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Effects of science instruction on behaviour among Nigerian students Atanu, Emmanuel Y. 1975

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EFFECTS OF SCIENCE INSTRUCTION ON BEHAVIOUR AMONG NIGERIAN STUDENTS by EMMANUEL Y. ATANU B.Sc, M.Sc, Ahmadu Bello University Zaria, Nigeria, 1968 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF EDUCATION in the Faculty of EDUCATION " •' . We-accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA September, 1975 In presenting th i s thesis in p a r t i a l fu l f i lment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the Univers i ty of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the L i b r a r y sha l l make it f ree ly a v a i l a b l e for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of th is thesis for s cho lar ly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representat ives . It is understood that copying or p u b l i c a t i o n of th i s thes is for f i n a n c i a l gain sha l l not be allowed without my wri t ten permiss ion. Department of The Univers i ty of B r i t i s h Columbia 2075 Wesbrook Place Vancouver, Canada V6T 1WS Date ABSTRACT The purpose of the study was to explore the d i f f e r e n c e s between c e r t a i n behaviours of Ss from a Nige r i a n c u l t u r e who have received secondary school i n s t r u c t i o n i n science and those who have not. For comparison purposes, a t h i r d group of Ss who have never received any formal schooling was a l s o . i n c l u d e d i n the study. The behaviours of p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t i n the study were o p e r a t i o n a l i z e d i n terms of recommending to a person confronted with a non-school problem s i t u a t i o n i n v o l v i n g measurement a course of a c t i o n based upon school l e a r n i n g s rather than on the t r a d i t i o n s of the c u l t u r e . Such behaviours were conceptualized as instances of the i n t e r p r e t i v e use of knowledge acquired i n science c l a s s e s . The a l t e r n a t i v e courses of a c t i o n proposed to Ss_ were tech-niques of measurement taught i n science c l a s s e s i n Nige r i a n secondary schools, as well as c u l t u r a l techniques f o r coping with the same prob-lems. A Thurstone-type paired-comparison method was used to e s t a b l i s h s c a l e - v a l u e s f o r these techniques f o r each problem s i t u a t i o n . The w i l l i n g n e s s or behavioural i n t e n t (BI) of Ss_ to recommend school-based techniques was predicted from v a r i a b l e s i n t e r n a l to the Fis h b e i n Model and from external v a r i a b l e s such as s c h o o l i n g , s o c i o -economic environment, and r e l i g i o n . The m u l t i p l e r e g r e s s i o n approach recommended by Ov e r a l l and Spiegel (1969) f o r analyz i n g data obtained from an unequal or d i s p r o p o r t i o n a t e c e l l - f r e q u e n c y design was used to examine the c o n t r i b u t i o n s of the v a r i a b l e s i n the regr e s s i o n model. From evidence obtained i n the study, i t was concluded t h a t s c h o o l i n g , but not n e c e s s a r i l y science i n s t r u c t i o n , was a very I i i important factor in accounting for the intent of S_£ to recommend school-based techniques of measurement. Socioeconomic environment and reli-gion yielded very modest contributions to the prediction of BI in most of the problem situations investigated. However, the internal vari-ables of the Fishbein Model were found to be better independent predict-ors of BI than the external variables, in the present non-orthogonal design, a finding that is consistent with the claim by Fishbein regard-ing the potency and sufficiency of his model. It was recommended that studies aimed at examining the inter-pretive uses of school learnings be carried out in other Nigerian cultures and for other basic skills taught at school. It was also recommended that the Fishbeing Model be used to examine other school-based and culture-based behaviours. iv TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER PAGE 1. INTRODUCTION . . 1 1. Purpose of the Study 1 2. Statement of the General Problem 1 3. Definition of Terms 3 4. Discussion and Significance of the Problem 5 5. Specific Problems Investigated 10 6. Definition of Terms 11 7. Research Hypotheses 16 8. Delimitation of the Study 22 2. CONTEXT OF THE STUDY 24 1. The Societal Context 24 2. Societal Problems of Nigeria . . 24 3. Implications for Science Education in Nigeria . . . 30 4. The Psychological Context 33 3. METHOD OF STUDY 42 1. Selection of Study Site 42 2. The Population 43 3. The Samples 45 4. Comparability of the Samples 48 5. Instrumentation . 54 6. Method of Scaling Used 61 7. Collection of the Data 63 8. Validity of the Instruments 67 9. Reliability of the Instruments Used 68 10. Applicability of the Scaling Model . . . 71 11. Method of Analysis 73 4. RESULTS OF THE STUDY 86 1. Validity and Technical Characteristics of the Instruments 87 CHAPTER . PAGE 2. Summary of Information Relating to Setting 1 . . . . 103 3. Statistical Analysis of the Data for Setting 1 . . . 103 4. Summary of Information Relating to Setting 4 . . . . 129 5. Statistical Analysis: Setting 4 130 6. Summary of Information Relating to Setting 7 . . . . 141 7. Statistical Analysis of the Data for Setting 7 . . . 141 8. Summary of Information Relating to Setting 8 . . . . 143 9. Statistical Analysis of the Data for Setting 8 . . . 143 5. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS , . 156 1. Statement of the Problem 156 2. Conclusions 157 3. Limitations of the Study 165 4. Recommendations for Further Study 167 REFERENCES 169 APPENDIX 173 A. DESCRIPTIONS OF CULTURAL SETTINGS ' 174 B. INSTRUMENTS . . . . . 176 C. QUESTIONNAIRE FOR BACKGROUND DATA 192 D. ANALYSIS OF DATA FOR CULTURAL SETTINGS 2, 3, 5, 6, & 7 . 194 \ vi LIST OF TABLES TABLE PAGE 1. Schematic Diagram of Sampling Plan 18 2. BI-B Correlations Obtained in Various Studies Using the Fishbein Model 37 3. Multiple Correlations Between BI and Theory's Components 39 4. Proportional Stratified Sampling Plan for Experimental Group (Dekina) 46 5. Proportional Stratified Sampling Plan for Comparison Group 1 (Ayangba) 47 6. Quality of Instruction 51 7. Variables Internal and External to the Fishbein Model . 55 8. Method of Analysis of Data from Non-orthogonal Designs (Overall & Spiegel, 1969) 78 9. An Illustration of the Coding of Qualitative Variables 79 10. Coefficients of Agreement for BI Instruments 90 11., x -tests of Goodness-of-Fit for the BI Instruments . . . . 96 12. Coefficients cf Agreement for A Instruments 97 13. x^-tests of Goodness-of-Fit for the A ^ Instruments . . 98 14. Coefficients of Agreement for NB^  Instruments 99 15. x^-tests of Goodness-of-Fit for the NBp Instruments . . 100 16. Coefficients of Agreement for NB Instruments 101 17. x -tests of Goodness-of-Fit for the NBs Instruments . . 102 18. Techniques of Measurement Proposed to Ss_ in Cultural Setting 1 104 19. Hypotheses and Methods of Analysis Used . . . . . . . . 105-6 20. Behavioral Intention (BI) Means and Standard Deviations for Cultural Setting 1 108 21. Results of Method 2 Analysis of Data from Cultural Setting 1 (Column minus Row) 113 22. Differences Between Group Means on Factor A for Cultural Setting 1 (Column minus Row) 116 23. Comparison of Recommendations by Schooled and Unschooled Groups (Cultural Setting 1) 120 v i i TABLE PAGE 24. Comparison of Recommendations by Dekina and Ayangba Ss (Cultural Setting 1) . . . . ' 124 25. Comparison of Recommendations by Rural, and Urban Ss_ (Cultural Setting 1) 125 26. Comparison of Recommendations by Rural Christians and Moslems (Cultural Setting 1) 126 27. Comparison of Recommendations by Urban Christians and Moslems (Cultural Setting 1) . . . . . . 127 28. Variance Contributions of Internal and Selected External Variables (Cultural Setting 1) . . 128 29. Techniques of Measurement Proposed to Ss in Cultural Setting 4 131 30. Behavioural Intention (BI) Means and Standard Deviations for Cultural Setting 4 132 31. Results of Method 2 Analysis of Data from Cultural Setting 4, Using Research Model 4 136 32. Differences Between Group Means on Factor A for Cultural Setting 4 . . . . . 137 33. Comparison of Recommendations by Schooled and Unschooled Groups (Cultural Setting 4) 138 2 34. Variance Contributions (R ) of Internal and Selected External Variables for Cultural Setting 4 . . . . . . . 140 35. Techniques of Measurement Proposed to Ss_ in Cultural Setting 7 . 142 .36. Techniques of Measurement Proposed to Ss_ in Cultural Setting 8 144 37. Behavioural Intention (BI) Means and Standard Deviations for Cultural Setting 8 146 38. Results of Method 2 Analysis of Data from Cultural Setting 8, Using Research Model 4 . . . . . . 149 39. Differences Between Group Means on Factor A for Cultural Setting 8 151 40. Comparison of Recommendations for all Groups (Cultural Setting 8) 152 2 41. Variance Contributions (R ) of Internal and Selected Variables for Cultural Setting 8 155 v i i i TABLE OF FIGURES FIGURE PAGE 1. Geographical Location of Subjects . 2 2. Comparison of Mean Bl-scores for Schooled and Unschooled Groups, Cultural Setting 1 . 109 3. Comparison of Mean Bl-scores for All Groups, Cultural Setting 1 110 4. Comparison of Mean Bl-scores for Rural and Urban Ss_, Cultural Setting 1 Ill 5. Comparison of Mean Bl-scores of Moslems and Christians at Different SEE Levels, Cultural Setting 1 112 6. Comparison of Differences in Mean Bl-scroes at the two Levels of Factor A, Cultural Setting 1. . . • 119 7. Comparison of Mean Bl-scores for Schooled and Unschooled Ss_, Cultural Setting 4 133 8. Comparison of Mean Bl-scores for Dekina, Ayangba, and Unschooled Ss_, Cultural Setting 4. 135 9. Comparison of Differences Between the Mean Bl-scores for All Groups, Cultural Setting 8 . . . . 147 10, Comparison of Mean Bl-scores for Christians and Moslems, Cultural Setting 8 148 ix Acknowledgments I wish to express my deep gratitude to my supervisor, Dr. W. B. Boldt for his keen interest in the study and for his constant presence whenever I needed his advice. He was also a friend. I also wish to thank the members of my Committee for their untiring efforts to see me through the study. In particular, I am deeply grateful to Dr. T . D. M . McKie for his many suggestions regard-ing the design of the study, and the analysis of the results. My deep appreciation to my sponsors, the Canadian International Development Agency, who financed my study program at the University of British Columbia. Lastly, I wish to extend my very sincere gratitude to my wife, Regina, and the children, Linda and Ojoma, for their patience and encouragement. CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION 1.1 Purpose of the Study The purpose of the study was to explore and examine the d i f f e r -ence between those people i n N i g e r i a who have had formal s c h o o l i n g i n science and those who have not. More s p e c i f i c a l l y , the study was under-taken to determine how l e a r n i n g s i n science f u n c t i o n i n non-school s i t u a t i o n s i n N i g e r i a . 1.2 Statement of the General Problem The general problem i n v e s t i g a t e d i n the study can be s t a t e d i n question form as: Do Nigerians w i t h formal s c h o o l i n g i n science d i f f e r from those w i t h o u t , i n terms of t h e i r behavioural i n t e n t i o n and a c t u a l behaviour w i t h respect to the i n t e r p r e t i v e use of science l e a r n i n g s i n non-school s i t u a t i o n s ? The p a r t i c u l a r Nigerians included i n the study were those belonging to the I g a l a t r i b e i n Kwara State (Figure 1). These subjects were subdivided i n t o c a t e g o r i e s according to t h e i r socioeconomic environment ( r u r a l , urban) and r e l i g i o n ( C h r i s t i a n , Moslem). For purposes of comparison the subjects i n each of the above c a t e g o r i e s were f u r t h e r subdivided according to the amount of school i n g r e c e i v e d . Groups of subjects were i d e n t i f i e d t h a t were at the sen i o r and j u n i o r l e v e l s of secondary school science i n s t r u c t i o n . Comparison 1 N I G E R O C E A N Figure 1 Geographical L o c a t i o n o f Subjects Key: X Cosmopolitan areas ® P a r t i c i p a t i n g schools fl// Areas from which a l l samples were drawn 3 groups at these l e v e l s of s c h o o l i n g , but with no science i n s t r u c t i o n , were a l s o i d e n t i f i e d . L a s t , a group comprising subjects who had never r e c e i v e d any formal i n s t r u c t i o n a t s c h o o l , but w i t h i n the same age ranges as the schooled s u b j e c t s , was used to e s t a b l i s h a base f o r comparison. The behaviours i n v e s t i g a t e d p r i m a r i l y r e l a t e d to recommending the use of e i t h e r n a t i v e or s c i e n t i f i c methods of coping wit h measure-ment problems i n t y p i c a l s o c i e t a l s i t u a t i o n s . Recommending the use of s c i e n t i f i c techniques f o r measuring long d i s t a n c e s i n s t e a d of n a t i v e ways i n an everyday s i t u a t i o n i s an example. Recommending behaviours, i n t h i s c o n t e x t , are behavioural expressions of preferences f o r c e r t a i n modes of conduct and s t a t e s - o f - a f f a i r s , such as (st a t e d ) preferences f o r s c i e n t i f i c measurement or the replacement of time-honoured n a t i v e methods of measurement through the use of newly acquired s c i e n t i f i c techniques. Recommending c e r t a i n courses o f a c t i o n i s seen as i n d i c a t i n g important ways i n which the i n t e r p r e t i v e use of l e a r n i n g s can manifest themselves. 1.3 D e f i n i t i o n of Terms 1.3.1 I n t e r p r e t i v e Use of Science Learnings The " i n t e r p r e t i v e use of science l e a r n i n g s , " i s used by Broudy [1973] to i d e n t i f y what he considers to be l e g i t i m a t e expectations regarding the use o f l e a r n i n g s acquired i n s c h o o l . Broudy contends tha t the " r e p l i c a t i v e use of science l e a r n i n g s , " i . e . , r e i n s t a t i n g l e a r n i n g s i n non-school s i t u a t i o n s and the " a p p l i c a t i v e use of l e a r n -i n g s , " i . e . , s o l v i n g problems i n non-school s i t u a t i o n s or b r i n g i n g I 4 about a c o n s t r u c t i v e change, are two commonly accepted goals of science education which., i n f a c t , are not l e g i t i m a t e expectations of school l e a r n i n g s s i n c e the students are u s u a l l y not taught the t e c h n i c a l s k i l l s necessary to accomplish such a change. Learning the conceptual, o b s e r v a t i o n a l and instrumental para-digms of science i n school may lead to the a c q u i s i t i o n of a t a c i t , t h e o r e t i c a l view which f u n c t i o n s i n making problems i n everyday s i t u a t i o n s more i n t e l l i g i b l e . This i s what Broudy r e f e r s to as using l e a r n i n g s i n science " i n t e r p r e t i v e l y . " To i l l u s t r a t e , using l e a r n i n g s i n science to make sense out of an automobile m a l f u n c t i o n , without n e c e s s a r i l y being able to r e p a i r the v e h i c l e , i s an example of the i n t e r p r e t i v e use of l e a r n i n g s i n scien c e . R e p a i r i n g the ma l f u n c t i o n r e q u i r e s , i n a d d i t i o n , t e c h n i c a l know-how which i s not normally provided i n a school science program. (Of course such a p p l i c a t i v e s k i l l s may be the outcome of a school automotive shop program, i f one e x i s t e d ) . Broudy's concept of the i n t e r p r e t i v e use of science l e a r n i n g s can be r e l a t e d to some of the c o g n i t i v e and a f f e c t i v e c a t e g o r i e s of Bloom's and Krathwohl's taxonomies [Bloom, 1971; Krathwohl, 1969]. Using the language of the taxonomies, the term " i n t e r p r e t i v e use of science l e a r n i n g s " can be r e s t a t e d as using science l e a r n i n g s to apprehend, understand, evaluate and ap p r e c i a t e problems i n non-school s i t u a t i o n s . 5 1.3.2 Recommending Behaviours as I n t e r p r e t i v e Use of  Knowledge Recommending a p a r t i c u l a r course of a c t i o n to someone i n a problem s i t u a t i o n i s l i k e l y to i n v o l v e , among other t h i n g s , how the person doing the recommending i n t e r p r e t s or understands the s i t u a t i o n . The general i n t e l l e c t u a l framework, of which a t l e a s t a pa r t i s acquired i n s c h o o l , can be expected to play a part i n t h i s behaviour. The person who has had some formal s c h o o l i n g i n science can be expected to see the problem s i t u a t i o n somewhat d i f f e r e n t l y than one who has had no science i n s t r u c t i o n or no schooli n g a t a l l and, consequently, make somewhat d i f f e r e n t recommendations. According to F i s h b e i n [1967] behaviour or behavioural i n t e n t w i t h respect to performing a p a r t i c u l a r a c t i n a given s i t u a t i o n is' r e l a t e d to the_S_'s a t t i t u d e toward performing the act i n the s i t u a t i o n and h i s perception of what he b e l i e v e s he i s expected to do i n th a t s i t u a t i o n . Both f a c t o r s , a t t i t u d e and normative b e l i e f s , are l e a r n -ings acquired i n the home and classroom environment. Recommending behaviours, or behavioural i n t e n t s , then, are f u n c t i o n s of learned a c q u i s i t i o n s i n school as w e l l as the home, r e f l e c t e d i n a t t i t u d e s toward recommending c e r t a i n courses of a c t i o n i n a given s i t u a t i o n and i n normative b e l i e f s about whether or not the recommendation should be made. 1-4 Di s c u s s i o n and S i g n i f i c a n c e of the Problem The problem a r i s e s from the growing d e s i r e of N i g e r i a n leaders to adopt western science and technology, and to adapt them to t h e i r programs of economic and s o c i a l development i n N i g e r i a . The stre n g t h 6 of t h i s d e s i r e can be estimated from the f o l l o w i n g statement by the former N i g e r i a n Head of S t a t e , General Gowon; . . . our p r i o r i t i e s i n c l u d e the improvement of the q u a n t i t y and the q u a l i t y of our a g r i c u l t u r a l c r o p s -export as w e l l as food crops--and the improvement of our roads, and the a i r and water t r a n s p o r t a t i o n which are very necessary i n order to f a c i l i t a t e the move-ment of both goods and people, and i n order to speed up our export crops. Then, of course, there i s the need to provide an adequate and r e l i a b l e water supply; i n many places t h i s i s very important. And, of course, e l e c t r i c i t y ; and the p r o v i s i o n of an e f f i c i e n t t e l e -communications system. . . . the development of our manpower resources to enable us to e x p l o i t and u t i l i z e our n a t u r a l resources more f u l l y i s another of our p r i o r i t i e s . In a l l these areas you can see where science and technology can r e a l l y p l a y a very important r o l e . There i s need f o r much more research i n most of the f i e l d s I have mentioned so t h a t we can e f f e c t i v e l y achieve these g o a l s . [Gowon, 1972]. However, where western science and technology have been adopted and superimposed on non-western, n o n - i n d u s t r i a l i z e d c u l t u r e s , the l a c k of congruency has r e s u l t e d i n very l i m i t e d success i n meeting c u r r e n t problems i n s o c i a l and economic development. This has l e d observers and governments to question the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of s c h o o l i n g i n t h i s a d o p t i o n - adaptation process. I t i s t h e r e f o r e important f o r educators to c l a r i f y and e s t a b l i s h what school l e a r n i n g s can c o n t r i b u t e to the s o l u t i o n of present-day s o c i e t a l problems. This would i n v o l v e examining the l e g i t i m a c y of c u r r e n t goals and expectations of science education. For example, a common ex p e c t a t i o n of science i n s t r u c t i o n i s the r e p l i c a t i v e use of l e a r n i n g s i n out-of-school s i t u a t i o n s , i . e . , 7 the l e a r n e r i s expected to r e i n s t a t e basic f a c t s , p r i n c i p l e s and pro-cesses i n everyday s i t u a t i o n s . C r i t i c s of t h i s view point out th a t there i s no necessary connection between l e a r n i n g s i n science acquired i n school and performance on the job or i n s o c i e t y or i n one's personal l i f e . According to these c r i t i c s , much of the d e t a i l of what i s learned i s o f t e n f o r g o t t e n a few years a f t e r school l i f e and a l l t h a t remain are the general and g e n e r a l i z a b l e p r i n c i p l e s of the processes s t u d i e d . Another f a l l a c y of t h i s view i s the b e l i e f t h a t school l e a r n i n g s must be e x p l i c i t l y i d e n t i f i a b l e i n non-school s i t u a t i o n s . Problems i n a s o c i e t a l context are u s u a l l y f a r too complex to be re s o l v e d by simply r e i n s t a t i n g l e a r n i n g s as they were acquired i n scho o l . A second way i n which l e a r n i n g s i n science are expected to f u n c t i o n i s through b r i n g i n g about a c o n s t r u c t i v e change i n a s i t u a t i o n . Since formal s c h o o l i n g i n science i n elementary and secondary s c h o o l s , a t l e a s t , u s u a l l y does not provide the l e a r n e r w i t h the t e c h n i c a l know-how to solve problems i n a s o c i e t a l c o n t e x t , t h i s kind of ' a p p l i c a t i v e ' use of l e a r n i n g s i n science i n non-school s i t u a t i o n s i s 1 i k e l y to be minimal. In Broudy's [1973] view, a more ap p r o p r i a t e e x p e c t a t i o n o f the use of school l e a r n i n g s i s th a t they f u n c t i o n i n t e r p r e t i v e l y i n non-school s i t u a t i o n s . At one l e v e l of g e n e r a l i t y , t h i s can be taken to mean the a p p l i c a t i o n of the s c i e n t i f i c consciousness which u n d e r l i e s a t e c h n o l o g i c a l l y wel1-developed n a t i o n to s o c i e t a l problems i n N i g e r i a . According to Polanyi [1962] i t i s the t a c i t ( s u b s i d i a r y ) aspects of school l e a r n i n g s that give meaning to a s i t u a t i o n of which a person i s 8 f o c a l l y aware. A meaningful r e l a t i o n between t h i s t a c i t awareness of what was learned i n s c i e n c e , and non-school s i t u a t i o n s i s formed by the a c t i o n of a person who i n t e g r a t e s one to the o t h e r , and the r e l a t i o n p e r s i s t s by the f a c t t h a t the person keeps up t h i s i n t e g r a t i o n . To use l e a r n i n g s i n science i n t e r p r e t i v e l y , then, means to use the l e a r n i n g s to apprehend, understand, a p p r e c i a t e , or evaluate a problem without n e c e s s a r i l y being able to solve i t . To i l l u s t r a t e , i f a person r e c e i v i n g i n s t r u c t i o n i n science can understand the importance of uniform standards o f measurement i n the marketplace, the person i s using h i s l e a r n i n g s i n science i n t e r p r e t i v e l y . The f a c t t h a t school inputs are not e x p l i c i t l y reproduced i n t h e i r d e t a i l or used to achieve a m a t e r i a l change i n a s i t u a t i o n i s no proof t h a t they do not f u n c t i o n . The above view of the i n t e r p r e t i v e use of knowledge i s con-sonant w i t h Bloom's educational o b j e c t i v e s i n v o l v i n g the development and use of i n t e l l e c t u a l a b i l i t i e s and s k i l l s [1971], I t a l s o i n c o r -porates the a f f e c t i v e component of the educational o b j e c t i v e s enunciated by Krathwohl et a K [1969]. The purpose of the present study was t h e r e f o r e to t r y to determine to what ex t e n t , i f any, t h i s o b j e c t i v e of science education i n N i g e r i a n schools i s being achieved. This i s necessary to j u s t i f y the expenditure o f va s t sums of money by the N i g e r i a n government to provide science i n s t r u c t i o n at a l l l e v e l s i n sch o o l . In a d d i t i o n , to b r i n g the work of c u r r i c u l u m development and teaching i n l i n e w i t h the needs and a s p i r a t i o n s of the N i g e r i a n s o c i e t y , i t i s important to understand the f a c t o r s which must be taken account o f i n order to maximize the c o s t - b e n e f i t s of the c u r r i c u l u m 9 e f f o r t . For example, what kinds of students do we have? Along what gross p e r s o n o l o g i c a l v a r i a b l e s can they be c l a s s i f i e d to account f o r t h e i r d i f f e r e n c e s ? These are important questions to be answered p r i o r to the development of c u r r i c u l u m m a t e r i a l s . I n t u i t i o n i s not l i k e l y to be s u f f i c i e n t l y r e l i a b l e or v a l i d f o r making such d e c i s i o n s . The need f o r research r e l a t e d to the i n t e r p r e t i v e use of s c h o o l i n g has been s t r e s s e d by the philosopher Broudy: That there i s a d i f f e r e n c e between people who have had formal s c h o o l i n g and those who have not, and t h a t we recognize i t , i s a f a c t . But we recognize the d i f f e r e n c e i n t u i t i v e l y . The evidence i s not organized and f o r m a l i z e d . But research e f f o r t to e s t a b l i s h ,the grounds f o r t h i s i n t u i t i v e f a i t h e m p i r i c a l l y would do more f o r science study than 1000 mono-graphs of the r e l a t i v e m e r i t s of teaching B i o l o g y by methods A and B, v a l u a b l e as these are. [Broudy, 1973, p.230]. The p a u c i t y of research which i s aimed at examining the determin-ants of non-cognitive outcomes of s c h o o l i n g has been lamented by Averch e_t aj_., [1972]. They r e g r e t t h a t , so f a r , educational e f f e c t i v e -ness research has been confined to e x p l a i n i n g c o g n i t i v e achievement as measured by standardized t e s t s . In the N i g e r i a n c o n t e x t , the p a u c i t y of research l i t e r a t u r e on educational e f f e c t i v e n e s s i s obvious. The only study known to t h i s w r i t e r i n t h i s area i s one by Poole [1968]. Poole sought to measure the e f f e c t of u r b a n i z a t i o n on science concept attainment among Northern N i g e r i a n Hausa school c h i l d r e n drawn from three socioeconomic env i r o n -ments ( i s o l a t e d r u r a l l o c a t i o n s , c i t y c e n t r e s , and areas of intermediate s t a t u s ) . He found that urban c h i l d r e n were c l e a r l y s u p e r i o r . But he a l s o found E n g l i s h school c h i l d r e n s u p e r i o r to the urban N i g e r i a n 10 c h i l d r e n on a l l items except those intended to a s c e r t a i n tendencies towards a n i m i s t i c t h i n k i n g . He t h e r e f o r e concluded t h a t there was l i t t l e o p p o r t u n i t y i n the pre-school and out-of-school education o f Hausa c h i l d r e n by way of s c i e n t i f i c concepts to promote s c i e n t i f i c t h i n k i n g and l e a r n i n g . He a l s o suggested t h a t the c a p a c i t y of formal education to make good t h i s d e f i c i e n c y was l i m i t e d . An important inadequacy i n h i s c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n i s the assumption t h a t mere r e c a l l and v e r b a l i z a t i o n of science concepts are s u f f i c i e n t evidence of a b i l i t y to t h i n k ' s c i e n t i f i c a l l y ' or th a t such r e c a l l and v e r b a l i z a t i o n are r e a l i s t i c e x pectations of the use of school l e a r n i n g s . The present study was an attempt to make good the above d e f i c i e n c i e s by c o n c e p t u a l i z i n g a r e a l i s t i c use of school l e a r n i n g s i n out-of-school s i t u a t i o n s . I t avoids the use of standardized achievement t e s t s which measure only c o g n i t i v e achievement. The behavioural i n t e n t i o n and behaviour o b s e r v a t i o n instruments used i n the study measure a composite of c o g n i t i v e and non-cognitive f a c t o r s . 1.5 S p e c i f i c Problems I n v e s t i g a t e d The s p e c i f i c problems i n v e s t i g a t e d i n the study had to do w i t h behavioural i n t e n t i o n and a c t u a l behaviour r e l a t e d to recommend-ing the use of n a t i v e or s c i e n t i f i c modes of measurement i n t y p i c a l non-school s e t t i n g s i n N i g e r i a . The p a r t i c u l a r recommending behaviours s t u d i e d are included i n Appendix A. 1. Subproblem I: Are there any s i g n i f i c a n t main e f f e c t s due to s c h o o l i n g , r e l i g i o n , and socioeconomic environment on behavioural i n t e n t i o n and a c t u a l behaviour? 11 2. Subproblem I I : Are there any s i g n i f i c a n t i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t s between s c h o o l i n g , r e l i g i o n , and socioeconomic environment on behavioural i n t e n t i o n and a c t u a l behaviour? 3. Subproblem I I I : What i s the r e l a t i v e importance of the v a r i a b l e s i n t e r n a l to the F i s h b e i n model (see p. 32), and those e x t e r n a l to i t , f o r the p r e d i c t i o n of behavioural i n t e n t i o n and a c t u a l behaviour w i t h i n the comparison groups and between the comparison groups? 1.6 D e f i n i t i o n of Terms 1.6.1 Behavioural I n t e n t i o n (BI) Behavioural i n t e n t i o n r e f e r s to i n t e n t to engage i n the perform-ance of an a c t under i n v e s t i g a t i o n under s p e c i f i e d c o n d i t i o n s . In the study, the act toward which i n t e n t i o n was measured was recommending the use of c e r t a i n measurement techniques i n o u t - o f - s c h o o l , c u l t u r a l s i t u a t i o n s . O p e r a t i o n a l l y , i n t e n t i o n to recommend was defined i n terms of w i l l i n g n e s s to recommend a p a r t i c u l a r method of measurement i n a given s i t u a t i o n . 1.6.2 Behaviour (B) This i s the a c t u a l performance of the p a r t i c u l a r a c t toward which behavioural i n t e n t i o n has been measured. In the study, a c t u a l behaviour was assessed through asking the subjects to a c t u a l l y recommend the use of a p a r t i c u l a r measurement technique i n a given s i t u a t i o n . 12 1.6.3 Schooling In t h i s study the term " s c h o o l i n g " i s used i n d i f f e r e n t though r e l a t e d ways, the p r e c i s e usage being evident from the context of d i s c u s s i o n . In g e n e r a l , " s c h o o l i n g " i s used to d i s t i n g u i s h students e n r o l l e d i n Dekina Secondary School (where Science i s taught as pa r t of the curriculum) and students e n r o l l e d i n Ayangba Commercial College (where Science i s not a r e g u l a r l y taught s u b j e c t ) from persons i n s i m i l a r age groups who are not e n r o l l e d i n any sch o o l . At other times i t has been found convenient to use the term " s c h o o l i n g " to de-s c r i b e the three-category d i s t i n c t i o n , Dekina, Ayangba, and the unschooled. As the study was i n i t i a l l y c o n c e p t u a l i z e d , there was to be a "Schooling" f a c t o r , w i t h 3 l e v e l s (Dekina, Ayangba, and unschooled). There was a l s o to be a "Levels" f a c t o r , w i t h 2 l e v e l s , j u n i o r and s e n i o r grades. This was to be crossed w i t h the "Schooling" f a c t o r . However, when i t was r e a l i z e d t h a t w i t h i n the unschooled group the "Levels" would have to be d i f f e r e n t l y d e f i n e d than i n the schools group, (see Note at f o o t of Table 1) t h i s plan was abandoned, s i n c e an o v e r a l l comparison between Level 1 and Level 2 could not be v a l i d l y made, and the o v e r a l l i n t e r a c t i o n between Schooling and L e v e l s , even i f s i g n i f i c a n t , could not be r e a d i l y i n t e r p r e t e d . The "Schooling" f a c t o r was u l t i m a t e l y elaborated i n t o a 6 - l e v e l f a c t o r , the l e v e l s corresponding to the c e l l s of the r e j e c t e d 2 - f a c t o r layout described above; f o r example, the f i r s t three l e v e l s are Dekina Level 1, Dekina Level 2, Ayangba Level 1. As w i l l be seen, by combining l e v e l s a p p r o p r i a t e l y , a t e s t of the Schooling e f f e c t (Dekina vs. Ayangba vs. 13 unschooled) could be made, as also could tests of Dekina vs. Ayangba at each level. 1.6.4 Religion The term is used in the study to refer to a subject's religious persuasion. Two categories were identified for the study, i.e., Christian and Moslem. A subject's claim of nominal membership was taken as evidence of his religious persuasion. 1.6.5 Socioeconomic Environment This refers to the environment in which the subject spent at least two-thirds of the first twelve years of his l i fe, which includes where he received his pre-school and elementary school education and to which he would normally return when the school is out-of-session ' (for the schooled subjects). The subjects with no formal education identified in this category were those nominated by the Dekina subjects and who have spent all their life in the particular environment. Two categories were distinguished—urban and rural. An urban environment was defined as non-agricultural, metropolitan centres with populations of 10,000 or over, and administrative, commercial or manufacturing towns of similar size. The rural category was used to classify those who live in purely agricultural settlements with a low density of population. 1.6.6 Internal Variables of the Fishbein Model Variables internal to the Fishbein Model are: Behaviour, and Behavioural Intention (already described), Attitude Toward the Act, Personal Normative Beliefs, and Social Normative Beliefs. A t t i t u d e Toward the A c t , A j c t : This r e f e r s to the s u b j e c t ' s favourableness or unfavourableness toward performing a p a r t i c u l a r a c t . In the study, A a c ^ was assessed by asking the s u b j e c t to i n d i c a t e which of a number of independently s c a l e d methods of measure-ment he would be most favourable toward recommending to a person i n a given problem s i t u a t i o n . Personal Normative B e l i e f s , NB^: This i s the sub-j e c t ' s assessment of what he p e r s o n a l l y t h i n k s he  ought to do i n a p a r t i c u l a r s i t u a t i o n , i r r e s p e c t i v e o f what other people might want him to do. NBp was measured by asking the s u b j e c t to i n d i c a t e which of a number of independently s c a l e d methods of measure-ment he p e r s o n a l l y f e l t he ought to recommend to a person i n a given problem s i t u a t i o n . S o c i a l Normative B e l i e f s , NB : This r e f e r s to the 2 s s u b j e c t ' s e v a l u a t i o n of what he t h i n k s h i s s o c i a l  r e f e r e n t group, i . e . the person or group of persons whose views regarding the performance of a p a r t i c u l a r a c t i n a given s i t u a t i o n he respects most, e.g., parents, f a m i l y members, s c h o o l , community, s o c i e t y a t l a r g e , e t c . , would expect him to do. NB S was measured i n the present study by asking the s u b j e c t to s e l e c t which of a number of measurement techniques p e r t a i n i n g to a given problem s i t u a t i o n , he thought 15 h i s s o c i a l r e f e r e n t group would expect him to recommend to a person i n th a t s i t u a t i o n . 