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A school advisor’s pedagogical reflections : towards a framework of learning to teach and teaching to… Wong, Gina N. 2003

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A SCHOOL ADVISOR'S PEDAGOGICAL REFLECTIONS: TOWARDS A FRAMEWORK OF LEARNING TO T E A C H AND TEACHING TO L E A R N By Gina N . Wong B.Ed., University of British Columbia, 1986  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN P A R T I A L F U L F I L L M E N T OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE D E G R E E OF M A S T E R OF A R T S in THE F A C U L T Y OF G R A D U A T E STUDIES (Department of Curriculum and Instruction) We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard  T H E UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH C O L U M B I A April 2003 © Gina N . Wong, 2003  In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the  requirements for an advanced  degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department  or  by his  or  her  representatives.  It  is  understood  that  copying or  publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission.  Department of The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada  DE-6 (2/88)  Abstract This self-study analyzes the reflections of a school advisor's perspective on issues and challenges of teaching future teachers how to teach during the practicum period. This research paper is based on the following three questions: What are the issues and challenges of a school advisor? What have I learned about teaching/learning in the role as a school advisor? How can identifying and recognizing these issues help other school advisors? As a result of analyzing a school advisor's pedagogical reflections, a three phase conceptual framework is developed to make sense of the dynamic processes of learning to teach and teaching to learn. Having struggled with the responsibility of guiding and supporting student teachers in the educational profession, I questioned the effectiveness of the knowledge, skills, and understanding of the school advisor's role in teacher education programs. There is substantial research focused on the issues, challenges, experiences, and development of student teachers during teaching practicum. Whenever research studies address the school advisor's role in the teacher training triad, they are often positioned from the view of the student teacher; few research studies present the perspective of school advisors who play a significant role in teacher education programs. The research data was gathered from the collection of practicum cycles of pre-and post-lesson conferences between a school advisor and a student teacher. Each conference was audio and video taped. The conferences focused on the reflective practice or thinking of the school advisor while guiding a student teacher through the practicum. School advisors must address pedagogical issues such as educational beliefs and values, curriculum planning, lesson implementation, child development, classroom management,  ii  and extracurricular activities. In addition, interpersonal challenges such as interpersonal skills, communication abilities, and social/emotional interactions contribute to the dynamics of all members involved in the learning process. A tentative framework is developed to encompass the dynamic processes of learning to teach and teaching to learn. The framework has three phases that progress in chronological order from initiation, advancing teaching development, and closure/launching. In summary, this self-study of pedagogical reflections from a school advisor contributes one voice to a neglected perspective in the conversations to advance our collective knowledge and understanding of teacher education.  iii  Table of Contents Abstract Table of Contents Appendices List of Figures Prologue Dedication Acknowledgments  ii iv viii ix x xii xiii  Chapter One: Introduction of Self Study  1  Research about School Advisor M y Personal Story Practicum Study Intent and Outline of Thesis  Chapter Two: Outline of the Self Study Research Project  8  Teacher Training Triad Elements of the Research Cycle Self Study - Action Research Approach Levels and Perspectives of Reflection in Analyzing Data Recruiting and Appointing School Advisors Judy, the Student Teacher Description of Student Teacher Practicum Background of Research Cycles Participation in Research Study Summary  Chapter Three: Research Literature on School Advisor  26  Role of School Advisor in Teacher Training Triad School Advisor's Effect on Student Teacher Practicum Issues in Teacher Education Inquiry and Reflection Teaching Collaborations Summary  Chapter Four: Reflection of a School Advisor  42  Cycle One - Science/Cooking - Volcano Cookies Background of Pre-Lesson Conference - April 19 , 2001 Stimulated Recall Pre-Lesson Conference - April 24 , 2001 Foci Beliefs and values th  iv  42  Different perspectives Feedback and support Reflecting on practice Background of Lesson - April 24 , 2001 Stimulated Recall of Lesson - April 24 , 2001 Different Perspectives Background of Post-Lesson Conference - April 24 , 2001 Stimulated Recall of Post-Lesson Conference - April 24 , 2001 Reflective practice Knowledge about curriculum, students, and learning Beliefs and values Feedback Empathy for student teachers Summary th  th  th  th  Cycle Two - Physical Education - Relays Background of Lesson Stimulated Recall of Lesson - May 2 , 2001 Different Perspectives Feedback Teaching development Knowledge about students and relationship Background of Post-Lesson Conference - May 16 , 2001 Stimulated Recall of Post-Lesson Conference - May 16 , 2001 Life of a teacher Different perspectives Communication Appropriate/effective feedback Inquiry and reflective practice  58  nd  th  th  Cycle Three - Physical Education - Relays 71 Background of Post-Lesson Conference Stimulated Recall of Post-Lesson Conferences - May 16 , 2001 (continued) Teaching is a continuous process Stimulated Recall of Post-Lesson Conference - May 28 , 2001 Questioning skills Student teachers' and school advisors' needs Summary th  th  Cycle Four - Art - Fresco Painting Background of Pre-Lesson Conference - May 28 , 2001 Stimulated Recall of Pre-Lesson Conference - May 28 , 2001 Knowledge about children, learning, and teaching Feedback and assessment of student learning Questioning skills Background of Lesson th  th  v  77  Stimulated Recall of Lesson - May 28, 2001 Teaching practice Communication Time for conferences Summary  Chapter Five: Self Analysis Conferences Part I: Student Teacher Self Evaluation Background of Student Teacher Self Evaluation Conference Beliefs about teaching and learning Assumptions Teaching to learn and learning to teach Teaching practice Beyond the classroom Professional and personal development Feedback - expectations Summary Part II: School Advisor Final Interview Background of Final Interview School advisor role and influence Teaching mosaic Guidance and support Teaching and learning dichotomy Feedback Beliefs, values, and knowledge Colleagues and support for school advisors Summary  Chapter Six: Discussion of Reflections Bias Beliefs and Values Assumptions Teaching Practice Knowledge About Teaching, Learning, Students, and Curriculum . Different Perspectives Risk Taking Reflective Practice Relationships Colleagues Support School Advisor Role Professional and Personal Growth Appropriate and Effective Feedback Communication Questioning Skills Conference Time Empathy for Student Teacher Further Inquiries  vi  87 87  98  113  Analysis of Reflections Toward an Integrative Framework of "Learning to Teach and Teaching to Learn"  Chapter Seven: Contributions, Implications, Limitations, and Conclusions  140  Contributions Limitations of Research Implications for Research A n Integrative Framework of "Learning to Teach and Teaching to Learn" Implications for Practice Resources and support for school advisors. Teacher education programs Inquiry and reflective practice by school advisors Conclusion  References  155  vii  Appendices A. Table of Research Cycles One to Four and Self Analysis Conferences  158  B. Formal Lesson Observation  161  viii  List of Figures Figure 1. Teacher Training Triad - Assumption  8  Figure 2. Teacher Training Triad - Reality  9  Figure 3. Elements of the Research Cycle  12  Figure 1. Integrative Framework of Learning to Teach and Teaching to Learn" - Critical Tasks and Milestones  139  ix  Prologue This research study presents the reflective thoughts and insights of a school advisor at different levels since I was the subject and the author of the study. As stated in Chapter 2, reflection can occur at three different levels (Bramald, Hardman, and Leat, 1995: 28). The presentation format of the study exhibits technical, practical, and critical reflection (Bramald, Hardman, and Leat, 1995: 28). The research data in Chapter 4 was based on viewing, and explaining my actions and thoughts in the stimulated recall sessions of the research cycle as described in Chapter 2. In presenting the particular voices of all participants involved, I used specific fonts and text boxes for the student teacher, the researcher, and myself. Chapter 4 highlights the reflections of a school advisor for each of the four research cycles. In each cycle, the indented, italic font within quotation marks represents my reflective voice during stimulated recall sessions as I viewed and reflected upon the conferences with the student teacher. M y reflections addressed the following research questions: what was I thinking or communicating while conferencing with the student teacher, and what did I learn about teaching and learning in the school advisor role while I viewed my performance. These reflections are the practical level since they focus on examining and evaluating my teaching and learning development. The number after each of these quotes refers to the page of the transcript from of the stimulated recall session that is footnoted. The conversations within an enclosed box reveal the exchanges that occurred between the student teacher and I. The voice of the student teacher is within quotation marks in the following font: "I have questions about the objectives". In these text boxes, within quotation marks, the italicized font represents my oral voice; what I actually said  to the student teacher. The citations at the bottom of the box refer to the page of the transcript from the particular stage of the research cycle. Both the student teacher and I reflected at the technical level during these exchanges, which concentrated on supporting the student teacher in meeting the criteria of the university teacher education program. In Chapter 5, in the Final Interview, the voice of the researcher is included. The researcher debriefs the research project by asking specific questions about the school advisor role. These questions are indicated in the following way: "Have you felt that you gained anything from being able to view yourself?" (10). A number of comments from  the researcher were important to include which is shown within fonts in the following font:"... generative space"  (5).  The number after the quotes indicates the page of the  transcript of the final interview. M y reflections of my school advisor role moved between the practical and critical levels of reflection. I was considering how this study would impact future school advisors and research in teacher education programs. Chapter 6 and 7 of the study represent reflections of a school advisor at the critical level. The need to revisit my school advisor experience in-depth from participation to formally presenting the study allowed me to critically reflect upon my teaching practice. Each time I read, wrote, or revisited my work, I reflected further upon this experience which brought additional inquiries and thoughts. The writing of the final chapters represents my continual teaching journey. I have discovered new learnings, and there are additional inquiries that I would like to pursue.  xi  DEDICATION  To the memory of my beloved Grandmother Mah Chung How a wise, strong, and loving woman who inspired me to take on challenges  To my special grandmother, King Fong Louie who demonstrates perseverance in all circumstances and is an exemplary model for me  To my supportive, gracious, and loving parents Mom and Dad, who have instilled in me the love of learning and a commitment to pursue goals to completion  To my very special and lighthearted Auntie Ying Kwai Wong who encourages me to seek balance in life and to view experiences with gaiety  xii  Acknowledgements Borrowing the words from my older sister, Diana "a [thesis] is often an achievement of many with one authorship" which is exactly how I would describe the journey of this manuscript. M y adventure in this endeavour is the result of the vision, faith, and encouragement of the academic community, teaching colleagues, faithful friends, and my loving family. I would like to thank Anthony (Tony) Clarke for directing and coaching me through the thesis process. His patience with missed deadlines, attention in the quick feedback, and validation of my work steered this work to completion. Tony propelled my learning to another level through this self-study. In addition, I am grateful to Karen Meyer for challenging me to 'think outside of the box' and expand my intellectual capability. I appreciate Cynthia Nicol for her comments in this thesis and for being part of the committee. I would like to thank my student teacher, Colleen Smailes for her willingness to take further risk in learning by participating in this study and for teaching me more about teaching/learning. I greatly appreciate the time and effort of the following friends who have played a special role in ensuring the completion of this thesis. Kitty Chang lighted the fire to start me off in the writing process and for editing my work with thoroughness in the beginning stages. Brenda Kvist shared my graduate studies journey and continued to support my adventure of learning by reviewing my work and prompting me to finish the task. Diana Lin willingly read and edited my thesis with thoroughness; she was an invaluable editor all the way to the final draft. To many caring, generous, and faithful friends and  xiii  colleagues, your individual kindness and support through food, humour, words, and spirit contributed to the completion of this thesis. With loving gratitude, I acknowledge my siblings Diana and Wayne WongMillette, Donna and William Woo, Stan and Charlotte Pearce-Wong, Gale and Curtis Low for their unwavering love, faith and hope in all that I endeavour to be or do. Each one played a special role from reading a few pages to formatting a disk to be used on two computer platforms to teaching me word processing features to downloading pictures for my defense to asking "how is it going" and much more. In particular, I would like to thank my sister Diana for her insightful reviews throughout the writing of the thesis and encouragement in taking risks in life. Thank you to Amanda, Jennifer, Matthew, Maya, Quentin, and Jack for your youthful spirit in reminding me of the simple pleasures of life. Thank you to God for blessing me with this opportunity to become more of who He wants me to be and for His providence in completing this task in His perfect time.  xiv  1  Chapter One: Introduction Research about School Advisors School advisors play a significant role in the training of student teachers during the 1  practicum period yet very little is known about the degree, extent, and nature of their influence. A survey of over 4000 teacher educators and student teachers in the U S A found that "student teaching and cooperating teachers were the most powerful sources of influence on teacher candidates in their initial socialization experience. (Su, 1992: 201) ... it is generally believed ... the most influential feature of the most influential program component (in teacher education) is the cooperating teacher. (Joyce, 1988: 201) Such research should seek to provide a more detailed understanding of the beliefs and the practices of the supervising teachers and their impact on the experiences and perceptions of the student teachers who are engaged in practice teaching. (Nettle, 1998: 202) University curricula often outline broad goals and expectations for the teacher education triad - the student teacher, the faculty advisor, and the school advisor in educational programs. But the responsibilities and expectations of the school advisor are left up to individual teachers to interpret how to educate student teachers. There are no specified professional development or course requirements for the school advisor position. Universities offer teacher supervision courses in which teachers may choose to participate. No incentive is offered for enrolling in these courses when they are not a prerequisite for being a school advisor. B y taking a supervisory course, a school advisor may have additional resources to draw on. The educational faculty make assumptions about the professional knowledge and skills of school advisors who work with student teachers. Some assumptions about the school advisors  School advisor/associate, experienced, cooperating, sponsor, supervising, practicing teacher, or "teachers" are used in research literature to mean the teacher who works with the student teacher at the practicum school site. 1  2 are that they require: little training in their mentoring role, are good/effective teacher role models, knowledgeable about the educational field, keep abreast with current teaching practices, and are able to model effective teaching strategies and practices. ... role of the mentor is variously defined and ill-conceptualized ... the proper relationship between mentor and novice is a two-way exchange of role-partners who are able to extend each other professionally. (Brooks, 1998: 173) When teacher education programs encourage and support practicing teachers, the practicum experience can be an effective learning and professional opportunity for all participants. Working with student teachers requires school advisors to examine and explain their teaching practices, beliefs, and values in detail. School advisors inquire into and reflect upon their teaching from another perspective. Higher education has a role in helping teachers and students to recognize each other as mutually enhancing role-partners. ... It provides an analytical framework enabling teachers to stand back from and reflect upon their practices. (Brooks, 1998: 165) The relationships that are developed within the teacher education triad affect the professional and personal development of each individual. Further, the relationship between the school advisor and student teacher significantly impacts teaching and learning during the practicum period because of the close proximity with which they work and share goals. The situation and the kind of relationships can be positive or negative. Good relationship with the class teacher seemed to be "fundamental to learning. (McNally, Cope, Inglis, & Stronach, 1997: 486)  My Personal Story I love teaching children. It is a privilege to be working a job where each day is different and full of surprises. I enjoy learning alongside my students. Being a relatively new teacher, I  3 did not feel qualified in working with a student teacher. Teaching someone else how to teach is an immense responsibility. After teaching six years in three different public schools from Junior Kindergarten to Grade Two, I finally felt confident and ready to guide another person into the teaching profession. I looked forward to working with a "promising' candidate who had significant experience in working with children and a sense of child development. The student teacher, Robby who arrived at my Kindergarten classroom door was a 6 foot 4 inch male. Robby had limited experience in working with young children. When I asked him why he had chose to work with Kindergarten pupils; his answer was "I think younger children listen better than older students." I thought he was in for a big surprise. What other misconceptions did he have about teaching, learning, and children? I thought what surprises and misconceptions did I have about my role as a school advisor. As the practicum experience evolved, I realized being a school advisor involved more than modeling practices, explaining processes in detail, allocating time for conferences, and addressing the needs of the student teacher. Other focus areas were interpersonal skills, and skills for working with adult learners. As I helped Robby develop bis teaching skills, knowledge, and understanding, I developed a better understanding of my teaching pedagogy through inquiry and reflective practice. I furthered my understanding about teaching and learning to another level. Developing skills for working with an adult learner and interpersonal skills were other focus areas. At the end of the practicum, I thought Robby required additional experiences and training to become an effective teacher. I questioned if my approaches and methods of working with this student teacher were sufficient and effective. What else could I have done in guiding this student  4 teacher? What training or resource would have been beneficial for my school advisor role? I wondered if my interpretation of the expectations were realistic for beginning teachers at the end of the practicum. Learning to teach begins during the practicum and continues through one's teaching career. I am still becoming the teacher that I want to be. I learned that a spirit of inquiry and critical reflection promoted in school advisors during the practicum could have direct impact on teachers' practices. This was the beginning of my school advisor journey in teaching someone else how to teach, and in the process I learned about teaching and learning at another level. The questions and insights that I gained with my first student teacher resurfaced with subsequent teaching candidates. M y own pedagogy was more apparent, but I continued to inquiry into what is best practice in educating others into a teaching career and developing quality teachers in the education profession. Since Robby, I have worked with two additional student teachers and mentored a couple of beginning teachers. This increased my confidence in mentoring others in the education profession. M y inquiries about practicing teachers' role in teacher education programs resulted in a self-study of the school advisor role with my third student teacher. I was a subject of a larger university study about school advisors. This was the catalyst that led to the opportunity to analyze and reflect on my experiences in the role of the school advisor. While writing this selfstudy, I have worked with three additional student teachers. M y insights and learning have improved my practice and understanding in subsequent school advisor role.  5  Practicum Study Subsequent to participating in a university study about the experience of a school 2  advisor, I had an opportunity to take part in an in-depth analysis and research project about the school advisor role. Many times, teachers are too busy performing their teaching responsibilities that they have little time to pursue active research inquiries and reflect deeply upon their practice. M y participation in the research project allowed for an in depth investigation of the issues and challenges of being a school advisor. This study examines a series of practicum conversations from pre-lesson conferences, lesson observations, post-lesson conferences, and stimulated recall sessions of events. The analysis encompasses four cycles of school advisor-student teacher conversations. However, some cycles had missing sessions due to the complexity of the school day and demands on my time as a teacher. Of the four cycles, Cycle One was 100% complete; Cycle Two to Four were 35-65% complete. Each session of the practicum cycles, the self-evaluation of the student teacher, and the final interview of the school advisor were audio taped and videotaped by a researcher . In addition to the recorded lessons for the study, formal written observations and 3  assessments of the student teacher reinforced the highlighted themes. This study excluded numerous incidental conversations and situations apart from the defined conversation cycles that influenced the learning to teach. The data provided only a sampling of the array of issues and challenges that arose for school advisors.  1 was one of the subjects of a larger study about the work of school advisors. During the middle of the study project, I decided to provide an in-depth perspective of a school advisor though a self-study. The researcher was responsible for audio and video taping the practicum cycles for the larger research study of which I was a participant. This researcher also helped me focus on my reflections during each session in the research cycle. 2  3  6  Intent and Outline of Thesis Through inquiry and reflection of my school advisor role, I recount and highlight reoccurring themes and challenges of teaching and mentoring a student teacher to become an effective teacher during the practicum period. M y interpretation and writing represent one perspective; it may resonate or create dissonance with other school advisors. Chapter Two outlines the self-study research project, describes the practicum cycles in detail, defines action research, identifies reflective practice, provides reasons for a qualitative research approach, and gives the background information of the subjects in the study. Chapter Three reviews the research literature on the school advisor. Prior research defines a number of major themes regarding the role of school advisors in teacher education programs. Chapter Four is a reflective account of four practicum cycles in narrative form. The themes focus on the question - what are issues/challenges of being a school advisor? Chapter Five examines two reflective conferences. One conference is the self-evaluation and assessment of the practicum experience by the student teacher, which highlights the teaching and learning process of the school advisor. The second discussion is the school advisor's perspective of the self-study participation in teaching and learning development. The topics continue to focus on pertinent issues and challenges for school advisors. Chapter Six discusses the reflections and highlights prominent themes of the school advisor's role from the various discussions of the research study. This chapter identifies my insights about teaching and learning in the role of a school advisor. A three phase integrative framework on learning to teach and teaching to learn outlines the school advisor's role in working with a student teacher during the practicum period.  7 Chapter Seven summarizes my assessments and reflections about my experience as a school advisor. This chapter specifies the contributions, limitations, and implications from my research of a self-study. Insights presented contribute to the growing knowledge about the role of school advisors in teacher education programs. The basic conclusion emphasizes the need to explicitly recognize and account for the school advisor role in teaching others to teach. Each student teacher and school advisor relationship, background, experience, and situation is unique, yet many commonalties are shared through our continuous aspiration to become the teachers we want to be. The following chapters present one case study that explores the significance, challenges, and issues of the school advisor in one teaching dyad.  8  Chapter Two: Outline of the Self-Study Research Project Teacher Training Triad The teacher education practicum consists of a triad as depicted in Figure 1.: the faculty advisor, school advisor, and student teacher. This self-study is a critical inquiry and reflection from the perspective of a school advisor in guiding a student teacher during the practicum period. The relevance of examining the school advisor addresses a gap in the literature. From the literature review, only a few studies investigate how the school advisor influences teachertraining schema (Borko & Mayfield, 1995; Boschee, Prescott, Donald, & Hein, 1978), especially from the perspective of the school advisor. cooperating teachers have a substantial influence on the development of student teachers; orientations, dispositions, conceptions, and classroom practices. (Griffin, 1986 in Gonzalez, & Carter, 1996: 39) Given the significant influence of school advisors, this role bears further investigation. Thus, an in-depth case study provides insights into different dimensions of the school advisor's role.  Figure 1. Teacher Training Triad - Assumption Student Teacher  Faculty Advisor  School Advisor  Teacher education programs involve three key roles that vary in significance during the practicum. The general assumption is that the student teacher, school advisor, and faculty  9 advisor have equal weight and contribution in the practicum as represented Figure 1. In reality, the emphasis is on supporting and guiding the student teacher in her teaching/learning development rather than supporting the school advisors. A more accurate representation of the present practice of the teacher education triad follows (Figure 2):  Figure 2. Teacher Training Triad - Realistic Student Teacher  Faculty Advisor  School Advisor  The relationship between the faculty advisor and the student teacher is strong because the faculty advisor represents the institution that provides theoretical knowledge for teaching and the necessary program for legitimate teacher training. Because of the intensity and influential role of the school advisor with the student teacher, this relationship becomes more meaningful as the practicum progresses. The relationship between the faculty advisor and the school advisor is probably the weakest because the focus is on facilitating an experiential field learning process for the student teacher. The focus is not on building a relationship that could enrich each other's teaching and understanding of educational issues and challenges. Brooks (1998: 166) reinforces that student teachers are "placed in school as a vital component in their own training not in order to promote professional development in others" which does not optimize the opportunity of learning and teaching for all participants involved.  10 Borko and Mayfield (1995) and Kettle and Sellars (1996) cite changes in the relationship between faculty advisor and student teacher as the student teacher accumulates experience in teaching practicum. The student teacher often values the relationship with the school advisor to a higher degree than with the faculty advisor. Borko and Mayfield (1995) also found faculty advisors take on more of a background role as school advisors adopt a more significant role in advising and guiding student teachers in their teaching practicum. This was true regarding my relationship with the student teacher. The faculty advisor carried out weekly, scheduled observations. Each day, I discussed teaching performance with, observed developing practice of, and provided regular feedback to the student teacher. During the practicum, I was a significant guide and support for the student teacher. Wideen, Mayer-Smith, & Moon (1998: 169) advocate a need to "take a more holistic and critical approach to interrogate and challenge the structures, approaches, and mythology of teacher education". Other researchers (Joyce, 1988; Carter, 1993; Grossman, 1992; Su, 1992; Zeichner, 1982) echo the same views and suggest reconsiderations of the roles of participants in teacher education programs. Communication between school advisors and the education faculty is lacking. Suggestions for improving articulation involve forming closer partnerships between schools of education and practicing school sites (Su, 1992: 254) or "connecting educational theory and research to foundations and methods courses and field experiences together" (Joyce, 1988: 35). Carter (1993:10) proposed investigating how teacher stories ".can become teachereducation pedagogy" and recognizing " the necessity of reformulating our relationship as a research community to the worlds of public policy and school governance." Both Grossman (1992: 176) and Zeichner (1982) encourage both school advisors and student teachers to reflect and inquiry into practice to become "pedagogically critical thinkers" (Grossman, 1992: 177).  11 These alternative approaches can optimize the roles for all participants in the teacher education triad.  Elements of the Research Cycle The six elements in the Research Cycle are outlined in Figure 2. The first element is the pre-lesson conference, which involves the student teacher reviewing her lesson plans with the school advisor who provides input and feedback about the lesson. The second element is the stimulated recall of pre-lesson conference that involves the school advisor and a researcher viewing the pre-lesson conference videotape which prompts the school advisor to voice her thoughts about her role. The third element is the student teacher teaching the discussed lesson. The fourth element is the stimulated recall of the lesson, which consists of the school advisor viewing the videotape of the taught lesson and comments on the student teacher's teaching development. The fifth element is the post-lesson conference, which involves the student teacher and school advisor debriefing the taught lesson. The final element is the stimulated recall of a post-lesson conference with the school advisor and a researcher. Appendix A summarizes each of the six elements in the research cycle in a table format.  12  Figure 3. Elements of the Research Cycle  T = Should be a transcript of these sessions  SA = School Adviser ST - Student Teacher R = Researcher  The data collection focused on the stimulated recall of pre-lesson, lesson, and post-lesson conferences in four research cycles. During these sessions, the school advisor extrapolated issues and challenges that arose during discussions with the student teacher. Each of the sessions in the research cycles was video and audio taped by a researcher. During the simulated recall sessions, the researcher encouraged me to discuss my thoughts and reflections in detail. M y remarks centered on: what I was thinking as I mentored this student teacher's skill and knowledge development about teaching, learning, and children; how I taught another person to teach; my beliefs and values about teaching, learning, and children; how I communicated my practice, beliefs, and values; what I struggled with in working  with this student teacher; what I thought about good teaching practices; and what I learnt about my pedagogy and myself. During the stimulated recall sessions, my inquiries and reflections would not have been as insightful and in depth without the prompting of the researcher. The researcher was instrumental in drawing out my reflections - "thinking/practice." The goal of the research project was to include four or five research cycles with each of the above elements. In this study, four full cycles were completed. Due to logistical limitations, only Cycle One is available with full documentation. In Cycle Two, the tapes and transcripts of the prelesson conference and the simulated recall of pre-lesson conference are not available from the research project. In Cycle Three, the transcripts of the pre-lesson conference, the stimulated recall of the lesson, and the post-lesson conference were missing. Conferences from Cycle Two and Three involved the same relay, activities in physical education. As a result, the discussion and analysis combines the two cycles in an integrative discussion. In Cycle Four, only one tape and transcript of the pre-lesson conference was available for analysis. Due to time constraints and scheduling, we omitted Cycle Five. Tape and transcripts also included the student teacher's self-evaluation with the school advisor and the exit interview of the school advisor from research project. Refer to Appendix A for Table of Research Cycles 1 to 4 and Additional Conferences. Many factors affected the data collection of each cycle in the research project. Time restriction for data collection in a seven week period limited coordination of meeting times between school advisor and researcher and the scheduling for completion of each element in the research cycle. Other factors involved inefficient equipment and operation of equipment, which resulted in poor quality recordings with the audio and videotapes. There were segments of tapes that were inaudible.  14  Self Study - Action Research Approach This research thesis is a self-study. As action research, I identify and reflect upon the issues and challenges of my role in the practicum. Action research is widely promoted in the education field as a means for teachers to actively investigate their pedagogical'thinking and educational issues (Flake, Kuhs, Donnelly, & Ebert, 1995; Carter, 1993). Practicing teachers need to have a supportive environment in order to engage in action research. This research methodology engages teachers to pursue inquiries, improve reflective abilities, develop critical analytical skills, and make direct applications to educational practice. Research or inquiry is a way of life, and teachers who make good decisions about curriculum are continually involved in the research process. Research emerging from practice has a natural life in schools, because the questions are more appropriate, the investigations are more natural, and the findings are more credible and valid for school practice than in the case with research conceived, conducted, and interpreted in the clinical setting of higher education. (Flake et al 1995: 405) In the educational field, there is extensive literature on the benefits of action research as a means of inquiry (Carr & Kemmis, 1986; Noffke, 1995; Reed, 1996; Zeichner & Tabachnick, 1991,). Goswami and Stillman cited in Cochran-Smith and Lytle (1990: 8) strongly stated six reasons for involvement of teachers in action research: Their teaching is transformed in important ways; they become theorists, articulating their intentions, testing their assumptions and finding connections with practice. Their perceptions of themselves as writers and teachers are transformed. They become rich resources who can provide the profession with information it simply doesn't have. They become critical, responsive readers and users of current research, less apt to accept uncritically others; theories, less vulnerable to fads, and more authoritative in their assessment of curricula, methods, and materials. They can study writing and learning and report their findings without spending large sums of money. They collaborate with their students to answer questions important to both, drawing on community resources in new and unexpected ways. (8)  15  Levels and Perspectives of Reflection in Analyzing Data In the analysis of the research practicum cycles, themes highlighted key issues and challenges for a school advisor. Reflections of these themes fit into different levels. Bramald, Hardman, and Leat (1995: 28) state three levels of reflection: Technical emphasizes the attainment of given goals, for example, basic criteria of teaching such as achieving and maintaining classroom order, gaining pupils' attention and so forth; practical emphasizes on articulating their own criteria, and evaluating and developing their own practice; and finally critical concerns wider ethical, social, and political issues. In the early stage of student teaching, reflection is at a technical level and later progresses to the practical level; very few student teachers will demonstrate critical level of reflection. According to Mclntyre (1992) cited in Bramald, Hardman, and Leat (1995: 28), little critical reflection occurs even among experienced teachers. When reviewing the data, I considered my reflections and wondered about the degree of critical consideration related to my own practices. Kettle and Sellars (1996: 3) cited Grimmett, Mackinnon, Erickson and Riecken (1990) who identified three general perspectives on reflection. First reflection can be "a process that leads to thoughtful mediated action"; second perspective of reflection is "context-oriented and involves deliberation and choice among competing versions of good teaching"; and the third view of reflection "proposes a concept of reorganization or reconstruction of experience leading to new understandings of self as teacher" (Kettle and Sellars, 1996: 3). This study encompasses all three of perspectives of reflections. After an analysis of the findings and discussions, the reflective practice in this, self-study is "making sense of experiences in order to assign meaning to them " which is the third perspective as stated by Kettle & Sellars (1996: 3). Furthermore, "dissonance and discontinuities" (Allexsaht-Snider, Deegan, & White, 1995: 529) instigate investigation and inquiry which lead to reflection. Reflection allows one to  16 make sense of the new knowledge and experience in relation to what is already known. In this way, a recreation of knowledge and reconceptualization of thinking and practice evolves. From this place of tension, growth and change occur in the teaching practice of teachers. In reviewing the work of Handal and Lauvas (1987), they (Kettle & Sellars) conclude that 'reflective teaching involves both the evaluation of one's effectiveness as teacher, and the questioning of one's purposes; reflective teaching is a critical approach to practice requiring one to justify as well as shape, classroom action'. Reflection is strongly linked to the process of practical theory development. (Kettle & Sellars, 1996: 3)  Recruiting and Appointing School Advisors The matching process of student teachers with school advisors appears somewhat arbitrary. The only information that the university had about me was the grade level that I taught and my participation in an early literacy project. No information concerning my teaching practices, knowledge, skills, or philosophy was collected. I wonder what are the criteria for a school advisor. During the one and two week practicums, the student teacher or the school advisor can voice concerns if the match becomes problematic. I accepted all student teachers who were assigned to me and worked with one particularly challenging candidate. Since school advisors significantly influence student teachers, I wonder why there is not a basic standard or level of expectation for school advisors. With an effective and knowledgeable teacher, the expectation is that best practices will be modeled for the student teacher. If you have a mediocre or poor teacher, are you reproducing teachers with similar practices and characteristics? How does this affect the development and perception of the teaching profession? When discussing the factors that influences the experience of student teaching, Feiman-Nemser and Buchmann (1987), (found) "cooperating teachers set the affective and intellectual tone and also shape what student teachers learn by the way they conceive and carry out their role as teacher educators. (Nettle, 1998: 201)  17  School advisors are not given any formal or specific training for their role in the teacher education programs yet they have a very definitive part in the education of future teachers. Factors such as poorly defined roles and inadequate preparation for the task of supervision are cited as reasons for such limitations (help student teachers improve their instructions), particularly in the case of the cooperating teachers (Duquette, 1994; Grimmett & Ratzlaff, 1986) ... ambiguities ... (Borko, & Mayfield, 1995: 503) I wonder how school advisors discuss their teaching philosophy or model their teaching practices and how compatible are school advisors' practice and knowledge with the university teacher education program.  