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"You were a star once, weren’t you?" : nonlinear steps into the re-enchantment of science education Laroche, Lyubov 2000

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"YOU WERE A STAR ONCE, WEREN'T YOU?" NONLINEAR STEPS INTO THE RE-ENCHANTMENT OF SCIENCE EDUCATION b y L Y U B O V L A R O C H E B.S. (chemistry) The Ural State University, Russia, 1979 B. A. (film production) The College of Arts, Russia, 1986 M.S. (chemistry) The Middle Tennessee State University, 1997 A thesis submitted in partial fiufillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in The Faculty of Graduate Studies Faculty of Education Department of Curriculum Studies Science Education We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH C O L U M B I A November 2000 © Lyubov Laroche, 2000 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of <^ ^? /> dO^> The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada Date DE-6 (2/88) ABSTRACT This thesis opens rather than closes the black box, evokes rather than answers questions, and invites rather than leads. It invites the reader to imagine how science education could be, i f defrosted from a disenchanting spell of the mechanistic worldview. The modern "Machine" has collapsed the entire world into static, sterile, and meaningless kingdom of plain passive matter, bringing the human race into a state far from ecological, political, social, educational, and spiritual equilibriums. According to the science of complexity, a state-far-from-equilibrium is the edge of chaos, the dynamic space of possibilities, from which a new world might be born. Departing from rigid certainties of modernity and entering the eclectic and vague bricollage of postmodern visions, we do not know yet which possibility might actualize and what kind of world might leap into existence. W i l l it be a technological paradise, the world of sophisticated scientific and technical rationality? Perhaps. W i l l it be a ruined, dead world where humanity committed ecological or military suicide? There exists a real omnipotent danger of this scenario. Or . . . w i l l we eventually invent a better world that evolves not only along technological and virtual dimensions but also along our inner spiritual dimensions? W i l l it be a re-enchanted world where meaning, purpose, values, beauty, freedom, wisdom, divinity, compassion, awe, mystery, creativity, and the ultimate unity of everything—all qualities "stolen" by modernity—are restored? New developments in science open a space for such possibilities. State-of-the-art science provides us not only with technological miracles, but also with a conceptual framework for re-enchantment of our worldview and of education, respectively. In this manuscript I synthesize and articulate insights emerging from leading edge developments in science in a language accessible to individuals without science background. While attending to the voices of contemporary scientists, philosophers, and educators, such as Illia Prigogine, Isabelle Stengers, David Bohm, David Griffin, Gregory Bateson, Rupert Sheldrake, Alfred North Whitehead, Frijof Capra, B i l l D o l l , David Orr, Jack Mil le r , c and Ken Wilber, I identify re-enchanting dimensions within new scientific visions, conceptualize holonomic inquiry for exploring these dimensions, and discuss possibilities for re-imagining school science curriculum by moving it deeper and deeper into the re-enchanted world, step by step, nonlinearly. The deeper is the re-enchantment, the more radically it w i l l change the rationale, purpose, structure, content, skills, and metaphoric language of science education. I brought my visions of re-enchanted science curriculum to pedagogical practice, when teaching an elementary science education course. The reoccurring leitmotif throughout the entire manuscript, a soap opera " Days of Physical Science in an Elementary Schools Course," is the narrative describing and analyzing my attempts. The conclusion of my thesis is open-ended and as such, inconclusive. How could it be otherwise in the re-enchanted, creative, ever-evolving, and ever-becoming world? TABLE Of CONTENTS Abstract Acknowledgements O N T H E T H R E S H O L D : T H E B U T T E R F L Y S T R E T C H E S H E R W I N G S T I M E T O B E G I N A S W I N G I N G P E N D U L U M O F E N C N A N T M E N T S We Have Never Been Disenchanted (Self) Phenomenology of Being Enchanted The Starting Point of Swinging: As Above so Below Modern Enchantment with Disenchantment (Self) Phenomenology of Meaning Disaster of Disenchantment The Dark Thing that Eats the Stars? Modern Science Education as a Disenchanted Nursery of a Dark Thing C I R C L E T 1: S C I E N C E O F C O M P L E X I T Y A S A S T E P INTO M O D E S T R E - E N C H A N T M E N T A Crazy Pendulum Swings into the Mystery of Chaos A Chaotic Butterfly Flies into the Science of Complexity The Magic of Self-Organization Re-Enchanting Dimensions of Science of Complexity The Story of Self-Organized Lesson: The World through the Red Filter The Chaotic Attract/or/iveness of Self-Organizing Curriculum and Pedagogy: Science of Complexity in Elementary Schools? The Weakness of Complex Systemic Re-Enchantment C I R C L E T 2: A H O L O N O M I C P A R A D I G M A S A S T E P INTO D E E P E R R E - E N C H A N T M E N T How do They Know? Everything Started from Quantum Kangaroos A Pendulum Swings into the Magic of Holographs Holonomic Thinking: To See the Wor ld in a Grain of Sand Science Education as a Great Holarchy of Becoming C I R C L E T 3: P O S T M O D E R N O R G A N I C I S M A S A S T E P INTO E V E N D E E P E R R E - E N C H A N T M E N T 133 The Rationalism of Panexperientialism 134 I A m Therefore I Live 138 Welcome into Imaginary Dimensions 157 A Pendulum Swings Back to the Future: As Above so Below 157 The Quantum Leaps of a Pulsing Heart: Holonomic Inquiry as a Research Methodology 159 holonomic inquiry for beginners , 159 intricate quantum leaps of universe (s) creation (s) 164 a new order of complexity 172 light from the sparkling diamond 175 I sing myself holographic 177 listening to an Anchient Harmony 190 you have to write the sonnet yourself 196 obsession as the critetion for research validation 198 out of the design wherein the planets, sun, and systems wend 200 Science Education as a Sonnet to/of Life 202 who were these individual clouds? 202 anti-manual: how to imagine re-enchanted universe (s) into existence 203 at the beginning was a cosmic story 206 the content of a deeply re-enchanted science curriculum: the fabric of the entire universe is alive 212 M a t e r is a l i v e 212 M a t t e r E n e r g y is a l i v e 222 M a t t e r E n e r g y S p a c e is a l i v e 225 M a t t e r E n e r g y S p a c e T i m e is a l i v e 227 waves of l iving knowledge: growing "the whole" rhytmically 230 language is alive: "friend, I w i l l send a voice, so hear me" 242 imaginary senses are alive: "have you ridden the wind before?" 250 C I R C L E T 4: T H E L A N D O F T H E S P I R I T U A L " N O - N O " A S A S T E P INTO R A D I C A L R E - E N C H A N T M E N T 260 Admit Them Admit Them 261 Quantum Nonlocality and Psychosynthesis in Science Education 271 iv The Arrow of Time Points Toward Utopia 284 MatterEnergySpaceTimeSpirit is Al ive : The Story of Radically Re-Enchanted Science Education 288 C I R C L E T 5: M A G I C A N D S C I E N C E S H A K E T H E I R H A N D S : T H E S T E P I N T O E X T R E M E R E - E N C H A N T M E N T 291 The Little Martians or the Pinhole Effect 292 Fairy Tales from the Scientific Point of View 297 Scientific Laws of Magicality 303 Without Trying to Become Someone I am Not 306 I N C O N C L U S I V E C O N C L U S I O N : T H E C H A O T I C B U T T E R F L Y C O N T I N U E S ITS F L I G H T 308 R E F E R E N C E S 312 A P P E N D I X : The Overview of the Course: "Physical Science in Elementary Schools" 323 V r c ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS M y deepest "thank you": To the newborn blue star for inspiration to Gaia for my life to the University of British Columbia for my unforgettable learning and teaching opportunities to the green-eyed Diva (Karen Meyer) and to the Poet (Carl Leggo) for illuminating for me the starry way into re-enchantment to Jolie Mayer-Smith for mentorship, warmth, andfriendship to Jim Gaskell who kept his door open to my M.S. advisors, Barbara Young and Garry Wulf "sberg, whose presence overcomes time and distance to my daughter Yana for my magical experiences of being a mother to all my friends in Latvia, Russia, Finland, United States, and Canada for being my friends to the autumn wind knocking on my door for chanting a melancholic spell to my students for sharing my journey to my mother Alexandra for everything c a 2 vi . .we/, who- are/ not afraid of taking* ov falhe/ &ep - -fooly, fro-m/the/commxynpowtofvLew--ytillheep endwMtvviert i#\/our fac&y through/aU/the/cll^lla^^^ crowd/ we/ are/ driven towards the/ cUttarvce/ by a/ gllmmjering' of- yomething/, away from/ the/ dally grind/, the/ calculation/ of everyday living/, from/ pale/ yheptioy andpLnh ycherwery, tra^form^ng* the/world with your refl&ctCony but the/ inevitability of dl4appoi#\tMe#\ty vyvahe^ uy to- too- clearly ...On/ cUL yid&y everything/ suddenly take* yhape/, alb unhnow n to- uy tiXb wow the/ world/ appearybefore/ uy, unhoped/; unmlyted/, no- longer radiant with/ yomething'pricel&yy, but with alb thly truthfulne^y wnvnxMk&d ay deceit. But what Ly gone/--wcvy no- deception you/yee/, iti&notthe/hnowled^oftfoe/yerpe#\£, itfonotthe/doubtfulhonor of eqJperienjce/, but the/ ability to- be/ encharxteds by the/ world that revealy to-uy the/world uy Ct really vy huppoye/ yowieone/ with iXluuyiony in hCy ey&y fladheypatt, puryulng^yome/dCytantgleam/, then it doeynt yeewv to- uy that he/ iy blind/- -ityeemyto- uythatwe/ ouryelvey are/ blind} ' R u s s i a n poet E u g e n y i E u t u s h e n k o , a p o e m r e m e m b e r e d . ON THE THRESHOLD: THE BUTTERFLY STRECHES HER WINGS Butterfly, butterfly, Oh where are you butterfly fluttering through the wind? (the &h grade student) We face new horizons at this privileged moment in the history of science, and it is our hope that we have been able to communicate this conviction to our readers.3 (Illia Prigogine) Researchers in many different fields are joining together to present startling and thought-provoking perceptions of reality which teachers can no longer afford to ignore.4 (Alistair Martin-Smith) I am enchanted by butterflies. To me, they symbolize fragile beauty, mystery, poetry, and freedom of expression. I imagine how wonderful their world must be. Have you ridden a wind before?5 As a beautiful butterfly, pulsing and breathing, the new vision of reality stretches its wings, emerging today from the mechanistic cocoon of a modern worldview. Interesting time. I have not traveled any spaceships to near or distant stars, and I did not crawl through wormholes from one parallel universe to another. As far as I remember, I have never left the Earth, but.. .my entire world is changing. Nothing is the same anymore. A s a piece of clay in a child's hands, all familiar and taken for granted attributes of a physical reality—matter, energy, time, space, as well as the entire universe—are gradually transforming into something drastically different from what they seemed before. "We must begin where we are," writes Wi l l i am Do l l , the author of 2 C i t e d i n L e g g o , 1997. 3 P r i g o g i n e , 1996 : 189. 4 M a r t i n - S m i t h , 1995 : 35 . 5 L ' E n g l e , 1978. A Postmodern Perspective on Curriculum.6 A t this moment I am at the threshold and this is where I begin. Behind me lies the straight-angled cold mechanistic kingdom where I resided and taught science for many years. In front of me shimmers an exciting world where I am yet to live and yet to teach. Avant-garde science unfolds into the 21 s t century as a powerful and fantastic force. Perspectives from even the nearest future make my mind boil. However, philosophical applications of new scientific insights are even more fascinating. As Nobel Prize winner, Illia Prigogine notes, contemporary "science started a new dialogue with nature."7 While not yet organized into a coherent worldview, this new dialogue opens the door for re-enchantment, which means departing from a mechanistic, fragmented, meaningless, sterile, spiritless, static, and as such disenchanted world toward something (or someone?) living, feeling, dynamic, complex, interrelated, creative, and ever-evolving. As Suzan Gablik writes, re-enchantment is " in the air." 8 This ether of re-enchantment is saturated with possibilities for re-thinking human nature, place, and role, as well as human relationship with the world, from dispassionate and manipulative to respectful, caring, appreciative, and deeply connected. In light of this, the significance of re-enchantment is difficult to overestimate: disastrous consequences of our "objective" detachment from the rest of the world are well known. I agree with Thomas Moore who states that modern ecological, political, social, psychological, economical, educational, and spiritual problems grow out of our loss of enchantment.9 6 D o l l , 1993. 7 P r i g o g i n e & Stengers , 1984. 8 G a b l i k , 1991 . 9 M o o r e , 1996. 3 But. . .the re-enchantment is " in the air"... It began to penetrate various dimensions of our life, inviting us to re-invent ourselves and the world we live in, as Morris Berman indicated in The Reenchantment of the World, David Griffin in The Reenchantment of Science, Thomas Moore in The Re-enchantment of Everyday Life,10 and Suzan Gablik in The Reenchantment of Art.11 According to Gablik, the challenging and important task is to speed up the diffusion of re-enchantment throughout all levels and endeavors of society. "If there is a new agenda, a new vision emerging within our society, how might one help put it into practice?" 1 2 13 The idea of re-enchantment deeply resonates with my individual and professional identity. I am in the midst of a personal paradigm shift as an experiencing being and as a science teacher. The emerging interrelated, organic, mysterious world portrayed by contemporary science truly and deeply fascinates me. For some inexplicable reason, I have a strong sense of deja-vu. It seems to me, I have known this new world for a long, long time. Today, I experience an exciting moment of "Aha!" "Quantum Leap!" that relates to my thinking about reality in general and science education in particular. I am enchanted with the opportunity to contribute to the overall process of the re-enchantment of the world from the dimension of science education that currently remains chained to a mechanistic worldview. M y thesis is a conceptual-philosophical essay attempting to (re) imagine elements of school science curriculum and pedagogy on the 1 0 M o o r e , 1996. 11 B e r m a n , 1986 ; G r i f f i n , 1988; G a b l i k , 1991 . T h e r e are others w h o write about r e e n c h a n t m e n t o f the w o r l d a n d o f s c i ence . A m o n g t h e m K e n W i l b e r , 1998 ; I sabel le S tengers a n d I l l i a P r i g o g i n e , in S tengers , 1997. 1 2 G a b l i k , 1991 : 164. 1 3 1 write " r e - e n c h a n t m e n t " rather than " r e e n c h a n t m e n t " to ind ica te that cur rent ly , we are s i m p l y c h a n g i n g the d i r e c t i o n o f o u r e n c h a n t m e n t . M a n y authors refer to the s o - c a l l e d m o d e r n e p o c h as t ime o f d i s e n c h a n t m e n t . In We Have Never Been Modern, B r u n o L a t o u r (1995) a r g u e d that w e h a v e n e v e r b e e n m o d e r n s ince w e h a v e n e v e r b e e n truly d i s e n c h a n t e d . M o d e r n i t y is rather e n c h a n t m e n t w i t h d i s e n c h a n t m e n t . It is e n c h a n t m e n t w i t h pos s ib i l i t i e s to separate nature f r o m cu l ture a n d to r e d u c e the w h o l e w o r l d " o u t - t h e r e " to m a n a g e a b l e f r a g m e n t e d p ieces . 4 grounds of a new conceptual framework offered by contemporary developments in science. The detailed structure of a possible curriculum is beyond the scope of my thesis. To express my intentions, I wi l l borrow the words of Wi l l i am Dol l : "I w i l l speak about curricular possibilities in terms of v is ion ." 1 4 Visions, imaginations, or as Martin Heidegger puts it, "searching for horizons," have power to (re) create our reality. 1 5 The changes in science education I propose are dramatic, risky, and at times difficult to articulate or to accept. "It is not particularly easy to see the beginning of something that is being shaped by a truly different awareness,"1 6 writes Suzan Gablik. Although these ideas have started to move through our culture very quickly, the challenge still remains for all of us to translate them into our own activities and practices. Obviously, the kind of change I have being signaling here is so major that we wi l l encounter much resistance to even recognizing it. 1 7 I experienced this challenge first hand while attempting to translate my new visions into pedagogical practice. As I finished teaching a teacher education course, entitled " Physical Science in Elementary Schools," memories of internal struggles, excitement, tears, happiness, desperation, and hope are still fresh. According to philosopher Alfred North Whitehead, " ...the true method of discovery is like the flight of an airplane. It starts from the ground of particular; it makes flight in the thin air of imaginative generalization; and it again lands for renewed observation rendered acute by 18 rational interpretation." M y landing from the air of imaginative generalization was not 1 4 D o l l , 1993 . 1 5 H e i d e g g e r , 1962. 1 6 G a b l i k , 1991 : 164. T h e di f ferent awareness G a b l i k refers to is the ho l i s t i c awareness o f b e i n g d e e p l y u n i f i e d w i t h the rest o f the w o r l d . 1 7 G a b l i k , 1991 : 165. 1 8 W h i t e h e a d c i t e d in G r i f f i n , 1993 :166 . 5 always smooth. Freefall without a rope. 1 9 Lots of bruises. But . . . I am not the first and not the last. Many others were crushed in their quest for flight. However, some strange irresistible power, which is apparently embedded into the human nature, pushes us to continue the quest, no matter what. I hope this thesis w i l l result in an emergence of a new order of complexity out of the chaotic, fuzzy interplay of my experiences, memories, thoughts, feelings, intuitions, intentions, and imaginations. The data I use include my experiences as a resident of the enchanted land of childhood, a chemistry and physical science instructor in a Russian community college, 2 0 the instructor of a science education course in the elementary teacher education program, 2 1 the director of the youth science video club "Ga ia " , 2 2 a mother of an unfolding young life, a poet, and simply as a Being who, as Martin Heidegger writes, is thrown into this phenomenal world without preliminary negotiations. Why did I find it important to explore my own experiences? I think that in order to propose and to practice dramatic re-enchanting changes in science education and therefore in students' worldviews, I must interpret, understand, internalize, accept, and adopt these changes myself. Otherwise, my thesis w i l l remain an artificial construct collecting dust on the library shelves. M y own experiences, however, are inevitably interwoven and entangled with others' experiences as well as with experiences of the rest of the universe. According to 1 9 J o h n n a H a s k e l l c o n c e p t u a l i z e s a freefa l l p e d a g o g y as a space o f o p e n pos s ib i l i t i e s and r a d i c a l t rans format ions . In H a s k e l l , 2000. 20 Minutes of teaching mechanistic science is m y story o f t e a c h i n g p h y s i c a l c h e m i s t r y in the c o m m u n i t y c o l l e g e . A t that t ime , the m e c h a n i s t i c s c i e n c e was the o n l y s c i e n c e I k n e w . 21 I taught this c o u r s e for three succe s s ive years . A soap opera "Days of Physical Science in Elementary Schools Course," that reappear s t h r o u g h o u t the entire manusc r ip t , is the story o f m y attempts to a p p l y m y e m e r g i n g v i s i o n s into p e d a g o g i c a l p rac t i ce . See an a p p e n d i x for the o v e r v i e w o f this cour se . 2 21 o r g a n i z e d this c l u b w i t h the p u r p o s e for e x p l o r i n g pos s ib i l i t i e s for i n f o r m a l t e a c h i n g a n d l e a r n i n g re-e n c h a n t e d s c i ence . T h e s c i e n c e v i d e o c l u b gave m e a pr ice le s s o p p o r t u n i t y to be c o n n e c t e d w i t h y o u n g p e o p l e not as a teacher or researcher , but as o n e o f t h e m . 6 understandings that have emerged from the new developments in science, there is no way I can "objectively" cut myself off from the world. In this sense, the entire world is my "research sample." / am the World. I am a Cosmos. This is the main idea of a holonomic inquiry, which I attempt to conceptualize as my research methodology. I spiraled (structured) my thesis into circlets (steps) toward the deeper and deeper re-enchantment of visions of reality and of science education, respectively. This wi l l permit my audience, which I hope to extend to teachers, to stop at the level of their comfort. Grounded on new insights in science, the nonlinear steps into re-enchantment that I propose, spiral down along the following progression: © A modest re-enchantment of the science of complexity: Self-organization, creativity, ambiguity, and interconnectedness are embedded in Nature. © The deeper re-enchantment of a holonomic paradigm: Our reality is an unbroken holographic wholeness. © Even deeper re-enchantment of postmodern organicism: The world is an experiencing, feeling, and imaginative organism, comprised of organisms throughout its totality. © The radical re-enchantment of the spiritual "no-no": New developments in science invite Spirit. © The extreme re-enchantment of a "plain" magic: 23 Cutting edge science legitimizes laws of magicality. While writing this manuscript, I was surprised how much it has written itself 2 4 and how far I am now from what I initially intended. 2 3 T h e t e rm c o i n e d b y A h s e n , 1965. 2 4 P o e t C a r l L e g g o has m a d e a s i m i l a r o b s e r v a t i o n . I d i scus s this later. 7 I unteYulea/an/od&, but it twrried/ out co bovwiet, I C#\£&nded/ an/ ode/. Itbe^an/a/la/mode/, but Rene/ cvoteed/the/ road/, Cn/her new Suvuiay btrnnet; I iyte^\ded/an/ode/, but tt turned/out a/i<rnv\et?5 Initially, I limited my study to applications of contemporary physics for school science curriculum, but soon realized that it would be insufficient for my re-enchanting purposes. I was "forced" to look at a broader picture that included insights from new developments in biology, neuroscience, ecology, astrophysics, chemistry, and quantum theory. Poems from my favorite poets, as well as my own, "incorporated" themselves throughout my entire essay. They kept jumping into my writing without any special invitation, making me increasingly aware of the power of poetic intuition and of the deep narrative nature of scientific knowledge. I wrote about science and education, but I was unable to do so without poetry! Excerpts from children's science fiction, written by my daughter's favorite authors, situated themselves quite comfortably within this essay as well. Eventually, my story "wrote i t s e l f into an eclectic mixture of science, poetry, and philosophy. Before I begin, once again I wish to stress my intentions, and for this purpose I w i l l borrow words from Illia Progogine's The End of Certainty: Time, Chaos, and Laws of Nature: The world, our world, tries ceaselessly to extend frontiers of the knowable and the valuable, to transcend the giveness of things, to imagine a new and better world. 2 6 We must begin where we are, and now is time to begin... 2 5 A u s t i n D o b s o n , c i t e d i n Spl i t ter , 1997: 10. 2 6 Peter Scott , c i t e d in P r i g o g i n e , 1996: 185. 8 Of course, this is how it must begin: imagining the world. Standing on any green hill at the mercy of all blue rivers, (re) inventing the colours of sky and three perfect ravens... 7 Rasberry, 1997: 10. TIME TO BEGIN. I only know that I write my poems with a keen ear for what they are saying to me, teaching me, and so I cannot pretend that lam controlling everything that happens in my poems28 (Carl Leggo) Where do we go to listen to the music that has not yet been heard? There is a place in our body to which we can turn and listen. If we go in there and become quiet, we can start to bring music up.29 (Stephen Nachmanovitch) The moonlight tonight is especially mysterious. Everything is saturated with this magic soft light: air, grass, waves on the sea... Clouds rush swiftly through the lunar media and there is no way to catch their intricate, constantly changing shapes. Don't even try. These enigmatic entities cast eerie shadows on the moon but for a fleeting moment, then vanish, hurrying somewhere herded by a rancher, the stormy wind. But . . . lunar light! M y God! Shiny milk from heaven! Pour it into your palms and drink this elixir, this pure enchantment. Have you ever tasted lunar light? If not, just open your window as wide as you can and invite this madness of moonlight into your room, along with the rest of the night darkened world, with its clouds, winds, oceans, and mountains! The/ body of the/ mmmteuVt- he^Ctctt&y before/ my wivuiow: "How COAV one'entef Cf one/ Oy the/ mxytu\tcvin/, ifone/CytcM', witfaboulderya#ul/&tovie/, a/piece/of Earth, altered/by the/iky?"30 The entire world is invited into my story L e g g o , 1997: 83 . N a c h m a n o v i t c h , 1990: 159. Ju les S u p e r v i l l e , c i t e d in B a c h e l a r d , 1 9 6 4 : 66 . 10 which is about to begin 31 Beginning. There is magic in every Beginning! This magic is hidden somewhere inside or behind an empty computer screen that apparently holds nothing but the convenient electronic features of a word-processing program. This magic is concealed within the infinity of quantum probability waves that are patiently waiting for the occasion to materialize from pure potentiality into reality. This magic resides somewhere inside of me in a chaotic mixture of thoughts, memories, intentions, images, feelings, and emotions. This subtle inner mixture is not material. It is not visible, not touchable. However, it contains "something" which is about to organize itself into the virtual words on the computer screen and from there onto printed paper. This "something" is about to jump into existence from the constructions of my consciousness, from the depth of my unconsciousness, from possibilities offered by the universe, at the crossroad of play and intention, at the fusion point of my body, mind, and soul . 3 3 The only thing I really need to do is to begin, and then.. .the "evolving organism takes on a momentum and identity of its own. We conduct a dialogue with the living work in progress." 3 4 According to academic and poet Carl Leggo 3 5 , we write our stories as much as they write themselves; therefore, our stories and we write the world together. 3 1 F r o m the d i c t i o n a r y , m a g i c is " the art w h i c h c l a i m s or is b e l i e v e d to p r o d u c e effects b y the ass i s tance o f supernatura l be ings or b y mastery o f secret forces o f na ture . " I under s tand m a g i c as m y s t e r y , in tr igue , the u n e x p l a i n a b l e , as s o m e t h i n g that is, but a c c o r d i n g to c o m m o n s e n s e , is not s u p p o s e d to be , a n d v i c e versa . 3 2 A c c o r d i n g to the w i d e l y a c c e p t e d C o p e n h a g e n interpreta t ion o f q u a n t u m m e c h a n i c s (1924) , o u r rea l i ty exists in the f o r m o f n o n m a t e r i a l q u a n t u m p r o b a b i l i t y w a v e s unt i l the act o f o b s e r v a t i o n ac tua l izes t h e m into mater i a l ex i s tence . See D a v i s , 1986. 3 3 N a c h m a n o v i t c h , 1990. 3 4 N a c h m a n o v i t c h , 1990: 107. 3 5 L e g g o , 1997. 11 Although I definitely have some ideas about what I am going to write, the outcome of the collaboration between my story, me, and the rest of the universe (s) is not completely predictable. How could it be otherwise i f the quantum uncertainty principle states that nothing is entirely predictable in this world anyhow. 3 6 In every knowing there is always an element of the unknown, in every expectation there is always an element of the unexpected, and in every prediction there is always an element of the unpredictable. For this reason, the only way to beCome acquainted with my not-yet-born story is to begin. It ly time/ to- 3 egln. It ly really Time/. The/ night ly myyterlouy and/ dark/. The/ hard/ rain/ layhefr peryiytertly and loudly. A tumult of ocean wave^y. Leafy fountatny. A majestic/ rhapyody ofa/ytormy wind/. The/Univerye/, a/crescendo-burytlng-through/my window. Ye*, it ly Time/ to- Begin. What could/ be/ a/ better moment for boiling- my magic/ youAtlon/?! AH the/ lngredler\ty are/ ready, ready for me/to-put Inthe/ cauldron/: the/ dry froggy of dvyappoirtmenty, ypider voebyof doubty, a yweet yyrup ofyucc&yy, a^zid/vinegar of confusion/, dayt from/ all/ read/ boohy and/ papery, piece<y of memory, gurruyyhe-y of poetry arid/ muyUy, yz^menty of conferyationy, a/bag-, heavy witfathouJghty, yellow roye/ petaly of dreamy, the/ cold/ ice/ of reason and logic, aypicy flavor of love/, yalt of my teovry, loneline&y, and meloyncholy, yeA/eral ypoony of happ ine^yy, a/powder of wonder and/ d&yvrejy, handfuly of yoil from/ not traveled/ groundy, and/alycr, H e i s e n b e r g ' s U n c e r t a i n t y P r i n c i p l e is d e s c r i b e d in D a v i s , 1986 ; Johnes , 1982. See p. 108 o f this m a n u s c r i p t fo r deta i l s . 12 cv little/ of e^erythinty: Srurpritefr of uriexpected/ meetings, the/ eye/&%pre4ryLcnv of cv homele^yy old/ womcvn/, ov ymtte/ of my child/, lunar light, crying rcviwy, and/ mcvny, many other nyefuL fhinx^y... I ^haXL hoiL thly e c l e c t i c mixture/ for houry and/ houry, untd... Unt i l . . . the "something" hopefully crystallizes from the wave circlets in my magic solution, which at the same time could be the spirals of a hermeneutic search for meaning, which at the same time could be the spirals of spinning galaxies, which at the same time could be infinite quantum leaps, which at the same time could be circular holographic patterns.3 7 In my essay I explore these magic circlets, which are not spreading out from any particular source of disturbance as normal circular waves do. To the contrary, they are funneling down toward the alchemists' philosopher's stone; which at the same time could be the nucleus of an atom; which at the same time could be the very heart of the galaxy; which at the same time could be my own pulsing hear; which at the same time could be 38 the omega point of meaning; which at the same time could be a new order of complexity, which at the same time could be a newborn re-enchanted world. So-, Ct Ly Time/, fexxvivu^the/ woryt, yethoping-for the/ be^t, haXcvKcXMUfrthe/p(Mfciv& cvytri&e/ the/ yubtLe/ rope/of the/ edge/ of chaoy, kn/OMiinfy that the/ dcwh night ccryvzeaty the/ inevitability of the/ view day, opening-the/ door onto- unknovvwhori^ovw, I r3e#t>v. T h e h o l o g r a p h i c r e s o n a n c e patterns h a v e a c i r c u l a r f o r m . I d e s c r i b e h o l o g r a m s i n m o r e deta i l s i n the chapter A Holonomic Paradigm as a Step into Deeper Re-Enchantment. 3 8 O m e g a p o i n t is the po in t o f u l t imate des t ina t ion . 1 3 A SWINGING PENDULUM Of ENCNANTMENTS A Philosopher, strolling with-a/ Lady in/the/ mxyonlight... taught the/new cosnvology to-hCyaptpupub... "Yaw hcwe< wtade/ the/ U niA/erye- yo- large/," yatdyhe/, "that I know not where-1 awv, or what wiU/be^xnyte- of vne/... I protect it is dreadful." But they Philosopher wa& orie< of th*yy& delighted freedom/ of new Space/, whose/ imu^ynatiorw e^ande^ with the/ vast "Dreadful/, Madame/...I thinh it isvery pleasant, when/the/ Heaveny were/ a/ little/ blue/ Arch/, stuck/ with/Story, I thought the/ U nOverse/ wa* too- straight and/ close/, ar\d/1 wafralmost stifled/for want of Air; but now it is enlarged/... I begin to-breathe/witfom&re/fre^ to- be/ ivu^omparably more- vnasgnificent than it was- before/. "39 H e y n e m a n , 1993 : 11. 14 We/ Have/ Never BeewVtie#ich(w&ed/ Pendulums are strange creatures. They like to swing backward and forward, to and fro, pro and con. What makes a pendulum want to swing back? Is it the law of harmonious movement or a nostalgic desire to return into the past? Do not we humans, just like pendulums, often want to swing back into the space-moments of our past? But there is no way for us to re-construct what is gone forever. Only an ideal pendulum, free from friction, comes back exactly to the same point. Ideal pendulums, however, exist only in the abstract mathematical universe. In real life as we experience it, there is no such thing as an ideal pendulum. It never comes back to the same position. The universe is never the same and never repeatable. Even i f you try to return to the same point of your existence, you wi l l come to it on a different turn of the spiral that includes your new experiences and those of the universe. Each time a pendulum swings back, it inevitably swings back to the future. This is how the new story of Western civilization unfolds. Today its pendulum swings back to the future, from the modern enchantment with disenchantment into the vision of reality that resembles and transcends the ancient, interrelated, living, feeling, and mysterious macrocosm. As Rupert Sheldrake writes, the emerging understanding of Nature "gives an even stronger sense of her spontaneous life and creativity than the stable, repetitive world of Greek, medieval, and Renaissance philosophy. A l l nature is evolutionary. The cosmos is like a great developing organism, and evolutionary creativity is inherent in nature herself." 4 0 4 0 Sheldrake, 1990: 75. 15 Up, up to the galaxies, down, down to the mysteries of atomic and subatomic lands and here, in between, in this amazing phenomenal world, moments happen as huge as a swallow of water when dying of thirst, as significant as the collapse of a star from which a new solar system is born, and as far reaching as the birth of the human race. These are the moments of great transformations when a new world jumps into existence, and in this dizzying quantum leap, new meaning is born. As Thomas Berry expressed, these are moments of grace, grand moments of revolutionary change. 4 1 The current moment in the evolution of Western civilization, the beginning of a new millennium, could definitely qualify as a moment of grace. It is a moment when the so-called modern epoch 4 2 , after several centuries of existence, as the dragon in the alchemist's crucible, is about to "consume i t s e l f and dissolve into the river of history. It is a moment when the new postmodern 4 3 world is about to leap into being. The shimmering silhouette of this new world is still obscure. It is not clear yet what this postmodern world is all about; however, the rumor being spread by leading edge science is that the emerging world is going to be re-enchanted!4 4 sounds so wonderful! I agree with Steve Bowles who writes: "Whenever I hear the word enchantment my mind immediately flies back to my childhood days out of the window." 4 5 In my imagination, the word enchantment is winged, alive, and beautiful, just as a butterfly riding the wind. I am enchanted with enchantment and, therefore, salute the emerging (re) enchanted world. 4 1 In H e y n e m a n , 1993 . 4 2 A m o d e r n e p o c h o r m o d e r n i t y is t ime i n the h i s tory o f W e s t e r n c i v i l i z a t i o n that c o r r e s p o n d s to a " m e c h a n i s t i c " " q u a n t i t a t i v e , " " s c i e n t i f i c , " o r " d i s e n c h a n t e d " w o r l d v i e w . 4 3 1 d o not w i s h to g o into the de ta i l ed d i s c u s s i o n what ac tua l ly the t e rm " p o s t m o d e r n " m e a n s . T h e r e are no c l ea r de f in i t ions a n y h o w . I use the w o r d " p o s t m o d e r n " to express e m e r g e n c e o f a n e w c o i l o f the sp i ra l that e m b r a c e s a n d t ranscends v i s i o n s o f the e p o c h c a l l e d " m o d e r n i t y . " 4 4 G r i f f i n , 1988; B e r m a n , 1986; S tengers , 1997. 4 5 B o w l e s , 1996: 15. 16 What is an exact meaning of the word "enchantment"? According to the dictionary, enchantment is "magic, delight, fascination." To be enchanted means to be under a spell, to be charmed, irresistibly attracted to something. At some intuitive level, though, I feel that "enchantment" holds a wider spectrum of meaning than the one offered by the dictionary. To elaborate, I shall conduct a brief exploration of my own enchanted experiences. I feel enchanted when: houlinfythehand/of my daughter Sinking' in an ocean/ of night stars flying^ in an/ airplane/ listening- to- cv beaAAtiful melody looking- at impressionists' drawings solving- aw intricate/ mathematicalproblem/ reading- a/ wonderful/ poem/ revisiting- magical/ childhood lands admiring/ a/ modest spring- flower teaching' something- I love/ writing' when inspired/ absorbing' a/ symphony of fresh scents after a/ rain/ performing' scientific/ experiments: B a C l 2 + H 2 S 0 4 = B a S 0 4 + 2 H C l (add two- clear liquids- and/you/ vvill see/ white/ snow appearing- from/ nowhere/ ) dreaming- about the/ future/ being- struck/ by a flash of memory riding- ocean/ waves seeing'the/ unbelievable/ captured/ by sorrow listening-to- a deep spooky forest looking/ ata/ dancing-fire being- in love/ The list of enchanting/enchanted events may continue and continue ad infinitum. While writing this, I surprised myself with the obvious abundance of such moments. Up, 17 up to the sky, down, down to the mysteries of a subatomic universe and here, in the middle, in this beautiful phenomenal world, everything is saturated with the ether of enchantment. According to my (anti) scientific conclusion, enchantment is the natural human state to be. What do I experience when feeling enchanted? I feel O'warm/wave/flowing over my body which/, while/ be/xrming- lighter avid/ lighter, grad/Mxlly loyefr ity material/ ejryence/, transforming/ itself into- cv wave/ that merger and/ r e i o v u i f e i with the/ wave* ofthe/ ocean/, the/ wav&y of my child) y laugh/, the/beccuty of a/ mathematUxd/forvvuXla/, the/ youndy of a/ darh haunted/ night, the/ rhythtny of windy and/ raindropy... I feel lo&A^tra<&ofthouahty, ofque^tLony: Where/am/I? Whenam/I? Who-am/1? Am/I? I? Ay a/ butterfly fliefr out from/her cocoon/, my youlfU&y out from/ my yeparate/ "yelf," ywirling/ina/ ttmele&y and/ ypacel&yy tango- of onene^y with/the/ yubfect of my enchantment. I and/ whatever I feel enchanted/ with: a/picture/, my work/, or the/ypooky "under-bed)' monyteryofmy childhood/ are/ evob/ing/ into- a/ yingle/ living/ and breathOng- organiym/, unified/ by Spiritual/ "gravity"... Nothing- elye/ ejciyty nor mattery during- an enchanted/ moment. I am/ consumed. Concluding my (self) phenomenological inquiry, I feel even further away from a crisp and clear definition of enchantment. What is enchantment! It is magic, mystery, game, laughter, tears, fears, happiness, music, sorrow, spell, ecstasy, poetry, awe, love, chemistry, obsession...It is forgetting yourself. It is an immediate and breathtaking experience of oneness with the subject of our enchantment. Eureka/! 18 After my brief enchanting exploration, I think I can now formulate the first (anti) scientific law of enchantment: Th&KecvvLer SpLrituaLaroA/ity, tKe/lCghter my ego. Lora, 13 years old, a member of the science video club "Gaia": Once I went to the forest with my parents. I thought this forest was enchanted. Why? It seemed to be alive. It had a mood. Very gloomy mood...The forest was not inviting... Yana, my daughter, 14 years old: How would I define enchantment? Well...can we actually define it? Enchantment is "The". It simply is. You know it and you feel it without any particular definitions. I saw the drop of morning dew caught in the spider web. It was enchantment in its own right. No definitions necessary. The/ Sta^ttn^ VoMC o f 5 w MOg^MOgp: Ay Above/ so-Below There is nothing new on the earth for a person who lives long and experiences much. In my years of youthful wandering I have seen crystallized people46 (Goethe, Faust) One to one with the mysteries of nature, the alchemist in his lab was cleansing an especially rare substance, a dragon's blood. It is not so easy, you know, even i f you have all the necessary scientific ingredients in your crucible, such as colored earth, exotic triangular pebbles, a variety of hair and feathers, corals, dust from mummies, and other quite useful substances. From the alchemist's lab report: 4 6 C i t e d i n E l k i n s , 1999 : 30 . 19 The draqovi Is the blackness that remains at the bottom, of the vessel when everything else has, been bolted away, and the lost thickened water around was Its t a l l , so that the two could be coagulated together Into something new. 4 ? The alchemist cleansed dragon's blood in the crucible, chemically and magically married sulphur and quicksilver (mercury), and crystallized anew the human soul, while dissolving, purifying, and crystallizing chemical substances. Alchemy was the royal art of recovering a "noble" human nature. 4 8 The world of the alchemist was comprised of materia prima: it can be fou.\A,d anywhere In the world, I f people only had eyes to see It. Travelers, w i l l trip over It t h i n k i n g It was a stone dislodged on the roadway. Farmers would plow It up, t a k i n g It to be a stubborn root. Fishermen would s i t down next to It and f ish the whole day through, without even recognizing what was Inches {row. their feet. The materia prlm.a could be the coiotioionest lum.p of c lay, or the most ordinary nondescript pebble. +3 The materia prima was original Chaos, from everything came. It was many things and had many names. It was cold, silent, and strangely semi-real. "It is nothing (yet), and everything (in potentia), it is all things that wait to exist." 5 0 The alchemist's universe, "made o f this obscure materia prima, was small, cozy and alive: the disk of the Earth in the center of the universe, under the starry walnut of heaven. The Earth, an ever- pregnant female, gives birth to all plants and creatures. Heaven, a male, arranges day and night, lights up the stars, and creates rains and rainbows. 5 1 Everything in this universe had a special meaning and was interconnected into a living unity: heavens, humans, and chemical substances in the alchemists' crucibles. The 4 7 Elkins, 1999:49. 4 8Burckhard,1960. 4 9 Ibid: 71. 5 0 Ibid: 85. 5 1 Ibid. 20 soul of a mercurial individual was intimately linked to the planet Mercury and to its namesake chemical element "mercury." The universe (macrocosm) and each human being (microcosm) reciprocally reflected each other. "As above so below" was the adage written in the alchemists' "bible," the Emerald Table. 5 2 As the ocean manifested itself through each tiny drop of its water, the intellect of each human being was understood as part of an indivisible Divine Intellect, Universal M i n d , Spirit, the One, Undivided Unity. Matter and Spirit as the two hands of God were not separated, but complemented and interpenetrated with each other. Alchemist's matter was considered automatically alive because it was "saturated" with l iving Spirit. As the Russian doll "Matreshka" comprises identical but smaller dolls, ancient reality was organized into hierarchical levels or nests with different "percentages" of matter and spirit. "Each senior level 'envelops' or 'enfolds' its junior levels—a series of nests within nests within nests of Being—so that every thing and event in the world is interwoven with every other, and all are ultimately enveloped and enfolded by Spirit, by God, B y Goddess.. , " 5 3 Within such a hierarchical structure, everything contains everything. A l l in all. Omnia omnibus.54 This was the essence of the Great Chain of Be ing , 5 5 a matterspirit continuum, "a rich tapestry of interwoven levels, reaching from matter to body to soul to spirit." 5 6 The vision of reality via the Great Chain of Being was central to a perennial philosophy that "has been the dominant official philosophy of the larger part of civil ized humankind I b i d . 52 5 3 W i l b e r , 1998 : 7. 5 4 E l k i n s , 1 9 9 9 : 4 6 . 5 5 T h e t e r m sugges ted b y A r t h u r L o v e l o y . In W i l b e r , 1998. 5 6 W i l b e r , 1998: 6. 21 throughout most of its history." The perennial philosophy assumed a deep unity between all entities in the world, which were unique appearances of a huge single organism, a l iving mysterious Cosmos. The idea that the world was alive throughout all its totality was taken for granted. Pointing out the universality of such a view, Ken Wilber writes: "it is either the single greatest intellectual error ever to appear in humankind's history—an error so colossal and widespread as to literally stagger the mind—or it is the single most accurate reflection of reality yet to appear."5 8 The perennial philosophy was the philosophy of organicism. I wi l l borrow the definition of the term organic from poet Carl Leggo: "The word organic means: derived from living organisms or having an organization similar in its complexity to that of living things. The word organic is related to the living, ecology, the mystical and spiritual, the world of interconnectedness."5 9 In this light, organicism is enchantment. The alchemist was enchanted with his organic universe, and this was perhaps the basis for his alchemical ethic. A l l transmutations and manipulations of elements were permitted only i f the goal of the experiments was to improve human nature or to help those in need. A l l the alchemist's work, prayer, and efforts were directed toward this goal: to awaken the dormant powers of nature, to reconcile her dynamic conflicts, and to assist at the birth of a new and higher consciousness. Through the hermaphrodite, lay the path beyond good and evil toward liberation from contending dualities.. .this was the coming together of earth and heaven, the completion of the circle of perfection. 6 0 Ibid: 7. Wilber, 1998: 7. Leggo, 1999: 119. Rozak, cited in Neutropia, 1994: 250. 22 To help the poor was the motivation behind the alchemist's search for the magical "philosopher's stone," which turns base metals into gold. A little luck, a lot of patience, cooperation from mysterious natural forces, and (who knows?) maybe you wi l l become the happy owner of this marvelous stone. If this happened, the stone would bring to you more than just gold. It would show you the way when lost, it would convert sadness into joy, it would protect you from disease and disappointment, and it would lead you from darkness into light. 6 1 The alchemist's obsession with a miraculous philosopher's stone as a means to help others is understandable. Medieval science, even mixed with real magic, did not give contemporaries relief from "debilitating work in the fields, from uncured pain, and from chronic hunger. The majority of people were uneducated and their overall life span was about thirty years of age." Alchemy did not find its philosopher's stone. But modern mechanistic science, which sprang onto the stage in the seventeenth century, did. This philosopher's stone was the Machine] ... the world appears before us, unhazed, unmisted no longer radiant with something priceless.63 (Eugenyi Eutushenko) What is it out there, beyond the horizon? Forced by an irresistible inherent power, like a butterfly drawn to a flame, humanity is constantly driven towards the unknown. While growing up, human civilization looks at the world through different windows, or 6 1 Burckhard, 1960. 6 2 Kaku, 1998. 6 3 F r o m the p o e m r e m e m b e r e d . 