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Effects of science instruction on behaviour among Nigerian students Atanu, Emmanuel Y. 1975

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EFFECTS OF SCIENCE INSTRUCTION ON BEHAVIOUR AMONG NIGERIAN STUDENTS by EMMANUEL Y. ATANU B . S c , M.Sc, Ahmadu Bello University Zaria, Nigeria, 1968  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF EDUCATION in the Faculty of  EDUCATION  We-accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA September, 1975  " •' .  In p r e s e n t i n g  this  thesis  an advanced degree at the L i b r a r y  fulfilment  the U n i v e r s i t y of  s h a l l make i t  I f u r t h e r agree  in p a r t i a l  freely  that permission  of  the  requirements  B r i t i s h Columbia,  available  for  reference  for e x t e n s i v e copying o f  I agree  for  that  and study. this  thesis  f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by h i s of  this  written  representatives.  It  thesis for financial  is understood gain s h a l l  permission.  Department of The U n i v e r s i t y of  British  2075 Wesbrook P l a c e V a n c o u v e r , Canada V6T 1WS  Date  Columbia  that  not  copying or p u b l i c a t i o n  be allowed without my  ABSTRACT The  purpose o f t h e s t u d y was t o e x p l o r e  the differences  between c e r t a i n b e h a v i o u r s o f Ss from a N i g e r i a n c u l t u r e who have r e c e i v e d secondary school  i n s t r u c t i o n i n s c i e n c e and those who have n o t .  For comparison p u r p o s e s , a t h i r d group o f Ss who have never r e c e i v e d any formal  s c h o o l i n g was a l s o . i n c l u d e d i n t h e s t u d y . The  b e h a v i o u r s o f p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t i n t h e study were  o p e r a t i o n a l i z e d i n terms o f recommending t o a person c o n f r o n t e d  with a  non-school problem s i t u a t i o n i n v o l v i n g measurement a c o u r s e o f a c t i o n based upon school  l e a r n i n g s r a t h e r than on t h e t r a d i t i o n s o f t h e c u l t u r e .  Such b e h a v i o u r s were c o n c e p t u a l i z e d of knowledge a c q u i r e d The  i n science  as i n s t a n c e s o f t h e i n t e r p r e t i v e use  classes.  a l t e r n a t i v e c o u r s e s o f a c t i o n proposed t o Ss_ were t e c h -  n i q u e s o f measurement t a u g h t i n s c i e n c e c l a s s e s i n N i g e r i a n s c h o o l s , as w e l l as c u l t u r a l lems.  techniques f o r coping  secondary  w i t h t h e same prob-  A T h u r s t o n e - t y p e p a i r e d - c o m p a r i s o n method was used t o e s t a b l i s h  scale-values  f o r these t e c h n i q u e s f o r each problem s i t u a t i o n .  The w i l l i n g n e s s o r b e h a v i o u r a l  i n t e n t (BI) o f Ss_ t o recommend  s c h o o l - b a s e d t e c h n i q u e s was p r e d i c t e d from v a r i a b l e s i n t e r n a l t o t h e F i s h b e i n Model and from e x t e r n a l v a r i a b l e s such as s c h o o l i n g ,  socio-  economic environment, and r e l i g i o n .  The m u l t i p l e r e g r e s s i o n  approach  (1969) f o r a n a l y z i n g d a t a  obtained  recommended by O v e r a l l and S p i e g e l  from an unequal o r d i s p r o p o r t i o n a t e c e l l - f r e q u e n c y d e s i g n was used t o examine t h e c o n t r i b u t i o n s o f t h e v a r i a b l e s i n t h e r e g r e s s i o n model. From e v i d e n c e o b t a i n e d  i n t h e s t u d y , i t was c o n c l u d e d  s c h o o l i n g , but n o t n e c e s s a r i l y s c i e n c e  i n s t r u c t i o n , was a v e r y  that  Iii  important factor in accounting for the intent of S_£ to recommend schoolbased techniques of measurement.  Socioeconomic environment and reli-  gion yielded very modest contributions to the prediction of BI in most of the problem situations  investigated.  However, the internal vari-  ables of the Fishbein Model were found to be better independent predictors of BI than the external variables, in the present non-orthogonal design, a finding that is consistent with the claim by Fishbein regarding the potency and sufficiency of his model. It was recommended that studies aimed at examining the interpretive uses of school learnings be carried out in other Nigerian cultures and for other basic skills taught at school.  It was also  recommended that the Fishbeing Model be used to examine other schoolbased and culture-based behaviours.  iv  TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER 1.  2.  3.  4.  PAGE INTRODUCTION  . .  1  1.  Purpose of the Study  1  2.  Statement of the General Problem  1  3.  Definition of Terms  3  4.  Discussion and Significance of the Problem  5  5.  Specific Problems Investigated  10  6.  Definition of Terms  11  7.  Research Hypotheses  16  8.  Delimitation of the Study  22  CONTEXT OF THE STUDY  24  1. 2. 3. 4.  24 24 30 33  The Societal Context Societal Problems of Nigeria . . Implications for Science Education in Nigeria The Psychological Context  . . .  METHOD OF STUDY  42  1. 2. 3.  Selection of Study Site The Population The Samples  42 43 45  4.  Comparability of the Samples  48  5. 6.  Instrumentation . Method of Scaling Used  54 61  7. 8. 9. 10.  Collection of the Data Validity of the Instruments Reliability of the Instruments Used Applicability of the Scaling Model . . .  63 67 68 71  11.  Method of Analysis  73  RESULTS OF THE STUDY 1.  Validity and Technical Characteristics of the Instruments  86 87  CHAPTER  5.  . PAGE 2.  Summary of Information Relating to Setting 1 . . . .  103  3.  Statistical Analysis of the Data for Setting 1 . . .  103  4.  Summary of Information Relating to Setting 4 . . . .  129  5.  Statistical Analysis: Setting 4  130  6.  Summary of Information Relating to Setting 7 . . . .  141  7.  Statistical Analysis of the Data for Setting 7 . . .  141  8.  Summary of Information Relating to Setting 8 . . . .  143  9.  Statistical Analysis of the Data for Setting 8 . . .  143  CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS , .  156  1.  Statement of the Problem  156  2.  Conclusions  157  3.  Limitations of the Study  165  4.  Recommendations for Further Study  167  REFERENCES  169  APPENDIX  173  A.  DESCRIPTIONS OF CULTURAL SETTINGS  '  B.  INSTRUMENTS  C.  QUESTIONNAIRE FOR BACKGROUND DATA  192  D.  ANALYSIS OF DATA FOR CULTURAL SETTINGS 2, 3, 5, 6, & 7 .  194  . . . . .  174 176  \ vi  LIST OF TABLES TABLE 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.  PAGE Schematic Diagram of Sampling Plan BI-B Correlations Obtained in Various Studies Using the Fishbein Model Multiple Correlations Between BI and Theory's Components Proportional Stratified Sampling Plan for Experimental Group (Dekina) Proportional Stratified Sampling Plan for  18 37 39 46  Comparison Group 1 (Ayangba)  47  6.  Quality of Instruction  51  7.  Variables Internal and External to the Fishbein Model  8.  Method of Analysis of Data from Non-orthogonal Designs (Overall & Spiegel, 1969) An Illustration of the Coding of Qualitative Variables  79  10.  Coefficients of Agreement for BI Instruments  90  11.,  x -tests of Goodness-of-Fit for the BI Instruments . . . .  96  12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18.  Coefficients cf Agreement for A Instruments x^-tests of Goodness-of-Fit for the A ^ Instruments Coefficients of Agreement for NB^ Instruments x^-tests of Goodness-of-Fit for the NBp Instruments Coefficients of Agreement for NB Instruments x -tests of Goodness-of-Fit for the NB Instruments Techniques of Measurement Proposed to Ss_ in Cultural Setting 1 Hypotheses and Methods of Analysis Used . . . . . . Behavioral Intention (BI) Means and Standard Deviations for Cultural Setting 1 Results of Method 2 Analysis of Data from Cultural Setting 1 (Column minus Row) Differences Between Group Means on Factor A for Cultural Setting 1 (Column minus Row) Comparison of Recommendations by Schooled and Unschooled Groups (Cultural Setting 1)  9.  19. 20. 21. 22. 23.  s  .  55 78  . . . . . . . .  97 98 99 100 101 102 104 105-6 108 113 116 120  vii  TABLE 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. .36. 37. 38. 39. 40. 41.  PAGE Comparison of Recommendations by Dekina and Ayangba Ss (Cultural Setting 1) . . . .' 124 Comparison of Recommendations by Rural, and Urban Ss_ (Cultural Setting 1) 125 Comparison of Recommendations by Rural Christians and Moslems (Cultural Setting 1) 126 Comparison of Recommendations by Urban Christians and Moslems (Cultural Setting 1) . . . . . . 127 Variance Contributions of Internal and Selected External Variables (Cultural Setting 1) . . 128 Techniques of Measurement Proposed to Ss in Cultural Setting 4 131 Behavioural Intention (BI) Means and Standard Deviations for Cultural Setting 4 132 Results of Method 2 Analysis of Data from Cultural Setting 4, Using Research Model 4 136 Differences Between Group Means on Factor A for Cultural Setting 4 . . . . . 137 Comparison of Recommendations by Schooled and Unschooled Groups (Cultural Setting 4) 138 2 Variance Contributions (R ) of Internal and Selected External Variables for Cultural Setting 4 . . . . . . . 140 Techniques of Measurement Proposed to Ss_ in Cultural Setting 7 . 142 Techniques of Measurement Proposed to Ss_ in Cultural Setting 8 144 Behavioural Intention (BI) Means and Standard Deviations for Cultural Setting 8 146 Results of Method 2 Analysis of Data from Cultural Setting 8, Using Research Model 4 . . . . . . 149 Differences Between Group Means on Factor A for Cultural Setting 8 151 Comparison of Recommendations for all Groups (Cultural Setting 8) 152 2 Variance Contributions (R ) of Internal and Selected Variables for Cultural Setting 8 155  viii  TABLE OF FIGURES FIGURE  PAGE  1.  Geographical Location of Subjects .  2.  Comparison of Mean Bl-scores for Schooled and Unschooled Groups, Cultural Setting 1 . 109 Comparison of Mean Bl-scores for All Groups, Cultural Setting 1 110 Comparison of Mean Bl-scores for Rural and Urban Ss_, Cultural Setting 1 Ill Comparison of Mean Bl-scores of Moslems and Christians at Different SEE Levels, Cultural Setting 1 112 Comparison of Differences in Mean Bl-scroes at the two Levels of Factor A, Cultural Setting 1. . . • 119 Comparison of Mean Bl-scores for Schooled and Unschooled Ss_, Cultural Setting 4 133 Comparison of Mean Bl-scores for Dekina, Ayangba, and Unschooled Ss_, Cultural Setting 4. 135 Comparison of Differences Between the Mean Bl-scores for All Groups, Cultural Setting 8 . . . . 147 Comparison of Mean Bl-scores for Christians and Moslems, Cultural Setting 8 148  3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10,  2  ix  Acknowledgments  I wish to express my deep gratitude to my supervisor, Dr. W. B. Boldt for his keen interest in the study and for his constant presence whenever I needed his advice.  He was also a friend.  I also wish to thank the members of my Committee for their untiring efforts to see me through the study.  In particular, I am  deeply grateful to Dr. T . D. M. McKie for his many suggestions regarding the design of the study, and the analysis of the results. My deep appreciation to my sponsors, the Canadian International Development Agency, who financed my study program at the University of British Columbia. Lastly, I wish to extend my very sincere gratitude to my wife, Regina, and the children, Linda and Ojoma, for their patience and encouragement.  CHAPTER ONE  INTRODUCTION  1.1  Purpose o f t h e Study The  purpose o f t h e study was t o e x p l o r e and examine t h e d i f f e r -  ence between those people  i n N i g e r i a who have had f o r m a l s c h o o l i n g i n  s c i e n c e and those who have not.  More s p e c i f i c a l l y , t h e study was under-  t a k e n t o d e t e r m i n e how l e a r n i n g s i n s c i e n c e f u n c t i o n i n non-school situations i n Nigeria. 1.2  Statement o f t h e General The  general  q u e s t i o n form a s :  Problem  problem i n v e s t i g a t e d i n t h e study can be s t a t e d i n Do N i g e r i a n s w i t h f o r m a l s c h o o l i n g i n s c i e n c e d i f f e r  from those w i t h o u t , i n terms o f t h e i r b e h a v i o u r a l  i n t e n t i o n and a c t u a l  b e h a v i o u r w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e i n t e r p r e t i v e use o f s c i e n c e l e a r n i n g s i n non-school s i t u a t i o n s ? The  p a r t i c u l a r N i g e r i a n s i n c l u d e d i n t h e study were  b e l o n g i n g t o t h e I g a l a t r i b e i n Kwara S t a t e ( F i g u r e 1). were s u b d i v i d e d i n t o c a t e g o r i e s a c c o r d i n g t o t h e i r environment ( r u r a l , urban) and r e l i g i o n  those  These s u b j e c t s  socioeconomic  ( C h r i s t i a n , Moslem).  For purposes o f comparison t h e s u b j e c t s i n each o f t h e above c a t e g o r i e s were f u r t h e r s u b d i v i d e d a c c o r d i n g t o t h e amount o f s c h o o l i n g received.  Groups o f s u b j e c t s were i d e n t i f i e d t h a t were a t t h e s e n i o r  and j u n i o r l e v e l s o f secondary school  1  science i n s t r u c t i o n .  Comparison  N I G E R  O C E A N Figure 1  Geographical Location o f Subjects  Key:  fl//  X  Cosmopolitan areas  ®  P a r t i c i p a t i n g schools Areas from which a l l samples were drawn  3  groups a t t h e s e l e v e l s o f s c h o o l i n g , were a l s o  identified.  L a s t , a group c o m p r i s i n g s u b j e c t s who had  never r e c e i v e d any formal age  but w i t h no s c i e n c e i n s t r u c t i o n ,  i n s t r u c t i o n at school,  ranges as t h e s c h o o l e d s u b j e c t s ,  but w i t h i n  t h e same  was used t o e s t a b l i s h a base f o r  comparison. The b e h a v i o u r s i n v e s t i g a t e d the  use o f e i t h e r n a t i v e  primarily related  t o recommending  o r s c i e n t i f i c methods o f c o p i n g w i t h measure-  ment problems i n t y p i c a l s o c i e t a l s i t u a t i o n s .  Recommending t h e use  o f s c i e n t i f i c t e c h n i q u e s f o r measuring long d i s t a n c e s i n s t e a d ways i n an everyday s i t u a t i o n i s an example.  of native  Recommending b e h a v i o u r s ,  in t h i s context, are behavioural expressions of preferences f o r c e r t a i n modes o f c o n d u c t and s t a t e s - o f - a f f a i r s , such as ( s t a t e d ) p r e f e r e n c e s f o r s c i e n t i f i c measurement o r t h e r e p l a c e m e n t o f time-honoured methods o f measurement through t h e use o f newly a c q u i r e d techniques.  Recommending c e r t a i n c o u r s e s o f a c t i o n  scientific  i s seen as  i m p o r t a n t ways i n which t h e i n t e r p r e t i v e use o f l e a r n i n g s  native  indicating  can m a n i f e s t  themselves. 1.3  D e f i n i t i o n o f Terms 1.3.1  Interpretive  Use o f S c i e n c e L e a r n i n g s  The " i n t e r p r e t i v e use o f s c i e n c e l e a r n i n g s , "  i s used by Broudy  [1973] t o i d e n t i f y what he c o n s i d e r s t o be l e g i t i m a t e r e g a r d i n g t h e use o f l e a r n i n g s  acquired i n school.  t h a t t h e " r e p l i c a t i v e use o f s c i e n c e l e a r n i n g s , " learnings ings,"  expectations  Broudy contends  i.e., reinstating  i n non-school s i t u a t i o n s and t h e " a p p l i c a t i v e use o f l e a r n -  i . e . , solving  problems i n non-school s i t u a t i o n s o r b r i n g i n g  I  4 about a c o n s t r u c t i v e change, a r e two commonly a c c e p t e d  goals o f science  e d u c a t i o n which., i n f a c t , a r e not l e g i t i m a t e e x p e c t a t i o n s o f school l e a r n i n g s s i n c e the students are u s u a l l y not taught the t e c h n i c a l s k i l l s necessary  to accomplish  such a change.  L e a r n i n g t h e c o n c e p t u a l , o b s e r v a t i o n a l and i n s t r u m e n t a l  para-  digms o f s c i e n c e i n s c h o o l may l e a d t o t h e a c q u i s i t i o n o f a t a c i t , theoretical  view which f u n c t i o n s i n making problems i n everyday s i t u a t i o n s  more i n t e l l i g i b l e .  T h i s i s what Broudy r e f e r s t o as u s i n g l e a r n i n g s  in science " i n t e r p r e t i v e l y . "  To i l l u s t r a t e , u s i n g l e a r n i n g s i n s c i e n c e  to make sense o u t o f an a u t o m o b i l e  malfunction, without n e c e s s a r i l y  b e i n g a b l e t o r e p a i r t h e v e h i c l e , i s an example o f t h e i n t e r p r e t i v e use o f l e a r n i n g s i n s c i e n c e .  Repairing the malfunction r e q u i r e s , i n  a d d i t i o n , t e c h n i c a l know-how which i s n o t n o r m a l l y p r o v i d e d s c i e n c e program.  (Of c o u r s e  i n a school  such a p p l i c a t i v e s k i l l s may be t h e outcome  o f a s c h o o l a u t o m o t i v e shop program, i f one e x i s t e d ) . Broudy's c o n c e p t o f t h e i n t e r p r e t i v e use o f s c i e n c e l e a r n i n g s can be r e l a t e d t o some o f t h e c o g n i t i v e and a f f e c t i v e c a t e g o r i e s o f Bloom's and Krathwohl's  taxonomies [Bloom, 1971; K r a t h w o h l ,  1969].  U s i n g t h e language o f t h e t a x o n o m i e s , t h e term " i n t e r p r e t i v e use o f s c i e n c e l e a r n i n g s " can be r e s t a t e d as u s i n g s c i e n c e l e a r n i n g s t o apprehend, u n d e r s t a n d , situations.  e v a l u a t e and a p p r e c i a t e problems i n non-school  5  1.3.2  Recommending B e h a v i o u r s Knowledge  as I n t e r p r e t i v e Use o f  Recommending a p a r t i c u l a r c o u r s e o f a c t i o n t o someone i n a problem s i t u a t i o n i s l i k e l y t o i n v o l v e , among o t h e r t h i n g s , how t h e p e r s o n d o i n g t h e recommending i n t e r p r e t s o r u n d e r s t a n d s t h e s i t u a t i o n . The g e n e r a l  intellectual  framework, o f which a t l e a s t a p a r t i s  a c q u i r e d i n s c h o o l , can be expected The  person who has had some f o r m a l  to play a part i n this  behaviour.  s c h o o l i n g i n s c i e n c e can be expected  t o see t h e problem s i t u a t i o n somewhat d i f f e r e n t l y than one who has had  no s c i e n c e i n s t r u c t i o n o r no s c h o o l i n g a t a l l a n d , c o n s e q u e n t l y ,  make somewhat d i f f e r e n t recommendations. According  t o F i s h b e i n [1967] b e h a v i o u r  with respect to performing  a p a r t i c u l a r a c t i n a given s i t u a t i o n is'  r e l a t e d t o the_S_'s a t t i t u d e toward p e r f o r m i n g and  or behavioural i n t e n t  the a c t i n the s i t u a t i o n  h i s p e r c e p t i o n o f what he b e l i e v e s he i s expected  situation.  Both f a c t o r s , a t t i t u d e and normative  i n g s a c q u i r e d i n t h e home and c l a s s r o o m behaviours, o r behavioural  t o do i n t h a t  b e l i e f s , are learn-  environment.  Recommending  i n t e n t s , then, are functions o f learned  a c q u i s i t i o n s i n s c h o o l as w e l l as t h e home, r e f l e c t e d i n a t t i t u d e s toward recommending c e r t a i n c o u r s e s and  i n normative  of a c t i o n i n a given  situation  b e l i e f s about whether o r n o t t h e recommendation  s h o u l d be made.  1-4  D i s c u s s i o n and S i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e Problem The  problem a r i s e s from t h e growing d e s i r e o f N i g e r i a n l e a d e r s  t o adopt w e s t e r n s c i e n c e and t e c h n o l o g y , and t o adapt them t o t h e i r programs o f economic and s o c i a l development i n N i g e r i a .  The s t r e n g t h  6  o f t h i s d e s i r e can be e s t i m a t e d from the f o l l o w i n g statement  by the  former  N i g e r i a n Head o f S t a t e , General Gowon; . . . our p r i o r i t i e s i n c l u d e the improvement o f t h e q u a n t i t y and the q u a l i t y o f our a g r i c u l t u r a l c r o p s e x p o r t as w e l l as food crops--and the improvement o f our r o a d s , and t h e a i r and w a t e r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n which a r e v e r y n e c e s s a r y i n o r d e r t o f a c i l i t a t e the movement o f both goods and p e o p l e , and i n o r d e r t o speed up our e x p o r t c r o p s . Then, o f c o u r s e , t h e r e i s the need t o p r o v i d e an adequate and r e l i a b l e water s u p p l y ; i n many p l a c e s t h i s i s v e r y i m p o r t a n t . And, o f c o u r s e , e l e c t r i c i t y ; and the p r o v i s i o n o f an e f f i c i e n t t e l e communications system. . . . the development o f our manpower r e s o u r c e s t o e n a b l e us t o e x p l o i t and u t i l i z e our n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s more f u l l y i s a n o t h e r o f our p r i o r i t i e s . In a l l t h e s e a r e a s you can see where s c i e n c e and t e c h n o l o g y can r e a l l y p l a y a v e r y i m p o r t a n t r o l e . There i s need f o r much more r e s e a r c h i n most o f the f i e l d s I have mentioned so t h a t we can e f f e c t i v e l y a c h i e v e t h e s e goals. [Gowon, 1972]. However, where w e s t e r n s c i e n c e and t e c h n o l o g y have been and superimposed  adopted  on n o n - w e s t e r n , n o n - i n d u s t r i a l i z e d c u l t u r e s , the l a c k  o f congruency has r e s u l t e d i n v e r y l i m i t e d s u c c e s s i n meeting problems i n s o c i a l and economic development.  current  T h i s has l e d o b s e r v e r s  and governments t o q u e s t i o n t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f s c h o o l i n g i n t h i s adoption- adaptation process.  I t i s t h e r e f o r e important f o r educators  to c l a r i f y and e s t a b l i s h what s c h o o l l e a r n i n g s can c o n t r i b u t e t o the s o l u t i o n of present-day examining  societal  problems.  T h i s would i n v o l v e  t h e l e g i t i m a c y o f c u r r e n t g o a l s and e x p e c t a t i o n s o f s c i e n c e  education. For example, a common e x p e c t a t i o n o f s c i e n c e i n s t r u c t i o n i s the r e p l i c a t i v e use o f l e a r n i n g s i n o u t - o f - s c h o o l s i t u a t i o n s , i . e . ,  7  the l e a r n e r i s expected t o r e i n s t a t e b a s i c f a c t s , p r i n c i p l e s and p r o c e s s e s i n everyday s i t u a t i o n s . there  C r i t i c s o f t h i s view p o i n t o u t t h a t  i s no n e c e s s a r y c o n n e c t i o n  i n school life.  i n science  and performance on t h e j o b o r i n s o c i e t y o r i n one's  According  learned  between l e a r n i n g s  personal  t o t h e s e c r i t i c s , much o f t h e d e t a i l o f what i s  i s o f t e n f o r g o t t e n a few y e a r s a f t e r s c h o o l  remain a r e t h e g e n e r a l studied.  acquired  l i f e and a l l t h a t  and g e n e r a l i z a b l e p r i n c i p l e s o f t h e p r o c e s s e s  A n o t h e r f a l l a c y o f t h i s view i s t h e b e l i e f t h a t  l e a r n i n g s must be e x p l i c i t l y  school  i d e n t i f i a b l e i n non-school s i t u a t i o n s .  Problems i n a s o c i e t a l c o n t e x t a r e u s u a l l y f a r t o o complex t o be r e s o l v e d by s i m p l y r e i n s t a t i n g l e a r n i n g s as they were a c q u i r e d i n school. A second way i n w h i c h l e a r n i n g s  i n science a r e expected t o  f u n c t i o n i s through b r i n g i n g about a c o n s t r u c t i v e change i n a s i t u a t i o n . Since  formal  schooling  i n science  a t l e a s t , u s u a l l y does n o t p r o v i d e  i n e l e m e n t a r y and s e c o n d a r y  schools,  the learner with the technical  know-how t o s o l v e problems i n a s o c i e t a l c o n t e x t , ' a p p l i c a t i v e ' use o f l e a r n i n g s i n s c i e n c e  t h i s kind of  i n non-school s i t u a t i o n s i s  1 i k e l y t o be m i n i m a l . In Broudy's [1973] v i e w , a more a p p r o p r i a t e use o f school school  expectation  o f the  l e a r n i n g s i s t h a t they f u n c t i o n i n t e r p r e t i v e l y i n non-  situations.  A t one l e v e l o f g e n e r a l i t y , t h i s can be t a k e n t o  mean t h e a p p l i c a t i o n o f t h e s c i e n t i f i c c o n s c i o u s n e s s w h i c h  underlies  a t e c h n o l o g i c a l l y w e l 1 - d e v e l o p e d n a t i o n t o s o c i e t a l problems i n N i g e r i a . According school  to Polanyi  [1962] i t i s t h e t a c i t  (subsidiary) aspects of  l e a r n i n g s t h a t g i v e meaning t o a s i t u a t i o n o f which a person i s  8  f o c a l l y aware.  A m e a n i n g f u l r e l a t i o n between t h i s t a c i t awareness o f  what was l e a r n e d i n s c i e n c e , and non-school s i t u a t i o n s i s formed by the a c t i o n o f a person who i n t e g r a t e s one t o t h e o t h e r , and t h e r e l a t i o n p e r s i s t s by t h e f a c t t h a t t h e person keeps up t h i s i n t e g r a t i o n . To use l e a r n i n g s i n s c i e n c e i n t e r p r e t i v e l y , t h e n , means t o use the l e a r n i n g s t o apprehend, u n d e r s t a n d , a p p r e c i a t e , o r e v a l u a t e a problem w i t h o u t  n e c e s s a r i l y being a b l e t o s o l v e i t .  To i l l u s t r a t e , i f  a p e r s o n r e c e i v i n g i n s t r u c t i o n i n s c i e n c e can u n d e r s t a n d t h e i m p o r t a n c e of uniform  s t a n d a r d s o f measurement i n t h e m a r k e t p l a c e , t h e person i s  using h i s learnings i n science i n t e r p r e t i v e l y .  The f a c t t h a t  school  i n p u t s a r e n o t e x p l i c i t l y r e p r o d u c e d i n t h e i r d e t a i l o r used t o a c h i e v e a m a t e r i a l change i n a s i t u a t i o n i s no p r o o f t h a t they do n o t f u n c t i o n . The  above view o f t h e i n t e r p r e t i v e use o f knowledge i s con-  sonant w i t h Bloom's e d u c a t i o n a l and  use o f i n t e l l e c t u a l  porates  o b j e c t i v e s i n v o l v i n g t h e development  a b i l i t i e s and s k i l l s  [1971],  t h e a f f e c t i v e component o f t h e e d u c a t i o n a l  enunciated  by Krathwohl e t a K  The  I t also incor-  objectives  [1969].  purpose o f t h e p r e s e n t  s t u d y was t h e r e f o r e t o t r y t o  d e t e r m i n e t o what e x t e n t , i f any, t h i s o b j e c t i v e o f s c i e n c e in Nigerian schools the e x p e n d i t u r e  i s being a c h i e v e d .  education  This i s necessary to j u s t i f y  o f v a s t sums o f money by t h e N i g e r i a n government t o  provide science i n s t r u c t i o n at a l l l e v e l s i n school. In a d d i t i o n , t o b r i n g t h e work o f c u r r i c u l u m development and teaching  i n l i n e w i t h t h e needs and a s p i r a t i o n s o f t h e N i g e r i a n  s o c i e t y , i t i s important  t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e f a c t o r s which must be t a k e n  a c c o u n t o f i n o r d e r t o maximize t h e c o s t - b e n e f i t s o f t h e c u r r i c u l u m  9  effort.  For example, what k i n d s o f s t u d e n t s  g r o s s p e r s o n o l o g i c a l v a r i a b l e s can their differences?  do we  have?  A l o n g what  t h e y be c l a s s i f i e d t o a c c o u n t f o r  These are i m p o r t a n t  questions  t o the development o f c u r r i c u l u m m a t e r i a l s .  t o be answered  I n t u i t i o n i s not  prior  likely  t o be s u f f i c i e n t l y r e l i a b l e or v a l i d f o r making such d e c i s i o n s . need f o r r e s e a r c h  The  r e l a t e d t o the i n t e r p r e t i v e use o f s c h o o l i n g has  s t r e s s e d by the p h i l o s o p h e r  been  Broudy:  That t h e r e i s a d i f f e r e n c e between people who have had f o r m a l s c h o o l i n g and t h o s e who have n o t , and t h a t we r e c o g n i z e i t , i s a fact. But we r e c o g n i z e the d i f f e r e n c e i n t u i t i v e l y . The e v i d e n c e i s not o r g a n i z e d and f o r m a l i z e d . But r e s e a r c h e f f o r t t o e s t a b l i s h ,the grounds f o r t h i s i n t u i t i v e f a i t h e m p i r i c a l l y would do more f o r s c i e n c e s t u d y than 1000 monographs of the r e l a t i v e m e r i t s o f t e a c h i n g B i o l o g y by methods A and B, v a l u a b l e as t h e s e a r e . [ B r o u d y , 1973, p.230].  The  p a u c i t y of r e s e a r c h which i s aimed a t examining the  ants of non-cognitive  outcomes o f s c h o o l i n g has been lamented  A v e r c h e_t a j _ . , [ 1 9 7 2 ] . ness r e s e a r c h  has  measured by s t a n d a r d i z e d  tests.  e f f e c t i v e n e s s i s obvious.  w r i t e r i n t h i s area  i s one  The  by P o o l e [ 1 9 6 8 ] .  o n l y study  literature  P o o l e sought to measure among N o r t h e r n  N i g e r i a n Hausa s c h o o l c h i l d r e n drawn from t h r e e s o c i o e c o n o m i c  status).  He  l o c a t i o n s , c i t y c e n t r e s , and a r e a s o f  environ-  intermediate  found t h a t urban c h i l d r e n were c l e a r l y s u p e r i o r .  he a l s o found E n g l i s h s c h o o l  on  known t o t h i s  the e f f e c t o f u r b a n i z a t i o n on s c i e n c e c o n c e p t a t t a i n m e n t  ments ( i s o l a t e d r u r a l  effective-  t o e x p l a i n i n g c o g n i t i v e achievement as  In the N i g e r i a n c o n t e x t , the p a u c i t y of r e s e a r c h educational  by  They r e g r e t t h a t , so f a r , e d u c a t i o n a l  been c o n f i n e d  determin-  But  c h i l d r e n s u p e r i o r t o the urban N i g e r i a n  10  c h i l d r e n on a l l items e x c e p t those towards a n i m i s t i c t h i n k i n g .  intended t o a s c e r t a i n tendencies  He t h e r e f o r e c o n c l u d e d  t h a t t h e r e was  l i t t l e o p p o r t u n i t y i n t h e p r e - s c h o o l and o u t - o f - s c h o o l e d u c a t i o n o f Hausa c h i l d r e n by way o f s c i e n t i f i c t h i n k i n g and l e a r n i n g .  concepts  He a l s o suggested  t o promote  scientific  that the capacity of  f o r m a l e d u c a t i o n t o make good t h i s d e f i c i e n c y was l i m i t e d . An  important  inadequacy i n h i s c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n i s t h e  a s s u m p t i o n t h a t mere r e c a l l s u f f i c i e n t evidence recall  and v e r b a l i z a t i o n o f s c i e n c e concepts a r e  o f a b i l i t y to think ' s c i e n t i f i c a l l y '  o r t h a t such  and v e r b a l i z a t i o n a r e r e a l i s t i c e x p e c t a t i o n s o f t h e use o f  school l e a r n i n g s . The  p r e s e n t study was an a t t e m p t t o make good t h e above  d e f i c i e n c i e s by c o n c e p t u a l i z i n g a r e a l i s t i c use o f s c h o o l in out-of-school s i t u a t i o n s .  learnings  I t a v o i d s t h e use o f s t a n d a r d i z e d  achievement t e s t s which measure o n l y c o g n i t i v e achievement. behavioural  i n t e n t i o n and b e h a v i o u r  observation instruments  The used i n  the s t u d y measure a c o m p o s i t e o f c o g n i t i v e and n o n - c o g n i t i v e 1.5  S p e c i f i c Problems I n v e s t i g a t e d The  s p e c i f i c problems i n v e s t i g a t e d i n t h e study had t o do  with behavioural ing  factors.  i n t e n t i o n and a c t u a l b e h a v i o u r  t h e use o f n a t i v e o r s c i e n t i f i c  non-school  settings i n Nigeria.  r e l a t e d t o recommend-  modes o f measurement i n t y p i c a l  The p a r t i c u l a r recommending  behaviours  s t u d i e d a r e i n c l u d e d i n Appendix A.  1.  Subproblem I : due  A r e t h e r e any s i g n i f i c a n t main e f f e c t s  t o s c h o o l i n g , r e l i g i o n , and s o c i o e c o n o m i c  on b e h a v i o u r a l i n t e n t i o n and a c t u a l  behaviour?  environment  11  2.  Subproblem I I :  Are  t h e r e any  e f f e c t s between s c h o o l i n g ,  significant interaction  r e l i g i o n , and  environment on b e h a v i o u r a l i n t e n t i o n and  socioeconomic actual  behaviour? 3.  Subproblem I I I : the v a r i a b l e s  What i s the r e l a t i v e i m p o r t a n c e of  i n t e r n a l t o the F i s h b e i n  p. 3 2 ) , and  those e x t e r n a l  behavioural  i n t e n t i o n and  c o m p a r i s o n groups and  1.6  model  (see  to i t , f o r the p r e d i c t i o n actual  behaviour w i t h i n  of  the  between the comparison groups?  D e f i n i t i o n o f Terms 1.6.1  Behavioural  Intention  (BI)  B e h a v i o u r a l i n t e n t i o n r e f e r s to i n t e n t t o engage i n the ance o f an a c t under i n v e s t i g a t i o n under s p e c i f i e d c o n d i t i o n s . s t u d y , the a c t toward which i n t e n t i o n was use  measured was  of c e r t a i n measurement t e c h n i q u e s i n o u t - o f - s c h o o l ,  situations.  Operationally,  terms of w i l l i n g n e s s  i n t e n t i o n to recommend was  performIn  the  recommending  the  cultural defined  in  to recommend a p a r t i c u l a r method o f measurement  in a given s i t u a t i o n . 1.6.2  Behaviour  (B)  T h i s i s the a c t u a l which b e h a v i o u r a l b e h a v i o u r was the use  performance o f the p a r t i c u l a r a c t  i n t e n t i o n has  been measured.  a s s e s s e d t h r o u g h a s k i n g the s u b j e c t s  In the  toward  study, actual  to a c t u a l l y recommend  o f a p a r t i c u l a r measurement t e c h n i q u e i n a g i v e n s i t u a t i o n .  12  1.6.3  Schooling In t h i s s t u d y t h e term " s c h o o l i n g " i s used i n d i f f e r e n t though  r e l a t e d ways, t h e p r e c i s e usage being e v i d e n t from t h e c o n t e x t o f discussion.  In g e n e r a l , " s c h o o l i n g " i s used t o d i s t i n g u i s h s t u d e n t s  e n r o l l e d i n Dekina Secondary School o f t h e c u r r i c u l u m ) and s t u d e n t s (where S c i e n c e  (where S c i e n c e  i s t a u g h t as p a r t  e n r o l l e d i n Ayangba Commercial  i s not a r e g u l a r l y taught  s u b j e c t ) from persons i n  s i m i l a r age groups who a r e n o t e n r o l l e d i n any s c h o o l . times  i t has been found c o n v e n i e n t  s c r i b e the three-category  College  At other  t o use t h e term " s c h o o l i n g " t o de-  d i s t i n c t i o n , D e k i n a , Ayangba, and t h e  unschooled. As t h e study was i n i t i a l l y c o n c e p t u a l i z e d , t h e r e was t o be a " S c h o o l i n g " f a c t o r , w i t h 3 l e v e l s ( D e k i n a , Ayangba, and  unschooled).  There was a l s o t o be a " L e v e l s " f a c t o r , w i t h 2 l e v e l s , j u n i o r and s e n i o r grades.  T h i s was t o be c r o s s e d w i t h t h e " S c h o o l i n g "  factor.  However, when i t was r e a l i z e d t h a t w i t h i n t h e u n s c h o o l e d group t h e "Levels"  would  have t o be d i f f e r e n t l y d e f i n e d than i n t h e s c h o o l s  g r o u p , ( s e e Note a t f o o t o f T a b l e 1) t h i s p l a n was abandoned, s i n c e an o v e r a l l c o m p a r i s o n between L e v e l 1 and L e v e l 2 c o u l d n o t be v a l i d l y made, and t h e o v e r a l l i n t e r a c t i o n between S c h o o l i n g and L e v e l s , even i f s i g n i f i c a n t , c o u l d n o t be r e a d i l y i n t e r p r e t e d . f a c t o r was corresponding  The " S c h o o l i n g "  u l t i m a t e l y elaborated into a 6-level f a c t o r , the l e v e l s to the c e l l s o f the r e j e c t e d 2 - f a c t o r layout  described  above; f o r example, t h e f i r s t t h r e e l e v e l s a r e Dekina L e v e l 1, Dekina L e v e l 2, Ayangba L e v e l 1.  As w i l l  be seen, by combining  a p p r o p r i a t e l y , a t e s t of the Schooling  e f f e c t (Dekina  levels  v s . Ayangba v s .  13  unschooled) could be made, as also could tests of Dekina vs. Ayangba at each level. 1.6.4  Religion The term is used in the study to refer to a subject's religious  persuasion.  Two categories were identified for the study, i.e.,  Christian and Moslem.  A subject's claim of nominal membership was  taken as evidence of his religious persuasion. 1.6.5  Socioeconomic Environment This refers to the environment in which the subject spent at  least two-thirds of the first twelve years of his l i f e , which includes where he received his pre-school and elementary school education and to which he would normally return when the school is out-of-session ' (for the schooled subjects).  The subjects with no formal education  identified in this category were those nominated by the Dekina subjects and who have spent all their life in the particular environment. Two categories were distinguished—urban and rural.  An urban  environment was defined as non-agricultural, metropolitan centres with populations of 10,000 or over, and administrative, commercial or manufacturing towns of similar size.  The rural category was used to  classify those who live in purely agricultural settlements with a low  density of population.  1.6.6  Internal Variables of the Fishbein Model Variables internal to the Fishbein Model are:  Behaviour, and  Behavioural Intention (already described), Attitude Toward the Act, Personal Normative Beliefs, and Social Normative Beliefs.  A t t i t u d e Toward the A c t , A subject's favourableness performing assessed  j c t  :  This r e f e r s to the  or unfavourableness  a particular act.  toward  In the s t u d y , A ^  was  a c  by a s k i n g the s u b j e c t to i n d i c a t e w h i c h o f  a number o f i n d e p e n d e n t l y  s c a l e d methods o f measure-  ment he would be most f a v o u r a b l e toward recommending t o a p e r s o n i n a g i v e n problem s i t u a t i o n .  P e r s o n a l Normative B e l i e f s , NB^:  T h i s i s the sub-  j e c t ' s assessment o f what he p e r s o n a l l y t h i n k s he ought t o do i n a p a r t i c u l a r s i t u a t i o n ,  irrespective  o f what o t h e r people m i g h t want him t o do.  NBp  was  measured by a s k i n g the s u b j e c t t o i n d i c a t e w h i c h o f a number o f i n d e p e n d e n t l y  s c a l e d methods o f measure-  ment he p e r s o n a l l y f e l t he ought t o recommend t o a p e r s o n i n a g i v e n problem s i t u a t i o n . S o c i a l Normative B e l i e f s , NB 2  :  T h i s r e f e r s t o the  s  s u b j e c t ' s e v a l u a t i o n o f what he t h i n k s h i s s o c i a l r e f e r e n t group , i . e .  the person o r group o f persons  whose views r e g a r d i n g the performance o f a p a r t i c u l a r a c t i n a g i v e n s i t u a t i o n he r e s p e c t s most,  e.g.,  p a r e n t s , f a m i l y members, s c h o o l , community, s o c i e t y a t l a r g e , e t c . , would expect  him to do.  