UBC Theses and Dissertations

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UBC Theses and Dissertations

An analysis of children’s ideas of heat phenomena Erickson, Gaalen L. 1975

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AN ANALYSIS OF CHILDREN'S IDEAS OF HEAT PHENOMENA by G a a l e n L. E r i c k s o n B. E d . , 1964, M. S c . , 1966, U n i v e r s i t y o f A l b e r t a  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF EDUCATION i n t h e Department of Education  We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g t o t h e required standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA March, 1975  In  presenting  this  thesis  in  at  the  University  make  it  an a d v a n c e d d e g r e e the I  Library  further  for  shall  agree  freely  his  of  this  representatives. thesis  for  financial  of  of  Columbia,  by  The  of  University  fc_ of  gain  CV. O. CvV C C v \  British  2075 W e s b r o o k P l a c e V a n c o u v e r , Canada V6T 1W5  Date  C  for  the  shall  \'\ D  Columbia  H  not  the  requirements  reference copying of  Head o f  i s understood that  written permission.  Department  British  extensive  be g r a n t e d  It  fulfilment  available  that permission for  s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may  by  partial  I  agree  and  be a l l o w e d  that  study.  this  thesis  my D e p a r t m e n t  copying or  for  or  publication  without  my  ABSTRACT T h i s s t u d y was d i r e c t e d towards t h e r e s o l u t i o n o f t h r e e , dependent p r o b l e m s :  1)  inter-  t h e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f ' t y p i c a l ' b e l i e f s about  h e a t phenomena h e l d by c h i l d r e n ; 2) t h e development o f a method f o r e x a m i n i n g t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f t h e s e b e l i e f s ; and 3) t h e a p p l i c a t i o n o f the r e s u l t s t o a c l a s s r o o m Underlying  situation.  t h e s e . p r o b l e m s was t h e f u n d a m e n t a l a s s u m p t i o n t h a t  knowledge o f c h i l d r e n ' s i n t e l l e c t u a l commitments i s an i m p o r t a n t  pre-  c u r s o r t o t h e s y s t e m a t i c development o f i n s t r u c t i o n a l s t r a t e g i e s .  Some  r e c e n t s t u d i e s have s u g g e s t e d t h a t a d i s c r e p a n c y between s t u d e n t s ' e x i s t i n g commitments and those p o r t r a y e d by t h e c u r r i c u l a r m a t e r i a l s may be t h e source' o f s i g n i f i c a n t " l e a r n i n g d i f f i c u l t i e s " e n c o u n t e r e d i n t h e science  classroom.  The methods o f s t u d y used were i n p a r t d e s c r i p t i v e and i n p a r t empirical.  I n t h e f i r s t p a r t , i n t e r v i e w dataware c o l l e c t e d and  w h i l e t h e second p a r t i n v o l v e d t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f a type o f  analyzed  instrument  f o r i d e n t i f y i n g c o n c e p t u a l p r o f i l e s o f i n d i v d u a l c h i l d r e n and groups o f children.  The C o n c e p t u a l P r o f i l e I n s t r u m e n t (C.P.I.) c o n s i s t e d o f  s t a t e m e n t s about h e a t o b t a i n e d  from t h e i n t e r v i e w d a t a ,  representing  ' t y p i c a l ' c h i l d r e n ' s i d e a s , along w i t h statements r e p r e s e n t i n g the k i n e t i c and c a l o r i c t h e o r i e s o f h e a t .  C h i l d r e n were r e q u i r e d t o r e s p o n d  t o each s t a t e m e n t on a s e t o f b i p o l a r s c a l e s r e p r e s e n t i n g b e l i e f and f a m i l i a r i t y dimensions. The r e s u l t s o f t h e i n t e r v i e w d a t a were summarized i n terms o f a number o f i d e a s about h e a t c a l l e d a " C h i l d r e n ' s P e r s p e c t i v e . "  I t was  c o n c l u d e d t h a t most c h i l d r e n p o s s e s s some genuine b e l i e f s about h e a t and t e m p e r a t u r e .  These b e l i e f s were h y p o t h e s i z e d t o be based a t l e a s t  i n p a r t upon common-sense i n t u i t i o n s d e v e l o p e d from everyday e x p e r i e n c e . F o r example, the t e m p e r a t u r e o f an o b j e c t was  thought t o be r e l a t e d t o the  amount o f h e a t p o s s e s s e d by t h a t o b j e c t and so many c h i l d r e n c o n c l u d e d t h a t t h e temperature o f an o b j e c t depended, i n p a r t , upon i t s s i z e . " H e a t " , and f r e q u e n t l y " c o l d " , were g e n e r a l l y c o n c e i v e d t o be a t y p e o f s u b t l e s u b s t a n c e ( o f t e n r e f e r r e d t o as fumes o r r a y s ) c a p a b l e o f p e n e t r a t i n g most o b j e c t s .  Heat was t h u s c o n s i d e r e d t o be an a c t i v e  e x t e r n a l agent a c c o u n t i n g f o r the e x p a n s i o n - c o n t r a c t i o n and m e l t i n g f r e e z i n g b e h a v i o u r e x h i b i t e d by many s u b s t a n c e s . A n a l y s i s o f t h e r e s u l t s o b t a i n e d from a d m i n i s t e r i n g the C.P.I, t o t w e l v e c l a s s e s o f grade 5,  7 and 9 s t u d e n t s p r o v i d e d e v i d e n c e f o r  t h r e e c l e a r l y d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e b e l i e f p a t t e r n s about heat phenomena. The b e l i e f p a t t e r n s c o r r e s p o n d e d t o the ' b u i l t - i n ' k i n e t i c , c a l o r i c and children's perspectives. P r o f i l e s " i n the study.  These p a t t e r n s were termed "Model C o n c e p t u a l These P r o f i l e s were i n t e r p r e t e d i n terms o f  d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s o f u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f h e a t phenomena.  One Model Con-  c e p t u a l P r o f i l e appeared t o r e p r e s e n t a more a b s t r a c t v i e w o f h e a t as m a n i f e s t e d by h i g h e r r a t i n g s o f the k i n e t i c and c a l o r i c s t a t e m e n t s . A n o t h e r was  i n t e r p r e t e d t o r e p r e s e n t a more c o n c r e t e , common-sense  v i e w p o i n t , w h i l e the t h i r d was tional  thought t o r e p r e s e n t a type of t r a n s i -  level. Two ways o f a p p l y i n g t h e r e s u l t s o f the s t u d y t o a c l a s s r o o m s i t u a -  t i o n were d i s c u s s e d : use.  an i n t e r p r e t i v e use o f the p r o f i l e s and an a p p l i c a t i v e  A s e t o f p o t e n t i a l t e a c h i n g maneuvers, c r o s s - r e f e r e n c e d t o a p a r t i -  c u l a r Model C o n c e p t u a l P r o f i l e were p r o p o s e d . ii  TABLE OF CONTENTS Page Abstract  i  L i s t o f Tables  v i i  L i s t of Figures  viii  Acknowledgements  ix  Chapter One  The P r o b l e m 1.00 I n t r o d u c t i o n  1  1.10 The G e n e r a l P r o b l e m  2  1.11 The S p e c i f i c Problems  3  1.20 Methods o f Study 1.30 E d u c a t i o n a l  4  S i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e Study  . . . .  5  1.40 L i m i t a t i o n s o f t h e Study Two  7  Context o f t h e Study 2.00 E d u c a t i o n a l 2.01  2.02  Context of the Problem  Relationship to Curriculum Science Education  14  Problems i n 14  R e l a t i o n s h i p to Teaching-Learning Problems i n S c i e n c e E d u c a t i o n  2.03  Review o f S t u d i e s R e l a t e d  to the Problem  2.10 P s y c h o l o g i c a l C o n t e x t o f t h e Study . . . . . . 2.11  Relationship to Structural Analysis . . . .  2.12  Relationship to Piaget's Structures of Intelligence R e l a t i o n s h i p t o W i t z and E a s l e y ' s Deep Structures  2.13  iii  17 .  19 21 21  22 24  Chapter  Page 2.14  Three  Method o f C o l l e c t i n g and A n a l y z i n g the Data  .  27  Interview  3.00  The  3.10  A D e s c r i p t i o n o f the F o r m a l I n t e r v i e w s  P r e l i m i n a r y Work  33 ...  33  3.11  The  Subjects  33  3.12  The  Tasks  34  3.13  The  Format o f the I n t e r v i e w  37  3.20  Four  The Concept o f S t r u c t u r e Used i n the P r e s e n t Study  A n a l y s i s o f the I n t e r v i e w Data  39  3.21  D e f i n i t i o n o f an I d e a  41  3.22  I d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f Ideas  4 1  3.23  Construction of Conceptual Inventories  3.24  An example o f a C o n c e p t u a l I n v e n t o r y  3.25  A C h i l d r e n ' s P e r s p e c t i v e o f Heat  ...  ....  46 46 49  Method o f O b t a i n i n g C o n c e p t u a l P r o f i l e s 4.00  Introduction  . .  4.10  A Model f o r S t r u c t u r a l A n a l y s i s  4.20  Development o f the C o n c e p t u a l P r o f i l e  53 53  Instrument  57  4.21  O p e r a t i o n a l i z i n g the A t t r i b u t e  57  4.22  Method o f A s s e s s i n g P s y c h o l o g i c a l R e l a tionship A l t e r a t i o n s i n the S t a n d a r d Semantic D i f f e r e n t i a l Format ...  61  C o n s t r u c t i o n o f the C o n c e p t u a l P r o f i l e Instrument  64  4.23  4:24  iv  58  Chapter  Page 4.30  A d m i n i s t r a t i o n of the Conceptual P r o f i l e Instrument 4.31 D e s c r i p t i o n of the Subjects  4.32 4.33  65 65  Description of Administration Procedures  66  D e s c r i p t i o n o f the Demonstrations and Statements  4.40  Five  66  A n a l y s i s o f t h e I n s t r u m e n t Data  . . . . . .  72  4.41  Analysis of the Scale Dimensionality  ...  73  4.42  A n a l y s i s o f Statement D i m e n s i o n a l i t y  ...  76  4.50 The A n a l y s i s o f Model C o n c e p t u a l P r o f i l e s . Results of the Conceptual P r o f i l e A n a l y s i s 5.00 5.10  5.20  .  83  Model C o n c e p t u a l P r o f i l e s f o r t h e Belief-Scores .  89  Model C o n c e p t u a l P r o f i l e s f o r t h e Familiarity-Scores  91  I n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e Model C o n c e p t u a l Profiles  Six  99  5.21  The B e l i e f P r o f i l e s  5.22  The F a m i l i a r i t y  . . .  99  Profiles  108  I l l u s t r a t i v e A p p l i c a t i o n s o f t h e Study 6.00  Two Way o f A p p l y i n g t h e Study  6.10  I l l u s t r a t i o n o f an I n t e r p r e t i v e Use o f the Study I l l u s t r a t i o n o f an A p p l i c a t i v e Use o f  6.20  . . . . . . .  t h e Study  112  1  1  3  1  1  5  6.21  Problems o f D e s i g n i n g T e a c h i n g S t r a t e g i e s •  ^5  6.22  An Example o f an A p p l i c a t i v e Use .• • • • ••  1^  v  Chapter Seven  Page C o n c l u s i o n s and Recommendations 7.00  Overview o f t h e Study . . . . . . . . . . . .  127  7.10  C o n c l u s i o n s o f t h e Study  128  7.20  Recommendations f o r F u r t h e r R e s e a r c h  Bibliography  . . .  131 1  3  7  LIST OF TABLES Table 4-1  4-2  4-3  4- 4  5- 1  5-2  5-3  5-4  5- 5  6- 1  6-2  Page R o t a t e d P r i n c i p a l Component-Loadings f o r Inter-Scale Correlation Matrix  75  R o t a t e d P r i n c i p a l Component-Loadings f o r Inter-Statement C o r r e l a t i o n M a t r i x of B e l i e f - S c o r e s ( S i x Components R o t a t e d )  78  R o t a t e d P r i n c i p a l Component-Loadings f o r Inter-Statement C o r r e l a t i o n M a t r i x of B e l i e f - S c o r e s (Four Components R o t a t e d ) . . . . . . .  79  R o t a t e d P r i n c i p a l Component-Loadings f o r Inter-Statement C o r r e l a t i o n M a t r i x of F a m i l i a r i t y - S c o r e s (Four Components R o t a t e d )  81  The 16 E i g e n v a l u e s from t h e P r i n c i p a l F a c t o r Analysis of the Inter-Prof H e C o r r e l a t i o n Matrix of Belief-Scores  90  The L a r g e s t S i x E i g e n v a l u e s O b t a i n e d by F a c t o r i n g the D-Matrices f o r Each of the Three Shape F a m i l i e s o f B e l i e f - S c o r e s  91  A L i s t o f t h e Statements i n Each V i e w p o i n t Used i n t h e P r o f i l e A n a l y s i s o f t h e B e l i e f Scores  95  The E i g e n v a l u e s from t h e P r i n c i p a l F a c t o r A n a l y s i s of the I n t e r - P r o f i l e C o r r e l a t i o n M a t r i x of F a m i l i a r i t y - S c o r e s  96  Model C o n c e p t u a l P r o f i l e Membership by Grade L e v e l  107  A L i s t o f t h e Statements i n Each V i e w p o i n t Used i n t h e P r o f i l e A n a l y s i s o f t h e B e l i e f Scores  119  L i s t o f P o s s i b l e T e a c h i n g Maneuvers t o Accompany Model C o n c e p t u a l P r o f i l e Two  122  vii  LIST OF FIGURES Figure 4- 1  Page A R e p r o d u c t i o n o f a S i n g l e Page from t h e Conceptual P r o f i l e Instrument  68  5- 1  Model C o n c e p t u a l P r o f i l e 1  (Belief-Scores)  ...  92  5-2  Model C o n c e p t u a l P r o f i l e 2  (Belief-Scores)  ...  93  5-3 5-4  Model Conceptual P r o f i l e 3 Model C o n c e p t u a l P r o f i l e 4 Scores)  (Belief-Scores) (Familiarity-  ...  94  5-5 6- 1 6-2  Model C o n c e p t u a l P r o f i l e 5 Scores)  •. •  97  (Familiarity98  An I n d i v i d u a l P r o f i l e o f B e l i e f - S c o r e s f o r a Grade 7 S u b j e c t  120  Model C o n c e p t u a l P r o f i l e 2  120  viii  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  I would l i k e t o e x p r e s s my g r a t i t u d e t o a number o f p e o p l e who have been i n s t r u m e n t a l i n a s s i s t i n g me, i n a number o f d i f f e r e n t ways, to complete  this  dissertation.  I am d e e p l y i n d e b t e d t o W a l t e r B o l d t , my t h e s i s a d v i s e r , who was always a v a i l a b l e t o p r o v i d e me w i t h t h e n e c e s s a r y and e m o t i o n a l s u p p o r t . of my committee —  intellectual  I n a d d i t i o n , I would l i k e t o thank t h e members  H a r r y Cannon, J u l i Conry, J e r r y Coombs, R o i D a n i e l s ,  Steve F o s t e r , and S t e v e S t r a k e r —  who have c o n t r i b u t e d t o t h e t h e s i s  t h r o u g h many c l a r i f y i n g d i s c u s s i o n s and h e l p f u l comments on a d r a f t copy.  A l s o I would l i k e t o thank Dave W i l l i a m s and Derek W i l s o n f o r  a g r e e i n g t o s e r v e as e x t e r n a l members o f t h e e x a m i n a t i o n My t y p i s t , E s t h e r McDonald, o f t e n responded  committee.  h e r o i c a l l y t o t h e many  demands I've made on h e r . F i n a l l y I would l i k e t o thank my w i f e , Lynda, f o r t h e much needed s u p p o r t t h a t she has p r o v i d e d o v e r t h e y e a r s from c o n c e p t i o n t o completion o f the t h e s i s .  Her c o n t r i b u t i o n as companion and c r i t i c  was g r e a t l y v a l u e d .  ix  CHAPTER ONE THE PROBLEM 1.00 I n t r o d u c t i o n The purpose o f t h e s t u d y i s t o f i n d answers t o t h r e e b r o a d questions concerning i n s t r u c t i o n i n science: 1)  How c a n c h i l d r e n ' s b e l i e f s and i n t u i t i o n s about n a t u r a l phenomena be i d e n t i f i e d ?  2)  How can t h e s e b e l i e f s be r e p r e s e n t e d i n a m e a n i n g f u l  3)  How c a n t h e s e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s be used t o advantage by t h e teacher i n classroom p r a c t i c e ?  way?  Since the t h i r d q u e s t i o n concerning e d u c a t i o n a l a p p l i c a b i l i t y p l a c e d c e r t a i n c o n s t r a i n t s upon t h e methods used t o answer t h e f i r s t two q u e s t i o n s , a l l o f t h e q u e s t i o n s ought t o be t r e a t e d as i n t e r dependent r a t h e r than s e p a r a t e r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n s . As an i n t r o d u c t i o n t o t h e d i s s e r t a t i o n t h e f i r s t c h a p t e r c o n t a i n s an o u t l i n e o f t h e n a t u r e o f t h e p r o b l e m and i t s e d u c a t i o n a l s i g n i f i c a n c e . A b r i e f d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e methods used and t h e l i m i t a t i o n s o f t h e s t u d y are a l s o i n c l u d e d i n t h i s chapter.  The second c h a p t e r c o n t a i n s a d i s -  c u s s i o n t o embed t h e s t u d y i n a b r o a d e r context.  e d u c a t i o n a l and m e t h o d o l o g i c a l  P r e v i o u s work r e l a t i n g t o t h e p r o b l e m i s examined and t h e  r e s u l t i n g s y n t h e s i s o f methods d e s i g n e d  f o r the study i s d e s c r i b e d .  The f i r s t q u e s t i o n above, c o n c e r n i n g t h e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f c h i l d r e n ' s b e l i e f s , i s addressed  i n Chapter  Three.  I t provides a  d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e s p e c i f i c methods used t o g a t h e r i n t e r v i e w d a t a and an i l l u s t r a t i o n o f t h e a n a l y t i c a l scheme used t o p r o c e s s t h e s e d a t a . A d i s c u s s i o n of the r e s u l t s i s a l s o i n c l u d e d i n t h i s  chapter.  2  Chapter Four c o n t a i n s a d e s c r i p t i o n o f a c l a s s r o o m (based  i n p a r t upon the i n t e r v i e w d a t a ) t h a t was  second q u e s t i o n —  designed  t o answer  the development o f a method f o r o b t a i n i n g a  t a t i o n of c h i l d r e n ' s b e l i e f s . statistical  instrument  techniques  This chapter  t e r i n g the i n s t r u m e n t  t o a sample o f s c h o o l c h i l d r e n .  the a n a l y s i s a r e p r e s e n t e d  represen-  includes a d i s c u s s i o n o f  used to a n a l y z e the d a t a o b t a i n e d  from  The  the  adminis-  r e s u l t s of  i n Chapter F i v e .  The l a s t q u e s t i o n posed above i s a d d r e s s e d i n Chapter S i x . a p p l i c a t i o n o f the s t u d y t o an e d u c a t i o n a l s e t t i n g i s d i s c u s s e d the c h a p t e r c o n c l u d e s  the  w i t h a sample i l l u s t r a t i o n o f how  i n s t r u m e n t m i g h t be u t i l i z e d by a t e a c h e r .  The  the  An and  classroom  f i n a l chapter c o n s i s t s  o f the major c o n c l u s i o n s o f the s t u d y and a l i s t o f recommendations for  f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h i n the 1.10  The  General  area. Problem  There i s w i d e s p r e a d agreement, s p a n n i n g the e n t i r e s p e c t r u m o f e d u c a t i o n a l o r t h o d o x i e s , t h a t knowledge o f what the l e a r n e r b r i n g s t o the l e a r n i n g s i t u a t i o n i s an i m p o r t a n t c a t i o n a l program. assessing did  component i n p l a n n i n g any  edu-  The b e h a v i o r i s t s have l o n g endorsed the n o t i o n o f  ' e n t r y b e h a v i o r s ' , but o n l y w i t h the r e d i s c o v e r y o f P i a g e t  support  f o r t h i s p o s i t i o n e x t e n d to the l e f t w i n g o f s c h o o l r e f o r m  the open e d u c a t i o n movement.  Perhaps the most emphatic s t a t e m e n t o f  t h i s p o s i t i o n i s made by A u s u b e l (1968) who Educational Psychology:  i n t r o d u c e d h i s book,  A C o g n i t i v e View, w i t h the f o l l o w i n g s t a t e m e n t :  I f I had to reduce a l l the e d u c a t i o n a l p s y c h o l o g y to j u s t one p r i n c i p l e , I would say t h i s : The most i m p o r t a n t s i n g l e f a c t o r i n f l u e n c i n g l e a r n i n g i s what the l e a r n e r a l r e a d y knows. A s c e r t a i n t h i s and t e a c h him a c c o r d i n g l y .  —  3  G i v e n t h i s r a r e i n s t a n c e o f agreement a c r o s s wide s e c t i o n s o f the e d u c a t i o n a l community i t i s i n d e e d s u r p r i s i n g how  little  research  has been d i r e c t e d towards the problem o f a s c e r t a i n i n g what t h e l e a r n e r a l r e a d y knows.  Those few c u r r i c u l a t h a t have attempted  t h i s p o i n t o f v i e w i n t o t h e i r program ( f o r example, "The  to i n c o r p o r a t e Science  C u r r i c u l u m Improvement Study" and " S c i e n c e 5/13") have g e n e r a l l y been c o n t e n t to s i m p l y p o i n t out the match between t h e i r m a t e r i a l s and P i a g e t ' s somewhat e l u s i v e s t a g e s o f development.  W h i l e t h i s may  represent a  r e a s o n a b l e b e g i n n i n g , much more work i s needed on t h e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f the b e l i e f s and commitments o f c h i l d r e n a t v a r i o u s age l e v e l s and i n t e g r a t i n g t h i s knowledge i n t o the c u r r i c u l a r  then  process.  The g e n e r a l p r o b l e m o f t h e s t u d y i s t o i d e n t i f y the s u b s t a n c e s t r u c t u r e o f c h i l d r e n ' s i d e a s about h e a t and t e m p e r a t u r e  and t o e x p l o r e  t h e u s e f u l n e s s o f t h i s knowledge f o r a p p l i c a t i o n i n a c l a s s r o o m I t i s being hypothesized  t h a t c h i l d r e n do p o s s e s s  and  setting.  a somewhat s y s t e m a t i c  s e t o f b e l i e f s and i n t u i t i o n s w h i c h can be r e p r e s e n t e d i n such a  way  as t o have p o t e n t i a l e d u c a t i o n a l a p p l i c a t i o n . 1.11  The  S p e c i f i c Problems  The g e n e r a l p r o b l e m d e s c r i b e d above can be c o n v e n i e n t l y subd i v i d e d i n t o t h r e e s p e c i f i c problems w h i c h a r e a d d r e s s e d tation. a)  These s p e c i f i c p r o b l e m s : To i d e n t i f y the s u b s t a n t i v e b e l i e f s about heat temperature  b)  i n the d i s s e r -  To map  and  h e l d by c h i l d r e n aged e l e v e n to f i f t e e n .  out a s e t o f p o s s i b l e s t r u c t u r a l  b e t w e e n these  beliefs.  relationships  4  c)  To suggest and i l l u s t r a t e ways i n w h i c h knowledge o b t a i n e d from a) and b) c o u l d be used by a t e a c h e r i n a classroom  setting.  These s p e c i f i c problems c o r r e s p o n d phases i n t h e s t u d y .  t o t h r e e somewhat d i s t i n c t  Hence the major purpose o f Phase One  i s directed  towards i d e n t i f y i n g t h e s a l i e n t b e l i e f s e x p r e s s e d by c h i l d r e n about h e a t phenomena, w h i l e Phase Two  d e s c r i b e s one method f o r r e p r e s e n t i n g t h e  s t r u c t u r a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s o f these b e l i e f s .  Phase Three i s devoted  e x p l o r i n g the e d u c a t i o n a l v a l u e o f the f i r s t two p h a s e s . Each o f  to these  phases w i l l be e l a b o r a t e d upon i n t h e f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n on methods. 