UBC Theses and Dissertations

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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Education for sexual morality : moral reform and the regulation of American sexual behaviour in the nineteenth… Vertinsky, Patricia Anne 1974

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EDUCATION FOR SEXUAL-MORALITY: MORAL REFORM AND THE REGULATION OF AMERIpAN SEXUAL BEHAVIOR IN THE NINETEENTH CENTURY by PATRICIA ANNE VERTINSKY B . A . ( H o n s ) , B i r m i n g h a m U n i v e r s i t y , 1963 M . S c . , U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a a t L o s A n g e l e s , 1967 A DISSERTATION SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF EDUCATION i n t h e D e p a r t m e n t o f E D U C A T I O N We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g t o t h e re q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITI S H COLUMBIA November, 197^ In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s in p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f the r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an advanced d e g r e e at the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I a g r e e tha t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and s t u d y . I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may be g r a n t e d by the Head o f my Department o r by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . It i s u n d e r s t o o d tha t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Department o f J t b VC/h~nQ The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Co lumbia V ancouver 8, Canada Date ! U & ~ M S /2 j I j r f A B S T R A C T The i n t r o d u c t i o n o f s e x e d u c a t i o n i n t o t h e s c h o o l s i n t h e e a r l y y e a r s o f t h e t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y r e p r e s e n t e d a c u r i o u s c u l m i n a t i o n o f t h e hopes and a s p i r a t i o n s o f n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y m o r a l r e f o r m e r s . T h o u g h , f o r a l m o s t a c e n t u r y , t h e y had r e p e a t e d l y w a r n e d t h a t i g n o r a n c e and s i l e n c e w o u l d n o t f a c i l i t a t e s e x u a l p u r i t y , t h e y had s u c c e e d e d i n d e v e l o p i n g m e a s u r e s f o r t h e d i s s e m i n a t i o n o f s e x u a l k n o w l e d g e w h i c h w e r e , i n many c a s e s , as s t r i n g e n t l y c i r c u m s c r i b e d i n c o n t e n t as had been t h e p o l i c y o f s i l e n c e . U n d e r t h e a s s u m p t i o n t h a t t h e s e x e d u c a t i o n movement c a n be b e t t e r u n d e r s t o o d by g i v i n g more a t t e n t i o n t o t h e ' o l d r e g i m e ' , t h i s s t u d y s u r v e y s t h e c o n t i n u i n g e n d e a v o r s o f n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y m o r a l r e f o r m e r s t o p r e s e r v e a t r a d i -t i o n a l m o r a l i t y i n t h e f a c e o f r a p i d l y c h a n g i n g s o c i a l c o n -d i t i o n s . The i n v e s t i g a t i o n shows t h a t s e x u a l i m m o r a l i t y emerged as a s o c i a l p r o b l e m a f t e r t h e 1830's i n r e s p o n s e t o c h a n g i n g p e r c e p t i o n s o f d e v i a n t b e h a v i o r . C h a n g i n g a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d s e x u a l d e v i a n c y were f o s t e r e d by a p e r c e i v e d i n c r e a s e i n p r o s t i t u t i o n and by a g r o u p o f m o r a l p h y s i o l o g i s t s who i i a s s e r t e d t h a t s e x u a l m i s b e h a v i o r was w i d e s p r e a d and h a r m f u l t o s o c i e t y . A c c o r d i n g t o t h e m o r a l p h y s i o l o g y v i e w p o i n t , s e x u a l h y g i e n e was s e x u a l m o r a l i t y , and e d u c a t i o n f o r one w o u l d r e s u l t i n e d u c a t i o n f o r t h e o t h e r . T h i s v i e w became p o p u l a r and was d i s s e m i n a t e d by d i v e r s e g r o u p s o f m o r a l r e f o r m e r s , c h i l d n u r t u r e e x p e r t s and women's r i g h t s a d v o c a t e s t h r o u g h a number o f r e f o r m a c t i v i t i e s w h i c h a r e e x p l o r e d i n t h i s s t u d y . T h e i r e f f o r t s , w h i c h g e n e r a l l y i n c l u d e d c o n d i t i o n -i n g t e c h n i q u e s and s e x i n s t r u c t i o n , w e re a l m o s t a l w a y s d i r e c t e d a t t h e f a m i l y . O n l y when r e f o r m e r s a g r e e d t h a t p a r e n t s had shown t h e m s e l v e s i n a d e q u a t e t o p e r f o r m t h e i r d u t i e s o f s e x e d u c a t i o n d i d t h e y a t t e m p t t o e x t e n d t h e i r a r e n a o f opera-; t i o n s t o t h e s c h o o l . The s e x e d u c a t i o n movement, t h e r e f o r e , r e p r e s e n t e d an e x c h a n g e o f t h e home f o r t h e s c h o o l a s t h e p r i n c i p a l a g e n c y o f s e x u a l i n s t r u c t i o n . D e s p i t e t h e c h a n g e o f e d u c a t i o n a l v e h i c l e , t h e a s s u m p t i o n s u n d e r l y i n g t h e o b j e c -t i v e s o f t h e movement r e f l e c t e d l o n g s e a s o n e d and c o n s e r v a t i v e s e x u a l a t t i t u d e s . TABLE OF CONTENTS Page ABSTRACT i i LI S T OF FIGURES v i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS v i i INTRODUCTION 1 SECTION ONE: SEXUAL MISBEHAVIOR: STIMULUS TO ACTION C h a p t e r 1 CHANGING PERCEPTIONS OF SEXUAL DEVIANCY . • 21 C h a p t e r 2 THE DEVELOPING CONCERN OVER PROSTITUTION . . . 57 C h a p t e r 3 CHANGING B E L I E F S IN THE A B I L I T Y TO CONTROL BEHAVIOR . . 72 SECTION TWO: THE REGULATION OF SEXUAL BEHAVIOR: HEALTH-RELATED MORAL REFORM C h a p t e r 4 THE' STIMULI OF MORAL PHYSIOLOGY AND THE TEMPERANCE MOVEMENT UPON HEALTH-RELATED MORAL 4REFORM 96 C h a p t e r 5 DIET REFORM 118 C h a p t e r 6 DRESS REFORM 136 i v Page Chap te r 7 PHYSICAL CULTURE, RECREATION AND PLAY 157 SECTION THREE: THE REGULATION OF SEXUAL BEHAVIOR: SEX  EDUCATION STRATEGIES Chapte r 88 SEX INSTRUCTION FOR PARENT AND CHILD 190 Chapte r 9 SEX INSTRUCTION IN THE SCHOOL 222 Chapte r 10 SUMMARY. „ 247 BIBLIOGRAPHY . 258 v LIST OF FIGURES F i g u r e Page 1 The T r e e o f L i f e : The C h r i s t i a n 95 2 The D r u n k a r d s P r o g r e s s . . . . 115 3 The B l o o m e r Costume 140 4 The P e r f e c t H e a l t h C o r s e t 149 5 D r . S c o t t ' s E l e c t r i c C o r s e t 152 6 The A m e r i c a n N a t i o n a l Game o f B a s e b a l l 167 7 The Happy F a m i l y 186 v i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The generous h e l p and s t i m u l a t i n g c r i t i c i s m s o f N e i l S u t h e r l a n d and M a r v i n L a z e r s o n t h r o u g h o u t the p e r i o d o f i n v e s t i g a t i o n a r e a c k n o w l e d g e d w i t h many t h a n k s . S p e c i a l t h a n k s a r e a l s o due to John Calam and Vance M i t c h e l l f o r t h e i r u s e f u l comments and c r i t i c i s m s , and e s p e c i a l l y t o J o s e p h K a t z f o r h i s c o n t i n u e d encouragement and g u i d a n c e . A d e b t i s owed to the l i b r a r i a n s o f The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a f o r t h e i r l e n g t h y e n d e a v o r s i n l o c a t i n g needed m a t e r i a l . v i i I N T R O D U C T I O N C u r r i c u l a r e x p a n s i o n i s o f t e n a d v o c a t e d as a r e s p o n s e to p e r c e i v e d s o c i a l p r o b l e m s . A d e t e r i o r a t i o n i n t h e n a t i o n ' s h e a l t h , f o r e x a m p l e , may be f o l l o w e d by the p r o m o t i o n o f expanded p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s i n the s c h o o l . Female d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h t r a d i t i o n a l r o l e s as h o u s e k e e p e r s and mothers has been m a n i f e s t e d by1 p r e s s u r e t o i n c l u d e women's s t u d i e s i n s c h o o l s and u n i v e r s i t i e s . Concern o v e r a l c o h o l i s m and the use o f drugs has l e d t o the i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f i n c r e a s e d h e a l t h e d u c a t i o n and g u i d a n c e a c t i v i t i e s w i t h i n the s c h o o l c u r r i c u l u m . S i m i l a r l y , c o n c e r n o v e r s e x u a l p r o m i s c u i t y o f one k i n d o r a n o t h e r has tended to promote i n t e r e s t i n d e v e l o p i n g sex e d u c a t i o n programs f o r t h e s c h o o l . Sex e d u c a t i o n programs on a n a t i o n a l s c a l e were f i r s t i n t r o d u c e d i n t o A m e r i c a n s c h o o l s a t the b e g i n n i n g o f the t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y . The o s t e n s i b l e r e a s o n f o r the i n t r o -d u c t i o n o f such programs was the r i s i n g t i d e o f v e n e r e a l d i s e a s e t h a t , many f e l t , t h r e a t e n e d to c o n t a m i n a t e l a r g e a r e a s o f the p o p u l a t i o n and cause u n t o l d damage to the n a t i o n ' s h e a l t h . T h i s v iew was r e i n f o r c e d by l a t e n i n e t e e n t h and e a r l y t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y advances i n the f i e l d o f m e d i c i n e 1 2 w h i c h d e m o n s t r a t e d the h i t h e r t o unknown and m u l t i p l e e f f e c t s o f s e x - r e l a t e d d i s e a s e s . Recent s t u d i e s o f A m e r i c a n a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d s e x u a l b e h a v i o r have t e n d e d to agree t h a t the new s c i e n t i f i c d i s -c o v e r i e s o f t h a t e r a p e r t a i n i n g to sex and h e a l t h s t i m u l a t e d r e f o r m e r s to a t t a c k mi s c o n c e i v e d . i n o t i o n s c o n c e r n i n g s e x u a l b e h a v i o r , and promoted a r e v o l u t i o n i n m i d d l e - c l a s s s t a n d a r d s o f s e x u a l b e h a v i o r . ^ John G. Burnham, f o r e x a m p l e , has S e e f o r e x a m p l e : ••• J o h n C . B u r n h a m , " T h e P r o g r e s s i v e E r a R e v o l u -t i o n i n A m e r i c a n A t t i t u d e s T o w a r d S e x , " The Journal of American History, L I X ( M a r c h , 1 9 7 3 ) , 8 8 5 - 9 0 8 . : , " P s y c h i a t r y , P s y c h o l o g y a n d t h e P r o g r e s s i v e M o v e m e n t , " American Quarterly, X I I ( S e p t e m b e r , 1 9 6 0 ) / 4 5 7 - 4 6 5 . D a v i d J . P i v a r , Purity Crusade ( W e s t p o r t , C o n n e c t i c u t : G r e e n w o o d P r e s s , 1 9 7 3 ) -C h a r l e s W a l t e r C l a r k e , Taboo, The Story of the Pioneers of Social Hygiene ( W a s h i n g t o n : P u b l i c A f f a i r s , 1 9 6 1 ) . R o y L u b o v e , " T h e P r o g r e s s i v e s a n d t h e P r o -s t i t u t e , " The Historian, X X I V (May;-' 1 9 6 2 ) , 3 0 8 - 3 3 0 . K e i t h T h o m a s , " T h e D o u b l e S t a n d a r d , " Journal of the History of Ideas, XX ( A p r i l , 1 9 5 9 ) , 1 9 5 - 2 1 6 . S i d n e y D i t z i o n , Marriage, Morals and Sex in America, A History of Ideas (New Y o r k : B o o k m a n , 1 9 5 3 ) . A n d r e w S i n c l a i r , The Better Half: The Emancipation of the American Woman (New Y o r k : H a r p e r a n d R o w , 1 9 6 5 ) . J a m e s R. M c G o v e r n , " T h e A m e r i c a n W o m a n ' s P r e - W o r l d W a r I F r e e d o m i n M a n n e r s a n d M o r a l s , " The Journal of American History, L V (1 9 6 8 ) , 31 5 - 3 3 3 .' R o b e r t E . R i e g e l , " C h a n g i n g A m e r i c a n A t t i t u d e s T o w a r d P r o s t i t u t i o n ( 1 8 0 0 - 1 9 2 0 ) , " Journal of the History of Ideas, X X I X ( J u 1 y - S e p t e m b e r , 1 9 6 8 ) , 4 3 7 ~ 5 2 . 3 e m p h a s i z e d the c r u c i a l r o l e o f the S o c i a l H y g i e n e Movement i n d e v e l o p i n g sex e d u c a t i o n p r o g r a m s . T h i s p h y s i c i a n - l e d campaign d e v e l o p e d i n the e a r l y y e a r s o f the t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y i n r e s p o n s e to g r o w i n g f e a r s o v e r the r a p i d s p r e a d o f v e n e r e a l d i s e a s e . Y e t d e s p i t e the e x i s t e n c e o f a c u r e f o r s y p h i l i s , s o c i a l h y g i e n e g r o u p s came t o emphas ize m o r a l , r a t h e r t h a n 3 s a n i t a r y p r o p h y l a x i s . As B r y a n S t r o n g has p o i n t e d o u t , i t was not a g a i n s t d i s e a s e , but a g a i n s t what was c o n s i d e r e d immoral b e h a v i o r t h a t the v e n e r e a l d i s e a s e campaign was u l t i m a t e l y d i r e c t e d . Far f rom c r e a t i n g a r e v o l u t i o n i n a t t i t u d e s toward s e x , the S o c i a l H y g i e n e Movement was a W a l l a c e H. Maw, " F i f t y Y e a r s o f Sex E d u c a t i o n i n t h e P u b l i c S c h o o l s o f t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s " ( U n p u b l i s h e d D o c t o r a l D i s s e r t a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y o f . C i n c i n a t t i , 1 9 5 3 ) , p. 5 0 . 2 J o h n C. Burnham, "The P r o g r e s s i v e E r a , " p. 8 8 5 . 3 In 1 9 0 5 , a group o f s c i e n t i s t s a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B e r l i n d i s c o v e r e d Spirocheate Pallida, t h e p a r a s i t e t h o u g h t t o be t h e c a u s e o f s y p h i l i s . The f o l l o w i n g y e a r , t h e Wasserman t e s t was d e v e l o p e d t o show t h e p r e s e n c e o f s y p h i l i s i n t h e b l o o d s t r e a m . In 1907, t h e compound S a l v a r s a n was d i s c o v e r e d w h i c h c o u l d e f f e c t i v e l y t r e a t p e o p l e i n f e c t e d w i t h s y p h i l i s . L a v i n i a Dock l i s t s t h e s e d i s c o v e r i e s i n Hygiene and Morality (New Y o r k : C P ; Putnam's S o n s , 1 9 1 0 ) , p. 5 . In s p i t e o f t h i s k n o w l e d g e , members o f t h e S o c i a l H y g i e n e Movement e x p e c t e d f e a r o f i n f e c t i o n t o be t h e most e f f e c t i v e p r e v e n t i v e measure a g a i n s t t h e s p r e a d o f v e n e r e a l d i s e a s e . See P r i n c e A. Morrow, "The T e a c h i n g o f Sex H y g i e n e , " Good Housekeeping Magazine ( M a r c h , 1 9 1 2 ) , p. * f 0 6 . 2, B r y a n S t r o n g , " I d e a s o f t h e E a r l y Sex E d u c a t i o n Movement i n A m e r i c a , 189O-1920," History of Education Quarterly, X I I (Summer, 1 9 7 2 ) , 147. 4 f u r t h e r m a n i f e s t a t i o n of e f f o r t s to r e g u l a t e s e x u a l b e h a v i o r w h i c h had been underway f o r s e v e r a l d e c a d e s . T h i s s t u d y c o n t e n d s t h a t the p r o m o t i o n o f sex e d u c a t i o n and a number o f r e l a t e d programs stemmed l e s s f rom the i m p a c t o f s c i e n t i f i c d i s c o v e r i e s w h i c h e m p h a s i z e d new h e a l t h prob lems than f rom decades o f e n d e a v o r s to p r e s e r v e a t r a d i t i o n a l m o r a l i t y i n s e x u a l m a t t e r s i n the f a c e of r a p i d l y c h a n g i n g c o n d i t i o n s . P a r t 1 o f the s t u d y s u g g e s t s t h a t s e x u a l i m m o r a l i t y emerged as a s o c i a l p r o b l e m p r i o r to the C i v i l War i n r e s p o n s e 5 to c h a n g i n g p e r c e p t i o n s o f d e v i a n t b e h a v i o r . I t a r g u e s t h a t d u r i n g and a f t e r the 1 8 3 0 ' s , not o n l y d i d a number o f m o r a l i s t s p e r c e i v e a d i s t i n c t i n c r e a s e i n p r o s t i t u t i o n and i t s r e l a t e d e f f e c t s , but a s i g n i f i c a n t change i n a t t i t u d e s toward a l l k i n d s o f s e x u a l b e h a v i o r began to o c c u r . T h i s a t t i t u d i n a l change was i n t i m a t e l y r e l a t e d to c h a n g i n g p e r -c e p t i o n s o f s e x u a l d e v i a n c y w h i c h s e r v e d to c r e a t e new and i n c r e a s i n g f e a r s o v e r the p e r v a s i v e n e s s o f s e x u a l i m m o r a l i t y i n A m e r i c a n s o c i e t y . S o c i a l s c i e n c e r e s e a r c h has e m p h a s i z e d t h a t p e r c e p -t i o n s o f a c o n d i t i o n a r e as i m p o r t a n t as o b j e c t i v e r e a l i t i e s i n d e t e r m i n i n g a s o c i a l p r o b l e m . Howard B e c k e r a s s e r t s t h a t , more t h a n an a n a l y s i s o f o b j e c t i v e c o n d i t i o n s , s o c i a l p r o b l e m s a r e e s s e n t i a l l y what p e o p l e t h i n k t h e y a r e . See B e c k e r i n " I n t r o d u c t i o n , 1 . 1 Social Problems, A Modern Approach (New Y o r k : J o h n W i l e y , 1 9 6 6 ) . Thus t h e emergence o f a s o c i a l p r o b l e m can be v i e w e d as d e p e n d e n t upon t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f g r o u p s who p e r -c e i v e some c o n d i t i o n as a p r o b l e m , d e f i n e i t as h a r m f u l t o s o c i e t y , and a s s e r t t h e need t o change t h a t c o n d i t i o n . See M a l c o l m S p e c t o r and J o h n I. K i t s u e , " S o c i a l P r o b l e m s , A R e f o r m u l a t i o n , " Social Problems, XXI ( F a l l , 1 9 7 3 ) , 145-5 Many e x p l a n a t i o n s are p o s s i b l e f o r t h e s e d e v e l o p i n g p e r c e p t i o n s , but i t i s u s e f u l to note the t r e n d , p o i n t e d o u t by such h i s t o r i a n s o f the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y as D a v i d Rothman and J o s e p h Hawes, f o r A m e r i c a n s to see p r i v a t e problems d e v e l o p i n g i n t o endemic p u b l i c i s s u e s and n e e d i n g s p e c i f i c i n s t i t u t i o n a l r e m e d i e s . 6 C e r t a i n l y , a d u l t e r y , p r o s t i t u t i o n and i l l e g i t i m a c y had not a l w a y s been i g n o r e d , a n d , p r i o r to t h e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y , had been t-he^object o f p u b l i c a t t e n t i o n and s p o r a d i c l e g i s l a t i o n . But s e x u a l h a b i t s such as m a s t u r b a t i o n and e x c e s s i v e c o p u l a t i o n had not u s u a l l y been v i e w e d as causes f o r g e n e r a l a l a r m among the p o p u l a t i o n . S i m i l a r l y , i n s a n i t y and j u v e n i l e d e l i n q u e n c y , w h i c h were by no means new o r a l w a y s p r i v a t e p r o b l e m s , became, to the J a c k s o n i a n s , prob lems o f f r i g h t e n i n g d i m e n s i o n s d e s e r v i n g o f e n t i r e l y new r e m e d i e s . C h a n g i n g a t t i t u d e s toward i n s a n i t y and j u v e n i l e d e l i n q u e n c y p a r a l l e l e d , i n many w a y s , c h a n g i n g a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d s e x u a l b e h a v i o r . ^ " D a v i d J . Rothman, The Discovery of the Asylum; Social Order and Disorder in the New Republic ( B o s t o n : L i t t l e , Brown and Company, 1971). J o s e p h M. Hawes, Children in Urban Society: Juvenile Delinquency in Nineteenth-Century America (New Y o r k : O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1971). ^Rowland B e r t h o f f , An Unsettled People: Social Order and Disorder in American History (New Y o r k : H a r p e r and Row, P u b l i s h e r s , 1970, P- 99; Rothman, op. cit. 6 C h a p t e r 1 l o o k s a t t h e s e c h a n g i n g a t t i t u d e s , p a r -t i c u l a r l y t h o s e f o s t e r e d by a group o f moral p h y s i o l o g i s t s who a s s e r t e d t h a t s e x u a l m i s b e h a v i o r was w i d e s p r e a d and d e f i n e d i t as h a r m f u l t o s o c i e t y . L a t e e i g h t e e n t h and e a r l y n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y d e v e l o p m e n t s i n the f i e l d o f h e a l t h and d i s e a s e s t i m u l a t e d t h e emergence i n A m e r i c a o f a p o p u l a r l i n e o f r e a s o n i n g known as moral p h y s i o l o g y . T h i s t h e o r y s t r e s s e d t h a t d e b i l i t y and d i s e a s e were i n d u c e d by s t i m u l a -t i o n , and t h a t h e a l t h depended upon the r e g u l a t i o n o f a l l s t i m u l a t o r y a g e n t s . D r . Ben jamin Rush i n t r o d u c e d the t h e o r y to P h i l a d e l p h i a i n the 1 7 8 0 ' s and i t e x e r t e d c o n s i d e r a b l e 8 i n f l u e n c e o v e r m e d i c a l and p u b l i c t h o u g h t f o r d e c a d e s . The moral s i g n i f i c a n c e o f the t h e o r y became c l e a r when Rush noted t h a t the e f f e c t s o f l i q u o r upon the body p r o v i d e d a p e r f e c t example of d e b i l i t y i n d u c e d by s t i m u l a t i o n . O v e r -i n d u l g e n c e l e d to d i s e a s e , and both m o r a l i s t s and p h y s i o l o g i s t s c o u l d see t h a t a l c o h o l was o n l y one example o f d i s e a s e -i n d u c i n g s t i m u l a n t s . By 1830 , S y l v e s t e r Graham, a l e a d i n g e x p o n e n t o f the a l 1 - e n c o m p a s s i n g n a t u r e o f t h e t h e o r y o f moral p h y s i o l o g y , was p r o c l a i m i n g t h a t a l m o s t e v e r y i n f l u e n c e o f c i v i c l i f e encouraged d e b i l i t y and d i s e a s e - d i e t , l a z i -n e s s , e f f e m i n a c y , poor h o u s i n g , c l o t h i n g and e x e r c i s e , B e n j a m i n Rush, Medical Inquiries and Observations Upon the Diseases of the Mind, IV ( t h i r d e d i t i o n ; P h i l a d e l p h i a , J . G r i g g , 1 8 2 7 ) , 123-129. 7 a r t i f i c i a l s t i m u l a n t s , s e x u a l i n c o n t i n e n c e and even s e x u a l g t h o u g h t s . C o n s e q u e n t l y , good h e a l t h c o u l d be d e f i n e d as a p r o d u c t o f o b e d i e n c e to mora l p r i n c i p l e s . I t f o l l o w e d t h a t d i s r e g a r d o f mora l p r i n c i p l e s i n the f o r m o f s e x u a l m i s -b e h a v i o r l e d i n e x o r a b l y to d i s e a s e . S e x u a l m i s b e h a v i o r c o u l d t h u s be v i e w e d , not o n l y as s i n f u l but as u n h e a l t h y , and p r o m o t e r s o f the theme t h a t h e a l t h and m o r a l i t y were s y n o n o -mous m u l t i p l i e d . T h i s theme was e x e m p l i f i e d by t h e d i s s e m i n a t i o n o f numerous books and p a m p h l e t s c o n c e r n i n g s e x u a l b e h a v i o r by p h y s i c i a n s and c l e r g y m e n who e m p h a s i z e d t h e d i r e p h y s i c a l and moral consequences o f s e x u a l a b u s e . I n c o n t i n e n t males were warned t h a t d i s e a s e , i n s a n i t y and even d e a t h c o u l d r e s u l t f rom n o c t u r n a l e m i s s i o n s , m a s t u r b a t i o n and n o n - p r o -c r e a t i v e s e x . M a s t u r b a t i o n p h o b i a , i n i t i a l l y c o n f i n e d to men, was g r a d u a l l y p r o j e c t e d o n t o women as w e l l , and by t h e 1 8 6 0 ' s , g y n e c o l o g i s t s were p r a c t i c i n g r a d i c a l s u r g e r y upon women's r e p r o d u c t i v e o r g a n s i n an a t t e m p t t o c u r e a v a r i e t y o f p s y c h o l o g i c a l d i s o r d e r s . The i n c r e a s i n g p e r v a s i v e n e s s o f m a s t u r b a t i o n p h o b i a , p a r t i c u l a r l y among m i d d l e - c l a s s men and women s e r v e d to c r e a t e a d i s t r u s t o f s e x u a l i t y t h a t was h e i g h t e n e d by r e p o r t s o f r a p i d l y i n c r e a s i n g c o m m e r c i a l p r o s t i t u t i o n and the S y l v e s t e r G r a h a m , A Lecture on Epidemic Diseases Generally3 and Particularly the Spasmodic Cholera, Delivered in New York (New Y o r k : M. D a y , 1 8 3 3 ) , p p . 1 3 - 1 6 . 8 c o n s e q u e n t s p r e a d o f v e n e r e a l d i s e a s e . C h a p t e r 2 s u g g e s t s t h a t the g r o w t h o f p r o s t i t u t i o n , r e a l or p e r c e i v e d , can be c o n s i d e r e d an i m p o r t a n t e l e m e n t i n c h a n g i n g a t t i t u d e s toward s e x u a l b e h a v i o r . I t d e s c r i b e s how p o l i c e and m e d i c a l p e r s o n n e l , as w e l l as moral r e f o r m g r o u p s , became i n c r e a s i n g l y c o n c e r n e d w i t h p r o s t i t u t i o n as the c e n t u r y p r o g r e s s e d and sought p a t h s o f a c t i o n to e l i m i n a t e t h i s and o t h e r forms o f s e x u a l m i s b e h a v i o r from s o c i e t y . Thus b o t h c h a n g i n g p e r -c e p t i o n s o f s e x u a l d e v i a n c y and p e r c e i v e d i n c r e a s e s i n the e x t e n t o f p r o s t i t u t i o n came t o g e t h e r t o g e n e r a t e w i d e s p r e a d a n x i e t i e s and p r e s s u r e s f o r r e f o r m of s e x u a l a t t i t u d e s and b e h a v i o r . The i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f a c t u a l r e f o r m m e a s u r e s , how-e v e r , was dependent upon more than a p e r c e i v e d s u s c e p t i b i l i t y to the e f f e c t s o f s e x u a l m i s b e h a v i o r . I r w i n R o s e n s t o c k has p o i n t e d o u t t h a t an i n d i v i d u a l ' s p r o p e n s i t y to t a k e a c t i o n i s d e t e r m i n e d l a r g e l y by t h r e e k i n d s o f b e l i e f s : the e x t e n t to w h i c h he sees the p r o b l e m as h a v i n g a h i g h p r o b a b i l i t y o f o c c u r r e n c e i n h i s p e r s o n a l c a s e , the e x t e n t to w h i c h he b e l i e v e s the p r o b l e m w o u l d have s e r i o u s consequences f o r him i f i t d i d i n v o l v e h i m , and the e x t e n t to w h i c h he b e l i e v e s some r e a s o n a b l e c o u r s e o f a c t i o n open to him w o u l d be e f f e c -t i v e i n r e d u c i n g t h e t h r e a t . ^ The f i r s t two d e t e r m i n a n t s ' ^ I r w i n M. R o s e n s t o c k , "What R e s e a r c h i n M o t i v a t i o n S u g g e s t s f o r P u b l i c H e a l t h , " American Journal of Public Health, L ( M a r c h , I 9 6 0 ) , 297. 9 f o r a c t i o n were enhanced by mora l p h y s i o l o g i s t s and opponents o f p r o s t i t u t i o n , b u t , s i n c e c o n t r o l b e l i e f s s t r o n g l y i n f l u e n c e the p e r c e p t u a l p r o c e s s e s of a group iof i n d i v i d u a l ^ r e f o r m a c t i o n c o u l d not t a k e p l a c e u n l e s s r e f o r m e r s b e l i e v e d i n t h e i r a b i l i t y to c o n t r o l b e h a v i o r . However , s i g n i f i c a n t c u r r e n t s o f i n f l u e n c e were a t work d u r i n g the a n t e - b e l l u m y e a r s to s p u r o p t i m i s m i n the v i e w t h a t r e f o r m a c t i o n was not o n l y p o s s i b l e but c o u l d be e f f e c t i v e . C h a p t e r 3 d i s c u s s e s two major i n f l u e n c e s upon c o n t r o l b e l i e f s d u r i n g t h e a n t e - b e l l u m y e a r s t h a t g e n e r a t e d waves o f o p t i m i s m i n the f e a s i b i l i t y and p o s s i b l e e f f e c t i v e -ness o f m o r a l r e f o r m a c t i o n . Of p a r t i c u l a r i m p o r t a n c e was the i n t r o d u c t i o n to A m e r i c a o f the c o n c e p t o f C h r i s t i a n p e r f e c t i o n and c o n s e q u e n t l y the f e a s i b i l i t y o f s i n l e s s n e s s . The c o m b i n a t i o n o f r e v i v a l measures and p e r f e c t i o n i s t a s p i r a -t i o n s stemming f rom the a c t i v i t i e s o f the Second G r e a t Awakening e m p h a s i z e d the q u e s t f o r p e r s o n a l h o l i n e s s and p r e s s e d A m e r i c a n P r o t e s t a n t i s m i n t o the b e l i e f t h a t s i n c o u l d be e l i m i n a t e d t h r o u g h s o c i a l r e f o r m . In the l i g h t o f t h e s e i n f l u e n c e s , the p o s s i b i l i t i e s were g r a d u a l l y seen f o r A m e r i c a to be the moral i n d i v i d u a l " w r i t t e n l a r g e , " T i m o t h y L. S m i t h , Revivalism and Social Reform ( N a s h v i l l e , T e n n e s s e e ; A b i n g d o n P r e s s , 1957), p. 8. 10 f o r i f human p e r f e c t i o n was f e a s i b l e , then so was the r e f o r m a -1 2 t i o n of s o c i e t y and the e l i m i n a t i o n of m i s b e h a v i o r . The n o t i o n o f C h r i s t i a n n u r t u r e a l s o g e n e r a t e d a t t i t u d e s o f o p t i m i s m among r e f o r m e r s . A f t e r the 1 8 3 0 ' s , p a r t i c i p a n t s i n a g r o w i n g debate o v e r methods o f c h i l d n u r t u r e q u e s t i o n e d t h e d o c t r i n e o f i n f a n t d e p r a v i t y w i t h i t s accom-p a n y i n g s t r e s s on c o n v e r s i o n as the s o l e aim o f r e l i g i o u s and moral e d u c a t i o n , and e s t a b l i s h e d the i d e a o f the p a r e n t ' s c o n t r i b u t i o n to the e t h i c a l as w e l l as the r e l i g i o u s d e v e l o p -1 3 ment o f the c h i l d . Horace B u s h n e l l recommended a w h o l e s o m e , g u i d e d growth o f the c h i l d ' s moral l i f e by a v i r t u o u s and 1 4 t e n d e r m o t h e r . By the 1 8 5 0 ' s , the i d e a t h a t a c h i l d was redeemable was w i d e l y a c c e p t e d , as was the f e e l i n g t h a t p a r e n t s were the b e s t i n s t r u m e n t s f o r t h i s t a s k . Such i d e a s f u r t h e r s t i m u l a t e d t h e n o t i o n o f a s i n l e s s s o c i e t y . I f p e r f e c t i o n was f e a s i b l e , and the raw m a t e r i a l m o l d a b l e , then i t s h o u l d be p o s s i b l e to u t i l i z e e d u c a t i o n a l t e c h n i q u e s 1 2 B e r n a r d W i s h y , The Child and the Republic: The Dawn of Modern American Child Nurture ( P h i l a d e l p h i a : U n i v e r s i t y o f P e n n s y l v a n i a P r e s s , 1 9 6 8 ) , p. 7 6 . 1 3 L y d i a H. S i g o u r n e y , Letters to Mothers ( H a r t f o r d : Hudson and S k i n n e r , 1 8 3 8 ) . See a l s o : W i s h y , op. cit.pp. 1 7 - 2 3 , f o r an e x c e l l e n t d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e c h i l d n u r t u r e d e b a t e d e v e l o p i n g a f t e r 1 8 3 0 . 1 k H o r a c e B u s h n e l l , Views of Christian Nurture ( H a r t f o r d : H u n t , 1 8 4 7 ) . 11 and c o n d i t i o n i n g measures to g e n e r a t e p e r f e c t i n d i v i d u a l s and c o n s e q u e n t l y a p e r f e c t s o c i e t y . S i n wou ld no l o n g e r have to be e r a d i c a t e d — i t w o u l d not e x i s t . The c o n v e r g e n c e o f o p t i m i s m stemming f rom s h i f t i n g c o n t r o l b e l i e f s , and h e i g h t e n e d f e e l i n g s o f s u s c e p t i b i l i t y to the consequences o f s e x u a l m i s b e h a v i o r was p r o p e l l e d by a s u s t a i n e d i n t e r e s t i n t e m p e r a n c e . C h a p t e r 4 shows how moral p h y s i o l o g i s t s expanded the i n i t i a l temperance message i n t o a c o n d e m n a t i o n o f a l l s t i m u l a n t s . They e n j o i n e d a b s t i n e n c e , o r a t l e a s t a g e n e r a l a s c e t i c i s m , i n a wide range o f human b e h a v i o r s . S i n c e s e x u a l b e h a v i o r was h e l d to be a model f o r b e h a v i o r i n o t h e r s p h e r e s o f l i f e , i t f o l l o w e d t h a t i f man were s e x u a l l y c o n t i n e n t he w o u l d a l s o be t h r i f t y , 1 5 h a r d - w o r k i n g and t e m p e r a t e . Thus e f f o r t s , not o n l y to p e r s u a d e man to r e s t r a i n h i m s e l f s e x u a l l y , but to s t i m u l a t e numerous h e a l t h - r e l a t e d b e h a v i o r s were p e r c e i v e d as u s e f u l . C o n v i n c e d t h a t h e a l t h and mora l r e f o r m were synonomous, temperance w o r k e r s c o u l d expand t h e i r e f f o r t s to a whole range o f h y g i e n i c a f f a i r s . Touched by t h e v i s i o n o f a p e r f e c t s o c i e t y , moral c r u s a d e r s c o u l d seek to e l i m i n a t e s i n t h r o u g h h e a l t h r e f o r m . C h a p t e r s 5 , 6 and 7, t h e r e f o r e , examine a v a r i e t y o f r e f o r m e f f o r t s emanat ing f rom a b e l i e f i n the e q u a t i o n 1 5 R a l p h Waldo Ernerson, "Wea1th," i n Works of•Ralph Waldo Emerson, 3 (New Y o r k , n . d . ) , .84 . B r y a n S t r o n g , op. cit.3 p. 130. 12 o f s e x u a l m o r a l i t y w i t h h e a l t h and h y g i e n e . Though the r o o t s o f t h e s e r e f o r m s were f o u n d i n the a n t e - b e l l u m y e a r s , t h e i r p o p u l a r i t y c o n t i n u e d t h r o u g h p u t the c e n t u r y . D i e t and d r e s s r e f o r m , and e f f o r t s t o promote e x e r c i s e and h e a l t h y r e c r e a -t i o n were s t r a n d s o f a c o n t i n u i n g endeavor to p u r i f y the body as house to the s o u l . They a c t e d t o p r o v i d e a c o h e s i v e c o r e f o r the numerous s t r a n d s o f moral r e f o r m w h i c h e v e n t u a l l y came to make up the S o c i a l P u r i t y Movement. Women p l a y e d a key r o l e i n g e n e r a t i n g e n t h u s i a s m f o r h e a l t h - r e l a t e d moral r e f o r m . As mothers and h o m ekeep ers , they saw h e a l t h - r e f o r m d a s o a n l i m p o r t a n t m e a n s t b f r p r e s e r v i n g and i m p r o v i n g the r a c e , and a l s o as a means o f e m a n c i p a t i o n . D r e s s r e f o r m c l e a r l y p o i n t e d up t h e d o u b l e o b j e c t i v e . S e e k i n g to l i b e r a t e the body from the bondage o f r e s t r i c t i v e c l o t h i n g as a m a t e r i a l s i g n of e q u a l i t y w i t h men, women s i m u l t a n e o u s l y a d v o c a t e d the removal o f d i s e a s e - i n d u c i n g s t r i c t u r e s and t h e abandonment o f s e n s u a l adornments and f r i v o l o u s f a s h i o n s . They s o u g h t s i m p l i c i t y and r a t i o n a l i t y i n c l o t h e s as a s t e p i n the d i r e c t i o n o f a s i m p l e and r a t i o n a l s o c i e t y . H a b i t u a l modesty i n d r e s s w o u l d encourage modesty i n o t h e r forms o f b e h a v i o r . Women a l s o saw t h e p o s s i b i l i t i e s o f e n c o u r a g i n g moral b e h a v i o r t h r o u g h the e s t a b l i s h m e n t and p r a c t i c e o f c o r r e c t d i e t a r y h a b i t s . I n i t i a l l y s t i m u l a t e d by S y l v e s t e r Graham and h i s r a d i c a l f o l l o w e r s , m e d i c a l and r e l i g i o u s 13 t h o u g h t c o n v e r g e d to promote a s c e t i c e a t i n g and d r i n k i n g h a b i t s i n o r d e r t o e l i m i n a t e d y s p e p s i a and d r u n k e n n e s s and the s e x u a l urges t h a t were f e l t to be p r o d u c e d by o v e r -i n d u l g e n t a p p e t i t e s . E x e r c i s e was promoted as an i m p o r t a n t d e t e r r e n t to p h y s i c a l d e b i l i t y and s e x u a l m i s b e h a v i o r . N u r t u r e l i t e r a t u r e , h e a l t h s o c i e t i e s and w a t e r - c u r e i n s t i t u t i o n s e n c o u r a g e d e x e r c i s e as a u s e f u l t e c h n i q u e f o r d e v e l o p i n g s p a r t a n h a b i t s o f endurance and s e l f - c o n t r o l . O r g a n i z e d games seemed to o f f e r good p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r c h a r a c t e r t r a i n i n g a l o n g w i t h a g e n c i e s and f a c i l i t i e s w h i c h c a t e r e d to the r e c r e a t i o n a l and p l a y i n t e r e s t s o f y o u t h and c h i l d r e n . I n d i r e c t l y , the i n t e r e s t o f mora l r e f o r m e r s i n p h y s i c a l c u l t u r e gave impetus to the l a r g e s c a l e p r o m o t i o n o f s p o r t s and the d e v e l o p m e n t o f the P l a y and R e c r e a t i o n a l Movements a t the end o f the c e n t u r y . The aim o f t h e s e h e a l t h - r e l a t e d mora l r e f o r m e f f o r t s was to c o n d i t i o n the i n d i v i d u a l i n c o r r e c t h a b i t s and r i g h t b e h a v i o r so t h a t he m i g h t have a 1 i f e-1 ong, h a b i t u a l a b i l i t y t o c o n t r o l h i s s e x u a l i t y . A s c e t i c h a b i t s o f e a t i n g and d r e s s i n g d i s c o u r a g e d o v e r - i n d u l g e n c e ; e x e r c i s e h e l p e d to c r e a t e the f o r t i t u d e needed i n r e s i s t i n g t e m p t a t i o n s o f the f l e s h ; and c l e a n l i n e s s o f the body paved the way to c l e a n l i n e s s o f t h e m i n d . H e a l t h f u l h a b i t s , h o w e v e r , were o n l y p a r t o f t h e t o t a l d e s i g n t h a t p u r i t y r e f o r m e r s came t o e l a b o r a t e f o r the moral re -armament o f the n a t i o n . 14 The p u r i f i c a t i o n o f s o c i e t y demanded a scheme o f mora l e d u c a t i o n w h i c h would e d u c a t e c h i l d r e n i n s e x u a l m o r a l i t y b o t h t h r o u g h c o n d i t i o n i n g and by i n s t r u c t i o n . I n s t r u c t i o n i n s e x u a l m a t t e r s came t o be seen as a c r u c i a l f a c t o r i n r e g u l a t i n g s e x u a l b e h a v i o r f o r i t seemed t h a t s i l e n c e had been an i n s u f f i c i e n t i n d i c a t o r o f the v a l u e s o f s e x u a l r e p r e s s i o n . The f i n a l phase of t h i s s t u d y , t h e r e -f o r e , examines the d e v e l o p m e n t o f a v a r i e t y o f s t r a t e g i e s f o r sex i n s t r u c t i o n . C h a p t e r 8 shows how mora l r e f o r m e r s came to r e c o g n i z e t h a t p a r e n t a l i n s t r u c t i o n i n how to c a r r y o u t the moral e d u c a t i o n o f t h e young was a p r e - r e q u i s i t e to e f f e c t i v e c h i l d h o o d e d u c a t i o n . The a n t e - b e l l u m y e a r s saw the i n i t i a -t i o n o f e f f o r t s by a v a r i e t y o f a g e n c i e s to e n c o u r a g e the mother to f u l f i l l the i m p o r t a n t d u t y o f i n s t r u c t i n g her c h i l d i n s e x u a l m a t t e r s . These e f f o r t s i n t e n s i f i e d as the c e n t u r y p r o g r e s s e d . By the 1 8 7 0 ' s , women r e f o r m g r o u p s were o r g a n i z i n g M o r a l E d u c a t i o n S o c i e t i e s i n B o s t o n and o t h e r l a r g e c i t i e s whose aim was to p r e s e r v e p u r i t y by e d u c a t i n g f o r s e x u a l m o r a l i t y . R a t i o n a l i z e d and s t a n d a r d i z e d c h i l d r e a r i n g was a d v o c a t e d as the p o i n t o f d e p a r t u r e f o r r e f o r m e r s who were c o n v i n c e d t h a t t h e s a l v a t i o n o f the r a c e r e s t e d upon the s a l v a t i o n of the c h i l d r e n and t h a t t h i s 15 c o u l d o n l y be a c c o m p l i s h e d t h r o u g h mora l e d u c a t i o n . 1 0 M o r a l e d u c a t i o n w o u l d engender t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f a s o c i a l c h a r a c t e r t h r o u g h r i g h t g e n e r a t i o n and C h r i s t i a n n u r t u r e i n the hope t h a t the c h i l d w o u l d c o n s e q u e n t l y be a b l e to p r o v i d e s o c i a l o r i e n t a t i o n to the n a t i o n . C h a r a c t e r d e v e l o p m e n t , t h e n , was p e r c e i v e d t o be the p r i m a r y weapon i n p u r i f y i n g s o c i e t y and r e m o v i n g s e x u a l i m m o r a l i t y . Were i t p o s s i b l e f o r c h i l d r e n to be t a u g h t and c o n d i t i o n e d i n the v a l u e s o f s e x u a l r e p r e s -s i o n b e f o r e t h e y were p e r v e r t e d by the i m p u r i t i e s o f s o c i e t y , then t h e i r c h a r a c t e r s w o u l d be armed f o r the p e r p e t u a l s t r u g g l e a g a i n s t the emergence o f t h e i r b a s e r i n s t i n c t s . More p o s i t i v e l y , i t was c o n s i d e r e d d e s i r a b l e to be i n i t i a t e d i n t o the wonders o f p r o c r e a t i o n , p a r e n t h o o d and t h e rewards o f pure and u n t a i n t e d s e x . The d i a l o g u e o f mora l e d u c a t i o n a l i s t s was m a i n t a i n e d as the M o r a l E d u c a t i o n S o c i e t i e s became a b s o r b e d i n t o c o a l i t i o n s o f numerous moral and h e a l t h r e f o r m a s s o c i a t i o n s . The d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e s e S o c i a l P u r i t y A l l i a n c e s d u r i n g the 1880 ' s and 1 8 9 0 ' s a l l o w e d a more c e n t r a l i z e d v o i c e to be e s t a b l i s h e d f o r d i s s e m i n a t i n g l i i n f o r m a t i o n about p o s i t i v e 1 6 C a r o l i n e W i n s l o w , " R e l i g i o n o f t h e Body,11 Alpha (May 1, 1 8 8 5 ) , pp. 11-12. Alpha was t h e J o u r n a l e s t a b l i s h e d by Dr. C a r o l i n e W i n s l o w as a v o i c e f o r t h e M o r a l E d u c a t i o n S o c i e t i e s . 16 sex e d u c a t i o n . S i l e n c e c o n c e r n i n g s e x u a l m a t t e r s was c o n -demned by p u r i t y r e f o r m e r s as b e i n g t o o dangerous t o c o n t i n u e . P o s i t i v e sex e d u c a t i o n would say ' d o ' and not ' d o n ' t ' , i n s t r u c t i n g c h i l d r e n about the dangers o f t h e i r s e x u a l e r u p t i b i l i t y but a t the same t i m e p r e s e n t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t would a i d i n d e s e x u a l i z i n g b e h a v i o r or d i v e r t i n g s e x u a l e n e r g i e s i n t o s o c i a l l y a c c e p t a b l e c h a n n e l s . As a p r a c t i c a l a s s i s t a n c e to p a r e n t s i n s e x u a l l y e d u c a t i n g t h e i r c h i l d r e n , numerous sex e d u c a t i o n books began to be d i s t r i b u t e d i n the 1 8 9 0 ' s . Manuals were p r e p a r e d f o r b o y s , g i r l s , men and women i n an a t t e m p t to p r e s e n t s e x u a l i n f o r m a t i o n d e l i c a t e l y and p u r e l y and d i s u a d e c u r i o s i t y and e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n i n t h i n g s s e x u a l . As M i c h a e l B l i s s has commented, the most p r o m i n e n t s e r i e s o f sex manuals to appear a t t h i s t i m e were a d v e r t i s e d as " P u r e Books on A v o i d e d S u b j e c t s , " and e p i t o m i z e d " t h e d e t e r m i n a t i o n [ o f mora l r e f o r m e r s , to p u r i f y human l i f e o f e v e r y t h i n g t h a t tempted 1 7 o r conduced to h a r m f u l menta l and p h y s i c a l p r a c t i c e s . " The b u l k o f s e x u a l l i t e r a t u r e p r o d u c e d or a u t h o r i z e d by p u r i t y r e f o r m e r s p r o v e d to be l e s s t h a n e f f e c t i v e , h o w e v e r , f o r i t soon became c l e a r t h a t p a r e n t s , even i f e n l i g h t e n e d , were not a l w a y s a b l e o r w i l l i n g to e d u c a t e t h e i r c h i l d r e n ^ M i c h a e l B l i s s , " P u r e Books on A v o i d e d S u b j e c t s : P r e - F r e u d i a n S e x u a l Ideas i n Can a d a , " The C a n a d i a n H i s t o r i c a l A s s o c i a t i o n , Historical Papers (1969-70), pp. 103-104. 17 about s e x . As the c e n t u r y drew t o a c l o s e , many r e f o r m e r s d e s p a i r e d t h a t p a r e n t s would e v e r f u l f i l l t h e i r d u t y i n t h i s r e g a r d , and some were p e r s u a d e d t h a t the s c h o o l c o u l d be u t i l i z e d as the n e x t s t a g e o f a c t i o n . D r . 0 . Edward J a n n e y , a young Quaker p h y s i c i a n who became P r e s i d e n t o f t h e S o c i a l P u r i t y E x e c u t i v e A l l i a n c e o f New Y o r k i n 1895 , e n c o u r a g e d a more e x p e r i m e n t a l a t t i t u d e t o w a r d mora l i m p r o v e -ment , and s u g g e s t e d t h a t s c h o o l i n s t r u c t i o n m i g h t h a s t e n the s l o w p r o c e s s o f m o r a l r e f o r m . U n d e r l y i n g t h i s a t t i t u d e l a y the t h r u s t o f a new g e n e r a t i o n o f e d u c a t o r s and p s y c h o l o -g i s t s who were i n c r e a s i n g l y a d v o c a t i n g the i m p o r t a n c e of s c h o o l e d u c a t i o n to s o c i a l p r o g r e s s and r e f o r m , and e m p h a s i z i n g t h e a d v i s a b i l i t y o f m o l d i n g the s c h o o l c u r r i c u l u m to the s o c i a l , as w e l l as the i n t e l l e c t u a l needs o f the c h i l d . The t e a c h e r , John Dewey was to s t a t e , " i s a s o c i a l s e r v a n t s e t a p a r t for-mthe m a i n t e n a n c e o f p r o p e r s o c i a l o r d e r and the s e c u r i n g o f the r i g h t s o c i a l g r o w t h — i n t h i s way he a l w a y s i s t h e p r o p h e t o f the True God and t h e u s h e r e r i n 1 g o f the t r u e Kingdom o f G o d . " Dewey was a t the f o r e f r o n t i n a d v o c a t i n g s o c i a l l y - b a s e d l e a r n i n g so t h a t c h i l d r e n m i g h t 1 8 0. Edward J a n n e y , "The A n n u a l M e e t i n g , " Philanthropist^ XIX ( A p r j l , 1 9 0 4 ) , 1-4. 1 9 J o h n Dewey, "My P e d a g o g i c C r e e d , " i n J o s e p h R a t n e r ( e d . ) , Education Today (New Y o r k : G.P. Putnam's S o n s , 1 9 4 0 ) , p. 17. 18 more e a s i l y u n d e r s t a n d mora l p u r p o s e s , s o c i a l customs and s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s . A t t h e same t i m e , P r i n c e Morrow and a group o f c o n s e r v a t i v e p h y s i c i a n s were m o b i l i z i n g to c o n f r o n t the e v e r i n c r e a s i n g i n d i c e s o f v e n e r e a l d i s e a s e by a d v o c a t i n g mora l and e d u c a t i o n a l i n f l u e n c e s as the most e f f e c t i v e 20 d e t e r r e n t s to s e x u a l p r o m i s c u i t y . The t r a d i t i o n a l r e l u c t a n c e o f the o r t h o d o x m e d i c a l p r o f e s s i o n to d e a l w i t h s e x u a l problems was g r a d u a l l y overcome as men l i k e Morrow e n c o u r a g e d l o c a l p h y s i c i a n s to j o i n and work w i t h a S o c i a l H y g i e n e Movement bent o n i m p r o v i n g m o r a l s by e d u c a t i n g f o r the p r e -21 v e n t i q n o f v e n e r e a l d i s e a s e t h r o u g h s e x u a l r e p r e s s i o n . By 1913 , t h e A m e r i c a n P u r i t y A l l i a n c e and t h e A m e r i c a n F e d e r a t i o n f o r Sex H y g i e n e had merged to form the 22 A m e r i c a n S o c i a l H y g i e n e A s s o c i a t i o n . Though o f t e n i n d i s a g r e e m e n t as to the form and method o f sex e d u c a t i o n , p u r i t y r e f o r m e r s and s o c i a l h y g i e n i s t s a g r e e d i : h i t h a t s e x u a l i n f o r m a t i o n must be d i f f u s e d and t a u g h t i n o r d e r to s u s t a i n a t r a d i t i o n a l m o r a l i t y t h a t demanded the r e p r e s s i o n 20 P r i n c e A. Morrow, Social Diseases and Marriage: Social Prophylaxis ( P h i l a d e l p h i a : Lea B r o t h e r s and Company, 1904), pp. 3 ^ 5 - 3 6 3 . 2]Ibid., p. 359. 2 2 C h a r l e s W a l t e r C l a r k e , Taboo, The Story of the Pioneers of Social Hygiene ( W a s h i n g t o n : P u b l i c A f f a i r s , 1961) , p. 74 . 19 o f a l l s e x u a l a c t i v i t i e s . Among e d u c a t o r s the i n t e r e s t i n sex e d u c a t i o n had r e a c h e d a p o i n t i n 1911 where the B u l l e t i n o f the Bureau o f E d u c a t i o n l i s t e d sex e d u c a t i o n as a b i b l i o -23 g r a p h i c a l t i t l e f o r the f i r s t t i m e . In 1912 , the N a t i o n a l E d u c a t i o n A s s o c i a t i o n r e s o l v e d t h a t "we b e l i e v e t h a t t h e t i m e has come when Normal S c h o o l s and T e a c h e r ' s C o l l e g e s s h o u l d g i v e adequate c o u r s e s o f i n s t r u c t i o n i n sex h y g i e n e w i t h the v i e w , u l t i m a t e l y , o f the i n t r o d u c t i o n o f s i m i l a r 24 i n s t r u c t i o n i n t o the c o u r s e s o f s t u d y i n p u b l i c s c h o o l s . " P h y s i c i a n s , m o r a l r e f o r m e r s and some e d u c a t o r s had r e a c h e d a p o i n t o f agreement t h a t some k i n d o f sex e d u c a t i o n i n the s c h o o l s was n e c e s s a r y i n o r d e r to s a f e g u a r d t h e n a t i o n ' s h e a l t h , p r o t e c t the f a m i l y and p r e s e r v e the s a n c t i t y o f the f a m i l y i n s t i t u t i o n . C h a p t e r 9 examines the v a r i e t y o f sex e d u c a t i o n s t r a t e g i e s d e s i g n e d by p u r i t y f o r c e s and s o c i a l h y g i e n i s t s w h i c h e v e n t u a l l y l e d to the a d o p t i o n o f sex e d u c a t i o n c o u r s e s i n the p u b l i c s c h o o l s . S c h o o l i n s t r u c t i o n i n s e x u a l h y g i e n e , o f c o u r s e , r e p r e s e n t e d a f a i l u r e o f t h e p u r i t y r e f o r m e r ' s '"''United S t a t e s B u r e a u o f Ed uca t i on , " Sex E d u c a t i o n , " Bulletin of the Bureau, No. 10 ( W a s h i n g t o n , D.C.: The U n i t e d S t a t e s G o vernment P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1 9 1 1 ) , pp. 7—11. 