NB  measured i n the p r e s e n t study by a s k i n g the t o s e l e c t which o f a number o f measurement  S  was subject  techniques  p e r t a i n i n g t o a g i v e n problem s i t u a t i o n , he thought  15  his social  r e f e r e n t group would e x p e c t him t o  recommend t o a person i n t h a t 1.6.7  situation.  E x t e r n a l V a r i a b l e s o f t h e F i s h b e i n Model For t h e p r e s e n t  Model i n c l u d e :  s t u d y , t h e v a r i a b l e s added t o t h e F i s h b e i n  S c h o o l i n g , R e l i g i o n , and Socioeconomic Environment  ( a l r e a d y d e s c r i b e d ) , Age, and M e n t a l A b i l i t y o r IQ.  1.  IQ o r Mental A b i l i t y :  This i s o p e r a t i o n a l l y defined  as t h e a b i l i t y t o deduce r e l a t i o n s h i p s between o b j e c t s or s i t u a t i o n s . and  In t h e s t u d y , t h e S c a l e 3, Forms A  B o f C a t t e l l 's " C u l t u r e F a i r " T e s t o f I n t e l l i g e n c e  was used t o measure g e n e r a l  mental a b i l i t y .  t e s t measures such a b i l i t i e s as s e r i a t i o n , c a t i o n , m a t r i c e s , and c o n d i t i o n s ( t o p o l o g y )  The C a t t e l l ' s classifii n a non-  v e r b a l way, by u s i n g f i g u r e s o f o b j e c t s o r shapes.  2.  Age: and  Age i s d e f i n e d as c h r o n o l o g i c a l age i n y e a r s  was reckoned as a g e - l a s t - b i r t h d a y .  School  records  o r c o r r o b o r a t i o n by a t l e a s t two e l d e r s was used t o d e t e r m i n e age t o t h e n e a r e s t 1.6.8  twelve  months.  T e c h n i q u e s o f Measurement The  two a l t e r n a t i v e modes o f measurement a l r e a d y r e f e r r e d t o  may be d e f i n e d as f o l l o w s :  1.  S c i e n t i f i c Methods o f Measurement:  These a r e t h e  methods o f measurement adopted and used by contemporary members o f t h e s c i e n t i f i c and t e c h n o l o g i c a l community  16  and which a r e t a u g h t  to students  in Nigerian schools.  i n science classes  See Appendix B f o r s p e c i f i c  methods. 2.  C u l t u r a l Methods o f Measurement:  These a r e a g e - o l d  methods o f measurement used i n t h e I g a l a  (Nigerian)  c u l t u r e t o cope w i t h v a r i o u s problems o f measurement i n the s o c i e t y . Appendix B. several  3.  S p e c i f i c methods a r e l i s t e d i n  These were d e t e r m i n e d by r e f e r e n c e s t o  knowledgeable members o f t h e c u l t u r e .  Cultural Setting or Cultural Situation: to a t y p i c a l ing  This r e f e r s  occasion w i t h i n the Igala c u l t u r e i n v o l v -  a g i v e n measurement problem.  F o r example, a market-  p l a c e w i t h i n t h e c u l t u r e may be d e s c r i b e d as a c u l t u r a l setting or c u l t u r a l  s i t u a t i o n having  t o do w i t h t h e  problem o f m e a s u r i n g w e i g h t .  1.7  Research Hypotheses The f o l l o w i n g r e s e a r c h h y p o t h e s e s , r e l a t i n g t o t h e sampling  p l a n d e p i c t e d s c h e m a t i c a l l y below, were t e s t e d i n t h e s t u d y .  1.7.1  Hypothesis  1  S c o r e s on B e h a v i o u r a l to recommending s c i e n t i f i c will  I n t e n t and a c t u a l B e h a v i o u r w i t h  methods o f measurement i n c u l t u r a l s e t t i n g s  be: (a)  respect  h i g h e r f o r s e n i o r l e v e l s o f s c h o o l i n g than f o r j u n i o r l e v e l s of schooling,  17  (b)  be h i g h e r f o r Moslems than f o r C h r i s t i a n s , and  (c)  be g r e a t e r f o r urban s u b j e c t s than f o r r u r a l subjects.  1  F i s h b e i n [1967, p. 257] d e f i n e s a t t i t u d e s as " l e a r n e d p r e d i s p o s i t i o n s t o respond  t o an o b j e c t o r c l a s s o f o b j e c t s i n a f a v o u r a b l e  or u n f a v o u r a b l e way," and b e l i e f as "hypotheses c o n c e r n i n g t h e n a t u r e o f t h e s e o b j e c t s and t h e t y p e s o f a c t i o n s t h a t s h o u l d be taken w i t h r e s p e c t t o them."  I t i s c o n c e i v a b l e t h a t such l e a r n e d p r e d i s p o s i t i o n s  and hypotheses would v a r y w i t h t h e amount o f exposure t o , and i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t , the a t t i t u d e o b j e c t .  Thus t h e l o n g e r an i n d i v i d u a l i s  exposed t o a p a r t i c u l a r method o f measurement, and t h e more i n f o r m a t i o n he a c q u i r e s about t h a t method, t h e more f a v o u r a b l e ( o r u n f a v o u r a b l e ) and t h e s t r o n g e r ( o r weaker) a r e l i k e l y t o be h i s a t t i t u d e s and b e l i e f s , r e s p e c t i v e l y , t o recommending t h e method t o a person s e l e c t e d measurement problem.  i n v o l v e d i n some  S i n c e a t t i t u d e s and b e l i e f s a r e t a k e n  t o be i m p o r t a n t p r e d i c t o r s o f b e h a v i o u r  and b e h a v i o u r a l  intention  [ F i s h b e i n , 1 9 6 7 ] , i t i s p l a u s i b l e t h a t t h e h i g h e r t h e amount ( l e v e l ) o f s c h o o l i n g , i . e . , t h e h i g h e r t h e amount o f exposure t o , and i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t , a g i v e n method o f measurement, t h e h i g h e r w i l l  be  the s u b j e c t ' s s c o r e on BI and B w i t h r e g a r d t o t h a t method. R e l i g i o n , l i k e s c i e n c e , r e p r e s e n t s a way o f l o o k i n g a t o r i n t e r p r e t i n g events. by t h e e x p e r i e n c e s originating  I t i s therefore u s u a l l y profoundly influenced  o f i t s founder and a d v o c a t e s .  i n a h i g h l y mathematical  The Moslem  Arab c u l t u r e w i t h a s o p h i s t i c a t e d  n o t i o n o f p r e c i s e measurements, may t h e r e f o r e be expected such n o t i o n s t o people  religion,  to impart  i n N i g e r i a who have adopted the Moslem r e l i g i o n  18  TABLE 1 Schematic Diagram of Sampling Plan Socioeconomic Envi ronment Religion Rural  Urban Total (218)  Experimental  Comp. Group 1  Level 1 Level 2 Level 1 Level 2 Level 1 Level 2  Christian n = 16 n = 13 n = 16 Moslem  n = 12 n = 6  Christian n = 12 n = 4 Moslem  V  Comp. Group 2  n = 9 49  n = 7 n = 19  n = 8 n = 3 n = 14 n = 7 n = 7 n = 4  n = 7 n = 10 n = 2 30  n = 8  41  16  n = 10 n = 4 n = 9  n = 11  52  30  Key: Groups: Experimental Group = subjects with one or more years, of science instruction at Dekina Secondary school Comparison Group 1 = subjects with one or more years of schooling but no science instruction at Ayangba Commercial College Comparison Group 2 = subjects similar to Experimental and Comparison Group 1 subjects in age, socioeconomic environment and religion but with no formal education Note: For Experimental and Comparison Group 1 subjects, Level 1 refers to subjects in Forms One and Two. Level 2 refers to subjects in Forms Three, Four, and Five. For the Experimental Group, Level 1 subjects receive General Science instruction, while Level 2 subjects receive Physics, Chemistry, and Biology as separate subjects. Level 1 and Level 2 for the Comparison Group 2 subjects refers to age levels corresponding to similar levels in the other two groups. Rural and urban, Christian and Moslem are described on pages 53, 54.  19  and way o f l i f e .  In a d d i t i o n , i t has been observed by v i s i t o r s t o  M a l a y s i a t h a t Moslem c h i l d r e n i n some p a r t s o f t h a t c o u n t r y the f e e l  acquire  f o r p r e c i s e measurements much e a r l i e r than C h r i s t i a n c h i l d r e n  i n t h e same r e g i o n .  In the p r e s e n t c o n t e x t , the h y p o t h e s i s o f  d i f f e r e n c e s due t o r e l i g i o n i s h i g h l y s p e c u l a t i v e . The d i s t i n c t i o n between r u r a l and urban s o c i o e c o n o m i c e n v i r o n ments, a l r e a d y d e s c r i b e d  ( s e e p. 1 2 ) , i s one t h a t r e g a r d s  as c e n t r e s o f l a r g e , m e t r o p o l i t a n p o p u l a t i o n s w i t h a h i g h of s o c i a l amenities.  the l a t t e r concentration  C h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f such p l a c e s i s t h e c o n t a c t  between d i f f e r e n t i d e a - s y s t e m s ,  i . e . , d i f f e r e n t approaches t o c o p i n g  w i t h s i m i l a r problems r e s u l t i n g from t h e d i v e r s e backgrounds o f i t s i n h a b i t a n t s and v i s i t o r s .  Far fewer o p p o r t u n i t i e s e x i s t f o r such  c o n t a c t among p e o p l e i n r u r a l  environments c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a low  d e n s i t y o f p o p u l a t i o n and s i m i l a r i t i e s o f o c c u p a t i o n The e x p e c t a t i o n i s t h e r e f o r e t h a t s u b j e c t s who belong  and l i f e - s t y l e . t o t h e urban  c l a s s i f i c a t i o n would be more exposed t o s c i e n f i f i c methods o f measurement and have g r e a t e r d i s p o s i t i o n toward recommending such methods t o a p e r s o n r e q u i r i n g t o do some measurement, than r u r a l the o t h e r hand, r u r a l  subjects.  On  s u b j e c t s a r e l i k e l y t o show g r e a t e r r e s i s t a n c e  toward abandoning t h e more f a m i l i a r , t i m e - t e s t e d , c u l t u r a l  methods  o f measurement. 1.7.2  Hypothesis Behavioural  2 i n t e n t and a c t u a l b e h a v i o u r  w i t h r e s p e c t t o recommend-  i n g s c i e n t i f i c methods o f measurement i n c u l t u r a l i n a s i g n i f i c a n t way on:  settings will  depend  20  (a)  i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t s between amount o f and  (b)  religion,  i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t s between amount o f and  (c)  schooling  schooling  s o c i o e c o n o m i c background,  i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t s between r e l i g i o n and economic background,  (d)  socio-  and  i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t s between r e l i g i o n , s o c i o e c o n o m i c background and  Interaction  amount o f  t e s t s are  schooling.  important f o r several  most i m p o r t a n t perhaps i s t o a s c e r t a i n  whether one  reasons.  factor  (A, say)  d i f f e r e n t e f f e c t s at d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s of another f a c t o r or of f a c t o r s . own  sake.  I f i t has,  The  combination  then t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n i s i m p o r t a n t f o r i t s  For example, i n the  p r e s e n t s t u d y , i f the mean BI s c o r e f o r  Moslems a t the j u n i o r l e v e l o f s c i e n c e i n s t r u c t i o n were found t o h i g h e r than t h a t f o r C h r i s t i a n s positions be  r e v e r s e d a t the  treated  as an  has  a t the  senior  same l e v e l , but w i t h  be  the  l e v e l of i n s t r u c t i o n , t h i s would  i n d i c a t i o n of a s c h o o l i n g by r e l i g i o n i n t e r a c t i o n .  Such a f i n d i n g , s i m i l a r t o t h o s e o f a p t i t u d e - t r e a t m e n t  interaction  s t u d i e s , would have p o t e n t i a l l y i m p o r t a n t i m p l i c a t i o n s  for planning  science i n s t r u c t i o n in Nigerian schools.  Not  o n l y t h a t , but  if  such a s i t u a t i o n e x i s t s , a s i g n i f i c a n t main e f f e c t f o r s c h o o l i n g to be may  interpreted  not  cautiously;  be w o r t h n o t i n g i f the  has  indeed such a s i g n i f i c a n t main e f f e c t interaction involving  schooling i s  disordinal. Further, in a fixed-factor design, ignoring interactions  ( i . e . leaving  them out  o f the  regression  the  effects  of  model) tends t o  21  i n f l a t e the e r r o r term, u n l e s s t h i s leads  to a conservative  the i n t e r a c t i o n s a r e i n f a c t  zero;  t e s t , i n c r e a s i n g the p r o b a b i l i t y o f a  Type I I e r r o r .  1.7.3  Hypothesis 3 Behavioural  i n t e n t and  actual  behaviour with respect  to  recommending s c i e n t i f i c methods o f measurement or c u l t u r a l methods o f measurement i n non-school s i t u a t i o n s w i l l :  (a)  be accounted f o r w i t h b e t t e r than chance a c c u r a c y  by  v a r i a b l e s i n t e r n a l t o the F i s h b e i n Model a l o n e , (b)  be a c c o u n t e d f o r w i t h external Model,  (c)  improved a c c u r a c y by adding  v a r i a b l e s t o the v a r i a b l e s o f the  actual behaviour w i l l  The  intent  be h i g h l y c o r r e l a t e d i n a l l  Settings.  the.  s u f f i c i e n c y o f the F i s h b e i n Model f o r p r e d i c t i n g  i n t e n t i o n and  behaviour.  Fishbein's  c l a i m t h a t the i n t e r n a l  v a r i a b l e s o f the M o d e l , i . e . , A t t i t u d e Toward t h e A c t Normative B e l i e f s (NBp), and adequate p r e d i c t o r s o f BI and be the case by A j z e n and Schwartz and  and  above h y p o t h e s i s a d d r e s s e s i t s e l f t o the problem o f  n e c e s s i t y and behavioural  Fishbein  and  be h i g h l y c o r r e l a t e d , i . e . , b e h a v i o u r a l  Cultural  the  (A  j.), Personal  S o c i a l Normative B e l i e f s (NB ) S  B [ F i s h b e i n , 1967]  Fishbein  has  are  been shown t o  [1969; 1970], Abramson [ 1 9 7 2 ] ,  T e s s l e r [1972] i n h i g h l y c o n t r o l l e d e x p e r i m e n t s .  the s u f f i c i e n c y o f the t h r e e v a r i a b l e s f o r p r e d i c t i n g BI and q u e s t i o n e d by Schwartz and  Tessler  [1972] who  obtained  and  However, B has  a small  but  been  22  significant additional  p r o p o r t i o n o f BI v a r i a n c e w i t h some p e r s o n a l i t y  and background v a r i a b l e s .  In t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y , t h e e x t e r n a l  v a r i a b l e s added t o t h e model i n c l u d e those t h a t a r e o f c e n t r a l t o t h e s t u d y , e.g., s c h o o l i n g , r e l i g i o n , and s o c i o e c o n o m i c  concern  environment.  From t h e e q u a t i o n r e p r e s e n t i n g the F i s h b e i n Model ( s e e . p. 3 2 ) , i t can be seen t h a t b e h a v i o u r , B, cannot t h e independent  v a r i a b l e s o f the Model.  be d i r e c t l y p r e d i c t e d from I t i s however c l a i m e d t h a t  a h i g h l y s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n e x i s t s between BI and B [ F i s h b e i n , 1967].  S i n c e i t i s t h e i n t e r e s t o f t h i s s t u d y t o p r e d i c t both BI  and B, such a s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n i s e s s e n t i a l and s h o u l d be examined.  1.8  D e l i m i t a t i o n o f t h e Study The  l i m i t a t i o n s o f scope and g e n e r a l i z a b i l i t y o f t h e study  a r e as f o l l o w s : 1.  The o p e r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n o f t h e concept o f t h e i n t e r p r e t i v e use o f s c h o o l l e a r n i n g s i s e x t r e m e l y l i m i t e d i n scope. The c o n c e p t has been equated  only with willingness to  recommend a c o u r s e o f a c t i o n i n a g i v e n s i t u a t i o n .  Since  t h e c o n c e p t i s much broader than t h i s , t h e g e n e r a l i z a b i l i t y o f the f i n d i n g s o f the present study i n regard t o t h e i n t e r p r e t i v e use o f s c h o o l l e a r n i n g s i s v e r y 1imited. 2.  The study has a l s o been c o n f i n e d t o examining number o f types o f measurement a c t i v i t i e s , o f measurement, and c u l t u r a l  settings.  a limited  techniques  The s t u d y t h e r e -  fore  s u f f e r s from t h e l i m i t a t i o n t h a t  be r e a d i l y g e n e r a l i z e d  t o o t h e r measurement  (or other a c t i v i t i e s , g e n e r a l l y ) , ment, and c u l t u r a l  the r e s u l t s  settings.  cannot  activities  t e c h n i q u e s o f measure-  CHAPTER TWO CONTEXT OF THE STUDY  The c o n t e x t o f t h i s s t u d y may be viewed and p s y c h o l o g i c a l a s p e c t s .  i n terms o f i t s s o c i e t a l  R e l a t e d problems o f t h e N i g e r i a n s o c i e t y and  t h e i r i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r s c i e n c e e d u c a t i o n a r e r e v i e w e d below.  The r e l a -  t i o n s h i p s o f F i s h b e i n s t h e o r y o f b e h a v i o u r and a t t i t u d e t o the s t u d y 1  are d e s c r i b e d .  R e l e v a n t r e s e a r c h f i n d i n g s which a r e based on t h e t h e o r y  are a l s o d i s c u s s e d .  2.1  The S o c i e t a l The  Context  s o c i a l m i l l i e u under which  formal e d u c a t i o n i s conducted i n  N i g e r i a can b e s t be d i s c u s s e d i n terms o f t h e problems w i t h which t h e s o c i e t y has t o cope and the v a r i o u s ways those problems a r e c u r r e n t l y b e i n g r e s o l v e d o r contended be r e l e v a n t t o r e a l  with.  T h i s i s because, f o r e d u c a t i o n t o  l i f e s i t u a t i o n s , e d u c a t o r s must take c o g n i z a n c e o f  these problems a n d , s e c o n d l y , t o e n a b l e s t u d e n t s t o use t h e knowledge g a i n e d a t s c h o o l t o e x p l o r e a l t e r n a t i v e ways--to a g e - o l d approaches--to  r e s o l v e t h e problems.  cultural  The focus o f t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y  i s t o examine t o what e x t e n t , i f any, s c h o o l i n g , e s p e c i a l l y i n t h e s c i e n c e s has met these two demands.  2.2  S o c i e t a l Problems o f N i g e r i a Among t h e most i m p o r t a n t concerns  o f t h e governments and peoples  o f s o - c a l l e d d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s l i k e N i g e r i a , a r e problems o f h e a l t h 24  25  and sanitation.  The origins of these problems have been traced to:  (1) the prevalence of certain beliefs which attribute the cause of some diseases to supernatural forces and agents, with the effect that cures are sought through mysticism (even when local medications are effective, cure is believed to come only after the appeasement of some hidden force); (2) the reluctance to adopt (or sometimes the total rejection of) western medical science; and (3) the scarcity of hospitals and other medical facilities. Most of the prevalent diseases in the Nigerian society are either waterborne, airborne, or insect-borne (e.g., typhoid, dysentery, cholera, smallpox, cerebro-spinal menengitis, as well as malaria, yellow fever and sleeping sickness). Water for drinking in rural communities, for example, is obtained directly from surface streams or rivers, and is given no prior treatment before consumption.  Insects like the mosquito,  the housefly or the tse-tse fly are avoided, not so much because of the fear of infection, since this is not widely recognized, but mainly for the physical discomfort of bites.  Isolation and quarantine, when  practised, are aimed at warding-off evil spirits from the home or community, rather than as a means of avoiding the spread of diseases. The eradication of such diseases could only be achieved through widespread acceptance of the knowledge of their development cycles and of the agents of transmission, as well as the adoption of simple purification and avoidance methods. Agricultural productivity is another area of concern to Nigerians. Because of the archaic, manual methods of cultivation both the quantity  26  and q u a l i t y o f f o o d produced i s minimal  and f a l l s  increasingly short of  meeting t h e demands o f a f a s t - g r o w i n g p o p u l a t i o n . of maintaining s o i l nutritional  Artificial  f e r t i l i t y a r e o f t e n r e j e c t e d by l o c a l  methods  farmers.  The  v a l u e o f f o o d s , e s p e c i a l l y i n terms o f h i g h p r o t e i n and  vitamin content,  i s hardly recognized.  M a l n u t r i t i o n i s t h e r e f o r e common  even i n areas where l a r g e amounts o f f o o d a r e grown.  Methods o f food  s t o r a g e f o r f u t u r e p e r i o d s o f 'want' and f o r d i s t r i b u t i o n o v e r a wide a r e a o f t h e c o u n t r y a r e a l s o poor. As i n o t h e r ' d e v e l o p i n g ' c o u n t r i e s , i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n has caught the f a n c y o f N i g e r i a ' s development p l a n n e r s . exploitation o f  M i n e r a l p r o s p e c t i n g and  t i n , columbite, c o a l , petroleum, e t c . ,  utilizing  imported h i g h - l e v e l  technology  a l i z a t i o n program.  However, because o f t h e t e c h n o l o g i c a l s o p h i s t i c a t i o n ,  and l a r g e amounts o f c a p i t a l u s u a l l y foreign-owned, In  a r e t h e focus o f t h e c o u n t r y ' s  industri-  i n v o l v e d , only large business c o r p o r a t i o n s ,  can hope t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e program.  these and o t h e r areas o f i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n , l i t t l e  has been  done t o encourage t h e use o f s i m p l e t e c h n o l o g i c a l methods o f m i n e r a l d e t e c t i o n and e x t r a c t i o n o r t h e commercial p r o d u c t i o n o f some e s s e n t i a l products.  Nor have t h e p e o p l e been t a u g h t t o t a k e advantage o f t h e  products o f technology In  t h a t a r e b e i n g s o l d t o them.  a s i m i l a r way, l i t t l e  attempt  i s b e i n g made t o t r a n s f o r m  the l o c a l a r t s and c r a f t s i n t o p r o d u c t i o n i n d u s t r i e s by d e v e l o p i n g e a s i e r methods o f p r o d u c t i o n than t h e p r e s e n t s l o w , manual, and l a b o u r i o u s methods b e i n g p r a c t i s e d .  27  A n o t h e r i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r r e l a t e d t o the s o c i a l c o n t e x t o f e d u c a t i o n i s the e f f e c t t h a t some n a t i v e and i m p o r t e d c o l o n i a l  tradi-  t i o n s and modes o f b e h a v i o u r have had on change and m o d e r n i z a t i o n . t r a d i t i o n s a r e t h e r e s u l t o f such f a c t o r s and s o c i a l e n v i r o n m e n t ; c o l o n i a l bureaucracy  as  occupation,  ones may be i d e n t i f i e d w i t h the  and the e d u c a t i o n a l system as w e l l as o t h e r s o c i a l  t i o n s , which a r e remnants o f the o l d c o l o n i a l The  religion,  Local  institu-  framework.  d i v e r s i t y o f c u l t u r e s s y m b o l i z e d by the v a r i o u s a r t s and  c r a f t s , music and f o l k l o r e , makes an immense c o n t r i b u t i o n t o the v i t a l i t y of the country.  However, t h e s t a b i l i t y o f these c u l t u r e s i s sometimes  so s t r o n g t h a t change and p e r s p e c t i v e a r e r e s t r i c t e d .  F o r example,  r e l i g i o u s b e l i e f s c o n c e r n i n g l i f e and man's m i s s i o n on e a r t h o f t e n advocate  contentment w i t h t h e c u r r e n t s t a t e o f a f f a i r s .  In Islam, pre-  d e s t i n a t i o n and p r e o r d a i n m e n t i s an a r t i c l e o f f a i t h ; w h i l e C h r i s t i a n i t y preaches ' p o v e r t y on e a r t h ' s o one can reap t h e kingdom o f heaven. These r e l i g i o n s have, i n one way o r a n o t h e r , been a n t a g o n i s t i c t o t h e development o f a s c i e n t i f i c c l i m a t e needed f o r p r o g r e s s and change i n modern t i m e s .  S i m i l a r l y , a person's  o c c u p a t i o n and s o c i a l  environment  c o u l d be c r u c i a l i n d e t e r m i n i n g the e x t e n t o f h i s w i l l i n g n e s s t o e x p l o r e o r use a l t e r n a t i v e s t o h i s own methods.  T h i s i s u s u a l l y so because o f  b u i l t - i n r u l e s and taboos w h i c h tend t o r e s t r i c t one's The  initiative.  o r g a n i z a t i o n o f t h e N i g e r i a n s o c i e t y i t s e l f , based on a  c l o s e - k n i t f a m i l y o r e t h n i c r e l a t i o n s h i p , even though advantageous i n c e r t a i n r e s p e c t s , has o f t e n narrowed people's  p e r c e p t i o n o f the w o r l d  o u t s i d e t h e i r own, and t h e o p p o r t u n i t i e s t h a t e x i s t  therein.  28  Colonial  t r a d i t i o n s based i n the c i v i l  s e r v i c e b u r e a u c r a c y and  the e d u c a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s have a c c o m p l i s h e d l i t t l e  in either  i n g t h e w o r l d - v i e w o f t h e p e o p l e o r p r o v i d i n g them w i t h to examine t h e i r own c u l t u r e s .  broaden-  opportunities  T h i s i s b e c a u s e , by a c c i d e n t o r by  d e s i g n , t h e s e i n s t i t u t i o n s have n o t taken i n t o account the c u l t u r a l milieu  i n w h i c h they were o p e r a t i n g .  B r i t i s h systems were s u p e r -  imposed on N i g e r i a n c u l t u r e s , r e s u l t i n g i n a l a c k o f congruence  between  the two. In w e s t e r n s o c i e t i e s , s c i e n t i f i c p r a c t i c e h a s , t o a l a r g e e x t e n t , e v o l v e d through a t t e m p t s a t u n d e r s t a n d i n g and s o l v i n g some o f t h e problems of those s o c i e t i e s .  I t has t a k e n t h e form o f a t t e m p t s t o c o n t r o l and  t r a n s f o r m human environment by means o f t h e t e c h n o l o g y which s c i e n c e b r i n g s about.  In t h i s way s c i e n c e has a f f e c t e d the l i v e s o f p e o p l e i n  these s o c i e t i e s .  S c i e n c e e d u c a t i o n i n N i g e r i a n s c h o o l s must be shown  t o have some impact on s t u d e n t s i f i t i s t o d e s e r v e the l a r g e sums o f money i n v o l v e d i n p r o v i d i n g s c i e n c e i n s t r u c t i o n i n t h e s e s c h o o l s .  Such  i m p a c t , i f i t e x i s t s , can be d e m o n s t r a t e d , f o r example, by the approach o r a t t i t u d e adopted by s t u d e n t s when c o n f r o n t e d w i t h problems  of v i t a l  i m p o r t a n c e i n t h e i r l i v e s o r i n the l i v e s o f p e o p l e i n t h e i r community. So f a r , no e v i d e n c e r e g a r d i n g such an i m p a c t has been r e p o r t e d i n educational  research l i t e r a t u r e . Whether t h e r e has been some i m p a c t on the o r d i n a r y person i n  the N i g e r i a n v i l l a g e whose a c t i o n s a r e s t i l l  governed  l a r g e l y by m y s t i c a l  f o r c e s , l i k e t h e w e a t h e r , s p i r i t s , s e a s o n s , and o t h e r phenomena, i s a l s o i n doubt.  He i s c o n s t a n t l y a t t e m p t i n g t o a d j u s t t o t h e d i c t a t e s  29  o f n a t u r e r a t h e r than t r y i n g to harness needs.  i t to h i s  T h i s i s p r o b a b l y borne o u t o f the b e l i e f t h a t n a t u r e i s supreme  and i n c o m p r e h e n s i b l e ,  t h a t a l l t h i n g s have been p r e o r d a i n e d by i t and  t h a t n o t h i n g c o u l d be done t o determine has  n a t u r e by bending  or a l t e r t h e i r course.  l e d t o a s e t o f s t a b l e b e l i e f s about n a t u r a l phenomena.  s t a b l e , such b e l i e f s have not accommodated t o new  This  Being  or d i f f e r e n t viewpoints.  A major weakness o f N i g e r i a n e d u c a t i o n g e n e r a l l y , has been i t s l a c k o f r e l e v a n c e t o the N i g e r i a n s i t u a t i o n .  That i s t o s a y , s c h o o l  c u r r i c u l a have l i t t l e o r no b e a r i n g on c u l t u r a l the b e l i e f s , a t t i t u d e s and b e h a v i o u r s and s o c i a l its  problems.  The  e a r l i e s t days i t was  r e a l i t y - - t h e way  of  life,  o f the p e o p l e , and t h e i r p e r s o n a l  h i s t o r y o f N i g e r i a n e d u c a t i o n shows t h a t i n designed simply to f u l f i l  r o l e , i . e . , to help t r a i n people  an  ecclesiastical  t o r e a d the B i b l e and h e l p i n the  e v a n g e l i c a l work o f the m i s s i o n a r i e s . A t a l a t e r s t a g e i t s o b j e c t i v e was  to c r e a t e a pool of c l e r i c a l  and o t h e r s u p p o r t workers f o r t h e B r i t i s h c o l o n i a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . Because o f these r a t h e r l i m i t e d r o l e s and a l s o because the  colonial  o r g a n i z a t i o n which c o n t r o l l e d e d u c a t i o n i n N i g e r i a d i d n o t e n v i s a g e s c i e n t i f i c o r t e c h n o l o g i c a l r o l e f o r the c o u n t r y , e d u c a t i o n was to  the l i b e r a l  arts.  S i n c e independence, attempts  a  restricted  have been made t o  change the s i t u a t i o n , but government p o l i c y i n t h i s d i r e c t i o n has been aimed p r i n c i p a l l y a t i n c r e a s i n g e n r o l l m e n t numbers i n s c h o o l s .  Quality  o f i n s t r u c t i o n , a p a r t from not b e i n g a c e n t r a l o b j e c t i v e o f the  author-  i t i e s , i s a l s o hampered by the l a c k o f q u a l i f i e d t e a c h e r s . methods, which have been adopted seem t o encourage r o t e  Instructional  memorization  30  rather than comprehension and interpretation.  Rote memorization is  related to both a lack of relevance and pressures to pass external examinations.  External examinations are regarded as avenues for further  education which apparently is the objective of many Nigerian students [Mulkerin, 19 66].  The overall result is a high drop-out rate and a  vast amount of wastage of funds and facilities [USAID Report, 1967]? 2.3  Implications for Science Education in Nigeria The societal context of the study has implications for the aims  and objectives of science education as well as the teaching and learning of science in Nigerian schools. 2.3.1  Aims and Objectives of Science Education  The aims and objectives of general education as seen by the Nigerian government are clearly spelled out in the country's Second National Development Plan, 1970-74, and were alluded to earlier: One major focus for educational policy in Nigeria has been the ultimate provision of formal education to every child of school-going age to at least primary school level, on the grounds that universal education is very vital in improving people's receptiveness to new ideas. The other objective of educational policy is the creation of an adequate stock of skills needed in the process of social and economic development, [p. 235] This statement has some important implications for educational practice.  First,is the implicit recognition of the difficulty in intro-  ducing new ideas, in particular over cross-cultural boundaries. Second, is the value question relating to the desirability of new ideas and to receptiveness to such ideas.  Last, is the belief that such receptiveness  ^Nigerian Human Resource Development and Utilization, a USAID Report prepared by the Committee on Education and Human Resource Development - Nigeria Project Task Force, December 1967.  31  can be a c h i e v e d  through  an e d u c a t i o n a l p r o c e s s .  t i o n , t h e new i d e a s c o u l d be c o n s t r u e d o l d , culture-bound Probable  In t h e N i g e r i a n s i t u a -  as new ways o f l o o k i n g a t t h e  w o r l d o r new ways o f c o p i n g w i t h o l d problems.  f a c t o r s which may d e t e r m i n e a person's r e c e p t i v e n e s s t o new  i d e a s can be t h o u g h t t o i n c l u d e s o c i a l e n v i r o n m e n t , r e l i g i o n , and type and amount o f s c h o o l i n g r e c e i v e d . The second o b j e c t i v e e x p r e s s e s  t h e need f o r t h e c r e a t i o n o f  a stock o f s k i l l s r e q u i r e d f o r the process o f s o c i a l development o f t h e c o u n t r y . mechanical  skills  and economic  Presumably, t h i s i s n o t r e s t r i c t e d t o  b u t a l s o i n c l u d e s i n t e l l e c t u a l s k i l l s , a b i l i t i e s and  the a f f e c t i v e d i s p o s i t i o n s needed f o r a d o p t i n g and a d a p t i n g  t h e new  ideas to the country's  develop-  problems.  The s o c i a l and economic  mental problems o f N i g e r i a would i n c l u d e those o f h e a l t h and s a n i t a t i o n , agricultural  and i n d u s t r i a l p r o d u c t i o n , e d u c a t i o n , and c u l t i v a t i o n o f  a s c i e n t i f i c approach t o d e a l i n g w i t h s o c i a l 2.3.2  Teaching  and L e a r n i n g  problems.  Science  I f t h e aims and o b j e c t i v e s s t a t e d above a r e t o be t h e b a s i s f o r t h e t e a c h i n g and l e a r n i n g o f s c i e n c e i n N i g e r i a n secondary s c h o o l s , then a d e l i b e r a t e a t t e m p t must be made t o o r g a n i z e such t e a c h i n g and l e a r n i n g so as t o a c h i e v e some g e n e r a l  and s p e c i f i c s o c i e t a l  C o n s i d e r i n g t h e broad g o a l s  and economic development, t h i s  of social  goals.  would mean t h a t s c h o o l l e a r n i n g s s h o u l d be c a p a b l e o f b e i n g p u t t o use i n o u t - o f - s c h o o l way.  societal  situations  i n an  interpretive  32  Bloom's term ' i n t e l l e c t u a l  a b i l i t i e s and s k i l l s '  [1971, p. 38]  i s a k i n t o Broudy's i n t e r p r e t i v e use o f knowledge ( s e e p. 5) and t h a t which has been v a r i o u s l y c a l l e d ing,'  and ' p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g '  'critical  thinking,' 'reflective think-  by many w r i t e r s .  F o r example, Bloom g i v e s  an o p e r a t i o n a l d e f i n i t i o n o f i n t e l l e c t u a l s k i l l s  and a b i l i t i e s a s :  . . . t h e i n d i v i d u a l can f i n d a p p r o p r i a t e i n f o r m a t i o n and t e c h n i q u e s i n h i s p r e v i o u s e x p e r i e n c e t o b r i n g t o b e a r on new problems and s i t u a t i o n s . T h i s r e q u i r e s some a n a l y s i s o r unders t a n d i n g o f t h e new s i t u a t i o n ; i t r e q u i r e s a background o f knowledge o r methods w h i c h can be r e a d i l y u t i l i z e d ; and i t a j s o r e q u i r e s some f a c i l i t y i n d i s c e r n i n g the a p p r o p r i a t e r e l a t i o n s between p r e v i o u s e x p e r i e n c e and the new s i t u a t i o n , [p. 38]  When a s t u d e n t to  uses h i s knowledge o f the germ t h e o r y  i n biology  u n d e r s t a n d t h e causes o f l o c a l d i s e a s e s l i k e m a l a r i a o r d y s e n t e r y and  how t h e v a r i o u s agents i n v o l v e d i n b r i n g i n g about t h e d i s e a s e might be destroyed  o r a v o i d e d , then he i s u s i n g h i s knowledge i n t e r p r e t i v e l y .  Or when a l e a r n e r uses h i s knowledge o f n u t r i e n t s i n foods t o p l a n a balanced  menu, he i s a g a i n u s i n g h i s knowledge i n t e r p r e t i v e l y .  In e i t h e r  c a s e , he i s engaged i n the e x e r c i s e o f h i s i n t e l l e c t u a l a b i l i t i e s and skills  a c q u i r e d as a r e s u l t o f s c h o o l i n g t o make i n t e l l i g i b l e the s i t u a -  t i o n i n t h e c u l t u r e where a problem e x i s t s . he a c t u a l l y d e s t r o y s order t o t e l l  We do n o t need e v i d e n c e t h a t  t h e causes o f d i s e a s e s o r e a t s a b a l a n c e d  t h a t he i s u s i n g h i s knowledge i n t e r p r e t i v e l y .  r e q u i r e some know-how ( n o t u s u a l l y t a u g h t s c i e n c e c l a s s e s ) , and r e s o u r c e s  menu i n He w o u l d  i n r e g u l a r secondary s c h o o l  to accomplish  these.  Put d i f f e r e n t l y ,  i t i s t h e process of comprehending a p r o b l e m , l e a d i n g up t o d e c i d i n g on the b e s t c o u r s e  o f a c t i o n t h a t c o u l d r e s o l v e the p r o b l e m , t h a t c o n s t i t u t e s  33  the i n t e r p r e t i v e use o f knowledge, n o t the a c t u a l s o l u t i o n o f the problem. How the i n d i v i d u a l w i l l skills  apply h i s i n t e l l e c t u a l  abilities  and  i n t h e ways s p e c i f i e d by Bloom w i l l , however, depend on h i s  a f f e c t i v e d i s p o s i t i o n s as w e l l .  A c c o r d i n g t o K r a t h w o h l , e t a l . , [1969]  t h e s e d i s p o s i t i o n s can be r e p r e s e n t e d by h i s awareness t h a t a problem e x i s t s , h i s e v a l u a t i o n o f i t , and h i s commitment t o a p a r t i c u l a r of  action.  line  A g a i n t h e s u b j e c t ' s l e a r n i n g s and e x p e r i e n c e s a r e i m p o r t a n t  predictors of his disposition. The p r e s e n t s t u d y i s aimed a t examining  t o what e x t e n t s c i e n c e  i n s t r u c t i o n i n some N i g e r i a n Secondary s c h o o l s has been e f f e c t i v e i n s t u d e n t s ' d e v e l o p i n g such 2.4  dispositions.  The P s y c h o l o g i c a l C o n t e x t 2.4.1  The F i s h b e i n Model Much a t t e n t i o n has been g i v e n t o a t t i t u d e r e s e a r c h and t h e p r e -  d i c t i o n o f human b e h a v i o u r s i n c e t h e days o f A l l p o r t [1934] and t h e h i s t o r i c s o c i o l o g i c a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f La P i e r e [1935].  Few o p e r a t i o n a l -  i z e d t h e o r i e s l i n k i n g a t t i t u d e t o a c t u a l b e h a v i o u r assessment have, howe v e r , been advanced. In suggested  t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y , the m o d i f i e d form o f F i s h b e i n ' s model, by Schwartz  and T e s s l e r [ 1 9 7 2 ] , was used t o p r e d i c t b e h a v i o u r a l  i n t e n t i o n , and a c t u a l b e h a v i o u r , r e l a t e d t o recommending t h e use o f s c i e n c e process s k i l l s The  or cultural  approaches i n o u t - o f - s c h o o l s i t u a t i o n s .  v a r i a b l e s i n t e r n a l and e x t e r n a l t o the model measured a r e g i v e n i n  34  T a b l e 7, p.55).  The  i n e q u a t i o n form may  variables  o f i n t e r e s t i n F i s h b e i n ' s model, s t a t e d  be g i v e n as  B = BI = [ A  a c t  ]w  follows:  1  + [NB ]w p  2  +  [NB ]w s  3  where B  = actual  recommendation o f a p a r t i c u l a r measuring  technique  in a given s i t u a t i o n BI  = willingness  or expressed  i n t e n t t o recommend a p a r t i c u l a r  measuring t e c h n i q u e i n a g i v e n s i t u a t i o n A  . = a predictor a ct  (or i n t e r n a l ) v a r i a b l e : a t t i t u d e  toward  recommending a p a r t i c u l a r measuring t e c h n i q u e i n a given s i t u a t i o n NBp  = a predictor  (or i n t e r n a l ) v a r i a b l e : personal  normative  b e l i e f s about whether o r not a p a r t i c u l a r measuring t e c h n i q u e s h o u l d be recommended i n a g i v e n s i t u a t i o n NB  = predictor  S  about how  ( o r i n t e r n a l ) v a r i a b l e : normative  beliefs  o t h e r s , whose o p i n i o n s a r e v a l u e d most, would  f e e l about recommending a p a r t i c u l a r measuring  technique  i n a given s i t u a t i o n  w,  w,  1  2  and w  2.4.2  =  e m p i r i c a l l y determined  Importance o f the F i s h b e i n The  standard regression  Model f o r the Study  immediate u s e f u l n e s s o f the F i s h b e i n  the number o f p o s s i b l e  weights.  