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An account of the changes in biology education in Ontario high schools (1871-1978) Taylor, Stanley James 1981

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AN ACCOUNT OF THE CHANGES IN BIOLOGY EDUCATION IN ONTARIO HIGH SCHOOLS (1871-1978) by  STANLEY  JAMES TAYLOR  B.A., T h e U n i v e r s i t y o f T o r o n t o , 1 9 3 2 M.A., T h e U n i v e r s i t y o f T o r o n t o , 1 9 ^ 9 M.Ed., The U n i v e r s i t y o f T o r o n t o , 1 9 5 5 M.A.T., T h e U n i v e r s i t y o f N o r t h C a r o l i n a , A.M.,The U n i v e r s i t y o f M i c h i g a n , 1971 A THESIS THE  SUBMITTED  IN P A R T I A L  REQUIREMENTS DOCTOR  FOR  OF  THE  FULFILMENT DEGREE  OF  OF  EDUCATION  •in The F a c u l t y of Graduate Studies Department o f Mathematics and S c i e n c e E d u c a t i o n  We a c c e p t  this thesis  to the required  THE  UNIVERSITY  OF  March  ©  Stanley  as c o n f o r m i n g standard  BRITISH  COLUMBI A  1981  James T a y l o r ,  I98I  1969  In p r e s e n t i n g  t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f the  requirements f o r an advanced degree a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree t h a t  the L i b r a r y s h a l l make  it  and study.  f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r reference  I further  agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e copying o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the head o f my department o r by h i s o r her r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s .  Iti s  understood t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l gain  s h a l l n o t be allowed without my  permission.  Department o f The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h 2075 Wesbrook P l a c e Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5  DK-fi  12/19)  Columbia  written  A B S T R A C T  from of  This  study  1871  to  Ontario The  about  1978,  studied  is  in  is  For  forty a  major  variety in  convenience into  first  of  regard  in  three  to  of  education  for  (b)  a  period  of  expanding  enrolment  (c)  a  period  of  educational  Over  the  three- periods  (i)  The  topics  genetics, (ii)  The  biologists  In  and  period,  topics  of  were  teams  of  for  information  content,  the  data,  methods  the  and  century  noted:  considerably  over  the  and  proceeding  through  applications  authorship  period, the  the  were  and  of  authors  structure  interest; while  biologists  hundred  of  biology,  biology-  and  authors  and  were  cell  first  (1871-1920)  (1961-1978).  physiology,  stressed  pupil  sources  changes  taxonomy  and  the  development  (1921-1960)  following  emphasis  the  second  flux  related  ecology  the  a minority  changed  with  educational  changed.  the  covered  and  schools  periods:  period  morphology  High  of  aims,  organizing  a  starting  Ontario  study  data  (a)  years  in  years.  curricula  divided  education  the  examines  biology  evaluation.  biology  and  biology  author  the  traces  of  teachers in  the  teachers  the were  university  biology; and  third, and  textbooks  in  the  emphazized the  stressed  the  authors both  i i i  biological (iii)  The  s t r u c t u r e and  physical  reflecting (iv)  Over of  most  However,  facilities  the of  biology  The  the  the  or  ideology, and  the  scholar the  period vided social  a  Ontario  and  there  were  times  teacher  of  for  the  of  pupils  programs  attending  was  Schiro  ideology,  was  ideology  reconstruction  in the  concept  teachers  qualifications. in  school  which  pupil  hundred school  pupils  years  child  and  during  for  the  found  ideologies  academic ideology that  declined  appeared study  third  later  farmers.  efficiency  but  the during  in the  approach  periods; third.  as  studying  scholar  author  to  increased  curricular  the  concept  the  need  four  throughout  second  emerged  the  The  efficiency third;  of  social  ideology.  the  the  high  (1978);  the  dominant  social  high  community's  Michael  d e c l i n i n g by  competing  the  related to  study  the  secondary  i n a g r i c u l t u r e much  proportion  are  reconstruction  period;  the  varied with  concept  vogue,  shortages  g r e a t l y over  and  in biology  child  in  professional  "average"  than  the  period  declined,  increased  o u t l i n e d by  the  currently  academic  proportion  academic  but  years  Pupils enrolled  social  second  concept  eighteen-fold.  concepts  throughout  high  biology  biology  interest,  had  agriculture The  hundred  opportunities  learn  changed  curricular  qualifications (v)  student  and  first prothe  TABLE  OF  CONTENTS Page  ABSTRACT TABLE  .  i i-i i i  OF C O N T E N T S  LIST  OF T A B L E S  LIST  OF F I G U R E S  iv-v vi-vi I  AND  ILLUSTRATIONS  viii  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  ix  INTRODUCTION  1  CHAPTER 1 HIGH  SCHOOL  MINORITY 1.00 1.10 1.20 1.30 1.hO CHAPTER  BIOLOGY  IN T H E  PERIOD  OF E D U C A T I O N  FOR A  (1871-1920)  k  The I n t r o d u c t i o n o f B i o l o g y i n t o t h e S c h o o l s Changes : The B i o l o g y C u r r i c u l u m (1871-1920) Changes : The B i o l o g y T e a c h e r s (1871-1920) Changes : The B i o l o g y P u p i l s (1871-1920) Summary I I  BIOLOGY  EDUCATION  (1921-1960)  IN A P E R I O D  OF E X P A N D I N G  ENROLMENT  .  2.10  The C o n t e x t  2.20 2.30 2.40 2.50  Changes Changes Changes Summary  of  Biological  Education  in  the  Period  (1921-1960)  CHAPTER  h ]k 38 kl 51  59  : T h e B i o l o g y C u r r i c u l u m (1921 -1960) : The B i o l o g y T e a c h e r s (1921-1960) : The B i o l o g y P u p i l s (1921-1960)  65 82 93 99  (1961-1978)  106  III  BIOLOGY  EDUCATION  3.10  Introduction  3.20  Changes  IN A P E R I O D  : The  OF F L U X  106 Biology Curriculum  (1961-1978) ...  108  V  Page  3.k0  3.30  Changes Changes  3.50  Summary  CHAPTER  : The : The  Biology Biology  ]kS  151  158  IV-  A "CENTURY"  OF  (1871-1978)  : CONCLUSIONS,  BIOLOGICAL  4.10  Introduction  4.20  C u r r i c u l a r Trends  4.30  T e a c h e r s (1961-1978) P u p i l s (1961-1978)  EDUCATION  IN  REFLECTIONS  ONTARIO AND  HIGH  APPENDICES  167 167  in  Biology  Education  Throughout the Century C o n t r a s t s in B i o l o g i c a l E d u c a t i o n between the P e r i o d s : C o n c l u s i o n s , R e f l e c t i o n s and P r e dictions  BIBLIOGRAPHY  SCHOOLS  PREDICTIONS  170  184  201  212  LIST  OF T A B L E S  Table 1.  Page Ontario  Secondary  School  Enrolment  in  Science  (1867, 1880) 2.  University Sciences  8  Requirements  for Junior  (1 871 -1903)  and L a t i n  3.  Ontario  Secondary  School  Teachers  4.  Ontario  Secondary  School  Enrolment  5.  O n t a r i o Secondary School Enrolment A g r i c u l t u r a l S c i e n c e (1 878-1920) Botany  Requirements  Certificates 7.  Authorized Group  8.  9.  10  11 (1900-1920) in  42  Science  kk  (1877-1920)  Subjects  6.  Matriculation  by Grades  in Biology  and  46  f o r Elementary  Teaching  (1871-1903)  Textbooks  48  for Ontario  Lower  School  Biology  (1921-1937)  I  72  Authorized Textbooks for Ontario S c i e n c e G r o u p II (1938-1956)....  Lower  Authorized  Textbooks  Lower  Biological  Science  Recommended  for Ontario  Group  Text books-  III  School  General  74 School  (1953^ 1960)  for Ontario  Grade  76 Biology  13  (1921-1964) 11.  77-78 85  Secondary  School  12.  Ontario  Secondary  School  Enrolment  (1920-1960)  13.  Ontario Secondary School A g r i c u l t u r e (1920-1960)  Enrolment  in Biology  14.  Revisions Biology  15.  in O n t a r i o  Grades  Authorized  General  94  and 97  Science  Including  9, 10 (1961-1978)  Textbooks-  (1961-1978)  Teachers  (1920-1960)  Ontario  for Ontario  125 Grades  9,  10  134-35  v ii  Table 16.  Page Modules  for Biology  (1972-1977). 17-  Textbooks  Topics  in Ontario  Grades  9>  10  I36  Examples  Approved  for Ontario  Grade  13  Biology  (I965-I978)  11*7  18.  Ontario  Secondary  Teachers  19.  Ontario  Secondary  School  20.  Ontario  Secondary  School  Enrolment,  Ratio  (1960-1976)  School  Enrolment  and 21.  Pupil/Teacher  Ontario and  Secondary  Agriculture  (1960-1977)  Enrolment  (1960-1978)  Ih3  (1960-1978) Teacher  152  Numbers  1 $k in  Biology  1 56  viii  LIST  OF  FIGURES.AND  ILLUSTRATIONS  Figure  1.  Page  The  Biological  Laboratory,  Institute  -'(19.10)  2.  Schematic  Model  3.  Programs  k.  Changes  in  Ontario  High  5.  Offered  Curricular  Grade  Ottawa  Collegiate  35  of by  BSCS the  9 and  School  Concepts  Curriculum Robarts 10  Plan  Programs  Education and  Ill  with  Conclusions  (196-1)  •  (1961-1978)  118 125  Periods, (1871-1978)....  168  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The  author  following  wishes  persons  for  to  express  their  his  sincere  invaluable  appreciation  assistance  in  to  compiling  the this  t h e s i s; i  Dissertation Dr. Dr.  Committee  -  R o b e r t W. C a r l i s l e S h e r m a n G. B r o u g h  Dr. G. H a r r y Cannon P r o f e s s o r F r e d e r i c k A. Dr. Nei1 Sutherland i i  (Advisor)  Gornall  Ed i t o r s : Dr. Rosemary Carter Jophus Anamuah-Mensah  iii  L i b ra  r i ans:  The iv  Staff  at  U.B.C.  and  O.I.S.E.  Typist: Mrs.  Without  Library  the  undertaking  Carmen  skilled would  de  help  have  Silva and  been  understanding impossible.  of  these  people  such  an  1  INTRODUCTION  The  purpose  education of  the  and  from  other  (i960  States  to  biology in  changes  t h e r e has not:  increases  years  in  studied) was  Archives struction, were  in  reported biology  (the  and  range  including of  Ontario  up  1900;^ Grade  dealing  and  the  United  the  changes  to  the  when  Ontario  during in  But  1932.  development times,  research  of  analysed  10's  attending  eighteen-fold in  the  development  recent  population  in  and  2 (.1969)  States;  Hofferd  9's  systems  Giorno  reviewed  with  during  progress  del  United  the  biology  other  education  (19^0)  being  spectacular  the  Croal  education  increase  and  with  Ontario  the  1 (1963)  dealt  to  study  of  of  in  in  Investigations  made  science  (I969)  changes  schools.  been  Obourn  of  the  the  of dramatic high  hundred  biological  made.  A wide  reports  in  high  education  study  proportion  occurred  science  study  the  his  analyse  have  Saskatchewan**;  a  school  and  science  education  been  high  education  ; Murawsky  biology  to  Ontario  Gatewood  restricted  in  is  in  1978  in  education  in  study  science  education  changes  schools  in  biology  science  Ontario  to  periods:  investigated Hurd  this  1871  changes  of  of  the of  of  sources  authorized Minister  Ontario,  in  or  information  approved  Education,  journals  departmental  involved  of  of  of  decision-making,  and  been  textbooks, census  general  examinations,  has  tape the  used  courses  statistics,  teaching  and  recordings author's  in  this  of the  study, Provincial  biology of  in-  educators  personal  who  experience.  2  To the  century  the  data  studied  has  gathered been  to  a  period  of  education  for  (ii)  a  period  of  expansion  in  (iii)  a  period  of  educational  emphasis  changes and  teacher  and  related  the  period  efficiency,  curricular  content,  the  to of  the  the  i.e.  child are  personal  change,  and  biology  education.  reflections  tentative  the  are  predictions  the in in  periods:  (1871-1920),  (1921—1960),  variations  academic,  textbooks'  differences  are  all  analysed  operating  the  during  social  efficiency  ideologies.  aspects  hiology  presented made  in  facilities,  ideologies  above  are  separate  enrolment  social  the  convenience,  (1961-1978).  flux  scholar  about  three  enrolment  changes  and  with  a minority  educational  the  study drawn  into  content,  and  prominent  study,  studied  modifications  qualifications,  Conclusions education,  in  be  divided  (i)  The  in  permit  of  about  about  the  the  century  future  of  of  3  REFERENCES 1.  C . W. in  Gatewood  the  United  and  E.S.  Obourn,  "Improving  States",  Journal  of  Science  Research  in  Education  Science  Teaching,  1 : 355-399, 1963. 2.  B e t t e d e l G i o r n o , "The Impact o f Changing S c i e n t i f i c Knowledge o n S c i e n c e E d u c a t i o n i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s s i n c e 1850", ( D o c t o r a l D i s s e r t a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y o f C o n n e c t i c u t , 1967).  3.  Paul de Schools  15  Hart  Hurd,  1890-1960,  Biological Education BSCS S t u d y , B u l l e t i n  010991, 1961.  in American No. 1 ERIC  Secondary -  h.  tylademir H. M u r a w s k y v " A H i s t o r i c a l A n a l y s i s o f B i o l o g i c a l E d u c a t i o n in t h e S c h o o l s o f t h e N o r t h West T e r r i t o r i e s 1889-1905 a n d i n S a s k a t c h e w a n 1905-1969", (Unpublished M a s t e r ' s T h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y o f S a s k a t c h e w a n , 1969).  5.  A.G. Croal , " H i s t o r y of Science Teaching (Unpub1ished Doctora1 T h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y  6.  George Lower  W.  Hofferd, "A  School  Biology  Study  of  the  in of  Content  O n t a r i o t o 1900". T o r o n t o , 19^0).  and  Methodology  ( T o r o n t o : ^ U n i v e r s i t y : : o f , .T o r o n t o  of  Press,  1932) .  4  Chapter H I G H SCHOOL  BIOLOGY  (N THE  I  PERIOD  OF  EDUCATION  FOR  A  MINORITY  (1871-1920) 1.00  The  Introduction  1.01  Admission The  of  the  last  of of  Biology Science  decades  of  and  "between  and  the  twentieth century  change^,  into  Schools  Biology  as  nineteenth  were  the  the  times  1880  1  s  of  and  High  and far  School  the  early  reaching  192.0 s 1  the  Subjects decades  educational  a growing  band  2 of  Canadians  worked  However,  even  with  passage  the  grammar  earlier  schools  schools,  which  collegiate  to  of  the  were were  in  transform secondary  1871, High  replaced designed  i n s t i t u t e s , which  Canadian  School by to  Act  two  were  education by w h i c h  new  provide  education. was  the  changed  former  institutions", general  planned  high  education,  to offer  and  university  3 preparation. and  the  It  date,  tracing  the  1871,  seems be  appropriate, chosen  development  of  as  a  biology  therefore,  suitable  that  starting  education  in  this  era  point  Ontario  for  High  Schools. t During attending of  the  called able  to  the  high  period, the a  period school  1871-1920 increased  the  considerably.  particularly, Ontario  schools  of  the  few  restricted minority  as -  proportion  high  In  schools  "secondary the  of  young the  privileged  in  early  could  education  people  be  was  every  part  avail-  sense  of  A l t h o u g h t h e f u n c t i o n s o f h i g h s c h o o l s and c o l l e g i a t e i n s t i t u t e s w e r e i n t e n d e d t o be d i f f e r e n t , i n p r a c t i c e b o t h provided g e n e r a 1 e d u c a t i o n and u n i v e r s i t y p r e p a r a t i o n , w i t h ; s t r e s s on t h e l a t t e r . R o b e r t M. S t a m p , " E v o l v i n g P a t t e r n s o f 1 Education: English-Canada f r o m t h e 1870 s t o 1914", i n C a n a d i a n E d u c a t ion : A H i s t o r y , e d s . J . Donald W i l s o n and o t h e r s , ( S c a r b o r o u g h , O n t . : P r e n t i c e - H a l l o f C a n a d a , 1970), p p . 322-323.  5  the word,  s i n c e t h e s c h o o l s were designed  youths f o r special  positions in society.  t o t r a i n a few s e l e c t e d  I n d e e d , Adam  Crooks,  f i r s t M i n i s t e r o f E d u c a t i o n ,(1876), saw t h e s c h o o l s a s  Ontario's "affording  t o each youth  intellectual  career.  "5  of a b i l i t y  the o p p o r t u n i t y o f the highest  However, o t h e r p u r p o s e s f o r t h e s c h o o l s  emerged d u r i n g t h e p e r i o d .  Crooks,  Harcourt  a n d o t h e r s came t o s e e  t h a t t h e s c h o o l s s h o u l d open t h e "avenues o f l e a r n i n g t o e v e r y  child  "6 in  the province.  practical  and " t h a t t h e t r a i n i n g g i v e n  ...  a s p o s s i b l e and t h a t t h e s u b j e c t s t a k e n  the p u r s u i t s t h a t w i l l  s h o u l d be a s  should  have i n view  be n e c e s s a r i l y f o l l o w e d by t h e m a j o r i t y o f o u r  "7 H o w e v e r , e v e n by 1920  citizens.  the high school  relatively  few i n number a n d s e c o n d a r y  minority  (Appendix  methods o f s e c o n d a r y  counterparts  s c h o o l i n g was  still  in Victorian  1  e d u c a t i o n were s i m i l a r England.  t o those o f  The m a i n p u r p o s e o f  m i n o r i t y , w h i l e t h e m e t h o d o f e d u c a t i o n was c o n c e i v e d application  mental a b i l i t i e s difficult  to d i f f i c u l t classical  and s t r e n g t h e n e d  concepts.  secondary faculties of a  a s one o f  steady  languages which t r a i n e d the  c h a r a c t e r through  persistence with  i n the e a r l y p a r t o f the p e r i o d , thought  biology d i d not f i t t h i s conception i n t r o d u c t i o n as a high school  o f formal  i n t e r e s t was a r o u s e d  by t h e g r e a t  that  e d u c a t i o n , and i t s  s u b j e c t was o p p o s e d .  i n favour of introducing experimental  Popular  their  g  Many e d u c a t o r s ,  ments  f o r the  i n t h e 1870 s on t h e p u r p o s e s  e d u c a t i o n was s e e n t o be t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e m e n t a l  student  were  H).  The v i e w s o f O n t a r i o e d u c a t o r s and  students  However, t h e a r g u -  s c i e n c e were s t r o n g .  scientific  d i s c o v e r i e s o f t h e a g e ; a n d i t c o u l d be a r g u e d  i n v e n t i o n s and  t h a t by s t u d y i n g  6  science,  the  pupils  felt  they  were  keeping  up w i t h  the  march  of  9 progress. the  Moreover  dominant  mental Hence and  the  reason,  teaching  psychological  development as  the  took  study  of  theory  place  by  science  education  of  science  could  be  of  the  which  suggested  the  day  "exercise  employed  in  science  could  Herbert  Spencer  and  the be  of  supported  the  that  faculties".  " f a c u l t i e s " of considered  by  to  observation  foster  mental  growth. In  Britain,  introduction extensively purpose  of  in  this  most  the  ability  Ontario  into  the  earn  was  in  a  school  education to  it  l i v i n g . ^  science  for  Huxley  Spencer  life  and  furthered  Huxley  was e s s e n t i a l  encouraged  c u r r i c u l u m , and  circles.  train  e f f e c t i v e l y since  to  education  claimed  science  education  did  of  of  Thomas  quoted  maintained  that  science  that  that  industrial  the  and  extension  progress  and  also  that , f o r the purpose of a t t a i n i n g pure c u l t u r e , an e x c l u s i v e l y s c i e n t i f i c e d u c a t i o n i s a t l e a s t as e f f e c t i v e as an e x c l u s i v e l y l i t e r a r y education.«12  Support evident the  in  the  Ontario  MacKenzie the into  the  little  of  effects  of  noted  that  classics  at  British when  Superintendent  positive  in  for  science  science.  13  In  He  the a  School  the  no  at  classics  science  further were  in  education the  Legislature, Rugby  decline  following  noted  similar  to  of  MacKenzie,  teaching  t h e r e was  Rugby  in  Inspector  Education  curriculum.  interest  concept  in  the  1870  the  became Report  described  Public high  of  the  School. standards  introduction of  in  science  that  some b o y s  who  had  highly  motivated  and  competent  vein,.Ontario's  the  education  self-preservation  contended  for  were  the  . = • Superintendent  shown  of  7  (]8kk-]877),  Education teaching  science  i  develop  ii  learn  by  claiming  patterns  the  s k i 11,  Egerton  Ryerson,  that  of  affirmed  the  value  of  thinking  and w o r k i n g  pupils  independent  s c i e n t i f i c method w h i c h would  become  a  habits,  permanent  and  IH iii  apply  Another  Ontario  inclusion grounds  of  that that  given  the  by  the  attempted subjects and  first  the  a  place  for  of  biology the  did  suggested  such  to  as  by  many  Paxton early  actively  in  succeed the  nature  of  the  science,  the  the  attempt  occupations.  Young as  in  the  justified  the  1860 s on  the  1  discoveries.  pupil  the  program  chemistry,  was  worth  He  a  thousand  as  it  natural  into  the  in  the  spite high  school  Ontario's  science  first  science  require  to of  Minister the  specific  physiology, the  cogent this  students. was  the-absence  lack  into  science  schools,  few  public  boards'  of  program  courses, the  (1871)  history,  attracted very  prescribed  not  Ryerson  curriculum with  However,  science  introduce did  these,  school  indifference of  and  to  as  high  f a i l u r e of  I876, A d a m C r o o k s ,  new  the  physics,  that  in  another  sentiments  (agriculture).^  not  education  The  involved  introduction of  teachers,  culum.  curriculum  be  science  qualified  made  the  George  law d i s c o v e r e d  i d e n t i f i e d as  impractical  In  in  single  knowledge  Inspector  would  climate  attempt  Ryerson  science  and  teacher.^  to  applied  reasons  educator,  pupils  asserted  In  scientific skills  the  due  to  of  value  of  an  funds.^ of  Education,  high  school  science  curri-  subjects  to  18 be  taken  in  a  p a r t i c u l a r year.  replaced  by  botany  while  In  agriculture,  this  program  which  had  natural  received  history  was  prominence  8  in t h e I87]  c o u r s e , was o m i t t e d  d i d not a t t r a c t more s t u d e n t s  altogether. (Table  ]9  However Crooks' r e v i s i o n s  l ) . W h i l e t h e enrolment i n  chemistry  and geography i n c r e a s e d , enrolment i n p h y s i c s and botany  declined.  The net r e s u l t was t h a t no i n c r e a s e showed i n t h e pro-  portion o f pupils studying  science.  Table 1 Ontario  Secondary School Enrolment i n S c i e n c e (1867, 1880)  Percentage o f Total School Enrolment  1867  Percentage o f T o t a l School Enrolment  1880  27  Natural Ph i l o s o p h y (Physics)  15  C h e m i s t r y and Phys i o l o g y  15  Chemi s t r y  27  Natural  12  Phys i o l o g y Botany  92  Geography and Astronomy  Natural Philosophy ( P h y s i c s ) and Geology  History  Geography  Source:  Few  5 2 97  A.G. C r o a l , "The H i s t o r y o f T e a c h i n g S c i e n c e i n O n t a r i o 1800-1900"^ ( D o c t o r a l D i s s e r t a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y o f T o r o n t o , 1940), pp. 59~60. p u p i l s s t u d i e d botany a t t h i s time (1880) and A.G. C r o a l ,  P r o f e s s o r o f Methods i n S c i e n c e a t t h e O n t a r i o  College o f Education  (O.C.E.), accounted f o r t h e e a r l y low enrolment by s u g g e s t i n g  that  t h e r e was a l a c k o f a good Canadian t e x t b o o k , t h e absence o f q u a l i f i e d botany i n s t r u c t o r s , and t h e treatment o f t h e s u b j e c t as an e x e r c i s e 20 in memory r a t h e r than as an e x p e r i m e n t a l  science.  This state o f  9  affairs  persisted  enrolment paper  on  in  one  of  botany  the  Spotton's  until  of  of  changed  examination  duction  through  teaching  text  Henry  the  plant  in  the  the  characteristics  of  flowers  the  use  of  taxonomic  botanical botany,  was  an  Thus,  aspect  of  first-hand experience memorization, taxonomy.  even  His  in if  may  subject  to  have  of  his  the  living  intro-  plants,  in  teachers botany  emphasis the  living  observed  with  experience  many  stressed  to  plants  promoted  examining  (1879).  memorization  gained  which  published  textbook  identify  previous  unduly  e f f e c t i v e approach  to  Spotton  the  in  the  Following  pupils  However,  contrast  he  the  his  examined  learned  the  over-emphasized.  exercise  pupils  and  keys.  and  material.  1880's,  increase  involvement,  (1878)>  f r o m an  living  helped  personal  subject./  botany  of  Spotton  his  text  thought  his  B.  as  a  on  importance plant  of  material  22 lasted  for  a  long  list  of  texts  high  calibre of  Department  of  time.  until his  Indeed, His  1909-  teaching  Education  in  his  books  remained  i n f l u e n c e and  were  widespread  when  1885  he was  on  the  the  recognition  and  acknowledged  asked  to  conduct  authorized of by  the the  summer  23 classes  for  inspector  John  of  Macoun  his  colleagues  and  later  (1906)  when  he was  appointed  schools.^  and  Henry  B.  Spotton,  Botany w i t h Special Reference ( T o r o n t o : W . J . G a g e , 1879). H e n r y B. S p o t t o n , E l e m e n t a r y W . J . G a g e , 1886).  to  The the  Elements Study  of  of  Structural  Canadian  Plants !  Botany,  Parts  I and  II.  (Toronto:  Admission  1.02  The and  of  biology  demanded  program,  qualities  sound  judgement  plant  specimens,  while  characteristics program  Science  would  of  as  of  by  learned  families  in  Subjects  and of  keeping  dogged  to  to  challenging  persistence  and  individual  recognize  flowering the  Matriculation  was  identify  came  with  for  Spotton,  observation,  examinations,  be  as  influenced  student  fifteen  seem t o  Biology  keen  the  wrote  and  the  plants.  academic  Such  a  schooling  of  25 the  day.  biology of  the  However, was  not  at  Indeed,  this  Without  the  science  courses  science  in  and  organization, Association the  goal and  of  of  University  rigorous  university  nature  admission  subject  was  of  at  the  the  accepted  course,  beginning for  university  few p u p i l s  administrators  school prestige  in  the  matriculation  Natural  (O.E.A.)  of  science  1871  school  low  the  for no  time,  the weekly  condition  spite  accepted  period.  admission  in  Science  This  addressed Section  They  1882.  Matriculation  granted  time-table. was  Board  of  little  lack  by  the  of  the to  recognition  science  Ontario  a  committee  recognize  in  time  the  appointed to  enrolled  teachers'  Education  science  to for  petition all  uni-  26 versity in  a  any  entrance.  revision one  of  of  the  The the  successful  university  science  subjects  work  entrance -  of  the  committee  (1885)  requirements  physics,  chemistry  culminated  or  in  botany,  which was 2 7  acceptable The The  science  one  of  subjects  University  taining the  as  the  ten  approved  Matriculation  representatives  matriculation  from  papers.  subjects for  for  m a t r i c u l a t i o n are  Board the  required  was  a group  universities  of who  matriculation. shown  for  educators set  and  the con-  marked  11  1871-1903  years  traditional Latin  in Table  school  throughout  2 in which  subjects  is illustrated  University  ^  Subject Lat  N > s  *v ^ N  in  by  acceptance  the presence  Requirements f o r Junior S c i e n c e s and L a t i n  Matriculation"  (1871-1903)  1871 1876 1885 1891 1896 1899 1903 X  X  X  X  X  X  Botany  -  -  X  -  -  X  X  Zoology  -  -  -  -  -  X  X  Phys i cs  -  -  X  X  X  X  X  Chemistry  -  -  X  X  X  X  X  not Sources  for university  accepted  entrance  for university  entrance  (1906),  The U n i v e r s i t y o f T o r o n t o and i t s C o l l e g e s e d i t e d by t h e L i b r a r i a n , ( T o r o n t o : U n i v e r s i t y Press pp.  1906)  Notes:  of  2  X  accepted  of  the period.  Table  " ^ \ Y e a r  the continued  81-82.  of  Toronto  J u n i o r M a t r i c u l a t i o n was t h e s t a n d i n g o b t a i n e d a f t e r p a s s i n g e x a m i n a t i o n s on t h r e e y e a r s o f h i g h s c h o o l w o r k i n s p e c i f i c s u b j e c t s . The j u n i o r m a t r i c u l a t i o n s t a n d i n g admitted a student t o f i r s t year Arts at the u n i v e r s i t i e s . S e n i o r M a t r i c u l a t i o n was g r a n t e d a t t h e end o f f o u r y e a r s h i g h s c h o o l and a d m i t t e d a graduate t o second year A r t s o f the u n i v e r s i t i e s . By 1913 t h e t i m e s r e q u i r e d f o r J u n i o r and S e n i o r M a t r i c u l a t i o n w e r e f i v e and s i x y e a r s r e s p e c t i v e l y , Robin Press,  H a r r i s , Quiet  1 9 6 4 ) , p.50„.  Evolut i o n ( T o r o n t o : U n i v e r s i t y  of  Toronto  12  The  data  subjects  show  that  acceptable  when  in a l l t h eyears  acceptable  only  and  1903.  The consistent  in  contrast  to thelate  and  is evidence  1899  1885-1903,  and  1903  recognition  f o r thesingle  but the late  be  accounted  f o r in thefollowing  which  had been  Table  k showing  sciences one  fifth  none  in  that  were  enrolled  way.  only  t h estandards  entrance  only  after  theschools  f o r some  time w i t h  (1885)  s c i e n c e s may  appear  that the  for matriculation  time.  'taking'  Thedata  thevarious 1  sciences  It c a n be c o n j e c t u r e d of biological  thesubjects significant  science  had been  numbers  in  experimental  1880 s m o r e  in thephysical  classes.  sciences,  o f botany  subjects  f o r some  enrolled  is  of the classics.  1  university  1885, I899  formatriculation  It would  those  were  made  in t h eyears  i n t h e 1870 s a n d t h e e a r l y were  was  of thebiological  of pupils  in biology  considered  zoology  of Latin  in t h eschools  t h e numbers  and chemistry  o f acceptance  acceptance  accepted  of a l l pupils  universities for  taught  indicate  in thechoice of  o f t h eexperimental  year  difficult  authorities  while  acceptance  is  university  made  and botany  recognition  o f thecontinued  Accounting  were  f o r matriculation, physics  acceptable  in  changes  than while that the  adequate  established  of  students  enrol led.  1.03  Time  The table  Allotted  time  varied  towards  more  1871 s t a t e d  f o r Biology  allotted to biological  subjects  over  theperiod  1871-1920,  time  being  available.  that  made  provision  should  i n t h e school  but the general  b e made  The High  time-  trend was  School  f o r instruction  Act of in natural  science  but  the  principal's  time  allotted  conception  of  was  the  not  fixed,  importance  and  of  depended  science  in  on  the  general  • 28 education. Before  science  became  a  requirement  for  matriculation  many  29 principals  allocated  acceptance  by  However, was  even  being  in  of  Science  which  some to  Section  sciences  of  science,  more  concern  that  to  educators  the  this  a motion  time  universities  then  devoted  Evidence Natural  the  token  generous  in  the  biology  be  that  were  curriculum.^  the  minutes  three  made.  insufficient  1901  Educational  given  its  school  in  Ontario  following  allocations  maintained  appeared  the  but  of  time  the  Association  half-hour  periods  31 a week this  was  stance  biology,  week  The  would  and  Department for  recorded.  so  science  Ontario  teachers,  the  Education  ensuring  in  representing  principals  to  complaints  had  Grade  a minimum  Educational problems  of  different  science  regulations 9  and  time  10  and the  be  and  more  met  were  subject  was  The  that  half-hour  the  time  periods  a group  areas.  to new  Ontario.  annually several  that  time  effect.  throughout  who  There  hoped  specified  (O.E.A.)  trustees  interests  some  five  allotment  day.  teachers  apportion  (1904)  Association  administrators  educational  Ontario  influence  apparently  of  general  The  to  per  32  of discuss  sections  14  1.10  Changes  : The  High common  wrote  school  features':  followed  the  the  ( l 871 r - 1 9 2 0 )  school  taught),  analysis  pupils  methods in  of  the  the  areas,  Later  i t was  the  the  and  four  the  been  basic  prospective  of  content  To  be  particular  (what  was  well  facilitate  and  teachers  the  the  (how  content  noted  of  from  areas  for  this  all  been  science the  concepts  and  pupils  a m p l i f i e d by  subject  it  have  general  biological  objective will  discussion  features  author  zoology,  o b j e c t i v e has  exceptions,  evaluation  major  botany,  teaching  These  by  had  textbooks,  minor  inspectors).  program,  general  with  same  taught),  taught),  of  students,  the  the  of  and,  1871-1920  period  the  considered  physiology,  that  the  examinations.  (why  opinion  of  studied  study  i t was  general  university  in  be  biology  One  objectives  of  will  (how  (biology).  general.  the  objectives  human  future  all  departmental  identified,  subject  education  program of  taught  biology  same c o u r s e  same  viewpoints  was  Curriculum  Biology  1.11  high  Biology  to in  specific  areas.  Phys i o l o g y  The  course  biological  in  human  understandings  that  all  pupils  made  compulsory  An  exception  was  allowed  should for  of  gain  the  from  was  health. these  Grade 10  occurred during  physiology  As  designed i t was  (1872).  1871-1880  introduction  when  of;  give  thought  understandings,  students  to  i t was  However,  more  biology.  the  pupil  desirable initially later  flexibility  (1876)  the  departmental  appropriate  for  officials older  considered  students  and  physiology  i t was  moved  to to  be  more  Grades  11  and  33 12.  This  resulted in  the  in  change  in  a much  smaller  upper  The  school  course  grade  placement enrolment  (Grades  consisted  11  of  and  the  of as  the  physiology  there were  program  fewer  students  12).  study  of  anatomy  (the  human  34 organ was  systems),  outlined  suitably  at  in  prescribed  that  shops  methods  used were  as,  t h e most  texts,  then  very part,  the  textbooks  examine  but  "assignment-recitation the  physiology  (Appendix  students  butcher  for  related  illustrated,,  suggested able  the  The  rarely  from  course  authors  method." later  taught  these  this  teacher  assigned  had  to  recall  or  the  course  was  The  observation  according  The  obtain-  out.  direct  and  texts  material  carried of  content  organized  of  animal  those  was  The  were well  accessible  different  pupils  hygiene.  which  C) .  teachers  the  and  to  the  topics  recite  the  from re-  35 levant  facts.  pupils  rarely  With made  this  approach  observations  from a c t u a l  dull  specimens  as  or  the  conducted  36 experiments.  By  1885  human  physiology  was  no  longer  taught  in  37  secondary  schools  in  this  period.  Botany Human students  physiology  were  biological  encouraged  materials.  s t u d e n t s .from  1885  option  senior  in  the  g a v e way  to  to  in  make  Botany I896, a n d grades.  the  mid  188o's t o  first-hand was  made  i t was  Many  observations  compulsory  also  botany  made  prospective  for  in  which  from Grade  available  elementary  as  9 an  teachers  o f the time needed c r e d i t f o r a d d i t i o n a l botany c o u r s e s  i n the  39 s e n i o r y e a r s a f t e r t a k i n g the compuilsory Grade 9 c o u r s e . The Department o f E d u c a t i o n o f f i c i a l s b e l i e v e d t h a t the logical  and s y s t e m a t i c s k i l l  needed t o i d e n t i f y a p l a n t helped to  develop t h e f a c u l t i e s of o b s e r v a t i o n and the Departmental  reasoning.  Accordingly  the study o f 15 f a m i l i e s of  o f f i c i a l s advocated  flowering plants using f i r s t - h a n d experience with l i v i n g (Appendices  A and B ) .  kO  The  t e x t s w r i t t e n by Gray,, >  and Macoun and  At t h i s time botany a success by  c o u r s e was  supported by the a u t h o r i z e d Spotton.  h]  t e a c h i n g i n the s c h o o l s was  I n s p e c t o r Seath  (1887)-  specimens.  He  regarded  as  said:  In botany the c o n d i t i o n i s ... g r a t i f y i n g . I d i d not f i n d i n many of the s c h o o l s i n s p e c t e d i n 1887, c l a s s e s " g e t t i n g up" f o r the e x a m i n a t i o n a few d e f i n i t i o n s o r d e s c r i p t i o n s as I d i d in almost a l l the s c h o o l s i n s p e c t e d i n I885. The work i s now l a r g e l y p r a c t i c a l . In some s c h o o l s , the work i s a d m i r a b l y done. The r e s u l t i s , of c o u r s e , due m a i n l y t o the changed c h a r a c t e r o f the e x a m i n a t i o n . Much, however, i s a l s o due t o the i n f l u e n c e o f the departmental summer c l a s s , whose members a r e among the b e s t t e a c h e r s o f Botany we have i n the s c h o o l s '. 2 4  Student  l e a r n i n g was  e v a l u a t e d by Department o f E d u c a t i o n  e x a m i n a t i o n s , which were s e t and marked by a departmental The  botany e x a m i n a t i o n s  c o n s i s t e d o f two p a r t s : a s e r i e s o f  t h e o r e t i c a l q u e s t i o n s and a p r a c t i c a l e x e r c i s e i n the o f p l a n t specimens.  The  committee.  identification  l a t t e r t e s t e d the s t u d e n t ' s mastery  l a b o r a t o r y s k i l l s , p r e s e n t e d many d i f f i c u l t i e s and was of c r i t i c i s m from many s t u d e n t s .  of  the o b j e c t  Teachers, a l s o , questioned  v a l u e of a botany c o u r s e which gave emphasis to taxonomy.  One  the  teacher  commented  thus:  N a t u r a l q u e s t i o n s w h e n a new [ i n t e r e s t i n g ] o b j e c t i s p r e s e n t e d t o a c h i l d a r e : 'What i s it? What i s i t f o r ? How d o e s i t w o r k ? Why d o e s i t do t h a t ? ' The c h i l d e x p e r i m e n t i n g w i t h t h e o b j e c t and making i t r e v e a l the answers to t h e s e q u e s t i o n s is g e t t i n g the b e n e f i t of a t r a i n i n g in s c i e n c e . T h a t c a n h a r d l y be s a i d o f o n e who a s k s o n l y t h e ^ f i r s t q u e s t i o n a n d i s s a t i s f i e d o n l y w i t h a name. '  With the  such  a c r i t i c i s m being  examinations,  plant  specimens  it  was  is  not  made  surprising  d i s c o n t i n u e d - as  of  the  that  part  of  taxonomic  aspect  of  the  i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of  the  departmental  45 examination, for. The  al-1?  but  revised  1904  course  was  directed to  general  and  function  both  upper was  school  related  bean and In  botany to  lower  course,  and  the  their microscopic  general,  in  botany  (Table  showed  physiology  the  p,ants.*  corn  criticism, it.  in  the'honour  (1899) -  students a and  new e m p h a s i s ; the  upper  attention  i n t e r r e l a t i o n s of  school  functions  more  of  structure  programs.  the organs  as  structure  In  of  the  plants  i l l u s t r a t e d by  the  6  spite  of  the  emphasis  was  widely  a c c e p t e d and  to  botany  the  on  taxonomy  many  pupils  which  elicited  enrolled  in  4).  Zoology  In  comparison  difficult, schools. of  and Like  Education  by  1900  botany,  officials,  it the  had  introduction of  been  zoology  were  accepted courses  designed  to  zoology  in o n l y selected  permit  a by  was  few, the  students  to  large Department develop  18 "faculties was to  laid  of  on  observation  taxonomy  physiology  groups  of  essence, logies  or  of  zoology  its  into  hindered of  the  the  was  (Appendix was a  C).  and  combined  High  although 51  published  clear  texts,  unpopular  Ramsay W r i g h t ' s technical,  schools.  course  surveyed  and  invertebrates.  the  goals  absence  Not  in  1896  Nicholson's  School it  did  until was  understandable  sound  biological  it  include Col t o n ' s  major  So,  in  teaching  of  the  methodo-  introduction  a good  zoology  introduction  was  df  a  timely  "  was  solved. to  with  to  textbook  zoology.  One  History  understand;  on  and  Col t o n ' s  Zoology  text  and  52  provided  taxonomy  pedagogy  and  evolution  Applied  zoological  good  of  uninteresting  section  Descriptive  introduction  of  Natural  difficult  (1889),^^  problem  knowledge  in  Outline  Zoology  the  and  paid  ^  encountered  because  stress  zoology  botany  The  this,  a t t e n t i o n was  shared  were  achieve  little  e f f e c t i v e and w i d e s p r e a d  available  (1875),  course  problems  the  The  To  and  vertebrate  counterpart,  Two m a j o r zoology  both  reasoning".  morphology,  evolution.  animals, the  and  and  and  was 53  acknowledged This perience  by  text  most  teachers  emphasized  with"living  the  materials  as  being  need and  for made  an  excellent  the  students'  many  textbook. direct  suggestions  ex-  for  C o l t o n , a Professor of Natural Science in the I l l i n o i s State U n i v e r s i t y , i n s t r u c t e d p r o s p e c t i v e t e a c h e r s in the methods o f p r e s e n t i n g s c i e n c e a n d was h i m s e l f an a b l e t e a c h e r . Hence h i s textbook . b e n e f i t t e d . b o t h from h i s sound s c i e n t i f i c knowledge and h i s skilled pedagogical approach. He w a s t y p i c a l o f t h e h i g h s c h o o l biology textbook w r i t e r s of t h i s period of which s e v e n t y - f i v e percent were university biologists (Appendix E).  •Buell  Copp  P. C o l t o n , Z o o l o g y , C l a r k , I89&) . i . ;  Descriptive  and  Practical  (Toronto:  19  interesting stages  in  the  specimens, between  activities:  histories,  dissecting  structure  questions. while  life  A  living  specimens,  collecting,  preserved  and  few  examining  emphasized  noting  drawings  representative animals  c l a s s i f i c a t i o n was  preserving  specimens,  f u n c t i o n , making  observing  were  using  and  the  and  relationship  answering  studied  a variety  studying  in  some  detail,  of  insects  acceptance of  zoology  54 (Appendices The Ontario  A,  second high  with  few  pupils  was  made  Inspector biology  ._  factor which  While  was  Seath  was  dissecting,  studied  teach  delayed  probably  zoology  pupils  who  to  C).  schools  implemented. schools  B and  i t were  some z o o l o g y  had  been  in  all  Ontario  animal  forms  to  Grade  questions  10 on  examination. that  they  be  with  an  scope  of  botany  although  this  t o p i c were  Biology omitted.  it  schools  with and  a general  Germany  high  The  be  included  objected to Department  new  in  these of  of  t o p i c was  zoology. the  attempt  in  its  This  study  the  arose.  encouraged  the  on  an  topic  (1887)-  included  approach.  when  was  large  questions,  survey  and  schools  included work  to  teachers The  all  biology"  ecological  few  difficulties  introduction  and  answering  in  subject  in  States  aims  l88o's;ina  the  and  the  However,  the United  "the  in which  interes ted.  in  topic,  in  drawing  impressed  the  the manner  taught  used  of  the  new some added  Moreover,  departmental  questions  Education  and  asked  officials  refused  but  the  t o p i c . ^  new  "the  aims  promised  and  new  of  for  establish 190H  a  upper  school  in  the  departmental  pupils.  This  stressed  relationships  and  included  General  movement to  schools  cation  their  the  attempted  revising this  end  change for  the  group  to  of  more  it  was  did  provide a  not  this  have  early  a  different  included and  with  of  ^eongenial  attempt  wide-spread  popular  structure  finally  topic,  disapproval  more  to  success,  approach  teachers  in  to  and  physiology,  function  in  organisms,  59  nineteenth  century  t h e r e was  secondary  schools  from  "average"  pupil.  Ontario's  follow  subject  specific  it  zoology  work.  the  curricula,  of  made to  not  the  (Biology)  the  to  did  with  with  teacher  Although  spearheaded  between  microscopic  Science  Toward  schools  approach  until  material  zoology.  which  dissatisfaction  wide-spread  committee  zoology new  of  f a m i l i a r i z e teachers  persisted  zoological  acceptance  to  teachers'  Hence,  its  zoology  course  biology"  (1896).  topic with  climate  summer  However,  scope  discontinued the  a  this  trend  t h e "commi t t e e o f  specialists  subjects  by  and  to  was  provide  to  institutions  a  wider-spread  for  Department  setting  up  a  of  elite  Edu-  committee  nineteen. update  the  The  duty  the curriculum  programs.of  for  interest  of of  for  the  .. 61 average The  p u p 11. recommendations  continuation zoology  in  science  for  190H  and  of  upper  was  the  study  school  Grades  of  9 and  compulsory  of  and 10. for  the  "committee of  the the  specialized introduction  The most  general pupils.  nineteen" subjects, of  botany  a course  science It  included  course  consisted  of  the  and  in  general  was  begun  topics  in  from  all  four  This 9  science  general  and  would  course  and  10  specialized  the  62  United  topics  zoology,  physics  and  previous  science  courses  General  1920.  wider  and  Ontario's  all  until  of  subjects  States  botany,  replaced  continued  present  pupils.  areas,  interest  hence  general  would  science  science,  than  have  offered  greater  course  in o f f e r i n g courses  in  chemistry.  i t was by  Grades believed,  previous  appeal  followed  general,  in  to  the  average  trend  rather  than  of in  63 specialized differed States the  however  tion  of  the  direct  the  pupil  environment.  museum  and  in  taxonomy  and  more  organisms,  to  courses  that  biological course.  the  United  sciences  while  Also.the-biolpgical physiology  than  of • importance-to-  e k  to  These  specimens,  States  one  a t«.«t e n «•• tion.  major  United  science  10  them as  whi.le-  1904,  9 and  physical  taught to  Grade  curriculum advocated  1904  biological  to  in  the  emphasis  prior  given  which would  separated  less  courses  The  those  curriculum  gave  man w e r e  Ontario  from  programs  Ontario  topics the  sciences.  that  make  the  specific  included  class  teacher  u n d e r t a k e ..act i v i t i e s  observations  outdoor  about  activities,  experimentation,teacher  the  examina-  demonstrations  65 and  the  reading  pupil's  of  findings  supplementary  and  organized  books.  them  The  into  recognized  principles»and  following  these  discussions,  for  own  which  became  only  making did  his  this  notes  method  vestigator,  but  director  research,  ments,  of  his  assume  supervisor  of  teacher leader  that had  an to  his  able play  teacher  the  pupil  basic student  discussed  biological was  responsible  textbook.^ was  the  a  true  a many-faceted  in-  role:  of  discussion,  demonstrator  laboratory  activities,  curator  of  Not  of  experi-  biological  museum,  organizer  For  most  continued However,  to  pupils'  pupils be  for  of  a  the  observations  evaluation  rigidly  some p u p i l s  of  their  administered the  Ontario  and  critic  of  note  books.  in  science  achievement  departmental  departmental  examination.^?  examinations  were  68 relaxed in  by  the  approved  curriculum of  schools  no  190H.  longer  had  examinations  in  certain  subjects,  a  to  satisfy  the  school  things,  had  science  had  been  from departmental  stress  some p u p i l s  they  main an  on  could  spend  less  For  pupil  who  a  material  authorized  for  and  to  r e v i e w was  text-book. based  but  disorganized,  dividual which  often pupil  demanded  record answers  an  bring  was  their  that  the  pupils  for  his  own  notebook  were  as  pupi1's  markedly  and  organized,  other  This  lessen  the  teachers,since the  examinations.  examinations, t h e r e was  and  the  was  class  anecdotal.  with  approved,  among  to  notebook  reasoning  be  manner.  to  departmental  experiential  To  expected  relief  teachers  departmental  that,  experimental  the  contrasted  school  science.  take  observations,  elementary  inspector'"  some  However,the  individually, was  on  in  preparing  to  lower  including  examinations  time had  to w r i t e  provincial  taught  exemption  Prospective  no  the longer  created  discussions This  in-  examinations,  conceptual  and  factual.  