Judy, the Student Teacher In preparation for working with Judy, the student teacher in this study, the university sent a standard orientation package to provide suggestions for working with Elementary Program Student Teachers for School. In this particular instance, the faculty advisor included a number of personal pieces that clarified goals and criteria for the student teacher's scheduled times in the classroom. The faculty advisor also outlined her perspective on her role in this teaching triad. She actively supported not only the student teacher but also the school advisor as well. This aspect was not communicated as clearly with previous faculty advisors. This particular faculty advisor acknowledged each person in the triad on a more equal level and promoted success of all participants in the practicum. I received clearer guidance and recognition for my school advisor role. The orientation package included a detailed University of British Columbia teacher profile with a photo of the assigned student teacher. Judy provided very specific and detailed responses related to her background information. The data included academic information, experience with young children or experience with groups of children or individuals, special  18 interests/hobbies/unique skills/talents, professional interests, family information, and interesting life experiences. Judy's personal reflections about why she chose to be a teacher, her beliefs about children/school, what she was looking forward to on her practicum experience and a concern of hers were most interesting and meaningful. Her responses provided an indication of where this student teacher was in her development of teaching skills and learning. After completing her bachelor's degree, she worked in an office environment, before deciding to pursue a career in education. Judy was a mature student with a few years of work experience as an office assistant. She developed positive work habits and voiced specific thoughts about teaching and children. I believe being a mature student teacher with work experience makes a difference in developing teaching skills and learning.  Description of Student Teacher Practicum Judy and I had worked extensively together through two shorter practicums before the start of the research study project in a 13 week practicum. The first two practicums helped to build her teacher education basis and our working relationship. A brief outline of each of the practicum provides insightful information prior to the final 13-week practicum for the research project. During the fall, Judy's introduction to my grade two class involved participation in a one week pre-practicum. This practicum oriented her to my classroom and the school. Judy was surprised with the cultural diversity in the class where a majority of the pupils were learning English as a second language and two thirds of the class received English language assistance. She also became aware of the needs of two designated special needs students; one student required the use of a headset and the other had special commumcation needs. She learned about  19 the school's early literacy project in the district and the partial inner city school funding designation for the school. In this initial practicum, we became familiar with each other and determined i f a working relationship was possible. Judy inquired about various school events, observed the daily class activities, and participated in small group activities. She learned about the classroom routines and various schedules of support staff for various students. Judy prepared a Halloween sensory station in which she worked with my class and another grade two class. As a result, she had greater exposure to more students and experienced how classes can work collaboratively. This realistically reflected my teaching style since I closely collaborate with the teacher in the same grade level whose class was next door. I wanted to expand Judy's ideas concerning teaching to include collaboration with colleagues. Judy's second practicum started at the beginning of January for one week and then,one day every two weeks afterwards until the beginning of the 13-week long, final practicum. With this arrangement, she maintained her contact with the pupils and observed the children's development over a few months from her initial practicum. During the second practicum, Judy focused on developing teaching skills for working with the whole class and planning lessons to meet the goals of various curriculum areas. This gave her a sense of seven and eight year old children capabilities, and the complexities of the teaching process. At the same time, we learnt about each other's learning styles and developed a conducive working relationship. The relationship between the school advisor and student teacher plays a critical role in the learning to teach and teaching to learn for each participant. During the practicum, Judy and I needed to develop a healthy working relationship because we worked in close proximity and shared the responsibility of the pupils' learning and development.  20 At the end of March, Judy started her 13-week final practicum in my grade two class. We had gradually increased her teaching load. To begin her practice teaching experience and responsibilities, she started teaching a science unit on hatching chicks. This topic was familiar to her. I was glad to have someone who was knowledgeable and experienced with the egg hatching process to teach it. It was a learning experience for the children as well as me. I was excited about this project. As Judy shared her overviews and plans, I reviewed the pedagogical methodology and coached her through implementing ideas. I only suggested specific logistics for each lesson such as how to group the children, sequence instructions, use of materials, and specify learning objectives. I tempered my influence by encouraging Judy to experiment with developing her own teaching style. ... class teachers 'clearly recognized the complexity ... (of their role in) ... the nature and extent of the help they provided.' According to them, teachers' "giving of help was dictated by individual (student) needs;" nor did they seem themselves as providing a definitive model, but rather starting points, until, with more experience, student-teachers found their own way. This is entirely consistent with the overall picture we have: teachers provide help (or not) but in a variety of forms; teaching tips are valued but typically different for different students in different situations; students need others, but have to find their own way of teaching. (Dune and Dune, 1993) (McNally, Cope, Inglis, & Stronach, 1997: 497) ... expert teachers comprehend, interpret, and predict classroom events more accurately and efficiently than novices. (Gonzalez & Carter, 1996: 149) During the egg-hatching unit, Judy and I focused on her classroom management skills. Many student teachers want to address this area at the beginning of their practicum. Her background knowledge of the content was very strong since it was part of her growing up experience and a personal interest. Judy revealed a part of herself to the class through this egghatching unit. Her challenge was to develop her teaching skills through this curriculum area.  21 She had to think and plan how to teach the content to this particular age group, what appropriate learning expectations fit these students, and what values and beliefs underlie the lessons. I also wanted her to think about her own understanding of the children and learning, and what strength and improvement areas required more attention. When I reflected on the process of her initial teaching lessons in the egg-hatching unit, I questioned whether I needed to give her more in-depth feedback in hopes that she would experience greater success and a more positive outcome. I attempted to focus on what I perceived as the most important aspects of her teaching skills for the greatest impact at a particular point in her development. Throughout our conversations about planning and lessons, I was sensitive about asking and listening for her needs and the areas that she wanted to focus on. I believe that the best learning occurs when the needs of the learner are addressed; when the learner is challenged; and when the learner connects their own experience with new knowledge. Thinking/practice is often clarified/amended in light of the contact between established teachers, students, and training institution's staff. (Brooks, 1998: 172) This is also applicable for the school advisor; "thinking/practice" is refined through my experiences in the teacher education program. Each of my experiences with different student teachers allows my understanding of teaching and learning to develop further.  Background of Research Cycles The first research cycle of the videotaping took place during the fourth week in the 13 week practicum. A cooking lesson in relation to studying volcanoes in science was the case study of the first cycle. The second and third cycle involved relay activities in physical education. The fourth and final cycle focused on an art lesson about fresco painting. We chose a variety of subjects and range of activities to study. Three of the cycles did not take place in the  22 classroom, but in the staffroom or the gym. We did not schedule a fifth cycle due to limitations of the practicum period. Therefore, we taped the student teacher's self-evaluation conference with the school advisor and the exiting conference of the school advisor with the researcher, which were informative dialogues for this study.  Participation in Research Study Even having taught for about ten years, I still felt threatened by video taping and engaging in a critical analysis of my teaching skills and practices with another person. Two reasons for this perspective are viewing my shortcomings that would become exposed to others and having to explain my teaching practice to someone. This situation was compounded with a busy teaching schedule, which precludes time for introspection and investigation of new methodologies. M y risk-taking often happens within the privacy of the classroom where the outcomes are not publicly shared unless I choose to. If the results are positive, there is a greater possibility of sharing the results. But i f the outcomes are negative, the tendency is to revert back to previous practice. It has taken time to develop confidence in my teaching to share my risk taking experience with other colleagues and discuss challenging situations. Also, I learned from other's risk taking and empathized with their experiences. Learning is about taking risks. The environment can promote or dissuade risk taking. Recognizing patterns of behaviour is important to provide student teachers with effective beginning models and practices. If they do not have positive models and develop good practices at the start, the potential to change is minimal. Nettle (1998: 193) stated that "teachers teach as they were taught", and Franke and Dhalgren, (1996: 640) also noted that "student teacher reproduces, and takes for granted, the mentor's view of teaching knowledge." When student  23 teachers adopt narrow understanding and specific biases of school advisors, I question the quality of this apprenticeship-like experience. What message is being conveyed to student teachers? What is the sufficient level of competence for being a teacher? Moving out of the comfort zone to engage in continuous improvement is a challenge, but a necessary challenge in continuous learning as a professional educator. In the places of discomfort or "liminal space" (Bhabha, cited in Olson & Worsham, 1999: 29), we learn and develop further. Finding time to reflect upon teaching practices is difficult with rising external pressures. Teachers are continually implementing new programs, attempting to keep abreast of educational policies, and responding to public demands. With continuous threats to educational funding, expectations of educational programs and teachers continue to rise. The role of teachers extends beyond being an educator to include librarians, social workers, family counselors, computer technicians, custodians, interior designers, and much more. Teaching responsibilities expand beyond the classroom. Family, community, and culture are additional factors that affect classroom dynamics. If teachers can focus on teaching pupils, it would be the ideal situation. When I viewed the videotaped lessons of the student teacher discussing in the pre-lesson conference, I saw the lesson through restricted, narrow lens. I did not have a full picture of the lesson. The camera framing of the discussion limited observations. When school advisors evaluate and assess student teachers during a lesson, I question our frames of viewing the teaching and learning through similar restricted channels. The school advisor role is one of the many roles that a teacher practices simultaneously when teaching. After viewing the lessons, I had to remember my thoughts about her teaching that I wanted to discuss in the post-lesson conference. Normally, I write down my lesson observations and assessments for subsequent reference. Through this taping process,  24 assessments happened orally, and I did not have notes for reference during the post-lesson conference. Throughout the research cycle, I found it challenging to remember what I talked about in each stimulated recall session and carrying it forward to the next step. I had difficulty with focusing and remembering the discussions when many events occurred between each session of the research cycle. Questions surfaced in the conferences about what teaching strategies I practiced during the pre- and post- conference in guiding the student teacher's development. M y inquiries focused on what characteristics, skills, and practices did I want to nurture in this future teacher, what was my pedagogical philosophy, and how was I communicating to the student teacher. While analyzing the research data for this self-study, I was guided by the following inquiry questions: what are the issues and challenges of a school advisor; and what did I learn about teaching and learning in the school advisor role while I viewed my performance. I . reviewed the conference transcripts from each of session of the research cycle, and highlighted conflicts or issues that I encountered as I worked with the student teacher. In particular, I gave greater attention to the stimulated recall sessions because they focussed on my thinking as I worked with the student teacher. I identified numerous and noticed re-emerging topics in my reflections through the practicum. Reoccurring reflective topics in subsequent conference cycles were often examined from another level. For example, during the beginning of the practicum, teaching practice focussed on using specific classroom management strategies, where as later in the practicum, the focus was on specific the values and beliefs underlying specific practices. During the practicum, analysis of the reflective practice in the school advisor revealed that learning and development in teaching practice were apparent in both the student teacher and school advisor,  25  Summary In this chapter, I outlined the parameters of the research project and the action research basis of this study. Inquiry into my school advisor role stimulated reflections at different levels and from different perspectives as identified in research literature. I described how I was the chosen as a school advisor and how Judy became my student teacher. A description of the two short teaching practicums provided background information about the student teacher-school advisor relationship for the 13-week practicum in which the research data was collected. It was a risk participating in a study that required exposing and thinking critically about my teaching practices. Two very apparent observations that occurred at the onset of the initial stimulated recall sessions were the restricted and narrow view one can make for inferences, and the challenge of remembering insights about my role from one session of the cycle to next with only oral feedback. The self-study inquiry questions directed the analysis of the research data. M y reflections and observations during the stimulated recall sessions were encouraged further through discussions with the researcher. M y school advisor experience provides additional insight into the complexities of learning to teach someone how to teach and teaching to learn through the practicum in teacher education programs. Following the literature review in Chapter Three, Chapter Four analyzes my reflections formed from the knowledge and insights gained from each practicum cycle.  26  Chapter Three: Research Literature on School Advisor  This chapter is a brief review of the research literature on school advisors. Most of the research about school advisors is based on the student teachers' perspective and development. Few research studies delve deeply into the issues of school advisors. Areas that have been studied and examined include: the effect of school advisors on student teachers' teaching development (Brooks, 1998; Su, 1992), the role of school advisors in the teacher education triad (Borko, 1995; Grossman, 1992), the impact of relationships between participants on learning (McNally, Cope, Inglis, & Stronach, 1997; Wideen, Mayer-Smitth, & Moon, 1998), the significance of the practicum period as a means of professional development (Gonzalez & Carter, 1996; Kettle & Sellars, 1996), and a means for change in teaching through inquiry and reflection (Connelly, Clandinin, & He, 1997; Zeichner, 1982). The chapter ends by identifying prominent themes and challenges of a school advisor.  Role of School Advisor in the Teacher Training Triad The student teacher, school advisor, and faculty advisor constitute the teacher education triad. The role of each participant is not equally weighed or emphasized in teacher education programs. The focus of the triad is to support and nurture student teachers into the teaching profession. The faculty advisor guides the student teacher in implementing theory into practice and liaisoning between the university and the classroom teacher. School advisors receive minimal guidance and support in their role, yet they significantly take part in the triad. Many research studies (Bramald, Hardman, & Leat, 1995; Borko & Mayfield, 1995; Joyce, 1988; Nettle, 1998; Su, 1992) have identified the school advisors' influence upon the student teachers' thinking/practice, and knowledge about teaching and learning from moderate to great.  27 It is generally believed ... the most influential feature of the most influential program component (in teacher education) is the cooperating teacher (Joyce, 1988). However, as Joyce went on to point out, little is known about the actual nature of this influence. (Nettle, 1998: 201) Survey and interview from this research provided evidence that student teaching and cooperating teachers were the most powerful sources of influence on teacher candidates in their initial socialization experience. (Su, 1992: 254) Boschee, Prescott, and Hein (1978: 60) state that attitudes of elementary student teachers are more congruent with classroom teachers and changed considerably after their teaching experience imitate their cooperating teachers in the field even against disapproval of university supervisor. At the same time, Boschee, Prescott, and Hein (1978) studied 50 student teachers and cooperating teachers to determine if the cooperating teachers influence the educational philosophy of student teachers. Their findings contradicted many previous findings that cooperating teachers had minimal influence on the educational philosophy of student teachers. These studies note the influential role that school advisors play in teacher education programs. The extent and range of influence in the complex act of learning to teach by student teachers varies depending on the area such as educational philosophy, teaching practice, procedural routines, socialization into the profession, and educational beliefs and values. Many of the studies emphasize the need for further research to attain a better understanding of the areas that school advisors have an influence. Teachers respond to individual children based on their specific needs. In the same way, school advisors respond differently to each student teacher and recognize that each of them needs to find their own teaching style. The guidance and direction from school advisors are often governed by what the individual student teacher needs. Dune and Dune claim that class teachers 'clearly recognized the complexity ... (of their role in) ... the nature and extent of the help they provided.' According  28 to them, teachers' "giving of help was dictated by individual (student) needs"; nor did they seem themselves as providing a definitive model, but rather starting points^ until, with more experience, student-teachers found their own way. This is entirely consistent with the overall picture we have: 'teachers provide help (or not) but in a variety of forms; teaching tips are valued but typically different for different students in different situations; students need others, but have to find their own way of teaching'. (McNally, Cope, Inglis, & Stronach, 1997: 497) During the practicum period, student teachers may mimic the style of the school advisor, and discard some practices as they grow in their teaching career. School advisors struggle with what beginning teachers need to demonstrate at the end of the practicum. Interpretations of the expectations of student teachers vary among school advisors. This qualitative research study provides rich, descriptive information about the different dimensions of a school advisor's role in educating student teacher. Each student teacher and school advisor is a unique dyad in a particular classroom. While this self-study of one relationship provides some in depth realistic insight, careful consideration is necessary when generalizing from one or a few teaching dyads to all student teacher and school advisor relationships.  School Advisor's Effect on Student Teacher School advisors play an influential part in the teacher education program (Nettle, 1998; Wideen, Mayer-Smith, & Moon, 1998). Numerous research studies investigated whether beliefs and values of student teachers changed based on educational course work (Winitzky & Kauchak, 1995), teaching practicum (Borko & Mayfield, 1995; Gonzalez & Carter, 1996), or working with a school advisor (Brooks, 1998; McNally, Cope, Inglis, & Stronach, 1997). Some research findings identified the school advisors' influence as key to student teachers' teaching development (Boschee, Prescott, & Hein, 1978; Joyce, 1988; Su, 1992). With regards to their  29 belief and values (Nettle, 1998), thinking and knowledge (Kettle & Sellars, 1996; Winitzky & Kauchak, 1995), and learning connections (Franke & Dhalgren, 1996). Student teachers come with their own set of beliefs and values about teaching, learning, and children. Clearly articulating their pedagogy is a challenge for student teachers. They apply some basic principles to guide them through the process. During the practicum, opportunities to express their views are avenues of learning. Student teachers may feel that they have to conform to the school advisor's views. I wonder how open school advisors are to student teachers' expressing and implementing their views. ... not understate, as Tabachnik and Zeichner (1983) point out, what students themselves bring as individuals to the experience and what part this plays in their own development. (McNally, Cope, Inglis, & Stronach, 1997: 498) ... student teachers have definite ideas about teaching and learning when they start out in their training, which have developed from their own educational experience and which shape their perceptions of teaching and developing practice. (Bramald, Hardman, & Leat, 1995: 23) Kettle and Sellars (1996: 11,15) and Joyce (1988: 33, 35) found that student teachers are "greatly influenced by [their] supervising teacher[s]"and student teachers "felt in many ways [they] had to conform to the teacher's way." Since school advisors establish the learning environment based on their beliefs and values, student teachers have to work within these parameters (Feiman-Nemser & Buchmann, (1987) cited in Nettle, 1998). It is not surprising that school advisors have a strong influence on student teachers. Nettle (1998: 193) found an "association between changes in student teachers' beliefs and the beliefs held by supervising „ teachers." Nettle (1998) and Connelly et al. (1997) examined teachers' thinking and knowledge during different stages of the teaching career. The extent of influence by school advisors on student teacher's developing practices and established beliefs is stated in research literature.  30 There is a well-established consensus in the literature about the considerable influence of the supervising teacher on student teachers' development. This study indicates the strong influence of the supervising teacher. (Kettle & Sellars, 1996: 20) ... a basic assumption with research on teacher thinking, 'what teachers do is affected by what they think' (Clark & Yinger, 1977). The nature of the experience that supervising teachers provide for student teachers in their classrooms will be greatly influenced by what those supervising teachers believe about teaching. (Nettle, 1998: 201) ... what teachers know and how their knowing is expressed in teaching ... On this assumption, teachers knowledge and knowing affects every aspect of the teaching act. It affects teacher's relationships with students; teachers' interpretations of subject matter and its importance in students' lives; teachers' treatment of ideas whether as fixed textbook givens or as matters of inquiry and reflection; teachers' curriculum planning and evaluation of student progress; and so on. In short, it has only recently become commonplace to believe that what teachers know and how they express their knowledge is central to student learning. (Connelly, Clandinin, & He, 1997: 666) School advisors communicate their thinking and knowledge through their supervisory role, which affects student teachers' learning. The thinking and knowledge of school advisors vary from individual to individual. School advisors emphasize specific teaching areas during the practicum. Research studies indicate that teaching practicum stress the 'how' more than the 'why' of teaching, in other words the technical means rather than the underlying reasons and philosophies (Zeichner, 1993; Grossman, 1992; Nettle, 1998). In addition, ... Carter and Gonzalez (1993) found beginning teachers' classroom knowledge to be event constructed, not proposition or concept structured. Wahlquist (1994) found that teachers explained their teaching decisions with stories about children, not abstract principles of learning. Pinnegar and Carter (1990) found that teachers' implicit theories of learning differed from the proposition-based theories used in educational psychology texts. (Winitzky & Kauchak, 1995: 225) The personal life stage of a teacher, amount of teaching experience, and professional interests shape the teacher's knowledge and perspective on teaching. The personal life is  31 connected to the professional life of a school advisor, which in turn influences the supervision and guidance of a student teacher. Kettle and Sellars (1996: 2) discussed many factors that "impinged on the development of teacher's practical theory [such as] personal biography, classroom situation, institutional organization, and university teacher education (Martinez, 1990 cited in Kettle & Sellars, 1996)". Connelly et al. (1997) conducted a case study of a teacher in China, which exemplified the interconnectedness of a teachers' whole life. .. .a great deal of teacher's knowledge of their teaching is connected to life cycles and to rhythms that accompany those cycles ... rhythms experienced by a new teacher entering the profession ... vastly different than the rhythms experienced by a teacher reaching the end of her teaching career. These cycles and rhythms are not incidental to the work that people do. They are central to the knowledge teachers have of their teaching. (Connelly, Clandinin, & He, 1997: 671) .... position that life cycle, and the rhythms that they have established in their overall life, making a difference to how they shape their teaching, to how they respond to their students and, in turn, to how students learn from the, how they. respond to curriculum guidelines, how they interpret cultural history and social directions, and so on. (Ibid, 671)  ..  ... Nothing is clearly separated. Everything makes a difference to understanding her as a teacher. Everything affects us as a teacher. (Ibid, 673) However, there are debates about the extent of influence that school advisors have on student teachers' beliefs and values about teaching. Even i f a school advisor did influence the "thinking/practice" of a student teacher, McNally, Cope, Inglis, and Stronach (1997:498) remind us that school advisors "cannot tell you how to teach" if the student teacher is to own their teaching practice.  Practicum Issues in Teacher Education Prior research on student teachers and school advisors dismiss the value of course work and view the practicum as the optimum experience for learning to teach. Both quantitative and qualitative data show similar findings. The teaching practicum has a significant impact on the  32 student teachers' teaching and learning beliefs and practices. Kettle and Sellars (1996: 20) noted that the "influence of the classroom experience superceded the university course work." Student teachers regard the practicum as the experience that they have made the transition from student to teacher (McNally, Cope, Inglis, & Stronach, 1997: 486). Teaching is a complex process. Student teachers fluctuate between the dichotomy of learning to teach and teaching to learn. Learning to teach is even more complex. As Borko and Mayfield (1992: 501) identified ... learning to teach is a complex process determined by the interaction of personal factors such as the prospective teachers' knowledge and beliefs about teaching, learning, and subject matter; and situational factors such as expectations, demands, and feedback from key actors in the university and public school settings. Anderson's theory cited in Winitzky and Kauchak's (1995: 222) study suggests why student teachers highly regard the practice teaching experience. Anderson's theory - why candidates attributed their learning exclusively to experiences. Anderson maintains that skills learning grows out of problem solving, and the new, more efficient procedures grow out of experience in solving problems and receiving feedback on the outcome of these efforts. Winitzky and Kauchak (1995), Allexsaht-Snider, Deegan, and White (1995), Joyce, (1988), and Borko and Mayfield (1995) identified the practicum as a major change factor in the student teachers' thinking and beliefs. However, the school advisor's role in shaping the quality of the teaching practicum and the degree of educational reform require further investigation. In teacher training, the university teachers Usually maintain that during the practical part of teacher training the mentors are the teacher educators who have the greatest influence on the student teachers before they enter the profession. The student teachers are of the opinion that the practical part is the most important part of the teacher training. (Franke & Dhalgren, 1996: 627)  33 Feiman-Nemser and Buchmann (1983) and Zeichner, (1985) were cited in Borko and Mayfield (1995) found that the practicum experience can convey and encourage negative "thinking/practice" in student teachers. Student teaching is a central component of virtually all preservice teacher education programs. Although not always an educative experience, it has the potential to play a major role in helping novices learn to teach (Feiman-Nemser & Buchmann). (Borko and Mayfield, 1995: 502) ... student teaching can have negative as well as positive consequences for prospective teachers (Feiman-Nemser, 1983; Zeichner, 1985)... student teaching can have little impact on teachers' development of pedagogical skills of reflective abilities. (Hoover, O'Shea, & Carroll, 1988) (Ibid, 503) Reasons for negative practicum experience have been attributed to Factors such as poorly defined roles and inadequate preparation for the task of supervision are cited as reasons for such limitations (help student teachers improve their instructions), particularly in the case of the cooperating teachers (Duquette, 1994; Grimmett & Ratzlaff, 1986). ... ambiguities ... (Borko & Mayfield, 1995: 503) This statement from a school advisor reinforces the need for preparation and support for their role. A l l I can do is teach them from my experience and I am not sure that is enough. I would prefer that cooperating teachers have some in-service, some way of knowing what I can do best to help a new teacher ... I don't feel like I am really doing the best job in the world helping another teacher learn to teach. (Borko & Mayfield, 1995: 516) University programs and school practices are not necessarily aligned. The scarcity of information about the school advisor's educational background and teaching experience contributes to inconsistencies between the universities and schools. The lack of communication between education faculty and practicing teachers also contributes to variances in teacher education programs. Therefore, school advisors lack consistent preparations for their role and  34 responsibility in the teacher education process. What would be helpful to prepare school advisors? What motivates teachers to accept additional responsibilities in their teaching job? A number of research studies (Su, 1992; Boschee, Prescott, & Hein, 1978; Joyce, 1988; Borko & Mayfield, 1995) have argued that practicum teaching experiences do not reflect theories and methodologies from academic courses. Joyce (1988) and Su (1992) identified lack of communication between university faculty and practicing school sites as a crucial missing component in teacher education programs. The university tends to function separately from schools until the time of the practicum. One of the most serious design problems in the preservice education of teachers has been the articulation between program components. Articulation between coursework and field experiences has been particularly difficult. Teacher candidates and experienced teachers alike tend to see the courses as "theoretical," by which they generally mean "vague and impractical," whereas they view field experience as concrete and practical. (Joyce, 1988: 35), Su (1992: 254) proposes that ... efforts should be made to create a healthy, lively, and on-going channel of communication among all agents involved in teacher socialization, especially among the triad of teacher candidate, the school teacher, and the college education faculty. They should be provided with sufficient time and space for collective reflection and sustained contact. Recent research (Borko & Mayfield, 1995; Grossman, 1992) suggests reconceptualizing the roles of school advisors and faculty advisors in order to develop teacher education programs that advance educational reforms. The goals of educational reform related to how teachers manage the additional challenges and responsibilities of a school advisor role require further development in order to advance the quality of education. ...cooperating teachers and university supervisors must be active participants in student teaching - for example, by modeling new forms of pedagogy and challenging student teachers' beliefs and practices (McDiarmid, 1990)... "see experience as a beginning rather than a culminating point in their(student  35 teachers) learning" (Feiman-Nemser & Buchmann, 1987). (Borko & Mayfield, 1995:516) ... what we want and expect of future teachers ... replicate existing models of teaching and learning? ... change prevailing practices, to challenge the lessons learned during prospective teachers apprenticeships of observation, then we need an entirely different kind of teacher education. (Grossman, 1992: 176) ... suggestion ... teacher education programs rethink the role of the university supervisor. Rather than providing feedback on specific lesson characteristics, we recommend that university supervisors use their limited time in schools to help cooperating teachers become teacher educators. For example, model ways of observing student teachers and strategies for conducting conferences that focus on teaching and learning and helping student teachers to become reflective about their practice. (Borko & Mayfield, 1995: 517)  Inquiry and Reflection A study by Brooks (1998: 165) discussed how reconceptualizing roles of student teachers and school advisors can benefit participants involved in the process of learning to teach. Mentoring between the participants in the practicum became a "mutually enhancing" partnership in which they learned more about teaching and learning practices. Borko and Mayfield (1995: 517) also suggested revising the roles of participants in the teaching triad where the student teacher takes a more active role in experimenting with new ways of teaching, the school advisor assumes a greater role as an educator, and the faculty advisor focuses on facilitating research and methodologies to the school advisor. These ideas require inquiry and reflection on the part of participants for successful implementation. If we want improvements in education, we need to educate future teachers to critically analyze and reflect upon their teaching (Kettle & Sellars, 1996). Kettle and Sellars (1996) point out that school advisors have a key role in how reflection is viewed or practiced by student teachers. Also, there are additional implications and responsibilities for the university in promoting inquiry and reflective teaching practices.  