1.6.7 External V a r i a b l e s of the F i s h b e i n Model For the present study, the v a r i a b l e s added to the F i s h b e i n Model i n c l u d e : S c h o o l i n g , R e l i g i o n , and Socioeconomic Environment (already d e s c r i b e d ) , Age, and Mental A b i l i t y or IQ. 1. IQ or Mental A b i l i t y : This i s o p e r a t i o n a l l y d e f i n e d as the a b i l i t y to deduce r e l a t i o n s h i p s between ob j e c t s or s i t u a t i o n s . In the study, the Scale 3, Forms A and B of C a t t e l l 's " C u l t u r e F a i r " Test of I n t e l l i g e n c e was used to measure general mental a b i l i t y . The C a t t e l l ' s t e s t measures such a b i l i t i e s as s e r i a t i o n , c l a s s i f i -c a t i o n , m a t r i c e s , and c o n d i t i o n s (topology) i n a non-verbal way, by using f i g u r e s of o b j e c t s or shapes. 2. Age: Age i s defined as c h r o n o l o g i c a l age i n years and was reckoned as a g e - l a s t - b i r t h d a y . School records or c o r r o b o r a t i o n by a t l e a s t two e l d e r s was used t o determine age to the nearest twelve months. 1.6.8 Techniques of Measurement The two a l t e r n a t i v e modes of measurement already r e f e r r e d to may be defined as f o l l o w s : 1. S c i e n t i f i c Methods of Measurement: These are the methods of measurement adopted and used by contemporary members of the s c i e n t i f i c and t e c h n o l o g i c a l community 16 and which are taught to students i n science c l a s s e s i n N i g e r i a n schools. See Appendix B f o r s p e c i f i c methods. 2. C u l t u r a l Methods of Measurement: These are age-old methods of measurement used i n the I g a l a (Nigerian) c u l t u r e to cope with various problems of measurement i n the s o c i e t y . S p e c i f i c methods are l i s t e d i n Appendix B. These were determined by references to several knowledgeable members of the c u l t u r e . 3. C u l t u r a l S e t t i n g o r C u l t u r a l S i t u a t i o n : This r e f e r s to a t y p i c a l occasion w i t h i n the Ig a l a c u l t u r e i n v o l v -ing a given measurement problem. For example, a market-place w i t h i n the c u l t u r e may be described as a c u l t u r a l s e t t i n g or c u l t u r a l s i t u a t i o n having to do w i t h the problem o f measuring weight. 1.7 Research Hypotheses The f o l l o w i n g research hypotheses, r e l a t i n g to the sampling plan d e p i c t e d s c h e m a t i c a l l y below, were t e s t e d i n the study. 1.7.1 Hypothesis 1 Scores on Behavioural Intent and act u a l Behaviour w i t h respect to recommending s c i e n t i f i c methods of measurement i n c u l t u r a l s e t t i n g s w i l l be: (a) higher f o r s e n i o r l e v e l s of school i n g than f o r j u n i o r l e v e l s of s c h o o l i n g , 17 (b) be higher f o r Moslems than f o r C h r i s t i a n s , and (c) be greater f o r urban subjects than f o r r u r a l s u b j e c t s . 1 F i s h b e i n [1967, p. 257] defi n e s a t t i t u d e s as "learned p r e d i s -p o s i t i o n s to respond to an o b j e c t or c l a s s of o b j e c t s i n a favourable or unfavourable way," and b e l i e f as "hypotheses concerning the nature of these o b j e c t s and the types of a c t i o n s t h a t should be taken w i t h respect to them." I t i s conceivable t h a t such learned p r e d i s p o s i t i o n s and hypotheses would vary w i t h the amount of exposure t o , and i n f o r -mation about, the a t t i t u d e o b j e c t . Thus the longer an i n d i v i d u a l i s exposed to a p a r t i c u l a r method of measurement, and the more in f o r m a t i o n he acquires about t h a t method, the more favourable (or unfavourable) and the stronger (or weaker) are l i k e l y to be h i s a t t i t u d e s and b e l i e f s , r e s p e c t i v e l y , to recommending the method to a person i n v o l v e d i n some s e l e c t e d measurement problem. Since a t t i t u d e s and b e l i e f s are taken to be important p r e d i c t o r s of behaviour and behavioural i n t e n t i o n [ F i s h b e i n , 1967], i t i s p l a u s i b l e t h a t the higher the amount ( l e v e l ) of s c h o o l i n g , i . e . , the higher the amount of exposure t o , and in f o r m a t i o n about, a given method of measurement, the higher w i l l be the s u b j e c t ' s score on BI and B w i t h regard to t h a t method. R e l i g i o n , l i k e s c i e n c e , represents a way of l o o k i n g at or i n t e r p r e t i n g events. I t i s t h e r e f o r e u s u a l l y profoundly i n f l u e n c e d by the experiences of i t s founder and advocates. The Moslem r e l i g i o n , o r i g i n a t i n g i n a h i g h l y mathematical Arab c u l t u r e with a s o p h i s t i c a t e d notion of p r e c i s e measurements, may t h e r e f o r e be expected to impart such notions to people i n N i g e r i a who have adopted the Moslem r e l i g i o n 18 TABLE 1 Schematic Diagram of Sampling Plan Socio-economic Envi ronment Religion Experimental Comp. Group 1 Comp. Group 2 Level 1 Level 2 Level 1 Level 2 Level 1 Level 2 Rural Christian n = 16 n = 13 n = 16 n = 7 n = 19 n = 8 Moslem n = 12 n = 6 n = 8 n = 3 n = 14 n = 7 Urban Christian n = 12 n = 4 n = 7 n = 4 n = 10 n = 4 Moslem n = 9 n = 7 n = 10 n = 2 n = 9 n = 11 Total (218) V 49 30 41 16 52 30 subjects with one or more years, of science instruction at Dekina Secondary school subjects with one or more years of schooling but no science instruction at Ayangba Commercial College subjects similar to Experimental and Comparison Group 1 subjects in age, socioeconomic environment and religion but with no formal education Note: For Experimental and Comparison Group 1 subjects, Level 1 refers to subjects in Forms One and Two. Level 2 refers to subjects in Forms Three, Four, and Five. For the Experimental Group, Level 1 subjects receive General Science instruction, while Level 2 subjects receive Physics, Chemistry, and Biology as separate subjects. Level 1 and Level 2 for the Comparison Group 2 subjects refers to age levels corresponding to similar levels in the other two groups. Rural and urban, Christian and Moslem are described on pages 53, 54. Key: Groups: Experimental Group = Comparison Group 1 = Comparison Group 2 = 19 and way of l i f e . In a d d i t i o n , i t has been observed by v i s i t o r s to Malaysia t h a t Moslem c h i l d r e n i n some parts of t h a t country acquire the f e e l f o r p r e c i s e measurements much e a r l i e r than C h r i s t i a n c h i l d r e n i n the same r e g i o n . In the present c o n t e x t , the hypothesis of d i f f e r e n c e s due to r e l i g i o n i s h i g h l y s p e c u l a t i v e . The d i s t i n c t i o n between r u r a l and urban socioeconomic env i r o n -ments, already described (see p. 12), i s one th a t regards the l a t t e r as centres of l a r g e , m e t r o p o l i t a n populations w i t h a high c o n c e n t r a t i o n of s o c i a l amenities. C h a r a c t e r i s t i c of such places i s the contact between d i f f e r e n t idea-systems, i . e . , d i f f e r e n t approaches to coping w i t h s i m i l a r problems r e s u l t i n g from the d i v e r s e backgrounds of i t s i n h a b i t a n t s and v i s i t o r s . Far fewer o p p o r t u n i t i e s e x i s t f o r such contact among people i n r u r a l environments c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a low d e n s i t y of pop u l a t i o n and s i m i l a r i t i e s of occupation and l i f e - s t y l e . The exp e c t a t i o n i s t h e r e f o r e t h a t subjects who belong to the urban c l a s s i f i c a t i o n would be more exposed to s c i e n f i f i c methods of measure-ment and have g r e a t e r d i s p o s i t i o n toward recommending such methods to a person r e q u i r i n g to do some measurement, than r u r a l s u b j e c t s . On the other hand, r u r a l subjects are l i k e l y to show gr e a t e r r e s i s t a n c e toward abandoning the more f a m i l i a r , t i m e - t e s t e d , c u l t u r a l methods of measurement. 1.7.2 Hypothesis 2 Behavioural i n t e n t and a c t u a l behaviour w i t h respect to recommend-ing s c i e n t i f i c methods of measurement i n c u l t u r a l s e t t i n g s w i l l depend i n a s i g n i f i c a n t way on: 20 (a) i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t s between amount of s c h o o l i n g and r e l i g i o n , (b) i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t s between amount of s c h o o l i n g and socioeconomic background, (c) i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t s between r e l i g i o n and s o c i o -economic background, and (d) i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t s between r e l i g i o n , socioeconomic background and amount of s c h o o l i n g . I n t e r a c t i o n t e s t s are important f o r several reasons. The most important perhaps i s to a s c e r t a i n whether one f a c t o r (A, say) has d i f f e r e n t e f f e c t s at d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s of another f a c t o r or combination of f a c t o r s . I f i t has, then t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n i s important f o r i t s own sake. For example, i n the present study, i f the mean BI score f o r Moslems at the j u n i o r l e v e l of s c i e n c e i n s t r u c t i o n were found to be higher than t h a t f o r C h r i s t i a n s at the same l e v e l , but w i t h the p o s i t i o n s reversed at the s e n i o r l e v e l of i n s t r u c t i o n , t h i s would be t r e a t e d as an i n d i c a t i o n of a s c h o o l i n g by r e l i g i o n i n t e r a c t i o n . Such a f i n d i n g , s i m i l a r to those of aptitude-treatment i n t e r a c t i o n s t u d i e s , would have p o t e n t i a l l y important i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r planning science i n s t r u c t i o n i n N i g e r i a n schools. Not only t h a t , but i f such a s i t u a t i o n e x i s t s , a s i g n i f i c a n t main e f f e c t f o r s c h o o l i n g has to be i n t e r p r e t e d c a u t i o u s l y ; indeed such a s i g n i f i c a n t main e f f e c t may not be worth noting i f the i n t e r a c t i o n i n v o l v i n g s c h o o l i n g i s d i s o r d i n a l . F u r t h e r , i n a f i x e d - f a c t o r d e s i g n , i g n o r i n g the e f f e c t s of i n t e r a c t i o n s ( i . e . l e a v i n g them out of the r e g r e s s i o n model) tends to 21 i n f l a t e the e r r o r term, unless the i n t e r a c t i o n s are i n f a c t zero; t h i s leads to a c o n s e r v a t i v e t e s t , i n c r e a s i n g the p r o b a b i l i t y of a Type II e r r o r . 1.7.3 Hypothesis 3 Behavioural i n t e n t and a c t u a l behaviour with respect to recommending s c i e n t i f i c methods of measurement or c u l t u r a l methods of measurement i n non-school s i t u a t i o n s w i l l : (a) be accounted f o r w i t h b e t t e r than chance accuracy by v a r i a b l e s i n t e r n a l to the F i s h b e i n Model alone, (b) be accounted f o r w i t h improved accuracy by adding the e x t e r n a l v a r i a b l e s to the v a r i a b l e s of the F i s h b e i n Model, and (c) be h i g h l y c o r r e l a t e d , i . e . , behavioural i n t e n t and a c t u a l behaviour w i l l be h i g h l y c o r r e l a t e d i n a l l C u l t u r a l S e t t i n g s . The above hypothesis addresses i t s e l f to the problem of t h e . n e c e s s i t y and s u f f i c i e n c y of the F i s h b e i n Model f o r p r e d i c t i n g behavioural i n t e n t i o n and behaviour. Fishbein's c l a i m t h a t the i n t e r n a l v a r i a b l e s of the Model, i . e . , A t t i t u d e Toward the Act (A j.), Personal Normative B e l i e f s (NBp), and S o c i a l Normative B e l i e f s (NB S) are adequate p r e d i c t o r s of BI and B [ F i s h b e i n , 1967] has been shown to be the case by Ajzen and F i s h b e i n [1969; 1970], Abramson [1972], and Schwartz and T e s s l e r [1972] i n h i g h l y c o n t r o l l e d experiments. However, the s u f f i c i e n c y of the three v a r i a b l e s f o r p r e d i c t i n g BI and B has been questioned by Schwartz and T e s s l e r [1972] who obtained a small but 22 s i g n i f i c a n t a d d i t i o n a l p r o p o r t i o n of BI variance with some p e r s o n a l i t y and background v a r i a b l e s . In the present study, the e x t e r n a l v a r i a b l e s added to the model i n c l u d e those t h a t are of c e n t r a l concern to the study, e.g., s c h o o l i n g , r e l i g i o n , and socioeconomic environment. From the equation r e p r e s e n t i n g the F i s h b e i n Model (see. p. 32), i t can be seen t h a t behaviour, B, cannot be d i r e c t l y p r e d i c t e d from the independent v a r i a b l e s of the Model. I t i s however claimed t h a t a h i g h l y s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n e x i s t s between BI and B [ F i s h b e i n , 1967]. Since i t i s the i n t e r e s t o f t h i s study to p r e d i c t both BI and B, such a s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n i s e s s e n t i a l and should be examined. 1.8 D e l i m i t a t i o n of the Study The l i m i t a t i o n s of scope and g e n e r a l i z a b i l i t y of the study are as f o l l o w s : 1. The o p e r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n of the concept of the i n t e r p r e t i v e use of school l e a r n i n g s i s extremely l i m i t e d i n scope. The concept has been equated only with w i l l i n g n e s s to recommend a course of a c t i o n i n a given s i t u a t i o n . Since the concept i s much broader than t h i s , the g e n e r a l i z -a b i l i t y of the f i n d i n g s of the present study i n regard to the i n t e r p r e t i v e use of school l e a r n i n g s i s very 1imited. 2. The study has a l s o been confined to examining a l i m i t e d number of types of measurement a c t i v i t i e s , techniques of measurement, and c u l t u r a l s e t t i n g s . The study there-f o r e s u f f e r s from the l i m i t a t i o n t h a t the r e s u l t s cannot be r e a d i l y g e n e r a l i z e d to other measurement a c t i v i t i e s (or other a c t i v i t i e s , g e n e r a l l y ) , techniques of measure-ment, and c u l t u r a l s e t t i n g s . CHAPTER TWO CONTEXT OF THE STUDY The context of t h i s study may be viewed i n terms of i t s s o c i e t a l and p s y c h o l o g i c a l aspects. Related problems of the Ni g e r i a n s o c i e t y and t h e i r i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r science education are reviewed below. The r e l a -t i o n s h i p s of F i s h b e i n 1 s theory of behaviour and a t t i t u d e to the study are described. Relevant research f i n d i n g s which are based on the theory are a l s o discussed. 2.1 The S o c i e t a l Context The s o c i a l m i l l i e u under which formal education i s conducted i n N i g e r i a can best be discussed i n terms of the problems w i t h which the s o c i e t y has to cope and the various ways those problems are c u r r e n t l y being r e s o l v e d or contended w i t h . This i s because, f o r education to be r e l e v a n t to r e a l l i f e s i t u a t i o n s , educators must take cognizance of these problems and, secondly, to enable students to use the knowledge gained a t school to explore a l t e r n a t i v e ways--to age-old c u l t u r a l approaches--to r e s o l v e the problems. The focus of the present study i s to examine to what e x t e n t , i f any, s c h o o l i n g , e s p e c i a l l y i n the sciences has met these two demands. 2.2 S o c i e t a l Problems of N i g e r i a Among the most important concerns of the governments and peoples of s o - c a l l e d developing c o u n t r i e s l i k e N i g e r i a , are problems of he a l t h 24 25 and sanitation. The origins of these problems have been traced to: (1) the prevalence of certain beliefs which attribute the cause of some diseases to supernatural forces and agents, with the effect that cures are sought through mysticism (even when local medications are effective, cure is believed to come only after the appeasement of some hidden force); (2) the reluctance to adopt (or sometimes the total rejection of) western medical science; and (3) the scarcity of hospitals and other medical facilities. Most of the prevalent diseases in the Nigerian society are either waterborne, airborne, or insect-borne (e.g., typhoid, dysentery, cholera, smallpox, cerebro-spinal menengitis, as well as malaria, yellow fever and sleeping sickness). Water for drinking in rural communities, for example, is obtained directly from surface streams or rivers, and is given no prior treatment before consumption. Insects like the mosquito, the housefly or the tse-tse fly are avoided, not so much because of the fear of infection, since this is not widely recognized, but mainly for the physical discomfort of bites. Isolation and quarantine, when practised, are aimed at warding-off evil spirits from the home or community, rather than as a means of avoiding the spread of diseases. The eradication of such diseases could only be achieved through widespread acceptance of the knowledge of their development cycles and of the agents of transmission, as well as the adoption of simple purifi-cation and avoidance methods. Agricultural productivity is another area of concern to Nigerians. Because of the archaic, manual methods of cultivation both the quantity 26 and q u a l i t y of food produced i s minimal and f a l l s i n c r e a s i n g l y s h o r t of meeting the demands of a fast-growing p o p u l a t i o n . A r t i f i c i a l methods of m a i n t a i n i n g s o i l f e r t i l i t y are often r e j e c t e d by l o c a l farmers. The n u t r i t i o n a l value of foods, e s p e c i a l l y i n terms of high p r o t e i n and vitamin content, i s hardly recognized. M a l n u t r i t i o n i s t h e r e f o r e common even i n areas where l a r g e amounts o f food are grown. Methods of food storage f o r f u t u r e periods of 'want' and f o r d i s t r i b u t i o n over a wide area of the country are a l s o poor. As i n other 'developing' c o u n t r i e s , i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n has caught the fancy of N i g e r i a ' s development planners. Mineral p r o s p e c t i n g and e x p l o i t a t i o n o f t i n , columbite, c o a l , petroleum, e t c . , u t i l i z i n g imported h i g h - l e v e l technology are the focus of the country's i n d u s t r i -a l i z a t i o n program. However, because of the t e c h n o l o g i c a l s o p h i s t i c a t i o n , and l a r g e amounts of c a p i t a l i n v o l v e d , only large business c o r p o r a t i o n s , u s u a l l y foreign-owned, can hope to p a r t i c i p a t e i n the program. In these and other areas o f i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n , l i t t l e has been done to encourage the use of simple t e c h n o l o g i c a l methods o f mineral d e t e c t i o n and e x t r a c t i o n or the commercial production o f some e s s e n t i a l products. Nor have the people been taught to take advantage o f the products of technology t h a t are being s o l d to them. In a s i m i l a r way, l i t t l e attempt i s being made to transform the l o c a l a r t s and c r a f t s i n t o production i n d u s t r i e s by developing e a s i e r methods of production than the present slow, manual, and labour-ious methods being p r a c t i s e d . 27 Another important f a c t o r r e l a t e d to the s o c i a l context of education i s the e f f e c t t h a t some n a t i v e and imported c o l o n i a l t r a d i -t i o n s and modes of behaviour have had on change and modernization. Local t r a d i t i o n s are the r e s u l t o f such f a c t o r s as r e l i g i o n , occupation, and s o c i a l environment; c o l o n i a l ones may be i d e n t i f i e d w i t h the bureaucracy and the educational system as w e l l as other s o c i a l i n s t i t u -t i o n s , which are remnants of the o l d c o l o n i a l framework. The d i v e r s i t y of c u l t u r e s symbolized by the various a r t s and c r a f t s , music and f o l k l o r e , makes an immense c o n t r i b u t i o n to the v i t a l i t y of the country. However, the s t a b i l i t y of these c u l t u r e s i s sometimes so s t r o n g t h a t change and p e r s p e c t i v e are r e s t r i c t e d . For example, r e l i g i o u s b e l i e f s concerning l i f e and man's mission on earth often advocate contentment w i t h the c u r r e n t s t a t e of a f f a i r s . In Islam, pre-d e s t i n a t i o n and preordainment i s an a r t i c l e of f a i t h ; w h i l e C h r i s t i a n i t y preaches 'poverty on e a r t h ' so one can reap the kingdom o f heaven. These r e l i g i o n s have, i n one way or another, been a n t a g o n i s t i c to the development of a s c i e n t i f i c c l i m a t e needed f o r progress and change i n modern times. S i m i l a r l y , a person's occupation and s o c i a l environment could be c r u c i a l i n determining the extent of h i s w i l l i n g n e s s to explore or use a l t e r n a t i v e s to h i s own methods. This i s u s u a l l y so because of b u i l t - i n r u l e s and taboos which tend to r e s t r i c t one's i n i t i a t i v e . The o r g a n i z a t i o n of the Ni g e r i a n s o c i e t y i t s e l f , based on a c l o s e - k n i t f a m i l y or e t h n i c r e l a t i o n s h i p , even though advantageous i n c e r t a i n r e s p e c t s , has oft e n narrowed people's perception o f the world outside t h e i r own, and the o p p o r t u n i t i e s that e x i s t t h e r e i n . 28 C o l o n i a l t r a d i t i o n s based i n the c i v i l s e r v i c e bureaucracy and the educational i n s t i t u t i o n s have accomplished l i t t l e i n e i t h e r broaden-i n g the world-view of the people or p r o v i d i n g them with o p p o r t u n i t i e s to examine t h e i r own c u l t u r e s . This i s because, by ac c i d e n t or by design, these i n s t i t u t i o n s have not taken i n t o account the c u l t u r a l m i l i e u i n which they were ope r a t i n g . B r i t i s h systems were super-imposed on N i g e r i a n c u l t u r e s , r e s u l t i n g i n a lack o f congruence between the two. In western s o c i e t i e s , s c i e n t i f i c p r a c t i c e has, to a la r g e e x t e n t , evolved through attempts at understanding and s o l v i n g some of the problems of those s o c i e t i e s . I t has taken the form of attempts to c o n t r o l and transform human environment by means of the technology which science brings about. In t h i s way science has a f f e c t e d the l i v e s of people i n these s o c i e t i e s . Science education i n N i g e r i a n schools must be shown to have some impact on students i f i t i s to deserve the la r g e sums of money i n v o l v e d i n p r o v i d i n g science i n s t r u c t i o n i n these schools. Such impact, i f i t e x i s t s , can be demonstrated, f o r example, by the approach or a t t i t u d e adopted by students when confronted w i t h problems of v i t a l importance i n t h e i r l i v e s or i n the l i v e s of people i n t h e i r community. So f a r , no evidence regarding such an impact has been reported i n educa-t i o n a l research l i t e r a t u r e . Whether there has been some impact on the ord i n a r y person i n the N i g e r i a n v i l l a g e whose acti o n s are s t i l l governed l a r g e l y by m y s t i c a l f o r c e s , l i k e the weather, s p i r i t s , seasons, and other phenomena, i s a l s o i n doubt. He i s c o n s t a n t l y attempting to a d j u s t to the d i c t a t e s 29 of nature r a t h e r than t r y i n g to harness nature by bending i t to h i s needs. This i s probably borne out of the b e l i e f t h a t nature i s supreme and incomprehensible, t h a t a l l things have been preordained by i t and t h a t nothing could be done to determine or a l t e r t h e i r course. This has l e d to a s e t of s t a b l e b e l i e f s about n a t u r a l phenomena. Being s t a b l e , such b e l i e f s have not accommodated to new or d i f f e r e n t viewpoints. A major weakness o f N i g e r i a n education g e n e r a l l y , has been i t s l a c k o f relevance to the N i g e r i a n s i t u a t i o n . That i s to say, school c u r r i c u l a have l i t t l e or no bearing on c u l t u r a l r e a l i t y - - t h e way of l i f e , the b e l i e f s , a t t i t u d e s and behaviours of the people, and t h e i r personal and s o c i a l problems. The h i s t o r y o f N i g e r i a n education shows th a t i n i t s e a r l i e s t days i t was designed simply to f u l f i l an e c c l e s i a s t i c a l r o l e , i . e . , to help t r a i n people to read the B i b l e and help i n the e v a n g e l i c a l work o f the m i s s i o n a r i e s . At a l a t e r stage i t s o b j e c t i v e was to create a pool of c l e r i c a l and other support workers f o r the B r i t i s h c o l o n i a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . Because of these r a t h e r l i m i t e d r o l e s and a l s o because the c o l o n i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n which c o n t r o l l e d education i n N i g e r i a d i d not envisage a s c i e n t i f i c o r t e c h n o l o g i c a l r o l e f o r the country, education was r e s t r i c t e d to the l i b e r a l a r t s . Since independence, attempts have been made to change the s i t u a t i o n , but government p o l i c y i n t h i s d i r e c t i o n has been aimed p r i n c i p a l l y at i n c r e a s i n g enrollment numbers i n schools. Q u a l i t y of i n s t r u c t i o n , apart from not being a c e n t r a l o b j e c t i v e of the author-i t i e s , i s a l s o hampered by the lack of q u a l i f i e d teachers. I n s t r u c t i o n a l methods, which have been adopted seem to encourage rote memorization 30 rather than comprehension and interpretation. Rote memorization is related to both a lack of relevance and pressures to pass external examinations. External examinations are regarded as avenues for further education which apparently is the objective of many Nigerian students [Mulkerin, 19 66]. The overall result is a high drop-out rate and a vast amount of wastage of funds and facilities [USAID Report, 1967]? 2.3 Implications for Science Education in Nigeria The societal context of the study has implications for the aims and objectives of science education as well as the teaching and learn-ing of science in Nigerian schools. 2.3.1 Aims and Objectives of Science Education The aims and objectives of general education as seen by the Nigerian government are clearly spelled out in the country's Second National Development Plan, 1970-74, and were alluded to earlier: One major focus for educational policy in Nigeria has been the ultimate provision of formal education to every child of school-going age to at least primary school level, on the grounds that universal education is very vital in improving people's receptiveness to new ideas. The other objective of educational policy is the creation of an adequate stock of skills needed in the process of social and economic development, [p. 235] This statement has some important implications for educational practice. First,is the implicit recognition of the difficulty in intro-ducing new ideas, in particular over cross-cultural boundaries. Second, is the value question relating to the desirability of new ideas and to receptiveness to such ideas. Last, is the belief that such receptiveness ^Nigerian Human Resource Development and Utilization, a USAID Report prepared by the Committee on Education and Human Resource Develop-ment - Nigeria Project Task Force, December 1967. 31 can be achieved through an educational process. In the N i g e r i a n s i t u a -t i o n , the new ideas could be construed as new ways of loo k i n g at the o l d , culture-bound world or new ways of coping w i t h o l d problems. Probable f a c t o r s which may determine a person's receptiveness to new ideas can be thought to in c l u d e s o c i a l environment, r e l i g i o n , and type and amount of schooli n g r e c e i v e d . The second o b j e c t i v e expresses the need f o r the c r e a t i o n of a stock of s k i l l s r e q u i r e d f o r the process of s o c i a l and economic development of the country. Presumably, t h i s i s not r e s t r i c t e d to mechanical s k i l l s but a l s o i n c l u d e s i n t e l l e c t u a l s k i l l s , a b i l i t i e s and the a f f e c t i v e d i s p o s i t i o n s needed f o r adopting and adapting the new ideas to the country's problems. The s o c i a l and economic develop-mental problems of N i g e r i a would i n c l u d e those of he a l t h and s a n i t a t i o n , a g r i c u l t u r a l and i n d u s t r i a l p r o d u c t i o n , education, and c u l t i v a t i o n of a s c i e n t i f i c approach to de a l i n g w i t h s o c i a l problems. 2.3.2 Teaching and Learning Science I f the aims and o b j e c t i v e s s t a t e d above are to be the ba s i s f o r the teaching and l e a r n i n g of science i n N i g e r i a n secondary s c h o o l s , then a d e l i b e r a t e attempt must be made to organize such teaching and l e a r n i n g so as to achieve some general and s p e c i f i c s o c i e t a l g o a l s . Considering the broad goals of s o c i a l and economic development, t h i s would mean that school l e a r n i n g s should be capable of being put to use i n out-of-school s o c i e t a l s i t u a t i o n s i n an i n t e r p r e t i v e way. 32 Bloom's term ' i n t e l l e c t u a l a b i l i t i e s and s k i l l s ' [1971, p. 38] i s a kin to Broudy's i n t e r p r e t i v e use of knowledge (see p. 5) and t h a t which has been v a r i o u s l y c a l l e d ' c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g , ' ' r e f l e c t i v e t h i n k -i n g , ' and 'problem-solving' by many w r i t e r s . For example, Bloom gives an o p e r a t i o n a l d e f i n i t i o n of i n t e l l e c t u a l s k i l l s and a b i l i t i e s as: . . . the i n d i v i d u a l can f i n d a ppropriate i n f o r m a t i o n and techniques i n h i s previous experience to b r i n g to bear on new problems and s i t u a t i o n s . This r e q u i r e s some a n a l y s i s or under-standing of the new s i t u a t i o n ; i t r e q u i r e s a background o f knowledge or methods which can be r e a d i l y u t i l i z e d ; and i t a j s o requires some f a c i l i t y i n d i s c e r n i n g the appropriate r e l a t i o n s between previous experience and the new s i t u a t i o n , [p. 38] When a student uses h i s knowledge o f the germ theory i n b i o l o g y to understand the causes o f l o c a l diseases l i k e m a l a r i a or dysentery and how the various agents i n v o l v e d i n b r i n g i n g about the disease might be destroyed o r avoided, then he i s using h i s knowledge i n t e r p r e t i v e l y . Or when a l e a r n e r uses h i s knowledge o f n u t r i e n t s i n foods to plan a balanced menu, he i s again using h i s knowledge i n t e r p r e t i v e l y . In e i t h e r case, he i s engaged i n the e x e r c i s e o f hi s i n t e l l e c t u a l a b i l i t i e s and s k i l l s acquired as a r e s u l t of s c h o o l i n g to make i n t e l l i g i b l e the s i t u a -t i o n i n the c u l t u r e where a problem e x i s t s . We do not need evidence t h a t he a c t u a l l y destroys the causes of diseases or eats a balanced menu i n order to t e l l t h a t he i s using h i s knowledge i n t e r p r e t i v e l y . He would r e q u i r e some know-how (not u s u a l l y taught i n r e g u l a r secondary school science c l a s s e s ) , and resources to accomplish these. Put d i f f e r e n t l y , i t i s the process of comprehending a problem, l e a d i n g up to d e c i d i n g on the best course of a c t i o n t h a t could r e s o l v e the problem, t h a t c o n s t i t u t e s 33 the i n t e r p r e t i v e use of knowledge, not the ac t u a l s o l u t i o n of the problem. How the i n d i v i d u a l w i l l apply h i s i n t e l l e c t u a l a b i l i t i e s and s k i l l s i n the ways s p e c i f i e d by Bloom w i l l , however, depend on h i s a f f e c t i v e d i s p o s i t i o n s as w e l l . According to Krathwohl, et a l . , [1969] these d i s p o s i t i o n s can be represented by h i s awareness t h a t a problem e x i s t s , h i s e v a l u a t i o n of i t , and h i s commitment to a p a r t i c u l a r l i n e of a c t i o n . Again the subject's l e a r n i n g s and experiences are important p r e d i c t o r s of h i s d i s p o s i t i o n . The present study i s aimed at examining to what extent science i n s t r u c t i o n i n some N i g e r i a n Secondary schools has been e f f e c t i v e i n students' developing such d i s p o s i t i o n s . 2.4 The P s y c h o l o g i c a l Context 2.4.1 The Fi s h b e i n Model Much a t t e n t i o n has been given to a t t i t u d e research and the pre-d i c t i o n of human behaviour s i n c e the days of A l l p ort [1934] and the h i s t o r i c s o c i o l o g i c a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f La P i e r e [1935]. Few o p e r a t i o n a l -i z e d t h e o r i e s l i n k i n g a t t i t u d e to ac t u a l behaviour assessment have, how-ever, been advanced. In the present study, the modified form of Fishbein's model, suggested by Schwartz and T e s s l e r [1972], was used to p r e d i c t behavioural i n t e n t i o n , and actu a l behaviour, r e l a t e d to recommending the use o f science process s k i l l s or c u l t u r a l approaches i n out-of-school s i t u a t i o n s . The v a r i a b l e s i n t e r n a l and e x t e r n a l to the model measured are given i n 34 Table 7, p.55). The v a r i a b l e s of i n t e r e s t i n Fishbein's model, s t a t e d i n equation form may be given as f o l l o w s : B = BI = [ A a c t ] w 1 + [NB p]w 2 + [NB s]w 3 where B = a c t u a l recommendation of a p a r t i c u l a r measuring technique i n a given s i t u a t i o n BI = w i l l i n g n e s s or expressed i n t e n t to recommend a p a r t i c u l a r measuring technique i n a given s i t u a t i o n A . = a p r e d i c t o r (or i n t e r n a l ) v a r i a b l e : a t t i t u d e toward a c t recommending a p a r t i c u l a r measuring technique i n a given s i t u a t i o n NBp = a p r e d i c t o r (or i n t e r n a l ) v a r i a b l e : personal normative b e l i e f s about whether or not a p a r t i c u l a r measuring technique should be recommended i n a given s i t u a t i o n NB S = p r e d i c t o r (or i n t e r n a l ) v a r i a b l e : normative b e l i e f s about how o t h e r s , whose opinions are valued most, would f e e l about recommending a p a r t i c u l a r measuring technique i n a given s i t u a t i o n w1, w 2, and w = e m p i r i c a l l y determined standard r e g r e s s i o n weights. 