T h e d u t i e s o f t h e i n s p e c t o r w e r e o u t l i n e d i:n t h e Regulations: " T h e I n s p e c t o r s h a l l make e n q u i r y and e x a m i n a t i o n , i n s u c h manner a s h e may t h i n k p r o p e r i n t o t h e q u a l i f i c a t i o n s a n d e f f i c i e n c y o f t h e s t a f f , t h e adequacy and s u i t a b i l i t y o f t h e accommodations and equipment o f t h e s c h o o l and a l l m a t t e r s a f f e c t i n g t h e h e a l t h and c o m f o r t o f t h e p u p i l s . . .^Ontario, R e p o r t o f t h e M i n i s t e r o f E d u c a t i o n , 1885, p . 2k. i 1  1  Inspector consistency  G.F.  between  Rogers  (1919)  stated  the examination  and  his the  view of pupil's  this  in-  notebook  thus:  The d i f f i c u l t i e s o f t h e c o u r s e have been increased b y i n s i s t i n g o n t h e p u p i l s m a k i n g t h e i r own t e x t - b o o k s . T h i s has led t h e t e a c h e r t o choose one o f the e v i l s w h i c h h e c o n s i d e r s t h e l e s s o b j e c t i o n a b l e ; h e may s t r e s s n o t e - b o o k s and i n so d o i n g be f o r c e d t o g i v e d i a g r a m s and d r a w i n g s and o n l y s l i g h t l y c a m o u f l a g e the d i c t a t i o n o f n o t e s , o r h e may s t r e s s p r a c t i c a l work, d i s c a r d a l l book-drawings and b l a c k board drawings and r e f u s e t o d i c t a t e any n o t e s , and as a r e s u l t be s a t i s f i e d w i t h m e d i o c r e n o t e - b o o k s , w h i c h cannot be o f much a s s i s t a n c e t o t h e p u p i l s when t h e y come t o r e v i e w t h e i r work f o r : t h e Lower School e x a m i n a t i o n . The c r y i n g needs o f t h e Lower S c h o o l S c i e n c e c o u r s e a r e a new s y l l a b u s o f b i o l o g y f o r t h e L o w e r S c h o o l a n d a wel1 - i 1 1 u s t r a t e d a u t h o r i z e d t e x t - b o o k i n t h e same subject.  •69 Despite Rogers" of  pupil  and  the c r i t i c i s m s other  reference  educators for  of  student  such  sixteen  produced  notebooks  notebooks  remained  by  the main  source  years.  The c r i t i c i s m by G e o r g e F r a n k l i n R o g e r s d e s e r v e d s e r i o u s a t t e n t i o n b e c a u s e he was an a b l e s t u d e n t , s c i e n c e t e a c h e r , i n s p e c t o r a n d a d m i n i s t r a t o r and e v e n t u a l l y r e a c h e d t h e h i g h e s t p o s i t i o n on t h e Ontario educational system, Chief D i r e c t o r of Education. G r a d u a t i n g w i t h f i r s t c l a s s honours in b o t h E n g l i s h and S c i e n c e f r o m V i c t o r i a U n i v e r s i t y (1892), h e w o n t h e P r i n c e o f W a l e s G o l d Medal f o r G e n e r a l P r o f i c i e n c y and t h e S i l v e r Medal f o r N a t u r a l Sciences R o g e r s was S c i e n c e M a s t e r a t O r i l l a C o l l e g i a t e f o r s i x y e a r s , - ; P r i n c i p a l a t S e a f o r t h C o l l e g i a t e (1900-1913) , P r i n c i p a l at London C o l l e g i a t e (1913-1918), I n s p e c t o r o f High Schools (1918-1928), A s s i s t a n t t o the C h i e f D i r e c t o r o f E d u c a t i o n (1928-30), C h i e f D i r e c t o r o f E d u c a t i o n (1930-3*0 a n d C h i e f I n s p e c t o r of Secondary Schools ( 1 9 3 4 - 3 7 ) . ' S i r C h a r l e s G..D;... R o b e r t s - , a n d A r t h u r •L. T u n n e l l , e d s . T h e C a n a d i a n W h o ' s Who ( L o n d o n : T h e T i m e s ,  1936-37), p.937.  '  The of  an  authorized  also was  existence  the to  good  teacher  had  the  by  the  this  no  text  use  in  standard Further  they  programs,  were  programs  in  inspectors grams  in  including had  able  and  are  9 and  those  so  and  were they  In  the  merit were  unfavourable  10 b i o l o g y .  to  the for  efficiency  the  for  in  their  were  of  science  the  the note-  teachers'  of  several  the  the  high  reasons:  with  other  objectives  the working  objective about  examples  of  inspectors'  contact  comments  Two  when  assessment  The  directly  of  had  effectiveness  biology.  saw  teacher  pupils  student  judging  cognizant  spite  of  but  c o l l e c t i o n s . ^  gauge  they  the  the  an  standing  pupils  teacher's  perusal  in  his  absence  of  of  of  dethe  the  viewpoint, the  1904  pro-  criticism  from  cited:  Elementary burning, and  to  If  difficult  included  besides  teachers;  only  a  the  considerable  classrooms. offered  and  was  the  pupils'  preparing  biological  opportunities  programs;  Grades  inspectors  the  inspectors,  officials  department's  about  inspector  of  programs  former  partmental  judgments  instruction,  provincial had  to  and  performance.  and  scrutiny  of  the  results  a  opinions  teacher's  only  examination  provincial  performance,  not  community,  books  school  the  examination  the  classroom  The  of  affected  confidence  teacher's and  departmental  of  examination. made  a  textbook  evaluation  retain  secure  of  [lower  trouble,  inspectors  school] and  than  1  hard  any  biology work  other  caused  for  more  pupils,  subject  on  the  heartteachers program.  -71  , In t h i s c o u r s e t h e " s c h o o l s .xiave a t t e m p t e d t o g i v e pupils, d u r i n g the f i r s t and second y e a r s in the High School a s o r t o f general s u r v e y o f t h e b i o l o g i c a l and p h y s i c a l sciences. The r e s u l t s have proved what a knowledge  o f the psychology o f the immature p u p i l c o u l d have f o r e t o l d , v i z . , t h a t p u p i l s o f the e a r l y ' t e e n ' age cannot g a i n any g e n e r a l view o f , say, b i o l o g y , by t o u c h i n g l i g h t l y h e r e a n d t h e r e t h e v a r i o u s t y p e s o f p l a n t a n d a n i m a l l i f e . '72 The  Department  difficulties tions,  one  included i)  in  in  of  the  1905  biology and  following:  The  t e a c h e r was  precise The  instructions  (a)  insist  (b)  discuss  correct  iii)  conditions  notes  kept.  that  the  the  of  to  scribbler  in  perceived  advice  given  local  area  and  to  ensure  that  make  and  sequence  was  their  class,  notes,  full  (c)  (d)  records  the  see  have  that  the  a  scribbler, pupils  pupils  permanent  notebooks,  their  notebooks  thoroughly  initially  and  spot  board  of  the  suggested:  the  Into  encourage  accurate  in  notes  should  1905  work,  scribbler  instructor  in  give  their  The  recommenda-  familiar with  following  pupils  the  significant  The  become  field  The  to  two  1910.  the  for  results  with  to  expected  be  their  in  required  t e a c h e r was  pupil  • responded  programs  the other  the  biological  ii)  Education  copy  (e)  check  check  later.  education  to  73 buy In  1910,  criticism of  reference  of  the the  Suggestions  teachers' this  manual order  was as  Ontario course  for  guide.  small  in  the  to  and  help  Department  pupils of  was  to  publish  Teachers  of  Science  Prepared  single easy  books  volume use  course  by  provided  since of  an  each  study,  them.  Education's a  science  lesson  t o p i c was gave  group  plans  a  response  manual,  designed  experienced  and  use  for  to of  A  serve  to Manual  as  science  each  teachers,  topic.  presented  in  basis  teacher  for  a  the  The  same  confidence,  particularly  addition  made  the  it  selecting  But,  and  according  attempts  to  to  help  for  suggestions ordering  inexperienced for  supplies  - Inspector the  class  teacher  management,  and  the  -G.-F.,-Rogers.--. was  instructors. gave  In advice  manipulating (1919) ,  none  on  of  apparatus.  of  these  effective:  The Lower School c o u r s e . . . . o f S c i e n c e is n o t , even in i t s present modified from, a conspicuous success, and i t has added n o t a l i t t l e t o t h e burden b o r n e by t h e c o n s c i e n t i o u s s c i e n c e t e a c h e r s . . . . ' 76  1.12  Applied  In rapid  contrast  progress  biology,  Biology  or  in  to  or  Agriculture  biology,  acceptance  agriculture,  which during  was  in  spite  the  a "slow  of  criticism,  made  quite  period  1871-1920,  applied  starter".  T h e a n a l y s i s b e l o w i s b a s e d o n t h e a c c o u n t s o f Madf11 a n d L a w r : A l o n z o J . Mad M l , H i s t o r y o f A g r i c u l t u r a l E d u c a t i o n i n O n t a r i o . 1 ' ( T o r o n t o : U n i v e r s i t y o f T o r o n t o P r e s s , 1930)'^ D o u g l a s L a w r , " D e v e l o p m e n t o f A g r i c u l t u r a l E d u c a t i o n i n O n t a r i o 1870-1910", ( D o c t o r a l D i s s e r t a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y o f T o r o n t o , 1973).- . E x c e p t i o n might be taken t o e q u a t i n g a g r i c u l t u r e t o a p p l i e d b i o l o g y w i t h the c o n t e n t i o n that a g r i c u l t u r e includes a broader f i e l d of knowledge than b i o l o g y . W h i l e t h i s c o n t e n t i o n is t r u e , however t h i s p a p e r d e a l s w i t h a g r i c u l t u r e i n G r a d e s 9 a n d 10 i n w h i c h t h e programs a r e l a r g e l y b i o l o g y . This study does not i n c l u d e the a g r i c u l t u r e o f G r a d e 11 w h i c h c o n t a i n e d m u c h p h y s i c s n o r t h e G r a d e 12 c o u r s e i n a g r i c u l t u r e w h i c h c o n s i s t e d l a r g e l y o f c h e m i s t r y . H e n c e - t h e d e s i g n a t i o n c o f G r a d e 9 a n d 10 a g r i c u l t u r e a s a p p l i e d biology is considered a p p r o p r i a t e .  27  Before  the  beginning  Chief  Superintendent  would  make  servient During with  the  to  the  school  the  visits  to  manufacturing  as  proposed  acres This was  he of  land  land  was  devise  be  to  used  subsequently  Subsequently, again  a  set  only  similar  On  provisions School  aside  for  each  instruction  was in  of  Ontario  in  lack  High  had  return,  of  presented  the  and  professions, his  Act  the  for  As two  secondary  Act  of  agri-  attempted  by w h i c h  early hundred  schools. But  in  defeated  School  impressed  schools.  support  and  sub-  been  but he  he  Mechanics.  agriculture. of  that  effectively  Ryerson  Amendment  for  because  bill  Finally,  the  Ontario's  promised  Manufacture  schools,  for  Ryerson,  had  d i r e c t l y and  commerce.  for  withdrawn  1868-69-  in  not  Grammar  would be  (1844-1876),  secondary  and  Egerton  Agriculture,  similar a  period,  "more  of  given,  to  1847  system  European  repeatedly  the  Education  interests  training  culture,  of  of  the in  the  legislature. and  1849  1871,  bill  agriculture  78 was  scheduled  as  one  agriculture  training  schools  in  and  education  in  of  the  still  society.  subjects met w i t h  According  of an  to  instruction. unfavourable  Madill  in  his  However, reception  in  review  agricultural  of  Ontario:  C o n d i t i o n s were not r i p e f o r [ i n s t r u c t i o n in] agriculture. I t w a s many y e a r s b e f o r e t h e p e o p l e w e r e r e a d y f o r i t , and b e f o r e c a p a b l e and q u a l i f i e d i n s t r u c t o r s were a v a i l a b l e t o t e a c h t h e s u b j e c t p r o p e r l y ' : 79 It  is  ironic  instruction  in  own  textbook  His  textbook,  that  when  agriculture  Ryerson into  worked  against  the  First  Lessons  in  the  finally  succeeded  Ontario  high  success  of  Agriculture,  the  in  introducing  schools  hard-won  Parts  I and  in  1871  program.  II  80 (1870) ,  81 was  inaccurate,  outdated  biased  chemistry  and  and  dull.  devoted  one  The  first  chapter  to  part  described  plants;  his  while  some the  28  second Ryerson was  part used  asked  described the  and the  farming  catechism  then text  method  the answer evidenced  but  both  scientists  and  educators.  Question:  Why  do  Answer:  ears  of  Not  teleological The  of  In  the  presentation  given.  dull  by  practices.  only  stand  up  part,  in which  was  thinking,  following  wheat  latter  the  a  question  presentation  unacceptable  is  an  by  day  to  example: and  turn  down  night?  Because  when  the  ear  falling  into  the  ear,  therefore  turn  down  is  becoming  might  to  ripe,  induce  the earth  at  the  cold  blight; night  the  dew, ears  and  82 receive R y e r s o n was a  on  academic  agriculture the  chance  of  success.  and  instruction had  become the  gave  the  in  high  schools  in  agricultural  schools;  mood,  into  the  this  education  had  been  e d u c a t i o n had i m p r o v e d  high  trying  While  Advances  prestigious  popular  agriculture  into  radiation.  time  agriculturalists  in a  his  changes  century  science  educators  by  scholarship.  failed,  nineteenth  abroad;  in  of  u t i l i t a r i a n subject,  was  a  ahead  heat  spoke  and  the  to  introduce  whose  dominant  attempt  1871  during  the  education  in  in  in  high  schools;  of  the  agricultural  to  part  high  agricultural  the  Department  of  Education  high  schools.  To  this  Given  planned a new  teaching  prominent  Agricultural  institution.  of  schools  desirability of  end  emphasis introduce  latter  made  Ontario  agriculture,  agricultural  College these again  textbook  (O.A.C.)  changes to  bring  was  - ' 84  1898.  authorized  in  provincial  Deputy-Minister  However,  t h e r e was  This  a  text, of  shortage  Agr i cul t u r e ,  (I8.S9)  Agriculture,  CC.  of  trained  was  James,  personnel  to  w r i t t e n by (Appendix  carry  out  the  C) .  the  instruction  and  Despite during one  the  group  not  the  single  problems  people  in  high  and  1871-1920  period of  a  school  failures  and  of  beyond,  Ontario  taught  agricultural  it  society,  agriculture.  received  the  education  the  agrarians,  support who  of  placed  86 a  high  that the  value  the  on  the  t i l l e r  city  of  dweller.  rural  way  of  life.  the  soil  was  And  many  believed  They  apart from, that  fostered  and  morally  farmers  the  myth  superior  were  to,  threatened  87 by  the  also  ever-expanding,  believed  rural  life  that  since  urban-dominated  the  they  high  schools  attracted  society.  had  able  The  a detrimental  young  agrarians effect  people  into  urban  thought  that  the  on pro-  88 fessions duction  away of  from  the  farms.  agricultural  And  instruction  they into  the  high  schools  introwould  89 counteract the  society  and  The  of  farmers  farming  on  the  children  to  than  percent  one  wanted  rewards  them  of  The to  of for  that  leave  they  this  in  spanned  clergymen,  practising in most  farms  rural less of  the  regard young  and,  schools.  parents  of  the  group high  a wide  editors,  towards school  segment  politicians  was of  and  influential..  agrarians  home  attitude  instruction  Because  many  secondary  90  school..  were  believed their  •the  agricultural  educators,  they  attitude  that  So  persistent.  farmers,  greater  of  including  The from  effect.  introduction  positive  some  this  in "In  farms  for  high  people  fact,  expenditure few  to  in  pupils of  learned did the  not late  differed  agriculture. the  time  attending  cities  where  art  send  of  their  l890's  progressed  effort,  children the  however, school  general,  elementary  the  farmers,  to  and high there  less  high. money.  91  school were  30  Because  of  instruction, ambivalent it  was  this  the  in  policy  officials  sufficient  merit  ment  to  This  afforded  rural of  attitude  Department  curriculum.  of  Department  their  official  lack  to  did  Education  towards  not  of  regard  time-honoured  agricultural  school  high  for was  any in  marked  L a t i n , which  was  While  instruction,  school other  understandably  agriculture.  agricultural  consider it  for  o f f i c i a l s were  high  compliment  substitute  lack  support  the  agriculture  of  subject  in  the  contrast  to  the  required  for  treat-  ^matriculation  92 certificates Early introduce in  until  in  the  success  the  the  by  federal  committee have  local  of  new  school  could  science  if  available  of  high  of  in  school  (Appendix  were  schools,  personnel  Agriculture  of  and  made  which  enterprise  urged  c u r r i c u l u m was that  were  to  culminated editors  boards  of  Education  of  But  academic  in  education  I).  introduced  u t i l i t a r i a n and  and  instruction  board  the  efforts  high  this  century.  of  education,  and,  finally,  Agriculture.  theoretical  provide  further Into  labourers  Departments  over  the  nineteenth  politicians,  nineteen"  priority  the  instruction  The  Ministry  the  of  twentieth century  1920.  provincial  When  end  agricultural  farm magazines, of  the  not  made one  the  in  necessary  board  of  training  Hence  place  "the  1904,  practical  education.  agriculture  in  of  a  high  general  equipment  education  began  in-  93 struction An  in  agriculture  a t t e m p t was  collaboration Education. their  made  in  between  The  because  1907 the  Department  agricultural  to  qualified  overcome  provincial of  this  free  of  provided of  were  problem,  Departments  Agriculture  representatives,  teachers  charge,  not  available.  through  the  Agriculture instruction on  the  and through  condition  31  that  the  Department  dation  and  school  boards  Lindsay, was  too  members  of  Education  through  education  Morrisburg  and  instruction  busy  cultural  The  equipment  low as  were  of  with  the  school  result  was  that  they  scheme  was  The  attenuated slack  to  short  farming Starting  local  boards  time  teachers  (1909)  and  in of  were  necessary  education.  the  In  had  many  unable a  of  to  success  when  and  practical  the  itinerant  take  in  addition,  duties  as  part  the  Six  Essex,  enrolment  September  attend.  accommo-  Gait,  the  courses  young the  farm  not  consultants.  fully  agriculture  farmers  agri-  teachers  program  high  in  the  school  became  offered  in  the  95  a  "grass  education  then  of  essentially  were not  in  to  and  courses  1909  of  early  staff  seasons.  boards  However,  harvest  of  available  participated: Collingwood,  Perth.  representatives  program.  local  began  the  made  roots"  (Appendix  agriculture additional  for  approach  I)  were  which  tried,  encouraged  regular  agricultural  was  grants  hjgh  to  in  hire  school  (1912)  were  which full-  grants made  96 available  from  the  Department  of  supported  by  few  prosperous  farming  the  people would  young  farms.  In  a  addition  to  be  Education.  encouraged  providing  This  communities to  grants  remain the  on  approach  which the  was  hoped  that  productive  Department  of  Education  97 aided  the  program  agriculture and  by  (1911)  providing  essential  a  element  instruction."^ biology,  98  by  specifying  , by viable in  the  (Appendix  covering  such  the  requirements  for  an  agricultural  ^inspector  appointing course  of  successful A).  topics  It as  study  introduction of  offered the  (1914).  a worthy  flowers  of  The  teachers  latter  of  (1911) was  an  agricultural alternative  fruit  trees,  to  grasses,  32  seeds,  weeds,  propogation  of  plants,  and  rearing  of  chickens,  breeds  and  control  of  insects.  In  those  in  biology,  studied  of  this  many  biological  practical  The of  a  of  1913,  ten  federal  teachers  this sense  of  boards  due  of  farming  pay  who  to  a  agricultural from  farm  that  by  1406  pupils  through  1914,  thirteen  were  system  hi.gh  enrolled.  "more  to  to  a  and mood  of  schools So  plan  in  Agriculture  the  form  Instruction  provinces  science.  summer  and,  to  Act  over  Some o f  this schools,  reward  agricultural  reception  trends  and  in  which  respect  the  instruction  community  were:  a  at  noticeable  for> s c i e n t i f i c capable  for  high  efforts school  communities  taught  Ryerson's  put  courses.  foster  the  the  could  came  equipment  support  like  settings.  agricultural  agricultural  histories  pupils,  they  rural  the  attend  persistent  The  that  agricultural  T ife~,  the  in  life  Moreover,  be-paid -to-the  favourable  representatives  magazines.'^'  in  to  prevailing  pride i n " rural  earned  were  initiatives  certain  uses  agricultural  gave  met w i t h  advantage  Through  teachers  school  topics.  "grass-roots"  grant.  dollars  governmental  time  school  to  schools  the  instruction  cost  and  The high  aid  used  the  for  government  to  was  meet  in  support  t e n <mj M i o n  years  money to  final  to  added  incubation  insect  agricultural  biological  the  bacteria,  farm animals,  course,  a g r i c u l tura-1-pup.rl s : had principles  soils,  was  agriculture;  promise  of  the  agriculture so and  positive by  1920, the  (1871)  to  make  d i r e c t l y and e f f e c t i v e l y , s u b s e r v e n t  to  the  to  be  interests  102 of  Agriculture,  at  least  in  Manufacture  regard  to  and  Mechanics"  agriculture.  •• h a d  begun  realized,  33  The firmly the of a  entrenched  fact a  resistance  that  change  more  1.13  had or  the  utilitarian  Physical  to  contend  tables  and  experiments,  these  for  a  part  little  conditions  was  academic  agriculture schooling  f i n a l l y admitted,  conception  for  of  Biology  of  the  inadequate  specialized  and  of  of  showed  was.  However,  indicated  education.from  how  an  the  beginning  academic  to  one.  first  heat  monstration  public  with  too  introduction  support  Facilities  the  do w i t h o u t  lamp  the  the  agriculture  in  During  to  the  many  and  a  experiments  with  for  pupils  There to  frequently  had  schoolyard  pump  teachers  judged  altogether.  equipment  source  1871-1920, t e a c h e r s  period  laboratories,  rooms  teacher  Education  presented  the  students  carry  to  by  today's  were  often  our  depend  for  pupils standards,  too  few  individual  on  water.  science  and  an  alcohol  Because  of  through.de-  watching  rather  than  in-  vestigating. The  Department  inadequate 1)  of  laboratory  by  making  for  Education facilities  tried in  a  to  improve  variety  of  good  laboratory  accommodation  collegiate  institutes  ,  the  situation  of  ways: a  requirement  A c o l l e g i a t e i n s t i t u t e w a s d e f i n e d i n 1884 a s a s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l a t l e a s t f o u r m a s t e r s who w e r e s p e c i a l i s t s , and a l a b o r a t o r y in teaching S c i e n c e . . O n t a r i o , Report of the M i n i s t e r of Education ,  1884, p.73?;  with  34  by  2)  offering  cheap  laboratory  equipment  at  a  provincial  Depos t t o r y by  3) Such schools  penalizing  systems  provided  biology.  The  emphasized  by  school  worked  in  boards  urban  wel1-equipped  advantages the  high  Students  to  areas  provided and  laboratories  the  school  who  pupils  of  inspector,  accomplished  more  The from  quality the  Institute  of  the  urban  description  (1910)  of  (Fig.  biological a  I)  model  for  J.E.  equipment.  most  1900  such  fully  primary purpose of science i f the f a c i l i t i e s f o r i n d i v i d u a l a d e q u a t e s p a c e , equipment and S t u d e n t s a c q u i r e d manual e f f i c intellectual independence that w i t h them as permanent a s s e t s .  by  poor  the  urban  teaching  accommodations Wetherell  high  of were  (1910) :  the  they have work, materials. i e n c y and would remain ^4  laboratories  laboratory  of  the  can  be  appreciated  Ottawa  Collegiate  :  The b i o l o g i c a l l a b o r a t o r y has n i n e tables with large tops. Each t a b l e is p r o v i d e d w i t h a l a r g e cupboard and d r a w e r s , s u i t a b l e f o r holding microscopes . . . . The room has one s t a t i o n a r y aquarium o f ample s i z e and t w e l v e s m a l l m o v a b l e a q u a r i a on s h e l v e s e q u i p p e d w i t h w a t e r s u p p l y and o v e r f l o w . The s m a l l aquaria containing aquatic l i f e . . . . may b e t a k e n to the students' tables for special study  ' T h e D e p o s i t o r y m a i n t a i n e d by t h e Department of Education: p r o v i d e d l a b o r a t o r y e q u i p m e n t , m a p s , c h a r t s and museum s p e c i m e n t s to any Board o f E d u c a t i o n in O n t a r i o a t h a l f p r i c e . This institution was a s o u r c e o f c o n t e n t i o n t o c o m m e r c i a l s u p p l i e r s who a r g u e d that it restricted trade. „!0ntario, D e p a r t m e n t o f E d u c a t i o n , D e s c r i p t i v e c a t a l o g u e o f maps, g l o b e s , p r i n t s , b o o k s , e t c . f o r sale at the educational depository to p u b l i c schools in Upper Canada . ( ^ T o r o n t o : L o v e l 1 a n d G i b s o n , 1856,) <'.  Biology  Laboratory  of  the  Figure  1  Ottawa  Collegiate  Institute  !910  3 6  and o b s e r v a t i o n s . T h e r e Is a l s o i n t h e room a wash b a s i n and I n c u b a t o r stand. The s c h o o l is provided w i t h large glass c a s e s f o r museum p u r p o s e s a n d f o r a p p a r a t u s , and b r e e d i n g cages . . . .105 By were  comparison,  too  the  limited for  laboratory  skills  in  urban  areas.  to  university  equipment  individual  in  rural  Hence  science  and  work.  settings  graduates courses  space  of  many  Therefore  fell  well  rural  lacked  in  the  rural  the  below  high  training  in  who  schools in  standards  schools  training  high  achieved  proceeded  laboratory  methods  106 which  their The  be  poor  fellow  students  conditions as  well. ;  of  In  from  urban  biological  1910,  schools  museums  according  to  in  a  had  many  high  acquired. schools  school  tended  to  inspector:  0ne s e c t i o n o f t h e e q u i p m e n t t h a t i s e x c e e d i n g l y meagre in a l l but h a l f a dozen s c h o o l s is b i o l o g i c a l material. S c h o o l museums a r e r a r e i n d e e d a n d c o l l e c t i o n s of b i o l o g i c a l material are inconsiderable. It i s hoped t h a t t h e payment o f an a n n u a l g r a n t for m u s e u m s , now f o r t h e f i r s t t i m e , w i l l p r o d u c e t h e desi red r e s u l t s . ' 1 ° 7  Suggestions of  1914:  the  development  at  could  the  of  twenty  pupils. from  in  of  Care  was  a  snake,  of  should  and  indispensible  types  for  d e f i c i e n c i e s were.made in t h e  f1uid, i1lustrating  specimens  a  of  feet  and  arranged  All  taken of  the  animals in  in  the  fish all  representative  few w i l d  be  a  in  fifteen dollars.  insects  inqury.  these  frog,  different  specimens  collection  a  birds  be o b t a i n e d  stuffed  them  of  least  showing  correcting  Preparations  collection be  for  of  of  the  be  the  could  mounting  the  materials  useful. There  a  should  A  should and  contain A  standard  accumulated  specimens should  in  collection  locality. be  stages  locality  Such  museum  orders  museum  would  schools.  bills. The  different  Regulat-ions  be  and  by  the  protecting  kept  in  glass  37  fronted,  dust-proof  cabinets  Recommendations given  in  the  for  provided  with  shelves  laboratory equipment  1914  Regulations  pocket  magnifier,,  and  Courses  of  for  and  drawers.  pupils  Study:  were  each  I U  °  also  pupil  would  require: i)  a  ii)  a compound  iii)  a  dozen  microscope  glass  slides  (price and  $11.00),  cover  slips, 109  iv)  a  couple  Additional  of  needles  zoological  mounted  (1914):  Breeding  insects  be  from waste  mosquito form or whom  netting or p r i c e were  a  a  or  cat.  frog,  horse,  should  available  a  snake,  1914  a  chalk  from  the  the  covering  dealers  of of  should  be  be  the  and  mole  should  recommendations  also  made  feet be  one  of  with  desired  apparatus  from  obtained.  with  that  skulls  accumulated  suggestions  re-  side any  skeletons and  same  development  school  should  the  the  almost  beginning  a  dog  observing  Aquaria  and  rabbit,  in  management  crow,"  handles.  suggested  boxes  gradually,  eventually  turtle  for  glass.  aquarium  added  Included  sheep,  The  be  cages  p l a t e of  information about  Skeletons dog  made  wooden  equipment was  commendations could  on  of  of a  of by  regarding  a  perch, pig,  degrees.'^ botanical  col 1ect ions: F o r b o t a n i c a l w o r k t h e p u p i l s s h o u l d be e n c o u r a g e d to c o l l e c t the m a t e r i a l themselves. A suitable . c a b i n e t w i t h d r a w e r s w o u l d be needed f o r t h e h e r b a r i u m . The s p e c i m e n t s i n t h e h e r b a r i u m s h o u l d be c a r e f u l l y s e l e c t e d and mounted t o p r o v i d e a model f o r t h e p u p i l s in t h e i r work. S t a n d a r d c o l l e c t i o n s o f wood s h o u l d be k e p t i n v i e w w i t h s p e c i m e n s i l l u s t r a t i n g special points .111  38  In  the  appeared  for  in  George  and  High  and  contained  and  period  equipping  Laboratory  Collegiate  of  c r i t i c i s m of  physical  the  numerous  sources  inspectors'  the  of  Cornish's,  Schools  commercial  in  planning  A.  pamphlet  As  literature  relevant a  recommendations  laboratory  as  for  Accommodation  in  Continuation  Institutes  diagrams,  example,  (1915).^^  space  Cornish's  requirements  and  equipment. biological  reports  at  equipment  the  laboratories  end  available  of for  the  no  period  biological  longer it  is  occurred possible  instruction  that  had  improved.  1.20  Changes  : The  As be  Biology  academic  expected  that  Teachers  (1871-1920)"  e x c e l l e n c e was  important  in  teachers  be  qualified.  would  highly  this  period  it  This  might was  true  11 3 for  most  of  few  biology  Education fact  the  period.  teachers  could  teachers  not  of  However,  were  available  insist  science  on  high  were  not  at so  the  beginning  that  the  to  the  Department  qualifications required  of  for  have  period  of  teachers.  undertaken  In  any  1 14 specific earned not  academic  Second  have  Inspectors  training.  Class  university Buchan  Teaching  I n d e e d , some C e r t i f i c a t e s at  training.  and  This  biology normal  c o n d i t i o n was  teachers  had  school  and  deplored  by  Marling:  S.ineet d a t a ' - f o r . • b i o l o g y ^ t e a c h e r s about secondary-teachers  was  not  is. submitted,  a.vai,lab:le.,.. I n f o r m a t i o n ' ' i - :  A S e c o n d C l a s s T e a c h i n g C e r t i f i c a t e was a w a r d e d t o a c a n d i d a t e a f t e r t h r e e y e a r s i n h i g h s c h o o l and a y e a r a t n o r m a l school.  did  39  A . . . d i f f i c u l t y a r i s e s from the i n f e r i o r s c h o l a r s h i p o f t o o many o f t h e a s s i s t a n t Masters in t h e High Schools . . .\ i t is u n d e n i a b l e , a l t h o u g h a Second C l a s s Teacher may h a v e q u a l i f i e d h i m s e l f . . . f o r t h e proper performance of the duties assigned to him in the School t o which he belongs, the mere p o s s e s s i o n o f t h e knowledge necessary t o t a k e such a C e r t i f i c a t e does n o t render him a s u f f i c i e n t l y good S c h o l a r , and does n o t e n s u r e a s u f f i c i e n t amount o f c u l t u r e f o r an a p p o i n t m e n t on a H i g h S c h o o l staff.'115 The  scarcity  inspectors of  of trained  deprecated,was  summer  courses,  certificates,  ( i i i ) professional  of elementary  practising  teachers  in  like had  Henry  (1887)-  At  this  programs year  time  science''^  the head  for  were  Wright  to  both  that  their  For  non-graduate laboratory  (1885) a n d  in botany  by e x p e r t  teachers  knowledge  promotion  and ( i v ) t h e  undergraduate  conducted so  the  specialist  in teaching  available  a n d Ramsay  science.  The s u c c e s s f u l  in science  with  for the prospective  (1884).  of a science  specialist's  (i)  qualifications.  made  improve  training  t h e u n i v e r s i t i e s were o f f e r i n g  program  earned  were  ways:  teachers  who  attended  of biology  and  teaching.  i n honour  honour  biology  of  in four  who l a c k e d  The courses  Spotton  methods  J  courses  teachers'  and o t h e r s  classes  an o p p o r t u n i t y  their  in  summer  zoology  corrected  i n t h e l 8 7 0 , s , w h i c h ' tije  ( i i ) undergraduate  up-grading  training,  teachers  This  two y e a r s  of a of  a specialist's  four  honour certificate  was t h e q u a l i f i c a t i o n  in a c o l l e g i a t e  was w i d e l y  undergraduate  completion  least  teacher  certificate  department  certificate  at  more  obtained  institute.  in that  by  needed f o r The  1901 t w o -  118 thirds  of a l l secondary  teachers  had s p e c i a l i s t  certificates.  1885  In  professional  introduced. teachers college for  Several  were  arrangements  in operation  was e s t a b l i s h e d .  student  teachers  the province.  criticized  as  i t lacked  p r a c t i c e were  later,  eight  However theory.  Ontario  in five this  method  by c o u r s e s  teaching  institutes  o f t r a i n i n g was  t o 1897  which  teachers'  practice  collegiate  1889  secondary  secondary  (I885-I889)  From  a t t h e School  t e a c h i n g was  a permanent  At f i r s t  afforded  months  in biology for training  before  was p r o v i d e d  throughout  and  training  both  lasted  o f Pedagogy,  theory  f o r f o u r , and  an adjunct  of the  119 Toronto  Normal  training the  School.  1897  From  t o 1907  was o f f e r e d a t t h e Hamilton  1907-1920  period  professional  prospective  training  Queens  University  Finally  i n 1920,  Collegiate  secondary  at the Faculties  of Kingston  a l l secondary  the  Faculty  of Education  the  Ontario  College  for  practice  received  of the University  were  teachers  o f Education  teachers  available  from  During  obtained operated at of  their  of Toronto,  (O.C.E.).  teacher  Institute.  and at t h e U n i v e r s i t y  of Education  teaching  secondary  At O.C.E.  Toronto. training at then  called  facilities  the affiliated  University  of  120 Toronto  Schools  Following inspectors' 1887  only  ranking  38  and t h e surrounding  the introduction  evaluation percent  o f second  of professional  of the teachers'  of the science  class  collegiate  institutes. training, the  performance  teachers  or better; while,  in  had an  I889,  improved.  In  inspector's after  professional  Second c l a s s r a n k i n g r e f e r s t o an i n s p e c t o r ' s c l a s s i f i c a t i o n based on t e a c h i n g p e r f o r m a n c e a n d i s n o t t o be c o n f u s e d w i t h a Second C l a s s Teaching Certificate.  training  had  been  in  operation four  years,  88  percent  had  this  121 ranking.  In  the  i.e.  minimum,  First  Class  a d d i t i o n , many  a  High  Teacher's  School  many  biology  indicated,  i.e.  enrolling  became  a  high  teachers. Model  teacher  Such  schools,  accepted degrees  as or  specialist  teachers  and  above  JL. -  Certificate  in  honours  of  biology high  secured  high  the  or  training  uniivers i t y  institution after  university  teaching  background  an  followed  attended  finally  teachers their  in  teachers  completed  correspondence  qualifications  Assistant's  teachers  training  school  had  a  Certificate.  While  attending  teachers  by  schools  becoming  school,  o f honouns> c o u r s e s ,  the  These  either  certificates.  trained  in  degrees.  course  on  Such but  and  graduation,  first  subjects  route  the  others  elementary  at  Normal  summer  or  or  by  teachers  were  basis  their  teachers they were  of  lacked often  the able  122 people,  who  While the  period,  wartime  had the  to work  with  supply  of  secondary  depending  on  economic  governments,  and  collegiate  for  the  slight  learned  first  the  institutes two  decrease  in  decades the  children.  teachers conditions  qualifications remained of  the  proportion  fluctuated  of  more Or  and  the  demands  teachers  in  less  same  the  twentieth century. of  throughout  specialists  was  high  of schools  (Table  However,  3)  a  noted.  An I n t e r i m H i g h S c h o o l A s s i s t a n t ' s C e r t i f i c a t e was g r a n t e d a t e a c h e r who had a b a c h e l o r ' s d e g r e e and had c o m p l e t e d t h e a t t e n d a n c e requirements at a teacher t r a i n i n g i n s t i t u t i o n . A f t e r two y e a r s o f s u c c e s s f u l e x p e r i e n c e t h e i n t e r i m c e r t i f i c a t e c o u l d b e made permanent on t h e i n s p e c t o r ' s recommendation.  4 2  Table Ontario  Secondary  Teachers  in  3  School  (1900-1920)  Teachers  High School and 1nst i t u t e s  Collegiate  Teachers  in  Schools*  Percentage  of  Year  Percentage of University Graduates  1900  75.3  69. 1  1910  73.5  62.7  13.0  1920  73.1  63.7  21 . 9  Source:  Ontario, P.  Report  of  .bid.,  210;  Percentage of Graduate Spec i a l i s t s  th . M I n r P  1900,  s  t  versity  Uni-  Graduates  4.6  e  r  o  Eduction  f  ,899  ibid.,  198;  Con-  tinuation  •»*  1 9 0 1 , pp.60-66; i b i d . , 1 9 0 9 , p p . 6 0 , 277-289; ibid PP. V I M , 3 2 4 - 3 4 8 ; i b i d . , 1 9 1 9 , p p . 315 352ibid' PP. 3 6 , 4 0 , 1 9 0 ; i b i d . , 1 9 2 1 , P P ? 8 5 . 87-8 ' Notes:  The  continuation  that  were  W.G.  established  Fleming,  (Toronto:  Certificates. in  Unlike  the  teachers  in  percentage became  high  teachers  to  spend  graduates  qual i f i ed.  in  high  continuation of  To  least  such  a  in  but  schools  these  of  and  were  First  in  collegiate  graduates.  schools  the  increased  secondary  Class  school  years  schools.  1972). p.69. of  16%  normal  schools  elementary  a certificate  six  1920,  Preoccupation  Press,  were  secure  schools in  at  year  secondary  : Ontario's Toronto  had  1900  rural  extensions  teachers  and  school  in  of  School  teachers  required  as  were  Education  University  Continuation school  schools  1910,  Public a  and  high  four school  institutes, However, as  School  teacher  more  was  years in  few  the teachers  1920.  43  1.30  Changes  : The  The  1.31  The total was  Number  number  high  on  Biology of  of  school  academic  attended  high  utilitarian  0871-1920)  Pupils  Biology  biology  Pupils  students  enrolment.  studies  school.  emphasis  By was  I87I  In  only  r e f l e c t e d the  one  when  the  emphasis  t w e n t y - f i f t h of  t h e end  of  the  perceptible  numbers  the  in  in  the  the  possible  schools pupils  f i f t y - y e a r p e r i o d , when  in education  and when  a  agriculture  123 (see the  Chap pupil  rolment  1,  p.32-)  enrolment  (Appendix  The who  .  number  chose  of  pupils  high  school  physics place  showed  and  had  to o n e - f i f t h of  enrolled  total  1902,  subjects  been  introduced,  the p o s s i b l e  en-  H).  sciences  By  seven  increased  the  the  creased  had  study  1902,  students  commercial  to  to  second  and  the  chemistry  studying  physics  from zero  to  percent; while  in  are  the  shown  enrolment  highest third.  in  schools  Table  Also  doubled;in  by  biology, then  1877  three  biology  the  the  those  From  almost  with  1902,  and  4.  increased  enrolment,  f i f t y - t h r e e percent the  high  in  percentage  percentage  declined to  percentage  of  chemistry  students  portion was  pupils  introduced.  physics had  of  4 shows  had  almost  the equal  also  the changes  in  enrolment  and  taking For  the  largest  a l l  sciences  latter  part  after of  the  the  thirtydecreased  p r o p o r t i o n whi1e b i o l o g y  proportions.  the  pro-  curriculum  1904  period  in  (1904-1920)  and  of  in-  siightly. Table  fold.  chemistry  44  Table Ontario  Secondary  School  Enrolment  in  PHYSICS Total Enrolment i n High School  Year  Number Enrol led  4 Science  Subjects,  1877-1920  CHEMISTRY  Percentage o f Total High School Enrolment  BIOLOGY"  Percentage o f Total High School Enrolment  Number En r o l 1 e d  Percentage of Total High School Enrolment  Number E n r o l 1ed  -  _  1877  9229  2168  23.5  2547  27.6  1882  12348  2880  23.3  2522  20.4  1887  17459  5265  30.2  3411  19.5  4640  26.6  1892  22837  6601  28.9  3710  16.2  6189  27.1  1897  24390  11002  45.1  5489  22.5  12892  52.9  1902  24472  12758  52.1  5860  23.9  9051  37.0  190?  30331  23421  77.2  15064  49.7  15,572  51.3  1912  39840  30794  77.3  20520  51.5  21283  53.4  1917  37302  28196  75.6  18008  48.3  19340  51.8  1920  42052  31023  73.8  19039  45.3  19966  47.5  Sources:  Ontario, p.  Report  xxxviii;  Statistics, Notes:  *  Accounting  and at  of  the how  have  the  Annual  Minister  of  Canada,  Survey  of  of  Education,  Dominion  Education,  1910,  Bureau  of  1931-34,  B e f o r e 1907 e n r o l m e n t i n b o t a n y o n l y i s r e c o r d e d studied zoology. From 1907 o n e n r o l m e n t i n b o t h zoology are included. Continuation  those  of  Dominion  -  for  demography,  school  these  changes  economics,  nature  of  society  changes  in  educational  influenced  the  enrolment  changes  in  involves  the  itself.  was  many  structure In  practice  this  not  variables content the  particularly  enrolment.  47-48.  as v e r y few b o t a n y and  available.  and  paper  pp.  including of  author in  schooling looks  science  only  could  One was  the  possible change  reason  in  for  t h e method  a mathematical  treatment of  approach  demonstration  using  mathematical in  concepts.  enrolment,  the  change.  years nature  of  physics,  the  the  the  the  teaching  physics  was  this  declined  have  occurred  increase  did  that  year  a more  descriptive  problems the  a  or  year  with increase  two  after  take  place  until  factors  other  than  involved.  enrolment.  physics  caused  not  Hence  been  by  fewer  new a p p r o a c h  have  in  and  in  In  1887-  replaced  innovation. must  enrolment  in  experiments  large  instruction  increased  should  curriculum  chemistry  of  If  increase  However,  after  the  This  In  may  contrast  have  been  ten the to  primarily  125 due  to  difficulties  The  change  ficant.  of  organization  enrolment  When b o t a n y  examination marked  in  in  was  plants,  interest  to  management  biology  introduced  it  the  in  and  in  (largely  of  botany)  l880's  the  laboratories.  with  is its  illustrated s c i e n t i f i c enquiry  pupils.  However,  by  may  lost  direct  and was  taxonomy  1902  signi-  was  of.  being  12£ stressed. rolment  Hence  declined.  lationship The an  between  data  increase  that  can  pupils  have  One  might  the  content  taught  5 show  considerable  in T a b l e  in  be  many  enrolment  accounted  in  for  postulate  Grade  by  that and  9 and  biology  interest  this  and  the  illustrates  en-  a  re-  There  was  enrolment.  10  being  variations. biology  from  compulsory  to  1900  for  1910  most  127 students  after  proportion difficult  of to  In  1904. pupils  addition,  taking  account  for  upper  this;  t h e r e was  school  however,  an  increase  biology  in  1910.  t h e r e was  a  need  in It  at  the is  this  1 28 time  for  It  is  by  some  elementary  noteworthy students  teachers  also  that  as  subject  a  by  whose 1920, for  training  included  a g r i c u l t u r e was study.  biology. being  selected  46  Table 5  Source;  Ontario, Provincial Archives of Ontario Inspectors' Reports, 18 0. i b i d . , 1 00; 9  l  3 2 0  ?o,  ' L °, ,b, :l°' ^° d n  *~'  '911,  Note:  6 ;  ta  P  rt  9  o  ! -rWT, p . b b ; A  p. x v . . ;  Continuation  I b  ,d.,  school  f  "i"?ster i b i d . , 1901, t  h  e  1921, p p . 1 1 5 ,  enrolment  (PAO) , H i g h S c h o o l i b i d . , 1910; i b ° d o f E d u c a t i o n . 1878, pp. v l l i ; ibid!,  178-9, 2 1 1 , 240.  was mi s s i n g .  An in  earlier  biology  decline  to  in  be  the  with  found  school  in  was  biology  biology  association may  attempt  made  from  emphasis  changes  relate  curriculum.  enrolment  the  to  that  on  a change  This  1897  to  noted  1902  taxonomy.  were  was  in  (Table  enrolment in  the  3)  and  However,  the  in  areas  occurring  other  its  explanation of  the  curriculum.  For  example,  training  were  in  begun  the in  1871-1920,  period  urban  secondary  commercial  schools,  so  and  that  technical  by  1914,  12Q courses  in  Pupils  likely  rather  1.32  than  Many  ment  1890  1  of  to  Education trained 6  the  shows  period  the  business  larger and  'practical'  Elementary  School  (h0%) w h o a t t e n d e d h i g h  was  because  a  as  elementary  required at  that  " f a c u l t i e s " of the  to  in  in  cities.  industry  subjects  biology.  qualify  botany  established  careers  Prospective  people  so  in  attracted  academic  young  s did  Table the  been  for  pupils,  botany  for  to  were w e l l  interested  have  Biology  these  subjects  who w e r e  would  and  these  botany  1871-1903-  course  time  it  school  school  was  for  thought and  in  the  teachers.  prescribed  observation  requirements  Teachers  by a  1^0  the study  l88o!s For Departof  reasoning.  prospective  teachers  Table Botany  1st  Year"  6  R e q u i r e m e n t , by Grades, Teaching C e r t i f i c a t e s  Class  Teaching  Class  2nd  Cert i f i cate  f o r Elementary  School  (1871-1903) Teaching  3rd C l a s s  Cart if i cate  1871  X  X  X  _  X  X  X  X  X  1876  X  X  X  X  -  -  -  -  -  1885 I89I 18 6  X  X  X  X  X  0 0  X  0  X  X  X  X  -  X  0  X  1903  X  -  X  0  X  Grade in high school  9  10 1 112  Sources:  A.G. Croal , "The History  9  Ontario Toronto, Minister Note:  X *  **  :  1800-1900",  "0"  Teaching  C e r t i f i cate-'-'-'  0 0  X  X  "o  xo  X  -  xo  X  -  9 10 11  9  10 1 1  -  o f t h e Teaching  xo  of Science  in  Dissertation, University of 1940), pp.85-86, 164, 169; O n t a r i o , R e p o r t o f t h e o f E d u c a t i o n , 1885, p p . 3 0 - 3 2 .  Obligatory;  The year selected ments o c c u r r e d .  (Doctoral  0 were  :  Optional; those  -  at which  :  Not Offered,  changes  in require-  The T h i r d Class Teaching C e r t i f i c a t e was o b t a i n e d by success at an e x a m i n a t i o n f o r e n t r a n c e t o a n d t r a i n i n g i n a Model School. Two y e a r s o f h i g h s c h o o l t r a i n i n g w e r e n e e d e d f o r this certificate until I898 w h e n a n y c a n d i d a t e f o r t e a c h e r t r a i n i n g r e q u i r e d a J u n i o r L e a v i n g C e r t i f i c a t e (Grade 1 1 ) . O n t a r i o , R e p o r t o f t h e M i n i s t e r o f E d u c a t i o n , I898, p . 7 1 . Some z o o l o g y w a s i n c l u d e d of biology."  in the topic  " t h e scope  and aims  The  data  later  years  Teaching botany that of  show when  botany  courses  difficulty  The  supposition  difficulties the  with  this  that  difficulties needed  possible  more  in  that  the  courses  at  times  the  respond  see  taxonomic  e f f i c a c y of  Chap.  botany  Class of  this  of 1,  by  also  as  a  reduced  with  number  of  that the  their  Department  criticism  on  botany  were  removed  consistent,  respond  to  the  involved, of  expressed of  But  including  minds  teachers  and  came  of  their  when  number  to  Department  is  the  pupils'  Education  the  examination  and  taxonomy.  noting  Certificates.  for  the  It  trainer  demand  Class  certificates  specimens  reducing  was  First  c r i t i c i s m of  p.J'j) .  the  speculate  the  example,  the  Teaching  causes  botany  Some o f  to  For  and that  i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of aspects  to  Department  evidence  o f f i c i a l s would  First  between  teachers  the  in  t i m e when  tempting  required  is  a  teachers,  adjustments.  (1399,  a complex  teachers.  There  practical  for  school  at  for  Teaching  prospective  of  did  is  Class  requested  practical  the  It  First  high  botany  required  relationship  by  particularly  appeared  taxonomy,  making  students  therefore,  about  by  were  decline  for  the  request.  the  examinations,  botany  that  officials  of  most  is  varied,  courses  taxonomy.  