1.20 Phase One  Methods o f Study c o n s i s t e d o f a s e r i e s o f r e l a t i v e l y open-ended i n t e r -  v i e w s w i t h c h i l d r e n r a n g i n g i n age f r o m s i x t o t h i r t e e n y e a r s .  This  phase c u l m i n a t e d i n t h e v i d e o - t a p i n g o f t e n i n - d e p t h i n t e r v i e w s w i t h twelve year o l d s .  The a n a l y s i s o f t h e s e i n t e r v i e w s p r o v i d e d c o n s i d e r a b l e  e v i d e n c e c o n c e r n i n g t h e s u b s t a n t i v e i d e a s about h e a t and t e m p e r a t u r e by c h i l d r e n o f t h i s age.  A l t h o u g h some attempt was  made t o d e v e l o p  held an  a p p r o p r i a t e c a t e g o r y system t h a t would r e a d i l y y i e l d some i n d i c a t i o n o f s t r u c t u r a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s , i t became e v i d e n t t h a t p a t t e r n s o f t h i s c o u l d b e s t be d e t e c t e d w i t h a s e m a n t i c - d i f f e r e n t i a l type o f  sort  instrument.  A d o p t i o n o f t h i s i n s t r u m e n t a l s o made i t p o s s i b l e t o o b t a i n d a t a r e a d i l y from l a r g e groups o f c h i l d r e n . The  subsequent development, a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , and a n a l y s i s o f r e s u l t s  o f such an i n s t r u m e n t c o n s t i t u t e d Phase Two c o n s i s t e d of twenty-nine  statements  o f the s t u d y .  about h e a t ; w i t h each  This  instrument  statement  5  4  r e q u i r i n g t h e c h i l d t o make s i x d i f f e r e n t judgments a l o n g a s e v e n - p o i n t s c a l e using the f o l l o w i n g s c a l e s :  agree-disagree, clear-confusing,  e a s y - d i f f i c u l t , t r u e - f a l s e , f a m i l i a r - u n f a m i l i a r , and l i k e my l i k e my i d e a s .  ideas-un-  These s t a t e m e n t s were c r e a t e d so as t o sample t h r e e  d i f f e r e n t points of view —  the present s c i e n t i f i c theory, the K i n e t i c  V i e w p o i n t ; i t s p r e d e c e s s o r , t h e C a l o r i c V i e w p o i n t ; and a C h i l d r e n ' s Viewpoint  t h a t e v o l v e d from t h e i n t e r v i e w d a t a .  o f t h e s t a t e m e n t s more c o n c r e t e and m e a n i n g f u l s e v e r a l demonstrations, f o r each c l a s s .  I n o r d e r t o make some f o r t h e younger c h i l d r e n ,  d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d t o t h e s t a t e m e n t s , were performed  The subsequent a n a l y s i s o f t h e s e d a t a p r o v i d e d t h e major  s o u r c e o f e v i d e n c e r e g a r d i n g t h e s t r u c t u r a l r e l a t i o n s e x i s t i n g among t h e i d e a s h e l d by t h e c h i l d r e n and t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h t h e s e s t r u c t u r e s resemble t h e three b u i l t - i n V i e w p o i n t s . I n c o n t r a s t t o t h e p r e v i o u s two p h a s e s , t h e l a s t phase, d e a l i n g w i t h s p e c i f i c problem c ) , was s p e c u l a t i v e i n n a t u r e .  Using the r e s u l t s  from t h e i n t e r v i e w and q u e s t i o n n a i r e d a t a as g u i d e l i n e s , s e v e r a l p o t e n t i a l c l a s s r o o m a p p l i c a t i o n s were i d e n t i f i e d and d i s c u s s e d . 1.30  E d u c a t i o n a l S i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e Study  Heat was s e l e c t e d as t h e a r e a o f i n v e s t i g a t i o n f o r t h e f o l l o w i n g reasons:  1) i t i s a t o p i c g e n e r a l l y found throughout  the entire school  s c i e n c e c u r r i c u l u m r a n g i n g from p r i m i t i v e i n v e s t i g a t i o n s i n thermometry i n t h e p r i m a r y grades t o r a t h e r s o p h i s t i c a t e d e x p e r i m e n t s  of heat t r a n s -  f e r i n h i g h s c h o o l ; 2) most c h i l d r e n have an o p p o r t u n i t y , commencing w i t h t h e a c q u i s i t i o n o f language,  t o f o r m u l a t e an i n t u i t i v e s e t o f  b e l i e f s about t h e n a t u r e o f h o t n e s s  and c o l d n e s s ; 3) i t i s an a r e a t h a t  6  i s c o n s p i c i o u s l y a b s e n t from the s t u d i e s o f c h i l d r e n ' s c a r r i e d out by P i a g e t and o t h e r s . c h i l d r e n ' s i d e a s about h e a t and  The  conceptions  r e s u l t s o f an i n v e s t i g a t i o n i n t o  t e m p e r a t u r e can be a p p l i e d to problems  o f e d u c a t i o n a l p r a c t i c e i n two b r o a d ways.  The  f i r s t , and more c o n -  c r e t e a p p l i c a t i o n , i s the c r e a t i o n o f i n s t r u c t i o n a l packages b a s e d upon knowledge o b t a i n e d  from the s t u d y .  Such a package m i g h t be  f o r m a l as the development o f a d i a g n o s t i c i n s t r u m e n t  complete w i t h a s e t  o f u n i t s on h e a t aimed a t the d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s o f u n d e r s t a n d i n g i n the  as  identified  study. A second way  i n w h i c h the s t u d y can make a s i g n i f i c a n t c o n t r i b u t i o n  to e d u c a t i o n a l p r a c t i c e i s by p r o v i d i n g the t e a c h e r w i t h a well-documented and r i c h d e s c r i p t i o n o f the many i d e a s t h a t c h i l d r e n use count f o r s i t u a t i o n s i n v o l v i n g h e a t phenomena.  to t r y and  ac-  I n c o n t r a s t t o t h e more  f o r m a l a p p l i c a t i o n d i s c u s s e d above, the t e a c h e r would be u s i n g t h i s knowl e d g e i n a more i n f o r m a l , o r i n t e r p r e t i v e manner t o make i n t e l l i g i b l e the c h i l d r e n ' s e x i s t i n g s e t o f b e l i e f s about h e a t .  By a c t i n g upon t h i s  background knowledge, the t e a c h e r can r e s p o n d t o g i v e n s i t u a t i o n s i n s u c h a way  as to m a i n t a i n the b a s i c i n t e g r i t y o f the c h i l d ' s a t t e m p t s to a c -  count f o r o r e x p l a i n the phenomena o b s e r v e d . As w i t h most c l a i m s about the e d u c a t i o n a l s i g n i f i c a n c e o f a t h e r e a r e s e v e r a l p r e s u p p o s i t i o n s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the above two tions.  Obviously,  considera-  i n the f i r s t i n s t a n c e i t i s assumed t h a t t h e r e w i l l  be some homogeneity among the i d e a s h e l d by c h i l d r e n a t p a r t i c u l a r levels.  study  age  I f t h i s assumption i s tenable then c u r r i c u l a r m a t e r i a l s could  be d e v e l o p e d t h a t would u t i l i z e the knowledge o b t a i n e d about c h i l d r e n ' s  7  i d e a s as the p r i m a r y b a s i s f o r i n s t r u c t i o n . The  i n t e r p r e t i v e use o f knowledge, as d i s c u s s e d above, a l s o c o n -  t a i n s some h i d d e n p r e m i s e s .  I n o r d e r to a c t upon t h i s type o f  tacit  knowledge i t i s b e i n g assumed t h a t the t e a c h e r has a f a i r l y w e l l - d e f i n e d i n s t r u c t i o n a l p r o b l e m t o s o l v e , o r , i n o t h e r words, a c l e a r v i s i o n o f e d u c a t i o n a l g o a l b e i n g sought.  I n the p r e s e n t  i n s t a n c e the b r o a d ,  a r c h i n g g o a l would be something a k i n t o " t h e c u l t i v a t i o n o f the  the  over-  inquiring  mind" whereby the t e a c h e r would be s e e k i n g to n u r t u r e those s i t u a t i o n s w h i c h he j u d g e d to be s u p p o r t i v e o f t h i s g o a l . 1.40  L i m i t a t i o n s o f the Study  Because each o f the t h r e e phases o f the s t u d y d e a l t w i t h somewhat u n i q u e problems the l i m i t a t i o n s o f each phase w i l l be d i s c u s s e d  separately.  The  results  criteria  o f Phase One research.  used t o a s s e s s t h e r e l i a b i l i t y and v a l i d i t y o f t h e  d e p a r t somewhat from s t a n d a r d p r a c t i c e s i n e d u c a t i o n a l  The u s u a l c o n c e r n s a r e :  1) the low r e l i a b i l i t y o f an  un-  s t r u c t u r e d i n t e r v i e w ; 2) t h e s m a l l s i z e and p o s s i b l e b i a s i n the sample; 3) the v a l i d i t y o f the i n f e r e n t i a l s t a t e m e n t s about c h i l d r e n ' s i d e a s o f h e a t and One  temperature.  p r o c e d u r e s was  But h e r e the major c o n s i d e r a t i o n f o r the Phase  one o f i d e n t i f y i n g genuine b e l i e f s , o r , as  c a l l s them —  " l i b e r a t e d convictions".''"  i n t e r v i e w was  judged t o be a more s e n s i t i v e and p r o d u c t i v e method t h a n  a more s t a n d a r d i z e d p r o c e d u r e .  For t h i s t a s k the  Piaget  unstructured  However, as t h e s e d a t a on c h i l d r e n ' s  i d e a s were used t o d e v e l o p the i n s t r u m e n t  f o r Phase Two,  the r e a l  o f t h i s method can o n l y be d e t e r m i n e d t o the e x t e n t t h a t t h e d a t a i t produces h o l d up under f u r t h e r e m p i r i c a l s c r u t i n y .  An  value that  opportunity  8 for  t h i s extended s c r u t i n y was a f f o r d e d i n Phase two where t h e c h i l -  dren's i d e a s were i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o t h e c l a s s r o o m i n s t r u m e n t t h a t was developed.  The subsequent a n a l y s i s o f t h e s e d a t a p r o v i d e d some e v i d e n c e  about t h e e x i s t e n c e o f t h e h y p o t h e s i z e d s t r u c t u r e o f c h i l d r e n ' s i d e a s . I n g e n e r a l t h e r e a r e two major concerns c o n s t r u c t , such as t h e h y p o t h e s i z e d dren.  i n t h e measurement o f a  " v i e w p o i n t s o f h e a t " h e l d by c h i l -  The f i r s t i s t h e r e l i a b i l i t y o f t h e i n s t r u m e n t and t h e second i s  the v a l i d i t y o f t h e p r o c e d u r e s  used.  One e s t i m a t e o f r e l i a b i l i t y f o r  an i n s t r u m e n t i s t h e t e s t - r e t e s t p r o c e d u r e .  I n the present study the  i n s t r u m e n t was a d m i n i s t e r e d i n a c l a s s r o o m s e t t i n g b u t under c o n d i t i o n s i n w h i c h i t was n o t f e a s i b l e t o r e t u r n on a n o t h e r day t o r e t e s t t h e same children. The  There a r e f o r t u n a t e l y , o t h e r ways o f a s s e s s i n g  i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y o f a q u e s t i o n n a i r e i s o f t e n i n t e r p r e t e d as a  measure o f r e l i a b i l i t y . o f response six  reliability.  I n t h e p r e s e n t a n a l y s i s two s e p a r a t e  consistency are calculated:  estimates  t h e p a t t e r n s o f response  to the  s c a l e s used i n t h e i n s t r u m e n t and t h e c l u s t e r i n g o f t h e s t a t e m e n t s  r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of a p a r t i c u l a r heat v i e w p o i n t . of the data, which i s discussed f u l l y  The s t a t i s t i c a l  analysis  i n Chapter F o u r , i n d i c a t e d t h a t  b o t h o f t h e s e e s t i m a t e s a r e r e a s o n a b l y h i g h , thus p r o v i d i n g some degree of confidence i n the questionnaire.  I n a d d i t i o n , an i t e m a n a l y s i s o f t h e  i n s t r u m e n t r e p o r t e d i n A p p e n d i x D, was performed and t h e r e s u l t s g e n e r a l l y substantiated this claim. In  t u r n i n g t o t h e i s s u e o f v a l i d i t y , K e r l i n g e r (1973) p r o v i d e s  an o u t l i n e o f t h e t h r e e major t y p e s :  content v a l i d i t y , construct  v a l i d i t y , and c r i t e r i o n - r e l a t e d v a l i d i t y . cussed as i t r e l a t e d t o t h i s  Each o f t h e s e w i l l be d i s -  study.  Content v a l i d i t y a t t e m p t s  t o assess "the representativeness or  9  s a m p l i n g adequacy o f t h e c o n t e n t o f a measuring ( K e r l i n g e r , 1973, p. 458)  instrument."  S i n c e t h e i n s t r u m e n t was c o n s t r u c t e d t o c o n -  t a i n r e p r e s e n t a t i v e i t e m s from t h r e e d i f f e r e n t v i e w p o i n t s o f h e a t t h e question of content v a l i d i t y a r i s e s .  How r e p r e s e n t a t i v e and a c c u r a t e  was t h e s a m p l i n g o f i t e m s from each o f t h e s e domains?  An a t t e m p t was  made t o a s s e s s t h e a c c u r a c y o f t h e i t e m s sampled from two o f t h e v i e w p o i n t s ( t h e C a l o r i c Theory and t h e K i n e t i c Theory) by c h e c k i n g them w i t h three j u d g e s who were knowledgeable  i n these areas.  The i t e m s from t h e  C h i l d r e n ' s V i e w p o i n t were s e l e c t e d on t h e b a s i s o f how f r e q u e n t l y t h e y o c c u r r e d i n t h e i n t e r v i e w d a t a and t h e i r r e l e v a n c e t o t h e d e m o n s t r a t i o n s performed  during the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of the instrument.  The adequacy  w i t h w h i c h each o f t h e s e domains was sampled cannot be a s c e r t a i n e d w i t h out f u r t h e r e m p i r i c a l s t u d i e s . W h i l e c o n s t r u c t v a l i d i t y i s perhaps  t h e most i m p o r t a n t form o f  v a l i d i t y , a s K e r l i n g e r s u g g e s t s , i t i s a l s o t h e most d i f f i c u l t t o a s s e s s . I t i s concerned w i t h q u e s t i o n s such a s : What does a s c o r e on t h i s i n s t r u m e n t mean i n some t h e o r e t i c a l sense?  What f a c t o r s o r c o n s t r u c t s  might a c c o u n t f o r t h e o b s e r v e d r e s u l t s ? and so o n .  I n K e r l i n g e r ' s words  the i n t e r e s t i s f o c u s e d "more on t h e p r o p e r t y b e i n g measured t h a n on t h e test i t s e l f . "  ( K e r l i n g e r , 1973, p. 461)  The t h e o r e t i c a l i n s p i r a t i o n f o r  the p r e s e n t s t u d y i s t o be found i n t h e w r i t i n g s o f P i a g e t and s e v e r a l r e c e n t papers by W i t z and E a s l e y . Two d i f f e r from t h e i r a p p r o a c h e s ,  W h i l e t h e t e c h n i q u e s used i n Phase t h e ' p r o p e r t y ' under s u r v e i l l a n c e  t h e s t r u c t u r a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f c h i l d r e n ' s thought —  —  i s common ground.  The e m p i r i c a l r e s u l t s o f t h i s s t u d y might w e l l be i n t e r p r e t e d as e v i d e n c e  10  i n f a v o r o f the type o f c o g n i t i v e o r g a n i z a t i o n t h a t i s so of t h e i r t h e o r e t i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e . i n Chapter The addressed  T h i s p e r s p e c t i v e w i l l be  discussed  Two. q u e s t i o n of c r i t e r i o n - r e l a t e d or p r e d i c t i v e v a l i d i t y i s not  i n t h i s s t u d y as the o n l y e x t e r n a l v a r i a b l e b e i n g c o n s i d e r e d  the grade o f t h e s u b j e c t — prediction.  W h i l e i t i s e x p e c t e d t h a t t h e r e w i l l be a s h i f t  towards  as t h e s u b j e c t s i n c r e a s e i n  i t i s i m p o s s i b l e , a t p r e s e n t , t o d e t e r m i n e whether i t would be  genuine d e v e l o p m e n t a l t r e n d ( i n t h e P i a g e t i a n t r a d i t i o n ) o r s i m p l y environmental  e f f e c t due  —  i s o f no r e a l i n t e r e s t as an o b j e c t o f  the more s o p h i s t i c a t e d K i n e t i c V i e w p o i n t age,  characteristic  a an  t o i n c r e a s e d e x p o s u r e t o the a d u l t v i e w .  To d i g r e s s b r i e f l y t o d i s c u s s a r e l a t e d p o i n t , t h e a u t h o r b e l i e v e s , as i n d i c a t e d e a r l i e r , t h a t too l i t t l e e d u c a t i o n a l r e s e a r c h ever f i n d s i t s way to  i n t o a c t u a l classroom  practice.  One way  t o draw more a t t e n t i o n  t h i s i s s u e m i g h t be t o s p e c i f y a v a l i d i t y i n d e x w h i c h i n d i c a t e d the  degree t o w h i c h a p a r t i c u l a r s t u d y f u l f i l l e d some c r i t e r i o n o f a p p l i c a b i l i t y or s i g n i f i c a n c e .  educational  T h i s i n d e x , w h i c h m i g h t be c a l l e d peda-  g o g i c a l v a l i d i t y , w o u l d be an i m p o r t a n t member o f t h e g e n e r a l c l a s s o f r e s u l t s c o n s i d e r e d under c r i t e r i o n - r e l a t e d  validity.  T h i s l e a d s t o a d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e l i m i t a t i o n s f o r t h e T h i r d Phase of the.study  —  the proposed a p p l i c a t i o n s f o r c l a s s r o o m  the m a j o r p u r p o s e o f t h i s r e s e a r c h was  use.  Because  d i r e c t e d toward s o l v i n g t h e  pro-  blems emanating from the f i r s t two p h a s e s , most o f the f o r e g o i n g com.-*ments a r e s p e c u l a t i v e i n n a t u r e . The  d e c i s i o n t o proceed w i t h Phase Two,  the development and a n a l y s i s  11  of  t h e i n s t r u m e n t d a t a , was made l a r g e l y because i t was b e l i e v e d t h a t  b o t h t h e i n s t r u m e n t and t h e type o f d a t a c o l l e c t e d would p r o v e t o be of more immediate v a l u e t o t h e c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r than would an e l a b o r a t e method f o r a n a l y z i n g i n t e r v i e w d a t a .  The f i r s t l i m i t a t i o n , t h e n , c e n t e r s  around t h e s t r e n g t h o f t h e p r o c e d u r e s  developed  the i n s t r u m e n t would have t o be developed r e p r e s e n t a t i v e sample o f c h i l d r e n .  i n Phase Two.  First,  u s i n g a much l a r g e r and more  And second,  t h e i n s t r u m e n t would  have t o be s i m p l i f i e d b o t h i n terms o f i t s l e n g t h and t h e methods f o r computing t h e r e s u l t s f o r a c h i l d o r a c l a s s o f c h i l d r e n . A second  l i m i t a t i o n i s t o be found i n terms o f t h e development  and e f f e c t i v e use o f t h e c u r r i c u l a r packages t o accompany t h e i n s t r u m e n t . I t w i l l r e q u i r e c o n s i d e r a b l e e f f o r t t o d e v e l o p m a t e r i a l s and a c t i v i t i e s t h a t c a n be c r o s s - r e f e r e n c e d t o p e r f o r m a n c e on t h e i n s t r u m e n t . of  The t a s k  o r i e n t i n g t e a c h e r s t o i t s e f f e c t i v e use i s an even more i m p o r t a n t  i s s u e t h a t w i l l have t o be a d d r e s s e d .  There a r e a t p r e s e n t v e r y few  t e a c h e r s t r a i n e d i n t h e mode o f i n d i v i d u a l i z e d o r even s m a l l group i n s t r u c t i o n based upon a s e t o f w e l l d e f i n e d d i a g n o s t i c p r o c e d u r e s . A f i n a l h u r d l e i n the path o f implementing the t e c h n i q u e s suggested for  the r e s u l t s i s that  above presuppose a somewhat d i f f e r e n t  rationale  a s c i e n c e program t h a n i s now b e i n g p r a c t i c e d i n t h e s c h o o l s .  As  t h i s i s s u e w i l l be r a i s e d a g a i n i n Chapter Two, s u f f i c e i t t o s a y a t t h i s p o i n t t h a t t e a c h e r s w i l l have t o be c o n v i n c e d t h a t t h e r e o r i e n t a t i o n o f g o a l s c a n be j u s t i f i e d and i s a t t a i n a b l e i n a c l a s s r o o m  setting.  Perhaps t h e e a s i e s t way t o o b t a i n an o v e r a l l p e r s p e c t i v e o f t h e s t u d y and i t s c o n s t i t u e n t p r o c e d u r e s follows.  i s by e x a m i n i n g  the f l o w c h a r t which  12  FLOWCHART OF THE STUDY  Operation  Phase o f Study  Characteristics  Pilot Interviews  1. 9 u n s t r u c t u r e d interviews with c h i l d r e n aged 6 to 13  Final Interviews  10 s e m i - s t r u c t ured i n t e r v i e w s with children aged 12  Conceptual Inventory  Development of Classroom Instrument  1  2  Administer Classroom Instrument  Educational Applications  To g a t h e r d a t a on the s u b s t a n t i v e aspects of c h i l dren's b e l i e f s about h e a t  4. C r e a t i o n , o f 29 4. To e s t a b l i s h e v i statements r e p r e ence o f c o g n i t i v e senting three organization i n Heat V i e w p o i n t s c h i l d r e n ' s ideas (Kinetic, Caloric about h e a t and C h i l d r e n  6. F a c t o r a n a l y s i s o f s c a l e s and statements. Guertin's P r o f i l e Analysis  3  To p r o v i d e i n f o r m a tion of children's i d e a s and e s t a b l i s h a set o f interview procedures f o r step 2  3. Summary o f Ideas 3. To p r o v i d e i n p u t f o r e x p r e s s e d by i n d i Children's Viewpoint vidual children i n the construction of classroom instrument  5. G i v e n t o 276 subjects i n grades 5, 7, and 9  Analysis of Instrument Data  Function  7. E x a m i n a t i o n o f model p r o f i l e s for 'point of view' o f heat illustrated  5. To g a t h e r d a t a f o r structural analysis of c h i l d r e n ' s ideas  To check r e l i a b i l i t y and v a l i d i t y o f t h e instrument. To gene r a t e model p r o f i l e s f o r grouping o f children  7. To develop, p r o f i l e s f o r d i a g n o s t i c and instructional procedures  13  NOTES FOR CHAPTER ONE 1. An e l o q u e n t j u s t i f i c a t i o n o f a n o n - s t a n d a r d i z e d i n t e r v i e w t e c h n i q u e ( P i a g e t r e f e r s t o i t as a " c l i n i c a l method") i s g i v e n i n t h e f i r s t c h a p t e r o f P i a g s t ' s (1969) The C h i l d ' s C o n c e p t i o n o f t h e W o r l d . I n t h i s c h a p t e r he o u t l i n e s and c h a r a c t e r i z e s f i v e p o t e n t i a l t y p e s o f r e s p o n s e s made by t h e c h i l d i n an i n t e r v i e w s i t u a t i o n : answers a t random, romancing, suggested c o n v i c t i o n , spontaneous c o n v i c t i o n and l i b e r a t e d c o n v i c t i o n . The r e s p o n s e s o f i n t e r e s t t o t h e a n a l y s t a r e those i n t h e l a s t two c a t e g o r i e s .  14  CHAPTER  TWO  CONTEXT OF THE  STUDY  I n an e x t e n s i v e , c r i t i c a l r e v i e w o f e d u c a t i o n a l r e s e a r c h encomp a s s i n g the p a s t twenty y e a r s , A v e r c h e t a l . (1972) c o n c l u d e d o n l y l i m i t e d improvement o f p r e s e n t pected  that  e d u c a t i o n a l p r a c t i c e s can be  t h r o u g h expanding the c u r r e n t base o f e d u c a t i o n a l  ex-  research.  R a t h e r , more e f f o r t ought to be d i r e c t e d towards i n v e s t i g a t i n g c u r r e n t e d u c a t i o n a l reforms.  