2k N a t i o n a l E d u c a t i o n A s s o c i a t i o n , Journal of Proceedings and Addresses of the Fiftieth Annual Meeting of the United States (New Y o r k : The A s s o c i a t i o n , J u 1 y 6-12, 1 9 1 2 ) , p. kl. 20 d e s i g n f o r c h a r a c t e r d e v e l o p m e n t w i t h i n t h e f a m i l y s t r u c t u r e , but i t d i d i n d i c a t e a p a r t i a l v i c t o r y of n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y mora l r e f o r m e f f o r t s to r e g u l a t e and s t a n d a r d i z e s e x u a l b e h a v i o r on a n a t i o n a l s c a l e . F u r t h e r m o r e , mora l r e f o r m e r s had shown t h e m s e l v e s c a p a b l e o f a d a p t i n g t o a c h a n g i n g s o c i e t y and f r u i t f u l l y u t i l i z i n g the t e c h n i q u e s o f t e c h n o l o g y and m e d i c i n e to t h e i r own p u r p o s e , s l o w i n g , r a t h e r t h a n p r o h i b i t i n g c h a n g e , and p e r p e t u a t i n g t r a d i t i o n a l v a l u e s i n a s e c u l a r i z i n g w o r l d . Any s t u d y o f s e x u a l m o r a l i t y c o n t a i n s v a s t p r o b l e m s . C o n f l i c t and c o n f u s i o n w i t h r e g a r d to mora l v a l u e s and a c t u a l b e h a v i o r have l o n g been c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f A m e r i c a n s o c i e t y , 25 and t h e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y was no e x c e p t i o n . F u r t h e r m o r e , the d e a r t h of i n f o r m a t i o n on a c t u a l s e x u a l b e h a v i o r d u r i n g the p e r i o d compounds t h e p r o b l e m s . However , v a s t amounts o f m a t e r i a l a re a v a i l a b l e f o r e x a m i n i n g some o f the a g e n c i e s o f i n f l u e n c e o v e r s e x u a l m o r a l i t y , and the p e r i o d between 1830 and 1914 saw t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f a l a r g e v a r i e t y o f such a g e n c i e s . The r e a s o n s f o r t h e i r d e v e l o p m e n t , the e x t e n t o f t h e i r i n f l u e n c e , and the a s s u m p t i o n s u n d e r l y i n g t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s a r e i n s t r u c t i v e to an u n d e r s t a n d i n g of s o c i a l b e h a v i o r and t h e v a r i a b l e s c o n c e r n e d w i t h s o c i a l c h a n g e . R o b e r t R. Be 11 , Pre-Mavital Sex in a Changing Society (New J e r s e y : P r e n t i c e - H a l l , I n c . , 1 9 6 6 ) , p. 2. C h a p t e r 1 CHANGING PERCEPTIONS OF SEXUAL DEVIANCY In the y e a r s a round 1830 A m e r i c a n s b e g a n t t o change t h e i r a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d s e x u a l b e h a v i o r . T h i s was m a n i f e s t e d by a f l u r r y o f p u b l i c a t i o n s and o r g a n i z a t i o n a l a c t i v i t y w h i c h s t r o n g l y a s s e r t e d the need to r e g u l a t e s e x u a l b e h a v i o r i n the l i g h t o f r a p i d l y i n c r e a s i n g i n d i c e s o f i m m o r a l i t y . A p e r c e i v e d need to r e g u l a t e s e x u a l i t y was n o t , o f c o u r s e , a new a t t i t u d e . For c e n t u r i e s the C h r i s t i a n c h u r c h had emphas ized the d i f f i c u l t i e s o f s e x u a l i t y . B i b l i c a l v i r t u e s had r e g u l a t e d s e x u a l c o n d u c t by a t t e m p t i n g to l i m i t sex to p r o c r e a t i o n w i t h i n m a r r i a g e , and e n c o u r a g i n g the c o n c e n t r a -t i o n o f a l l mora l e n e r g i e s i n r e s i s t a n c e to the s e d u c t i o n o f the f l e s h . T h i s a s c e t i c v i e w o f s e x u a l b e h a v i o r was s a n c t i o n e d by the e a r l y P u r i t a n s e t t l e r s o f s e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r y New E n g l a n d who condemned p r o f l i g a t e l i v i n g as m o r a l l y d e g r a d i n g and made s e l f - c o n t r o l b a s i c to t h e i r i n s t i t u t i o n s . To the P u r i t a n , a s c e t i c i s m i n sex l e d t o , and f o l l o w e d f r o m , a s c e t i c i s m i n o t h e r h a b i t s . Hard w o r k , t h r i f t y h a b i t s , p i e t y and n o b l e i d e a l s were thus s t r e s s e d 21 22 a l o n g w i t h s e x u a l r e s t r a i n t to form a c o n s t e l l a t i o n o f v a l u e s f o r the P u r i t a n man. I n d e e d , the C o l o n i a l c h u r c h i n v o l v e d i t s e l f i n t i m a t e l y w i t h s e x u a l b e h a v i o r . In an a t t e m p t to s t r e n g t h e n t h e m a r i t a l i n s t i t u t i o n , more p e r s o n s were c e n s u r e d f o r s e x u a l o f f e n c e s t h a n f o r any o t h e r rrmis'demeanors. ^ D u r i n g the e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y , h o w e v e r , p u b l i c pronouncements c o n c e r n i n g s e x u a l b e h a v i o r l e s s e n e d . L e g i s l a t i o n was s p o r a d i c a l l y e n a c t e d to d e a l w i t h p r o s t i t u t i o n , f o r n i c a t i o n , and i l l e g i t i m a c y , though i n the l a t t e r case economic m o t i v e s , t h e need to p r o v i d e f o r t h e b a s t a r d c h i l d , were p r e d o m i n a n t . Some m e d i c a l t r e a t i s e s d e a l i n g w i t h the t r e a t m e n t and p r e -v e n t i o n o f v e n e r e a l d i s e a s e s were p u b l i s h e d a l o n g w i t h a s m a l l , but f r e q u e n t l y r e p r i n t e d group o f books d e a l i n g w i t h the f a c t s of l i f e c a l l e d the Aristotle Books. These Aristotle Books were r e p r i n t e d more than t h i r t y t i m e s i n A m e r i c a between 1766 and 1831 . There were a l s o a few d i d a c t i c works w r i t t e n ^ E m i l O b e r h o l z e r , J r . , "The C h u r c h i n New E n g l a n d S o c i e t y , " i n James M o r t o n S m i t h ( e d . ) , Seventeenth Century America, Essays in Colonial History (New Y o r k : W.W. N o r t o n and Company, I n c . , 1 9 7 2 ) , p. 150. See a l s o : Edmund S. M o r g a n , The Puritan Family: Essays on Religion and Domestic Relations in Seventeenth Century New England ( B o s t o n : T r u s t e e s o f t h e P u b l i c L i b r a r y , 1 9 ^ 4 ) ; and W i l l i a m W h i t m o r e ( e d . ) , The Colonial Laws of Massachusetts^ • Reprinted from the Edition of 1660, with the Supplements to 1672 ( B o s t o n : R o c k w e l l and C h u r c h i l l , 1889). Otho T. B e a l , J r . , " A r i s t o t l e ' s M a s t e r p i e c e i n A m e r i c a ; A Landmark i n t h e F o l k l o r e o f M e d i c i n e , " William and Mary Quarterly, XX ( A p r i l , 1 9 6 3 ) , 207-222. 23 by c l e r g y m e n and d i r e c t e d a g a i n s t a d u l t e r y , f o r n i c a t i o n and m a s t u r b a t i o n , such as C o t t o n M a t h e r ' s s e r m o n , The Pure Nazarite, p u b l i s h e d anonymously a t B o s t o n i n 1723 , and the r e p r i n t o f an E n g l i s h t e x t p u b l i s h e d i n A m e r i c a a y e a r l a t e r c a l l e d Onania: Or the Heinous Sin of Self-Pollution, And All Its Frightful Consequences, In Both Sexes Considered, With 3 Spiritual and Physical Advice. These p u b l i c a t i o n s p a r t i c u l a r l y e m p h a s i z e d m a s t u r b a t i o n as the g r e a t e s t s e x u a l s i n o f a l l , b a s i n g t h e i r c h a r g e s upon the b i b l i c a l s t o r y o f O n a n . 4 The e i g h t y e d i t i o n s o f Onania w h i c h a p p e a r e d d u r i n g the e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y c o n t r i b u t e d to the p o p u l a r i t y o f the b e l i e f t h a t m a s t u r b a t i o n was a c r i m e p u n i s h a b l e by G o d , but e m p h a s i z e d t h a t the s e x u a l urge was n a t u r a l and t h a t i t s i n d u l g e n c e w i t h i n m a r r i a g e was q u i t e a c c e p t a b l e . T h u s , p r i o r t o t h e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y , t h o s e d e n u n -c i a t i o n s o f s e x u a l m i s b e h a v i o r w h i c h d i d o c c u r g e n e r a l l y t o o k the form of c r i t i c i s m s o f m a s t u r b a t i o n and e x t r a m a r i t a l 5 s e x u a l a d v e n t u r e s . The absence o f e x t e n d e d d e b a t e , h o w e v e r , N ^ C o t t o n M a t h e r , The Pure Nazarite ( B o s t o n , 1 7 2 3 ) . Onania and i t s c o n t e n t s a r e d i s c u s s e d by R o b e r t H. M a c d o n a l d i n "The F r i g h t f u l C o n s e q u e n c e s o f Onanism; N o t e s on t h e H i s t o r y o f a D e l u s i o n , " Journal of the History of Ideas, X X V I I I ( J u l y - S e p t e m b e r , 1 9 6 7 ) , kll-kk3. Genesis, 38: 8-10. ^ I n t h e E n g l i s h c o n t e x t , P i n c h b e c k and H e w i t t a t t r i b u t e s i m i l a r c r i t i c i s m t o t h e e c o n o m i c c o s t o f i l l e g i t i m a c y among t h e p o o r . Such an e x p l a n a t i o n c a n n o t so e a s i l y be i n f e r r e d f r o m p u b l i c p r o t e s t s a g a i n s t p r o s t i t u t i o n i n A m e r i c a . See: I . P i n c h b e c k and M. H e w i t t , Children in English Society, ] ( L o n d o n : R o u t l e d g e and K . P a u l , 1 9 6 9 ) . 24 and the f a c t t h a t c r i t i c i s m s o f s e x u a l b e h a v i o r were o f t e n anonymous t e s t i f i e d to the g e n e r a l f e e l i n g t h a t though w a r n i n g s were f e l t to be n e c e s s a r y f rom t ime to t i m e , s i l e n c e was p r o b a b l y the b e t t e r d e f e n c e a g a i n s t l i c e n t i o u s n e s s , l u s t and p r o s t i t u t i o n . ^ In the l i g h t o f t h i s b a c k g r o u n d o f l i m i t e d p u b l i c d i s c u s s i o n o v e r s e x u a l m i s b e h a v i o r , the f l u r r y o f e a r l y n i n e -t e e n t h c e n t u r y a c t i v i t y to promote s e x u a l r e p r e s s i o n i n d i c a t e d more t h a n an e x t e n s i o n o f t r a d i t i o n a l a t t i t u d e s and e f f o r t s a t c o n t r o l . Where a d u l t e r y , f o r n i c a t i o n , and p r o s t i t u t i o n had drawn c r i t i c i s m i n the p r e v i o u s c e n t u r y , a l l s e x u a l a c t i v i t y , e x c e p t f o r the p u r p o s e s o f p r o c r e a t i o n , began to be condemned by mora l r e f o r m e r s . In t h e i r e y e s , v i r t u a l l y a l l s e x u a l b e h a v i o r c o u l d be d e f i n e d as d e v i a n t w h e t h e r i t took p l a c e w i t h i n o r o u t s i d e o f m a r r i a g e , and a number o f a u t h o r s t o o k p a i n s to e l a b o r a t e e x a c t l y how and when s e x u a l a c t i v i t y w a s , o r was n o t , d e v i a n t b e h a v i o r . These c h a n g i n g p e r c e p t i o n s o f d e v i a n t s e x u a l b e h a v i o r were i n t i m a t e l y r e l a t e d to a s t e a d i l y i n c r e a s i n g p p r e o c c u p a t i o n w i t h a whole s e t o f b e h a v i o r a l p r o b l e m s . 6 The o b v i o u s r e l u c t a n c e o f r e l i g i o u s o p i n i o n l e a d e r s i n A m e r i c a and E n g l a n d t o d i s c u s s t h e i n d e l i c a t e p r o b l e m o f s e x u a l m i s b e h a v i o r was lampooned i n 1727 by D a n i e l D e f o e . S e x u a l c r i m i n a l s , he w r o t e were u n l i k e l y t o be c a s t i g a t e d by t h e m i n i s t e r and t h e y knew i t . "You d a r e not s p e a k a word o f i t i n t h e p u l p i t ; , I am o u t o f y o u r r e a c h t h e r e ; why a l l t h e women w o u l d run o u t o f t h e c h u r c h and t h e y w o u l d t h r o w s t o n e s a t you as you go a l o n g t h e s t r e e t i f you d i d but m e n t i o n i t . " See: D a n i e l D e f o e , Conjugal Lewdness; or Matrimonial Whoredom ( r e p r i n t e d i t i o n ; G a i n s e v i l i e , F 1 6 r i d a ; Scho1 a r 1 s F a c s i m i l e s and R e p r i n t s , 1967)> p. 15-25 I n d e e d , a number o f h i s t o r i a n s have i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e a n t e - b e l l u m y e a r s o f t h e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y s e t t h e s t a g e f o r a g e n e r a l change i n A m e r i c a n a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d d e v i a n t b e h a v i o r . ^ C e r t a i n l y , d e v e l o p i n g i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n and u r b a n i z a t i o n posed new t h r e a t s to a s o c i e t y t r a d i t i o n a l l y c o n c e r n e d about the need f o r c u l t u r a l c o n f o r m i t y . D e v i a n t b e h a v i o r such as i n s a n i t y , j u v e n i l e d e l i n q u e n c y and s e x u a l p r o m i s c u i t y w h i c h had g e n e r a l l y been c o n s i d e r e d p r i v a t e t r o u b l e s to b e d d e a l t w i t h by f a m i l y , f r i e n d s , and sometimes c h a r i t a b l e i n s t i t u t i o n s , g r a d u a l l y became a m a t t e r o f p u b l i c c o n c e r n . In the case of j u v e n i l e d e l i n q u e n c y , f o r e x a m p l e , the i m p a c t o f u r b a n i z a t i o n s h a r p e n e d the p r o b l e m . W h i l e t h e r e had a l w a y s been d e l i n q u e n t c h i l d r e n i n the c o u n t r y s i d e , the d i s p e r s e d n a t u r e o f r u r a l p o p u l a t i o n s had not been c o n -d u c i v e to c o n c e n t r a t i o n s o f d e l i n q u e n c y . In the c i t i e s , y o u t h f u l o f f e n c e s were l e s s d i l u t e d and more c l e a r l y o b s e r v a b l e , and p u b l i c c o n c e r n g e n e r a t e d t h e p r o b l e m i n t o a s o c i a l i s s u e . S i m i l a r l y , j u s t as s t r e e t c r i m e l e d to ^See f o r e x a m p l e : J o s e p h Hawes, Children in an Urban Society: Juvenile Delinquency in Nineteenth Century America (N ew Y o r k : O x f o r d Urban P r e s s , 1 97-1 ) • D a v i d J . Rothman, Discovery of the Asylum: Social Order and Disorder in the New Republic ( B o s t o n : L i t t l e , Brown and Company, 1 9 7 1 ) . G e r a l d N. G r o b , Mental Institutions in America; Social Policy to 1875 (New Y o r k : The F r e e P r e s s , 1 9 7 3 ) . 26 p r e s s u r e f o r c u s t o d i a l i n s t i t u t i o n s , the s h a r p e n e d e x p o s u r e o f i n s a n e p e r s o n s to c i t y p e o p l e p r e s s u r e d the p u b l i c to 8 seek new ways o f i d e n t i f y i n g and d e a l i n g w i t h t h e p r o b l e m . Whether t h e r e was more i n s a n i t y , j u v e n i l e c r i m e , and s e x u a l m i s b e h a v i o r , p r o p o r t i o n a t e to the p o p u l a t i o n d u r i n g the a n t e - b e l l u m y e a r s , t h a n t h e r e had been i n the e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y i s u n c e r t a i n , but i t i s c l e a r t h a t many p e o p l e b e l i e v e d t h e r e was too much and t h a t s o m e t h i n g had t o be done q about i t . See t h e d i s c u s s i o n s i n Hawes, op. oit.a Rothman, op. cit.3 and Grob,, op. cit. g Whether o r n o t a c t u a l s e x u a l b e h a v i o r was c h a n g i n g d u r i n g t h e s e y e a r s i s d i f f i c u l t t o d e t e r m i n e . I t seems c l e a r t h a t p r a c t i c e s a r e o n l y r a r e l y i n c o n s i s t e n t a g r e e m e n t w i t h es t a b 1 i shed'' c o des - o f s e x u a l m o r a l i t y . C a r l D e g l e r r e c e n t l y f o u n d a document a t S t a n f o r d U n i v e r s i t y d e s c r i b i n g a q u e s -t i o n n a i r e on s e x u a l a t t i t u d e s and b e h a v i o r w h i c h had been p a s s e d o u t t o f o r t y - s e v e n m i d d l e - c l a s s women between 1 8 9 2 and 1 9 2 0 by C l e l i a Duel M o s h e r . [ " A Sex P o l l , " Time ( O c t o b e r , 1 9 7 2 ) , pp. 5 7 - 8 . _ Though most r e s p o n d e n t s a g r e e d t h a t s e x s h o u l d be r e s t r i c t e d t o p r o c r e a t i o n , s e v e r a l a d m i t t e d t o more f r e q u e n t i n t e r c o u r s e and t h e i r e n j o y m e n t o f i t . Such a s a m p l e , and f r o m r e s p o n d e n t s ofrfoAg'hehathanxave<nage e d u c a t i o n , does n o t e s t a b l i s h a g u i d e t o m i d d l e - c l a s s s e x u a l p r a c t i c e . Y e t i t s u g g e s t s an e x a m p l e o f what Max L e r n e r d e s c r i b e s as t h e " p a t t e r n e d e v a s i o n o f m o r a l c o d e s " - a f e e l i n g t h a t one may b r e a k t h e code i n p r a c t i c e w h i l e a c c e p t i n g i t i n p r i n c i p l e . _Max L e r n e r , America as a Civilization (New Y o r k : Simon and S c h u s t e r , 1 9 6 5 ) , p. 6 6 9 . _ D o c u m e n t a t i o n was p r o v i d e d by K i n s e y i n t h e 1 9 4 0 1 s and 5 0 ' s t o show t h a t a l a r g e p r o p o r t i o n o f t h e men and women f a i l e d t o show t r a d i t i o n a l p a t t e r n s o f s e x u a l b e h a v i o r . _ D o n a l d P o r t e r Geddes, An Analysis of the Kinsey Reports on Sexual Behavior in the Human Male and Female (New Y o r k : M e n t o r B o o k s , 1 9 6 4 ) . 3 In 1 9 7 3 , a n a t i o n a l s t u d y by t h e P l a y b o y F o u n d a t i o n e n l a r g e d upon t h e s t u d i e s o f K i n s e y ( C a r l D e g l e r , op. cit.3 p. 5 8 ) . Though s u c h s t a t i s t i c a l e n d e a v o r s a r e u s e f u l f o r t h e s t u d y o f a c t u a l s e x u a l p r a c t i c e s t h e y a r e t o o r e c e n t t o be o f v a l u e i n 27 W h i l e the e f f e c t o f u r b a n i z a t i o n upon c h a n g i n g a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d d e v i a n t b e h a v i o r c a n n o t be u n d e r e s t i m a t e d , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n r e f e r e n c e to j u v e n i l e d e l i n q u e n c y and p r o s t i t u t i o n , i t i s u s e f u l to note t h a t s o c i e t y o f t e n s u p p o r t s i t s e x p l a n a t i o n s f o r d e v i a n c y by r e f e r r i n g to t h e p r e v a i l i n g s t a t e o f s c i e n t i f i c knowledge about the human body and human b e h a v i o r . ^ 0 In the f i r s t decades o f the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y , s c i e n t i f i c , o r p s e u d o - s c i e n t i f i c o b s e r v a t i o n s i n the f i e l d , o f m e d i c i n e were g e n e r a t i n g new i d e a s c o n c e r n i n g the cause o f d i s e a s e . The s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e s e p h y s i o l o g i c a l o b s e r v a t i o n s l a y i n the i n t e r - r e l a t i o n s h i p w h i c h came to be e s t a b l i s h e d between p h y s i c a l and mora l h e a l t h . S i n c e d e b i l i t y and d i s e a s e were t h o u g h t t o be i n d u c e d by v a r i o u s k i n d s o f s t i m u l a t i o n , i t was c o n c l u d e d t h a t h e a l t h depended upon the r e g u l a t i o n o f a l l s t i m u l a t o r y a g e n t s . A l c o h o l was an o b v i o u s example of s t i m u l a t i o n , and m o r a l i s t s were happy to j o i n w i t h t h e p h y s i o l o g i s t s i n d e n o u n c i n g l i q u o r i n the name o f h e a l t h e s t i m a t i n g e a r l y n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y s e x u a l b e h a v i o r . More u s e f u l i s an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f p e o p l e ' s p e r c e p t i o n o f t h e p a r a m e t e r s o f d e v i a n t s e x u a l b e h a v i o r . D e f i n i t i o n s o f d e v i a n c y , even when i n a p p r o p r i a t e t o s o c i a l , p s y c h o l o g i c a l o r b i o l o g i c a l r e a l i t y can g e n e r a t e w i d e s p r e a d a n x i e t i e s and p r e s s u r e s f o r r e f o r m . ( C a r o l l S m i t h - R o s e n b u r g and C h a r l e s R o s e n b u r g , "The Female A n i m a l : M e d i c a l a n d ' B i o 1 o g i c a 1 V i e w s o f Women and h e r R o l e i n N i n e t e e n t h C e n t u r y A m e r i c a , " The Journal of American History, XL ( S e p t e m b e r , 1 9 7 3 ) , 3 3 3 . '^John M. M a r t i n and J o s e p h P. F i t z p a t r i c k , Delinquent Behavior, A Redefinition of the Problem (New Y o r k : Random House, 1966), p. 32. 28 as w e l l as m o r a l i t y . 1 1 F u r t h e r m o r e , both m o r a l i s t s and p h y s i o l o g i s t s were q u i c k to see t h a t a l c o h o l was o n l y one example of d i s e a s e - i n d u c i n g s t i m u l a n t s . By 1830, S y l v e s t e r Graham, an a r d e n t exponent o f mora l p h y s i o l o g y , was p r o -c l a i m i n g t h a t too much f o o d , i n s u f f i c i e n t e x e r c i s e , f a s h i o n -a b l e c l o t h i n g and s e x u a l i n c o n t i n e n c e were a l l d a i l y h a b i t s i n d u c i n g e x c i t e m e n t w h i c h caused d e b i l i t y and d i s e a s e . In the name o f h e a l t h he e n t r e a t e d h i s a u d i e n c e s to employ a s p a r e d i e t , r e g u l a r e x e r c i s e . , s i m p l e c l o t h i n g and s e x u a l 1 2 c o n t i n e n c e i n t h e i r d a i l y l i v e s . Such a p r e s c r i p t i o n s u i t e d m o r a l i s t s who d e c r i e d the l a c k o f m o d e s t y , o v e r - i n d u l -gence and p r o p e n s i t y f o r p l e a s u r a b l e p u r s u i t s t h a t t h e y saw around them. Under the a s s u m p t i o n t h a t h e a l t h was a p r o d u c t o f a s c e t i c i s m , i t f o l l o w e d t h a t a s t a t e o f u n h e a l t h i n e s s c o u l d be d i a g n o s e d as a r e s u l t o f immoral b e h a v i o r . C o n s e -q u e n t l y , s e x u a l b e h a v i o r had t o be r e g u l a t e d i n t h e name o f h e a l t h and a v a r i e t y o f d i s e a s e s were f e l t to be the m a n i -f e s t a t i o n o f s e x u a l l y d e v i a n t b e h a v i o r . T h i s l i n e o f argument was embodied i n numerous b o o k s , p a m p h l e t s , and magazine a r t i c l e s on s e x u a l i t y p u b -l i s h e d i n t h e y e a r s a f t e r 1830. The most p o p u l a r o f t h e s e ^ B e n j a m i n Rush, Inquiry Into the Effects of Ardent Spirits ( P h i l a d e l p h i a : J . G r i g g , 1 7 8 5 ) , pp. 1 2 3 - 1 2 9 . 12 S y l v e s t e r Graham, A Lecture on Epidemic Diseases, Generally, and Particularly the Spasmodic Cholera, Delivered in New York (New Y o r k : M. Day, 1 8 3 3 ) , pp. 1 3 ~ l 6 . 29 was S y l v e s t e r Graham's Lecture to Young Men on Chastity, p u b l i s h e d i n 1834 on the p r e m i s e t h a t i t was t i m e to speak o u t and d i s s e m i n a t e the t r u e f a c t s and dangers o f s e x u a l 1 3 m i s u s e . O t h e r w i d e l y d i s s e m i n a t e d t r a c t s c o r r o b o r a t i n g Graham's v i e w s were Samuel A . A . D . T i s s o t ' s Discourse on Onanism, Samuel B . Woodward's Hints to- the Young on a Subject Relating to the Health of Body and Mind and J . M . B o l l e s ' 1 4 Solitary Vice Considered. A r t i c l e s r e l a t i n g to s e x u a l m a l p r a c t i c e a p p e a r e d i n such d i v e r g e n t j o u r n a l s as the Boston Medical and Surgical Journal and the American Annals 1 5 of Education. The new s e x u a l l i t e r a t u r e o f the 1830 ' s and 4 0 ' s drew upon the t r a d i t i o n a l s o c i a l arguments a g a i n s t s e x u a l " ' ' S y l v e s t e r Graham, A Lecture to Young Men, On Chastity, Intended Also for the Serious Consideration of Parents and Guardians ( t h i r d e d i t i o n ; B o s t o n : C.H. P e i r c e , 1837) . ' ^ J . N . B o l l e s , Solitary Vice Considered (New Y o r k : H a r p e r and Row, 1832) . Samuel A.A.D. T i s s o t , A Discourse on Onanism ( L o n d o n : R. Hawes, 1776) . Samuel B a y a r d Woodward, Hints for the Young on a Subject Relating to the Health of Body and Mind ( B o s t o n : Weeks and J o r d a n e Company, 1838) . '^"Remarks on M a s t u r b a t i o n , " Boston Medical and Surgical Journal, X I I ( M a r c h , 1835) , 9 4 - 9 7 . " E f f e c t s o f M a s t u r b a t i o n , W i t h C a s e s , " Ibid., ( A p r i l , 1835) , 138 -141 . " M a s t u r b a t i o n , " American Annals of Education, I I I ( 1 8 3 5 ) , 211 -214 . -30 m i s b e h a v i o r . But more s t r i k i n g was t h e i r a d d i t i o n a l emphas is on the p h y s i o l o g i c a l c h a r a c t e r o f s e x u a l s i n . Whereas e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y l i t e r a t u r e had a c c e p t e d the s e x u a l urge as n a t u r a l , r e q u i r i n g o n l y s t r i n g e n t r e g u l a t i o n o f i t s p r a c t i c e o u t s i d e w e d l o c k , the new v i e w p o i n t e m p h a s i z e d t h e d e p r a v i t y o f the s e x u a l u r g e . L e a d i n g mora l p h y s i o l o g i s t S y l v e s t e r Graham e x p l a i n e d t h i s p o i n t i n his Lecture on Chastity. " I t i s s p e c i o u s , " he s a i d , " t o j u s t i f y f r e q u e n t s e x u a l a c t i v i t y on the grounds t h a t i t i s the e x p r e s s i o n o f a ' n a t u r a l human' i n s t i n c t . . . the urge w h i c h i s s a t i s f i e d by such a c t i v i t y i s not n a t u r a l a t a l l ; i t i s d e p r a v e d 1 c i n s t i n c t . " S e x u a l l y d e v i a n t b e h a v i o r , t h e n , a c c o r d i n g to t h e p r o m o t e r s o f m o r a l p h y s i o l o g y , was f r e q u e n t and h a b i t u a l s e x u a l a c t i v i t y o f any k i n d , m a r i t a l o r o t h e r w i s e . I t i n -c l u d e d m a s t u r b a t i o n , n o c t u r n a l e m i s s i o n s , i n f a n t h a n d l i n g o f the g e n i t a l s , p r o s t i t u t i o n , f r e q u e n t m a r i t a l i n t e r c o u r s e and even the t o u c h o f a dance p a r t n e r w h i c h so s t i m u l a t e d the nervous sys tem as to i n d u c e d i s e a s e . An e x p l a n a t i o n o f the e x t e n t to w h i c h the r a t i o n a l e o f moral p h y s i o l o g y was s t r e t c h e d does n o t , h o w e v e r , i n d i c a t e why o r how t h e i r i d e a s g a i n e d such p o p u l a r i t y . I r w i n R o s e n s t o c k , i n h i s b e h a v i o r a l s c i e n c e i n v e s t i g a t i o n s , has shown t h a t p e o p l e become? c o n c e r n e d o v e r a h e a l t h i s s u e when 1 6 S y l v e s t e r Graham, Chastity, pp. 79, 81. 31 t h e y f e e l t h a t , not o n l y a r e t h e y s u s c e p t i b l e to the c o n d i t i o n , but t h a t i t s consequences are l i k e l y to be s e r i o u s . ^ By i n c l u d i n g a l m o s t e v e r y a s p e c t o f s e x u a l b e h a v i o r i n t h e i r d e f i n i t i o n o f s e x u a l d e v i a n c y , mora l p h y s i o l o g i s t s s t i m u l a t e d i n c r e a s i n g f e e l i n g s o f p e r s o n a l s u s c e p t i b i l i t y . How many men, a f t e r a l l , c o u l d c l a i m to have n e v e r h a n d l e d t h e i r g e n i t a l s , t o u c h e d a dance p a r t n e r o r e x p e r i e n c e d n o c t u r a l e m i s s i o n s . F u r t h e r , by i l l u m i n a t i n g the supposed d e v a s t a t i n g and w i d e s p r e a d h e a l t h - r e l a t e d consequences o f s e x u a l m i s -b e h a v i o r , t h e y i n d u c e d i n c r e a s i n g c o n c e r n o v e r t h e s e r i o u s n e s s o f s u c h a c t i v i t y . Those who came i n t o c o n t a c t w i t h t h e numerous moral p h y s i o l o g y p u b l i c a t i o n s o r t h e e x t r e m e l y p o p u l a r l e c t u r e s o f S y l v e s t e r Graham and h i s c o u n t e r p a r t s , were c h a r g e d w i t h an a n x i e t y o v e r the dangers to them and t h e i r c h i l d r e n t h a t t h e y p e r c e i v e d i n the a p p a r e n t l y w i d e -s p r e a d and i n c r e a s i n g p r o b l e m o f s e x u a l m i s b e h a v i o r . T h i s p e r s o n a l f e a r o f c o n t a m i n a t i o n , w h i c h was a k i n d o f germ t h e o r y a p p r o a c h to s e x u a l b e l i e f s , was r e i n -f o r c e d by a more g e n e r a l b e l i e f i n moral c o n t a g i o n . The rowdy and d e l i n q u e n t b e h a v i o r o f the p o o r , f o r e x a m p l e , was f r e q u e n t l y condemned on the b a s i s t h a t the germs of t h e i r I r w i n R o s e n s t o c k , "What R e s e a r c h i n M o t i v a t i o n S u g g e s t s f o r P u b l i c H e a l t h , " American Journal of Public Health, L ( M a r c h , I 9 6 0 ) , 297-32 1 o i m m o r a l i t y m i g h t s p r e a d to t h e b e t t e r c l a s s e s . The t h r e a t o f e x p a n d i n g s l u m s , and the l i f e and b e h a v i o r o f t h e p o o r , w h i c h was seen as a m a n i f e s t a t i o n o f i g n o r a n c e and i m m o r a l i t y , 1 9 c a l l e d f o r i n t e r v e n t i o n . The p o o r , many b e l i e v e d , needed r e h a b i l i t a t i o n and moral d i s i n f e c t i o n , i n o r d e r to remove s o u r c e s o f mora l c o n t a g i o n from s o c i e t y . When mora l p h y s i o l o g i s t s p o i n t e d o u t t h a t much o f the moral d e p r a v i t y and d i s e a s e was a t t r i b u t a b l e to s e x u a l m i s b e h a v i o r , the r e s o l v e o f t h e more p r i v i l e g e d groups to p r e s e r v e t h e m s e l v e s f rom moral c o n t a g i o n was f u r t h e r s t r e n g t h e n e d . S p e c i f i c s e c t o r s o f the P r o t e s t a n t p o p u l a t i o n were p a r t i c u l a r l y i n s t r u m e n t a l i n s p r e a d i n g c o n c e r n o v e r s e x u a l m i s b e h a v i o r i n a n t e - b e l l u m s o c i e t y . The a n t i n o m i a n p r e a c h i n g o f the r e v i v a l s o f the Second Awakening o f t e n h e i g h t e n e d a r e s t i v e n e s s about sex and the monogamous f a m i l y w h i c h was a r t i c u l a t e d i n extreme form by t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f a number o f c o m m u n i t a r i a n e x p e r i m e n t s w i t h s p e c i f i c s e x u a l ' M o r a l D i s i n f e c t i o n 1 was a f a v o r i t e t e r m o f C h a r l e s L o r i n g B r a c e , f o u n d e r o f t h e C h i l d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t y . See: C h a r l e s L o r i n g B r a c e , The Dangerous Classes of New York and Twenty Year's Work Among Them (New Y o r k : Wynkoop and H o i l e n b e c k , 1 8 7 2 ) . R o b e r t B r e mner, From the Depths: The Discovery of Poverty in the United States (New Y o r k : New Y o r k U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 5 9 ) , pp. 5 , 5 2 . 33 20 o r g a n i z a t i o n s . C e r t a i n l y , t h e way i n w h i c h c o m m u n i t a r i a n e x p e r i m e n t s u t i l i z e d the t h e o r i e s o f mora l p h y s i o l o g y e x e m p l i f i e d the p e r v a s i v e n e s s o f d i s t r u s t o f s e x u a l i t y i n a n t e - b e l l u m s o c i e t y . R a d i c a l e x p e r i m e n t s w h i c h p r o f e s s e d to condemn c e r t a i n , or a l l s o c i e t a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s , many t i m e s d e v e l o p e d s p e c i f i c s e x u a l a r r a n g e m e n t s . Thomas Lowe N i c h o l s and John Humphrey N o y e s , l e a d e r s o f the Memnonia and Oneida Communi t i es r e s p e c t i v e l y , bo th condemned c o n v e n -t i o n a l s e x u a l a r r a n g e m e n t s such as m a r r i a g e , y e t a t the same t i m e e r e c t e d new ones as s t r i n g e n t l y c i r c u m s c r i b e d as the f o r m e r . C l a i m i n g m a r r i a g e to be an a r t i f i c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n , " a y s y s t e m of r e s t r a i n t s and r e p r e s s i o n s , " t h e y argued t h a t s e x u a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s c o u l d o n l y be p u r i f i e d t h r o u g h the 21 a b o l i t i o n o f m a r r i a g e . " M a r r i a g e , " s a i d N i c h o l s , "was s e x u a l s l a v e r y , a b r e e d i n g ground f o r s a l a c i t y and o b s c e n i t y , " 20 P h i l 1 i d a B u n k l e , i n h e r a r t i c l e " S e n t i m e n t a l Womanhood and D o m e s t i c E d u c a t i o n , 1 8 3 8 — 1 8 7 0 , " History of Education Quarterly, XIV ( S p r i n g , 1 9 7 4 ) , 1 6 - 1 7 , i l l u s t r a t e s an i n t e r e s t i n g p o i n t r e l a t i n g t o f e e l i n g s o f a n x i e t y o v e r i n d i v i d u a l and s o c i a l b e h a v i o r t h a t were i n t e n s i f i e d by t h e s e c o n d p h a s e o f A m e r i c a n r e v i v a l i s m . She s u g g e s t s t h a t c o n s e r v a t i v e o p p o n e n t s o f r e v i v a l i s m b e l i e v e d t h a t t h e r e v i v a l s u n d u l y s t i m u l a t e d p e o p l e ' s e m o t i o n s . The h e i g h t e n i n g o f e m o t i o n t h r e a t e n e d i n t e r n a l c o n t r o l s w h i c h were n e c e s s a r y f o r p r e s e r v i n g s o c i a l s t a b i l i t y . F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e d e v e l o p i n g b e l i e f t h a t A m e r i c a n s were e s p e c i a l l y p r o n e t o e x c i t e m e n t meant t h a t s o c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n s and o r d e r were i n c o n s t a n t d a n g e r o f d i s r u p t i o n . 21 Thomas Lowe N i c h o l s and Mary Gove N i c h o l s , Marriage: Its History, Character and Results ( C i n c i n a t t i : V. N i c h o l s o n and Company, 1 8 5 4 ) , p. 129. 34 and was u l t i m a t e l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the p r e v a l e n c e of " m a s t u r -22 b a t i o n , p r o s t i t u t i o n and g e n e r a l l i c e n t i o u s n e s s . " O u t s i d e o f m a r r i a g e , he c o n t i n u e d , sex c o u l d be a r e w a r d i n g and e x c i t i n g a c t i v i t y , but a number o f r e s t r a i n t s were n e c e s s a r y i n the name o f h e a l t h . To engage i n i n t e r c o u r s e , b o t h p a r t n e r s s h o u l d be m a t u r e , m e n t a l l y s t a b l e , i n t e l l e c t u a l l y p r o f i c i e n t , h e a l t h y , f r e e f rom i n t o x i c a t i n g i n f l u e n c e s and c a p a b l e o f a d e q u a t e l y r e a r i n g the p o s s i b l e p r o d u c t o f t h e i r a c t . F u r t h e r m o r e , women s h o u l d be n e i t h e r p r e g n a n t nor n u r s i n g a c h i l d . A m a t i v e excess o f e i t h e r p a r t n e r was c o n -demned as n e r v o u s l y d e b i l i t a t i n g . The a b u s e o f a m a t i v e n e s s r a p i d l y e x h a u s t s t h e n e r v o u s power. The g e n e r a t i v e f u n c -t i o n t a k e s s t r e n g t h f r o m t h e o r g a n i c and a n i m a l p o w e r s . I t f a i l s and a l l f a i l s --a l l n o b l e p a s s i o n s l o s e t h e i r f o r c e ; t h e w h o l e s y s t e m i s d i s c o r d and d i s o r d e r and r e a d y t o become a p r e y t o d i s e a s e . 2 3 To the i d e a s o f N i c h o l s , Noyes added a new a s p e c t , male c o n t i n e n c e . S e e i n g the sex a c t as two d i s t i n c t p h y s i o -l o g i c a l a c t s , he a d v o c a t e d i n t e r c o u r s e f o r i t s h e a l t h and s e x u a l b e n e f i t s but f o r b a d e orgasm as b e i n g m e r e l y s e n s u a l "''Ibid., p. 359. 2 3 Thomas Lowe N i c h o l s , Esoteric Anthropology, A Comprehensive and Confidential Treatise on the Structure, Function, Passional Attractions and Perversions, True and False Social Conditions and the Most Intimate Relations of Men and Women (New Y o r k : S t a c k p o l e S o n s , 1853), pp. 398-399. 35 and dangerous to the h e a l t h . c * For b o t h N i c h o l s , and N o y e s , t h e r e f o r e , d i s t r u s t o f s e x u a l i t y l e d to i t s c o n d e m n a t i o n . A t Memnonia , the s h o r t - l i v e d f r e e l o v e u . community formed by Thomas and Mary N i c h o l s , the u l t i m a t e s o l u t i o n was found to be the r e q u i r e m e n t o f t o t a l and a b s o l u t e c e l i b a c y f o r a l l m e m b e r s . 2 5 The d i s t r u s t o f s e x u a l i t y w h i c h s t i m u l a t e d u n c o n -v e n t i o n a l sex t h e o r i s t s o f the Free Love Movement to v i e w m a r r i a g e as i n c o m p a t i b l e w i t h a ! i h e a l t h y s o c i e t y r e f l e c t e d many o f t h e arguments o f mora l p h y s i o l o g y . S y l v e s t e r Graham d i d n o t r e j e c t m a r r i a g e as an i n s t i t u t i o n , but he was a c u t e l y c o n c e r n e d w i t h m a r i t a l e x c e s s , o r , as he termed i t , p r o s t i t u -t i o n w i t h i n m a r r i a g e . He i n s i s t e d t h a t s e x u a l p r a c t i c e s w h i c h were h a r m f u l caused no l e s s harm by t a k i n g p l a c e i n the m a r r i a g e b e d . "The mere f a c t t h a t a man i s m a r r i e d to one woman and i s p e r f e c t l y f a i t h f u l to her w i l l by no means p r e v e n t the e v i l s w h i c h f l o w from v e n e r e a l e x c e s s . " He r a t i o n a l i z e d , h o w e v e r , t h a t the s e x u a l i m p u l s e w o u l d be s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e d u c e d w i t h i n an i n s t i t u t i o n where the 2k J o h n Humphrey N o y e s , Male Continence or Self-Control in Sexual Intercourse ( O n e i d a , New Y o r k : O n e i d a Community, O f f i c e o f O n e i d a C i r c u l a r s , 1872). 2 5 Sydney E. A h l s t r o m , A Religious History of the American People (New Haven: Y a l e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1972), P. 499. 26 S y l v e s t e r Graham, Chastity, pp. 73 -4. 36 f a m i l i a r i t y o f the two p a r t n e r s wou ld cause d i s i n t e r e s t i n each o t h e r s ' b o d i e s and make sex l e s s e n j o y a b l e . T h u s , bo th he and the f r e e l o v e a d v o c a t e s e x p r e s s e d i d e a s f a r removed f r o m the p u b l i s h e d e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y v i e w s o f Onania w h i c h recommended the i n d u l g e n c e o f sex w i t h i n m a r r i a g e as the e x p r e s s i o n o f a w h o l l y n a t u r a l i n s t i n c t . To Graham, the s e x u a l urge was a d e p r a v e d i n s t i n c t w h e t h e r i t t o o k p l a c e w i t h i n m a r r i a g e or o u t s i d e o f i t , and e x c e p t f o r p r o c r e a t i o n , a l l s e x u a l a c t i v i t y c o u l d be r e g a r d e d as p r o s t i t u t i o n . Men such as N i c h o l s and N o y e s , i n f l u e n c e d by such a r g u m e n t s , f e l t t h a t the p h y s i c a l and mora l consequences o f s e x u a l o v e r -i n d u l g e n c e were h e i g h t e n e d by a m a r r i a g e i n w h i c h s e x u a l abuse c o u l d t a k e p l a c e l e g a l l y . In o t h e r w o r d s , a d v o c a t e s o f f r e e l o v e s o u g h t to l i b e r a t e the m a r r i a g e p a r t n e r , g e n e r a l l y the woman, f rom her c i v i l r e q u i r e m e n t to s u b m i t to sex a t the w i l l o f her h u s b a n d , and t h u s r e n d e r h e r s e l f s u b j e c t to a d i s e a s e d l i f e . C o n s e q u e n t l y , t h e y recommended a g e n e r a l l i m i t a t i o n o f s e x u a l a c t i v i t y and t h e removal o f an i n s t i t u -t i o n a l p r a c t i c e w h i c h m i l i t a t e d a g a i n s t t h i s . Such t h i n k i n g , t h e n , h e l p s e x p l a i n the a p p a r e n t p a r a d o x o f condemning m a r r i a g e i n the name o f s e x u a l f reedom and condemning the e x e r c i s e o f s e x u a l f reedom i n the name o f h e a l t h . The Free Love Movement w a s , i n many w a y s , a campaign to g r a n t p e o p l e f reedom from s e x u a l a c t i v i t y and t h e r e f o r e i n c r e a s e the p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r h e a l t h y and mora l 1 i v i n g . 37 O t h e r communal e x p e r i m e n t s s h a r e d a d i s t r u s t o f s e x u a l i t y , though t h e i r r e a s o n s were more r e l i g i o u s t h a n p h y s i o l o g i c a l . The S h a k e r s , f o r e x a m p l e , were c o n v i n c e d t h a t s e x u a l r e l a t i o n s , e v e r s i n c e Adam and E v e , were t h e r o o t o f a l l s i n . A t t h e i r community i n A l b a n y , p r o c r e a t i o n was f o r b i d d e n s i n c e t h e Kingdom o f God was h e l d to be a t h a n d . The sexes were s t r i c t l y s e g r e g a t e d and b e h a v i o r c a r e f u l l y d e f i n e d i n the hope t h a t man c o u l d be b r o u g h t f r o m 27 the a n i m a l t o the s p i r i t u a l p l a n e . The S o c i e t y o f t h e P u b l i c U n i v e r s a l F r i e n d , f i r s t e s t a b l i s h e d i n w e s t e r n New Y o r k i n 1 7 9 4 , expounded c e l i b a c y f o r a l l . S i m i l a r l y , t h e R a p p i t e C o m m u n i t i e s i n Harmony, P e n n s y l v a n i a , New Harmony i n I n d i a n a , and Economy, Ohio were u n i n t e r e s t e d i n .< p r o c r e a t i o n o r m a r r i a g e , s e e k i n g o n l y to p r e s e n t a pure remnant to God 28 on the ' G r e a t D a y ' . In a d d i t i o n t o r a d i c a l and m i l l e n i a l movements , o t h e r d e v e l o p m e n t s s t i m u l a t e d i n c r e a s i n g c o n c e r n o v e r s e x u a l b e h a v i o r as the c e n t u r y p r o g r e s s e d . Ben B a r k e r - B e n f i e l d and Rowland B e r t h o f f have s t r e s s e d t h e e f f e c t s o f t h e d e v e l o p i n g i n d u s t r i a l o r d e r and the homage p a i d t o economic p r o g r e s s J o h n H. W a r r e n , Thirty Years B a t t l e with Crime ( P o u g h k e e p s i e , New Y o r k : A . J . W h i t e , 1875), p. 138. Sydney E. Ah Is torn, -op. c i t . 3 p. 496. 38 upon e a r l y n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y A m e r i c a n s o c i e t y . The i d e o l o g y o f J a c k s o n i a n e g a l i t a r i a n i s m , w h e t h e r r e a l o r i m a g i n e d , s t r e s s e d c o m p e t i t i o n and t h e a c c u m u l a t i o n o f 30 c a p i t a l . Man was born to s t r i v e i n t h i s c o m p e t i t i v e w o r l d a n d , i n o r d e r to s u c c e e d , many f e l t t h a t i t was e s s e n t i a l f o r him to d e v e l o p s e l f - s u f f i c i e n c y . Y e t the d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h i s s e l f - s u f f i c i e n c y was h i n d e r e d by h i s s e x u a l e r u p t -i b i l i t y w h i c h c o n s t a n t l y i n t e r f e r e d w i t h h i s s e l f - g o v e r n m e n t . The c o u p l i n g o f i n s a n i t y to h a b i t u a l m a s t u r b a t i o n by mora l p h y s i o l o g i s t s thus a l l o w e d some to p o i n t o u t a p a r t i c u l a r l y 31 n a s t y m a n i f e s t a t i o n o f t h i s p r o b l e m . The p r o b l e m s o f male s e x u a l i t y f o r s e l f - g o v e r n m e n t , and hence s e l f - c o n t r o l , were i d e n t i f i e d i n a s t r e a m o f s e l f -h e l p and f a m i l y management manuals emanat ing from p h y s i c i a n s '""'Ben B a r k e r - B e n f i e 1 d , "The S p e r m a t i c Economy: A N i n e t e e n t h C e n t u r y View o f S e x u a l i t y , " Feminist Studies, 1 (Summer, 1 9 7 2 ) , 49; Rowland B e r t h o f f , An Unsettled People: Social Order and Disorder in American History (New Y o r k : H a r p e r and Row P u b l i s h e r s , 1 9 7 1 ) , pp. 1 2 7 - 1 7 3 . 30 B e r t h o f f s u g g e s t s t h a t , t h o u g h e q u a l i t y o f o p p o r -t u n i t y and c o n d i t i o n i n t h e 1 8 3 0 1 s s t r u c k A l e x i s De T o q u e v i l l e more f o r c i b l y t h a n a n y t h i n g e l s e i n A m e r i c a n S o c i e t y , e s s e n -t i a l l y t h e new c r e e d o f e q u a l i t y r e f l e c t e d t h e p r a c t i c a l c i r c u m s t a n c e s o f a much e a r l i e r l a n d - b a s e d age ( B e r t h o f f , op. c i t . , p. 1 7 7 ) . 3 1 Edwar-d J a r v i s , "Of t h e C o m p a r a t i v e L i a b i l i t y o f M a l e s and F e m a l e s t o I n s a n i t y and t h e i r C o m p a r a t i v e C u r -a b i l i t y and M o r t a l i t y When I n s a n e , " American Journal of Insanity, V I I ( 1 8 5 0 ) , 1 5 8 . 39 and c l e r g y m e n f rom the e a r l y 1.830's o n . ° ^ C l a i m i n g to o u t -l i n e a program o f s u c c e s s f o r young men i n the w o r l d of c o m p e t i t i o n , t h e manuals e m p h a s i z e d , above a l l , t h e i m p o r t a n c e to man's h e a l t h and economic w e l l b e i n g o f r e g u l a t i n g s e x u a l p r a c t i c e , t h o u g h t s , and f e e l i n g s . A t the h e a r t o f t h e s e s e l f - h e l p manuals l a y a t h e o r y o f s e x u a l i t y w h i c h was an e x p l a n a t i o n o f b i o l o g i c a l and i n t e l l e c t u a l g r o w t h , d i s g u i s e d as s c i e n c e , but i n r e a l i t y r e f l e c t i n g the dominant m o r a l i t y , s i n c e i t s a c t u a l f u n c t i o n was to o f f e r p o s i t i v e r e w a r d s f o r 33 s e x u a l r e p r e s s i o n . P a r t o f the t h e o r y , based upon the o b s e r v a t i o n s o f Samuel T i s s o t , e m p h a s i z e d t h e i m p o r t a n c e of c o n s e r v i n g the male semen so t h a t i t c o u l d be r e a b s o r b e d by the b l o o d and c a r r i e d to the b r a i n f rom whence g r o w t h and 34 c r e a t i v i t y w o u l d be s t i m u l a t e d . P r o b a b l y u t i l i z i n g T i s s o t ' s e x p l a n a t i o n , S y l v e s t e r Graham d e s c r i b e d t h e semen r e a b s o r p -t i o n p r o c e s s i n h i s l e c t u r e on C h a s t i t y : •""See f o r e x a m p l e J o h n H. T o d d , The Young Man; Hints Addressed to the Young Men of the United States ( N o r t h a m p t o n : H o p k i n s and B r i d g m a n , 1 8 5 6 ) . 3 3 B r y a n S t r o n g ' s comments upon t h i s p o i n t a c c o r d w i t h R i c h a r d H o f s t a d t e r i s v i e w s t h a t , i n t h e a c c e p t a n c e o f s o c i a l i d e a s , " t r u t h and l o g i c a r e l e s s i m p o r t a n t c r i t e r i a t h a n s u i t a b i l i t y t o t h e i n t e l l e c t u a l needs and p r e c o n c e p t i o n s o f s o c i a l i n t e r e s t s . " R i c h a r d H o f s t a d t e r , Social Darwinism in American Thought ( r e v i s e d e d i t i o n ; B o s t o n : Beacon P r e s s , 1 9 5 5 ) , pp. 2 0 3 - 2 0 4 ; B r y a n S t r o n g , " I d e a s o f t h e E a r l y Sex E d u c a t i o n Movement i n A m e r i c a i j . 1 8 9 0 - 1 9 2 0 , " History of Education Quarterly, X I I (Summer, 1 9 7 2 ) , 1 3 0 . Samuel A.A.D. T i s s o t , op. cit. 40 the semen may be called the essential o i l of animal liquors . . . the rectified s p i r i t . . . the most subtle and spirituous part of the animal frame, which contributes to the support of the nerves; that the greatest part of this refined f l u i d is . . . reabsorbed and mixed with the blood . . . and imparts to the body peculiar spright-liness, vivacity, muscular strength and general vigor to the animal machine; and that therefore the emission of semen enfeebles the body more than the loss of twenty times the same quantity of blood . . . more than violent cathartics and emitics . . . and hence the frequent and excessive loss of i t cannot f a i l to produce the most extreme debility and wretchedness of both body and mind.35 Sperm was thus c o n s i d e r e d to be " t h e c o n c e n t r a t e d powers . . . o f man's p e r f e c t e d b e i n g . . . t h e p u r e s t e x t r a c t o f the b l o o d . . . [ w h i c h a c c o r d i n g t o ] a n c i e n t b e l i e f was 3 6 l i f e . " Such a b e l i e f n e c e s s a r i l y made any u n c o n t r o l l e d e x p e n d i t u r e o f sperm p o t e n t i a l l y dangerous to the i n d i v i d u a l . Ideas c o n c e r n i n g the r e a b s o r p t i o n of semen r e t a i n e d t h e i r i m p a c t t h r o u g h o u t the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y . They were r e i t e r -a t e d by N e i t z c h e and l a t e r i n F r e u d ' s t h e o r y o f s u b l i m a t i o n . In 1880 , N e i t z c h e w r o t e , " t h e r e a b s o r p t i o n o f semen by the b l o o d i s the s t r o n g e s t n o u r i s h m e n t and . . . i t prompts the s t i m u l u s of p o w e r , the u n r e s t o f a l l f o r c e s toward the o v e r -coming o f r e s i s t a n c e , the t h i r s t f o r c o n t r a d i c t i o n and r e s i s -t a n c e . The f e e l i n g o f power has so f a r mounted h i g h e s t i n S y l v e s t e r Graham, Chastity 3 p p ; 51-2. Ben B a r k e r - B e n f i e l d , op. oit.3 p. 49 . 