experienced  administration made  This  required  number  to  Education  for  botany  a cause/effect  the  was  fewer  requirements  emphasized  t h e r e was  acceded  the  Certificates.  courses  reduce  that  the from  courses it  is  also  concerns need  for  the  131 Canadian  prairies  However  the  courses  required  in  actual  the  reason  for  early for  part the  elementary  of  the  reduction  teachers  is  twentieth of not  the  century.  number  known.  of  in  botany  A  new e m p h a s i s  Grade  9 and  train  prospective  general  10  This  subject  This  was  was  they  science  elementary given  supported  because  appeared  saw  by  it  a  as  dwellers.  viewed  it  being  in w h i c h  as  the  child  in is  was  teachers  prominent  The  latter  in  the  their  the  in  nature  elementary  the  study.  former  for  program  the because  educational  learning  to  schools.  the  environment  supported  of-  specifically  educators","  rural  with  centre of  introduction  instruct  place  accordance  the  to  some  the  designed  and'View  providing  urban  with  1904  that  agrarians  deprived ;  in  they  philosophy  situation  "as  the  132 sun  is  the  the  "new  the  environment  vator,  centre  of  educators" as  the he  Through  a  useful  stock  of  of In  mentary  to  school  training including  was  active  model,  his  a  According  c h i l d was the  considered  elementary  arranging the  the  to  teacher  acted and  believed  positive  the  view  interact  environment  c h i l d was  r e p e r t o i r e of  to  to  of  with  as  moti-  so  aiding  build  attitudes  and  up a  knowledge.  give  appropriate  teachers  provided  training  system."  responses,  skills,  desirable order  solar  learned;  i n t e r p r e t e r and  learning.  store  the  in  who w e r e  in^the  high  botany  and  backgrounds to  instruct  school zoology  for in  prospective  nature  study  general  science  as  as  well  elespecial  course,  physics  and  T h e new e d u c a t o r s s u c h a s J a m e s L . H u g h e s , , T o r o n t o ' s Chief. I n s p e c t o r o f P u b l i c S c h o o l s , (1874-1913) s t r e s s e d child a c t i v i t i e s as i n k i n d e r g a r t e n s . . R o b e r t M. Stamp,", Evolving P a t t e r n s o f E d u c a t i o n : E n g l i s h C a n a d a f r o m t h e 1870'sto 1914*' in Canadian E d u c a t i o n : A H i s t o r y e d s . J . Donald W i l s o n and o t h e r s , . ' ( S c a r b o r o u g h , O n t . : P r e n t i c e - H a l 1 ' o f C a n a d a , 1970), p p . 318-320.  51  chemistry. with  the  This  training  teacher  providing findings  simply  secondary were  then  emphasized  directing  sources  of  discussed  individual  the  pupil's  information.  and  organized  investigations,  observations The  into  and  student's recognized  >.  1 33 principles were  to  be  fifteen  used,  (Grade  fully  as  was  very  can  be  9  and  by  of  the  end  of  the  similar  to  that  that  to  period  in which  the  this  have  were  young  method  pupils  assumed  (see  method  Chap.  of  methodology  the  and a  this  prospective  immature of  in  to  thought  p.2$).  instructing  remained  effective.  for  level  1,  training  been  training  came when  this  the  As  should  too  teachers  study.  training  the  age  it  observing  the  that  study,  prospective  nature  after  teen  the  of  students)  i t , and  nature  way  teachers  that  10  many  this  argued  criticism directed  teachers  1,h0  think  Rogers  from  possessed  until  In  years, contended  profit  the  it  Inspector  teachers  of  to  experience  However,  not  biology.  encouraged  learning was  of  In  spite  prospective  operation  (1920).  Summary  DuF-ing both While fold  general the it  to  and  biological of  for  taxonomy  examination  of of  1871-1920  Grades and,  teaching plants  directed  to  several  pupils  (1/5 9  and  biology  the  of  in  10  Ontario  possible  changed to  changed  from  environment.  been  high  noted  five  students).  in  human  finally  The  physiology,  general  textbook  in  schools.  increased  from  biology  i d e n t i f i c a t i o n and  natural  have  attending  the  eventually  for  changes  education  possible  a minority  program  methods  activities  in  s t i l l  botanical  Also,  period  proportion  was  biological to  the  science.  assignments, to  pupil  52  References  1.  for  Robert  M.  The  Chapter  Stamp,  "Education  English-Canadian  Canadian  Education  (Scarborough, 2.  Neil  J.  in  Education  and  eds.  Paul  H.  York  University  Donald p.  226;  Upper Robert  Canada M.  Create  Social  "The  1870's  , eds.  J.  and  and  : Themes Michael  Ryerson  Social  Milieu:  to  1914,"  in  Donald  Wilson  others,  p.  292.  Race'  :  School  1884-1914,"  in  from O n t a r i o ' s Katz,  and  1970),  Healthy  B.  (New  Past,  York:  New  p.133.  Years  in  eds.  H o d g i ns , ed Vol.  and  Canada.  Movement,  1975),  "Evolving  of  Strong  : A History  (D.H.E.)  Stamp,  a  Health  Change  Press,  George  Economic the  Prentice-Hall  Public  Education J.  the  from  : A History  Mattingly  Wilson,  Canadian  4.  the  and  Scene  Ont.:  Sutherland,'"To  Children  3.  1  Canada J.  West,"  Donald  Documentary  in  Wilson  Hi s t o r y  and  of  others,  E d u c a t i on  i n  22:~~?96~;  Patterns  of  Education  : English  Canada  from the l 8 7 0 ' s to 1914," in Canadian Education : A H i s t o r y , e d s . J . D o n a l d W i l s o n and o t h e r s , ( S c a r b o r o u g h Ont. :Prentice-Ha11 o f C a n a d a , 1970) , p. 323. 5. 6.  Ontario,  Report  Ontario,  8.  Robert The  R.M.E.,  M.  p.  Stamp,  of  Education  (R.M.E.),  1878,  p.16.  A.G.  xviii.  "Education  Education  Croal,  "The  p p . 55-56. 10.  Ibid.  11.  Ibid.  12.  Thomas in  p.  1899,  and  Society  the from  Economic the  : A History,eds.  and  1870's  J.  Donald  Social to  Milieu  1914,"  Wilson  :  in  and  others,  294.  1900,"(Doctoral  14.  Minister  English-Canadian  Canadian  13.  the  Ibid.  7.  9.  of  H.  Huxley,  Croal,  op.  History  285.  the Teaching  Science  and  c i t . , p.  56~!  ; Hodgins, J . George, ed. C a n a d a ( D . H . E . ) ' . 1870, I b i d . , p.  of  Dissertation,  of  University  Education  Science of  Essays  Documentary H i s t o r y V o l . 22: 284-287.  of  in  Ontario  Toronto,  p.  88,as  Education  1800-  1940),  quoted In  Upper  53 15.  Canada and i t s P r o v i n c e s ,  V o l . 18; 381 as quoted i n C r o a l ,  op. c i t . , p. 56. 16.  Hodgins,  D. H, E. , V o l . 23: 111,  17. 18.  I b i d . , V o l . 25: 244-5. C r o a l , op. c i t . , p. 79-  112.  19. ' b i d . 20.  C r o a l , op. c i t . , p. 166.  21.  O n t a r i o , R.M.E., 1887, p. 74;  H.B. S p o t t o n , Canada School  Journal  (I878), p. 131, as quoted i n C r o a l , op. c i t . , p. 166. 22.  C r o a l , op. c i t . , p.195-  23.  C r o a l , op. c i t . , p. I69.  2k.  O n t a r i o , R.M.E., 1906, p. 65.  25.  C r o a l , op. c i t . , p. 80.  26.  Ibid.  27.  I b i d . , p. 61.  28.  I b i d . , p. 80; Hodgins, op. c i t . , V o l . 23: 98.  29.  O n t a r i o E d u c a t i o n a l A s s o c i a t i o n (O.E.A.) Yearbook, 1887, pp. 174-175.  30.  O n t a r i o , R.M.E., 1887, p. 175.  31•  O.E.A. Yearbook, 1901, p. 17.  32.  O n t a r i o , R.M.E.,  33-  C r o a l , op. c i t . , p. 174.  34.  Ibid.  35.  Ibid.  36.  Ibid.  37.  I b i d . , p. 63.  38.  I b i d . , p. 174.  1904, p. 92.  54  39-  O n t a r i o , Education Department, Regulations of the Educat ion Department r e s p e c t i n g p u b ! i c and h i g h s c h o o l s and c o l l e g i a t e institutes 1885, ( T o r o n t o : E d u c a t i o n D e p a r t m e n t , 1-885); O n t a r i o E d u c a t i o n Department, Regular, ions r e s p e c t i n g t e a c h e r s ' c e r t i f i c a t e s and c o u r s e s o f study in high s c h o o l s and c o l l e g i a t e i n s t i t u t e s ( T o r o n t o : E d u c a t i o n D e p a r t m e n t , 1883); O n t a r i o , R . M . E . , l"8~96, p p . 98-103; a n d C r o a l , o p . c i t . , p p . 80, 171.  40.  Asa Gray,  k] .  J o h n M a c o u n a n d H e n r y B . S p o t t o n , T h e E1 e r h e n t s o f S t r u c t u r a l Botany w i t h S p e c i a l Reference t o the Study of Canadian P l a n t s ( T o r o n t o : W . J . Gage, 18JST.  42.  Ontario,  43.  Croal,  kk.  O.E.A. Yearbook,  1897,  p. 148.  45.  Ontario,  1900,  p.  46.  Croal, op. c i t . ,  p . 176;  47.  Ontario,  1896,  48.  A.  How P l a n t s  R.M.E.,  1887,  o p . c i t . , p.  R.M.E.,  R.M.E.,  Nicholson, and  Son,  50.  Ramsay W r i g h t ,  51.  Croal,  52.  Buel1  P.  54.  Ibid.  55.  l b i d . o , p.  74.  253.  Ontario,  pp.  R.M.E.,  1904, p p . 159-160.  98-103.  of Natural  History  (London:  William  Black  Clark,  1889)-  178.' School  Zoology  (Toronto:  Copp  Zoology,  Descriptive  and P r a c t i c a l  (Toronto:  loc. c i t .  181.  Yearbook,  1887,  op. c i t . ,  p . 177; O n t a r i o , R . M . E . , 1887, pp. 1 7 5 - 1 7 6 . l 896-„ p p . 96-103-  Ontario, 'R;M.E,v,. ;  Ibid.,  1963).  I896) .  Clark,  Croal,  59.  High  Colton,  53.  Croal,  Phinney,  loc. c i t .  Copp  57. 58.  p.  Iveson,  1875) •  C r o a l , o p . c i t . , p.  O.E.A.  (New Y o r k :  172.  Outline  49.  56.  Grow  1904,  pp.  p.25.  ;  159-160. -  55  60.  Ibid.,  61.  Ibid.  62.  I b i d . , p. x v i i i .  63.  B e t t e d e l G i o r n o , " T h e Impact o f C h a n g i n g S c i e n t i f i c Knowledge on S c i e n c e E d u c a t i o n i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s s i n c e 1850," ( D o c t o r a l D i s s e r t a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y o f C o n n e c t i c u t , 1967-) p. 2 2 ; Paul de Hart Hurd, B i o l o g i c a l Education in American Secondary S c h o o l s 1890-1960 B S C S S t u d y B u l l e t i n , N o . 1 , • ERI-C '  ED  64.  1904,  pp.  1 4 7 - 1 5 1 , 159-160.  010991, 1961, p . 2 2 .  Ontario,  R.M.E.,  1904, p. 136.  65.  Ibid.  66.  Ibid.,  67.  I b i d . , 1904, p. x v i i i ; O n t a r i o , D e p a r t m e n t o f E d u c a t i o n , September E x a m i n a t i o n s , 1909, E n t r a n c e t o Normal School,Biology P r a c t i c a l ; i b i d . , E n t r a n c e t o Model Schools.  68.  Ibid.,  R.M.E.,  69.  Ibid.,  1919, p p . 3 8 - 3 9 .  70.  Ibid.,  1904, p. 136.  71 .  Ibid.,  1910,  72.  Ibid.,  1919, p p . 3 8 - 3 9 .  73.  Ibid.,  1905, p p . 120-121 .  74.  Ontario,  1904,  147-151, 159-161.  1904, p. 136.  pp.  404-405.  Department  Teachers 75.  pp.  of Education,  A Manual  of Suggestions f o r  o f S c i e n c e , 1910.  Ibid.  76.  Ontario,  R.M.E.,  77.  Hodgins,  D.H.E. , V o l . 22:  78.  Alonzo  J . M a d . i l 1,  (Toronto:  79.  Ibid.,  80.  Egerton  pp.  History  University  284. of Agricultural  of Toronto  128-129.  Ryerson,  1870).  1919, pp. 3 8 - 3 9 .  First  Lessons  Press,  Education  in Ontario  1930),  127.  in Agriculture  p.  (Toronto:  Copp  Clark,  56  81.  Croal,  8?..  R y e r s o n , op.  83.  Stamp,  84.  Charles  85.  Madtl 1 , op.  86.  Douglas  op.  op. C.  pp. 133—135 -  c i t . ,  c i t . , p.  190.  c i t . , p. James,  322.  Agriculture  c i t . , p.  Lawr,  G.C.  Morang,  I8.89).  130.  "Development  1870-1910," 203.  (Toronto:  (Doctoral  of  Agricultural  Dissertation,  Education  University  of  in  Ontario  Toronto,  1972),  p. 87.  Ibid.  88.  Ibid.  89.  Ibid.,  90.  Ibid.  91.  92.  p.  186.  J . B . Dandeno, " A g r i c u l t u r a l E d u c a t i o n G a z e t t e , 11: 53, J a n u a r y - F e b r u a r y , o p . c i t . , p . 154. The  University op.  of  c i t . , p.  Toronto  Ontario,  94.  Mad-Ill, o p . c i t . ,  95.  Ibid.,  p.  133.  96.  Ibid.,  pp.  134-135;  97.  Mad  98.  Ibid.,  99.  Ontario,  111,  op.  pp.  1904,  pp.  143-147; Mad-Ill,  Lawr,  op.  c i t . , pp.  136.  136-137.  op.  1914,  c i t . , p.  pp.  337-343.  100.  Madill,  101 .  Ibid.,  102.  Hodgins,  D.H.E.,  Vol.  22:  284.  103.  Ontario,  R.M.E.,  1884,  p.  187-  pp.  81-82,  as  quoted  op.  by  c i t . , p.  p p . 131-132.  c i t . , p.  R.M.E.,  ;  Lawr,  129.  93.  R.M.E.,  1906,  in O n t a r i o , " Agricultural 1 924, a s q u o t e d b y L a w r ,  138.  139-140.  125-126.  130.  57  104.  Ibid.,  105.  Ibid.  1 9 1 0 , p.  106.  The a u t h o r ' s  107.  Ontario.R.M.E.,  108.  Ibid.,  109.  Ibid.  110.  Ibid.  111.  Ibid.  112.  George  373.  opinion  a  1 9 1 0 , p.  1914, pp.  A.  as  result  of  his  experience.  368.  308-310.  Cornish,  Laboratory  Accommodation  in  Continuation  and High S c h o o l s and C o l l e g i a t e I n s t i t u t e s (Toronto: Kings' P r i n t e r , 1915), Department of E d u c a t i o n , O n t a r i o E d u c a t i o n a l Pamphlet No. 9. 113.  Stamp,  o p . c i t . , p.  324.  114.  Croal,  o p . c i t . , p.  83.  115.  Ontario,  R.M.E.,  1 8 8 7 , p.  116.  Hodgins,  D.H.E.,  Vol.  117.  Croal,  118.  Ontario,  119-  Robin H a r r i s , Quiet E v o l u t i o n Press, 1967), pp. 70-74.  op. c i t . , R.M.E.,  p.  27:201. 87.  1902, pp. 208.  120.  Ibid.  121.  Croal,  122.  C h a r l e s E. P h i l l i p s , ( T o r o n t o : W . J . Gage,  123.  Stamp,  o p . c i t . , p.  124.  Croal,  op. c i t . , pp.  125.  Ibid.  126.  Ibid.,  o p . c i t . , p.  pp.  175.  172-173,  68; Lawr,  (Calculation  (Toronto:  303.  78-82.  195.  University  o p . c i t . , p.  The Development 1957) , p. 590.  of  from  staff of  lists).  Toronto  86.,  Education  in  Canada  58  127.  Ontario,  128.  Ibid.,  1909,  129.  Stamp,  loc. c i t .  130.  Lawr,  131.  Ontario,  132.  Richard  D.  Heyman,  Studies  in  Educational  R.M.E. . p.  19Q4,  Ontario,  R.M.E.,  P-  v i .  154.  1909,  Robert  1972), p.32.  133.  91,  Vi.  o p . c i t . , p. R.M.E.,  p.  1904,  F.  Change  p p . 92,  Lawson,  and Robert  (Toronto:  136.  Holt,  M.  Stamp,  Rinehart  and  Winston,  59  Chapter  BIOLOGY  EDUCATION  2  IN A P E R I O D O F E X P A N D I N G  ENROLMENT  (I92I-I96O)  2.00  l-ntroduct ion  The  period  secondary 17  rate  by more  t h e 1920s,  than  biology  of social  Second  World  a rapid  school  enrolment .again  exerting  and economic  t h e.1930's  school H).  was l e s s  effect  by  However, t h e rapid  in the  This  i n -  on t h e development  an influence  t h e r e was a  t h e 1920',s p r o v i d e d  a depression.;'  War and i t s a f t e r m a t h ;  rose  enrolment i n -  i n t h e 1950s.  conditions:  brought  in  population  „. (Appendix  had a s i g n i f i c a n t Also,  increase  Ontario's  the 'secondary  b u t i t expanded  education.  prosperity;  While  100 p e r c e n t  in high  in enrolment  variety of  during  a n d 1940s  crease  began w i t h  enrolment.  o f increase  1930s  of  school  percent  creased  1921-1960  t h e 1940's  a n d t h e 1950s was a  wide  a period  had t h e  period'of  readjustment. In  this  education  2.10  chapter,  during  The Context  General together  that  the author  the period  traces  t h e changes  in  of  expanding  enrolment  of Biological  Education  in the Period  education changes  and b i o l o g i c a l , in general  education  education  biology  (1921-1960).  a r e so  frequently  (1921-1960)  bound entail  60  alterations  in  chapter  begins  against  which  2.11  Ontario, student i  period  among  attended  Rural  iii  pupil iv  on  the  education  secondary  school:  were  were  was  Secondary  for  general  education,  Education  were  introduced  the  compulsory  special  available  of  the  focused.  increased  made  afforded  made  be  innovations  following  reason  this,  background  Extending  educative  education  For  can  them t h e  pupils  Diplomas  biology.  Arrangements  Secondary  ii  in  statements  biological  this  and  program  with  Innovative  During  a  the  length  to  age  of  in time  16;  opportunities;  different  levels  of  development;  Reductions  were  made  in  the  number  of  departmental  exami-  nations. Each  of  these  innovative  changes  is  discussed  in  the  following  pages.  i  Compulsory  In  1919  Adolescent \k t o  16  Attendance  H.J.  Attendance  years.  the workers  Cody,  He  needed  Minister  Act  which  stated for  of  Education,  raised  that  the  industry.'  the  introduced  school  purpose Possibly  of  leaving  the  for  act  this  the age  was  to  reason,  from train young  2 people was high  already  passed school  rolment that  the  in  working 1919,  fees  increase  farms  i t was  were  increased.  on  due  Grant, to  exempt.  enforced  abolished.  R.H. was  not  were  the  Soon the  Although  until after  Minister  attendance  1921 its of  act.  at  the  which  time  all  implementation,  en-  Education,  3  legislation  However,  asserted F.P.  Gavin,  a  high  had  school  begun  before  historian, was  not  their  compulsory  children  was  the  contended  competitive it  principal,  First that  World the  that  increased  high  school  War.  Robert  Stamp,  the  real  attendance,  reason  but  the  of  high  a combination  school  of  for  the  desire  a c o n t r o l l e d environment  advantages  really  claimed  for  of  parents  citizenship  which  Canadian  increased  education.^  factors  attendance  It  to  enrolment secure  training  seems  contributed  to  and  likely the  for the  that  increased  attendance.  ii  Improved  While 1920's  near The  urban  the  secondary a  pupils  of  until  high  of  for  secondary  enrolment  town  cost  Opportunities  school  pupils the  school  boarding  Secondary  or  was  attendance  in  late  School  rural  19^+0' s  attending  a  prohibitive  increased  areas had  was  in  in  low.  Rural  the  continuation  many,  while  Areas  early  Rural  two a 1 t e r n a t i v e s ,  rural  for  Education  the  boarding  school. continuation  6 school  afforded In  the  appointed  a  t r a i n i n g which  early  by  the  19^0 s  Department  improvement  of  the  high  districts  small  continuation  accepted  by  districts  the had  largely  Inspectors  1  the  school  was  rural  of  be  Rendall  Education  secondary  to  and  make  education.  enlarged  to  schools  be  closed.^  Department  of  Education.  a  population  school  academic.  include  rural  areas  resulting  least  for  recommended  recommendation  The at  were  recommendations  They  This  of  Dutton  300  high  that  and  that  was school  pupils  and  g assessments  of  at  larger  units  former  Superintendent  District, enlarged  of  least  1 million dollars.  a d m i n i s t r a t i o n were of  St. bring  pointed  Catharines  who  helped  to  about  high  school  districts:  A  Some a d v a n t a g e s  the  and  out  by  Lincoln  formation  district  high  Frederick High of  school  of  these  W.  Harvie,  Schools one could  of  the  offer  a  variety  of  Moreover, would  options the  have  guidance remote  personnel  province  of  had  secondary  increase  iii  in  income  high  was  some in  pupil  of  to  bus  made  small  noted  for  so  most  following  by  in  the  the  teaching  for  pupils  from  percent  of  up-to-date  rural  pupils.'^  closing  central for  of  high his  1)  staff,  that  the  author  biology.  (Appendix  seventy-five  districts  classes  school  districts  a competent  1948,  possible  enlarged  upper  transportation  classes  was  school hire  By  school  and  or  only  a diploma  on  In  1939,  a  solely the  Graduation  competence  those  university  interested  of  reached  a  by  10,  in  gaining  was  was  thus  It  was  Certificate  and  was  called  a  given  accepted for  by  the  The  continuation  school.  upper  all  acknowledging  Such  school  the  awarded  on  at  the  the  Grade  into  level  of  But,  the  as  adult  also  This a  13 w a s  In  addition,  recognized  by  in the  1942,  the  work  awarding  of  an  force.  accomplishment his  Education  successful  High  measure  of  compulsory Intermediate  the  high  school  12 principal.  1921,  successfully  of  recommendation  in  could  12.''  community  completion of  Department  teacher's  education  students a  a  diplomas.  of  the  entering to  toward  general  completion  issued  sixteen-year-old  schooling.  working  entrance were  preparedness  certificate Grade  students  successful  Diploma  and  completing  Grade  the  Diplomas  1921,  certificate  School  enlarged  provide  numbers  Provision  earn  the  music  classes.  Before  a  shop work,  district.  education of  as  tax  and  the  resulted  biology  of  enlarged  transference  an  boards  sufficient  parts  schools  such  completion  Honour  of  Graduation  13  Diploma. at a  three series  These  By  of  of  points  end  diplomas  students  iv  Reduction  In  by  was  was  pupils,  Chief  seen  days  of  one  every  by  and  of  other  of  and a  12  his  mark  issued  and  goals  sequence  13,  for  on  schooling  the  educational  Public  part  the  Schools,  a  pupils. to  help  pupil's  set  and  departmental  early  civilized  provided  Examinations  This  Toronto  so  levels.  officials.  As  and  incentives  examinations  Ontario  diplomas  individual  of  educational  secondary  inspectors.-  of  10,  Departmental  Ontario  Education  parents  provide  of  Education  Grade  appropriate  of  feature  of  schooling  to  their  determined  Inspector  behind  for  Numbers  early  Department  routine  were  in  Department  achievement:  reach  the  standing  the  levels  all  by  1942  as  commented:  world  in  examination  system  1913,  graded  criticized  James ".  our  .  L.  Hughes,  . we  are  reverence  for  14 examinations." removed:  In  science,  was  the  Gradually  1904,  promotion  possible  elimination of  this in  without  more  pupils  1  7  The  departmental  to  make  reduction use  of  lower  to  of  the  the  school  departmental  and 1 2 . ' ^ Thereafter a l l high G r a d e 13 , w e r e g r a n t e d o n t h e principals.  burden  "average"  subjects,  pupil  including  examinations.^  examinations  was  was  extended  By to  1940  Grades  school c e r t i f i c a t e s , except those recommendation of the high school the  examination  secondary  hurdles  school  11  in  encouragi  opportunities  E x e m p t i o n f r o m w r i t i n g G r a d e 13 d e p a r t m e n t a l e x a m i n a t i o n s w a s possible d u r i n g t h e S e c o n d W o r l d War f o r a s t u d e n t who l e f t s c h o o l e a r l y i n h i s f i n a l school year. Such a s t u d e n t was r e q u i r e d t o have been regular in attendance, successful in h i s y e a r s work and have e n l i s t e d in t h e armed s e r v i c e s , o r h a v e been e m p l o y e d on a f a r m o r i n a f o o d industry. A s t u d e n t who o b t a i n e d h i s s t a n d i n g by w o r k i n g had t o p r e s e n t a s t a t e m e n t f r o m h i s e m p l o y e r t h a t h e w a s e m p l o y e d f o r a t l e a s t 13 w e e k s . (Ontario, Report of the M i n i s t e r of Education, 1 42, p.2). 9  64  including  2.12  education  Expanding  During carried  was  conducted  gations  on  period  in  from  in  life  was  1927 the  Research  (1921-1960),  biological biology  carried  fold  biology.  Biological  this  was  in  out  to  increase  the  in  little  the  number  most  expectancy  of  investigation  research than  profound  by  research  extensive  increasing'more  Perhaps  life  although  total  the world  18  I960.  education  with  in  comparatively  eight  investifive  effect  years  on  for  human  men  and  19 by  twelve  years  biological Indeed., age  women  research  the  number  declined  1974.  for  by  made of  from  1931  possible  offspring  almost  one  to a  On  reduction  born  half  1961.  to  in  Ontario  between  the  the  the  birth  women  year  other  of  1951  hand,  rates.  child  bearing  and  2 0  In  contrast  the  high  school  and  less i  of  challenging  teacher  the  biology  issues:  there  physical  of  from be  two  science  first  two y e a r s  Which  is  of  better  problems was  of  the  faced with  research  more  biologist,  commonplace  ,  Umbe11iferae,  eliminated  Should  iii  the  fundamental Should  or ii  to  the  Labiatae  Grade  13  and  high  Gramineae  school  courses  of  general  and  of  biological  high  one  be  included 21  course?  science,  or  science,  a  course  in  the  school?  pedagogica11y,  a  laboratory  exercise  or  a  23 demonstration Educators courses  as  and  experiment?  biologists  out-dated,  criticized  unimaginative  and  the American stereotyped.  high They  school  biology  claimed  65  that  the  available  texts  promoted  the  memorization  of  names,  facts  Zh and  dates.  changes  Such  during  (.1961 -1978) 2.20  Changes  Grade  2.21  In in  and  In  was  to  the  not  development  until  were  the  next  of  some  period  introduced.  Biology  10  the  author  general  addition,  examines  science  changes the  author  educational  the  for in  curricula  Grades  relates  viewpoints  of  10 a n d  9,  education  and  textbooks in  13  discussed  the  curriculum  the  time  :  the  pre-  changes  to  progressivism  conservatism. Because  a  it  programs  agricultural  contrasting  and  but  led  Curriculum  section  the  viously. two  Biology  this  of  period,  innovative  9 and  biology  light  the  that  : The  dissatisfaction  new  the  course  cation  in  testing,  existing  of' study It  1921. but,  biology  was  course  prepared  included  surprisingly,  by  the  new c o n t e n t it  also  had  proved  Ontario and  unsatisfactory,  Department  methods  separated  biology  of  of  Edu-  teaching  into  and  botany  and  25 zoology, The  aim  pupil  a  the  1921  with  his  biological  believed  and to  topics  vegetative  The  the  of  observing  The  departure from  reasoning.  be  useful  included  to  the  reproduction  curriculum  exception,  botany  (see  proposed Chap.  general  and  science  zoology  approach  courses  was  environment  through  The  emphasized  the  content  individual  as  to  used  earlier.  acquaint  the  experimentation, biological  a student  and  methods  an  adult.  following:  control  of  of  plants,  orchard  practices,  reforestation,  George  Hofferd  (1932)  a  by  2 , p.7-1' ) •  weeds,  as  topics  was  of  notable  economic  uses  important  plants,  animals  26 mammals. London  of  fungi  among  the  Nevertheless,  (Ontario)  Normal  harmful  insects,  George  School,  to  crops,  game  amphibians,  Hofferd  reptiles,  (1932),  criticized  the  fish,  the  economically birds  Science  program  of  and  Master  1921  at  because  V it the  did  not  appeal  Ontario  to  course  morphology,  showed  modes  of  expense  of  in  processes".  had  life  their  things,  .  pupil  27  from  the  standpoint  cause  and  effect  Hofferd,  interest  .  were  they  commented:  [the c o u r s e ] , l a r g e l y  greatest .  He  that  life  investigating  interest.  in  less  interested  pure  maintained  and in  the  analysis  emphasized  which  that  life  at  the  function  :"[pupils]  history  morphology  of  description,  science,  relationships  moreover, ecology,  of  "The  and  of  living  least  in  28 classification".  Hofferd's  overall  assessment  was  that  the  1921 29  revision In  was 1937  too  general  out  the  was  j u s t i f i e d by  range  specialized  remainder  of  topics  of the  of  sciences  sciences  the  of  the  which  biology were  science examples of  follow  and  individual monstrations  reintroduced of  to a l l  revision was  for  and  over-emphasized  the  of  A).  To  the  course  to  the  The  program  investigations  and  on  the  they were  of  offer  time  for  wide  the  some  on  pupils'  laid  physical  topics of  retained. placed  biological  Several the  biology  ability  greater  use  of  projects,  and  to  be  c a r r i e d out  as  the  streamlining  understanding  the  a  biological  were  (1937)  reintroduction  study,  was  through-  e f f e c t i v e l y than  those  pupils  development  new  required,  of  emphasis  This  were  more  elementary  average  A).  the  an  retained  i t would  provide  Only  taxonomy.  was  Its  that  students  required.  and  study.  belief  (Appendix  (Appendix  reason.  was  period  essential  living  it  educators'  content  suitable  healthful  observe  1937  thought  and  the  interest  specialized in  science  and  stress when a  to on de-  cooperative  67  e f f o r t between t e a c h e r and p u p i l s . i n c l u d e d an e x p e r i m e n t a l  The t o p i c s o f p r a c t i c a l  interest  study o f b a c t e r i a , a c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f t h e  r e l a t i o n of b a c t e r i a to disease, a laboratory i n v e s t i g a t i o n of foods, an  i n f o r m a t i v e s c i e n t i f i c approach t o human p h y s i o l o g y and a d i s c u s s i o n  o f the balance o f n a t u r e . was  A d e t a i l e d study o f m o l l u s c s and f e r n s  o m i t t e d , and t h e r e was a r e d u c t i o n i n t h e emphasis on t a x o n o m y . ^ In s p i t e o f these r e v i s i o n s , t h e 1937 c u r r i c u l u m f a i l e d  up t o e x p e c t a t i o n s .  Two new d i f f i c u l t i e s a r o s e : F i r s t ,  t o come  the course  31  failed  t o arouse p u p i l  cation tried  interest,  so i n 1951 t h e Department o f Edu-  t o make t h e course more s t i m u l a t i n g by making some t o p i c s  o p t i o n a l and recommending t h e use o f motion p i c t u r e s , s l i d e s and f i l m 32  strips.  The second d i f f i c u l t y was caused by t h e inconveniences o f  implementing g e n e r a l s c i e n c e i n l a r g e r s c h o o l s which had s e p a r a t e l a b o r a t o r i e s f o r p h y s i c s , c h e m i s t r y and b i o l o g y but were not equipped for general science. presented  d i f f i c u l t i e s f o r many t e a c h e r s who were s p e c i a l i s t s  particular discipline. had  The g e n e r a l s c i e n c e program, i n a d d i t i o n , in a  For example, b i o l o g y s p e c i a l i s t s sometimes  t o teach a Grade 9 s c i e n c e course., which i n c l u d e d components which  r e q u i r e d s p e c i a l knowledge o f p h y s i c s o r c h e m i s t r y . veniences were reduced by r e v i s i o n s i n t h e c u r r i c u l u m , (Appendix A)  i n which t h e Grade 9 course  Such incon(1954)  included physical science 33  o n l y and t h e Grade 10 program c o n t a i n e d b i o l o g i c a l s c i e n c e s , d i v i s i o n o f t h e s c i e n c e s which c o n t i n u e d u n t i l 1 9 6 1 .  a  68  2.22  Grade 13 B i o l o g y  (Appendix B)  Changes were i n t r o d u c e d  i n 1921  i n an attempt t o cope w i t h the  needs o f the average p u p i l s i n Grade 9 and 10 b i o l o g y ; and c o r r e s ponding changes were made i n Grade 13 b i o l o g y . program showed d e t a i l e d academic c o n t e n t ,  A l t h o u g h the Grade 13  i t was a l s o intended t o  be s u i t a b l e f o r a v a r i e d c l i e n t e l e : p r o s p e c t i v e n u r s e s , school  teachers  and u n i v e r s i t y s t u d e n t s .  Thus, the course had t o be  both a t e r m i n a l program and one i n which an i n i t i a l in b a s i c b i o l o g i c a l  this contention,  t r a i n i n g was given  concepts on which t h e more d e t a i l e d u n i v e r s i t y  c o u r s e s c o u l d be b u i l t . for  elementary  W h i l e i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o get documentation  i t i s the a u t h o r ' s o p i n i o n t h a t the courses  (1941-1960) served both purposes.  Pupils attending u n i v e r s i t y usually  e x p r e s s e d s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h t h e b a s i c u n d e r s t a n d i n g s t h a t they had acquired  from the upper school b i o l o g y .  Moreover, t h i s program  a f f o r d e d a t e r m i n a l c r e d i t i n s c i e n c e t o p u p i l s who, although  able  t o understand and remember d e t a i l s a c c u r a t e l y , had d i f f i c u l t y w i t h  35 the mathematics needed f o r t h e p h y s i c a l The  content  o f t h e 1921  sciences.  Grade 13 b i o l o g y course showed s i g n i f i c a n t /  a l t e r a t i o n s from t h a t o f t h e p r e v i o u s stressed experimentation  period  and o b s e r v a t i o n s  d i s s e c t i o n and m i c r o s c o p i c  (Appendix B).  on morphology (as seen by  s t u d i e s ) , an e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e b a s i c  groups o f organisms w i t h emphasis on e c o n o m i c a l l y the a d a p t a t i o n s  Biology  It  of structure to function  important  and e c o l o g y .  i n Grade 11 o r Grade 12 was not i n t r o d u c e d  forms,  Much o f the  until 1964.  69  content  was a p p r o p r i a t e  evidenced  by e x a m i n a t i o n  new as of  the students  were  f o rt h e average results.  successful  upper  I n 1922,  school  student,  f o rexample,  i n departmental  85  examinations  percent  in  biology ?^ Some t w e n t y date the  a variety Grade  13  expanded;  years  biology  syllabus  three'fami1ies  alternation  of generation and an  B) the  study  :  ; taxonomic  t o accommoagain  i n the plant  s t u d i e s were  and theory  kingdom  made t o  o f ecology  replaced  i n human p h y s i o l o g y  was  reduced  of flowering plants, a detailed  intensive course  reproduction  changes  t h e program were  (Appendix  introduced  omission'; o f  Human  significant  o f p u p i l s and t o update  g e n e t i c s was  treatment;  (1941)  later  by the  study o f  a more was  general  added.  o f e v o l u t i o n which were a c t i v e  fields  in  37 biological  2.23  research  were  G r a d e s 9 a n d 10 The  program  biological farming, gardens  still  Agricultural  in agricultural  topics,  plants, fungi,  (l 2l) 9  to provide  two d i s t i n c t i v e l y  a n d home p r o j e c t s .  aspect  Science  s c i e n c e o f 1921  b u t i t s a i m was  and included  flowering  not included.  concentrated  on weeds  a practical  practical  In a d d i t i o n ,  bacteria  contained  many approach to  features,  school  i to f f e r e d b i o l o g i c a l  and entomology. and grasses,  The  topics:  agricultural  dairying,  bee-keeping,  38 poultry  'The  topic,  botany that  raising,  the breeds  bacteria,  b u t was  emphasized  of livestock  had n o t been  included  included  i n the course  the practical  and s o i l s .  nature  Agricu1ture , thus ,  course In  i n t h e 1921  In a g n c i i l t u r e , of the latter.  a  d.fference  70  included towards  made the  a great rural  deal  1937-38  the  course  revision  much  9 general  identical  except and  was  basically  except  biology  with  its  an  approach  the  The  Grade  same a s  livestock,  agricultural  additional  was  science  directed  (Appendix  a l t e r n a t i v e , general  and  three  astronomy  bee-keeping,  agricultural  science  gardening.  that  of  like  for  chickens also  general  1i f e .  The  Grade  of  Grade  excluded  soils,  in  latter:  from  methods  and  were  course  science  agricultural  course  science;  practice  in  fact,  milk,  science  general  10  In  programs  the  agricultural  10  the  science.  science  topics  A)  and  gardening,  39 and it  home  projects  possible  both  for  science During  cultural than  the  and the  had  included  Department  changed  in  previously.  to  practical  applications  were  viewed  function,  processes  current by  the  that  Biological conduct facts, for  The  and  the  processes  programs  same  concepts Teaching  and of  as  of  fields.  content  made  text-books  principles  less  the of  of  for  topics  food  and  very  methods content biology  Science ^Toronto:  few  which  of  related  physiology,  human  physiology, and  defect,  ecology  however,  biological  investigations  used or  taxonomy  genetics  serious  neglect  agri-  to  descriptive  most  the  and  attention  included  The  was  biological  biology  eel 1 biology,  there were  to  of  considerable  critics  refer  while  gave  considerations  research  structure  research,  p p . 215-217-  the  courses  they  contained  contemporary  and  s i m i l a r i t y of  authorize  lacked a d e t a i l e d c o n s i d e r a t i o n  which as  The  to  1921-196O  period  structure  but  .  agriculture.  science  they  were  by  biologists  structure  (Norman  MacMillan  Massey,  Canada,  to  describes Patterns  1965)  ,  the  71  requiring  the pupil  there were  to think  as  1932  it  more o f a p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g  published ics  such  biological  suggestions  a program  which were  as a  included  concepts  and  research  to  improve  biologist.  40  the biology  As  early  program  by  enterprise.  Indeed,  George  i t contained  many  the b i o l o g i c a l  i n t h e 1937  of  departmental  in problem-solving  settings  making  Hofferd  course.  He  and p r o v i d e d  top-  developed many  41 student  activities  to  note  that  (A  Study  of  that 2.24  no  living  Hofferd  published  the Content  predated  1916,  Textbooks  Inspector  a wel1 - i 1 1 u s t r a t e d science  (see  text 1,  p . 23 ) .  Department  of  Education  biology the  f o r t h e 1921  period  text  authorized  interesting  Lower  in  biology School  f o r Grades Rogers'  Science  9 and  Study.  since  1903 by t h e  textbooks  practice  the review  need"  course  since  10  authorized  this  Biology,  Biology"  a d v i c e was heeded  they  facilitate  10  program,  Curriculum  t h e r e was a " c r y i n g  and c o n t i n u e d  To h e l p  is  Sciences  Books  that  o f f i c i a l s since  program  Ontario  f o r t h e Grade 9 and  Apparently,  (1921-1960).  of  and R e f e r e n c e  noted  It  a process-oriented  the Biological  Rogers  had been  Chap.  organisms.  and Methodology  by t h i r t y y e a r s  Authorized  In for  George  involving  in  throughout  the author  has  Upper school t e x t b o o k s were not a u t h o r i z e d but l i s t e d in t h e courses of study as r e f e r e n c e books. The books used i n t h e upper school were s e l e c t e d from t h e approved l i s t by t h e h i g h school p r i n c i p a l s a f t e r consultation with their staffs. The l o c a l board o f e d u c a t i o n c o n f i r m e d the p r i n c i p a l s ' s u g g e s t i o n s and recorded approval in t h e i r minutes.  1932)  Table 7 A u t h o r i z e d T e x t b o o k s f o r O n t a r i o Lower S c h o o l B i o l o g y Group I , (1921-1937)  Pub 1i she r and Publisher's Locat ion  Grade Period Leve 1 of ReadAuthor i - a b i l i t y zat ion FIesch 1 ndex  Author  Title  MacMi1lan (Toronto)  L.H. B a i l e y , norma 1 school teacher  Beg i nne r s ' Botany (1921)  MacMi1lan (Toronto)  W.M. C o l e man , professor of b i o logy at normal school  Beg i n n e r s Zoology  Educat ion Book (Toronto)  A. C o s e n s and T . J . 1 vy , teachers  Botany f o r High Schools (1928)  19281937  8  Educat ion Book (Toronto)  J.F. Ca1 v e r t and J . H . Cameron , teachers  Zoology f o r High Schools (1928)  19281937  8  Copp C l a r k (Toronto)  B.P. C o l t o n , Z o o l o g y 1928professor De s c r i p t i ve 1937 at and P r a c t i c a l teachers' revised ed. c o l lege o f 1911,  1  (19215  1923(1903)  Notes  :  *  Ontario authors  19211927  19211927  8  12  10-12  Personal Eva 1uat i o n  attempts t o consider plant as a l i v i n g o r g a n i sm , stresses pupil activities. d i r e c t s pupi1 observat ions, drawings o n l y f a i r,  topics probably of pupi1 i n t e r e s t , e.g. fungus diseases of crops, several demonst r a t i on e x p e r imen t s , diagrams clear. detailed i n structions f o r pupil observations, intere s t i n g accounts of p r a c t i c a l a p p l i c a t ions and n a t u r a l history. e x c e l 1ent o r g a n i zat ion o f pupi 1 activities to i1lustrate principles of classification.  73 divided lower the of  thetexts  school  lower  and upper  school  In T a b l e s and  Group  above  I show  viewpoint  theless,  descriptions  topics  logy.  This  teachers.  were  of practical may h a v e  lacked period.  been  rather  stressed  IV.  on p u p i l  interst.  of perceived  and social  because  o f t h eauthors  that  was t h a t ,  of content,  as w e l l  The teacher, andoften  f o r textbook  than  moreover,  used  Never-  of  bio-  secondary this  o ft h e  t h e books  were  mainly  d i dnot reflect the  as texts  rather  organized  of  were  o f t h eauthors  thetexts  of  interest,  relevance  theauthors  although  a  o f theprevious  was considered  had graded  au t h o r i z a t i o n  period.  discovery-oriented  t h edemonstrations  None o f t h e t e x t b o o k s  operandi  andwere  because  in  academic  processes  than  most  school  theprinciples  applications  a deductive,  processes  o f t h e lower  t h econservative  biological  selected  research  of teaching.  modus  Group  by t h e author  followed  than  The result  supported  D.  constitute  was determined  background  The  The  texts  A l l t h e books  research  of current  described.  (1938-1956).  II  are/described  the  condition  texts  dates  texts  also,  on t h e basis  instruction  divided  of their  Group  authorized  i s noteworthy  organized  method  school  on t h e b a s i s  o f thetextbooks  o f them  rather  topics  It  texts  groups  score  o f t h ed i s c i p l i n e  some  previous  most  content  e.g.,  period  and upper  two groups:  Index.  that  t h ebasis  three  into  And he has f u r t h e r  1 (1921-1937),  of theperiod.  biological  texts.  A readability  the Flesch The  (1921-1960)  7, 8 9 a n d 10 t h e  evaluated.  using  into  Group  (1953-1960)  III  school  texts  authorization;  Group  on  of theperiod  is  central  which t h e  assignments  shown  in  in  which  Appendix  74  Table Authorized  Textbooks  for  Group  Publisher and Publisher's Location  Ontario  Lower  School  of AuthoriAuthor  Bowers  teacher  , at  norma 1  General  Title  zation  General Sc i e n c e B o o k One  1938-1956  Grade Level Readability Flesch 1 ndex  10  Dent (Toronto)  Pitman Sons  and  H. B o w e r s , teacher at normal school  General Sc i e n c e B o o k Two  V.N. Bruce, teacher  Jun i o r Sc i e n c e for  (Toronto)  1939-1956  (1938) 1938-1953  Secondary Schools Pt 1  9  (1938) Pitman  and  Sons (Toronto)  V.N. Bruce, teacher  Jun i o r  ipnrp for Secondary Schools Pt 1 1  (1938) Note:  *  Ontario  Personal Evaluat ion  topics introd u c e d as p r o blems, coherence exc e l l e n t , many i nd i v i d u a l pupil activities, quantitative expressions for b iologi cal phenomena  (1938)  school  Science  (1938-1956)  I I,  Per iod  H.  Dent (Toronto)  8  Authors  1939-1953  diagrams large and c l e a r , numerous individual pupil activities, many p r a c t i c a l a p p l i c a t i ons  75  some in  authors  use  pupils.  texts  The  in  making  absence  r e f l e c t e d the  adjustment  of  importance  the  pupil  to  However,  the  texts  after  some  stead  of  which  were  distinctive  teacher  The  and  human  and  interests in  the  was  Ontario  A).  Several  optional  climatology;  following  In  home  Book  safety  projects  addition,  separate  Bowers h  the  grades  with in  in  the  1953  that  than  the  the  of  of  drugs,  the  (see  Book  of  text,  the  the  and  2,  p/S'l) .  biology that  (Appendix  permitted  General  Bruce  and  the  Science,  chapters  2,  on  further  conservation  physical  foods  identification, soil  chick,  Chap.  of  became  (195*0, ha"d  of  topics  include  example,  2)  optional  (See  facilitated  which  to  in-  activities  Chapter  feature  studies  contained  pupil  approach  interests.For  Bissonnette's  and  on  applications  Science,  on  understanding  I960 c o n t i n u e d  a  more  b a c t e r i a , human  1930s,.''  to  groups  experiments  focused  their of  third  class  emphasis  added,  pupil  agr i cu 1 ture.^  texts  or  progressive  in  and  projects  This  development food  second  study  heredity,  and  placement and  the  were  (1953), the  suggested  stressed  health  social  topics  topics:  subjects:  gardening,  and  the  Pupil  the  Intermediate  optional  differences  d i s c i p l i n e more  They  A).  from  differences  textbook,  Intermediate,  of  books  experiments  following  in  education  student  Carter's  1937  pupils'  typical  individual  it.  included  many  to  the  (Appendix  authorized  adjustment  of  changes:  topics  physiology  important The  to  for  assignments  demonstrations.  related  themselves.  and  graded  of  showed  and  provisions  of  in  resources ).  biological of  studies  human  p.'lQ  conducting  the  science  classes  in in  76  Table Authorized  TextBooks  for  Group  Ontario  III,  9 Lower  School  Publi sher and  Period  of  Author i Author  Locat ion  Biological  Science  (1953-1960)  Title  zat ion  Grade Level Read-  Persona 1  ab i 1 i t y  Evaluation  Flesch 1 ndex Pitman & Sons (Toronto)  V.N. Bruce , and A . H . Carter teachers  1nter-  1954-1960  11  med i a t e Sc i e n c e Book 2  approach occas iona11y used, experiments with thorough cons i d e r a t i o n of errors, opt ions offered, diagrams clear  (1954)  Dent (Toronto)  H. B o w e r s and R.N. Bissonnette teachers norma 1 school and h i g h school  Notes  Ontario  , ,  Authors  Genera 1 Sc i e n c e 1 ntermed i a t e Book 4 (1953)  hi s t o r i c a l  1953-1960  9  numerous activities suggested for both class and i n d i v i d u a l , p r a c t i ca1 appl.icat ions ind i c a t e d , opt ions,offered i 1 1 u s t r a t ions excel lent  77  Table Recommended  Per iod of R e commendation  1928-1937  10  Text-Books f o r Ontario G r o u p I V , 1921-1960  Grade  Publisher and Locat ion  Authors  EducatIonal Book  A. C o s e n s * Botany £ T.J. Ivy* for teachers High  (Toronto)  Title  13  Biology  Grade Leve 1 Readability Flesch's 1 ndex  8  Schools  (1928)  1932-1937  G i nn (Toronto)  1932-1937  H.  Holt  (New  York)  J.Y. BerPrincigen £ ples of B.M. D a v i s , B o t a n y t e a c h e r a n d (1906) professor C . Curt is» professor  13  Nature &  Deve1op~ ment o f  10  (1931)  1928-1937  Educat ional Book  Z o o 1oqy  (Toronto)  J.F. Cal-* v e r t fi C a m e r o n '*, teachers  Copp  B.P.  Zooloqy  Clark  ton ,  (Toronto)  Col-  Table  10 c o n t i n u e d  Schools  t i ve  teache r s  P r a c t i ca1  1ege  W.C . C u r t i s £ M.J. Guthrie » professors  8  (1928)  professor col  John W i l e y £ Sons (New Y o r k )  High  D e s c r i p1  1932-1937  for  6  10-12  (1903)  Text-Book of  General  Zoology  (1927)  not s u f f i c i e n t d e t a i l of a l t e r n a t i o n of g e n e r ation of plant qroups t h o r o u g h , more plant groups than Gr.13 c o u r s e ,  content  PI a n t s  1928-1937  Personal Evaluation  13  cult  d i f f i -  f o r Gr.13,  diagrams numerous and c l e a r  good q u e s t i o n s o n pupil a c t i v i t i e s not s u f f i c i e n t , detai1 o f morphol o g y f o r G r . 13 excellent exerc i s e s on d i s s e c tion, drawings rather few  s t r e s s e s an understandinn of structure t o appreciate funct ion  Table  10  continued  Period o f RePublisher commenda- and tion Locat ion  Authors  Title  1953-1955 J o h n W i l e y £ Sons (New Y o r k )  R i c h a r d M. Holman 6 W i l f r e d W. Robins, professors  Elements of Botany  1954-1962 C l a r k 1 rwin (Toronto)  Truman J . Moon 6 P a u l B. Mann teachers  Biology  A.G. C r o a l , Genera 1 p r o f e s s o r , i\. B iology H. L o u d e n , p r o (1948) f e s s o r , L.A. Smith, teacher K.L. W i s m e r , teacher  Clark (Toronto)  1947-1962 M a c m i 1 l a n (New Y o r k )  (Toronto)  19^7-1962 McGrawHill (New Y o r k )  19*42-19^6  Holt (New Y o r k )  (19541  R o b e r t E. Hegner, professor  clear but not d e t a 1 1 e d enough f o r Gr.13 e x aminations  13  13+  C.H. B e s t £ N.B. Taylor , professors  Human Body and i t s Funct i ons  12  Mary S. Mac Douga11 £ Robert Hegner, professors  Biology,The Science o f Life  *  C.G. Weymouth, research Jiologlst  followed the O n t a r i o Gr.13 course c l o s e l y wi t h s u f f i c i e r detai1 , d i a grams c l e a r  13  Colleqe Zoology  describes a typical verteb r a t e and i t s 1 body s y s t e m s  (19*1*))  thorough t r e a t ment o f human p h y s i o l o g y , good illustrations  (1932)  TJ9*73)  Science o f Living Th i ngs  '3+  complete account of b i o l o g i c a l c o n c e p t s , few 1 laboratory exe r c i s e s , large diagrams  12  lacks s u f f i c i e n t d e t a 11 o f a l t e r nation o f genera-  (1941) J Notes:  * **  Ontario  "~  d i agrams d e t a i1ed a n d precise, rather lacking in student activities  13  ft  19^8-196*1 Copp  19^2-1962 Gage  (1939)  Grade j Level 1 Readab i 1 i t y Flesch's Personal 1ndex I E v a 1uat i o n  t i o n . o f morphology P l a n t s and o f most a n i m a l groups  Authors  C u r t i s a n d G u t h r i e m a i n t a i n e d : "Work t h a t s i m p l y e n t e r t a i n s o r I m p a r t s i n f o r m a t i o n and t h a t d o e s n o t c r e a t e t h e s u f f e r i n g s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h m e n t a l e f f o r t c a n be o f l i t t l e p e r m a n e n t v a l u e o r make f o r a n y c o n s i d e r a b l e d e v e l o p m e n t " . W..C. C u r t i s and M.J. G u t h r i e . T e x t - B o o k o f G e n e r a l Z o o l o g y (New Y o r k : J o h n W i l e y a n d Sons , 1927), p - v .  