2.4.2 Importance of the F i s h b e i n Model f o r the Study The immediate usefulness of the F i s h b e i n model i s t h a t i t reduces the number of p o s s i b l e independent v a r i a b l e s f o r p r e d i c t i n g behavioural 35 i n t e n t i o n and behaviour i n t o a manageable few. Fu r t h e r , the i n t e r -r e l a t i o n s h i p s between these p r e d i c t o r s i s s p e c i f i e d by the model. Accord-i n g to F i s h b e i n , a d d i t i o n a l ( e x t e r n a l ) v a r i a b l e s , when used, f r e q u e n t l y do not improve p r e d i c t i o n to any great extent (p.325). Since much o f education i s concerned w i t h the development of one type of behaviour or another, e.g., o v e r t , v e r b a l , p e r c e p t u a l , or symbolic behaviour, e t c . , the F i s h b e i n model o r a m o d i f i c a t i o n of i t , should prove useful i n the p r e d i c t i o n of such behaviour from measures of r e l e v a n t v a r i a b l e s . Another f e a t u r e of the model i s th a t i t allows one to determine what v a r i a b l e s to manipulate i n order to b r i n g about a change i n behavioural i n t e n t i o n and behaviour, i . e . , the two components, a t t i t u d e toward the act and normative b e l i e f s , which are b e h a v i o u r - s p e c i f i c . What i s necessary i s to a l t e r the s i t u a t i o n so as to a f f e c t e i t h e r the con-sequences of the behavioural a l t e r n a t i v e s , A,,., or the normative act e x p e c t a t i o n s , NB. Thus i n a t r i a n g l e - b o a r d experiment, F i s h b e i n e t a l . , [1970] succeeded i n a l t e r i n g the p a t t e r n of group i n t e r a c t i o n by merely changing the alignment o f the s p i r i t l e v e l s on the board. And i n the P r i s o n e r s ' Dilemma Game [Ajzen and F i s h b e i n , 1970], v a r i a t i o n s i n the pay-o f f - m a t r i x s t r o n g l y i n f l u e n c e d behaviour. Other s t u d i e s by Ajzen and Fishbein [1970] and Ajzen [1971], support t h i s c l a i m but co n t a i n the c a u t i o n t h a t a component o f the model would be r e l a t e d to the change produced only i f t h a t component had a high p r e d i c t i v e power i n r e l a t i o n to the s p e c i f i c behaviour or i n t e n t i o n under c o n s i d e r a t i o n . However, most s t u d i e s using the Fis h b e i n model have been l i m i t e d to the area of s o c i a l p s y c h o l o g i c a l research and have i n v o l v e d h i g h l y 36 controlled laboratory experiments. There is a dearth of literature relating to the use of the model in educational situations; in fact, only the Abramson study [1972] is known to this writer. But even in that study sole concern was devoted to examining the adequacy of the model itself. In the present study the Fishbein model is used in an educa-tional context wherein the variables of central concern include not only those which are internal to the model but external variables as well. 2.4.3 The BI-B Relationship The importance of the Fishbein equation is based on the assump-tion that behavioural intention which is directly predicted is somehow related to overt behaviour, which is usually the central concern to those who use the model. To be useful, the model must give a good pre-diction of B from the value of BI which is in turn estimated from the component variables. Four conditions have been identified (by Fishbein and others) as being necessary for a high BI-B relationship. These conditions require that measures of BI be (1) behaviour specific, (2) taken immediately prior to the behaviour, (3) stable and free from poten-tial new information about behavioural consequences, and (4) the be-haviour should be within the S_'s volitional control. Table 2 shows the correlations obtained from the BI-B relation-ship in various studies. The effect of a long time interval between the measurement of BI and that of B is clearly demonstrated in the low BI-B correlation obtained in the Darrock Study [1971]. The Fishbein [1966] study demonstrates 37 TABLE 2 BI-B Correlations Obtained in Various Studies Using the Fishbein Model Instrument Used Experimenter BI-B Correlation (r) 2 Prisoner's Dilemma Games Ajzen & Fishbein [1970] .897, .841 (p.=.001) Prisoner's Dilemma Game Ajzen [1971] .822 (p.=.001) Extended Prisoner's Dilemma Game Hornik [1970] .867 Picture-Release Technique Darrock [1971] 4 weeks between Bl and B measurements .262-.584 average .462 Self-Report (Premarital Sexual Intercourse PSI) Fishbein [1966] .564 females (p.=.05)* .174 males (NS)* .676 females (p.=.01)** .394 males (NS)** Behaviour toward a University Physics Course Abramson [1972] .268-.280 Donation of Transplant Organs Schwartz and Tessler [1972] .375 * General Intention/Behaviour * Specific Intention/Behaviour 38 the i n f l u e n c e of the s p e c i f i c i t y of the behavioural i n t e n t i o n a c t . A marked increase i n the BI-B c o r r e l a t i o n can be noted f o r both groups, i n p a r t i c u l a r the male group, as the intended act s h i f t s from general to s p e c i f i c . 2.4.4 P r e d i c t i o n of BI from Fishbein's Theory's A t t i t u d i n a l and Normative Components  The accuracy of the p r e d i c t i o n of BI from components i s i n d i c a t e d by the m u l t i p l e c o r r e l a t i o n s shown f o r d i f f e r e n t s t u d i e s i n Table 3. According to Fishbein's theory, the a t t i t u d i n a l and normative components ( i . e . , v a r i a b l e s i n t e r n a l to the model), are the necessary and s u f f i c i e n t p s y c h o l o g i c a l v a r i a b l e s r e q u i r e d to p r e d i c t BI and there-f o r e B. I t i s claimed t h a t v a r i a b l e s e x t e r n a l to the model may i n f l u e n c e BI, but th a t they can only do so i n d i r e c t l y , i . e . , through the agency of e i t h e r of the theory's components or t h e i r beta weights and t h i s only i f the component or beta weight represents a high p r e d i c t i v e power. This would be the case i f the r e l a t i o n of the e x t e r n a l v a r i a b l e to i n t e n t i o n s and overt behaviour i s d r a s t i c a l l y reduced when A_ . and NB are s t a t i s -ac t t i c a l l y held constant. Ajzen & F i s h b e i n [1970] showed t h i s to be true f o r the e f f e c t s o f the p l a y e r s ' p a y - o f f - m a t r i x and t h e i r sex, on coopera-t i o n i n the P r i s o n e r ' s Dilemma Game. Schwartz and T e s s l e r [1972] a l s o have t e s t e d the n e c e s s i t y and s u f f i c i e n c y of the model's components i n p r e d i c t i n g behaviour i n a study of i n t e n t i o n s regarding s i x kinds of medical t r a n s p l a n t donations. They concluded that personal normative b e l i e f s , a t t i t u d e s toward the act and, 39 TABLE 3 Multiple Correlations between BI and Theory's Components Study Experimenter (date) Multiple Correlation, R 2-person Prisoner's Dilemma Game Ajzen & Fishbein [1970] Ajzen [1971] .818-.888 Behaviour towards Nego Stimulus Person Carlson [1968] .770-970 mean .913 Ajzen & Fishbein [1969] .684-.819 av. .766 Triangle-board Study Fishbein, et a l . , [1970] .704 (communication)* .608 (compliance)* .807 (communication)** .765 (compliance)** Self-Report (Premarital Sexual Intercourse) Fishbein [1966] .935 females .860 males Behaviour toward a University Physics Course Abramson [1972] .710-.797 Donation of Transplant Organs Schwartz & Tessler [1972] .450-.600 * Pre-test ** Post-test 40 usually, social normative beliefs, were significant predictors of intention, accounting for somewhat better than 50 per cent of the variance in intentions. In particular, NBp accounted for an average of over 40 per cent. However, the variables of the model failed to account for the effects of four out of six external variables tested, which therefore cast doubt on the sufficiency of the model. In a similar study, Abramson [1972] used the Fishbein model to predict students' behaviour and behavioural intention towards assign-ments in a physics course from measures of variables internal and ex-ternal to the model. He obtained results which were consistent with those of Schwartz and Tessler [1972]. It would appear, therefore, that the efficiency of the model might be imporved by careful specification and measurement of relevant external variables. In the present study, six variables external to the model were included (see p. 52). The time elapsed between the measurements of B and BI was limited to 24 hours and the situations in which the behavioural acts were to be carried out were made as specific and realistic as possible (see Appendix A). Situational cues were also such that they were stable over long periods of time. While the present study is not an attempt directly to verify the efficacy of the model, it would be interesting to examine the relative contributions of both the internal and external variables, and of individual variables studied. 41 So f a r , few attempts have been made to use the Fi s h b e i n model to study the educational context [Abramson, 1972]. I f s u c c e s s f u l , the model should prove usef u l f o r o r g a n i z i n g i n s t r u c t i o n and l e a r n i n g aimed at a c h i e v i n g some w e l l defined o b j e c t i v e s . For example, should the s o c i a l normative component of the model prove the most e f f i c a c i o u s i n p r e d i c t i n g BI and B f o r a p a r t i c u l a r group of s u b j e c t s , t h i s might p o i n t out the usefulness of s o c i a l r e f e r e n t s o f importance to th a t group, or of r o l e p l a y i n g as methods of i n s t r u c t i o n aimed a t inducing c e r t a i n behaviours. The Fishbein model was s e l e c t e d i n preference to other methods (such as the semantic d i f f e r e n t i a l ) o f p r e d i c t i n g behavioural i n t e n t i o n and behaviour f i r s t l y , because of i t s s i m p l i c i t y — w i t h some 50 per cent or more of BI variance p r e d i c t e d by only three v a r i a b l e s . The model a l s o allows f o r other v a r i a b l e s to be entered as d e s i r e d . Secondly, a review of l i t e r a t u r e shows t h a t attempts at p r e d i c t -i n g behaviour have o f t e n been made through the measurement of a t t i t u d e s alone; y e t a t t i t u d e s have been c o n s i s t e n t l y shown to account f o r a small p r o p o r t i o n of variance due to behaviour. In a d d i t i o n , many of the t h e o r i e s l i n k i n g a t t i t u d e s to behaviour are not r e a d i l y o p e r a t i o n a l i z a b l e . For example, Fes t i n g e r ' s theory [1958] o f c o g n i t i v e dissonance i s d i f f i -c u l t to o p e r a t i o n a l i z e because of the complexity o f the v a r i a b l e s to be measured. CHAPTER THREE METHOD OF STUDY The study was an attempt to use a modified form of Fis h b e i n ' s Model which included c e r t a i n s e l e c t e d v a r i a b l e s f o r p r e d i c t i n g the behavioural i n t e n t i o n and behaviour of Ni g e r i a n High School students. U n l i k e previous a p p l i c a t i o n s of the theory to h i g h l y c o n t r o l l e d l a b o r -a t o r y experiments, the present study addressed i t s e l f to p r a c t i c a l , r e a l i s t i c s i t u a t i o n s to which l i t t l e experimental c o n t r o l could be a p p l i e d . The exte r n a l v a r i a b l e s added to the F i s h b e i n model were seen as important to educational decision-making and were expected to make s i g n i f i c a n t c o n t r i b u t i o n s to the p r e d i c t i o n of the c r i t e r i o n v a r i a b l e s . 3.1 S e l e c t i o n of Study S i t e The su b j e c t s s t u d i e d were drawn p a r t l y from the non-sectarian secondary schools i n Iga l a D i v i s i o n of the Kwara State of N i g e r i a and p a r t l y from among people i n the same D i v i s i o n who were w i t h i n the same age-ranges as the secondary school subjects but with no formal education of any kind. Igala D i v i s i o n ( r e c e n t l y broken up i n t o three a d m i n i s t r a t i v e d i v i s i o n s ) covers an area of some 3,500 square miles and has a popula t i o n of about 700,000 people who form an almost homogeneous et h n i c group, speaking the same language ( I g a l a ) . The people con-s t i t u t e a d i s t i n c t c u l t u r a l group. C h r i s t i a n and Moslem i n f l u e n c e s e x i s t side by side i n t h i s c u l t u r e . The people l i v e i n r u r a l communities 42 43 ( v i l l a g e s and hamlets) w i t h populations ranging from a few hundreds to about two or three thousand, as w e l l as i n l a r g e r v i l l a g e s and towns of about 5,000 - 20,000 people. A g r i c u l t u r e i s the main occupation of the people but a number work as craftsmen i n l o c a l i n d u s t r i e s such as weaving, dyeing, black-s m i t h i n g , c a r v i n g , e t c . , and i n government and business establishments i n c l e r i c a l p o s i t i o n s . An important reason f o r s e l e c t i n g t h i s s i t e f o r the study was the f a c t t h a t the experimenter i s hims e l f a member of t h i s c u l t u r a l group and speaks the language w e l l ( h i s n a t i v e language). F r i j d a and Jahoda [1969, p. 40], have emphasized the need to have i n v e s t i g a t o r s of non-Western c u l t u r e s come from the c u l t u r e s themselves because of the immense problems of language and communication. Belonging to the I g a l a group was a c l e a r advantage i n the present study, because of the n e c e s s i t y to t r a n s l a t e the measuring instruments i n t o t h i s language f o r subjects who were not l i t e r a t e i n the E n g l i s h language, and a l s o because o f the need to i n t e r v i e w them. 3.2 The Pop u l a t i o n The popu l a t i o n i n v e s t i g a t e d i n the study c o n s t i t u t e d a l l of the I g a l a speaking students i n Dekina and Ayangba, non-sectarian Secondary Schools i n the Ig a l a D i v i s i o n of Kwara S t a t e , and t h e i r I g a l a speaking and age counterparts i n the same D i v i s i o n who had not receiv e d any formal education. 44 The choice of non-sectarian secondary schools was based on the need to minimize c e r t a i n a d m i n i s t r a t i v e and sampling problems r e l a t e d to the study. For example, the s e c t a r i a n schools under the management of sever a l d i f f e r e n t missionary bodies r e q u i r e d t h a t permission to use those schools f o r the study be sought from each body s e p a r a t e l y , thus c r e a t i n g the p o s s i b i l i t y of non-uniform c o n d i t i o n s f o r a d m i n i s t e r i n g the instruments to s u b j e c t s . Secondly, the two schools s t u d i e d derive t h e i r students from a l l parts of the s t a t e without any apparent bias f o r s o c i a l background and r e l i g i o n . Both problems fe a t u r e q u i t e prominently i n the s e c t a r i a n schools and might be seen to a f f e c t the composition and a t t i t u d i n a l d i s p o s i t i o n of the s u b j e c t p o p u l a t i o n , thereby masking the f i n d i n g s of the study. In a d d i t i o n , s t a t e governments i n N i g e r i a are i n the process of phasing out the s e c t a r i a n s c h o o l s , thus making the s e l e c t i o n of non-sectarian schools more r e l e v a n t to f u t u r e decision-making about education i n the country. The s e l e c t i o n of Comparison Group II (no-formal-education) was based on the need to provide a non-school c o n t r o l group so as to determine i f s c h o o l i n g per s e , and/or science i n s t r u c t i o n , was a s i g n i f i c a n t f a c t o r i n i n f l u e n c i n g the behavioural i n t e n t i o n s and a c t u a l behaviours under i n v e s t i g a t i o n . I t was th e r e f o r e necessary to match t h i s non-school c o n t r o l w i t h the Experimental Group on p o s s i b l e d i s t i n g u i s h i n g v a r i a b l e s which-could mask the s c h o o l i n g e f f e c t . Hence the s e l e c t i o n was made from names nominated by the Experimental Group of S_s with s i m i l a r non-school, c u l t u r a l and r e l i g i o u s experiences as themselves. 45 3.3 The Samples The Experimental Group c o n s i s t e d of a p r o p o r t i o n a l , s t r a t i f i e d sample of 79 S_s randomly drawn from among 230 Igala-speaking s u b j e c t s a t Dekina Secondary School. Table 4 represents the sampling plan used. The number of Ss_ i n each stratum represents t h e i r p r o p o r t i o n i n the t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n from which subjects were s e l e c t e d . , A s i m i l a r sampling procedure was used t o s e l e c t 57 Comparison Group I Ss_, who were r e c e i v i n g a non-science, general commercial educa-t i o n a t Ayangba Secondary Commercial College (see Table 5). S i m i l a r l y , 82 Comparison Group I I , no-formal-education Ss were randomly drawn from a l i s t of names provided by the Dekina subjects (5 names each) of age-mates belonging i n the same c a t e g o r i e s of R e l i g i o n and Socio Economic Environment i n which the Dekina Ss_ had been i d e n t i f i e d . Where i t was impossible to l o c a t e a s e l e c t e d s u b j e c t , a replacement was randomly drawn from the remaining names or from a new sample whose des-c r i p t i o n s i n terms o f the c r i t e r i a f o r s e l e c t i o n f i t t e d those of the p r e v i o u s l y s e l e c t e d s u b j e c t . One Comparison Group I I S^was s e l e c t e d f o r each Dekina s u b j e c t s e l e c t e d f o r the study. For each stratum, a p r o p o r t i o n a l random sample of one, two, or three Ss_ were drawn from the remainder of p o t e n t i a l Ss^, to serve as judges f o r developing some of the instruments used i n the study. The s e l e c t i o n o f the three groups was based on the c e n t r a l con-cern of the study which i s to determine the extent to which science i n s t r u c t i o n has been e f f e c t i v e i n promoting the spontaneous d i s p o s i t i o n to recommend the use of science process s k i l l s or techniques to a person 46 TABLE 4 Proportional Stratified Sampling Plan for. Experimental Group (Dekina) Strata Christian - Rural Christian - Urban Moslem - Rural Moslem - Urban Totals Total in each stratum (n.) <J Level 1 Level 2 49 28 28 18 123 60 19 11 17 107 Proportion in each category 1 N t Level 1 Level 2 .09 .05 .05 .03 .22 11 .03 .02 .03 .19 Samples Selected n. r± (Ns) N, Level 1 Level 2 16 (3) (22) 12 (2) (12) 12 (2) (12) (2) ( 8) (9) 49 (54) 13 (3) (26)1 (1) (9) (1) (5) (2) ( 8) (7) 30 (48) Key: n^ . = number of Ss_ in stratum j = total number of Igala-speaking Ss_ (Experimental Group (230)/ i.e., <f Comparison Group I ( 98);-= 558 Ss [Comparison Group 11(230)) Ns Total projected sample size = 240 Ss_ Cells in the last two columns are labelled N ^ where, a = number of judges selected from cell , b = number of Ss based on calculated proportion, n t and N = number of Ss_ actually used in study Discrepancies between b and N were mainly due to attrition or anticipated attrition. 47 TABLE 5 P r o p o r t i o n a l S t r a t i f i e d Sampling Plan f o r Comparison Group 1 (Ayangba) S t r a t a Total i n each stratum (n.) Level 1 Level 2 Pr o p o r t i o n i n each category Level 1 Level 2 Samples S e l e c t e d J|A(Ns) t Level 1 Level 2 C h r i s t i a n - Rural 34 10 .06 .02 16 (3) • (15) (2) 7 ( 5) C h r i s t i a n - Urban 11 4 .02 .01 (2) 7 ( 5) (1) 3 ( 3) Moslem - Rural 18 5 .03 .01 8 (2) ( 8) (1) 4 ( 3) Moslem - Urban 13 3 .02 .01 10 (2) ( 6) (1) 2 ( 2) Totals 76 22 .13 .05 (9) 41 (34) (5) 16 (13) Key: See Table 4, p. 46 48 or persons confronted w i t h problems of measurement which are of every-day concern to N i g e r i a n s . Such techniques are opposed to those u s u a l l y found i n operation i n the c u l t u r e . Group II subjects provide the c u l t u r a l base a g a i n s t which comparison i s to be made. To i s o l a t e the e f f e c t due to science i n s t r u c t i o n (from a sch o o l i n g e f f e c t per s e ) , Comparison Group I Ss_ w i t h a general commercial education but no science was a l s o e s t a b l i s h e d . 3.4 Comparability of the Samples To ensure t h a t d i f f e r e n c e s obtained from the a n a l y s i s of data are due only to the v a r i a b l e s measured, some bas i c comparison data were gathered f o r a l l the samples s e l e c t e d . These i n c l u d e i n f o r m a t i o n regarding procedures f o r the s e l e c t i o n (admission) o f students i n t o Dekina and Ayangba s c h o o l s , the q u a l i t y of i n s t r u c t i o n i n both schools i n c l u d i n g teachers' q u a l i f i c a t i o n s and experience, the nature o f i n s t r u c t i o n i n the elementary schools p r e v i o u s l y attended by s u b j e c t s , as w e l l as the educational background and occupation o f t h e i r parents. The data were gathered by i n t e r v i e w and q u e s t i o n n a i r e (see Appendix C). Other inform a t i o n gathered toward such comparison included the S_'s mental a b i l i t y scores as measured by C a t t e l l ' s 'Cul ture F a i r ' t e s t of i n t e l l i g e n c e , and t h e i r c h r o n o l o g i c a l ages which might be important i n e x p l a i n i n g maturation e f f e c t s . 3.4.1 Comparability of Admission Procedures 1. Dekina Admission of students i n t o Dekina Secondary School i s based on t h e i r performance i n a state-wide Common Entrance Examination conducted 49 by the West A f r i c a n Examinations C o u n c i l , and on personal or parental choice of s c h o o l , provided t h a t vacancies are s t i l l a v a i l a b l e . A v a i l -a b i l i t y of vacancies depends on the number of candidates who have so i n d i c a t e d t h e i r choice of a p a r t i c u l a r school and on the State's quota system which s t i p u l a t e s a d i s t r i b u t i o n p a t t e r n aimed a t b r i n g i n g t o -gether students from a l l over the S t a t e . Interviews w i t h the Dekina subjects revealed t h a t c r i t e r i a of importance i n a candidate's choice of school had to do w i t h nearness of the school to h i s hometown, the presence i n that school of somebody ( f r i e n d or r e l a t i v e ) known to him. Other c r i t e r i a i n c l u d e d h i s personal assessment of the school's e x t r a -c u r r i c u l a r programs such as games, c l u b s , and the e n t i r e s o c i a l atmosphere w i t h i n the sc h o o l . Only a small number of the su b j e c t s claimed to have based t h e i r choice on a previous knowledge of the c u r r i c u l u m at the school. Since the parents of a vast m a j o r i t y are themselves i l l i t e r -a t e , i t i s u n l i k e l y t h a t the c r i t e r i o n o f c u r r i c u l a r o f f e r i n g f e a t u r e d prominently i n t h e i r choice of s c h o o l , where such a choice was made. Fees are uniform throughout the s t a t e . 2. Ayangba Ayangba Commercial College i s a p r i v a t e , non-sectarian school l o c a t e d about 30 km. east of Dekina. The school o f f e r s a business program i n Economics, Accounting, Typing and Shorthand, Bookkeeping, E n g l i s h , Business A r i t h m e t i c and Geography. I t i s the only school o f f e r i n g a non-science program i n the e n t i r e I g a i a D i v i s i o n and was therefore an obvious choice f o r the study. 50 Admission i n t o Ayangba i s through an Entrance Examination con-ducted by the c o l l e g e using a s i m i l a r format to the Common Entrance Examination, f o r a l l elementary schools i n I g a l a D i v i s i o n . The major c r i t e r i a f o r s e l e c t i o n are an o v e r r i d i n g i n t e r e s t i n a Commercial or Business Education and performance i n the examination. However, i t was found that some of the Ayangba subjects were among those who had passed the Dekina examination but were o l d e r than the maximum age re q u i r e d f o r admission i n t o Dekina and other Grammar Schools i n the s t a t e . 3.4.2 Comparability of the Q u a l i t y of I n s t r u c t i o n Data r e l a t i n g to q u a l i t y of i n s t r u c t i o n a t Dekina and Ayangba schools i s given i n Table 6. Q u a l i t y o f i n s t r u c t i o n i s here described i n terms of the academic and p r o f e s s i o n a l p r e p a r a t i o n of teachers, t h e i r teaching ex-peri e n c e , the methods of classroom i n s t r u c t i o n used and school f a c i l i t i e s , and the c u r r i c u l u m taught. As the t a b l e shows, a higher p r o p o r t i o n o f the Dekina teachers had re c e i v e d a higher l e v e l o f academic and p r o f e s s i o n a l p r e p a r a t i o n than the Ayangba teachers. The s i t u a t i o n i n Ayangba was probably due to the f a c t t h a t i t i s a r e l a t i v e l y new school i n comparison w i t h Dekina and a l s o due to the grea t e r m o b i l i t y of people w i t h commercial q u a l i f i c a -t i o n s . (At the time the study was c a r r i e d out, Ayangba was e x p e r i e n c i n g d i f f i c u l t y i n r e c r u i t i n g t e a c h e r s ) . However, Ayangba teachers compare q u i t e favourably w i t h Dekina teachers i n terms o f years of teaching experience acquired. The methods of classroom i n s t r u c t i o n used i n both schools are q u i t e s i m i l a r , being mainly the l e c t u r e type w i t h o c c a s i o n a l teacher 51 TABLE 6 Quality of Instruction School Population: Dekina 428 Number of Teachers: Dekina 19 Ayangba 150 Ayangba 8 Academic Qualifications of Teachers Bachelor's Master's Degree Degree GCE 'A' Level GCE '0' Level Dekina 13 2 Ayangba - 2 5 Professional Qualifications PGCE NCE Grade II RSA Dekina 5 6 Ayangba - 1 5 7 Teaching Experience No Teaching Experience 1-3 Years 4-6 Years 7-8 Years Over 8 Years Dekina 2 9 6 1 1 Ayangba - 3 3 1 1 . Method of Instruction and Facilities Dekina Lecture / Demonstration, Laboratory (2 hours per week for General Science; 2 hours per week each for Physics, Chemistry, Biology), Assignments Ayangba Lecture / Demonstration, Studio Practice (Typing and Shorthand), Assignments Curriculum Taught Dekina GCE Syllabus Ayangba RSA I & II / GCE Key: GCE 'A' Level = General Certificate of Education (London University) at 'Advanced' Level. GCE '0* Level = General Certificate of Education (London University) at 'Ordinary' Level. PGCE = Post-Graduate Certificate in Education (1 year after Bachelor's degree). NCE = Nigerian Certificate in Education (highest non-graduate teaching qualification in Nigeria). Grade II = Elementary School Teacher's Certificate (GCE '0' Level equivalent + 1 year). RSA = Royal Society of Arts (Levels I and II) Certificate in Commercial subjects. 52 demonstration, as w e l l as l a b o r a t o r y or s t u d i o p r a c t i c e . Both schools f o l l o w s y l l a b u s e s p r e s c r i b e d by e x t e r n a l examining bodies. 3.4.3 Comparability o f Pare n t a l Education and Occupation Information regarding parental education and occupation was obtained w i t h the q u e s t i o n n a i r e described i n Appendix C. An examination o f the responses to the q u e s t i o n n a i r e showed th a t over 90% of a l l the sub j e c t s came from f a m i l y backgrounds i n which a t l e a s t one of the parents i s i l l i t e r a t e . S i m i l a r l y , most parents were farmers or t r a d e r s ( p e d l a r s ) . For the subjects from urban socioeconomic environments t h i s meant t h a t t h e i r farmer parents maintained a farm on the o u t s k i r t s o f the town. The c o r r e s -ponding parents o f Ss_ i n the r u r a l category t y p i c a l l y l i v e on t h e i r farms. 3.4.4 Comparability o f Pre-admission T r a i n i n g o f Subjects From the experimenter's experience of t h i s c u l t u r e and from i n t e r v i e w s held w i t h the parents of some of the S_s, l i t t l e v a r i a t i o n e x i s t s i n the nature of c h i l d - r e a r i n g t r a i n i n g given to pre-school youngsters, i . e . , under the age of s i x years. Such t r a i n i n g u s u a l l y i n v o l v e s i n s t r u c t i n g the c h i l d about s o c i a l norms and elementary modes of behaviour. These i n c l u d e c e r t a i n b e l i e f s and knowledge about the c u l t u r e which he needs to have t o operate w i t h i n the c u l t u r a l context. Most o f t e n , such i n s t r u c t i o n i s not f o r m a l i z e d but i s administered through a system of examplars or by s t o r y - t e l 1 i n g . Responses to the q u e s t i o n n a i r e (see Appendix C) showed that the d i s t r i b u t i o n of elementary schools from which the Ayangba Ss_ were derived was q u i t e s i m i l a r to th a t of the Dekina S£. Elementary school education 53 concentrates mainly on teaching the b a s i c s k i l l s o f Reading, W r i t i n g , and A r i t h m e t i c , w i t h a minimum amount of S o c i a l S t u d i e s , Health Science and P r a c t i c a l A g r i c u l t u r e . The content of the A r i t h m e t i c s y l l a b u s i n c l u d e s the b a s i c a r i t h m e t i c a l processes of A d d i t i o n , S u b t r a c t i o n , M u l t i p l i c a t i o n and D i v i s i o n as w e l l as simple r e l a t i o n s h i p s between length measures, weight measures, and volume measures. Health Science i n c l u d e s simple methods of s a n i t a t i o n and hygiene. The p r a c t i c a l a g r i c u l t u r e s y l l a b u s emphasizes simple methods of c u l t i v a t i o n and the o p e r a t i o n of a school garden. V i s i t s to some of these gardens by the experimenter showed t h a t the hoe i s the main t o o l f o r c u l t i v a t i o n , t h a t crops were planted i n q u i t e s t r a i g h t ridges but t h a t l i t t l e order was observed w i t h regard to p l a n t i n g d i s t a n c e s . There i s a high m o b i l i t y (from school to school) among elementary school teachers w i t h the r e s u l t t h a t the standard of i n s t r u c -t i o n v a r i e s very l i t t l e from one school to another. 3.4.5 Comparability of Ages Since the samples d i f f e r e d i n c h r o n o l o g i c a l ages by up to seven years and s i n c e age may be regarded as one of the determinants of Ss_^ experience w i t h d i f f e r e n t techniques of measurement, the c r i t e r i o n value was adjusted f o r age d i f f e r e n c e s between the samples i n the r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s i s . 3.4.6 Comparability of Mental A b i l i t y An attempt was made to compare the samples i n terms o f mental a b i l i t y by a d m i n i s t e r i n g the C a t t e l l 'Culture F a i r ' t e s t to a l l Ss, because of the p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t the a b i l i t y f a c t o r could i n f l u e n c e 54 t h e i r performance on the instrument. However, i t was found t h a t Ss i n the sample of unschooled persons f a i l e d to understand the tasks posed by the t e s t . I t was t h e r e f o r e concluded that the t e s t was not v a l i d as a measure of mental a b i l i t y f o r comparison purposes, and was dropped from the study. 3.5 Instrumentation 3.5.1 V a r i a b l e s to be Measured S i x independent v a r i a b l e s e x t e r n a l to the F i s h b e i n Model (see p. 55) a s wel1 as three i n t e r n a l p r e d i c t o r v a r i a b l e s of the Model were of d i r e c t i n t e r e s t i n the study. The former i n c l u d e : S o c i o -economic Environment, R e l i g i o n , Type of I n s t r u c t i o n , Level of I n s t r u c t i o n , Age and Mental A b i l i t y . The v a r i a b l e s i n t e r n a l to the Model were: A t t i t u d e toward the A c t , Personal Normative B e l i e f s , and S o c i a l Normative B e l i e f s . The c r i t e r i o n v a r i a b l e s were Behavioural I n t e n t i o n and Actu a l Behaviour. 55 TABLE 7. V a r i a b l e s I n t e r n a l and Ex t e r n a l to the F i s h b e i n Model Dependent V a r i a b l e s Independent V a r i a b l e s ( i n t e r n a l to the Model) Independent V a r i a b l e s ( e x t e r n a l to the Model) B A a c t Socioeconomic Environment R e l i g i o n BI NB p Type of I n s t r u c t i o n NB5 Level of I n s t r u c t i o n Age Mental A b i l i t y 56 3.5.2 Independent V a r i a b l e s 1. Socioeconomic Environment, (SEE) In the study, SEE was used to r e f e r to the environment i n which the s u b j e c t spent at l e a s t two-thirds of the f i r s t twelve years of h i s l i f e , which i n c l u d e s where he r e c e i v e d h i s pre-school and elementary school education, and to which he would normally r e t u r n when the school i s not i n s e s s i o n ( f o r the schooled s u b j e c t s ) . For the non-schooled Group I I su b j e c t s the term r e f e r s to s i m i l a r l o c a t i o n s where the s u b j e c t has always l i v e d . Two c a t e g o r i e s o f socioeconomic environment were used--rural and urban. D i s t i n c t i o n between the two was drawn by reference to the s i z e and s t r u c t u r a l composition of the popu l a t i o n and by i t s p h y s i c a l l o c a t i o n i n r e l a t i o n to important routeways, government departments, and manufacturing i n d u s t r i e s . N o n - a g r i c u l t u r a l , m e t r o p o l i t a n centres w i t h populations o f ten thousand or more, a t the i n t e r s e c t i o n o f a t l e a s t two important routeways (road, r i v e r , r a i l , or a i r t r a n s p o r t ) and/ or the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e headquarters of a t l e a s t two s t a t e government departments and having one or more manufacturing i n d u s t r i e s were c l a s s i -f i e d as urban. Areas w i t h i n two miles o f the centre o f such places were i n c l u d e d i n the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . Rural environments were de f i n e d as t y p i c a l a g r i c u l t u r a l settlements w i t h low d e n s i t i e s o f population and l y i n g outside the areas i n c l u d e d w i t h i n the urban c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . According to the above c r i t e r i a Dekina, Ayangba, Idah, and Ankpa were c l a s s i f i e d as urban. Other places w i t h i n the general areas under study ( i . e . , I g a l a D i v i s i o n ) were i n c l u d e d i n the r u r a l category (see 57 Figure 1, p. 2). A questionnaire (see Appendix C), checked against school reports, was used to establish the category for each of the subjects at Dekina and Ayangba. 