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Schools as learning organizations : how Japanese teachers learn to perform non-instructional tasks Maki, Wilma 2001

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S C H O O L S A S L E A R N I N G O R G A N I Z A T I O N S H O W J A P A N E S E T E A C H E R S L E A R N T O P E R F O R M N O N - I N S T R U C T I O N A L T A S K S by W I L M A J A N E M A K I B . S c , M c G i l l University, 1968 M . A . , The University of British Columbia, 1992 A THESIS S U B M I T T E D I N P A R T I A L F U L F I L L M E N T O F T H E R E Q U I R E M E N T S F O R T H E D E G R E E OF D O C T O R O F P H I L O S O P H Y in T H E F A C U L T Y OF G R A D U A T E S T U D I E S (Centre for the Study of Curriculum and Instruction) We accept this thesis as conforming to/he required standard T H E U N I V E R S I T Y OF B R I T I S H C O L U M B I A Apr i l 2001 © Wi lma Jane M a k i , 2001 In p r e s e n t i n g this thesis in partial fu l f i lment of the r e q u i r e m e n t s for an a d v a n c e d d e g r e e at the Univers i ty of British C o l u m b i a , I agree that the Library shall m a k e it f reely available fo r re fe rence a n d study. I further agree that p e r m i s s i o n fo r ex tens ive c o p y i n g of this thes is fo r scholar ly p u r p o s e s may be g ran ted by the h e a d o f m y d e p a r t m e n t o r by his o r her representat ives . It is u n d e r s t o o d that c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n of this thesis for f inancial ga in shall no t be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t m y w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . D e p a r t m e n t T h e Un ivers i ty o f Brit ish C o l u m b i a V a n c o u v e r , C a n a d a D E - 6 (2/88) A B S T R A C T This study explores Japanese high school teachers' learning of the many non-instructional tasks that they undertake in their schools, and possible connections between the learning and organizational features and the values teachers assign to learning. The data from this study reveal that characteristics of and relationships among these three elements are consistent with those of learning organization theory. Questionnaires were designed to collect the needed data. Eighty-eight teachers in eleven high schools in Japan participated in the study. Results of the study were compared with Japan Ministry of Education and U.S . Department of Education surveys on teachers. The results show that learning is the principal goal held by teachers, organizational features facilitate their learning, and values they attach to learning are associated with the learning, characteristics that also define learning organizations. The teachers use experiential learning as the main means to learn their tasks, and a multifunctional structure to organize their tasks. The results also describe a unique teacher learning organization model in which the teachers' learning activities change over the course of their careers in four stages. Experience in tasks is characterized first by multifunctionalism, followed by repetition and supervision, and finally, by working regularly in school administration tasks. The stages are associated with shifts in the teachers' choices of learning methods. In the first stage, teachers prefer consultation with co-workers. In the second and third stage, they practise self-study the most. In the final stage, they demonstrate an increase in consultation with administrative school staff. Personal growth and problem-solving are the most important educational goals, and there is no fixed perception of how one learns. Comparisons with American teachers show characteristics that contrast with those found in the Japanese sample: American teachers tend to favour acquisition of basic skills and good work habits as important educational goals; formal training is the main source of knowledge for learning their tasks; and task organization is segmented. The study suggests that learner-directed learning has a variety of definitions and that there are many different learning organization models. The results have much to offer in thinking about schools as learning organizations for teachers. iii T A B L E OF C O N T E N T S A B S T R A C T LIST OF T A B L E S LIST OF F I G U R E S N O T E S A C K N O W L E D G E M E N T S Chapter 1. I N T R O D U C T I O N Review o f Existing Literature Study Questions Overview o f the Study 2. T H E T H E O R E T I C A L F R A M E W O R K Key Concepts of Learning Organization Theory Two Models Conceptual Framework for the Study 3. T H E S T U D Y D E S I G N Researching Another Culture Population of the Study The Teacher Sample Data Sources The Design of the Questionnaire Questionnaire Description Data Collection Data Analysis 4. P A T H S O F E X P E R I E N C E Current Task Participation Past Task Participation A Path of Desirable Experience Teacher Multifunctionalism 82 Summary 87 5. T H E T E A C H E R S ' L E A R N I N G P A T T E R N 90 Educational Background 90 Learning Activities While on the Job 96 A Learning Pattern 102 Relative Importance of Learning Methods 111 Summary 115 6. T H E V A L U E S T E A C H E R S A S S I G N T O L E A R N I N G 118 Teachers' Perceptions Regarding Learning Non-instructional Tasks 118 Values Assigned to Educational Goals 124 Summary 134 7. C O N C L U S I O N 136 S E L E C T E D B I B L I O G R A P H Y 142 A P P E N D I X 1. The Organization of the Non-instructional Tasks 147 2. The Teacher Questionnaire 152 3. The School Questionnaire 183 4. The Pilot Study 188 V LIST OF T A B L E S Table Page 3.1 Demographic characteristics of the study sample 42 3.2 Demographic characteristics of this study, Monbusho, and S A S S samples 43 3.3 List of non-instructional tasks divisions and tasks 52 4.1 Number of sample teachers who participated in each task division 66 4.2 Numbers of divisions that sample teachers participated in 67 4.3 Task participation for example teachers 68 4.4 Monbusho percentage of high school teacher supervisors in various task divisions, non-supervisory teachers (excluding homeroom), and percentage of homeroom teachers 4.5 Teachers' past task participation 4.6 Totals of past task participation of example teachers 4.7 Number of teachers who participated in various task divisions in the first three years of their career, and number of teachers over the age of 55 who participated in various task divisions 4.8 Percentage o f each age group o f sample teachers participating in various divisions 4.9 Monbusho percentage of supervisory teachers participating in various task divisions by age group, and percentage o f non-supervisory and homeroom teachers by age group 4.10 Average number of total tasks, divisions, and task variety that sample teachers currently working in various task divisions participated in, and averages for teachers not currently in the divisions 4.11 Average number of total divisions, task variety, and tasks of sample teachers by age group V I 4.12 Total participation in various divisions of example teachers 85 5.1 Percentage distribution of high school teachers by highest degree earned, by sample 91 5.2 Number o f sample teachers who participated in various courses at university 93 5.3 Education background of example teachers 94 5.4 Number of teachers who participated in various time categories by type of learning activity for a one year period 97 5.5 Hour category of participation in various learning activities recorded by example Teacher #58 98 5.6 Percentage of teachers' total participation and average participation over 8 hours in formal and other-than-formal activities, by sample 99 5.7 Number of teachers in each age group who participated for more than 32 hours in various learning activities 103 5.8 Hour category of participation in various learning activities recorded by example Teachers #1, #46, and #58 105 5.9 Average years of experience and percentage of advanced degrees for high school principals and teachers, by sample 112 5.10 Percentage of S A S S high school principals and sample Japanese teachers who participated in various non-instructional tasks 114 6.1 Average percentage teacher age groups assigned various learning methods in their learning of non-instructional tasks 119 6.2 Frequency count range, mean, and standard deviations for percentages teachers assigned learning methods 121 6.3 Percentages example teachers assigned learning methods 122 6.4 Average values sample teachers assigned various educational goals (0-10), percentage o f teachers who rated specific educational goals as first, second, or third most important, and standard deviation of the rated goals 125 6.5 Average values (0-10) teacher age groups assigned various educational goals 127 6.6 The first, second, and third most important goal selected by example teachers 128 Vll L I S T OF F I G U R E S Figure Page 2.1 Summary of main characteristics in Japanese and Senge's models 29 2.2 Conceptual framework for the study 30 3.1 Map of Japan 41 3.2 Excerpt from section B of the teacher questionnaire 51 3.3 Excerpt from section C o f the teacher questionnaire 54 3.4 Excerpt from section D from the teacher questionnaire 56 3.5 Relationship of the study questionnaires to the conceptual framework 58 4.1 Non-instructional task order for this study sample and Monbusho 78 4.2 Two paths of desirable experience by age group 86 5.1 Teachers'learning pattern 106 6.1 Percentage of S A S S and Japanese sample high school teachers who rated specific education goals as first, second, or third most important 130 6.2 Percentage of public and private Japanese teachers who rated specific goals as first, second, or third most important 133 6.3 Percentage o f S A S S public and private high school teachers who rated specific goals as first, second, or third most important 133 viii N O T E S 1. Japanese names, except those of Japanese scholars who publish in English, are rendered with surname name first and given name second. 2. Macrons are omitted in Japanese names and geographical places in the text. ix A C K N O W L E D G E M E N T S This dissertation has been completed with numerous debts and obligations to many individuals in Canada, United States, and Japan. I express my gratitude to all who have helped, and mention the following most obvious. First, I want to acknowledge my dissertation committee members, Mark Fruin, David Robitaille, and John Will insky (supervisor), who questioned, guided, and supported me. I owe my learning experience to these people. I would also like to express my appreciation to my defense examiners, Joe Belanger, Daniel Pratt, and Linda Siegel (oral examination chair), and external examiner, James Stigler, for their contributions and support. Finally, I would like to thank two of my past teachers who greatly influenced the course of my studies. John Howes gave me an understanding of Japan Studies' scholarship among many other things, and Shunsaku Nishikawa introduced me to Japanese history and education. Special thanks are due also to the many high school teachers in Japan who took time to respond to the questionnaire in this study, and to those who helped coordinate the data collection. A special mention is given to K a z Mi to for her successful efforts in involving Japanese teachers in the study. M y gratitude is also given to my many friends whose moral support I could not have done without. Finally, I would also like to acknowledge my indebtedness to my late parents whose lives are my inspiration. C H A P T E R O N E I N T R O D U C T I O N During the twentieth century, educational reform movements were a constant theme. Most of the reform movements, however, have not been actualized in schools, and calls for reform loom even larger today in national agendas than they did in the last century. The consequences of today's educational reform movements wi l l be different, predict Lauren Resnick and Megan Will iams Ha l l . 1 Other calls for reform that have punctuated the twentieth century, they explain, were short-lived, and those changes that did take place never penetrated the "educational core" of established patterns of teaching and learning. This time, a new information age and new economic and technological conditions demand a different kind of education. Education must transform itself from a process that emphasizes performance-oriented goals, or bodies of expertise delivered in top-down instruction, to one that emphasizes learning-oriented goals. Although opinions vary about what characteristics define learning in learning-oriented organizations, there is some common ground. A s described by Resnick and Hal l , it is ongoing, revolves around problem-solving to accomplish a particular task, and is likely to entail self-regulatory skills; to stimulate such learner-directed learning, they believe it necessary to create 1 L a u r e n B . R e s n i c k a n d M e g a n W i l l i a m s H a l l , " L e a r n i n g O r g a n i z a t i o n s fo r Sus ta inab le E d u c a t i o n R e f o r m , " Daedalus 127.4 ( F a l l 1998) : 89-118 . 2 Ib id . , 89-105 p a s s i m . 1 learning organizations. The question is, what is a learning organization and how do we create one? These are the questions I address in this research study. I ask what learner-directed learning is for a sample of eighty-eight Japanese teachers over the course of their careers, what environmental factors are connected to and/or facilitate it, and what the implications of this knowledge are for thinking about schools as learning organizations in the West. 41 focus on the Japanese teachers' learning of the many non-instructional tasks—from school administration, to student counselling, to looking after the school grounds—which they undertake in their schools. Using a learning organization perspective, I explore possible connections between teacher learning and organizational features and the values teachers assign to learning. In learning organizations, learning is the principal mission of the organization, organizational features facilitate learning, and values attached to learning are underlying primary determinants. A comparison with available data on American teachers was conducted to highlight similarities and differences between the two teacher samples. Comparisons with national Japanese data were used to strengthen my conclusions. M y study offers a more detailed description of various aspects of the work culture of Japanese high school teachers than has been documented in earlier studies. Analysis of my data suggests that teachers' participation in non-instructional tasks is not solely influenced by the value teachers place on gaining human relations skills, a thesis that is currently dominant in Western studies of Japanese education. 3 Ibid., 108-10. 4 The term West in this study refers to North America. 2 Japan may seem an unlikely source for information about progressive educational issues, but in the last decade or so, several scholars have studied several examples o f learner-directed learning in Japanese schools. 5 For example, James Stigler and Harold Stevenson describe learning in Japanese mathematics classes among elementary school children as follows: Teachers frequently rely on students as sources of information. Lessons are oriented towards problem solving rather than rote mastery of facts and procedures and utilize many different types of representational materials. The role assumed by the teacher is that of knowledgeable guide, rather than that of prime dispenser of information and arbiter o f what is correct.6 These studies not only describe student learning, trying to uncover the characteristics of learner-directed learning, they also investigate learning environments in an attempt to understand how such learning is encouraged. The learning environment includes factors from inside and outside the school, such as teachers' roles, instruction, curriculum content, student attitudes, after-school study, early education, social skills, school organization, and government policies. Identifying the environmental conditions that contribute to learner-directed learning is a most important research question, since it 5 See C a t h e r i n e L e w i s , " C o o p e r a t i o n a n d C o n t r o l in Japanese N u r s e r y S c h o o l s , " Comparative Education Review 28 ( 1 9 8 4 ) : 6 9 - 8 4 ; L o i s Peak , Learning to Go to School in Japan ( B e r k e l e y : U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a Pre s s , 1991) ; G a i l R . B e n j a m i n , Japanese Lessons: A Year in a Japanese School through the Eyes of an American Anthropologist and Her Children ( N e w Y o r k : N e w Y o r k U n i v e r s i t y Press , 1997) ; T a k u o K a t a o k a , " C l a s s M a n a g e m e n t a n d S tudent G u i d a n c e i n J apanese E l e m e n t a r y a n d L o w e r S e c o n d a r y S c h o o l s , " in Japanese Educational Productivity, e d . R o b e r t L e e s t m a a n d H e r b e r t J. W a l b e r g , 69-102 ( A n n A r b o r : U n i v e r s i t y o f M i c h i g a n , 1992) ; a n d , M a r c i a C . L i n n et a l . , " B e y o n d F o u r t h - G r a d e S c i e n c e : W h y d o U . S . A n d Japanese Students D i v e r g e ? " ER Online [on l ine j o u r n a l ] 29 .3 ( A p r i l 2 0 0 0 ) ; ava i l ab le f r o m W o r l d W i d e W e b @ ht tp : / /www.aera .ne t /pubs /e r / a r t s /29-03 /ml inn01 .h tm. 6 J ames W . S t ig le r a n d H a r o l d W . S t e v e n s o n , " H o w A s i a n T e a c h e r s P o l i s h E a c h L e s s o n to P e r f e c t i o n , " American Educator (Spring 1991) : 14. is this information that w i l l best inform Western educators who advocate learning-oriented goals. 7 In this chapter, I first review existing literature on the non-instructional tasks performed by Japanese teachers. I identify missing, ignored, and contradictory data that helped me define my study questions. Then I give a brief overview of the structure of the study I have undertaken. Review of Existing Literature In this literature review, I consider previous work on Japanese teachers' participation in non-instructional tasks with regard to the three elements o f particular interest in my study: (1) organization o f the tasks; (2) teacher learning o f the tasks; and, (3) values about learning that teachers hold. Although there are no studies in the West that have focused on non-instructional tasks performed by Japanese teachers, general studies of Japanese teachers and education have touched on the topic and provide valuable information. We know that Western teachers are responsible for some non-instructional tasks, such as after-school activities or supervisory duties, but these tasks mean something very different to Japanese teachers. The extent of Japanese teachers' participation in the non-instructional work of the school is so inclusive that it has been suggested that it is the teachers, not the principals, who run the schools. The tasks cover various aspects of school life (see Appendix 1 for an example of a school task list). Observers have noted 7 S e v e r a l o f the researchers w h o focus o n Japanese student l e a r n i n g are a s soc ia ted w i t h the T h i r d Internat ional M a t h e m a t i c s a n d S c i e n c e S t u d y ( T I M S S ) . F o r an o v e r v i e w o f l e a r n i n g contexts a n d i m p o r t a n c e o f inves t i ga t ing these contexts see D a v i d R o b i t a i l l e and R o b e r t A . G a r d e n , eds., Research Questions and Study Design ( V a n c o u v e r : P a c i f i c E d u c a t i o n a l Press , 1996) , 42 -43 . See a l so L i n n et a l . , " B e y o n d F o u r t h - G r a d e S c i e n c e . " 4 that teachers from elementary through high school levels are responsible for this domain. We also know something about the way the tasks are organized within the school structure: they are divided among the teachers and the teachers periodically change tasks. There is no study of Japanese teachers that suggests that these organizational features are connected with teacher learning. Rather, researchers gain understanding of the teachers' participation in such tasks by examining it in various contexts. In a school context, researchers conclude that non-instructional tasks are more important than classroom work. In a larger social context, researchers conclude that teachers participate in non-instructional tasks because of the high value they assign to human relations skills—skills that include notions of interdependence, personal relations, and/or group relations. A renowned scholar of Japanese education, Thomas Rohlen, summarizes this main thesis by stating that the "formal organization of the faculty is built on these administrative tasks," and "despite the pull of academic interests, supervising students is the central focus of faculty organization. . . . [T]he whole system ultimately rests on an 8 See T h o m a s P . R o h l e n , Japan's High Schools ( B e r k e l e y : U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a Pres s , 1983) . R o h l e n ' s s tudy o f five h i g h s c h o o l s in K o b e g i v e s a c o m p r e h e n s i v e o v e r v i e w o f J apanese h i g h s c h o o l teachers . S e e also, N a n c y Sato a n d M i l b r e y W . M c L a u g h l i n , " C o n t e x t M a t t e r s : T e a c h i n g in J a p a n a n d the U n i t e d States ," Phi Delta Kappan 7 3 . 5 ( 1 9 9 2 ) : 3 5 9 - 6 6 ; o n m i d d l e s c h o o l teachers see H u a Y a n g , " T h e teacher ' s j o b : A c o m p a r i s o n o f U S a n d Japanese m i d d l e s c h o o l t eacher s " ( P h . D . diss . , S t a n f o r d U n i v e r s i t y , 1993) ; a n d , Y a s u h i r o Ito, T a d a h i k o I n agak i , and G u n ' e i Sa to , " T e a c h e r s ' R o l e s a n d R e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s , " T M s [ p h o t o c o p y ] , P a p e r p re sen ted at the J a p a n / U n i t e d States T e a c h e r E d u c a t i o n C o n s o r t i u m ( J U S T E C ) , T h e Fi f th A n n u a l M e e t i n g at T a m a g a w a U n i v e r s i t y , T o k y o , J apan , June 22-25 , 1993. T e a c h e r s at a l l s c h o o l level s w e r e f o u n d to h a v e a w i d e range o f r e spons ib i l i t i e s i n Ito, Inagak i , a n d Sato , " T e a c h e r s ' R o l e s a n d R e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s , " 5. See a l so J u n N a g a o k a , " H o w S c h o o l A f f a i r s are D i v i d e d w i t h i n the S ta f f i n C o m m o n -S c h o o l M a n a g e m e n t , " Research Bulletin of the National Institute for Educational Research 3 ( M a r c h 1962) : 33 -43 . T h e r e is n o counterpar t o f the Japanese teacher structure to c o m p a r e in W e s t e r n s c h o o l s . F o r de sc r ip t ions o f s c h o o l o r g a n i z a t i o n in A m e r i c a see R i c h a r d M . Inger so l l , " O r g a n i z a t i o n a l C o n t r o l i n S e c o n d a r y S c h o o l s , " Harvard Educational Review 64 ( S u m m e r 1994) : 150-72; a n d , J . W . M e y e r a n d W . R . Scott , eds . , Organizational Environments: Ritual and Rationality, u p d a t e d e d . ( L o n d o n : S a g e P u b l i c a t i o n s , 1992) . 5 assumption of human nature as embedded in social ties." 9 Social ties is a vast concept, but it most commonly refers to group relations. A s explained by Benjamin Duke, "The first grade kumi [group] represents the beginning of the formal process of group training, Japanese style, that is, developing ties that bind the individual to his group in order to achieve the ultimate goal, group harmony. . . . It is the stuff of 'being Japanese'." 1 0 This "human relations" thesis plays a central role in how we in the West understand Japanese education. Japanese education is, as Nancy Sato and Milbrey McLaughlin explain, the development of ningen, meaning "human beings" or "whole persons," and this goal is more important in education than promoting academic achievement. 1 1 The above information provides some information on Japanese teacher participation in non-instructional tasks; however, I suggest that the study of the teachers' participation can go further in three ways. First, one notices that researchers have overlooked some important data regarding teacher participation. They have assigned special significance to tasks pertaining to student supervision, but these tasks are just some of many in the non-instructional area. In emphasizing student supervision, researchers have ignored such important tasks as general administration, library work, record-keeping, lost and found duties, or beautifying the school. Ultimately, there are no empirical data to establish a link between teachers' participation in these latter tasks and the promotion of human relations skills. A s well as 9 R o h l e n , Japan's High Schools, 172, 175; T h o m a s P . R o h l e n , " O r d e r in Japanese S o c i e t y : A t t a c h m e n t , A u t h o r i t y , a n d R o u t i n e , " Journal of Japanese Studies 15 .1 (1989) : 38 . 1 0 B e n j a m i n D u k e , The Japanese School: Lessons for Industrial America ( N e w Y o r k : Praeger , 1986) , 25 . " Sato a n d M c L a u g h l i n , " C o n t e x t M a t t e r s . " 6 ignoring certain tasks, researchers document but do not use, the information that teachers rotate their tasks. A consideration of the full range of known data suggests important new aspects of teacher participation in non-instructional tasks. Since researchers into education have not investigated task rotation any further, we must look to other areas of Japan Studies to find out more about this organizational strategy. Studies of Japanese firms offer ideas about possible and important aspects of task rotation. Researchers in this area have found an employee task structure similar to the one practised by teachers and they have identified two main dimensions of the rotation. First, the workers' participation is not random, but planned. As John Lorriman and Takashi Kenjo describe the process, "the employee is given an easy job at the beginning and then gradually assigned to higher-level jobs along 19 with his experience, in the process of his internal promotion." A n employee's present task is dependent on his past experience. And second, researchers identify the outcome of the rotation. As Yasuo Monden explains in his study of Toyota workers, "each worker rotates through and performs every job in his workshop. After a period, the individual worker develops proficiency in each job and thereby becomes a multifunctioned worker."13 More data and analysis on teacher task participation is needed to find out whether teachers also use similar organizational strategies. 12 R e s e a r c h a n d D e v e l o p m e n t Institute o f V o c a t i o n a l T r a i n i n g , E m p l o y m e n t P r o m o t i o n Pro jec t s C o r p o r a t i o n , Country report on the planning, programming and education of vocational training—Japan, S a g a m i h a r a , D e c e m b e r 1984, 2 6 ; q u o t e d in J o h n L o r r i m a n a n d T a k a s h i K e n j o , Japan's Winning Margins: Management, Training, and Education ( N e w Y o r k : O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y Press , 1994) , 111. 13 Y a s u o M o n d e n , Toyota Production System ( Industr ia l E n g i n e e r i n g a n d M a n a g e m e n t Pre s s , A t l a n t a , 1983) , 105-6; q u o t e d in M a s a h i k o A o k i , Information, Incentives, and Bargaining in the Japanese Economy ( C a m b r i d g e : C a m b r i d g e U n i v e r s i t y Press , 1992) , 14. 7 Researchers of Japanese business also tell us why investigating these organizational features is important. They suggest that the organization of task participation is set up for a reason—to facilitate the learning of the tasks. A connection between task participation and learning is self-evident, but several researchers of Japanese firms further suggest that the characteristics of participation and the relationship of participation and learning are different than they are in Western organizations. Japanese workers' participation in tasks, as Lorriman and Kenjo state, is an "effective learning method." 1 4 This method, known as "On-the-Job Training" (OJT), is well-documented in literature on Japanese business and familiar to most Westerners. Lorriman and Kenjo described three characteristics of such learning. First, OJT is the main learning method used by employees. The researchers refer to a 1982 survey of employers conducted by the Japanese Ministry of Labour in which 36 percent of enterprises chose OJT as the most important training method. 1 5 Second, OJT is not the only learning method used to acquire knowledge for tasks. The same ministry survey, for example, reported that 28 percent of employers chose group education as most important. Other learning methods that Lorriman and Kenjo document are man-to-man supervision and self-study done on their own time. Third, OJT means learning from participation in the tasks of everyday work; it is not" 'sitting by Nel ly ' which means learning from watching the work of their superiors and senior colleagues." 1 6 Several researchers, including Mark 1 4 R e s e a r c h a n d D e v e l o p m e n t Institute o f V o c a t i o n a l T r a i n i n g , E m p l o y m e n t P r o m o t i o n Pro jec t s C o r p o r a t i o n , B u l l e t i n N o . 59, Problems and prospects of in-company human resources development in a new era—towards the new concept of "learning company, " S a g a m i h a r a , D e c e m b e r 1984, 2 3 ; q u o t e d in L o r r i m a n a n d K e n j o , Japan's Winning Margins, 110. 15 R e s e a r c h a n d D e v e l o p m e n t Institute o f V o c a t i o n a l T r a i n i n g , Country report, 2 6 ; q u o t e d in L o r r i m a n and K e n j o , Japan's Winning Margins, 111. 1 6 Ib id . F o r other de ta i l ed de sc r ip t ions o f O J T , see A o k i , Information, Incentives, chap te r two . 8 Fruin, Ikujiro Nonaka, and Hirotaka Takeuchi, further suggest that the organization of tasks facilitates workers' learning, defining a learning organization in Japanese firms. 1 7 N o existing studies of Japanese teachers have investigated the association between teachers' participation in tasks and their learning of the tasks. This association is the second aspect o f teachers' participation that needs to be studied further. There is evidence that suggests such an association exists. Researchers have found that universities and colleges in Japan provide little or no training for teachers outside academic tasks; thus, 1 & teachers start their careers with little prior knowledge of non-instructional tasks. Other studies report that Japanese teachers rarely return to university for instruction after they begin teaching. Formal institutions, therefore, play a limited role in continuing learning. 1 9 There is also ample evidence to indicate that vertical relations between teachers and principals, or teachers and the Ministry of Education (Monbusho) are weak or non-existent, making these units unlikely sources of knowledge. The Teacher Professional Satisfaction Survey (TPSS), a comparative study of teachers in five countries, shows that the Japanese teachers generally had higher rates of participation in learning activities while on the job compared to other teachers surveyed. It records Japanese teacher 17 W. Mark Fruin, Knowledge Works: Managing Intellectual Capital at Toshiba (New York: Oxford University Press, 1997); Ikujiro Nonaka and Hirotaka Takeuchi, The Knowledge-Creating Company (New York: Oxford University Press, 1995). 18 Yutaka Okihara, "The Wide-ranging Nature of the Japanese Curriculum and its Implications for Teacher-training" Comparative Education 22.1 (1986): 13-18. 19 Low rates of teacher participation in university extension courses are noted in Ito, Inagaki, and Sato, "Teachers' Roles and Responsibilities," 12. 2 0 For studies of teacher and Ministry of Education conflicts, see Benjamin C. Duke, Japan's Militant Teachers (Honolulu: University Press of Hawaii, 1973); Leonard James Schoppa, Education Reform in Japan: A Case of Immobilist Politics (London: Routledge, Nissan Institute, 1991); and, David Thurston, Teachers and Politics in Japan (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1973). For teacher and principal relations see William K. Cummings, Education and Equality in Japan (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1980). 9 participation in professional conferences, subject association courses, and self-study.21 In a recent article on student learning in Japanese schools, Marcia Linn et al. describe some 99 of the OJT characteristics in teacher learning. These studies suggest that learning and organizational features in the teacher example may describe a learning organization. As I examined the data in existing literature, I came to question the importance of the human relations value as an explanation of the teachers' participation in non-instructional tasks. This is the third area that needs more research. So powerful is the human relations thesis in Japan Studies that researchers sometimes ignore contradictory data that would reduce the spotlight on it. For example, in several ethnographic studies and surveys, Japanese teachers have indicated that interpersonal relations, the group, and the submission of the individual to the group are not governing issues to them. There have been instances where Japanese teachers have ranked these items lower in importance than their Western counterparts have done.23 Obtaining empirical evidence on teacher values to support the human relations thesis has also at times been disappointing. For example, in a study of middle school Japanese teachers conducted by Hua Yang, teacher responses about the influences of peer pressure and seishoku (a term used especially in wartime to express "a glorious job serving the country") were generally 2 1 Allen Menlo and Pam Poppleton, "A Five-country Study of the Work Perceptions of Secondary School Teachers in England, the United States, Japan, Singapore and West Germany (1986-88)," Comparative Education 26.2/3 (1990): 173-210. Sato and McLaughlin view Japanese teacher involvement in professional growth activities as a central aspect of their professional lives. Sato and McLaughlin, "Context Matters." 2 2 Linn et al., "Beyond Fourth-Grade Science," 12. Although the teachers' learning was not investigated in depth (less than two pages was devoted to this topic), the researchers found that the teachers learned through discussion with other teachers and trials conducted in class—the same two characteristics reported in the Ministry of Labour survey referred to earlier. 2 3 This is observed in some of responses in the TPSS survey, Menlo and Poppleton, "A Five-country Study," 197. For example, the U.S. teachers' mean value for the importance of working with colleagues on pupil welfare was 0.81; for Japanese teachers it was 0.56. 10 negative. Instead, teachers stated that the most important features of their work were junansei, meaning "flexible," and matomeru, meaning "to coordinate," "collect," or "to put together." Yang decided that the teachers' answers were problematic because of cultural expression and that despite their answers concluded that there was a high level of peer pressure and seishoku.24 Researchers often ignore this contrary evidence and continue to describe teacher values in terms of group relations. Teacher values that Yang found and ignored are values that could instead be associated with learner-directed learning. Is there evidence to suggest that Japanese teachers participate in the non-instructional tasks because of the high value they assign human relations skills, or are questions about how they learn the tasks or what value they attach to learning more helpful in capturing the value of their participation? N o empirical data are available to answer this question. Study Questions M y analysis of the existing literature defined my study questions. Three questions were asked and answered in this study. 1. What are the characteristics of teacher experience in non-instructional tasks? a) What is the history of their participation in such tasks? b) Which tasks do the teachers first participate in and which tasks do experienced teachers participate in? Is there an association between teacher experience and current teacher participation in tasks? Does the history of teacher participation constitute a planned path of desirable experience? 2 4 Y a n g , " T h e teacher ' s j o b , " chapter s ix p a s s i m . 11 c) Is the end product of the participation a multifunctional teacher? 2. Is teacher experience a learning method, and to what extent? a) What are the characteristics of teacher participation in other learning activities for the purpose of learning non-instructional tasks? b) To what extent is task experience a learning method compared to other learning activities? 