36 The key person in this setting for encouraging such reflection is the supervising teacher. If the supervising teacher models critical reflection with the student teacher, then arguably the consequence of reflective experience at the university and in schools might impact significantly on the students' professional development... The study suggests a need for the university to co-opt supervising teachers into the role of encouraging reflection by student teachers during practice teaching. This has, of course, enormous implications for university schools of education in preparing supervising teachers for their role. (Kettle & Sellars, 1996: 22-23) If inquiry and reflection were practiced actively in the teaching profession, the possibility for effective teaching practices and educational reforms may increase. Some questions to explore include: How is inquiry and reflection communicated and encouraged in school advisors? What benefits do school advisors gain from practicing inquiry and reflection? The school advisor provides feedback to the student teacher regarding his/her growth in different ways such as conferences, observational notes, casual conversations, questions, instructions, demonstrations, and behaviors. As McNally, Cope, Inglis, and Stronach (1997: 491) indicated 'how' versus 'what' feedback communicates a stronger message when discussing lesson observations and assessments with a student teacher. ... quality of feedback ... how rather than what criticism is conveyed ... balanced with what has gone well in the lesson ... perceived by the student as accurate, and able to be handled at the beginner level. A flow of negative feedback is all to easily given when watching as opposed to doing in teaching, and demoralizes the student teacher, who is already in a highly vulnerable professional and emotional position. (McNally, Cope, Inglis, & Stronach, 1997: 491) This implies that school advisors need to be conscious of particular feedback to student teachers. Encouraging student teachers to direct pre- and post -lesson conferences focuses feedback on their needs. Being sensitive to what student teachers are able to handle also helps to construct the feedback. A n important reflective question is what are we really evaluating when observing student teacher performance during the practicum period. What are the criteria and standards of  37 effective teachers? School advisors' feedback is associated with one's "... beliefs about learning to teach and their roles as cooperating teachers, and with the extent of their influence on student teachers' learning (Borko & Mayfield, 1995: 507)." What was lacking in the school advisors' feedback was "... conversations rarely included in-depth exploration of issues of teaching and learning." (Borko & Mayfield, 1995: 515) In depth discussion about educational issues are often absent between school advisors and student teachers. Borko and Mayfield (1995: 516) also found that conference length was related to the "specificity of comments offered by the cooperating teachers, as well as to the cooperating teacher's beliefs about learning to teach." The level of detail and specificity has implications in the quality of feedback to guide student teachers subsequent professional development. Providing feedback to student teachers can act as a stimulus for school advisors to reflect and reconsider their own practices, which may prompt further understanding of underlying beliefs and values about teaching. At the same time, school advisors gain another teaching perspective that may reflect current research as student teachers' explore new directions. Feedback, guidance, and support that student teachers receive from the teaching community provide an additional layer of learning. Peers, other practicing teachers, friends, and families are likely to present different perspectives. Teaching colleagues of the school advisor are especially important informal mentors. Through their conversations with student teachers and openness to collaborative planning and teaching situations, student teachers receive insights into alternative teaching practices from the school advisors as well as the modeling of professional relationships. ... observation feedback, by itself, imposes unreal limits on the clinical experience of students. Even the out-of-school, non-specific informal discourse is therefore clinically valid, however vague our understanding of it is. ... The simple exchanging of anecdotes or, mere conversation about school life was  38 greatly valued ... other students on practice... younger teachers in their early years was often found to be very worthwhile, in a similar way ... in-school dialogue had the extra dimension of specific knowledge - children, classes, teachers - which could be shared. (McNally, Cope, Inglis, & Stronach, 1997: 493) Mentoring rarely remained the responsibility of those persons formally designated. (Brooks, 1998: 170) The most common method of assessing student teacher performance is observation of teaching of lessons by school advisors and faculty advisors. This procedure is stressful and awkward; yet it is the most common evaluative method in teacher education programs. School advisors know student teachers need time to develop and become comfortable in their teaching role. ... teachers appreciate the difficulty of teaching, and of learning to teach, while being "observed." ... does she perform for the audience or the critic? The ability to "act naturally" in the classroom requires time and some of the time, it seems has to be on your own ... When teachers do initially sit in to observe a complete lesson, they are apologetic and sensitive to the stress on the student, but both understand that it is generally an accepted part of the formal monitoring and evaluation requirements. (McNally, Cope, Inglis, & Stronach, 1997:490) Often when teachers master specific skills, procedures, and methods, they find it difficult to explain their teaching practices in finite steps and details because the process has become automatic. When working with student teachers, school advisors need to demonstrate skills and also need to explain processes and situations clearly. It's very hard to return to the step-by-step details once you have mastered them yourself, and unless you're reminded about these details, you've forgotten that you ever had to think about them (Bloom, 1986). A by-product of increasing skill, then, is the loss of awareness of and ability to describe the many sub-components of skilled performance. (Winitzky & Kauchak, 1995: 222)  39 Gonzalez and Carter (1996) also found that school advisors used narratives or stories versus relating specific theories or methodologies in their explanations of events with their student teachers. Cooperating teachers ... use their experience and domain-specific knowledge of pedagogy, students, and the curriculum to make sense of an event. They typically embedded in their descriptions clear connections across students, the nature of assigned tasks, the resources available to get the academic work done, and especially how these aspects came together and affected student outcomes. (Gonzalez & Carter, 1996: 43) Besides conducting formal and assigned observation of lessons to assess the student teacher's development, incidental conversations throughout the day in response to the needs of the student teacher are avenues of rich learning. In addition to school advisors, teaching colleagues, staff members, and fellow student teachers are potential sources of insights into student teachers' teaching skills and knowledge through spontaneous conversations and situations in the school community. "Professional encounter" defined as "a meeting which includes discussion about the student's teaching" ... include "chance encounters" and "conversations," it was evident to us that students also learned about "their" teaching in indirect ways and in a much wider sense, through contact with teachers as persons outside the classroom. ... staffroom ... in which they became part of the school... relaxing environment in which they heard individual stores about children and classes, but where they developed a feeling of "the whole current running through the school" where they seemed to absorb the ethos of the school, and to be absorbed into the culture of the school beyond the department. (McNally, Cope, Inglis, & Stronach, 1997: 486, 494)  Teaching Collaborations How the school advisor introduces and treats the student teacher in front of the class communicates the importance and role of the student teacher. The willingness of the school advisor to "let go" (McNally, Cope, Inglis, & Stronach, 1997: 490) of the class and allow the student teacher to take over responsibility for the class for a period during the practicum affects  40 the relationship that the student teacher builds with the children. What hinders school advisors from letting go of the class? How do school advisors turn over the responsibility of the class to the student teacher - gradually or immediate immersion? Class teachers can actually exert a strong influence on establishing the importance of this new relationship by thus ending - or suspending - the old relationship ... gesture of trust by the teacher. The possible benefits of a more gradual induction can be outweighed by those of immediate immersion and ownership, the chance to be "the real thing" ... hold on to or to let go of the class, is partly dependent on how the teacher interprets responsibility for the class, and for the student, during the student teaching. (McNally, Cope, Inglis, & Stronach, 1997: 489-490) At the institutional level, consistency is absent between components of the teacher education programs. Opportunities for building relationships between the education faculty and the practicing school sites are few. It is not surprising that what happens in these two areas is aligned with one another. Nettle (1998: 201) pointed out that "reflective approaches may be presented in course work but the impact of practice teaching was found to be one of reinforcing traditional, custodial beliefs." What are we communicating to future teachers? How can we develop productive, healthy relationships between all participants in teacher education programs where each person's needs are fulfilled and expertise is used effectively?  Summary From my review of the research findings on the role of school advisors in teacher education programs, most of the research presented focuses on the student teachers' perspective. Many articles noted school advisors as key components in the teacher training triad and highly influential in the student teachers' teaching development. School advisors can effect change on the beliefs and values of student teachers. The pedagogy of school advisors is communicated through their practice that also reflects the  41 professional and personal stages of the individual. School advisors often explain teaching situations through narratives and stories versus theory and conceptual frameworks. There are issues with the teaching practicums such as unprepared and unskilled school advisors, conflicting and inconsistent practices, and ineffective affirming methodologies. A number or research findings point to reconceptualizing the roles of teaching triad participants and the format of teacher education programs to focus on the important aspects of teaching. Encouraging inquiry and reflection practices in student teachers and school advisors can move education reform ahead. The research literature concerning school advisors provides a background for analyzing the data from this self-study of a school advisor and developing a tentative framework that outlines the school advisor's role through different stages of the student teacher's development in the practicum.  42  Chapter Four: Reflections of a School Advisor This chapter presents the reflections of a school advisor during four lesson conference cycles in a 13-week practicum period. The six elements of research as described in Chapter Two - pre-lesson conference, stimulated recall of pre-lesson conference, lesson, stimulated recall of lesson, post-lesson conference, and stimulated recall of post-lesson conference guided each research cycle. The selected lessons for the research study were science, physical education, and art. This is a self-study project that is written in the first person. The presented data reveals the active discourse - my conferences with the student teacher, what I actually said, and the inner discourse - my conferences with the researcher during the stimulated recall sessions and as I summarized my reflections, what were my thoughts at the moment and in retrospect. I highlight the issues and challenges of a school advisor in a teacher education program.  Cycle One - Science/Cooking - Volcano Cookies Background of Pre-Lesson Conference - April 19,2001 Friday after school, sitting at our desks outside the periphery of the classroom with insufficient lighting, the student teacher and I discussed the week's overview, upcoming teaching responsibilities, and volcano lesson plan. The initial 45 minutes of the conference focused on general topics followed by 30 minutes discussion about her science lesson plan on making volcano cookies in a cooking activity.  43 Stimulated Recall of Pre-Lesson Conference - April 24, 2001 Foci I have a number of distinct foci in my teaching. Establishing meaningful learning objectives is an important principle in teaching. Judy and I reviewed her lesson objectives for the volcano cookie lesson because I thought her objectives were unclear and too general. "I tend to dwell a lot on the objectives because Ifeel that's the driving force of your lesson." (9) 4  The vagueness of the lesson objectives reflected uncertainty about the learning activity. Besides measuring skills and following a sequence, I wanted Judy to think about additional learning the students were applying or practicing. I believe the lesson objectives should relate to pupils' needs, meet curriculum goals, and drive pedagogical practices. With clear, specific objectives, lesson planning and implementation will be focussed even with minute interventions such as whether pupils draw or be given the picture. "Maybe I should have asked her first. I definitely have a bias towards giving kids the drawing versus them doing the drawing. I want to communicate it to her if she is going to have a picture what is the purpose besides colouring. " (14) I am conscious about balancing the expectations of pupils against my beliefs and knowledge of learning and children. B y asking Judy to explain the purpose for giving pupils the picture and having them colour, she had to articulate beliefs and values behind her practice. I wanted her to think through how a small detail can communicate one's beliefs and values about teaching. I shared my bias about drawing and colouring to provide an alternative perspective for consideration.  A l l numbers after quotes refer to the page number of the Stimulated Recall of Pre-Lesson Conference transcript in Cycle One on April 24th, 2001 in this section unless otherwise indicated. The italic quotes represent the reflective voice of the school advisor. 4  44 M y teaching practice reflects my views on teaching. Expressing my perspective at appropriate times with the student teacher is a constant challenge. As Judy explained her lesson plan, I thought about different approaches in teaching. I listened to Judy's description of the whole lesson plan before commenting. "I was thinking why would you use a mix master because what are the kids going to do? They 're not going to be able to do much. I had to bite my tongue and wait to see what she would say. I understood her reasoning after she explained it. " (15) I believe 'the person doing the work is doing the learning'. Student teachers need opportunity to do the work in order to learn. When we reached the conclusion of her lesson, I wanted her to think about how she might encourage the students to share their learning. Again, I shared my bias about extending the pupils' learning to the home. When conferencing with student teachers about their lessons, I have difficulty with suspending my biases because I continually view their performance from my perspective. I recognized my bias as I shared my views. Presenting my perspectives also stimulated the student teacher to reflect upon her beliefs and practices. Beliefs and values Teachers have latitude and choice in how and what they choose to teach within a curriculum framework. The choices that teachers make reflect our pedagogy. Student teachers' choices may or may not reflect their teaching and learning beliefs and value. I encouraged Judy to explore her beliefs and values underlying her developing teaching practice. I asked Judy to explain why she chose to cook with the students.  "I think because it is an every day occurrence in their lives and to learn the proper[way to cook]. How it connects to what they learn as well like for example with the volcanoes how they can make the food into a volcano ..." "Making connections between cooking and real life or another way of representing concepts that they are seeing. What else are they learning? What else do they need to know? What skills are involved?  45 "Ummm ... measuring and pouring" "Measuring which is good because you 're using what they have been studying in math. ... It's helping them make those connections is one of the reasons I bake. What else?" "Following sequence is a big one - learning to follow directions in order for something to work." "Yes, because in the recipe they have to follow a sequence and it's like a science experiment. They have to follow steps. A lot of times when you do things in real life you need to follow certain steps. ... What is this whole thing involved? " "Cooperation" "The whole thing is language " "Oh, okay" "It's oral. It's listening and speaking. It's reading and writing, everything altogether. Ifind that you incorporate your language arts and your math skills when you do cooking. They need that language right away. When they read these things about cooking things or when they read stories about cooking, then they have an idea what it involves. " Pages 29 & 30 of 35 Pre-Lesson Conference of April 19 , 2001 th  "There's this general sense of some of the skills that are involved. She hasn 't broken them down - the language that's used, the experience because we have so many ESL students. I told her because she was a bit lost. I told her my personal preference about why I cook which I think she nods and agrees with. " (9) She concentrated on making cookies as a representation of a volcano. Judy did not make learning connections to language development. I wanted to hear her opinion yet I expected specific ideas like connections to previous learning and real life experiences. Therefore, I shared my beliefs about incorporating a cooking program in my class. I usually share my educational philosophy through daily situations and narrative stories. Clearly articulating my pedagogy required closer reflection, critique, and examination of my practice. B y sharing my views, I was encouraging Judy to reflect upon her beliefs and to question my perspective. The challenge of articulating my teaching values provided a model for Judy to develop the same practice. I believe learners have to be active participants in the  46 learning process. As a school advisor, finding methods and techniques to support and encourage student teachers to articulate their teaching values promotes further learning and development. I want their values and beliefs to be grounded on effective teaching and learning principles and theories. "I believe a good teacher is a reflective teacher and has good reasons for doing what he/she does instead ofjust doing it for the sake of doing it. " (10) Different perspectives Acknowledging alternative ways for teaching and learning is instrumental in identifying different perspectives. There is a range of diverse learners such as kinetics or tactile, auditory, and visual learners (Kolb, 1981). Teachers need to be aware of the different types of learners and to provide diverse learning opportunities. Teachers are comfortable with certain practices while other approaches are more challenging because of different individual abilities and learning styles. As a school advisor, I want student teachers to develop more independent critical and reflective thinking skills. "I'm trying to communicate the validity of it (cooking) all. She agrees with it or not? If she doesn't or she can maybe meet it (goal) in a different way. Also get her to think about how other lessons will also support them and build on the strength of that. " (13) Feedback and Support Determining the amount of support and feedback to give a student teacher at a particular time is a challenge for school advisors. I question when to let student teachers struggle and problem solve, and when to provide solutions to problems. When Judy was uncertain about her cooking follow up activity, I asked what learning skills and concepts formed the basis of her lesson objectives. I pointed out obvious connections to language or math skills which gave her additional ideas.  47 "I'm trying to get her to use the recipe as a means of teaching not just the process of cooking. I think the whole concept of cooking and working with the recipes involves a lot of concepts. I'm trying to get her to think about a variety of things she can work towards or to emphasize. As she organizes or outlines the recipe — what is she going to focus on? ...I think she's at a loss. Then Ifeel that I shouldjust give her some ideas. " (14) Knowing that cooking was a challenging activity for Judy, I suggested that she work with smaller groups. With fewer students, I hoped to promote a successful teaching experience. She taught half of the class at a time because the other half went to a resource teacher for a different activity and then the two groups switched places. She worked with a group of 10 to 11 pupils and repeated the lesson, which allowed for additional insights about teaching the same lesson. Reflecting on practice Through the pre-lesson conference, I encouraged Judy to reflect upon her knowledge about the pupils' abilities and her learning and approaches from the previous cooking experience. I asked her to reflect back to her previous cooking experience and what she had learned. Judy realized that "it may be good to try a different way and it may work better when you have a small group because 10 is a lot to cook with" (15). Her lesson plan reflected working with 10 children again in this cooking activity which surprised me. I thought she would plan on cooking with smaller groups. She planned on involving all the pupils to a greater degree by giving each person a job in making the dough and a cookie. "I wanted her to reflect on a situation she had experienced earlier andfound out [what] didn't work. Maybe next time she would change and see it may or may not work depending if she had enough things for the kids to do. " (14) As we reviewed different scenarios of the lesson in the pre-lesson conference, I wondered who is doing the work and who is doing the learning - the student teacher or the pupils. I also thought what did Judy learn from her reflections in previous cooking activities, and how was she going to change her practice.  48 "Ifyou mix up the dough ahead of time you 're the one doing the learning. What are the kids going to do? If time is a crisis, then that's what I would do, but this time Ifeel that she had enough time to go through the whole process with them. I think the process is more important than what happens at the end. " (15) Conferencing with student teachers about their lessons can be slow because student teachers need time to process the feedback and knowledge. I often wanted to complete their thoughts in my words and from my view. But I am reminded about the learning process and to encourage student teachers to voice their views. The student teacher is developing her philosophy of teaching, and building a foundation for future practice. "Maybe I shouldn 't have jumped in and let her finish. I guess one of my tendencies is I just want to move on. I think she was kind of getting there. I should have let her and ask her why so she can voice her reasons." (16) I was reconsidering how much to share and tell her. In helping Judy to recognize the possible learning opportunities and connections through cooking with pupils, I also needed to honour the importance and process as she developed and constructed her teaching practice. Background of Lesson - April 24, 2001 Judy laid out all the ingredients and utensils for her volcano cookie recipe on a rectangular table in the staff room. The recipe was written on a chart paper and posted up on the wall for the children to follow. Ten children clamoured around the table; each one eager to take part in the cooking activity. The children were slightly distracted by the painters outside the window, but overall they were engaged in the activity. Stimulated Recall of Lesson - April 24, 2001 A large portion of this audiotape was inaudible due to background noise and poor microphones. Viewing the videotape clarified comments in this session.  49 Different Perspectives While viewing the video taped lesson, I discovered a narrow view of the teaching experience. The videotape captured the whole group during the lesson, and there was a short segment when the pupils began their follow up activity. I felt I did not have a complete record of this lesson because I was only able to view what the recorder captured. Usually, I would observe the student teacher teaching the lesson and follow the lesson to the end. When observing the student teacher's lesson performance, I, the school advisor may focus on specific teaching aspects such as clarity of lesson instructions or interaction with pupils following the group lesson. Viewing the videotape was a reminder of the importance of determining a focus for student teachers in their learning for each lesson in the same way that they plan objectives for pupil learning. I need to 'let go' of my biases as I observe this teaching performance unfold. Is this realistic not to be bias? Prior to observing this lesson, I was unclear about the focus of the feedback from the student teacher. So, I was 'dissecting the lesson to bits' in my observations of this lesson which was unfair. The videotape also only captured her working with the first group. Judy taught this lesson twice because she worked with half of the class at a time. The researcher recalled that some of my observations were addressed when she worked with the second half of the class. This is evident with repeated experiences Judy reflected on her experience and quickly re/defined her teaching practice. "Ijust try to focus on the [main aspects of her teaching] even though I could be all over the map. She has to be aware of these, especially when they [student teachers] don't know what to look at. One of the things we do - go back to look at the UBC criteria of beginning teachers." (I) 5  A l l numbers after quotes refer to the page number of the Stimulated Recall of Lesson Conference transcript in Cycle One on April 24th, 2001 in this section unless otherwise indicated. The italic quotes represent the reflective voice of the school advisor. 5  50 Reflecting upon previous experiences, we made changes in hopes of improving teaching and learning for the student teacher and the pupils. During the pre-lesson conference, we decided to change the group of pupils who Judy worked with first because we noticed that group dynamics of the two groups were noticeably different from previous weeks. The other teacher who usually worked with these groups also shared similar observations about the different groups when they worked on other activities. "Hoping that switching groups around would be easier for her. ...It seems to have made a difference. She worked with this format for the last few weeks. She said the second group was harder but her teaching was better... " (1) She also implemented many factors that we had discussed in the pre-lesson conference such as involving the children quickly, giving specific feedback, keeping the students' attention, making connections to previous learning, and providing quality follow up activities. These adjustments in her teaching reflected improvements in her lesson performance and advanced her understanding of teaching and learning. After observing her teaching performance, I made general evaluative comments such as "it looked like it went well" (3). Upon reflection, I wondered what I actually communicated through a general statement; what aspect of the lesson went well; how did I reach this assessment; and what criteria and who's criterion were applied. During a lesson, many teaching opportunities arise. Teachers make decisions throughout a lesson as to what to capitalize on, how to respond to interests of pupils, how to meet learning needs of pupils, and how to meet curriculum goals. When I observe a student teacher's lesson, I often think about how I would teach the particular activity and view my teaching from another perspective. I used myself as a reference point. But I consciously refocus on how the student teacher is developing her teaching skills and remember her developmental stage in a teaching  51 career. One of my goals in directing student teachers is to help optimize teaching and learning in a lesson. I wonder what effective practices are revealed in research or practiced by other school advisors in this area. "I see those little teaching moments being missed. I think part of it comes from more experience and practice. Then it just comes naturally." (I) When teachable moments are overlooked by the student teacher, I want to capitalize on "teaching in the moment". During a couple of her lessons, I interrupted her lesson and demonstrated a teaching aspect. Reflecting upon my action, I had to weigh the importance of my belief and the impact of the action upon her teaching and learning development. I believe in encouraging pupils to problem solve and figure out their own solutions. However, teachers need to intervene to provide direct or specific direction in some specific situations. "If she can't help herself then I need to, but I'm really struggling with it (giving her a solution to her problem). ... Ifelt I needed to show her at this point. Otherwise it would not be as effective. " (2) Background of Post-Lesson Conference - April 24, 2001 When Judy and I debriefed the volcano cookie lesson, we sat at a round table in the classroom, which was a comfortable place for a discussion. Stimulated Recall of Post-Lesson Conference - April 24 , 2001 th  The post-lesson conference occurred five days after the lesson was taught. Judy viewed the video taped to recall the lesson because other lessons and conferences had taken place in the mean time. Reflective practice A significant difference in the post-lesson conference was who did most of the talking. In the pre-lesson conference, I did most of the talking. In the post-lesson conference, Judy did more of the talking as she processed thoughts about her teaching development. I experienced  52 this same reflective process in my school advisor role during the stimulated recall sessions. I encouraged her examination and discussion about her understanding of teaching and learning. Judy focussed more on the negative than positive aspects of her lesson. Her experience prompted me to think about my teaching practice and became a reflective mirror of my role as a school advisor. "I think the post conference is when the student teacher should do most of the talking. I think it happened." (I) "I think she recaps at the end when she realized that things were getting in the way, she adjusted it. She reflected, changed and accommodated quite quickly in her second group. She said 'I wish she could have video taped the second one' because she thought it went better. She ironed out things that did not quite work. I said that's part of teaching and what you do each time. " (1) 6  "With the second group, I realized that they needed a little more [direction] so I showed them two separate times and cleared the table so everybody could see. Just have them watch before I gave them anything. ... I should have told them about the recipe a lot sooner. In the second group, I did. With the first group, in the video once I was trying to explain it while they were doing other things. It didn't work. ... I did most of the mixing. I know while you do most of the work they're not getting much out of it, but I wanted more time for them to make the volcano. With the first group, I wasn't sure how long it was going to take us to do the dough. So the second group actually got to do a little more stuff because it didn't take as long as I thought."  Page 1& 2 of 8 Post-Lesson Conference on April 24 , 2001 th  "I think that's part of teaching. When you do it the second time, you know what you are going to change or things to improve. I think she had grown in what she knows to be better practices." (1) Judy reflected upon her previous experiences and incorporated more effective teaching practices. She learned with her growing experience, identified effective approaches, and adapted practices. Teaching skills improve when we question and modify our practice. I needed to  A l l numbers after quotes refer to the page number of the Stimulated Recall of Post-Lesson Conference in Cycle One on April 24th, 2001 in this section unless otherwise indicated. The italic quotes represent the oral voice of the school advisor. 6  53 emphasize the importance of reflective practice in developing educational understanding and knowledge. "I was quite pleased with the post conference. She was able to come up with all those thoughts. " (2) Judy is reflective about her teaching and learning. The university faculty advisor encouraged reflective thinking during the practicum. I was also more conscious of my reflective practice. As school advisors model reflective practice, the value of reflecting upon teaching and learning experiences is reinforced in student teachers. There is also continuity and connectivity in what the university teaches and the related school site activities. "I think that's the main thing that I want her to do. I think teachers need to do more of this. Good teaching develops when you reflect and say this didn't work, why not? What I am going to do next time or how I might change my teaching so it would be effective. ...I think it helps if they've done some of that thinking at the university. (7) Asking inquisitive questions and encouraging in-depth responses are ways of encouraging reflective thinking. "I try to ask her questions and see she what she might do or what she thinks. I try to get something from her first before I give her suggestions or thoughts. Sometimes I may be more direct and sometimes I may not. "(7) M y observations of the lessons reflected this practice. In the recommended follow-up section of her formal observations, I highlight areas of growth and ask questions to prompt her to explore various educational issues. In this way, I am stimulating her to take responsibility for her own learning. A n example of the questions I include in her lesson observation feedback is in Appendix B: Formal Lesson Observation. Knowledge about curriculum, students, and learning As we discussed various situations in the pre-conference, I prepared Judy for possible outcomes in her lesson plan based on my experiences. Student teachers are usually not aware of  54 the range of impact of their lessons. A n experienced teacher has more knowledge in this area, but we are still surprised by what students contribute in the classroom. B y sharing my knowledge, I encouraged Judy think and plan proactively which helped to improve her preparation for the lesson. Identifying various possibilities in her lesson prompts her to prepare responses or reactions. "You just have to be prepared for different things that might happen and know what you might possibly try to do. " (1) "You can see the difference between if you do make a change. How you can improve it or even the difference between the two groups. I think my second group is a lot quicker a lot of the time. I can see how between the two groups I can even plan a little bit differently knowing the groups ahead of time like that."  Page 3 of 8 Post-Lesson Conference on April 24th, 2001 Judy's knowledge about her learners and application this knowledge are reflected in her teaching practice which in turn provided more successful teaching experiences. She realized that knowing your audience is important in how you plan a lesson. Beliefs and values People have different understandings and associations of the same words based on their experiences and background knowledge. When Judy said "they did well", I wondered what "well" referred to and what criteria were achieved. I thought about teaching practices that contributed to a successful lesson while Judy may have a completely different meaning. When teachers use educational terminology such as 'collaborative teaching' and 'meeting learning expectations', the understanding and interpretation of these terms vary based on one's knowledge and experience. Judy's presentation about the drawing of the volcano and cookie was a confusing aspect of the lesson for the students. She was unclear about the analogy that was communicated in her  55 actions. I explained my view of the cookie analogy as a representation of a volcano. This helped her move beyond the analogy and focus on the volcano concepts. I wondered i f I was expecting her to have the same understanding and view as myself. "Didyou want them to draw a volcano or cookie? " "To draw the cookie like volcano so to label this as the lava. This would be the mountain and the bottom would be the crust and the magna would be underneath." "Like how this one is the cookie and the volcano - to make the relationship"  "I understand you want them to make the relationship. When you look at them (students' work), you have some that are volcanoes and some look like cookies. " "I don't think that was clear enough and that's why. I should have had one done to show them as an example of the drawing."  "What is more important to you drawing the cookie or labeling the cookie like a volcano?" "Looking back I think the volcano is more important because it is actually what they're learning about. The cookie is just an example of the relationship."  "Are you trying to give them an experience of building a volcano? " "The visual..."  "Whatyou really want them to know? " "Vocabulary"  "The volcano right? So where does that leave you? " "Drawing the volcano"  " What should you say next time ? " "To draw just the volcano"  Page 3 & 4 of 8 Post-Lesson Conference on April 24 , 2001 th  Using guided questions, I directed her to reexamine her lesson objectives, which could have guided the lesson. She recognized how to rectify the problem and the important aspects about the lesson. In order for the learning to come from the student teacher, the process of talking through the lesson takes time as can be seen by the above conversation. Identifying priorities guides teaching and learning. I attempted to communicate this to Judy. When she clarified what was important about the volcano cookie lesson, this directed her  56 teaching. We need to address other situations in similar ways - what is important and how it can be translated into practice. Feedback Judy and I recognized that providing student feedback was an area for her development. This motivated me to think about the feedback that I was communicating to Judy - how much, what areas, and how appropriate. "I ask her do you need me to tell you, do you want to know more, just ask me, or let me know. A lot of times, she says 'that's fine'. ... I want her take part as much as possible in the process. What else can the kids do? You can give them more of your attention. " (4) I encouraged her to voice concerns, questions, and thoughts in all our conferences and discussions. This provided me with a better understanding of how to support and guide her teaching and learning. I can also direct my energy and time so Judy and I could have insightful, focussed conversations. A learning principle I apply in my teaching is to establish a classroom environment that promotes students to be responsible, independent learners. This is reflected in my practice with the student teacher. M y goal is to enable her to be responsible for her learning by communicating her needs for feedback and direction. Empathy for student teachers School advisors empathize with student teachers because we have undergone the student teaching experience. The practicum period is a significant stage in becoming a teacher and is a memorable experience that is either positive or negative. During the practicum, student teachers are expected to demonstrate competencies in teaching skills and knowledge. This has been referred to as a clinical situation in which student teachers are attempting to learn and perform naturally. With substantial expectations to be fulfilled in a short time, the practicum is a stressful  57 period. School advisors are generally sensitive to the pressure and expectations on student teachers. "They have so much pressure to do many things at once. It's hardfor it to sink in. A lot of learning when you 're under pressure is to grasp what you need to survive at that moment and go with it. ... Some of the things may come back to you or when you come across a similar situation again andean apply yourself in a better way. "(8) During the practicum, student teachers are experiencing only a small portion of the rhythm in an academic year yet they are expected to have the 'beginning skills' for their career. From my observations of and interactions with beginning teachers, the first few years of teaching is their real training period because they learn what a full school year encompasses. The learning continues throughout one's career with constant educational changes and research findings. Learning and teaching work simultaneously and are a continuous process. As teachers learn more about teaching, their teaching practice continues to evolve and develop. Thus, teachers need support throughout their career to develop further. Summary Judy was teaching a unit on the Earth's composition. She attempted to integrate this science topic into other curriculum areas through this cooking lesson. As the volcano cookie lesson progressed, there was confusion whether the cookie was an analogy for a volcano or whether the objective was to make a volcano. The confusion was evident in the pupils' response when they were asked to draw a diagram of a volcano cookie and label the parts of a volcano. In a subsequent lesson, Judy had the students build a volcano with sand and used a chemical reaction to display the eruption. From the stimulated conferences of Cycle One, confronting and acknowledging my pedagogical perspective repeatedly surfaced in my school advisor role. Greater awareness of my  58 bias when presented with different approaches was a major realization. At the same time, I learned to value different perspectives. Discussions throughout the first cycle conferences focused on guiding and directing the student teacher towards developing effective teaching skills and strategies. How feedback was given and what feedback to give were constant dilemmas and challenges. The importance of reflective practice was prevalent in all stimulated recall sessions as a method for analyzing and improving the school advisor and student teacher's teaching practices. Inquiry into and reflection upon our actions led to exploration of educational issues on individual and group basis. During this first practicum cycle, I was sharing information about curriculum, student, and learning with the student teacher to help her develop a foundation for future teaching practices. Throughout the practicum, I empathized with the student teacher's situation, which also affected how I interacted with her. I wanted to balance the positive growth with the areas that required attention. Many issues and challenges surface for a school advisor when working with student teachers. In the subsequent conferences, I explore further areas while some topics reoccur at another level or in a specific context.  