41 a b s t i n e n t p r i e s t s and h e r m i t s . " J / C o n s e q u e n t l y , the b e l i e f was r e i n f o r c e d t h a t r e p r e s s i o n was n e c e s s a r y i n o r d e r t h a t s o c i e t y m i g h t have a c o n s t a n t s o u r c e o f i d e a l s and i n v e n t i o n s , d e r i v e d f rom r e a b s o r b e d semen. N e w t o n , e x t r e m i s t s c l a i m e d , n e v e r l o s t a drop o f semen i n h i s l i f e . A c c o r d i n g t o t h i s t h e o r y , t h e n , s e x u a l e n e r g y i n i t s e l f was g o o d , f o r t h r o u g h p r o c r e a t i o n the t r a n s m i s s i o n o f the l i f e f o r c e was a c r e a t i v e a c h i e v e m e n t n e c e s s a r y f o r the f u r t h e r a n c e o f the r a c e . The dangers l a y i n t h e m i s u s e o f s e x u a l energy and the n o n - c r e a t i v e e x p e n d i t u r e o f v a l u a b l e semen t h r o u g h m a s t u r b a t i o n , and p h y s i c a l excess i n c o p u l a t i o n . The d a n g e r s were i n d e e d s e v e r e . L o s s o f semen meant l o s s 38 o f v i g o r , h e a l t h and u l t i m a t e l y s a n i t y . The i l l s r e s u l t i n g from h a b i t u a l m a s t u r b a t i o n were h e l d to be p a r t i c u l a r l y gruesome. Habitual masturbators have a dank, moist, cold hand, very c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of v i t a l exhaustion; their sleep is short, and most complete miasmus comes on; they may gradually waste away if the e v i l passion is not got the better of, nervous exhaustion sets in, such as spasmodic contraction, or pa r t i a l or entire con-vulsive movements, together with epilepsy, 37 F r i e d r i c h N i e t z c h e , " N o t e s , " i n W a l t e r Kaufmann ( e d . ) , The Portable Beitzehe ( P r i n c e t o n : P r i n c e t o n U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , I 9 6 0 ) , p. 75. •3 O Edward J a r v i s , op. oit.3 p. 158, 42 eclampsy, and a series of paralysis accompanied with contraction of the I i mbs.39 The e f f e c t s o f e x c e s s i v e c o p u l a t i o n were a l m o s t as f r i g h t e n i n g . Runts, feeble infants and g i r l s would be produced by debilitated sperm, old man's prostrated sperm, business man's tired sperm, m a s t u r b a t o r ' s exhausted sperm, debaucher's exceeded, contraceptor's impeded, coward's unpatriotic and newly wed's green sperm. 40 Semen had to be c o n s e r v e d , f o r i t was b e l i e v e d t h a t t h e amount o f v i t a l energy was l i m i t e d . V i r i l i t y c o u l d be l o s t f o r e v e r i n a s i m i l a r manner to v i r g i n i t y . E n e r g y , t h e n , was s e x u a l , and the h o a r d i n g and c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f i t was n e c e s s a r y f o r manly p e r f e c t i o n . L i k e a b a n k , the more sperm an i n d i v i d u a l used the l e s s t h e r e was l e f t . The whole i d e a was r e p r e s e n t e d as the law of a n i m a l economy. S e x , work and making money were i n t e r t w i n e d and i n t e r c o n n e c t e d c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e r e was h e l d t o be a f u n d a m e n t a l law f o r the d i s t r i b u t i o n o f v i t a l p o w e r s . A c c o r d i n g to A m a r i a h B r i g h a m , "when v i t a l powers a re i n c r e a s e d i n one p a r t t h e y C l a u d e F r a n c o i s L a l l e m a n d , Les Pertes Seminales Involontaires, 3: 1836-1842, p u b l i s h e d i n P h i 1 a d e 1 p h i a i n 1853 as "A P r a c t i c a l T r e a t i s e on t h e C a u s e s , Symptoms and T r e a t m e n t o f S p e r m a t o r r h e a , " and q u o t e d by A.K. G a r d n e r , Our Children ( H a r t f o r d : B e l k n a p and B1 i s s , 1877) , pp. 39-40. Ben B a r k e r - B e n f i e 1 d , op. oit.3 p. 50. 43 are d i m i n i s h e d i n a l l the r e s t o f the l i v i n g economy . . . to i n c r e a s e the powers o f one o r g a n , i t i s a b s o l u t e l y n e c e s -41 s a r y t h a t t h e y s h o u l d be d i m i n i s h e d i n a l l o t h e r s . " M i c h a e l B l i s s has argued t h a t s i n c e the mind was h e l d to s u f f e r most when v i t a l f o r c e was expended i n s e x u a l a c t i v i t y , " t h e i d e a o f a c o m p e t i t i o n between sex l i f e and i n t e l l e c t as the main consumers o f v i t a l f o r c e seems to have p r o v i d e d the p h y s i o l o g i c a l u n d e r p i n n i n g s f o r s e v e r a l 42 n i n e t e e n t h and t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y p o p u l a r b e l i e f s . " T r a d i -t i o n a l l y r e g a r d e d as h a v i n g s m a l l i n t e l l e c t u a l s t a t u r e , N e g r o e s , i t was t h o u g h t , compensated w i t h expanded s e x u a l a c t i v i t y . Nervous c h i l d r e n and i n t e l l e c t u a l s were c o n s i d e r e d to be r i p e c u s t o m e r s f o r s e x u a l p r o b l e m s . Female e d u c a t i o n was condemned on the grounds t h a t i n t e l l e c t u a l a c t i v i t i e s undermined the o p t i m a l d e v e l o p m e n t of the r e p r o d u c t i v e o r g a n s , caused h y s t e r i a and nervous d i s o r d e r s , and l e d to t h e p r o -43 d u c t i o n o f f e e b l e - m i n d e d and i n f e r i o r c h i l d r e n . 4 1 A m a r i a h B r i g h a m , Remarks3 pp. 45_6. 42 M i c h a e l B l i s s , " P u r e Books on A v o i d e d S u b j e c t s ; P r e - F r e u d i a n S e x u a l I d e a s i n C a n a d a , " The C a n a d i a n H i s t o r i c a l A s s o c i a t i o n , Historical Papers (1969-70), p. 101. 43 See f o r e x a m p l e : Edward H. C l a r k e , Sex Education, Or a Fair Chance for G i r l s ( B o s t o n : J.R. Osgood and Company, 1873), P-Thomas A d d i s Emmett, The Principles and Practice of Gynecology ( t h i r d e d i t i o n ; P h i l a d e l p h i a : H.C L e a , 1897), p. 21 . Though t h e r e was an e l e m e n t o f f e m a l e c o e d u c a t i o n a t t h e c o l l e g e l e v e l i n t h e a n t e - b e l l u m y e a r s , J i l l Conway has e m p h a s i z e d t h a t women were a c c e p t e d f o r e c o n o m i c r e a s o n s o n l y . Women s t u d e n t s were u s e f u l as a d o m e s t i c work f o r c e 44 The r o l e o f women i n t h i s a l l - e m b r a c i n g t h e o r y o f s e x u a l i t y was c o n t r a d i c t o r y and p e r p l e x i n g , but i t g e n e r a t e d p e r c e p t i o n s o f the f e m a l e s e x u a l r o l e i n s o c i e t y w h i c h formed an i m p o r t a n t f a c e t o f the s e x u a l t e n s i o n s o f the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y and h e i g h t e n e d a g e n e r a l p r e o c c u p a t i o n w i t h sex as the c e n t u r y wore o n . C o n t r a d i c t o r y a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d the woman emphas ized both her s e x l e s s and s e n s u a l n a t u r e , and c l a i m e d b o t h her i n f e r i o r i t y t o , and power o v e r , t h e m a l e . The n a t u r e o f t h e s e c o n t r a d i c t o r y a s s u m p t i o n s b e a r s e x a m i n a -t i o n f o r t h e y s p r a n g f r o m t h e - r e l i g i o u s , m e d i c a l , b i o l o g i c a l and economic c o n s i d e r a t i o n s i n vogue d u r i n g the f i r s t h a l f o f the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y and c r e a t e d a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d women and among women w h i c h p u r i t y w o r k e r s t r i e d to r e s o l v e t h r o u g h sex r e f o r m . T h o u g h , p r i o r to the C i v i l War, much o f the c o n c e r n o v e r s e x u a l m i s b e h a v i o r r e l a t e d to the m a l e , f e m a l e s e x u a l b e h a v i o r came i n c r e a s i n g l y under d i s c u s s i o n . N i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y o p i n i o n r e i n f o r c e d the i d e a t h a t women l a c k e d any k i n d o f s e x u a l d e s i r e , and the i d e a o f women's n a t u r a l f r i g i d i t y r e f l e c t e d the g e n e r a l b e l i e f t h a t " s e n s u a l i t y i s w i t h i n t h e c o l l e g e s and i n c o n t r i b u t i n g t o t h e m e n t a l and e m o t i o n a l b a l a n c e o f t h e male s t u d e n t s . "Women's m i n d s , d u r i n g and a f t e r c o l l e g e e d u c a t i o n were t h u s c o n s i d e r e d o n l y f r o m t h e p o i n t o f v i e w o f t h e s e r v i c e s t h e y m i g h t p r o v i d e f o r men." J i l l Conway, " P e r s p e c t i v e s on t h e H i s t o r y o f Women's E d u c a t i o n i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , " History of Education Quarterly, XIV ( S p r i n g , 1 9 7 4 ) , 6. 45 u n u s u a l i n t h e sex . " ' * ' * A modest woman s u b m i t t e d t o her h u s b a n d ' s d e s i r e s p r i n c i p a l l y to g r a t i f y him and were i t not f o r t h e d e s i r e o f m a t e r n i t y w o u l d f a r r a t h e r be r e l i e v e d 45 f rom h i s a t t e n t i o n s . The v i e w t h a t the d e c e n t woman had no s e x u a l i n t e r e s t had encouraged the male to seek s e x u a l p a r t n e r s o u t s i d e o f m a r r i a g e . S i n c e p r o s t i t u t e s a p p a r e n t l y d i d f e e l s e x u a l d e s i r e , or t h e y w ou ld not have e n t e r e d the p r o f e s s i o n , then t h e man c o u l d l e g i t i m a t e l y t u r n to them to s a t i s f y h i s a n i m a l i s t i c i m p u l s e s , p r o t e c t i n g d e c e n t women a t t h e same t i m e . T h u s , t h e d o u b l e s t a n d a r d a l l o w e d men t o seek s e x u a l g r a t i f i c a t i o n and e m p h a s i z e d f r a g i l i t y and p u r i t y as the most d e s i r a b l e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i n a woman. Some women v i e w e d the d o u b l e s t a n d a r d o f b e h a v i o r as r e s u l t i n g i n the s u p e r i o r i t y o f t h e i r own s e x . Due to the e n f o r c e d c o n t i n e n c e t h a t many m a r r i e d women were r e q u i r e d to e x p e r i e n c e t h e y began t o t h i n k o f c o n t i n e n c e as " s o m e t h i n g d e s i r a b l e and s o m e t h i n g w h i c h , i n a s e n s e , made them s u p e r i o r to the o t h e r sex whose a n i m a l n a t u r e c o m p e l l e d s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h o t h e r u n -46 f o r t u n a t e f e m a l e s who became mere v i c t i m s o f t h e i r l u s t . " A u g u s t u s K i n s l e y G a r d n e r , The Causes and Curative Treatment of Sterility (New Y o r k : D e w i t t a n d D a v e n p o r t 1856) , p p . i l l , ' Way l a n d Y o u n g , Eros Denied; Sex in Western Society (New Y o r k : G r o v e P r e s s , I n c . , 1964) , p . 210. 46 E r i c J . D i n g w e l l , The American Woman (New Y o r k : S i g n e t B o o k s , 1957) , p . 85 . 46 The f r a g i l i t y o f women was not a new theme, but i t was r e - e m p h a s i z e d i n the e a r l y y e a r s o f the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y . C a l h o u n , i n v e s t i g a t i n g the A m e r i c a n p e r i o d i c a l l i t e r a t u r e o f t h i s p e r i o d , has p o i n t e d out t h a t " g i r l s l a n -g u i s h i n g o f b r o k e n h e a r t s o r d y i n g o f f l o w e r - l i k e n a t u r e were an immensely p o p u l a r theme, e s p e c i a l l y i n L a d i e s ' 47 M a g a z i n e s . " M e d i c a l and b i o l o g i c a l arguments were used i n c r e a s i n g l y to d e m o n s t r a t e the f r a g i l i t y o f wOmen as compared t o men. In 1839 , a p h y s i c i a n s t a t e d : The female sex is far more sensitive and susceptible than the male, and extremely liable to those distressing affections, which, for want of some better term have been denominated nervous, and which con-sis t chiefly in painful a f f l i c t i o n s of the head, heart, side and indeed of almost every part of the system.48 In l i n e w i t h the d i s t r i b u t i o n o f v i t a l powers e f f e c t , the f e m a l e ' s nervous sys tem was f e l t to d o m i n a t e her r a t i o n a l f a c u l t i e s w h i l e i n the m a l e , the i n t e l l e c t u a l p r o p e n s i t i e s t o o k p r e c e d e n c e . C o n s e q u e n t l y , t h e a n a t o m i c a l and p h y s i o l o g i c a l r o o t s o f the t r a d i t i o n a l sex r o l e were emphas ized to r a t i o n a l i z e the p h y s i c a l and i n t e l l e c t u a l i n f e r i o r i t y o f the f e m a l e to the m a l e . Men were the 'head o f the body p o l i t i c ' , women 47 A r t h u r W. C a l h o u n , A Social History of the American Family from Colonial Times to the Present ( C l e v e l a n d The A r t h u r H. C l a r k Company, 1 9 1 7 - 1 9 1 9 ) , p. 213 . 48 M a r s h a l l H a l l , Commentaries . on Some of the Move Important of the Diseases of Females ( B o s t o n : C.C. L i t t l e and J . Brown, 1839) , p. 2 . 4 7 i t s 1 h e a r t ' . ^ Men were born to c o n c e r n t h e m s e l v e s w i t h the w o r l d of b u s i n e s s , women to the d o m e s t i c scene o f c a r i n g f o r home and husband and p r o d u c i n g and r e a r i n g c h i l d r e n . However , d u r i n g the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y , economic and s o c i a l f o r c e s a t work began to compromise t r a d i t i o n a l s o c i a l r o l e s . Some women began t o q u e s t i o n the c i r c u m s c r i p -t i o n o f t h e i r t r a d i t i o n a l s p h e r e . W e a l t h began to a l l o w a g r o w i n g m i d d l e - c l a s s g r o u p oMv women f r e e d o m f rom some o f t h e more arduous t a s k s o f h o u s e k e e p i n g and r e l e a s e them to p l a y a r o l e o u t s i d e the home, o f t e n as a v o l u n t e e r i n the t e m p e r a n c e , a b o l i t i o n and o t h e r moral c r u s a d e s of the e a r l y n i n e t e e n t h 50 c e n t u r y . The p u b l i c a t i o n o f C h a r l e s K n o w l t o n ' s Fruits of Philosophy; or the Private Companion of Young Married People, i n 1832 emphas ized new p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r b i r t h c o n t r o l and s t i m u l a t e d some women to q u e s t i o n t h e i r t r a d i t i o n a l r o l e as m a n y - t i m e m o t h e r , and c o n s i d e r t h e p o s s i b i l i t y of, c o n t r o l l i n g 51 t h e i r own b o d i e s . Though God had s t i p u l a t e d t h a t woman 4 9 . i Ben B a r k e r - B e n f i e l d , op. o%t., p. 5 4 . ^ P h i l l i d a B u n k l e , op. c i t . , pp. 1 4 - 1 5 , e x p l a i n s t h e e m e r g i n g p u b l i c r o l e o f women as a f u n c t i o n o f t h e Sec o n d G r e a t A w a k e n i n g . The e v a n g e l i s t s , i n d e f i n i n g r e l i g i o u s e x p e r i e n c e as an a f f a i r o f t h e h e a r t , f e l t t h a t t h e a f f e c t i v e n a t u r e o f women made them p a r t i c u l a r l y s u s c e p t i b l e t o r e l i g i o u s a p p e a l . By i d e n t i f y i n g women w i t h s p i r i t u a l i t y i n r e v i v a l r e l i g i o n , r e v i v a l i s t s i m p l i e d a s p e c i a l f e m a l e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i n t h e d r i v e t o w a r d s o c i a l s a l v a t i o n , and t h i s i n c l u d e d s o c i a l a c t i o n . " ^ C h a r l e s K n o w l t o n , The Fruits of Philosophy: or the Private Companion of Young Married People (New Y o r k : F r e e T h o u g h t P u b l i s h i n g Company, 1832). 48 must b r i n g f o r t h her c h i l d i n s o r r o w , the v e r y r e a l f e a r o f t h e p a i n f u l , and o f t e n t r a g i c consequences o f c h i l d b i r t h , c o u p l e d w i t h the knowledge o f new t e c h n i q u e s f o r a v o i d i n g i t p r o p e l l e d some women to r e v i e w t h e i r a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d s e x u a l r e l a t i o n s and t o w a r d t h e i r r o l e i n s o c i e t y as a w h o l e . John Humphrey Noyes gave the agony o f c h i l d b i r t h as h i s p r i m a r y r e a s o n f o r a d v o c a t i n g b i r t h c o n t r o l i n t h e 1 8 4 0 ' s . In the course of six years my wife went through the agonies of f i v e b i r t h s . Four of them were premature. Only one ch i l d lived. . . . After our last d i s -appointment, I pledged my word to my wife that I would never again expose her to such f r u i t l e s s suffering.52 I n c r e a s i n g f e m a l e a c t i v i s m and t h e b i r t h c o n t r o l movement met s t r o n g o p p o s i t i o n f rom the s e x u a l p u r i t y r e f o r m e r s . B i r t h c o n t r o l t h r e a t e n e d the numerous and w i d e l y - h e l d v a l u e s o f s e x u a l r e p r e s s i o n . I n s t e a d of r e t a i n i n g semen f o r p r o -c r e a t i v e and c r e a t i v e p u r p o s e s , and e n c o u r a g i n g s e l f - c o n t r o l and c o n t i n e n c e , i t encouraged n o n - c r e a t i v e s e x u a l e x p e n d i t u r e and u n l e a s h e d the a n i m a l i n s t i n c t s o f man. I t m i l i t a t e d a g a i n s t the c o u n s e l o f s e l f - c o n t r o l and f o r e s i g h t i n p r o -c r e a t i o n - a r e s t r i c t i o n n e c e s s a r y to p u r i f y and r a i s e the s t a n d a r d o f t h e r a c e . I t f u r t h e r c o n t r a d i c t e d t h e B i b l i c a l i n j u n c t i o n to be f r u i t f u l and m u l t i p l y , a d v o c a t i n g what J o h n Humphrey N o y e s , Male Continence, pp. 10-11. 49 Theodore R o o s e v e l t l a t e r termed ' r a c e s u i c i d e ' , . b i r t h c o n t r o l b e i n g but one s t e p t o w a r d the f i n a l e x t i n c t i o n o f t h e n a t i o n . S y l v e s t e r Graham was s u r e t h a t the p u b l i c a t i o n o f b i r t h c o n t r o l books were " e x t e n s i v e , b o l d and e f f i c i e n t e f f o r t s to encourage i l l i c i t and p r o m i s c u o u s commerce between t h e s e x e s , " and t h a t t h e y were i n g r e a t measure r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the r a p i d l y i n c r e a s i n g amount o f s e x u a l m i s b e h a v i o r . 5 4 B i r t h c o n t r o l a l l o w e d women some c o n t r o l o v e r the f u t u r e g e n e r a t i o n - c e r t a i n l y i n s i z e and p o s s i b l y i n q u a l i t y . P h y s i c i a n s warned r e p e a t e d l y t h a t a r t i f i c i a l methods of b i r t h c o n t r o l caused m e c h a n i c a l i r r i t a t i o n and i n c r e a s e d the l u s t f u l n a t u r e o f bo th husband and w i f e . The r e s u l t a n t s e x u a l excess caused n e r v o u s e x h a u s t i o n w h i c h c r e a t e d g y n e c o l o g i c a l l e s i o n s . Through r e f l e x i r r i t a t i o n , r e l a t e d damage o c c u r r e d such as i n s a n i t y , h e a r t d i s e a s e and 55 nymphomania. S i n c e the i l l s o f the mother were p o p u l a r l y c o n s i d e r e d to be i n h e r i t e d by the c h i l d , the f u t u r e g e n e r a -t i o n was condemned to s i c k n e s s and i l l - h e a l t h . 5 3 T h e o d o r e R o o s e v e l t , q u o t e d by H a v e l o c k E l l i s , Little Essays of • Love and Virtue ( L o n d o n : A. and C. B l a c k , L t d . , 1 9 2 7 ) , p. 156. S y l v e s t e r Graham, Chastity, p. 12. "'"'Thomas H e r s e y , The Midwife's Practical Directory; or Woman's Confidential Friend; Comprising Extensive Remarks on the Various Casualities and Forms of Disease Preceding3 Attending and Following the Period of Gestation, with Appendix ( s e c o n d e d i t i o n ; B a l t i m o r e : n.p., I 8 3 6 ) , p. 8 0 . 50 F u r t h e r m o r e , d e s p i t e the a s s u m p t i o n of woman's i n n a t e s e x l e s s n e s s , men such as Todd and G a r d n e r r e g a r d e d women as a p o t e n t i a l t h r e a t to the v i t a l energy t h e o r y . A woman was a sperm a b s o r b e r , "a d r a g on the e n e r g y , s p i r i t s 56 and r e s o l u t i o n o f her p a r t n e r . " " D e s i r o u s women r e p r e s e n t e d man's l o s s o f c o n t r o l o v e r h i m s e l f and c o n s e q u e n t l y women were p o t e n t i a l l y a n t a g o n i s t i c to the f u n d a m e n t a l v a l u e scheme 57 o f s o c i e t y . " " R e b e l l i o u s women," s a i d T o d d , "were t h r e a t e n -i n g to d i s m a n t l e the f a m i l y , the b a s i c u n i t o f o r d e r and s u b s t i t u t e t h e v a g r a n c y o f d e s i r e , t h e rage o f l u s t . . . and d i s e a s e and d e s o l a t i o n w h i c h f o l l o w t h e f o o t s t e p s o f u n r e g u l a t e d n a t u r e . " S i n c e woman's f u n c t i o n was r e p r o d u c -t i o n , c o n t r a c e p t i o n was n a t u r a l l y a r e b e l l i o n a g a i n s t the s o c i a l o r d e r . G r a d u a l p r e s s u r e s f o r women's l e g a l , p h y s i c a l and w o r k i n g r i g h t s c a u s e d s i m i l a r c o n c e r n t o many men. The w o r k i n g woman, i n e f f e c t , had the p o t e n t i a l o f d o u b l i n g t h e a l r e a d y s e v e r e c o m p e t i t i o n f a c e d by t h e w o r k i n g man. Demands f o r w i v e s to c o n t r o l t h e i r own p r o p e r t y r e d u c e d the h u s b a n d ' s l e g a l c o n t r o l o y e r h i s w i f e . Female demands t o c o n t r o l t h e i r own b o d i e s w i t h i n m a r r i a g e l e d to the v i e w t h a t e x c e s s i v e A u g u s t u s K i n s l e y G a r d n e r , "The P h y s i c a l D e c l i n e o f A m e r i c a n Women,1-1 The Knickerbocker, LV ( J a n u a r y , i 8 6 0 ) , 37 . ^ B e n B a r k e r - B e n f i e l d , op. c i t . , p:-..-55?-5 8 J o h n H. Todd, The Young Man, p. 278. 51 p a s s i o n s and a p p e t i t e s o f the husband may be s u f f i c i e n t 59 cause f o r d i v o r c e . T r a d i t i o n a l i s t s r e a c t e d t o t h e t h r e a t o f an eman-c i p a t i n g womanhood by a t t e m p t i n g to r a t i o n a l i z e women's p s y c h o l o g i c a l and p h y s i c a l u n f i t n e s s f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i i i the w o r l d o f men. Woman's f u n c t i o n was to bear c h i l d r e n and c o n s e q u e n t l y the s i g n i f i c a n c e men a t t a c h e d t o the body p a r t o f women i n c r e a s e d i n p r o p o r t i o n to t h e i r d e v a l u a t i o n o f her m i n d . I t was c l a i m e d t h a t a woman's s e x u a l o r g a n s t o t a l l y d o m i n a t e d her mind and t h a t any m a l f u n c t i o n o r d i s e a s e o f the r e p r o d u c t i v e organs c o u l d l e a d e v e n t u a l l y to i n s a n i t y . I t was a l i n e o f r e a s o n i n g e n t i r e l y c o n s o n a n t w i t h i d e a s c o n c e r n i n g the e f f e c t s of male m a s t u r b a t i o n . Now the p h o b i a c o u l d be p r o j e c t e d o n t o b o t h s e x e s . In 1848 D r . C h a r l e s M e i g s , a p r o m i n e n t P h i l a d e l p h i a g y n e c o l o g i s t , e x p l a i n e d to h i s p u p i l s t h a t a woman's g e n e r a t i v e organs e x e r c i s e d a s t r a n g e i n f l u e n c e o v e r her h e a r t , mind and s o u l . A woman w a s , iin f a c t , a " m o r a l , a s e x u a l , a g e r m i f e r o u s , g e s t a t i v e fi o and p a r t u r i e n t c r e a t u r e . " A l l womb, women were p r i s o n e r s to t h e i r r e p r o d u c t i v e f u n c t i o n w h i c h d e t e r m i n e d t h e i r b e h a v i o r 59 Andrew J a c k s o n D a v i s , The Genesis and Ethics of Conjugal Love (New Y o r k : A . J . D a v i s Company, 1 8 7 4 ) , p. 72 . ^ c i r a r l e s D. Me i gs ,,. Woman; Her Diseases and Remedies ( P h i l a d e l p h i a : B l a n c h a r d and L e a , 1853) , p. 54 . , " L e c t u r e on Some o f t h e D i s t i n c -t i v e C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e F e m a l e , " d e l i v e r e d b e f o r e t h e c l a s s o f J e f f e r s o n M e d i c a l Co 11ege ( J a n u a r y 5 , 1847) . 52 and t h e i r p e r s o n a l i t y . By 1870 , D r . H o l b r o o k was e x p l a i n i n g t h a t " t h e A l m i g h t y , i n c r e a t i n g the f e m a l e s e x , had t a k e n the u t e r u s and b u i l t up a woman around i t . " ° ^ Thus an a p p a r e n t p a r a d o x e x i s t e d where the womb i d e n t i f i e d the woman y e t women were e n t i r e l y s e x l e s s b e i n g s . In f a c t , one was a f u n c t i o n o f the o t h e r . Around m i d - c e n t u r y , male m a s t u r b a t i o n p h o b i a was b e i n g i n c r e a s i n g l y p r o j e c t e d onto the woman. The f e a r o f her s e x u a l e x p l o s i v e n e s s and her a b i l i t y to a b s o r b p r e c i o u s male energy caused a r e a s s e r -t i o n o f woman's s e x l e s s n e s s by t h o s e who f e l t t h r e a t e n e d t h a t a f e m a l e ' s l o s s o f s e x u a l c o n t r o l r e p r e s e n t e d s o c i a l d i s o r d e r i n g e n e r a l . D e f i n i n g the absence o f s e x u a l d e s i r e as n o r m a l , some d o c t o r s came t o v i e w p s y c h o l o g i c a l i n d i c a t i o n s o f i t s p r e s e n c e as a d i s e a s e , and s u r g i c a l t e c h n i q u e s were d e v e l o p e d fi 2 to d e a l w i t h the p r o b l e m . In the 1 8 6 0 ' s , o r e a r l i e r , g y n e c o l o g i s t s began to p r a c t i c e r a d i c a l s u r g e r y upon women's r e p r o d u c t i v e organs i n an a t t e m p t to c u r e p s y c h o l o g i c a l d i s o r d e r s . In 1872 , D r . B a t t e y f rom G e o r g i a went even f u r t h e r i n recommending f e m a l e c a s t r a t i o n f o r " n e u r o s i s , i n s a n i t y , 61 M a r t i n L u t h e r H o l b r o o k , Parturition Without Pain: A Code of Directions for Escaping from the Primal Curse (New Y o r k : M.L. H o l b r o o k P u b l i s h i n g Company, 1 8 8 2 ) , pp. 14-15. 6 2 C a r o l 1 S m i t h R o s e n b u r g and C h a r l e s R o s e n b u r g , op. cit.3 c i t e numerous r e f e r e n c e s t o s u p p o r t t h e argument t h a t i d e a s c o n c e r n i n g g y n e c o l o g i c a l t h e r a p y w e re w i d e l y h e l d among t h e m e d i c a l p r o f e s s i o n i n t h e . l a t t e r h a l f o f t h e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y . 53 abnormal m e n s t r u a t i o n . . . t r o u b l e s o m e n e s s , e a t i n g l i k e a p l o u g h m a n , m a s t u r b a t i o n , a t t e m p t e d s u i c i d e , e r o t i c t e n d e n c i e s , p e r s e c u t i o n m a n i a , s i m p l e c u s s e d n e s s and d y s m e n o r r h e a . " L i k e a b u l l or a c o l t , a c a s t r a t e d woman l o s t her s e x u a l a p p e t i t e and became t r a c t a b l e , manageable and u n d e m a n d i n g . By 1906 , i t was e s t i m a t e d t h a t a t l e a s t 150 ,000 women had been s t e r i 1 i z e d . 6 4 Though g y n e c o l o g i s t s were m a l e , and t h e i r s u r g i c a l t e c h n i q u e s d e v e l o p e d i n l a r g e p a r t as a consequence o f male a n x i e t i e s , women t e n d e d to s h a r e o r a t l e a s t be s t r o n g l y i n f l u e n c e d by male a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d sex r o l e s and s o c i a l o r d e r i n g e n e r a l , and l o o k e d i n c r e a s i n g l y a t t h e i r r e p r o d u c -t i v e organs as the s o u r c e o f numerous p r o b l e m s . S e x u a l i t y came to be v i e w e d by many women as a cause of a l a r g e v a r i e t y of p h y s i c a l and p s y c h o l o g i c a l d i s o r d e r s and t h e y t h e m s e l v e s h e l p e d to expand the p o p u l a r i t y o f g y n e c o l o g i c a l s u r g e r y . The d e s i r a b i l i t y o f s e x l e s s n e s s was f u r t h e r r e p r e s e n t e d by an i n c r e a s i n g d e l i c a c y t o w a r d a l l a c t i o n s and o b j e c t s even r e m o t e l y c o n n e c t e d w i t h s e x . R e f e r e n c e s to c h i l d - b i r t h became i n d e l i c a t e . P r e g n a n t m i d d l e - c l a s s women s o u g h t to h i d e t h e i r i m a g i n e d shame as l o n g as p o s s i b l e by t i g h t e n i n g 6 3 R o b e r t B a t t e y , "Normal O v a r i o t o m y - Case,11 Atlanta Medical and Surgical Journal, X ( 1 872) , 321 , 339-dk E l y Van W o r k e r , "The F e t i c h o f t h e O v a r y , " American Journal of Obstetrics and the Diseases of Women and Children, L I V ( J u l y - December, 1 9 0 6 ) , 371 . 54 t h e i r c o r s e t s and r e m a i n i n g i n d o o r s . D O M e n s t r u a t i o n was an i n f i r m i t y w h i c h had to be c l o s e l y h i d d e n , most e s p e c i a l l y f rom the h u s b a n d . Such b o d i l y f u n c t i o n s as s w e a t i n g and e x c r e t i n g were a n i m a l a s p e c t s o f e x i s t e n c e w h i c h had b e t t e r be d e s c r i b e d d e l i c a t e l y o r not a t a l l . V e r b a l s e n s i t i v i t y t o w a r d b o d i l y f u n c t i o n s was but a f u r t h e r i n d i c a t i o n o f an i n c r e a s i n g t e n s i o n t o w a r d sex among both men and women. S h i f t i n g p e r c e p t i o n s o f the woman's s e x u a l r o l e i n s o c i e t y engendered a s u r g e o f c o n c e r n o v e r s e x u a l m i s b e h a v i o r u n p r e c e d e n t e d i n t h a t i t e m p h a s i z e d the problems o f s e x u a l i t y f o r the f e m a l e as w e l l as the m a l e . Though o f t e n f o r e n t i r e l y d i f f e r e n t r e a s o n s , b o t h men and women r e - e x a m i n e d t r a d i t i o n a l v i e w s c o n c e r n i n g woman's l a t e n t s e x l e s s n e s s , her r o l e as w i f e and m o t h e r , and her r o l e i n s o c i e t y a t l a r g e , and r e a c h e d the s i m i l a r c o n c l u s i o n t h a t c o n t r o l l e d s e x u a l i t y was n e c e s s a r y f o r a h e a l t h y s o c i e t y . G y n e c o l o g i s t s c a r r i e d the i d e a to i t s l o g i c a l c o n c l u s i o n ; f e m a l e c a s t r a t i o n was the u l t i m a t e c o n t r o l a g a i n s t the abuses of f e m a l e s e x u a l i t y . Some women r e f o r m e r s were to become e q u a l l y r e a d y to a d v o c a t e male c a s t r a t i o n as a t e c h n i q u e f o r f r e e i n g man f r o m h i s c r i m i n a l d r i v e s and r e t u r n i n g h i m , p a c i f i e d , to s o c i e t y under the a s s u m p t i o n t h a t "no g e n u i n e f reedom o f l o v e can Henry B. Hemenway, Realthful Womanhood and Child-hood: Plain Talks to Non-Professional Readers ( I n d i a n p o l i s : The B o b b s - M e r r J 1 1 Company, 1 8 9 4 ) . 55 be r e a l i z e d u n t i l the t i g e r o f abnormal a m a t i v e n e s s has been subdued and the normal p a s s i o n t r a i n e d i n t o o b e d i e n c e to an i n t e l l i g e n t w i l l , " 6 6 By the 1 8 7 0 ' s , c h a n g i n g p e r c e p t i o n s o f s e x u a l d e v i a n c y had c r e a t e d w i d e s p r e a d f e a r s o v e r t h e p e r v a s i v e n e s s o f s e x u a l i m m o r a l i t y i n A m e r i c a n s o c i e t y . Though u r b a n i -z a t i o n and the e f f e c t s o f i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n had an i m p o r t a n t e f f e c t upon c h a n g i n g p e r c e p t i o n s o f d e v i a n t b e h a v i o r i n g e n e r a l , the t e n e t s of mora l p h y s i o l o g y p r o v i d e d a s p e c i f i c s c i e n t i f i c or p s e u d o - s c i e n t i f i c e x p l a n a t i o n f o r new p e r c e p -t i o n s o f s e x u a l l y d e v i a n t b e h a v i o r . M o r a l p h y s i o l o g i s t s l e d the way i n a s s e r t i n g the w i d e s p r e a d e x i s t e n c e of s e x u a l m i s -b e h a v i o r i n a n t e - b e l l u m A m e r i c a and d e f i n i n g i t as h a r m f u l to s o c i e t y . The p o p u l a r i t y o f t h i s l i n e o f r e a s o n i n g was e v i d e n t i n the number o f d i v e r s e groups who e m p h a s i z e d the problems of s e x u a l i t y to the f e m a l e as w e l l as the m a l e . Y e t t h e s e c h a n g i n g a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d s e x u a l m i s b e h a v i o r were based upon the o b s e r v a t i o n o f o b j e c t i v e phenomena as w e l l as s u b j e c t i v e p e r c e p t i o n s . W h i l e s u b j e c t i v e p e r c e p t i o n s were o f g r e a t i m p o r t a n c e i n c r e a t i n g i n c r e a s i n g f e a r s o v e r t h e m a n i f e s t a t i o n s o f s e x u a l l y d e v i a n t b e h a v i o r , the g r o w t h o f p r o s t i t u t i o n can be c o n s i d e r e d as an i m p o r t a n t e lement and v i s i b l e example o f the c h a n g i n g a t t i t u d e s d i s c u s s e d i n t h i s " S t a t e A s s o c i a t i o n o f S p i r i t u a l i s t s , " Alpha ( S e p t e m b e r , 1875), p. 9. 56 c h a p t e r . Commerc ia l p r o s t i t u t i o n was a phenomenon w h i c h f l o u r i s h e d and became more o b s e r v a b l e i n the urban s c e n e , and w h i c h c r e a t e d f u r t h e r c o n c e r n o v e r i n c r e a s i n g i n d i c e s o f s e x u a l m i s b e h a v i o r as the c e n t u r y p r o g r e s s e d . More s p e c i f i c a l l y , t h e c l e a r l y o b s e r v a b l e abuse of s e x u a l t r a f f i c as a c o l l e c t i v e menace, as opposed to the somewhat hazy and l e s s c l e a r l y d e f i n e d p a r a m e t e r s o f i n d i v i d u a l s e x u a l m i s -b e h a v i o r s e r v e d as a c a t a l y s t to i n t e n s i f y mora l i n d i g n a -t i o n o v e r s e x u a l i m m o r a l i t y . C h a p t e r 2 THE DEVELOPING CONCERN OVER PROSTITUTION To many r e f o r m e r s , the r a p i d e x p a n s i o n o f c o m m e r c i a l p r o s t i t u t i o n t h e y p e r c e i v e d o c c u r r i n g d u r i n g t h e a n t e - b e l l u m y e a r s r e p r e s e n t e d an i m p o r t a n t and b l a t a n t m a n i f e s t a t i o n o f i n c r e a s i n g s e x u a l i m m o r a l i t y among A m e r i c a n s . P r o s t i t u t i o n was n o t , o f c o u r s e , a phenomenon new to the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y . I t had f l o u r i s h e d d u r i n g the s e v e n t e e n t h and e i g h t e e n t h centur ies i n the l a r g e r urban a r e a s , e s p e c i a l l y i n s e a p o r t s such as B o s t o n and New Y o r k , and p e r i o d i c a l l y p r o v o k e d b u r s t s o f p u b l i c o p p o s i t i o n and p o l i c e a c t i o n . ^ P r i o r to the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y , h o w e v e r , normal law e n f o r c e -ment p r a c t i c e s , a few p u b l i c w h i p p i n g s and some s e r m o n i z i n g f r o m the p u l p i t a p p e a r to have been g e n e r a l l y c o n s i d e r e d adequate c o p i n g mechanisms f o r the p r o b l e m . Under t h e a s s u m p t i o n t h a t i g n o r a n c e and i n n o c e n c e were t w i n c o m p a n i o n s , ^ F o r a n e x a m p l e o f p u b l i c o p p o s i t i o n s e e : P h i l i p H o n e , The Diary of Philip Hone, 1828-1851, A l l a n N e v i n s ( e d . ) (New Y o r k : D o d d , M e a d , 1 9 2 7 ) , p. 3 3 9 . 2 D a v i d P i v a r , Purity Crusade ( W e s t p o r t , C o n n e c t i c u t : G r e e n w o o d P r e s s , 1 9 7 3 ) , p. 2 3 . 57 ( 58 s i l e n c e was f e l t t o be t h e most e f f e c t i v e d e t e r r e n t t o t h o s e 3 n o t a l r e a d y i n v o l v e d o r aware o f t h e a b u s e . By t h e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y , h o w e v e r , a new c o n s c i o u s -n e s s o f t h e p r o l i f e r a t i o n o f p r o s t i t u t i o n i n u r b a n a r e a s had a p p e a r e d . B o s t o n i a n s were p a r t i c u l a r l y aware o f t h e p r o b l e m . In 1800, J o h n L a m b e r t , a c o n c e r n e d c i t i z e n , a s s e r t e d t h a t p r o s t i t u t e s amounted t o one t h i r t i e t h o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n o f t h a t c i t y , and m e a s u r e s began t o be t a k e n by ' F r i e n d s o f t h e C i t y ' and by members o f t h e S o c i e t y f o r t h e M o r a l and R e l i g i o u s I n s t r u c t n ' o n n o f t h e P o o r , t o g i v e m o r a l e d u c a t i o n t o t h e p o o r 4 and c o r r u p t . B i b l i c a l t r a c t s were d i s t r i b u t e d t o s a i l o r s 5 who were c o n s i d e r e d r e a d y c u s t o m e r s o f t h e b r o t h e l s . O t h e r s o c i e t i e s s o u g h t t o r e s c u e t h e p r o s t i t u t e h e r s e l f . The New Y o r k M a g d a l e n S o c i e t y , f o u n d e d by t h e R e v e r e n d J o h n M c D o w a l l i n 1830, l e d t h e way i n s u c h e f f o r t s . H o r r i f i e d by t h e c o n d i t i o n s o f p r o s t i t u t e s i n t h e F i v e P o i n t s a r e a o f New Y o r k C i t y , M c D o w a l l c a m p a i g n e d w i d e l y t o s t i m u l a t e c o n c e r n o v e r t h e i r p l i g h t and t h e i r s w e l l i n g r a n k s . He r e p o r t e d t h e names o f s c o r e s o f Houses o f P r o s t i t u t i o n and e s t i m a t e d t h e number o f New Y o r k p r o s t i t u t e s t o be t w e n t y 3 D a n i e l D e f o e , Conjugal Lewdness; or Matrimonial Whoredom ( r e p r i n t e d i t i o n ; G a i n e s v i l l e , F l o r i d a ; S c h o l a r ' s F a c s i m i l e s a n d R e p r i n t s , 1 9 6 7 ) , p . 1 5 . E r i c J o h n D i n g w a l l , The American Woman (New Y o r k : R i n e h a r t , 1 9 5 7 ) , p • 9 0 . ^ D a v i d P i v a r , op. cit.3 p p . 23~2k. 59 t h o u s a n d . " H i s e f f o r t s were soon s u p p o r t e d by the A m e r i c a n Reform A s s o c i a t i o n and the New York Female M o r a l Reform S o c i e t y , w h i c h , by 1837 , had two hundred and f i f t y g r o u p s t h r o u g h o u t the c o u n t r y . Though McDowal l e v e n t u a l l y became p u b l i c l y o s t r a c i s e d f o r h i s methods o f c r e a t i n g c o n c e r n o v e r p r o s t i t u t i o n ( c o l l e c t i o n s o f obscene b o o k s , d r a w i n g s and i n s t r u m e n t s f rom b r o t h e l s w h i c h he l i k e d to d i s p l a y to g r o u p s o f c l e r g y m e n ) , he s t i m u l a t e d a c o n c e r n o v e r p r o s t i t u t i o n t h a t women r e f o r m e r s c a r r i e d f o r w a r d and m a g n i f i e d i n t o t h e p r e d o m i n a n t i s s u e o f the S o c i a l P u r i t y C r u s a d e a t t h e end o f t h e c e n t u r y . F o l l o w i n g the i n i t i a l i n t e r e s t o f the 1 8 3 0 ' s , i n t e r e s t i n the r e s c u e o f p r o s t i t u t e s waned u n t i l t h e 1 8 5 0 ' s when a s e r i e s o f exposes of the e x t e n t o f p r o s t i t u t i o n a p p e a r e d . O b s e r v e r s r e v e a l e d a p i c t u r e o f f r i g h t e n i n g d i m e n -s i o n s . G e n t l e m e n ' s G u i d e s to Houses of P r o s t i t u t i o n i n 1859 l i s t e d one hundred and s i x b r o t h e l s i n New Y o r k , f i f t y -seven i n P h i l a d e l p h i a , and between f i v e and f i f t e e n i n o t h e r m a j o r c i t i e s . ^ A s t a t i s t i c a l s u r v e y c o m p i l e d by W i l l i a m ^ J o h n R. M c D o w a l l , Magdalen Facts (New Y o r k : P r i v a t e l y p r i n t e d , 1 8 3 2 ) , p. 9 8 . See a l s o : R o b e r t S. F l e t c h e r , A History of Oberlin College ( O b e r l i n , O h i o : O b e r l i n - . C o l 1 e g e , . 1 9 ^ 3 ) , p. 2 9 8 : and R o b e r t A l l e r t o n P a r k e r , A Yankee Saint: John Humphrey Noyes. and the Oneida Community (New Y o r k : G.P. Putnam's S o n s , 1 9 3 5 ) , p. 6 9 . F r e e L o v e y e r ( e d . ) , Directory to the Seraglios in New York, Philadelphia, Boston and All Principal Cities in the Union (New Y o r k : P r i n t e d by t h e T r a d e , 1 8 5 9 ) . 60 S a n g e r i n 1858 showed t h e r e t o be s i x t h o u s a n d p r o s t i t u t e s i n New Y o r k and t h a t t h i s number had i n c r e a s e d by t w e n t y p e r c e n t f r o m t h e p r e v i o u s y e a r . B u f f a l o had e i g h t y - s e v e n b r o t h e l s , P h i l a d e l p h i a one h u n d r e d a n d t h i r t y , a nd P i t t s b u r g h , a c o n s e r v a t i v e e s t i m a t e o f n i n e t e e n . O n e - f o u r t h o f t h e m a l e p o p u l a t i o n was s a i d t o r e g u l a r l y v i s i t p r o s t i t u t e s a nd t h e i r i l l i c i t s e x u a l g r a t i f i c a t i o n c o s t New Y o r k a l o n e 9 s e v e n m i l l i o n d o l l a r s a y e a r . S u c h was t h e e x t e n t o f p r o -s t i t u t i o n , s a i d S a n g e r , t h a t every day makes the system of New York more like that of the most depraved capitals of Europe, and i t remains for the good, innate sense of the bulk of the American people to say how much farther we shall proceed in this f r i v o l o u s , intriguing and despicable manner of l i v i n g ; or whether we wil l not s t r i v e to perpetuate the stern morality of the Puritan fathers, our great moral safeguard so far, and thus put an effectual barrier against the inroads of a torrent that must under-mine our whole social fabric.and f i n a l l y crush us beneath the ruins. 10 T h e r e were o t h e r r e p o r t s , t o o . In 1866, B i s h o p S i m p s o n , i n a p u b l i c New Y o r k a d d r e s s , s t a t e d t h a t t h e number o f p r o s t i t u t e s i n t h a t c i t y was e q u a l t o t h e e n t i r e f e m a l e g W i l l i a m W. S a n g e r , The History of Prostitution, Its Extent, Causes and Effects Throughout the World (New Y o r k : H a r p e r a n d B r o t h e r s , 1 8 5 8 ) , p . 4 5 6 . 7Ibid.,, p p . 6 1 2 , 6 1 4 , 6 0 6 . Ibid., p . 5 7 1 . 61 membership o f the M e t h o d i s t c h u r c h . 1 1 Dr. B e l l o w s numbered t he p r o s t i t u t e s on Manhattan I s l a n d a t f rom t w e l v e to twenty thousand i n the same y e a r . Though the S u p e r i n t e n d e n t o f P o l i c e , John A. Kennedy, c l a i m e d t h a t such r e p o r t s were e x a g g e r a t e d , he was f o r c e d to admi t to a knowledge o f s i x hundred and twen ty -one Houses o f P r o s t i t u t i o n , n i n e t y - s i x Houses of A s s i g n a t i o n and s e v e n t y - f i v e Conce r t H a l l s o f i l l 1 2 r e p u t e . Susan B. An thony , a l e a d i n g woman r e f o r m e r , i n d i g n a n t l y c l a i m e d t h a t t he f i v e hundred b r o t h e l s o f Ch i cago 1 3 c o n t a i n e d thousands o f p r o s t i t u t e s . Dr. George H. Napheys e s t i m a t e d t h a t Ch i cago c o n t a i n e d t w i c e as many p r o s t i t u t e s as New York and t h a t t h e r e were t w e l v e thousand i n P h i l a d e l p h i a 1 4 and seven thousand i n C i n c i n n a t i . The exposes r e v e a l e d more than the d imens i on s o f commerc ia l p r o s t i t u t i o n . They i n i t i a t e d w i d e s p r e a d conce rn ove r t he r e l a t e d h e a l t h haza rds o f p r o s t i t u t i o n , i n p a r t i c u l a r , v e n e r e a l d i s e a s e . The Reverend Henry Ward Beeche r , i n one of h i s p o p u l a r l e c t u r e s to young men i n 1860 d e s c r i b e d the h o r r o r s o f s y p h i l i s i n d r a m a t i c f a s h i o n : ^ J o h n H. W a r r e n , J r . , Thirty Years Battle with Crime ( P o u g h k e e p s i e, New Y o r k : A . J . W.hite, 1 8 75 ) , pp. 37 , 30 . 1 2 Mathew H a l e S m i t h , Sunshine and Shadow in New York ( H a r t f o r d , C o n n e c t i c u t : J.B. B u r r , 1 8 6 9 ) , p. 371. 1 3 Ida H u s t e d H a r p e r , The Life and Work of Susan B. Anthony ( I n d i a n a p o l i s : H o l l e n b e c k P r e s s ^ ' 1 8 9 8 ) , p. 1012. 14 George H. N a p h e y s , The Transmission of Life ( T o r o n t o : M a c l e a r , 1 8 7 0 ) , pp. 1 1 3 - M 4 . 62 Every year, in every town, die wretches scalded and scorned with agony. Were the sum of a l l pain that comes with the last stages of vice collected, i t would rend the very heavens with its outcry. . . . Ye,- that are listening . . . come hither, look upon her fourth ward . . . its vomited blood, i t s sores and f i e r y blotches, i t s prurient sweat, i t s dissolving ichor and rotten bones! Stop, young man! 15 The m e d i c a l p r o f e s s i o n , e s p e c i a l l y , was becoming i n c r e a s i n g l y f a m i l i a r w i t h v e n e r e a l d i s e a s e and i t s d e v a s t a t i n g e f f e c t s . "Here i s a d i s e a s e , " s a i d D r . Samuel G r o s s , a p h y s i c i a n o f n a t i o n a l r e p u t a t i o n who became a l e a d i n g s u p p o r t e r o f r e g u l a -t i o n s f o r p r o s t i t u t e s , a thousand times worse than the most deadly epidemic, doing its work slowly, and, as i t were, in darkness and disguise, ruining entire families, destroying many of our best men and women, and laying the founda-tion of untold misery, wretchedness and woe, not unfrequently extending through several generations, and l i t e r a l l y poisoning the very foundations of l i f e . ' 6 A f u r t h e r m e d i c a l danger was i n d i c a t e d by the number o f women s e e k i n g a b o r t i o n s . D r . M a c r a e , a S c o t t i s h v i s i t o r to A m e r i c a i n the 1 8 6 0 ' s , a s s e r t e d t h a t i t was i m p o s s i b l e to i g n o r e the f r i g h t f u l p r e v a l e n c e of a d v e r t i s e m e n t s and f a c i l i t i e s f o r a b o r t i o n s . ^ He l i s t e d t h i r t y d o c t o r s i n New H e n r y W a r d B e e c h e r , Lectures to Young Men on Various Important Subjects (New Y o r k : J . B l a c k w a r d , i 8 6 0 ) , p . 205 . ' ^ D r . S a m u e l G r o s s , q u o t e d i n W i l l i a m S a n g e r , op. cit., p . 699 • ' ^ D a v i d M a c r a e , The Americans at Home ( r e p r i n t e d i t i o n ; New Y o r k : D u t t o n , 1952) , p . kkO. 63 Y o r k who p e r f o r m e d n o t h i n g b u t a b o r t i o n s . F o r t h o s e who d i d n o t s e e k m e d i c a l f a c i l i t i e s , d a i l y a d v e r t i s e m e n t s o f 'Sure C u r e s f o r L a d i e s i n T r o u b l e ' and ' P o r t u g u e s e F e m a l e P i l l s ' e m p h a s i z e d t h e a v a i l a b i l i t y o f o t h e r , more d e v a s t a t i n g 1 o m e t h o d s . In t h e d e s i r e t o combat some o f t h e s e p r o b l e m s , p o l i c e and some members o f t h e m e d i c a l p r o f e s s i o n l o o k e d f a v o r a b l y upon t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f i n t r o d u c i n g c i v i l and m e d i c a l r e g u l a t i o n s f o r p r o s t i t u t e s . Such r e g u l a t i o n s w o u l d l e g a l i z e p r o s t i t u t i o n i n o r d e r t o stem v e n e r e a l d i s e a s e t h r o u g h com-p u l s o r y and r e g u l a r e x a m i n a t i o n s o f p r o s t i t u t e s . P r i o r t o t h e C i v i l War, p o l i c e i n B o s t o n and New Y o r k had made some a t t e m p t t o s e e k o u t and c l o s e down b r o t h e l s i n t h e p o o r e r 1 9 s e c t i o n s o f towns i n an a t t e m p t t o p r e v e n t t h e i r s p r e a d : I n c o n s i s t e n t e n f o r c e m e n t o f a n t i - b r o t h e l l e g i s l a t i o n , how-e v e r , had l i t t l e e f f e c t on p r o s t i t u t i o n o r i t s r e l a t e d h e a l t h e f f e c t s and many o f t h e p o l i c e were w i l l i n g t o t r y r e g u l a -t o r y m e a s u r e s u n d e r t h e a s s u m p t i o n t h a t t h e y p r o t e c t e d t h e 20 home and d e c e n t women f r o m t h e e v i l s o f p r o s t i t u t i o n . I O G e o r g e E l l i n g t o n , The Women of New York, or the Underworld of the Great City (New Y o r k , 1869), p . 