3. What values about learning do teachers hold? a) What are the teachers' perceptions of how they learn non-instructional tasks? b) Which educational goals do teachers value most? Overview of the Study The theoretical framework that informs this study is the learning organization theory that has developed within the study of commerce and business. Learning organization theory emphasizes the role played by organizational features and values held about learning in determining learning. According to learning organization theory, learning is the principal goal of the organization, and organizational features facilitate the learning. M y approach is innovative in the area of studies of Japanese education with respect to its focus on the learner, paradigm change, emphasis on interrelationships among elements, and use of time as an important unit of analysis. M y study represents a small part of Japanese education and of a very complex body of research on learner-directed learning, but at the same time offers new images that might be considered in educational reform in the West. I designed questionnaires to collect the data I needed on various aspects of the Japanese teachers' work life. Eighty-eight teachers from eleven high schools in Japan 12 participated in the study. The schools were urban or suburban, and included a cross-section of private, public, and technical schools from various locations in Japan. I compared my results with available data from two other sources on teachers. The first source was Japan Monbusho, which provided national statistics on teachers and schools in Japan. The second was the U.S . Department of Education, which supplied data on American schools and teachers collected from three Schools and Staffing Surveys (SASS). The results of this study suggest that Japanese teacher participation in non-instructional tasks reflects much more than an interest in human relations—a thesis that most researchers now adhere to. Instead, data from this study revealed that characteristics of the teachers' learning of non-instructional tasks, organization of tasks, values about learning, and associations among these elements, were consistent with those of learning organization theory. B y charting teachers' history of participation in non-instructional tasks, my study results showed that organizational features resembled those found in learning organizations in Japanese firms. Japanese teachers followed a task order in which their current participation was related to their past experience. They became multifunctional workers. By exploring the learning methods used by teachers, the results revealed that the teachers' learning took place at the job site, was ongoing, and experiential learning was plainly favoured. B y exploring values about learning, the findings showed that teachers' perceptions of how they learned corresponded with their actual learning, and that educational goals that Japanese teachers valued most highly are also the goals of learning organizations. Organizational features, learning, values of learning, and interrelationships among these elements described a learning organization in the teacher sample. In addition, I found that there were differences in characteristics o f learning and organizational features between the Japanese teacher and firm worker samples, and these differences defined a unique teacher learning organization model. The Japanese teachers' learning activities changed over the course of their careers in four stages. Experience in tasks was characterized first by multifunction, followed by repetition, supervision, and finally by working regularly in school administration tasks. The stages were associated with shifts in the teachers' choices of learning methods. In the first stage, teachers preferred consultation with co-workers. In the second and third stage, they practised self-study the most. In the final stage, they demonstrated an increase in consultation with administration school staff. N e w teachers were very dependent on learning from co-workers, but teachers became progressively more independent in their learning habits as they gained experience. Personal growth and problem-solving were the most important educational goals, and there was no fixed perception of how one learns. Comparisons with American teachers showed characteristics that contrasted with those found in the Japanese sample: American teachers tended to favour acquisition of basic skills and good work habits as important educational goals; formal training was a main source of knowledge for learning their tasks; and task organization was segmented. The findings of the study are significant in several respects. First, my results offer a more detailed description of Japanese teachers' learning of non-instructional tasks than has been available in existing literature. Second, the results suggest that an understanding of the role of the individual in learning organizations is more complex than currently 1 4 envisioned. Third, the study provides alternative images of learner-directed learning and environments of this learning from that described in educational reform in the West as exemplified in Peter Senge's learning organization theory. Importantly, the results challenge what is considered nature in Western learning. The rest of this study is divided into six chapters. The next chapter introduces learning organization theory and explains how the theory helps us understand this study of Japanese teachers' learning. Chapter three details the methodology of the study and its connection with the S A S S surveys in America. Chapters four to six present the results of the study. Chapter four identifies strategies and structures of the organization of the teachers' non-instructional tasks, chapter five explores the teachers' participation in various learning activities for the purpose of learning the tasks, and chapter six gives the findings on values of education that the teachers hold. A final chapter summarizes the major findings of the study and presents the implications of the study. 15 C H A P T E R T W O T H E T H E O R E T I C A L F R A M E W O R K This chapter reviews learning organization theory as the theoretical framework for the study and discusses how it can be used to help us better understand Japanese teachers' learning. It introduces key concepts of the theory, describes two models of the theory, and relates these models to the study questions. The last section presents the conceptual framework of the study. Key Concepts of Learning Organization Theory What is a "learning organization"? Learning organization theory is based on two defining elements, as its name suggests—on learning and on organizational features. The theory rests on the basic premise that organizational features in organizations define processes in which individuals' and groups' knowledge and capacity for learning interact within an organization.1 This premise leads to the hypothesis that certain organizational features enhance learning while others obstruct learning, and organizations that "purposely ' A. Chandler, Scale and Scope: The Dynamics of Industrial Capitalism (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1990); quoted in Mark Dodgson, "Organizational Learning: A Review of Some Literatures," Organization Studies 14.3 (1993): 388. In the West, learning organization theory, as a distinct study that focuses on organizational structures and learning, emerged about a decade ago from broader studies of simply learning in organizations called "organizational learning" studies. A major concern in these studies was to examine the process of learning in organizations. Learning in organizations was viewed primarily in relation to outcomes, and as routine-based and history dependent—that is, dependent on past knowledge. As the 1990s approached, researchers began to examine learning in relation to other components, such as innovation, management strategies, and organizational structure. Developments in these areas created the learning organization theory. For detailed reviews see, Dodgson, "Organizational Learning," and Barbara Levitt and James G. March, "Organizational Learning," Annual Review of Sociology 14 (1988): 319-40. 16 construct structures and strategies so as to enhance and maximize organizational learning . . . which facilitates the learning o f all its members and continually transforms itself," are learning organizations. Values held about learning supplement the theory as underlying determining factors. The learning organization represents a new kind of structure in the West; learning organizations move away from the traditional bureaucratic structure that dominates organizations in the West, including that of schools. In learning organizations, learning itself is the primary mission of the organization, whereas it may be part of, but not necessarily an essential component of, traditional organizations.3 The characteristics of learning differ from those found in traditional Western organizations in a number of ways. Learning in learning organizations is ongoing, whereas it occurs in reaction to a perceived need in traditional organizations. In a learning organization, all individuals, at all levels, partake in learning. The learning organization also claims a more complex learning process than a traditional model does. A s explained by Chris Argyris and Donald Schon, traditional organizations do quite well in "single-loop" learning, but their structural features do not allow for more complex learning patterns, such as the "double-loop" learning found in learning organizations.4 Single-loop learning is a means to solve problems based on existing premises. This skill involves the ability to scan the environment, set objectives for the organization, and monitor the company to stay "on 2 M. Pedler, T. Boydell, and J. Burgoyne, "Towards the learning company," Management Education and Development 20.1 (1989): 1-8; quoted in Dodgson, "Organizational Learning," 377. 3 Dodgson, "Organizational Learning," 375-80. 4 C. Argyris, and D. Schon, Organizational Learning (London: Addison-Wesley, 1978); quoted in Dodgson, "Organizational Learning," 389. 17 course." Double-loop learning includes an examination of the existing norms so that change and reinvention become the norm. 5 Argyris and Schon found no examples of double-loop learning in traditional organizations. Learning in learning organizations is associated with knowledge creation, high levels o f knowledge, and highly personalized knowledge. The learning organization also claims an ability to self-organize and evolve in the changing and complex world we live in today. The attention our society now gives this organization is a response to a recent focus on knowledge as "the resource" for the future.6 Certain organizational features, this theory suggests, facilitate such learning. Learning organizations are decentralized structures, unlike traditional structures in which roles are arranged in a hierarchical pattern. Decentralized structures replace the top-down coordination that characterizes a traditional organization with horizontal coordination, such as teamwork and collaboration. In a traditional organization the scope of information is defined by departmental boundaries; in learning organizations the boundaries of information are wider. Bureaucratic organizational principles, explains Gareth Morgan, "often operate in a way that actually obstructs the learning process." In contrast, horizontal coordination promotes an exchange of knowledge at lower levels of organizations, encouraging ongoing and higher levels of learning. 5 Gareth Morgan, Images of Organization, 2d ed. (Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 1997), 86-87. 6 The view that knowledge is "the resource" for the future in creating a new "knowledge society" comes from the writings of Peter Drucker. Drucker saw this change to the new society as a result of the democratization of knowledge—a change he suggested may be considered the most important event of the twentieth century. Peter F. Drucker, Post-Capitalist Society (New York: Harper Business, 1993); quoted in Jack Beatty, The World According to Peter Drucker (New York: The Free Press, 1998), 177-79. According to Beatty, Drucker's philosophy was embraced in postwar Japan, but less so in North America. 7 Morgan, Images, 88-89. 18 I chose learning organization theory to frame my study for two main reasons. First, the characteristics of the three main elements of the theory—organizational features, learning, and values about learning—corresponded with what was known and anticipated in the teacher sample. Secondly, as discussed in the next section, learning organization theory holds a critically important position in educational studies in the West. It describes an organization, as Lauren Resnick and Megan Will iams Hal l have claimed, that educators are trying to understand better and to actualize in Western schools. Exploring the Japanese teacher sample in this theoretical framework places an emphasis on, and describes new characteristics of organizational features and values about learning as environments conducive to learning. More importantly perhaps, the study in this framework suggests some new ideas about how to create learning organizations. Two Models Because learning has such diverse characteristics and a broad environmental domain, there are numerous learning organization models defining different processes of learning and ways to bring them about. The term "learning organization" in this study, therefore, does not denote a rigid framework; rather, it represents a set of basic key concepts as defined in the last section, and an understanding that these are interpreted in different ways. Characteristics of models vary depending on level of organization, aspect of learning, learning contexts, and kind of knowledge output researchers emphasize. Differences reflect authors' particular perspectives and result in an array of names for the organization models—names such as the "new," "holographic," "knowledge works," "knowledge-creating," "hypertext," and simply, "learning organization." 19 In this study, I selected two of the learning organization models to develop a theoretical framework. One model is found predominantly in Japanese firms, while the other is based on a Western theory. Two studies of learning organizations in Japanese firms stand out. One is by Mark Fruin, called Knowledge Works, and the other is by Ikujiro Nonaka and Hirotaka Takeuchi, titled The Knowledge-Creating Company.8 Frequent reference is also made in this study to Gareth Morgan's Images of Organization and his holographic organization, but because the first two give more detail on learning processes in Japanese settings, I relied on them more heavily. 9 Fruin's work is a comprehensive study of worker learning patterns in the Yanagicho Toshiba factory. He identifies workers' individual learning patterns and then charts in detail the techniques used to transform individual knowledge into organizational knowledge—a process he calls "organizational campaigning." 1 0 Nonaka and Takeuchi explore many of the same aspects of organizations as Fruin, and as such, their theses overlap in most areas. Nonaka and Takeuchi focus on charting the learning process—the individual process o f learning, and how individual knowledge becomes organizational knowledge. They concentrate on five "encouraging conditions" that stimulate learning to 8 W. Mark Fruin, Knowledge Works: Managing Intellectual Capital at Toshiba (New York: Oxford University Press, 1997). Ikujiro Nonaka and Hirotaka Takeuchi, The Knowledge-Creating Company (New York: Oxford University Press, 1995). 9 Morgan uses hologram and brain metaphors as new images of organization to describe qualities of the whole in all the parts. Morgan, Images. 1 0 Fruin's research is based on six years of studying the Toshiba Corporation and one year as participant-observer in the Yanagicho Works. He records the location, transfer, and accessibility of information, arguing that the organizational features were set up around the "factory-as-fulcrum," making the workers' knowledge local, or as he terms it, "sticky" in nature. Fruin also explores intra- and inter-firm relationships defining the context of the factory workers' immediate learning environment. 20 take place: intention, redundancy, fluctuations and creative chaos, requisite variety, and autonomy. 1 1 The Western model of learning organization is exemplified in Peter Senge's model, presented in The Fifth Discipline: The Art and Practice of the Learning Organization}2 Senge states his main thesis as follows: The tools and ideas presented in this book are for destroying the illusion that the world is created of separate, unrelated forces. When we give up this i l lusion— we can then build "learning organizations," organizations where people continually expand their capacity to create the results they truly desire, where new and expansive patterns of thinking are nurtured, where collective aspiration is set free, and where people are continually learning how to learn together.1 3 Senge outlines five disciplines that are characteristic of his model: (1) they incorporate "team" collaboration; (2) they encourage "personal mastery" of one's own life; (3) they acknowledge one's "mental models" and challenge them; (4) they build a "shared vision"; and, (5) they adopt "system thinking," which is viewing the world as an interconnected whole. Senge chose "system thinking," the fifth discipline, as the most important because it integrated and bound the others together. The way to reach this learning state, however, is unique in Senge's model. Senge proposes that a "shift of mind," or metanoia—a new "way of thinking" and new "way of seeing" is needed. 1 4 " Nonaka and Takeuchi visited close to twenty companies and interviewed approximately 130 managers in these companies to collect the data for the book. Nonaka and Takeuchi do not detail the structure and flow of information as Fruin does, rather they describe the information arrangement in their knowledge-creating company in terms of a "hypertext" organization. 12 Peter M. Senge, The Fifth Discipline: The Art and Practice of the Learning Organization (New York: Currency Doubleday, 1994). Although the "learning organization," as a theory defined by Senge, appears to have started in 1990 when the book was first published, the individual components of the theory are not new. For example, Morgan refers to "seeing the whole instead of in parts" as a concept Herbert Simon researched in the 1940s. Morgan, Images, 78-79. 13 Senge, The Fifth Discipline, 1. . 14 The phrases, a new "way of seeing" and "way of thinking," are from Morgan, Images. Argyris also notes this shift in thinking. See Chris Argyris, "Teaching Smart People How to Learn," Harvard Business Review 69.3 (1991): 100. 21 Disciplines, therefore, not steps, define Senge's learning organization, as disciplines are a path to master a body of techniques to change human behaviour. I chose Senge's work to represent Western learning organizations because it is gaining popularity in education in our society. 1 5 Four hundred thousand copies of the 1994 edition have been sold; Senge estimates that half of these were sold to educators. 1 6 A s James Keefe and Eugene Howard, members of the National Association of Secondary School Principals (NASSP) , state, "Senge's focus is primarily on corporate management and system thinking, but the basic premises of his work have direct application to public and private education. . . . Schools must become self-renewing learning organizations." 1 7 1. Organizational features Learning organizations have in common a decentralized structure and minimal vertical coordination. The exact characteristics that create these two features, however, can differ. In Senge's model, the team promotes horizontal coordination, or exchange between equals in the organization. This exchange is considered a team skill, consisting of dialogue and discussion that require practice. 1 8 In the Japanese model, decentralization includes teams and multifunctional structures. In a multifunctional structure, workers are 15 The theory is applied in schools at the teacher or student levels, or both. Testimonies of trials of learning organization schools are recorded in Canada, United States, Great Britain, and Australia. For an account of a trial in a school in Calgary, see Barbara M. Mahon, "Creative Tension: A Secondary School's Journey Towards a Learning Focus" (Ph.D. diss., University of Calgary, 1995). For administrative team learning, see Andrew Murray Scott, "Towards a Theory of School Administrative Team Learning" (Ph.D. diss., University of Toronto, 1996). 16 Senge, The Fifth Discipline, introduction xii. 17 James W. Keefe and Eugene R. Howard, "The School as a Learning Organization," NASSP-Bulletin 81.589 (May 1997): 36, 42. 18 Senge, The Fifth Discipline, 257. 22 able to perform all the tasks needed to produce the whole product. 1 9 The multifunctional structure distinguishes the two models. Since the learning organization structure is decentralized, management involvement at the lower levels is limited. Morgan terms this behaviour "minimum specs," meaning that there are few defining rules and regulations for workers. Superiors define only what are considered critical variables in the process, or what is absolutely necessary, while other variables are free to change according to workers' decisions. 2 0 The role of managers, however, differs between the models. For Senge, leaders take a central part in organizing, encouraging, and guiding teams. A leader's role is seen as so vital by researcher Andrew Scott in his study of teacher teams that he suggests that leadership become another discipline. In Japanese learning organizations, managers are also viewed as important, but only as part of a more complex arrangement. Fruin defines management's prime role as setting goals, "engineering" campaigns, and creating links to the outside wor ld . 2 2 Nonaka and Takeuchi suggest that management takes a "middle-bottom-up" position, in which middle management steers teams towards goals specified by the top management. 2 3 Goals are set but lower level workers are responsible for solving problems on their own. O f the various organizational features that constitute key concepts in learning organization theory, this study focuses most closely on the multifunctional structure. Because this feature is so complex, other features such as coordination among teachers or 1 9 Morgan, Images, 106. 2 0 Ibid., 114. 2 1 Scott, "Administrative Team Learning." 2 2 Fruin, Knowledge Works, 88-89. 2 3 Nonaka and Takeuchi, Knowledge-Creating, chapter five. 23 vertical coordination with supervisors are touched on only briefly. These features need separate research studies devoted to them. The main study questions now begin to situate themselves in this theoretical framework. How is the multifunctional structure connected with learning? Why is there a multifunctional structure in Japanese learning organizations, but not in Senge's model? Do we need a multifunctional structure for the learner-directed learning which we seek? 2. Learning process Senge's and Japanese learning organization models have the basic characteristics of learning in common. In both models, learning is ongoing, learner-directed, includes more complex double-loop learning, and requires a wide breadth of information (information is not departmentalized). The learning processes, however, differ between the two models, and the differences are directly connected to the organizational features. In Japanese learning organization theory, the learning process includes learning by doing, formal training, self-study, and learning from other workers. Learning by doing, or experience, is the most important learning method, and because of this, the multifunctional structure becomes the most important organizational feature connected with individual learning. It gives the learner the opportunity to learn different tasks. The multifunctional structure defines the main characteristics of individual learning; teams are used primarily in organizational learning. Since this study focuses on the Japanese teachers' multifunctionalism, it is concerned with individual learning, and not organizational learning. Individual learning in Senge's model is defined by the five disciplines. Believing in and practising these disciplines over time creates the desired learning patterns. Most 24 importantly, experience is not a cornerstone of Senge's learning process; rather he refers to the idea that experience is the most powerful learning method as a "delusion." 2 4 Instead, the team structure is central in supplying and allowing for the exchange of information, and this exchange elevates the individual's level of knowledge. The individual learning metaphor is also used to define organizational learning. 2 5 In both models organizational features and learning are connected. According to Fruin, and Nonaka and Takeuchi, the "built-in" features in Japanese learning organizations facilitate learning. Team structure is the main organizational feature o f Senge's model, but Senge admits that this feature alone wi l l not create the learning: "The central message of The Fifth Discipline is more radical than 'radical organization redesign'—namely that our organizations work the way they work, ultimately, because of how we think and how we interact." For Senge, other factors play a more important role in facilitating learning than organizational features. Understanding why theorists claim the character of individual learning found in Japanese learning organizations is so important reveals why this study of teachers concentrates on the multifunctional structure. The learning is important because o f its outcome: workers become multifunctional workers, and a certain kind of knowledge is also produced. Because experience is the main learning method for individuals in the Japanese learning organization, Fruin notes that the individual's resulting knowledge is "highly personalized know-how and experience." 2 7 He also describes the knowledge as Senge, The Fifth Discipline, 23-24. Ibid., 236-37. Ibid., introduction xiv. Emphasis in original. Fruin, Knowledge Works, 28, 160, 162. 25 "sticky," or site-specific, both in its generation and application. 2 8 It is also tacit in its nature. There are two main explanations why these outcomes are so important in learning organizations. First, the theorists state that organizational learning depends on this kind of knowledge. Individual tacit knowledge must be transformed into an explicit organizational knowledge. Nonaka and Takeuchi describe organizational learning as a "spiral" process o f interaction between individual, team, and management. Fruin describes it as a process he calls "organizational campaigning." The team structure is used to facilitate organizational learning, and, at the same time it adds to individual learning. Organizational learning depends on individual learning. Because of the important role the individual plays in this organization, Fruin, and Nonaka and Takeuchi suggest that the organization is designed foremost to encourage individual learning: the multifunctional structure is critically important. Second, the overlapping o f information among multifunctional workers, and redundancy in information, also plays an important part in organizational learning. Morgan proposes that redundancy allows the "whole in parts," which promotes shared visions, shared information, seeing the whole, and shared trust, commitment, and understanding. "This organization design," he states, "possesses great flexibility and 29 creates a capacity for self-organization within each and every part of the system." Redundancy is also one of the five conditions in Nonaka and Takeuchi's model. While redundancy has negative connotations in Western business ideology, they explain that redundancy helps create a "common cognitive ground," and, thus, it facilitates the 2 8 Ibid., 34. 2 9 Morgan, Images, 111. 26 transfer of knowledge, dialogue, and communication/" Redundancy facilitates team skills. The importance o f multifunctionalism is also explained in another way. Morgan describes it in terms of "requisite variety," which means that "the internal diversity of any self-regulating system must match the variety and complexity of its environment i f it is to deal with the challenges posed by that environment." 3 1 Requisite variety sets the limits of information so that the "whole" does not cause information overload, yet it allows the internal diversity to deal with the challenges of that environment and to be self-regulating. Fruin provides a most comprehensive empirical example of how and what information is arranged, explaining that "it is absolutely mandatory that all of the resources and capabilities needed to compete are localized and integrated in an effective manner." 3 2 Fruin found that although there is a division of labour in the firm, complementary R & D , design, engineering, management, and marketing functions are all located on the factory site. Requisite variety is also one of Nonaka and Takeuchi's five conditions. A certain breadth of information is needed for more complex learning. Senge actually agrees with this notion, but where he differs is that he believes that experience cannot provide the breadth of information needed in his system thinking. In this study, I define the characteristics of organizational features and learning, associations among the two, and also give my interpretation of why the multifunctional features might be so important in learning organizations. Fruin, and Nonaka and Takeuchi argue that there are missing elements in Western attempts to maximize 3 0 N o n a k a a n d T a k e u c h i , Knowledge-Creating, 14. 3 1 M o r g a n , Images, 112. 3 2 F r u i n , Knowledge Works, 29. 2 7 learning. Nonaka and Takeuchi claim limits in Senge's model for creating new knowledge. 3 3 Fruin suggests that the new knowledge worker w i l l not be realized without new kinds of organizations in the West. 3 4 The findings on Japanese learning organizations raise the question whether the current tools being used in the West to change organizations to learning organizations are sufficient, or whether there could be alternative ways to reach the goals. 3. Values held about learning Values held about learning play a central role in Senge's theory. In Senge's view, how one thinks about learning is more important than organizational features. Enacting Senge's disciplines requires a shift in thinking or "personality change" from our present view to that of the five disciplines. In the Japanese learning organization, built-in structural arrangements supersede a reliance on belief systems. Despite this emphasis, authors Fruin, and Nonaka and Takeuchi identify elements in Japanese culture that correspond to characteristics of the learning processes. Fruin relates individual learning to Zen, but he does not designate Zen concepts as causal agents. He views the development of the learning organization from a technological perspective, suggesting that the model started in the prewar period and evolved in the postwar period in response to economic conditions. 3 5 Nonaka and Takeuchi suggest that learning characteristics, such as learning with the mind and body, and tacit knowledge, are intellectual practices that can be traced to Zen and samurai 3 3 Nonaka and Takeuchi, Knowledge-Creating, 45. 3 4 Fruin, Knowledge Works, 16. 3 5 Ibid., 190-91. Fruin suggests that during most of the 20th century Japan relied on knowledge from abroad so generating knowledge from within was not important. Now Japanese firms are net exporters of technology. Ibid., 62. 28 culture. 3 6 M y study does not investigate historical or social contexts to determine the cultural values or evolution that underlies learning, but instead, like Senge, explores values held about learning that might be associated with the learning characteristics. Figure 2.1 summarizes the main characteristics in Senge's and Japanese learning organizations (defined by Fruin, and Nonaka and Takeuchi). Figure 2.1—Summary of main characteristics in Japanese and Senge's models Japanese Model Senge's Model Organizational goal Learning Learning Structure Min imum specs Team Multifunctionalism Min imum specs Team Individual Learning Mainly experience Five disciplines Process On-the-job rotation Practising five disciplines Information scope Requisite variety System Resulting knowledge Personalized, "sticky" Redundant, tacit Higher level Organizational Learning "Spiral," "Campaigning" Same as individual Values of Learning Traditional sources Disciplines Source: Senge, The Fifth Discipline; Fruin, Knowledge Works; and, Nonaka and Takeuchi, Knowledge-Creating. Nonaka and Takeuchi, Knowledge-Creating, 29. 29 Conceptual Framework for the Study Figure 2.2 presents the conceptual framework for this study. The study elements of learning, organizational features, and values held about learning in the teacher sample are explored within the framework of the two models of learning organizations. Characteristics of these elements and associations among them are the focus of the study. Figure 2.2—Conceptual framework for the study Organizational Features Values Held about Learning Individual Learning "Organizational features" refers to the organization of tasks in the non-instructional domain. Teachers participate in several non-instructional tasks each year, and change tasks on an ongoing basis. Their participation is characterized in terms of current and past participation over the course of the teachers' careers. Analysis of these data identifies paths of participation that characterize the teachers' experience. The study focus on organizational features coincides with that in learning organization theory. The focus on the multifunctional structure aligns with Japanese learning organization theories "Individual learning" refers to how individuals in organizations learn. This study investigates individual learning in the teacher sample as experience in tasks, and also in various other learning activities for the purpose of learning non-instructional tasks. The 30 focus on experience as a learning method aligns with the Japanese learning organization models, as does the view that other learning methods are also part o f the learning process. "Values held about learning" refers to "ways of thinking" and "ways of seeing" learning. This study investigates teachers' perceptions of how they learn non-instructional tasks and educational goals that teachers feel are most important. This study assumed that the teachers' perceptions and educational goals would reflect their own learning patterns. This part of this study coincides with Senge's thesis. Figure 2.2 also shows links between the contexts of learning and individual learning. The study explores associations between these elements, but cannot establish these contexts as causal agents. Separate trials would have to be set up to establish causal agency. Therefore, lines connect the elements, rather than arrows. The study elements represent selected aspects of learning organization theory as it is now understood. Elements of the theory not emphasized in the study, such as the supervisors' role, team structure, organizational learning, inter-organizational learning, and knowledge outcome—were not included because of the complexity of the study itself. This indicates how much more research can be done on this topic of teacher learning of non-instructional tasks. Despite this limitation, this study provides a new perspective on learning in Japanese schools aided by this theoretical framework. The study gives a detailed analysis of individual learning—an area that is often overshadowed by organizational learning in learning organization studies, but most important from an educational perspective. It also highlights differences between the Japanese sample, in which a learning organization has already been actualized, and educational reform efforts in the West. 31 C H A P T E R T H R E E T H E S T U D Y D E S I G N This chapter discusses the design of my study employed to investigate Japanese teachers' learning of non-instructional tasks, organization of the tasks, and values teachers assign to learning. The first section discusses the problems and advantages in researching a culture other than one's own and presents strategies that were employed in this study to address these concerns. The next sections review elements of the study design, including population, sample, data sources and data collection, and analysis. Researching Another Culture Methodological problems in this study fall into two areas related to researching another culture. These are the impact of the researcher's own cultural position and problems associated with making the study meaningful in the researcher's own society. The solutions to these methodological problems influenced the basic framework of the study design. The researcher's own position—his or her culture, class, gender, and educational background—has both advantages and disadvantages when it comes to the study of another culture. On the positive side, an outside observer can often see what insiders miss because of their familiarity with the situation under study. On the other hand, the researcher looks at the other culture from within the mental structures created by his or 32 her own past. Researcher cultural background can present the greatest threat to the validity of research and resulting portrayals of other cultures.1 In Japan Studies, Western observers are aware of this potential threat to their work. They express concern about the impact of the cultural baggage they bring to their research in ongoing debates about Western political, cultural, and methodological influences that permeate Western research on Japan. 