Cycle Two - Physical Education - Relays Background of Lesson - May 2 , 2001 nd  Judy began to prepare a relay unit to prepare the pupils for events on Sports Day. This relay lesson took place in the gym which can be a challenging environment for managing children. Judy organized a range of equipment for obstacle relay activities. She divided the class into four teams to practice various races including an obstacle relay.  59 Stimulated Recall of Lesson - May 2 , 2001 nd  Different Perspectives While Judy was teaching her relay lesson, I reflected upon my approach to teaching this lesson. When she did not put away the equipment after a relay and continued on with another race, I anticipated negative outcomes. I questioned whether it was my perspective or good teaching practice. I could see the unused equipment was a distraction for the some students. "This is one way of having the equipment. Would you do it the same next time or would you change it? Why? ... I know my bias and maybe she is just more tolerant. ... Most teachers would probably not like it. Is that my bias of how I think most teachers would react? " (2) 7  Good teaching ensures that the teacher has their pupils' attention. I believe teachers should minimize possible distractions to help children concentrate on learning tasks. Teachers plan often plan activities that require greater concentration during the earlier part of the day. I thought about sharing this perspective with her versus finding out about her perspective of this situation. From viewing the stimulated recall of the lesson, my view can be a barrier and result in missing worthwhile growth in the student teacher's professional development. What I choose to observe and expect in a lesson needs to be communicated to the student teacher. For example, some pupils need individualized instruction which was a goal in the lesson. The researcher informed me that this goal was addressed in the lesson, but was not captured on the video. Similarly, when I observe a lesson, my attention can be in a specific area which can cause me to miss other factors that are important in the student teacher's developing practice.  All numbers after quotes refer to the page number of the Stimulated Recall of Lesson Conference of Cycle Two on May 2 , 2001 in this section unless otherwise indicated. The italic quotes the reflective voice of the school advisor. 7  nd  60 Feedback  Observing pupils learning and performance is an important assessment methodology in teaching. I extended Judy's understanding of observation to include providing feedback. Judy offered positive comments during group activities, but she needed to give direct instruction and guidance to pupils, during the activities. Pupils need to know how they are performing in the learning process. Providing individualized instruction and feedback help pupils make connections in their learning at an opportune time. " What should she be doing instead of just watching? You should respond and give them feedback. Use those opportunities when they 're in the process and let them know. "(2) "They needfeedback - individual coaching versus group instruction. "(3) Teachers are continuously making observations while working with pupils. I felt Judy could benefit from interacting with individual students or small groups by giving individualized instruction and feedback. The individual needs of children are better addressed with verbal and visual feedback from the teacher. I consider my observations and feedback that I communicate in my school advisor role and whether I model how she can work with pupils in similar ways. How does my feedback guide and support her learning process? "/ think as a teacher ... let them know how they are doing - if they met expectations or they are making progress. " (3) Many times I gave feedback to Judy through incidental, informal conversations in addition to the lesson conferences. Her needs were directly addressed in relation to specific situations which allowed her to make immediate connections to the present experience. Other school staff also gave her feedback through interactions and conversations as needs arose. As in the previous practicum cycle, I visualized how I would conduct this lesson. Teaching and learning opportunities could be optimized which were overlooked. Experienced  61 teachers recognize the learning moments which I can share with student teacher. I cannot expect the same level of skills from a student teacher. Teaching development The pre-lesson conference made a difference in her planning because she adjusted her lesson implementation based on issues from our discussion. It is a worthwhile challenge to establish time to discuss student teacher's lessons. I recognize it is not feasible to discuss all lessons. Conferences varied in length which allowed for brief to in-depth discussions. There was a good balance of different conference times. "She is taking some things that we've talked about. I think that the points made sense. "  (V "She's implemented a lot of suggestions that we talked about during our pre-conference. I'll find out from her whether she found it beneficial. I noticed is after our preconference, she reworks her lesson plan. It changes from the pre-conference to the way she actually does it. " (6) Judy reflected on our conversation and incorporated suggestions in her lesson. Reflection is a skill that requires a conscious, active practice. The benefits of reflection can be seen in her practice. In the same way, I reflect upon colleagues' suggestions to determine how other's input influences my teaching practice. M y expectation for Judy is to reflect upon my input and consider how they best apply to her practice. After observing school advisors modeling practices, student teachers work through the teaching process. Initially, student teachers are unaware of the small details that are involved in planning and teaching a lesson. Observing a teacher perform is different from conducting the teaching performance. At the beginning, student teachers find attending to all teaching aspects management, student background, learning rates, content, material, skills development, organization, expectations, and communication skills extremely challenging.  62 Acknowledging and supporting Judy in her risk taking to learn and implement new suggestions is important in helping her to progress with her professional development. In addition to cooking, teaching dance, singing songs, working with the grade four buddy class, organizing a field trip, and coaching intermediate students in track and field were challenges Judy accepted that even extended outside of the class. These experiences enriched her learning and her teaching developed further. New practices involve risks and stretching outside one's comfort zone. Teaching practice develops gradually which is reflective of my own growth. M y teaching and learning continues to develop through my school advisor role in different areas. A school advisor also takes risks in learning when working with a student teacher. M y awareness and knowledge has increased with each student teacher. "Accept that you may not be aware of something. It's the first time we've done it. The problem is too many skills that they need ...just give them some pointers. If they have been able to transfer a little bit into this lesson and try it out. " (5) Knowledge about students and relationship Figuring out the personalities, characteristics, and abilities of each pupil takes time. Developing a relationship with each pupil and with a class also evolves over time. The personalities of each pupil affect group dynamics. The personality of the teacher or student teacher affects the interactions in a group. Judy's relationship was different from my relationship with the pupils. Pupils interact with staff in varying degrees and develop closer connections with some staff members. While reflecting upon her relationship with the pupils, I thought about my relationship with the student teacher. Learning about Judy's personality, characteristics, and abilities helped in developing a beneficial working relationship. I know my working relationship with Judy differed from her relationship with the faculty advisor. We developed a respectful relationship that enabled us to  63 freely express ourselves. Judy and I shared each of our needs and asked questions openly. The relationship encouraged inquiry and learning in both participants. I wondered i f she shared the same perspective about our relationship. I question how developing congenial relationships between school advisors and student teachers can promote learning for all participants in teacher training programs. I believe relationships affect the learning potential. Background of Post-Lesson Conference - May 16 , 2001 th  Judy and I were sitting at a classroom table reviewing the relay lesson plan. At this point in her practicum, she was teaching 80% to 90% of the time. This was a very intense period because she had more time with the pupils on her own. Judy assumed greater control of our conferences, and our discussions were not as lengthy. Stimulated Recall of Post-Lesson Conference -May 16 '2001 th  Life of a teacher In one day, elementary school teachers teach many subjects or programs. In addition to teaching, there are also many responsibilities outside of the classroom like committees, events, and meetings. Mentoring a student teacher is an additional task. Professional and personal responsibilities demand commitment, energy, attention, and time. "We had a really tough [previous] week, and a very busy week with Mother's Day, the school multicultural night, and Professional Development Day on Friday. Some days it is harder to focus. Ifound this pre-lesson conference really hard to focus, to mentally be on task." (I) 8  Working closely and openly with Judy, I presented the complete picture of the teaching career. I shared the job possibilities through the various responsibilities that I was involved with. In this way, I hoped she would be better prepared for her future career. A colleague described teaching  All numbers after quotes refer to the page number of the Stimulated Recall of Post-Lesson Conference of Cycle Two on May 16 , 2001 in this section unless otherwise indicated. The italic quotes represent the reflective voice of the school advisor. 8  th  64 as a 'life style'. I sometimes have difficulty separating my professional and personal life because the two spheres of my life are closely intertwined. Different perspectives Student teachers often have different perspectives on a situation than experienced teachers. I consider whether their perspective is significant enough to highlight or expand upon. When student teachers' views vary greatly from mine, I think about what I value and whether or not I should redirect them. Generally, when student teachers lack basic educational principles, I would intervene and inform them. The decisions vary because individuals have different abilities and learning needs in different situations. During the first third of the pre-lesson conference, Judy and I discussed the reasons for different approaches in managing gym equipment. I have a strong view about the management of gym equipment and environment that differed from Judy's perspective. I also had a negative view about the use of equipment during the lesson. "I was struggling inside when I would have done it differently. I would have had them put the equipment back in the room unless I was going to use it versus having it still very close to the children as a distraction. What difference would it have made? I guess that is part of the school advisor and student teacher roles. There are certain things that I like done differently. I have to figure out whether it's important enough for me to get her to think along the same lines." (2) How the pupils handled the gym equipment was a point of irritation for me. Within her lesson, I thought she needed instructions for the proper use of gym equipment. B y highlighting this area, I hoped she would be more thorough in her lesson planning. The base of my rationale was that our action or inaction communicates a specific message about our teaching values and beliefs. "I noticed that she gave them balls, but it didn't really matter which balls they took. Some kids took nerf balls and others had rubber balls. They were holding the balls differently. Are you trying to teach them the same skills? ... How should they treat equipment? What are you communicating to the kids? What are you teaching them? ... She was not as concerned with the kind of equipment that they used, but more focus on  65 the relay concept. It may not have been a significant part of her lesson, but it also communicated a certain message to the kids. " (4) The student teacher's performance stimulated active reflection and closer examination of my pedagogical perspective. Judy needed time and opportunities to grow just as I learned over many years to develop my teaching skills and understanding. Let's give her time to work it out and see if it changes. Do you let them continue that way or do you redirect them?"' (2) While observing the relay lesson, I felt the students needed further challenges in the relay activities. I wondered what her scope and sequence was for the relay unit and how this lesson extended the pupils' learning. "Where would you go from here? " "I would do probably the same obstacle again ... ... Have them set up the same obstacle again to give them the opportunity to show me that they know how to set it up. Now do it a couple of times so that they can play with it. Then change it, do something [with] obstacle idea but different equipment. Instead of under the chairs, maybe around the chair, or even taking a chair out — completely take them one step further." "Sometimes you don't have to change a lot like you say. Challenge them to do another step. What will you challenge them to do as they set up? What are you looking for? " "How quickly they can do it and how straight they can make the team lines. Page 6 of 8 of Post Lesson Conference of May 5 , 2001 th  Judy needed affirmation to develop knowledge and skills about teaching, learning, and children development. She also asked for further direction about students' learning. M y input extended her thinking and identified different possibilities. Judy decided what was applicable to incorporate in her future lessons. During the stimulated post-lesson conference, I noticed how I was encouraging Judy to reflect on her reasoning for the decisions and organization of her lessons. I was conscious about  66 listening to her thoughts first before giving her my perspective in most situations. There were times when I could not refrain from injecting my views. "I wanted her to take the challenge about making the task more complex. " (5) "Don't eliminate it [a certain aspect] because I think it is valid. ... Maybe the focus of your lesson is going to be the obstacle race. You 're going to spend more time on that and it's going require more time to set up and take down. You may want to rearrange how you carry out your lesson and which activity you will do first to make it more efficient. Because I suggest that you do this, do not just scrap everything else. ... I'm just trying to give her a few pointers of how I might do certain things. What she may think about? What she could try? " (5) At various stages of our teaching career, we have different perspectives. Judy worked collaboratively with Heidi. Heidi is a beginning teacher who shared many similar experiences with student teachers. Both struggle to make sense of their professional identity and locate themselves in the teaching profession. I was reminded of these challenges and issues through my conversations with Judy and Heidi. Hearing Heidi's perspective on working with Judy was advantageous because Heidi provided another opinion that balanced my views. "Heidi is next door and has taught about a year. This is Heidi's second year in the classroom. We work well together. I also have mentored her automatically because we teach the same grade and do a lot of the same things. When she was unsure about things, she askedfor clarification or help. Being new in the school, there are many questions. " (7) "Judy actually gets a good balance and another perspective of teaching - from a beginning teacher. They worked together on planning the Earth Unit so she also has another perspective. It is not only me supporting and guiding her in her teaching, in addition she has Heidi. " (8) "I've seen her pick up a lot of different management strategies from different teachers such as the teacher-librarian. Good to see what she is comfortable using and what she finds effective. " (8) Student teachers may find other teachers model practices that they are more comfortable adopting. Fellow colleagues are also able to work with school advisors in supporting the professional development of a student teacher. Student teachers can learn from the larger  67 professional community. Therefore, school advisors should encourage student teachers observe other colleagues and explore various styles. Communication Schools involve the use of a certain language. Since I am immersed in the educational language, it is a natural part of me. The 'teacher talk' is more prominent to an outsider who is unfamiliar with the language. Early in the practicum, Judy recognized this 'teacher talk". When I used educational terms with Judy, I consciously explained my understanding of the words and I also considered what she meant when she used some of the same terms. Some words did not have the same meanings. Discussions of our understanding of words lead to conversations that reflected our beliefs and values. "Maybe I should ask her when you say 'cooperation', what are you looking for when you say 'cooperation'? She says they are able to work in groups. What does that look like when they are able to work in groups? " (3) M y empathy for the student teacher's situation also affected what, how, and when I communicated various teaching areas. I withheld some teaching responsibilities from her until later in the practicum. I was gradually immersing her into the teacher role. This gave her time to adjust to the classroom and school environment. I introduced assessment for report cards and extra curricular activities after she grasped the management of the classroom program. There are many things that she will learn as she grows in her teaching career because a 13-week practicum cannot encompass all that is involved in teaching and learning. "The whole report card business is starting to overshadow. It is probably a piece that I need to bring her in. There are certain things that I have kept her away from. Things that Ijust deal with because Ifeel it may be too much for her to take on all at once. When they get into a teaching job, they are hit with many things. Is that a better way of going about it? During your first year as a teacher [it's beneficial] to have someone you can go to. Try to find someone who can give you a little guidance. I think a lot of times we 're afraid to askfor help and it can be self-defeating. " (7)  68 Appropriate/effective feedback From our stimulated recall of the first lesson, I realized our conferences were too long so we had shorter frequent meetings. Providing specific in-depth feedback in focused conversations seemed more effective than general diverse feedback in lengthy conferences. "I think one of the reasons that we 're more focused on the lessons is that she is doing better. Another is I've tried to have shorter conversations with her throughout the day on different topics." (6) "Ijust talk more about the lesson that she is teaching instead of bringing in all the other lessons. I check with her more throughout the day. I am not in the class as much so I check a little more as to how each lesson went in smaller cycles in order to keep abreast with what is happening in the class. " (6) "I think I have sacrificed addressing the big plan and how everything is connected together by this approach. I've broken up the bigger plan by looking at her week in smaller segments through various meetings. " (7) Providing input during her planning was helpful when looking at her long term plans because I was aware of what she was working on. When we reviewed the week, I was already familiar with her ideas. We concentrated on lessons or areas that needed further attention. The researcher described this approach as "a juggle between focusing on the intermediates but within the context."(7). Observation and assessment of pupils can occur simultaneously in the same way we had discussed how observation and feedback work together in cycle one. Judy was making the connection of feedback as a means of assessing pupil learning. This connection was obvious to me, and I cannot assume the same for student teachers. "I'm trying to get her to think about watching the kids, saying they are doing quite well, and how can they do better. What are some things that you may want to point out? I want her to assess the situation and how the kids perform. You are assessing at the moment. You can use the assessment immediately to give feedback or to plan for the next lesson. Where are the pupils in the learning process? What have they achieved in . learning? How are you going to challenge them in the future in terms of focusing on a skill, awareness, attitude, or something else?" (3)  69  The stimulated recall conferences revealed that not all comments made during the lesson observation were necessary feedback for the student teacher. During this relay lesson observation, I noticed how her sequence of instruction affected the flow of the lesson, but during the post-lesson conference this topic did not surface. Organization of gym equipment and providing feedback to pupils were greater focuses of feedback for Judy. Appropriate, effective feedback depends on what the student teacher indicates as needs and what are important principles to be incorporated into developing her practice. "As I'm talking to you [researcher] about her lesson, there are things I want to talk to her about, but the short transition of going to talk to her, Iforget all that I wanted to say. It is probably okay because Ijust need to remember what's important and not everything. The other things will come at another time. It was my frustration I said to her that Ifelt there were so many things to talk about. Afterwards, it did not seem as important to touch on if she did not bring it up. I had to go back to what she brought up and where she was going. " (9) Realizing I had to limit the number of goals for each conference, I focused on areas that Judy highlighted. Judy had questions about and needed input on maintaining the pupils' attention. When I asked her to reflect upon her performance, she realized what she needed to change.  "What does that tell you when you need to keep their attention longer? " "That I'm talking too much" "Yes, so if you are talking too much how can you change that? " "I can change it into a question where they provide the answer if its something they already know so involve them in telling me what the process is or just by shortening the talking time." "Yes, they're not staying with you that means you need to do something. " "Do something?" "They 're ready and they want to do something so maybe you need to shorten your instructions. Be really quick or get them involved in the instruction so that they are with you in the process even as a group. When Ashley was demonstrating, ask the students say how to do it. Say' I am going around the chair, through the hoop, around the pins in a figure eight, sitdOwn. "' "Right"  70  "Have them say it with you so they know it. It's really good especially for the ESL students because many of them need the oral practice. " Page 7 of 10 of Post-Lesson Conference of May 16 , 2001 th  As Judy shared alternative approaches in maintaining students' attention, I included additional strategies and related them to learners. I related the pace of instructions to the pupils' attention which affects the effectiveness of a lesson. "Where she wants feedback is what I should give. It is something you can sense. You have to weigh it in relation to the big picture. How important is it? " (9) In providing feedback, I consciously balanced the positive changes and areas for improvement. Emphasizing Judy's growth in teaching practice was an area that I could improve. Wanting to be sincere with my praise, I was more selective and cautious in highlighting her success. "I think you did get more involved in helping them set up and take down ... You realized there are things you need to have when you want them to help. "(3) "I think timing wise it lookedfine ... You did a great job in getting them involved. They were involved in taking down (equipment). " (4) "I see you in the gym practicing where it is more like a classroom, a teaching environment so that's good to see. " (9) Pages 3 to 9 of 10 of Post-Lesson Conference of May 16 , 2001 th  Judy's comment "Oh there's so much on the go" captures how I would describe teaching. Many factors are involved in teaching and many areas are interrelated. Dissecting the teaching and learning concepts is a challenge for school advisors as they teach a student teacher how to teach.  71 Inquiry and reflective practice During the pre- and post-conferences, Judy demonstrated reflective thinking. She problem solved unclear areas and created alternatives for future lessons. When faced with challenges in teaching, I inquired into and reflected upon my practice and determine how best to approach a lesson. I shared similar sentiments as the student teacher when I reflect on how to improve my teaching practice - what I should have done or what I learned for future teaching implementation. "Because I should have rather than I planned to do them" (1) "Another thing is I should have said to them sit once they completed their job ..." (2) "And another thing I think I should have only done one relay ..." (2) "I was actually surprised ..." (2)  Pages 1 & 2 of 8 of Post Lesson Conference of May 5 , 2001 th  Cycle Three - Physical Education - Relays Background of Post-Lesson Conference The post-lesson conference was interrupted and resulted in a lengthier session because we discussed other teaching areas and issues that surfaced at this point in the practicum. The sessions in cycle three are presented chronologically to maintain the continuity of the recorded data. Similarities in highlighted topics were observed between Cycle Two and Three. Stimulated Recall of Post-Lesson Conference - May 16 , 2001 (continued) th  Teaching is a continuous process Gradually focussing student teachers on different aspects of teaching was an approach I used in preparing them for the increasing demands and expectations of the practicum. During the initial part of the practicum, we concentrated on classroom management, instructional planning, instructional implementation and communication.  72 "I cautioned her when we first started the practicum that you need to have the management and materials ready. When you start managing all areas of the curriculum, you put your energy into remembering what you need to do during the day and focus on those specifics. Why you pick those lessons for that day? What are you going to do with the students? What is the purpose of it all [the whole picture]? ... You need to go beyond the doing part and ask why am I doing this and what is the purpose. What do I believe about kids? What do I value? What am I communicating when I do these things with the students?" (2) 9  "It's to optimize the learning and to take them through all those steps. What are those steps? ... You have to have an idea of the end goal and (direct the children towards that direction). It's the same thing that I'm doing with her. I have an idea about what is a good teacher and I'm pushing her in that direction. " (3/4) After Judy developed classroom management strategies and lesson implementation, she used these skills on a wider scale. Judy expanded her learning with an increasing load of teaching responsibilities. She organized plans for consecutive teaching days, prepared multiple curriculum lessons, and participated in activities beyond the class program. Judy found organizing and maintaining daily teaching plans a challenge because there were endless details to remember and address. In my teaching role, I find administrative tasks, changes in plans, and unexpected situations or crisis challenging within the daily class program. For student teachers, these challenges can be difficult learning tasks in the practicum. The researcher stated: "... seasoned or an experienced teacher had the activities for a day, but also knows specifically what they want to achieve with each one. Is that something that can be or ought to be taught exclusively? Or shared with the student teacher? Or how do you convey the seasoned teacher knowledge to somebody who is just starting out? " (2) Teachers are always learning. I shared with Judy that literacy methodologies are an area I am continuing to learn about. With current research and practice changes, keeping abreast of new findings and determining whether it fits one's teaching pedagogy is a challenge. Teaching reading was a challenge for me. Judy asked for guidance and support in the reading process.  All numbers after quotes refer to the page number of the Stimulated Recall of Post-Lesson Conference transcript in Cycle Three on May 16 , 2001 in this section unless otherwise indicated. The italic quotes represent the reflective voice of the school advisor. 9  th  73 "I know this is an area of weakness for her in regards to teaching reading. What it all entails? I'm aware of the reading development, have read about it, and have experience. I have seen the development of children. Until she goes through this and see how children develop reading skills, then it will become clearer. After working with children for a while, she will be able to see it better. " (4) Sometimes student teachers need experience in an area to have a better understanding of the development of a skill such as in reading. Much of teaching requires one to undergo the experience and reflect on what is learned from the experience. M y school advisor role led to increased understanding of teaching and learning as I developed skills in working with adult learners. As with all learners, I gathered and reflected upon where the learner is as I planned for future growth. "She had a say because she is an adult. There are similarities [and differences] between children and adult learning. I wanted to hear what Judy has to say in regards to her teaching to see where to take her. It is the same as the guided reading lesson with the children. You have certain objectives so you let them know. I wanted to be confirmed by her responses. "(5) School advisors can influence student teachers' educational beliefs and values. I know I play an influential role yet I am aware each student teacher has some basic beliefs. I tried to provide opportunities for Judy to demonstrate her pedagogy through her practice and to direct her own learning. "I asked one of my student teachers why did you pick kindergarten students to work with. His answer was 'they would listen better to me.'... I asked what do you think is important about working with young children. He could not give me (a substantial answer). ... It's asking (about) someone's teaching philosophy and student teachers don't know that yet, but they must have some belief in order to do the things that they do. ... to know at least something about why they are working with 9a certain age group), and why they have chosen to do (a particular task). They must have some reason. " (5) Student teachers' philosophy of teaching and learning evolve through the practicum experience as they develop their knowledge and understanding about teaching and learning, and the development of children. The teaching practices that they adopt will likely be approaches or  74 styles that they are most comfortable with. I reflected upon what my actions communicate about educational theories and practices. I was revisiting my pedagogy and identifying the principles or theories that I was basing my practice on. M y goal was to help Judy identify her values and beliefs about teaching in the same manner as she gained knowledge, experience, and understanding about her teaching practice. Stimulated Recall of Post-Lesson Conference - May 28 2001 th  A second tape was marked post-lesson conference on relays but with a different date. I believe it to be a continuation of the previous conference and have highlighted any additional topics. Questioning skills During the stimulated recall of the post-lesson conference, I examined the kinds of questions I asked the student teacher. I believe part of the role of being a school advisor is asking questions to promote learning in the student teacher. I do not necessarily need to have all the answers which is a challenge I am learning to address. M y questions directed her to reflective practice, different perspectives, future application, and professional growth.  "She is more aware of what she should do. She's more [aware] in realizing that something didn't work. She tried a different way and it was more successful. ... It's reflective teaching because why continue to do it the way you had done before when you know it didn't work. She's able to think about it quickly and do it (reflect and adjust teaching) on the spot. "(2) "How do you think the lesson went? " (1) "Why do you think that?" (2) "What else made it easier for them in putting it away? " (2) "What else was different in the way you had them take it out and put it away? " (2) "Between your obstacle course and other relay, what did you do? " (3) "What would happen?" (3)  75  " What about the other students that do well? " (5) "Where would you go from here?" (5) Pages 1 to 5 of Post-Lesson Conference of May 5 , 2001 th  "I asked her a lot of questions - why. I wanted her to verbalize and explain herself so it is ingrained. To be able to explain it to someone else, you have to internalize it. It is really trying to understand what you mean. "(2) 10  Providing explanations can also lead to further inquiries and making connections to one's beliefs and values, an avenue of self-reflection. I applied this approach in working with Judy to promote reflection and self-examination of her practice. 'She knows what she needs and I am trying to get her to explain how that would look. She says T need to do it clearer' - how's that going to look? " (3)  Student teachers' and school advisors' needs School advisors struggle with balancing the student teacher's needs and their expectations of the student teacher's performance. Adult learners such as student teachers progress in their learning and development by identifying and addressing their needs. Student teachers must take responsibility for their learning and school advisors need to respond to their requests by providing additional challenges. What is the balance? The researcher states "... which is drawing a very close parallel I hear to what you were just saying about she's got to the stage where she is more responsive to where the students are at and not I've got this lesson and go with it. It sounds like now you are responding to the issues that she's raising. " (4)  All numbers after quotes refer to the page number of the Stimulated Recall of Post-Lesson Conference of Cycle Three on May 28 , 2001 in this section unless otherwise indicated. The italic quotes represent the reflective voice of the school advisor. th  76 I responded with  "... as opposed to what I have talked to you [about]. It doesn 't come up with her and then I don'tthink it is important for her. It may be for me but not necessarily for her. What does she need to develop her teaching? Ifeel overwhelmed. There is so much for them to learn within a short time and they do not have time to think things through. " As the school advisor, I feel overwhelmed with the teaching job. Imagine how the student teacher feels during the practicum. Knowing the extent of the expectations for the student teachers, I feel the stress of equipping them with as much skills and knowledge as possible within the 13 weeks. A n ongoing struggle is what is realistic to expect of student teachers during the final practicum. I constantly question, what are the most important aspects about teaching and learning? The 13 week practicum period is not a conducive learning situation in producing quality teachers. Investigating environments that promote and support practicing teachers to seek professional development and to take risks in their learning can aid us in working with student teachers. Summary During the relay practicum cycle, the poor quality of the microphones and the scheduling of the conferences affected the quality of the data. This cycle presents additional challenges and issues for the school advisor role. Observing and assessing the student teacher performance prompted inquiry into my bias and closer examination of my pedagogy. Reflection upon my beliefs and values was a practice I encouraged Judy to apply in developing her pedagogy. Providing quality feedback to student teachers is a continual challenge as a school advisor balances expectations with the student teacher's needs. School advisors provide feedback through informal conversations, lesson demonstrations, and daily interactions.  77 Different perspectives between school advisors and student teachers provided varying views to explore alternative educational approaches that are worthwhile and effective. Another challenge in the teaching dyad is the communication between school advisors and student teachers. Recognizing that individuals have different understanding of words and taking time to learn about each other's interpretation can lead to more effective communication and increased understanding of each person's educational beliefs and values. Two additional significant realizations from this practicum cycle were how questioning skills could lead to in-depth educational discussions, and how colleagues supported my school advisor role and the student teacher's development. The practicum focuses on the teaching development of the student teacher, but it is also an opportunity for school advisors to continue their development in teaching at another level. Working with adult learners has specific challenges yet there are many similarities to working with child learners. Reflecting upon my work with the student teacher provided an increased understanding of my pedagogy and review of educational principles. The issues and challenges of my school advisor role are reflected in teaching and learning alongside a student teacher.  