independent v a r i a b l e s  model i s t h a t i t reduces  f o r p r e d i c t i n g behavioural  35  i n t e n t i o n and b e h a v i o u r i n t o a manageable few.  Further, the i n t e r -  r e l a t i o n s h i p s between these p r e d i c t o r s i s s p e c i f i e d by the model.  Accord-  i n g t o F i s h b e i n , a d d i t i o n a l ( e x t e r n a l ) v a r i a b l e s , when used, f r e q u e n t l y do n o t improve p r e d i c t i o n t o any g r e a t e x t e n t education  (p.325).  S i n c e much o f  i s concerned w i t h the development o f one type o f b e h a v i o u r o r  a n o t h e r , e.g., o v e r t , v e r b a l , p e r c e p t u a l , o r s y m b o l i c b e h a v i o u r , e t c . , the F i s h b e i n model o r a m o d i f i c a t i o n o f i t , s h o u l d  prove u s e f u l i n the  p r e d i c t i o n o f such b e h a v i o u r from measures o f r e l e v a n t v a r i a b l e s . A n o t h e r f e a t u r e o f t h e model i s t h a t i t a l l o w s one t o d e t e r m i n e what v a r i a b l e s t o m a n i p u l a t e i n o r d e r t o b r i n g about a change i n behavioural  i n t e n t i o n and b e h a v i o u r , i . e . , the two components, a t t i t u d e  toward t h e a c t and n o r m a t i v e b e l i e f s , which a r e b e h a v i o u r - s p e c i f i c .  What  i s n e c e s s a r y i s t o a l t e r t h e s i t u a t i o n s o as t o a f f e c t e i t h e r t h e consequences o f t h e b e h a v i o u r a l  a l t e r n a t i v e s , A,,., o r t h e n o r m a t i v e act  expectations,  NB. Thus i n a t r i a n g l e - b o a r d e x p e r i m e n t , F i s h b e i n e t a l . ,  [1970] succeeded i n a l t e r i n g t h e p a t t e r n o f group i n t e r a c t i o n by merely c h a n g i n g t h e a l i g n m e n t o f t h e s p i r i t l e v e l s on t h e b o a r d . P r i s o n e r s ' Dilemma Game [ A j z e n and F i s h b e i n , pay-off-matrix and  Fishbein  s t r o n g l y i n f l u e n c e d behaviour.  And i n t h e  1970], v a r i a t i o n s i n t h e O t h e r s t u d i e s by A j z e n  [1970] and A j z e n [1971], s u p p o r t t h i s c l a i m b u t c o n t a i n  the c a u t i o n t h a t a component o f t h e model would be r e l a t e d t o the change produced o n l y i f t h a t component had a h i g h p r e d i c t i v e power i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e s p e c i f i c b e h a v i o u r o r i n t e n t i o n under c o n s i d e r a t i o n . However, most s t u d i e s u s i n g t h e F i s h b e i n model have been l i m i t e d to the area o f s o c i a l p s y c h o l o g i c a l  research  and have i n v o l v e d  highly  36  controlled laboratory experiments.  There is a dearth of literature  relating to the use of the model in educational situations; in fact, only the Abramson study [1972] is known to this writer.  But even in that  study sole concern was devoted to examining the adequacy of the model itself.  In the present study the Fishbein model is used in an educa-  tional context wherein the variables of central concern include not only those which are internal to the model but external variables as well. 2.4.3  The BI-B Relationship  The importance of the Fishbein equation is based on the assumption that behavioural intention which is directly predicted is somehow related to overt behaviour, which is usually the central concern to those who use the model.  To be useful, the model must give a good pre-  diction of B from the value of BI which is in turn estimated from the component variables.  Four conditions have been identified (by Fishbein  and others) as being necessary for a high BI-B relationship.  These  conditions require that measures of BI be (1) behaviour specific, (2) taken immediately prior to the behaviour, (3) stable and free from potential new information about behavioural consequences, and (4) the behaviour should be within the S_'s volitional control. Table 2 shows the correlations obtained from the BI-B relationship in various studies. The effect of a long time interval between the measurement of BI and that of B is clearly demonstrated in the low BI-B correlation obtained in the Darrock Study [1971].  The Fishbein [1966] study demonstrates  37  TABLE 2 BI-B Correlations Obtained in Various Studies Using the Fishbein Model Instrument Used  Experimenter  BI-B Correlation (r)  2 Prisoner's Dilemma Games  Ajzen & Fishbein [1970]  .897, .841 (p.=.001)  Prisoner's Dilemma Game  Ajzen [1971]  .822 (p.=.001)  Extended Prisoner's Dilemma Game  Hornik [1970]  .867  Picture-Release Technique  Darrock [1971] 4 weeks between Bl and B measurements  .262-.584 average .462  Self-Report (Premarital Sexual Intercourse PSI)  Fishbein [1966]  .564 females (p.=.05)* .174 males (NS)*  Behaviour toward a University Physics Course  Abramson [1972]  .268-.280  Donation of Transplant Organs  Schwartz and Tessler [1972]  .375  .676 females (p.=.01)** .394 males (NS)**  * General Intention/Behaviour * Specific Intention/Behaviour  38  the i n f l u e n c e o f t h e s p e c i f i c i t y o f the b e h a v i o u r a l marked i n c r e a s e  intention act.  i n t h e BI-B c o r r e l a t i o n can be n o t e d f o r both g r o u p s ,  i n p a r t i c u l a r the male group, as the i n t e n d e d a c t s h i f t s from to  A  general  specific.  2.4.4  P r e d i c t i o n o f BI from F i s h b e i n ' s Theory's A t t i t u d i n a l and Normative Components  The a c c u r a c y o f t h e p r e d i c t i o n o f BI from components i s i n d i c a t e d by the m u l t i p l e c o r r e l a t i o n s shown f o r d i f f e r e n t s t u d i e s According to Fishbein's  theory,  i n T a b l e 3.  the a t t i t u d i n a l and n o r m a t i v e  components ( i . e . , v a r i a b l e s i n t e r n a l t o the m o d e l ) , a r e t h e n e c e s s a r y and  s u f f i c i e n t psychological  f o r e B.  v a r i a b l e s r e q u i r e d t o p r e d i c t BI and  I t i s claimed that v a r i a b l e s external  t o the model may  there-  influence  B I , b u t t h a t they can o n l y do so i n d i r e c t l y , i . e . , through the agency o f e i t h e r o f the t h e o r y ' s components o r t h e i r b e t a w e i g h t s and t h i s o n l y i f the component o r b e t a w e i g h t r e p r e s e n t s  a high p r e d i c t i v e power.  w o u l d be t h e case i f the r e l a t i o n o f the e x t e r n a l and  This  variable to intentions  o v e r t b e h a v i o u r i s d r a s t i c a l l y r e d u c e d when A_ . and NB a r e s t a t i s ac t  t i c a l l y held constant.  Ajzen & Fishbein  f o r t h e e f f e c t s o f the p l a y e r s ' t i o n i n the P r i s o n e r ' s  [1970] showed t h i s t o be t r u e  pay-off-matrix  and t h e i r s e x , on c o o p e r a -  Dilemma Game.  S c h w a r t z and T e s s l e r [1972] a l s o have t e s t e d the n e c e s s i t y  and  s u f f i c i e n c y o f the model's components i n p r e d i c t i n g b e h a v i o u r i n a s t u d y of i n t e n t i o n s regarding  s i x kinds  of medical t r a n s p l a n t donations.  They  concluded that personal  n o r m a t i v e b e l i e f s , a t t i t u d e s toward the a c t and,  39  TABLE 3 Multiple Correlations between BI and Theory's Components  Experimenter (date)  Multiple Correlation, R  2-person Prisoner's Dilemma Game  Ajzen & Fishbein [1970] Ajzen [1971]  .818-.888  Behaviour towards Nego Stimulus Person  Carlson [1968]  .770-970 mean .913  Ajzen & Fishbein [1969]  .684-.819 av. .766  Fishbein, et a l . , [1970]  .704 (communication)* .608 (compliance)*  Study  Triangle-board Study  .807 (communication)** .765 (compliance)** Self-Report (Premarital Sexual Intercourse)  Fishbein [1966]  .935 females .860 males  Behaviour toward a University Physics Course  Abramson [1972]  .710-.797  Donation of Transplant Organs  Schwartz & Tessler [1972]  .450-.600  * Pre-test ** Post-test  40  usually, social normative beliefs, were significant predictors of intention, accounting for somewhat better than 50 per cent of the variance in intentions. of over 40 per cent.  In particular, NBp accounted for an average  However, the variables of the model failed to  account for the effects of four out of six external variables tested, which therefore cast doubt on the sufficiency of the model. In a similar study, Abramson [1972] used the Fishbein model to predict students' behaviour and behavioural intention towards assignments in a physics course from measures of variables internal and external to the model.  He obtained results which were consistent with  those of Schwartz and Tessler [1972]. It would appear, therefore, that the efficiency of the model might be imporved by careful specification and measurement of relevant external variables. In the present study, six variables external to the model were included (see p. 52).  The time elapsed between the measurements of B  and BI was limited to 24 hours and the situations in which the behavioural acts were to be carried out were made as specific and realistic as possible (see Appendix A).  Situational cues were also such that they  were stable over long periods of time. While the present study is not an attempt directly to verify the efficacy of the model, it would be interesting to examine the relative contributions of both the internal and external variables, and of individual variables studied.  41  So f a r , few a t t e m p t s have been made t o use the F i s h b e i n s t u d y the e d u c a t i o n a l s h o u l d prove u s e f u l achieving  c o n t e x t [Abramson, 1972]. f o r organizing  some w e l l d e f i n e d  model t o  I f s u c c e s s f u l , the model  i n s t r u c t i o n and l e a r n i n g aimed a t  objectives.  F o r example, s h o u l d the s o c i a l  n o r m a t i v e component o f the model prove t h e most e f f i c a c i o u s i n p r e d i c t i n g BI and B f o r a p a r t i c u l a r group o f s u b j e c t s , usefulness of s o c i a l  t h i s might p o i n t out the  r e f e r e n t s o f importance t o t h a t g r o u p , o r o f r o l e  p l a y i n g as methods o f i n s t r u c t i o n aimed a t i n d u c i n g The F i s h b e i n  c e r t a i n behaviours.  model was s e l e c t e d i n p r e f e r e n c e t o o t h e r methods  (such as the s e m a n t i c d i f f e r e n t i a l ) o f p r e d i c t i n g b e h a v i o u r a l and  intention  b e h a v i o u r f i r s t l y , because o f i t s s i m p l i c i t y — w i t h some 50 p e r c e n t  o r more o f BI v a r i a n c e also allows  predicted  by o n l y  three v a r i a b l e s .  f o r o t h e r v a r i a b l e s t o be e n t e r e d as  The model  desired.  S e c o n d l y , a r e v i e w o f l i t e r a t u r e shows t h a t a t t e m p t s a t p r e d i c t i n g b e h a v i o u r have o f t e n been made through the measurement o f a t t i t u d e s a l o n e ; y e t a t t i t u d e s have been c o n s i s t e n t l y shown t o a c c o u n t f o r a s m a l l proportion theories  of variance  due t o b e h a v i o u r .  In a d d i t i o n , many o f t h e  l i n k i n g a t t i t u d e s to behaviour are not r e a d i l y  For example, F e s t i n g e r ' s  operationalizable.  t h e o r y [1958] o f c o g n i t i v e d i s s o n a n c e i s d i f f i -  c u l t t o o p e r a t i o n a l i z e because o f t h e c o m p l e x i t y o f t h e v a r i a b l e s t o be measured.  CHAPTER THREE METHOD OF STUDY  The s t u d y was an a t t e m p t t o use a m o d i f i e d form o f F i s h b e i n ' s Model which i n c l u d e d behavioural Unlike  c e r t a i n selected variables f o r p r e d i c t i n g the  i n t e n t i o n and b e h a v i o u r o f N i g e r i a n  High School  students.  previous a p p l i c a t i o n s o f the theory to highly c o n t r o l l e d  labor-  atory experiments, the present study addressed i t s e l f t o p r a c t i c a l , realistic applied.  s i t u a t i o n s t o which l i t t l e e x p e r i m e n t a l c o n t r o l c o u l d be The e x t e r n a l  v a r i a b l e s added t o t h e F i s h b e i n model were seen  as i m p o r t a n t t o e d u c a t i o n a l significant contributions  3.1  d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g and were e x p e c t e d t o make to the p r e d i c t i o n o f the c r i t e r i o n  variables.  S e l e c t i o n o f Study S i t e The s u b j e c t s  s t u d i e d were drawn p a r t l y from t h e n o n - s e c t a r i a n  secondary s c h o o l s i n I g a l a D i v i s i o n o f t h e Kwara S t a t e o f N i g e r i a and p a r t l y from among p e o p l e i n t h e same D i v i s i o n who were w i t h i n t h e same age-ranges as t h e secondary s c h o o l  subjects  but w i t h no formal  e d u c a t i o n o f any k i n d . I g a l a D i v i s i o n ( r e c e n t l y broken up i n t o t h r e e  administrative  d i v i s i o n s ) c o v e r s an a r e a o f some 3,500 square m i l e s and has a population  o f about 700,000 p e o p l e who form an a l m o s t homogeneous  e t h n i c g r o u p , s p e a k i n g t h e same language ( I g a l a ) . stitute a distinct cultural  group.  e x i s t s i d e by s i d e i n t h i s c u l t u r e . 42  The people con-  C h r i s t i a n and Moslem  influences  The p e o p l e l i v e i n r u r a l  communities  43  ( v i l l a g e s and h a m l e t s ) w i t h p o p u l a t i o n s r a n g i n g from a few hundreds t o about two o r t h r e e t h o u s a n d , as w e l l as i n l a r g e r v i l l a g e s and towns o f about 5,000 - 20,000 p e o p l e . A g r i c u l t u r e i s t h e main o c c u p a t i o n o f t h e people but a number work as c r a f t s m e n  i n local  i n d u s t r i e s such as w e a v i n g , d y e i n g , b l a c k -  s m i t h i n g , c a r v i n g , e t c . , and i n government and b u s i n e s s in c l e r i c a l  establishments  positions.  An i m p o r t a n t reason f o r s e l e c t i n g t h i s s i t e f o r t h e s t u d y was t h e f a c t t h a t t h e e x p e r i m e n t e r  i s h i m s e l f a member o f t h i s  group and speaks t h e language w e l l  ( h i s n a t i v e language).  cultural  Frijda  and Jahoda [1969, p. 4 0 ] , have emphasized t h e need t o have i n v e s t i g a t o r s o f non-Western c u l t u r e s come from t h e c u l t u r e s themselves the immense problems o f language and communication.  because o f  Belonging to  t h e I g a l a group was a c l e a r advantage i n t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y , because o f t h e n e c e s s i t y t o t r a n s l a t e t h e measuring i n s t r u m e n t s i n t o language f o r s u b j e c t s who were n o t l i t e r a t e i n t h e E n g l i s h  this language,  and a l s o because o f t h e need t o i n t e r v i e w them. 3.2  The P o p u l a t i o n The p o p u l a t i o n i n v e s t i g a t e d i n t h e study c o n s t i t u t e d a l l o f  the I g a l a s p e a k i n g s t u d e n t s i n Dekina Secondary S c h o o l s  and Ayangba, n o n - s e c t a r i a n  i n t h e I g a l a D i v i s i o n o f Kwara S t a t e , and t h e i r  I g a l a s p e a k i n g and age c o u n t e r p a r t s i n t h e same D i v i s i o n who had not r e c e i v e d any f o r m a l  education.  44  The c h o i c e o f n o n - s e c t a r i a n secondary  s c h o o l s was based on t h e  need t o m i n i m i z e c e r t a i n a d m i n i s t r a t i v e and s a m p l i n g problems r e l a t e d t o the s t u d y .  F o r example, t h e s e c t a r i a n s c h o o l s under t h e management o f  s e v e r a l d i f f e r e n t m i s s i o n a r y b o d i e s r e q u i r e d t h a t p e r m i s s i o n t o use those s c h o o l s f o r t h e s t u d y be sought from each body s e p a r a t e l y , thus c r e a t i n g t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f non-uniform instruments to subjects.  c o n d i t i o n s f o r a d m i n i s t e r i n g the  S e c o n d l y , the two s c h o o l s s t u d i e d d e r i v e t h e i r  s t u d e n t s from a l l p a r t s o f t h e s t a t e w i t h o u t any a p p a r e n t b i a s f o r s o c i a l background and r e l i g i o n . Both problems f e a t u r e q u i t e p r o m i n e n t l y i n the s e c t a r i a n s c h o o l s and m i g h t be seen t o a f f e c t t h e c o m p o s i t i o n and a t t i t u d i n a l  disposition  o f t h e s u b j e c t p o p u l a t i o n , thereby masking the f i n d i n g s o f t h e s t u d y . In a d d i t i o n , s t a t e governments i n N i g e r i a a r e i n t h e p r o c e s s o f p h a s i n g o u t the s e c t a r i a n s c h o o l s , thus making t h e s e l e c t i o n o f n o n - s e c t a r i a n s c h o o l s more r e l e v a n t t o f u t u r e d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g about e d u c a t i o n i n the country. The  s e l e c t i o n o f Comparison Group I I ( n o - f o r m a l - e d u c a t i o n ) was  based on the need t o p r o v i d e a non-school  c o n t r o l group so as t o determine  i f s c h o o l i n g p e r s e , and/or s c i e n c e i n s t r u c t i o n , was a s i g n i f i c a n t i n i n f l u e n c i n g t h e b e h a v i o u r a l i n t e n t i o n s and a c t u a l b e h a v i o u r s investigation.  I t was t h e r e f o r e n e c e s s a r y  c o u l d mask t h e s c h o o l i n g e f f e c t . nominated by the E x p e r i m e n t a l  under  t o match t h i s non-school  w i t h the E x p e r i m e n t a l Group on p o s s i b l e d i s t i n g u i s h i n g v a r i a b l e s  factor  control  which-  Hence t h e s e l e c t i o n was made from names  Group o f S_s w i t h s i m i l a r n o n - s c h o o l ,  and r e l i g i o u s e x p e r i e n c e s as themselves.  cultural  45  3.3  The Samples The E x p e r i m e n t a l Group c o n s i s t e d o f a p r o p o r t i o n a l ,  stratified  sample o f 79 S_s randomly drawn from among 230 I g a l a - s p e a k i n g s u b j e c t s a t Dekina Secondary S c h o o l .  T a b l e 4 r e p r e s e n t s the s a m p l i n g p l a n used.  The  number o f Ss_ i n each s t r a t u m r e p r e s e n t s t h e i r p r o p o r t i o n i n the t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n from which s u b j e c t s were s e l e c t e d . , A s i m i l a r s a m p l i n g p r o c e d u r e was  used t o s e l e c t 57  Comparison  Group I Ss_, who were r e c e i v i n g a n o n - s c i e n c e , g e n e r a l commercial t i o n a t Ayangba Secondary Commercial  educa-  C o l l e g e (see T a b l e 5 ) .  S i m i l a r l y , 82 Comparison Group I I , n o - f o r m a l - e d u c a t i o n Ss were randomly drawn from a l i s t o f names p r o v i d e d by the Dekina s u b j e c t s (5 names each) o f age-mates b e l o n g i n g i n the same c a t e g o r i e s o f R e l i g i o n S o c i o Economic Where i t was  and  Environment i n w h i c h the Dekina Ss_ had been i d e n t i f i e d .  i m p o s s i b l e t o l o c a t e a s e l e c t e d s u b j e c t , a r e p l a c e m e n t was  randomly drawn from the r e m a i n i n g names o r from a new sample whose desc r i p t i o n s i n terms o f t h e c r i t e r i a f o r s e l e c t i o n f i t t e d t h o s e o f t h e previously selected subject.  One Comparison  Group I I S^was s e l e c t e d  f o r each Dekina s u b j e c t s e l e c t e d f o r the s t u d y . For each s t r a t u m , a p r o p o r t i o n a l  random sample o f one,  two,  o r t h r e e Ss_ were drawn from the remainder o f p o t e n t i a l Ss^, t o s e r v e as judges f o r  developing  some o f the i n s t r u m e n t s used i n the s t u d y .  The s e l e c t i o n o f the t h r e e groups was based on the c e n t r a l  con-  c e r n o f the s t u d y w h i c h i s t o d e t e r m i n e the e x t e n t t o which s c i e n c e i n s t r u c t i o n has been e f f e c t i v e i n p r o m o t i n g the spontaneous  disposition  t o recommend the use o f s c i e n c e p r o c e s s s k i l l s o r t e c h n i q u e s t o a p e r s o n  46  TABLE 4 Proportional Stratified Sampling Plan for. Experimental Group (Dekina)  Total in each stratum (n.)  Strata  Proportion in each category  1  <J  N  t  Level 1 Level 2 Level 1 Level 2 Christian - Rural  49  60  Samples Selected n. r± (Ns) N, Level 1  (3) Christian - Urban  28  19  .05  .03  Moslem - Rural  28  11  .05  .02  13  16  11  .09  Level 2  (22) 12  (2)  (26)1  (1)  (9)  (1)  (5)  (2)  ( 8)  (12) 12  Moslem - Urban  18  17  .03  .03  (2) (2)  Totals  123  107  .22  .19  (9) 49 (54)  Key:  (3)  (12) ( 8)  (7) 30 (48)  n^. = number of Ss_ in stratum j = total number of Igala-speaking Ss_ (Experimental Group (230)/ i.e., <f Comparison Group I ( 98);-= 558 Ss [Comparison Group 11(230)) Ns  Total projected sample size = 240 Ss_  Cells in the last two columns are labelled  N  ^  where, a = number of judges selected from cell, b = number of Ss based on calculated proportion, n t  and  N = number of Ss_ actually used in study Discrepancies between b and N were mainly due to attrition or anticipated attrition.  47  TABLE 5 P r o p o r t i o n a l S t r a t i f i e d Sampling Plan f o r Comparison Group 1 (Ayangba)  Strata  T o t a l i n each s t r a t u m (n.)  Proportion i n each c a t e g o r y  Samples  Selected  J|A(Ns) t  Level C h r i s t i a n - Rural  34  1 Level 2 Level 10  .06  1 Level 2  Level 1  .02 (3)  C h r i s t i a n - Urban  11  4  .02  18  5  .03  Totals  Key:  13 76  See T a b l e 4, p. 46  3  .02  .01  .13  ( 5)  (1)  3  ( 3)  ( 8)  (1)  4  ( 3)  ( 6)  (1)  2  ( 2)  8  .01  10 (2)  22  7  ( 5)  7  (2) Moslem - Urban  (2)  .01 (2)  Moslem - R u r a l  16 • (15)  Level 2  .05  (9) 41 (34)  (5) 16 (13)  48  o r persons  c o n f r o n t e d w i t h problems o f measurement which a r e o f e v e r y -  day concern found  to Nigerians.  Such t e c h n i q u e s a r e opposed t o t h o s e u s u a l l y  i n operation i n the c u l t u r e .  cultural  Group I I s u b j e c t s p r o v i d e t h e  base a g a i n s t which comparison i s t o be made. To i s o l a t e t h e e f f e c t due t o s c i e n c e i n s t r u c t i o n (from a  s c h o o l i n g e f f e c t p e r s e ) , Comparison Group I Ss_ w i t h a g e n e r a l  commercial  e d u c a t i o n but no s c i e n c e was a l s o e s t a b l i s h e d .  3.4  C o m p a r a b i l i t y o f t h e Samples To ensure t h a t d i f f e r e n c e s o b t a i n e d from t h e a n a l y s i s o f d a t a  are due o n l y t o t h e v a r i a b l e s measured, some b a s i c comparison d a t a were g a t h e r e d f o r a l l t h e samples s e l e c t e d . r e g a r d i n g procedures  These i n c l u d e i n f o r m a t i o n  f o r the s e l e c t i o n (admission) o f students  Dekina and Ayangba s c h o o l s , t h e q u a l i t y o f i n s t r u c t i o n i n both  into schools  i n c l u d i n g t e a c h e r s ' q u a l i f i c a t i o n s and e x p e r i e n c e , t h e n a t u r e o f i n s t r u c t i o n i n t h e elementary  schools p r e v i o u s l y attended  by s u b j e c t s ,  as w e l l as t h e e d u c a t i o n a l background and o c c u p a t i o n o f t h e i r The d a t a were g a t h e r e d  parents.  by i n t e r v i e w and q u e s t i o n n a i r e (see Appendix C ) .  Other i n f o r m a t i o n g a t h e r e d  toward  such comparison i n c l u d e d  t h e S_'s mental a b i l i t y s c o r e s as measured by C a t t e l l ' s 'Cul t u r e F a i r ' t e s t o f i n t e l l i g e n c e , and t h e i r c h r o n o l o g i c a l ages w h i c h m i g h t be important i n e x p l a i n i n g maturation  3.4.1  1.  C o m p a r a b i l i t y o f Admission  effects.  Procedures  Dekina Admission  o f s t u d e n t s i n t o Dekina  Secondary School  t h e i r performance i n a s t a t e - w i d e Common E n t r a n c e  Examination  i s based on conducted  49  by the West A f r i c a n E x a m i n a t i o n s  C o u n c i l , and on p e r s o n a l o r p a r e n t a l  choice of s c h o o l , provided that vacancies a b i l i t y of vacancies  are s t i l l  available.  Avail-  depends on the number o f c a n d i d a t e s who have so  i n d i c a t e d t h e i r c h o i c e o f a p a r t i c u l a r s c h o o l and on the S t a t e ' s q u o t a system which s t i p u l a t e s a d i s t r i b u t i o n p a t t e r n aimed a t b r i n g i n g t o gether students  from a l l o v e r t h e S t a t e .  I n t e r v i e w s w i t h the Dekina  s u b j e c t s r e v e a l e d t h a t c r i t e r i a o f importance i n a c a n d i d a t e ' s  choice  o f s c h o o l had t o do w i t h nearness o f t h e s c h o o l t o h i s hometown, t h e presence i n t h a t s c h o o l o f somebody ( f r i e n d o r r e l a t i v e ) known t o him. O t h e r c r i t e r i a i n c l u d e d h i s p e r s o n a l assessment o f t h e s c h o o l ' s e x t r a c u r r i c u l a r programs such as games, c l u b s , and t h e e n t i r e s o c i a l w i t h i n the school.  Only a s m a l l number o f t h e s u b j e c t s c l a i m e d t o have  based t h e i r c h o i c e on a p r e v i o u s knowledge o f the c u r r i c u l u m the s c h o o l . ate,  atmosphere  Since the parents  at  o f a v a s t m a j o r i t y a r e themselves  illiter-  i t i s u n l i k e l y that the c r i t e r i o n o f c u r r i c u l a r o f f e r i n g featured  prominently  i n t h e i r c h o i c e o f s c h o o l , where such a c h o i c e was made.  Fees a r e u n i f o r m t h r o u g h o u t t h e s t a t e .  2.  Ayangba  Ayangba Commercial C o l l e g e i s a p r i v a t e , n o n - s e c t a r i a n l o c a t e d about 30 km. e a s t o f Dekina.  school  The s c h o o l o f f e r s a b u s i n e s s  program  i n Economics, A c c o u n t i n g , T y p i n g and S h o r t h a n d , B o o k k e e p i n g , E n g l i s h , Business  A r i t h m e t i c and Geography.  non-science obvious  I t i s the only school o f f e r i n g a  program i n the e n t i r e I g a i a D i v i s i o n and was t h e r e f o r e an  choice f o r the study.  50  A d m i s s i o n i n t o Ayangba i s through an E n t r a n c e E x a m i n a t i o n  con-  ducted by t h e c o l l e g e u s i n g a s i m i l a r format t o t h e Common E n t r a n c e Examination, f o r a l l elementary schools i n I g a l a D i v i s i o n .  The major  c r i t e r i a f o r s e l e c t i o n a r e an o v e r r i d i n g i n t e r e s t i n a Commercial o r B u s i n e s s E d u c a t i o n and performance  i n the examination.  However, i t  was found t h a t some o f t h e Ayangba s u b j e c t s were among those who had passed the Dekina e x a m i n a t i o n b u t were o l d e r than t h e maximum age r e q u i r e d for  a d m i s s i o n i n t o Dekina and o t h e r Grammar S c h o o l s i n t h e s t a t e .  3.4.2  Comparability o f the Q u a l i t y o f I n s t r u c t i o n  Data r e l a t i n g t o q u a l i t y o f i n s t r u c t i o n a t Dekina and Ayangba s c h o o l s i s g i v e n i n T a b l e 6.  Q u a l i t y o f i n s t r u c t i o n i s here d e s c r i b e d i n terms o f  the academic and p r o f e s s i o n a l p r e p a r a t i o n o f t e a c h e r s , t h e i r t e a c h i n g exp e r i e n c e , t h e methods o f c l a s s r o o m i n s t r u c t i o n used and s c h o o l and t h e c u r r i c u l u m t a u g h t .  facilities,  As t h e t a b l e shows, a h i g h e r p r o p o r t i o n o f  the Dekina t e a c h e r s had r e c e i v e d a h i g h e r l e v e l o f academic and p r o f e s s i o n a l p r e p a r a t i o n than t h e Ayangba t e a c h e r s .  The s i t u a t i o n i n Ayangba was p r o b a b l y  due t o the f a c t t h a t i t i s a r e l a t i v e l y new s c h o o l i n comparison w i t h and a l s o due t o t h e g r e a t e r m o b i l i t y o f people w i t h commercial tions.  Dekina  qualifica-  ( A t t h e time the s t u d y was c a r r i e d o u t , Ayangba was e x p e r i e n c i n g  d i f f i c u l t y i n recruiting teachers).  However, Ayangba t e a c h e r s compare q u i t e  f a v o u r a b l y w i t h Dekina t e a c h e r s i n terms o f y e a r s o f t e a c h i n g e x p e r i e n c e acquired. The methods o f c l a s s r o o m i n s t r u c t i o n used i n both s c h o o l s a r e q u i t e s i m i l a r , b e i n g m a i n l y t h e l e c t u r e type w i t h o c c a s i o n a l t e a c h e r  51  TABLE 6 Quality of Instruction School Population: Dekina 428 Ayangba 150  Number of Teachers: Dekina 19 Ayangba 8  Academic Qualifications of Teachers  Dekina Ayangba  Bachelor's Degree 13 -  Master's Degree  GCE 'A' Level 2 2  GCE '0' Level 5  Professional Qualifications Dekina Ayangba  PGCE  NCE  Grade II  RSA  5 -  6 1  5  7  Teaching Experience No Teaching Experience 1-3 Years Dekina 2 9 Ayangba 3  4-6 Years 6 3  7-8 Years Over 8 Years 1 1 1 1 .  Method of Instruction and Facilities Dekina Lecture / Demonstration, Laboratory (2 hours per week for General Science; 2 hours per week each for Physics, Chemistry, Biology), Assignments Ayangba  Lecture / Demonstration, Studio Practice (Typing and Shorthand), Assignments  Curriculum Taught Dekina GCE Syllabus Ayangba RSA I & II / GCE Key: GCE 'A' Level = General Certificate of Education (London University) at 'Advanced' Level. GCE '0* Level = General Certificate of Education (London University) at 'Ordinary' Level. PGCE = Post-Graduate Certificate in Education (1 year after Bachelor's degree). NCE = Nigerian Certificate in Education (highest nongraduate teaching qualification in Nigeria). Grade II = Elementary School Teacher's Certificate (GCE '0' Level equivalent + 1 year). RSA = Royal Society of Arts (Levels I and II) Certificate in Commercial subjects.  52  d e m o n s t r a t i o n , as w e l l as l a b o r a t o r y o r s t u d i o p r a c t i c e . f o l l o w s y l l a b u s e s p r e s c r i b e d by e x t e r n a l e x a m i n i n g  3.4.3  Comparability  Information  o f Parental  regarding  w i t h the q u e s t i o n n a i r e  responses t o t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e  schools  bodies.  E d u c a t i o n and O c c u p a t i o n  parental  described  Both  education  i n Appendix C.  and o c c u p a t i o n  was  obtained  An e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e  showed t h a t o v e r 90% o f a l l t h e s u b j e c t s  came from f a m i l y backgrounds i n which a t l e a s t one o f the p a r e n t s i s illiterate.  S i m i l a r l y , most p a r e n t s were f a r m e r s o r t r a d e r s ( p e d l a r s ) .  For t h e s u b j e c t s  from urban s o c i o e c o n o m i c e n v i r o n m e n t s t h i s meant t h a t  f a r m e r p a r e n t s m a i n t a i n e d a farm on t h e o u t s k i r t s o f t h e town. ponding p a r e n t s o f Ss_ i n t h e r u r a l 3.4.4  Comparability  their  The c o r r e s -  c a t e g o r y t y p i c a l l y l i v e on t h e i r farms.  o f Pre-admission T r a i n i n g o f Subjects  From t h e e x p e r i m e n t e r ' s e x p e r i e n c e o f t h i s c u l t u r e and from i n t e r v i e w s h e l d w i t h t h e p a r e n t s o f some o f t h e S_s, l i t t l e v a r i a t i o n e x i s t s i n the nature o f c h i l d - r e a r i n g t r a i n i n g given y o u n g s t e r s , i . e . , under the age o f s i x y e a r s .  t o pre-school  Such t r a i n i n g u s u a l l y  i n v o l v e s i n s t r u c t i n g t h e c h i l d about s o c i a l norms and e l e m e n t a r y modes o f behaviour.  These i n c l u d e c e r t a i n b e l i e f s and knowledge about the c u l t u r e  w h i c h he needs t o have t o o p e r a t e w i t h i n t h e c u l t u r a l c o n t e x t . such i n s t r u c t i o n i s not f o r m a l i z e d b u t i s a d m i n i s t e r e d  Most o f t e n ,  through a system  o f examplars o r by s t o r y - t e l 1 i n g . Responses t o t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f elementary schools  ( s e e Appendix C) showed t h a t t h e  from w h i c h t h e Ayangba Ss_ were  was q u i t e s i m i l a r t o t h a t o f the Dekina S£.  Elementary school  derived  education  53  concentrates  m a i n l y on t e a c h i n g  the b a s i c s k i l l s o f R e a d i n g , W r i t i n g ,  and  A r i t h m e t i c , w i t h a minimum amount o f S o c i a l S t u d i e s , H e a l t h  and  Practical Agriculture.  The  c o n t e n t o f the A r i t h m e t i c  i n c l u d e s the b a s i c a r i t h m e t i c a l p r o c e s s e s o f A d d i t i o n , M u l t i p l i c a t i o n and  D i v i s i o n as w e l l as s i m p l e  l e n g t h measures, w e i g h t measures, and  syllabus  Subtraction,  r e l a t i o n s h i p s between  volume measures.  i n c l u d e s s i m p l e methods o f s a n i t a t i o n and  Science  hygiene.  The  Health  Science  practical  a g r i c u l t u r e s y l l a b u s emphasizes s i m p l e methods of c u l t i v a t i o n and  the  operation  the  o f a school  garden.  V i s i t s t o some o f t h e s e gardens by  e x p e r i m e n t e r showed t h a t the hoe t h a t c r o p s were p l a n t e d was  i s the main t o o l f o r c u l t i v a t i o n ,  i n q u i t e s t r a i g h t r i d g e s but t h a t l i t t l e  observed w i t h regard  to p l a n t i n g  distances.  There i s a h i g h m o b i l i t y (from s c h o o l elementary school  teachers  3.4.5  Comparability  t o s c h o o l ) among  w i t h the r e s u l t t h a t t h e s t a n d a r d  t i o n v a r i e s v e r y l i t t l e from one  order  school  of i n s t r u c -  to another.  o f Ages  S i n c e the samples d i f f e r e d i n c h r o n o l o g i c a l ages by up seven y e a r s and of  s i n c e age may  be r e g a r d e d as one  o f the d e t e r m i n a n t s  Ss_^ e x p e r i e n c e w i t h d i f f e r e n t t e c h n i q u e s o f measurement, the  v a l u e was  adjusted  f o r age  to  criterion  d i f f e r e n c e s between the samples i n the  regression analysis.  3.4.6  Comparability An  o f Mental  a t t e m p t was  Ability  made t o compare the samples i n terms o f  mental a b i l i t y by a d m i n i s t e r i n g  the C a t t e l l ' C u l t u r e F a i r ' t e s t t o a l l  S s , because o f the p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t the a b i l i t y f a c t o r c o u l d  influence  54  t h e i r performance on the i n s t r u m e n t .  However, i t was  found t h a t Ss  i n the sample o f u n s c h o o l e d persons f a i l e d t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e t a s k s posed by t h e t e s t . not v a l i d  I t was  t h e r e f o r e c o n c l u d e d t h a t the t e s t  was  as a measure o f mental a b i l i t y f o r comparison p u r p o s e s ,  and was dropped from the s t u d y .  3.5  Instrumentation 3.5.1  V a r i a b l e s t o be  Measured  S i x independent v a r i a b l e s e x t e r n a l t o the F i s h b e i n Model (see p. 55)  a s  wel1 as t h r e e i n t e r n a l p r e d i c t o r v a r i a b l e s o f t h e Model  were o f d i r e c t i n t e r e s t i n t h e s t u d y . economic  The f o r m e r i n c l u d e :  Socio-  E n v i r o n m e n t , R e l i g i o n , Type o f I n s t r u c t i o n , L e v e l o f I n s t r u c t i o n ,  Age and Mental A b i l i t y .  The v a r i a b l e s i n t e r n a l  t o the Model  were:  A t t i t u d e toward the A c t , P e r s o n a l Normative B e l i e f s , and S o c i a l Beliefs.  Normative  The c r i t e r i o n v a r i a b l e s were B e h a v i o u r a l I n t e n t i o n and  Actual Behaviour.  55  TABLE 7. V a r i a b l e s I n t e r n a l and E x t e r n a l  Dependent  Variables  t o the F i s h b e i n  Independent V a r i a b l e s ( i n t e r n a l t o t h e Model)  Model  Independent V a r i a b l e s ( e x t e r n a l t o the Model)  B  A  BI  NB  p  Type o f I n s t r u c t i o n  NB  5  Level  act  S o c i o e c o n o m i c Environment Religion  of Instruction Age  Mental  Ability  56  3.5.2 1.  Independent  Variables  S o c i o e c o n o m i c E n v i r o n m e n t , (SEE)  In t h e s t u d y , SEE was used t o r e f e r t o the e n v i r o n m e n t i n w h i c h the s u b j e c t s p e n t a t l e a s t t w o - t h i r d s o f the f i r s t t w e l v e y e a r s o f h i s l i f e , which i n c l u d e s where he r e c e i v e d h i s p r e - s c h o o l and e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l e d u c a t i o n , and t o w h i c h he would n o r m a l l y r e t u r n when t h e s c h o o l i s not i n s e s s i o n ( f o r t h e s c h o o l e d s u b j e c t s ) .  For the non-schooled  Group I I s u b j e c t s t h e term r e f e r s t o s i m i l a r l o c a t i o n s where t h e s u b j e c t has always  lived.  Two c a t e g o r i e s o f s o c i o e c o n o m i c e n v i r o n m e n t were u s e d - - r u r a l and urban.  D i s t i n c t i o n between the two was drawn by r e f e r e n c e t o t h e  s i z e and s t r u c t u r a l  c o m p o s i t i o n o f the p o p u l a t i o n and by i t s p h y s i c a l  l o c a t i o n i n r e l a t i o n t o i m p o r t a n t r o u t e w a y s , government d e p a r t m e n t s , and m a n u f a c t u r i n g i n d u s t r i e s .  Non-agricultural, metropolitan centres  w i t h p o p u l a t i o n s o f t e n thousand o r more, a t t h e i n t e r s e c t i o n o f a t l e a s t two i m p o r t a n t routeways  ( r o a d , r i v e r , r a i l , o r a i r t r a n s p o r t ) and/  o r t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e h e a d q u a r t e r s o f a t l e a s t two s t a t e government departments and h a v i n g one o r more m a n u f a c t u r i n g i n d u s t r i e s were c l a s s i f i e d as urban.  Areas w i t h i n two m i l e s o f the c e n t r e o f such p l a c e s were  included i n the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . typical agricultural  R u r a l e n v i r o n m e n t s were d e f i n e d as  s e t t l e m e n t s w i t h low d e n s i t i e s o f p o p u l a t i o n and  l y i n g o u t s i d e t h e a r e a s i n c l u d e d w i t h i n the urban  classification.  A c c o r d i n g t o t h e above c r i t e r i a D e k i n a , Ayangba, I d a h , and Ankpa were c l a s s i f i e d as urban.  O t h e r p l a c e s w i t h i n the g e n e r a l areas under  s t u d y ( i . e . , I g a l a D i v i s i o n ) were i n c l u d e d i n the r u r a l c a t e g o r y ( s e e  57  Figure 1, p. 2).  A questionnaire (see Appendix C), checked against  school reports, was used to establish the category for each of the subjects at Dekina and Ayangba. 