education r e s e a r c h and p r a c t i c e , c o u l d be best based on acceptance of the n o t i o n of design as a u n i v e r s a l , b a s i c c a p a c i t y (Cross, 1984). a. Concept of 2nd Generation Methods I f i t i s to be proposed that the study of ways of t h i n k i n g and the nature of knowledge c l a i m s r e l a t e d t o design a c t i v i t y might prove u s e f u l to the development of DESIGN CONCEPTUALIZED / 110 d e s i g n - r e l a t e d a c t i v i t i e s i n the schools i t might be a p p r o p r i a t e to analyze the ways i n which the concept of d e s i g n as a b a s i c human c a p a c i t y might i n t e r r e l a t e with R i t t e l ' s concept of 2nd g e n e r a t i o n design methods and with Broadbent's c o n c l u s i o n s r e g a r d i n g a r c h i t e c t ' s and d e s i g n e r ' s a t t i t u d e s towards the n o t i o n of the designer as a l l - k n o w i n g s p e c i a l i s t s . Based on h i s b e l i e f t h a t 1st g e n e r a t i o n , a n a l y s i s / s y n t h e s i s methods have c o n t r i b u t e d l e s s to progress i n the f i e l d of design than might be g e n e r a l l y assumed, R i t t e l o f f e r s , as an a l t e r n a t i v e , a concept i n which design i s p e r c e i v e d as a more p a r t i c i p a t o r y , c o - o p e r a t i v e venture - a process i n which the idea of designer as u l t i m a t e 'expert' and f i n a l a r b i t e r of how everyone e l s e should l i v e and shape t h e i r environment i s overthrown. In h i s d i s m i s s a l of 1st g e n e r a t i o n design methods R i t t e l s t a t e s : The systems approach of the ' f i r s t g e n e r a t i o n ' i s inadequate f o r d e a l i n g with wicked-problems. Approaches of the 'second g e n e r a t i o n ' should be based on a model of p l a n n i n g as an argumentative process i n the course of which an image of the problem and of the s o l u t i o n emerges g r a d u a l l y among the p a r t i c i p a n t s , as a product of i n c e s s a n t judgment, s u b j e c t e d to c r i t i c a l arguement. The DESIGN CONCEPTUALIZED / 111 methods of O p e r a t i o n a l Research play a prominant r o l e i n the systems approach of the f i r s t g e n e r a t i o n ; they become o p e r a t i o n a l , however, only a f t e r the most important d e c i s i o n s have been made, i . e . a f t e r the problem has a l r e a d y been tamed, (p.138) Broadbent (1984), i n l e n d i n g support to t h i s approach, b e l i e v e s that d e s i g n e r s have indeed grown p r o g r e s s i v e l y l e s s concerned with making f i n a l d e c i s i o n s (which they recognize might be founded on f a l s e or incomplete assumptions r e g a r d i n g needs, v a l u e s , types of problems, and a p p r o p r i a t e methodologies) and more i n t e r e s t e d i n f i n d i n g ways to encourage others to p a r t i c i p a t e i n a process which helps determine what they themselves want. Acc o r d i n g to Broadbent an i n c r e a s i n g number of d e s i g n e r s and/or a r c h i t e c t s do not wish to be pa r t y to any a c t i v i t y which " ... i n h i b i t s the p o t e n t i a l of other people to grow i n t o what they conceive themselves to be" (p.340). In t h i s r egard the r o l e of a c e n t r a l d e sign 'expert' i s not viewed as being as c r i t i c a l to the process of design as p r e v i o u s l y suggested i n 1st g e n e r a t i o n approaches. T h i s 'argumentative s t r u c t u r e ' , as R i t t e l l a b e l s i t (Broadbent, P.340), i s e s s e n t i a l l y a n t i - e x p e r t i n o r i e n t a t i o n and guided by the assumption t h a t e x p e r t i s e and knowledge are d i s t r i b u t e d DESIGN CONCEPTUALIZED / 112 amongst a wider range of p a r t i c i p a n t s . No one person, i t might then be assumed, has any j u s t i f i c a t i o n to c l a i m t h e i r knowledge as s u p e r i o r to anyone e l s e ' s . At the heart of t h i s idea of a g e n e r a l l y d i s t r i b u t e d knowledge i s R i t t e l ' s n o t i o n of the 'symmetry of ignorance' which serves to d e f i n e , i n h i s terms, the a c t of d e s i g n i n g as " ... making up one's mind i n favour of or a g a i n s t v a r i o u s p o s i t i o n s of each i s s u e " (p.340). In t h i s 'argumentative' approach to d e s i g n i n g the designer i s seen not as an expert who alone has the knowledge and the t r a i n i n g necessary to adequately recognize and s o l v e problems or whose task i t i s to t e l l o thers what they should do and have, but r a t h e r as a f a c i l i t a t o r or teacher who r e s p e c t s the knowledge brought to the s i t u a t i o n by o t h e r s ( i n e f f e c t r ecognize t h e i r n a t u r a l design c a p a b i l i t i e s ) and h e l p s them q u e s t i o n , p l a n , and decide f o r themselves. Current i n t e r e s t i n c i t i z e n - p a r t i c i p a t i o n , advocacy-planning, and c h a r e t t e techniques exemplify the ways i n which a r c h i t e c t s , f o r example, are being i n f l u e n c e d and/or guided by t h i s design o r i e n t a t i o n . DESIGN CONCEPTUALIZED / 1 13 b. Concept of 3rd Generation Methods Broadbent (1984) b e l i e v e s there are q u e s t i o n s which should be asked i n regards to the d i s p a r i t y t h a t might e x i s t between what 1st and 2nd g e n e r a t i o n t h e o r i e s propose should happen through the design process and what a c t u a l l y does happen as a r e s u l t of the use of such methods. R i t t e l , Jones, and Alexander have a l s o concluded that 1st and 2nd g e n e r a t i o n approaches are based on i l l - f o u n d e d assumptions and b e l i e f s . In p i n p o i n t i n g what he f e e l s are the most severe l i m i t a t i o n s of the 2nd g e n e r a t i o n t h e o r i e s , Broadbent c l a i m s t h a t while these approaches are more l i b e r a l and more r e s p e c t f u l of human va l u e s and needs, they do, i n the end, tend to overcomplicate the design process and impede progress towards c o n c l u s i o n s which w i l l f i n a l l y s a t i s f y a l l concerned.(p.343 - 334). In s p i t e of the admirable i n t e n t i o n s inherent i n the concept of 2nd g e n e r a t i o n methods Broadbent concludes that the design process does, i n the f i n a l measure, r e q u i r e the p a r t i c i p a t i o n and guidance of the 'expert' d e s i g n e r . A c c o r d i n g to Broadbent what cannot be avoided i n the a p p l i c a t i o n of 2nd g e n e r a t i o n methodologies are the i m p l i c a t i o n s of the i n e v i t a b l e and necessary i m p o s i t i o n of p e r s o n a l v a l u e s and p r e c o n c e p t i o n s i n t o the design process DESIGN CONCEPTUALIZED / 114 and the generated s o l u t i o n s . The i n f l u e n c e that s u b j e c t i v e / c r e a t i v e f a c t o r s have over the procedures and outcomes of design a c t i v i t y cannot be ignored or circumvented, he c l a i m s . Having concluded that assumptions and c l a i m s u n d e r l y i n g 1st g e n e r a t i o n concepts cannot be s u b s t a n t i a t e d , Broadbent goes on to suggest that the best that 2nd g e n e r a t i o n concepts can o f f e r i s a process of i d e n t i f y i n g a 'highest common f a c t o r ' of user needs which may be manipulated to conform to the d e s i g n e r ' s own needs and v a l u e s . Broadbent agrees with both Landau and H i l l i e r (1984) who see p a r a l l e l s between methods adopted by s c i e n t i s t s and by d e s i g n e r s . In r e f e r i n g to Popper's concepts of s c i e n t i f i c methodology Broadbent d e l i n e a t e s the n o t i o n t h a t , l i k e the s c i e n t i s t , the d e s i g n e r , upon d e c i d i n g that c e r t a i n phenomena are worthy of i n v e s t i g a t i o n , becomes committed to those phenomena. The designer w i l l begin with hunches or c o n j e c t u r e s ( r e f e r to Darke's c o n j e c t u r e / a n a l y s i s model) r e l a t e d t o t h i s phenomena and w i l l then tend to c o l l e c t data which supports the i n i t i a l c o n j e c t u r e . The d e s i g n e r ' s goal i s to then t e s t that c o n j e c t u r e as thoroughly as p o s s i b l e and prove or d i s p r o v e , i f p o s s i b l e . The f o l l o w i n g statement by Popper (1965), which d e f i n e s h i s idea of a s c i e n t i f i c ' c o n j e c t u r e s / r e f u t a t i o n s ' methodology, serves to exemplify DESIGN CONCEPTUALIZED / 115 the p a r a l l e l s Broadbent, H i l l i e r , and Landau see between the methods of s c i e n c e and d e s i g n : A l l the s c i e n t i s t can do ... i s to t e s t h i s t h e o r i e s , and to e l i m i n a t e a l l those that do not stand up to the most severe t e s t he can d e s i g n . ... i t i s only i n s e a r c h i n g f o r r e f u t a t i o n s that s c i e n c e can hope to l e a r n and advance. I t i s o n l y i n c o n s i d e r i n g how i t s v a r i o u s t h e o r i e s stand up to t e s t s that i t can d i s t i n g u i s h between b e t t e r and worse t h e o r i e s and so f i n d a c r i t e r i o n of p r o g r e s s . (P.103, 113) By s u g g e s t i n g such a p a r a l l e l between s c i e n t i f i c and design t h i n k i n g and methodologies Broadbent c r e a t e s an o p p o r t u n i t y to p o s i t i n t o the f i e l d of design methodology a new concept of what he terms '3rd g e n e r a t i o n ' design methods. T h i s c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n would r e p u d i a t e R i t t e l ' s n o t i o n s of 'symetry of ignorance' and p a r t i c i p a t o r y d e sign a c t i v i t y and r e i n t r o d u c e a concept of the design process as one which r e q u i r e s a design 'expert' to b r i n g c e r t a i n p e r s p e c t i v e s , knowledge, and e x p e r t i s e (design ' a b i l i t y ' ) to bear on the procedures. I t would be assumed that c l i e n t s and other p a r t i c i p a n t s would not have these p a r t i c u l a r q u a l i f i c a t i o n s but what would make t h i s approach s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t from 1st g e n e r a t i o n methods would be the d e s i g n e r ' s o f f e r i n g DESIGN CONCEPTUALIZED / 116 up of c o n j e c t u r e s and s o l u t i o n s f o r c r i t i c a l a n a l y s i s , r e f u t a t i o n , and a d d i t i o n a l input by a l l other concerned p a r t i e s . The designer i s , t h e r e f o r e , conceived of not as someone who knows how someone should l i v e or what i s best f o r them but as a source of p a r t i c u l a r knowledge, e x p e r t i s e , and a e s t h e t i c s e n s i b i l i t y which al l o w s him/her to present c e r t a i n p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r a n a y s i s , r e f u t a t i o n , acceptance, or r e j e c t i o n . DESIGN CONCEPTUALIZED / 117 F. CURRICULUM STATEMENTS If i t i s accepted that c u r r i c u l u m statements e i t h e r imply or e x p l i c i t l y represent the u n d e r l y i n g e d u c a t i o n a l p h i l o s o p h i e s and p r i o r i t i e s of those who formulate the c u r r i c u l u m g u i d e l i n e s , then a comprehensive a n a l y s i s of such statements might y i e l d the f o l l o w i n g i n f o r m a t i o n : 1. The degree of emphasis given a p a r t i c u l a r s u b j e c t matter or f i e l d of study. 