79  large  schools The  with  selection  serious  problem  biology  had  chosen and  by  the  that  The  for  other  The Ontario  This  written,  pletely  and  having  biologists  a  However,  giving  a  13  clear  Biology  the  Canadian  High  School  (1922),  the  Grade the  for  numerous  account  of  a  the  detail  to  departmental  available, Cosens  Calvert  and  textbooks  Ivy's to  which  r e l i a b l e textbook  Grade  Biology  13  (1948)  covered  the  references.  guide its  nearly  textbooks  college  the  illustrated,  that  principals  do  so.  were  often  use.  General  laboratory  textbooks  sufficiently detailed  specialized to  the  a  13  sufficient  on  (.1928) n o r  was  a l l e v i a t e d when  well  in  the  for  book,  study  of  designed  for  of  p.67,).  or  student  biological  twenty the  It  years,  material  courses by  on  Croal  Ontario had  the  was  filled  the  and  was  others  course  and  not  a  study  by  was  com-  disadvantages  exercises;  content it  of  written  practising  kept  great  prescribed  up  need  to by  Ontario  Grade  course.  Textbooks, becoming  courses  advice  c r e d i t a b l e marks  pupils  commented  date.  the  the  gained  were  provided  in  2,  presented  of  Schools,  and  students  10)  (on  Zoology  authors  the  education  cover  p r o b l e m was  as  (Table  of  Neither  clearly  not  teacher  textbook  Chap.  Hence  pupils  the  13  (see  examinations.  the  for  Grade  laboratories,  departmental  to  High  published.  of  the  textbooks  difficult  a  had  Cameron's  Botany  to  boards  examinations. and  of  to w r i t e  staffs)  ensure  specialized  like  expensive.  Department  of  education  (1952).  textbooks  to  be  other To  reduce  Education The  issued  educational  gave  boards on  the  loan  used to  facilities,  cost  textbook the the  to  pupils  grants  grants pupils.  were  to  buy  This  and  to  their  boards  Grade saving  parents of  9 and • ..  10  8 0'  to  the  pupils  became  a  permanent  feature  of  Ontario  secondary  schooling.  I n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the Changes in B i o l o g y o f P r o g r e s s i v i s m and Conservatism  2.25  Peter parative  Sandiford,  education,  educational  Education  psychologist  and  i d e n t i f i e d two c o n f l i c t i n g  in  student  influences  Terms  of  com-  in  Ontario  45 education  during  Conservatism  or  this  and  many  emphases  child's that  the  conservatism  traditionalism followed  disciplines of  period:  applications  deep-seated  of  John  drives  of  science,  Dewey  should  child-oriented activities  the  who  and  progressivism.  stress  while  maintained  form  the  academic  progressivism  be e n c o u r a g e d  should  on  that  and  the  the  embodied active  cultivated  basis  of  the  and  curri-  c u 1 urn. Sandiford Ontario i  recognized  conservative Education everyone  ii iii iv  This  experts to  see  that  could  system select  characteristics prior what  to  was  of  the  1937: desirable  for  know,  could  Inspectors,  following  educational  information  Teachers  the  could  be  former  teachers  be  trained  embodied  in  to  the  teach  successful did  teach  a  teachers,  efficiently  textbook, program were and  efficiently,  appointed carried  out  to the  C o n s e r v a t i s m i s t h e p o i n t o f v i e w w h i c h f a v o u r s a m i n i m u m ••of c h a n g e and s t r e s s e s the importance of preserving the values already achieved. T r a d i t i o n a l i s m i s t h e p o i n t o f v i e w i n w h i c h i n n o v a t i o n and e x perimentation are minimal. G.V. Good, D i c t i o n a r y o f Education (New Y o r k : M c G r a w - H i l l , 1973).  regulations. v  The  Department  of  Education  set  examinations  to  test  the  47 mastery The that  of  this  conservative  emphasis  was  material. approach,  placed  on  those  competent  to  end.  Sandiford  contended  of  old  knowledge  Ontario  judge  while  educators,  he  Sandiford  those  and  things  stressed  however  had  regarded  the  it  claimed, worshipped  the  of  past  advantage  significant  from  stressed  furthering  the  as  thoroughness  that  neglecting  stated,  by  beginning  to  the  acquisition  the  new.  and  so  The  did  not  48 prepare  pupils  Opposing North  to  Thornton Toronto  had  education followers  Mustard Board  in  a  conservatism  American  viewpoint  live  of  of  rapidly and  was in  Education  exerting  a  Ontario  Normal  of  i n f l u e n c e on  progressivism.  school  School,  s t a f f , who  world.  powerful  t h e movement  the  Toronto  changing  system,  and  in  Stanley  both ,helped  This  particular,  Watson  draft  all  the  of  the course  1937  49 of  study.  Thus,  particularly of  in  its  the  lower  health-oriented  The  biology  1937  organisms  and  progressive tent  on  jects  course  more  on  in  the  hampered  the  on  was  In  food  and  based of  progressivism  impact  the of  interest the  the  curriculum,  1937  c u r r i c u l u m by  on to  physiology  the  taxonomic  pupils  emphasis  as  was  enterprises,  the  inclusion  (Appendix grouping  perceived to  A).  by  a greater  a c t i v i t i e s and  of a expro-  course. had  scarcity the  in  human  less  addition  previous  felt  biology  experimentation,  1930's,^°  the  school  areas  educator.  Although during  topics  individual  than  i n f l u e n c e was  some of  influence teachers  progressive  in  emphasis  in  Ontario  the at  high  schools  1940'sand 1950'.s that  time.'''  8 2  In  fact  Sidney the  i n t h e 1950 = s , c o n s e r v a t i s m Smith,  Ontario  quoted "Our  the President  Secondary  civilization  which  rest  upon  Teachers'  viewpoint  requires  to dominate.  of the University  School  the conservative  appeared  of every  the a b i l i t y  of Toronto,  Federation  of Arthur  addressed  (O.S.S.T.F.)  Bestor,  man a n d w o m a n  to read, write  When  he  the historian:  a variety  of  skills  and c a l c u l a t e and upon  sound  52 knowledge  of  science,  Ontario's period  13  gressives  urged  and o t h e r  stance  education  initiated  almost  school,  early  school  programs  remained  high  conservative  in high  biology  history  in  unchanged  adolescent  pupils,  during  appeared  1937  the widening  Ontario,  in other  the  of another  failed  disciplines."  the latter  f o r Grade  throughout  the provision  t o accommodate  fundamental  part  ways  9 and i n  1950's.  type  also. 19^1  The  for  Although  of school,  interests  of the  Grade  pro-  the junior  and p o t e n t i a l s  to provide  this  kind  of  Grade  13  of  53 schooling. with  its final  attitude the  In a d d i t i o n  Dunlop  Department  was p e r s o n i f i e d  1950's.  Ontario  According  administration  retained  of Education  examinations.  by W . J . Dunlop,  to the Ontario  the academic  Minister  educator,  The  conservative  of Education  W.G. F l e m i n g ,  was " c h a r a c t e r i z e d by d e f e n s i v e n e s s ,  in the  negativism  54 and  2.30  resistance  Changes  change."  : The B i o l o g y  While and  to  provincial  educational  Teachers  policy,  approaches  (1921-1960) the direction of educational  had t h e i r  i n f l u e n c e on b i o l o g y  " research education,  55  the b i o l o g y t e a c h e r , then as now, was o f paramount importance. In t h i s s e c t i o n , t h e q u a l i t y o f b i o l o g y t e a c h i n g w i l l b e t r a c e d b y  discussing  the professional  organizations teaching science  2.31  f o r improving  effectiveness  11  Table  shows  o f Secondary  percentage  when  than  that  of their  was  t h e Second World  a shortage  proportion including  period.  However,  fell  after  1940.  i s most  teachers It  w a s much  is also  graduate,  teachers,  the percentage These were  o f t h e most  the specialists  that  high.  war-time  in t h e secondary  in the  1950 s 1  secondary  remained  But  greater  remained  an e s s e n t i a l  o f males  inthe  interesting  o f males  striking  in  women.  particularly for science.''  of university biology  was s m a l l e s t  o f men t h a n  was c o n s i d e r e d  t h e preponderance  of teachers,  schools,  science  teachers  standing.  teachers  War t h e p e r c e n t a g e  profession  (Biology)  o f secondary  proportion  o f male  teaching  Moreover,  teaching  The  secondary  female c o l l e a g u e s . " "  may b e b e c a u s e  school  r e p o r t s on  o f two outstanding  and s p e c i a l i s t  t h e r e was a s m a l l e r  the percentage  service.  status  o f male  then  This  Teachers  thecharacteristics  even  during  the inspectoral  and t h econtributions  t o s e x , academic  The  1920's  teaching,  of teachers", the  teachers.  Qualifications  regard  qualifications  quite highly  when  there  7  teachers  high  inthe  throughout the  qualified  who had completed  teachers four  Since data on t h e q u a l i f i c a t i o n s f o r b i o l o g y teachers a r e n o t a v a i l a b l e as d i s t i n c t from other secondary teachers i n t h i s o r in other chapters, t h e d i s c u s s i o n w i l l deal w i t h secondary school teachers' qualifications in general. A p e r s o n a l s u r v e y o f t h e s t a f f l i s t f o r 1921 showed c e n t o f t h e s c i e n c e s p e c i a l i s t s w e r e men. Ontario, M i n i s t e r o f E d u c a t i o n , 1921, p p . 345-386.  t h a t 87.7 perReport o f t h e  84  years  o f an honour The  teachers The  decrease  of  program.  in the proportion  accompanied  Minister  teacher  university  the crucial  Education's  of  specialists  shortage  Report  of  of  1954  including  teachers  noted  biology  i n t h e 1950 s. 1  this  problem  of  shortage: . . . t h e number o f S e c o n d a r y S c h o o l Teachers q u a l i f y i n g annually at the Ontario College of E d u c a t i o n has not been s u f f i c i e n t in r e c e n t y e a r s to overcome the losses t o the p r o f e s s i o n and the increased requirements of the school system a r i s i n g from the expanding school population.58  The  Department  secondary admitted were  of  Education  teachers  by s e v e r a l  to the Ontario  given  Permission  attempted means:  College  of  A large  teachers  were  to university  certificates.  Summer c o u r s e s  from other  were  this  number  Education.  to qualified granted  to correct  shortage  of  students  Letters  of  provinces.  graduates  provided  of were  Standing  Letters  who had no  of  teaching  for unqualified  people  59 to  secure The  certificates. shortage  of  subjects  including  teachers  with  a  few p e r i o d s  with and  usual  of  classes  sources  ing,certain probably  biology.  little  provisional their  teachers  example,  science  were  actions  1957  skilled  large.  were  times  that taken  basis,  visited  the teaching  i n s t r u c t i o n was g i v e n  time  tables.  while  able,  were  often  While  it  difficult  is  there were  incidents  by t h e Department shortcomings  of  assigned  The  teachers  inexperienced to find  in the  of deficient Education  in the e x i s t i n g  Development  the classrooms  of  of a l l  by  who had been  their  the Professional  teachers  affected  in the subject  to complete  certificates,  statements  from  At  background  had f o r t h e i r  For  adversely  Branch  that  instruction.  organized  teachers  teach-  with  in little  85  Table Ontario  Number  Secondary  11  School  Teachers  Percentage  of  of  Secondary Year  (1920-1960)  School  Percentage  Percentage  Teachers  of  of  Males  Females  Univer-  Percentage  s ity Graduates  of Specialists  1920  1462  45.0  55-0  74.2  63.7  1925  2677  43.4  56.6  82.5  72.4  1930  3756  48.6  51.4  91-3  61. 0*  1935  4353  54.6  45.4  82.7  66.4  19^0  4605  57-9  42.1  82.8  68.0  1945  5169  55.3  44.7  82.5  61.0  1950  5795  63.1  36.9  84.1  57.5  1955  7484  65.0  35.0  83.5  51 .1  I960  11478  66.4  33.6  87.7  N.A.  Sources:  Note:  O n t a r i o , R e p o r t o f t h e M i n i s t e r o f Education,1920, p p . 35, 40, 386; i b i d . , 1925, p p . 15, 59; i b Td., 1930, p p . 89, 95-97; i b i d . , 1935, pp. 79, 81; i b i d . , 1940, p p . 121-123; i b i d . , 1945, p p . 110, 111, 113; i b i d . , 1950, p p . 96-97; i b i d . , 1955, pp. 33-35; i b i d . , I960, p . 5, 95. *  Vocational  Teachers  were  omitted.  86  experience a  need  2.32  and taught  f o r such  Agencies  Since  curriculum  O.S.S.T.F.  were  summer  t h e r e was  minimum  them  gatherings  and i n n o v a t i o n s courses  conducted  t o upgrade  Secondary  influx  and w i n t e r  their  the  committee  there  were  areas  The  of  times  inexperienced  of  discussions  procedures.  l e a d e r s . I n  groups  which  Teachers'  for the subject  discussion  by  professional  development  in teaching  of  teaching  One means  School  a t which  by a b l e  Teachers  qualifications,  training.  The p r o f e s s i o n a l  local  of Biology  was by a t t e n d i n g  and t h e r a p i d  programs  with  by i n - s e r v i c e  s e t u p summer  change  Apparently  Development  to permit  of the Ontario  changes  also  teachers  up-to-date  planned  in biology  curriculum these  kept  (0.S.S.T.F.).  O.S.S.T.F.  those  many  provided  sessions  Federation  of  were  teachers  development  the  for the Professional  and q u a l i f i c a t i o n s  biology  lessons.  service.^  there were  opportunities skills  a  demonstration  which  of  teachers,  helped  to  maintain  62 the  teachers'  Science  Section  organization with  professional  of the Ontario  that  of Ontario  This  i s. a s o u r c e  Additionally,  branches  discuss  problems  planned  with  became  o f S.T.A.O.  met a t r e g i o n a l  local  biology  another teachers Teachers'  and i t s p u b l i c a t i o n , The C r u c i b l e , for the biology  of  was  the Science  ideas  and exchange  the help  superintendents.  of  t h e [Natural  Association  in acquainting  organization  (S.T.A.O.)  waSy a n d s t i l l  In a d d i t i o n ,  Educational  was i n s t r u m e n t a l  current, changes.  Association  competence.  information. science  Often  consultants  teacher. or  local  these or  levels  meetings  curriculum  to  were  87  Several permit  provincial  a teacher  level.  In  t o upgrade  addition,  American  programs  Science  Foundation  financial  help  sabbatical Graduate  leave  was  to  This  of  scheme  fications  of  increase  four  their  plan  Under  higher  standing.  by  with  attended  supported  College  of  special  by  teachers a Shell  the  National  were  given  Fellowship  or  Moreover,  Education,  later  a  the  the  (1966), o f f e r e d  in Education  to  specialist  of education.  that  this  those  with  plan  a l l  and each  non-specialists group  three  summer  the highest by  post-  degrees. was an  quali-  of  biology,  qualifications.  the O.S.S.T.F.  paid  one  the  those  teachers  by a s t a t e d  included  who had  and group f o u r The p r o s p e c t incentive  to  in  its  were  grouped  amount  on  non-specialists;  who had c o m p l e t e d  had s p e c i a l i s t s  courses;  qualifications  raise  secondary  was  Group  to  including  introduced  schedule.  honour  helped  teachers,  was  levels,  salary  standing  board  period  the pay of  two c o n t a i n e d  specialists for  this  one d i s c i p l i n e ;  states  courses  education.^  secondary  salary  board's  group in  in  a l l  1958 a s s e m b l y .  the  for Studies in  teachers  Fellowship,  the local  academic to the  Occasionally,  the Ontario  certification  into  biology  (N.S.F.).  from  degrees  One  Ontario  offered  certificate  in neighbouring  Institute  graduate  his  by an O . S . S . T . F .  School  Ontario  universities  five  obtained  consisted of  a better  improve  courses  of salary  academic  88 2.33  in  Views  on  While  i t was  times  helped, and in  of and  the  Quality  difficult  teacher in  Report  general  Education  of  Teaching  the This  the  High  and  to maintain  shortage,  conscientiously. the  of  Education  the  quality of  the a c t i v i t i e s of  high is  school  teachers  i n d i c a t e d by  School  the  Inspectors  the  teaching  O.S.S.T.F.  worked  thoroughly  occasional  to  the  compliment  Minister  of  (.1924) : D u r i n g the p a s t y e a r your I n s p e c t o r s have been impressed . . . w i t h the q u a l i t y of work c a r r i e d out b y a b a n d o f m o r e t h a n 1600 h i g h s c h o o l teachers in the P r o v i n c e . T h a n k s t o t h e m , t h e s c h o o l i s no l o n g e r a p l a c e w h e r e p u p i l s go r e l u c t a n t l y t o r e c i t e d u l l lessons, a dreaded place of drudgery and c o n s t a n t i n h i b i t i o n . It is the c e n t r e o f a l l a c t i v i t i e s - m e n t a l , p h y s i c a l and s o c i a l - o f t h e young p e o p l e o f t h e community.66  A further  laudatory  comment  appeared:  ;  I t w o u l d b e d i f f i c u l t t o f i n d a b o d y o f men [ a n d women] more p r o g r e s s i v e , m o r e c o n s c i o u s o f t h e i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s and more l o y a l t o t h e i r p r o f e s s i o n than our secondary school teachers.67 It  should  teachers of  the  only  not  be  received  shortcomings  The  sonality. the  Hilda  of  second,  Such  the  however,  school  to dispel  and  power.  whereby  the  purposes  first  helpless; minimize  praise.  of  central  been, and  thought,  serves is  (1954)  Neatby  formal  the to  education  ignorance train  only  that  the mind  a d e f i n i t i o n of  school  Canadian  secondary  wrote  pointedly  system:  importance of  It  that  purpose  character or to  show  expected  to  the  have leaves for  does of the  one  control not  per-  special  serve  always  means  whole  89  chi1d who goes t h e r e . It i s , I be 1ieve, increasingly obvious that these intellectual purposes are not c e n t r a l in Canadian elementary and s e c o n d a r y schools.68  Outstanding  2.34  Biology  A discussion  Educators  of biology  teaching  in this  complete without  recounting  the contributions  Professor  A.  (l873 1960)  George  _  Cornish  period of  would  be i n -  two p e r s o n a l i t i e s :  and I n s p e c t o r  Norman  Davies  (.1893-1963). Cornish Ontario  instructed  College  in t h e methods  of Education  (O.C.E.)  of of  science  teaching  the University  at the  of  Toronto  69 for  thirty-four  methods many  of science  science  present  As viewed by  teachers;  "Some  your  teachers  problems. afraid  won't  to strike  that  be!"  seem  seminars  invite  in dealing  with  so  t o show how t o  for  science  science. to students,  in your  discipline,  these  in the  in contact with  classroom  interested  d i s c i p l i n e , others  tone  in  kindle  Regarding  instructed  lessons  and a d v i c e  who must  you don't  a moral  n o r came  teaching  lectures  you d o n ' t  can maintain  A c t so  conducted  as a leader  students  long,  practice  from h i s  "If  No o n e e l s e  demonstration  in science,  was e v i d e n t the teacher  f o r so  he gave  and supervised  his teachingi  tainly  teaching  the topics  specialists  (1910-1944).  years  enthusiasm work,  cei—  he w a r n e d ,  encourage problems." student  he  disciplinary He w a s n o t  teachers.  At  90  a  t i m e when  social  conformity  necessity,  amid  "Avoid  appearance  the  Cornish ing  takes  place  room w i t h to  borrow  field  trips  urged  a  wisely,  in  senses  this  excursions  and  way.  their  that  So  bring  student more  the  that  science  Cornish  which  lessons  to  viewpoint  much  offers  stacked  vivid.  He in  many  his  teachers  classes  learn-  store-  were  in-  organized  direct  contact  nature. Professor  the  year  following "Wood IV"  these  topics:  "A  Leaves,"  Summary for  topics  could  were  physical  contributed  for  example,  "Mushrooms,"  designed  While texts  Cornish  1917—18,  Laurel  and  were  on  Pestalozzian  the  t o make  and  he  even  e v i l . " ^  the  learn  a virtue,  pressures,  illustrative materials  vited  In  of  through  to  considered  community  stressed  opportunities  with  strong  was  of  "A  elementary be  he w r o t e  "Winter  Summary  Nature  frequently  of  Study  taught Cornish  wrote  used  a wider  area  geography  School.  Buds,"  "The  Study  Topics  for  and  on  the  Cecropia  Topics  Form  printed  for  III". at  Moth," Form These  a  time  in  which  conveniently.  Professor over  The  articles  Nature  teachers  to  (1924)'  71  a and  biology for  suggested  a  textbook longer  many  his  time.  excellent  other His  book  activities  " T h e S c h o o l was a m o n t h l y m a g a z i n e w h i c h c o n t a i n e d a r t i c l e s o f c u r r e n t e d u c a t i o n a l i n t e r e s t and was s u p p o r t e d by t h e D e p a r t m e n t of Education. I t was p u b l i s h e d f r o m J u n e 1912 t o J u n e 1948.  91  that formed the b a s i s o f many s t u d e n t s ' e x p e r i e n c e s i n s c i e n c e .  72 The O n t a r i o High School Chemistry  (1917)  and the accompanying  m a n u a l ^ were not o n l y a u t h o r i z e d i n O n t a r i o f o r more than y e a r s but were used  i n Saskatchewan, A l b e r t a and B r i t i s h  twenty  Columbia.  In a d d i t i o n , A S e n i o r Chemistry f o r Canadian High S c h o o l s  and  74 Col leges (1934)  had a f a v o u r a b l e r e c e p t i o n .  H i s t e x t b o o k s were  easy t o read b e c a u s e o f the c l a r i t y o f e x p r e s s i o n and h i s a b i l i t y t o r e l a t e the s u b j e c t t o t h e p u p i l s ' everyday e x p e r i e n c e .  And he  was  a master o f p i c t u r e s q u e e x p r e s s i o n ; h i s prose was never vague o r d u l l , a l t h o u g h h i s c h o i c e o f words may present-day paragraph  readers.  The  seem over e n t h u s i a s t i c t o  f o l l o w i n g q u o t a t i o n , the i n t r o d u c t o r y  t o t h e c h a p t e r d e a l i n g w i t h carbon: ^ i n the t e x t - b o o k , 1  The O n t a r i o High School Chemistry  (1917), i l l u s t r a t e s h i s  style: The e l e m e n t carbon o c c u r s uncombined i n s e v e r a l r e m a r k a b l e m o d i f i c a t i o n s , o f which the b e s t known i s c h a r c o a l , w i t h which we k i n d l e our f i r e s . But nobody would suspect t h a t the lead o f our l e a d p e n c i l s , much l e s s the b e a u t i f u l , f l a s h i n g diamond, t r a n s p a r e n t as w a t e r , c o n s i s t s o f the same element as c h a r c o a l . Yet b o t h , e x c e p t f o r a s l i g h t amount o f i m p u r i t i e s , a r e composed o f carbon alone.75 For many t o p i c s  i n the c h e m i s t r y t e x t s he used the h i s t o r i c a l  approach,  the t e c h n i q u e more r e c e n t l y f a v o u r e d f o r many t o p i c s o f t h e p r e s t i g i o u s Biological  S c i e n c e C u r r i c u l u m Study  (BSCS).(see Chap. 3, pp.l/©9-M;5 ) .  Professor Cornish offered e f f e c t i v e leadership in h i s d i s c i p l i n e as e x e m p l i f i e d by h i s a b i l i t y t o handle c o n f l i c t s , such as t h o s e t h a t arose a t m e e t i n g s  o f the N a t u r a l S c i e n c e S e c t i o n o f t h e O n t a r i o Edu-  c a t i o n a l A s s o c i a t i o n , and by h i s powers o f p e r s u a s i o n .  His  speech  delivered an  at  example  the  1907  i n which, he  entitled,  "Should  from  schools?"  and  high  molecular  "classifying that  the In  of  was  and  His  and  the be  Professor  facts  of  that  to  did  teaching  the  the  force  his  personality  pupils'  and  profound.  his It  they  useful  were  were  so  atomic in  convincing 7  not  and  to  the  contribute  novel.  But  learning  teaching  anything  what  careful  past  for  the  re-introduced. ^  he  this  did  classroom through  observing  experience.  enthusiasm,  is  was  abolished  of  contribution  he  be  were  is  speech  inclusion  science"  experimentation,  subject  was  that  Section  His  theories  the  theories  rational  the  teaching  for  Science  ability.  molecular  distinctively  relating  biology  latter  Cornish's  finds  supported  Natural  grounds  the  and  of  and  the  considered  he  the  molecular  good  the  arguments  on  author  exemplify  management;  atomic  connecting  reviewing  could  to  the  of  showed  theories  atomic  biology,  which  meeting  his  that  Through  influence he w i l l  on  be  remembered.  deep  Inspector  Norman  influence  on  appointed  promoter  time  the  So  when  his  makes  biology and  province  appointment  However, the  Davies  Norman job",  was  was  true.  instruction  out  four  branch  every of  7  of  7  other  to  during  this  been  a man  for  whom  While  he was high,  a  who  period.  aphorism,  "the  and  retirement  pupils  was  a  honour.  the  his  was  at  inspector, by  a  industrialized.  questionable  the  had He  education  progressively  have  school  personality  agricultural  becoming  remained  secondary  agriculture.  the  schools  seem  was  agricultural of  in  inspector  might  Davies  was  enrolled  level  in  man of  some  one  93 For  seventeen  successfully high  as  school  provided  a  years  Norman  teacher  principal.  effective  of  For  Davies  science  taught  and  as  school,  agriculture  thirty-years,  leadership  high  from  provincial  1932  and to  inspector  serving  as  a he  1962, of  agricultural  78 science in the  and  solving  ' He o f f e r e d  classroom  Ontario  Col lege  problems.'' of  Agriculture,  and  for  who w e r e  teachers The  pupils and  2.40  science.  training  of  the  rural  Second  in  World  preserved  pollution  and  Changes  : The  As urged  adopted extent  2.41  In  a  12 the  in  secondary  Department these  Secondary  same  that  in  this  and  seminars  Specialists  programs  at in  designed  agriculture.  Davies food  interest  fostered during  he in  helped  the  depression  stimulated an  age  the  of  in  con-  increasing  expansion.  paper,  education  were  the  aided  Education.  School  forty-year  topics  (1921-1960)  Tables  the  teach  perspective  measures  given  shows  of  conducted  summer  needed  industrial Pupils  also  difficult  prospective  which  the  healthy  earlier  figures  Ontario  Table fold.  the  to which  enrolment  a  and  with  for  to  produce  War,  Biology  acquire by  to  1  principal  qualifying  hazardous  mentioned  to  as  for  agriculture  areas  servation  Davies  Education  acted  help  "average" by  Some  successful  12  and  pupil  several  indication can  be  was  measures of  seen  the from  the  13«  Pupils  secondary period  school  the  enrolment  provincial  expanded  population  six-  doubled.  94  Table Ontario  Secondary  Secondary Year  12  School  School  Enrolment  Percentage 15-19  Enrolment  (1920-1960)  of Population  Years  enrolled  in  Aged Secondary  School  1920  42,552  20.0  1925  78,657  27.8*  1930  98,277  29.0*  1935  111,769  31.3-  1941  102,462  29.5  1946  128,000  37.6  1950  132,690  41.0  1955  174,562  51.1  I960  262,775  62.6  S o u r c e s ,:  Ontario,  Notes:  Data  Report of  the  Minister  of Education, 1921,  pp. p p . 20b, Zi>4, 0 0 , 0 0 ; I D I U . , 1 9 3 1 , p p . 87, 2 4 0 , 2 4 8 , 278, 3 1 1 , 377;' i b i d . , 1 9 3 6 , p p . 1 9 0 , 2 0 0 , 2 0 5 , 2 2 2 ; i b i d . , 1 9 4 2 , p. 1 0 1 ; i b i d . , 1 9 4 7 , p. 1 2 2 , i b i d ' . , 1951, PP. 5 2 , 1 3 2 , 1 3 9 ; i b i d . , 1 9 5 5 , p . 94; ibid., I 9 6 0 , p p . 5, S-6, S - 9 1 ; i b i d . , 1 9 6 5 , p . 69; C a n a d a , B u r e a u o f S t a t i s t i c s , C a n a d a Y e a r B o o k , 1 9 2 5 , p p . 83, 93, 1 0 2 ; i b i d . , 1934-35, p . 1 6 4 , i b i d . , 1951 , p . 1 2 5 ; C a n a d a , B u r e a u S t a t i s t i c s , Census o f C a n a d a , 1 9 3 1 , V o l . 3:903; i b i d . , 1 9 4 1 , V o l . 3:32; O n t a r i o , S t a t i s t i c s , 1 9 7 6 , p . 4 0 . from  the whole  of  Canada.  95  However,  the  the  enrolment  the  late  can  of  1  school  would  the  Great  and  high  seem  school  employment.  in  to  World  The  to  in  high  during  the  give  not  result  the  school period  of  in  a  At  that  In  is  and  in  in  hard  19^0's,  the  times for  them  during in  demand armed  of  prosperity  difficult  the  the  hardships  enrolment;  time  advantage  between  early  large  the  and  the  fact, for  workers  services  en-  early.  percentage was  it  the  1920's  economic  direct. as  place.  attendance  relationship  production  school  in  the  always  prosperity  leave  with  the  children  in  actually  took  of  1920's  slowly;  decrease  times  rise  longer,  declined.  in  slow  a  the  more  doubling  their  the  school  food  12)  second  The  is  not  in  increase  enrolled  in  enrolment  pupils  to  during  increased  prosperous  However,  did  a  concomitant  The  industries,  couraged  fold  the  remain  War,  school  war  that  it  (Table s  1  attendance  to  high  1950  Depression.  tend  Second  1920's  the  be  from uniform:  1930's  training.  to  pupils get  early  during  far  the  permitted parents  secondary  1930's  in  conjectured  1950 s  the  and  while  be  was  doubled;  1930's  occurred; It  increase  very  of  15 I9 _  large;  (192.1 - 1 9 6 0 ) .  year  indeed  And  olds  ,  it  towards  who  were  increased  the  end  of  threethe 79  period, The to  high  large  numbers  teach  biology  monstrations expanding tion  of  school  shortened  of  than  class  population  shifts  periods  students  was in  being  each  e x p e r i m e n t a l l y and  rather  school  two  attendance  of of  to  class  experiments  in  instruction.  made  a great  occasionally  students  accepted  were  it  the more  extent  norm. difficult  teacher  performed.  necessitated  the e x i s t i n g Such  as  school  arrangements  the  An accommoda-  building made  de-  it  with difficult  9 6  to  conduct  field  work  laboratory  class  had t o be t a k e n  attendant  reduction  organisms. cation  Pupils  The  o f work  such  exercises,  in a regular  with  microscopes  circumstances  crease  in Secondary  enrolment  general,  and  laboratory  in biology  in the percentage  agriculture The  classroom  a  with the  and studies  the quality  of  living  of biology  edu-  early  and  10 b i o l o g y  followed the enrolment  some d i f f e r e n c e s .  which  1930's  have  been  land  during  is of  interest.  was a c c o m p a n i e d  involved  Table the  optional  in high  school  13 s h o w s  1920 s 1  after  the war years  days,  The f a l l  a de-  9  i n Grade with  1921  were:  i n Grade  1940's.  This  accompanied  in which  topics  Chap.  need  f o r food  9 a n d 10 b i o l o g y  and personal  factors  dependence  of  pupils might  on t h e  production  Inspector  increased  1937 c h a n g e  of  9  Norman in the  in the curriculum  i n t e r e s t were  introduced <  2, p p . 66—67)-  enrolment  then  Several  leadership  the  in Grades  i n t h e number  a greater  an i n c r e a s e d  The enrolment  of social  increase  1920's  in the late  in enrolment  alternative.  and t h e dynamic  increase  10 b i o l o g y  and  by an  among w h i c h  depression  9  Davies.  1920's  during  became  in Grade  agriculture, biology's  The  (1921-60)  Classes  as an a l t e r n a t i v e .  and  during  Biology  of enrolment  a subject  low enrolment  studying  School  but there were  10 b i o l o g y ,  (see  and a t times  suffered.^  2.42  in  Under  or  in Grade  increased  in the  13 b i o l o g y  1930's  decreased  and  1940's.  gradually This  in the  increase  could  T a b l e 13 Ontario  Secondary School Enrolment i n B i o l o g y and A g r i c u l t u r e (1920-1960 )  Percentage o f Grade 9 and 10 Pupils Studying B iology  Year  Percentage o f Grade 9 a n d 10 Pupils Studying Agriculture  Percentage o f Grade 13 P u p i 1 s Studying Biology  1920  68.3*  2.9*  19.8*  1925  47.0  7-1  18.6  1930  29.8  16.1  16.1  1935  36.5  18.8  29.1  1940  43.5  21.3  31.0  1945  47.1***  21.6***  39.2  1950 -•  39.0  37.3  37.3  1955-*  72.5****  N.A.  37.8  I960**  77.2****  N.A.  29.1  Sources:  Notes  (1921)  O n t a r i o , R e p o r t o f t h e M i n i s t e r o f E d u c a t i o n , 1921, p p . 1 7 8 , 179, 2 2 8 ; i b i d . , 1926, pp. 8 0 - 8 2 , 210, 2 3 0 , 2 4 3 ; i b i d . , 1931, pp. 8 7 , 2 4 4 , 2 4 9 , 281, 327; i b i d . , 1936, p p . 90, 190, 200, 204, 2 0 5 , 222; i b i d . , 1941, p p . 1 7 4 , 188; i b i d . , 1945, pp.178, 179, 198, 2 1 3 ; i b i d . , 1946, pp. 108, 1 7 0 , 198; i b i d . , 1950, PP. 151, 154, 1 7 1 ; i b i d . , 1951, p p . 1 1 4 - 1 1 6 ; i b i d . , 1956, S - 9 5 , S-96, i b i d . , 1961, p p . S - 9 1 , S-101.S-102; C a n a d a , D o m i n i o n Bureau o f S t a t i s t i c s , E l e m e n t a r y and S e c o n d a r y E d u c a t i o n i n C a n a d a , 1944-45, p p . 5 7 , 59; i b i d . , 1949-50 , p p . 4 2 - 4 4 .  : * D a t a were o b t a i n e d f r o m s a m p l e s o f O n t a r i o H i g h S c h o o l I n spectors' Reports a v a i l a b l e i n t h e P r o v i n c i a l Archives o f Ontar i o . ** The main S o u r c e o f d a t a were t h e M i n i s t e r o f E d u c a t i o n ' s R e p o r t s w h i c h gave i n d i v i d u a l s u b j e c t e n r o l m e n t o f Grades 9 and 10 up t o 1945 o n l y . Beyond t h i s d a t e an e s t i m a t e had t o be made. The M i n i s t e r o f E d u c a t i o n R e p o r t s a f t e r 1945 d i d g i v e t h e p r o p o r t i o n i n G r a d e 12 who g r a d u a t e d w i t h s c i e n c e options. To g r a d u a t e w i t h a s c i e n c e o p t i o n G r a d e 9 a n d 10 s c i e n c e had t o be t a k e n a s p r e r e q u i s i t e s . Hence t h e p r o p o r t i o n o f g r a d u a t e s i n G r a d e 12 w i t h s c i e n c e o p t i o n s was an e s t i m a t e o f t h e p r o p o r t i o n s t a k i n g G r a d e 9 and 10 s c i e n c e s . F o r e x a m p l e , i f t h e M i n i s t e r o f E d u c a t i o n ' s R e p o r t shows 9000 h a d a s c i e n c e o p t i o n among 10,000 g r a d u a t e s t h e p r o p o r t i o n o f g r a d u a t e s i n G r a d e 12 w i t h s c i e n c e o p t i o n s w o u l d be 9,000 x 100 = 901. S i n c e t h e s e Grade 12 s t u d e n t s had t o t a k e 10,000 G r a d e s 9 a n d 10 s c i e n c e , a n e s t i m a t e o f G r a d e 9 and 10 s t u d e n t s taking science i s a l s o 90%. *** D a t e f o r p r e v i o u s y e a r a s i t was n o t a v a i l a b l e f o r 1945**** B o t h B i o l o g y a n d A g r i c u l t u r e a r e i n c l u d e d t o g e t h e r .  98  have  resulted  biology  f r o m one  course  had  been  physiology,  to  emphasis  ecology.  more  on  reduce  a t t r a c t i v e to  biology Honour  courses  sciences,  which  Generally studying part  of  worthy  that  increased ment  in  people  Diploma  from  during  farming,  an  than  the  genetics  taxonomy  might  the  of  to  made  might  time avoid  m a t h e m a t i ca>l in  the  comments  pupils  the  and  of  World  farmers  War was  II  the  courses in  the  for  the  the  physical  ability.  cannot  of  increase  proportion  studying  percent  human  enrolled  requirements  same  The  biology  have  of  be made  pupils  a b o u t the  It  is  latter  note-  agricultural  science  lower  enrol-  thirty-seven, percent,by  number  and  and  have  students  the  factors.  no d a t a were avai1ab1e.  depression  the actual  at  three  than  on  increase  which  proportion  t o more  1920  and  following  include  satisfy  However  for  less  Or  greater  t h e r e was  the  to  changes  to  required  the  emphasis  These  order  period  of  revised  the  agriculture. the  both  students.  in  Graduation  or  school  Although  1950.  engaged  reduced  in  many  amateur  to almost  one  half  8l during of  this  period  agriculture  students food  in  1950's,  a  not  — 1960) become  agriculture  production While  did  (1921  the large  in war  could  So,  c l e a r l y , many o f  farmers. be  related  The to  high the  these  proportion crucial  pupil.s  of  interest  in  time.  enrolment number  .  of  in  agriculture  students,  "An H o n o u r G r a d u a t i o n D i p l o m a F o r much o f t h e p e r i o d t h e r e c e r t i f i c a t e was a c c e p t e d f o r S c h o o l f o r N u r s e s and U n i v e r s  both  declined rural  somewhat  and  urban,  in  the  continued  i s g r a n t e d on c o m p l e t i n g Grade 13. were r e q u i r e d nine c r e d i t s . This admission to Teachers' Colleges, ities.  99  to  attend  well W.  agricultural  have  been  Dunlop,  to  increased  the  classes.  82  indifference of  non-academic  agricultural  One  reason  the  Minister  83  programs.  for  While  instruction with  the  the  of  decline  may  Education,  some o f  federal  the  provinces  funds  available  8*4  in  1950's,  the  Ontario  made  limited  use  of  this  federal  money.  Summary  2.50  During biology  the  textbooks  velopments research  in  and  teachers.  underwent  Ontario from  More  of  educational  activities. attention  In  and  in  the  methods asset,  of  biological  physiology  and  ecology.  This  content  high  school  biology,  was  a  directed  period,  toward  curricular  trends  of  biology,  applied  reached  its  The adopted school  young  and  the was  was  to  suit  people.  providing  genetics,  direction  during  this  a  in  of  make  more  the use  student  their  shift  in  the  junior  applied  grades. and  harmony  Norman  with a  form  Davies  and  period.  large was  that  agriculture,  including  increase  and  so  to  de-  bacteriology,  the  was  school  increasingly  This  in  interests  High  the  by  science  curriculum, an  interest  and  biological  students  modified  particularly  period.  school  both  accompanied  personal  the  contemporary  were  to  Ontario  from  researchers turned  in which  under  of  in  in  resulted  student  morphology  development  high  gradually aged  of  highest  whole  and  moreover,  social  to  teaching  taxonomy  This  numbers  given  from  of  which  particularly  addition,  education  education, from  a t t e n t i o n was  content  biology  changes  general  changes  biology this  1921-1960,  period  due  biology, proportion mainly  to  was of the  being high  100  parents'  belief  children  to  to  appeal  junior  to  that  live the  biology  in  high an  more  school  increasing varied  students  was  training complex  student reduced-  would  prepare  society.  interests,  the  In  their an  attempt  curriculum  for  101  References  1.  f o r Chapter  EfeDPr_£  Ontario,  .of  2 the Minister  2.  Ibid.,  1918,  p.6.  3.  Ibid.,  1923,  p p . i x , 34.  4.  P.F. Gavin  "Some  Ontario  Educational  p.  228  in  the  1920's  6.  Stanley  A Brief  History  1968),  Rendal1 , l o c .  9.  F r e d e r i c k W. H a r v i e ,  Former  Rendal1 , l o c .  11.  Ontario,  12.  Ibid.,  13.  W.Gerald  p.  1921,  14.  James  15.  Ontario,  L. Hughes,  Ibid.,  1940,  17.  Ibid.,  1939,  18.  Biological  of Canadian p.  25,  p.  pp.  School  p p . 38-40. Education  87.  High  o f Secondary School  Schools  District,  1978.  42-43.  Educative  and Teachers  P-  (Toronto:  p.  Address,  94.  20.  P.2. Abstracts  Vol.  3,  University  of  Society,  Toronto  130.  Presidential  R . M . E . , 1904,  16.  High  Superintendent  Ontario's  Pupils  1971),  Press,  of the Larger  1.  Fleming,  Schools,  Association  ••-  c i t .  R.M.E• ,  1938,  Schools  to the  -  and Lincoln  i n t e r v i e w on J u l y  10.  Historical  High  c i t .  the St. Catherines taped  Challenge  Y e a r b o o k , 1947,  O.E.A.  McGraw-Hill,  8.  8.  79.  in Ontario,"  Johnson,  1  1927,  Yearbook,  in "Canadian  The S o c i a l  1978", p.79.  Papers,  (Toronto:  in  :  PP • 9 ~  Education,"  (O.E.A.)  M. Stamp  D. R e n d a l l , " D e v e l o p m e n t  F. Henry  a  1930's  and  o p . c it . , p.  District 7.  Association  T r a d i t i o n " , The Canadian  Historical Stamp,  in Secondary  as quoted by Robert  Academic  5.  Tendencies  o f E d u c a t i o n , ( R . M . E . ) , 1919 ,  (1927-1961).  O.E.A.  Yearbook,  1913,p.75.  102  19.  OntarTo,  Ministry  of Treasury,  A f f a i r s , (M.T.E.I.A.) Statistics Services, 20.  W i l l i a m T. Keeton, p.  21.  351;  Ontario,  1936;  logy  22.  Ontario, IX  23.  1921,  Bette d e l Giorno, Science  (New Y o r k :  Course  Central  W. N o r t o n ,  1967)  ,  p.38.  of Study,  Upper  School  Bio-  1953.  Science,"1937;  136-150;  pp.  ibid.,  Ontario,  Course  o f Study,  of Changing  in the United  S c i e n t i f i c K n o w l e d g e on  States  since  1850"  (Doctoral  o f C o n n e c t i c u t , 1957), p . 322.  University  B i o l o g i c a l Sciences C u r r i c u l u m Study (B.S.C.S.), High School Green V e r s i o n ( C h i c a g o : Rand, M c N a l l y , 1963), p r e f a c e . Ontario,  26.  I b i d . , 1921, p p . 37-45; O n t a r i o Department o f Education, Courses o f Study and E x a m i n a t i o n s o f H i g h S c h o o l s , C o l l e g i a t e Institues and C o n t i n u a t i o n S c h o o l s , 1922.  27.  George  R.M.E.,  W. H o f f e r d ,  Ontario  29. 30.  Lower  1932) . 5 0 .  School  op. c i t . , pp.  Ontario,  Department  Agricultural  1938.  31.  Ontario,  32.  Ibid.,  33.  Ontario,  Biology  37-45.  and Methodology  (Toronto:  University  of  of Toronto  Press,  50-56.  R.M.E.,  1951,  p.  of Education, Science,  1947,  Ontario, Botany It  o f Study  IX,  1937;  i n General  ibid.,  Grade  Science IX a n d X ,  16.  Department  Department  o f Education,  1930;  to secure  Courses  o f Study  G r a d e s " I X , X , XI  of Education,  and Zoology,  is difficult  Course  Circular  22.  p.  Science and A g r i c u l t u r e , Curriculum S.18.  35.  o f the Content  pp.  Ibid.  and  34.  38; i b i d . ,  A Study  P  Hofferd,  p.  1921,  Biology,  25.  28.  1919,  Circular  1954.  " T h e Impact  Education  Dissertation,  24.  of Education,  ibid.,  R.M.E.,  Science  Intergovernmental  (Toronto:  A . ) , o p . c i t . , 1976,  (M.T.E.I  Department  and  Statisties  1976), p.163.  Biological  Ontario,  Economics  Ontario  Upper  ibid.,  cited  School  1945;  students'  Reprinted  Examinations,  ibid.,  literature.  of t h e author based on o b s e r v i n g school f o r twenty-nine years.  in General  and X I I ,  This  1955. is the opinion  choices  in  upper  1954,  103  Ontario,  36.  37.  Department o f E d u c a t i o n ,  Examinations  o f High  Continuation  Schools,  Ontario,  Department  (Curriculum Ontario,  R.M.E.,  39-  Ontario,  Department  Science  X  Ibid.,  40.  1922;  1954,  Ontario,  I n s t i t u t e s and  R.M.E.,  Courses  1922, p.115.  o f Study  Grade  XIII,  p p . 3-15.  1921, pp. 143-147. o f Education,  and A g r i c u l t u r a l  Norman  o f Study and  Collegiate  o f Education,  S.18)  38.  Courses  Schools,  B. M a s s e y ,  Courses  Patterns  o f Study,  1937;  Science,  ibid.,  f o r the Teaching  Grades  193"B~I of  IX a n d  Science  ( T o r o n t o : M a c m i l l a n C a n a d a , 1965), p p . 215-217; F l e t c h e r G. Watson,"Science Curricula in the Schools," i n The Encyclopedia o f E d u c a t i o n L e e C. D e i g h t o n , e d . ( M a c m i l l a n a n d F r e e Press, 1971) , V o l . 8 -: 102;Jerome B r u n e r , T h e P r o c e s s o f E d u c a t i o n ( C a m b r i d g e , M a s s . : H a r v a r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , I960), p . 7; Menahem F i n e g o l d a n d M i c h a e l C o n n e l l y . "Patterns o f Enquiry S c i e n c e E d u c a t i o n , " O r b i t , 3(1): 3, 1972.  41.  Hofferd,  42.  William  op. c i t . , pp. Graham,  Science 43.  p  aul  de H a r t Schools  44.  Ontario,  45.  Peter  Hurd,  Sandiford,  Gerald  47.  48. 49.  Sandiford,  Education  ED  Text-books,"  School  i n American  010991, 1961,  pp.  Secondary  198-199-  18.  p.  "Curriculum  Revision  in Canada,"  School,  1958): 473-474.  Fleming,  Toronto  Biological  1952,  R.M.E.,  and Science  59: 545-546, 1978.  1890-196 QTTERIC  (February, 46.  108-136.  "Readability  Review,  in  Education:  Press, loc.  1972),  p.  Ontario's  Preoccupation  (University  of  174.  c i t .  ' b i d . Roy R e y n o l d s , Guide t o t h e Items R e l a t i n g t o E d u c a t i o n i n O n t a r i o A r c h i v e s (Newspapers), (Toronto: Ontario Institute f o r Studies i n E d u c a t i o n , 1971), p.70, O r i I l i a P a c k e t a n d T i m e s , Oct. 14, 1937; i b i d . , N o v . 25, 1937.  50.  Sandiford,  51.  Richard in  loc.  Heyman,  c i t . Robert  Educational  p. 86.  F. Lawson,  Change  (Toronto:  and Robert Holt,  M. Stamp,  Rinehart  Studies  and Winston,  1972),  \  104  52.  Sidney  Smith,  Teachers'  "Brains 1954,  September, Douglas  Lawr  Rinehold,  53.  Unlimited,"  Federation  as quoted  and Robert  1973),  p.  Ontario  (O.S.S.T.F.)  Secondary  Builetin,  in Educating  Canadians eds.  Sidney,(Toronto:  Van N o s t r a n d  146.  R o b e r t , M . S t a m p , " C a n a d i a n H i g h S c h o o l s i n t h e 1920's a n d 1930's : The S o c i a l C h a l l e n g e t o t h e Academic T r a d i t i o n , " i n T h e Canadian H i s t o r i c a l A s s o c i a t i o n H i s t o r i c a l Papers, (May 1 9 7 9 ) .  p~5F:  54.  —  W.G. F l e m i n g ,  Ontario's  Administrative Press, 55.  School  34: 176-179,  197D  Educative  Structure  , pp.  11  Vol.2  Society,  (Toronto:  University  The of  Toronto,  .12.  Robert Stake-and Jack E a s l e y , Case S t u d i e s in Science Education (Urbana-Champaign : Centre f o r I n s t r u c t i o n a l Research and Committee E v a l u a t i o n and Committee on C u l t u r e and C o g n i t i o n ,  1978), V o l .  11 (12), 6.  56.  Personal  communication  57.  Ontario,  R.M.E.,  58.  I b i d . , 1954,  59.  Ibid.  60.  Ontario,  61.  Jack  1954,  '  p.13.  p.10.  1957,  R.M.E.,  B. C a l l a n ,  Bulletin  to the author.  p.5-  "An Appointment  with  Responsibility,"  O.S.S.T.F.  37(1): 7, 1957.  62.  Author's  observations.  63.  Ibid.  64.  H.O. B a r r e t t , " E d u c a t i o n a l  The author  was e d i t o r  of "The Crucible"  in  1964-65, 1965-  1966. Research,"  O.S.S.T.F.  Builetin,  37(6):  193-196, 1957. 65.  S.G.B.  Robinson,  OSSTF  Do N o t E r a s e  (Toronto:  Ontario  197D , p p . 280-283.  66.  Ontario,  67.  Ibid.,  68.  Hilda p.  R.M.E.,  1937, Neatby,  12.  1924,  : The Story  Secondary  of the First  School  Teacher's  50 Y e a r s  of  Federation,  p.24.  p.16. A Temperate  Dispute  (Toronto:  Clarke,  Irwin,  1954),  105 69.  J.M.  McKeen  Cattell,  Leaders  Personal  p.  anecdotes  Cornish's  Jacques  Education,  1941),  Press, 70.  In  Cattell  Second  and  E.E.  Edition,  Ross,  (New  eds.  York  : The  Science  215. from a u t h o r ' s  lectures  at  observations  (O.C.E.)  Ontario  in  Professor  College  of  Education,  (1932-1933). 71.  George A. C o r n i s h and D a v i d W h i t e , Geography (Toronto:Ryerson,  72.  George  A.  Cornish  Chemistry 73-  George  A.  and  Cornish  Laboratory  George and  75.  Cornish  76.  George  and  Arthur  Manual  in  Cornish,  Colleges and A.  A Senior  op.  Cornish,  Science  cit.  "Should  from High  Section  of  1907,  Yearbook,  the  pp.  Ontario,  R.M.E.,  i960,  78.  Obituary  Notice,  The  79-  Daniel  Kubat  Canadian  M.C.  The  High  Physical  School  1917) •  Ontario  (Toronto:  and  Chemistry  164  for  High  School  Macmillan of  Canada,  O.E.A.  High  Schools  V  An on  Molecular  address April  198-207p.  