23 filters, which Thomas Kuhn named paradigms. A paradigm, or worldview, is a set of beliefs, rules, concepts, and assumptions that determines our way of thinking about the world and consequently, influences our way of l iving. People make sense of their scientific findings and their everyday experiences by filtering them through an accepted worldview, however impermanent. Time goes by and the scientific community finds more and more anomalies, which do not fit the accepted paradigm. These anomalies and exceptions accumulate unti l . . .Boom! Scientific revolution occurs. A different window into a different world suddenly opens and through this new window a wider panorama is seen, new things become visible and old things are understood in different ways. This is what happened in the seventeenth century: Western people glanced through the new window and...oh, my...instead of an enchanted living and breathing Cosmos, they saw a lifeless Machine. It was the beginning of a new epoch called modernity. In 1599 educated people in Western Europe believed themselves l iving in the centre of a finite cosmos, at the mercy of supernatural forces beyond their control, and certainly continually menaced by Satan and all his allies. B y 1700, educated people in Western Europe for the most part believed themselves living in an infinite universe on a tiny planet in (elliptical) orbit around the sun, no longer menaced by Satan, and confident that powers over the natural world lay within their grasp. 6 5 Who opened the new window? ...Everything started from Copernicus. Of course, perhaps this is not how everything really started. Maybe it started from the shimmering light of a vanishing star, or from the song of the spring wind, or from someone's dream, or from something else, but it materialized in the Copernicus heliocentric theory, according to which the earth K u h n , 1970. E a s l e a , 1980: 30 . 24 I was not the center of the universe, but a little planet circling around the sun. This innocent suggestion, taken today for granted, triggered the birth of mechanistic science. Voices from the crowd: -The Earth is not the center of the universe? It is quite disappointing! -What nonsense! Just look at the sky and you will see the opposite! Johannies Kepler: -Copernicus was right. The earth is revolving around the sun. Also, mathematical calculations indicate that the universe works like a celestial machine linked to a clockwork. We need to replace the word "soul" (anima) with the word "force" (vis) in reference to planets. The universe is a machine!66 Galileo Galileo: -Observations through the telescope proved that the earth is not the center of the universe. The movement of celestial bodies can be calculated through mathematical laws! Church: -It is heresy! Francis Bacon: -We can discover the secrets of nature through the use of scientific method [experiment, conclusions, generalizations, and more experiments to test these conclusions]. The scientific method can tame and control nature! "The new man of science must not think that the 'inquisition' of nature is in any part interdicted or forbidden'. Nature must be 'bound into the universe' and made a 'slave', put 'on constraint' and 'molded' by the mechanical arts. The 'searchers and the spies of nature' are to discover her plots and secrets'. 6 7 Rene Descartes: -Scientists need to separate fact from fancy and truth from falsehood! Real scientific knowledge seeks clarity, objectivity, and distinctiveness. Beginning from simple objects, step by step, we can obtain knowledge of the most complex. The universe is a machine, and it can be perfectly understood through analyzing its parts, which are machines as H e y n e m a n , 1993: 11. H a r d y , 1987 : 133. 25 well. The universe is reducible to parts! "Give me matter and motion and I shall construct a universe!' "And I have been greatly helped by considering machines. The only difference I can see between machines and natural objects is that the working machines are mostly carried out by apparatus large enough to be readily perceptible by the senses (as is required to make their manufacture possible), whereas natural processes almost always depend on parts so small that they utterly elude our senses. ",69 Isaac Newton: It is amazing and fascinating! All the endless diversity, chaos, and mysteries of Nature can be uncovered and organized into concepts. All universal motion can be predicted and calculated mathematically! The world obeys mechanical laws! All universal phenomena can be understood rationally! Earthly and heavenly objects are governed by the same laws of mathematics! The universe is a static mechanistic system which God once placed into motion. The 28 t h day of Apr i l 1686, the day when Isaac Newton presented his Principia to the Royal Society of London, can be perhaps considered the official birth date of mechanistic science, the science of objectivity, measurement, reduction, and quantification. 7 0 This event manifested a significant turn in human thought, the realization that the natural world can be understood and manipulated through the laws of mathematics and the logic of causality. It was the beginning of enchantment with disenchantment that resulted in new understanding of the nature and purpose of science. The goal of science changed to controlling and dominating natural resources from the pursuit of the glory of Nature, Spirit, and the human soul. "The process of mechanizing the world picture removed the controls over environmental exploitation that were an D e s c r a t e s , c i t e d i n B i r c h , 1988: 7 0 . D e s c r a t e s , c i t e d i n K i r k , 1993: 2. D o l l , 1989 : 2 4 3 . 26 inherent part of the organic view that nature was alive, sensitive, and responsive to human action." 7 1 Mechanistic science brought spectacular results to society, both positive and negative. Machines, railroads, factories were rushed into the human world. Advances in science brought relief from exhausting labor, helped to "lift people out of wretched poverty and ignorance, enrich their lives, empower them with knowledge, open their eyes to new worlds, and eventually unleash complex forces which would topple the feudal dynasties, fiefdoms, and empires of Europe." 7 2 Splendid, brilliant success. Due to the overwhelming accomplishments, by the end of the nineteenth century no doubt remained that "objective" scientific knowledge, constructed block by block by mechanistic science, was the only true way of understanding the world. Such opinion penetrated all levels of Western society, giving birth to industrial- mechanistic-technological-materialistic-quantitative modern culture. This culture speaks to us today through a bombardment of commercials and looks at us through the windows of soulless rectangular boxes-buildings, storefronts, residential houses, offices, and factories. This culture established, .. .a belief in the scientific method as the only valid approach to knowledge; the view of the universe as a mechanical system composed of elementary material building blocks, the view of life in society as a competitive struggle for existence; and the belief in unlimited material progress to be achieved through economic and technological growth. 7 3 Huxley: The whole of modern thought is steeped in science; 7 1 H a r d y , 1987: 103. 7 2 K a k u , 1 9 9 7 : 4 . 7 3 C a p r a , c i t e d i n H a r d y , 1987: 172. 27 it has had made its way into the works of our best poets... Mechanistic science and modern materialistic society shook their hands and lived happily ever after, approaching closer and closer the technological paradise... The end. Actually, it is not. This technological fairy tale does not have a happy ending. The problem is that mechanistic science is guilty of an enormous offence—the disenchantment of the world. To see the criminal record, let's open the personal file of mechanistic science. Personal File of Mechanistic Science Name: Modern-Classic-Newtonian-Mechanistic-Materialistic-Disenchanted Science. Date of birth: Seventeenth century. Fathers: Copernicus, Galileo, Descartes, Bacon, Newton, and others. Goal in life: Using, mastering, taming, and controlling Nature for anthropocentric purposes. Religion: Mechanicism. Modern people have an ultimate faith that scientific knowledge, technology, and 7S machinery give "panacea for the world's i l l s . " " Moral values: None. Motto: Every effect has its own cause! View of Reality: There exists a reality "out-there ". H u x l e y , c i t e d in H a r d y , 1987 : 160. Q u i n n , 1997 : 2 5 9 . 28 Reality exists independent of the observer; this is why it can and should be explored objectively. Ideals: Perfect Machine, Ultimate Particle, and Pure Object.76 A Machine is Perfect i f nothing ever goes awry or wrong. The universe is an example of such a machine. A l l movements of its parts are regular, predictable, static, and controllable. There is no place for spontaneity. Since the world is a machine, it can be reduced and disassembled into small parts. B y studying its small parts, we can obtain legitimate knowledge about the whole. Therefore, to find explanations for the world, we must discover an Ultimate Particle, the building block of everything. The key to knowledge regarding the complex is reduction. Approach to knowing: Measurement, Quantity, Detachment, Reasoning. Measurement and quantity are the only viable avenues for constructing knowledge about the world. True scientific knowledge has to be analytical, rational, distinct, and, therefore, reproducible by others. The validity of knowledge has to be demonstrated by tests of objectivity, evidence, reasoning, and the quoting of authorities. Inner, qualitative knowledge is subjective, untestable, irrational, and, therefore, nonscientific. Mode of thinking: Dualistic. B y treating everything as a machine which can be reduced into smaller isolated fragments, mechanistic science has difficulty explaining how our material mechanical bodies and our material mechanical brains produce qualities as ephemeral as emotions, desires, and intentions. Or, how such ephemeral entities as our fantasies and intentions can influence and change the physical world? 7 6 Griffin, 1988. 29 The apparent fact is that mindand body seem to interact; that is, the mind seems to be affected by the body and seems to affect it in return. The inference is that the human body is composed by things that are devoid of experience. The resulting problem is: How is it understandable that these two totally unlike things appear to interact? How can the impenetrably spatial relate to the nonspatial, the nontemporal to the temporal, the mechanistically caused to the purposively acting, the idealess to the idea filled, the purely factual to the value-laden, the externally locomotive to the internally becoming? 7 7 In respect to this problem, modern science took a dualistic approach: the body is a machine, completely explainable scientifically and mind is the Great Exception, the Ghost in the Machine. The modern dualistic mode of thinking separates mind and body, spirit and matter, interior and exterior, subjective and objective, observer and observable, human and nature. Modern dualism approaches the world from the position of "either/or" logic. Plans for the future: Construction of a technological paradise. Marital status: Divorced from "the Beautiful" (arts) and "the Good" (ethics and morals).78 Once upon a time, in pre-modern cultures, science (the True), arts (the Beautiful), and morals (the Good) were undifferentiated. Though this fusion looked attractive, there was a downside. According to Ken Wilber, such an undifferentiated mixture was not conducive to the development of science. Church morals put science between the restricting walls of what it could or could not do. Galileo had to renounce his theory that "the sun went around the Earth, and that was the end of the discussion." 7 9 Healthy growth is the result of many stages of differentiation and integration. A single cell divides itself into millions of other cells, giving birth to a complex organism. A l l these cells are G r i f f i n , 1988 : 17. " T h e T r u e " , " the G o d " , a n d " the B e a u t i f u l " are K a n t ' s c o n c e p t s , a d o p t e d b y W i l b e r (1998) . W i l b e r , 1998 : 12. 30 differentiated, but at the same time they are integrated into a single and whole organism. If for some reason differentiation or integration does not occur, the organism becomes i l l . Its growth is arrested, or it becomes cancerous. At first the process of differentiation between the three cultural value spheres, "the True," "the Good," and "the Beautiful", was a process of healthy growth. Modern science, separated from any restrictions, was free to explore the world. This democracy of dissociation was one of the reasons for the splendid mechanistic success. Problems occurred quickly, however. The process of differentiation went too far into dissociation, complete separation, alienation, a disaster. The growth became a cancer. As the value spheres began to dissociate, this allowed a powerful and aggressive science to begin to invade and dominate the other spheres, crowding art and morals out of any serious consideration in approaching "reality." Science became scientism— scientific materialism and scientific imperialism—which soon become the on dominant "official" worldview of modernity. Science conquered the pedestal. The realms of arts and morals were pronounced "not scientific" and therefore delusional. The Great Chain of Being was collapsed under a heavy materialistic press. Perennial levels of matter-spirit realities were flattened into plain, dead, and dull matter. Spirit was filtered out. Beauty lost its value as a legitimate avenue for knowing the world. Language: Fluent in "it"-language. Each of the cultural spheres, "the Beautiful", "the Good", and "the True" has its own native tongue, writes Ken Wilber . 8 1 "The expressive-aesthetic sphere is described in "I" since aesthetic judgment and artistic self-expression operate in the subjective, "I" domain. Morals and ethics use "we" language since that is the domain of collective 8 0 Wilber, 1998: 12. 31 interactions and negotiations about norms, rules, and justice. The "objective" truth of science is spoken in "it"-language. What language would you use to describe objects or mechanistic systems, i f not the impersonal, abstract, monological, sterile, and prosaic language of "its"? The scientific worldview was of a universe composed entirely of objective processes, all described not in I-language or we-language, but merely in it-language, with no consciousness, no interiors, no value, no meaning, no depth and no Div in i ty . 8 2 Personality: Strong leadership traits. Claims to tell the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth regarding reality. Expresses a low tolerance for anything "nonscientific." Despite overwhelming anecdotal evidences of psychic paranormal phenomena (holistic healing, telepathy, clairvoyance, psychokinesis, near death experiences), modern science rejects these experiences on the basis that there are no rationally explicable causes for such events. Address: "Flatland of its" in the mechanistic universe. Mechanistic science removed the interior dimensions from the Cosmos, such as "morals, artistic expression, introspection, spirituality, contemplative awareness, meaning, value and intentionality," therefore' collapsing a rich, multidimensional world on into a "monochromic flatland of its." everything is perfect in the flatland of "its"; everything is arranged in a proper order: all things are objectified classified labeled dissected separated measured shelved Wilber, 1998: 56. 32 all events are proscribed precalculated predetermined prerecorded predicted no surprises! theflatland of "its" is very clean: unnecessary emotions feelings confusions mysteries magic poetry all this non-scientific delusional crap OA (which only increases chaos and entropy) is mapped scrubbed swiped away tossed into the garbage forgotten who are the lucky ones who inhabit this perfect land? perfect citizens: body-machines with brain-processors of bits and bytes minds wandering somewhere else body-machines who worship machines drive machines live with machines live for machines depend on machines produce new machines the universe of multiplying machines theflatland of "its" is an Infinite Perfect Machine! 8 4 E n t r o p y [S] is a t h e r m o d y n a m i c f u n c t i o n , w h i c h increases w i t h i n c r e a s i n g d i s o r d e r in the state o f the sys tem. 33 C r i m i n a l Offence: Disenchanted the entire world. It would be a static, predictable world but we would not be here to make predictions.85 (Illia Prigogine) The crime of disenchantment is heavy: mechanistic science killed the l iving world. It dissected perennial connections under the sharp knife of mathematical logic and reduced the world's complexities into manageable mechanistic fragments— "its." Processed through a mechanistic filter, the whole universe was cleansed of "impurities" such as purpose, creativity, values, divinity, and meaning. The sterile mechanistic world became " . . .a dull affair, soundless, scentless, colourless; merely<a hurrying material, endlessly, meaninglessly." 8 6 A l l phenomena were collapsed to movements of and collisions between mindless particles. The world as a whole was thus disenchanted. This disenchanted view means that experience plays no real role not only in a "natural world," but in the world as a whole. Hence, no role exists in the universe for purposes, values, ideals, possibilities, and qualities, and there is no freedom, creativity, temporality, or divinity. There are no norms, not even truth, and everything is ultimately meaningless. 8 7 As Isabelle Stengers writes, the disenchanted deterministic world is "deaf and dumb to whatever is outside," totally foreseeable, automatic, and non-temporal. 8 8 The elimination of temporality, according to Illia Progogine, is disenchantment because there cannot be novelty, spontaneity, and creativity in the time-reversible world that does not know the difference between the past, present, and future.8 9 P r i g o g i n e , 1996 : 5 5 . W h i t e h e a d , c i t ed in H e y n e m a n , 1993: 23 . G r i f f i n , 1988 : 3. Stengers , 1997: 35 . F r o m P r i g o g i n e ' s a n d S tenger ' s chapter The Reenchantment of the World, in S tengers , 1997. 34 In the disenchanted world, all wondrous ancient stars, elements, mountains, rivers, and rains became nothing but manifestations of dead matter obeying mathematical laws. Human beings with their feelings and emotions, realities and dreams, sorrows and happiness were dismissed from the status of being microcosms, into machine-like collections of mindless elementary particles. Science presents our belief that man is a product of causes which had no provision of the end they were achieving; that of his origin, his growth, his hopes, and fears, his loves and beliefs, are but the outcome of accidental collocations of atoms. 9 0 "The more the universe seems comprehensible, the more it also seems pointless," admits physicist Steven Weinberg in his book, The First Three Minutest This is how the story goes: there was a high price to pay for modern enchantment with disenchantment. The entire world, including human life in it, lost its meaning. (Self) Phe^iomeyiolo^y ofM&cwlng' I have seen many people die because life for them was not worth living. From these I conclude that the question of life's meaning is the most urgent question of all. 9 2 (Albert Camus) What does meaning, mean? Dictionaries define it as: what is intended to be expressed or indicated, the end or purpose of something, interpretation, significance. We cannot interpret or estimate the significance of something without some point of reference, without a background, without a context. Therefore, meaning is context dependent. Using an example from Ken Wilber, the word bark, means something entirely J U B e r t r a n d R u s s e l l , c i t ed i n G r i f f i n , 1988 : 7. 9 1 G r i f f i n , 1988: 5. 9 2 C a m u s , c i t ed in L l o y d , 1999 :1 . 35 different in the phrases the bark of a dog and the bark of a tree. We cannot understand the meaning of the word bark without knowing the sentence. In searching for meaning, we look for connective associations, relationships between the pattern and the whole fabric. The pattern can be meaningless i f its purpose is not understood. It can be boring and dead as a detail in tasteless wallpaper i f it does not evolve. In my groping for clarity about what I meant by meaning I eventually began to understand that in order for our lives to have a meaning, the pattern in which we participate must also be al ive. 9 4 How can a pattern be alive? To explain that, Martha Heyman uses a dance metaphor. During a dance, you know your movements at every point of spacetime in relation to the theme of dance performance, which is also evolving and moving. The pattern and the whole constantly co-evolve together. How do I experience meaning! Of course, this depends on how significant such meaning is for me. For instance, I have been trying to solve a problem for a long time, but without any particular success. Suddenly, "aha"! A light went on! Meaning jumped into existence! A quantum leap. A paradigm shift. M y body feels it as a "flush" of warmness and as the lightness of joy. I can detect the birth of meaning when I teach a class. The expressions in students' eyes, plus their body language tell me when and i f meaning is born. I cannot describe what I see or hear or smell that gives me an indication of newborn meaning. I know it Wilber, 1998: 123. Heyman, 1993: 47. 36 intuitively. A s Brent Davis writes, this internal, enacted meaning is unformulated and unseen, as a part of the iceberg hidden under the water. 9 5 Musician Nachmanovitch experiences bells ringing in his belly when meaning is born. 9 6 While writing this essay^ I started to listen to myself more attentively than before. I feel the birth of meaning not in my stomach area, but somewhere closer to my heart. Could that indicate some kind of a gender difference? (Recollect the fabled cross-cultural saying that the soul of a man lies in his stomach.) Just joking. In any case, the metaphor of ringing bells that signal the birth of meaning, works for me. I think about meaning as a harmonious resonance between the pattern and the whole, between our inner and outer worlds. We feel the ringing bells of this resonance inside us. We understand meaning and respond to it with our entire essence, with interfused mind, body, and soul. The more significant meaning is to us, the more powerful the explosion of emotions. Meaning can k i l l and meaning can heal. The meaning of / do not love you can make our heart stop. The meaning of a simple hello can sometimes make our flesh flush. Depending on the meaning of meaning, bells inside of me ring a triumphant sonata or a dark requiem. Humans structure their lives around meaning. Meaning is needed as much as food or air. 9 7 The human search for meaning in life is "an urge in human nature as basic and organic as any instinct or biological drive." 9 8 When there is no meaning, the internal bells remain silent... D a v i s , 1994. N a c h m a n o v i t c h , 1990. H e y n e m a n , 1993. A s s a g i o l i c i t e d in W h i t m o r e , 1986: 4 3 . 37 A soap opera "Days of the Physical Science in Elementary Schools Course" From Geraldine's reflective journal: Why am I placed in this world? I have been pondering this question for quite some time now. Still, I have no answer. Am I just mere matter to occupy space in time? Or do I have some other purpose to achieve? Pain and panic, the world is tilting, swirling on its axis, out of control, spinning off away from the sun into the dark99 (Madeleine L 'Engle) What is the meaning, the identity of humans in the mechanistic universe? We have driver license numbers, social insurance numbers, student numbers, passport numbers, credit card numbers, and bank account numbers that show how much we are "worth". A l l these numbers determine our identity in the mechanistic quantitative universe. Within a materialistic culture, a human being is just a walking, talking collection of mindless particles, a numerical unit in a crowd, "the mass overage": ...modern mass man is a numerical reduction to the average mean, with no connection to higher states of consciousness, being, or reality via a chain: this is "value free." From the contemporary perspective, the modern person has been "set free" by science, technology, and exclusive reason, and has presumably seen through the miasma of atavistic superstitions, like the values of integrity, dignity, quality, and sacrality, to which he was, like Prometheus, bound" before the liberating advent of modern thought. 1 0 0 L ' E n g l e , 1978 : 2 0 0 . M a d e l e i n e L ' E n g l e is m y ado le scent d a u g h t e r ' s favor i te f i c t i o n writer . I a m c o n v i n c e d that f i c t iona l stories p r o v i d e an e x c e l l e n t contex t for t e a c h i n g a n d l e a r n i n g sc ience . 3 Q u i n n , 1997 : 254 . 38 Ken Wilber writes that mechanistic science created airplanes, telephones, rockets, the global economy, advanced medicine, and computers, but at the same time it created a colossal spiritual or "value vacuum" which resulted in: .. .the collapse of compassion to serotonin, joy to dopamine, cultural values to modes of techno-economic production, moral wisdom to technical steering problems, or contemplation to brain waves. 1 0 1 Modern science caused "collapse of quality to quantity, value to veneer, interior to exterior, depth to surface, dignity to disaster." 1 0 2 The ideal of value in the quantitative materialistic culture is money and the grand objective is 100%. Of what? O f everything that can increase the material level of living—the more the better. Period. No matter what. No matter what price. If the price paid is manipulation and destruction of nature, who cares. Natural resources exist to be consumed and manipulated. Today, however, it is increasingly understood that this kind of mentality is lethal. Disenchanted mass culture has neither qualitative connections with, nor moral obligations toward, the rest of the world. As a result, modern industry and consumerism are about to terminate the Cenozoic era in the geological history of the Earth, which means the annihilation of human civilization. It seems that the modern machine drove humanity in the wrong direction down a one-way street with a dead end. As Quinn states, hand in hand with the growing danger of ecological disaster, the internal crisis of individuals belonging to industrial civilization grows exponentially. 1 0 3 This crisis is manifested in increased violence, depression, mass neurosis, skepticism, hopelessness, and nihilism, which is "rather an amorphous, spontaneous, and direct 1 0 1 W i l b e r , 1998: 177. 1 0 2 I b i d . 1 0 3 Q u i n n , 1997. 39 response of despair and surrender to the confusion of an exclusively mechanistic, materialistic, secular wor ld . " 1 0 4 Psychologist Carl Jung described the "schizophrenic" modern culture as chaotically disoriented. 1 0 5 The nihilism of modern Western culture, which is rapidly becoming global, is a reflection of the meaninglessness and emptiness of human life in the materialistic universe of shopping malls and markets... I myself-do not know my own face/, I hwve/forgotten it Lvvihe/ miclyt ofthe/ market crowd}06 Inner bells remain silent in a world where commercials are loud! ...Once upon an ancient time, the human identity was written in the sky because human life had a cosmic meaning. Who knows, maybe such an intuitive and, from the modern perspective, naive vision was an echo of universal memory, a deep memory, older than the B i g Bang. . . This is the issue of duality, with which we still struggle today—the sense of being strangers in a strange world, of alienation, of yearning for something which would make life on earth meaningful, a greater context than the common-sense world, a reality once known and forgotten. 1 0 7 Modernity cut off the whole grand context of human life, and life itself became no longer a multifaceted, multicolored, and multidimensional firework of interwoven inner and outer. It turned into a mechanical device temporarily "on" today and irreversibly " o f f tomorrow. In the mechanistic universe life is going nowhere and this is a terrible loss and the disaster of modern disenchantment... Life going nowhere... Technological civilization is lost within the jungles of mechanistic simplicity. 1 0 4 Q u i n n , 1997 : 2 6 9 . 1 0 5 I b i d . 1 0 6 K a n z e M o t o k i y o Z e a m i c i r e d in H e y n e m a n , 1993 : 147. 1 0 7 H a r d y , 1987 : 111. 40 I woke/ to-find/ myself in ou dark wood/, where the/ right road/ was whoUy lost and/ gone... how I got into-it I cannot say, because I was so-heavy andfull of sleep when first I stumbled/ from/ the narrow way lifegoin nowhere/ somebody help me Staying-' alive, staying/' alive/. 108 The door to eternal happiness is not found within building blocks of promised technological paradise. The modern mechanistic construct is shaky because its mechanistic foundation is shallow and superficial. This construct is slowly but inevitably crashing. Is there any chance for salvation? Somebody help me Staying-' alive, staying-' alive. Hey, people, what shall we do? Voices from the crowd: Science brought us to this disaster, science needs then to fix it! We know science can do it! We have ultimate faith! We believe in salvation via science! We need to give science a chance! Salvation via science? H m m . . .If there is a chance, it has to be a new science. Mechanistic science with its disenchanting and manipulative attitude toward the world w i l l not do. The good news is that a new science is already here. Its powerful sprouts pierce through the rusty body of modernity. The seeds of these sprouts were planted a hundred years ago when quantum mechanics came into play. Paradigms in science are shifting; the stage is set for the change.109 D a n t e A l i g h i e r i , The Divine Comedy. C i t e d in H a r d y , 1987 : 144. B r o u d & A n d e r s o n , 1998: 13. 41 The/ Vcwk TKivvfr that Hetty the/ Stcwy? "It was a star," Mrs. Whatsit said sadly. "A star giving up its life in a battle with the bark Thing. It won, oh, yes, my children, it won."110 (Madeleine L' Engle) A new science was born a hundred years ago from the quantum revolution that later ignited computer and biomolecular revolutions. 1 1 1 These three revolutions are changing our world, dramatically and rapidly. Michael Kaku writes in Visions How Science Will Revolutionize the Twenty-first Century: B y the end of the twentieth century, science had reached the end of an era, unlocking the secrets of the atom, unraveling the molecule of life, and creating electronic computers. With these three fundamental discoveries, triggered by the quantum revolution, the D N A revolution, and the computer revolution, the basic laws of matter, life, and computation were, in the main finally solved. This epic phase in science is now drawing to the close; one era is ending and another only beginning. 1 1 2 According to visions of contemporary prominent scientists, synthesized by Kaku, the new era in the development of science is already "unfolding before our eyes." Twenty-first century science based on a synergy between quantum, computer, and biomolecular revolutions wi l l give humans the ability to produce new unimaginable forms of matter, nanomachines as small as molecules, computers with now-unheard-of properties, superconductors, ever-more powerful lasers, and new sources of energy as exotic as antimatter. The human genome wi l l be decoded by the year 2005. It w i l l provide an "owner's" manual for a human being, revolutionizing medicine. Advanced " " L ' E n g l e , 1978: 87 . 1 1 1 K a k u , 1998. 1 1 2 I b i d : 4. 42 knowledge of cell development w i l l enable humans to "invent" new organisms. Entire organs wi l l be grown in a laboratory. 1 1 3 According to a T V Discovery program I watched recently, we perhaps wi l l be able to modify ourselves dramatically, in order to live in various conditions on various planets. As Wilson writes, currently, we are taking our first steps into "volitional evolution"—a species deciding what to do about its own heredity. That w i l l present the most profound intellectual and ethical choices humanity has ever faced. 1 1 4 Science of the twenty-first century and beyond is expected to bring wealth to nations, an abundance of cheap food, smart houses, slave-robots, 3-D holographic television, and powerful sources of communication. "The internet w i l l wire up the entire planet and evolve into a membrane consisting of millions of computer networks creating an "intelligent planet." The Internet w i l l be able to speak with the wisdom of the human race." 1 1 5 A n exciting time to live, isn't it? We are getting closer to reaching the stars! Quoting scientists, Kaku writes that today we are a Type 0 civilization which takes its first clumsy steps into the cosmos and produces energy mostly from coal and o i l . 1 1 6 B y the twenty-second century we may evolve into a Type I civilization that might reach nearby stars. Such a civilization wi l l be able to modify the weather, mine the ocean, and to use energy from the center of the earth. A Type I civilization wi l l be forced to become a planetary civilization because its huge energy needs wi l l require global cooperation to "harness and manage resources on such a gigantic scale." A Type II civilization wi l l master stellar energy. "Their energy 1 1 3 T h e h u m a n c o r n e a is a l ready g r o w n in C a n a d a ( f r o m T V D i s c o v e r y p r o g r a m ) . 1 1 4 W i l s o n , 1999: 2 9 9 . 1 1 5 K a k u , 1998: 15. 1 1 6 I b i d . 43 needs w i l l be so great that they wi l l have exhausted planetary sources and must use their sun to drive their machines." 1 1 7 Perhaps we can reach Type TJ status in 800 years or so. Type HI civilization wi l l exhaust the sun and wi l l look for energy in its galaxy. We may reach this status in 10,000 years! What a breathtakingly fantastic prospective! Stars! Wouldn't it be wonderful to finally reach the stars, to meet them, to say "hello"! Wouldn't it be appealing to get out from our wilderness and to develop a Type HI civilization! It is truly exciting, but... while applauding such a grandiose scenario, I feel a strange discomfort caused by the unscientific question: how wCHour lovely blue/planet Earth/ feel and/look/when aXb her planetary yourc&y are/ ewhaAMited/? Having a Masters degree in mechanistic science, I know that both my planet and I are ultimately meaningless things, completely separated from one another. But. . .s t i l l . . . somewhere .. .in the midst of mindless particles which comprise my physical form, I feel pain, thinking: how w 01/our lovely blue/ planet Earth feel and/ look/ when all her planetary bourc&y are/ ejchau&ted/? Under the influence of this unnecessary emotion, another unscientific question comes to mind. Who are we? What is the meaning of our rushing toward the stars? Do we want to meet them so as to eat them? I imagine Type I to UI civilizations being something like a huge, rapidly growing spider, a Dark Thing eating the stars. It crawls from one star to another and to another and to another, exhausting their resources to satisfy its enormous energy appetite. Moving along this monstrous food chain, the Dark 1 1 7 Kaku, 1998. 44 Thing leaves garbage in its wake and an arid desert of exhausted planets and stars. No regrets and no remorse since the entire universe exists to be utilized, mastered, and manipulated: "It won, oh, yes, my children, it won." / / a These are the words of Mike Kaku who interviewed one hundred and fifty (!) scientists: front of us lies a new ocean, the ocean of endless scientific possibilities and applications, giving us the potential to manipulate and mould the forces of Nature to our wishes. For most of human history, we could only watch, like bystanders, the beautiful dance of Nature. But today, we are on the cusp of an epoch-making transition, from being passive observers of Nature to being active choreographers of Nature. 1 1 9 Wait . . . . Are we really speaking about the new science that w i l l supposedly save the world? If so, then why does this new science sound suspiciously similar to the mechanistic one with its arrogant attitude toward Nature? What is different? Only the power of capabilities and the scale of activities. The essence is the same: to mould and manipulate! What modern man has to offer extraterrestrial space is colonization (e.g., mining), and orbiting industries, to say nothing of orbiting particle-beam weapons of unfathomable destructive capability. These are seen as large achievements, the high points of technology and machinery. 1 2 0 In this scenario, our global (galactic?) technological civilization may survive ecological Armageddon, but at the cost of exploited and destroyed planets and stars. The Internet would become the Central Intelligence, a planetary wisdom of such a civilization. Would it be similar to central C E N T R A L I N T E L L I G E N C E (IT) of the planet Camazotz as described by Madeleine L'Engle in A Wrinkle of Time? " 8 L ' E n g l e , 1978: 87 . 1 1 9 K a k u , 1 9 9 8 : 5 . 1 2 0 K a k u , 1998: 2 5 9 . 45 .. .Everything is perfect on the planet Camazotz, everything is brought into proper order! IT takes good care of the planet and its inhabitants: "Our production level is highest. Our factories never close; our machines never stop rolling. Added to this we have five poets, one musician, three artists, and six sculptors, all perfectly channieled. " The word "love" is absent in the vocabulary of central C E N T R A L I N T E L L I G E N C E , power of love is harmful to I T ! Then, seeming to echo from all around her, Came Mrs. Which's unforgettable voice. "I havve ssomething that ITT has not....Thiss something is your only weapponn.. .Bbut you mmust ffind it for yourself ... Then the voice ceased, and Meg knew she was alone.... What is it I have got that IT hasn't got?" ... She knew! Love. That was what she had that IT did not have!122 Such a scenario evokes images from countless science fiction novels and movies about our possible future, where the body of Earth becomes a lifeless ruin and her intelligence becomes the intelligence of IT. Many fictional visions are about stars and wars: the same modern aggression, the same violence, the same hatred, but more sophisticated. I wonder: is there a chance for our future to embrace the stars, but without wars ? In The Cosmic Game: Explorations of the Frontiers of Human Consciousness, Stanislav Grof writes that even today science and technology have enough potential to make our world less imperfect. Even today it is possible to reduce world poverty, hunger, industrial waste, and to a large degree replace destructive fossil fuels with renewable sources of clean energy. Imagine how different our world could be i f humans did not 1 2 1 L ' E n g l e , 1962. 1 2 2 Ibid: 183. 46 waste "unimaginable resources" in the "absurdity of an arms race, power struggle, and the pursuit of unlimited growth." 1 2 3 If powerful new science continues to manipulate and choreograph nature for the purpose of "unlimited growth," our world, i f it survives, w i l l remain militarized, individualized, and mechanized to the teeth. It wi l l be a familiar disenchanted world, one that successfully nibbles on the stars. Can such a world be a happy world? Is the true meaning of human civilization to be a Dark Thing that eats the stars? How could we prevent converting ourselves into a Dark Thing? These questions leap us into the flatland of modern science education, which remains, unfortunately, a Dark Thing's nursery.... Grof, 1998. 47 Modertv Science/ EducatUm/cuy tfnje/ViAewchajr^^ offrVwhTKOng/ 28 April 1686 is the day Isaac Newton presented his Principia (The Natural Principles of Philosophy) to the Royal Society of London. Book III of this treatise, the one containing Newton's famous 'universal law of gravitation' is entitled "The System of the World." This system has, since Newton's death, become a paradigm, a paradigm which we now see began with the observation and musings of Francis. This paradigm dominated by Western scientific and intellectual thought well into the present century, and continues today, as the foundational model for the social sciences,including education.124 (William Doll) ...I had completed all the requirements for the Ph.D. in theoretical physics. But I paid a price for my learning. A dear price that I hadn't even realized at that time. Somewhere, in all of that education, I had lost the magic.125 (Alan Wolf) In the flatland of "its", in the Perfect Machine, the educational system is simple, rational, and efficient. The aim of education is to produce more new machines to join a working force that is needed for further development of a technological paradise. But how do rational people produce machines? O f course, they use assembly lines. This clever engineering design is used in schools/factories for producing machines from raw material: The school is a more or less well oiled machine that processes (educates) children. In this sense, the educative system (school) comes complete with production goals (desired end states); objectives (precise intermediate end states); raw materials (children); a physical plant (school building); a 13 stage assembly line (grades k-12); directives for each stage (instruction); managers for each stage (teachers); plant supervisors (principals); trouble shooters (consultants); quality control (discipline); uniform criteria (standardized tests); and a basic product available in several lines of trim (academic, vocational, 126 business, general). D o l l , 1989 : 2 4 3 . W o l f , 1991 : 35 . C a l e y , c i t e d i n K i n g , 1993. 48 The school curriculum developed by Bobbit, Chartes, Huxley, Spenser, Hunter, Tyler, and others, was based on mechanistic science and mirrored the flatland of "its", the 127 modern mechanistic universe. The flatland's curriculum "promised order, organization, rationality, error correction, political neutrality, expertise, and progress." 1 2 8 everything is perfect in theflatland of "its" all the schools are in proper order learning is dissected separated quantified measured categorized reduced predetermined efficiency calculated intelligence tested students labeled systems closed changes controlled order maintained balance created knowledge transmitted knowledge constructed "the ends are clear" 129 '"the means are precise" IT IS E X P E C T E D T H A T S T U D E N T S W I L L ! 1 P i n a r , R e y n o l d s , S lattery, & T a u b m a n , 1995. C h e r r y h o l m e s , 1988: 26 . T h e s e t w o l ines are b o r r o w e d f r o m D o l l , 1989 : 3 4 3 . F r o m K - 7 B C s c i e n c e I R P ( integrated re sources p a c k a g e ) . 49 The mechanistic school curriculum was born during a time of disenchantment, when the whole living universe was reduced to passive inanimate matter. It was a time when a sober, materialistic, "prosaic mentality" 1 3 1 spread throughout all human realms, including education. It was a time when the main goal of education was development of an efficient working force for a technological society. Has anything changed since then? From the current B C K-7 Science IRP: Science curriculum provides a foundation for the scientific literacy of citizens, for the development of a highly skilled and adaptable workforce, and for the development of new technologies.13 Welcome to the assembly line. A lesson plan is a description of the sequence of activities engaged in by an instructor and learners in order to achieve predetermined instructional objectives. It includes a description of the instructional session, the aids, devices, and other resources required.133 No comment. Prescribed learning outcomes: It is expected that students will: describe basic units of matter identify common elements and molecules distinguish between natural and synthetic materials identify some unique properties of synthetic materials that are useful for society compare the environmental impacts of using natural and synthetic materials134 1 3 1 Abram, 1996. 1 3 2 BC K-7 Science IRP: 2. 1 3 3 Ibid: 15. 1 3 4 Ibid: 68. 50 I read though the British Columbia Ministry of Education Programs and Services K-12 Curriculum and Learning Resources (Integrated Resource Packages) or IRPs. I searched through other science curriculum resources in North America. From the Ontario Science Curriculum for grades 1-8: The science and technology expectations are organized into five strands, which are the major areas of knowledge and skills in the science and technology curriculum. The five strands, which combine topics from science and technology, are: • Life Systems • Matter and Materials • Energy and Control • Structures and Mechanisms • Earth and Space Systems The knowledge and skills outlined in the expectations for the science and 135 technology program are mandatory. Y o u can browse through science curriculum resources too. Y o u can use the brightest light and the most powerful magnifying glass, but nowhere, I guarantee, wi l l you find any hint of enchantment. There is no feeling, no beauty, no love, no awe, no intrigue, no magic, no mystery, no purpose, and no soul. There is no breathtaking oneness with the world. Everything is ultimately material, dead, predictable, calculable, reducible, and objective. Get real! Get material! Get technological! It is mandatory! This is the basic nature of the contemporary North American school science curriculum. Coming from the former Soviet Union, I can make cross-cultural comparisons: the situation is the same. . School science education is chained to the mechanistic cage which contains blind forces which act upon prosaic passive matter which occupies empty space which is hopelessly empty that is why it has a perfect ability to separate all things h t t p : / / w w w . e d u . g o v . o n . c a / e n g / d o c u r n e n t / c u r r i c u l / s c i e n t e c / s c i e n t e c . h t m l . 51 that constitute a modern fragmented world A petrudXihyyLX^OYw1h£/Wi4^ IT IS E X P E C T E D T H A T S T U D E N T S W I L L ! "Almost all the joyful things of life are outside oflQ tests", says Madeleine L'Engle. "Educational theories regarding science teaching," writes educator and philosopher Azam Mashadi, "have been largely based on out-moded eighteenth century 137 conceptions of the physical universe." Since a primary goal of science education is the development of a scientific worldview, the challenge for 21 s t century science education lies in devising an educational theory that incorporates understandings achieved in new developments in science. "It is not sufficient to merely include in the curriculum new scientific facts; the way of thinking that arises from these theories must be brought into science education as w e l l . " 1 3 8 Dramatic changes in education are a must! Dissertations are written, articles are published, and curriculum reforms are proposed. Thomas King synthesized curriculum reforms in North America, which occurred during the past hundred years. 1 3 9 Like waves, they recycle and repeat; however, nothing has really changed for one reason: "twentieth century educational philosophy and practice had been and still is based on a classical mechanistic science paradigm." K ing 1 3 6 Fels, 1999: 106. 1 3 7 Mashadi, 1997: 1. 1 3 8 Mashadi, 1997:4. 1 3 9 King, 1993. 52 believes that "unless something revolutionary happens in curriculum epistemology, "the 21 s t century wi l l be a very unbrave old world, slowly but increasingly rushing to its entropic death." 1 4 0 Educator David Orr expresses a similar thought: It is time, I believe, for an educational "perestroika," by which I mean a general rethinking of the process and substance of education at all levels, beginning with the admission that much of what has gone wrong with the world is the result of education that alienates us from life in the name of human domination, fragments instead of unities, overemphasizes success and careers, separates feeling from intellect and practical from theoretical, and unleashes on the world minds ignorant of their ignorance. 1 4 1 According to King , no reforms wi l l work unless the worldview, which provides the very foundation for education, is changed. 1 4 2 Today the new image of reality unfolded by new insights in science "portends a radical revision of how the world and human consciousness itself is to be comprehended." 