Cycle Four - Art- Fresco Painting Background of Pre-Lesson Conference - May 28 , 2001 th  Judy planned a fresco painting lesson in which children sketched an angel on paper, and then on plaster round molds. Afterwards, they painted their angels. Judy introduced and demonstrated the lesson as the pupils sat on the carpet. When drawing, the children worked on the carpet and at tables. They went to four different tables to paint their pictures. Drawing angels challenged the pupils, and they painted on the plaster molds with enthusiasm.  78 Stimulated Recall of Pre-Lesson Conference - May 28 , 2001 th  Knowledge about children, learning, and teaching As Judy explained her lesson plan, she clarified her thinking and answered her own questions. I refrained from giving my opinion so she had time to figure out her approach, which I believe is valuable learning. I assumed a listening role. This was a change in my practice from the first practicum cycles. I became more comfortable about not having to solve all her problems and answering all her questions. "Asking for my opinion as she talks, she realizes a better plan.''  11  "I'm thinking that might be better and then just paint inside or is it better to draw on the paper and then paint it from paper. Actually, I'll go for paper." Page 1 of 10 of Pre-Lesson Conference on May 28 , 2001 th  Judy provided reasons for lesson implementation and demonstrated growing knowledge about children in the learning process. She made clearer connections between the contents of her lesson and underlying learning objectives. I believe she will develop further as she gains additional teaching experience and knowledge. "I'm going to set up because of time. We're not going to have a lot of time to actually do as much as I thought we would. So I'm going to set up three areas where they can go and paint once they've drawn. They can go to one of those areas and paint." Page 1 of 10 of Pre-Lesson Conference on May 28 , 2001 th  From Judy's lesson description, I noticed her increased proactive approach in thinking about teaching. She recognized and anticipated the students' reaction to the naked paintings of angels. B y thinking through this issue, Judy administered greater care in selecting pictures to  79 share and prepared responses for curious inquires. I was reminded when I had encountered similar situations in my teaching. For example, in the same way, I consider about my pupils' reaction and background knowledge when I teach a child abuse prevention program. Judy's lessons provided a stimulus for my reflections of previous teaching experiences and my present work with her. I reflected upon how prepared I am with my responses to the student teacher's inquiries. Drawing on previous work with student teachers, identifying what is good teaching practice, and having a close relationship and good understanding of the student teacher's development help me anticipate and address her questions and needs. Based upon my experience, I made assumptions about how Judy should plan, and implement the lesson. I needed Judy to work through her plans instead of assuming my way was best approach, especially since she had demonstrated foresight into issues that may arise in the lesson. I had also assumed that she would use paint tablets versus tempura paint. Judy chose to use the latter and I refrained from enforcing my choice. I thought the kind of paint was not important enough to make any changes. Once again, I am reminded that school advisors have to decide what was important to communicate to student teachers. Feedback and assessment of student learning I believed Judy needed guidance in making stronger connections between teaching, knowledge, student learning, and assessment. During this art lesson, I decided the observation focus for the lesson to further develop her assessment skills. I discussed how to provide specific feedback to pupils and assessment of their learning. This required Judy to refine her learning objectives such as "the children will be able to experience fresco painting" in specific concepts,  Quotes are from Stimulated Recall of Pre-Lesson Conference from the videotape on May 28 , 2001, since there was no transcript available from the audiotape. There are no page numbers. The italic quotes represent the reflective voice of school advisor. 11  th  80 skills, and behaviours to determine if pupils met the learning outcome. Otherwise it would be difficult to determine i f they achieved the goal. "What do you mean [by our objective]? What concepts are involved? What are you going to encourage in the students? What do you want the end product to look like?" " When you look at that (paintings), you look at colours. Do you want a certain look? You may want to bring some of that out and most of his work is dull... " (4) 'When you look at your assessments, what are you going to encourage? " (6) "How would you describe yours? ... How are you going to get them to this end product?" (7) Page 2 of 10 of Pre-Lesson Conference on May 28 , 2001 th  I asked Judy to roleplay how she would describe the product she wanted the students to produce as a means to help her focus on the vocabulary and details she would reinforce in pupils. I encouraged her to use specific comments with the children. As I modeled my comments for her, I hoped Judy would use and integrate similar language in her teaching. I thought I was teaching her about teaching or asking her to assume my perspective of this lesson.  "I would say as part of your goals is to bring in art vocabulary. " "Okay" "When you look at your assessments today, what are you going to encourage? " "I'm going to encourage the smallness of it, the blending of the colour, not just one big angel on it, but like I've set up here. It should have some background as well not just one colour." " What comments are you going to get? The angel is the centre point or what your eye wants to see. ... I'm a student and I'm working, what are you going to say to me?" "Well, I would say that looks great?" "What about it looks great?" "The angel is there. The colours are blended nicely." 'It sounds like that's a great looking angel. I can see your angel stand out from the rest. You have blended your colours really nicely. It looks soft. Comments like that if the kids are working; they need to hear those comments, praise, or feedback. This kind of picture is softer. "  81  "Help them get the focal point" Pages 7& 8 of 10 of Pre-Lesson Conference on May 28 , 2001 th  As I encouraged the student teacher to develop her feedback and assessment skills, I considered these same skills in relation to the student teacher. I reflected upon my comments about and modeling in this area. When I have clear learning expectations and I am confident about the subject being taught, I work with greater confidence. Since I continue to struggle and question my expectations of student teacher learning and development, which are often higher than expected, I am developing confidence in my school advisor role. As with Judy's expectations with the pupils, I continue to "push [her] into the end product that I [expect] to see". As mentioned in practicum cycle three, I could be more liberal with acknowledging and affirming Judy's strengths. M y attitude, expressions, and body language communicate enthusiasm and openness in my responses. These aspects were not as apparent in the transcribed data. Spoken and written words cannot convey the complete situation or relationship between a school advisor and the student teacher. Non-verbal cues play an important role in communication process between the school advisor and student teacher. This is also reflective of the communication between teachers and pupils. How do our spoken words match with the nonverbal cues? During this pre-lesson conference in Cycle Four, Judy had greater control in directing the discussion. About a third of the way into the conference, I did more of the talking. I was either restating or expanding her thoughts by incorporating my views. I was driven by what Judy could have capitalized on in the lesson to a greater degree. Balancing Judy's teaching development with my pupils' learning needs was a challenge. During this lesson, I believed the learning . gained from all groups involved was advantageous enough to warrant my suggestions and input.  82 As with post lesson conference feedback, I weighed what was important to communicate in Judy's lesson plans versus what I wanted to see take place. Questioning skills I revisited my questioning skills in this conference. Three quarters of my questions centered on the lesson implementation process. As a result, Judy's responses were brief and shallow. A fourth of my questions dealt with incorporating art language and knowledge into her lesson. During the pre-lesson conference, I asked her to analyze her reasons on which she was basing her teaching practice through the following questions: "what do you mean experience by fresco painting"(2), and "what about it [painting] that looks great"(7). M y focus was on the logistics in this lesson. Discussing the lesson allowed Judy to identify teaching areas that could be improved and addressed the pupil's learning needs. M y questioning skills need to improve in order to encourage the student teacher to explore and connect educational theories and principles to their practice. What are effective approaches in working with student teachers to examine their own profession development in the teaching process? Background of Lesson Judy and I conducted the pre-lesson conference just before lunch. She set up the materials at lunch and taught the lesson in the afternoon. She had introduced the artist, Michaelangelo to the students in two previous lessons and the children were aware of his work. The pupils worked with his painting style in this lesson. I was in the classroom for small segments of the lesson which gave me a sense of how the lesson progressed. I reviewed the lesson immediately after it was taped.  83 Stimulated Recall of Lesson - May 28 , 2001 th  Teaching practice Both the researcher and I noticed how Judy implemented many concepts discussed in the pre-lesson conference. She demonstrated a conscious effort in providing one-on-one teaching, and assessing individual student's learning. Her feedback related to specific concepts, emphasized details, and supported lesson objectives. M y input appeared relevant and enriched her lesson. "Get them out of their [students] comfort zone, prod them [students] a bit. " "Big learning curve in working with ESL students "  12  Recognizing the pupils' achievements, I needed to acknowledge the learning that Judy achieved in her teaching practice. I also realized the learning that I have made with each student teacher. For example, my first student teacher helped me open up and examine my teaching and class. M y second student teacher expanded my perspective of teaching by sharing alternative approaches and views. Learning takes place for all participants involved in the process. During the practicum, school advisors like student teachers are exploring unknowns because the many unknowns occur when working with student teachers. Each school advisor and student teacher dyad is unique and with each dyad, new possibilities occur. In my school advisor role, I continued to learn about my own teaching. I wondered how aware Judy was about the dimensions of the teaching role. When instructing a lesson, we are directing. As students are working through an activity, teachers become facilitators, observers, and learners. While students are performing, we are assessing and planning for future lessons. Our various roles surface as circumstances arise, but throughout  Quotes arefromStimulated Recall of Post-Lesson Conference from the videotape on May 28 , 2001, since there was no transcript availablefromthe audiotape. The italic quotes represent the reflective voice of the school advisor. 12  th  84 it all we are still teaching. The teaching moves from the foreground to the background depending on the situation. Judy demonstrated growing knowledge through clearer and specific instructions, acknowledgment of learner's abilities, connection to previous learning, and preparation of materials. As a result, I commented less on these areas as she showed greater growth. "We learned that Michaelangelo was a ..." "I know you've been sitting a long time." "There are three areas to paint when you are finished." "When you've finished, come and see me I have some other work for you." Communication There is a teacher or classroom language that is used in schools and is different from daily communication. Judy identified noticeable growth in her 'teacher language' usage with the pupils such as "Division 10, eyes and ears on me; stop, freeze, watch me". Initially, Judy used university language - "classification" to mean 'group' and "assigned table" for specific seating places with the children, which was difficult for them to understand. If you use challenging vocabulary with pupils, you need to explain the meaning of the word, especially when those words are not in the range of the children's vocabulary development. Children will learn and come to understand new words with teaching. The understanding of educational terms that I used with Judy had to also be explained to her as mentioned in an earlier practicum cycle. I highlighted Judy's repeated phrase "that's right" with pupils as an example of how choice of words can create a certain climate and communicate a specific message in the classroom. Reflecting upon and inquiry into our practice increases our awareness of what effective teaching practices encompass.  "What are you developing in your students, in a classroom climate? What are we creating in the group? Individuals can only be 'right'. Should they only have the corre answer? What got them there? Great thinking. I like your idea? If they are not right  85 let's think about that. Guess is okay. Does it make sense? Students aren't afraid to voice ideas and if they are not right. " During all the conferences, I noticed I used many hand gestures alongside my oral communication. I use many hand gestures and body language to communicate to my pupils. I communicate to adults in a similar manner. How does this enhance or detract from my message? Time for conferences Ideally, the pre-lesson conference is completed a couple of days before the lesson day so the student teacher has time to process the feedback and make any adjustments. During this cycle, we conducted the pre-conference just before lesson implementation. Judy proved that a student teacher could process feedback given input in a short time. Being prepared and knowing the lesson plan enabled changes to be made with greater ease. In these circumstances, it is difficult to give extensive feedback which can overwhelm the student teacher. There is usually not enough time in a day to conduct conferences in an ideal manner that would enhance the student teacher's learning Summary During this pre-lesson conference, there was an equal share as to who directed the discussion. M y school advisor role changed to more of a mentor because there was more joint exchanging of knowledge and ideas. As I examined my pedagogy through working with the student teacher, I also encouraged her to explore pedagogical thinking through our conferences in this cycle. Reflective inquiry into my practice was an approach that I also observed Judy undergoing as I prompted her to make connections between teaching, knowledge, student learning, and assessment. This final practicum revealed that questioning skills is an avenue to promote reflection and inquiry for participants in the teaching dyad and for ongoing professional development. Communicating to student teachers the different roles of teaching in the learning  86 process revealed the intricacies of teaching and learning. School advisors have a language that student teachers are unfamiliar with in the same way student teachers notice the 'teacher language' in schools. Time needs to be spent on developing a common understanding of words used between all participants. Teachers' choice of words communicates a certain culture in their classroom. This practicum cycle revealed the ongoing challenge of finding time for conferences and discussions between school advisors and student teachers. School advisors face many issues and challenges in their role yet this position provides opportunity for practicing teachers to advance their professional development.  87  Chapter Five: Self Analysis Conferences This chapter comprises of two self-analysis conferences. The first conference involves the student teacher summarizing her practicum experience to the school advisor. As Judy presented her self-evaluation, the school advisor's reflection and perspective are layered within the student teacher's thoughts. In the second conference, the school advisor debriefs her experience in the practicum with the researcher. The two conferences provide insights into the issues and challenges of a school advisor for future research.  Part I: Student Teacher Self Evaluation Conference Background of Student Teacher Self Evaluation Conference Judy completed a self-evaluation and reflection of her learning and teaching from the practicum which was integrated into her final evaluation by the school advisor and faculty advisor. Judy entered the phase out period of the 13 week practicum. We taped this conference session as she shared her perspective on the practicum experience. M y subsequent thoughts provided a perspective from the school advisor which paralleled Judy's experiences. Beliefs about teaching and learning When I entered the teaching profession, I also had idealistic images about teaching. I learned as I grew in the profession. Many of my friends became disillusioned with the job and changed careers. How did my values and beliefs develop over time? Educational courses, teaching practicum, and 15 years experience, my teaching philosophy continues to evolve. Being a school advisor provided another learning opportunity to investigate my teaching practice. Teaching is a complex process. Watching someone else teach and actually doing the job is quite different. I sensed Judy's apprehension about teaching when she shared about classmates not completing the teacher education program. The practicum experience confirms or  88 changes one's desire to be a teacher. How realistic are student teachers' perceptions of the teaching profession? "How are your beliefs about teaching and learning changed or reinforced? Number one for sure is it reinforced my desire to be a teacher. I enjoy it and I'm comfortable doing it and I have a lot of fun doing it so it's definitely a good thing. Three or four friends go through it and not even finish it because they haven't enjoyed it." (2) 13  It takes time to translate theory and knowledge of students, teaching, and learning into practice. Knowing students have varying abilities to learn at different paces, then transferring this knowledge into practice is quite different. I cannot remember when I learned this principle. M y classroom programs account for the diverse learners. I asked Judy to consider the practices that she observed. This also parallels working with student teachers who have varying abilities and learning styles. How do teacher education programs address diverse learners? What expectations do student teachers receive from the education faculty and practicum site? How compatible are these expectations? "Expectations - at first I had a hard time accepting more or less from each student because I was worried that the students who did more would say 'why do I have to do 5, if she only has to do 2. But they're not like that which really surprised me, too. They all just kind of worked at their own level" (2) "When you have your own class, if you do certain things, they'll build certain expectations for your class. How do you build [this kind of learning environment] if it is what you value? " (3) I question how to develop life long learners in the students and what is important to teach. Knowing my goal for student learning guides the decisions I make and the responsibilities I give students in their learning. I used setting up and putting away learning materials by the pupils as an example of giving students greater responsibility for their learning.  All numbers after quotes refer to the page number of the Student Teacher Self Evaluation Conference transcript on June 12 , 2001 in this section unless otherwise indicated. The quotes in this font represents oral voice of the student teacher and the quotes in italic represents the reflective voice of the school advisor.  89 "In the beginning, I was so keen on setting everything up for them and cleaning everything up for them. Through your encouragement to get them to do that... it is part of their learning to get it ready ... I was really surprised they loved to help and put away." (4) During the 13-week practicum, student teachers are responsible for pupil learning with guidance from the school advisor. How the learning takes place greatly depends on the school advisor's conception of the role. As a school advisor, I play a key role in introducing curriculum topics and teaching responsibilities to the student teacher. I gradually immersed student teachers in the classroom, regularly conference with them in the learning process of teaching, openly shared resources with them, and closely monitored their professional development. When and how much support and guidance should school advisors give student teachers? Many aspects of my teaching happen as integral parts of my teaching style. I point out specific teaching aspects such as organization of materials or sequence of instructions to student teachers. This compelled me to reflect on my teaching practice in order to support someone else's development of teaching competencies. I debate with myself how much I share with her and what she needs to discover on her own. Assumptions As I cautioned Judy in making assumptions about labels or terms such as "inner city school", I remembered assumptions that I made about student teachers based on what others said and previous encounters. A n analogy could be made between student teachers and schools; each has unique characteristics which should be accepted on its own merit. School advisors need to be aware of assumptions they make when interacting with student teachers. How do assumptions impact the relationship, communication, and interaction between this teaching dyad? Judy realized how her focus changed from lesson planning at the beginning to lesson application toward the end of the practicum. Making the connection between where the students  90 are and where you want to take them is a significant step for Judy in learning to teach. A teacher needs to address children's responses to make the necessary connections in their learning. Teachers are always "tWnking on their feet" because children can have some insightful responses. This reflects the developmental process between the student teacher and school advisor. Initially, I focused on the methodologies of teaching and later on, I shifted to reasons underlying different teaching practices. I can support student teachers in making the connections and try to help develop adaptation competencies. School advisors do not have all the answers for every situation.  "Make the connection between where the pupils are at and where you want to take the It is very difficult if you want to be here and they don't have the background knowledge. You realize that they do not know all this stuffso you need to maybe go back and give them some basics. If their interest veers off somewhere else, you can spend a little tim there." (7) Teaching to learn and learning to teach It is important to remember teachers learn with their students as they are teaching. Teaching does not mean you are an expert in all subjects. When I teach a topic, my students' contributions enhance my learning. I have similar views about the teacher education practicum; I am learning alongside with the student teacher about my own teaching at another level. The student teacher introduces me to new ways of thinking. Judy credited her learning to teach mainly to her practicum experience and she belittled the university's preparation for her role. I echoed similar sentiments about learning in the practicum and university courses. What needs to take place in order to change this learning perception in student teachers and school advisors? "What have the kids taught you that UBC couldn't and I said almost everything. I am a very hands on learner and to sit in the classroom and hear things and be in scenarios it doesn't really mean anything to me until I see it. It has been a huge learning experience for me as far as the kids go. Number one to definitely be ready for absolutely everything. How individual they are? Even though they are the same age and learning the same, they different." (3)  91  Her thoughts about risk taking are reflected in my own teaching experience too. I am still becoming the teacher that I want to be; teaching is a continuous process. Judy stated a significant learning was to "take the risk and step out of my comfort zone" (5). Teaching requires us to continually take risks and work with discomfort to develop further otherwise we become stagnant. Being a school advisor was a risk because I had to expose my teaching skills. Teaching is often described as a private practice in a public setting. Teaching is an evolving process and profession yet changes in the profession are extremely slow. How do new ideas correspond with established teaching practices? The practicum is an opportune time to take risks. The risk taking should continue throughout one's teaching career in order to continue refining this craft. Teachers need to recognize that they are part of the change process in the education field. "I mean the whole thing was a risk really, the performance at the assembly. Like you said it's such as reflection of your teaching. I'm glad I did. It was the right place to learn to do it." (9) Teaching practice Judy developed many teaching skills through the practicum experience. She identified many areas of strength such as classroom management, instructional planning, instructional implementation, professional qualities, and communication as outlined on the university evaluation criteria. As Judy pointed out her accomplishments, I listened and reflected upon her comments. M y simple, short responses were affirmations of her thoughts. "... strong connection with the students. I have a.respectful relationship both ways like I respect them and vice versa. I was comfortable in the classroom. I developed an awareness of their learning abilities and what I could expect from the students. I was aware of the boundaries and not afraid to enforce them. ... able to think on my feet and respond to situations, very well organized and prepared for lessons. I think I began towards the end to tell students why we were doing something. I am fairly consistent in my expectations and style so that students know what to expect when I am teaching. ... very open to suggestions. I am able to incorporate them into my teaching quickly. I interact well with other staff members. I was willing to take on other proj ects for the school .(10/11)  92 "I think at a young age children are learning to recognize what is good within themselves and the work they do." (11) Identifying Judy's areas of growth was easier than looking at my own development. I tend to be critical of my shortcomings and my upbringing which did not nurture the positives as much. Being a teacher and school advisor, I learned to accentuate the positives in students, student teachers, others, and myself. Judy also found this an area of personal and professional growth. Her previous education experience did not encourage self-assessments which pupils are exposed to. Thus, I asked her "Classroom management, lesson planning, communication with students, and professional qualities and commitment to teaching so of those four what do you think you are strongest in? " (12) Judy indicated lesson planning as her strength at this point in her teaching development. In comparison, after 11 years of teaching, I am more confident in my teaching skills. I waited over six years before I gained the confidence to mentor a student teacher. At various stages of my career, certain areas were stronger. At the beginning stage of teaching, the focus was on lesson planning and classroom management. From this practicum experience in the school advisor role, I noticed my emphasis was on communication and professional qualities with student teachers. "At midpoint, one of my goals was to work on assessment. I think I've come a long way in assessment, but again I still feel that I have a long way to go in developing the "on spot assessment. Just finding the time to do that I just felt if I sat and watched I wasn't teaching. I realized how important it is to have a variety of assessment types." (13/14) As Judy reflected on her goals and progress from the midpoint conference to the end of the practicum, I wondered why school advisors did not receive similar support and encouragement. If school advisors established specific goals that demonstrated benefits for their own professional growth, the experience of mentoring a beginning teacher maybe a more rewarding responsibility.  93 Initially, student teachers tend to imitate their school advisors, which becomes an important reason for school advisors to model effective practices. But the teaching practices of school advisors are rarely queried in teacher education'programs. No one asked about my teaching practices or qualifications when applying to be a school advisor. As her confidence grew, Judy tried new approaches and adapted some of my practices that she was comfortable with and began to develop her own teaching style. "I'm proud I established my own management techniques as well as to be their teacher apart from you. As I got more comfortable, I kind of tried new things to make the connection with them as my personal self so that they kind of had a distinction between Ms Wong and Ms Smail. I think that worked really well and the students really responded well." (15) Judy indicated her lack of teaching experience in Social Studies in relation to Science. I pointed out that her skills for planning and implementing lessons are transferable to another subject. Possessing teaching skills is more important than having taught a particular curriculum area. I value the skills, process, and experience of teaching more than the topic or content taught. At the end of the practicum, Judy was confident about her teaching practices and said " i f you put me in a classroom, I can do it." I question how long student teachers would continue in the education field i f they lack confidence in their abilities at the conclusion of the final practicum. Following the practicum, Judy had two more months of course work at the university to complete the qualifications for teacher certification. Judy realized learning continues as she develops her teaching skills further. Teaching expectations and ideas continue to evolve as one accumulates educational experience and knowledge. " Would you say you've met your expectations ? (17) "Not totally. No, I don't really know what my expectations were coming in. I mean in a broad sense because you don't know what the ending point is or you don't know what the halfway point is." (17)  94  "Do you feel that you've got enough from this practicum to feel confident to go out there and do it [teach]?" (17) "Yes. That way I do. I don't think that I've met my expectations because I realize how much more there is to learn. (I am) comfortable and confident to do it on my own." (17)  Beyond the classroom Student teachers need to have a realistic picture of the teaching profession. For example, they understand that what happens outside of the classroom can impact their teaching. Teaching includes additional responsibilities such as administrative work, committee roles, and extra curricular activities. School wide initiatives, district projects, school assemblies, extra curricular activities, committee meetings, staff meetings, financial decisions, professional development plans, and community involvement encroach upon our teaching expectations. Initially when working with a student teacher, I focused on the class program and minimized the impact of auxiliary tasks so they do not become overwhelmed with the 'whole' teaching job. "Everybody says teaching is not (just) teaching and that's definitely been reinforced especially watching you because you are so busy with so many things in school and outside of school. It's really shown me how much more there is to teaching." (3)  How active I am in extracurricular responsibilities varies based on my interest, time, and energy. Lately, I tried to regain a balance between my professional and personal life because I spent an excessive amount of time dealing with school issues. The teaching day does not end with the 3 o'clock bell. During the practicum, conferences with the student teacher often happened at the end of the teaching day because of limited time during the day. Time to plan, meet, and share takes place incidentally in short segments and with interruptions. Time is a challenging factor when working with student teachers because school advisors spend extra time to meet and conference in addition to existing responsibilities.  95 Professional and personal development Student teachers learn about and from the larger teaching community. The school staff affects the teaching development of a student teacher. At my school, the primary staff values collaborative working relationships and it is part of their teaching practice. It has taken time, effort, and energy in building collaborative relationships and understanding one another's teaching style. Shared learning beliefs and common goals in literacy and primary initiatives are key components in developing the primary team. I believe collaborative work with colleagues builds a richer teaching and learning community. In the same way, being Judy's school advisor, I did not meet all her professional needs and other staff members also mentored her teaching development. "The school as a whole - how positive the school is. How I felt welcomed right from the start. Everybody's great and how much the primary staff works together. The primary staff works as a group and not as individual teachers like you teach your individual classes but you meet every couple of weeks. It's such a group foundation." (4)  "Ifeel very fortunate being a part of this staff because you don't necessarily have it in schools. It is very fortunate when you do find a school where the staff can work collaboratively like this. It wasn't necessarily so when Ifirst started. It takes time to build. If there's willingness among staff and a commonality, you can build some things this way. It happens. " (5)  Judy also planned and worked with Heidi, who is another grade two teacher and provided her with another perspective. Heidi and I collaboratively planned and taught throughout the year. I encouraged Judy and Heidi to continue this arrangement i f they were amiable. Heidi was new teacher with about a year's experience who offered Judy a different perspective on teaching. Through this situation, I learned two valuable insights. Firstly, fellow colleagues may provide important support for student teachers. Secondly, beginning teachers share many of the same experiences as student teachers, and provide another teaching perspective.  96 Judy recognized the benefit of working collaboratively with another teacher. When colleagues share the same belief, benefits arise from collaborative teaching. I find teaching is more rewarding when I work with colleagues. Otherwise, teaching can be a lonely and isolating job. After experiencing teaching collaboratively, Judy developed her views about this teaching style. I present my teaching values and beliefs, and student teachers need to form their own philosophy. I advised Judy to identify her teaching values and to build upon them such as collaborative working relationships with colleagues. "It was nice - the arrangement of having your experience and guidance and having Heidi's perspective .... Her being close to where I am made me feel so comfortable." (18) "With your experience and being able to say 'no' that's not going to work ... on the other hand having Heidi and say'where do we want to go with this'" (19) "I'm glad I had the opportunity to see how much Heidi and you do work together because a lot of people don't have that. It's such a positive experience so that when. I go into the school that I have that it's okay to work with another class." (19) The practicum is an opportunity for professional and personal development for all participants. In my school advisor role with each student teacher and faculty advisor, I achieved significant professional and personal development. M y school advisor role in practicum experiences and conversations helped to shape my teaching and personhood. Identifying and pursuing my professional needs allow me to develop and grow. Judy and I both value the benefits of interacting and collaborating with colleagues. Teachers have varying views about educational issues. I learned to respect the individuality of teachers, especially when their pedagogy is different from mine. This is a professional ethical issue that I shared with Judy. "I am glad that I did stay here. It's really helped me grow as a person and I've just realized a whole new perspective on schools and kids in general. I think even on myself; I have totally opened up." (5) "I think I have also grown up a lot and become more professional from being involved with more adults." (6)  97  "I think it's a big part of who you are, too. Some teachers choose not to interact with colleagues and that's who they are as individuals. If you realize that's part of what you need to grow professionally, when you go into a school, you need to build those relationships and those connections with other staff members. Some teachers don't n that as much and they 're on their own. Learn to respect that. " (6) Feedback - Expectations I believe school advisors should have high expectations of student teachers otherwise we do a disservice to the education profession. Student teachers need a level of knowledge and skill to teach independently by the end of the practicum. Guiding a student teacher to develop and demonstrate basic teaching skills in thirteen weeks is stressful. The first few years of teaching for new teachers are filled with intense learning and training. Judy demonstrated valuable qualities of a "good teacher" such as reflective practice, growing knowledge, risk taking, teach ability, and commitment teaching. I am concerned i f a student teacher does not demonstrate basic teaching abilities at the end of the practicum. "Do you feel my expectations of youfromthe sponsor teacher are high? " (20) "I think they're high, but I think that's good. I think I learned a lot from you. ... I had a much greater opportunity to grow because I think your expectations were high, but I also think I'm the type of person who can accept that." (20) " Well I think you definitely succeeded. I think you've worked really hard on your practicum. I think that you have the qualities of a good teacher. " (20) Having a student teacher at this time was challenging because I had numerous roles outside of the classroom and in my own professional development. Saying 'no' to innovative learning and teaching opportunities is difficult for me. At the same time, I advised Judy to "decide how much you can deal with" in your teaching career. Your teaching and classroom may suffer when you accept too many additional responsibilities. Finding a balance in my professional and personal life is an ongoing challenge. Knowing how various commitments affect each other affects the balance in my life.  98 Summary I echoed many of Judy's thoughts about teaching and the practicum experience. Judy's self-evaluation prompted insights about my school advisory role. I explored my teaching philosophy in parallel to Judy's teaching development. My assumptions about student teachers were more apparent in my working relationships and interactions. Examining teaching practices that became natural processes gave me a better understanding of my pedagogy. Engaging in continuous improvements as a teacher involves taking risks in unfamiliar learning and teaching opportunities such as the practicum, which offered professional and personal growth. The support of colleagues in my school advisor role and in the student teacher's development was another one of my major realizations. I also recognized the contributions of the beginning teacher's perspective in guiding student teachers in their practice. Establishing high expectations for student teachers promotes increased understanding and development of teaching skills and knowledge. The student teacher's self-evaluation stimulated further inquiries and reflections into my own teaching practice.  