Canadian  1934).  t h e A t o m i c and  at  2,  the  Theories  be  Natural O.E.A.  1907-  71.  G l o b e and  David  Society  p.  Clark,  Schools?"  77-  81.  Chemistry  School  Ontario  of Canada,  Smith,  (Toronto:Copp  Smith,  Abolished  Author's  The  High  [  A.  80.  Smith,  ( T o r o n t o :Macmi'l Ian  T9T7T 74.  Arthur  Ontario  M a i 1, F e b .  Thornton,  A  1963.  21,  Statistical  Profile  (Toronto:McGraw-Hi11-Ryerson,  of  1974),  p.  110.  Observation.  Urquhart  and  K.A.H. Buckley,  Historical  Statistics  of  Canada  ( C a m b r i d g e , E n g . : C a m b r i d g e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 6 5 ) , p. 3 5 5 ; O n t a r i o , Department o f Economics and D e v e l o p m e n t , S t a t i s t i c a l R e v i e w f o r I963 ( L e g i s l a t i v e A s s e m b l y o f O n t a r i o , 1963) , P - 3 4 . 82.  Ontario,  R.M.E.,  83.  Fleming,  op.  84.  Ibid.,  1957,  c i t . , Vol.  V o l . 3, p .  140,  p.  80.  2, pp. 351-352,  -  Chapter  BIOLOGY  EDUCATION  Three  IN A P E R I O D OF E D U C A T I O N A L  FLUX  (1961-1978) Introduct ion  3.10  The  second  period  (1921-1960) w a s  school  enrolment  and c o n t i n u i n g  future  citizens.  Nevertheless,  to  change,  established  and a l t h o u g h in  large  attempts  dominate  t h e c u r r i c u l u m and most  academic  course.'  what  children  learned  and v o c a t i o n a l  schools,  Science  academic  pupils  content  in high  to educate  the  enrolled  science  over  was more  had been  continued  in the  had precedence  school  resistance  programs  subjects  high  "average"  i t was c h a r a c t e r i z e d by  technical  urban  a time o f expanding  to  prestigious  process  so  important  that  than  2 how  they  learned.it.  Investigators of  the United  In  fact,  really  these  studying  States  reported  researchers  unsubstantiated  experienced  biological similar  found  belief  nor understood,  that  education patterns much  of  t o be memorized  and that  in the high  during  the late  the factual but not  the processes  schools  1950's.  c o n t e n t was  necessarily  of biology  were  3 usually  1960 s 1  current seen  ignored. a veritable of  since  reform  However,  some e d u c a t o r s  educational swept  the early  through  days  revolution  maintained in Ontario  the educational  of the century  scene  that  during  occurred. -  a n d a movement  the  "A  a movement that  turned  not  107 into  reality,  formers."  many  The  and that of  programs  psychologist  the  the  hopes  biology  the  espoused  educator,  Sciences  a by  the  Indeed,  earlier  generation  dramatic Jerome  Study  should  teach  Bruner  stated  shift  Bruner,  Nuffield  Curriculum  curriculum  discipline.  of  involved  as  and  Biological  the  the  revolution  quiry-oriented States  of  the  the  educational biology. offer  They  for  in  the  change,  as  will  learners'  turn  followed  when  in  1976  "return  to  the  was  1960's be  the  a  a or  noted,  that  1960  and  not  since  the  provincial  Ontario in  use  the  revolution  in  not,  were  for  there both  for  core  to  of  take  by  processes  Ontario urgent  bring on  the  basic  .  that  place  in  government  secondary requests  these  content Thomas  6  not  authors,  school for  radical  and  appealing  changes This  Wells,  would  did  programs.  curriculum  which  the  Ontario  non-Canadian  about  Education,  curriculum  .  new d i s c o v e r y  updating  emphasis  Minister a  books  .  contended  did  not  affirmed  that  s  1  United  They  structure  colleagues  Attempts  desire  basics"  the  could  interests. by  author's  enquiry-directed  teachers  there  biology  the  of  maintained  biology  Whether  a  the  revolution  grants  Ontario  some o f  en-  investigators  To i n s t r u c t someone i n t h e s e d i s c i p l i n e s i s to teach him to p a r t i c i p a t e in the process t h a t makes p o s s i b l e the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of knowledge. We t e a c h a s u b j e c t . . . to get a student . . . t o take part in the process of knowledge getting.5  However,  re-  towards  Project  groups.  of  were  to  in  w a s e v i d e n t .. announced  produce  a  An e d u c a t i o n a l r e v o l u t i o n i s c o n s i d e r e d t o a p p l y t o a n y complete change i n an e d u c a t i o n a l a p p r o a c h w h e t h e r t h e c h a n g e a p p l i e s t o t h e treatment of the p u p i l or the subject matter.  108  "well-rounded upon  which The  program  optional  required  s;uhjects  revolutionary  return-to-basics Hugh  with  mood  movement  in  could of  subjects be  the  the  forming  careful 1y  1960's  1970's,  and  was  a  foundation  chosen.  its  reaction,  captured  by  the  educator  Stevenson: We t h o u g h t [ i n t h e 1 9 6 0 ' s ] e d u c a t i o n was i n a s t a t e o f f e r m e n t b u t we f a c e d t h e d i f f i c u l t i e s ahead i n a gay p a r t y mood, w i t h o p t i m i s t i c s p i r i t s c o n f i d e n t in our a b i l i t y t o inaugurate a renaissance in Canadian e d u c a t i o n a l systems . . . . Many c h a n g e s w e r e made w i t h l i t t l e o r no thought o f c h a i n r e a c t i o n s t h a t had been i n i t i a t e d and the e s s e n t i a l i t y of integrating s o c i e t a l development and e d u c a t i o n a l reform.8  In  the  account change  3.20  of in  Changes 3.21  remainder the  biological  : The  Biology  Textbooks,  the of  these  grams for  as  the  systems  States  BSCS  Grade  11  and  education  and  Curriculum  so  and  12  Ontario.  and  about  visiting  as  give  an  background  those  for  changes.  adopted  course.  biology  In  taught  Indeed,  that  outright  such in  addition, in  in-  changes  curricula.  administrators  were  four-year  speakers  contemporary  biological  Version  the  present  will  Programs  impressed  between  will  author  (1961-1978)  teachers  British  Green  existed in  general  decision-makers  the  and  the  Biological  innovations  connection  of  chapter  education  journals,  Ontario's  United  this  development  Contemporary  formed  of  in some pro-  Ontario a  close  neighbouring  109  (i)  The  Biological  Sciences  Dissatisfaction schools among  led  the  others,  biology  with  of  f o r m an  education  committee  to  With  began  committee  consisted  teachers  psychologists by  Foundation,  the  the  Dr.  of  and  United  (N.S.F.),  had  investigating  team s t u d i e d  United  States  (1959), w r o t e  rooms,  rewrote  revised  units  the on  units  a  on  larger  revealed  the  commercially.'^  have  been  made w i t h  the  the  basis  the  tests  Green  of  the  these  The  As  Several  revisions  Version  undergoing  this  National  of  Science  The in  units  class-  in  its  the  the  published  1962 all  the  tested  corrected in  group  teaching  responses,  finally,  A.I.B.S.  support.  biology  new  school  the  financial  pupil  (A.I.B.S.),  Study.  through  of  States  develop  secondary  tested  and,  to  chairman,  (1961-1962),  population  difficulties material  by  condition units,  Sciences  administrators.  government  new  United  1958  as  biologists,  considerable  the  in  Course  the  Curriculum  educational  States  it  Glass  Sciences  practising  in  Biological  Bentley  Biological  (BSCS)  instruction  Institute  curricula.  funded  science  Study  American  committee  was  Curriculum  three  fifth  versions  revision  i n 1980.  11  The  sixty  members  biology  should  give  search,  should  focus  a  of  the  true on  BSCS  team agreed  picture of  the  nature  of  the  that  nature  of  high  school  biological  s c i e n t i f i c enquiry  and  reshould  12 present  the  Because  of  biology  programs  Blue  pupil the  Version,  with  a  divergent or  which  coherent  approaches  versions dealt  picture of  were  with  the  of  contemporary  biological  developed. molecular  research  These level  were: of  biology. three (i)  biology,  the  110  (ii)  the Yellow  level,  and  The  by p r o v i d i n g  the unity  these  purposes,  three  versions:  (a)  concepts,  evolution,  (d)  things,  mentarity  of  behaviour, (i)  three  of  of  of  the genetic  type  the regulation  of  and homeostasis  -  of  (g)  of  1^  biological  To  themes  also  achieve  common  to a l l  enquiry, (b)the history things  and u n i t y  and environment,  the complementarity  as  ecology.  that  science.  living  continuity  cellular on  courses  nine  science of  the  the d i v e r s i t y  produced  stressed  at  concentrated  biological  the change  the d i v e r s i t y (e)  which  versions,  authors  (c)  biology  illustrating  the nature  organism  (h)  while  t h e BSCS  described  Version,  and c o h e r e n c e  biological  living  which  ( i i i ) t h e Green  BSCS w r i t e r s ,  research showed  Version,  of  through  pattern  life,  (f)  time-  among  the  the biological  structure  complebasis  and f u n c t i o n  the preservation  of  of  and  of  life  in  be  illustrated  14 the  face  of  The by  BSCS members  a representative  and  thought  phenomena tissue, To  change.  at  that  variety  students  various  organ,  stated  of  of  learn  population,  developed  organization a model,  rectangular From  this  block  model,  constructed  from  might  be  represented as  in any b i o l o g y  to appreciate  by t h e t h r e e  i11ustrated  in  into  the accompanying  maintained,  blocks  the  formed  by  of  of  these a  figure  a course  intersection  biome.  and t h e  a course,  dimensions  t h e BSCS w o r k e r s  cellular,  and w o r l d  the organisms  integrated  course, •  biological  molecular,  community  themes,  :  of  themes-should  organization,  i l l u s t r a t e how t h e b i o l o g i c a 1  levels  these  a l l organisms  should  levels  individual,  that  could the  2. be  three  writers  Ill  Figure  Bentley  Glass,  Sciences  -  -  i n many  programs  Blocks Ideas  BSCS  Journal,  themes  at  of  Retrospect  to the Blue,  for pupils  Challenging  and  Study  organisms,  textbooks  materials  ment  " T h e BSCS  addition  provided  oratory  Model  Curriculum  variables, In  Schematic  Curriculum  and P r o s p e c t "  and  levels  Green  concept  of  offered  1965)^,  a  organization.^  and Y e l l o w areas  levels  to able  young  and The  second  Versions,  including  different ability  were  Biological  1 ( 4 ) : 2-4, 1978.  (12 t i t l e s , 1 9 6 9 ) ^ (BSCS,  2  up-dated  and f o r students  Interaction  level  the  course.  of  BSCS learning  teachers. by  Lab-  Experi-  Patterns  and  18 Processes exercises  (BSCS^1966) was  published  which  contained  for pupils  many  activity-oriented  who had d i f f i c u l t y  with  biological  concepts.  Among  t h e books  Teachers'  Handbook  prepared  for teachers  was The  Biology  19 BSCS  program  and d e s c r i b e d  Because  t h e BSCS  workers  along  with  understandably evidence a  (.1963).  BSCS  which  new p r o c e d u r e s  courses  skilled  thought  regarding  the philosophy  useful  designed  by  and a t  great  teachers much  for the  leading  reported  is  that  the  research they  were  However,  contradictory. students  of  programs.  expense,  s c i e n t i f i c merit.  effectiveness  (1963),  investigator  were  t o have  their  outlined  the  Wimburn,  who were  trained  20 by  t h e BSCS  Lisonbee middle no  approach  and  ability  also  (1964)  Fullerton levels  difference  (1966)  out-performed  scored  for other  stated  reported  higher  ability  that  t h e non-BSCS s t u d e n t s . that,  on  t h e BSCS  levels.  t h e r e was  while  21  pupils  program,  of  22 (1964)  Lance  no d i f f e r e n c e  But  between  the  there  was  and  Lewis  the  achieve-  23 ment  scores  of  BSCS  Welshar  and P e r r y  Version  thought  and  students  (1967)  that  appreciated  and those  found  they  were  the content  of  that  of  BSCS  learning the  t h e non-BSCS pupils  biology  laboratory  controls.  who used  the  Yellow  i n a s c i e n t i f i c way  exercises,  but  only  2 forty-five  percent  (1966)„  Ausubel contended agreed methods Blue and  that  that of  t h e BSCS  Versions  important Ausubel  they  modern  history  of  of  the pupils who a n a l y s e d  were  versions  biology,  placed  undue  biology  applications  averred,  less  liked  the Yellow  the contents  useful  than  addressed  both  while  on  ignoring  textbooks  texts.  the content that  textbook.  t h e BSCS  conventional  but he m a i n t a i n e d emphasis  of  Version  and the  the Yellow  the experimental the n a t u r a l i s t i c  of  biological  science.  This  rendered  the Yellow  and Blue  Versions  He  and  foundations approach  emphasis,  and  113  and pedagogica11y unsound  "psychologically  f o rthe majority  of  ,,25 tenth  graders.  treatment  of  many  an a b s u r d  duce  Ausubel  also  topics:  "[The Yellow  condemned t h e c o m p l e x i t y  and u n r e a l i s t i c  sophistication  for which  the  level  intended  Versions]  and Blue  of  biochemical  users  of the  lack  intro-  and b i o p h y s i c a l  any  semblance o f  26 adequate  background  Numerous the  defects  the  fifth  .  .  .  revisions  that  have  Ausubel  revision  of  ." provided  noted.  opportunities  For example,  t h e Green  Version  was  to  correct  the reading  lowered  from  level Grade  of 10  27 to  Grade  $.  The r e v i s e d  more  than  two m i l l i o n o f  represented  texts  sold  well,  so  apparently  they  filled  I n d e e d , s a l e s b y t h e e n d o f 1978 t o t a l l e d two t h e Y e l l o w V e r s i o n , one m i l l i o n o f t h e B l u e and  a perceived need. m i l l i o n copies of  one q u a r t e r  the Green. of  28  a l l high  The Green  school  Version  biology  texts  texts  that  were  also  been  in-  29  sold  in  the United  The  long-range  vestigated, and  Rayder  four grams  years  but  after  was  these  biology"  l i t t l e  and they  t h e BSCS  of  t h e BSCS  had taken  in the average  contrast, Version  "such Tamir  the scores  differences  (1975)  (Yiddish  found  of  had no  translation)  Version,  showed  a l l  that  pro-  of  Yellow  findings  scores  students  biological  Version,  Their  Heidgerd  university  various  Green  and no b i o l o g y .  that  of  compared  Version,  has  contradictory.  the performances  Blue  concluded  Yellow  approach  a r e somewhat  investigators  difference  In  J  students  The  10.  significance." studied  measured  who had s t u d i e d  "conventional  groups,  effect  the results  (197*0  in Grade  students  there  States.  the  five  educational  pupils for  that  who had  each  114  of  four  years  biological taken  scored  concepts  significantly at  "conventional  the  end  biology"  interesting  in  Version  "psychologically  was  view  of  of  for  higher the  the  Ausubel's  on  period same  same  than  time.  contention  and  the  pupils This  that  pedagogically  test  on  who  had  result  the  is  Yellow  unsound  for  the  to  which  31 majority It the  of is  tenth hard  to  investigative  being  used.  The  significant. of  graders."  education the  efforts  contract  the  of  made  of  by  the  to  the  by  the  BSCS  and  joint  directors  National  They  extent  Stake  Jack  Science  investigate  States.  BSCS  the  outlined  Robert  were  to  BSCS)  United  indicated  techniques  educators  agency  in  that  conclusions  under  funding  data  teaching  These  observers  (the  find  the  reported  were  Easley of  a  are group  Foundation  condition that  in  of  spite  of  group:  S e l d o m was s c i e n c e t a u g h t as s c i e n t i f i c e n q u i r y a l l t h r e e s u b j e c t s [ m a t h e m a t i c s , s c i e n c e and s o c i a l s t u d i e s ] were p r e s e n t e d as what t h e e x p e r t s had f o u n d t o b e t r u e . 32 This of  finding  the  Yellow  possible  is  in  accord  Version  approach.  with  (BSCS),  He  noted  the that  the  comments inquiry  by  John  science  following  A. was  limitations  Moore, not of  Supervisor  the the  only inquiry  method: a)  T h e r e is no e v i d e n c e t h a t methods of t e a c h i n g ] .  b)  It  is  in  the  guess c)  Not  really  seduction,  classroom what  all  the  the  is  subjects  not  that  teacher  it  superior  induction.  the  has  are  is  in  students mind  amenable  [to  What are  other  happens  asked  to  . . . . to  the  discovery  mode.  115  d)  And  one  might  add  to  the  list,  that  Inquiry,  p r o p e r l y done, is a slow, time-consuming method. For e v e r y t o p i c developed v i a I n q u i r y , several o t h e r t o p i c s must be i g n o r e d . So o n e m i g h t c o m p r o m i s e i n an e f f o r t t o a c h i e v e some Inquiry b u t n o t m a k e i t t h e m e t h o d . 33  (ii)  The  Like  Nuffield  Biology  the  programs,  BSCS  Programs  the  Nuffield  Biology  Projects  were  34 designed Biology 11-16 The  to  provide  Programs  years  of  0-level  enquiry-centred  were  age  (1966)  courses  investigations,  planned and  these  the  A-level  for  pupils  pupils  and  stimulated  courses  were  the  Nuffield  two  the  levels,  The  for  interested  but  curricula.  0-level  criticized  for  16-18  pupils  (1970)  .  3  5  individual  because  they  required  of  a  higher  Pupils  level  who  had  of  mental  studied  maturity  A-level  than  most  pupils  biology  were  reported  possessed. to  be  enthusiastic  37 about  their  training  Although  the  secondary  schools  Nuffield  programs  the to  wide try  3.22  innovative  General  In the  acclaim  I96I-I978 province.  States was  critical  Green  Version  after were given  to  During  the  only  approval in  programs  a  used  in  (1964),  and  few O n t a r i o  predisposed  some  Ontario  the  classrooms,  Ontario  teachers  procedures. in  Ontario  influence of  Great  a f f e c t e d by  thinking.  BSCS was  sparingly  Changes  the  and  of  these  teaching  to  scientific  departmental used  Education  addition  United  in  Britain,  the  early  the  1  s  Schools  contemporary  Ontario  changing  1960  Secondary  biology  educational  Premier  John  (1961-1978)  programs  of  education  of  scene  Robarts,  in and  the Minister  116  o f : E d u c a t i o n , . Wi 1.1 i a m D a v i s , Their both  i  political inside  The  and  Robarts  Robarts to  meet  war  in  baby  and  the  was  urgent  tion  and  to  educational  had  two  difficult  the  First,  high  with  system.  of  change.  other  reformers  38  for  the  and  industrial  this  responsibilities  from  time,  the  "post-  resulting  'teaching  staff.  had  neglected,  s k i l l e d workers to  pupils  at  education  two o b l i g a t i o n s ,  provide  educational  schools  buildings  industrial  demand  These'  accord  the  school  1  in  of  1960's..  reached  1950 s,  the  economy.  Davis  for  developed  proponents  1961  early  need  during  were  outside  Plan  boom"  increased  an  plans  were, e f f e c t i ve  been  for  Ontario's  increase  training,  high  an  Secondly, and  there  expanding  school  threatened  in  the  accommodaOntario  39 government  with  government  offered  the  Technical  percent by  the  of  huge  and  the  federal  financial  the  provinces  Vocational  cost  of  outlays. and  Act  of  secondary  government  with  Fortunately,  the  municipalities  1961 .  By  technical  the  the  this  remaining  help  act,  training  federal through  seventy-five  was  to  twenty-five  be  borne  percent  kO divided used  b e t w e e n the p r o v i n e e  the-federal  grant'  teohnJ-ca-'l: t r a i n i n g To enroll "Robarts in  help in  and  persuade  vocational P l a n " which  and  the  municipality.  t o m e e t ' b o t h * of more  high  the  large  work,  the  gave  Robarts  't'heM lr' -oh 1*? g a t Ton's ; ..»t©' :  :  number  of  additional  pupils  of  Education  the  same c r e d i t  to  a  one  who  training  as  time-honoured  academic  courses  Davis  provide  school  Department  vocational  and  chose  (Figure  the 3)-  pupil  business So  a  introduced  who  the  enrolled  course  pupil  to  could  or  the  secure  an  Honour  to  university,  (Arts  Graduation  and  a  had  qualifying  three  one  of  (Business  for  to  and  for  a  v  i  s  m  a  i  n  t  admission  programs:  each  academic  or  of  vocational  these  different ability a  four-year  college-'' or  42 D  a  for  Commerce)  university;  community  stream.  three  Moreover,  designed  leading  necessary  the  Trades).  streams  pupil  occupational  any  and  stream the  which, was  business  Technology  five-year  year  taking  Science),  (Science, programs  by  Diploma  a i n e d  stream  industry; that  level:  the  and  a  two-  provision 43  of  different  However,  an  Federation  streams  the  (O.S.S.T.F.)  for  two-year  such each and  implementation Robarts  a  investigation  troduced with approach  met  Plan  was  by  speed  that  level.  The  the  the  a  pupil  Secondary  that  the  new  teachers  had  little  pupils  and  different  O.S.S.T.F.  program  dropped  of  Ontario  indicated  four-year  and  variety  needs.  School  courses  were'in-  time  to  investigators  suffered  from  this  was  unsatisfactory.  new  approach,  the  Teachers'  plan  noted  the  that  precipitous In  1972-73,  Credit  the  system  44 (see lived 12 a  Chap.  Robarts  biology science  A  3,  subjects.  )  Plan  feasible  which course  community  offering  pp. 121-2 made  came  attracted a with  college  training  in  high  was  a  into  full  the  large  chances  non-degree  technical,  introduction  number of  operation.  of  of  students  The Grade and  success.  granting  commercial  or  institution academic  short11  and  provided  3  Figure P r o g r a m s ' O f f e r e d by  D'v:S!ON l.\  T  Y E A R OF SECONDARY SCHOOL  tRMEDIATE  SENIOR  GRADE  Robarts  Plan,  FIVE-YEAR 'ADVANCED' STREAM  AGES  1  FOUR-YEAR 'GENERAL' STREAM  TWO-YEAR STREAM  13-14  SECONDARY  10  14-15  11  15-16  12'  1 6-1 7  SCHOOL  GRADUATION  13 HONOUR  the  DIPLOMA  compulsory attendance until age 16  DIPLOMA  f  ~f  17-18  GRADUATION  I"  ^3  EMPLOYMENT  COMMUNITY COLLEGES  UNIVERSITIES  Source:  Murray  Lang,  curriculum secondary Biological  "The  effects  developments schools  of  Education,  on  of  changing  biology  patterns  courses  Ontario, Canada,"  in  of the  Journal  1 0 ( 3 ) : 1 3 3 - 1 3 8 , 1976.  of  119  ii  The  Hall-Dennis  Criticism in programs  led  pupil.  In  t o an  Ontario  chairman  and  obtained  secondary  education. Learning  of  Their  : The  LLoyd  appointed Justice  the  "average"  a committee  to  Emmett  was  Hall  a consultant.  include  the  to  of  of  academic  Dennis  findings,  Report  structured  the education Davis  permission  45  highly  education.  Superintendent  also  and  the  Minister  elementary  committee  Living  of  investigation  1965 E d u c a t i o n  investigate the  1960's  the  7  (I.968)  Report  The  the  The  condition  Hall-Dennis  Provincial  of  Report  or  C o m m i t t e e on  Aims  46 and  Objectives  of  Education ;  d  in  the  Schools  of  (1968)  Ontario  J  cri:t icized'Ontario^ education  and  !  argued  that  school  programs  should  47 be of  pupi1-centred. schooling that  without  the  stressed  The c o m m i t t e e condemned t h e l o c k - s t e p " type p r e v a i l e d and e n v i s a g e d " c o n t i n u o u s progress  hazards  more  and  frustrations  individualized  of  instruction  failure." and  48  more  The  help  report  from  49 guidance  and  published, education local  resource  with  its  spending  However,  recommendations was  l i m i t e d by  for  the  no  sooner  expensive  imposition  was  the  report  innovations, of  ceilings  than on  expenditures."^ The  lack  of  money  Hal 1-DennislReport recommendation grams was science of  services.  pupi1  as  from  that  accepted. i t was interest.  resulting being  pupils This  forced  from  implemented  be  permitted  resulted to  t h e c e i 1 \ngs>,  in  a  compete w i t h  fully,but to  choose  falling other  in  prevented the their  report's own  pro-  enrolment  subjects  the  on  in  the  basis  iii  Ceilings Popular  on  Educational  comments  in  the  citizens  believed  that  rendered  or  the nation  "that  worth  [for  enter  or  to  uncertain  an  expenditures  As  a  school  of  the  guidance  and  compromise  Bill  1969-  of  municipalities  As  a  cut In  result back  This on  the  from  . are  the  a  to  on  of  their  full  service  was  i t s $12  young  to  not  being  bi11ion-a-year who  haphazard  journey  educational  carry  with  some  Canadians a  high  that  its  out  the  re-  individual  in-  services. opposing  imposed  this  viewpoints  Provincial ceilings  including bill  guidance of  1969)  Indicate  undertaking  be n e e d e d  these  education  imposition  having  million  the Ontario bill  to  getting  Meanwhile  resource  passing  immediately  such ways  Report  of  .  between  expenditure,  in  not  H a l 1-Dennis R e p o r t  educational 228  was  six  considered  228.  appeared  the .  (Bill  educational  destination."^'  were  commendations struction,  to  press  adequate  education], that  return  Spending  and  ceilings  revolutionary  Government  on  the  laboratory many  boards  resource  prevented effect.  about passed  expenditures facilities. of  education  departments. the  Hall-Dennis  52  The c o s t o f secondary e d u c a t i o n in O n t a r i o rose r a p i d l y i n the p e r i o d 1960-1978. I n f a c t f r o m I 9 6 0 t o 1975 t h e c o s t o f e d u c a t i secondary school pupil increased almost three times, almost d o u b l e what w o u l d have been expected f r o m i n f l a t i o n . Ontario, R e p o r t o f t h e M i n i s t e r o f E d u c a t i o n , 1961, PP1^9, 161; ibid., 1966, p p . 207, 2 1 2 ; i b i d . , 1970, T a b l e 8.3; ibid., Statistics,  1976,  PP. 38, kS, 76.  An Board  example  of the effect of ceilings  of Education  carrying  out their  provided  special  vironment room  iv  promotion. Ontario  usually well  repeat  pupil the  If  credit  subjects.  being  f o r every  successfully.  Under  high  When  this  failed  this  en-  dining  the use of  this  promotion  by  by g r a d e  subject  was  usual  i n one o r two s u b j e c t s  work,  system,  schools  even  i f he had done  the pupil  attempted  a whole  arrangement,  who had t o  year  to prevent by  a pupil  twenty-seven  a  introducing was g i v e n  110-120 h o u r s o f i n s t r u c t i o n  he had e a r n e d  Report  school.  to repeat  of  grade  year's  and l e f t  compelled  subject  a pupil  Under  interest  system.  a kitchen,  228  1960's, p r o m o t i o n  the whole  some O n t a r i o  1969  from  credit  to the late  lost  had  rural  in the Hall-Dennis  was t o r e p l a c e  he had t o r e p e a t  often  In  the criticism  schools.  in certain  from  (1969)  schooling  high  to a  the  53  t o meet  Prior  of Bill  l)  The board  the pupils  dormitories,  On t h e p a s s a g e  prevented  (Appendix  education.  for bringing  complete with  System  attempt  "lock-step"  for ecological  facilities  was c u r t a i l e d .  One  in  plans  in a centre  The C r e d i t  of  o f t h e Borough o f Etobicoke  and l a b o r a t o r i e s .  centre  on spending  credits  one  completed  he was  awarded  Sh a  Secondary  system school. select were  School  was t h a t  Graduation  more  students  But t h e c r e d i t only  the easiest  not prerequisites  system  Diploma. were  The advantage  encouraged  had two major  subjects  o r he might  for future  learning.  of  to graduate defects: choose  this from  a student  subjects  For these  credit high might  that  reasons  many  122  guidance* choices  c o u n s e l 1 ors. w e r e for t h e i r  disjointed  eventual  programs  was  required  to.help  goarls.The  also  danger  reduced  by  the of  p u p i Is; make  pupils  subject  wise  choosing  departments  55 establishing the  credit  all  Ontario  their  system  system  school  choices  some o f  pupils v  Core  negative  schools.  In  the  advantage  of  giving  and  their  were  and  In  spite  by  1972  opinion  of  defects  compulsory  the  still  too well  its  was  decision  parents;  not  of  -  author, making  the  for the  about  implications  understood  by  some  in  Report,  more  freedom  from  Thomas  recommended  regarding  parents,  Wells,  Under  1976. had  which  to  have  this  credit  geography  securing  a  program in  and  Secondary  and  of  content,  by  pupil  English,  science.  freedom,  met w i t h The  who  Of  the  a  core  introduced graduated  mathematics,  such from  Diploma,  credits  nine  57 credits  were  balance  between  it  appeared  societal  obligatory,  that  the the  one  needs shift  requirements.  of at  of  which  the the  pupil end  was  science.  and of  the  the  Thus,  demands  period  was  a  Canadian  twenty-seven  Graduation  many  O.S.S.T.F.  providing  Education,  each  School  pupil  teachers.  program  Minister  more  course  pupils  s p e c i f i c a l l y defined  Canadian  for  (197.6)  Curriculum  a more  school  needed  widely  decisions  and  curriculurn.^  history,  adopted  pupils  reactions  suggested  high  to  Hall-Dennis  options  program  the  prerequisites.  parents.  Wells'  more  had  those  and  The  was  secondary  credit  of  own  of  in  the  society,  toward  123  vi  Comments  by  During  this  parents  held  by  the  in  Ontario,  a)  A  about  period  strong  Ontario  showed  Parents  of  the  change  viewpoints  Ministry Survey  of  of  as  Programs  in  the  Parents'  educational  indicated  Education,  (1972)  Offered  by  a  entitled,  system  survey  conducted  Quality  (1972).  Perspective  the  of  Education  The  survey  that:  Most to  children  be  pleased  claimed Only  their  (according  to  with  education  their  c h i l d r e n were  11% c l a i m e d  their  their  parents) ....  moderately  c h i l d r e n were  ...  seemed  87% o f  parents  to very  less  than  happy. content.  b)  M o s t p a r e n t s (70%) f e l t t h a t t h e r e h a d b e e n s o m e progress in education over the past f i v e years. A s i z e a b l e m i n o r i t y (27%), h o w e v e r , d i d n o t h o l d this view . . . . Secondary school parents, o l d e r , male, or b e t t e r educated respondents were l e a s t l i k e l y to perceive progress . . . .  c)  Despite the general s a t i s f a c t i o n , considerable d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n was d e t e c t e d w i t h r e g a r d t o t h e v o c a t i o n a l preparation which to-day's schooling provides. Fifty-one percent of the sample agreed t h a t ' s t u d e n t s a r e b e t t e r p r e p a r e d t o go o u t i n t h e w o r k i n g w o r l d t h a n t h e y w e r e i n the past. However, f o r t y - s e v e n p e r c e n t d i d not share t h i s view.58 1  Thus  parents  children  were  did met  not  all  fully.  agree  that  the  educational  needs  of  all  124  3.30  Changes  : The B i o l o g y  Within changes,  the framework  biology  9 a n d 10  Grade  11,  a senior  Grade  13,  an h o n o u r s  Grade  In centred  on  courses  a r e based,  from  t h e 1961  Science,  level,  of  t h e 1961  program  Grade  program  additional  with  their  distinctive characteristics  Fig.  4 provide  striking  educational  Education  in  the course  Robarts  five-year  of  programs  curricular  other  developed  textbooks  revisions  shown  for further  most  is  used  together  in Table  14 a n d  in  discussion.  Course  1960's  the  of  the  a framework  Five-Year  While  The f o u r  attention  on w h i c h  ( i i i ) the authorized  the period.  1961  level,  Science  9 a n d 10 b i o l o g y ,  throughout  i  levels:  intermediate  in General  three  and  an  three  and  five-year  (ii)  at  educational  level.  Biology  the discussion  general  was d e v e l o p e d  General  9 a n d 10  (i)  of Ontario's  education  Grade  3.31  (1961-1978)  Curriculum  were  change,  showed  in  1961  t o be a t i m e  by t h e d y n a m i c  innovation  introduced  course  by many  spearheaded  and D a v i s ,  study  1961  considered  was n o t  Ministers  conspicuous  for biology.  few d i f f e r e n c e s  of  In  fact,  from the  59 syllabus  of  redesigned planned  1937 biology  and c o n t r a s t e d program  by t h e B i o l o g i c a l  3, p.I.09) w e r e  being  sharply  in the United Sciences  tested.  with  the  States  Curriculum  extensively  where  Study  The d i f f e r e n c e between  courses  (BSCS) the  ( s e e Chap.  biology  125  Table Revisions  in Ontario  General  Science  Grades  9, 10.  (1961-1978)  Years of R e v i s i o n Ope r a t i o n  of  Length Course  1961  1961-1972  5  years  1962  1962-1972  4  years  1972  1972-1978  5  years  1978  1978 +  14  5  years  Including  Percentage of Enrolment or Pupi1s  65  (1966)  9, (1966) 95 95  (1975) (1978  Biodogy,  Sal ient  Points.  s c i e n t i f i c method stressed. course s implified f o r a v e r a g e p u p i1. c h o i c e from a l t e r natives  in the  c u r r i cu1 urn. stresses structure and p r o c e s s o f b iology provides a core. > (  Source:  O n t a r i o , Department of S c i e n c e G r a d e s 7, 8, 9 1961; Ontario, Report I967', p p . 34, 77,-78.;' Intermediate Division, C u r r i c u l u m 1972; i b i d .  E d u c a t i o n . , I n t e r med i . a t e D i v i s i o n , a n d 10, C u r r i c u l u m 1 : ( e ) , of the M i n i s t e r of Educat i o n , Ontario.,. Department o f E d u c a t i o n , S c i e n c e G r a d e s 7,8,9 a n d 10  , 1978,;  ~  126  Figure 4 Changes  In Grade 9 and 10 B i o l o g y Programs  (1961-1978)  19f 1 F i v e Year Program (1937 Program) + cell biology, genetics, e c o l o g y , s c i e n t i f i c method, a l l u n i t s and t o p i c s o b l i gatory)  1962 Four Year Program ( S i m i l a r to 19&1 F i v e « a r program but. s impli f ied)  v  Four Year Program d i scont inued 0972-73  1972 F i v e Year G u i d e l i n e Program (1961 Program + D.N.A., m i t o s i s , m e i o s i s , and e v o l u t i o n , l o c a l cont r o l , many o p t i o n s , no o b l i g a t o r y u n i t s or t o p i c s )  1978 F i v e Year G u i d e l i n e Program (1961 F i v e Year Program updated, l o c a l c o n t r o l , s e v e r a l o p t i o n s but some o b l i g a t o r y u n i t s and t o p i c s )  127  programs partly were  in the United  t o personnel  being  syllabus topics BSCS  made  revision  topics  important committee  by  experience  and r e s e a r c h e r  hours  years  spent  physics,  chemistry  is  as  spectacular The  course  showed  program the  their  of  fungi  following  microscopic  A).  amoebae.  a " s c i e n t i f i c method".  received  much  theme o f  t h e 1956 N a t i o n a l  attention  Method,"  and both  research  the  committees in  BSCS  worked three  of  the  differences  d i d n o t show  general  from  innovations  the two courses  the major  ecology,  of  t h e 1961 cell  emphasis  of  in the United  States  schools.  in part  science  and  human contained  and t h e was g i v e n  education In  Association  the prestige  plants  course  biology  1937  contained  groups,  aspect  Teachers'  both  flowering  animal  more  science  the previous  This  reflecting  into  these  Ontario  addition  Science  the  teacher  Given  Nonetheless,  In  to teachers,  revision  the parts  genetics,  contrast  versions.  of  of  In  those  their  course  1961  topics:  and b a c t e r i a .  of  for  Ontario  than  counterparts  t o and d i f f e r e n c e s  learning  Scientific  the  representatives  new t o p i c s :  study  of  rather  revision  programs.^  States  in  due  in the  incorporated  States  dollars  The b i o l o g y  the following  functions,  physiology, the  similarities  (Appendix  study  content  included  discovery  were  the Ontario  the United  biological  of  probably  Revisions  in addition  Ontario  million  that  who  were  biologists.  United  and b i o l o g y  understandable as  local  pay, t h e i r  one hundred  it  research  viewpoint  the  1961  interest  the f r o n t i e r s  And w h i l e without  pupil  contained,  fresh  many  from  teachers  of  in  to finances.  by p r a c t i s i n g  biologists  curriculum.  and O n t a r i o  and p a r t l y  biological  thought  States  fact,  also  the  was " T h e  accorded  to  such  scientific'achievements  as  space f l i g h t and the u t i l i z a t i o n  of  6l atomic  energy.  because senior  they  Teachers  believed  years  of high  who a p p r o v e d  i t provided school  of  a good  and t h a t  t h e 1961 p r o g r a m  basis  this  for science  integrated  d i d so in the  science  program  62 could  be r e l a t e d  Robarts  also  to the pupils'  experience.  was o p t i m i s t i c a b o u t  t h e 1961  Education program  Minister  f o r Grades  9 and  He s t a t e d :  10.  S i n c e i t emphasizes e x p e r i m e n t a l method and d e m o n s t r a t e s t h e i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s among t h e v a r i o u s b r a n c h e s o f science, i t w i l l almost c e r t a i n l y r e s u l t in greater encouragement o f the h a b i t of making a c c u r a t e o b s e r v a t i o n s , o f w i t h h o l d i n g judgment u n t i l t h e evidence is i n , o f d r a w i n g c o n c l u s i o n s t h a t go o n l y a s f a r as t h e e v i d e n c e p e r m i t s , and o f d e v e l o p i n g a l l t h e o t h e r aspects of c r i t i c a l thinking.63  ii  Three  Revised  However, study 1962, The  in s p i t e  for biology  6k 1962  1972  Programs  65 J  a n d 1978.  revision  curriculum  planning,  discuss detail  66  provided  T h e 1972  program  its  in Grades  abilities.  the  of  (Figure  initial  Each  the d i s t i n c t i v e features pages.  three  h a d some  times,  flexibility  Guideline core  of each of  in  in  pupil  through  purported program.  of  specific objective  for differences  stressed  an e s s e n t i a l  t h e 1961 c o u r s e  revised  revision  adjustments  a n d t h e 1978  in the following  promise,  9 a n d 10 w a s  Guideline  and i n c l u d e d  k)  to  local  up-date  The a u t h o r  t h e programs  in  more  will  129  19&2  Revision  Program  have  program it  had  depth and  found  the  Robarts  difficult.  the  longer  program  separate on  technical  following  in  the  the  pupils'  terms.  example  The  from  of  of  from  difference 1961  prior  the  respects: regarding  aptitude) detail  1962  is  syllabi:  Program of  Plants  B r i e f d e s c r i p t i o n of the u n i o n o f t h e m a l e and female n u c l e i to form the z y g o t e and endosperm."68  the  of  to  and  in  "Fertilization  grain,  development  and  who  four-year  flexibility  interest  the  pupils  The  Four-Year  Plants  development  for  following  examinations,  Program  pollen-tube  The  Four-Year  pp.\li~f,)  3,  too  to  ovule  Chap.  program  attention  p o l 1 en  (see  five-year  from  the  Plan  introduced  less  "Fertilization  Science  was  (dependent  The  General  science  treatment  Year  10?  general  textbooks,  in  9s  Grades  of  Five  b)  in  the  differed  illustrated  a)  with  program  simpler  in  h)  accordance  foui—year  would  Biology  (Figure  In a  :  the  f e r t i l i -  zation , c)  The  union  female the  of  male  and  to  form  nuclei  zygote  and  endo-  sperm. - 6 7  But  some o f  introduced ing 73  them they  too  that were  the  foui—year  rapidly. they  were  And not  discontinued.  general  teachers considered  science had  so  programs  much  successful.  were  difficulty Finally,  implementin  1972—  130  1972 R e v i s i o n  The was  range  considered  issued  in  provided  of  topics  with  greater  by t h e H a l l - D e n n i s  prescriptive  permitted provided  teachers  10 G e n e r a l  b y t h e 1961  of  Education  t o respond Report  and examples  of  t h e c u r r i c u l u m was a p p r o v e d  a wide  were  as  The G u i d e l i n e  investigations,  re-  included  but they  t h e 1972 variety  by t h e M i n i s t r y o f  69  was  teachers  interest  In e f f e c t ,  k)  curriculum  for science  to pupil  and d e v e l o p  (Figure  five-year  in which  (1968).  nor exhaustive.  to select  Science  s o a new g u i d e l i n e  freedom  topics  3,  permitted  too r e s t r i c t e d ,  suggested  neither  in Grade  1972 b y t h e M i n i s t r y  commended some  : Biology  were  Guideline  of  topics  Education  officials. While actual from  integration  content  t h e 1961  following  genetics,  course.  with  1972  was  suggested  7  conditions  such  as  of  year-long  of  agriculture  in rural  (a  combination  of  biology,  little  the  invertebrates, plants,  T h e new t o p i c s  meiosis  could  the  change  contained  t o man, f l o w e r i n g  added  and e v o l u t i o n .  be d e v e l o p e d  as  themes  in It to  A). introduced  innovative courses  schools  showed  1972 p r o g r a m s  mitosis,  Guideline  the development  was e n c o u r a g e d ,  and f u n c t i o n s ,  new t o p i c s  (Appendix  t h e 1972  and  and b a c t e r i a .  D.N.A.,  these  areas  Guideline  attention  and fungi  the course. ^  encourage  1961  particular  that  subject  i n t h e 1972  structure  G u i d e l i n e were  Although  other  Both  cell  ecology,  the  unify  suggested  topics:  vertebrates  with  courses  in ecology  t o become  chemistry,  f e w new t o p i c s , suitable and t h e  environmental  physics  and  it did  to  local  up-dating science  geology). ' 7  131  Thus, into the  the the  science  previous  schools  to  suitable  departmental  the for  introduced  flexibility  curriculum, dimensions  respond  Moreover,  student.  Guideline  1972  to  the  committees the  course  of  which, had  study  "average"  and  Grade  9,  been  control  absent  from  which  permitted  of  their  communities.  t o make  pupil  local  and  p a r t i c u l a r needs attempted  and  the  program  challenging  to  the  more  t h e more  able  72 73  1978  Revision  :  Although  the  teachers pupils fore,  would was  unit  Appendix in  a  The  and to  each also  had  and of  that  structure  of  pupils  provided  as  too  being common  had  both  the  topics  the  possible  all the  taking  in  a  criticism.  To  well  typical  programs  would  and as  have  the  in  the  solution  of  secure  and  most  units  could  Stress  was  units  select. believed,  the  problems  while  topics.  possible  in  there-  greater  planners  experience  scientific disciplines. part  the  h)  Guideline,  optiona1  pupils  topics,  that  optional  unit,  that  (Figure parents  ensure 1978  as  and  to  The  obligatory  units  pupils  flexible  this  Science  flexibility,  program.  obligatory  obligatory  ensure  all  both  General  10  revision  to overcome  program  F shows  presence  it  in  experience a  designed  program  would  1972  criticized  uniformity each  Biology  processes given,  and  too,  learning  7/4 to  appreciate Besides  Guideline students take  one,  the  importance of  providing  encouraged who w e r e two o r  some  scientific  common  flexibility.  especially three  studies  for  all  A c h a l l e n g e was  interested  programs  endeavours.  in  their  in  science  first  pupils  the  afforded in  that  two y e a r s  of  1978  to they high  could  132  school.  Moreover,  and  advanced  the  time  the courses,  levels.  required  These  f o r each  were  offered  differed unit  in  at  both  t h e method  and t h e r e q u i r e d  the of  general  instruction,  level  of  student  performance. A of  comparison with  1978  that  that  of  the biology  of  1972  the following  (1921-1960) There  of  (Appendix while  increased  science, A).  and t h e c o u r s e  of  study  trends  a  families  of  1978  the  core  the  processes  should  of  those  biology  which  of  to  its  designed  The presence his  be c h a l l e n g e d  b y t h e many  up  three  courses  science  However,  the m u l t i p l i c i t y of  teachers  organizing  in  theory,  choice.  Guideline  classes 1978  of  and.-F,  indicates  1961  plants  and  and on  the  pro-  classification  were  plant  period  3, pp.125-8,130-131) :  Chap.  on e c o l o g y  flowering  guide  the previous  in morphology  included  was  and,  studied,  morphology.  the arrangements  to help  of  many  every an  aspects first  choices  permitted  pupil  of  to  enabled  Moreover,  in program  of  its  the pupil  an a b l e  as  he c o u l d  two y e a r s  of  high  study,  school.  expression  But, at of  to  student  some d i f f i c u l t i e s f o r  equipment.  a wide  as  experience  science  caused  and o r d e r i n g  science  understanding  options  interests.  in his  provided  an e f f e c t i v e  and t o a c q u i r e  could to  a  produced  matched  from  flowering  of  that  have  c u r r i c u l u m was  principles.  select  change  on g e n e t i c s ,  t h e stem  c a n be c o n j e c t u r e d  Guideline  of  reduction  a t t e n t i o n was g i v e n  It  basic  the curriculum  emphasis  with  Fewer  the function  little  in  continued > (see Appendices-A  was an  cesses  major  content  least  pupil  133  iii  Text-Books  have  been  change in  major  general  change  evaluation,  some  most  were  was  authorized  books  were  and  texts  principles  texts  personal  and  science single  of  biology.  their  and a  to  synopic  authors  are for  textbooks  which  covered  biological  or  topic  booklets or  each  were  concept.  biological  the  pupil's  by  of  of  reference  The  predominant  of  the  pupils  John  R.  concepts  period  processes"  involved  practice  Reimer  did  in  them.  and  William  the  period.  (1977). the  textbooks  i d e n t i f i e d and  given  to  texts,  end  the  Things  is  many m o d u l e s  the  give,  view  few  "mental  textbook  Living  the  l o g i c a l l y organized  at  any  prepared;  development  the  texts,  e f f e c t i v e use  a  in  Understanding  related  in  Only  radical  personal  written;  were  no  without  the w r i t e r ' s  were  might  Some  period  attractive with  identify  made  t h e r e was  and  i n v e s t i g a t ion  evaluation  Besides  to  on;:providing  to  T a b l e 15 p r o v i d e s a Key  General  1  biology.  the  exercises  science.  attempt  a t t e m p t was in  was  of  made  summaries;  the  Wilson  throughout  review  in  scientific  for  and  emphasis  textbooks  used  logically  historical  D.  in  1960 s  the  intent,  developed  the  the  its  were w e l l  glossaries  the  in  during  textbooks  to  Such an  Biology  10  the  made  in  9 and  Ontario  According  15).  of  the  and  in  textbooks  and. photographs ;  had  Grade  innovative  the  (Table  background; coiou.r  in  remained  concepts  education  considered  apparent  fact,  for  O96I-I978)  Science  While  Authorized  this  of  writer's  text. the whole produced Often  year's which  these  work  in  general  dealt with  modules  centred  a  Table  15  A u t h o r i z e d T e x t b o o k s f o r O n t a r i o G r a d e s 9 a n d 10 (1961-1978)  Per iod of Author i • zat ion  P u b l i sher and Publ i s h e r ' s L o c a t ion  Authors  Title  V.N. B r u c e a n d A. H i l e s Carter, teachers  S c i e n c e f o r 1961-1978 Secondary Schools Book 1  Pitman £ Sons , Canada, (Toronto)  A. H i l e s C a r t e r and L e s l i e E a r l teachers  S c i e n c e f o r 1962-1978 Secondary Schools Book 2 (1962)  Pitman £ Sons, Canada, (Toronto)  Science 9  Copp Clark , (Toron to)  R.G. Casson, professor, J.H. C o u k e , professor. A.H. Louden, professorj  1965-1978  xm)—  K.L. W i s m e r , teacher W.A. A n d r e w s , professor, R.G. Casson, professor , A.H. Louden , professor, K.L. W i s m e r , teacher  S.J. T a y l o r , teacher M. H a l l m a n , inspector,  Science  10  1967-1978  T T 9 S 7 J  Intermediate Science 3 (1962)  1963-1973  H- G i l 1 i e s , teacher S.J. T a y l o r , teacher, M. Ha 1lman, inspector, H.W. H a r k n e s s , professor  Intermediate Science '(1962)  1963-1973  Copp Clark, (Toronto)  Holt, Rinehart and Winston (Toronto)  Hoi t , Rinehart and Winston (Toronto)  Persona 1 Eva 1uat i on  clear, logical presentat ion explaining the basic concepts of biology.  