2.  Religion  Subjects indicated their religious persuasion as either Christian or Moslem on a questionnaire (see Appendix C).  Such nominal membership  was taken as sufficient evidence for the categorization. 3.  Type of Instruction  The three groups of subjects studied correspond to three different types of instruction: Science Instruction (the Experimental Group), NonScience (Commercial) Instruction (Comparison Group I), Education (Comparison Group II).  and No-Formal-  The Experimental Group was drawn from  Dekina Secondary School while Comparison Group I was drawn from Ayangba Commercial Secondary School.  The No-Formal-Education subjects were drawn  from a l i s t of nominees compiled by the Dekina subjects. 4.  Level of Instruction  For the two schooled groups, Ss_ were classified according to two levels of instruction: Junior or Level I (Forms 1 and 2) and Senior or Level II  (Forms 3 and 4).  The difference between these two subgroups  with regard to the Experimental, science-instructed group is that Level I corresponded to General Science instruction in which the physical and biological sciences were studied as an integrated subject at an introductory level only.  At the senior level of instruction the various science  58  s u b j e c t s were t a u g h t a t a h i g h e r l e v e l  i n t h e i r s p e c i a l t i e s , i . e . , as  p h y s i c s , c h e m i s t r y , and b i o l o g y , s e p a r a t e l y . The  major d i s t i n c t i o n among the Group I s u b j e c t s was i n terms o f  Grade l e v e l o n l y .  S i n c e t h e Comparison Group I I were themselves nominated  by the Dekina s u b j e c t s , the major c o r r e s p o n d i n g  distinguishing factor  was age. 5.  Age  Age  was d e f i n e d as c h r o n o l o g i c a l age and was e s t a b l i s h e d w i t h the  q u e s t i o n n a i r e i n Appendix C and by r e f e r e n c e t o s c h o o l Dekina and Ayangba S's.  reports f o r the  F o r t h e Comparison Group I I S£ t h e age s u g g e s t e d  by t h e Dekina s u b j e c t was a c c e p t e d  a f t e r c o r r o b o r a t i o n by a t l e a s t two  e l d e r s who knew t h e s u b j e c t w e l l , u s u a l l y p a r e n t s o r o t h e r 6.  General  relatives.  Mental A b i l i t y o r IQ  Because o f t h e p o s s i b l e d i f f e r e n t i a l e f f e c t s o f g e n e r a l a b i l i t y on t h e s u b j e c t ' s a t t i t u d e and b e h a v i o u r a l  responses,  mental  a measure  o f t h i s v a r i a b l e was o b t a i n e d u s i n g C a t t e l l V C u l t u r e F a i r ' T e s t o f I n t e l l i g e n c e (IPAT) S c a l e 3, Forms A and B [ 1 9 5 9 ] .  T r a i n i n g on the  a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and s c o r i n g o f t h e t e s t was g i v e n t h e f i e l d a s s i s t a n t s , u s i n g Form A.  Because o f t h e newness o f the t e s t t o the s u b j e c t  popula-  t i o n s , Form A was used as a t r a i n i n g t e s t and o n l y Form B was s c o r e d f o r them. The  c h o i c e o f t h e C a t t e l l t e s t o v e r o t h e r mental a b i l i t y t e s t s  o f t h e " C u l t u r e F a i r " t y p e , e.g., t h e Raven M a t r i c e s , was made because a p i l o t s t u d y i n w h i c h b o t h t h e C a t t e l l t e s t and t h e Raven M a t r i c e s were  59  a d m i n i s t e r e d t o a group o f s i x N i g e r i a n s a t The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia r e v e a l e d t h a t i n s t r u c t i o n s f o r t h e f o r m e r were more e a s i l y understood.  7.  A t t i t u d e Toward t h e A c t (A .) ' act  A £» a person's a t t i t u d e toward p e r f o r m i n g C  a g i v e n s i t u a t i o n , appears as one o f t h e i n t e r n a l  a stipulated act i n v a r i a b l e s o f the F i s h -  b e i n Model ( s e e p. 3 0 ) . I t r e f e r s t o t h e amount o f f a v o u r a b l e n e s s o r unfavourableness  o f a s u b j e c t toward recommending a p a r t i c u l a r method o f  measurement t o a p e r s o n i n a g i v e n s i t u a t i o n i n v o l v i n g measurement. In t h e s t u d y , A  a c t  was measured by a s k i n g t h e s u b j e c t t o i n d i c a t e  w h i c h o f a number o f i n d e p e n d e n t l y  s c a l e d measurement t e c h n i q u e s  ( s e e p. 61  f o r s c a l i n g method used) he would be most f a v o u r a b l e toward recommending t o a p e r s o n i n a g i v e n measurement s i t u a t i o n . used f o r measuring A 8.  a c t  A sample o f i n s t r u m e n t s  i s g i v e n i n Appendix B.  P e r s o n a l Normative B e l i e f s ( N B ) p  The NBp v a r i a b l e r e p r e s e n t s t h e s u b j e c t ' s p e r s o n a l b e l i e f about w h e t h e r o r n o t he ought t o p e r f o r m  a given a c t i n a given  r e g a r d l e s s o f what people might t h i n k he ought t o do.  NB  situation, p  was measured  by a s k i n g t h e s u b j e c t t o i n d i c a t e which o f a number o f measurement t e c h niques  s c a l e d i n terms o f t h e s t r e n g t h o f p e r s o n a l commitment t o recommend  he f e l t he o u g h t , p e r s o n a l l y , t o recommend t o a p e r s o n i n a g i v e n tion.  See Appendix B f o r sample o f t h e NB  instrument.  situa-  60  9.  S o c i a l Normative B e l i e f s  The  NB  $  (NB )  component o f the F i s h b e i n Model r e p r e s e n t s the i n f l u e n c e  o f the s o c i a l e n v i r o n m e n t on b e h a v i o u r . commitment t o what he b e l i e v e s h i s s o c i a l NB  v a r i a b l e was  techniques  g  I t i s an i n d i c a n t o f the s u b j e c t ' s r e f e r e n t group e x p e c t s  o f measurement s c a l e d i n terms o f commitment t o the  to  3.5.3  Behavioural  to r e c -  I n t e n t i o n (BI)  I n t e n t i o n r e f e r s to expressed  performance o f the b e h a v i o u r s  i n t e n t t o engage i n the  under i n v e s t i g a t i o n , under s p e c i f i e d  In the s t u d y , the a c t towards which i n t e n t was  situations.  A measure o f BI was  condi-  b e i n g measured  recommending the use o f c e r t a i n measurement t e c h n i q u e s  cultural  him  a p e r s o n i n a g i v e n problem s i t u a t i o n i n v o l v i n g measurement.  Behavioural  was  expectations  Dependent V a r i a b l e s 1.  tions.  The  measured by h a v i n g s u b j e c t s i n d i c a t e which of a number o f  o f o t h e r s whose o p i n i o n s a r e v a l u e d most, they would expect ommend  o f him.  i n out-of-school  o b t a i n e d by a s k i n g s u b j e c t s t o  i n d i c a t e t h e i r c h o i c e among a number o f measurement t e c h n i q u e s  scaled in  terms o f w i l l i n g n e s s t o a c t u a l l y make the recommendation. The  assumption b e i n g made here i s t h a t i n d i v i d u a l c h o i c e  w i t h r e s p e c t t o i n d i c a t i n g w h i c h k i n d s o f measurement t e c h n i q u e s  behaviour they  are  w i l l i n g to recommend i s m e d i a t e d , a t l e a s t i n p a r t , by p r e v i o u s l e a r n i n g s about measurement and how t o the s i t u a t i o n a t hand. Appendix B.  w e l l the s u b j e c t can i n t e g r a t e the l e a r n i n g s A sample o f . t h e BI i n s t r u m e n t  i s given i n  61  2.  Behaviour  (B)  T h i s i s the a c t u a l performance o f the p a r t i c u l a r a c t toward w h i c h BI has been measured.  In the p r e s e n t s t u d y , a c t u a l b e h a v i o u r  was  assessed  through a s k i n g the s u b j e c t t o a c t u a l l y recommend t o persons t h a t m a t t e r the use o f a p a r t i c u l a r measurement t e c h n i q u e behaviour  p e r t a i n i n g t o the a c t o f recommending c u l t u r a l o r  methods o f measurement was  measured u s i n g the B e h a v i o u r  I n s t r u m e n t d e s c r i b e d i n Appendix B.  The  the s u b j e c t by the e x p e r i m e n t e r o r one were s i m i l a r l y 3.6  i n a given s i t u a t i o n .  i n s t r u m e n t was  Actua  scientific  Observation hand-delivered  o f h i s a s s i s t a n t s and  to  responses  collected.  Method o f S c a l i n g Used As d e s c r i b e d above, two s t a g e s  measuring B I ,  A a c  t>  N B p  >  a n d  N B  measurement) u s i n g a panel as the s u b j e c t s who observations  : S  0)  o f o p e r a t i o n were i n v o l v e d i n  S c a l i n g the s t i m u l i  (techniques  of  o f judges s e l e c t e d from the same p o p u l a t i o n  responded t o the i n s t r u m e n t s ,  and  (2) o b t a i n i n g  on the v a r i a b l e s u s i n g the e s t a b l i s h e d s c a l e f o r each  variable. 3.6.1  Scaling of Simuli 1.  S e l e c t i o n o f Judges  Judges used t o s c a l e the s t i m u l i drawn from the same p o p u l a t i o n s e l e c t e d from each c a t e g o r y  (measurement t e c h n i q u e s )  as the s u b j e c t s .  were  They were randomly  so as t o r e f l e c t the p r o p o r t i o n o f the e n t i r e  p o p u l a t i o n o f s u b j e c t s which belonged to t h a t category.  Tables  4 and  5  g i v e the number o f j u d g e s s e l e c t e d i n each c a t e g o r y a l o n g s i d e the number o f Ss.  62  2.  Construction o f the Instruments  U s i n g Thurstone's method o f P a i r e d Comparisons  and t h e optimum  o r d e r s o f p r e s e n t a t i o n d e v e l o p e d by Ross [ 1 9 3 4 ] , the i n s t r u m e n t s were c o n s t r u c t e d by making a l l  p o s s i b l e p a i r e d combinations o f s t i m u l i  vant t o a g i v e n measurement s i t u a t i o n .  These o r d e r s s e r v e t o e l i m i n a t e  space and time e r r o r s and a v o i d r e g u l a r r e p e t i t i o n s which might any g i v e n member o f a s t i m u l u s group.  rele-  I n s t r u c t i o n s were a l s o  involve  included  a s k i n g j u d g e s t o s o r t recommendations o f methods o f measurement a l o n g a p p r o p r i a t e p s y c h o l o g i c a l dimensions u n d e r l y i n g A  ., NB , NB , and BI ac L p s  a c c o r d i n g t o what t h e m a j o r i t y o f p e o p l e they knew ( n o t t h e i r p e r s o n a l p r e f e r e n c e s ) would p r e f e r t o do i n each c a s e . 3.  A d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f t h e I n s t r u m e n t s t o Judges  The p a i r e d comparison  i n s t r u m e n t s were a d m i n i s t e r e d t o t h e Dekina  and Ayangba j u d g e s i n t h e i r group, w h i l e t h e j u d g e s r e p r e s e n t i n g the n o - f o r m a l - e d u c a t i o n group r e c e i v e d t h e i n s t r u m e n t s i n d i v i d u a l l y . was because, f o r p r a c t i c a l  reasons ( i n c l u d i n g s p a t i a l  This  and temporal  l i m i t a t i o n s ) , i t was more c o n v e n i e n t t o a d m i n i s t e r t h e i n s t r u m e n t t o t h e s c h o o l e d groups each as a group w h i l e i t was i m p o s s i b l e , due t o l a r g e d i s p e r s i o n o f s u b j e c t s o v e r a wide g e o g r a p h i c a l a r e a , t o do so w i t h t h e non-schooled  group.  In each c a s e , t h e measurement s i t u a t i o n and t h e u n d e r l y i n g psyc h o l o g i c a l dimensions t o be used i n t h e judgment were d e s c r i b e d i n E n g l i s h and the t r a n s l a t e d I g a l a language v e r s i o n t o t h e judges  (Igala  a l o n e t o t h e n o n - s c h o o l e d j u d g e s ) by t h e e x p e r i m e n t e r o r h i s a s s i s t a n t .  63  Q u e s t i o n s were then s o l i c i t e d t o e l i c i t t h e i r u n d e r s t a n d i n g i n s t r u c t i o n s given.  o f the  Such q u e s t i o n s were noted and the e x p l a n a t i o n s  r e p e a t e d i n a l l subsequent a d m i n i s t r a t i o n s .  D e s c r i p t i o n s o f and/or  a c t u a l examples o f the measurement t e c h n i q u e s r e l e v a n t t o the  particular  s i t u a t i o n under s t u d y were then p r e s e n t e d and c l a r i f i e d .  judges were  The  then asked t o j u d g e each p a i r a c c o r d i n g t o which o f them they f e l t m a j o r i t y o f people  they knew (not t h e i r own  would p r e f e r t o recommend. p a i r of s t i m u l i  4.  i n the  the  p e r s o n a l p r e f e r e n c e , emphasized)  The judges were a l s o e n t r e a t e d t o judge e v e r y  instrument.  A n a l y s i s o f Judges' Data  From the p a i r e d comparison judgments f o r each p s y c h o l o g i c a l v a r i a b l e , a f r e q u e n c y m a t r i x F_ was  e s t a b l i s h e d , w i t h elements r e p r e s e n t -  i n g the number o f times a g i v e n s t i m u l u s ( t e c h n i q u e ) was each o t h e r s t i m u l u s .  p r e f e r r e d to  U s i n g the method f o r Case V o f t h e Law  t i v e Judgement d e s c r i b e d by T o r g e r s o n  o f Compara-  [1958, p. 165] and a m o d i f i e d form  o f t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f A l b e r t a Department o f E d u c a t i o n computer program, SCALOI, s c a l e v a l u e s were d e r i v e d from a l l s t i m u l i on each p s y c h o l o g i c a l continuum r e p r e s e n t i n g A „ , act +  l e a s t v a l u e on each s c a l e was  NB. p  NB , s r  and B I .  For c o n v e n i e n c e ,  the  a s s i g n e d the a r b i t r a r y v a l u e o f z e r o  ( d i f f e r e n t from p s y c h o l o g i c a l z e r o ) and the o t h e r v a l u e s were a d j u s t e d accordingly. 3.7  C o l l e c t i o n o f the Data The  i n s t r u m e n t s a d m i n i s t e r e d t o the Ss_ i n a l l t h r e e  populations included:  treatment  64  1.  A questionnaire.  2.  The BI, A . , NB , and NB. instruments or Fishbein instruacc p s ments.  3.  The Behaviour Observation Instrument.  4.  Cattell 'Culture Fair test of Intelligence.  3.7.1  1  The Questionnaire  The questionnaire was used to measure the background variables related to each subject.  Other information obtained by the questionnaire  included the S's religion, socioeconomic environment, family background, parental education and occupation, the education of siblings, and the number of family members and relatives engaged in technical occupations like carpentry, radio repairs, shoemaking, etc.  A sample of the question-  naire used is given in Appendix C. 1.  Administration of Questionnaire to Subjects  The questionnaire was administered to the Dekina and Ayangba S£ in a group according to Forms (Grades).  The experimenter or his assis-  tants explained the purpose of the questionnaire to Ss_ and gave them the option to identify themselves with either their name or school number or both. anteed.  The confidentiality of the information collected was also guarEach item on the questionnaire was then read out in Igala and  English and explained by the experimenter, and each S^ then responded to the item on his copy of the questionnaire. Administration to the no-formal-education group was on a one-to one basis by the experimenter or his assistant.  Confidentiality was  65  a g a i n guaranteed.  Each i t e m was r e a d and e x p l a i n e d t o t h e S_ i n the .  I g a l a language and h i s response was documented by t h e e x p e r i m e t e r o r his  assistant.  3.7.2  The B I , A ^ „ , NB„, and NB, i n s t r u m e n t s ( F i s h b e i n i n s t r u m e n t s ) act — p s +  The B I , A . , a  act  NB , and NB„ i n s t r u m e n t s were d e s i g n e d t o measure p s  the Ss_' d i s p o s i t i o n s t o recommending t e c h n i q u e s o f measurement a l o n g s t a t e d p s y c h o l o g i c a l dimensions  and i n d i f f e r e n t c u l t u r a l  Samples o f t h e i n s t r u m e n t s a r e shown i n Appendix B.  settings.  In each i n s t r u m e n t ,  i n s t r u c t i o n s were p r o v i d e d t o guide t h e Ss_ i n making t h e i r  responses.  D e s c r i p t i o n s o f the c u l t u r a l s e t t i n g and the p s y c h o l o g i c a l dimension g u i d i n g c h o i c e b e h a v i o u r were g i v e n .  A l i s t o f measurement t e c h n i q u e s ,  some o f which were s e l e c t e d from s c i e n c e t e x t b o o k s used a t Dekina and o t h e r s on t h e a d v i c e o f knowledgeable a d u l t s i n t h e I g a l a c u l t u r e , was p r o v i d e d and d e s c r i b e d . 1.  A d m i n i s t r a t i o n of the F i s h b e i n Instruments  A d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f the B I , A, act  NB , and NB, i n s t r u m e n t s t o t h e p s  Dekina and Ayangba Ss_ was done i n t h e i r c l a s s r o o m s . initially  t o Ss  A p i l o t run was  c a r r i e d o u t w i t h a s m a l l number o f n o n - p a r t i c i p a t i n g s t u d e n t s  randomly drawn from v a r i o u s Forms (Grades) a t Dekina.  I n s t r u c t i o n s per-  t a i n i n g t o t h e i n s t r u m e n t s were read and e x p l a i n e d i n d e t a i l , i n E n g l i s h and I g a l a  ( i n t e r c h a n g e a b l y ) to the p i l o t group.  Questions  r e g a r d i n g the  d i f f i c u l t y i n u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h e i n s t r u c t i o n s were s o l i c i t e d by the exp e r i m e n t e r , and c l a r i f i e d .  The e x p l a n a t i o n s g i v e n were then i n c o r p o r a t e d  i n t h e f i n a l i n s t r u c t i o n s c o n t a i n e d i n the i n s t r u m e n t s b e f o r e they were  66  a d m i n i s t e r e d t o the Ss_ i n the s t u d y .  D e s c r i p t i o n s and/or a c t u a l  examples  o f the measurement t e c h n i q u e s were a l s o p r o v i d e d . As w i t h the q u e s t i o n n a i r e , a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f t h e s e t o the n o - f o r m a l - e d u c a t i o n  instruments  group o f Ss_was on a one-to-one b a s i s by  the e x p e r i m e n t e r o r h i s a s s i s t a n t s , w i t h i n s t r u c t i o n s and e x p l a n a t i o n s g i v e n i n the I g a l a 2.  language.  Scoring  A S's —  s c o r e on v a r i a b l e s , B I , A . , act a  NB  p  . and NB  s  , was  taken t o  be the s c a l e v a l u e o f t h e measurement t e c h n i q u e , s e l e c t e d by t h e S_ as the most p r e f e r r e d method i n a p a r t i c u l a r s i t u a t i o n .  The s c a l e v a l u e s  o f each t e c h n i q u e on each o f the p s y c h o l o g i c a l c o n t i n u a u n d e r l y i n g the c h o i c e b e h a v i o u r c a l l e d f o r i n each i n s t r u m e n t was by a panel o f judges 3.7.3  (see p.  previously established  59).  The B e h a v i o u r O b s e r v a t i o n  Instruments  These c o n s i s t e d o f two documents, Document 1 was  addressed  to  t h e SJs f a m i l y member, and the o t h e r , Document 2, t o the N i g e r i a n Government department r e s p o n s i b l e f o r e s t a b l i s h i n g s t a n d a r d s o f measurement-the N a t i o n a l Bureau o f Standards  o r N a t i o n a l Standards O r g a n i z a t i o n .  Samples o f the documents are i n c l u d e d i n Appendix B. 1.  A d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f the B e h a v i o u r O b s e r v a t i o n  The  BI i n s t r u m e n t s t o which Ss_ had e a r l i e r responded were r e t u r n e d  t o them f i r s t .  Instruments  The e x p e r i m e n t e r o r h i s a s s i s t a n t then read o u t the con-  t e n t o f each document, one o f which  had been g i v e n t o each S_.  Ss were  67  then t o l d t o s i g n t h e document i f they had agreed the a d d r e s s e e .  t o having i t sent t o  Ss_ were a l s o t o l d t h a t they had t h e o p t i o n n o t t o s i g n  the document i f they had any r e s e r v a t i o n s about t h e response e a r l i e r made t o t h e BI i n s t r u m e n t .  they had  They were t o l d t h a t t h e s i g n e d  document would be s e n t t o the nominated f a m i l y member and t o t h e N a t i o n a l Bureau o f Standards  2.  respectively.  Scoring  The B e h a v i o u r O b s e r v a t i o n the format  I n s t r u m e n t was s c o r e d a c c o r d i n g t o  below:  S u b j e c t endorses S u b j e c t endorses S u b j e c t endorses S u b j e c t endorses both Document 1 n e i t h e r document Document 1 o n l y Document 2 o n l y and Document 2 Score  1  0  3  2  The s c o r e s were assumed t o l i e on an o r d i n a l s c a l e o f b e h a v i o u r a l  response.  A s c o r e o f 3, f o r example, i n d i c a t e d a h i g h e r degree o f b e h a v i o u r a l r e s ponse than a s c o r e o f 2.  Document 2 was c o n s i d e r e d as r e q u i r i n g a h i g h e r  degree o f commitment than document 1, hence t h e s c o r e o f 2 g i v e n t o document 2. 3.8  V a l i d i t y o f Instruments The t e c h n i q u e s o f measurement s e l e c t e d f o r t h e study a r e funda-  mental i n many a r e a s o f s c i e n t i f i c and t e c h n o l o g i c a l p r a c t i c e . i s a l s o an a c t i v i t y i n t h e everyday the s t u d y was c a r r i e d o u t .  Measurement  e x p e r i e n c e o f t h e c u l t u r e i n which  The scope o f measurement a c t i v i t i e s sampled  68  r e p r e s e n t s a wide range o f measurement t a s k s i m p o r t a n t t o the c u l t u r e . In a d d i t i o n , t h e s i t u a t i o n s i n which typical  the b e h a v i o u r s were examined a r e  o f o c c a s i o n s w i t h i n the c u l t u r e i n which  generally  such b e h a v i o u r s  are  exhibited. The  argument f o r the use o f recommending b e h a v i o u r as  an  i n d i c a n t o f i n t e r p r e t i v e use o f knowledge has a l r e a d y been made (see p. 3). E s t a b l i s h e d p r a c t i c e [ e . g . , F i s h b e i n ejt a l _ . , 1967] and a t t i t u d e s has been s t r i c t l y adhered  f o r measuring  behaviour  to i n c o n s t r u c t i n g the i n s t r u m e n t s .  For example, a s u b j e c t ' s e x p r e s s i o n o f f a v o u r a b l e n e s s o r u n f a v o u r a b l e ness toward  the performance o f an a c t i v i t y  taken as a measure o f h i s A t t i t u d e toward a S/s  i n a given s i t u a t i o n t h e A c t , A,  ..  was  Similarly,  expressed w i l l i n g n e s s to perform a given a c t i n a given s i t u a t i o n  has been r e g a r d e d as a measure o f h i s b e h a v i o u r a l i n t e n t i o n .  Fishbein  [1967] h o l d s t h a t t h e s e a r e l e g i t i m a t e , v e r b a l measures o f the v a r i a b l e s i n h i s model.  R e s u l t s o b t a i n e d from m u l t i p l e r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s i s o f  d a t a c o l l e c t e d a r e s i m i l a r to t h o s e o b t a i n e d by o t h e r r e s e a r c h e r s have used t h e model [ c f . Abramson, 1972;  Schwartz  who  and T e s s l e r , 1972].  Face v a l i d i t y f o r t h e v a r i o u s i n s t r u m e n t s used was  earlier  e s t a b l i s h e d by s o l i c i t i n g the judgements and comments o f n i n e e x p e r t s drawn from v a r i o u s departments i n the F a c u l t y o f E d u c a t i o n and i n P s y c h o l o g y a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia. was  Predictive  a s s e s s e d , a t l e a s t i n p a r t , by c a r r y i n g out a m u l t i p l e r e g r e s s i o n  a n a l y s i s on d a t a o b t a i n e d i n the s t u d y (see Chapter 3.9  validity  R e l i a b i l i t y o f the I n s t r u m e n t s The  Four).  Used  i n s t r u m e n t s on which r e l i a b i l i t y measures were sought  i n c l u d e d the B I , A, act  NB p  . and NB„ i n s t r u m e n t s . s  Each i n s t r u m e n t  was  69  developed  i n d e p e n d e n t l y f o r each c u l t u r a l  s e t t i n g , u s i n g a group o f  judges and Thurstone'smethod o f a n a l y z i n g p a i r e d comparisons [ s e e Torgerson,  1958, p. 1 6 5 ] ,  In t h i s way, each s t i m u l u s (measurement  t e c h n i q u e ) was g i v e n a s c a l e v a l u e on t h e p s y c h o l o g i c a l continuum measured by t h e i n s t r u m e n t .  A S_'s s c o r e on t h e i n s t r u m e n t i s then  the s c a l e v a l u e c o r r e s p o n d i n g t o t h e s t i m u l u s on t h e a p p r o p r i a t e psychological  continuum.  The e x t e n t t o which a S/s s c o r e i s a " t r u e " measure o f t h e a t t r i b u t e b e i n g measured r e l a t e s t o t h e c o n c e p t o f " r e l i a b i l i t y o f measurement."  F o r example, a s c o r e may be s a i d t o be r e l i a b l e  as i t i s l i k e l y  t o be r e p e a t e d  insofar  (a) i f t h e same i n s t r u m e n t i s a d m i n i s -  t e r e d t o t h e same S_s on a n o t h e r o c c a s i o n , which may be sooner o r l a t e r ; (b) i f t h e second  s c o r e i s o b t a i n e d from a comparable ( b u t d i f f e r e n t )  i n s t r u m e n t , a d m i n i s t e r e d on (c)  a n o t h e r o c c a s i o n , sooner o r l a t e r ;  i f d i f f e r e n t examiners o r o b s e r v e r s r e c o r d t h e S_'s b e h a v i o u r s , on  the same o r d i f f e r e n t o c c a s i o n s . The main r e l i a b i l i t y (1) whether t h e B I , A . , act  i n t e r e s t s i n t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y were  NB^ and NB,. s c a l e s were s t a b l e , i n t h e sense p s  t h a t t h e s c a l e v a l u e s would have been e s s e n t i a l l y t h e same whether they had been d e r i v e d from t h e judgment o f t h e j u d g e s a c t u a l l y used o r from t h o s e o f o t h e r j u d g e s , randomly s e l e c t e d from t h e same p o p u l a t i o n ; and (2) whether t h e Ss' s c o r e s d i s p l a y e d s u f f i c i e n t s t a b i l i t y over t h e p e r i o d o f s t u d y so t h a t d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e t i m e - o f - t e s t i n g o f d i f f e r e n t groups o f Ss^ were  unimportant.  70  With r e s p e c t t o ( 1 ) , K e n d a l l s 1  of a g r e e m e n t , p r o v i d e s  statistic,  a means f o r d e t e r m i n i n g t h e i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y  between m j u d g e s i n t h e i r c o m p a r a t i v e judgements. involves f i r s t calculating  (J  where  u, t h e c o e f f i c i e n t  The p r o c e d u r e  K e n d a l l ' s T, i n which  V-mSf^)*  („C )( C ) 2  ra  2  9  E f. .  the  sum o f t h e squared f ^ , t h e f r e q u e n c y o f  times s t i m u l u s  j was judged more f a v o u r a b l e  than s t i m u l u s i number o f j u d g e s  m  the  sum o f t h e f . . e n t r i e s  number o f c o m b i n a t i o n s o f t h e n s t i m u l i  n 2 C  taken  2 a t a time (= n ( n - l ) / 2 ) HI  number o f c o m b i n a t i o n s o f t h e m judges t a k e n  C  2 a t a t i m e (=m(m-l)/2) The f - j j ' s a r e drawn from below t h e d i a g o n a l i n a f r e q u e n c y t a b l e w i t h j columns and i rows and i n which t h e d i a g o n a l elements are  a l l zero. K e n d a l l ' s u, t h e c o e f f i c i e n t o f a g r e e m e n t ' s then d e f i n e d  as 2T u  1 ,  =  W W and can t a k e v a l u e s from -1/m +1.00.  ( i f m i s o d d ) , - l ( m - l ) ( i f m i s even) t o  A l l p o s i t i v e values of u indicate  some degree o f aoreement.  71  K e n d a l l [1948] has tical  also provided a x  s i g n i f i c a n c e o f u.  where a l l the v a r i a b l e s  df  =  LC ) 0  The  o  s t a t i s t i c f o r t e s t i n g the  statistic is:  r e t a i n t h e i r p r e v i o u s meanings,  m(m  statis-  "I 1  ,  [see  Edwards, 1957,  and  pp.  76-81].  V a l u e s d e r i v e d f o r the c o e f f i c i e n t o f agreement are  given i n  C h a p t e r Four. P o i n t number (2) was would have been u s e f u l  l e a s t well  handled i n the s t u d y .  to have o b t a i n e d t e s t - r e t e s t measures u s i n g a  group o f Ss_ l i k e t h e s e o f the s t u d y , w i t h an d u r a t i o n o f the the c o n d i t i o n s  study. o f the  i n t e r v a l equal to  However, i t proved q u i t e s t u d y to p e r f o r m any  t h a t no d i r e c t s t a b i l i t y - i n f o r m a t i o n was  3.10  It  A p p l i c a b i l i t y o f the S c a l i n g  the  i m p o s s i b l e under  r e t e s t i n g o f the S s ,  so  obtained.  Model p  Mosteller  [1951] has  developed a x  t e s t of s i g n i f i c a n c e  for  d e t e r m i n i n g the g o o d n e s s - o f - f i t o f o b s e r v e d p r o p o r t i o n s o b t a i n e d from p a i r e d - c o m p a r i s o n judgements w i t h t h e o r e t i c a l  p r o p o r t i o n s d e r i v e d from  T h u r s t o n e ' s law o f Comparative judgement, Case V. u l a r l y s e n s i t i v e to l a c k o f In d e r i v i n g  The  test is partic-  unid'imensionality.  the s c a l e v a l u e s f o r the  the m o d i f i e d form of the U n i v e r s i t y  of A l b e r t a  instruments  (using  Computer program SCAL0I,  72  see p. 60) the observed f r e q u e n c y  data were f i r s t c o n v e r t e d  p o r t i o n m a t r i x P_, where the element p  i s the p r o p o r t i o n o f  stimulus k i s preferred to stimulus j . formed i n t o a 1 m a t r i x .  The  P matrix  In the M o s t e l l e r t e s t , the r e v e r s e  Z m a t r i x and s u b s e q u e n t l y  P_' a r e d e r i v e d .  The  a r e then t r a n s f o r m e d  N  The  times  procedure  the  the t h e o r e t i c a l p r o p o r t i o n m a t r i x  o b s e r v e d p ^ and  the t h e o r e t i c a l  (derived)  p'^  by an a r c s i n t r a n s f o r m a t i o n , 8 .  =  a r c s i n /p' ., JK  ,  and  =  a r c s i n /p. Jk  each o f which has a normal  b u t i o n w i t h mean u , and where  pro-  i s then t r a n s -  i s a d o p t e d , i . e . , s t a r t i n g from the d e r i v e d s c a l e v a l u e s , transformed  into a  variance  distri  821 —j^—  =  number o f judgements on w h i c h p i s based  =  n(n-l)/2,  x  t e s t i s c a r r i e d out by computing the sum  where n = number o f s t i m u l i .  d i s c r e p a n c i e s between 8 ( o b s e r v e d ) and the r e s u l t by the v a r i a n c e o f e and  8'  o f the squared  (derived, theoretical)  dividing  comparing i t w i t h the t a b l e d v a l u e  2 x  w i t h the same degrees o f freedom.  i.e.  2  _  £(8-8') 821/N  x  where  2  (6-8')  =  i s the d i s c r e p a n c y  between the two  transformed  p r o p o r t i o n s f o r each p a i r w i s e judgement. 2 The by  degrees o f freedom c o r r e s p o n d i n g  to the x  test i s given  of  73  df  =  (n-l)(n-2)/2  I f t h e computed v a l u e o f x  [see Edwards, 1957, p. 5 6 ] .  i s l e s s than t h e a p p r o p r i a t e  tabled  the s c a l i n g model i s assumed to f i t t h e observed d a t a and a l s o some s u p p o r t t o t h e c l a i m t h a t l:he u n d e r l y i n g s c a l i n g model used t o f i n d t h e -.;cale v a l u e s  value, provides  assumptions o f t h e  o f t h e v a r i o u s measurement  techniques are tenable. V a l u e s d e r i v e d from t h e g o o d n e s s - o f - f i t  t e s t s a r e presented  i n Chapter Four.  3.11  Method o f A n a l y s i s 3.11.1  Statistical The  Analysis  statistical  a n a l y s i s o f d a t a from t h e s t u d y was c a r r i e d  out i n two s t a g e s a t The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia Computing C e n t r e . The  f i r s t stage involved d e r i v i n g s c a l e values  f o r the various  measurement t e c h n i q u e s from t h e p a i r e d comparisons made by t h e j u d g e s . For t h i s p u r p o s e , t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f A l b e r t a Department o f E d u c a t i o n program, SCALOI, was used.  The program was m o d i f i e d  i n t h e form o f a f r e q u e n c y m a t r i x .  t o accept data  The program o u t p u t c o n s i s t e d o f a  p r o p o r t i o n m a t r i x , P_ (where t h e p r o p o r t i o n t e c h n i q u e k was s e l e c t e d i n p r e f e r e n c e  i s t h e r a t i o o f times  t o technique j ) , a  transformation  m a t r i x , _X, and t h e s c a l e valuer, f o r a l l t h e t e c h n i q u e s . The  0  second s t a g e o f the a n a l y s i s i n v o l v e d s u b m i t t i n g t h e  d a t a t o m u l t i p l e r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s i s u s i n g BMD:03R.  The program  f o r d i f f e r e n t c o m b i n a t i o n s o f v a r i a b l e s t o be e n t e r e d model and has b u i l t i n t o i t a p r o c e d u r e f o r g e n e r a t i n g  allows  i n t o the regression interaction  74  variables. the  The  o u t p u t from the program i n c l u d e s  incremental proportion  entered; regression ients.  The  variables  2  an ANOVA t a b l e ; R ,  o f v a r i a n c e a c c o u n t e d f o r by each  c o e f f i c i e n t s ; and  partial  variable  correlation coeffic-  program a l s o a l l o w s f o r q u a l i t a t i v e as w e l l as  continuous  to be s i m u l t a n e o u s l y e n t e r e d i n t o the model. Conventional a n a l y s i s  of v a r i a n c e i s u s u a l l y  performed  on  d a t a o b t a i n e d from an e x p e r i m e n t a l d e s i g n t h a t i s b a l a n c e d , i . e . , equal o r a t l e a s t p r o p o r t i o n a t e c e l l require sum  t h a t the row  to z e r o .  rows and  e f f e c t s and  frequencies.  Such a n a l y s e s  column e f f e c t s , r e s p e c t i v e l y ,  S i m i l a r l y , the sum  columns s h o u l d s e p a r a t e l y  o f the sum  has  should  i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t s across  to z e r o , and  the  squared  2 m u l t i p l e c o r r e l a t i o n , R , o b t a i n e d i n the a n a l y s i s  i s s i m p l y the  sum  o f the squared c o r r e l a t i o n s between i n d i v i d u a l v a r i a b l e s  (factors)  and  results  the c r i t e r i o n .  In such c a s e s the  r e g a r d i n g main e f f e c t s and l e v e l s of various classes Analysis  i n t e r a c t i o n s as w e l l as c o n t r a s t s of v a r i a b l e s  e f f e c t s and  not  independent o f one  and  methods o f a n a l y z i n g (see T a b l e 8 ) .  for  The  Spiegel  a n o t h e r and  straightforward.  F-tests  Design M o d e l , i n v o l v e s  that  f o r main  [1969] have d e s c r i b e d t h r e e d i f f e r e n t cell  Method 1, c a l l e d the Complete L i n e a r Model  a l l other factors  cell  interpreted.  data i n v o l v i n g d i s p r o p o r t i o n a t e  the e s t i m a t i o n  between  design i s non-orthogonal,  i n t e r a c t i o n s cannot be u n e q u i v o c a l l y Overall  involves  (factors) is  of v a r i a n c e i n v o l v i n g d i s p r o p o r t i o n a t e  f r e q u e n c i e s i s e x t r e m e l y complex. i s , e f f e c t s are  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of  frequencies, analysis,  o f i n d e p e n d e n t e f f e c t s o f each f a c t o r a d j u s t e d included  i n the model.  the e s t i m a t i o n  i n t e r a c t i o n s , then e s t i m a t i o n  Method 2, the  Experimental  o f main e f f e c t s o n l y ,  disregarding  o f i n t e r a c t i o n s a d j u s t e d f o r main e f f e c t s .  75  In Method 3, sometimes r e f e r r e d t o as step-down a n a l y s i s , an a p r i o r i  ordering of the e f f e c t s  (based on t h e o r e t i c a l c a u s a l grounds)  i s c a r r i e d o u t , f o l l o w e d by an e s t i m a t i o n o f each e f f e c t a d j u s t e d f o r those p r e c e d i n g The  i t i n t h e o r d e r i n g b u t i g n o r i n g ^ those f o l l o w i n g i t .  f o l l o w i n g t a b l e shows t h e p r o c e d u r e s d e s c r i b e d f o r d e t e r m i n i n g  each e f f e c t f o r a t w o - f a c t o r (A and B) d e s i g n . According  t o O v e r a l l and S p i e g e l [1969] t h e c h o i c e o f a  p a r t i c u l a r method o f a n a l y s i s i s based on t h e way t h e problem i s conc e p t u a l i z e d and on t h e types o f q u e s t i o n s one w i s h e s t o answer.  They  recommend t h a t Method 1 be used when t h e problem i s t r e a t e d as a general  l i n e a r r e g r e s s i o n problem r a t h e r than i n e x p e r i m e n t a l  design  t e r m s , e.g., when one i s i n t e r e s t e d i n e s t i m a t i n g t h e c o n t r i b u t i o n o f each f a c t o r and each i n t e r a c t i o n i n c l u d e d i n t h e model, as w e l l as o f continuous  v a r i a b l e s t h a t may be i n c l u d e d . On t h e o t h e r hand, Method 2 i s recommended f o r s i t u a t i o n s  i n which t h e problem i s regarded  as a m u l t i c l a s s i f i c a t i o n  factorial  d e s i g n i n which c o n v e n t i o n a l a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e c o u l d have been a p p l i e d e x c e p t f o r unequal c e l l difficulties.  frequencies or other  computational  I t i s a l s o a p p l i c a b l e when one hopes t o a c c o u n t f o r  s y s t e m a t i c v a r i a t i o n i n terms o f s i m p l e a d d i t i v e main e f f e c t s b u t w i s h e s t o t e s t t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f i n t e r a c t i o n s as a s a f e g u a r d non-additivity.  against  In t h i s Method, t h e main e f f e c t s a r e d e t e r m i n e d  i n d i v i d u a l l y , each one a d j u s t e d f o r every o t h e r main e f f e c t .  This  s e r v e s the purpose o f removing t h a t p a r t o f t h e e f f e c t which i s shared  i n common w i t h t h e o t h e r f a c t o r s , i . e . o f e l i m i n a t i n g i t s  c o r r e l a t i o n with the other v a r i a b l e s .  E.g., t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y , a  76  s i g n i f i c a n t F-value f o r A ( a d j u s t e d contributes  f o r B & C) would i n d i c a t e t h a t A  s i g n i f i c a n t l y t o t h e p r e d i c t i o n o f B I , o v e r and above t h e  c o n t r i b u t i o n s made by B and C, both i n d e p e n d e n t l y and t h r o u g h c o r r e l a t i o n s w i t h one a n o t h e r and w i t h A.  their  Each i n t e r a c t i o n term i s  1  t e s t e d a f t e r a d j u s t i n g f o r t h e e f f e c t s o f t h e f a c t o r s and o t h e r interactions. Method 3 i s s u i t a b l e when a l o g i c a l a p r i o r i o r d e r i n g , on t h e o r e t i c a l o r c a u s a l  g r o u n d s , e x i s t s among t h e v a r i a b l e s i n t h e  r e g r e s s i o n model, i n w h i c h case t h e e f f e c t s o f t h o s e v a r i a b l e s logical  p r i o r i t y are tested disregarding  f o r t h e p r i m a r y ones.  C a u t i o n a r y notes on t h e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e t e s t s each method o f a n a l y s i s a r e g i v e n  by O v e r a l l and S p i e g e l  Marks [ 1 9 7 4 ] , and Kaufman and Sweet [ 1 9 7 4 ] . i t s h o u l d be remembered  with  secondary f a c t o r s , f o l l o w e d  by t h e e f f e c t s o f t h e secondary f a c t o r s a d j u s t e d  cautions,  based  using  [1969],  In a d d i t i o n t o t h e s e  t h a t both Method 1 and Method 2  a n a l y s e s deal w i t h t h e independent c o n t r i b u t i o n o f each v a r i a b l e o v e r and  above t h e o t h e r s i n c l u d e d  i n the a n a l y s i s . p  total contribution to c r i t e r i o n variance  T h i s means t h a t t h e  (R ) a c c o u n t e d f o r by t h e  v a r i a b l e m i g h t have been g r e a t e r i f t h a t p o r t i o n o f i t s h a r e d o t h e r v a r i a b l e s were taken a c c o u n t o f . 