2. Religion Subjects indicated their religious persuasion as either Christian or Moslem on a questionnaire (see Appendix C). Such nominal membership was taken as sufficient evidence for the categorization. 3. Type of Instruction The three groups of subjects studied correspond to three different types of instruction: Science Instruction (the Experimental Group), Non-Science (Commercial) Instruction (Comparison Group I), and No-Formal-Education (Comparison Group II). The Experimental Group was drawn from Dekina Secondary School while Comparison Group I was drawn from Ayangba Commercial Secondary School. The No-Formal-Education subjects were drawn from a l i s t of nominees compiled by the Dekina subjects. 4. Level of Instruction For the two schooled groups, Ss_ were classified according to two levels of instruction: Junior or Level I (Forms 1 and 2) and Senior or Level II (Forms 3 and 4). The difference between these two subgroups with regard to the Experimental, science-instructed group is that Level I corresponded to General Science instruction in which the physical and biological sciences were studied as an integrated subject at an intro-ductory level only. At the senior level of instruction the various science 58 subjects were taught a t a higher l e v e l i n t h e i r s p e c i a l t i e s , i . e . , as p h y s i c s , chemistry, and b i o l o g y , s e p a r a t e l y . The major d i s t i n c t i o n among the Group I subjects was i n terms o f Grade l e v e l only. Since the Comparison Group II were themselves nominated by the Dekina s u b j e c t s , the major corresponding d i s t i n g u i s h i n g f a c t o r was age. 5. Age Age was defined as c h r o n o l o g i c a l age and was e s t a b l i s h e d w i t h the qu e s t i o n n a i r e i n Appendix C and by reference to school reports f o r the Dekina and Ayangba S's. For the Comparison Group II S£ the age suggested by the Dekina s u b j e c t was accepted a f t e r c o r r o b o r a t i o n by at l e a s t two e l d e r s who knew the su b j e c t w e l l , u s u a l l y parents o r other r e l a t i v e s . 6. General Mental A b i l i t y or IQ Because o f the p o s s i b l e d i f f e r e n t i a l e f f e c t s o f general mental a b i l i t y on the s u b j e c t ' s a t t i t u d e and behavioural responses, a measure of t h i s v a r i a b l e was obtained u s i n g C a t t e l l V C u l t u r e F a i r ' Test o f I n t e l l i g e n c e (IPAT) Sca l e 3, Forms A and B [1959]. T r a i n i n g on the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and s c o r i n g of the t e s t was given the f i e l d a s s i s t a n t s , using Form A. Because of the newness of the t e s t to the s u b j e c t popula-t i o n s , Form A was used as a t r a i n i n g t e s t and only Form B was scored f o r them. The choice of the C a t t e l l t e s t over other mental a b i l i t y t e s t s of the "Culture F a i r " type, e.g., the Raven M a t r i c e s , was made because a p i l o t study i n which both the C a t t e l l t e s t and the Raven Matrices were 59 administered to a group o f s i x N i g e r i a n s at The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia revealed t h a t i n s t r u c t i o n s f o r the former were more e a s i l y understood. 7. A t t i t u d e Toward the Act (A .) ' a c t A C£» a person's a t t i t u d e toward performing a s t i p u l a t e d a c t i n a given s i t u a t i o n , appears as one of the i n t e r n a l v a r i a b l e s of the F i s h -bein Model (see p. 30). I t r e f e r s to the amount of favourableness or unfavourableness o f a s u b j e c t toward recommending a p a r t i c u l a r method o f measurement to a person i n a given s i t u a t i o n i n v o l v i n g measurement. In the study, A a c t was measured by asking the s u b j e c t to i n d i c a t e which of a number o f independently s c a l e d measurement techniques (see p. 61 f o r s c a l i n g method used) he would be most favourable toward recommending to a person i n a given measurement s i t u a t i o n . A sample of instruments used f o r measuring A a c t i s given i n Appendix B. 8. Personal Normative B e l i e f s (NB p) The NBp v a r i a b l e represents the subject's personal b e l i e f about whether or not he ought to perform a given act i n a given s i t u a t i o n , r egardless o f what people might think he ought to do. NB p was measured by asking the s u b j e c t to i n d i c a t e which of a number of measurement tech-niques s c a l e d i n terms o f the stren g t h of personal commitment to recommend he f e l t he ought, p e r s o n a l l y , to recommend to a person i n a given s i t u a -t i o n . See Appendix B f o r sample of the NB instrument. 60 9. S o c i a l Normative B e l i e f s (NB g) The NB $ component of the F i s h b e i n Model represents the i n f l u e n c e of the s o c i a l environment on behaviour. I t i s an i n d i c a n t o f the s u b j e c t ' s commitment to what he b e l i e v e s h i s s o c i a l r e f e r e n t group expects of him. The NB v a r i a b l e was measured by having subjects i n d i c a t e which of a number of techniques of measurement s c a l e d i n terms of commitment to the expectations of others whose opinions are valued most, they would expect him to r e c -ommend to a person i n a given problem s i t u a t i o n i n v o l v i n g measurement. 3.5.3 Dependent V a r i a b l e s 1. Behavioural I n t e n t i o n (BI) Behavioural I n t e n t i o n r e f e r s to expressed i n t e n t to engage i n the performance of the behaviours under i n v e s t i g a t i o n , under s p e c i f i e d condi-t i o n s . In the study, the a c t towards which i n t e n t was being measured was recommending the use of c e r t a i n measurement techniques i n out-of-school c u l t u r a l s i t u a t i o n s . A measure of BI was obtained by asking s u b j e c t s to i n d i c a t e t h e i r choice among a number of measurement techniques s c a l e d i n terms of w i l l i n g n e s s to a c t u a l l y make the recommendation. The assumption being made here i s t h a t i n d i v i d u a l choice behaviour w i t h respect to i n d i c a t i n g which kinds of measurement techniques they are w i l l i n g to recommend i s mediated, at l e a s t i n p a r t , by previous l e a r n i n g s about measurement and how w e l l the s u b j e c t can i n t e g r a t e the l e a r n i n g s to the s i t u a t i o n at hand. A sample of.the BI instrument i s given i n Appendix B. 61 2. Behaviour (B) This i s the a c t u a l performance o f the p a r t i c u l a r a ct toward which BI has been measured. In the present study, a c t u a l behaviour was assessed through asking the s u b j e c t to a c t u a l l y recommend to persons t h a t matter the use of a p a r t i c u l a r measurement technique i n a given s i t u a t i o n . Actua behaviour p e r t a i n i n g to the a c t of recommending c u l t u r a l or s c i e n t i f i c methods of measurement was measured using the Behaviour Observation Instrument described i n Appendix B. The instrument was hand-delivered to the s u b j e c t by the experimenter or one of h i s a s s i s t a n t s and responses were s i m i l a r l y c o l l e c t e d . 3.6 Method of S c a l i n g Used As described above, two stages of operation were i n v o l v e d i n measuring B I , A a c t > N B p > a n d N B S : 0 ) S c a l i n g the s t i m u l i (techniques of measurement) using a panel of judges s e l e c t e d from the same population as the subjects who responded to the instruments, and (2) o b t a i n i n g observations on the v a r i a b l e s using the e s t a b l i s h e d s c a l e f o r each v a r i a b l e . 3.6.1 S c a l i n g of S i m u l i 1. S e l e c t i o n of Judges Judges used to s c a l e the s t i m u l i (measurement techniques) were drawn from the same population as the s u b j e c t s . They were randomly s e l e c t e d from each category so as to r e f l e c t the p r o p o r t i o n of the e n t i r e p o p u l a t i o n of s u b j e c t s which belonged to t h a t category. Tables 4 and 5 give the number of judges s e l e c t e d i n each category alongside the number of Ss. 62 2. Construction of the Instruments Using Thurstone's method of P a i r e d Comparisons and the optimum orders of p r e s e n t a t i o n developed by Ross [1934], the instruments were const r u c t e d by making a l l p o s s i b l e p a i r e d combinations of s t i m u l i r e l e -vant to a given measurement s i t u a t i o n . These orders serve to e l i m i n a t e space and time e r r o r s and avoid r e g u l a r r e p e t i t i o n s which might i n v o l v e any given member of a stimulus group. I n s t r u c t i o n s were a l s o i n c l u d e d asking judges to s o r t recommendations of methods of measurement along ap p r o p r i a t e p s y c h o l o g i c a l dimensions u n d e r l y i n g A ., NB , NB , and BI ac L p s according to what the m a j o r i t y of people they knew (not t h e i r personal preferences) would p r e f e r to do i n each case. 3. A d m i n i s t r a t i o n of the Instruments to Judges The p a i r e d comparison instruments were administered to the Dekina and Ayangba judges i n t h e i r group, w h i l e the judges r e p r e s e n t i n g the no-formal-education group r e c e i v e d the instruments i n d i v i d u a l l y . This was because, f o r p r a c t i c a l reasons ( i n c l u d i n g s p a t i a l and temporal l i m i t a t i o n s ) , i t was more convenient to a d m i n i s t e r the instrument to the schooled groups each as a group w h i l e i t was i m p o s s i b l e , due to la r g e d i s p e r s i o n o f subjects over a wide geographical area, to do so with the non-schooled group. In each case, the measurement s i t u a t i o n and the und e r l y i n g psy-c h o l o g i c a l dimensions to be used i n the judgment were described i n E n g l i s h and the t r a n s l a t e d I g a l a language v e r s i o n to the judges ( I g a l a alone to the non-schooled judges) by the experimenter or his a s s i s t a n t . 63 Questions were then s o l i c i t e d to e l i c i t t h e i r understanding of the i n s t r u c t i o n s given. Such questions were noted and the explanations repeated i n a l l subsequent a d m i n i s t r a t i o n s . D e s c r i p t i o n s of and/or actu a l examples of the measurement techniques r e l e v a n t to the p a r t i c u l a r s i t u a t i o n under study were then presented and c l a r i f i e d . The judges were then asked to judge each p a i r according to which of them they f e l t the m a j o r i t y of people they knew (not t h e i r own personal preference, emphasized) would p r e f e r to recommend. The judges were a l s o entreated to judge every p a i r of s t i m u l i i n the instrument. 4. A n a l y s i s of Judges' Data From the p a i r e d comparison judgments f o r each p s y c h o l o g i c a l v a r i a b l e , a frequency matrix F_ was e s t a b l i s h e d , with elements represent-i n g the number o f times a given s t i m u l u s (technique) was p r e f e r r e d to each other s t i m u l u s . Using the method f o r Case V of the Law of Compara-t i v e Judgement des c r i b e d by Torgerson [1958, p. 165] and a modified form of the U n i v e r s i t y o f A l b e r t a Department of Education computer program, SCALOI, s c a l e values were d e r i v e d from a l l s t i m u l i on each p s y c h o l o g i c a l continuum r e p r e s e n t i n g A „ + , N B . NB r, and BI. For convenience, the act p s l e a s t value on each s c a l e was assigned the a r b i t r a r y value of zero ( d i f f e r e n t from p s y c h o l o g i c a l zero) and the other values were adjusted a c c o r d i n g l y . 3.7 C o l l e c t i o n o f the Data The instruments administered to the Ss_ i n a l l three treatment populations i n c l u d e d : 64 1. A questionnaire. 2. The BI, A . , NB , and NB. instruments or Fishbein instru-acc p s ments. 3. The Behaviour Observation Instrument. 4. Cattell 'Culture Fair1 test of Intelligence. 3.7.1 The Questionnaire The questionnaire was used to measure the background variables related to each subject. Other information obtained by the questionnaire included the S's religion, socioeconomic environment, family background, parental education and occupation, the education of siblings, and the number of family members and relatives engaged in technical occupations like carpentry, radio repairs, shoemaking, etc. A sample of the question-naire used is given in Appendix C. 1. Administration of Questionnaire to Subjects The questionnaire was administered to the Dekina and Ayangba S£ in a group according to Forms (Grades). The experimenter or his assis-tants explained the purpose of the questionnaire to Ss_ and gave them the option to identify themselves with either their name or school number or both. The confidentiality of the information collected was also guar-anteed. Each item on the questionnaire was then read out in Igala and English and explained by the experimenter, and each S^  then responded to the item on his copy of the questionnaire. Administration to the no-formal-education group was on a one-to one basis by the experimenter or his assistant. Confidentiality was 65 again guaranteed. Each item was read and e x p l a i n e d to the S_ i n the . I g a l a language and h i s response was documented by the experimeter o r his a s s i s t a n t . 3.7.2 The B I , A^„ +, NB„, and NB, instruments ( F i s h b e i n instruments) a c t — p s The BI, A a . , NB , and NB„ instruments were designed to measure a c t p s the Ss_' d i s p o s i t i o n s to recommending techniques o f measurement along s t a t e d p s y c h o l o g i c a l dimensions and i n d i f f e r e n t c u l t u r a l s e t t i n g s . Samples of the instruments are shown i n Appendix B. In each instrument, i n s t r u c t i o n s were provided to guide the Ss_ i n making t h e i r responses. D e s c r i p t i o n s of the c u l t u r a l s e t t i n g and the p s y c h o l o g i c a l dimension guiding choice behaviour were given. A l i s t of measurement techniques, some of which were s e l e c t e d from science textbooks used at Dekina and others on the advice of knowledgeable a d u l t s i n the I g a l a c u l t u r e , was provided and described. 1. A d m i n i s t r a t i o n of the Fishbein Instruments to Ss A d m i n i s t r a t i o n of the BI, A, NB , and NB, instruments to the a c t p s Dekina and Ayangba Ss_ was done i n t h e i r classrooms. A p i l o t run was i n i t i a l l y c a r r i e d out with a small number of n o n - p a r t i c i p a t i n g students randomly drawn from various Forms (Grades) a t Dekina. I n s t r u c t i o n s per-t a i n i n g to the instruments were read and e x p l a i n e d i n d e t a i l , i n E n g l i s h and I g a l a (interchangeably) to the p i l o t group. Questions regarding the d i f f i c u l t y i n understanding the i n s t r u c t i o n s were s o l i c i t e d by the ex-perimenter, and c l a r i f i e d . The explanations given were then i n c o r p o r a t e d i n the f i n a l i n s t r u c t i o n s contained i n the instruments before they were 66 administered to the Ss_ i n the study. D e s c r i p t i o n s and/or a c t u a l examples of the measurement techniques were a l s o provided. As w i t h the q u e s t i o n n a i r e , a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of these instruments to the no-formal-education group of Ss_was on a one-to-one basis by the experimenter or h i s a s s i s t a n t s , w i t h i n s t r u c t i o n s and explanations given i n the I g a l a language. 2. S c o r i n g A S's score on v a r i a b l e s , B I , A a . , NB . and NB , was taken to — a c t p s be the s c a l e value o f the measurement technique, s e l e c t e d by the S_ as the most p r e f e r r e d method i n a p a r t i c u l a r s i t u a t i o n . The s c a l e values of each technique on each of the p s y c h o l o g i c a l continua u n d e r l y i n g the choice behaviour c a l l e d f o r i n each instrument was p r e v i o u s l y e s t a b l i s h e d by a panel of judges (see p. 59). 3.7.3 The Behaviour Observation Instruments These c o n s i s t e d of two documents, Document 1 was addressed to the SJs f a m i l y member, and the o t h e r , Document 2, to the N i g e r i a n Govern-ment department r e s p o n s i b l e f o r e s t a b l i s h i n g standards of measurement--the N a t i o n a l Bureau o f Standards or National Standards O r g a n i z a t i o n . Samples of the documents are i n c l u d e d i n Appendix B. 1. A d m i n i s t r a t i o n of the Behaviour Observation Instruments The BI instruments to which Ss_ had e a r l i e r responded were returned to them f i r s t . The experimenter or h i s a s s i s t a n t then read out the con-t e n t of each document, one of which had been given to each S_. Ss were 67 then t o l d to s i g n the document i f they had agreed to having i t sent to the addressee. Ss_ were a l s o t o l d that they had the option not to s i g n the document i f they had any r e s e r v a t i o n s about the response they had e a r l i e r made to the BI instrument. They were t o l d t h a t the signed document would be sent to the nominated f a m i l y member and to the Nati o n a l Bureau of Standards r e s p e c t i v e l y . 2. S c o r i n g The Behaviour Observation Instrument was scored according to the format below: Subject endorses n e i t h e r document Subject endorses Document 1 only Subject endorses Document 2 only Subject endorses both Document 1 and Document 2 Score 0 1 2 3 The scores were assumed to l i e on an o r d i n a l s c a l e of behavioural response. A score of 3, f o r example, i n d i c a t e d a higher degree of behavioural res-ponse than a score of 2. Document 2 was considered as r e q u i r i n g a higher degree of commitment than document 1, hence the score of 2 given to document 2. 3.8 V a l i d i t y of Instruments The techniques of measurement s e l e c t e d f o r the study are funda-mental i n many areas of s c i e n t i f i c and t e c h n o l o g i c a l p r a c t i c e . Measurement i s a l s o an a c t i v i t y i n the everyday experience of the c u l t u r e i n which the study was c a r r i e d out. The scope of measurement a c t i v i t i e s sampled 68 represents a wide range of measurement tasks important to the c u l t u r e . In a d d i t i o n , t h e s i t u a t i o n s i n which the behaviours were examined are t y p i c a l of occasions w i t h i n the c u l t u r e i n which such behaviours are g e n e r a l l y e x h i b i t e d . The argument f o r the use of recommending behaviour as an i n d i c a n t of i n t e r p r e t i v e use of knowledge has a l r e a d y been made (see p. 3). E s t a b l i s h e d p r a c t i c e [e.g., F i s h b e i n ejt a l _ . , 1967] f o r measuring behaviour and a t t i t u d e s has been s t r i c t l y adhered to i n c o n s t r u c t i n g the instruments. For example, a s u b j e c t ' s expression of favourableness or unfavourable-ness toward the performance of an a c t i v i t y i n a given s i t u a t i o n was taken as a measure of h i s A t t i t u d e toward the A c t , A, .. S i m i l a r l y , a S/s expressed w i l l i n g n e s s to perform a given a c t i n a given s i t u a t i o n has been regarded as a measure of h i s behavioural i n t e n t i o n . F i s h b e i n [1967] holds t h a t these are l e g i t i m a t e , verbal measures of the v a r i a b l e s i n h i s model. Results obtained from m u l t i p l e r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s i s of data c o l l e c t e d are s i m i l a r to those obtained by other researchers who have used the model [ c f . Abramson, 1972; Schwartz and T e s s l e r , 1972]. Face v a l i d i t y f o r the v a r i o u s instruments used was e a r l i e r e s t a b l i s h e d by s o l i c i t i n g the judgements and comments of nine experts drawn from v a r i o u s departments i n the F a c u l t y of Education and i n Psychology at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia. P r e d i c t i v e v a l i d i t y was assessed, at l e a s t i n p a r t , by c a r r y i n g out a m u l t i p l e r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s i s on data obtained i n the study (see Chapter Four). 3.9 R e l i a b i l i t y of the Instruments Used The instruments on which r e l i a b i l i t y measures were sought included the B I , A, NB . and NB„ instruments. Each instrument was a c t p s 69 developed independently f o r each c u l t u r a l s e t t i n g , using a group of judges and Thurstone'smethod of a n a l y z i n g p a i r e d comparisons [see Torgerson, 1958, p. 165], In t h i s way, each stimulus (measurement technique) was given a s c a l e value on the p s y c h o l o g i c a l continuum measured by the instrument. A S_'s score on the instrument i s then the s c a l e value corresponding to the stimulus on the ap p r o p r i a t e p s y c h o l o g i c a l continuum. The extent to which a S/s score i s a " t r u e " measure of the a t t r i b u t e being measured r e l a t e s to the concept of " r e l i a b i l i t y of measurement." For example, a score may be s a i d to be r e l i a b l e i n s o f a r as i t i s l i k e l y to be repeated (a) i f the same instrument i s adminis-t e r e d to the same S_s on another o c c a s i o n , which may be sooner or l a t e r ; (b) i f the second score i s obtained from a comparable (but d i f f e r e n t ) instrument, administered on another o c c a s i o n , sooner or l a t e r ; (c) i f d i f f e r e n t examiners or observers record the S_'s behaviours, on the same or d i f f e r e n t occasions. The main r e l i a b i l i t y i n t e r e s t s i n the present study were (1) whether the B I , A . , NB^ and NB,. sca l e s were s t a b l e , i n the sense act p s th a t the s c a l e values would have been e s s e n t i a l l y the same whether they had been derived from the judgment of the judges a c t u a l l y used or from those of other judges, randomly s e l e c t e d from the same p o p u l a t i o n ; and (2) whether the Ss' scores d i s p l a y e d s u f f i c i e n t s t a b i l i t y over the period of study so th a t d i f f e r e n c e s i n the t i m e - o f - t e s t i n g of d i f f e r e n t groups of Ss^ were unimportant. 70 With respect to ( 1),Kendall 1s s t a t i s t i c , u, the c o e f f i c i e n t of agreement,provides a means f o r determining the i n t e r n a l c o n sistency between m judges i n t h e i r comparative judgements. The procedure i n v o l v e s f i r s t c a l c u l a t i n g Kendall's T, i n which (J V - m S f ^ ) * („C 2)( r aC 2) the sum of the squared f ^ , the frequency of times stimulus j was judged more favourable than stimulus i number of judges the sum of the f . . e n t r i e s number of combinations of the n s t i m u l i taken 2 at a time (= n ( n - l ) / 2 ) number of combinations of the m judges taken 2 at a time (=m(m-l)/2) The f - j j ' s are drawn from below the diagonal i n a frequency t a b l e w i t h j columns and i rows and i n which the diagonal elements are a l l zero. Kendall's u, the c o e f f i c i e n t of agreement's then defined as 2T u = 1 , W W and can take values from -1/m ( i f m i s odd), - l ( m - l ) ( i f m i s even) to +1.00. A l l p o s i t i v e values of u i n d i c a t e some degree of aoreement. where 9 E f. . m n C2 HI C 71 o Kendall [1948] has a l s o provided a x s t a t i s t i c f o r t e s t i n g the s t a t i s -t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e of u. The s t a t i s t i c i s : where a l l the v a r i a b l e s r e t a i n t h e i r previous meanings, and df = L C 0 ) m(m"1I , [see Edwards, 1957, pp. 76-81]. Values derived f o r the c o e f f i c i e n t of agreement are given i n Chapter Four. Po i n t number (2) was l e a s t w e l l handled i n the study. I t would have been useful to have obtained t e s t - r e t e s t measures using a group of Ss_ l i k e these of the study, w i t h an i n t e r v a l equal to the d u r a t i o n of the study. However, i t proved q u i t e impossible under the c o n d i t i o n s of the study to perform any r e t e s t i n g of the Ss, so t h a t no d i r e c t s t a b i l i t y - i n f o r m a t i o n was obtained. 3.10 A p p l i c a b i l i t y of the S c a l i n g Model p M o s t e l l e r [1951] has developed a x t e s t of s i g n i f i c a n c e f o r determining the g o o d n e s s - o f - f i t o f observed p r o p o r t i o n s obtained from paired-comparison judgements with t h e o r e t i c a l proportions derived from Thurstone's law of Comparative judgement, Case V. The t e s t i s p a r t i c -u l a r l y s e n s i t i v e to lack of unid'imensionality. In d e r i v i n g the s c a l e values f o r the instruments (using the modified form of the U n i v e r s i t y of A l b e r t a Computer program SCAL0I, 72 see p. 60) the observed frequency data were f i r s t converted i n t o a pro-p o r t i o n matrix P_, where the element p i s the p r o p o r t i o n of times stimulus k i s p r e f e r r e d to stimulus j . The P matrix i s then t r a n s -formed i n t o a 1 matrix. In the M o s t e l l e r t e s t , the reverse procedure i s adopted, i . e . , s t a r t i n g from the d e r i v e d s c a l e v a l u e s , the transformed Z m a t r i x and subsequently the t h e o r e t i c a l p r o p o r t i o n m a t r i x P_' are d e r i v e d . The observed p ^ and the t h e o r e t i c a l (derived) p ' ^ are then transformed by an a r c s i n t r a n s f o r m a t i o n , 8 . = a r c s i n /p' ., , and J K = a r c s i n /p. each of which has a normal d i s t r i J k 821 bution with mean u, and variance — j ^ — where N = number of judgements on which p i s based = n ( n - l ) / 2 , where n = number of s t i m u l i . The x t e s t i s c a r r i e d out by computing the sum of the squared d i s c r e p a n c i e s between 8 (observed) and 8' ( d e r i v e d , t h e o r e t i c a l ) d i v i d i n g the r e s u l t by the variance of e and comparing i t with the t a b l e d value of 2 x w i t h the same degrees of freedom. i .e . where 2 _ £(8-8')2  x 821/N (6-8') = i s the discrepancy between the two transformed proportions f o r each p a i r w i s e judgement. 2 The degrees of freedom corresponding to the x t e s t i s given by 73 df = ( n - l ) ( n - 2 ) / 2 [see Edwards, 1957, p. 56]. If the computed value of x i s less than the app r o p r i a t e t a b l e d v a l u e , the s c a l i n g model i s assumed to f i t the observed data and a l s o provides some support to the c l a i m that l:he underlying assumptions o f the s c a l i n g model used to f i n d the -.;cale values of the various measurement techniques are tenable. Values d e r i v e d from the g o o d n e s s - o f - f i t t e s t s are presented i n Chapter Four. 3.11 Method o f A n a l y s i s 3.11.1 S t a t i s t i c a l A n a l y s i s The s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s of data from the study was c a r r i e d out i n two stages a t The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia Computing Centre. The f i r s t stage i n v o l v e d d e r i v i n g s c a l e values f o r the var i o u s measurement techniques from the paired comparisons made by the judges. For t h i s purpose, the U n i v e r s i t y of A l b e r t a Department of Education program, SCALOI, was used. The program was modified to accept data i n the form of a frequency matrix. The program output c o n s i s t e d of a pro p o r t i o n m a t r i x , P_ (where the pr o p o r t i o n i s the r a t i o of times technique k was s e l e c t e d i n preference to technique j ) , a t r a n s f o r m a t i o n m a t r i x , _X, and the s c a l e valuer, f o r a l l the techniques. 0 The second stage of the a n a l y s i s i n v o l v e d submitting the data to m u l t i p l e r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s i s using BMD:03R. The program allows f o r d i f f e r e n t combinations of v a r i a b l e s to be entered i n t o the r e g r e s s i o n model and has b u i l t i n t o i t a procedure f o r generating i n t e r a c t i o n 74 2 v a r i a b l e s . The output from the program in c l u d e s an ANOVA t a b l e ; R , the incremental p r o p o r t i o n of variance accounted f o r by each v a r i a b l e entered; r e g r e s s i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s ; and p a r t i a l c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c -i e n t s . The program a l s o allows f o r q u a l i t a t i v e as w e l l as continuous v a r i a b l e s to be simultaneously entered i n t o the model. Conventional a n a l y s i s of v a r i a n c e i s u s u a l l y performed on data obtained from an experimental design t h a t i s balanced, i . e . , has equal or at l e a s t p r o p o r t i o n a t e c e l l f r e q u e n c i e s . Such analyses r e q u i r e t h a t the row e f f e c t s and column e f f e c t s , r e s p e c t i v e l y , should sum to zero. S i m i l a r l y , the sum of the i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t s across rows and columns should s e p a r a t e l y sum to z e r o , and the squared 2 m u l t i p l e c o r r e l a t i o n , R , obtained i n the a n a l y s i s i s simply the sum of the squared c o r r e l a t i o n s between i n d i v i d u a l v a r i a b l e s ( f a c t o r s ) and the c r i t e r i o n . In such cases the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of r e s u l t s regarding main e f f e c t s and i n t e r a c t i o n s as w e l l as c o n t r a s t s between l e v e l s of v a r i o u s c l a s s e s of v a r i a b l e s ( f a c t o r s ) i s s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d . A n a l y s i s of v a r i a n c e i n v o l v i n g d i s p r o p o r t i o n a t e c e l l f r e q u e ncies i s extremely complex. The design i s non-orthogonal, t h a t i s , e f f e c t s are not independent of one another and F - t e s t s f o r main e f f e c t s and i n t e r a c t i o n s cannot be u n e q u i v o c a l l y i n t e r p r e t e d . O v e r a l l and Spiegel [1969] have described three d i f f e r e n t methods of a n a l y z i n g data i n v o l v i n g d i s p r o p o r t i o n a t e c e l l f r e q u e n c i e s , (see Table 8). Method 1, c a l l e d the Complete Linear Model a n a l y s i s , i n v o l v e s the e s t i m a t i o n of independent e f f e c t s of each f a c t o r adjusted f o r a l l other f a c t o r s included i n the model. Method 2, the Experimental Design Model, i n v o l v e s the e s t i m a t i o n of main e f f e c t s o n l y , d i s r e g a r d i n g i n t e r a c t i o n s , then e s t i m a t i o n of i n t e r a c t i o n s adjusted f o r main e f f e c t s . 75 In Method 3, sometimes r e f e r r e d to as step-down a n a l y s i s , an a p r i o r i o r d e r i n g of the e f f e c t s (based on t h e o r e t i c a l causal grounds) i s c a r r i e d out, followed by an e s t i m a t i o n of each e f f e c t adjusted f o r those preceding i t i n the ordering but ignoring^ those f o l l o w i n g i t . The f o l l o w i n g t a b l e shows the procedures described f o r determining each e f f e c t f o r a two-factor (A and B) design. According to O v e r a l l and Spiegel [1969] the choice of a p a r t i c u l a r method of a n a l y s i s i s based on the way the problem i s con-c e p t u a l i z e d and on the types of questions one wishes to answer. They recommend th a t Method 1 be used when the problem i s t r e a t e d as a general l i n e a r r e g r e s s i o n problem r a t h e r than i n experimental design terms, e.g., when one i s i n t e r e s t e d i n e s t i m a t i n g the c o n t r i b u t i o n of each f a c t o r and each i n t e r a c t i o n i n c l u d e d i n the model, as w e l l as of continuous v a r i a b l e s t h a t may be i n c l u d e d . On the other hand, Method 2 i s recommended f o r s i t u a t i o n s i n which the problem i s regarded as a m u l t i c l a s s i f i c a t i o n f a c t o r i a l design i n which conventional a n a l y s i s of vari a n c e could have been a p p l i e d except f o r unequal c e l l f requencies or other computational d i f f i c u l t i e s . I t i s a l s o a p p l i c a b l e when one hopes to account f o r systematic v a r i a t i o n i n terms of simple a d d i t i v e main e f f e c t s but wishes to t e s t the s i g n i f i c a n c e of i n t e r a c t i o n s as a safeguard a g a i n s t n o n - a d d i t i v i t y . In t h i s Method, the main e f f e c t s are determined i n d i v i d u a l l y , each one adjusted f o r every other main e f f e c t . This serves the purpose of removing t h a t p a r t of the e f f e c t which i s shared i n common w i t h the other f a c t o r s , i . e . of e l i m i n a t i n g i t s c o r r e l a t i o n with the other v a r i a b l e s . E.g., the present study, a 76 s i g n i f i c a n t F-value f o r A (adjusted f o r B & C) would i n d i c a t e t h a t A c o n t r i b u t e s s i g n i f i c a n t l y to the p r e d i c t i o n of BI, over and above the c o n t r i b u t i o n s made by B and C, both independently and through t h e i r c o r r e l a t i o n s w i t h one another and w i t h A. Each i n t e r a c t i o n term i s 1 t e s t e d a f t e r a d j u s t i n g f o r the e f f e c t s of the f a c t o r s and other i n t e r a c t i o n s . Method 3 i s s u i t a b l e when a l o g i c a l a p r i o r i o r d e r i n g , based on t h e o r e t i c a l or causal grounds, e x i s t s among the v a r i a b l e s i n the re g r e s s i o n model, i n which case the e f f e c t s of those v a r i a b l e s w i t h l o g i c a l p r i o r i t y are t e s t e d d i s r e g a r d i n g secondary f a c t o r s , f o l l o w e d by the e f f e c t s of the secondary f a c t o r s adjusted f o r the primary ones. Cautionary notes on the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the t e s t s using each method of a n a l y s i s are given by O v e r a l l and Spiegel [1969], Marks [1974], and Kaufman and Sweet [1974]. In a d d i t i o n to these c a u t i o n s , i t should be remembered that both Method 1 and Method 2 analyses deal w i t h the independent c o n t r i b u t i o n of each v a r i a b l e over and above the others i n c l u d e d i n the a n a l y s i s . This means th a t the p t o t a l c o n t r i b u t i o n to c r i t e r i o n v a r i a n c e (R ) accounted f o r by the v a r i a b l e might have been g r e a t e r i f t h a t p o r t i o n of i t shared with other v a r i a b l e s were taken account o f . 