1 4 3 This is why, writes Mashadi, "it is perhaps time to re-assess the foundation on which school science currently rests and the mode of thinking that it promotes." 1 4 4 What mode of thinking can be promoted i f science education is based on the emerging worldview portrayed by avant-garde science? Mashadi understands this mode as liberating and non-mechanistic. I wish to stretch this idea further into re-enchantment, since I believe that state-of-the art science provides us with the conceptual framework for educating magical or enchanted consciousness which, using Glucklich's definition, is "the awareness of the interrelatedness of all things in the world by means of a simple but refined sense of perception." 1 4 5 1U1U. IT. 1 Orr, 1994: 17. 2 King, 1993. 3 King, 1993:70. 4 Mashadi, 1997:4. 5 Gluckl ich, 1997: 12. 53 Thomas Berry understands this awareness as "forms of intelligence that enable us to see the earth [and the universe] as a living body with senses and soul with memory." 146 We need to fertilize the growth of enchanted consciousness because, as David Orr writes, so far educated people from K through the Ph.D. have nearly destroyed the Earth and humanity itself. 1 4 7 The modern detached, disenchanted mode of thinking converts our civilization into the Dark Thing! It won/, oh/, yes, my children, it won/! Writes Farren: The answer: a total change of mind-set around the globe. Nothing less. Nuclear arms control and non-proliferation efforts won't do it. Peace research and teaching non-violence won't do it. Surely more annihilative weapons on both (or all) sides won't do it. Essentially: a total change of mind-set. 1 4 8 Wil l i am Quinn believes that to find the way out of the confusing labyrinth of modernity, we need to develop and teach a new spiritually-oriented planetary culture that believes in the "homology of person/planet/universe."1 4 9 .Since we are brought up in a "scientific" society, continues Quinn, we might readily see "the unity, the sacredness, the oneness of life, owing to its universal acceptance as a scientific fact." Developing such a scientific vision, from my perspective, should be the most important aim and mission of re-enchanted, re-imagined science education. To see what contemporary science can offer for this re-imagining, let's make several nonlinear steps-B e r r y , 1989 . O r r , 1994. C i t e d i n N e u t o p i a , 1994. Q u i n n , 1997 . 54 magic circlets that are spiraling down deeper and deeper into the re-enchantment. We w i l l fly into these circlets on the wings of Madeleine L 'Engle's chant: In/thlyfatefulhour AWHeoA/en/wUh/itypower The/ yun/ with/ ity brixfhtvie&y The/ynow withitwhiten&yy The/ five/ with/all the/ strength it hath/ The/ y^htntnj^ with/ ity rap id/wrath/ The/ windy with/their ywiftn&yy The/ yeco with ity deepn&yy The/ rocky with their steepness The/ earth/ with ity ytarkne-yy Allth&ye/I place/ Betweerv my yelf avid the/power of darkn&yy.150 L'Engle, 1978. 55 CIKCLETl SCIENCE OE COMPLEXITY AS A STEP INTO MODEST KE-ENCHANTMENT We/appear to-have/ b^-eAVprofoxAndXy wrong*. Order, vast and/ generative/, arit^ naturally.151 5 1 Kaufman, 1995: 25. 56 A Crasyy PencluluATvSvjOn^y Cnta-tHe/ Mystery ofChaoy ...a new paradigm we are seeing emerge from insights of chaos theory requires of us nothing less then a brand new start in the description of nature—a start which will affect our metaphysics and our physics, our cosmology as well as our logic. (William Dollp2 Pendulums are strange creatures. They like to swing backward and forward, to and fro, pro and con. In the idealized abstract mathematical universe, their movement is always rhythmic and always repetitive. There is not much mystery around pendulums' linear and predictable behaviour. No surprises. If you are not too lazy to measure just two variables, angle and velocity, you can easily calculate their trajectories at any given moment. In the real settings, forces of friction usually bring unwanted complications, but you can neglect them for your convenience, reducing, and as such, "idealizing" a swinging pendulum into a simple, predictable, and calculable system. The behaviour of a real pendulum remains rhythmic and periodic, even though stubborn friction forces eventually slow it down. For instance, when placed between two magnets, a pendulum rhythmically moves back and forward, to and fro... The picture changes dramatically when a pendulum is forced to move between three magnets. In this case, a mystery comes into play and possibilities for reducing a pendulum into a simple system become questionable. When you push a pendulum only slightly, it swings repetitively and regularly, periodically attending each set of two magnets. Under a stronger push, however, the pendulum exhibits a strange behavior. Being perhaps offended by such impolite action as a push and feeling perhaps completely out of equilibrium, a pendulum seemingly loses its mind, starting to swing wildly and 1 5 2 Doll, 1993: 91. 57 chaotically between the three magnets. It moves without any apparent rhythm or particular direction: the previously regular behavior of the pendulum is now chaotic. Under such conditions, do not even try to predict its trajectory of movement. The trajectories of a chaotically swinging pendulum never repeat themselves. However, seemingly chaotic behavior of a pendulum is not as random as it seems to be. Pushed out of equilibrium, a pendulum swings into an intriguing space where randomness and order shake their hands. How can this be? Is it really possible to unite such opposites as randomness and order, as different as yes and no, or day and nightl If it is, what could possibly unite them? To address this interesting question, we need to get acquainted with the chaotic butterfly. Let's pretend you conducted an experiment, observing the movement of a chaotic pendulum, moment-by-moment, snapshot by snapshot. After collecting data, you graph results, representing all variables of the system by a single point that corresponds to each moment of movement. B y doing so, you wi l l end up in an abstract mathematical space called the phase-space, the diagram where the trajectories of a single point describe an entire system, moment-by-moment. For the ideal abstract pendulum such a diagram looks like a closed loop, but for the real periodic pendulum with friction, it looks like a curve spiraling inward toward the center. This central space where the system eventually "settles down," is called a point attractor because it "attracts" trajectories of a single point. Guess how the phase-space diagram would look for a chaotically moving pendulum, providing that it is inventive enough to never repeat itself. Y o u perhaps would think that the representation of the points on the diagram would be a chaotic mess, and that would be quite logical. Surprise. 58 As a symbol of interplay between order and randomness, a strikingly beautiful and complex pattern emerges out of the chaotic trajectories of a single point. It looks like a butterfly with stretched wings. The existence of this pattern indicates that trajectories of a single point are not repeatable and not predictable, yet are restricted and bounded by a complex shape. As Wi l l i am Do l l writes, "...the trajectories have both bounds and a center attractor area. Neither of these are precisely defined, but as the trajectories fly out from the center area, they are attracted back, only to fly out again." Increasingly explored, behaviors of other chaotic systems reveal various shapes of patterns, but a chaotic butterfly remains a symbol of cunning chaos that cannot be understood as a simple and unpretentious disorder. This complex pattern, the chaotic butterfly, resembles a mysterious mask. Is it simply a coincidence or is it a hint that playful chaos likes to hide its true ordered nature? Writes Katherine Hayles : " . . .not only does chaos perform its magic within bounds or limits, but the deep within chaos itself there is a universal structure." 1 5 4 The structure hidden within chaos.. .1 sense an enchantment here! The butterfly's metaphoric involvement in chaotic "endeavors" is not limited to the shape of a complex pattern. A "butterfly effect" is a poetic metaphor for the interesting property of chaotic systems to produce far-reaching, widely varying, and unpredictable responses under small initial changes. What could be more minor and innocent than the flap of a butterfly wing? Chaotic systems, however, behave in such a manner as i f a butterfly's flap of a wing can generate storms, tornadoes, and hurricanes Doll, 1993: 94. Doll, 1993: 95. 59 on distant planets. Oh, butterfly, butterfly...these chaotic systems are quite strange, aren't they? This is why their chaotic attractors are called "strange." Writes Isabelle Stengers: A n attractor is a stationary state or regime toward which an evolution described by the well-determined system of equations leads. Usually, an attractor is stable: different sets of different initial conditions determine evolution toward the same attractor (for example, a state of thermodynamic equilibrium, the immobile state of a real pendulum, from which one has not abstracted friction; or "limit cycle"). Once this attractor has been reached, the system wi l l no longer spontaneously depart from it, fluctuations aside. "Strange attractors," on the other hand, do not have this property or stability. Two neighboring initial conditions can generate very different evolutions. The slightest perturbation can push the system from one regime into a very different one. Instead of stabilizing into a predictable and well-determined state, the system wonders between possibilities; in other words, although governed by deterministic equations, it adopts an aleatory behavior. 1 5 5 The number of possibilities available for chaotic systems to evolve is infinite because strange chaotic attractors have an infinite number of dimensions. As Coveney and Highfield write, chaotic attractors are fractals that can have "one-and-something" or "two-and-something" or many other unconventional dimensions. 1 5 6 A t this point, we enter the kingdom of fractal geometry, the land of irregular shapes, where, in addition to familiar one- or two- or three- dimensions, an infinity of "in-between-s" comfortably exist. Have you ever thought about the world in terms of beautiful patterns? Have you ever admired the intricate shapes of clouds, leaves, coastal shores, flowers, or snowflakes? Look around and see for yourself. Instead of neat triangles or squares, our world is full of irregular shapes and forms, called fractals. As Fritjof Capra notes, fractal geometry is "a language that speaks to clouds—to describe and analyze the world around Stengers, 1997: 7. Coveney & Highfield, 1995. 60 157 us." To study and to reproduce a variety of natural shapes, fractal geometry has to use magical imaginary numbers that are square roots of negative numbers. These imaginary numbers, according to the common mathematical sense, cannot exist. Yet, they are unavoidable for real-world calculations! "We may truly assert that they are neither nothing, nor greater than nothing, nor less than nothing, which necessarily constitute 158 them imaginary or impossible." Perhaps, for these reasons the prominent mathematician Karl Gauss stated: "objective existence can be assigned to these imaginary beings." 1 5 9 Existence of something which cannot exist...hmm...sounds like the very definition of magic.. .Could it mean that in order to create all the amazing variety of shapes and forms, Nature uses the magic of her imagination? Mot i f within motif, within motif, within motif, and within motif: fractals can endlessly repeat themselves. 1 6 0 The tiny rock repeats the shape of a larger rock that, in its turn, repeats the shape of a mountain. A small innocent cloud resembles its huge and heavy stormy sister, and a cloverleaf bristle with smaller clover shapes that bristle with even smaller clover shapes, and so indefinitely. So, naturalists observe, a flea Hath smaller fleas that on him prey And these have smaller fleas to bite 'em And so proceed ad infinitum161 As Biscop writes, "fractal geometry allows mathematicians to describe the structure of the universe in terms that include pattern, repetition, scale, randomness, and a part-for-whole relationship, in which the part is a replica of the whole ." 1 6 2 1 5 7 C a p r a , 1996 : 138. 1 5 8 I b i d : 143. 1 5 9 I b i d : 143. 1 6 0 T h i s p roper ty o f fractals is c a l l e d " s e l f - s i m i l a r i t y " . 1 6 1 C o v e n e y & H i g h f i e l d , 1995: 172. 61 Computer generated fractals range from beautiful abstract forms to realistically looking biological and physical shapes, including clouds and cloverleaves. Together, revealed and displayed by powerful computers, patterns of chaotic systems and fractal shapes inspire novel forms of art, as they "have an intrinsic beauty that engenders a response in many akin to that experiences by observing nature and human works of art, whether realistic or abstract." 1 6 3 The beauty of the chaotic fractal butterflies is re-enchanting because it reconciles the art of nature with the nature of art... A Cha&tti>&u£terfLy T^ll^Or^tcrtheySo^ Now a new branch of science is attempting to demonstrate why the whole universe is greater than sum of its many parts, and how all its components come together to produce overarching patterns. This effort to divine order in a chaotic cosmos is the new science of complexity.164 (Coveney & Highfield) A flap of the wing and a butterfly flies into a bursting rhapsody of colours, joining a swirling warm air. A flap of the wing and a chaotic butterfly flies into the science of complexity and as a result, into "a new way of thinking about nature, the physical world, and ourselves." 1 6 5 The science of complexity was born when study of chaos moved deeper into real-world situations. What a surprise: chaotic properties are intrinsic to natural phenomena. The real-world chaotic systems, just as abstract mathematical chaotic ones, evolve toward strange attractors, managing to survive in the world of chaotic butterflies, in this intriguing space "in-between." This space is twilight, where day and night kiss each 1 6 2 Biscop, 2000: 11. 1 6 3 Coveney & Highfield, 1995: 341. 1 6 4 Ibid: 5. 1 6 5 Ibid: 18. 62 other; it is an ambiguous "maybe" that escapes the certainties of "yes" or "no". This space is the creative and risky "edge of chaos," where order and randomness co-exist. Imagine whirlpools and vortexes that suddenly appear and disappear in the running river. They maintain structured shapes within a never-stopping chaotic flow of water, following therefore the rule of the chaotic butterfly, which is bounded randomness. Real-world manifestations of abstract chaotic systems are called complex systems. Indeed, you need to be sophisticated and complex to manage survival on the edge of chaos, to maintain structure within randomness, to preserve permanence within constant flux. Naturally, it makes you unstable, sensitive to even slight changes in conditions, and dependent on numerous variables. Complexity is a staggering number of critical dependencies and interactions among the huge number of important variables.166 It is not so easy to depend on everything, you know. Under such stressful conditions you are entitled to exhibit nonlinear and unpredictable behavior. As is increasingly understood, an unstable attitude is natural to the majority of world phenomena. "The macroscopic world abounds with complex processes and systems. Religious rites and ephemeral emotions, musical musings and muddy meadows, global stock market crashes and wet Sunday afternoons. This complexity is intrinsic to nature." 1 6 7 In recent years, weather forecasting, fluid mechanics, chemistry, astrophysics, economy, population biology, and brain research provide abundant data for exploring unpredictable, dynamic, chaotic behavior. Models for chaotically behaving systems are l 6 6Bardbury, 1998. 1 6 7 Convey & Highfield, 1995: 32. 63 based on nonlinear equations with multiple, complex, and often unexpected solutions. Solving nonlinear equations became possible only recently with the development of a powerful computer technology. This is not surprising since millions of numbers are entered into nonlinear equations describing a complex problem. If complexity is intrinsic to nature, this means that mechanistic science simply missed a point by creating an idealized scientific world, while collapsing all complex natural phenomena into simple predictable systems and eliminating all but a few variables within experimental designs. Simplicity was the motto and seduction of reductionist science, but the real world turned out to be more unpredictable, more chaotic, and more complex than we imagined while residing in a mechanistic universe. Intricate markings on a butterfly's wings, shapes of snowflakes, rhythms of our hearts, the collaboration of nerve cells within our brains, turbulently running a top water, the functioning of our body, the dynamics of ecosystems, complex societies, swirling galaxies, and all-embracing Cosmos; there is no shortage of ever-increasing complexity in our ever-evolving world. But. . .how can it be? Minutes from Teaching Mechanistic Science How can it be? Why is the world so incredibly complex? Something does not make sense here...Heretic thoughts kept popping into my mind as I taught classic thermodynamics in a community college, years ago. The second law of thermodynamics, also called the entropy law, proclaims inevitability of chaotic equilibrium as the ultimate state of any physical system. Entropy is thermodynamic function that measures degree of chaos, and chaos in the eyes of classic thermodynamic is nothing other than plain mess 64 and disorder, period. According to the second law, all spontaneous processes in nature are progressing toward disorder and therefore, toward increasing entropy... entropy is a/ strange/ function.. why do&sthlsentropy like/chaosyo-much? chaoy Ly actually not a/ very convenient state/to-be/ in, yince/ absolutely eA/erythvng' is mi^ed/ and/ mtyplaced/... if I were/entropy, I would/ not strive/ to- be/ increased/ toward/ chaos and/I would/ not lead/ aH the/ world/ toward/ randomness and/ disorder yimply because/I like/order better justimagine/how wonderful the/ world would be/ where/ all the/ proc&yyefr are/ directed toward order inhabitancy of this world would/ have/ a/ very easy life/ becau&e/ houses would be/ built by themyel/es, garbage/ would voluntarily put itself into-proper places nobody would die/, because/ death/ Vs chaos a/ clea^orgawX^ed/worhl without iynt it a/ lovely picture/7 Ye*, I definitely like/ order better, but, unfortunately, entropy has a/ different: Opinion... True. Unfortunately, buildings tend to become ruins over time and garbage usually does not express desire to take care of itself. The moving motor dissipates heat energy, particles of solute diffuse in solvent, and black marbles tend to mix with white ones. Spontaneous processes tend to be directed toward maximal probability, which corresponds to maximal entropy, and as such to maximal chaos, randomness, and disorder. Fair enough. However, how then can we account for life evolving spontaneously toward complexity and how then was the universe born in the first place? The second law of thermodynamics makes life itself highly improbable. There is something depressing about this law. On a grand scale, governed by the careless law of entropy, the universe slowly and inevitably disperses energy, approaching 65 a heat death, which is the state of absolute chaos. I could not help thinking that i f death and absolute chaos are the final universal state, why do I even teach this thermodynamics course? Ultimately, my course, as well as my entire life, has no meaning. M y thoughts resonated with questions of Nietzsche who wondered why God created anything i f it was going to be destroyed eventually. I thought... where* is the* beginning* of everything*? maybe*, in* a small/ weak* Sprout piercing* the hard* cold* ground* after w inter's freeze? maybe, in sun being* reflected* by a* drop of shining morning* dew? or... in a* simple- "hello?" where is the end*? maybe inthe* vanl&hinfylight of a* dying* star? or... in the* last lonely leaf (MA^glng- to- a tree* and* suffering* from/ the* harsh winds of autu*mn? or... in the dark* and* cold chaos of the uruA/erse? what is the rule, which leads every e*)clsting- thing* to- its end/ from/ its beginning*? and*.. .who isin charge* ofthisrule*? Classical thermodynamics created a "negative" arrow of time in nature. This arrow pointed toward dispersion of energy, mess, waste, simplicity, randomness, and ultimate equilibrium. The evolution of our world, however, has a "positive" arrow, pointed toward ever increasing complexity. From the perspective of the second law, the very process of evolution is highly improbable. Interesting puzzle. Complex systems stubbornly exist and even evolve, though they are not supposed to. They pretend they are not aware of their high improbability. The question is: how can complex systems manage to overcome the universality and inevitability of the second law? 66 To approach this perplexing question, the new science of complexity suggests re-thinking our vision of the natural world: "Nature is not strictly a succession of causes and effects. Embodied within nature, defining its very essence, is the powerful force of creation, of spontaneous action, of self-organization." Self-organization is the key. What is it though? The/ Mci^xyofSelf-Orc^t^^^ Imagine the experiment}69 The liquid in a container is placed between cold and hot plates. When the temperature gradient between plates is small, nothing observable happens. The system is quite uniform, symmetrical, and stable. The system "liquid in the container" is in the state near equilibrium. When the temperature gradient is increased, the system moves further and further from equilibrium, finally reaching so-called "bifurcation point" where thermal convection suddenly shapes into a striking organized pattern of hexagonal "cells." These cells are formed through the synchronized movement of millions of particles. A new order of organization jumps spontaneously into existence. Such a process illustrates an amazing correlation between a huge number of particles ". . .everything happens as i f each volume element was watching the behavior of its neighbors and was taking it into account, so as to play its own role adequately and to participate in the overall pattern." 1 7 0 Self-organization is the spontaneous emergence of new order out of chaos. As • Sardar and Abrams write, "the richness and diversity of interaction between a host of 1 6 8 D o l l , 1 9 9 3 : 5 5 . 1 6 9 T h e H e n r i B e r n a r d ' s e x p e r i m e n t d e s c r i b e d in C a p r a , 1996: 86. 1 7 0 P r i g o g i n e , c i t ed in K i r k , 1991 : 24 . 67 interdependent variables allow complex systems to self-organize. The process of self-organization happens spontaneously, as though by magic." 1 7 1 Sounds enchanting, doesn't it? The rule of self-organization is that the whole is more than the sum of its parts; therefore, we cannot sufficiently know the whole through reducing and dissecting it into the manageable units. Writes Ludwig von Bertalanffy: ... .isolation of ultimate particles and forces can never provide more than a partial explanation of any phenomenon, since —the whole is clearly more than the sum of parts....if two particles are put together in an "organized way", instead of the formula 1+1=2, we get 1+1<2, and...this is the basic equation in biology. Thus i f an electron and nucleus come together in an organized way, a hydrogen atom is born, which is more than an electron and nucleus. If atoms are built into a molecule, something new is born, which can no longer be described solely in terms of atoms. The same holds true when small molecules are built into macromolecules; macromolecules into organelles; organelles into cells, cells into organs, organs into individuals; and individuals into society or ecological associates. 1 7 2 Enchanted by phenomena of spontaneous self-organization, the Nobel Laureate chemist Illia Prigogine developed the theory of dissipative structures. 1 7 3 He noticed that a new order of self-organization emerges only when the system is open 1 7 4 and exists in a far from equilibrium state, where matter and energy flow as a boiling mountain river. The faster the river flows, the further the complex system shifts from the equilibrium. At a bifurcation point, the system reaches instability and spontaneously transforms itself into a new structure with increased complexity. This means, in a state far from equilibrium, ordered structures may not only comfortably exist, but may even evolve toward more 175 complex order. While exploring this phenomenon more deeply, Prigogine realized that 1 7 1 S a r d a r & A b r a m s , 1999: 83 . 1 7 2 L u d w i g v o n B e r t a l a n f f y c i t e d i n H e y n e m a n , 1993: 4 5 . 1 7 3 P r i g i o g i n e & Stengers , 1984. 1 7 4 In terms o f t h e r m o d y n a m i c s , a n i so la ted s y s t e m does not e x c h a n g e a n y t h i n g w i t h a n e n v i r o n m e n t ; a c l o s e d s y s t e m e x c h a n g e s energy , and an o p e n s y s t e m e x c h a n g e s matter a n d e n e r g y . 1 7 5 P r i g o g i n e & Stengers , 1984. 68 systems existing far from equilibrium must be described by nonlinear equations, which often offer multiple outcomes and unexpected results. One of the important properties of nonlinearity is self-reinforcing feedback loops. Coveney and Highfield offer a simple explanation of this phenomenon. 1 7 6 In the linear and predictable world, relationships between two qualities are directly proportional. As an example, when you are going to the store to buy oranges, you expect to pay ten times more for ten oranges then for a single orange, providing you studied mathematics in school. In the non-linear world, things are not as simple. Here you may go to the store and see the sign "Buy nine, get one free!" which means that you wi l l not pay ten times more for ten oranges. Without going into deep thinking about linear versus nonlinear relationships, you simply may decide to buy more oranges then anticipated in the first place. In this case, "a concomitant effect of this nonlinearity was feedback—the outcome I 77 of an effect goes on to trigger more change." For instance, when you bought more oranges, the delighted and inspired owner of the store decided to discount the price even more. Another lucky purchaser came and decided to buy all the oranges and to open a marmalade business. A small initial change: "Buy nine, get one free!" resulted in a chain of significant events. In the linear world, small changes produce small effects. In the nonlinear world, slight changes trigger dramatic effects that occur due to the amplifying power of self-reinforcing feedback loops. A single flap of a butterfly wing and... In the experiment with liquid placed between hot and cold plates, when the temperature gradient is insignificant, small fluctuations caused by molecular motion do 1 7 6 N o n l i n e a r i t y e x p l a i n e d b y C o v e n e y & H i g h f i e l d , 1995. 1 7 7 C o v e n e y & H i g h f i e l d , 1995 : 5 8 . 69 not produce any noticeable changes, since the system is near equilibrium. However, in the state far from equilibrium, the "butterfly effect" comes into play. Positive feedback loops amplify random chaotic fluctuations into the emergence of new, more complex honeycomb-like structures. When the temperature difference between two plates increases more dramatically, the system moves further and further from equilibrium until a new point of instability is reached. At this new bifurcation point, the honeycomb of structured cells self-organizes itself into spirals, the beautiful expressions of a new, higher level of complexity. Another striking example of the self-organization phenomenon is a chemical 178 c lock . " 0 It is a chemical reaction that produces spontaneous ordered oscillations under conditions far from equilibrium. For instance, in the case of the magical Belousov-Zhabotinski reaction, the initially homogenous mixture of malconic acid, potassium bromate, and cerium ions spontaneously and periodically changes its colour from red to blue and vice versa. When concentrations of reagents are even further from the equilibrium, beautiful waves and spirals as a new order of complexity emerge at the new bifurcation point. This transformation is amplified by positive feedback loops, known in chemistry as autocatalysis, and in mathematics as iteration. There is always an element of the unpredictable in the dynamic realm of bifurcation points. When reaching this point, the system "chooses" the chaotic attractor to be drawn to, deciding on what path to take among several possibilities. The choice cannot be exactly predicted, as it actualizes within the complex interplay of the history of the system, multiple histories of related systems, and environmental conditions. As 1 7 8 K a u f m a n , 1995. 1 7 9 P r i g o g i n e , 1996. 70 Stengers writes, complex systems are unstable and subject to the butterfly effect; this is why little deviations of initial conditions lead to dramatically different and often unexpected paths. Recognizing the inherent unpredictability of chaotic behavior enables us "to break a circle of sufficient reason, since it constituted the ideal of a complete 180 definition, which lets nothing escape." In The End of Certainty: Time, Chaos, and New Laws of Nature, Prigogine says that acceptance of unpredictability in science means acceptance of a new kind of knowledge that overcomes the prejudice of determinism and 181 leads us to novelty. One of the reasons for unpredictability is the previous history of the system. In the disenchanted universe of mechanistic science, physical systems did not have history since inanimate matter did not know the difference between the past, present, or future. In its deepest essence, the world of mechanistic science was time-symmetrical, with all processes being completely reversible. As Prigogine notes, even today for many scientists there is no arrow of time in nature. For them, time exists only within the human phenomenological realm. In the reversible physical world, however, nothing would ever evolve. Where "both future and past are interchangeable, there is no room for history, novelty, or creativity." 1 8 2 In a reversible world we would not have the chance to discuss the issues of reversibility since we simply would not exist. Writes Illia Prigogine: Science is a dialogue between mankind and nature, the results of which have been unpredictable. At the beginning of the twentieth century, who would have dreamed of unstable particles, an expanding universe, self-organization, and dissipative structures? But what makes this dialogue possible? A time-reversible world would also be an unknowable wor ld . 1 8 3 " S t e n g e r s , 1997: 28-29 . 1 P r i g o g i n e , 1996: 4 . 2 C a p r a , 1996: 184. 3 P r i g o g i n e , 1996: 153. 71 The difference between time-symmetry and time-irreversibility is the difference between static being and dynamic becoming. Becoming, states Prigogine, is the sine qua non of science and of knowledge itself. The second law of thermodynamics introduced irreversibility and therefore the process of becoming in nature, but when becoming is directed toward ultimate disorder, waste, and degradation, is it really becoming? The concept of becoming assumes evolution toward complexity and novelty. As Isabelle Stengers states, "the notion of complexity is close to that of emergence." Science of complexity reversed the direction of the arrow of time toward emergence versus destruction, elevating the process of self-organization into the universal natural law. D i d it then contradict the second law? In Prigogine's theory, there are no contradictions or violations. The total system-environment entropy increases in accordance with the universal law of entropy, but not uniformly. Complex structures "are islands of order in the sea of disorder, maintaining and even increasing their order at the 185 expense of greater disorder in their environment." These structures dissipate energy to maintain their existence at the edge of chaos. This is why they are called dissipative. Such structures can be understood as patterns or seeds of emergence within the totality of destruction. For their own convenience, the dissipative "islands" create a negative entropy, "negentropy." 1 8 6 This means that while existing in a state far from equilibrium, they "suck" the order from their surroundings. Y o u and I, by the way, are such complex dissipative islands, somehow managing to exist at the edge of chaos. Stengers , 1997 : 12. C a p r a , 1996: 189. T h e t e r m c o i n e d b y q u a n t u m p h y s i c i s t S h r o e d i n g e r . 72 Confession as a highly improbable open complex self-organizing dissipative system I confess that I have absolutely no clue how in the world I manage to maintain my highly ordered physical structure at the edge of chaos Reversing the arrow of time toward increasing complexity makes the destiny of Cosmos less depressing, since within the sadness of the maximal entropy, seeds and celebrations of new, more sophisticated worlds might be hidden. While emerging at some unimaginable bifurcation point, these new interesting worlds wi l l embrace previous universal history, and this very manuscript is a part of it. This means I do not write it for nothing, which is good news. I would not want my work to disappear without any trace in the mess and coldness of the universal waste. Reversing the arrow of time in a positive direction is re-enchantment from the mechanistic spell of meaninglessness. It gives a conceptual comfort, whereby I can perceive my work and my very being/becoming as related to universal self-organizing power. Interrelatedness is a fascinating aspect of the self-organization phenomenon. It reveals itself during the process of spontaneous emergence of complex and structured dissipative patterns. Such an event requires billions of particles to communicate. If particles were randomly moving mindless balls, how then could they act so collaboratively? How would they know how? As Prigogine notes, self-organization leads 73 to "coherence, to effects that encompass billions and billions of particles. Figuratively speaking, matter at equilibrium, with no arrow of time, is "blind", but with the arrow of time, it begins to "see". 1 8 7 The ability of inanimate matter to "see" sounds like re-enchantment to me. For so many years I taught science which portrayed matter as inherently passive and ultimately blind. Capra summarized the concept of self-organization as "the spontaneous emergence of new structures and new forms of behaviour in open systems far from equilibrium, characterized by internal feedback loops and described mathematically by 188 nonlinear equations." In the book Between Inner and Outer Space, John Barrow stresses the significance of exploring the phenomenon of self-organization. A study of how complex systems organize themselves is currently one of the greatest frontiers of scientific research. It promises to tell us new things about economic systems, ecological balances, weather systems, turbulent liquids, even the working of the human mind. Self-organization is everywhere, from the very small to the very large, from atoms organizing themselves into molecules, to galaxies gathering into clusters. It is happening through total interrelatedness of everything: "trees with climates, people with the environment, societies with each other. We no longer stand alone. Nothing does." 1 9 0 This new understanding is re-enchanting. Prigogine, 1996: 3 . Capra, 1996: 85. Barrow, 1999: 15. Sardar & Abrams, 1999: 84. Key-Encha^uA^ig/ VUvie^uyrw of the/ Sciences of Complicity We have only begun to invent science that will account for the evolving emergent order I see out of my window, from a spider weaving her web, to a coyote crafty on the ridge top, to my friends and me.191 (Stewart Kauffman) The science of complexity is still very young, but it already offers an astonishing "opportunity to stand back and consider the global interactions of fundamental units— atoms, elementary particles, genes—to create a synthesis that crosses the border of scientific disciplines, to see a grand vision of nature." 1 9 2 This new grand vision re-enchants the world. Indeed, the realization that our reality is irreducibly complex, self-organizing, often unpredictable, and intricately interrelated is re-enchantment. Retrieved from an abstract mechanistic spell of simplicity, determinism, and reductionism, the real world of oceans, ecosystems, exploding stars, swirling galaxies, human brains, bacteria, economies, and atoms gradually emerges today as a beautiful butterfly. It emerges along with all its pulsations, nonlinearity, messiness, fuzziness, turbulence, irregularity, novelty, surprise, adaptation, multiple choices, instability, nonpredictability, irreversibility, and creativity. This world until now "slipped through the meshes of the 193 scientific method." This new vision re-enchants the human approach to Nature from "domination and control" to "respect, cooperation, and dialogue." 1 9 4 Science of complexity develops 1 9 1 K a u f f m a n , 1995: 304 . 1 9 2 B a r r o w , 1999 : x x i i . 1 9 3 A l f r e d N o r t h W h i t e h e a d , c i t ed in P r i g o g i n e , 1996: 189. 1 9 4 C a p r a , 1996: 193. 75 "systemic thinking," 1 9 5 the increasing awareness of the total interconnectedness of all systems in the world. This awareness brings forth questions of moral responsibility for actions and of the price to be paid for simplistic and abusive treatment of Nature. Thinking about the risks of human-made chaotic complexities and about the consequences of creating new, polluting and destroying "butterflies" is definitely re-enchantment. Swinging away from the mechanistic world, the pendulum of our vision of reality enters the edge of chaos, the magic land of the possible and the unexpected, the twilight zone of interplay between flux and permanence, randomness and structure, "chance and necessity," "fluctuations and deterministic laws," "stillness and motion," "time arrested and time passing," "being and becoming." 1 9 6 Departing from the static and unchangeable reality toward the dynamic realm of the edge of chaos is re-enchantment because it introduces creativity as an inherent quality of Nature. Writes Prigogine: We are observing the birth of a science that is no longer limited to idealized and simplified situations but reflects the complexity of the real world, a science that views us and our creativity as part of a fundamental trend present at all levels of Nature. 1 9 7 A n understanding of "human creativity and innovation as the amplification of laws of nature already present in physics and chemistry" 1 9 8 bridges nature and culture, providing conceptual tools "to respect the activity of physicists without having to believe that it is neutral, that is to say, divested of passion, subjected to reality that would be capable of dictating the manner in which it must be unraveled." 1 9 9 T h e s e are expre s s ions o f P r i g o g i n e a n d Stangers f r o m their b o o k Order out of Chaos, 1984. P r i g o g i n e , 1996 : 7. P r i g o g i n e , 1996: 7 1 . S tengers , 1997: 2 9 . 76 Discovering irreversibility, instability, turbulence, risks, bifurcations, and creativity within the very processes of births or deaths of galaxies and stars is re-enchantment because "it is this instability of trajectories, these bifurcations together with the bifurcations and creative risks in our lives, that are today a source of inspiration to At this note, while drawing inspiration from a newborn blue star and recognizing that my own creativity is a part of the universal creativity, I w i l l imagine into existence elements of science education that take steps into re-enchanting dimensions of the science of complexity. in a dramatic moment when the unimagined is imagined a sudden breath of possibility stops us mid-step we breath-dance unexpected journey-landscapes into being and in the space-moment of dance recognize absence embodied in our choreography-geography on the edge of chaos 701 and are momentarily awed. In the meantime, I wi l l make myself a cup of coffee and look around, admiring all complexities of life... Stengers & P r i g o g i n e , The Reencantment of the World, in Stengers , 1997: 15. 1 F e l s , 1999 : 32 . 77 The/Story ofthe/Self-Orga^u^ed/Le^rion/: The/ World/ Through/ a/ Red/ filter A soap opera "Days of the Physical Science in Elementary Schools Course" There was darkness suddenly interrupted with flashes of light. There was silence, suddenly exploded with loud music. The enchanted kingdom of colours, lights, shadows, rainbows, and sounds welcomes you. This intriguing "hook for attention " began the lesson prepared by the teaching team of five. The purpose of this lesson was an overview of light and sound energy. A humorous "homemade " video connected the topic of the lesson with the complexities of everyday life. Various hands-on experiments were interwoven with arts. The closing activity was "It's A Secret" that integrated math, colouring with crayons, science, and...mystery. The assignment was to solve equations written within several patterns of an intricately shaped figure. The colour of the pattern depended on the answer. For instance, if the solution was "one", the colour would be blue; the answer "two " corresponded to the green pattern and so on. Different solutions to the equations brought about red, orange, purple, blue, pink, and green colours. At the end of the activity, everyone had a patterned figure as colourful as a rainbow. Then a presenting team invited the class to look at the figures through a red filter. Interesting! Green, • purple, and blue patterns looked dark. The rest of the patterns magically disappeared. During the discussion regarding science behind this phenomenon, Tamy suddenly exclaimed: "Hey, the way we see the world depends on how we look at it! All around looks differently through the red filter. " Oh, yes, indeed, through the red filter we see a 7 8 different world. Responding to Tamy's thought, I invited the class to explore things in the room and outside through the red filter. The lesson self-organized itself in an unexpected direction: the way we see the world depends on, how we look at it. I did not plan this discussion at all. It just happened. Suddenly popped out of the blue. However, I became attracted to this idea and decided to extend our discussion further. If you look through the window of your house, what do you see? You probably see other houses, pedestrians and cars ever hurrying and rushing; you see green trees, colorful flowers, and many other familiar things. Now imagine yourself looking at the same world through the window of an airplane. You will see everything differently. From the sky, houses look like match boxes, people like tiny bugs, cars like little toys, and trees as a uniform green lawn. If you lived on an airplane forever, you would think this is how the world actually looked. Now imagine yourself looking through a window made of a magnifying glass. A previously invisible world of innocent little bugs would become a land of huge, scary monsters. The way we make sense of the world depends upon our worldview that is a "filter" or "window" through which we look at the world. Looking though the disenchanting filter of mechanistic science, we see the static, simple, cold, emotionless, fragmented collection of universal natural laws, blind forces, mindless particles, and different forms of energy. Through the re-enchanting filter of science of complexity, the world is dynamic, interconnected, self-organizing, ever-emerging, and creative system. Writes Dol l : The complex movement of the planets, which Ptolemy posited and Nicholaus Copernicus simplified by placing the sun, not the earth, 79 at "the center," was mechanistic. It is still portrayed that way in school classrooms throughout the country, with their gear and pulley models of the solar system. This leaves out, or bypasses, the issue of the universe as a pulsating, creating, dynamic system.2 2 The flush of meaning, born suddenly within me: "This is how I should begin this course next year. Through the activity, "It's a secret, " I will invite my students to discuss different "filters " or worldviews. What a powerful hands-on way to introduce the concept of re-enchantment and to discuss a worldview afforded by new scientific insights. Later, looking though the reflective journals of my students, prospective teachers, I realized that I was not the only one who found this activity useful. From Dan's reflective journal: The "It's a Secret" activity (experiment) really captured the spirit of enchanted science, and it integrated mathematics as well. The visual puzzle presented science as a mystery (to be solved). This kind of magical quality of science is often lost in the traditional and dogmatic science. This activity is one that I would use. To teach science not as a mechanical tool for mastering the world, but as a mystery to be solved.. .what could be more re-enchanting and more attract/or/ive? The/ Chtuytix>AtAy-cLct/orfuve^oe^ If postmodern pedagogy is to emerge, I predict it will center around the concept of self-organization}02 (William Doll) One speaks of complexity with respect to "strange," "chaotic," or "fractal" attractors, writes Isabelle Stengers. 2 0 4 We can perhaps think about attractors as doors leading the system from a chaotic state to the new higher order. Two main characteristics Doll, 1993: 64. Doll, 1993: 163. Stengers, 1997: 7. 80 of attractors produce complex behavior. First, they are very sensitive to initial conditions. Imagine that the world you see behind the door changes depending on the slightest difference in how you step over the threshold or open the door. Second, as fractal objects, attractors have many dimensions, containing infinity of possibilities confined to a finite region. The system endlessly traces the same pattern within many dimensions, and in doing this, unifies order and randomness. Just as real butterflies like to fly from flower tp flower, chaotic butterflies like to fly nonlinearily in the lands far from equilibrium, from one chaotic attractor to another, towards ever-increasing variety and complexity, via the process of self-organization. Butterfly, butterfly, oh where/ are/you/ butterfly fluttering- through/ the/ w ind/? Multiple contributors to the book Learning as Self-Organization, edited by Kar l Pribram and Joseph King , stated that the very nature of learning is the process of self-organization. 2 0 5 As the flight of a chaotic butterfly goes from one pattern of organization to another, learning occurs within dynamics of a never-ending journey, from one newborn meaning to another. Learning as a non-linear flight of a chaotic butterfly seems to be a reasonable metaphorical definition to me. It reconciles fluidity of information and experiences with ever-evolving and ever-emerging structured patterns of knowing. According to the science of complexity, self-organizing processes are deeply embedded in nature. If so, nonlinear self-organization appears to provide a more natural basis for learning than artificial linear determinism. Recently, various researchers attempted to conceptualize the dynamic and nonlinear nature of learning and teaching on the basis of Pribram &King, 1996. 81 theory complexity, advocating a self-organizing curriculum and pedagogy. Self-organization is related to: dancing at the edge of chaos perturbation strange fractal chaotic attractors adaptation sensitivity to slight changes ambiguity nonlinearity irreversibility spontaneous emergence ultimate interconnectedness the whole more than the sum of parts transformation open endedness As Coveney & Highfield suggest, associative memories provide illustration of self-organizing processes. "Using the language of attractors, such associative memories occur when the basin of attraction for a piece of music is shared with one linked with a lover, perhaps caused by recollections of a passionate embrace enjoyed on the dance floor. The attracting memory state contains a representation of both song and lover ." 