3.11.2 Method o f Coding Q u a l i t a t i v e V a r i a b l e s Several  with  Used  methods o f c o d i n g q u a l i t a t i v e v a r i a b l e s e n t e r e d i n  multiple regression  a n a l y s i s have been s u g g e s t e d by Cohen  [1966],  O v e r a l l and S p i e g e l  [ 1 9 6 8 ] , and K e r l i n g e r [1973, pp. 116-151].  i n c l u d e dummy c o d i n g , e f f e c t c o d i n g , and o r t h o g o n a l o r c o n t r a s t  These coding.  77  In dummy c o d i n g , v e c t o r s a r e g e n e r a t e d  such t h a t v e c t o r membership  i n a group o r c a t e g o r y i s i n d i c a t e d by 1, w h i l e non-membership i s a s s i g n e d 0.  S i n c e (g-1) v e c t o r s a r e s u f f i c i e n t t o i d e n t i f y g g r o u p s ,  membership i n t h e l a s t group ( u s u a l l y t h e c o n t r o l group) i s i n d i c a t e d by a s s i g n i n g z e r o ' s t o a l l (g-1) v e c t o r s . In o r t h o g o n a l c o d i n g t e c h n i q u e , one h y p o t h e s i z e s , a p r i o r i , d i f f e r e n c e s between t r e a t m e n t groups and wishes ences i n t h e c o u r s e o f t h e a n a l y s i s .  t o t e s t such  differ-  The c o d i n g i s t h e r e f o r e s i m i l a r  t o a p p o r t i o n i n g c o e f f i c i e n t s t o t h e comparisons  one i n t e n d s t o c a r r y o u t .  E f f e c t c o d i n g i s s i m i l a r t o dummy c o d i n g e x c e p t t h a t i n the p r e s e n t case t h e l a s t ( g ) t r e a t m e n t group i s coded by a s s i g n i n g t h  - l ' s t o a l l (g-1) v e c t o r s .  Whereas t h e r e g r e s s i o n w e i g h t s a s s o c i a t e d  w i t h dummy coded v a r i a b l e s have l i m i t e d i n t e r p r e t a b i l i t y , e f f e c t s c o d i n g r e s u l t s i n r e g r e s s i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h each v a r i a t e p r o v i d i n g d i r e c t e s t i m a t e s o f t h e AMOVA parameters In t h e p r e s e n t a n a l y s i s , i n which  [ s e e O v e r a l l and S p i e g e l , 1 9 6 9 ] . no a t t e m p t has been made,  e i t h e r on t h e o r e t i c a l o r c a u s a l grounds t o t r e a t any p a r t i c u l a r group as a c o n t r o l g r o u p , t h e e f f e c t c o d i n g method was used. The v a r i a b l e s and v e c t o r s used i n t h e r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s i s a r e g i v e n below.  Table 9 i l l u s t r a t e s the coding o f t h e q u a l i t a t i v e  variables  u s i n g t h e e f f e c t c o d i n g method. =  B e h a v i o u r a l I n t e n t i o n ( B I ) -- C r i t e r i o n V a r i a b l e  2  =  A  3 X  =  N B  X  act  \  4  =  p NB  X  5  =  IQ  X  6  =  Age  X  Q u a n t i t a t i v e Independent V a r i a b l e s  5  /  78  Table 8 Methods of Data from iion-orthogonal Designs (Overall & Spiegel, 1969) Method 1 df  SS  Source A  SS [ R ( a , B , a B j ) - R (B j . c ^ j ) ]  a-1  B  SS [ R ( a , 3 j , a B - ) - R (a.j ,afi.j)]  b-1  AB  2  2  T  i  : j  i  2  2  T  i  ij  SS [ R ( a , g , a B ) - R ( a 3 . ) ] 2  2  T  i  j  i j  r  J  (a-D(b-l)  Error  SS [1-R (a-.Bj.aS^)]  N-ab  Total  ss  N-1  2  T  T  Method 2 df  SS  Source A  S S [ R ( a , 3 ) " R (3j)]  a-1  B  SS [R (a ,3 ) " R (a.j)]  b-1  AB  2  2  T  i  j  2  2  T  i  j  SS [R (a ,3j»a3 ) - R (a Bj)] 2  2  T  i  ij  r  (a-D(b-l)  Error  SS [1 - R ( a , B , a 3 ) ]  N-ab  Total  ss  N-1  2  T  i  j  i j  T  Method 3 (assuming the a priori order to be: .  ss  Source  a-1  A  SS [R ( )]  B  SS [R (a ,3 ) - R ( ) ]  AB  2  T  ai  2  T  2  i  j  ai  S S [ R ( a , B j , a 3 ) - R (a.j , B j ) ] 2  T  df  2  i  ij  b-1 (a-l)(b-l)  Error  SS [1 - R ( ,3j,cx3 j)]  N-ab  Total  ss  N-1  2  T  T  ai  i  79  TABLE 9 An Illustration of the Coding of Qualitative Variables* Quantitative Independent Variables  Criterion Quantitative Independent Variables Variable  X^Y)  2  X  X  3  X  4  X  5  X  6  X  7  X  8  x  9  10  X  x  ll  12  X  13  X  1  0  0  0  0  1  1  1  0  0  1  0  0  0 0  -1  1  0 0  -1  -1  0 0  1 1  0 0  0 0  0 0  1  -1  0  1  0  0  -1  :  1  1  0 1 1 1  ooo  ooo  0  0  0  1  0  1  -i  0 0  0 0  0 0  1 1  0  -1  i  0  1  i  0  0  0  1  1  i  0  0  0 0  0  1  -1  -i  0 -1  0 -1  0  0 -1  1 -1  -1 1  -i  -1 -1  -1 -1  -1 -1  -1  -1  (Quantitative Scores)  ooo  (Quantitative Scores)  A ' NB NB„ IQ act p s  SEE (B)  ooo  BI  Religion (C)  Schooling (A)  Age  -1 -1 -1  -  1  1  |  1  " i  -l  * Interaction variables were transgenerated by the BMD-03R program used. KEY: Schooling -1 refers to Level 2 of No-Formal-Education Religion  1 = Christian -1 = Moslem  Socioeconomic Environment :  1 = Rural -1 = Urban  80  X  7  =  Level  1 o f Science  Instruction  X  8  =  Level  2 of Science  Instruction  -  Level  1 o f Non-Science  Instruction  =  Level  2 o f Non-Science  Instruction  Level  1 o f Non-Formal-Education  x X  9  10  Qualitative Variables  X  ll  X  12  =  Religion  X  13  =  Socioeconomic  =  3.11.3  Statistical  Independent (vectors)  Environment.  Tests  A multiple  regression  model c o r r e s p o n d i n g t o d e s i g n  s i m i l a r t o those used i n t h e p r e s e n t study may be s t a t e d  variables  i n general  form a s :  h  =  »  +  +  a  3 Y  i i x  j  k  +  X  +  j  k  +  a6  Y  k k x  i j k  X  "Via  +  i j k  +  +  e  i j k  a Y  ik ik x  ,  where u  =  a , 3, Y  Statistical  main e f f e c t s and  =  a3,aY>3y,a3Y  grand mean  =  t h e i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t s between t h e v a r i o u s f a c t o r s .  tests relevant  t o t h e q u e s t i o n s r a i s e d i n Subproblems I ,  I I , and I I I ( p . 10) i n c l u d e d contributions  t h e i n d i v i d u a l and j o i n t  (R ) o f t h e i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t s and main  effects for significance. out t o i s o l a t e  examining  treatment  Post hoc comparisons were then  carried  81  the v a r i o u s  l e v e l s o f t r e a t m e n t s t h a t were c o n t r i b u t i n g  t o the o b s e r v e d The  significantly  variances.  f o l l o w i n g s p e c i f i c models were s e t up i n o r d e r t o examine  i n d i v i d u a l and j o i n t c o n t r i b u t i o n s o f v a r i a b l e s used i n t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y and  c o m b i n a t i o n s o f them.  consideration  The f u l l m u l t i p l e r e g r e s s i o n  can be g i v e n  i n o u t l i n e form a s :  B ~ BI = { I n t e r n a l  variables + External  e q u a t i o n under  Variables} + error,  where Internal variables = A  External  ., NB , NB act p s  v a r i a b l e s = Mental a b i l i t y , Age, A{a X ]  + a X  1  2  2  + a X 3  3  + a X 4  4  + a X > 5  5  B{a X } 6  6  C{a X } . ?  7  The  model used t o answer q u e s t i o n s r e l a t e d t o Subproblems I and I I ( p . 10)  can  be g i v e n a s :  Model 1 The  B ~ BI = { E x t e r n a l  Variables + Interactions} + error.  models used f o r a n s w e r i n g Subproblem I I I , p. 11 a r e :  Model 2  B ~ BI = { I n t e r n a l V a r i a b l e s + E x t e r n a l  Model 3  B ~ BI = { I n t e r n a l V a r i a b l e s } .+ e r r o r  Variables}  + error  82  Model 4.  B ^ BI  =  Model 5.  B ^ BI  =  (External Variables}  B ^ BI  Internal Variables + External  Variables  I n t e r a c t i o n s between S e l e c t e d  Internal  + error Variables  3.11.4  P o s t Hoc  + error  and  External  Variables.  Comparisons  Even though the o v e r a l l F - t e s t o f the c o n t r i b u t i o n o f a c l a s s o f v a r i a b l e s o r l e v e l s o f a f a c t o r to the v a r i a n c e t e r i o n i s an e s s e n t i a l f i r s t step factorial  designs,  o f the  given  cri-  i n the a n a l y s i s o f m u l t i - l e v e l  i t s s i g n i f i c a n c e y i e l d s no d i r e c t i n f o r m a t i o n  about  w h i c h groups or l e v e l s of the c l a s s o f v a r i a b l e s are making the most significant contributions.  P o s t hoc  or t o t a l s are a d e v i c e f o r p r o v i d i n g Several hoc  comparisons between group means such  information.  p r o c e d u r e s have been worked out f o r c a r r y i n g o u t  comparisons between s e v e r a l means [Games, 1971].  A l l the  cedures are r e l a t e d t o e f f o r t s t o c o n t r o l a t a f i x e d l e v e l  post  pro-  the o v e r a l l  Type I e r r o r f o r the s e t o f t e s t s made, by c o n t r o l l i n g the l e v e l  of  s i g n i f i c a n c e a t w h i c h each i n d i v i d u a l c o m p a r i s o n i n the f a m i l y i s t e s t e d . For the purpose o f the p r e s e n t a n a l y s i s i n v o l v i n g n o n - o r t h o g o n a l c o m p a r i s o n s , Games [1971] has Bonferroni contrasts  methods.  recommended e i t h e r the S c h e f f e o r  However, because o n l y a few  o f a l l the  are of i n t e r e s t i n the s t u d y , the B o n f e r r o n i  i s the more p o w e r f u l t e s t under such c i r c u m s t a n c e s was [see  Keselman, 1974].  possible  method which employed  83  In t h e B o n f e r r o n i t e s t an upper l i m i t i s p l a c e d on t h e Type I e r r o r r i s k f o r a g i v e n number, c , o f c o n t r a s t s , i r r e s p e c t i v e o f whether they a r e o r t h o g o n a l  or not.  The t e s t i s based on t h e B o n f e r r o n i  i n e q u a l i t y which s t a t e s t h a t t h e f a m i l y - w i s e r i s k o f Type I e r r o r i s l e s s than o r equal t o t h e sum o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l  P r [Type I E r r o r ]  c £ 1  ^  risks, i.e.,  a. 1  [see Games, 1971, p. 550].  The a - l e v e l f o r each i n d i v i d u a l  t h e r e f o r e t a k e n t o be a / c .  The r e g i o n o f r e t e n t i o n o f t h e n u l l  h y p o t h e s i s i s g i v e n by  0.0 ± t / ( S ^ ) a  k c. MSw E - J - , . , n-  c  test i s  where,  2  S = il;  r  $  =  X a  - X. b  and  t = ip/SV ' y  and \p  -  t h e d i f f e r e n c e between p o p u l a t i o n mean s c o r e s  %  =  sample e s t i m a t e o f p o p u l a t i o n d i f f e r e n c e  =  standard e r r o r of estimate o f  c  =  number o f p a i r - w i s e comparisons t o be made  c.  =  c o e f f i c i e n t i n t h e comparison  =  number o f s u b j e c t s i n group  =  mean square e r r o r o b t a i n e d from t h e a n a l y s i s o f ^  (estimated)  J n-  J MS  w  variance o f the f u l l  model  84  t  = B o n f e r r o n i 1 ' s t a t i s t i c f o r t e s t i n g the s i g n i f i c a n c e 1  o f the d i f f e r e n c e s df  = degrees o f freedom f o r the 1 ' 1  X"  test  and X^ are the sample means f o r groups a and  b.  Nature o f Group D i f f e r e n c e s w i t h Respect t o BI  3 . 1 1 . 5  In o r d e r t o examine the s p e c i f i c n a t u r e o f group d i f f e r e n c e s w i t h r e s p e c t t o which  k i n d s o f measurement t e c h n i q u e s  (school-related  t e c h n i q u e s o r c u l t u r e - r e l a t e d ones) they e x p r e s s e d w i l l i n g n e s s t o recommend, 2 a X  t e s t o f f r e q u e n c i e s was  c a r r i e d o u t f o r each c u l t u r a l  B r a n d t and Snedecor's f o r m u l a g i v e n 2  _  s e t t i n g using  by:  E(ap) -  N p" a  p q where  a and b are any p a i r o f observed f r e q u e n c i e s , N  and N^ a r e the c o r r e s p o n d i n g  a  totals,  a p  i+b  =  N  P  N  =  ' a +  a  »  N  q =  a n d  " P •  b  The degrees o f freedom f o r t h e x which  1  t e s t f o r an nxk c o n t i n g e n c y t a b l e i n  the observed m a r g i n a l f r e q u e n c i e s a r e used as e s t i m a t e s o f the  e x p e c t e d f r e q u e n c i e s under H Q i s g i v e n by ( n - 1 ) ( k - 1 ) [ s e e Walker and Lev., p. 9 8 ] , where  , . number o f c a t e g o r i e s number o f groups r  n k  = =  85  I f the x  v a l u e o b t a i n e d i s s i g n i f i c a n t , an o b s e r v a t i o n o f  the p a i r - r a t i o s p, would r e v e a l which groups show the l a r g e s t discrepancies.  CHAPTER FOUR  RESULTS OF THE STUDY  INTRODUCTION  Chapter  Four p r e s e n t s t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e a n a l y s e s d e s c r i b e d  in the previous chapter. of  First,  d a t a on t h e v a l i d i t y and r e l i a b i l i t y  t h e i n s t r u m e n t s used i n t h e s t u d y a r e r e p o r t e d .  statistics  Second, d e s c r i p t i v e  a r e p r e s e n t e d f o r each c a t e g o r y and l e v e l o f t h e d e s i g n  g i v e n on page  , i n each c u l t u r a l  setting.  Results of m u l t i p l e  r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s e s o f t h e data and t e s t s o f t h e hypotheses pages  are presented.  and 6 w i l l  The a n a l y s e s f o r C u l t u r a l S e t t i n g s 2, 3, 5  be g i v e n i n t h e Appendix s i n c e d a t a f o r them were n o t  a v a i l a b l e f o r a l l groups. will  s t a t e d on  A l l statistical  tests of significance  be c a r r i e d o u t a t an a - l e v e l o f 0.10, though i t w i l l  be noted when  a r e s u l t would have been s i g n i f i c a n t w i t h a s m a l l e r a. The c h o i c e o f t h i s h i g h e r than c o n v e n t i o n a l ^ a - l e v e l i s based on t h e r e a s o n i n g t h a t , (1) t h e hypotheses  t o be t e s t e d a r e h i g h l y  s p e c u l a t i v e s i n c e no p r e v i o u s study i n t h e N i g e r i a n c u l t u r e w i t h s i m i l a r i n s t r u m e n t s have been r e p o r t e d i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e , and (2) i t i s d e s i r a b l e not t o r i s k m i s s i n g a p o s s i b l y i m p o r t a n t e f f e c t .  In t h i s c o n n e c t i o n ,  i t was thought t h a t s h o u l d t h e measurement procedure  produce s c o r e s  w i t h l e s s - t h a n - d e s i r a b l e r e l i a b i l i t y , a h i g h e r a - l e v e l would tend t o o f f s e t the resultant loss of s t a t i s t i c a l  power.  ^The c o n v e n t i o n a l a - l e v e l f o r t e s t i n g hypotheses t i o n a l r e s e a r c h i s 0.05. 86  i n educa-  87  4.1  V a l i d i t y and T e c h n i c a l C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e I n s t r u m e n t s 4.1.1  V a l i d i t y o f Instruments For purposes  f o r Measuring  BI, A  o f t h e s t u d y , t h e measuring  J C t >  NB  and NB,  instruments should  be v a l i d f o r ( a ) t h e c o n s t r u c t s b e i n g measured, ( b ) t h e p a r t i c u l a r b e h a v i o u r s and c u l t u r a l s e t t i n g s under i n v e s t i g a t i o n and ( c ) p r e d i c t i n g B and B I . With r e g a r d t o c o n s t r u c t v a l i d i t y , c o n s t r u c t v a l i d a t i o n i s a p r o c e s s t h a t v i r t u a l l y never ends.  I t e n t a i l s , f o r any g i v e n  instru-  ment, c o l l e c t i n g a v a r i e t y o f d a t a t o c o n f i r m o r d i s c o n f i r m whether measures o b t a i n e d by u s i n g t h e i n s t r u m e n t behave as t h e o r e t i c a l s i d e r a t i o n s suggest they should.  con-  Thorough c o n s t r u c t v a l i d a t i o n o f t h e  i n s t r u m e n t s used i n a s i n g l e s t u d y i s u s u a l l y i n f e a s i b l e and, t o a c o n s i d e r a b l e e x t e n t , unnecessary  given that the researcher constructs  and uses h i s i n s t r u m e n t s i n a c c o r d a n c e t h a t have produced constructs.  w i t h w e l l e s t a b l i s h e d procedures  s i m i l a r i n s t r u m e n t s d e s i g n e d t o measure s i m i l a r  T h i s was t h e approach  used i n t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y .  References  t o o t h e r s t u d i e s i n which s i m i l a r c o n s t r u c t s were measured by t h e s o r t s o f procedures  used here appear i n S e c t i o n 2.4.  An i n f o r m a l check on t h e c o n t e n t v a l i d i t y o f t h e i n s t r u m e n t s was made p r i o r t o " u s e by s u b m i t t i n g them f o r c r i t i c a l  a n a l y s i s t o seven  n a t i v e N i g e r i a n s a t t e n d i n g t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia.  The  c r i t i c s were asked t o a s s e s s t h e c o n t e n t s o f items o f t h e i n s t r u m e n t s f o r relevance to the Nigerian c u l t u r e , a u t h e n t i c i t y o f techniques, problems and c u l t u r a l ambiguity  s e t t i n g s p r e s e n t e d i n the i n s t r u m e n t s , and f o r  i n t h e i n s t r u c t i o n s and items, o f each i n s t r u m e n t .  The  r e s u l t s o b t a i n e d i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e c o n t e n t o f t h e i n s t r u m e n t s was v a l i d f o r t h e i n t e n d e d purposes  of the study.  88  The problem o f d e t e r m i n i n g t h e p r e d i c t i v e v a l i d i t y o f t h e i n s t r u m e n t s c o n s t i t u t e s a s u b s t a n t i v e p a r t o f t h e s t u d y and i s d e a l t w i t h i n S e c t i o n 4.3.3.  4.1.2  V a l i d i t y o f the Behaviour Observation Instrument ( B - i nstrument) The v a l i d i t y o f t h e B - i n s t r u m e n t f o r t h e purpose o f d e t e r m i n -  ing  whether t h e Ss would  a c t u a l l y make t h e recommendations t h a t they  had e a r l i e r i n d i c a t e d they were w i l l i n g what q u e s t i o n a b l e .  t o make t u r n e d o u t t o be some-  The o b t a i n e d near p e r f e c t c o r r e l a t i o n o f B and  BI i n d i c a t e s t h a t a c a r e f u l r e a s s e s s m e n t  o f t h e b e h a v i o u r t o be  o b s e r v e d and a r e a p p r a i s a l o f t h e B - i n s t r u m e n t s h o u l d be u n d e r t a k e n . The B - i n s t r u m e n t was p r e s e n t e d t o t h e S s _ w i t h t h e o p t i o n o f s i g n i n g documents making t h e recommendations t h a t they had e a r l i e r i n d i c a t e d a w i l l i n g n e s s t o make and a d d r e s s e d t o persons o f i m p o r t a n c e s o c i a l l y and p o l i t i c a l l y .  I t may w e l l be t h a t t h e S_£ d i d n o t see  any i m p o r t a n t d i f f e r e n c e between s i g n i n g t h e s e documents and i n d i c a t i n g t h e i r behavioural intent.  I f t h i s was t h e case then two d i f f e r e n t  measures o f BI were, i n e f f e c t , g i v e n t o t h e S_s. Ss_were reminded  Further, since the  o f t h e i r responses t o t h e B l - i n s t r u m e n t i m m e d i a t e l y  p r i o r t o p r e s e n t i n g t h e B - i n s t r u m e n t , t h e p r o c e d u r e may i n e f f e c t have been an immediate  t e s t - r e t e s t s i t u a t i o n w i t h two d i f f e r e n t  measures o f t h e same c o n s t r u c t , B I .  Under, t h e s e c o n d i t i o n s one  would e x p e c t a h i g h l y i n f l a t e d c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t f o r t h e two sets o f scores.  P e r h a p s , i f t h e Ss_ c o u l d have been g i v e n t h e o p t i o n  89 o f making recommendations v e r b a l l y i n a f a c e - t o - f a c e s i t u a t i o n w i t h persons t h a t m a t t e r e d to them, a more v a l i d measure o f B c o u l d have been  obtained. Another f a c t o r t h a t c o u l d have c o n t r i b u t e d t o the r a t h e r  unusual o b t a i n e d r e s u l t s i s the r e d u c t i o n o f chance f o r something t o i n t e r f e r e w i t h the S_'s According  i n t e n t t o c a r r y o u t the i n d i c a t e d  t o F i s h b e i n e t al_. [1970] and H o r n i c k  behaviour.  [ 1 9 7 0 ] , BI can  be  e x p e c t e d t o c o r r e l a t e h i g h l y w i t h B i f the a c t and measurement o f i n t e n t t o perform the a c t a r e c l o s e t o g e t h e r In the a n a l y s e s the B-BI  t h a t f o l l o w , no f u r t h e r comments r e g a r d i n g  relationship will  4.1.3  i n time.  be made.  T e c h n i c a l C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f the I n s t r u m e n t s a n d ^ F i t o f the S c a l i n g Model)  (Reliability  As d e s c r i b e d i n Chapter T h r e e , an i n d i c a t i o n o f the i t y o f each i n s t r u m e n t  was  obtained  through a d e t e r m i n a t i o n  reliabil-  of  degree t o which judges agreed i n t h e i r r a t i n g s o f the v a r i o u s o f measurement proposed f o r each c u l t u r a l  setting.  Data on  the techniques  the  s t a b i l i t y o f s c o r e s o v e r the r e l a t i v e l y s h o r t p e r i o d o f the e x p e r i m e n t (56 d a y s ) c o u l d not be o b t a i n e d , and o n l y l o g i c a l arguments can be used to  support  the s u g g e s t i o n  4.1.3.1  The  t h a t the s c o r e s were a d e q u a t e l y  stable.  T e c h n i c a l C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e BI I n s t r u m e n t s and F i t o f the S c a l i n g Model)  (Reliability,  c o e f f i c i e n t s o f agreement o f the j u d g e s f o r each c u l t u r a l  s e t t i n g are given i n Table  10.  E v i d e n c e o f s a t i s f a c t o r y agreement between the j u d g e s ' o f t h e measurement t e c h n i q u e s  ratings  i s g i v e n by the f a c t t h a t a l l v a l u e s o f  u,  TABLE 10 Coefficients of Agreement for BI Instruments  1.  2.  3. 4. 5.  6. 7.  8.  2 obs.  df  38  26. 62  7  .09  31  108.76  31  A native farmer in need of determining the time interval between two planting seasons, i.e., measuring a long time interval  .13  31  271. 04  31  A local blacksmith making a slot in a hoe-handle to fit (exactly) the metal blade, i.e., measuring a short distance  .03  38  22. 62  11  People building a road to link their village or town with the neighbouring market by the shortest of several possible routes (to save costs and effort), i.e., measuring a long distance  .10  32  121. 53  31  A butcher retailing small pieces of meat, i.e., measuring the weight of small (light) objects  .16  20  27. 70  7  A native person sharing a bag of gari (approx. 100 lbs.) equally by weight between two people to settle a dispute, i.e., weighing a heavy object  .02  35  11. 78*  7  A person making consultation on behalf of a close family member suffe ring from a debilitating disease in order to discover the cause of the aiIment  .08  47  Coefficient of Agreement, u  Number of Judges, N  .09  A native Nigerian keeping an appointment with an important European official/businessman arriving on an urgent business trip, i.e., measuring a specific time of day  Cultural Setting A native person faced with the problem of reporting the duration of visibility of a "shooting star" for official records, i.e., measuring a short time interval  * p approx. .11; all o.therX - values significant at =.10 or less.  X  280. 72  49  91  the Coefficient of Agreement, were positive [Edwards, 1957, p. 71], and by the x -test of significance [Kendall, 1948 p, 93]. s  Table 10  presents "x^-values which, except for cultural setting 7, show the u's to be significant at well beyond e c > . 10.  These results  indicate that the BI scales would likely not have differed greatly had some other sample(s) of judges been used to rate the measurement techniques presented.  However, even though the judges were randomly  selected from the same population as that from which the scalerespondents (the Ss_) were chosen, it would be unsafe to conclude from the foregoing results that the Ss_' responses to the scales would be as stable as were the judgments of the judges, over a similar interval, nevertheless, the degree of agreement displayed by the judges in performing their task over a period of 15 days provides indirect support to the assumption that S_'s responses would also tend to be consistent over at least a limited time-period. As noted in Chapter 3, no empirical evidence could be obtained concerning the stability of the S_s' scores on the BI instruments, for any of the cultural settings.  Some observations about this aspect  of score-reliability will be made at this point; however, since these apply to all of the cultural settings, no further reference will be made to stability when presenting the r e l i a b i l i t y data for the remaining cultural settings. Ho Ss_ were tested longer than eight weeks apart.  In addition,  the testing of Dekina and Ayangba Ss_ was carried out in the latter part of June, following completion of final examinations.  They then  92  r e c e i v e d no f o r m a l and  i n s t r u c t i o n a f t e r responding  i n t h i s sense resembled  the u n s c h o o l e d  S_s.  t o t h e BI  instruments,  I t can a t l e a s t  be  a s s e r t e d t h a t r e t e s t s c o r e s , had they been o b t a i n e d , would have r e f l e c t e d e x t r e m e l y minimal  change r e s u l t i n g from i n d i v i d u a l  learning,  between t e s t i n g s , about the m e r i t s o f s c i e n t i f i c p r o c e d u r e s . does not p r o v i d e a guarantee  This  o f adequate s t a b i l i t y , but i t p r o v i d e s  some r e a s s u r a n c e about s t a b i l i t y . A major e f f e c t o f low r e l i a b i l i t y i s t o i n f l a t e the e r r o r term i n s t a t i s t i c a l  t e s t i n g and  t o reduce the power o f the t e s t a g a i n s t  a p o s s i b l y t r u e h y p o t h e s i s a l t e r n a t e to the n u l l  h y p o t h e s i s , thus  r e d u c i n g the l i k e l i h o o d o f i d e n t i f y i n g as s i g n i f i c a n t an e f f e c t which s h o u l d have been so i d e n t i f i e d .  T h e r e f o r e , t h e f a c t t h a t a number o f  c l e a r l y s i g n i f i c a n t f i n d i n g s emerged, and t h a t d i s t i n c t i o n s  between  s i g n i f i c a n t and n o n - s i g n i f i c a n t r e s u l t s were g e n e r a l l y q u i t e c l e a r c u t , suggests  t h a t u n r e l i a b i l i t y o f i n s t r u m e n t s was  f a c t o r i n the  study.  not a major  In summary o f t h i s s e c t i o n , t h e w r i t e r notes t h a t had  con-  d i t i o n s p e r m i t t e d , r e t e s t i n g o f a t l e a s t a sample o f a l l Ss_ would have been u n d e r t a k e n , t h i s was  p r e f e r a b l y b e f o r e c o n d u c t i n g the main s t u d y .  Since  not p o s s i b l e , o n l y i n d i r e c t e v i d e n c e c o u l d be g i v e n about  the s t a b i l i t y of S_s s c o r e s .  T h i s e v i d e n c e r e l a t e d t o the  plausibility  o f an assumption o f adequate s t a b i l i t y , but d i d not e s t a b l i s h i t . T a b l e 11  g i v e s the r e s u l t s o f the g o o d n e s s - o f - f i t t e s t s o f  the s c a l i n g model to the responses f o r the v a r i o u s c u l t u r a l  settings.  o f t h e judges The  t o the BI  theoretical  instruments  proportions  o b t a i n e d from the model s h o u l d agree ( t o w i t h i n s a m p l i n g  error)  93  w i t h the o b s e r v e d p r o p o r t i o n s . the two  sets of proportions  That i s , the d i s c r e p a n c i e s  should  between  be s m a l l enough t o produce  non-  s i g n i f i c a n t x - v a l u e s , namely v a l u e s whose a s s o c i a t e d p r o b a b i l i t y , p,  ( i f the n u l l  o f .10.  hypothesis  i s t r u e ) i s l a r g e r than the c r i t i c a l  A l l p - v a l u e s g r e a t e r than .10 were o m i t t e d  quent t a b l e s of i t s k i n d f o r the o t h e r 2 and  5 are t h e r e f o r e s u s p e c t by t h i s The  and  5 may  instruments.  value  i n t h i s and  subse-  Cultural Settings  criterion.  f a i l u r e o f the s c a l i n g model f o r C u l t u r a l S e t t i n g s  be due,  i n p a r t , t o the c l o s e p r o x i m i t y o f the  t e c h n i q u e s o f measurement) on the BI p s y c h o l o g i c a l t o l a r g e d i s c r i m i n a l d i s p e r s i o n s i n the judgments.  2  stimuli  continuum, l e a d i n g I t may  a l s o have  r e s u l t e d from a m u l t i d i m e n s i o n a l i t y o f judgments o r from v i o l a t i o n s of normality  of the d i s t r i b u t i o n o f d i s c r i m i n a l p r o c e s s e s ,  though  the  M o s t e l l e r t e s t used here i s r e l a t i v e l y i n s e n s i t i v e to d e p a r t u r e s from normality. In view o f t h e d i f f i c u l t i e s w i t h the model e x p e r i e n c e d i n t h e s e two will  s e t t i n g s , the b a s i c d a t a r e l a t e d t o t h e s e s e t t i n g s  be g i v e n  i n Appendix [D] r a t h e r than be used as a b a s i s f o r  f i n d i n g s r e l a t e d t o the h y p o t h e s i s 4.1.3.2  R e l i a b i l i t y o f the Toward the A c t (A Modi!  of t h i s  study.  I n s t r u m e n t s Used t o Measure A t t i t u d e .)and A p p l i c a b i l i t y o f the S c a l i n g " a c z  T a b l e 12 shows t h a t v a l u e s  of u, the c o e f f i c i e n t o f agreement, 2  f o r a l l C u l t u r a l S e t t i n g s were p o s i t i v e and were s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t a t the s t a n t i a l measure o f i n t e r j u d g e  the a s s o c i a t e d x  -values  .10 a - l e v e l , i n d i c a t i n g a sub-  reliability.  •i  94  As w i t h the  BI i n s t r u m e n t , T a b l e 13 shows t h a t the  o b t a i n e d f o r t e s t i n g the s i g n i f i c a n c e o f the t h e o r e t i c a l and  indicate  except f o r Settings  and  Settings  t h a t the assumptions o f the  The  d i s c r e p a n c i e s between  o b s e r v e d p r o p o r t i o n s d i d not approach  e x c e p t i n the cases o f C u l t u r a l  2 and  x^-values  2 and  5.  the  significance,  The  data t h e r e f o r e  s c a l i n g model u s e d , were s a t i s f i e d ,  5.  f a i l u r e o f the A  a c t  instruments f o r c u l t u r a l settings  5 to meet the assumptions o f the  s c a l i n g model may  be due  to  2  the  reasons s u g g e s t e d i n S e c t i o n 4.1.2.2.  4.1.3.3  R e l i a b i l i t y o f the I n s t r u m e n t s Used to Measure P e r s o n a l Normative B e l i e f s (NB ) and A p p l i c a b i l i t y of the S c a l i n g Model ^  T a b l e 14 and  T a b l e 15 below g i v e , r e s p e c t i v e l y ,  the  coeffic-  9  i e n t s o f agreement o f the j u d g e s and  the r e s u l t s o f x  g o o d n e s s - o f - f i t o f the s c a l i n g model, f o r each NBp cultural  setting investigated T a b l e 14  indicates  i n the  t e s t s of  i n s t r u m e n t and  the each  study.  t h a t the NBp  i n s t r u m e n t s used were  to g i v e s i m i l a r r e s u l t s when g i v e n to o t h e r j u d g e s i n the p o p u l a t i o n as t h o s e used f o r s c a l i n g the  instruments.  e v i d e n c e d by the p o s i t i v e v a l u e s o f u f o r a l l the  likely  same  This i s  i n s t r u m e n t s and  the  f a c t t h a t the c o e f f i c i e n t s o f agreement were s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t a t a's  well  below the s e l e c t e d  a-level.  T a b l e 15 g i v e s the shows t h a t than .10  r e s u l t s o f the g o o d n e s s - o f - f i t t e s t . It 2 the p r o b a b i l i t i e s , p, o f o b t a i n i n g x 's equal t o or l e s s  were o b t a i n e d f o r C u l t u r a l  Settings  2 and  5.  These r e s u l t s  2 of the x - t e s t s o f g o o d n e s s - o f - f i t f o r t h o s e s e t t i n g s w i t h p r o b a b i l i t i e s  95  h i g h e r than procedures  .10 c a s t no doubt on the a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s o f the used.  The  f a i l u r e o f the i n s t r u m e n t f o r C u l t u r a l  s a t i s f y the s c a l i n g model may o f the model, i n c l u d i n g referred  scaling  be due  Setting  2 and  5 to  to d e p a r t u r e s from the a s s u m p t i o n s  those o f n o r m a l i t y , u n i d i m e n s i o n a l i t y , e t c . ,  t o i n S e c t i o n 4.1.2.1.  4.1.3.4  R e l i a b i l i t y o f the Instruments Used t o Measure S o c i a l Normative B e l i e f s (NB ) and A p p l i c a b i l i t y o f the ScaVing Model s  Evidence  o f s a t i s f a c t o r y agreement between the j u d g e s '  o f the measurement t e c h n i q u e s  ratings  i s p r o v i d e d by the f a c t t h a t a l l v a l u e s  o f the c o e f f i c i e n t s o f agreement g i v e n i n T a b l e 16 a r e p o s i t i v e .  All  v a l u e s o f u were found t o be s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t a t a - v a l u e s well  below  .10. These r e s u l t s suggest  t h a t the NB  s  i n s t r u m e n t s used were  l i k e l y t o g i v e s i m i l a r r e s u l t s when g i v e n t o o t h e r judges p o p u l a t i o n as those used f o r s c a l i n g the  i n the same  instruments.  2 T a b l e 17 g i v e s the x - t e s t s o f g o o d n e s s - o f - f i t o f the s c a l i n g model f o r a l l the NB  s  i n s t r u m e n t s used.  1 t o 8 a r e numbered i n the same way for Cultural  (The C u l t u r a l  Settings  as d e s c r i b e d i n T a b l e 10).  Except  S e t t i n g s 2 and 5, which were p r e v i o u s l y shown to be  s u s p e c t , t h e r e i s no e v i d e n c e unidimensional The  to r e f u t e the a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s o f the  s c a l i n g model used. arguments put f o r w a r d  i n S e c t i o n 4.1.2.1 may  advanced t o e x p l a i n the f a i l u r e o f the NB S e t t i n g s 2 and  a l s o be  instruments f o r C u l t u r a l  5 t o s a t i s f y the s c a l i n g model.  96  TABLE 11 X -tests of Goodness-of-Fit for the BI Instruments  Cultural Setting  x  2 obs.  df  1  4.14  3  2  35.81  21  3  25.57  21  4  5.72  6  5  39.71  21  6  .49  3  7  1.10  3  8  45.49  45  P  <.10  <.10  97  TABLE 12 Coefficients of Agreement for A . Instruments Cultural Setting  Coefficient of Agreement, u  Number of Judges, N  x  2 obs.  df  1  .05  38  82 37  7  2  .20  27  187 29  32  3  .05  25  74 40  32  4  .06  38  93 72  11  5  .16  32  178 60  31  6  .28  20  42 81  7  7  .01  34  17 68  7  8  .07  47  213 63  49  All x values significant at a=.10 or less.  98  TABLE 13 X - t e s t s of Goodness-of-Fit f o r the A  . Instruments  2  Cultural  Setting  x  2 obs.  df  P  3  1  1.8  2  112.22  21  3  31.85  21  4  3.69  6  5  47.28  21  6  3.52  3  7  3.28  3  8  32.83  45  <.10  <.10  99  TABLE 14 C o e f f i c i e n t s o f Agreement f o r NB  Cultural  All  x  Setting  Coefficient of Agreement, u  Number o f Judges, N  Instruments  x  2 obs.  df  1  .09  30  19. 07  7  2  .12  31  138. 27  31  3  .06  27  82. 51  32  4  .04  45  33. 23  11  5  .17  32  185. 00  31  6  .10  24  21. 75  7  7  .04  39  19. 57  7  8  .12  47  324. 18  49  v a l u e s s i g n i f i c a n t a t a=.10  or l e s s .  100  TA3LE 15  -tests of Goodness-of-Fit for the NB Instruments  Cultural Setting  x  2 obs.  df  1  4.36  3  2  28.49  21  3  24.69  21  4  1.79  6  5  38.58  21  6  1.03  3  7  2.14  3  8  43.18  45  P  <.10  <.10  101  TABLE 16 C o e f f i c i e n t s o f Agreement f o r NB  Cultural  All  x  Setting  C o e f f i c i e n t of Agreement, u  Instruments  Number o f Judges, N  9 x  obs  df  1  .05  31  16. 98  7  2  .23  27  277. 42  31  3  .06  25  85. 43  32  4  .03  38  27. 16  11  5  .20  32  213. 26  31  6  .21  26  40. 27  7  7  .02  39  18. 97  7  8  .06  47  197. 35  49  v a l u e s s i g n i f i c a n t a t a=.10  or l e s s .  102  TABLE 17 o  X - t e s t s o f G o o d n e s s - o f - F i t f o r t h e NB  Instruments  2 obs  df  1  3.29  3  2  48.29  21  3  13.46  21  4  2.08  6  5  49.09  21  6  1.04  3  7  1.96  3  8  34.38  45  Cultural  Setting  x  P  <.10  <.10  103  4.2  Summary o f I n f o r m a t i o n The  Relating to Setting 1  a n a l y s i s o f data f o r C u l t u r a l S e t t i n g 1 are presented  below. 4.2.1  D e s c r i p t i o n of the S e t t i n g The  cultural  s e t t i n g i s one i n which a n a t i v e N i g e r i a n i s  f a c e d w i t h t h e problem o f r e p o r t i n g t h e d u r a t i o n o f v i s i b i l i t y o f a "shooting  4.2.2  star" for official  records.  Methods o f Measurement Proposed t o Ss The  various  may be c l a s s i f i e d  t e c h n i q u e s o f measurement p r e s e n t e d t o t h e S_s  as s c h o o l - r e l a t e d and c u l t u r e - r e l a t e d t e c h n i q u e s ,  as  shown i n T a b l e 18 below. 4.3  Statistical 4.3.1  A n a l y s i s o f t h e Data  Cultural Setting 1 Measurement o f S h o r t Time I n t e r v a l s .  4.3.2  Hypotheses and Methods o f A n a l y s i s T a b l e 19 p r e s e n t s  t h e hypotheses t o be t e s t e d and t h e methods  o f t e s t i n g used.  4.3.3  Effects of Schooling,  4.3.3.1  E n v i r o n m e n t , and R e l i g i o n on BI  Summary o f Raw Data  An e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e column and row m a r g i n a l s o f T a b l e 20 shows t h a t t h e d i f f e r e n c e s between some o f t h e means a r e u n l i k e l y t o be due  t o chance  alone.  104  TABLE 18 Techniques o f Measurement Proposed t o Ss i n Cultural  C u l t u r e - R e l a t e d Techniques  Scale Values  Setting 1  School-Related  Techniques  Scale Values  3.  Human P u l s e  .00  1.  C l o c k ( w i t h second hand)  .35  4.  D i s t a n c e Walked ( t i m e i s h e r e measured as a function of distance t r a v e r s e d a t normal human w a l k i n g pace)  .26  2.  Stopwatch  .67  TABLE 19 Hypotheses and Methods of Analysis Used  Hypotheses Tested  Regression Model Used  1. Scores on BI and B with respect to recommending school-related methods of measurement in cultural settings will be: (a) higher for senior levels of schooling than for junior levels of schooling, (b) higher for Moslems than for Christians, and (c) greater for urban Ss than for rural Ss_  Model 4 (see p. 82) for (a), (b) and (c)  2. BI and B with respect to recommending school-related methods of measurement in cultural settings will depend in a significant way on: (a) interaction effects between amount of schooling and religion, (b) interaction effects between amount of schooling and socioeconomic background (c) interaction effects between religion and socioeconomic background (d) interaction effects between religion, socioeconomic background and amount of schooling  Model 1 (see p. 81 ) for (a), (b) and (c)  Method of Analysis (Overall & Spiegel, see p. 75 Method 2 (see p.75)  B~BI=Age + External Variables  Method 2 (see p.75)  B~BI=Age + External Variables + Interaction between External Variables  (Continued)  T a b l e 19  (Continued)  Hypotheses T e s t e d  3.  