2. The p h i l o s o p h i c a l b a s i s on which the aims, purposes, and content of the c u r r i c u l u m are formulated. 3. The extent to which that p h i l o s o p h y i s or i s not r a t i o n a l i z e d . 4. The extent to which the aims, purposes, and content are made c l e a r . 5. The ways i n which, or the extent to which s t a t e d aims and purposes uphold the b a s i c r a t i o n a l e f o r the c u r r i c u l u m . 6. The extent to which goals and intended outcomes are c l o s e d or remain open-ended. In d i r e c t r e l a t i o n to the concerns of t h i s study a l i m i t e d , p r e l i m i n a r y a n a l y s i s of a v a i l a b l e Canadian p r o v i n c i a l a r t c u r r i c u l u m guides might serve to i n d i c a t e whether the ways in which the term i s used to d e s c r i b e d d e s i g n - r e l a t e d DESIGN CONCEPTUALIZED / 118 aspects of the c u r r i c u l u m s serve to c l a r i f y and/or d e f i n e the b a s i c concept of design or p r o v i d e Canadian a r t educators with a c l e a r e r n o t i o n of why design experiences might be important to the e d u c t i o n a l process and how they can best approach implementing design a c t i v i t i e s i n t o t h e i r programs. T h i s p r e l i m i n a r y content a n a l y s i s might a l s o serve to answer the f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n s : 1. Is t h e r e any degree of c o n t i g u i t y a c r o s s the Canadian systems re g a r d i n g the b a s i c concept of 'design' or the aims, purposes, and content of d e s i g n - r e l a t e d c u r r i c u l a ? 2. Is t h e r e a high degree of concern evident w i t h i n the c u r r i c u l u m documents f o r d e f i n i n g the b a s i c concepts of 'design' or 'design education'? 3. In what ways, i f at a l l , i s the study of 'design' p e r c e i v e d as a component of the a r t c u r r i c u l u m s ? 4. Are the aims, purposes, and content of d e s i g n - r e l a t e d a c t i v i t i e s , programs, u n i t s , or l e s s o n s c l e a r l y d efined? 5. What kinds of d e f i n i t i o n s f o r 'design' and/or 'design e d u c a t i o n ' , i f any, are o f f e r e d w i t h i n the c u r r i c u l u m documents? 6. What c o n c l u s i o n s and i m p l i c a t i o n s might be drawn from such i n f o r m a t i o n ? 7. Are t h e r e c u r r i c u l u m models i n p l a c e i n other systems which exemplify approaches to the study of design which are s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t than that of the Canadian DESIGN CONCEPTUALIZED / 119 models? a. Content A n a l y s i s of P r o v i n c i a l A r t C u r r i c u l u m Documents In the i n t r o d u c t i o n i t was argued that a r t educators are l i k e l y to be l e s s confused, and l i k e l y to f i n d more general agreement, about terms such as ' p a i n t i n g ' , 'drawing', ' s c u l p t i n g ' , ' p o t t i n g ' , and 'printmaking' than would be the case i n regards to the term 'design'. I f the argument were to be extended i t c o u l d a l s o be s a i d that the use of terms such as ' p a i n t i n g ' and 'drawing' w i t h i n c u r r i c u l u m documents and e d u c a t i o n a l d i s c o u r s e would not s i g n i f i c a n t l y , i f at a l l , c o mplicate or confuse the i s s u e s being d e a l t w i t h . Except i n extreme cases where p r a c t i t i o n e r s or educators might debate f i n e p o i n t s r e g a r d i n g o v e r l a p p i n g concerns or methodologies there i s g e n e r a l l y l i t t l e i f any c o n f u s i o n or l a c k of agreement over these t r a d i t i o n a l concepts. In regards to 'design' as i t might concern educators and c u r r i c u l u m developers the s i t u a t i o n appears to be somewhat more co m p l i c a t e d and d i f f i c u l t . Green (1971) has p o i n t e d out t h a t words and concepts are the t o o l s with which we t h i n k (p. 13). The meaning of a term i s i t s use and that t o d e s c r i b e one i s to d e s c r i b e the other. Green proposes that the a n a l y s i s of a term's use w i l l DESIGN CONCEPTUALIZED / 120 r e v e a l , among other t h i n g s , the d i f f e r e n c e s of meaning a term might r e c e i v e i n d i f f e r e n t c o n t e x t s and how d i f f e r e n c e s i n those c o n t e x t s might l e a d to one or another understandings and use of the term. A n a l y s i s of d e s i g n - r e l a t e d statements found w i t h i n c u r r i c u l u m documents can serve to d e s c r i b e a term's use both w i t h i n the c o l l e c t i v e and i n d i v i d u a l c o n t e x t s . Such a d e s c r i p t i o n can p r o v i d e i n s i g h t i n t o what meanings are a t t a c h e d to or i m p l i e d by the use of the term and can p r o v i d e c l u e s as to the degree of agreement and/or c o n f u s i o n which e x i s t s over the concept w i t h i n the context of a r t c u r r i c u l u m development. The f o l l o w i n g c h a r t s summarize the nature of d e s i g n - r e l a t e d statements found through a l i m i t e d a n a l y s i s of Canadian p r o v i n c i a l a r t c u r r i c u l u m guides a v a i l a b l e at the w r i t i n g of t h i s study. P a r t i c u l a r a t t e n t i o n i s p a i d to uncovering s t i p u l a t i v e d e f i n i t i o n s of d e s i g n , r a t i o n a l e s f o r d e s i g n - r e l a t e d a c t i v i t i e s , r e f e r e n c e s to the elements and p r i n c i p l e s of design, p a r t i c u l a r course o f f e r i n g s , o v e r a l l emphasis or de-emphasis of d e s i g n - r e l a t e d a c t i v i t i e s , d e s c r i p t i o n s of s t r a t e g i e s , procedures, and content of d e s i g n - r e l a t e d l e s s o n s , u n i t s , p r o j e c t s , and programs. T h i s content a n a l y s i s procedure i s l i m i t e d i n nature and i s intended to f u n c t i o n p r i m a r i l y as an a i d i n the process of determining i f meanings are or are not DESIGN CONCEPTUALIZED / 121 c l a r i f i e d . Documents from Saskatchewan and Quebec were not a v a i l a b l e at the w r i t i n g of t h i s study. T h i s a n a l y s i s procedure c o u l d serve as the b a s i s f o r a more comprehensive a n a l y s i s and comparison of the v a r i o u s approaches to the is s u e of design as a component of a r t c u r r i c u l a . DESIGN CONCEPTUALIZED / 122 A v e r y c o m p r e h e n s i v e s e t of c u r r i c u l u m s i n which d e s i g n i s d e a l t w i t h i n o n l y the most b a s i c terms of u n d e r s t a n d i n g the " v o c a b u l a r y " of a r t and a p p l y i n g t h e e l e m e n t s and p r i n c i p l e s of d e s i g n t o v i s u a l c o m p o s i t i o n . Appears t h a t t h e s t u d y of d e s i g n p a r t i c u l a r l y i n r e l a t i o n t o d i s t i n c t a p p l i e d , c o m m u n i c a t i o n , and e n v i r o n m e n t a l d e s i g n a r e a s has been i g n o r e d . B R I T I S H COLUMBIA o o t o E l e m e n t a r y , 1985 - S t i p u l a t i v e D e f i n i t i o n r e l a t e d t o "...an o r g a n i z e d arrangement of one o r more e l e m e n t s . Major c o n t e n t c o n c e p t s d e a l w i t h ' A p p r e c i a t i o n ' and ' C r e a t i o n ' w i t h the e l e m e n t s and p r i n c i p l e s o f d e s i g n r e l a t e d d i r e c t l y t o a c t i v i t i e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h themes suc h as M y s e l f , F a m i l i e s , Canada, e t c . S e c o n d a r y , 1982 - D e s i g n i s r e l a t e d t o major l e a r n i n g outcomes i n terms o f d e m o n s t r a t i n g a knowledge of and a b i l i t y t o use t h e e l e m e n t s and p r i n c i p l e s of d e s i g n . W i t h i n e a c h program or a c t i v i t y r e l a t e d t o the major c o n t e n t a r e a s (Imagery, C r i t i c i s m , A p p l i c a t i o n , V o c a b u l a r y ) the ' D e s i g n ' component i s p r e s c r i b e d i n terms of t h a t knowledge and a p p l i c a t i o n . T h e r e i s no a t t e m p t t o r a t i o n a l i z e the s t u d y o f d e s i g n i n terms of a more p r e c i s e d e f i n i t i o n or c o n c e p t of d e s i g n . (^) Not Apparent S t a t e d But Vague ^ Stated, D e s c r i b e d DESIGN CONCEPTUALIZED / 123 MINISTRY MANITOBA 1978 - D e s i g n d e s i g n a t e d as one of e i g h t major components of a r t c u r r i c u l u m ( P a i n t i n g , C e r a m i c s , S c u l p t i n g , F i b r e A r t s , Drawing, P h o t o g r a p h y , P r i n t m a k i n g ) but i t i s s t a t e d t h a t D e s i g n be c o n s i d e r e d as a " r e f e r e n c e " component c o n c e r n e d p r i m a r i l y w i t h u n d e r s t a n d i n g and a p p l y i n g t h e e l e m e n t s and p r i n c i p l e s of d e s i g n . D e s i g n i s r a t i o n a l i z e d i n a vague way i n r e l a t i o n t o u n d e r s t a n d i n g the " a t t r i b u t e s " of d e s i g n f o r the p u r p o s e of p e r c e i v i n g and a n a l y z i n g t h e d e s i g n e d - e n v i r o n m e n t . The e l e m e n t s and p r i n c i p l e s of d e s i g n a r e r e l a t e d d i r e c t l y t o music and dance a s w e l l a s v i s u a l a r t s p r o j e c t s and a c t i v i t i e s . NEW BRUNSWICK • ©loi#io 1980 - S t i p u l a t e d D e f i n i t i o n r e l a t e d t o " v i s u a l o r g a n i z a t i o n " w i t h r e f e r e n c e t o 19th c e n t u r y c o n c e p t s of the p r o d u c t i o n o f " a t t r a c t i v e and u s e f u l " o b j e c t s . R a t i o n a l e f o r ; d e s i g n i s vague but a p p e a r s t o be based on u n d e r s t a n d i n g the e l e m e n t s o f d e s i g n a s common t o a l l n a t u r a l and man-made t h i n g s . The s t u d y of d e s i g n i s d e s c r i b e d i n terms o f the " d i s c o v e r y " of d e s i g n " c o n c e p t s " , " f a c t o r s " , and " i d e a s " , but t h e s e terms a r e n o t d e f i n e d o r e x p l a i n e d . Emphasis i n g r a d e s 7 - 9 on an i n t r o d u c t i o n t o the e l e m e n t s and p r i n c i p l e s o£ 2 d i m e n s i o n a l d e s i g n but no e x p a n s i o n on t h a t j f o u n d a t i o n e v i d e n t f o r l a t e r g r a d e s . No d i s t i n c t A p p l i e d D e s i g n c o u r s e s o f f e r e d . (^) Not Apparent ^ ) Sta t e d But Vague ^ Stated, D e s c r i b e d DESIGN CONCEPTUALIZED / 124 MINISTRY NEWFOUNDLAND 1978-81 - Comprehensive a p p r o a c h t o d e s i g n s t u d i e s w i t h a U n i t Handbook which f o c u s e s on the aims o f h e l p i n g t e a c h e r s and s t u d e n t s u n d e r s t a n d how d e s i g n works and what i t does. D e s i g n i s d e s c r i b e d as t h e ' c o r e ' o f a l l c r e a t i v e e x p r e s s i o n and the p r i m a r y o b j e c t i v e s a r e r e l a t e d t o u n d e r s t a n d i n g v i s u a l language ( e l e m e n t s and p r i n c i p l e s o f d e s i g n ) , u n d e r s t a n d i n g d e s i g n c o n c e p t s , p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g , and a n a l y z i n g t h e d e s i g n e d - e n v i r o n m e n t . I n t r o d u c t i o n t o the el e m e n t s and p r i n c i p l e s a t t h e p r i m a r y l e v e l s w i t h c o u r s e s or a c t i v i t i e s i n Communicative D e s i g n , T h e a t r e A r t s & Costume D e s i g n , A p p l i e d D e s i g n , and T e x t i l e A r t s p r e s c r i b e d f o r s e c o n d a r y l e v e l s . ' D e s i g n ' i s a c o r e component of s e n i o r s e c o n d a r y a r t s t u d i e s and i s c o m p u l s o r y . No S t i p u l a t i v e D e f i n i t i o n of d e s i g n o r d e s i g n - r e l a t e d terms p r o v i d e d a l t h o u g h i t i s i m p l i e d t h a t d e s i g n be seen i n terms of the u n d e r s t a n d i n g and a p p l i c a t i o n of the b a s i c e l e m e n t s and p r i n c i p l e s . NOVA SCOTIA o o 1979 - A r a t i o n a l e f o r d e s i g n i s s t a t e d but r e f e r s , i n vague terms, t o u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h e " p r o c e d u r e s of t h e d e s i g n e r " and the e l e m e n t s and p r i n c i p l e s o f d e s i g n a s an i n t e g r a l p a r t of a l l c o m p o s i t i o n . The s t a t e d o b j e c t i v e i n r e g a r d s t o d e s i g n i s t o u n d e r s t a n d and a p p l y t h e e l e m e n t s of d e s i g n ( v i s u a l o r g a n i z a t i o n ) . 'Drawing and D e s i g n ' i s d e s c r i b e d as a component of t h e a r t program w i t h emphasis on t e a c h i n g d e s i g n " f u n d a m e n t a l s " i n r e l a t i o n t o c o m m e r c i a l a r t , p r o d u c t & a d v e r t i s i n g d e s i g n , i n t e r i o r d e s i g n , d e s i g n & c o l o u r , and the h i s t o r y of d e s i g n i n a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h a r c h i t e c t u r e and s c u l p t u r e . D e s c r i p t i o n s o f d e s i g n - r e l a t e d a c t i v i t i e s and s t r a t e g i e s i s l i m i t e d and g o a l s and o b j e c t i v e s u n c l e a r . (^) Not Apparent S t a t e d But Vague ^ S t a t e d , D e s c r i b e d DESIGN CONCEPTUALIZED / 125 MINISTRY ONTARIO 1986 - The c o r e c o n t e n t of t h e V i s u a l A r t s program i s d i v i d e d i n t o ' D e s i g n ' , ' S t u d i o ' , and ' H i s t o r y ' components. A r a t i o n a l e f o r d e s i g n i s s t a t e d and i s r e l a t e d , i n g e n e r a l terms, t o u n d e r s t a n d i n g the e l e m e n t s and p r i n c i p l e s of d e s i g n . No S t i p u l a t i v e D e f i n i t i o n of d e s i g n i s p r o v i d e d . A wide range of s p e c i f i c ' d e s i g n ' c o u r s e s a r e o f f e r e d i n c l u d i n g F a s h i o n D e s i g n , A p p l i e d D e s i g n , I n f o r m a t i o n D e s i g n , E n v i r o n m e n t a l D e s i g n , I n t e r i o r D e s i g n , and Stage D e s i g n . G o a l s and o b j e c t i v e s f o r e a c h of the c o u r s e s a r e , c l e a r l y s t a t e d . E ach d e s i g n c o u r s e has the D e s i g n , S t u d i o , and H i s t o r y components as t h e b a s i s of the c o u r s e c o n t e n t s . o o o o o Q Not Apparent S t a t e d But Vague ^ S t a t e d , Described I I I . ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION In CHAPTER II two design and d e s i g n - e d u c a t i o n r e l a t e d paradigms or conceptual o r i e n t a t i o n s were i s o l a t e d and o f f e r e d as c r i t i c a l a s p e c t s i n the development of both the p r a c t i c e and study of design over the past one hundred y e a r s . I t was e s t a b l i s h e d that there i s a body of o p i n i o n or h e l d b e l i e f t h a t design i s most a p p r o p r i a t e l y d e f i n e d i n r e l a t i o n t o the process of p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g . T h i s p a r t i c u l a r o r i e n t a t i o n has an h i s t o r i c a l b a s i s which can be t r a c e d back to the advent of the i n d u s t r i a l r e v o l u t i o n . I t was f u r t h e r e s t a b l i s h e d t h at some t h e o r i e s and models of design and design education which are t i e d to the p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g concept and which have been most i n f l u e n t i a l from the mid 19th c e n t u r y to the present have been s e r i o u s l y c h a l l e n g e d . Some r e s e a r c h e r s and educators maintain that c l a i m s and assumptions common to 1st g e n e r a t i o n t h e o r i e s and methods cannot be s u b s t a n t i a t e d and do not n e c e s s a r i l y f a c i l i t a t e the most a p p r o p r i a t e or p r o d u c t i v e design procedures. The second paradigm examined i s g e n e r a l l y based on the broad n o t i o n of design as a b a s i c and u n i v e r s a l human c a p a c i t y and t h i s c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n i s r e c o g n i z e d as the foundation of an emerging f i e l d of enquiry r e l a t e d to design and design e d u c a t i o n . 126 ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION / 127 Assumptions and c l a i m s r e l a t e d to both paradigms were examined and r e f u t a t i o n s and c o u n t e r - c l a i m s p r o v i d e d . The f o l l o w i n g i s a summary of the main assumptions and c l a i m s found u n d e r l y i n g the 'Problem-Solving' paradigm: 1. I t i s p o s s i b l e to determine and measure human behaviours which are common to a l l p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g , d e s i g n - r e l a t e d a c t i v i t i e s . 2. I t i s t h e r e f o r e p o s s i b l e , and perhaps p r e f e r a b l e , to p r e s c r i b e f o r m a l i z e d stages or methods of design procedures based on these behaviours. 3. The u t i l i z a t i o n of such p r e s c r i b e d methods would allow the designer to minimize r i s k s imposed by s u b j e c t i v e judgements and/or l a c k of knowledge. 4. S u b j e c t i v e judgements are dangerous to the design p r o c e s s . 5. Problems can be understood to the extent that they can be p r e c i s e l y d e f i n e d and c l a s s i f i e d . 6. The process of i d e n t i f y i n g and c l a s s i f y i n g problems i s a necessary c o n d i t i o n of the design p r o c e s s . 7. 'Well-defined' problems represent the most v a l i d problem-type f o r c o n s i d e r a t i o n w i t h i n the design p r o c e s s . 8. Problems are d e f i n e d i n terms of understood needs. 9. I t i s p o s s i b l e to f u l l y comprehend a l l the p h y s i o l o g i c a l , p s y c h o l o g i c a l , and c u l t u r a l determinants ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION / 128 of 'need' thus p r o v i d i n g f o r a more p r e c i s e d e f i n i t i o n of 'problem'. 10.The n o t i o n s of 'problem' and 'need' are i n t e r a c t i v e and interdependent. 11.It i s p o s s i b l e to predetermine the ways i n which 'needs' and 'problems' should imfluence the design p r o c e s s . 12. C r e a t i v i t y i s a p r e - c o n d i t i o n of the design p r o c e s s . 13. C r e a t i v i t y i s best d e f i n e d i n r e l a t i o n to s u b j e c t i v e responses to given 'problem s i t u a t i o n s ' . 14. A process or a c t i v i t y i s not a design process or design a c t i v i t y unless the c o n d i t i o n s f o r s u b j e c t i v e / c r e a t i v e input are s a t i s f i e d . 15.It i s p o s s i b l e to predetermine what those c o n d i t i o n s should be and how they might be best s a t i s f i e d . In response to such c l a i m s the f o l l o w i n g r e f u t a t i o n s or c o u n t e r - c l a i m s were uncovered: 1. I t i s not p o s s i b l e to i s o l a t e or measure behaviours deemed t y p i c a l of d e s i g n - r e l a t e d , p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g a c t i v t i e s . 2. Behaviours that are seen to be necessary and s u f f i c i e n t t o the design process do not n e c e s s a r i l y represent a l l the behaviours and/or c a p a b i l i t i e s which might a c t u a l l y be brought i n t o p l a y d u r i n g the design p r o c e s s . 