396. 19 D a v i d P i v a r , op. cit., p . 29. 20 R o g e r L a n e , Policing the City: Boston., 1822-1885 ( C a m b r i d g e : H a r v a r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1967), p . 138. 64 The i d e a of r e g u l a t i o n stemmed f rom Europe where m u n i c i p a l i t i e s o f the l a r g e r c i t i e s had d e v e l o p e d p r o s t i t u -t i o n d i s t r i c t s under p o l i c e and m e d i c a l s u p e r v i s i o n . P a r i s , B e r l i n and S t o c k h o l m s e r v e d as models o f t h e s y s t e m . In P a r i s , p r o s t i t u t e s were i s s u e d w i t h a w e e k l y h e a l t h c e r t i f i -c a t e o r s e n t f o r m e d i c a l t r e a t m e n t a t La M a i s o n de S t . L a z a r e . M e d i c a l l i t e r a t u r e and v i s i t o r s to and f rom Europe d i s s e m i -n a t e d t h e v i e w i n A m e r i c a t h a t r e g u l a t i o n was e f f e c t i v e i n stemming v e n e r e a l d i s e a s e , and a l s o o p e r a t e d to p r e s e r v e m a r i t a l p u r i t y by a l l o w i n g l i m i t e d p r o s t i t u t i o n f o r male s e x u a l n e e d s . In 1867 , the New Y o r k P o l i c e drew up a p l a n o f p o l i c e and m e d i c a l s u p e r v i s i o n w h i c h was e n d o r s e d by the e d i t o r o f the Nation. S i n c e o n l y the mora l r e g e n e r a t i o n of the i n d i v i d u a l c o u l d d e f e a t p r o s t i t u t i o n , he w r o t e , and t h a t t h i s was u n l i k e l y i n the near f u t u r e , no p r e s e n t e f f o r t to e r a d i c a t e the e v i l w o u l d s t o p t h e s o u r c e o f t h e v i c e - l u s t . The most u s e f u l r e m e d i e s f o r the p r e s e n t , t h e n , were p o l i c e 22 and m e d i c a l r e g u l a t i o n s f o r p r o s t i t u t e s . Many p h y s i c i a n s a g r e e d . F e e l i n g t h a t t h e i r i n a b i l i t y to t r e a t o r p r e v e n t s y p h i l i s stemmed i n l a r g e p a r t f rom t h e p u b l i c ' s a t t i t u d e o f t r e a t i n g v e n e r e a l d i s e a s e as a s e c r e t and u n m e n t i o n a b l e 21 D a v i d P i v a r , op. o i t . 3 pp. 5 2 - 5 3 . 2 2 "The S o c i a l E v i l and I t s Remedy," Nation ( F e b r u a r y 2 1 , 1 8 6 7 ) , p. 1 5 3 -65 d i s e a s e , t h e y hoped t h a t an a c c e p t a n c e of l e g a l i z e d p r o s t i t u -t i o n m i g h t c r e a t e a more p r a g m a t i c a p p r o a c h t o w a r d the c o n t r o l o f the d i s e a s e . By 1877 , some members o f the m e d i c a l p r o f e s s i o n were c a l l i n g f o r l e g a l measures to impose s a n i t a r y r e g u l a t i o n s upon p r o s t i t u t e s , c l a i m i n g t h a t t h e s e w o u l d 23 c o n t r i b u t e to the p r e s e r v a t i o n o f the p u b l i c h e a l t h . The i d e a of t h e r e g u l a t i o n o f p r o s t i t u t e s , w h i c h i m p l i e d a t o l e r a t i o n o f the e v i l i n s t i t u t i o n i t s e l f , h o r r i f i e d m o r a l i s t s , e s p e c i a l l y women r e f o r m e r s . The whole q u e s t i o n of women's r i g h t s was i n t i m a t e l y l i n k e d to the f i g h t a g a i n s t the s e x u a l d o m i n a t i o n o f t h e h u s b a n d . In 1860, E l i z a b e t h Cady S t a n t o n w r o t e to Susan B . A n t h o n y t h a t "woman's d e g r e -d a t i o n i s i n man's i d e a of h i s s e x u a l r i g h t s . Our r e l i g i o n , l a w s , customs are a l l f o u n d e d upon the b e l i e f t h a t woman 24 was made f o r m a n . " The s e x u a l d o m i n a t i o n o f husbands l e d to a m u l t i t u d e o f e v i l s , c h i e f among w h i c h was p r o s t i t u t i o n . L u s t f u l men s o u g h t o u t the b r o t h e l to r e q u i t e t h e i r u n g o d l y d e s i r e s or a p p r o a c h e d t h e i r w i v e s f o r p l e a s u r e , t u r n i n g t h e i r m a r r i a g e i n t o what was f r e q u e n t l y d e s c r i b e d as 25 ' l e g a l i z e d p r o s t i t u t i o n . ' E i t h e r w a y , a l l p a r t i e s s u f f e r e d , 2 3 James W a s h i n g t o n , "A S o c i a l A c t Needed," Nashville Journal of Medicine and Surgery, XX ( 1 8 7 7 ) , 1 7 5 - 1 8 3 . 24 T h e o d o r e S t a n t o n and H a r r i e t S t a n t o n B l a t c h ( e d s . ) , Elizabeth Cady Stanton as Revealed in her Letters, Diary and Reminiscences (New Y o r k : H a r p e r and B r o t h e r s , 1 9 2 2 ) , pp. 2 2 , 2 7 0 . 2 ^  W i l l i a m A. A l c o t t , The Young Husband ( B o s t o n : L i g h t and S t e a r n s , 1 8 3 9 ) , p. 2 4 8 . 66 but the g r e a t e s t b l i g h t was the damage caused to the r i g h t e o u s woman and the i n s t i t u t i o n of m a r r i a g e . P r o s t i t u t i o n , caused the moral and social degredation of a woman who otherwise would live rightly; the dangers of causing disease in such a woman; the encouragement, by example, of a practice which stands pre-eminent as the great cause of social unhappiness; . . . the possibility of the propagation of illegitimate children; the strong probability of contracting venereal disease; the danger of transmitting physical and moral blight to one's offspring; the development of vicious habits; the cultivation of an immoral society; the wasting of time and energy in unprofitable company; the social harm to one's self and one's family; the moral harm which springs from acting in secretiveness and shame; the contracting of the concommitant vices which go hand in hand with venery for venery's sake; and the weakening of the strength of the most potent factor in the solidarity of society -the home.26 T h u s , p r o s t i t u t i o n was an i n s t i t u t i o n w h i c h d i s c r i m i n a t e d a g a i n s t women s i n c e i t i m p l i e d t h a t women were o b l i g a t e d to s a t i s f y t h e a n i m a l d e s i r e s o f men. B u t , s a i d S t a n t o n , ''man i n h i s l u s t has r e g u l a t e d l o n g enough t h i s whole q u e s t i o n of 27 s e x u a l i n t e r c o u r s e . " W a r b a s s e , "Sex M o r a l i t y - An Argument i n D e f e n c e o f t h e S i n g l e S t a n d a r d o f M o r a l i t y , " i n W i l l i a m J . R o b i n s o n et al., Sex Morality: Past, Present and Future (New Y o r k : The C r i t i c and G u i d e Company, 1 9 1 2 ) , p. 16 0. T h e o d o r e S t a n t o n , op. cit., p. 48. 67 E l i z a b e t h B l a c k w e l l , the f i r s t A m e r i c a n f e m a l e p h y s i c i a n , r u s h e d back from E n g l a n d to A m e r i c a when she heard o f the schemes f o r r e g u l a t i o n w h i c h were b e i n g promoted i n v a r i o u s c i t i e s . Though she had noted t h e u n p l e a s a n t e f f e c t s o f v e n e r e a l d i s e a s e i n her work i n the s y p h i l i s w a r d of a P h i l a d e l p h i a h o s p i t a l and w i s h e d to combat i t s s p r e a d , she f e l t t h a t any law w h i c h d i d not f i r m l y s u p p r e s s v i c e 28 w o u l d o n l y e d u c a t e the community i n e v i l . She t h e r e f o r e p r o p o s e d to promote the v i r t u e s of c h a s t i t y as a f o r c e a g a i n s t the r e g u l a t i o n a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s employed i n the d i r e c t p r o -29 m o t i o n o f i m m o r a l i t y . E m p h a s i z i n g the d e t e r m i n a t i o n of c h a s t i t y as a h e a l t h f u l s t a t e by mora l p h y s i o l o g i s t s , B l a c k w e l l i n s i s t e d t h a t man s h o u l d have no need f o r p r o s t i t u t i o n and t h a t , w i t h o u t i t , g roups of women s h o u l d have n e i t h e r the 30 d e s i r e nor the o p p o r t u n i t y to t u r n ' b a d ' . Susan B . Anthony became a l e a d i n g spokeswoman f o r womens,'. r i g h t s o p p o s i t i o n to the l e g i s l a t i o n c o n c e r n i n g t h e r e g u l a t i o n o f p r o s t i t u t i o n . She and her s u p p o r t e r s j o i n e d C l i n t o n F i s k and W i l l i a m G r e e n l e a f E l i o t , both of whom had been l e a d i n g mora l r e f o r m e r s o f a n t e - b e l l u m c r u s a d e s , to a i d i n a b a t t l e a g a i n s t r e g u l a t i o n i s t s i n S t . L o u i s . In C h i c a g o , :~-T:Z.\~ " i e e H a y s , 2 8 E l i n o r R i c e H a y s , Those Extra-Ordinary Blaokwells (New Y o r k : H a r c o u r t , B r a c e a n d W o r l d , 1967) , p . 66 . 2SIbid., p . 70 . 3 ° E l i z a b e t h B l a c k w e l l , The'Laws of Life (New Y o r k : S . P . P u t n a m , 1 8 5 2 ) , p p . 18 -19 . 68 women r e f o r m e r s j o i n e d m i n i s t e r s i n an a t t e m p t to d e f e a t r e g u l a t i o n e f f o r t s t h e r e , and c o l l e c t e d t h o u s a n d s o f s i g n a t u r e s on t h e i r p e t i t i o n s . In P h i l a d e l p h i a , t h e y were s u p p o r t e d by women p h y s i c i a n s , and i n New Y o r k , t h e Women's S o c i a l E d u c a t i o n a l S o c i e t y took c r e d i t f o r d e f e a t i n g r e g u l a t i o n 31 e f f o r t s . F o l l o w i n g t h e s e s u c c e s s e s , Susan B . A n t h o n y , E l i z a b e t h Cady S t a n t o n , L y d i a M o t t and J u l i a Ward Howe t r a v e l l e d w i d e l y to c o n s o l i d a t e and expand t h e i r i n i t i a l v i c t o r i e s and h e l p e d to t r a n s f o r m an a n t i - r e g u l a t i o n p l a t f o r m i n t o an a b o l i t i o n i s t scheme c o n t a i n i n g a p o s i t i v e program o f s o c i a l p u r i t y m e a s u r e s . P i v a r , i n h i s a d m i r a b l e d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e P u r i t y C r u s a d e , has d e m o n s t r a t e d how the f r e q u e n c y o f i d e o l o g i c a l exchanges o v e r r e g u l a t i o n l e d many r e f o r m e r s i n t o an expanded i n t e r e s t i n s o c i a l p u r i t y . " P r o s t i t u t i o n , as an i s s u e , was subsumed by the l a r g e r c o n c e r n f o r s o c i a l p u r i f i c a t i o n , and the f e m i n i s t l e a d e r s h i p w i l l i n g l y p a r t i c i p a t e d i n i t s s u p -32 p r e s s i o n . " Women came t o seek t h e demise o f p r o s t i t u t i o n as a r e f o r m a t o r y measure f o r the whole o f s o c i e t y , and p a r -t i c u l a r l y as a means o f u p g r a d i n g , though not r a d i c a l l y c h a n g i n g women's t r a d i t i o n a l r o l e i n r e l a t i o n to men. Those women who came to d o m i n a t e the S o c i a l P u r i t y Movement t r i e d 31 A a r o n Macy P o w e l l , Regulation Efforts in- America (New Y o r k : Wood and H o l b r o o k , 1878) , p p . 5 4 - 7 1 . 3 2 D a v i d P i v a r , op. cit.s p p . 6 2 - 3 . 69 to r e j e c t t r a d i t i o n a l s o c i a l r o l e s o f women as p a s s i v e , n o n - t h i n k i n g , n o n - s e x u a l , b r e e d i n g h o u s e k e e p e r s , y e t t h e y a d v o c a t e d the a d o p t i o n of an i d e a l f e m a l e r o l e where the p i n n a c l e was s t i l l m o t h e r h o o d , the main arena s t i l l the home, and the b a s i s f o r v a l u e s s t i l l s e x u a l r e p r e s s i o n . The s i g n i f i c a n c e of the new v i e w p o i n t l a y i n the p o s s i b i l i t i e s t h a t came t o be seen f o r e l e v a t i n g t h e o v e r - a l l s t a t u s of women t o w a r d the p r o p o s e d i d e a l r o l e by u t i l i z i n g t h e t e c h -n i q u e s and i n s t i t u t i o n s of the w o r l d o f men. In l i n e w i t h the v i e w of s p e r m a t i c economy, J u l i a Ward Howe s u g g e s t e d t h a t s o c i e t y c o u l d a c c u m u l a t e mora l c a p i t a l i n much the same way as c a p i t a l a c q u i r e d t h r o u g h c o n s e r v e d semen. F a r f rom b e i n g i r r e s p o n s i b l e a b s o r b e r s of semen, women c o u l d be champions i n s u b d u i n g such t e n d e n c i e s ( i n the b r o t h e l and the m a r r i a g e b e d ) , and i n s p o n s o r i n g endeavors to a c q u i r e 33 a sum of m o r a l c a p i t a l w h i c h w o u l d ' b u y ' t h e new s o c i e t y . In i t , men and women would be e q u a l , w i t h d i f f e r e n t but e q u a l l y v a l u a b l e r o l e s , h a r m o n i o u s l y r e l a t e d , and a n i m a l i s t i c i m p u l s e s w o u l d be r e p r e s s e d by a l l , i r r e s p e c t i v e o f age o r s e x . The f i n a l t r i u m p h o f such an endeavor wou ld be t h a t o f s p i r i t u a l and b r o t h e r l y l o v e o v e r a n i m a l i s t i c l u s t . Fears t h a t p r o s t i t u t i o n was not o n l y i n c r e a s i n g but m i g h t become l e g a l l y e n t r e n c h e d i n s o c i e t y , combined w i t h the 33 J u l i a W a r d H o w e , " O p t i m i s m a n d P e s s i m i s m a s E f f i c i e n t S o c i a l F o r c e s , " J u l i a W a r d Howe MSS ( L i b r a r y o f C o n g r e s s , n . p . , n . d . ) . 70 i n c r e a s i n g p e r v a s i v e n e s s o f m a s t u r b a t i o n p h o b i a among m i d d l e -c l a s s men and women to enhance a d i s t r u s t o f s e x u a l i t y w h i c h f e m a l e r e f o r m e r s h e i g h t e n e d r a t h e r t h a n d i i m i n i s h e d . A f r a i d o f the a n i m a l i s t i c e lement o f human n a t u r e , t h e y sought to p r o t e c t t h e m s e l v e s f rom both men and t h e i r own k i n d by e n -c o u r a g i n g the f u r t h e r s u p p r e s s i o n o f s e x u a l i t y t h r o u g h a s t r i n g e n t and s i n g l e s t a n d a r d of s e x u a l m o r a l i t y . P r o s t i t u -t i o n , t h e y b e l i e v e d , undermined t h e whole mora l f o u n d a t i o n of s o c i e t y , and e f f o r t s to e l i m i n a t e i t s p u r r e d the d i s s e m i -n a t i o n of s o c i a l p u r i t y o b j e c t i v e s to r e p r e s s v i c e and 34 c u l t i v a t e m o r a l i t y t h r o u g h C h r i s t i a n a s c e t i c i s m . Such a s p i r a t i o n s f o r the a b o l i t i o n o f p r o s t i t u t i o n r e p r e s e n t e d a r e j e c t i o n o f the n o t i o n o f t h e i n e v i t a b i l i t y o f s i n among s o c i e t y . The e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y v i e w t h a t c r i m e and s i n f u l b e h a v i o r were endemic to s o c i e t y and t h u s c o u l d not be e l i m i n a t e d h a d , d u r i n g the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y , undergone a t r a n s f o r m a t i o n t h a t was o f immense s i g n i f i c a n c e to moral r e f o r m . N i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y A m e r i c a n s p e r c e i v e d g r o w i n g s e x u a l i m m o r a l i t y and s i m u l t a n e o u s l y v i e w e d the p o s s i b i l i t y o f i t s e l i m i n a t i o n w i t h o p t i m i s m . Fears o f i n -c r e a s e d s u s c e p t i b i l i t y to the r a v a g e s of immoral b e h a v i o r were P h i l i p R i e f f , The Triumph of the Therapeutic (New Y o r k : H a r p e r and Row, 1-96-6), p. 18 . F r a n c e s E. Wi1 l a r d , Glimpses of Fifty Years. ( C h i c a g o : Woman's Temperance P u b l i s h i n g A s s o c i a t i o n , 1 8 9 9 ) , p. 4 1 9 . 71 counterba lanced by e n t h u s i a s t i c e f f o r t s t o c o n t r o l and remove the s o u r c e s and m a n i f e s t a t i o n s o f i m m o r a l i t y f rom s o c i e t y . B e f o r e i n v e s t i g a t i n g some of the forms w h i c h t h e s e e f f o r t s t o o k , i t i s t h e r e f o r e p e r t i n e n t to e x p l o r e t h o s e i n f l u e n c e s w h i c h s t i m u l a t e d waves o f o p t i m i s m f o r a s i n l e s s s o c i e t y . As w i t h c h a n g i n g p e r c e p t i o n s o f d e v i a n t b e h a v i o r , many o f the i n f l u e n c e s s t i m u l a t i n g s h i f t i n g c o n t r o l b e l i e f s can be l o c a t e d i n t h e a n t e - b e l l u m y e a r s o f t h e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y . C h a p t e r 3 CHANGING BELIEFS IN THE ABILITY TO CONTROL BEHAVIOR H e i g h t e n e d p e r c e p t i o n s o f d e v i a n t b e h a v i o r d u r i n g the J a c k s o n i a n e r a were i n t i m a t e l y r e l a t e d to the c h a n g i n g A m e r i c a n s c e n e . D e v e l o p i n g i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n i n the a n t e -b e l l u m y e a r s spawned u r b a n i z a t i o n and a h o s t of s o c i a l p r o b l e m s f o r w h i c h t r a d i t i o n a l forms o f s o c i a l c o n t r o l seemed t o t a l l y i n a d e q u a t e . The p r o b l e m . a s some r e f o r m e r s p e r c e i v e d i t , was t h a t the r a p i d i t y o f economic g r o w t h was c r e a t i n g an i n t o l e r a b l e s t r a i n upon the s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e . I n d e e d , the a c c e l e r a t i o n i n the r a t e o f economic p r o g r e s s was so g r e a t t h a t by the 1 8 4 0 ' s , i n s t e a d o f b u t t r e s s i n g the m a t e r i a l f o u n d a t i o n s o f A m e r i c a n s o c i e t y , i t shook a p a r t the i n s t i t u t i o n s o f the o l d s o c i a l o r d e r . ^ T u m u l t u o u s p o p u -l a t i o n g r o w t h caused by f e c u n d i t y and m a s s i v e i m m i g r a t i o n was t r a n s f o r m i n g the make-up o f t h e c o u n t r y as b o t h c i t i e s and w e s t e r n b o u n d a r i e s e x p a n d e d . C o m m u n i c a t i o n s were ' R o w l a n d B e r t h o f f , An Unsettled People: Social Order and Disorder in American History (New Y o r k : H a r p e r a n d Row P u b l i s h e r s , 1 9 7 1 ) , p . 1 2 7 . 72 I 73 f a c i l i t a t e d by the c o n s t r u c t i o n o f r a i l r o a d s and c a n a l s , d e v e l o p e d i n t u r n to f a c i l i t a t e the g r o w t h o f t e x t i l e and o t h e r i n d u s t r i e s . A l l e n c o u r a g e d an u n p r e c e d e n t e d s o c i a l and g e o g r a p h i c a l m o b i l i t y w h i c h went hand i n hand w i t h the d e v e l o p m e n t o f v o l u n t a r i s m , f reedom and p e r s o n a l i n i t i a t i v e . Many J a c k s o n i a n s , s t a t e s Rothman, used e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y c r i t e r i a o f an o r d e r e d s o c i e t y to j u d g e the c h a n g i n g s c e n e , a n d , as a r e s u l t , d e f i n e d the f l u i d i t y and m o b i l i t y o f s o c i e t y as n e c e s s a r i l y c o r r u p t i n g . They saw t h a t , i n t h e s q u a l i d c o n d i t i o n s o f the c i t y , c r i m e , a l c o h o l i s m , p r o s t i t u -t i o n and rowdyism f l o u r i s h e d . It was almost as if the town, in a nightmarish image, was made up of a number of households, f r a i l and huddled together, facing the sturdy and wide doors of the tavern, the gaudy opening into a house of prosti t u t i o n or theater f i l l e d with dissipated customers; a i l the while thieves and drunkards milled the streets introducing the unwary youngster to vice and corruption.^ A f t e r the 1830 ' s the c i t y imposed i t s e l f upon A m e r i c a ' s c o n -4 s c i o u s n e s s m a i n l y as a p r o b l e m . In 1840 one t w e l t h o f t h e ' " S y d n e y E . A h l s t r o m , A Religious History of the American People (New H a v e n : Y a l e Un i v e r s i t y >P r e s s , 1 9 7 2 ) , p . 4 7 5 . 3 D a v i d J . R o t h m a n , The Discovery of the Asylum; Social Order and Disorder in the New Republic ( B o s t o n : L i t t l e , B r o w n a n d C o m p a n y , 1 9 7 1 ) , p p . 6 9 — 7 1 . R i c h a r d H o f s t a d t e r , W i l l i a m S m i t h . a n d D a n i e l A a r o n , The United States: The History of a Republic ( E n g l e w o o d C l i f f s , New J e r s e y : P r e n t i c e H a l l , I n c . , 1 9 5 7 ) , p . 5 1 0 . 74 p o p u l a t i o n l i v e d i n c i t i e s o f more than e i g h t t h o u s a n d p e o p l e . By 1860 , the p e r c e n t a g e had d o u b l e d and c o n t i n u e d to i n c r e a s e as r u r a l p e o p l e and i m m i g r a n t s s o u g h t i n d u s t r i a l w o r k . R e f l e c t i n g t h i s sense of urban c h a o s , r e f o r m e r s c l a i m e d t h a t t r a d i t i o n a l forms of s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n and c o n t r o l were d i s i n t e g r a t i n g and t h a t p h y s i c a l and moral d e t e r i o r a t i o n was i n e v i t a b l e . The cement f o r the s o c i a l b o n d , p r e v i o u s l y s u p p l i e d by r e l i g i o u s o r t h o d o x y seemed to have d i s i n t e g r a t e d i n the i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c p u r s u i t o f w e a l t h and p r o p e r t y . T h e o l o g i c a l d o c t r i n e s had been based upon a s t a t i c c o n c e p t i o n o f the u n i v e r s e where i n s t i t u t i o n s and human n a t u r e were f i x e d and immutable but the p r o g r e s s i v e i n d i v i -d u a l i s m of the l a t e e i g h t e e n t h and e a r l y n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y b e l i e d the r e a l i t y o f such d o c t r i n e s . The b e l i e f t h a t human e f f o r t was a l l t h a t was n e c e s s a r y to c l i m b the economic l a d d e r made i t d i f f i c u l t to promote an o r t h o d o x y t h a t s i n and e v i l were p e r s i s t e n t e l e m e n t s i n human l i f e and t h a t t h e r e c o u l d be no permanent g a i n s o f good o v e r e v i l . I n d e e d , men who had s u c c e e d e d e c o n o m i c a l l y were i m p a t i e n t w i t h a d o c t r i n e o f human d e p r a v i t y w h i c h d e n i e d them the p o s s i b i l i t y o f a t t a i n i n g s a l v a t i o n t h r o u g h t h e i r own e f f o r t s . I f one c o u l d not r i s e above o n e ' s i n n a t e s i n f u l n e s s , t h e r e w a s , p e r h a p s , not much p o i n t i n s t r i v i n g to be m o r a l . When f e e l i n g s of f a t a l i s m p r e d o m i n a t e i n a c o m m u n i t y , the b e n e f i t s o f a r e f o r m a c t i o n are not l i k e l y to be seen 7 5 and t h i s has a l w a y s tended t o . b e one of the m a j o r o b s t a c l e s 5 f a c e d by change a g e n c i e s . However , the i n t r o d u c t i o n to A m e r i c a o f the c o n c e p t of C h r i s t i a n p e r f e c t i o n b r o u g h t about a change i n c o n t r o l b e l i e f s d u r i n g the a n t e - b e l l u m y e a r s w h i c h was o f immense s i g n i f i c a n c e to the f u t u r e o f mora l r e f o r m , f o r i t g a i n e d p o p u l a r i t y a t p r e c i s e l y the p o i n t a t w h i c h A m e r i c a n s seemed most f e a r f u l f o r the s o c i a l o r d e r . F u r t h e r m o r e , i t s t i m u l a t e d the c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n o f methods o f b e h a v i o r a l m a n i p u l a t i o n w h i c h were to become a p r i m e i n g r e d i e n t o f mora l r e f o r m e f f o r t s . The c o n c e p t o f C h r i s t i a n p e r f e c t i o n was b r o u g h t to A m e r i c a by John Wesley who, s t r o n g l y i n f l u e n c e d by German P i e t i s m , was r e s p o n s i b l e f o r d e v e l o p i n g the dynamic r e l i g i o u s movement o f Methodism i n the e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y . Methodism was a r e v i v a l movement d i r e c t e d a t making man's r e l a t i o n to God e x p e r i e n t i a l l y and m o r a l l y m e a n i n g f u l as w e l l as s o c i a l l y r e l e v a n t . By c a l l i n g upon t h e i n d i v i d u a l to seek s a l v a t i o n t h r o u g h h i s own e f f o r t s , Methodism a l l o w e d t h a t s p i r i t u a l and e a r t h l y c a l l i n g s c o u l d be r e c o n c i l e d and t h a t not o n l y w e a l t h , but s i n l e s s n e s s c o u l d be a c h i e v e d . P a t r i c i a V e r t i n s k y , " H e a l t h I n f o r m a t i o n D i f f u s i o n , A n I n t e g r a t e d M o d e l , " International Journal of Health Education, XV ( J a n u a r y - M a r c h , 1 9 7 2 ) , 1 6 . S y d n e y E . A h l s t r o m , op. cit., p . 4 3 8 . 76 As r e v i v a l i s m i n c r e a s e d i n scope and tempo, the p o p u l a r i t y o f the p e r f e c t i o n i s t message s p r e a d . F a t a l i s m was d i s c a r d e d as p e o p l e were e m o t i o n a l l y p e r s u a d e d t h a t t h e y c o u l d change t h e i r own c o n d i t i o n and d e v e l o p a p e r f e c t s o c i e t y . I n d e e d , p e r f e c t i o n i s t s e n t i m e n t s , combined w i t h the r e v i v a l s o f the Second G r e a t A w a k e n i n g , were l a r g e l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r g e n e r a t i n g the c l i m a t e o f o p t i m i s t i c i d e a l i s m and e n t h u s i a s m w h i c h promoted such f e r t i l e p a s t u r e s f o r moral r e f o r m i n the decades p r i o r to the C i v i l War. When R a l p h Waldo Emerson a t t e n d e d the B o s t o n C o n v e n t i o n f o r the F r i e n d s o f U n i v e r s a l Reform i n 1840 he noted w i t h a s t o n i s h -ment the f e r t i l i t y o f p r o j e c t s f o r the s a l v a t i o n o f t h e w o r l d . Madmen, madwomen, men w i t h b e a r d s , D u n k e r s , M u g g I e t o n i a n s , G r o a n e r s , A g r a r i a n s , S e v e n t h Day B a p t i s t s , Q u a k e r s , A b o l i t i o n i s t s , C a l v i n i s t s , U n i t a r i a n s and P h i l o s o p h e r s --a l I came s u c c e s s i v e l y t o t h e t o p and s e i z e d t h e i r moment, i f n o t t h e i r h o u r , w h e r e i n t o c h i d e o r p r a y o r p r o t e s t . 7 The e n t h u s i a s m f o r a p e r f e c t s o c i e t y r e a c h e d a h i g h t i d e i n the 1 8 4 0 ' s and 5 0 ' s . T i m o t h y S m i t h has a b l y d o c u -mented how t h e c o m b i n a t i o n o f r e v i v a l measures and p e r f e c -t i o n i s t a s p i r a t i o n s f l o u r i s h e d i n c r e a s i n g l y i n a n t e - b e l l u m A m e r i c a i n a l l the ma jor d e n o m i n a t i o n s , and when combined w i t h m i l l e n i a l h o p e s , s e r v e d to c r e a t e a m i g h t y f o r c e f o r ^ S t e w a r t H. H o l b r o o k , Dreamers of the American Dream (New Y o r k : H a w t h o r n B o o k s , I n c . , 1969) , p. 3 7 . 77 s o c i a l r e f o r m w e l l b e f o r e the e v e n t s w h i c h f o l l o w e d t h e C i v i l War. R o b e r t B r e m n e r , i n h i s s t u d y o f s h i f t i n g n i n e -t e e n t h c e n t u r y a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d p o v e r t y , a l s o n o t e s t h a t the p o p u l a r e m a n c i p a t i o n f rom a u t h o r i t a r i a n p u r i t a n i c a l t h e o l o g y combined w i t h the a c c e p t a n c e o f r e l i g i o u s c r e e d s t h a t emphas ized the d i g n i t y and p e r f e c t i b i l i t y o f man to l o o s e a t u m u l t o f energy f o r t h e cause o f mora l and h u m a n i -9 t a r i a n r e f o r m . The sense of p e r f e c t i o n i s m c u t a c r o s s most P r o t e s t a n t g r o u p s . I t was c l e a r l y seen i n the a c t i v i t i e s o f C h a r l e s G r a n d i s o n F i n n e y , an i n d e p e n d e n t C o n g r e g a t i o n a l i s t . Sometimes r e g a r d e d as the ' F a t h e r o f Modern R e v i v a l i s m ' , F i n n e y ' s r e v i v a l s were a p o w e r f u l f o r c e i n t h e d e v e l o p i n g a n t i - s l a v e r y movement and the r i s e o f urban e v a n g e l i s m f o r he demanded of h i s c o n v e r t s some k i n d of r e l e v a n t s o c i a l a c t i o n . He was an e x c e l l e n t s a l e s m a n , t a k i n g e v e r y a d v a n t a g e o f p u b l i c i t y , and was e n o r m o u s l y s u c c e s s f u l i n s p r e a d i n g h i s i d e a s c o n c e r n -i n g the p o s s i b i l i t y o f h o l i n e s s i n urban and r u r a l a r e a s . ^ T i m o t h y L. S m i t h , Revivalism and Social Reform in Mid-Nineteenth Century America ( N a s h v i l l e : A b i n g d o n P r e s s , 1 9 5 7 ) , p. 8 . 9 R o b e r t B r e m n e r , From the Depths: The Discovery of Poverty in the United States (New Y o r k : New Y o r k U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 5 9 ) , p. 1 8 . '^Sydney E. A h l s t r o m , op. c i t . 3 p. 4 6 1 . 78 In 1830 , W i l l i a m Emery Channing gave i m p e t u s t o the T r a n s c e n d e n t a l i s t v i e w c o n c e r n i n g the need to r e f o r m s o c i e t y and r e n o v a t e man's s p i r i t u a l c o n d i t i o n by s t a t i n g : " C h r i s t i a n i t y s h o u l d be comprehended as h a v i n g b u t ~ o n e p u r p o s e , the p e r f e c t i o n o f human n a t u r e , the e l e v a t i o n o f men i n t o n o b l e r b e i n g s . " ^ R a l p h Waldo Emerson c a r r i e d the argument f u r t h e r , i n s i s t i n g t h a t men were c a p a b l e o f v i r t u a l l y 1 2 i n f i n i t e p e r f e c t i b i l i t y . P e r f e c t i o n i s t s e n t i m e n t s a l s o formed an i m p o r t a n t p a r t o f t h e p h i l o s o p h y of many of t h e c o m m u n i t a r i a n e x p e r i -ments whose o r i g i n stemmed from the r e v i v a l s o f the Second G r e a t Awakening and whose a c t i v i t i e s f r e q u e n t l y m i r r o r e d t h e t e n s i o n s o f i t h e a g e . To John Humphrey N o y e s , who c o n s i d e r e d t h a t the m i l l e n i u m was a t hand and t h a t he h i m s e l f was l i v i n g i n a s t a t e o f p e r f e c t h o l i n e s s , p e r f e c t i o n i s m r e p r e s e n t e d 1 3 the whole tone o f the a g e . The d e v e l o p m e n t o f l a t e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y ' S o c i a l C h r i s t i a n i t y ' and one of i t s c o m p o n e n t s , p u r i t y r e f o r m , must ' ' W i l l i a m Emery C h a n n i n g , "The P e r f e c t L i f e , " i n Sydney E. A h l S t r o m ( e d . ) , Theology in America: The Major Protestant Voices from Puritanism to Neo-Orthodoxy ( I n d i a n a p o l i s : The B o b b s - M e r r i 1 1 Company, 1967) , p. 208 . 1 2 R a l p h Waldo Emerson, q u o t e d i n W a l t e r M. M e r r i l l , Against Wind and Tide: A Biography of William Lloyd Garrison ( C a m b r i d g e : H a r v a r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 6 3 ) , p. kk. 1 3 J o h n Humphrey N o y e s , The Doctrine of Salvation from Sin3 the End of Christian Faith ( O n e i d a : O n e i d a Community, 18 7 6 ) , p. 28 . 79 be u n d e r s t o o d a g a i n s t t h i s b a c k g r o u n d of i d e a l i s t i c i m p u l s e s as w e l l as i n the l i g h t o f the d i s r u p t i o n o f A m e r i c a ' s a g r a r i a n dream. The a s p i r a t i o n f o r C h r i s t i a n p e r f e c t i o n , the r e b i r t h o f n a t i o n a l i s m a f t e r the War o f 1812 , and the e n l i g h t e n e d r a t i o n a l i s m stemming from e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y t h o u g h t were a l l i n t e n s i f i e d by a phase o f r e v i v a l i s m w h i c h e m p h a s i z e d the n a t i o n ' s sense o f m i l l e n i a l e x p e c t a n c y and s t i m u l a t e d the d e v e l o p m e n t o f the g r e a t mora l c r u s a d e s of the a n t e - b e l l u m e r a . W i t h i n the c r u s a d e f o r the a b o l i t i o n of Negro s l a v e r y l a y the seeds f o r the o r g a n i z a t i o n a g a i n s t the w h i t e s l a v e t r a f f i c w h i c h came to form a f o r e m o s t p a r t o f t h e a c t i v i t i e s o f p u r i t y r e f o r m and i n d e e d the v o l a t i l e i s s u e o f t h e whole q u e s t i o n o f women's r i g h t s . The a c t i v i t i e s o f the Temperance Movement, whose o r i g i n s and i n f l u e n c e s w i l l be d i s c u s s e d a t g r e a t e r l e n g t h i n a n o t h e r s e c t i o n , i n f o r m e d a c e n t u r y ' s e f f o r t s a t h e a l t h and mora l r e f o r m and gave d i r e c t i o n and e x p o s u r e to t h o s e h e a l t h - r e l a t e d a s p e c t s o f mora l r e f o r m w h i c h p u r i t y r e f o r m came to espouse and p r o m o t e . The c r u s a d e to a b o l i s h s l a v e r y was of p a r t i c u l a r s i g n i f i c a n c e to the deve lopment o f p u r i t y r e f o r m f o r many a b o l i t i o n i s t p e r s o n n e l were u t i l i z e d a f t e r the C i v i l War to form a caucus f o r d e v e l o p i n g a new a b o l i t i o n p l a t f o r m 14 a g a i n s t p r o s t i t u t i o n and t h e w h i t e s l a v e t r a f f i c . J o s e p h i n e B u t l e r , Personal Rem-in-isoenoes of a Great Crusade ( L o n d o n : H o r a c e M a r s h a l l and Son, 1896), p. 1 0 3 . 80 H i s t o r i c a l l y , a d v o c a t e s o f C h r i s t i a n p e r f e c t i o n had c r i t i c i z e d a l l forms o f human s l a v e r y , b u t a f t e r the 1 8 3 0 ' s i n c r e a s i n g emphasis upon p e r f e c t i o n i s t s e n t i m e n t s s t i m u l a t e d g r e a t e r 1 5 e f f o r t s to e r a d i c a t e s l a v e r y . The r e v i v a l s o f C h a r l e s F i n n e y became i n s e p a r a b l y l i n k e d w i t h a b o l i t i o n i s m a t O b e r l i n 1 c C o l l e g e . W i l l i a m L l o y d G a r r i s o n , who became the most r a d i c a l l e a d e r o f the A n t i - S l a v e r y Movement, was e d i t i n g a B a p t i s t Temperance J o u r n a l when he was c o n v e r t e d by Quaker Ben jamin Lundy to the a b o l i t i o n i s t c a u s e . The a r t i c l e s on ' o r g a n i c s i n 1 w r i t t e n by Edward B e e c h e r , P r e s i d e n t o f I l l i n o i s C o l l e g e i n 1845 f u r t h e r emphas ized the i n c o m p a t i b i l i t y o f 1 7 s l a v e r y to a p e r f e c t s o c i e t y . I n f l u e n c e d by the p o p u l a r p u b l i c a t i o n o f H a r r i e t Beecher S t o w e ' s Uncle Tom's Cabin the n o r t h came to c o n t e n d t h a t s l a v e r y was a v i o l a t i o n o f h o l i n e s s and m o r a l p u r i t y , and a b o l i t i o n became a s p e a r h e a d •j o of moral r e f o r m . The c a r e e r o f W i l l i a m L l o y d G a r r i s o n p r o v i d e d an e x c e l l e n t example of how the a b o l i t i o n i s t c r u s a d e came to be 1 5 H. R i c h a r d N e i b u h r , The Kingdom of God in America (New Y o r k : H a r p e r and B r o t h e r s , J 9 3 7 ) • ' ^ R o b e r t S. F l e t c h e r , A History of Oberlin College ( O b e r l i n , O h i o : O b e r l i n C o l l e g e , 1943) , p. 298 . '^Edward B e e c h e r , " A r t i c l e s on O r g a n i c S i n , " q u o t e d i n Sydney E. A h l s t r o m , Religious History, p. 653 . 1 8 A l b e r t B a r n e s , " S l a v e r y and t h e B i b l e , " The New Englander, XV ( 1 8 5 7 ) , 129-130 . 81 d i v e r s i f i e d to i n c l u d e campaigns a g a i n s t a v a r i e t y of forms o f human a b u s e . I n i t i a l l y c o n c e r n e d w i t h t e m p e r a n c e , G a r r i s o n soon became an opponent o f Negro s l a v e r y and o f o t h e r t y p e s of human bondage . H i s a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h John Humphrey Noyes i a c c e n t u a t e d h i s b e l i e f i n the p e r f e c t i b i l i t y o f s o c i e t y and 1 9 s u s t a i n e d h i s i m p u l s e t o f i g h t f o r t h e a b o l i t i o n o f s l a v e r y . D u r i n g h i s e d i t o r s h i p of the 'Liberator he d e v e l o p e d a c o n c e r n o v e r r e l a t e d abuses of human f r e e d o m . I n f l u e n c e d by M c D o w a l l ' s Magdalen Report o f p r o s t i t u t i o n i n t h e F i v e P o i n t s a r e a of New Y o r k , he compared the l o t o f the t en t h o u s a n d p r o s t i t u t e s i n t h a t c i t y w i t h t h a t o f h a l f a m i l l i o n s l a v e s i n the South 20 whose m a s t e r s s u b j e c t e d them to e n f o r c e d p r o s t i t u t i o n . H i s a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h t h e Grimke* s i s t e r s , as w e l l as h i s c o n c e r n o v e r p r o s t i t u t i o n , f u r t h e r expanded h i s i n i t i a l i n t e r e s t i n women's r i g h t s w h i c h became, i n many w a y s , a 21 c o r o l l a r y to the a b o l i t i o n c a m p a i g n . I n d e e d , d u r i n g the 1830 ' s and 4 0 ' s , G a r r i s o n c l a i m e d to be the champion o f 22 women's r i g h t s and the hope of t h e i r c a u s e . 19 W a l t e r M e r r i l l , Aga%nst Wind and Tide: A Biography of William Lloyd Garrison ( C a m b r i d g e : H a r v a r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 6 3 ) , p. 181. ^Ibid. j p . 50 . 21 W i l l i a m L l o y d G a r r i s o n , " E d i t o r i a l , " The Liberator ( J u l y 7, 1837) . 22 J o h n L. Thomas, Slavery Attacked: The Abolitionist Crusade ( E n g l e w o o d C l i f f s , New J e r s e y : P r e n t i c e H a l l , I n c . , 1 9 6 5 ) , p. 79. Thomas q u o t e s G a r r i s o n as s a y i n g , "we s h a l l go f o r t h e RIGHTS OF WOMEN t o t h e i r u t m o s t e x t e n t . " 82 H i s t o r i a n s have d e n i g r a t e d G a r r i s o n ' s c l a i m o f i n f l u e n c e o v e r the d e v e l o p i n g Women's R i g h t s Movement , f o r h i s f i g h t a g a i n s t o p p r e s s i o n was not matched by any f i r m c o n -23 v i c t i o n o r p r a c t i c a l e f f o r t s i n p r o m o t i n g f e m a l e e q u a l i t y . There i s no doubt however , t h a t the a n t i - s l a v e r y d e b a t e a r o u s e d numerous q u e s t i o n s c o n c e r n i n g the o r i g i n o f human r i g h t s and the p r o l o n g e d s l a v e r y of women - q u e s t i o n s w h i c h became i n c r e a s i n g l y p o p u l a r t o p i c s o f d i s c u s s i o n among women r e -f o r m e r s . In 1840 , the a n t i - s l a v e r y a s s o c i a t i o n s o f M a s s a c h u s s e t t s and P e n n s y l v a n i a s e n t d e l e g a t i o n s to the World A n t i - S l a v e r y C o n v e n t i o n i n London t h a t i n c l u d e d e i g h t women. The c o n v e n t i o n d e n i e d the women the r i g h t to d e b a t e . P a r t l y as a r e s u l t o f t h i s e x c l u s i o n , L u c r e t i a M o t t and E l i z a b e t h Cady S t a n t o n , b o t h s t a u n c h Q u a k e r s , took a l e a d i n g p a r t i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n of a c o n v e n t i o n a t Seneca F a l l s i n 1848 to d i s c u s s the s o c i a l , 24 c i v i l , and r e l i g i o u s r i g h t s o f women i n A m e r i c a . The Women's R i g h t s Movement s p r e a d r a p i d l y and i n f o r m a t i o n was d i s s e m i n a t e d t h r o u g h s e v e r a l j o u r n a l s : The Una; The Woman's Advocate, The Lily, p u b l i s h e d by A m e l i a Bloomer and Revolution, the work o f Susan B . A n t h o n y . " T r u s t m e , " w r o t e A n t h o n y , who a t t e m p t e d to e x t e n d the a n t i - s l a v e r y campaign to the r e a l m of women, " t h a t as I i g n o r e a l l law to h e l p the s l a v e , G i l b e r t H o b b s B a r n e s , .The Anti-Slavery Impulse, 1830-1844 (New Y o r k : H a r c o u r t , B r a c e a n d W o r l d , I n c . , 1964), p . I 6 0 . 2k L e s l i e B . T a n n e r , ( e d . ) , Voices from Women's Liberation (New Y o r k : S i g n e t B o o k s , 1970), p . 26. 83 so w i l l I i g n o r e i t a l l to p r o t e c t an e n s l a v e d w o m a n h o o d . ' " Z b " A l l t h r o u g h the A n t i - S l a v e r y s t r u g g l e , " s a i d E m i l y C o l l i n s i n 1848 , " e v e r y word of the d e n u n c i a t i o n o f the wrongs o f t h e S o u t h e r n s l a v e , w a s , I f e l t , e q u a l l y a p p l i c a b l e to the wrongs o f my own sex . . . and I was s u r p r i s e d t h a t a l l A b o l i t i o n i s t s d i d not see the s i m i l a r i t y i n the c o n d i t i o n p r o f the two c l a s s e s . " The p e r f e c t i o n i s t s e n t i m e n t s t h a t s t i m u l a t e d the A b o l i t i o n C r u s a d e and t h e Women's R i g h t s Movement were a l s o a p p a r e n t i n t h e Temperance Movement. C o n c u r r e n t w i t h the A n t i - S l a v e r y C r u s a d e the Temperance Movement was d e v e l o p i n g i n t o a f u l l s c a l e campaign f o r mora l l i v i n g and p r o v i d i n g the i n i t i a t i v e f o r a v a r i e t y o f moral and h e a l t h - r e l a t e d r e f o r m s . The i n i t i a l i m p u l s e o f the p e r f e c t i o n i s t d o c t r i n e was to p u r i f y man o f s i n a n d , j u s t as t h i s was p o s s i b l e , so a l s o was i t p o s s i b l e f o r him to be p u r g e d o f h i s bad h a b i t s , e s p e c i a l l y i n t e m p e r a n c e and i m m o r a l i t y . S i n c e such v i c e s made s a l v a t i o n i m p o s s i b l e t h e y were among the f i r s t to be a t t a c k e d by moral r e f o r m e r s , and e f f o r t s to e l i m i n a t e i n t e m p e r a n c e waxed and waned t h r o u g h o u t the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y and i n t o the n e x t . The Temperance C r u s a d e became p a r t i c u l a r l y p o p u l a r among women. I t gave them b r o a d e r scope to p r o v e Ibid., p . 50. Ibid. , p . 49 . 84 t h e i r v a l u e as mora l r e f o r m e r s a t a t i m e when C h r i s t i a n i t y was e m o t i o n a l l y a w a k e n i n g . As h e a l t h r e f o r m came to be seen as an i m p o r t a n t a d j u n c t to moral r e f o r m , women a d o p t e d , i n l a r g e m e a s u r e , the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r i m p l e m e n t i n g i t . Temperance r e f o r m , c o u p l e d w i t h p e r f e c t i o n i s t a s p i r a t i o n s and j o i n e d by e n t h u s i a s t i c women r e f o r m e r s , s t i m u l a t e d d r e s s r e f o r m , m a t e r n a l a s s o c i a t i o n s , p r i s o n r e f o r m , e f f o r t s to s u p p r e s s the b r o t h e l and a v a r i e t y of measures aimed a t sex r e f o r m . Temperance r e f o r m gave d i r e c t i o n and s t i m u l u s to the p h i l o s o p h y , s t r u c t u r e and a c t i v i t i e s o f p u r i t y r e f o r m as the i n t e r - r e l a t i o n s h i p between l i q u o r and s e x u a l m i s -b e h a v i o r became i n c r e a s i n g l y o b v i o u s t o m o r a l i s t s . The mora l and h e a l t h - r e l a t e d r e f o r m s s t i m u l a t e d by e v a n g e l i c a l , p e r f e c t i o n i s t and m i l l e n i a l hopes l a i d the b a s i s f o r l a t e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y e f f o r t s d i r e c t e d a t c o n -t r o l l i n g and r e d i r e c t i n g A m e r i c a n s e x u a l b e h a v i o r . Such e f f o r t s a c h i e v e d t h e i r f u l l e s t i n s t i t u t i o n a l e x p r e s s i o n i n the S o c i a l P u r i t y Movement ofi the 1 8 9 0 ' s . I t was b e f o r e the C i v i l War, h o w e v e r , e s p e c i a l l y i n the two decades b e f o r e the o u t b r e a k o f h o s t i l i t i e s , t h a t the p h i l o s o p h y o f t h e movement was d e v e l o p e d and i t s t h e o r y of s o c i a l a c t i o n d e l i n e a t e d . An i m p o r t a n t r e a s o n f o r the movement f a i l i n g to g a i n i n s t i t u t i o n a l form i n t h i s p e r i o d was the p r i m i t i v e o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c o n d i t i o n of the Women's R i g h t s Movement, a movement t h a t became the p r i n c i p a l agent o f p u r i t y r e f o r m . Temperance , a b o l i t i o n i s m and r e v i v a l i s m were p o s i t i v e s t e p s 85 t o w a r d s o c i a l i z i n g and d e m o c r a t i z i n g r e l i g i o n , a l t h o u g h d i v i s i o n s among r e l i g i o u s d e n o m i n a t i o n s s t i l l t e n d e d to m i t i g a t e a g a i n s t the c o - o p e r a t i o n needed f o r s o c i a l r e c o n -s t r u c t i o n . By m i d - c e n t u r y , h o w e v e r , a new s u r g e o f r e v i v a l i s m c u l m i n a t i n g i n t h e awakenings o f 1858 f u r t h e r b l u r r e d d e n o m i -n a t i o n a l d i s t i n c t i o n s and u n i t e d e v a n g e l i s t s i n renewed e f f o r t s a t s o c i a l r e c o n s t r u c t i o n . Both the Young M e n ' s C h r i s t i a n A s s o c i a t i o n and the U n i t e d S t a t e s C h r i s t i a n Commiss ion were i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d . By 1860 t h e r e were two hundred and t h r e e Young Men 's C h r i s t i a n 27 A s s o c i a t i o n s t h r o u g h o u t the c o u n t r y . The Sunday S c h o o l had become a f a m i l i a r and w i d e - r a n g i n g A m e r i c a n i n s t i t u t i o n . The r e s u r g e n c e of e v a n g e l i s m stemming f rom the awakening of 1858 s u s t a i n e d i t s e l f d u r i n g the war y e a r s so t h a t " t h e symphony o f s a l v a t i o n f i l l e d the a tmosphere of C h r i s t i a n i t y . . . [ a n d ] . . . the most a v i d p r o p o n e n t s o f r e v i v a l measures r e g a r d e d t h e m s e l v e s as c i v i l i z a t i o n ' s most i n d i s p e n s a b l e 28 a g e n t s . " E t h i c a l c o n c e r n s i n c r e a s i n g l y p r e d o m i n a t e d and d o g m a t i c d i s t i n c t i o n s between the s e c t s l o s t t h e i r i m p o r t a n c e i n the f a c e o f an e n t h u s i a s t i c e x p a n s i o n of l a y p a r t i c i p a t i o n 2 7 C h a r l e s H o w a r d H o p k i n s , History of the YMCA in North America (New Y o r k : A s s o c i a t i o n P r e s s , 195-1), p . 193. 2 8 T i m o t h y S m i t h , op. cit., p . 78 . 8 6 and c o n t r o l . " I t i s now more t h o r o u g h l y u n d e r s t o o d , " w r o t e a B a p t i s t p a s t o r o f the t i m e s , " t h a t the l o v e of C h r i s t i n the h e a r t w i l l c o n s t r a i n the l i f e , not m e r e l y to a c t s o f s o b r i e t y , temperance and god 1 i n e s s , but to a s e l f - s a c r i f i c i n g 2 9 z e a l i n good w o r k s . " Per i idds o f o p t i m i s m d u r i n g the a n t e - b e l l u m y e a r s w e r e , o f c o u r s e , c o u p l e d w i t h t i m e s o f p e s s i m i s m , but r e l i g i o u s j e r e m i a d s seemed d i r e c t e d more toward s t i m u l a t i n g f e r v e n t o p t i m i s m and i n c r e a s i n g r e l i a n c e upon human measures i n 30 p e r f e c t i n g man t h a n toward s o c i e t y ' s f a l l i n g i n t o s i n . Even t h e c a t a s t r o p h e o f t h e C i v i l War f a i l e d t o s h a t t e r t h i s o p t i m i s m f o r " t h e t r i u m p h of Yankee a r m s , " as T i m o t h y S m i t h puts i t , " r e s t o r e d the f a i t h o f even P r i n c e t o n c o n s e r v a t i v e s t h a t C h r i s t i a n i t y and c i v i l i z a t i o n were m a r c h i n g f o r w a r d 31 t o w a r d p e r f e c t i o n . " The b e l i e f i n the p o s s i b i l i t y o f t r a n s f o r m i n g s o c i e t y b r i d g e d the i m m e d i a t e a n t e and p o s t - b e l l u m y e a r s . The s t e a d i l y i n c r e a s i n g a c c e p t a n c e of r e v i v a l i s t and e v a n g e l i c a l v a l u e s s t r e n g t h e n e d the b e l i e f i n C h r i s t i a n p e r f e c t i o n w h i l e g r o w i n g c o n c e r n o v e r s o c i a l i s s u e s p r o v i d e d a s e c u l a r base f o r t h e s e r e l i g i o u s v a l u e s . The complementary n a t u r e of 2 9 J a c o b K n a p p , Autobiography (New Y o r k , 1 8 6 8 ) , p . i x , 30 A c c o r d i n g t o B e r t h o f f , t h e h i g h y e a r s o f R e v i v a l s w e r e , 1 8 3 0 - 3 2 , 1842-3, a n d 1 8 5 7 - 8 , op. cit.3 p . 2 ^ 3 . 