R e g r e s s i o n Model Used  BI and B w i t h r e s p e c t t o recommending s c h o o l - r e l a t e d methods o f measurement o r c u l t u r a l methods o f measurement i n non-school s i t u a t i o n s w i l l be:  Model 3 (see p. 81)  (a)  Models 2 & 5 (see pp. 81-82)  (b)  accounted f o r w i t h b e t t e r than chance a c c u r a c y by v a r i a b l e s i n t e r n a l t o t h e F i s h b e i n Model alone accounted f o r w i t h improved a c c u r a c y by both i n t e r n a l and e x t e r n a l v a r i a b l e s t o the Fishbein  B 'v BI = i n t e r n a l  Method o f A n a l y s i s  Method 3 ( s e e p.76)  Variables  B ^ BI = I n t e r n a l V a r i a b l e s + External Variables +{Selected I n t e r actions}  Model 3 (see p.76)  107  F i g u r e 2 d e p i c t s t h e d i f f e r e n c e s between t h e mean BI s c o r e s f o r t h e combined s c h o o l e d groups (Dekina and Ayangba) a t two d i f f e r e n t levels  ( j u n i o r , s e n i o r ) and t h e mean BI s c o r e s f o r t h e unschooled  of S_s a t c o r r e s p o n d i n g  group  age l e v e l s .  Figure 2 suggests  t h a t w h i l e t h e r e were no marked d i f f e r e n c e s  between t h e two l e v e l s o f s c h o o l i n g (and t h e i r age c o u n t e r p a r t s ) f o r either  t h e s c h o o l e d o r non-schooled  substantially groups.  groups o f Ss_, t h e s c h o o l e d groups had  h i g h e r mean BI s c o r e s a t both l e v e l s t h a t t h e non-schooled  There appears t o be an o v e r a l l  s c h o o l i n g e f f e c t on t h e BI  scores. F i g u r e 3 shows t h a t v e r y l i k e l y t h e r e were i m p o r t a n t ences between t h e mean BI s c o r e s o f t h e two s c h o o l e d g r o u p s , and  t h e Ayangba groups.  There i s an apparent  differ-  t h e Dekina  tendency f o r BI s c o r e s  to i n c r e a s e i n magnitude w i t h y e a r s o f s c h o o l i n g a t Dekina  and an a p p a r e n t  o p p o s i t e t r e n d a t Ayangba. F u r t h e r , F i g u r e 4, based on T a b l e 20 above, suggest  that  t h e r e i s a s u b s t a n t i a l d i f f e r e n c e between t h e mean BI s c o r e s o f r u r a l and urban Ss_, when r e l i g i o n i s d i s r e g a r d e d .  F i g u r e 5, however, shows  t h a t t h i s - s o c i o e c o n o m i c e f f e c t appears t o o p e r a t e d i f f e r e n t l y f o r C h r i s t i a n s and Moslems.  TABLE 20 B e h a v i o u r a l I n t e n t i o n ( B I ) Means and S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n s  SocioEconomic Envi ronment (B)  S C H O O L I N G Religion (C)  E x p e r i m e n t a l Group Level 2 Level 1 X  = .41  X  = .55  Christian  ( A )  Comparison Group I Level 2 Level 1 X  = .52  X  f o r Cultural Setting 1  = .33  Comparison Group I I Level 2 Level 1 X  = .25  X  Row M a r g i n a l s X. SD n. I  i  = .36  SD = .26  SD = .25  SD = .28  SD = .28  SD = .16  SD = .23  X  X  X  X  X  X  79  .40  .25  50  .50  .24  41  .53  .26  48  .48  .26  Rural = .48  = .63  Moslem  = .64  = .54  SD = .23  SD = .14  SD = .12  SD = .25  X  X  X  X  = .60  = .69  Christian  = .64  = .41  = .31  = .36  SD = .24  SD = .25  X  X  = .51  = .32  SD = .16  SD = .00  SD = .13  SD = .33  SD = .25  SD = .28  X  X  X  X  X  X  Urban = .44  = .69  = .51  = .52  Moslem  Column Marginals SD  = .41  = .31  SD = .25  SD = .00  SD = .19  SD = .23  SD = .29  SD = .32  49  30  41  16  52  30  .48  .60  .56  .46  .34  .33  .24  .20  .21  .27  .24  .27  109  0.7  r  0.6E x p t a l Group + Comp. Group I ( S c h o o l e d Groups)  0.5Mean BI0.4 scores  Comparison Group I I ( U n s c h o o l e d Group)  0.30. 0. Level 1  F i g u r e 2.  Level 2  Comparison o f Mean B l - s c o r e s Groups , C u l t u r a l S e t t i n g 1  f o r S c h o o l e d and Unschooled  110  0.7  T  Dekina  0.6  0.5 -( Ayangba  Mean BI0.4 scores  Unschooled Group 0.3 0.2 ••  0.1  Level 1  F i g u r e 3.  Level 2  Comparison o f Mean B l - s c o r e s Cultural Setting 1  f o r A l l Groups,  Ill  F i g u r e 4.  Comparison o f Mean B l - s c o r e s f o r R u r a l and Urban Ss Cultural Setting 1  Figure  5.  Comparison o f Mean B I - s c o r e s o f Moslems and C h r i s t i a n s a t D i f f e r e n t SEE L e v e l s , C u l t u r a l Setting 1  TABLE 21 Results of Method 2 Regression Analysis of Data from Cultural Setting 1, Using Research Model 4  Source of Variance  SS  AR  df  A(adj. for B & C)  2.48  .18  5  9.08  <.10  B (adj. for A & C)  .26  .02  1  4.68  <.10  C (adj. for A & B)  .01  .01  1  .18  AB (adj. for A,B,C,AC,BC)  .24  .02  5  .89  AC (adj. for A,B,C,AB,BC)  .12  .01  5  .43  BC (adj. for A,B,C,AB,AC)  .28  .02  1  5.15  ABC (adj. for all other terms)  .09  .01  5  .32  2  Error  10.55  193  Total  14.06  217  *  All p-values larger than .10 have been omitted.  ^obs.  P*  <.10  114  Moslems  apparently have higher Bl-means than Christians until both groups  are urbanized.  The evidence seems also to indicate that Moslems have  more stable BI scores than Christians. 4.3.3.2  Multiple Regression Analysis Table 21 gives the results of statistical analysis of the  data, using Method 2 of Overall and Spiegel (see Chapter 3).  The analysis  corroborates the preliminary findings referred to above and also provides additional information on the magnitude of the effects.  Age was used as  a covariate but was found to have no significant effect on the variance contribution of the factors.  Factor A, the school experience factor,  adjusted for the effects of Factor B and Factor C, accounts for nearly 18 percent of the variability of the BI scores.  Factor B, adjusted for  the effects of factor A and factor C accounts for 2 percent of BI variance (a significant though small effect).  However, after adjusting  for the effects of factors A and B, factor C accounts for only 1 percent of the variability in  BI, an effect which  is  not significant.  Another factor which accounts for a significant (though small) effect (2 percent) is the interaction BC, adjusted for the main effects and the effects due to AB and AC interactions.  According to  Cohen [1969, p. .277] the contribution of factor A (18 percent) can be classified as large while those of factor B and BC interaction (2 percent each) should probably be classified as small. The results of the above analysis relating to Cultural Setting 1 support the hypothesis that schooling has a significant effect on the behavioural intention of the Ss in the study to recommend schoolrelated techniques of measurement to persons in out-of-school problem .  115  situations i n Nigeria.  The r e s u l t s a l s o s u p p o r t , though much l e s s  s t r o n g l y , t h e hypotheses  concerning the e f f e c t s o f socioeconomic  e n v i r o n m e n t , and o f t h e i n t e r a c t i o n o f environment  and r e l i g i o n on  BI. 4.3.3.3  P o s t hoc A n a l y s i s o f BI-Means  T a b l e 22 g i v e s t h e d i f f e r e n c e s between t h e Bl-means f o r a l l the groups o f Ss_.  y ^ , y-^ r e f e r t o t h e Bl-means o f l e v e l s 1 and 2,  r e s p e c t i v e l y , o f t h e E x p e r i m e n t a l Group ( D e k i n a ) , y^j> ^22 ' t  f o r l e v e l s 1 and l e v e l  2 r e s p e c t i v e l y o f Ayangba, and ia^-j» £32  c o r r e s p o n d i n g means f o r t h e two c a t e g o r i e s o f t h e u n s c h o o l e d u  , u  a  r  e  the  group,  , Mo r e p r e s e n t t h e e s t i m a t e d means f o r t h e D e k i n a , Ayangba,  and u n s c h o o l e d groups r e s p e c t i v e l y . is  ^I-means  ie  t h e e s t i m a t e d mean  Similarly, y ^  f o r t h e s c h o o l e d group  ^  (Dekina and Ayangba  combined). Having o b t a i n e d s i g n i f i c a n t o v e r a l l  F-ratios f o r the adjusted  e f f e c t s o f F a c t o r A, s c h o o l i n g , and F a c t o r B, s o c i o e c o n o m i c  environment,  i n t h e m u l t i p l e r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s i s ( s e e T a b l e 2 1 , p. 1 0 8 ) , p o s t hoc comparisons  among means were c a r r i e d o u t t o d e t e r m i n e which o f t h e s e  v a r i a b l e s were making s i g n i f i c a n t c o n t r i b u t i o n s t o t h e e f f e c t s observed.  The B o n f e r r o n i t ' s t a t i s t i c f o r comparing 1  means was used  w i t h t h e p r e s e n t d a t a i n p r e f e r e n c e t o t h e S c h e f f e (both recommended by Games [1971]) because o f t h e g r e a t e r power o f t h e B o n f e r r o n i [Keselman,  1974].  Comparisons were c a r r i e d o u t such t h a t t h e o v e r a l l  a - l e v e l f o r a l l comparisons r e s u l t s t h a t would noted.  e x p l o r e d was no more than .10, though any  have been s i g n i f i c a n t a t a s m a l l e r a - l e v e l a r e  116  TABLE 22 D i f f e r e n c e s Between Group Means on F a c t o r A for Cultural  Setting,  (Column Minus Row)  y  ll  Unschooled  Ayangba  Dekina y  12  y  y  2 1  ^32  ^31  2 2  y  -  u  -.12*  y  -.08  y  .01  .14*  .10  y  .14*  .26*  .22*  .13*  y  .15*  .27*  .23*  .14*  .04  u  -  .01  l .  /\ y  2.  y  3.  -  .00 ;  -  .19*  .19*  ^(1,2).  y  U  O,2). 3.  S i g n i f i c a n t a t a = .10  .19*  i  ~  117  R e f e r r i n g t o t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l d e s i g n d e p i c t e d i n T a b l e 1, L e v e l 1 and L e v e l 2 o f Dekina and Ayangba p e r t a i n t o l e v e l s o f s c h o o l i n s t r u c t i o n whereas t h e same c o n n o t a t i o n cannot be a s c r i b e d t o t h e non-schooled group where L e v e l 1 and L e v e l 2 r e f e r t o a g e - l e v e l s .  ' An i n t e r a c t i o n  a n a l y s i s between l e v e l s o f s c h o o l i n g and t h e o t h e r v a r i a b l e s  therefore  becomes i m p o s s i b l e f o r t h e e n t i r e s u b j e c t p o p u l a t i o n as noted i n C h a p t e r 1.  However, c o n t r a s t s between t h e two l e v e l s o f s c h o o l i n g  a t Dekina and Ayangba r e s p e c t i v e l y , between D e k i n a , Ayangba and t h e non-schooled g r o u p s , as w e l l ' as between t h e s c h o o l e d group  (Dekina and  Ayangba combined) and t h e non-schooled group, a r e p r o p e r . T a b l e 22 ( p . 116) shows t h a t t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f F a c t o r A (see T a b l e 21) can be a c c o u n t e d f o r by t h e d i f f e r e n c e s between L e v e l 1 and L e v e l 2 o f D e k i n a , between L e v e l 2 o f Dekina and L e v e l 2 o f Ayangba, and between both l e v e l s a t Dekina and Ayangba on t h e one hand, and t h e non-school groups.  The combined Bl-mean o f t h e Dekina groups  (.53)  d i d n o t d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y from t h e combined mean f o r t h e Ayangba Ss ( a l s o .53, t o two d e c i m a l p l a c e s ) .  But t h e combined mean o f t h e  Dekina S_s_ and t h a t o f t h e Ayangba S_s were r e s p e c t i v e l y  significantly  h i g h e r than t h e c o r r e s p o n d i n g Bl-mean f o r t h e u n s c h o o l e d Ss_ (.34). a d d i t i o n , t h e combined mean B l - s c o r e o f t h e s c h o o l e d groups and Ayangba) was groups.  In  (Dekina  s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r than t h a t o f t h e u n s c h o o l e d  The r e s u l t s g i v e n i n T a b l e 22 a r e d e p i c t e d g r a p h i c a l l y i n  F i g u r e 6. The F i g u r e 6 shows t h a t n o t o n l y do S_s_ a t t e n d i n g Dekina secondary s c h o o l have h i g h e r Bl-means than Ss^ i n t h e s t u d y who have never gone t o s c h o o l , b u t a l s o t h a t Ss i n t h e s e n i o r grades o f D e k i n a ,  118  i n which s c i e n c e i s o f f e r e d have h i g h e r Bl-means t h a n t h o s e i n the j u n i o r grades o f the same s c h o o l .  The r e v e r s e e f f e c t seems t o have  o c c u r r e d i n Ayangba, but a g e - l e v e l does not a f f e c t t h e BI means f o r t h e u n s c h o o l e d Ss_. In a d d i t i o n T a b l e 22 shows t h a t the s c h o o l e d groups were not s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t from each o t h e r but both a r e  significantly  h i g h e r than the u n s c h o o l e d group w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e i r mean B l - s c o r e s . A l s o , the t o t a l  s c h o o l e d group mean i s s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r than t h a t  of the unschooled. 4.3.3.4  S p e c i f i c Nature o f Group D i f f e r e n c e s w i t h Respect t o BI  In o r d e r t o shed some l i g h t on the n a t u r e o f the d i f f e r e n c e s between the s c h o o l e d Ss_ g e n e r a l l y and t h e non-schooled Ss_, T a b l e  23,  c o n t a i n i n g i n f o r m a t i o n on which measurement t e c h n i q u e s each group o f Ss_ was w i l l i n g  t o recommend i n C u l t u r a l S e t t i n g 1 was c o n s t r u c t e d .  T a b l e 23 shows t h a t the r a t i o o f the s c h o o l e d Ss w i l l i n g  to  recommend s c h o o l - b a s e d t e c h n i q u e s i s almost t w i c e the r a t i o o f u n s c h o o l e d S_s_ w i l l i n g t o do t h e same t h i n g (.83  v e r s u s .48).  Using the formula  g i v e n i n S e c t i o n 3.10.5, t h e observed o r c a l c u l a t e d x o f freedom was  w i t h one  degree  found t o be 30.59, which i s s i g n i f i c a n t f a r below  a = .10, even a f t e r a p p l y i n g Y a t e ' s c o r r e l a t i o n f o r c o n t i n u i t y .  T h i s con  f i r m s t h e above o b s e r v a t i o n about the d i f f e r e n c e between the s c h o o l e d and u n s c h o o l e d S s _ w i t h r e g a r d t o w i l l i n g n e s s to recommend s c h o o l - b a s e d t e c h n i q u e s o f measurement i n C u l t u r a l  Setting  1.  T a b l e 24 g i v e s the n a t u r e o f the d i f f e r e n c e s between the two s c h o o l e d groups o f S_s, Dekina and Ayangba.  I t shows t h a t t h e  119  0.7  -,  Level  Figure  6.  1  Level  2  Comparison o f D i f f e r e n c e s i n Mean B l - s c o r e s a t the Two L e v e l s o f F a c t o r A , C u l t u r a l S e t t i n g 1.  120  TABLE 23 Comparison o f Recommendations by S c h o o l e d and Unschooled Groups* (Cultural S e t t i n g 1) Categories of Schooling  Schooled  Unschooled  Total  School-Based Techniques (1 & 2) (a)  Culture-Based Techniques (3 & 4) (b)  Ratio, p ^a + b  113  23  .83  39  43  .48  152  66  .70  F i g u r e s a r e f r e q u e n c i e s w i t h which Ss i n d i c a t e d t h e i r w i 1 1 i n g n e s s to recommend p a r t i c u l a r t e c h n i q u e s  ;  121  p r o p o r t i o n o f Ayangba L e v e l 1 S s _ w i l l i n g to recommend  school-based  techniques  o f measurement compares q u i t e f a v o u r a b l y w i t h Dekina L e v e l 1  Ss_ w i l l i n g  t o recommend  i s taught  at this level  s i m i l a r methods even though g e n e r a l i n Dekina.  science  The p r o p o r t i o n o f S w t  Level 2  o f Ayangba w i t h a s i m i l a r i n t e n t i o n i s s l i g h t l y lower than e i t h e r Dekina L e v e l 1 o r Ayangba L e v e l 1, b u t not much d i f f e r e n t . a t t h e S e n i o r L e v e l a t Dekina where s e n i o r s c i e n c e course the p r o p o r t i o n o f Ss w i l l i n g t o recommend  school-based  However, are taught  techniques  of  measurement i s c o n s i d e r a b l y h i g h e r than t h e p r o p o r t i o n o f Ss_ a t e i t h e r 2 Dekina L e v e l 1 o r Ayangba L e v e l 1 o r L e v e l 2. c a l c u l a t e d from the f o r m u l a  on p. 85  The o b s e r v e d x  i s 1.46 w i t h 1 degree o f freedom,  which i s not s i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e a = .10 l e v e l .  This i n d i c a t e s t h a t  s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s do n o t e x i s t between t h e r a t i o s , i . e . , t h a t n e i t h e r l e v e l a t Ayangba nor Dekina L e v e l 1 d i f f e r s s i g n i f i c a n t l y from Dekina L e v e l 2 i n t h e r a t i o o f S_s techniques  o f measurement.  w i l l i n g t o recommend  The x - v a l u e u s i n g Y a t e ' s c o r r e c t i o n f o r  c o n t i n u i t y t s .72, w h i c h tends t o s u p p o r t that  school-based  f u r t h e r the n u l l  hypothesis  no d i f f e r e n c e e x i s t s between t h e above group. Since the regression a n a l y s i s i n d i c a t e d a s i g n i f i c a n t  d i f f e r e n c e between r u r a l and urban s u b j e c t s f o r C u l t u r a l S e t t i n g 1, t h i s d i f f e r e n c e was e x p l o r e d f u r t h e r by l o o k i n g a t t h e r a t i o o f r u r a l and  urban Ss w i l l i n g  to recommend  These p r o p o r t i o n s a r e p r e s e n t e d p r o p o r t i o n o f urban Ss e x p r e s s e d based t e c h n i q u e s thing.  school-based  measurement  techniques.  i n T a b l e 25, which shows t h a t a h i g h e r t h e w i l l i n g n e s s t o recommend  school-  o f measurement than r u r a l S_s w i l l i n g t o do t h e same  O v e r a l l , the o b s e r v e d x  c a l c u l a t e d u s i n g the f o r m u l a  stated  122  i n S e c t i o n 3.10.5, was found t o be 3.32 ( w i t h d f = 1) which i s s i g n i f i c a n t a t a = .10.  T h i s means t h a t the s c h o o l - b a s e d  techniques  were d i f f e r e n t i a t e d from t h e c u l t u r e - b a s e d ones by t h e Ss_ and t h e d i f f e r e n c e between the observed r a t i o s was  statistically  significant. The r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s i s gave a s i g n i f i c a n t r e s u l t f o r t h e a d j u s t e d i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t BC.  To e x p l o r e t h i s i n t e r a c t i o n  f u r t h e r , the proportion of C h r i s t i a n s w i l l i n g based  effect  t o recommend s c h o o l -  t e c h n i q u e s was compared w i t h the c o r r e s p o n d i n g p r o p o r t i o n o f  Moslems, s e p a r a t e l y f o r t h e urban and r u r a l  groups.  T a b l e 26 g i v e s t h e p r o p o r t i o n o f C h r i s t i a n s and Moslems i n a r u r a l environment techniques.  who were w i l l i n g t o recommend  school-based  I t shows t h a t a h i g h e r p r o p o r t i o n o f r u r a l Moslems were  w i l l i n g t o recommend s c h o o l - b a s e d t e c h n i q u e s o f measurement than r u r a l 2 C h r i s t i a n s . The observed x » however, was found t o be 2.84 ( w i t h 1 d f ) which  i s s i g n i f i c a n t a t .10 a - l e v e l .  However, i f Y a t e ' s  correction  2 f o r d i s c o n t i n u i t y i s a p p l i e d , the c o r r e c t e d x c a n t w i t h a = .10.  o f 2.23 i s not s i g n i f i -  The f o r e g o i n g f i n d i n g i s t h e r e f o r e d o u b t f u l . 2  The c o r r e s p o n d i n g x  v a l u e f o r t h e d i f f e r e n c e between urban  Christians  and urban Moslems was 1.27 which was not s i g n i f i c a n t . T a b l e 27 g i v e s t h e r a t i o o f C h r i s t i a n s and Moslems i n an urban environment  who were w i l l i n g  t o recommend  school-based  techniques.  I t s u g g e s t s t h a t a h i g h e r p r o p o r t i o n o f urban  were w i l l i n g  t o recommend  Christians  s c h o o l - b a s e d t e c h n i q u e s than urban Moslems  w i l l i n g t o do t h e same t h i n g .  However, t h e x - t e s t (x  ,  =  -89)  123 i n d i c a t e s t h a t the two each  r a t i o s are not s i g n i c i a n c t l y d i f f e r e n t from  other. p The  l a c k of s i g n i f i c a n c e w i t h the x - t e s t , even though  BC i n t e r a c t i o n was  s i g n i f i c a n t w i t h the F - t e s t i n the m u l t i p l e  a n a l y s i s , most l i k e l y a r i s e s because the two d i f f e r e n t purposes i n t h e s t u d y .  the  regression  s t a t i s t i c s are used f o r s l i g h t l y  While the F - s t a t i s t i c i s used t o d e t e r m i n e  whether the BI measures can be p r e d i c t e d u s i n g f a c t o r s A, B, C, e t c . , the 2 2 x d e a l s w i t h f r e q u e n c i e s o f recommending. The use of the x t o probe s i g n i f i c a n t F's  i s based on the r e l a t i o n s h i p between BI measures and  ommending b e h a v i o u r (measured here as f r e q u e n c i e s ) d e s c r i b e d  rec-  i n Chapter  One.  2 However, s i n c e the x - t e s t i s l i k e l y t o be l e s s powerful parametric  t e s t l i k e F, i t can  than a  be e x p e c t e d t o be r e l a t i v e l y i n s e n s i t i v e t o  s m a l l d i f f e r e n c e s which the F - s t a t i s t i c would d e t e c t as s i g n i f i c a n t . t s u s e f u l to note t h a t though s i g n i f i c a n t by r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s i s , BC ( a d j u s t e d ) accounted f o r o n l y 2 p e r c e n t of BI v a r i a n c e . 4.3.4 A n a l y s i s of the E f f e c t s o f I n t e r n a l and E x t e r n a l  Variables  2 T a b l e 28 g i v e s the amounts of v a r i a n c e accounted f o r by v a r i a b l e s i n t e r n a l (A  a c t  + HBp  + NB ), s  and  (P ) of the BI N  t o the F i s h b e i n M o d e l , I  those e x t e r n a l v a r i a b l e s which proved t o  s i g n i f i c a n t p r e d i c t o r s of BI from the a n a l y s i s u s i n g o v e r a l l S p i e g e l ' s Method 2, namely, F a c t o r A, F a c t o r B, and The  method used i n t h i s a n a l y s i s was  as i n d i c a t e d and The  O v e r a l l and  be  and  Interaction  BC.  S p i e g e l ' s Method  3,  r a t i o n a l i z e d i n C h a p t e r Three.  Table shows t h a t the i n t e r n a l v a r i a b l e s , I , a l o n e  i , e . unadjusted, when a d j u s t e d  scores  a c c o u n t f o r 33.7  percent  of BI v a r i a n c e whereas  f o r the e f f e c t s o f F a c t o r A, s c h o o l i n g , t h e i r  contri-  It  124  TABLE 24 Comparison o f Recommendations by Dekina and Ayangba S_s ( C u l t u r a l S e t t i n g 1)  Categories of Schooling  Ayangba  (Level  Ayangba ( L e v e l  1)  2)  School-Based Techniques (1 & 2)  Ratio,p Culture-Based Techniques (3 & 4) ( ) a+b a  l  ;  34  7  .83  12  4  .75  Dekina ( L e v e l  1)  39  10  .80  Dekina ( L e v e l  2)  27  3  .90  112  24  .83  Totals  125  TABLE 25 Comparison o f Recommendations by R u r a l and Urban Ss_ ( C u l t u r a l S e t t i n g 1)  Envi ronment  School-Based Techniques (1 & 2) (a)  Culture-Based Techniques (3 & 4) (b)  Ratio, p ^a + b  Rural  86  46  .65  Urban  66  20  .77  Totals  152  66  .70  ;  126  TABLE 26 Comparison o f Recommendations by Rural (Cultural Setting  Religious Group  C h r i s t i a n s and Moslems 1}  School-Based Techniques (1 & 2)  Culture-Based Techniques (3 & 4)  47  32  .59  37  13  .77  84  45  .65  (a)  (b)  Ratio, p ( l  a V) a  Christians (rural)  Moslems (rural)  Totals  127  TABLE 27 Comparison o f Recommendations by Urban C h r i s t i a n s and Moslems (Cultural Setting  R e l i g i o u s Group  School-Based Techniques (1 & 2) (a)  1)  Culture-Based Techniques (3 & 4) (b)  Ratio, p (  a  Christians (urban)  34  7  .83  35  13  .73  69  20  .78  Moslems (urban)  Totals  )  128  TABLE 28 Variance Contributions of Internal and Selected External Variables  Variables  I:  (A  a  c  t  +  NB  p +  NB ) s  I + A + B + BC A (adj.  for  I)  R (%)  33.7  I :  A  act  7 22  2.4  ' NB  5  BC (adj. for I, A, & B)  0.8  17.2  A + I (=1 + A)  36.1  I (adj. for A)  18.9  2  (X)  NB  1.0  .  R  37.9  B (adj. for I & A)  A  Variables  2  p  S  129  b u t i o n i s r e d u c e d t o 18.9 adjusted accounts  f o r 17.2  percent.  On the o t h e r hand, F a c t o r A  un-  p e r c e n t o f BI v a r i a n c e but when a d j u s t e d f o r  the e f f e c t s o f the i n t e r n a l v a r i a b l e s i t e x p l a i n s o n l y 2.4 the v a r i a b i l i t y i n B l - s c o r e s .  percent  of  E v i d e n t l y , then, there i s a considerable  amount o f BI v a r i a b i l i t y t h a t i s s h a r e d , though I has a good d e a l p r e d i c t i v e power t h a t i s independent of A, w h i l e A has independent o f I.  The  of  l i t t l e that i s  a d j u s t e d c o n t r i b u t i o n s o f F a c t o r B and  the  i n t e r a c t i o n BC a r e a l s o i n d i c a t e d . Looked upon from a p r e d i c t i v e s t a n d p o i n t , BI i n C u l t u r a l S e t t i n g 1 can b e s t be p r e d i c t e d from the F i s h b e i n v a r i a b l e s , the b e s t s i n g l e p r e d i c t o r being NBp.  In t h i s sense t o o , the e x t e r n a l  v a r i a b l e s ( i n p a r t i c u l a r F a c t o r A) do improve p r e d i c t i o n but t o a rather l i m i t e d extent. concerning  These r e s u l t s tend t o s u p p o r t the  hypotheses  the potency o f the F i s h b e i n v a r i a b l e s and o f e x t e r n a l  v a r i a b l e s as p r e d i c t o r s o f B I . However, e x t e r n a l v a r i a b l e s used a l o n e do a c c o u n t f o r a c o n s i d e r a b l e amount o f p r e d i c t i o n , p a r t i c u l a r l y F a c t o r A. s c h o o l i n g v a r i a b l e s a r e the most r e a d i l y m a n i p u l a b l e one 4.4  c o u l d c o n s i d e r t h i s an e x t r e m e l y  helpful  Since  ones i n the  the design  result.  Summary o f I n f o r m a t i o n R e l a t i n g t o S e t t i n g 4 4.4.1  D e s c r i p t i o n o f the S e t t i n g The  c u l t u r a l s e t t i n g i s one  i n which a l o c a l b l a c k s m i t h r e -  q u i r e s to make a s l o t i n a wooden h o l e - h a n d l e the metal  blade.  so as t o f i t ( e x a c t l y )  F a i l u r e to o b t a i n an a c c u r a t e f i t c o u l d cause the  b l a d e t o f l y out and  i n j u r e the u s e r ' s f o o t .  130  4.4.2  Methods o f Measurement Proposed t o Ss The c u l t u r e - r e l a t e d and s c h o o l - r e l a t e d measurement t e c h n i q u e s  proposed t o S_s by t h e e x p e r i m e n t e r a r e g i v e n i n T a b l e 29.  4.5  Statistical 4.5.1  Analysis: Setting 4  Cultural  Setting 4  Measurement o f s h o r t d i s t a n c e s .  4.5.2  Hypotheses and Methods o f A n a l y s i s The hypotheses t e s t e d and t h e method o f a n a l y s i s f o r each o f  the  hypotheses were i d e n t i c a l  t o those described f o r C u l t u r a l  Setting  1 (see S e c t i o n 4.3.2, p. 9 8 ) . 4.5.3  E f f e c t s o f S c h o o l i n g , E n v i r o n m e n t , and R e l i g i o n on BI  4.5.3.1  Summary o f Raw Data  The column and row m a r g i n a l s o f T a b l e 30 show s i z a b l e  differ-  ences between t h e s c h o o l e d and u n s c h o o l e d groups i n t h e i r mean BI scores.  By c o m p a r i s o n , no such d i f f e r e n c e s e x i s t between r u r a l and  urban Ss_ o r between t h e C h r i s t i a n and Moslem S_s. F i g u r e 7 s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e d i f f e r e n c e between t h e two l e v e l s of  s c h o o l i n g (and t h e i r age c o u n t e r p a r t s ) f o r e i t h e r t h e combined  s c h o o l e d o r u n s c h o o l e d groups o f Ss_ was u n l i k e l y t o be o f n o t e .  How-  e v e r , t h e s c h o o l e d groups appear t o have s u b s t a n t i a l l y h i g h e r mean BI s c o r e s a t both l e v e l s than t h e n o n - s c h o o l e d g r o u p s . F i g u r e 8 shows t h a t t h e d i f f e r e n c e s between t h e mean BI s c o r e s o f t h e two s c h o o l e d g r o u p s , Dekina and Ayangba, were n o t l i k e l y to be a p p r e c i a b l e .  But each s c h o o l e d group appears t o have markedly  131  TABLE 29 Techniques o f Measurement Proposed t o Ss i n C u l t u r a l  Culture-Related  School-Related  Techniques  String/Rope  .11  5.  Visual tion  .00  4.  Techniques  Scale Values  Scale Values  3.  Setting  1.  Ruler/Metre Stick  .26  2.  Measuring Tape  .17  3.  Calipers  .14  Estima-  TABLE 30 Behavioural  SocioEconomi c Envi ronment (B)  I n t e n t i o n ( B I ) Means and S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n s  S C H O O L I N G Religion (C)  E x p e r i m e n t a l Group Level 1 Level 2  f o r Cultural Setting 4  ( A )  Comparison Group I Level 2 Level 1  Comparison Group I I Level 2 Level 1  = .14  X = .16  X = .15  X  = .13  X = .08  X  SD = .07  SD = .07  SD = .07  SD = .06  SD = .09  SD = .10  X = .14  X  X  = .12  X = .17  X = .10  X  SD = .11  SD = .10  X Christian  Row n  i  Marginals SD X. i  = .08 79  .12  50  .12 .12  41  .11  48  .14 .15  .15  Rural  = .11  = .09  Moslem SD = .08  SD = .13  SD = .09  SD = .08  X  X  X  = .17  X = .05  X = .08  X  = .17  = .13  Christian  = .08  SD = .06  SD = .04  SD = .06  SD = .07  SD = .07  SD = .05  X  X  X  = .17  X = .18  X  X  .13  Urban  = .11  = .20  Mos1 em  n. J Column Marginals SD  = .12  = .05  SD = .08  SD = .07  SD = .06  SD = .10  SD = .08  SD = .07  49  30  41  16  52  30  .14  .15  .15  .13  .09  .07  .15  .17-  .16  .12  .12  .10  133  0.17 0.15 E x p t a l Group + Comparison Group I ( S c h o o l e d Groups) Mean  BI-  scores  0.10  H  Comparison Group II ( U n s c h o o l e d Group) 0.05  Level 1  F i g u r e 7.  Level 2  Comparison o f Mean B l - s c o r e s f o r S c h o o l e d and Unschooled Ss_, Cultural Setting 4  134  d i f f e r e n t mean BI s c o r e s than t h e u n s c h o o l e d group a t both L e v e l 1 and  L e v e l 2. 4.5.3.2  M u l t i p l e Regression  Analysis  T a b l e 31 g i v e s t h e r e s u l t s o f r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s i s o f t h e d a t a . The  a n a l y s i s g i v e s r e s u l t s t h a t agree q u i t e c l o s e l y w i t h t h e p r e l i m i n -  ary observations  d e s c r i b e d i n S e c t i o n 4.5.3.1 a l o n e and a l s o  i n f o r m a t i o n r e g a r d i n g t h e magnitude o f t h e e f f e c t s .  provides  F a c t o r A, t h e  s c h o o l i n g f a c t o r , when a d j u s t e d f o r t h e e f f e c t s o f F a c t o r B and F a c t o r C, a c c o u n t s f o r about 13 p e r c e n t o f t h e v a r i a n c e o f t h e B l - s c o r e s .  It is  the o n l y e f f e c t t h a t i s s i g n i f i c a n t and the o n l y one t h a t a c c o u n t s f o r any marked p r o p o r t i o n o f t h e B l - v a r i a n c e . With r e g a r d t o t h e r e s e a r c h hypotheses r e s t a t e d on p. only the hypothesis BI was s u p p o r t e d 4.5.3.3  r e g a r d i n g t h e e f f e c t o f t h e s c h o o l i n g f a c t o r on  by t h e d a t a .  P o s t Hoc A n a l y s i s o f BI Means  T a b l e 32 g i v e s t h e d i f f e r e n c e s between t h e e s t i m a t e d means f o r a l l t h e s u b j e c t groups a c c o r d i n g F a c t o r A. The  ,  population  t o t h e i r c l a s s i f i c a t i o n on  The y's a r e as d e f i n e d f o r C u l t u r a l S e t t i n g 1, see p.  e n t r y i n each c e l l  represents  i s g r e a t e r t h a n t h e row mean.  t h e amount by which t h e column mean  A l l d i f f e r e n c e s were t e s t e d f o r  s i g n i f i c a n c e a t an o v e r a l l a - l e v e l o f .10. a r e i n d i c a t e d by a s t e r i s k s i n t h e T a b l e .  Significant differences  135  F i g u r e 8.  Comparison o f Mean B l - s c o r e s f o r D e k i n a , Ayangba, and Unschooled Ss_, f o r C u l t u r a l S e t t i n g 4.  136  TABLE 31 R e s u l t s o f Method 2 A n a l y s i s o f Data f o r C u l t u r a l S e t t i n g 4, Using Research Model 4.  Source o f V a r i a n c e  SS  AR  A ( a d j . f o r B & C)  .20  .13  5  6.29  B ( a d j . f o r A & C)  .00  .00  1  .18  C ( a d j . f o r A & B)  .00  .00  1  .02  AB ( a d j . f o r A,B,C,AC & BC)  .04  .02  5  1.15  AC ( a d j . f o r A,B,C,AB & BC)  .04  .03  5  1.29  BC ( a d j . f o r A,B,C,AB & AC)  .00  .00  1  .23  ABC ( a d j . f o r a l l o t h e r effects)  .07  .04  5  .60  2  Df  Error  1.24  193  Total  1.61  217  ^obs  P  <.10  137  TABLE 32 D i f f e r e n c e s Between Group I leans on F a c t o r A f o r C u l t u r a l  M  y  1 2  y  2 1  2 2  4.  Setting  ^32  ^31  ^11 y-,2  -  -.01 -.01  .00  -  V2  .01  .02  .02  ^31  .05*  .06*  .06*  .04  ^32  .07*  .08*  .08*  .06  2  -  ^1.  -  .02  y  3.  -  y y  .00  y  .06*  .06*  U  S  (1.2).  y  3.  * S i g n i f i c a n t at a = .10.  (l,2).  06*  -  "3.  138  C l e a r l y , the s i g n i f i c a n c e  o f F a c t o r A r e s u l t s m a i n l y from the  overall  h i g h e r s c o r e s o f the s c h o o l e d group compared w i t h the u n s c h o o l e d  group.  D i f f e r e n c e s between l e v e l s o f the Dekina and Ayangba groups  are  not s i g n i f i c a n t . 4.5.3.4 S p e c i f i c Nature o f Group D i f f e r e n c e s w i t h R e s p e c t t o BI T a b l e 33 g i v e s i n f o r m a t i o n r e g a r d i n g which k i n d o f measurement t e c h n i q u e s each group o f Ss_ was w i l l i n g t o recommend i n C u l t u r a l Setting  4.  TABLE 33 Comparison o f Recommendations by Schooled and Unschooled Groups ( C u l t u r a l S e t t i n g 4)  Categories of Schooling  School-Based Techniques (1 ,2,&4)  (a).  Culture-Based Techniques (3 & 5) (b)  Ratio, p ( ) a + b 9  Schooled  94  42  .69  Unschooled  24  58  .29  118  100  .54  Total  The Table shows t h a t the r a t i o o f the s c h o o l e d Ss_ w i l l i n g to recommend s c h o o l - b a s e d t e c h n i q u e s i s more than two and a h a l f times the  139 r a t i o of u n s c h o o l e d S_s w i l l i n g The  x  c a l c u l a t e d using  to do the same t h i n g (.69  the formula  on p. 84  versus  .29).  (32.72, w i t h 1 d f )  was  found t o be s i g n i f i c a n t a t an a - l e v e l w e l l below the s p e c i f i e d one. This confirms schooled  and  the above o b s e r v a t i o n  of measurement i n C u l t u r a l S e t t i n g  A n a l y s i s of the E f f e c t s of Both I n t e r n a l and T a b l e 34 g i v e s the amount o f v a r i a n c e  4.  External  S  and  Variables  (R ) o f the BI  a c c o u n t e d f o r by v a r i a b l e s i n t e r n a l t o the F i s h b e i n Model ( A NB )  the  u n s c h o o l e d groups w i t h r e g a r d t o w i l l i n g n e s s t o recommend  school-based techniques  4.5.4  about the d i f f e r e n c e between  scores  a c t  s i g n i f i c a n t e x t e r n a l v a r i a b l e s , namely F a c t o r A, the  ,  NB , p  only  such v a r i a b l e t o y i e l d a s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t i n the m u l t i p l e r e g r e s s i o n analysis. F a c t o r A, u n a d j u s t e d f o r a l l o t h e r v a r i a b l e s e x c e p t a c c o u n t s f o r 13.4  p e r c e n t o f the B l - v a r i a n c e .  the s c h o o l i n g f a c t o r , i s a d j u s t e d  v a r i a b l e s together  t o Cohen [1969].  a c c o u n t f o r 23.9  b e f o r e a d j u s t m e n t f o r F a c t o r A. f o r o n l y 13.6  However, when F a c t o r  percent which i s t h e r e f o r e In t u r n , the  internal  p e r c e n t o f the v a r i a n c e  in Bl-scores,  When a d j u s t e d , t h e i r e f f e c t a c c o u n t s  p e r c e n t o f the v a r i a n c e w h i c h , a c c o r d i n g  c r i t e r i a i s a large effect.  t o Cohen's  E v i d e n t l y , the F i s h b e i n v a r i a b l e s a r e  the b e s t p r e d i c t o r s o f BI i n C u l t u r a l S e t t i n g 4; the b e s t s i n g l e p r e d i c t o r here being A ^ . ac  The  e x t e r n a l v a r i a b l e s do improve p r e -  d i c t i o n but t o a r a t h e r l i m i t e d e x t e n t . hypotheses r e g a r d i n g  the  These r e s u l t s s u p p o r t  i m p o r t a n c e of both i n t e r n a l and  v a r i a b l e s i n the p r e d i c t i o n o f  A,  f o r the i n t e r n a l v a r i a b l e s , i t s  c o n t r i b u t i o n t o the B l - v a r i a n c e i s o n l y 4.2 a small e f f e c t according  age,  BI.  external  140  TABLE  34  V a r i a n c e C o n t r i b u t i o n s ( R ) o f I n t e r n a l and S e l e c t e d Variables for Cultural Setting 4 2  R (X)  Variables  Factor A (adjusted f o r I:  (A  a a  +NB  p  +  NB ) S  2  age)  13.4 23.9  I ( a d j . f o r A)  13.6  A ( a d j . f o r I)  4.2  I + A  I :  A  act  NB NB  p  S  27.1  16.4 5.7 0.8  External  141  4.6  Summary o f I n f o r m a t i o n R e l a t i n g to S e t t i n g 7 4.6.1  D e s c r i p t i o n o f the S e t t i n g The c u l t u r a l  s e t t i n g i s one  r e q u i r e d t o share a bag o f g a r i  i n which a n a t i v e N i g e r i a n i s  ( f r i e d , g r a t e d c a s s a v a ) " e q u a l l y by  w e i g h t " between two people i n o r d e r t o s e t t l e a d i s p u t e . 4.6.2  Methods o f Measurement f o r measuring  o b j e c t s proposed 4.7  t o Ss_ are g i v e n i n T a b l e  the w e i g h t s of heavy  35.  S t a t i s t i c a l A n a l y s i s o f the Data 4.7.1  Setting 7  Cultural Measuring  4.7.2  the w e i g h t of a heavy o b j e c t .  Hypotheses and Methods o f A n a l y s i s The  hypotheses  t o be t e s t e d and the method o f a n a l y s i s f o r  t e s t i n g each h y p o t h e s i s were i d e n t i c a l S e t t i n g 1 (see S e c t i o n 4.3.2, p. It will procedure  t o those d e s c r i b e d f o r C u l t u r a l  98).  be seen from T a b l e 35  t h a t the j u d g e s '  scaling  r e s u l t e d i n one o f the two s c h o o l - b a s e d t e c h n i q u e s b e i n g  ranked l o w e s t ( s c a l e v a l u e z e r o ) .  Ss_ who  ( l a u d a b l y ) endorsed  the use  o f a s p r i n g b a l a n c e i n t h i s s i t u a t i o n thus r e c e i v e d a low BI s c o r e r a t h e r than the h i g h one which a l l l o g i c a l s h o u l d have r e c e i v e d .  c o n s i d e r a t i o n s suggest  F o r t h i s r e a s o n , a l t h o u g h the b a s i c BI d a t a  are p r e s e n t e d , a n a l y s i s and d i s c u s s i o n o f these i s not c o n s i d e r e d useful.  The d a t a appear i n Appendix  D.  they  142  TABLE 35 Techniques o f Measurement Proposed t o Ss i n C u l t u r e S e t t i n g 7. Culture-Related  2.  Lifting  4.  Visual  Techniques  Estimation  Scale Value  School-Related  Techniques  Scale Value  .15  1.  Large S p r i n g - B a l a n c e  .00  .07  3.  Large  .39  Arm-Balance  143  4.8  Summary o f I n f o r m a t i o n 4.8.1  Description  R e l a t i n g to S e t t i n g 8  o f the S e t t i n g  A person making c o n s u l t a t i o n on b e h a l f member s u f f e r i n g from a d e b i l i t a t i n g d i s e a s e ,  of a c l o s e  family  i n order to discover  the cause o f the a i l m e n t . 4.8.2  Methods o f Measurement Proposed t o Ss The t e c h n i q u e s f o r methods of c o n s u l t a t i o n  (diagnosis)  proposed t o S_s_ a r e shown i n T a b l e 36.  4.9  Statistical 4.9.1  A n a l y s i s o f the Data  Cultural Setting 8 D i a g n o s i s of an  4.9.2  ailment.  Hypotheses and Methods o f A n a l y s i s The hypotheses t e s t e d and the methods o f a n a l y s i s used f o r  t e s t i n g them were i d e n t i c a l  t o those d e s c r i b e d  f o r C u l t u r a l S e t t i n g 1,  S e c t i o n 4.3.2, p. T a b l e 36 i n d i c a t e s a somewhat s i m i l a r s c a l i n g problem t o t h a t which l e d t o t h e abandonment o f C u l t u r a l S e t t i n g 7.  Subjectively,  however, i t was d e c i d e d t h a t s i n c e C u l t u r a l S e t t i n g 8 i n c l u d e d s i d e r a b l y l a r g e r number o f t e c h n i q u e s than d i d 7, o f which two based ones r e c e i v e d  higher  a conschool-  s c a l e v a l u e s than any o f the seven c u l t u r e -  based ones, the d a t a s h o u l d be a n a l y z e d and the f i n d i n g s r e p o r t e d .  