T h i s s t u d y , i n f o c u s i n g upon i n s t r u c t i o n a l  f i c u l t i e s emanating from r e c e n t c u r r i c u l a r r e f o r m s i n s c i e n c e r e p r e s e n t s such an e f f o r t .  education,  To g a i n an o v e r a l l p e r s p e c t i v e o f the  t h i s c h a p t e r w i l l examine i s s u e s r e l a t e d to the e d u c a t i o n a l ,  dif-  study  psycholo-  g i c a l and p h i l o s o p h i c a l a s p e c t s o f the p r o b l e m . 2.00 2.01  R e l a t i o n s h i p t o C u r r i c u l u m Problems i n S c i e n c e The  new  E d u c a t i o n a l C o n t e x t o f the P r o b l e m  p a s t f i f t e e n y e a r s have w i t n e s s e d  science c u r r i c u l a .  two t r e n d s :  an u n p r e c e d e n t e d growth o f  Emerging from t h e s e numerous p r o j e c t s have been  an i n c r e a s e d emphasis upon the p r o c e s s e s  o f the p r o d u c t s , and  Education  of s c i e n c e i n s t e a d  s e c o n d l y , a tendency to u t i l i z e s t u d e n t  the predominant method o f  i n q u i r y as  instruction.  P r o p o n e n t s o f the new  programs have e x t o l l e d the v i r t u e s o f f o c u s i n g  upon t h e methods used i n o b t a i n i n g s c i e n t i f i c knowledge r a t h e r t h a n comm i t t i n g t o memory a body o f f a c t s w h i c h w i l l lete.  The  implementation  o f t h i s " p r o c e s s " p h i l o s o p h y has v a r i e d s i g -  n i f i c a n t l y among the d i f f e r e n t programs. Science:  soon be f o r g o t t e n o r o b s o -  On one extreme, a u t h o r s  A P r o c e s s Approach have i d e n t i f i e d and d e f i n e d t h i r t e e n  of  15  p r o c e s s e s , r a n g i n g from s i m p l e l i k e to more complex ones l i k e Authors  ' o b s e r v a t i o n ' and  ' d e f i n i n g o p e r a t i o n a l l y ' and  'experimenting'.  o f o t h e r p r o j e c t s l i k e the E l e m e n t a r y S c i e n c e Study and  J u n i o r S c i e n c e have been c o n t e n t  Nuffield  to use a much more i n f o r m a l a p p r o a c h  whereby the c h i l d i s engaged i n w i d e - r a n g i n g  i n v e s t i g a t i o n s of n a t u r a l  phenomena w i t h the e x p e c t a t i o n t h a t he w i l l d e v e l o p skills'  'classification'  these  'process  i n the c o u r s e o f h i s i n q u i r y .  T h i s s o - c a l l e d " p r o c e s s a p p r o a c h " has had  such an impact upon  s c i e n c e e d u c a t i o n t h a t i t has prompted the a u t h o r s o f one elementary  textbook  on  s c i e n c e i n s t r u c t i o n to comment: Of the many g o a l s proposed and adopted f o r t e a c h i n g e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l s c i e n c e , those g o a l s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h p r o c e s s - o r i e n t e d s c i e n c e seem t o be most r e l e v a n t f o r the n e x t twenty y e a r s . I n p a r t i c u l a r the g o a l o f the c u l t i v a t i o n o f the i n q u i r i n g mind, i s s t r e s s e d because i t r e p r e s e n t s a whole p h i l o s o p h i c a l s t y l e o f t h i n k i n g about what s c i e n c e i s , how i t s h o u l d be t a u g h t , and what c u r r i c u l a r s t r u c t u r e ( o r l a c k o f structure) i s appropriate. ( K u s l a n and S t o n e , 1972, p. 179)  As i n d i c a t e d by the above q u o t a t i o n the a d o p t i o n o f an o v e r a r c h i n g g o a l such as " t h e c u l t i v a t i o n o f the i n q u i r i n g mind" a l s o s u g g e s t s s t y l e of teaching.  The  s t y l e , adopted by most o f the new  has been l a b e l l e d the " i n q u i r y a p p r o a c h . "  The  curricula,  i m p l i c i t assumption i s  t h a t i f we a r e a t t e m p t i n g t o t e a c h s t u d e n t s the s k i l l s o f i n q u i r y , then, l i k e other s k i l l s a f f o r d e d the s t u d e n t s  t h a t we  a certain  scientific  t e a c h , an o p p o r t u n i t y must be  to p r a c t i c e those s k i l l s .  T h i s trend of  student  i n q u i r y , o r ' s c i e n c i n g ' as i t has been c a l l e d by some, has been f u r t h e r buoyed up by a r e d i s c o v e r y o f P i a g e t ' s work on the development o f the c h i l d .  The  intellectual  cornerstone of P i a g e t ' s p o s i t i o n  —  16  that the a c t i v e c h i l d , through i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h h i s environment, i s c o n s t a n t l y engaged i n t h e b u s i n e s s processes  —  o f r e s t r u c t u r i n g h i s own thought  i s a very a t t r a c t i v e t h e o r e t i c a l foundation f o r c u r r i c u l a  a d o p t i n g an i n q u i r y - b a s e d mode o f i n s t r u c t i o n . However, i n e m p h a s i z i n g s t u d e n t program, c u r r i c u l u m d e v e l o p e r s  inquiry within a process-oriented  have t a c i t l y assumed t h a t t h e s u b t l e  r e g u l a r i t i e s o f n a t u r e , a p p a r e n t t o t h e s c i e n t i s t , c a n be by an i n q u i r i n g c h i l d . i n some i m p o r t a n t  'discovered'  W h i l e t h e c h i l d may i n d e e d be l i k e a s c i e n t i s t  r e s p e c t s , t h e r e i s an ever i n c r e a s i n g body o f p s y c h o -  l o g i c a l l i t e r a t u r e , t o be d i s c u s s e d i n S e c t i o n 2.10, w h i c h  concludes  t h a t c h i l d r e n see t h e w o r l d from v e r y d i f f e r e n t p e r s p e c t i v e s t h a n t h a t o f a d u l t s i n g e n e r a l , and s c i e n t i s t s i n p a r t i c u l a r .  Thus perhaps t h e  r e a l u t i l i t y o f t h e ' c h i l d a s a s c i e n t i s t ' metaphor i s n o t t h a t i t s u g g e s t s one c a n s i m p l i f y o r r e d u c e t h e complex body o f s c i e n t i f i c knowledge and methods i n t o p e d a g o g i c a l l y d i g e s t i b l e programs, as has been done t o date.  Rather,  i t i s t o v i e w b o t h c h i l d and s c i e n t i s t as engaged i n t h e  same b a s i c a c t i v i t y o f a t t e m p t i n g t h e i r world —  t o p e r c e i v e some sense o f o r d e r i n  only a t d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s of a b s t r a c t i o n .  Bohm (1965)  has e f f e c t i v e l y argued t h i s p o i n t i n an a p p e n d i x t o h i s book on s p e c i a l relativity.  H i s t h e s i s i s t h a t t h e p r o c e s s o f p e r c e p t i o n does n o t d i f f e r  s i g n i f i c a n t l y between t h e c h i l d and t h e a d u l t .  Rather,  the s o p h i s t i c a t e d  c o n c e p t u a l c o n s t r u c t i o n , "embodying, i n e f f e c t , a h y p o t h e s i s f o r t h e i n v a r i a n t f e a t u r e s t h a t have been found i n [ p a s t ]  that accounts  experiences"  (Bohm, 1965, p. 2 1 7 ) , o f t h e a d u l t s c i e n t i s t i s a n a t u r a l e x t e n s i o n o f the c h i l d ' s p e r c e p t u a l p r o c e s s , o n l y a t a h i g h e r l e v e l o f a b s t r a c t i o n .  17  The  i m p l i c a t i o n s o f such a p o s i t i o n f o r t h e development o f  s c i e n c e c u r r i c u l a seem c l e a r .  I n s t e a d o f a t t e m p t i n g t o package the  a b s t r a c t p e r c e p t i o n s o f t h e w o r l d , based upon many y e a r s o f a c c u m u l a t e d e x p e r i e n c e , c u r r i c u l u m development ought t o p r o c e e d  from the simple  and  more c o n c r e t e phenomena a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e c h i l d ' s w o r l d toward  the  more p o w e r f u l and s o p h i s t i c a t e d c o n c e p t i o n s o f the a d u l t w o r l d .  This  type o f r e o r g a n i z a t i o n e n t a i l s t h e e v o l u t i o n o f c u r r i c u l a i n an upward d i r e c t i o n from the c h i l d ' s own  ideas and ways of t h i n k i n g , i n s t e a d o f  t h e p r e s e n t downward d i r e c t i o n from e s t a b l i s h e d , a d u l t frameworks o f methods and knowledge.  Such an a p p r o a c h , however, i s n o t w i t h o u t p r o b l e m s .  Among t h e most p r o m i n e n t would be t h e need f o r t e a c h e r s t o become more adept a t i d e n t i f y i n g and d i a g n o s i n g the c h i l d ' s p e r s p e c t i v e o f t h e subj e c t matter being s t u d i e d . 2.02  R e l a t i o n s h i p to Teaching-Learning  Problems i n S c i e n c e  Education  A n t i c i p a t i n g a p o s s i b l e r e o r i e n t a t i o n i n c u r r i c u l a r emphasis, such as t h a t d i s c u s s e d above, r e s e a r c h e r s a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f I l l i n o i s have conducted  a number o f e x p l o r a t o r y s t u d i e s i n t o some o f t h e b a s i c t e a c h i n g -  l e a r n i n g problems t h a t might accompany such an a p p r o a c h . Hanson (1970) found t h a t b e g i n n i n g t e a c h e r s tended  F o r example,  t o r e j e c t any  alter-  n a t i v e t h e o r i e s ( t h a t i s , d i f f e r e n t from t h e p r e v a i l i n g s c i e n t i f i c t h e o r y b e i n g ' t a u g h t ' by the t e a c h e r ) h e l d by the c h i l d r e n .  These  t e a c h e r s e i t h e r i g n o r e d any a l t e r n a t i v e t h e o r y put f o r w a r d by t h e s t u dents o r e l s e attempted  t o persuade them t o change t h e i r minds.  Ashen-  f e l t e r (1970) and C r a i g (1971) a l s o worked on t h e p r o b l e m o f t e a c h e r s ' insensitivity  to the i n t e l l e c t u a l commitments o f t h e i r s t u d e n t s .  I n the  18  l a t t e r s t u d y by C r a i g , an attempt was  made t o " c r e a t e f o r a group o f  b e g i n n i n g s c i e n c e t e a c h e r s an environment i n w h i c h these  teachers  c o u l d become more s e n s i t i v e to and more f a m i l i a r w i t h h i g h s c h o o l student i d e a s . "  ( C r a i g , 1971,  p. 1)  The r e s u l t s o f these s t u d i e s ,  w h i c h i n d i c a t e d t h a t b e g i n n i n g t e a c h e r s a r e i n s e n s i t i v e to (and i n some cases i n t o l e r a n t o f ) s t u d e n t p e r c e p t i o n s o f s c i e n t i f i c phenomena, p o i n t out the need f o r a r e v i s i o n o f our p r e s e n t t e a c h e r - t r a i n i n g p r o grams.  As i t now  s t a n d s t h e s t u d e n t s a r e b e i n g encouraged t o i n q u i r e  i n t o some phenomenon, and i n so d o i n g they f o r m u l a t e something a k i n to Bohm's " i n n e r c o n s t r u c t i o n " . But any a t t e m p t s these i n n e r thoughts  t o f o r m a l i z e o r make  e x p l i c i t a r e met w i t h r e s i s t a n c e by the  teacher.  Hence t h e s t u d e n t s e i t h e r e x p e r i e n c e f r u s t r a t i o n as t h e y attempt  to  accommodate t o t h e u n f a m i l i a r i d e a s s e t f o r t h by t h e t e a c h e r , o r p a s s i v e l y a c q u i e s c e t o a v i e w p o i n t t h e y do n o t r e a l l y u n d e r s t a n d  or accept.  N e i t h e r o f t h e s e outcomes i s c o m p a t i b l e w i t h t h e s t a t e d g o a l s o f new  the  science c u r r i c u l a . E a r l i e r , Hawkins ( 1 9 6 5 ) , i n amuch p u b l i c i z e d a r t i c l e  "Messing  About i n S c i e n c e " , a l s o r e c o g n i z e d the a t t e n d a n t  l e a r n i n g problems i n h e r e n t i n an i n q u i r y - b a s e d a p p r o a c h .  entitled teachingHe  suggested  t h a t e d u c a t o r s must l e a r n t o r e c o g n i z e and c u l t i v a t e t h a t v e r y  powerful  s t y l e o f l e a r n i n g w h i c h i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r "most o f what c h i l d r e n have a l r e a d y l e a r n e d , the r o o t s o f t h e i r m o r a l , i n t e l l e c t u a l and development."  (Hawkins, 1965,  p. 7)  esthetic  B u t , as i s i l l u s t r a t e d by  the  I l l i n o i s s t u d i e s , t h i s l e a r n i n g s t y l e (which Hawkins c a l l s "messing about") and  the i d e a s i t p r o d u c e s ,  a r e most o f t e n a l i e n to t e a c h e r s who  are  19  s t e e p e d i n the a d u l t t r a d i t i o n s o f s c i e n t i f i c knowledge. gap between the t e a c h e r  and c h i l d , Hawkins c a l l s upon  Sensing  this  curriculum  s i g n e r s t o a s s i s t the t e a c h e r by d e s i g n i n g m a t e r i a l s and  de-  activities  w i t h a r i c h v a r i e t y o f a l t e r n a t i v e pathways f o r the c h i l d to choose. I n so d o i n g he assumed t h a t the c h i l d , w i t h a s s i s t a n c e from the  tea-  c h e r , w i l l be f r e e t o p u r s u e t h o s e avenues o f i n q u i r y w h i c h a r e most appropriate  to h i s p r e s e n t  i n t e r e s t s and  intellectual  capabilities.  Hawkins has  thus mapped out a somewhat i n f o r m a l s t r a t e g y f o r m e e t i n g  the d i v e r g e n t e x p e r i e n t i a l backgrounds t h a t e x i s t between t e a c h e r  and  c h i l d , and a l s o to a l e s s e r e x t e n t between d i f f e r e n t c h i l d r e n . The  a s s u m p t i o n from w h i c h t h i s s t u d y stems i s t h a t a p r e l i m i n a r y  s t e p o f g a t h e r i n g d a t a about the s u b s t a n c e and  s t r u c t u r e of c h i l d r e n ' s  b e l i e f s would g r e a t l y f a c i l i t a t e any a p p r o a c h t o t h e above p r o b l e m ; whether i t be the development o f the t y p e o f m a t e r i a l s e n v i s a g e d Hawkins o r some o t h e r more f o r m a l 2.03  Review o f S t u d i e s R e l a t e d  by  approach.  t o the P r o b l e m  W r i t t e n a c c o u n t s o f t h e i d e a s h e l d by c h i l d r e n d a t e b a c k a t l e a s t as f a r as the l a t e 18th C e n t u r y w i t h the c a r e f u l o b s e r v a t i o n s P e s t a l o z z i on h i s own  child.  But  the f i r s t s e t o f l a r g e s c a l e s t u d i e s  of c h i l d r e n ' s i n t e l l e c t u a l commitments was The  made by  r e p o r t e d i n G.  Content o f C h i l d r e n ' s Minds on E n t e r i n g S c h o o l  t h e r e have been numerous i n v e s t i g a t i o n s p r o b i n g  (1883).  Stanley H a l l ' s Ever s i n c e ,  i n t o the w o r l d o f  the  c h i l d , the purposes of w h i c h have ranged from i d e n t i f y i n g the e x p r e s s e d i n t e r e s t s of c h i l d r e n t o c h a r t i n g c h i l d r e n ' s b e h a v i o r s o p h i s t i c a t e d category  systems.  w i t h the use  of  T h i s l a t t e r type of s t u d y , w h i c h i n v o l v e s  20  c l a s s i f y i n g some type o f v e r b a l r e s p o n s e , u s u a l l y g e n e r a t e d  by an  inter-  v i e w s i t u a t i o n , has been v e r y p r e v a l e n t i n the a r e a o f s c i e n c e e d u c a t i o n . The  e a r l y , p i o n e e r i n g s t u d i e s examined t h e development o f c a u s a l r e a s o n -  i n g i n the c h i l d . ^  But soon i n v e s t i g a t i o n s o f t h i s n a t u r e s p r e a d  o t h e r a r e a s o f i n t e r e s t t o the s c i e n c e e d u c a t o r .  to  Thus t h e r e were a  number o f s t u d i e s p r o b i n g i n t o the c h i l d ' s c o n c e p t i o n o f n a t u r a l phenomena ( e . g . , Oakes, 1947; K i n g , 1960;  and Inbody, 1964)  and s e v e r a l  d i r e c t e d a t more s p e c i f i c s k i l l s such as t h e c h i l d ' s a b i l i t y t o f o r m u l a t e h y p o t h e s e s ( A t k i n , 1958)  o r to c o n s t r u c t models t o account  p h y s i c a l phenomena (Anderson,  1965;  for  observed  P e l l a and Z i e g l e r , 1 9 6 7 ) .  W h i l e a l l o f the above s t u d i e s have c o n t r i b u t e d t o our knowledge o f the mechanics o f c h i l d t h o u g h t ,  they s t i l l have had l i t t l e  appreciable  e f f e c t upon e d u c a t i o n a l p r a c t i c e . S e v e r a l c o n j e c t u r e s m i g h t be t o account  f o r t h i s l a c k of i n f l u e n c e .  mentioned s t u d i e s a r e f r a g m e n t a r y  One  forwarded  i s t h a t many o f t h e above  i n nature —  each one s u r v e y i n g a  number o f t o p i c s r a n g i n g from c h i l d r e n ' s i d e a s about t h e o r i g i n o f g e o l o g i c a l f e a t u r e s , t o e l e c t r i c i t y and magnetism, t o t h e i r of l i v i n g objects.  F o r example, Oakes (1947) employed 17  understanding experiments  and 15 q u e s t i o n s t o examine c h i l d r e n ' s e x p l a n a t i o n s o f 19 d i f f e r e n t o f n a t u r a l phenomena; w h i l e K i n g (1960) had 70 q u e s t i o n s r a n g i n g 5 broad  areas  over  topic areas.  A second r e a s o n f o r t h e l a c k o f e d u c a t i o n a l e f f e c t m i g h t be a t t r i b u t e d t o a f a i l u r e on the p a r t o f the a u t h o r s t o address  serious  e d u c a t i o n a l i s s u e s w i t h i n the bounds o f t h e i r s t u d y p r o p e r , thus l e a v i n g 2 the i m p l e m e n t a t i o n  o f t h e i r r e s u l t s to o t h e r s .  21  The  a u t h o r o f t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y has a t t e m p t e d t o meet t h e f i r s t  s h o r t c o m i n g ( i n terms o f e d u c a t i o n a l  a p p l i c a b i l i t y ) o f most  s t u d i e s by f o c u s i n g upon c h i l d r e n ' s c o n c e p t i o n s o f h e a t .  previous  By l i m i t i n g  the a r e a o f i n v e s t i g a t i o n t o a s i n g l e t o p i c i t was f e l t t h a t two o u t comes c o u l d be a c c o m p l i s h e d :  1) t o g e n e r a t e a t l e a s t some t e n t a t i v e  hypotheses about c h i l d r e n ' s i d e a s o f h e a t ; and 2) t o p r o v i d e  an e x -  ample o f a p o s s i b l e method f o r c h a r t i n g o t h e r a r e a s o f i n t e r e s t t o educators. The  second s h o r t c o m i n g , l i s t e d above, was approached by p r o c e e d i n g  beyond t h e s t a g e o f s i m p l y As d e s c r i b e d  i d e n t i f y i n g and c a t e g o r i z i n g c h i l d r e n ' s v i e w s .  i n Chapter One, t h e method employed i n Phase One t o summa-  r i z e t h e s u b s t a n t i v e a s p e c t s o f c h i l d r e n ' s b e l i e f s about h e a t of a t y p e o f c a t e g o r i z a t i o n p r o c e d u r e .  consisted  However, t h i s l e v e l o f a n a l y s i s ,  w h i c h i s t h e p o i n t o f t e r m i n a t i o n f o r most o f t h e above-mentioned  3 studies,  was j u d g e d t o be i n s u f f i c i e n t i n d e p t h and scope f o r m e e t i n g  any  s e r i o u s e d u c a t i o n a l problems.  to  examine t h e d a t a f o r some e v i d e n c e o f a type o f o r g a n i z a t i o n o r  s t r u c t u r e t h a t m i g h t be o f v a l u e classroom  t o b o t h t h e c u r r i c u l u m w r i t e r and t h e  teacher. 2.10  2.11  Hence t h e d e c i s i o n was made t o t r y  P s y c h o l o g i c a l C o n t e x t o f t h e Study  Relationship to Structural Analysis Since  t h e c u r r e n t language o f e d u c a t i o n  i s replete with  usages o f t h e word ' s t r u c t u r e ' ( f o r example, f r e q u e n t made t o :  various  references a r e  t h e " s t r u c t u r e o f knowledge", t h e " s t r u c t u r e o f t h e c u r r i c u l u m " ,  a " s t r u c t u r e d l e s s o n p l a n " , and so o n ) , a t t h i s p o i n t i t i s a d v i s a b l e  22  t o s p e c i f y what i s i n t e n d e d beliefs'.  A standard  by the p h r a s e , 'the s t r u c t u r e o f  d i c t i o n a r y d e f i n i t i o n of s t r u c t u r e i s :  which i s c o n s t r u c t e d ;  a c o m b i n a t i o n of r e l a t e d p a r t s . "  c h i l d r e n ' s ideas) are organized systematic  The  4  the p r e s e n t s t u d y i s upon the manner i n w h i c h the p a r t s  The  children's "that focus i n  ( t h a t i s , the  i n t o some m e a n i n g f u l whole.  s t u d y o f the o r g a n i z a t i o n o f a s e t o f i d e a s  by a c h i l d i s a much more demanding t a s k t h a n s i m p l y c a t e g o r i z i n g the i d e a s a c c o r d i n g  held  enumerating o r  t o t h e i r s u b s t a n c e , as d i s c u s s e d  earlier.  I t i s g e n e r a l l y not f e a s i b l e t o s i m p l y ask c h i l d r e n (nor a d u l t s f o r t h a t m a t t e r ) t o d e s c r i b e d i r e c t l y the o r g a n i z a t i o n o f t h e i r i d e a s , o r  the  p o s s i b l e r e l a t i o n s h i p s between t h e s e i d e a s , w i t h r e g a r d s t o some p h y s i c a l phenomena.  Hence the p r o b l e m becomes one  a s u i t a b l e method f o r f o r m a l l y r e p r e s e n t i n g t h e o r e t i c a l framework.  Generally  of a t t e m p t i n g  t h o s e i d e a s by means o f some  t h i s f o r m a l i z a t i o n procedure i s a  r e s u l t o f t h e o r i z i n g w h i c h f u n c t i o n s i n such a way the  to develop  as t o t r y  to  reconstruct  'mental space' o f t h e s u b j e c t i n terms o f a s e t o f t h e o r e t i c a l  constructs. 2.12  R e l a t i o n s h i p to P i a g e t ' s  S t r u c t u r e s of I n t e l l i g e n c e  Undoubtedly the most prominent t h e o r e t i c i a n concerned w i t h s t r u c t u r a l a n a l y s i s o f c h i l d r e n ' s thought i s P i a g e t . have s t r o n g l y i n f l u e n c e d the c o n c e p t i o n , methods  and  a  Because h i s w r i t i n g s  to a l e s s e r extent  the  o f the p r e s e n t s t u d y a b r i e f a c c o u n t o f h i s t h e o r e t i c a l p o s i t i o n  (as i t i n f l u e n c e s h i s s t r u c t u r a l a n a l y s i s ) would seem w a r r a n t e d . Although Piaget professes i s , one who  t o be a g e n e t i c e p i s t e m o l o g i s t  seeks t o e x p l a i n knowledge "on  —  that  the b a s i s o f i t s h i s t o r y , i t s  23  sociogenesis, and  operations  and e s p e c i a l l y t h e p s y c h o l o g i c a l o r i g i n s o f t h e n o t i o n s upon w h i c h i t i s b a s e d " ( P i a g e t , 1971a, p. 1) —  b e s t known f o r h i s comprehensive s t u d i e s o f c h i l d r e n ' s development.  I n h i s d e s i r e to describe  processes of the c h i l d g r a d u a l l y evolve, approximations to the perceived  he i s  intellectual  t h e way i n w h i c h t h e thought through a s e r i e s of c l o s e r  r e a l i t y o f t h e a d u l t w o r l d , he has  a t t e m p t e d t o wed p s y c h o l o g i c a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n w i t h a t y p e o f l o g i c a l formalization.  The  result  w h i c h has become p r e v a l e n t t i o n one m i g h t d e s c r i b e  of t h i s union i s the s t r u c t u r a l a n a l y s i s  i n Piaget's w r i t i n g s .  