2 Literature on this topic is an integral part of Japan Studies, and observers adopt special methodological techniques to diminish the influence of the researcher's position on the research itself. I designed this study with these techniques in mind. The most common methodological approach used in Japan Studies to reduce the impact of researcher position is to view the item under investigation in the context of its own environment. This approach, originally confined to the margins of Japan Studies, was brought into the mainstream in the 1970s, in particular by Tetsuo Najita. Finding "actuality" through "studying relationships between constituent elements" is now common practice in Western research.3 But, although the use of this "environmental" approach helps Western researchers gain a better understanding of Japan, achieving context-bound meanings is difficult in 1 For an overview of problems in Western studies of Japanese education, see William K Cummings, "The American Perception of Japanese Education," Comparative Education 25.3 (1989): 293-302; and, Shogo Ichikawa, "Japanese Education in American Eyes: a response to William K. Cummings," Comparative Education 25.3 (1989): 303-7. 2 For a major work that discusses early postwar American political influences in research on Japan, see Jol Dower, ed., Origins of the Modem Japanese State: Selected Writings of E.H. Norman (New York: Pantheon Books, 1975). For a review of change in research approaches in studies of China by Western researchers (approaches are similar in Japan Studies), see Paul A. Cohen, Discovering History in China: American Historical Writing on the Recent Chinese Past (New York: Columbia University Press, 1984). 3 Tetsuo Najita, "Introduction," in Conflict in Modern Japanese History: The Neglected Tradition, ed. Tetsuo Najita and J. Victor Koschmann (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1982), 3. Although this approach became popular at this time, it must be noted that some Western researchers used this research method before the 1970s. 33 practice. A s Najita explains, "data are not actually isolated from the whole o f social l i fe ." 4 The problem is obvious: the whole of social life cannot be included in one study. A researcher chooses which contexts w i l l be used to give meaning; thus, despite the legitimacy gained by the rhetoric of context theories, meaning can be ultimately shaped by the researchers' position. A s Frederic Jameson states, "the methodological starting point does more than simply reveal, it actually creates the object of study."5 In this study, the environmental approach is used to examine teacher learning of non-instructional tasks within the contexts of task organization and the values teachers themselves assign to learning. The question is how does a researcher break out of his or her personal context and design a more culturally-sensitive study plan using environmental contexts. In my study, I have used three techniques to create a study design that is more suited to the Japanese context by attempting to diminish the influence of my cultural position. The first strategy is to gain an "inside" viewpoint by living or working with the subjects of the study. Becoming an insider is especially important in studies of Japanese culture where, besides routine language difficulties, boundaries exist throughout Japanese society between insiderers and outsiders. The boundaries are especially strong in the case of foreigners. The length o f time a researcher is able to observe subjects has an impact on validity. I f observers spend only a short period within the culture, subjects may change their behaviour in the presence of an outsider, keep certain information hidden, or reveal only what they think the observer wants to hear. The researcher should spend enough time 4 Ibid., 6. 5 Frederic Jameson, The Prison House of Language (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1972), 14; quoted in ibid., 5. 34 in the field to become acquainted with daily affairs o f people, i f possible, becoming an "insider." Although it is often not possible for researchers to spend long periods of time in other cultures, my experience l iving and working in Japan before starting my research in Canada contributed significantly to the study design. I spent four years teaching in Japan, enough time for fellow teachers to become accustomed to my presence, and giving me opportunities to view daily school l ife. 6 1 taught, took part in school opening and closing ceremonies, attended daily teacher meetings, and participated in interchanges with teachers and students. I attended contests and festivals, student and teacher parties, and district in-service courses; gave class demonstrations for teachers; and visited fellow teachers at their homes. Opportunities arose to learn about various instructional methods; observe teacher interactions with other teachers, students, and administrators; witness teacher transfers between schools; observe discipline; and notice a ranking among teachers. There were occasions to find out how the teachers learned, where they learned, and the values they held about learning. Japanese teachers with whom I worked demonstrated high levels of self-study, on-going learning, learning through experience and trials, and responsibility in learning. Although there was some collaboration among teachers, they showed a strong preference for independent over group learning. I based many aspects o f the study design on my observations—aspects that might have otherwise 6 The author spent four years teaching in three public schools of the Tokyo Metropolitan School Board. One school was one of the highest ranked in the district; that is, most of the students went on to higher learning. One was a new school, and the other had one of the lowest ratings. Other experiences the author had in educational settings in Japan include teaching in a night school in the public system, teaching housewives at a community centre, tutoring two children from private schools, three years teaching at a private company, and three years as a student at two Japanese universities, Rikkyo University and Keio University. 35 been overlooked because of the limited research done in the West on Japanese teacher learning. The second strategy used to minimize the effects of researcher position was to construct the study questions from Japanese origins, not Western ones. This practice means that this study did not start with a Western education theory that was then applied to and evaluated in a Japanese sample. The study questions began with the literature on Japanese teachers, and when alternative perspectives were needed, the search expanded to broader areas of Japanese business, history, and organizations. The learning organization theory was brought into the study only after the questions were settled, and also after several organizational theories were applied without success. Starting with learning organization theory as defined in Senge's theory, for example, although also a possible way to understand Japanese learning, would have created a completely different study that may have missed collecting data on such important elements as teacher participation in varied learning methods or tasks over time. The third strategy was to collect more data on each of the components in the study than are currently collected and used in existing studies of Japanese teachers, and to apply more analyses of interrelationships among data. For example, instead of simply noting that teachers participate in non-instructional tasks, I considered all present and past participation in each of the task divisions, and then focused on determining interrelationships among these data. The aim was to have enough data so that they would take on a life of their own through associations with other data, eventually leaving the world of the researcher. The study design, although never completely uninfluenced by the 36 researcher, represents an endeavour to collect enough data so that meaning comes from things Japanese, and not Western society. Using these strategies to situate the study more completely within a Japanese context created several problems when it came to cross-cultural comparisons between Japanese and American teachers. M y design differed in many respects from the S A S S design and data were not always equivalent. Certain elements either did not exist in, or functioned differently in, American schools. American teachers did not participate in non-instructional tasks as the Japanese teachers in my study did, and so important aspects of the Japanese teacher learning, such as changing of tasks or self-study, were not examined in the S A S S study. This meant that comparisons had to be made with American teachers' learning in the instructional area instead. However, differences in the two study designs and the resulting lack of comparability were not the primary problem; rather, it was the fact that the two educational systems were so different that one design could not possibly be used to investigate both. A s the main objective of this study was an examination of Japanese teachers and not a cross-comparison, the inclusion of the American sample proved useful since it highlighted important similarities and differences between the two teacher cultures. Sti l l , I attempted to make the comparisons as valid as possible. For example, I based my questionnaire on the S A S S survey. But, even when using S A S S questions, for example, in a question on teacher education goals, I had to add items that applied only to the Japanese situation. I also tried to collect mainly absolute measures, such as number o f times or hours teachers participated in various activities, so as to minimize problems of differing contextual meanings. In my analysis, I stressed interrelationships among data for 3 7 each teacher group; for example, I derived meaning from the relative position of teacher university training compared to their participation in other learning activities in each group, rather than cross-cultural comparisons of individual elements. The study design was also influenced by the goal o f making this research meaningful and useful in my own society. A s Najita suggests, researchers should include measures "to enlarge a specific experience to the dimensions of a more general one, which thereby becomes accessible as experience to men of another country or another epoch." 7 This recommendation defines the most significant reason for studying another culture. It can lead us to question how we perceive our own environment, ultimately revealing things our own perspectives exclude because of familiarity. Bringing the Japanese teachers' world to the West was accomplished in this study by including the S A S S survey and by positioning the study in a familiar Western theoretical context. These measures provided a view and comparison of learning among a traditional Western educational setting, a reform movement in the West, and a Japanese sample. Looking at these three settings allow us to question current efforts to move our schools toward becoming learning organizations. The structure of this study design evolved over time, using research strategies for studies of another culture combined-with an effort to make the study meaningful and significant to a Western audience. The measures I used contributed to the development of a study design that sought new data, interrelationships, and analyses to characterize and measure learning. The effort to find foolproof ways to look at Japanese teachers in a new way also presented risks, and the study design is by no means perfect. Although it 7 Najita, "Introduction," 21. 38 achieved its goals and answered the study questions, weaknesses in the research were also revealed. When data I collected revealed unfamiliar findings, the study design began to show signs of researcher impact in places I had not anticipated. A n evaluation of the study design is incorporated into Chapters 4, 5, and 6. Population of the Study A n essential part of any study design is the identification of the population. In this study, the population consisted of high school teachers in Japan and America. In Japan, high schools uniformly include grades 10, 11, and 12. The schools are classified as public, national, or private schools. American schools are classified as public or private schools and may include 3 or 4 upper grade levels, rather that 3, as is the case in Japanese high schools. Despite this difference, high school teachers in both countries usually use a g subject department structure and specialize in one subject area. High school teachers were chosen for several reasons. Since I had taught in Japanese high schools, I had observed first-hand many Japanese teachers' learning characteristics. Second, since differences between elementary and high school teachers in their roles in non-instructional tasks have been documented by Yasuhiro Ito, Tadahiko Inagaki, and Gun'ei Sato, the population was restricted to high school teachers.9 A n d lastly, since high school teachers were found to have more control in the non-instructional 8 Thomas P. Rohlen, Japan's High Schools (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1983), 175. 9 Yasuhiro Ito, Tadahiko Inagaki, and Gun'ei Sato, "Teachers' Roles and Responsibilities," TMs [photocopy], paper presented at the Japan/United States Teacher Education Consortium (JUSTEC), Fifth Annual Meeting at Tamagawa Univeristy, Tokyo, Japan, June 22-25, 1993. 39 domain than lower level teachers had, these teachers were likely to provide the best examples of learner-directed learning. 1 0 The Teacher Sample The teachers in the study sample taught in eleven Japanese high schools. The schools were not randomly selected, but were schools located in Kyoto, Tokyo, Nagano, Yokohama, Yokosuka, Niigata, and Saitama prefecture where I had personal contacts. The locations represent a broad geographical area giving a spectrum of teachers from various areas in Japan; they are shown in Figure 3.1. The schools were from urban locations. Rural schools were not considered good sources for this study because they might be smaller, and school size could affect teachers' participation in non-instructional tasks and therefore influence the results. Because task participation was a central concern of this study, school size needed to be similar. Similar school size was established in my sample by selecting only urban schools because student populations in these schools usually fall within a narrow range. 1 1 I included teachers from private, public, and vocational schools in my study since I surmised that school sector would not greatly influence how the teachers arranged or learned their tasks. I included teachers of any age, education level, experience, and gender 10 Ibid. Ito, Inagaki, and Sato found that the rate of influence of principal leadership decreased while teachers' sense of efficacy and control increased as school level got higher. 11 See Rohlen Japan's High Schools, 171. Rohlen also notes that variety in size among American schools is much greater than among Japanese schools. Ibid. The vocational school in my sample had 470 students and one public school had 1200 students. The other school populations were between 670 and 980 students. 40 Figure 3.1—Map of Japan 41 who were regular full-time teachers. This broad spectrum of teachers made it possible to 12 chart teachers' learning dimensions at different points in their careers. In total, 89 teachers took part in the study. Only one teacher who responded to the questionnaire was rejected because he was currently working in a junior school, not a high school. 1 3 Table 3.1 below summarizes the demographic characteristics of the study sample teachers. Table 3.1—Demographic characteristics of the study sample School Sector Number Gender Mean Mean Education Level In Male Female Age Years B .A . M .A . Ph.D. Sample Experience B.S. 3 2 1 37 12 3 0 0 6 6 0 32 9 6 0 0 5 5 0 46 23 4 1 0 13 5 8 48 24 10 3 0 7 6 1 43 18 5 2 0 6 5 1 41 19 3 2 1 26 22 4, 44 19 21 5 0 5 2 3 36 15 3 0 0 10 8 ; 2 44 19 6 4 0 3 2 1 35 11 2 1 0 4 3 1 42 19 4 0 0 88 66 22 43 18 67 18 1 75 25 78 21 1 1 public 2 public 3 public 4 private 5 private 6 private 7 public 8 public 9 public 10 vocational 11 public Total Percentage 1 2 Including all regular full-time teachers also presents possibilities for future analysis between public and private, individual schools, and gender subgroups. 13 This teacher was from a private school. Private schools in Japan sometimes have the different level schools at one location. This teacher had taught high school previously, but was currently teaching at the junior high school level. 42 Seventy percent of the teachers taught in public schools, and 30 percent in private schools. The ratio of male to female teachers was high; males made up 75 percent of the sample. The teachers' average age was 43 and they had an average teaching experience of 18 years. Most of the teachers—almost 80 percent—held a bachelor's degree; 21 percent had a master's degree; only 1 percent had a Ph.D. M y study sample is compared with the Monbusho and S A S S samples in Table 3.2. Table 3.2—Demographic characteristics of this study, Monbusho, and S A S S samples Sample Total School Status Gender Mean Mean Education Number Public Private M F Age Exper- B . A M . A . % % % % ience B.S. Ph.D Years % % Study 88 71 29 75 25 43 18 78 22 Monbusho 241,520 76 24 77 23 N / A 17 89 8 S A S S 34,616 90 10 46 54 44 16 42 56 Source: Teacher Questionnaire. For Monbusho education levels: Japan Monbusho, Daijin Kanbo Chosa Tokeika, Gakko kyoin tokei chosa hokokusho, 1995 (School teacher survey) (Tokyo: Monbusho, 1995), 128. These figures are for all regular high school teachers. 2.8 percent of the teachers fit in an "other" category which includes junior college, high school, and an "other" category. For experience: Ibid., 111. For all other figures: Japan Monbusho, Gakko kihon chosa hokokusho, 1998 (Report on basic school statistics) (Tokyo: Monbusho, 1998), 274. For SASS sample size and sex: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, 1993-94 Schools and Staffing Survey: Data File User's Manual, Volume 1 Survey Documentation, NCES 96-142, by Kerry J. Gruber, Carol L. Rohr, and Sharon E. Fondelier (Washington: 1996), Appendix E, 74, 86. For education level: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Schools and Staffing in the United States: A Statistical Profile, 1993-94, NECS 96-124 (Washington: 1996), 54-55. 1.6 percent of the teachers fit in an "other" category. "Other" in the SASS survey refers to less than a bachelor's degree. For mean experience: Ibid., 54-55. For mean age: Ibid., 48-49. Percentages are for urban and suburban public and private high school teachers. These teachers comprised about 62 percent of the total high school sample. 43 The table shows that the demographic characteristics in this study sample correspond closely with those of teachers at the Japanese national level. Monbusho figures represent 241,520 high school teachers in its 1998 school survey. Statistics included national high schools. Little is known about national schools in Japan; however, their numbers are small (643 teachers according to the 1998 survey). Although my figures and the national figures differ slightly, the demographic characteristics of both groups were similar. These characteristics are consistent with those documented in other studies of Japanese schools and define certain features of Japanese high schools. 1 4 Teacher age was not reported in the Monbusho surveys. The S A S S figures come from the 1993-94 S A S S survey, since I used this survey most often for comparative purposes. This sample consisted of 34,616 teachers. M y sample and American teachers were similar in age and length of experience. However, they differed with respect to their level of education, gender ratio, and school sector distribution. American teachers had a much higher level o f formal education than the Japanese teachers in my sample: more than half had a master's degree or higher compared to only 20 percent of my study teachers. The ratio of male to female was more balanced in the American schools than in the Japanese schools in my sample. The ratio of private to public schools was also much lower in the American sample. These differences between the two countries' teachers have been confirmed in other comparative studies. 1 51 made an effort to use Monbusho and S A S S samples that corresponded to my own study population as closely as possible. See for example Rohlen, Japan's High Schools. Ibid. 44 Since my study and the S A S S samples represent teachers of the same age and experience, the two groups should be comparable in certain respects. Educational levels were different and are examined in considerable detail in this study. I did not include subgroup analysis of gender and school sector because their inclusion would have raised new questions and it would have detracted from the main points sought in the study. The aim of my study was to identify macroscopic trends of learning in Japan, and then to compare them with those in the West, and, therefore, I leave microscopic analysis for future investigation. Data Sources The main data collection instruments used in this study were two questionnaires, one issued to teachers and one to schools. These documents are attached as Appendices 2 and 3. The purpose of the teacher questionnaire was to obtain data so I could identify certain characteristics of Japanese teachers' learning and the values they held about learning non-instructional tasks. The questionnaire was designed for teachers as respondents because I thought that teachers themselves would best know their own task and learning history. The purpose of the school questionnaire was to obtain a description of the general characteristics of the participating schools and to verify that the teachers fit the study population criteria. Information common to all teachers in the school was collected in the school questionnaire, thereby reducing the length of the teacher questionnaire. The school questionnaire was answered by a senior staff member from each participating school. 45 Much of the data sought in this questionnaire pertained to school organization and were not included in the study. Two other principal sources o f data were used in my study design. Monbusho provided statistics on teachers at the national level. I made comparisons where data were available to increase the validity and generalizability of my findings. The two Monbusho publications I referred to were the Gakko kyoin tokei chosa (School teacher survey) and the Gakko kihon chosa hokokusho (Report on basic school statistics). The U . S . Department of Education Schools and Staffing Survey (SASS) provided the source of data used for comparisons with American teachers. The S A S S surveys have data on the characteristics of American teachers, schools, librarians, and principals. Four surveys were conducted between 1987 and 1998. The most recent study for which data were published was the 1993-94 survey, so it was used whenever possible. The S A S S 1993-94 sample surveyed approximately 53,000 public and 10,000 private school teachers from more than 9,000 public and 3,000 private schools. The department also prepared several sets of analyses especially for my study which supplemented their published data. 1 6 In addition to these main data sources, several other miscellaneous sources were consulted. School handbooks were used to identify the non-instructional tasks. Several job description guides o f school staffing were also referenced. The author's personal observations in Japanese schools were also occasionally included to illustrate or give an explanation for some of the study findings. 1 6 These analyses were conducted by the National Center for Education Statistics. 4 6 The Desifin of the Questionnaire Questionnaires were chosen as the main instrument for data collection for several reasons. First, although a more common approach to this type of research is observation, in this case, it was unsuitable because I needed to obtain data that spanned the length of teachers' careers. Interviewing, often used in conjunction with observation, was also inappropriate because of the time that would have been needed for respondents to recall information about their past participation in non-instructional tasks. Individual interviews would also have been overly time-consuming because of the large sample size needed for the analysis. In addition, the presence of the researcher might have reduced the reliability of data collected i f teachers were not accustomed to foreigners. Secondly, documents, which often serve as a major data source, were not available for all the required data. This study required personal information and gaining access to such information from personnel files would have been difficult. Public documents, such as the Monbusho surveys, give some information on teachers and were used in this study, but they do not provide personal data on teachers' learning habits or task history. Lastly, questionnaires eliminated the need for the researcher to travel to different locations to collect data, thereby being both expeditious and economical. The design of the questionnaires started with the S A S S surveys. The surveys were considered reliable because the U.S . Department of Education had distributed them in three separate studies, refining them each time. I assumed that an item that works in the U . S . could be used as a starting point, with additional items to probe the characteristics needed in study of the Japanese teachers. 47 M y main objective in constructing the questionnaires was to obtain information relevant to the study and to collect data with maximal reliability and validity. I balanced each question item against the burden imposed on the respondent; that is, the inclusion of difficult and time-consuming questions was considered in terms of the time and effort needed to answer them. Each item was defined as specifically as possible to avoid ambiguity, and the questions were set up to measure differences in responses. Every effort was made to ensure clarity in the instructions, and make the layout easy to read. Measures were taken to protect the confidentiality of individual teachers and schools. Teachers did not put their names on the questionnaires and were to return their questionnaires in a sealed envelope. Schools were not named in this study. 1 7 After a draft of the teacher questionnaire was prepared and reviewed by my research committee (only the teacher questionnaire was tested because it was the main source of data), it was pretested in two successive pilot studies. The purpose of the pilot studies was to check that respondents understood the questions correctly; to find out the time required to complete the questionnaire; and to find out i f any questions were too personal, threatening, or difficult to answer. A pilot study evaluation questionnaire was compiled and distributed with the draft questionnaire. (Appendix 4). The questionnaire was first administered to two Canadian teachers. A s a result, several problems in wording and instructions were identified and changed. The questionnaire was then translated into Japanese. Two Japanese translators, one who had been in Canada for more than a decade and one who had recently come to Canada, 17 Herbert F. Weisberg, Jon A. Krosnick, and Bruce D. Bowen, An Introduction to Survey Research, Polling, and Data Analysis, 3d ed. (Thousand Oaks, Cai.: Sage Publications, Inc., 1996). 48 together with a Japanese teacher in Canada acting as a consultant, translated the questionnaires. Since the questionnaires primarily gathered concrete information, I concluded that a second translation from Japanese back to English was not necessary. In the second pilot of the teacher questionnaire, the Japanese version was given to five Japanese teachers. The teachers' comments resulted in several major alterations. Several of the teachers suggested that some of the Japanese terms be changed. Two questions were adjusted because of various comments made by the teachers. Question 2 of section A , although based on a S A S S question, was simplified: instead of asking for the number of credits taken for courses at university, I changed it to an affirmative or negative response. 1 8 Teachers had stated that they could not remember what courses they had taken at university, and since this question was one of the first in the questionnaire, it was decided that it was better not to frustrate the teachers on the first page. The pilot study teachers consistently had problems understanding what was wanted in question 7 of section D . I had originally wanted to know the teachers' perceptions of their learning non-instructional tasks and also instructional tasks. I changed this question so that it asked only about teacher learning of non-instructional tasks. With respect to other aspects of the pilot study, all teachers except one indicated that the questions were not too personal or embarrassing to answer. This had been a concern because the Japanese are known to be very private people. One teacher commented that he was worried that his responses would make teacher training in Japan appear deficient, and wrote a one-page note on OJT as a means of learning. This was 18 A few of the teachers stated that they could not recall the number of credits they had taken for subjects at university and did not answer the question. One teacher wrote that she did not keep her transcripts. Another teacher went so far as to contact her parents to look up her university records. 4 9 reassuring as he was describing what I had anticipated finding in my study. The pilot teachers reported that it took 25 to 80 minutes to complete the questionnaires; most took approximately 30 minutes. I anticipated that simplifying the two questions mentioned above would help reduce the response time. I gave the revised questionnaire to the translators to produce a final version. A Japanese language teacher who works at U B C checked it against the English version. The U B C ethical committee approved the questionnaire for use in Japan. The questionnaire was ready for distribution. Questionnaire Description This section provides a detailed outline of the teacher questionnaire, discusses why the questions were set up the way they were, and explains how the questions correspond to the S A S S survey. It highlights how and why a basic Western survey, such as the S A S S survey, needs many alterations to fit another cultural context. It also reveals why cross-cultural comparisons are so difficult. The school questionnaire is then briefly examined. The teacher questionnaire was accompanied by an introductory letter that included the following information: who was conducting the study, its purpose, the importance to the study of the respondent's participation, and approximately how long it would take to fill in the questionnaire. Special care was taken to explain the purpose o f the study and to assure the teachers that the aim was not to criticize Japanese teachers. The questionnaire was divided into four sections. Section A collected data on the teachers' personal and professional background. This included data on the teachers' training, current teaching schedule, and teaching history. Information on gender, age, 50 education level, and years of experience was collected to identify characteristics of the teacher sample. Categories in this section matched those in the S A S S survey where possible. Section B obtained data about the teachers' participation in non-instructional tasks. A s there is no equivalent to this in American schools, the question (there is only one question in this section) was designed specifically for this study. The question was set up as illustrated in Figure 3.2. The teachers recorded three sets of data for each of the tasks:(l) their most recent participation, (2) total participation over their career, and (3) their level o f participation during their first three years o f teaching. A n example o f a completed task history was given in the instructions to the question. Figure 3.2—Excerpt from section B of the teacher questionnaire Column 1 Column 2 Column 3 School Tasks This Last Year Total in Total in Year Year Before Career First 3 yrs General Affairs Division: (a) General Affairs Academic calendar Syllabus form School handbook (b) Liaison P T A Alumni association 51 To compile a list of the school tasks for this question, I referred to five school handbooks from public, private, and vocational high schools. 1 9 A summary of these lists with some examples o f specific tasks follows in Table 3.3 and a complete task list from one of the schools is given in Appendix 1. Related tasks are clustered in task "divisions," a term translated from the Japanese word bu. Table 3.3—List of non-instructional task divisions and tasks Divisions Tasks. The tasks pertain to the following school projects. 1. General affairs division 2. Educational affairs division 3. Student supervisory division 4. Special activities division 5 . Library division 6. Academic and career counselling division 7. Health and welfare division 8. Grade division* P T A liaison, annual events, school handbook, school ceremonies Textbook selection, academic rules, student records, teacher training, educational surveys Student safety, school regulations (i.e. dress code, tardiness), lost property Student council, festivals, sports day, clubs, sports, volunteer program, homeroom Purchasing books, library management Preparation for entrance exams, course and career advisory Liaison with prefecture health officials, health room, beautifying school grounds, scholarships, staff welfare, student counseling Levels 1, 2, and 3 grade committees Source: School handbooks. "These committees are in charge of the educational activities for that grade. 19 School handbooks are published by individual schools and include lists of the non-instructional tasks. They also contain other information about the schools such as pictures of the schools, maps, names of teachers and subjects they teach, numbers of students in each grade, student timetables, staff organization charts, and statistics on their graduating students. 52 The school task lists in the various handbooks indicate that tasks and divisions are similar among schools, although several minor differences were noted. For example, the number of divisions varied between seven and ten. 2 0 One school had a separate international division to promote international awareness, but no other school had this division. The arrangement of tasks within divisions also varied slightly. For example, one school made the task of beautifying school grounds a separate division with several specific tasks, while other schools included this task in the health and welfare division. Despite some differences, most of the tasks and divisions were comparable. A high degree o f conformity is assumed since we know that teachers frequently transfer from one school to another. To accommodate differences in this study, tasks common to most of the lists were itemized, and blank spaces were left so that the teachers could write in other tasks that might be particular to their schools. Section B data were collected to give each teacher a current and past task identity. The data were used to define a path of desirable experience, multifunctionalism, and relationships between current and past participation. I decided on a period of three years of recent participation (rather than one) because I was aware teachers sometimes do simple tasks for a period to take a break from difficult tasks. I collected data on total task participation that defined the teachers' history in terms of total number of tasks, total number of task divisions, and total variety of tasks in the teachers' career. Column 3, the first three-year participation record was included because I expected there would be few new teachers in the sample. In my personal experience, some schools had either no or few new teachers. 