3. I t i s not p o s s i b l e to reduce problems to p r e c i s e l y ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION / 129 d e f i n e d c a t e g o r i e s . 4. The design f i e l d l a c k s even the most b a s i c competance i n problem i d e n t i f i c a t i o n . 5. The sub-concept of 'need' i s i l l - d e f i n e d . 6. D e s i g n e r s , l i k e a l l o t h e r s , are unable to t o t a l l y comprehend the f u l l extent of both t h e i r own needs and and the needs of o t h e r s . 7. I t i s not p r e f e r a b l e or necessary to conform to pre-determined, p r e s c r i b e d design methodologies i n d e a l i n g with d e s i g n - r e l a t e d , p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g s i t u a t i o n s . 8. Conforming to r i g i d , p r e s c r i b e d methodologies i n h i b i t s the designer and l i m i t s the design process and does not n e c e s s a r i l y f a c i l i t a t e s a t i s f a c t o r y design s o l u t i o n s . 9. P r e s c r i b e d , r i g i d methodologies l i m i t or prevent s u b j e c t i v e / c r e a t i v e responses, behaviours, or input on the p a r t of the d e s i g n e r . 10. While the n o t i o n of ' c r e a t i v i t y ' as a necessary and c r i t i c a l p r e - c o n d i t i o n of the design process might f i n d some degree of agreement w i t h i n the f i e l d s of design methodology and a r t & design education there remains, even w i t h i n the f i e l d of c r e a t i v i t y r e s e a r c h i t s e l f , a d i s t i n c t l a c k of agreement r e g a r d i n g the exact nature, form, and f u n c t i o n of c r e a t i v i t y . The 'Basic C a p a c i t y ' paradigm, which appears to be e v o l v i n g ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION / 130 around the c e n t r a l n o t i o n of 'design awareness' or 'design c a p a b i l i t y ' as b a s i c and u n i v e r s a l human c a p a c i t i e s , c h a l l e n g e s those 1st g e n e r a t i o n concepts of design which tend to i n t e r p r e t or d e f i n e 'design' i n terms of educated c a p a b i l i t i e s , l e a r n e d s k i l l s , and s p e c i a l i s t a p p l i c a t i o n s . As t h i s paradigm encompasses an emerging f i e l d of enquiry i t i s d i f f i c u l t at t h i s p o i n t to gain a c l e a r p i c t u r e of the c e n t r a l q u e s t i o n s and i s s u e s around which r e l a t e d r e s e a r c h might c o a l e s c e . However, the focus of r e s e a r c h such as that undertaken by Darke (1984), Archer (1984), and o t h e r s at the Royal C o l l e g e of A r t , i n d i c a t e s a growing i n t e r e s t i n e x p l o r i n g and b e t t e r understanding the nature of b a s i c a t t i t u d e s , knowledge, and c a p a c i t i e s which might be brought to design a c t i v i t y . As Baynes (1976) has p o i n t e d out, the emphasis i n design and design education r e s e a r c h has moved from an e s t a b l i s h e d concern with systems and procedures, to an i n t e r e s t i n understanding the way d e s i g n e r s know what they know and do what they do. Now, c u r r e n t p r e o c c u p a t i o n s c e n t e r around the a n a l y s i s of b a s i c mental s t a t e s and thought processes as they might apply to the process or a c t i v i t y of d e s i g n i n g . Three primary arguments have been i s o l a t e d i n r e l a t i o n to the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd g e n e r a t i o n c l a i m s and concepts subsumed w i t h i n the two major paradigms. These arguments are ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION / 131 seen as r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of the s h i f t s i n c o n c e p t u a l o r i e n t a t i o n s towards the design process over the l a s t f o r t y to f i f t y y e a r s . The arguments are as f o l l o w s : 1. The process of design i s entered i n t o and c o n t r o l l e d by the t r a i n e d s p e c i a l i s t designer u t i l i z i n g p r e s c r i b e d methodologies. These methodologies f a c i l i t a t e the g e n e r a t i o n of the most a p p r o p r i a t e and s u c c e s s f u l s o l u t i o n s to 'tamed' or f u l l y understood d e s i g n - r e l a t e d problems. F u r t h e r , the designer alone possesses the s k i l l s and knowledge necessary f o r a complete understanding of r e l a t e d needs and problems and to the d e t e r m i n a t i o n of a p p r o p r i a t e goals and outcomes. S u b j e c t i v e l y - b a s e d responses, judgements, or behaviours on the p a r t of the designer are seen as d e t r i m e n t a l to the design process and are best kept i n check by adherence to c l e a r l y d e f i n e d stage-process (1st generation) methodologies. 2. Everyone has a c a p a c i t y and a need f o r o r g a n i z i n g and m a n i p u l a t i n g t h e i r environments to s a t i s f y both p r a c t i c a l and a e s t h e t i c requirements. I t i s a l s o not p o s s i b l e f o r the s p e c i a l i s t d e signer to f u l l y comprehend or a p p r e c i a t e the needs and responses of o t h e r s , c o n f i d e n t l y p r e d i c t the d i r e c t i o n the design process w i l l take, or p r e c i s e l y pre-determine the e v e n t u a l outcome or product. T h e r e f o r e , i t i s i n a p p r o p r i a t e that ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION / 132 the s p e c i a l i s t designer be the s o l e a r b i t e r of the design process or of i t s r e s u l t s . A l l concerned p a r t i e s should c o n t r i b u t e , should h e l p determine needs and d e s i r e d outcomes, and should share the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r those outcomes (2nd g e n e r a t i o n methodology). The s p e c i a l i s t designer should a c t as a f a c i l i t a t o r who helps others q u e s t i o n , p l a n , and d e c i d e . I t i s accepted that s u b j e c t i v e responses and input have value to the p r o c e s s . 3. The p a r t i c i p a t o r y approach to the process of d e s i g n i n g can overcomplicate the proceedings and impede progress towards f i n a l s o l u t i o n s . However, i t i s r e c o g n i z e d that the s p e c i a l i s t d e signer b r i n g s the kind of e s s e n t i a l knowledge and e x p e r t i s e to the proceedings which other, u n t r a i n e d p a r t i c i p a n t s cannot. The r o l e of the s p e c i a l i s t designer i s seen as c r i t i c a l to the p r o c e s s . He/she analyzes the s i t u a t i o n and o f f e r s c o n j e c t u r e s , p o s s i b i l i t i e s , and s o l u t i o n s f o r c r i t i c a l a n a l y s i s , r e f u t a t i o n , acceptance, or r e j e c t i o n by the other concerned p a r t i e s . These arguments, when transposed to an e d u c a t i o n a l context, c a r r y s i g n i f i c a n t i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r the way design s t u d i e s or a c t i v i t i e s might be d e a l t with w i t h i n a r t & design or g e n e r a l c u r r i c u l a . I f used as a b a s i s f o r r a t i o n a l e s f o r a ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION / 133 d e s i g n s t u d i e s programs or a c t i v i t i e s the f i r s t and t h i r d arguments or p o i n t s - o f - v i e w would commit programs to approaches to classroom experiences whose primary f u n c t i o n s would be the promotion of p a r t i c u l a r s k i l l s and stage-process methods and v o c a t i o n a l - t y p e t r a i n i n g i n s p e c i a l i z e d design f i e l d s . C e r t a i n l y at the secondary l e v e l t h e r e e x i s t s numerous models of Fashion Design, Commercial Design, Stage Design, I n d u s t r i a l Design, Design Technology, Communication Design, and C r a f t & Design courses which serve such a f u n c t i o n . The second argument might encourage a more c r o s s - c u r r i c u l a r approach to the study of design - one i n which d e s i g n - r e l a t e d e x p e r i e n c e s , problems, and c h a l l e n g e s are seen as i n t e g r a l to a l l s u b j e c t areas and i n which the student would be encouraged to e x p l o r e beyond s u b j e c t c o n s t r a i n t s and d e f i n i t i o n s and to u t i l i z e i n f o r m a t i o n , knowledge, t h e o r i e s , and methods from other sources. Baynes, Archer, and Daley, can be viewed as prominant proponents of the second argument. In r e f e r e n c e to the 'Basic C a p a c i t y ' o r i e n t a t i o n towards design i n the s c h o o l s , Baynes (1985) d e s c r i b e s the study of design as a 'dimension of the c u r r i c u l u m ' - a f i e l d of e d u c a t i o n a l experiences i n which "... d e s i g n , l i k e language, i s a concept beyond any one e x i s t i n g s c h o o l s u b j e c t " , (p.238) i ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION / 134 The l i m i t e d a n a l y s i s of the Canadian c u r r i c u l u m documents r e v e a l s t h at i n g e n e r a l the c u r r i c u l u m d e s i g n e r s p e r c e i v e d the concept and the study of design p r i m a r i l y i n terms of having students understand and apply the elements and p r i n c i p l e s of d e s i g n . In t h i s sense i t can be argued that agreement r e g a r d i n g the concepts of design and design s t u d i e s does e x i s t , i n a f a s h i o n , a c r o s s those systems. R a t i o n a l e s f o r d e s i g n , where they e x i s t , are b a s i c i n nature and t i e d to r e l a t i n g an understanding of the elements and p r i n c i p l e s of design to the o r g a n i z a t i o n of v i s u a l c ompositions. Goals and o b j e c t i v e s , whether i m p l i e d or e x p l i c i t l y p r e s c r i b e d a l s o tend to r e l a t e t o the same concern. Only two systems p r o v i d e advanced secondary study i n p a r t i c u l a r a p p l i e d design courses and only the B r i t i s h Columbia (elementary) and the New Brunswick documents pro v i d e a c l e a r S t i p u l a t i v e D e f i n i t i o n of d e s i g n . These r e s u l t s appear to i n d i c a t e t h a t Canadian a r t c u r r i c u l u m developers have, to date, concerned themselves with d e s i g n - r e l a t e d concepts and c u r r i c u l u m - r e l a t e d a c t i v i t i e s o nly w i t h i n a very b a s i c and narrow conceptual framework. There appears to be l i t t l e i f any concern shown f o r r e c o n c e p t u a l i z i n g design e d u c a t i o n w i t h i n Canadian a r t e d u c a t i o n . There i s l i t t l e evidence i n the documents of concern with developments i n design education which have taken p l a c e i n the U n i t e d Kingdom or A u s t r a l i a , f o r example, ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION / 135 or of r e f e r e n c e to t h e o r i e s , concepts, and c u r r i c u l u m models r e l a t e d to those systems. In l o o k i n g at the use of the term 'design' w i t h i n the Canadian c u r r i c u l u m documents i t can be concluded t h a t , i n t h i s p a r t i c u l a r case, the meaning of design i s d e f i n e d p r i m a r i l y as 'the elements and p r i n c i p l e s of design as a p p l i e d to the o r g a n i z a t i o n of v i s u a l c o m positions'. IV. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS I t was suggested i n the i n t r o d u c t i o n to t h i s study that fundamental concepts are b a s i c to any i n t e l l i g e n t thought or d i s c o u r s e about e d u c a t i o n a l matters. Even the most primary t h e o r e t i c a l and p r a c t i c a l c u r r i c u l u m work r e q u i r e s the support of terminology and concepts which are g e n e r a l l y understood. I t was f u r t h e r suggested that the work of e v a l u a t i n g , d e v e l o p i n g , r e v i s i n g , and implementing c u r r i c u l a can be confused and made d i f f i c u l t by r e l i a n c e on terms and concepts which prove to be vague and ambiguous. T h i s study set out to t e s t the hypotheses that the term 'design' i s vague and ambiguous and c o u l d , t h e r e f o r e , be c o n s i d e r e d u n r e l i a b l e when a p p l i e d e i t h e r to d i s c o u r s e r e l a t i n g t o design or design education or to the work of de v e l o p i n g and a r t i c u l a t i n g the aims and purposes of d e s i g n - r e l a t e d a c t i v i t i e s w i t h i n a r t c u r r i c u l a . T h i s study has e s t a b l i s h e d that the term 'design' remains vague and ambiguous and i s t h e r e f o r e g e n e r a l l y u n r e l i a b l e when u t i l z e d w i t h i n the language of the f i e l d s of de s i g n , design theory, design methodology, and a r t & design e d u c a t i o n theory and c u r r i c u l u m development. I t appears, on the b a s i s of the m a t e r i a l examined i n the study that there e x i s t s , a c r o s s a l l the r e l a t e d f i e l d s and educa t i o n systems, 1 3 6 CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS / 137 a wide d i v e r s i t y of n o t i o n s r e g a r d i n g both the concept of 'design' and the way i t should be d e a l t with w i t h i n a r t c u r r i c u l a . I t a l s o appears that the term 'design' has not found a hig h enough degree of gen e r a l agreement and understanding a c r o s s and w i t h i n those f i e l d s to allow f o r easy communication about d e s i g n - r e l a t e d concerns, t h e o r i e s , and i s s u e s . I t would be d i f f i c u l t , g iven the l i m i t e d nature of t h i s study, to draw c o n c l u s i o n s r e g a r d i n g the extent to which d i s c o u r s e and work r e l a t e d to the development of design education c u r r i c u l u m s i s i n f l u e n c e d by t h i s l a c k of understanding and agreement. An examination of the a v a i l a b l e Canadian a r t c u r r i c u l u m guides does appear t o i n d i c a t e however, that i n regards to the study of design w i t h i n secondary a r t courses a c r o s s Canada there i s l i t t l e i f any agreement or c o n t i g u i t y i n regards to e i t h e r d e f i n i n g the b a s i c concept of 'design' or i n f i t t i n g d e s i g n s t u d i e s or a c t i v i t i e s i n t o the a r t c u r r i c u l u m s . A comparison of the Canadian documents with other s e l e c t e d c u r r i c u l u m models a l s o i n d i c a t e s that Canadian education systems have p a i d s i g n i f i c a n t l y l e s s a t t e n t i o n to design e d u c a t i o n i s s u e s than have t h e i r B r i t i s h and A u s t r a l i a n c o u n t e r p a r t s , as prime examples. D e s c r i p t i o n s of d e s i g n - r e l a t e d a c t i v i t i e s w i t h i n Canadian a r t c u r r i c u l u m s tend to be much more b a s i c i n CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS / 138 nature (or uninformed, i t might be argued) than those found i n the B r i t i s h and A u s t r a l i a n models. F u r t h e r comparison of the v a r i o u s approaches to design education would c o n s t i t u t e a sound b a s i s f o r an a d d i t i o n a l study. I t would r e q u i r e another study, perhaps i n the form of a ge n e r a l survey of a r t educators and c u r r i c u l u m d e v e l o p e r s , to gain any i n s i g h t i n t o what c o r r e l a t i o n s might e x i s t between c o n f u s i o n or l a c k of agreement over the b a s i c concept of 'design' and the development of e x i s t i n g design s t u d i e s aspects of a r t c u r r i c u l u m s . However, on the b a s i s of my p r a c t i c a l experience and the f i n d i n g s of t h i s study I b e l i e v e such a survey would r e v e a l a d i v e r s i t y of h e l d n o t i o n s , b e l i e f s , and assumptions r e g a r d i n g the concepts of design and design education on the p a r t of Canadian a r t educators and th a t f u r t h e r study would r e v e a l some c o r r e l a t i o n between t h a t lac k of ge n e r a l agreement and the b a s i c and uncohesive s t a t e of design education a c r o s s the p r o v i n c i a l e d u c a t i o n a l systems. In the course of examining the l o g i c a l / c o n c e p t u a l t e r r a i n of the f i e l d s of design theory, methodology, and ed u c a t i o n , two paradigms were i s o l a t e d as the major o r i e n t a t i o n s i n regards to the c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n of de s i g n , assumptions, - p r e s u p p o s i t i o n s , and c l a i m s i n t r i n s i c to those paradigms were examined along with v a r i o u s c o u n t e r - c l a i m s and CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS / 1 39 r e f u t a t i o n s which served to c h a l l e n g e many of the u n d e r l y i n g premises. In turn three b a s i c o r i e n t a t i o n s towards design methodology (1st, 2nd, and 3rd gen e r a t i o n concepts) were seen to be subsumed w i t h i n the major paradigms and rec o g n i z e d to have important i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r the development of r a t i o n a l e s f o r the study of design w i t h i n the s c h o o l s . Examination of the t h e o r i e s and p r i n c i p l e s set f o r t h i n the concerned f i e l d s i n d i c a t e s that 'design' i s an open concept, a concept t h a t has yet to f i n d a high degree of consensus e i t h e r w i t h i n or acr o s s the design p r o f e s s i o n s , the f i e l d s of d esign theory and r e s e a r c h , or a r t & design education and c u r r i c u l u m development. Communications from a v a r i e t y of sources, which span a f o r t y year p e r i o d of design and design e d u c a t i o n h i s t o r y , p r o v i d e evidence of a wide complex of u n d e r l y i n g assumptions and cl a i m s r e l a t e d to the c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n of design and i t s study. The c o n c l u s i o n that the term 'design' remains vague and ambiguous appears w e l l j u s t i f i e d . I t would a l s o seem a p p r o p r i a t e to conclude that a consensual d e f i n i t i o n of 'design' - one that would f i n d a h i g h degree of agreement both w i t h i n and a c r o s s the concerned d i s c i p l i n e s - has not and l i k e l y w i l l not be e a s i l y found. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS / 140 Within the 'Problem-Solving' paradigm 'design' i s p r i m a r i l y d e f i n e d i n r e l a t i o n to procedures, educated understandings, data c o l l e c t i o n , and the a p p l i c a t i o n of p r e s c r i b e d methodologies. Here the conceptual c o n s t r u c t i s b u i l t around assumptions, c l a i m s , and p r e s u p p o s i t i o n s r e g a r d i n g the m e a s u r a b i l i t y , c o n t r o l , and p r e d i c t a b i l i t y of responses to d e s i g n - r e l a t e d s i t u a t i o n s and problems. I t i s g e n e r a l l y assumed, and many of the most prominant models of design methodology and design education are based on t h i s assumption, that i t i s p o s s i b l e to predetermine what methodologies would best f a c i l i t a t e good or s u c c e s s f u l design procedures and r e s u l t s . I t i s a l s o assumed that the outcomes of those procedures can be predetermined and c o n t r o l l e d . Methodologies are e s t a b l i s h e d a c c o r d i n g t o the b e l i e f t h a t behaviours r e l e v a n t to the design process and r e l a t e d methodologies are measurable, understandable, and p r e d i c t a b l e . Such c l a i m s do not appear to be s u b s t a n t i a t e d by s c i e n t i f i c data nor i s i t c l e a r how such value and s u b j e c t i v e l y - b a s e d n o t i o n s of design c o u l d be t e s t e d . Without s o l i d evidence to v a l i d a t e '1st g e n e r a t i o n ' c l a i m s the concept of 'design', as i t r e l a t e s to the 'Problem-Solving' paradigm, remains vague and ambiguous i n s p i t e of the wealth of attempts to e s t a b l i s h g e n e r a l l y agreed o p e r a t i o n a l d e f i n i t i o n s and to CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS / 141 entrench what some c o n s i d e r to be a p p r o p r i a t e design methodologies. In regards to the 'Basic C a p a c i t y ' paradigm the