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Technology education in British Columbia : a survey of history, programs and practices Dalley, Stephen Ronald 2004

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TECHNOLOGY EDUCATION IN BRITISH COLUMBIA: A SURVEY OF HISTORY, PROGRAMS AND PRACTICES by STEPHEN RONALD DALLEY IETE. Dip. British Columbia Institute of Technology B.Ed., The University of British Columbia  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS In THE FACULTY OF EDUCATION Department of Curriculum Studies  We accept this thesis as conforming to the requirj£cfsf$/idard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA April 2004  © Stephen Ronald Dalley. 2004  Library Authorization  In presenting this thesis in partial fulfillment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission.  .eptefi Ronald Dalley Name of Author (please print)  Title of Thesis:  Degree:  TECHNOLOGY EDUCATION IN BRITISH COLUMBIA: A SURVEY OF HISTORY, PROGRAMS AND PRACTICES  Master of Arts  Department of  Date (dd/mm/yyyy)  Year:  Curriculum Studies: Faculty of Education  The University of British Columbia Vancouver, BC Canada  2004  ABSTRACT Technologically literate citizens can participate intelligently and thoughtfully in the world around them. This research provides a picture of the state of Technology Education in the public schools of British Columbia at the beginning of a new Millennium. A substantial literature review traces the origins of Technology Education back through Industrial Education, Industrial Arts to Manual Training, championed at the turn of the last century by the philanthropist William Macdonald. Manual Training's grounding in European Sloyd based Educational Systems provides a backdrop for a review of the published results of several commission reports and surveys. A detailed evaluation of a recent  province-wide  survey of all Middle, Junior and Senior Secondary schools provides statistics that support arguments that additional TE teachers will be required in the immediate future to replace those retiring. The shops and labs in BC's public schools studied are a mixture of traditional, general shops and New Technology labs. School departmental program offerings as well as specific subjects being delivered were analyzed and critiqued to provide insight from within the schools. A picture emerges from the findings illustrating the possibility that an industrial focused curriculum is being delivered under the guise of Technology Education, with troubling consequences. Computer based and new technology subjects are gaining popularity but male dominated narrow tool-skill subjects Woodwork, Metalwork and Automotive continue be promoted, even in the face of declining  enrolments. A purposeful curriculum invigoration of some twenty years in is danger of stalling or reversing. The transformative nature of research and the investigative process is illustrated in the final chapter that deals with my own narratives of socialization and experiences in Industrial, Vocational, and Technology Education. My own life history illustrates and reflects the historical phases of Technology Education Evolution.  iii  TABLE OF CONTENTS ABSTRACT  ii  LIST OF TABLES  ix  LIST OF FIGURES  x  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS CHAPTER ONE: THESIS INTRODUCTION  xii 1  1.1 Introduction  1  1.2 Structure of the Thesis  2  1.3 Significance of this Study  3  1.4 Statement of the Problem  3  1.5 Purpose of this Research  5  1.6 Delimitation  6  1.7 Assumptions  6  1.8 Operational Definitions  6  Technology  6  Industrial Education  7  Industrial Arts  8  Technology Education  8  Educational Technology Vocational Education  CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF LITERATURE  9 10  11  2.1 A Brief History of Technology Education  11  2.2 Early Education and the origins of Manual Training  12  2.3 European Manual Training Roots  14  2.4 The Russian System of Workshop Instruction  22  2.5 Sloyd System of Tool Instruction  25  2.6 The Montessori Method  26  2.7 The Pestalozzi Method  29  2.8 French Workshop Instruction  29  2.9 British Arts and Crafts Movement  30  iv  2.10 Early North American Manual Training  32  2.11 The Beginnings of British Columbian Public Education  37  2.12 The Macdonald Movement and Manual Training in British Columbia  40  2.13 Manual Training during World War One  54  2.14 Industrial Arts Beginnings  58  2.15 The U.S. Smith-Hughes Act of 1917-18 and the Canadian Federal Technical Education Act of 1919 63 2.16 Putman and Weir's Survey of the School System  65  2.17 Vancouver Technical High School  67  2.18 Progressive Education  70  2.19 Curriculum Revision 1927  71  2.20 Industrial Arts during the Great Depression  73  2.21 Industrial Arts during the Second World War  78  2.22 The Cameron Reoport  80  2.23 Industrial Arts in the 1950's  82  2.24 Sputnik and the Wake-up Call  83  2.25 The Chant Commission  85  2.26 Technology Educations Beginnings  86  2.28 Macdonald Report on Higher Education in British Columbia  88  2.29 British Columbia Community College Growth  88  2.30 BC Industrial Education Teacher Preparation, 1960-1980  90  2.31 1960's Industrial Education Curriculum  92  2.32 Re/Defining Industrial Arts as Technology Education  94  2.33 1977 Industrial Education Curriculum Guide  95  2.34 The UBC-BCIT Joint T.E. Teacher Preparation Program  98  2.35. Legacy for Learners, The 1988 Royal Commission on Education Report.. 99 2.36 The 1987 BCIEA Name Change to BCTA  100  2.37 The 1990 Science for all Americans project  101  2.38 The 1990 Perkins Act  101  2.39 The 1993 BCIT Technology Education Needs Survey  102  2.40 The 1993 National Census on Technology Education in Canada  104  2.41 Technology Education Curriculum Development  106  2.42 The Re-Visioning of Technology Education Initiative  107  v  2.43 The Demise of Technology Education as a Discrete Subject  CHAPTER THREE: METHODOLOGY  108  110  3.1 Introduction  110  3.2 Historical Research Methodology  110  3.3 Narrative Methodology  Ill  .  3.4 Survey Methodology  Ill  3.4.1 Attitude-Behavior Relationships  113  3.4.2 Data Collection  115  3.4.3 Request for Participation and Mailing Procedure  115  3.4.4 Non-Response Follow-up to Request to Participate  115  3.4.5 Overview of the Survey Instrument Questions  116  CHAPTER FOUR: DATA ANALYSIS AND FINDINGS  118  4.1 Introduction  118  4.2 Specific Schools  118  4.3 School Districts  120  4.5 School Program Categorizations  127  4.6 Lab and Shop Categorizations  130  Unit Specific Shops General Shops Modular Shops Combination of both General and Unit Specific  4.7 Lab and Shop Equipment Categorizations Traditional Shop Equipment  130 131 131 132  132 133  "New" Technology Shop Equipment  134  Combination of traditional and "New" Equipment  135  4.8 Course Titles  137  4.9 New Unit Titles  142  4.10 Locally Developed Courses  144  4.11 Career Preparation Courses  150  4.12 Courses for Young Women  152  4.13 Written Comments  153  CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS 5.1 Introduction  166 166  vi  5.2 What Is/Was Technology Education in B.C.?  168  5.3 Keeping British Columbia British  171  5.4 First Nations and Manual Training  174  5.5 Utility over Idealism  179  5.6 The Radical 1960's  183  5.7 The 1998 Provincial Survey of Technology Education Practice  187  5.7.1 Introduction  187  5.7.2 Competition and Technology Education Electives  187  5.7.3 Technology Course Offerings  188  5.7.4 Facilities and Programs  189  5.7.5 Facilities and Technology Education  190  5.7.6 Equipment and Technology Education  191  5.7.7 Teacher Attrition and Technology Education  193  5.7.8 Women in Technology Teaching, Girls in T E Classes  195  5.8 Gender in the Lab and Shop  198  5.9 Under Representation in Technology Education  201  5.10 Conclusion  202  CHAPTER SIX: EPILOGUE  205  6.1 Watching and Waiting  205  6.2 A Small Epiphany  207  6.3 Nostalgia, Providence and Schooling  210  6.4 Winds of Change  215  6.5 To Begin Near the End  218  6.6 Coming to Canada  219  6.7 Stranger in a New Land  222  6.8 Moving West  227  6.9 Technology Nature and Place  230  6.10 To Begin Near the End -Why I Wanted to be a Teacher  235  6.11 They Even Brought Their Own Coal  235  6.12 Getting Serious  238  6.13 Waiting and Watching  240  APPENDICES APPENDIX 1. Respondents Written Comments  259 259  vii  Appendix 2. Manual Training and LA. in the Comox Valley, 1900-1930  282  Appendix 3. Manual Training Activities  295  Appendix 4. The Macdonald Heritage  320  Appendix 5. The Macdonald Sloyd School Fund  326  Appendix 6. UBC Survey: Cover Letters and Questionnaire  346  Appendix 7. Chant Royal Commission of Inquiry  352  Appendix 8. Putman-Weir Report. 1925  354  Appendix 9. Aims and Philosophy of Education In B.C.1937  362  Appendix 10.1993 BCIT Tech. Ed. Needs Survey  374  Appendix 11. Correspondence. 1980-1983  383  viii  LIST OF TABLES Table 1. Number o f Teachers in the Sample  122  Table 2. Number o f Women Technology Teachers in the Sample  123  Table 3. Average Percentage o f Women B C Technology Teachers  123  \  ix  LIST OF FIGURES Figure 1. Segovia Aqueduct  13  Figure 2. "Engines" Orbis Pictus  17  Figure 3. Nass Institute  26  Figure 4. Casa dei Bambini, 1906  26  Figure 5. Manual Training Teacher training at Stout Institute  33  Figure 6. 1876 Centennial Exposition  35  Figure 7. Children's IA Exposition, 1886  37  Figure 8. H B C Fort Victoria  38  Figure 9. Craigflower School, 1855  39  Figure 10. Minnies Plain School, 1854  40  Figure 11. William MacDonald  42  Figure 12. MacDonald Agricultural College  44  Figure 13. 1912 Boys Manual Training Class. Victoria Central School  48  Figure 14. Rural Domestic Science  50  Figure 15. Oregon Territory, 1837  52  Figure 16. School Garden, Victoria. 1916  54  Figure 17. Art Class in Victoria. Early 1900's  55  Figure 18 . South Park Manual Training Centre  56  Figure 19. Spruce Bi-Plane, Victoria High School  57  Figure 20. Chemanus. Manual Training, 1920  58  Figure 21. Woodwork Projects. 1920  59  Figure 22. K i n g Edward School Electricity Class  67  Figure 23. Vancouver labour temple  68  Figure 24. Vancouver Technical  68  Figure 25. K i n g Edward Metalwork  72  Figure 26. Sheet Metal projects  73  Figure 27. Hoover D a m  74  Figure 28. Lions Gate Bridge. Vancouver, B C  75  Figure 29. Production Line, 1940  77  Figure 30. W W - 2 Shipbuilding  78  Figure 31. Sir James Douglas School Cadet Corps, 1942  80  Figure 32. B u d Lake School  83  Figure 33. Sputnik: First Artificial Satellite  84  Figure 34. B C I T , 1965  90  Figure 35. 1949-1950 IA Teacher Preparation Class  90  Figure 36. 1977 IE Curriculum Guide  96  Figure 37. Lower Mainland Schools  120  Figure 38. Vancouver Island Schools  121  Figure 39. Remaining Mainland Schools  121  Figure 40. Anticipated Technology Teacher Attrition. 1999-2004  125  Figure 41. Anticipated Technology Teachers Required 1999-2000  126  Figure 42. Anticipated Technology Teachers Required 2000-2001  126  Figure 43. T . E . Program Emphases in B C by Percentage of Schools  130  Figure 44. Technology Facilities in B C by Percentage of Schools, 1988  132  x  Figure 45. Traditional Shop Equipment  133  Figure 46. Technology Education Lab or Shop equipment  134  Figure 47. Technology Education Equipment in B C by % of Schools, 1988  135  Figure 48. School Equipment Combinations  136  Figure 49. Most Popular Technology Courses in B C by Number o f Schools, 1988  138  Figure 50. Grouped Popular Technology Subjects  139  Figure 51. Junior and Middle School Grouped Subjects  141  Figure 52. 10 Most Popular New Unit Titles  143  Figure 53. 8 Most Popular Locally Developed Courses  145  Figure 54. Career Preparation Course Areas  150  Figure 55. Subject orientations, courses for young women  152  Figure 56. Categorization by Areas of Concern  154  Figure 57. Manual Training Bench work 1912  170  Figure 58. Sewing Projects 1912  174  Figure 59. Songhees Reserve School, Victoria. 1902  174  Figure 60. Carpentry at Labret  176  Figure 61. 1930's Student Project, Alert Bay. B C  177  Figure 62. T'Lasalagi'Lakw School. Alert Bay. B C  178  Figure 63. Fish Weir  206  Figure 64. W i l d Cat Island  206  Figure 65. Firth of Forth Bridge  208  Figure 66. 0-3-0 Steam Engine  209  Figure 67. Newcomen Engine  210  Figure 69 Crystal Palace, Early Sketches  211  Figure 69. Crystal Palace Perspective  211  Figure 70. Tulse H i l l School  213  Figure 71. Roman K e y A r c h  215  Figure 73. H M S Victory  217  Figure 74. Bluenose  225  Figure 75. The Sleeping Giant  228  Figure 76. SS Egeria  236  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  While only the name of one author appears on the title page of this thesis, there are many others who must be recognized for providing the inspiration, motivation and support, without whose support this undertaking would have been nearly impossible. This work is dedicated in loving memory to my late parents, Ronald and Elizabeth Dalley. Although they did not to see this effort come to fruition, they believed in me and my ability to see it though. I wish to humbly thank Emeritus Professor William (Bill) Logan for sharing his wisdom and insights. His compassion and guidance in igniting my interest in the history of Manual Training and Industrial Education; I wish to thank the four scholars on my examining committee for reading, editing and examining my Master's Thesis: Dr. Stephen Petrina for introducing me to the field of Technology Education, the value of connecting practical knowledge and experience with academe, guidance with thesis, editorial critique, moral support, and opportunities for joint publishing; Dr. Franc Feng, for showing me the connections between, industry, technology to the larger picture of ecology and the poetic interconnectedness of Nature; Dr. Anthony Clarke and Dr. Cynthia Nicol for their valuable participation on my examination committee fostering critical reflection within my practice; to Dr. Marlene Atleo for giving me the confidence to apply my knowledge and experience to contribute to First Nations Education. I humbly express my heart-felt thanks to Dr. Jean Barman for inculcating the relevance of First Nations culture, and imbuing the love of British Columbian history into my writing; to Dr. Julie Cruickshank for teaching me the value of oral tradition, fable, and story; to Dr. Carl Leggo for introducing narrative, critical reading and writing into my academic life; to Dr. Theodore Lewis, for instilling in me the critical understanding that Technology Education is a global endeavor that crosses cultural and economic barriers; to Dr. Walt Werner, for teaching me how to draw from social studies, in connecting historical research to educational  policy; to Dr. Don Fisher for enlightening me on the importance of the social within education and technology; to Dr. Anthony Bates for illustrating methods of incorporating technology-based learning into my research and teaching; to Saroj Chand for her encouragement and her support with grant, fellowship and teaching assistant funding applications; to Micheli Sutter for her valuable insight and guidance during my graduate student application process; and to Henry DesJardine for his role in coordinating my thesis defiance, grades submission and graduation requirements; to John Hurley, an ideal Industrial Arts teacher and role model who has shown a genuine interest in my journey; to Captain James Gillespie, for transforming my thinking, proof-reading my thesis, and moral support. I owe a great debt to my partner and wife; Catherine for her love, moral support, faith, and for believing in my ability to succeed; to my three children, Edward, Crystal and Lindsay for their love, respect and for the motivation needed to become a teacher. My deepest gratitude goes to my brother Graham and our sister Jane for their unwavering support and inspiration; to Charlotte and David Kosokowsky, David for his editorial and technical support, and Charlotte, for being a wonderful sister-in-law; my wife's mother and father, Eunice and Charles Passa for showing the importance of family values, independence and hard work; to my son-in-law Billy Pipe and his parents Bill and Pauline, for their continual interest and moral support. While there remain many other individuals who have influenced and contributed to the successful completion of my research and thesis, time and space limitations preclude my ability to acknowledge them in full. Even though your names are not in print, I extend my appreciation to you and you will always be in my thoughts and heart.  xiii  CHAPTER ONE: THESIS INTRODUCTION 1.11ntroduction Technology Education in British Columbia is in a state of transformation. The prescribed change from the established Industrial Education Curriculum to one modeled on Technology Education continues to be moderated by historical, social, and economic engines. While Technology can be considered as old as humanity (Phillips, 1985), the interest in incorporating Technology Education into the framework of public liberal education is a less than two decades old. Chinien, Oaks and Boutin (1995) argue that the interest is largely propelled by major shifts in world economies and the changes that have resulted and impacted on the skill sets required in the workplace. A technologically literate and well-educated workforce is considered a key ingredient for maintaining national competitiveness. What has often been referred to as Shop or Technical Education has at various times been identified by different terms including; Manual Training, Manual arts, Industrial Arts, Industrial Education, Technical Education, Vocational Training, and Technology Education. These descriptors suggest a chronological progression of a single field or subject. The name changes and shifts in focus may have been driven by political, social and economic engines. Parts of the curriculums can be identified with liberal education or with pragmatic roots have remained despite shifts in focus and direction (Phillips, 1985).  1  Some educators have argued strongly that people entering a wide range of careers and occupations require a greater understanding on the technological world; they need to be more than wise consumers or uses of technology. They must be able to function effectively in an immerging society that continues to reinvent itself. A technology education approach that illuminates how the embedded social and cultural biases of technology can influence the political, social and economic systems of a society and contribute to making students technologically literate (kemp & Schwaller, 1988, p.1). A technologically literate citizenry is essential in balancing the political and economic structures of rampant consumerism (with its general disregard and neglect of the environment) against the need of citizens to participate intelligently and thoughtfully in the world around them.  1.2 Structure of the Thesis I open Chapter One with a discussion of the background and intent of my master's thesis to provide a picture of the state of Technology Education in the public schools of British Columbia. Following this brief introduction, in Chapter Two I undertake a comprehensive literature review, of historical literature and the published results of key commission reports and surveys that trace the evolution of Technical/Technology Education. In Chapter Three, I discuss my methodology that merges survey, historical and narrative approaches. In Chapter Four, I undertake a detailed evaluation of a recent province-wide survey. This evaluation includes all Middle, Junior and Senior Secondary schools data on: Technology  2  Education teacher retirement demographics, School departmental program offerings and specific technology subjects taught in British Columbia's Public Schools. In Chapter Five, I present my survey findings, as I analyze and critique the insights from the field practitioners, and situate my implications within the historical context of Chapter  Two.  .My master's thesis departs from the structure  of the traditional 5-chapter thesis. In Chapter Six, I close on a personal note, writing this chapter a journey enacted over four decades, two continents and several Canadian provinces, weaving my life experiences through industrial, vocational and technical education.  1.3 Significance of this Study This undertaking is significant in that it will provide a snapshot of the state of Public School Technology Education at the beginning of the second millennium. The last complete survey of the provinces schools; the Chant Commission report was conducted in 1960.  1.4 Statement of the Problem The problem investigated by this research was to survey school Technology Education department heads or coordinators; to document the extent to which industrial education has been transformed into technology education. Four human-adaptive systems of subject matter embody four major areas of contemporary society: (ITEA, 1985)  3  •  Communication technology involves efficiently using resources to transfer information to extend human potential.  •  Construction technology involves efficiently using resources to build structures or constructed works on a site.  •  Manufacturing technology involves efficiently using resources to extract and convert raw/recycled materials into industrial and consumer goods at a central plant location.  •  Transportation technology involves efficiently using resources to obtain timeand-place utility and to attain and maintain direct physical contact and exchange among individuals and societal units through the movement of materials/goods and people. A new conceptual framework titled: Technology  Education  was produced  by the British Columbia Ministry of Education in 1992 (BCMOE. 1992). Within this umbrella, four new curriculum areas; Information Technology, Materials and Processes Technology, Power and Energy Technology, and Systems Integration Technology were introduced. With the exception of Information Technology the remaining strands have not materialized and the existing traditional subjects; woodwork, metalwork etc. persist with the addition of the word "technology" as an add-on. e.g. {Automotive) Technology. being approached from a Technology that in some schools Technology  It is conceivable that these subjects are Education  Education  perspective; it is also arguable  has been embraced in name only.  In a journal article titled "Where do we go from here" Pullias postulated that there are three positions that can be taken with respect to Technology Education Curriculum Change: (Pullias, 1989, p. 3-4) •  The "revolutionary" position proposes "to discard the old and begin fresh."  4  •  The "evolutionary," view prefers "to keep part of the old, install part of the new, and 'ease' into full implementation"  •  The third position "is to disguise what we have been doing for years and try to make it look like a new curriculum".  If Technology Education has been embraced in name only, the third position, the status quo of Industry aligned, male dominated technical electives will be perpetuated, reinforcing the adage that Males Build and Females  Decorate.  1.5 Purpose of this Research The purpose of this research is to inform the practice and policy of Technology Education in Canada. The stabilized or decreasing birthrates following the rapid expansion of European and North American populations following the Second  World War  (1939-1945) is expected to result in shortages of skilled workers in all sectors of the economy (Marshall and Mueller, 2002) Within an ageing professional workforce many technical teachers are approaching retirement. "More than onethird of BC's educators are 50 years of age or older. In the next four to eight years, 13,000 teachers are likely to retire" (BCTF, 2004). An accurate estimate of the number of new teachers that will be required to teach in the technology areas is long overdue; without an adequate supply of qualified technology teachers school districts may have to cancel certain courses or will have the justification to abandon expensive elective subjects.  5  1.6 Delimitation The survey was delimited to Technology Education teachers and department heads (Technology Education Coordinators) in the Middle, Junior and Secondary public schools of British Columbia. Private schools and First Nation Band schools were not surveyed at this time. Private schools in the province have historically provided an academic focus; linked to post-secondary and they do not generally include technology education, industrial arts, or industrial education in their curriculum in other than in a craft context. Most First Nations schools operate as private "Band Schools" and organize curriculum around a K-10 or K12 format. Industrial and Technology Education electives are not common, due in large part to the negative impact of the Native  Residential  School experience which had a usury vocational focus (Battiste & Barman, 1996). Inclusion of data from these sources would skew the results and findings.  1.7 Assumptions 1) It was assumed that the sample used was adequate. 2) It was assumed that the survey instrument was valid and reliable.  1.8 Operational Definitions Technology The term Technology is often used in a generic way for all the technologies that humans develop and utilize. The public conception that  6  technology is a product of modernity and only concerns electronic and digital innovation is confusing. Technology involves the purposeful application of knowledge, experience and resources to create products and processes that meet human needs. The term Technology  is in one way problematic as it  embodies due Western interpretations of Technique,  Technic and  Technical.  With Technique there is the "internal" skillfulness of an action. In the second and third case the context is of tools used in an external action. Skilful action necessarily uses tools; its skillfulness cannot be dissociated from using these tools (Latour, 1994a, Brey 1997). According to Webster's Ninth Collegiate Dictionary (1985, p. 1211) technology is "the totality of the means employed to provide objects necessary for human sustenance and comfort." Increasingly the term "(new) technology" is attributed to certain artifacts; digital processors for example, which are products of the skilful use of tools and technique and at the same time are themselves used as tools for some other purpose.  Industrial Education •  ... (is) an area of education through workshop Education 1964.  which teaches  experience  general  principles  of  technology  with materials, tools, and machines.  has the following specific aims:  (BC. DOE,  Division of  Industrial Curriculum,  p.6.)  7  •  To teach principles  of technology  and to apply these principles  in  practical  situations. •  To explore  and evaluate the interests  and aptitudes  of students  in  technology  fields. •  To establish foundation  •  a broad base of technological for subsequent  To develop  systematic  technological  development  planning  skills which will provide  of the  a  sound  individual.  and safe practices  in the solution of  problems  Industrial Arts •  ...is a study of the changes made by man in the forms of materials to increase their values, and of the problems of life related to these changes (Bonser & Mossman. 1923).  •  .. .those phases of general education which deal with industry - its organization, materials, occupations, processes, and products - and with the problems of life resulting from the industrial and technological nature of society (Wilber, G. 1948, p.2).  Technology Education •  ... an educational program that helps people develop an understanding and competence in designing, producing, and using technology products and systems, and in assessing the appropriateness of technological actions. International  Technology  Education  Association  (Wright, Israel, & Lauda,  1993) •  Technology Education is a multidisciplinary school subject concerning knowledge in designing, creating, using, maintaining, regulating, and recycling technologies (products, processes and services) (Petrina, 1997).  •  A comprehensive, action-based educational program concerned with technical means, their evolution, utilization, and significance; with industry, its  8  organization, personnel systems, techniques, resources, and products; and their socio-cultural impacts. American  Industrial Arts Association  (Malev,  1973. p ,2). •  That phase of general education in which students deal experientially with technology- its evolution, utilization and significance; and with industry-its organization, materials, occupations, processes, and products-and with the benefits and problems resulting from the technological and the industrial nature of society (Malev, 1985).  •  That phase of general education that deals with the study of technology-its evolution, utilization and significance-and with the technologies associated with the many diverse elements of construction, manufacturing, communications, power, energy, and their economic, political, social and environmental impacts (Malev, 1991).  Between 1973 and 1991 Donald Maley published a least 3 definitions of Technology  Education.  Although similar they reflect a change in emphasis from  the Industrial to the Social.  Educational Technology •  ... is a complex, integrated process involving people, procedures, ideas, devices, and organization, for analyzing problems and devising, implementing, evaluating, and managing solutions to those problems involved in all aspects of human learning. In educational technology, the solutions to problems take the form of all the Learning Resources  that are designed  and/or selected and/or utilized to bring about learning, these resources are identified as messages, people, materials, devices, techniques, and setting (AECT, 1977).  Vocational Education •  Instruction designed to enable people to succeed in occupations requiring less than a baccalaureate degree (Evans & Herr, 1978).  •  Organized educational programs which are directly related to the preparation of individuals for paid or unpaid employment, or for additional preparation for a career requiring less than a baccalaureate or advanced degree (Calhoun & Finch, 1981).  •  (Vocational programs)  offer a sequence of courses that provides  individuals with the academic and technical knowledge and skills the individuals need to prepare for further education and for careers (other than careers requiring a baccalaureate, master's or doctoral degree) in current or emerging employment sectors (Perkins, 1998). •  Organized educational programs offering a sequence of courses which are directly related to the preparation of individuals in paid or unpaid employment in current or emerging occupations requiring other than a baccalaureate or advanced degree (Perkins, 1990).  10  CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF LITERATURE  2.1 A Brief History of Technology Education What is Technology Education? According to the American Association the Advancement  of Science,  for  Technology Education in its broadest definition is  the oldest discipline among all of the school subjects (A A A S, 1993 ; Zargari & MacDonald, 1994). Going back possibly as far as 500,000 years, "hand skills" were very important to the survival of primitive society and contributed to the refinement of civilization (Phillips, 1995). Technological knowledge "arising from, and embedded in, human activity" (Herschbach,1995). The anthropological view holds that about 2.4 million years ago the first humans created primitive tools by chipping away the edges of suitable stones. The development of hunting tools: spears, bows and arrows, and simple traps allowed tribal/social groups to expand and grow due to more readily obtainable sources of food and clothing. The growth and productivity that organized hunting brought to early society brought with it divisions of labor, gender and a hierarchy of status. In the simplest terms what developed was a hierarchy based on hunting and providing food that placed the strongest and most agile members at the top and the less capable further down and responsible for providing shelter and security from competing tribes . Individuals that had learned the migratory 1  habits and hibernation patterns of birds and animals would have been better 1  For more information see: Desmond Morris ,The Naked Ape, A Zoologist's Study of the Human Animal. (1967). McGraw Hill, New York, (pp, 21-23)  11  hunters or providers thus attaining special status. Women's roles apart from child bearing, would have included preparing and cooking meals, making and repairing clothing, and keeping the living spaces clean; roles based essentially on remaining close to the hearth and nursery. This close proximity to the family shelter enabled women in hunter-gathers societies to assume agricultural roles; sowing seeds and tending medicinal and spice gardens. Yet early humans had become more than tool makers and tool users. A problem-solving capacity had emerged along with systems of production and control, divisions of labor based on status and gender that would endure for centuries.  2.2 Early Education and the origins of Manual Training During what is often termed the Greek period (27 BCE-1453 AD), Aristotle (384-322 BCE) identified three disciplines, the theoretical, the practical and the technical . Although the two principal city2  states Athens and Sparta differed considerably, neither included practical arts instruction in their children's education. In Athens, boys and girls were generally educated at home or in low cost state schools up to the age of 13 or 14. Apprenticeships in wood and metal trades were available for boys and domestic service for girls. In Sparta, healthy boys entered military schools and became soldiers at age 18 or 19. Girls could be educated at home or attend state schools that promoted good physical condition and health . 3  2  According to Aristotle, education was central to becoming a fulfilled person. Learning was accomplished by doing, and was complemented by reason and a balanced curriculum delivered by educators with a clear philosophy of life.  3  These attributes were also the ones required for childbearing.  12  The Romans , are thought of as a innovators for developing gravity water 4  and sewer systems for towns and villages, central heating for civic and private buildings, promoting the widespread use of the arch in aqueducts and refining copper and lead.  Figure 1. Segovia Aqueduct.  By contrast state education was not concerned with fine arts or training for adult employment.  •••HI  The affluent employed a pedagogue, a specially I trained slave to ensure that the boys attended lessons at home with a tutor or at a fee-paying  school. To acquire skills, boys who had finished attending school and did not go into military service, entered into family apprenticeships with an uncle or the father teaching the son. Education for girls was limited to home tutorage and domestic training. During the Medieval or Middle Ages (300-1300 AD), Guilds of skilled artisans across Europe provided elementary level education for children of guild members. Classes were conducted by clergymen and paid for by the guild.  13  2.3 European Manual Training Roots Martin Luther was a supporter of public state funded education and included "Manual Arts" as a vital part of liberal education (Phillips, 1985). He promoted the establishment of public schools and in his 1 5 2 4 open letter, "To the Councilmen of All Cities in Germany", he argued that one of the duties of government was to ensure decency and the good order in society through public education. Comenius is considered by many as the Father of Modern Education. In relating education to everyday life he developed pansophism, a philosophy that emphasized religious reconciliation, political unity and cooperation in education. He advocated a system of public education: teaching in the vernacular rather than the customary Latin. Education is indeed necessary for all, and this is evident if we consider the different degrees of ability. No one doubts that those who are stupid need instruction, that they may shake off their natural dullness. But in reality those who are clever need it far more, since an active mind, if not occupied with useful things, will busy itself with what is useless, curious, and pernicious. Not the children of the rich or of the powerful only, but of all alike, boys and girls, both noble and ignoble, rich and poor, in all cities and towns, villages and hamlets, should be sent to  school  567  (Keatinqe.1967).  