As a f i r s t  approxima-  t h i s t y p e o f a n a l y s i s as an a t t e m p t t o r e p r e s e n t  m e n t a l p r o c e s s e s i n terms o f t h e o r e t i c a l e n t i t i e s w h i c h c a n p r o p e r l y be called cognitive structures.  Piaget claims  the d i s t i n g u i s h i n g features  of these p s y c h o l o g i c a l s t r u c t u r e s , i n a d d i t i o n to other t h e o r e t i c a l s t r u c t u r e s p o s i t e d i n f i e l d s l i k e m a t h e m a t i c s , l i n g u i s t i c s and p o l o g y , a r e based upon a system o f t r a n s f o r m a t i o n s these t r a n s f o r m a t i o n s . m e n t a l growth i s d e r i v e d  ( P i a g e t , 1971b)  process,  and t h e laws g o v e r n i n g  Hence i n P i a g e t ' s d e s c r i p t i o n  from a number o f s u c c e s s i v e  producing the developmental stages. as w e l l as t h e d e t e r m i n i n g  transformations  The e l e m e n t a l c o n s t i t u e n t s i n t h i s f a c t o r f o r s o r t i n g out the l e v e l of  i n t e l l e c t u a l development, a r e t h e o p e r a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e s .  F o r example,  the k i n d o f o p e r a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e s t h a t appear a t t h e 'stage o f operations'  anthro-  concrete  a r e those p e r t a i n i n g t o : c l a s s i n c l u s i o n and c l a s s i f i c a t i o n ,  s e r i a t i o n and o r d e r i n g , and c o r r e s p o n d e n c e .  According  to Piaget  these  s t r u c t u r e s do not j u s t u n f o l d i n a g e n e t i c a l l y p r e d e t e r m i n e d s e n s e ; they must be c o n s t r u c t e d  by t h e c h i l d t h r o u g h i n t e r a c t i n g w i t h  concrete,  24  p h y s i c a l o b j e c t s and a c t i n g upon and  t h e n , a t l a t e r s t a g e s o f development, m e n t a l l y  t r a n s f o r m i n g the r e a l i t y p e r c e i v e d by the c h i l d .  Or,  i n P i a g e t ' s words: From the most e l e m e n t a r y s e n s o r i m o t o r a c t i o n s (such as p u s h i n g and p u l l i n g ) t o the most s o p h i s t i c a t e d i n t e l l e c t u a l o p e r a t i o n s , which are i n t e r i o r i z e d a c t i o n s , c a r r i e d out m e n t a l l y ( e . g . , j o i n i n g together, p u t t i n g i n order, p u t t i n g into one-to-one c o r r e s p o n d e n c e ) , knowledge i s c o n s t a n t l y l i n k e d w i t h a c t i o n s or o p e r a t i o n s , that i s , w i t h transformations. ( P i a g e t , 1970, p. 704) (Italics his) 2.13  R e l a t i o n s h i p t o W i t z and E a s l e y ' s Deep S t r u c t u r e s W i t z and E a s l e y  (1971) have r e c e n t l y p o i n t e d out the  limitations  o f r e l y i n g s o l e l y upon o p e r a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e s as the t h e o r e t i c a l b a s i s f o r e x p l a i n i n g s p e c i f i c p a t t e r n s of behavior.  They argue t h a t  opera-  t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e s , i n t h e m s e l v e s , a r e i n s u f f i c i e n t f o r i n t e r p r e t i n g why c h i l d r e n r e a c t i n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c ways towards c e r t a i n p h y s i c a l s y s t e m s . T h e i r s o l u t i o n i s t o p r o p o s e a new  type  they e n t i t l e d " p h y s i c a l deep s t r u c t u r e " .  of c o g n i t i v e s t r u c t u r e which While Piaget recognized  the  i n f l u e n c e o f what he c a l l e d p h y s i c a l knowledge o r e x p e r i e n c e , he d i d not a c c o r d i t the f u l l s t r u c t u r a l s t a t u s as have W i t z and E a s l e y . place t h i s  i s s u e  To  i n p r o p e r p e r s p e c t i v e i t must be remembered t h a t  P i a g e t i s i n t e r e s t e d i n d e s c r i b i n g n o r m a t i v e t r e n d s and mechanisms w h i l e W i t z and E a s l e y admit t h a t they a r e more concerned w i t h making sense out o f the a c t i o n s o f a p a r t i c u l a r c h i l d i n t e r a c t i n g w i t h a p a r t i c u l a r of m a t e r i a l s .  To quote W i t z and  Easley:  When the c h i l d i s i n t e r a c t i n g w i t h a p a r t i c u l a r p h y s i c a l s y s t e m , o r when he c o n t e m p l a t e s one, a [ p h y s i c a l deep s t r u c t u r e ] comes i n t o p l a y , g i v e s r i s e t o what appears i n i n t r o s p e c t i o n as i n t u i t i v e  set  25  f e e l i n g s o f w e i g h t , momentum, i n e r t i a , e t c . , and strongly influences h i s e x t e r n a l l y observable behavior. (Witz and E a s l e y , 1971, p. 2) To i d e n t i f y a p h y s i c a l deep s t r u c t u r e , t h e n , the a n a l y s t must c a r e f u l l y o b s e r v e a c h i l d i n t e r a c t i n g w i t h a p h y s i c a l system ( f o r example, a pendulum) and  c o n s t r u c t i n f e r e n c e s about the n a t u r e o f  p h y s i c a l deep s t r u c t u r e s from the c h i l d ' s a c t i o n s and the i n t e r v i e w e r . formulating  the  discussion with  I d e a l l y , the i n t e r v i e w e r ought to be c a p a b l e o f  t h e s e h y p o t h e s e s and  checking  v i e w i n s t e a d o f r e l y i n g upon a p o s t hoc  them out d u r i n g the  inter-  r e c o n s t r u c t i o n from t r a n s c r i p t  data. Thus, on f i r s t v i e w one might c o n c e i v e of p h y s i c a l deep s t r u c t u r e as a s u b - s p e c i e s o f c o g n i t i v e s t r u c t u r e a c t i n g as a t y p e of g e n e r a l base t o be m a n i p u l a t e d and  t r a n s f o r m e d by  the o p e r a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e s .  I n t h i s sense b o t h c o n s t r u c t s a r e n e c e s s a r y i f one p l a i n any The  i s attempting  to  5  ex-  complex, c o g n i t i v e a c t i o n . educational  i m p l i c a t i o n s o f mapping out the  content-oriented,  p h y s i c a l deep s t r u c t u r e s would appear t o be more s i g n i f i c a n t t h a n considering operational structures.  Previous  c e l e r a t e o p e r a t i o n a l development have met short-term  data  success.  attempts to modify or  e i t h e r w i t h l i t t l e or  structures —  ac-  only  P i a g e t , when d i s c u s s i n g the i s s u e o f a c c e l e r a t i o n  of o p e r a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e s , i s q u i c k t o p o i n t o u t t h a t t h e r e a r e non-accessible,  simply  two  b i o l o g i c a l f a c t o r s w h i c h r e g u l a t e the development of  m a t u r a t i o n and  equilibration —  program w i l l be l i m i t e d by t h e s e two  factors.  and  so any i n s t r u c t i o n a l  ( P i a g e t , 1964)  o t h e r hand p h y s i c a l deep s t r u c t u r e s , as W i t z and  Easley  On  point out,  the are  26  t h e o r e t i c a l c o n s t r u c t s t h a t attempt  t o account  f o r c h i l d r e n ' s charac-  t e r i s t i c ways o f d e a l i n g w i t h p h y s i c a l systems and would t h e r e f o r e seem to be more r e s p o n s i v e t o the t y p e o f e x p e r i e n c e p r o v i d e d i n t h e c l a s s room.  I n o t h e r words, because t h e y have a s t r o n g c o n t e n t component,  exposure t o c o n t e n t - o r i e n t e d e x p e r i e n c e s would i n c r e a s e the o f b r i n g i n g about a change i n t h e s e s t r u c t u r e s .  likelihood  I t would seem t h a t i f  ' t y p i c a l ' p h y s i c a l deep s t r u c t u r e p a t t e r n s c o u l d be i d e n t i f i e d mapped o u t f o r s p e c i f i c groups o f c h i l d r e n , then a t l e a s t two  and distinct  e d u c a t i o n a l g a i n s would a c c r u e . The  f i r s t e d u c a t i o n a l a p p l i c a t i o n c o u l d be d i r e c t e d towards t h e  p r o d u c t i o n o f c u r r i c u l a r packages f o r use by t h e c l a s s r o o m  teacher.  Such a package m i g h t c o n t a i n a d i a g n o s t i c i n s t r u m e n t , f o r i d e n t i f y i n g the p a t t e r n o f p h y s i c a l deep s t r u c t u r e s o f "a p a r t i c u l a r group o f c h i l d r e n , a l o n g w i t h a number o f p o t e n t i a l t e a c h i n g s t r a t e g i e s matched to  that pattern.  Of c o u r s e , t h e p e d a g o g i c a l b a s i s f o r such a m a t c h i n g  p r o c e d u r e would depend upon t h e o v e r a r c h i n g g o a l s f o r s c i e n c e i n s t r u c t i o n i n the s c h o o l s .  F o r example, i f t h e aim was  t o f i n d t h e most e f -  f i c i e n t r o u t e f o r i n i t i a t i n g t h e c h i l d i n t o a more a d u l t way  of per-  c e i v i n g the w o r l d , then the s t r a t e g i e s would t a k e on a v e r y  different  appearance from o t h e r aims such as f o s t e r i n g i n t e l l e c t u a l c u r i o s i t y o r d e v e l o p i n g an a p p r e c i a t i o n o f our e n v i r o n m e n t .  More w i l l be s a i d o f  these p o s s i b l e t e a c h i n g s t r a t e g i e s i n Chapter S i x . A second b e n e f i c i a l e f f e c t would r e s u l t from making a v a i l a b l e t o t e a c h e r s the knowledge o b t a i n e d about the o r g a n i z a t i o n o f c h i l d r e n ' s p h y s i c a l i n t u i t i o n s o r deep s t r u c t u r e s . By p o s s e s s i n g such knowledge  27  i t i s hoped t h a t t h e t e a c h e r s ' p e r c e p t i o n s o f t h e i n s t r u c t i o n a l  task  w i l l be a l t e r e d i n such a way t h a t t h e b a s i c i n t e g r i t y o f t h e c h i l d ' s b e l i e f s and p r i m i t i v e methods o f ' i n q u i r y w i l l be r e s p e c t e d .  While  t h i s second e f f e c t i s much more tenuous i n n a t u r e , Broudy e t a l . (1964) have argued t h a t t h i s type o f i n t e r p r e t i v e use o f knowledge may be as p o w e r f u l as t h e more c o n v e n t i o n a l a p p l i c a t i v e usage. 2.14  The Concept o f S t r u c t u r e Used i n t h e P r e s e n t The  Study  t a s k f o r t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y , as o u t l i n e d i n Chapter One, i s t o  i d e n t i f y the substance  and s t r u c t u r e o f c h i l d r e n ' s i d e a s about h e a t . A l -  though W i t z and E a s l e y ' s t h e o r e t i c a l c o n c e p t i o n o f p h y s i c a l deep s t r u c t u r e s would appear t o be a u s e f u l c o n s t r u c t f o r e x a m i n i n g t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f c h i l d r e n ' s b e l i e f s about h e a t phenomena,there a r e s e v e r a l drawbacks i n c o n s i d e r i n g t h e i r approach f o r t h i s study.  The f i r s t i s an  inadequate  a r t i c u l a t i o n of a s e t of procedures to a s s i s t others i n the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f p h y s i c a l deep s t r u c t u r e s .  As w i t h P i a g e t , they have s e l e c t e d o n l y  those passages from s e v e r a l d i f f e r e n t t r a n s c r i p t s a p p r o p r i a t e t o i l l u s t r a t e the p o i n t o f t h e o r e t i c a l contact being discussed a t the time.  A  second r e a s o n i s t h a t t h e i r approach a l s o p r e s u p p o s e s some knowledge o f c h i l d r e n ' s understanding and t h e a n a l y s t —  o f h e a t , so as t o o r i e n t b o t h t h e i n t e r v i e w e r  a c o n d i t i o n w h i c h c o u l d n o t be s a t i s f i e d due t o t h e  l a c k o f work i n t h e a r e a o f c h i l d r e n ' s b e l i e f s about h e a t .  But, per-  haps t h e most c o m p e l l i n g r e a s o n f o r n o t u s i n g t h e i r approach i s t o be found i n one o f t h e s t a t e d aims o f t h i s s t u d y : r e s u l t s of t h i s study to a c t u a l classroom  the a p p l i c a t i o n o f the  situations.  In t h i s  regard  a c o n c i s e and s t a n d a r d i z e d i n s t r u m e n t , based upon t h e i n t e r v i e w d a t a ,  28  would appear to be much more u s e f u l t h a n a somewhat a b s t r a c t d i s c u s s i o n o u t l i n i n g the p o t e n t i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n o f b e l i e f s m a n i f e s t e d by a c h i l d , or  a s m a l l group o f c h i l d r e n . Hence a s e a r c h was  i n i t i a t e d f o r an a l t e r n a t i v e t o t h e P i a g e t i a n  type o f a n a l y s i s f o r i n v e s t i g a t i n g the s t r u c t u r a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f c h i l d r e n ' s i d e a s about heat phenomena.  I t was hoped t h a t a model c o u l d  be found t h a t would r e t a i n t h e c o n t e n t o r i e n t a t i o n o f t h e p h y s i c a l deep s t r u c t u r e s , and y e t meet the two o b j e c t i o n s r a i s e d above. A p r o m i s i n g approach  f o r r e v e a l i n g some a s p e c t s o f t h e p o t e n t i a l  o r g a n i z a t i o n o f c h i l d r e n ' s b e l i e f s i s t h a t of m u l t i d i m e n s i o n a l a n a l y s i s . There a r e two i n t e r - d e p e n d e n t i s s u e s t h a t must be a d d r e s s e d b e f o r e an a n a l y s i s o f t h i s n a t u r e can be c a r r i e d o u t .  D e c i s i o n s must be made  w i t h r e g a r d s t o t h e methods t o be employed f o r t h e c o l l e c t i o n o f t h e d a t a and the t y p e o f s t a t i s t i c a l model t h a t i s t o be used t o a n a l y z e the d a t a . The t a s k i n t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y , t h e n , was  one o f f i r s t ,  l a t i n g t h e s u b s t a n t i v e b e l i e f s , g a t h e r e d i n Phase One view data,  trans-  from t h e  inter-  i n t o a format t h a t a l l o w s o t h e r c h i l d r e n t o r e s p o n d  to  those b e l i e f s and second, c h o o s i n g some s u i t a b l e a n a l y t i c a l model. The f i r s t a t t e m p t a t a p p r o a c h i n g t h e above i s s u e s was  inspired  by a r e p o r t w r i t t e n by M i l l e r e t a l . (1967) e n t i t l e d , E l e m e n t a r y Teachers' V i e w p o i n t s o f C l a s s r o o m T e a c h i n g and L e a r n i n g .  School  In t h i s report  they o u t l i n e d a t e c h n i q u e , c a l l e d L a t e n t P a r t i t i o n A n a l y s i s , w h i c h upon d a t a o b t a i n e d by s o r t i n g a l a r g e number o f c a r d s ( g e n e r a l l y 150) i n t o p i l e s w h i c h were s i m i l a r i n some r e s p e c t .  relied  around  Each c a r d c o n t a i n e d  29  a d e s c r i p t i o n o f some c l a s s r o o m - r e l e v a n t b e h a v i o r i n w h i c h a t e a c h e r might engage.  Those c a r d s w h i c h t h e s u b j e c t p e r c e i v e d t o be a s s o c i a t e d  w i t h t h e same type o f b e h a v i o r were p l a c e d i n t o the same p i l e — was  subsequently c a l l e d a "manifest category."  By comparing  which  these c a t e -  g o r i e s o v e r a number o f s u b j e c t s f o r t h e i r c o m m o n a l i t i e s a number o f l a t e n t c a t e g o r i e s emerge.  Hence the c l a i m t h a t t h i s p r o c e d u r e i s t a p p i n g  i n some manner, a l a t e n t c o g n i t i v e s t r u c t u r e t h a t i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r o r g a n i z i n g t h e s u b j e c t s ' p e r c e p t i o n s i n the manner o b s e r v e d . A l t h o u g h the t e c h n i q u e i s c a p a b l e o f p r o d u c i n g t h e k i n d o f s t r u c t u r a l a n a l y s i s t h a t i s d e s i r e d , t h e somewhat s o p h i s t i c a t e d s o r t i n g p r o cedures proved t o be too d i f f i c u l t f o r t h e seven d i f f e r e n t c h i l d r e n t r i e d t o s o r t s t a t e m e n t s about heat and t e m p e r a t u r e .  who  Furthermore, i t  would be e x t r e m e l y d i f f i c u l t t o a d m i n i s t e r t h i s t y p e o f s o r t i n g t a s k to a whole c l a s s a t a time —  a d e s i r a b l e f e a t u r e both f o r sampling  l a r g e numbers o f c h i l d r e n and f o r a d a p t i n g t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e f o r event u a l c l a s s r o o m use. T a y l o r ' s (1966) s t u d y , e n t i t l e d The Mapping o f C o n c e p t s , p r o v i d e d some u s e f u l a l t e r n a t i v e s t o t h e s o r t i n g t e c h n i q u e s d e s c r i b e d above f o r the g a t h e r i n g o f d a t a s u i t a b l e f o r t h e a n a l y s i s o f s t r u c t u r a l ships. cusses —  A l l o f t h e methods o f c o l l e c t i n g j u d g m e n t a l d a t a t h a t he r a t i o judgment, p a i r e d - c o m p a r i s o n , c a t e g o r y s o r t , and  differential — model.  relationdissemantic  a r e s u i t a b l e f o r use w i t h a m u l t i d i m e n s i o n a l a n a l y s i s  A f t e r a r e v i e w o f t h e l i t e r a t u r e c o n c e r n i n g these t e c h n i q u e s , i t  was d e c i d e d t h a t the method t h a t would b e s t meet the r e q u i r e m e n t s o f t h e s t u d y ( t h a t i s , i t would be s i m p l e enough f o r an e l e v e n - y e a r o l d t o comprehend and c o u l d be p r e s e n t e d t o a l a r g e group o f c h i l d r e n ) was  that  3Q  o f the semantic d i f f e r e n t i a l , o r some s i m p l e v a r i a t i o n o f t h i s t e c h nique  (Osgood e t a l . , 1957). Subsequent p i l o t runs w i t h s m a l l groups  o f c h i l d r e n and f i n a l l y w i t h an e n t i r e c l a s s o f grade f i v e  children  i n d i c a t e d that a m o d i f i e d s e m a n t i c - d i f f e r e n t i a l instrument d i d indeed meet t h e s e r e q u i r e m e n t s . The d a t a g e n e r a t e d by the use o f t h i s i n s t r u m e n t c o u l d be a n a l y z e d u s i n g s e v e r a l d i f f e r e n t s t a t i s t i c a l models. f a c t o r - a n a l y t i c model because i t was  The model s e l e c t e d was  the  judged t o b e t t e r s a t i s f y t h e p a r -  t i c u l a r needs o f t h i s s t u d y , o u t l i n e d i n t h e p r e c e e d i n g two c h a p t e r s . Both t h e measuring  i n s t r u m e n t and t h e f a c t o r - a n a l y t i c model a r e d e s c r i b e d  i n d e t a i l i n Chapter  Four.  I n summary, the p r o c e d u r e s  t h a t a r e used i n the s t u d y t o a s c e r t a i n  the ' s t r u c t u r e o f c h i l d r e n ' s b e l i e f s ' about h e a t e n t a i l t h e measurement o f the p e r c e i v e d p s y c h o l o g i c a l a s s o c i a t i o n s between a number o f s t a t e ments drawn from t h r e e d i f f e r e n t P e r s p e c t i v e s o f h e a t .  T h i s measure was  o b t a i n e d by a s k i n g a c l a s s o f c h i l d r e n t o j u d g e a s e t o f s t a t e m e n t s about heat u s i n g s i x c r i t e r i a f o r judgment.  ( t h e s c a l e s on t h e i n s t r u m e n t ) as t h e i r b a s i s  U s i n g an a p p r o p r i a t e f a c t o r - a n a l y t i c t e c h n i q u e , i t was  p o s s i b l e t o a s s e s s t h e number o f r e l e v a n t d i m e n s i o n s b e i n g used by s u b j e c t s i n making the judgments.  the  As t h e i n s t r u m e n t was c o n s t r u c t e d  w i t h s t a t e m e n t s u s i n g t h r e e d i f f e r i n g h e a t P e r s p e c t i v e s , i t was  hypo-  t h e s i z e d t h a t one ought t o be a b l e t o i d e n t i f y t h e s e as somewhat s e p a r a t e dimensions.  The s t u d y showed t h a t i t was p o s s i b l e t o i d e n t i f y t h e e x t e n t  t o w h i c h a c h i l d , o r a group o f c h i l d r e n , s u b s c r i b e d t o a p a r t i c u l a r p o i n t o f v i e w r e g a r d i n g h e a t phenomena ( t h a t i s , how h e a v i l y  weighted  31  t h e i r judgments were on a g i v e n d i m e n s i o n ) .  The c o l l e c t i o n o f t h e  d a t a and the t e c h n i q u e s used t o d e t e r m i n e t h e s t r u c t u r e o f the c h i l dren's judgments a r e d i s c u s s e d i n C h a p t e r F o u r .  32  NOTES FOR  CHAPTER  TWO  1. Some examples o f t h e s e e a r l y s t u d i e s on c a u s a l r e a s o n i n g i n the c h i l d are: P i a g e t (1930), I s s a c s ( 1 9 3 0 ) , Keen (1934) and Huang's (1943) comprehensive r e v i e w a r t i c l e . 2. A n o t a b l e e x c e p t i o n to t h i s t r e n d was the work of G e r a l d C r a i g who went on to d e v e l o p a v e r y s u c c e s s f u l program based upon h i s s t u d i e s of c h i l d r e n ' s i n t e r e s t s and t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p to the p r e v a i l i n g s c i e n t i f i c i d e a s o f the day. 3. P i a g e t i s o b v i o u s l y to be e x c e p t e d from t h i s c l a i m as he has a l w a y s been i n t e r e s t e d i n c a r r y i n g h i s a n a l y s i s much beyond the c a t e g o r i z a t i o n stage. 4.  Funk and  Wagnalls Standard D i c t i o n a r y  (1962).  5. A l t h o u g h t h i s p o i n t i s not a d d r e s s e d by W i t z and E a s l e y i n t h e i r p a p e r , E a s l e y (1969).has argued i n an e a r l i e r paper t h a t P i a g e t ' s c o n c e p t i o n o f t h e o p e r a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e s ( t h a t u n d e r l i e the development o f l o g i c a l t h i n k i n g i n the c h i l d ) can b e s t be i n t e r p r e t e d as f u n c t i o n i n g i n a g e n e r a t i v e c a p a c i t y f o r the c h i l d . That i s , the c h i l d u t i l i z e s t h e s e s t r u c t u r e s , such as P i a g e t ' s famous INRC group, to c r e a t e a numb e r o f p o t e n t i a l h y p o t h e s e s when f a c e d w i t h a p r o b l e m s i t u a t i o n , as opposed t o u s i n g them to t e s t the v a l i d i t y o f the p r o p o s i t i o n . The p h y s i c a l deep s t r u c t u r e s c o u l d t h e n be c o n c e p t u a l i z e d as the c o n t e n t o r i e n t e d p r o d u c t of t h e s e d e l i b e r a t i o n s by the c h i l d when i n t e r a c t i n g w i t h some p h y s i c a l system. For example, most c h i l d r e n b e l i e v e t h a t the w e i g h t o f the pendulum bob i s a d e t e r m i n i n g v a r i a b l e i n how l o n g i t t a k e s to complete one s w i n g . However, as the c h i l d works w i t h the system he i d e n t i f i e s o t h e r v a r i a b l e s , such as l e n g t h o f s t r i n g , shape o f bob, and a m p l i t u d e o f the s w i n g . Once t h e s e v a r i a b l e s become known then the o p e r a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e s e n a b l e him t o g e n e r a t e o t h e r p o t e n t i a l h y p o t h e s e s ( i n t h e o r y , a l l of the p o s s i b l e elements o f the v a r i o u s c o m b i n a t i o n s o f v a r i a b l e s ) r e g a r d i n g t h e mechanism o f the pendulum. As t h e s e new hypotheses a r e examined e m p i r i c a l l y t h e y may d i s p l a c e the c h i l d ' s e x i s t i n g n o t i o n s thus c r e a t i n g a new, o r a l t e r e d p h y s i c a l deep s t r u c t u r e .  