In  s u p p o r t o f t h i s d e c i s i o n i s the f a c t t h a t the f r e q u e n c y w i t h which Ss_ endorsed t e c h n i q u e s 5 and 9 ( t h e s c h o o l - b a s e d ones w i t h low s c a l e was 3 and 5, r e s p e c t i v e l y . must be i n t e r p r e t e d somewhat  values)  N o n e t h e l e s s , i t appears t h a t t h e f i n d i n g s cautiously.  144  TABLE 36 techniques  o f Measurement Proposed t o Ss_ i n C u l t u r a l S e t t i n g 0.  C u l t u r e - R e l a t e d Methods or Personnel  .42  1.  Dispenser  .53  4.  Diviner  .11  3.  Doctor  .93  6.  Self-Trained  .37  5  Sanitary Inspector'  .05  7.  Elders**  .21  9.  Pharmacist  .17  8.  Faith  .08  Doctor*  Healer  11.  Imam***  T  Scale Values  Herbali s t  Christian  ***  -  2.  10.  t  S c h o o l - R e l a t e d Metln.."!or Personnel  Seal e Values  Priest  .00  A s e l f - t r a i n e d d o c t o r i n N i g e r i a i s a person who has had no r e g u l a r t r a i n i n g i n M e d i c i n e b u t i l l e g a l l y a d m i n i s t e r s drugs and i n j e c t i o n s s e c r e t l y , i . e . , a quack. E l d e r s a r e the accepted of the c u l t u r e .  l e a d e r s o f t h e community and t h e p u r v e y o r s  Imam i s a Moslem p r i e s t . S a n i t a r y I n s p e c t o r i s an o f f i c i a l o f t h e l o c a l H e a l t h Deparlinent who e n f o r c e s s t a n d a r d s o f hygiene i n p u b l i c p l a c e s .  145  4.9.3  E f f e c t s o f S c h o o l i n g , Environment, and R e l i g i o n on BI  4.9.3.1  Summary o f Raw Data  T a b l e 37 g i v e s t h e means and s t a n d a r d scores f o r a l l the c e l l s and  row m a r g i n a l s  i n the design.  d e v i a t i o n s o f the B I -  An e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e column  shows t h a t some o f the d i f f e r e n c e s i n mean B l - s c o r e s  are q u i t e s u b s t a n t i a l . Figure all  9  d e p i c t s t h e d i f f e r e n c e s between the mean B l - s c o r e s o f  t h r e e groups -- D e k i n a , Ayangba, and t h e u n s c h o o l e d g r o u p s .  F i g u r e shows t h a t t h e mean B l - s c o r e appears c o n s i d e r a b l y  f o r t h e Ayangba L e v e l 2 Ss  l o w e r than t h a t o f L e v e l  t h e r e a r e l a r g e d i f f e r e n c e s between L e v e l and  1 o f Ayangba.  Also,  2 o f Ayangba and L e v e l s 1  2 o f D e k i n a , and t h e u n s c h o o l e d group. R e f e r r i n g t o T a b l e 37  t h e Bl-means o f r u r a l and urban Ss_ do  not seem t o be r e m a r k a b l y d i f f e r e n t o v e r a l l . and  The  But t h o s e o f C h r i s t i a n s  Moslems appear t o be q u i t e d i f f e r e n t from each o t h e r .  F i g u r e 10  shows t h e d i f f e r e n c e s g r a p h i c a l l y . 4.9.3.2  M u l t i p l e Regression  T a b l e 38 c o r r o b o r a t e s i . e . , that important  Analysis  t h e p r e l i m i n a r y f i n d i n g s o f the s t u d y ,  d i f f e r e n c e s e x i s t due t o s c h o o l i n g and r e l i g i o n  in this Cultural Setting.  F a c t o r A, t h e s c h o o l i n g f a c t o r , a d j u s t e d  f o r t h e e f f e c t s o f F a c t o r B and F a c t o r C, a c c o u n t s f o r about 4  percent  of t h e v a r i a b i l i t y i n B l - s c o r e s w h i l e r e l i g i o n , F a c t o r C, a d j u s t e d f o r F a c t o r A and F a c t o r B a c c o u n t s f o r 1 p e r c e n t e f f e c t s can be c l a s s i f i e d as s m a l l , a c c o r d i n g The  o f BI v a r i a n c e .  These  t o Cohen [1969, p. 2 2 7 ] .  e f f e c t o f F a c t o r B, s o c i o e c o n o m i c e n v i r o n m e n t , a d j u s t e d  e f f e c t s o f F a c t o r A and F a c t o r C i s not s i g n i f i c a n t .  f o r the  TABLE 37 Behavioural  SocioEconomic Environment (B)  I n t e n t i o n ( B I ) Means and S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n s S C H O O L I N G  Religion (C)  Comparison Group I Level 2 Level 1  X  X  = .68  X  = .73  = .80  X  Setting 8  ( A )  E x p e r i m e n t a l Group Level 2 Level 1  Christian  f o r Cultural  = .57  Comparison Group I I Level 2 Level 1 X  = .57  X  Row M a r g i n a l s SD • i i X  n  = .82  SD = .32  SD = .33  SD = .25  SD = .37  SD = .34  SD = .33  X  X  X  X  X  X  79  .71  .78  50  .68  .74  Rural = .61  = .62  Moslem  = .78  = .63  = .66  = .73  SD = .37  SD = .36  SD = .31  SD = .27  SD = .32  SD = .36  X  y  X  X  X  X  = .83  = .79  Christian  = .79  = .60  = .84  SD = .26  SD = .00  SD = .25  SD = .23  SD = .20  X  X  X  X  X  = .73  SD = .41 X  41  .73  .79  48  .60  .75  Urban = .74  = .69  Mos1 em  n . J Column Marginals  I.  = .78  = .24  = .61  = .59  SD = .31  SD = .27  SD = .28  SD = .19  SD = .33  SD = .35  49  30  41  16  52  30  .71  .69  .78  .55  .65  .70  .32  .32  .26  .30  .31  .35  J SD  147  0.80  A  Mean B l scores  Level 1  F i g u r e 9.  Level 2  Comparison o f D i f f e r e n c e s Between t h e BI-means f o r A l l Groups, C u l t u r a l S e t t i n g 8.  0.80 -  0.70 Mean B l scores  0.60  0.50  Christians  F i g u r e 10.  Moslems  Comparison o f Mean B l - s c o r e s f o r C h r i s t i a n s and Moslems, C u l t u r a l Setting 8  149  TABLE 38 R e s u l t s o f Method 2 A n a l y s i s o f Data from C u l t u r a l S e t t i n g 8, U s i n g Research Model  Source o f V a r i a n c e  SS  AR  df  F ,  A ( a d j . f o r B & C)  .98  .04  5  2.05  B ( a d j . f o r A & C)  .06  .00*  1  .60  C ( a d j . f o r A & B)  .26  .01  1  2.67  AB ( a d j . f o r A,B,C,AC & BC)  .49  5  1.01  AC ( a d j . f o r A,B,C,AB & BC)  .55  ,00*  5  .11  BC ( a d j . f o r A,B,C,AB & AC)  .09  .00*  1  .94  ABC ( a d j . f o r a l l o t h e r terms)  .45  .02  5  .93  Error  18.88  193  Total  21.31  217  p  *A11 e n t r i e s a r e rounded o f f t o 2 d e c i m a l p l a c e s . I f they had been g i v e n t o , s a y , 5 decimal p l a c e s , these e n t r i e s would have been non-zero.  150  With r e f e r e n c e hypothesis  1(a) and  to the r e s e a r c h  1(b) about the e f f e c t s o f s c h o o l i n g and  r e s p e c t i v e l y , a r e s u p p o r t e d by the d a t a . h o l d s f o r Ayangba L e v e l  4.9.3.3  hypotheses (see p. 98)  P o s t Hoc  only  religion  In f a c t , h y p o t h e s i s  1(a)  1 only.  A n a l y s i s of BI-Means  T a b l e 39 g i v e s the d i f f e r e n c e s between the BI means f o r a l l the groups and  categories of s c h o o l i n g .  The  Table i n d i c a t e s that  s i g n i f i c a n c e of F a c t o r A i n the m u l t i p l e r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s i s can a c c o u n t e d f o r by the d i f f e r e n c e s between L e v e l 1 and Ayangba.  Other i n t e r - l e v e l  the  be  Level 2 of  d i f f e r e n c e s were not s i g n i f i c a n t .  The  Dekina group (combined) i s not s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t from the Ayangba group o r the u n s c h o o l e d group combined, r e s p e c t i v e l y .  Nor  i s there  an o v e r a l l s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between the Bl-means of the groups c o n s i d e r e d The  t o g e t h e r and  schooled  the u n s c h o o l e d group.  d i f f e r e n c e between the Bl-means f o r the two  religious  g r o u p s , C h r i s t i a n s and Moslems, i s .03, which i s s i g n i f i c a n t beyond the  .10  level.  4.9.3.4  S p e c i f i c Nature o f Group D i f f e r e n c e w i t h Respect to BI  T a b l e 40 shows the p r o p o r t i o n o f Ss_ i n each c a t e g o r y w i l l i n g t o recommend s c h o o l - b a s e d methods o f measurement. t i o n o f the T a b l e shows t h a t the r a t i o f o r Level s m a l l e s t and  An  who  were  examina-  2 o f Ayangba i s the  o f the same o r d e r as t h a t f o r n o n - s c h o o l e d  Ss.  151  TABLE 39 D i f f e r e n c e s Between Group Means on F a c t o r A for Cultural Setting 8  y  ^11  p  ll  22 y  31  u  32  21  n  22  ^32  ^31  -  -  .02  u  0  1 2  -  -.07  -.09  .16  .14  .23*  -  .06  .04  .13  -.10  -  .01  -.01  .08  -.15  -.05  -  /N y  2.  3.  W  y  2.  y  3.  -  -.02 .02  .04  y  y  (l,2).  y  3.  *  Significant at overall a =  (l,2).  .03  .10 f o r a l l comparisons made.  -  y  3.  -  152  TABLE 40 Comparison o f Recommendations f o r A l l Groups ( C u l t u r a l S e t t i n g 8)  Categories of Schooling  Dekina (Level  School-Based Techniques (a)  Culture-Based Techniques (b)  Ratio, p  (  ) ^a + b a  ;  1)  39  10  .80  Dekina ( L e v e l 2)  24  6  .80  Ayangba ( L e v e l 1)  35  6  .85  Ayangba ( L e v e l 2)  10  6  .63  Unschooled  53  29  .65  157  61  .72  Totals ..  153  O v e r a l l , the r a t i o s suggest t h a t t h e s c h o o l e d groups were more w i l l i n g  to recommend s c h o o l - r e l a t e d approaches t o d i a g n o s i n g  a i l m e n t s than unschooled  Ss_ ( e x c e p t f o r the anomalous s i t u a t i o n of  Ayangba L e v e l 2 Ss^, d i s c u s s e d i n Chapter  4.9.4  Five).  A n a l y s i s o f the E f f e c t s o f Both I n t e r n a l and E x t e r n a l Variables 2 T a b l e 41 g i v e s the amounts o f v a r i a n c e (R ) o f BI s c o r e s  accounted  f o r by the i n t e r n a l v a r i a b l e s o f the F i s h b e i n Model and  v a r i a b l e s e x t e r n a l t o the M o d e l , i . e . , F a c t o r A, and F a c t o r C.  by The  T a b l e shows t h a t the F i s h b e i n v a r i a b l e s , u n a d j u s t e d , account f o r p e r c e n t o f the BI v a r i a n c e and 29.8 e f f e c t o f F a c t o r A. shared by A and  percent a f t e r adjustment  31.4  f o r the  T h i s i s to say t h a t the amount o f v a r i a n c e  I i s quite small.  F a c t o r A, on the o t h e r hand, a c c o u n t s f o r 4.3 the v a r i a n c e i n B I , u n a d j u s t e d , and 3.9  percent of  p e r c e n t when a d j u s t e d f o r I .  A g a i n , t h e e f f e c t o f A, even though s m a l l , i s l a r g e l y  independent  of I. F a c t o r C, a c c o u n t s f o r l e s s than 1 p e r c e n t o f t h e i n BI s c o r e s a f t e r a d j u s t m e n t  variability  f o r I and A e f f e c t s .  In terms o f the p r e d i c t i v e powers o f the v a r i a b l e s , v a r i a b l e s o f t h e F i s h b e i n Model a r e much more powerful BI i n t h i s c u l t u r a l  the  p r e d i c t o r s of  s e t t i n g than the e x t e r n a l v a r i a b l e s .  The e x t e r n a l  v a r i a b l e s do improve p r e d i c t i o n somewhat but the e x t e n t i s l i m i t e d , as were t h e cases i n the o t h e r c u l t u r a l  settings  investigated.  The b e s t s i n g l e p r e d i c t o r o f BI i n t h i s s e t t i n g was a t t i t u d e toward  A ^.,  the a c t o f recommending measurement t e c h n i q u e s .  ac  NB  n  154  a l s o a c c o u n t s f o r q u i t e an i m p o r t a n t c o n t r i b u t i o n t o the p r e d i c t i o n o f B I , i n keeping w i t h f i n d i n g s i n o t h e r s e t t i n g s .  These r e s u l t s  s u p p o r t the c l a i m t h a t both the i n t e r n a l v a r i a b l e s o f the M o d e l , and v a r i a b l e s e x t e r n a l BI.  Fishbein  to i t , are s i g n i f i c a n t p r e d i c t o r s  of  155  TABLE 47 V a r i a n c e C o n t r i b u t i o n s (R ) o f S e l e c t e d I n t e r n a l and E x t e r n a l V a r i a b l e s f o r C u l t u r a l S e t t i n g 8.  Variables  R  2  (%)  Factor A (unadj.)  4.3  F a c t o r C ( a d j . f o r A)  1.0  I :  < act A  +  N B  p  +  N B  s>  I ( a d j . f o r A) ' I + A I + A + C  31.4 29.8 33.7 34.5  A ( a d j . f o r I)  3.9  C ( a d j . f o r I & A)  0.8  I: A  . act  NB  P  NB  S  20.2 11.0 0.4  CHAPTER FIVE  CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS  5.1  Statement o f t h e Problem The  of school was  purpose o f t h e study was t o examine t h e i n t e r p r e t i v e use  l e a r n i n g s i n non-school s i t u a t i o n s i n N i g e r i a .  An a t t e m p t  made t o d i s t i n g u i s h between d i f f e r e n t uses o f knowledge.  The  argument was made t h a t the i n t e r p r e t i v e use o f knowledge by which an i n d i v i d u a l uses h i s l e a r n i n g s t o make a g i v e n  problem s i t u a t i o n  i n t e l l i g i b l e w i t h o u t n e c e s s a r i l y b r i n g i n g about a m a t e r i a l o r cons t r u c t i v e change i n t h e s i t u a t i o n , was a r e a l i s t i c use o f s c h o o l The  expectation  of the  learnings. c o n c e p t o f t h e i n t e r p r e t i v e use o f s c h o o l  l e a r n i n g s was  o p e r a t i o n a l i z e d i n terms o f recommending a c o u r s e o f a c t i o n based on s c h o o l  l e a r n i n g s t o a person c o n f r o n t e d  situation.  w i t h a non-school  problem  I t was noted t h a t such a recommendation meets t h e  c o n d i t i o n s o f t h e i n t e r p r e t i v e use o f school  learnings i n that i t  i n v o l v e s an e v a l u a t i o n , a p p r e c i a t i o n , and u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e s i t u a t i o n i n terms o f t h e l e a r n i n g s . The school  a c t o f making such a recommendation under s p e c i f i e d non-  conditions  (B) was t a k e n t o be p r e d i c t a b l e by:  t i o n o f w i l l i n g n e s s t o make t h e recommendation ( B I ) , t i o n of favourableness  (1)  an i n d i c a -  (2) an i n d i c a -  toward making t h e recommendation (A ) ,  (3) an i n d i c a t i o n o f p e r s o n a l  t  normative b e l i e f s regarding 156  what t h e  157  i n d i v i d u a l p e r s o n a l l y b e l i e v e s he ought t o recommend d e s p i t e what o t h e r s might f e e l  (NBp), and  (4) an i n d i c a t i o n o f a person's  n o r m a t i v e b e l i e f r e g a r d i n g what he b e l i e v e s those whose views a r e r e s p e c t e d most by him would e x p e c t him t o do (recommend) i n t h e s i t u a t i o n , NB .  An attempt was made i n t h e s t u d y t o v e r i f y  this  p r e d i c t i o n and t o improve t h e p r e d i c t i o n through t a k i n g o t h e r f a c t o r s i n t o a c c o u n t , such as s c h o o l i n g , s o c i o e c o n o m i c  environment,  r e l i g i o n , and i n t e r a c t i o n s between t h e s e f a c t o r s o r t h e i r With r e s p e c t t o t h e f a c t o r s o f s c h o o l i n g , environment  levels.  socioeconomic  and r e l i g i o n i t was h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t b e h a v i o u r a l  i n t e n t i o n ( B I ) and a c t u a l b e h a v i o u r (B) w i t h r e s p e c t t o recommending s c h o o l - r e l a t e d methods o f measurement i n o u t - o f - s c h o o l c u l t u r a l s e t t i n g s would d i f f e r w i t h t h e t y p e ( s c i e n c e / n o s c i e n c e ) and amount o f s c h o o l i n s t r u c t i o n , t h e s o c i o e c o n o m i c background persuasion o f the Ss.  and t h e r e l i g i o u s  In a d d i t i o n , s i g n i f i c a n t i n t e r a c t i o n  effects  between f a c t o r s o f s c h o o l i n g , s o c i o e c o n o m i c e n v i r o n m e n t , and r e l i g i o n were p o s t u l a t e d .  5.2  Conclusions A number o f t e n t a t i v e c o n c l u s i o n s can be o f f e r e d t o t h e  problems  t h a t have p r o v i d e d d i r e c t i o n f o r t h e s t u d y .  From a m u l t i p l e  r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s i s o f t h e d a t a on b e h a v i o u r a l i n t e n t i o n o f t h e Ss^ a t Dekina  ( s c i e n c e i n s t r u c t i o n ) , Ayangba (no s c i e n c e i n s t r u c t i o n ) and  the u n s c h o o l e d S_s_, w i t h r e s p e c t t o recommending i n d i f f e r e n t cultural  s e t t i n g s , s e v e r a l c o n c l u s i o n s appear  justified.  158  1.  The Ss_ at Dekina and Ayangba secondary schools more strongly  toward the intent  of school-based  tended  to recommend the  use  methods of measurement than the Ss_  without any formal schooling: Ss did not differ  substantially  In C u l t u r a l S e t t i n g s 1,  the Dekina and Ayangba in such  intent.  4, and 8 i n v o l v i n g the measurement  of s h o r t time i n t e r v a l s , s h o r t d i s t a n c e s , and  the d i a g n o s i s o f a i l m e n t s ,  r e s p e c t i v e l y , the s c h o o l i n g f a c t o r proved t o be the most p o t e n t  determin-  ant o f behavioural  could  i n t e n t i o n among the e x t e r n a l v a r i a b l e s .  One  t h e r e f o r e c o n c l u d e t h a t f o r the S_s i n c l u d e d i n t h i s s t u d y , s c h o o l i n g a t the secondary s c h o o l  formal  l e v e l , r e g a r d l e s s o f whether s c i e n c e  i n s t r u c t i o n i s o f f e r e d o r n o t , tends t o promote the w i l l i n g n e s s t o recommend the use o f s c h o o l - b a s e d hand, the absence o f formal t o recommend c u l t u r e - b a s e d  methods o f measurement.  On  s c h o o l i n g appears" t o l e a d t o the  the  other  tendency  methods.  Further examination  o f the r e s u l t s show t h a t a l l the c a s e s  where s i g n i f i c a n t "independent" e f f e c t s o f the s c h o o l i n g f a c t o r were demonstrated i n v o l v e d c r i t i c a l  c h o i c e s o f measurement t e c h n i q u e s  o r d e r t o ensure p r e c i s e measures o f the p h y s i c a l p r o p e r t y assessed.  in  being  In a l l t h e s e c a s e s the c h o i c e o f an i n a p p r o p r i a t e measure-  ment t e c h n i q u e  c o u l d be p e r c e i v e d as having  immediate and c l e a r - c u t  consequences on the s o l u t i o n t o the problem posed t o Ss_.  For example,  measurement o f s h o r t time i n t e r v a l s , o f s h o r t d i s t a n c e s , and  the  d i a g n o s i s o f an a i l m e n t a r e a c t i v i t i e s i n which f a i l u r e to recommend what may  be c o n s i d e r e d  to be the most a p p r o p r i a t e method o f measurement  159  o r assessment by the S_s c o u l d c l e a r l y be p e r c e i v e d by him as important  n e g a t i v e consequences on success  activity.  In o t h e r words, s u c c e s s  i n c a r r y i n g out  i n accomplishing  having  that  the t a s k was  a  m o t i v a t i o n f o r making a 'good' c h o i c e . On  the o t h e r hand, i n the s i t u a t i o n  i n v o l v i n g the w e i g h i n g  a heavy o b j e c t , no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between the s c h o o l e d the n o n - s c h o o l e d Ss_ was perceived ing  obtained.  by. the s c h o o l e d  The  and  s i t u a t i o n c o u l d have been  S_s as i n c o n s e q u e n t i a l and  o f the case and a t t e n t i o n needed f o r c h o o s i n g  techniques  t h e r e f o r e not demand-  p r e c i s e or  accurate  o f measurement. These s p e c u l a t i o n s s u g g e s t the q u a l i f i c a t i o n t o c o n c l u s i o n  (1)  t h a t i n t e r p r e t i v e behaviour  i.e.,  i s very l i k e l y  that situations requiring c r i t i c a l  t i v e use o f s c h o o l critical  school  situation-dependent,  judgments i n v o l v e i n t e r p r e -  l e a r n i n g s more r e a d i l y than those  needing l e s s  judgment. A probable  r e a s o n f o r the l a c k o f e f f e c t due  t o secondary  s c i e n c e i n s t r u c t i o n m i g h t be t h a t none o f the t e c h n i q u e s  of  measurement proposed t o S_s were s u f f i c i e n t l y unique as t o i n v o k e use o f t h e Ss_' knowledge o f s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l s c i e n c e . t h a t f o r the measurement t e c h n i q u e s  the  I t would appear  s e l e c t e d f o r the s t u d y ,  the  l e a r n i n g s a c q u i r e d i n s c h o o l were s u f f i c i e n t to d i s t i n g u i s h the schooled  from the u n s c h o o l e d groups but not adequate f o r the  o f drawing d i s t i n c t i o n between the s c i e n c e and  non-science  groups.  I t c o u l d a l s o be argued t h a t the n o n - s c i e n c e ,  education  o f the Comparison Group I .Ss_ c o n t a i n e d  have compensated a d e q u a t e l y acquired  by the E x p e r i m e n t a l  f o r any e f f e c t due Group Ss_.  of  task  instruction  commercial  l e a r n i n g s which c o u l d  to s c i e n c e  learnings  K)0  C o n s i d e r i n g the f i r s t e x p l a n a t i o n regarding the elementary s c h o o l e d u c a t i o n o f t h e s c h o o l e d S_s, one can s p e c u l a t e how n o t i o n s about t h e s c h o o l - b a s e d  t e c h n i q u e s o f measurement proposed may have been  acquired i n elementary  school.  F o r example, t o t h e s c h o o l  time-  keeper, u s u a l l y h i m s e l f a s t u d e n t , t h e c l o c k and hand b e l l was a common experience.  The b e g i n n i n g and ending o f c l a s s p e r i o d s and breaks  were i n d i c a t e d by t h e c l o c k .  Small d i s t a n c e s , l i k e t h e h e i g h t o f  the t e a c h e r ' s t a b l e , were measured w i t h a r u l e r w h i l e t h e measuring tape was used t o measure t h e d i s t a n c e t h e d i s c u s o r j a v e l i n was thrown a t t h e s c h o o l ' s annual  a t h l e t i c meet.  I t was a l s o n o t un-  common t h a t a t such meets a stopwatch  was used t o t i m e t h e f a s t e s t  runner  Knowledge about t h e d i a g n o s i s  i n the short distance races.  and t r e a t m e n t o f d i s e a s e c o u l d come about through  t h e nurse o f t h e  v i l l a g e d i s p e n s a r y o r town h o s p i t a l , o f t e n a f r e q u e n t v i s i t o r t o t h e school. elementary  These and s i m i l a r events a r e avenues through which t h e s c h o o l c h i l d may have a c q u i r e d h i s knowledge o f t h e v a r i o u s  t e c h n i q u e s o f measurement, i n p a r t i c u l a r t h e s c h o o l - r e l a t e d ones used i n the study. With r e s p e c t t o t h e s u g g e s t i o n t h a t t h e n o n - s c i e n c e  education  o f Comparison Group I Ss_ may have r e s u l t e d i n l e a r n i n g s which compensated f o r the lack o f science i n s t r u c t i o n , p o s s i b l e l e a r n i n g s r e l a t e d t o p r e c i s i o n and a c c u r a c y  i n a c c o u n t i n g and t y p i n g come t o mind.  It  c o u l d be p o s s i b l e t h a t such n o t i o n s were brought t o bear on t h e v a r i o u s problems o f measurement posed i n t h e s t u d y , i n a d d i t i o n to any p r e v i o u s e x p e r i e n c e S_s may have had w i t h the measurement proposed.  techniques  161  The  n e x t c o n c l u s i o n t h a t seems w a r r a n t e d has t o do w i t h t h e  j u n i o r and s e n i o r grade l e v e l s ( L e v e l s 1 and 2) a t Dekina and Ayangba, and  t h e i r age c o u n t e r p a r t s 2.  i n t h e n o n - s c h o o l e d group o f Ss_.  With one exception,  the senior  (Level 2), grade level to have any noticeable,  grade level  at the two schools independent  at Ayangba does not seem  effect  on the Ss '  intent  to use school-based  techniques.  levels  of the non-schooled  groups does not seem to  noticeably  affect  the SsJ intent  to use  Similarly,  age  culture-based  techniques. L e v e l 2 o f Ayangba was found t o have c o n s i s t e n t l y l o w e r mean BI s c o r e s of Dekina.  than e i t h e r L e v e l 1 o f the same s c h o o l  o r Level  No ready e x p l a n a t i o n can be g i v e n f o r t h i s  1 and L e v e l 2 observation  e x c e p t t o s a y t h a t based on a measure o f mental a b i l i t y , the mean a b i l i t y scores any  f o r the Ayangba L e v e l 2 group was n o t i c e a b l y l o w e r than t h a t o f  other schooled  group.  S i n c e a p r e l i m i n a r y a n a l y s i s o f the  data  i n d i c a t e d t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f mental a b i l i t y as a p r e d i c t o r o f BI one could speculate  t h a t t h i s might e x p l a i n the d i f f e r e n c e s observed.  However, a p r e l i m i n a r y a n a l y s i s o f t h e data o b t a i n e d  showed t h a t t h e  mental a b i l i t y s c o r e s were n o t r e l i a b l e and so t h i s p o i n t cannot be s t r e t c h e d too f a r . With r e s p e c t t o t h e e f f e c t o f where t h e Ss^ l i v e d - , r u r a l o r urban a r e a s , on b e h a v i o u r a l justified*  i n t e n t , t h e f o l l o w i n g c o n c l u s i o n seems  162  3.  With the exception economic  of Cultural  environment,  to have a strong,  1, the  socio-  SEE, of the Ss_ does not  appear  independent  recommend the use of school of  nature  of  socioeconomic behavioural  the  not  ment  intent,  whereas t h i s the  u r b a n S_  or  is  that  schooling  appears  its  effect  factor  t o be  the  of  (if  it  argue  were f o u n d ,  the  a short  that  the  u n i q u e as  case f o r time  the  u r b a n S_ t h a n f o r  his  Hence t h e  city  tendency  of  r e l i g i o n c a n be s t a t e d  SsJ  Cultural  of  measure-  differentiate them In  1.  s t r e e t as  fast  not  to choose  as  that the. he  part of a  the  technique  t o be g r e a t e r  for  counterpart.  The c o n c l u s i o n t o be d r a w n f r o m t h e as:  study  fact,  there-  i s more f a m i l i a r t o  t i m e w o u l d be e x p e c t e d  rural  those  Setting  a s i t u a t i o n which i s  of  the  t o recommend  Cultural  interval busy  to  traffic,  measurement  of  in  commonly  techniques  heavy  precise  is  for  the  S_.  that,  and/or w i t h r e l i g i o n , and i s  to cross  for  effect  exists)  has  a rural  considering  n o t an i m p o r t a n t d e t e r m i n a n t  One c o u l d a l s o  notion of  can to a v o i d  finding,  a n d u r b a n S_s i n t h e i r w i l l i n g n e s s  who o f t e n  experience  to  methods  seems t o be e i t h e r  t o Ss_ w e r e n o t s u f f i c i e n t l y  rural  setting  or culture-based  performed  when weak SEE e f f e c t s  posed  between  analysis  independent.  Settings  on the intent  t o be d r a w n f r o m t h i s  environment  shared w i t h the fore  effect  measurement.  The i n f e r e n c e the  Setting  regarding  the  163  4.  With one exception, group  to which  Cultural  Ss_ belonged  Setting (Christian  8, the r e l i g i o u s or Moslem) did  not seem to have importantindependent intent of  to recommend school  effects  on the  or culture-based  techniques  measurement.  I n f e r e n c e s t o be drawn f o r t h i s f i n d i n g a r e s i m i l a r t o those made f o r t h e e f f e c t o f s o c i o e c o n o m i c environment  i n (3) above.  In  a d d i t i o n , t h e s t r o n g independent e f f e c t o f t h e r e l i g i o u s f a c t o r i n C u l t u r a l S e t t i n g 8 i s t o be expected because o f t h e p o w e r f u l  religious  b e l i e f s c o n c e r n i n g t h e c a u s a t i o n o f d i s e a s e s and a i l m e n t s , p a r t i c u l a r l y among Moslems and t h e a t t e n d a n t b e l i e f t h a t c e r t a i n i n d i v i d u a l s a r e p a r t i c u l a r l y endowed w i t h t h e powers ( s p i r i t u a l ) t o d i s c o v e r and c u r e diseases. With r e g a r d t o t h e e f f e c t s due t o c o m b i n a t i o n s o f f a c t o r s ( i n t e r a c t i o n s ) the following conclusion i s offered.  5.  With one exception,  Cultural  i n t e r a c t i o n s between factors independently,  strongly  1, effects  did not appear  related  i n t e n t i o n to recommend school of  Setting  to the  due to  to be  behavioural  or culture-based  techniques  measurement.  In C u l t u r a l S e t t i n g 1 a s t r o n g , independent  e f f e c t due t o  the i n t e r a c t i o n o f environment w i t h r e l i g i o n was o b t a i n e d .  In t h a t  S e t t i n g , r u r a l Moslems were found t o have much h i g h e r i n t e n t t o recommend s c h o o l - b a s e d t e c h n i q u e s o f measurement than r u r a l the d i f f e r e n c e v a n i s h i n g w i t h u r b a n i z a t i o n .  The d i f f e r e n c e  Christians, observed  164  between C h r i s t i a n s and Moslems a t t h e r u r a l the c o n t e n t i o n  seems t o agree w i t h  e x p r e s s e d on pp. 17-18 c o n c e r n i n g t h e p o s s i b l e  of the i n t e l l e c t u a l  effect  c l i m a t e o f t h e Arab c u l t u r e from which t h e Moslem  r e l i g i o n o r i g i n a t e d on t h e b e h a v i o u r a l Setting  level  1 t h e use o f t h e n o t i o n  i n t e n t i o n s o f Moslem Ss_.  In  o f p r e c i s i o n i s more c l e a r l y demonstrated  than i n a l l o t h e r s e t t i n g s . With r e g a r d t o o t h e r c u l t u r a l  settings with  less  defined  n o t i o n s about p r e c i s i o n t h e e f f e c t seems t o be n o n - e x i s t e n t o r t o have been s u p p r e s s e d by t h e o t h e r v a r i a b l e s e n t e r e d i n t o t h e a n a l y s i s  before  it. L a s t l y , with r e s p e c t t o t h e importance o f F i s h b e i n ' s and  o f o t h e r ( e x t e r n a l ) v a r i a b l e s f o r p r e d i c t i n g i n t e n t t o use s c h o o l -  based o r c u l t u r e - b a s e d can  variables  methods o f measurement, t h e f o l l o w i n g  result  be s t a t e d : 6.  The Fishbein  variables  of behavioural investigated; stantial the  appear to be powerful  intention in addition  in all the Cultural  power than  variables.  When e n t e r e d f i r s t i n t h e r e g r e s s i o n  models used, t h e F i s h b e i n  v a r i a b l e s a c c o u n t e d f o r an overwhelming p r o p o r t i o n behavioural  intent.  information  o f the variance i n  When t h e y were e n t e r e d a f t e r t h e e x t e r n a l  t h e i r e f f e c t tended t o be reduced b u t was s t i l l On t h e c o n t r a r y ,  Settings  they account for a more sub-  amount of independent predictive  external  predictors  the external  highly  substantial.  v a r i a b l e s appeared t o s u p p l y  a d d i t i o n a l t o t h a t p r o v i d e d by t h e F i s h b e i n  variables,  little  ones.  165 The and  above f i n d i n g g i v e s some i n d i c a t i o n o f the adequacy  s u f f i c i e n c y o f the F i s h b e i n Model f o r p r e d i c t i n g b e h a v i o u r a l i n -  tention.  5.3  L i m i t a t i o n s o f the Study The  tability 1.  f o l l o w i n g a r e some l i m i t a t i o n s which a f f e c t i n t e r p r e -  of the r e s u l t s o f the study: D i r e c t measures o f t h e r e l i a b i l i t y o f t h e Ss_'  scores,  based on t h e s t a b i l i t y o f such s c o r e s , were n o t o b t a i n e d for  study.  T h i s means t h a t comparisons between groups  of Ss_ t e s t e d a t d i f f e r e n t p o i n t s i n time must be i n t e r preted with  caution.  Evidence obtained  i n the study a l s o i n d i c a t e s that the  BI s c o r e s may not have been w h o l l y  adequate as measures o f t h e  recommending b e h a v i o u r o f t h e SS_, s i n c e i n some C u l t u r a l S e t t i n g s a s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t was n o t always c o r r o b o r a t e d the a n a l y s i s o f a c t u a l recommendations.  by  I t i s , however,  2 p o s s i b l e t h a t x 's l a c k o f power may e x p l a i n t h e s e d i s c r e p a n c i e s , 2,  The non-random s a m p l i n g o f I g a l a s t u d e n t s a t D e k i n a and Ayangba as r e p r e s e n t a t i v e  o f the p o p u l a t i o n  of schooled  Ss i n t h e I g a l a c u l t u r e poses a t h r e a t t o t h e e x t e r n a l v a l i d i t y of the study. The  assumption t h a t ttie two s c h o o l s d i f f e r e d  o n l y i n terms o f s c i e n c e - n o s c i e n c e i n s t r u c t i o n  166  a p p e a r s , i n r e t r o s p e c t , t o be unwarranted. o f Ayangba was found t o g i v e c o n s i s t e n t l y r e s u l t s from t h e o t h e r s c h o o l e d g r o u p s , Ayangba L e v e l 1.  Level 2 different  including  T h i s s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e two s c h o o l s  were p r o b a b l y d i f f e r e n t on o t h e r v a r i a b l e s n o t measured by t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y .  The r e s u l t s o f  comparisons between Dekina and Ayangba, s h o u l d t h e r e f o r e be i n t e r p r e t e d wi t h c o n s i d e r a b l e caution. A l s o r e l a t e d t o the s a m p l i n g problem  referred  t o above i s t h e n o n - o r t h o g o n a l i t y o f t h e s a m p l i n g d e s i g n , i . e . , . unequal o r d i s p r o p o r t i o n a t e c e l l f r e q u e n c i e s , and t h e a t t e n d a n t a n a l y t i c a l i n v o l v e d [ O v e r a l l and S p i e g e l , 1969]. f o r the c a r e f u l  This c a l l s  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e main e f f e c t s ,  i n t e r a c t i o n s and a s s o c i a t e d 3.  problem  contrasts.  L a s t l y , an i m p o r t a n t l i m i t a t i o n o f t h e s t u d y concerns t h e use o f the u n s c h o o l e d , Comparison Group I I Ss_. T h e i r i n a b i l i t y t o u n d e r s t a n d the t a s k s posed the C a t t e l l ' s  by  'Culture F a i r ' Test o f I n t e l l i g e n c e ,  and t o respond t o t h e B e h a v i o u r O b s e r v a t i o n I n s t r u m e n t i n d i c a t e s t h a t a b a s i c d i f f e r e n c e e x i s t s between t h a t group and t h e s c h o o l e d groups w i t h r e s p e c t t o b e h a v i o u r i n t e s t - s i t u a t i o n s such as were used i n the s t u d y . In a d d i t i o n , the language o f a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and i n s t r u c -  167  tions  contained  and I g a l a may h a v e  for  i n the  schooled  resulted  speaks  the  between could  the  differences  between  particular  reference  ment i n n o n - s c h o o l and t h e c u l t u r a l is  for  settings.  to  Further  study  has  to  been c o n f i n e d  use  The t y p e s  into other areas  e x p l o r e d and s t u d i e d . sufficiently  the  the  science  Ss_.  group  and  differences  schooled  to  groups  investigating  groups  their  of  o f measurement  necessarily  o f measurement of  in  measure-  activities  limited.  Further  and o t h e r  cultural  the  interpretive  than recommending b e h a v i o u r  should  should  t o d i s c r i m i n a t e between  i n s t r u c t i o n and those  the  Nigerians with  learnings  In p a r t i c u l a r , such b e h a v i o u r  unique or s e n s i t i v e  received  the  as  Study  s t u d i e d were  i n measurement  language  group  and t h e  In a d d i t i o n , o t h e r m a n i f e s t a t i o n s  learnings  of  these l i m i t a t i o n s .  t h e ways t h e y  situations.  However,  them-  Some o f  s c h o o l e d and nonschooled  settings  needed  well].  the  who w e r e  h i m s e l f a member o f  unschooled groups  be a t t r i b u t e d  The p r e s e n t  same c u l t u r a l  by  difficulty  instruments.  and a s s i s t a n t s  is  language  Recommendations  who h a v e  the  w e r e made t o m i n i m i z e t h e e f f e c t  [The e x p e r i m e n t e r  unschooled)  understanding  attempts  the  (English  the  in translating  of  those  for  involved  s e l v e s members  use o f  S_s_ a n d I g a l a  S_s b e c a u s e o f  by u s i n g t r a n s l a t o r s  research  instruments  in a limited  Comparison Group II  5.4  various  who h a v e  be  schooled not.  be  Ss_  168  F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e i n t e r p r e t i v e uses o f o t h e r b a s i c and  concepts learned  i n s c i e n c e c l a s s e s , e.g., o b s e r v a t i o n ,  cation, hypothesizing,  s y l l o g i s m s , e t c . , should  skills classifi-  be i n v e s t i g a t e d .  R e p l i c a t i o n o f t h e study among d i f f e r e n t N i g e r i a n c u l t u r a l groups and e l s e w h e r e and i n h i g h l y d i f f e r e n t i a t e d s o c i o e c o n o m i c environments might l e a d t o t h e e l u c i d a t i o n o f c u l t u r a l responsible  and s o c i o e c o n o m i c f a c t o r s  f o r i n t e r p r e t i v e b e h a v i o u r and such p o s s i b i l i t i e s  should  be examined. Even though  t h e amounts o f BI v a r i a n c e  by t h e F i s h b e i n v a r i a b l e s and some e x t e r n a l  (R ) accounted f o r  v a r i a b l e s have been q u i t e  modest i n t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y , the use o f t h e Model i n e d u c a t i o n a l research  i s t o be recommended.  been a b l e t o p r e d i c t BI v a r i a n c e 1972;  T e s s l e r , 1972).  proportions  S i m i l a r s t u d i e s u s i n g t h e Model have o f between 40-50 per c e n t (Abramson,  The f a i l u r e o f t h e Model t o a c c o u n t f o r h i g h e r  of the v a r i a b i l i t y i n Bl-scores  the d i f f i c u l t y  here may be due t o  i n p r e d i c t i n g behaviour, generally.  mended t h a t e d u c a t i o n a l  researchers  explore  I t i s a l s o recom-  the p o s s i b i l i t i e s of using  models s i m i l a r t o those which have been found u s e f u l by o t h e r scientists in investigating social one  social  b e h a v i o u r and i n t e r a c t i o n such as  finds i n schools. L a s t l y , t h e c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n o f t h e outcomes o f school  l e a r n i n g s needs t o be extended and o p e r a t i o n a l i z e d . requires f u r t h e r c l a r i f i c a t i o n , i n p a r t i c u l a r , with  Broudy's regard  viewpoint  to i t s  d i s t i n c t i o n between the i n t e r p r e t i v e and t h e a p p l i c a t i v e uses o f learnings.  169  REFERENCES  Abramson, K.H. An A p p l i c a t i o n o f F i s h b e i n ' s A t t i t u d e Theory. Unpublished Master's T h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1972.  Ajzen, I.  A t t i t u d i n a l v s . n o r m a t i v e measages: an i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f t h e d i f f e r e n t i a l e f f e c t s o f p e r s u a s i v e communications on b e h a v i o u r . S o c i o m e t r y , 1971.  and F i s h b e i n , M. The p r e d i c t i o n o f b e h a v i o u r from a t t i t u d i n a l and n o r m a t i v e v a r i a b l e s . 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Wiley  & Sons, I n c . ,  New Y o r k , H o l t ,  173  A P P E N D I C E S  Appendix A  -  Descriptions of Cultural  Settings  Appendix B  -  Instruments  Appendix C  -  Q u e s t i o n n a i r e f o r Background  Appendix D  -  A n a l y s i s o f Data f o r S i t u a t i o n s 2, 3, 5, 6  Data  APPENDIX A DESCRIPTIONS OF CULTURAL SETTINGS  175  APPENDIX A DESCRIPTIONS OF CULTURAL SETTINGS Behaviour  1.  