3 1 L . P . H i c k o k , , " H u m a n i t y P r o g r e s s i n g t o P e r f e c t i o n , " The American Presbyterian and Theological Review, VI ( 1 8 6 8 ) , 5 3 2 ; q u o t e d i n T i m o t h y S m i t h , op. cit. 3 p . 2 3 5 . 87 p e r s o n a l s a l v a t i o n and community improvement f a s h i o n e d b e f o r e the war s t o o d s t r o n g i n i t s a f t e r m a t h . The o p t i m i s t i c message w h i c h p u r i t y r e f o r m e r s d i s s e m i n a t e d to p o s t - w a r s o c i e t y was one w h i c h had s t r o n g r o o t s i n the s t reams o f t h o u g h t c h a r -a c t e r i z i n g the a n t e - b e l l u m y e a r s , and most e s p e c i a l l y the p e r v a s i v e n e s s o f p e r f e c t i o n i s t a s p i r a t i o n s f o r a new Kingdom o f God on e a r t h . P e r f e c t i o n i s t t h o u g h t d r a m a t i c a l l y a l t e r e d A m e r i c a n ' s v i e w s on c o n t r o l l i n g s i n . C l o s e l y r e l a t e d to i t was a w i d e -s p r e a d f e e l i n g t h a t t r a d i t i o n a l methods o f c h i l d n u r t u r e were i n a d e q u a t e to cope w i t h the c o n d i t i o n s caused by the d i s r u p t i o n s i n c u l t u r a l c o n t i n u i t y i n e a r l y n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y 32 A m e r i c a . C h i l d n u r t u r e w r i t e r s c l a i m e d t h a t p a r e n t s were b e w i l d e r e d by the a p p a r e n t need to p r e p a r e c h i l d r e n f o r the b l a s t o f c o m p e t i t i v e i n d i v i d u a l i s m i n t h e economic w o r l d w h i l e s i m u l t a n e o u s l y e d u c a t i n g them to r e s i s t the i n o c u o u s and s i n f u l t e m p t a t i o n s o f a m a t e r i a l i s t i c s o c i e t y . S i n c e the c h i l d o f t e n had to seek an employment o r mode o f l i f e d i f f e r e n t f rom t h a t o f h i s f a t h e r , i n d e p e n d e n c e was a u s e f u l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c to c u l t i v a t e . Y e t , the l o n g - s t a n d i n g C a l v i n i s t b e l i e f i n i n f a n t d e p r a v i t y w h i c h had d e m o n s t r a t e d r e m a r k a b l e s t a y i n g power d e s p i t e the i n f i l t r a t i o n o f the e n l i g h t e n e d R o b e r t M. M e n n e l l , " J u v e n i l e D e l i n q u e n c y i n P e r s p e c t i v e , " E s s a y R e v i e w , History of Education Quarterly3 X l l l ( F a l 1 , 1 973) , 275. 88 i d e a s o f L o c k e , Rousseau and o t h e r s , a d v o c a t e d s u b m i s s i v e o b e d i e n c e , and d i s c i p l i n e aimed a t b r e a k i n g the w i l l , w h i c h was q u i t e c o n t r a r y to i n d e p e n d e n c e . F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e t h e o r y o f i n f a n t d e p r a v i t y c l a s h e d w i t h i d e a s on p e r f e c t i o n i s m w h i c h h e l d o u t hope t h a t c o n v e r s i o n c o u l d be a p r o c e s s o f g r o w t h , and t h a t s i n , f a r f rom be'ing i n e v i t a b l e , c o u l d be e l i m i n a t e d . D u r i n g the e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y , e a r l y e d u c a t i o n a l t h e o r i s t s such as B e n j a m i n R u s h , B e n j a m i n F r a n k l i n and Thomas J e f f e r s o n s t r e s s e d the u t i l i t y o f e d u c a t i o n as a c i v i c , p o l i t i c a l and s o c i a l i n s t r u m e n t d e s i g n e d to advance r e p u b l i c a n v a l u e s and s k i l l s . Though t h e i r v i e w s h e l p e d m o d i f y t r a d i -t i o n a l c o n c e p t i o n s o f human d e p r a v i t y , t h e y d i d not l e a d to any w i d e s p r e a d f a i t h t h a t e d u c a t i o n c o u l d be an i n s t r u m e n t 33 f o r s o c i a l e n g i n e e r i n g and broad s o c i a l and mora l c h a n g e . By the 1 8 3 0 ' s , h o w e v e r , a t r a n s f o r m a t i o n i n a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d c h i l d r e n , t h e i r b e h a v i o r and t h e i r e d u c a t i o n was becoming a p p a r e n t . A g r o w i n g body of ' e x p e r t s ' on e a r l y e d u c a t i o n , or c h i l d n u r t u r e , c l a i m e d t h a t the c o r r u p t i o n and d i s o r d e r l i n e s s o f t h e A m e r i c a n home, the i n a d e q u a c y o f t h e p a r e n t ' s g u i d a n c e t h r o u g h i g n o r a n c e o r c o r r u p t h a b i t s , and i n c r e a s i n g i n d i c e s o f the v i o l a t i o n o f C h r i s t i a n o r d e r t h r o u g h -out s o c i e t y n e c e s s i t a t e d a new a p p r o a c h to C h r i s t i a n n u r t u r e based more s q u a r e l y upon the e x i g e n c i e s o f the o u t s i d e G e r a l d L. G u t e k , A History of the Western Educa-tional Experience (New Y o r k : Random House, 1972), pp. 154-5. 89 34 w o r l d . C h i l d r e n o f t h e 1 .830 's , b o t h A m e r i c a n and f o r e i g n 35 o b s e r v e r s c o m p l a i n e d , were s p o i l e d , c o r r u p t e d and u n r u l y . Many A m e r i c a n s came t o b e l i e v e t h a t i n c r e a s i n g m o b i l i t y and l o n g hours o f i n d u s t r i a l work c o n t r i b u t e d to a d i s i n t e g r a t i o n of t r a d i t i o n a l f a m i l y o r g a n i z a t i o n , l e s s e n e d the a b i l i t y o f the f a t h e r to be an e f f e c t i v e head of the h o u s e h o l d and undermined community s u p p o r t f o r t h e mother i n p e r f o r m i n g her e d u c a t i o n a l f u n c t i o n s . In f a c t , A l e x i s de T o q u e v i l l e , i n h i s o b s e r v a t i o n s on A m e r i c a n s o c i e t y , no ted the i r r e l e v a n c e q c to men of the m o t h e r ' s e d u c a t i o n a l f u n c t i o n . Not o n l y d i d the e f f e c t s o f c h a n g i n g c o n d i t i o n s seem to d i c t a t e the n e c e s s i t y o f r e c o n s i d e r i n g methods o f c h i l d n u r t u r e , the s t reams o f p e r f e c t i o n i s t t h o u g h t w h i c h undermined the s e v e r i t y o f t h e C a l v i n i s t o u t l o o k f l o w e d n a t u r a l l y i n t o d i s c u s s i o n s o f i n f a n t d e p r a v i t y . 34 R o b e r t S u n l e y , " E a r l y N i n e t e e n t h C e n t u r y A m e r i c a n L i t e r a t u r e o n C h i l d R e a r i n g , " M a r g a r e t M e a d a n d M a r t h a W o l f e n s t e i n ( e d s . ) i n Childhood and Contemporary Culture ( C h i c a g o : U n i v e r s i t y o f C h i c a g o P r e s s , 1 9 5 5 ) , p . 1 5 1 . M r s . A . J . G r a v e s , Woman in America (New Y o r k : H a r p e r , 1 8 4 3 ) , p p . 9 4 - 9 5 . W . A . A l c o t t , The Young Mother ( B o s t o n : L i g h t a n d S t e a r n s , 1 8 3 6 ) , p p . 2 3 6 - 7 . 35 A r t h u r W. C a l h o u n , A Social History of the American Family from Colonial Times to• the Present, 1 ( C l e v e l a n d : T h e A r t h u r H . C l a r k C o m p a n y , 1 9 1 7 - 1 9 ) , p . 5 5 . A l e x i s De T o q u e v i l l e , Democracy in America (New Y o r k : V i n t a g e B o o k s , 1 9 5 4 ) , p p . 2 , 4 . 90 O l i v e r Wendel l H o l m e s , C a t h e r i n e Beecher and H a r r i e t Beecher Stowe were a l l c h i l d r e n o f C a l v i n i s t m i n i s t e r s who had grown to f e e l and a d v o c a t e t h a t the d o c t r i n e o f 37 o r i g i n a l s i n was u n s p e a k a b l y c r u e l . E l i z a b e t h Oakes S m i t h , who became a U n i t a r i a n , l i k e d to announce t h a t a t age f i v e she had denounced the f a l s e n e s s o f the C a l v i n i s t c r e e d to her o r t h o d o x f a m i l y on the a s s u m p t i o n t h a t i f God never l o v e d 38 the c r e a t u r e s he made, then he was not a good G o d . O t h e r p o p u l a r w r i t e r s o f the t i m e , such as Fanny F e r n , L y d i a S i g o u r n e y and Sarah H a l e , e m p h a s i z e d the same theme t h r o u g h t h e i r p r o l i f i c w r i t i n g s on d o m e s t i c m a t t e r s and f e m a l e v i r t u e s . Ann Douglas Wood, i n her e x a m i n a t i o n o f numerous works o f t h e s e f e m a l e w r i t e r s d u r i n g the a n t e - b e l l u m p e r i o d , r e m a r k e d t h a t the s e n t i m e n t a l themes o f such works a l l d e a l t , a l t h o u g h i n a d i s g u i s e d way , w i t h a power s t r u g g l e a g a i n s t the s e x e s , by a s s e r t i n g t h e b i o l o g i c a l supremacy o f the f e m a l e and the 39 r i c h n e s s and r e s o u r c e f u l n e s s o f womanhood. By e x t o l l i n g the v i r t u e s o f the f e m a l e r o l e , t h e s e w r i t e r s a l s o a s s e r t e d t h e r i g h t to g u i d e t h e i r o f f s p r i n g , and l o g i c a l l y c o u l d not a c c e p t the r i g i d i t y o f a d o c t r i n e of o r i g i n a l s i n , i m p o s e d , one 3 7 G a l l T h a i n P a r k e r , " S e x , S e n t i m e n t and O l i v e r W e n d e l l H o l m e s , " Women's Studies, I ( 1 9 7 2 ) , 50. o O Ann D o u g l a s Wood, "The L i t e r a t u r e o f I m p o v e r i s h -ment," Women's Studies, I (1972), 8. 3SIbid., pp. 10-11. 91 c o u l d s u g g e s t , by an u n y i e l d i n g and r i g i d f a t h e r f i g u r e and d e p r i v i n g women of t h e i r o p p o r t u n i t y to use t e n d e r n e s s and r e s o u r c e f u l n e s s i n c h i l d r e a r i n g . T h u s , women w r i t e r s and many o t h e r s who became c o n n e c t e d w i t h the emerging Women's R i g h t s Movement s t r e s s e d the p o s i t i v e a s p e c t s o f the f e m a l e r o l e as mother and mora l g u i d e of t h e f a m i l y , as a means o f g a i n i n g more i n f l u e n c e o v e r the e d u c a t i o n o f t h e i r c h i l d r e n . The s t i m u l u s o f p e r -f e c t i o n i s t t h o u g h t , i m p l y i n g t h a t i m m o r a l i t y was not i n h e r e n t i n human n a t u r e , f u r t h e r c o n t r i b u t e d to t h e i d e a t h a t b e t t e r m o t h e r i n g c o u l d p r o d u c e more m o r a l p e o p l e . The c h i l d , born a s i n n e r , c o u l d o n l y s t r i v e to overcome h i s h a n d i c a p , and even t h e n , he c o u l d not be a s s u r e d of the s u c c e s s o f h i s e f f o r t s . I f , h o w e v e r , t h e c h a r a c t e r o f t h e c h i l d c o u l d be p e r c e i v e d as a c l e a n s l a t e , then the r i g h t k i n d o f i m p u l s e s c o u l d be u t i l i z e d to form t h a t c h a r a c t e r i n t o a v i b r a n t C h r i s t i a n p e r s o n a l i t y . I n i t i a l l y , the new n u r t u r e e x p e r t s , many of whom were women, d i d not r e j e c t , out o f h a n d , n o t i o n s o f i n f a n t d e p r a v i t y , b u t r a t h e r m e l i o r a t e d the h a r s h n e s s o f the o l d e r o r t h o d o x y . D r . Heman Humphrey ' s Domestic Education, though a c c e p t i n g i n f a n t d e p r a v i t y , a d v i s e d p a r e n t s to r e j e c t o v e r l y demanding methods i n t r a i n i n g the c h i l d and to s t r e s s the 40 e t h i c a l as w e l l as the r e l i g i o u s d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e c h i l d . ^Heman Humphrey, Domestic Education (Amherst, Adams, 1840). 92 L y d i a S i g o u r n e y and Jacob A b b o t t both e m p h a s i z e d t h a t the f u t u r e o f the c h i l d d e p e n d e d , p e r h a p s , more upon t h e p a r e n t s and the e n v i r o n m e n t t h a n upon h i s i n t r i n s i c n a t u r e . 4 ^ E c h o i n g R o u s s e a u , L y d i a S i g o u r n e y p l e a d e d f o r a g r e a t e r r e s p e c t f o r the c h i l d and emphasis upon the h a p p i n e s s o f h i s c h i l d h o o d y e a r s . L o v e , e x a m p l e , and p r o p e r e n v i r o n m e n t , she s u g g e s t e d , w o u l d be t h e u l t i m a t e d e t e r m i n a n t s o f t h e d e s t i n y o f t h e c h i l d . 4 2 The i d e a o f C h r i s t i a n n u r t u r e f o u n d i t s g r e a t e s t t h e o l o g i c a l a n t e - b e l l u m e x p r e s s i o n i n Horace B u s h n e l l , a C o n g r e g a t i o n a l i s t , who a t t e m p t e d to m e d i a t e the extreme messages o f d o g m a t i c t h e o l o g y and e m o t i o n a l r e v i v a l i s m . In Views of Christian Nurture ( 1 8 4 7 ) , he d e n i e d t h a t c h i l d r e n were l o s t i n s i n u n t i l c o n v e r t e d . C o n v e r s i o n was a l i f e - l o n g p r o c e s s o f g r o w t h , a m a t t e r o f d e v e l o p m e n t and d e e p e n i n g 43 a w a r e n e s s . N u r t u r e was hence a means of e v o k i n g t h e g o o d -ness i n human n a t u r e by c o u n t e r a c t i n g t e n d e n c i e s to d e p r a v i t y i n i n f a n c y . Though B u s h n e l l n e v e r abandoned t h e n o t i o n o f i n f a n t d e p r a v i t y e n t i r e l y , h i s i d e a s on t h e need f o r a w e l l -g u i d e d g r o w t h o f t h e c h i l d ' s mora l l i f e by a v i r t u o u s mother k 1 L y d i a H. S i g o u r n e y , Letters to Mothers ( H a r t f o r d : Hudson and S k i n n e r ) 1 838),.p . 34 . J a c o b S.C. A b b o t t , The Child at Home (New Y o r k : H a r p e r and B r o t h e r s , 1833)-kl L y d i a S i g o u r n e y , op. oit.3 p. 36 . k3 H o r a c e B u s h n e l l , Views of Christian Nurture ( H a r t f o r d : H u n t , 1847) . 93 became a f o u n d a t i o n s t o n e f o r the deve lopment o f f u t u r e t e c h n i q u e s f o r mora l e d u c a t i o n . I n c r e a s i n g l y , t h e v i e w o f t h e c h i l d as a w i l l f u l s i n n e r was r e p l a c e d by a c o n f i d e n c e t h a t t h e c h a r a c t e r o f the c h i l d c o u l d be molded " l i k e wax to r e c e i v e , but l i k e m a r b l e to h o l d , e v e r y i m p r e s s i o n made upon i t f o r good o r f o r 44 e v i l . " T r a n s c e n d e n t a l i s t s , S w e d e n b o r g i a n s , e v a n g e l i c a l s , and o t h e r s i n t e r e s t e d i n c h i l d n u r t u r e t ended to u n i t e i n the b e l i e f t h a t the freedom of man and a new e r a of r a t i o n a l and g u i d e d c h i l d r e a r i n g would l e a d the young to t h e " r e s i d e n c e 45 o f G o d . " By the 1 8 5 0 ' s , the new r e a l i s m i n a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d n u r t u r e was c o n c e i v i n g o f the c h i l d as a p l o t o f g r o u n d , w h e r e i n the p r i m a r y need was to sow good seeds and e l i m i n a t e , 46 where n e c e s s a r y , the weeds . S i n c e much o f the c h i l d ' s n a t u r e was now f e l t to be under human c o n t r o l , r a t h e r t h a n G o d ' s , the b e l i e f was g r a d u a l l y s t r e n g t h e n e d t h a t the ^ J a m e s M. Mathews, "The R e l i g i o u s I n f l u e n c e o f M o t h e r s , " The National Preacher, X ( 1 8 4 7 ) , 310. 45 W i l l i a m G r e e n l e a f E 1 i o t , . E a r l y Religious Education Considered as the Divinely Appointed Way to Regenerate Life ( B o s t o n : C r o s b y , N i c h o l s and Company, 1855) , p. 110. Emmanuel S w e d e n b o r g , Conjugal Love and its Chaste Delights (New Y o r k : A m e r i c a n Swedenborg P r i n t i n g and P u b l i s h i n g S o c i e t y , 1846) , p. 73 . 46 B e r n a r d W i s h y , The Child and the Republic: The Dawn of Modern American Child Nurture ( P h i l a d e l p h i a : U n i v e r s i t y o f P e n n s y l v a n i a P r e s s , 1968) , P a r t One. 94 p e r f e c t i o n o f human n a t u r e was humanly p o s s i b l e and w i t h i t the p e r f e c t i o n o f s o c i e t y . I f p e r f e c t i o n was f e a s i b l e , and the raw m a t e r i a l m o l d a b l e , t h e n a new s i g n i f i c a n c e c o u l d be a t t a c h e d to t h e p r o c e s s o f c h i l d r e a r i n g and methods o f m o r a l t r a i n i n g . A c t i o n , not o n l y to m o d i f y , but to mold b e h a v i o r f rom the v e r y b e g i n n i n g , was c o n s e q u e n t l y i n c r e a s i n g l y p e r -c e i v e d i n A m e r i c a n s o c i e t y as a v e r y r e a l p o s s i b i l i t y , and one r e q u i r i n g the deve lopment o f s p e c i f i c and c a r e f u l l y c o n -t r o l l e d t e c h n i q u e s f o r c o n d i t i o n i n g b e h a v i o r . A f u n d a m e n t a l a s p e c t o f t h i s c o n d i t i o n i n g l a y i n t h e r e a l m of the s e x u a l a s p e c t s o f b e h a v i o r , and e x p e r t s d e t e r m i n e d t o c l a r i f y and a d v i s e upon e v e r y h a b i t w h i c h c o u l d be d e v e l o p e d to o f f s e t the c o n d i t i o n s t h a t b r e d d e v i a n t b e h a v i o r , and e s t a b l i s h decency and o r d e r among s o c i e t y . 95 ure 1 . H a r r y T . P e t e r s , Currier and Ives; Printmakers to the American People (Garden C i t y , New Y o r k : D o u b l e d a y , Doran and C o . , I n c . , 1 9 4 2 ) , P l a t e 86 . C h a p t e r 4 THE STIMULI OF MORAL PHYSIOLOGY AND THE TEMPERANCE MOVEMENT UPON HEALTH-RELATED MORAL REFORM Many o f the t e c h n i q u e s d e s i g n e d to c o n s t r u c t a mora l s o c i e t y d u r i n g the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y had t h e i r b a s i s i n i d e a s g e n e r a t e d f rom r e c e n t s c i e n t i f i c d e v e l o p m e n t s i n the f i e l d o f h e a l t h and d i s e a s e . B e f o r e the t u r n o f the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y , d e v e l o p m e n t s i n anatomy, p h y s i o l o g y and p a t h o l o g y a l l o w e d t h e o r i e s o f d i s e a s e c a u s a t i o n to be d e f i n e d more c l e a r l y and the ' h u m o r a l ' p h y s i o l o g y o f G a l e n , t h a t had e x e r t e d such t remendous i n f l u e n c e o v e r m e d i c a l t h o u g h t f o r more t h a n two t h o u s a n d y e a r s , was g r a d u a l l y d i s c r e d i t e d as v a r i o u s new v i t a l i s t t h e o r i e s were p r o p o u n d e d . One^of the most s i g n i f i c a n t o f t h e s e d e v e l o p m e n t s s t r e s s e d t h e b a s i c i m p o r t a n c e o f the n e r v o u s sys tem as the l i f e f o r c e , and was a d o p t e d by a S c o t s m a n , W i l l i a m C u l l e n (1712-1790) as t h e b a s i s f o r a g e n e r a l t h e o r y o f h e a l t h and d i s e a s e . C u l l e n h e l d t h a t any s i g n i f i c a n t i n c r e a s e o r d e c r e a s e o f n e r v o u s e n e r g y , w h a t e v e r the c a u s e , w o u l d r e s u l t i n c o n d i t i o n s o f d e b i l i t y i n the m u s c l e s and b l o o d v e s s e l s . I t f o l l o w e d 96 97 t h a t the work o f t h e p h y s i c i a n was to r e l i e v e the e x c i t e m e n t i n o r d e r t o c u r e t h e d e b i l i t y by means o f d r u g s , b l o o d - l e t t i n g purges and d i e t . ^ I t was a e n i o d i f i e d e v e r s i o n o f t h i s t h e o r y t h a t D r . Ben jamin Rush i n t r o d u c e d i n t o the m e d i c a l c i r c l e s o f P h i l a d e l p h i a i n the 1 7 8 0 ' s , and h i s i d e a s came to e x e r t c o n -s i d e r a b l e i n f l u e n c e o v e r m e d i c a l and p u b l i c t h o u g h t d u r i n g the f i r s t h a l f o f the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y . In R u s h ' s v i e w , d i s e a s e was caused by d e b i l i t y . S i n c e d e b i l i t y was i n d u c e d by o v e r - s t i m u l a t i o n r a t h e r t h a n l a c k o f i t , t h e r a p e u t i c measures s h o u l d be d e s i g n e d v t o r e d u c e the s t i m u l a t i o n . Such 2 measures i n c l u d e d r e d u c e d d i e t , b l o o d - l e t t i n g and t e m p e r a n c e . The i n t e s t i n a l a r e a , he n o t e d , was p a r t i c u l a r l y s u s c e p t i b l e to o v e r - s t i m u l a t i o n s i n c e i t not o n l y p o s s e s s e d a l a r g e s u p p l y of nervous t i s s u e , but a l s o came i n t o r e g u l a r c o n t a c t w i t h such e x t e r n a l a g e n t s as f o o d and d r i n k . Thus he c o n c l u d e d t h a t r e g u l a t i o n o f f o o d and d r i n k was an i m p o r t a n t e l e m e n t i n t h e p r e v e n t i o n and t r e a t m e n t o f d i s e a s e . Most e s p e c i a l l y , " W i l l i a m C u l l e n , q u o t e d i n B e n j a m i n R u s h , The Autobiography of Benjamin Rush; h i s "Travels Through. Life," together with his Commonplace Book for 1789-1813 ( P r i n c e t o n : P r i n c e t o n U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 4 8 ) , p . 8 0 . 2 B e n j a m i n R u s h , " D e f e n c e o f B 1 o o d - L e t t i n g a s a R e m e d y f o r C e r t a i n D i s e a s e s , " i n Medical Inquiries and Observations upon the Diseases of the Mind, IV ( t h i r d e d i t i o n ; P h i l a d e l p h i a : J . G r i g g , 1 8 2 7 ) , 1 8 1 - 2 5 8 . 98 Rush n o t e d the e f f e c t s o f l i q u o r upon the body as p r o v i d i n g 3 a p e r f e c t example of d e b i l i t y i n d u c e d by s t i m u l a t i o n . Temperance , he h e l d , was a d v i s a b l e , and i n 1785 he w r o t e t h e f i r s t temperance t r a c t to be p u b l i s h e d i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s , Inquiry Into the Effects of Ardent Spirits on the Human Mind and Body. ^  Rush r e q u e s t e d t e m p e r a n c e , n o t a b s t i n e n c e , and when the f i r s t temperance s o c i e t i e s were formed i n the e a r l y y e a r s of t h e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y t h e y were d e s i g n e d t o moderate the e x c e s s i v e d r i n k i n g o f h a r d l i q u o r , not to p r o h i b i t a l c o h o l c o n s u m p t i o n . The c h u r c h e s d i s p l a y e d l i t t l e e n t h u s i a s m f o r t h e s e e a r l y s o c i e t i e s u n t i l Lyman B e e c h e r , a P r e s b y t e r i a n m i n i s t e r f rom C o n n e c t i c u t , became i n v o l v e d i n temperance w o r k . As e a r l y as 1813 , he was d e c r y i n g the l a x moral s t a n d a r d s o f A m e r i c a n s and the c o n s u m p t i o n o f l i q u o r by c h i l d r e n . By 1826 he had p r o d u c e d a new handbook f o r the Temperance Movement to r e p l a c e Ben jamin R u s h ' s Inquiry Into the Effects of Ardent Spirits. B e e c h e r ' s Six Sermons on Intemperance p r e s e n t e d a new e lement to t e m p e r a n c e . " D a i l y d r i n k i n g " he s t a t e d "marks the b e g i n n i n g o f a h a b i t w h i c h . . . w i l l not be p u r s u e d by one hundred men w i t h o u t p r o d u c i n g many d r u n k a r d s . . . . The 3Ibid., k: 59-61. k -——==—, Inquiry into the Effects of Ardent Spirits ( P h i l a d e l p h i a : J . G r i g g , 1785). "*Lyman B e e c h e r , Six Sermons on the Nature, Occasions, Signs, Evils and Remedy of Intemperance ( s e c o n d e d i t i o n ; B o s t o n : n . p. , 1 827). 99 d r i v i n g need f o r l i q u o r i s p i c k e d up as e a s i l y as the p l a g u e . " 6 Thus Beecher t o o k the l e a d i n making the h a b i t o f d r i n k i n g , r a t h e r t h a n i n t e m p e r a n c e , the s i n and i n demanding t o t a l a b s t i n e n c e . In d o i n g s o , he r e p u d i a t e d the p r i n c i p l e , f o r m e r l y h e l d by temperance s o c i e t i e s , t h a t moderate d r i n k i n g was h a r m l e s s , and l a i d the b a s i s f o r a new and p o p u l a r phase o f the Temperance Movement. In 1826, the National Philanthropist was p r o c l a i m i n g t h a t " t e m p e r a t e d r i n k i n g i s the d o w n - h i l l r o a d to d r u n k e n n e s s . " ^ Though i t was Beecher who i n t r o d u c e d the c o n n e c t i o n between temperance and moral b e h a v i o r , the m e d i c a l p r o f e s s i o n i n t e r j e c t e d f u r t h e r e v i d e n c e to s u p p o r t and e x t e n d the a r g u m e n t . D r . John B e l l o f P h i l a d e l p h i a , a keen temperance w o r k e r , used the p h y s i o l o g i c a l s t u d i e s o f J o s e p h B r o u s s a i s to d e m o n s t r a t e the e f f e c t s o f i n t e m p e r a n c e upon h e a l t h and t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p o f h e a l t h to m o r a l i t y . In t h e p r e f a c e to h i s t r a n s l a t i o n o f B r o u s s a i s 1 w o r k , B e l l e x p l a i n e d t h a t " t h e r e c o u l d be no h e a l t h f o r the s e n s u a l i s t . . . no perma-n e n t l y p l e a s u r a b l e e m o t i o n s f o r him who p a s s e s t h e bounds o f 8 r m o d e r a t i o n i n the i n d u l g e n c e o f h i s a p p e t i t e s . . " J I t f o l l o w e d , ^Ibid.3 pp. 3 7 - 3 9 . ^ A u g u s t F. F e h l a n d t , A Century of Brink Reform in the United States (New Y o r k : E a t o n and M a i n s , 1904) , pp. 5 6 - 5 7 . g J o s e p h V. B r o u s s a i s , Treatise on Physiology Applied to Pathology, t r a n s . J o h n B e l l ( s e c o n d e d i t i o n ; P h i l a d e l p h i a : J o h n B e l 1, 1828), p. v i i i . 100 he c o n c l u d e d , t h a t the r u l e s o f h y g i e n e c o u l d not be i n f r i n g e d w i t h o u t p u n i s h m e n t . In o r d e r to b r o a d c a s t h i s v i e w s on t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p o f temperance to h e a l t h and m o r a l i t y , B e l l , w i t h a n o t h e r temperance w o r k e r , D r . C h a r l e s C o n d i e , e s t a b l i s h e d t h e Journal of Health i n 1829. D i s e a s e , B e l l c l a i m e d i n the f i r s t e d i t i o n , c o u l d o n l y be p r e v e n t e d by " t e m p e r a n c e , pure g a i r , e x e r c i s e and the s u b j e c t i o n o f the a n i m a l p a s s i o n s . " By 1831 the j o u r n a l was c o n d e m n i n g , not j u s t s p i r i t s , but a l l t y p e s o f a l c o h o l , and p r o m o t i n g the i d e a t h a t the o n l y d r i n k f i t f o r man was water . - ' ' ^ Though the harmonious c o n j u n c t i o n o f m e d i c a l t em-p e r a n c e i n j u n c t i o n s and moral p r i n c i p l e s s t i m u l a t e d a s u r g e of p o p u l a r temperance f e e l i n g a f t e r 1826 , e x t e r n a l c o n d i t i o n s a l s o p l a y e d t h e i r r o l e . An o b v i o u s r e a s o n f o r the a t t e n t i o n g i v e n to temperance r e f o r m by p r e a c h e r s and p h y s i c i a n s a l i k e was the e x t e n t o f i n t e m p e r a n c e i n A m e r i c a . Rum was an i m p o r -t a n t f a c t o r i n the economy of New E n g l a n d and d i s t i l l e d s p i r i t s were r e g u l a r l y s e r v e d a t community g a t h e r i n g s and c e l e b r a t i o n s . "There was no merry m a k i n g , " w r o t e Horace G r e e l e y o f h i s c h i l d h o o d i n e a r l y n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y New H a m p s h i r e , " . . . g J o h n B e l l , " P o p u l a r E r r o r . . . S t r e n g t h and D e b i l i t y , " Journal of Health, I (1829-3-0), 3~5. '^John B e l l and C h a r l e s C o n d i e , Journal of Health, 11 (May, 1 8 3 D , 272. 1 01 [ a n d ] s c a r c e l y a c a s u a l g a t h e r i n g . . . w i t h o u t s t r o n g d r i n k . C i d e r , a l w a y s , w h i l e i t r emained d r i n k a b l e w i t h o u t s e v e r e c o n t o r t i o n s o f v i s a g e ; rum a t a l l seasons and on a l l o c c a s i o n s , were r e q u i r e d and p r o v i d e d . " ^ In 1810 i t was e s t i m a t e d t h a t t h e r e were 14 ,000 d i s t i l l e r i e s i n the c o u n t r y , a n n u a l l y p r o -1 2 d u c i n g t h r e e g a l l o n s o f d r i n k f o r e v e r y man, woman and c h i l d . F u r t h e r m o r e , l i q u o r was c h e a p , l i g h t l y t a x e d and r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e to a l l a g e s . Such d i s t u r b i n g f a c t s gave added impetus to temperance r e f o r m e r s as the movement s p r e a d . By 1 8 3 1 , t h e r e were 2 ,200 l o c a l b r a n c h e s o f the A m e r i c a n Temperance S o c i e t y , m o s t l y i n New E n g l a n d , New Y o r k , Ohio and P e n n s y l v a n i a , and a t o t a l o f 170 ,000 members had a g r e e d to renounce l i q u o r . In 1836 , the A m e r i c a n Temperance U n i o n c l a i m e d to have one m i l l i o n p l e d g e s to a b s t a i n f rom a l c o h o l , and noted t h a t many f a c t o r y owners and f a r m e r s had been p e r s u a d e d to w i t h d r a w 1 3 l i q u o r f rom t h e i r p r e m i s e s . ' ^ Q u o t e d i n A l i c e F e l t T y l e r , Freedom's Ferment: Phases of American Social History from the Colonial Period to the Outbreak of the Civil War (New Y o r k : H a r p e r a n d R o w , 1962), p . 264. 1 2 R o w l a n d B e r t h o f f , An Unsettled People: Social Order and Disorder in American History (New Y o r k : H a r p e r a n d Row P u b l i s h e r s , 1 9 7 1 ) , p . 2 6 7 . 1 3 J o h n A l l e n K r o u t , The Origins of Prostitution (New Y o r k : A K n o p f , 1 . 9 2 5 ) , p p . I 8 3 - I 8 7 . 102 In a d d i t i o n to d e n o u n c i n g l i q u o r , t h e Temperance Movement gave i m p e t u s to a v a r i e t y o f h e a l t h - r e l a t e d mora l r e f o r m s w h i c h e v e n t u a l l y came to p r o v i d e a c o h e s i v e c o r e f o r the numerous s t r a n d s o f the P u r i t y Movement. From i t s i n c e p t i o n , p u r i t y r e f o r m d e m o n s t r a t e d a dependence upon temperance r e f o r m . The i d e o l o g y and o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e o f the Temperance Movement were r e a d i l y adopted by p u r i t y r e f o r m e r s who r e a c h e d , w i t h the a i d o f mora l p h y s i o l o g y , beyond the d r i n k p r o b l e m to the deeger i s s u e o f s e x u a l m o r a l i t y and c o n n e c t e d the s a l o o n and the b r o t h e l as t w i n e v i l s w h i c h had t o be removed b e f o r e s o c i e t y c o u l d be s a v e d . As C h a p t e r 1 e x p l a i n e d , the c o n n e c t i o n between a l c o h o l i s m and o t h e r t y p e s o f d e v i a n t b e h a v i o r was commonly made. R e f o r m e r s i n v e s t i g a t i n g the pena l s y s t e m , f o r e x a m p l e , no ted t h a t many o f the c r i m i n a l s m a s t u r b a t e d i n p r i s o n and 14 had been d r u n k a r d s upon a r r i v a l . P o v e r t y and d e l i n q u e n c y were f r e q u e n t l y blamed upon l i q u o r c o n s u m p t i o n . In the 1 8 3 0 ' s , one commentator e s t i m a t e d t h a t s e v e n t y - f i v e p e r c e n t o f 1 5 A m e r i c a n p a u p e r i s m r e s u l t e d from d r i n k . A n o t h e r c l a i m e d t h a t a d i e t o f w a t e r w o u l d be the b e s t c u r e f o r p o v e r t y and 1 g i n d o l e n c e . W i l l i a m Sanger n o t e d , "as an a l m o s t i n v a r i a b l e 1 4 Rowland B e r t h o f f , op. cit.3 p . 268. ' ^ R o b e r t B r e m n e r , From the Depths: The Discovery of Poverty in the United States (New Y o r k : New Y o r k U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1959) , p . 80 . 1 6 T , • , 103 r u l e , t h a t c o u r t e s a n s are i n the h a b i t o f u s i n g a l c o h o l i c s t i m u l a n t s t o a g r e a t e r o r l e s s e r degree i n o r d e r t o m a i n t a i n t h a t a r t i f i c i a l s t a t e o f e x c i t e m e n t w h i c h i s i n d i s p e n s a b l y n e c e s s a r y to t h e i r c a l l i n g . Not one per c e n t o f the p r o s t i t u t e s i n New Y o r k , " he c o n t i n u e d , " p r a c t i c e t h e i r c a l l i n g w i t h o u t p a r t a k i n g of i n t o x i c a t i n g d r i n k s . " 1 ^ The s c i e n t i f i c , o r p s e u d o - s c i e n t i f i c b a s i s f o r such a s s u m p t i o n s , h o w e v e r , was d i s s e m i n a t e d by S y l v e s t e r Graham who p r o v i d e d a s e e m i n g l y l o g i c a l argument to condemn a l l s t i m u l a n t s i n the name o f h e a l t h . The p h y s i o l o g i c a l t h e o r i e s o f Rush and B r o u s s a i s had emphas ized t h a t a l c o h o l s h o u l d not be drunk because i t i r r i t a t e d and i n f l a m e d the body and caused d e b i l i t y and d i s e a s e . P h y s i o l o g i s t s t h e r e f o r e e n j o i n e d a b s t i n e n c e i n the name o f h e a l t h . However , t h e r e were c l e a r l y a number o f o t h e r s u b s t a n c e s w h i c h were e q u a l l y i r r i t a t i n g t o the body and s h o u l d a l s o r e q u i r e a b s t i n e n c e , o r a t l e a s t c o n t i n e n c e . B e l l p o i n t e d t h i s out i n the Journal of Health 1 8 i n 1829 and Graham a d o p t e d and expanded h i s v i e w s . Soon a f t e r b e g i n n i n g a s e r i e s o f temperance l e c t u r e s i n P h i l a d e l p h i a i n 1830, Graham expanded them i n t o a c o m p l e t e s e r i e s o f t a l k s about the a v o i d a n c e o f a l l i n t o x i c a t i n g s u b s t a n c e s . E n t i t l e d ' i 1 1 i a m : S a n g e r , The History of Prostitution: Its Extent, Causes and Effects Throughout the World (New Y o r k : H a r p e r and B r o t h e r s , I858) , p. 5k. J o h n B e l l , Popular Error, p. 1. 1 04 the Science of Human Life, h i s l e c t u r e s i n c l u d e d d i s c u s s i o n s about c h a s t i t y , c o u r t s h i p and m a r r i a g e , the p r e v e n t i o n and t r e a t m e n t o f c h o l e r a , and d i e t . Temperance was t r a n s f o r m e d , i n h i s mind a t l e a s t , i n t o a g e n e r a l c r i t i q u e o f human b e h a v i o r . " A l m o s t e v e r y c i r c u m s t a n c e and i n f l u e n c e i n c i v i c l i f e , " he l a m e n t e d , " e n c o u r a g e d a p r e t e r n a t u r a l and d i s e a s e d s e n s i b i l i t y 1 q o f the b o d y . " Such i n f l u e n c e s i n c l u d e d i m p r o p e r d i e t , i n d o l e n c e and e f f e m i n a c y y , poor h a b i t a t i o n , c l o t h i n g and e x e r c i s e , and a r t i f i c i a l s t i m u l a n t s such as a l c o h o l and t o b a c c o . In h i s o p i n i o n , h o w e v e r , the w o r s t o f f e n d e r s were s e x u a l i n c o n t i n e n c e and s e x u a l t h o u g h t s . S e x u a l e x c e s s and d i s e a s e , he c o n c l u d e d , were i n t i m a t e l y c o n n e c t e d and s e x u a l c o n t r o l c o u l d o n l y be a c h i e v e d t h r o u g h c a r e f u l h y g i e n i c 20 r e g u l a t i o n s . Such r e g u l a t i o n was e s s e n t i a l he i n s i s t e d f o r : . . . while we continually violate the physiological laws of our nature, our systems w i l l continue to be l i v i n g volcanoes of bad feelings and bad passions, which however correct our abstract principles of morality may be . . . wi l l continually break out in i mmo raI act i on.21 1 9 S y l v e s t e r Graham, A Lecture on Epidemic Diseases, Generally, and Particularly the Spasmodic Cholera, Delivered in New York (New Y o r k : M. Day, 1 8 3 3 ) , pp. 13-16. 1 0 Ibid., pp. 12-13. 2 1 , The Graham Journal, 11 ( J u l y 7, 1 8 3 8 ) , 212. 1 05 Graham's a n a l y s i s o f , h e a l t h as a p r o d u c t o f o b e d i e n c e 22 to moral p r i n c i p l e s became e x t r e m e l y p o p u l a r . He was i n v i t e d to r e p e a t h i s l e c t u r e s i n New York where he r e c e i v e d 23 " p r e s s i n g i n v i t a t i o n s f rom e v e r y q u a r t e r . " When a c h o l e r a e p i d e m i c h i t New Y o r k i n 1832 , he was g i v e n f u r t h e r scope to e x p l a i n h i s i d e a s to f r i g h t e n e d a u d i e n c e s . The a b i l i t y to r e s i s t d i s e a s e , he e x p l a i n e d , depended upon the v o l u n t a r y 24 c o n d u c t o f an i n d i v i d u a l i n m a i n t a i n i n g h i s o r g a n i c h e a l t h . Those who v i o l a t e d the laws o f h e a l t h , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the a r e a s o f d i e t and s e x , r e n d e r e d t h e m s e l v e s s u b j e c t to d i s e a s e . Graham p o i n t e d o u t t h a t c h o l e r a h i t such c o u n t r i e s as I n d i a where t h e p o p u l a t i o n was known t o be c o m m i t t e d t o d r u n k e n n e s s , f o r n i c a t i o n and h o m o s e x u a l i t y , and F r a n c e where the p r o s t i t u t e s 25 o f P a r i s were the f i r s t to succumb. By e m p h a s i z i n g p r e v e n -t i o n r a t h e r t h a n c u r e , h i s v i e w s g a i n e d p o p u l a r i t y a t a t i m e 2 2 Graham's a n a l y s i s was n o t , o f c o u r s e , o r i g i n a l . Most o f h i s i d e a s stemmed f r o m t h e w o r k s o f Rush and B r o u s s a i s . What was new was t h e e x t r e m i t y o f h i s p r e v e n t i v e and t h e r a -p e u t i c r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s and t h e i r p o p u l a r i t y . S e e, S.W. N i s s e n b a u m , " C a r e f u l L o v e ; S y l v e s t e r Graham and t h e Emergence o f V i c t o r i a n S e x u a l T h e o r y i n A m e r i c a , 1 8 3 0 - 1 8 4 0 , " U n p u b l i s h e d D o c t o r a l D i s s e r t a t i o n ( W i s c o n s i n : U n i v e r s i t y o f W i s c o n s i n , 1968) , pp. 1 1 5 - 1 3 3 . 2 3 S y l v e s t e r Graham, Lectures on the Science of Human Life, 1 ( B o s t o n : M a r s h , Ca'pen, Lyon and Webb, 1839) , v i . 24 S y l v e s t e r Graham, Cholera, pp. 4 4 - 4 6 . Ibid., pp. 60-62, 49, 69. 1 06 when p e o p l e a n x i o u s l y sought methods o f s t a v i n g o f f e p i d e m i c d i s e a s e s . Most u s e f u l , h o w e v e r , was the f a c t t h a t h i s message was w e l l s u i t e d to mora l r e f o r m e r s . S i n c e he had shown t h a t h e a l t h and mora l r e f o r m were synonomous, f o r c e s o f p o p u l a r m e d i c i n e and r e l i g i o n m i g h t be a b l e to u n i t e i n e r e c t i n g measures to p u r i f y the body as a house to the s o u l . Temperance w o r k e r s c o u l d expand t h e i r s i g h t s to a w h o l e range o f h y g i e n i c a f f a i r s . A l l c r u s a d e r s w i t h p e r f e c t i o n i n mind c o u l d seek to e l i m i n a t e s i n t h r o u g h h e a l t h r e f o r m . Many women became p a r t i c u l a r l y e n t h u s i a s t i c champions o f h e a l t h - r e l a t e d mora l r e f o r m . They were a l r e a d y becoming accustomed to the work o f o r g a n i z e d p h i l a n t h r o p y t h r o u g h v o l u n t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n s . I n d e e d , i n many o f t h e e v a n g e l i c a l v o l u n t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n s g r o w i n g out o f the Second A w a k e n i n g , the s u p p o r t o f l o c a l women's groups became e s s e n t i a l . M r s . C h a r l e s F i n n e y complemented her h u s b a n d ' s p r e a c h i n g by r u n n i n g ' M o t h e r s M e e t i n g s ' and by o r g a n i z i n g the New York Female M o r a l Reform S o c i e t y i n the 1 8 3 0 ' s . As the p o p u l a r i t y o f t h e s e m e e t i n g s i n c r e a s e d , numerous m a t e r n a l a s s o c i a t i o n s were f o u n d e d by women as o r g a n i z e d e f f o r t s to s t r e n g t h e n t h e f a m i l y i n s t i t u t i o n . By the 1 8 4 0 ' s , m a t e r n a l a s s o c i a t i o n s i n New E n g l a n d were c a l l i n g »for a r e d e d i c a t i o n to t h e h o l y , h e a l t h y , h e a r t h . The A m e r i c a n Female M o r a l Reform S o c i e t y e m p h a s i z e d __ " M a t e r n a l A s s o c i a t i o n s , " Parents Magazine, 1 (May, 1 8 4 1 ) , 205-206. See A l s o : R o b e r t S u n l e y , " E a r l y N i n e t e e n t h C e n t u r y A m e r i c a n L i t e r a t u r e on C h i 1 d r e a r i n g , " M a r g a r e t Mead and M a r t h a W o l f e n s t e i n ( e d s . ) i n Childhood and Contemporary Culture ( C h i c a g o : U n i v e r s i t y o f C h i c a g o P r e s s , 1 9 5 5 ) , pp. 1 5 9 - 1 6 0 . 107 t h i s r e d e d i c a t i o n by o p p o s i n g p r o s t i t u t i o n , i n t e m p e r a n c e , d a n c i n g , t h e a t r e s , n o v e l s and f a s h i o n a b l e c l o t h e s . A d v o c a t e s were a l s o p r e s s i n g f o r h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n f o r women. Emma W i l l a r d e s t a b l i s h e d a Female S e m i n a r y i n T r o y , New Y o r k i n 1 8 2 1 , and Mary Lyon founded Mount H o l y o k e C o l l e g e f o r women 27 i n 1836. W e l l b e f o r e the Womens1 R i g h t s C o n v e n t i o n a t Seneca F a l l s i n 1848, women were t a k i n g the i n i t i a t i v e i n many r e f o r m movements. H e a l t h r e f o r m was no e x c e p t i o n . Women saw h e a l t h r e f o r m as a most p e r t i n e n t i s s u e s i n c e they were the g u a r d i a n s of home c o n d i t i o n s and t h e mothers o f f u t u r e g e n e r a t i o n s . F o r m o t h e r s , the n o t i o n t h a t h e a l t h y h a b i t s w o u l d c o n t r i b u t e to a moral l i f e l e n t a new i m p o r t a n c e to t h e i r c h i l d - r e a r i n g r o l e . F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e s c i e n t i f i c argument t h a t s e x u a l e x c e s s s h o u l d be c o n t r o l l e d i n the name o f h e a l t h was p a r t i c u l a r l y a t t r a c t i v e to t h o s e women who sought to e l i m i n a t e the d o u b l e s t a n d a r d o f s e x u a l m o r a l i t y t h a t a l l o w e d men to seek s e x u a l g r a t i f i c a t i o n t h r o u g h p r o s t i t u t i o n . Mary Gove ( l a t e r , w i f e o f p e r f e c t i o n i s t Thomas N i c h o l s ) , was i n many ways a f e m a l e c o u n t e r p a r t to Graham and she gave impetus to t h e s e c o n c e r n s by e x p l a i n i n g the a r g u -ments o f moral p h y s i o l o g y i n her ' L e c t u r e s to L a d i e s on F o r a d i s c u s s i o n o f h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n f o r women i n t h i s p e r i o d s e e J i l l C o n w a y , " P e r s p e c t i v e s o n t h e H i s t o r y o f W o m e n ' s E d u c a t i o n i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , 1 ' 1 History of Education Quarterly, X I V ( s p r i n g , 1974) , 5~7. 108 Anatomy and P h y s i o l o g y ' a t B o s t o n i n 1838. D u r i n g the n e x t y e a r she r e p e a t e d the highly popul a r l e c t u r e s t h r o u g h o u t New E n g l a n d , New York and P e n n s y l v a n i a and a y e a r l a t e r she founded a B o s t o n p e r i o d i c a l e n t i t l e d Health Journal and Advocate of 2 8 Physiological Reform. E l i z a b e t h B l a c k w e l l , the f i r s t A m e r i c a n woman t o g r a d u a t e as a p h y s i c i a n , was p a r t i c u l a r l y e n e r g e t i c i n s t i m u -l a t i n g women to u n d e r t a k e h e a l t h m e a s u r e s , p r i m a r i l y by " r e f o r m i n g the home as the f i r s t s t e p i n the p a t h of a c t i o n to a t t a i n an i d e a l p e r f e c t i o n w h i c h embraced the w h o l i s t i c 29 p e r f e c t i o n of body and s o u l . " Women, she f e l t , s h o u l d pay more a t t e n t i o n to d o c t r i n e s such as moral p h y s i o l o g y , and one o f t h e i r p r i m a r y r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s was to e s t a b l i s h c o r r e c t h a b i t s i n t h e i r c h i l d r e n . A n t e - b e l l u m n u r t u r e e x p e r t s , a g a i n m o s t l y p h y s i c i a n s , were a l s o s t r e s s i n g t h a t the laws o f n u r t u r e were i m p o r t a n t p a r t s o f the laws of h e a l t h . Humphrey, Dewees and A l c o t t emphas ized the i n s e p a r a b l e n a t u r e of p h y s i c a l c a r e and the n u r t u r e of mind and s o u l , s t r e s s i n g the c o n n e c t i o n 30 between d a i l y t a c t i c s and moral s t r a t e g y i n c h i l d r e a r i n g . 2 8 M a r y S . G o v e , Lectures to Ladies on Anatomy and Physiology ( B o s t o n : C a r t e r a n d M u s s e y , 1 8 4 2 ) . 2 9 E 1 i z a b e t h B l a c k w e l l , The Laws of Life (New Y o r k : G . P . P u t n a m ' s S o n s , 1 8 5 2 ) , p p . 1 4 T 1 9 . 3 ° W . A . A l c o t t 1 , 'The Young Mother ( B o s t o n : L i g h t a n d S t e a r n s , 1 8 3 6 ) , p . 2 0 7 ; W. D e w e e s , A Treatise on the Physical and Medical Treatment of Children ( P h i l a d e l p h i a : C a r e y a n d L e a , 1826)', p . 237; H . H u m p h r e y , Domestic Education ( A m h e r s t : A d a m s , 1 8 4 0 ) , p. 61. 109 Sarah H a l e , f o u n d e r and e d i t o r of one of the most p o p u l a r women's magaz ines o f the c e n t u r y , Godey's Lady's Book, took a l e a d i n g r o l e i n p r o v i d i n g mothers w i t h d e t a i l e d r u l e s on t h e d a i l y prob lems o f r e a r i n g c h i l d r e n to be mora l i n d i v i d u a l s . C l o t h i n g , f e e d i n g , p l a y , n u r s e r y c o n d i t i o n s , and the c h i l d ' s r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h the e n v i r o n m e n t were a l l c a r e f u l l y i n v e s t i g a t e d i n Ladies Magazine and Godey's Lady's 31 Book. H a r r i e t M a r t i n e a u gave e x t e n s i v e , and r i g o r o u s a d v i c e on d a i l y c a r e to mothers i n Household Education, u r g i n g more b r e a s t f e e d i n g , s i m p l e d i e t , c l e a n n u r s e r i e s and i n -32 c r e a s e d e x e r c i s e . Andrew Combe and W . A . A l c o t t , b o t h 33 d o c t o r s , and C a t h e r i n e Beecher s t r e s s e d the same themes . A l c o t t p a i d p a r t i c u l a r a t t e n t i o n to d i e t , d r a w i n g up l i s t s o f n a t u r a l f o o d s t h a t w o u l d b e s t c o n t r i b u t e to the h e a l t h i n e s s 34 of the moral c h i l d . 31 " A S u p p l e m e n t t o a P l e a f o r C h i <l!d r e n , " Ladies Magazine, V I I I ( N o v e m b e r , 1 8 3 5 ) , 5 9 7 - 6 0 4 ; " C h i l d r e n ' s jDitjessesq'J Ladies Magazine, V I ( O c t o b e r , 1 8 3 3 ) , 4 6 3 ; " T h e G o o d D i n n e r , " Ladies Magazine, V I ( J a n u a r y , 1 8 3 3 ) , 3 8-40. 3 2 H a r r i e t t M a r t i n e a u , Household Education ( P h i l a d e l p h i a : L e a a n d B l a n c h a r d , 1 8 4 9 ) , p p . 4 0 - 5 6 . 3 3 W . A . A l c o t t , The Young Housekeeper ( 4 t h e d i t i o n , B o s t o n : L i g h t , 1 8 3 9 ) , C h . X I I I ; C a t h e r i n e B e e c h e r , The Evils Suffered by American Women and Children (New Y o r k : H a r p e r a n d B r o t h e r s , 1 8 4 6 ) , p p . 