2 0 R o h l e n states that the average n u m b e r o f d i v i s i o n s is e ight . R o h l e n , Japan's High Schools, 174. 53 Section C recorded data on methods, other than experience, that the teachers might use to learn the non-instructional tasks. Since the teacher background section collected information on the teachers' training at university, this section instead concentrated on the teachers' learning habits after they started working. I based this question on a S A S S question. A s was the case in the S A S S question, the time frame covered the most recent full year of teaching, and measured no participation, 8 hours or less, 9-32 hours, and more than 32 hours. 2 1 Figure 3.3 shows an excerpt from the question. The question was set up this way to stress that only part of the total years' participation was needed. I did not use data from column 1 in the study. Figure 3.3—Excerpt from section C of the teacher questionnaire Column 1 Column 2 Programs Total in Total with Focus on Year Non-instructional Tasks a. University/college none none 8 hours or less 8 hours or less 9-32 hours 9-32 hours more than 32 hours more than 32 The S A S S itemized four programs in the formal category—courses sponsored by districts, schools, teacher associations, and colleges or universities. I added a union-2 1 These categories were taken from the SASS Teacher Questionnaire # 30 and 31, U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, SASS and PSS Questionnaire, 1993-1994, NCES 94-674 (Washington). According to Kerry Gruber of the National Center for Education Statistics, these hours are measures of a day, week, and more than a week in learning activities. 54 sponsored course item because historical studies of Japanese teachers indicate that the teacher union tends to play an active role in teacher guidance. 2 2 Since the S A S S question recorded teacher participation only in formal courses, I added two other learning method categories—learning from others in the school and self-study activities. In the former category, six school members were listed: principal, vice-principal, department head, grade head, supervising teacher, and co-worker. Self-study activities, activities the teacher would do on his or her own, included research, experiments, and reading professional publications. A n "other" activity was included in each of the three activity groups. Care was taken in the translation to differentiate between the research and experiment concepts. I thought it was important to include experiment activities because I had been involved in experiments in classroom instruction with some of the Japanese teachers, and this kind of activity might not be recognized i f I listed only a research category. For the research activity, the Japanese term jishin no kenkyil (chosa) was used. Jishin means oneself and kenkyu means study, research, investigation, or inquiry. Chosa has a similar meaning as kenkyu and refers to a process that is taken to obtain data or facts. Chosa, for example, is one of the words in the titles of the Monbusho surveys used in this study. For the term experiment, the Japanese is jishin no jikken (jissai nijibun de kokoromita koto). Jikken is translated as experiment, test, or one's experience. In the bracketed part, kokoromiru, the verb, means to try, make a trial, or take a chance. The 2 2 See for example Benjamin C. Duke, Japan's Militant Teachers (Honolulu: University Press of Hawaii, 1973); Leonard James Schoppa, Education Reform in Japan: A Case of Immobilist Politics (London: Routledge, Nissan Institute, 1991); and, David Thurston, Teachers and Politics in Japan (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1973). 55 English for jissai is truth, fact, or reality, and jibun de means by oneself. Thus, the Japanese for experiment includes some individual action or doing, that would in itself, reveal a truth about an unknown. The Japanese for research does not necessarily contain dimensions of action or doing, chance, or trials. Its definition is closer to a collection of data already in existence. Section D collected data on two sets of values teachers hold about learning. One question recorded the teachers' perceptions on the impact each of the four learning methods (university, learning from others, self-study, and experience) had on their acquisition of knowledge for their tasks. A n "other" method was also included. There was no comparable question in the S A S S survey. A second question, based on a S A S S question, recorded data on the educational goals teachers value. A s in the S A S S format, my question asked the teachers to identify whether certain educational goals were important or not and to select the three most important goals in order of importance. 2 3 A n excerpt from this question is given in Figure 3.4. Figure 3.4—Excerpt from section D from the teacher questionnaire Educational Goals Not Very Important Important a. Building basic literacy skills 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 (reading, math, writing) 7 8 9 10 b. Encouraging academic excellence 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 c. Promoting vocational skills 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 2 3 This question was based on the SASS Teacher Questionnaire, 1990-91, #38. One other section on teacher relationships was also in section D of the questionnaire. These data were not used in this study. 56 The S A S S question listed eight goals. I included the first seven goals of building basic literacy skills, encouraging academic excellence, promoting vocational skills, promoting good work habits and self-discipline, promoting personal growth and fulfillment, promoting human relations skills (team work), and promoting specific moral values. I changed the eighth S A S S goal, promoting multiculturalism, to promoting international awareness, and I added three goals, promoting computer use, improving school rank, and solving problems on one's own. I thought computer use might be an important current goal, that improving school rank was an important aspect of teacher direction, and that solving problems independently underlies the learner-directed learning patterns that I anticipated finding in this study. The list covered a choice of possible goals that might correspond with different learning patterns discussed in this study. In learning organizations, the goals would stress individual learning and development, problem-solving, and human relations; the S A S S system would favour promoting skills and academic excellence; and, lastly, Japanese high school teachers, as they are now most commonly depicted in existing literature, would emphasize human relations sk i l l s . 2 4 The school questionnaire collected data on the characteristics of the participating schools, such as the grade range in the school, student enrollment and academic standing, admission requirements, and number and types of staff. Data on the school were used to verify that the responding teachers fit the population of the study. Other data provided a 2 4 Nancy Sato and Milbrey W. McLaughlin, "Context Matters: Teaching in Japan and the United States," Phi Delta Kappan 73.5(1992): 359-66; Rohlen, Japan's High Schools. 57 variety of variables that could be used in the future to define school contexts of learning, as well as to investigate subgroups. The relationship of the data sources to the conceptual framework is illustrated in the Figure 3.5. Figure 3.5—Relationship of the study questionnaires to the conceptual framework School Questionnaire Teacher Questionnaire r School context Section A Section B Section C Section D Personal Task Learning Teacher context participation activities values Teacher Values Organization of Tasks Learning Process . Study Conceptual Framework SASS Monbusho Data Collection The next step in the study design was to determine a process for data collection. I drew up a plan that would ensure consistency and make it easy to distribute and collect the questionnaires. I planned to conduct the survey at a time convenient for the teachers at the beginning or end of the school year (school starts in Apr i l in Japan). I chose this time 58 period because it would allow teachers to respond accurately to questions on participation for the past year. A page of instructions was prepared to ensure uniformity in collection procedures. I approached contacts in the education field in Japan in the first months of 1999.1 expected that each of these persons could find two schools. I conservatively anticipated a 30 percent return, making a sample of 100 teachers easy to attain. This plan, unfortunately, could not be implemented because it was more difficult to find schools to participate that I thought it would be. Two of my contacts were not currently teaching and could not locate participant schools. M y other two contacts, both teaching in high schools, distributed the questionnaires in their own schools, but could not find other schools. In addition, the response rate from teachers was minimal despite the efforts of the coordinating teachers: only nine teachers responded from the two schools. This was the state of the collection process in early M a y of that year. What had gone wrong? Was there something wrong with the questionnaire? I consulted with a former professor in Japan. The best way to get a response, he said, was to make two trips to Japan. The first trip would be to introduce myself in schools. The second would be to distribute and collect the questionnaires. Although I realized that travelling to Japan would likely be the best way to get teachers to participate, I decided instead to contact anyone I could locate who might have a connection with schools in Japan. I approached over twenty-five people but only one new possibility surfaced. A n acquaintance would contact a friend, who could contact the principal at her former high school. 59 One of the many persons contacted, however, suggested a new direction. Dr. John Howes, a former professor o f mine with a background o f more than 50 years in Japan Studies made two suggestions. First, he felt that my contacts in Japan did not have enough material to persuade teachers to participate. A jikoshokai, or personal history, was needed. He also recommended that I include private schools in the study population. Private schools, he reasoned, might be more accessible because many had ties with Western institutions and would be more open to a Western researcher. The jikoshokai was written and sent to the first set of contacts. Through various new contacts, three private schools agreed to participate in the study. A second turning point came through a contact with a former university classmate. B y chance, this teacher was going to Japan for the summer and offered to help. She would contact the people who were currently involved and also look for new schools. She would be more influential, she suggested, i f she had some gifts to bring with her. Gifts were bought—chocolates, cookies, ceramic vases and teacups, and boxes of pens. While in Japan, she made visits and phone calls to the school contacts and found five new participating schools. By the beginning of September, 80 teachers had responded. Setting up the data collection process had been a learning experience. It was a more complex procedure than it would have been in the West. Undoubtedly, a personal presence was necessary in Japan even for questionnaires. I also realized that personal perceptions of the Japanese teacher group that I brought to planning the data collection process had been incorrect. I had made an error in thinking that one teacher in a school group would be able to influence the other teachers. The low response rate indicated that individual teacher contacts and influence were much more limited that I had imagined— 60 at least in the area of personal requests. I had also expected that the contact teachers would have ties with schools that they had worked in previously, but this seemed not to be the case. A few of the coordinating teachers expressed surprise and dismay at the lack of response, but they were also resigned to the fact that they could not make more teachers participate. Another misconception surfaced regarding what teachers thought were good reasons to participate. Care had been taken in the introductory letter to express the study aim and benefits clearly, but the personal aspect had been overlooked. The jikoshokai that I wrote gave out personal information that went far beyond the comfort zone of Western culture. A n d despite efforts to be personal in the jikoshokai, on reviewing it, my former classmate found the writing style and sentences cold and factual, and suggested I rewrite it, adding some emotion. Words too were not enough to convey appreciation; cookies and chocolate no doubt helped in this area. The questionnaires I received eventually were examined to determine i f they were eligible for analysis. O f the 89 questionnaires received, one was eliminated. Each questionnaire was coded. Data Analysis The SPSS Base 9.0 system was used to analyze the data. Descriptive, frequency, and standard deviation procedures were used. The details of the analyses as they apply to the study problems are discussed in the result chapters that follow. I followed two main procedures to complete the analysis. M y focus was on interrelationships among variables of one component as well as among variables of 61 different components. Interrelationship results were used when possible for comparisons between my study and the S A S S sample. H o w learning was measured was another concern that was central in the analyses. Teacher learning could not be measured using the most conventional method of recording level of education, because it was already known that universities in Japan are not the primary source for learning employment-related skills. Exams, used to measure student learning, would have been impossible to implement for the teachers' various learning methods. Asking teachers how they learn rather than how much they learn is another means, and one I used in the study, but such data are perceptions, and thus embody respondent positions. Learning, therefore, was measured and defined in a variety of unconventional ways such as in comparisons of hours of participation in various learning activities, current participation in relation to an identified career path, or relationships among different learning methods. The participation-learning analysis was intended especially for this Japanese teacher context. This chapter concludes the background information for this study. The next three chapters present the results. 2 5 W. Mark Fruin, Knowledge Works: Managing Intellectual Capital at Toshiba (New York: Oxford University Press, 1997), 162-66. 62 C H A P T E R F O U R P A T H S OF E X P E R I E N C E This chapter explores the characteristics of Japanese teachers' participation in non-instructional tasks, and the impact of their past participation on the present. Addressing the first set of this study's questions, the data and analyses find a path of desirable experience according to a task order, current participation that depends on experience, and teachers who ultimately become multifunctional workers. The findings of this chapter also disclose a second path of desirable experience, suggesting that experience has many more dimensions than currently envisioned. Experience is only one of four learning methods investigated in this study. The other three are examined in the next chapter. Experience is given special attention in this study for several reasons. It is cited as the main learning method of learning organizations in Japanese firms. 1 Characteristics of experience, therefore, warrant thorough investigation, especially because strategies and structures that define experiential learning differ from those in the West. Experience is not even a component of Senge's model. The chapter is divided into four sections. The first two sections identify characteristics of past and present teacher participation in non-instructional tasks in order to define basic features of the task organization. The third section analyzes these data to 1 W. Mark Fruin, Knowledge Works: Managing Intellectual Capital at Toshiba (New York: Oxford University Press, 1997). Ikujiro Nonaka and Hirotaka Takeuchi, The Knowledge-Creating Company (New York: Oxford University Press, 1995). 63 determine whether the participation constitutes a path of desirable experience according to an order of tasks. The last section explores the multifunctionalism achieved by teachers. Results from the sample teachers are presented and compared with data from the Monbusho study, but comparisons with SASS surveys are not done in this chapter because American teachers do not participate in this range of non-instructional tasks.2 Throughout this chapter, the discussions position and give the significance of the findings in the contexts of existing knowledge on Japanese teachers, and learning organization and education theory. Current Task Participation The results identify basic features of the organization of non-instructional tasks, give teachers a current task identity, and provide one of the main sets of data used in later analyses. Corresponding with the structure found in Japanese learning organizations, the teacher sample shows participation in a wide range of non-instructional tasks, and distribution of the tasks among the teachers. These basic features are already documented in existing literature on Japanese education, but new and more detailed information was revealed during the course of this study. The data on current task participation come from section B of the teacher questionnaire. In this section, teachers listed tasks in which they had participated over the last year. I used divisional groupings in my analyses rather than individual tasks because Monbusho uses this grouping in its investigation of non-instructional tasks, making 2 The SASS reported that American high school teachers worked an average of 25.4 hours in instruction and only 2.5 hours in "assigned responsibilities" in non-instructional tasks per week. These data were obtained from the U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics taken from the Schools and Staffing Survey (SASS) 1987-88 [N=24,032]. By contrast, this study sample worked an average of 14.6 hours in instruction and 9.7 hours in non-instructional tasks. 64 comparisons possible. Broader divisions also better reveal the principal characteristics sought in this study because presenting characteristics of forty or so individual tasks would be confusing, and would most likely not give very different results since tasks within divisions have similar descriptions. In addition, tracking teacher participation by individual tasks would have required a larger sample size than was possible in this study because of the large number of individual tasks. Future research could chart participation in individual tasks to investigate patterns within divisions. The tasks in the questionnaire were categorized in nine divisions: general affairs, educational affairs, student supervision, special activities, library, academic and career counselling, health and welfare, international activities, and grade committees. One category, international activities, was removed from the data analysis because only one teacher reported working in this area. I concluded that it was not one of the usual divisions and that including it would distort the results. A second change was made at the data analysis stage in the area of special activities. Homeroom and club activities were extracted and made into separate entities on their own, leaving such duties as school council advisor, volunteer program advisor, and festival planning in special activities. This adjustment of task categories was made because school handbooks describe homeroom and club activities in some detail, suggesting that teachers regard them as more than parts of a division; in addition, Monbusho categorizes homeroom as a separate unit. These adjustments resulted in a total of ten divisions, which are used to classify non-instructional tasks throughout this study. The number of teachers working in the various divisions was calculated using the frequencies procedure, as shown in Table 4.1. 65 Table 4.1—Number of sample teachers who participated in each task division Divisions Number of Teachers General affairs 21 Educational affairs 35 Student supervision 20 Special activities 17 Club 55 Homeroom 32 Library 5 Career counselling 19 Health and welfare 14 Grade committees 33 Source: Teacher Questionnaire [N=85]. A s the table shows, teachers participated in all divisions, confirming a breadth of participation similar to that found in Japanese learning organization firms. The table also shows that teachers participated more frequently in some divisions than in others. The highest participation level was in club activities; there was moderately high participation in educational affairs, grade committees, and homeroom. The divisions with higher levels of participation correspond to divisions that require a large number of teachers in the school task list example in Appendix 1. This example school has a total of 55 regular teachers and the educational affairs division catalogues 25 separate tasks. It records a total of 41 club and sports activities, and two or three teachers are responsible for each. It has 26 classes requiring one homeroom teacher per class. Each grade committee comprises 12 to 14 teachers, for a total of 40 teachers. The figures in Table 4.1 indicate that many teachers work at tasks in more than one division. The number of divisions in which teachers participated defines another characteristic of the task organization and was obtained from frequency counts of the sums of task participation. The number of teachers who participated in zero, one, two, 66 three, and more than three divisions are shown in Table 4.2. The distribution was calculated including and excluding club and homeroom divisions. Table 4.2—Number of divisions that sample teachers participated in No participation 1 division 2 divisions 3 divisions More than 3 divisions Including club and homeroom 1 14 21 22 27 Excluding club and homeroom 6 31 28 11 9 Source: Teacher Questionnaire [N=85]. If club and homeroom activities are included in the analysis, the data show that only 14 teachers (17 percent) participated in one division, and 49 (58 percent) participated in three or more divisions. When club and homeroom activities are excluded, however, the data show that more than double the number of teachers participated in only one division, 59 teachers (69 percent) in one or two divisions, and only 20 (24 percent) in three or more divisions. This distribution shows that, although the tasks are divided among the teachers, the distribution pattern is not necessarily according to division. It is more likely, especially when homeroom and club are included, that teachers' current task identity involves participation in a few divisions. The teachers' participation in a wide range of tasks coincides with the broad structure found in learning organization firms in Japan, but this "fuzzy" segregation found in the teacher sample is not a characteristic documented as one of the essential organizational features in these organizations. Different organizational functions and size between schools and firms might be reasons for the variance. However, this fuzzy 67 segregation is a distinguishing organizational feature of the teacher sample and cannot be ignored. It suggests that the teachers' experiential learning is not ordered according to topic, but rather by combinations of subtopics taken from a wide breadth of main topics. This lack of order in learning may be an essential aspect of learner-directed learning. How do characteristics of the task organization identified above display themselves in selected teacher examples from the study sample? They are illustrated in the current participation for three teachers—Teachers #1, #46, and #58—shown in Table 4.3. Table 4.3—Task participation for example teachers Divisions Teacher #1 Teacher #46 Teacher #58 Club and Club Club homeroom Homeroom Other task Student supervision General affairs Grade committee divisions Educational affairs Educational affairs Student supervision Library Health and welfare Source: Teacher Questionnaire. These teachers were purposefully selected to represent new, experienced, and senior teachers, and are used as examples throughout this study to illustrate the sample findings. The examples do not always correspond with the findings in every respect; however, they serve as a concrete illustration and usually portray most of the principal findings. In this case, these teachers participate in different divisions and in different numbers of divisions, giving each a unique current task identity. Two of the three demonstrate participation in the club and educational affairs divisions—two of the 68 divisions that needed large numbers of teachers. Excluding homeroom and club activities, two teachers reported that they worked in one or two divisions, and one teacher worked in five divisions. Why these teachers worked in certain divisions and not others is made clear later in this chapter. A single Monbusho study of high school teacher participation in non-instructional tasks suggests that such tasks are important as part of a teacher's job. Monbusho includes six of the ten divisions used in my study, plus two additional categories, "other" and subject divisions. However, for seven of the eight divisions, it investigates only one segment of the teacher population—shunin, or those in charge or managers. There is a separate column for teachers who are not managers, excluding homeroom duties, and which are listed in another column. The homeroom figure includes all teachers and is therefore the only value that can be compared with my sample. The results of the Monbusho survey are shown in Table 4.4. Table 4.4—Monbusho percentage of high school teacher supervisors in various task divisions, non-supervisory teachers (excluding homeroom), and percentage of homeroom teachers Supervisor Teachers Not in Home-charge room Educational Grades Health Student Career Subject Other affairs and welfare supervision counselling 2.4 6.0 1.9 2.5 2.3 4.4 5.0 82.2 36.9 S o u r c e : J a p a n M o n b u s h o , D a i j i n K a n b o C h o s a T o k e i k a , Gakko kyoin tokei chosa hokokusho, 1995 ( S c h o o l teacher s u r v e y s ) ( T o k y o : M o n b u s h o , 1995) , 113. The Monbusho data tell us several things about the organization of non-instructional tasks for Japanese high school teachers that support the results of my own 69 study. They show that teachers participated in a wide range of tasks, that tasks were divided among teachers, and that the distribution was uneven. There was higher participation in certain divisions such as grade committees and homeroom. The homeroom column, which included all teachers, contained the same distribution percentage as I found in my study. The Monbusho data also reveal a new characteristic in the organization of teacher tasks. Non-instructional tasks were not only divided horizontally among teachers, but also vertically into managerial and non-managerial groups. These data show that 18 percent of the teachers held some supervisory position, while 82 percent had no such duties (excluding homeroom). Neither my personal experience nor the existing literature provided evidence that there was a two-tiered structure in the non-instructional domain. The discovery that the supervisory status of a teacher was a dimension of task organization has several implications for this study. Most importantly, it indicates that the design of my study was not complete. This teacher characteristic should have been put in the teacher questionnaire. Although the first draft of the questionnaire contained a question about the supervisory status of the participants, it was removed to shorten the questionnaire since Japanese groups in schools are most commonly thought to be leaderless.3 Further research with a revised questionnaire is needed to investigate this aspect of teacher participation in non-instructional tasks. Despite this limitation in my 3 F o r e x a m p l e , G a i l B e n j a m i n , in her s tudy o f Japanese s c h o o l s , descr ibes the g r o u p s she o b s e r v e d as f o l l o w s : " T h e s e g r o u p s operate as c o l l e c t i o n s o f peers w i t h o u t h ie ra rch ie s . . . I find e v i d e n c e that a m o r p h o u s , leaderless g r o u p s are f o u n d in m a n y s i tuat ions a n d at al l age leve l s i n J a p a n . " G a i l R . B e n j a m i n , Japanese Lessons: A Year in a Japanese School through the Eyes of an American Anthropologist and Her Children ( N e w Y o r k : N e w Y o r k U n i v e r s i t y Press , 1997) , 72-73 . T h i s v i e w counterpo i se s N a k a n e C h i e ' s w o r k that e m p h a s i z e s ver t i ca l re lat ions in g roups . N a k a n e C h i e , Japanese Society ( B e r k e l e y : U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a Press , 1970) . I s i ded w i t h B e n j a m i n ' s c o n c l u s i o n because it is c o n s i d e r e d a r e v i s i o n i s t v i e w p o i n t i n b o t h e d u c a t i o n a n d bus iness studies o f J apanese o r g a n i z a t i o n s . 70 own data, I was able to use information from Monbusho on supervisory teachers and this information has proved critically important in the development of my study's conclusions. To summarize, teachers participated in a wide range of tasks corresponding with the breadth of worker participation found in learning organizations in Japan, but not with Senge's model. Teachers participated in several divisions at a time not corresponding with participation patterns described in learning organization models. The results suggest that a lack of order according to task topic is also a characteristic of the teachers' experiential learning. Teacher supervisors were found, questioning our understanding of order within decentralized structures. Past Task Participation Data on teachers' past participation in non-instructional tasks were also obtained from section B of the teacher questionnaire. This data has not previously been collected in other studies, so it sheds light on teacher participation in such tasks. Section B asked teachers to record the number of times they had worked in each of the task areas over the course of their careers. These data are used to describe three dimensions of past participation: the total number of individual tasks teachers participated in over their careers; the total number of task divisions teachers worked in; the variety of tasks teachers engaged in. The range, means, and standard deviation of the three variables in the teacher sample are shown in Table 4.5. 71 Table 4.5—Teachers' past task participation Total tasks Total divisions Total variety Range 5-357 2-10 3-35 Mean 64 6 12 Standard deviation 59 2 6 Source: Teacher Questionnaire [N=87]. The table data show that teachers have diverse sets of experience. The greatest difference among teachers was in their total task participation. Total tasks ranged from 5 to 357 tasks, but almost all teachers (85 percent) had worked in fewer than 100 tasks. About 8 percent had participated in the 100 to 150 range, and 7 percent in more than 150 tasks. There was more commonality among teachers regarding total division participation. The teachers were evenly distributed with slightly fewer teachers in the extreme categories of 2 and 10 total divisions. The total task variety variable spanned from 3 to 35 tasks. The total number of tasks listed in the questionnaire was 39. About 80 percent of the teachers had participated in fewer than half the tasks. The diversity in experience among teachers is illustrated in the past experiences of the three teachers referred to previously—Teachers #1, #46, and #58. Their participation is shown in Table 4.6. Teacher #46 participated in a wide range of tasks, whereas Teacher #1 participated in very few. These teachers varied most in their participation in total tasks, moderately in task variety, and least in total divisions. Each had a unique set of experiences. Table 4.6—Totals of past task participation of example teachers Totals Teacher #1 Teacher #46 Teacher #58 Total tasks 6 276 63 Total divisions 3 9 8 Total task variety 4 28 13 Source: Teacher Questionnaire. The sample teachers' past participation in non-instructional tasks shows that each teacher had his or her own set of experiences. This diversity corresponds with diverse sets of experience defining workers in Japanese learning organizations. The teachers cannot be viewed as a monolithic whole. These findings describe basic characteristics of the teachers' participation in non-instructional tasks that have not been documented in existing literature. They are used in the following analysis. A Path of Desirable Experience A n examination of the interrelationships between the teachers' present and past participation in non-instructional tasks may reveal whether a path of desirable experience may be detected, similar to the path observed in learning organizations in Japanese firms. Theorists describe this strategy of organization as a path leading from easier to more difficult tasks in which present participation depends on past experience. The path describes characteristics of experiential learning. Three factors were analyzed to determine a desirable path of experience: (1) which tasks beginning teachers work in; (2) which tasks experienced teachers do; and, (3) changes in participation over the teachers' careers. Relationships between current and past participation were investigated next. The findings from these analyses, as well as 73 information from the Monbusho surveys, identify a path of desirable experience according to a task order and suggest that certain current task participation depends on past experience. Which tasks do new teachers do? Data that answer this question were obtained from section B of the teacher questionnaire, where teachers recorded their task participation during the first three years of their careers. This set o f data was requested since it was expected that there would be few new teachers in the sample. This proved to be the case—there were only three. The second factor I investigated was activities the most experienced teachers in the sample participated in. This group consisted o f teachers who were over 55 years of age. Age, rather than years of experience, was selected because it is the classification used in a Monbusho survey reviewed for comparison purposes. Also , age and experience are interchangeable in this study, because the variables have a correlation value of 0.939 (p< 0.001). Although the over-55 year old sample group is small [N=7], I surmised that these teachers would best identify the divisions at the top of a task order. Frequency counts and crosstabulation were used to determine the number of teachers in the new and senior groups who participated in each of the task divisions. The results are shown in Table 4.7. 74 Table 4.7—Number of teachers who participated in various task divisions in the first three years of their career, and number of teachers over the age of 55 who participated in various task divisions Task Divisions First 3 Years Over 55 Years Old [N=771 [N=71 General affairs 20 4 Educational affairs 35 4 Student supervision 29 2 Special activities 19 1 Club 56 3 Homeroom 46 2 Library 8 2 Career counselling 12 1 Health and welfare 9 3 Grade committees 40 3 Source: Teacher Questionnaire. The table shows that new and senior teachers displayed the same characteristics: they had higher participation rates in a few divisions, but also worked in all the divisions. A s I expected, senior teachers had higher participation rates in administrative tasks—in the general affairs and educational affairs divisions. New teachers participated most in club and homeroom activities. The breadth of each group's participation, however, was much wider than expected. Senior teachers did not participate only in certain divisions. New teachers actually worked in all divisions—even in administrative tasks. Very few researchers in OJT studies document the placement of inexperienced employees in complex tasks. One is Masahiko A o k i , who notes that "even inexperienced workers may be assigned to a very difficult job, in which case the most experienced workers may assist in a side-by-side position." 