Measuring a s h o r t interval  2. Measuring t i n e o f  Relevant  Cultural  Situation  tine  A n a t i v e person f a c e d w i t h the problem o f r e p o r t i n g the d u r a t i o n o f v i s i b i l i t y of a "shooting star" f o r o f f i c i a l records, i . e . , measuring a s h o r t time i n t e r v a l  day  A n a t i v e N i g e r i a n keeping an appointment w i t h an i m p o r t a n t European o f f i c i a l / b u s i n e s s m a n a r r i v i n g on an u r g e n t b u s i n e s s t r i p , i . e . , measuring a s p e c i f i c time o f day  3. Measuring a l o n g time interval  A n a t i v e farmer i n need o f d e t e r m i n i n g the t i m e i n t e r v a l between two p l a n t i n g s e a s o n s , i . e . , measuring a l o n g time i n t e r v a l  4. Measuring a s h o r t d i s t a n c e  A l o c a l b l a c k s m i t h making a s l o t i n a hoehandle t o f i t ( e x a c t l y ) the metal b l a d e , i . e . , measuring a s h o r t d i s t a n c e  5. Measuring a l o n g  P e o p l e b u i l d i n g a road t o l i n k t h e i r v i l l a g e or town w i t h the n e i g h b o u r i n g marked by the s h o r t e s t o f s e v e r a l p o s s i b l e r o u t e s ( t o save c o s t s and e f f o r t ) , i . e . , measuring a long distance  distance  6. M e a s u r i n g w e i g h t o f a l i g h t object  A b u t c h e r r e t a i l i n g small p i e c e s o f meat, i . e . , measuring the w e i g h t o f small ( l i g h t ) objects  7. Weighing a heavy o b j e c t  A n a t i v e person s h a r i n g a bag o f g a r i (approx, 100 l b s . ) e q u a l l y by w e i g h t between two people to s e t t l e a d i s p u t e , i . e . , weighing a heavy o b j e c t  8.  Seeking d i a g n o s i s o f an a i 1 merit  aiV  A person making c o n s u l t a t i o n on b e h a l f o f a c l o s e f a m i l y member s u f f e r i n g from a d e b i l i t a t i n g d i s e a s e i n o r d e r t o d i s c o v e r the cause o f the a i l m e n t  APPENDIX B INSTRUMENTS  177  BI INSTRUMENT FOR JUDGES  Name(optional)  Number  Date.  Instructions Below i s a s h o r t d e s c r i p t i o n o f a problem s i t u a t i o n such as a person i s l i k e l y t o e n c o u n t e r i n y o u r home environment. You a r e a l s o p r e s e n t e d w i t h d e s c r i p t i o n s , p h o t o g r a p h s , o r a c t u a l examples o f a p a i r o f methods f o r c o p i n g w i t h t h e problem. Study t h e s i t u a t i o n c a r e f u l l y . Then s e l e c t ONE o f t h e p a i r ( i . e . 1 o r 2) o f methods t h e m a j o r i t y o f the p e o p l e you know would be more w i l l i n g t o recommend t o t h e person i n t h e problem s i t u a t i o n . S i t u a t i o n 1:  A person measuring t h e d u r a t i o n o f v i s i b i l i t y o f a s h o o t i n g s t a r ( f o r o f f i c i a l r e c o r d s ) , i . e . , measuring a v e r y s h o r t time i n t e r v a l .  Method  Recommendation  Check (/) ONE o f each p a i r  The m a j o r i t y o f p e o p l e I know w i l l be more Clock with second hand  1  willing  t o recommend  1  Stop watch  2  wi 11ing t o recommend  2  1  wi 11ing t o recommend  1  2  wi 11ing t o recommend  2  Human p u l s e  1  w 11ing t o recommend  1  Stop watch  2  wi 11ing t o recommend  2  Clock with second hand  1  wi 11ing t o recommend  1  Human p u l s e  2  willing  2  Distance walked Clock w i t h second hand  t o recommend  178  31 INSTRUMENT FOR JUDGES  (continued)  Recommendation  Method  The m a j o r i t y o f p e o p l e I know w i l l be more . . .  Stop watch  1  willing  t o recommend  Distance Walked  2  willing  t o recommend  Human p u l s e  1  willing  t o recommend  Distance Walked  2  w i 1 1 i ng t o recommend  Check (/) one o f each p a i r  179  A„^  a C T/~  INSTRUMENT FOR JUDGES  Name(optional)  Number.  Date.  Instructions Below i s a s h o r t d e s c r i p t i o n o f a problem s i t u a t i o n such as a person i s l i k e l y t o e n c o u n t e r i n y o u r home environment. You a r e a l s o p r e s e n t e d w i t h d e s c r i p t i o n s , photographs and f o r a c t u a l examples o f p a i r s o f methods f o r c o p i n g w i t h t h e problem. Study t h e s i t u a t i o n carefully. Then s e l e c t ONE o f the p a i r o f methods t h e m a j o r i t y o f p e o p l e you know would be most f a v o u r a b l e toward recommending t o t h e person i n the problem s i t u a t i o n . Situation  1:  A person measuring t h e d u r a t i o n o f v i s i b i l i t y o f a s h o o t i n g s t a r ( f o r o f f i c i a l r e c o r d s ) ; i . e . , measuring a v e r y s h o r t time i n t e r v a l .  Method  Recommendation  Check (/) ONE o f each p a i r  The m a j o r i t y o f p e o p l e I know w i l l be more  A  Clock with second hand  1  f a v o u r a b l e toward recommending  1  Stop watch  2  f a v o u r a b l e toward recommending  2  Distance walked Clock with second hand  1  f a v o u r a b l e toward recommending  1  2  f a v o u r a b l e toward recommending  2  Human p u l s e  1  f a v o u r a b l e toward recommending  1  Stop watch  2  f a v o u r a b l e toward recommending  2  Clock with second hand  1  f a v o u r a b l e toward recommending  1  luman p u l s e  2  f a v o u r a b l e toward recommending  2  180  A . INSTRUMENT FOR JUDGES ( c o n t i n u e d ) — act Method  Recommendation  Check (/) one o f each p a i r  The m a j o r i t y o f p e o p l e I know w i l l be more . . .  Stop watch  f a v o u r a b l e toward recommending  1  Distance Walked  f a v o u r a b l e toward recommending  2  Human p u l s e  f a v o u r a b l e toward recommending  1  Distance walked  f a v o u r a b l e toward recommending  2  181  NB —P  INSTRUMENT FOR JUDGES ;  Name ( o p t i o n a l )  Number  Date.  Instructions Below i s a s h o r t d e s c r i p t i o n o f a problem s i t u a t i o n such as a p e r s o n i s l i k e l y t o e n c o u n t e r i n y o u r home environment. You a r e a l s o p r e s e n t e d w i t h d e s c r i p t i o n s o r a c t u a l examples o f a p a i r o f methods f o r c o p i n g w i t h the problem. Study the s i t u a t i o n c a r e f u l l y . Then s e l e c t the ONE method o f the p a i r ( i . e . No. 1 or/No. 2) o f methods the m a j o r i t y o f the p e o p l e you know would p e r s o n a l l y f e e l they ought t o recommend t o the person i n the problem s i t u a t i o n . S i t u a t i o n 1:  A person measuring t h e d u r a t i o n o f v i s i b i l i t y o f a " s h o o t i n g s t a r " ( f o r o f f i c i a l r e c o r d s ) , i . e . , measuri n g a v e r y s h o r t time i n t e r v a l .  Method  Recommendation  Check (/) one o f each p a i r  The m a j o r i t y o f people I know will  A  Clock with second hand  1  Stop watch  2  Distance walked Clock w i t h second hand  1 2  Human p u l s e  1  Stop watch  2  Clock with second hand  1  Human p u l s e  2  personally feel recommend personally feel recommend  they ought to  1  they ought t o  2  personally feel recommend personally feel recommend  they ought t o  1  t h e y ought t o  2  personally feel recommend personally feel recommend  they ought t o  1  they ought t o  2  p e r s o n a l l y f e e l they ought t o recommend p e r s o n a l l y f e e l they ought t o recommend  182  NB  p  INSTRUMENT FOR JUDGES ( c o n t i n u e d )  Method  Recommendation  Check (/) one o f each p a i r  The m a j o r i t y o f people I know will  Stop watch Distance I Walked Human p u l s e  1  Distance Walked  2  p e r s o n a l l y f e e l they ought t o recommend p e r s o n a l l y f e e l they ought t o recommend  1  p e r s o n a l l y f e e l they ought t o recommend p e r s o n a l l y f e e l they ought t o recommend  1  2  2  183  NB  Name ( o p t i o n a l )  INSTRUMENT FOR JUDGES  Number  Date  Instructions Below i s a s h o r t d e s c r i p t i o n o f a problem s i t u a t i o n such as you a r e l i k e l y t o e n c o u n t e r i n y o u r home environment. You a r e a l s o p r e s e n t e d w i t h d e s c r i p t i o n s , p h o t o g r a p h s , o r a c t u a l examples o f a p a i r of methods f o r c o p i n g w i t h t h e problem. Study t h e s i t u a t i o n c a r e f u l l y . Then s e l e c t ONE o f t h e p a i r ( i . e . 1 o r 2) o f methods t h e group o f people (e.g. f a m i l y members, c l a s s m a t e s , community l e a d e r s , b e s t f r i e n d s , e t c . ) who a r e r e s p e c t e d most by t h e m a j o r i t y o f p e o p l e you know would e x p e c t them t o recommend t o t h e person i n t h e problem s i t u a t i o n . S i t u a t i o n 1:  A person measuring t h e d u r a t i o n o f v i s i b i l i t y o f a s h o o t i n g s t a r ( f o r o f f i c i a l r e c o r d s ) , i . e . measuring a v e r y s h o r t time i n t e r v a l .  Method  Recommendation  Check (/) ONE of each p a i r  The group o f p e o p l e who a r e r e s p e c t e d most by t h e m a j o r i t y o f p e o p l e I know would be  Clocked with second hand  1  e x p e c t e d t o recommend  1  Stop  2  e x p e c t e d t o recommend  2  1  e x p e c t e d t o recommend  1  2  e x p e c t e d t o recommend  2  Human p u l s e  1  e x p e c t e d t o recommend  1  Stop  2  e x p e c t e d t o recommend  2  Clock with second hand  1  e x p e c t e d t o recommend  Human p u l s e  2.  e x p e c t e d t o recommend  watch  Distance walked Clock with second hand  watch  184  BI INSTRUMENT FOR Ss  Name ( o p t i o n a l )  Number  Date  Instructions Below i s a s h o r t d e s c r i p t i o n o f a problem s i t u a t i o n such as a person i s l i k e l y t o e n c o u n t e r i n y o u r home environment. You a r e a l s o p r e s e n t e d w i t h d e s c r i p t i o n s , p h o t o g r a p h s , and f o r a c t u a l examples o f s e v e r a l a l t e r n a t i v e methods o f c o p i n g w i t h t h e problem. Study t h e situation carefully. Then s e l e c t t h e ONE method t h a t you a r e most w i l l i n g t o recommend t o t h e person i n t h e problem s i t u a t i o n . Situation  1:  A person measuring t h e d u r a t i o n o f v i s i b i l i t y o f a s h o o t i n g s t a r ( f o r o f f i c i a l r e c o r d s ) , i . e . measuring a very short time i n t e r v a l .  Recommendation: I am most w i l l i n g t o recommend:  Method  Clock with  B  second hand  Stop watch Human p u l s e  D  D i s t a n c e walked  Check (/) ONE method o n l y  185  -act-  INSTRUMENT FOR Ss  Name ( o p t i o n a l )  Date  Number  Instructions Below i s a s h o r t d e s c r i p t i o n o f a problem s i t u a t i o n such as a person i s l i k e l y t o e n c o u n t e r i n y o u r home environment. You a r e a l s o p r e s e n t e d w i t h d e s c r i p t i o n s , p h o t o g r a p h s , and/or a c t u a l examples o f s e v e r a l a l t e r n a t i v e methods o f c o p i n g w i t h t h e problem. Study t h e situation carefully. Then s e l e c t t h e ONE method t h a t you a r e most f a v o u r a b l e toward recommending t o t h e person i n t h e problem s i t u a t i o n . S i t u a t i o n 1:  A p e r s o n measuring t h e d u r a t i o n o f v i s i b i l i t y o f a s h o o t i n g s t a r ( f o r o f f i c i a l r e c o r d s ) , i . e . measuring a v e r y s h o r t time i n t e r v a l .  Recommendation: I am most f a v o u r a b l e toward recommending: Method  C l o c k w i t h second hand  B  Stop watch Human p u l s e Distance  walked  Check (/) ONE method o n l y  186  NB  p  INSTRUMENT FOR Ss  Name ( o p t i o n a l )  Number  Date  Instructions Below i s a s h o r t d e s c r i p t i o n o f a problem s i t u a t i o n such as you a r e l i k e l y t o e n c o u n t e r i n y o u r home environment. You a r e a l s o presented with d e s c r i p t i o n s , photographs and/or a c t u a l examples o f s e v e r a l a l t e r n a t i v e methods o f c o p i n g w i t h t h e problem. Study t h e s i t u a t i o n c a r e f u l l y . Then s e l e c t ONE method t h a t you p e r s o n a l l y f e e l you ought most t o recommend t o t h e person i n t h e problem s i t u a t i o n . S i t u a t i o n 1:  A person measuring t h e d u r a t i o n o f v i s i b i l i t y o f a s h o o t i n g s t a r ( f o r o f f i c i a l r e c o r d s ) i . e . measuring a s h o r t time i n t e r v a l .  Recommendation: I p e r s o n a l l y  feel  I ought t o recommend:  Method  Clock with  second  B  Stop watch  C  Human p u l s e  D  D i s t a n c e walked  Check (/) ONE method o n l y hand  187  NB„  INSTRUMENT FOR Ss  Name ( o p t i o n a l )  Number.  Date  Instructions Below i s a s h o r t des c r i p t i o n o f a problem s i t u a t i o n such as a person i s l i k e l y t o e n c o u n t e r i n y o u r home environment. You a r e a l s o p r e s e n t e d w i t h d e s c r i p t i o n s , ph o t o g r a p h s , and f o r a c t u a l examples o f s e v e r a l a l t e r n a t i v e methods o f c o p i n g w i t h t h e problem. Study t h e situation carefully. Then s e l e c t t h e ONE method t h a t you f e e l t h e person o r group o f persons whos e views you r e s p e c t most i n t h i s m a t t e r (e.g. f a m i l y members, c l a s s m a t e s, community l e a d e r s , b e s t f r i e n d s , e t c . ) wi11 e x p e c t you t o recommend t o the person i n t h e problem s i t u a t i o n . Situation  1:  Recommendation:  A person measuring t h e d u r a t i o n o f v i s i b i l i t y o f a s h o o t i n g s t a r ( f o r o f f i c i a l r e c o r d s ) i . e . measuring a v e r y s h o r t time i n t e r v a l . The p e r s o n ( s ) whose views I r e s p e c t most i n t h i s m a t t e r w i l l e x p e c t me t o recommend: Method  A  C l o c k w i t h second hand  B  Stop  watch  Human p u l s e D  D i s t a n c e walked  Check (/) ONE method o n l y  188  NB  INSTRUMENT FOR JUDGES ( c o n t i n u e d )  Recommendation  Method  Check (/) one o f each p a i r  The m a j o r i t y o f p e o p l e I know will  Stop watch  1  e x p e c t e d t o recommend  1  Distance Walked  2  e x p e c t e d t o recommend  2  Human p u l s e  1  e x p e c t e d t o recommend  1  Distance Walked  2  e x p e c t e d t o recommend  2  189  BEHAVIOUR INSTRUMENT - DOCUMENT 1 Address:  Dear  ........ I o f t e n t h i n k about you and l i f e back home.  approached  Today I was  by a man from a u n i v e r s i t y and asked t o r e f l e c t about how  I thought we s h o u l d be measuring  t h i n g s a t home and i n o u r community  I t may be o f i n t e r e s t t o you t o know how I responded  t o t h i s person.  P l e a s e t a k e t h e time t o l o o k c a r e f u l l y a t t h e recommendations which I have e n d o r s e d , they a r e marked on t h e s h e e t s w i t h a check mark (/) I am q u i t e s i n c e r e about t h e s e recommendations and b e l i e v e t h a t they s h o u l d be f o l l o w e d by you and o t h e r s back home. Goodbye and God b l e s s y o u , With l o v e f r o m ,  Name ( o p t i o n a l )  Number  Date  BEHAVIOUR INSTRUMENT - DOCUMENT 2 Address:  The D i r e c t o r N a t i o n a l Bureau o f Standards Federal M i n i s t r y of I n d u s t r i e s Lagos. Dear S i r , I b e l i e v e c i t i z e n s s h o u l d i n f o r m government o f f i c i a l s about how they s t a n d on m a t t e r s o f n a t i o n a l are recommendations which  I have endorsed  a t home and i n o u r community.  interest.  Enclosed  i n r e g a r d s t o measurement  P l e a s e t a k e t h e time t o c o n s i d e r  my recommendations c a r e f u l l y . I hereby  d e c l a r e t h a t I am w i l l i n g  to take a p u b l i c  s t a n d on my recommendations. Thank y o u . Yours  Name ( o p t i o n a l )  faithfully,  Number  Date  191  APPENDIX C QUESTIONAL  FOR BACKGROUND DATA  192  APPENDIX C SUBJECTS' IDENTIFICATION FORM  Name  School No  Form  Religion  Age  Hometown Address  Your Usual C o n t a c t Address W h i l e On H o l i d a y s  Name o f L a s t P r i m a r y School A t t e n d e d From 19  t o 19  .  Occupation o f Parents:  ( i ) Mother's ( i i ) Father's ( o r Guardian's  E d u c a t i o n o f P a r e n t s ( s e e legend b e l o w ) : (a) Mother's (b) F a t h e r ' s Number o f S i b l i n g s a t / t h a t went  t o School  E d u c a t i o n a l L e v e l Reach by S i b l i n g s ( s e e a l s o legend below)  Where D i d You Spend t h e F i r s t F i v e Years o f Your L i f e ?  Where D i d You Spend t h e L a s t F i v e Years B e f o r e Coming t o Your P r e s e n t School? P l e a s e L i s t Below t h e names o f 3 t o 5 Youths o f Your Own Age ( w i t h i n one y e a r ) Who L i v e i n Your Home Environment But Who Have Never Been t o School 1  2.  3  4  5.  193 Subjects'  Identification  Form  (continued)  Is Any Member o f Your F a m i l y Engaged i n a T e c h n i c a l Trade ( c a r p e n t r y , b u i l d i n g , motor m e c h a n i c , e t c . ) ? I f Y e s , S t a t e Which T r a d e ( s ) Key:  A  No Formal  Schooling  B  F i r s t School  C  School C e r t i f i c a t e o r C.C.E. '0' L e v e l / G r a d e I I Teacher's Certificate  D  College or University  Leaving  Certificate  APPENDIX D ANALYSIS OF DATA FOR CULTURAL SETTINGS 3, 4, 5, 6,  195  Summary o f I n f o r m a t i o n R e l a t i n g t o S e t t i n g 2  D e s c r i p t i o n o f the S e t t i n g The c u l t u r a l appointment  s e t t i n g i s one i n which a N i g e r i a n i s keeping an  w i t h a European o f f i c i a l  Methods o f Measurement Proposed  a r r i v i n g on an u r g e n t b u s i n e s s  trip.  t o Ss  The t e c h n i q u e s o f measurement proposed  t o Ss^ f o r t h e i r  endorsement a r e p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e D l .  Statistical Cultural  A n a l y s i s o f t h e Data  Setting 2 D e t e r m i n i n g a s p e c i f i c time o f day.  Hypotheses and Methods o f A n a l y s i s The hypotheses are i d e n t i c a l  t o be t e s t e d and t h e methods f o r t e s t i n g them  t o t h o s e d e s c r i b e d f o r S e t t i n g 1, S e c t i o n 4.3.2, p.  The f a i l u r e o f the F i s h b e i n i n s t r u m e n t s t o s a t i s f y t h e s c a l i n g model i n t h i s C u l t u r a l of  S e t t i n g and i t s i m p l i c a t i o n f o r t h e d e p e n d a b i l i t y  the d a t a were d i s c u s s e d on p. 93.  for Cultural  F o r t h i s r e a s o n , o n l y the b a s i c d a t a  S e t t i n g 2 a r e p r e s e n t e d here.  these data are not c o n s i d e r e d u s e f u l .  A n a l y s i s and d i s c u s s i o n o f  196  T a b l e D.l Methods o f Measurement Proposed  C u l t u r e - R e l a t e d Techniques  t o Ss_  School-Related  S c a l e Value  1.  The Sun  .65  3.  Shadow  .52  4.  Meal-time  .58  5.  Prayer-time  .55  6.  Cockcrow  .27  7.  D i s t a n c e Walked  .00  Techniques  S c a l e Value  2.  Clock  .69  197  Table Behavioural  D.2  I n t e n t i o n ( B I ) Means and S t a n d a r d for Cultural Setting 2  SocioEconomic Environment R e l i g i o n (0 (B)  S C H O O L I N G E x p e r i m e n t a l Group Level 2 Level 1  X  = .67  X  = .66  Deviations  ( A )  Comparison Group I Level 2 Level 1  X  = .67  Christian  X  Row Marginals SD i i X  n  = .56  SD = .04  SD = .07  SD = .04  SD = .25  X  X  X  X  55  .65 .10  29  .65 .06  24  .67 .04  28  .64 .13  Rural = .68  = .60  = .65  Moslem  = .62  SD = .01  SD = .09  SD = .07  SD = .09  X  X  X  X  = .67  Christian  = .69  = .66  = .69  SD = .04  SD = .00  SD = .05  SD = .00  X  X  X  I  Urban ='.60  = .66  Moslem SD = .19 Column Marginals  SD = .06  = .64  SD = .07  = .67  SD = .02  49  30  41  16  *1  .66  .65  .66  .62  SD  .10  .07  .05  .17  n  i  198  Summary o f I n f o r m a t i o n  R e l a t i n g t o S e t t i n g 3.  D e s c r i p t i o n o f the S e t t i n g The  cultural  the t i m e e l a p s e d  s e t t i n g i s one i n which a farmer wants t o measure  between two p l a n t i n g s e a s o n s .  Methods o f Measurement Proposed t o Ss The  t e c h n i q u e s o f measurement proposed t o Ss f o r endorsement  are p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e D.3.  Statistical  A n a l y s i s o f t h e Data  Cultural Setting 3 :<leasurement o f Long Time I n t e r v a l s . Hypotheses, and Methods o f A n a l y s i s These a r e i d e n t i c a l  t o those d e s c r i b e d  f o r C u l t u r a l S e t t i n g 1,  S e c t i o n 4.32, p. Effects of Schooling,  E n v i r o n m e n t , and R e l i g i o n on BI  Summary o f Raw Data T a b l e D.2 shows t h a t t h e r e Level  i s a d i f f e r e n c e between L e v e l  1 and  2 o f D e k i n a i n t h e i r mean B l - s c o r e s , even though t h e d i f f e r e n c e  i s u n l i k e l y t o be s u b s t a n t i a l .  The two l e v e l s o f , s c h o o l i n g a t Ayangba  show l i t t l e d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e i r mean B l - s c o r e s . of science-no science  O v e r a l l , the e f f e c t  i n s t r u c t i o n i n u n l i k e l y t o be l a r g e s i n c e t h e  mean B l - s c o r e s f o r Dekina and Ayangba do n o t appear t o be much d i f f e r e n t from each  other.  199  Table Techniques  Culture-Related  D.3  o f Measurement Proposed  Techniques  t o Ss_  School-Related  Techniques  Scale Value 1. Sun's a n g l e i n the sky  .65  2. Moon phases  .69  4. S o c i a l  .57  8. Seasons  Event  .00  Scale Value 3. C l o c k w i t h d a t e  .52  6. N u c l e a r R a d i a t i o n  .55  7. C a l e n d a r  .27  200  Table Behavioural  I n t e n t i o n ( B I ) Means and S t a n d a r d for Cultural Setting 3  SocioEconomic Environment R e l i g i o n (B) (C)  S C H O O L I N G  ( A )  Comparison Group I Level 1 Level 2  X  X  = .24  X  = .30  SD = .22  SD = .12  X  X  Rural = .15  Moslem  = .30  SD = .19  = .38- X  = .28  X  X  SD = .11  X  X  X  X  = .25  SD = .15  SD = .18  SD = .10  X  X  X  X  = .31  SD = .20  = .19  SD = .21  = .24  SD = .22  SD = .19  30  41  16  *1  .26  .29  .27  .27  SD  .20  .15  .19  .15  i  .28 .18  29  .25 .20  24  .27 .16  28  .25 .21  = .19  49  n  55  = .30  SD = .17  Moslem  X  = .35  SD = .21  = .33  n  SD = .18  SD = .14  = .26  Row Marginals SD i i  = .24  SD = .20  Christian  Column Marginals  Deviations  E x p e r i m e n t a l Group Level 1 Level 2  Christian  Urban  D.4  201  M u l t i p l e Regression Analysis The described  a n a l y s i s (see T a b l e D.5'), agrees w i t h the p r e l i m i n a r y f i n d i n g s  on p. 198  t  F a c t o r A, F a c t o r B, and  F a c t o r C do not make  s i g n i f i c a n t "independent" c o n t r i b u t i o n s toward p r e d i c t i n g BI i n t h i s setting. tional  In a d d i t i o n , i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t s are not s i g n i f i c a n t at conven-  a-levels.  A n a l y s i s of the E f f e c t s o f Both I n t e r n a l and T a b l e D.6  g i v e s the amount of v a r i a n c e  External  Variables  (R ).of the  accounted f o r by v a r i a b l e s i n t e r n a l t o the F i s h b e i n Model NB ) s  a l o n e , s i n c e no e x t e r n a l  c a n t l y t o p r e d i c t BI.  The  i n g f o r o n l y 2.7  (A  a c t >  v a r i a b l e o r i n t e r a c t i o n appears  r o l e played  p r e d i c t i n g BI i n t h i s c u l t u r a l  Bl-scores  signifi-  by the F i s h b e i n v a r i a b l e s i n  s e t t i n g i s a r a t h e r modest one,  per c e n t o f the BI v a r i a n c e .  i m p o r t a n t p r e d i c t o r s of BI here are A  NBp,  t  and  Apparently, MB  .  account-  the most  202  Table  D.5  R e s u l t s o f Method 2 A n a l y s i s U s i n g Model 4 for Cultural Setting 3 df  Fobs  .02  3  .70  .00  .00  1  .00  C  .02  .00  1  .55  AB  .18  .04  3  1.76  AC  .02  .01  3  .22  BC  .00  .00  1  .00  ABC  .13  .03  3  1.25  SS  AR  A  .07  B  Source o f V a r i a n c e  2  Error  4.16  119  Total  4.58  135  P  203  Table  D.6  V a r i a n c e C o n t r i b u t i o n s (R ) of I n t e r n a l Variables for Cultural Setting 3  R (%) 2  Variables  I (A  a c t  +  act  NBp  +  NB ) s  2.7 .2  .6  NB P NB  s  1.9  204  Summary o f I n f o r m a t i o n  R e l a t i n g to C u l t u r a l S e t t i n g 5  D e s c r i p t i o n of S e t t i n g The c u l t u r a l a road  s e t t i n g i s one i n which n a t i v e N i g e r i a n s a r e b u i l d i n g  t o l i n k t h e i r v i l l a g e o r town w i t h t h e n e i g h b o u r i n g  by the s h o r t e s t o f s e v e r a l r o u t e s  market town  ( t o save c o s t s and e f f o r t ) .  Methods o f Measurement Proposed t o Ss The v a r i o u s a l t e r n a t i v e t e c h n i q u e s proposed t o Ss_ a r e p r e s e n t e d  Statistical Cultural  i n Table  f o r measuring l o n g  distance  D.7.  A n a l y s i s o f Data  Setting 5 Measurement o f Long D i s t a n c e s .  Hypotheses and Methods o f A n a l y s i s See S e c t i o n 4.3.2, p.105 f o r a d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e hypotheses and methods o f t e s t i n g them ( g i v e n f o r S e t t i n g 1) which a r e i d e n t i c a l t o those f o r t h i s  setting.  As w i t h C u l t u r a l S e t t i n g 2, the F i s h b e i n i n s t r u m e n t s S e t t i n g f a i l e d t o f i t t h e s c a l i n g model used. only the b a s i c data w i l l not c o n s i d e r e d  be p r e s e n t e d ;  for this  Accordingly, therefore,  t h e i r a n a l y s i s and d i s c u s s i o n a r e  t o be a p p r o p r i a t e o r u s e f u l .  205  Table  D.7  Techniques o f Measurement Proposed t o S_s  C u l t u r e - R e l a t e d Techniques  School-Related  Techniques  Scale Value  Scale Value  1. Arm-spans  .04  2. Measuring  2.  Rope/String  .35  5. Surveyor's  4.  Heel-to-toe  .05  6. V i s u a l 8. P a c i n g  Estimation  .44 .00  Tape chain  7. T r i a n g u l a t i o n  .87 .75  ,42  206  Table Behavioural  D.8,  I n t e n t i o n ( B I ) Means and S t a n d a r d for Cultural Setting 5  SocioEconomic Envi ronment R e l i g i o n (C) (B)  S C H O O L I N G  Deviations  ( A )  E x p e r i m e n t a l Group Level 1 Level 2  Comparison Group I Level 2 Level 1  X  X  = .67  X  = .66  = .71  X  Row Marginals SD i i n  X  = .56  Christian SD. = .27  SD = .24  SD = .22  SD = .29  X  X  = .50  X" = .72  X  SD = .26  SD = .39  SD = .21  SD = .27  X  X  X  X  55  .67 .25  29  .65 .28  24  .72 .16  28  .72 .23  Rural = .68  = .65  Moslem  = .79  = .35  = .74  = .59  Christian SD = .07  SD = .24  SD = .19  SD = .17  X  X  X  X  Urban = .73  = .63  = .74  Moslem SD = .07 Column Marginals  n. J' *i SD  SD = .30  SD = .13  = .87  SD = .00  49  30  41  16  .71  .61  .72  .62  .26  .28  .19  .25  207  Summary o f I n f o r m a t i o n  R e l a t i n g t o S e t t i n g 6.  D e s c r i p t i o n o f the S e t t i n g The c u l t u r a l  s e t t i n g i s one which a l o c a l  butcher i s s e l l i n g  s m a l l p i e c e s o f meat by w e i g h t . Methods o f Measurement Proposed t o Ss The methods o f measurement proposed t o Ss_ a r e p r e s e n t e d i n Table D.9.  Statistical  A n a l y s i s o f t h e Data  Cultural Setting 6 Measuring t h e w e i g h t o f a l i g h t  object.  Hypotheses and Methods o f A n a l y s i s The hypotheses t e s t e d and t h e methods f o r t e s t i n g them were identical  t o those described  i n S e c t i o n 4.3.2, p. 105.  E f f e c t s o f S c h o o l i n g , Environment, and R e l i g i o n on BI Summary o f Raw Data T a b l e D.10 shows t h a t the combined mean B l - s c o r e s f o r the D e k i n a groups o f Ss_ a r e u n l i k e l y t o be markedly d i f f e r e n t from t h o s e o f t h e Ayangba g r o u p s . of L e v e l s  The Bl-means o f Ayangba L e v e l 2 i s lower than t h o s e  1 and 2 o f Dekina and L e v e l  1 o f Ayangba but t h e d i f f e r e n c e  i s n o t l i k e l y t o be an i m p o r t a n t one. A t D e k i n a , Moslems a t Level than Moslems a t L e v e l  1.  2 o f i n s t r u c t i o n have h i g h e r  Bl-means  However, a t Ayangba, C h r i s t i a n s a t Level 2  208  Table Methods of Measurement Proposed  Culture-Related  Techniques  D.9 t o Ss i n C u l t u r a l  Setting 6  School-Related  Techniques Scale Value  Scale Val ue .86  2. H e f t i n g  4. V i s u a l  Estimation  ,00  1. S p r i n g Balance  .94  3. Small arm b a l a n c e  .92  209  Table Behavioural  D.10  I n t e n t i o n ( B I ) Means and S t a n d a r d for Cultural Setting 6  SocioEconomic Environment R e l i g i o n (C) (B)  S C H O O L I N G Experiment:al Group Level 2 Level 1 X  = .83  X  = .80  Deviations  ( A )  Comparison Group I Level 2 Level 1 X  = .90  X  Row Marginals X. SD i i n  = .65  Christian SD = .22  SD = .31  SD = .04  SD = .44  X  X  X  X  55  .80 .26  29  .84 .28  24  .74 .34  28  .86 .17  Rural Moslem  Christian  = .68  = .90  = .88  = .91  SD = .41  SD = .04  SD = .04  SD = .04  X  X  X  X  = .88  = .92  = .64  = .45  SD = .03  SD = .02  SD = .44  SD = .51  X  X  X  X  Urban Moslem  Column Marginals  n  i  V SD  = .79  SD = .09  = .89  SD = .03  = .89  SD = .04  = .93  SD = .01  49  30  41  16  .80  .84  .85  .69  .27  .23  .20  .41  210  have c o n s i s t e n t l y l o w e r mean B l - s c o r e s than C h r i s t i a n s a t L e v e l  1.  S i m i l a r l y , the Bl-means o f the r u r a l and urban Ss_, do n o t appear t o be much d i f f e r e n t from each o t h e r .  In a d d i t i o n , t h e d i f f e r e n c e between  C h r i s t i a n s and Moslems seems t o be a s m a l l one.  M u l t i p l e Regression  Analysis  Table D . l l gives the r e s u l t s of s t a t i s t i c a l data.  The r e s u l t s c o r r o b o r a t e  above, and y i e l d  a n a l y s i s o f the  some o f the p r e l i m i n a r y f i n d i n g s d e s c r i b e d  information regarding  the s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e s c h o o l i n g -  e n v i r o n m e n t i n t e r a c t i o n AC, and the e n v i r o n m e n t - r e l i g i o n BC,  w e l l below t h e . 1 0 a - l e v e l .  interaction,  They a c c o u n t f o r 9 p e r c e n t and 2 p e r c e n t  o f the BI v a r i a b i l i t y , r e s p e c t i v e l y , a f t e r t h e a p p r o p r i a t e  adjustments  have been made f o r main e f f e c t s and o t h e r i n t e r a c t i o n s .  P o s t Hoc A n a l y s i s o f Bl-means T a b l e D.12  shows t h e d i f f e r e n c e between t h e mean f o r a l l the  v a r i o u s s c h o o l i n g by r e l i g i o n c a t e g o r i e s .  The T a b l e shows t h a t d i f f e r e n c e s  between t h e Bl-means o f C h r i s t i a n s a t Ayangba L e v e l all  the:other  2 and t h e means o f  groups a r e s i g n i f i c a n t a t an o v e r a l l a - l e v e l o f . 1 0 f o r a l l  c o m p a r i s o n s made.  However, when we compare Dekina C h r i s t i a n s and Moslems,  Ayangba C h r i s t i a n s and Moslems and v a r i o u s c o m b i n a t i o n s t h e r e o f , no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s a r e found t o e x i s t among t h e i r mean B l - s c o r e s .  211  Table D.ll Results of Method 2 Analysis of Data for Cultural Setting 6, Using Model 4.  Source of Variance  SS  AR'  df  Fobs  A (adj. for B S C )  .31  . 03  3  1.46  B (adj. for A & C)  .00  .00  1  .05  C (adj. for A & B)  .03  .00  1  .42  AB (adj. for A,B,C, AC,BC)  .38  AC (adj. for A,B,C, AB, BC)  .82  BC (adj. for A,B,C, AB,AC)  .22  ABC (adj. for all other terms)  .11  .04 .09 .02 .01  3 3 1 3  Error  9.16  119  Total  9.59  135  1.78 3.87  <.10  3.14  <,10  .51  212 Table Differences  D.12  Between Group Means f o r t h e AC  Interaction  (Column Minus Row) f o r C u l t u r a l S e t t i n g  a  a  11 l  a  12 l  a  ll l  ll l  a  c  12 l C  a  ll 2  12 2 C  a  21 l  a  C  22 l C  a  ^22^2  21 2 C  C  C  C  a  12 2  a  21 l  a  22 l  a  21 2  a  22 2  c  c  c  c  c  .02 .05  .03  --  .04  .06  .09  —  .03  .01  .02  .07  --  .27*  .25*  .22*  .31*  .24*  .00  .02  .05  .04  .03  .27  .12  .11  .07  .16  .09  .15  s-jC-j  a  a  C  6.  ^1^2  ^2^1  l l c  a-|C  2  .01  a c  ]  .10  .09  .02  .01  2  a c 2  2  A l l e n t r i e s are l a b e l l e d A  .08  nn]  C  n=l=Dekina n=2=Ayangba m=l=Level 1 o f s c h o o l i n g m=2=Level 2 o f s c h o o l i n g p=l=Christian p=2=Moslem * S i g n i f i c a n t a t a = .10  where  .12  ^2^2  213  S p e c i f i c Nature o f Group D i f f e r e n c e s w i t h Respect t o B l T a b l e D.13  c o n t a i n s i n f o r m a t i o n r e l a t i n g t o which t e c h n i q u e s  group o f Ss_ was w i l l i n g t o recommend  i n C u l t u r a l S e t t i n g 6.  The T a b l e  shows t h a t t h e r a t i o o f L e v e l 1 C h r i s t i a n s w i l l i n g t o recommend based t e c h n i q u e s  each  school -  o f measurement was about one and a h a l f times as h i g h 2  as t h e r a t i o L e v e l 2 C h r i s t i a n s w i l l i n g t o do t h e same t h i n g . obtained  from comparing t h e two r a t i o was 5.68  freedom] and 4.05 a f t e r a p p l y i n g Y a t e s  ( w i t h one degree o f  correction f o r continuity.  1  two r a t i o s a r e t h e r e f o r e s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t a t w e l l below T a b l e D.14  The x  The  .10a-level.  g i v e s the r a t i o s o f L e v e l 1 Moslems and L e v e l 2 Moslems  w i l l i n g t o recommend s c h o o l - b a s e d  techniques  o f measurement i n C u l t u r a l  S e t t i n g 6.  The T a b l e shows t h a t a h i g h e r p r o p o r t i o n o f L e v e l 2 Moslems  was w i l l i n g  t o recommend s c h o o l - b a s e d 2  than L e v e l 1 Moslems.  f o r comparing t h e two p r o p o r t i o n s was 1.28  The o b s e r v e d x  which i s n o t s i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e .10a T a b l e D.15  techniques  level.  gives the r a t i o s o f r u r a l  t o recommend s c h o o l - b a s e d  and urban C h r i s t i a n s w i l l i n g  measurement t e c h n i q u e s .  a h i g h e r p r o p o r t i o n o f urban C h r i s t i a n s i s w i l l i n g based t e c h n i q u e s  than r u r a l  However, t h e observed x  (with 1 d f )  The T a b l e shows t h a t t o recommend  school-  C h r i s t i a n s w i l l i n g t o do t h e same t h i n g .  was found t o be 1.15  ( w i t h 1 d f ) which i s n o t  s i g n i f i c a n t a t c*=.10. T a b l e D.16 willing  shows t h a t a h i g h e r p r o p o r t i o n o f urban Moslems were  t o recommend s c h o o l - b a s e d  methods o f measurement than r u r a l  214  Table  D.13  Comparison o f Recommendations f o r C h r i s t i a n s a t D i f f e r e n t Levels  of Schooling (Cultural Setting 6).  Categories of Schooling  School-Based Techniques (2 & 3)  Culture-Based Techniques (1 & 4)  Ratio, p ) ^a + b (  a  ;  Level 1 (Christians)  25  3  .89  Level 2 (Christians)  10  7  .59  Total  35  10  .78  215  Table  D.H  Comparison o f Recommendations f o r Moslems a t D i f f e r e n t Levels of Schooling  Categories  o f Schooling  (Cultural Setting 6),  School-Based Techniques (a)  Culture-Based Techniques (b)  Ratio, p l  a + b  ;  Level 1 (Moslems)  14  7  .67  Level 2 (Moslems)  11  2  .85  Total  25  9  .74  216  Table  D.15  Comparison o f Recommendations f o r Rural and Urban C h r i s t i a n s  Religion  (Cultural Setting 6).  School-Based Techniques (a)  Culture-Based Techniques (b)  Ratio, p  Chri stians (rural)  37  18  .67  Christians (urban)  19  5  .79  Total  56  23  .71  217  Table  D.16  Comparison o f Recommendations f o r R u r a l and Urban Moslems ( C u l t u r a l  Religion  School-Based Techniques (a)  Setting 6).  Culture-Based Techniques (b)  Rat^o, p  (  ) ^a + b a  ;  Moslems (rural)  19  10  .66  Moslems (urban)  24  4  .86  Total  43  14  .75  218  .60-1  , Christians F i g u r e D.l G r a p h i c a l R e p r e s e n t a t i o n i n t e r a c t i o n f o r S e t t i n g 6.  Moslems o f the  AC  .90Moslems  Mean .80BIscores Chri stians .70-  ,60  Rural  r  Urban  F i g u r e D.2 Graphical Representation Interaction.  o f the  BC  220  Moslems w i l l i n g  The x  t o do t h e same t i l i n g .  2  d f ) and was s i g n i f i c a n t below t h e ,10a l e v e l . 2 obtained  f o r t e s t i n g the  was found t o be 3.14 ( w i t h 1  d i f f e r e n c e between t h e two p r o p o r t i o n s  correction i s applied the x  value  However, i f Y a t e s '  i s 2.14 which i s n o t s i g n i f i -  c a n t a t a=.10. 2 The i n a b i l i t y o f t h e x t e s t o f f r e q u e n c y measures even though the F - t e s t showed a s i g n i f i c a n t BC i n t e r a c t i o n f o r BI measures p o i n t s 2  t o t h e r e l a t i v e l a c k o f power o f t h e x .  The assumed c o r r e s p o n d e n c e  between BI measures and f r e q u e n c y o f recommending may a l s o be i n question. A n a l y s i s o f t h e E f f e c t s o f Both I n t e r n a l and E x t e r n a l V a r i a b l e s 2 T a b l e D.17 g i v e s t h e amount o f v a r i a n c e (R ) o f t h e B l - s c o r e s a c c o u n t e d f o r by v a r i a b l e s i n t e r n a l t o t h e F i s h b e i n Model NB ) and t h o s e e x t e r n a l S  (A,-, ac L  NB , p  t o i t , namely, I n t e r a c t i o n AC and I n t e r a c t i o n  BC, The  i n t e r n a l v a r i a b l e s account f o r 8,1 p e r c e n t c o n t r i b u t i o n unand 7 . 8 p e r c e n t a f t e r a d j u s t m e n t f o r the e f f e c t s o f AC and  adjusted  i  BC have been made. The  i n t e r n a l and e x t e r n a l  appear t o be q u i t e w e l l matched i n  terms o f t h e i r v a r i a n c e c o n t r i b u t i o n s i n t h i s s e t t i n g , w i t h t h e AC i n t e r a c t i o n p l a y i n g the most i m p o r t a n t r o l e i n a c c o u n t i n g variance.  f o r t h e BI  Table Variance Contributions elected  External  D.17 (R ) o f t h e I n t e r n a l  Variables  f o r Cultural Setting  R (%) 2  Variables  AC I n t e r a c t i o n  (unadj.)  9.2  BC I n t e r a c t i o n  (unadj.)  2.3  I: ^  a  c  t  +  I + AC +  N  B  p  +  N  B  s  )  t"" ^'). 3  8.1 16.5  BC  I ( a d j . f o r AC &  BC)  7.8  AC  (adj. for I &  BC)  8.3  BC ( a d j . f o r I &  AC)  .4  I :  A  act  I J B  P s  and  1.5 6.2 .4  6.  TABLE D.18 Behavioural  I n t e n t i o n ( B I ) Means and S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n s f o r C u l t u r a l  S C H O O L I N G  SocioEconomic Environment (B)  Religion (C)  • E x p e r i m e n t a l Group Level 2 Level 1 X  = .23  X  = .18  ( A )  Comparison Group I Level 1 Level 2 X  = .17  Christian  X  Setting 7  = .21  Comparison Group I I Level 1 Level 2 X  = .14  X  Row M a r g i n a l s SD X. i i  n  = .20  SD = .19  SD •= .17  SD = .18  SD = .17  SD = .12  SD = .15  X  X  X  X  X  X  79  .19  .16  50  .15  .15  41  .10  .14  48  .16  .16  Rural = .10  = .21  = .12  = .02  = .21  Moslem  = .13  SD = .17  SD = .14  SD = .17  SD = .04  SD = .14  SD = .17  X. = .11  X  X  X  X  X  = .00  = .09  = .12  Christian SD = .17  SD = .00  SD = .14  SD = .18  X  X  X  X  = .11  = .14  SD = .12  SD = .18  X  X  Urban = .20  = .26  = .15  Moslem  n. J Column Marginals  X  J SD  SD = .18  SD = .18  49  30  .16  .16  .18  .16  SD = .17  = .04  SD = .05  = .09  SD.=  .06  = .16  SD = .18  16  52  30  .14  .12  .14  .16  .16  .15  .13  .16  .. . 41.  

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