5  6  7  The quote was located on the Froebel Web:  http://members.tripod.com/~FroebelWeb/web7005.html  The Great Didactic can be translated to mean The Whole Art of Teaching. The Great Didactic , was written 1628-32 and published 1649. Translated by M.W. Keatinge 1896.) 7  14  Comenius' 11 Didactical rules of teaching, would become foundational as later reformers and educators considered thepducational value of bringing practical activities into classrooms. According to Jakubec, (1928) the underpinnings of Sloyd systems have roots in Comenius: 9  he was the first to realize that the object-lesson any impression  could be made on the half-developed  [and] he practically Visualization  anticipated  Pestalozzi,  in all things is the watchword  and paved  was the only way in which thinking powers  of the child  the way for Froebel.  of the Comenian  method  ..  (Keatinge,  1967 p, 150). Comenius' Didactical rules of teaching (IBED) The ways of working must be learned in work: "Schools must be workshops where all are working". 1. There must be a pattern (examples) and rules (precepts) for the work to be done. 2. The use of tools should be learned rather in work and by pattern than by rules. 3. In the beginning the elementary skills should (be) first trained before more complex task. 4. In the beginning the familiar areas should be considered first. 5. In the beginning the training should be imitation of the pattern and only later may be improvised more freely. 6. The patterns should be as perfect as possible. 7. First trial of imitation should be as strict as possible. 8  Didaktik (Didactic) is a term that is more commonly used in Central Europe and Scandinavian countries than in English and French speaking countries. In emphasizing the normative aspects of Didaktik, Kansanen suggests the translation as "the art of teaching". However an essential aspect to his analysis is the second order term which is described as "a model or methodology of how to envisage the teaching-learning process". (Kansanen, 1995)  9  Sloyd is the English translation of the Scandinavian word sljd, which means craft or manual skill.  15  8. Teachers must be available and they must correct all errors and give suitable rules and advises. 9. Learning should consist of both synthetic and analytic exercises; the order is rather from synthesis to analysis. 10. Training should continue until skills are truly artistic.  Figure 2. "Engines" Orbis P i c t u s .  034) VLV. hUthw*.  Engine*.  10  0*5J £x\t tax earrf as QtunJum duo fme mocbbftUtittag tdsnf^k I. (poflunt, l WIKCHJMT** J . vd Ftrrtn 2. untum pofcft nnui, tmirndo ante fe at Hwuefc 4tangcs on |f« H«k. Psktmtm j. at DM tan unf on a fufpefHi I coilo Ainamal 4. ColHUff I. PI w sotcm pottft, •} Hand-barrow a. *«tk«can Doinojt, quimotan, /'W«|*(Cyl 1 wlri») 6. tkat ratlac* a todcW, impofium, «• Ufa Rpon Rollers 6. 3. ftatrtaUwrs. • provohit, Ertiuf. fl Wind-Beam 7* * eft columella, taaaoS *, quae vcrfaiur to^cfetatsnuB circumeando. apeataaabaattt* Gtr*i*m 8. ft Crane 8. •itftBhoUow-wlxtl, hibet Tjmftnmm, £ , taWb one baiting, cut iniubukm <juu, . pondera ..,1 , • ajatoetbtoalcbta navi extnhit, ontof afebfp, •• •» uttrtb tfcm Wan aut in na vera detnictk. * />/*« 9. •' toteaHfe. adaibecor a Rammer 9. ad pangendmn to of e* SMifdl to. totsflw adtollkur, fane, No 10. ttlaUiuaaatofrba tra&o per TmUttv It iopa»wianbpPiiU«an Tel tnorsibu*, fi*»/-wbabct 12. •» taut tana*. K 4 AHoufc Hit *a«t handle* 1 2 .  Comenius' most well known book is the Orbis Pictus , 11  World. Initially he wrote a Latin language book, Janua  or Pictures of the  (Comenius. 1631) to use  in one of his schools but found the classical Latin base too difficult for his ' Comenius, pp, 134-235. Orbis Pictus is available to read on-line at: http://www.digibib.tu-bs.de/1007-3289/start.htm  16  students. He then proceeded to write a book intended for a range of children; to some with little education, and others wishing to study Latin. He achieved this by integrating language and pictorial study. The book contained 150 pictures of everyday life indexed numerically. Each picture has corresponding text described the event or activity in the local language as well as Latin. This can be illustrated in the example pages of Orbis Pictus  12  (pages 134,135. See Figure 2 above) the  illustrations were captioned in both Middle English and Latin. Since a third of the topics in the book were under the heading of arts and crafts, considering Comenius' global view of education, one could conclude that this represents an early type of technology education: "Here Comenius  gives very detailed and informed  kind of areas of human productivity. husbandry, weaving,  grinding, bread-baking,  tailor, carpenter,  wells, watches, instruments"  (Pikkarainen,  of different  These areas include among others: hunting, cookery,  house building, engines,  looking glasses,  descriptions  carriages,  gardens,  vintage, spinning of line,  black-smith,  mine, potter,  writing, paper, schooling and  musical  1998).  Jean-Jacques Rousseau must have read Comenius. 100 13  years after his passing with much of his work forgotten, Rousseau advocated to parents that their children should  12  13  The illustrated school text book Orbis Sensualium Pictus was first published in 1658. This Latin-German edition was followed by versions in English, French, Italian, Polish, and other languages. Orbis Pictus maintained its popularity into the nineteenth century and was a model for a number of other eighteenth and nineteenth century school books. See: http://education.umn.edu/EdPA/iconics/Orbis/Default.htm  Jean-Jacques Rousseau was born at Geneva June 28, 1712 and died at Ermenonville, near Paris on July 2, 1778  17  study and savor nature to understand the world. "He believed that knowledge was derived from nature, that reality was determined by collecting information through the senses and validated by constructing relationships, and that human beings learn gradually and constantly throughout their lives," or "learning by doing" (Jacobsen, 1999 p. 143). He advocated that a child should be treated as a child and not a small adult. Classrooms should not be prisons to restrain students. Education should be as much as possible, natural and pleasant to permit to encourage the unfolding of inherent curiosities. Rote learning should be replaced by training in the arts of reason, calculation, and perception. Rousseau included lessons about machinery and crafts in his teaching and as a result is considered one of the fathers of technology education.  Friedrich Froebel (Frobel) (1782-1852) best known as the originator of the kindergarten system pioneered the use of educational "objects" as part of the earliest form of Kindergarten . He believed that the use of objects and 14  hands-on learning were fundamental to the learning process (Lillev, 1967). Froebel encouraged environments that involved practical work and the direct use of materials. According to Froebel, engaging with the world, understanding unfolds (Lilley, 1967). He considered educational play significant as a creative activity in creating awareness of the child's place in the world. Froebel's  14  Kindergarten is generally translated into English to mean "Children's Garden", a place of play and discovery.  18  recognition of the importance of industrial education resulted in later emphasis 15  on Manual Training at the kindergarten and elementary school levels. What today is thought of as Technology Education rather than Vocational or Industrial education, had it's beginning in the late Middle Ages when educational reformers concluded that humans develop the mind through the use of all the senses (Thorbiornsson, 1989, p, 259). With the concomitant rise of capitalism in both Europe and North America during the 19th century, industrialization and the resulting demographic changes created new pedagogical needs. The last decades of that century saw a period of great population growth and mobility, with tremendous increases in urban populations. The changing life style, separation of work and home and the increasing autonomy, of workers offered less opportunity for the traditional elite to exercise control over youth and other disenfranchised groups such as women and piece-workers. Early debates on mass education are marked by an anxiety over declining morals in the towns (Katz, 1976). Children were perceived of as being in danger of idleness and ensuing vice. Proponents of mass education charged that responsibility must be assumed by the state, as the working-class were unable or unfit to educate or train their own children. The German philosopher and educator Johann Herbart was one of the 16  first educators to study and apply the psychological processes of learning. He proposed developing curriculum based on the aptitudes, abilities, and interests of  15  Europe was becoming industrialized and Frobel sought to counter some of the negative impacts of industrialization with education.  1 6  1776-1841  19  students. Educated at the University of Jena he became interested in the work Pestalozzi while tutoring in Switzerland. Herbert's educational philosophy stated that all mental activity results from interaction of elementary ideas grounded in personal experience, and not from separate individual mental experiences. His early teaching methods incorporated the psychological processes of learning and were adopted at several European teacher training schools including Nass (Clark, 1999). Based on the work at Naas, Herbart's followers designed a fivestep teaching method: •  Prepare the pupils to be ready for the new lesson.  •  Present the new lesson.  •  Associate the new lesson with ideas studied earlier.  •  Use examples to illustrate the lesson's major points.  •  Test pupils to ensure they had learned the new lesson  The British Sociologist and Philosopher Herbert Spencer (1820-1903) is remembered mainly as a Social Darwinist activist in the later half of the 17  nineteenth century. His work helped theory of evolution gain wide acceptance  18  and impacted future educational progressive like John Dewey. Spencer created controversy in England because his educational views challenged the dominant positions of the Latin and Greek languages and literature in education. Radical for the time, his publication "What Knowledge  is of Most Worth?"  posed the title  17  Named after Charles Darwin the British naturalist noted for his theories of evolution and natural selection. (1809-1882)  18  Herbert Spencer coined the phrase "survival of the fittest" which depicted a constant struggle amongst the species. As a result of this continual struggle, the stronger species survived and multiplied while the weaker species perished.  20  as the question that must be answered before any curriculum can be developed. He stated that five components need to be present in any curriculum: •  Self preservation.  •  Performance of occupations.  •  Child-rearing.  •  Social and political participation.  •  Recreation and leisure.  Spencer proposed that all knowledge could be placed within a modern, nineteenth century, scientific framework, which was viewed as the only way to gain useful knowledge. Learning should be a sensory experience where students interact within their environment over a slow, gradual, and inductive process. Children should be encouraged to explore and discover which would allow them to acquire knowledge naturally (Wiltshire, 1978). Through scientific knowledge, people learned to contribute and live in society. Social Darwinism impacted all aspects of society; social, political, economic, and education. Small homogeneous groups evolved into large complex groups over extended periods. During the British Industrial Revolution, the economy of England changed from mainly agricultural to industrial, people were uprooted from small towns and farmlands as they moved to industrial areas to seek work. This migration eventually led to the emergence of large cities. Spencer was at odds with 19  educators who promoted a state run common school system since his Social Darwinist ideology promoted a private school system that would compete for the  19  See: The Impact of the Industrial Revolution, Nicholas Fessenden. (1978) Harcourt, Brace, Jovanovich. New York..  21  brightest students. This competition, conflict and struggle would result in the most exemplary schools acquiring the best teachers and students.  2.4 The Russian System of Workshop Instruction The Russian system of workshop instruction and the Scandinavian Sloyd system, credited with having the greatest influence on North American educational pioneers, started the Manual Training era (Phillips, 1985). The system grew out of a need for a better system of giving shop instruction to technical college students in Russia. Manual and industrial education were conceptualized once an adequate teaching analysis of the tool processes instruction  methods  and  used in the workshops had been developed. This structured  method provided an economical and effective alternative to apprenticeships that were emphasizing imitation and conformity. This analysis placed the manipulative and mechanical arts instruction on a sound pedagogical foundation. The mechanic  20  arts  could be analyzed and the elements placed in a  pedagogical order as for example, with mathematics, music, and language (Quale, 1950). When or where the first analysis of manual arts occurred is unclear, but a thorough analysis of Geometric Drawing was made in the Pestalozzi school before 1824. It is not known if Pestalozzi made similar studies of other subjects taught at his school. An analysis of the process of sewing was performed in England during the mid 1800's to enable the better teaching of girls in Industrial Schools. No adequate analysis of the mechanic arts existed until  2 0  The term Mechanic Arts is used frequently in articles written prior to 1900. The terminology is interesting in that it uses Mechanic to separate the person from the process -the Mechanical.  22  1866, when the Russian system of workshop instruction was devised by Victor Delia Vos and his associates at the Imperial Technical School in Moscow.  21  Delia Vos reasoned, that since it had been proven that the mastery of the arts, drawing, music, painting "was attained only when first attempts were subject to a law of gradation",  in the mechanic arts the same conditions existed (Quale, 1950).  Until that time, no methods of study or scientific analyses of the mechanic arts had been prepared. It remained to Delia Vos to devise a system that would involve the instructor and an analysis of the arts he wished to have taught in his School. The evolved system saw the Instruction Shops as separate from Construction  Shops.  The former were for (as the name implies) instruction, with  the instructor explaining and demonstrating and the students practicing technique, skill, and accuracy. Students were only allowed to work in the construction shops after having successfully completed the required Instruction Shop course. The object of this systemic approach was to teach the fundamentals  of the Mechanic Arts in a short time frame, and in such a way as to  provide adequate instruction to a large number of students. The study of practical shop-work led to continued improvement, and given its sequential nature the progress of individual students was measurable. Each course consisted of a graded series of exercises to develop skill and competence without connection to a final use for the artifact.  21  In 1830 a special technical school was founded for orphans. It was believed that having technical knowledge would help the graduates through life. Later this institution became the Imperial Technical School.. After the 1917 revolution, the University was named after Nikolai Emestovich Bauman a revolutionary who was killed not far from the main buildings.  23  The teaching of the course was divided into three consecutive phases:  •  In the first, the student was given the names of the tools; their uses and how to use them.  •  In the second, the student combined the exercises of the first to make joints in wood and simple forms in metal.  •  In the third, the student made the whole or parts of various mechanisms and acquired an extended knowledge of working wood and metals.  General Principles of the Russian System: (Bennett, 1937) 1. Each Mechanic Art had its own Instruction Shop. e.g. joinery, woodturning, blacksmithing etc. 2. Each student in a shop had a workstation and a full set of tools. 3. Courses of models were arranged in order of increasing difficulty. 4. All models were made from drawings of which each student has a copy. 5. The drawings were made by the student in the drawing class. The teacher of drawing and the shop manager agreed on the details of the drawing. 6. No student was allowed to begin a new model until satisfactorily completing the previous one. 7. Accuracy of work was expected to increase with succeeding models. Each teacher  must have more knowledge  of his specialty  perform  the exercises  in the course of instruction.  practice  so that his work may "be an example  dexterity of the teacher increased  his authority  than was necessary  He must keep constantly  of perfection  to the students".  to  in Such  (Bennett, 1937).  24  2.5 Sloyd System of Tool Instruction Uno Cygnaes (1810-1888) was a Finnish pastor, scholar and missionary. He studied the Russian model of tool instruction 22  and added manipulating objects from paper and wood using simple hand tools to create the Sloyd system. The term is taken from the Finnish term for handwork (Hostetter, 1974).  Otto Salomon was the best known of the promoters of Swedish craft education or "Sloyd" as he termed it. His variant of Sloyd was strictly woodwork based and became the dominant program throughout Sweden. It was termed boys' craft to distinguish it from textiles or girls' craft.  Salomon wrote that the goal of his pedagogic Sloyd was not to train particular workplace skills, but rather to instill an 'attitude, a willingness and respect for manual work in general. Salomon's program became internationally known and termed the Naas system. It was exhibited at several world fairs and implemented within schools in England, Scandinavia and Sao Paulo, Brazil. It attracted attention in North America and the UK as "Manual Training" and gave rise to several professional organizations.  C y g n a e s f o u n d e d the first E v a n g e l i c a l Lutheran c h u r c h o n the Pacific W e s t C o a s t at S i t k a , A l a s k a in 1 8 3 9  25  Figure 3. Naas Institute.  The teacher training institute at Naas Finland l^vv  r --  was operated by Otto  Solomon. It attracted teachers from many countries and a great number of British teachers attended at their own expense. Several governments sent delegates to study this particular version of craft education (Thorbiornsson, 1989). Manual Training organizers from Canada were later to visit the Naas School when developing the Macdonald Manual Training program.  2.6 The Montessori Method Dr. Maria Montessori (1870-1952) was a pioneer in early childhood education. She applied a scientific approach and observed that children are "sensitive  to certain areas of learning  at specific ages".  considered foundational to the development of Manual  Her work can also be Training.  Figure 4. C a s a dei Bambini, 1906.  In 1896 she was the first woman in Italy to be to be trained and accredited as a physician. In 1906 using funds she earned as doctor she began working with a group of sixty young children of working parents in the  26  San Lorenzo district of Rome.  Through her observations and work with these  children she discovered their amazing, natural ability to learn. Children taught themselves! This simple but profound truth formed the cornerstone of her lifelong pursuit of educational reform. She eventually gave up her university chair and medical practice to found the first Casa dei Bambini, or "Children's House." This early beginning would ultimately be developed into the Montessori  Method  of education. Her methods of teaching and teacher training were based on scientific observations of the children's ..."almost knowledge  from their surroundings",  manipulating  materials".  effortless  ability to  absorb  as well as their" tireless interest in  The equipment, exercise and methods Montessori  developed were based on what she observed children to do "naturally," by themselves,  unassisted  by adults.  In the following extended quotation located in The Montessori  Method,  she  describes her classroom activities with what she termed Manual  Training:  .. .Another  of  work in the School of Educative  bricks, and their baking in the furnace, built by the same processes  it, placing  of real houses,  constructed  with foundations,  2 3  walls  of  houses,  with a trowel. After the  of the wall, which is very amusing  construction  diminutive  of diminutive  use in the construction  of mortar handled  brick on brick, superimposing  ground by means  and the construction  which the masons  the bricks being joined by means simple construction  Art is the manufacture  for the children  who build  row on row, the children pass to the  first, resting on the ground, and, then, really after a previous  of little hoes and shovels.  excavation  of large holes in the  These little houses  have  openings  The first Montessori environment was opened on the 6 January 1907 in San Lorenzo, Italy, by Dr. Maria Montessori..  27  corresponding to windows and doors, and are variously ornamented in their facades by little tiles of bright and multi-colored majolica: the tiles themselves being manufactured by the children. Thus the children learn to appreciate the objects and constructions which surround them, while a real manual and artistic labour gives them profitable exercise. Such is the Manual Training which I have adopted in the "Children's Houses"; after two or three lessons the little pupils are already enthusiastic about the construction of vases, and they preserve very carefully their own products, in which they take pride. With their plastic art they then model little objects, eggs or fruits, with which they themselves fill the vases. One of the first undertakings is the simple vase of red clay filled with eggs of white clay; then comes the modeling of the vase with one or more spouts, of the narrow-mouthed vase, of the vase with a handle, of that with two or three handles, of the tripod, of the amphora. For children of the age of five or six, the work of the potter's wheel begins. But what most delights the children is the work of building a wall with little bricks, and seeing a little house, the fruit of their own hands, rise in the vicinity of the ground in which are growing plants, also cultivated by them. Thus the age of childhood epitomizes the principal primitive labors of humanity, when the human race, changing from the nomadic to the stable condition, demanded of the earth its fruit, built itself shelter, and devised vases to cook the foods yielded by the fertile earth'.. nVlontessori,1912, pp,162-166).  28  2.7 The Pestalozzi Method Pestalozzi (1746-1827) was a Swiss educator who was pivotal in the promotion of Manual Training. He established a school in Europe where manual work was combined with general education. The "Pestalozzi Method"came to fruition in his  school at Yverdon (established in 1805) Pestalozzi took up Rousseau's ideas and explored how they might be developed and implemented. "Instead of dealing with words" he argued, "children should learn through  activity  and through things". They should be free to "pursue their own interests and draw  their own conclusions"  (Darling 1994, p. 18). He believed that a sound education  needed to include both vocational and general education. At his first school in Neuhof the school combined education with work. It would be considered a production facility today since items were manufactured and sold so that children could finance their own learning. In 1809 As a student of Pestalozzi, Francis Neff was invited by the American philanthropist William Maclure to come to Philadelphia to open a Manual Training school.  2.8 French Workshop Instruction The French School of Arts and Crafts at Chalons-sur-Marne formed an important chapter in the history of European Technical Education. The stated goals were the integration and teaching of both practice and theory: practice interpreted as shop-work on marketable products according to the drawings and specifications of the director of instruction; and theory viewed as a combination of  29  descriptive geometry, drafting, math, and science. A course in elementary sociology was included, the ideas of social obligations, the meaning of social standards and the relations of man to the community were reinforced (Mead, 1908. p, 382). Students spent most of their time building "real-world" artifacts in the school's shops, and according to the curriculum of 1807, students spent two or three hours per day in classrooms. The students, all male between the ages of 8 to 20 produced a variety of products ranging from basic hardware, files, and furniture to textile machines, scientific instruments, and clocks. From 1808 to 1815 about half of the older students manufactured caissons (Cannon Barrels) consisting of interchangeable parts for Napoleon's artillery -the most form of manufacturing  at the time,  advanced  (Pannabecker, 2002).  2.9 British Arts and Crafts Movement "We are always in these days endeavoring to separate the two; we want one man (sic) to be always thinking, and another to be always working, as we call one a gentleman (sic), and the other an operative; whereas the workman ought often to be thinking, and the thinker often to be working, and both should be gentlemen (sic), in the best sense". John Ruskin, 1819-1900. As one of the effects of the Industrial Revolution in England, factory production took beauty and craftsmanship out of many of the items that were now being mass produced across the country. The rapid development of large industrial cities close to resources meant that workers were often living in squalid conditions and working under harsh conditions. John Ruskin a socialist and instructor at Working Men's  30  College in London, in around 1880 began denouncing factory production and expounding upon the value of individual craftsmanship. He stressed personal creativity and control over the work and gained support by promoting school workshops that promoted non-mechanical labor. Ruskin believed that individual craftsmen produced the most beautiful and unique work. These craftsman, if given the freedom to design, were capable of producing beautiful works of art befitting religious structures: (Ruskin, 1849, Garni, 2003, p.2)  "We are always in these days endeavoring  to separate  want one man to be always thinking, and another working,  as we call one a gentleman,  whereas  the workman  to be  and the other an  the two; we always operative;  ought often to be thinking, and the thinker  often to be working, and both should be gentlemen,  in the best  sense."  William Morris (1834-1896 ) was the son of a wealthy businessman and enjoyed a comfortable childhood. After studying at Oxford, Morris was articled (apprenticed) to G. E. Street, a Gothic Revival architect. With and admiration for the Pre-Raphaelite artists he left the architectural position, determined to become a painter (Salmon, 2002). Morris is reported to have met Ruskin while at Oxford and at his urging perused a career in decorative arts instead of one in theology that he was initially pursuing. An essential element of Morris' philosophy was his belief that the maker of any object should strive for originality in design. This led to the constant search for best quality materials and methods in dyeing, weaving,  31  tapestry and other media which characterized his business career in the 1870s and 1880s. In March 1882 he testified before a British Royal Commission on Technical Instruction promoting originality and quality in British Manual Training (Harvey & Press. 1 9 9 1 ) . The now established Arts and Crafts movement expanded throughout England and gained popular support from poets, craftsmen, and artists. Arts and Crafts crossed the Atlantic to America and Canada and influenced educators like John Dewey, the future architect Frank Lloyd Wright and furniture manufactures Green and Green.  2.10 Early North American Manual Training The first Manual Training school to teach children in the United Sates opened in Philadelphia in 1809. William Maclure was a successful Scottish born American 24  businessman and a supporter of Pestalozzi's European schools. He tried unsuccessfully to persuade Pestalozzi to immigrate to America and open an Manual Training school. While visiting France on business he was able to convince Joseph Neef (1770-1854), a teacher at Pestalozzi's school in Paris to open a school in the US. Neef published a Sketch of a Plan and Method of Education in 1808, the first North American instruction manual on Pestalozzion Manual Training (Neff, 1808).  Image of William Maclure., Smithsonian Institution Archives, R U 7177, George P. Merrill Collection.  32  Figure 5. Manual Training Teacher training at the Stout Institute.  James Huff Stout promoted and funded Manual Training and domestic science in several states after being impressed with the work of the Technical High School in St. Louis, Missouri. Possibly desiring the improve the well being of the Knapp, Stout & Co lumber workers he supported a Manual Training program that integrated public school curriculums from kindergarten through high school. The Stout Manual Training School was 25  established in 1891 and would eventually evolve into Teachers College, University of Wisconsin. It offered a two year program to train future Manual Training teachers (Agnew, 1976). By 1901 the Stout Institute was training teachers in Manual Training, Domestic Science, Agriculture, Physical Culture and Art Instruction. Stout eventually entered politics and while a US senator promoted and supported several social, educational and infrastructure innovations.  This was a Teacher Training or normal School and not a school for children.  33  Edward Sheldon is credited with founding the Oswego26 normal  School in 1861 in New York City to train teachers  (Park, 1936). Sheldon believed that the required fundamentals should be taught through the use of objects: 'Object teaching because  is of particular  interest in our  by its very nature, it could but lead to some  like...industrial  arts..."  discussion  development  (Misner, 2004, p. 4).  Sheldon had his students make things that could be used as instructional aids and useful to them in their future classrooms. In 1886 Oswego became: "....the first teacher teachers  training institution in the United States to  in the field of Manual  Training"  prepare  (Ibed).  Oswego's first Manual Training classes were taught by the school's janitor, it is possible that he was selected because he was the only person with tools for the students to use; not an auspicious beginning for a field that would continually strive for equal status with other school subjects. A system of agricultural and mechanical colleges was established by the Morrill Act of congress in 1862. A type of Manual Training was put to use after the American Civil War (1861-1865) in the Northern states for the training of 28  engineers to operate steam engines and machinery. It is unlikely that the instruction featured the object centered methodology of Pestalozzi' due to the  2 6  S U N Y Oswego is now one of the leading universities preparing future Technology Education teachers.  2 7  The adjective normal is derived from the Latin word norma, which signifies a carpenter's square, a rule, a pattern or model; [teachers'] schools are called normal, because they have connected with them a model school in which pupils apply theory to practice.  2 8  The United States Civil War was a conflict between the Northern states (the Union) and the Southern states that seceded from the Union and formed the Confederacy.  34  Industrial and Vocational nature of the training. In the Southern States Manual Training served to keep recently freed slaves employed on farms and plantations as well as to recruit them as industrial workers to boost regional economies (Maxcv, 1981 pp.47-71). Manual Training as described by Maxcy was concerned with the training of the worker in some skill and not as a liberal education enterprise. Industrial Manual Training was used with adults in a training 29  environment. European Manual Training heavily influenced the subject's development in both Canadian and American Educational settings. Figure 6.1876 Centennial Exposition. Charles Bennett was the founder of the Industrial Education  Magazine  (1899);  the Manual Arts Press (1903); as well  as the author of several textbooks pertaining to Industrial Arts. Writing in "A History of Manual and Industrial Education, 1870-1917" (1937) Bennett states that during the 1876 Exposition  Centennial  in Philadelphia, European education was showcased.  Representatives from both Russia and Scandinavia were approached by the American Educators John O. Runkle, professor of mathematics and president of Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Calvin M. Woodward, dean of the Polytechnic faculty at Washington University in St. Louis. With European assistance a pilot program was developed. A system modeled after the Russian program with elements of British Arts and Crafts and 29  1 use this term to differentiate between Manual Training used as a way of training workers on specific hand and machine skills and the sloyd based systems and Scandinavian Manual Training used in children's education to manipulate objects to improve hand-eye coordination.  35  Sloyd came together to create what would become known in the United States as Manual  Training  (McCory, 1987). The movement spread rapidly throughout  general public education. In November 1909 Robert Selvidge and Charles Bennett organized the first Mississippi Valley Conference to provide a forum to discuss and promote opportunities for Manual Training educators (Barlow, 1967).  The first Industrial Education Association  30  (IEA) came into  being in the United States 1884. The IEA organiser was Grace Dodge who along with the same group of women who originally administered the Kitchen Garden Association (KGA) recognized that the organization had outgrown its original philanthropic mission... The original objective was: "To teach poor girls the fundamentals popular  instructional  model of kindergarten  of domestic education"  service based on a  (Dodge 1866, pp, 666-  668) In the context of the growing support of the Manual Training movement among social reformers and leaders in education during this period, Dodge orchestrated the redesign of the KGA, which was subsequently renamed the Industrial Education  Association  in  1884.  The IEA as a philanthropic reform organization offered a wide range of services, becoming in Dodge's words, "a center of agitation, of information and of  3 0  The IEA evolved into the New York College for the Training of Teachers and in 1891, became Teachers College, New York and eventually Columbia University..  36  organization." Among other activities, the IEA sponsored classes in the industrial arts for public school children, training classes for teachers in industrial education, public lectures on topics related to the manual and domestic arts, and classes in the domestic arts for adult women. In addition, the IEA functioned as a bureau of information about industrial education. It published and disseminated articles about Manual Training and solicited and organized information on the subject from sources across the country. According to the association's official reports, hundreds of people from all parts of the country came to the offices of the IEA in search of information about training in the manual and domestic arts (Kriegel, 1977). One of the association's main objectives was to stir public interest in industrial education. Figure 7. Children's IA Exposition, 1886.  In 1886 the IEA sponsored the Children's Industrial Exhibition in The Industrial Education. Association  Children's Industrial Handiwork, COSM0P0LTTAM awSouEGJa.3-lat  to  HALL,  «&.p*-Ll  GENKHJiT, jtfywiSSIOTCjUS <rtt Cilldf«k w^w  ©ife.,  1SSS.  New York. "The exhibition received seven thousand visitors"(Kriegel, 1977). Children's work in industrial  &sy «>ly.l<5 o>.