2 0 7 M y thinking about self-organization in education attracted certain memories, which self-organized themselves into a vivid picture... A soap opera "Days of the Physical Science in an Elementary Schools Course" / am in the classroom. It is the last day and actually, the very last moment of the course. I just wished my student teachers all the best and now I am watching them leave the class in silence and disappointment, without even the usual polite "thank you" or "good-bye ". It was three years ago, but even today I cannot help but feel a tremendous C h e r k e s - J u l k o w s k i , 1996 ; D o l l , 1993 ; D a v i s & S u m a r a , 1997; J a n n o n e , 1995 ; R e a , 1 9 9 7 ; R e a & A m b r o s e , 1999 ; F e l s , 1999 . C o v e n e y & H i g h f i e l d , 1995 : 167. 82 guilt and pain. Unfortunately, within the self-organizing progression, my course ended up in a genuinely random state. A new, higher order did not emerge out of this chaos. This is the trick, write Rea and Ambrose. Applying the theory of complexity to the classroom system you have to be able to create a "responsively complex system" that balances and evolves at the edge of chaos, in the space between "permissively chaotic" O A S and "strictly ordered" systems. The challenge is to dance on the illusive rope, without shifting into extremes. The continuum: chaos, the edge of chaos (complexity), and order can be compared to gaseous, liquid, and solid states of matter, respectively. According to Rea and Ambrose, knowledge from the perspective of complexity is perceived as creative fluidity of understanding versus chaotic spontaneous interest or ordered accumulation of facts and skills. Complex curriculum is co-planned, interdisciplinary, multidimensional versus chaotic, unplanned or versus ordered, preplanned. Motivation is achieved through "serious fun" versus chaotic fun and games or versus ordered serious work. Management style is participatory versus chaotic permissive and ordered authoritarian. 2 0 9 Davis and Sumara believe that the self-organizing teaching style is "neither totally teacher nor student-oriented but rather is an interactive style that encourages students to converse with each other and the teacher. The traditional distinctions between teachers and students, different disciplines, classrooms and community are blurred and f l u i d . " 2 1 0 Stadler, Vetter, Haynes, and Kruse propose that self-organizing curriculum and pedagogy 2 0 8 Rea & Ambrose, 1999: 1. 2 0 9 Ibid: 10. 2 1 0 Cited in Rea & Ambrose, 1999. 83 should allow students to learn nonlinearly and to find their own self-organizing rhythms. 2 1 1 I thought I understood this all and when designing and instructing my course "Physical Science in Elementary Schools," I celebrated self-organization. But...after the first year of my teaching this course, I was watching my students leave in disappointment and I knew what was wrong. A l l my good intentions to create a self-organizing and therefore dynamic, creative, interactive, open-ended, fluid, nonlinear, and cross-disciplinary course never self-organized themselves into a higher order. The chaotic butterfly never emerged from the randomness. "The chaotic classroom tends to be out of control," write Rea and Ambrose . 2 1 2 That is exactly what happened. In their anonymous evaluations, students commented that the course was too confusing, too strange, and too disorganized. It embraced too much "other s tuf f and too little "real science." They invited me to come down to earth. They advised me to read the IRP and to follow it closely. They could not afford to be "fancy." They needed to survive in the harsh surroundings of a real school. They needed to adjust to the existing instead of thinking about the possible... CONFUSION we/ are/ choosing- and/ we/ are/ chosen but it is not always in/ harmony and/ ifnot, the/ entire/ world/ looses-its-harmonious image/ black/ seems to- be/ white/ white/ seems to- be/ black/ allcomplicated/things-seem; so-simple/ and all simple/ things-2 1 1 S t a d l e r , V e t t e r , H a y n e s & K r u s e , 1996. 2 1 2 R e a & A m b r o s e , 1 9 9 9 : 4 . 84 are/ impossibly complicated/ the/beauty around/me* iy unbearably unattractive/ the/order of things iy absolutely chaotic/ and/I am/so-very cold/ und^the/hot sun of summer213 As an illustration of nonlinearity in the process of thinking, this forgotten poem that I wrote several years ago suddenly popped up. This poem does not seem to have educational relevance; however, confusion can be understood as something that pushes a system (me!) out of equilibrium. Such a state, recalling the theory of dissipative structures, is the necessary condition for self-organization. In this light, confusion, perturbation, disturbance are an essential part of the self-organizing process. Writes Dol l : One requirement is perturbation. A system self-organizes only when there is a perturbation, problem, or disturbance—when the system is unsettled and needs to resettle, to continue functioning. A s Piaget says the unsettlement (disequilibrium) "provides the driving force." However, as we well know from lived experience, not every perturbation leads to the sort of chaos that takes us not to a new or more complex level of order but to an abyss of destruction. The history of our present century has shown us the real potential of this possibil i ty. 2 1 4 "Under what conditions then does perturbation become a positive factor in the self-organization process?" As Dol l notes, there is little literature related to this issue and there is nothing in the educational field. He speculates that multiple perspectives and an atmosphere of exploration are a must in order for perturbation to have a positive effect. "Perturbation wi l l trigger self-organization only when the environment is rich enough and open enough to multiple uses, interpretations, and perspectives to come into p lay ." 2 1 5 2 l 3 Laroche, 1997. 2 1 4 Doll, 1993: 164. 2 1 5 Ibid: 164. 85 Under what conditions does confusion and perturbation become a positive rather than a destructive factor? M y own thoughts in regard to this issue self-organized themselves around strange chaotic attractors. I believe that my poor success during the first year of teaching the science education course resulted from an undeveloped, undefined, malfunctioning, and "unattractive" chaotic attractor. Perturbation in the form of my invitation to re-enchant our thinking about ourselves, the world, and teaching science did not lead to the desirable transformation. The course was cross-disciplinary and multidimensional in its approaches to teaching science, but unfortunately it never became more than the sum of bits and pieces of ideas. In the light of this understanding, the self-organizing curriculum and pedagogy has to be attract/or/ive; otherwise, self-organization simply wi l l not occur. In the mechanistic, ordered classroom, there were point attractors in the form of rigid plans and prescribed outcomes. It is expected that students will! Life is easier when the certainty of point attractors protects you. Strange chaotic attractors however, have multiple dimensions and are subject to influences of the butterfly effect, and as such, to small perturbations. The trick is to invent an attractor that would be strange enough to attract students, but not so strange it turns them away. Curriculum, pedagogy, and the teacher need to become chaotic attractors that evoke transformation toward a new higher order of complexity. For this purpose, it is important to create a chaotic butterfly, a pattern that allows the course to have a freedom of expression but yet to be bounded by an overall attract/or/ive idea. During 2 n d and 3 r d years of teaching the same science education course, I attempted to create such a chaotic butterfly. 86 Anonymous evaluations of the course from these two years indicated that the chaotic butterfly is not born yet, but a hint of its silhouette is gradually emerging from the midst of playful chaos. I hope the higher order of my understanding wi l l eventually emerge as I approach the bifurcation point through the amplifying feedback loops of my readings, research, conversations, teaching and living experiences, thinking, dreaming, reflecting, and imagining. ... Your re-enchanted approach to physical science has inspired my teaching. The interdisciplinary connections to our emotional connections plus experiences in the physical world make "science" something real. Thank you for helping me to learn to see, appreciate, understand, and feel able to incorporate this approach into my teaching. ...I found all of the "enchantment " of the course very interesting plus exciting (such as outside walks, the poems/stories, drama, etc.) I will definitely incorporate these "enchanting" ideas into my teaching—thank you for this great new ways of teaching plus learning science. ...I really enjoyed the different approach to teaching—enchanting! ...I enjoyed your class much, especially close to the end. I sometimes felt frustrated because directions of lessons were unclear. Try introducing concepts plus ideas plus explaining the purpose of activities at the beginning. This will help your students understand where you are going. Your knowledge of science is so competent. Don't be so nervous! ...Great approaches to teaching science. Need some transitions from standard science to (re) enchanted science. ... Very enthusiastic! The multi-media and enchanted aspect was wonderful. However, to change science education we must bridge tradition and enchantment. ...I have enjoyed this class. The instructor presents science in an unorthodox plus exciting manner, which stresses student participation. I would have preferred more concrete examples/step by step. ... The reason I chose this specialty was to increase my confidence. Science plus math specifically scared me—including my own practicum. Now, honestly, I am looking forward to teaching science, and can't wait to explain to a principal why. I love it, when in interview I can talk, talk, talk, about a favorite lesson or unit plan. Now, I can do it about science. It is accessible to me. 8 7 ...Made me look at science in a completely different way. Covered a lot of material and clarified many things for me. Gave me confidence in being creative and how easy it could be. ... Your knowledge of science is obviously very thorough. I will use a lot of your experiments. I will use some of enchantment techniques in the classroom, but not to the extent that you use it. I find some of the enchantment is merely a good "hook" to start a lesson or unit. It was a little too much of one style for me. ....Very interesting course. Needs to be a little more organized. Field trips around campus were great. Many interesting ideas and concepts presented. Evaluation criteria should be more clearly set. ... The course was very student-centered and we were given many opportunities to decide how the course should be organized. ...Overall this class was well-worth taking. A suggestion, though: organize the class more—it will help you a lot too. Your ideas are great! Good luck! ...I would suggest a bit more structure ...The basic concept of this course show that it has great potential, however, it must be more organized. .. .Please have a more organized course next time and let the students know what is expected from them at the beginning of the course....Next time do not allow students to instruct the course., they were too confusing. Link all subject matter to the IRP as that is what is useful for us. You need to communicate your expectations more clearly. ... What an adventure this course was. It was a science course that brought out the artists in us. I think I leave it more curious than I began. ...Very insight into the different complexities of science! I was tuned in plus interested with all the technology and interpersonal aspects provided which gives me more motivation and enthusiasm for teaching it. A h h . . .all these messages could look more or less like a happy ending, i f one neglected a "little" detail that nearly one-third of my students simply remained silent. Also , in the middle of my 3 r d year of teaching the course, the majority of the class did not support my nomination for the teaching prize. As the course approached the end, the situation improved dramatically, but...there is definitely something to think about. 88 From the anonymous course evaluation: Lyubov, I just wanted to say that I think you do a great job and you put a lot of effort. I really do appreciate it, and I do think you are a great teacher. Honestly, though, I did not sign my name for that teaching award thing. Maybe, I should have. It's just you had things in your course that seems too "spiritual". Being part of the cosmos.. .1 don't know if you know this term, but it seemed quite "new age"--like. I did feel very uncomfortable. I did not want to encourage those things being taught to kids. If you take out the "spiritual" stuff, this enchanted science idea is great. I wonder, how much "spiritual" is not too spiritual? M y course became a "strange" chaotic attractor for some, but not for everyone, and even those who were attracted and transformed, repeatedly and consistently suggested more organization and more step-by-step directions. Balancing at the edge of chaos is a tricky and risky task! That is why the nature of chaotic attractors is a vitally important for the self-organizing processes in education. If the metaphor for complex education is "creative fluidity," there has to be something that attracts the flow; otherwise, the liquid w i l l simply spread around. Following a fractal arrangement of motifs within motifs within motifs within motifs, the attractor of the course needs to be comprised of mini-attractors within the moment-by-moment, routine class experiences. The lesson with the red filter unexpectedly created a mini-attractor reflecting the overall idea of the course: looking at science and at the world through a new "filter." The plannied and the unexpected touched each other under the wing of a chaotic butterfly. The self-organizing progression of the "red filter" lesson started with the big idea or chaotic attractor of the course, which was re-enchantment of science education. The smaller attractor was the assignment for the teaching team to prepare the presentation on light and sound energy. Presenters were bounded by finite requirements: the particular 89 topic of the lesson, linking this topic to complexities of everyday life, a cross-disciplinary approach, integrating science and art, and creating a fun but yet productive and disciplined learning environment. Within these boundaries, student teachers had complete freedom for self-expression. The lesson self-organized itself into a truly attract/or/ive one. It would perhaps end at this level of complexity i f Tamy had not commented on seeing the world differently through the red filter. Her comment caused perturbation and instability. The new idea became a new dimension within the main attractor of the course. Thinking of the attract/or/iveness of a self-organizing curriculum and pedagogy, I remembered that the dictionary defined enchantment as an irresistible attraction to something. This means... the very nature of attractors is enchantment! The strange chaotic attractors like the songs of the Sirens, irresistibly attract the system into a new, more sophisticated order. Self-organization is a symbol of progress and evolution. However, we need to think carefully what attractors we chose to follow. Those who design curricula and practice pedagogy, writes Do l l , need to question the faith " in a metaphysical reality that has separated us from a commitment for ourselves as humans, occupying a planet we did not create and do not yet understand." According to D o l l , the theory of chaos and complexity provides a conceptual framework for creating a process oriented, transformative, open systems 2 1 7 curriculum, one that embraces the concept of "interconnectedness" and "emergence." It should be based "on an interactive rather than 2 1 6 D o l l , 1993 : 156. 2 1 7 1 d e s c r i b e d o p e n sys tems in the footnote o n the p. 67 . 90 spectator pedagogy and epistemology" and on an ecological, systemic, interrelated 218 worldview. They came in the middle of the night. People dressed in black leather coats. They told my father to pack his things and they took him away. No one could find him since. He simply disappeared from the face of the earth... M y mother told me this story about the grandfather I never met.. .It was the time of Stalin when people vanished without guilt and without trace.. .The totalitarian political system was highly organized and the so-called communist ideology was a very, very "strange" attractor. The attract/or/ive curriculum and pedagogy must be selective with what attractors to be enchanted. This thought returns us to the question: how much "spiritual" is not too spiritual? I shall discuss the spiritual issues when taking the step into radical re-enchantment. At this point, however, let us focus on thinking how and i f it is possible to teach the science of complexity at an elementary level. In other words, how much of the complex is not too complex? Doll, 1993: 170. 91 ScCerice'ofCompl&iUty Ow Elementary Schooly? What can poor mortals say about clouds? While people describe them, they vanish.219 (John Muir) If you drink a soup Monday, it will rain on your wedding day.220 (An example of a butterfly effect suggested by a third-grader) A soap opera "Days of the Physical Science in Elementary Schools Course" "...then we asked them to imagine clouds and to describe them, " continued Holly, reflecting on her team's field teaching assignment in the elementary school. "One little boy literally choked me. During the whole lesson he was unnoticeable, quiet, and insecure. This imagery exercise completely transformed him. He described changing shapes of the clouds so vividly and so poetically. I simply could not believe something like that came from the third-grader. " The topic of the teams' lesson was weather. If you limit your lesson to hands-on activities, you will have a conventional science lesson. Teaching re-enchanted science requires a flight of fantasy. Connecting the topic of the science lesson with weather folklore and imagery exercises was a definitely re-enchanting idea: "Lightning never strikes in the same place twice. " Is it true or false? "A ring around the sun or moon, brings rain or snow upon you soon. " Have you ever noticed that? "Red sky at night, sailors delight, red sky in morning, sailors take warning. " This saying is taken from the Bible. The sky becomes red at sunrise and sunset when sunrays shine through high cirrus clouds. Cirrus clouds are an indicator of the approach of a warm front. Since most of our weather moves from west to east, cirrus 2 1 9 J o h n M u i r , c i t ed in D i l l a r d , 1999: 63 . 2 2 0 F r o m the t e a c h i n g t eam' s f i e ld l e s son in the e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l . 92 clouds in the west are the first sign of an oncoming warm front— probably arriving in 24 to 36 hours. Why just probably, but not for certain? Because the weather is never completely predictable! Too many different conditions influence it. A butterfly effect! A butterfly effect through the eyes of third-graders: RcUrvivv^ cwudpouriA^fy ity' wuyyt IChely ter be/ boring... Ifyovobcdarice/cvypocnv, there/wMsb&c^typhxyovu.. If dogy cere/ drooling- ity cv clear devy in/the* mxyrntnty...221 Observing or imagining running clouds and then describing their intricate, ever changing shapes; connecting human complex endeavors with natural complexities through folklore; emphasizing the inherent unpredictability of weather; and even discussing a butterfly effect— this lesson seemed to be in touch with the very essence of the science of complexity. Was it too complex for elementary kids? There are infinite dimensions for research within a fractal chaotic attractor of questions: When and how can we start to introduce the concepts of complexity? At what level and through what scientific activities could young children grasp this phenomenon? In the meantime, take your class to the river or creek and observe whirlpools and vortices spontaneously emerging and disappearing in the running water. A l l o w the students to admire (scientifically) the intricate beauty of a butterfly, the complex shape of a snowflake, or the amazing interconnectedness of ecosystems and social systems. Demonstrate the chemical clock as an example of the spontaneous emergence of order or conduct an experiment with a layer of water between hot and cold plates. 1 C o u r t e s y o f the t e a c h i n g t e a m f r o m m y s c i e n c e e d u c a t i o n cour se . 93 Kauffman describes sand piles as an example of self-organizing systems: an avalanche on the pile of sand provides a paradigm for how complexity can emerge. Take the class to the beach or playground and let children to play with sand piles. When a sand pile grows, its slope becomes steeper. When it reaches the so-called critical threshold, or far-from-equilibrium state, adding more sand causes surface grains to slide off, leaving the slope unchanged. Regardless of whether the pile starts out too steep or too shallow, it always ends up at this critical state, where sand piles self-organize themselves into a certain structure. Even traditional experiments, such as growing crystals or watching something rust, can speak on behalf of complexity. Rust is more than just combined oxygen and iron; it has new qualities, different from initial reagents. In chemical reactions, the products are more than the sum of reagents. This is also true for human societies, as well as for the dynamic, evolving, violent universe as a whole. Tel l your students an emerging universal story written by the new science of complexity. I envision a complex science curriculum as a slime mold, which is a favorite Prigogine's example of self-organization. The slime mold is something between a collection of single cells and an organism. When there is enough food, separated cells act as solitary wanderers, completely ignoring each other. However, when food disappears, the state far-from-equilibrium is reached. Under stressful circumstances, cells "notice" each other and organize themselves into a single organism, a multi-celled "slug," with a head and a tail. Just as a slime mold self-assembles from separate cells into a whole organism, complex science curriculum self-organizes itself through interacting with other subjects. 2 2 2 Kaufman, 1995. 94 Since the science of complexity reveals the interconnectedness of all systems and variables, the science curriculum consequently must be cross-disciplinary, diverse, and extend into the communities and natural world. In this light, field trips, museums, community and ecological projects, and other informal activities have great value for the self-organizing science curriculum. 2 2 3 Writes Isabelle Stengers: This is a lesson of wisdom that is important to underscore. Today, the so-called exact sciences need to get out of the laboratories where they have little by little learned the need to resist the fascination of a quest for the general truth of nature. They now know that idealized situations wi l l not give them a universal key; therefore, they must finally become again "sciences of nature," confronted by manifold richness that they have so 224 long given themselves the right to forget. Y o u can extend the walls of your classroom by getting out into the world or by bringing the world into the classroom through the dramatic play. Imagine you are visiting a harbour... The moment, like a harbour at low tide, sea-smells or curricular opportunities for exploration. Why has the local fish processing plant has been closed? What happened to the vanished schools of cod? What life lives beneath the sea? How do barnacles, seaweed, mussels attach to the foreign presence of human construction? What impact does human construction have on the ecology and economies of a bay? What new animal surfaces in the rebirthing of technology and biology? Within whose science, economics, employment, environment, context, experience does this moment happen? 2 2 "Stop," invites Lynn Fels: "...understand that curriculum does not and cannot exist apart of the wor ld . " 2 2 6 Become. Look at the world through the re-enchanting filter F r o m m y c o n s u l t i n g pro jec t w i t h B C S c i e n c e C o u n c i l , I r e a l i z e d that i n c r e a s i n g attention is p a i d w o r l d w i d e to i n f o r m a l sources o f s c i e n c e l e a r n i n g s ince they p r o v i d e c o n n e c t i o n s w i t h the real w o r l d . (In L a r o c h e , 2 0 0 0 b ) . 2 2 4 S tengers , 1 9 9 7 : 4 6 . 2 2 5 F e l s , 1999: 155. 2 2 6 I b i d : 160. 95 of complexity! Admire unpredictability, interconnectedness, dynamism, self-organization, and the novelty in Nature. Be fascinated with her ability to dance at the edge of chaos and remember that human creativity is an extension of Nature's creativity. Do we dance curriculum into 2.2.7 being on the edge of chaos? The edge of chaos is the illusive ground where the expected and the unpredictable meet. Acceptance of the unpredictable as an inherent quality in the world provides a conceptual comfort for recognizing a "vague" narrative way of knowing as the 228 scientific. In the light of this understanding, the new science curriculum is not only about exploring the world, but also about a dialogue with it. Says Illia Prigogine: I have always considered science to be a dialogue with nature. As in real dialogue, the answers are often unexpected—and sometimes astonishing. 2 2 9 Only through dialogue can science education emerge as open-ended, relevant, contextual, interesting, and as such, re-enchanted. Only within a dialogue is it possible to grasp the concept of complexity. Only dialogue can make self-organizing science curriculum and pedagogy attract/or/ive, and as such, transformative for students. I just finished a consulting project for the Science Council of British Columbia, where I analyzed a large body of the most recent literature related to students' attitudes toward science. 2 3 0 The literature pointed out that science continues to be one of the least liked school subjects and that children's interest in science declines over the school years, 2 2 7 Ibid: 160. 2 2 8 Doll, 1993. 2 2 9 Prigogine, 1997: 57. 2 3 0 Laroche, 2000 (b). 96 starting from the elementary level. There is a definite indication that students are disenchanted with unattractive point attractors of mechanistic school science. This means, there is a need for re-enchanting dialogue, and the science of complexity provides a framework for that. In my opinion, though, the science of complexity is rather a modest re-enchantment. Why do I think so? listens, if someone* lights up the* stars, this means, someone* needs it!231 The/ XVeaknete' of Complex/ Syite^nCo Ke^-Encha^mervt in the classroom-complex system the teacher-complex system teaches children-complex systems about complex systems "The child as a self-organizing system: The case against instruction as we know it."232 This is the title of the recent article on educational applications of complexity. It is like a gift for me because it illustrates perfectly my statement regarding the weakness of complexity's re-enchanting power. Under mechanistic education the child is a unit, an "it", an object for manipulation. Under the "complex" education, the child is a self-organizing dissipative system... I wish to express my solidarity with the poet from the fi lm Mindwalk who became tired of perceiving himself as a system. 2 3 3 1 am not flattered myself to be referred to as a system, even i f I am a chaotic, complex, dissipative, interconnected, self-regulating, and self-organizing one. I see a resemblance between mechanistic objects and complex 2 3 1 F r o m the r e m e m b e r e d p o e m o f V l a d i m i r M a y a k o v s k y , a R u s s i a n poet . 2 3 2 C h e r k e s - J u l k o w s k i , 1996. 2 3 3 M i n d w a l k , the v i d e o p r o d u c e d b y F r i t j o f C a p r a . 97 systems because there is something mechanistic in the word system. For me, systems can be open or isolated, adiabatic or isothermal, simple or complex, but in no way can I imagine feeling systems, crying systems, laughing systems... In other words, systems and life do not seem to make a comfortable match. I cannot imagine the system that is "I", or "we", or "she", or "he". The system is "it". Together, chaos and complexity theories are often referred to as dynamical systems theory. As Capra writes, this theory promotes interconnecting systemic, versus fragmenting mechanistic thinking."" This switch is quite significant for the development of our new ecologically centered relationships with the world. However, I agree with Ken Wilber who understands systemic thinking as a subtle mechanicism, a flatland of interwoven "its": . . . .a system theory, that included nothing but "its", nothing but objective processes scurrying through information loops, or gravity acting at a distance on objects, or chemical interactions of atomic events, or objective systems interacting with other objective systems, or cybernetic feedback loops, or digital bits running through neuronal circuits. Nowhere in systems theory (or flatland holism) could you find anything resembling beauty, poetry, value, desire, love, honor, compassion, charity, God or Goddess, Eros or Agape, moral wisdom, or artistic expression. In other words, all you found was a holistic system of interwoven i t s . 2 3 5 In fairness, chaos and complexity reanimated creativity in Nature, but the "complex" creativity has a somewhat mechanical taste. This creativity springs from the mechanistic feedback loops that occasionally go awry, pushing the system to jump toward a different chaotic attractor and therefore toward novelty. From the perspective of complexity, there is neither purpose nor pleasure for Nature to create anything; only mindless countless feedback loops. Sounds disenchanting, doesn't it? 2 3 4 Capra, 1996. 2 3 5 Wilber, 1998. 98 Even the most amazing property of complexity such as self-organization that results from simultaneous coordinated collaborative behaviour of huge number of particles is understood quite mechanically: "...there is no mystery to it, this complex behaviour can be modeled in the heart of a computer, using nonlinear equations of fluid dynamic."" No mystery? Is it really? Let me ask then: How do particles manage to be interconnected? How do they know how to communicate? Who taught them nonlinear equations of fluid dynamic? Another question: What if a child is not a system, but the World? With these questions in mind, we wi l l take next step into a deeper re-enchantment of the holonomic paradigm. Coveney & Highfield, 1995: 156. 99 CIRCLET 2 A HOLONOMIC PARADIGM AS A STEP INTO DEEPER KE-ENCHANTMENT Oh, w&re> louty sriOM)lfUike<y. Oh, we*'ye* the* treses...237 How Do-they Know? Writes Laszlo: Given the ordered complexity that meets our eye, the reasonable assumption is that, somehow, preferential interconnections must exist in nature. If so, there must be some factors in the universe that interconnect (and therewith nondeterministically correlates) the evolving systems. Finding this factor is not a simple matter. 2 3 8 In our previous nonlinear chaotic step into re-enchantment, we left the world as an ever becoming, creative, adaptive, and self-organizing complex system comprised of self-organizing complex systems all the way down. The magical process of self-organization is understood by the science of complexity in terms of open systems, random fluctuations, nonlinearity, and multiple feedback loops. Computer simulations indicated that the order-generating process occurred spontaneously i f the system was interconnected throughout its totality. It appears that all components of the self-organizing system have ability to correlate and communicate with each other. The question is, How do they know how? Applying this question to universal evolution, Laszlo suggests that it would not occur in a fragmented and random manner. As a necessary condition of evolution, along with the diversifying process or divergence in spacetime, there has to be a unifying process or convergence within a higher-order system. "Without the latter property the universe would be populated with nothing more interesting than an array of chaotically 2 3 8 Laszlo, 1995:4. 101 varied and mutually uncoordinated particles, randomly colliding in hydrogen and helium gases." 2 3 9 The interconnected world of complexity left us to wonder.. .What is this crazy glue that interconnects? What is this amazing realm that orchestrates universal processes into coherence and correlation? The total interconnectedness in space and time would not be possible i f all universal information was not preserved and stored somewhere and somehow. Imagine the grandiose capacity this storage utility must have! Laszlo writes that gravitational, electromagnetic, and strong and weak nuclear fields cannot account for the total universal interconnectedness. That is why there is the possibility that an unknown "fifth universal field" exists in nature. A good candidate for this field is the medium likely functioning in a holographic mode. Why holographic? To understand this, we should begin where everything started. Evefytfa/iogf' Stcwted/ from/ Q lAcwvtum/ TCcvvu^cvrooy Everything started from the strange phenomena described in 1900 by M a x Plank. Of course, perhaps this is not how everything really started. Maybe it started from the shimmering light of a vanishing star, or from the song of the spring wind, or from someone's dream, or from something else, but it materialized as a paper about the results of experiments on the distribution of radiant energy from a hot object. This event manifested the birth of quantum physics and, as a result, the beginning of a new epoch in the development of human civilization. Since quantum physics was born, the world has Laszlo, 1995: 5. 102 changed. "Straight lines have become curved, the atom is no longer a physical matter, and, some say, science and literature have exchanged places. . ." 2 4 0 Plank's experiments repeatedly indicated that energy from a heated object propagated in the form of packets of energy or "quanta." It jumped! It freely violated Newton's law of continuous movement, which says that no object w i l l alternate its path without some external cause. Strangely, there was no apparent cause or reason for energy to "jump." It jumped just because! It moved discontinuously! This innocent custom of quantum micro-kangaroos to jump without any apparent cause had a very serious consequence: "As discontinuity marched into the world of phenomena through one door, causality walked out through another." 2 4 1 What does the term "discontinuous" mean? It means that i f you climb stairs, you can be on either the first, second, or third stair, but not in between. Even i f you try very hard, there is no way you wi l l be able to stand on 1.8 stair. The movement of a train is continuous, the jumps of kangaroos are not. In 1913, Niels Bohr applied the principle of discontinuity to atomic electrons, proposing that electrons can be "quantisized" as well . They can orbit around their nucleus at certain discrete energy levels without losing energy. When electrons jump between levels, they absorb or emit a packet of energy, a photon. Once born, the concept of discontinuity "continued" its march. In 1915, Einstein explained photoelectric effect as the replacement of electrons from the surface of metals by particles of light, named "photons." It was quite a bizarre statement, contradicting the well-established fact that light propagates as continuous waves of electromagnetic 2 4 0 M a f f e t , 1991 . 2 4 1 Jeans, c i t e d i n T r u s t y , 1991 : 3 1 . 103 energy. The principle of discontinuity resulted in the strange and confusing conclusion that light could be both particles and waves, depending on the experimental context. It contradicted the logic of classic physics and commonsense: if you are a particle, you are supposed to be a particle, and if you are a wave, you had better be a wave. You must make up your mind what you actually want to be, because you can be only "either/or." However, "objective" experimental data clearly indicated that light was not going to make up its mind. Light felt quite comfortable with having a dual personality, being both waves and particles. Further experiments led to the idea that electrons and other subatomic particles can also behave as waves and as particles. In 1927, Bohr proposed the principle of wave-particle complementarity, according to which nature can exhibit both wave and particle properties, but not simultaneously. These properties complement each other. The principle of complementarity manifested the departure from the dualistic "either/or" logic toward the more holistic "both/and."242 DUAL PERSONALITY Pavticles have* a- duab personality. They can be bothparticles and/ waves, depending how you/ look- at them/. Why such/mysterious, enigmatiobenavior? Could/ it bebecauiethey have a/hard/ micro--lufe/? " " M a s h a d i & W o o l n o u g h , 1997. D r a w i n g u p o n w o r k o f B o w e s and M a c r o n e , the authors d e s c r i b e d the d u a l - v a l u e d " e i t h e r / o r " " l o g i c o f W e s t e r n inte l lec tua l t rad i t ion as b a s e d o n Ar i s to t le ' s l aws o f thought : the L a w o f Identi ty , the L a w o f N o n -C o n t r a d i c t i o n , a n d the L a w o f E x c l u d e d M i d d l e . T h e A must be e i ther A or n o t - A , n o t h i n g i n the m i d d l e . T h i s l o g i c seems to be in ag reement w i t h our c o m m o n sense; h o w e v e r d i g g i n g d e e p e r into the m e a n i n g s o f " i s " a n d " i s n o t " m a y result i n semant ic d i f f i cu l t ie s . F o r ins tance , a statement " a d a f f o d i l is e i ther y e l l o w o r n o t " is not as s i m p l e as it seems to be : what does it m e a n to be " y e l l o w " " ? 104 The principle of complementarity undermined the very essence of the analytical reductionist approach to knowledge. Understanding grew that reducing phenomena into manageable parts does not ensure an adequate understanding of the whole. A profound consequence of Bohr's ideas is that the traditional Western concept of the relationship between macro and micro, the whole and the parts, is radically altered. Bohr claimed that before you can make sense of what an electron is doing, you have to specify the total experimental context; say what you are going to measure, how your apparatus is organized and so on. So, the quantum reality of the microworld is inextricably entangled with the organization of the macroworld. In other 94-3 words, the part has no meaning except in relation to the whole. These chameleon-like particle-waves represent "a single category of something that are always somehow both. These somethings are called quanta, and physicists believe that they are the basic stuff from which the entire universe is made of. Quanta are the plural of quantum. One electron is quantum. Several are a group of quanta." 2 4 4 Quanta are both particles and waves, but they are also more than just particles plus waves. They are something different. They represent a new order of complexity. The whole is more than the sum of its parts. Recognition that the part cannot be completely understood without its whole became a basic principle for systemic thinking. To move deeper into re-enchanting dimensions, we have to move deeper into the strange quantum world. D a v i e s & B r o w n , 1986. T a l b o t , 1991 : 34. 105 The holograph suggests a new kind of knowledge and new understanding of the universe, in which information about the whole is enfolded in each part and in which the various objects of the world result from the unfolding of this information.245 (David Bohm) As all roads lead to Rome, all paths of re-enchantment start from quantum mechanics. Further quantum experiments resulted in shocking conclusions. These enigmatic particles behaved as particles only when being observed. What goes on between observations is pure mystery! What an enigma these particles are... As physicist Nick Herbert writes, when an atom is being observed, it behaves as a little particle with definite attributes such as size, mass, position, momentum, or spin. It pretends to be a good old tiny building block of classical physics. If the physicist looks away for a moment and then observes the atom for a second time, it again displays the good typical behavior of a definite tiny object. However, the physicist is shocked! He or she expected to see the electron in a specific place, which should be easily predicted with the help of the mathematical laws of movement. Surprise, surprise! The electron was in an absolutely different location than expected! 2 4 6 There is no way to predict a second observation with any certainty. We can calculate only the probability of the whereabouts of the atom. When unobserved, the atom-chameleon changes its identity from a tiny object into strange waves of probabilities, which means that an atom is not located in one place, but is positioned in From the David Bohm's chapter Postmodern Science and a Postmodern World in Griffin, 1988. Talbot, 1991. 106 many possible places at the same time. It is everywhere and nowhere simultaneously and therefore it cannot be a material object with certain coordinates. For a deeper understanding of this phenomenon, let's conduct the scientific thought experiment suggested by physicist Michael Talbot in his book A Holographic Universe.241 Imagine yourself rolling a bowling ball. Before it is rolled, sprinkle talcum powder all over the bowling alley. After starting to roll this quantum bowling ball, turn away without observing it for several seconds. Then look at the ball again and note its trajectory on the talcum. What kind of track on the talcum powder would you expect to see? Using your commonsense, you expect to see a single line. However, this is not what happens in the mysterious quantum world. The quantum ball, as would any self-respecting hard bowling ball, traced a line on the talcum when being observed. When you blinked for a second, the atom stopped tracing a line and instead left a broad wavy strip, 748 like the undulating swath of a desert snake as it moves sideways over the s a n d ™ When not being observed, atoms behave as a strange wave of probability; however, when being observed, they quit their mysterious and fuzzy dance and "freeze" into tiny objects with definite attributes. Between observations, "the world exists not as a solid actuality, but only as shimmering waves of possibil i ty." 2 4 9 N ick Herbert has the uneasy impression that behind his back, the world behaves as "a radically ambiguous and ceaselessly flowing quantum soup." 2 5 0 It seems that the act of observation actualizes a single quantum possibility, whereas all others vanish, or collapse. The possibility, which has been singled out, jumps 2 4 7 Talbot, 199. 2 4 8 Ibid: 34. 2 4 9 Herbert, 1993. 2 5 0 Ibid. 107 into existence. Such phenomenon is called a quantum jump or quantum leap. This is the magic of the famous quantum observer effect: The observer effect is a sudden change in a physical property of matter-particularly at the atomic and subatomic level—when that property is observed. This is measured by the change in the probability of observing that property. When it occurs, something that was possible suddenly jumps and becomes actual. It is ascribed to the actions of consciousness upon material objects. 2 5 1 Could it mean that we observe our world into existence? This is a mystery! Our common sense tells us that something can be here or not here. There is no middle way: either/or. But this is not true in a cunning quantum world. It appears that without our perception, the world exists in a strange state that quantum physicists calls superimposed. In this state, the endless possibilities of our world exist and at the same time do not exist. They are about to happen. "The effect of perception, however, is immediate and dramatic. A l l of the wave function collapses, except one part, which actualizes into reality." ~ The most fundamental unsolved mystery in quantum theory, writes Nick Herbert, is the nature of this quantum jump. Is it something that physically occurs in the atom itself, or is it just some kind of a product of the scientist's mind, a sudden increase in knowledge gained by observation? ... behind the theorist's tools and the experimentalist's results, what is the atom actually 253 doing when we look at it and when we don't?' However, let's assume that we are very polite people and we never turn our back or even blink on the tiniest and most unpretentious particles. We observe them constantly 2 5 1 Wolf, 1991: 18. 2 5 2 Zukav, 1979: 34. 2 5 3 Herbert, 1993: 139. 108 without interruption. The strange phenomenon is that we still w i l l not know everything about these enigmatic entities. Physicist Heisenberg was puzzled. Something did not make sense. It was as clear as daylight: i f you know the initial position of the object and its momentum (mass, speed, and direction of movement), you can easily calculate and thus predict the whereabouts of the object at any time. This was established by classic mechanistic physics a long time ago. Why then was Heisenberg unable to calculate something as simple as the trajectory of an electron in a bubble chamber? The problem is that an electron is so tiny, it cannot be seen in the usual visible light: the wavelength of this light is too long and its energy is too low. In order to illuminate the electron, you need to use gamma rays with a shorter wavelength and higher energy. However, the energy of the "gamma light" is high enough to "knock" the electron, changing the momentum of its movement in an unpredictable manner. This is why it is impossible to know the position of an electron and its momentum simultaneously. It is not the matter of an instrument's efficiency, but something inherent to the atomic world. B y measuring one property (position) of an electron, we change the other (momentum) and vice versa. The exact knowledge of one variable can exclude the exact knowledge of another. This is the essence of Heisenberg's famous uncertainty principle, according to which there is always an element of ambiguity and randomness in the micro-world, which you simply cannot avoid. This principle lies at the very heart of quantum theory. Not only did it give basis to quantum mathematical formalism, it radically influenced scientists' view of reality in general and of scientific knowledge in particular. According to the most accepted 109 Copenhagen interpretation of quantum theory, Heisenberg's uncertainty principle indicates that: 1. Our observations alternate the world unpredictably by the very act of measurement. This means that the observer and the observed are inseparable. We cannot study external reality "out there" objectively and independently of our participation. A s a consequence, there is no such thing as "objective," "detached" knowledge. There is always an element of "humanness" in any most "objective" and most detached . measurement or interpretation of the world, which we simply cannot escape. you were/ objective/ in your thoughts but you/ did/ not know that the Desert creates objective illusions it shows water where is not arid then changes the existence of water around/ one may say, that'the/person seeingthe mirage-is not suffering from/ madness but from/ a- strange/ objectivity he is standing* between the equipment of nature and organic apparatus of the- eye the two- are joined/ together to- create the/Mu4lon/of his intention255 2. We cannot apply the laws of mechanistic science to an individual particle; and therefore we cannot predict the outcome of any single event. Y o u cannot foresee where the particle wi l l go after you have observed it. It looks like the particle independently makes its own decision where to go. Y o u also cannot predict which individual atom wi l l split spontaneously when radioactive substance disintegrates. Could it mean that particles have free will? Could it mean our world is inherently irrational, indeterminable, and unpredictable? WINV ANV LEAVES <D leaves, ask the wind which/ofyouwulbethefirsttofalloff.1 D a v i e s & B r o w n , 1986. A h s e n c i t ed in D r a k e , 1995: 50 . S o s e k i , i n B u r n s , 1990. 