33  CHAPTER THREE METHOD OF COLLECTING AND 3.00 The  The  ANALYZING THE  P r e l i m i n a r y Work  p r e l i m i n a r y a p p r o a c h t o Phase One  i n g w i t h s e v e r a l s m a l l groups o f 11 and  d i s c u s s i o n s concerned w i t h h e a t and  o f the s t u d y  i n v o l v e d work-  12 y e a r - o l d c h i l d r e n who  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a Campus.  these groups.  INTERVIEW DATA  1  visited  E x p l o r a t o r y experiments  t e m p e r a t u r e were conducted w i t h  Following these sessions a d d i t i o n a l i n f o r m a l , i n d i v i d u a l  i n t e r v i e w s were conducted w i t h e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l c h i l d r e n r a n g i n g age  and  from 6 t o 13 y e a r s .  The  in  a u t h o r ' s work w i t h t h e s e c h i l d r e n s e r v e d  as a t y p e o f p i l o t s t u d y p r o v i d i n g c l u e s c o n c e r n i n g  the t y p e s o f  p e r i m e n t s and d e m o n s t r a t i o n s t h a t a r e o f i n t e r e s t t o c h i l d r e n .  exThey  also provided  some i n d i c a t i o n o f t y p i c a l p a t t e r n s o f r e s p o n s e t o c e r t a i n  questions  t o the m a t e r i a l s t h e m s e l v e s .  and  Out  of t h e s e s e s s i o n s , w h i c h  spanned a p e r i o d o f two months, emerged the t a s k s t h a t were f i n a l l y chosen f o r the f o r m a l i n t e r v i e w s . i n d e t a i l i n S e c t i o n 3.22,  These t a s k s , w h i c h w i l l be  described  c o n s i s t e d of f i v e d i f f e r e n t sets of e x p e r i -  ments o r d e m o n s t r a t i o n s r e l a t i n g t o some a s p e c t of h e a t phenomena. 3.10 3.11  The  A D e s c r i p t i o n o f the F o r m a l  Interviews  Subjects  W h i l e the ages of the c h i l d r e n used i n the p i l o t i n t e r v i e w s v a r i e d from 6 t o 13, a d e c i s i o n was the f i n a l i n t e r v i e w s . (1)  made t o use o n l y 12 y e a r - o l d c h i l d r e n f o r  T h i s d e c i s i o n was  based on s e v e r a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s :  most o f the younger c h i l d r e n i n t e r v i e w e d i n the p i l o t s e s s i o n s  peared t o e i t h e r have g i v e n l i t t l e  ap-  thought t o the s u b j e c t o f h e a t o r e l s e  34  had some d i f f i c u l t y i n e x p r e s s i n g t h e i r i d e a s ; (2) c h i l d r e n o l d e r  than  12 have o f t e n been i n t r o d u c e d t o a d u l t t h e o r i e s o f heat i n a s c h o o l s e t t i n g , t h u s , i n t e r f e r i n g w i t h the i n t e n t o f the s t u d y — c h i l d r e n ' s ideas of heat; c h i l d i s beginning and i t was  t o examine  (3) f i n a l l y , 12 i s about the age a t w h i c h a  t o r e a s o n i n a more a b s t r a c t , t h e o r e t i c a l manner  hoped t h a t some o f these more t h e o r e t i c a l commitments c o u l d  be i d e n t i f i e d i n the i n t e r v i e w . The  t e n c h i l d r e n i n t e r v i e w e d ( f i v e boys and f i v e g i r l s ) were  s e l e c t e d from two e l e m e n t a r y was  s c h o o l s i n the C i t y o f Vancouver.  There  a c o n s i d e r a b l e amount o f d i v e r s i t y among the s u b j e c t s i n t h e i r s o c i o -  economic background and l e v e l s o f achievement i n s c h o o l .  T h i s was  mined from i n f o r m a l c o n v e r s a t i o n s w i t h the c h i l d r e n p r i o r t o and the i n t e r v i e w , and by a s s u r a n c e s  deterafter  from the t e a c h e r s t h a t the c h i l d r e n  r e p r e s e n t e d a wide range o f a b i l i t i e s .  The  l a t t e r judgment by  the  t e a c h e r s appeared t o be s u b s t a n t i a t e d by the v a r y i n g r e s p o n s e s t o the interview situation.  Some o f the c h i l d r e n a t t e m p t e d t o p r o v i d e a  full,  r i c h d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e i r i d e a s w h i l e o t h e r s were c o n t e n t to respond t o many o f the q u e s t i o n s posed by the i n v e s t i g a t o r w i t h v e r y  brief,  o f t e n non-commital answers. 3.12  The  Tasks  T h i s s e c t i o n w i l l o u t l i n e the f i v e t a s k s used t o engage the s u b j e c t s i n d i s c u s s i o n s o f t h e i r i d e a s about h e a t phenomena.  I n a d d i t i o n , the  s e c t i o n w i l l i n c l u d e a b r i e f d e s c r i p t i o n of the p h y s i c a l a p p a r a t u s  used  and an a b b r e v i a t e d d i s c u s s i o n o f the g e n e r a l types o f q u e s t i o n s accompanying  each t a s k .  The  c r i t e r i a used f o r t a s k s e l e c t i o n were:  the  35  i n h e r e n t i n t e r e s t o r a p p e a l o f the t a s k t o the c h i l d and the degree o f d i v e r s i t y i n heat phenomena i l l u s t r a t e d i n the t a s k s . The a p p a r a t u s f o r the f i r s t t a s k c o n s i s t e d o f a 125 m l . E r l e n meyer f l a s k c o n t a i n i n g w a t e r c o l o u r e d by r e d f o o d c o l o u r i n g .  A  one-  h o l e s t o p p e r c o n t a i n i n g a 30 cm. c a p i l l a r y tube was i n s e r t e d i n t o t h e 2  f l a s k u n t i l a column o f 'red l i q u i d ' r o s e up p a r t way Each c h i l d was  i n t o the t u b e .  shown t h i s a p p a r a t u s and was asked t o examine i t .  If  no p r o m i s i n g q u e s t i o n s emerged from t h i s i n i t i a l e n c o u n t e r , t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r asked the c h i l d i f he c o u l d t h i n k o f some way o f l i q u i d i n the tube.  t o l o w e r the l e v e l  E v e n t u a l l y a l l o f t h e s u b j e c t s ended up  the f l a s k i n b e a k e r s o f c o l d and hot w a t e r ,  immersing  a l t h o u g h a number of o t h e r  i d i o s y n c r a t i c methods were a l s o used t o t r y t o : a f f e c t the l i q u i d Q u e s t i o n s such a s :  Why  d i d the l i q u i d change as i t d i d ?  l i q u i d s react i n a s i m i l a r fashion?  level.  Would o t h e r  What happens t o the h o t / c o l d w a t e r  when t h i s j a r i s immersed i n i t ? were posed a t a p p r o p r i a t e moments w h i l e t h e c h i l d was h a n d l i n g t h e m a t e r i a l s . The second t a s k c o n s i s t e d o f p l a c i n g e i g h t d i f f e r e n t o b j e c t s , a l l cube shaped, i n an a l u m i n i u m t r a y on a h o t p l a t e and o b s e r v i n g the result.  The o b j e c t s c o n s i s t e d o f :  two m e t a l cubes  wood, s u g a r , wax, b u t t e r , i c e , and a m o t h b a l l . . on the hot p l a t e , the c h i l d examined to i d e n t i f y o r name each cube.  (copper and a l u m i n i u m ) ,  B e f o r e p l a c i n g the t r a y  each o f the cubes, u s u a l l y a t t e m p t i n g  I f the q u e s t i o n d i d not a r i s e s p o n t a n e o u s l y  the i n v e s t i g a t o r asked the c h i l d what would happen when the t r a y p l a c e d on the hot p l a t e .  was  Other q u e s t i o n s r a i s e d by e i t h e r the c h i l d r e n  or the i n v e s t i g a t o r r e l a t e d t o the n a t u r e o f the m e l t i n g p r o c e s s , and  36  why  some s u b s t a n c e s m e l t more q u i c k l y and e a s i e r than o t h e r s .  When  time p e r m i t t e d a r e l a t e d e x p e r i m e n t o f comparing the m e l t i n g r a t e o f i c e cubes i n w a t e r and i n a i r was p e r f o r m e d .  This melting race, staged  between an i c e cube i n a i r a t 70° F. and one i n about 200 m l . o f w a t e r a t 50°  F. was o f i n t e r e s t t o most o f the c h i l d r e n .  as t o why  The o b v i o u s q u e s t i o n  i t m e l t e d f a s t e r i n the w a t e r drew a l a r g e v a r i e t y o f r e s p o n s e s .  A t h i r d task c o n s i s t e d of m i x i n g water a t d i f f e r e n t i n i t i a l  tempe-  r a t u r e s i n a s p e c i a l l y constructed p l e x i g l a s s c o n t a i n e r of dimensions 8 i n c h e s by 4 i n c h e s by 4 i n c h e s .  A removable b a r r i e r i n the m i d d l e a l -  lowed w a t e r a t d i f f e r e n t t e m p e r a t u r e s t o be poured i n each s i d e w i t h o u t mixing.  The b a r r i e r c o u l d t h e n be removed t o mix t h e w a t e r i f d e s i r e d .  The i n v e s t i g a t o r f i r s t posed q u e s t i o n s c o n c e r n i n g the t r a n s f e r o f h e a t t h r o u g h the b a r r i e r b e f o r e i t was removed.  Then t h e c h i l d was  asked  to p r e d i c t t h e f i n a l t e m p e r a t u r e when t h e w a t e r a t two d i f f e r e n t temper a t u r e s was mixed by removing t h e b a r r i e r . T h i s a p p a r a t u s was a l s o used t o i n v e s t i g a t e an i n t e r e s t i n g c o v e r y made by the i n v e s t i g a t o r d u r i n g t h e p i l o t s e s s i o n s .  After  disob-  s e r v i n g a s i m i l a r p a t t e r n o f r e s p o n s e s made by c h i l d r e n aged 6 t o 10 i t became a p p a r e n t t h a t one c r i t e r i o n used by some c h i l d r e n f o r j u d g i n g the t e m p e r a t u r e o f w a t e r was  the 'amount o f w a t e r p r e s e n t ' .  Thus the  a p p a r a t u s was used t o a l t e r the amounts o f w a t e r a t the same t e m p e r a t u r e to f u r t h e r e x p l o r e the n a t u r e and p r e v a l e n c e o f t h i s  belief.  A f o u r t h t a s k i n v o l v e d h e a t i n g d i f f e r e n t s i z e d m e t a l and  glass  rods w i t h a c a n d l e f l a m e t o see w h i c h one would h e a t up the q u i c k e s t . Three p i n s , embedded i n wax, were p l a c e d a l o n g the r o d s t o t r a c e the  37  progress of the c o n t e s t . were:  Why  The q u e s t i o n s t h a t accompanied t h i s e x p e r i m e n t  does t h e o p p o s i t e end ( t o t h a t b e i n g h e a t e d by the c a n d l e )  o f the r o d g e t h o t ?  Why  do some r o d s get hot f a s t e r than o t h e r s ?  q u e s t i o n f r e q u e n t l y asked by the c h i l d r e n about the e x p e r i m e n t How  i s h e a t a b l e t o move a l o n g the rod?  One  was:  W h i l e the i n v e s t i g a t o r p u r -  sued t h i s t y p e o f q u e s t i o n , u s i n g the c h i l d ' s own language where poss i b l e , he was c a r e f u l n o t t o i n i t i a t e q u e s t i o n s o f t h i s n a t u r e w h i c h m i g h t s u g g e s t h e a t t o be a t y p e o f m a t e r i a l s u b s t a n c e . The f i n a l t a s k proved t o be the most d i f f i c u l t f o r the c h i l d r e n to comprehend.  The b a s i c a p p a r a t u s was d e s i g n e d t o i l l u s t r a t e t h e ex-  p a n s i o n o f a s o l i d when h e a t e d .  I t c o n s i s t e d of a 12-inch h o r i z o n t a l  m e t a l r o d anchored a t one end o f a wooden frame (by d r i l l i n g a s m a l l h o l e i n the r o d and i n s e r t i n g i t i n t o a s m a l l n a i l p r o t r u d i n g up from the f r a m e ) .  The o t h e r end o f t h e r o d r e s t e d upon a l o n g , s t r a i g h t p i n  attached to a cardboard d i a l 4 inches i n diameter.  When the r o d was  heated by two c a n d l e s t h e l i n e a r e x p a n s i o n o f t h e r o d caused t h e p i n to t u r n .  The m o t i o n o f the p i n was  t r a n s l a t e d to the l a r g e d i a l , w h i c h  c o n t a i n e d numbers t h a t c o u l d be r e a d by u s i n g a r e f e r e n c e p o i n t a t t a c h e d t o t h e frame.  A d i a g r a m o f t h i s a p p a r a t u s i s p r o v i d e d i n Appendix  B.  W h i l e t h e c h i l d r e n were v e r y f a s c i n a t e d by t h e m o t i o n o f the d i a l o n l y two c h i l d r e n were a b l e t o p r o v i d e a somewhat r e a s o n a b l e e x p l a n a t i o n o f what was o c c u r r i n g . s a i d something l i k e : I don't know 3.13  The  Most o f them s i m p l y shrugged t h e i r s h o u l d e r s and " W e l l I guess t h e heat i s d o i n g i t somehow, b u t  how."  Format of the I n t e r v i e w  As s t a n d a r d p r o c e d u r e f o r t h e i n t e r v i e w s , the i n v e s t i g a t o r would  38  meet each c h i l d a t h i s o r h e r s c h o o l and d r i v e t h e c h i l d t o The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia f o r t h e i n t e r v i e w .  T h i s system a l l o w e d t h e  i n v e s t i g a t o r t o c h a t i n f o r m a l l y w i t h t h e c h i l d f o r 10 t o 20 m i n u t e s before vided  a c t u a l l y i n i t i a t i n g the i n t e r v i e w .  An o p p o r t u n i t y was thus  pro-  t o a s s u r e t h e c h i l d r e n t h a t i t was n o t a ' t e s t i n g t y p e ' o f s i t u a -  t i o n , b u t one t h a t they would e n j o y .  I t was a l s o p o s s i b l e t o g a t h e r  some s i m p l e b i o g r a p h i c a l d a t a d u r i n g t h e s e d i s c u s s i o n s .  The c h i l d was  t o l d t h a t t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r was t r y i n g t o d e v e l o p a new s c i e n c e  course  f o r t h e i r grade l e v e l , and so he was i n t e r e s t e d i n t h e i r i d e a s  regarding  the e x p e r i m e n t s about h e a t and t e m p e r a t u r e .  The t i m e r e q u i r e d  t o com-  p l e t e t h e e n t i r e i n t e r v i e w s e s s i o n ranged from 40 t o 70 m i n u t e s , w i t h most o f t h e c h i l d r e n t a k i n g about 60 m i n u t e s . The room used f o r t h e i n t e r v i e w s was equipped w i t h one-way and m i c r o p h o n e s .  A o n e - i n c h Sony v i d e o t a p e r e c o r d e r  mirrors  and camera were  p l a c e d b e h i n d t h e m i r r o r , however, each c h i l d was i n f o r m e d o f i t s p r e sence and was asked f o r p e r m i s s i o n  to record the interview.  A diagram  o f t h e a c t u a l p h y s i c a l l a y o u t i s g i v e n i n A p p e n d i x B, The model adopted f o r c o n d u c t i n g t h e i n t e r v i e w s resembled of P i a g e t ' s  " c l i n i c a l method".  ( P i a g e t , 1969)  that  E f f e c t i v e use o f t h i s  technique requires the i n t e r v i e w e r t o : . . . u n i t e two o f t e n i n c o m p a t i b l e q u a l i t i e s ; he must know how t o o b s e r v e , t h a t i s t o s a y , t o l e t t h e c h i l d t a l k f r e e l y , without ever checking o r s i d e t r a c k i n g h i s u t t e r a n c e , and a t t h e same time he must c o n s t a n t l y be a l e r t f o r something d e f i n i t i v e , a t e v e r y moment he must have some w o r k i n g h y p o t h e s i s , some t h e o r y , t r u e o r f a l s e , w h i c h he i s s e e k i n g t o check. ( P i a g e t , 1969, p. 9) I n k e e p i n g w i t h t h i s t e c h n i q u e no f o r m a l i n t e r v i e w s c h e d u l e o f  39  q u e s t i o n s was used.  Rather,  the i n v e s t i g a t o r attempted f i r s t  the c h i l d i n v o l v e d i n some a s p e c t o f t h e t a s k .  to get  H a v i n g e s t a b l i s h e d some  avenue o f i n q u i r y o r i n t e r e s t , open-ended q u e s t i o n s were p o s e d , u s i n g the c h i l d ' s own language where a p p r o p r i a t e . t h a t guided  The " w o r k i n g h y p o t h e s e s "  some o f t h e q u e s t i o n i n g d u r i n g t h e i n t e r v i e w s were l a r g e l y  based upon t h e r e s u l t s from t h e p i l o t s e s s i o n s .  F o r example, t h e n o t i o n  t h a t h e a t was a ' s o r t o f i n v i s i b l e s u b s t a n c e ,  something l i k e a i r ' p e r -  vaded many o f t h e p i l o t i n t e r v i e w s .  t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r was  Although  a l e r t t o t h i s p o t e n t i a l view of heat, t o the p o i n t of g e t t i n g the c h i l d r e n t o t r y and c l a r i f y and expand upon t h e i r i d e a s , he a l s o a t t e m p t e d to  'check o u t ' o t h e r b e l i e f s w h i c h appeared t o be d i s c r e p a n t w i t h  substance n o t i o n o f heat.  this  A c a r e f u l s c r u t i n y o f t h e t r a n s c r i p t s from  the i n t e r v i e w s i n d i c a t e d t h a t w h i l e a number o f o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r c h e c k i n g out some o f these b e l i e f s were m i s s e d , some e v i d e n c e o f g e n u i n e b e l i e f s , o r " l i b e r a t e d and spontaneous c o n v i c t i o n s " as P i a g e t c a l l s them, c o u l d be f o u n d .  These b e l i e f s a r e t h e s u b j e c t o f d i s c u s s i o n i n t h e f o l l o w i n g  section. 3.20  A n a l y s i s o f the I n t e r v i e w Data  There a r e a number o f d i f f e r e n t methods f o r a n a l y z i n g q u a l i t a t i v e 3 d a t a such as these g e n e r a t e d by t h e i n t e r v i e w s d e s c r i b e d above. range from t h e v e r y " f r e e - w h e e l i n g "  They  type o f a n a l y s i s employed by P i a g e t  and h i s co-workers t o t h e more s t a n d a r d i z e d methods such as t h o s e i n books by B a r k e r  (1963) o r Raush and W i l l e m s  found  (1969).  I n P i a g e t ' s method, t h e i n t e r v i e w d a t a a r e i n v a r i a b l y a n a l y z e d i n terms o f a p r o g r e s s i o n o f d e v e l o p m e n t a l s t a g e s , b u t s y s t e m a t i c  presentation  40  o f the i n t e r v i e w s i s not a t t e m p t e d .  T h i s may  be d i r e c t l y  attributed  to h i s o v e r a l l t h e o r e t i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e , o u t l i n e d b r i e f l y i n C h a p t e r Two. his  However, P i a g e t ' s i n f o r m a l method o f r e p o r t i n g and s u b s t a n t i a t i n g r e s e a r c h c l a i m s has l o n g been a s u b j e c t o f c o n t r o v e r s y .  Many o t h e r  i n v e s t i g a t o r s have t r i e d t o ' o b j e c t i f y ' h i s p r o c e d u r e s e i t h e r by developing standardized instruments 1968;  Tuddenham, 1922;  ( f o r example, Goldschmid and B e n t l e r ,  and Green, F o r d and F l a m e r , 1971)  or  attempting  to be more e x p l i c i t i n the manner o f a n a l y s i s and subsequent r e p o r t i n g o f the i n t e r v i e w d a t a . In  (Knifong,  1971)  c o n t r a s t t o P i a g e t ' s t e c h n i q u e s o f s e l e c t i n g and  o n l y a few r e l e v a n t passages from an i n t e r v i e w , a n o t h e r  classifying  f r e q u e n t mode  o f a n a l y s i s i s t o d i v i d e the e n t i r e t r a n s c r i p t i n t o segments a c c o r d i n g to  some w e l l d e f i n e d c r i t e r i o n .  T h i s c r i t e r i o n may  as the passage o f a g i v e n amount o f time  ( F l a n d e r s , 1970)  be based upon the d e f i n i t i o n o f some m e a n i n g f u l example, Smith e t a l .  be as  arbitrary o r , i t may  u n i t of behavior ( f o r  (1962) A Study o f the L o g i c o f  Teaching).  The b a s i s f o r the method used i n the p r e s e n t s t u d y i s g i v e n by Witz  (1970) i n a paper e n t i t l e d " A n a l y s i s o f Frameworks i n Young C h i l -  dren."  W i t z o u t l i n e d a method t o " . . . d e s c r i b e and document m e n t a l  s t r u c t u r e s w h i c h a c h i l d has, and w h i c h a r e s p e c i f i c t o the without adopting a preconceived 1970,  p. 1)  The  child,  system o f b e h a v i o r c a t e g o r i e s . "  (Witz,  Frameworks, w h i c h a r e the end p r o d u c t s o f h i s a n a l y s i s ,  a r e c o n s t r u c t e d by f i r s t  i d e n t i f y i n g a set of ideas expressed  c h i l d t h a t seem c o n n e c t e d and a r e somewhat s t a b l e — over a p e r i o d o f t i m e .  Once i n i t i a l l y  by  the  t h a t i s , extend  i d e n t i f i e d , the a n a l y s t  can  41  m o d i f y the framework, as n e c e s s a r y , w h i l e e x a m i n i n g the remainder o f the  transcript.  An a t t e m p t i s made a t a l l times t o use the c h i l d ' s  own language where p o s s i b l e i n d e s c r i b i n g the framework. I n s t e a d o f c o n s t r u c t i n g frameworks, w h i c h a r e c o n c e i v e d t o be r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f the u n d e r l y i n g m e n t a l s t r u c t u r e s p o s s e s s e d by the c h i l d , the present a n a l y s i s i s confined simply to i s o l a t i n g those b e l i e f s o r c o n v i c t i o n s w h i c h appeared t o be used by the c h i l d i n a s i t u a t i o n i n v o l v i n g h e a t and t e m p e r a t u r e phenomena.  The u n i t o f  a n a l y s i s used f o r e x a m i n i n g the i n t e r v i e w d a t a , w h i c h i s c a l l e d  an  " I d e a " , thus r e p r e s e n t s a l e v e l o f a n a l y s i s w h i c h i s more t a s k s p e c i f i c and c o n s e q u e n t l y l a c k s the d i r e c t t h e o r e t i c a l i m p o r t o f a framework. 3.21  D e f i n i t i o n o f an I d e a An I d e a i s d e f i n e d a s :  an a t t e m p t by t h e c h i l d t o e x p l a i n o r  i n some way a c c o u n t f o r a problem s i t u a t i o n t h a t was i d e n t i f i e d i n t h e course of the i n t e r v i e w . the of  W h i l e t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r most o f t e n  initiated  problem s i t u a t i o n w i t h one o r more q u e s t i o n s r e l a t e d t o some a s p e c t the t a s k b e i n g c o n s i d e r e d , i t was a l s o p o s s i b l e f o r the s u b j e c t t o  i n i t i a t e the problem s i t u a t i o n w h i l e i n t e r a c t i n g w i t h t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l materials. 3.22  I d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f Ideas The p r o c e d u r e used to i d e n t i f y I d e a s i n the t r a n s c r i p t began w i t h  an a t t e m p t by the a n a l y s t t o r e c o g n i z e a p o t e n t i a l problem  situation.  C o n s i d e r a b l e c a r e was e x e r c i s e d t o d e t e r m i n e whether t h i s was genuine problem s i t u a t i o n f o r the c h i l d o r whether i t was imposed upon the c h i l d by the i n t e r v i e w e r .  