«.  education from seventy different schools was on display to the public for seven days.  2.11 The Beginnings of British Columbian Public Education Early British Columbia colonial society was organized to replicate its British origins. By importing the most useful attributes of an imperial society the class distinctions were replicated. People could perform the same duties within  37  the same social structure as in the mother country with each restricted to their inherited social position. Jean Barman compares the development of early colonial schools to "the transfer to structures approximating their clear class and religious division between schools." Englishmen  and Scots in charge  naturally continued  English practice ..." The handful of  of the new British colony at Victoria quite  familiar patterns of behavior, living so far as possible  Britain itself" (Barman,  with  as if in  1986, p, 241)  Figure 8. HBC Fort Victoria. The colonies first schools reinforced the rigid class divisions that existed between the Hudson Bay Company's (HBC) officers and employees (servants) and among the settlers who came to work on the company farms. According to historian Sally Mitchel, "colonial administrators schools,  were largely middle-class  they found in the Colonies,  that only aristocrats  men; educated  at public  a degree of power and a standard  could enjoy at home." (Mitchel, 1986, p. 286.)  of living  Victorian  England was the model for the new colony and with British aristocracy remaining in England , middle-class men had a higher status in the new colony. 31  1  The British aristocratic class had no reason to immigrate to the new world, but their black sheep or prodigal sons may have.  38  Figure 9. Craigflower S c h o o l , 1855.  The first school at Fort Victoria (Craigflower) was established for the children of Company officers and was intended to reinforce the system in which these men had prospered. In 1849 Governor Douglas was successful in obtaining the services of the reverend Robert Staines  and his wife to teach the  officers' children and perform the duties of the company's chaplain. For the children of the company's servants and arriving settlers two common schools were opened in 1852, one for boys and another for girls. Teachers in common schools did not require formal qualifications. One of those selected to teach, Charles Bailey had earlier been employed as a "clerk to a Shipbroker," propriety 3 3  and had "a fair education"  since his arrival...  and "having conducted  and not being particularly  himself with great  useful as a mere laborer,"  was appointed school master at the boy's day school opened by Douglas for  the children of the Company's laboring class. The Victorian vision for mass education was the solidification of the existing social status.  Staines was educated at Trinity College, Cambridge. Tames Douglas to Archibald Barclay, December 8,1852, cited in Donald Leslie MacLaurin, The  History of Education in the Crown Colonies of Vancouver Island and British Columbia in the Province of British Columbia. (Thesis for Doctor of Philosophy at University of Washington, 1936), p. 21.  39  Figure 10. Minnies Plain S c h o o l , 1854.  In 1854 a school was opened at Minnies Plain. Robert Barr was hired to oversee construction and to act as schoolmaster. The colonial government paid him an annual salary of 50 Guineas and 34  expected him to collect fees from the parents. Although British Columbian colonial schooling in many ways reinforced the social divisions within the new colony that mirrored those in British society, Barr's school was unique. It was the first to build on the emerging ideals of universal education and offer instruction that could better the common students social standing and employment prospects. The schools curriculum included; reading, writing, composition, grammar, geography, arithmetic and industrial training . 35  The humble beginnings of what would eventually develop into manual, industrial and technical education in British Columbia began with a visionary educator Robert Barr, at the Minnies Plain common school on Colonial Vancouver Island.  2.12 The Macdonald Movement and Manual Training in British Columbia Initial efforts to introduce practical arts and Manual Training classes can be traced back to eighteenth century Europe with the establishment of charity 3 4  A gold piece worth 21 Shillings, or 1 Pound and 1 Shilling.  3 5  See Fleming, T. (Ed.) (2001). Colonial Schools in British Columbia. School leadership: Essays on the British Columbia experience, 1872-1995. M i l l Bay, BC: Bendall Books.  40  schools, societies of mechanics and mechanics institutes, lyceums and colleges devoted to agriculture. In BC The Manual Training movement was the precursor to the vocational and career training programs present in the secondary schools today. In Canada and British Columbia, turn of the century Manual Training emphasized the intellectual and social development associated with the practical training of the hand and the eye. Manual Training was process based and involved teaching wood and metal working, with the argument that this teaching improved perception, observation, practical judgment, visual accuracy and manual dexterity. It was argued that it taught students the power of doing things instead of merely thinking, talking, or writing about them. Initially, Manual Training was not intended to teach a specific trade, this was perceived as too narrow and intellectually limiting for a general education. Manual Training would be an enhancement to the traditional curriculum, not a replacement, and would thereby help fully develop the individual. The student would learn to skillfully use tools in drafting, mechanics, wood or metalworking and then would be able to transfer this knowledge to almost any kind of tool or setting. Migration of new Canadians westward created the need for more schools and teachers as the school population grew more than threefold from 23,615 students in 1901 to 79,243 in 1920.  36  As the BC population boomed, the school  system responded by offering more hands-on courses to familiarize students with the workplace culture of the day. The vocational tradition originated with the Industrial Revolution, with production for market rather than self-sufficiency, and  3 6  Statistics obtained from British Columbia school Enrolment. 1872-1971. Published in: 100 Years, Education in British Columbia.^ 1976) B C . DOE.  41  production in industry rather than in the home. Specific art and craft skills such as drawing, drafting and woodworking, as well as general work habits of neatness, precision and diligence were prized and "had to be taught in school as the home lacked  the means  to educate  for work in the new social order"  (Helqadottir,  1993, p. 4) Educational leaders in BC faced the task of devising not only curricula but instructional methods for large groups of essentially working class children. Many educators in the early 1900s believed that Manual Training contributed to the general education of youth, rather than providing merely vocational job-entry skills. Figure 11. William MacDonald.  The development of Manual/ Industrial/ Technological  37  Technical/  education in BC can be traced back  to the turn the century. Its main proponent was a private benefactor Sir William Christopher  Macdonald.  William became an integral part of the financial establishment of Montreal and the nation and was named a director of the Bank of Montreal (1831 1917). Born in Glenadale Prince Edward Island he attended school in Charlottetown, and moved to Montreal and amased a large fortune as a tobacco manufacturer. Macdonald began his career in Boston where he began work as a clerk in a counting house. He began exporting goods to Halifax and in 1852 with  3 7  Finding a term that suits a field of study that has origins in Scandinavian folk arts and has over a 200 year period evolved or morphed into Technology Education is virtually impossible.  42  his brother as partner started an oil and gas sales business in Montreal. This venture grew as they began importing tobacco and led to the establishment of MacDonald  Brothers  and Co.  He was to become a major player in the financial  concerns of Montreal and Canada as one of the directors of the Bank of Montreal.  Macdonald was knighted in 1898 by Queen Victoria for his  philanthropy and generous support of education and health issues. He died unmarried and without heirs, leaving his business to two loyal employees who like himself, had began their careers as clerks. The question of why Macdonald did not peruse a political career may be answered by considering the strong writings and opinions of his father the Very Reverend Dr. Daniel MacDonald in The Laird Of The Glens: (Macdonald, 1881.)  If they expect to thrive in this Dominion and industrious, improve  live within reasonable  means,  of ours, let them be  sober  keep clear of debt, and  their system of farming, without any further loss of time. If the  wish of men is for real independence  - in the true sense of the term - let  them never allow themselves  to be carried away by the vain but all too  common  to public offices of emolument  delusion  government prospects  of aspiring  patronage,  for the moment  they place  at the mercy of any government  changeable, manhood  that moment  they sacrifice  and enter on a precarious  38  precious  themselves  and their  party, ever changing  their true independence  and and  course which may last for a whole  lifetime, and in which they will find themselves Micawber  and  always "Waiting for something  placed  like honest  Wilkins  to turn up." Let them also take  good care, that through their recklessness,  some of them do not  Wilkins Micawber is a character from Charles Dickens' novel David Copperfleld, modelled on a person introduced to Dickens by his younger brother.  43  wake up some fine morning Shylocks,  to find themselves  slimy and slippery  Uriah Heeps , 39  the mere serfs of  and unscrupulous  grasping wirepullers.  William Macdonald was a major benefactor to the Macdonald Agricultural College in Ste. Anne De Bellevue Quebec. Figure 12. MacDonald Agricultural College  The college had been successful in improving the lives and well being of rural residents by improving agricultural methods and livestock production techniques. The College's principal and professor of dairying from 1905 through 1910 was James Robertson. He had been appointed the Dominion Commissioner  of Agriculture  and Dairying  in 1886 He was able to 40  persuade Macdonald that schools concentrated too heavily on book work and did not include any training for "doing" (Hurley. 1998, P. 84). Robertson was quite vocal on the subject:: too much of the present  system is based on the study of books;  too much time is given to memorizing sided and renders explaining beneficial  methods  symbols  children more capable than of enjoying  so conducive  to happiness  of answering  themselves  work. They are able to answer  and names.  That is one-  questions  in doing  and  delightful  all sorts of questions;  to be able to explain the universe,  able to do well one's work in it with  and  but it is not as to be  unselfishness.  Charles Dickens created Uriah Heep for his novel David Copperfield. Uriah is notable for his cloying humility, obsequiousness, and general insincerity. Summarized from an entry in The Macmillan Dictionary of Canadian Biography (4th ed.)  44  The school studies have been devoted  too exclusively  life. A child is one and indivisible,  to the  falsely  so-called  intellectual  a being with  physical,  mental and moral qualities and powers; and surely a school  course is deficient which does not provide as fully as is practicable development  for the  and training of faculties of the body, mind and soul  /Robertson, 1899, pp, 2122.). Macdonald agreed to sponsor up to Nine Manual Training centers across Canada for Three years for a total cost of $37,680. This amount was to cover; nine sets of equipment, nine teachers salaries and 8 observational trips to England and Sweden. The Macdonald  Sloyd School Fund  41  received $ 40,000 in  July 1900 to begin operations. Robertson proposed: ... "giving object-lessons  of Manual  Training in the city and town schools  so as to educate public opinion in favor of better methods places  where newspapers  looked for guidance"  were published  of education  and to which the country  in  people  (Robertson, 1903, p. 87).  As a respected agriculturalist and bureaucrat Robertson traveled within Canada and abroad on government business. As early as 1899 he spoke publicly to promote Manual Training in elementary schools. In an address before the Ottawa public school board he stated the following: Everybody  has heard of Sir William C. Macdonald,  his splendid benefactions reported  to the cause of higher education  that his gifts to McGill University exceed  dollars. He is keenly interested University required  4 1  Manual  and  in Canada.  It is  two and a half millions of  in primary education  training and extension. for educational  of Montreal,  as well as in  He now offers to pay for the  equipment  Training in one place in every province  in  The original account name used at the Bank of Montreal, later to become the Macdonald Manual Training Fund.  45  the Dominion; maintenance  and also to meet the expenses for three years in all those  of qualified teachers,  and of  places.  In Ottawa, he offers to equip and maintain for three years as centres as are required to give all the boys (about 1,000) between ages of 9 and 14 in the public schools an opportunity  many the  to receive this  training. It is hoped that after a year or two, an equally valuable course of practical provided;  instruction suited for girls of the same ages may some how be and doubtless,  rural schools.  "nature studies" will be given a proper place in  Sir William has authorized  school authorities  of Brockville,  me to make a similar offer to the  Ont, of Charlottetown  P.E.I.; of some place in the Province of Quebec; Fredericton,  N.B.; of Winnipeg,  place in British Columbia.  Man.; of Calgary,  (Robertson  and  Summerside,  of Truro, N.S.; of N.W.T.; and of some  1899, pp, 26-27) (Appendix  5)  Mr. Harry Dunnal was appointed inspector of Manual Training for the province on September 1st 1903, a position that he held until January 1915, when he was appointed art instructor in the provincial teacher training or  normal  42  school in Victoria. The Manual Training fund had sponsored 21 programs throughout Canada by 1910. Initially 27 trained Manual Training teachers were brought from England to start the programs. Local tradesmen were recruited as the needs grew and they received teacher training at summer institutes and weekend sessions. When the three years came to a close the Vancouver and Victoria trustees found the program to be so successful that it was continued and became a part of the curriculum. The following excerpts are taken from Mr. Dunnal's first annual report as inspector of industrial and Manual Training under the dated July 15 . 1908. th  46  ..In November McDonald  of 1900, professor  Robertson  visited BC to make arrangements  on behalf of Sir with the  education  department  and the school trustees in Victoria and Vancouver  introduction  of Manual  Training into the schools,  to illustrate the usefulness connection  William  for the  for period of three  years,  of some form of hand work being taken in  with the child's school life  (BCPSR 1907-08, p. b32).  Timothy Dunn writing about Manual Training in Victoria and Vancouver stated that: ..." the teachers  wages and the cost of equipment  were born by Macdonald  and neither the education  cities of Victoria or Vancouver except for providing  and  supplies  department  were asked to pay any of the  or the  expenses  the rooms in which to carry on this branch of study"  (Jones, 1979, Dunae, 1990, pp, 55-57).  The space allocated was often in school basements or separate buildings altogether. Arguably, the dramatic rise in the provinces public school population put a tremendous strain on facilities. Classrooms were neither available nor suitable for Manual Training instruction and as an experimental or demonstration subject it may not have been expected to last beyond the 3-year trial period. In 1903 Robertson visited BC and all of the participating provinces to determine if the individual districts wanted to continue with Manual Training. If they agreed title to the equipment would be given to them as long as they paid the wages of the instructors and program costs for the next year. To meet the need of growing school and provincial populations a set of Manual Training equipment was given  47  directly to the provincial government  and set up at the Victoria normal school so  that local teachers could be trained in Manual Training areas. In his 1906 Annual report Harry Dunnell wrote that: "For two years the entire cost was born respectively  by Victoria  Vancouver,  and since that time, as you know, sir, the  department  has assisted paying the salaries  and cosmetic  science  instructors" (BCPSR,  and  education  of both the Manual 1907-08, p.  Training  b32)  The Department of Education as well as the Vancouver and Victoria school boards was convinced that the program should be continued and expanded (Dunnell,1908).  Figure 13.1912 B o y s Manual Training C l a s s . Victoria Central S c h o o l .  Manual Training courses; wood and metalwork, were offered for boys in grades elementary 5 to 8. Girls were initially provided with "Educational Hand-work", the courses were intended to develop dexterity and practical skills in the belief that the head and the hand should work in unison. However, the curriculum had a larger purpose, as education historian Timothy Dunn put it, for the males it sought to promote positive attitudes towards work and wage labour by:  Reported in an article, The Macdonald College Movement. Written by James Robertson in 1909.  48  "popularizing  industrial life...by providing youth with a positive  of manual employment,  conception  and by teaching industrial disciplines".  work efficiently was a central thrust of Manual  "How to  Training." (Dunn,1979, pp  55-57) The courses that were developed for girls reinforced the traditional female roles of preparing and cooking family meals, dressmaking, home management and economics. In the early 1900's women in BC did not have the vote, were considered property, not persons under common law, and were discouraged from working outside the family home, except as domestic workers. These curriculums helped maintain the status-quo. Domestic Science teachers were included under the Manual Training umbrella. The first official classes were held in Victoria in 1903 and partly under as a result of external pressure: "at the beginning  of this year classes in cooking were opened  for the older  girls, under the direction of Miss Winifred McKeand,.  The equipment  kitchen for this purpose  of about $400, by  was provided at the expense  of the  the Local Council of Women."{ BC Public School Report, 1902-1903, p. C,  55). Vancouver followed in 1905 according to Superintendent W.P. Argue: "A domestic classes Elizabeth  Science  centre is now being fitted up and in a short time  will be organised. Berry, a graduate  Ontario."(BC  This department of the Macdonald  will under the direction of Miss Training School,  Guelph,  Public School Report, 1904-1905, p. A, 57).  49  Figure 14. Rural Domestic Science.  Once Domestic Science Centres were established, attendance was compulsory throughout the school year. Girls from distant schools attended morning sessions. Subjects included: Needlework, home management, personal hygiene, theoretical and practical Cookery, draughting and dressmaking, house management and laundry-work. A 44  Diploma was awarded by the Department of Education to female elementary students completing the 2-year course during grades seven and eight. This diploma was a prerequisite for girls sitting for high school entrance examinations.  45  By 1910, a prescribed course of study for Manual Training had been established. School districts were paying the costs of new facilities and teacher salaries with funds raised through taxation and donations of land and buildings. The 1910  Federal  Royal Commission  on Industrial Training and  Technical  Education  emphasized the value of manual arts, home economics, and technical  education for the developing nation (Young, 1992) The provincial government agreed to pay part of cost of Manual Training equipment in public schools. This  4 4  This is the spelling used in the manuscripts consulted.  45 Courses of Study for Public, High, and normal Schools of British Columbia, 1920, pp. 31-35.  50  assistance should have resulted in a rise in the number of schools offering Manual Training, but this was not always the case. Two publicly held class  based  views of Manual Training slowed its introduction; the first held by many working class parents was that Manual Training was training for wage earning labour. Children were in school to receive an education that would allow them to obtain a better position in society and not follow in their parents working class vocations. The second view often held by middle class parents was that Manual Training was training that led directly to employment, and should not be provided at provincial or local expense. Worker training was the responsibility business and industry. Many districts did not implement Manual Training until a change in public opinion or the election of supportive trustees occurred. The Macdonald  Manual Training fund had sponsored 21 programs  throughout Canada up until 1910. The Department of education expanded the Manual Training program during the next decade with the encouragement of partial provincial funding to establish Manual Training centers. In 1912 the course was included as a compulsory course for elementary students; and optional for 46  the high school grades. Manual Training grew in popularity across North America following the publication beginning in 1913 of the Speyer Manual Training School Curriculum. This was the first curriculum that said students should have an interest in what they are learning not just to learn about a subject (Luetkemever and McPherson 1975). Frederick Bonser promoted expanding Manual Training to industrial arts and including it as a major subject in the elementary schools.  4 6  Although this sounds impressive in fact schools could and often did provide only the minimum requirement, 2 hours of Manual Training per pupil, per week.  51  Bonsor considered industrial arts both subject matter and method, an end as well as a means. At the time of publication, 1913 he was a professor of education at Western Illinois State normal School in Macomb. Bonsor completed his bachelors and masters degree at Teachers College, Columbia University. Columbia has strong British roots with its original foundation as King's College in the Colony of New York , created by a royal charter of King George II in 1754. 47  To understand this apparent overwhelming British-ness at the beginning of the 19th century one must look back almost further 100 years to the early 1800's and the events concerning Britain, Spain, Russia, and United States.  Figure 15. Oregon Territory Map, 1837.  The area that was to eventually become British Columbia started to be clarified when Spain abandoned all claims to the West Coast north of the 42nd parallel in 1819 (Treaty of Florida Blanker). Secondly, Russia abandoned similar claims South of the 54'40" parallel in treaties with the United States in 1824 and Britain in 1825. The British- Russian Treaty identified the inland border with Russia as the first range of mountains at the 141 st Meridian. In 1818 the British and Americans agreed on a Convention  of Commerce  that left disputed territories  west of the mountains open to citizens of both countries for 10 years:  4 7  Closed throughout the Revolutionary War when New York City was occupied by the British, the College was reorganized, re-chartered and renamed in 1784 as "Columbia College."  52  "It is agreed, that any Country that may be claimed North West Coast of America, together  with it's Harbours,  Westward  by either Party on the  of the Stony Mountains,  Bays, and Creeks,  shall,  and the Navigation  of all  Rivers within the same, be free and open, for the term of ten Years the date of the Signature Citizens,  and Subjects  Contracting  Parties,  differences  amongst  of the present  Convention,  of the Two Powers.  in that respect, Themselves"  to the  Vessels,  The only Object of The  being to prevent  from  disputes  High  and  (Convention of Commerce, 1818,  Article 3).  The agreement broke down in the 1840s and to avoid the possibility of war the two nations signed the Oregon Treaty. The British-American border was extended west along the 49th parallel to the ocean and through the main channel between the mainland and Vancouver Island. A further Treaty of  Washington  mediated by the German emperor in 1872 placed the Gulf Islands to the South of Vancouver Island within United States control. The Hudson Bay Company had been actively trading on the West Coast under what was turned "free and open" conditions since 1818. With the signing of the Oregon Treaty the British were forced to vacate their forts and trading posts on the North West coasts south of the 49th parallel and use Fort Victoria on the southern tip of Vancouver Island as the HBC headquarters for the Pacific Northwest. British governmental organization became formalized as a result of a the following: •  In 1849 when Vancouver Island was given over to the Hudson Bay Company on the condition that it establish a colony. In 1858 the colony reverted to the Crown due in part to the companies poor performance at colonisation.  •  The gold rush to Frazier Valley led to the creation of the Lower Mainland colony of British Columbia in 1858, it also administered the Queen Charlotte Islands.  53  •  The Stikine territory was organized in 1862 following discovery of gold and was administered by the governor of British Columbia.  •  The colonies of British Columbia and Vancouver Island became united in 1866 with the provincial capital being established at Victoria on Vancouver Island.  2.13 Manual Training during World War One Beginning in 1914 the European conflict that involved all countries in the British Empire and Europe was initially known as the Great War , the war to end 48  all wars had a significant impact on British Columbian Technical Education. Figure 16. School Garden, Victoria. 1916. With the outbreak of war the beginning of the end of what many considered a period of idealism (Hurley, 1998, p. 16) in public education was at hand. The public school system responded slowly at first as the popular belief was that the war would be over within a year. J. W. Gibson, an original supporter of James Robertson, coordinated the Department of Educations mandated Patriotism and Production  Campaign  among school  children in support of the war effort. Funds were raised for the Red Cross and organizations such as the Belgian Orphans Relief Fund. According to the  4 8  The 1914-1918 war referred to as The Great War prior to the advent of the 1939-1945 conflict. Subsequently the 1914-1918 conflict became known as World War One and the 1939-1945 conflict as World War Two.  54  Curricula  of the Public Schools  Technical  Schools  published in 1914, there were no separate  to train students for direct employment operating in the  province ( B C D E , 1914). The school districts in were encouraged to and maintain, subject to the approval schools  for day or evening  ..."establish  of the council of public instruction,  classes" (SBC,  1914,  p. 68).  technical  Grants of 75% were  available toward the cost of equipment, instruction and supervision providing that suitable accommodations had been made. At the end of hostilities in 1918 the grants were reduced to a maximum of 50% or a maximum of $ 500, that could only be applied toward equipment. Figure 17. Art C l a s s in Victoria. Early 1900's.  Elementary Manual Training expanded during this period due in part to the efforts of John Kyle. Requited in England in 1905 to work as an art instructor and supervisor he was appointed organizer of technical education and Manual Training for the province in 1914. He actively promoted the establishment of Night Schools to fill the need of providing courses for newly arrived Canadians and those wishing to better themselves and/or upgrade their academic and vocational skills.  55  Figure 18 . South Park Manual Training Centre.  Manual Training instructors were some of the first to respond and arranged to teach woodwork and metalwork. The Manual Training centers were soon occupied night and day. Kyle was appointed organizer of night schools for Vancouver in addition to his duties as supervisor of art instruction. In his report of 1914 the following is noted: There are 38 woodworking and 5,652 students. classes  those courses"  instructors training  (Most instructors were of British ancestry  prior trade training.)  in the High Schools,  with 36  It is also noted that there were no teacher  for instructors."  possessed  centers in the province  'There were no Technical  .... this is primarily due to universities  and  Option not  courses  recognizing  (British Columbia. Public School Report.1914, p. M T 4 )  By the end of the war in 1918 an estimated 57,000 Canadian men had volunteered to fight on the side of Great Britain. With men absent from the work force w o m e n had taken up employment in the factories and shipyards of BC to  support the war effort. They were expected to relinquish the work upon the men's return.  56  Figure 19. Spruce Bi-Plane, Victoria High S c h o o l .  Victoria high school had a class in aircraft fabrication and the Manual 49  Training shops were used to train machinists for armament, shipbuilding and defense production. In all likelihood the courses were taken by women and boys too young to join the army but able to work in factories. In 1917 the Department of Education, in conjunction with the Department of Mines, created Coal Mining Correspondence courses, partly in response to Kyle's concerns after visiting coal miners at Nanaimo. In 1919 Kyle assisted the University of British Columbia (UBC) in giving War veterans instruction in agriculture, mining, mechanics, steam engineering, and machining. With the encouragement of partial provincial funding, enrollment in Manual Training courses increased significantly over the next decade. Public School Manual Training had competition after WW-1. Adult Industrial and Technical Education in BC was supported with funds provided by the Federal government under the Technical  Education  Act of 1919  (Young. 1992, p.16).  The Act was aimed at retraining returning soldiers and youth under 14, technical or engineering colleges and Manual Training centers were not able to receive funding. Between 1919 and 1929 BC received $ 564,516. and used the funding  4 9  Detailed in the British Columbia. Public School reports for 1914-15 and located in the historic curriculum section of the U B C Education Library.  57  to finance the costs of teachers, facilities, furnishing, equipment and for the training of the teachers for technical programs. Night schools, Mining schools, and apprenticeship training were beneficiaries.  2.14 Industrial Arts Beginnings At the beginning of the last Century Manual Training in British Columbia was not initially intended as a Vocational subject. The exercises and activities were designed to build skill and confidence in the student, improve hand-eye coordination and make connections in the student between real materials, arithmetic and geometry.  Figure 20. C h e m a n u s . Manual Training, 1920.  The Macdonald Manual Training fund sponsorship expired after ten years. With the loss of funding the programs took on a Vocational focus. Funding after 1914 was provided by the Federal Government to promote Vocational Training. The initial push for federal involvement came from the Dominion Trades and Labour Council. As early as 1901 they lobbied the Prime Minister to appoint a Royal Commission to study the needs of Technical Education in Canada and develop a Ministry of Industrial Education. Prof. James Robertson was appointed chairman of the Commission. The 1913 report recommended financial support for Manual  58  Training and occupational training of youths and adults, control of programs would remain a provincial concern. Implementation was delayed by World War One hostilities (Johnson. 1968 p. 121). Although recommended by the Royal Commission, the 1919 Technical Education Act did not fund Manual Training. Although the name Manual Training was retained in BC until the 1920's the curriculum lost its Liberal or General education focus. BC received $564,516 for the construction of school shops and technical high schools in the 1920s (Fairev, 1967; Hurley, 1998; Saqer, 1936; Young, 1992). With this shift student projects moved from skill building activities like making plant label sticks, drafting scales and note-paper holders to Arts and Crafts style projects; tables, cabinets, chairs and jewelry boxes. Figure 21. Woodwork Projects. 1920. In contrast to the 1920's vocational intent of BC's Manual Training several American educators believed that Manual Training had become Industrial Arts, and the subject contributed a great deal to the general education of youth, more than just providing vocational job entry skills. Charles Richards. Writing in an editorials for Manual Training Magazine, he suggested that the term Industrial Arts be substituted for Manual  Training  because "we are rapidly leaving behind the purely disciplinary thought of Manual Training and are now we are beginning  to see that the scope of this work is  59  nothing short of the elements  of industries  fundamental  to modern  civilization."  (Charles Richards, 1904 p, 9-23) Frederick Bonser was a professor of Education at the Teachers College, Columbia University when he was credited with expanding Manual Training concept to industrial arts and promoting its inclusion in the elementary schools of the U.S. History has not been kind to Lois Coffey Mossman. According to information gleaned by reviewing articles compiled by Patrick Foster and a study of Joseph Carela's (1997) historical research, Lois 50  51  Coffey began teaching at a rural school in Kansas in 1896. She was 19 years old and had earned an elementary teaching certificate. Remarkably for the times she became the principal in 1902 of the Las Vegas NM. High School. In 1903 she accepted a job teaching English in Macomb Illinois, close to where her family was living, she probably met Frederick Gordon Bonser at the Western State normal School in Macomb. He was a professor of education and director of the training school at which she had accepted the position of critic teacher. For the next 26 years she and Bonser were always at the same institution. Coffey had been teaching in public schools for 10 years when she came to the realization that practical (experiential) activities made education come alive for children. In  Patrick Foster PhD, University of Missouri-Columbia developed a electronic library of articles from both the Journal of Technology Education and the Journal of Industrial Teacher Education to provide an authoritive History of Technology/industrial Education in the U.S. http://soe.csusb.edu/jscarcella/Article/History/index.html 51  At the time of writing Dr. Carcela was an Education Faculty member at the San Bernardino Campus of the California State University.  