Part II: School Advisor Final Interview Background of School Advisor Final Interview After completing the research cycles, I reflected upon my school advisor experience with the researcher who asked specific questions in the debriefing interview. The conversation followed immediately after Judy's self-evaluation conference. Switching focus and responding to reflective questions about my school advisor role was challenging because I did not have time to personally process the prior conference with the student teacher.  99 School Advisor Role and Influence "How have you seen your role change over the course of this practicum, your role as a school advisor?" (1p  M y school advisor role changed from being a director to more of a facilitator by the end of the practicum. Initially, I assumed greater responsibility and control of the learning and teaching because Judy needed basic information about the classroom program, children, and routines. Many conversations resulted in explaining routines, methods, and practices as well as directing her learning. As Judy's knowledge and teaching skills developed, I responded increasingly to her needs and tailored learning accordingly. During pre- and post-lesson conferences near the end of the practicum, I encouraged her reflections of lessons and she answered her own questions.  "I think that was helpful. In changing, I was just more sensitive to how much I said and when I said it to the student teacher." (2) 15  The first practicum cycle included the weekly overview, which extended the conference time to over an hour. The information in the discussion was excessive. But the process eased my conscience more than the student teacher. From this realization, we moved toward more frequent discussions throughout the week and focused conference discussions on specific lessons.  "Being more sensitive in how much one can digest at a time and knowing that teaching overwhelming. You don't want to crush or make it so unbearable for someone that the just can't do. " (2) The researcher presented her perspective of my thoughts: " A key difference with your experience in teaching grade 2 and 3's you had internalized what those sizable chunks to give to the kids. You know how much information to give them at a time,  This font identifies the debriefing questions for the research project that the researcher asked in the Final Interview of June 12 , 2001. The number refers to the page number of the Final Interview transcript of June 12 , 2001. All numbers after quotes refer to the page number of the transcript of Final Interview transcript of June 12 , 2001. The italic quotes represents the reflective voice of school advisor. 14  th  15  th  th  100 how much they can handle, but when it comes to advising an adult... you're questioning yourself as to how much to give them at one time." (2) 16  I questioned my approach and feedback in developing Judy's teaching skills at the beginning of the practicum. Judy implemented her egg-hatching unit with limited input from me. She learned to refine her teaching skills and approaches as she explored her ideas. In this initial teaching unit, I directed my feedback toward successful teaching factors such as clear teaching objectives, sequence of instructions, and classroom management. Her input helped direct the learning objectives for her development.  "When she's got that piece under control, let's look at another piece. We usually tak in segments because they can't do them all at one time - right? Build confidence in the got this piece under control, let's move onto another piece of the teaching world. " (2) "After having worked with Judy, what advice might you give to other school advisors about working with student teachers?" (2) Recognizing the influential role of school advisors on student teachers' teaching development is important in working with student teachers. The school advisors' distinct and subtle actions communicate specific teaching philosophies. School advisors shape the skills, understanding, perception, and knowledge of a student teacher. Helpful insights for school advisors include: being aware of bias, beliefs, and values about teaching, learning, and children, being open to different teaching and learning perspectives, providing student teacher direct feedback, establishing high expectations for student teacher, finding specific times for discussions, supporting student teachers involve colleagues, and examining one's own teaching practices. A constant challenge was observing Judy's development of a teaching style that is noticeably different. I shared my previous learning experiences in hopes that Judy would avoid  This font represents the oral voice and quotes of researcher in the Final Interview on June 12 , 2001. The number refers to the page of the Final Interview transcript of June 12 , 2001. 16  th  th  101 adopting poor practices. But I realized she needed to recognize the merits of various approaches through application and reflection.  "Recognizing that they are going to develop a style that works for them. They may or may not mimic who you are, and be open and willing to work with that. They '11 require different degrees of support at different times through the practicum -probably more a the beginning until they get some skills under them and feel confident enough. Later on it may be in different ways that you support them and in different areas. Be open and encourage them to interact with other staff members. To observe other ways of teachi so they have a broader perspective and to encourage them to work with other teachers versus thinking you 're the sole model for them. " (3) "So producing a good student teacher does not mean producing a clone of yourself (3)  "No not a clone ofyourself. I think I work differently than other teachers. I work collaboratively with the teacher next door so we 're almost like a team situation. I encouraged her to develop a relationship with Heidi, next door who has been almost lik another school advisor for her and has given her a different perspective of teaching. She's taking some ideas from her and other places, and put it together to what makes sense and what works for her. "(3) Teaching mosaic M y teaching practice is an integrated mosaic of different practices, theories, and skills that I acquired during my teaching career. I developed a distinct perspective of what good teaching is. But I continually refine my practice with current research and additional experience. I observed Judy undergoing a similar learning process during the practicum. Fellow colleagues are supportive resources for my school advisory role and for Judy. When questioning my practice with the student teacher, I shared my struggles and sought counsel from colleagues. Involving others in the learning process builds a community of learners and teachers who develop professionally together. In my classroom, I build a community of learners with children; this same practice can be applied to teachers. Colleagues may be more knowledgeable or skilled in certain fields and we can learn from each other.  "I think it has been quite unique with Judy in that she's able to develop collaborative relationships with other staff members. I think this has been beneficial for her instead o feeling like I'm the sole person that she can come to.  102  ... I think that's the big stress in sponsor teachers that they are the only person modelin for student teachers. Ifeel Judy is growing more than what I can give her. "(4) "If there was one thing that you would change about your work as a school advisor this term what might that be?" (4)  Guidance and support I may have changed the amount of support and guidance I gave to Judy. I thought I should provide more direct instruction to balance self-discovery at the beginning of the practicum. By working more collaboratively on her first unit, I could have modeled more effective teaching approaches and skills..  "Ifelt that I didn't give her enough support in it (chick hatching unit at the beginning o the practicum) even though she showed me each of the lessons. We went over it and I gave her some feedback. Ifelt I should have worked more collaboratively with her on that first unit instead of saying 'okay if that's what you want to do I'm just going to let you do it'. She learned by 'trial and fire. Whereas in the second unit, Heidi next door was doing the same unit; I go why don 'tyou plan with Heidi because she's going to do it, too. You can work together instead of by yourself whereas I threw her in at the beginning." (4)  "I thought she had enough confidence (chick hatching unit) that she felt comfortable w the subject. I thought she would be able to carry it off quite successfully. ... There are times when your probably feel confident about the subject not necessarily know your students as well whereas you know the students much better and not necessarily as confident with the subject - it is a balancing act. I think you are not going to be comfortable with everything that you are teaching, but at least one part is strong enough to carry you through. " (4/5) Teaching and learning dichotomy Teaching and learning is a continuous process. I have learned to value and work through conflicts which are opportunities of growth and learning. How appropriate is this approach for her? I questioned when to let her struggle and when to intervene.  "As you teach more, you could develop the confidence in more areas and then you try new things. If you teach the same grade over and over, and the same subjects repeatedl what are you learning? It's in discomfort - when you have to struggle that you make the most growth. From Homi Bhabha, it is the liminal space, thefissure,the place of disequilibrium and discomfort. I don't thinkpeople realize this because they want to b  103 in that comfortable space. When you push them to that discomfort then you are challenged." (5) "... generative space" (5)  "That's the space where you grow, I think that ifyou reach a point when you don't lear and grow. It is sad-become very stagnant. "(6) "We can and children can pick up pretty quickly on who those teachers are."  (6)  Wassermann (1980: 43) discussed the need to find harmony in the midst of discord, which produces meaningful learning. I guess all significant learning comes about as a consequence of the need for resolution of cognitive dissonance. Woman cannot endure for long a period of such disharmony as it is encountered in a clash between a conflict of personal beliefs and discrepant personal behaviour. Once you have identified such a conflict something has to give i f you are to restore homestasis. (Wassermann, 1980: 43) When I reflect upon some of my deepest learning, they have occurred after resolving a conflict. I believe this is true for other learners. "If you were to target some specific things as you prepare for another student teacher, what might that be?" (6)  I want to respond to the student teacher's needs because concrete learning happens when connections are made with previous knowledge. B y improving questioning skills and engaging in succinct discussions, a better understanding of each other's perspectives can result.  "I would still try to be sensitive to what it is they need at certain times. I know my agenda and to be aware of what their agenda is like where they need to go and to try to segment some of the teaching areas. How much time you spend going over certain thin and make it into smaller segments. Trying to be more concise and better use of time because I think time is a big issue. ... Try to do more incidental teaching or supporting along the way. "(6) "I remember when we were doing the stimulated recall of the lesson in cycle four, one of the comments was that Judy moved into that place of being more responsive to where the students were and that seemed to signify for you a significant like growth movement on her part. Earlier on she had been focussed more on that teaching paradigm - what is my agenda and what do I have to do in order for this lesson to be successful. (She) had moved in at least that lesson into the place of being more confident with her own teaching and being able to focus more into learning aspects of what the students are learning. How can I respond to the comments that I'm hearing and the questions that they're raising? I remember you commenting on her there and now I'm sort of hearing you yourself would like to move into that place in your relationship with the student teacher - would that be a fair summary?" (6)  104 I thought the researcher provided an accurate summary of my learning in relation to what I observed in the student teacher. Feedback A significant realization was remembering that specific feedback in shorter conferences was more effective than lengthy conferences. I diverged to various areas when discussing educational topics because many interrelated factors influence the teaching process. In addition, I continuously reflected on what skills and characteristics are important for beginning teachers. Each school advisors' interpretation of the university teaching criteria varies due to their individual philosophy. "It's a struggle of what I see as good teaching and knowing where she is as a student teacher. I have to remember that she is only beginning. What are my expectations of what that beginning looks like? ... What I expect of a beginning teacher? What qualities and skills do I want them to have in place? " (7) I question the basic expectations for student teachers at the end of the practicum. When student teachers need a satisfactory mark on each criterion to pass their practicum, I struggle with giving them anything less because they may need further teaching experience to meet certain criteria. At the end of the practicum, I asked whether or not the student teacher possess the minimum level of the skills and characteristics of a good teacher. I was more confident about Judy's abilities than previous student teachers. Supplementary resources and discussions in teacher education program may improve this process. "What has been your greatest challenge in working with Judy and do you feel that you have been able to respond to that or be successful in that?" (7)  M y goal was to model and communicate effective teaching practices to Judy. This was a challenge because there are teaching areas that I want to improve so I may not have been the best teaching example. Judy struggled in determining the feedback, guidance, and support that  105 helped in developing her teaching skills; I had shared similar concerns about my school advisor role.  "I think the greatest challenge is feeling that I have given her the best feedback that sh needs to grow and develop. At the beginning they don't necessarily know what it is the need and recognizing that and saying okay I think we need to work on this. Then they figure out what it is they need to get more of. Making sure that the feedback, the encouragement, and the support were appropriate for the different stages that she was going through in the practicum. " (7) "Judy did say at one point probably two weeks ago that she felt she got to the point where she knew what it was that she wanted feedback on. For her that was a nice place to be because it was starting to precipitate out. She could put her finger on certain things. ... We know for many student teachers it's the whole thing at the beginning is a jumble and they don't know how even to clarify. ... Might be a task for a school advisor or for a committee of faculty advisors preparing to take student teachers - how do we help the student teachers decide what it is that they want to get feedback on." (8)  Guiding and supporting student teachers in the practicum transpire in various forms. Encouraging student teachers to reflect upon their actions and knowledge helps them to develop a better understanding of teaching practices. When student teachers do not ask 'why' questions, I question their reasoning underlying their practice which helps to increase knowledge of theories and approaches in supporting teaching and learning..  "They have to get in there and try. They sit back and observe this is what she does, I'll do it. They get the general idea; they don't realize all of the little pieces that are involved. It seems like guess work when you see the whole picture. It's easy to tell the what they need or should do. ...At the beginning, I want them to reflect on what it is and to dissect those little pieces. don't know if telling them is more effective or making them more reflective in their teaching." (8) "Ifeel if it came from them it (knowledge, concept) is more internalized than coming from us. How do you get it to come from them? I think is a challenge at the beginning when it [teaching practice] is everywhere. " (9) "But you do see the school advisor as having a role in cueing them or prompting them so it does come from them. You don't just sit there and wait for it to come from them." (9)  "Yes, I don't think they are that aware yet. It takes a special student teacher to be awa of it all." (9)  106 "Do you feel that you had some great success? Feel really good about something that happened here?" (9)  Beliefs, values, and knowledge This question is ironic because the practicum is focused on providing a successful experience for the student teacher. A school advisor is rarely asked if the practicum provided successes for the practicing teacher. When a student teacher has had a successful experience, does the school advisor share the same view from her position? While observing Judy's confidence grow in her teaching skills, my understanding of my teaching practice increased and I developed skills in working with adult learners. The school advisor role was a realistic professional development opportunity and prompted closer examination of my teaching practice.  "Ifeel good that Judy has developed some good teaching practices. I asked her "does she feel like she has had a successful practicum and does she feel confident enough to go into a classroom now and say that she can do it. If you can say, yes to that then I think that you 're ready, but if at this point in the practicum if you 're not ready to say that... how are you going to survive on your own. It has been successful in that she has built up enough confidence, skills, knowledge, and experience that she can go out and do it" (9) "I remember once before in one of our interviews you had said that you didn't want the student teachers just to be teachers you wanted them to be good teachers." (9)  "I think one of the biggest things is her willingness to think about her teaching. What happens ifI do this or why? How can I change this to make it better? Why wasn't it good? What will you do next time? How will you change it? What could you have done to improve it? Does it make a difference if you do it this way? (Why or why not?) What did you learn from this? If you're going to do it next time what is it that you're going to teach? How are you going to move them to the next step? What do you think is the next step? ... Good teaching involves reflecting andfiguring out what it is you did well and to acknowledge that to. "..(10) This experience has also made reflective practice a pronounced, conscious skill in my teaching. I know I encouraged Judy to reflect upon her practice in similar ways. As we reflect upon our teaching, we increase our understanding and consider areas to improve or change.  107 "Have you felt that you gained anything from being able to view yourself?" (10)  This self-study was a revealing experience. I realized practices and traits that I wanted to change or improve. Working with an adult learner and participating in a teacher educational program expanded my knowledge of teaching and developed my interpersonal skills. Viewing myself on video and examining how I acted were extremely revealing. I was very critical of myself with how I communicated versus what I said. During the stimulated recall sessions, I assumed the researcher understood many of my thoughts because she was the professor of one of my graduate courses so I often used the phrase "you know" as well as a few others. I also tended to digress from the topic and had to refocus. I needed time to think about inquiries before responding so a number of my responses did not necessarily completely answer the questions.  "(I needed a better understanding about) the differences (and similarities) of adult ver child learners. One of the biggest things is learning to listen because I had the tendency to finish (her thought). I need to be more patient and to give Judy the space and time to work it through. " (10)  "It has made me reflect more on my role as a school advisor and how I interact with the student teachers. It has made me more sensitive to how it can be viewed or how I communicate. It has definitely given me a different perspective of myself. ... Confirmed some good qualities and some things that can be changed. I think in (learning about) interaction with an adult learner." (11) "If there were three things that an advisor should always have to the front of her mind when they are interacting with the student teacher what would they be?" (11)  The first three things that I mentioned centered on the student teacher and school advisor relationship, which involved empathy for, interaction with, and feedback to the student teacher. Directing more at the school advisor, awareness of one's bias, openness to different perspectives, and realistic expectations for developing teachers are beneficial considerations when working with a student teacher. "The student teacher is probably doing the best he/she can or to recognize that. You need to know the personality of your student teacher. ... I think it's a different  108 relationship because they are kind of dependent on you to guide or carry them through.  (W  "... be sensitive to how much support they need or not need at specific times. They are doing the best they can. They have a lot of things that they are trying to learn at once. What way do they learn best? ... They will not be you. You can not expect them to be experienced teachers at the end of the practicum." (12) "You've got to keep doing a reality check on yourself and not get totally swept away ..."  (12)  "Has this been a reciprocal learning environment for you?" (12)  I began to view the practicum as a shared learning experience in which the student teacher also teaches and promotes learning. This forced me analyze and share my philosophy of education to train another teacher.  "I've learned a lot about myself as a person in regards to interacting with, teaching, and mentoring another adult. I've thought about it because I've had two new teachers next door that I've mentor ed in the past couple of years. Being involved in the Early Literacy Project made me interact with a lot of different teachers. ... I've learned a lot from what Judy has brought into the classroom. She had her interests with the kids and presented things in her way. It's slightly different and it's okay. Where she puts her energy may not necessarily be where I put my energy. The main thing is to be comfortable with those differences and to accept it as long as she's got some good grounding. She's willing to commit to her teaching career. "(13) "Are there any resources that would have helped or ways that the school advisors need support?" (13)  Colleagues and support for school advisors I believe my influence was evident throughout the practicum. But my directions became less prominent as Judy interacted with other staff members. She was not completely dependent on me for guidance and feedback. Her relationships and conversations with other staff, such as Heidi and the teacher-librarian gave her exposure to different teaching styles and practices. These interactions gave her a broader perspective teaching practices, which are effective for various teachers. Working in collaboration with other teachers is important in my teaching. I enjoy learning and sharing ideas with others and I effectively communicated this to her during the  109 practicum. I questioned whether I could have worked more collaboratively with her or would that have been too domineering. School advisors have a crucial role in teacher educational programs yet little or no resources are dedicated to support these key participants. During this practicum, the faculty advisor was exceptionally aware of addressing my questions or situations as I worked with Judy. She made a point of meeting with school advisors and keeping us informed of her work with the student teachers. Her efforts supported and validated my work as a school advisor  "The faculty advisor tried to provide some(support) during this practicum for us. I thin her sensitivity of knowing we also needed support besides her student teachers. It was a encouragement and gave value to what we were doing versus you should know what you 're doing just take care of it. " (2)  "She kept us in tune with what she was working with them on and tried to see if there were things that we needed besides the student teachers. As school advisors, we also needed to hash out some issues and struggles we had working with student teacher. " (2 I believe better resources, basic training, and field support are important considerations for future school advisors. This would help build continuity in teacher educational programs and increase the credibility of the school advisor role. During this practicum, I actively sought out additional resources to become more informed about my role.  universities should work in conjunction or in collaboration that have good teaching programs in regards to the packages (for) school advisors.  Any teaching program should provide some support in regards to guidelines and pointers that school advisors should be aware of while working with student teachers. " (13/14 "I think school advisors should be given some support in their role. " (14) Would basic criteria for school advisors produce better future teachers? What would be the basic criteria? If there is a standard for school advisors, I wonder who would be willing to accept the responsibility for the task. Professional ethics guide and promote acceptance among the  110 differences in teachers. A challenging thought to consider is what are the characteristics of effective teaching that all teachers should exhibit. There were criteria of good teaching examples and guidelines for school advisors included in the orientation package for school advisors. I believe the means of communicating these criteria and guidelines to school advisors are more important than the specific content. If new research findings and approaches are to be meaningful for school advisors, their importance needs to be communicated in ways to promote understanding. At the end of the practicum, the only debriefing session was the final evaluation between the faculty advisor, school advisor, and the student teacher. The focus is on the performance of the student teacher during the practicum. School advisors are asked to complete a questionnaire to provide feedback about the practicum experience to the university. This process does not promote learning or beneficial gains for school advisors. I wonder if this could be an area for improvement. "Would that be useful to you do you think? To come together [faculty advisor and school advisors] after and to talk about the experiences or the struggles or the challenges." (15)  "It can be things that went positively and if we had a student teacher next time what would we do differently. " (15) The most significant support that can be offered to school advisors is time to meet with student teachers, other school advisors, and faculty advisors for conferences related to the practicum issues and challenges. In this way, communication between all participants will facilitate a more cohesive teacher education program. Summary The final interview provided an overview of my school advisor experience. Many of my responses to the debriefing questions were descriptive and implied. Reviewing and analyzing my discussion clarified my thoughts. As I reflected upon the discussion, I changed from a  Ill directive to a facilitative approach in my school advisor role as the practicum progressed. I learned about and developed my teaching practice through guiding a student teacher in her teaching skills. The school advisor role provided opportunities to reflect and examine my educational beliefs and values. The practicum became a reciprocal learning environment in which I also learned about teaching perspectives and interpersonal skills as I continued to be the teacher that I want to be. Throughout the practicum, I struggled with providing authentic valuable feedback to the student teacher. Balancing feedback that focused on the needs of the student teacher versus my expectations was a constant challenge. Being sensitive to the influential position of a school advisor also affected how I communicated feedback to the student teacher. The relationship between school advisors and student teachers promotes or inhibits learning and further teaching development. I was more aware of my teaching biases and abilities as I observed the student teacher developing her teaching skills. I also recognized the valuable support of colleagues in my school advisor role. Colleagues provided a wider perspective of feedback and extended student teachers' learning. Reflecting upon my school advisor experience at the conclusion of the practicum, I see areas for improvements in teacher education programs. Developing and improving the communication between all participants in the teaching triad can build better teacher programs. The practicum period is an opportunity for practicing teachers to reflect and reaffirm their teaching pedagogy, which is not capitalized. During the practicum, the reciprocal learning and teaching benefits for the experienced teacher when teaching a student teacher how to teach are rarely recognized or emphasized. Besides overlooking the potential of professional development, from my experience, school advisors are given minimal training, support, and  time. The extent and importance of school advisor's role in training and educating future teachers needs to be further research. If we want to promote learning for all participants in teaching dyad, changes in teacher educational programs must reflect this belief.  113  Chapter Six: Discussion of the School Advisor's Reflections This chapter outlines the reflections of a school advisor by focusing on the following research questions: what was I thinking or communicating while conferencing with the student teacher, and what did I learn about teaching and learning in the school advisor role while I viewed my performance. The data was collected from several sources. They included an accumulation of conferences of an overview, three lessons in different curriculum areas, student teacher's final self-evaluation, and the school advisor's debriefing self-study. Many of the reflections encompass conflicts, challenges, and inquiries of a school advisor in the mentoring and coaching of a student teacher. Further, the reflections and insights provided a foundation for developing a conceptual framework that integrates the dynamic reciprocal relationship between the school advisor and student teacher through different phases of a practicum experience. Additional research questions and future implications surfaced from examining these issues. A larger number of themes that resonated in this reflective case study seem to reflect the experiences encountered by other school advisors. When analyzing the issues and insights of the school advisor role, my reflections centered on conflicts between differences of beliefs, values, perspectives, practices, and understandings. Discomfort and tension resulted because of the conflicts within the teacher education triad and from my participation in this self-study. B y examining and recognizing these conflicts, I identified key issues and challenges of a school advisor. As a result, I have a better understanding of my pedagogy and personhood. Homi Bhabha (cited in Olson & Worsham, 1999:28) describes the space between theory and practices as a "kind of internal liminal space" which is created due to differences and can challenge us to go beyond the boundaries we have established. I was challenged to examine and expand my thinking beyond my perspective and  114 consider alternative approaches in teaching and learning when working with a student teacher. I created new understandings and considered new possibilities through my school advisor experience. M y reflections reflected moving in the "enunciatory space of difference of self/Other and Other/self where "ambiguity, uncertainty, and generative possibilities" exist and toward new realizations (Aoki, 1999). Being in the spaces of tension and working through conflicts is challenging. According to Bhabha (cited in Olson & Worsham, 1999:28), these "liminal space(s)", issues and insights about the school advisor role show results, which reflect the complexity of interconnection and interrelationships in teaching and learning.  Bias As I conversed with Judy, I became aware of particular biases in my actions, words, and attitude. I compared my teaching practices with Judy's lesson reviews and performances. This was highlighted during our discussions of how she handled the physical education equipment and organized the cooking activity. Her experience reminded me of my own excitement and challenges in beginning as a new teacher. M y biases may have created a narrow view of selectively attending to particular interests whereby I miss progress or achievements by the student teacher. During the practicum, my self-awareness increased. As a result, I began expressing ideas as suggestions or choices for the student teacher's consideration. "It's a diagram. Should they draw it or should you draw it? When you want them to draw a diagram, do you want them to label it? ...Do they need to know what this diagram represents? (Page 32 of 35 Pre-Lesson Conference of April 19 , 2001) th  M y thinking and practice became vividly apparent as I watched the videos during the stimulated recall sessions. I voiced my biases to the researcher, which increased my consciousness of how I practiced teaching and behaved in interpersonal relationships.  115 "I told her my personal biases and my preferences about why I cook. " (9)  "I definitely have a bias towards giving the kids the drawing versus having them do t drawing. ... Ifind my personal bias." (14) "I shouldn 't have jumped in quite as soon and let her finish ... and asked her why - her reasoning. I already know my reasoning biases. " (14) (Pages 9 & 14 of 17 of Stimulated Recall of Pre-Lesson Conference of April 24 , 2001) th  M y biases were prevalent not only in educational issues that focused on teaching and learning practices, but also on socio-cultural factors that centered on relationships and communication behaviours. School advisors have a significant role in establishing the tone of the relationship with student teachers by how, when, what, where, and why discussions occur. From the reflections of the conferences with Judy, we developed a healthy working relationship that provided many opportunities for Judy to express her needs. M y busy schedule and additional commitments constrained our conference schedules. But Judy communicated that she did not lack support and guidance from me. Recognizing and putting aside my bias challenged me to think about a number of issues. I had to exert a conscious effort to acknowledge my bias and avoid judgment based on my teaching approach. I attempted to focus on what were sound, effective educational practices that were often identified with good teachers. Being aware of the distinction between my particular teaching practices and general best practices was helpful in supporting the development of Judy's own teaching style.  Beliefs and Values Throughout the discussions with the student teacher, I identified and reflected upon my beliefs and values. As I questioned Judy's reasons for lesson planning and implementation, I asked about her underlying beliefs and values related to teaching, learning, and children. At  116 times, I thought her responses were vague and unsubstantiated so I liberally offered my views to expand her thinking by considering another perspective. "What is it you 're teaching? Why? I believe a good teacher is a reflective teacher and has good reasons for doing what she does. " (Page 10 of 17 of Stimulated Recall of Post-Lesson Conference of April 24 , 2001) th  I thought Judy should provide individual feedback to children as they are working on activities, which allows for meeting the needs of diverse learners. I believe these were valuable teaching opportunities. During the fresco painting activity, I encouraged her to practice this skill, which she implemented effectively and observed positive results. Judy had choices in what she chose to adopt and implement. Although I did not force her with any specific practice, I strongly suggested some practices. She made decisions that furthered her professional development. This reflected my approach to professional development when I am faced with new research and methodologies - how do new ideas relate to by teaching philosophy. Many of my suggestions appeared helpful to Judy because she incorporated ideas from our pre-conference discussions. Although she adopted similar practices, she did not necessarily share the same underlying beliefs and values. For example, Judy's rationale for cooking with students differed from my beliefs and values. She had a broader everyday life focus in relation to skill development such as measuring and pouring while I related the activity to specific cognitive, social, and life skills learning objectives. I often asked for her views before I shared my thinking in order to minimize the bias from my approach and help her move beyond her existing state of professional development. Like her I wanted to expand her pedagogical approach for this activity. I think teachers rarely have in-depth discussions about their values and beliefs in relation to teaching and learning. Our teaching philosophy is often embedded in stories, events, and situations instead of stating what we believe our teaching practice.  117  Assumptions After viewing the first simulated pre-lesson conference, I was surprised at the length of our discussion and how I dominated the conversation. I assumed the pre-lesson conference format was necessary to be informative and helpful. The first 45-50 minutes was a discussion on the events for the Week and future practicum responsibilities. Then, we reviewed the specific lesson, which took another 20-25 minutes. In total, the pre-lesson conference lasted about an hour and 15 minutes, which was too lengthy for a Friday after school meeting. This structure conflicted with what I believed to be good teaching and learning situations. Meetings should be scheduled at productive work times such as at the beginning of the week when one is more refreshed and in shorter segments to allow a learner to process information. Thus, subsequent pre- and post-lesson conferences focused only on upcoming lessons. Conversations about other lessons and activities occurred throughout the week in shorter segments. When I established the review of weekly events and discussion of the specific lessons, I made a number of assumptions regarding the structure of the practicum and the developmental activities. The review format was used at the beginning of the practicum. We discussed the week's teaching plans because I wanted to be sure she was clear about expectations and plans for the following week. We also used the time to determine increases in her teaching load and integration of her teaching schedule with mine. I controlled and directed the discussion. From her brief inquiries and responses, I also deduced she was uncertain about some of the class routines. I thought the information presented in this format assisted and supported Judy's planning and teaching. I benefited from these discussions to fulfill my assumptions about the needs of the student teacher rather than asking the student teacher to share her views.  118 From the initial pre-lesson conference, I concentrated on ensuring that she had the necessary information to complete her assigned tasks and to gather insight into her teaching development. I needed to know that Judy understood her responsibilities with additional teaching challenges and had enough notice to think and prepare for future lessons. Teachers are always planning ahead to facilitate future learning needs of students, take advantage of teachable moments, and meet curriculum goals. M y rationale related to the difficulty I had in 'letting go' of my class because I felt a strong responsibility for the children's learning. These were underlying influences on my thought processes, but I did not know what the student teacher's views were about this conversation. M y teaching practice changed in my role as the school advisor. I recognized similarities between working with a child and adult learner, yet there are also differences. Children learn best when they are safe, valued, and feel secure, their needs are met, and they are activelyengaged ( N A E Y C , 1996). I believe adults also need similar environments as children to learn. Adult learners may recognize their specific needs with greater consciousness, and take greater initiative in their learning. I assume that adults are self-motivated learners. They should also take advantage of different learning opportunities. Adult learners should recognize how each challenge is beneficial in their growth and development.  