3.11.2 Method of Coding Q u a l i t a t i v e V a r i a b l e s Used Several methods of coding q u a l i t a t i v e v a r i a b l e s entered i n m u l t i p l e r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s i s have been suggested by Cohen [1966], O v e r a l l and Spiegel [1968], and K e r l i n g e r [1973, pp. 116-151]. These in c l u d e dummy coding, e f f e c t coding, and orthogonal or c o n t r a s t coding. 77 In dummy coding, vectors are generated such t h a t v e c t o r membership i n a group or category i s i n d i c a t e d by 1, w h i l e non-membership i s assigned 0. Since (g-1) vectors are s u f f i c i e n t to i d e n t i f y g groups, membership i n the l a s t group ( u s u a l l y the c o n t r o l group) i s i n d i c a t e d by a s s i g n i n g zero's to a l l (g-1) v e c t o r s . In orthogonal coding technique, one hypothesizes, a p r i o r i , d i f f e r e n c e s between treatment groups and wishes to t e s t such d i f f e r -ences i n the course of the a n a l y s i s . The coding i s t h e r e f o r e s i m i l a r to a p p o r t i o n i n g c o e f f i c i e n t s to the comparisons one intends to c a r r y out. E f f e c t coding i s s i m i l a r to dummy coding except t h a t i n the present case the l a s t ( g t h ) treatment group i s coded by a s s i g n i n g - l ' s to a l l (g-1) v e c t o r s . Whereas the r e g r e s s i o n weights a s s o c i a t e d w i t h dummy coded v a r i a b l e s have l i m i t e d i n t e r p r e t a b i l i t y , e f f e c t s coding r e s u l t s i n r e g r e s s i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h each v a r i a t e p r o v i d -ing d i r e c t estimates o f the AMOVA parameters [see O v e r a l l and Spiegel,1969]. In the present a n a l y s i s , i n which no attempt has been made, e i t h e r on t h e o r e t i c a l or causal grounds to t r e a t any p a r t i c u l a r group as a c o n t r o l group, the e f f e c t coding method was used. The v a r i a b l e s and vectors used i n the r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s i s are given below. Table 9 i l l u s t r a t e s the coding of the q u a l i t a t i v e v a r i a b l e s using the e f f e c t coding method. = Behavioural I n t e n t i o n (BI) -- C r i t e r i o n V a r i a b l e X 2 = A a c t \ X 3 = N B p X 4 = NB 5 X 5 = IQ X 6 = Age / Q u a n t i t a t i v e Independent V a r i a b l e s 78 Table 8 Methods of Data from iion-orthogonal Designs (Overall & Spiegel, 1969) Method 1 Source SS df A SST [ R 2 ( a i , B : j , a B i j ) - R2 (B j . c ^ j ) ] a-1 B SST [R 2 (a i ,3 j ,aB i j - ) - R2(a.j ,afi.j)] b-1 AB SST [ R 2 ( a i , g j , a B i j ) - R 2 (a r 3 J . ) ] (a-D(b-l) Error SST [1-R2 (a-.Bj.aS^)] N-ab Total ss T N-1 Method 2 Source SS df A SS T [R 2 (a i ,3 j ) " R2(3j)] a-1 B SS T[R 2(a i ,3 j) " R2(a.j)] b-1 AB SS T [R 2 (a i ,3 j»a3 i j ) - R 2(a rBj)] (a-D(b-l) Error SST[1 - R 2 ( a i , B j , a 3 i j ) ] N-ab Total ss T N-1 Method 3 (assuming the a priori order to be: . Source ss df A SS T[R 2( a i)] a-1 B SS T [R 2 (a i ,3 j ) - R 2( a i)] b-1 AB SS T [R 2 (a i ,B j ,a3 i j ) - R2(a.j , B j ) ] (a-l)(b-l) Error SST[1 - R 2 ( a i ,3j,cx3i j)] N-ab Total ss T N-1 79 TABLE 9 An Illustration of the Coding of Qualitative Variables* Criterion Variable Quantitative Independent Variables Quantitative Independent Variables BI A ' NB NB„ IQ act p s Age Schooling (A) Religion (C) SEE (B) X^Y) X2 X3 X4 X5 X6 X7 X8 x9 X10 x l l X12 X13 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 -1 1 1 0 0 0 0 -1 -1 0 1 0 0 0 1 -1 0 1 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 0 -1 1 (Quantita-tive Scores) (Quantitative Scores) ooo ooo 1 1 1 ooo ooo :| 0 0 0 1 0 1 -i 0 0 0 1 0 -1 i 0 0 0 1 0 1 i 0 0 0 0 1 1 i 0 0 0 0 1 -1 -i 0 0 0 0 1 -1 -i -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 1 " i -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 - 1 1 -l * Interaction variables were transgenerated by the BMD-03R program used. KEY: Schooling -1 refers to Level 2 of No-Formal-Education Religion 1 = Christian -1 = Moslem Socioeconomic Environment 1 = Rural : -1 = Urban 80 X 7 = Level 1 of Science I n s t r u c t i o n X 8 = Level 2 of Science I n s t r u c t i o n x 9 - Level 1 of Non-Science I n s t r u c t i o n X 1 0 = Level 2 of Non-Science I n s t r u c t i o n X l l = Level 1 of Non-Formal-Education X 12 = R e l i g i o n X 1 3 = Socioeconomic Environment. Q u a l i t a t i v e Independent V a r i a b l e s ( v e c t o r s ) 3.11 .3 S t a t i s t i c a l Tests A m u l t i p l e r e g r e s s i o n model corresponding to design v a r i a b l e s s i m i l a r to those used i n the present study may be s t a t e d i n general form as: h = » + a i x i + + Y k x k + "Via + a Y i k x i k + 3 Y j k X j k + a 6 i j k X i j k + e i j k , where u = grand mean a, 3, Y = main e f f e c t s and a3,aY>3y,a3Y = the i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t s between the various f a c t o r s . S t a t i s t i c a l t e s t s r e l e v a n t to the questions r a i s e d i n Subproblems I , I I , and I I I (p. 10) included examining the i n d i v i d u a l and j o i n t c o n t r i b u t i o n s (R ) of the i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t s and main treatment e f f e c t s f o r s i g n i f i c a n c e . Post hoc comparisons were then c a r r i e d out to i s o l a t e 81 the various l e v e l s of treatments that were c o n t r i b u t i n g s i g n i f i c a n t l y to the observed variances. The f o l l o w i n g s p e c i f i c models were s e t up i n order t o examine i n d i v i d u a l and j o i n t c o n t r i b u t i o n s o f v a r i a b l e s used i n the present study and combinations of them. The f u l l m u l t i p l e r e g r e s s i o n equation under c o n s i d e r a t i o n can be given i n o u t l i n e form as: B ~ BI = { I n t e r n a l v a r i a b l e s + Ext e r n a l V a r i a b l e s } + e r r o r , where I n t e r n a l v a r i a b l e s = A ., NB , NB act p s Exte r n a l v a r i a b l e s = Mental a b i l i t y , Age, A{a ]X 1 + a 2 X 2 + a 3 X 3 + a 4 X 4 + a 5X 5> B{a 6X 6} C{a ?X 7} . The model used to answer questions r e l a t e d to Subproblems I and I I (p. 10) can be given as: Model 1 B ~ BI = {External V a r i a b l e s + I n t e r a c t i o n s } + e r r o r . The models used f o r answering Subproblem I I I , p. 11 are: Model 2 B ~ BI = { I n t e r n a l V a r i a b l e s + Ext e r n a l V a r i a b l e s } + e r r o r Model 3 B ~ BI = {I n t e r n a l V a r i a b l e s } .+ e r r o r 82 Model 4. B ^ BI = ( E x t e r n a l V a r i a b l e s } + e r r o r Model 5. B ^ BI = I n t e r n a l V a r i a b l e s + External V a r i a b l e s B ^ BI I n t e r a c t i o n s between Sel e c t e d I n t e r n a l + e r r o r V a r i a b l e s and External V a r i a b l e s . 3.11.4 Post Hoc Comparisons Even though the o v e r a l l F - t e s t o f the c o n t r i b u t i o n of a given c l a s s of v a r i a b l e s or l e v e l s of a f a c t o r to the variance of the c r i -t e r i o n i s an e s s e n t i a l f i r s t step i n the a n a l y s i s of m u l t i - l e v e l f a c t o r i a l designs, i t s s i g n i f i c a n c e y i e l d s no d i r e c t i n f o r m a t i o n about which groups or l e v e l s of the c l a s s of v a r i a b l e s are making the most s i g n i f i c a n t c o n t r i b u t i o n s . Post hoc comparisons between group means or t o t a l s are a device f o r p r o v i d i n g such i n f o r m a t i o n . Several procedures have been worked out f o r c a r r y i n g out post hoc comparisons between s e v e r a l means [Games, 1971]. A l l the pro-cedures are r e l a t e d to e f f o r t s to c o n t r o l a t a f i x e d l e v e l the o v e r a l l Type I e r r o r f o r the set of t e s t s made, by c o n t r o l l i n g the l e v e l of s i g n i f i c a n c e at which each i n d i v i d u a l comparison i n the f a m i l y i s t e s t e d . For the purpose of the present a n a l y s i s i n v o l v i n g non-orthogonal comparisons, Games [1971] has recommended e i t h e r the Scheffe or Bonferroni methods. However, because only a few of a l l the p o s s i b l e c o n t r a s t s are of i n t e r e s t i n the study, the Bonferroni method which i s the more powerful t e s t under such circumstances was employed [see Keselman, 1974]. 83 In the Bonferroni t e s t an upper l i m i t i s placed on the Type I e r r o r r i s k f o r a given number, c, of c o n t r a s t s , i r r e s p e c t i v e of whether they are orthogonal or not. The t e s t i s based on the Bonferroni i n e q u a l i t y which s t a t e s t h a t the f a m i l y - w i s e r i s k of Type I e r r o r i s l e s s than or equal to the sum of the i n d i v i d u a l r i s k s , i . e . , c Pr [Type I E r r o r ] ^ £ a. 1 1 [see Games, 1971, p. 550]. The a - l e v e l f o r each i n d i v i d u a l t e s t i s t h e r e f o r e taken to be a/c. The region of r e t e n t i o n of the n u l l hypothesis i s given by 0.0 ± t a / c ( S ^ ) where, k c . 2 S = MSw E - J - , $ = X - X. and t = ip/SV il; . , n- r a b y' and \p - the d i f f e r e n c e between p o p u l a t i o n mean scores % = sample estimate of popu l a t i o n d i f f e r e n c e = standard e r r o r of estimate of (estimated) c = number of p a i r - w i s e comparisons to be made c. = c o e f f i c i e n t i n the comparison J n- = number of subjects i n group J MS = mean square e r r o r obtained from the a n a l y s i s of w ^ varia n c e of the f u l l model 84 t = Bonferroni 11' s t a t i s t i c f o r t e s t i n g the s i g n i f i c a n c e of the d i f f e r e n c e s df = degrees of freedom f o r the 11' t e s t X" and X^ are the sample means f o r groups a and b. 3 . 1 1 . 5 Nature of Group D i f f e r e n c e s with Respect to BI In order to examine the s p e c i f i c nature of group d i f f e r e n c e s w i t h respect to which kinds of measurement techniques ( s c h o o l - r e l a t e d techniques or c u l t u r e - r e l a t e d ones) they expressed w i l l i n g n e s s to recommend, 2 a X t e s t o f frequencies was c a r r i e d out f o r each c u l t u r a l s e t t i n g using Brandt and Snedecor's formula given by: 2 _ E(ap) - Nap" p q where a and b are any p a i r of observed f r e q u e n c i e s , N a and N^ are the corresponding t o t a l s , a p = i+b ' N a P = N + N » a n d q = 1 " P • a b The degrees of freedom f o r the x t e s t f o r an nxk contingency t a b l e i n which the observed marginal frequencies are used as estimates of the expected frequencies under H Q i s given by ( n - 1 ) ( k - 1 ) [ s e e Walker and Lev., p. 9 8 ] , where , r . n = number of c a t e g o r i e s k = number of groups 85 I f the x value obtained i s s i g n i f i c a n t , an observation o f the p a i r - r a t i o s p, would reveal which groups show the l a r g e s t d i s c r e p a n c i e s . CHAPTER FOUR RESULTS OF THE STUDY INTRODUCTION Chapter Four presents the r e s u l t s of the analyses described i n the previous chapter. F i r s t , data on the v a l i d i t y and r e l i a b i l i t y of the instruments used i n the study are reported. Second, d e s c r i p t i v e s t a t i s t i c s are presented f o r each category and l e v e l of the design given on page , i n each c u l t u r a l s e t t i n g . Results of m u l t i p l e r e g r e s s i o n analyses of the data and t e s t s of the hypotheses s t a t e d on pages are presented. The analyses f o r C u l t u r a l S e t t i n g s 2, 3, 5 and 6 w i l l be given i n the Appendix s i n c e data f o r them were not a v a i l a b l e f o r a l l groups. A l l s t a t i s t i c a l t e s t s of s i g n i f i c a n c e w i l l be c a r r i e d out a t an a - l e v e l of 0.10, though i t w i l l be noted when a r e s u l t would have been s i g n i f i c a n t w i t h a s m a l l e r a. The choice of t h i s higher than c o n v e n t i o n a l ^ a - l e v e l i s based on the reasoning t h a t , (1) the hypotheses to be t e s t e d are h i g h l y s p e c u l a t i v e s i n c e no previous study i n the N i g e r i a n c u l t u r e w i t h s i m i l a r instruments have been reported i n the l i t e r a t u r e , and (2) i t i s d e s i r a b l e not to r i s k missing a p o s s i b l y important e f f e c t . In t h i s connection, i t was thought t h a t should the measurement procedure produce scores with l e s s - t h a n - d e s i r a b l e r e l i a b i l i t y , a higher a - l e v e l would tend to o f f s e t the r e s u l t a n t l o s s of s t a t i s t i c a l power. ^The conventional a - l e v e l f o r t e s t i n g hypotheses i n educa-t i o n a l research i s 0.05. 86 87 4.1 V a l i d i t y and Technical C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the Instruments 4.1.1 V a l i d i t y o f Instruments f o r Measuring B I , A J C t > NB and NB, For purposes of the study, the measuring instruments should be v a l i d f o r (a) the c o n s t r u c t s being measured, (b) the p a r t i c u l a r behaviours and c u l t u r a l s e t t i n g s under i n v e s t i g a t i o n and (c) p r e d i c t i n g B and BI. With regard to c o n s t r u c t v a l i d i t y , c o n s t r u c t v a l i d a t i o n i s a process t h a t v i r t u a l l y never ends. I t e n t a i l s , f o r any given i n s t r u -ment, c o l l e c t i n g a v a r i e t y o f data to confirm or d i s c o n f i r m whether measures obtained by using the instrument behave as t h e o r e t i c a l con-s i d e r a t i o n s suggest they should. Thorough c o n s t r u c t v a l i d a t i o n o f the instruments used i n a s i n g l e study i s u s u a l l y i n f e a s i b l e and, to a cons i d e r a b l e e x t e n t , unnecessary given t h a t the researcher c o n s t r u c t s and uses h i s instruments i n accordance w i t h w e l l e s t a b l i s h e d procedures t h a t have produced s i m i l a r instruments designed to measure s i m i l a r c o n s t r u c t s . This was the approach used i n the present study. References to o t h e r s t u d i e s i n which s i m i l a r c o n s t r u c t s were measured by the s o r t s o f procedures used here appear i n S e c t i o n 2.4. An informal check on the content v a l i d i t y of the instruments was made p r i o r to"use by submi t t i n g them f o r c r i t i c a l a n a l y s i s to seven n a t i v e Nigerians a t t e n d i n g the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia. The c r i t i c s were asked to assess the contents of items of the instruments f o r relevance to the N i g e r i a n c u l t u r e , a u t h e n t i c i t y o f techniques, problems and c u l t u r a l s e t t i n g s presented i n the instruments, and f o r ambiguity i n the i n s t r u c t i o n s and items, of each instrument. The r e s u l t s obtained i n d i c a t e d t h a t the content o f the instruments was v a l i d f o r the intended purposes of the study. 88 The problem of determining the p r e d i c t i v e v a l i d i t y of the instruments c o n s t i t u t e s a s u b s t a n t i v e part of the study and i s d e a l t with i n S e c t i o n 4.3.3. 4.1.2 V a l i d i t y of the Behaviour Observation Instrument  (B - i nstrument) The v a l i d i t y o f the B-instrument f o r the purpose of determin-ing whether the Ss would a c t u a l l y make the recommendations t h a t they had e a r l i e r i n d i c a t e d they were w i l l i n g to make turned out to be some-what qu e s t i o n a b l e . The obtained near p e r f e c t c o r r e l a t i o n of B and BI i n d i c a t e s that a c a r e f u l reassessment of the behaviour to be observed and a r e a p p r a i s a l of the B-instrument should be undertaken. The B-instrument was presented to the Ss_with the o p t i o n of s i g n i n g documents making the recommendations t h a t they had e a r l i e r i n d i c a t e d a w i l l i n g n e s s to make and addressed to persons of importance s o c i a l l y and p o l i t i c a l l y . I t may w e l l be th a t the S_£ d i d not see any important d i f f e r e n c e between s i g n i n g these documents and i n d i c a t i n g t h e i r behavioural i n t e n t . I f t h i s was the case then two d i f f e r e n t measures of BI were, i n e f f e c t , given to the S_s. F u r t h e r , s i n c e the Ss_were reminded of t h e i r responses to the Bl-instrument immediately p r i o r to presenting the B-instrument, the procedure may i n e f f e c t have been an immediate t e s t - r e t e s t s i t u a t i o n w i t h two d i f f e r e n t measures of the same c o n s t r u c t , BI. Under, these c o n d i t i o n s one would expect a h i g h l y i n f l a t e d c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t f o r the two sets o f scores. Perhaps, i f the Ss_ could have been given the o p t i o n 89 of making recommendations v e r b a l l y i n a f a c e - t o - f a c e s i t u a t i o n w i t h persons that mattered to them, a more v a l i d measure of B could have been obtained. Another f a c t o r that could have c o n t r i b u t e d to the r a t h e r unusual obtained r e s u l t s i s the r e d u c t i o n of chance f o r something to i n t e r f e r e w i t h the S_'s i n t e n t to c a r r y out the i n d i c a t e d behaviour. According to F i s h b e i n et al_. [1970] and Hornick [1970], BI can be expected to c o r r e l a t e h i g h l y w i t h B i f the a c t and measurement o f i n t e n t to perform the act are c l o s e together i n time. In the analyses t h a t f o l l o w , no f u r t h e r comments regarding the B-BI r e l a t i o n s h i p w i l l be made. 4.1.3 Technical C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the Instruments ( R e l i a b i l i t y  a n d ^ F i t of the S c a l i n g Model) As described i n Chapter Three, an i n d i c a t i o n of the r e l i a b i l -i t y of each instrument was obtained through a determination of the degree to which judges agreed i n t h e i r r a t i n g s of the v a r i o u s techniques of measurement proposed f o r each c u l t u r a l s e t t i n g . Data on the s t a b i l i t y of scores over the r e l a t i v e l y short period of the experiment (56 days) could not be o b t a i n e d , and only l o g i c a l arguments can be used to support the suggestion t h a t the scores were adequately s t a b l e . 4.1.3.1 Technical C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the BI Instruments ( R e l i a b i l i t y ,  and F i t of the S c a l i n g Model) The c o e f f i c i e n t s of agreement of the judges f o r each c u l t u r a l s e t t i n g are given i n Table 10. Evidence of s a t i s f a c t o r y agreement between the judges' r a t i n g s of the measurement techniques i s given by the f a c t t h a t a l l values o f u, TABLE 10 Coefficients of Agreement for BI Instruments Cultural Setting Coefficient of Agreement, u Number of Judges, N 2 Xobs. df 1. A native person faced with the problem of reporting the duration of visibility of a "shooting star" for official records, i.e., measuring a short time interval .09 38 26. 62 7 2. A native Nigerian keeping an appointment with an important European official/businessman arriving on an urgent business trip, i .e., measuring a specific time of day .09 31 108.76 31 3. A native farmer in need of determining the time interval between two planting seasons, i.e., measuring a long time interval .13 31 271. 04 31 4. A local blacksmith making a slot in a hoe-handle to fit (exactly) the metal blade, i.e., measuring a short distance .03 38 22. 62 11 5. People building a road to link their village or town with the neigh-bouring market by the shortest of several possible routes (to save costs and effort), i.e., measuring a long distance .10 32 121. 53 31 6. A butcher retailing small pieces of meat, i.e., measuring the weight of small (light) objects .16 20 27. 70 7 7. A native person sharing a bag of gari (approx. 100 lbs.) equally by weight between two people to settle a dispute, i.e., weighing a heavy object .02 35 11. 78* 7 8. A person making consultation on behalf of a close family member suffe ing from a debilitating disease in order to discover the cause of the aiIment r-.08 47 280. 72 49 * p approx. .11; all o.therX - values significant at =.10 or less. 91 the Coefficient of Agreement, were positive [Edwards, 1957, p. 71], and by the x -test of significance [Kendall, 1948s p, 93]. Table 10 presents "x^-values which, except for cultural setting 7, show the u's to be significant at well beyond e c > . 10. These results indicate that the BI scales would likely not have differed greatly had some other sample(s) of judges been used to rate the measurement techniques presented. However, even though the judges were randomly selected from the same population as that from which the scale-respondents (the Ss_) were chosen, it would be unsafe to conclude from the foregoing results that the Ss_' responses to the scales would be as stable as were the judgments of the judges, over a similar interval, nevertheless, the degree of agreement displayed by the judges in performing their task over a period of 15 days provides indirect support to the assumption that S_'s responses would also tend to be consistent over at least a limited time-period. As noted in Chapter 3, no empirical evidence could be obtained concerning the stability of the S_s' scores on the BI instruments, for any of the cultural settings. Some observations about this aspect of score-reliability will be made at this point; however, since these apply to all of the cultural settings, no further reference will be made to stability when presenting the rel iabil i ty data for the remain-ing cultural settings. Ho Ss_ were tested longer than eight weeks apart. In addition, the testing of Dekina and Ayangba Ss_ was carried out in the latter part of June, following completion of final examinations. They then 92 r e c e i v e d no formal i n s t r u c t i o n a f t e r responding to the BI instruments, and i n t h i s sense resembled the unschooled S_s. I t can a t l e a s t be a s s e r t e d t h a t r e t e s t s c o r e s , had they been obtained, would have r e f l e c t e d extremely minimal change r e s u l t i n g from i n d i v i d u a l l e a r n i n g , between t e s t i n g s , about the merits of s c i e n t i f i c procedures. This does not provide a guarantee of adequate s t a b i l i t y , but i t provides some reassurance about s t a b i l i t y . A major e f f e c t of low r e l i a b i l i t y i s to i n f l a t e the e r r o r term i n s t a t i s t i c a l t e s t i n g and to reduce the power of the t e s t a g a i n s t a p o s s i b l y true hypothesis a l t e r n a t e to the n u l l hypothesis, thus reducing the l i k e l i h o o d of i d e n t i f y i n g as s i g n i f i c a n t an e f f e c t which should have been so i d e n t i f i e d . Therefore, the f a c t t h a t a number of c l e a r l y s i g n i f i c a n t f i n d i n g s emerged, and t h a t d i s t i n c t i o n s between s i g n i f i c a n t and n o n - s i g n i f i c a n t r e s u l t s were g e n e r a l l y q u i t e c l e a r c u t , suggests t h a t u n r e l i a b i l i t y of instruments was not a major f a c t o r i n the study. In summary of t h i s s e c t i o n , the w r i t e r notes t h a t had con-d i t i o n s p e r m i t t e d , r e t e s t i n g of a t l e a s t a sample of a l l Ss_ would have been undertaken, p r e f e r a b l y before conducting the main study. Since t h i s was not p o s s i b l e , only i n d i r e c t evidence could be given about the s t a b i l i t y of S_s scores. This evidence r e l a t e d to the p l a u s i b i l i t y of an assumption of adequate s t a b i l i t y , but d i d not e s t a b l i s h i t . Table 11 gives the r e s u l t s of the g o o d n e s s - o f - f i t t e s t s of the s c a l i n g model to the responses of the judges to the BI instruments f o r the various c u l t u r a l s e t t i n g s . The t h e o r e t i c a l proportions obtained from the model should agree (to w i t h i n sampling e r r o r ) 93 w i t h the observed p r o p o r t i o n s . That i s , the d i s c r e p a n c i e s between the two sets of p r o p o r t i o n s should be small enough to produce non-s i g n i f i c a n t x - v a l u e s , namely values whose a s s o c i a t e d p r o b a b i l i t y , p, ( i f the n u l l hypothesis i s true) i s l a r g e r than the c r i t i c a l value of .10. A l l p-values g r e a t e r than .10 were omitted i n t h i s and subse-quent t a b l e s of i t s kind f o r the other instruments. C u l t u r a l S e t t i n g s 2 and 5 are t h e r e f o r e suspect by t h i s c r i t e r i o n . The f a i l u r e of the s c a l i n g model f o r C u l t u r a l S e t t i n g s 2 and 5 may be due, i n p a r t , to the c l o s e p r o x i m i t y of the s t i m u l i techniques of measurement) on the BI p s y c h o l o g i c a l continuum, l e a d i n g to l a r g e d i s c r i m i n a l d i s p e r s i o n s i n the judgments. I t may a l s o have r e s u l t e d from a m u l t i d i m e n s i o n a l i t y of judgments or from v i o l a t i o n s of normality of the d i s t r i b u t i o n of d i s c r i m i n a l processes, though the M o s t e l l e r t e s t used here i s r e l a t i v e l y i n s e n s i t i v e to departures from n o r m a l i t y . In view of the d i f f i c u l t i e s w i t h the model experienced i n these two s e t t i n g s , the basic data r e l a t e d to these s e t t i n g s w i l l be given i n Appendix [D] r a t h e r than be used as a b a s i s f o r f i n d i n g s r e l a t e d to the hypothesis of t h i s study. 4.1.3.2 R e l i a b i l i t y of the Instruments Used to Measure A t t i t u d e  Toward the Act (A .)and A p p l i c a b i l i t y o f the Scaling"  M o d i ! a c z Table 12 shows th a t values of u, the c o e f f i c i e n t of agreement, 2 f o r a l l C u l t u r a l S e t t i n g s were p o s i t i v e and the a s s o c i a t e d x -values were s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t at the .10 a - l e v e l , i n d i c a t i n g a sub-s t a n t i a l measure of i n t e r j u d g e r e l i a b i l i t y . •i 94 As w i t h the BI instrument, Table 13 shows th a t the x^-values obtained f o r t e s t i n g the s i g n i f i c a n c e of the d i s c r e p a n c i e s between the t h e o r e t i c a l and observed propo r t i o n s d i d not approach s i g n i f i c a n c e , except i n the cases of C u l t u r a l S e t t i n g s 2 and 5. The data t h e r e f o r e i n d i c a t e that the assumptions of the s c a l i n g model used, were s a t i s f i e d , except f o r S e t t i n g s 2 and 5. The f a i l u r e of the A a c t instruments f o r c u l t u r a l s e t t i n g s 2 and 5 to meet the assumptions of the s c a l i n g model may be due to the reasons suggested i n S e c t i o n 4.1.2.2. 4.1.3.3 R e l i a b i l i t y of the Instruments Used to Measure Personal Normative B e l i e f s (NB ) and A p p l i c a b i l i t y  of the S c a l i n g Model ^ Table 14 and Table 15 below g i v e , r e s p e c t i v e l y , the c o e f f i c -9 i e n t s of agreement of the judges and the r e s u l t s of x t e s t s of the g o o d n e s s - o f - f i t of the s c a l i n g model, f o r each NBp instrument and each c u l t u r a l s e t t i n g i n v e s t i g a t e d i n the study. Table 14 i n d i c a t e s t h a t the NBp instruments used were l i k e l y to g i ve s i m i l a r r e s u l t s when given to other judges i n the same pop u l a t i o n as those used f o r s c a l i n g the instruments. This i s evidenced by the p o s i t i v e values of u f o r a l l the instruments and the f a c t t h a t the c o e f f i c i e n t s of agreement were s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t at a's w e l l below the s e l e c t e d a - l e v e l . Table 15 gives the r e s u l t s of the g o o d n e s s - o f - f i t t e s t . I t 2 shows th a t the p r o b a b i l i t i e s , p, of o b t a i n i n g x 's equal to or l e s s than .10 were obtained f o r C u l t u r a l S e t t i n g s 2 and 5. These r e s u l t s 2 of the x - t e s t s of g o o d n e s s - o f - f i t f o r those s e t t i n g s w i t h p r o b a b i l i t i e s 95 higher than .10 c a s t no doubt on the appropriateness of the s c a l i n g procedures used. The f a i l u r e of the instrument f o r C u l t u r a l S e t t i n g 2 and 5 to s a t i s f y the s c a l i n g model may be due to departures from the assumptions of the model, i n c l u d i n g those of n o r m a l i t y , u n i d i m e n s i o n a l i t y , e t c . , r e f e r r e d to i n S e c t i o n 4.1.2.1. 4.1.3.4 R e l i a b i l i t y o f the Instruments Used to Measure S o c i a l Normative B e l i e f s (NB ) and A p p l i c a b i l i t y of the ScaVing  Model s Evidence of s a t i s f a c t o r y agreement between the judges' r a t i n g s of the measurement techniques i s provided by the f a c t t h a t a l l values of the c o e f f i c i e n t s of agreement given i n Table 16 are p o s i t i v e . A l l values of u were found to be s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t a t a-values w e l l below .10. These r e s u l t s suggest t h a t the NB s instruments used were l i k e l y to give s i m i l a r r e s u l t s when given to other judges i n the same popul a t i o n as those used f o r s c a l i n g the instruments. 2 Table 17 gives the x - t e s t s of g o o d n e s s - o f - f i t of the s c a l i n g model f o r a l l the NB s instruments used. (The C u l t u r a l S e t t i n g s 1 to 8 are numbered i n the same way as described i n Table 10). Except f o r C u l t u r a l S e t t i n g s 2 and 5, which were p r e v i o u s l y shown to be suspect, there i s no evidence to r e f u t e the appropriateness of the unidimensional s c a l i n g model used. The arguments put forward i n S e c t i o n 4.1.2.1 may a l s o be advanced to e x p l a i n the f a i l u r e of the NB instruments f o r C u l t u r a l S e t t i n g s 2 and 5 to s a t i s f y the s c a l i n g model. 96 TABLE 11 X -tests of Goodness-of-Fit for the BI Instruments Cultural Setting 2 xobs. df P 1 4.14 3 2 35.81 21 <.10 3 25.57 21 4 5.72 6 5 39.71 21 <.10 6 .49 3 7 1.10 3 8 45.49 45 97 TABLE 12 Coefficients of Agreement for A . Instruments Cultural Setting Coefficient of Agreement, u Number of Judges, N 2 xobs. df 1 .05 38 82 37 7 2 .20 27 187 29 32 3 .05 25 74 40 32 4 .06 38 93 72 11 5 .16 32 178 60 31 6 .28 20 42 81 7 7 .01 34 17 68 7 8 .07 47 213 63 49 All x values significant at a=.10 or less. 98 TABLE 13 X 2 - t e s t s of Goodness-of-Fit f o r the A . Instruments C u l t u r a l S e t t i n g 2 x o b s . df P 1 1.8 3 2 112.22 21 <.10 3 31.85 21 4 3.69 6 5 47.28 21 <.10 6 3.52 3 7 3.28 3 8 32.83 45 99 TABLE 14 C o e f f i c i e n t s of Agreement f o r NB Instruments C u l t u r a l S e t t i n g C o e f f i c i e n t of Agreement, u Number of Judges, N 2 xobs. df 1 .09 30 19. 07 7 2 .12 31 138. 27 31 3 .06 27 82. 51 32 4 .04 45 33. 23 11 5 .17 32 185. 00 31 6 .10 24 21. 75 7 7 .04 39 19. 57 7 8 .12 47 324. 18 49 A l l x values s i g n i f i c a n t at a=.10 or l e s s . 100 TA3LE 15 -tests of Goodness-of-Fit for the NB Instruments Cultural Setting 2 xobs. df P 1 4.36 3 2 28.49 21 <.10 3 24.69 21 4 1.79 6 5 38.58 21 <.10 6 1.03 3 7 2.14 3 8 43.18 45 101 TABLE 16 C o e f f i c i e n t s of Agreement f o r NB Instruments C o e f f i c i e n t of Number of 9 df C u l t u r a l S e t t i n g Agreement, u Judges, N xobs 1 .05 31 16. 98 7 2 .23 27 277. 42 31 3 .06 25 85. 43 32 4 .03 38 27. 16 11 5 .20 32 213. 26 31 6 .21 26 40. 27 7 7 .02 39 18. 97 7 8 .06 47 197. 35 49 A l l x values s i g n i f i c a n t at a=.10 or l e s s . 102 TABLE 17 o X - t e s t s of Goodness-of-Fit f o r the NB Instruments C u l t u r a l S e t t i n g 2 xobs df P 1 3.29 3 2 48.29 21 <.10 3 13.46 21 4 2.08 6 5 49.09 21 <.10 6 1.04 3 7 1.96 3 8 34.38 45 103 4.2 Summary of Information R e l a t i n g to S e t t i n g 1 The a n a l y s i s o f data f o r C u l t u r a l S e t t i n g 1 are presented below. 4.2.1 D e s c r i p t i o n of the S e t t i n g The c u l t u r a l s e t t i n g i s one i n which a n a t i v e N i g e r i a n i s faced w i t h the problem of r e p o r t i n g the d u r a t i o n o f v i s i b i l i t y o f a "shooting s t a r " f o r o f f i c i a l records. 4.2.2 Methods of Measurement Proposed to Ss The various techniques of measurement presented to the S_s may be c l a s s i f i e d as s c h o o l - r e l a t e d and c u l t u r e - r e l a t e d techniques, as shown i n Table 18 below. 4.3 S t a t i s t i c a l A n a l y s i s of the Data 4.3.1 C u l t u r a l S e t t i n g 1 Measurement of Short Time I n t e r v a l s . 4.3.2 Hypotheses and Methods of A n a l y s i s Table 19 presents the hypotheses to be te s t e d and the methods of t e s t i n g used. 4.3.3 E f f e c t s of S c h o o l i n g , Environment, and R e l i g i o n on BI 4.3.3.1 Summary of Raw Data An examination of the column and row marginals of Table 20 shows t h a t the d i f f e r e n c e s between some of the means are u n l i k e l y t o be due to chance alone. 