60  1908 she gained the attention of State Department of Education when aided by colleagues she set up the first general shop, in which students rotated through experiences in shop-work, drawing, and home economics. When learning about clothing, students designed and made shirts and when studying shelter they planned and drew houses. She emphasized the importance of aligning the school's practical work with traditional curriculums by having students design their own projects not make copies of models. Coffey repeatedly emphasized that the integration of school subjects could be achieved by practical classroom activities. Her extensive curriculum for industrial arts for the 7th and 8th grades was published in December 1909 , accompanied by an editorial by Bonser. The 52  article is credited with leading to the integration of Manual Training, drawing, and home economics into Industrial Arts. By 1913 Coffey had moved to New York, married Niles Roy Mossman and completed a bachelors degree. The 1909 article impressed James Russell the dean of Teachers College at Columbia University in New York. Bonser was offered the Directorship of the college's teacher training school as well as the department head position of the newly created Industrial Education  department. Coffey-Mossman completed a Doctorate at Columbia with  Bonsor as one of her advisors. During her distinguished 33 year career as an Associate Professor at Columbia she taught and was published in press and educational journals. In 1923 she co-authored with Bonsor Industrial Arts for Elementary  Schools  and in 1924 collaborated and developed one of the classic  definitions for industrial arts in the United States:  5 2  See Coffey, L . (1909). One year's work in industrial and social problems. Grades VII and VIII. normal School Quarterly, 1 (4), 3-47.  61  "The industrial arts are those occupations the forms of materials subject for educative  to increase purposes,  are made in  their value for human usage.  As a  industrial arts is the study of the  made by man (sic) in the forms of materials of the problems  by which changes  to increase  of life related to these changes"  changes  their values,  and  /Bonser & Mossman,  1931 p, 5) Industrial arts as promoted by Bonsor and Mossman in the 1920's was a social study with obvious links to society and larger issues of the day: "By considering invention,  the changes  it will become  in the well-being  increasingly  apparent  of man resulting from  how fully man's progress  civilization and wealth has been parallel with his development and machines"  each in  of new tools  /Bonser & Mossman, 1931 p, 453)  Bonsor & Mossman found the existing paradigm of Manual Training problematic and listed the three main components of Manual Training to which they objected: "Investigation  of the courses proposed  one to note these prominent •  Want of relationship  in Manual  leads  Training: of the  models  processes.  Failure to provide for the individuality of the child. Each must to the  •  inadequacies  of the work to life. The sequence  was in terms of tool •  and taught in our schools  system.  Lack of motivation. Placing  conform  The work was all prescribed  the emphasis  in a fixed  upon the product as the objective,  course.  rather than  upon the growth of the child (Bonser & Mossman, 1931 p. 479).  Additionally they also promoted industriousness, the study and practice of all activity that surrounds the industrial as the focus of study within the Industrial umbrella: ... "a means to a higher end" an "approach to higher forms of industrial studies"  (Zuqa, 1994, p. 17).  62  Industrial Arts was to be a study of people and their interaction with the emerging technical or mechanical society. The subject was not intended to be a study of rail or road transport, building and resource materials, or engineering and project management. lA's subdivisions were food, clothing and shelter. Food for one example could be used as a vehicle to study agriculture, rural science, farm buildings, farm economics and marketing and distribution: "Their focus on industrial remained general idea of Industriousness' enterprise  of industry " 1  rather than pertaining  to the  the  economic  (Zuga, 1994, p. 82-84).  Gordon Bonser and James Russell are remembered for their contributions to the founding of industrial arts and by extension Technology Education. Regrettably Lois Coffey Mossman has all but been forgotten.  2.75 The U.S. Smith-Hughes Act of 1917-18 and the Canadian Federal Technical Education Act of 1919 The close relationship between Canada and the United States in several areas including trade, education and economics was becoming apparent in the early 1900's. British Columbia was exporting large amounts coal and lumber to California and Canadian educators were looking to American pioneers in Progressivism. Canadian economic policy aimed at rebuilding industry and society following World War One mirrored US initiatives. Following the adoption of the Smith-Hughes Act of 1917-18 in the U.S, the Canadian Federal Technical Education Act of 1919 would provide $10 Million over 10 years for technical education in Canadian secondary schools (Johnson, 1968 p, 121). The targeted  63  funds could not be used for elementary or college programs. The seeds for Industrial and Vocational education in BC were sown at the expense of elementary Manual Training. In the US, Industrial and vocational training were assured a place in the curriculums. The Smith-Hughes Act was designed to promote Technical and Vocational  education by providing Federal grants to match State expenditures. It  spelled out the American Federal Government's intent that vocational teachers should have workplace or vocational experience in their teaching areas. Funds for vocational education could only be spent on salaries of teachers with vocational experience, not on salaries of academic teachers. Students attending Vocational schools could easily become marginalized as the act required that students taught one class by a teacher paid from Federal vocational funds could receive no more than fifty per cent academic instruction. This became known as the 50-25-25 rule: 50 per cent time in shop work; 25 per cent in closely related subjects, and 25 per cent in academic course work. Although the intent of this restriction may have been to ensure that the funding would be used for the benefit of vocational students, the result was to separate industrial, vocational, and technical education programs from the mainstream curriculums. The 50-2525 arrangement was a feature of many technical and vocational schools in Canada, the U.S. and The U.K. until the mid 1960's This stability may have 53  5 3  As a student for 3 years during the 1960's in comprehensive school in London England I experienced firsthand a curriculum that exposed the student to half a day of shop based instruction in woodwork, metal work, bricklaying, painting and decorating and mechanics. The remaining time was spent on applied math and science, literature, history, geography and PE. As a grade 12 student in Ontario I experienced a similar situation with half of the day spent in either a Minor or Major technical subject with the balance of the day spent in applied academic classes.  64  fostered the growth of industrial arts and technical education but at the expense of creating a second class of both teachers and students.  2.16 Putman and Weir's Survey of the School System In 1925 Putman and Weir's Survey of the School System was published.  Commisioned the previous year by the provincial government it has become known as the most searching and comprehensive educational survey ever undertaken in Canada up to that time. The Commisioneers, Dr. J. Harold Putman, Senior Inspector of Schools, Ottawa; and Dr. George M. Weir, professor of education at the University of British Columbia, who would later become a Minister of Education, strongly endorsed "Progressivism". One of the aims of Progressive education is to make schools more effective agencies of a democratic society. There are differences of both style and emphasis among progressive educators but they share the conviction that democratic responsibility means active citizen participation in social, political and economic decisions that will affect their lives. Respect for diversity and the development of critical, socially engaged  intelligence,  enables individuals to understand and  participate effectively in the affairs of their community and country. Childcentered and social reconstruction approaches are seen as being necessarily related to each other. The survey recommended that more time be spent on health, physical education, home economics, Manual Training, fine arts, Canadian history and music. Several of their recommendations were incorporated into the school syllabus in the late 1920s. The commission recommended the 6-3-3 grade  65  pattern, 1 through 6 as elementary, 7, 8 and 9 as middle years or junior high and 10,11 and 12 as senior secondary. According to John Kyle , the Putman-Weir Commission recommendation 54  of the 6-3-3 Grade pattern and encouragement to build junior vocational schools may have been made in part after considering the initial success of a prevocational school instituted by the Vancouver school trustees in 1916. ... "There were 142 students was grouped  enrolled,  around handwork.  tables, drawing  boards,  78 boys and 63 girls.  The academic  The boys made their own workbenches,  tee squares,  tables, and a roll-top desk for the  work drafting  teacher" . 65  The students also made windows and doors for a planned new center which they proposed to build; which did not materialize. Assuming that the activity that Kyle described was only one part of the schools curriculum then both boys and girls would have proceeded to work on the senior Manual Training activities. Furniture pieces, Models 47 through 50 (see Appendix 2) would have challenged the boys. Kyle does not identify the types of activities available to the girls but in all likelihood they would have worked in cardboard and raffia. The stamp box, stationery  case, pencil box  pen-and-ink-tray,  and portfolio case detailed in Educational  Handwork (Kinner, 1910. pp, 120-129) were likely activities. Under Kyle's direction Industrial Arts subjects including drafting, electricity, metalwork, and woodwork were introduced (British Columbia, 1914)  Personal letter. J. Kyle to Mrs. Robson No mention is made of what activities the girls pursued.  66  Figure 22. King Edward S c h o o l Electricity C l a s s .  The late 1930s saw the revision and publication of new curriculum documents detailing courses of study for Industrial Arts. By 1936 after 22 years there were 193 Manual Training centers with 80 instructors and enrollment and 14,317 students. Courses  Technical  were implemented in the High Schools and a school of Decorative  and  was established as well as correspondence courses. The name  Applied  Art  Manual  Training  was retained to describe the facilities that often remained  separate from the main school building. The curriculum delivered in the 1930's was Industrial and One problem remained," The British Columbia Ministry of Education of Education noted that; "From causes largely historical the Arts have often operated true the teaching  largely in relative isolation, and where this has  of them has been inconsistent  with modern  educational  Practical been theory"  (BC MOE, 1937, p. 8).  2.17 Vancouver Technical High School Started in 1916 under the leadership of J. George Lister the Vancouver Technical High School originated in the Manual Training room in the basement of the former King Edward High School.  67  Figure 23. Vancouver Labour Temple. The school later moved to more spacious quarters in the Vancouver Labour Temple. It was a boy's school and was reputed for its "no nonsense" approach to learning. The current Vancouver Technical High School opened its doors in 1929 to an ambivalent community. Building the school with funding provided by the Dominion government under the 1919 Technical Education Act meant that the school was obligated to deliver technical and 56  vocational programs. Figure 24. Vancouver Technical. Parents may well have felt that their working class identities had been validated, but generally pinned their hopes for their children's mobility on academic schooling. Prior to construction; In 1927, when the City of Vancouver  polled east end residents,  on plans to construct received  a technical  who were predominantly  working  high school, votes were split. The  a mere 53 votes over the necessary  60% for approval  class,  proposal  (Barman,  1988,  p. 42). While generally supporting Manual Training, organized labour was cautious about sanctioning vocationalism with fears of threats to the control of training that unions had recently achieved. Child labour, (originating in Seventeenth century Europe and brought to BC's mines and fish packing 5 6  The act expired in 1929 due to the depression.  68  plants ), emphasizing production rather than training, began to undermine the position off adults in the new factory system. Artisans, in order to protect themselves against the abuses of child labour, formed craft unions to regulate apprenticeship training. The aim of the craft unions was not only to re-establish apprenticeship as a means of entry into the skilled trades, but to preserve the craft tradition as well. To do this the craft unions set out to define and enforce qualifications and training necessary for journeymen status (Foster, 1970). Many tradesmen rejected school-only based learning, arguing that trade or craft education  needed to have workplace component to allow social and cultural  learning within a workplace context to develop. Others argued that IA sided with management by focusing on tool skills and ignoring cultural issues regarding technology (Dunn, 1978, pp. 156-180). A Manual Training teacher and "father" (sic) of technical education in BC, the new Vancouver Technical's principal J. G. Lister held that Vancouver Technical provided skills that most east-end families 58  could not afford to provide for their children. Trying to find middle ground, Lister offered a curriculum that combined academic, commercial, domestic and industrial courses with vocational intentions. With Western Canada's most expansive, state-of-the-art facilities, Van Tech was a model for the new comprehensive high school with day and night school classes covering almost every subject. The training of military specialists and returning veterans would eventually validate the schools construction.  5 7  The use of children under the age of 12 was not common-place but occurred with Chinese, Japanese, and First Nations piece workers involved in fishing and mining.  5 8  A working class and low-income area of Vancouver.  69  2.18 Progressive Education What was to become known as the progressive education movement was most active in between the 1890's and the 1930's. Educators from many disciplines critical of teacher and curriculum-centered approaches promoted what can be described today as student-centered education. The new programs also included developing social skills, critical thinking and encouraging democratic participation to transform a society of greed, individualism, waste and corruption to one based on compassion, humanism and equality (Rippa 1997). Influenced by the writings and lectures of John Dewey, progressivism challenged traditional ideals concerning the foundations upon which students' education was based. Dewey's thought and writing was inspired by political and educational theorists such as Vittoriano da Feltre, Campanella, Comenius, Pestalozzi, Rousseau, and Branson Alcott, and by the social theories of people like George Herbert Mead, Auguste CoManual Traininge and Thorstein Veblen (Schuqurensky & Aquirre, 2002). The shift in Dewey's later writings to experimental research has been attributed to his investigations of Darwinism. Although Dewey is the most recognized leader of progressive education, other important educators contributed to progressive education in North America. Among them were Jane Addams, Theodore Bramald, George Counts, Marietta Johnson, William H. Kilpatrick, Margaret Naumburg, Francis W. Parker, Harold Rugg, and Ella Flagg Young (Schuqurensky. 2003). Acording to Alan Child, The Aims and Philosophy Columbia  of Education  in British  (Appendix 8) is one of the most detailed, inclusive summaries of  70  progressivism ever written, the author, H. B. King, an assoiciate of George Weir, "did more than any other individual to establish the principles and practices progressive  education  in British Columbia  schools."(Child  of  1974, pp, 313-316).  Between 1935 and 1937 King was technical advisor to Education Minister Weir and he coordinated extensive curriculum revisions for elementary, junior and senior high schools. His philosophy was clearly enunciated in the guidelines he prepared for curriculum revision committees. "It is the function of the school, through carefully selected  experiences,  growth of each pupil physically, continual enrichment  to stimulate,  modify, and direct the  mentally, morally, and socially, so that the  of the individual's life and an improved society may result,"  he wrote (Wytenbroek, 2003)  2.19 Curriculum Revision 1927 A newly-devised Programme of Studies for Junior High Schools, reflecting Putman and Weir progressive viewpoints, was published in 1927. The recommended consolidation of British Columbia's several hundred school districts into less than 100 would have to wait until 1934 when George Weir would become Minister of Education. Putman and Weir recommended the building of junior vocational schools to serve those students that would not require post secondary prerequisites and the introduction of Industrial arts; drafting, electricity, metalwork, and woodwork. The 6-3-3 grade re-alignment was implemented through the 1930s and newly created junior high schools began to appear in the larger  71  centers. The first junior high school was opened in Penticton in 1926; a second in Kitsilano, was opened in Vancouver in 1927. As students opportunities, and courses Kitsilano  at Kitsilano junior high, we were given many  vocational  and academic.  to participate  that boys could take home economics gender  equality in education  schooling  Our school had the latest  were taught by the best qualified teachers  were encouraged  meaningful  educational equipment,  in the province.  in various programmes,  Pupils at  which  meant  and girls could take "shop." This kind of  was very unusual at the time. Major King  in a new way for many of us.  made  (Wytenbroek, 2003).  Figure 25. King Edward Metalwork. During the 1920s Industrial Arts was required for all boys, and home economics, book keeping and typing in for girls. IA expanded Manual Training from woodworking, metalworking and drafting to include electricity, home mechanics, metalworking and printing. A vocational focus was evolving at the expense of the idealistic intent of Manual Training (Hurley, 1998).The Unit shop, or a workshop for a single type of material or activity; metalworking, electricity ect, proliferated and increased by 77% during the 1920s. While practice  at the junior and high school levels became increasingly technical, the intent was  primarily cultural (Foster, 1995; Lakes, 1988; Lewis, 1995; Petrina and Volk, 1995a, 1995b; Zuqa, 1996). "It is the function of the school, through carefully selected  5 9  experiences,  to  This was not a new school. Rather the existing Kitsilano High school was split in Junior and Senior Divisions.  72  stimulate, modify, and direct the growth of each pupil physically, morally, and socially, an improved  so that the continual  society may result,"  enrichment  mentally,  of the individual's  life and  (Child, 1974, p. 57)  Figure 26. Sheet Metal projects.  The tool culture of the shops and the privileging of tradesmen; "puts undue emphasis culture.  upon technique It subordinates  discipline.  It makes  the  instead  growth to instruction  more important than the child. makes a pah: appear whole"  (Putnam and Weir, 1923, p. 338). A more cultural  50  of  It  larger than the  training of IA  teachers was recommended and they encouraged professionally trained teachers in academic subjects to take technical courses towards Manual Training certification.  2.20 Industrial Arts during the Great Depression By 1930 in BC, there were 139 IA workshops, 96 instructors and 14,983 students enrolled (Leduc, 1958, p. 69). This included 8,475 students in 101 elementary school shops and 6,508 in 39 junior and high school shops. IA enrolments reflected the overall increase of school enrolments in BC. As the populations of the metropolitan areas grew children had greater opportunity to stay in school and complete more education. About 66.7% of fifteen-year old  60  Future IA teachers were to be encouraged to take liberal studies courses .  73  boys and girls were enrolled in 1921, and by 1931 82.5% were attending school (Barman, 1988; Dunn, 1978). Funds for IA were severely reduced through the 1930s and larger workshops were constructed to accommodate more students. Gee (1978, p. 18).writes that in 1934, a conservative Minster of Education vowed to "cut out the frills." "Cut out all Manual Training, domestic science, music, art, etc" he insisted, "and get down to teaching the basics only." Gee was writing about J. Hinchliffe, Minister of Education from 1928 to 1933.  61  What was to  become known as the Great Depression gripped North America for most of the 1930's and was part of a global economic slump that followed the stock market crash of 1929. Figure 27. Hoover Dam.  The US economy and citizenry were bolstered by President Franklin Roosevelt's New Deal program. The Works Progress Administration (WPA), put 8,500,000 jobless to work, mostly on projects that required manual labor. With Uncle Sam meeting the payroll, countless bridges, highways and parks were constructed or repaired.  61  Reported in Who's Who.. The first 100 years. Education in British Columbia.. 1971. Page 91.  74  Figure 28. Lions Gate Bridge. Vancouver, BC. By comparison, less grandiose projects were undertaken in Canada with many men employed in building bridges , roads and 62  railway projects. The markets for BC fish, lumber and fruit were considerably smaller but weren't as badly impacted as the other provinces . Between 1930 and 1933 the per-capita wage dropped almost 50% to $314 . Canadian public education and schools were impacted and little money 63  was available for new programs or curriculum changes. Shop teachers were not likely to be responsive to top down interventions when they were being laid-off or having their wages cut, in some cases by 40%. Many Manual Training shops were closed to save money, often at the insistence of citizens exercising pressing pressure on elected trustees (In Cumberland, on Vancouver Island Manual Training survived, but Home Economics and Manual Training were cancelled in Courtenay after a plebiscite was held. With the publisher of the local newspaper opposed to anything but academics, and a mayor wanting the parents to pay for the classes if they were retained, the outcome was predictable. Loosely affiliated with the Vancouver School Board, the Apprentice  Council of Vancouver  was  created in 1930. Boys with at least grade 8 completion could be apprenticed to a tradesman and receive on the job training while earning a reduced wage. With the passing of the British Columbia Apprenticeship  Act.  In 1936 the model was  6 2  The Lions Gate project was popular during the depression period, once objections over the access road through the heart of Stanley Park were overcome.  6 3  Table 8.4, Per Capita Income by Province. Morton Desmond; A Short History Of Canada. 1996.  75  expanded province wide in. 1936 the province's first vocational centre was opened by the Department of Education in Nanaimo with funds provided by the Dominion-Provincial  Youth Training Agreement.  In 1936 there were six  Dominion-provincial agreements in operating providing targeted training programs for youth on a 50-50 cost sharing basis.  .."These between  projects  are open to unemployed  the ages of 18 and 30 with the selection  discrimination  young men and  made by the province  or favor in relation to their social origin, religious  affiliations' (Labour  Gazette,  women  views or  without political  July 1936, p. 743 and August 1936, p. 858).(Young,  1992).  These Federal-Provincial programs were diverse and forward looking for the period. A summary of identified programs includes:  •  Forest conservation work, to provide a practical course in forestry  •  Technical and Safety Training in Mining to be given in the technical schools.  •  Rural training, providing practical courses in subjects related to agriculture for young men.  •  Industrial apprenticeship and learner-ship To help train young men or women in skilled or semi-skilled employment by paying the cost of their instruction either in special classes in technical schools or in periods of instruction in the shop or factory.  •  Women's Specialized Training. Schools for training household workers  •  Urban Technical Occupational Training. To provide courses of practical training in the technical schools and elsewhere to help young people fit themselves for employment opportunities in the area.  76  Between 1932 and 1937 BC school primary enrolment dropped by 3,155 students while secondary enrolment increased by 5,685 students. The secondary increase may have been due to shortages of employment opportunities brought on by the depression and allowing students to remain in school longer. While the primary drop may have resulted in less students in Manual Training classes the secondary increase of almost 15% must have put considerable strain on a system struggling for funding. While the provinces Manual Training and IA teachers were struggling with larger classes and level or reduced resources, curriculum developers and academics remained occupied revising and publishing new curriculum documents detailing specific courses of study for Industrial Arts. The transformation from Manual Training to manual arts to industrial arts is indicative of the general education reform that was taking place over the same period, (Phillips, 1985). Figure 29. Production Line, 1940. IA was culturally defined in BC as "a study of the changes man [sic] makes in materials to increase their wttfwt  x  ^Hf  -x  \  value to meet needs, of the appropriate usage of products made, and the social advantages and  •1 _•  1  " •  problems resulting from the making of these changes  and products" (BC MOE, 1937, p. 5). The primary goal of IA in BC was undeniably cultural: "To give the pupil some appreciation of the complex industrial society of the modern world" (BC MOE, 1937, p. 27). The message did not always get to the classrooms and shops as differences between the mandated /intended curriculums and the delivered curriculums and related  77  activities occurring in the school shops continued. Most Industrial Arts instructors were former tradesmen who emphasized tool skills in the workshops over the cultural and Liberal intent of IA. Several contributing factors compounded this problem. As Goodson notes, (Goodson. 1988) the curriculum in use will come from or be moderated by the collective life experiences of the teacher. Without serious intervention in the form of in-service training or professional development change will not occur. The teachers were teaching within an area in which they were experienced, the exclusively male students in the classes were enjoying making things in a non-academic environment and parents were content that their sons were learning to do something useful that may enable them to earn a living and support themselves.  2.21 Industrial Arts during the Second World War The Second World War, 1939-1945 brought an end to the Great Depression. Canada as a Commonwealth Nation supplied not only troops as part of the allied forces but also military equipment with tanks, ships and aircraft as and food to Great Britain. Figure 30. WW-2 Shipbuilding. According to the Public School  Reports  for Industrial Education for 1943 to1944 the effect of the War on the Lower Mainland schools was dramatic. Upwards of 36,942 people would be trained in BC under the War Emergency Training  78  Program within a five year period (Young, 1992, p. 29). This program provided considerable interruption to the secondary programs. Vancouver technical school was noted as being the most impacted by the war effort; temporary barracks were installed on the school grounds to accommodate army tradesmen taking classes. The entire lower floor of the girls building was used exclusively for training Royal Canadian Air force (RCAF) tradesmen. The Provinces schools faced staff shortages with many teachers fighting abroad, and up to 50% of the instructors in elementary shops were only partially trained. These instructors were expected to continue attending weekend and summer courses to obtain credentials. A course in design was prepared by John Kyle and made available by correspondence to IE teachers. Successful completion would allow credit toward an IE teaching credential. Metalwork programs were hardest hit by material shortages. Ingenious teachers used recycled automotive parts and scrap metal not required by the war effort for project work. 152 elementary, junior and senior high shops were in operation staffed by 122 instructors, teaching 13,992 students. As a teacher could only be in one shop at a time, this suggests that either Manual Training teachers were working part time in multiple locations or that classes were being given by other teachers. Juvenile delinquency was a noted concern in Vancouver. In the senior shops making of a home tool kit was promoted as a means of giving the students an interesting project that would hopefully lead to mechanical activity at home. As it was projected to be a short war, there was an expectation that normal classes would resume in the near future. In Vancouver over 700 boys were reported as being registered in high  79  school technical program for 1943. The 2 year program included: Sheet metal, printing, woodwork, machine shop practice, automotive engineering, electricity, mining, and diesel engineering. Figure 31. Sir J a m e s Douglas School Cadet C o r p s , 1942.  Beginning in 1941 mandatory cadet instruction involving "infantry squad  and  platoon drill without  arms" was introduced in all superior, junior high and high schools. In 1945 at the conclusion of hostilities, participation became optional.  2.22 The Cameron Reoport Dr. Maxwell A. Cameron was appointed as a one-man commission of inquiry on education administration by the Minister of Education, Dr. George W. Weir in November of 1944. Like appointees before him he was affliated with the UBC Education Faculy and a supporter of the political party of the day. The end of hostilities in Europe and Asia was a year away and a report concerning educational finance would attract little public attention. Cameron recommended a new formula for school finance based on property tax assesment and the reorganization of the province into large, regionally defined administrative units. The commissioner proposed several criteria for establishing the new units, which would be known as School  Districts.  80  •  The units were to embrace a school age population large enough to support Grades 1 to 12  •  The units should be large enough to employ at least 60 teachers, and ideally 100 teachers  •  The units should disregard municipal government boundaries and should include, if necessary, extra-municipal and unpopulated areas  •  Each unit should be "comprehensible to local people" and should constitute "a community or economic entity." In contrast, King's 1935 Report on School Finance in British Columbia  recommended disbanding  had  small school boards and centralizing control of  educational administration and finance, Cameron possibly anticipating the political mood of the day advocated instead for strong local authorities, controlled by elected school trustees and managed by provincially  appointed  district  superintendents. Cameron's recommendations were enacted the following year 64  and 74 large school districts were created; amalgamating almost all of the rural, municipal and city school districts in the province.  Acceptance of Industrial Arts in becoming part of the North American school system was illustrated in the creation of the American Association  Industrial Arts  (AIAA). The earlier association, the Industrial Education  Association  (IEA) created in 1884 and evolving into the New York teachers College had lost its original IE focus. Dr. William Warner incorporated the AIAA prior to World War II but did not hold its first conference and become active until 1947. This organization was well supported by Canadian technology educators as Canadian  6 4  Public Schools Act Amendment Act of 1946 [10 Geo. 6, c.64].  81  technical education became more closely aligned with its American counterpart. The theme of the first conference was; "A Curriculum to Reflect Technology". Technical education in Canada was becoming more American than British.  2.23 Industrial Arts in the 1950's A period of readjustment and recuperation ensued following the end of hostilities . Not unlike the period following the First World War, an economic 65  slowdown or depression followed. Manufacturing geared to war production ceased and returning soldiers swelled unemployment rolls. Public secondary education during the 1950s appears to be almost humdrum. The school population increases following the return of soldiers and the resulting increase in the birth rate (baby boom) was yet to impact secondary technical programs. With a new funding formula and reorganized system of school administration, a period of growth and stability ensued. Public secondary schools where attempting to provide a meaningful and challenging education to all students (ECBC, 1971) (Young, 1992). Academic studies and vocationalism were coexisting. The university entrance program led to university or professional studies and the general program to employment in industrial and clerical occupations. Continuing an established practice, the Federal government provided funding for Vocational programs. According to educational historian, Darius Young (Young, 1992, p, 32).citing an unpublished CVT Federal Expenditures report, British Columbia received over $2,000,000 in cost sharing grants between 1945 and 1957 under the Vocational Schools assistance Act. Education was 6 5  Hostilities officially ended on May 8 in Europe and on September 15 in Japan.  82  acknowledged as a provincial responsibility. Providing such large amounts of funding at a time of extreme cold war anxiety and cultural conservatism 56  67  slanted the playing field to the point that progressive education would disappear. Figure 32. Bud Lake School. Educational Technology's early developments occurred during WW-II, when film and slide presentations were used in the training of large numbers of soldiers. What had began as an emphasis on audio-visual communications and media became later focused on the systematic development of teaching and learning procedures that could used in the schools. Scientific management based on cognitive, psychology and perception psychology would impact on almost every area of public education. Radio was utilised for regular school broadcasts of elementary science, social studies, music and drama from the early 1940's to the late 1950's (Lambert, 1963).  2.24 Sputnik and the Wake-up Call The 1960s saw major curriculum revisions in industrial education in both the United States and Canada. The impetus was political and in direct response to Soviet advances in rocketry that culminated in the successful rocket  66  A cold war is defined as a war with no direct fighting between the countries involved.. The Cold War arose not from one isolated event, but from the different ideologies and interests between the Soviet Union and the West.  67  Cultural conservatism is the belief that there is a necessary, unbreakable, and causal relationship between Western, Judeo-Christian values and the success of Western societies: If the former is not maintained, the latter will be lost.  83  deployment of the worlds first artificial satellite "Sputnik" or fellow traveler on October 4, 1957.  Figure 33. Sputnik: First Artificial Satellite.  