1 3 - 2 0 ; A n d r e w C o m b e , " F r e q u e n c y o f N u r s i n g , " Motherds Assistant, I I I ( J a n u a r y , 1 8 4 3 ) , 1 1 - 1 3 ; " H i n t s t o Y o u n g L a d i e s , " Ladies Magazine, V I I ( F e b r u a r y , 1 8 3 4 ) , 5 2 . ^ W . A . A l c o t t , The Young Wife ( B o s t o n : L i g h t , 1 8 3 7 ) , PP. 1 7 3-4. n o Embedded i n t h i s a d v i c e was the mora l p h y s i o l o g i s t ' s b e l i e f t h a t by i n c u l c a t i n g h a b i t u a l o b e d i e n c e to h y g i e n i c l a w , c h i l d r e n c o u l d be e n a b l e d to c o n t r o l p a s s i o n s , e m o t i o n s , a p p e t i t e s and d e s i r e s . T h i s b e l i e f i m p e l l e d p u r i t y r e f o r m e r s to e n v i s i o n a c o n d i t i o n i n g p r o c e s s f o r the c h i l d w h i c h w o u l d encompass the t o t a l p e r s o n a l i t y o f each i n d i v i d u a l and i n -c l u d e d the m i n u t e s t d e t a i l o f e v e r y - d a y l i f e . I f the c h i l d c o u l d be c o n d i t i o n e d i n s e l f - c o n t r o l and r e s t r a i n t i n a l l t h i n g s , then he would be armed w i t h the w i l l - p o w e r to r e s i s t t e m p t a t i o n s o f the f l e s h and the f o r t i t u d e to s t r i v e t o w a r d pure h a b i t s o f r i g h t l i v i n g . R i g h t l i v i n g was G o d l y l i v i n g , and a s o c i e t y o f i n d i v i d u a l s c o m m i t t e d t o t h i s C h r i s t i a n way o f l i f e was the s o c i e t y f o r w h i c h p u r i t y r e f o r m e r s came to s t r i v e . T h u s , the t e n e t s o f moral p h y s i o l o g y u n d e r l a y numerous e f f o r t s a t h e a l t h - r e l a t e d mora l r e f o r m d u r i n g the a n t e - b e l l u m y e a r s . By c o n t r i b u t i n g s c i e n t i f i c l e g i t i m a c y to the i d e o l o g y o f the temperance c r u s a d e , mora l p h y s i o l o g i s t s h e l p e d p o p u l a r i z e and d i v e r s i f y the movement. Temperance p e r s o n n e l f r e q u e n t l y j o i n e d h e a l t h s o c i e t i e s and a s s i s t e d i n t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f a v a r i e t y o f h e a l t h r e f o r m m e a s u r e s , w h i c h became, i n t u r n , an i m p o r t a n t a s p e c t s o f p u r i t y r e f o r m . S i n c e mora l p h y s i o l o g y h e l p e d i n f o r m t h e b a s i c p r e m i s e s o f b o t h c r u s a d e s , i t was l o g i c a l t h a t t h e y r e m a i n i n t i m a t e l y r e l a t e d t h r o u g h o u t the c e n t u r y . I l l Though the C i v i l War and R e c o n s t r u c t i o n s l o w e d t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f bo th movements , an e f f e c t i v e temperance r e v i v a l t o o k p l a c e i n 1874 t h r o u g h a s e n s a t i o n a l s e r i e s o f demon-3 5 s t r a t i o n s by women a g a i n s t l i q u o r s t o r e s . M o r a l p h y s i o l o g i s t D i o c l e t i a n L e w i s was i n l a r g e measure r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n and e n t h u s i a s m of t h e s e v i s i t a t i o n b a n d s . An e a r n e s t temperance w o r k e r and a u t h o r o f numerous books c o n -c e r n i n g h y g i e n e and m o r a l i t y , L e w i s made w h i r l w i n d t o u r s t h r o u g h o u t the U n i t e d S t a t e s d u r i n g 1873 and 1874 to encourage the f u r t h e r p a r t i c i p a t i o n o f women i n temperance and o t h e r h y g i e n i c r e f o r m s . E v e n t s such as t h i s l e d to t h e f o r m a t i o n o f the Women's C h r i s t i a n Temperance Movement i n 1874 a t C l e v e l a n d . Under the l e a d e r s h i p of F r a n c e s W i l l a r d , women c l a i m e d an i n c r e a s i n g r o l e i n the d i r e c t i o n o f p u b l i c p o l i c y , s e e k i n g to i n c u l c a t e i n t o the p e o p l e a " t a s t e f o r h i g h e r 3 fi t h i n g s " w h i l e a t t a c k i n g the s e x u a l d r u n k a r d . The law and o r d e r s o c i e t i e s o f the Temperance Movement were r e f l e c t e d i n t h e v i g i l a n c e commit tees a g a i n s t p r o s t i t u t i o n o r g a n i z e d 37 by p u r i t y w o r k e r s . 3 5 S t e w a r t H . H o i b r o o k , Dre.amers of the American Dream (New Y o r k : D o u b l e d a y a n d C o . , I n c . , 1957) , p . 89 . 3 6 National Temperance Advocate, X I I ( A u g u s t 1877) , 1 22 . 37Philadelphia Times ( A p r i l 12, 1885) . 112 F r a n c e s W i l l a r d o r i g i n a l l y b e l i e v e d t h a t the Woman's C h r i s t i a n Temperance Union w o u l d l e a d the S o c i a l P u r i t y Movement t h r o u g h the Department f o r the S u p p r e s s i o n o f the S o c i a l E v i l , w h i c h she h e a d e d . The Depar tment soon f r a g m e n t e d , h o w e v e r , to i n c l u d e s e p a r a t e d e p a r t m e n t s f o r pure l i t e r a t u r e , m o t h e r ' s m e e t i n g s and s o c i a l p u r i t y , the l a t t e r l e d by D r . J . H . K e l l o g g and h i s w i f e , Emma. K e l l o g g , the i n v e n t o r o f b r e a k f a s t c e r e a l s , was a l s o K e l l o g g the temperance w o r k e r and the l e a d i n g h y d r o p a t h i s t o f t h e t i m e . H i s d i e t a r y v i e w s were t h u s g i v e n b r o a d e r scope as p a r t o f h i s numerous r e f o r m a c t i v i t i e s now r e a c h e d expanded a u d i e n c e s ; S o c i a l p u r i t y w o r k e r s w i t h i n the Woman's C h r i s t i a n Temperance U n i o n c o -o p e r a t e d w i t h o t h e r s o c i a l p u r i t y a c t i v i s t s and e x t e n d e d t h e i r s p h e r e o f i n f l u e n c e to i n c l u d e m o t h e r ' s m e e t i n g s , p u r i t y p l e d g e s , d i s t r i b u t i o n o f pure l i t e r a t u r e , i n t e r e s t i n p u b l i c e d u c a t i o n and the P l a y g r o u n d Movement, W o r k i n g G i r l - i s S o c i e t i e s , C h i l d r e n ' s Rescue Homes and T r a v e l l e r s ' A i d S o c i e t i e s . 3 8 In many c i t i e s , h o w e v e r , S o c i a l P u r i t y A l l i a n c e s d e v e l o p e d i n d e p e n d e n t l y o f t h e Woman's C h r i s t i a n Temperance 39 U n i o n . M o r a l E d u c a t i o n A s s o c i a t i o n s f o s t e r e d p u r i t y r e f o r m . The S o c i e t y o f F r i e n d s l e n t a s s i s t a n c e to many p u r i t y r e f o r m ^Union Signal ( J a n u a r y 2 , 1890), p. 12. 39^Alpha ( A p r i 1 1 , 1886), p. 11 . 113 e f f o r t s . The Women's R i g h t s Movement s t r o n g l y s u p p o r t e d e f f o r t s a t p u r i t y r e f o r m , as d i d the N a t i o n a l C o u n c i l o f Women, The A s s o c i a t i o n f o r the Advancement o f Women, and 40 The Women's S u f f r a g e Movement. The Young Men 's and Young Women's C h r i s t i a n A s s o c i a t i o n s f r e q u e n t l y added s o c i a l p u r i t y 41 work t o t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s . However , the b a s i c i m p o r t a n c e of the Temperance Movement to p u r i t y r e f o r m remained s u b -s t a n t i a l , f o r i t p r o v i d e d the d i r e c t i o n and s t i m u l u s to t h e p h i l o s o p h y , s t r u c t u r e and a c t i v i t i e s o f s o c i a l p u r i f i c a t i o n . Temperance and s e x u a l i t y were as i n t i m a t e l y r e l a t e d a f t e r the C i v i l War as t h e y had been e a r l i e r when W i l l i a m Sanger 42 r e l a t e d p r o s t i t u t i o n to a l c o h o l . When t h e A m e r i c a n P u r i t y A l l i a n c e was c r e a t e d i n New Y o r k i n 1895 , the commit tee i n c l u d e d numerous temperance w o r k e r s , p e o p l e who had l e a r n e d f rom F r a n c e s W i l l a r d the p o s s i b i l i t y o f u t i l i z i n g d i v e r s e p o l i t i c a l s t r a t e g i e s to d e a l w i t h a wide range o f s o c i a l i s s u e s . Though the Temperance Movement e v e n t u a l l y narrowed to f o c u s s p e c i f i c a l l y on the ^^Woman's Journal ( F e b r u a r y 23 , 1 8 8 9 ) , p . 64. F r a n c e s E. W i l l a r d , " S o c i a l P u r i t y , " Philanthropist ( J u n e 1 8 8 6 ) , p . 6 . Woman's Journal ( J u n e 1888) , p . 190. ^^Philanthropist ( O c t o b e r I 8 8 7 ) , p . 8 . 42 F r a n c e s E. W i l l a r d , "The O r i g i n o f t h e W o r l d ' s W.C.T.U.," Review of Reviews, XVI (New Y o r k , O c t o b e r ' 1 8 9 7 ) , 4 3 6 . 114 c l o s i n g down of a l l s a l o o n s and t o t a l p r o h i b i t i o n , temperance i n j u n c t i o n s r e m a i n e d c l o s e l y r e l a t e d to p u r i t y r e f o r m . S c h o o l t e x t - b o o k s , p h y s i o l o g y h a n d b o o k s , sex e d u c a t i o n p a m p h l e t s and numerous o t h e r h y g i e n i c t r a c t s recommended by the P u r i t y A l l i a n c e c o n t i n u e d to r e l a t e i n t e m p e r a n c e to p h y s i c a l d e b i l i t y and s e x u a l m i s b e h a v i o r . " I f you d e s i r e to p r e s e r v e y o u r b o d i l y v i g o r and v i r t u e , " s a i d the Reverend S y l v a n u s S t a l l , i n h i s h i g h l y p o p u l a r s e r i e s o f sex e d u c a t i o n m a n u a l s , "be warned a g a i n s t i n t o x i c a t i n g d r i n k . . . . L i q u o r and P r o s t i -t u t i o n i n our c i t i e s go hand i n hand . . . the use of l i q u o r l e a d s to v i c e and v i o l e n c e and p l u n g e s i t s v i c t i m s i n t o 43 t e m p o r a l and e t e r n a l r u i n . " I f t h i s was not s u f f i c i e n t w a r n i n g , t h e r e were a l w a y s the v i v i d g r a p h i c s o f D r . S e w e l l ' s Stomach S c h o o l o f Temperance A r t to f a l l back u p o n . D r . S e w e l l ' s s i x d e t a i l e d d r a w i n g s o f the " p r o g r e s s i v e h e l l t h r o u g h w h i c h the d i g e s t i v e a p p a r a t u s o f d r a m - t a k e r s went t h e i r d r e a d f u l way f rom l i g h t p i n k ( h e a l t h f u l ) t h r o u g h an a r r e s t i n g c e r i s e . . . ( a f t e r a l o n g d e b a u c h ) , to a deep p u r p l e s t r e a k e d w i t h ominous brown and b l a c k . . . the t e r m i n a l s t a g e (Death by D e l i r i u m T r e m e n s ) , " were used e x t e n s i v e l y i n s c h o o l p h y s i o l o g y t e x t b o o k s i n t h e S y l v a n u s S t a l l , What a Young Man Ought to Know ( P h i l a d e l p h i a : The V i r P u b l i s h i n g Co., 1897) , PP• 2 5 4 - 5 . 115 F i g u r e 2 . H a r r y T . P e t e r s , Currier and Ives; Printmakers to the American People (Garden C i t y , New Y o r k : D o u b l e d a y , Doran and C o . , I n c . , 1 9 4 2 ) , P l a t e 90 . 116 l a s t decades o f the n i n e t e e n t h and f i r s t decades o f the 44 t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y . James T i m b e r l a k e has noted t h a t new s c i e n t i f i c d a t a c o n c e r n i n g the p h y s i o l o g i c a l e f f e c t s o f a l c o h o l gave 4 5 temperance r e f o r m a new u r g e n c y a f t e r 1900. Though t h i s was p r o b a b l y t r u e , i t would be a m i s t a k e to i g n o r e the same phenomenon w h i c h o c c u r r e d some seven o r e i g h t decades e a r l i e r . Many s o c i a l w o r k e r s o f the P r o g r e s s i v e Era were c o n v i n c e d by s c i e n t i f i c d a t a t h a t p r o h i b i t i o n was an i m p o r t a n t p a r t o f t h e i r w o r k . In the e a r l i e r decades o f the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y , many r e f o r m e r s began as temperance w o r k e r s and were p e r -suaded by the arguments o f moral p h y s i o l o g y to expand t h e i r s i g h t s to a l a r g e r a r e n a o f h e a l t h and mora l r e f o r m . In b o t h c a s e s , s c i e n c e p r o v i d e d a l e g i t i m a c y f o r mora l r e f o r m . C e r t a i n l y , the e f f e c t s o f the Temperance Movement, f rom i t s e a r l i e s t s t a g e s , upon h e a l t h - r e l a t e d mora l r e f o r m and the Purc i ty Movement c a n n o t be u n d e r e s t i m a t e d . S p e c i f i c e l ements o f h e a l t h and moral r e f o r m w h i c h were s t i m u l a t e d by the c o n v e r g e n c e o f temperance and mora l p h y s i o l o g y p o i n t s o f v i e w w i l l be examined i n the f o l l o w i n g 44 S t e w a r t H. H o l b r o o k , Dreamers of the American Dream (New Y o r k : D o u b l e d a y and Co., I n c . , 1957) , p. 66 . See A l s o : James H. T i m b e r l a k e , Prohibition and the Progressive Movement, 1900-1920 (New Y o r k : Atheneum P r e s s , 1970) , pp. 44.-50, f o r a d i s c u s s i o n o f t e m p e r a n c e m a t e r i a l i n s c h o o l t e x t - b o o k s . 'ibid., p. 40 . 117 c h a p t e r s . D i e t and d r e s s r e f o r m , and e f f o r t s to promote e x e r c i s e and h e a l t h y r e c r e a t i o n d e m o n s t r a t e d a g r o w i n g b e l i e f t h a t m o r a l i t y , e s p e c i a l l y s e x u a l m o r a l i t y , was dependent upon p r o p e r h y g i e n i c p r a c t i c e s . C h a p t e r 5 D I E T R E F O R M One o f t h e most p o p u l a r e l e m e n t s o f h e a l t h - r e l a t e d mora l r e f o r m i n the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y was a p e r s i s t e n t and m a n y - s i d e d campaign to c o n t r o l b e h a v i o r t h r o u g h c o n d i t i o n i n g e a t i n g h a b i t s . Panaceas and nostrums r a n g i n g from Graham C r a c k e r s to K e l l o g g ' s C o r n f l a k e s were a d v o c a t e d as a means o f p u r i f y i n g the body and p u r g i n g s e x u a l u r g e s . The theme t h a t d i e t was to be c o n t r o l l e d and s i m p l i f i e d f o r mora l p u r p o s e s was a c o n s t a n t one t h r o u g h o u t the c e n t u r y . I n i t i a l l y a d v o c a t e d by S y l v e s t e r Graham and the e a r l y n u r t u r e e x p e r t s , a s p a r e d i e t c o n t i n u e d to be promoted by the c e r e a l i n d u s t r y a t B a t t l e C r e e k , and i n the d e t a i l e d i n j u n c t i o n s to a b s t e m i o u s and t e m p e r a t e e a t i n g to be f o u n d i n e v e r y sex h y g i e n e manual a t the t u r n o f t h e t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y . As a s p e c i f i c campaign i n p r e - C i v i l War A m e r i c a , d i e t r e f o r m was l a r g e l y i n i t i a t e d by S y l v e s t e r Graham whose i n t e r e s t i n temperance and mora l p h y s i o l o g y c o n v i n c e d him t h a t p r o p e r h a b i t s o f n o u r i s h m e n t were a p r i m a r y i n g r e d i e n t 118 119 of m o r a l i t y . H i s l e c t u r e s and p u b l i c a t i o n s e p i t o m i s e d the a l a rm of moral r e f o r m e r s ove r what they saw as i n c r e a s i n g i n d i c e s o f l u x u r i o u s and sen sua l l i v i n g , and emphas ized the moral i m p e r a t i v e o f p r e s e r v i n g s i m p l i c i t y o f d i e t i n an urban age. Though somewhat extreme i n h i s demands f o r u n i v e r s a l v e g e t a r i a n i s m , Graham commanded a l a r g e aud i ence f o r h i s v iews wh ich permeated e f f o r t s a t d i e t a r y r e f o rm t h r oughou t the c e n t u r y . The use o f d i e t as a means to c o n t r o l s e x u a l a c t i v i t y was by no means a phenomenon of n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y t h o u g h t . Graham and h i s f o l l o w e r s o b v i o u s l y drew many of t h e i r i d e a s f rom a t r a d i t i o n o f s c i e n c e and f o l k l o r e d a t i n g back to H i p p o c r a t e s . The i d e a o f c e r t a i n foods p o s s e s s i n g a p h r o d i s i a c q u a l i t i e s , f o r examp le , has been p o p u l a r i n many ages and c u l t u r e s . D i e t a r y s u g g e s t i o n s appeared d u r i n g the e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y i n Onania, a t r a c t wh ich recommended a c o m b i n a t i o n of p r e v e n t i v e and t h e r a p e u t i c measures to a i d peop l e to 2 r e s i s t the t e m p t a t i o n to sexua l m i s b e h a v i o r . The n o v e l t y o f Graham's approach l a y i n the emphasis he p l a c e d upon the r e l a t i o n s h i p between d i e t e t i c h a b i t s and S y l v e s t e r G r a h a m , A Lecture to Young Men, On Chastity, Intended Also for the Serious Consideration of Parents and Guardians ( t h i r d e d i t i o n ; B o s t o n : C.H. P e i r c e , 1837 ), p. 7 9 . ^ A n o n , Onania, or the heinous sin of self-•pollution, and all its frightful consequences in- both sexes considered ( 1 0 t h e d i t i o n , B o s t o n , 1 7 2 4 ) , p p . 3 3 , 4 1 - 4 4 . 1 2 0 moral c h a r a c t e r and h i s s t r e s s upon v e g e t a r i a n i s m . S e x u a l e x c e s s and d i s e a s e , he f e l t , were i n t i m a t e l y c o n n e c t e d , and d i g e s t i o n was the f i r s t p h y s i o l o g i c a l p r o c e s s t o s u f f e r as the n e r v o u s sys tem t r a n s m i t t e d d e b i l i t y t h r o u g h o u t the b o d y . S i n c e he h e l d t h a t s e x u a l m o r a l i t y was f i r s t and l a s t a m a t t e r of h y g i e n e , he c o n c l u d e d t h a t s e x u a l c o n t r o l c o u l d be a c h i e v e d by the c a r e f u l r e g u l a t i o n o f man's p e r s o n a l and e s p e c i a l l y h i s d i e t a r y h a b i t s . Wantonness was caused by the f r e e use of ' f l e s h m e a t s ' and c o u l d be c u r e d by the t i m e l y s u b s t i t u t i o n 3 o f a v e g e t a b l e d i e t . M e a t s , s p i c e s , s w e e t s , c o f f e e and t e a i n t e n s i f i e d the s e x u a l d r i v e and were c a l c u l a t e d to i r r i t a t e and d e b i l i t a t e , and i n f l a m e the a l i m e n t a r y c a n a l . 4 S u b s t a n c e s such as a l c o h o l i n a l l i t s f o r m s , t o b a c c o , o p i u m , and s p i c e s l i k e m u s t a r d , pepper and s a l t , p r o v i d e d o n l y s t i m u l a t i o n and no n u t r i t i o n a l v a l u e , and were to be " e n t i r e l y 5 a v o i d e d , w i t h t h e most r i g i d and i n f l e x i b l e s c r u p u l o s i t y . " O n l y s l i g h t l y l e s s dangerous were t e a and c o f f e e w h i c h were " d e c i d e d l y p e r n i c i o u s to h e a l t h . " ^ S y l v e s t e r G r a h a m , Chastity, p . 1 7 9 . S y l v e s t e r G r a h a m , A Lecture on Epidemic Diseases, Generally, and Particularly the Spasmodic Cholera, Delivered in New York (New Y o r k : M. D a y , 1 8 3 3 ) , p . 5 8 . 5Ibid.3 p . 5 9 . ^Ibid., p . 7 0 . 1 21 To be t r u l y h e a l t h y i t was n e c e s s a r y f o r a f o o d t o c o n t a i n a p r o p e r mix o f n u t r i m e n t and b u l k . T h o s e f o o d s w i t h t o o much n u t r i t i v e c o n t e n t were t o be a v o i d e d , s u c h as s o u p s , c r e a m , b u t t e r and ab o v e a l l b r e a d made f r o m r e f i n e d f l o u r . The i d e a l f o o d was b r e a d made f r o m a "good u n b o l t e d w heat m e a l , c o a r s e l y g r o u n d " and s e r v e d "when a t l e a s t 12 h o u r s o l d . " ^ T h i s was t h e r e c i p e t h a t u l t i m a t e l y became a s s o c i a t e d w i t h Graham and was p o p u l a r i z e d f o r p o s t e r i t y as t h e Graham C r a c k e r . T h u s , t h e d o c t r i n e o f m o r a l p h y s i o l o g y was u t i l i z e d by Graham t o e m p h a s i z e d i e t and s e x as t h o s e a r e a s o f human b e h a v i o r w h i c h most f r e q u e n t l y d e b i l i t a t e d t h e b o d i l y s y s t e m . " L i k e a l c o h o l , s p i c e s and a n i m a l f o o d , " he s u g g e s t e d , t h e " e x c i t e m e n t o f s e x u a l a c t i v i t y i s a b l e t o p r o v o k e i r r i t a t i o n , o i n f l a m m a t i o n and o r g a n i c d e b i l i t y . " F o o d , d r i n k a nd s e x u a l a p p e t i t e s must be c o n t a i n e d " s t r i c t l y w i t h i n t h e r a n g e o f t h e i r c o n s t i t u t i o n a l d e s i g n " t o r e m a i n h a r m l e s s , f o r o v e r -i n d u l g e n c e i n e v i t a b l y l e d t o d i s e a s e and s u f f e r i n g . "The t r u t h o f t h e m a t t e r i s s i m p l y t h i s - a p u r e and w e l l r e g u l a t e d v e g e t a b l e d i e t s e r v e s . t o t a k e away o r p r e v e n t a l l m o r b i d o r p r e t e r n a t u r a l s e x u a l l u s t , and t o b r i n g and keep t h e i n s t i n c t ^Ibid.j pp. 5 5 , 5 6 . 8Ibid.s pp. 4 9 - 5 0 . 3Ibid.3 p. 4 9 . 122 more i n a t r u l y n a t u r a l s t a t e , and i n s t r i c t a c c o r d a n c e w i t h the f i n a l cause o f man's s e x u a l o r g a n i z a t i o n , and t h u s e n a b l e him to be c h a s t e i n body and s p i r i t . " 1 0 Graham's i d e a s were i n c o r p o r a t e d i n h i s B o a r d i n g Houses i n New York and B o s t o n where t h e d a i l y r o u t i n e r e v o l v e d around a s t r i c t s c h e d u l e o f meals t h a t were v e g e t a r i a n , n o n -a l c o h o l i c and p r e p a r e d a c c o r d i n g to s t r i c t Graham p r i n c i p l e s . Mary Gove N i c h o l s , c o n v i n c e d of the mora l u t i l i t y o f Graham's p r i n c i p l e s , put them i n t o p r a c t i c e a t her Graham B o a r d i n g House i n L y n n , M a s s a c h u s e t t s . 1 1 The A m e r i c a n P h y s i o l o g i c a l S o c i e t y and the Graham Magazine of Health and Longevity, though both s h o r t - l i v e d , were e n t h u s i a s t i c d i s s e m i n a t o r s o f Graham's i d e a s . W i l l i a m A . A l c o t t matched Graham's e n t h u s i a s m f o r h y g i e n i c p r i n c i p l e s by p r o d u c i n g p r o l i f i c w r i t i n g s upon the s u b j e c t o f d i e t and s e x u a l h y g i e n e : "No man has e v e r become an adulterer , a f o r n i c a t o r o r an i d o l a t e r , " he s a i d , "by e a t i n g s i m p l e s such as p l a i n w h e a t , c o r n , r y e , p o t a t o e s , 1 2 7 r i c e , p e a s , b e a n s , t u r n i p s and a p p l e s ' ; " As a p r o m i n e n t ' ^ S y l v e s t e r Graham, Chastity t- p . 187 . l i M a r y Gove N i c h o l s , Experience in Water Cure (New Y o r k : F o w l e r and W e l l s , 1 8 5 0 ) , p. 5 8 . 1 2 W i l l i a m A. A l c o t t , Vegetable Diet: As Sanctioned by Medical Men, and by Experience in All Ages ( B o s t o n : L i g h t ' and S t e a r n s , 1 8 3 8 ) , p. 2 6 . A l c o t t a l s o p r o d u c e d , Tea and Coffee ( B o s t o n : L i g h t and S t e a r n s , 1 8 3 9 ) ; The Laws of Health ( B o s t o n : J e w e t t , 1 8 4 3 ) ; The Young Mother ( L i g h t and S t e a r n s , 1 8 3 6 ) ; The Young Housekeeper ( B o s t o n : L i g h t and S t e a r n s , 1 8 3 9 ) ; and many o t h e r s . 123 member of the group of n u r t u r e e x p e r t s i n the t h r e e decades p r i o r to the C i v i l War, A l c o t t p a r t i c u l a r l y s t r e s s e d t h e p e r i l s o f a " d i s t o r t i n g " d i e t upon the c h a r a c t e r d e v e l o p m e n t 1 3 o f the c h i l d . In l i n e w i t h G r a h a m i t e t h i n k i n g he m a i n t a i n e d t h a t m i l k , c o l d w a t e r , wheat bread and v e g e t a b l e s formed an adequate d i e t f o r c h i l d r e n , and condemned c a k e s , p a s t r i e s , s p i c e s , l i q u o r , t e a , c o f f e e and m e a t . 1 4 H a r r i e t M a r t i n e a u a l s o urged t h a t r i c h , sweet f o o d s , and s p i c e s be removed f rom 1 5 t h e c h i l d ' s menu. The d i e t a r y i n j u n c t i o n s o f t h e s e n u r t u r e s p e c i a l i s t s n a t u r a l l y s t r e s s e d the i m p o r t a n c e of e d u c a t i n g the mother to e s t a b l i s h , c o r r e c t e a t i n g h a b i t s i n her c h i l d r e n . S i n c e the c h i l d r e c e i v e d h i s f i r s t n o u r i s h m e n t i n the home, i t was t h e m o t h e r ' s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y to improve the s t a n d a r d s o f n u t r i t i o n f o r her f a m i l y and t h u s improve the h e a l t h of the n a t i o n . Her f i r s t r e s p o n s i b i l i t y was to c u l t i v a t e the h a b i t o f b r e a s t -f e e d i n g , not o n l y f o r n u t r i t i o n a l r e a s o n s , but a l s o f o r t h e p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t b r e a s t m i l k m i g h t a i d i n t r a n s f e r r i n g the 1 c m o t h e r ' s moral v i r t u e s to the c h i l d . H a r r i e t M a r t i n e a u , a s t r o n g p r o p o n e n t o f b r e a s t f e e d i n g , p r o v i d e d f u r t h e r g u i d e l i n e s 1 3W i 1 1 i am A. A l c o t t , The Young Wife., pp. 1 7 3 - 4 . 14 , The Young Housekeeper3 p. 161 ' ^ H a r r i e t M a r t i n e a u , q u o t e d i n Fanny F e r n , Fresh Leaves (New Y o r k : Mason, 1 8 5 7 ) , pp. 1 0 8 - 9 . 1 6 A l m i r a P h e l p s , "Remarks on t h e E d u c a t i o n o f G i r l s , " Godey's Lady's Book ( J u n e , 1 8 3 9 ) , p. 2 5 3 . 124 w h i c h s u g g e s t e d t h a t , i n o r d e r to c u l t i v a t e the h a b i t o f o b e d i e n c e , the c h i l d s h o u l d not be f e d on d e m a n d . 1 ^ S y l v e s t e r Graham added the b a k i n g of b r e a d to the m o t h e r s ' p r i m a r y r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s i n n u r t u r i n g the c h i l d and t e n d i n g to the f a m i l y . The one who s h o u l d bake the b r e a d , Graham a d v i s e d , was the w i f e , and m o t h e r , "who r i g h t l y p e r -c e i v e s the r e l a t i o n between the d i e t e t i c h a b i t s and mora l c o n d i t i o n s o f her l o v e d o n e s , and j u s t l y a p p r e c i a t e s t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f good b r e a d to t h e i r p h y s i c a l and mora l w e l f a r e . " She was the o n l y one who c o u l d a t t a i n " t h a t m a t u r i t y o f j u d g e -ment and s k i l f u l l n e s s o f o p e r a t i o n , w h i c h a r e the i n d i s p e n s a b l e I o a t t r i b u t e s of a p e r f e c t bread m a k e r . " Most o f the c o m m u n i t a r i a n o r g a n i z a t i o n s o f the a n t e - b e l l u m y e a r s p r a c t i c e d Graham's d i e t a r y . p r i n c i p i e s . The d i n i n g room a t George R i p l e y ' s Brook Farm had a Graham t a b l e . Thomas and Mary N i c h o l s were both a g g r e s s i v e e x p o n e n t s o f Graham's v e g e t a r i a n i s m and u n b o l t e d wheat f l o u r . The s h o r t -l i v e d F r u i t l a n d s Community a t H a r v a r d , M a s s a c h u s e t t s , f o u n d e d by B r o n s o n A l c o t t i n 1843 was composed o f s t r i c t v e g e t a r i a n s who a l s o shunned b u t t e r , e g g s , m i l k , c h e e s e , c o f f e e , t e a and ' ^ H a r r i e t M a r t i n e a u , " H o w t o M a k e Home U n h e a l t h y , " Harper's Monthly, 1 ( O c t o b e r 1850) , 602. 1 8 S y l v e s t e r G r a h a m , Lectures on the Science of Human Life, 11 ( B o s t o n : M a r s h , C a p e n , L y o n a n d W e b b , 1839), 455-456. 125 m o l a s s e s . F u r t h e r m o r e , a t F r u i t l a n d s , the members a t e o n l y t h e i r home grown ' a s p i r i n g ' v e g e t a b l e s , as opposed to t h o s e d e g r a d i n g t y p e s o f r o o t v e g e t a b l e s w h i c h burrowed i n t o the 1 9 d a r k n e s s o f the e a r t h . The d i e t a r y p r i n c i p l e s o f mora l p h y s i o l o g y r e a c h e d a w i d e r a u d i e n c e i n the 1840 ' s and 50 1 s t h r o u g h two p a r t i c u l a r movements , p h r e n o l o g y and h y d r o t h e r a p y . P h r e n o l o g i s t s h e l d t h a t t h e r e were t h i r t y - s e v e n e lements w h i c h made up the i n d i v i d u a l c h a r a c t e r , temperament and a b i l i t y , and each o f t h e s e were c o n t r o l l e d by a d i s t i n c t a r e a o f t h e b r a i n . By r e f e r r i n g to the work o f F r a n z G a l l , p h r e n o l o g i s t s p l a c e d the 20 o r i g i n o f l u s t o r s e x u a l d e s i r e i n the c e r e b e l l u m . Many f e l t t h a t p h r e n o l o g y and moral p h y s i o l o g y were e n t i r e l y com-p a t i b l e . Orson F o w l e r c o m b i n e d - the two e n t h u s i a s t i c a l l y -as he saw i t , a n i m a l f o o d and o t h e r s t i m u l a n t s t e n d e d to i n f l a m e t h a t a r e a o f the b r a i n w h i c h c o n t r o l l e d the p h y s i c a l 21 d r i v e s and e m o t i o n s . Becoming a f e r v e n t v e g e t a r i a n , F o w l e r b r a n c h e d out to become an a u t h o r i t y on t r a i t number one of h i s p h r e n o l o g y c h a r t , ' a m a t i v e n e s s , ' and w r o t e a number o f 19 J u l e s A r c h e r , The Extremists: Gadflies of American Society (New Y o r k : H a w t h o r n B o o k s I n c . , 1 9 6 9 ) , p . 7 2 . 20 F r a n z G a l l et a l . 3 On the Function of the Cerebellum ( P a r i s : J . B . B a i l l i e r e , 1 8 2 5 ) . 2 1 O r s o n S . F o w l e r , Physiology3 Animal and Mental: Applied to the Preservation and Restoration of Health and Body and Power of Mind (New Y o r k : F o w l e r a n d W e l l s , 1 8 4 7 ) , p . 6 7 . 126 w i d e l y r e a d m a n u a l s , two o f w h i c h were Love and Parentage and Fowler on Matrimony. A d e v o t e d s u p p o r t e r o f F o w l e r , and h i s a r c h i t e c t u r a l v i e w s on t h e ' o c t a g o n ' was H e n r y S t e p h e n Chubb who c a r r i e d t h e c o m b i n a t i o n o f p h r e n o l o g y and m o r a l p h y s i o l o g y t o p e r h a p s 22 i t s m o s t e x t r e m e c o n c l u s i o n . H i s s t a t e d aim was t o e r e c t , i n t h e c e n t e r o f t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , a p e r m a n e n t home f o r v e g e t a r i a n s , "a f o n t f r o m w h i c h s h o u l d f l o w b e n e f i c i e n t i n -f l u e n c e s t o make a l l A m e r i c a n s w o r t h y o f t h e i r g r e a t d e s t i n y . " L a n d on h i s K a n s a s d e v e l o p m e n t was s o l d o n l y t o v e g e t a r i a n s who p l e d g e d t h e m s e l v e s t o a b s t a i n f r o m t o b a c c o and a l c o h o l , b u t d e s p i t e t h e h o p e f u l i n t e n t i o n s o f Mr. Chubb, t h e v e n t u r e 24 r a p i d l y e n d e d as a f i a s c o . The ' s c i e n c e ' o f p h r e n o l o g y g a i n e d w i d e s p r e a d p o p u l a r i t y i n m i d - n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y A m e r i c a f o r i t s u p p l i e d t o e d u c a t o r s , r e f o r m e r s and o t h e r s i n t e r e s t e d i n b e h a v i o r a l m o d i f i c a t i o n , a f u r t h e r o p t i m i s m i n human p e r f e c t i b i l i t y . The t h e o r y o f p h r e n o l o g y c o n f i r m e d i d e a s a b o u t c o n d i t i o n i n g f o r i t a l l o w e d t h a t t h e d e s i r a b l e f a c u l t i e s o f t h e mind c o u l d be c u l t i v a t e d t h r o u g h t h e i r e x e r c i s e and t h e u n d e s i r a b l e 22 F o r F o w l e r ' s v i e w s on t h e O c t a g o n , s e e , A Borne for All; or the Gavel Wall and Octagon Mode of Building (New Y o r k : F o w l e r and W e l l s , 1854). 2 3 Henry Chubb, q u o t e d by S t e w a r t H. H o l b r o o k , Dreamers of the American Dream (New Y o r k : D o u b l e d a y and Company, 1957), p. 48. 24 S t e w a r t H o l b r o o k , ibid.3 p. 49. 127 f a c u l t i e s i n h i b i t e d by the r e v e r s e . I t p r o m i s e d , t h e r e f o r e , good p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r i m p r o v i n g the c h a r a c t e r o f t h e c h i l d . The sweeping p o p u l a r i t y o f p h r e n o l o g y thus p r o v i d e d a more h e t e r o g e n o u s p u b l i c f o r many o f the i d e a s o f moral 25 p h y s i o l o g i s t s . The second movement t o i n c o r p o r a t e the d i e t a r y p r i n c i p l e s o f m o r a l p h y s i o l o g y was w a t e r - c u r e , o r h y d r o -t h e r a p y - a t h e r a p e u t i c sys tem based upon the e x t e r n a l a p p l i c a ^ t i o n o f c o l d w a t e r on d i f f e r e n t p a r t s o f the b o d y . D u r i n g the 1 8 4 0 ' s h y d r o t h e r a p y became more p o p u l a r when J o e l Shew e n l a r g e d the sys tem to i n c l u d e the hygienic reg imen o f mora l p h y s i o l o g y . I n f l u e n c e d by Shew, t h e A m e r i c a n H y d r o p a t h i c S o c i e t y was renamed the A m e r i c a n H y g i e n i c and H y d r o p a t h i c S o c i e t y i n 1850. The s o c i e t y a d v o c a t e d v e g e t a r i a n i s m and 27 e x e r c i s e as i m p o r t a n t h y g i e n i c m e a s u r e s . 25 F o r a d i s c u s s i o n o f P h r e n o l o g y , s e e : J o h n D. D a v i e s , Phrenology: Fad or Science; A Nineteenth Century American Crusade (New Haven: Y a l e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 5 5 ) . The p r o m i n e n t e d u c a t i o n a l r e f o r m e r , H o r a c e Mann, b a s e d a t l e a s t some o f h i s f a i t h i n t h e c u r a t i v e powers o f e d u c a t i o n on p h r e n o l o g y . See L a w r e n c e A . C r e m i n ( e d . ) , The Republic and the School; The Education? * of Free Men (New Y o r k : T e a c h e r s C o l l e g e , C o l u m b i a U n i v e r s i t y , 1 9 5 7 ) . 2 6 J o e l Shew, Hydropathy; or the Water Cure (New. Y o r k : F o w l e r and W e l l s , 1 8 4 4 ) . 27 WiitiHiam B. W a l k e r , "The H e a l t h R e f o r m Movement i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , 1 8 3 0 - 1 8 7 0 , " U n p u b l i s h e d D o c t o r a l D i s s e r t a t i o n ( M a r y l a n d : J o h n s H o p k i n s U n i v e r s i t y , 1 9 5 5 ) , p. 2 0 6 . 128 Impressed by the d i e t a r y measures promoted by h y d r o -p a t h i s t s , l e a d i n g women r e f o r m e r s such as A m e l i a B l o o m e r , Lucy S tone and Susan B. Anthony p r e s s e d R u s s e l l T h a c h e r T r a i l to a i d i n t h e i r e f f o r t s a t d i e t r e f o r m . T r a i l , t emperance w o r k e r , p r o m i n e n t h y d r o p a t h i c p h y s i c i a n and c o - f o u n d e r o f the A m e r i c a n H y d r o p a t h i c S o c i e t y c o n s e q u e n t l y w r o t e The New Hydropathic Cookbook i n 1853 , w h i c h was i n t e n d e d to h e l p m o t h e r s , a l o n g w i t h L y d i a C h i l d ' s American Frugal Housewife, 28 to improve the d i e t a r y p r a c t i c e s o f the f a m i l y . F o r the m o r e , w e l l - t o - d o , H y d r o p a t h i c I n s t i t u t e s were e s t a b l i s h e d where v i s i t o r s c o u l d t a k e the w a t e r c u r e , e x p e r i e n c e p r o p e r h y g i e n i c p r a c t i c e s and c o n s u l t p h y s i c i a n s about t h e i r s e x u a l p r o b l e m s . A t R u s s e l l T h a c h e r T r a i l ' s H y d r o p a t h i c and H y g i e n i c I n s t i t u t e i n New York C i t y , a s p a r t a n reg imen p r e v a i l e d . M e a l s were s e r v e d and b a t h s t a k e n o n l y a t s p e c i f i e d h o u r s . The use o f t o b a c c o and a l c o h o l was s t r i c t l y f o r b i d d e n as 29 was " a l l l o u n g i n g on the s o f a s . " P u b l i c rooms and gymnasiums were a v a i l a b l e f o r e x e r c i s e . In a d d i t i o n , the k i t c h e n s m a n u f a c t u r e d " a l l k i n d s o f f a r i n a c e o u s p r e p a r a t i o n s . . . . pure and p r o p e r a r t i c l e s o f wheaten g r i t s , h o m i n y , o a t m e a l , f a r i n a , c r a c k e r s e t c . , " not o n l y f o r r e s i d e n t s but f o r s a l e to o u t s i d e r s . P h y s i c i a n s were i n a t t e n d a n c e a t T r a i l ' s H y d r o p a t h i c I n s t i t u t e to g i v e a d v i c e on w a t e r t r e a t m e n t and ' 2 8 R u s s e l l T h a c h e r T r a i l , The New Hydropathic Cook-book; with Recipes for Cooking on Hygienic Principles (New Y o r k : F o w l e r and W e l l s , 1 8 5 3 ) . L y d i a M a r i a C h i l d , American Frugal Housewife: Dedicated to those who are not ashamed of economy ( t h i r t y -s e c o n d e d i t i o n ; New Y o r k : S.S. and W. Wood, 1 8 4 7 ) . 17Water-Cure Journal, X V I I I (1 8 5 3 ) , 31 . 1 29 d i e t , and e s p e c i a l l y t o i n t e r v i e w and t r e a t p e o p l e who 30 s u f f e r e d from v a r i o u s m a l a d i e s as a r e s u l t o f s e x u a l a b u s e . T a k i n g a d v a n t a g e o f the g r o w i n g p o p u l a r i t y o f h y d r o p a t h i c i n s t i t u t e s , and c a t e r i n g to the demand f o r h e a l t h f o o d s and s e x u a l a d v i c e , James C a l e b J a c k s o n e s t a b l i s h e d a r e s o r t - t y p e i n s t i t u t i o n i n 1859 i n u p s t a t e New York c a l l e d "Our Home on the H i l l s i d e . " In a d d i t i o n to the f a c i l i t i e s f o u n d a t T r a i l ' s I n s t i t u t e , c o n c e r t s , t h e a t e r s , o u t i n g s and l e c t u r e s were p r o v i d e d f o r g u e s t s , many o f whom d i d not n e c e s s a r i l y go to r e c e i v e t r e a t m e n t s . H e a l t h f o o d s were a l s o p r e p a r e d f o r o u t s i d e d i s t r i b u t i o n , among them a p a r t i c u l a r c o n c o c t i o n o f Graham f l o u r and w a t e r w h i c h became known as 31 ' G r a n o l a ' , the f i r s t c o l d b r e a k f a s t c e r e a l . ' G r a n o l a ' was not a c o m m e r c i a l s u c c e s s and the p r o j e c t may have been f o r g o t t e n had not a group of S e v e n t h Day A d v e n t i s t s f r o m B a t t l e C r e e k , M i c h i g a n v i s i t e d 'Our Home' to c o n s u l t w i t h D r . J a c k s o n about h i s m e t h o d s . Upon t h e i r r e t u r n to B a t t l e Creek t h e y e s t a b l i s h e d , i n 1866, a H e a l t h Reform I n s t i t u t e to s e r v e the needs o f t h e i r g r o u p . Ten y e a r s l a t e r , a member o f t h i s g r o u p , John Harvey K e l l o g g became S u p e r i n t e n d e n t o f the I n s t i t u t e and renamed i t the B a t t l e Creek S a n i t a r i u m . 3 0 R u s s e l l T h a c h e r T r a i l , Sexual Physiology (New Y o r k : F o w l e r and W e l l s , 1 8 6 4 ) , pp. 4 8 - 5 1 . 31 G e r a l d C a r s o n , Cornflake Crusade (New Y o r k : R i n e h a r t and Company, 1 9 5 7 ) , pp. 61-67. 1 30 A c c o r d i n g to one of Graham's b i o g r a p h e r s , "The ' S a n ' , a s i t f a m i l i a r l y became known to t h o u s a n d s o f d e b i l i t a t e d p e r s o n s who v i s i t e d i t i n the c o u r s e o f the n e x t s i x t y y e a r s , w a s , i n a s e n s e , the f i n a l i n c a r n a t i o n o f t h e Graham B o a r d i n g H o u s e . 1 , 3 2 K e l l o g g was the protege" o f E l l e n G . Harmon, l a t e r . . M r s . James S . W h i t e , the p r o p h e t e s s o f the A d v e n t i s t Movement. A f t e r the ' g r e a t d i s a p p o i n t m e n t ' o f O c t o b e r 1844 when the m i l l e n n i a l p r o p h e c i e s o f W i l l i a m M i l l e r f a i l e d to m a t e r i a l i z e , M r s . Whi te was r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the r e - o r g a n i z a t i o n o f the A d v e n t i s t Movement w h i c h took the name, i n 1860 , o f the S e v e n t h Day A d v e n t i s t s . She c l a i m e d to have numerous v i s i o n s , and t u r n e d out a n i n e volume work e n t i t l e d 'Testimonies' w h i c h e x p l a i n e d her d o c t r i n a l t e a c h i n g and s p e c i a l v i e w s on h e a l t h and d i e t . K e l l o g g became the p r i m e i n s t r u m e n t i n d i s s e m i n a t i n g t h e s e v iews w h i c h w e r e , i n f a c t , a r e s t a t e m e n t of the Graham p o s i t i o n , and was r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t u r n i n g B a t t l e C r e e k , the h e a d q u a r t e r s o f the S e v e n t h Day A d v e n t i s t s 33 i n t o the n a t i o n ' s b r e a k f a s t c e r e a l c e n t e r . K e l l o g g ' s w r i t i n g s on sex and d i e t were p r o l i f i c . He and h i s w i f e Emma took l e a d i n g r o l e s among p u r i t y r e f o r m e r s 32 S.W. Ni.ssenbaum, " C a r e f u l L o v e : S y l v e s t e r Graham and t h e Emergence o f V i c t o r i a n S e x u a l T h e o r y i n A m e r i c a , 1830-40," U n p u b l i s h e d D o c t o r a l D i s s e r t a t i o n , The U n i v e r s i t y o f W i s c o n s i n , M a d i s o n ; , 1968, p. 238. 3 3 Sydney E. A h l s t r o m , A Religious History of the American People (New Haven: Y a l e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1972), p. 481 . 131 of the l a t t e r p a r t o f the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y i n the a t t e m p t to c o n t r o l e x c e s s i v e and u n n a t u r a l i n d u l g e n c e s o f f o o d and 34 s e x . When K e l l o g g e x p l a i n e d h i s p o s i t i o n to a c o n v e n t i o n of p u r i t y w o r k e r s i n 1895 he was e l a b o r a t i n g on the theme p r e s e n t e d e a r l i e r by S y l v e s t e r Graham; "The e x o r b i t a n t demands o f the s e x u a l a p p e t i t e e n c o u n t e r e d among c i v i l i z e d p e o p l e are not the r e s u l t o f a normal i n s t i n c t , but a re due to the i n c i t e m e n t s o f an a b n o r m a l l y s t i m u l a t i n g d i e t , the s e d u c t i o n o f p r u r i e n t l i t e r a t u r e and s o - c a l l e d a r t , and the 35 t e m p t a t i o n s o f impure a s s o c i a t i o n s . " As h e i r s to the i d e o l o g y o f S y l v e s t e r Graham, the K e l l o g g s s t r e s s e d f r u g a l i t y and temperance i n d i e t , empha-s s i z i n g t h a t " t h e r e s h a l l be n o t h i n g on o u r t a b l e s to awaken 3 6 t h e a p p e t i t e o f the r e f o r m e d . " However , the K e l l o g g s f e l t t h a t t h e y d i r e c t e d t h e i r e f f o r t s beyond t h o s e o f Graham by a t t e m p t i n g to t r a n s f o r m d i e t i n t o a s c i e n c e f o r a p p l i c a t i o n 34 Among o t h e r s , J o h n H a r v e y K e l l o g g p r o d u c e d , Plain Facts About Sexual Life ( B a t t l e C r e e k , M i c h i g a n ; Good H e a l t h P u b l i s h i n g Company, 1877) ; First Book in Physiology and Hygiene (New Y o r k : H a r p e r and B r o t h e r s , 1888) ; and Ladies Guide in Health and Disease ( B a t t l e C r e e k , M i c h i g a n : Good H e a l t h P u b l i s h i n g Company, 1901) . 3 5 J . H . K e l l o g g , " C h a s t i t y and H e a l t h , " d e l i v e r e d a t t h e N a t i o n a l P u r i t y C o n g r e s s , B a l t i m o r e , M a r y l a n d , 1895, i n C o l l e c t e d R e p r i n t s , N a t i o n a l M e d i c a l L i b r a r y . 3 6 A p o p u l a r P u r i t y , p h r a s e c o i n e d by Mary G. S m i t h , Temperance Cook Book (San J o s e , C a l i f o r n i a : M e r c u r y Book House, 1887) , p r e f a c e . 1 32 37 to e v e r y d a y l i f e . The t i t l e o f Emma K e l l o g g ' s new cook 38 b o o k , Science in the Kitchen, i l l u s t r a t e d t h e i r e f f o r t s . E a t i n g was f o r p r o v i d i n g s t r e n g t h and e n d u r a n c e , not f o r e n j o y m e n t . H e n c e , n a t u r a l f o o d s were a d v o c a t e d a l o n g w i t h economy i n p r e p a r a t i o n and i n t a k e . V e g e t a r i a n i s m c o n t i n u e d to be promoted s i n c e e x c e s s i v e a n i m a l f o o d s were h e l d t o be 39 a c a u s a t i v e f a c t o r i n a r o u s i n g the ' a n i m a l p a s s i o n s ' . K e l l o g g h e l d t h a t r e l i g i o n p r o s c r i b e d the s e l e c t i o n o f f o o d s w h i c h c o u l d be c a t e g o r i z e d as good o r e v i l , mora l o r immoral a n d , i n o r d e r to i n c r e a s e the c a t e g o r y of mora l f o o d s , Emma K e l l o g g c o n t i n u e d Graham's s e a r c h f o r new h e a l t h f o o d s i n 40 t h e k i t c h e n s o f B a t t l e Creek S a n i t a r i u m i n M i c h i g a n . She w a s , no d o u b t , i n f l u e n c e d by s c i e n t i f i c d e v e l o p m e n t s i n b a c t e r i o l o g y and c h e m i s t r y w h i c h r e v e a l e d the l a r g e s c a l e a d u l t e r a t i o n of g e n e r a l f o o d s t u f f s . B r e a d , f o r e x a m p l e , was a d u l t e r a t e d w i t h s u l f a t e o f c o p p e r , w i t h i n f e r i o r f l o u r and a c c i d e n t a l l y w i t h ashes f rom the oven and g r i t f rom m a c h i n e r y . B u t t e r was f o u n d to c o n t a i n c o p p e r , e x c e s s w a t e r 3 7 S i d o n i a C. T a u p i n , " C h r i s t i a n i t y i n t h e K i t c h e n , o r a M o r a l G u i d e f o r G o u r m e t s , " American Quarterly, XV (1963) , 85-89. •3 O Emma E. K e l l o g g , Science in the Kitchen ( B a t t l e C r e e k , M i c h i g a n : Modern M e d i c a l P u b l i s h i n g Company, 1892). 39 W i l b u r F. C r a f t s , " P r a c t i c a l C h r i s t i a n S o c i o l o g y , 1 e x t r a c t s a p p e a r i n g i n Philanthropist ( J u l y 1895), p. 2. ^ M a r t i n L u t h e r H o l b r o o k , Chastity (New Y o r k : M.L. H o l b r o o k P u b l i s h i n g Company, 1894), pp. 79, 84. 1 33 e x c e s s s a l t , o t h e r f a t s and s t a r c h . M i l k was a d u l t e r a t e d w i t h w a t e r , b u r n t s u g a r , y e l l o w d y e , sand and d i r t . 4 1 In 1875 , the Board o f H e a l t h of New York C i t y f o u n d one hundred per c e n t o f the samples o f cream o f t a r t a r t h e y t e s t e d to 42 c o n s i s t l a r g e l y o f p o i s o n o u s t e r r a a l b a . C o g n i z a n t t h a t A m e r i c a was a " n a t i o n of d y s p e c t i c s " i n a d d i t i o n to b e i n g s u b j e c t t o the h e a l t h h a z a r d s o f f o o d a d u l t e r a t i o n , Emma K e l l o g g ' s f i r s t p r e p a r a t i o n was a b l a n d " d y s p e p t i c w a f e r " f o r use i n the t r e a t m e n t o f s tomach a i 1 -43 m e n t s . More f a r r e a c h i n g were her e x p e r i m e n t s t o d e s i g n a b r e a k f a s t c e r e a l f o r A m e r i c a n s . In 1887 , K e l l o g g began to market a c e r e a l she had d e v i s e d c a l l e d ' G r a n o l a ' but J a c k s o n o f "Our Home" q u i c k l y took the K e l l o g g s to c o u r t f o r c o p y i n g h i s p r o d u c t . U n d e t e r r e d by t h i s s e t b a c k the K e l l o g g s went on to d e v i s e new and b e t t e r p r o d u c t s . T h e i r n e x t c e r e a l , a p r i m i t i v e v e r s i o n o f c o r n f l a k e s , was " E l i j a h ' s M a n n a h . " W i t h i n t h e c e r e a l b o x e s , l i k e f o r t u n e c o o k i e s o r the f r e e g a d g e t s o f t o d a y , were r e l i g i o u s t r a c t s d i s c u s s i n g t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between h e a l t h and m o r a l i t y . The C o r n f l a k e M a z y c k P o r c h e r R a v e n e l ( e d . ) , A Half Century of Public Health ( r e p r i n t e d i t i o n ; New Y o r k : A r n o P r e s s I n c . , 1 9 7 0 ) , p . 211 . kl J o h n W a r r e n , Thirty Years Battle with Crime ( P o u g h k e e p s i e , New Y o r k : A . J . W h i t e , 1 8 7 5 ) , p . 2 6 3 . k3Ibid.3 p p . 2 7 9 , 2 5 7 . 1 34 C r u s a d e , as i t has been d e s c r i b e d by C a r s o n , was e f f e c t i v e i n e s t a b l i s h i n g a l a r g e m a r k e t f o r b r e a k f a s t c e r e a l s . P r o m o t e r s o f t h i s new t y p e o f b r e a k f a s t , e m p h a s i z e d t h a t not o n l y were c o r n f l a k e s , e f f i c i e n t , by s a v i n g p r e p a r a t i o n t i m e f o r the h o u s e w i f e , but were a l s o n a t u r a l , h e a l t h f u l 44 f o o d s . The d i e t a r y i n j u n c t i o n s o f mora l p h y s i o l o g y f l o w e d i n t o a c e r e a l i n d u s t r y ; Graham's p r i n c i p l e s "had become 45 t r a n s f o r m e d i n t o a c o m m e r c i a l p r o d u c t . " In a f u r t h e r r e i t e r a t i o n o f an o l d theme, the K e l l o g g s p o i n t e d o u t t h a t t h e r e was more to d i e t r e f o r m t h a n p r e p a r i n g the r i g h t k i n d s o f f o o d s . The i m p o r t a n t t a s k o f the w i f e i n t r a i n i n g the a p p e t i t e s of the f a m i l y had to be c o n s i d e r e d s i n c e she was the f a m i l y s t e w a r d , who must s e l e c t and p r e p a r e the b e s t f o o d s f o r t h e p h y s i c a l and s p i r i t u a l 46 needs o f her husband and c h i l d r e n . Hol id ing t h a t c h a r a c t e r was the r e s u l t o f t r a i n i n g , s p e c i f i c a l l y t r a i n i n g o f the a p p e t i t e , they u t i l i z e d the c o n d i t i o n i n g t h e o r i e s o f P a v l o v 47 to s u p p o r t t h e i r v i e w s . Through t h e i r e x p e r i m e n t s a t B a t t l e Creek S a n i t a r i u m , and t h e i r emphasis upon t h e p o p u l a r theme 44 G e r a l d C a r s o n , op. oit.3 p. 65 . 45 S.W. N i s s e n b a u m , op. oit. 3 p. 2 39. **kj.H. K e l l o g g , The Living Temple ( B a t t l e C r e e k , M i c h i g a n : Good H e a l t h P u b l i s h i n g Company, 1887) , p. 101 . i* 7E.E. K e l l o g g , " T r a i n i n g t h e A p p e t i t e , " The Mother's Friend ( A p r i l 1895) , pp. 5 - 9 . 