110 3. Rational and distinct knowledge has limits. Scientific knowledge can be "fuzzy"and ambiguous. It is recognized that all scientific concepts are limited and approximate. Science can never provide any complete and definitive understanding. 4. The way we see the world depends on how we organize the experiment. If we wish to measure the momentum of a particle, we organize our experiment accordingly, and i f we decided to measure the position of a particle, we wi l l do it through different experimental settings. "What we observe," writes Heisenberg, "is not nature itself, but nature exposed to our method of questioning." 2 5 8 Interpretations of Bohr's principle of complementarity and Heisenberg's uncertainty principle, made scientists realize that we are perhaps not the "objective" nuts and bolts of the Perfect Machine which exists "out there," independently of us. On the contrary, we are to some degree creators of our own reality. Such a realization shocked many previously "objective" scientists: I had come to suspect, and now felt compelled to acknowledge, that science and the physical world were products of human imaging—that we were not cool observers of that world, but its passionate creators. We 259 were all poets and the world was our metaphor. There are several quantum-mechanical visions of up-to-date reality; however, what has become increasingly clear is that our world is not as objective, mechanistic, solid, firm, predictable, and certain as it was once thought to be. Famous pioneering scientists Albert Einstein, Werner Heisenberg, Erwing Shrodinger, Max Plank, and Wolgang Pauli "were united in the belief that the universe simply does not make sense— and cannot satisfactorily be explained—without the inclusion, in some profound way, of consciousness i tself ." 2 6 0 British philosopher, Sir James Jeans, exclaimed once: "The Universe begins to look more like a great thought than a machine." 2 5 7 C a p r a , 1 9 9 6 : 4 1 . 2 5 8 C i t e d in Z u k a v , 1979 : 114. 2 5 9 J ohnes , 1982: 3. 2 6 0 W i l b e r , 1998 : 2. 2 6 1 Ib id . I l l Following the prominent quantum physicist Von Neumann, Nick Herbert proposed the quantum animism hypothesis: "far apart from being a rare occurrence in complex biological or computational systems, mind is a fundamental process in its own right, as widespread and deeply embedded in nature as light or electricity." 2 6 2 Three principles of quantum theory: quantum randomness, quantum thinglessness, and quantum inseparability give a hint that our reality at its deepest level is more mind-like than matter-like. "These features are the external signs of three basic features of mind: free w i l l , essential ambiguity, and deep psychic connectedness." 2 6 3 Quantum thinglessness is the property (if it can be called a property) of reality to exist and at the same time not to exist. A t a deep subatomic level, our world does not appear to be material; it exists in the form of superimposed potentialities. Only ideas in our consciousness can exist in such potential form. Quantum randomness is the manifestation of Heisenberg's uncertainty principle. The unpredictability of the behavior of a single particle might be an indication that particles perhaps have free wi l l and are capable of making some choices. "To conceptualize quantum randomness is to say that the causes, i f any, of atomic behavior do not lie in the physical world. No amount of physical examination wi l l ever allow us to predict exactly what an atom wi l l do next. Therefore, the ultimate cause of material phenomena is not material at all but stems from an essentially mental realm." 2 6 4 Quantum inseparability or the quantum nonlocality principle or cosmic crazy glue appears to be pure magic. What does nonlocality mean? In classic physics all interactions are local. This means that two things separated in spacetime can interact only through 2 6 2 Hebert, 1993: 3. 263 2 6 4 Ibid: 67. Ibid. 112 some kind of force or field, and the speed of this interaction cannot exceed the speed of light. In the case of nonlocal interactions, two separate objects interact instantly with supraliminal speed. 2 6 5 Amazingly, the mathematics of quantum theory, particularly Bell's theorem, leads to a strange conclusion that i f two quantum entities once interacted, they become a single unity even after separation. They continue to communicate instantly without any mediating fields, without any apparent cause for their interactions. Nothing can shield quantum connection; time or distance does not affect it. It has the "same strength at a million miles as at a mill imeter." 2 6 6 Unti l recently, quantum inseparability or nonlocality existed only as the mathematical expression of quantum theory. In 1982, French physicist Alan Aspect and his group supported this phenomenon experimentally. In his experiment "two particles were separated by more than ten meters. Yet independent measurements performed on them indicated that some form of connection had to exist between them, even though there was no material force connecting them." 2 6 7 Such connections between particles resemble the mind's psychic telepathic connections. "Since all particles," observes physicist Paul Davis, "are continually interacting and separating, the nonlocal aspect of quantum systems is therefore a general property of the universe." 2 6 8 ELECTRON'S TELEPATHY69 Electrons- (like/ everybody elye/) prefer to- e^ust in/ pcviry. In order to-survive* each/other without unnecessary tension/, 2 6 5 G r e a t e r than speed o f l ight . 2 6 6 H e r b e r t , 1993. 2 6 7 W o l f , 1991 : 37 . 2 6 8 In T a l b o t , 1 9 9 3 : 5 3 . 2 6 9 In sp i red b y Z u k o v ' s ( 1979 ) d e s c r i p t i o n o f the B e l l t h e o r e m . 113 electron/ partners usually spun around/ themselves- In/ different directions-. Whenone/ofthe/partners spins-left, the/ other spins right, arid vice/versa/. Very simple/! 'but...if a/pair of electrons- is separated/ inthe/lab-by means-of a/strong* maanetio field, (against"their desire/) a/ strange/ phenomenon occurs Even separated by distance/, the/ partners continue/ to- "feel" each other. If one/of the/partners is forced/to-ch^ the/other simultaneously and voluntarily changes- its Spin too-! It is doubtful/ that electrons use/ the/ telephone/ to- call each other, saying- something like/: "Hey, partner, how are/you/on your own? These/people/ made/ me/change/ my spin/fromleftto-right, so-hurry up, change/yours!" Its also- doubtful that electrons signal each other by "shouting/" or by "waving/their hands" How thendo-they know about each other's affairs? How thendo-they know so-instantly? Before quantum theory came up with the nonlocality phenomena, it existed only in magic, fairy tales, or anecdotal experiences of telepathy. "The only place that nonlocal forces played a role (before quantum theory) was in voodoo, whose practitioners believed 970 that the action on a person's separated part (hair) can affect the whole person." hey, do-you/ sense/ the/ real re/-enchantment here/? Portraying reality as non-mechanistic, quantum theory invites us to get away from the dangerous and rusty Perfect Machine. D A N G E R ! Everyone should urgently jump out of the Universe-Machine before it reaches a dead end! Easy to say, "jump!" We have gotten used to living in the mechanistic universe! We lived here for several centuries! The good news, however, is that now we have choices. Why don't we browse through some advertisements from scientists to see i f we can find a wonderful universe to move into. Herbert, 1993. 114 A huge "Hilbert" space for rent! Infinite number of dimensions is available. All quantum possibilities are accommodated. You must use your consciousness in order to bring the world into existence. Without participation of consciousness, this world will remain in a state of pure possibilities. According to the Copenhagen Interpretation of quantum experiments 2 7 1 and V o n 979 Neumann's extension of this interpretation, our reality exists in a thought-like form of superimposed possibilities (probability waves). Unti l it is observed, it "hesitates forever on the brink of actuality." Compared to the actual world—the old-fashioned, definite "yes" or "no" world of classical physics—the quantum world resembles a fairy-tale land built solely of ambiguous "maybes." 2 7 3 This world is quite bizarre, it is thought or spoken into existence by consciousness that performs some kind of measurement or choice. According to V o n Neumann, numerous centers of consciousness are spread all over material world. A very eclectic "Multiverse" created from many parallel worlds! A variety of choices! Between-world traveling through the wormholes! Read physicist Everett for details If you like science fiction, you can chose a multiverse, which is comprised from an infinite number of parallel worlds-spaghetti. 2 7 4 In such a universe, none of the possibilities collapse, they all actualize in parallel universes. For instance, when you are confronted with a hard choice, either to work tonight or go to a bar, the universe splits into two sub-universes: in the first universe, you work, and in the second one, you go to 2 7 1 H e r b e r t , 1993. 2 7 2 I b i d . 2 7 3 I b i d : 156. 2 7 4 T h e un iver se o f E v e r e t t as d e s c r i b e d i n T a l b o t , 1991 a n d i n D a v i e s & B r o w n , 1986. 115 the bar. The rules of a multiuniverse are democratic: all possibilities and choices have an equal chance. Move into a giant "Hologram"! Do you feel lonely being fragmented from the rest of the world? If so, this universe is for you because here you are united into an unbroken wholeness with the rest of the world. Do you have a low self-esteem? If so, this universe is for you because here you are a Cosmos! For details please read physicists Bohm, Wolf, Talbot, Pitt, Laszlo, biologist Sheldrake, and psychologists Pribram, Pierce, Grof, Ahsen, Wade. ' Two of the most prominent contemporary scientists, physicist and philosopher David Bohm and neuropsychologist Karl Pribram, independently arrived at the idea that our universe is perhaps a huge hologram. Since then, this model has been increasingly supported by research in different scientific f ie lds . 2 7 6 I, too, wish to move into the holographic world. It seems so interesting and cozy. Would you like to visit with me the 777 magical holographic reality? Holograms, indeed, have truly fascinating and magical properties. They are three-dimensional photographs (or holographs) that appear real and convincing, just as usual material subjects, but i f you try to touch a holographic image, your hand wi l l simply pass through. Holographs are produced when a laser beam is split into two separate beams. The first beam is bounced off the object to be photographed. The second beam is allowed to collide with the reflected light of the first. When this happens they create seemingly chaotic, circular interference patterns, which are then recorded on a piece of fi lm. T h e w o r k o f a l l these authors is l i s ted in the b i b l i o g r a p h y sec t ion o f this m a n u s c r i p t . T a l b o t , 1993. I use the w o r d " r e a l i t y " not as s o m e t h i n g w h i c h is r e a l l y " r e a l , " but as our v i s i o n o f what " r e a l i t y " m i g h t 116 When another laser beam shines through these holographic interference patterns, the three-dimensional image of the original object appears. The most amazing property of holograms is that each, even the tiniest fragment of the holographic film, contains the entire image of the photographed object. The smaller the piece of the film, the "fuzzier" the image, but it is still an image of the whole. In other words, each part of the hologram contains all the information of the whole. In this sense, the hologram is not comprised of any parts; it is an undivided, unbroken wholeness.278 The very essence of a holographic principle therefore is "all in all. " For David Bohm, the quantum nonlocality principle, this cosmic crazy glue, provided a strong indication that our reality is perhaps holographic. Particles are able to communicate instantaneously because they are not separate entities, but manifestations of a singular undivided reality, a holographic "oneness". In the book Wholeness and the Implicate Order, Bohm speculates that our physical world is an explicate or unfolded holographic image of a deeper, single, and vast nonmaterial reality, which he calls hidden, implicate or enfolded order. 2 7 9 This deeper order is an unimaginable level beyond spacetime that comprises all that ever took place and ever wi l l . There are no parts or fragments in a holographic world, and there is no sharp division between mind and matter. Up, up to the galaxies, down, down to the mysteries of atomic and subatomic lands, and here, in between, in this beautiful, phenomenal world, all entities are just a variety of appearances of a deeper implicate order, which might well be pure consciousness. Bohm's holographic vision leads to a radical re-conceptualization of reality. 2 7 8 T h e t e rm c o i n e d b y D a v i d B o h m . 2 7 9 B o h m , 1973. H e uses the w o r d " o r d e r " not as an i n d i c a t i o n o f a r i g i d structure, but as a d e s i g n o f the w o r l d . F o r ins tance , the anc ient o r d e r o f the w o r l d was the earth i n the center o f the un iver se . 117 In his general theory of relativity Einstein astounded the world when he said that space and time are not separate entities, but are smoothly linked and part of a larger whole he called the space-time continuum. Bohm takes this idea a giant step further. He says that everything in the universe is part of a continuum. Despite the apparent separateness of things at the explicate level, everything is a seamless extension of everything else, and ultimately even the implicate and explicate orders blend into each The holographic reality is not static. As the waves in the ocean, it constantly enfolds into an explicate order and then unfolds back into a deeper order, through the ongoing process of holomovement. Two orders "communicate" with each other on a quantum level at the thin borderline between the implicate and the explicate, through the tiny messengers, quanta, that exist comfortably both as material and wave-like entities. Laszlo believes that Bohm's model is fundamentally compatible with the contemporary quantum-vacuum interaction (QVI) concept, according to which the deeper implicate order is "made o f a quantum informational holographically unified field (holofield). The only difference is that the quantum holofield constantly evolves, whereas Bohm's implicate order, while existing beyond spacetime, does not. 2 8 1 What does the concept quantum-vacuum interactions mean? First of all , this means that a vacuum has happily changed its status from a boring emptiness to a plenum full of energy and possibilities. Physicists calculate that, .. .the vacuum energy content is equivalent to 10 9 4 g/cm 3 . This magnitude, according to Bohm, exceeds all energy bound in matter by a factor of 10 4 0 . If this energy were associated with mass, the resulting gravitational potential would reduce the curvature of the universe to an order of 2 8 U T a l b o t , 1991 : 4 9 . 2 8 1 L a s z l o , 1995 ; W i l b e r , 1997. B o t h authors c r i t i c i z e d B o h m ' s m o d e l for the static nature o f i m p l i c a t e order . I a m too m o r e c o m f o r t a b l e w i t h the i d e a that i m p l i c a t e o r d e r e v o l v e s . I f e v e r y t h i n g p r e d e t e r m i n e d i n this w o r l d , what is the p o i n t o f e v e r y t h i n g then? L a t e r ( in W i l b e r , 1997) B o h m m o d i f i e d his theory . H e suggested that i m p l i c a t e o rder m i g h t e v o l v e into i m p l i c a t e i m p l i c a t e o rder a n d so o n . . .1 w i l l use the t e r m i m p l i c a t e o r d e r k e e p i n g i n m i n d that it is not static, but e v e r - e v o l v i n g . 118 magnitude several dimensions smaller than the nucleus of the atom. ~ From the new perspective, the quantum vacuum is the pure massless charge flux that contains particles in the virtual state. It can fluctuate, breaking the spacetime continuum. "When fluxes in vacuum cross the energy-threshold of particle creation, its virtual particles transform into 'real' particles. Real particles in spacetime seem to enjoy an independent existence: they are endowed with corpuscular, in addition to wave, properties." 2 8 3 In this sense, quanta are solitary waves, or solitions. The main property of solitions is that while having the appearance of discrete objects, they are manifestations of the continuous underlying medium in which they occur. As vertices in the running river, they unfold into seemingly separate existences and then enfold back into the realm where they came from. Since quanta are solitions in a fluctuating holographic vacuum information-reach field, they actually are this field. This arrangement explains how and why every photon, every electron, and every nucleon within every atom can be informed about the affairs of the rest of the universe. Heisenberg's uncertainty principle indicates that electrons may have some freedom of choice. This freedom, however, as Q V I states, is bounded by subtle corrections coming from the entire universe through "an interactive process involving a two-way translation between particles and the quantum vacuum. Here, choice of the quantum state is not random—as in the standard quantum theoretical interpretation—but is 984 linked with the rest of the universe." Laszlo, 1995: 28. Laszlo, 1995: 29. 119 Recall chaotic butterflies, the symbols of bounded freedom. The subtle universal corrections as wings of a chaotic butterfly permit choices and creativity of complex systems within limits. Look at the night sky. Do you see a chaotic butterfly there? According to the non-big-bang multicyclic cosmology of Prigogine, Geheniau, Guniz, and Nardone, universes are enormous solitions. They arise from a fluctuating vacuum as it reaches instability points. 2 8 5 They jump into existence at the edge of chaos and they die only to give birth to something novel. Universes that once lived and died are never forgotten in the holographic world. Their whispers are encoded and stored in the universal holographic memory. Can you hear the echo of their distant voices? Can you glimpse the shadows of their chaotic butterflies? The emergent holographic model of reality is truly exciting. If every little corner of the universe enfolds the information of the whole image, this means "that i f we knew how to access it, we could find the Andromeda galaxy in the thumbnail of our left hand." 2 8 6 In such a universe, everything is the "one thing," unbroken wholeness, one "enormous something that has extended its uncountable arms and appendages into all the apparent objects, atoms, restless oceans, and twinkling stars in the cosmos." 2 8 7 Have you ever felt your holographic unbroken wholeness with all these entities? Psychotherapist, researcher, and author Stanislav Grof provided data that apparently supports the holographic vision of reality. In two books, The Adventure of Self- Discovery and The Cosmic Game: Explorations of the Frontiers of Human Consciousness,288 Grof described his own and other participants' experiences in a 2 8 5 In L a s z l o , 1995. 2 8 6 T a l b o t , 1993: 5 0 . 2 8 7 I b i d : 4 9 . 2 8 8 G r o f , 1988; G r o f 1998. 120 nonordinary state of consciousness, which he calls holotropic. Psychedelic drugs, particularly the hallucinogen L S D can evoke such a state of consciousness. Grof also developed non-drug techniques, which yielded the same results. When people enter a holotropic state of consciousness, they have "authentic and convincing experiences of conscious identification with animals, plants, and even inorganic materials." Participants remember what it was like to be in the womb, or to have mother's childhood memories, or to be a prehistoric creature, and even to see some historical events. In a holotropic state, "consciousness appeared to expand beyond the usual boundaries of the ego and explore what it was like to be other living things and 289 even other objects." There were no limits as to who or what participants could become. Participants appeared to be capable of knowing what it is like to be an atom, ocean wave, blood cell, mountain, Gaia, or the Cosmos. I am curious, what Gaia may experience when dancing into the spell of darkness along with born and vanishing stars...290 The experiences of the illusory nature of boundaries can definitely be qualified as holographic. After years of conceptual struggle and confusion, Grof became convinced that his data from his research strongly "indicates the necessity to change drastically our 291 image of human nature, culture, history, and of reality." He came to the conclusion that your reality must indeed have holographic properties. Perhaps someone already thought it through, and I did not come across it, but it seems to me that self-similarity in fractals, which means a repeating motif within motif 2 8 9 T a l b o t , 1991: 68 . 2 9 0 U n f o r t u n a t e l y , at this p o i n t I cannot suppor t G r o f ' s c l i m e s t h r o u g h m y o w n exper i ence s , but I d e f i n i t e l y p l a n to part ic ipate in this k i n d o f e x p e r i m e n t s , in o r d e r to " s e e " for myse l f . 2 9 1 G r o f , 1988: x i i i . 121 within motif within motif, is a holographic property: all in all. Each smaller fractal enfolds information of a more embracing larger one, ad infinitum. Fractals are everywhere in our phenomenal world, and it is another hint on behalf of the holographic model of reality. Since chaotic attractors are fractals, they must have holographic properties. One of the founders of the science of complexity, Illia Prigogine, supports the holographic vision of the world. Complex dissipative structures spontaneously emerge at the edge of chaos, but... where are the blueprints of ordered structures coming from? Prigogine speculates that the holographic quantum vacuum may well be a mysterious Chaos that hides complex patterns of chaotic butterflies. In this light, complex dissipative structures are quantum solutions amplified into a macroscopic phenomenal world. They are constantly unfolding and enfolding on the edge of chaos, within the flux of the quantum holofield. They self-organize themselves into ever-evolving and ever-shifting resonance patterns of a unified holographic world. We humans are complex dissipative structures emerging from, existing within, and then going back into the flux of the holofield. Neuropsychologist Kar l Pribram arrived at the idea that our brains and our senses are possibly holographic. From his numerous experiments, he realized that our memories are not stored in local brain sites, but somehow "distributed throughout the brain as a whole ." 2 9 4 Later he concluded that perhaps all of our senses and learning skills have a holographic nature. The brain has the capability to transform learned abilities "into a language of interfering wave forms." In m o r e detai l s o n the page 60 . P r i g o g i n e & A l s k e n s , 1987. P r i b r a m , 1977. 122 This capability of the brain might account for the observer effect. A t the subatomic level, our universe is recorded as a blur of seemingly chaotic semi-real, ever shifting and ever changing, holographic interference patterns. As the laser beam transforms interference patterns into a holographic image, our brain perhaps interprets holographic patterns of reality into the phenomenological world. In Changes of Mind: A Holonomic Theory of the Evolution of the Consciousness, psychologist Jenny Wade proposes that the development of consciousness has holographic origins. 2 9 6 Laszlo, who summarized related research in physical sciences and psychology, speculates that the stream of human experiences and creativity might arise from brain/informational holofield interactions. These interactions, believes Laszlo, can perhaps provide a scientific account for Carl Jung's concept of archetypes arising from "a vast, limitless unconscious process shared by all humanity, emerging from the accumulated experience of years of shared history." These archetypes comprise a collective human psyche 2 9 9 that has its own reality beyond spacetime. A similar idea is expressed in the hypothesis of formative causations, where Rupert Sheldrake speculates on the existence of hierarchically evolving universal morphic fields containing information about the structure, behavior, and individual A c c o r d i n g to the C o p e n h a g e n v e r s i o n o f the q u a n t u m theory , the w o r l d perhaps does not exist be fore the o b s e r v a t i o n . B o h m ' s a n d P r i b r a m ' s m o d e l o f a h o l o g r a p h i c un iver se a n d , as I w i l l a rgue later, W h i t e h e a d ' s p h i l o s o p h y , g i v e m o r e " r e a l i s t i c " a c c o u n t for the o b s e r v e r effect. A c c o r d i n g to their p e r s p e c t i v e , there is " r ea l i ty out t h e r e " but i n the vague , c h a o t i c , s emi- rea l f o r m . O u r senses a n d o u r b r a i n h a v e c a p a b i l i t y to interpret o b s c u r e h o l o g r a p h i c patterns o f this rea l i ty into the p h e n o m e n a l w o r l d o f shapes a n d f o r m s . 2 9 6 W a d e : 1996. 2 9 7 L a s z l o : 1995. 2 9 8 C a r l J u n g i n L a s z l o , 1995: 135. 2 9 9 P s y c h e c o m e s f r o m G r e e k s ' psyche, " the sou l p e r s o n i f i e d , the spirit , the p r i n c i p l e o f l i f e . " T h o m a s M o o r e (1996) def ines the s o u l as o u r c a p a c i t y for c o m p a s s i o n , a n d c o m p a s s i o n as s o m e t h i n g w h i c h c o m e s f r o m o u r in te rconnec tednes s w i t h C o s m o s . 123 experiences of all universal entities. According to the hypothesis of formative causation, morphic fields "contain a kind of collective memory" from which each organism draws its pattern of organization. Each kind of organism, including humans, rats, or molecules of amino-acids, 3 0 1 has its own formative pattern, which is determined not by strict mathematical laws but by the habits of nature. The organism tunes into the morphic field, resonating with experiences of similar organisms. Morphic fields and organisms influence and co-create each other, reciprocally. This hypothesis is of course controversial; however, it appears to be testable—to some extent. For example, when laboratory rats learn something new in the U S A , rats in laboratories throughout the world "show a tendency to learn it faster." How do they know? There is also a well-known tendency for new drugs to be produced with greater difficulty the first time, then, "as time goes on, they tend to appear more readily all over the wor ld . " 3 0 2 People learn the words of an unknown ancient language more quickly than words that were "made up" for purposes of the experiment. How do they know? Does this happen through their tuning into the collective memory, which resides in the morphic fields of the universe? In his conversation with Bohm, Rupert Sheldrake agreed that his 303 model is compatible with the holographic vision of the world. As interconnected components of a complex system, insights on the holographic nature of the world self-organize themselves into a holographic worldview or so-called S h e l d r a k e , 1990. F r o m the S h e l d r a k e ' s per spec t ive , a m i n o - a c i d s are o r g a n i s m s . I b i d : 89 . In their d i a l o g u e , S h e l d r a k e a n d B o h m c a m e to the c o n c l u s i o n that their v i s i o n s are c o m p a t i b l e . See W e b e r , 1986. 124 holonomic paradigm. Portraying reality as an undivided unity where matter-dense realm and the quantum vacuum informational holofield are constantly co-evolving and co-in-forming 3 0 5 each other, the holonomic paradigm provides conceptual foundations for "transdisciplinary unification of our understanding of physical, biological, and psychological phenomena" and provokes "a fundamental change in the way we look at ourselves and the wor ld . " 3 0 6 HoioruymCo- ThOnhOng< To- See/ the/ World/ iw a/ QrctiYV of Sand/ I know it's hard for you to understand about size, how there's very little difference in the size of the tiniest microbe and greatest galaxy.307 (Madeleine L'Engle) The image of a holographic universe resonates with me. It elevates my self-worth. Thinking systemically, I am a system within a system within a system. It is a weak re-enchantment. Thinking holonomically, I am the World. It is a deeper re-enchantment. Just as a cell nucleus contains information about the whole organism, I within myself, enfold the information of the entire universe. This vision of reality is emotionally appealing to me. Why? Maybe because my unformulated, hidden memory, older than the B i g Bang, gives me a hint that I am a holographic "One." Writes Ahsen: The/ psyche/ is not entirely cc corisequence/ of inhlbitixmA-, itsoriginalpristine/ sewse* bcvng mythic*, holographic/, and/poetuy'308 3 0 4 W i l b e r , 1997; W a d e , 1996. T h e t e rm holonomic is c o i n e d b y Jane W a d e . I rea l i ze the i n c o n v e n i e n c e o f u s i n g severa l te rms : holographic, holonomic, a n d holotropic for e x p r e s s i n g the s ame p r i n c i p l e . A t the s ame t ime, the a b u n d a n c e o f terms c o u l d ind ica te e m e r g e n c e o f a n e w m e t a p h o r i c a l l a n g u a g e fo r a n e w p a r a d i g m . I c h o s e to use holonomic because it s o u n d s less m e c h a n i c a l than holographic o r holotropic. 0 5 T h e t e rm co-in-forming c o m b i n e s co-informing a n d co-forming. 3 0 6 W a d e , 1996. 3 0 7 L ' E n g l e , 1969 . 125 Holonomic thinking is conducive for my self-healing and for self-actualization. When I perceive myself as a Cosmos, the inevitable hardships and disappointments of my earthly life become less significant and depressing, and my creativity and inspiration elevate to the level of a cosmic significance. M y life becomes more exiting, meaningful, and fulfilling. As educator and ecophilosopher Chet Bowers writes, our metaphoric images of reality provide us with a "focal point of understanding" that influences our relationships with the world. As an example, "the mechanistic root metaphor underlying Newtonian science led to relationships characterized by detached observation and measurement." A mechanistic understanding of nature as "natural resources" allowed and justified modern destructive attitudes towards the environment. The metaphoric meta-narratives of societies frame the nature of human-environment interaction. 3 0 9 From the holographic vantage point, we are not entities separated from the world, and not even complex systems interconnected with the world. We are the world, and it makes a big difference. trying to- escape/ from/ the/lonely world/ where/ everything/ is separated/ where/ no- one/ cares-where/ everyone/ ly imprisoned/ wUhlnthelr own cocoon which/hasabsolutely no-value/ in the/ context of co cold infinity, . I imagined/ co different universe/ where/ my life/ iy worth con entire/ Cosmos where/each drop of the/ rain on the/ roof is me/ where/the/windy sweeping/away autumnleaver iy me/ where/ co whispered mountain echo- iy me/... I am/this star, I am this crying- child, A h s e n , 1991: 7 1 . B o w e r s , 1995: 33 . 126 I am/an enLgmxxtixy atom/ pulled/try tke/question/: to-ejoistor not to-egoist? as a/ wuyuntain, I enjoy speaking/with<dcnuls a^ a* cloud, I llk&to-re^tonthe/peahofthe/ mxyuntaln I am/a/yeed/, from/ which the* wholes world growy, I am the* world/, and being/ the/ world, would I hurt myyelf? For David Bohm, the major cause of modern disaster is fragmentary thinking. Such thinking "is giving rise to a reality that is constantly breaking down into disorderly, disharmonious, and destructive partial activities." 3 1 0 Holonomic consciousness brings about a "different reality" and therefore dramatically changes our relationships with the world. If we perceive ourselves as being "unbroken wholeness" with others, we realize that by hurting others we hurt ourselves. Remember? Y o u are a Cosmos, as well as everyone and everything else. To- see/ a/ World/ in a* Qravn of Sand and a* Heaven/ On a* Wild flower, holdlnfinity in/the/palm/of your hand and/Eternity inanhour.311 This is the essence of holonomic thinking, and it is re-enchanting. 3 1 0 Bohm, 1989. 3 1 1 Blake, cited in Talbot, 1993: 50. 127 Science/EdtA&atlcnv (Wtfo&GretrtHolcwchy offtetxrwwwg? Technological advances are rarely used to their fullest potential by the first generation of users. Only in later generations does a medium become self-defined by its own inherent qualities. Holography s biggest impact is yet to come—holographic principles being applied to the arts, sciences, and humanities.313 (Frank DeFreitas) Appearances, appearances... they caw be* so- illusive avid/ deceiving. They reflect from/ mirrory what is net! Sometimes clouds look/ so substantial*, so-thick/, and/ so inviting, just like/ pristine/ white/ snow covering- the* ground/. Come/, walk/on*all/this blinding whiteness! The* white/, so-pure* and* monochromic*, is in reality a hidden rainbow, a/ magic* bridge- of colours into- nowhere that cxynnects nothing-... The light from/ many distant stars thatappearsso-real, is just an echo from the past, gone* forever. The perfectly flat Earth/ under your feet is a colossal carving- globe. Hold* on to-gravity, doht fall off! The seed/ inthepalm/ ofyourhand/ is so-tiny, but do-not believe it. A giant tree/lies hidden within its body. Even matter, so-solid/, so-firm, and*soreliable, dissolves at the subatomic level into- a yemiz-reab tango of the waves of what is about to- happen. Appearances •What lies behind* these cunning masks? Who- makes usplay the "hide-and/-seek/" game/? Catch* me-, if you* can! There was a time when many scientists were certain they had it all. They locked "it" into a mechanical cage. They closed a black box. They drew "objective" scientific conclusions. Everything was ultimately material, dead, predictable, calculable, reducible, and subject to manipulation. Today, fresh winds are blowing. New scientific insights have opened the mechanistic black box. The Genie is out. Catch me again! Entering this new millennium, our world has become increasingly holographic. As the everyday routine, in the near future, we wi l l have holographic movies, holographic television, holographic computers, holographic art, and the advanced technology of virtual holographic reality. Such holographic popularity is based on the ability of 3 1 2 L a r o c h e , i n press . 3 1 3 D e F r e i t a s , 1999. N o page n u m b e r . 128 holograms to store a vast amount of information and on the amazing property of holographic pictures to be 3-dimensional or 4-dimensional (if moving). They appear real, but their substance is not material. Catch me i f you can! Our discovery of the holographic phenomenon might be a coincidence, but it may also be a reflection of the deep holographic structure of the world. This means that each, even the smallest corner of the universe, including each human being, enfolds all . In the holographic world, each human is a unique and creative expression of unbroken wholeness. I cum CMthe/WCwld/civxd/th&wo^ Developing consciousness that perceives the world as an unbroken wholeness would be the most important mission of the science curriculum that is stepped into the deeper re-enchantment of a holonomic paradigm. While studying snowflakes, drops of a morning dew, particles evaporating into the air, tears.of rain, ocean waves, whirlpools of a flowing running river, or glistening pieces of ice, the holonomic science education would emphasize the underlying unity behind all these phenomena: they are all "made o f ever-flowing and ever-recycling water. The same goes for us. While each having unique identities and appearances, we all are manifestations of a single running river of a deeper holographic reality. We are solitions, unfolding from and enfolding into it. Our individuality resembles a snow. The seas evaporate water, clouds build and loose water in snowflakes which dissolve and go to see... What have I to do with the ocean, I with my unique and novel hexagons and spikes? 3 1 4 Paul Valery, quoted in Heyneman, 1993. 129 Is my very mind a wave in the ocean, a weave the wind flattens, a flow of the wind draws like a finger? ' Holonomic science curriculum would include detailed study of holograms and their applications for the future, but at the same time, it would strongly emphasize the philosophical essence of the holographic principle. All in all. Unbroken wholeness. Unity in multiplicity. After taking two steps into re-enchantment, we entered a complex and holographic world. While thinking how to unite these two re-enchanting steps and how to describe science education grounded in them, I came across the work of philosopher Arthur Koestler. He suggested a contemporary version of an ancient multi-leveled complex model of reality—Great Chain of Being. In his terms, it becomes a Great Holarchy of Being?16 The concept holarchy reflects the vision of reality as a spectrum of different levels of complexity, from the simplest to the most complex entities in the universe. Holarchy is the hierarchical organization of wider and wider embracing holons, nestled in each other. Holon means integrated whole. Each holon is a double-faced Janus. From one side, it "looks down" at simpler holons which it embraces. From the other side, it "looks up" at more complex holons within which it is embraced. As Ken Wilber expressed, our universe is comprised of holons, embracing and embraced. 3 1 7 Each atom is a holon, which is part of a molecular holon, which in turn could be a part of a compound's holon, and then cells, tissues, organs, organisms, individual ego structures, societies, species, ecosystems, Gaia, galaxies, the known universe, and perhaps an unimaginable deeper reality... 3 1 5 Di l la rd , 1999: 13. 3 1 6 Koestler, 1964; Koestler, 1978. 3 1 7 Wilber, 1997. 130 I wish to extend the concept holon into the holographic realm. From the holographic perspective, each holon could be a holographic image which enfolds the entire universe. The more embracing a holon is, the clearer the holographic image is of the whole. They are like windows. The smaller and simpler the holon-window, the more difficult it is to see the entire panorama through it. Holographic reality constantly evolves on the edge of chaos through an ongoing process of self-organizing holomovement, toward increasingly complex and more embracing holons. As Prigoine expressed, the world never "is ," it always "becomes," therefore, in an ever-evolving universe, the realm 318 of being shifted towards a process of becoming. In light of this, I propose to modify Koestler's The Great Holarchy of Being into The Great Holarchy of Becoming as the complex holographic vision of reality. Application of such vision for re-enchantment of science education requires re-prioritizing priorities and re-rationing rationales. The rationale of disenchanted mechanistic science curriculum is very irrational, that of developing a highly skilled and adaptable working force for construction of a technological paradise. Why is it irrational? W e l l , let's think rationally. How could it be considered rational to convert breathing, feeling, and pulsing human beings into an impersonal mechanistic working force? The irrationale of a re-enchanted science curriculum is rational, that of facilitating the growth of a human being into a Whole Being, within a Great Holarchy of Becoming. Briefly, disenchanted science curriculum is about the development of human doings, whereas re-enchanted science curriculum is about the growth of human beings. This is the difference. P r o g o g i n e & Stengers , 1984. 131 From this perspective, the purpose of the complex and holonomic science curriculum can be expressed though the beautiful and undeniably holographic passage of transpersonal philosopher Ken Wilber: To reunite humanity with the rest of the Kosmos, to see the same currents running through our human blood that run through swirling galaxies and colossal solar systems, that crash through the great oceans and course through our own veins, that move the mightiest of mountains as well as our glorious moral aspirations-one and the same current moves throughout the A l l , and drives the entire Kosmos in its every lasting gesture, and refuses to surrender until you remember who and what you are, and that you were carried to this realization by that single current of an all-pervading Love, and here there came fulfillment and a flash of light, and vigor failed the lofty fantasy, but now my wi l l and my desires were moved like a 3 1 9 wheel revolved evenly, by the Love that moves the sun and other stars. To be unified with the world—it sounds so wonderful! To be carried by a current of self-pervading Love. . .What more could I wish? But is it really possible to develop the holographic sense of unbroken wholeness through science education that portrays the world as nonliving? How could we love and how could we feel at one with the world-machine, or the world-complex system, or even the world-holographic image? As Martha Heyneman writes, we cannot love or relate to something that is not alive. " The good news is that both steps, the science of complexity and the holographic model of the world, lead us into even deeper re-enchantment—the world of postmodern organicism. Let us take this step. One, two, three... -Oh/, my... -What iy happening/, Claire/? -Oh/my, it iy yo-bigs! It iy alive/. Everything/ iy con/yciowy, every little/ atom/, and/ they're/ all connected/. The/ unOverye/ iy one/ glgantuy heart.321 3 1 9 Wilber, 1997: 79. 3 2 0 Heyneman, 1993. 3 2 1 Herbert, 1993:61. 132 CIRCLET 3 POSTMODERN ORG.ANICISM AS A STEP INTO EVEN DEEPER RE-ENCHANTMENT Chewier Wcdlovce/ went up to- M ry. WhatyCt. "I y&e/. Menu I U4\derytcvnd/. Yow were* ov ytar once*, werervtyow?" Mvy Whxityfccovered/ft were* e^nbarrc?vyyed/} ovnoi/ noxicied/.322 3 2 2 L'Engle, 1978: 87. 133 The/ KcxticmxiUirYVi/ of Fa^ae^erLe^attatow/ " Perhaps... these electrons are worlds with hundreds lands, with wars, victories, dynasties, catastrophes, and memories of many centuries..323 (Valeryi Brusov) Writes David Griffin: "We can therefore envision, without being naively Utopian, a far better order, with a far less dangerous trajectory, than the one we now have. '"" In the books, The Reenchantment of Science and Founders of Constructive Postmodern Philosophy, Griffin and other contributing authors conceptualize constructive postmodern 32^  philosophy as "creative synthesis of modern and premodern truth and values."" " The authors use the term "postmodern" to designate the era beyond modernity. They distinguish two types of postmodernism: deconstructive or eliminative and constructive or revisionary. Deconstructive postmodernism "overcomes the modern worldview through anti-worldview: it deconstructs or eliminates the ingredients necessary for a worldview such as God, self, purpose, meaning, a real world, and truth as correspondence." Constructive postmodernism "seeks to overcome the modern worldview not by eliminating the possibility of the worldview as such, but by constructing a worldview through a revision of modern premises and traditional concepts." 3 2 6 The purpose of constructive postmodern philosophy is to imagine a "better", less destructive order beyond the modern world. The worldview portrayed by this philosophy resembles the vision of ancient societies, but approached from the more sophisticated re-enchanting dimensions of contemporary science. This worldview is F r e e l y translated p o e m o f R u s s i a n poet B a l e r y i B r u s o v . G r i f f i n , 1993: x. G r i f f i n , 1988; G r i f f i n et a l . , 1993. I b i d : x i i i . 134 essentially organic, and for this reason, postmodern constructive philosophy is also called the philosophy of postmodern organicism. From the perspective of postmodern organicism, "rational" modern science and philosophy are profoundly anti-rational because they do not meet the criteria of self-consistency and adequacy for all the facts of experience. From Webster's dictionary, rational is a "sane", "sensible", "reasonable", "logical basis", "exposition of principles". Modern philosophy assumes that ultimate units of matter are completely devoid of experiences and "of spontaneity of self-motion—the capacity to initiate movement of ^97 any sort." But is it really rational to think that mental, emotional, and spiritual human experiences can emerge out of non-experiencing passive matter? How could it be sane to believe that my anxieties, intentions to complete this manuscript, or ecstatic feelings of being a mother can spring out of mechanistic collisions of mindless and insensitive atoms? There is no adequate account for this phenomenon in modern philosophy. The best it could come up with is a mind-matter dualism. To recover the ideal of rationality and to account for modern inadequacies, the postmodern constructive philosophy offers panexperientialism, the hypothesis that views all entities in the universe as occasions of experience, from the very large—up, up to the galaxies, to the very small—down, down to the mysterious subatomic world. This is how mathematician and philosopher Alfred North Whitehead, one of the ^98 founders of postmodern organicism, approaches such assumptions. There are events as well as substances. Our conversations, intentions, fantasies, and memories are not substances. Thinking rationally, they cannot be ultimately and absolutely analyzed into 3 2 7 G r i f f i n et a l . , 1993 : 3. 3 2 8 R e v i e w e d in G r i f f i n et a l . , 1993. 135 the movement of mindless atoms. It is more logical to assume that events occurring in the human world can be analyzed into smaller "atomic" events. "Just as substances such as chairs and tables can be analyzed into component substances such as atoms, so also events like wars and conversations can be analyzed into the component events that make them." 3 2 9 For instance, the flow of experiences during a conversation between two people can be analyzed into momentarily successive "atomic" experiences. As Whitehead states, "all atomic events are occasions of experience."" ~ According to Whitehead, elementary occasions synthesize themselves into human or other-than-human experiences through numerous internal relations. In light of this, an electron within a human body is different from an electron within a rock "by virtue of its intrinsic experience." 3 3 1 Traditionally, science has excluded the possibility of such experiences from nature. As Ki rk writes, taking them into the consideration would "involve a re-conceptualization of science itself ." 3 3 2 This fascinates me. In the mechanistic "billiard ball universe" particles do not have individualities. A n electron is an electron. It does not matter whether it belongs to you or me or a dog, or a stone. Ultimately, we all consist of the same bits and parcels. In Whitehead's universe, the particles within me share mine and the particles within the stone share the stone's experiences. According to such an arrangement, the whole and its parts reciprocally influence each other, and it is perfectly consistent with the self-organizing principle of complexity. v G r i f f i n et a l . , 1993 : 137. 0 I b i d : 178. 1 W h i t e h e a d , 1978. 2 K i r k , 1 9 9 1 : 6 2 . 