indeed a  artificially  That i s , the a n a l y s t  tried  42  d i s t i n g u i s h between those r e s p o n s e s where t h e c h i l d d i d n o t u n d e r s t a n d the n a t u r e o f the q u e s t i o n ( s ) b e i n g asked and so answered a t random s i m p l y t o s a t i s f y t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r , and t h o s e r e s p o n s e s w h i c h were an a c c u r a t e r e f l e c t i o n o f t h e c h i l d ' s t h o u g h t s about t h e s i t u a t i o n .  Using  the c h i l d ' s own language where p o s s i b l e , t h e a n a l y s t t h e n a t t e m p t e d t o f o r m u l a t e t h e I d e a used by t h e c h i l d t o account f o r t h e p r o b l e m uation.  sit-  I n many i n s t a n c e s t h e s e i n i t i a l f o r m u l a t i o n s were a l t e r e d  l a t e r i n t h e t r a n s c r i p t when t h e c h i l d e i t h e r e m b e l l i s h e d t h e b a s i c Idea i n some way o r perhaps even changed i t c o m p l e t e l y .  The f o l l o w i n g  b r i e f e x c e r p t from a t r a n s c r i p t s h o u l d s e r v e t o i l l u s t r a t e t h e t y p e of  a n a l y s i s d e s c r i b e d above.  A Sample Analysis f o r I d e n t i f y i n g Ideas Analyst's Remarks  Excerpts from the Interview Transcript  Analyst's summary of an Idea i s i n BOLD PRINT  Formulation of the l i q u i d expansion problem by Interviewer. Subject seems f a m i l i a r with the expansion of objects when heated, however, he obviously hasn't thought too much about the mechanism of expansion and so t r i e s a f a m i l i a r process — condensation. While this might q u a l i f y as an Idea, he doesn't pursue the notion of condensation further and so i t i s not included. While I pushed S to go a l i t t l e further with h i s explanation, i t i s obvious that I did not i n any way suggest the notion of c e l l s or p a r t i c l e s to S_. Hence the c e l l notion seems to be genuine. I t i s uncertain at this point whether the c e l l s are related i n any way to h i s i n i t i a l condensation hypothesis or not.  (Explanatory comments i n brackets) L ~ interviewer S_ = subject)  I: Why do you suppose that l i q u i d goes up when we put i t i n hot water and down when we put i t i n (S interrupts) S: I t expands. (3 second pause) I t might condense or something and the condensation might l i f t i t up some, the water that's i n the tube. And probably the water when i t ' s i n the tube might start bubbling or something. I: Now l e t ' s t r y i t step by step. (I picks up apparatus and motions as i f to put i t i n the hot water beaker) As soon as we put i t i n the hot water what do you think might happen i n s i d e , say? I f you could see what's happening inside what do you think might have taken place? S: The c e l l s might be expanding. I: Now by expanding what do you think i s happening? S: I t ' s getting larger. I: What i s getting larger? S: The water. (S_ points to the colored l i q u i d i n the expansion container) I*  Okay, the water.  And* then what?  I t i s n o t e w o r t h y t h a t S_ q u i c k l y r e t u r n e d t o h i s c e l l i d e a even though he had an o p p o r t u n i t y t o d i v e r t t h e d i s c u s s i o n away. From h i s u n c e r t a i n t y " W e l l I g u e s s . . . " one might i n f e r t h a t he had n o t thought o f t h i s i d e a b e f o r e . On the m o l a r l e v e l he knew s u b s t a n c e s expanded, and on t h e m o l e c u l a r l e v e l he was f a m i l i a r w i t h t h e notion of c e l l s . B u t i t may w e l l be t h e f i r s t t i m e t h a t he had connected t h e two together. Hence t h e I d e a might be e x p r e s s e d : THE WATER GOES UP I N THE TUBE BECAUSE THE WATER GETS LARGER WHEN IT I S HEATED DUE TO THE EXPANDING OF THE CELLS I N THE WATER. WHEN THE WATER COOLS THE CELLS CONTRACT AND THE WATER GOES BACK DOWN AGAIN.  S:  I t goes up when i t i s h e a t e d , j u s t by t h e heat o f my hand. (S_ i s h o l d i n g t h e a p p a r a t u s i n h i s hand) Look a t t h a t ! I t d o e s n ' t t a k e very long.  I:  That's v e r y i n t e r e s t i n g . A r e you s u r e y o u ' r e n o t f o r c i n g i t o u t w i t h your hand?  S:  No. (5 second pause) would expand.  I:  Okay, r i g h t , we were g o i n g t o . . . t h e c e l l s would expand and then what?  S:  The water has t o be f o r c e d o u t somewhere and t h i s (S_ p o i n t s t o t h e tube) i s t h e o n l y e x i t for i t .  I;  And when i t c o o l s down?  S:  I t c o n t r a c t s and goes back t o the bottom a thermometer.  I:  You t h i n k t h a t ' s how a thermometer  S:  Y e s . W e l l l i k e some thermometers c o l o r e d water a r e n ' t they?  I:  Could be. I'm n o t s u r e . I don't b r e a k t h e r mometers t h a t o f t e n so,...Now what do y o u t h i n k makes i t expand?  S:  Well the heat.  I:  And where i s the h e a t coming  S:  The h o t w a t e r .  I:  The h e a t comes from the h o t w a t e r . does i t g e t from t h e h o t water?  W e l l I guess t h e c e l l s  like  works huh? a r e made o f  from?  And how  Through  the glass.  (S_ laughs)  And then where does i t go? Another Idea i s being suggested here which i s developed more f u l l y l a t e r i n the t r a n s c r i p t . WHEN A COOLER OBJECT (the expansion flask) IS PLACED IN CONTACT WITH A HOTTER OBJECT, (the hot water) THE TWO OBJECTS EVENTUALLY REACH THE SAME HOTNESS (temperature).  The heat penetrates the water i n here. (S points to the expansion container) I f you l e f t i t i n there (the hot water beaker) long enough, i n the b o i l i n g hot water, i t would get just as hot i n s i d e here, (the expansion container)  46  3.23 Construction of Conceptual Inventories By looking at the entire set of Ideas held by a c h i l d one can get a much better global perspective of the c h i l d ' s understanding of heat and temperature phenomena.  In an endeavor  to simplify t h i s over-  a l l summarization procedure i t was decided to organize the Ideas into a number of content-oriented categories to form a Conceptual Inventory. These categories were based upon those topics most often found i n science textbooks and elementary science programs dealing with heat and  temperature. The following set of categories was adopted f o r constructing a  Conceptual Inventory f o r each c h i l d interviewed: A.  B.  3.24  NATURE OF HEAT 1.0  Composition of Heat  2.0  Movement of Heat  3.0  E f f e c t s of Heat  4.0  Source of Heat  5.0  Matter and Heat  NATURE OF TEMPERATURE 6.0  Description of Temperature  7.0  Change of Temperature  8.0  Temperature and Heat  An Example of a Conceptual Inventory The following example of a Conceptual Inventory should serve to  better i l l u s t r a t e the nature of the  Conceptual Inventory and  illustrate  the wide range of Ideas i d e n t i f i e d i n a single interview. This Conceptual  47  I n v e n t o r y o f Ron's Ideas c o r r e s p o n d s w i t h a f u l l t r a n s c r i p t o f h i s i n t e r v i e w i n Appendix A. six.  Ron was  12 y e a r s 9 months and was  i n grade  L i k e most o f t h e o t h e r c h i l d r e n he c o u l d n o t remember i f he had  ever s t u d i e d 'heat' i n s c h o o l . A C o n c e p t u a l I n v e n t o r y f o r Ron (Numbers i n B r a c k e t s r e f e r to t r a n s c r i p t page i n Appendix A.  A)  NATURE OF HEAT 1.0  2.0  C o m p o s i t i o n o f Heat 1.1  Heat i s l i k e a wave t h a t r i s e s up from t h e r o a d . I t l o o k s l i k e fumes. (p. 147)  1.2  Hot s u b s t a n c e s c o n t a i n fumes, and when t h e y c o o l down t h e s e fumes escape g r a d u a l l y i n t o t h e a i r (p. 152)  1.3  There a r e two t y p e s o f h e a t — heat. (p. 155)  h o t h e a t and  cold  1.31  The c o l d h e a t i s more p o w e r f u l and moves f a s t e r than the hot heat. (p. 156)  1.32  C o l d h e a t might l o o k d i f f e r e n t from h o t h e a t , but I don't know what i t would l o o k l i k e . ( p . 156)  Movement o f Heat 2.1  The movement o f h e a t o c c u r s by p a s s i n g t h r o u g h o b j e c t s i n a s t e p w i s e manner. (p. 146)  2.2  Heat passes from a h o t o b j e c t t o a c o l d e r one when they a r e t o u c h i n g . (p. 146)  2.3  The whole m e t a l r o d h e a t s up because the h e a t keeps moving from one p a r t o f t h e r o d t o t h e n e x t u n t i l t h e whole r o d i s h o t . (p. 167)  2.4  Heat t r a v e l s f a s t e r i n a s m a l l e r r o d because i t doesn't have as much r o d to g e t the h e a t t o . (p. 167) 2.41  Heat t r a v e l s t h r o u g h a l l s u b s t a n c e s .  (p. 167)  48  3.0  E f f e c t s o f Heat 3.1  The l i q u i d i n t h e tube goes up because w a t e r when i t g e t s h o t . (p. 149) 3.11  4.0  Some t h i n g s l i k e i c e and suger cubes m e l t because t h e y c o n t a i n a i r b u b b l e s . ( p . 161)  3.3  The d i a l (on t h e l i n e a r e x p a n s i o n a p p a r a t u s ) moves because t h e r o d i s m e l t i n g and s t r e t c h i n g . When i t cools o f f i t shrinks. (p. 170)  Sources o f Heat Heat comes from any o b j e c t t h a t i s h o t .  (p. 146)  Heat and M a t t e r 5.1  B.  When y o u h e a t something i t g e t s b u b b l e s i n i t , and t h e b u b b l e s t a k e up space. So t h a t ' s why the w a t e r i n t h e tube r i s e s . (p.171)  3.2  4.1 5.0  rises  E v e r y t h i n g c o n t a i n s a i r b u b b l e s . Some o f t h e b u b b l e s might c o n t a i n h o t a i r and some c o l d a i r . (p. 156)  NATURE OF TEMPERATURE 6.0  7.0  8.0  D e s c r i p t i o n o f Temperature 6.1  The t e m p e r a t u r e o f an o b j e c t i s based on t h e amount o f h e a t (fumes) i t c o n t a i n s . ( p . 151)  6.2  A s m a l l i c e cube has t h e same t e m p e r a t u r e as a l a r g e i c e cube. (p. 163)  Change o f Temperature 7.1  When a c o l d o b j e c t meets a h o t o b j e c t t h e c o l d o b j e c t get warmer and t h e h o t o b j e c t g e t s c o l d e r . A f t e r a w h i l e they r e a c h t h e same same t e m p e r a t u r e , (p. 147)  7.2  An o b j e c t c o o l s when i t g i v e s o f f some o f i t s h e a t as fumes. (p. 152)  Temperature  and Heat  (Ron d o e s n ' t r e a l l y make a d i s t i n c t i o n between heat and t e m p e r a t u r e and appears t o equate t h e two on s e v e r a l o c c a s i o n s as i s s u g g e s t e d i n 6.1)  49  3.25  A C h i l d r e n ' s P e r s p e c t i v e o f Heat The  f i n a l s t e p o f the a n a l y s i s o f the i n t e r v i e w d a t a i n v o l v e d  a t t e m p t to e x t r a c t t h e c o m m o n a l i t i e s from a l l t e n C o n c e p t u a l r i e s and  Invento-  c o n s t r u c t a c o m p o s i t e p i c t u r e o f the c h i l d r e n ' s I d e a s .  c o m p o s i t e s t r u c t u r e was The  an  This  c a l l e d a C h i l d r e n ' s P e r s p e c t i v e of heat.  g u i d e l i n e s employed t o d e v e l o p the P e r s p e c t i v e c o n s i s t e d o f  e x a m i n i n g a l l t e n I n v e n t o r i e s f o r Ideas w h i c h o c c u r r e d more t h a n once; preference  was  g i v e n t o t h o s e w h i c h appeared i n t h r e e or more d i f f e -  rent Inventories.  The  Children's P e r s p e c t i v e , then, c o n s i s t s of a  s e r i e s of I d e a s j u d g e d t o be r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of t h o s e c h i l d r e n who interviewed  i n the  were  study.  An a t t e m p t of t h i s n a t u r e  —  to d i s t i l l  views i n t o a l i m i t e d set of statements — t i o n s and open to c r i t i c i s m w i t h r e g a r d l e a p t h a t must be made.  the essence of t e n  inter-  i s s u b j e c t to severe l i m i t a t o the r a t h e r l a r g e  However, as i t was  intended  P e r s p e c t i v e to an e m p i r i c a l check i n Phase Two  inferential  to subject  o f the s t u d y ,  this  this  pro-  cedure does not d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y from the t h e o r i z i n g p r o c e s s i n other f i e l d s of i n q u i r y . Ron's i n t e r v i e w was  s e l e c t e d to i l l u s t r a t e the C o n c e p t u a l I n v e n -  t o r y because h i s Ideas were r e a s o n a b l y  t y p i c a l o f a l l o f the c h i l d r e n .  Thus h i s I n v e n t o r y w i l l a l s o be used t o i l l u s t r a t e b r i e f l y the t y p e o f s t a t e m e n t s used to c o n s t r u c t the C h i l d r e n ' s P e r s p e c t i v e of h e a t . I n e x a m i n i n g t h e Ideas e x p r e s s e d i n Ron's I n v e n t o r y  one  can  r e a d i l y d e t e c t a tendency t o p e r c e i v e h e a t as a type o f m a t e r i a l substance  t h a t has  p r o p e r t i e s t h a t we  g e n e r a l l y a t t r i b u t e to m a t t e r .  For  50  example, he f r e q u e n t l y d i s c u s s e s h e a t i n terms o f "fumes" t h a t a r e c a p a b l e of " t r a n s f e r r i n g i n t o o r out o f an o b j e c t " .  I n f a c t a t one  p o i n t , t o a c c o u n t f o r the h e a t i n g and c o o l i n g o f an o b j e c t , he about 'hot h e a t ' and  'cold heat' —  talked  c l e a r l y a s u b s t a n t i a l , two-compo-  nent v i e w of h e a t embodying a t y p e o f p o s i t i v e and n e g a t i v e q u a l i t y . I n a d d i t i o n t o t h i s n o t i o n , most o f the o t h e r c h i l d r e n a t t r i b u t e d t o heat an a d d i t i v e - s u b t r a c t i v e p r o p e r t y where t h e t e m p e r a t u r e o f t h e o b j e c t c o u l d be changed e i t h e r by a d d i n g o r s u b t r a c t i n g h e a t from the object.  I n one p a r t i c u l a r t a s k , w h i c h c o n s i s t e d o f h e a t i n g d i f f e r e n t  t y p e s o f cubes o v e r a h o t p l a t e , more t h a n h a l f o f t h e c h i l d r e n a c counted f o r t h e o b s e r v a t i o n t h a t the m e t a l s h e a t e d up b e f o r e the wood o r s u g a r by s t a t i n g t h a t " t h e m e t a l s c o u l d a t t r a c t the h e a t b e t t e r t h a n the o t h e r o b j e c t . "  While t h i s l a t t e r explanation i s v i r t u a l l y  identical  w i t h a v i e w o f h e a t p r e v a l e n t i n the l a t e 1 8 t h and e a r l y 1 9 t h C e n t u r i e s (the c a l o r i c t h e o r y o f h e a t ) , i t was  f e l t t h a t t h e r e were many o t h e r  I d e a s e x p r e s s e d by the c h i l d r e n w h i c h c o u l d n o t be accommodated t o t h e c a l o r i c t h e o r y p r o p e r . The decision was made t o c o n s t r u c t a u n i q u e dren's P e r s p e c t i v e ; a l b e i t one w h i c h was  Chil-  s i m i l a r i n some r e s p e c t s t o 4  t h i s e a r l i e r m a t e r i a l conception of heat. S e v e r a l o f t h e s t a t e m e n t s used t o d e v e l o p t h e C h i l d r e n ' s P e r s p e c t i v e a r e d i s c u s s e d below as t h e y r e l a t e t o Ron's C o n c e p t u a l I n v e n t o r y . The r e m a i n i n g s t a t e m e n t s a r e o u t l i n e d i n Chapter F o u r .  S i n c e the s t a -  tements a r e d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d t o some o f the e x p e r i m e n t s performed d u r i n g the i n t e r v i e w they c o n s i s t o f two p a r t s :  the o b s e r v a t i o n a l p a r t d e s -  c r i b i n g what happened i n the e x p e r i m e n t and an e x p l a n a t o r y p a r t , i n  51  BOLD PRINT, w h i c h i s the I d e a t o a c c o u n t f o r the o b s e r v a t i o n . (1)  The whole r o d g e t s hot because: THE HEAT BUILDS UP IN ONE PART UNTIL IT CAN'T HOLD ANYMORE AND THEN IT MOVES ALONG THE ROD.  T h i s I d e a , w h i c h i s found i n a r u d i m e n t a r y form i n S e c t i o n of Ron's C o n c e p t u a l I n v e n t o r y , i l l u s t r a t e s  2.3  t h e m a t e r i a l a s p e c t o f heat  as i t p o r t r a y s h e a t a c c u m u l a t i n g i n one s p o t and t h e n , l i k e a  fluid,  overflows to another p a r t of the metal r o d . (2)  The temperature o f t h e w a t e r d e c r e a s e s when an i c e cube was added because: SOME OF THE COLD LEFT THE ICE CUBE AND WENT INTO THE WATER.  I t was  i n t e r e s t i n g t h a t many o f t h e c h i l d r e n i n t e r v i e w e d men-  t i o n e d t h e e x i s t e n c e o f c o l d as an o p p o s i t e to h e a t .  Note t h a t i t i s  a l s o endowed w i t h a m a t e r i a l p r o p e r t y as i t i s t r a n s f e r r e d from t h e i c e cube t o t h e w a t e r .  The b a s i s f o r t h i s I d e a i s i n S e c t i o n 1.3  of  Ron's C o n c e p t u a l I n v e n t o r y . (3)  The r e d l i q u i d went up t h e tube because: THE HEAT MAKES THE RED LIQUID LIGHTER AND SO IT RISES.  T h i s statement does n o t f o c u s upon the m a t e r i a l p r o p e r t y o f h e a t b u t r a t h e r the i n t u i t i v e  n o t i o n t h a t h e a t makes t h i n g s r i s e .  some o f the c h i l d r e n were c o n t e n t to l e a v e the e x p l a n a t i o n a t  While this  p o i n t , many o t h e r s l i k e Ron a t t e m p t e d t o s e a r c h f o r some i n t e r m e d i a t e , c a u s a l agent.  I n Ron's case he q u a l i f i e s  hot w a t e r r i s i n g the  the statement he makes about  ( I d e a 3.1) w i t h Idea 3.11, w h i c h s u g g e s t s t h a t i t i s  b u b b l e s , added d u r i n g h e a t i n g , t h a t t a k e up space and so f o r c e the  l i q u i d up the tube.  52  NOTES FOR  CHAPTER THREE  1. These c h i l d r e n were p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n a program i n w h i c h one o r two c l a s s e s of e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l c h i l d r e n a r e b r o u g h t out to the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia campus f o r a week t o work w i t h p r o s p e c t i v e t e a c h e r s i n the F a c u l t y of E d u c a t i o n . 2. Diagrams o f any non-obvious p i e c e s o f equipment used i n the a r e g i v e n i n Appendix B.  tasks  3. B a r t o n and L a z a r s f e l d (1955) have w r i t t e n a comprehensive a r t i c l e e n t i t l e d "Some F u n c t i o n s of Q u a l i t a t i v e A n a l y s i s i n S o c i a l R e s e a r c h " w h i c h i s devoted t o an e x a m i n a t i o n o f the d i f f e r e n t t y p e s of a n a l y s i s i n studies i n v o l v i n g q u a l i t a t i v e data. 4. I t may be p o s s i b l e to f a s h i o n an argument s i m i l a r to t h a t used by E l k i n d i n h i s i n t r o d u c t i o n to P i a g e t ' s (1968) S i x P s y c h o l o g i c a l S t u d i e s . He s u g g e s t s t h a t P i a g e t o f t e n seeks p a r a l l e l s between the thought o f c h i l d r e n and e a r l i e r systems of t h o u g h t , n o t to d e m o n s t r a t e r e c a p i t u l a t i o n , r a t h e r , to i l l u s t r a t e the " . . . p a r t i a l c o n s t a n c y of c o g n i t i v e s t r u c t u r i n g across long time p e r i o d s . " ( P i a g e t , 1968, p. v i i ) The major d i f f e r e n c e i s t h a t the c h i l d r e n ' s i n t u i t i v e c o n c e p t i o n s have not y e t been f o r m a l i z e d i n t o a c o m p r e h e n s i v e , a b s t r a c t system s u c h as A r i s t o t l e ' s N a t u r a l P h i l o s o p h y o r the c a l o r i c t h e o r y . And so one sees g l i m p s e s o f the somewhat s o p h i s t i c a t e d c a l o r i c t h e o r y , but the c h i l d r e n o b v i o u s l y have not a t t e m p t e d t o f o r m a l i z e t h e i r t h i n k i n g i n any way.  53  CHAPTER FOUR METHOD OF OBTAINING CONCEPTUAL PROFILES 4.00 I n t r o d u c t i o n I n Chapter Two  i t i s s t a t e d t h a t the type of s t r u c t u r a l a n a l y s i s  adopted  f o r the p r e s e n t s t u d y was  model.  U s i n g j u d g m e n t a l d a t a produced  o f i n s t r u m e n t , the model was  based upon a m u l t i d i m e n s i o n a l a n a l y s i s by a s e m a n t i c - d i f f e r e n t i a l  employed t o g e n e r a t e s t r u c t u r e s r e f e r r e d  t o as " C o n c e p t u a l P r o f i l e s " o f h e a t .  The c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e s e Con-  c e p t u a l P r o f i l e s , w h i c h c o n s t i t u t e d Phase Two t h r e e major p r o b l e m s : the a n a l y s i s ;  type  o f t h e s t u d y , posed  (1) the c h o i c e o f an a p p r o p r i a t e model t o g u i d e  (2) the development o f an i n s t r u m e n t t h a t would meet  the c o n s t r a i n t s imposed by t h e model on one hand, and the r e a l i t i e s o f the c l a s s r o o m s e t t i n g on the o t h e r ; and  (3) t h e a d o p t i o n o f a s e t o f  a n a l y t i c a l t e c h n i q u e s t h a t would y i e l d t h e d e s i r e d C o n c e p t u a l T h i s c h a p t e r i s devoted these three b a s i c 4.10  t o a d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e methods used t o r e s o l v e  problems.  A Model f o r S t r u c t u r a l A n a l y s i s  The problem  o f s t r u c t u r a l a n a l y s i s i n the p r e s e n t c o n t e x t i s t o  t r y and r e c o n s t r u c t i n a s y s t e m a t i c way  a s t r u c t u r e or o r g a n i z a t i o n of  c h i l d r e n ' s b e l i e f s about h e a t , r e f e r r e d to i n t h i s s t u d y as a Profile.  Profiles.  Conceptual  A number o f d i f f e r e n t models seemed a p p r o p r i a t e f o r t h i s r e -  construction process.  Two  models were e l a b o r a t e d i n Chapter Two  —  t h e d e s c r i p t i v e a n a l y s e s o f f e r e d by P i a g e t and W i t z and E a s l e y i n c o n t r a s t t o the c l a s s o f models i n v o l v i n g a m u l t i d i m e n s i o n a l a n a l y s i s . v i e w o f the d e c l a r e d aims o f the s t u d y , however, i t was t e r Two  argued  In  i n Chap-  t h a t a m u l t i d i m e n s i o n a l a n a l y s i s model h e l d more p o t e n t i a l i n  54  terms o f a c h i e v i n g t h o s e aims. W h i l e t h e r e a r e a number o f a n a l y t i c a l methods w h i c h c o u l d be i n c l u d e d under t h e g e n e r a l c l a s s o f m u l t i d i m e n s i o n a l a n a l y s i s , t h e s p e c i f i c model used f o r g e n e r a t i n g the d e s i r e d s t r u c t u r e s i n the p r e s e n t s t u d y i s a f a c t o r - a n a l y t i c model."''  Viewed i n s i m p l e t e r m s , i t i s an  a n a l y t i c a l p r o c e d u r e f o r r e d u c i n g t h e M - d i m e n s i o n a l space d e f i n e d by the M o r i g i n a l v a r i a b l e s t o a space d e f i n e d by a minimum number o f i n dependent  d i m e n s i o n s n e c e s s a r y f o r r e p r e s e n t i n g the e s s e n t i a l  s h i p between the o r i g i n a l v a r i a b l e s .  