The 180-pound spacecraft transmitted an A.M. shortwave radio signal down to Earth. With the launch of Sputnik the Cold War escalated and tensions  between the US and the USSR grew. Americans and the Russians regarded each other as enemies. They both built massive armies, navies, and air forces and were prepared to engage in global war at a moments notice. American military manuals regarded the Russians as "The Threat," and Soviet government promoted the training of non-military citizens on the use of small arms to repel an invasion from "The Imperialists." The satellite launch brought about new political, military, technological, and scientific developments. While the Sputnik launch was a single event, it initiated the start of the space age and the international space race. In a 1957 Presidential Address, "Science in National Security" Eisenhower stated that "one of our greatest and most glaring deficiencies is the failure of us in this country to give high enough priority to scientific education and to the place of science in our national life." The shortage of workers in highly skilled fields was "the most critical problem of all." (Eisenhower, 1957. p, 1)  84  The following year saw the passage of the National Defense Education Act (NDEA) that dedicated nearly a billion dollars for education in the name of national defense. Additionally more than 20 projects that were funded through federal, state, local, or foundation sources that provided rich efforts toward curriculum revision. Politicians in Canada and the United States interpreted the initial Soviet success as an indication of their own weaker educational systems. The perceived poor quality of public education presented a major threat to western survival in the cold war. Instruction lacked substance and intellectual rigor (Spring, 1976). Greater emphasis on the teaching of science and mathematics was needed and many felt that a major curriculum reform in all subjects, including industrial arts was long overdue.  2.25 The Chant Commission In British Columbia in 1958, a Royal Commission was appointed. Chaired by Dr. Chant, the Dean of Arts and Sciences at UBC the inquiry examined the of study and pupil achievement  programs  (ECBC, 1970), The commission made over 100  recommendations and most implemented. School organization was altered from the 6-3-3 grade structure instituted following recommendations of the PutmanWeir survey of 40 years earlier. A 7-3-2 plan was instituted and intellectual development was identified as a primary aim of schools. The existing "university entrance" program remained generally untouched by the commissioners, but they recommended the "general program" for youngsters directly entering the workplace be more vocationally focused. An occupational stream was established at the junior high level recognizing that many students leaving school  85  at the end of grade 10 were ill-prepared for the workplace. Having Grade 7 returned to the Elementary system was unpopular with many IE teachers. Writing in the BCIEA news letter in 1963, R. J. Cuthbertson commented that the impact of the move would be the teaching of grade 7 material in Grade 8 and so up the system, ultimately resulting in a loss of senior content at the Grade 12 level (BC Shop Teachers Journal, 1963, pp, 3-6). Following up on Chants recommendations the BC MOE developed new curricular materials and started building additional schools to accommodate a fast-growing population. The provincial government raised residential property taxes with the imposition of education levies to cover the expenditures.  2.26 Technology Educations Beginnings With a robust economy based on resource extraction and commercial fishing with little connection to the emerging high tech economy, B.C. curriculum innovation and change in industrial arts had little support. In contrast within the US, academics in education and educators in the schools were feeling the urgency of a political climate that saw educational reform as a key to national security and economic prosperity. Curriculum revision projects were funded through federal, state, and local initiatives; the Industrial Arts Curriculum (IACP)  at Ohio State University, the American  Institute in Wisconsin and the Maryland  Plan  Industry Project at  Project  Stout State  at the University of Maryland were  influential in shaping early technology education. Virginia Polytechnic Institute and Virginia State College were at the forefront of curriculum innovation in the late 1970s. With funding from a Federal grant covering a three-year period  86  (1978-1981) the Industrial Arts Education Department undertook a two-pronged investigation; to develop national standards tor programs in Industrial Arts Education and a database of programs,  providers,  and research.  Conclusions  showed that secondary school I.A. programs had not changed appreciably in United States, since the 1960s. Woodwork, metalwork and drafting were the most common courses taught over the 30 year period. Salient to the origins of Technology Technology  and Industrial arts: (A Derivation  With Implications  Education  was the publication of  of Subject  for Industrial Arts Programs.),  Matter From  Technology  Olson's 1957 Ph.D. Thesis  completed at Ohio State (Dugger & Yung, 1995). Olson saw the emerging technologies; electronics, rocketry, and automation as providing a challenging way to engage students innate and creative abilities. His views were expanded when he published, Industrial arts and Technology  in 1963  (Olson, 1963).  Building on the ideas of the time that viewed Industrial arts/educations roots as a social/cultural activity, the model divided the content of all technology into the human activities of Production,  Communication,  and Transportation.  Technology  education was seen as a necessary part of the liberal education of all citizens. Without a citizenry  educated  neither free nor democratic  about technology,  a modern  society could be  (DeVore, 1976). Olson's influence on the field is  evident in the degree to which technology has been adopted as a content base (Kirkwood, Foster, Bartow (1994).  87  2.28 Macdonald Report on Higher Education In British Columbia The Macdonald  Report on Higher Education  in British Columbia  and a  Plan for the Future was written by Dr. John B. Macdonald, the president of The University of British Columbia and published 1962. The report recommended that Victoria College be allowed to become an independent degree-granting institution and that a four-year degree-granting college be established in the western Lower Fraser Valley. Victoria College, an affiliate of UBC became The University of Victoria, (UVIC) and work to establish Simon Fraser University (SFU) was begun. As in other parts of Canada the blueprint for a system of community colleges throughout the province was developed. The early years of North Island College are worthy of mention. The college started in 1975, and was an unconventional, but innovative, operation. Although the college had offices in Courtenay and Campbell River, it had no classrooms. Instead, a converted truck, as a bookmobile, served its students. North Island College, which later outfitted an ex-whale hunting ship as a "mobile instructional unit," billed itself as "the only non campus based community college in Canada." (Dunae, 2001, pp. 55-57).The assorted mixture of technical, vocational and fine art institutions would be brought under one umbrella within the next decade.  2.29 British Columbia Community College Growth The beginning of the demise of both vocational and general technical education within the public schools can in part be attributed to the competition provided by the provinces technical colleges. The colleges needed a student  88  body and programs to deliver. During the next decade, vocational and adult programs from public education, industry training and distance education were raided. As an example; Vancouver City College, was established in 1965 by bringing together the Vancouver Vocational Institute (1949), the Vancouver School of Applied and Decorative Arts (1925), the Vancouver School Board's Night School Program (1909) and the King Edward Senior Matriculation and Continuing Education Centre (1962). The resultant Vancouver City College was eventually to become Vancouver Community College. VVI ceased to exist as a stand-alone provider of the classroom component of apprenticeship training. The autonomous Vancouver School of Applied and Decorative Arts re-organized and opened as the Emily Carr Institute of Art and Design located at Granville Island. Both the VSB and KESM gave up control of their night school courses. Vancouver Island's first community college Malaspina, located in Nanaimo opened in former military facilities in 1969. In 1971 it absorbed the Nanaimo branch of British Columbia Vocational School that was established in 1936. Economies of scale and the avoidance of program duplication were important considerations, but the loss of adult and night school general interest courses in bookkeeping, electronics, woodwork and metalwork classes effectively removed adult students from many schools. Isolating the learners from main streem education would eventually result in the closure or reduction of, general interest and public academic night school classes. At the end of the 1960's students entering senior secondary schools in grade 11 would be streamed into either; academic, vocational or technical  89  programs. Upon graduation those streamed into academics could apply for university admission, the vocationally streamed could seek direct employment as they had been further channeled into vocational commerce, vocational industrial, vocational service, vocational agriculture or vocational fine arts, (printing) or seek trade apprenticeships.  Figure 34. BCIT, 1965. The newly opened British Columbia Institute of Technology (BCIT) was available for those in the Technical program. Located in Burnaby and opened in 1964 (Johnson, 1964, pp. 269-270) the Institute was further up the hill and above the British Columbia Vocational Institute (BCVI) that it would eventually absorb. BCVI was one of the federally funded providers of the trade school component of industry apprenticeships.  2.30 BC Industrial Education Teacher Preparation, 1960-1980 B.C. Industrial Education teacher preparation was put on a solid footing during this period. Initially, Industrial Education teachers could obtain a teaching certificate by supplementing trade and industry qualifications and experience with pedagogical studies carried out at summer schools held originally at the provincial normal schools and later at the provincial teachers college and UBC Faculty of Education. Figure 35.1949-1950 IA Teacher Preparation Class.  90  This flexible approach permitted the province to address pressing technical teacher shortages following World War II by getting trade qualified teachers into the shops and credentialing them on a continuous basis. By the 1960s this method was proving impractical considering the number of teachers required staff the newly constructed schools. In 1967 a new facility was opened by UBC adjacent to the main BCIT campus in Burnaby. The new building was designed with extensive input from Industrial Education faculty to be the most up-to date facility possible.  68  However,  according to Ron Seal, Chairman of the Division of Industrial Education (INED) at UBC from 1958-1979, "there were some misgivings" about the inclusion of his subject area in UBC's Faculty of Education (Petrina & Dalley. 2002, p. 15). 69  While early in the planning stages for a new facility a UBC campus location had been proposed in the area of the former agricultural farm. institutional politics 70  of the day prevailed with the selection of the Burnaby site. The problem as Seal saw it, was an issue of status. Teachers of industrial education were "second class citizens  within the teaching  profession"  (Seal, 1973, p. 202), (Petrina &  Dalley. 2002, p. 15). This situation was mirrored in the relatively low status of the subject in the schools.  ' Photographs taken in 1967 of the buildings construction and equipment installation were shown to me in 1996 by Bill Logan, the former U B C program head, emeritus professor.. 8  ' The B C I A had similar concerns: see the letter from Sofco to Smith, dated Oct 27. 1980. in App 12. 9  0  The farm land and buildings were vacant as U B C had opened 2 experimental farms, one on Vancouver Island and the other in the Fraser Valley. The site is now part of parking lot B .  91  The Industrial Education Teacher Training Centre allowed future IE teachers to obtain all of their training within one facility. Shops and labs for woodwork, metalwork, foundry, automotive, material science, drafting, design, electricity, electronics and plastics were in place. A video equipped teaching classroom allowed student teachers to practice lesson demonstrations and later to review their efforts. A lesson planning and resources section was established the distribute new curriculum materials, existing project plans and blueprints to school districts for further distribution to teachers and the schools. Teachers in the field were encouraged to send in successful lesson plans and project details. The program instructors were for the most part experienced industrial education teachers that had been instructing in school programs and recruited specifically for the new institution. With the new facility, Industrial Education (INED) expanded from a small division graduating 15 new teachers per year in the early 1960s to 75 students per year by the early 1970s. By the late 1970's the division had nine full-time UBC faculty members at the Burnaby site and was offering a 5 year IE Bachelors program. Trades qualified candidates could be complete faster and teach on a provisional teaching certificate. Summer upgrading courses allowed existing teachers to obtain degrees or additional expertise.  2.31 1960's Industrial Education Curriculum The 1964 Junior Secondary Industrial Education Curriculum Guide  71  was  grounded in workshop practice but reflected changes in industrial society and 71  The 1964 Junior Secondary Industrial Education Curriculum Guide was publish by the BC, Department of Education in 1964 and distributed to the schools as a soft cover text for 3-Ring binders. (Authors own Copy)  92  tried to address them within the classroom and shop. The guide notes indicate that the 1964 guide includes materials published in Industrial Arts 1962 and Industrial Education  1963.  From the dates of the previous guide titles it is  apparent that a name change occurred between 1962 and 1963, Industrial Arts has now become Industrial Education.  The Term Technology appears for the  first time with a new definition of Industrial Education. "Industrial education area of education workshop  which teaches  experiences  general principles  with materials,  tools, and  of technology  is an  through  machines".  Industrial Education, (1964) had the following specific aims. •  To teach principles of technology and to apply these principles in practical situations.  •  To explore and evaluate the interests and aptitudes of students in technology fields.  •  To establish a broad-base of technological skills which will provide a sound foundation for subsequent development of the individual.  •  To develop habits of systematic planning and safe practice in the solution of technological problems.  The list of prescribed textbooks for Industrial Education Included: •  General  Woodworking,  •  General  Metals,  •  Understanding  •  Basic  Technical  McGraw-Hill.  McGraw Hill. Electricity Drawing,  and Electronics,  McGraw-Hill.  Macmillan.  93  The Principles of Technology  identified in the aims of the program were not  defined in the document. The approved text books would remain in use in some schools for the next thirty years. . 72  2.32 Re/Defining Industrial Arts as Technology Education The 1970s were an implementation period for the curriculum developed in the 1960s. In spite of the social upheavals resulting from the conclusion of the Vietnam War, the women's liberation movement and the beginnings of an environmental social consciousness surrounding deforestation and destruction of fish habitat; industrial education curriculums remained grounded in materials and process. Scientific and Technical advances that placed humans on the moon and at the bottom of the world's oceans seem to have generated little interest in the curriculums of technical education. A new curriculum definition of Industrial Arts/Education came form the Jackson's  Mill  think-tank comprised of  teachers, industry leaders, district superintendents/supervisors and teacher education program coordinators organized by the Virginia Department of Education and Virginia State College. The eventual outcome was a preliminary definition of what constituted Industrial Arts: "comprehensive evolution, systems,  educational  programs  utilization, and significance; techniques,  resources,  73  concerned  with technology,  with industry, its organization,  and products  and their socio-cultural  its  personnel, impact'  (Hales& Snvder.1981, p. 1).  72  7 3  1 routinely used these texts in my own secondary teaching as late as 2001. The definition of the term "industrial arts" evolved further with the publication of Jackson's Mill Industrial Arts Curriculum Theory in 1981  94  Many of the debates and issues encountered within Industrial/Technical/Vocational within Canada and BC stem from differing philosophical groundings and internal disagreements that mirror those in the United States; is the field general or vocational ?. The original American Industrial Arts Association (AIAA) under the initial direction of William E. Warner evolved into the AIEA and eventually the ITEA and have always been nonvocational, believing that MT, IA.IE and TE are a social study and part of liberal education. On the other hand there are well supported professional groups that share a different philosophy. NAITTE, the National Association of Industrial and Technical Teacher Educators and AVA-TED, the Technology Education Division of the American Vocational Association placed vocational intent ahead of liberalism. In British Columbia IA and the subsequent IE above the grade 8 level were overwhelmingly vocational. With heavy Federal subsidization for facilities, equipment and instructor training over several decades the die had been set.  2.33 1977 Industrial Education Curriculum Guide The 1977 edition of the B.C. Industrial Education Curriculum Guide that would direct technical education through to the 1990s was in essence a re-issue and updating of the 1960s and 70s publications. The 6 content areas were reduced to 5 with the removal of Graphic Arts from the curriculum. I.E. Program goals were identified as follows: (Page 14). •  To develop interest in the technical fields and applied sciences as an integral part of students general education.  95  •  To develop a foundation of skills and knowledge related to materials and technical procedures.  •  To develop a high degree of safety consciousness.  •  To develop confidence, high standards of performance, and a sense of pride in achievement.  •  To develop creative potential both vocationally and avocationally.  •  To achieve a degree of competency that will assist the students to obtain further education, training, or employment.  •  To develop an insight into the workings of an industrial world.  Industrial Education in 1977 was defiantly about the industrial; working with materials and machinery in a setting replicating the work place. The cover made a bold statement; a wood-grain background with Industrial Education carved across the top, the word Industrial was 4 times the height of Education. 94 wood screws in a rectangular shape surround stylized graphics of 2 technical drawings; daVinci's Man as well as 2 roses and a butterfly. 5 scenes of industrial society 74  are dominant and feature blueprint creation, metal machining, forestry, automotive, building construction and Automotive Mechanics. Figure 36.1977 IE Curriculum Guide.  Vitruvius, the architect, says in his work on architecture that the measurements of the human body are distributed by Nature as follows that is that 4 fingers make 1 palm, and 4 palms make 1 foot, 6 palms make Leonardo's drawing was originally an illustration for a book on the works of Vitruvius. The translated text accompanying the drawing states: 1 cubit; 4 cubits make a man's height. 4 cubits make one pace and 24 palms make a man; and these measures he used in his buildings. If you open your legs so much as to decrease your height 1/14 and spread and raise your arms till your middle fingers touch the level of the top of your head you must know that the centre of the outspread limbs will be in the navel and the space between the legs will be an equilateral triangle. (The Notebooks of Leonardo DaVinci, no date)  96  The guide reversed the intent defined for IA in the 1920s. lE's first two goals were now vocational: "To develop interests in technical fields and applied sciences" and "To develop a foundation of skills and knowledge related to materials and technical procedures." The long-time primary goal of IE was made ambiguous and placed last: "To develop an insight into the workings of the industrial world" (BC MOE. 1977. p. 14). Five of the 171 pages are dedicated to an emerging course,  Technology.  The preamble identifies the course as a new approach to the previous Industrial Power  and Industrial Science courses. The intent was "not to train students in  specialized  areas but to expose  them to problem  solving" (p.  167).  The General Objectives for the course indicate that the authors were aware of research in new approaches in technical education: •  To develop an understanding of technology and an awareness of its effects upon other areas of knowledge.  •  To nurture the students curiosity and creative thinking abilities related to design and industrial technology.  •  To encourage the students to explore the development of industrial technology.  97  •  To develop safety consciousness and promote work habits essential to an industrial situation.  •  To encourage the students to understand the process of searching for explanations of natural and man-made phenomena.  This section of the guide departs from the previous section's style in that apart from listing learning outcomes; it is descriptive as opposed to prescriptive. " Teachers  are expected  that the learning  to develop  outcomes  their own particular  must be followed" {p.  courses  bearing  in mind  167). The course was not  enthusiastically embraced. It did find a place as a correspondence course and was offered until the early 1990's. This course permitted Distance Education students to earn either a science or an applied skills credit. The paper based course materials were not original, they were assembled by taking sections and units from existing courses; electricity, mechanics, science and drafting . 75  2.34 The UBC-BCIT Joint T.E. Teacher Preparation Program Up until 1987 both professional and technical studies were consolidated and completed within the UBC Industrial Education (INED) building in Burnaby. Beginning with the fall of 1987 the INED program changed dramatically. A loss 76  of provincial Department of Education funding for the INED program necessitated structural changes in the way the program was delivered. A fuller picture of the events surrounding the changes can be gained from a review of correspondence between UBC-INED staff, the BCIEA and provincial politicians, see Appendix 12.  7 5  As a distance education school teacher/marker I was provided with all texts and answer keys for the Technology course.  7 6  The tension, frustration and animosity existing between the B C government, The university and the Division of Industrial Education can be identified in the selected correspondence provided in App. 12.  98  Professional and technical studies would be completed in two separate institutions (Petrina, Dalley, 2002, p. 136.). Students now complete One year of professional studies at UBC and up to two years of technical studies at the British Columbia Institute of Technology, (BCIT)  77  This transition to institutions of  industrial technology is consistent with changes in technology teacher education in Canada and the USA (Petrina & Dalley, 2002, Volk, 1993, 1997). The programs were renamed as the Technology at UBC and the Technology  Teacher  Studies  Education  Education  (TSED) program  (TTED) program at BCIT. The  programs operate, symbiotically within their own institutional cultures.  2.35. Legacy for Learners, The 1988 Royal Commission on Education Report Also referred to as the Sullivan report, Legacy for Learners became the roadmap used to direct the course of education for the next Two decades. Published in 1988, the Royal Commission on Education report, Legacy for Learners  examined the current condition of education and what changes would  be required in the future. The province was emerging from several years of poor economic performance magnified by a heavy economic dependence resource extraction and commercial fishing. Recommendations included; a greater emphasis on educational relevance and greater choice, access and flexibility for students. A key finding was that "the curriculum is startlingly inadequate at the senior secondary level for learners not planning to attend a post-secondary  7 7  The former IDEN building was transferred from U B C to BCIT and now houses the BCIT department of Manufacturing Engineering which now provides the TTED program.  99  institution.".... "what was requested by most of the secondary students, even those headed to college or university was a greater variety, choice and relevance in course selection." Following publication of the report the next decade would see increased funding for post secondary and a complete examination or overhaul of most subjects in the secondary system. The motivation was provided for the development of applied academics and technology education curriculums (Royal Commission, 1988, Summary p. 31, Report p. 99).  2.36 The 1987 BCIEA Name Change to BCTA In 1987 the British Columbia Industrial Education Association (BCIEA) changed its name to the British Columbia Technology Education Association (BCTEA). This action followed the name change of the American Industrial Arts Association to The International Technology Education Association (IATA). The 1988 Sullivan Royal Commission Report argued that cultural and economic change demands educational change. The Practical Arts, defined as "Physical Education, Technology Education, Business Education, and Home Economics." must be elevated to an equal status as humanities and sciences. IE should be changing from the "use of tools, materials and technological processes to providing opportunities for students to employ different technological applications and to engage in activities allowing them to create, design and construct" (BC MOE, 1989, pp. 15-16; Royal Commission, 1988, pp. 29-30). The Royal Commission had re-stated conceptual changes already underway in IE in BC. "Industrial/Technology Education requires a new curriculum... we support an educational agenda of change" (BCTEA. 1989b, p. 2, Petrina, Dallev, 2002).  100  2.37 The 1990 Science for all Americans project The American  Association  for the Advancement  addressing "What should a science-literate  adult know  of Science  (AAAS)  and be able to do in  science, mathematics, and technology?" took a leadership role in "..setting out for the nation the knowledge, skills, and habits of mind that all citizens need to live interesting, responsible, and productive lives in a culture shaped by science and technology: "Science person  for All Americans  is based on the belief that the  is one who is aware that science,  interdependent key concepts recognizes scientific  human  enterprises  and principles  mathematics,  with strengths  of science;  science-literate  and technology  and limitations;  understands  is familiar with the natural world and  both its diversity and unity; and uses scientific knowledge ways of thinking for individual  are  and social purposes"  and  (AAAS Project  2061,1989, introduction).  2.38 The 1990 Perkins Act In the United States the 1998 Perkins Act was rewritten and reissued in 1990 to move away from an industrial model which tailored training to one narrowly defined job slot. The revised act emphasized two related approaches: •  Integrating vocational and academic education so that students gain strong basic and advanced academic skills  •  Providing students with strong experience in and understanding of all aspects of the industry they are preparing to enter, including planning, management, finance, technical and production skills, underlying principles of technology, labor, community, and health, safety, and environmental issues (American Vocational Association, 1998).  101  2.39 The 1993 BCIT Technology Education Needs Survey The Technology  Education  Needs  Survey  (Appendix 10) was conducted in  the spring of 1993 as part of an internal review of the British Columbia Institute of Technology Industrial Education Teacher Education program. BCIT at the time of the survey in partnership with The University of British Columbia's Faculty of Education offered a joint program that educated future Industrial and Technology Education Teachers. The survey was coordinated and reported on in October 1994 by the program head and senior instructor, Peter Trant (Trant, 1984) According to in an internally published summary of the study; all District superintendents and Technology/Industrial Education Teachers in the province were surveyed. Superintendents were identified through the 1993/94 MOE School book and teachers were identified through the British 78  Technology  Education  Association  Columbia  (BCTEA) complete list of Teachers. 79  It was reported that 76% for District Superintendents and 54% for Teachers responded to the questionnaire.  The major findings were that:  •  Technology Education is general in nature, assisting students to understand and develop capability in a broad range of technology.  •  Technology Education broadens the scope of technical study to use tools of contemporary technologies.  7 8  At the time the Ministry of Education published a listing of all schools in the province as well as contact information for school officials and district personal. The publication was titled the School Book.  79  The British Columbia Technology Education Association is a Local Specialist Association of the British Columbia Teachers Federation (BCTF), the teachers professional association or union. Membership in the L S A is optional and requires a fee payment.  102  •  Technology Education does not lead directly to a career.  •  Technology Teachers are required to teach generalist technology courses.  •  Technology Education Teachers teach a range of technical and academic subjects.  •  The need for teachers to have a Trade Qualification is decreasing.  •  42% of new teachers with Trades Qualifications or extensive experience, (Accelerated 1 year Program) felt that their preparation was Inadequate.  •  22% of the less trades experienced (Regular 2 Year program) felt that their preparation was inadequate.  •  There is a great deal of uncertainty about the connection between Secondary School courses and Post Secondary opportunities.  •  50% of District Superintendents believe that Secondary School Technology Education leads to Community College Programs, 25% of the Teachers thought so.  Written comments expressed several concerns:  •  About the need for High Schools to link with Post Secondary Institutions and partner with industry.  •  There are no clear pathways to technical careers. Well defined Diploma Programs with clear prerequisites would assist in solving this problem.  •  The existing Technology Education teaching force is an aging population. 40% of respondents have been teaching over 20 years, while only 6% have been teaching less than 4 years.  •  Teachers have great interest in a wide range of in-service content areas; and prefer it to be delivered through in-service continuing education at workshops with time and funding provided by their school district.  103  The survey results became the catalyst for program revision and re-design for the BCIT component of the joint UBC/BCIT program.  2.40 The 1993 National Census on Technology Education in Canada Chinien, Oaks & Boutin reported on their 1994 study, "A national census on technology education in Canada." The study surveyed all 12 provincial and 80  territorial coordinators of industrial arts/technology education. The coordinators were responsible for the governance and policy formulation for industrial arts/technology education programs and were a valid source of information. According to the authors they were in close contact with stakeholders and would be able to make accurate reports on leadership issues. "Current beliefs that technological will enhance momentum  education"(  literacy is empowering our ability to compete for replacing  and that a technologically  literate  in world trades have generated  the traditional industrial arts programs  a  with  workforce national technology  Chinien, C. A., Oaks. M. M.. & Boutin, F. 1995, p, 14).  The study investigated and reported on 10 areas and concerns to generate useful information regarding the degree of change from industrial arts to technology education in all Canadian jurisdictions 1. The degree of importance of technology education. 2. The availability of resources to facilitate the implementation of technology education.  Chinien, C . A . , Oaks, M . M . , & Boutin, F . (1995). A national census on technology education in Canada. Journal o f Industrial Teacher Education, 32(2), 76-92.  104  3. Enabling legislation to advance the implementation of technology education. 4. Types of curriculum models being used for implementing technology education. 5. The degree to which content organizers are being used in developing technology education programs. 6. Responsibility for implementing technology education programs; 7. Progress made in curriculum development. 8. Teachers' responses toward change in technology education; 9. Teacher retraining initiatives. 10. Leadership. Results indicated that: •  The majority of the provinces and territories have already changed the name of industrial arts programs and have incorporated the word technology into their new program title.  •  None of the provinces and territories has adopted curriculum models developed in the United States. The provinces and territories have developed their own curriculum models based on consultation with stakeholders and by adapting other models.  •  A continuing transition from traditional industrial arts to new technology based program concepts, from simple name change to program re-design.  •  A lack of provincial funding for curriculum development efforts in TE program implementation: facility planning, equipment, teacher training, and research.  •  A lack of interest of local school districts in funding technology education programs.  •  limited community support and limited partnership between school and business/industry.  •  The Industrial Arts/Technology Education Association were the major change agents responsible for the shift from IA to TE.  105  •  A lack of adequate teacher training will impact on TE adoption.  •  Committed teachers were major change agents in the transition to technology education.  •  Teacher education programs should keep up with the changes in the field and address professional development needs through post-baccalaureate initiatives.  2.47  Technology Education Curriculum Development Technology Education Instructional Resource  Packages  or IRP's were 81  developed for grades K-7 and 8-10 in 1995 and 11-12 in 1997 (BC MOE. 1995a. 1995b. 1997a) and included in the provincial curriculum. Implementation at the elementary level was hampered by limited in-service training and support for existing teachers and limited training for new teachers leaving universities.  82  Complete implementation of the T.E. IRP was unrealistic and unopened shrinkwrapped packages sat on the shelves of many elementary schools. Without 83  guidance some teachers interpreted technology education as keyboarding or computer literacy and chose not to move into untested waters. In the case of shop based industrial education electives subjects: woodwork, metalwork, drafting, automotive and electronics the last curriculum overhaul resulted in the issue of the 1977 prescriptive Industrial Education Curriculum  Guide.  84  A  technology education approach to curriculum design and instruction should have This approach to curriculum planning is descriptive rather than prescriptive in that Teachers develop and teach subject matter utilizing a range of approved text-based, electronic and interactive resources. Welldefined Expected Learning Outcomes (ELO) guide lesson planning, delivery and evaluation. Inclusion pf the curriculum materials in the syllabuses of faculties of education often lagged behind issuance to the schools. 