1 3 6 Writes Whitehead: The doctrine which I am maintaining is that the whole concept of materialism only applies to very abstract entities, the products of logical discernment. The concrete enduring entities are organisms, so that the plan of the whole influences the very characters of various subordinate organisms, which enter into it. In the case of animal, the mental states enter into the plan of the total organism and thus modify the plans of the successive subordinate organisms until the ultimate smallest organisms, such as electrons, are reached. Thus electron l iving within a living body is different from the electron outside it, by reason of the plan body. For Whitehead, particles can "feel" or "value" particular situations just as human beings. These "feelings" create their internal experiences even within inanimate matter. Whitehead's philosophy perceives elementary particles as "organisms" which embody "data" from the rest of the world and respond to i t . 3 3 4 Such a view makes matter inherently alive. If so, the world must be living and experiencing throughout all its totality. This thought is heretical to the disenchanting modern assumption that beyond reasonable doubt, matter and ultimately the entire world are devoid of any spontaneity, creativity, experiences, history, and life. To understand the world and all it comprises as living and experiencing organisms is a quite deep re-enchantment, isn't it? However, as I shall discuss next, the two steps, the science of complexity and the holonomic paradigm, definitely lead us there. W h i t e h e a d c i t e d in K i r k , 1993 : 5 7 . W h i t e h e a d , 1978 . 137 I Am/, therefore/1 Live/ The edge of chaos where possibility seduce and life dances into being Aha?35 (Lynn Fels) In Whitehead's universe, the stone is an organism comprised of elementary particles, which are smaller organisms, and as such, occasions of experience. For Whitehead, both the stone and I are individuals; the difference is only in our degree of freedom. 3 3 6 Thinking about stones as experiencing individuals is somewhat counterintuitive, however. Who would seriously think about stones as living things? ...Everything is simple in the mechanistic world. If you are human, you have a chance to be a temporarily alive machine, but i f you are a planet, or atom, or stone, there is no chance. Y o u are automatically dead forever and ever. As for plants, time-lapse photography, shows that plants often act as humans. If they feel pain, they retreat from it. If they feel pleasure, they turn to it. They move their fronds—palms toward the sun, so they can drink sunlight. They suffer without affection. They feel stress when eaten. 3 3 7 We do not notice their reactions, but they do.. .react. 3 3 8 They are alive.. .things.... M y daughter studied criteria for separating living things from nonliving things for her science nine class. "It does not make any sense," she said. "Why?" I asked. "How could anything be nonliving i f everything is made of moving particles?" Another question is, are there such things as living things? Answer: l iving things can exist in the mechanistic universe, which is comprised solely of mechanical Fels, 1999. in Griffin et al., 1993. TV Discovery Program. Zukav, 1979: 62. 138 things that have ability to reproduce, to process external information, and to react to this information accordingly. Life, though, cannot be understood mechanically, writes Fritjof Capra. He synthesized new ideas and concepts in physics, mathematics, chemistry, psychology, philosophy, and biology into the emerging non-mechanistic systemic understanding of l i f e . 3 3 9 Capra espouses three essential principles: autopoiesis, dissipative structures, and cognition from which to make a clear distinction between living and non-living systems. The concept autopoiesis, developed by the Chilean neuroscientists Humberto Maturana and Francisco Varela, means the pattern of organization of l iving systems. The term auto means self and poiesis means making™ What does the pattern of organization mean? It is a blueprint, the scheme of an organism's identity. Any living organism constantly exchanges matter and energy with its environment and, therefore, constantly renews itself. We cannot step twice into the same water in a running river. Isn't it fascinating? I look at myself in the mirror and I recognize myself. I look at familiar others and I recognize them as well . We somehow maintain our appearances and identities, but at the same time, we are never the same: .. . i f you could see your body as it really is, you would never see it the same way twice. Ninety-eight percent of the atoms in your body were not there a year ago. The skeleton that seems so solid, was not there three months ago.. .Skin is new every month. Y o u have a new stomach lining every four days, with the actual surface cells that contact food being renewed every five minutes.. .It is as i f you lived in a building, whole bricks were systematically taken out and replaced every year. If you keep the same blueprint, it w i l l still look like the same building. But it won't be the same actually. The human body also stands there looking much the same from day to day, but through the process of digestion, elimination, In Capra, 1996: 169-176. Capra, 1996: 97. 139 and so forth, it is constantly and ever in exchange with the rest of the wor ld . 3 4 1 Liv ing organisms are highly improbable complex systems existing in a state far from equilibrium. While matter and energy continually flow through them, they manage to sustain a stable structure. They are physical manifestations of an autopoietic pattern or blueprint, and as such, they are dissipative structures, brave and skillful enough to exist in a risky and creative space on the edge of chaos. In the terminology of the science of complexity, the blueprint of the organism is the shape of its chaotic butterfly. The third main criterion of life, suggested by Capra, is cognition or the process of knowing. Cognition is traditionally identified with an exclusively human ability to think conceptually and to use language. Recently, Bateson and also Maturana and Varela proposed a new, revolutionary, systemic view on cognition. According to this view, the mind is not the host in the machine or some otherworldly thing. It is a process, which spreads itself throughout entire ecological systems. Gregory Bateson extends the mind into the world: " . . .mind obviously does not stop with the skin. It is also all the pathways outside the skin relevant to the phenomenon you want to account for ." 3 4 3 ( Doesn't it sound holographic?) In light of new understanding, cognition is not exclusively the ability to think, but the ability to live. In order to live, a system has to have a memory, to make decisions, to interact with the environment, and to learn. The l iving entity knows how to live, and therefore is cognitive. ' C h o p r a , 1 9 8 9 : 4 8 - 4 9 . 1 2 B a t e s o n , 1991 ; C a p r a , 1996 ; V a r e l a , T h o m p s o n & R o s h , 1993. 1 3 B a t e s o n , 1991 : 165. 140 This suggests that even the simplest organisms, even entities without brains such as viruses, bacteria, or plants, are capable of cognition. They need to know how to exist in an ever- changing environment. They need to be able to recognize and react to hot and cold, light and darkness, a less concentrated and a more concentrated medium. From the above, I summarize Capra's three key principles of life: l iving systems know how to exist (cognition) maintaining their identity at the edge of chaos (dissipative structure) through constant self-making (autopoiesis) The autopoietic organism continually produces, or makes, or self-organizes itself through self-balancing feedback loops. Loop after loop after loop, marching toward ongoing renewal. Once in a while, however, the loops go awry. They branch off, further and further away from equilibrium until the system reaches a threshold, a "bifurcation point." A new order manifested through increasingly complex dissipative structures spontaneously jumps into existence, propelling the world toward evolution. 3 4 4 As is increasingly understood, evolution does not progress gradually over time through random mutations, but prefers to jump like a kangaroo. The propagation of evolution is a discontinuous process, where long periods of stability are "punctuated by sudden and dramatic transitions." 3 4 5 For Maturana and Varela, evolution is not limited to classic adaptations to the changing of environment. It is a natural drift, where organisms i and the environment co-evolve together. The history of evolution is an ongoing autopoietic process. 3 4 6 The dramatic evolutionary jumps result from instabilities created through innumerable feedback loops between organisms and the environment. A s Capra writes, from the systemic point of view, "evolutionary change is seen as the result of life's 3 4 4 Capra, 1996. 3 4 5 Ibid: 226. 3 4 6 Ibid. 141 inherent tendency to create novelty, which may or may not be accompanied by adaptation to changing environmental conditions." 3 4 7 From the perspective of systemic thinking, life is complex, unpredictable, and inherently creative. Incredibly various in all its appearances, where does life end and where does it begin? Where can we (can we?) draw the line between living and non-living systems? Applying the three Capra's non-mechanistic criteria of life, plants and the most infinitesimal bacteria and viruses are alive since they are dissipative, autopoietic, and cognitive systems. They constantly renew themselves. They know how to live. According to Capra, who synthesized the work of Illia Prigogine, the roots of life can be traced into inanimate chemical systems, which can spontaneously produce organized structures, "hypercycles," through multiple feedback loops. Such hypercycles are stable and capable of self-replication. 3 4 8 "One of the most striking life-like properties," writes Capra, "is that they evolve by passing through instabilities and creating successfully higher levels of self-organization that are characterized by increasing diversity and richness of components and structures." 3 4 9 Are such systems alive then? Capra does not think so, since they do not meet "certain criteria" of life. Unfortunately, he does not specify which criteria are missing. Systemic thinking "stops" life at a level of complex chemical reactions, which can produce lifelike, but not actually living structures. Here, in the kingdom of complex chemical reactions, somewhere between the simplest organisms and chemical C a p r a , 1996 : 2 2 2 . E n z y m a t i c b i o c h e m i c a l react ions . C a p r a , 1996 : 94 . 142 hypercycles, systemic criteria put a "stop sign" for life. What about "up, up" to the galaxies? Where does life stop there? Does it stop at all? Addressing this question, dynamical systems theory "found its beautiful expression" in John Lovelock and Lynn Margulis's Gaia hypothesis, the scientific renaissance of intuitive ancient thoughts about the Earth as a living being. The essence of the Gaia hypothesis is that " . . .earth can be regarded as a single living system, which I f A includes the biosphere, the atmosphere, the oceans, and soil ." " This huge l iving system regulates and sustains all of the conditions necessary for the survival of life. These conditions would include, for example (among other things), the distribution of raw materials throughout the surface of the planet, the stable abundance of oxygen (21%), the salinity of the oceans (3.5%), and the average temperature of the earth's surface (10-20°C), despite the estimated increase of heat from the sun (appoximately 30%) over the past 3 bil l ion years. 3 5 1 Just as your or my body regulate themselves, Gaia regulates her temperature, the salinity of her oceans, and the composition of her atmosphere. Realizing that, Lovelock concluded: Consider Gaia theory as an alternative to the to the conventional wisdom that sees the Earth as a dead planet made of inanimate rocks, ocean, and atmosphere, and merely inhabited by life. Consider it as a real system, comprising all of life and all of its environment tightly coupled so as to form a self-regulating entity. 3 5 2 In the Gaia theory, rocks, animals, humans, microorganisms, and plants are not separate things. They are interconnected into the incredible web of Gaia's life. In this sense, the concept environment loses its meaning since everything becomes part of an ever changing, ever new life. Just as our bodies constantly renew themselves while ,u L o v e l o c k , 1980. G r e e n , 1998: 181. l 2 L o v e l o c k c i t e d i n C a p r a , 1996: 103. 143 maintaining their identity, the body of Gaia constantly renews itself as well . Plants, humans, even mountains come and go, enfold and unfold, in and out of existence, within the ongoing process of kaleidoscopic autopoietic changes. In addition to this, Gaia is definitely a cognitive being since she knows how to exist. For some inexplicable reason, the thought that Gaia might be alive makes my heart melt. It makes me think about stars and galaxies... Are they alive? Michael Green synthesized views of contemporary astrophysicists who are convinced that all galaxies are .. .literally alive in the full biological meaning of the term. [They have] been produced by a process of evolution and competition within the Universe... [and the] end-product of this evolutionary process has been spiral galaxies that are very efficient supernova nurseries. 3 5 3 In the universe there are at least fifty bil l ion galaxies. Each galaxy contains about a hundred bill ion stars. Quite an impressive population of stars, isn't it? Stars live, stars die and new stars are born again. A familiar cycle of life. Some stars, like our yellow sun die quietly after fusing all available hydrogen into helium, but massive blue-white stars die violently. They explode, providing the raw material for the birth of brilliant new stars. Galaxies are able to retain their life by the continuous recycling of gaseous molecular material, condensing it into young, bright, shining stars. Galactic scientists illustrate the autopoietic nature of galaxies when they describe the whole process of a supernovae ejecting material into "new giant molecular clouds" as one of "continuous reproduction" which is a "self-regulating" natural feedback process . 3 5 4 Scientists increasingly use biological terminology in relation to galaxies. They talk about "ecosystems," "population dynamics," and "baby-universes." They compare the evolution of galaxies with the evolution of life on earth. 3 5 3 Green, 1998: 153. 3 5 4 I b i d : 155. 144 The dramatic implication is that many—perhaps all the black holes that form in our Universe may be the seeds of new universes. And , of course, our own Universe may have been born in this way out of a black hole in another universe.. ..the fact that the laws of physics in our Universe seem to be rather precisely 'fine tuned' to encourage the formation of black holes means that they are actually fine tuned for the production of more universes.. ..If one universe exists, then it seems that there must be many—very many, perhaps even an infinite number of universes. Our Universe has to be seen as just one component of a vast array of universes, a self-reproducing system connected only by the 'tunnels' through spacetime (perhaps better regarded as cosmic umbilical cords) that join a 'baby' universe to its 'parent.' It is relatively easy to see how such family of universes can continue to exist, and reproduce, once something like our own Universe exists. " From the electronic journal Science Now356 Austin, Texas— Astronomers have identified what may be the most massive single structure yet seen in the universe. The structure, a ribbon of exceptionally rich clusters of galaxies, stretches across at least 400 million light-years of the southern hemisphere sky, according to research presented today at a meeting of the American Astronomical Society. Galaxies like our Milky Way tend to clump into tight groups of a few to a dozen of galaxies, which form clusters with hundreds or thousands of members. Finally, ten or more clusters can assemble into vast super clusters, which astronomers consider the largest coherent "objects" in the cosmos. These structures seem to form spidery filaments, leaving behind gaping voids. Because gravity's attraction is relentless but modest, it requires the universe's lifetime to form super clusters like this one... They are quite difficult to find, because they are in the process of being born...we are watching the birth of the newest, largest things in the universe. The universe constantly self-organizes itself, evolving toward complexity. Self-organization as we know is the very essence and characteristic of life. I agree with Capra, who says that it is "philosophically and spiritually more satisfying to assume that the cosmos as a whole is alive, rather than thinking of life on Earth existing in the lifeless universe." " It is so lonely to be alone in the universe... G r i b b i n , 1993: 2 4 5 . I ron , 1999: 1. C a p r a , 1996: 2 1 7 . 145 From the vantage point of systemic thinking, the world appears to be living on a larger scale. Systemic worldview is therefore ecological or biological rather than mechanistic. Such a view re-enchants the world, overcoming fragmentations of mechanicism by connecting all animate and inanimate systems into network relationships in the web of life. From the systemic perspective, Gaia and Cosmos are possibly living systems. The stone, however, is not as lucky. The most it can hope for is to be part of a network between animate and inanimate systems. B y itself, the stone is not a living, nor an experiencing entity. It does not appear to be autopoietic, dissipative, or cognitive system, and it is incapable of structural coupling with the environment. -ICQ Structural coupling is a concept introduced by Maturana and Varela. It is the process of ongoing interactions of the system with the environment that "stimulates structural changes in the system." For instance, the stone and the dog interact with the environment differently. "Kick ing the stone and kicking the dog are two different stories." " The stone, as a nonliving entity, reacts to being kicked passively and linearly. It wi l l not get angry for such an impolite action. Its movement w i l l obey simple mechanical cause-effect laws. We can predict the trajectory of the kicked stone through formulas of classic physics. The dog, however, w i l l react stubbornly and unpredictably. It may run away, bark at you, or even bite you. So, you may learn something from this experience. Y o u may not want to kick the dog anymore. The dog perhaps learned something too. It may decide to stay as far away as possible from you. According to Capra, " a living organism responds to environmental influences with structural changes, these changes wi l l in turn alter its future behavior. In 3 5 8 Capra, 1996: 66. 146 other words, a structurally coupled system is a learning system." The dog may learn not to approach you anymore. The stone did not learn anything. It remains on the road, passively awaiting its destiny. If you are in a particular mood, you can easily kick it again. That is "because, of its structural coupling, we call the behavior of animal intelligent, but we would not apply that term to the behavior of the rock." We think stones do not react to anything. But can we be absolutely sure? Maybe they do react, but very slowly. Maybe to detect their reactions, we need time-lapse photography, which requires millennia between exposures!" But...since a millennium is not a convenient interval of measurement for us, we have no way to prove or disprove whether stones react or not. How can we be absolutely sure that the stone's only response to being kicked is its movement in accordance with the laws of classic physics? How can we be certain the stone did not sense anything intrinsically? D i d not learn anything? How can we assume that particles inside the kicked stone do not feel differently than particles in a non-kicked stone? This is where the disenchantment is hidden. Endowing Nature with life and creativity at a macro-level, the systemic view leaves it ultimately dead at a micro-level. From the systemic perspective, Gaia and even galaxies are perhaps alive. Matter itself, however, although self-organizing and active, is still somewhat mechanistic, dead, and lost in the labyrinth of random nonlinear feedback loops. No internal experiences, purposes, or intentions exist in the world of "systemic" matter. I feel sorry for the stone in the mechanistic or systemic universe. How boring it must be to exist for centuries and centuries, without memories or experiences. How 3 6 0 Ibid: 68. 3 6 1 Capra, 1996: 69. 3 6 2 Zukav, 1979: 63. 147 terrible it must be to know you wi l l never learn anything, even i f kicked. In the holographic world the stone has more hope. Recall G r o f s experiments, where people in a holotropic state of consciousness were able to describe experiences of a stone, mountain, sun, or atom. Such experiences "make it easy to understand the beliefs of animistic cultures that see the universe as being ensouled. From their perspective, not only all the animals, but also the rivers, the mountains, the sun, the moon, and the stars appear to be sentient beings." 3 6 3 The holographic model of the world, where each stone, each human, and each atom imbody the entire Cosmos appears to support Whitehead's panexperientialism. In Whitehead's organic and experiencing world, internal relationships are the central issue. Through these relationships all entities "internalize" the rest of the universe, "creating a unity which is unique to i t . " 3 6 4 Each particle knows what others are up to. What could be more holographic? In the Whitehead's world as well as in the holographic one, atoms are alive and experiencing entities. From the position of the science of complexity, atoms are self-organizing systems, but are not living. From my perspective, however, atoms seem to satisfy Capra's three criteria of living systems as autopoietic, dissipative, and cognitive entities. This is what David Griffin, in The Reenchantment of Science, writes: Scientists found that imaging and memory seem necessary to understand the behavior of bats and bees. Daniel Koshland and his colleagues have provided evidence of rudimentary forms of both "memory" and "decision" in bacteria. There is reason to believe that D N A and R N A macromolecules are not simply passive entities, which change as their parts are changed, but that they are active organisms, which actively transport their parts. It has been suggested that the G r o f , 1998: 17. Whitehead, 1978. 148 Pauli Principle provides the reason to think of an atom as a self-regulating whole . 3 6 5 The Pauli Exclusion Principle is "a rule stating that no two electrons in an atom can have the same quantum numbers."' In other words, this rule organizes electrons within an atom. If you open any quantum physics book, you wi l l learn that there is a whole zoo of particles within the atom. Literally hundreds. Photons, electrons, muons, tau, neutrino, pions, kaons, eta, protons, neutrons, lamdas, sigmas, omegas, and many others. Within this madness of variety, no single particle remains still. Not only do particles move frantically at crazy speeds; they also annihilate, vanish into "nothing," and then new particles re-appear into existence. "This happens when particles interact and it also happens, literally, out of nowhere... The subatomic world is a continual dance of creation and annihilation, of mass that changes into energy and energy that changes into mass." 3 6 7 Where are particles going when they disappear? Recalling quantum-vacuum interaction (QVI) hypothesis, elementary particles are solitions, the waves of the informational holofield that are coming into a seemingly separate existence and then merging back into the quantum vacuum implicate realm to share their experiences with the entire holographic world and to give birth to new solitions. Amazingly, atoms manage to maintain their identity despite the ongoing flux of subatomic quanta in and out of material existence. This means that the atom continuously renews itself, yet manages to remain an integrate whole. It sustains its dissipative structure within the ongoing process of autopoiesis. The atom of each element, despite 3 6 5 G r i f f i n , 1988: 15. 3 6 6 Q u a n t u m n u m b e r s ~ n , 1, m l t m s . T h e first three q u a n t u m n u m b e r s charac te r i ze the orb i t a l that de sc r ibe s the r e g i o n o f space w h e r e an e l ec t ron is m o s t l i k e l y to be f o u n d ; we say that the e l e c t r o n " o c c u p i e s " the orb i t a l . T h e s p i n n u m b e r , m s de sc r ibe s the s p i n or ienta t ion o f an e l e c t r o n . 3 6 7 Z u k a v , 1979: 197. 149 the constant process of particles' change, is able to preserve the pattern of organization, keeping the number of particles constant. For instance, an atom of oxygen has eight protons, eight neutrons, and eight electrons and within its neutrons and protons, a plethora of subatomic quanta constantly enfold into and unfold from the quantum informational holofield. Just a slight variation in the number of particles triggers a dramatic qualitative change. Nitrogen has only one fewer protons, neutrons, and electrons than oxygen, but it possesses very different properties. In order to preserve its identity, each atom is extremely careful in maintaining a certain pattern of organization. A soap opera "Days of the Physical Science in Elementary Schools Course" F i l l in the blank space: A dXx*XovfU& betweerv eZe/ynerxty iw the* periodic/ table*: Calcium/: Hey, neighbour! How many electrons- do-you* have*? PotcvyyLuwv: That iy actually not a* very polite* question/, but since* you* are* my neighbor, I will tell you*... I have* Calcium/. Just ? / Potassium/: Yes-... So-what? Calclurn*: Nothing/...iti^/justp electron* (y) richer! Elements in the periodic table illustrate a natural evolution towards increasing complexity. Today humans pick up Nature's torch and expand her creativity. They artificially create unstable complex elements, such as Mendelevium, Nobelium, and others. The evolution of elements is still going on. . . . Thus far, atoms satisfy two main criteria of l iving beings: autopoesis and dissipative structures. The third criterion is cognition. Hmm...they definitely "know" how to exist and so must possess some kind of mentality. As physicist Johnes writes, "the modern theory of matter begs the question. " It explains the symmetries of crystals in 150 terms of the arrays and lattices, but does not explain how "mindless" particles know how to make a snowflake. 3 6 8 Some scientists think, "crystals and D N A molecules show signs of memory, and even atoms and elementary particles have propensities." 3 6 9 According to the Q V I concept, memories and intentions of particles could be the result of their ongoing interactions with quantum vacuum holofield. Being manifestations of the undivided unity, they know everything the universe knows and vice versa. Thus, from the perspective of three systemic criteria of life, particles are perhaps not inanimate. In Bohm's experiments with high-temperature plasma electrons behaved as i f they were aware of the whole to which they belong. Michael Talbot describes Bohm's amazement: Although their individual movements appeared random, vast number of electrons were able to produce effects that were surprisingly well-organized. Like some amoeboid creature, the plasma constantly regenerated itself and enclosed all impurities in a wall in the same way that a biological organism might encase a foreign substance in a cyst. So struck by these organic qualities, he later remarked frequently, he had the impression that the electron sea was "a l ive" . 3 7 1 Later, working with electrons in metals, Bohm observed the same phenomenon. As a whole, electrons behaved not in a disordered way as a crowd does, but rather they exhibited a choreographed movement as ballet dancers. Is matter inherently alive? Quantum physicist Alan W o l f believes it is. " M y new view was that matter is fundamentally alive; that life exists everywhere, even in a table and chair. Life cannot be explained just by mechanical action." 8 Johnes, 1982. 9 Griffin, 1988: 19. 0 Talbot, 1991. 'Talbot, 1991:40. 2 Wolf, 1991: 164. 151 Another physicist, Nick Herbert, writes: The commonsense belief that stars, rocks, and atoms are unconscious has no real scientific basis and should rightly be regarded as groundless superstition. The belief that matter is "dead" has the same experimental status as the opposite animistic belief that matter is "alive". Both beliefs rest on equal logical footing, although, the animist can in his favor point to at least one material system that is 'alive' while the materialist cannot point to any kind of matter that he knows with a certainty is 'dead'. The real status of the inner life of 'inanimate' objects awaits for its resolution by a deeper kind of science than we currently possess. 3 7 3 From the overlap of insights of the science of complexity, a holographic model of the world, and panexperientialism hypothesis, the world appears to be experiencing, self-renewing, self-organizing, and cognitive, and therefore alive, throughout all its totality, from galaxies to the subatomic lands. In such a world, " . . .even a rock is in some way alive, for life and intelligence is not only in all matter, but in energy, space, time, the fabric of the entire universe, and everything else we abstract out of the holomovement and mistakenly view as separate things." 3 7 4 In a huge living hologram, according to Bohm, the clear cut between living and nonliving things loses its meaning. At this point, let's return to our stone, patiently awaiting its destiny. In the mechanistic universe, where matter is dead, inert, and passive, the only results of your kicking the stone wi l l be its movement and perhaps a subtle deformation of the stone's structure and tiny temperature changes due to friction between your foot and the stone's surface. The situation is different in the l iving holographic universe that learns immediately about the experience of the particles within the kicked stone through quantum-vacuum interactions. The information from this experience wi l l be stored forever and ever in the universal hologram. Each small event "writes i t s e l f into the 3 7 3 H e r b e r t , 1993 : 13. 3 7 4 B o h m , c i t e d i n H e r b e r t , 1993: 50 . 152 holographic interference pattern within a deeper informational reality, simultaneously changing both implicate and explicate orders. The entire unbroken wholeness learns, and the ability to learn is the very essence of life. Amazingly, life itself appears to have holographic properties. Genetic engineering has been able to produce a replica of a parental organism, a clone, from the nucleus of a single cell. I recently watched a T V program about genetic engineering. "Dol ly , " a famous sheep, was cloned from a single cell. "It is amazing," exclaimed one scientist, "each tiny cell enfolds the entire information of a sheep!" The camera moved from the microscopic cell to the cheerful sheep. It was as impressive as it was holographic... Thinking that our universe is alive throughout all its holographic totality, I almost want to cry, experiencing a warm and sentimental feeling. I agree with Rupert Sheldrake who writes: " A s soon as we allow ourselves to think of the world as being alive, we recognize that a part of us knew this all long. It is like emerging from winter into a new spring." 3 7 5 So far, three steps into re-enchantment have taken us into the complex, holographic, l iving, and experiencing world, where atoms, the Cosmos, and I are reciprocally enfolded within each other. If so, the universe must possess not only a physical body, but also those qualities that mechanistic science regarded as being strictly human. This means that the re-enchanted world is aware of my sorrow, joy, music, poetry, dreams, and imagination... Sheldrake, 1990: 188. 153 Welcome' tv\£crlmagw\ary VCm^^ruyyiy Ken Wilber believes that our reality has not only exterior dimensions, but also interior dimensions of "consciousness and spirituality (imagination, intuition, myth, soul, "inf. spirit, value, morals, ethic, and art)."" According to the famous Copenhagen interpretation of quantum theory, "the universe simply does not make sense—and cannot satisfactorily be explained—without the inclusion, in some profound way, of consciousness itself." 3 7 7 David Bohm speculated that the deeper implicate order of reality might well be pure consciousness. Contemporary String Theory placed our universe in a ten-dimensional fabric of spacetime. Vibrations of four dimensions give us physical spacetime. "Vibrations of the unseen fifth dimension reproduces properties of light. Similarly, by adding more and more dimensions, we can reproduce higher forces, such as a weak and strong nuclear forces." From the vantage point of ten dimensions, all particles and interactions in the universe can be unified into one panorama (a holograml). The recently formulated M-theory (magic-theory!) suggests that the universe might exist in eleven dimensions. 3 8 0 Intriguingly, some scientists add imaginary dimensions in addition to physical ones: The new dimensions differ in at least two ways from space and time. Space and time are "exterior" dimensions in which the fundamental particles move; the new dimensions are "interior" consisting of degrees of freedom associated with changes in intrinsic particle properties such as spin and charge. So far, these new dimensions have been used to explain only the world's physical properties, but the very notion of an interior dimension is suggestive to the possibility of a true unification of forces that would 381 include the powers of mind along with conventional physical forces. 6 Wilber, 1998: 58. 7 Wilber, 1998: 2. 8 B o h m & H i l e y , 1992. 9 Kaku, 1997: 349. °Maddox, 1999. 1 Herbert, 1993: 279-280. 154 In his book Complex Relativity Theory, Jean Charon suggests there are dimensions of universal inner experience; "every real dimension has an imaginary 382 counterpart whose properties are measurable in mental terms."' Another model of a multidimensional universe, hyperspace crystallography, proposed by the Consciousness Theory Group, includes forty-eight dimensions of physical space and even more in the 383 mental realm. In The Seven Dimensions as the Keys to a General Theory of the Universe, philosopher Donald Scott includes love and peace as universal imaginary dimensions. 3 8 4 Let's not forget bizarre square roots of negative numbers, these imaginary entities that somehow belong to the real world. They appear to be messengers connecting imaginary and physical dimensions: while being nonexistent, they are demonstrably vital for modeling diversity of natural forms. Asks Sheldrake: "Could creativity on Earth be a product of the imagination of Gaian mind? And could such an imagination, working through the natural world, be the basis of evolutionary creativity in nature the same as in the human realm?" 3 8 5 Now we are entering a very deep re-enchantment. In addition to being complex, holographic, and living, our reality might well be conscious and imaginative. Philosopher. Martin Heidegger understands the imagination as a "unity-building power" that projects "horizons": Heidegger sees the imagination much as a farmer sowing seeds in the field, sketching a horizon in which objectivity is to be countered. Things wi l l come into being. Thus it is that the comprehension of Being takes place within a horizon, and imagination provides Herbert, 1993: 280. 1 Herbert, 1993. 1 Scott, 1996. ; Cited in Laszlo, 1995:43. 155 that horizon. This is truly exiting! The science of complexity, while recognizing creativity in nature, reduces it to countless feedback loops. The holonomic paradigm places natural creativity into the realm of quantum-vacuum interactions through which the holographic universe orchestrates its own evolution via subtle converging corrections. But I still wonder, where the criteria for universal corrections are coming from? Could it be that they come out of the universal imagination, that is Heidegger's "unity-building power"? Could it be that the huge cosmic organism imagines itself? Even more, could it be that the "driving force" of this "unimaginable" universal imagination is pure enjoyment? For Alfred North Whitehead, enjoyment is Nature's aim and purpose in creating: B y this term "aim" is meant the exclusion of the boundless wealth of alternative potentiality, and the inclusion of that definite factor of novelty which constitutes the selected way of entertaining those data in that process of unification. The aim is at that complex of feeling which is the enjoyment of those data in that way. "That way of enjoyment" is selected from the boundless wealth of alternatives. It has been aimed at for actualization in that process. Perhaps Nature enjoys creating novelty as much as a child enjoys drawing colorful pictures, or as a poet enjoys writing poetry. Michaly Csikszentmihalyi observes that enjoyment is a program for human creativity. 3 8 9 Human creativity is an extension of Nature's creativity, and i f so, the mysterious quantum leaps, the spontaneous emergence of complex dissipative structures, the formation of new universal holographic patterns, the outburst of a poem, the formulation of scientific laws, the birth of new galaxies, all of M u r r a y , 1986 : 63-64 . F o r m o r e detai l s p lease return to the p a g e 119. W h i t e h e a d , c i t e d i n K i r k , 1991 : 66 . C s i k s z e n t m i h a l y i , 1996. 156 these are manifestations of a unified cosmic creative force, which is driven by pure enjoyment! Once upon a time, I lived right on the ocean. It was a great gift because it gave me the chance to notice something not so pronounced in urban settings. Day-by-day, I looked at the grandiose spectacle, in deep amazement by the talent behind Nature's art. It was especially impressive in the early mornings, as if someone who created all of that had afresh look after a night's rest. Exhibitions of clouds danced above the water and incredible palettes of colours never repeated themselves. Such creations manifested a truly rich imagination. The moon hung too huge and too golden to be real and the sun rose too smiling to believe. It was pure enchantment without unnecessary definitions. No way something like that could spring exclusively from mindless feedback loops... The/ p e^ufaXlum/ S w ivwfa B ovch to- the/ future;. AyAbove/ yo-Below I find myself not in a world but as a world which is neither compulsive nor capricious. What happens is neither automatic nor arbitrary; it just happens, and all happenings are mutually interdependent in a way that seems unbelievably harmonious. Every this goes with every that. Without others there is no self, and without somewhere else there is no here, so that— in this sense—self is other and here and there.390 (Alan Watts) What a dizzying nonlinear quantum leap! Just like a mad scientist in his funky time machine, we spiraled back to the future. We leaped into the living, experiencing, conscious, feeling, imaginative, and mysterious macrocosm that resembles the enchanted holistic organic world of alchemists and astrologers. As above so below. A l l in all. Omnia omnibus. Unity in multiplicity. Unbroken wholeness. The materia frima was. original chaos, it was, ma^uj th ings and had m a n y it was, cold, silent, and strangely stwl-rtal. it Is nothing (yet), and everything (In •potentla), It Is all th ings that wait to exlst.3-?1 3 9 0 W a t t s , 1966 : 116. 157 Here we are again. We arrived in the kingdom of ancient materia prima, which at the same time could be the land of hidden complex chaotic butterflies, which at the same time could be a shimmering sea of quantum probability waves, which at the same time could be an informational vacuum holofield, which at the same time could be a breathing magical world where something that seems to be, actually is not... " A world dies when its metaphor has died," said Archibald MacLeish. Today the rusty modern Machine is being collapsed under the pressure of new scientific insights. Starting with quantum mechanics, new developments in various scientific fields self-organize themselves into a new order of complexity, stating boldly the necessity to re-conceptualize radically the nature of reality. "Finally,"the universe perhaps thinks, "I am not a machine anymore!" Indeed, j today it can enjoy a plethora of metaphoric choices: "Great Thought", "Unfolding Flower," "Hologram", "Garden", "Self-organizing Being", "Breathing Cathedral", or "Cosmic Organism". Such plurality of metaphors suggests that the emerging post-mechanistic world remains under creation; however, there is something undoubtedly common to all these metaphors. They portray an organic world. When I perceive the world as not mechanistic but organic, I feel more comfortable imagining that "the same currents running through our human blood run through swirling galaxies and colossal solar systems." This, in turn, gives me a conceptual comfort for imagining a deeply re-enchanted science curriculum that educates a holographic sense of oneness with the living world. To imagine such 3 9 1 Burckhard, 1960: 85. 3 9 2 Cited in Johnes, 1982. 3 9 3 Maffet, 1991. 158 curriculum into existence, I shall conceptualize a holonomic inquiry as the research methodology that fertilizes a great holarchy of becoming a unity with the organic world. Thus you can throw yourself flat on the ground, stretched out upon Mother Earth, with the certain conviction that you are one with her and she with you.394 (Ervin Shroedinger) If we knew how to access it, we could find the Andromeda galaxy in the thumbnail of our left hand.395 (Michael Talbot) 1. hxyUyvuyyyiic/ Oirxquiry for h&fyOvwuzry Writes Carl Leggo: I want research that begins in a place of unknowing, with a leap of faith, a courageous willingness to embark on a journey. I want research that seeks out mysteries and acknowledges even muddled, mad, mesmerizing miasma that rises up as a kind of breath and breathing, connected with the pulsing and compelling rhythms of the heart. 3 9 6 A "place of unknowing," as suggested by poet and academic Leggo, seems to be a perfect place from which to begin my holonomic inquiry. This place is a chaotic shadowy sea of shimmering quantum probabilities that cannot wait to become written into the ever-changing holographic pattern of a chaotic quantum vacuum field, and then actualize into the ever-emerging explicate phenomenal world. E r v i n S h r o u e d i n g e r , c i t ed in W a t t s , 1967: 100. T a l b o t , 1993: 50 . L e g g o , 1999: 120. 159 M y purpose of my holonomic inquiry is to change the universe (s). No more, no less. This might sound a little ambitious, but let us remember that quantum theory stated a hundred years ago that even the most "innocent" measurements and the most "detached" observations inevitably change the world, whether we want it or not. Our every step, our every word, and our every decision recreate reality. We cannot escape ourselves in our research. Using the "river" metaphor, the holonomic observer is not one who sits on the edge of the stream and not even one who navigates the boat. The observer is the stream itself. She or he is a self-organizing wave, a whirlpool, an eddy of the ever flowing and changing river of reality. 3 9 7 Quantum leap by quantum leap, holographic pattern by holographic pattern, the observer and the observed co-evolve together as one unbroken wholeness. Through the observer the observable observes itself. WHO OBSERVES WHO? The/ Observer to- they Observed/: I would/ like/ to- observe/you/! The/ Observed/ to- the/ Observer: Oh, how nice/! We/have/ mutual Interests! We all participate in an ongoing weave of holographic resonance patterns of our ever-new world. We have no choice. We are hopelessly entangled with our reality. Holonomic inquiry states this phenomenon boldly, saying that I am the world, and through me the world constantly re-imagines and re-creates itself. quantum/ leap by quantum/leap I weave/ my holographic/pattern* thread/by thread/ from/ a/ chaotuy web-3 9 7 T h r u s t y , 1991. 160 I knit atoms I design galaxies theshimmering/dance-of thepoisible worlds entangled/ within me* I, atoms, and galaxies leap in a dl^ying tango-ofour entanglement quantum/leap by quantum/leap... Quantum leap by quantum leap, with a "leap of faith," I wi l l create a pathway for my journey and by creating it, I w i l l recreate the universe, which wi l l never be the same again. Mindful of this cosmic responsibility, my holonomic inquiry follows the poet's invitation to connect the mysteries of the breathing world with the "pulsing and compelling rhythms" of my heart. Entering research through the heart opens the door into inner dimensions of my soul with all its obscurity, passions, and obsessions. That is why holonomic inquiry requires thorough preparations. Never should we attempt re-creating world (s) while having a "dirty" soul. The results could be disastrous! I was responsible for everything that I was experiencing, for everything that had ever happened. I was looking into the face of my creation. I did this. I am doing this. I chose for all this to happen. I chose to create all these horrible, horrible worlds ." 3 9 8 A SPUING. CLEANING OE MY SOUL In the middle of the autumn I began spring cleaning; a/ little too- late but better late than never. I swept away the garbage/ of envy and/anger 3 9 8 Grof, 1998. 161 from/the/ dark/ corners of my soul/, then washed/ the* Spots of evil and greediness, then/polished/ up several/ dusty friendships. They shine/ like/ new again. I unlocked/ my souls rusty dresser drawers and unexpectedly found/ several/ thousand forgotten smiles-. I think/1 still can use/ them/. 0 n/the/broken old-shelves-of my souls library 1 discovered/ hundreds- of voluminous-poetry books-, fragments of beautiful music, a/bottle/of love/potion/, pieces-of breathtaking/ art, chaotiopaXl s of memories', and- dreams-aboutthe/ future/ which needed/to-be/ brought into- a/ reasonable/ state/ of order. After thoroughly washing* the* doors and windows of my soul, I opened them/ widely inviting/ in the/clean/ rains-, the/ radiant rainbows, and. the/ fresh winds '• Hello-, world! M y inquiry is an invitation rather than search. It invites to re-imagine, to re-create the world and consequently school science curriculum. To do that, I need "courageous willingness" and a "leap of faith." Today science curriculum is "geared to a materialistic, deterministic, atomistic, reductionist, and objective vision of the universe." 3 9 9 Do I have enough power to shake the thick and strong chain that links modern science education to a rusty, old machine and to move it into complex, holographic, and living reality? This task Gough, 1987: 4-5. 162 is challenging, but the pulse of my heart "pushes" me onto this path, a path I approach intuitively through years of living and teaching. In the mechanistic universe, the research methodology has to be "crystal cut." Messiness of obscure variables is not accepted for high-quality research. "Crystal cut" sounds good and clean, but there is a problem. Reductionist cuts, I 'm afraid, w i l l k i l l the living, complex, holographic, unpredictable, mysterious, chaotic, and ever-becoming world of re-enchanted science education. To imagine this new world into existence, I need research that dances on the edge of chaos, that walks through "a maze whose walls rearrange themselves with every step you take." This metaphor, writes Patton, "fits a great deal of fieldwork in real-world settings, but the implication can be threatening to our need for order that we ignore the rearranging walls and describe the maze with a single static diagram." 4 0 0 I realize that the richness, fuzziness, and wholeness of the deeply re-enchanted world cannot be imprisoned within prosaic static diagrams. This is why, "/ want research that hangs out in the spaces between a poetics of possibility and a poetics of impossibility. "40! The rational "irrationale" of re-enchanted science curriculum is to develop a sense of unity with the world, to grow a unique cosmos from each young human being, to enable students "to see the same currents running through our human blood that run through swirling galaxies and colossal solar systems." However, before I expect a transformation in the students' worldview, I need to undergo my own transformation. This means, I need to re-imagine my own world and for this purpose, I need to conduct a 4 0 0 Pa t ton , 1990 : 82 . 