relation-  T h i s reduced space can be thought  of as a s t r u c t u r e i n w h i c h the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the o r i g i n a l v a r i a b l e s and the d i m e n s i o n s w h i c h d e f i n e the s t r u c t u r e i s e x p r e s s e d m a t h e m a t i c a l l y . I f the o r i g i n a l v a r i a b l e s a r e p s y c h o l o g i c a l i n n a t u r e , such as c o n c e p t s o r p e r s o n s , then the d i m e n s i o n s o f the reduced space can be  interpreted  as i m p o r t a n t p s y c h o l o g i c a l d i m e n s i o n s o f the v a r i a b l e s . B a s i c a l l y a f a c t o r - a n a l y t i c model f u n c t i o n s " . . . e i t h e r t o t e s t hypotheses about the e x i s t e n c e o f c o n s t r u c t s , o r i f no c r e d i b l e hypot h e s e s a r e a t i s s u e , t o s e a r c h f o r c o n s t r u c t s i n a group o f i n t e r e s t i n g variables."  ( N u n n a l l y , 1967, p. 289)  I n u s i n g t h e f a c t o r - a n a l y t i c model  f o r the a n a l y s i s o f the d a t a i n Phase Two, r e a l i z e d t o some e x t e n t .  b o t h o f t h e s e f u n c t i o n s were  One a s p e c t o f t h e a n a l y s i s e n t a i l e d a t e s t  f o r the e x i s t e n c e o f t h e h y p o t h e t i c a l c o n s t r u c t , 'the C h i l d r e n ' s P e r s p e c t i v e o f h e a t ' , d e s c r i b e d i n Chapter Three.  W h i l e a t the same t i m e  a s e a r c h was made t o d e t e r m i n e whether o t h e r c o n s t r u c t s , d e r i v e d from d i f f e r e n t P e r s p e c t i v e s o f h e a t , c o u l d be d i f f e r e n t i a t e d by the subjects.  I  55  I n t h e s t u d y a type o f s e m a n t i c - d i f f e r e n t i a l i n s t r u m e n t ,  called  a C o n c e p t u a l P r o f i l e I n s t r u m e n t ( h e r e a f t e r c a l l e d a C.P.I.)» was developed  to assess  the c h i l d r e n ' s conceptions  o f heat phenomena.  The  f a c t o r - a n a l y t i c model was f i r s t used t o reduce t h e s i x - d i m e n s i o n a l space o f t h e r a t i n g s c a l e s used i n t h e C . P . I , t o a s t r u c t u r e d e f i n e d by two i n d e p e n d e n t d i m e n s i o n s o r s e t s o f s c a l e s .  One s e t o f s c a l e s  was termed " b e l i e f - s c a l e s " and the o t h e r s e t , " f a m i l i a r i t y - s c a l e s " . Responding t o one s c a l e a t a t i m e , t h e s u b j e c t s were r e q u i r e d to r a t e the d i f f e r e n t s t a t e m e n t s about h e a t i n terms o f t h e s t r e n g t h o f t h e i r b e l i e f s about t h e s t a t e m e n t s and i n terms o f t h e degree t o w h i c h they were f a m i l i a r w i t h t h e i d e a s c o n t a i n e d  i n the  statements.  By f a c t o r - a n a l y z i n g t h e r e s p o n s e s t o t h e s e s t a t e m e n t s i t i s p o s s i b l e to r e d u c e the c o m p l e x i t y o f t h e d i m e n s i o n s used t o d e f i n e t h e r e s p o n s e s . The d i m e n s i o n s d e f i n i n g t h i s reduced space can p r o p e r l y be c a l l e d "Viewpoints  o f H e a t " h e l d by t h e s u b j e c t s and they c o n s t i t u t e one method  of s t r u c t u r i n g the s e t of statements contained  i n t h e C.P.I.  The v i e w -  p o i n t a n a l y s i s thus p r o v i d e s f o r a t e s t o f whether t h e C h i l d r e n ' s P e r s p e c t i v e c o u l d i n f a c t be d i f f e r e n t i a t e d from the two o t h e r  Perspec-  t i v e s , t h e K i n e t i c P e r s p e c t i v e and t h e C a l o r i c P e r s p e c t i v e , and whether o r n o t t h e l a t t e r two P e r s p e c t i v e s c o u l d be s i n g l e d o u t . The b a s i c r e l a t i o n s h i p b e i n g a s s e s s e d of v i e w p o i n t s  by t h e s t r u c t u r a l a n a l y s i s  i s t h e degree o f p s y c h o l o g i c a l a s s o c i a t i o n between t h e  v a r i o u s s t a t e m e n t s as p e r c e i v e d by t h e s u b j e c t s .  T h i s method o f  s t r u c t u r a l a n a l y s i s d i f f e r s from the d e s c r i p t i v e a n a l y s e s o f s t r u c t u r e o f f e r e d by P i a g e t and W i t z and E a s l e y i n a t l e a s t two i m p o r t a n t  ways:  56  (1)  t h e r u l e s f o r c r e a t i n g t h e a n a l y t i c a l c a t e g o r i e s and t h e a s s i g n -  ment o f b e h a v i o r s  t o those c a t e g o r i e s a r e e x p l i c i t i n t h e f a c t o r - a n a -  l y t i c model b u t a r e m a i n l y  i n t u i t i v e i n the l a t t e r ;  (2)  t h e former  model does n o t a l l o w f o r any s e r i o u s g e n e r a t i o n o r a l t e r a t i o n o f e x i s t i n g t h e o r e t i c a l c o n s t r u c t s because i t i s r e s t r i c t e d t o m a n i p u l a t i n g the i n p u t d a t a .  W h i l e t h e l a t t e r type o f model has t h e p o t e n t i a l t o  d e v e l o p a r i c h e r and more a d a p t a b l e  t h e o r e t i c a l framework due t o i t s  dependence upon t h e i n g e n u i t y and i n s i g h t o f t h e t h e o r e t i c i a n . I n c o n t r a s t i n g these two a n a l y t i c approaches i t would appear as though might w e l l be complementary —  they  t h e more d i v e r g e n t t h e o r i z i n g a p p r o a c h  being r e s p o n s i b l e f o r generating  tenable hypotheses which could  then  be checked o u t a g a i n s t r e a l i t y by u s i n g a l a r g e number o f s u b j e c t s i n a f a c t o r - a n a l y t i c study.  Phases One and  Two o f t h e s t u d y  correspond  r o u g h l y t o these complementary a p p r o a c h e s . With the s t r u c t u r a l a n a l y s i s of the data culminating i n d i s c r e t e c l u s t e r s of concepts,  or Viewpoints,  some e v i d e n c e has been a c c u m u l a t e d  to s u g g e s t t h a t t h e s u b j e c t s were indeed a b l e t o d i f f e r e n t i a t e and d i s c r i m i n a t e between t h e c o n c e p t u a l P e r s p e c t i v e s of heat.  statements r e p r e s e n t i n g the d i f f e r e n t  However, i t i s n o t p o s s i b l e t o s a y whether o r  not t h e r e a r e groups o f s u b j e c t s who h o l d t o t h e s e V i e w p o i n t s tially.  To r e s o l v e t h i s p r o b l e m , w h i c h i s v e r y i m p o r t a n t  differen-  f o r the  e d u c a t i o n a l a p p l i c a t i o n o f t h e a n a l y s i s , t h e model was a p p l i e d t o a m a t r i x of s u b j e c t s versus concept r a t i n g s . dividual profiles.)  (That i s , a m a t r i x o f i n -  The p r o f i l e space was reduced by t h e f a c t o r -  a n a l y t i c model, u s i n g a t r a n s p o s e d  p r o f i l e matrix, to a  three-dimensional  57  structure. shape.  These d i m e n s i o n s were d e f i n e d by s e t s o f p r o f i l e s of s i m i l a r  To d e t e r m i n e whether t h e s e d i m e n s i o n s c o u l d be f u r t h e r r e f i n e d  on the b a s i s o f l e v e l and d i s p e r s i o n , those p r o f i l e s most of each d i m e n s i o n were f a c t o r - a n a l y z e d .  The  representative  c l u s t e r s of p r o f i l e s  ob-  t a i n e d i n t h i s l a s t a n a l y s i s were used to c o n s t r u c t Model C o n c e p t u a l Profiles —  each Model P r o f i l e b e i n g an i d e a l i z a t i o n o f a 'type of  p e r s o n ' who  responded t o the C.P.I, i n a s i m i l a r f a s h i o n .  These Model  C o n c e p t u a l P r o f i l e s , t h e n , a r e the sought a f t e r r e c o n s t r u c t i o n of  chil-  dren's b e l i e f s about h e a t . 4.20 4.21  Development o f the C o n c e p t u a l P r o f i l e I n s t r u m e n t  O p e r a t i o n a l l z i n g the A t t r i b u t e Before designing  i n t h i s study —  an i n s t r u m e n t to measure the a t t r i b u t e of i n t e r e s t  c h i l d r e n ' s c o n c e p t i o n s o f h e a t phenomena —  p r e l i m i n a r y problems had  t o be r e s o l v e d .  The  several  most i m p o r t a n t p r o b l e m  o p e r a t i o n a l l y d e f i n i n g t h e a t t r i b u t e t o be measured.  U n l i k e the measu-  rement o f many p h y s i c a l a t t r i b u t e s (such as l e n g t h , w e i g h t , f o r c e , w h i c h u s u a l l y can be d e f i n e d i n s u c h a way  etc.)  t h a t they can be measured  d i r e c t l y , o n l y i n d i c a n t s of p s y c h o l o g i c a l a t t r i b u t e s can be  assessed.  C o n s e q u e n t l y t h e s e a t t r i b u t e s a r e much more dependent upon t h e o r y . measuring p s y c h o l o g i c a l a t t r i b u t e s , theory  was  functions f i r s t ,  In  to guide  the d i f f i c u l t t a s k of o p e r a t i o n a l l y d e f i n i n g the a t t r i b u t e ( t h a t i s , o b t a i n i n g some measurable i n d i c a n t o f i t ) and  second, to p r o v i d e  an  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f the measurements made on the i n d i c a n t s . Much of the i n p u t f o r g u i d i n g the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of measurable i n d i c a n t s of c h i l d r e n ' s c o n c e p t i o n s o f h e a t phenomena and  the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n  58  o f the measurements came from the i n t e r v i e w d a t a . w h i c h c o n s t i t u t e d the C h i l d r e n ' s P e r s p e c t i v e r e t i c a l basis f o r developing  The  formed much o f the  Psychological  A second problem,- t h a t had t i o n o f the C.P.I., was t a i n i n g an e s t i m a t e  this  other a l t e r n a t i v e Perspectives,  made up a p o o l of i t e m s from w h i c h the C.P.I, was Method of A s s e s s i n g  theo-  the C.P.I. Statements r e p r e s e n t i n g  P e r s p e c t i v e , a l o n g w i t h t h o s e from two  4.22  s e t of Ideas  developed.  Relationship  t o be c o n s i d e r e d  the c h o i c e a m o n g  p r i o r to the  construc-  a v a i l a b l e techniques f o r  of p s y c h o l o g i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p .  ob-  Most o f the common  techniques a v a i l a b l e f o r measuring p s y c h o l o g i c a l a t t r i b u t e s r e q u i r e s u b j e c t s t o make some type o f judgment about a s e l e c t e d s e t of  the  stimuli.  For example, the c o m p a r i s o n p r o c e d u r e s , such as p a i r e d c o m p a r i s o n o r successive  i n t e r v a l s , r e q u i r e the s u b j e c t to rank a l l o f the  pairs according  to t h e i r s i m i l a r i t y .  Unfortunately  stimulus-  a l l o f the  comparison  methods r e q u i r e a l a r g e number o f judgments t o be made even f o r a modest number o f s t i m u l i . considered  I n t h i s s t u d y t h e a b s o l u t e minimum number o f i t e m s  f o r the C.P.I, was  f i f t e e n ( f i v e items per  Perspective).  U s i n g the method o f p a i r e d c o m p a r i s o n s , f o r example, would have r e q u i r e d a t o t a l o f 105  ( n ( n - l ) / 2 ) judgments.  inappropriate f o r general  classroom  Another technique f o r gathering  Obviously  t h i s method would  be  use. d a t a on the r e l a t i o n s h i p of  p s y c h o l o g i c a l a t t r i b u t e s r e q u i r e s t h e s u b j e c t s t o do a c o m p a r a t i v e s o r t i n g o f a l l the s t i m u l i .  I n the most common of t h e s e t e c h n i q u e s ,  the  Q - s o r t , the s u b j e c t s must s o r t a l l o f the s t i m u l i i n t o a number of o r d e r e d categories.  The  i n v e s t i g a t o r has  the freedom to d e t e r m i n e the number o f  59  c a t e g o r i e s and t h e membership o f each c a t e g o r y .  By u s i n g a f i x e d  d i s t r i b u t i o n t h i s f o r c e s a l l o f t h e s u b j e c t s t o have the same mean r a t i n g and same s t a n d a r d  deviation of r a t i n g s ,  s o r t ' the s u b j e c t i s a l l o w e d  whereas i n a ' f r e e -  to d e t e r m i n e b o t h o f these p a r a m e t e r s  w i t h t h e subsequent l o s s i n s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n o f t h e s u b j e c t ' s r a t i n g s which i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the Q-sort.  These s o r t i n g t e c h n i q u e s ,  then,  have t h e advantage o f b e i n g a b l e t o accommodate a l a r g e number o f s t i m u l i w i t h o u t r e q u i r i n g an i n o r d i n a t e number o f judgments.  But  whether a s o r t i n g t a s k c o u l d be t r a n s l a t e d i n t o a p r o c e d u r e s u i t a b l e for  t h e t a r g e t age (11 t o 15 y e a r s ) and c o u l d be e a s i l y  i n a classroom  administered  s e t t i n g c o u l d n o t be p r e d e t e r m i n e d .  A number o f t r i a l s e s s i o n s were i n i t i a t e d i n o r d e r t o d e t e r m i n e the f e a s i b i l i t y o f u s i n g some t y p e o f s o r t i n g p r o c e d u r e .  Each o f these  s e s s i o n s c o n s i s t e d o f s m a l l groups (from two t o f o u r c h i l d r e n ) who were g i v e n up t o 35 s t a t e m e n t s about h e a t t o s o r t i n t o p i l e s t h a t were a l i k e i n some way.  (That i s , a f r e e - s o r t method was used.)  These s t a t e m e n t s  were drawn from t h e t h r e e P e r s p e c t i v e s o f h e a t as d i s c u s s e d i n S e c t i o n 4.24.  The c h i l d r e n were g r a d u a l l y i n t r o d u c e d t o the t a s k t h r o u g h two  training sessions.  F i r s t , a deck o f p l a y i n g c a r d s was used t o i l l u s -  t r a t e t h e number o f d i f f e r e n t ways i n w h i c h t h e c a r d s c o u l d be s o r t e d into p i l e s . designed duced.  Then a s e t o f s t a t e m e n t s about s i c k n e s s and h e a l t h ,  to a p p r o x i m a t e t h e form o f the heat s t a t e m e n t s ,  were i n t r o -  The c h i l d r e n and t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r d i s c u s s e d d i f f e r e n t ways i n  w h i c h these c a r d s c o u l d be s o r t e d . were i n t r o d u c e d .  F i n a l l y t h e s t a t e m e n t s about h e a t  6Q  W h i l e the c h i l d r e n were a b l e t o s o r t the p l a y i n g c a r d s i n t o numerous p i l e s , they e x p e r i e n c e d more d i f f i c u l t y w i t h the s t a t e m e n t s "health and s i c k n e s s ' . s t a t e m e n t s was disagree.  T h e i r f i r s t s o r t i n g o f the ' h e a l t h and s i c k n e s s '  g e n e r a l l y i n t o p i l e s o f r i g h t and wrong, o r , agree  and  However, when t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r p o i n t e d out o t h e r ways o f  s o r t i n g these statements  ( f o r example, " p i l e s o f k i d ' s i d e a s and a d u l t  i d e a s " ) t h e y r e a d i l y agreed t h a t t h i s was the c a r d s .  about  a l s o a good way  to separate  When t h e y began to s o r t the s t a t e m e n t s about heat i t was  soon a p p a r e n t t h a t the p r e f e r r e d method was  a g a i n to use two  piles.  I n the words o f the c h i l d r e n " t h e c a r d s i n t h a t p i l e a r e i d e a s t h a t I s o r t o f l i k e o r agree w i t h , but the c a r d s i n t h i s p i l e a r e i d e a s t h a t I don't l i k e much."  Most o f t h e c h i l d r e n thus appeared  t o employ a  type o f p r e f e r e n c e c r i t e r i o n i n making t h e s o r t w i t h the h e a t  statements.  A l t h o u g h a p r e f e r e n c e c r i t e r i o n w o u l d be q u i t e a c c e p t a b l e f o r an assessment o f p s y c h o l o g i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p , more t h a n two c a t e g o r i e s would be d e s i r a b l e t o g a i n s u f f i c i e n t d i s c r i m i n a t i o n a m o n g t h e s t a t e m e n t s . An a t t e m p t was made i n a subsequent  t r i a l s e s s i o n to c r e a t e at l e a s t  f o u r c a t e g o r i e s by i n s t r u c t i n g t h e c h i l d r e n t o d i v i d e each o f the p i l e s one more t i m e .  two  A g a i n t h e y seemed t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e t a s k b u t  had  g r e a t d i f f i c u l t y i n d i s c r i m i n a t i n g between those i d e a s they " l i k e d a l o t " and t h o s e they " o n l y l i k e d a l i t t l e " .  G i v e n the amount o f p r e l i m i -  n a r y i n s t r u c t i o n s n e c e s s a r y and the amount o f i n d i v i d u a l r e q u i r e d i t was  attention  d e c i d e d t h a t a s o r t i n g p r o c e d u r e would n o t be a s u i t a b l e  p r o c e d u r e f o r use i n c o l l e c t i n g d a t a i n a c l a s s r o o m s e t t i n g . . Another method t h a t has been used t o g e n e r a t e d a t a f o r m u l t i -  61  d i m e n s i o n a l a n a l y s i s i s t h a t o f t h e s e m a n t i c d i f f e r e n t i a l , as d e s c r i b e d by Osgood e t a l . (1957). The s u b j e c t i s r e q u i r e d t o respond to a s t i m u l u s i n terms o f a number o f s c a l e s anchored by b i - p o l a r adjectives.  I n s e l e c t i n g the s e t of a d j e c t i v e s the i n v e s t i g a t o r i s ,  i n e f f e c t , p r o v i d i n g t h e s u b j e c t w i t h a s e t o f c r i t e r i a t o be used i n making h i s judgment about t h e s t i m u l i .  Contrary to the previous  t e c h n i q u e s o f c o m p a r a t i v e judgment, t h e s e m a n t i c d i f f e r e n t i a l r e q u i r e s t h e s u b j e c t t o make a number o f independent judgments  along  p r e d e t e r m i n e d s c a l e s , u s u a l l y c o n s i s t i n g o f seven s t e p s each. I n o r d e r t o e s t a b l i s h t h e degree o f r e l a t i o n s h i p a m o n g  the  s t i m u l i , o r t h e s t a t e m e n t s ( w h i c h c o n t a i n i d e a s about h e a t f r o m t h e t h r e e P e r s p e c t i v e s ) , t h e f a c t o r - a n a l y t i c model i s a p p l i e d t o an i n t e r statement c o r r e l a t i o n m a t r i x .  The r e s u l t a n t d i m e n s i o n s o f t h e reduced  ' v i e w p o i n t space' can be i n t e r p r e t e d as a measure o f p s y c h o l o g i c a l r e l a t e d n e s s o f t h e h e a t s t a t e m e n t s f o r t h e g i v e n sample o f s u b j e c t s . 4.23  A l t e r a t i o n s i n t h e S t a n d a r d Semantic D i f f e r e n t i a l Format Most o f t h e p r e v i o u s s t u d i e s u s i n g t h e s e m a n t i c d i f f e r e n t i a l  have adhered t o t h e s t a n d a r d format as s e t o u t by Osgood e t a l . (1957) i n The Measurement o f Meaning.  T h i s i s p a r t i c u l a r l y t r u e of those  s t u d i e s d i r e c t e d toward an e l u c i d a t i o n o f t h e s e m a n t i c space o f c h i l dren.  ( F o r example,  see D i V e s t a , 1966; Long e t a l . , 1968; and W i l l i a m s ,  1972)  But i n t h e development  o f t h e p r e s e n t i n s t r u m e n t two b a s i c  a l t e r a t i o n s were made i n t h e s t a n d a r d f o r m a t .  The s e m a n t i c  differential  i s d e s c r i b e d by Osgood e t a l . as " . . . e s s e n t i a l l y a c o m b i n a t i o n o f c o n t r o l l e d a s s o c i a t i o n and s c a l i n g p r o c e d u r e s "  (Osgood e t a l . , 1957,  62  p. 20). As they a r e s e e k i n g a type o f a s s o c i a t i o n r e s p o n s e t h e i r i n s t r u c t i o n s t o t h e s u b j e c t suggest t h a t they s h o u l d "...work a t a f a i r l y h i g h s p e e d . . . [ a s ] i t i s your f i r s t i m p r e s s i o n s , t h e immediate ' f e e l i n g s ' about t h e i t e m s , t h a t we want."  ( p . 84). I n c o n t r a s t t o  t h i s p r o c e d u r e t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r was s e e k i n g a s l o w e r , more t h o u g h t f u l 2 r e s p o n s e , o r judgment, o f t h e s t a t e m e n t s .  This d i f f e r e n c e i n response  o r i e n t a t i o n was due t o an a s s u m p t i o n by t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r t h a t t h e i n s t r u m e n t would be t a p p i n g some form o f genuine c o g n i t i v e s t r u c t u r e and n o t s i m p l y s e n t i m e n t s The  h e l d toward t h e s t a t e m e n t s .  second a l t e r a t i o n i s a d e v i a t i o n i n t h e form o f p r e s e n t a t i o n  of the s t i m u l i . which permits I t was d e c i d e d  Generally the s t i m u l i  c o n s i s t o f one o r two words  t h e s u b j e c t t o read i t q u i c k l y and respond  immediately.  t h a t t h e s t i m u l i f o r t h e C.P.I, ought t o be s i m i l a r t o  the Ideas i d e n t i f i e d i n t h e i n t e r v i e w s , and so t h e l e n g t h would c e r t a i n l y exceed two o r t h r e e words.  The i n h e r e n t problems i n v o l v e d i n  a s i t u a t i o n where t h e r e a r e a number o f words i n t h e s t i m u l i have been d i s c u s s e d i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e under t h e t o p i c o f c o n c e p t - s c a l e actions. responding  Simply  inter-  s t a t e d , i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o know i f t h e s u b j e c t i s  t o t h e whole s t a t e m e n t o r p a r t s o f i t .  (Bashook and F o s t e r ,  1973.) Or i t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t a s u b j e c t i s u s i n g some o f t h e s c a l e s i n j u d g i n g one p a r t o f t h e s t a t e m e n t and o t h e r s c a l e s i n j u d g i n g part.  another  F o r t h e purposes o f i n t e r p r e t a t i o n t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r must be a l e r t  to t h i s type o f i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t when a complex s t i m u l u s i s b e i n g judged. I n an e f f o r t t o a s s e s s  t h e impact o f these d e v i a t i o n s and a l s o t o  63  try  t o e s t a b l i s h a number o f a p p r o p r i a t e s c a l e s , two  t r i a l s e s s i o n s were h e l d w i t h two and  somewhat i n f o r m a l  three c h i l d r e n r e s p e c t i v e l y .  B e f o r e c o n s t r u c t i n g the f i n a l v e r s i o n o f the C.P.I, a f u r t h e r t r i a l was  made i n a grade f i v e c l a s s r o o m  under a c t u a l t e s t c o n d i t i o n s .  the b a s i s of the f i r s t i n f o r m a l s e s s i o n i t was tements were too a b s t r a c t and by some c o n c r e t e  a p p a r e n t t h a t the  t h a t they would have t o be  run On  sta-  accompanied  d e m o n s t r a t i o n o f the h e a t phenomena b e i n g r e f e r r e d  to i n the s t a t e m e n t .  