8 1  8 2  8 3  Personal observations made during practicum supervision visits to student teachers and active teaching assignments lead me to this conclusion.  8 4  The 1977 IE guide focused exclusively on developing tool skills and production process.  106  reinvigorated stagnating curriculum's that had seen a continual drop in enrollment for at least 2 decades. By 1987, total IE enrolments dropped to one-third of their height in the mid to late 1970s while total school enrolments declined only 11% ( Petrina, Dalley, 2003, p. 17) Following publication of a secondary draft technology education curriculum document in 1995, IRP development was entrusted to a core group of practicing teachers under the umbrella of the British Columbia Technology Education Association (BCTEA) Choosing to ignore the identified curriculum organizers; Technical Communications, Production, Control, Energy & Power, and Self and Society (BC MOE, 1992, p. 23) that were intended to replace discrete technical subjects, the developers chose instead to redevelop and repackage the existing curriculums of separate technical and shop courses. Retitled courses; Technology Education Electronics, Technology Education Automotive have the appearance or sound of something new and appropriate for the second millennium but they are very much the industrial courses from the 1977 curriculum guide.  2.42 The Re-Visioning of Technology Education Initiative The most recent attempts to reform TE were aimed at the senior secondary years and was initiated by BCIT and the Centre for Curriculum, Transfer and Technology and resulted in the publication of "A Vision Paper for Technology Education in British Columbia" in 1998 (Rosenthal, Falk, & Williams, 1998). The paper describes what the authors term the "....rapidly changing contemporary economy"and the implications of these changing economic, social and technological conditions relevant to technology education. The  107  change in employment patterns, in the structure of work and in the knowledge and skills most valued in the "new" economy were addressed in terms of their relationship to TE: •  The decline in popularity of traditional industrial technology education  •  The skills shortages and skills mismatch arguments  •  The needs of secondary school population who are "at risk"  •  The increase in private post-secondary education and the possible implications for technology education  •  The overlap in delivering technology education (Rosenthal, Falk, & Williams. 1998. p. 5).  The Vision Paper for TE followed five years of curriculum reform and the publication of several visionary papers including A New Tool for Learning (BC MOE. 1995a. 1995b. 1997a; Halladay, 1996). The Vision Paper for TE was an attempt to deal with the politics of reform in TE by negotiating the tension between an increasing majority of IE and the minority of T E advocates as well as between BC MOE's support of T E and the BCTEA and BCIT's support of IE. The Vision Paper for TE legitimized IE practice within BCIT teacher preparation programs as well as in the schools, and advocated reform with no reform, change Technology Education by reviving Industrial Education (Petrina & Dallev, 2003)  2.43 The Demise of Technology Education as a Discrete Subject In 2002 technology education lost its position as required subject in the public schools in British Columbia . An applied skills subject must be taken at 85  the grade 7 or 8 level. Although the most common grouping is a rotation through  As far as I could determine, no public announcement was made. The requirement to include Technology Education as a subject or curriculum disappeared from re-issued documents and all T E IRP materials for non skill-based subjects was removed from M O E web-sites and on-line resources.  108  introductory woodwork, metalwork, computers and home economics/foods other combinations exist. Understanding and explaining how a reversal in curriculum policy could occur is a difficult undertaking. It is conceivable that apart from limited success in the middle and junior secondary schools, T.E. development and implementation at the secondary level was constrained from the very beginning. This restraint included a lack of vision among many practicing technical teachers and their professional association the British Columbia 86  Technology Education Association (BCTEA). Limited provincial funding for curriculum implementation and teacher professional development as well as and support at some district levels may have contributed to the implementation reversal. Using the new name Technology Education in place of industrial education or woodwork, construction, metalwork, automotive to identify the programs in the school shops and labs may have given a crisp new image to shop based courses and at the same time sanctioned the delivery of essentially the same industrial education curriculums.  Many of my fellow teachers have difficulty defining Technology Education. A large number feel that Technology is industrial process and practice.  109  CHAPTER THREE: METHODOLOGY 3.11ntroduction Three methodological approaches were utilized to provide for a comprehensive investigation. Historical research methodology guides Chapter two, the literature review. Survey methodology is employed to ground the discussion and interpretation of the survey data. Narrative research methodology guides  3.2 Historical Research Methodology The historical literature review is foundational to this thesis. It provides the background and context for the analysis and interpretation of the UBC Survey of Programs  and Practices  conducted in 1998. Historical research adheres to  traditional notions of source validity. The problem of internal validity of evidence was generally not problematic within this research. Forgery was not suspected in any of the source documents I surveyed. I established external validity in most cases by superimposing and comparing single records against other related sources. I read the primary documents critically and used in an appropriate context. My selection of primary sources was guided by the research questions underpinning this thesis. I compared published results and recommendations of commissioned reports and surveys: Putman Weir, Cameron, and Chant with curricular and structural changes within the field. When relevant, I introduced biographical evidence related to William MacDonald, James Robertson, John  110  Kyle, and Harry Dunnell and other key figures. In an endeavor to argue how a well-intentioned and valid curricular innovation was halted, I brought in historical evidence to establish developmental links between Manual Training, Vocational Training, Industrial Arts, Industrial Education, and Technology Education.  3.3 Narrative Methodology The use of the narrative has become well established within social disciplines like education and sociology (Mishler, 1986; Polkinqhorne, 1988). Personal narrative is often hermeneutical, context dependent involving multiple plots (Polkinqhorne, 1988). The hermeneutical circle expressed as narrative provides a way of looking to research for iterative and deepened meaning, where every understanding has the potential to lead to a better understanding (Kvale, 1996). A successful narrative draws the reader into the story via the hermeneutic circle (Polkinqhorne, 1988). Narration as technique contains layered views and multiple plots. This multiplicity is possible since narrative contains an awareness of the centrality of social time and place, allowing the reader to move beyond the individual experience of history.  3.4 Survey Methodology Survey research is an established branch of social scientific research with procedures and methods refined and developed by psychologists, sociologists, political scientists, economists and statisticians. The rigor of survey research gives the method credibility. The method appeals to researchers interested in sampling the characteristics of whole populations.  Ill  Turning to the present survey, The Survey was conducted in the spring of 1998 by Stephen Petrina and Stephen Dalley; Department of Curriculum Studies, UBC faculty of Education. The investigation encompassed all of the public middle and secondary schools in the province, (See Figures 37, 38 & 39) and follows the Technology  Education  Needs  Survey  undertaken by Peter Trant of the British  Columbia Institute of Technology (BCIT) in 1994 (Trant, 1994). A sample of the province's technology education teachers was used for generating characteristics for the whole population. For surveying school practices (courses, facilities and programs) in BC we created a questionnaire in the winter of 1997-1998. The survey was mailed to the Technology Education coordinators of all post-elementary schools (N=301) including; middle (grades 68), junior high (grades 8-10), secondary (grades 8-12) and senior secondary (grades 11-12) schools in BC. Representatives from 179 schools returned responses (60% return rate). The survey sampled twelve items that ranged from program and course descriptions to gender. Qualitative responses were also elicited from the coordinators to clarify the descriptive survey statistics and to address various issues such as gender. The questionnaire (Appendix 6) contained both interval and categorical components designed to elicit quantitative and qualitative responses. Whether the participant responses were truthful in accurately presenting the schools programs and facilities is a serious concern; a common concern shared by many researchers and the subject of serious academic inquiry. The relationship between an individuals beliefs or attitudes and resulting behavior on  112  the part of the respondent is considered pivotal in assessing survey validity. The Technology Education coordinators surveyed were at the forefront of practice and it was assumed that their responses would be both accurate and valid.  3.4.1 Attitude-Behavior Relationships My literature survey found that two main models inform the relationship between survey responses and Attitude-Behavior and Intention: Ajzen and Fishbein's Theory of Reasoned Behavior  Process  Model,  Belief,  proposed in 1967, and Fazio's  Attitude-to-  published in 1980. Although the two models are similar,  the main premises of the models differ. With the former, Ajzen and Fishbein's Theory of Reasoned  Action's  main  premise posits that a person's intention is the main predictor and influencer of attitude; i.e. If a person intends to do something they will probably do it. Conversely if they have no intention then they will more likely not do it (Ajzen & Fishbein,1980). The Reasoned Action theory suggests two main influencers of intention; •  The Attitude toward the behavior suggests that people "think about their decisions  and the possible  outcomes  before making a decisiorf'  (Ajzen &  Fishbein,1980). •  The Subjective individuals  Norms come from "The person's  belief that specific  or groups think he should or should not perform  and his motivation  to comply with the specific referents"  the behavior  (Ajzen &  Fishbein.1980). The decision maker is influenced by the importance of peers or what others will think of her/his action and if the right thing is being done.  113  We argue that people consider the implications decide to engage  or not to engage  refer to our approach assumption  in a given behavior.  as a "theory of reasoned  with this assumption,  intention to perform(or  not to perform)  are under  as the  we  the  volitional  our theory views a  a behavior  they  For this reason  action... We make  that most actions of social relevance  control and, consistent  determinant  of their actions before  person's  immediate  of action (Ajzen & Fishbein, 1980).  The Attitude-to-Behavior  Process Model  proposed by Fazio & Powell  argues that: "attitudes can guide a person's behavior even when the person not actively reflect and deliberate  about the attitude"  does  (Fazio & Powell, 1989).  In this model the main gauge of attitude is how the event or decision is viewed by the  subject.  •  The attitude is related to memory and prior experience with similar situations.  •  The decision making process can be long and thought out or short and routine. Additionally if the attitude is not derived directly from memory then external cues will help form the attitude to make the decision.  "Overall  the stronger the relationship  object the stronger  between  memory and perception  the attitude will be towards the resulting decision"  of the  (Fazio &  Powell.1989. 1891). Most Significantly, both models identify attitude as the main predictor of behavior; •  Intention Action,  is the major part of attitude formation in the Theory of  Reasoned  with people rationally thinking about all their actions and the  possible outcomes. •  In the Attitude-to-Behavior  Process Model  the persons attitude is  subordinate to the situation and events that are surrounding the decision. The surrounding situations and events will result in attitude formation.  114  Applying research to this survey, the Theory of Reasoned Attitude-to-Behavior  Process  Model,  Action  and the  collectively argues that the individual will  respond in a manner that correlates to their belief system: He is concerned and cares about students, teaching and believes that participating in this survey is worthwhile.  3.4.2 Data Collection A mail survey approach was used for data collection. The mailing included a letter of introduction/explanation, the survey instrument and a postage paid return envelope (See Appendix 6) The survey was addressed to the schools Technology Education teacher or department head (Technology Coordinator); it was anticipated that the survey would be completed by the intended party and not the computer studies, educational technologist, or school administrator.  3.4.3 Request for Participation and Mailing Procedure The survey package contained a letter of introduction designed to solicit participation, the survey form, and a postage paid return envelope (See Appendix 6) The initial mailing occurred in early March 1998. Responses were requested before April 24 1998.  3.4.4 Non-Response Follow-up to Request to Participate In early May a second mailing was distributed to non-responsive sites. Data entry and survey evaluation began with the conclusion of the public school year in June of 1998.  115  3.4.5 Overview of the Survey Instrument Questions Questions 1 & 2. School Locations These two questions asked the participants to identify their school and district, to allow the investigators to geographically locate the research site within the province and district, permitting evaluation on a regional basis. Question 3. Teacher Attrition and Demographics This section sought to determine the following: • • • • • •  The total number of full and part time Technology Education teachers in each school. The total number of Women Technology Education teachers in each school. The total number of Technology Education teachers retiring from each school within the next Two years. The total number of Technology Education teachers retiring from each school within the next Five years. The total number of new Technology Education teachers expected to be hired for the 1999-2000 school year. The total number of new Technology Education teachers expected to be hired for the 2000-2001 school year.  Question 4. School Program  Categorizations  Participants were asked to catergorise their schools programs as either: •  Industrial Education.  •  Technology Education.  •  A combination of both Industrial and Technology Education.  •  Career Preparation.  Question 5. Lab and Shop  Categorizations  Participants were asked to catergorise their schools Labs and Shops as either: •  Unit or Subject Specific (Woodwork, Automotive, Metal etc)  •  General.  •  Combination of both General and Unit Specific.  •  Modular.  116  Question  •  6. Lab and Shop Equipment  Categorizations  Participants were asked to categorize their Lab and Shop Equipment as either:  •  Traditional (Old Technology)  •  "New" Technology.  •  Combination of both "Old" and "New".  Question  •  7. Course  Titles  Participants were presented with a list of 33 subjects recognized by the BC-MOE and asked to check off any that were offered.  •  Space was provided for additional titles offered.  Question  •  8. New Unit Titles  Participants were presented with a list of 19 Unit titles and asked to check any that they intend to offer in the near future.  •  Space was provided for additional titles to be offered.  Question  •  Courses  Participants were asked to list Locally Developed Courses offered.  Question  •  9. Locally Developed  10. Career  Preparation  Courses  Participants were asked to list Technology Education Career Preparation Courses offered.  Question  •  11. Courses  for Young  Women  Participants were asked to list Technology Education Courses offered only for Young Women. In the  Question  •  12.  Feedback  Participants were asked to identify concerns and to provide useful feedback concerning Technology Teacher Education in British Columbia.  117  CHAPTER FOUR: DATA ANALYSIS AND FINDINGS  4.11ntroduction Overall the response to the survey questionnaire was generally positive with a total of 179 responses received by the cutoff date of June 15, representing an accumulative 60% return rate.  4.2 Specific Schools Question 1 Identifying individual schools made it possible to identify and classify differences in responses between the 4 classifications of schools: •  Middle schools with a typical grade structure of 6,7 & 8 or 7,8 & 9.  •  Junior High with a typical grade structure of 8,9 & 10.  •  Senior High with a typical grade structure of 11 & 12.  •  Combined Junior and Senior High with a typical grade structure of 8,9,10,11 &12.  There is considerable variety of grade structures within the various models and between districts. For Instance: •  Vancouver has grades 1 -7 as Elementary and 8-12 as Secondary.  •  West Vancouver has grades 1-6 as Elementary, 7-9 as Middle and 10-12 as Secondary.  •  North Delta has Grades 1 -7 as Elementary, 8-10 as Junior Secondary and 11 -12 as Senior Secondary.  •  The Comox Valley has grades 1 -6 as Elementary, 7-9 as Middle school and 10 to 12 as Secondary.  118  The differences might be explained in part by districts having the autonomy to determine their own individual structure. The deciding factors can include philosophical, historical and economic considerations. Short-term peaks and valleys in enrolment and grade numbers can be remedied by moving grades between school models. Arguments can be made for school expansion based on inadequate capacity that may have been generated by moving grades from one model to another. Vancouver, for instance is on of the largest and long established districts and has historically not embraced the middle school philosophy or structure. This may be due in part to an established infrastructure, established school communities and stable support services. Within the larger and older high schools it can be argued that two separate schools exist. In the technical areas there are Junior shops for grades 8 and 9 students and senior shops for grades 10,11, and 12 students. The same situation exists in other subject areas such as Science, English and Math. With teachers assigned to teaching specific grades in his argued that students at a particular grade level are receiving the appropriate pedagogy.  119  4.3 School Districts Question 2  District responses were grouped into three regional classifications: The Lower Mainland, Vancouver Island and the Remaining Mainland schools (See Figures 37, 38 & 39) This three-part grouping was selected to match the BC Ministry of Education area breakdowns. In so doing, this grouping strategy allows for comparison between ministry reported data and trends for specific regions where findings of the survey can be more easily undertaken. Comparisons between Provincial regions will be helpful in determining if initial trends in Technology Education proliferation in the Lower Mainland were replicated in other parts of the province. Figure 37. Lower Mainland Districts  33 Chilliwack  34 Abbotsford  35 Langley  36 Surrey  37 Delta  38 Richmond  39 Vancouver  40 New Westminster  41 Burnaby  42 Maple Ridge- Pitt  43 Coquitlam  44 North Vancouver  46 Sunshine Coast  47 Powell River  Meadows 45 West Vancouver  120  Figure 38. Vancouver Island Districts  61 Greater Victoria  62 Sooke  63 Saanich  64 Gulf Islands  68 Nanaimo- Ladysmith  69 Qualicum  70 Alberni  71 Comox Valley  72 Campbell River  79 Cowichan Valley  84 Vancouver Isl. West  85 Vancouver Isl. North  Figure 39. Remaining Mainland Districts  5 Southeast Kootenay  6 Rocky Mountain  8 Kootenay Lake  10 Arrow Lake  19 Revelstoke  20 Kootenay-Columbia  22 Vernon  23 Central Okanagan  27 Cariboo-Chilcotin  28 Quesnel  48 Howe Sound  49 Central Coast  50 Haida Gwaii- Queen  51 Boundary  52 Prince Rupert  54 Balkley Valley  57 Prince George  58 Nicolla- Similkameen  59 Peace River South  60 Peace River North  73 Kamloops-Thompson  74 Gold Trail  75 Mission  78 Fraser-Cascade  81 Fort Nelson  82 Coast Mountains  83 North Okanagan-  87 Stikine  91 Nachako Lakes  Charlotte 53 OkanaganSimilkameen  Shuswap 92 Nisga'a  121  4.4 Teacher Attrition and Demographics. Question 3 3a. Participants  were asked to provide  the total number  of Technology  Teachers  at the school site.  The total number of both full-time and part-time teachers included in the survey is 560 (see Table 1.) The number is somewhat fluid as teachers from other departments that teach one or more technology course might not be included: e.g. a home economics teacher may teach an interior design course utilizing a CADD lab, a drama teacher may be teaching set construction in a woodwork shop and an art teacher may be teaching lost wax casting or Jewelry design in a metal shop. Conversely, Technology teachers might be found teaching Math or PE. Table 1. Number of Teachers in the Sample  Full-time Technology  Part-time Technology  Education teachers in  Education teachers in  the sample.  the sample.  446  114  Total  560  3b. Participants were asked to provide the total number of total number of Women Technology Teachers at the school site.  122  •  Survey responses indicate that 43 women or 4.3% of the total technology teachers in the sample are women (Table 2).  Table 2. Number of Women Technology Teachers in the Sample  Full-time Women  Part-time Women  Technology  Technology  Education teachers  Education teachers  in the sample.  in the sample.  26  17  Total  Percentage  43  4.3%  This finding is consistent with BC Ministry of Education (BC MOE) figures of the percentage of female technology teachers (Table 3).  87  Like the  percentage reported in the survey, the Ministry's percentage is inflated in that part-time teachers, or teachers responsible for only one course in technology, are included. Table 3. Average Percentage of Women B C T e c h n o l o g y T e a c h e r s Source  Women  Men  Total  UBC Survey  27  603  630  BCTEA Estimate  19  1,041  1,060  BC Ministry  36  774  810  Average %  3.2%  96.8%  100%  This finding is consistent with those of the International Technology Education Association where representation is about 97.5% men. Historically, 8 7  The Ministry reported in 1995 that 4.5% of 810 technology teachers were women (BC M O E , 1995c, p. 41).  123  women have been strongly represented in home economics and business (commercial) education, which dealt with technologies of the home and office, while men were strongly represented in industrial education, technologies of industrial workplaces.  3c. Participants Technology  •  were asked  Teachers  to provide  the total number  of total number  of  retiring this year.  Responses indicated that 100 or 18% of the total technology teachers at the school were to retire between 1998 and 1999.  3d. Participants were asked to provide the total number of total number of Technology Teachers retiring within 5 years. An additional 157 Technology teachers were expected to retire within 5 years for a total of 257 (Figure 40) It is reasonable to infer that many of these retirements can be expected to occur among long service teachers with trade backgrounds currently teaching in career preparation programs. As the teachers have been in the profession for a lengthy period it is expected that they have advanced through the ranks to senior positions including; department heads and senior teaching assignments. Based on the data compiled upwards revisions may need to be made for the number of new teachers that will be required to teach in the technology areas.  124  Figure 40. Anticipated T e c h n o l o g y Teacher Attrition. 1999-2004  Schools  D  Surveyed  Retiring Five Years  • Vancouver Island • Other Mainland  Retiring One  • Lower Mainland  Q  Year N u m b e r of  P  Teachers in Sample  0  50  100  150  200  250  300  350  The greatest number of expected retirements, 61% of the total Technology Teachers is expected to occur within 5 years on Vancouver Island. Anecdotal sources, (discussions with fellow teachers and administrators) point to a higher average teacher age on Vancouver Island, due in part to career moves to the island later in the individual teachers careers. A move away from the stress of living in the Lower Mainland and harsher climate of the interior are often given as contributing factors for these types of career moves. 3e. Participants Technology  •  were asked  Teaching  to provide  positions  the total number  of total number  of  to be filled this year.  The anticipated number of full and part-time positions to be filled in the 1999-2000 years was reported a 185 (Figure41). As suggested above, the number has some elasticity as full time Technology Education teachers may be teaching another subject outside of technology and part-timer teachers may be teaching as little as one block.  125  Figure 41. Anticipated Technology Teachers Required 1999-2000.  Expected number of Full-  Expected number of Part-time  Total  time Technology Education Technology Education teaching teaching positions to be  positions to be filled in 1999-2000.  filled in 1999-2000. 27  168  3f. Participants Technology  •  195  were asked to provide  Teaching  positions  the total number  of total number  of  to be filled next year.  The reported number of full and part-time positions to be filled in the 20002001 period was reported a 168 (Figure 41). This number should also be considered speculative for the reasons outlined previously and because any projected enrolment figures used to justify FTE equivalents would likely have been of a preliminary nature.  Figure 42. Anticipated T e c h n o l o g y Teachers Required 2000-2001.  Expected number of Full-  Expected number of Part-time  Total  time Technology Education Technology Education teaching teaching positions to be  positions to be filled in 2000-2001.  filled in 2000-2001. 134  26  160  126  4.5 School Program Categorizations Question 4 Participants Education, Technology  were asked to categorize Technology  Education,  Education  or Career  their schools programs  A combination  as either: Industrial  of both Industrial and  Preparation.  By design; definitions of Industrial, Technology Education and Career programs were excluded from survey questionnaire to avoid foreshadowing and possibly biasing the instrument. The following operational definitions from chapter 1, are provided as a helpful guide towards interpreting the data. Industrial Education: An area of education workshop  experience  which teaches general principles with materials,  has the following specific •  To teach principles  of technology  tools, and machines.  through  Industrial  Education  aims:  of technology  and to apply these principles  in  practical  situations. •  To explore and evaluate  the interests and aptitudes  of students  in  technology  fields. •  To establish foundation  •  a broad base of technological for subsequent  To develop technological  systematic  development  planning  problems.  skills which will provide a sound  of the  individual.  and safe practices  BC. DOE,  in the solution of  Division of Curriculum,  (1964, p, 6.).  T e c h n o l o g y Education: •  That phase technologyorganization,  of general  education  its evolution, materials,  in which students deal experientially  utilization and significance;  occupations,  processes,  and with  with  industry-its  and products-and  with the  127  benefits  and problems  nature of society •  Technology knowledge recycling  resulting  from the technological  and the  industrial  (Malev, 1987).  Education in designing,  technologies  is a multidisciplinary creating, - products,  school subject  using, maintaining, processes  concerning  regulating,  and services  and  (Petrina, 1997).  C o m b i n e d Industrial Education and Technology Education:  •  An amalgam or combination of selected portions of both approaches to experiential technical education that results in a curriculum that best utilizes available facilities and resources (Author).  Career Preparation:  •  Career Preparation programs are locally developed educational programs that prepare students for entry into the workplace or for further education and training in a specific career pathway. School districts have developed a variety of Career Preparation programs to meet the needs of their students and community, (Author).  The goals of Career Preparation include:  •  Providing opportunities for enhanced career development activities.  •  Providing students with entry -level skills for specific employment opportunities.  •  Improving transition between secondary school and the workplace.  •  Enhancing transition between the secondary and post-secondary education systems, ( BC. MOE. 2002).  Responses.  62% of the respondents identified their overall programs as combinations of industrial and technology education (Figure 43) and 49% refer to their programs as career preparation. As in other response areas, respondents could have noted, for example, that their programs were both industrial or technology  128  education and career preparation, thus accounting for a total percentage over 100. Regional differences are minimal, given the data and number of responses. Across the province Career preparation programs vary considerably in content and included subject areas. On one extreme a Career prep program includes a selection of courses, both technical and core area that lead to focused study in senior years in a single trade or employment area. Building Construction, Automotive, Welding, and Drafting are typical offerings. On the other extreme, some districts consider all senior students to be in Career Preparation programs based on the argument that since all students after leaving school will at some point be independent wage earners, and have careers. The amount of funding coming into districts that consider all of their programs Career Preparation is enormous. 62% of the respondents described their programs as combinations of Career Prep and another area may be an indication of dual expectations, retaining existing courses without making substantial changes while introducing new courses and units. Alternately this percentage may reflect a true integration of the old and new and the result is a conglomerate. The number of respondents referring to their programs as Technology Education (25%) is nearly equivalent to the number calling their programs industrial education (20%). One cannot generalize that a unit shop equipped with traditional tools and machines determines that a program will be industrial as opposed to Technology Education. With both categories; school district and administrative policy,  129  available budget and individual teachers training and philosophy will shape the program of study.  Figure 43. T . E . Program E m p h a s e s in B C by Percentage of S c h o o l s .  Career Preparation  I  Combination  1  :  •  V a n c o u v e r Island  •  Other  UlLower  Mainland Mainland  echnology Education  Industrial E d u c a t i o n  0%  10%  20%  30%  40%  50%  60%  80%  4.6 Lab and Shop Categorizations Question 5 Participants Specific,  were asked  General,  to categorize  Modular  their schools labs and shops as either: Unit  or a Combination  of both General  and Unit  Specific.  Unit S p e c i f i c S h o p s  60% of the shops are Unit Specific or single use facilities. (Figure 44) This percentage is higher than in many provinces and the majority of American schools. The Putman Weir Report (1923) recommended building single use shops in which Vocationally aligned courses could be taught. The large Vancouver high schools; Vancouver Technical, Britannia, David Thompson, Gladstone. Killarnev, Etc were constructed post Putman Weir and included large well-equipped single subject vocational shops. The rapid population growth of the province and the need for locally trained trades people were underlying factors in  130  facility and program design. Adult education and night school classes made extensive use of vocational shops in publics schools in the first half of the century.  General Shops General shops are also known as construction shops, and on Vancouver Island occur at 10% or twice the number for the "Other" Mainland. On the lower Mainland General shops account for les than 4% of the total. The Middle school philosophy is in part driving new construction on Vancouver Island and the standardized plans used by district architects have typically included a General shop for delivering woodwork, Metalwork and Electronics within one space. The low number (<1%) of general shops in the Lower Mainland may be in part due to newly constructed or renovated schools including Modular Shops and Labs in their designs.  Modular Shops The highest concentration of Modular shops (5%) is in the Lower mainland. While Vancouver Island reported 2% the balance of the Mainland had no measurable response. The proximity of the Lower Mainland districts to the initial centers of Technology Education innovation; BCIT and UBC is a likely contributor to this finding. The Burnaby District, in close proximity to BCIT is acknowledged as the first in BC. to embrace and promote Technology  Education  curriculum reform beginning in 1995. The Modular configuration is the preferred model within US Technology Education programs.  131  Combination of both General and Unit Specific Lower Mainland schools with a combination of shops occur at almost twice the percentage reported for the balance of the mainland, 48% vs. 26% and Vancouver Island reported 35%. This abnormally may have historical roots. Settlement patterns favored the lower mainland and have resulted in Lower Mainland secondary schools predating most of the Island and remaining Mainland schools.  Figure 44. T e c h n o l o g y Facilities in B C by Percentage of S c h o o l s , 1988. Figure 5. Technology Facilities in BC by Percentage of Schools, 1998  Modular  T  Combination  T ~ T T • Vancouver Island • Other Mainland • Lower Mainland  !  General  Unit Specific  J  (e.g., Woodworking) 0%  10%  L 20%  30%  40%  50%  60%  70%  4.7 Lab and Shop Equipment Categorizations Participants were asked to categorize the schools lab and shop equipment as: Traditional (old technology), "New" Technology or a combination of both "Old" and "New."  132  Question 6 Lab and Shop Equipment Categorizations  Participants were asked to categorize their Lab and Shop Equipment as either: •  Traditional (Old Technology)  •  "New" Technology.  •  Combination of both "Old" and "New".  Traditional S h o p Equipment  Overall, 25% of respondents categorize their equipment as traditional. These shops tend to utilize the type of equipment found in the manufacturing, service and construction industries (Figure 44)  Figure 4 5 . Traditional S h o p Equipment.  Drafting  Drafting boards and tables with parallel rules or articulating arms.  Electronics  Analogue and Digital meters, Soldering stations, oscilloscopes, Circuit board printing and chemical processing tanks.  Automotive  Hoists, Brake lathes, Valve grinders, Power washers and engine diagnostic machines.  Metalwork  Lathes, Milling machines, Drill presses, Surface grinders, Oxy-acetylene cutting, Gas and electric welding, forges and foundries.  Wood and Construction  Table-saws, Radial arm saws, Thickness planers, Jointers, Lathes, Mortising machines, scroll saws, and Band saws.  