4 0 1 L e g g o , 1999: 122. 163 holonomic inquiry, which fertilizes a great holarchy of becoming unified with the living world. The holonomic inquiry is aimed at helping me to move out from the fragmented dead mechanistic reality where I lived and taught science for so very long. Conducting this inquiry, I hope to re-create my universe, and therefore to re-design its intricate holographic patterns, quantum leap by quantum leap toward an increasing order of complexity, via the flight of a chaotic butterfly. 2. Lv\£ric(xte/ qua/ntum/ leovpy of uruA/erye/ (y) re?-creation/ (y) "We will do it, whether we want it or not. " These were the words of a scientist on a recent T V program about genetic engineering. Fascination with human potential to choreograph the evolution of the universe has started to penetrate public media. In a Vancouver Sun article Building a Better Mouse Brain May Make Humans Smarter, scientist Arthur Caplan writes, " . . .what we are looking at are baby steps toward a world in which we can design our descendants." 4 0 2 Emerging empowered science, based on synergy between quantum revolution, biomolecular revolution, and the computer revolution, is rapidly increasing its capability to seize Nature's torch in the process of ongoing creation. We will do it, whether we want it or not. This could be taken as an adage of the cosmic creative principle, the elemental force that is deeply embedded in our inner dimension. 4 0 3 In The Eye of Spirit: An Integral Vision for a World Gone Slightly Mad, philosopher Ken Wilber synthesized contemporary integral studies of human consciousness, "a series of multidisciplinary, multicultural, and multimodal approaches 4 0 2 V a n c o u v e r S u n , T h u r s d a y , S e p t e m b e r 2, 1999 : 1. 4 0 3 G r o f , 1998 . 164 that together promise an exhaustive mapping of the entire range of consciousness." These studies, involving hundreds of researchers and embracing both East and West, history and the present, "are rapidly piecing together a master template —a spectrum of consciousness—using the various approaches to f i l l in any gaps left by the others." 4 0 5 So far, the findings of state-of-the-art consciousness research echo spiritual mystic visions of perennial philosophy. The growing field of contemporary transpersonal psychology, inter alia, indicates that the essence of a human being is not merely "skin-encapsulated ego." 4 0 6 To the contrary, the human psyche has transpersonal cosmic origins and the boundaries between individual human existence and the rest of the world are illusory and arbitrary. Each human is an intelligent Cosmos in itself. Sounds holographic, doesn't it? As psychotherapist Stanislav Grof writes, such a vision is indeed consistent with the holographic model of the world and, of course, it is at odds with the mechanistic perception of human consciousness as an accidental by-product of evolving passive matter. The findings of my research and contemporary consciousness research in general essentially confirm and support the position of ancient teachings. They are thus in radical conflict with the most fundamental assumptions of materialistic science concerning consciousness, human nature, and the nature of reality. They clearly indicate that consciousness is not a product of the brain, but a primary principle of existence, and that it plays a critical role in the creation of the phenomenal wor ld . 4 0 7 In the light of consciousness research, all the intricate diversities of our phenomenal world may well manifest the art and creations of Supreme Absolute consciousness (implicate order? quantum vacuum holofield? primordial Chaos!) driven 4 0 4 Wilber, 1997. 4 0 5 Grof, 1998: 30. 4 0 6 Ibid: 30. 4 0 7 Ibid: 7. 165 to actualize its "pre-existing potentialities." Since no boundaries exist between the individual and the Cosmos, each human life is "the cosmic creative principle itself, and each of us is ultimately identical with a divine source of creation. We thus are, "collectively and individually, both playwrights and actors in this cosmic drama." 4 0 8 We are both, creators and creations in this incredible, mysterious world. We will do it, whether we want it or not. The cosmic creative principle pulses within our hearts. This elemental cosmic force "pushes" us to weave the holographic patterns of our reality, leaving us with no choice but to create. It is not up to us to stop the flow of this force, but perhaps it is up to us to choose its direction. Do humans absolutely have to invent new weapons? We are responsible for the reality we create. However, how do we actually create our reality? QUANTUM LEAP: My bodily irareUA^ence/ enx>dyl^ holographlopatterns of chaotic- implicate/ order into-the phenomenal/ e^llcate world/. Quantum mechanical experiments illuminate an intriguing phenomenon, the observer effect, which is a sudden change in a physical world ascribed to the actions of consciousness. It appears that the act of observation forces the world into material existence out of a shimmering sea of quantum probabilities. From the perspective of the holographic vision of the world, quantum probabilities are written into the blur of apparently chaotic, semi-real, ever-shifting, ever-changing holographic interference patterns of quantum vacuum holofield. As a laser beam, my brain "reads" vague G r o f , 1998 : 39 . 166 universal hologram patterns into the phenomenal world with "tools" provided to me from my birth as a human. To me, this holographic scenario is compatible with the vision of Afred North Whitehead, who distinguishes between "sense-reception" and "sense-perception." 4 0 9 The sense-reception is a primitive, obscure awareness of a chaotic primordial world. This type of experience is "vague, haunting, unmanageable." This "heavy, primitive" awareness constitutes "experience dominating primitive organisms." This sense-perception is the construction of our sense organs and our brain. It arranges the world into shapes, forms, sounds, and colours as they are perceived by humans. "It displays a world concealed under an adventitious show, a show of our own bodily production." 4 1 0 M y body, therefore, is the very first instrument for creating my phenomenal reality. We perceive the world through our human frame, and, therefore, we can more or less reach consensus as to how reality appears to us. However, to other experiencing beings, reality appears different. A s Husserl stated, our knowing the world is not objective, but intersubjective. 4 1 1 The more differences in the scheme of beings, the less similar the universe appears to them. If, for instance, my co-researcher was a worm, I don't think our consensus about how the world looks or tastes or smells could be easily reached despite the worm's being quite a respected scientist in the wormy community. The worm knows a different world. Its bodily intelligence would translate the holographic patterns differently. Or, I would perhaps hurt a spider's feelings i f I ever described her spider web in gray colours, as it appears to me. For the ultraviolet-sensitive eyes of insects, the spider 4 0 9 W h i t e h e a d , 1959. 4 1 0 W h i t e h e a d , 1 9 5 9 : 4 3 - 4 4 . 4 1 1 T h e w o r k o f E d m u n d H u s s e r l s y n t h e s i z e d in A b r a m , 1996. 167 web is a brightly coloured piece of art. The spider and I share the same, yet different worlds. If our reality is indeed holographic, the observer effect is the act of translating seemingly chaotic patterns of the universal hologram into a phenomenal world of forms, patterns, shapes, smells, sounds, and tastes..I look at a beautiful tree wearing its fashionable dress of autumn colors. In order to observe it, I did not organize any lab experiments and did not measure anything. I simply and innocently looked at the tree. However, I altered reality by my observation. M y bodily intelligence instantly transformed the world from an ambiguous vagueness into a kingdom of distinct appearances. The phenomenal world suddenly leaped into existence for me. QUANTUM LEAP: I interpret bodily readings with the/ "tool' of my cultured/ metaphorical laA*\auage/. I perceive reality as meaningless colors, patterns, and shapes unless my cultural metaphoric language enables me to interpret them into trees, flowers, stars, and cars. A t this hermeneutic step, I create my reality from my interpretation of it. A s philosopher Martin Heidegger noted, we humans are interpreting entities; our "Being and interpretation are inseparable." 4 1 2 The meaning is the story of human life. The human is homohermeneuticus. I create my world as far as my body reads the holographic patterns of the universe and as far as my belonging to a particular culture permits me to select and interpret these 4 1 2 In Davis, 1996: 19. 168 readings. In their book Embodied Mind, biologists Humberto Maturana and Fransico Varela write that we "bring forth the world" by enacting it biologically and social ly . 4 1 3 Exercises for holonomic researchers: EXERCISE ONE: PERCEPTION WITHOUT INTERPRETATION414 The purpose of this exercise is to take a first step toward becoming aware of the mind's figurative creative process by consciously trying to stop it. The next time you walk down a street (preferably a fairly safe, untrafficked one), try to be aware of the pure sensations you experience, and, at the same time try to avoid interpreting them. That's not a tree trunk you're passing; it's an elongated vertical brown area in your visual field... It's simply a raw brownness, enlarging, changing, diminishing, nothing more... What you see is just a variable continuum of shapes and colors, not delineated things separated from each other by space, but a multicolored unified pattern of variations. ..I do not recommend this exercise as a steady diet, but only as an experiment in becoming aware of figuration, of a way to participate in creating our environment and the relativity of our experience in the world. EXERCISE TWO: REV FILTER Look through the red filter, and you will see a different world. The cultural metaphorical language is a "red filter" which shapes your interpretation of the world. The aim of holonomic inquiry is to look at the world through the filter of re-enchantment in order to see unbroken wholeness instead of mechanistic fragments. QUANTUM LEAP : My (universal) imaaivuxtloyvenable* me* (the* universe) to- sear oh for hori^pvvs. 4 1 3 V a r e l a , T h o m p s o n & R o s h , 1993. 4 1 4 J ohnes , 1982: 2 2 0 . 169 Martin Heidegger writes about the mystery of human life as There-Being or Dasein.415 Dasein, while being "thrown" into the world, is inseparable from it. The impossible task is to determine where one ends and another begins. (Again, it sounds holographic.) Existing in the midst of the world, Dasein tries to make sense of his experiences using imagination as the adhesive for putting these experiences together into a comprehensible wholeness. Imagination, writes Whitehead, enables us to make abstractions and inferences from the constant flux of information and experiences. 4 1 6 Dasein always lives ahead of himself, constantly searching for "horizons," while "throwing before self the possibility as possibility, and letting it be as such." This is how humans "bring into the picture of existence the realm of possibilities." This is true for routine everyday endeavors, as well as for the fancy, artistic realms. Human imagination makes possibilities possible within a range offered by the rest of the universe. This spectrum of possibilities is constantly changing and shifting, and here the element of uncertainty comes into play. To me, Heidegger expressed the very essence of the "chaotic butterfly" principle, which is a freedom within boundaries. From one chaotic attractor to another, our imagination is free to fly in search for horizons. It enables us to make choices within limited possibilities and then to materialize chosen possibilities into existence. Our imagination re-writes universal holographic patterns, as far as the universal boundaries of our existence permit us the freedom to do that. Destiny is not a matter of chance. It is a matter of choice. It is not a thing to be awaited for. It is a thing to be achieved. 4 1 7 4 1 5 Heidegger, 1962. 4 1 6 Whitehead, 1929/1967. 4 1 7 Bryan, cited in Kaku, 1998: 56. 170 I would say that in accordance with the rule of the chaotic butterfly, our destiny is the interplay of chances and choices. Chances emerge from the jungle of quantum probability waves that reside within the patterns of the quantum vacuum informational holofield. I react to the situation accordingly by actualizing one of the chances offered to me by the rest of the universe. M y action changes the universal holographic patterns. If I reacted differently, the universe would evolve along a different path. WHO KNOWS... Heavy rain/ without an/ umbrella/ puts you in/ the home position as the rest of the world where roofs, pavements, grass, and/leaves are overflow ing* withenveloping*, penetrating', warm*moisture... Walking* along an empty wet street without her umbrella*, Shehad* absolutely nothing* to lose. A passerby invited*: "Would*you like to- join* me- under my umbrella*?" You* are completely soaked*!" "Which is why I do not need* an* umbrella* anymore," She* declined*, smiling. He smiled* back* and* went along his way. She watched* him dissolve into-the* gathering* gloom Thinking: who-know s.. maybe a* not-chosen arid* therefore not-happened* destiny has just vanished* over the* rainy horizon, while hiding under an old* umbrella*... Our imagination, which enables us to make choices, is a powerful force re-shaping the world. Look around and see for yourself: houses, roads, machines, hospitals, malls, art, music, literature, science, schools, all is a frozen manifestation of human imagination. Where does our imagination come from? Its primary source, writes 171 image psychologist Akhter Ahsen, is our primordial nonlocal holographic connection with the wor ld . 4 1 8 Similarly, psychologist Johnson suggests that our imagination springs from our embodiment of the w o r l d . 4 1 9 In other words, the source of our imagination is the Cosmos itself. It makes sense in the holographic universe, where I am a Cosmos, and therefore, my bodily sensations, consciousness, emotions, spiritual feelings, and imagination have cosmic origins. quantum leap by quantum leap I weave my holographic pattern: Experience-Absorb-Translate—with bodily intelligence Reflect-Intuit -Interpret — with cultural metaphorical language Imagine-Transcend-Create Anew—the. never-ending story. 4 2 0 "And all this through the ever enchanting mix between the personal, social, natural worlds", writes B o w l e s 4 2 ' . . . A n d all this through an awareness of cosmic responsibility for my creation. And all this toward a new order of complexity. 3. cv vxeMJ order of c*owiple^uty The cosmic creative principle pulses in my heart. That is why I create and that is why I have a cosmic responsibility for my creation. If I re-imagined the universe, I must internalize it. I must start l iving in the world as if it is not mechanistic but complex, alive, and holographic. I have to "prove" the authenticity and meaningfulness of this new reality through my own living in it; otherwise, my imagined world w i l l become yet another abstract, idealized world. 4 1 8 A h s e n , 1991. 4 1 9 J o h n s o n , 1987. 4 2 0 1 m o d i f i e d w o r d s o f S teve B o w l e s i n B o w l e s , 1996: 4. 4 2 1 I b i d : 6. 172 While imagining the re-enchanted holographic universe, I shall look at my own experiences, seeking a hint that, indeed, I am an unbroken wholeness with the living world and that "the same currents running through our human blood run through swirling galaxies and colossal solar systems." This is the essence of a holonomic inquiry. In Process and Reality, Whitehead comments that experience is not a vehicle to help us to understand a reality abstracted from us; on the contrary, experience is the "really real" reality of our being. 4 2 2 I must explore the nature of my immediate lived experiences in the re-imagined world. It makes my research phenomenological. I must explore the emotional, passionate, intuitive states of my existence. It makes my study existential or transpersonal. 4 2 4 I must interpret the meaning of my experiences in the context of the imagined new world, and in so doing make my research hermeneutic. 4 2 5 I must organize into a cogent story the chaotic amorphous mass of my thoughts, intentions, and images. It makes my inquiry narrative. 4 2 6 To conduct all these explorations, I must imagine the world into existence through my performance in it. It makes my study performative 4 2 7 In my ongoing hermeneutic spiraling from whole to part and vice versa, I need to view my experiences from the perspective of the whole; therefore, my inquiry is autobiographical. As poet Carl Leggo writes, autobiographical research seeks to "stand over lived experience, to view lived experience from a perspective of over-standing, an aerial v i ew . " 4 2 8 The aerial view over my experiences enables me to trace a dynamic, 4 2 2 W h i t e h e a d , 1978. 4 2 3 Pa t ton , 1990: 69 . 4 2 4 B r o u d & A n d e r s o n , 1998. 4 2 5 G a d a m e r , 1989. 4 2 6 C z a r n i a w s k a , 1998. 4 2 7 F e l s , 1999. M o r e detai l s o n the p a g e 2 0 2 . 4 2 8 L e g g o , 1997: 85 . 173 nonlinear evolution of the whole organism comprised of myself, my research, and the rest of the universe. According to Leggo, autobiographical writing is not just a linear story with a pre-determined plot, but a "l iving compost" of my stories, and within my stories, the stories of other experiencing beings. A n autobiographical story, therefore, is a story of quantum inseparability. Once you contact something or someone, you become forever entangled. Within your own story, you internalize stories of others. Autobiographical, phenomenological, transpersonal, narrative, hermeneutic, and performative inquiries overlap through emphasizing our embodiment and internalization of the world. The concept of embodiment, however, is the core of the holographic principle: all in all. Also, all these methodologies highlight an ongoing life-world co-emergence, and this is the essence of a holonomic inquiry that fertilizes a great holarchy of becoming an unbroken wholeness with the living world. What new then do I propose? How different is my methodology from existent methodologies? Departing from mechanistic reductionism, I approach my argument for a new methodology not from the angle of differences, but from the position of a new order of complexity. Being an intricate bricollage of various research methodologies, which stress embodiment and emergence, holonomic inquiry is more than the sum of parts. The uniqueness of a holonomic inquiry is manifested in its research question: through what experience and under what circumstances do I feel unified with the world? While aiming to "find the Andromeda galaxy in the thumbnail of our left hand,"429 holonomic research invites to listen to ourselves and others with understanding that our experiences are cosmic experiences. In the re-enchanted world, where the researcher is the Cosmos, his or 4 2 9 Talbot, 1993: 50. 1 7 4 her presence within research is not hidden; on the contrary, it shines throughout the entire project as a light reflected form the sparkling diamond. 4. cv\£<£h£frcym/th&fycw^ "The most important lesson which reduction teaches us, is the impossibility of a complete reduction," writes Murray. 4 3 0 Since I attempt to create a complex, multidimensional universe, I shall reflect on an entire intricate spectrum of my experiences, including my bodily, mental, and spiritual experiences. The light reflected from the multifaceted diamond of my experiences might help me envision a new, re- enchanted world. The metaphor of a diamond might help to explicate the varieties of experience. We might imagine that each human being encounters life as i f experience were a crystal diamond, with each individual facet reflecting another's experience to create yet more brilliant diamond reflecting our essential communal and interconnected nature. Our experiences, especially uncommon experiences, lead us to transcend realities beyond the limits of egos and personalities. Reflected in these realities, we can become more integral and whole, finding our more authentic and creative selves. In finding ourselves, we learn to trust our impulses toward transcendent realms beyond our limited self. 4 3 1 In the mechanistic universe, the researcher who explores her or his own experiences is reduced to the label of a "research sample", "object", or "subject". In the systemic universe, the researcher is a "system within a system within a system." In the re-enchanted holographic world, the status of the researcher is elevated to that of a multifaceted diamond reciprocally reflecting the entire universe. In this sense, holonomic inquiry resonates with heuristic research, which belongs to the family of transpersonal research methodologies, and is largely existential-phenomenological-hermeneutic self-u Murray, 1986: 39. 1 Braud & Anderson, 1998. 175 inquiry. "Heuristic research refers to a process of internal search through which one discovers the nature and meaning of experience.. ..the self of the researcher is present throughout the process and, while understanding phenomenon with increasing depth, the researcher also experiences a growing self-awareness and self-knowledge." 4 3 2 This sounds holographic enough. B y exploring the world,, the researcher explores himself or herself and vice versa. Heuristic inquiry is a process that begins with a question or problem, which the researcher seeks to illuminate or answer. The question is one that has been a personal challenge and puzzlement in the search to understand one's self and the world in which one lives. The heuristic process is autobiographic, yet with virtually every question that matters personally, there is also a social—and perhaps universal—significance. 4 3 3 The world heuristic is related to two sources. Eureka! Aha! In the holonomic inquiry, the eureka moments correspond to quantum leaps of meaning that result in the ongoing emergence of new universal holographic resonance patterns, when a new order of complexity and therefore a new world is born. There is something else which makes the philosophy of holonomic inquiry resonate with the philosophy of heuristic research. Both methodologies are aligned with a poet's invitation to connect the researcher's pulsing heart with a breathing world. Such a connection assumes a spell, passion, enchantment, and therefore an unbroken wholeness between the researcher and the researched. This is of course in concurrence with a holographic principle. to-looh at any thing if you* would/ know that thing, you/ mast looh at it long: to- looh at this green/ and say: "I have/ seen/ spring in these/ woods" will not do- -you- must be the thingyou/ see: M o u s t a k a s , 1990: 9. M o u s t a k a s , 1990: 15. 176 you/ must be/ the/ darh ynakes- of Stems- and/ ferny plumes- of lives-, you must enter into-the/ ymaXl/ silence/ in between the/leaves-you/ must take/ your time/ and/ touchthe*very place/they issue/from}31* Like the heuristic researcher, I seek to "gather within myself the full scope of my observations, thoughts, feelings, senses, and intuitions." 4 3 5 1 learn to "accept as authentic and valid whatever w i l l open new channiels for clarifying a topic, question, problem, puzzlement." 4 3 6 It makes my holonomic inquiry an open-ended self-exploration aimed at comprehending the "outer" through the prism of the "inner." I learn to accept the cosmic value of my "inner", and therefore, I sing myself holographic! 5. I sw%- myself holo^tipiUc?'7 Ancient Tantric texts suggest that the human body literally is a microcosm that reflects and contains the entire macrocosm. If one could thoroughly explore one s own body and psyche, this would bring the knowledge of all the phenomenal worlds.438 (Stanislav Grof) The idea that our universe is perhaps living and holographic is truly fascinating and emotionally appealing. In such a universe, everything is enfolded in everything. A l l in all. M y experiences are universal experiences. I am not alone here, not fragmented, not isolated, and that is a very cozy feeling. I definitely like that, but... .. do-1 really, really feed holographic/? M o f f i t c i t e d i n M o u s t a k a s , 1990: 12. ' M o u s t a k a s , 1990: 13. 5 M o u s t a k a s , 1990: 13. ' T a l b o t in The Holographic Universe has the chapter "I S i n g m y B o d y H o l o g r a p h i c . " I m o d i f i e d his e x p r e s s i o n into "I s ing m y s e l f h o l o g r a p h i c . " 1 G r o f , 1998 : 58 . 177 D i d I, do I have enough experiences in my life that could give me a hint that... yes, my world is not a fragmented machine, but a holographic unity. The very heart of the holographic principle is "unbroken wholeness"; therefore, I must look for experiences of feeling at one with humans or more-than-human individuals. It is not going to be easy since I am coming from a disjoined materialistic world. How could I, with my own ego, skin, history, destiny, likes, dislikes, customs, desires, and intentions can possibly feel at one with. . .let's say... the homeless man sitting on the corner of a wet street? / recall an event from two years ago. I walked along Vancouver's hectic Robson Street, aiming for nothing in particular, simply enjoying being in the midst of the boisterous crowd... Unfortunately, there are many homeless people in downtown Vancouver. They are an attribute of the city's interior. I often give the homeless a little money, then pass them by, immersed in my own little world. They have their reality and I have mine. I suspect their reality must be terrible, but I do not really internalize it since I have never been there. How could I know something I have not experienced? This is what I thought until once upon a time, wandering along Robson Street, I saw a homeless man who, while sitting in the rain on a street corner, was reading the philosopher Spinoza. cm/ thecorner of cvcoLd/wet street surrounded/ by all necessary attributes of homeless life/ easily fitted/ into- several old/bags he/ read/ the/philosopher Spinoza/ oblivious to- the exterior world/ not even/begging for money not even aware perhaps ofthe/palA^fuUy dramatic contrast between his untidy appearance and/ his intellectual readtna-... who- was he? why Spinoza? which/ darh wind/ swepthim/ from/ the stream/ of 178 the* "normal/' humanworld/ onto-this wet cold corner? Was he/ running- from/ something? wees he/looking* for something-? bringing- Spinoza/ into-his homeless world/ which- terrifies- me/, didhe/find/ a truth that I will never understand/? I wrote this poem after coming home. I had to let my emotions out. For some inexplicable reason, when looking at this man, I had the acute sense of knowing how it felt to be homeless on the corner of a wet, cold street. How could I know? Could it be that the language of intuition told me that both he and I were an unbroken holographic wholeness? There was something else striking about this strange meeting. The evening before, Fd read a book of Arthur Deikman's The Observing Self: Mysticism and Psychotherapy.439 Refusing to believe in the reality of what had happened, I opened the book to the page Fd read the evening before: Spinoza's definition of intuition is closest of all the philosophers to that of mystical science. Writing in the seventeenth century, Spinoza distinguished between knowledge derived from the sense perception and careful reasoning about observed phenomena ("opinion" and "reason") and the highest knowledge, in which the whole of the universe is comprehended as a unified interconnected system. This highest knowledge he termed intuition, something which grows out of empirical and scientific knowledge but rises above them. In essence, it is knowledge of G o d . 4 4 0 Fd read about Spinoza before I met the homeless man who read Spinoza. My intuition told me how it might feel to be homeless. Spinoza was the one who coined the term intuition. Was there some meaning to this event? Why was this man reading Spinoza? t Deikman, 1982. Deikman, 1982: 48. 179 Carl Jung termed this phenomenon synchronicity. Occasions of synchronicity are too meaningful to be just a simple coincidence. They occur between events that are connected not through causality, but through common symbolic or metaphorical content. The physicist Roger Johnes, in Physics as Metaphor, describes his own striking case of synchronicity. While writing the preceding section on counting and cardinality, I had an unusual experience. Looking up momentarily from my typewriter, I glanced out of the window and saw a beautiful red bird alight in my backyard. Y o u guessed it—a cardinal . 4 4 2 As another physicist Michael Talbot writes, each of us can perhaps tell of an event of synchronicity which happened "at some point of our lives, such as when we learn a strange new word and then hear it used in a news broadcast a few hour later, or when we think about an obscure subject and then notice other people talking about i t . " 4 4 3 Throughout his long practice, Carl Jung became convinced that synchronicity is an acausal principle which science has yet to discover. According to physicist David Peat, synchronicity provides a hint of the holographic nature of our reality, where our physical world and our inner psychological world influence each other 4 4 4 Synchronicity might be the echo of a deeper implicate order of reality, where events are connected by meaning and harmony, and not by simple causality. So one does best simply to stand before this whole matter in wonder and awe, trying to fathom, but not too consciously, some inner connection among the ideas or some deep synthesis of amount, fundamentality, and wholeness. 4 4 5 1 In T a l b o t , 1 9 9 1 . ' 12 J ohnes , 1982: 30 . 3 T a l b o t , 1991 : 7 6 . 4 Peat , 1991 . 5 J ohnes , 1982: 30 . 180 Exploring my imagined holographic universe, I became more attentive to the experiences that may be referred to as synchronistic. Who knows, maybe they represent "scientific evidence" for the existence of deeper meanings hidden within the depths of an implicate order, within a quantum vacuum field of a holographic reality? Other experiences that perhaps indicate the nonlocal holographic nature of our world, are telepathy-like communications. 4 4 6 Unfortunately, I am not a psychic who can communicate with other entities at a distance; however, certain experiences tell me that there is something to it. M y relationship with this miracle of miracles, my daughter, provides an example of how two physically separated entities can sense each other at a level that is deeper than all usual means of communication. I "feel" her somehow (telepathically?) at the distance. It was time when my daughter and I were a single organism. Could it be that we still are? Does the phenomenon of telepathy indicate that we all, while coming from a single source, are a holographic "one"? Is the phenomenon of telepathy an amplified into the marcoworld principle of quantum nonlocality that, just like crazy glue, "holds" the holographic universe together? Could it be that telepathy is an ancient language, lost in the mechanistic jungles of modernity? Is it possible that this paranormal phenomenon is perfectly normal? Writes Laszlo: Anthropological evidence indicates that telepathy is common among so-called primitive people. In many tribal societies shamans seem able to communicate telepathically, using a variety of techniques to enter the altered states of consciousness that seem required for it, including solitude, concentration, fasting, as well as chanting, dancing, drumming, and the use of psychedelic herbs 4 4 7 4 4 6 Laszlo, 1995; Talbot, 1993; Wolf, 1991. 4 4 7 Laszlo, 1995: 89. 181 David Griffin in Parapsychology, Philosophy, and Spirituality: A Postmodern Exploration,448 Ken Wilber in The Marriage of Sense and Soul: Integrating Science and Religion,449 and Ervin Laszlo in The Interconnected Universe: Conceptual Foundations of Transdisciplinary Unified Theory,450 write that the modern worldview ruled out the possibilities for paranormal interactions to happen at all, and this is inconsistent with overwhelming anecdotal stories. Increasingly, scientific attention is turned to exploring paranormal phenomena such as telepathy, extrasensory perception (ESP), psychokenesis (PK), out-of-body experiences, and near-death experiences (NDE) . As Griffin, Lazlo, and Wilber write, scientific experiments indicate that these phenomena are no longer illusive. The task is to discover where it comes from, and it may well come from quantum-vacuum interactions of human mind/brain with the universal holofield. 4 5 1 Do I suggest that a holonomic inquirer must practice P K or ESP? At this point, I would not go so far because as a rule, the members of contemporary industrialized informational society are completely unprepared to perform this "stuff." I can only invite holonomic researchers to be open-minded to the possibilities.... Seeking hints as to the possible holographic nature of reality, I became attentive to my dreams. I never took dreams seriously before moving into the holographic universe. Most of the time I do not remember my dreams, or they do not make any sense to me. But sometimes these dreams appear so real, so meaningful, that they are impossible to forget. Waking up after such a dream, I am not sure whether I was really there, or not... " L a s z l o , 1995; G r i f f i n , 1997 ; W i l b e r , 1998. 9 W i l b e r , 1998. " G r i f f i n , 1997; W i l b e r , 1998. 1 L a s z l o , 1995; T a l b o t , 1993; G r i f f i n , 1997. 182 It was a city of millions of mirrors... Millions, millions, millions of mirrors. They were scattered everywhere. Grass, pavement, bushes, roads, everything was covered with shiny little fragments. I was walking along streets, listening to the sounds of my lonely steps and to the rain jumping playfully on the smooth mirror surfaces. The city was empty. This emptiness looked at me through every open window, through every door clumping in the wind. A strange city. Who had abandoned it, and why? And... what am I doing here? I was obviously alone, but at the same time, I felt a presence emitted from every empty corner. I glanced at my reflection in the mirror, but instead of myself, I saw a crowd of smiling and crying, black and white, attractive and scary faces. I also saw clean, clear, bright stars reflected in the scattered mirrors on the cloudy rainy day. I saw strange colorful geometrical forms changing rapidly. I heard the whispers of many voices from the silence of emptiness. Somehow, I knew that I was both asleep and awake. Surprised, and shocked, I opened my eyes...and... I knew that I did...I did visit this city. In this lucid dream, 4 5 2 I was one and I was many. Omnia omnibus, a holographic universe. Was this dream the result of my constant and conscious self-immersion into thinking about the holographic nature of the world, or was it an actual visit to the parallel level of holographic reality, as quantum physicist Alan W o l f believes? W o l f predicts, "the holographic model wi l l ultimately allow us to develop a psychic consciousness, which w i l l enable us to begin to explore more fully these other-dimensional levels of existence." 4 5 3 L u c i d d r e a m s are u n u s u a l l y v i v i d d r e a m s i n w h i c h the d r e a m e r rea l i zes he o r she is a w a k e . S o m e phys ic i s t s suggest that l u c i d d r e a m s mani fes t o u r enter ing other l eve l s o f rea l i ty . D o I b e l i e v e i n that? I a m not sure. 4 5 3 T a l b o t , 1991: 3 . 183 In my dream, I had an experience similar to those in the holotropic state of consciousness described by Stanislav Grof. In this state, people identify themselves with animate and inanimate matter, including the Cosmos itself. According to Grof and his colleagues, the ability to see, think, and feel holonomically can be developed through breathing techniques. For the holonomic researcher, it could be useful to become skillful in entering "the holographic labyrinth that connects all aspects of existence." 4 5 4 Holotropic self-explorations might enable the researcher to reach beyond the human frame of translating the holographic pattern of the world into the whole kaleidoscope of the multiple worlds of other beings within an underlying unity. There are moments however when we feel acutely our holographic unity with the world without conscious efforts, exercises, or workshops. Stanislav Grof writes that extraordinary natural, as well as human-made beauty can trigger holographic spiritual experiences of oneness with the world. Grof called such experiences unitive states and the founder of transpersonal psychology Abraham Maslow called them peak experiences.455 In the mechanistic universe, beauty represented an insignificant avenue for knowing the world. The word "beautiful" was not popular in the vocabulary of reductionist science, but... whervyou/ understand/ all about the/ yun/ and/ all about the/ atmosphere/ arid aU/ abcntt the/ rotation of the/ you/ may still miyy the/ radiance/ of sunset.'^6 I s i g n e d up for G r o f s w o r k s h o p , w h i c h I a m g o i n g to attend shor t ly . I a m v e r y c u r i o u s whether I w i l l be ab le to have e x p e r i e n c e s o f other e x p e r i e n c i n g be ings . If I were to c h o o s e , I w o u l d l ike to have e x p e r i e n c e s o f G a i a . H o w does she feel? W h a t does she t h i n k ? W h a t is her l i fe about? 5 G r o f , 1998 ; M a s l o w , 1970. . 5 W h i t e h e a d , c i t ed in K i r k , 1991: 2 0 8 . 184 Contemplation gives us "choiceless awareness of that universe not as it should be or might be or could be, but simply as it is," writes Ken Wilber. "The entire Kosmos is an object of Beauty, just as it is, precisely because the entire Kosmos is in fact the radiant Art of Spir i t . " 4 5 7 All-pervading radiant Beauty, continues Wilber, is not an exercise in creative imagination, it is the very nature and structure of the universe. In unitive states of consciousness, people "lose their boundaries and literally merge" with the majestic silence of mountains, the impenetrable depth of the ocean, beautiful music, art, or the huge full moon in the sky. When I merge with world phenomena, I am enchanted. Every enchanting moment is "evidence" of my holographic oneness with the world. Enchantment is a holonomic way of knowing! You/see*, it i& notthe/l<A^owledge/of the serpent, It Vs not the doubtful honor of experience, out the ability to-be- enchantedwiththeworld/ That reveals- to- us the world/ us it really iy?58 Collecting data for my holonomic inquiry, I collect "glorious enchantments" 4 5 9 or miracles that are "unusually marvelous things or facts," according to the dictionary. MV COLLECTION I collect my miracley us people collect coins and/ stumps, as a miser collects his- money. I collect my miracles by every minute, every hour, by every little but magical event. It might be the scent of spring/, or an e^uytuyRower in yo-meone*y window, or blinding* snow on/the ground* melting* rapidly, or the* var\iihi*ng* sound of a* charming' yong*, or the/passing' attention of a stranger, W i l b e r , 1997 : 137. E u g e n y i E u t u s h e n k o , the R u s s i a n poet . B o w l e s , 1994. 185 or the smile/ of my childs.... Onesnight when as forgotten/ friends appeared unexpectedly out of the blues just to-say" Hi!" added/ u lot to- my collection/... Conducting my holonomic research, I became attuned to events that could be qualified as enchantments or miracles, and.. .now I have difficulty in finding anything under this sky that is not a miracle. When I lived in the mechanistic universe, I was blind. I did not see miracles, but they are literally everywhere! A soap opera "Days of Physical Science in Elementary Schools Course" Teacher: What does the word "miracle " mean ? Chorus: ( a range of different opinions) Teacher: Would you consider it a miracle if something that was just now in front of your eyes, suddenly became invisible? Chorus: Yes! Teacher: Then watch this demonstration of a simple miracle (table salt dissolving in the water). A voice from the chorus: I never thought about that! Teacher: I too. I never thought about that before I started to look for miracles through the 186 re-enchanting filter. And now, I see their great abundance throughout the accessible world... When I lived in a disenchanted mechanistic universe, I saw white light in terms of wavelengths and frequencies, but now I also see it in terms of hidden rainbows. What could be more miraculous than a rainbow hidden in white light? Shannon's poem: Colours bridge the sky, Radiant, brilliant, then gone Illusion of hope Phill ip 's poem: Sparkles of Colour Arch Across the-Summer Sky As Smile, Upside Down!460 T H E M O T T O O T A H O L O N O M I C R E S E A R C H E R : believe in miracles and enchantments, and you will see them everywhere! SEEING. IS 'BELIEVING, in a disenchanted universe 3ELIEVINC} IS SEEING, in a re-enchanted universe When I am enchanted, my ego dissolves and my wavelike existence merges into holographic patterns of resonance with the rest of the world. A single* wave/, of which/ I awv the/ accumAjluting/ yea/; you/, ofallpoyyihle/yea&the/mxyytfru Space/ to- be/ used/. How many of these/places- inSpace/ were/already within/myyelf, many a/wind/ is like/ a/ son to- me/. Vo-you/know me/, air, Still filled/witfo my hcdyitations? You/, sometime/ the* smooth/ outer skin, the/ rounding/ and leaf of my words.*61 460 461 S h a n n o n a n d P h i l i p were p r o s p e c t i v e teachers e n r o l l e d in m y s c i e n c e e d u c a t i o n c o u r s e . R i l k e , c i t e d in S p i l l e r , 1997 : 136. 187 Holographic patterns of resonance can perhaps account for our experiences of empathy, which is a powerful indicator of our connectedness with other human and more-than-human individuals. Laszlo believes that experiences of empathy occur through brain-holofield interactions: The widely observed natural empathies of so-called "primitive" peoples reinforce this supposition. To cite merely oft-quoted nineteenth century declaration of Native American Chief Seattle: "This we know. A l l things are connected like blood which unites one family. A l l things are connected. Whatever befalls the Earth befalls the sons of the Earth." In Western and westernized societies natural empathies are mainly repressed; they surface principally in the mind of exceptionally sensitive individuals. Poets such as John Donne and Wi l l i am Blake have sung of our oneness with nature, and a handful of scientists, such as Wi l l i am James, Abraham Maslow, Gregory Bateson, and Andre Naess, have sought a detailed understanding of it. But the consciousness of the typical individual rarely effected by such empathies—possibly a major reason why modern societies struggle with incomprehension in the face of increasing environmental deterioration. Feelings of oneness with the environment may be more than remnants of a primitive mentality, or subjective idiosyncrasy of a few poets and scientists: their roots may lie in the interaction of the brain with the vacuum holofield. 4 6 2 The feeling of empathy is closely related to the feeling of love, which is, in my view, a very holonomic way of knowing. When we are in love, the entire world changes. We merge with the subject of our love. We are immersed in the contiguity of souls. The experience of love is as close as most of us get, after childhood's end, to feeling that we are not bound by our skin, that the circumference of self can be moved or penetrated or dissolved in union with another. The ego is the outward bound or circumference of the person; it is the skin the psyche presents to the world. Our surrender to love is a touching of skin to cancel out that boundary. It is a taste of that delightful, mystical transcendence of selfhood. 4 6 3 CONTINUITY64 how to-describe* thOy overwhelming* joy of closeness unthe* night heavy as syrup L a s z l o , 1995: 134. N a c h m a n o v i t c h , 1990: 168. L a r o c h e , 1998. 188 slowly Rowing* under the triumphant bonnier of Love/... how to-express this aid-<xn^uer Unfeeling* of unity with another Being* through every wave of mind/, and* soul/, and* body in strange-desire to- be dissolved in* someone* s existence* in*every itspulsation beyond* space-time-nothing* exists nor matters in the twilight %one* of two-in/their contiguity. For the holonomic researcher, experiences of empathy and love provide invaluable data that indicate our unbroken wholeness with the world. Laszlo suggests that the holographic unity of our reality also reveals itself through spontaneous communications, when a social group becomes more than sum of parts, transforming into as a single organism. This phenomenon might occur due to holofield-mediated coordination. 4 6 5 A soap opera "Days of Physical Science in Elementary Schools Course" It is the first day of class. We met in the science lab. It is always so exciting to meet the new students. Intrigue and mystery of novelty: who are they? After the usual introductions, I invited the prospective teachers into another room, where I had made thorough preparations in the form of chairs arranged in a circle, lighted candles, burning scents, fresh flowers, and the chanting music of the group "Enigma. " I started the lesson with a shocking and desperately non-scientific invitation: "Let's talk about love, empathy, awe, and enchantment. " I intended to use this invitation as a strange Laszlo, 1995. 189 attractor for creating a chaotic butterfly of the unfolding self-organizing course, but I felt acutely that those, who hardly knew each other, spontaneously became a single entity, a newborn organism that sent the strong message of shock, surprise, and non-acceptance: what kind of science class was this? I understood this message intuitively. It was frustrating, I must admit. From John's reflective journal: My initial thoughts: What is she talking about? I thought we were dealing with science. Science is not about story telling and about plays and dance. Science is about research and learning facts. What do you mean that we are all connected in some universal way? Where are we going with this? What is this class about? Am I going to learn anything that will help me to become a better teacher? So many questions and so many worries. This is all so new and cutting edge. M y inner voice whispered: The chaotic attractor I created is too "strange. " Next time, I have to think of a less shocking beginning. THE VOICE IN THE NIGHT A voice/ whispered/ to- me/ Icvyt night: "There/ is no-suchthivig-cvs co voice/ whispering- in/the/ night!" (Hccidar Ansari) The inner voice whispering to us is the voice of intuition that speaks the language of ancient harmony. 6. Us&e^uLvvg/to-cvtvcvnoierutlu^moryy "What are you really?" "What are you really?" the unicorn countered. "You called me, and because there is a great need, I am here." "You know the need?" "I have seen it in your mind." "How is it that you speak my language?" The unicorn neighed again, the sound translucent as silver bubbles. "I do not. I speak the ancient harmony." 190 "Then how is it that I understand?' "You are very young, but you belong to the Old music. "466 "I am learning to listen to the light," writes the poet. " . . .1 want to listen to the light that pulses between the beats in my heart, this heart long seen as a beast, uncontrolled, fickle, dangerous. I seek to learn the language of my heart." 4 6 7 Perhaps the language of our heart, our intuitive language, is the language of ancient harmony, the Old music of the universe. The holonomic researcher seeks to become literate in the ancient language of intuition in order to see far beyond the artificial lights of abstraction. "ArtifocieUslCghty," the/hea&t yighed*. "How very complicated/ life* cm*your planetmustbe*. Later on*you* must try to- explain* yome* more* to- me*. "*6S If we are literate in the language of intuition, we may be able to see, hear, or smell the magic light that illuminates the Cosmos as a singular, radiantly beautiful, organic entity. To speak the ancient harmony, to hear Old Music of an organic world, research methodology must be organic. Several transpersonal researchers offer the metaphor of "the tree" for the organic research methodology. They envision organic research as evolving in five stages: "preparing the soil, planting the seed, roots emerging, tree growing, harvesting fruit ." 