4 Although this irregularity is recognized by some researchers, 4 Masahiko Aoki, Information, Incentives, and Bargaining in the Japanese Economy (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1992), 15. 75 it is not considered a defining characteristic of experiential learning in learning organizations. The teacher example, however, shows that new teachers' participation in the administrative tasks of the general affairs and educational affairs divisions was fairly high, at 25 and 46 percent respectively. These percentages indicate more than an occasional deviation in a pathway. The next factor I analyzed, change in participation over the course of teachers' careers, brings us closer to identifying a task order. I divided the teachers into four age groups: under 36, 36-45, 46-55, and over 55. Crosstabulation showed the percentage of each age group of teachers participating in the task divisions, as shown in Table 4.8 below. The highest figure in each division (two highest i f the values are close) are highlighted in bold for easy identification. Table 4.8—Percentage of each age group of sample teachers participating in various divisions Divisions Under 36 36-45 46-55 Over 55 General affairs 14 24 27 57 Educational affairs 14 59 42 57 Student supervision 23 17 31 29 Special activities 23 24 15 14 Club 59 76 65 43 Homeroom 41 41 35 29 Library 0 3 8 29 Career counselling 23 17 27 14 Health and welfare 9 14 19 43 Grade committees 36 55 23 43 S o u r c e : T e a c h e r Q u e s t i o n n a i r e [ A g e g r o u p s : total N = 84 ; u n d e r 36 N = 2 2 ; 36-45 N = 2 9 ; 46-55 N = 2 6 ; o v e r 55 N = 7 ] [ D i v i s i o n g r o u p s : total N = 8 4 ; s u b g r o u p s N = 5 - 5 5 . T h e l ib ra ry g r o u p h a d N = 5 . A l l o ther g r o u p s h a d 14 or m o r e teachers ] . 76 The table shows two ways to characterize task order. First, it identifies which task divisions each age group participated in most frequently compared to other groups: • Teachers over 55 years old: general affairs, educational affairs, library, health and welfare • Teachers 46 to 55 years old: career counselling, student supervision • Teachers 36 to 46 years old: club, homeroom, grade committees, educational affairs, special activities • Teachers under 36 years old: homeroom The crosstabulation results also provided the means to chart movement, or lack of movement, within each task division, providing more detail about, and more evidence to support, a path of desirable experience. A steady increase in participation from new to senior teachers was detected in three divisions: the general affairs, health and welfare, and library divisions. This suggests that these divisions needed more experienced teachers. Movement was also found flowing in the opposite direction in the homeroom division, and, to a lesser extent, in the club and special activities divisions. This change indicates that these duties were undertaken more by younger teachers and less by senior teachers, despite the large number of teachers needed for these activities. Some divisions (educational affairs, student supervision, career counselling, and grade committees) showed no movement and all age groups participated in them without distinction. I used my previous analysis to construct a path of desirable experience according to a task order for the teacher sample. The top task positions in order are the general affairs, educational affairs, and health and welfare divisions. I have placed these task 77 divisions at the top of the order with some confidence because these choices are supported by high levels of participation by senior teachers. I placed the library task division next because experienced teachers frequent it, but its placement remains debatable mainly because of the subgroup size. At the bottom of the task order are homeroom and club activities. I placed homeroom last because of the stronger downward movement noted in the crosstabulation analysis. The division order between the two poles was decided from the crosstabulation statistics. Figure 4.1 shows the task order for the teacher sample, and compares it with an order of tasks taken from the Monbusho survey. Figure 4.1—Non-instructional task order for this study sample and Monbusho Teacher Sample Order Monbusho Order General affairs Educational affairs Educational affairs Grade committees Health and welfare Health and welfare Library Student supervision Student supervision Career counselling Career counselling Grade committee Subject Special activities Other Club Homeroom Homeroom Source: Japan Monbusho, Gakko kyoin, 1995, 113. The chart shows similarities between the two task orders. The Monbusho order was established in two ways. First, it is the arrangement Monbusho uses in its tables on teacher participation in non-instructional tasks, for example, as illustrated in Table 4.4 of 78 this chapter. Although the sequence in the table does not necessarily denote a task order, another Monbusho table presented below does support this assumption. Table 4.9 charts the participation of supervisory, non-supervisory, and homeroom teachers by age group. Corresponding with the findings in my study, changes in figures in the table reveal movement from homeroom to administrative tasks. The grade committee position is much higher in the Monbusho order compared to its place in the order of this study. I surmise that supervisors of the grade committees might be senior teachers, but many of the committee members might be younger lowering its overall position in my teacher sample. Library work is not listed, which leads me to suspect that it is not one of the more important divisions. The table also shows that teachers between the ages of 45 and 55 do most of the supervision. The Monbusho table confirms both a task order and departure from that order. Table 4.9—Monbusho percentage of supervisory teachers participating in various task divisions by age group, and percentage of non-supervisory and homeroom teachers by age group Divisions Under 36 36-40 41-45 46-50 51-55 Over 55 Educational affairs 7.0 8.3 16.4 23.8 30.8 13.8 Grade committees 8.8 9.5 19.9 25.6 23.1 13.0 Health and welfare 10.2 10.8 13.3 18.8 23.9 22.9 Student supervision 10.1 12.1 17.9 22.6 23.4 13.8 Career counselling 8.0 9.2 15.5 23.1 24.7 19.6 Subject 14.2 13.7 19.5 18.5 20.3 13.9 Other 16.0 11.1 15.1 18.0 19.1 20.7 Teachers with no supervision 33.4 17.4 14.5 11.5 10.9 12.3 Homeroom 38.6 20.9 16.2 11.0 8.3 5.1 Source: Japan Monbusho, Gakko kyoin, 1995, 113. 79 The last analysis of this section determines whether the teachers' current task participation depends on past participation—a characteristic of workers' participation described in OJT in Japanese firms. I used the task order identified in the sample and calculated the average past participation in terms of total task, total divisions, and total task variety for teachers participating and not participating in each division. The results are shown in Table 4.10. Table 4.10—Average number of total tasks, divisions, and task variety that sample teachers currently working in various task divisions participated in, and averages for teachers not currently in the divisions Task Divisions Average Number of Average Number of AverageTask Tasks for Teachers Divisions for Variety Teachers for Teachers In Not in In Not in In Not in General affairs 89 55 8 6 15 11 Educational affairs 77 54 7 6 15 11 Health and welfare 95 57 7 6 14 12 Library 112 61 7 6 16 12 Student supervision 61 65 7 6 13 12 Career counselling 64 63 7 6 14 12 Grade committee 66 62 7 - 6 13 12 Special activities 68 62 7 6 13 12 Club 63 65 6 6 12 12 Homeroom 58 67 6 6 11 13 Source: Teacher Questionnaire [Total N=84]. (The participating library group had N=5. A l l other groups had 14 or more teachers.) The table reveals an association between current and past participation. Divisions that senior teachers tended to work in show the highest average totals, and divisions that younger teachers frequented had lower levels of past participation. Teachers working in the top order divisions had past sets of experiences that were higher than those who did 80 not participate in that division. The reverse was found for teachers working in the bottom order divisions. The table shows a gradual increase in experience from homeroom to administrative tasks. A larger range of differences is noted in total tasks than in either total divisions or total variety corresponding with the characteristics of these three variables described earlier in this chapter. The number of divisions was fairly constant among teachers. The results show that the teachers' current task participation does not depend totally on their past participation, but past experience clearly played some part in advancing up the task order. The characteristics found in this section's analysis can be traced in the three teacher examples introduced earlier. Tables 4.3 and 4.6 identified current and past participation for Teachers #1, #46, and #58, and this participation takes on a new meaning when we learn their ages. Teacher #1 was only 26 years old, and thus had low totals of past participation. We can now also understand why he was working in club and student supervision activities. Teacher #46 was a senior teacher, 56 years old, and therefore had a wide range of past experiences. His experience also explains why he was working in administration tasks, library, and health and welfare, and not in club or homeroom duties. Teacher #58 was 39 years old, and therefore his participation area was somewhere in between the other two teachers. He was still working in homeroom and club activities, but was also participating in the grade committee and educational affairs divisions. Thus, the identification of a task order enhances our understanding of these three teachers' participation in certain task divisions. A path of desirable experience according to task order was identified through the preceding analysis. Participation in top order tasks showed higher levels of past 81 experience. I anticipated these findings, and they parallel those outlined as organizational strategies in OJT in Japanese firms. However, my study and the Monbusho data both showed teachers of all ages participating in an array of tasks besides those connected with their age group. Such departures from a desirable task order, although documented in some studies of OJT, are not considered an integral characteristic defining experiential learning in Japanese learning organizations. The departures might be intrinsic to teachers, an error in the study design, or simply related to a need to fill divisions that require numerous teachers. However, the departures suggest that the teachers' experiential learning is not strictly ordered according to an information hierarchy, but rather by combinations of subtopics taken from different levels of the hierarchy. This lack of order, together with the lack of a topic order found earlier, may be essential aspects of learner-directed learning. It might seem reasonable to dismiss the teachers' departures and define the teachers' experiential learning according to a task order, but the next analysis suggests they should not be ignored. Teacher Multifunctionalism Investigations of task participation in OJT usually stop at this point. Workers progress through tasks according to a task order and become multifunctional. If teacher multifunctionalism is defined according to task order,, teachers would be multifunctional by the time they participated on a regular basis in the general affairs division. Using the teacher sample in this study as a guide, that would occur when teachers were 47 years old, on average. However, the unanticipated departures from the task order noted in the last section indicate that teachers participate in a wide array of task divisions early on in their careers. When do teachers first become multifunctional? What happens next? In 82 addressing these questions, I have uncovered a second path of desirable experience that suggests that experience is more complex than currently envisioned. This finding distinguishes my study from the other learning organization models. It was an examination of teachers' past experience over the course o f their careers that led me to conclude that there is a second path of desirable experience. I used the same four age groups to determine when teachers first become multifunctional, to look at change and stability in the breadth of their participation over time in terms of divisions and task variety, and to examine the depth o f teacher participation in terms o f total tasks they performed over time. The average participation rates in task divisions, task variety, and total tasks for each age group are shown in Table 4.11. Table 4.11—Average number of total divisions, task variety, and tasks of sample teachers by age group Experience Dimensions Under 36 36-45 46-55 Over 55 Total divisions 5 7 7 8 Task variety 8 13 13 18 Total tasks 22 55 76 189 Source: Teacher Questionnaire [Total N = 86; under 36 N=22; 36-45 N=30; 46-55 N=27; over 55 N=7]. The table clearly reveals periods of change and stability in the breadth of participation over the course of the teachers' careers. The beginning period is characterized by an increase in activity. Although new teachers start at zero participation, they still averaged 5 divisions and 8 different tasks until age 35. The two middle periods, ranging from age 36 to 55, are similar. Teachers in these age groups averaged 7 divisions 83 and 13 different tasks. The over-55 age group again showed an increase in task variety, although the number of divisions they participated increased by only one. It seems clear that teachers attained multifunctionalism early on in their career. This is supported by the fact that a certain breadth of participation is established by age 36 with no increase after this point until age 55. Also , as shown earlier, teachers worked in a wide variety of divisions even in the first three years of their careers (see Table 4.7). And , by age 36, the teachers' participation breadth overtook the total sample means of 6.3 divisions and 12.1 tasks, and teachers were working in the same number o f divisions and tasks as supervisory teachers. The breadth of participation of the multifunctional teacher at age 36 is not as complete as that defining senior teachers, but it equals the breadth of teachers in the 46-55 age group that showed higher numbers with supervisory status. The achievement of multifunctionalism early on in their careers gives a macroscopic view of the teachers' participation, but there are undoubtedly differences among teachers within age groups. This investigation is left for future research.5 Exploring the breadth of participation over the career changes how the path of desirable experience is characterized in the teacher example. Since multifunctionalism is reached early on in the career, I believe that it is the first step in the teachers' path, and not the end product of experiential learning as stated in learning organization theory. The interim period after the attainment of multifunctionalism but before the capacity to undertake supervisory duties constitutes the second step in the path. 5 Some teachers that I met while teaching in Japan indicated that they did not want to be involved in school administration tasks. One teacher, for example, refused offers for principal training stating that his preference was to remain in the classroom. 84 To investigate this interim step, I explore total task participation over the teachers' careers. These findings, or the depth of participation, are then analyzed in relation to the previous results on breadth of participation. Table 4.11 data show a continuous increase in total task participation from start to end of the teachers' careers. Dividing the total task means by task variety means indicates repetition o f tasks. The youngest group repeated each task an average o f 2.7 times, the next group 4.1 times, the third group 6.1 times, and the eldest group 10.5 times. Repetition is clearly one of the characteristics of the participation path. It describes the main activity between the achievement of multifunctionalism at age 36 and the beginning of their participation in supervisory duties. The three example teachers' participation illustrates these characteristics. Total participation in each task division for Teachers #1, #46, and #58 are shown in Table 4.12. Table 4 .12—Total participation in various divisions of example teachers Divisions Teacher #1 Teacher #46 Teacher #58 General affairs 6 46 0 Educational affairs 1 87 5 Student supervision 3 10 6 Special activities 0 24 5 Club 2 31 17 Homeroom 0 15 10 Library 0 34 0 Career counselling 0 24 4 Health and welfare 0 5 1 Grade levels 0 0 15_ Source: Teacher Questionnaire. A s a new teacher, Teacher #1 participated in only 3 divisions. His participation not confined to tasks for beginning teachers though; he participated in educational 85 affairs, but not in homeroom duties. His participation was also characterized by repetition. Teacher #58, at age 39, had already worked in 8 divisions, and can be considered a multifunctional teacher. His participation also shows repetition in most divisions. The senior teacher, #46, had worked in only one more division than Teacher #58, but the number of times he had repeated his tasks distinguishes them. These three teacher examples show a wide breadth of participation early in their careers, and repetition characterizes the rest of the path they followed. M y findings can be used to construct a second four-stage path of desirable experience, according to a multifunctional order. This multifunctional path is illustrated alongside the task order path by age group in Figure 4.2. Figure 4.2—Two paths of desirable experience by age group Age Group Task Order Multifunctional Order over 55 10D General affairs 9fJ . 8D 46-55 7FJ 6D 5D 36-45 4D 3D 2D under 36 ID Homeroom New teachers first participate in a wide variety of divisions to become multifunctional. Next, the breadth of their participation is stable but tasks are repeated. Supervision Repetition Multifunctional Teacher T Participation in many divisions Only after these two stages do teachers become supervisors, and in the final stage, teachers participate regularly in administrative tasks, especially in general affairs. Task order participation is not discounted as part of experience because teachers also frequent some tasks more than others as they become more experienced. This second path of desirable experience found in this study differs in several important respects from the single path described in learning organizations in Japanese firms. It is not governed by a fixed task order, and multifunctionalism is the first, not the last, stage in the path. The new path consists of four steps, not one process, and repetition is an integral part of the path. Repetition is not usually cited as part of OJT, but is mentioned as an important dimension in Mark Fruin's theory. 6 H o w and why repetition displays itself in his model, however, differs from that found in my teacher sample. In Fruin's model, repetition is part of the experience pathway. In my study model, although repetition is similarly part of the task pathway, it also characterizes a distinct stage in the path after multifunctionalism has been established. Summary In this chapter, I have identified and clarified certain characteristics of the Japanese teachers' participation in non-instructional tasks. Two paths of participation could be identified—one corresponding with OJT in learning organizations, and one that was particular to my teacher sample. The findings suggest that characteristics of experience are more complex than has been previously thought. The teacher results indicate that multifunctionalism is a step in an individual learning process, not an end product. They also suggest that departures from an easy-to-difficult and topic orders may characterize 6 Fruin, Knowledge Works, 26. 87 curricula format in experiential learning. M y study has led me to question when breadth is achieved and what its underlying rationale is. M y study presents a very different picture of Japanese teacher participation in non-instructional tasks than has been previously portrayed. Differences in participation among teachers have been explained away by other researchers as the results of personal and/or cultural traits. Motivated teachers work hard, Thomas Rohlen states, but the "lazy, the jaded, and the incompetent" are assigned smaller tasks and do precious little. 7 Hua Yang writes that "being busy or needed by others is seen almost as a sign of a good teacher. . . . Being respected by others is a Japanese standard of self-fulfillment." 8 Although such qualities no doubt contribute to teacher work habits, the findings of this study show that differences among teachers can, to a large extent, be accounted for by their past experience. In a broader educational context, the chapter findings present an alternative perspective on experiential learning. Compared to Senge's model for reform, which excludes experience as a learning method, my findings suggest that experience might have many more dimensions than is now realized that might be critically essential in learning organizations. Experience is more than "taking an action and seeing the consequence of that action," as Senge describes it. 9 Rather, it is characterized by its contexts—by what comes before it, and after it, by its breadth, and by its depth. A n d i f we believe, as Senge does, that "the most powerful learning comes from direct 7 Thomas P. Rohlen, Japan's High Schools (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1983), 176. 8 Hua Yang, "The teacher's job: A comparison of US and Japanese middle school teachers" ( Ph.D. diss., Stanford University, 1993), 117. 9 Peter M. Senge, The Fifth Discipline; The Art and Practice of the Learning Organization (New York: Currency Doubleday, 1994), 23. 88 experience," it becomes obvious we should also better understand its complexities. 1 0 In addition, the evidence of this study suggests tentatively that ordering tasks, or bodies of information, from easy to difficult or by topics in learning—premises that underlie learning in Western culture—are part of but might not be central features that characterize learner-directed learning. The timing of multifunctionalism might be more important. This thesis w i l l be further characterized and supported in the next chapter. Lastly, my findings reveal limits in this study. A lack o f knowledge about Japanese teachers meant that a question on supervisory status o f teachers was not included in the questionnaire. A study design that focused on charting teachers' participation according to task order also presents an ironical twist. What were sought might not be the most important features characterizing teacher experience, and this highlights the fragility of our plans, our addictions to certain ideas, and the very element of uncertainty in learning itself. Throughout analysis presented in this chapter, it was evident that much more research is needed. 0 Ibid. 89 C H A P T E R F I V E T H E T E A C H E R S ' L E A R N I N G P A T T E R N In this chapter, I investigate three methods teachers use to learn non-instructional tasks, in addition to the experiential learning investigated in Chapter 4. The characteristics of these learning methods and interrelationships among them revealed in this research study a specific learning pattern. I found that learning in my teacher sample fits within a learning organization framework, but there are differences that describe a unique teacher model. The association between organizational features and learning is found to be even stronger than learning organization theorists now realize. I begin my analysis by exploring the teachers' formal educational backgrounds, followed by an investigation of their participation in various learning activities while on the job. Frequent comparisons are made with the S A S S and Monbusho surveys, and I compare my teacher sample with learning patterns identified in learning organization theories. Educational Background In this study, I considered formal university education to be one of the learning methods for learning non-instructional tasks. I defined each teacher's educational background by degree earned and the content of courses they had taken at university. This information is needed to determine the importance of university training in the learning o f non-90 instructional tasks, as according to learning organization theory, top-down instruction is minimal. In the context of existing studies on Japanese teachers, the results of this section coincide with current descriptions o f teacher training, and also add more detail. The data on the teachers' educational background were collected from section A of the teacher questionnaire. These data were given in Table 3.2, the demographic characteristics o f teachers, but are presented again in Table 5.1 for convenience. This table shows the percentage of teachers by highest degree earned, comparing the teachers in my study with Monbusho and S A S S samples. Table 5.1—Percentage distribution of high school teachers by highest degree earned, by sample. Sample Bachelor's Master's Ph.D. Other Study 77.9 20.9 1.2 0 Monbusho 89.3 (postgraduate combined)7.8 2.8 S A S S 42.1 54.8 1.7 1.6 Source: Study sample. Teacher Questionnaire [N=86]. Monbusho: Japan Monbusho, Daijin Kanbo Chosa Tokeika, Gakko kyoin tokei chosa hokokusho, 1995 (School teacher surveys) (Tokyo: Monbusho, 1995), 128. For all regular teachers. "Other" includes junior college, high school, and an "other" category. U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Schools and Staffing in the United States: A Statistical Profile, 1993-94, NECS 96-124 (Washington: 1996), 54-5. Percentages are for urban and suburban public and private high school teachers [N=21,000 estimate]. "Other" in the SASS survey refers to less than a bachelor's degree. The table data show that the sample teachers had a slightly higher percentage of advanced degrees than the 9 percent reported by Hua Yang for Japanese middle school teachers.1 Although this variance could be attributed to different school levels, the Monbusho statistics on high school teachers are closer to Yang's figures than to mine. A t 1 Hua Yang, "The teacher's job: A comparison of US and Japanese middle school teachers" ( Ph. Stanford University, 1993), 36. 91 the national level, about 8 percent had advanced degrees. The higher level of advanced degrees in my sample could be related to school location. Monbusho statistics on teacher degrees by prefecture reveal that some areas had considerably higher percentages of teachers with advanced degrees than other areas. The Tokyo district, for example, recorded 20 percent in one of its surveys. 2 The aggregate results from these various surveys indicate that teachers in Japan require a bachelor's degree, and they also show that there is little difference among teachers in levels of formal university education. Comparisons between the study sample and S A S S high school teachers show a conspicuous difference in level of formal education. The American teachers had a much higher level. More than half (55.5 percent) had earned advanced degrees. This figure coincides with Yang's finding that 52 percent of American middle school teachers had master's degrees.3 It is concluded that these distribution patterns accurately represent the Japanese and American groups since little change is recorded in either over the last decade.4 I collected data about university course content in section A of the teacher questionnaire. The questionnaire listed courses that corresponded to the various non-instructional tasks known to be part of the teachers' job, for example, courses on administration, special activities, library work, cooperative learning, and counselling. Responding teachers were able to add appropriate courses they had taken. Instructional 2 Japan Monbusho, Gakko kyoin, 1992, 140. 3 Yang, "The teacher's job," 36. . 4 A comparison of teacher degrees in the three SASS surveys reveals that the overall levels remained about the same. U.S. Department of Education, Statistical Profile, 1993-94, 7. Monbusho statistics on teacher certification by age group report similar high percentages of bachelor's degrees in all groups. Japan Monbusho, Gakko kyoin, 1995, 112. 92 courses were also listed for comparative purposes, including courses on specific subjects, methods of instruction, and education history and/or philosophy. Table 5.2 shows the sample teachers' participation in university courses in instructional and non-instructional subjects. Frequency counts were used to obtain the number of teachers participating in each course. Table 5.2—Number of sample teachers who participated in various courses at university Courses Number of Teachers Participating Methods 79 Subject 84 History /Philosophy 71 Administration 27 Counselling 34 Cooperative learning 26 Library 9 Special activities 24 Source: Teacher Questionnaire [N='81-86]. The table results show that teachers took a high level of instructional courses compared to courses on non-instructional topics. This is consistent with Yutaka Okihara's paper suggesting that teacher training for Japanese high school teachers stresses subject specialization, although courses are offered in special activities. 5 The low response in the "other" category suggests that the subjects listed in the study questionnaire covered almost all of the course topics taken by the teachers, or the teachers chose simply not to respond. I eliminated the "other" category in subsequent analysis. Overall, the 5 Yutaka Okihara, "The Wide-ranging Nature of the Japanese Curriculum and its Implications for Teacher-training," Comparative Education 22.1 (1986): 18. 93 questionnaire results indicate that universities offer some training for non-instructional tasks, but it is limited compared to instructional courses. Teacher examples from the study sample illustrate the characteristics identified here. The examples are the same Teachers #1, #46, and #58 introduced in the previous chapter. The degree and course participation for these teachers are shown in Table 5.3. Despite differences in age and current duties, the three teachers show a similar educational background to each other and to the larger sample. Table 5.3—Education background of example teachers Education Teacher # 1 Teacher # 46 Teacher #58 Degree Bachelor's Bachelor's Bachelor's Courses Methods Yes Yes Yes Subject Yes Yes Yes History/Philosophy Yes Yes Yes Administration Yes Yes N o Counselling Yes Yes Yes Cooperative learning N o N o N o Library N o N o N o Special activities N o N o N o Source: Teacher Questionnaire. Comparable data on American teachers' course content are not available from the S A S S surveys. Nevertheless, course content is recognized as an important indicator of teachers' knowledge in the U .S . Department o f Education's S A S S Statistical Profile. Compared with level of education as an indicator, the authors state that "recent efforts to improve the quality of teacher preparation have focused more on the content of what prospective teachers are taught and on how they are educated than on increasing the 94 number of teachers with advanced degrees."6 Survey questions on course content concentrated on identifying degree major and minors in university, types o f teacher certification, and core subjects taken. 7 In summary, I found that there was minimal university training for Japanese teachers for the purpose of learning non-instructional tasks. B y comparison, Americans expressed concern for job-related course content and teachers showed higher attendance at universities. The lack of top-down instruction found in my teacher sample corresponds with the basic organizational structure found in learning organizations; that is, learning and knowledge must be located at lower levels of the organization. A s Mark Fruin explains, knowledge "is rooted in the principle of organizational learning in which effective, usable learning concentrates and resides in specific work sites, functions, and interactions."8 Although effective, usable learning is located at the work site, level of education was a factor in the teacher sample, and this is also consistent with Fruin's observations. He states that "[t]he nature of factory know-how is not contained in manuals, but is found instead in practice and experience," but he adds that all workers have high education levels. 9 Background education is therefore not irrelevant. The nature o f the association between formal course content and workers' jobs, however, remains unclear in both my teacher sample and in Japanese learning organizations. More research is needed to investigate whether course content might serve another function, such as promoting 6 U S. Department of Education, Statistical Profile, 1993-94, 5. 7 For examples see SASS Teacher Questionnaire, 1993-94, questions 15 to 28. 8 W. Mark Fruin, Knowledge Works: Managing Intellectual Capital at Toshiba (New York: Oxford University Press, 1997), 162. 9 Ibid., 75, 162. Fruin noted that since the 1980s, employees at the Yanagicho factory had at least a high school education. 95 learning or analysis techniques. The role of higher learning has not been investigated in relation to Senge's model. This study's findings suggest that this context of learning, as it now exists in Western society, may be an inhibiting context of learning in learning organizations. Learning Activities While on the Job Since universities in Japan do not fully train teachers in non-instructional tasks, learning must take place after teachers begin working. In my study, I explored ways that teachers learn while on the job by charting their participation in various learning activities. Since I have already considered experience as a means of learning in the last chapter, here I focus on three other ways that teachers learn: in formal professional development courses, in consultation with their colleagues, and through self-study. In learning organizations in Japan, workers participate in all these activities. I found that teachers also participated in all these activities, but in the course of my study, I discovered hitherto unknown details about these activities, an area that has only been briefly examined before. The data for this section come from section C of the teacher questionnaire. Section C recorded the sample teachers' participation in seventeen learning activities, divided into three categories, each representing a different learning method: formal, consultation with others in the school, and self-study. Formal activities included courses sponsored by universities, or district, school, professional, and union groups. Consultation encompassed school members, including principals, vice-principals, department heads, grade heads, supervising teachers, and co-workers. Self-study listed research, experiments, and reading activities. Participation was measured in four time categories: none, 8 hours or less, 9-32 hours, and more than 32 hours. The time frame 96 was a period of one year. A n "other" activity was added to each of the three activity groups. The "other" activity was left blank by the majority o f teachers, and is therefore omitted in the following analyses. Table 5.4 shows the number o f sample teachers who participated in the various learning activities for each time category. Table 5.4—Number of teachers who participated in various time categories by type of learning activity for a one year period Activities None 8 hours or less 9-32 hours More than 32 hours Formal University 71 7 3 3 District 62 11 8 6 School 61 16 4 2 Profession 41 17 17 12 Union 74 13 0 0 Average 62 13 6 5 Consultation with School Members Principal 47 20 10 6 Vice-principal 37 27 10 9 Department 10 head 44 25 3 Grade head 38 18 18 8 Supervising 8 teacher 45 20 9 Co-worker 26 11 24 23 Average 40 20 14 10 Self-Study Research 22 8 19 36 Experiment 38 16 13 18 Literature 26 13 17 30 Average 29 12 16 28 Source: Teacher Questionnaire [N=82-87]. 