This equipment type is more common in the unit-specific shops. The majority of the shops in the lower mainland are located in schools constructed  133  during the height of the Industrial Arts movement, 1930-1950 or during the 1960's when Industrial Education took on a more obvious Vocational character following recommendations of the Chant Commission.  "New" Technology Shop Equipment "New" technology shop equipment was reported in use in 9% of the Lower Mainland schools and 5% of the Island sites with the remainder of the province reporting less than 1% (Figure 47). This outcome matches the order for  Modular  Shops reported earlier. "New" Technology shop equipment and space may be specialized and is not limited to computer-based technology^  Figure 46. Technology Education Lab or S h o p Equipment  •  Wind tunnels.  •  Load-cell, Digital, Beam and Tension scales.  •  Mac and PC workstations.  •  Scroll saws, Band saws, Disk and Belt sanders, Table saws.  •  Plastic benders and Vacuum tables.  •  C02 and gravity vehicle tracks.  •  Compressed air rocket launching platforms.  Although "New" equipment was reported mostly in Middle and Junior Schools with Technology Education labs and shops, the equipment is also to be found in traditional and modular programs.  134  Figure 47. Technology Education Equipment in B C by % of S c h o o l s , 1988  1  T  Combination New and Traditonal  New Technologies  •  • Vancouver Island • Other Mainland H Lower Mainland  Traditional Technologies  0%  10%  20%  30%  40%  50%  60%  70%  80%  90%  Combination of traditional and "New" Equipment 70% described their school equipment as combinations of traditional and new technologies (Figure 47). This is not surprising given that, if regularly maintained good equipment can last any number of years. The Metal shops at two Vancouver schools are prime examples: David Thompson and Vancouver Technical were both constructed post Putman-Weir, during the 1930's and contain most of the original Lathes, Milling Machines and Drill presses; all in good working order. The slow introduction of "new equipment into traditional shop spaces reflects budget policies, with many teachers and administrators operating within extreme constraints. Although districts have made significant investments in computer equipment within schools, this has not always translated into Technology Education lab equipment. With caps and limits on spending it can be argued that the investments made in computer equipment have constrained Technology  135  Educations growth. Traditional equipment might be supplemented or replaced with "New" only as tired equipment needs replacement or becomes inadequate.  Figure 48. S c h o o l Equipment Combinations. School equipment combinations various combinations: (Author)  of Old and New typically include the following in  Technology Subject Area  " O l d " or Traditional Technology  Drafting:  Drafting boards and with parallel  "New" T e c h n o l o g y  tables  rules or drafting  heads. Electronics:  Analogue  and Digital  Soldering  meters,  Circuit design and software,  stations,  oscilloscopes,  Computer hardware and design drafting software to supplement board drafting.  Circuit  board  screen printing frames chemical processing  and tanks.  well as circuit production software  simulation  bread-boarding,  as  board  hardware  and  to produce  pc  boards. Automotive:  Hoists, Brake lathes, grinders,  Valve  Power washers  engine diagnostic  and  machines.  On-line interactive stand-alone equipment  and  digital and/or  software  for system diagnosis, procedures  and  service  parts  manuals. Metalwork:  Lathes,  Milling  Drill presses, grinders,  machines, Surface  Oxy-acetylene  cutting, Gas and welding, forges  Computer  or CNC  controlled  lathes, milling machines digital measuring  electric and  and  equipment  and CNC controlled  plasma  cutters.  foundries. Woodwork Construction:  and  Table-saws, saws,  Thickness  Jointers, machines, Band  Radial  Lathes,  arm  Computer  controlled  planers,  Overhead  Router and  Mortising  or Panel Saws.  scroll saws,  saws.  and  and software  PC  Cut-off  hardware  for design  and  layout.  136  4.8 Course Titles Question 7 Participants MOE  were presented  and asked  with a list of 33 subjects  titles recognized  by the  BC-  to check off titles that were offered.  Despite curriculum reform in the shops and labs of British Columbia's public schools being actively promoted for at least two decades, date indicates that the top five curricula in terms of popularity continue to be: woodworking, (2) construction, (3) board and CAD drafting, (4) automotive, and (5) metalworking (Figure 49). This order of popularity is consistent across the province, and this particular finding does not differ greatly from the findings of similar surveys conducted in other provinces and in the United States. Even though it is conceivable that these five subjects are now being approached from a Technology Education perspective; It is equally arguable that Technology Education has been embraced in name only in some schools.  137  Figure 49. Most Popular Technology C o u r s e s in B C by Number of S c h o o l s , 1988  Electronics Power Mechanics Metalworking Auto Mechanics  • Vancouver Island • Other Mainland  Drafting & CAD  H Lower Mainland  Construction Woodworking 0  20  40  60  80  100  This survey question generated 38 course titles, 34 listed on the survey instrument and 4 written in by respondents in the open-ended sections (Appendix 6). When similar course titles are grouped with related titles; e.g. Woodwork with both Construction and Wood Art, Power Mechanics with Automotive etc, the picture changes. As can be noted in Figure 50: Drafting, including Architectural, Mechanical and Computer Aided is the most popular. Woodwork/Construction is second. Metalwork, including Welding and Art Metal moves to third from fifth and the Automotive grouping remains in forth position. The Science and General Technology group or "New" Technology grouping; Technology Education, Science & Technology, Environmental Technology, Biotechnology, Design Technology, General Technology and Applied Technology are in the fifth position. A new grouping that suits the title Visual Technologies encompassing  138  Graphics, Video & Media, Photography and Digital Animation is the sixth most popular grouping. These titles contain overlapping content and activities.  Figure 50. Grouped Popular Technology Subjects  Visual Tec Sci & Gen Tec All Auto  • Vancouver Isl. • Other Mainland  All Metals  • Lower Mainland  Wood/Cstn Des/D rafting 0  50  100  150  200  When the Junior and Middle school subjects are separated from the composite data a different picture emerges, consistent across the regions Wood and Metalwork are in first and third positions respectively (Fig 51). While interpreting this study, one should be cognizant that the roots of these courses can be traced back through Arts (IA)  to  Manual  Training.  Industrial Education  (IE),  Industrial  Manual Training's foundational subjects were Wood  and Metalwork. Manual Training was introduced into the public schools of Canada and British Columbia at the turn of the last century as a Sloyd based training program to balance hand-eye coordination and tool use with academic studies (Hostetter, 1974).To enable the manipulation of real objects and materials, a series of progressive or sequential exercises and activities using  139  wood and metalworking was employed. The Idealist, pestalozzian nature of the program by 1915 had become a craft based replication of industrial practices. The implications of this shift are significant, many practitioners in the field are concerned that Technology Education at the secondary level now has a mainly vocational focus. Senior Technology Education subject areas (Wood, Metal, Automotive, and Electronics) present an excellent way of enhancing and contextualizing liberal education for all students (Hurley 1999). With curriculum, facilities planning, and budgets being driven by a directly to-work, or articulation  to community  college  apprenticeship  model there is little opportunity for non-  vocationally directed students to take electives that permit the manipulation of real materials and objects. In other words; while a student might want to take a woodwork or metalwork class for the experience of working with materials in a creative way in order to fulfill the applied skills graduation requirement, S/he may not have the opportunity to do so, in several districts courses are over subscribed and students in career prep streams receive priority placement. Confounding this situation is the tendency of counseling staff to encourage young women away from the technology areas and post secondary pre-requisite courses in favor of soft skill elective areas.  140  Figure 51. Junior and Middle S c h o o l Grouped Subjects  Visual Tec All Auto Design Drafting All Metals Sci & Gen Tec Wood/Construction 10  20  30  40  50  60  The impact of Technology Education is evident in the second most popular group of subjects. The popularity of "New" technologies including Technology Education, Science & Technology, Environmental Technology, Biotechnology, Design Technology, General Technology and Applied Technology with the grade 7 to 9 structure is encouraging and may well be influenced by the requirement to include some aspect of Technology Education in the K to 8 Grades. The finding is surprising considering that without start-up funding for Technology Education classes several districts have used existing applied skills electives including woodwork, electricity, computer applications and keyboarding to meet the requirement without curriculum re-organization. Design Drafting; Architectural, Mechanical and Computer Aided and the Visual Technologies; Graphics, Video & Media, Photography and Digital Animation are in forth and sixth position. Again this group contains many unexpected course titles. Automotive courses at these grade levels are mainly  141  composed of Small Engines and Power Mechanics and again the roots are historical. General Mechanics  was introduced as an Industrial Arts course during  the 1920's as a practical course initially to aid families with the repair and maintenance of machinery coming into general use on the farms of rural BC. Given that many new Technology teachers find their initial teaching assignment in the junior high or middle school grades then it is reasonable to conclude that their pro Technology Education teacher training at BCIT and UBC may be influencing the development of new subjects at those grade levels.  4.9 New Unit Titles Question 8 Participants indicate additional  were presented  with a list of Nineteen  Unit titles and asked  any that they intend to offer in the near future. Space  to  was provided  for  titles to be offered.  The selection of intended new unit titles within existing separate subject courses or programs indicates a willingness to include content that moves beyond traditional technical subject boundaries of woodwork, Metalwork and Automotive (Fig 52)  142  Figure 52.10 Most Popular New Unit Titles  Other units identified included: Bio-Technology, Energy, Home Maintenance, Hydraulics & Pneumatics, Materials Science, Plastics, Science & Technology, Transportation, Electronics and Computer Networking. With the proceeding occurring at > 1% interpretation or explanation is difficult but the interest in a broad range of the areas is encouraging.  143  4.10 Locally Developed Courses Question 9 Participants were asked to identify any Locally Developed Courses that they currently offer. Space was provided to identify up to 12 titles on the questionnaire. Courses with groundings in Automotive, Woodwork and Metalwork identified in Fig (53) were the most popular. This finding is not surprising as the same trend is evident in General Course Tiles, Item 7 and Technology Career Preparation Courses, item 10. Interestingly the need to address a social or creative need as well as the ability to deliver non-traditional courses in existing facilities may be identified in the three most popular locally developed course titles; Car Care, Wood Carving and Art Metal.  144  Figure 53. 8 Most Popular Locally Developed C o u r s e s 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 c*  C)  °  c #  ^  ^  v  ^  o#  J>  -sr <^  /  xO^  ^  <t? ^  Car Care  A Car Care course differs from its Traditional Automotive counterpart in several ways: •  A traditional Automotive course is typically taught in a shop replicating the workplace and containing most of the equipment and tools found in industry. Although the knowledge and experiences gained by the students can be useful in using and maintaining vehicles in their adult years the curriculum focus is primarily Vocational and has typically appealed to male students with automotive career aspirations. A strong link exists between the learning outcomes of the senior programs and the knowledge and skills-sets required of future automotive apprentices. Students gain knowledge, experience and  145  competency in 2 and 4 cycle combustion theory, engine disassembly and repair, steering, breaking and electrical systems, tool and equipment use as well as basic bodywork. Regretfully some out-of-touch councilors and administrators place students weak in academics, and/or behaviorally challenged in applied skills electives without support, effectively creating what many teachers term a "dumping ground", lowering the quality of instruction and limiting the programs content as instruction must proceed at a pace that does not leave students behind.  •  A Car Care course may be delivered in a "working" shop or a Tech Lab. With a curriculum focus of vehicle systems operation and maintenance the need for full facilities is diminished (A generalist or even humanist approach to the interaction between the vehicles parts/systems and the owner/operator provides and opportunity to deliver curriculum to a wider audience.) Since the curriculum connects classroom knowledge and experience to future adult life responsibilities (owning, operating and maintaining a vehicle). It can appeal and be useful to a broad range of students and is not limited to those with vocational career choices. In a Car Care course students were exposed to a combination of classroom and practical experiences. Engine, fuel, electrical, steering, suspension and braking systems are studied and students gain experience and competency in identifying common failures like worn or flat tires, dead batteries, etc. Hands on activities can include: Checking fluid levels, oil changes, air filter changes, changing and rotating tires, cleaning  146  interior and exterior finishes. Young women are more likely to enroll in nonvocational Car Care than traditional Automotive classes due in part to reduced Math and Tool phobias as well as the useful nature of the curriculum.  Wood Carving A Wood Carving course differs from general Woodwork courses in several ways: •  Woodwork classes are for the most part taught is specialized shops with a variety of hand tools and machinery available. Middle or Junior school shops generally contain smaller scale and less industrial machinery while they promote a curriculum focused on correct and safe hand and power tool use. Senior secondary shops contain most of the equipment and tools found in the construction industry. Again, curriculum focus in Construction and Cabinet Making classes is primarily Vocational, and appeals mainly to male students with building construction career aspirations. A strong link exists between the learning outcomes of the senior programs and the knowledge and skills-sets required of future Carpentry apprentices.  •  Wood Carving classes fall into two main classifications, decorative and creative. Decorative carving includes both chip and relief methods and links historical, social, and fine art traditions to the creative process. Early Manual Training utilized Relief Carving to develop hand-eye coordination. The main distinction of is in process, creating an artifact by removing material from a solid piece of wood. The links to social, historical, anthropological and fine art  147  traditions are strong. Away from the Provinces Lower Mainland, the enrolments of students with First Nations ancestry are higher and programs often feature a cultural theme, going as far as inviting guest carvers to supplement the instruction.  Art Metal  An Art Metal course differs from its general Metalwork counterpart in several significant ways: •  As in automotive and woodwork, metalwork is commonly taught in specialized shops with specialized hand tools and machinery . Both 88  Junior and Senior classes promote laying-out, cutting, manipulating and joining various types of metals. This includes; bench work, welding, forging, foundry, and machining. Junior shops generally contain smaller and less industrial versions of machinery. Senior secondary shops contain most of the equipment and tools found in Industrial Welding, Fabrication or Machine shops. Like Woodcarving, curriculum focus in senior Metalwork classes is primarily Vocational, and appeals mainly to male students with career interest in metal related occupations. A strong link exists between the learning outcomes of the senior programs and the knowledge and skills-sets required of future welding, millwright and machinist apprentices.  The metal component of a junior technology or applied skill course if often taught in a combined shop that might include woodwork and drafting.  148  •  In Art Metal classes the operative word is Art. When taught in traditional shop facilities the instruction and learning outcomes for personal safety, hand tools, foundry, forge, welding and lathe work remain the same as for a general metal class. With identical methods of manipulating, cutting, and joining materials, an Art Metal approach develops a creative component within the student. The established projects; coal shovels, coat hooks and cannon barrels are often replaced with two and three-dimensional sculpture, wrought iron table lamps and cast sculptures. The industrial nature of many shops makes the inclusion of highly detailed work; jewelry, copper or silver smithy difficult. Lost wax casting and jewelry work is popular but often a part of a Fine Arts program and taught by an art teacher. Art Metal courses appeal to wide range of students in part because of the non-vocational nature of art metal courses and the links to art in general and the creative process.  The development of Car Care, Wood Carving and Art Metal courses by technical departments to meet local needs can be seen as a positive sign that a move away from Vocationalism is occurring. It is also arguable that the need to maintain enrolment in declining elective subjects is being addressed. The development of the remaining Locally Developed elective subjects; Graphic Communications, Film and Animation, Engineering Design, Applied Technology, Transportation, and Power & Energy courses may be in response to the changing needs of the workplace. As the province moves away from a reliance  149  on resource extraction, lumber and commercial fishing the need for expertise in emerging occupations will have to be addressed. If this is the case then the underlying focus is still Vocational.  4.11 Career Preparation Courses Question 1 0  Participants were asked to list any Technology Education Career  Preparation  Courses offered. Fifty different Career Preparation course titles were identified by the respondents (Fig. 5 4 ) When grouped by Career Related Area the most popular are Construction, Automotive and Metalwork. Figure 54. Career Preparation C o u r s e Areas.  ou  r  70 60 50  -  40 30 20 10  0 4CD CJ CD  *- J5 UJ CD  > -o o S E * O  CD  = DC  C CD  51 ® rr  £ «5 2 "CD Q rr  CO CO CD  fc—  <  _CL_EL: o ^ ? oS ® £ -5  3  |  0)  E o5  CD  <  This finding is not surprising given the unit specific nature of the majority of the facilities and the Industrial/vocational nature of many programs. The industry backgrounds of many senior technical teachers may be having a bearing on the curriculum development of career preparation courses.  150  Construction related courses included: •  Building Construction, Carpentry & Joinery, Cabinet Making, Materials & Production, Forestry, Structures and Wood Science.  Automotive related courses included: •  Automotive Mechanics, Auto body, Automotive Technician.  Metalwork related courses included: •  Metal fabrication, Welding, Engineering, Machinist, Aviation and Millwright.  Drafting related courses included. •  Drafting and Computer Aided Design Drafting (CADD).  New subject areas included: •  Graphics, Radio and Television, Animation, Art Courses, Jewelry Design, Film, Business and Work Experience.  New technology areas included: •  Technology, Science & Technology, Trades and Technology, Applied Science & Robotics.  Computer-related courses included: •  Computer Technician, Computer Networking, Information Technology, Computer Science and Computer Media.  Although the 4 most popular curricular areas continue to be Woodwork, Metalwork, Automotive and Drafting, over 50 individual and different courses were identified. The offerings included courses in wood/metal fine arts, new technology and computer related areas. Taken as a group these new offerings are equal to the number of automotive career preparation courses in the province  151  and may represent the beginning of a move to align career preparation programs with the evolving workplace.  4.12 Courses for Young Women Question 11 Participants for Young  were asked  to list any Technology  Education  Courses  offered only  Women.  Comparative evaluation is difficult with less than one percent of the sites offering Technology related courses exclusively for young women. Overall the respondents identified courses titles mainly in automotive, woodwork and construction areasA  Figure 55. Subject orientations, c o u r s e s for young women Automotive related  •  Car Maintenance  Woodwork related  •  Women in  Other c o u r s e s  •  Technology  Construction •  Automotive  •  Woodwork  •  Jewelry  •  Automotive 11  •  Women in Trades  •  Mentorship,  •  Womens  and Technology •  Mechanics.  Studies  Technology Education courses for young women can be viewed as interventionist in that they provide an opportunity for young women to gain exposure to vocational and career areas that have been traditionally male  152  dominated. Vocational and Career course enrolment hesitation centered around tool and math phobias can be overcome when young women take an initial single gendered course.  4.13 Written Comments Question 12 Participants concerning  were asked Technology  to identify any concerns Teacher  Education  and provide  in British  feedback  Columbia.  An Excel spreadsheet was designed to record and tabulate the responses that had been categorized, a macro approach to textural analysis was employed to identify significant words and phrases and classify into 14 separate Areas of Concern.  8 9  (Figure 56) Full responses are provided in Appendix 1.  66% of the Junior/middle school respondents and 62% of the secondary responders identified concerns and provided feedback directly related to the preparation and credentialing of Technology Education Teachers in the province. Additionally a range of specific and general concerns on an 90  assortment of items from the quality and types of programs in their schools, to funding issues for new and existing programs emerged.  A l l written comments were transcribed to text and the M S word software feature "Find" was utilized to locate specific words and phrases. The total was tabulated and converted to a percentage of the total number of responses received. The total includes several identified topics: Teacher Training, BCIT Teacher Prep. U B C Teacher Prep, Practicum Experience, and Professional Development.  153  Figure 56. Categorization by Areas of C o n c e r n . Categorization by Areas of C o n c e r n .  Middle & Junior High  Senior Secondary  Middle School Program  39%  0%  Technology Education Focus  36%  50%  Teacher Training  36%  24%  Shops and Facilities  27%  16%  Traditional Focus  18%  20%  BCIT Teacher Preparation  16%  6%  Funding Problems  16%  19%  Curriculum Development  16%  12%  Junior High Program  13%  3%  Industrial Education Focus  12%  16%  UBC Teacher Preparation  9%  7%  Professional Development  6%  20%  Teacher Retirement and Teacher Shortages  6%  5%  Practicum Experience  3%  5%  4.13.1 Middle S c h o o l Program C o n c e r n s .  44%  91  of the narrative responses can be identified as being from either  Middle or Junior schools.  92  Identifying a programs prominent focus from the  teacher comments is difficult as not every respondent commented on similar concerns. However, within this Middle/Junior grouping it was possible to identify 36% as having Technology Education program concerns, while 12% can be identified as having Industrial Education, and 18% have Traditional Program  91  39% Middle school and 13% Junior High.  9 2  This identification was possible as the responders provided the name of their school and the district on the survey form.  154  concerns. This suggest that as a group the Junior and Middle schools teachers have been offering some type of Technology Education/industrial/traditional program. This is reasonable considering the British Columbia Ministry of Education (BC-MOE) requirement to provide Technology Education as a mandatory subject area for Kindergarten to Grade 8. branch distributed a K-8 Instructional Resource replace previous rigid Curriculum  Guides.  93  The MOE curriculum  Package  (IRP) developed to  The rational for this approach is that it  allows educators a choice in selecting educational resources, topics and instructional methods within a framework of Prescribed Learning Outcomes (PLO's) for Self and Society, Production,  Communications,  Control -Energy  &  Power. Curriculum can be developed that suits local conditions of available resources, facilities and needs.  4.13.2 Senior Secondary Program C o n c e r n s  Secondary participation accounts for 46% of the responses. Some elasticity may exist as some sites have differing grade structures including K-10, Alternate 8,9,10 ect. Additionally some teachers may be teaching at more that one site or in more than one program. Within this Secondary grouping 50% reported having Technology Education program concerns while 16% identified Industrial Education,  and 20% Traditional Program concerns. This breakdown  suggests that as a group of secondary teachers 86% have concerns about the programs that they are delivering. As with the Junior/Middle school responders  9 3  This requirement was lifted beginning with the 2002-2003 school year.  155  these program concerns are related to school program finance, teacher preparation, professional development and facility concerns.  4.13.3 T e c h n o l o g y Education F o c u s  Written comments in this category included 36% of the Middle/Junior and 50% of the secondary responders and identified concerns overlapping with other topics. Implementing a technology education course or program where none has existed before has impacts on budgeting, curriculum development, teacher professional development and shop and facility adaptation.  4.13.4 Teacher Training, BCIT Teacher Preparation, U B C Teacher Preparation and the Practicum Experience  As a group of topics these concerns were expressed more often by Middle/Junior than Secondary teachers; 64% verses 43% of each groups responses. In each group at least two streams of thought are present; one 94  represents the responders dissatisfaction with her/his own training or preparation.... "The BCIT portion of our education needs to focus on practical unit building and not so much on academic practical  use to me.  Courses  9 4  that have proved  like material science  time that could be better employed a recent grad, my concern  courses  for example,  in shops developing  to be a little take up a lot of  units and skills."  is with a good, basic preparation  for teachers.  "As Things  Although no hard data is available, anecdotal sources report that new teachers without industry experience or Trades qualifications generally are hired into junior or middle school positions. The greater number of concerns from the Junior/Middle school group may be attributed to more new and dissatisfied teachers working at those sites.  156  as rudimentary  as grinding chisels and welding need to be mastered  design and problem-solving production  courses  before  the  stuff is introduced.". ..."No graphic arts or printing  offered at UBC. I had to go to the U.S. to get trained."  And the other view that the preparation programs can be improved; "Teacher  training for middle school tech-ed positions should be different than  the focus for high school teachers,  grades  9 to 12. Middle schools do not get into  doing brake jobs on cars or building tables and grandfather "prospective curriculum  spreadsheets.  need courses  "Elementary  and  entry programs  of any kind  databases."  need to be familiar with technology  that applies  should be longer; what about the intern program  program.  '  to their  like UVIC for the  m  ...."I am concerned members  in desktop publishing  areas."  "Practicum general  for proficiency  using large  teachers  tech  facilities."  Also, the options of training on Marks-  test construction  curriculum  have to have some ideas of how to fit new  into old shops and  "All teachers  and/or  teachers  clocks."  about the length of the extended  practicum.  Many  staff  feel that 13 weeks is too long."  "Many student teachers in the past have lacked basic practical skills. This is not a fault of their own. It seems the time allocated to practical hands-on training has been reduced." 9 5  The University of Victoria, (UVIC) model for elementary and middle school teachers sees students enrolled in the faculty of education from their first year onwards. Students graduate in 4 years having had multiple intern/practicum experiences. Technology Education is not included in the U V I C offerings.  157  "With a changing emphasis, we need individuals who: A. have a combine B. Are C. Have  training in industry, tradesmen  and new  technology  female. the ability to bring the artistic creative design prospective  technology  education  D. Are computer  to  courses.  literate."  In the preparation of Technology Education Teachers the separation of skills training and pedagogical development may account for some of the expressed views and can be attributed to the structure of the training program. BCIT provides the skills based training and UBC the curriculum development, pedagogy and major student teaching experiences.  4.13.5  Shops and Facilities Concerns  focused on shops and facilities were often connected  issues and include;  to other  shortfalls in funding..."Lack of funding for new or  replacement equipment", the desire to move beyond an industrial  focus  96  ..."Shops need upgrades for cleaner/quieter environments", The need for teachers  to be flexible...!  think prospective teachers have to have some ideas of  how to fit new tech curriculum into old shops and facilities" , 97  preparation....we  9 6  Teacher  seem to be lacking graduating students that have hard skills"  98  One view held by Technology Education advocates is that TE should replace IE.  9 7  With long serving teachers retiring; those new to the field can be expected to have a Technology Education pedagogy and could well be teaching in traditional types of shops.  9 8  Compared to the last decade, the UBC/BCIT preparation program is seeing fewer trades background candidates entering technology teaching. New teachers with industry experiences frequently entered teaching with embodied hard skills.  158  and the desire to retain existing courses..."]  feel that a general technology shop  is fine but not at the expense of the traditional shops." .... "the traditional shops and courses are still needed". These comments field express,  reflect the view that many in the  they do not dispute the real need to provide  Technology  in the public schools but feel that this should not occur at the expense courses  with either a liberal arts or vocational  Education of shop  purpose.  Shop and Facility concerns were expressed by 27% of the Middle/Junior responders and 16% of the Secondary group. This range of views may be explained in that many of the Lower Mainland Junior schools were constructed during the 1960's following on the heels of the Chant Commission recommendations (discussed in detail in Chapter 2, section, .25) The commission recommended moving from the 6-3-3 grade model to a 7-3-2 structure and constructing shops for developing Industrial Education courses for the grades -8, 9 and 10. Many students were leaving school to enter the workplace and the commission felt that they were ill prepared.  4.13.6 Funding Concerns Funding concerns were expressed by 19% of the secondary and 16% of the junior and middle responders.. Teachers located in schools that offer Technology Education within existing facilities reported (a lack of)... "Adequate to traditional shop areas implementation  funding for facility  wishing to convert to a tech Ed approach."  funds targeted for industrial education  or technology  renovations  And.... no education.  159  The need to replace outdated machinery is growing, ... "How, financially do we upgrade  The lack of funds for purchasing new TE equipment; wind  equipment".  tunnels, rocket launchers and computers is a concern; ... "Funding for new equipment  is low or nonexistent".  technological Big  resources  especially  "Lack of financial support to provide in the situation  we are in with no course  fees.  concern".  4.13.7 Curriculum Development C o n c e r n s  The move to open-ended or descriptive curriculum materials in the form of Integrated Resource Packages (IRP)'s is troubling to 16% of the middle/junior and 12% of the secondary responders. The previous guide; published in 1977  99  had been prescriptive in nature and provided a set of objectives, learning outcomes as well as required and optional content. Evaluation was based on ability of the student to demonstrate mastery of technical knowledge and required practical skills. In comparison the IRP approach encouraged a formative and continuous evaluation approach. For some teachers the shift to a curriculum that moves away from or transcends the status-quo with its established links to apprenticeship and employment in trade occupations is difficult to come to terms with, and implement. ... "The curriculum is too theory focused students learn best by hands-on  9 9  approach  to technology  learning.  The emphasis  should be on  practical  First published in 1977 the guide became the primary curriculum document covering the 6 IE areas and was available from the M O E curriculum branch until 1992.  160  projects  which include the fundamentals  the information  so students began  are more receptive  to new  of technology.  Project should  proceed  to ask why things don't work and in doing so  learning."  Beginning in 1995 pre-service teachers enrolled in the BCIT portion of their training received an introduction to curriculum development, unit/lesson planning and instructional strategies modeled on a technology education framework. Responses from recent graduates indicate that attention may not have been paid to the problem of delivering TE in traditional IE unit shops. ..."/ think prospective curriculum  teachers  have to have some ideas of how to fit new  into old shops and facilities".  The need for a structured approach may  have been overlooked, .."The new curriculum isn't prescriptive prevents  the establishment  of  tech  enough  and  standards".  Concern is evident surrounding ongoing curriculum support, the new IR P has been released field", ... "a lack of provincial curriculum".  to have abandoned  and university support for new  In-service concerns include/'... "teachers  traditional industrial education understand  the ministry seems  the dynamics  ..."Since it to the  technology  will not move away from  instruction models unless they are educated  of the new  to  curriculum".  Technology education in the middle schools does not have the obvious vocational and career curriculum pressures found in secondary schools. One respondent commented that .."Much about middle school Tech-Ed comes  from individual  teacher  interests and locally developed  units".  