4 6 9 This approach is "grounded in responsibility, reverence, and awe for the earth and all her inhabitants as well as in mysteries and creativity. Doing this work requires honoring ourselves, our collaborators, our readers, and the context in which we work, as well as consciously keeping ourselves open to the gifts of the unconscious and the d iv ine ." 4 7 0 4 6 6 L ' E n g l e , 1978: 4 6 . 4 6 7 L e g g o , 1999: 115. 4 6 8 L ' E n g l e , 1978: 165. 4 6 9 C l e m e n t s , E t t l i n g & Jennet , 1998: 117. 4 7 0 C l e m e n t s , E t t l i n g & Jennet , 1998: 117. 191 Although a holonomic inquiry is not tied to sequences or stages, the "preparing the soil" stage proposed by the organic research methodology, is appealing. This stage involves "a prayer from the heart thanking everyone who helped to open the channiels of the researcher's creative energy." As physicist Talbot writes, in the holographic universe, the possible effects of prayer are taken seriously since there are no boundaries between the physical and the psychical. In a world where such boundaries are elusive, mind can directly affect the material wor ld . 4 7 1 I took to heart the ancient idea of praying. Why don't I pray tonight for the well-being of those who have opened the doors of my creative energy. Why don't I pray for my teachers and my students, for the dark sky outside my window, for the small spider keeping me company in this late hour, and for this unhappy stormy wind that angrily chases innocent clouds over the moon. This night I w i l l pray for those who are involved in my research. In the holographic universe, that means I wi l l pray for everyone and everything. I w i l l pray this night for the whole l iving Cosmos as passionately as I pray for my chi ld . . . destiny I pray ter you/ under your wings-please/ yave/ my child please/... donJt let her know war dlnesy hatred di^appoi/rdtmenty the/pain of "I do- not love/you)' waiting/ invain downfaUy betrayal and ail the/rest that makes-this- world imperfect 4 7 1 Talbot, 1993. 192 above/ the* dark* clxyuds* destiny pleovya* let my child fly... While not propagating through rigid stages, holonomic research evolves along the cosmic D N A spiral, through the kangaroo jumps of newborn meanings; quantum leap by quantum leap; heartbeat by heartbeat; holographic pattern by holographic pattern. Each quantum leap (heartbeat) contributes to the autopoietic process of growing knowledge. Each heartbeat (quantum leap) pushes the hermeneutic "feedback loops" of the dynamic system of my research toward "going awry." It moves further and further from equilibrium, closer and closer to the edge of chaos.. .another heartbeat-quantum leap... and...dramatic change! A whole new order leaps into existence. The emergence of a new order out of the chaotic mixture of my ideas and experiences is wishful thinking. However, in a holographic universe where consciousness can directly affect physical reality, the status of wishful thinking has been changed from being a fairy tale "technique," into a valuable "research instrument." Nevertheless, by no means does my research seek to overcome worldly and otherworldly chaos "from the position of knowing and confidence," 4 7 2 structuring it into the rigidity of certain answers. Accepting the invitation of the poet, holonomic research -"dwells with mystery" recognizing that chaos is inherent to our cunning world which likes to play "hide and seek" games 4 7 3 Tel l me, where else would you hide a mysterious 4 / z L e g g o , 1999: 129. 473 In Qualitative Evaluation and Research Methods, Pa t ton writes that c h a o s t h e o r y ' s m e a n i n g s a n d i m p l i c a t i o n s for qua l i t a t ive i n q u i r y in h u m a n settings r e m a i n to be d e v e l o p e d . A t this po int , c h a o s theory offers , p e r h a p s m o r e than a n y t h i n g else, a set o f n e w metaphor s for t h i n k i n g about what we o b s e r v e , h o w we o b s e r v e , a n d what we k n o w as a result o f our observa t ions . It c h a l l e n g e s us to dea l w i t h u n p r e d i c t a b i l i t y a n d i n d e t e r m i n i s m i n h u m a n b e h a v i o r . 193 implicate order, i f not within seemingly chaotic realms? Seeking the emergence of a new order my research does not intend to, .. .escape from the bigger chaotic world. The study is the place where the researcher returns when overwhelmed with the riches of the infinite world, searching for sense by scribing sentences in the sensual sea swirling under the sk i n . 4 7 4 According to quantum theory, our physical universe oscillates. 4 7 5 It pulses as a huge heart. "The world is constantly flashing in and out of existence, being dissolved and recreated from one moment to another." 4 7 6 But where does the universe go in between its pulsations? Where do we go in between our heartbeats? Where do particles go when they flash out of material existence? Could it be a hidden implicate order of a deeper nonmaterial reality, a quantum vacuum holofield from which everything existent jumps into being? In order to make sense of the "infinite" world, poet Leggo invites us to listen to the singing between heartbeats. Could this singing between heartbeats be the echo of the subtle implicate order of a holographic world? Could it be that the poet grasped intuitively the most efficient "research technique" which enables our deep knowing of an ancient harmony, of a cunning, mysterious, and seemingly chaotic world? While writing about holonomic research, I am constantly driven to cite poetry and to write poetically. It seems that my holonomic inquiry self-organizes into a poetic inquiry. It is natural in an organic world that speaks the poetic language of rhythm and pulsation. It is amazing how rhythmical Nature is. "Life comprises biological rhythms of cycles upon cycles, a biomusic by nature's own M u z a k . " 4 7 7 Everything here is rhythm, including cycles of galaxies, human lives, seasons, days and nights, ocean waves, or 4 7 4 Leggo, 1999: 129. 4 7 5 Davies & Brown, 1986. 4 7 6 Grof, 1998:76. 4 7 7 Fraser, 1987. 194 sound and light waves. Even more. If our reality is indeed holographic, it means that everything, including us, is "made o f vibrating and resonating waves. It makes rhythmic language inherent to us and to the entire universe. That is why perhaps the oldest literary form of communication is poetry. It is the language of ancient harmony. It is the first and authentic language of a playful Cosmos, where every space-moment brings its own poetic scenario... w ith the* yurv the* weather at least a*y chaotio a^life itself, the wind* bearing earth/s breath always familiar always unfamiliar, no- two- dayy the* yarned78 According to Martha Heyneman, poetic language is the "lost language of the whole." There have been many recent attempts to discern and articulate "the new paradigm," but no one seems to have noticed the strangeness of trying to present a "holistic" world view in the language of one small part of the psyche. Thus we have whole books written on the subject of participatory observation in nonparticipatory language, and arguments for the superiority of intelligence of the body or the heart written in this same language, as i f the discursive reason was trying to talk itself into abdication. 4 7 9 In the living holographic poetic universe, human life has poetic meaning. It is not a system within a system within a system. It is a sonnet within a sonnet within a sonnet. The sonnet is a stanza of 14 lines. They could be rhymed as A B A B A B A B , or A B A B C D C D , or other variations. Sonnets are a lyric poetry that expresses intense feelings and thoughts. Although they are mostly about love, one of the animating forces of the sonnet Leggo, 1999: 132. Heyneman, 1993: 25 195 is the quest for understanding the self in the world. Sonnets are often combined in a sonnet sequence, linked synthetically or thematically. The uniqueness of a sonnet sequence is in balancing each sonnet with the wholeness of the entire col lect ion. 4 8 0 This principle seems holographic to me. "In your language you have a form of poetry called the sonnet, it is a very strict form of poetry, is it not?" "Yes." "There are fourteen lines, I believe in pentameter. That's a very strict rhythm of meter, yes?" "Yes." Calvin nodded. "And each line has to end with a rigid rhyme pattern. And if the poet does not do it exactly this way, it is not a sonnet, is it?" "No." "But within this strict form the poet has complete freedom to say whatever he wants, doesn't he ? " "Yes," Calvin nodded again. "So," Mrs. Whatsit said. "So what?" "Oh, do not be stupid, boy!" Mrs. Whatsit scolded. " You know perfectly well what I am driving at!" "You mean you are comparing our life to a sonnet? A strict form, but freedom within it?" "Yes," Mrs. Whatsit said. "You are given a form, but you have to write the sonnet yourself. What you say is completely up to you.' " A strict form, but freedom within it?" Wait a minute, but this is the rule of a chaotic butterfly: bounded randomness. In the poetic chaotic holographic living universe, conducting research means writing a sonnet. Y o u are given a form, [biological, social] but you have to write the sonnet yourself! 7. you/hwesto-write/tke'ionvxet yourself1 The term poiesis "shares the same Greek root as the word poetry." If so, autopoiesis, an ongoing organism's self-making, could mean at the same time poetry-"Spiller, 1997: 141. 1 L'Engle, 1978: 21. 196 making. This makes sense in an organic world where pulsing life is a constantly evolving cosmic sonnet. In this light, holographic inquiry becomes simultaneously a sonnet to and a sonnet of the living Cosmos. While writing and re-writing the sonnet of his or her life and research, the holographic researcher writes and re-writes a cosmic sequence of sonnets. Leaping about in a tango of quantum entanglement, the world and I co-evolve together into a living and ever-changing sequence of sonnets. The meaning that connects the sonnet of my life with the cosmic sequence of sonnets, always shifts and always changes... I lovelilac its boiling beauty amazes me* its smell makes me/ drunk the* Wme/ when* a lilac blooms is the/ time/ of my internal spring when* my wings grow whew my heart embraces the/ universe* when* I watt for miracles and* they usually happen* ymaU* miracles in/theformof anextraordinary sunset, wonderful news from* somewhere, smiles and* cx>mp\imenty, and* other wonderful things which can* only emerge* from/the steam*of boiling lilac* I love branches of lilac* by my bed* in* a/crystal vase I think, crystal and/lilac* make-an especially noble combination/ every morning* when* waking up I let myself sink into-theldaos breathtaking beauty then emerge* into-the everyday world* renewed* and* winged* ready for more miracles this year I did* not have lilac by my bed* and/I missed/it but I could* not break a lilacs branch Capra, 1996: 96. 197 I imagined/the/liia&y pain/ when/ ity arwvs were/ broken/ and/ imxxgining/fhat I realised/1 had/ moved/ into- a/ different world/ a/ world where/ a/ lHao feeds pain when ity army are/ broken... .Wi Holographic inquiry grows from the space where the "inner" and "outer" merge into an unbroken wholeness. But. . .how can I determine the validity of knowledge that emerged from the deepness of my inner? There are no numbers, graphs, or tables, which I can provide for the "objective" judgment of my research. The only criterion for validation of my holonomic inquiry is obsession. 8. obi&teiorvcvs-the/criterion/ for re^eiw-ch/valicvatvovv The creative process is a spiritual path. This adventure is about us, about the deep self, the composer in all of us, about originality, meaning not that which is all new, but that which is fully and originally ourselves.484 (Stephen Nachmanovitch) The dictionary defines the word obsession as an "abnormal preoccupation with a persistent idea and desire." This is the key! Deep knowing comes not from "tidy reports" " which can be assessed objectively, but is rushed into being by the researcher's obsession, by the inescapable pressure of the cosmic creative principle. (SELF) PHENOMENOLOGY Of A COSMIC CREATIVE PRINCIPLE I feel it pulsing in my heart. It is like sliding down a huge snowy slope. Awe, excitement, a breathtaking flight, which is impossible to stop. Fountains of energy burst from inside, wanting to spring forth. I lose my sense of self under the spell of the U n f o r t u n a t e l y , I a m u n a b l e yet to wri te r h y t h m i c p o e m s in E n g l i s h . T h i s is w h y this p o e m does not appear to f o l l o w the rule o f sonnets . 4 8 4 N a c h m a n o v i t c h , 1990 : 13. 4 8 5 B r o u d & A n d e r s o n , 1998: x v i i . 198 wonderful force that harmonizes me with the rest of the world. I am obsessed with the idea of the re-enchantment of science education. I simply cannot resist. It is my poem, which directs the autopoietic process of my emergence as a teacher and as a researcher. I never stop writing this poem. It writes itself any time and everywhere. It catches me in the classroom, on the street, even in the bar. Sometimes, in the middle of the night, it wakes me up, begging to be put into words. I hurry to write it down because I'm afraid to miss this message... Perhaps the most honest, real, and "objective" research comes from the subjective inner tension of universal creative energy that gives no other alternative but to strive toward knowing and creating. No matter what. In this case, scientific truthfulness486 is achieved through "the ultimate depiction of the experience derived through one's rigorous, exhaustive self-searching," and through the inherent self-honesty of the 487 researcher. In light of this, there is always a place for scientific objective truthfulness in subjective research. The process that I want to call scientific is a process that involves the continual apprehension of meaning, the constant appraisal of significance, accompanied by a running act of checking to be sure that I am doing what I want to do, and of judging correctness or incorrectness. This checking and judging and accepting, that together constitute understanding, are done by me and can be done for me by no one else. They are as private as my toothache, and without them science is dead. 4 8 8 As a holonomic researcher, I recognize a cosmic responsibility for my creation. I create because the spells and currents of my inner self-organizing energy have the same origins as the spells and currents of cosmic energy that design new, bright, fashionable 4 8 6 I use truthfulness ins tead o f truth to express that a l t h o u g h it is i m p o s s i b l e to u n c o v e r o b j e c t i v e truth it is p o s s i b l e to be honest a n d truthful i n the re search . In other w o r l d , truthfulness is truth as c o m m u n i c a t i o n . 4 8 7 M o u s t a k a s , 1990: 32 . 4 8 8 M o u s t a k a s , 1990: 33 . 199 stars. I create because I am obsessed, enchanted, because I feel the pulses of cosmic creative principle in my "within." only within Oy near; all else/ is far. and/this within crowded/, and day by day too- filled/ with/all/, and what no- wordy can say. the/ islands like/ a/ too- e^igaous- star which/ unperceiv'vng- space/, without a/word, has- shattered in/uncons<Uxyus-frightful yo-that it, unillumined/ and/ unheard, withno-ambititnA^ness ya>ve/ that all/ this may somewhere/ find and end, goes- Struggling/ on some/ self-discovered line/ in/ darkness, blindly, out of the/ design wherein/ the/planets, suns, and- systems-wend. 489 7. outofth&clejrCtyn/ wKerelvx/ the/plcMxety, swv\b-, and-systervwwend/ In a holographic universe, the cosmic design is hidden within holographic patterns of reality. This design constantly evolves under pressure from the elemental creative cosmic force, through the unfolding of "an amazingly complex and intricate cosmic drama." 4 9 0 In our playful world, every human life has a role in this grandiose cosmic spectacle and in this sense, every human inquiry into world phenomena, is performative. Performative inquiry is a research methodology which enables the researcher to bring forth unknown, unreal, imagined worlds through dramatic exploration 4 9 1 It dances at the edge of chaos, on the thin and elusive line between the real and the unreal, where waves from a shimmering sea of probabilities dash upon the shoreline of the phenomenal world. Performative inquiry progresses non-linearly under the guidance of questions: y Ri lke , 1964: 127 °Grof, 1998: 66 1 Fels, 1999 200 What matters? What if? So what? Who cares? Holonomic inquiry is the performative inquiry stretched to a cosmic scale. While it is a one-person performance, holonomic inquiry simultaneously involves the whole world. It is performed on a stage that is simultaneously as colossal as the universe and as small as the footprint of a child. What matters? The "red" filter through which we look at the world What if? We change the filter from mechanistic to re-enchanting So what? A new complex holographic organic mysterious poetic world, where integrity and meaning of human and more-than-human life is restored, could be imagined into existence. Who cares? The entire l iving Cosmos. It means, you, we, I, and they. Holonomic inquiry results in the emergence of new resonant patterns of the universal quantum-vacuum holofield. Each quantum leap/heartbeat of meaning is another more complex and more embracing holon within the great holarchy of becoming unified with the organic world. Each emerging holon is a newborn chaotic butterfly, a new sonnet within a sequence of sonnets to/of the imagined re-enchanted universe. imagine-transcend-create anew— the never ending sonnet, the sonnet, which comes out of the design wherein the planets, suns, and systems wend... 201 ScAyev\x^EdAA>cxxtuyy^ The universe implies organism, and each single organism implies the universe-only the "single glance" of our spotlight, narrow attention, which has been taught to confuse its glimpses with "separate things", must somehow be opened to the full vision... "492 (Alan Watts) 1. who- were/ th&w i^dAA/idAScd/ cloudy? Who were these individual clouds? What were you doing? What were your sensations? Who did you tell?493 (Annie billard) Who were these individual clouds? They were dogs transforming into dragons, then into temples, then funny disproportional people, then exotic flowers, and then mountains. In their dynamic kaleidoscopic nonlinear show, clouds easily mimicked the world below. What was I doing? I was lying on the grass admiring the wind, the sun, and the smell of the earth with every cell of my existence and thinking that watching clouds should be definitely included into the re-enchanted science curriculum as an experiment illustrating the fractal complexity of the world and of the principle "as Above so Below." Who were these individual clouds? Such a question can be treated as scientific only within a radically re-imagined universe of science education, where everything, absolutely everything is enfolded in everything, and everything, absolutely everything is alive, including trees, stones, atoms, people, knowledge, curriculum, childhood, imagination, and clouds. Nonlinear overlap of science of complexity, a holonomic paradigm, and postmodern organicism transform the universe of science education from mechanistic 4 9 2 Watts, 1967: 99. 4 9 3 Dillard, 1999. 202 fragmented reality into a complex, holographic, l iving, and feeling macrocosm. As Above so Below. For radically re-enchanted science education, each student is not an object and not even a complex system, but the mini-universe, a microcosm, a sonnet within a cosmic sequence of sonnets, a diamond sparkling with all its facets. Imagine science education that opens the doors and windows of our souls to the fresh wind of a cosmic creative principle. Imagine science education that grows the entire universe out of each human being. Imagine the universe where you are a living leaf, a l iving wind, and a l iving star. 7 see. Now I understand. You were a star, once, weren't you? Mrs. Whatsit covered her face with hands as though she were embarrassed, and nodded.494 2. arcti/-manual/how to-ima^ivie/ r&~e4%Cyhcir\te>d/ UAVuvery&Cy) Lrtfo-ejUsytesrice/ isvrus^gining universes unto- existence/, (especially if re-enchanted) Oy not an easy task there/ Ly no manualprovideds it would-be nice* to simply goto- a cosmic store and/buy somcthlngllke: "A step-by-step manual for handy-on creation/ of universes1." theproblem/ iy, where to- find such/ a store? I once tried to- looh through a coymio telephone directory, but very soonrealised/theimpoisibility of this tosh it is obvious that humors life does not provide enough time to- brow ye through themany mlUlonyofvery long starry numbers... trying not to-thlnkhow much such a long distance call might cost hoping/for a miracle, I ranAb-mly dXaled/A-11-22-33-99 100000000000000000000000000 L'Engle, 1978: 87. 203 0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000 000000000000 afuir ex/con4^der the* telephone-s speaker suddenly e*tyloded*witha* loud/ voice*: "bJorthStar is Speaking*, how may I help you*?" a* star? I was- lost... dumfounded/... what to yay ? I do nothave* any unytructixrns on/how humans must speak* with the*stars... "... .dear North Star, I need/ your help do you* happen* to know the* number of a* cosmic* store* which sells vruxnualsfor imagining/ uni*verse*s into existence*? Since*I am*a/hurnanfrom*a*modern*mechanistic*world*, I am* not sure* if I can* do anything* without a* manual, prescription, instruction, description, or recipe*. I have* to have* something- solid* to rely upon*..." "oh, dear, I too, was- once* human*... but now I a*m* a* star... andstars, by the* way, are*usually much*busier thanhMrnans I am/late* for a*cosmic festival! I must hurry! call me* in* five* hundred* yeary, maybe/then/I willhave*time*tohelp you*... while* listening- to- the* busy signal of the/hang* up, frequently interrupted/by cosmic*waves, I decided that for me* five* hundred*years was-a*little/toolong* a/period to wait, which is- why I had* better iMiagine* the* universe* independently without using* external assistance* or recipes-for thiypurpose*I invented* my ownantu-manual which* does- not include/ step-by-step procedures-but is based/ on the* nonlinear interplay of particles- and waves-trials and errors, body and mind* ice* and*fire* magic and real stuff eternity and single* moments, "pros" and "cons" hope* and despair, ftufc* and permanence/, 204 hovered/ and/ love Interior and exterior light and/ darkness, "yes" and/ "no\ humans and/ angels "plus' and/ "minus' quarks and galaxiey poetry and/prose, microcosm/ and/ macrocosms happ Lneyy and/ teary elements and/compoundy musio and/ silence, soul and/ science/, the complex/ and/ the simple-the/past, the present, and/the future alb necessary for creating- a- living and/ feeling universe/ the most challenging task/ is topress all of that inter a- singular paint big-bang the cosmic egg is broken/ order out of Chaos a- quantum/leap LET IT 3E! Now, when a baby-universe is born, it is time to begin a cosmic story. 205 3. ovtth&be^iYwuWifyxvcvycocoirvvvioytory Tell me a story. How often we said that as children. Tell me the story. Story illuminated the world for us in childhood. Even now we might make a request: tell me a story. Tell me the story of the river and the valley and the streams and woodlands and wetlands, of the shallfish and finfish. Tell me the story. A story where we are and how we got here and the characters and roles that we play. Tell me the story, a story that will be my story as well as the story of everyone and everything about me, the story that brings us together in a valley community, a story brings together the human community with every living being in the valley, a story that brings us together under the arc of the great blue sky in the day and the starry heavens at night.,.495 (Thomas Berry) Stars, galaxies, circled in cosmic pattern, and the joy of unity was greater than any disorder within.496 (Madeleine L 'Engle) Disenchanted mechanistic science curriculum is dead. Indeed, it is quite challenging to stay alive while being dissected into disjoined fragments. You can study states of matter in physical science, the digestive system of a fish in life science, and volcanic activities in earth and space science. Then.. . what? Studying science turns into collecting isolated bits, facts, and fragments of information about the world. Each school year increases the sheer volume of fragments. Of what use is the universe? What is the practical application of a million galaxies?497 The story of mechanicism is told in the language of numbers, graphs, charts, and proofs. 4 9 8 It is the story of a dead abstract world. Berry, 1988: 171. L'Engle, 1978: 58 . W a t t s , 1966: 117. 206 Writes Whitehead: The solution which I am urging, is to eradicate the fatal disconnection of subjects which kills the vitality of our modern curriculum. There is only one subject-matter for education, and that is Life in all its manifestations. 4 9 9 Re-enchanted science curriculum is alive. Its autopoietic pattern of organization is structured around the living cosmic story. Such curriculum evolves along the broadening hermeneutic D N A spiral of a living Cosmos. Each grade contributes a new turn to the spiral. Just as a sprouting seed contains the blueprint of the whole organism, re-enchanted school science curriculum contains the entire cosmic story, starting from elementary grades, upward. Each school year science begins from the whole, from a cosmic story that becomes increasingly sophisticated from grade to grade. As a living organism, it grows in a complexity, moving back and forward, to and fro, from the whole to specific topics. Students and the cosmic story grow together. Stories are/ ICke/ chiLdrerw. They grow Lrv their ow rv way.500 There are no cosmic stories in the modern school science curriculum, and this is, as Swimme writes, a terrible loss: "all our disasters today are directly related to our having being raised in cultures that ignored the cosmos..." 5 0 1 Throughout the history of humanity, cosmic stories were as vitally necessary as food or drink. They were used to "install" youth into the universe. Contemporary education ignores the value of these stories, which initiate humans into "the realities and values of the universe." Without the benefit of a cosmic story that provides meaning to our existence as Earthlings, we were stranded in an abstract world and left 4 9 8 Swimme, 1988: 49. 4 9 9 Whitehead, 1929/1967: 7. 5 0 0 L'Engle, 1978: 168. 5 0 1 Swimme, 1988:49. 207 to invent nuclear weapons, chemical biocides, ruinous exploitations, and waste. 5 0 2 In The Holistic Curriculum, John Mi l l e r writes that the story of a new curriculum should reflect the interconnected world portrayed by new scientific insights. 5 0 3 The contemporary story told by the avant-garde science, unifies humans of all nationalities into the cosmic race. If included into school science curriculum, this story could "install" students into the l iving and feeling Cosmos, where galaxies are nurseries of the stars, where black holes are baby-universes, where each atom is an experiencing entity enfolding the entire l iving world, where each human has a cosmic status as a holographic macrocosm, and where the beautiful and fashionable Goddess Gaia is alive, experiencing, feeling, and perhaps, even conscious . 5 0 4 planetEarth, Mother Earth, GjcvLcv in the glamour of your blue-white beauty yaw dance intothe spell/ of darkness along with born and/ vanishing story... who knowy, maybe at yowie unimaginable level you cxnnmanicate with other livi^xgplanets gossiping* about some hottest i^erplanetary newy? Or, perhaps while orbiting about the yan, You are rushing to- some important cosmic event fully ready and/prepared/: your windybrushed/yourhair, crow'ny of trees, your fashionable dress is decorated/ with Rowers, your makeup is composedof a* colorfuVpalette, the red and/yellow of your uutumny, the blue and green of your Springs, and/ the vivid/ rainbows of your summery Your winter diamonds, pieces of ice, gli/stening radiantly. As you/ drift in spacetime/, all your creatures, big-andsmall/ S w i m m e , 1988: 4 9 . M i l l e r , 1996. G o l d s m i t h b e l i e v e s that G a i a not o n l y a l ive , but c o n s c i o u s . See G o l d s m i t h , 1996. 208 unified* into- an unx^edible* web of life/, are/ nourished* with cur to- breathe*, water to- drink*, and/food/to-eat.... Planet Earth, Mother Earth, Qaia... Hebo, Cjaia, how are*you? As Mi l l e r notes, the image of Earth from space is one of the central images of an emerging new mythology. Astronauts often reflect on an acute spiritual sense of oneness with Gaia. They feel awe, admiration, and pride in her beauty. Russell Schwiegart, a U S astronaut, said: " Y o u look down there and you can't imagine how many borders and boundaries you crossed again and again and again. A n d you don't even see' em.. . .From where you see it, the thing is a whole, and it's so beautiful."'' 0 5 The new story of the world without borders can lead toward developing a new spiritually—oriented cosmic consciousness, writes Wi l l i am Quinn. Planetary [cosmic] culture needs to become a new Traditional culture that believes in the unbroken wholeness of humans, the planet, and the universe. 5 0 6 I agree with Quinn who believes that new science could become a major factor for development of cosmic consciousness because, as Heyman states, people who were brought up in a scientific culture w i l l believe only what comes from science. 5 0 7 In light of this, science education has a cosmic responsibility in weaving holographic patterns of an organic unified world, quantum leap by quantum leap. The contemporary cosmic story begins with the B i g Bang or, according to non-Big-Bang theories, from the spontaneous emergence of a new order out of fluctuating chaotic quantum vacuum. A l l versions, however, tell us that Gaia, the Sun, the galaxies, 5 0 5 In M i l l e r , 1996: 2. 5 0 6 M i l l e r , 1996. 5 0 7 H e y n e m a n , 1993. 209 humans, animals, and chemical elements came from the same ancestor eons ago. While coming from a singular "one," the innumerable entities of the world are entangled into a holographic unity. The cosmic story glues re-enchanted science curriculum and its world into an unbroken wholeness. Being autopoietic, it constantly "makes" or writes itself through interactions between teacher, students, and the rest of the universe. It writes itself poetically. The language of the new mythology, writes Swimme, is not limited to graphs and charts, but recalls the forgotten language of storytelling, which combines poetry, songs, dance, and chants." Writes Berry: We can understand the great intuitions the ancients had of the universe. We can dance anew the rhythms of the earth. This re-enchantment with the earth as a living reality is the condition of our rescue of the earth from the impending destruction that we are imposing upon i t . 5 0 9 I am caught up in an intense feeling that is like flying down a snowy slope. A dizzying, magical moment that is irresistibly breathtaking and grandiose. Imagining a deeply re-enchanted science curriculum requires radical re-conceptualization of what currently exists! The deeply re-enchanted world is a complex, holographic, evolving organism, alive throughout its totality. In such a world, there is no division between living and non-living entities, and therefore, the arbitrarily separation of science curriculum into physical science, life science, and earth and space science loses meaning. "Biology is the study of the larger organisms," says Alfred Whitehead, "whereas physics is the study of small Swimme, in Griffin, 1989. Berry, 1986: 21. 210 organisms." 5 1 0 " A n d in the light of modern cosmology," adds Rupert Sheldrake, "physics is also the study of the all embracing cosmic organism, and the galactic, stellar and planetary organisms that have evolved with i t . " 5 1 1 This perspective changes everything! It begs for unifying physical, earth and space, and life sciences into the wholeness of re-enchanted science under the " r o o f of an ever-evolving cosmic story of living universe. wKe^O ' tKe/pe<z^o/ : oi^ come/ together, my house* WdL have/ a* roof12 Not just the structure, but also the entire content of the new school science curriculum has to be re-conceptualized i f following the footsteps of avant-garde science. New, deeply re-enchanted science curriculum would be based not on mechanistic, but on cosmic worldview, since living Cosmos approaches us not only through space travel, but also through the dimension of our inner space! 5 1 3 What an interesting universe might unfold! What an enchanting science education might leap into existence! Listening to the quantum leaps of my heart, I begin the flight of my imagination, proposing to teach school science as a cosmic Sonnet to/of Life, an exciting story of the complex holographic organic poetic mysterious world. "A Magic World! Enchanting, " says Thomas Ber ry . 5 1 4 5 1 0 W h i t e h e a d , c i t e d in S h e l d r a k e , 1990: 80 . 5 " W h i t e h e a d , c i t e d in S h e l d r a k e , 1990: 80 . 5 1 2 B a c h e l a r d , 1994: 38. 5 1 3 T h e r e are m a n y o p t i o n s for t e r m i n g a n e w w o r l d v i e w : e c o l o g i c a l , b i o l o g i c a l , o r g a n i c , h o l o g r a p h i c , ho l i s t i c . I c o i n the t e r m " c o s m i c . " 5 1 4 B e r r y , 1986: 19. 211 ". . .even rock is in some way alive, for life and intelligence not only in all matter, but in energy, space, the fabric of the entire universe," writes David B o h m . 5 1 5 LET IT BE! A soap opera "Days of Physical Science in Elementary Schools Course" From Sara's final reflections: While I learned many details in this course, it was the overall way of looking at physical science as a holistic area of study, as an organism itself, that had the most meaning for me. 5. the/ content of cv deeply re/-enchanted/ yctence/ curruxxlum/ : the/ fcibruy cyfthe/ entire/ unOver-ye/ iy cilOve/ Matter is alive "You've studied atoms in school, haven't you?" "Sure, but-" "Then you know enough to know that matter isn't solid, don't you? That you, Calvin, consist mostly of empty space? That if all the matter in you came together you'd be the size of the head of a pint? That's plain scientific fact, isn't it? "Yes, but-" "So I simply pushed the atoms aside and we walked through the space in between them." 5 1 6 Atoms...what an enigma. Throughout human history, they have changed their images many times. They enjoyed having various shapes with hooks as imagined by the Greeks. They became magnetic balls in medieval times. They changed into plum puddings with raisins for electrons in Thompson's model. Then Rutherford transformed them into little solar systems; Bohr added energy levels for electrons to travel around 5 , 5 Bohm cited in Talbot, 1991. 5 1 6 L'Engle, 1962: 128. 212 nuclei, and then....atoms literally vanished into some kind of semi-real existence, into probability waves, into the vastness of quantum-vacuum informational field, into a network of interactions, into rhythms of dancing organic energy. Pure magic. In the organic holographic universe, atoms are nothing but solitions emerged from a single living unbroken totality, and in this sense, they are alive. Just like other l iving organisms, they are autopoietic and have some kind of mentality. A soap opera "Days of Physical Science in an Elementary Schools Course" -Particles with mentality? That is funny! -Is it? Let us do a little exercise. Have you ever admired the beautiful, intricate, and perfectly symmetrical shape of the snowflake? Have you ever thought about where this shape comes from? Where in the water are these beautiful patterns hidden? How do particles know the blueprint of each amazing design? Let us role play the following situation: we are mindless particles without any memory, without any ability to think, to know, and to communicate with our peers. Now we will try to become a snowflake. That was not very much of a success, was it? To actually create a snowflake, you have to be able to communicate with other particles and know what each is doing. Hey, water particles', ity getting/ cold! I feel I am/losing- my energy. &rr... itstvme/to- make/ a snowflake/. Who- iy with me/? You/, hold/ that angle/ straight. Andyou/, come/closer. Oh, splendid/job-. I remember the/ last time/ when/1 way in- a/ ynowflake/, we/ created/ something/ really amazing/. Oh...looh at that! Our snowflake/ is bexxrwung-yo-beautiful! We/ are/ ready! The/Earth/iswaiting/... letsfly! I maintain priceless connections with some of my former students. One year after my course, Tricia had her own class, grades 2 and 3.1 asked Tricia to explore her 213 students' perceptions about matter through role-playing a "snowflake" scenario. This is what she e-mailed to me. Dear Lyubov: I did the snowflake activities with my students and they were very interesting. They said that snowflakes were made from particles of water. They did not think that particles were alive because they are not "people and animals or things that breathe." Because they are not alive, they believed they could not communicate. They were very surprised to learn that all snowflakes have six sides and that no two snowflakes are exactly the same. They compared this to the way humans are all basically the same parts but never exactly the same. Then we did some dramatic play. Even when they were supposed to be making a snowflake without communicating, they communicated anyway. They found it impossible to know what to do and to figure out what other students in their group were doing without saying anything. They all decided that they really needed to be able to communicate in some form in order to do their skits and make their snowflakes.-The students started off all tight together as particles of water in a cloud. Then they slowly separated and started to drift and float about. Slowly, they began to join to other particles of water that were floating, until six of them had joined together by holding hands in a circle. Once they were all holding hands, they each stick one leg out to form the points of their snowflake. Then the group of them fell to the ground together in one big heap! In the end they were quite confused. They knew that they themselves had to communicate to make a snowflake skit, but had a hard time understanding how a particle could communicate when it is not an "alive person. " They believed that they must be able to communicate in some way, but they do not believe that they are alive. We really had fun with the activity. Hope this is useful to you!! Children were confused: water particles cannot be living, but at the same time they had to communicate somehow. The state of confusion, as we already know, is the 517 driving force of self-organization. It could be a good moment to throw the idea (a chaotic attractor) that the world in its totality might be unified and even alive.. . O f course, entering the twenty-first century, we are not as naive as alchemists, who produced dragons in their crucibles or married sulfur and mercury in their test tubes. When residing in a mechanistic universe, we know that chemical reaction between elements is just chemical reaction. There is nothing more to it. But.. .it is not as simple as 5 1 7 D r i v i n g f o r c e . . .often I feel m y s e l f caught up i n a m e c h a n i s t i c l a n g u a g e . . . 214 • 518 it seems to be, says science writer Garry Zukav.' The question is how do chemical elements know when and with which element they are supposed to react or not react. Chemical elements do not react with everything and under all circumstances. They are meticulous. They choose. TO REACT OR NOT TO REACT, THIS IS THE QUESTION! Chemical reactions are more radical than physical changes. If elementsdecide/to-react, it meunythey have/ made/up their mindto-surrender their own/ identities and/ to-produce new substances. Chemical elements are fussy about choosing their partners for reaction. Just like* people, they need "chemistry" to-occur. When choosing partners for reactions, elementyprobabLy take/ into- account how colourful or smelly the other element is; however, one ofthe main criteria/ for their choice ishow many electrons their partner has. After elements decide/ that everything is right for their reaction/, including temperature, pressure, and number of electrons, they produce a new compound, this compound, just like a human child, has Cts' own identity which is different from the identities of its parents. It is a new order, the whole that is more than the sum/ of its parts. for instance, rust Vs uproductofoxygen and iron, butithasitsunique-properties. According to the vision of postmodern panexperientialism, all entities, including planets, atoms, and elements are occasions of experiences. What are these experiences about? We can only guess. Writes Griffin: But what about nonhuman atomic (unitary) events—for example, those at the subatomic level? Obviously, we cannot analyze them phenomenologically as we do our own experience. Nevertheless, Whitehead believes that these events, too, are what they are because of their pattern of relationships with other events. 5 1 9 Can we not know of experiences of atoms, elements, or solutes? Wait a minute! For what purpose then do we have our imagination? 5 1 8 Zukav, 1979. 5 1 9 Griffin, 1993: 173. 215 SOLUTIONS FROM OPTIMISTIC AND PESSIMISTIC PERSPECTIVES Isit(good/ or bad to- be- dissolved/ iw a solvent? Lety addreyythis question from/the/solutes-point of view, [solutes- ay we/ know are/ substances- dissolved in/ a/ solvent] anytime/ we> ash yometmeJy opinion, we/ naturally expect tohear both optimistic/ andpe/ssimistix/penspectives-. There/are/probably optimistsandpessimlsts among- solutes-, just as- among/ human beings-lets imagine/ what could/possibly be/ said/ by yolutes-pessimists: W ell. is- no fun at all to be/ dissolved/ in a solvent. I uyed/ to be- a solid, a> crystalline/ structure/, and I was quite/proud of my shiny, defined appearance/. AW my particles- were/ neatly arranged/ and/heldtogether by intermolecular forces-. But now, Uv solution, I arrv scattered/ all about, I am/nolonger aperfectstructure/. Particles- of liquid surround, me/ ay policemen/ surround criminals-, tearing/ me/ apart, element by element. My identity is- gone/, I am/so depressed... Now lety imagine/ what couldpossMy be/said by the/ solutes--optimisty: Well. is- wonderful to- be* dissolved in a solvent. I enjoy it tremendously I used/to- be* a- solid, a crystalline/ structure/. All my particles- were/ yostrongly connected/; they could not even/travel or change/ places-! But now, in/solution, they are/free/to move/ whenever and wherever they want. Also, it feels so nice/ to be/ surrounded/ by the friendly particles- of solvent. I am/flattered to be/the/ center of attention. Yes-, I definitely enjoy being- dissolved, butat the-same-time/1 am/gladtoknow that I could become/ a solid again, for instance/, through vaporisation. 216 I have/ nothing to- loses, really, oelng dissolved/ Uv cv sdbvent enriches my experiences! I am so-happy! Conjlaering the/optimists the/ question/ of whether it is good or bad/ to- be/ dissolved/ in/ a- solvent remains open. While/I personally do-not desire/ to be/ dissolved/ in anything, I like/ an/optiAnistuyperspective/, Since/ optimism gives the/ key to- happiness in any situation/. 217 Y o u might ask i f I am serious. Wel l , I am not. I perhaps "humanized" the chemical and physical world too much. This is actually an interesting question: by attributing some mentality and intentions to atoms, do we anthropomorphize matter, as the ancients did? Yes, agree Bohm and Sheldrake, this is likely the case. However, it is perhaps inevitable since all our explanations of reality are nothing other than an interpretation of human experiences. The mechanical view of reality is anthropomorphic as well. "What could be more anthropomorphic in human modeling than to say that everything is a machine? Machines are entirely and specifically human creations." A soap opera "Days of Physical Science in an Elementary Schools Course" EXPERIMENT "MYSTERY IN THE AIR" Purpose: • To introduce the concept "kinetic-molecular theory " through an art-based approach Equipment: • empty flask • balloon • hotplate Procedure: • Fit the balloon over the mouth of a flask • Put the flask on the plate for about 10 min Research question: • What happens (if anything) with the balloon after heating the flask for 10 min? Your hypothesis Your observations In Weber, 1986: 114 218 Your theory: The class worked in several collaborative groups. Each group has an assignment. Using any genre (drawing, creative writing, dancing, singing, or acting) generate a story illustrating what happened with particles of air when the flask in which they were contained was placed on a hot plate. This is the opening of the story: ihe/particlcs-ofthe/airuas^ Indeed/, what would/you/ expect from/ life/ Of you/ were imprisoned/ within/ yueh/ a/ ymalL container, yealedoffby a/balloon/? Of courye, you/could/yomehow try to-eycape, but escaping- Vy not easy, you/know. It requires- loty of energy. Suddenly.... What a variety of presentations! Particles—student teachers danced, sung in humorous opera, communicated through dramatic play, and became characters in a story: Suddenly...Boom, boom, boom the yecretto- escaping-thiyd^eculful exiiitence/ lay in the unknown realm of fantasy... calling "Boom, boom, boom... frantically fighting-and/runningto-the/lures-ofthe/deep balloon, theparticles'became yweaty with/ anticipation/to find/their own spaces-in their journey y to- the p romised land. Boom.521 Anthropomorphic metaphors expressed humorously the main idea of postmodern panexperientialism, according to which matter is not an inert, mindless, and passive substance merely occupying empty space, but rather an active, experiencing, ever-changing, and learning manifestation of the deeper cosmic order. Isn't it amazing? Socializing matter communicates within itself. It makes choices while self-organizing into the complex structures. It remembers. It renews itself autopoietically even at a subatomic level. It experiences. It lives. Ahh. . .how far away this understanding of matter is from textbook definitions portraying matter in the manner of "brute facts," "inert 522 particles," and "isolated atoms."" A h h . . .how many mysteries related to matter are yet to be solved! 1 F r o m Jeanette 's re f l ec t ive j o u r n a l . 2 W h i t e h e a d , 1929/1967 . 219 The words from the Frank Sinatra's song: "how little we know, how much to discover..." perfectly express surprising and puzzling features of the universe revealed by contemporary cosmology, called "a dark matter." This matter is undetectable through our current experimental methods; however, it exposes itself through its powerful gravitational effects. Rupert Sheldrake writes that recent estimates of the amount of dark matter in the universe range from 90 to 99 per cent! The magnitude of this mystery is staggering. The great majority of the matter in the universe is utterly unknown, except through its gravitational effects. Yet through the gravitational field, it has shaped the way in which the universe has developed. It is as i f physics has discovered the unconscious. Just as the conscious mind floats, as it were, on the surface of unconscious mental processes, so the known physical world floats on a cosmic ocean of dark matter. 5 2 3 The dark matter is unconscious universal mind? This is a real re-enchantment. Let's also not forget the magical anti-matter. ANTI-ME IN ANTI-UNIVEKSE H ave-you- heard/ that scientists synthesOfred/ anti-hydrogen and/ anti-helium/? A nti-elements have/ everything/ the/ same/ as- normal elements except their electrons are/ positive/ and/their nuclei/ are/ negative/. A nti/-elements probably enjoy being/ originals withthe- charges of