97 These figures were obtained from frequency counts and they reveal two main characteristics of the teachers' participation. First, the teachers participated in all fourteen activities, indicating that they use a wide variety of learning activities. Second, the teachers showed a clear preference in their choices. Within each category, some activities were more popular than others. Professional association courses were favoured in the formal area, co-workers were consulted most in the school setting, and research was used most often in self-study. The choices made by the teachers indicate a partiality for information sources closest to themselves. The table clearly shows that the teachers participated most in self-study activities and least in formal activities. The characteristics of the teachers' participation in learning activities while on the job are illustrated in the participation habits of Teacher #58 in Table 5.5. This teacher, who was 39 years old, was picked to illustrate the macroscopic view. His participation corresponds to the pattern in Table 5.4. Table 5 .5—Hour category of participation in various learning activities recorded by example Teacher #58 Hours Formal Activities Consultation University District School Professional Principal Vice-principal None X X X X X 8 or less X 9-32 More than 32 (continuing) Consultation DeDartment Grade Supervisor Co-worker Self-study Research Experiment Reading - •» — — x x X x X X X Source: Teacher Questionnaire. 98 A comparison of my sample and S A S S teachers is possible because my study question was copied from the S A S S questionnaire. The comparison, however, is limited to the formal category because the S A S S survey did not investigate consultation and self-study. Activities in the formal category in both surveys were the same with one exception. I had added a union activity, but removed it from the comparison because most of the sample teachers did not participate in it. This left instruction sponsored by university, district, school, and professional groups in the formal category. Participation in formal activities was measured in terms of both total participation and high participation (over 8 hours). Table 5.6 compares my results with the S A S S results. It also presents Japanese teachers' participation in other-than-formal activities to highlight the relative position of formal activities compared to other types of learning activities. Table 5.6—Percentage of teachers' total participation and average participation over 8 hours in formal and other-than-formal activities, by sample Sample Formal activities Total More than 8 participation hours Other-than-formal activities Total More than 8 participation hours Study 72.4 15.9 87.4 39.9 S A S S 95.6 15.3 N / A N / A Source: Study sample: Teacher Questionnaire [N=85-87]. SASS sample: U.S. Department of Education, Statistical Profile, 1993-94. For percentage of participation, 60-61; for hours, 62-63. Figures are for urban and suburban, public and private secondary schools [N=21,000 estimate]. 99 The table shows that almost all the American teachers—95.6 percent—took part in some formal learning activity, while only 72.4 percent of the Japanese teachers did. Although these percentages show that more of the American teachers participated in formal activities than the Japanese, similar percentages of both groups spent more than 8 hours on formal learning activities. Unt i l data on American teachers' participation in consultation and self-study activities are available, comparing learning on the job of the two groups is not possible. Various other information from S A S S surveys, however, allows me to draw tentative conclusions about differences between my sample and American teachers' learning while at work. Formal instruction was the only learning category measured in S A S S , and from this focus, I assume that the most important learning category would be investigated, not the least. Other information from the S A S S survey supports this supposition, for example, data from the 1987-88 S A S S questionnaire show that although teachers perceived that they learned from other school members, they rated such consultation as less important in learning than formal sources. 1 0 The omission of any data on self-learning in the surveys implies that it is not considered a major way to learn in America. I conclude that the main source of learning, extent of participation, and interrelationships among types of activities are different. In the S A S S sample, formal learning is most important, followed by learning from colleagues. We do not know where self-study fits in this order. In the Japanese sample, formal learning is the least popular, 1 0 For teachers' perceptions of the extent school members helped in improving their teaching, see Teacher Questionnaire, 1987-88, question 34. U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, SASS and TFS Questionnaires 1987-88 (Washington). For teachers' perceptions of the impact of professional development programs, see Teacher Questionnaire, 1993-94, question 32. U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, SASS and PSS Questionnaires 1993-94, NCES 94-674 (Washington). 100 with consultation in the middle, and self-study the highest. Levels of participation over 8 hours in formal activities were approximately the same in both samples, revealing overall high levels of participation in learning activities for the Japanese teachers. This is consistent with the five-country survey data presented by Al l en Menlo and Pam Poppleton that showed that Japanese teachers had the highest participation rates in three of five on the job learning activities they investigated. 1 1 M y study revealed more detail about Japanese teacher participation in learning activities while on the job than has been reported in the literature. I also found that the individual Japanese teacher played a strong central role in his or her learning habits, a finding that undermines the commonly held image of teams and collaboration governing Japanese teacher behaviour. M y findings here are consistent with the basic characteristics o f learning organizations in that sources of knowledge were located in the lower levels of the organization and there were high levels of learning. M y study data and analyses, however, add more detail to a wide variety of learning activities and explore their interrelationships more deeply than has been achieved to date in investigations of learning organizations. Fruin, for example, reports that the annual off-the-job training for Yanagicho workers was 30 to 35 hours annually, but hours for self-study or consultation with colleagues are not reported. 1 2 The important place allotted to the individual is predicted by the theories of Fruin, and Nonaka and Takeuchi, but my data also reveal that self-study activities are used more than consultation. This finding challenges learning " Allen Menlo and Pam Poppleton, "A Five-country Study of the Work Perceptions of Secondary School Teachers in England, the United States, Japan, Singapore and West Germany (1986-88)," Comparative Education 26.2, 3 (1990): 198-99. 1 2 Mark Fruin, Knowledge Works, 90. 101 organization theorists' emphasis on team learning, and suggests that more attention must be given to individual learning in future research into learning organizations. I also found teacher learning to be a more varied process than the one portrayed in studies of learning organizations. Importantly, this suggests that learning is not an either-or selection of knowledge sources. A Learning Pattern The characteristics of teacher participation in various learning methods over their career and the interrelationships among these methods can be used to identify a learning pattern. Here, I concentrate on the teachers' participation in university, consultation, and self-study learning methods over the teachers' careers and find that they disclose yet another participation path—a path of desirable methods. I analyzed this path in relation to experiential learning to define one learning pattern. It is at this point in this study that the teacher sample becomes a unique learning organization model with an identity o f its own. I charted the teachers' participation in university, consultation with co-workers, consultation with principals, and self-study (in research) over the course of their careers to determine whether levels of participation change. These variables were chosen to represent the main sources of knowledge of interest in learning organization theory. I continue to use four age groups to determine the stage of the teachers' careers. Cross-sectional rather than longitudinal data provide information about the pattern of these teachers' careers rather than a picture of one participant's career. Crosstabulation gives the number of teachers who participated in these learning activities for more than 32 hours, by age group. Table 5.7 shows these results. 102 Table 5.7—Number of teachers in each age group who participated for more than 32 hours in various learning activities Activities Under 35 36-45 46-55 Over 55 rN=20-21] rN=28-31] fN=25-27] rN=6-71 Self-study in research 5 15 15 1 Consultation with co-workers 7 8 6 2 Consultation with principals 0 1 3 2 University 0 courses 0 3 0 Source: Teacher Questionnaire. This table shows several important shifts in participation, indicating that the teachers used certain methods at different times. N e w teachers started with a higher level of consultation with co-workers than self-study. Their practice, however, quickly changed. In the next age group, consultation with co-workers had decreased, and self-study became the method of choice. A s teachers moved through the two middle age periods, this practice remained fairly constant. B y age 55, another shift has occurred. Self-study dropped by age 55. Beginning teachers had minimal consultation with principals compared to co-workers, but it increased steadily, and by age 55, teachers' consultation with principals had reached the same level as consultation with co-workers. Although this level is not exceptionally high, the shift shows a new direction in the teachers' choice o f methods. Teachers showed little participation in university courses over the course of their careers. Overall, teachers used various learning methods simultaneously, but a distinct order in their choices is apparent. 103 These data show several important characteristics of the teachers' learning over their careers. First, teachers tend to use different learning methods at different times in their careers. This suggests that the teachers' learning pattern cannot be defined simply as a mixture of learning methods, as macroscopic figures suggest; rather, it is characterized by choice and an order. The order in which choices were made in turn describes what I refer to in this study as a path of desirable methods. Second, consultation with others in the school was low during periods of high participation in self-study activities. This suggests that these two activities are not complementary methods. Consultation decreased as the individual teacher assumed a more prominent role in his or her own learning. The third characteristic I found was high levels of continuous learning among teachers, although it appears to be minimal in the final stage of the teacher career. The figures indicate that supervising teachers in the 46-55 age group were still learning, and this in turn suggests that required levels of knowledge for the top administrative tasks were reached only after this stage. I surmise that supervision might be a stage that enters the learning process after repetition, but more research is needed to verify this point. Fourth, consultation with principals disclosed a break in the school organization. Finding principal involvement is significant, because it is contrary to our current understanding of the relationship between principal and teacher in schools in Japan. Existing studies on Japanese education, as well as the macroscopic figures in this study, convincingly portray little to no vertical coordination between teachers and principals. The study data suggest that vertical coordination might in fact be a question about when in a career and with which teachers it occurs. Further study of this relationship would 104 undoubtedly contribute to a better understanding of communication paths between upper and lowers levels of school organization. The three example teachers display the learning pattern identified for the sample as a whole. Table 5.8 shows these data. Table 5 .8—Hour category of participation in various learning activities recorded by example Teachers #1, #46, and #58 Activities Teacher #1 Teacher #46 Teacher #58 Formal University 0 0 0 District <32 9-32 0 School 0 0 0 Professional <32 9-32 0 Consultation Principal 9-32 <32 0 Vice-Principal <32 <32 >9 Department >9 <32 0 Grade 9-32 <32 >9 Supervisor 9-32 9-32 0 Coworker <32 <32 >9 Self-studv Research <32 >9 <32 Experiment 9-32 >9 0 Reading <32 >9 >9 Source: Teacher Questionnaire. None of the three teachers took university courses. The youngest, Teacher #1, and the eldest, Teacher #46, consulted with other members of their school most, although whom they consulted differed slightly. These two teachers also participated at a high level in district and professional development courses. They were both very sociable in their learning activities, especially compared to the middle-aged Teacher #58, whose 105 participation is better described as isolated. Teacher #58 had comparatively low participation in consultation activities of any type, and relatively higher participation in self-study. The senior teacher showed relatively lower participation in self-study. Noteworthy, also, is the high participation recorded for the new Teacher #1. He appears to have been extremely busy in learning activities. The teacher examples do not strictly follow the identified trends in all activities, and suggest more research might better explain some of the individual choices. How do the shifts in methods relate to main characteristics in the paths of desirable experience described in Chapter 4? The relationship is illustrated according to age group in Figure 5.1. Figure 5.1—Teachers' learning pattern Age Group Path of Desirable Experience Path of Learning Methods over 55 Administrative tasks Consultation with principals 46-55 Supervision r ~\ Repetition Self-study 36-45 Multifunctional Teacher under 36 Participation in a Consultation with co-workers variety of tasks The dominant method for each age group charts a path of desirable methods, although it must be understood that other methods are also in play at the same time. The 106 path begins with a high level of consultation with co-workers. Self-study characterizes the two middle age periods and consultation decreases. Senior teachers show an increase in consultation with principals as their self-study virtually stops. Figure 5.1 presents my study's characterization of the teachers' learning pattern for non-instructional tasks. Most importantly, the figure reveals an association between the path of desirable experience and the path of learning methods. In the first stage of a teachers' career, he or she is introduced to a range of tasks. Since teachers have had little formal instruction in doing these tasks, they select consultation to gather new information. After the teachers become multifunctional, they no longer need to consult co-workers as much as they did initially, and they switch to self-study. During the middle age periods, the path o f desirable experience is constant with respect to width of tasks, and is characterized by repetition and supervision. I surmise that the multifunctional strategies give teachers the basic information about tasks, and repetition and supervision provide the opportunity for teachers to experiment and do research on their own. In the last stage of the teacher career, teachers work in the top task divisions, general and educational affairs. Teachers stop self-study, showing that they have acquired the knowledge needed to run the schools. They look to high-level administrative staff, such as principals, for help. How teachers learn is related to the various stages of experience as defined by organizational strategies and structures; the features of the organization create the teachers' learning pattern. The teachers' learning pattern is both similar to and different from the learning pattern described in learning organization theory. Teacher learning is continuous, takes place at the job site, and individual learning is important. A s in Japanese learning 107 organizations, there is a variety in learning methods and learning methods change over time. Despite the many characteristics common to learning by workers in Japanese firms and by teachers in Japanese schools, there are also several important differences. First, the succession order of learning methods differs. Workers in firms learn first through task experience, and then through interaction with their co-workers and managers. Teachers consult first with co-workers, then use self-study learning, and finally consult with administrative staff. Decreasing consultation with co-workers among teachers is a characteristic decidedly contrary to the important place of team learning in learning organizations. Fruin, and Nonaka and Takeuchi propose that team learning is an important part of organizational learning and is the second step in individual learning after personal knowledge from experience has been gained. This characteristic is also a departure from Senge's model, in which team learning is one of the disciplines. Second, the association between experience and other learning methods is quite different in the two groups. While Fruin, and Nonaka and Takeuchi focus on the association between features of the organization and experience in individual learning, the teacher sample shows that features of the organization are linked to both experience and other learning methods. In firms, one method follows another, or various methods, such as in-house training and self-study, supplement experience, but the choices are not said to be governed by experience. Among teachers, learning methods are intertwined with the changing characteristics of experiential learning. M y study suggests that the association between features of the organization and learning is stronger than theorists now propose. M y study also counterpoises Senge's rejection of experience as a learning 108 method. "Herein lies the core learning dilemma that confronts organizations: we learn best from experience but we never directly experience the consequences of many of our 13 most important decisions." M y study suggests that experience is more complex than Senge describes it, and experience should be reconsidered in learning organizations in the West. H o w organizational features are perceived to influence learning is the most important point that differentiates the teacher model from other models. In the Japanese firm model, the structures and strategies o f the organization allow workers to learn by doing. In the teacher model, the structures and strategies of the school make multifunctionalism a prerequisite for individual learning and then provide appropriate conditions and the opportunity for individual learning. Participation in tasks before multifunctionalism is not strictly ordered according to easy-to-difficult or topic, and I surmise this may help minimize fixed associations with information and facilitate independent learning. Thus, the teacher model diminishes the tacit quality and cultural association of learning with oneness of body and mind that are central notions in individual learning in Japanese learning organizations. It places the individual in a stronger position with greater possibilities of creating highly personalized or new knowledge. The most important question to arise from this study is, what is the function of multifunctionalism? Although my study's thesis differs from the stated function of multifunctionalism in Japanese learning organizations, the importance allotted to breadth o f information is 13 Peter M. Senge, The Fifth Discipline; The Art and Practice of the Learning Organization (New York: Currency Doubleday, 1994), 23. Emphasis in original. The width of multifunctionalism in the Japanese model and system thinking in Senge's model need further research as their characteristics affect how curricula are set up. 109 consistent in both models. A multifunctional structure is one of the most important features in Japanese learning organizations; it is also a central notion in Gareth Morgan's requisite variety as well as in his brain and holographic images. 1 4 It is also closely aligned with Senge's discipline of system thinking. In all these models, breadth of information plays a part in learning, but I suggest it may also be a prerequisite for individual independent learning. I cannot, however, completely differentiate my thesis from that in Japanese learning organizations because it is consistent with Fruin's cultural explanation of learning in Japanese firms. Fruin proposes that certain aspects or spheres of national work culture, such as Zen Buddhist inspired martial or aesthetic arts, seem to influence how workers learn and how they think about learning on the job. Forms come first: "Do what those before you have done... forms formalize particular notions and actions that are thought to be especially useful, powerful, or effective." 1 5 Forms correspond to the first stage of teachers' learning, where they find out what others have done. Forms, Fruin continues, "are the very essence of knowledge because through experiences with particular forms, the doors of discovery and, ultimately, of creativity are unlocked." 1 6 This description corresponds to the second stage in the teacher learning pattern where self-study and repetition dominate. The teacher model differs because both received wisdom and multifunctionalism came before independent learning. 14 Morgan describes the breadth and processing of information using brain and holographic metaphors. Gareth Morgan, Images of Organization, 2d ed. (Thousand Oaks, CA.: Sage Publications, 1997). 15 Fruin, Knowledge Works, 27. 16 Ibid., 26. 110 Relative Importance of Learning Methods Next, I compared my results with the S A S S sample to find the relative position of experiential learning in the two systems. A direct comparison between the two teacher samples is not possible because S A S S lacks data on a variety of learning sources and also on teacher ranking. Nevertheless, a comparison can be done using other data, for example, the most important learning activities for each group (experience and university degree). Rank is established in the American case by including principals, and in my study, by distinguishing between teachers in administrative and non-administrative tasks. Teachers in the general affairs and educational affairs divisions over the age of 45 were designated administrative teachers. Monbusho also supplied some comparative data on teachers and principals. Table 5.9 shows the average years of experience and the percentage of teachers and principals who hold advanced degrees, by sample. Monbusho statistics showed a notable difference in average years of experience between high school teachers and principals, 16.7 years compared to 32.3 years for principals. I found similar rates between administrative and non-administrative teachers. Administrative teachers held fewer advanced degrees than other teachers, but t tests showed no significant difference between the two group means. Data on degree levels for Japanese principals could not be obtained, but job descriptions for principals indicated that an advanced degree was not required for principalship. 1 7 Years of experience differentiated rank in the Japanese organization, rather than degrees held. 1 7 Until 1991, 15 years of high school teaching experience and/or more that 15 credits in graduate school was considered equal to a master's degree. After 1991, 6 years of experience and 6 credits in graduate school was considered equal to a master's degree. Kyoiku Hore Kenkyu-kai, Chukai Shin-Kyoiku Roppo (New Education Law 6) (Dai ichi hoki, 1991). I l l Table 5.9—Average years of experience and percentage of advanced degrees for high school principals and teachers, by sample Sample Average years of experience Percentage of advanced degrees Monbusho Principal Teacher Study Teachers in administration Teachers not in administration S A S S Principal Teacher 32.3 16.7 27.1 15.8 10.6 (teaching)+ 8 (principalship) 16.3 N / A 7.8 15 25 98.2 56.5 Source: Monbusho sample: Japan Monbusho, Gakko kyoin, 1995, 111, 128. Study sample: Teacher Questionnaire [administrative teachers N=20; non-administrative N=60]. SASS sample: For teachers, U.S. Department of Education, Statistical Profile, 1993-94, 54-55. These figures are for urban and suburban, public and private high school teachers [N=21,000 estimate]. For principal education levels, U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Public and Private School Principals in the United State: A Statistical Profile, 1987-88 to 1993-94, NCES 97-455, by Thomas A. Fiore and Thomas R. Curtin, Project Officer, Charles H. Hammer (Washington, DC: 1997), 18. For principal years of experience, ibid., A31, A32. These figures are for secondary school principals [N=4,031]. The S A S S sample showed an opposite inclination. Degree differentiated principal and teacher rank. Most high school principals held advanced degrees (98.2 percent); of these, about 10 percent were doctorates.1 8 This percentage was much higher than that of teachers; approximately half of them had advanced degrees. Conversely, total years of experience were about the same for the two groups, and teaching experience was even 18 U.S. Department of Education, Principals; A Statistical Profile, 1987-88 to 1993-94, 17. 112 lower for principals. Principals had an average of 10.6 years of teaching before becoming principal, whereas teachers recorded 16.3 years. Principals had only 2 more years total experience than the teachers. This comparison indicates that formal education and experience hold different positions in Japanese and American staffing. Nevertheless, although one activity predominates, it must also be noted that the subordinate activity also plays a part in each country. Although experience is stressed in Japan, a certain level of education is required, and although formal education is stressed in America, experience is also fixed at a certain level. A s the authors o f the principals' Statistical Profile explain, principals' average experience teaching "is substantial and seems more than adequate to provide the hands-on instructional foundation most observers believe principals should have." 1 9 Experience as an indicator is exemplified in another instance in the profile summary: males have fewer years teaching before they become principals than females (10 versus 13 years), and white males have less teaching experience than minority principals (11 versus 12 20 years), and black principals in particular (11 versus 13 years). Other S A S S data define characteristics of principals' experience and formal education that are helpful in clarifying learning differences in each system. Principals' experience, for example, was not made up of the extensive participation in non-instructional tasks that was found in the case of the sample Japanese teachers. Prior to principalship, 62.2 percent of the principals reported that they had participated in some other task besides teaching compared to 100 percent of the Japanese teachers. Data in Table 5.10 show the different participation rates in various non-instructional tasks for 1 9 Ibid., 22. 1 1 3 American principals and Japanese teachers. The principals' task participation was considerably lower than the average Japanese teacher in all but one activity— administration. S A S S profile authors note that the three surveys show that over the years a common experience for male principals was coaching. 2 1 Females were more likely to have been curriculum specialists or coordinators compared to males (30 percent versus 11 percent). 2 2 Table 5.10—Percentage of S A S S high school principals and sample Japanese teachers who participated in various non-instructional tasks Groups Dept Head Curri-culum Asst. Admin Guid-ance Library Athletic Other Coach Clubs Other S A S S principals 32.3 11.9 66.9 12.5 0.6 45.2 44.0 21.9 Japanese Teachers N / A 65.9 24.7 68.2 5.9 70.6 (athletic plus club activities) N / A Source: SASS sample: These data were obtained for this study from the U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Schools and Staffing Survey (SASS) 1993-94 [N=4,031]. Study sample: Teacher Questionnaire. The non-instructional tasks are represented as follows: curriculum = educational affairs and grade level divisions; administration = general affairs division; guidance = student supervision, homeroom, academic and career counselling divisions; library = library division; athletic and other clubs = club and special activities divisions [N=85]. Predictably, S A S S data also indicate that principals participated in courses that closely corresponded to their job description. Approximately two-thirds of public school 23 principals surveyed held a degree in educational administration. The percentages of principals who took other related courses were: 36 percent in in-service training for 2 1 Ibid., 19. 2 2 Ibid. These figures are from the 1993-94 survey. 114 aspiring principals, 85 percent in evaluation and supervision, and 74 percent in management techniques. 2 4 Formal sources provided principals with a rich source of knowledge for their tasks. American principals had less experience than the Japanese teachers in terms of average years of teaching experience and participation in a variety of non-instructional tasks, but their participation in formal courses related to their tasks was higher. This comparison reveals that experience is more important in Japanese teacher learning and formal instruction is more important among American teachers. The relative position of experience was inversely related to levels of top-down instruction. The importance of experience among Japanese teachers parallels the importance assigned to it in Japanese learning organizations. A s Fruin states, "[i]nternal status differences have little to do with formal schooling, but have a lot to do with in-company training and experience." The relative importance of experience in Japan was not only different from the S A S S sample, but also from Senge's model. Confirming the strong role of experience in my teacher sample affirms an association between organizational features and learning, but importantly, there is no evidence that these features caused the teachers' learner-directed learning. Summary This finalizes the study's interpretation of the teachers' learning pattern for non-instructional tasks. Compared to studies of Japanese education, my results support a very different perspective on teacher participation in non-instructional tasks. Teacher participation no doubt contributes to promoting values of human relations as researchers 2 4 Ibid., A 26, A27. 2 5 Fruin, Knowledge Works, 166. 115 propose, but this study also shows that the participation is connected to the teachers' learning of the tasks. In the context of learning organization theory, the results reported in this chapter support the main premise of the theory that certain organizational features facilitate learning. The evidence in my teacher sample, however, suggests that the association may be stronger than theorists now propose. I found that organizational features actually created the conditions needed for teachers to shift to learner-directed learning, and I suspect that acquiring individual knowledge may be the root of the system. It is uncertain how generalizable the sample teachers' learning pattern is. On the one hand, it can be argued that the differences in learning between the Japanese teachers and firm workers can be attributed to their different job descriptions. This undoubtedly affects how each learns. On the other hand, the main characteristics of the teachers' learning pattern correspond to those identified by a famous educator in Japan, Fukuzawa Yukichi (1834-1901), suggesting that the teachers' learning might reflect larger societal philosophies. Fukuzawa's education creed was independence. To achieve independence, one had first to identify all the information related to a problem, and then work with this information by oneself to solve the problem. [Remaining unfettered by the bonds of public opinion, one must occupy a lofty vantage point . . . One must first consider whatever bears on its [the problem's] merits and demerits and then settle which are heavy, which light, which good, which bad. Discussing the merits and demerits of a matter is simple, but it is quite difficult to 26 establish what is heavy, light, good, or bad. 2 6 Fukuzawa Yukichi, An Outline of a Theory of Civilization, translated by David A. Dilworth and G. Cameron Hurst (Tokyo: Sophia University, 1973), 11. 116 M y study asks whether learner-directed learning can actually be realized in an organization that has information and models controlled, or whether a self-directed learner must first find the boundaries of a problem before learning on one's own can progress—before he or she can determine the heavy or light, or good or bad. Fukuzawa tells us that learning is not as ordered as we know it, and explains the necessity of his independent learning. Learning is more complex than we might want to admit. Identifying values about learning in the next sets of analysis help us better understand the learning pattern that was identified. 117 C H A P T E R SIX T H E V A L U E S T E A C H E R S A S S I G N T O L E A R N I N G In this chapter, I investigate which educational goals teachers value most highly and how they themselves perceive that they learn non-instructional tasks, and associations between these findings and their actual learning. The "way of thinking" about learning is an important component of learning organization theory. In all learning organization models, learning itself is the principal goal of the organization. H o w one defines learning is a way of thinking that facilitates the creation of the learning organizations in Senge's theory. I investigate the teachers' values and perceptions within this theoretical framework and compare the results with the S A S S survey. Monbusho has no data on this topic. Teachers' Perceptions Regarding Learning Non-instructional Tasks I examined the teachers' perceptions of how they learn non-instructional tasks and compared their perceptions with their actual learning pattern reported in my own study. Comparisons are made with available S A S S data. The data were collected in section D of the teacher questionnaire. The teachers were asked to identify what proportion of their task learning was represented by each of the four types of learning (experience, formal courses, self-study, and consultation with school members). The results are given first followed by an analysis of the data over the teachers' careers. 118 Overall, the teachers perceived experience to be the most important method (35.1 percent), followed by consultation with others in the school (28.5 percent), self-study (20 percent), and lastly, learning from formal sources (14.8 percent). The "other" category was left blank. Two observations can be made about this data as they relate to the teachers' learning pattern. First, the teachers' perception that they learned from all four learning categories paralleled their learning pattern. Second, the order of importance they assigned to the methods was similar to their practice with one exception. Experience was rated first and formal last, like the learning pattern; however, consultation and self-study were not in the same order, but were reversed. This discrepancy can be explained simply as the teachers' perceptions not coinciding with the reality they reported, or consultation with all members over a career could be more helpful overall than self-study, or the teachers' concept of self-study might overlap with that of experience. A n analysis of the teachers' responses by age group reveals similar results: as the learning methods used changed over time, so did teacher perception of how they learned. I used mean analysis to find the average percentage allotted by age group. Table 6.1 shows the results. Table 6.1—Average percentage teacher age groups assigned various learning methods in their learning of non-instructional tasks Method Under 35 36-45 46-55 Over 55 Experience 30 37 34 48 Consultation 37 27 25 19 Self-study 20 ~ 17 24 16 Formal 11 17 15 18 Source: Teacher Questionnaire. [Total N=84-85. For ages under 36 N=21-22; 36-45 N=29; 46-55 N-27; 56 and over N=7]. 