gen e r a l concept of 'design' i s anchored to a much broader, open-ended n o t i o n of b a s i c human c a p a c i t i e s or p r e d i s p o s i t i o n s . Here a x i o l o g i c a l p r e s u p p o s i t i o n s r e g a r d i n g b a s i c human nature and the u n i v e r s a l i t y of human responses to p a r t i c u l a r s t i m u l i and environmental c o n d i t i o n s p r o v i d e the b a s i s f o r a d e f i n i t i o n of 'design'. Humans are seen to have a 'need' and a n a t u r a l c a p a c i t y f o r o r g a n i z i n g , m a n i p u l a t i n g , or 'designing' t h e i r environment f o r p r a c t i c a l and a e s t h e t i c purposes. We are a l l n a t u r a l ' d e s i g n e r s ' . A l l of us have a b a s i c c a p a c i t y which can be f u r t h e r expanded or r e f i n e d through v a r i o u s e d u c a t i v e processes or e x p e r i e n c e s . A c a p a c i t y educated towards a higher c a p a b i l i t y i f you w i l l . I t i s obvious that the 'Basic C a p a c i t y ' paradigm s i t s i n d i s t i n c t c o n t r a d i c t i o n to the c l a i m s i n h e r e n t to the 'Problem-Solving' paradigm. However, because the assumptions which u n d e r g i r d the l a t t e r are themselves so open-ended and gen e r a l i n nature i t i s an open q u e s t i o n whether the concept of 'design' can be anything but vague and ambiguous when d e f i n e d w i t h i n t h i s c o n t e x t . While there does e x i s t a s u b s t a n t i v e body of r e s e a r c h and t e s t i n g r e l a t e d to b a s i c CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS / 142 human c a p a c i t i e s (most notably i n the areas of numeracy and l i t e r a c y ) , the det e r m i n a t i o n of what might c o n s t i t u t e a p p r o p r i a t e concerns or focus of 'Design C a p a c i t y ' r e l a t e d r e s e a r c h has yet to be d e f i n e d to any reasonable e x t e n t . Given the vague nature of the g e n e r a l n o t i o n of the 'Basic C a p a c i t y ' paradigm and the lack of re s e a r c h and c o n c l u s i o n s a g a i n s t which u n d e r l y i n g assumptions can be t e s t e d , the b a s i c concept of 'design', i n t h i s c o n t e x t , a l s o remains vague and ambiguous. Of some import to the process of drawing c o n c l u s i o n s r e g a r d i n g the vagueness and ambiguity of the concept of 'design' i s the f a c t that d u r i n g the course of examining m a t e r i a l f o r t h i s study no e x p l i c i t examples of the f o l l o w i n g c l a i m s were uncovered: 1. The b a s i c concept of 'design' i s p r e c i s e l y , adequately, and/or a p p r o p r i a t e l y d e f i n e d . 2. There i s n ' t any c o n f u s i o n or l a c k of agreement r e g a r d i n g the meaning of the term 'design'. 3. There i s a consensus both w i t h i n and acro s s e d u c a t i o n a l systems as to the a p p r o p r i a t e aims, purposes, and content of d e s i g n - r e l a t e d a c t i v i t i e s w i t h i n a r t & design c u r r i c u l a . 4. There i s one model of a design c u r r i c u l u m which should be c o n s i d e r e d i d e a l and as a p p r o p r i a t e f o r a l l systems. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS / 143 5. Design education i s a p r i o r i t y i s s u e f o r a r t c u r r i c u l u m d e v e l o p e r s i n Canadian p r o v i n c i a l systems. In regards to t e s t i n g the hyp o t h e s i s that the term/concept of 'design' i s vague and ambiguous the c o n c l u s i o n s can t h e r e f o r e be summarized as f o l l o w s : 1 . I t i s evi d e n t that the term can have more than one meaning and that the meaning i s o f t e n governed by the context i n which i t i s used. 2. Given t h a t there are a v a r i e t y of contexts i n which the term i s a p p l i e d the concept can be seen to be c o n c e p t u a l l y ambiguous i n the most general p h i l o s o p h i c a l sense. 3. There does not, as y e t , appear to be any r u l e which can s p e c i f y f o r every case whether the term i s v a l i d or i n v a l i d . In other words, there i s no g e n e r a l l y agreed r u l e or set of r u l e s which s p e c i f y what necessary f e a t u r e s the term must have i n order to ap p l y . The term of 'design' i s vague as w e l l as ambiguous. 4. Because of i t s vagueness and ambiguity the term 'design' cannot be c o n s i d e r e d r e l i a b l e when a p p l i e d to d i s c o u r s e r e l a t i n g t o design and design education p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the case of communications a c r o s s d i s c i p l i n e s . I t i s d i f f i c u l t to get a c o n s i s t a n t view of how c o n d i t i o n s f o r i t s use i n one schema might be c o n s i d e r e d as a p p r o p r i a t e CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS / 144 f o r i t s use i n another. 5. In r e f e r e n c e to S o l t i s ' s model of ' A n a l y t i c S i t u a t i o n s ' i t can be concluded that both ' D i f f e r e n t i a l ' and 'Con d i t i o n s ' type s i t u a t i o n s apply to the term/concept 'design' as i t i s u t i l i z e d w i t h i n the f i e l d s of design theory, methodology, and ed u c a t i o n . The a n a l y s i s of the d e s i g n - r e l a t e d content of the s e l e c t e d c u r r i c u l u m documents i s too l i m i t e d to s u b s t a n t i a t e any cl a i m s or assumptions r e g a r d i n g a p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n between a lack of agreement over the concept of 'design' and the ways i n which d e s i g n - r e l a t e d a c t i v i t i e s are d e s c r i b e d or p r e s c r i b e d i n a r t c u r r i c u l u m s . Any number of v a r i a b l e s not co n s i d e r e d i n t h i s study might e v e n t u a l l y be i s o l a t e d as determining f a c t o r s i n the f o r m u l a t i o n of approaches to the study of 'design' w i t h i n secondary a r t c u r r i c u l u m s . However, on the b a s i s of l i m i t e d content a n a l y s i s conducted i n t h i s study the f o l l o w i n g c o n c l u s i o n s r e l a t i n g to the the study of 'design' w i t h i n the f i e l d of Canadian a r t education can be o f f e r e d : 1. D e s i g n - r e l a t e d statements w i t h i n the v a r i o u s Canadian c u r r i c u l u m documents i n d i c a t e s commonality a c r o s s the p r o v i n c i a l systems p r i m a r i l y i n terms of a gen e r a l c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n of design s t u d i e s as the 'understanding and a p p l i c a t i o n of the elements and CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS / 1 4 5 p r i n c i p l e s of d e s i g n ' . 2. Comparison of the document statements i n d i c a t e s a wide v a r i e n c e i n the degree of concern r e g a r d i n g the i s s u e of d e f i n i n g the concept of 'design'. 3 . C o l l e c t i v e l y the c u r r i c u l u m documents do not appear to he l p i n c l a r i f y i n g the gen e r a l concept of 'design' or i n p r o v i d i n g Canadian a r t with a d e f i n t i o n of design beyond that r e l a t e d to the o r g a n i z a t i o n of the elements and p r i n c i p l e s of d e s i g n . 4 . In the m a j o r i t y of the Canadian c u r r i c u l u m documents the is s u e s of d e f i n i n g the concept of 'design' and of a r t i c u l a t i n g the aims and purposes (of p r e s e n t i n g a r a t i o n a l e f o r ) of d e s i g n - r e l a t e d a c t i v i t i e s have been e i t h e r ignored, avoided, or excluded. The reasons f o r such are u n c l e a r . 5 . Goals and o b j e c t i v e s r e l a t e d to design a c t i v i t i e s are g e n e r a l l y a s s o c i a t e d with g a i n i n g an understanding of the elements and p r i n c i p l e s of design and with a p p l y i n g them i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n of v i s u a l m a t e r i a l . In the course of g a t h e r i n g m a t e r i a l and data f o r t h i s study the f o l l o w i n g c o n d i t i o n s r e l a t i n g to the ge n e r a l f i e l d of a r t & design education i n Canada a l s o became e v i d e n t : 1. Canadian a r t educators do not have the support of the kind of complex of sup p o r t i n g agencies ( a l l d e d i c a t e d to CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS / 146 the development of design s t u d i e s w i t h i n s c h o o l s ) that B r i t i s h and A u s t r a l i a n educators enjoy. 2. There i s l i m i t e d a t t e n t i o n p a i d to design education i s s u e s w i t h i n Canadian a r t education l i t e r a t u r e . 3. While B r i t i s h educators can gain a degree i n Design E d u c a t i o n , no Canadian i n s t i t u t i o n o f f e r s a comparable o p t i o n f o r student a r t t e a c h e r s . 4. Within a r t teacher t r a i n i n g programs a c r o s s Canada l i t t l e b a s i c t r a i n i n g i n design and/or design education i s o f f e r e d to student t e a c h e r s . 5. There appears to be no a r t i c u l a t i o n of design s t u d i e s programs through the elementary, secondary, and post-secondary l e v e l s of education i n any of the p r o v i n c i a l systems. 6. There does not e x i s t i n Canada any p r o f e s s i o n a l design educators a s s o c i a t i o n s comparable to the N.A.D.E. i n Great B r i t a i n . 