104 TABLE 18 Techniques of Measurement Proposed to Ss i n C u l t u r a l S e t t i n g 1 C u l t u r e - R e l a t e d Techniques Scale Values School-Related Techniques Scale Values 3. Human Pulse .00 1. Clock (with second hand) .35 4. Distance Walked (time i s here measured as a f u n c t i o n o f d i s t a n c e t r a v e r s e d at normal human walking pace) .26 2. Stopwatch .67 TABLE 19 Hypotheses and Methods of Analysis Used Hypotheses Tested Regression Model Used Method of Analysis (Overall & Spiegel, see p. 75 1. Scores on BI and B with respect to recommending school-related methods of measurement in cultural settings will be: (a) higher for senior levels of school-ing than for junior levels of schooling, (b) higher for Moslems than for Christians, and (c) greater for urban Ss than for rural Ss_ Model 4 (see p. 82) for (a), (b) and (c) B~BI=Age + External Variables Method 2 (see p.75) 2. BI and B with respect to recommending school-related methods of measurement in cultural settings will depend in a significant way on: (a) interaction effects between amount of schooling and religion, (b) interaction effects between amount of schooling and socioeconomic background (c) interaction effects between reli-gion and socioeconomic background (d) interaction effects between religion, socioeconomic background and amount of schooling Model 1 (see p. 81 ) for (a), (b) and (c) B~BI=Age + External Variables + Interaction between External Variables Method 2 (see p.75) (Continued) Table 19 (Continued) Hypotheses Tested Regression Model Used Method of A n a l y s i s 3. BI and B with respect to recommending s c h o o l - r e l a t e d methods of measurement or c u l t u r a l methods of measurement i n non-school s i t u a t i o n s w i l l be: (a) accounted f o r with b e t t e r than chance accuracy by v a r i a b l e s i n t e r n a l to the Fi s h b e i n Model alone (b) accounted f o r with improved accuracy by both i n t e r n a l and ex t e r n a l v a r i a b l e s to the F i s h b e i n Model 3 (see p. 81) B 'v BI = i n t e r n a l V a r i a b l e s Models 2 & 5 (see pp. 81-82) B ^ BI = I n t e r n a l V a r i a b l e s + External V a r i a b l e s +{Selected I n t e r -a c t i o n s } Method 3 (see p.76) Model 3 (see p.76) 107 Figure 2 d e p i c t s the d i f f e r e n c e s between the mean BI scores f o r the combined schooled groups (Dekina and Ayangba) at two d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s ( j u n i o r , s e n i o r ) and the mean BI scores f o r the unschooled group of S_s at corresponding age l e v e l s . Figure 2 suggests that w h i l e there were no marked d i f f e r e n c e s between the two l e v e l s of sc h o o l i n g (and t h e i r age counterparts) f o r e i t h e r the schooled or non-schooled groups of Ss_, the schooled groups had s u b s t a n t i a l l y higher mean BI scores at both l e v e l s that the non-schooled groups. There appears to be an o v e r a l l s c h o o l i n g e f f e c t on the BI scores. Figure 3 shows th a t very l i k e l y there were important d i f f e r -ences between the mean BI scores of the two schooled groups, the Dekina and the Ayangba groups. There i s an apparent tendency f o r BI scores to increase i n magnitude w i t h years of sc h o o l i n g a t Dekina and an apparent opposite trend a t Ayangba. F u r t h e r , Figure 4, based on Table 20 above, suggest t h a t there i s a s u b s t a n t i a l d i f f e r e n c e between the mean BI scores of r u r a l and urban Ss_, when r e l i g i o n i s disregarded. Figure 5, however, shows t h a t this-socioeconomic e f f e c t appears to operate d i f f e r e n t l y f o r C h r i s t i a n s and Moslems. TABLE 20 Behavioural I n t e n t i o n (BI) Means and Standard Deviations f o r C u l t u r a l S e t t i n g 1 Socio-Economic Envi ronment S C H O O L I N G ( A ) R e l i g i o n Experimental Group Comparison Group I Comparison Group I I Row Marginal s (B) (C) Level 1 Level 2 Level 1 Level 2 Level 1 Level 2 n. I X. i SD Rural C h r i s t i a n X = .41 SD = .26 X = .55 SD = .25 X = .52 SD = .28 X = .33 SD = .28 X = .25 SD = .16 X = .36 SD = .23 79 .40 .25 Moslem X = .48 SD = .23 X = .63 SD = .14 X = .64 SD = .12 X = .54 SD = .25 X = .31 SD = .24 X = .36 SD = .25 50 .50 .24 Urban C h r i s t i a n X = .60 SD = .16 X = .69 SD = .00 X = .64 SD = .13 X = .41 SD = .33 X = .51 SD = .25 X = .32 SD = .28 41 .53 .26 Moslem X = .44 SD = .25 X = .69 SD = .00 X = .51 SD = .19 X = .52 SD = .23 X = .41 SD = .29 X = .31 SD = .32 48 .48 .26 49 30 41 16 52 30 Column Marginals .48 .60 .56 .46 .34 .33 SD .24 .20 .21 .27 .24 .27 109 0.7r 0.6-0.5-Mean BI- 0 . 4 scores 0.3-0. 0. Exptal Group + Comp. Group I (Schooled Groups) Comparison Group I I (Unschooled Group) Level 1 Level 2 Figure 2. Comparison of Mean Bl-s c o r e s f o r Schooled and Unschooled Groups , C u l t u r a l S e t t i n g 1 110 0.7 T 0.6 0.5 -( Mean BI- 0.4 scores 0.3 -0.2 •• 0.1 Dekina Ayangba Unschooled Group Level 1 Level 2 Figure 3. Comparison of Mean Bl-scores f o r A l l Groups, C u l t u r a l S e t t i n g 1 I l l Figure 4. Comparison of Mean Bl-s c o r e s f o r Rural and Urban Ss C u l t u r a l S e t t i n g 1 Figure 5. Comparison of Mean BI-scores of Moslems and C h r i s t i a n s at D i f f e r e n t SEE Levels, C u l t u r a l S e t t i n g 1 TABLE 21 Results of Method 2 Regression Analysis of Data from Cultural Setting 1, Using Research Model 4 Source of Variance SS AR2 df ^obs. P* A(adj. for B & C) 2.48 .18 5 9.08 <.10 B (adj. for A & C) .26 .02 1 4.68 <.10 C (adj. for A & B) .01 .01 1 .18 AB (adj. for A,B,C,AC,BC) .24 .02 5 .89 AC (adj. for A,B,C,AB,BC) .12 .01 5 .43 BC (adj. for A,B,C,AB,AC) .28 .02 1 5.15 <.10 ABC (adj. for all other terms) .09 .01 5 .32 Error 10.55 193 Total 14.06 217 * All p-values larger than .10 have been omitted. 114 Moslems apparently have higher Bl-means than Christians until both groups are urbanized. The evidence seems also to indicate that Moslems have more stable BI scores than Christians. 4.3.3.2 Multiple Regression Analysis Table 21 gives the results of statistical analysis of the data, using Method 2 of Overall and Spiegel (see Chapter 3). The analysis corroborates the preliminary findings referred to above and also provides additional information on the magnitude of the effects. Age was used as a covariate but was found to have no significant effect on the variance contribution of the factors. Factor A, the school experience factor, adjusted for the effects of Factor B and Factor C, accounts for nearly 18 percent of the variability of the BI scores. Factor B, adjusted for the effects of factor A and factor C accounts for 2 percent of BI variance (a significant though small effect). However, after adjusting for the effects of factors A and B, factor C accounts for only 1 percent of the variability in BI, an effect which is not significant. Another factor which accounts for a significant (though small) effect (2 percent) is the interaction BC, adjusted for the main effects and the effects due to AB and AC interactions. According to Cohen [1969, p. .277] the contribution of factor A (18 percent) can be classified as large while those of factor B and BC interaction (2 percent each) should probably be classified as small. The results of the above analysis relating to Cultural Setting 1 support the hypothesis that schooling has a significant effect on the behavioural intention of the Ss in the study to recommend school-related techniques of measurement to persons in out-of-school problem . 115 s i t u a t i o n s i n N i g e r i a . The r e s u l t s a l s o support, though much l e s s s t r o n g l y , the hypotheses concerning the e f f e c t s of socioeconomic environment, and of the i n t e r a c t i o n of environment and r e l i g i o n on BI. 4.3.3.3 Post hoc A n a l y s i s of BI-Means Table 22 gives the d i f f e r e n c e s between the Bl-means f o r a l l the groups of Ss_. y ^ , y-^ r e f e r to the Bl-means of l e v e l s 1 and 2, r e s p e c t i v e l y , of the Experimental Group (Dekina), y^j> ^ 22 t' i e ^I-means f o r l e v e l s 1 and l e v e l 2 r e s p e c t i v e l y of Ayangba, and ia^ -j» £32 a r e the corresponding means f o r the two c a t e g o r i e s of the unschooled group, u , u , Mo represent the estimated means f o r the Dekina, Ayangba, and unschooled groups r e s p e c t i v e l y . S i m i l a r l y , y ^ ^ i s the estimated mean f o r the schooled group (Dekina and Ayangba combined). Having obtained s i g n i f i c a n t o v e r a l l F - r a t i o s f o r the adjusted e f f e c t s of Factor A, s c h o o l i n g , and Factor B, socioeconomic environment, i n the m u l t i p l e r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s i s (see Table 21, p. 108), post hoc comparisons among means were c a r r i e d out to determine which of these v a r i a b l e s were making s i g n i f i c a n t c o n t r i b u t i o n s to the e f f e c t s observed. The Bonferroni 1 t ' s t a t i s t i c f o r comparing means was used with the present data i n preference to the Scheffe (both recommended by Games [1971]) because of the g r e a t e r power of the Bonferroni [Keselman, 1974]. Comparisons were c a r r i e d out such t h a t the o v e r a l l a - l e v e l f o r a l l comparisons explored was no more than .10, though any r e s u l t s that would have been s i g n i f i c a n t at a sm a l l e r a - l e v e l are noted. 116 TABLE 22 Di f f e r e n c e s Between Group Means on Factor A f o r C u l t u r a l S e t t i n g , (Column Minus Row) Dekina Ayangba Unschooled y l l y12 y 2 1 y 2 2 ^31 ^32 y u -.12* -y -.08 .04 -y .01 .14* .10 -y .14* .26* .22* .13* -y .15* .27* .23* .14* .01 -u l . -/ \ y 2 . .00 -y 3 . ; .19* .19* -^(1,2). y O , 2 ) . U 3 . .19* i ~ S i g n i f i c a n t at a = .10 117 R e f e r r i n g to the experimental design depicted i n Table 1, Level 1 and Level 2 of Dekina and Ayangba p e r t a i n to l e v e l s of school i n s t r u c t i o n whereas the same connotation cannot be a s c r i b e d to the non-schooled group where Level 1 and Level 2 r e f e r to a g e - l e v e l s . ' An i n t e r a c t i o n a n a l y s i s between l e v e l s of schooli n g and the other v a r i a b l e s t h e r e f o r e becomes impossible f o r the e n t i r e s u b j e c t p o p u l a t i o n as noted i n Chapter 1. However, c o n t r a s t s between the two l e v e l s of schooli n g at Dekina and Ayangba r e s p e c t i v e l y , between Dekina, Ayangba and the non-schooled groups, as wel l ' as between the schooled group (Dekina and Ayangba combined) and the non-schooled group, are proper. Table 22 (p. 116) shows th a t the s i g n i f i c a n c e of Factor A (see Table 21) can be accounted f o r by the d i f f e r e n c e s between Level 1 and Level 2 of Dekina, between Level 2 of Dekina and Level 2 of Ayangba, and between both l e v e l s a t Dekina and Ayangba on the one hand, and the non-school groups. The combined Bl-mean o f the Dekina groups (.53) d i d not d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y from the combined mean f o r the Ayangba Ss ( a l s o .53, to two decimal p l a c e s ) . But the combined mean of the Dekina S_s_ and th a t of the Ayangba S_s were r e s p e c t i v e l y s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher than the corresponding Bl-mean f o r the unschooled Ss_ (.34). In a d d i t i o n , the combined mean B l - s c o r e of the schooled groups (Dekina and Ayangba) was s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher than t h a t of the unschooled groups. The r e s u l t s given i n Table 22 are depicted g r a p h i c a l l y i n Figure 6. The Figure 6 shows that not only do S_s_ attending Dekina secondary school have higher Bl-means than Ss^ i n the study who have never gone to s c h o o l , but a l s o t h a t Ss i n the s e n i o r grades of Dekina, 118 i n which science i s o f f e r e d have higher Bl-means than those i n the j u n i o r grades of the same school. The reverse e f f e c t seems to have occurred i n Ayangba, but a g e - l e v e l does not a f f e c t the BI means f o r the unschooled Ss_. In a d d i t i o n Table 22 shows th a t the schooled groups were not s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t from each other but both are s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher than the unschooled group w i t h respect to t h e i r mean B l - s c o r e s . A l s o , the t o t a l schooled group mean i s s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher than t h a t of the unschooled. 4.3.3.4 S p e c i f i c Nature of Group D i f f e r e n c e s w i t h Respect to BI In order to shed some l i g h t on the nature of the d i f f e r e n c e s between the schooled Ss_ g e n e r a l l y and the non-schooled Ss_, Table 23, c o n t a i n i n g i n f o r m a t i o n on which measurement techniques each group of Ss_ was w i l l i n g to recommend i n C u l t u r a l S e t t i n g 1 was c o n s t r u c t e d . Table 23 shows th a t the r a t i o of the schooled Ss w i l l i n g to recommend school-based techniques i s almost twice the r a t i o of unschooled S_s_ w i l l i n g to do the same t h i n g (.83 versus .48). Using the formula given i n S e c t i o n 3.10.5, the observed or c a l c u l a t e d x w i t h one degree of freedom was found to be 30.59, which i s s i g n i f i c a n t f a r below a = .10, even a f t e r a p p l y i n g Yate's c o r r e l a t i o n f o r c o n t i n u i t y . This con firms the above observation about the d i f f e r e n c e between the schooled and unschooled Ss_with regard to w i l l i n g n e s s to recommend school-based tech-niques of measurement i n C u l t u r a l S e t t i n g 1. Table 24 gives the nature of the d i f f e r e n c e s between the two schooled groups of S_s, Dekina and Ayangba. I t shows that the 119 0.7 -, Level 1 Level 2 Figure 6. Comparison of D i f f e r e n c e s i n Mean B l - s c o r e s a t the Two Levels of Factor A, C u l t u r a l S e t t i n g 1. 120 TABLE 23 Comparison o f Recommendations by Schooled and Unschooled Groups* ( C u l t u r a l S e t t i n g 1) Categories of Schooling School-Based Techniques (1 & 2) (a) Culture-Based Techniques (3 & 4) (b) R a t i o , p ^a + b ; Schooled 113 23 .83 Unschooled 39 43 .48 Total 152 66 .70 Figures are frequencies with which to recommend p a r t i c u l a r techniques Ss i n d i c a t e d t h e i r wi11ingness 121 p r o p o r t i o n of Ayangba Level 1 S s _ w i l l i n g to recommend school-based techniques of measurement compares q u i t e favourably w i t h Dekina Level 1 Ss_ w i l l i n g to recommend s i m i l a r methods even though general science i s taught at t h i s l e v e l i n Dekina. The p r o p o r t i o n of S w t Level 2 of Ayangba with a s i m i l a r i n t e n t i o n i s s l i g h t l y lower than e i t h e r Dekina Level 1 or Ayangba Level 1, but not much d i f f e r e n t . However, at the Senior Level at Dekina where s e n i o r science course are taught the p r o p o r t i o n of Ss w i l l i n g to recommend school-based techniques o f measurement i s c o n s i d e r a b l y higher than the p r o p o r t i o n of Ss_ at e i t h e r 2 Dekina Level 1 or Ayangba Level 1 or Level 2. The observed x c a l c u l a t e d from the formula on p. 85 i s 1.46 with 1 degree of freedom, which i s not s i g n i f i c a n t a t the a = .10 l e v e l . This i n d i c a t e s t h a t s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s do not e x i s t between the r a t i o s , i . e . , that n e i t h e r l e v e l a t Ayangba nor Dekina Level 1 d i f f e r s s i g n i f i c a n t l y from Dekina Level 2 i n the r a t i o of S_s w i l l i n g to recommend school-based techniques o f measurement. The x -value using Yate's c o r r e c t i o n f o r c o n t i n u i t y t s .72, which tends to support f u r t h e r the n u l l hypothesis t h a t no d i f f e r e n c e e x i s t s between the above group. Since the r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s i s i n d i c a t e d a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between r u r a l and urban subjects f o r C u l t u r a l S e t t i n g 1, t h i s d i f f e r e n c e was explored f u r t h e r by l o o k i n g at the r a t i o of r u r a l and urban Ss w i l l i n g to recommend school-based measurement techniques. These pr o p o r t i o n s are presented i n Table 25, which shows that a higher p r o p o r t i o n of urban Ss expressed the w i l l i n g n e s s to recommend school-based techniques of measurement than r u r a l S_s w i l l i n g to do the same t h i n g . O v e r a l l , the observed x c a l c u l a t e d using the formula s t a t e d 122 i n S e c t i o n 3.10.5, was found to be 3.32 (with df = 1) which i s s i g n i f i c a n t a t a = .10. This means th a t the school-based techniques were d i f f e r e n t i a t e d from the culture-based ones by the Ss_ and the d i f f e r e n c e between the observed r a t i o s was s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t . The r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s i s gave a s i g n i f i c a n t r e s u l t f o r the adjusted i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t BC. To explore t h i s i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t f u r t h e r , the p r o p o r t i o n of C h r i s t i a n s w i l l i n g to recommend s c h o o l -based techniques was compared with the corresponding p r o p o r t i o n of Moslems, s e p a r a t e l y f o r the urban and r u r a l groups. Table 26 gives the p r o p o r t i o n of C h r i s t i a n s and Moslems i n a r u r a l environment who were w i l l i n g to recommend school-based techniques. I t shows t h a t a higher p r o p o r t i o n of r u r a l Moslems were w i l l i n g to recommend school-based techniques of measurement than r u r a l 2 C h r i s t i a n s . The observed x » however, was found to be 2.84 (with 1 df) which i s s i g n i f i c a n t a t .10 a - l e v e l . However, i f Yate's c o r r e c t i o n 2 f o r d i s c o n t i n u i t y i s a p p l i e d , the c o r r e c t e d x of 2.23 i s not s i g n i f i -cant w i t h a = .10. The foregoing f i n d i n g i s t h e r e f o r e d o u b t f u l . 2 The corresponding x value f o r the d i f f e r e n c e between urban C h r i s t i a n s and urban Moslems was 1.27 which was not s i g n i f i c a n t . Table 27 gives the r a t i o of C h r i s t i a n s and Moslems i n an urban environment who were w i l l i n g to recommend school-based techniques. I t suggests t h a t a higher p r o p o r t i o n of urban C h r i s t i a n s were w i l l i n g to recommend school-based techniques than urban Moslems w i l l i n g to do the same t h i n g . However, the x - t e s t (x , = -89) 123 i n d i c a t e s t h a t the two r a t i o s are not s i g n i c i a n c t l y d i f f e r e n t from each other. p The lack of s i g n i f i c a n c e with the x - t e s t , even though the BC i n t e r a c t i o n was s i g n i f i c a n t w i t h the F - t e s t i n the m u l t i p l e r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s i s , most l i k e l y a r i s e s because the two s t a t i s t i c s are used f o r s l i g h t l y d i f f e r e n t purposes inthe study. While the F - s t a t i s t i c i s used to determine whether the BI measures can be p r e d i c t e d using f a c t o r s A, B, C, e t c . , the 2 2 x deals with frequencies of recommending. The use of the x to probe s i g n i f i c a n t F's i s based on the r e l a t i o n s h i p between BI measures and rec-ommending behaviour (measured here as f r e q u e n c i e s ) described i n Chapter One. 2 However, since the x - t e s t i s l i k e l y to be l e s s powerful than a parametric t e s t l i k e F, i t can be expected to be r e l a t i v e l y i n s e n s i t i v e to small d i f f e r e n c e s which the F - s t a t i s t i c would det e c t as s i g n i f i c a n t . I t ts u s e f u l to note t h a t though s i g n i f i c a n t by r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s i s , BC (adjusted) accounted f o r only 2 percent of BI v a r i a n c e . 4.3.4 A n a l y s i s of the E f f e c t s of I n t e r n a l and External V a r i a b l e s 2 Table 28 gives the amounts of variance (PN ) of the BI scores accounted f o r by v a r i a b l e s i n t e r n a l to the F i s h b e i n Model, I ( A a c t + HBp + NB s), and those e x t e r n a l v a r i a b l e s which proved to be s i g n i f i c a n t p r e d i c t o r s of BI from the a n a l y s i s using o v e r a l l and S p i e g e l ' s Method 2, namely, Factor A, Factor B, and I n t e r a c t i o n BC. The method used i n t h i s a n a l y s i s was O v e r a l l and S p i e g e l ' s Method 3, as i n d i c a t e d and r a t i o n a l i z e d i n Chapter Three. The Table shows th a t the i n t e r n a l v a r i a b l e s , I , alone i , e . unadjusted, account f o r 33.7 percent of BI variance whereas when adjusted f o r the e f f e c t s of Factor A, s c h o o l i n g , t h e i r c o n t r i -124 TABLE 24 Comparison of Recommendations by Dekina and Ayangba S_s ( C u l t u r a l S e t t i n g 1)  Categories of Schooling School-Based Techniques (1 & 2) Culture-Based Techniques (3 & 4) Ratio,p ( a ) la+b ; Ayangba (Level 1) 34 7 .83 Ayangba (Level 2) 12 4 .75 Dekina (Level 1) 39 10 .80 Dekina (Level 2) 27 3 .90 T o t a l s 112 24 .83 125 TABLE 25 Comparison of Recommendations by Rural and Urban Ss_ ( C u l t u r a l S e t t i n g 1) Envi ronment School-Based Techniques (1 & 2) (a) Culture-Based Techniques (3 & 4) (b) R a t i o , p ^a + b ; Rural 86 46 .65 Urban 66 20 .77 To t a l s 152 66 .70 126 TABLE 26 Comparison of Recommendations by Rural C h r i s t i a n s and Moslems ( C u l t u r a l S e t t i n g 1} R e l i g i o u s Group School-Based Techniques (1 & 2) ( a ) Culture-Based Techniques (3 & 4) ( b ) R a t i o , p ( a ) l a V C h r i s t i a n s ( r u r a l ) 47 32 .59 Moslems ( r u r a l ) 37 13 .77 T o t a l s 84 45 .65 127 TABLE 27 Comparison of Recommendations by Urban C h r i s t i a n s and Moslems ( C u l t u r a l S e t t i n g 1) R e l i g i o u s Group School-Based Techniques (1 & 2) (a) Culture-Based Techniques (3 & 4) (b) R a t i o , p ( a ) C h r i s t i a n s (urban) 34 7 .83 Moslems (urban) 35 13 .73 T o t a l s 69 20 .78 128 TABLE 28 Variance Contributions of Internal and Selected External Variables Variables R2 Variables R2 (%) (X) I: ( A a c t + N B p + NBs) 33.7 I : Aact 7 I + A + B + BC 37.9 NBp 22 A (adj. for I) 2.4 ' NBS 5 B (adj. for I & A) 1.0 BC (adj. for I, A, & B) 0.8 A . 17.2 A + I (=1 + A) 36.1 I (adj. for A) 18.9 129 b u t i o n i s reduced to 18.9 percent. On the other hand, Factor A un-adjusted accounts f o r 17.2 percent of BI variance but when adjusted f o r the e f f e c t s of the i n t e r n a l v a r i a b l e s i t e x p l a i n s only 2.4 percent of the v a r i a b i l i t y i n B l - s c o r e s . E v i d e n t l y , then, there i s a c o n s i d e r a b l e amount of BI v a r i a b i l i t y t hat i s shared, though I has a good deal of p r e d i c t i v e power t h a t i s independent of A, while A has l i t t l e t hat i s independent of I. The adjusted c o n t r i b u t i o n s of Factor B and the i n t e r a c t i o n BC are a l s o i n d i c a t e d . Looked upon from a p r e d i c t i v e s t a n d p o i n t , BI i n C u l t u r a l S e t t i n g 1 can best be p r e d i c t e d from the F i s h b e i n v a r i a b l e s , the best s i n g l e p r e d i c t o r being NBp. In t h i s sense too, the e x t e r n a l v a r i a b l e s ( i n p a r t i c u l a r Factor A) do improve p r e d i c t i o n but to a r a t h e r l i m i t e d extent. These r e s u l t s tend to support the hypotheses concerning the potency of the F i s h b e i n v a r i a b l e s and of e x t e r n a l v a r i a b l e s as p r e d i c t o r s of BI. However, e x t e r n a l v a r i a b l e s used alone do account f o r a c o n s i d e r a b l e amount of p r e d i c t i o n , p a r t i c u l a r l y Factor A. Since the s c h o o l i n g v a r i a b l e s are the most r e a d i l y manipulable ones i n the design one could consider t h i s an extremely h e l p f u l r e s u l t . 4.4 Summary of Information R e l a t i n g to S e t t i n g 4 4.4.1 D e s c r i p t i o n of the S e t t i n g The c u l t u r a l s e t t i n g i s one i n which a l o c a l blacksmith r e -q u i r e s to make a s l o t i n a wooden hole-handle so as to f i t ( e x a c t l y ) the metal blade. F a i l u r e to o b t a i n an accurate f i t could cause the blade to f l y out and i n j u r e the user's f o o t . 1 3 0 4.4.2 Methods of Measurement Proposed to Ss The c u l t u r e - r e l a t e d and s c h o o l - r e l a t e d measurement techniques proposed to S_s by the experimenter are given i n Table 29. 4.5 S t a t i s t i c a l A n a l y s i s : S e t t i n g 4 4.5.1 C u l t u r a l S e t t i n g 4 Measurement of short d i s t a n c e s . 4.5.2 Hypotheses and Methods of A n a l y s i s The hypotheses t e s t e d and the method of a n a l y s i s f o r each of the hypotheses were i d e n t i c a l to those described f o r C u l t u r a l S e t t i n g 1 (see S e c t i o n 4.3.2, p. 98). 4.5.3 E f f e c t s of S c h o o l i n g , Environment, and R e l i g i o n on BI 4.5.3.1 Summary of Raw Data The column and row marginals of Table 30 show s i z a b l e d i f f e r -ences between the schooled and unschooled groups i n t h e i r mean BI scores. By comparison, no such d i f f e r e n c e s e x i s t between r u r a l and urban Ss_ or between the C h r i s t i a n and Moslem S_s. Figure 7 suggests t h a t the d i f f e r e n c e between the two l e v e l s of s c h o o l i n g (and t h e i r age coun t e r p a r t s ) f o r e i t h e r the combined schooled or unschooled groups of Ss_ was u n l i k e l y to be of note. How-ever, the schooled groups appear to have s u b s t a n t i a l l y higher mean BI scores a t both l e v e l s than the non-schooled groups. Figure 8 shows that the d i f f e r e n c e s between the mean BI scores of the two schooled groups, Dekina and Ayangba, were not l i k e l y to be a p p r e c i a b l e . But each schooled group appears to have markedly 131 TABLE 29 Techniques of Measurement Proposed to Ss i n C u l t u r a l S e t t i n g 4. C u l t u r e - R e l a t e d Techniques School-Related Techniques Scale Values Scale Values 3. String/Rope .11 1. Ruler/Metre S t i c k .26 5. V i s u a l Estima-t i o n .00 2. Measuring Tape .17 3. C a l i p e r s .14 TABLE 30 Behavioural I n t e n t i o n (BI) Means and Standard Deviations f o r C u l t u r a l S e t t i n g 4 Socio-Economi c Envi ronment S C H O O L I N G ( A ) R e l i g i o n Experimental Group Comparison Group I Comparison Group II Row Marginals (B) (C) Level 1 Level 2 Level 1 Level 2 Level 1 Level 2 n i X. i SD Rural C h r i s t i a n X = .14 SD = .07 X = .16 SD = .07 X = .15 SD = .07 X = .13 SD = .06 X = .08 SD = .09 X = .08 SD = .10 79 .12 .15 Moslem X = .14 SD = .08 X = .11 SD = .13 X = .12 SD = .09 X = .17 SD = .08 X = .10 SD = .11 X = .09 SD = .10 50 .12 .12 Urban C h r i s t i a n X = .17 SD = .06 X = .13 SD = .04 X = .17 SD = .06 X = .05 SD = .07 X = .08 SD = .07 X = .08 SD = .05 41 .11 .13 Mos1 em X = .11 SD = .08 X = .20 SD = .07 X = .17 SD = .06 X = .18 SD = .10 X = .12 SD = .08 X = .05 SD = .07 48 .14 .15 n. J 49 30 41 16 52 30 Column Marginals .14 .15 .15 .13 .09 .07 SD .15 .17- .16 .12 .12 .10 133 0.17 0.15 Exptal Group + Comparison Group I (Schooled Groups) Mean BI-scores 0.10 H Comparison Group II (Unschooled Group) 0.05 Level 1 Level 2 Figure 7. Comparison of Mean Bl - s c o r e s f o r Schooled and Unschooled Ss_, C u l t u r a l S e t t i n g 4 134 d i f f e r e n t mean BI scores than the unschooled group at both Level 1 and Level 2. 4.5.3.2 M u l t i p l e Regression A n a l y s i s Table 31 gives the r e s u l t s of r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s i s of the data. The a n a l y s i s gives r e s u l t s t h a t agree q u i t e c l o s e l y with the p r e l i m i n -ary observations described i n Se c t i o n 4.5.3.1 alone and a l s o provides i n f o r m a t i o n regarding the magnitude of the e f f e c t s . Factor A, the sc h o o l i n g f a c t o r , when adjusted f o r the e f f e c t s of Factor B and Factor C, accounts f o r about 13 percent of the variance of the B l - s c o r e s . I t i s the only e f f e c t t h a t i s s i g n i f i c a n t and the only one th a t accounts f o r any marked p r o p o r t i o n of the B l - v a r i a n c e . With regard to the research hypotheses r e s t a t e d on p. , only the hypothesis regarding the e f f e c t of the s c h o o l i n g f a c t o r on BI was supported by the data. 4.5.3.3 Post Hoc A n a l y s i s of BI Means Table 32 gives the d i f f e r e n c e s between the estimated p o p u l a t i o n means f o r a l l the su b j e c t groups according to t h e i r c l a s s i f i c a t i o n on Factor A. The y's are as defined f o r C u l t u r a l S e t t i n g 1, see p. The entry i n each c e l l represents the amount by which the column mean i s g r e a t e r than the row mean. A l l d i f f e r e n c e s were t e s t e d f o r s i g n i f i c a n c e a t an o v e r a l l a - l e v e l of .10. S i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s are i n d i c a t e d by a s t e r i s k s i n the Table. 135 Figure 8. Comparison of Mean Bl-scores f o r Dekina, Ayangba, and Unschooled Ss_, f o r C u l t u r a l S e t t i n g 4. 136 TABLE 31 Results of Method 2 A n a l y s i s of Data f o r C u l t u r a l S e t t i n g 4, Using Research Model 4. Source of Variance SS AR 2 Df ^obs P A ( a d j . f o r B & C) .20 .13 5 6.29 <.10 B ( a d j . f o r A & C) .00 .00 1 .18 C ( a d j . f o r A & B) .00 .00 1 .02 AB ( a d j . f o r A,B,C,AC & BC) .04 .02 5 1.15 AC ( a d j . f o r A,B,C,AB & BC) .04 .03 5 1.29 BC ( a d j . f o r A,B,C,AB & AC) .00 .00 1 .23 ABC ( a d j . f o r a l l other e f f e c t s ) .07 .04 5 .60 E r r o r 1.24 193 Total 1.61 217 137 TABLE 32 D i f f e r e n c e s Between Group I leans on Factor A f o r C u l t u r a l S e t t i n g 4 . M 1 2 y 2 1 y 2 2 ^31 ^32 ^11 y-,2 - .01 -- .01 .00 -V22 .01 .02 .02 -^31 . 0 5 * . 0 6 * . 0 6 * .04 -^32 . 0 7 * . 0 8 * . 0 8 * .06 .02 -^ 1 . y 3 . y -y .00 -y . 0 6 * . 06 * -U ( l , 2 ) . " 3 . S(1.2). y 3 . 06* * S i g n i f i c a n t at a = . 10 . 138 C l e a r l y , the s i g n i f i c a n c e of Factor A r e s u l t s mainly from the o v e r a l l higher scores of the schooled group compared with the unschooled group. D i f f e r e n c e s between l e v e l s o f the Dekina and Ayangba groups are not s i g n i f i c a n t . 4.5.3.4 S p e c i f i c Nature of Group D i f f e r e n c e s w i t h Respect to BI Table 33 gives i n f o r m a t i o n regarding which kind of measurement techniques each group of Ss_ was w i l l i n g to recommend i n C u l t u r a l S e t t i n g 4. TABLE 33 Comparison of Recommendations by Schooled and Unschooled Groups ( C u l t u r a l S e t t i n g 4) Categories of Schooling School-Based Techniques (1 ,2,&4) (a). Culture-Based Techniques (3 & 5) (b) R a t i o , p ( 9 ) a + b Schooled 94 42 .69 Unschooled 24 58 .29 Total 118 100 .54 The Table shows t h a t the r a t i o of the schooled Ss_ w i l l i n g to recommend school-based techniques i s more than two and a h a l f times the 139 r a t i o of unschooled S_s w i l l i n g to do the same t h i n g (.69 versus .29). The x c a l c u l a t e d using the formula on p. 84 (32.72, with 1 df) was found to be s i g n i f i c a n t at an a-level w e l l below the s p e c i f i e d one. This confirms the above observation about the d i f f e r e n c e between the schooled and unschooled groups w i t h regard to w i l l i n g n e s s to recommend school-based techniques of measurement i n C u l t u r a l S e t t i n g 4. 4.5.4 A n a l y s i s of the E f f e c t s of Both I n t e r n a l and External V a r i a b l e s Table 34 gives the amount of variance (R ) of the BI scores accounted f o r by v a r i a b l e s i n t e r n a l to the F i s h b e i n Model ( A a c t , NB p, NB S) and s i g n i f i c a n t e x t e r n a l v a r i a b l e s , namely Factor A, the only such v a r i a b l e to y i e l d a s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t i n the m u l t i p l e r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s i s . Factor A, unadjusted f o r a l l other v a r i a b l e s except age, accounts f o r 13.4 percent of the B l - v a r i a n c e . However, when Factor A, the s c h o o l i n g f a c t o r , i s adjusted f o r the i n t e r n a l v a r i a b l e s , i t s c o n t r i b u t i o n to the B l - v a r i a n c e i s only 4.2 percent which i s t h e r e f o r e a small e f f e c t according to Cohen [1969]. In t u r n , the i n t e r n a l v a r i a b l e s together account f o r 23.9 percent of the variance i n B l - s c o r e s , before adjustment f o r Factor A. When ad j u s t e d , t h e i r e f f e c t accounts f o r only 13.6 percent of the v a r i a n c e which, according to Cohen's c r i t e r i a i s a l a r g e e f f e c t . E v i d e n t l y , the F i s h b e i n v a r i a b l e s are the best p r e d i c t o r s of BI i n C u l t u r a l S e t t i n g 4; the best s i n g l e p r e d i c t o r here being A a c^. The e x t e r n a l v a r i a b l e s do improve pre-d i c t i o n but to a r a t h e r l i m i t e d extent. These r e s u l t s support hypotheses regarding the importance of both i n t e r n a l and e x t e r n a l v a r i a b l e s i n the p r e d i c t i o n of BI. 140 TABLE 34 Variance C o n t r i b u t i o n s (R 2) of I n t e r n a l and Selected External V a r i a b l e s f o r C u l t u r a l S e t t i n g 4 V a r i a b l e s R 2 (X) Factor A (adjusted f o r age) 13.4 I: ( A a a + N B p + NB S ) 23.9 I ( a d j . f o r A) 13.6 A ( a d j . f o r I) 4.2 I + A 27.1 I : A a c t 16.4 NBp 5.7 NBS 0.8 141 4.6 Summary of Information R e l a t i n g to S e t t i n g 7 4.6.1 D e s c r i p t i o n of the S e t t i n g The c u l t u r a l s e t t i n g i s one i n which a n a t i v e N i g e r i a n i s required to share a bag of g a r i ( f r i e d , grated cassava) " e q u a l l y by weight" between two people i n order to s e t t l e a d i s p u t e . 4.6.2 Methods of Measurement f o r measuring the weights of heavy o b j e c t s proposed to Ss_ are given i n Table 35. 4.7 S t a t i s t i c a l A n a l y s i s of the Data 4.7.1 C u l t u r a l S e t t i n g 7 Measuring the weight of a heavy o b j e c t . 4.7.2 Hypotheses and Methods of A n a l y s i s The hypotheses to be t e s t e d and the method of a n a l y s i s f o r t e s t i n g each hypothesis were i d e n t i c a l to those described f o r C u l t u r a l S e t t i n g 1 (see S e c t i o n 4.3.2, p. 98). I t w i l l be seen from Table 35 that the judges' s c a l i n g procedure r e s u l t e d i n one of the two school-based techniques being ranked lowest ( s c a l e value z e r o ) . Ss_ who (laudably) endorsed the use of a s p r i n g balance i n t h i s s i t u a t i o n thus received a low BI score r a t h e r than the high one which a l l l o g i c a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s suggest they should have received. For t h i s reason, although the basic BI data are presented, a n a l y s i s and d i s c u s s i o n of these i s not considered u s e f u l . The data appear i n Appendix D. 142 TABLE 35 Techniques of Measurement Proposed to Ss i n Cult u r e S e t t i n g 7. Scal e Scale C u l t u r e - R e l a t e d Techniques Value School-Related Techniques Value 2. L i f t i n g .15 1. Large Spring-Balance .00 4. V i s u a l E s t i m a t i o n .07 3. Large Arm-Balance .39 1 4 3 4.8 Summary of Information R e l a t i n g to S e t t i n g 8 4.8.1 D e s c r i p t i o n of the S e t t i n g A person making c o n s u l t a t i o n on behalf of a c l o s e f a m i l y member s u f f e r i n g from a d e b i l i t a t i n g d i s e a s e , i n order to d i s c o v e r the cause of the ailment. 4.8.2 Methods of Measurement Proposed to Ss The techniques f o r methods of c o n s u l t a t i o n ( d i a g n o s i s ) proposed to S_s_ are shown i n Table 36. 4.9 S t a t i s t i c a l A n a l y s i s of the Data 4.9.1 C u l t u r a l S e t t i n g 8 Diagnosis of an ailment. 4.9.2 Hypotheses and Methods of A n a l y s i s The hypotheses t e s t e d and the methods of a n a l y s i s used f o r t e s t i n g them were i d e n t i c a l to those described f o r C u l t u r a l S e t t i n g 1, Sectio n 4.3.2, p. Table 36 i n d i c a t e s a somewhat s i m i l a r s c a l i n g problem to t h a t which l e d to the abandonment of C u l t u r a l S e t t i n g 7. S u b j e c t i v e l y , however, i t was decided t h a t since C u l t u r a l S e t t i n g 8 included a con-s i d e r a b l y l a r g e r number of techniques than d i d 7, of which two school-based ones received higher s c a l e values than any of the seven c u l t u r e -based ones, the data should be analyzed and the f i n d i n g s reported. In support of t h i s d e c i s i o n i s the f a c t t h a t the frequency with which Ss_ endorsed techniques 5 and 9 (the school-based ones with low sca l e values) was 3 and 5, r e s p e c t i v e l y . Nonetheless, i t appears t h a t the f i n d i n g s must be i n t e r p r e t e d somewhat c a u t i o u s l y . 1 4 4 TABLE 36 techniques of Measurement Proposed to Ss_ i n C u l t u r a l S e t t i n g 0. C u l t u r e - R e l a t e d Methods or Personnel Seal e Values School-Related Metln.."