curriculum  Middle and  junior schools act as feeders for the districts secondary schools. Collapsing of  161  woodwork and metal programs in the middle grades can impact on the secondary schools electives in that without exposure to the subjects, students are less likely to request technical electives in the senior grades.  4.13.8 Industrial Education F o c u s  As reported earlier in Chapter 4, section 4; a primarily IE program focus was identified in 28% of the schools that were not located in the Lower Mainland or on Vancouver Island. The Mainland/Island program focus rate was 12%. Communities away from the Lower Mainland may not have embraced a T E curriculum for economic or political reasons (Petrina & Dallev, 2001). Vocational and career preparation programs are strong in communities dependant upon resource extraction, fishing or logging..." We cannot ignore the role that industrial education  has played; the real world is a broad spectrum"....  Mainland,  where tabletop technology  different.  IE teachers in smaller and isolated communities are defensive of their  program  "Extensive  knowledge  approach  the technology  courses  environment  technology  Lower  will suffice, rural schools are totally  and skills are a must.  Teachers  must  being taught to relate directly to the local  small town rural BC is very unforgiving,  or they will not except  "Unlike the  courses".  it must be taught suit them  Low student interest and enrolment  numbers is a problem away from the major cities..."In small schools is very difficult to acquire education".  the enrollment  to run other than traditional  industrial  In some districts reduced interest in IE is causing some schools to  close down or combine programs.... "At (name withheld) Secondary  industrial  162  education  teachers  must work in a combined  metal and wood shop with small  classes".  This situation has its own set of problems, without dedicated space  one or the other of the programs will suffer. Oil and grease contamination of work benches, hand tools and wood stock can make woodwork classes difficult. Wood dust and shavings must be kept out of engine lathes, foundry and welding areas. Existing IE teachers may not see any benefit in re-aligning their programs..." Teachers instruction new  models  will not move away from traditional industrial  unless they are educated  to understand  education  the dynamics  of the  curriculum".  4.13.9 Professional Development  Apart from workshops given at the annual BCTEA Technology Educators Specialist Association  100  respondents report that little has been provided on a  province wide basis to promote or assist in the introduction of technology education. Teachers located in the interior or far north feel strongly about their individual situations. "...Technology experienced promoting involves  education  little in the way of professional or assisting in the introduction  development  in the field have activity aimed  of TE in the schools.  more than updating and re-configuring  need to be competent  teachers  in the old technologies,  equipment.  New  at  technology  New teachers  which, while de-emphasized,  will are  IE and T E teachers can join the B C T E A or British Columbia Technology Education Association. This is the only organization available that is recognized by both the B C College of Teachers and the teachers professional association or union.. A l l teachers in B C can join what is termed their Local Specialist Association (LSA) for their subject area. The organizational structure is regulated with elections held annually.  163  not disappearing and in the new technologies which are rapidly evolving and will require continuous professional development in order to keep skills current." Views were expressed that post secondary institutions should be taking a leading role in providing professional development...7f would be great if the technology education center at BCIT would offer pro D. workshops to help teachers stay current areas such as plastics, CAD, animation etc." An undercurrent of frustration is evident..."/ was trained to teach Tech 10 years ago Tm still waiting for guidance and support."  4.13.10 Teacher Retirement and Teacher Shortages  As reported in section 3 the data indicates that within 5 years up to 25% of the reported 1,060 technology teachers  101  will retire. The feedback responses  offer insight into individual teachers concerns, "There is a great shortage of technology education teachers in the province"....  "I am very concerned about  the retirement rate of tradesmen and IE teachers other next few years. It will be almost impossible to replace them if students are not encouraged to go into trades and technology". Specialist T E teachers may be in short supply..." Clearly there is a great shortage of qualified technology teachers understanding contemporary processes in automotive, drafting, and machining". Concerns surrounding the availability of teachers prepared to teach in new areas.. "Scarcity of bona fide instructors well grounded in this area in tune with IRP directions". Teachers-on-call or substitute availability is a concern... "We 101  This figure of 1,060 is an estimate provided by the B C T A based on local specialist association membership. The Ministry figure is lower at 810 teachers. Both estimates are general in that they contain teachers teaching less than a full load.  164  cannot get enough substitute teachers  to allow for release  time for illness or pro-  d". Leadership in the area of re-positioning long service IE teachers is sought. .."Need a clear picture provincially of what technology education is, and where it is headed.  This district sees many old industrial education  10 years from retirement, and wondering  teachers  where they fit in the scheme  5 to  of things."  165  CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS 5.11ntroduction Explaining or reconciling the apparent failure of what has been described as "the perfect reform" is far from an easy task (Petrina & Dalley, 2001). Technology Education, together with other school subjects, have histories and politics (Goodson, 1988, pp. 160-183). Some subjects have socio-historical constructs reaching into antiquity while for others, their emergence was due to the efforts of particular interest groups  102  that actively contrive school subjects.  These interest groups also have politics and histories and can exercise power to influence which curriculum reforms succeed and which ones fail. Unlike the earlier centralized and separate curriculums of manual and industrial training that reinforced the cultural and class-based practices of their day, Technology Education is a global enterprise that can cut across cultural, political and economic lines. Technical-like school subjects have been described as "practical" and like art and home economics have a history of struggling for identity, power, and status within the schools. The mix of subjects included in a school's offerings is often a result of what various influence groups value. Identifying and understanding the values embodied in technology may provide insight into one of the driving forces new curriculum development, curriculum change or the resistance to it. Advances in science, technology and industry  1 0 2  Post secondary institutions, business interests, and subject specialist associations can exert pressure as lobby groups.  166  have affected almost every aspect of human life in the industrialized world. Practical based curriculums in schools should have reflected these radical changes. Looking to the past is not just an exercise in history, it provides way of understanding people and societies and helps us understand change and how the society we live in came to be. The era up until the stock market crash of 1929 was one of great optimism. Electricity powered the cities, towns, and a variety of new household appliances. Radio brought world news, music and drama into the home. The telephone originally promoted for business use was finding favor in the home. Trains and trucks transported goods to distant markets and people could travel in the cities on electric streetcars and in the country on trains, buses or their own automobile. Those that could afford it could use air travel. We can be more comfortable with new trends if we understand how they developed and how they impact on human behaviors. Since history provides an immediate background 103  to our own life and age, it is highly desirable to learn about forces that arose in the past and continue to affect the modern world (Hexter.1971, Holt, 1990).  Concepts that we now consider new or modern often have earlier parallels. As on example, although one might assume Global-ism is a relatively new concept; it is not new at all. During the Middle Ages a "transnational" economy existed in Europe. That was up until 1343 when the English king Edward III was either unable or unwilling to pay debts that built up as a result of equipping his armies and fighting wars. The Florentine bank that financed him collapsed. The fall-out was the eventual establishment of separate national economies, the beginning of radical changes within European finance and countries maintain independent economies for the next 600 years. The current move toward globalization does not necessarily mean that we are going back to a medieval style of economy, with it's centralized monetary system controlled by a select few individuals. The adoption of a universal currency and standardized trading practices on the surface appears logical when viewed from a bureaucratic or corporate perspective. A cultural or social lens will show that universality is blind to the historic, geographic, cultural and social identities that are central to the creation of discrete nations and countries.  167  Understanding the role or importance of Technology Education in adolescent schooling  104  is made easier with an understanding of the roots of  human technocratic enterprise. For instance, there are similarities between the ideals of Technology Education (As defined by Maley in the 1980's) and Sloyd based Arts and Crafts  105  enterprises in Western Europe and Scandinavia.  European Sloyd based Manual Training sought to impart some useful skill or practical knowledge, an understanding or appreciation of the process and the resultant outcomes without direct connection to a trade or vocation. The rise in parallel popularity of Manual Training in Europe and the Arts and Crafts movement were not only rooted in the successful use of simple technologies but in shared knowledge within families, peer groups and communities. The emergence of the Arts and Crafts movement in Britain was a reaction to Victorian ornamentation, and embellishment made possible by technical advances in manufacturing and mass production; and a resistance to mechanization that deskilled the work place and lowered both wages and standards of living.  5.2 What Is/Was Technology Education in B.C.? The untidy fit of technical, vocational, manipulative and 'high-tech' subjects under the umbrella of Technology Education in the British Columbian public schools has its own history and trajectory. Ontario, Quebec, and the Maritime Provinces had trade and industrial schools established as early as 1800  I use the term schooling as appose to education purposefully, to indicate the period when adolescents are required to attend "School" and receive a mandated curriculum. ' Pottery, leatherwork, forging, foundry and furniture making.  168  but slow population growth and a lack of a manufacturing or a substantial industrial base slowed such development in BC. The present curriculum amalgam is generally though of as having its beginnings with the Manual Training initiatives funded by tobacco philanthropist William MacDonald during the early 1900s . William MacDonald's family had 106  early roots in Canada, coming to the Isle of St. John (later Prince Edward Island) and settling there in 1772.  107  He has received much of the credit for taking  Manual Training initiative across Canada. Without his substantial financial contribution, similar programs in almost every province in Canada would not have come into being. Philanthropy was the major driving force for many other North American Manual Training and industrial arts programs. Health, exercise and nutrition initiates were actively supported. While orphanages and church missions in B.C. may have also included some informal activities in developing hand skills for their charges; one can only offer an educated guess as to possible activities. Sewing and domestic service could have transpired for young girls with agriculture or animal husbandry for young boys. James Robertson was a second generation Scott who was able to convince MacDonald that he should sponsor a major Manual Training program. Robertson originally saw Manual Training as a way of improving the practical education of rural youth and that Manual Training in urban schools was the first step to improving the rural schools that tended to  1 0 6  107  He was not related to Canada's first Prime minister, John. A . MacDonald. In fact William had the spelling of his name legally changed in the early 1900's from MacDonald to Macdonald possibly to avoid confusion. See A P P E N D I X 4. The MacDonald Heritage, last stanza..  169  "over-school" their charges (Hurley, 1988, p, 86). After seeing the larger world view presented through texts and other materials enlightened and educated youth may not have wanted to return to the family farm, thus placing it's viability in question. The MacDonald brand of Manual Training was closely modeled on the English Sloyd system. Male students worked in wood and produced "models" of increasing complexity. The series of 50 models detailing Manual Training activities (Appendix3) ranged from the pointer, #1 to a small table #50. This graduated series of exercises allowed students to move from simple to complex activities, building tool skills and drawing abilities.  Figure 57. Manual Training B e n c h work 1912  It could take the students as long as four years to complete all 50 models. In the early part of the century, the majority of students did not proceed beyond grade eight and consequently would not been exposed to the most complex and interesting activities. High School Manual Training occurred in grades 9 and 10. The classes were taught in separate buildings or school basements, that evolved into specialised Manual Training Centers. Scandinavian trained British Manual Training specialists were recruited to come to BC to staff the three Manual Training  170  centers setup under the MacDonald plan. There were a limited number of experienced teachers available within Canada and hiring in the United States was avoided due to a history of tension between Britain Empire and the US going back to the war of independence (Began in 1775) An Englishman, Harry Dunnell administered the first decade Manual Training and in 1913 John Kyle was appointed Director of Technical Education . Kyle was a Scottish born 108  journeyman jeweler and watchmaker as well as an accredited artist and teacher with head teacher and supervisory experience. He originally came to BC as the supervisor of drawing and to teach fine arts in the Vancouver schools (Hurley, 1988, p, 128). As director, John Kyle continued to import specialised British arts and crafts instructors, Canadian Manual Training with its strong links to British Manual Training and social structure effectively replicated British working class knowledge in British Columbia. In the early private schools, a different story must have unfolded, as the schools sought to employ chiefly British teachers with classical degrees or religious training. Within this construct, Manual Training was not included in the private schools beyond basic craft activities; they were essentially text-book based and did not value or see a need to include subjects outside of the established classics.  5.3 Keeping British Columbia British The British-ness evident in the curriculum at the beginning of the 19th century can be ascribed initially to the dominance of both culture and economy  John Kyle was responsible for commercial education, domestic science, Manual Training, and night school, aka "the workingman's university"  171  by the Hudson Bay Company  109  and later by the British colonisation that  continued British cultural and class distinctions . The first school on Vancouver 110  Island to include a practical subject, Industrial Training  111  near Victoria at Minies Plain.  112  was opened in 1854  The "public" fee paying school was operated for  the children of colonists and lower status HBC servants. It shared commonalities with the school at Westminster in the Mainland colony that served mainly the children of the Royal Engineers. The settler's children could also attend these schools but maintaining consistent attendance was problematic until the advent of free compulsory schooling that begun in 1873 according to the Public School Actoi 1872 (Statutes of British Columbia. 1872, p. 1). From 1880 onwards rapid population growth ensued that was fueled by successive gold rushes and a booming coal, lumber and a canned and dried fish exporting economy. The need to quickly provide schools and curriculum was met by establishing schools following the British model; with texts and teachers obtained from Ontario and Britain. Although closer and more easily assessable, American educational materials were not considered. Britain and by extension, the new colonies, had been at war with the US in recent memory: continual disputes over American expansion into the Oregon territory, the War of 1812\n the east, and 1 0 9  The H B C was chartered on May 2nd 1670 by the English king Charles II as the "The Company of Adventurers", The Charter granted the Company the rights to "sole trade and commerce" within the entrance of Hudson Strait. Chartering of companies by the English Crown was an established method of trade and territorial expansion.  1 1 0  A good history of the B H C ' s influence on Canada can be found in Peter Newman. Company of Adventures. (1986). Penguin Books, Toronto.  111  Apparently no records are available to establish exactly what was taught. It is likely that the school followed the Ontario curriculum with decorative handwork, single line book-keeping and commercial practice being the norm.  1 1 2  The school was located near the site of present day Central Junior High/Middle School and was used as primary school from 1853 to 1870 and Victoria High School from 1876 to 1882  172  the local but limited 1859 Pig War on n3  the San Juan Islands caused the British  settlers to distrust Americans. British educational practice would be the norm, and if not available then eastern Canadian methodology would prevail over American. The new common schools replicated or reinforced Victorian British working class childhood. In contrast to the schooling of the settlers children, the children of the newly made captains of business and industry received a different kind of education. The six private schools established in BC up until 1932  114  followed the  British boarding school model and delivered essentially a British grammar school curriculum to the children of the new fee-paying aristocracy (Barman, 1996). Learning to "p\ay the game "and fit the expectations of upper class society was as important as achieving high academic results. The boys were being groomed to be future captains of business, industry and politics. The elite wanted their children  educated  misgivings  separately  from the riff-raff, and ordinary  about the local public school Curriculum  folk often had  or teacher  (Conrad, Finkel, &  Jaenen, 1993, pp. 504-505).  1 1 3  Confusion over which ocean channel separated the US and the Crown's Colonies resulted in an armed stand-off after an American settler shot and killed a H B C pig that was foraging on one of the disputed Islands.  1 1 4  St. Ann's Academy 1858, Crofton House School 1898, Queen's Academy 1904, St., St. Margaret's School, Victoria 1908, St. Michaels University School, Victoria 1906, Shawnigan Lake School 1916, George's School, Vancouver 1931.  173  Figure 58. Sewing Projects 1912  Since it was commonly believed that a women's place was in the home and being too smart or having too much education could impair her chances for an advantageous marriage, the education of girls included meeting the social expectations of deportment, manners and companionship. These private, exclusive institutions did not include arts and crafts or Manual Training subjects in their curriculums for educational reasons. Embroidery was taught since it was considered a refined activity unlike dressmaking or the work of the seamstress.  5.4 First Nations and Manual Training Figure 59. S o n g h e e s Reserve S c h o o l , Victoria. 1902.  The British government was obligated by the Royal Charter of 1763 to protect the well being of aboriginal people living within British Colonies in America. When the separate British Colonies and territories came into the Canadian Confederation the Canadian Federal Government  174  assumed that responsibility under the British North America act, (BNA) and passed several "Indian Acts" to regulate aboriginal land reservations, education and health c a r e .  115  (Fisher, 1977).  Since the aboriginal children would return to their families after school, early attempts at schooling on reserves were not always successful at conversion or indoctrination into the dominant culture. As a solution, the government adopted a more powerful model. Indian Residential, Boarding  schools  and Industrial  set up for the province's Aboriginal or First Nations children,  described at the time as Native Indians.  116  The schools were based on  operational models developed in the United States and contracted to religious or charitable groups to operate schools established by the federal government. There were and are, two principal and contrasting views or philosophies that illuminate the reasons for the establishment of Indian Residential Schools in Canada and the United States: "The common  schools are the stomachs  that come to us are assimilated ox, the lion does not become  of the country in which all  within a generation.  people  When a lion eats an  an ox but the ox becomes  a lion,"  -Henry Ward Beeche, 1813-1887 (The Red Man, 1890).  "If the Great Spirit had desired me to be a white man he would have me so in the first place.  '  1 5  1 1 6  made  He put in your heart certain wishes and plans; in  The historical relationship between The H B C , B C First Nations and the Federal Government is illuminated in Robin Fisher's work, Contact and Conflict. (1997). The term "Indian" has been used generally to describe the indigenous peoples on the American continent. The origins seem to be with Christopher Columbus, who upon seeing these people is reported to have mistakenly believed that he had Discovered the Indian subcontinent, rather than the American continent while on a circumnavigation of the world in 1492.  175  my heart he put other and different desires. Each man is good in the sight of the Great Spirit. It is not necessary, that eagles should be crows," -Sitting Bull, Teton Sioux 1831-1890 (The Red Man, 1890).  Figure 60. Carpentry at Labret.  In British Columbia the first Indian Residential (IR) school opened in 1863, St. Mary's located in Mission. It was notably the last IR school to close in 1984. The official reasons for establishing the schools were to educate, train and acculturate Aboriginal youth so that they could be successful in the larger society. The Federal government's theories about industrial education were generally translated to as basic vocational training. In most cases, the schools used extreme discipline and espoused religious dogma, served spartan meals and used the children's labor in school workshops. Products produced in the IR workshops included: Clothing, shoes, furniture (Figure 60) and blacksmithing items that were subsequently sold with the money going to the schools operators (Miller, 1996).  176  Figure 61.1930's Student Project, Alert Bay. BC. At the Alert Bay Residential School on Cormorant Island the situation differed in that students could make projects for there own use. During the 1930's principal Anfield instructed the senior boys in woodwork and during their final year they constructed a fishing boat to take with them when they left. By reinforcing traditional seafaring activity he was promoting self sufficiency for the isolated island communities. BC was 20 years behind Ontario in closing residential schools, preferring to leave the responsibility for first Nations education with the Federal government. The original St. Michael's school building still stands imposingly at the north end of Cormorant Island is a grim reminder of a painful time. It is difficult to walk the hallways without feeling the presence of so many children with broken dreams and spirits. The building now houses First Nations carvers, community space and extension programs delivered by North Island College. With the residential school closing, a day school opened within the shadows of the original building. For 30 years, Island students spent their school days in a collection of hastily assembled and deteriorating ATCO portables connected 117  together by covered outside walkways. In 1995 a new school was completed for the 'Namgis Education Authority. The T'Lisalagi'Lakw school is a modern facility that can accommodate up to 150 students; it operates as a private school with Federal financial support. 1 1 7  The selected location was out in the open with no protection from winter storms or summer rain.  177  In 2001 I was invited by the school to develop and pilot the woodwork and technology component of a Co-op education program  118  directed to at-risk youth.  Figure 62. T'Lasalagi'Lakw School. Alert Bay. BC As I knew the history of the community, it was important for me to develop curriculum and activities that would celebrate North West Coastal First Nations  119  culture. To  expedite Federal funding approval, the new school had been designated as an elementary school and as such was built without a science lab, art room, foods lab or woodshop. To create lab and shop space 16 teen-age students  120  worked to relocate one of the better old  school portables to the new school grounds. With my guidance, the Grade 10 coop students designed and constructed workbenches, storage units and tool racks for the shop. After some initial skill building activities that allowed the students to develop safe and efficient ways of working with tools and machinery, a resident carver come on-board. Gary Peterson assisted in giving instructions and supervised the students in traditional carving skills. Apart from the expected projects: stools, cutting boards and clocks; traditional bentwood boxes, blanket  1 1 8  The students participated in a combination of academic and applied schooling as well as related employment and work experience within the community.  1 1 9  Among the First Nations of the North West Coast there are 13 different language families, making up 13 'nations'  1 2 0  There were 12 boys and 4 girls in the group. The principal described the group as "at-risk and re-captured street youth".  178  boxes and carved masks emerged. Every one of these items found an immediate use and became highly valued by the creators. The space was a bee-hive of activity with younger students coming in before and after regular classes to make trinket boxes and observe carving. I assisted school staff and community members in the evenings and on weekends as they acquired skills and produced a variety of shelves and cabinets. One ambitious female student, along with other items, made a tall pine bookcase for her grandparents; she had to wait for two weeks to deliver it as they lived independently on isolated island. The gift was a success and the student informed me that her grandfather had asked her if she would make his coffin when he passed on. I still feel humbled by the experience.  5.5 Utility over Idealism With Canada's involvement in World War I, public school Manual Training lost any sense of the idealism identified with the pedagogies associated with Frobel or Pestalozzi. As discussed in chapter 2, the male students took compulsory daily marching and drill practice and the girls collected warm clothing and assembled parcels for the troops overseas. In the evenings, school workshops were used by adult and evening classes to train workers for ammunition and ship production. Generous federal grants for technical instruction, materials and equipment ensured that newly established senior vocational programs would continue, following the end of hostilities. In the subsequent economic downturn that lasted until 1920 the economy of B.C. rebounded with the high export sales of lumber and coal to the United  179  States. The growing BC population required more skilled workers. The number of available skilled trades workers had been reduced by the earlier war and subsequent flu pandemic. Only a limited number were available via immigration, and the Provincial government utilized federal funding provided in the 1919 Technical Education act to establish the Vancouver technical high school. The largest and best equipped school in the province would provide technical education to high school students, adults and trade apprentices and returning war veterans . 121  In the United States industrial arts as proposed by Bonsor and Mossman, was not intended at the elementary school level to be a vocational subject. With progressivism making a strong impact on American public education, Industrial Arts was viewed as an updating of Sloyd-Based  Manual  Training.  In B.C. since  the majority of students were leaving the public system at the end of grade 9 or 10, the Manual Training curriculum was now given to vocational education. The name change to Industrial Arts made little difference to the taught curriculum above the grade 9 level. Gender-based vocational Manual Training was delivered to all students above Grade 8 and increased 77% between 1920 and 1930. Recommendations made by Putnam and Weir in their 1923 survey of the school system served to create a school system based on the 6-3-3 model, (Grades 1-6 elementary, 7-9 Middle or Junior High and 10-12 Senior High). The newly created junior or middle schools delivered a vocational technical curriculum for  121  For additional information on trade schools, night schools and trade unions see: Foster, (1970) Education and work in a changing society. Unpublished Masters Thesis. U N C . Vancouver. PP, 91-93.  180  those students not continuing to high school; this policy continued up until the 1960s. Between 1932 in 1937 Elementary enrollment dropped by almost 4000 students while Secondary enrollment increased by almost 6000 students. As the province was in the grips of the Great Depression, little money was available for new schools or programs. The beginning of renewed hostilities with World War II in 1939 effectively ended the Depression in BC and saw the delivery of Federal government funding under the war emergency training program. School workshops were provided with additional tools and machinery to train future trades-people needed for the war effort. After the war, the facilities were used to retrain veterans in the trades required to build houses and infrastructure to meet the resulting baby boom. The 1950s were educationally uneventful; a stable funding formula would insure classroom space for the growing elementary population. Everything would change in 1957 when the Soviet union became the first nation to put an artificial satellite, Sputnik in orbit around the earth. The reaction in the United States was to blame the school system for not preparing the scientists and technologists needed for such an undertaking. Canadian educators felt some empathy for their southern  122  neighbors. Although not connected to the reaction of the United  States, a Royal Commission was appointed in 1958 and chaired by Dr. Chant, the Dean of Arts and Sciences at UBC to examine the programs pupil achievement  1 2 2  in BC public schools  of study  and  (Chant, 1960). The far-reaching  A generalization as not all of the United States is south of Canada.  181  recommendations of the Chant Commission would guide educational policy and curriculum development for the next two decades. The implementation would further divide student populations into either college/university bound or vocational streams. In this vein, continuing in a similar direction, the government of B.C. commissioned the president of UBC, Dr. MacDonald to report on higher education in the province to develop a plan for future growth. The report was published in 1962 recommending the establishment of two new universities and a network of community colleges to provide local and technical education. The 1960s and 70s were an implementation period for technical education. Newly constructed schools featured up-to-date workshops to deliver the industrial education curriculum spelled out in the 1962,1963 and 1964 guides (B.C.D.O.E, 1964). When responding to the call to embrace technology, the guides stated that: "Industrial education is an area of education  which  general  with materials,  principles  tools, and  of technology  through workshop  experiences  teaches  machines".  In the mid 60's work was began on a new UBC technical teacher training center in Burnaby that would feature up to date shops and labs as and a curriculum resource center to develop and distribute lesson plans and shop drawings. In hindsight, if the facility had been located on the UBC campus, easy access to education faculty and other student teachers might have ensured newly trained technical teachers equal status with others in the profession. Instead industrial education teachers would continue to be created from the die of their forebears, under the shadow of differentiated status.  182  5.6 The Radical 1960's During the 1960's, monumental changes occurred at almost every level of society. Unrestrained nuclear weapons proliferation on the part of the US and USSR created a public fear of global annihilation. An unpopular/unjust war was waged in Southeast Asia while black South Africans were constrained by an apartheid government. Poor governmental regulation and industrial practice was creating water and air pollution, deforestation and climate change. For women who felt restrained by domestication, government and male domination, the Women's Liberation Movement put expression to their anger. A reactionary grass roots protest movement developed in response to a range of issues, with support and participation from all levels of society. Popular music, literature, television and theater reflected the passions and beliefs of a generation that understood that the world could be devastated by a pushbutton nuclear war. Protest marches and demonstrations provided a new avenue of expression that often resulted in violence as police and demonstrators clashed. Yet in spite of these extreme social upheavals, Industrial Education remained silent and rooted in tool and machine practice and the lockstep  123  project tradition well into the late 1970's. This situation reflected a remarkable indifference to almost everything surrounding the IE. Teacher, exemplifying a disconnection from the everyday world. Alternatively, woodwork classes would have been an ideal location to discuss deforestation and ecology. Automotive  1 2 3  In Manual Training students could progress from one model or exercise to the next on an individual basis. In industrial education shops students typically made the same project and proceeded at a pace that would not leave anyone behind.  183  classes could have responded to these contextual shifts with curriculum that opens opportunities to discuss discrimination, worker rights, within industrial manufacturing settings. Electronics classes could have provided a forum to discuss process automation and impact on the workforce. Although these were issues that troubled youth, discussions and dialogue did not come from those in the field but instead from English, Math, and Art teachers. The issuance of new curriculum guide in 1977 combined all of the separate subject guides of the previous decade into one volume that featured a standardized layout for lesson planning, learning outcomes, and evaluation. The entrenched IE courses: Drafting, Electricity/Electronics, Mechanics, Metalworking and Woodworking/Construction, were defin