uses a h i s t o r i c a l approach, deals clearly with d i f f i cult concepts, presents s t r u c t ure o f b i o l o g y with up-to-date exper iments, numerous r e v i e w exercises, i 11 ustrations clear, widely u s e d , some s c i e n c e process presented controls, excellent emphasis, i n t e r esting.  good coloured ?1 l u s t rat ions, numerous p u p i l a c t i v i t i e s , no adjustment f o r i n dividual differences Tn e x e r c i s e " ; , some process ( c o n t r o l s ) .  Cont i n u e d .  135  Table  15 c o n t i n u e d  Grade Leve 1 Readab i 1 i t y Flesch 1 ndex  8-9  Authors  Title  E dw i n F. Brackenborough , G e o r g e W. E rw i n , R o b e r t G. R i s t , and H. K e n n e t h Wooster, teachers  Pub 1i s h e r and P u b l i sher Location  1963-197 *  C1 a r k e 1rwin, (Toronto)  1  Persona 1 Eva 1uat i o n c l e a r , development o f c o n c e p t s , good summaries, w i d e l y u s e d , numerous observat ional exercises f o r •pupils, questions adjusted f o r different levels, diagrams l a r g e and c l e a r , new t e r m s i n large type, brief, i n t e r e s t i ng . -  * E d w i n F. Brackenborough , George W. Erwin, R o b e r t G. R i s t , and H. K e n n e t h Wooster, teachers  10-12  The M e t h o d s of Science 3 (1961)  Per i o d of Author i zat ion  F.H. S p e e d , teacher, and H.M. Lang, professor  The M e t h o d s of Science k (1963)  1963-1974  Clarke 1rwi n , (Toronto)  Bas i c Genera 1 Sc i e n c e Book 1 (1961)  1963-1970 Macmi 1 l a n , Canada, (Toronto)  H.M. L a n g , professor, 6 F.M. Speed, teacher  Bas i c Genera 1 Sci ence Book 2 (1962)  Macmi 1 l a n , 1963-1970 C a n a d a , (Toronto)  F.M. S p e e d , t e a c h e r , S. H.M. L a n g ,  Basic S c i ence Book 1 fiqftfll  *  1968-1978  MacMi1lan, Canada, (Toronto)  l o g i c a l , uses hj s t o r i c a 1 approach, d i a grams a t t i m e s f a i r o n l y , many experiments i n dicated, often cha1lengi ng, treatment gives some p r o c e s s and s t r u c t u r e o f biology, clear accounts, interesting.  * H.M. L a n g , professor, and F.M. Speed , teacher  Bas I c Science  Book. 2  T1968)  Macmi1lan Canada, 1968-1978 (Toronto)  *  10-12  Notes:  John 'D. Relmer, and Wi11iam G. W i l s o n , professors  * Ontario  Unders t a n d i ng Living Th i n q s (1977)  authors  1978+  D.C. Heath (Toronto) Canada)  research projects, selfevaluation, excel lent i11ustrat ions, process oriented.  "Tab It 16 Modules f o r Btology Topics i n O n t a r i o Grades 9 and 10 (1972-1977) Examples  Authors  Title  **  A Guide t o the Study ot Environmental P o l l u t i o n (1972)  Prentice-Hall , (Scarborough, Ont.)  A Guide t o the Study ot Freshwater Ecology, (1972)  Prentice-Hall , (Scarborough, Ont,)  A Guide t o the Study of T e r r e s t r i a l Ecology (1974)  P r e n t i c e - H a l 1, (Scarborough, Ont.)  Nancy D. D a v i e s , Daniel G. S t o k e r , Douglas E. W i l s o n , M. Terry A s h c r o f t , - Carolynn Coburn, t e a c h e r s , W.A. Andrews, e d . , professor*  A Guide t o the Study o f Soi1 Ecoloqy. (1973)  Prentice-Hall, •(Scarborough, Ont.)  C h a r l e s Hopkins  Ecology, Searching for Structure.  Holt . (Toronto)  E n q u i r y i n t o Environmental K>llution,  Macml1 Ian , (Toronto)  Search inn f o r Structure. Examininq your Environment, I n v e s t i g a t i o n s In Science A Modular Approach  H o l t , R i n e h a r t and Winston, (Toronto) H o l t , Rinehart and Winston (Toronto) John Wiley and Sons, (Toronto, Canada)  W.A. Andrews, prof e s s o r , D.K. Moore and A.C. Leroy, t e a c h e r s , W.A. Andrews, ed.*'  ** • ii.  Daniel G. S t o k e r , Marcel A g s t e r i b b e , Nancy R. W i l s o n , t e a c h e r s , and W.A. Andrews, W.A. Andrews, ed., prof e s s o Andrews, r* .** W.A. pro'"• f e s s o r , Daniel G. S t o k e r , Donna K, Moore, L a r r y N. Doble, E l a i n e C. McKnight, teachers, W.A. Andrews, ed.*  **  iv.  P u b l i s h e r and Publisher's Location  M  v.  (1977)  ** vi.  R.H. Horwood professor  t  S e r i e s o f Modules  Notes:  * **  Ontario editor O n t a r i o authors  1973)  around  ideas  them such  for  pupil  support  investigations.  that  Ministry  of  (1978),  t h e memorandum  authorized The  Education  they were and  from  first  four  modules  contribution  to  Each  presented  account  an  description  for  stimulating  topics  to  approved were  the  approach,  for  grants  included  Ministry  in  of  earned by  the  Circular  Education  14,  which  lists  textbooks.  cant  closer  hence  This  the  teaching of  conducting  t h e Grade  for II  listed  a  in of  Table ecology  biological  observations  research. level  than  in  and,  of  a  signifi-  several  environment,  However, that  16 m a d e  finally  the  the  a  waysr a list  language  lower  of  used  school  was  as  75 determined In  spite  Circular because the  by  14 of  the of  the  fact  they  are  not  their  modules  a p p l i c a t i o n of  can  large be  that  Flesch  the modules  examined  numbers.  gained  the  from a  Index. were  individually However, comment  a by  included in  this  general a  in  paper  impression  reviewer,  John  of S.  Chi psham: The a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d s c i e n c e and t h e u n d e r standings of s c i e n c e these modules engender may w e l l s u r p a s s w h a t w a s a c h i e v e d e i t h e r b y t h e t e c h n o l o g i c a l and f a c t - c r a m m i n g a p p r o a c h of the f i f t i e s or the s t r u c t u r e - o f - t h e - d i s c i p i i n e s s o p h i s t i c a t i o n of the s i x t i e s . ' "  C i r c u l a r 14 l i s t e d a l l b o o k s on w h i c h t h e M i n i s t r y o f Education would pay l e g i s l a t i v e g r a n t s t o b o a r d s o f e d u c a t i o n . If a b o a r d b o u g h t b o o k s n o t l i s t e d i n C i r c u l a r 14 t h e m u n i c i p a 1 i t y h a d t o pay f o r t h e s e b o o k s w i t h no p r o v i n c i a l g o v e r m e n t a l help.  3.32  Grade  11  (BSCS),  The Grade The  11  Green  take  12  to  with They  their  science  in  of  this  had  of  taken  biology  permitted rather  biology  was  successful  for  on  a  their  of  the  States  United  ambitious  Study  Ontario in  by  (STAO) Summer  had  and  by  for  been at  or  3,  the of  Year  who  had  chemistry  and  so  Graduation Grade  would Diplomas.  11  and  examined  the  p p . il 0'9 ^ ' H 5) .  aroused  reports  Institute  and  the  in  chemistry.  students  officials Chap.  speakers  and  biology  School  course  (see  to  students  physics  in  Education  program  journals,  in  High  suitable  physics  valuable  frequently science  part  Curriculum  four-year  than  involved  Department  teachers'  Association who  for  1961  mathematics  search  programs  Interest  the  the  of  study  were  credit  students,  BSCS  to  Sciences  Version.^  or  courses.  In  Biology, B i o l o g i c a l  Plan"  opportunity  receive  12  "Robarts  difficulty  12  and  by  accounts  Science  in  Teachers'  Ontario  teachers  Institute  programs  78 of  the  National  1964,  the  Green  Version  schools: were  no  ever,  Science  Ontario  its  of  Department BSCS.  But  of  had  some  grants  (N.S.F.)  Education  i t was  i m p l e m e n t a t i o n was  provincial  it  Foundation.  used  available  i n f l u e n c e on  the  to  approved  in  hindered  Eventually, use  of  only  some  Ontario  the  fact  that  by  buy  the  in  American  approach  taken  there  texts.  in  the  other  Howbiology  79 classes. had  This  experienced  would  try  the  probably the  came  student  same m e t h o d s  about  interest with  other  partly aroused  because by  classes.  a  teacher  enquiry  who  learning  The  program.  BSCS  grounds: a  basic  the  role  the  The  Department  Version,  Green stated  stimulating  in  of  decision  can  objectives  course  for  concepts.  of  and  Education  to  be j u s t i f i e d on  of  the  students.  biological science  of  BSCS  This  It  biology.  It  the  Green  would  following promised  provided  pupils  help  the  Version  program  encouraged  adopt  to  pupils  training  appreciate live  in  80 a world BSCS  of  i n t e r r e l a t e d organisms.  course  priate  for  program  stressed the  are  outdoor  four-year  1isted  Section  Section  pupils.  A -  B -  Diversity Unit Unit  I II  What  is  Unit Unit  I II  Unit  III  year  in  the  thought  this  appro-  ecological  Life  organism?  A  The  study  life  community I II  including  maintained Grade  of  start of  selected and  how  11  the  that  biology  function  organisms is  it  continued?  program the  together  the  Minister  introduction  was  a  of  a  of  author's  own  nine  years'  knowledge  of  the  success:  program  in  Educa  four  E v i d e n c e i n d i c a t e s t h a t s t u d e n t s and p a r e n t s have welcomed t h e d i v e r s i t y o f o p p o r t u n i t i e s and programs a n d t h a t many s t u d e n t s a r e r e m a i n i n g i n s c h o o l because they found courses that s u i t e d t h e i r needs, interests a n d a b i 1 i t i e s .81 The  -  organisms  How o r g a n i s m s l i v e Where do I f i t in?  justification for  Davis,  appear?  C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of life? The u n i t o f s t r u c t u r e and the eel 1  D -  program  of  an  Section  William  topics  were  of  In w h a t f o r m s d o e s l i f e Where does l i f e occur?  How d o e s  Unit Unit  tion,  The  Version  below:  C -  the  Green  a c t i v i t i e s which  Section  Whatever  The  the  Royal that most  York  Collegiate  i t was  successful.  of  t h e new c o u r s e s  dropped  1972,  in  addition, and  Institute It  11 a n d  the s i g n i f i c a n t  12 B S C S  increase  who s t u d i e d  the  noteworthy  introduced with  Grade  12 s t u d e n t s  is  supports  contention  that  when  the Robarts  Biology  was  Plan  retained.  in the proportion  biology  from 0.6  were  percent  In  of  Grade  in  1965  11 to  82 16  percent The  in  in  textbook  ecology  who  1978 s p e a k s  favourably  u s e d was d e s i g n e d  a n d was commended  had c r i t i c i z e d  t h e BSCS  by  of  the  program.  s p e c i f i c a l l y f o r BSCS  such  educators  Y e l l o w and Blue  as  David  Version  program  Ausubel ,  textbooks  83 severely.  The Green  Version  text  aroused  interest with  its  8k laboratory abilities 3.33  work of  Grade  and o f f e r e d  the less 13  able  challenges  Grade  11 a n d  within  12  the range  of  the  pupils.  Biology Qr  i  The R e v i s i o n  In as  in  the early  19^1  visions  with  that  revolution to  of  that  contention  program  provided  topics on  not overly  o n human  anatomy,  said  physiology,  period.  the previous  of  This  Grade  interesting  i n most  nevertheless,  the  they  school  the re-  was due  in  13 b o t a n y The  to the  contained  much  zoology  students The  detail  interest.  part  and  laboratories.  considerable  same  the educational  for the students.  was  while  basically  i t had n o t undergone  in this  that  out  was  characterized  burdensome  be c a r r i e d  13 c o u r s e  Thus,  that  dissection  were,  Program.  changes.  was o c c u r r i n g  were  could  13  the Grade  1  some e d u c a t o r s  the general  that  1960 s  minor  zoology  and  the Grade  based  And  while  the botany  systematics, physiology,  course  i tstill some  h a d some  complicated  had s e v e r a l  simple  problems  suitahle  details  of  experiments  in Mendelian  on  plant  g e n e t i c s and a  86 modicum o f t h e o r e t i c a l written that  textbook,  was w e l l  course teach  without However,  to  some  could  pass  with  science  courses  current  state  prepared  and t h a t  clearly  and  o f study.  s c i e n c e teachers wanted  Jerome  Board  others),  I t was  instructors  Bruner  (i960),  13  a  could  biology  In a d d i t i o n ,  which  that  they  Joint  the Ontario  d i d not reflect  Members o f t h i s  the courses  a  and t h e U n i v e r s i t y  as c o n s u l t a n t examined  and found  of topics  Grade  of Education  of the disciplines.  lists  Croal  a  difficulty.  of the Toronto  Toronto  t h e r e was  A.G.  course  be more c h a l l e n g i n g t o t h e s t u d e n t s .  Committee of  to the Ontario  pupils  undue  Moreover,  B i o l o g y , 1948,  (General  suited  t h a t most  ecology.  should  the  committee include to  87 present In  addition,  the of  the e x i s t i n g  13  Grade which  that  structures  a Department program  presented  of Education  (1964)  elicited  by a u n i v e r s i t y  t h e O n t a r i o Grade  13  (1961).  of the science disciplines  program  survey  of public  four adverse  opinion  submissions,  about one  biology professor, maintained i n b i o l o g y was  fifty  years  behind  88 the  times.  the  powerful  emerging the to  Besides, Ontario educators influence  fromtthe  changes  program  o f the fundamental  activities  initiated  have doubts  about  of biology could changes  in biology  o f t h e BSCS c o m m i t t e e s .  i n t h e BSCS p r o g r a m s  caused  the relevance of the current 89 t o contemporary biology.  not  ignore teaching  In; p a r t i c u 1 a r ,  Ontario Grade  13  educators  142  To  keep  the Ontario  tion, William  13  subjects,  three  high  Education  Davfs,  up  appointed  including  school  program  biology  teachers  constituted  the  and  to  date,  revision  Three  official  committee f o r  Minister  committees  (i960). one  the  of  the  of  for  the  biology the  EducaGrade  professors,  Department  revision  of  the  of  Grade  91 13  b io1ogy. * The  resulting a)  changes from One  in  this  course  in  in  to  living  view  Students and  arrangements  committee's  courses  restricted b)  the  biology  botany  to  the  examination  After in  are  summarized  as  biology  date was  biology  two  This  a whole  the  paper  education below:  separate  permitted rather  categories  examination  that  the  zoology.  separate  one  the  replaced  processes  wrote  1967.  and  work  for  of in  pupils  than  plant  being and  biology  departmental  animal.  in  1966  upper  school  eliminated. o  c)  Grade  13 b i o l o g y  rather  than  and  advanced  an  consisted  a proposed course  of  general for  one  course  program  those  for  for  all  students  average  specializing  in  students  science  The members o f t h e c o m m i t t e e w e r e : D r . C h a r l o t t e S u l l i v a n , P r o f e s s o r o f Zoology a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f T o r o n t o , Dr. H a r o l d Good, P r o f e s s o r o f B o t a n y a t Q u e e n ' s U n i v e r s i t y , D r . Hugh D a l e , Professor o f B o t a n y a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f G u e l p h , G r a n t H e a r n , Head o f S c i e n c e at P a r k d a l e C o l l e g i a t e I n s t i t u t e of Toronto, L e s l i e Smith, Biology Teacher at Harbord C o l l e g i a t e I n s t i t u t e of Toronto, H i l e s C a r t e r , V i c e - P r i n c i p a l o f F o r e s t H i l l C o l l e g i a t e I n s t i t u t e and Dr. C.A. Brown, R e g i s t r a r o f t h e Department o f E d u c a t i o n (Taped i n t e r v i e w w i t h D r . C h a r l o t t e S u l l i v a n , J u l y 20, 1978; telephone conversation with G r a n t H e a r n , J u l y 20, 1978).  and d)  biology.  The  e)  revised  program  stressed  t h a t were in  keeping  with  The  committee  suitable  outlined  laboratory  committee  assumed  the  modern  a new  and  research  course  exercises  that  content  or  teachers  but  field would  processes  biology. did  not  specify  activities. plan  these  The  them-  selves. The the  course  Department  previous such of  new  as  the  course the  omitting  histories  representatives The  classification below,  the  Education  in  life  eliminated.  listed  of  that  new  in  of  including  many o f  for  in  the  1965  main  gave  less  plant the  plant  and  groups.  a  and from  history  to  unit  details  were  of.  seven  units  evolution,  were  Unit  I  -  Characteristics  Unit  II  -  Cell  Unit  111  -  O r g a n i s m s - s t r u c t u r e and f u n c t i o n s o f o r g a n s y s t e m s o f an a n i m a l (man) a n d a f l o w e r i n g plant (bean)  Unit  IV  -  Classification f a m i 1y  Un i t  V  -  Ecology  Unit  VI  -  Reproduction  Unit  VII  -  -  Genetics  structure  and  as  living  oh  the  descriptions  groups  the  that  aspects  the  animals  Instead  time  of  1963  Moreover,  emphasis  first  in  differed  natural  organisms.  the  major  suggested  introduced  of  course  the  committee  and  organisms  functions  illustrated  devolution  93  by  the  pine  144  Some revision  teachers committee  biological sisting the  the  structure  program  rather  biology also  techniques  as  grasp  concepts  such  Because  this  sometimes  certain  changes  too  much, o f  the  than  material  of  that  demanded  content  that  revised  thought  conform as  chromatography  new  and  were  by  biologists to  phosphates an  by  into  it.  The  research  biomass  and  the  previously  such  and  to  activation  understanding  encountered  by  conceived  use  by  stressing  and  than  calculation of  required  problems  closely  pupils  high-energy  content  serious  more  the  pupils  enhancement,  research  required  as  pupil  Instituted  of  energy.  biochemistry,  students  who  were  95 unable  to  comprehend  While, the  on  the  biological  in  the  by  including  in  the  for  ecology  Doi.scover i ng and  course  new  carrying  hand,  sections  the  these  on  which  difference  aspects other  required  hand,  the  provided  in  the  between  e f f i c i e n c y of  pupil  a  true  opportunities  the  of  appeared  participation  field.  succession  production  to  particularly  with  and  and  aspects  was  students  climax  food  of  This  laboratory  Conformity  other  scope  cactrvI ties.  which  exercises  the  the  involved.  widened  interesting  out  measuring  one  chemistry  discipline,  13  Grade  the  communities  particular  farm  96 crop  were  pupils  to  provided  typical adjust  examples. to  them w i t h  the the  Hence,  external  world  opportunity  to  while of  the  course  research  learn  new  required  science,  concepts  it  and  the also  ideas  97 t h r o u g h t h e i r own ii Implementation  To new  change  initiative. o f G r a d e 13  from  process-oriented  the  former  course  was  Biology  Program  descriptivesnaturaI a  challenge  to  history  teachers  who  to  the  had  taught  the  Realizing Dr.  this,  Harold  much a  previous,  two-week  groups to  of  help  to  of  of  Botany  of  at  For  some  twenty  years.  revising  Queens In  Good  1965  field  those  committee,  University,  July  lectures,  exercises. session  for  the  teachers.  consisting  summer  course  members  biology  laboratory the  the  Professor  course  and  attend  one  Good,  needed  conventional  trips,  teachers  detailed  plans  offered organized  discussion  who w e r e  were  unable  published  in  98 The  Crucible  The  summer  to  the  widespread Another  program  the  session  approach  the  by  by  Science and  The  Teachers'  Crucible arti cles  new w o r k  with  acceptance  of  the  teachers  and  pupils a  achievement  his  pupils  in  a  teacher  position  study because  examination  questions.  introduced,  departmental  and,  in  fact,  examinations standing. dispensed (and tions  the  the  counted  Finally, with  finally  were  universities  the  from  when  two y e a r s  only  1968,  the  and  in  the  drive  Grade  by  the  new  percent  to  straight-jacket  With  a  less  new  new was  important  departmental  pupil's  year's  exami n a t ion:;was  emancipate of  the  program  13  course of  a  precarious  considered  the  biology  13  anticipating  new  were of  furthered  departmental  partly  particularly  departmental  the  Grade  1965  examinations.  13 a  teachers  confidence which  judged  sixty-five the  p e r m i t t e d many  the  difficulty  examinations  first  in  in  Ontario.  e l i m i n a t i o n of  Grade be  However,  for  the  of  course.  of  t e a c h e r was  have  completely;  teacher)  was  Pupils  for  was  would  he w o u l d  of  up-dated  acceptance  Previously  of  the  for  examinations.  course  a measure  reason  of  Association  the  the  Grade  13  pupil examina-  accomplished.-  encouraged (York).  to  take  competitive examinations  by  certain  unit  During  the  became  evident.  which  purported  tives  of  a l l  implementation Many  to trace  the major  time  to complete  several  of  the organisms,  not  suitable  Education in  t h e 1969 The  Grade  syllabus,  1969  reproduction, the  topical  approach'^ chosen  by  topical  growing  iii  Grade  13  Ontario  problem  Since  were  this  that  unit  this  the unit  eliminating  alternative  approaches  on  in addition  to  alternatives  concern  Data  were  not available.  about  a n d t h e BSCS  course  though of  of  of  13  a number  of  writer  colleagues  teachers  chose  addition  13  were  followed did  the  likewise.  who, because  the ecological  biology  to Canadian  Blue  Version  were  they  d i d not  follow  study.  This  principles  of  approach.  Biology  t h e new G r a d e In  which  the w r i t e r ' s  the environment,  f o r Grade  development  even  knew  reproduction  unit  showing  G).  also  of  the c r i t i c i z e d  (Appendix  the writer  was  syllabus.^  besides  and most  unit  on  and a  the teacher  re-  with  The Department  and o m i t t e d  one  representa-  unfamiliar  thought  class.  13  in  an e c o l o g i c a l  f o r new t e x t b o o k s .  Version  pupils  teachers  Grade  three,  reproduction  with  Reproduction,  one: a homeostatic,  Textbooks  The way  offered  alternative  However,  many  biology  in  difficulty  to Unit'VI,  of organisms.  and s i n c e  this  13  objected  the changes  f o r an a v e r a g e  recognized  t h e new p r o g r a m  teachers  groups  quired  of  both  course texts,  recognized  any o f  opened  the  t h e BSCS f o r use  the sequences  Yellow in  in the  147  Shorter earned along  publications, dealing with  approval with  I n 1978.'  Table  01  individual  units,  17 shows t h e a p p r o v e d  t h e w r i t e r ' s comments a b o u t  modules, textbooks  each.  T a b l e 17 Textbooks Approved  f o r Grade  13 B i o l o g y  Period of recomT mendat i o n  (1965-1978)  Grade Level P u b l i s h e r Readand Pub- a b i l i ty lisher's Flesch Locat ion 1 ndex  Authors  Title  D o n a l d L. G a l b r a l t h , teacher, D a v i d G. W i l s o n , professor  Biological Sc i e n c e Principles and P a t t e r n s of L i f e  1967-1978+  New B i o logy (Second printing, 1965)  1965-1969  D o u g l a s A. P e n n y , professor of teachers' c o l l e g e , and R e g l n a W a e r n , teacher  An I n t r o duction to Aspects o f Modern B i o logical Sc i e n c e (1965)  1966-1978+  B.S.C.S. (Yellow Vers ion) professors and teachers  Biological Science : An I n q u i r y Into Li f e , 2nd E d i t i o n (1968)  1969-1978+  B.S.C.S. (Blue Version) p r o f e s s o r s and teachers  Biological Science : Molecules t o  1968-1978+ H o u g h t o n , Miff!in Net son., (Toronto)  Holt, R i nehart and  13-16  Winston , (Toronto)  (1966)  Persona 1 Evaluation t h o r o u g h , more d e t a i l e d than desirable f o r a v e r a g e pup i 1 , biochemistry difficult, w i d e l y used .  * F r e d M. S p e e d , teacher  A  Note:  *  Ontario  Man ( 63) 19  authors  Ryerson,  10-12  good d i a g r a m s good c o h e r e n c e , not s u f f i c i e n t detail or accuracy.  N.A.  detailed, a good r e f e r e n c e book, l a c k s emphasis, leaves a great deal o f the pupi1 organ izat ion.  10-12  widely used, well provided w i t h summaries, questions, lab exercises, did not f o l l o w t h e O n t a r i o course..  10-12  widely used, provided with s e l f check q u e s t i o n s , excellent lab exercises.  (Toronto)  P i tman , (Toronto)  Harcourt, B r a c e and World , (New  York)  The period and  professional  showed  approximately  secondary  texts  which  teachers  were  biologists, pressed  an  and  teachers. which  A  was  syllabus  in  The  this  u s e d was  textbooks in  omitted  Ontario  Grade  Skoog,  the  United  topic,  evolution,  principle,  evolution,  ,  . ,  1e g i s l a t o r s .  religious  102  courses  can  be  included.  evolution. 12  and  educator,  that  was  BSCS  that  of  of  and  ex-  proportionoof  mostly  a  the  texts  the  re-  the  previous  secondary  team a u t h o r s h i p Biological  covered  came w i t h  and  it  United  Skoog warned  It  in  that  Wilson's  (1966).  biologists  teachers  from  value  this  numerous  the  and  Science  :  departmental  laboratory  deserves -s p e c i a T : mention  11,  versions.  of  were  and  in  manual  experiments.  be  States in  the  evident  equal  authors  and  texts  to  still  fundamental  Life  Previously, topic  was  different  authors  professional  ensure  This  showed  detail  Ontario  of  This  to  Galbraith  evolution,  period. a  the  challenging  many  controversial  quite  of  texthook  team composed  thinking.  which  sufficient  E).  designed  was  Patterns  many  in  a  in which  textbook  topic,  appeared  fully  teachers  and  containing  in  research  widely  Principles  by  all  numbers  (Appendix  written  (1921-1960)  period  of  equal  arrangement  current  searchers  background  States there  being  groups  on  of  argued, In  texts.  noted  this On  authors,  due  to  was  Grade  the  that the  publishers,  the this  time  too  9 and  10  discussed  contrary,  in  topic  first  t o p i c was  even  a daager  neglected  most  this  the  a deemphasizing  textbooks, was  for  evolution  fact,  However, 13  study  since  of  Gerald the  BSCS unifying  pressure educators  of and  149  3.30  Changes : The Biology Teachers (1961-1978) Stake and Easley (1978) noted that the role of the teacher surpassed the effect of any other factor in determining the success 103 of any science program.  And while the author considered this  factor to be important in a discussion of biological education, unfortunately l i t t l e data could be found on Ontario biology teachers. Such data as could be uncovered relating to qualifications and curriculum planning are presented.  Table 18 shows the numbers of Ontario  secondary teachers and the proportion of specialists among new teachers. Table 18 Ontario Secondary Teachers (1960-1977) Percentage of New Percentage of New Teachers Teachers Granted High Granted Specialist's School Assistants.' Certificates (Type A) Certificates (Type B)  Year  Number of Secondary Teachers  I960  11478  20.4  79.6  1965  21659  28.4  71.6  1970  33693  52.0  48.0  1975  34826  55.8  1977  36276  N.A. .  Sources:  Ontario, Report of the Minister of Education, I960, S-3; ibid., 1961, SI6, SI7; ibid., 1966, p. 100; ibid., 1970, pp. 14, 36; i bi d.-, Educationar' Stat-ist ics , 1976, p. 90; Canada, Statistics Canada,Salaries and Qua!ificatiohs of Teachers 1977-78, p. 82."  -  ::  '  44.2 N.A.  150  As during These  shown the  i n t h e numbers  of pupils  thewhole  that  85  (Table  story,  municipalities. 1980,  teachers  o f teachers  19).  However,  increased  teachers  services  reflect  would  i n t h e Borough  o f t h e lowest  n o t be needed  the  three^fold  1970's.  t h e changes  thedata  p a r t i c u l a r l y f o r recent  For example,  secondary  their  o f secondary  1960's b u t i n c r e a s e d m o r e s l o w l y d u r i n g  changes  numbers tell  t h e number  18 d o n o t  in Table  years  and f o r c e r t a i n  of Etobicoke  seniority  t o teach  i nt h e  i n May  were  informed  the anticipated  1 Oh reduced  numbers  investigated teachers,  6000  thedecrease  estimated  fewer  secondary not  of students.  that  secondary school  Statistician  in the required  system  number  b y t h e mid-1980's  teachers.  1 0  ''  be r e t a i n e d , and ambitious  prospective  (1974), w h o  secondary  would  given  young: a b l e  1  of  Ontario  Clearly,  some o f t h e  Weisenthal  require  the declining  teachers  teachers  o f b i o l o g y would  were  discouraged  106 by  t h e grim The  prospect  data  specialist  in the  honour  was  high,  18 a l s o  than  1 0  ^  qualifications  secured  a  population  shortage  honour  t h e r e was a s e r i o u s a l l qualified  theproportion of w a s much  course  represented  certificate,  shortage teachers,  more  and boards  which high  of teachers. even  those  By c o n t r a s t , slowly,  lower  certificate  t h e 1960's, w h e n  positions.  was growing  o f teachers  that  (The s p e c i a l i s t ' s  During  circumstances,  school  indicate  an a s s i s t a n t ' s  course),.  employment.  by new t e a c h e r s  1970's.  from a foui—year  qualification the  in Table  c e r t i f i c a t e s held  1960's t h a n graduation  of diminishing  a  earned by higher  d i dnot require school In  with  in the  could  enrolment  such t h e lower  1970's t h e  s o t h e r e was no  of education  i nt h e  longer  be more  151  selective  in  their  specialists'  c e r t i f i c a t e s had  During part and  than how  1972,  appointments;  the  they  (see  in  taught  responsibility  of  competitive  decision-making  it.  This  was  3, pp.130-131  Chap.  young  1961-1978, b i o l o g y  period  previously  a  hence  the  content  of  the  with  advantage.  teachers  about  partly  ),which  teachers  due  what to  placed  science  took  a  they  the  much  larger  taught  Guideline of  of  the  program  on  the  local  108 curriculum  committees.  typically,  of  heads  of  school  Meetings cisions or  of  about  teachers or  3.50  science  who  were  for to  3.51  19  year  to  to  reach  carried  by  offer  109  out who  proportion who  of were  the  in  were  paid  for  high  school  attending  high  their  provided  suggestions,  secondary  work  skilled  to  exp'ress  Pupils  enrolment  de-  preliminary  (1-961-1978)  Pup.i I s  olds)  teachers.  Frequently,  meetings  total  (15-19  periodically  committee  teachers  superintendent,  invited  Such  innovations.  the  other  and  shows  the  were  consisted,  curriculum  curricula  School  and  held  committee  in  Secondary  1960-1978  population  biology report  the  and  programs.  interested  The-. B i o l o g y  Ontario  Table from  or  were  assignments  p a r t - t i m e work.  opinions  Changes*:  departments  science  follow-up  curriculum  coordinator,  committees  local  opportunity  ...  science  these  detailed  summer  the  The  schools age school.  ""  s  •--  Ontario  Total  Secondary  19  School  of  Enrolment  Enrolment  (1960-1978)  Enrolment  Percentage  Secondary  School  Year  Table  of  the the  Secondary Population  School of  15-19  Year-olds  I960  262,775  62.6  1965  418,738  73.6  1970  556,910  80.4  1975  605,160  76.0  1978  611,669  74.2  Sources:  O n t a r i o , R e p o r t o f t h e M i n i s t e r o f E d u c a t i o n , 1966, p p . 1 2 7 132; i b i d . , E d u c a t i o n a l S t a t i s t i c s , 1976, p p . 45, 8 8 , 117, 197; i b i d . , Guideline Courses, S t a t i s t i c s Section, Management I n f o r m a t i o n S y s t e m B r a n c h , 1979, p. i i i ; C a n a d a , S t a t i s t i c s 1976, C e n s u s o f C a n a d a , Supplementary B u l l e t i n : G e o g r a p h i c a n d D e m o g r a p h i c , T a b l e 1-2.  The young more  data  people than  in  19 s h o w  attending  eighty  attendance..  Table  school  percent  However,  or  after  decreased  to  away  universal  attendance  The I960's  1970's.  data  but  also  a more  The  show  a  gradual  expansion  in  increased  this  1970  74.2  the  approaching  attending from  that  percent of  proportion from  I960  proportion  by  1978.  secondary of  pupil  increase  in  the  numbers  high  1970  school  of  school  possible  pupils  indicates  a  trend  school. numbers  during  population  largely  due  to  age  reaching  secondary  This  school  was  of to  universal  doubling  pupil  (estimate)  the in  the  -  153  the  "post  w a r baby  succeeding But  one  hand,  the other  that  before  hand,  from  decline  longer  people  long  in enrolment  acceptance  addition  pupil,  i t was an a i m o f O n t a r i o ' s  the  period  1961-1978  to give  3, p . 111*9"  )•  (see  Chap.  Murray of  Lang,  Professor  Education  toward  of  individualization  and claimed  of Toronto:  : education  trend and universal'."  foretold  t h e r e was no  1 1 1  of every  high  school  of Education t o each  tendency Teaching  help  ''  maintained  each  in  pupil,  was noted  by  at the Faculty  "The general  must  1 1  was n o t  that  attention  in Science  due t o a On t h e  be  education.  of this  slowly.  Weisenthal  Department  The presence  the University  will  parents.  individual  o f Methods  school.  schooling  the enrolment  age  partly  the s t a t i s t i c i a n ,  of secondary  to encouraging  high  more  identified this  secondary  1980's,  in the  t o grow  education  (1974),  in the  was a l s o  attending  secondary  of universal  rate  population  (1974)  Weisenthal  birth,  the attitude of Ontario's  universal  In  lower  enrolment  and Thornton  the prediction  apparent  a  school  o f young  Kubat  "that  while  the school  in high  percentage  predicted  a  caused  the increase  larger  On  years  boom",  t r e n d was  individual  to  11 2 develop  to the full  Some  suggestion  instruction teacher  in the  ratio  of  it  is apparent  in  the early Lang  zation  of  extent  1970's  (1976)  of this  1960 s 1  the  also  or his/her  has d e s c r i b e d  From  ."  the attempts of  1  in the table  increased i z a t i-on  in  to introduce  these  of  in the p u p i l /  the data  ratio  ..i n d i v i d u a  and t h e r e s u l t s  .  in the decrease  the pupi1/teacher less  .  individualization  20.  in Table  suggesting  instruction  towards  c a n be seen  1960's  that  trend  potential',.  attempts:  slightly education. individuali-  Table Ontario  Secondary School Enrolment, Teacher P u p i l / T e a c h e r R a t i o (1960-1976)  Total Year  20  Secondary  School  Enrolment  Number School  of  Numbers  Secondary  Teachers  and  Pupi1/Teacher Ratio  11,478  22.89  1965  262,775 418,738  21,659  19.33  1970  556,910  33,693  16.53  1975  605,160  34,826  17.38  1976  613,055  35,352  17.34  I960  Sources:  O n t a r i o , Department o f E d u c a t i o n , Report of the M i n i s t e r o f E d u c a t i o n . I960, p.S-3; i b i d . , 1961, p p . S H 6 , S-T.7; i b 1966,' pp. 100, 127-132; i b i d . , 1970, p p . 14, 36; i b i d . , Educational S t a t i s t i c s , 1976, p p . 45, 76, 88, 117, 197.  •".  .  .  the  real  efforts  teacher  education  teachers  . . .  individual by  sizes,  and  copious  ceilings  have  should  but  attempts  the  cost  Table biology the  and  like  the  21  made  to  in  have  how  Secondary  can  high  the  Alas,  The  government  and  although  they  the  have  available  money.  implement  1971,  were imposed  kept has  been  Yes,  individualization the  by  the  not  result  can  were  centres,  budgets  net  much  in  taxpayers  afford?"^^  individualized  instruction  be  •  School  number  seen  enrolment suggests  produced  decline  in  comment  as  allowed  greater  It  and  for  libraries  materials.  raised,  class  time  prohibitive.  shows  it  period  content The  in  to  but  pupi 1/teacher  Biology  of  pupils  t h e r e was  Classes  enrolled  in  considerable  high  school  variation  over  years. The  of  was  Pupils  3.52  were  been  the  educational  spending,  reduction  education,  Thus,  limit  meet  reducing  free  School  to  negotiated  learning-resource  that  inflation,  drastic  we  marking.  unreasonably.  to  with  more  the  prepare  and  reduce so  At  to  groups  to  audiovisual  ceilings  tried  teachers,  spacious  Implement  curricula  teachers  apparent  increasingly  we  Teachers'  more  and  into  became  pace  design  giving  preparation  to  instruction.  Education  hiring  expanded with  to  of  :  ratio  a  made  colleges  needs.  wifch -;Boards  it  were  i n d i v i d u a l i z a t i o n of  is  this  a  in that  program  enrolment decrease freedom  conceivable  that  in  biology, the  various  which  was  Grades  occurred in  choosing  easier  particularly  adjustments  acceptable and  9  toward  10  in  to  many  1969  '  immediately a f t e r courses  options  like  for  in  a  theatre  s  the  end  curriculum pupils. worthy  pupils  were  Graduation arts  of  might  Diploma have  Table Ontario  Secondary  School  21  Enrolment  in Biology  and  Agriculture  (1960-1978)  Year  Percentage o f Grade 9 a n d 10 P u p i I s E n rol led in Biology  I960  77.2*  P e r c e n t a g e G r a d e 11 Pupi1s E n r o l l e d in B iology  Not  29.1  available  until  P e r c e n t a g e o f Grade Pupi1s Enrol l e d in B iology  1964  1965  73.3-  0.57  5.1-2  1969-*  60.1 *  0.33  32.4  1975  94.6*  N.A.  1978  9k. 9  15.6  Sources:  Ontario,  Report  of  .•60.1 53.8  the Minister  'pp."69, '80, 129; i b i d . ,  of  Education,  1965,  p p . 127-132; i b i d . , 1969, p . 66; i b i d . , 1970, p p . 28, 43, 66; ibid., Educational S t a t i s t i c s 1976, p p . 14-18, 45, 88, 112; i b i d . , Guideline Courses, 1978, p p . i i i , 5; O n t a r i o , M i n i s t r y o f T r e a s u r y , Economics and Intergovernmental A f f a i r s S t a t i s t i c s , 1976, p p . 40, 197;  Notes:  -  1966,  I n c l u d e s a g r i c u l t u r e a n d p r o p o r t i o n s i n G r a d e 9 a n d 10 a s s u m e d t o b e t h e s a m e a s i n Gr.12. T h i s was n e c e s s a r y because education s t a t i s t i c s did not give grade e n r o l m e n t o n s u b j e c t s b e b e t w e e n 1945 a n d 1977. (See Chap.  2, p.97) •  r  **  First  year  of  freedom  of  choice  of  subjects  13  been The  chosen large  fact  one  graduation  this  science large  the  of  the  an  students  ever 4.4  the  of  compared  This  a  9  at  be  the and  and  in  high  to  school  in  the  1975,  was  passed, chose that  have  due  been  preservation  of  the to  proper  time. the  enrolment  available  about  Ministry  Education  Ontario  the  speculate  during  percent  to  students  may  about  of  pupils  due  compulsory  1978  this  made  indication of  education  a  agriculture  10  94.9  for  tempting  i n f o r m a t i o n was in  been  Presumably  is  course.  enrolment  science  1975  earth  could  of  with  revealing  agricultural  the  Grade  in  have  high  generation for the  enrolled  science is  on  ft  1975.  science  needed  the  making  science  Report  1978  percent  in  l i t t l e  who  was  questionable.  estimate  science  demanding  However,  younger  conditions  general  science  regulation  in  more  1978 (.94.9%) c o u l d  of  assertion  While  of  credit  enrolment  living  the  in  voluntarily  concern  of  diploma.''"*  before  makes  place  enrolment  that  year  in  were  in  all  the  this  Grade  secondary  number  period.  in  How-  that  only  agricultural  9 and  declining  the  showed  enrolled  in  10  science.'  importance  schooling  of  during  this  period. The 1969(53-4  Grade  The  biology  explanation  percent)  proportions  13  of  can  be  pupils  standing.  Then  a  difficulty  with  the  enrolment  for  the  found were  greater  increased  large  partly  except  proportion  in  the  fact  studying that  remaining  in  school  proportion  of  students  mathematics  needed  for  the  for  to  the  year  biology  increasing  secure would  physical  Grade  have  13  had  sciences.  158 So  they  chose  matics.. mat  (Certainly  fcally  large  inclined  enrolment  students,  in  choosing  biology  teaching  and  Whatever  their  to  of  learn  principles  which  in  Grade that  often  biology  a wide  those in  had  pollution  could  of  maintain  to  see  the  in  these  how  • non-mathe- : In  half  pupils  v i a b i l i t y of  the  in  living.  an  opportunity  development  applications  13  students  services,  had  the  Grade  out-door  industrial  the  the  The  health and  addition,  of  appeal.  environment  unrestricted  and  than  interested  the  mathe-  biology).  more  and  dangers  require  experience  chose  ultimate occupations,  the  not  13 b i o l o g y ,  included  research  did  the w r i t e r ' s  students  indicated  uncontrolled  3.60  biology  of  and  biological  planet.  Summary  The  1961-1978  period  was  a  time of  saw  provincially  During in  the  in  attended. by  a  of  teachers  In  fact,  Moreover,  in  early the  late  f l e x i b l e options  of  curriculum the of  the  pupils  1978 a l l  for  of  the  was  changes, at  the  high  talented  of  imposed  school  of  of  a  high  was  the  a  interested  1970's increase  who  followed  the in  a  at  some  science  age  were  by  costs.  slight  while  studied  in  a  surplus  studied  the  school  period'than  pupils  1960's  rapid  sixties  seventies, by  The  educational  t h e r e was  late  succeeded  end  pupils  the  biology  on  while  t h e r e was  people  late  trends.  education  seventies  young  in  sixties  for  seventies  The  of  by  while  opposing  ceilings  proportion  spite  proportion  and  of  grants  the  firm core  In  federal  legislated  sixties  enrolment,  decline  large  was. one  shortage  the  seventies.  larger the  beginning.  basic  science.  three  science  courses  were  strengthening increasing necessity  provided of  public of  in  biology  the as  awareness,  maintaining  first a high at  two  school  least  the e a r t h  school  as  years.  subject  among  the  accompan  young,  a habitable  The  of  planet.  160  References  1.  for  Chapter  3  Richard  D.  Heyrnan,  R o b e r t . L.  Studies  in  Educational  Lawson  Change  and  (Toronto:  Robert Holt,  M.  Stamp,  Rinehart  and  Winston,  1972), p . 85. 2.  Ibid.  3.  T e d F. A n d r e w s e d . , ( B S C S ) M a t e r i a l s f o r P r e p a r a t i o n o f InS e r v i c e T e a c h e r s o f B i o l o g y (1968), p . 2 a s c i t e d b y VIademir Murawsky " A " ' H i s t o r i c a l A n a l y s i s of B i o l o g i c a l Education in the S c h o o l s o f t h e N o r t h - W e s t T e r r i t o r i e s 1889-1905 a n d i n S a s k a t c h e w a n 1905-1959", ( U n p u b l i s h e d M a s t e r ' s T h e s i s , University o f S a s k a t c h e w a n , 1969), p . 105.  4.  Heyrnan  5.  J e r o m e S. B r u n e r , T o w a r d a T h e o r y o f I n s t r u c t i o n ( C a m b r i d g e , M a s s . : H a r v a r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1966), p . 72, a s q u o t e d b y M i c h a e l Schiro, Curriculum for Better Schools (Englewood C l i f f s , N.J.: E d u c a t i o n a l T e c h n o l o g y P u b l i c a t i o n s , 1978), p . 48.  6.  J.  and  Donald  others,  loc.  Wilson,  in  Precepts,  J.  Donald  "Swinging  Policy  Wi1 s o n ,  cit.  and  Sixties  Process.  (London,  ,  to eds.  Sobering Hugh A .  Ont. : A l e x a n d e r ,  Blake  Seventies", Stevenson and  and  Associates,  1'977), p . 31. 7.  .Ontario, p.  Report  of  the  Minister  of  Education  ( R . M . E .);,  5.  8.  Hugh A. S t e v e n s o n , " T e n Y e a r s t o K n o w - W h e r e " , The E d u c a t i o n a l Reform in Canada, ed. Douglas Myers, M c C l e l l a n d a n d S t e w a r t , 1973), p . 5.  9.  W i l l i a m B.  10.  Arnold  B.  Mayer,  11.  Stanley  12.  Andrews,  13.  Ibid.  14.  Ibid.  "The  Grobman,  40: 1-7. 20,  15.  1976,  Murawsky,,  "The  op.  2.  c i t . , p.  BSCS  Dozen  Journal,  Y e a r s , " ...BSCS  1(4):  59,  1978.  Newsletter,  .1970.  Personal  c i t . , p.  Past,"  First  September,  Williamson, op.  BSCS  Fa i 1 u r e o f (Toronto:  109.  Oral  Communication,  June  1,  1980.  161  16.  BSCS,  Laboratory  17.  BSCS , B i 6 1 o g i c a l (BSCS  Second  Blocks,  (.12 t i 11 e s ) ( B o s t o n : D . C .  Science  Course)  :  Interaction  (Englewood  of  Cliffs,  Heath,  Experiments  N.J-J:  1969) .  and  1deas  Prent ice-Ha 1 1,  1965). 18.  BSCS,  Biological  Materials) 19.  BSCS,  Science  (NewiYbrk:  Biology  : Patternsand  Holt,  Teachers'  Rinehart  Handbook  Processes  and W i n s t o n ,  (New Y o r k :  John  (BSCS 1966) Wiley  Special , p. S  v i .  Sons,  1963). 20.  Wallace  L.  W-lmburn  Statistical  "BSCS  Report",  BSCS  1961-62 E v a l u a t i o n Newsletter,  Program  September,  -  A  1963, 22-24.  21.  L o r e n z o L i s o n b e e and B i l l J . F u l l e r t o n , " T h e C o m p a r a t i v e o f BSCS a n d T r a d i t i o n a l B i o l o g y on S t u d e n t A c h i e v e m e n t , " S c h o o l S c i e n c e a n d M a t h e m a t i c s , 6 4 : 4-12, 1964.  22.  Mary L o u i s e L a n c e , " A Comparison o f G a i n s i n A c h i e v e m e n t Made by S t u d e n t s o f BSCS H i g h S c h o o l B i o l o g y a n d S t u d e n t s o f a Conventional Course in B i o l o g y " D i s s e r t a t i o n A b s t r a c t s 25: 2814, 1964.  23.  W i l l i a m A. L e w i s , "An E v a l u a t i o n o f Four S e l e c t e d Approaches Teaching High School B i o l o g y " , D i s s e r t a t i o n A b s t r a c t s , 27: 1689A, 1966.  24.  W i l l i a m J . W e i s h a r and R i c h a r d E. BSCS," American Biology Teacher,  25.  D a v i d A u s u b e l , " A n E v a l u a t i o n o f t h e BSCS A p p r o a c h t o H i g h B i o l o g y , " A m e r i c a n B i o l o g y T e a c h e r , 28: 176-186, 1966.  26.  ibid.,  27.  Williamson,  28.  Mayer,  29.  Williamson,  30.  L l o y d H. H e i d g e r d Lasting Effects,"  31-  P. T a m i r , " T h e E f f e c t o f t h e K i n d o f C u r r i c u l u m S t u d i e d as Students' Achievement in High E D 1 0 4 6 5 5 , J u n e 17, 1 9 8 0 ( P a p e r the N a t i o n a l A s s o c i a t i o n f o r Los A n g e l e s , March 1975) .  p.  Perry, "Our F i r s t Year 26: 343-346, 1964.  Effect  to  Under  School  177. loc. c i t .  o p . c i t . , p.  6.  loc. c i t . a n d N i c h o l a s F. R a y d e r , " B S C S B i o l o g y — E R I C D o c u m e n t ED 0 8 3 3 0 2 . Feb. 13, 1974.  Its  Teachers' C u r r i c u l a r Bias, the w e l l as t h e i r I n t e r a c t i o n on S c h o o l B i o l o g y , " ERIC Document presented a t the Annual Meeting Research in Science Teaching,  of  162  32.  Robert  Stake  Education, and  Vol.  and  Jack  A.  Easley.  ( U r b a n a H 3 h a m p a i gn  Curriculum  Evaluation  and  Case  : Center  Studies for  C o m m i t t e e on  Culture  J o h n A . M o o r e , " A New B i o l o g y : M o r e R e l e v a n c e R e d u n d a n c y , " " B S C S J o u r n a l , 1 ( 4 ) : 12, 1978.  34.  William Anderson, Orbit,  36.  Sci ence Research  and  Cognition),  1 1 ( 1 2 ) : 6, 1 9 7 8 .  33-  35.  in  Industrial  2: 10-13,  "The  Nuffield  February,  Foundation  and  and  Less  Educational  Reform,"  1971.  Ibid. M i c h a e l S h a y e r , " C o n c e p t u a l Demands i n t h e N u f f i e l d ' O - L e v e l B i o l o g y C o u r s e , " S c h o o l S c i e n c e Review 7 55:38l-388, 1 9 7 3 - 4 , P e t e r K e l l y and G r a c e M o n g e r , " A n E v a l u a t i o n o f t h e N u f f i e l d 'level b i o l o g y c o u r s e m a t e r i a l s and t h e i r Uses," Part I School Science Review, 55: 470-482, 1973-4.  0-  37.  J . O . Head, " N u f f i e l d A - L e v e l s and Undergraduate S c h o o l S c i e n c e R e v i e w , 56: 601-604, 1974-5.  38.  Heyrnan  39-  The P r o v i n c i a l R e s e a r c h C o m m i t t e e o f t h e O n t a r i o Secondary School Teachers' F e d e r a t i o n ( 0 . S . S , T . F . ) , A t What C o s t ? A S t u d y of the Role of the Secondary School in O n t a r i o (Toronto: MacLeanH u n t e r , 1 9 7 6 ) , p . 12.  40.  Heyrnan  41.  Murray Lang, "The e f f e c t s of changing patterns of c u r r i c u l u m d e v e l o p m e n t on b i o l o g y b o u r s e s i n t h e s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l s o f O n t a r i o , _ C a n a d a , " J o u r n a l o f B i o l o g i c a l E d u c a t i o n , 1 0 ( 3 ) : 133 138, 1976; W. G e r a l d F l e m i n g , O n t a r i o ' s E d u c a t i v e S o c i e t y , V o l . 3, Schools, P u p i l s and~Teachers (Toronto: University of Toronto Press,  and  others,  and  others.,  loc.  Performance,"  cit.  loc.  cit.  1971), p. 9 3 .  42.  Ibid.  43.  Ontario,  44.  O.S.S.T.F.,  45. 46.  tbid.,  R.M.E.,  loc.  Ontario, Report  of  Educat ion 47. 48.  op.  1964, p. c i t . , pp.  the  of  14.  