7. The extent to which the i s s u e of design s t u d i e s as a component of a r t c u r r i c u l u m s has been addressed w i t h i n the Canadian e d u c a t i o n a l community s i t s i n extreme c o n t r a s t to the B r i t i s h and A u s t r a l i a n models. The B r i t i s h e d u c a t i o n a l community has long been concerned with design c u r r i c u l u m development and i t i s t h i s source which p r o v i d e s the bulk of r e l a t e d r e s e a r c h and r e f e r e n c e m a t e r i a l . CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS / 147 One g e n e r a l c o n c l u s i o n which can be drawn from t h i s study i s t h a t f u r t h e r conceptual and content a n a l y s i s i n the areas of design and design education i s necessary i f Canadian a r t educators are to gain a g r e a t e r understanding of the r e l a t i o n s h i p between agreement over b a s i c terminology and concepts and the development of d e s i g n - r e l a t e d c u r r i c u l u m s . A case f o r seeing a d i r e c t and c r i t i c a l l i n k between h o l d i n g a p a r t i c u l a r o r i e n t a t i o n towards the b a s i c concept of design and the adoption of p a r t i c u l a r approaches to the study of design w i t h i n a c u r r i c u l u m are e a s i l y made. I f i t i s h e l d t h a t the 'Problem-Solving' paradigm d e l i n e a t e s the b a s i s of what might be c o n s i d e r e d a p p r o p r i a t e aims, g o a l s , procedures, and s t r a t e g i e s f o r the study of design then i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r the form and content of such programs or a c t i v i t i e s can be re c o g n i z e d . Programs, u n i t s , l e s s o n s , or a c t i v i t i e s based on 1st g e n e r a t i o n assumptions and cl a i m s would serve the primary f u n c t i o n of i n v o l v i n g the student i n pr o b l e m - s o l v i n g , s k i l l - d e v e l o p i n g methodologies with concern f o r the t r a i n i n g of s p e c i a l i s t , p r o f e s s i o n a l d e s i g n e r s . Such an o r i e n t a t i o n might tend to emphasize d i s c r e t e programs of study such as Fashion Design, Commercial Design, or Communications Design, with l i t t l e or no emphasis on c r o s s - c u r r i c u l a r i m p l i c a t i o n s . Approaches based on 'Basic C a p a c i t y ' paradigm concepts might CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS / 148 see the study of design i n broader terms as a 'dimension' of the c u r r i c u l u m (Baynes, 1985) - an e d u c a t i o n a l experience which i s not bound by p a r t i c u l a r s u b j e c t areas or c o n s t r a i n e d by adherence to p a r t i c u l a r s p e c i a l i s t methodologies or predetermined goals and c r i t e r i a . The purpose of l e s s o n s or a c t i v i t i e s based on 'Basic C a p a c i t y ' concepts might be d e f i n e d i n terms of i n t r o d u c i n g the student t o the broader n o t i o n of design as an i n t e g r a l aspect of everyday l i f e e x p e r i e n c e s . Such an approach might not n e c e s s a r i l y discourage the education of s p e c i a l i s t d e s i g n e r s but might emphasize, i n s t e a d , the broadening and educating of that c a p a c i t y f o r 'design' which i s seen as b a s i c to a l l . I m p l i c a t i o n s r e l a t e d to communications about design education i s s u e s can a l s o be drawn from t h i s study. I t i s evid e n t that 'design' remains a vague and ambiguous concept and i t i s l i k e l y t h a t i n any given group or community the establishment of a consensual c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n or o p e r a t i o n a l d e f i n i t i o n of 'design' would take c o n s i d e r a b l e time and e f f o r t . Work r e l a t e d t o de v e l o p i n g design c u r r i c u l u m s which proceeds without the a i d of a g e n e r a l l y understood and agreed b a s i c concept might run the r i s k of e i t h e r becoming impeded by prolonged debate over proper d e f i n i t i o n of b a s i c terminology or of ent r e n c h i n g goals CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS / 149 s t r a t e g i e s , and a c t i v i t i e s which are not as w e l l c o n s i d e r e d or as a p p r o p r i a t e as they might otherwise be. I t i s a l s o p o s s i b l e t h at educators and design p r a c t i t i o n e r s might encounter c o n s i d e r a b l e problems when t r y i n g to communicate ac r o s s d i s c i p l i n e s about b a s i c design and design education i s s u e s . Each might adopt d i f f e r e n t ' s p e c i a l ' languages and er r o n e o u s l y assume that p a r t i c u l a r concepts and d e f i n i t i o n s are understood and accepted i n other domains. T h i s study supports the argument that such problems can and do e x i s t and are l i k e l y to somehow i n f l u e n c e design and design e d u c a t i o n - r e l a t e d d i s c o u r s e and work. The l a c k of design or design education courses i n a r t teacher t r a i n i n g programs a c r o s s Canada has a number of s i g n i f i c a n t i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r both the design p r o f e s s i o n s as w e l l as a r t and design e d u c a t i o n . For example, most c o l l e g e f i n e a r t programs i n Canada have a r e q u i s i t e 'design foundations' course of some form i n p l a c e and many a r t schools and community c o l l e g e s o f f e r e i t h e r two or four year a p p l i e d design diploma programs. Because few secondary a r t te a c h e r s have any s i g n i f i c a n t degree of formal t r a i n i n g or d i r e c t p r a c t i c a l experience i n design or design e d u c a t i o n , h i g h school students g r a d u a t i n g to post-secondary design programs o f t e n enter t h e i r new programs of study with l i t t l e i f any knowledge about even the most b a s i c a s p e c t s of design theory CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS / 150 or design h i s t o r y or with l i m i t e d l e g i t i m a t e p r a c t i c a l e xperience i n design p r o j e c t work. Many c o l l e g e design courses are taught by a r t i s t s with no t r a i n i n g or experience i n design or design education and many of those view design courses as nothing more than a p r e p a r a t i o n f o r work i n the drawing, p a i n t i n g , or s c u l p t i n g c l a s s e s . There appear to be no i n - s e r v i c e design education courses a v a i l a b l e to Canadian a r t educators comparable to the Design Dimension Project which operates throughout the U.K.. Where a p p l i e d or commercial design programs are o f f e r e d few i f any of the i n s t r u c t o r s at the c o l l e g e l e v e l have degrees i n e d u c a t i o n and many teach only on a p a r t - t i m e b a s i s . These i n s t r u c t o r s tend, t h e r e f o r e , to be g e n e r a l l y u n i n v o l v e d with, or unconcerned about, i s s u e s r e l a t i n g to the a r t i c u l a t i o n of secondary and post-secondary design s t u d i e s programs. Communication between c o l l e g e f i n e a r t and a p p l i e d design programs and a r t teacher t r a i n i n g programs at the u n i v e r s i t i e s i s g e n e r a l l y n o n - e x i s t a n t . I t i s i r o n i c that p r o v i n c i a l governments w i l l p r o v i d e f o r the study of design at the post-secondary l e v e l while so l i t t l e i s done to h e l p the secondary teacher b e t t e r prepare students f o r entrance i n t o those programs. In comparison a recent tour of a dozen secondary s c h o o l s throughout the U n i t e d Kingdom p r o v i d e d evidence that s e n i o r secondary CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS / 151 students i n the U.K. are s i g n i f i c a n t l y more advanced in terms of design knowledge and experience than t h e i r Canadian c o u n t e r p a r t s . In many of the B r i t i s h s c h ools the students have a number of d e s i g n , design technology, design and c r a f t , as w e l l as f i n e a r t courses to choose from. In a d d i t i o n they have the o p t i o n of e n t e r i n g a program which o f f e r s a c o n c e n t r a t e d s e r i e s of s o p h i s t i c a t e d design p r o j e c t s and r e l a t e d exams and which culminates i n a General C e r t i f i c a t e of Secondary Education i n d e s i g n . Most school d i s t r i c t s i n the U.K. employ an 'examiner' who s u p e r v i s e s design programs i n a l l the d i s t r i c t ' s s c h o o l s . In most cases those t e a c h i n g design courses i n B r i t i s h secondary schools have experience and/or t r a i n i n g i n design and design e d u c a t i o n and and they can look to agencies such as the Design Council and the Curriculum Development Committee f o r ongoing support and i n f o r m a t i o n . In a d d i t i o n there i s c o n s i d e r a b l e work being done i n f i n d i n g ways to introduce design experiences i n t o B r i t i s h elementary s c h o o l s . A complete a r t i c u l a t i o n of design s t u d i e s programs from elementary through post-secondary may soon be a r e a l i t y i n the U n i t e d Kingdom. There i s l i t t l e evidence of a s i m i l a r degree of concern f o r the a r t i c u l a t i o n of d e s i g n s t u d i e s w i t h i n Canadian a r t e d u c a t i o n and the l i m i t e d s t a t e of design education i n CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS / 152 Canada does not serve to focus much a t t e n t i o n onto the b a s i c i s s u e s of f i n d i n g consensus about e i t h e r the concept of design or a p p r o p r i a t e aims, purposes, and content f o r design a c t i v i t i e s i n s c h o o l s . I f the hypotheses d e a l t with i n t h i s study were reduced to a 'chicken or egg' q u e s t i o n i t would be i m p o s s i b l e , on the b a s i s of t h i s study, to determine to what extent the vague, ambiguous, and u n r e l i a b l e nature of the term 'design' has caused a r t educators to ignore or n e g l e c t the development of design education i n Canada to degree they have. The q u e s t i o n of whether the e x i s t a n c e of g e n e r a l l y understood and agreed o p e r a t i o n a l d e f i n i t i o n s of design or design education would more r e a d i l y encourage i n t e r e s t i n design education or would f a c i l i t a t e more r e s e a r c h i n t o design c u r r i c u l u m development c o u l d form the b a s i s of another study. The f i e l d of design education has, i n the main, been guided by developments and the e v o l u t i o n of t h e o r i e s and methods i n the design p r o f e s s i o n s . Design education has t h e r e f o r e g e n e r a l l y been viewed i n terms of the study of ' a p p l i e d a r t s ' ( i n which the i s s u e of p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g