119 The table shows that the teachers perceived that they learned more from experience as time passed. They perceived that they learned less through consultation over time, a perception that corresponds with the decrease I found in their participation pattern, once again indicating that new teachers relied heavily on other school members. From the teachers' viewpoint, consultation and experience were inversely related, statistically expressed with a correlation value of -0.549 (p < 0.001). The perception that they learned least from formal courses coincided with constant low levels of participation in such activities. Perceptions regarding self-study, however, did not correspond exactly with the levels noted in actual practice over the course of the teachers' career. Teachers between ages 36-45 perceived low levels of learning from self-study, but actually recorded high participation at this time. The reason for this anomaly is not clear. One reason might be that although the two groups practised self-study at the same levels, they did not come to recognize their own self-study activities as such until later. Another reason might be that experience may define aspects of self-study at this stage of the teachers' learning more than at the next stage. Despite this discrepancy, teachers' perceptions of how they learned corresponded overall with their actual learning. The data from this section can be used to characterize the teachers' perceptions of their learning in two ways. First, the teachers' perceptions of their own learning corresponded closely with the way they learned; this corresponds with Senge's model. But on the other hand, my analysis also shows that the teachers' ideas about learning were not fixed—they changed as the teachers aged and as their characteristics of experience changed, and this does not correspond with Senge's model. Further analysis 120 revealed the degree of the variation among teachers. Frequency counts and standard deviations showed that the percentage teachers assigned to learning methods covered an extremely broad range. These are shown in Table 6.2. Table 6.2—Frequency count range, mean, and standard deviations for percentages teachers assigned learning methods Method Frequency Count Range Mean Standard Deviation Experience 0-90 35.1 17.6 Consultation 0-80 28.5 17.8 Self-study 0-70 20.0 13.5 Formal courses 0-50 14.8 13.2 Source: Teacher Questionnaire [N=85-86]. This variation in responses could be attributed, as Hua Yang proposes, to the "cultural tendency of Japanese people to express their opinion in an ambiguous way." 1 1 dismiss this possibility because I found (in the next section results) that Japanese teachers can express themselves very clearly on certain occasions. The variation found in the teacher sample suggests that there is no fixed perception of how one learns common to all members of the group, in opposition to Senge's strictly defined learning disciplines. M y findings suggest a degree of self-regulation in how one learns; and this may be just as, or more, important than practising Senge-type disciplines of learning. The three teacher examples I have been following illustrate the teachers' perceptions discussed above. The percentage each teacher allotted to the learning method is shown in Table 6.3 for Teachers #1, #46, and #58. ' Hua Yang, "The teacher's job: A comparison of US and Japanese middle school teachers" ( Ph.D. diss., Stanford University, 1993), 105. 121 Table 6.3—Percentages example teachers assigned learning methods Method Teacher #1 Teacher #46 Teacher #58 Experience Consultation Self-study Formal 0 70 20 10 15 15 20 50 60 10 20 10 Source: Teacher Questionnaire. For Teachers #1 and #58, perceptions correspond with the perceptions of their age groups reported in Table 6.1. Noteworthy is the high percentage attributed to consultation by Teacher #1, the youngest teacher, and the high percentage assigned to experience by the more experienced Teacher #58. Noteworthy also is the change in relative positions of self-study and consultation between the two teachers. Consultation is the higher of the two in the case of the young Teacher #1, but Teacher #58 assigns consultation a lower percentage than self-study. Senior Teacher #46, however, perceived his learning very differently from his age group. Formal education, a method of learning that has consistently had low participation and influence throughout this study, was suddenly placed in the forefront. The reason for this teacher's choice is unknown. Several other teachers thought formal courses were important, suggesting that further research is needed to uncover other factors that may also influence how teachers perceive their own learning. The table highlights how differently the teachers perceived their own learning. The S A S S survey does not have data for a direct comparison, but other available information reveals American teachers' views on learning from formal courses. One o f the questions in the S A S S survey asked teachers to evaluate the impact of the 122 professional development courses they took in the last school year. Possible impacts were expressed in statements which respondents rated on a scale from "strongly agree" to "strongly disagree." Most teachers (72.6 percent), agreed or strongly agreed with the statement that the courses "provided information that was new to me," and more than half (53.9 percent) agreed that they "caused me to change my teaching practices." Very few thought that the courses were not helpful, and only 9.1 percent of the teachers reported that the programs were a waste of time. Overall, the teachers found formal courses to be beneficial in their learning, corresponding with their participation in these activities. I found that both the S A S S survey and my survey of Japanese teachers indicate that perceptions about learning and actual learning are related. Therefore, I support Senge's view that changing beliefs about learning w i l l influence learning, with the proviso that beliefs about learning constitute only one of many contexts that are connected with the learning process. I also found that Japanese teachers' perceptions changed as they moved through the stages of the learning pattern. This leads to the question whether a fixed image o f what learning is or whether defining learning according to each person's stage of learning and making learning self-regulated, better defines this context of learner-directed learning in learning organizations. Learner-directed learning, Nonaka and Takeuchi suggest, cannot be actualized i f it is initiated in a top-down manner. 2 U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, "The Schools and Staffing Survey (SASS) and Teacher Follow-up Survey (TFS) CD-ROM: Electronic Codebook and Public-Use Data for Three Cycles of SASS and TFS," [CD-ROM]; NCES 98-312 (June 1998). 3 Ikujiro Nonaka and Hirotaka Takeuchi, The Knowledge-Creating Company (New York: Oxford University Press, 1995). 123 Values Assigned to Educational Goals Which educational goals do Japanese teachers value that might underlie how they learn non-instructional tasks? To address this question, this section explores the values teachers assign to educational goals and associations between these goals and their learning pattern. The data I considered come from section D o f the teacher questionnaire. Teachers were asked to rank each of eleven goals on a scale of 0 to 10, and then choose the three most important goals in order of importance. A s discussed in detail in chapter 3, a wide variety of goals associated with different kinds of learning were included so that respondents would have a broad choice. I examined sample teachers' goals within the following contexts. In studies of Japanese education, authors such as Rohlen and Yang conclude that promoting the development o f human relations skills is held to be more important than promoting academic excellence. 4 A learning organization's goal is learning itself, and this includes emphases on individual learning, problem-solving, and human relations. The S A S S system, which depicts a traditional bureaucratic organization, instead values bodies of expertise. Table 6.4 shows the results on the teachers' assigned values. In the first column, it shows how the sample teachers ranked each of the eleven goals on average (0 = not important to 10 = very important). Descriptive analysis was used to obtain the means for these variables, providing a ranking of goal preferences. Personal growth and fulfillment received the highest average score of 9.2, followed by promoting problem-solving with 9.1. A l l other goals had moderately high values of between 7.9 and 8.6 except three. 4 Thomas P. Rohlen, Japan's High Schools (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1983); Yang, "The teacher's job." 124 Promoting vocational skills and use of computers showed medium values of 6.1 and 6.5 respectively, and promoting school rank was seen as least important, with a value of only 4.9. The data indicate that the teachers believed that most of the educational goals listed in the questionnaire were very important. Eight of the eleven goals received a 7.9 or higher value. Table 6.4—Average values sample teachers assigned various educational goals (0-10), percentage of teachers who rated specific educational goals as first, second, or third most important, and standard deviation of the rated goals Goals Average Values Assigned Percentage Rated Three Most Important Goals Standard Deviation of Rated Goals Personal growth 9.2 79 1.0 Problem solving 9.1 63 1.1 Basic skills 8.6 34 1.5 Moral values 8.5 32 1.5 Work habits 8.3 31 1.6 Academic 8.3 27 1.4 Human relations 8.2 16 1.4 Internationalism 7.9 12 1.6 Computers 6.5 0 2.0 Vocational skills 6.1 1 2.2 School rank 4.9 3 2.5 Source: Teacher Questionnaire [N=80-88]. Table 6.4 shows the percentage o f teachers who rated each goal as first, second, or third most important. The highest percentage of teachers selected the two goals that most closely coincide with learner-directed learning: the goals o f promoting personal growth and fulfillment, and ability to solve problems on one's own. The table percentages display a wide gap between these and the other goals, putting the two goals 125 in a league of their own. The next level scored approximately half or less of the top two values and included the following four goals: promoting basic literacy, promoting moral values, promoting good work habits, and, promoting academic excellence. A t a lower level came promoting human relations, and promoting international awareness. Only two teachers in the whole sample viewed school rank as one of the three most important, only one teacher chose promoting vocational skills, and no teachers named promoting the use of computers. These results indicate that underlying the teachers' learning pattern and their perceptions of how they learn is a focus on the individual—on the individual's growth and fulfillment, and on the individual's ability to solve problems on his or her own. Promoting academic excellence was ranked sixth in importance, which is consistent with Rohlen and Yang's conclusion that the academic side of schooling is not the main goal in Japanese education.5 M y results, however, do not support their thesis that promoting human relations skills is the ultimate goal. The teachers' low rating of human relations skills clearly reveals its relative value, and, further, calls into question the importance learning organization theorists place on team dynamics as one of a learning organization's primary goals. On the other hand, the high values that teachers place on the individual in the learning process is consistent with what learning organization theorists propose. I conclude from this that neither human relations skills nor academic excellence direct the teachers' learning, perceptions of learning, and organizational structure; rather, personal growth is the driving force, and problem-solving the means to this end. 5 Ib id . 126 Further analysis revealed another characteristic of the values held by teachers that is also significant in defining learning organizations, the fact that the Japanese teachers showed extremely high agreement on their ratings of goal preferences. The standard deviation figures for each goal are given in Table 6.4. A s the data show, the values are low, and they display the reverse of the values assigned by the teachers. Importantly, the higher the value given a goal, the lower the standard deviation. For example, the standard deviation for the goal of promoting personal growth that the teachers selected as most important was 1.2, whereas it was 2.5 for the goal of promoting school rank that the teachers chose as least important. Not only was there agreement on the macroscopic scene, but the four age groups also held similar views to each other. Table 6.5 gives the average values teacher age groups assigned various goals. Table 6.5—Average values (0-10) teacher age groups assigned various educational goals Educational Goal Under 35 36-45 46-55 Over 55 Promoting 9.3 personal growth 9.3 9.0 9.4 Promoting 9.2 problem-solving 9.0 9.2 9.2 Promoting human 7.4 relations skills 8.6 8.0 8.3 Source: Teacher Questionnaire [Total N=86-87. Under 35 N=22; 36-45 N=31; 46-55 N=26-27; over 55 N=7]. Overall agreement on the value of the goals was very high as figures for the two most important goals show, especially when compared to the variation found among teachers in their perceptions of learning. The human relations skills goal was one that did 127 show some difference among groups. N e w teachers valued this goal more than senior teachers did. This higher value coincides with their reliance on their co-workers in their learning pattern. The teacher example illustrates the characteristics described above. The first, second, and third most important goals selected by Teachers #1, #46, and #58 are given in Table 6.6. Table 6 .6—The first, second, and third most important goal selected by example teachers Background Teacher #1 Teacher #46 Teacher #58 Most important Solving Personal Personal problems growth and growth and fulfillment fulfillment Second most International Solving important awareness problems Third most Personal growth Academic important and fulfillment excellence Source: Teacher Questionnaire. Despite the differences noted among the teachers regarding their perceptions of their learning, duties, and learning habits, personal growth and fulfillment, and problem-solving were among the goals they preferred the most. The selection order for Teacher #58 corresponded with the macroscopic results. The senior teacher, Teacher #46, selected only one goal: promoting personal growth. The youngest Teacher #1 thought problem-solving was most important. Teacher #58 picked promoting academic excellence as his third choice, while Teacher #1 chose promoting international awareness as his second choice. 128 The high degree of agreement found in the teacher sample has special meaning in learning organization theory. A n agreed-upon goal is an essential characteristic of learning organizations. It is one of Senge's five disciplines, one of the five essential characteristics of Nonaka and Takeuchi's knowledge-creating company, and the first and most important step in Fruin's organizational campaigning. A s Nonaka and Takeuchi explain, "the knowledge spiral is driven by organizational intention, which is defined as an organization's aspiration to its goals." 6 The results show that there was agreement among teachers on goals, but not on how they were going to reach these goals. A comparison between the educational goals valued by Japanese and S A S S teachers is possible because my study question was copied from the S A S S survey, with some amendments. The S A S S data here come from the 1990-91 survey, because this question was asked in this survey only. Figure 6.1 gives the percentage of S A S S high school teachers who rated each o f the eight goals as first, second, or third most important compared to the results of the Japanese sample. Two goals stood out as being most important for Japanese teachers, but the S A S S teachers chose four. Two of these goals were rated at approximately the same level— building basic skills (67.8 percent) and promoting good work habits and self-discipline (66.4 percent). Next came promoting personal growth (53.9 percent) and academic achievement (49.1 percent). Fewer than 21.8 percent of the teachers chose promoting human relation skills, vocational skills, moral values, or multicultural awareness as one of the three important goals. 6 Nonaka and Takeuchi, Knowledge-Creating, 74 . 129 Figure 6.1—Percentage of S A S S and Japanese sample high school teachers who rated specific education goals as first, second, or third most important • Japanese Sample U S A S S Source: Japanese sample: Teacher Questionnaire [N=80-85]. The percentage for the multiculturalism goal represents the promoting internationalism goal in the Japanese sample. SASS sample: U.S. Department of Education, Statistical Profile, 1990-91, 84-85. For urban and suburban high school teachers. The percentage for the promoting multiculturalism goal is for public high school teachers only. These data indicate that underlying the American teachers' learning is a focus on bodies of knowledge embedded in skills and academic curricula. These goals they value correspond to their high participation in formal sources, and perception that these sources are a good source for learning. I concluded that teachers sought skills and academic knowledge, and work habits and self-discipline helped the learner achieve these. Problem-solving on one's own—so important in Japan—was not even listed in the survey's set of goals. Although personal growth and fulfillment was one o f the four most valued goals, I conclude that it is not the driving force as in the case of the Japanese teachers. It is not clear how this personal goal is related to the other three most important goals of the American teachers. The S A S S teachers did not rank the goal of promoting 130 human relations highly, and neither did the Japanese, indicating that this goal is not viewed as central in either system. Perhaps the most surprising difference between the Japanese and S A S S teacher values is where they position the individual. For Japanese teachers, the individual is central, as it is in learning organizations. S A S S data suggest that the individual is not the primary focus of American teachers. This is contrary to Westerner's view of the foundation of both Western and Japanese education. Yang expresses this difference as follows: The fundamental difference between the social norms held in the U S and Japan appears to be the contrasting concepts regarding the position of the individual in society (Befu, 1986). . . . The peculiar American idea is individualism . . . the competing cultural concept held by Japanese emphasizes interpersonal relationship... . Interpersonal relationship oriented norms and beliefs have profound implications with respect to Japanese behavior. Befu (1986) used "self-discipline" and "role perfectionalism" as the two key behavioral features related to interpersonalism.7 On the other hand, Merry White notes a similar discrepancy as I did in her study of schools in Japan. There is a paradox and irony here. Japanese elementary school teachers usually don't find themselves laying down the law, and instead spend time trying to create ways to engage children emotionally. Their American counterparts, fully imbued with the ideals of freedom and individual expression, are preoccupied with maintaining class o order and sometimes little else . . . Not only do my study findings question this commonly-held assumption regarding the place of the individual in learning, they also reveal that both teacher groups 7 Y a n g , " T h e teacher ' s j o b , " 21-22 . Y a n g is r e f e r r ing to the f o l l o w i n g w o r k : H . B e f u , " T h e s o c i a l a n d cu l tu ra l b a c k g r o u n d o f c h i l d d e v e l o p m e n t in J a p a n , " i n Child Development and Education in Japan, ed . S t e v e n s o n , H . A z u m a , a n d K . H a k u t a ( N e w Y o r k : W . H . F r e e m a n a n d C o . , 1986) . 8 M e r r y W h i t e , The Japanese Educational Challenge ( N e w Y o r k : T h e F r e e Press , 1987) , 182. 131 place a relatively low value on promoting human relations skills. Looking to Japan's teachers to enhance team learning, thus, might be misleading. Self-discipline, which is also consistently associated with Japanese behaviour, appears to be a more integral part of the American model than the Japanese. The other important characteristic of the Japanese teachers' values—agreement among teachers—is investigated next. Although standard deviation figures were not available, other S A S S data indicated that there were differences in values between elementary and high school teachers, private and public school teachers, teachers and principals, and private and public school principals. To illustrate the difference in the degree of agreement between S A S S and Japanese teachers, I compared goal values between public and private high school teachers of each sample. The results are shown in Figures 6.2 and 6.3 on the following page. Public and private Japanese teachers show very similar results, but the S A S S subgroups portray different orders of preference. The S A S S profile authors note the diversity in values among school groups. In the 1990-91 survey summary, the authors commented that they did not understand why, for example, teachers' and principals' goals differed to the extent that they did. "Given this variation in teachers' and principals' rating of education goals in both public and private schools," they added, "it is clear that further analyses remain to be done." 9 In the next survey, the question on teacher goals had been taken out. 9 U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Schools and Staffing in the United States: A Statistical Profile, 1990-91, NECS 93-146 (Washington: 1996), 89. 132 Figure 6.2—Percentage of public and private Japanese teachers who rated specific goals as first, second, or third most important • Personal growth • Problem solving • Basic skills • Moral Values •Work habits •Academic • Human realtions • internationalism • Computer • Vocation skills • School rank Source: Teacher Questionnaire [Public N=57-60; Private N=23-26]. Figure 6.3—Percentage of SASS public and private high school teachers who rated specific goals as first, second, or third most important Personal growth •Basic skills • Moral Values •Work habits •Academic • Human realtions •Vocation skills • Multiculturalims • Religion Source: U.S. Department of Education, Statistical Profile, 1990-91, 84-85. [Public N=5,100; Private N=650 estimates]. 133 While it is puzzling that there is so much variety in goal values in the American school system, the differences can be explained when viewed from a learning organization perspective. A s mentioned, agreement on goals is one of the most important features of learning organizations. Conversely, I suggest that variety in ratings of values is part of a top-down learning system. Where bodies of expertise are a primary source of knowledge, and where learners are influenced to some degree by this expertise, conflicts over what should be transmitted to learners w i l l be inherent in the system. A lack o f agreement on values and a lack of emphasis on the individual, as exemplified in the S A S S teachers, present potentially strong inhibitors to the actualization of learning organizations in Western schools. Summary M y findings showed that the educational goals the Japanese teachers valued most highly are also the goals of learning organizations. These goals were different from those expressed by the S A S S teachers. The teachers' perceptions of how they learned corresponded with their actual learning pattern. This association is consistent with Senge's thesis that these two elements are related. M y findings also indicated that although the teachers agreed on what educational goals were important, they did not agree on how they learned. Variety in teachers' perceptions of how they learn suggest that the teachers' learning was self-regulated and related to their stage of learning. This finding diverges from Senge's central proposal that practising his five disciplines is the path to learner-directed learning. Senge's shift in mind to specified learning habits might not be the route to learning organizations as he proposes. 134 In the context of studies on Japanese teachers, the results reported in this chapter present a very different picture of the values assigned to educational goals by teachers. The study data reveal that promoting human relations skills was not a primary goal, a findings that opposes the currently prevailing thesis that the high value teachers assign to humans relations skills underlies Japanese, education. The strong emphasis on the role the individual plays in learning found in the teachers' values contrasts with the way in which Westerners commonly view Japanese education. 1 0 This study finding is similar to what Mark Fruin found at Toshiba. Good human relations facilitated the achievement of individual goals, but good human relations were not themselves among the goals the individuals sought. 1 1 A s was the case earlier, what has actually been learned about the Japanese teachers in this chapter is not what was planned for and anticipated in the study design. Following Senge's lead, I expected to find that the values Japanese teachers assigned to learning would correspond with the learning pattern. Although I found such a correspondence, I also found that other characteristics that I hadn't considered may be even more important in defining one of the contexts of learning in a learning organization. 1 0 Rohlen, Japan's High Schools; Yang, "The teacher's job." 11 W. Mark Fruin, Knowledge Works: Managing Intellectual Capital at Toshiba (New York: Oxford University Press, 1997). Fruin found that individuals were motivated to learn in the interest of self-improvement, peer recognition, and career advancement. 135 C H A P T E R S E V E N C O N C L U S I O N In this study, I found that how my sample of Japanese teachers went about learning non-instructional tasks, as well as their organization of tasks, values assigned to learning, and associations among these elements, was consistent with learning organization theory. Educational goals the Japanese teachers valued most highly are also the goals of learning organizations. The teachers' learning was learner-directed, on-going, and took place at the school site, characteristics that also define learning organizations.1 Treating the professional development of the teachers in Japanese schools as representing the qualities of a learning organization represents a new perspective in research on Japanese education. The results of my study showed that characteristics of the teachers' learning and organizational features resembled those found in learning organizations in Japanese firms more than those described in the theoretical model described by Peter Senge. Japanese teachers and firm workers used experiential learning as the main means to learn their tasks, and a multifunctional structure to organize their tasks. Experience and 1 Mark Dodgson, "Organizational Learning: A Review of Some Literatures," Organization Studies 14.3 (1993): 375-94. See also, Gareth Morgan, Images of Organization, 2d ed. (Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 1997). 2 Peter M. Senge, The Fifth Discipline: The Art and Practice of the Learning Organization (New York: Currency Doubleday, 1994). For descriptions of learning organizations in Japanese firms, see W. Mark Fruin, Knowledge Works: Managing Intellectual Capital at Toshiba (New York: Oxford University Press, 1997); Ikujiro Nonaka and Hirotaka Takeuchi, The Knowledge-Creating Company (New York: Oxford University Press, 1995). 136 multifunctionalism are not elements of Senge's model. On the other hand, the results showed that the Japanese teachers' perceptions about how they learned their tasks corresponded to their actual learning pattern, and this supported the most important premise in Senge's theory. In addition, I found that there were differences in characteristics of learning and organizational features between the Japanese teacher and firm worker samples, and these differences defined a unique teacher learning organization model. The Japanese teachers' learning activities changed over the course of their careers in four stages. Experience in tasks was characterized first by multifunctionalism, followed by repetition and supervision, and finally, by working regularly in school administration tasks. The stages were associated with shifts in the teachers' choices of learning methods. In the first stage, teachers preferred consultation with co-workers. In the second and third stage, they practised self-study the most. In the final stage, they demonstrated an increase in consultation with administrative school staff. Workers in learning organization firms in Japan were found to learn mainly from direct participation in tasks and by rotating tasks, supplemented by off-the-job training and self-study. The teacher learning organization model established in this study possesses the following distinguishing characteristics. Teachers relied on self-study to learn about non-instructional tasks after an initial experience of taking on a wide range of tasks and learning from the advice of their co-workers. This self-study is associated with repetition and supervision in participation, and is followed, as their careers develop, by teachers taking on administrative duties and increased consultation with administration staff. Experience is defined by its context—by the breadth and depth of information preceding 1 3 7 it, by the learning method associated with it, and by supervisory or non-supervisory status. Values held about learning correspond with actual learning. Personal growth and problem-solving are the most important educational goals, and there is no fixed perception o f how one learns. Comparisons with American teachers showed characteristics that contrasted with those found in the Japanese sample: American teachers tended to favour acquisition of basic skills and good work habits as important educational goals; formal training was the main source of knowledge for learning their tasks; and task organization was segmented. M y study offers a more detailed description of various aspects of the work culture of Japanese high school teachers than has been documented in earlier studies. Analysis of my data suggests that teachers' participation in non-instructional tasks is not solely influenced by the value teachers place on gaining human relations skills, a thesis that is currently dominant in Western studies of Japanese education.3 While definitive conclusions about the nature of Japanese teachers' learning await large-scale studies, data from my small sample offers a description of two alternative environmental contexts of learning that may be considered in Western reform efforts in education. 4 The results suggest that certain organizational features and values attached to learning may be important in facilitating learning organizations, a suggestion given with the proviso that the study is limited in its generalizability, needs much more research, and needs to uncover evidence of the causal agency of these contexts. This study highlights 3 See Thomas P. Rohlen, Japan's High Schools (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1983); Nancy Sato and Milbrey W. McLaughlin, "Context Matters: Teaching in Japan and the United States," Phi Delta Kappan 73.5(1992): 359-66. 4 For example, the contexts are different from those described in Marcia C. Linn et al., "Beyond Fourth-Grade Science: Why do U.S. And Japanese Students Diverge?" ER Online [online journal] 29.3 (April 2000); available from World Wide Web @ http://www.aera.net/pubs/er/arts/29-03/mlinn01.htm. 138 the importance of further research on learning in Japanese schools because they provide examples of learner-directed learning in practice. It also highlights the importance of cultural studies in questioning what is considered to be "nature" in our own society. This study explores only one segment o f teachers' jobs, one aspect o f the educational system, and therefore only a small part of a much more complex area of research on learning; consequently, it has limitations. Only further research can establish whether the unique qualities of the teachers' learning are specific to their learning of non-instructional tasks, or whether they are essential elements of learner-directed learning. I have also recognized throughout this study that more research is needed to better understand the Japanese teachers' learning. More data are required to detail characteristics of the four learning stages, and analyses should be done on teacher subgroups. Learning contexts, such as teacher learning in the instructional domain, teacher attitudes, the role of administration, school organizational features, curricula, assessment, and broader social, historical, and political environments also need to be researched. More investigations are also needed to test the causal agency in the numerous associations found in this study. This study was not designed to examine outcomes of the teachers' learning in terms of knowledge. This area of investigation is, however, important as many researchers now assume that learner-directed learning encourages a higher level of academic achievement.5 The degree of independence in knowledge outcome and use of the knowledge in group situations must also be understood. H o w teacher learning affects student learning was also beyond the scope of this study. 5 Ibid. 139 Methodological problems inherent in research into "others" also imposed limitations on this study. The study sought to define the teachers' learning according to organized bodies of knowledge, fixed learning methods and educational values. The results, however, suggested that the unanticipated results became just as, i f not more important, than what the study originally sought to find. The methodological approach used in the study allowed for sufficient data and analyses to obtain these unexpected results, but ironically, it was Western mental models that were used as guides and also had the potential to limit the findings. How we approach our own learning—our desire for control and order, and lack of desire and means to search for the unknown—reveals potential limitations, as was seen in this study. The process of learning in this study suggests that our perceptions of reality are more illusory than we might want to acknowledge, and learning more complex than imagined. This study opened with the question, what is a learning organization and how is it created? The results suggest that learner-directed learning has a variety of definitions, that there are many different learning organization models, and that they contribute to this area o f research by providing another perspective and a unique model. Japanese teachers' learning of non-instructional tasks proved ideal for this investigation—the number of task divisions allowed for an overview of principal characteristics of learning over time. Data analyses strongly implied a causal link between organizational features and educational values, and learner-directed learning, giving new ideas about possible means to facilitate such learning. This study offers new concepts of learning organizations, questions what we attribute to "nature" in our own systems, and challenges the rigidity of our mental models in an attempt to understand the seeming paradox of unfamiliar combinations in 140 the Japanese case. It suggests that future research needs to be initiated that aims toward developing new organizational and intellectual contexts to be applied to curriculum and instruction, and that tests the learning and knowledge outcomes. 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Ph.D. diss., Stanford University, 1993. 