Teaching Practice The conferences and discussions related to different aspects of teaching development for the student teacher and school advisor. Having taught for a few years, I realized repeated experiences provided opportunities for improving practice and exploring new approaches. Judy recognized the advantage of teaching a lesson again when she worked with half of the class and revised the same lesson with the second group. M y observations of the student teacher's  119 performance prompted me to analyze my own teaching practices in specific situations which affirmed some of my teaching practices and reminded me of teaching about detailed practices that had become automatic processes. For example, I have pupils assist in setting up and putting away materials because I believe they develop responsible behaviour through such practices. Other teaching details include knowing when to give pupils their materials and how to maintain student attention. The responsibility of pupil learning added pressure to facilitating the student teacher's educational knowledge and understanding. Balancing the opportunities to apply theory to practice and fulfilling curriculum expectations for my pupils was an ongoing challenge. Therefore, I often provided Judy with information and suggestions to facilitate her professional development in teaching skills and knowledge. As an experienced teacher, I learned to capitalize on spontaneous teaching opportunities in 'teachable moments'. I encouraged Judy to recognize such moments in her teachings which is a challenge for student teachers who often feel they must fulfill the lesson as planned. "Think on your feet and make connection between where the students are at and where you want to take them. Because it's really difficult if you want to take them here and they don't have the background knowledge." Page 7 of 22 of Student Teacher Self Evaluation of June 12 , 2001 th  During the practicum, my school advisor role evolved according to the needs of the student teacher and various situations. I acted as a director, consultant, facilitator, mentor, and coach depending on the circumstances. Over time, I relinquished more control and shifted more teaching responsibility to Judy. From the first to the last practicum cycle, there was evidence of increasing learner versus teacher focused teaching from my perspective.  120 M y professional development advanced as I expanded teaching skills to include adult learners. I found adult learners a challenge because my educational background centered on working with children. Being a school advisor, I grasped onto what I knew about good teaching and learning principles with children, and applied them to working with an adult learner. I also reflected on my participation in professional workshops and continued educational courses. I considered my needs as an adult learner. I drew upon strategies that teachers used to promote my learning as an adult. I also sought guidance from the faculty advisor and fellow colleagues. At the same time, my participation in a graduate program included a course on supervision of teaching that provided me with helpful insights into my school advisor role. These resources supported my role as a school advisor with a wide range of ideas and perspectives. I wondered how other school advisors learn to work with adult learners. It would be worth considering what are helpful teaching skills and knowledge for school advisors as they work with adult learners. As a teacher, I am constantly engaged in learning and continuing to develop skills and knowledge of becoming the teacher that I want to be. Given changes in education and new research ideas, I need to continue with my professional development. Teaching and learning are reciprocal processes for teachers. As we teach, we learn; as we learn, we teach. Thus, the teaching/learning dynamics are intricately woven into a continuous cycle. Attempting to explain or discuss a certain aspect of teaching is a challenging task because of interrelationships between many factors. The complexities are evident in the pre-lesson conference in cycle one where 45-50 minutes focused on reviewing various teaching responsibilities and then diverged to upcoming events in the practicum. Teaching takes place in a context which encompasses abilities and needs of the audience, subject materials, lesson objectives, organization of the environment, and so forth.  121 As I shared my teaching practices with Judy, I realized my teaching is a mosaic of skills, knowledge, strategies, and methodologies that I accumulated from years of teaching experiences, workshops, conferences, and educational courses. M y teaching mosaic reflects a style that I value. Judy is beginning to develop a teaching style. In the future, her teaching mosaic will reflect a collage of learning experiences and knowledge. While I struggled with presenting a realistic view of teaching, I gradually introduced Judy to additional responsibilities outside of the classroom. From observing my involvement in school committees, administrative tasks, extra curricular events, and professional opportunities, Judy realized the broader portfolio of teaching responsibilities. "Everybody always say teaching is not [just] teaching. That's definitely been reinforced, especially, I think by watching you too because you are so busy. So many other things involved in school, but outside of school. [Shown] me how much more there is to teaching. It's not just coming in, teaching, and leaving."  Page 3 of 22 Student Teacher Self Evaluation of June 12 , 2001 th  Recently, I became more cognizant of balancing my professional and personal life, which is a constant challenge for me. I believe this is an important endeavor for teachers to remember because the beginning years of teaching are extremely challenging with a steep learning curve.  Knowledge About Teaching, Learning, Students, and Curriculum Frequently, I question how universities prepare student teachers for the practicum experience. M y perception is that student teachers lack important preparations for teaching responsibilities and knowledge in many educational areas. M y perceptions are based upon working with a few student teachers. At the beginning of the practicum, I often question the educational preparation and their understanding of the different teaching/curriculum areas. I often have to teach and share an abundance of information with student teachers. The best I  122 could offer is what I know and practice. Judy also agreed her most valuable learning occurred during the practicum when she answered "almost everything" to the question what did the kids teach you that (the university) couldn't (Student Teacher Self Evaluation of June 12 , 2001: 3). th  Developing an understanding of the university's criteria for student teachers provided a framework for myschool advisor task. I have high expectations of student teachers because I believe it is important to instill effective teaching practices at the beginning stage of a teaching career. Judy also mentioned that working with high expectations motivated her to learn and work. Being knowledgeable about different learner styles helped guide our teaching. As I worked on understanding Judy's learning style, I mentored and supported her learning more effectively for subsequent developments. As her knowledge and understanding of teaching, learning, students, and curriculum developed, Judy's lesson planning and implementation demonstrated greater sophistication in advanced cognitive thinking. Both of us gained knowledge at different levels to refine our teaching practice. Judy anticipated possible scenarios and prepared various responses that paralleled my work with her as a school advisor. "I did see the rest of her lesson plan. It was too late when I saw it for her to change into metric so Ijust left that for her. I think she already had too much to teach at the point that she showed it to me. IfI had mentioned that (metric measurement), it would have been overwhelming." (Page 5 of 8 of Stimulated Recall-Post-Lesson Conference of April 27 , 2001) th  "I am finding that our post-lesson conferences are shorter because she is picking up a lot more things that can be improved or we see it in a similar way or with the teacher's eye t)  (Page 1 of 6 of Stimulated Recall-Post-Lesson Conference of May 16 , 2001) th  Different Perspectives Working with different perspectives was a significant challenge. In the pre-lesson conferences, an inner conflict centered on accepting a different approach to a lesson that I  123 thought was ineffective or at least, less than optimal. Was this my bias when the method differed compared to mine? I wondered whether I should let the student teacher proceed and learn from the experience or intervene. I asked many questions to understand her thinking such as "What are your reasons for choosing this lesson? Why are you teaching this concept? How does this lesson fit in the curriculum? What materials are you using? What skills do the children need to have for this lesson? What are your learning objectives?" I asked Judy what her focus was instructional practices, classroom management, interacting with students, or professionalism for a particular lesson. Observing her lessons, I saw validity and benefits in her approach. I encouraged her to adopt practices that enabled her to be an effective teacher.  " When she said this [not putting relay equipment away]. I had a really hard time with this. Saying to her that it was a bit of a distraction at the beginning. Is there another way where it would have even been less of a distraction. It seemed that she was comfortable with that. I was struggling when I would have done it differently. I would have put the equipment back in the room unless I was going to use it. (Page 2 of 10 of Stimulated Recall-Post-Lesson Conference of May 16 , 2001) th  M y perspective of teaching expanded as I observed Judy teach and discover alternative approaches. In the same way that she did not adopt all my practices, I did not agree with all her methods. Having worked with many teachers, I am aware of many perspectives of teaching. As Judy explained her reasoning for specific actions, my respect for her perspective increased.  Risk Taking Participating in this self-study was a risk in which I gained a deeper understanding of my teaching practice as a school advisor. Taking risks enriched my learning and allowed me to become a better teacher. B y taking risks, I considered alternative ways to improve my teaching. I believe that school advisors are usually not risk-takers in the teaching dyad because the focus is on the student teacher. As I reflected on the conferences, I believed school advisors do take risks  124 when working with a student teacher. They already expose their teaching practices to another person. Working with an adult learner and knowing you play a significant role in their future career are significant risks and responsibilities to take on. Thus, the risk taking by school advisor needs to be explored further in teacher education.  Reflective Practice After being a school advisor a few times and participating in this study, I am more explicit about my pedagogy, the knowledge and theories underlying my philosophy, and alternative educational practices. Through reflective practice, I advanced my teaching skills. Similarly, I encouraged Judy to reflect on her practice and learn from previous experiences such as in the cooking activity. University courses also provided an encouraging space for Judy to reflect upon her learning. During the practicum, reflecting on her practice was a familiar process of learning for her. As her school advisor, one of my roles involved posing questions to prompt reflective practice. When Judy reflected on particular teaching practices, she problem solved and prepared differently for future teaching situations. This coincided with my reflective thinking in working with her. I also reflected upon her experience to integrate what may be helpful for my future teaching and pedagogy. Reflections helped to stimulate our learning.  "I think she has been reflective. ... reflect and say this didn 't work, why not? What am going to do next time? How you might change your teaching to be more effective? " (Page 7 of 8 of Stimulated Recall-Post-Lesson Conference of April 27 , 2001) th  "I think this is reflective teaching. Because why are you continuing to do it the way you had done before when you know it didn't work. She's able to think about it quite quick and do it [reflective teaching] on the spot. " (Page 2 of 5 of Stimulated Recall of Post-Lesson Conference of May 28 , 2001) th  125  Relationships The relationship between school advisors and student teachers affects learning, communication and professional growth of both individuals. M y attitude towards the student teacher shaped the kind of working relationship she developed with students in the class, which in turn affects her teaching development. M y relationship with Judy also communicated her role with pupils. They may regard her as a 'student teacher' or as a fully competent professional. How Judy and I communicated with each other was an important factor in developing a healthy learning relationship with the class. We needed to relate to each other professionally and personally because both dimensions are important for understanding another person in developing a teaching style. I recognized that I held an authority position of greater power and how I communicated this authority shaped our relationship. During later conferences, I assumed a less authoritarian role by giving up greater control to Judy. The relationship between faculty advisor and school advisor frames the extent of teaching responsibilities for the student teacher and the expectation of my role as a school advisor during the practicum. The faculty advisor for Judy's practicum offered support for my school advisor role by maintaining close contact regarding the student teacher's progress. This eased some of the stress of advising Judy.  Colleagues Support School Advisor Role Fellow staff members can provide support for school advisors. Colleagues were an instrumental resource and support system for my school advisor role. When I questioned my practice with Judy, I asked colleagues for their views and perspectives. The staff at my school was readily available and familiar with my teaching approach, which eliminated many  126 unknowns. Their inquiries about my school advisor role provided support in my teaching development in a similar fashion when they asked Judy how she was doing. Staff members informally teach student teachers about teaching through stories, situations, and events in casual conversations. These conversations provide a range of teaching and learning perspectives. Staff such as the teacher librarians, teachers-on-call, and resource staff also informally mentored the student teacher. I was the assigned school advisor but other staff members also modeled teaching practices for student teachers. Judy stated that she adopted practices from various teachers that she observed. For example, Judy's collaborative experience with Heidi on a science unit allowed Heidi to be another mentor. In Judy's self evaluation, she appreciated working with Heidi and Heidi's perspective in addition to my views. This reflected my collaborative working and teaching relationships in my teaching practice.  Professional and Personal Growth Through the conferences and interactions with Judy, I refined and reshaped my teaching practices. I developed skills in areas of teaching that I did not anticipate when I began my teaching career, especially in working with adult learners. Through inquiry and reflective practice, I gained a better understanding of my pedagogy because I was required to analyze it and share it with the student teacher. Reflecting upon the Stimulated Recall of Pre-Lesson Conference in Cycle One, I realized I was addressing my needs and controlling the direction of the discussion. I questioned what needs to be addressed and what is the role of the student teacher during the pre-lesson conference. The initial format of the pre-lesson conferences fulfilled my needs in knowing what the student teacher was planning for the week. I wondered how well the structure of the conferences was working for Judy and recognized that I needed to ask her directly (Stimulated Recall of Pre-Lesson Conference of April 24 , 2001: 4). th  127 Having to verbalize my pedagogy in detail rarely occurs under normal teaching circumstances and professional workshops. M y pedagogy is usually communicated through conversations around classroom or school events, situations, and stories as well as through my everyday practice in my classroom. The practicum provided a different opportunity to analyze my pedagogy in relation to beliefs, theories and methodologies. For my professional and personal growth, I continually pursue new opportunities and being a school advisor allowed me to develop my skills and a deeper understanding of teaching. Many student teachers are eager to begin the practicum because they consider it as the most useful learning experience. While I share this belief, I consider that the practicum is just an initial step in a life-long learning and teaching journey. Learning to teach is a continuous process even for experienced teachers; it happens in different areas and levels. I shared with Judy how I learned about recent developments in early literacy research. As we discussed her professional needs, I stressed that she needed to identify her professional needs and pursue them. "Are you more into developing relationships and working collaboratively with other teachers? If that's something you want and need as a teacher, then, when you get out there; go seek it. " (Page 19 of 22 Student Teacher Self Evaluation of June 12 , 2001) th  Appropriate and Effective Feedback Decisions about what feedback to give from school advisors are important in the learning to teach process. Providing appropriate effective feedback was a challenge because I struggled with balancing her needs with where I wanted to her to be. A noticeable difference from the first, to the last conference was how my responses addressed Judy's needs within the framework of where I thought she should be. Initially, student teachers are often unclear about what they want feedback on or their focus until they have some teaching experience. A n example was 'why are the children not listening to me?' Together, we looked at strategies to address this need and she  128 became aware of how other teachers dealt with this situation. As she observed others teaching, Judy learned about minor details, practices and strategies that made a significant difference. For example, details like the tone of voice, facial expressions, body gestures, classroom language, physical movements, and classroom routines are overlooked until one begins teaching and reflect on the effectiveness. Sometimes Judy was aware of these aspects and at other times, I pointed them out. During pre-lesson conferences, my efforts focused on understanding her teaching approach in lesson planning and implementation. When I noticed that she did not make important connections in the lessons, I pointed them out. M y intent was not to alter her lessons according to my approach, but to encourage her to address inadequate areas and to clarify her teaching. During the fresco painting lesson, I questioned her about the art language in the lesson. Through a process of inquiry, Judy discovered specific vocabulary that would enrich the lesson. In similar ways that I encouraged Judy to provide specific feedback to students, I learnt about providing specific feedback regarding her development as a teacher. Another analogy was how observing and assessing student learning can occur at the same time, which reflected the process I practiced during observation of lessons. I identified strengths and areas for improvement, which followed the university structure provided to school advisors. Reflecting on my assessments of Judy's performance, I thought I could have offered more positive reinforcement compared to critiquing areas for improvement. During the post-lesson conferences, I was sensitive in starting with the needs and interests of the student teacher and followed her direction in the discussion. I wanted to hear how she viewed her teaching - what went well and what areas needed improvement. This provided the basis for our discussions. As she debriefed each lesson, she reflected upon her experience and learning. This was comparable to my simulated recall sessions of each  129 conference. Viewing and reflecting on the conferences, I learned about my teaching pedagogy and interpersonal skills. Feedback is a means for teaching and learning. Remembering my feedback from the stimulated recall sessions in subsequent discussions was a challenge. I was familiar with writing notes down during observations, but during this study I relied on recall of oral conversations. The demands of my teaching responsibilities also made it hard to remember everything. As a result, I addressed more of the student teacher' needs instead of my concerns.  "Iforget all that I wanted to say. All I need to do is remember the important [aspects] and not everything. ... One or two objective is enough. Where she wants feedback? You have to weigh the big picture - how important is it? If she hasn't a clue, maybe she is not ready. " (Page 9 of 10 of Stimulated Recall of Post-Lesson Conference of May 16 , 2001) th  I thought the discussions were more connected to Judy's learning when I recognized the benefits of an alternative process, and revised the format. I shared this struggle with Judy in one of the post-conference.  Communication The conferences reflect an educational language, which school advisors have. The same words vary in their meanings between Judy and I because differences in background knowledge and experience shape nuances for the context of our vocabulary. Not only did I have to teach and model some of the vocabulary; I also had to explain the meaning of the terms used. I paraphrased her ideas to clarify my understanding and for her to hear it in a different way. Parallels can be drawn between the "teacher talk" and the "classroom language" that is established in the classroom. I discussed with Judy how repeated use of the phrase "that's right"  130 or "great" might commuriicate specific messages, or create a certain climate in the classroom. By asking her to define what she meant, she can be more intentional about her use of language.  "What about it looks great? ... Ifyou say that looks great, it doesn't tell them enough. What part of it looks great? What are the details that you 're looking for? ... Helping them describe what they might be doing. " (Page 8 of 10 Stimulated Recall of Pre-Lesson Conference of May 28 , 2001) th  I made assumptions when using specific words with Judy because I thought she had the same understanding. I realized my choice of language inhibits or promotes communication. I wondered how clearly I communicated my feedback to her.  Questioning Skills The questions school advisors ask can help student teachers clarify, refine, re-evaluate, and reshape teaching practice. Questions encourage self-inquiry and reflective practice, which are significant factors for good teaching. Throughout the practicum, I questioned how I worked with the student teacher and what I did in training another teacher. I also questioned my pedagogy. I observed a similar process happening with Judy as she posed questions about her practice.  "I should have asked her when you say 'cooperation' how does that look? What are you looking for when you say cooperation? In her lessons she says 'okay they are able to work in groups.' Working in groups, what does that look like? " (Page 3 of 10 of Stimulated Recall of Post-Lesson Conference of May 16 , 2001) th  Over the course of the practicum, my questioning skills changed to encourage greater in-depth conversations on educational beliefs and knowledge. I preferred to have these kinds of conversations earlier with Judy. During the post-lesson conference, my questions elicited greater clarification of teaching practices whereas in the pre-lesson conference I tried to understand her implementation plans for lessons.  131 Besides developing questioning skills, I needed to be conscious about allowing for proper response time. I had a tendency to finish her thoughts and sentences or to offer my thoughts without allowing for ample opportunity to respond. I could have asked Judy to elaborate on her brief answers in order to deepen conversations and gain a better understanding of her pedagogy.  Conference Time Scheduling conferences and establishing a time limit for meetings were challenges. From the first practicum cycle, I learned about the need to schedule conferences that allow for productive learning. Also, maintaining a specific focus is important. Learning from the initial practicum experience, I established more frequent, shorter conferences throughout the week to maintain communication and address concerns instead of one lengthy discussion. Recognizing when conferences occur and when lessons are to be taught are influencing factors for subsequent feedback. Due to time limitations and demands on both the student teacher and school advisor, conferences did not happen at the most ideal time. During Cycle Four, the pre-lesson conference occurred before lunch and the lesson was taught after lunch. Input that required substantial lesson revisions would not be useful; I focused on aspects that were easily incorporated or crucial to a successful lesson. Time is a scarce resource in a teaching day. Limiting the conference time was another challenge. But I wanted to provide Judy with enough support for her development as a teacher. M y stimulated recall conferences also varied in length depending on what I observed in the lessons and my ability to focus. Our conferences varied between 20 to 40 minutes depending on the subject of the lesson. When she lacked familiarity with the topic, our conferences were longer. Thus, conferences varied depending on the learner's needs.  132  Empathy for Student Teacher I believe school advisors can empathize with the student teacher's position because they were once in similar situations. Empathizing with student teachers influences the working relationship. I struggled with how much to share with student teachers at one time. How much they can handle? I do not want to discourage or overwhelm them. The practicum is a stressful time and a clinical situation in which student teachers are asked to perform at their best. A l l my student teachers have cried during the practicum as stress overwhelms them. Are my expectations too high? I also struggle with letting go of some my issues without lowering my expectations of what constitutes a good teacher. I question what are the necessary skills and characteristics of an "effective teacher". I am constantly reminded that they are just beginning teachers - what are the characteristics, skills, and knowledge that they need to develop into good teachers. What does this look like? We achieve success in certain aspects, but there are many areas that require ongoing attention.  Further Inquiries I learned a substantial amount from my school advisor role, yet I have more questions about the responsibilities involved to effectively fulfill the expectations, whether explicitly or implicitly communicated. How can the learning of school advisors be recognized in the practicum? What support can be provided for school advisors in their role? How can I improve my questioning skills? How should I deal with teaching perspectives that differ from my own? What are different ways of encouraging reflective practice among school advisors and student teachers? What should I do to nurture and encourage growth and development for someone starting a teaching career?  133  Analysis of Reflections After closely analyzing the data, my reflections concentrated on the technical and practical level because I was primarily concerned with the student teacher's developmental process. At the beginning, student teachers tend to reflect on technical issues such as classroom management strategies, lesson organization, and so forth (Bramald, Hardman, & Leat, 1995:28). M y questions attempted to shift Judy's reflections to a practical level that focused on teaching practices. Moving to the critical reflection level requires examining issues in relation to "wider ethical, social, and political" spheres (Bramald, Hardman, & Leat, 1995: 28). I demonstrated reflection at this level when I asked what teachers are training for in education and what resources school advisors need to support their role in teacher educational programs. M y reflections generally focus on the technical level with effort to move into the practical level. As I reflect on the school advisor role, my reflections are representative of all three levels with greater focus on the practical issues. In regards to the three perspectives on reflection presented by Grirnmett, MacKinnon, Erickson & Riecken (1990), my reflections focus on "reorganization or reconstruction of experience, leading to new understanding of self as teacher". M y school advisor role reconceptualized my teaching pedagogy arid personal self. After discussing and reflecting on the issues and challenges of the school advisor role and experiences of the student teacher, an integrative framework evolved which reflected the dynamic processes of teaching and learning for both participants during the practicum. Specific learning outcomes in a developmental order, and a parallelism of pedagogical development/understanding at different levels were evident between the student teacher and school advisor. The integrative framework captures the "learning to teach and teaching to learn" of the student teacher and the school advisor at different  134 levels of development. The student teacher is "learning to teach and teaching to learn" to become a teacher whereas the school advisor is "teaching to learn and learning to teach" how to teach another person to teach.  Toward An Integrative Framework of "Learning to Teach and Teaching to Learn Being a school advisor and pursuing my inquiries into this role enabled me to learn more about my pedagogy concerning how to relate the art of teaching to another person. From my reflections in this practicum, the school advisor role challenged and expanded my teaching practice and educational knowledge. Conflicts evolved into new understandings and became opportunities for learning. The practicum is a reciprocal learning environment for school advisors. It enabled my professional and personal developments. Insights that I can share with other school advisors include: examining educational beliefs and values, identifying bias, assumptions, and perspectives, increasing knowledge basis, practicing/encouraging inquiry and reflective practice, establishing workable relationships within the teaching triad, developing communication and questioning skills, and recognizing time constraints. Determining the feedback and guidance, which addressed the student teacher's needs and fulfilled the evaluative teaching criteria, was a constant challenge. The school advisor role provides additional opportunities to develop teaching skills and encourage risk taking which are ongoing processes in the educational profession. The teaching and learning process continues with further inquiries. A n integrative framework of learning to teach and teaching to learn provides a guide for all participants in teaching practicum to conduct future reflective inquiries. The framework entails three phases in the practicum that can be identified as initiation, transformation, and reimagination. The first phase of initiation involves exchanging information between the school advisor, student teacher,  135 and faculty advisor. Initiation in the practicum is also important as initiation into the teaching profession. The process of exchanging information establishes expectations, atmosphere, and initial professional networking for a student teacher's performance during the practicum. The school advisor has more of a director approach but the process should not be unilateral in order to develop an in depth insight into the student teacher's state of mind, beginning knowledge, and capabilities. Critical key success factors in the initiation phase depends upon preparation of the school advisor for the responsibilities and establishing resources in terms of time and space to support the necessary information exchange and reflective conversations concerning pedagogical concerns. Exchanging information involves each person articulating one's underlying pedagogical values and beliefs. In part, this requires considering how to restructure institutional process to facilitate and support effective processes in order to avoid late Friday afternoonmeetings or sporadic "by the way" conversations which lack in depth discussions to explore issues, plan lessons, and build effective working relationships. In addition, preparing school advisors for their roles through professional development activities would likely contribute to enhancing the practicum experience for all concerned, especially the student teacher and pupils in class. After the initial orientation and first practice classroom lesson, the practicum begins to shift from the initiation phase to the second phase where major developmental activities take place. The second phase of transformation focuses on Advancing Teaching Development (ATD) by building upon theoretical knowledge with major and incremental progress in teaching skills. To enhance the effectiveness of this process, school advisors need to be conscious of a reciprocal learning process that cycles back and forth between the school advisor and student  136 teacher. The simultaneous dual process of teaching to learn and learning to teach enables the advancement of professional development at different levels. Both parties need to engage in reflective and critical thinking processes within the learning relationship. The implementation of lesson plans expresses the student teacher's pedagogical values and beliefs while the school advisor has an opportunity to share a different articulation of possibly similar values. The shift from technical to practical issues during this period is an important developmental milestone and needs to be explicitly acknowledged in the practicum feedback. The school advisor has an opportunity to reflect and confront his/her own teaching practices and move it to another developmental level. Hence, an explicit professional development opportunity can be articulated with the school advisor's direct report(s) and peers. During the transformation (ATD) phase, the school advisor is a critical link into the student teacher's future career by facilitating a broader exposure into the larger community of teaching practices with other colleagues and extracurricular responsibilities. While collaboration was important in this case study, an important consideration is whether cooperative efforts should be more uniformly encouraged for all practicum experiences. The opportunity enhanced Judy's experience and may benefit other student teachers, too. As learning accumulates through the practicum, the shift from the second phase to the third involves simultaneous processes of bringing the practicum experience to a close while constructing a mental map for embarking on a teaching career full time. The third phase of re-imagination involves debriefing at the end of the practicum to make sense of the total experience. While the initiation introduces a student teacher into the teaching profession, the reimagination of the practicum can be considered as the launching point, which equips a beginning teacher with a mental map formed by theoretical knowledge and practical  137 experiences. Skillful debriefing with reflections on the whole practicum experience provides student teachers with additional insights into their future career that begins only a few months away in most cases. The faculty advisor and school advisor play important roles to help student teachers make sense of the practicum experience. However, the school advisor also needs to affirm the learning development in a debriefing process that can take place within the triad or with others who have engaged in similar roles. Information sharing concerning the school advisor role in professional development workshops may enable future school advisors to increase their capabilities in the debriefing process student teachers. The process can be more intentionally thoughtful than left to chance with effective teachers in the system. For example, i f school advisors can relate aspects of the practicum to different theoretical frameworks, student teachers have an opportunity to make connections between theory and practice to understand their experience. This requires that school advisors have the necessary preparation with up to date research developments. Also, school advisors can meet before a practicum session to discuss expectations and resources that support effective implementations of their roles and after a practicum to share their experiences for collective learning. Thus, advancing the school advisor's role by professionalizing it at an institutional level is necessary to affirm its importance in educating effective teachers compared to the current process of depending on good fortune. Significant learning is described as critical tasks and milestones for student teachers and school advisors in each phase. During each phase, the critical tasks direct the level of reflection of teaching and learning and leads to noticeable milestones or growth for each participant in Figure 4. Phase I is characteristic of technical reflection which centers on exchanging information about different teaching strategies, skills, and approaches between all participants in the teacher education program. For the school advisor, the milestone is acknowledging own  138 teaching bias and perspective; for the student teacher's milestone is focussed on processing and analyzing one's practical experiences. Moving into the transformation of Phase II, both the student teacher and school advisor are simultaneously involved in a dual process of teaching to learn and learning to teach as they each advance professionally at different levels. A noticeable transformation from technical to practical reflection occurs in the practicum at this stage. The student teacher is developing one's teaching style and pedagogical beliefs whereas the school advisor is identifying pedagogical beliefs through the developing teaching performance of the student teacher. Each person is examining and articulating one's own criteria of values, beliefs, and practices. Phase III is the reimagining of the practicum experience for each person. For the student teacher, the critical task and milestone center on acknowledging one's teaching practice and pedagogical understanding while "launching career" in the educational profession. The school advisor is reimagining the challenges and learning into new understanding to propel teaching practice and knowledge to another level. In addition to technical and practical reflective practice, critical reflection is evident in Phase III. The critical tasks and milestones for the student teachers and school advisors are evident of the level of inquiry and reflective practice in the relationship.  139  Figure 4: Integrative Framework of "Learning to Teach and Teaching to Learn" - Critical Tasks and Milestones Phase I: Initiation Exchanging Information Student Teacher Critical Task Student Teacher Milestone School Advisor Critical Task School Advisor Milestone  Phase II: Transformation Advancing Teaching Development (ATD) Connecting and extending dimensions of teaching and learning  Recognizing under lying values and beliefs in actions  Process and analyze experiences  Develop teaching style and pedagogical beliefs  Debrief and acknowledge evolving pedagogy  Examining and communicating teaching practice  Establishing an effective teaching forum to address learner  Transferring challenges and realizations into understanding  Inquire and acknowledge bias and perspectives  Identify pedagogical beliefs resonated through another's performance  Propel teaching practice and understanding to another level  Implementing theory into practice  Phase III:Reimagination Launching Career  Overall, this three phase integrative framework on learning to teach and teaching to learn takes a step back from the reflective process to integrate a collection of ideas that arose from this self-study. The critical tasks and milestones or the learning and teaching gains respectively acquired by the school advisor and student teacher is identified in Figure 4. The framework is a proposed framework that can guide critical and reflective thinking about practicum experiences. The framework explicitly acknowledges the learning that takes place with school advisors who are supporting student teachers in the process of learning to teach.  