135 of s c i e n c e , t h e y were a b l e to g a i n a b r o a d f o l l o w i n g f o r t h e i r d i e t a r y i n j u n c t i o n s . Impressed by the d e f i n i t i v e s t u d i e s o f t h e K e l l o g g s on the r e l a t i o n s h i p o f d i e t and m o r a l i t y , p u r i t y r e f o r m e r s were c o n v i n c e d t h a t p r o p e r , h y g i e n i c h a b i t s o f e a t i n g c o u l d a s s i s t i n c h a r a c t e r d e v e l o p m e n t as w e l l as c r e a t i n g s t r e n g t h a g a i n s t s e x u a l m i s b e h a v i o r . Not o n l y f o o d h a b i t s , but a l l d a i l y h a b i t s came under c l o s e s c r u t i n y . Of p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t to women r e f o r m e r s was the f e e l i n g t h a t d e l i n q u e n c i e s o f d r e s s c o n t r i b u t e d to a f a i r p r o p o r t i o n o f immoral b e h a v i o r and f e m a l e d i s e a s e s . F u r t h e r m o r e , the cumbersome c l o t h i n g , t h a t was the f a s h i o n of the a g e , impeded t h e a c t i v i t i e s o f women, bo th a t home and i n t h e i r e f f o r t s to compete w i t h men i n the i n d u s t r i a l a r e n a . J u s t as the c o n d i t i o n i n g of e a t i n g h a b i t s p r o m i s e d to promote mora l l i v i n g , the a p p l i c a t i o n o f m o r a l i t y to m a t t e r s o f d r e s s h e r a l d e d hopes f o r a f i t t e r s o c i e t y . C h a p t e r 6 D R E S S R E F O R M L i k e d i e t r e f o r m , d r e s s r e f o r m p r o m i s e d t o become a t e c h n i q u e f o r c o n t r o l l i n g b e h a v i o r t h r o u g h the c o n d i t i o n i n g o f d a i l y h a b i t s . D u r i n g the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y , mora l r e f o r m e r s came to see h e a l t h f u l c l o t h i n g and d a i l y d e c i s i o n s on m a t t e r s o f d r e s s as n e c e s s a r y i n g r e d i e n t s i n p u r i f y i n g the body as house to the s o u l . As t h e y saw i t , C h r i s t i a n d r e s s i n g s h o u l d i n v o l v e c l e a n l i n e s s , n e a t n e s s , modesty and s i m p l i c i t y , t h e a b i l i t y to r e s i s t t h e l u r e o f d i s t a s t e f u l f a d s and f a s h i o n s , and a f u n c t i o n a l knowledge o f t h e l a w s o f h e a l t h . The d i s t a s t e f u l e f f e c t s o f f a s h i o n had been com-mented upon e a r l y i n the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y by an o b s e r v e r who d e s c r i b e d the f a s h i o n s o f o r d i n a r y c i t i z e n s as l u d i c r o u s and l a s c i v i o u s . " R e p u t a b l e l a d i e s , " he commented, " d r e s s e d more i n d e c e n t l y than p r o s t i t u t e s , t h e i r a p p e a r a n c e s e r v i n g , not o n l y to e n t i c e , but a l m o s t to f o r c e t h e male o f a r d e n t p a s s i o n s to a c t s o f v i o l e n c e . " W o r s e , he c o n t i n u e d , were the c l o t h i n g h a b i t s o f f e m a l e c h i l d r e n who, " b e f o r e n a t u r e s u p p l i e s them w i t h r e a l , . . . e x h i b i t , as s u b s t i t u t e s , i n 136 137 the u s u a l f o r m , a r t i f i c i a l b r e a s t s . " By the 1 8 3 0 ' s , m o r a l p h y s i o l o g y d o c t r i n e was a b l e t o l e n d a s c i e n t i f i c tone to such p r o t e s t s o v e r immoral and i n d e c e n t c l o t h i n g h a b i t s . S y l v e s t e r Graham p o i n t e d out t h a t i m p r o p e r c l o t h i n g e n c o u r a g e d d i s e a s e and s e x u a l problems and t h a t h e a l t h demanded s i m p l e , 2 modest c l o t h e s . H i s message t h a t the s i m p l i f i c a t i o n of d r e s s was mandatory f o r h e a l t h y and mora l l i v i n g f o u n d a s m a l l but r e a d y a u d i e n c e . The e a r l y n u r t u r e e x p e r t s , f o r e x a m p l e , r e a d i l y i d e n t i f i e d the need to s i m p l i f y the c l o t h i n g of the c h i l d f o r moral p u r p o s e s . " F a s h i o n , " s a i d M r s . G r a v e s , had t u r n e d the c h i l d i n t o an a r t i f i c i a l s p o i l e d d o l l , " and she was one of s e v e r a l a u t h o r i t i e s who e x h o r t e d m o t h e r s , not o n l y to s e t a b e t t e r example t h e m s e l v e s , but to s t o p s w a d d l i n g and 3 o v e r - d r e s s i n g t h e i r c h i l d r e n . D r . Humphrey warned t h a t too many c l o t h e s p r e v e n t e d a c h i l d f rom c r e e p i n g . 4 H a r r i e t M a r t i n e a u r e i t e r a t e d h i s w a r n i n g when she c o m p l a i n e d of " t h e e x c e s s i v e p i n n i n g of c h i l d r e n ' s c l o t h e s . " 5 S h e , and ' T h o m a s B r a n a g a n , The Excellency of the Female Character Vindicated ( P h i l a d e l p h i a : T h o m a s T . S t i l e s , 1 808) , P P . 2 9 - 3 1 , 33 . 2 S y l v e s t e r G r a h a m , A Lecture on Epidemic Diseases Generally, and Particularly the Spasmodic Cholera, Delivered in New York (New Y o r k : M. D a y , 1833) , p p . 12 -13 . 3 A . J . G r a v e s , Woman in America (New Y o r k : H a r p e r , 1843) , p p . 9 4 - 9 5 . H . H u m p h r e y , Domestic Education ( A m h e r s t : A d a m s , 1840) , p . 63. ^ H a r r i e t M a r t i n e a u , " F r o m a M o t h e r ' s D i a r y , " Ladies Magazine, IV ( J u n e , 1831) , 129. 138 o t h e r n u r t u r e e x p e r t s , p l e a d e d f o r a r e t u r n to s i m p l e c l o t h e s , s i n c e , i n t h e i r v i e w , f a n c y d r e s s e n c o u r a g e d v a n i t y and i r r e s o l u t e n e s s , r a t h e r than s i m p l i c i t y and d i r e c t n e s s o f c h a r a c t e r . ^ S i n c e i t was an i s s u e w h i c h h e l d p r o m i s e of s u i t i n g a v a r i e t y o f p u r p o s e s , women r e f o r m e r s became p a r t i c u l a r l y i n t e r e s t e d i n a p p l y i n g the laws o f h e a l t h to d r e s s r e f o r m . I t s u p p l i e d them w i t h a c l e a r l y i d e n t i f i a b l e means o f a d v e r -t i s i n g t h e i r q u e s t f o r s i m p l i c i t y o f h a b i t s , f o r day to day h e a l t h f u l l i v i n g , and a l s o f o r t h e i r l i b e r a t i o n f rom s u b j e c -t i o n to t r a d i t i o n a l i d e a s c o n c e r n i n g t h e i r p o s i t i o n i n the home and the i n d u s t r i a l work a r e n a . S i n c e i t r e s t r i c t e d her p h y s i c a l movement, f e m a l e d r e s s , e s p e c i a l l y l o n g s k i r t s and t i g h t c o r s e t s , impeded the w o r k i n g woman. F u n c t i o n a l c l o t h e s p r o m i s e d to become a symbol o f the e m a n c i p a t i n g woman's q u e s t f o r e q u a l i t y . In f a c t the o n g o i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p between m o r a l r e f o r m and the Womens' R i g h t s Movement was c l e a r l y i l l u s t r a t e d by e f f o r t s to r a t i o n a l i z e d r e s s . The need f o r modesty added a d i f f i c u l t d i m e n s i o n to the p r o b l e m o f r a t i o n a l i z i n g c l o t h e s . W h i l e the A m e r i c a n Female M o r a l Reform S o c i e t y c o m p l a i n e d i n 1839 t h a t t h e l o n g s k i r t s o f women t r a i l e d i n the d u s t and c o l l e c t e d g a r b a g e , t h e y s t i l l f e l t compel 1ed to d i s r e g a r d the o b v i o u s s o l u t i o n o f 6 " B o a r d i n g S c h o o l s , " Ladies Magazine, IV ( A p r i l , 1 8 3 1 ) , 1 4 6 . " D r e s s e s f o r I n f a n t s , " Godey's Lady's Book, XL ( F e b r u a r y , 1 8 5 0 ) , 1 4 2 . 139 s h o r t e n i n g s k i r t s i n t h e name o f m o d e s t y . ^ D i s c u s s i o n s o f c l o t h i n g were f u r t h e r c o m p l i c a t e d by t h e demands o f e t i q u e t t e . M r s . T r o l l o p p e , i n Domestic Manners of the Americans c a u t i o n e d her male r e a d e r s a g a i n s t t h e use of t h e word ' c o r s e t ' i n t h e o p r e s e n c e o f l a d i e s . Godey's Lady's Book o f 1852 a d v i s e d t h a t l e g s be r e f e r r e d to as 'women's e x t r e m i t i e s ' and t h a t women's u n d e r c l o t h e s be termed u n m e n t i o n a b l e s . In an age where many r e f e r e n c e s to c l o t h e s o r p a r t s o f the body were c o n s i d e r e d immodest , where b i f u r c a t e d undergarments were shown c a r e f u l l y f o l d e d i n a d v e r t i s e m e n t s , and where any m e d i c a l c o m p l a i n t between the neck and t h e knees was o f t e n r e f e r r e d to as the ' l i v e r ' , l a d y r e f o r m e r s c l e a r l y had a p r o b l e m o f m a g n i t u d e i n a t t e m p t i n g to r e d e s i g n f e m a l e c l o t h -i n g to s u i t t h e i r p u r p o s e s . 1 1 ^ A t t i m e s , t h e r e f o r e , d r e s s r e f o r m had i t s b i z a r r e and l u d i c r o u s d i m e n s i o n s . The f i r s t m a j o r d i s c u s s i o n o f a l t e r n a t i v e c l o t h i n g was c e n t e r e d in The L i l y , a magaz ine e d i t e d by temperance and womens 1 r i g h t s a d v o c a t e A m e l i a J e n k s B l o o m e r . D u r i n g ^"Women, The Hope o f O u r - C a u s e , " The Graham Journal, 111 (November, 1 8 3 9 ) , 369 -g F r a n c e s T r o l l o p p e , Domestic Manners of the Americans ( r e p r i n t e d i t i o n ; New Y o r k : A l f r e d A. K n o p f , 1949) , p. 9 2 . ^Godey's Lady's Book, XL I I ( M a r c h , 1 8 5 2 ) , 16. '^Gordon R a t t r a y T a y l o r , Sex in History ( L o n d o n : P a n t h e r Books L t d . , 1 9 6 3 ) , p. 212 . 140 l i r e 3 . H a r r y T . P e t e r s , Currier and Ives: Printmakers to the American People (Garden C i t y , New Y o r k : D o u b l e d a y , Doran and C o . , I n c . , 1 9 4 2 ) , P l a t e 9 5 . 141 her e d i t o r s h i p o f t h i s magaz ine i n the 1850 ' s she was p e r s u a d e d t o wear " b l o o m e r s ' , a k i n d o f b i f u r c a t e d garment i n s p i r e d by t h a t worn by women t a k i n g the w a t e r c u r e . The b loomer d r e s s , i n f a c t , was v e r y s i m i l a r to t h e d r e s s worn by the P e r f e c t i o n i s t women a t O n e i d a , and though the costume was not p r i m a r i l y d e s i g n e d as a f e m a l e r i g h t ' s p r o t e s t , i t became so a t the T h i r d C o n v e n t i o n f o r Womens 1 R i g h t s a t S y r a c u s e , New Y o r k . Lucy S t o n e , Susan A n t h o n y , E l i z a b e t h Cady S t a n t o n , A m e l i a B loomer and o t h e r s a l l s p o r t e d b loomers a t the c o n v e n -t i o n , p r o t e s t i n g t h a t " n a t u r e never i n t e n d e d t h a t t h e sexes s h o u l d be d i s t i n g u i s h e d by a p p a r e l . " 1 1 To c o u n t e r a t t a c k s o f i n d e c e n c y , r e f o r m e r s p o i n t e d o u t t h e d e c o r o u s n e s s o f t r o u s e r s , s i n c e t h e y c o n c e a l e d t h e l e g s to p e r f e c t i o n , w h i c h was not n e c e s s a r i l y the case w i t h h o o p - s k i r t s . M r s . Jones commented on the f a s h i o n a b l e l a d y who " f r a n t i c a l l y g r a s p i n g her s k i r t s i n f r o n t w i t h one h a n d , w i t h the o t h e r l i f t s hoops and a l l b e h i n d her and t i p t o e s a c r o s s the s t r e e t , w i t h her c l o t h i n g i n the r e a r a t an a l t i t u d e of w h i c h she has -no c o n c e p t i o n , and r e v e a l i n g , not o n l y f e e t and a n k l e s , but even l i m b s to an e x t e n t w h i c h a 1 2 n e a t l y - c l a d b loomer would b l u s h to t h i n k o f . " ' ' ' ' H e l e n a M a r i a W e b b e r , i n F r a n c e s E . R u s s e l l , " A B r i e f S u r v e y o f t h e A m e r i c a n D r e s s R e f o r m M o v e m e n t o f t h e P a s t , " The Arena Magazine, VI ( J u n e , 1 8 9 2 ) , 4 9 1 . 1 2 " M a r i a M. J o n e s , Women's Dress;- I t s Moral and Physical Relations (New Y o r k : H a r p e r a n d B r o t h e r s , 1 8 6 4 ) , p . 2 2 . 142 D e s p i t e the a p p e a l o f b loomers as a symbol o f e m a n c i p a t i o n , and i n d e e d o f c o m f o r t and r a t i o n a l i t y , t h e y d i d not become p o p u l a r . A n t o i n e t t e . B l a c k w e l l a d v i s e d her f r i e n d s not to become m a r t y r s o v e r a s h o r t d r e s s , and once the n o v e l t y had passed most women r e f o r m e r s r e l i n q u i s h e d the b i f u r c a t e d garment i n f a v o r o f the more c o n v e n t i o n a l s k i r t . In a d d i t i o n to the use o f d r e s s r e f o r m as a symbol o f e m a n c i p a t i o n , i t was i n c r e a s i n g l y a d v o c a t e d as a n e c e s s a r y h e a l t h m e a s u r e . T h o s e e c o n c e r n e d w i t h the laws of h e a l t h i n r e l a t i o n to m o r a l i t y were p a r t i c u l a r l y u p s e t a t the p h y s i c a l and moral damage t h e y f e l t was caused to women by f a s h i o n a b l e c l o t h e s . The y e a r s a f t e r the C i v i l War saw an i n c r e a s i n g number o f v i g o r o u s e f f o r t s t o remove t h e s e a b u s e s . D r . Mary W a l k e r , a temperance w o r k e r , a t i r e l e s s s p e a k e r a g a i n s t the ' n i c o t i n e e v i l ' , and an a r d e n t s u p p o r t e r o f women's r i g h t s ( t h o u g h t she s t r o n g l y d i s l i k e d women r e f o r m e r s ) , f e l t t h a t " t h e g r e a t e s t s o r r o w s f rom w h i c h women s u f f e r e d were caused by t h e i r u n h y g i e n i c method of d r e s s i n g — the want o f a 1 3 b a l l o t i s but a t o y i n c o m p a r i s o n . " D r e s s e d i n the t r o u s e r s , f r o c k c o a t and s i l k hat t h a t she had worn as an A s s i s t a n t -Surgeon d u r i n g t h e C i v i l War , she campaigned f o r t h e Mary W a l k e r Reform D r e s s , w h i c h i n c l u d e d a s o f t , o n e - p i e c e D r . M a r y W a l k e r , q u o t e d i n S t e w a r t H . H o l b r o o k , Dreamers of the American Dream (New Y o r k : D o u b l e d a y a n d C o . , i n c . , 1 9 5 7 ) , p . 1 8 7 . 143 1 4 u n d e r g a r m e n t . D r . D i o c l e t i a n L e w i s was a n o t h e r a r d e n t campaigner f o r womens 1 r i g h t s i n the form of more h y g i e n i c c l o t h i n g f o r women. He p r o t e s t e d a g a i n s t c o r s e t s , and a d v o c a t e d s h o r t e r s k i r t s and s u s p e n d e r s to t a k e the s t r a i n o f f the 1 5 p e l v i c r e g i o n s , t h u s to save them f o r more w o r t h y p u r p o s e s . "An immense l o s s o f f e m a l e p o w e r , " s t a t e d D r . Edward C l a r k e , "may be f a i r l y c h a r g e d to c e r t a i n d e l i n q u e n c i e s o f d r e s s . " 1 6 C o n v i n c e d by t h e s e and o t h e r a r g u m e n t s , p u r i t y r e f o r m e r s i n t e g r a t e d d r e s s r e f o r m to t h e i r movement. They p e r c e i v e d t h a t i t c o u l d be u s e f u l l y employed to e d u c a t e mother and c h i l d i n m o r a l i t y . F u r t h e r m o r e , here was a s u b j e c t w h i c h c o u l d be e x p l o i t e d to d i s s e m i n a t e s o c i a l p u r i t y i d e a s i n and 1 7 t h r o u g h the women's movement. The l a t t e r i d e a p r o v e d to be more c o m p l i c a t e d t h a n t h e y had s u p p o s e d . Though the g o a l s o f d r e s s r e f o r m e f f o r t s o f p u r i t y r e f o r m e r s and members o f the Womens' R i g h t s Movement 1 4 J u l e s A r c h e r , The Extremists: Gadflies of American Society (New Y o r k : H a w t h o r n Books I n c . , 1969), p. 76. 1 5 D i o c l e t i a n L e w i s , Chastity; or Our Secret Sins (New Y o r k : H a r p e r and B r o t h e r s , 1874). 1 6 E.H. C l a r k e , q u o t e d i n J u l i a Ward Howe, Sex and Education ( B o s t o n : R o b e r t s B r o t h e r s , 1874) , p. 118. ' ^ D a v i d P i v a r , Purity Crusade ( W e s t p o r t , C o n n e c t i c u t : Greenwood P r e s s , 1973), p. 173. 144 c o n v e r g e d a t many p o i n t s , c o n t r a d i c t o r y a s s u m p t i o n s a r o s e c o n c e r n i n g the r o l e o f the body i n m a t t e r s p e r t a i n i n g to the p u r s u i t o f p e r f e c t i o n . P u r i t y w o r k e r s c o n c e r n e d w i t h womens' r i g h t s w i s h e d to use d r e s s to d e m o n s t r a t e the r i s e o f u t i l i -18 t a r i a n v a l u e s and the a c h i e v e m e n t o f woman's f r e e d o m . They p r e f e r r e d sex d i f f e r e n c e s t o be m i n i m i z e d r a t h e r t h a n e m p h a s i z e d 1 9 by c l o t h i n g . C o l o r i n d r e s s f o r both s e x e s , f o r e x a m p l e , was e n c o u r a g e d by some r e f o r m e r s who h e l d t h a t b l a c k was 20 d e p r e s s i n g and not c o n t r i b u t o r y to the p u r s u i t o f p u r i t y . A t t h e same t i m e , p u r i t y r e f o r m e r s such as J o s i a h Leeds i n s i s t e d upon modesty and p r o p r i e t y i n m a t t e r s o f d r e s s , f a v o r e d p l a i n and somber c l o t h i n g , and p a s s i o n a t e l y campaigned a g a i n s t 21 n u d i t y i n r e a l o r a r t f o r m . N u d i t y posed a p a r t i c u l a r l y d i f f i c u l t p r o b l e m to p u r i t y r e f o r m e r s . I f the body was to be a . temple of G o d , an i n s t r u m e n t to be a d m i r e d and p e r f e c t e d , t h e n n u d i t y c o u l d not be r e g a r d e d as s i n f u l o r d i s g u s t i n g . On the c o n t r a r y , perhaps the body s h o u l d - be r e g a r d e d as b e a u t i f u l . Y e t , i t was f e l t by many m o r a l i s t s t h a t n u d i t y i n r e a l o r a r t fo rm evoked ' " " D r e s and C i v i l i z a t i o n , " The Wo.rking Woman's Journal, XI (May, 1 8 9 6 ) , 3 5 -19 G.R. T a y l o r , op. oit., pp. 8 7 - 8 8 . 20 "A R e l i g i o n o f D r e s s , " White Cross Library, XXI (New Y o r k P u b l i c L i b r a r y , December 1 8 8 7 ) -2 1 G.R. T a y l o r , op. ait., p. 8 6 . 145 such p o w e r f u l s t i m u l a n t s to s e x u a l t h o u g h t s and f e e l i n g s t h a t i t was bound to l e a d to v i c e and i m m o r a l i t y . The l a r g e s c a l e emergence i n A m e r i c a o f r e p r o d u c t i o n s o f F r e n c h p a i n t i n g s c o n t a i n i n g nudes i n the 1880 ' s p a r t i c u l a r l y f r i g h t e n e d many p u r i t y w o r k e r s . F i v e hundred women p r o t e s t e d an e x h i b i t i o n o f r e p r o d u c t i o n s a t the P e n n s y l v a n i a Academy o f A r t w h i c h 22 was f o r c e d to remove the o f f e n d i n g p a i n t i n g s . When the New York T e l e g r a m p r i n t e d some o f the p h o t o g r a p h i c c o p i e s , J o s i a h Leeds went p e r s o n a l l y to the s t r e e t s i n P h i l a d e l p h i a and had 23 a p e d d l a r a r r e s t e d f o r s e l l i n g c o p i e s o f the n e w s p a p e r . In t h i s e n d e a v o r , p u r i t y f o r c e s r e p r e s e n t e d a common f e e l i n g o f the age a g a i n s t n u d i t y i n a r t . Mark Twain i n A Tramp Abroad condemned the e x h i b i t i o n o f T i t i a n ' s Venus 24 i n F l o r e n c e as " p a i n t e d f o r a b a g n i o . " The women p a i n t e d by p o p u l a r a r t i s t s such as John S i n g e r S a r g e n t , A b b o t T h a y e r and George de F o r e s t B r u s h were a l l v i r g i n a l and b e a u t i f u l l y c l o t h e d . As Henry Adams commented, p o s t C i v i l War A m e r i c a was a s o c i e t y i n w h i c h "an A m e r i c a n Venus w o u l d never d a r e e x i s t . " 2 5 22 Philadelphia Evening Bulletin (March 9, 1 8 9 1 ) . 23 J o s i a h W. L e e d s , " L e t t e r t o t h e E d i t o r , " Philadelphia Evening Bulletin (November 18, 1 8 8 7 ) . 2k Mark T w a i n , A Tramp Abroad ( L o n d o n : C h a t t o and Wi n d u s , 1 8 8 0 ) , pp. 243-5. 25 Henry Adams, The Education of Henry Adams ( B o s t o n : Houghton M i f f l i n Company, 1 9 0 6 ) , p. 385. 146 D e s p i t e the f a c t t h a t some p u r i t y w o r k e r s were much more extreme t h a n o t h e r s i n condemning n u d i t y , most a g r e e d upon t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f s i m p l i c i t y . / and h y g i e n e i n d r e s s . The moral consequences o f l a s c i v i o u s d r e s s i n g were d i s c u s s e d a t l e n g t h by D r . K e l l o g g . In h i s o p i n i o n , s i m p l i c i t y i n d r e s s was n e c e s s a r y s i n c e any d e p a r t u r e f rom the s i m p l e h a b i t s o f 2 6 l i f e c o u l d l e a d to c o r r u p t i o n . J o s i a h Leeds p r o d u c e d a pamphle t on the same s u b j e c t e n t i t l e d , " S i m p l i c i t y o f A t t i r e i n R e l a t i o n to S o c i a l P u r i t y , " i n w h i c h he emphas ized the r o l e 27 of s i m p l e h a b i t s o f d r e s s i n m a i n t a i n i n g a pure m o r a l i t y . To a t t a i n s i m p l i c i t y i t was f e l t t h a t l u x u r y and f a s h i o n , m a n i f e s t e d by i r r a t i o n a l and c o s t l y c l o t h e s must be combat ted by r e f o r m s a t t e m p t i n g to r a t i o n a l i z e d r e s s and keep m o r a l s i n r e s t r a i n t . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , f a s h i o n d i d not a i d the r e f o r m e r s , s i n c e the t r e n d t o w a r d the " w h i r l i n g s k i r t , low c o r s a g e , b a r e a r m , l u r e d m e n , " t h e y f e l t , and c a u s e d t h e 28 " b o i l i n g o v e r o f p a s s i o n s and c o r r u p t i o n . " James P a r t o n had a l r e a d y l e n t emphasis to t h i s v i e w by c o n d e m n i n g , " t h e " J . H . . K e l l o g g , " C h a s t i t y and H e a l t h , " i n A a r o n Macy P o w e l l , Free Religious Association Proceedings at the Fourth Annual Meeting, 1871 ( B o s t o n : J o h n W i l s o n and Son, 1871), PP. 246-8. 2 7 J o s i a h W. L e e d s , Simplicity of Attire in Relation to Social Purity ( P h i l a d e l p h i a : By t h e A u t h o r , 1886). Frances E. W i l l a r d , " D r e s s and V i c e , " Philanthropist, 11 (May 1887), 8. 147 mora l impotence o f a l m o s t a l l women to r e s i s t the t y r a n n y o f f a s h i o n and the n e c e s s i t y t h a t a p p e a r s to r e s t upon them to 29 copy e v e r y d i s f i g u r a t i o n i n v e n t e d by the h a r l o t s o f P a r i s . " I n d e e d , s a i d John S p a l d i n g L a n c a s t e r , "a f a s h i o n a b l e woman 30 can h a r d l y c r e a t e a happy home o r be t h e mother o f t r u e m e n . " Even i n t e r e s t i n f a s h i o n was f e l t to be c o r r u p t i n g s i n c e i t i n t e n s i f i e d s e l f - c o n s c i o u s n e s s w h i c h was the a n t i t h e s i s o f 31 the s o c i a l i d e n t i t y sought by p u r i t y r e f o r m e r s . F u r t h e r -more , i t l e d to the m i s t a k e n b e l i e f t h a t d r e s s made the l a d y when i n r e a l i t y i t was c h a r a c t e r t h a t made h e r . " D r e s s , i n d e e d a l l o u t w a r d e n v i r o n m e n t , " s a i d E l i z a b e t h P o w e l l B o n d , "must be s u b o r d i n a t e d to p e r s o n a l i t y ; to c h a r a c t e r , and i n 32 t h i s s e c r e t i s a 1 aw f o r g u i d a n c e . " M o t h e r s were c o n s e q u e n t l y warned not to s u r r e n d e r t h e i r d a u g h t e r s " i n t h e v e r y bloom of t h e i r y o u t h f u l p o w e r s , to the u n i n t e l l i g e n t d o m i n i o n o f f a s h i o n , " and to pay a t t e n t i o n to the laws o f h e a l t h i n 29 J a m e s P a r t o n , Famous Americans of Recent Times ( B o s t o n : T i c h n o r a n d F i e l d s , 1868) , p . 372. 30 J o h n L a n c a s t e r S p a l d i n g , The Religious Mission of the Irish People and Catholic Colonization (New Y o r k : C a t h o l i c C o l o n i z a t i o n S o c i e t y , 18 8 0) , p . 9 . 3 1 J u l i a W a r d H o w e , Modern Society ( B o s t o n : R o b e r t s B r o t h e r s , 1 8 8 1 ) , p . 38 . 32 E l i z a b e t h P o w e l l B o n d , " B e a u t y a n d S i m p l i c i t y " ( M S S , S w a r t h m o r e C o l l e g e , N o v e m b e r 27 , 1896) , p . 10. 148 r e l a t i o n to c l o t h i n g h a b i t s . 0 0 Freedom from moral c o r r u p t i o n was a s s o c i a t e d w i t h f reedom from the s t r i c t u r e s o f the cumber-some and n o n - f u n c t i o n a l c l o t h i n g of the p a s t , and such d e l i n -q u e n c i e s o f d r e s s had to be e r a d i c a t e d . One o f the most dangerous p i e c e s o f c l o t h i n g w h i c h f a s h i o n had imposed upon women was t h e c o r s e t , a g a i n s t w h i c h r e f o r m e r s campaigned c e a s e l e s s l y . The penance of the c o r s e t was s t r i c t l y f o r the f e m a l e , women r e f o r m e r s p o i n t e d o u t , t h e r e f o r e i t was not o n l y u n h e a l t h y , but u n f a i r . F u r t h e r m o r e , the c r i p p l i n g e f f e c t s o f the c o r s e t s h o u l d overshadow any en joyment r e a c h e d f rom i m p r o v i n g the c o n t o u r s , w h i c h i n any case was u n h e a l t h y and i m m o r a l . "By f a r the most f r e q u e n t d i f f i c u l t y w i t h -our women" s a i d J u l i a Ward Howe i n 1874 , " a r i s e s f rom u t e r i n e d i s p l a c e m e n t and . . . t h e u t t e r d i s u s e o f the m u s c l e s . . . w h i c h are k e p t i n a c t i v e by the c o r s e t , we ighed upon by t h e . h e a v y s k i r t and drawn down upon by the v i o l e n t and u n n a t u r a l m o t i o n of the d a n c i n g at p r e s e n t i n v o g u e . 1 , 3 4 When the whalebone c o r s e t was r e p l a c e d by the a l l -meta l c o r s e t the r e s u l t s o f b r u i s e s , c u t s , d i s p l a c e m e n t o f i n n e r o r g a n s , o c c a s i o n a l m i s c a r r i a g e s and d i s f i g u r e m e n t c o n -t i n u e d to o c c u r . P u r i t y r e f o r m e r s such as L e w i s and J u l i a Ward Howe, Sea: and Education, p. 10. Ibid., pp. 28-9. 149 u r e 4 . B e r n a r d R u d o f s k y , The Unfashionable Human Body (.Garden C i t y , New Y o r k ; D o u b l e d a y and C o . . I n c . 1 9 7 1 ) , p . 102. 150 K e l l o g g p r o t e s t e d s t r o n g l y a g a i n s t the n e e d l e s s n e s s o f t h e s e c r i p p l i n g e f f e c t s w h i c h damaged the c h i l d - b e a r i n g a p p a r a t u s o f women. K e l l o g g embarked upon a s e r i e s o f r e s e a r c h e s to p r o v e s c i e n t i f i c a l l y t h a t d r e s s was a f a c t o r i n d u c i n g d i s e a s e . C l a i m i n g p r o o f t h a t women breathed c o s t a l l y r a t h e r t h a n a b d o m i n a l l y , he c o n c l u d e d t h a t c o r s e t s caused c h e s t and p e l v i c d i s e a s e s . He t h e r e f o r e a d v o c a t e d removal o f the 35 s t r i c t u r e o f c o r s e t s to a l l o w i n c r e a s e d f reedom o f movement. F a s h i o n , h o w e v e r , p r o v e d a f o r m i d a b l e enemy. The c o r s e t was c o n s i d e r e d a most i m p o r t a n t p a r t o f e v e r y f a s h i o n a b l e woman's w a r d r o b e and many women were r e l u c t a n t t o r e l i n q u i s h i t s a e s t h e t i c e f f e c t s , d e s p i t e the u n p l e a s a n t c o n s e q u e n c e s . As J u l i a Ward Howe r e p e a t e d s a d l y , a v e r y e s t i m a b l e young l a d y s a i d to me the o t h e r d a y , i n answer to a p l e a f o r d r e s s r e f o r m , " I t i s b e t t e r to l o o k handsome, even i f i t does s h o r t e n l i f e a l i t t l e . " F u r t h e r m o r e , r e f o r m e r s n o t e d , p h y s i c i a n s c o u l d not n e c e s s a r i l y be r e l i e d upon to condemn the c o r s e t . Commenting upon the a t t i t u d e s of some d o c t o r s , Grace Greenwood r e m i n i s c e d : No g i r l irfithe physiology class had so small a waist. I had occasional f a i n t -ing f i t s which rendered me interesting. J . H . K e 1 1 o g g , " E x p e r i m e n t a 1 R e s e a r c h e s R e s p e c t i n g t h e R e l a t i o n o f D r e s s t o P e 1 v i c> D i s e a s e s o f W o m e n , " Transactions of the Michigan State Medical Society, X I I ( 1 8 8 8 ) , 3 2 2 - 4 3 . J u l i a W a r d H o w e , Sex and Education, p . 2 8 . 151 F o r t h e s e , and t h e u g l y p a i n i n my s i d e , t h e cough and p a l p i t a t i o n s , p h y s i c i a n s were c a l l e d i n . I f t h e y ' t h o u g h t ' c o r s e t s t h e y d i d n o t m e n t i o n them. D o c t o r s were d e l i c a t e i n t h o s e d a y s . Not k n o w i n g what t o do, t h e y b l e d me. 0' O t h e r p h y s i c i a n s h e l d q u i t e a d i f f e r e n t v i e w . B e l i e v i n g c o r s e t s to be o f t h e r a p e u t i c v a l u e , some went i n t o b u s i n e s s f o r t h e m s e l v e s . In 1880 , f o r e x a m p l e , D r . George S c o t t put on the market an u n b r e a k a b l e e l e c t r i c c o r s e t g u a r a n t e e d to c u r e 38 p a r a l y s i s , r h e u m a t i s m , s p i n a l c o m p l a i n t s and k i d n e y t r o u b l e s . For t h o s e women who d i d seek r e s p i t e f rom r e s t r i c -t i o n s of the c o r s e t , a l t e r n a t i v e s were o f f e r e d i n t h e form o f new u n d e r g a r m e n t s . Some o r d e r e d , " D r . J a g e r s S a n i t a r y Woolen System o f D r e s s . " T h i s German d r e s s r e f o r m e r a d v o c a t e d woolen u n d e r c l o t h e s , s i n c e wool s y m b o l i z e d p u r i t y and woolen 39 garments b a l a n c e d human e m o t i o n s and body o d o r s . The s u c c e s s o f h i s woolen c l o t h e s was s h o r t - l i v e d , h o w e v e r , s i n c e h i s a d v i c e t h a t a s h i r t c o u l d be worn s i x to e i g h t weeks w i t h o u t w a s h i n g , and t h a t t h e r e was no need t o d r y the body b e f o r e p u t t i n g on u n d e r c l o t h e s r e s u l t e d i n an o b v i o u s i m b a l a n c e to 3 7 G r a c e G r e e n w o o d , " S y m p o s i u m o n W o m e n ' s D r e s s , " The Arena Magazine, VI (New Y o r k , 1892) , 632. •3 O H a r p e r ' s B a z a a r , 1883, q u o t e d i n B e r n a r d R u d o f s k y , The Unfashionable Human Body (New Y o r k : D o u b l e d a y a n d C o . , 1971) , p . 106. G u s t a v J a g e r , Selections from Essays on Health Culture (New Y o r k : n . p . , 1 8 9 1 ) , p p . 73 , 138 -9 . 152 ew Prices !"mBa1883, $ l , $1.50, $ 2 , $ 2 . 5 0 , $ 3 . Owing to the unprecedented success attending the sale nnd nnc of our $3 Electric Corset, nnd tho constant demand lor Electric Corsets ol less price.. hut ol the same lln-nu outie, value, lie luive decided to place upon the market A I I A K D S U . H I S 1 . . I . V K i)l'y K L . I f l t : T H I C C O I l S I ' i T S , ranging in price Iroiu * ' l to ;. ' ; , thin I ' r u i L ' i i i c them u i t b i n Ibo roach « ( all win) desire them. They an: c i | U : t i l y c h a t g . d witn electro magnetism, tin dillcreiicc bclug ouly in the quality ol material . T h o higher grades are made ol extra line English Site, n, u 11:1•• lliose of lessor pre e mu ul 'correspondingly good ip.iil.t_i. ' t^'X^^tV\V"*''iM-> A l l tiro nuttle on Hie laic.-t approved I'm i .-ian nn del-, i l m -^ t l « % \ t i ; f e | W w K v Imparting a graceiul and ittiract .vr lignre. n> t i c we ,r 1 v v " ' "' ' " ' ' . ' bono g or - ord i i.g, u . in A l t M O I . I ' ' l ' l < t.\ nd will guarantee then miiMf^"" ' •-V'^i,*, - ' ' . M « # f / / » N Y » r e c e n t l y i n n m o d p r o c e s s , o l t ^ v ' - s i ^ j , ^-WW^'Wl , u 0 ' ' I ' " ' to e f l c r to t n e | u b l i o t ^ ^ W I ' \ I I R 1 0 A K A I I I . K C o r s e t , M • i f PATENTED •vw mm MAM i a.ec TRIC JCHCO SENT POST PAID ON TRIAL Heme, " K l < <t r i c , " " I n b r c n k n l i l c , " tlio i n n F r c i rli shape,, and n l b « t<«T m a I c r i i t 1 than tl .o . 'c ordinarily told at tho pi ice.-, t h e s e Corsets will coin inand the pic ereiice of t h e p u r c h a s e r . They a r e o n . K l i u c t o d on !-<•!<• ii i ; principles, general mu an e x h i l a r a t -ing, l i e i i l i l i . g i v i n g e u i T ' D t to t h e u l . o i e s y H e m . T h e i r tliernpeutii; value is unquestioned, and they q u i c k l y c u t e , in a m a r v e l o u s manner, Nervoua l i o b i l i i y , Spinal Com-plaints, H h i i i m n t i s m . Paralysis , Numhne.-B, i l i s p o p s i u , L iver and Kidney t r o u b l e s , j m i i i i i rd Cir< u l a t i o n . Consn-t i o n , nnd nil i d her d is. u s e s | ecu I iar to n i . i i u n , p a i t o n . l a r l y t h o s e o l ' s e d e n t a r e - ha.uits. They also In c o m e , w h o i . c o n s t a n t l y iv i n , ci|irillzmg amenta in nil c i tes nl< x n e n e fulness o r l e a n u c H - - , b y i i n p a r t i u g to tho s i s i o m tin* re-q u i r e d amount o l ' o d i c f o r c e " which Nature's laiv ill munds. Scientists aio daily making k n o w n to tlio world t h e i ; . (lispul.'ibly beneficial ollecta o l E l e c t r o - M a g n e t i s m , w h e n p r o p r l v and selenliDo.illy appl ied to tho human l)...!y in t i n s manner ; and it Is also alllrmed by prolossionaI i n e n that I h e r o 13 hardly a di-oaso which K l e c l n c i t v ; tl I Ma.p-notisni will not benefit o r cure, and all medical men daily practice the B n m o . A s k your own p h y s i c i a n ! D R . W . A . H A M M O N D , of New York, I/ite S n r g c o m C . o n e r a l of the U . S.. nn eminent authority publishes almost i n n n r . u l o u s cures coming under his no• tine. Always doing good, liover barm, lliere is no shock or sensation folt in wearing thorn. Tho ordinary Eloctric l lattory, when reaortcU to In s imi-lar r.aso-i to thoso above montionod, is often too p o w e r l u l i, out leaving tho patlont more cxhaustod and weakened t h a n b e -s i r o d ) wearing our Electric, .Corset us ordinary C o r s e t s aro U B U dly nnd exdtlng doing good during the opor tin fore; whereas by duilv (and nightly, too, I I'd worn, a gentlo and oxhilaral iug influenci is lastingly and agreo.bly perceptible, q u i c k l y accomplishing that good lor which they aro worn. They will never haini oven In the most sensitive cases. Ladies who h >vo onoo Tried thom say ihev will w e i r no others,. Tiro prices are as follows: $1, t\-SO. $'-', $Z'jQ and $3. The two latter k i n d s ' a r o m i do In Pink. Dine, Wliito and, Hovb ; the others in V.'lnto nnd I'ov,-only. Each Corset is sent out In a handsoino box, «• cotnpanle t by u silver-plated] compass, by which the etc. ire. magnetic, influetico of tho Corsets can bo tested. W o will send either k i n d t i any address, postpaid, on p cidpl of the prico ; also, add 10 cents for registration, lo infuro safo delivery. Komit In P 0. Money Order, Dralt , Chock, or in Currency , by Reglstotod l.ett-r. In ordering, kindly m e n t i o n t i l l s p u b I iv.ixi Ion, and stato exact slzo of Corset usually worn ; or, whore tlio size is not known, take a l ight measiueuieni. of tho waia' ovor tho l inen. This can bo douo with a ploco of common striug, which soud wblt your order. Make all remittances payable to ( J W ) , A . 8 C O T T , H - i a B r o n d w n y , T V . Y . -non pi ices J 1 , $1 ad, %2. J'2.i)0 nnd 83—sent postpaid on receipt ol price. | D R . S C O T T ' S E I . E C T R I O H A I I I R u t ' ure 5 . H a r p e r ' s B a z a a r , 1883 , i n R u d o f s k y , op., cit.3 p . 107 . 153 the w e a r e r o f body o d o r o v e r human e m o t i o n . A n o t h e r k i n d o f w o o l e n garment known as the ' a l p h a u n d e r g a r m e n t ' was p l a c e d on the marke t by M r s . Susan C o n v e r s e . She i n v e n t e d , o r p o s s i b l y c o p i e d from D r . Mary W a l k e r , " t h e s o f t , warm and 40 h e a l t h f u l m a t e r i a l " t h a t e x t e n d e d f rom neck to a n k l e s . P o p u l a r i z e d i n the Woman's Journal i t a p p a r e n t l y p r o v e d v e r y m a r k e t a b l e . By 1 8 9 1 , i t was a p p a r e n t to women d r e s s r e f o r m e r s t h a t f u r t h e r e f f o r t was needed to p e r s u a d e women to change t h e i r c l o t h i n g h a b i t s . T h u s , t h e I n t e r n a t i o n a l C o u n c i l o f Women d e c i d e d to g i v e ma jor c o n s i d e r a t i o n to the t o p i c . The C o u n c i l e m p h a s i z e d the v a l u e o f l o o s e c l o t h i n g as opposed to t i g h t garments w h i c h caused p h y s i c a l i l l n e s s , and a d v o c a t e d t h a t women s h o u l d make a s p e c i a l e f f o r t , to overcome the n o t i o n 41 t h a t b e a u t y was a c o r o l l a r y to f a s h i o n . I t was p o i n t e d o u t by some t h a t the w a s p i s h w a i s t o f f a s h i o n a b l e women was o b j e c t i o n a b l e s i n c e the a p p a r e n t l a c k o f an abdomen c a r e f u l l y s c o r e d away any t r a c e o f woman's r e a l m i s s i o n - m o t h e r h o o d . D r . K e l l o g g r a i s e d the q u e s t i o n o f why women s h o u l d have s m a l l e r w a i s t s than men and answered i t i n t h e n e g a t i v e . The i d e a l he p o i n t e d to was the abandoned w a i s t l i n e o f Venus de 40 Susan C o n v e r s e , " A l p h a U n d e r - G a r m e n t s , " Alpha (December 1 , 1880) , p . 1 . A 1 B.O. F l o w e r , " F a s h i o n ' s S l a v e s , " The Arena Magazine, IV ( S e p t e m b e r , 1 8 9 1 ) , 4 0 1 - 4 2 5 . 1 54 42 M i l e - . The magazine Arena was u t i l i z e d to p u b l i c i z e a q u e s t f o r m o r a l i t y i n d r e s s , and a s e r i e s o f a r t i c l e s was run d i s c u s s i n g the s e a r c h f o r an i d e a l form of d r e s s f o r the A m e r i c a n woman. The c h o i c e , l a t e r s y m b o l i z e d by I s a d o r a D u n c a n , s e l f - s t y l e d h e r o i n e o f d r e s s r e f o r m , though c e r t a i n l y n o t r e g a r d e d by women r e f o r m e r s as s u c h , was the Greek i d e a l , 43 symbol o f R e p u b l i c a n v i r t u e s . The s u c c e s s o f p u r i t y r e f o r m e r s i n i m p o s i n g s i m p l e r p a t t e r n s o f c l o t h i n g upon the f e m a l e p o p u l a t i o n i s d i f f i c u l t to e s t i m a t e . The f e m a l e s i l h o u e t t e d i d change a f t e r the 1870 ' s when the v o l u m i n o u s and heavy hoop s k i r t was g r a d u a l l y s u p p l a n t e d by the b u s t l e . S k i r t s r e m a i n e d l o n g , h o w e v e r , m o d e s t l y c o v e r i n g t h e l e g and c o n t i n u i n g to hamper f e m a l e movement. Where womenis r i g h t s a d v o c a t e s s c o r e d t h e most 42 J . H . K e l l o g g , " T h e I n f l u e n c e o f D r e s s i n P r o d u c i n g t h e D e c a d e n c e o f A m e r i c a n W o m e n , " Bacteriological World and Modern Medicine, 1 ( A u g u s t , 1892) , 4 - 1 7 . 43 B . O . F l o w e r , op. cit., p . 423 . N o t e : In a n a t t e m p t t o r e t u r n t o t h e s p i r i t u a l a n d b o d i l y f r e e d o m o f a n c i e n t G r e e k c i v i l i z a t i o n , I s a d o r a D u n c a n r e j e c t e d t h e s t y l i z e d f a s h i o n a n d m o v e m e n t p a t t e r n s o f h e r t i m e , a n d s w a t h e d d i n y a r d s o f w h i t e m u s l i n a n d b a r e -f o o t e d , s h e s e t o u t t o c r e a t e a m o d e r n d a n c e f o r m b a s e d u p o n c l a s s i c a l m u s i c a n d a r t . H e r . s u c c e s s , a t l e a s t i n A m e r i c a , was m i n i m a l i n h e r t i m e , b u t s h e d i d c l a i m t o h a v e h e l p e d l i b e r a t e women f r o m t h e c o r s e t . A m o r e p r a c t i c a l e x p l a n a t i o n f o r t h e d e m i s e o f t h e c o r s e t l a y i n t h e w a r e f f o r t s o f 1914 when A l i c e L o n g s w o r t h d e c i d e d t h a t c o r s e t s w e r e n o n - e s s e n t i a l r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r w o m e n . A s a r e s u l t , a m e m b e r o f t h e War I n d u s t r i e s B o a r d r e v e a l e d t h a t t h e A m e r i c a n w o m e n ' s s a c r i f i c e h a d r e l e a s e d 28 ,000 t o n s o f s t e e l d u r i n g W o r l d War I - e n o u g h t o b u i l d t w o b a t t l e s h i p s . _ A l i c e L o n g s w o r t h , q u o t e d i n R u d o f s k y , op. cit., p . 189._ 1 55 s u c c e s s , p e r h a p s , was i n the s p o r t i n g f i e l d , Though, p r i o r to the t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y , a woman's b a t h i n g s u i t r e n d e r e d swimming n o t o n l y d i f f i c u l t but d a n g e r o u s , and d r e s s f o r t e n n i s and b i c y c l i n g was r a t h e r cumbersome, the t r e n d o f p o p u l a r f e m a l e p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n s p o r t had begun and would b r i n g w i t h i t a new o u t l o o k upon c l o t h i n g f o r movement. Thus p u r i t y r e f o r m , t h r o u g h i t s s t r o n g component o f women's r i g h t s l e a d e r s , a c t e d , p e r h a p s a c c i d e n t a l l y , to urge the l i b e r a t i o n o f the human body f rom the bondage o f c o v e r e d l i m b s . Most i m p o r t a n t to the p u r i t y r e f o r m e r s , h o w e v e r , was the f a c t t h a t d i s c u s s i o n s o f a t o p i c so i n t e r e s t i n g to women drew t h e i r a t t e n t i o n t o t h e p u r i t y a s p e c t s o f d r e s s r e f o r m . As p r o s p e c t i v e mothers t h e y were e x h o r t e d t o d i s c a r d the damaging c o r s e t . As w i v e s t h e y were shown t h a t f a s h i o n a b l e c l o t h e s s t i m u l a t e d male s e x u a l i n t e r e s t and encouraged v a n i t y and i r r e s o l u t e n e s s . Above a l l , as m o t h e r s , they were a s k e d -to c a r e f u l l y c o n s i d e r the e f f e c t s t h a t d r e s s c o u l d have upon t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h the c h i l d and on the c h i l d h i m s e l f . A mother who h e r s e l f d i s r e g a r d e d the laws o f h e a l t h i n her c l o t h i n g h a b i t s c o u l d o n l y s e t a poor example to her c h i l d . P l a i n l y and c o m f o r t a b l y d r e s s e d , h o w e v e r , t h e mother c o u l d r e a r her c h i l d i n the same mode, i n an a tmosphere o f h e a l t h f u l s i m p l i c i t y . T h u s , d r e s s r e f o r m seemed to p u r i t y r e f o r m e r s an e x c e l l e n t method of e d u c a t i n g the mother and c h i l d i n m o r a l i t y . As a t e c h n i q u e f o r c o n t r o l l i n g b e h a v i o r t h r o u g h 1 56 the c o n d i t i o n i n g o f d a i l y h a b i t s , d r e s s r e f o r m was v i e w e d i n the same l i g h t as d i e t r e f o r m . S i m p l y d r e s s e d and p l a i n l y n o u r i s h e d , the o b e d i e n t c h i l d o f p u r i t y r e f o r m would be i n t e r n a l l y s t r e n g t h e n e d to l i v e a m o r a l , C h r i s t i a n l i f e . T h i s emphasis on the p h y s i c a l a s p e c t s o f d a i l y l i f e a l s o f o u n d e x p r e s s i o n i n the a t t i t u d e s of m o r a l i s t s toward e x e r c i s e . J u s t as c o r r e c t h a b i t s o f d i e t and d r e s s p r o m i s e d to h e l p p u r i f y the b o d y , p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y came to be v i e w e d as an e x c e l l e n t method o f t r a i n i n g the c h a r a c t e r , d e v e l o p i n g s e l f - c o n t r o l and c u r b i n g i m m o r a l i t y . C h a p t e r 7 gBYSICSDRfiULiFHREv RECREATION AND PLAY S i n c e mora l p h y s i o l o g y s t r e s s e d the i m p o r t a n c e o f p h y s i c a l c u l t u r e i n the i n c u l c a t i o n o f h e a l t h y and mora l h a b i t s , p u r i t y r e f o r m e r s came to v i e w e x e r c i s e as an i m p o r t a n t d e t e r r e n t to p h y s i c a l d e b i l i t y and s e x u a l m i s b e h a v i o r . S t r e n u o u s m u s c u l a r a c t i v i t y , t h e y h o p e d , w o u l d d e v e l o p h a b i t s o f s e l f - c o n t r o l and e n d u r a n c e . W e l l d e v e l o p e d h a b i t s o f e x e r c i s e , formed e a r l y and r e p e a t e d r e g u l a r l y , wou ld h e l p form a c h a r a c t e r w h i c h c o u l d w i t h s t a n d the t e m p t a t i o n o f the human a p p e t i t e f o r s e x , bawdy e n t e r t a i n m e n t , r i c h f o o d s and f r i v o l o u s c l o t h e s . In a s e n s e , t h e r e f o r e , r e f o r m e r s f e l t t h a t m u s c u l a r a c t i v i t y would r e f r i g e r a t e the p a s s i o n s , and a t the same t i m e , c o n t r i b u t e to the w e l l - b e i n g o f the n a t i o n by p r o v i d i n g s t r o n g and h e a l t h y p a r e n t s f o r the f u t u r e . As w i t h many o f t h e i r t e c h n i q u e s f o r p u r i f y i n g s o c i e t y , A m e r i c a n s o f t e n i m p o r t e d t h e i r i d e a s c o n c e r n i n g e x e r c i s e f rom E u r o p e . From Germany came Gymnastik Fur Die Jugend, a handbook d e s i g n e d by Guths Muths i n the l a t e e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y to s t r e s s the moral and p h y s i c a l u t i l i t y 1 57 158 o f p l a n n e d e x e r c i s e . ' Muths h e l d t h a t the u t i l i z a t i o n of g y m n a s t i c s was a means to a b e t t e r r a c e and a u n i t e d f a t h e r -l a n d . In h i s e s t i m a t i o n , c o n t r o l o v e r b o d i l y f u n c t i o n s w o u l d c o n t r i b u t e to the f a i t h and s e l f - c o n f i d e n c e of t h e i n d i v i d u a l , w h i c h i n t u r n w o u l d l e a d to a good mora l a t t i t u d e . A s s e r t i n g t h a t t h e n a t u r e o f a n a t i o n ' s p a s t i m e s were a r e f l e c t i o n o f i t s n a t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r , he p r e s s e d f o r p h y s i c a l e x e r c i s e i n o r d e r t h a t i t m i g h t s e r v e as a p r o p h y l a c t i c f o r the p h y s i c a l and mora l w e l f a r e o f the f u t u r e g e n e r a t i o n . H i s v i e w s were a l s o d i s s e m i n a t e d by h i s d i s c i p l e s , p r i m a r i l y t h r e e German r e f u g e e s who i m m i g r a t e d to A m e r i c a i n the 1 8 2 0 ' s . These men, C h a r l e s B e c k , C h a r l e s F o l l e n and F r a n c i s L e i b e r , s t i m u l a t e d t h e A m e r i c a n p u b l i c to a w i d e r i n t e r e s t i n o r g a n i z e d e x e r c i s e s by h e l p i n g to e s t a b l i s h gymnasia a t N o r t h a m p t o n , Cambridge and B o s t o n , M a s s a c h u s e t t s , soon a f t e r t h e i r a r r i v a l . E n t h u s i a s m soon w a n e d , h o w e v e r , and i n 1830 , D r . John C o l l i n s W a r r e n , who had h e l p e d to e s t a b l i s h a gymnasium a t H a r v a r d , r e p o r t e d t h a t " t h e e x e r c i s e s were p u r s u e d w i t h a r d o r so l o n g 'Guths M u t h s , Gymnastics Fur Die Jugend ( S c h n e p f e n t h a 1 : Im V e r t a g e d e r B u c h h a n d l u n g d e r E r s i e h u n g s a n s t a 1dt , 1793)-2 N . i c o l a a s J . Moo 1 en i j ze r , " J o h a n n C.F. G u t h s M u t h s 1 C o n t r i b u t i o n t o A t h l e t i c s " ( p a p e r r e a d a t t h e N a t i o n a l C o n v e n t i o n o f t h e N a t i o n a l C o l l e g e P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n A s s o c i a t i o n f o r Men a t San D i e g o , C a l i f o r n i a , December, 1966), p. 5 . 159 as t h e i r n o v e l t y l a s t e d , but owing to not u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h e i r i m p o r t a n c e . . . t h e y have g r a d u a l l y been n e g l e c t e d 3 or f o r g o t t e n . " A l t h o u g h few p u b l i c gymnas ia were e s t a b l i s h e d u n t i l the l a t t e r p a r t o f the c e n t u r y , i n t e r e s t i n g y m n a s t i c s was s u s t a i n e d a t the h y d r o p a t h s and h e a l t h r e s o r t s and t h r o u g h the v a r i o u s s e l f - h e l p manuals d i s s e m i n a t e d by mora l p h y s i o l o -g i s t s . S y l v e s t e r Graham a d v i s e d t h a t s e d e n t a r y h a b i t s were to be a v o i d e d a t a l l c o s t s s i n c e t h e y caused the b l o o d to a c c u m u l a t e i n t h e l o w e r r e g i o n s o f the body and gave r i s e t o u n d e s i r a b l e s e x u a l t h o u g h t s and f e e l i n g s . He t h e r e f o r e recommended t h e gymnasium as an e x c e l l e n t p l a c e f o r a man to subdue both h i s l u s t and m a i n t a i n h i s s t r e n g t h i n the 4 f a c e o f a r a d i c a l l y r e d u c e d d i e t . The Reverend John T o d d ' s Student^s Manual was t y p i c a l o f a number of t r e a t i s e s u r g i n g p h y s i c a l e x e r c i s e as a means to combat s e x u a l urges and the l o s s o f semen. F i r s t p u b l i s h e d i n 1835 the p o p u l a r i t y o f the book was such t h a t t h e r e were seven e d i t i o n s by 1837 and t w e n t y - f o u r e d i t i o n s by 1854. Todd p e r c e i v e d a s u b t l e ''John C o l l i n s W a r r e n , "On t h e I m p o r t a n c e o f P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n , " q u o t e d by F r e d Eugene L e o n a r d , "The F i r s t I n t r o d u c t i o n o f J a h n G y m n a s t i c s i n t o A m e r i c a , " Mind and Body, X I I ( S e p t e m b e r , 1905) , 313 , 315 . S y l v e s t e r Graham, A Lecture to Young Men, On Chastity, Intended Also for the. Serious Consideration of Parents and Guardians ( t h i r d e d i t i o n ; B o s t o n : C.H. P e i r c e , 1837) , P . 