146 APPENDIX 1 THE ORGANIZATION OF THE NON-INSTRUCTIONAL TASKS SCHOOL AFFAIRS DIVISION ORGANIZATION (Komu bunsho soshiki)' PRINCIPAL (Ko-cho)l -1VICE PRINCIPAL (Kyo-to)| - ISCHOOL AFFAIR LIAISON COMMITTEE (komu renraku-kai)] - General affair division (Somu bu)| -General affair section (Shomu gakari) -Annual event planning (Nenkan gyoji keikaku) -General survey preparation (Gakko yoran no sakusei) -School introduction (Gakko an-nai) -Chairman rotation list (Gicho rotation hyo) -Document preparation, record management (Bunsho no sakusei, kiroku hokan) (Staff meeting minutes, etc.) (Shokuin kaigi kiroku nado) -Junior high school visit organization (Chugakko no homon-kai) -School explanation meeting (Gakko setsumei-kai) -Public relation section (Koho gakari) -PTA member list (PTA kaiin meibo) -PTA bulletin (PTA kaiho) -Liaison section (Shogai gakari) <PTA relation> (PTA kankei) -Secretary (Shoki) -Accounting (Kaikei) -Safety promoting organization (Anzen shinko kai) -Others (Sonota) (External documentation general affair, etc.) (Taigaiteki na bunsho shomu nado) -Ceremony section (Shikiten gakari) -Planning, design (Kikaku, ritsuan) -Conducting entrance ceremony, graduation ceremony (Nyugaku-shiki, sotsugyo-shiki no unei) -Conducting opening ceremony, teacher leaving ceremony, closing ceremony) (Shigyo-shiki, rinin-sihki, shugyo-shiki no unei) - Educational affair division (Kyomu bu)| -Liaison (Shogai) -School explanation meeting, junior high visit, chair of morning gathering, etc. (Gakko setsumei-kai, chugaku homon, choda shikai nado) -Planning (Kikaku) 1 The task list was professionally translated. 147 -Educational affairs various issues planning (Kyomu sho-mondai kikaku) -Educational affair regulations (Kyomu shokitei) -Arranging various regulations (Sho-kitei no seibi) -School register relation (Gakuseki kankei) -Updating current student numbers (Zaiseki seito-su no Haaku) -Cumulative guidance record (Shido yoroku) -Guiding preparation of cumulative guidance records, check, storage, etc.) (Shido yoroku no sakusei shido, tenken, hokan nado) -Admission selection (Nyugaku senbatsu) -Scholastic achievement text relation (Gakuryoku kensa kankei) -Transfer & enrollment (Ten hen-nyu) -Transfer & enrollment selection work planning, design (Ten hen-nyu senbatsu gyomu keikaku, ritsuan) -Certification and others (Shomeisho nado) -Scholastic mark certification preparation (Seiseki shomei-sho sakusei) (including English documents) (Eibun fukumu) -Daily schedule (Nikka) -Daily schedule (Nikka) Daily schedule arrangement, design, etc. (Nikka chosei, ritsuan nado) -Chime adjustment (Chime chosei) Adjusting according to the daily schedule (Nikka ni awaseta chosei) -Various examinations (Sho test) -Regular examination (Teiki text) 1st, 2 n d , 3 r d term(l, 2, 3 gakki) (Midterm, term-end) (Chukan, kimatsu) Various examination (Sho text) Prefectural examination (Ken itsu test), theses examination (Kadai text), graduation examination (Sotsugyo text) -Special timetable (Tokubetsu jikan-wari) -Timetable (Jikan-wari) Timetable preparation, related matters (Jikan-wari sakusei, kanren jiko) Timetable modification (Jikan-wari henko) -Supplementary lessons, etc. (Hoshu nado) Designing supplementary lessons for school days and non school days (heijitsu, kyugyo-chu hoshu ritsuan) Designing and reporting supplementary lessons for ratification (Tsuinin no tame no hoshu ritsuan, hokoku) -Instructor contact (Koshi renraku) -Lesson, event and the like schedule change (Jugyo henko, gyoji henko nado) -Student apprenticeship (Kyoiku jisshu) -Accepting student apprentice, liaison and designing practical plan (Kyoiku jisshu no ukeire, shogai, jisshu keikaku no ritsuan) -Class formation (Gakkyu hensei) -Class formation design, designing class formation related plan, labelling (Gakkyu hensei ritsuan, jiyu sentaku ni kakawaru keikaku no ritsuan, meihyo) -Option (Jiyu sentaku) -Survey, statistic (Chosa, tokei) -Preparing various educational survey (Kakushu kyoiku chosa no sakusei) ' 148 -Lesson hours statistic, adjustment (jugyo jikan tokei, chosei) -Textbook, supplementary teaching material, teaching material and tool (Kyokasho, fuku kyozai, kyouzai kyogu) -Selection, sales liaison (Saitaku gyomu, hanbai shogai) -School journal (Gakko nisshi) -School journal entry, teacher's room blackboard maintenance (Gakko nisshi kinyu, shokuin-shitsu no kokuban no kanri) -Data (Chohyo rui) -Preparing and storing scholastic mark lists, labels, etc. (Seiseki ichiran-hyo, meihyo nado sakusei to hokan) Ordering, preparing, storing labels, educational affair pocketbooks, class journals, roll books, report cards, test bags, rubber seals, etc. (Meihyo, kyomu techo, gakkyu nisshi, shusseki-bo, tsuchi-hyo, test bukuro, gomu-in nado no hacchu, junbi, hokan) -Long home room (LHR) -Plan preparation, schedule adjustment (Keikaku sakusei, nittei chosei) -Curriculum (Kyoiku katei) -Curriculum related matters (Kyoiku katei kanren jiko) -School mark meeting records (Seiseki kaigi kiroku) -Each term's school mark meeting records (Kaku gakki seiseki kaigi kiroku) - Student supervisory division (Seito shido-bu)| -Liaison (shogai) -General affair section (Shomu gakari) (Preparing and printing annual planning, individual photos, accounting, records, student pocketbooks and various documents) (Nenkan keikaku, Kojin shashin, Kaikei Kiroku, Seito techo, kakushu bunsho no sakusei, insatsu) -Human rights, social integration education (Jinken, Dowa kyoiku kenkyu) (Research study design, Plan implementation) (Kensyu ritsuan, keikaku jisshi) -Student supervisory (Seikatsu shido) (Each grades student supervisory, clothes, late, outing, patrol) (Gakunen seikatsu shido, fukuso, chikoku, gaishutsu, junshi) (Grade 10)(lnen) (Grade U)(2nen) (Grade 12) (3nen) (Beyond grade) (Gakunen gai) -School regulation committee guidance (Ko-ki iinkai shido) -Safety guidance (Anzen shido) (Trafic safety guidance, bicycle parking guidance, bicycle insurance) (Kotsu anzen shido, jitensha churin shido, jitensha hoken) -Young riders school (Young rider school) -Traffic safety committee guidance (kotsu anzen iinkai shido) -Counseling (Counseling) (Operating counseling room, counseling implementation) (Sodanshitsu no unei, counseling jisshi) -Lost, theft (Ishitsubutsu, tonan) (Lost goods management, theft protection guidance) (Ishitsubutsu kanri, tonan boshi shido) 149 - Student council advisory division (seitokai shido-bu)| -General affair (Shomu) -Student council guidance (seitokai shido) -Officers of headquarter (Honbu yakuin) -Physical education committee (Taiiku iinkai) -Cultural committee (Bunka iinkai) -Welfare committee (Fukushi iinkai) -Election administration committee (Senkyo kanri iinkai) -Leader research study (Leader kensyu) -Kijo festival (Kijo sai) -Cultural section (Bunka no bu) -Physical education section (Taiiku no bu) -Public relation (Koho) -Ball game tournament (Kyugi taikai) -Club activities (Bu katsudo) -Athletic club (Undo bu) -Cultural club (Bunka bu) -Public relation (Koho) -Accounting (Kaikei) - Academic and career counseling division (Shinro shido-bu)| -General affair (Shomu) (Statistic data, accounting/scholarship, academic and career note, academic and career news, victory goal, survey) (Tokei shiryo, kaikei/shogaku-kin, shinro note, shinro tsushin/v goal, chosa) -Next stage of education (Shingaku) (Course explanation meeting, course consultation, off campus mock exam, course advisory data, interview guidance) (Sinro setsumei-kai, shinro kondan-kai, kogai moshi, shinro shido shiryo, mensetsu shido) -Career (Shushoku) (Job offer reception, statistic data, employment mock exam, interview guidance, company liaison, public service guidance) (Kyujin uketsuke, tokei shiryo, shushoku moshi, mensetsu shido, kigyo renraku, komuin shido) -Planning, liaison (Kikaku, shogai) - School beautification division (Kankyo bika-bu)| -Administration section (Kanri gakari) (Goods, office equipment) (Buppin, bihin jimu yohin) -Facility (Shisetsu) (School beautification, cleaning planning) (Kankyo bika, seiso keikaku) -Beautification section (Bika gakari) -Disaster prevention section (Bosai gakari) (Disaster prevention planning, disaster prevention evacuation training, saving for emergency, heater stove management) (Bosai keikaku, bosai hinan kunren, bichiku, stove kanri) -Beautification committee (Bika iinkai) 150 -Planning, liaison (Kikaku, shogai) (Planning, operation, liaison, coordination, etc.) (Kikaku, unei, renraku, chosei nado) - Library audiovisual division (Tosho shichokaku-bu)| -Library section (Tosho gakari) -Library committee (Tosho iinkai) -Notification (Keiji) -SLA (SLA) -Audiovisual section (Shichokaku gakari) (Committee, mechanical equipment) (Iinkai, kizai) -Accounting section (Kaikei gakari) (Library relation, audiovisual relation) (Tosho kankei, shichokaku kankei) -Art appreciation organization section (Geijutsu kansho-kai gakari) - Health and welfare division (Hoken kosei-bu)| -Liaison section (Shogai gakari) (School doctor, prefecture school health section and others, liaison coordination) (Koi, ken gakko hoken-ka nado renraku chosei) -Health event (Hoken gyoji) (Event planning, designing, implementation, first aid) (Gyoji no keikaku, ritsuan, jisshi, okyu teate) Emergency measure (Okyu shochi) -Health organization section (Kenko-kai gakari) (Application, receiving medical treatment, etc., procedure, etc.) (Moshikomi, iryo nado no juri, tetsuzuki nado) -Health Committee section (Hoken iinkai gakari) (Health committee members guidance) (Hoken iin no shido) -Welfare section (Kosei gakari) (Environmental sanitation, food sanitation, photochemical smog, stands relation) (Kankyo eisei, shokuhin eisei, kokagaku smog, baiten kankei) -Accounting section (Kaikei gakari) (Medicine, fixtures purchase adjustment) (Yakuhin, bihin konyu seiri) -Grade 12 (3 gakunen) -Grade 11 (2 gakunen) -Grade 10(1 gakunen) HEAD ADMINISTRATOR (Jimu-cho) Administration division (Jimu-buj| -Property management, facility open, salary, benefit, compensation, services (Zaisan kanri, shisetsu kaiho, kyuyo, fukuri kosei, hoshu, fukumu) -Maintenance operation fee, educational promotion fee, materials, various certifications) (Iji unei hi, kyoiku shinko hi, buppin, sho-shomei) -Income, school register, documents, various certification, travel cost) (Shu-nyu, gakuseki, bunsho, sho-shomei, ryohi) -Various services at large (Sho gyomu zenpan) (Joyu organization) (Joyu-kai) 151 A P P E N D I X 2 TEACHER QUESTIONNAIRE For the Research Project A Study of Teacher Participation in Non-instructional Tasks in Japanese High Schools Conducted by: Investigator/Student: Wi lma J . M a k i e-mail: wjmaki@interchange.ubc.ca Faculty Advisor: Dr. John Wi l l insky e-mail: wil l insk@unixg.ubc.ca Notice: Your answers w i l l be kept strictly confidential. Results from this survey w i l l appear in summary or statistical form only, so that neither individuals nor schools can be identified. Do not put your name on the questionnaire. ^ Return Questionnaire To => Appointed Questionnaire Coordinator in Your School T H E U N I V E R S I T Y O F B R I T I S H C O L U M B I A Centre for the Study of Curriculum and Instruction Faculty of Education Vancouver, B .C. Canada V6T 1Z4 Tel: (604) 822-6502 Fax: (604) 822-8234 Dear Teacher: Who is conducting this questionnaire? My name is Wilma Maki, a doctoral student at the University of British Columbia. I request your participation in the attached Teacher Questionnaire, part of a study on how teachers work, learn, and view education issues. The questionnaire results will serve as the database of my dissertation. The study is an outcome of my many years teaching in high schools in Canada and Japan and an ongoing interest in Japanese education and history. What is the purpose of the study? The purpose of the questionnaire is to gather data on teacher participation in non-instructional tasks, ways of acquiring knowledge for the tasks, professional background, and perceptions and values of educational issues. The data will allow a comprehensive analysis of teachers" participation and learning patterns in this area of their work. This aspect of the teacher's job is being studied as it is a unique phenomenon that does not exist in North American education systems. The study will serve as an example of larger education principles that are currently shaping our education concerns. Why participate in this questionnaire? This questionnaire is being conducted in eight sample schools. Your individual contribution is valuable as it represents many other Japanese high school teachers. Your participation is voluntary and assumes your consent. If you have any questions regarding this study, please contact me. Thank you for your cooperation. Sincerely, Wilma Maki Information About Reporting: Completion of the questionnaire is estimated to average 30 minutes. 2 153 Instructions Please complete the following questions. It is very important to answer all questions completely. Section A - Teacher Background Information 1. Personal Information a. Sex: Male Female b. Marital Status: Single Married Other c. Age: d. Place of Birth - Prefecture: 2. Teacher Training a. Degree: B . A . B.Sc. Bachelor degree plus university credits M . A . Ph.D. Other (please specify) b. Major field of study: education Other (please specify) c. Name of college or university you earned your Bachelor's degree: City and State it is located: , d. Have you ever taken any undergraduate and graduate courses in the following subjects? 1. Teaching methods in your subject field yes no 2. In-depth study of your subject field yes no 3. Education history and/or philosophy yes no 4. Administration (e.g. supervision, yes no evaluation, and management techniques) 5. Counseling and guidance yes no 6. Cooperative learning in the classroom yes no 7. Library Studies yes no 8. Student Special Activities yes no 9. Other 3. Current Teaching Status a. Subject(s) you teach this year: Science Math Social Studies Japanese English Other (please specify) b. Total number of classes you teach per week this year: c. Total number of hours you teach per week this year: d. Years you taught in your current school, including this year: e. Grade level(s) you teach: Grade 8 9 10 11 12 _ Other (please specify) f. What is the average number of students you have per class? 4. Teaching Experience a. Total years of full-time teaching experience in your career: b. Total years of part-time teaching experience in your career: c. Total number of schools ever worked in: d. Total number of different school boards ever worked for: e. Total number of different grades ever taught: f. Total number of different subjects ever taught: 4 1 5 5 S e c t i o n B - T e a c h e r P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n S c h o o l T a s k s I n s t r u c t i o n s This section of the questionnaire records your history of participation in tasks in the N O N - I N S T R U C T I O N A L area of your job. Please record your participation in the tasks shown on the following chart titled, "Teacher Participation in School Tasks". The school tasks are listed on the left hand side. There are three columns that record your participation. Mark as instructed. Leave the space blank i f you did not participate in that task. Column 1 - Most Recent Participation - Indicate with an " X " the tasks you.are doing THIS Y E A R in the column labeled "This Year". Do the same for the two preceding years. Column 2 - Total Participation - Indicate with a number the T O T A L N U M B E R of times you ever participated in each of the listed tasks in your T E A C H I N G C A R E E R , including this teaching year. Column 3 - First Participation - Indicate with a number the T O T A L N U M B E R of times you participated in each of the tasks during the FIRST T H R E E Y E A R S of your teaching. E X A M P L E Of the tasks listed in the following example, Sato Sensei worked in the school affairs committee this year and in the textbook committee three years ago. In his career, he worked a total of two times in the school affairs committee, one time in the textbook committee, and three times in the library research committee. In the first three years of his teaching he worked one time in the library research committee. He never participated in the moral education committee. Example: Sato Sensei School Tasks Column 1 Column 2 This Last Year Total in Year Year Before Career Column 3 Total in First 3 Years Committee: School affairs Textbook Library research Moral education X 2 X 1 3 1 5 1 5 6 PLEASE COMPLETE THIS SECTION 5. Teacher Participation in School Non-instructional Tasks The following is a list of tasks from one school district in Japan. Your school tasks may differ. If you have done a task that is not on this list, please write it at the end of the task section. Please write clearly. Column 1 Column 2 Column 3 School Tasks This Last Year Total in Total in First Year Year Before Career 3 Years General Affairs Division: (a) General Affairs Academic calendar Syllabus form School handbook (b) Liaison P T A Alumni association Education Affairs Division: Curriculum Student registration Student attendance Term examinations (a) Education Affairs (b) Training Section (c) General Affairs Teacher training Student teacher practicum Textbook selection Guide for academic rules Student official records 6 157 Column 1 Column 2 Column 3 School Tasks This Last Year Total in Total in First Year Year Before Career 3 Years Student Supervisory Division: (a) Supervisory Student supervision in and out of school (b) General Affairs Student ID Lost properties (c) Disaster Dr i l l Emergency drills Special Activities Division: (a) Student Council Advisory (b) Club Advisory (c) Homeroom Advisory (d) Volunteer Program Advisory (e) General Affairs Record keeping Library Division: (a) General Affairs Purchase books Library management (b) Library Student Advisory (c) Resource Section Academic and Career Counseling Division: (a) Next Stage Entrance exams data (b) Career Advisory (c) General Affairs University guidebook 7 .158 School Tasks Column 1 Column 2 Column 3 This Last Year Total in Total in First Year Year Before Career 3 Years Health and Welfare Division: (a) Health (b) Environment (c) Welfare (d) Counseling International Division: Health room Student health and safety Beautify school grounds Scholarships Staff welfare Grade Section Level 3 Level 2 Level 1 a. How many hours per week do you spend on average on the above non-instructional tasks? hours b. How many of these hours are spent on average in meetings with other teachers? hours c. H o w many of these hours are spent on average actually with the students in activities? hours Please circle the division that you think is most important. Please circle the task in each section that you think is most important. 8 159 Section C - Teacher Participation in Learning Activities Instructions This section of the questionnaire records your participation in various professional development activites in the most recent O N E Y E A R of your teaching. Please record your participation in the following three categories of learning activities: (1) organized teacher training programs; (2) consultation with school members; and (3) independent learning activities. For each category, different kinds of learning activities are listed on the left hand side. There are two columns to record your participation in the activities. Mark as instructed. Column 1 - Total Hours in One Year - Indicate the T O T A L H O U R S that you participated in each of the professional development activities in the last one year - A p r i l 1998- March 1999 school year. Column 2 - Total Hours with a Focus on Non-Instructional Tasks - O F Y O U R T O T A L H O U R S in Column 1, indicate the total number of hours that you spent learning about the N O N - I N S T R U C T I O N A L T A S K S (those tasks listed on the previous chart - not subject matter or teaching methods). 6. Teacher Particpation in Learning Activities Category 1. - Organized Teacher Training Programs Column 1 Column 2 Programs Total in Total with Focus on Year Non-instruction Tasks a. University/college none none 8 hours or less 8 hours or less 9-32 hours 9-32 hours more than 32 hours more than 32 b. District-sponsored none none 8 hours or less 8 hours or less 9-32 hours 9-32 hours more than 32 hours more than 32 c. School-sponsored none none 8 hours or less 8 hours or less 9-32 hours 9-32 hours more than 32 hours more than 32 9 160 d. Professional association (subject, grade associations) none 8 hours or less 9-32 hours more than 32 hours none 8 hours or less 9-32 hours more than 32 e. Union-sponsored none 8 hours or less 9-32 hours more than 32 hours none 8 hours or less 9-32 hours more than 32 f. Other (specify) none none 8 hours or less 8 hours or less 9-32 hours more than 32 hours 9-32 hours more than 32 Category 2 - Consultation with School Members Member Column 1 Total in Year Column 2 Total with Focus on Non-instruction Tasks a. Principal none 8 hours or less 9-32 hours more than 32 hours none 8 hours or less 9-32 hours more than 32 b. Vice-principal none 8 hours or less 9-32 hours more than 32 hours none 8 hours or less 9-32 hours more than 32 c. Department head none 8 hours or less 9-32 hours more than 32 hours none 8 hours or less 9-32 hours more than 32 d. Grade head none 8 hours or less 9-32 hours more than 32 hours none 8 hours or less 9-32 hours more than 32 10 161 e. Assigned supervising teacher none none 8 hours or less 8 hours or less 9-32 hours 9-32 hours more than 32 hours more than 32 f. Coworkers none none 8 hours or less 8 hours or less 9-32 hours 9-32 hours more than 32 hours more than 32 g. Other (specify) none none 8 hours or less 8 hours or less 9-32 hours 9-32 hours more than 32 hours more than 32 Category 3 - Independent Lea rn ing Activities Activities Column 1 Total in Year Column 2 Total with Focus on Non-instruction Tasks a. Own research none 8 hours or less 9-32 hours more than 32 hours none 8 hours or less 9-32 hours more than 32 b. Own experiments none 8 hours or less 9-32 hours more than 32 hours none 8 hours or less 9-32 hours more than 32 c. Reading professional literature none 8 hours or less 9-32 hours more than 32 hours none 8 hours or less 9-32 hours more than 32 11 162 d. Other (specify) none none 8 hours or less 8 hours or less 9-32 hours 9-32 hours more than 32 hours more than 32 4. During your first three years of teaching did you participate in a school program to help beginning teachers by assigning them to experienced teachers? Yes N o Section D - Teacher Perceptions and Values of Education Instructions This section of the questionnaire records your perceptions and values of certain education issues. Please record your opinion about the following. 7. Perception of How Teachers Learn 1. Please give your opinion on how you learn your school non-instructional tasks. The four categories o f learning are: a. personal experience (learning from doing the task); b. formal training (university, sponsored courses, etc.); c. consultation with other school members (principal, teachers, etc.); and d. on your own (experimenting, research, etc.). Indicate how you learn with A P E R C E N T A G E so that the total is 100 percent. Category of Learning School Non-instruction Tasks a. Experience b. Formal Courses c. Consultation with School Members d. On own e. Other (specify) Total 100% 12 163 8. Perception of Influence in School Policy Using the scale of 0-10, where 0 = none and 10 = a great deal, indicate how much A C T U A L influence you think 1. principals, 2. teachers, and 3. you, individually, have over school policy in the following areas. 1. Principars Influence None A great deal a. Establishing curriculum 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 b. Hiring new teachers 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 c. Setting discipline policy 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 d. Deciding how the school 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 budget w i l l be spent e. Determining content of 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 in-service programs f. Evaluating teachers 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 g. Choosing student texts 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 h. Determining teacher schedules 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 i . Determining school social events 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 j . Looking after school grounds 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 k. Determining teacher career paths 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 1. Selecting in class content, topics 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 and skills to be taught m. Selecting teaching techniques 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 n. Evaluating and grading students 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 2. Teacher's Influence None A great deal a. Establishing curriculum 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 b. Hiring new teachers 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 c. Setting discipline policy 0. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 d. Deciding how the school 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 budget w i l l be spent e. Determining content of 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 in-service programs f. Evaluating teachers 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 g. Choosing student texts 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 13 164 h. Determining teacher schedules i . Determining school social events j . Looking after school grounds k. Determining teacher career paths 1. Selecting in class content, topics and skills to be taught m. Selecting teaching techniques n. Evaluating and grading students 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 3. Your Individual Influence a. Establishing curriculum b. Hiring new teachers c. Setting discipline policy d. Deciding how the school budget w i l l be spent e. Determining content of in-service programs f. Evaluating teachers g. Choosing student texts h. Determining teacher schedules i . Determining school social events j . Looking after school grounds k. Determining your career paths 1. Selecting in class content, topics and skills to be taught m. Selecting teaching techniques n. Evaluating and grading students None A great deal 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 14 165 9. Perception of Teacher Qualities The following statements list a variety of teacher qualities. What qualities do you think are important and strive to attain as a teacher? Using the scale provided, rank the following on a relative scale of 0 - 10, where 0 = not important 5 = somewhat important, and 10 = very important. Teacher Qualities Not Very Important Important a. Experience in areas of school management b. Experience in areas of student activities c. Experience in different schools d. Knowledge of subject field e. Knowledge of teaching methods f. Received M A in education g. Abil i ty to work closely with students h. Abi l i ty to work closely with staff i . Abil i ty to make decisions in new situations j . Abil i ty to solve problems on ones own 0 1 2 J 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 0 1 2 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 0 1 2 -> 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 0 1 2 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 0 1 2 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 0 1 2 -> J 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 0 1 ? 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 From the above qualities, which do you consider the most important, the second most important, and the third most important? Indicate with a corresponding letter, such as a, b, c, etc., from the above list. Most important Second most important Third most important 10. Education Goals Using the scale provided, rank the following educational values on a relative scale of 0 -10, where 0 = not important 5 = somewhat important, and 10 = very important. Education Goals Not Very Important Important a. Building basic literacy skills 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 (reading, math, writing) b. Encouraging academic excellence 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 15 !66 c. Promoting vocational skills d. Promoting good work habits and self-discipline e. Promoting personal growth and fulfillment f. Promoting human relations skills (team work) g. Promoting specific moral values h. Promoting international awareness i . Promoting the use of computers j . Improving the rank of the school k. Promoting ability to solve problems on one's own 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 From the above goals, which do you consider the most important, the second most important, and the third most important? Indicate with a corresponding letter, such as a, b, c, etc., from the above list. Most important Second most important Third most important Summary 11. Not counting interruptions, how long did it take to complete this questionnaire? minutes 12. Please record the date you completed this form. day month 19 year If you wish to make any additional comments about your teaching job or participation i non-instructional tasks, please use the blank reverse page. This completes the questionnaire. Thank you for your assistance in this research. Your time and effort are appreciated. Please return the questionnaire to the appointed coordinator in your school. An envelope is supplied. 16 167 Ms.Wilma J. MAKI •^^r J $-JJl"? wjmaki^interchange.uhfi.ca Dr. John Willinsky willinsk@unixg.uhc.ca [Blg%ffRm.3 : %>l£lt(D¥®.frb fife £ t l fcKfpm^ - ^ V * -i-*3ig L- < 7C £ V \, 168 1 . 10A^Jtri#(Personal Information) a. teBU : 3d* 3tt b . g E * f ^ » f t i l c. ¥l£ : 3£ d. tag®,: $& m m 2. ifcSfiifcW y ^  ^ 7 > K(Teacher Training) a. <£± &± W± {rb, t> fo >9 ^  t f c b b . ¥85 : ^ © J 5 T M : M . i f r . m , ftf 4. l:S51#(^ 't,f?{ffi,t:SM) 5. ^ c ^ - t y xftmm 7. m s t t w m •f-CPfft, V M ^ X . v ^ x . V ^ X . V ^ x . v^x . v ^ x . 3 170 3. ^ £ ( ^ ¥ £ ) © # £ & ( C u r r e n t Teaching Status) a. gtWrt^sW): Pt^ mm &m . ^©fta_ b. ^mm7L&?9X<D%r c. ^ ¥ & g l z : » ? t 5 B # f f l e. fc&£:©#X.5^¥: i ^ — , 5^ = 4. ifcW JCi l - f -5 ^ ( T e a c h i n g Experience) d. V ^ t T 1 I « L / t , MSgils©^: : e. V ^ ^ - C ( ^ o 7 t ^ ¥ © ( ^ - . - . f. 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W W g © * p f R 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 e. & g j £ © £ n S B 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 f. ^ ± © f f i i # 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 h. | r g # [ | j [ f i l M i t e l l l b - C « < ^ 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 i . i r L V ^ ^ t d i l J S - t S t g ^ 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 j . S^g#-eOT^«- t5 tg77 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 i # x . 5 f c © , 3 # g [ c 181 OT©ifcWt§if 5 « { f i ^ o V ^ T ^ © S M £ 0 fab 10 © j R ^ S r ^ o T ^ L*C< 7f £v^0 a. s * w * i ^ , » © t ^ 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 b. - * S : $ 3 i © ^ # 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 c. « f t # f © W $ 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 e. A ^ c M i S O T (@^©^m) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 f. ^ - A ! 7 - ^ | 6 ^ © W f i £ 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 g. i l « & © W / & 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 h. 1 K I © M 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 i . ^ t ^ - ^ - f c S u &ff i©J&# 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 j . ^ t t © 7 ^ ^ « r ± f f 5 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 k. Rgsfl?^ig^©Wfie 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 g i r % x . 5 t © « a.b.c (D^XUmk. < fc £ V ^  2 # B £ K mm # l 2 . ^ © « P p m ( ^ x . 7 t 0 t t (SIS) ¥ 0 £U:©®TO0*K:ffc&, « & ( g 2 £ U J W © J | 8 l & ) T \ r#JLrisr£ l^LfcP>, S ® { ^ S f # < ft frowst"?*!*? "9 r-t School Code A P P E N D I X 3 SCHOOL QUESTIONNAIRE 1998-99 SCHOOL YEAR For the Research Project A Study of Teacher Participation in Non-instructional Tasks in Japanese High Schools Conducted by: Investigator/Student: Faculty Advisor: Wi lma J . M a k i Dr. John Wi l l insky e-mail: wjmaki@interchange.ubc.ca e-mail: wil l insk@unixg.ubc.ca Notice: Your answers w i l l be kept strictly confidential. Results from this survey w i l l appear in summary or statistical form only, so that neither individuals nor schools can be identified. Do not put the school name on the questionnaire. Return Questionnaire To Appointed Questionnaire Coordinator in Your School School Questionnaire (Jan. 1999) 183 School Code Instructions Please complete the following questions. It is very important to answer all questions completely. Section A - School Characteristics -1. What is the grade range in this school? a. 8th b. 9th d. 10th d. 11th e. 12th 2. What is the total number of students enrolled in this school last Apr i l ? 3a. Does this school have any special requirements of admission other than proof of immunization, age, or residence? Yes N o b. Which of these does the school use for admission? 1. Admission test 2. Academic record 3. Special needs student 4. Personal interview 5. Other (please specify) c. O f the categories you marked for question 3 b above, which is the most important consideration for admission? Enter the appropriate number (1-5) most important 4a. What is the average percentage of graduating students that wi l l continue their education in a two-year or four-year college? under 30 percent between 30 and 70 percent over 70 percent b. What is the ranking of the school in the district? This school is ranked out of a total of schools in the district. School Questionnaire ( J a n . 1999) 2 184 Section B - Teachers and Other Staff 5. How many staff held full-time positions in this school in each of the following categories last Apr i l? a. Principals none, or b. Vice or assistant principals none, or c. Librarians none, or d. Student support services, such as none, or school psychologist, social workers, nurses, occupational therapists e. Teachers none, or f. Clerical Staff none, or g. Other, such as cafeteria workers, none, or maintenance staff, h. Other (specify) none, or 6. How many male and female teachers work full-time in this school? Total male Total female Summary 1. Not counting interruptions, how long did it take to complete this questionnaire? minutes 2. Please record the date you completed this form. day month 19 year This completes the questionnaire. Thank you for your assistance in this research. Your time and effort are appreciated. Please return the questionnaire to the appointed coordinator in your school. School Questionnaire 185 D r . J o h n W i l l i n s k y wiHinRk@unixff .ubf ' .eft M s . W i l m a J . M A K I jnhc.ca i. fatiti©^«W^7i46ft^^$r-©#±^• & i r \ 1 $ * a. i f t t £ - ^ £ £ 9 3«F«fe S T 1). j $ r $ - _ J £ £ i: *> ftf« E*"*£t. T 2. < ^ & y ^ A * ^ A $ U ? - ? / 186 3. a ¥^ftm©telcA^.»W,{: .3S*$H5<Mj^Sij^|j^sfc^ frfr? l . A ? » 2.Rft&]£ „ . 3 . ^ t ^ W / - J / ^ I - f i 5. *>»flft <CJM*fc/K:»£^ T < it' & V c. 3i> © * r ^ A* b o t * , mm £ ft $ " f ? 30 1- — 7 0 > b. jftiJjstf) 0>li-«r0} 7 > ? IA ^  £ ? 11 t*!«0 «?r|i_ p a. A b. mm A c. A c. A f, A Pilot Study Questions 1. Introductory Letter (a) Does the introductory letter clearly relate what the survey is about? yes no (b) Does the letter make you feel comfortable answering the questions? yes no Comment: (c) D i d you feel confident that your identity would be kept confidential? yes no Comment: 2. Instructions (a) Was the wording of the instructions clear? yes no If you answered no, please identify and give an explanation. (b) Was the transition from one section to the next smooth? yes no (c) Was there enough explanation given so than you could relate the question to the overall purpose of the survey? yes no Comment: 3. Questions (a) Were any of the questions too difficult to answer? yes no If yes, please identify and explain. (b) Was any of the requested information too difficult to recall? yes no If yes, please identify and explain. (c) Were any of questions too time-consuming? yes no If yes, please identify and explain. (d) Could any of the questions items be considered: embarrassing to answer? yes no personally threatening? yes no an invasion of privacy? yes no If yes, please identify and explain. 2 189 (e) D i d you feel tricked into giving any information? yes no, or was there information you wished you did not reveal? yes no If yes, please identify and explain. (f) Were the Japanese terms used simple, direct, and familiar to Japanese teachers? yes no If no, please identify and explain. (g) Were any items ambiguous? yes no If yes, please identify and explain. (h) Could you identify each of the non-instructional tasks listed in Section B ? Comment. 4. Questionnaire Layout (a) Were the questions arranged in an orderly sequence so that one could move easily from one question to the next? yes no Comment: (b) Was the type face used easy to read? yes no Do you have any suggestions for type, spacing, numbering, illustrations, or symbols in the layout? Additional Comments: Thank you for your participation and comments. Yours sincerely, Wilma M a k i 3 190 

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