!--or Personnel Scale Values 2. Herbali s t .42 1. Dispenser .53 4. D i v i n e r .11 3. Doctor .93 6. S e l f - T r a i n e d Doctor* .37 5 S a n i t a r y Inspector' .05 7. E l d e r s * * .21 9. Pharmacist .17 8. F a i t h Healer .08 10. C h r i s t i a n P r i e s t .00 11. Imam*** A s e l f - t r a i n e d doctor i n N i g e r i a i s a person who has had no r e g u l a r t r a i n i n g i n Medicine but i l l e g a l l y a d m i n i s t e r s drugs and i n j e c t i o n s s e c r e t l y , i . e . , a quack. t E l d e r s are the accepted leaders of the community and the purveyors of the c u l t u r e . *** Imam i s a Moslem p r i e s t . T S a n i t a r y Inspector i s an o f f i c i a l of the l o c a l Health Deparlinent who enforces standards of hygiene i n p u b l i c p l a c e s . 145 4.9.3 E f f e c t s of Sc h o o l i n g , Environment, and R e l i g i o n on BI 4.9.3.1 Summary of Raw Data Table 37 gives the means and standard d e v i a t i o n s of the BI-scores f o r a l l the c e l l s i n the design. An examination of the column and row marginals shows th a t some of the d i f f e r e n c e s i n mean Bl - s c o r e s are q u i t e s u b s t a n t i a l . Figure 9 de p i c t s the d i f f e r e n c e s between the mean Bl-s c o r e s of a l l three groups -- Dekina, Ayangba, and the unschooled groups. The Figure shows th a t the mean B l - s c o r e f o r the Ayangba Level 2 Ss appears c o n s i d e r a b l y lower than that of Level 1 o f Ayangba. A l s o , there are la r g e d i f f e r e n c e s between Level 2 of Ayangba and Levels 1 and 2 of Dekina, and the unschooled group. R e f e r r i n g to Table 37 the Bl-means of r u r a l and urban Ss_ do not seem to be remarkably d i f f e r e n t o v e r a l l . But those of C h r i s t i a n s and Moslems appear to be q u i t e d i f f e r e n t from each other. Figure 10 shows the d i f f e r e n c e s g r a p h i c a l l y . 4.9.3.2 M u l t i p l e Regression A n a l y s i s Table 38 corroborates the p r e l i m i n a r y f i n d i n g s of the study, i . e . , t h a t important d i f f e r e n c e s e x i s t due to s c h o o l i n g and r e l i g i o n i n t h i s C u l t u r a l S e t t i n g . Factor A, the sc h o o l i n g f a c t o r , adjusted f o r the e f f e c t s o f Factor B and Factor C, accounts f o r about 4 percent of the v a r i a b i l i t y i n Bl - s c o r e s w h i l e r e l i g i o n , Factor C, adjusted f o r Factor A and Factor B accounts f o r 1 percent of BI vari a n c e . These e f f e c t s can be c l a s s i f i e d as s m a l l , according to Cohen [1969, p. 227]. The e f f e c t of Factor B, socioeconomic environment, adjusted f o r the e f f e c t s of Factor A and Factor C i s not s i g n i f i c a n t . TABLE 37 Behavioural I n t e n t i o n (BI) Means and Standard Deviations f o r C u l t u r a l S e t t i n g 8 Socio-Economic Environment S C H O O L I N G ( A ) R e l i g i o n Experimental Group Comparison Group I Comparison Group I I Row Marginals (B) (C) Level 1 Level 2 Level 1 Level 2 Level 1 Level 2 n i • X i SD Rural C h r i s t i a n X = .68 SD = .32 X = .73 SD = .33 X = .80 SD = .25 X = .57 SD = .37 X = .57 SD = .34 X = .82 SD = .33 79 .71 .78 Moslem X = .61 SD = .37 X = .62 SD = .36 X = .78 SD = .31 X = .63 SD = .27 X = .66 SD = .32 X = .73 SD = .36 50 .68 .74 Urban C h r i s t i a n X = .83 SD = .26 y = .79 SD = .00 X = .79 SD = .25 X = .60 SD = .23 X = .84 SD = .20 X = .73 SD = .41 41 .73 .79 Mos1 em X = .74 SD = .31 X = .69 SD = .27 X = .78 SD = .28 X = .24 SD = .19 X = .61 SD = .33 X = .59 SD = .35 48 .60 .75 n . J 49 30 41 16 52 30 Column Marginals I. J SD .71 .32 .69 .32 .78 .26 .55 .30 .65 .31 .70 .35 147 0.80 A Mean B l -scores Level 1 Level 2 Figure 9. Comparison of Di f f e r e n c e s Between the BI-means f o r A l l Groups, C u l t u r a l S e t t i n g 8. 0.80 -0.70 -Mean B l -scores 0.60 0.50 C h r i s t i a n s Moslems Figure 10. Comparison of Mean Bl - s c o r e s f o r C h r i s t i a n s and Moslems, C u l t u r a l S e t t i n g 8 149 TABLE 38 Results of Method 2 A n a l y s i s of Data from C u l t u r a l S e t t i n g 8, Using Research Model Source of Variance SS AR df F , p A ( a d j . f o r B & C) .98 .04 5 2.05 B ( a d j . f o r A & C) .06 .00* 1 .60 C ( a d j . f o r A & B) .26 .01 1 2.67 AB ( a d j . f o r A,B,C,AC & BC) .49 5 1.01 AC ( a d j . f o r A,B,C,AB & BC) .55 ,00* 5 .11 BC ( a d j . f o r A,B,C,AB & AC) .09 .00* 1 .94 ABC ( a d j . f o r a l l other terms) .45 .02 5 .93 E r r o r 18.88 193 Total 21.31 217 *A11 e n t r i e s are rounded o f f to 2 decimal places. I f they had been given to,say, 5 decimal p l a c e s , these e n t r i e s would have been non-zero. 150 With reference to the research hypotheses (see p. 98) only hypothesis 1(a) and 1(b) about the e f f e c t s of s c h o o l i n g and r e l i g i o n r e s p e c t i v e l y , are supported by the data. In f a c t , hypothesis 1(a) holds f o r Ayangba Level 1 o n l y . 4.9.3.3 Post Hoc A n a l y s i s of BI-Means Table 39 gives the d i f f e r e n c e s between the BI means f o r a l l the groups and c a t e g o r i e s of s c h o o l i n g . The Table i n d i c a t e s t h a t the s i g n i f i c a n c e of Factor A i n the m u l t i p l e r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s i s can be accounted f o r by the d i f f e r e n c e s between Level 1 and Level 2 of Ayangba. Other i n t e r - l e v e l d i f f e r e n c e s were not s i g n i f i c a n t . The Dekina group (combined) i s not s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t from the Ayangba group or the unschooled group combined, r e s p e c t i v e l y . Nor i s there an o v e r a l l s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between the Bl-means of the schooled groups considered together and the unschooled group. The d i f f e r e n c e between the Bl-means f o r the two r e l i g i o u s groups, C h r i s t i a n s and Moslems, i s .03, which i s s i g n i f i c a n t beyond the .10 l e v e l . 4.9.3.4 S p e c i f i c Nature of Group D i f f e r e n c e with Respect to BI Table 40 shows the p r o p o r t i o n of Ss_ i n each category who were w i l l i n g to recommend school-based methods of measurement. An examina-t i o n of the Table shows th a t the r a t i o f o r Level 2 of Ayangba i s the s m a l l e s t and of the same order as that f o r non-schooled Ss. 151 TABLE 39 D i f f e r e n c e s Between Group Means on Factor A f o r C u l t u r a l S e t t i n g 8 ^11 y 1 2 0 2 1 n22 ^31 ^32 p l l -.02 -- . 0 7 - . 0 9 -u 22 .16 .14 . 2 3 * -y 31 .06 .04 .13 - . 1 0 -u 32 .01 - .01 .08 - . 1 5 - . 0 5 -/N y 2 . W 3 . -y 2 . - . 0 2 -y 3 . .02 .04 -y ( l , 2 ) . y 3 . y ( l , 2 ) . y 3 . .03 -* S i g n i f i c a n t at o v e r a l l a = .10 f o r a l l comparisons made. 152 TABLE 40 Comparison of Recommendations f o r A l l Groups ( C u l t u r a l S e t t i n g 8) Categories of Schooling School-Based Techniques (a) Culture-Based Techniques (b) R a t i o , p ( a ) ^a + b ; Dekina (Level 1) 39 10 .80 Dekina (Level 2) 24 6 .80 Ayangba (Level 1) 35 6 .85 Ayangba (Level 2) 10 6 .63 Unschooled 53 29 .65 T o t a l s .. 157 61 .72 153 O v e r a l l , the r a t i o s suggest that the schooled groups were more w i l l i n g to recommend s c h o o l - r e l a t e d approaches to diagnosing ailments than unschooled Ss_ (except f o r the anomalous s i t u a t i o n of Ayangba Level 2 Ss^, discussed i n Chapter F i v e ) . 4.9.4 A n a l y s i s of the E f f e c t s of Both I n t e r n a l and E x t e r n a l  V a r i a b l e s 2 Table 41 gives the amounts of v a r i a n c e (R ) of BI scores accounted f o r by the i n t e r n a l v a r i a b l e s of the F i s h b e i n Model and by v a r i a b l e s e x t e r n a l to the Model, i . e . , Factor A, and Factor C. The Table shows that the F i s h b e i n v a r i a b l e s , unadjusted, account f o r 31.4 percent of the BI v a r i a n c e and 29.8 percent a f t e r adjustment f o r the e f f e c t of Factor A. This i s to say t h a t the amount of variance shared by A and I i s q u i t e s m a l l . Factor A, on the other hand, accounts f o r 4.3 percent of the variance i n B I , unadjusted, and 3.9 percent when adjusted f o r I. Again, the e f f e c t o f A, even though s m a l l , i s l a r g e l y independent of I. Factor C, accounts f o r l e s s than 1 percent o f the v a r i a b i l i t y i n BI scores a f t e r adjustment f o r I and A e f f e c t s . In terms of the p r e d i c t i v e powers of the v a r i a b l e s , the v a r i a b l e s of the F i s h b e i n Model are much more powerful p r e d i c t o r s of BI i n t h i s c u l t u r a l s e t t i n g than the e x t e r n a l v a r i a b l e s . The e x t e r n a l v a r i a b l e s do improve p r e d i c t i o n somewhat but the extent i s l i m i t e d , as were the cases i n the other c u l t u r a l s e t t i n g s i n v e s t i g a t e d . The best s i n g l e p r e d i c t o r o f BI i n t h i s s e t t i n g was Aac^., a t t i t u d e toward the act of recommending measurement techniques. NB n 154 a l s o accounts f o r q u i t e an important c o n t r i b u t i o n to the p r e d i c t i o n of BI, i n keeping with f i n d i n g s i n other s e t t i n g s . These r e s u l t s support the c l a i m that both the i n t e r n a l v a r i a b l e s of the F i s h b e i n Model, and v a r i a b l e s e x t e r n a l to i t , are s i g n i f i c a n t p r e d i c t o r s of BI. 155 TABLE 47 Variance C o n t r i b u t i o n s (R ) of Selected I n t e r n a l and External V a r i a b l e s f o r C u l t u r a l S e t t i n g 8. V a r i a b l e s R 2 (%) Factor A (unadj.) 4.3 Factor C ( a d j . f o r A) 1.0 I : < A a c t + N B p + N B s > 31.4 I ( a d j . f o r A) 29.8 ' I + A 33.7 I + A + C 34.5 A ( a d j . f o r I) 3.9 C ( a d j . f o r I & A) 0.8 I: A . ac t 20.2 N B P 11.0 N B S 0.4 CHAPTER FIVE CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS 5.1 Statement of the Problem The purpose of the study was to examine the i n t e r p r e t i v e use of school l e a r n i n g s i n non-school s i t u a t i o n s i n N i g e r i a . An attempt was made to d i s t i n g u i s h between d i f f e r e n t uses of knowledge. The argument was made that the i n t e r p r e t i v e use of knowledge by which an i n d i v i d u a l uses h i s l e a r n i n g s to make a given problem s i t u a t i o n i n t e l l i g i b l e without n e c e s s a r i l y b r i n g i n g about a m a t e r i a l or con-s t r u c t i v e change i n the s i t u a t i o n , was a r e a l i s t i c e x p e c t a t i o n of the use of school l e a r n i n g s . The concept of the i n t e r p r e t i v e use of school l e a r n i n g s was o p e r a t i o n a l i z e d i n terms of recommending a course of a c t i o n based on school l e a r n i n g s to a person confronted w i t h a non-school problem s i t u a t i o n . I t was noted that such a recommendation meets the c o n d i t i o n s of the i n t e r p r e t i v e use of school l e a r n i n g s i n th a t i t i n v o l v e s an e v a l u a t i o n , a p p r e c i a t i o n , and understanding o f the s i t u a t i o n i n terms of the l e a r n i n g s . The a c t of making such a recommendation under s p e c i f i e d non-school c o n d i t i o n s (B) was taken to be p r e d i c t a b l e by: (1) an i n d i c a -t i o n of w i l l i n g n e s s to make the recommendation ( B I ) , (2) an i n d i c a -t i o n of favourableness toward making the recommendation (A t ) , (3) an i n d i c a t i o n of personal normative b e l i e f s regarding what the 156 157 i n d i v i d u a l p e r s o n a l l y b e l i e v e s he ought to recommend d e s p i t e what others might f e e l (NBp), and (4) an i n d i c a t i o n o f a person's normative b e l i e f regarding what he b e l i e v e s those whose views are respected most by him would expect him to do (recommend) i n the s i t u a t i o n , NB . An attempt was made i n the study to v e r i f y t h i s p r e d i c t i o n and to improve the p r e d i c t i o n through t a k i n g other f a c t o r s i n t o account, such as s c h o o l i n g , socioeconomic environment, r e l i g i o n , and i n t e r a c t i o n s between these f a c t o r s or t h e i r l e v e l s . With respect to the f a c t o r s of s c h o o l i n g , socioeconomic environment and r e l i g i o n i t was hypothesized t h a t behavioural i n t e n t i o n (BI) and a c t u a l behaviour (B) with respect to recommending s c h o o l - r e l a t e d methods of measurement i n out-of-school c u l t u r a l s e t t i n g s would d i f f e r w i t h the type (science/no science) and amount of school i n s t r u c t i o n , the socioeconomic background and the r e l i g i o u s persuasion o f the Ss. In a d d i t i o n , s i g n i f i c a n t i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t s between f a c t o r s of s c h o o l i n g , socioeconomic environment, and r e l i g i o n were p o s t u l a t e d . 5.2 Conclusions A number of t e n t a t i v e c onclusions can be o f f e r e d to the problems t h a t have provided d i r e c t i o n f o r the study. From a m u l t i p l e r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s i s of the data on behavioural i n t e n t i o n of the Ss^ at Dekina (science i n s t r u c t i o n ) , Ayangba (no science i n s t r u c t i o n ) and the unschooled S_s_, w i t h respect to recommending i n d i f f e r e n t c u l t u r a l s e t t i n g s , several c o n c l u s i o n s appear j u s t i f i e d . 158 1. The Ss_ at Dekina and Ayangba secondary schools tended more strongly toward the intent to recommend the use of school-based methods of measurement than the Ss_ without any formal schooling: the Dekina and Ayangba Ss did not differ substantially in such intent. In C u l t u r a l S e t t i n g s 1, 4, and 8 i n v o l v i n g the measurement of short time i n t e r v a l s , short d i s t a n c e s , and the d i a g n o s i s of a i l m e n t s , r e s p e c t i v e l y , the s c h o o l i n g f a c t o r proved to be the most potent determin-ant of behavioural i n t e n t i o n among the e x t e r n a l v a r i a b l e s . One could t h e r e f o r e conclude t h a t f o r the S_s included i n t h i s study, formal s c h o o l i n g at the secondary school l e v e l , r e g a r d l e s s of whether science i n s t r u c t i o n i s o f f e r e d or not, tends to promote the w i l l i n g n e s s to recommend the use of school-based methods of measurement. On the other hand, the absence of formal s c h o o l i n g appears" to lead to the tendency to recommend culture-based methods. Further examination of the r e s u l t s show t h a t a l l the cases where s i g n i f i c a n t "independent" e f f e c t s of the s c h o o l i n g f a c t o r were demonstrated i n v o l v e d c r i t i c a l choices of measurement techniques i n order to ensure p r e c i s e measures of the p h y s i c a l property being assessed. In a l l these cases the choice of an i n a p p r o p r i a t e measure-ment technique could be perceived as having immediate and c l e a r - c u t consequences on the s o l u t i o n to the problem posed to Ss_. For example, measurement of short time i n t e r v a l s , of short d i s t a n c e s , and the diagnosis of an ailment are a c t i v i t i e s i n which f a i l u r e to recommend what may be considered to be the most ap p r o p r i a t e method of measurement 159 or assessment by the S_s could c l e a r l y be perceived by him as having important negative consequences on success i n c a r r y i n g out t h a t a c t i v i t y . In other words, success i n accomplishing the task was a m o t i v a t i o n f o r making a 'good' choice. On the other hand, i n the s i t u a t i o n i n v o l v i n g the weighing of a heavy o b j e c t , no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between the schooled and the non-schooled Ss_ was obtained. The s i t u a t i o n could have been perceived by. the schooled S_s as inconsequential and t h e r e f o r e not demand-ing of the case and a t t e n t i o n needed f o r choosing p r e c i s e or accurate techniques of measurement. These s p e c u l a t i o n s suggest the q u a l i f i c a t i o n to c o n c l u s i o n (1) t h a t i n t e r p r e t i v e behaviour i s very l i k e l y situation-dependent, i . e . , t h a t s i t u a t i o n s r e q u i r i n g c r i t i c a l judgments i n v o l v e i n t e r p r e -t i v e use of school l e a r n i n g s more r e a d i l y than those needing l e s s c r i t i c a l judgment. A probable reason f o r the l a c k of e f f e c t due to secondary school science i n s t r u c t i o n might be t h a t none of the techniques of measurement proposed to S_s were s u f f i c i e n t l y unique as to invoke the use of the Ss_' knowledge of secondary school s c i e n c e . I t would appear t h a t f o r the measurement techniques s e l e c t e d f o r the study, the l e a r n i n g s acquired i n school were s u f f i c i e n t to d i s t i n g u i s h the schooled from the unschooled groups but not adequate f o r the task of drawing d i s t i n c t i o n between the science and non-science i n s t r u c t i o n groups. I t c o u l d a l s o be argued t h a t the non-science, commercial education of the Comparison Group I .Ss_ contained l e a r n i n g s which could have compensated adequately f o r any e f f e c t due to science l e a r n i n g s acquired by the Experimental Group Ss_. K)0 Considering the f i r s t e x p l a n a t i o n regarding the elementary school education o f the schooled S_s, one can speculate how notions about the school-based techniques of measurement proposed may have been acquired i n elementary s c h o o l . For example, to the school time-keeper, u s u a l l y h i m s e l f a student, the c l o c k and hand b e l l was a common experience. The beginning and ending of c l a s s periods and breaks were i n d i c a t e d by the c l o c k . Small d i s t a n c e s , l i k e the height of the teacher's t a b l e , were measured w i t h a r u l e r w h i l e the measuring tape was used to measure the d i s t a n c e the discus or j a v e l i n was thrown a t the school's annual a t h l e t i c meet. I t was a l s o not un-common t h a t a t such meets a stopwatch was used to time the f a s t e s t runner i n the short d i s t a n c e races. Knowledge about the di a g n o s i s and treatment of disease could come about through the nurse of the v i l l a g e dispensary or town h o s p i t a l , o f t e n a frequent v i s i t o r to the scho o l . These and s i m i l a r events are avenues through which the elementary school c h i l d may have acquired h i s knowledge of the va r i o u s techniques of measurement, i n p a r t i c u l a r the s c h o o l - r e l a t e d ones used i n the study. With respect to the suggestion t h a t the non-science education of Comparison Group I Ss_ may have r e s u l t e d i n l e a r n i n g s which compen-sated f o r the lack of science i n s t r u c t i o n , p o s s i b l e l e a r n i n g s r e l a t e d to p r e c i s i o n and accuracy i n accounting and ty p i n g come to mind. I t could be p o s s i b l e that such notions were brought to bear on the various problems of measurement posed i n the study, i n a d d i t i o n to any previous experience S_s may have had w i t h the measurement techniques proposed. 161 The next c o n c l u s i o n t h a t seems warranted has to do with the j u n i o r and s e n i o r grade l e v e l s (Levels 1 and 2) a t Dekina and Ayangba, and t h e i r age counterparts i n the non-schooled group of Ss_. 2. With one exception, the senior grade level at Ayangba (Level 2), grade level at the two schools does not seem to have any noticeable, independent effect on the Ss ' intent to use school-based techniques. Similarly, age levels of the non-schooled groups does not seem to noticeably affect the SsJ intent to use culture-based techniques. Level 2 of Ayangba was found to have c o n s i s t e n t l y lower mean BI scores than e i t h e r Level 1 of the same school or Level 1 and Level 2 of Dekina. No ready e x p l a n a t i o n can be given f o r t h i s o b s e r v a t i o n except to say tha t based on a measure of mental a b i l i t y , the mean a b i l i t y -scores f o r the Ayangba Level 2 group was n o t i c e a b l y lower than t h a t of any other schooled group. Since a p r e l i m i n a r y a n a l y s i s of the data i n d i c a t e d the s i g n i f i c a n c e o f mental a b i l i t y as a p r e d i c t o r o f BI one could speculate t h a t t h i s might e x p l a i n the d i f f e r e n c e s observed. However, a p r e l i m i n a r y a n a l y s i s of the data obtained showed th a t the mental a b i l i t y scores were not r e l i a b l e and so t h i s p o i n t cannot be st r e t c h e d too f a r . With respect to the e f f e c t o f where the Ss^ lived-, r u r a l or urban areas, on behavioural i n t e n t , the f o l l o w i n g c o n c l u s i o n seems j u s t i f i e d * 162 3. With the exception of Cultural Setting 1, the socio-economic environment, SEE, of the Ss_ does not appear to have a strong, independent effect on the intent to recommend the use of school or culture-based methods of measurement. The i n f e r e n c e t o be drawn f r o m t h i s f i n d i n g , c o n s i d e r i n g t h e n a t u r e o f t h e a n a l y s i s p e r f o r m e d seems t o be e i t h e r t h a t , i n f a c t , s o c i o e c o n o m i c e n v i r o n m e n t i s n o t an i m p o r t a n t d e t e r m i n a n t o f t h e SsJ b e h a v i o u r a l i n t e n t , o r t h a t i t s e f f e c t ( i f i t e x i s t s ) i s commonly s h a r e d w i t h t h e s c h o o l i n g f a c t o r a n d / o r w i t h r e l i g i o n , a n d i s t h e r e -f o r e n o t i n d e p e n d e n t . One c o u l d a l s o a r g u e t h a t f o r t h o s e C u l t u r a l S e t t i n g s when weak SEE e f f e c t s w e r e f o u n d , t h e t e c h n i q u e s o f m e a s u r e -ment p o s e d t o Ss_ were n o t s u f f i c i e n t l y u n i q u e as t o d i f f e r e n t i a t e b e t w e e n r u r a l a n d u r b a n S_s i n t h e i r w i l l i n g n e s s t o recommend them w h e r e a s t h i s a p p e a r s t o be t h e c a s e f o r C u l t u r a l S e t t i n g 1. I n t h a t s e t t i n g t h e n o t i o n o f a s h o r t t i m e i n t e r v a l i s more f a m i l i a r t o the. u r b a n S_ who o f t e n has t o c r o s s t h e b u s y c i t y s t r e e t as f a s t as he c a n t o a v o i d t h e h e a v y t r a f f i c , a s i t u a t i o n w h i c h i s n o t p a r t o f t h e e x p e r i e n c e o f a r u r a l S_. Hence t h e t e n d e n c y t o c h o o s e a t e c h n i q u e f o r p r e c i s e m e a s u r e m e n t o f t i m e w o u l d be e x p e c t e d t o be g r e a t e r f o r t h e u r b a n S_ t h a n f o r h i s r u r a l c o u n t e r p a r t . The c o n c l u s i o n t o be drawn f r o m t h e s t u d y r e g a r d i n g t h e e f f e c t o f r e l i g i o n c a n be s t a t e d a s : 163 4. With one exception, Cultural Setting 8, the r e l i g i o u s group to which Ss_ belonged (Christian or Moslem) did not seem to have importantindependent effects on the intent to recommend school or culture-based techniques of measurement. Inferences to be drawn f o r t h i s f i n d i n g are s i m i l a r to those made f o r the e f f e c t o f socioeconomic environment i n (3) above. In a d d i t i o n , the strong independent e f f e c t of the r e l i g i o u s f a c t o r i n C u l t u r a l S e t t i n g 8 i s to be expected because of the powerful r e l i g i o u s b e l i e f s concerning the causation of diseases and a i l m e n t s , p a r t i c u l a r l y among Moslems and the attendant b e l i e f t h a t c e r t a i n i n d i v i d u a l s are p a r t i c u l a r l y endowed with the powers ( s p i r i t u a l ) to d i s c o v e r and cure d i s e a s e s . With regard to the e f f e c t s due to combinations of f a c t o r s ( i n t e r a c t i o n s ) the f o l l o w i n g c o n c l u s i o n i s o f f e r e d . 5. With one exception, Cultural Setting 1, effects due to i n t e r a c t i o n s between factors did not appear to be independently, strongly related to the behavioural i n t e n t i o n to recommend school or culture-based techniques of measurement. In C u l t u r a l S e t t i n g 1 a s t r o n g , independent e f f e c t due to the i n t e r a c t i o n o f environment with r e l i g i o n was obtained. In th a t S e t t i n g , r u r a l Moslems were found to have much higher i n t e n t to recommend school-based techniques of measurement than r u r a l C h r i s t i a n s , the d i f f e r e n c e v a n i s h i n g w i t h u r b a n i z a t i o n . The d i f f e r e n c e observed 164 between C h r i s t i a n s and Moslems at the r u r a l l e v e l seems to agree with the contention expressed on pp. 17-18 concerning the p o s s i b l e e f f e c t of the i n t e l l e c t u a l c l i m a t e of the Arab c u l t u r e from which the Moslem r e l i g i o n o r i g i n a t e d on the behavioural i n t e n t i o n s of Moslem Ss_. In S e t t i n g 1 the use of the notion of p r e c i s i o n i s more c l e a r l y demonstrated than i n a l l other s e t t i n g s . With regard to other c u l t u r a l s e t t i n g s with l e s s defined notions about p r e c i s i o n the e f f e c t seems to be non-existent or to have been suppressed by the other v a r i a b l e s entered i n t o the a n a l y s i s before i t . L a s t l y , w i t h r espect to the importance of Fi s h b e i n ' s v a r i a b l e s and of other ( e x t e r n a l ) v a r i a b l e s f o r p r e d i c t i n g i n t e n t to use scho o l -based or culture-based methods of measurement, the f o l l o w i n g r e s u l t can be s t a t e d : 6. The Fishbein variables appear to be powerful predictors of behavioural intention in all the Cultural Settings investigated; in addition they account for a more sub-stantial amount of independent predictive power than the external variables. When entered f i r s t i n the r e g r e s s i o n models used, the Fi s h b e i n v a r i a b l e s accounted f o r an overwhelming p r o p o r t i o n of the variance i n behavioural i n t e n t . When they were entered a f t e r the ex t e r n a l v a r i a b l e s , t h e i r e f f e c t tended to be reduced but was s t i l l h i g h l y s u b s t a n t i a l . On the c o n t r a r y , the ex t e r n a l v a r i a b l e s appeared to supply l i t t l e i n f o r m a t i o n a d d i t i o n a l to that provided by the F i s h b e i n ones. 165 The above f i n d i n g gives some i n d i c a t i o n of the adequacy and s u f f i c i e n c y of the Fi s h b e i n Model f o r p r e d i c t i n g behavioural i n -t e n t i o n . 5.3 L i m i t a t i o n s of the Study The f o l l o w i n g are some l i m i t a t i o n s which a f f e c t i n t e r p r e -t a b i l i t y of the r e s u l t s of the study: 1. D i r e c t measures of the r e l i a b i l i t y o f the Ss_' s c o r e s , based on the s t a b i l i t y of such s c o r e s , were not obtained f o r study. This means that comparisons between groups of Ss_ teste d at d i f f e r e n t p o i n t s i n time must be i n t e r -preted with c a u t i o n . Evidence obtained i n the study a l s o i n d i c a t e s that the BI scores may not have been wholly adequate as measures of the recommending behaviour of the SS_, sin c e i n some C u l t u r a l S e t t i n g s a s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t was not always corroborated by the a n a l y s i s of actu a l recommendations. I t i s , however, 2 p o s s i b l e t h a t x 's la c k of power may e x p l a i n these d i s c r e p a n c i e s , 2, The non-random sampling of Iga l a students at Dekina and Ayangba as r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of the population of schooled Ss i n the Iga l a c u l t u r e poses a t h r e a t to the e x t e r n a l v a l i d i t y of the study. The assumption t h a t ttie two schools d i f f e r e d only i n terms of science-no science i n s t r u c t i o n 166 appears, i n r e t r o s p e c t , to be unwarranted. Level 2 of Ayangba was found to give c o n s i s t e n t l y d i f f e r e n t r e s u l t s from the other schooled groups, i n c l u d i n g Ayangba Level 1. This suggests that the two schools were probably d i f f e r e n t on other v a r i a b l e s not measured by the present study. The r e s u l t s o f comparisons between Dekina and Ayangba, should t h e r e f o r e be i n t e r p r e t e d wi th c o n s i d e r a b l e c a u t i o n . A l s o r e l a t e d to the sampling problem r e f e r r e d to above i s the non-orthogonality of the sampling d e s i g n , i . e . , . unequal o r d i s p r o p o r t i o n a t e c e l l f r e q u e n c i e s , and the attendant a n a l y t i c a l problem i n v o l v e d [ O v e r a l l and S p i e g e l , 1969]. This c a l l s f o r the c a r e f u l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the main e f f e c t s , i n t e r a c t i o n s and a s s o c i a t e d c o n t r a s t s . 3. L a s t l y , an important l i m i t a t i o n of the study concerns the use of the unschooled, Comparison Group II Ss_. T h e i r i n a b i l i t y to understand the tasks posed by the C a t t e l l ' s 'Culture F a i r ' Test o f I n t e l l i g e n c e , and to respond to the Behaviour Observation Instrument i n d i c a t e s t h a t a b a s i c d i f f e r e n c e e x i s t s between t h a t group and the schooled groups w i t h respect to behaviour i n t e s t - s i t u a t i o n s such as were used i n the study. In a d d i t i o n , the language of a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and i n s t r u c -167 t i o n s c o n t a i n e d i n t h e v a r i o u s i n s t r u m e n t s ( E n g l i s h a n d I g a l a f o r s c h o o l e d S_s_ and I g a l a f o r t h e u n s c h o o l e d ) may have r e s u l t e d i n a l i m i t e d u n d e r s t a n d i n g by t h e C o m p a r i s o n Group I I S_s b e c a u s e o f t h e d i f f i c u l t y i n v o l v e d i n t r a n s l a t i n g t h o s e i n s t r u m e n t s . H o w e v e r , a t t e m p t s w e r e made t o m i n i m i z e t h e e f f e c t o f l a n g u a g e by u s i n g t r a n s l a t o r s a n d a s s i s t a n t s who were t h e m -s e l v e s members o f t h e same c u l t u r a l g r o u p as t h e Ss_. [The e x p e r i m e n t e r i s h i m s e l f a member o f t h e g r o u p a n d s p e a k s t h e l a n g u a g e w e l l ] . Some o f t h e d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n t h e u n s c h o o l e d g r o u p s and t h e s c h o o l e d g r o u p s c o u l d be a t t r i b u t e d t o t h e s e l i m i t a t i o n s . 5.4 R e c o m m e n d a t i o n s f o r F u r t h e r S t u d y The p r e s e n t s t u d y has been c o n f i n e d t o i n v e s t i g a t i n g t h e d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n s c h o o l e d a n d n o n s c h o o l e d g r o u p s o f N i g e r i a n s w i t h p a r t i c u l a r r e f e r e n c e t o t h e ways t h e y u s e t h e i r l e a r n i n g s i n m e a s u r e -ment i n n o n - s c h o o l s i t u a t i o n s . The t y p e s o f m e a s u r e m e n t a c t i v i t i e s and t h e c u l t u r a l s e t t i n g s s t u d i e d w e r e n e c e s s a r i l y l i m i t e d . F u r t h e r r e s e a r c h i s needed i n t o o t h e r a r e a s o f m e a s u r e m e n t and o t h e r c u l t u r a l s e t t i n g s . I n a d d i t i o n , o t h e r m a n i f e s t a t i o n s o f t h e i n t e r p r e t i v e use o f l e a r n i n g s i n m e a s u r e m e n t t h a n r e c o m m e n d i n g b e h a v i o u r s h o u l d be e x p l o r e d a n d s t u d i e d . I n p a r t i c u l a r , s u c h b e h a v i o u r s h o u l d be s u f f i c i e n t l y u n i q u e o r s e n s i t i v e t o d i s c r i m i n a t e b e t w e e n s c h o o l e d Ss_ who have r e c e i v e d s c i e n c e i n s t r u c t i o n a n d t h o s e who have n o t . 168 Furthermore, the i n t e r p r e t i v e uses of other basic s k i l l s and concepts learned i n science c l a s s e s , e.g., o b s e r v a t i o n , c l a s s i f i -c a t i o n , h y p o t h e s i z i n g , s y l l o g i s m s , e t c . , should be i n v e s t i g a t e d . R e p l i c a t i o n of the study among d i f f e r e n t N i g e r i a n c u l t u r a l groups and elsewhere and i n h i g h l y d i f f e r e n t i a t e d socioeconomic environments might lead to the e l u c i d a t i o n of c u l t u r a l and socioeconomic f a c t o r s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r i n t e r p r e t i v e behaviour and such p o s s i b i l i t i e s should be examined. Even though the amounts of BI variance (R ) accounted f o r by the Fis h b e i n v a r i a b l e s and some external v a r i a b l e s have been q u i t e modest i n the present study, the use of the Model i n educational research i s t o be recommended. S i m i l a r s t u d i e s using the Model have been able t o p r e d i c t BI variance o f between 40-50 per cent (Abramson, 1972; T e s s l e r , 1972). The f a i l u r e of the Model to account f o r higher p r o p o r t i o n s of the v a r i a b i l i t y i n Bl-scores here may be due to the d i f f i c u l t y i n p r e d i c t i n g behaviour, g e n e r a l l y . I t i s a l s o recom-mended t h a t educational researchers explore the p o s s i b i l i t i e s of using models s i m i l a r to those which have been found usef u l by other s o c i a l s c i e n t i s t s i n i n v e s t i g a t i n g s o c i a l behaviour and i n t e r a c t i o n such as one f i n d s i n sch o o l s . L a s t l y , the c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n of the outcomes of school l e a r n i n g s needs to be extended and o p e r a t i o n a l i z e d . Broudy's viewpoint r e q u i r e s f u r t h e r c l a r i f i c a t i o n , i n p a r t i c u l a r , with regard to i t s d i s t i n c t i o n between the i n t e r p r e t i v e and the a p p l i c a t i v e uses of l e a r n i n g s . 169 REFERENCES Abramson, K.H. 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Torgerson, W.S. Theory and Methods of S c a l i n g . J . Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1958, 165. Walker, H., and Lev, J . S t a t i s t i c a l Inference. New York, H o l t , 1953. 