140  Chapter Seven: Contributions, Implications, Limitations, and Conclusions As a reflective self-study, this thesis explored an in-depth case to analyze the role of a school advisor in teacher education. While most teacher education research focuses on the needs of student teachers, practicing teachers have an important opportunity to engage with more advance professional development by taking on additional responsibilities to train others in the profession. The analysis of practicum conversations and proposed framework emphasizes the need for teacher education to include continuous learning with experienced practiced teachers that are involved in practicum, whether formally as school advisors or as informally as mentors in the school community. Hence, the practicum is a significant learning opportunity for both beginning and experienced teachers but with different lessons. This final chapter outlines the contributions to teacher education literature, limitations of the research project, implications for future research, implications for practice, and conclusions of the study. From previous school advisor experiences, I questioned my performance, skills, and knowledge regarding this role. When the opportunity to explore my inquiries materialized, I accepted the challenge to investigate my role as a school advisor to gain a better understanding of the complexities of teaching someone how to teach. Reflections of the conferences illustrate the conflicts and challenges of this role, which resulted in new learning.  Contributions Specifically, this research study was written from the perspective of the school advisor. The school advisor's teaching and learning develops in tandem with the student teacher's experience, but at different levels and degrees. Working with a student teacher creates a catalyst  141 for inquiry into reflective teaching/learning. Hence, this study employs action research in the education field as a means for the school advisor's professional development. This study emphasizes the importance of refining and redefining the relationships between the participants in the teacher training triad in order to improve educational processes. A n important issue that needs to be further developed concerns the advantages of promoting learning and professional development with all members in the triad. .. .in order to link together the fragmented pieces of the existing teacher socialization practices, efforts should be made to create a healthy, lively, and ongoing channel of communication among all agents involved in teacher socialization, especially the triad of teacher candidate, the school teacher, and the college education faculty. (Su, 1992: 254) Changes in my school advisor role included shifting from a directive to a facilitative approach, increasing responsiveness to the student teacher's needs, altering conference formats for focused learning, and improving questioning skills for in-depth discussions. When recognizing ineffective practices, the school advisor needs to provide alternative methods in the process of reflective teaching for student teachers. I had to realign my practice with my beliefs and values. Learning gained from this role included identifying bias, values, beliefs, assumptions, perspectives, professional and personal growth, and risk taking. When observing Judy's teaching performance, I became more aware of my biases, values, and beliefs. During Judy's self-evaluation conference, she valued an environment that allows children to work at their different abilities. In response, I asked what and how you would create such an environment and what expectations would be communicated (Student Teacher Self Evaluation of June 12 , 2001: th  2&3). M y perspective of teaching was limited to my pedagogical definition. Acknowledging another perspective is a challenge for school advisors.  142 Later in the practicum, Judy commented on many areas that I wanted to discuss. Did I strongly influence her perception of teaching in that she had begun to share many similar views? M y questioning skills at the end of the conference improved in eliciting responses that defined actions in relation to developing pedagogy. This practice of inquiry in the conferences was a significant realization of how to teach a student teacher about teaching. I believe school advisors can instill a sense of inquiry in student teachers. In this way, they develop reflective teaching practices which allow them to address future teaching challenges. Self-inquiry is necessary for continuous development beyond the practicum experience. Grossman (1992) states the focus of teacher education programs needs to change. If our goal is not helping prospective teachers attain immediate mastery of classroom routines but preparing prospective teachers to ask worthwhile questions of their teaching, to continue to learn from their practice, to adopt innovative models of instruction, and to face the ethical dimensions of classroom teaching, then we must place our emphasis elsewhere. (176) In my quest to train effective teachers, I established expectations for the student teacher that was reflective of an experienced teacher. I was constantly reminded what the expectations should be for a beginning teacher since we are continually developing our teaching skills throughout our careers. During my debriefing interview, I voiced my struggle of "knowing that she is beginning - what are my expectations of a beginning teacher, and what are the qualities and skills that I want to see (Final Interview of June 12 , 2001: 7)." What was my interpretation of those th  expectations and how did other school advisors interpret them were constant questions for me. I discovered that my expectations of student teachers differed from other school advisors. The varying definitions of expectations reflected school advisors' skills, knowledge, experience, beliefs, and values. I learned to appreciate the contribution and observed the potential of a beginning teacher's perspective in mentoring a student teacher. The beginning teacher presented  143 another teaching perspective and became "another school advisor" for the student teacher as they worked collaboratively on a teaching unit. This offered the student a wider repertoire of teaching practices to adopt that "made sense and worked for her" (Final Interview of June 12 , 2001: 3). th  The education of a teacher is launched during the practicum and continues throughout one's career. I continue to develop my pedagogy as I gain additional experience and knowledge. Being a school advisor enabled me to develop skills and knowledge to work effectively with an adult learner. The school advisor role challenges teachers to develop not only professionally, but also personally. For example, I learned how perceptions of others differed from my own selfperceptions. These realizations were very apparent during the stimulated recall sessions as I viewed the videotape of the conferences. I discovered habits that I wanted to change and improve upon, especially when my practice does not match my teaching philosophy (Final Interview of June 12 , 2001: 10). The school advisor role compels one to closely examine one's th  pedagogy in relation to concerns of a beginning teacher. By becoming researchers, teachers can take control of their classrooms and professional lives in ways that confound the traditional definition of teacher and offer proof that education can reform itself from within. (Flake, Kuhs, Donnelly, &Ebert, 1995:407) This study revealed the necessity of reflection in teaching practice. Encouraging inquiry and reflection in student teachers need to be modeled by the school advisor and taught at the university. A caution for school advisors is to refrain from enforcing our own teaching practices on student teachers without acquiring an understanding of their perspectives, values, abilities and rationality. M y reflections display evidence of reevaluation and confirmation of my teaching practices while mentoring the student teacher. This was apparent throughout the stimulated recall sessions of the practicum cycles and conferences. Even though our conversations centered  144 on management and lesson implementation issues, I extrapolated insights that related to my beliefs and values. M y teaching career is appropriately described by Bennett and Bartholomew, (1997: 148) that "commitment to good teaching and reflection on how to become a better teacher are part of a continuing, career - long quest." Teaching is a life long journey as I pursue to become an effective teacher. Through this self study, the close examination of my reflections directed my thinking to a deeper level that otherwise may not have occurred. Opportunity to voice those thoughts with a researcher substantiated and validated my thinking which otherwise may not be explicitly articulated. A n outstanding practical question is what encourages and supports school advisors to reflect upon their pedagogy at a deeper level under normal circumstances. Practicing teachers address their practice when they become aware of alternative approaches that fit within their pedagogy; they rarely discuss and examine their values, beliefs, and practices with other colleagues. Teachers are rarely asked to explain why they have chosen a specific practice. I found working with a student teacher forced me to explain my pedagogy. The inquiry and reflection of this action research demonstrate the benefits of this process as a means of professional and personal development for teachers. I compared teaching practices as they related to children and adults, and determine effective approaches for different audiences in conjunction with my teacWng/leaming beliefs. The findings acquired through participation in action research had greater meaning and were specific to my stage of teaching. This study contributes to the field of teacher education through action research by recognizing the role of school advisors in reforming education. This study offers a number of contributions to advance the development of teacher practices such identifying the value and roles of each participant in the teaching triad. Student teachers have an influence on school advisors' pedagogy from minor to significant. School advisors can make changes in their  145 practice and adjust their role during the practicum which can be a professional and personal learning environment for teachers and can be an exceptional opportunity for development. Inquiry and reflective practice is an important and effective process for reforming educational thinking and practice for teachers. Acknowledging these contributions supports reforms in educational practices and thinking. The integrative framework of learning to teach and teaching to learn attempts to encapsulate the practicum experience and provide a guide for future school advisors to direct reflective inquiries. The three phases of the framework in the practicum consists of initiation exchanging of information, transformation - advancing teaching development, and reimagination - launching point. Key critical teaching tasks for the school advisor in the initiation phase focuses on examining and communicating teaching practices; in the transformation phase is to establish an effective forum of learning for the student teacher; and in the reimagination phase is to revisit the challenges/realizations into new understanding. In each of the three phases, the school advisor potentially achieves noticeable milestones of learning. The initiation phase propels inquiry into bias and perspectives of teaching. The transformation phase fosters reflection and identification of pedagogical beliefs as resonated through the teaching performance of anther person. In the final phase, reimagination, affirms teaching and understanding at another level. For the student teacher, critical teaching tasks also evolved through each phase: initiation provided implementation of theory to practice, transformation involved connecting dimensions of teaching and learning, and reimagination directed investigation of underlying values and beliefs in actions. The student teacher's learning milestones in each phase are described as follows: processing and analyzing experiences during the initiation phase, developing teaching style and pedagogical beliefs in the transformation  146 stage, and debriefing evolving pedagogy in the reimagination phase. This three phase integrative framework of learning to teach and teaching to learn represents the reciprocal dynamics that occur between school advisors and student teachers during the practicum period. The framework highlights the reciprocal learning and professional development opportunities for school advisors in the teacher education program.  Limitations of Research Limitations of this study are identified and briefly addressed in Chapter 1. Limitations consisted of a restricted time frame, one case study, ineffective operation of recording equipment, poor quality of recorded tapes, and maintaining focus of the study. Being the school advisor and writer, I have been able to provide additional insights which an outsider is not privy to. This is one case study that reflects some of the issues and challenges of a particular dyad. Video taping the student teacher's performance compounded to the clinical nature of the practicum. Interruptions and challenges of scheduling documentation of reflection data resulted in 35-65% of missed data for cycles two to four. The audio clarity of the conferences was affected due to poor equipment and loud background noise. The reflection data drew from the transcripts of the audio tapes which did not capture non-verbal communication cues. M y previous connection with researcher who recorded and debriefed conferences affected the quality of the information. Delineating and focussing on school advisor's versus student teacher's practice created challenges during the stimulated recall sessions. As a case study, it is difficult to make generalizations yet we can still learn from this particular teaching dyad. M y reflections represent one perspective of a school advisor during the practicum period. I recognize this study is a narrow view of the school advisor role and has  147 limitations. I may present what I wanted to see or was looking for just as in the observation of the student teacher's lesson. ... all researchers conduct research using a particular lens and that this focus has a bearing on what is seen, recognized as significant, and ultimately reported. (Wideen, Mayer-Smith, & Moon, 1998:131) Even though this dyad was particular to the two people involved, there is validity in such a case study because it demonstrated the reality and dilemmas of school advisors as they teach others how to teach. M y story extends our understanding of school advisors. ... these stories capture, more than scores or mathematical formulae ever can, the richness and indeterminacy of our experiences as teachers and the complexity of understandings of what teaching is and how others can be prepared to engage in this profession. (Carter, 1993: 5) M y values about teaching and learning reflect general practices in education. Being the subject and the writer, this study goes much deeper with reflections of a school advisor compared to less intrusive data collection methodologies. I recalled conferences with greater accuracy and understood the intentions of the spoken words, which an outside researcher may not have access to. Even though every effort was made to complete each cycle, accommodating the logistics of this study in the daily school program was challenging. Plans were changed at the last minute and completing each session before the next one was not always possible. This led to confusion and omission of sessions. Most importantly, stimulated recall sessions were obtained for each cycle. Videotapes clarified the inaudible parts on the cassette tapes. Being video taped was an unnatural situation and being asked to analyze my teaching practice increased my anxiety level. M y credibility of teaching seemed to be under scrutiny and I was wondering i f I met expectations. Thus, a Hawthorne effect took place with my own self-consciousness of being a research subject.  148 However, the stimulated recall sessions with the researcher resulted in ease of conversations because of a prior working relationship. This allowed me to discuss some topics deeper and implied meaning in some areas. Familiarity, assumptions and understandings were communicated verbally and non-verbally. From identifying the limitations of this study, recognition of different approaches needs to be applied to gain further understanding and impact of the role of school advisors. Future research and attention should also address educating and supporting school advisors since they play an integral component in teacher education programs.  Implications for Research From uncovering the issues and challenges of the school advisor role, implications for future research need to address and examine the context of being a school advisor in greater detail. What are important characteristics, knowledge and skills of effective school advisors in imparting teacher education? How do environmental factors influence the school advisor capabilities to support the education of student teachers? What support should be given to school advisors for their role? School advisors have different perspectives and beliefs about their role when working with student teachers. Being at various stages in their teaching career affects what school advisors can offer student teachers. Closer, examination of the support and guidance that school advisors extend to student teachers provides insight into the range of perspectives of school advisors. What beliefs do school advisors bring to their role? What assumptions do school advisors make about student teachers? What perspectives do teachers at varying stages of the teaching career present to student teachers?  149 Colleagues within a school perform a significant role in educating student teachers. How does the community of practice in the school shape the school advisor-student teacher relationship? How much do they influence the training of student teachers? What are the impacts of such interactions on student teachers? What issues or challenges arise that drives a school advisor to seek counsel from colleagues? Future research can examine these questions about school advisors to increase our understanding about school advisors. This study alluded to the student teacher's influence on the school advisor's pedagogy which may lead to changes in practice. Future research studies need to investigate the dynamic reciprocal relationships between school advisors and student teachers. In addition, the relationship between school advisor and faculty advisor can create increased learning opportunities for all participants in the teacher education triad.  An Integrative Framework of "Learning to Teach and Teaching to Learn" The development of an integrative framework of learning to teach and teaching to learn needs further investigation in a general study that involves a larger number of subjects. Further research and inquiry into this three phase framework of the practicum period is required to determine the dual processes of teaching and learning among participants in teacher education programs. How similar or different do other cases align with this framework needs to be determined? What other critical key factors needed to be accounted for in this integrative framework? How do future educational programs address key critical success factors for school advisors? Additional educational research into the school advisor role is necessary in order to provide effective training and programs for prospective teachers to be successful in this profession. Relevant research must be based on the school advisors' perspective and include  150 their voice. Findings from my reflections point to redefining the teacher education triad by valuing each participant equally and rethinking the contributions each person exhibits.  Implications for Practice Some implications for practice for school advisors involve examining their practice, communication, actions, and philosophy from another perspective. Inferences from this study also reveal the need for support and reassess the impact of the school advisor role. As the student teacher gains practical experiences and increased knowledge, the influence of the school advisor changes in relation to the needs of the student teacher which move from a technical to practical level of reflection. School advisors need to clearly understand the pace of the practicum as a student teacher advance in teaching development. The discussions became shorter as the student teacher begins to build a base of teaching/learning experiences and understanding. From this study, the suggestions for school advisors center on pedagogical and interpersonal relational issues. A key factor is being aware of one's own pedagogy. What I have learned as a school advisor provides additional insights to questions and challenges others in this role face. Specifically, six insightful guidelines have been highlighted for school advisors to consider. First, be aware of your beliefs, values, and bias about teaching, learning, and child development. Second, be receptive to different teaching perspectives and approaches which can be learning opportunities. Third, establish time for focused, in-depth discussions and remember that how versus what is communicated leaves a greater impression. Fourth, provide feedback that addresses the needs of the student teacher while maintaining high professional development expectations. Fifth, the larger teaching community also supports and guides student teachers into the teaching profession. Lastly, inquiry and reflection into your own teaching practice teaching  151 occurs naturally through guiding a student teacher into the education profession. How conscious and in-depth a school advisor examines is dependent on how much one wants to learn about oneself. Both the school advisor and student teacher are learning to teach and teaching to learn at different levels. Each person in this dyad is furthering his/her professional and personal development. School advisors need to understand responsibilities of this role are in addition to their existing work load and as a result, require additional time commitment and direct attention. Conferencing with student teachers involves dialogues related to teaching and learning for all participants in the triad. Resources and support for school advisors A recurring theme in the conferences points to providing support for school advisors in their role. Reflecting on my inquiries, I often questioned whether I was fulfilling my role effectively and what needed improvement. Support and training are vital considerations for school advisors in order for educational programs to offer sound learning opportunities for the student teachers, school advisors, and faculty advisors. Resources and support for school advisors can occur in various forms such as providing time to discuss issues and concerns, preparing for mentoring challenges, offering helpful resources on teaching others, developing self inquiry and reflective practice, and redefining expectations of school advisors. A key resource factor for school advisors and student teachers is time for inquiry and reflective practice. The expectations of the student teacher are overwhelming and stressful as noted in the practicum cycles. School advisors can empathize with and experience similar feelings but for different reasons in their roles. Establishing structured times such as weekly two hour seminars during the 13 week practicum for critical inquiry and reflection to process practicum experience  152 and to alleviate the constant pressure is a critical feature of successful practicum experiences. Providing opportunities to discuss and clarify understanding and interpretations of evaluation criteria of student teacher performance would also be beneficial for school advisors. Teacher education programs M y findings strongly emphasize the potential for teacher education programs to validate the professional and personal development of all participants. Teacher education programs need to support the professional development of school advisors. In this way, the learning and teaching development of school advisors can also be encouraged through the examination of their experiences. Educational reform takes place through these practicing teachers versus the research community directing their findings upon teachers in the field. This has implications for the role of faculty advisors who are in a position to encourage and support the professionalization of school advisors. Faculty advisors could promote teaching and learning by fostering self-inquiry and reflective practices in school advisors. Another point of educational intervention with teacher education programs begins with establishing better communication, especially between the practicing schools and faculty of education. Greater consistency is important between the two institutions of teaching practice and creating teaching knowledge. Inquiry and reflective practice by school advisors M y reflections surfaced beliefs and values that became clearer concerning teaching approaches and knowledge in working with others. I also realized areas for improvement, especially in communicating with and addressing people's needs. I believe inquiry and reflective practices allow teachers to pursue specific needs in a focused intentional process. The learning achieved enables connection between their background and stage of teaching. Each teacher has  153 greater ownership over their learning which increases the meaning and significance for future practices. School advisors need inquiry and reflective practices in order to model the process for student teachers. As in the case study with Judy, she implemented this practice in her teaching because she engaged with reflective thinking through her education courses at the university and on the practicum. The value of inquiry and reflective practice are evident through this study. The action research method offered an avenue to make important underlying connections in a practicum experience and increased the voice of practicing teachers in the research community: A sense of ownership and responsibility over the research directed at their educational practice could be developed through this approach. ... recognize the necessity of reformulating our relationship as a research community to the worlds of public policy and school governance that have relied in the past on our findings to validate their decisions. (Carter, 1993: 11)  Conclusion The study examined a series of practicum conversations from pre-lesson conferences, lesson observations, and post-lesson conferences, and stimulated recall sessions of these events. Through this process, I gained a fuller understanding of how better to prepare educators in the training of student teachers. Analysis of the conferences between the school advisor and student teacher revealed informative insights and issues about school advisor role. Working through and understanding the conflicts between different perspectives were the basis for the new learning. This research project emphasizes the validity and appropriateness of action research from inquiry to reflection in teaching practice as a means for enabling and improving teacher's effectiveness. Through individual inquiry, I pursued areas that were meaningful to me at my  154 specific stage of teaching. Reflective practice also leads to changes in teaching practices and educational reform by teachers who have a direct impact on student learning. A good teacher helps a student to reflect upon his beliefs through the use of clarifying questions. 'Can you give me an example of what you mean?' 'What data support that point of view?' 'What might be some assumptions you are making?' Such questions allow the student to examine his beliefs from a variety of angles. Moreover, they are raised without verbal or non-verbal cues which in any way might undermine the student's confidence in deciding issues for himself. (Wasserman, 1980: 38) This research study outlines the significant role of school advisors in teacher education programs in an integrative framework of learning to teach and teaching to learn. School advisors simultaneously develop their teaching practices while guiding future teachers into the educational profession. Through inquiry and reflective practice my pedagogical understanding was refined and defined. While learning to teach someone else about teaching, I was teaching to learn about my own teaching. M y story continues with ongoing inquiries and reflections..  155  References Allexsaht-Snider, Martha, Deegan, James G. & White, C. Stephen. (1995). Educational renewal in a alternative education program: Evolution of a school-university partnership. Teacher & Education, 11(5). 519-530. Aoki, Ted T. (1999). The Pacific Community as Diversity and as Difference. Interchange. 30 OX 27-38. Bennett, Peggy, D. & Bartholomew, Douglas, R. (1997). Songworks I - Singing in the Education of Children. Belmont, C A : Wadsworth Publishing Company. Borko, Hilda, & Mayfield, Vicky. (1995). The roles of the cooperating teacher and university supervisor in learning to teach. Teaching & Teacher Education, 11 (5). 501-518. Boschee, Floyd, Prescott, Donald R. & Hein, Dennis D. (1978). Do cooperating teachers influence the educational philosophies of student teachers? Journal of Teacher Education. 24 (2). 57-61. Bramald, Rod, Hardman, Frank, & Leat, David. (1995). Initial teacher trainees and their views of teaching and learning. Teaching & Teacher Education, 1 I d ) , 23-31. Brooks, Val. (1998). Student teacher in the role of "others". Teaching & Teacher Education, 14(2). 165-174. Carr, Wilfred & Kemmis, Stephen. (1986). Becoming Critical: Education, Knowledge, and Action Research. Philadelphia, PA: Deakin University Press. Carter, Kathy. (1993). The place of story in the study of teaching and teacher education. Educational Researcher, 22 (1), 5-12. Cochran-Smith, Marilyn & Lytle, Susan L. (1990). Research on teaching and teacher research: The issues that divide. Educational Researcher, 19 (2), 2-11. Connelly, F. Michael, Clandinin, D. Jean, & He, Ming Fang. (1997). Teachers' personal practical knowledge on the professional knowledge landscape. Teaching Teacher Education. 13 (7). 665-674. Flake, Carol L., Kuhs, Therese, Donnelly, Amy, & Ebert, Christine. (1995). Reinventing the role of teacher - Teacher as researcher. Phi Delta Kappan, 76, 405-407. Franke, Anita & Dhalgren, Lars O. (1996). Conceptions of mentoring: A n empirical study of conceptions of mentoring during the school-based teacher education. Teaching & Teacher Education. 12 (6). 627-641.  156 Gonzalez, Luz E. & Carter, Kathy. (1996). Correspondence in cooperating teachers' and student teachers' interpretations of classroom events. Teaching & Teacher Education. 12 (1). 3947. Grimmett, Peter P., MacKinnon, Allan M . , Erickson, Gaaleen, L., & Rieken, Theodore J. (1990). Reflective practice in teacher education. In Renee T. Clift, Robert W. Houston & Maureen C. Pugach (Eds.) Encouraging Reflective Practice in Education: A n Analysis of Issues and Programs. New York: Teachers College Press. 20-38. Grossman, Pamela L. (1992). Why Models Matter: A n Alternate View on Professional Growth in Teaching. Review of Educational Research. 62 (2). 171-179. Joyce, Bruce R. (1988). Training research and preservice teacher education: A reconsideration. Journal of Teacher Education. 39 (5). 32-35. Kettle, Brenda & Sellars, Neal. (1996). The development of student teacher's practical theory of teaching. Teaching & Teacher Education. 12 (1). 1-24. Kolb, D. (1981). Disciplinary Inquiry Norms and Student Learning Styles: Diverse Pathways for Growth. In Chickering (Fd.) The Modern American College. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. McNally, J., Cope, P. Inglis, B. & Stronach, I. (1997). The student teacher in school: Conditions for development. Teaching & Teacher Education, 13 C5). 485-498. National Association for the Education of Young Children (NAEYC). (1996). N A E Y C position statement: Guidelines for decisions about developmental^ appropriate practice in early childhood programs serving children from birth through age 8. Available through Nettle, E.-B. (1998). Stability and change in the beliefs of student teachers during practice teaching. Teaching & Teacher Education. 14(2). 193-204. Noffke, Susan et al. (1995). A conversation about action research and democratic schooling. Action in Teacher Education. X V K 4 ) . 82-86. Olson, Gary A. & Worsham, Lynn. (1999). Staging the Politics of Difference: Homi Bhabha's Critical Literacy. In Olson, Gary A . & Worsham, Lynn. (Eds.) Race, Rhetoric. & the Postcolonial. New York: SUNY. 3-39. Reed, Janine. (1996). Creating a Climate for Change: A P. D. P. Experience. Vancouver, B . C : Simon Fraser University, Faculty of Education. Su, J. Z. X . (1992). Sources of influence in preservice teacher socialization. Journal of Teaching. 18. 239-258.  157 Wassermann, Selma. (1980). 'How I taught myself to teach' or The harpsichord theory of teacher education. Teacher Education. 30-44. Wideen, Marvin, Mayer-Smith, Jolie, & Moon, Barbara. (1998). A critical analysis of the research on learning to teach: Making the case for an ecological perspective on inquiry. Review of Educational Research. 68 (2~), 130-178. Winitzky, Nancy & Kauchak, Don. (1995). Learning to teach: Knowledge development in Teaching & Teacher Education. 11 (3), 215-227. Zeichner, Kenneth M . (19.82). Reflective teaching and field-based experience in teacher education. Interchange. 12(4), 1-22. Zeichner, Kenneth M . & Tabachnick, B. Robert. (1991). Reflections on reflective teaching. In Tabachnick & Zeichner (Eds.) Issues and Practices in Inquiry-oriented Teacher Education. 1-21.  158  Appendix A: Table of Research Cycles One to Four and SelfAnalysis Conferences Cycle One: Science/ Cooking Volcano Cookies Pre-Lesson Conference Stimulated Recall of Pre-Lesson Conference Lesson Stimulated Recall of Lesson Post-Lesson Conference Stimulated Recall of Post-Lesson Conference  Description  Student teacher and school advisor School advisor reviewing tape of prelesson conference with researcher NA School advisor reviewing tape of lesson with researcher Student teacher and school advisor School advisor reviewing tape of post-lesson conference with researcher  Cycle Two: PE Relay Activities  Description  Pre-Lesson Conference Stimulated Recall of Pre-Lesson Conference  Student teacher and school advisor School advisor reviewing tape of prelesson conference with researcher NA School advisor reviewing tape of lesson with researcher Student teacher and school advisor School advisor reviewing tape of post-lesson conference with researcher  Lesson Stimulated Recall of Lesson Post-Lesson Conference Stimulated Recall of Post-Lesson Conference  Tape and Transcription Available  Tape and/or Transcription Missing  • • NA  •  NA  • •  Tape and Transcription Available  Tape and/or Transcription Missing  •  1.  NA  •  NA  • •  159 Cycle Three: PE - Relay Activities #2 Pre-Lesson Conference Stimulated Recall of Pre-Lesson Conference Lesson Stimulated Recall of Lesson Post-Lesson Conference Stimulated Recall of Post-Lesson Conference  Cycle Four: Art - Fresco Painting Pre-Lesson Conference Stimulated Recall of Pre-Lesson Conference Lesson Stimulated Recall of Lesson Post-Lesson Conference Stimulated Recall of Post-Lesson Conference  Description  Student teacher and school advisor School advisor reviewing tape of prelesson conference with researcher .NA School advisor reviewing tape of lesson with researcher Student teacher and school advisor School advisor reviewing tape of post-lesson conference with researcher Description  Student teacher and school advisor School advisor reviewing tape of prelesson conference with researcher NA School advisor reviewing tape of lesson with researcher Student teacher and school advisor School advisor reviewing tape of post-lesson conference with researcher  Tape and Transcription Available  Tape and/or Transcription Missing  •  • NA  NA  • • •  Tape and Transcription Available  Tape and/or Transcription Missing  • •  NA  NA  • • •  160 Additional Conferences  Description  Colleen's Self Evaluation  Student teacher and school advisor conferencing on teaching development School advisor and researcher debriefing participation in study  Gina's Exiting Conference  Tape and Transcription Available  •  •  Tape and/or Transcription Missing  161  Appendix B: Formal Lesson Observation Student Teacher:Judy G r a d e a n d S u b j e c t : Gr. 2  Science Plasticene Earth Model  School: Focus of Observation: Questions/Transitions  Had student ring bell and children cleaned up from quiet reading. Students sat by their names on carpet. Placed names of students on carpet using different colours to indicate the partners that they will work with. If you don't have enough room, back up. Still waiting for eyes. Still waiting. Went around naming partners. Name tags, you can keep it you like. Eyes up here, name tags on the floor. Showed diagram of earth from previous day. Make model of earth using plasticene Thank you for no touching it while I was setting it out. Boys and girls, everyone has the same amount of plasticene. What is in the middle of the earth? You are going to have to share. J, can you move back. 2/3 people will make one. O, what do you do with the red plasticene? What is the yellow piece call? O, please keep your eyes up here and your mouth closed. That is a good question, G. Think about it. What is next? What colour is it? Why is there a lot more brown? Why else do you think there is a lot of brown? More brown that red and yellow? If it is not quite enough, you can take it off and fattened it. Okay, boys and girls, you roll it until it is smooth? What is next? What colour is it? Is the surface of the earth smooth? Very good, A is thinking ahead. If you have brown showing, you can cover it with the green. It will look like the continent of the earth. Do you think you are finished? How will 2 people share it? Come and ask Ms. Smail to cut it in half for you. The blue one is the ? The brown is the _? The yellow is the ? The red is the ? Yes, J. Division 10, J is asking a very important question that you might all... Are there any other questions? Questions? Excuse me, we have questions before we are going to work. Any other questions? Div. 10, if you need the directions on how to make your earth, they are all written here.  162 O, is that appropriate? What do you say? If you are not sure what do you do next? What can you do? Any other questions? Sent students off in groups of 4's to various tables. Calling their names. Went over to table of a partner group.  O, can you explain to W? J, when you pick those up, can you put them away, please? Walked around and helped some groups with parts of activity.  O, can you flatten it out? W, flatten it out, like this okay? After student completed their plasticene of the earth, they cleaned up the board at sink. Students moved on to other Earth activities from previous days. A list of 3 activities that need to be completed was written on the board.  J, what should you be doing? Use clicking frog to signal transition. Waited till students were quiet before giving instructions for cleaning up and spelling. Reminded students where to put work and put chairs away. Students went to get chalkboard and came to carpet for spelling.  Recommended Follow-up • • • • • • •  Students were motivated and engaged in activity Pairing partners ahead of time helped in organization of activity Materials were laid out before hand on tables and labeling materials were organized ahead Had written and visual instructions on chart for activity prepared ahead Questions were incorporated throughout lesson which encouraged student participation Students knew where to get materials that they needed Students were aware of the follow up activity when they finished making model  • • • •  What role does "questions" play in conducting a lesson? In this lesson, what kinds of questions are asked more frequently? Why? From the students' questions on the carpet and at the table, what do they need more of during the lesson? How does encouragement and praise support classroom management?  •  What can you say to the students to get ready for the next activity? E.g. spelling  Completed by : Print Name : Gina N. Wong  Position : School Advisor Date : Thurs. Apr. 19 , 2001 th  


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