144. 160 r e l a t i o n s h i p between e x e r c i s e and energy c o n s e r v a t i o n . A c e r t a i n amount o f p h y s i c a l e x e r c i s e was a n e c e s s a r y p a r t o f h i s t o t a l scheme o f d i s c i p l i n e , y e t too much e x e r c i s e c o u l d i n t e r f e r e w i t h the d i s t r i b u t i o n o f v i t a l powers by d r a w i n g 5 away energy f rom the b r a i n . M o r a l p h y s i o l o g i s t s a l s o a d v o c a t e d p h y s i c a l e x e r c i s e f o r women. A m a r i a h Br igham a n d , l a t e r , I s a a c Ray b o t h c l a i m e d t h a t g i r l s needed e x e r c i s e to become r o b u s t m o t h e r s . They urged t h a t women d e v e l o p a " b o d i l y c o n s t i t u t i o n p o s s e s s i n g e x t r a o r d i n a r y powers of e n d u r a n c e . " D r . A u g u s t u s K i n s l e y G a r d n e r a d v o c a t e d e x e r c i s e f o r women as an a i d i n the p r o d u c -t i o n s o f s s o n s o f a new ' n a t i o n a l p h y s i q u e ' and e m p h a s i z e d the d e s i r a b i l i t y o f p e r s u a d i n g p a r e n t s to r e p r o d u c e on s t o c k b r e e d i n g and s t o c k r a i s i n g p r i n c i p l e s . ^ I n d e e d , a c o n s t a n t and i n c r e a s i n g l y p o p u l a r theme of n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y p h y s i c i a n s , e d u c a t o r s and p u b l i c i s t s was t h e e x p r e s s i o n o f c o n c e r n about the p h y s i c a l d e t e r i o r a t i o n ''John T o d d , The Student's Manual ( N o r t h a m p t o n : H o p k i n s and B r i d g m a n , 1835) , p. 284. ^ I s a a c Ray, Mental Hygiene ( B o s t o n : T i c h n o r and F i e l d s , 1863), pp. 5 4 - 5 8 . A m a r i a h B r i g h a m , Remarks on the Influence of Mental Cultivation and Mental Excitement ( B o s t o n : M a r s h , Capen and L y o n , 1833) , p. 16. ^ A u g u s t u s K i n s l e y G a r d n e r , Conjugal Sins Against the Laws of Life and Health and Their Effects upon the Father, Mother and Child (New Y o r k : D e w i t t and D a v e n p o r t , 1870) , p. 192. 161 o f the A m e r i c a n woman. " Female e d u c a t i o n was f r e q u e n t l y blamed f o r t h i s d e t e r i o r a t i o n by t h o s e who b e l i e v e d t h a t i n t e l l e c t u a l a c t i v i t y a b s o r b e d v i t a l energy t h a t was r e q u i r e d f o r the optimum d e v e l o p m e n t o f the r e p r o d u c t i v e o r g a n s . The r e s u l t s o f f e m a l e e d u c a t i o n , s a i d D r . Edward C l a r k e , " a r e monst rous b r a i n s and puny b o d i e s ; a b n o r m a l l y weak d i g e s t i o n ; g f l o w i n g t h o u g h t and c o n s t i p a t e d b o w e l s . . . . " Those who s u p p o r t e d f e m a l e e d u c a t i o n were c r i t i c i z e d f o r c o n t r i b u t i n g to the d e g e n e r a t i o n o f the r a c e by v a l u i n g the d e v e l o p m e n t o f the mind o v e r t h a t o f the b o d y . 1 0 To c o u n t e r a c t t h i s t r e n d , a number o f h e a l t h r e f o r m e r s c a l l e d f o r p h y s i c a l e x e r c i s e t o p l a y a l a r g e r r o l e i n A m e r i c a n e d u c a t i o n . D r . D i o c l e t i a n L e w i s , a f e r v e n t mora l p h y s i o l o g i s t , a t t e m p t e d to i n t r o d u c e l i g h t g y m n a s t i c s f o r both sexes i n t o the p u b l i c s c h o o l s and p o p u l a r i z e d the use of wooden dumb b e l l s and bean b a g s . H i s Normal I n s t i t u t e f o r P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n e s t a b l i s h e d i n 1863 , w a s , i n f a c t , t h e f i r s t a t t e m p t to p r e p a r e t e a c h e r s of p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n i n g C a r o l l S m i t h - R o s e n b u r g and C h a r l e s R o s e n b u r g , "The Female A n i m a l : M e d i c a l and B i o l o g i c a l V i e w s o f Women and Her R o l e i n N i n e t e e n t h C e n t u r y A m e r i c a , " The Journal of American History, XL ( S e p t e m b e r , 1 9 7 3 ) , p. 339. 9 Edward H. C l a r k e , Sex in Education; or a Fair Chance for• Girls ( B o s t o n : J.R. Osgood and Company, 1873) , P . 4 1 . '^Thomas S. C l o u s t o n , Female Education from a Medical Point of View ( L o n d o n : M e t h u e n and Company, 1 8 8 2 ) , p. 19. 162 the U n i t e d S t a t e s . O t h e r r e f o r m e r s a d v o c a t e d a more a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n housework f o r the g i r l who was too used to h a v i n g s e r v a n t s do a l l the w o r k . B e d - m a k i n g , s w e e p i n g , and 1 2 s c r u b b i n g were e s p e c i a l l y recommended. Womens' r i g h t s a d v o c a t e s , o f c o u r s e , t ended to a t t a c k the n o t i o n t h a t e d u c a t i o n was to blame f o r t h e poor h e a l t h o f A m e r i c a n womanhood, and p l a c e d the blame upon t h e d r e s s and f a s h i o n a b l e h a b i t s o f i g n o r a n t women, and t h e l a c k o f p h y s i c a l e x e r c i s e among f e m a l e s . G i r l s were not a l l o w e d enough f reedom of movement i n t h e open a i r , c o m p l a i n e d J u l i a Ward Howe, and p o i n t e d o u t t h a t "some i n s t a n c e s o f r e m a r k a b l e r o b u s t n e s s i n women have been t h e r e s u l t s o f g i v i n g the g i r l s a c h a n c e , t h r o u g h a t h l e t i c s p o r t s and u n r e s t r i c t e d e x e r c i s e 1 3 i n the open a i r . " E q u a l l y e n t h u s i a s t i c to i nclude" p h y s i c a l e x e r c i s e as p a r t o f h e a l t h y growth were the a n t e - b e l l u m c h i l d n u r t u r e e x p e r t s who w i s h e d to i m p r o v e the p h y s i c a l and t h e r e f o r e the ' ' E a r l e F . Z e i g l e r , " C l e a r i n g up some c o n f u s i o n a b o u t t h e F i r s t T e a c h e r T r a i n i n g P r o g r a m in P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n in t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , " Canadian Journal of History of Sport and Physical Education, V ( M a y , 1 9 7 4 ) , 3 9 - 4 0 . 1 2 G e o r g e E v e r e t t , Health Fragments, or, Steps Toward a True Life: Embracing Health, Digestion, Disease and the Science of Reproductive Organs (New Y o r k : J . S . R e d f i e l d , 1874) , p . 3 7 . ,» 1 3 J u l i a W a r d H o w e , Sex and Education ( B o s t o n : R o b e r t s B r o t h e r s , 1 8 7 4 ) , p . 2 9 . 163 mora l d e v e l o p m e n t o f the c h i l d . H a r r i e t M a r t i n e a u a t t a c k e d the n o t i o n t h a t "a l i t t l e g e n t l e amble w i t h a hoop f o r s e v e r e s t e x e r c i s e " was adequate f o r good p h y s i c a l and m o r a l d e v e l o p -14 i ment . She a l s o c r i t i c i z e d ' , a l o n g w i t h D r . Humphrey, such e x c e s s i v e d r e s s i n g o f young c h i l d r e n as r e s t r i c t e d t h e i r 1 5 f reedom o f movement. Robust p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y was d e c l a r e d to be a n a t u r a l t e n d e n c y o f the c h i l d , and one w h i c h wou ld h e l p " h a r d e n the body a g a i n s t the e f f e c t s o f a n i m a l i t y and p r e v e n t mora l f l a b b i n e s s and l a z i n e s s . " 1 6 The need f o r e x e r c i s e had a l r e a d y been p o i n t e d o u t by D r . Dewees who s p e c i f i c a l l y m e n t i o n e d the use o f games as a means o f c i r -c u m v e n t i n g " t h e p r e c o c i o u s deve lopment o f the s e x u a l i n s t i n c t . " I m p l i c i t i n t h e s e i n j u n c t i o n s was a d e v e l o p i n g m o r a l j u s t i f i -c a t i o n f o r p l a y , w h i c h , i n the l a t t e r decades o f the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y , was to b l o s s o m i n t o a major a r e a o f p r o f e s s i o n a l c h i 1 d s t u d y . The s p a r t a n a p p r o a c h to t h e n u r t u r e o f c h i l d r e n i n t h e y e a r s p r i o r t o t h e C i v i l War went hand i n hand w i t h the 14 H a r r i e t M a r t i n e a u , "How t o Make Home U n h e a l t h y , " Harper's Monthly, I ( O c t o b e r , 1 8 5 0 ) , 602 . ' ^ H . Humphrey, Domestic Education ( A m h e r s t : Adams, 1840) , p. 63. ]6Ibid., p. 74. ' ^ W . Dewees, A Treatise on the Physical and Medical Treatment of Children ( P h i l a d e l p h i a : C a r e y and L e a , 1826) , p. 2 5 1 . 1 64 a d m o n i t i o n s o f mora l p h y s i o l o g i s t s to subdue the a n i m a l i n s t i n c t s o f the body t h r o u g h p h y s i c a l e x e r c i s e and e x e r t i o n as p a r t o f a r i g i d , d a i l y r o u t i n e . Gymnasia were c o n s e q u e n t l y c o n s t r u c t e d a t Graham b o a r d i n g h o u s e s , and l a t e r a t h y d r o -p a t h i c i n s t i t u t e s where w e l l - o r d e r e d e x e r c i s e formed an i n d i s p e n s a b l e p a r t o f the s t r i c t r o u t i n e of s l e e p i n g , e a t i n g and b a t h i n g . As h e a l t h r e s o r t s took the p l a c e o f h y d r o p a t h s , the gymnasium remained a p o p u l a r f e a t u r e o f the r e g u l a r f a c i l i t i e s , and r e c r e a t i v e e x e r c i s e was s t r e s s e d as a r e m e d i a l measure f o r s e x u a l d i s o r d e r s . The c l i e n t e l e , , h o w e v e r , was l i m i t e d . H e a l t h r e s o r t s c a t e r e d to the more w e a l t h y , upper and m i d d l e c l a s s , and few w o r k i n g men had the o p p o r t u n i t y to p a r t i c i p a t e i n g y m n a s t i c a c t i v i t i e s . C o n v i n c e d t h a t e x e r c i s e d i d i n d e e d h e l p to r e s t r a i n s e x u a l excess and i t s r e l a t e d c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , p u r i t y r e f o r m e r s l o o k e d to o t h e r modes o f e x e r c i s e to a c c o m p l i s h t h e i r g o a l s . The c o n c e p t w h i c h a t t r a c t e d them was o r g a n i z e d games. P r i o r to the C i v i l War , the e n t h u s i a s m o f t h e E n g l i s h f o r o r g a n i z e d games," and the a p p a r e n t c o n s t r u c t i v e and p r o -d u c t i v e a s p e c t s o f i n v o l v e m e n t i n s p o r t s , had a t t r a c t e d t h e a t t e n t i o n o f a group o f New E n g l a n d c l e r g y m e n and i n t e l l e c -1 8 t u a l s . D r . Thomas A r n o l d o f Rugby P u b l i c S c h o o l c l a i m e d t h a t s p o r t c o n t r i b u t e d to the d e v e l o p m e n t o f c h a r a c t e r , and 1 8 ' -J o h n L u c a s , "A P r e l u d e t o t h e R i s e o f S p o r t i n A m e r i c a , 1 8 5 0 - 6 0 , " Quest, II ( W i n t e r , 1968) , 59 . 165 s t i m u l a t e d c o u r a g e , l o y a l t y and e n e r g y . F u r t h e r m o r e , as the p o p u l a r i t y o f such games as rugby and c r i c k e t i n c r e a s e d , E n g l i s h p u b l i c s c h o o l m a s t e r s c l a i m e d t h a t games and s p o r t s were a s a f e t y v a l v e f o r e x u b e r a n c e and i m m o r a l i t y , and c o u l d be an e f f e c t i v e means f o r r e d u c i n g the amount o f m a s t u r b a t i o n 1 9 and o t h e r s e x u a l o f f e n c e s a t male b o a r d i n g s c h o o l s . As the c o n c e p t became p o p u l a r i z e d and d i s s e m i n a t e d i n A m e r i c a , p u r i t y r e f o r m e r s welcomed t h i s new^mechanism f o r i t s a p p a r e n t v a l u e i n t r a i n i n g the c h a r a c t e r , d e v e l o p i n g s e l f - c o n t r o l and r e d u c i n g i m m o r a l i t y . T h u s , f rom the 1870 ' s o n , s p o r t s and e x e r c i s e came i n c r e a s i n g l y to be v i e w e d as f a r more t h a n a h a r m l e s s d i v e r -s i o n f o r young c h i l d r e n , and f o r a d u l t s on p u b l i c h o l i d a y s . The p o s s i b i l i t i e s were g r a d u a l l y seen f o r r e c r e a t i o n a l e x e r c i s e to become a p o s i t i v e and c o n s t r u c t i v e f o r c e t h r o u g h the d e v e l o p m e n t o f ' C h r i s t i a n m u s c l e ' , and the t y p e o f s p o r t s w h i c h p u r i t y r e f o r m e r s came to promote were n a t u r a l l y t h o s e w h i c h t h e y c o n s i d e r e d to be the most c o n d u c i v e t o h e a l t h y 20 and mora l l i v i n g . G o l f , c r i c k e t , and t h e i r d e r i v a t i v e , b a s e b a l l , were a l l s t r o n g l y recommended a s - h e a l t h f u l forms of e x e r c i s e . In 1 8 7 1 , t h e N a t i o n a l A s s o c i a t i o n o f B a s e b a l l I Q P e t e r C. M c I n t o s h , Physical Education in England since 1800 ( L o n d o n : G. B e l l a n d S o n s , 1 9 5 2 ) , p. 1 2 6 . 20 R o b e r t D. C r o s s ( e d . ) , The Church and the City, 1865-1900 (New Y o r k : T h e B o b b s - M e r r i 1 1 Company I n c o r p o r a t e d , 1 9 6 7 ) , p. 1 4 1 . 166 P l a y e r s was formed i n New Y o r k and b a s e b a l l was l a u n c h e d as one o f the most p o p u l a r s p o r t s on the A m e r i c a n s c e n e . As d r e s s r e f o r m p r o g r e s s e d , b i c y c l i n g became p o p u l a r f o r bo th sexes a l o n g w i t h w a l k i n g , c l i m b i n g , i c e s k a t i n g , f i s h i n g , b o w l i n g and t e n n i s . Swimming came to be e x t o l l e d as an e x c e l l e n t s p o r t , a l w a y s p r o v i d e d t h a t the b a t h i n g costume was m o d e s t . From the h e a l t h and c h a r a c t e r p o i n t s o f v i e w , c o l d b a t h i n g was r e g a r d e d as a p a r t i c u l a r l y good t o n i c f o r the c i r c u l a t i o n , and the moral e f f e c t s o f p l u n g i n g i n t o c o l d w a t e r and s u p p o r t i n g the body i n deep w a t e r were u s e f u l s i n c e t h e y r e d u c e d o v e r t e n d e r n e s s t o s e n s o r y d i s c o m f o r t s . Towards theeend of the c e n t u r y , G. S t a n l e y H a l l s t r e n g t h e n e d t h i s v i e w by a r g u i n g t h a t " n o t h i n g so d i r e c t l y o r q u i c k l y r e d u c e s 21 to the l o w e s t p o i n t the p l e t h o r a of the sex o r g a n s . " Sea b a t h i n g was recommended to women w i t h m e n s t r u a t i o n ' p a i n s 22 and as a means to i n c r e a s e f e r t i l i t y . Wi th i t s e d u c a t i v e e f f e c t s o f c u l t i v a t i n g the w i l l - p o w e r and i t s p r e d i c t e d p o s s i b i l i t i e s o f i n c r e a s i n g f e r t i l i t y as w e l l as t h e added bonus of c l e a n l i n e s s , no s p o r t was n e a r e r the h e a r t o f the p u r i t y r e f o r m e r t h a n swimming. The f o r c e s g i v i n g r i s e to the e x p a n s i o n ? 6 f h e a l t h y modes of r e c r e a t i o n were i n t i m a t e l y t i e d to t h e d e v e l o p m e n t 21 G. S t a n l e y H a l l , Youth, Its Education, Regimen and Hygiene (New Y o r k : D. A p p l e t o n and Company, 1 9 0 4 ) , p. 1 0 6 . 22 " E f f e c t s o f S e a b a t h i n g , " The Vvacticionev, V I I I (December, 1 8 9 5 ) , 2 0 5 . 167 F i g u r e 6 . H a r r y T . P e t e r s , Currier and Ives; Printmakers to the American People (Garden C i t y , New Y o r k : . D o u b l e d a y , Doran and C o . , L t d . , 1 9 4 2 ) , P l a t e 8 0 . 168 o f l e i s u r e and to e c o n o m i c s . The e a r l y s e t t l e r s had f o u n d l i t t l e t i m e to p u r s u e r e c r e a t i v e a c t i v i t i e s o t h e r t h a n w o r k i n g bees and o c c a s i o n a l c h u r c h s o c i a l s . As i n d u s t r i a l i -z a t i o n p r o g r e s s e d , l o n g f a c t o r y h o u r s and low pay d e n i e d , a t f i r s t , the l e i s u r e and p u r c h a s i n g power needed f o r p a r -t i c i p a t i o n i n o r g a n i z e d s p o r t s and e n t e r t a i n m e n t . Not u n t i l i n d u s t r i a l p r o d u c t i v i t y e n a b l e d w o r k i n g hours t o be c u t and wages to be i n c r e a s e d c o u l d the s p o r t i n g p a s t i m e s o f t h e l e i s u r e d a r i s t o c r a c y be a d o p t e d by the w o r k i n g man. D u r i n g the second h a l f o f the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y t h e d i v e r s i o n s o f the r i c h became g r a d u a l l y d e m o c r a t i z e d . Though modern c i v i l i z a t i o n and i n d u s t r i a l work h a b i t s began t o p r o v i d e the n e c e s s a r y i n g r e d i e n t s f o r l e i s u r e p u r s u i t s , A m e r i c a n s d i d not n e c e s s a r i l y p u r s u e ' h e a l t h y ' a c t i v i t i e s . On the c o n t r a r y , p u r i t y r e f o r m e r s b e l i e v e d t h a t u r b a n i z a t i o n and i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n had bred u n n a t u r a l c o n d i t i o n s f o r human l i v i n g and c r e a t e d a l i e n a t i o n f rom the n a t u r a l , r u r a l e n v i r o n -ment . Where the h i g h e s t moral p u r i t y o f the f a r m e r was seen to be beyond q u e s t i o n , the c o n d i t i o n s o f c i t y l i f e were f e l t 23 t o b r e e d o n l y t h e g r o s s e s t s e x u a l i t y . O v e r c r o w d i n g had l e d to p h y s i c a l as w e l l as mental d e g e n e r a c y , d e n i e d a c c e s s to r u r a l p a s t u r e s and o u t - d o o r a c t i v i t e s , and tampered w i t h the home as a c e n t e r o f c h a r a c t e r t r a i n i n g . Long h o u r s and R o b e r t D. C r o s s , op. cit., pp. 13, 19. 169 monotonous w o r k i n g c o n d i t i o n s had l e d the w o r k i n g p e o p l e to i n d u l g e i n t h e i r f r e e t ime i n v i c a r i o u s forms of p u b l i c amusements. I n d u l g e n c e i n many o f t h e s e a c t i v i t i e s , r e f o r m e r s f e l t , d e b i l i t a t e d p e o p l e ' s h e a l t h and undermined the mora l s t a n d a r d s o f d e c e n t b e h a v i o r . Commerc ia l i n t e r e s t s , q u i c k to note the p o t e n t i a l s o u r c e o f p r o f i t to be g a i n e d f rom o r g a n i z e d e n t e r t a i n m e n t , had expanded t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s i n a l l d i r e c t i o n s , most p a r t i c u l a r l y i n p a s s i v e s p e c t a t o r amusements o f d u b i o u s moral v a l u e . In c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h the d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e i r p o l i c i e s f o r the e x p a n s i o n and p o p u l a r i z a t i o n o f h e a l t h y modes o f r e c r e a t i o n , p u r i t y r e f o r m e r s f e l t a p a r t i c u l a r o b l i g a t i o n i n d i s r u p t i n g the more v i c i o u s t y p e s of p u b l i c r e c r e a t i o n . T h e i r s t a n d a g a i n s t c o m m e r c i a l e n t e r t a i n m e n t s r e s u l t e d p a r t l y f rom a d e s i r e to remedy the p e r c e i v e d m a l - e f f e c t s upon the m o r a l i t y o f the a d u l t p o p u l a t i o n , but a more p e r s i s t e n t r e a s o n was the p o t e n t i a l t h r e a t t h e y r e p r e s e n t e d t o t h e c h i l d . The y o u n g , who were n o t y e t w i s e to wordldly t e m p t a t i o n s , had to be both p r o t e c t e d from them and p r e p a r e d to de fend them-s e l v e s a g a i n s t f u t u r e e x p o s u r e . Born to p a r e n t s d e b i l i t a t e d by immoral e n t e r t a i n m e n t and r e a r e d i n an a tmosphere d e v o i d o f h y g i e n i c p r a c t i c e s , the c h i l d c o u l d o n l y c a p i t u l a t e to impure h a b i t s and s o c i e t y would i n e v i t a b l y be doomed. S i n c e t h e y b e l i e v e d t h a t the b r u t a l i t y o f many s p o r t i n g e v e n t s , e s p e c i a l l y p r i z e f i g h t i n g and f o o t b a l l , 170 m i l i t a t e d a g a i n s t the d e v e l o p m e n t o f h e a l t h y , mora l i n d i v i d u a l s , t h e s e e v e n t s became a p a r t i c u l a r p o i n t o f c o n c e r n f o r p u r i t y r e f o r m e r s . C o l l e g e f o o t b a l l s p e c t a c u l a r s damaged t h e r e p u t a -t i o n o f the s p o r t as a h e a l t h y , manly a c t i v i t y . F r a n c e s W i l l a r d was q u i t e s e r i o u s when she r a i s e d the t o p i c i n the Woman's Journal o f 1894 , and i n s i s t e d t h a t d i f f e r e n c e s between H a r v a r d and Y a l e s h o u l d be s e t t l e d by a r b i t r a t i o n r a t h e r t h a n 24 t h r o u g h f o o t b a l l . P r i z e f i g h t i n g was p a r t i c u l a r l y r e p u g n a n t f o r i t a p p e a l e d to t h e a n i m a l i n man and was c o m p l e t e l y c o n t r a r y to a l l the C h r i s t i a n v i r t u e s c h e r i s h e d by p u r i t y r e f o r m e r s . When Nevada l i c e n c e d p r i z e f i g h t i n g i n 1897 , 25 r e f o r m e r s d e c l a r e d i t the 'Nevada D i s g r a c e ' . A t the f o r e -f r o n t was J o s i a h L e e d s , s t r o n g opponent o f n u d i t y and obscene l i t e r a t u r e , who used g r e a t d e t e r m i n a t i o n t o h a l t , a t l e a s t t e m p o r a r i l y , p r i z e f i g h t i n g e x h i b i t i o n s i n P h i l a d e l p h i a . In t h i s e f f o r t he was a s s i s t e d by t h e M o r a l Committee o f One Hundred o f the C i t i z e n s R e p r e s e n t a t i v e Committee o f t h a t c i t y who a l s o h e l p e d him to p r e v e n t p o l i c e m e n f rom a t t e n d i n g r o l l e r 26 s k a t i n g m a t c h e s . G a m b l i n g and t h e t h e a t e r were p a s s i v e t y p e s o f e n t e r t a i n m e n t w h i c h c o u l d i n no way c o n t r i b u t e to h e a l t h and 2 k F r a n c e s W i l l a r d , " R e s o l v e d , t h a t D i f f e r e n c e s Between H a r v a r d and Y a l e be S e t t l e d by A r b i t r a t i o n , W i t h o u t R e s o r t t o F o o t b a l l , " Woman's Journal (December, 1 8 9 4 ) , p. 3 8 8 . 2 5 J o s i a h W. L e e d s , "Nevada D i s g r a c e , " Philanthropist, X I I ( A p r i 1 , 1 8 9 7 ) , 2k. N ^Philadelphia Ledger, A p r i l 7 , 1885• 171 m o r a l i t y . G a m b l i n g m i l i t a t e d a g a i n s t the v e r y e s s e n c e o f the l i f e s t y l e a d v o c a t e d by p u r i t y r e f o r m e r s - t h a t hard work l e d to s u c c e s s . G a i n by chance was an anathema to the r e l i g i o n o f work s i n c e i t e n c o u r a g e d s l o t h f u l n e s s and bad h a b i t s and a d i s c o n t e n t m e n t w i t h the n e c e s s a r y d r u d g e r y o f e v e r y day l i f e . F u r t h e r m o r e , the h a b i t o f s p e c u l a t i o n a c q u i r e d i n the g a m b l i n g h a l l o r on the r a c e t r a c k c o u l d e a s i l y l e a d to " s p e c u l a t i o n 27 i n s e x , " and hence a r a p i d d e c l i n e i n m o r a l i t y . The d e b a s i n g i n f l u e n c e s o f t h e t h e a t e r were v i v i d l y p o r t r a y e d by Lyman B e e c h e r . " I f any man can i n v e n t a more speedy way f o r s i n n e r s to go to h e l l t h a n the t h e a t e r , he ought to have a p a t e n t -28 r i g h t f o r h i s i n f e r n a l i n g e n u i t y . " Here i n the t h e a t e r , c o m p l a i n e d the Reverend S y l v a n u s S t a l l , " u n d e r t h e i n f l u e n c e Of e x p o s u r e s and p o s t u r e s w h i c h b r i n g the b l u s h of shame to the cheek o f d e l i c a c y , p r e v i o u s l y pure young men f e e l the awakening power o f u n g o v e r n a b l e p a s s i o n , and f a l l an easy p r e y to the b a r - r o o m s , the g a m b l i n g s d e n s and the b r o t h e l s 29 w h i c h c l u s t e r under the shadow of e v e r y t h e a t e r . " A f r e q u e n t l y c r i t i c i z e d a s p e c t o f the t h e a t e r was b a l l e t , w h i c h 2 7 E 1 i z a b e t h B 1ackwe 1 1 , The Human Element in Sex: Being a Medical Inquiry Into the Relation of Sexual Physiology and Christian Morality ( s e c o n d e d i t i o n ; L o n d o n : J . and A. C h u r c h i l l , 1884) , p. 16. 2 8 Lyman B e e c h e r , q u o t e d i n S y l v a n u s S t a l l , What a Young Man Ought to Know ( L o n d o n : The V i r P u b l i s h i n g Company , 1897) , P• 246. 2 ^ S y l v a n u s S t a l l , op. cit., pp. 247 -248 . 172 J o s i a h Leeds was s u r e would p r o v i d e c u s t o m e r s f o r the b r o t h e l 30 and i n c r e a s e the c r i m e r a t e . I n t r o d u c e d i n 1887 by t h e N a t i o n a l and A m e r i c a n Opera C o m p a n i e s , b a l l e t was c o n s i d e r e d e s p e c i a l l y d e m o r a l i z i n g s i n c e the d a n c e r s wore so few c l o t h e s . In a l e t t e r to the P h i l a d e l p h i a P r e s s , Leeds d e s c r i b e d t h e b a l l e t as " d a n c e r s i n t h e i r immodest , s c a n t a t t i r e , " and t h e 31 swimming scenes as " s h a m e l e s s b a t h i n g s c e n e s . " A group o f P r e s b y t e r i a n s added to the c o m p l a i n t s by condemning b a l l e t as an " i n j u r y to P u b l i c M o r a l s . " M e t h o d i s t s , E p i s c o p e ! i a n s , B a p t i s t s and Quakers a l l condemned the sensuous and d e b a s i n g p e r f o r m a n c e s and a y e a r l a t e r t h e N a t i o n a l Opera Company was - 32 f o r c e d to d i s c o n t i n u e the b a l l e t . P u r i t y r e f o r m e r s were a l s o d e d i c a t e d to c l o s i n g down the dance h a l l s , and i n d e e d p r e v e n t i n g d a n c i n g of any k i n d . In 1893 , t h e S o u t h e r n P r e s b y t e r i a n A s s e m b l y made d a n c i n g a 33 v a l i d g r o u n d d f o r e x c o m m u n i c a t i o n . I t was an extreme v i e w , and one r e f l e c t i n g what Samuel S . H i l l has d e s c r i b e d as a p e c u l i a r v a r i e t y o f e v a n g e l i c a l P r o t e s t a n t i s m , y e t many p u r i t y 3 ® J o s i a h W. L e e d s , The Menace of the Theater ( P h i l a d e l p h i a : By t h e A u t h o r , 1 8 9 - 1 ) , p. 1 7 . 31 " L e e d s t o t h e E d i t o r , " Philadelphia Press, F e b r u a r y 2 , 1 8 8 7 . 3 2 Christian Statesman, J u n e 16, 1 8 8 8 . 33 Sydney E. A h l s t r o m , A Religious History of the American People (New Haven and L o n d o n : Y a l e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 7 2 ) , p. 716. 173 34 r e f o r m e r s f e l t e q u a l l y s t r o n g l y about d a n c i n g . They were convinced t h a t t h o s e who danced c o u l d not r e m a i n p u r e . M i s -f o r t u n e f o l l o w e d t h o s e who d a n c e d , s a i d J u l i a Ward Howe, i n g i v i n g the example o f a l a d y , who, m a r r i e d and c h i l d l e s s f o r many y e a r s c o n f e s s e d t h a t a b a l l a t t e n d e d i n her y o u t h was 35 the cause of t h i s m i s f o r t u n e . D r . K e l l o g g q u o t e d the New York C h i e f o f P o l i c e as s t a t i n g t h a t t h r e e - q u a r t e r s o f a l l 3 fi p r o s t i t u t e s i n New Y o r k owed t h e i r d o w n f a l l to d a n c i n g . A c o n t r i b u t i n g f a c t o r s was h e l d to be the f a c t t h a t n i n e t y p e r c c e n t o f a l l dance h a l l s i n New York were l o c a t e d o v e r s a l o o n s and the h a l l s were u s u a l l y f u r n i s h e d f r e e as p l a c e s to d r i n k and meet women. T h e y v e r y y a c t o f c h a n g i n g p a r t n e r s 3 7 was seen to be p r o m i s c u o u s . "Hands o f f i s a w i s e o l d r u l e , " commented Josephe L e e , " f o r p h y s i c a l c o n t a c t marks a danger 38 l i n e . " A p a r t i c u l a r p r o b l e m , s a i d G a r d n e r , l a y i n t h e s e x u a l s t i m u l a t i o n caused to both p a r t n e r s when d a n c i n g 34 Samuel S. H i l l J r . , " S o u t h e r n C h u r c h e s i n C r i s i s , " p. x i i , q u o t e d i n Ah 1strom,.op. cit. 3 p. 7 1 7 . 35 J u l i a Ward Howe, op. cit.3 p. 19. 3 6 J.H. K e l l o g g , Ladies Guide in Health and Disease. Girlhood, Maidenhood3 Wifehood, Motherhood ( B a t t l e C r e e k , M i c h i g a n : Good H e a l t h P ub 1 I sh i ng • Company ,• 1 9 0 1 ) , pp. 2 0 7 -214. 3 7 " B a l l Funds f o r C h a r i t y , " Philadelphia Times3 March 1 8 , 1 8 8 4 . •3 Q J o s e p h L e e , Play in Education (New Y o r k : The M a c m i l l a n Company, 1 9 1 5 ) , p. 4 1 5 . 1 74 39 t o g e t h e r , e s p e c i a l l y i f the woman was m e n s t r u a t i n g . A f u r t h e r danger o f t h e dance was seen t o be r h y t h m w h i c h a r o u s e d the e m o t i o n s and weakened the moral and i n t e l l e c t u a l f a c u l t i e s , a c t i n g somewhat as a n a r c o t i c . I t was s u g g e s t e d t h a t rhythm had the power to m a n i f e s t i t s e l f i n o r g i e s and t h e g r a t i f i c a t i o n o f chance e m o t i o n s o f t h e moment. J o s i a h Leeds was t h e r e f o r e e x t r e m e l y s a t i s f i e d when he s u c c e e d e d i n c l o s i n g down the 'Broadway G a r d e n s ' , a P h i l a d e l p h i a dance h a l l n o t o r i o u s as a c e n t e r f o r p r o s t i t u t i o n . 4 0 D a n c i n g , t h e a t e r o r a r t forms of any k i n d p r o v o k i n g sensuous t h o u g h t s were so r e p r e h e n s i b l e to many p u r i t y r e f o r m e r s t h a t t h e y were k e p t c o n s t a n t l y o c c u p i e d t r y i n g to s u p p r e s s the numerous i n n o v a t i o n s of c o m m e r c i a l e n t e r t a i n m e n t . R e f o r m e r s such as J o s i a h Leeds s p e n t a l i f e - t i m e b a t t l i n g t o s u p p r e s s immoral amusements , j u s t as A n t h o n y Comstock made the s u p -p r e s s i o n o f obscene l i t e r a t u r e hi's l i f e g o a l . Y e t p u r i t y r e f o r m was o n l y p a r t l y p u r g a t i v e i n n a t u r e . Many r e f o r m e r s p l a c e d more hope i n s u b s t i t u t i n g h e a l t h y r e c r e a t i o n f o r t h e c o m m e r c i a l amusements t h e y condemned. T h e i r e f f o r t s went hand i n hand w i t h the urban r e v i v a l movement o f the 1 8 7 0 ' s and 1880 ' s w h i c h was p e r s o n i f i e d by A u g u s t u s K i n s l e y G a r d n e r , op. c i t . , p p . 72-78. 40 P h i l a d e l p h i a S o c i e t y f o r O r g a n i z e d C h a r i t y t o J . W . L e e d s , H a v e r f o r d C o l l e g e , J o s i a h L e e d s MSS ( D e c e m b e r 14, 1886). 175 Dwight Lyman Moody, the "new model c i r c u i t r i d e r i n t h e urban 41 w i l d e r n e s s . " Though Moody h i m s e l f made l i t t l e e f f o r t to r e s p o n d to t h e p e c u l i a r d i f f i c u l t i e s o f u r b a n c u l t u r e , h i s t y p e o f b i g - c i t y r e v i v a l i s m h e r a l d e d t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f v a r i o u s f u n c t i o n a l s u b s t i t u t e s f o r c h u r c h l i f e , some of them i n n o v a t i v e forms o f urban c o n c e r n such as the S a l v a t i o n Army and the Young Men's and Young Women's C h r i s t i a n A s s o c i a t i o n . The Young M e n ' s C h r i s t i a n A s s o c i a t i o n r e f l e c t e d the g r o w i n g t e n d e n c y o f the c h u r c h e s i n p o s t - b e l l u m A m e r i c a to r e c o g n i z e t h e f a c t t h a t t h e y must a t t e m p t t o s u b s t i t u t e t h e i r own s o c i a l programs f o r t h e c o m m e r c i a l amusements t h e y condemned. P r o -f e s s i o n a l r e v i v a l i s t s such as Moody r e c o g n i z e d the need o f masses o f c i t y f o l k f o r a measure o f e x c i t e m e n t i n t h e i r l i v e s , and urban r e v i v a l m e e t i n g s , i n f a c t , p r o v i d e d t h e a t r i c a l e n t e r t a i n m e n t to p e o p l e who r e g a r d e d the t h e a t e r i t s e l f as s i n f u l . Sunday s c h o o l s remained a s t r o n g f o r c e i n urban a r e a s , p r o v i d i n g both y o u t h and a d u l t s w i t h Sunday a c t i v i t i e s and o r i e n t i n g t h e y o u t h .i n t o a . t h etv a l u e s o f "V 'praeti c a l ' C h r i s t i a n i t y ' . I n New Y o r k , t h e Sunday S c h o o l U n i o n t r i e d to a l l o c a t e to each downtown c h u r c h r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r v i s i t i n g e l e v e n p e o p l e i n a c e r t a i n t e r r i t o r y e v e r y week, i n o r d e r to b r i n g 42 them i n t o a c t i v e C h r i s t i a n l i f e . Sydney E. A h l s t r o m , op. cit.3 p. Jkk. R o b e r t D. C r o s s , op. ait.3 p. x v i i i . 176 I t was the Young M e n ' s and Young Women's C h r i s t i a n A s s o c i a t i o n s , h o w e v e r , w h i c h s t i m u l a t e d the g r o w t h o f c h u r c h -r e l a t e d s o c i a l programs e n c o m p a s s i n g a v a r i e t y o f a c t i v i t i e s and c a t e r i n g p a r t i c u l a r l y to urban y o u t h . P u r i t y r e f o r m e r s e n c o u r a g e d and e n d o r s e d the programs o f the A s s o c i a t i o n as b e i n g one o f the most p o w e r f u l a g e n c i e s f o r s p r e a d i n g the word and p r a c t i c e o f h e a l t h f u l s p o r t and e x e r c i s e . S t a r t i n g i n 1851 as an e v a n g e l i c a l movement to p e r s u a d e young men to make c l e a r c u t d e c i s i o n s i n f a v o r o f C h r i s t i a n l i v i n g , by 1860 t h e r e were two hundred and t h r e e a s s o c i a t i o n s w i t h about 25 ,000 members i n N o r t h A m e r i c a . S i x y e a r s l a t e r , the f i r s t Young Women's C h r i s t i a n A s s o c i a t i o n was formed i n B o s t o n . In 1881 , y o u n g e r g i r l s were g i v e n t h e i r own group i n O a k l a n d known as t h e L i t t l e G i r l s C h r i s t i a n A s s o c i a t i o n . The d e v e l o p -ment o f a C h r i s t i a n c h a r a c t e r was a p r i m a r y o b j e c t i v e f o r a l l t h e v a r i o u s b r a n c h e s o f the o r g a n i z a t i o n , but a s t r o n g emphasis was l a i d upon p h y s i c a l w e l l - b e i n g as an a s s e t to the b u i l d i n g 43 o f a C h r i s t i a n c h a r a c t e r . The Young Men 's C h r i s t i a n A s s o c i a t i o n became a p i o n e e r i n the l a r g e s c a l e f o s t e r i n g o f p h y s i c a l p u r s u i t s , a n d , under t h e l e a d e r s h i p of L u t h e r G u l i c k , expanded i t s programs to i n c l u d e r e c r e a t i o n a l g y m n a s t i c s , o r g a n i z e d s p o r t s , p l a y a c t i v i t i e s and numerous s o c i a l programs f o r men and boys t h r o u g h o u t the c o u n t r y . Women's a s s o c i a t i o n s ^ C h a r l e s Howard H o p k i n s , The History of the Y.M.C.A. in North America (New Y o r k : A s s o c i a t i o n P r e s s , 1 9 5 1 ) , pp. 1 7 5 - 1 9 0 . 177 p a i d p a r t i c u l a r a t t e n t i o n to h e a l t h and h y g i e n e ; " H e a l t h f o r Women has been t h e s l o g a n o f the A s s o c i a t i o n i n e v e r y 44 c o u n t r y and u s u a l l y i t has been a new but welcome o n e . " A t the f i r s t Young Women's C h r i s t i a n A s s o c i a t i o n i n B o s t o n i n 1886 , c o o k i n g c l a s s e s and c a l i s t h e n i c s were p r o v i d e d and t h e s e became p o p u l a r a c t i v i t i e s f o r a l l a g e s . S t i m u l a t e d by t h e s u c c e s s of t h e s e p r o g r a m s , numerous y o u t h c l u b s began to be e s t a b l i s h e d by c h u r c h e s o r o t h e r o r g a n i z a t i o n s f o r r e l i g i o - r e c r e a t i o n a l p u r p o s e s . The Young Men 's C h r i s t i a n A s s o c i a t i o n had p o i n t e d up the s p e c i a l needs Of many u n a t t a c h e d p e o p l e who were moving to the c i t y and who l a c k e d the s e c u r i t y o f an e s t a b l i s h e d home and the d i r e c -t i o n o f t h e i r p a r e n t s . F u r t h e r , the programs o f the A s s o c i a t i o n e m p h a s i z e d the p r o b l e m s c a u s e d by u r b a n l i v i n g t o y o u t h as a w h o l e , and paved t h e way f o r a new s e t o f a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d s 45 the p h y s i c a l and s p i r i t u a l needs o f urban y o u t h . W e l l b e f o r e new a t t i t u d e s became e s t a b l i s h e d , how-e v e r , r e f o r m e r s m o b i l i z e d to c o n f r o n t two p r e s s i n g r a r i d r e l a t e d p r o b l e m s . One was the w i d e s p r e a d p r o b l e m o f j u v e n i l e d e l i n -q u e n c y , and r e l a t e d to i t was the r e a l i z a t i o n t h a t a d o l e s c e n c e M a r y S . S i m s , The History of a Social Institution -the Y.W.C.A. (New Y o r k : T h e W o m e n s ' P r e s s , 1 9 3 6 ) , p . 15. M a t h e w H a l e S m i t h , Sunshine and Shadow in-New York (New Y o r k : D. A p p l e t o n a n d C o m p a n y , 1 9 0 4 ) , p . 677-178 was a s t a g e o f g r o w t h f r a u g h t w i t h mora l dangers second to no o t h e r a g e , and hence n e e d i n g p a r t i c u l a r a t t e n t i o n . S t u d i e s by G . S t a n l e y H a l l i n the l a t t e r p a r t o f the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y s e r v e d to b r i n g a new d e p t h o f u n d e r s t a n d i n g to the c r i t i c a l age o f a d o l e s c e n c e - the p e r i o d between f i f t e e n and t w e n t y - f i v e y e a r s o f age w h i c h was seen t o be p a r t i c u l a r l y r e c e p t i v e to the a d a p t a t i o n o f the s o c i a l h e r i t a g e and one w h i c h a p p e a r e d to be p r o l o n g e d as a r e s u l t o f c i v i l i z a t i o n . The r a p i d g r o w t h , no ted by H a l l and o t h e r s , w h i c h c h a r a c t e r i z e d the o n s e t o f a d o l e s c e n c e , was f e l t to cause a d i s t u r b a n c e o f the whole m e n t a l , mora l and p h y s i c a l c o n s t i t u t i o n o f the i n d i v i d u a l . The r e s u l t i n g p s y c h o l o g i c a l m a n i f e s t a t i o n s l e d the a d o l e s c e n t to s e i z e e v e r y o p p o r t u n i t y to b r i n g e m o t i o n a l l i f e to a h i g h e r i n t e n s i t y , o f t e n by r e s o r t i n g to a r t i f i c a l modes o f s t i m u l a t i o n . One o f the g r e a t e s t dangers p e r c e i v e d to o c c u r d u r i n g the a d o l e s c e n t s t a g e was the d i f f i c u l t y c r e a t e d by the d e v e l o p m e n t of s e x u a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and f e e l i n g s . The enormous t e m p t a t i o n a t t h i s s t a g e to i n d u l g e i n t h e s e c r e t v i c e o f m a s t u r b a t i o n t h r e a t e n e d t o l e a d t o g r i m c o n -sequences and t o e f f e c t i v e l y d i s r u p t the passage o f y o u t h t o v i r i l e manhood and m a r r i a g e . 4 6 A d o l e s c e n t f e e l i n g s o f a d v e n t u r e , r e b e l l i o u s n e s s and r e s t l e s s n e s s were t h o u g h t to be p a r t i c u l a r l y c o n d u c i v e 46 G . S t a n l e y H a l l , Adolescence, Its Psychology and Its Relation to Physiology- (New Y o r k : D . A p p l e t o n a n d C o m p a n y , 1 9 0 4 ) ; Youth, Its Education, Regimen and Hygiene (New Y o r k : D. A p p l e t o n a n d C o m p a n y , 1 9 0 4 ) . 1 7 9 to a n t i - s o c i a l and c r i m i n a l b e h a v i o r and the c r i m i n a l c a r e e r was g e n e r a l l y t h o u g h t to have i t s b e g i n n i n g i n a d o l e s c e n c e . Groups of y o u n g s t e r s , formed i n t o g a n g s , wou ld t u r n to c r i m i n a l a c t i v i t i e s when t h e i r needs f o r a d v e n t u r e and a c t i v i t y were not s a t i s f i e d by l e g i t i m a t e means. R u r a l y o u t h had been a b l e to cope a d e q u a t e l y w i t h the d i f f i c u l t i e s o f a d o l e s c e n c e by b e i n g c o n s t a n t l y o c c u p i e d i n the p h y s i c a l t a s k s o f the f a r m and f i e l d , but the y o u t h of the c i t y l a c k e d such p r o -v i s i o n s . W i t h o u t o c c u p a t i o n t h e y became q u i c k l y d e m o r a l i z e d . T h u s , o r g a n i z e d a c t i v i t i e s , m e e t i n g h o u s e s , y o u t h c l u b s , n a t u r e t r i p s and a d u l t g u i d a n c e were a d v o c a t e d t o combat t h e dangers o f a d o l e s c e n c e and a s s i s t the boys i n t h e i r " p h y s i c a l , 47 menta l and mora l p r o g r e s s . " R e f o r m e r s e m p h a s i z e d r e c r e a t i o n as an a i d to h e a l t h and m o r a l s by p o i n t i n g o u t t h a t the d e v e l o p m e n t o f p a r k s and gymnasia i n c i t i e s bore a d i r e c t r e l a t i o n s h i p to a r e d u c t i o n o f j u v e n i l e c r i m e . A t B o s t o n ' s f i r s t M u n i c i p a l Gymnasium, the f i r s t y e a r o f c i t y management i n 1889 saw 65 ,000 i n a t t e n d a n c e and p o l i c e noted t h a t t h e r e was a marked d i m i n u t i o n o f l a w l e s s n e s s i n the a r e a . 4 * * P l a y g r o u n d d e v e l o p m e n t s stemming f rom B o s t o n ' s i n i t i a l e f f o r t s i n 1887 h a d , as t h e i r p r i m a r y r a t i o n a l e , the need to r e d u c e E. P a u l Neuman, "Take C a r e o f t h e B o y s , " Living Age (November, 1 8 9 8 ) , ' p. 5 0 7 . 48 C.A. P e r r y , The Wider Use of the School Plant (New Y o r k : C h a r i t i e s P u b l i c a t i o n C o m m i t t e e , 1 9 1 0 ) , p. 1 0 2 . 180 j u v e n i l e d e l i n q u e n c y by k e e p i n g y o u t h o f f the s t r e e t s and o c c u p i e d i n some p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t i e s . Many hoped t h a t j u v e n i l e . d e l i n q u e n c y c o u l d be s u b s t a n t i a l l y r e d u c e d by p r o v i d i n g p l a y f a c i l i t i e s f o r c i t y y o u t h . They were r e a s s u r e d by m a g i s t r a t e s who t e s t i f i e d to the i m m e d i a t e r e d u c t i o n o f d e l i n q u e n c y once a p l a y g r o u n d had been opened i n the n e i g h b o r h o o d . As Judge W i l l i a m H . S t a a k e o f P h i l a d e l p h i a p o i n t e d o u t , " t h e p u b l i c p l a y g r o u n d i s the g r e a t e s t d e t e r r e n t o f j u v e n i l e d e l i n q u e n c y and iliawl e s s n e s s among c h i l d r e n . I t s t a n d s f o r body and c h a r a c t e r b u i l d i n g , and p r o d u c e s b e t t e r c h i l d r e n , homes, 49 m o r a l s and c i t i z e n s . " I t was f e l t t h a t h e a l t h y amusements and a t h l e t i c s f o r y o u t h e i t h e r made i m p o s s i b l e o r d r o v e away the m o r b i d f rame o f mind and body w h i c h b r o u g h t p a s s i o n to the h e i g h t o f u n l a w f u l p r a c t i c e s . By f o r t i f y i n g the b o d y , w e l l d i r e c t e d , h e a l t h - b u i l d i n g r e c r e a t i o n would a i d i n c o n t r o l l i n g the s e x u a l i n s t i n c t s most p a r t i c u l a r l y a t that p r e - m a r r i a g e age when 50 s e x u a l i t y c r e a t e d such d i f f i c u l t i e s f o r the i n d i v i d u a l . I m p l i c i t i n t h e S o c i e t i e s t o f t t h e ' C a p t a i n o f T e n ' , f o r example an a s s o c i a t i o n t y p i c a l o f a number o f b o y s ' and young men's c l u b s i n the l a s t two decades of the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y , was J u d g e W i l l i a m H. S t a a k e , q u o t e d i n W a l t e r Wood,. Children's Play, and Its Place in Education ( L o n d o n : K e a g a n P a u l , T r e n c h , T r u b n e r a n d C o m p a n y , L i m i t e d , 1 9 1 3 ) , p. 1 9 7 . "*^C. W a l k e r H a y e s , " P u b l i c M o r a l s a n d E d u c a t i o n , " Journal of Social Hygiene, III ( J a n u a r y , 1 9 1 7 ) , 3 3 3 -181 the emphasis upon the f i n g e r s . T h i s b r o u g h t to mind the c o n s t a n t t e m p t a t i o n f a c e d by y o u t h to m a s t u r b a t e and the dangers i n v o l v e d i n " b l e e d i n g away the l i f e f l u i d f r o m the 51 Male P a r t . " The name, ' C a p t a i n s o f T e n ' r e f e r r e d t o t h e need to keep t h e t e n f i n g e r s employed i n w h i t t l i n g , w e a v i n g , s c r a p - b o o k m a k i n g , o r any w o r t h w h i l e p u r s u i t w h i c h k e p t the hands o c c u p i e d . The motto was " t h e hand o f the d i l i g e n t s h a l l bear r u l e ' , ' " and the o b j e c t o f the s o c i e t y was to work f o r 52 C h r i s t ' s Kingdom t h r o u g h c h a r i t a b l e and r e c r e a t i v e a c t i v i t i e s . R e f o r m e r s became c o n v i n c e d t h a t y o u t h needed a c t i v -i t i e s to work o f f t h e b r u t e e and a n i m a l e lement w i t h i n them i n a h e a l t h f u l and ' n o r m a l ' way , and g u i d e d s p o r t and r e c r e a -t i o n g a i n e d i n c r e a s i n g p o p u l a r i t y as an e x c e l l e n t t e c h n i q u e . I t was hoped t h a t , t h r o u g h such a c t i v i t i e s , the g e n e r a l l e v e l o f v i t a l i t y o f c h i l d r e n and y o u t h c o u l d be r a i s e d to f i t them to w i t h s t a n d more e a s i l y the s t r a i n o f modenn c i v i l i z a t i o n . Theodore R o o s e v e l t was c e r t a i n t h a t y o u t h f u l s p o r t was t h e b e s t p o s s i b l e t r a i n i n g f o r a mora l manhood. W a l t e r R a u s c h e n b u s c h , J acob R i i s , Jane Adams and F r e d e r i c k Howe a l l gave an i m p o r t a n t p l a c e to p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t i e s f o r y o u t h i n t h e i r p l a n s f o r M i c h a e l B l i s s , " P u r e Books on A v o i d e d S u b j e c t s : P r e - F r e u d i a n S e x u a l Ideas i n C a n a d a , " The C a n a d i a n H i s t o r i c a l A s s o c i a t i o n , Historical Papers ( 1 9 6 9 - 7 0 ) , p. 1 0 7 . 5 2 L.W. B a c o n , Young People 's Societies (New Y o r k : D. A p p l e t o n and Company, 1 9 0 0 ) , p. 2 6 5 -182 s o c i a l r e f o r m . S i m i l a r l y , l e a d e r s o f the P l a y g r ound Movement were s u r e t h a t t h e i r g r e a t e s t s u cce s s would be e n c o u n t e r e d i n crowded c i t y slums w i t h a d o l e s c e n t y o u t h . To p u r i t y r e f o r m e r s , p l a y seemed t o be a most germane a rea wh ich c o u l d be u t i l i z e d f o r the moral e d u c a t i o n o f the c h i l d . Horace Bushnedl and Jacob A b b o t t had a l r e a d y s t i m u l a t e d t r a d i t i o n a l t h i n k e r s to a l t e r s t e r n a t t i t u d e s 53 toward c h i l d r e n ' s p l a y . The w ide sp read d i s s e m i n a t i o n o f the i dea s o f e a r l y c h i l d h o o d e d u c a t i o n a l i s t s i n the l a t t e r p a r t o f the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y l e n t f u r t h e r c r edence to the u t i l i t y o f p l a y as an i n s t r u m e n t o f mora l e d u c a t i o n . The works o f F r i e d r i c h F r o e b e l were p a r t i c u l a r l y p o p u l a r . F r o e b e l s t r e s s e d the s i g n i f i c a n c e o f e a r l y c h i l d h o o d upon a d u l t l i f e , s t a t i n g t h a t " t h e p l a y s o f c h i l d h o o d a re the g e r m i n a l l e a v e s of a l l l a t e r l i f e , f o r the whole man i s d e v e l o p e d and 54 shown i n h i s i nne rmos t t e n d e n c i e s . " C h i l d ' s p l a y was c o n s e q u e n t l y seen as a s e r i o u s b u s i n e s s , a r e h e a r s a l f o r a d u l t l i f e and a means o f p r e p a r a -t i o n