173 A P P E N D I C E S Appendix A - D e s c r i p t i o n s of C u l t u r a l S e t t i n g s Appendix B - Instruments Appendix C - Questionnaire f o r Background Data Appendix D - A n a l y s i s of Data f o r S i t u a t i o n s 2, 3, 5, 6 APPENDIX A DESCRIPTIONS OF CULTURAL SETTINGS 175 APPENDIX A DESCRIPTIONS OF CULTURAL SETTINGS Behaviour Relevant C u l t u r a l S i t u a t i o n 1. Measuring a short t i n e i n t e r v a l 2. Measuring t i n e of day 3. Measuring a long time i n t e r v a l 4. Measuring a short d i s t a n c e 5. Measuring a long d i s t a n c e 6. Measuring weight of a l i g h t o b j e c t 7. Weighing a heavy o b j e c t 8. Seeking diagnosis of an a i V ai 1 merit A n a t i v e person faced with the problem of r e -p o r t i n g the d u r a t i o n of v i s i b i l i t y of a "shooting s t a r " f o r o f f i c i a l r e c o r d s , i . e . , measuring a short time i n t e r v a l A n a t i v e N i g e r i a n keeping an appointment with an important European o f f i c i a l / b u s i n e s s m a n a r r i v i n g on an urgent business t r i p , i . e . , measuring a s p e c i f i c time of day A n a t i v e farmer i n need of determining the time i n t e r v a l between two p l a n t i n g seasons, i . e . , measuring a long time i n t e r v a l A l o c a l blacksmith making a s l o t i n a hoe-handle to f i t ( e x a c t l y ) the metal blade, i . e . , measuring a short d i s t a n c e People b u i l d i n g a road to l i n k t h e i r v i l l a g e or town with the neighbouring marked by the s h o r t e s t of several p o s s i b l e routes (to save costs and e f f o r t ) , i . e . , measuring a long d i s t a n c e A butcher r e t a i l i n g small pieces of meat, i . e . , measuring the weight of small ( l i g h t ) o b j e c t s A n a t i v e person sharing a bag of g a r i (approx, 100 l b s . ) e q u a l l y by weight between two people to s e t t l e a d i s p u t e , i . e . , weighing a heavy o b j e c t A person making c o n s u l t a t i o n on behalf of a c l o s e f a m i l y member s u f f e r i n g from a d e b i l -i t a t i n g disease i n order to d i s c o v e r the cause of the ailment APPENDIX B INSTRUMENTS 177 BI INSTRUMENT FOR JUDGES Name(optional) Number Date. I n s t r u c t i o n s Below i s a short d e s c r i p t i o n of a problem s i t u a t i o n such as a person i s l i k e l y to encounter i n your home environment. You are a l s o presented wi t h d e s c r i p t i o n s , photographs, or a c t u a l examples of a p a i r of methods f o r coping with the problem. Study the s i t u a t i o n c a r e f u l l y . Then s e l e c t ONE of the p a i r ( i . e . 1 or 2) of methods the m a j o r i t y of  the people you know would be more w i l l i n g to recommend to the person i n the problem s i t u a t i o n . S i t u a t i o n 1: A person measuring the d u r a t i o n of v i s i b i l i t y o f a shooting s t a r ( f o r o f f i c i a l r e c o r d s ) , i . e . , measuring a very short time i n t e r v a l . Method Recommendation Check (/) ONE of each p a i r Clock w i t h second hand Stop watch Distance walked -Clock w i t h second hand Human pulse Stop watch Clock with second hand Human pulse 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 The m a j o r i t y of people I know w i l l be more w i l l i n g to recommend wi wi wi w wi wi 11ing to recommend 11ing to recommend 11ing to recommend 11ing to recommend 11ing to recommend 11ing to recommend w i l l i n g to recommend 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 178 31 INSTRUMENT FOR JUDGES (continued) Method Recommendation Check (/) one of each p a i r The m a j o r i t y of people I know w i l l be more . . . Stop watch Distance Walked Human pulse Distance Walked 1 w i l l i n g to recommend 2 w i l l i n g to recommend 1 w i l l i n g to recommend 2 wi11i ng to recommend 179 A „ ^ INSTRUMENT FOR JUDGES a C T/~ Name(optional) Number. Date. I n s t r u c t i o n s Below i s a short d e s c r i p t i o n of a problem s i t u a t i o n such as a person i s l i k e l y to encounter i n your home environment. You are a l s o presented w i t h d e s c r i p t i o n s , photographs and f o r a c t u a l examples of p a i r s of methods f o r coping w i t h the problem. Study the s i t u a t i o n c a r e f u l l y . Then s e l e c t ONE of the p a i r of methods the m a j o r i t y of  people you know would be most favourable toward recommending to the person i n the problem s i t u a t i o n . S i t u a t i o n 1: A person measuring the d u r a t i o n of v i s i b i l i t y of a shooting s t a r ( f o r o f f i c i a l r e c o r d s ) ; i . e . , measuring a very short time i n t e r v a l . Method Recommendation Check (/) ONE of each p a i r The m a j o r i t y of people I know w i l l be more A Clock w i t h second hand Stop watch Distance walked Clock w i t h second hand 1 favourable toward recommending 2 favourable toward recommending 1 favourable toward recommending 2 favourable toward recommending 1 2 1 2 Human pulse Stop watch Clock with second hand luman pulse 1 favourable toward recommending 2 favourable toward recommending 1 favourable toward recommending 2 favourable toward recommending 1 2 1 2 180 A . INSTRUMENT FOR JUDGES (continued) — act Method Recommendation Check (/) one of each p a i r The m a j o r i t y of people I know w i l l be more . . . Stop watch Distance Walked Human pulse Distance walked favourable toward recommending favourable toward recommending favourable toward recommending favourable toward recommending 1 2 1 2 181 NB INSTRUMENT FOR JUDGES — P ; Name ( o p t i o n a l ) Number Date. I n s t r u c t i o n s Below i s a short d e s c r i p t i o n of a problem s i t u a t i o n such as a person i s l i k e l y to encounter i n your home environment. You are a l s o presented with d e s c r i p t i o n s or a c t u a l examples of a p a i r of methods f o r coping w i t h the problem. Study the s i t u a t i o n c a r e f u l l y . Then s e l e c t the ONE method of the p a i r ( i . e . No. 1 or/No. 2) of methods the m a j o r i t y  of the people you know would p e r s o n a l l y f e e l they ought to recommend to the person i n the problem s i t u a t i o n . S i t u a t i o n 1: A person measuring the d u r a t i o n of v i s i b i l i t y of a "shooting s t a r " ( f o r o f f i c i a l r e c o r d s ) , i . e . , measur-ing a very s h o r t time i n t e r v a l . Method Recommendation Check (/) one of each p a i r The m a j o r i t y of people I know w i l l A Clock w i t h second hand Stop watch Distance walked Clock w i t h second hand 1 2 1 2 p e r s o n a l l y f e e l they ought to recommend p e r s o n a l l y f e e l they ought to recommend p e r s o n a l l y f e e l they ought to recommend p e r s o n a l l y f e e l they ought to recommend 1 2 1 2 Human pulse Stop watch 1 2 p e r s o n a l l y f e e l they ought to recommend p e r s o n a l l y f e e l they ought to recommend 1 2 Clock w i t h second hand Human pulse 1 2 p e r s o n a l l y f e e l they ought to recommend p e r s o n a l l y f e e l they ought to recommend 182 NB p INSTRUMENT FOR JUDGES (continued) Method Recommendation Check (/) one of each p a i r The m a j o r i t y of people I know w i l l Stop watch Distance I Walked Human pulse Distance Walked 1 2 p e r s o n a l l y f e e l they ought to recommend p e r s o n a l l y f e e l they ought to recommend p e r s o n a l l y f e e l they ought to recommend p e r s o n a l l y f e e l they ought to recommend 1 2 1 2 183 NB INSTRUMENT FOR JUDGES Name ( o p t i o n a l ) Number Date I n s t r u c t i o n s Below i s a short d e s c r i p t i o n of a problem s i t u a t i o n such as you are l i k e l y to encounter i n your home environment. You are a l s o presented w i t h d e s c r i p t i o n s , photographs, or a c t u a l examples of a p a i r of methods f o r coping w i t h the problem. Study the s i t u a t i o n c a r e f u l l y . Then s e l e c t ONE of the p a i r ( i . e . 1 or 2) of methods the group of people (e.g. f a m i l y members, classmates, community l e a d e r s , best f r i e n d s , e t c . ) who are respected most by the m a j o r i t y of people you know would expect  them to recommend to the person i n the problem s i t u a t i o n . S i t u a t i o n 1: A person measuring the d u r a t i o n of v i s i b i l i t y of a shooting s t a r ( f o r o f f i c i a l r e c o r d s ) , i . e . measuring a very short time i n t e r v a l . Method Recommendation Check (/) ONE of each p a i r The group of people who are r e -spected most by the m a j o r i t y of people I know would be Clocked w i t h second hand Stop watch Distance walked Clock w i t h second hand Human pulse Stop watch Clock w i t h second hand Human pulse 1 expected to recommend 2 expected to recommend 1 expected to recommend 2 expected to recommend 1 expected to recommend 2 expected to recommend 1 expected to recommend 2 . expected to recommend 1 2 1 2 1 2 184 BI INSTRUMENT FOR Ss Name ( o p t i o n a l ) Number Date I n s t r u c t i o n s Below i s a short d e s c r i p t i o n of a problem s i t u a t i o n such as a person i s l i k e l y to encounter i n your home environment. You are a l s o presented with d e s c r i p t i o n s , photographs, and f o r act u a l examples of several a l t e r n a t i v e methods of coping w i t h the problem. Study the s i t u a t i o n c a r e f u l l y . Then s e l e c t the ONE method that you are most w i l l i n g to recommend to the person i n the problem s i t u a t i o n . S i t u a t i o n 1: A person measuring the dura t i o n of v i s i b i l i t y of a shooting s t a r ( f o r o f f i c i a l r e c o r d s ) , i . e . measuring a very short time i n t e r v a l . Recommendation: I am most w i l l i n g to recommend: Method Check (/) ONE method only Clock w i t h second hand B Stop watch Human pulse D Distance walked 185 -act- INSTRUMENT FOR Ss Name ( o p t i o n a l ) Number Date I n s t r u c t i o n s Below i s a short d e s c r i p t i o n of a problem s i t u a t i o n such as a person i s l i k e l y to encounter i n your home environment. You are a l s o presented with d e s c r i p t i o n s , photographs, and/or a c t u a l examples of several a l t e r n a t i v e methods of coping w i t h the problem. Study the s i t u a t i o n c a r e f u l l y . Then s e l e c t the ONE method th a t you are most favourable toward recommending to the person i n the problem s i t u a t i o n . S i t u a t i o n 1: A person measuring the d u r a t i o n of v i s i b i l i t y of a shooting s t a r ( f o r o f f i c i a l r e c o r d s ) , i . e . measuring a very short time i n t e r v a l . Recommendation: I am most favourable toward recommending: Method Check (/) ONE method only Clock with second hand B Stop watch Human pulse Distance walked 186 NB p INSTRUMENT FOR Ss Name ( o p t i o n a l ) Number Date I n s t r u c t i o n s Below i s a short d e s c r i p t i o n of a problem s i t u a t i o n such as you are l i k e l y to encounter i n your home environment. You are a l s o presented with d e s c r i p t i o n s , photographs and/or a c t u a l examples of several a l t e r n a t i v e methods o f coping with the problem. Study the s i t u a t i o n c a r e f u l l y . Then s e l e c t ONE method that you p e r s o n a l l y f e e l you ought most to recommend to the person i n the problem s i t u a t i o n . S i t u a t i o n 1: A person measuring the d u r a t i o n o f v i s i b i l i t y of a shooting s t a r ( f o r o f f i c i a l records) i . e . measuring a short time i n t e r v a l . Recommendation: I p e r s o n a l l y f e e l I ought to recommend: Method Check (/) ONE method only Clock with second hand B Stop watch C Human pulse D Distance walked 187 NB„ INSTRUMENT FOR Ss Name ( o p t i o n a l ) Number. Date I n s t r u c t i o n s Below i s a short des a person i s l i k e l y to encounter presented wit h d e s c r i p t i o n s , ph several a l t e r n a t i v e methods of s i t u a t i o n c a r e f u l l y . Then sel person or group of persons whos (e.g. f a m i l y members, classmate wi11 expect you to recommend to c r i p t i o n of a problem s i t u a t i o n such as i n your home environment. You are a l s o otographs, and f o r act u a l examples o f coping w i t h the problem. Study the ect the ONE method that you f e e l the e views you respect most i n t h i s matter s, community l e a d e r s , best f r i e n d s , etc.) the person i n the problem s i t u a t i o n . S i t u a t i o n 1: Recommendation: A person measuring the du r a t i o n of v i s i b i l i t y of a shooting s t a r ( f o r o f f i c i a l records) i . e . measuring a very short time i n t e r v a l . The person(s) whose views I respect most i n t h i s matter w i l l expect me to recommend: Method Check (/) ONE method only A Clock with second hand B Stop watch Human pulse D Distance walked NB INSTRUMENT FOR JUDGES (continued) 188 Method Recommendation Check (/) one of each p a i r The m a j o r i t y of people I know w i l l Stop watch Distance Walked Human pulse Distance Walked 1 2 1 2 expected to recommend expected to recommend expected to recommend expected to recommend 1 2 1 2 189 BEHAVIOUR INSTRUMENT - DOCUMENT 1 Address: Dear . . . . . . . . I o f t e n t h i n k about you and l i f e back home. Today I was approached by a man from a u n i v e r s i t y and asked to r e f l e c t about how I thought we should be measuring things a t home and i n our community I t may be of i n t e r e s t to you to know how I responded to t h i s person. Please take the time to look c a r e f u l l y at the recommendations which I have endorsed, they are marked on the sheets with a check mark (/) I am q u i t e s i n c e r e about these recommendations and b e l i e v e t h a t they should be fo l l o w e d by you and others back home. Goodbye and God b l e s s you, With love from, Name ( o p t i o n a l ) Number Date BEHAVIOUR INSTRUMENT - DOCUMENT 2 Address: The D i r e c t o r National Bureau of Standards Federal M i n i s t r y of I n d u s t r i e s Lagos. Dear S i r , I b e l i e v e c i t i z e n s should inform government o f f i c i a l s about how they stand on matters of n a t i o n a l i n t e r e s t . Enclosed are recommendations which I have endorsed i n regards to measurement at home and i n our community. Please take the time to consider my recommendations c a r e f u l l y . I hereby d e c l a r e t h a t I am w i l l i n g to take a p u b l i c stand on my recommendations. Thank you. Yours f a i t h f u l l y , Name ( o p t i o n a l ) Number Date 191 APPENDIX C Q U E S T I O N A L FOR BACKGROUND DATA 192 APPENDIX C SUBJECTS' IDENTIFICATION FORM Name School No Age Form R e l i g i o n Hometown Address Your Usual Contact Address While On Holidays Name of Last Primary School Attended From 19 to 19 . Occupation of Parents: ( i ) Mother's ( i i ) Father's (or Guardian's Education of Parents (see legend below): (a) Mother's (b) Father's Number o f S i b l i n g s a t / t h a t went to School Educational Level Reach by S i b l i n g s (see a l s o legend below) Where Did You Spend the F i r s t F ive Years of Your L i f e ? Where Did You Spend the Last F i v e Years Before Coming to Your Present School? Please L i s t Below the names of 3 to 5 Youths of Your Own Age ( w i t h i n one year) Who Li v e i n Your Home Environment But Who Have Never Been to School 1 2. 3 4 5. 193 Subjects' I d e n t i f i c a t i o n Form (continued) Is Any Member of Your Family Engaged i n a Technical Trade (carpentry, b u i l d i n g , motor mechanic, e t c . ) ? I f Yes, State Which Trade(s) Key: A No Formal Schooling B F i r s t School Leaving C e r t i f i c a t e C School C e r t i f i c a t e or C.C.E. '0' Level/Grade II Teacher's C e r t i f i c a t e D College or U n i v e r s i t y APPENDIX D ANALYSIS OF DATA FOR CULTURAL SETTINGS 3, 4, 5, 6, 195 Summary of Information R e l a t i n g to S e t t i n g 2 D e s c r i p t i o n of the S e t t i n g The c u l t u r a l s e t t i n g i s one i n which a N i g e r i a n i s keeping an appointment with a European o f f i c i a l a r r i v i n g on an urgent business t r i p . Methods of Measurement Proposed to Ss The techniques of measurement proposed to Ss^ f o r t h e i r endorsement are presented i n Table D l . S t a t i s t i c a l A n a l y s i s of the Data C u l t u r a l S e t t i n g 2 Determining a s p e c i f i c time of day. Hypotheses and Methods of A n a l y s i s The hypotheses to be t e s t e d and the methods f o r t e s t i n g them are i d e n t i c a l to those described f o r S e t t i n g 1, Sect i o n 4.3.2, p. The f a i l u r e of the F i s h b e i n instruments to s a t i s f y the s c a l i n g model i n t h i s C u l t u r a l S e t t i n g and i t s i m p l i c a t i o n f o r the d e p e n d a b i l i t y of the data were discussed on p. 93. For t h i s reason, only the basic data f o r C u l t u r a l S e t t i n g 2 are presented here. A n a l y s i s and d i s c u s s i o n of these data are not considered u s e f u l . 196 Table D.l Methods of Measurement Proposed to Ss_ C u l t u r e - R e l a t e d Techniques School-Related Techniques Scale Value Scale Value 1. The Sun .65 2. Clock .69 3. Shadow .52 4. Meal-time .58 5. Prayer-time .55 6. Cockcrow .27 7. Distance Walked .00 197 Table D.2 Behavioural I n t e n t i o n (BI) Means and Standard D e v i a t i o n s f o r C u l t u r a l S e t t i n g 2 Socio-Economic Environment (B) R e l i g i o n (0 S C H O O L I N G ( A ) Row Marginals Experimental Group Comparison Group I Level 1 Level 2 Level 1 Level 2 n i X i SD Rural C h r i s t i a n X = .67 SD = .04 X = .66 SD = .07 X = .67 SD = .04 X = .56 SD = .25 55 .65 .10 Moslem X = .68 SD = .01 X = .60 SD = .09 X = .65 SD = .07 X = .62 SD = .09 29 .65 .06 Urban C h r i s t i a n X = .67 SD = .04 X = .69 SD = .00 X = .66 SD = .05 X = .69 SD = .00 24 .67 .04 Moslem X ='.60 SD = .19 X = .66 SD = .06 X = .64 SD = .07 I = .67 SD = .02 28 .64 .13 Column Marginals n i *1 SD 49 .66 .10 30 .65 .07 41 .66 .05 16 .62 .17 198 Summary of Information R e l a t i n g to S e t t i n g 3. D e s c r i p t i o n of the S e t t i n g The c u l t u r a l s e t t i n g i s one i n which a farmer wants to measure the time elapsed between two p l a n t i n g seasons. Methods of Measurement Proposed to Ss The techniques of measurement proposed to Ss f o r endorsement are presented i n Table D.3. S t a t i s t i c a l A n a l y s i s o f the Data C u l t u r a l S e t t i n g 3 :<leasurement of Long Time I n t e r v a l s . Hypotheses, and Methods of A n a l y s i s These are i d e n t i c a l to those described f o r C u l t u r a l S e t t i n g 1, Section 4.32, p. E f f e c t s of Scho o l i n g , Environment, and R e l i g i o n on BI  Summary of Raw Data Table D.2 shows t h a t there i s a d i f f e r e n c e between Level 1 and Level 2 o f Dekina i n t h e i r mean B l - s c o r e s , even though the d i f f e r e n c e i s u n l i k e l y to be s u b s t a n t i a l . The two l e v e l s o f , s c h o o l i n g at Ayangba show l i t t l e d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e i r mean B l - s c o r e s . O v e r a l l , the e f f e c t of science-no science i n s t r u c t i o n i n u n l i k e l y to be la r g e s i n c e the mean Bl-scores f o r Dekina and Ayangba do not appear to be much d i f f e r e n t from each other. 199 Table D.3 Techniques of Measurement Proposed to Ss_ Cu l t u r e - R e l a t e d Techniques School-Related Techniques 1. Sun's angle i n the sky 2. Moon phases 4. S o c i a l Event 8. Seasons Scale Value .65 .69 .57 .00 3. Clock with date 6. Nuclear R a d i a t i o n 7. Calendar Scale Value .52 .55 .27 200 Table D.4 Behavioural I n t e n t i o n (BI) Means and Standard D e v i a t i o n s f o r C u l t u r a l S e t t i n g 3 Socio-Economic Environment (B) R e l i g i o n (C) S C H O O L I N G ( A ) Row Marginals Experimental Group Comparison Group I Level 1 Level 2 Level 1 Level 2 n i X i SD Rural C h r i s t i a n X = .24 SD = .22 X = .30 SD = .12 X = .30 SD = .19 X = .24 SD = .18 55 .28 .18 Moslem X = .15 SD = .20 X = .38-SD = .14 X = .28 SD = .21 X = .35 SD = .11 29 .25 .20 Urban C h r i s t i a n X = .26 SD = .17 X = .33 SD = .15 X = .25 SD = .18 X = .30 SD = .10 24 .27 .16 Moslem X = .31 SD = .20 X = .19 SD = .21 X = .24 SD = .22 X = .19 SD = .19 28 .25 .21 Column Marginals n i *1 SD 49 .26 .20 30 .29 .15 41 .27 .19 16 .27 .15 201 M u l t i p l e Regression A n a l y s i s The a n a l y s i s (see Table D.5'), agrees with the p r e l i m i n a r y f i n d i n g s described on p. 198 t Factor A, Factor B, and Factor C do not make s i g n i f i c a n t "independent" c o n t r i b u t i o n s toward p r e d i c t i n g BI i n t h i s s e t t i n g . In a d d i t i o n , i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t s are not s i g n i f i c a n t at conven-t i o n a l a - l e v e l s . A n a l y s i s of the E f f e c t s of Both I n t e r n a l and External V a r i a b l e s Table D.6 gives the amount of variance (R ).of the Bl-scores accounted f o r by v a r i a b l e s i n t e r n a l to the F i s h b e i n Model ( A a c t > NBp, NB s) alone, s i n c e no e x t e r n a l v a r i a b l e or i n t e r a c t i o n appears s i g n i f i -c a n t l y to p r e d i c t BI. The r o l e played by the F i s h b e i n v a r i a b l e s i n p r e d i c t i n g BI i n t h i s c u l t u r a l s e t t i n g i s a r a t h e r modest one, account-ing f o r only 2.7 per cent of the BI variance. Apparently, the most important p r e d i c t o r s of BI here are A t and MB . 202 Table D.5 Results o f Method 2 A n a l y s i s Using Model 4 f o r C u l t u r a l S e t t i n g 3 Source of Variance SS AR2 df Fobs P A .07 .02 3 .70 B .00 .00 1 .00 C .02 .00 1 .55 AB .18 .04 3 1.76 AC .02 .01 3 .22 BC .00 .00 1 .00 ABC .13 .03 3 1.25 E r r o r 4.16 119 Total 4.58 135 203 Table D.6 Variance C o n t r i b u t i o n s (R ) of I n t e r n a l V a r i a b l e s f o r C u l t u r a l S e t t i n g 3 V a r i a b l e s R 2 (%) I ( A a c t + NBp + NB s) 2.7 a c t .2 NB P .6 NB s 1.9 204 Summary of Information R e l a t i n g to C u l t u r a l S e t t i n g 5 D e s c r i p t i o n of S e t t i n g The c u l t u r a l s e t t i n g i s one i n which n a t i v e N i g e r i a n s are b u i l d i n g a road to l i n k t h e i r v i l l a g e or town with the neighbouring market town by the s h o r t e s t of several routes (to save costs and e f f o r t ) . Methods of Measurement Proposed t o Ss The various a l t e r n a t i v e techniques f o r measuring long d i s t a n c e proposed to Ss_ are presented i n Table D.7. S t a t i s t i c a l A n a l y s i s o f Data C u l t u r a l S e t t i n g 5 Measurement of Long Distances. Hypotheses and Methods of A n a l y s i s See Section 4.3.2, p.105 f o r a d e s c r i p t i o n of the hypotheses and methods of t e s t i n g them (given f o r S e t t i n g 1) which are i d e n t i c a l to those f o r t h i s s e t t i n g . As w i t h C u l t u r a l S e t t i n g 2, the F i s h b e i n instruments f o r t h i s S e t t i n g f a i l e d to f i t the s c a l i n g model used. A c c o r d i n g l y , t h e r e f o r e , only the basic data w i l l be presented; t h e i r a n a l y s i s and d i s c u s s i o n are not considered to be appropriate or u s e f u l . 205 Table D.7 Techniques of Measurement Proposed to S_s School-Related Techniques 2. Measuring Tape 5. Surveyor's chain Scale Value .87 .75 7. T r i a n g u l a t i o n ,42 Cu l t u r e - R e l a t e d Techniques 1. Arm-spans 2. Rope/String 4. Heel-to-toe 6. V i s u a l E s t i m a t i o n 8. Pacing Scale Value .04 .35 .05 .44 .00 206 Table D.8, Behavioural I n t e n t i o n (BI) Means and Standard D e v i a t i o n s f o r C u l t u r a l S e t t i n g 5 Socio-Economic Envi ronment (B) R e l i gion S C H O O L I N G ( A ) Row Marginals Experimental Group Comparison Group I (C) Level 1 Level 2 Level 1 Level 2 n i X i SD Rural C h r i s t i a n X = .67 SD. = .27 X = .66 SD = .24 X = .71 SD = .22 X = .56 SD = .29 55 .67 .25 Moslem X = .68 SD = .26 X = .50 SD = .39 X" = .72 SD = .21 X = .65 SD = .27 29 .65 .28 Urban C h r i s t i a n X = .79 SD = .07 X = .35 SD = .24 X = .74 SD = .19 X = .59 SD = .17 24 .72 .16 Moslem X = .73 SD = .07 X = .63 SD = .30 X = .74 SD = .13 X = .87 SD = .00 28 .72 .23 Column Marginals n. J' * i SD 49 .71 .26 30 .61 .28 41 .72 .19 16 .62 .25 207 Summary of Information R e l a t i n g to S e t t i n g 6. D e s c r i p t i o n o f the S e t t i n g The c u l t u r a l s e t t i n g i s one which a l o c a l butcher i s s e l l i n g small pieces of meat by weight. Methods of Measurement Proposed to Ss The methods of measurement proposed to Ss_ are presented i n Table D.9. S t a t i s t i c a l A n a l y s i s of the Data C u l t u r a l S e t t i n g 6 Measuring the weight of a l i g h t o b j e c t . Hypotheses and Methods of A n a l y s i s The hypotheses t e s t e d and the methods f o r t e s t i n g them were i d e n t i c a l to those described i n Section 4.3.2, p. 105. E f f e c t s of S c h o o l i n g , Environment, and R e l i g i o n on BI  Summary of Raw Data Table D.10 shows that the combined mean Bl-scores f o r the Dekina groups of Ss_ are u n l i k e l y to be markedly d i f f e r e n t from those of the Ayangba groups. The Bl-means of Ayangba Level 2 i s lower than those of Levels 1 and 2 of Dekina and Level 1 of Ayangba but the d i f f e r e n c e i s not l i k e l y to be an important one. At Dekina, Moslems at Level 2 of i n s t r u c t i o n have higher Bl-means than Moslems at Level 1. However, at Ayangba, C h r i s t i a n s at Level 2 208 Table D.9 Methods of Measurement Proposed to Ss i n C u l t u r a l S e t t i n g 6 Cult u r e - R e l a t e d Techniques School-Related Techniques 2. Hef t i n g Scale Val ue .86 Scale Value 1. Spring Balance .94 3. Small arm balance .92 4. V i s u a l Estimation ,00 209 Table D.10 Behavioural I n t e n t i o n (BI) Means and Standard D e v i a t i o n s f o r C u l t u r a l S e t t i n g 6 Socio-Economic Environment (B) R e l i g i o n (C) S C H O O L I N G ( A ) Row Marginals Experiment :al Group Comparison Group I Level 1 Level 2 Level 1 Level 2 n i X. i SD Rural C h r i s t i a n X = .83 SD = .22 X = .80 SD = .31 X = .90 SD = .04 X = .65 SD = .44 55 .80 .26 Moslem X = .68 SD = .41 X = .90 SD = .04 X = .88 SD = .04 X = .91 SD = .04 29 .84 .28 Urban C h r i s t i a n X = .88 SD = .03 X = .92 SD = .02 X = .64 SD = .44 X = .45 SD = .51 24 .74 .34 Moslem X = .79 SD = .09 X = .89 SD = .03 X = .89 SD = .04 X = .93 SD = .01 28 .86 .17 Column Marginals n i V SD 49 .80 .27 30 .84 .23 41 .85 .20 16 .69 .41 210 have c o n s i s t e n t l y lower mean Bl-scores than C h r i s t i a n s at Level 1. S i m i l a r l y , the Bl-means of the r u r a l and urban Ss_, do not appear to be much d i f f e r e n t from each other. In a d d i t i o n , the d i f f e r e n c e between C h r i s t i a n s and Moslems seems to be a small one. M u l t i p l e Regression A n a l y s i s Table D . l l gives the r e s u l t s of s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s of the data. The r e s u l t s corroborate some of the p r e l i m i n a r y f i n d i n g s described above, and y i e l d information regarding the s i g n i f i c a n c e of the s c h o o l i n g -environment i n t e r a c t i o n AC, and the e n v i r o n m e n t - r e l i g i o n i n t e r a c t i o n , BC, w e l l below the . 1 0 a - l e v e l . They account f o r 9 per cent and 2 per cent of the BI v a r i a b i l i t y , r e s p e c t i v e l y , a f t e r the appropriate adjustments have been made f o r main e f f e c t s and other i n t e r a c t i o n s . Post Hoc A n a l y s i s of Bl-means Table D .12 shows the d i f f e r e n c e between the mean f o r a l l the various s c h o o l i n g by r e l i g i o n c a t e g o r i e s . The Table shows th a t d i f f e r e n c e s between the Bl-means of C h r i s t i a n s a t Ayangba Level 2 and the means of a l l the:other groups are s i g n i f i c a n t at an o v e r a l l a - l e v e l of . 1 0 f o r a l l comparisons made. However, when we compare Dekina C h r i s t i a n s and Moslems, Ayangba C h r i s t i a n s and Moslems and various combinations t h e r e o f , no s i g -n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s are found to e x i s t among t h e i r mean B l - s c o r e s . 211 Table D.ll Results of Method 2 Analysis of Data for Cultural Setting 6, Using Model 4. Source of Variance SS AR' df Fobs A (adj. for BSC) .31 B (adj. for A & C) .00 C (adj. for A & B) .03 AB (adj. for A,B,C, .38 AC,BC) AC (adj. for A,B,C, .82 AB, BC) BC (adj. for A,B,C, .22 AB,AC) ABC (adj. for all .11 other terms) . 03 .00 .00 .04 .09 .02 .01 3 1 1 3 3 1 3 1.46 .05 .42 1.78 3.87 3.14 .51 <.10 <,10 Error Total 9.16 9.59 119 135 212 a 1 1 C l a 1 2 C l a l l C l a 1 2 c 2 a 2 1 c l a 2 2 c l a 2 1 c 2 a 2 2 c 2 Table D.12 Dif f e r e n c e s Between Group Means f o r the AC I n t e r a c t i o n (Column Minus Row) f o r C u l t u r a l S e t t i n g 6. a l l c l a 1 2 C l a l l C 2 a 1 2 C 2 a 2 1 C l a 2 2 C l a 2 1 C 2 .02 .05 .03 --.04 .06 .09 — .03 .01 .02 .07 --.27* .25* .22* .31* .24* .00 .02 .05 .04 .03 .27 .12 .11 .07 .16 .09 .15 .12 a l c l a-|C 2 .01 a 2 c ] .10 .09 a 2 c 2 .02 .01 .08 A l l e n t r i e s are l a b e l l e d A n n ]C where n=l=Dekina n=2=Ayangba m=l=Level 1 of sc h o o l i n g m=2=Level 2 of s c h o o l i n g p=l=Christian p=2=Moslem ^22^2 s-jC-j ^1^2 ^2^1 ^2^2 * S i g n i f i c a n t a t a = .10 213 S p e c i f i c Nature of Group D i f f e r e n c e s with Respect to Bl Table D.13 contains i n f o r m a t i o n r e l a t i n g to which techniques each group of Ss_ was w i l l i n g to recommend i n C u l t u r a l S e t t i n g 6. The Table shows th a t the r a t i o of Level 1 C h r i s t i a n s w i l l i n g to recommend school -based techniques of measurement was about one and a h a l f times as high 2 as the r a t i o Level 2 C h r i s t i a n s w i l l i n g to do the same t h i n g . The x obtained from comparing the two r a t i o was 5.68 (with one degree of freedom] and 4 .05 a f t e r applying Yates 1 c o r r e c t i o n f o r c o n t i n u i t y . The two r a t i o s are t h e r e f o r e s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t at well below . 1 0 a - l e v e l . Table D.14 gives the r a t i o s of Level 1 Moslems and Level 2 Moslems w i l l i n g to recommend school-based techniques of measurement i n C u l t u r a l S e t t i n g 6 . The Table shows t h a t a higher p r o p o r t i o n of Level 2 Moslems was w i l l i n g to recommend school-based techniques than Level 1 Moslems. 2 The observed x f o r comparing the two proportions was 1.28 (with 1 d f ) which i s not s i g n i f i c a n t at the .10a l e v e l . Table D.15 gives the r a t i o s o f r u r a l and urban C h r i s t i a n s w i l l i n g to recommend school-based measurement techniques. The Table shows that a higher p r o p o r t i o n of urban C h r i s t i a n s i s w i l l i n g to recommend school-based techniques than r u r a l C h r i s t i a n s w i l l i n g to do the same t h i n g . However, the observed x was found to be 1.15 (with 1 d f ) which i s not s i g n i f i c a n t at c*=.10. Table D.16 shows that a higher proportion of urban Moslems were w i l l i n g to recommend school-based methods of measurement than r u r a l 214 Table D.13 Comparison of Recommendations f o r C h r i s t i a n s a t D i f f e r e n t Levels of Schooling ( C u l t u r a l S e t t i n g 6 ). Categories o f Schooling School-Based Techniques (2 & 3) Culture-Based Techniques (1 & 4) R a t i o , p ( a ) ^a + b ; Level 1 ( C h r i s t i a n s ) 25 3 .89 Level 2 ( C h r i s t i a n s ) 10 7 .59 Total 35 10 .78 215 Table D.H Comparison of Recommendations f o r Moslems at D i f f e r e n t Levels of Schooling ( C u l t u r a l S e t t i n g 6 ) , Categories o f Schooling School-Based Techniques (a) Culture-Based Techniques (b) R a t i o , p l a + b ; Level 1 (Moslems) 14 7 .67 Level 2 (Moslems) 11 2 .85 Total 25 9 .74 216 Table D.15 Comparison of Recommendations f o r Rural and Urban C h r i s t i a n s ( C u l t u r a l S e t t i n g 6 ). R e l i g i o n School-Based Techniques (a) Culture-Based Techniques (b) R a t i o , p Chri s t i a n s ( r u r a l ) 37 18 .67 C h r i s t i a n s (urban) 19 5 .79 Total 56 23 .71 217 Table D.16 Comparison of Recommendations f o r Rural and Urban Moslems ( C u l t u r a l S e t t i n g 6 ) . R e l i g i o n School-Based Techniques (a) Culture-Based Techniques (b) Rat^o, p ( a ) ^a + b ; Moslems ( r u r a l ) 19 10 .66 Moslems (urban) 24 4 .86 Total 43 14 .75 218 .60-1 , C h r i s t i a n s Moslems Figure D.l Graphical Representation of the AC i n t e r a c t i o n f o r S e t t i n g 6. .90-Moslems Mean .80-BI-scores Chri s t i a n s .70-,60 r Rural Urban Figure D.2 Graphical Representation of the BC I n t e r a c t i o n . 220 2 Moslems w i l l i n g to do the same t i l i n g . The x value f o r t e s t i n g the d i f f e r e n c e between the two proportions was found to be 3.14 (with 1 df) and was s i g n i f i c a n t below the ,10a l e v e l . However, i f Yates' 2 c o r r e c t i o n i s a p p l i e d the x obtained i s 2.14 which i s not s i g n i f i -cant at a=.10. 2 The i n a b i l i t y of the x t e s t of frequency measures even though the F - t e s t showed a s i g n i f i c a n t BC i n t e r a c t i o n f o r BI measures points 2 to the r e l a t i v e l a c k of power of the x . The assumed correspondence between BI measures and frequency of recommending may als o be i n ques t i o n . A n a l y s i s of the E f f e c t s of Both I n t e r n a l and External V a r i a b l e s 2 Table D.17 gives the amount of variance (R ) of the Bl-sc o r e s accounted f o r by v a r i a b l e s i n t e r n a l to the F i s h b e i n Model ( A , - , NB , ac L p NB S) and those e x t e r n a l to i t , namely, I n t e r a c t i o n AC and I n t e r a c t i o n BC, The i n t e r n a l v a r i a b l e s account f o r 8,1 per cent c o n t r i b u t i o n un-adjusted and 7.8 per cent a f t e r adjustment f o r the e f f e c t s of AC and i BC have been made. The i n t e r n a l and exte r n a l appear to be q u i t e well matched i n terms of t h e i r variance c o n t r i b u t i o n s in t h i s s e t t i n g , with the AC i n t e r a c t i o n p l a y i n g the most important r o l e i n accounting f o r the BI var i a n c e . Table D.17 Variance C o n t r i b u t i o n s (R ) of the Internal and e l e c t e d External V a r i a b l e s f o r C u l t u r a l S e t t i n g 6. R 2 V a r i a b l e s (%) AC I n t e r a c t i o n (unadj.) 9.2 BC I n t e r a c t i o n (unadj.) 2.3 I: ^ a c t + N B p + N B s ) t " " 3 ^ ' ) . 8.1 I + AC + BC 16.5 I ( a d j . f o r AC & BC) 7.8 AC ( a d j . f o r I & BC) 8.3 BC ( a d j . f o r I & AC) .4 I : A a c t 1.5 I J BP 6.2 .4 s TABLE D.18 Behavioural I n t e n t i o n (BI) Means and Standard Deviations f o r C u l t u r a l S e t t i n g 7 Socio-Economic Environment S C H O O L I N G ( A ) R e l i g i o n • Experimental Group Comparison Group I Comparison Group II Row Marginals (B) (C) Level 1 Level 2 Level 1 Level 2 Level 1 Level 2 n i X. i SD Rural C h r i s t i a n X = .23 SD = .19 X = .18 SD •= .17 X = .17 SD = .18 X = .21 SD = .17 X = .14 SD = .12 X = .20 SD = .15 79 .19 .16 Moslem X = .10 SD = .17 X = .21 SD = .14 X = .12 SD = .17 X = .02 SD = .04 X = .21 SD = .14 X = .13 SD = .17 50 .15 .15 Urban C h r i s t i a n X. = .11 SD = .17 X = .00 SD = .00 X = .09 SD = .14 X = .12 SD = .18 X = .11 SD = .12 X = .14 SD = .18 41 .10 .14 Moslem X = .20 SD = .18 X = .26 SD = .18 X = .15 SD = .17 X = .04 SD = .05 X = .09 SD.= .06 X = .16 SD = .18 48 .16 .16 n. J 49 30 .. . 41. 16 52 30 Column Marginals X J .16 .16 .14 .12 .14 .16 SD .18 .16 .16 .15 .13 .16 

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