Education,  Provincial the  Schools  Ibid. O.S.S.T.F.,  13,  cit.  Department of  4.  loc.  cit.  Living  C o m m i t t e e on of'Ontario'  and  Aims  (1968)"  Learning  and  :  The  Objectives  of  163  49.  Ibid.  50.  Ibid.  51.  Eleanor  Ward  Getting  their$12 B i l l i o n W o r t h ? "  pp.  59-62  Public  in  O.S.S.T.F.,  53-  The  author's  Ontario, Ci r c u l a r  57. 58.  and  1973),  Reinhold,  6,  1976,  History  Robert  of  Sidney,  269-270.  pp.  and  to  Information  for  C e r t i f i c a t i o n and  Secondary  Diplomas  Schools  (1969-70)  H.S.I  O.S.S.T.F.,  op.  c i t . , p.  17.  Ibid. Ontario,  R.M.E. ,  Ontario,  Ministry  A  of  Survey  C h r i s t o p h e r Dede t i o n s : Secondary Science  1976-7, of  p.  5.. -  Education,  Parents'  60.  Quality  of  of  Education  in  Ontario:  (1972).  Perspective  Department  Education,  Circular,  IX  (1937)-  Science,  and J o y H a r d e n , " R e f o r m s , R e v i s i o n s , S c h o o l S c i e n c e S i n c e W o r l d War II,"  Re-examina-  57(4): 485-491, 1973-  Education,  L e s t e r C . M i l l s a n d P e t e r M. D e a n , P r o b l e m S o l v i n g Methods i n S c i e n c e T e a c h i n g (New Y o r k : B u r e a u o f P u b l i c a t i o n s , T e a c h e r s ' C o l l e g e , C o l u m b i a U n i v e r s i t y , i960), p r e f a c e . Fred  M.  Speed,  O.S.S.T.F.  "The  Ontario,  R.M.E.,  64.  Ontario,  Department  Program,  (1962).  Ontario,  Ministry  Grades  New  Bulletin,  63.  65.  A Documentary  Lawr  Canadians  Sept.  cit.  Leading  Ontario,  62.  Douglas  Are  MacLeans,  experience.  59.  61.  "Education,  Canadians  eds.  Nostrand  loc.  Miller,  Recommendations  Organization  56.  Educating  Van  52.  55.  Robert  Education,  (Toronto:  5^.  and  1966,  in  p.  General  Science,"  112.  of -Education,  of  7, 8,9, 10  Course  41 ; 159-160, 1961.  Education,  Curriculum  Curriculum  Intermediate  RP-17,  Division,  Ontario, Ministry of Education, Curriculum Guideline I n t e r m e d i a t e D i v i s i o n S c i e n c e (I978) , p . 5<,  67.  O n t a r i o , Department G r a d e 7, 8, 9, a n d  of  Science  (1972) .  66.  10,  Four-Year  Education, Curriculum  Intermediate  1: l(e.,196l)  for  the  Division, Science G r a d e 10, U n i t 1.  164  68.  Ontario, Program  69-  Department  of  Education,  (1964),  Revised,  p.  C u r r i c u l u r n RP—17,  Four-Year  5.  O n t a r i o , M i n i s t r y of Educat ion , Intermed i a t e G r a d e s 7, 8, 9, 10 C u r r i c u l u m (1972).  P i v i s i o n , Sc i e n c e  70.  Ibid.  71.  Lang,  7.2.  O.S.S.T.F..,  73.  Ontario, Ministry of Education, Curriculum Guideline for the I n t e r m e d i a t e D i v i s i o n S c i e n c e (1978) , p . 5.  74.  Ibid.,  75-  W i l l i a m Graham, Science;. R e v i e w ,  76.  John  loc. c i t .  pp.  S.  loc. c i t .  12-20. " R e a d a b i l i t y and S c i e n c e  Text-books,"School  59: 545-546, 1978.  Chipsham,  " A  Consumer  In£erm|dja%e S c i e n c e f O r b i t  Report  on S c h o o l  Textbooks.  8(1): 18-22, 1977.  77.  B.S.C.S. Green V e r s i o n , High School Biology, S e c o n d E d i t i o n , ( C h i c a g o : R a n d , M c N a l l y , T9o9J  78.  The a u t h o r spent t h e y e a r C a r o l i n a on a N.S.F. Year  79-  O n t a r i o , M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n , C u r r i c u l u m RP F o u r - Y e a r G r a d e 11 a n d 12(1963)-  80.  B.S.C.S.  Green  81.  Ontario,  R.M.E.,  82.  O n t a r i o , R . M . E . , I965, p p . 66, 80, 129; O n t a r i o , M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n , S t a t i s t i c s S e c t i o n , Management I n f o r m a t i o n Systems J u n e 1979, Guideline Courses 1978.  83.  Ausubel,  84.  B.S.C.S.,  85.  The w r i t e r ' s  86.  Ontario, Botany  87.  Version,  Vol.  5,  56  of  North  Biology,  4.  Branch,  loc. c i t . Green  Version,  opinion  Department  of  after  Education,  Past  W. G e r a l d  Supporting  c i t . teaching Upper  the courses  School  f o r 20  Examinations  in  (1965)•  and Zoology  1971;  op.  gained  O.S.S.T.F., "Science October,  at the U n i v e r s i t y I n s t i t u t e Program.  op. c i t . p.  1964,  1968-69  and P r e s e n t , " ^ Fleming,  Institutions  Un i v e r s i t y o f T o r o n t o  Press,  "-,Bui l e t i n ,  Ontario'-s  Educat i v e  and S e r v i c e s ,  1972),  pp.  51:  (Toronto:  140-142.  272,  Society, The  years.  165  88.  Briefs Mrs.  to  Linda  Studies  the  1964  Corman,  Grade  13  Librarian  i n Education  of  O.S.S.T.F.,• l o c . c i t .  90.  O n t a r i o , R.M.E., 196O, p. 6.  Committee  the Ontario  (01SE) L i b r a r y  89.  91.  Revision  by  courtesy  Institute  o  r  for  i n J u l y 1978.  Ibid.  92.  C h a r l o t t e Sul1ivan,Taped  I n t e r v i e w , J u l y 20, 1978.  93-  O n t a r i o , Department o f E d u c a t i o n , S e n i o r D i v i s i o n , Grade 13 B i o l o g y C u r r i c u l u m S17B,  1965 , pp. 1-11; i b i d . ,  1969  pp. 6-7.  94.  E l l i o t E i s n e r and E l i z a b e t h V a l l a n c e , eds. C o n f l i c t i n g Concepts o f C u r r i c u l u m ( B e r k e l e y , C a l . : McCutchan P u b l i s h i n g Co.,1974), p.12; the a u t h o r ' s o p i n i o n g a i n e d from t e a c h i n g the c o u r s e e l e v e n y e a r s .  95.  Author's observation.  96.  Examples o f e c o l o g i c a l e x e r c i s e s t h a t t h e a u t h o r has used.  97.  A u t h o r ' s o p i n i o n based on e l e v e n y e a r s  98.  Author's experience Crucible".  99-  O n t a r i o , Department o f E d u c a t i o n , Grade 13 B i o l o g y  t e a c h i n g t h e 1965  course.  from a t t e n d i n g the course and e d i t i n g "The (1969), pp. 6-7.  100.  Ibid.  101.  O n t a r i o , Department o f E d u c a t i o n , C i r c u l a r (1976).  102.  G e r a l d Skoog, " T o p i c s o f E v o l u t i o n i n Secondary School S c i e n c e E d u c a t i o n , 63 (5) 621-640, 1979.  14, A u t h o r i z e d  Textbooks,  Biology",  :  103.  S t a k e and E a s l e y , l o c . c i t .  104.  P e r s o n a l communication on May 8, I98O from C C . Haupt, Head o f P h y s i c s Department, S i l v e r t h o r n e C o l l e g e I n s t i t u t e i n t h e Borough o f E t o b i c o k e , M e t r o p o l i t a n Toronto.  105.  M i l e s W e i s e n t h a l , "Secondary E d u c a t i o n i n O n t a r i o " , O.S.S.T.F. B u l l e t i n , 54 (5): 303-4, 1974.  106.  Haupt, l o c . c i t .  166  107.  Robin H a r r i s , Quiet E v o l u t i o n P r e s s , 1967) , p . 8 1 .  108.  Lang,  109.  Ibid;0ntario, M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n , Intermed i a t e P i v i s i o n , C u r r i c u l u m (1972), S c i e n c e G r a d e s 7, 8 , 9 , 1 0 ; I b i d . , 1978.  110.  D a n i e l Kubat and David T h o r n t o n , A Statistica1 C a n a d i a n S o c i e t y ( T o r o n t o : McGraw-H i11-Ryerson,  loc.  111.  Weisenthal,  112.  bang,,  113.  Ibid.  loc.  (Toronto:  University  of  Toronto  c i t .  loc.  Profi1e  1974),  of p . 110.  c i t .  c i t .  114.  Ontario,  Department  of Education,  Ci r c u l a r  H.S.  115.  O n t a r i o , R.M.E., S t a t i s t i c s S e c t i o n , Management S y s t e m s B r a n c h , G u i d e l i n e C o u r s e s ' " , ' 1978.  1 , 1969-70. Information  Chapter  A "CENTURY" CURRICULAR  4.10  high  CONCEPTS,  examining  schools  to  the  by  these  present  the  changes  over  IN  ONTARIO  HIGH SCHOOLS  REFLECTIONS  changes  AND  '(1871-1978)  PREDICTIONS  biology  to  one  curricular  investigators.  education of  the  tasks  concepts  The  in  that  author  Ontario remaining  are  re-  undertakes  this  chapter.  below  social  which  in  a century,  Schiro^identified  described I  the  curriculum  Michael as;  EDUCATION  CONCLUSIONS,  extending  relate  cognized in  BIOLOGY  Introduction After  is  OF  4  and  also  four  shown  e f f i c i e n c y or  c h i l d r e n were  curricular.concepts in  Figure  for  ideologies  S-  utilitarianism  trained  or  their  ideology  future  roles  in in  soc i e t y , II  the  social  taught would Ml  the to  IV  the  to  reconstruction solve  remake  ch i I d draw  scholar  ducted  into  problems  in which  with  the  children  hope  that  were  they  society,  study  out  social  ideology  the  ideology  in which  inherent  capacities  academic the  ideology  structure  of  the of  in which the  program the  was  designed  children,  c h i l d r e n were  discipline.  2  and in-  Figure  Ontario  Cone I us i o n i the* C u r r i c u l u m  High  School  Education  with  Periods, Curricular  Concepts and C o n c l u s i o n s  0871-1978)  I Concepts  Throughout the hundred years o f c h a n g e In t h e b i o l o g y c u r r i c u l u m t h e s c h o l a r a c a d e m i c c o n c e p t was dominant, but d e c l i n e d during the second p e r i o d ; the social e f f i c i e n c y < concept appeared In the b i o l o g y curriculum during the f i r s t period b u t was d e c l i n i n g b y t h e t h i r d p e r i o d ; t h e c h i l d s t u d y a p p r o a c h was a c o m p e t i n g concept In the second and third periods while social recons t r u c t i o n as a c u r r i c u l a r concept e&ar$cd during the t h i r d .  Conclus ion v l i The B i o l o g y P u p i l s  Social Efficiency Ideology Periods  of Biological  Ii f e history of wheat rust  Content  The t o p i c s t h a t w e r e p r o m i n e n t I n b i o l o g y e d u c a t i o n made u p a c h r o n o l o g i c a l s e r i e s : taxonomy, morphology and r e l a t e d p h y s i o l o g y , a p p l i c a t i o n s of b i o l o g y , g e n e t i c s , ecology and eel I b i o l o g y .  Cone t u s i o n i l l The P h y s i c a l F a c i l i t i e s ' for Biology Education Physical facilities changed throughout the period r e f l e c t i n g the c u r r i c u l a r concept c u r r e n t l y \n v o g u e .  E d u c a t i o n and Examples o f C u r r i c u l a r Content*  1) T h e p e r i o d o f E d u cotion of a Hinorlty (1871-192 )  2)  taxonomic  botany  botany  The P e r i o d o f E x p a n d -  taxonoolc  bacterlo-  Ing Enrolment  human  physioiogy  logy  (I92W1960)  human  g e n e t lc<; physiology  bacterlology ,wor Id popuI at Ion Cone I us Ion I I The C u r r i c u l u m  5  3)  of  The P e r i o d o f Educational flux  major  of minor  The p r o p o r t i o n o f h i g h s c h o o l aged young people I n s c h o o l Increased eighteen f o l d over this period. At t h e sane time the o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r the "average" high school pupil to learn b i o l o g i c a l principles increased great Iy. By 1 9 7 8 9 5 p e r c e n t o f t h e G r a d e 9's a n d 1 0 ' s , 16 p e r c e n t o f t h e G r a d e l l ' s and 12's and 53 p e r c e n t o f t h e Grade 13's were e n r o l l e d In b iology  Conclusion y l • The A g r i c u l t u r e P u p i l s  importance importance  * additional  examples a r e i n Appendices  Cone 1 us i o n i v The B i o l o g y T e x t b o o k s Over the hundred years the e d u c a t i o n a l e m p h a s i s on t e x t b o o k s c h a n g e d . In t h e f i r s t p e r i o d the authors were u n i v e r s i t y b i o l o g i s t s s t r e s s i n g the s t r u c t u r e o f b i o l o g y : i n the second p e r i o d the authors .were t e a c h e r s e m p h a s i z i n g topics of pupil i n t e r e s t ; w h i l e i n t h e t h i r d t h e r e w e r e teams o f b i o l o g i s t s and t e a c h e r s s t r e s s i n g b o t h b i o l o g i c a l s t r u c t u r e and student I n t e r e s t .  A a n d 3.  - U n t i l 191* repeated attempts t o introduce high school a g r i c u l t u r e failed. F r o m 1914* the enrolment In a g r i c u l t u r e I n c r e a s e d y e a r b y y e a r t o a p e a k I n 1 9 5 0 w h e n 37 p e r c e n t o f G r a d e 9 a n d 10 p u p i l s w e r e e n r o l l e d . A f t e r 1950 t h e enrolment decreased sharply t o * i p e r c e n t i n 1978.  Conclusion v The B i o l o g y T e a c h e r s Over most o f t h e hundred years, Ontario secondary teachers o f b i o l o g y had high academic and p r o f e s s i o n a l quaI I f I c a t Ions. However t h e r e were times o f t e a c h e r s h o r t a g e s In which q u a l i f i c a t i o n s In g e n e r a l *«c1lned.  169  The  author  curricula three a  will  these  concepts  to determine which  periods  of  the study,  of  (I92I-I960)  and  (3)  high  them was o p e r a t i v e the period  CO  the period  the period  To do t h i s ,  5).  in examining  namely,  (1871-1920), (2)  minority  (Fig.  use  of  of  in each  flux  each  biology of  the  of education  expanding  educational  the curriculum of  school  for  enrolment  (1961-1978)  period  will  be  examined  3 to  see w i t h which  exercise  carried  integrating Also absence  o u t on  device  in  of  curricular  this  it  the c u r r i c u l a of  for this chapter  changes  concepts  is  compatible.  the century  Such, an  will  form  an  thesis.  the author  in the f o l l o w i n g  will  look  aspects  of  f o r the presence biology  or  education  5):  (Fig.  i  the c u r r i c u l a r  concepts  operative  over  the  hundred  years, ii  the content  iii  facilities  the biology  textbooks,  v  the biology  teachers,  vii  to  the physical  the biology  iv  vi  The  of  the a g r i c u l t u r e the biology  examination various  summarized with forty  in  for biology  education,  pupils,  pupils. these  conclusions,  respect years  of  curriculum,  Figure  aspects which  biology  are discussed  In a d d i t i o n ,  5.  to the conclusions experience  of  as  a  will  at  and  length  reflections  are offered,  teacher.  education  based  and  lead  predictions  on.the  author's  170  4.20  Curricular  4.21  The  The period  Trends Period  in of  Biology  of  that  throughout  the  Century  a Minority  (1871H920)  schooling  during  early  scholar  academic  Education  examination  revealed  Education  the  for  the  part  ideology  of  which  the stressed  4 the  classical  schools  of  training  languages,  l870's  the  for and  cult  introduce  be  to  botany  (I878)  exercises and be  so  comparable  studied Once  of  study,  it  was  was  granted  added A  a  (see  third  as  advance  a  1, was  a  that  p . 17.  as  a  training It  was  d i f f i -  by  educators  (see  Chapter  systematic  way  to 1, of  taxonomic  botany  rules  application  and  pp.  high  had  16  9,  school  )> subject  to  languages.^  the  on  the  high  Ontario  allotment than  high  provided  high.''  Chap..l,  in  other  the  was  atmosphere  subject  time  that  considered  accepted  advances  topics  Chap.  (see  The  teachers'  definitions,  classical  specified  and  rate  revealed  was  the  made  and  introduced  Latin  admitted  biology  (1904)^  tions were  it  with  schools"  subject  with  to  entrenched.  scholarly  that  botany  along  a  Spotton  structure  taxonomic  drop-out  this  Henry  distinctive  "select  science,  into  firmly  university  the  However,  teaching a  to  in which  utilitarian,  p . 4).  were  entrance  schools  was  by  taxonomy  school  school  program:  provincial such  as  course  regula-  physiology  )• inclusion  of  biological  topics  of  g economic was an  importance  consistent education  with  that  (1904). the  would  The  stated f i t  the  addition  policy child  of for  of  that his  the  latter  time of future  topics  providing life  in  171  society social  (.see  Chap.  efficiency  1,  p..4  concept  ideology.  The  culum  illustrates  also  concept.  'Its  with  the  scholarly  that  future  home  farms.  from  the  However,  Department Later of  their  (1909)(1912) ,  rural by  1914  of  these  was  study  the  by  of  to  high  this  the  outlining  (see  period was  a  scientific  1 . , 27-34).  third  curricular  of  It  was  best  on  their support  to  science  secured who  agricultural the  the  of  and  (iii)  (1913)  concept,  of  teachers in was  and  Finally,  The  efficiency  manual  in-  progress  farming.  in  pel—  grants  of  little  grants  the  Department  form  (1911)  supported  kindergartens,  believed  received  agriculture. social  incompatible  who  qualifications  Chap.  evident.  additions  in  the  officials  give  provided  the  was  Education  to  curri-  efficiency  optional  However,  taught  that  it  inspector  government  schools  made  (i)  the  an  appreciate  vocation  of  school  people  the  academic  groups,  subject  addition,  (1914).  indicates  strength  In  the  two  of  scholar  social  Agriculture  support:  study  the  agriculture  Department  appointing  began  ideology,  schools  in  federal  efforts  During  who  further  and  thirteen  gaining  high  course  people  their  of  by  emergence  to  rural  Education,  Department  (ii)  agriculture  until  the  schools.  offered  made  and  learn  the  of  the  this  the  Education  a  that  representatives  in  planning  opposed  district  struction  of  of  in  (1907), the  decrease  instruction  of  the  W  agriculture  was  thought  could  sh.o s  influence  tradition  farmers  cooperation mitted  who  a  of  the  introduction  teachers  (1904).  and  introduction  academic  This  ),  the  persistence ideology  child  elementary training,  household  science,  Nature child a  study  study  child  to  teacher  learn  while  a  still the  discuss  future  to  aid  child  in  observe  the  the  the  followers  natural  phenomena,  was  the  minimal  problems  of  the  to  this  attempt  of  the  high  permitted  by  the  answering  to  do  high  explore  their  Ontario  it  and  record  for  the  training  learned  influence in  of  because  classes  to  Except  teachers,  concept  biology  study.  environment  received  teachers  findings.  elementary  nature  development  teacher  elementary  to  by  and  activities, presenting  student  their  curricular  considered  elementary  future  environment,  gardening  d i r e c t l y from  suggesting The  to  was  ideology  questions.  Here  school  this  school.  the  natural  observations to  train  child  study  schools  during  and  this  9 pe r i o d . In child  spite  study  curricular highly  the  concept  subjects  minor  culture,  influences  ideologies was  'selective'  academic the  of  in  the  s t i l l  nature like  attention  the  Latin, to  use  of  authorized  examinations  set  by  an  the  author's  fortunate  since  rigorously its  purpose  teachers'  view  social program,  the  and  taxonomic  text  like  books  be  of  selected  school  population. ^  colleges."  and  authority,  could  young  music  the  this  people  for  given  this  even it  to  botany,  and  ideology  However  The  agri-  retention  support  successful 1  few  art,  operative  academic.  mathematics  predominance  a  scholar  and  major  prominence  pupils  preparing  the  the  few  of  efficiency  schools,  external  the  of  subjects  the  In  the  biology that  of  given  of  of  viewpoint. was  with did  un-  a  small  serve  university  and  173  4.22  The Period  During  the f i r s t  twenty-fifth the  second  (Appendix in  people  to  period H).  with  parents.  major  highly  a higher  curricular  expect  during  increase  period,  concept,  pupils  to find  roles  with  even  the drop  the time of rapidly  the  -the s c h o l a r  though  society  for  supported  by schools  "supervised by t h e  school."  academic  the total  enrolment  enrolment  of  be even  One higher  of the less  selected  13 pupils  of the  situation concept roles  In  the  efficiency  i t aimed  1920's  fungus  and f i s h  continuing Ontario  andindeed  this  became  t o educate  was t h e c a s e .  an a t t r a c t i v e a l l pupils  In  this  alternative  for their  future  society.  important station  social  since  in  1920's,  diseases,  of practical  control  conservation  influence  schools  including  the inclusion  (Appendix  of the social  did not neglect  i t s use in the study  o f harmful  topics  such  insects,  as  refore-  A), illustrated the  efficiency  the scholar of biology.  approach.  academic It was  12  i d e o l o g y as  o u t r a t e was h i g h .  out rate would  expanding  particularly  t o use the high  promised  was l o w , t h e drop  that  a demand  them  in  three-fifths  industrial  wished  by a f f o r d i n g  to  while  in enrolment,  o f an  parents  from one  enrolment,  of education,  time  increased  one-fifth  t h e demand  children  the f i r s t  selected  could  large  level  at this  from  and t h e s o c i a l i z a t i o n  During a  the enrolment  increased  reflected  their  atmosphere  it  The l a t t e r  Also,  protect  period  (.1921-1960)  Enrolment  to one-fiifth of the possible  1920's,  the  o f Expanding  S t i l l ,  emphasis  maintained  174  through,  the  prescribed But  deductive textbooks  educators  approach vities  presentation and  who w e r e  encouraged  in which  the  lessons  domination  impressed  the  of  schools  with to  of  the  offer  opportunities  for  this  Ontario  in  the  final  classrooms,  examinations.  social  efficiency  extra-curricular  citizenship  training  acti-  were  15 provided.  .In  interests offered have  an  been The  in  influence  might  goal  of  the  agricultural  have  not  as  been  1928) town  home  students  Curiously,  While  more  a  to  the  high  lessened,  need  while  schools  t o whom  satisfied  citizenship  whom a c a d e m i c  the  training  excellence  there  socially  e f f i c i e n c y approach  was In  in  the  author's farmers  would  1950's.  be  high  during  in  their  vocations  by  which  instruction.  science  was  offered  stressing  in  concomitant  w T t h ;t?he ^ m e c h a n i z a t i o n • i n attempt  most  were  Chap.2,pp.97-99)enrolment  an  (1922-  commuters.  agricultural  d e c l i n e was  high  days,  school  schools,  agricultural  This  and  enrolled  school  (Appendix  instruction  experience  high  and  apparent,  available  learned  local  boarders  was  agricultural  farmers  provided  (see  to  of  continuation  1920's  schools  readily  author's  rural  farms,  e f f i c i e n t by  the  the  rural  appeared  made  future  few  farmers  more  practising  studied  and  late  for  of  most  a  few  rural  the  use  During  by  1930's  in  more  and  the  declined  So,  as  farms.  only  close  in  for  social  much  a g r i c u l t u r e was  located  and  expected.  agriculture  their  high  students  instruction  1920's,few c h i l d r e n  school  in  additional  obtainable  s;H6wever,  the  on  many  the  difficult.  making  A). as  of  way.'  t o make  citizenship  the  it  with  the  agriculture  curriculum  training,  introducing in  applications  agriculture,  the  operative  in  1920's,^  competed  1930's, and  this  acted  the  with  support  academic  the  child  study  the  elementary  the  the  by  a  first  was  classrooms child  of  in  of  the  the  19^0'  1  in  1930's  the  similar  few "new  18  the  study  was  period  still  1950 s.'^  the  trend  Progressivism  introduced  during  academic  of  curricular  instruction  emergencies  conservatives  concept.  schools  scholar  the wartime  another  emphasis  the  providing  e f f i c i e n c y and  in  the  and  dominated  social  for  was  of  [t  a stop-gap  Progressivism opposing  biology,  viewpoint  period.  as  provided  of  to  educators" and  into  followed  19 the  learning-by-doing  W.fi.  Fleming  between those  those  who  come  Ontario  teachers  adhered  tionalists gressive  the  or  to  his  of  for  self-development.  providing  progressivists  curriculum cultural be  The  scholar  should  and  led the  that  the  to  b e made  largely  stated,  the  teachers the  To  for of  who  the  selected  achievements  deductively  of  man.  the  for  pro-  should  In  was drives  the  appealed  to  the  contrast  conservatives  believed items  tradi-  pupils'  activity. or  and  teaching  curriculum  pupil  and  so-called  educators  the  concept  approach  motivation  arousing  as  arose  followed  a c t i v i t i e s which  further  up o f  (the  pupil's  these  1930's,  conflicts  progressive  traditionalists  academic  intellectual  presented  The  content  of  il.n t h e  tradition  opportunities  progressivists, the  followed  impulses.  and  Dewey.  has  academic  consisted  interests  followed  to  who  believed  natural  act  the  John  conservatives).  the  to  of  educator  the  orientation  from  pupil's  theme  that  from This  the  the highest  material  and w i t h a u t h o r i z e d  texts.  was  The  traditionalists  that  a  pupil  While secondary  should  the  not  student  abandon  his  s e l f - d i s c i p l i n e and efforts  t r a d i t i o n a l i s t viewpoint  schools,  progressive  stressed  child  movement  activities  appeared  in  remained  that  the  because  were  Ontario  of  insisted  his  whims.  operative  in  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of science  20  the  curriculum  in  21 the  revision.  1937  progressivism; experiments,  Changes  the  the  were  replacement  use  of  of  projects  made w h i c h teacher  (see  were  consistent  demonstrations  Chap.  2,  with  with  p . '81 ) , a n d  pupil  inclusion  22 of  more  options  and  topics  of  pupil  physiology,  nutrition,  the  balance  (Appendices  A and  And  the  several ing  having the such  adjustments  support  mediate  age as  for  too  of  p . 81 ) .  shopwork, (1937);  (19^0)  further  by  2,  the the  priority. policy  of  could  1940's  of  the  10,  the  (1939);  such and  as  not  be  skilled  usual  "hold-the-1ine"  level  the  One  emphasized  as  1  expedience  progressive  In  the  1950's,  progressivism Education,  was of  argue  there  of  19^0's,  of  made  can  approach  at  topics  impetus  the  Minister  for  examinations  in  the  inter-  reached  were  made  demonstrat-  optional  economics  this  so  (1921-1960)  19^0 s.  in  officials  recognition  However, the  genetics  differences  departmental  in  human  Education  several  home  as  simple  period  pupils  pp. 6.3).  weakened  education  Education  the  number  Chap.  Ontario  with  high  attendance  of  Hence,  receive  Grade  and  in  of  to  and  (see in  During  awarded  the  nature  individual  farm mechanics  teachers  Department  for  completed  compulsory  progressive few  allow  of  Department  progressivism.  successfully  progressivism that  to  c e r t i f i c a t e s were  available reduced  B).  interest  were  (see  Chap.2,  the  methods was W.J.  did  not  restricted Dunlop,  who  supported  a trend  p . 82 ) .  However,  to return  to basics  in education*  in spite  o f Dun l o p ' s  educational  stressing  fundamentals,  practising  impressed  with  school  They  maintained  Although the  sistent were  of  with  about biology  comment  w a s made  Institute that  of Biological  still  Thus  t h e program  whose  curriculum  about  In f a c t ,  States  lacked con-  pupils science professor  as being  fifty  unfavourable  by t h e A m e r i c a n  workers  largely  though  one  Another  research  were  courses  of biology  in the United  biology.  the courses  learning  3 , p./lA'l).  of the processes  current  In t h e b i o l o g y  13 p r o g r a m  Science  the biology  in the 1950's.  t o make  but were  favourably  ignored  maintained (see £hap. 3 »  subject  o r i e n t e d was  still  reflected the  outdated. So  in this  scholar  academic  curriculum social  4.23  time  not  content  of science.  ( s e e Chap.  at this  the teaching  p.106).  in school  t h e grade  t h e times  needed  research.  applications  criticized  behind  biological  biologists  science"  programs  2,  policy of  were  did not reflect  stressed  contemporary  practical  biology  the courses  of practising  not "doing  years  that  the curricula  input  and  the high  biologists  ( s e e Chap.  0  from  period,  curriculum  approach  although  the perspectives  decisions there were  of child  attempts  study  t o view the  (progressivism)  and  efficiency.  The Period  During  of Educational  the third  concept,  social  decision  making.  period  Flux  (Figure  reconstruction, As d e s c r i b e d  (1961-1978)  5) a n a d d i t i o n a l  emerged by E i s n e r  as a basis  curricular  for curricular  and V a l l a n c e ,  i t is  "an approach, in w h i c h s o c i a l v a l u e s , and often p o l i t i c a l positions, are c l e a r l y stated; s o c i a l r e c o n s t r u c t i o n i s m demands t h a t s c h o o l s r e c o g n i z e and respond t o t h e i r r o l e as a b r i d g e between what i s and what might b e , between t h e r e a l and the i d e a l . It i s t h e t r a d i t i o n a l v i e w o f s c h o o l i n g as t h e b o o t s t r a p by w h i c h s o c i e t y can change i t s e l f " . ^ Thus  the  advocates  with  social  biology  concept  had  had  a  of  the  population,  by  gical  in  social  were  added  of  A  An  that  during  this  energy  to  with  the  of  that this  Guide  as  were  give  both  intention  for  13  Grade  the  1965  topics  a biosystem,  because to  of  deal  the  evolution  curriculum  issues  Education's  of  to  reconstruction  introduced  and  administrators  statement  social  period  problems:  reproduction  attempted  examination  the  courses  educational  dealing  courses.  biology  13  sexual  concern.  Department  Grade  reconstruction  shows  influence  on  the  practice  their  human  topics  stated  in  curriculum  some  bearing  These  social  issues  Ontario  revision  of  world  (Appendix  they the  of  that  B).  were pupils  social  appeared  and  in  biolo-  the  (I969):  Biology  -[The aim is t o p r o v i d e students] w i t h that kind of biological education required for future c i t i z e n s who w i l l h a v e t o p a s s j u d g m e n t on questions oif e n e r g y u t i l i z a t i o n , p r o p e r u s e o f l a n d , p o l l u t i o n and popu 1 a t i o n .^5  i  Discussing, b i o l o g i c a l ceivably topics  could  author's given  cause  d i f f i c u l t i e s for  arouse  experience  objective  issues  strong was  structured  course  which  and  ensured  that,  closely that  the  the  once  social teacher  emotional  consideration.  highly  of  since  responses.  the  This  importance  topics  was  associated  presentation  and  some o f However,  were  because with  could  the  these the  raised,they  the  other  con-  topics aspects  reception  were  were of  the  remained  on an o b j e c t i v e  While accounted  the social  academics.  that  and  12  all  upper  were  program  four-year  units  school  introduced  course.  in t h e Grade  130-132,143-4,.  PP-  the  period,  reflected  enquiry  and  when  approach  in  of  Thus, of  by  research  the United  States  Version  of 11  also  (see  1978  for  F o r some  Chap.3,  content  ecology  biologists  experience  by Stake  curri-  in the Grade  and  genetics,  advocated  secured  Such  the biological  biologists.  gained  the  in the enquiry-directed  1972  of  But evidence  pupils  and  1965  the  was u p - d a t e d  concerns  i t did the pupils  science.  F).  of  the Green  content  in  the addition  the current  the  many  with  when  were  scholar  t o make  f o r the few p u p i l s  10 G u i d e l i n e s  Appendix  the  recognized.  in'1964  students  9 and  of  period  changes  and p r o c e s s e s  Biological  biology  this  in the attempts  biologists  was a c c e p t e d  of  the major  the viewpoint  f i t the structure  practising  revisions  BSCS  with  concept  changes,  are reflected  curriculum  the  of  consistent These  discipline cular  reconstruction  f o r some c u r r i c u l a r  nevertheless  biology  level.  and  cytology,  teachers  worked  well,  in the processes  and E a s l e y  d i d not succeed  of  indicates  that  learning  this  in  26 way.  Ontario  advantage gated  by S t a k e  better with on  of  than  pupils,  t h e BSCS  training  and Easley,  t h e i r American  the experience  biological  themselves  most  o f many  structure  could  of  scarcely  counterparts. teachers,  While  did  available  and p r o c e s s e s  and t h e p u p i l s .  whom  not  have  the  to the students  be e x p e c t e d This  who f o u n d  investi-  t o have  done  evidence  concurs  that  emphasis  the  caused  problems  for  the author  concedes  that  both the  180  enquiry  or  motivation which  a  often  left  is  led  of  the  through  complex  mental  Such  complexity  students  for  students, which  Another to  the  school he  acts  schedule.  a  a  If  to  experimental  work  conclusions  and  Besides  of  the the  culum,  is  to  the  persistent social by  forestation  encountered  follow  the  Kreb's  the  is  and  the  the  the  of  1961-1978.  of  Education  made  by  providing  three  child  the  the  when  research and  pupil  biologists'  cycle.  the  However  was  basic  of  suitable ecology,  of  Moreover, to  social  scholar was  time  to  in  a  after  draw  high  in  which  repeat the  the  proper  topics  approach  the  In  addition,  which  views  re-  during  the  differences consisted  curri-  the  influential  their  effect  biology  bacteriology,  individual  courses,  on  the  as  were  with  reconstructionists  academics,  apparent  insects.  for  addition  procedure  reflect,  needed  in  principles.  Consistent  adjustments  enquiry to  the  the  such of  is  basic  impact  of  an  time  time  approach,  insufficient  discuss.  the  study  levels  is  needs to  control  of  enquiry  using  efficiency followers provision  following  chromatography  influence of  the  because  was  complete,  supporters period  and  emerging  be  by  conclusions  thought  to  he  clarify  procedures  his  could  in  understanding.  pupil  analyse  reached  This  concepts,  biologist,  f o l l o w the  reflected current  drawback the  instrumental  in  to  their  complexity of  to  be  detours  example,  widened  experiments,  and  which  for  major  like  of  attempted  material  can  biologist  confused.  the  of  research  student  some o f  both  trying  the  13  the  approach  student,  practising  research. Grade  process-oriented  of  Department in a  ability 2-year,  a  4-year  Plan,  and a 5-year  a proposal  that  program.  This  came  effect  1972-1973.  Additionally,  "lock-step"  schooling  which in  cognizance  keeping  with  cular  choices  credit  system  extended  any  Minister  expensive the  effective. to  allowed  Because  educational  spending,  dualized  instruction. flexible  Ontario  Secondary  Thomas W e l l s core  course School  required  secondary  school  addition,  t h e 1978  costs  the latter  to use  because  in  i t was  t o be  three  ceilings  on  diploma made  Guideline  into  local  Minister  the high  of  Education  schools.  (see Chap.  3,  still  science  afforded  1.22  units  indivi  of the  as a c o n d i t i o n p.  edu  levelled  in science  specific  from  to provide  to the criticisms  of  less  times  and on t h e recommendation  curricula  subject  by t h e s u p p o r t e r s  ideologies  Federation,  almost  of the  and f l e x i b i l i t y  imposed  of  1  affected efforts  one c r e d i t  Guideline  m a t t e r was  the approval  had i n c r e a s e d  government  Teachers  graduation  curri-  by t h e M i n i s t e r  committees  efficiency  content,  core  issued  i t was t h o u g h t  adversely  more  in subject  the f i r s t  And i n response  introduced  curriculum  Nevertheless,  which  in  Furthermore,  approach,  '1-30-1').  pp.  fire,  because  and s o c i a l  cational  3,  instruction  critical  the provincial  against  (1972)  i t secured  (see Chap.  that  t h e 'introduct ion of the  curriculum  provided  under  academic  1975,  local  until  instruction  maturity.  study  Robarts  recommended  individualized  the c h i l d  by t h e G u i d e l i n e  individualized  came  Report  of the pupil's  of  in the  and remained  1961  And freedom o f c h o i c e  and t h e second  scholar  i960  (1969).  of Education  both  by  made- p o s s i b l ' e - b y  curriculum  However, matter  were  which  science  be r e p l a c e d  t h e aims  in  the Hall-Dennis  was t a k e n  further  Education,  into  was i n c l u d e d  ).  The for a In  obligatory.  an a b u n d a n t  range  182  of c h o i c e t o an a b l e s c i e n c e s t u d e n t , who science courses  i n h i s or her f i r s t two years of high s c h o o l  (see Chap. 3, pp. One  131-2).  aspect of b i o l o g i c a l  education  in emphasis d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d was p e r c e n t o f Grade 9 and (see Chap. 2, p.97). in Grades 9 and  By  percent  s c i e n c e i n s t r u c t i o n was  c o n s i d e r e d by  rural depopulation  educator, maintained  including  in f a r m i n g .  concept.  introduced  and  into  the  so keep the l e v e l of food  However, David Jones, a Canadian  that in s p i t e of r u r a l depopulation was  fewer people.  there  was  s i m p l y con-  Increasing costs  the v a l u e o f a r a b l e l a n d , the p r i c e of a g r i -  c u l t u r a l .implements and high interest  97;  i t s i n i t i a t o r s t o be a p l a n t h a t  i n the hands of fewer and  of farming,  students  consistent with  a h i g h l e v e l of food p r o d u c t i o n ; a g r i c u l t u r e  centrated  science  (see Chap. 2, p.  o f the s o c i a l e f f i c i e n c y c u r r i c u l a r  p r o d u c t i o n up t o a " s a f e " l e v e l .  still  in a g r i c u l t u r a l  T h i s d e c r e a s e i n enrolment was  i t was  would prevent  enrolled  By 1950, t h i r t y - s e v e n  the p r o p o r t i o n of a g r i c u l t u r a l  f a l l e n t o k.h  When a g r i c u l t u r a l high s c h o o l s  1978  that declined conspicuously  agriculture.  10 p u p i l s was  10 had  Chap. 3, p. 157). the a p p l i c a t i o n  c o u l d complete t h r e e  t h e i r needed f u e l , u n c e r t a i n markets  r a t e s l i m i t e d the number o f people who  c o u l d engage  S i n c e few people were needed on the farms,  contended, " s i g n i f i c a n t j u s t i f i c a t i o n o f school  and  Jones  agriculture  27 evaporated." Thus when more food and in the 1930's and  the farmers  t o produce i t were needed  in the wartime 19^0's, a g r i c u l t u r a l  instruction  was  encouraged.  farmers  were  instruction efficiency  needed  two most  in curriculum,  were  important These  curricular  decisions  urged  discipline the  child  child's  study  this,  courses  opposing  urged  the departmental which  meetings,  and a t d e p a r t m e n t a l  this  could  way t h e t e a c h e r  hand,  could  of  (I96I)  Ontario  emphasis  pupil  interest educator,  on s t r u c t u r e ,  is  in and  and c h i l d the  the structured  attempted  with  meetings  keep that  offered  seemingly  help sample  committee schools.  of J.R. o f an  In  On t h e o t h e r  d i d not exceed  t h e danger  the  anxious  To  up-to-date.  The q u e s t i o n with  was  biology.  curriculum  t h e programs  in dealing  two  the individual  the content  or ability.  while  these  (1972, 1978)  of  academic  biological  the teacher  local  study  on d e v e l o p i n g  to adjust  the  teacher's  requirements,  contemporary  at  period  The s c h o l a r  by r e s e a r c h  be c l a r i f i e d  s h e o r he was a n x i o u s  levels  to direct  goals.  Guidelines  programs,  social  training  in t h i s  academic  On t h e o n e h a n d ,  dealt  the  t h e economy,  him to concentrate  the teacher  that  offered of  fewer  agricultural  with  approaches  tended  to present  viewpoints.  when  school  needs  the scholar  dictated  ideology  potential;  provide  with  the teacher  high  the schools  curricular  toward  1  emphasis.  two i d e o l o g i e s  i n a manner  contradictory to  four  1970 s  and  in keeping  to the perceived  ones were  concepts.  concept  Thus,  reflected their  there  1960/s  the  due t o m e c h a n i z a t i o n ,  in response  enrolment While  during  was n o t e n c o u r a g e d . concept  agriculture the  While  the McCarthy,  over-  relevant:  Does t h e s t r u c t u r e o f t h e d i s c i p l i n e d e v e l o p e d by scholars i n t h e f i e l d mean t h a t t e a c h e r s a n d o t h e r s who w o r k w i t h b o y s a n d g i r l s w i l l n o t l o n g e r be a b l e t o s e l e c t f r o m t h a t d i s c i p l i n e what t h e y know t o b e w i t h i n  184 the range.of the s t u d e n t ' s a b i l i t i e s , interests and a p t i t u d e s and l e a v e out the r e s t . If not,some of t h e major g a i n s in e d u c a t i o n o v e r the past, h a l f c e n t u r y w i l l be threatened.™ In  general,  middle  in  course  structure  the  author's  between  and  the  processes  experience  extremes  on  one  of  hand  the  teachers  these  and  followed  viewpoints,  child  a  biological  development  on  the  other. Thus all  four  social  a  curricular  cular  academic  decision-making. of  curricular  concept.  competing  the  during  (1968)  urged  concept  was  Contrasts  and  of  the  academic, -  as  major  for  the  resulting  made  period,  but  in  instruction  of so  from  concept  to the  that  with  as  dealt  scholar  child  a  with  academic.  Hall-Dennis the  this  emerged  issues  the  curri-  the  accordance  social  acceptable  publication  ideology  the  Report study  agriculture  analysis  conclusions  education:  biology  between  the  Periods  :  Conclusions,  Predictions  curriculum,  the  while  reconstruction  were  were  the  scholar  that  social  revisions  Education  foregoing  various  biology  period,  -  reconstruction  this  they  Biological  the  of  social  individualized  in  From  the  program  The  that  and  indicates  important.  Reflections  century,  the  Even  period  operative  continued  during  so  this  were  study  biology  ideology  structured  Also,  (iv)  concepts  concept  criticisms  were  view of  efficiency, child  scholar  4.30  comprehensive  (i)  (iii)  the the  textbooks,  pupils,  and  can  (vii)  of  biology  be  drawn  curricular physical  (v)  the  the  education  ahout  the  concepts,  facilities  biology  biology  over  following Cii)  for  the  The  (vi)  past aspects  content  biology  teachers,  pupils.  the  education, the  author  will  185  reflect on past changes and make prediction about future ones. 4.31  Biology Curriculum The Curriculum Concepts  Conclusion i Throughout the hundred years of change in the biology curriculum the scholar academic concept was dominant, but declined during the second period; the social efficiency, concept appeared in the biology curriculum during the f i r s t period but was declining by the third period; the child study approach was a competing concept in the second and third periods, while social  recon-  struction as a curriculum concept emerged during the third. The scholar academic concept remained dominant throughout because of the persistent resistance to change of the scholar academic educators. In the 1870's, the supporters of science education, who justified the inclusion of science on the basis of social efficiency, were opposed by the teachers of classics who stressed academic excellence.  Like-  wise, in the early part of the twentieth century the child-centred "new  educators" met with opposition from their scholar academic  colleagues.  In the 1930's progressive educators who gave priority to  child development were in conflict with conservative teachers stressed child conformity to academic subjects.  who  Finally in the 1960's  the supporters of the child-oriented Hall-Dennis Report were in opposition to the discipline-conscious BSCS proponents.  In the future  one could expect similar conflicts between the supporters of the  scholar  academic  approaches. the  child  and  who  Thus,  study,  strive  methods  of  stated  the  ii  more  sequence  t h e more be  social  side  in  innovative  educators  who  support  reconstruction  both  course  there will  be  concepts  content  a  and  conservative  academic  ideology  and  who w i l l  traditional  elements  of  schooling.  The  conclusion  the  topics up a  United  followed  that  is  the  biology  were  ecology  to  high  areas  a  and  be  in  content.  education  taxonomy, of  in  conclusion  biology  applications  morphology biology,  biology.  reported during  research  changes  curriculum  series:  cell  that  the  specific  prominent  schools  of  with  century,  physiology,  similar  States  in  deals  chronological  related  sequence  (i)  the  changes  genetics,  in  other  scholar  of  there will  improvement  throughout  about  and  biology  side,  e f f i c i e n c y and  On  general  made  This  sponsors  o f - t h e ..Curriculum  concepts  Conclusion  the  continued  support  the  curricular be  social  to preserve the  While  and  one  teaching.  The C o n t e n t  can  on  for  g r o u p who w i l l anxious  concept  by  the  Hurd  (1961)  same  period.  interest  by  lag  Mendel's  work  a  of  for  29  The  several  30 years. was Also  For  followed the  succeeded  example, by  the  research by  human  the  rediscovery  of  in  1900  -.  i n t r o d u c t i o n o f genet ics. in high .school • in  work  on  vertebrate  physiology  as  a  physiology  school  topic  the  of  the  •'•31 1920's  in  the  1920's.  19^0' was The  32 Watson-Crick course  of  model  study  in  of  DNA  1965-  of The  1953 time  appeared lag  in  between  the the  Ontario research  Grade work  13 and  the  inclusion  decreased between  of thetopic  in the  research  in t h ehigh  196Q's p o s s i b l y biologists  school  c u r r i c u l u m was f u r t h e r  due t o t h eclose  and teachers  collaboration  in thecurriculum  revision  process.  ThePhysical  4.32  Conclusion  i i i  F a c i l i t i e s f o r Biology  Thephysical period  reflecting  currently  In  the  laboratory a  normal  by  they  part  in  considered  t o be an adequate  laboratories  so that  B y 1950 s u c h  most  district  schools.  appeared  i n t h e 1950's.  concept  reluctant  pupils  In t h e same  urban  could  facilities  schools  carry out  were  both  in  However,  high  extended t o  audio-visual  period,  a  table  f o r teaching.  most  Improved  to furnish  demonstration  facility  century,  experiments. high  were  a teacher's  individual rural  throughout t h e  vogue.  of thetwentieth  wel1-equipped  changed  thecurriculuar  of education  1  classroom  t h ee a r l y  had  1870 s, b o a r d s  because  facilities  Education  facilities  classroom and  33 laboratory  space  were  1960's a n d e a r l y to  some  up  f o r each  The  helped  major  carrel  activities  ideas  1970's,,when  innovative  In e a c h  schools, topic  a pupil  using  author  considered  of t h ecourse could  believes  thepupils  that  provided  learn  andnecessary.  individualized  a separate  thespecific  andm a t e r i a l s  useful  carry  instruction  working within  area  was introduced  or carrel  thebiological  o u t h i s own i n d i v i d u a l  instruments needed thef i r s t  experience  by t h e improved  laboratory  However,  was  set  laboratory. learning  fora particular  hand  science.  In t h e l a t e  with  topic.  biological  facilities  i n t h e 1970's, t h e  188  achievement of this aim was hampered by the imposition of ceilings on educational spending making less money available to provide needed laboratory f a c i l i t i e s . A.32  The Biology Text-Books  Conclusion iv  Over the hundred years the educational emphasis • in the textbooks changed.  In the f i r s t period the  authors were university biologists stressing the structure of biology; in the second period the authors were teachers emphasizing topics of pupil interest; while in the third they were teams of biologists and teachers stressing both biological structure and student interest. In the first fifty years covered by this study, the authors of the textbooks were university professors familiar with the structure and processes of biology. Their textbooks reflected this viewpoint first on -taxonomy physiology.  and  later on morphology with its related  By the 1920's the authors were mainly high school science  teachers or faculty members of teacher col leges/who gave prominence to natural history, practical applications and social aspects of biology, topics that were perceived to appeal to pupil interest (Appendix E).' Such texts described topics of pupil interest such as human physiology and had many class laboratory exercises rather than demonstrations.  