i s a c r i t i c a l f a c t o r ) and/or, as i s the case i n many c o l l e g e f i n e a r t programs, as simply the study and a p p l i c a t i o n of the 'elements and p r i n c i p l e s ' of d e s i g n . CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS / 153 Yet i n s p i t e of the f a c t that d e s i g n - r e l a t e d s t u d i e s of some kind are o f f e r e d at secondary and post-secondary l e v e l s and i n s p i t e of the f a c t t h a t most a r t teachers commonly u t i l i z e terms such as 'design', ' v i s u a l d e s i g n ' , ' d e s i g n elements', 'two or t h r e e - dimensional d e s i g n ' , 'design c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s ' , ' d e s i g n e r l y q u a l i t y ' , and 'to d e s i g n ' i n t h e i r i n s t r u c t i o n a l language, i t appears that the i s s u e s of c l a r i f y i n g what i t i s we r e a l l y mean by 'design' and how i t might be accounted f o r i n a r t c u r r i c u l a remain un r e s o l v e d and h i g h l y p r o b l e m a t i c . T h e o r i s t s such as Sparkes (1986), who look at design from a s o c i o l o g i c a l - h i s t o r i c a l p o i n t - o f - v i e w maintain t h a t constant changes i n the socio-economic framework of s o c i e t y serve to keep the n o t i o n of 'design' i n a constant s t a t e of f l u x . A c c o r d i n g l y changes i n approaches to the a c t i v i t y of d e s i g n i n g are seen to be l e s s a matter of the nature of a d e s i g n e r ' s n a t u r a l and c r e a t i v e c a p a b i l i t i e s than of economic, t e c h n o l o g i c a l , and s o c i a l p r e s s u r e s . However, s h i f t s i n t h e o r e t i c a l o r i e n t a t i o n and r e s e a r c h emphasis have occured and as a r e s u l t the boundaries of design theory, methodology, and e d u c a t i o n concepts are p r o v i n g to be more f l e x i b l e and open-ended than many educators might have presumed. Research r e l a t e d t o v a r i o u s f i e l d s such as S o c i a l L e a r n i n g Theory and C o g n i t i v e Psycholgy i s c o n t r i b u t i n g CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS / 154 i n f o r m a t i o n to the f i e l d s of design and design education which i n d i c a t e s i t would unwise to assume that the no t i o n of 'design' can be c o n t a i n e d w i t h i n a r i g i d c o n c e p t u a l / d e f i n i t i o n a l framework. G e t z e l s and C s i k s z e n t m i h a l y i (1976), f o r example, have undertaken e x t e n s i v e l o n g i t u d i n a l psychometric s t u d i e s of f i n e a r t , commercial design, and a r t education students and have concluded that each i s motivated to enter t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e f i e l d s out of d i s t i n c t l y d i f f e r e n t p e r s o n a l value-systems. Roukes (1988) has set f o r t h a concept of 'design s y n e c t i c s ' which seeks to encourage a s y n t h e s i s of c r e a t i v e behaviours and c a p a b i l i t i e s , p a t t e r n s and methods of t h i n k i n g and pro b l e m - s o l v i n g , and e x p l o r a t i o n of the formal elements and p s y c h o l o g i c a l f o r c e s w i t h i n v i s u a l compositions. These and other t h e o r i e s and l i n e s of enquiry o f f e r f e r t i l e ground f o r co n t i n u e d e x p l o r a t i o n and a n a l y s i s of design and design e d u c a t i o n i s s u e s . Because the no t i o n of design cannot be e a s i l y c o n t a i n e d by any one theory or concept the problem of f i n d i n g a d e f i n i t i o n or set of d e f i n i t i o n s t h a t w i l l s a t i s f y or have u t i l i t y f o r everyone i s g r e a t l y exacerbated. T h i s s i t u a t i o n might, however, simply r e f l e c t the i n t r i n s i c nature of design i t s e l f . Baynes (1976) has s t a t e d that words cannot e a s i l y h o l d the concept of design and i n f a c t , can e a s i l y CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS / 155 d i s t o r t i t . Each concept or d e f i n i t i o n of d e s i g n , he suggests, i s inadequate by i t s e l f and there i s , and perhaps can or never should be, no s i n g l e d e f i n i t i o n which w i l l t r u l y s a t i s f y our sense of the r e a l i t y of design as a q u a l i t y or a c t i v i t y e x i s t i n g i n the world. In f a c t i t i s p o s s i b l e that acceptance of a s i n g l e concept or d e f i n i t i o n of 'design' might prove to be a l e s s than p o s i t i v e f a c t o r i n regards to our p e r c e p t i o n s of design and design e d u c a t i o n . Baynes (1976) sees the v a r i e t y of concepts, c l a i m s , t h e o r i e s , and assumptions as the p o i n t and that the p l a y i n g o f f of each a g a i n s t the other can c r e a t e a d i a l e c t i c out of which a b e t t e r understanding of design and design c a p a b i l i t i e s w i l l emerge. T h i s study does make a case f o r r e c o g n i z i n g that because the work of dev e l o p i n g and i n t e g r a t i n g c u r r i c u l u m s r e q u i r e s understood and agreed concepts and p r e c i s e language, the vague and ambiguous nature of design c r e a t e s s p e c i a l problems i n r e l a t i o n to the task of determining the aims, purposes, and content of d e s i g n - r e l a t e d a c t i v i t i e s w i t h i n a r t c u r r i c u l u m s . In t h i s regard Baynes (1976) emphasizes the need f o r a r t & design educators to b u i l d a b e t t e r foundation f o r understanding the p o t e n t i a l of design a c t i v i t y and f o r pl a n n i n g those a c t i v i t i e s f o r the classroom. T h i s study has exp l o r e d and attempted to d e f i n e one p a r t i c u l a r area which, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS / 156 i t i s b e l i e v e d , should be analyzed f u r t h e r i f such a foundation i s to be e s t a b l i s h e d . The f o l l o w i n g are recommendations f o r a d d i t i o n a l l i n e s of enquiry which might serve to f u r t h e r c l a r i f y and a r t i c u l a t e design e d u c a t i o n - r e l a t e d language and f u r t h e r d i s t i n g u i s h a r t & design education concepts and concerns: C u r r i c u l u m Development and Research; 1. R e p l i c a t i o n of the Royal C o l l e g e of A r t ' s 1973 Design in General Education survey which sought to analyze e x i s t i n g design s t u d i e s programs and to c o n t r i b u t e to a body of knowledge on which f u r t h e r development c o u l d be based. 2. Survey of Canadian a r t educators to determine p e r c e p t i o n s r e g a r d i n g d e s i g n - r e l a t e d a c t i v i t i e s w i t h i n a r t c u r r i c u l a . In p a r t i c u l a r attempt to determine the context i n which design i s taught i n Canadian s c h o o l s , t e a c h e r ' s p e r c e p t i o n s of t h e i r own design programs, problems that teachers experience i n t e a c h i n g d e s i g n , teacher's p r i o r i t i e s f o r a s s i s t a n c e i n d e s i g n - r e l a t e d areas, sources of background knowledge and t r a i n i n g i n design and design e d u c a t i o n , sources of i n f l u e n c e s and concepts, and the teac h e r ' s p e r c e p t i o n s of the aims and purposes of d e s i g n - r e l a t e d a c t i v i t i e s w i t h i n a r t CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS / 157 c u r r i c u l a . 3. A n a l y s i s of the network of agencies which work i n support of design education i n the U.K. i n c l u d i n g the Design Dimension Project, the Design Council, and the National Association for Design Education and the ways in which they i n f l u e n c e the development of de s i g n c u r r i c u l a . 4. Survey and a n a l y s i s of t e a c h e r - t r a i n i n g programs acr o s s Canada to determine i n what ways or to what extent a r t teachers i n - t r a i n i n g are p r o v i d e d experiences or i n f o r m a t i o n r e l a t e d to design and/or d e s i g n e d u c a t i o n . 5. A n a l y s i s of models f o r de s i g n education from other e d u c a t i o n a l systems. In p a r t i c u l a r an a n a l y s i s of the ways i n which the i n t r o d u c t i o n of the n a t i o n a l c u r r i c u l u m s f o r a r t & design (G.C.S.E.) has i n f l u e n c e d the t e a c h i n g of design i n the U.K. In regards to f a c i l i t a t i n g more and b e t t e r d i s c o u r s e about design education among a r t educators i n Canada the f o l l o w i n g are recommended: 1. Analyze and attempt to c l a r i f y , f o r y o u r s e l f and ot h e r s , your own b e l i e f s , assumptions, and t h e o r i e s r e g a r d i n g design and design e d u c a t i o n . 2. Measure these a g a i n s t the way i n which you conduct CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS / 158 d e s i g n - r e l a t e d a c t i v i t i e s i n your classroom. 3. Be more s p e c i f i c i n u s i n g terms and d e f i n i n g concepts and p o i n t s - o f - v i e w when communicating about design and design education i s s u e s . 4. Be more s p e c i f i c i n l a b e l l i n g p a r t i c u l a r course and/or a c t i v i t i e s such as Fashion Design, Commercial Design, A r c h i t e c t u r a l Design, F a b r i c Design, Stage Design, Media Design, e t c . E s t a b l i s h S t i p u l a t i v e D e f i n i t i o n s i f necessary or i f i t w i l l h e l p communications. 5. C o n t i n u a l l y t r y to c l a r i f y f o r y o u r s e l f and others why d e s i g n - r e l a t e d a c t i v i t i e s are important e d u c a t i o n a l experiences and how they can be i n t e g r a t e d i n t o the c u r r i c u l u m . 6. Avoid ' D e f i n i t i o n a l I r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y ' - r e s i s t the temptation t o d e f i n e terms and concepts i n any way that seems simply convenient. V. REFERENCES Adams, E. (1984). C u r r i c u l u m development i n a r t and design e d u c a t i o n . J o u r n a l of A r t & Design Education, 3(3), 333-345. Akin , 0. (1984). 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