They also contained socially useful ideas e.g., the  nature of bacteria and the spread of fungus diseases harmful to field crops.  But some contemporary biologists stated that the texts were  189  so  outdated  was  attempted  teaming  in  of  interest. biology,  cell  authors'  United  background  away  in  short  teaching  are  to  a  greater  modules show  a  the  biology an  to  high  skilled  The  similar  in  a  the  structure to  those  noted  authors  in  t h e r e was  tendency topic of  experimental in  during  to  trend  last use  biology  by  the  a  the  was  and  pupil  changes  to  for  text-books The  teachers  appeal  authorship,  education.  and  stressed  36" (1963)  in  authorized  author  part  of  modules,  prepared  a  unit. instruction  increasing  continue  extent  will  changes  an  teams  were  century.  been  likely  positions  revision  both  ecology.  the  which  have  and  throughout  Individualized topic  these  Obourn  of  books  combining  and  provincially  century  by  This  biologists  discipline with  genetics  and  of  Gatewood  addition  from  research  intent  produced  biology,  States  In  the  rewriting.  thorough by  biological  texts  '35 (.1961) a n d  Hurd  1960's  with  the  The  needed  the  together  processes  the  they  that  be  in used  level  of  to  future by  a  in do  and  past so.  years  clarity,  investigation and,  Hence,,unit  biology large  pupil  classes.  part  of  interest  a  particular  the w r i t e r ' s  modules  will  Moreover,  the and  in  of  school  be  on  used  since  community  emphasis  opinion, to  these they  must  significant  topics. A second use with  of  more  Canadian  powerful  Council  of  increasing  trend which texts  political  could  continue  into  the  and c u r r i c u l a r mater i a l s .  motivation,  Canada.  However,  costs  publishing  of  well  in  has  been  opposition and  the  to  future  This  encouraged this  low volume  trend of  by  is  the  trend,  one  the  are  sales  Science  the  for  Canadian  190  publications,  which  publi  shers.  4.33  The B i o l o g y  Conclusion  v  make  them o f  most  teachers  of of  t h e hundred biology  qualifications. shortages  of  biology  university  standards ever,  in  were times  qualified. 1940 s 1  large  of  condition  due t o wartime  p p . 38-42-;  Chap.  The  able,  most  of  his  academic  Chap.  impression instructors,  conscientious  possessed  value  for  qualities  of  high  during  teacher declined.  teachers  academic school  or  teachers  These  high  the "century".  teachers  the  of  school  special  shortages in  professional  were  not  persisted 1950 s 1  and  the 1930's  qualifications  were  Howfully  in the 1960's  and high  due  1970's,  to when  (see Chap.  3 ,-p-p. 1 4 9 " 1 5 1 ) . his  both  personality  qualifications.  times  certificates.  some  former  high  graduate  and s t i m u l a t i n g . of  and  high  throughout  and  secondary  in general  most  1  teacher  abundant,  2,pp.82-7;  author's  1890 s  in contrast,  were  require  teaching  enlistments,  enrolments^  teachers  the  shortages, of  were  the century,  maintained  teacher  there  qualifications  d i d not by  Ontario  had high, a c a d e m i c  of  with  generally  secondary  that  subjects  graduates  This  pupil  in which  qualifications,  years,  However  the beginning  and o t h e r  professional were  at  commercial  Teachers  Over  Although  questionable  school  and n o n - g r a d u a t e  He c o n s i d e r s  and d r i v e  teachers  that  that  his  transcended  is  were teachers their  1,  191  The "Is  review  today's  years  aspects  to obtain  should  fact,  all were  at  be  secondary  These  H9-151')i  Oh  opportunity less his  bound  to by  greater  freedom  biology  has  found  and  biology  teacher  Whether  or  not  has  the  negative  and  actually not  yet  provides  positive  longer  an  external  in  line  has  at  principles. freedom results been  to in  has  a  and  concept  Hence, practise  Chap.  method  he  the  in his  aid  was pupils'  this  the  present-  which  he  interests  up-to-date to  is  than  by  in  and  laboratory the  many w a y s ,  the  profession.  effective teaching But,  present-day  opportunities education  3,  better  With  pupils'  material  of  in  because  available,  the  more  as (see  authority.  command  answered.  today's  1975  by  threatened  content with  well  pupil  programs  his  as  academic  no  quali fied.  institutes  teacher  average  is  select  of  teaching  scholar  favourable  aspect  be  two-thirds  collegiate  biology  of  better  century,  improved  audio-visual  greater  Another  the  to  biological  this  clearly  of  in  the  range  he  (  eighty  would  or  not  for  by  able  addition,  has  that  instruction.  is  a wealth of  had  position  the wide  of  question  twentieth  trained  of  counterpart  necessarily  schools  biology  set  not  to-day's  e f f e c t i v e and  In  clarification  teaching  His  and  be  abilities.  high  dictates  teacher  to  is  been  query;  this  some o f  the  hand,  examinations  day  question  had  other  the  on  of  in  present  results  a  and  the  to  the  ' '  qualifications  predecessor.  facilities  teacher  raises  his  instructive.  teachers  biology.  than  relevant  examining  beginning  specialists  better  data  but  biology  the  qua 1 i f i c a t i o n s  1  teacher  Objective  To-day's In  teachers  biology  ago?"  difficult  of  for  is  biology  effective  system which  could  PP-  make today's t e a c h e r s b e t t e r than those  i n the past  i s the f a c t that  they p l a y a more prominent p a r t i n the ongoing processes o f curriculum revision.  As advances a r e r e p o r t e d  i n t h e knowledge o f  the b i o l o g i c a l d i s c i p l i n e , t h e e d u c a t i o n a l a u t h o r i t i e s must modify the program so t h a t i t i s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h s c i e n t i f i c p r o g r e s s . l o c a l c u r r i c u l u m committee  i n which t e a c h e r s  r e s p o n s i b l e f o r these m o d i f i c a t i o n s .  The  can p a r t i c i p a t e i s  Today's teacher a l s o has more  -  o p p o r t u n i t y t o l e a r n about the i n n o v a t i o n s a t summer school o r workshops, t o t r i a l  t e s t the new programs and t o d i s c u s s , s t r e n g t h s  and weaknesses w i t h f e l l o w t e a c h e r s . a v a i l a b l e to h i s e a r l i e r counterpart  Such o p p o r t u n i t i e s were l e s s f o r whom t h e c u r r i c u l u m was  l a i d down by departmental r u l i n g w i t h l i t t l e o p p o r t u n i t y f o r c h o i c e .  4.35  The A g r i c u l t u r a l  Conclusion  vi  Until  Pupils  1914 the repeated  attempts t o introduce  school a g r i c u l t u r e f a i l e d .  high  From 1914 the enrolment  in a g r i c u l t u r e i n c r e a s e d year by year t o peak i n 1950 when 37 percent o f Grade 9 and 10 p u p i l s were enrolled.  A f t e r 1950 t h e enrolment decreased s h a r p l y  t o 4 percent The  i n 1978.  enrolment change i n a g r i c u l t u r e r e f l e c t e d t h e change i n the  community's need f o r f a r m e r s .  Although  t h e r e was a temporary  f o r more people t o work on farms d u r i n g the d e p r e s s i o n  and the Second  World War, t h e major t r e n d throughout the p e r i o d was toward mechanization  of farming.  tendency  increased  Hence, by t h e end o f t h e p e r i o d fewer  people were needed on t h e farms.  In 1891 one h a l f o f the Canadian  labour  f o r c e were working  on f a r m s ;  1975  by  this  had f a l l e n  t o one  37 thirtieth  4.36  o f t h e employed  The B i o l o g y  Conclusion  v i i  population.  Pupils  The p r o p o r t i o n in  school  At  t h e same  high  o f high  increased  school  eighteen  young  fold  over  time,  the opportunities  pupil  to learn  increased  greatly.  G r a d e 9's  and  12's,  school-aged  a n d 53  I P ' s , 16 percent  95  principles  percent  percent  o f Grade  the period.  f o r the "average"  biological  1978  By  people  of the  o f t h e Grade 13's  11's  and  were e n r o l l e d i n  b iology. Over school  the period  increased  pace w i t h these the  the proportion  g r e a t l y , and t h e o p p o r t u n i t i e s  the enrolment.  and t h e a c t i o n s  Education.  Of t h e s e  significant  in increasing  school. would they aid  Several  opportunities'; the changing  parents  While  attend accepted  their  of the population  until their  personal  their  legislation  (1919)  sixteenth birthday,  development  and  the increase  i n f l u e n c e was of "average"  belief  biology  kept of  of the Ministry of  t h e numbers  parents'  high  of society, the influence of  of the o f f i c i a l s  factors, parental  compulsory  to learn  factors permitted nature  attending  that  their  that  pupils  because  education  chances  attended  most  attended  secondary  improve  most  p u p i l s who  ensured many  probably  of  would fitting  38 into  an  industrial  consistent to  equip  with  pupils  and ski11-demanding  the prevalent t o perform  belief  society.  that  efficiently.  schooling  This was  a t t i t u d e was necessary  The  Department  incentives that in  science  removed  were  finally  primarily cost the  were  to  mainly of  (1939)  Education  of  was  were  (1968);  rural  at different  and Grade  officials  13 (1942).  recognized  bus  Finally,  ways:  scheme  compulsory  system high  was  1937)  inaugurated  schools In  and t h e  addition,  f o r students  of achievement,  different  school  (.1904, 1921,  government.  incentives  levels  high  loan  (1951);  to district  provided  through  i n number  by t h e p r o v i n c i a l  credit  in the f o l l o w i n g  introduced  pupils  made  textbook  a school  including  graduation.  pupil  local  reduced  education  school  Education a  and o f f e r e d  regulation  the "average"  grants  Education  diplomas  their  f o r high  (1921);  abolished  transport  Department  GradelO  of  examinations  was b o r n e  offering  condition  abolished  by p r o v i n c i a l  departmental  with  obstacles  1976 a d e p a r t m e n t a l  by t h e Department  fees  removed  to continue  to the progress  financed  and  In  a necessary  Obstacles  tuition  Education  to students  in biology.  were  of  12  Grade  the Department  ability  levels  by  by  (1921),  of instituting  4 a n d 5 - y e a r p r o g r a m s (1961) b o t h g e n e r a l a n d a d v a n c e d l e v e l s (1972, 19/8). T h e s e d e p a r t m e n t a l m e a s u r e s h e l p e d a n a v e r a g e p u p i l  2,  select with  a program-, i n c l ud i ng b i o l o g i c a l  his In  pupils more years one  topics^hich  was  interests. the light  enrolling  interested ago?" can  conjecture  only  '  of  t h e many  in biology, in biology  As  it  is  changes one c o u l d  than  impossible  ispeculate..  I/that  consistent  their  that  have  made  ask.: " A r e p u p i l s counterparts  to establish  • Q.n. ' t h e : -  been  one  t h e .' p u p i Is• v w o u l d r h a V e  this hand,  been  for the  of  to-day  of eighty  or  ninety  empirically, one  more  might  .  interested  *  in b i o l o g y e i g h t y o r n i n e t y y e a r s ago because a t t h a t t i m e , were a h i g h l y s e l e c t e d group i n regard  they  t o f a m i l y backgrounds and  c a r e e r c h o i c e s and would have been more i n t e r e s t e d i n any academic s u b j e c t than t h e i r p r e s e n t - d a y , u n s e l e c t e d  counterparts.  o t h e r hand, t h e improved s e l e c t i o n o f b i o l o g i c a l ecology, should  On the  t o p i c s such as  outdoor a c t i v i t i e s and problems o f e f f i c i e n t energy use  promote p u p i l i n t e r e s t and m o t i v a t i o n .  In a d d i t i o n , t h e  e c o l o g i c a l l y hazardous p o s i t i o n o f man on t h i s p o l l u t e d p l a n e t s t i m u l a t e s many p u p i l s t o take an i n t e r e s t i n b i o l o g i c a l Such w o r l d  science.  b i o l o g i c a l problems were l a r g e l y unknown i n the e a r l y  part of the century  covered by t h e study.  W h i l e any c o n c l u s i o n about a change i n the degree o f p u p i l i n t e r e s t during the century  i s s p e c u l a t i v e , i t i s c l e a r that i n  the 1 8 8 0 s p u p i l s ' a t t e n t i o n was focused 1  while  on b i o l o g y as a s c i e n c e  i n t h e 1 9 7 0 ' s i t was d i r e c t e d toward t h e e n v i r o n m e n t a l  problems  which a knowledge o f b i o l o g y would h e l p t o c o n t r o l . In view o f t h e many c u r r i c u l a r changes e f f e c t e d , one might ask an a d d i t i o n a l q u e s t i o n : "Do the p u p i l s have a b e t t e r u n d e r s t a n d ing o f b i o l o g i c a l writer's opinion  p r i n c i p l e s than they d i d i n e a r l i e r t i m e s ? " i s t h a t i n general  b e t t e r understanding  of biology.  to-day's students In t h e n i n e t e e n t h  The  do have a  century, the  s t r e s s was p r i m a r i l y on taxonomy, w h i l e c u r r e n t b i o l o g y covers many f a c e t s : genetics, ecology,  cell  b i o l o g y , morphology, p h y s i o l o g y and  a reduced emphasis on c l a s s i f i c a t i o n .  Hence the o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r  p u p i l s t o understand a broad "spectrum" o f b i o l o g y have  increased.  While the  in  changing  secondary this  young  age  This  and  Continuing colleges  needs  presently  to  utilize  astronomical museums, these  In  also  of  carrying  to  learning  and  be  for the  by  some w a y s  of  the  has  future  for  of  toward  secondary  schools,  in which  these programs  planetariums,  television  zoological  edu-  education  community:  and  reversed  educational  areas,  used  elementary  d i r e c t e d more  community  resources  botanical  be  in  offered  are  Such  continue  Another  City  programs,  gardens.  non-formal  opportunities  for  ministries  government  educational National,  to  interest  trend  attending  school,  advantages  of  be  While  education  expanded  school  to  adult  (see  such  a  toward Chap.  senior  encouraged. and  at  are  Ontario  Ministry  Hudson's  present  in-  Bay  provide  students.  be  of  The  Hydro,  Cominco  biology  attendance  addition,  functions.  and  appears  of  Ontario  part-time attendance  leave  In  and  Hydroponics  recent  individuals that  out  Canadian  materials  working.  the  to  of  population,  engage  programs  met.  industries  teaching  social  need  dramatically,  programs.  Green  otherwise  of  will  Company,  suggests  being  provide  Agriculture,  aged  will  the  implications to  universities  centres,  addition  creasingly  needed  increased  proportion  to  observatories, conservation  facilities  educational  and  the  serious  education  many  science  they w i l l  enrolment  relative  be  education  community  tend  school  has  people w i l l  people;  are  the  decreasing  trend.  fewer  adults.  past  distribution, with  pupils  former  cation:  the  the  This  3,  fewer P-  would  would  school-  152_ ) .  students,  financial  combination  high  The  who  provide  would both  advantages  help  pupils  author  the  of acquire  a  background  academic  of  training  Although during  the  of  fact  the  enrolled had  not  ducing  practical and  much  has  hundred  to  that  succeeded satisfying  to  adjust  to  of  parents'  a  been  basic yet  95  forty-seven  help  f i t  young  people  The  goals  of  all  for  work  biology  has  of  beneficial  practical biology  yet  Grade  to  education  be  9 and  teachers  done. 10  admit  in  apparently  guidance not  adult are  educator,  aiding  enough was  never  in  (see  spite were  that  they  pro-  all  pupils  agree.  services  society  In  pupils  pupils  nor  for  work.  literacy,"  that  in  be  scientific  education  Canadian  in  Parents  thought  would  for  science  vocational  percent  a  for  society.  of  that  percent  producing  programs  complex  much  concepts,  in  base  accomplished  studied,  1978,  opinions  Hugh S t e v e n s o n ,  theoretical  years  by  learn  a  experience which  A  (1972)  survey  revealed  being  done  Chap.  3,  fully attained  to  P• 123) • as  stated:  " F o r C a n a d i a n s and f o r s o c i e t y t h e need w i l l p e r s i s t f o r a f a r b e t t e r c u r r i c u l u m t h a n has been d e v e l o p e d thus far".39 To  meet  must also,  be be  the  challenge  cognizant  of  sensitive,  investigations satisfaction  in  of  of  current adaptable  living  the  evolving  biological  biological and  organisms  developments.  imaginative and  education,  in  in  teachers They  promoting  furthering  their  must, pupils' pupils'  process.  I n f a c t i n 1980, David Suzuki contended t h a t a l l but a few g i f t e d p u p i l s came o u t o f h i g h s c h o o l i g n o r a n t o f s c i e n c e , t h e strongest force in s o c i e t y . D a v i d G a l b r a i t h , E d i t o r i a l , The C r u c i b l e V o l . 11, N o . 6 ( O c t o b e r , I98O).  198  References f o r ; Chapter  1.  Michael N.J.:  2.  Ibid.  3.  Ibid.  4.  Schj r o , Curriculum  Educational  Robert The  M. S t a m p ,  M. S t a m p ,  Canada  from  6.  from  322.  the  1870 s 1  to  A.G.Croal,  "TheHistory  1800-1900",  (Doctoral  o f t h e Teaching  in  1970), p.281.  of Education:  in Canadian  Dissertation,  Milieu:  1914",  Wi 1 s o n a n d o t h e r s ,  o f Canada,  Patterns  1914",  to  Cliffs-,  9—17.  pp.  and Social  1870's  A H ? s t o r y , .eds- J . D o n a l d  Aal1  (Englewood  1978),  and t h e Economic  Scene-  "Evolving  the  Schools  Publications,  Ont. : Prentice  Robert p.  "Education  Education:  (Scarborough,  f o r Better  Technology  English-Canadian  Canadian  5.  h  English-  Education:  o f Science  The University  A  History  in Ontario, of  Toronto,  1940), p p . 56, 166. 7.  Ontario,  8.  Ibid.,  9-  Report  p.  of the Minister  o f Education  (R.M.E.),1904,  p.92.  150.  Richard  D. H e y r n a n ,  Studies  in Educational  Robert  F. L a w s o n ,  Change  and Robert  (Toronto:  Holt,  M.  Stamp,  Rinehart  and Winston,  1972), p.79. 10.  Stamp,  11.  Ibid.  12.  loc.  R o b e r t S t a m p , " C a n a d i a n H i g h S c h o o l s i n t h e 1920's a n d 1930's: The S o c i a l C h a l l e n g e t o t h e Academic T r a d i t i o n ' ! i n The Canadian H i s t o r i c a l Association H i s t o r i c a l Papers. 1978, p . 83.  13-  I b i d . , p. 79-  14.  Ibid.,  15.  Ibid.  16.  Ibid.  17.  c i t .  p. 84.  W. G e r a l d  Fleming,  Administrative Press,  197D ,  Ontario's  Structure pp.  11-12.  Educat i v e S o c i e t y ,  (Toronto:  V o l . 2, T h e  The U n i v e r s i t y  of Toronto .  199  18.  Heyman  19-  W.  and  Gerald  others, Fleming,  (Toronto:  op.  Education:  University  20.  Ibid.,  p.  21.  Heyman,  22.  Peter Sandiford, ( F e b r u a r y , 1938)  c i t . , pp.  of  51,  81,  82,  Ontario's  Toronto  Press,  Preoccupation 1972)  , p.  175-  186.  loc.  cit. "Curriculum  Revision  in  Canada",  . School,  , 473-474.  23.  W. G e r a l d F l e m i n g , The A d m i n i s t r a t i v e  24.  E l l i o t W. E i s n e r a n d E l i z a b e t h V a l l a n c e , of C u r r i c u l u m ( B e r k e l e y , C a l . : McCutchan 1974), p.11.  25.  Ontario,  26.  R o b e r t S t a k e and J a c k E a s l e y , Case S t u d i e s in Science E d u c a t i o n , 19, ( U r b a n a - C h a m p a i g n : C e n t r e f o r I n d u s t r i a l R e s e a r c h and C u r r i c u l u m Eva 1 u a t i o n and C c m i m i t t e e on C u 1 t u r e and C o g n i t i o n ,  Department  Ontario's Structure  of  Educative Society, , p p . 11-12.  Educat ion,  Guide  Vol.  2,  Conf1icting Conceptions Publishing Corporation,  for  Grade  13  Biology,  1969^  1  1978), p . l . 27.  D a v i d C. J o n e s , ' " T h i s L i t t l e Mound o f E a r t h ' - The F a t e o f School A g r i c u l t u r e " , in The C u r r i c u l u m in Canada i n H i s t o r i c a l P e r s p e c t i v e , The C a n a d i a n S o c i e t y f o r t h e S t u d y o f E d u c a t i o n , (CSSE) , S i x t h Y e a r b o o k , (.1979), p . 9 1 .  28.  W. G e r a l d F l e m i n g , O n t a r i o ' s E d u c a t i v e S o c i e t y , S u p p o r t i n g I n s t i t u t i o n s and S o c i e t i e s , ( T o r o n t o : o f T o r o n t o P r e s s , 1971), p . 142.  29.  P a u l de Schools  ED 30.  Hart  Hurd,  Biological  1890-1960. B S C S S t u d y , 010991.  W i l l i a m T.  Keeton,  Biological  Education Bulletin  Science  V o l . 5, The U n i v e r s i t y  in American Secondary N o . 1 , 196I, ERIC  (New  York,  W.W.  Norton,  1967), p. 522. 31.  Ibid.,  p.  328.  32.  Ibid.,  p.  569.  33-  34.  The  author's  the  Borough of  The of  author's the  observations  observations  Borough  at  E f o b , i c o k e up at  of i££bbIcoke,  Royal to the  York  Collegiate  Institute  of  1973New T o r o n t o  March  1973  Secondary  (Science  School  Teachers'  Workshop).  200  35.  Hurd,  36.  Claude  op.  W. G a t e w o o d  Education  Ontario, Affairs.  38.  Stamp,  39.  Hugh  States",  V o l . 1, pp. 3 5 8 ,  S.  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General  and  Institutes.  Examinations  RP-56, B i o l o g y  Curriculum,  Biology  Institutes.  Continuation  Study  Courses o f  Teachers'  Education  Education,  and  Collegiate  Schools  stitutes  the  of  Grades  7,  8,  1937;  1953;  1938;  1965;  1955. 1969.  12. 1963.  and  1964. 9  and  10,  1961  ;  1972;  1978.  Recommendations and I n f o r m a t i o n f o r S e c o n d a r y S c h o o l s Organization L e a d i n g t o C e r t i f i c a t i o n a n d D i p l o m a s , 1969-70, C i r c u 1 a r H . S . 1.  i i  Exami nat i ons  September  Examinations,  Entrance  to  Schools,  Biology  Botany; Upper  School  Honour  Biology  and  Examinations  Practical  Scholarship  ;  Entrance  Matriculation  to  Model  Examinations,  A Manual  Botany,  Zoology  1930;  1945;  1955;  1956;  1~9 6 5 -  P o l i c y and  Living  ;  1919:  Schools,  Zoology.  Biology,  iii  Normal  of  and  Evaluation  Suggestions Learning  Objectives  of  Quality  Education  of  for  : The  Education in  of  Teachers  Report the  Ontario  of  of the  Schools  Science  (1910).  Provincial of  : A Survey  Ontario. of  Committee  on  Aims  and  (1968) .  Parents'  Perspective,  (1972).  (R.M.E.) (1878); (1884) ; (l 887)  Report o f the M i n i s t e r o f E d u c a t i o n  I V .  (1891) (1907) (1922) (1937) (1947) (1965);  0 896)  (1900) (1910) (1925) (1940) (1954) (1969)  (1899)  (190 8) (1923) (1938) (1950)  (1909) (1924)  (1939) (1951) (1967)  (1966)  U901) (1914) (1926) (1941) (1955) (1970)  (T902) (1918) (1930) (1942) (1957) (1976)  (1904) (1919) (1935) (1945) (I960) (1978)  (1905) (1921) (1936) (1946) (1961)  Text-Books C i r c u l a r 14. A u t h o r i z e d T e s t - B o o k s up to and i n c l u d i n g 1978, O n t a r i o , M i n i s t r y o f T r e a s u r y , Economics and Intergovernmental A f f a i r s O n t a r i o S t a t i s t i c s . T o r o n t o : C e n t r a l S t a t i s t i c s S e r v i c e s , 1976. Reynolds, Roy. Guide t o t h e Items R e l a t i n g t o E d u c a t i o n i n t h e O n t a r i o A r c h i v e s " High School I n s p e c t o r s ' R e p o r t s , 1890; 1900; 1910; 1920; Newspapers. T o r o n t o : O n t a r i o I n s t i t u t e f o r S t u d i e s i n E d u c a t i o n (0 I SE) , 1971. United States H e i d g e r d , L l o y d H., and M i c h a e l F. Rayder. "BSCS B i o l o g y - I t s L a s t i n g E f f e c t s , " U.S. E d u c a t i o n Resources I n f o r m a t i o n C e n t r e , ERIC Document ED083302, Feb. 17, 1974. Hurd, Paul de Hart. B i o l o g i c a l E d u c a t i o n i n American Secondary Schools : 1890-1960. A m e r i c a n I n s t i t u t e o f B i o l o g i c a l Sciences BSCS Builetin, 1 Feb. 1, 1961. U.S. E d u c a t i o n a l Resources I n f o r m a t i o n C e n t r e , ERIC Document ED010991. I T :. E f f e c t o f t h e Teachers' C u r r i c u l u m S t u d i e d as w e l l as t h e i r in High School B i o l o g y . amI  P  F n i n ^ «  T  n  ;  e  ? I e  ? ^  C u r r i c u l u m B i a s , the Kind o f I n t e r a c t i o n on Sf.H.ntc' A.h: 1 evement  ources  I n f o r m a t i o n C e n t r e , ERIC Document ED104655 June 17, 1980 (Paper p r e s e n t e d a t the Annual Meeting o f U (  a t i 0  Marches)  A S S  °  C l a t !  °  n  f  o  r R  e  s  e  a  r  c  h  i n  S  c  I  e  n  c  e  Teaching,  Los A n g e l e s ,  Other O r g a n i z a t i o n s Stake,  Robert, and Jack E a s l e y . Case S t u d i e s i n S c i e n c e E d u c a t i o n , Urbana-Champaign: C e n t r e f o r I n d u s t r i a l Research and C u r r i c u l u m E v a l u a t i o n and Committee on C u l t u r e and C o g n i t i o n , 1978.  11(12), 6; 19, 1-  211  E.  Miscellaneous  Unpublished  Materials  B r i e f s s u b m i t t e d t o t h e 1964 G r a d e 13 R e v i s i o n C o m m i t t e e ( C o u r t e s y o f M r s . L i n d a C o r m a n , 01SE L i b r a r i a n ) . Corman, Toronto 1978.  Linda. "Authorized : Ontario Institute (Mimeographed).  Text-books in Science in for Studies in Education  Ontario," Library,  C r o a l , A.G. "The H i s t o r y of the Teaching of Science in O n t a r i o 18001900." U n p u b l i s h e d D o c t o r a l D i s s e r t a t i o n , The U n i v e r s i t y of T o r o n t o ,  1940. C o r n i s h , George.A. L e c t u r e s r e c a l l e d by t h e a u t h o r f r o m o f E d u c a t i o n a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f T o r o n t o , 1932-1933^  the  College  del GiornOj Bette. " T h e Impact o f C h a n g i n g S c i e n t i f i c Knowledge S c i e n c e E d u c a t i o n i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s s i n c e 1850." Unpublished D o c t o r a l D i s s e r t a t i o n , T h e U n i v e r s i t y o f C o n n e c t i c u t , 1967 H a r v i e , F r e d e r i c k W., f o r m e r l y S u p e r i n t e n d e n t o f S e c o n d a r y i n t h e St. C a t h e r i n e s and L i n c o l n H i g h S c h o o l D i s t r i c t . A i n t e r v i e w o f J u l y 25, 1978, at T h o r o l d , O n t a r i o , c o n c e r n i n g high school d i s t r i c t s . Hearn, Grant. t h e members o f was a member.  Telephone the Grade  on  Schools taped enlarged  c o n v e r s a t i o n o n J u l y 20, 1978 i n r e g a r d to 13 B i o l o g y R e v i s i o n C o m m i t t e e o f w h i c h H e a r n  K e r r , J . F . "The Development of the Teaching of Science in Ireland U n p u b l i s h e d D o c t o r a l D i s s e r t a t i o n , Queens U n i v e r s i t y o f B e l f a s t ,  s i n c e 1800".  1956-57.  L a n c e , M a r y L o u i s e . " A C o m p a r i s o n c o . f G a i n s i n " A e h ; i e v e m e n t m a d e 'by S t u d e n t s o f BSCS H i g h S c h o o l B i o l o g y and S t u d e n t s o f a C o n v e n t i o n a l C o u r s e in Biology." Dissertation Abstracts, 25: 2 8 l 4 , 1966. 1  L e w i s , W i l l i a m A. "An High School Biology".  !  E v a l u a t i o n of Four S e l e c t e d Approaches to Dissertation Abstracts, 27: I689-A, 1966.  Lawr,  Douglas. "Development of A g r i c u l t u r a l Education in O n t a r i o U n p u b l i s h e d D o c t o r a l D i s s e r t a t i o n , The U n i v e r s i t y o f Toronto, 1972.  1870-1910."  1  M u r a w s k y , V l a d e m i r H. "A H i s t o r i c a l Analysis of B i o l o g i c a l Education i n t h e S c h o o l s o f t h e N o r t h W e s t T e r r i t o r i e s 1889-1905 a n d i n Saskatchewan 1905-1969." U n p u b l i s h e d M a s t e r ' s T h e s i s , t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f S a s k a t c h e w a n ,  1969. Sullivan,  Charlotte, Personal  Williamson, Stanley. V e r s i o n BSCS T e x t . "  interview.  Toronto,  July  20,  1978.  "Readability of the F i f t h E d i t i o n of the Vancouver, 1980.(Oral c o m m u n i c a t i o n ) .  Green  212  APPENDICES  A.  Comparison of Courses of and A g r i c u l t u r a l S c i e n c e  (1871-1978).  S t u d y f o r G r a d e s 9, 10 B i o l o g i c a l i n O n t a r i o H i g h S c h o o l s by T o p i c s  B.  Comparison of Upper School in O n t a r i o H i g h S c h o o l s b y  ( G r a d e 13) C u r r i c u l a Topics. (1871-1978)  in  C.  Analysis  Recommended  Biology  D.  of  A u t h o r i z e d and  Texts  in  Biology  and  (1871-1903).  Agriculture  in  Ontario  Development  of  an A u t h o r i z e d a n d  Recommended  Textbook  in  O n t a r io< £.  Occupations of A u t h o r i z e d and  F.  U n i t s i n A T y p i c a l S c i e n c e P r o g r a m f o r O n e C o u r s e , G r a d e 9, 10 1978 G u i d e l i n e , Choices in a Science Program f o r G r a d e 9 a n d 10 (1978 G u i d e l i n e ) and The C o n t e n t o f a T y p i c a l O b l i g a t o r y U n i t , G r a d e 9 a n d 10, 1978 G u i d e l i n e .  G.  A l t e r n a t i v e A p p r o a c h e s f o r G r a d e 13 B i o l o g y H o m e o s t a t i c , E c o l o g i c a l and P r i n c i p l e s .  H.  Ontario in  I.  Secondary  Biology  Ontario  the Authors of Recommended.  and  Boards  Non-Sectarian  Agriculture  of  Ontario's  (1871-1978)  in  Education.  School  these  Biology  Textbooks  (1969) ;  Enrolment  Schools.  Table  and and  Enrolment a  Figure.  Appendix Comparison  of Courses in  Time Topic  Per  1871-1903  Cells Algae Fung i Bacteria V i ruses L i verwort  X X X  Moss Fern  X X X X  of  Study  Ontario  od  f o r Grade  High  9 and  Schools  1  A Biological  10  by T o p i c s  Period  1904-1920  XO  1921-1936  Gymnosperm Parts of a Flowering Plant Flower, Structure and F u n c t i o n  X  2  1937-1960  Science  Period  XO  x*o*  X*0* 0  x*o*  XO XO XO  XO  X  3  1961-1971  XO  X  C1ubmoss H o r s e t a i1  and A g r i c u l t u r a l  (T 87 T - 7 978)  XO  X X  XO  XO  XO  XO  X  XO  XO  XO  XO  Ferti1izat ion F r u i t s and Seeds  X X  XO XO  XO XO  XO XO  XO  Families Plants Leaf  X X  XO XO  XO XO  XO  XO XO  1978 +  1 9 7 2  1 9 7 8  G U I D E L I N E  G U I D p L I N E  L I  0  Pol 1 i n a t i o n and  continued  of  -  XO  Flowering XO  K E  L C A L  Appendix  A  - continued  -  Period  Time Topic  1871-1903  Stem Root Vegetative Reproduction Orchard P r a c t i c e and Reforestat ion  Period  1 1904-1920  1921-1936  Period  2 1937-1960  1961-1971  X X  XO XO  XO XO  xo xo  xo xo  X  XO  XO  xo  xo  XO  XO  xo  xo  3  1972-1977  1 9 6 1  C 0  Soi1 and Weeds Balance Ecology  0 0  Garden ing X of  Genet ics Protozoan  Nature  X  0 0 X  xo  0  xo xo xo xo  X  u  Earthworm  X  X  X  X  Insects  X  Beekeeping Crustacean  X  Arachnid  X  Myriopod  X  XO 0  xo  E S M I  X  X X  0  Fish  X  X X X X  Amphibian  X  X  Reptile  X  X  Bi rd  X  X  xo  0  0  Poultry  cont inued-  s  0  xo 0 X  X X  X X  x x X X 0  X X X X 0  0 N  s  0  x*o»  S E L E C T I  R  T Mollusc  1978  I  D N A M E 0 S  F R 0 M B A S I C  c 0 R E  +  Appendix  A -  continued  1871-1903  Topic  Mammal Human F o o d Human P h y s i o l o g y Domestic Animals M i l k Test ing S c o p e a n d Alms of Biology Evolution Home P r o j e c t s  X -  topic  Sources  :  Period  Period 1  Time  in biology  1904-1920  X  Period  2  1937-1960  1921-1936 XO  X  XO XO-  1961-1971 XO XO XO  0 0  0 0  0 0  0 0  0  0  0  0  X  ;  0 - topic  in a g r i c u l t u r e  ;  *  -  detailed  3  1972-1978  1978+  E V  0 L U T  1 0 N  treatment  O n t a r i o , C o u r s e o f S t u d y ( l 8 8 l ) C i r c u l a r 3; O n t a r i o , R e p o r t o f t h e M i n i s t e r o f E d u c a t i o n , 1904, p p . 149-151; i b i d . , 1914, p p . 3 3 7 - 3 4 3 ; O n t a r i o , Department o f E d u c a t i o n , Changes in t h e Courses o f Study and E x a m i n a t i o n Requirements in C o n t i n u a t i o n S c h o o l s , High Schools and C o l l e g i a t e I n s t i t u t e s , 1921, p p . 7-16; O n t a r i o , D e p a r t m e n t o f E d u c a t i o n , C o u r s e s o f S t u d y , C i r c u l a r i x , 1937, p p . 3 3 3 ; O n t a r i o , D e p a r t m e n t o f E d u c a t i o n , C u r r i c u l u r n 1 : (e) , 1961, I n t e r m e d i a t e D i v i s i o n , S c i e n c e G r a d e s 7, 8, 9 a n d 1 0 , p p . 4 3 - 6 0 ; O n t a r i o , Ministry of Education, Curriculum Guideline for the Intermediate Division Science G r a d e s 7, 8, 9, 10 C u r r i c u l u m ( 1 9 7 2 ) ; i b i d . , (1978). _  to M  216  Appendix C o m p a r i s o n o f U p p e r S c h o o , (Grade  ,„  B  .Jg.^Cjrr.cu,.  In O n t a r i o H i g h S c h C s  b  y  T  o  p  I  c  s  1871-1920 Topic  Practical  exam  Cell Alga Fungi Bacteria  (1887-1899)  X X X  L i chen  X X X X X X  Liverwort  (toss  Fern HorsetBl1 Lycopod Gymnosperm P a r t s Of F l o w e r i n g P l a n t F a m i l i e s of Flowering P l a n t s Flower S t r u c t u r e Pollination & Fertilization F r u i t & Seed Leaf Stem Root Vegetative Reproduction Plant Physiology Protozoan Hydra Earthworm Mollusc Crustacean Insect Arachnid Myrlopod Fish  Frog  Reptile Bird Hanvnal Human P h y s i o l o g y Characteristics of Life Homeostasis Ecology Genetics Evolution  X (15) X X X X X X  X X X X X X X X X X X X  — N°t«:  r , -- - o3 l :bid  w  ,59  ,60:  X : prescribed topic ft "' " treatment () : number o f o r g a n i s m s d  e  t  a  e  d  studied f o rthe topic  .'•'  ""  217 Appendix C Authorized  Period 1871-1909  no I l l u s t r a t i o n s , n o t s c i e n t i f i c , c l e a r Inaccurate, biased, readability G r . 8-9.  E.C. Morong (Toronto)  1898-1909  c l e a r , s e v e r a l e x p e r i m e n t s , numerous a c t i v i t i e s , uses p u p i l background r e a d a b i I i t y G r . 10-12.  1veson Phinney (New Y o r k )  I867-I886  good i l l u s t r a t i o n s , c l e a r , d i r e c t s o b s e r v a t i o n s , s t r o n g t e l e o l o g i c a l emp h a s i s , needs r e a d a b i l i t y Gr 7  In E l e Botany  Macmi1 Ian (London)  1 8 7 7 - 1 8 8 6 ) good I l l u s t r a t i o n s , c l e a r , d i r e c t s observations, stresses classification, r e a d a b l 1 I t y H.A.  The E l e m e n t s o f Structural Botany w i t h Special Reference t o  W.J. Gage (Toronto)  1882-1887  1871-1909  A. G r a y , professor  How P l a n t s  Dovld Oliver. research biologist  Lessons mentary  1871-1909  M. F o s t e r , professor  Grow  (1863)  Canadian P l a n t s TIB79) High School B o t a n y (1886) High School B o t a n y (1895) Pt. 1 and I I Phys i o l o q y (Primer)  A. N i c h o l son, professor  187H909  Calvin Cutter, medical doctor  zflt j  Personal  Comments  good I l l u s t r a t i o n s , c i e a r , p h y s i o l o g y weak, s t r e s s e s c l a s s i f i c a t i o n , t a b l e s t o b e f i l l e d In w i t h p u p i l o b s e r v a t i o n s r e a d a b i l i t y G r . 8-9. '  1886-!89<t 1895-1909  Macmi1lan (Toronto)  1875-1878  i l l u s t r a t i o n s good, c l a r i t y e x c e l l e n t , r e c a l l s pupil's experience, d i r e c t s o b s e r v a t i o n s t o butchershop specimens, r e a d a b ! 1 i t y G r . 10-12.  William Blackwood and S o n (London)  1875-1877  I l l u s t r a t i o n s ond c l a r i t y f a i r , u n i n t e r e s t i n g and t e c h n i c a l , r e a d a b i 1 1 t y N.A.  F i r s t Book o f Anatomy P h y s i o logy and Hygiene  A. D r e d g e (Toronto)  1871-1875  I l l u s t r a t i o n s and c l a r i t y f a i r , r e c a l l s pupils experience, c a t e c h l m method o f I n s t r u c t i o n , r e a d a b i l i t y B r .  L e s s o n s In E l e mentary Phy-  Hacml1lan (London)  1875-1876  i l l u s t r a t i o n s good,logical explanations, directs observations, recalls pupil e x p e r i e n c e , r e a d a b i l i t y G r . 9.  CasselIs, Potter and Galpin, (London)  1871-1877  I l l u s t r a t i o n s good, c l a r i t y f a i r , d i r e c t s p u p i l o b s e r v a t i o n s and r e c a l l s t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e s , r e a d a b i l i t y G r . 9.  Copp C l a r k (Toronto)  1889-I896  I l l u s t r a t i o n s good, e x p o s i t i o n t e c h n i c a l , directs observations, stresses c l a s s i f i c a t i o n , u n i n t e r e s t i n g , r e a d a b i l i t y Gr. 13-16.  Copp C l a r k (Toronto) Copp C l a r k  1896-1909  excellent Illustrations, clear d i r e c t i o n s f o r showing p r i n c i p l e s o f classification, Interesting, readability G r . 10-12.  (WSJ 1871-1909  (1871-1909)  1870-1877  C C . James .ad-- A g r i c u l t u r e ministrator (1889)  J . Macoun, research biologist, and H.B. 5potton, teacher and r e searcher H.B. Spotton, t e a c h e r and research worker  and A g r i c u l t u r e  Copp C l a r k (Toronto)  Agriculture Pt.  1871-1909  1871-1909  In B i o l o g y  Dates o f A u t h o r 1-  Title  (1870)  1871-1909  Texts  PublIsher ond Location  Author E. R y e r s o n , a d ministrator  and R e c o r d e d  Put 1Ine o f Natura1 History "(1875)  12.  1W1J 1871-1909  1871-1909  1871-1909  1871-1909  Thomas Huxley, professor  f &  Ellis A. D a v i d s o n , professor  Our  Ramsay Wright, professor  HMgJ^School_  B u e l l P. Colton, normal master  school  Bodies  (1871)  -  (I8B9J  •Zoology. Descriptive Practleal "(IB96)  -  L  y  Appendix Development- of  an  Authorized Flow  D  and' Recommended  Textbook  in  Ontar  Diagram  Minister  _C r i t i c i sm  of  Educat ion  of  E d u c a t i on  I Deputy M i n i s t e r of Education Admin i s l l r a t i o n  Curriculum Branch  Commi t t e e of B iology Specialists i  New of  Course Study C i rcular 14  \  Publisher  Contract Edi t o r  Author  Completed Text  Author i zed Text  Artist  219-  Appendix Occupations  of  the  Authors  Authorized  Occupat ion  of  Ontario's  Recommended  Biology  of  University  Professors Secondary  Research  Textbooks,  (1871-1978).  Percentage or  Per iod  and  E  Percentage  Biologists or  Normal  of  Percentage  Teachers  Others  School  Civil  Masters  School  Servants Admin-  istrator 1871-1903  75  No  1904-1920  16  9  text-books  author i zed  -  1921-1960  30  64  6  1961-1978"  50  50  -  These  data  produced  reflect  BSCS.  the  very  large  number  of  authors  who  of  e.g.  220  Appendix Units  in  A Typical Grade  Obiigatory  10,  Program  Opt iona1  One  Course  Un i t s  + from  chosen  51 52  C e l l s and t h e i r Chemical Change  53 Sh 55  Functioning Animals Green P l a n t s Heat  56 57  Measurement Populations Communities  58  Structure  Processes  Sources:  Ontario, tor  Each  the  course  consists  obligatory  and  be  provide  to  Ministry  of  Intermediate  optional a  of  E l e c t r i c i t y and Magnetism Environmental Chemistry Fungi and S i m p l e P l a n t s Geometric Optics Human I n t e r a c t i o n w i t h t h e B iosphere Machines Mechanics Separation of Substances Solutions T e r r e s t r i a l and A q u a t i c Environments V i b r a t i o n s and Waves V i r u s e s , Monerans and P r o t i s t s W i s e Use o f Energy L o c a l l y Designed Units L o c a l l y Designed Units.  units.  course  Education. Division  eight  as  Chemistry  Continuity  516 SI 7 518 519 520  Matter  from  Consumer  SM 512 513 SIk 515  and  of  S9 SIO  521 522 523 S2kS27  used  for  Guideline  1978  Units  k chosen  Science  9 and  F  units  Various shown  Curriculum  Science  with  varying  combinations  below.  Guideline  (1978),  pp.  12-20.  numbers  of  of  units  may  221  Appen'di'x  F  (continued)  Choices in a Science Program f o r G r a d e 9 a n d 10 ( 1 9 7 8 G u i d e l i n e )  Obiigaidry.or  Sc i e n c e area  Optional units  Course 1 8 units  Obiigatory  S1',S3,S4,S7  Course 2 8 units  Course 3 8 units  S2,S5,S6,S8 (k)  W  (0)  units  Biology  Opt i o n a l un i t s  SIO,S13 ,S15, S20.S22 Loca11y d e signed units.  or  any b i o l o g y options  any b i o l o g y o r phys i ca1 science options  (8)  w  Phys i c a l Science  Obiigatory un i t s  S2,S5,S6,S8 W  SI , S 3 , S 4 , S 7  Optional  S9,S11 , S12,S14 S, 1 4 , S 1 7 , S18, S19.S21,S23 Loca11y des i g n e d i'tin i t s  any p h y s i c a l science options ^  units  or  • .•• Obiigatory un i t s  Integrated Science  W  (0) any p h y s i c a l science or biology options  (8)  w  SI ,S2,S3,S4,S5,  (0)  (0)  S6,S7,S8  (8)  Optional un i t s (0)  any b i o l o g y or physical science ^  any b i o l o g y o r physical science options ^  Source:  Ontario, Ministry of Education, Curriculum Guidelines the Intermediate D i v i s i o n Science (1978), pp.12-20.  Notes:  (  )  Number  of  units  of each  type.  for  222  Appendix  Each  obligatory  The  Obiigatory  unit  (continued)  contains  both  obligatory  Content of a T y p i c a l Obligatory ( C e l l s and t h e i r Processes), Grade;-9: a n d 1 0 , 1978 Guideline  and  Cell  discovery,  .3  Cel1  structure  SI.  k  Cell  physiology  SI  .5  Mitosis  SI  .7  Ce11  SI  .8  Diffusion  optional  topics.  Unit  Optional  Topics  51 . 1 SI  F  Topics  microscopic  SI.2  Cell  SI.6  Cell  theory  (reproduction)  o r g a n i z a t i on and  osmosis  differentiation  Appendix Alternative  Approaches  Homeostatic,  A  Homeostatic In  to  this  unifying through of  the  life  of  Grade  13 B i o l o g y  (1969)  Principles.  "Homeostasis,  the  This  to  from one  life  on  face  theme  organism,  species  picture  in  theme. the  for  Ecological,  Approach approach,  maintain  G  of  the  the  delicate balance  required  fluctuating environment,  progresses  logically  community,  generation  this  the  to  and  the  from  through  next,  to  the  the the  is  the  c e l l ,  continuity evolutionary  planet".  Fi gure Diagrammatic  Representation  of  a  Homeostatic  Approach  Charact- [  Source:  Ontario, p.  An  Ecological In  this  Department  13  E d u c a t i o n , Grade  Biology  (1969)  Approach approach,  "Ecology  and  starting  adaptation  point,  which  involving  genetics,  Evolution  can  adaptations, to  of  9-  organisms,  be  to  leading on  us an  of to  environment  i n t o methods  including  thought  both  the  leads  as  reference a  series  development  evolutionary  is of  the adaptation  to  mutations.  of  long-term  from.single and  embryonic  cells scale  The organs and systems can be s t u d i e d next, f o l l o w e d o r accompanied by a c o n s i d e r a t i o n of the energy r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h i n the body at a m o l e c u l a r l e v e l . The study o f homeostatic mechanisms on a m o l e c u l a r and community b a s i s follows. The d i v e r s e ways i n which homeostasis i s brought about w i t h r e s p e c t t o the environment and a d a p t a t i o n t o a p a r t i c u l a r community has f o r c e d s c i e n t i s t s t o d e v i s e systems o f c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . "  Figure  iagrammatic Representation of an Ecological Approach  S o u r c e :  Ontario, Department of Education. Grade 13 Biology (1969). p.IS.  A Principles In the  a  principles  topics i  1 1  Approach  in  seven  Living  iii  things  v  th ings .  Energy  runs  Reactions  which  set  things,  organized  in a one-way  occurring  toward  equilibrium,  Living  things  their  in  course  the  study  through  of  the  web  living  dependent  organisms  on  each  tend  other  and  and  environment  determine  the  nature  ind i v i d u a l .  Animals  P p. 16. e  are  in  environment,  Heredity  D  U969J ,  characteristics  be  organize  1ife.  the vii  can  1iving  on vi  have  could  principles:  from non-1iving  Hierarchies  of iv  a teacher  biological  them a p a r t ii  approach  a  r  and  t  m  e  n  t  plants  of  are  in  Education,  constant  change.""  Grade  Biology •  13  1  of  2  Appendix H O n t a r i o S e c o n d a r y N o n - S e c t a r i a n S c h o o l E n r o l m e n t and E n r o l m e n t t h e s e S c h o o l s o f 15-19 Y e a r - O l d s (1871-1976)  Year  1 PopulatIon o f 15-19 year-olds  2 Enrolment i n non-sectarian secondary schools  3 Proport ion o f 15-19 y e a r - o l d s In n o n - s e c t a r i a n secondary schools <f>  In B i o l o g y and A g r i c u l t u r e  4 Enrolment i n b i o l o g y and agriculture in non-sectar ian secondary schools  P r o p o r t ion o f pupi 1 E enrol led i n biology and a g r i c u l t u r e  1871  179,117  7.^90  .01(2  2,658  1881  • 355  222,109  13,136  .059  226  1891  .017  232,073  22,230  .096  1901  229,129  27, 456  .120  1911  239,851  37,780  .158  .523  254.A31  .184  20,916  318,803  .446  1931  46,910 109,635  19,866  1921  1 I  339,116  102,462  .295  .344  .279  6,202 10,441  .380  35,478  .324  44,266  .442  66,792  • 493  1951  315,700  135,487  .429  1961  '(36,900 713,"too 806,000  299,177  .685  169,472  574,520  .566  .805  309,182  .538  1971 1976 1978 Source:  824,360  613,055  .761  322,274  611,668  .742  343,139  .526 .561  (1976),  Ontario, Statistics pp.6-7, 24, 4 0 - 4 1 ; M.C. U r q u h a r t a n d K.A.H. B u c k l e y , e d s . Historical S t a t i s t i c s o f Canada pp.591-3; C a n a d a , Census 1 8 7 1 , p.36; i b i d . , 1921, p.10; 1931 , pp. 1 53 , 394 ; O n t a r i o , R e p o r t o f the. M i n i s t e r o f E d u c a t i o n 1881, pp. 195-6, 205i b i d . , 1 8 8 3 , p.62; i b i d . , 1 8 9 2 , pp. x x i , x~xi i ; i b i d . , 1 9 0 2 ; pp. 3 6 , 4 6 ; i b i d . , 1912, pp ' x x i 7 5 , 107; i b i d . , 1922 , p p . 1 0 2 , 199, 2 4 3 ; i b i d . , 1932, p p . 1 0 1 - 1 0 3 , 2 5 6 , 28*4; i b i d . , 1942 pp. 166, I b i d . , 1952, pp. 110, 112; i b i d . . 1961, pp. S 6 9 , S 1 0 0 ; i b i d . , 1 9 7 0 , pp. ibid., pp. 2 4 , 4 5 , 4 7 , J.G. H o d g i n s , e d . D o c u m e n t a r y H i s t o r y o f E d u c a t i o n In U p p e r C a n a d a . V o l . 2 3 , 1 8 7 1 , p . l 8 9 O n t a r l o , M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n , G u i d e l i n e C o u r s e s 1978, S t a t i s t i c s S e c t i o n , Management I n f o r m a t i o n Systems B r a n c h , June 1979, pp. i i i , 5, 6; C a n a d a , S t a t i s t i c s C a n a d a , 1976 C e n s u s o f Canada. S u p p l e m e n t a r y B u l l e t i n : G e o g r a p h i c and Dwnnpraph i r., T a b l e 1-2.  Tbld  182-3; 58, 65, 67;  52, 59, 1976-77,  88.  ;  Notes_:  T h e r e i s a s m a l l number o f Grade 9 and 10 p u p i l s i n Roman C a t h o l i c s e p a r a t e U n f o r t u n a t e l y t h e d a t a f o r b i o l o g y s t u d e n t s f o r t h e s e s c h o o l s was o m i t t e d M i n i s t r y r e p o r t s u n t i l 1978.  schools i n the  2  6  pendix tario these  H  (continued)  Secondary Schools  Non-Sectarian of  15-19  School  Year-Olds  Enrolment  (1871-1976)  and Enrolment  i  Enrolment  ~T.7~T\*'- ...'A Year  in Biology  4  an  in  and A g r i c u l t u r e  Bicblogy  A gricjulturei ;  to to  —1  228  Appendix Ontario  Boards*  I  of-Education i  The mainly  local  the  municipal  boards  of  in  the by  1968  the  several  (thirty-eight each  eight the  of  for  the  the  Ontario  ?s  The for  Ontario,  as  to  Report  ibid.,  (1968),  Census  of  eration,  boards  education  of also.  board in  data  0.1% of  Table  each  of  is  shown  for  each  the  Individual  for  Man i t o u 1 i n . .  3.23,  Census  1,  p.10;  served  large and  Ontario  cities,  one  twenty-  percentage  board  of  in  boards  Southern  the  in  of  Southern  Northern  boards  were  pupils  not  served  varied  4  Statistics  Metropolitan  Ontario  (1966) , p.8; Canada, 1976  Education,  Population,  Geographic  Areas  5, (1971).  education administered  in  the  provincial  pupils  each  secondary  of  from  map o f  four  district  total  Vol.  the  While  for  Minister  funds  Toronto,  Ontario.  were  seventy-six  county  the  the  Table  Canada,  from  were  Metropolitan  for  of  each  for  Northern  their  secondary  there  for  enrolment  percentage  Toronto  one  and  schools  accompanying of  time  enrolment  Municipalities,  Most  one  of  secondary  taxes The  that  boroughs  indicated  J.8%  Source:  number),  percentage  available. from  At  secondary  obtained  percentage  province,  six  They  grants.  the  districts  provincial  Ontario  the  in  the  and  for  property  form of  boards.  in  bodies  education.  through  location  education  for  of  councils  government shows  administrative  elementary  and  Distribution,  Census  Agglom-  Appendix I  (continued)  Map o f O n t a r i o Showing Educational S u b d i v i s i o n s w i t h t h e i r Secondary School Enrolment Expressed as a Percentage of the T o t a l  QUEBEC  M M KO  

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