The  second s e s s i o n i n c l u d e d s e v e r a l o f  the  d e m o n s t r a t i o n s used i n the i n t e r v i e w t a s k s and proved t o be much more successful.  These d e m o n s t r a t i o n s a r e d e s c r i b e d  Feedback from the c h i l d r e n p r o v i d e d information regarding t h e i r perceptions were b e i n g r e q u e s t e d  the i n v e s t i g a t o r d i s c o v e r e d  the i n v e s t i g a t o r w i t h u s e f u l  of the type of judgments t h e y  As a r e s u l t of t h e c l a s s r o o m  trial  session  a prime example o f a ' c o n c e p t - s c a l e '  inter-  A number o f c h i l d r e n responded t o one o f t h e s t a t e m e n t s by  i n d i c a t i n g t h a t they f e l t i t was  'very t r u e ' and y e t on a n o t h e r s c a l e  f u r t h e r down the page they i n d i c a t e d t h a t i t was their ideas'.  'very much u n l i k e  A f t e r q u e s t i o n i n g s e v e r a l c h i l d r e n about t h i s a p p a r e n t  anomaly i t became c l e a r t h a t they were r e s p o n d i n g t o the p a r t o f the s t a t e m e n t w i t h the  t i o n t h e y had  j u s t o b s e r v e d ) and  ' l i k e my  observational  ' t r u e - f a l s e ' s c a l e ( o f c o u r s e i t was  because t h i s p a r t o f t h e s t a t e m e n t was  w i t h the  4.33.  t o make and r e s u l t e d i n s e v e r a l changes b e i n g made  on the a d j e c t i v a l s c a l e s .  action.  i n d e t a i l i n Section  i d e a s - u n l i k e my  true  s i m p l y a summary o f a demonstra-  t o the e x p l a n a t o r y ideas' scale.  p a r t of the s t a t e m e n t  This confusion  was  r e s o l v e d by p l a c i n g the o b s e r v a t i o n a l p a r t o f the s t a t e m e n t i n s m a l l  64  p r i n t a t the top o f the page and p u t t i n g the more i m p o r t a n t p a r t i n b o l d p r i n t and C.P.I, i s p r e s e n t e d According  e n c l o s i n g i t i n a box.  i n Appendix  The  f i n a l v e r s i o n of  t o the f e e d b a c k from t h e s e s e s s i o n s i t seemed t h a t  v i d e d by the C.P.I.  the  C.  c h i l d r e n were e n j o y i n g b o t h the d e m o n s t r a t i o n s and  difficulty  explanatory  the c h a l l e n g e s  F u r t h e r , they appeared to e x p e r i e n c e  no  the pro-  appreciable  i n making the r e q u i r e d judgments i n o r d e r t o complete each  o f the i t e m s on t h e C.P.I. 4.24  C o n s t r u c t i o n o f the C o n c e p t u a l P r o f i l e I n s t r u m e n t An u n d e r l y i n g a s s u m p t i o n o f Phase Two  o f t h e s t u d y was  t h a t the  Ideas i d e n t i f i e d from the i n t e r v i e w d a t a a r e a l s o c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f thinking of other c h i l d r e n .  the  These I d e a s , t h e n , o u t l i n e d e a r l i e r as a  C h i l d r e n ' s P e r s p e c t i v e , formed the p r i m a r y b a s i s o f i t e m c o n s t r u c t i o n for  the C.P.I.  The  r e m a i n d e r o f t h e i t e m s were c o n s t r u c t e d f r o m  other a l t e r n a t e P e r s p e c t i v e s of heat ~ h e a t and  i t s predecessor,  the c u r r e n t k i n e t i c t h e o r y  the c a l o r i c theory of heat.  from t h e s e t h r e e P e r s p e c t i v e s p r o v i d e d to d i s c r i m i n a t e among the s t a t e m e n t s ;  Parallel  the c h i l d r e n w i t h an they a l s o enabled  to d e t e r m i n e the e x t e n t t o w h i c h the o l d e r c h i l d r e n may the more s o p h i s t i c a t e d k i n e t i c  two of  items  opportunity  the i n v e s t i g a t o r have embraced  theory.  Statements r e p r e s e n t i n g t h e C h i l d r e n ' s P e r s p e c t i v e were where p o s s i b l e , d i r e c t l y from the most p r e v a l e n t and i d e n t i f i e d i n the i n t e r v i e w t r a n s c r i p t s .  taken,  t y p i c a l Ideas  S i n c e the p r o c e d u r e was  o u t l i n e d i n C h a p t e r Three i t w i l l not be r e p e a t e d  here.  fully  Once a number  of p o t e n t i a l s t a t e m e n t s from the C h i l d r e n ' s P e r s p e c t i v e were adapted  65  to c o r r e s p o n d w i t h t h e d e m o n s t r a t i o n s b e i n g used t o accompany t h e C.P.I., p a r a l l e l s t a t e m e n t s from each o f t h e o t h e r two P e r s p e c t i v e s were constructed. Two c r i t e r i a were used i n t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f a l l t h e s t a t e m e n t s : , (1)  t h e language and p h r a s i n g o f t h e s t a t e m e n t s must be s u c h t h a t a  typical  grade f i v e s t u d e n t c o u l d comprehend i t ; (2) t h e s t a t e m e n t must  maintain the b a s i c i n t e g r i t y derived.  o f t h e P e r s p e c t i v e from w h i c h i t was  An o p p o r t u n i t y t o d e t e r m i n e t h e degree t o w h i c h t h e s t a t e -  ments s a t i s f i e d  t h e f i r s t c r i t e r i o n was p r o v i d e d by t h e numerous  trial  s e s s i o n s d u r i n g w h i c h t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r was c o n s t a n t l y s e e k i n g f e e d back on t h e c h i l d r e n ' s a b i l i t y t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e s t a t e m e n t s .  A check  on t h e second c r i t e r i o n was made by s u b m i t t i n g t h e s t a t e m e n t s t o t h r e e p e o p l e who were k n o w l e d g e a b l e about t h e k i n e t i c  and c a l o r i c  theories  3 of h e a t .  Changes s u g g e s t e d by t h e s e j u d g e s were i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o t h e  f i n a l v e r s i o n o f t h e C.P.I. 4.30 4.31  A d m i n i s t r a t i o n of the Conceptual P r o f i l e Instrument  D e s c r i p t i o n of the Subjects The f i n a l v e r s i o n o f t h e C.P.I, was a d m i n i s t e r e d i n 12 c l a s s r o o m s  s i t u a t e d i n t h r e e d i f f e r e n t s c h o o l s i n t h e c i t y o f Vancouver.  These  s c h o o l s were s e l e c t e d by t h e r e s e a r c h s t a f f o f t h e Vancouver S c h o o l Board and were d e s c r i b e d as ' t y p i c a l ' s c h o o l s i n t h e Vancouver A t o t a l o f 322 s t u d e n t s p a r t i c i p a t e d : grade seven and 87 from grade n i n e .  system.  100 from grade f i v e , 125 from However, t h o s e s t u d e n t s who  either  d i d n o t complete the C.P.I, o r e l s e marked i t i n an o b v i o u s p a t t e r n ( f o r example, u s i n g one column down a page f o r s e v e r a l pages, o r m a r k i n g  66  each page w i t h an i d e n t i c a l p a t t e r n ) were e l i m i n a t e d from the a n a l y s i s . The f i n a l sample c o n s i s t e d o f 276 s t u d e n t s :  76 from grade f i v e ,  117  from grade seven and 83 from grade n i n e . 4.32  D e s c r i p t i o n of A d m i n i s t r a t i o n Procedures The i n v e s t i g a t o r was p r e s e n t and r e s p o n s i b l e f o r i n t r o d u c i n g the  C.P.I, and p e r f o r m i n g the d e m o n s t r a t i o n s f o r a l l twelve  sessions.  T y p i c a l l y t h e p r o c e d u r e s c o n s i s t e d o f a s h o r t i n t r o d u c t i o n by t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r i n d i c a t i n g t h a t he was and t h a t he was  from t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h  i n t e r e s t e d i n t h e i r i d e a s about h e a t and  Columbia  temperature.  They were t o l d t h a t t h e C.P.I, was n o t a t e s t b u t was more l i k e a game where t h e y would be asked t o i n d i c a t e how  t h e y f e l t about some i d e a s  o b t a i n e d from t a l k i n g t o o t h e r s t u d e n t s o f t h e i r age about h e a t . r u l e s f o r the game were e x p l a i n e d by f i r s t r e a d i n g t o g e t h e r the  —  The first  two pages o f t h e b o o k l e t and t h e n c a r e f u l l y w o r k i n g t h r o u g h two sample items.  D u r i n g t h i s s h o r t t r a i n i n g program i n d i v i d u a l s t u d e n t s were  asked t o i n d i c a t e how did  so.  t h e y responded on t h e v a r i o u s s c a l e s and why  U s i n g t h i s approach the i n v e s t i g a t o r f e l t t h a t most o f t h e  s t u d e n t s were a b l e to u n d e r s t a n d : ment —  (1) t h e t w o - p a r t form o f t h e s t a t e -  t h e o b s e r v a t i o n a l p a r t i n s m a l l p r i n t and t h e e x p l a n a t o r y p a r t  in bold p r i n t — tor  they  was  and  (2) the meaning o f t h e s c a l e s .  Once the i n v e s t i g a -  s a t i s f i e d t h a t a l l o f the s t u d e n t s were r e a d y t o p r o c e e d  he  introduced the f i r s t demonstration. 4.33  D e s c r i p t i o n o f the D e m o n s t r a t i o n s and  Statements  The f i r s t d e m o n s t r a t i o n and accompanying  s e t of items centered  around the h e a t i n g o f two a l u m i n i u m r o d s o f d i f f e r e n t t h i c k n e s s .  A  67 single candle was placed under each rod and, i n e f f e c t , a race was i n i t i a t e d to see which rod would get hot enough to melt some attached wax i n which was embedded a large drawing p i n . While awaiting the outcome of the experiment, the students were asked which one they thought would get hot f i r s t so as to get them involved i n the experiment. the  p i n dropped from the large rod f i r s t many children were v i s i b l y  surprised.  The investigator returned t h e i r attention to the booklet  on t h e i r desk and said something l i k e :  "Now, here are some d i f f e r e n t  ideas that t r y to explain what we have just observed. the  When  Remember i t i s  idea i n bold print i n the box that i s important not the smaller  print which simply t e l l s us what we observed.  I ' l l read the idea out  to you and then you can mark the blanks to indicate how you f e e l about that idea.  I am interested i n the ways that you think about the idea  in the box, not what your f r i e n d or even your teacher thinks." The f i r s t set of three items were then presented i n d i v i d u a l l y to the  class.  A l l three statements began with the same small-print i n t r o -  duction, each statement being on a separate page.  Figure 4-1 i s a  reproduction of one page from the C.P.I. The large rod heated up f a s t e r than the small rod because: (1)  THE LARGE ROD ATTRACTS MORE HEAT PARTICLES THAN THE SMALL ROD.  (2)  THE LARGE ROD HAS MORE METAL PARTICLES TO MOVE AROUND.  (3)  THE LARGE ROD HAS MORE AIR SPACES INSIDE FOR THE HEAT TO TRAVEL THROUGH.  The second set of items also r e f e r to the above demonstrations. They were introduced by the investigator i n the following way:  "We  observed that the p i n f e l l o f f at the opposite end of the rod from  The  large rod heated up faster than the small rod because  THE LARGE ROD ATTRACTS MORE HEAT PARTICLES THAN THE SMALL ROD  Very Much A^ree Agree  Somewhat  Clear Olear  ^lear^ clear  Easy  A  S  y  Tvll  r r r  O  Agree  °Easv E  S  B  Slightlv  a  S  r  u  weixner Agree nor Disagree  ^ y Clear  Neither Clear nor Confusing  Agree  a t  y  °Sf T  oxxgatxy  e  S  S1  h  t  l  i£y  tly  E a s  S 1  i n-^+i,, Slightly Disagree  NPI t h p r —  Neither w  Easy nor Difficult  Slightly Confusing  "o  r—rSomewhat Disagree  Somewhat ' Confusing  1  Very Much Disagree  Very Confusing 6  '  S  l  i  ^ l y  Difficult  Somewhat ' Difficult  Very Difficult  j^tly  Neither ™ e nor False  Slightly False  Slightly Unfamiliar  Somewhat Unfamiliar  Very Unfamiliar  Slightly Unlike My Ideas  Somewhat Unlike My Ideas  Very Much Unlike My Ideas  T  r  u  e  T  Very Familiar  Somewhat Familiar  Slightly Familiar  Neither Familiar nor Unfamiliar  Very Much Like My Ideas  Somewhat Like My Ideas  Slightly Like My Ideas  Neither Like My Ideas nor Unlike My Ideas  HSol^whalT ' False  —vir7 False  69  where i t was b e i n g h e a t e d .  The n e x t i d e a s we a r e g o i n g t o l o o k a t  attempt t o e x p l a i n why t h e whole r o d g e t s h o t when we o n l y h e a t e d i t a t one end w i t h t h e c a n d l e . "  The n e x t t h r e e s t a t e m e n t s were:  The whole r o d g e t s h o t because: (4)  THE HEAT BUILDS UP I N ONE PART UNTIL I T CAN'T HOLD ANYMORE AND THEN THE HEAT MOVES ALONG THE ROD.  (5)  THE FASTER MOVING METAL PARTICLES BUMP INTO EACH OTHER ALL THE WAY THROUGH THE ROD.  (6)  THE HEAT PARTICLES FROM THE FLAME ARE ATTRACTED TO ALL PARTS OF THE ROD.  A second d e m o n s t r a t i o n was begun a t t h i s p o i n t . different materials —  S i x cubes o f  c o p p e r , s t e e l , a l u m i n i u m , wood, s u g a r , and wax  were h e a t e d i n a t r a y by two c a n d l e s w h i l e t h e c l a s s o b s e r v e d .  —  Most o f  s t u d e n t s i m m e d i a t e l y i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e wax would m e l t b u t o p i n i o n s were d i v i d e d over the other o b j e c t s .  As soon as t h e wax m e l t e d t h e i n v e s t i g a -  t o r drew t h e a t t e n t i o n o f t h e c l a s s t o t h e s t a t e m e n t s concerned w i t h why the wax m e l t e d . The wax m e l t e d  because:  (7)  I T WAS A SOFT SUBSTANCE.  (8)  THE HEAT PARTICLES WENT INSIDE AND FORCED THE WAX PARTICLES APART.  (9)  THE WAX PARTICLES WERE MOVING ABOUT SO FAST THAT THEY COULD NOT HOLD ON TO EACH OTHER SO WELL.  Once t h e c l a s s had f i n i s h e d w i t h t h e s e i t e m s t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r p l a c e d t h e f i v e r e m a i n i n g cubes, w h i c h were s t i l l b e i n g h e a t e d by t h e c a n d l e s , on a b l o c k o f wax and a l l o w e d t h e c l a s s t o see how f a r each o f t h e cubes sank i n t o t h e wax.  From t h i s they r e a d i l y i n f e r r e d  that  the wood and suger cubes d i d n o t g e t v e r y h o t a t a l l w h i l e t h e m e t a l  70  cubes g o t v e r y h o t .  The c l a s s went on t o do t h e n e x t s e t o f i t e m s .  The m e t a l cubes were h o t t e r than t h e wood o r sugar because: (10)  THE METAL CUBES DREW IN MORE HEAT PARTICLES THAN THE OTHER CUBES.  (11)  IT WAS MORE DIFFICULT FOR THE AIR TO GET INSIDE THE HARD METAL CUBES TO COOL THEM.  (12)  THE  METAL PARTICLES ARE EASIER TO MOVE.  A t t h i s p o i n t a s i n g l e i t e m t h a t was r e l a t e d t o t h e d e m o n s t r a t i o n was i n t r o d u c e d t o t h e c l a s s .  T h i s was an e x t r a i t e m from t h e C h i l d r e n ' s  P e r s p e c t i v e t h a t was q u i t e p r e v a l e n t among t h e Ideas e x p r e s s e d by t h e l e s s s o p h i s t i c a t e d c h i l d r e n i n the i n t e r v i e w s . The m e t a l cubes d i d n o t m e l t (13)  because:  THEY WERE NOT HEATED LONG ENOUGH.  The n e x t f o u r i t e m s were i n t r o d u c e d t o t h e c l a s s w i t h o u t t h e benefit of a demonstration.  T h i s was done because t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r  assumed t h a t a l l o f t h e c h i l d r e n had e x p e r i e n c e d t h e e f f e c t o f l o w e r i n g the t e m p e r a t u r e o f some w a t e r , o r a s o f t d r i n k , by a d d i n g an i c e cube. The s t u d e n t ' s s t r o n g p o s i t i v e r e a c t i o n t o t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r ' s query t h i s a s s u m p t i o n i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e y e x p e r i e n c e d no d i f f i c u l t y standing the o b s e r v a t i o n a l p a r t o f the statement. The t e m p e r a t u r e o f t h e w a t e r d e c r e a s e d when an i c e cube was added b e c a u s e : (14)  THE ICE CUBE ATTRACTED SOME OF THE HEAT PARTICLES AWAY FROM THE WATER.  (15)  SOME OF THE COLD LEFT THE ICE CUBE AND WENT INTO THE WATER.  16)  THE WATER PARTICLES LOSE SOME OF THEIR SPEED BY BUMPING INTO THE ICE PARTICLES.  about  under-  71  Once a g a i n a p o p u l a r C h i l d r e n ' s I d e a , w h i c h was r e l a t e d t o t h e above s t a t e m e n t s was i n c l u d e d . A l a r g e i c e cube t a k e s l o n g e r t o m e l t a s m a l l i c e cube because: (17)  than  THE LARGE ICE CUBE HAS A COLDER TEMPERATURE THAN THE SMALL ICE CUBE.  The l a s t d e m o n s t r a t i o n c o n s i s t e d o f t a k i n g t h e l i q u i d  expansion  a p p a r a t u s used i n t h e i n t e r v i e w t a s k ( d e s c r i b e d i n Appendix B) and immersing i t i n h o t w a t e r . w i t h e x p l a i n i n g the observed  The n e x t t h r e e s t a t e m e n t s were concerned results.  The r e d l i q u i d i n t h e tube went up because: (18)  THE HEAT MAKES THE RED LIQUID LIGHTER AND SO IT RISES.  (19)  THE LIQUID'S PARTICLES MOVED MORE QUICKLY AND SO TOOK UP MORE SPACE.  (20)  THE HEAT PARTICLES TAKE UP SPACE INSIDE THE LIQUID AND FORCE- THE LIQUID OUT THE TUBE.  When t h e s e i t e m s were completed  the i n v e s t i g a t o r i n d i c a t e d  that  t h e r e were n i n e more i d e a s about h e a t and t e m p e r a t u r e and t h a t he would l i k e them t o complete t h e s e i t e m s on t h e i r own.  He f u r t h e r  indicated  t h a t w h i l e t h e f i r s t two i t e m s were o f t h e same t y p e as t h e p r e v i o u s ones ( t h a t i s , they had an o b s e r v a t i o n a l p a r t and an e x p l a n a t o r y p a r t ) t h e r e m a i n i n g seven i t e m s were j u s t g e n e r a l i d e a s about heat and temperature and so d i d n o t have any s m a l l p r i n t a t t h e top o f t h e page. The r e m a i n i n g s t a t e m e n t s a r e : O b j e c t s rubbed  t o g e t h e r g e t h o t because:  (21)  THE PARTICLES INSIDE THE OBJECTS MOVE FASTER.  (22)  THE HEAT PARTICLES INSIDE THE OBJECT ARE FORCED OUT.  72  The n e x t seven s t a t e m e n t s , t h e n , d i d n o t have any s m a l l p r i n t p r e c e d i n g t h e i d e a i n t h e box. (23)  HEAT I S THE MOTION OF AN OBJECT'S PARTICLES.  (24)  TEMPERATURE I S A MEASURE OF THE MIXTURE OF HEAT AND COLD INSIDE AN OBJECT.  (25)  HEAT I S A SUBSTANCE SOMETHING LIKE AIR OR STEAM.  (26)  ALL OBJECTS CONTAIN A MIXTURE OF HEAT AND COLD.  (27)  TEMPERATURE IS A MEASURE OF THE NUMBER OF HEAT PARTICLES I N AN OBJECT.  (28)  HEAT IS MADE UP OF TINY PARTICLES THAT CAN MOVE.  (29)  TEMPERATURE IS A MEASURE OF THE SPEED OF PARTICLES IN AN OBJECT. 4.40  A n a l y s i s o f the Instrument  Data  The a n a l y t i c a l methods employed t o t r a n s f o r m and compress t h e raw d a t a from t h e C.P.I, proceeded number o f independent were d e t e r m i n e d  t h r o u g h two s e p a r a t e s t a g e s .  F i r s t , the  d i m e n s i o n s o r s c a l e - c l u s t e r s used by t h e s u b j e c t s  t h r o u g h a component a n a l y s i s .  Once t h e s c a l e dimen-  s i o n a l i t y was i d e n t i f i e d , t h e n t h e second s t a g e c o n s i s t e d o f g e n e r a t i n g s t a t e m e n t - c l u s t e r s by p e r f o r m i n g a component a n a l y s i s on a p e r s o n s by s t a t e m e n t s m a t r i x f o r t h e averaged dimension.  s c o r e s on a p a r t i c u l a r  scale  These s t a t e m e n t - c l u s t e r s , o r V i e w p o i n t s , were t h e n used a s  the p r i m a r y i n p u t d a t a f o r t h e p r o f i l e a n a l y s i s d i s c u s s e d i n S e c t i o n 4.50.  S i n c e t h e s e two s t a g e s a r e s t a n d a r d a n a l y t i c p r o c e d u r e s and  f u r t h e r m o r e have been o u t l i n e d i n some d e t a i l .by McKie and F o s t e r ( 1 9 7 2 ) , o n l y t h e s u b s t a n t i v e a s p e c t s o f t h e s e p r o c e d u r e s , as they r e l a t e t o t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y , w i l l be r e p o r t e d .  73  4.41  A n a l y s i s o f the S c a l e In developing  to ' b u i l d i n ' two  Dimensionality  t h e s c a l e s f o r t h e C . P . I , the i n v e s t i g a t o r a t t e m p t e d  separate  c r i t e r i a o r d i m e n s i o n s f o r judgment.  the a t t r i b u t e t o be a s s e s s e d o f heat phenomena" one  by t h e C.P.I, was  "children's  Since  conceptions  c r i t e r i o n f o r judgment c l e a r l y ought t o be some  type o f " b e l i e f d i m e n s i o n " .  A f t e r t r y i n g o u t a number o f p o t e n t i a l  s c a l e s d u r i n g the t r i a l s e s s i o n s i t appeared t h a t a second s e t o f s c a l e s , t e n t a t i v e l y l a b e l l e d a " f a m i l i a r i t y dimension", would be u s e f u l f o r i n t e r p r e t i n g the s u b j e c t ' s p e r c e p t i o n s o f the v a r i o u s heat c o n c e p t s b e i n g presented  i n the  items.  A common p r a c t i c e when u s i n g a s e m a n t i c d i f f e r e n t i a l i s t o i n c l u d e a f a i r l y l a r g e number o f s c a l e s ( i n most s t u d i e s the number o f s c a l e s range from 15 t o 30) so as t o b e t t e r sample a l l p o s s i b l e bases o f judgment w h i c h an i n d i v i d u a l m i g h t n a t u r a l l y use. nent s c a l e - c l u s t e r s (dimensions  The most p r o m i -  o f judgment) used by the s u b j e c t s  d e t e r m i n e d by some a p p r o p r i a t e a n a l y t i c a l method.  I t i s the i n v e s t i g a -  t o r ' s o p i n i o n t h a t the use o f a l a r g e number o f s c a l e s not o n l y boredom i n the s u b j e c t s , hence i n c r e a s i n g c a r e l e s s n e s s and i n t h e i r responses,  unreliability  S i n c e the i n v e s t i g a t o r was  d e t e r m i n e whether a p p r o p r i a t e s c a l e s were chosen to r e p r e s e n t d i m e n s i o n t h r o u g h component a n a l y s i s , i t was the monotony o f the t a s k by c h o o s i n g  decided  able  to  the d e s i r e d  t o t r y and  minimize  a m i n i m a l number o f s c a l e s f o r each  Thus s i x s c a l e s were used i n the p r e s e n t  the e x p e c t a t i o n t h a t two the s u b j e c t ' s  induces  b u t , a l s o i s u n n e c e s s a r y when t h e d e s i r e d d i m e n s i o n s  f o r judgment a r e known i n advance.  desired dimension.  are  independent s c a l e - d i m e n s i o n s  study  with  would emerge from  responses. I  74  A l t h o u g h F i s h b e i n and  Raven (1967) have used a number o f  to a s s e s s a b e l i e f d i m e n s i o n , s e v e r a l o f t h e i r s c a l e s p r o b a b l e - i m p r o b a b l e , l i k e l y - u n l i k e l y , and  scales  ( f o r example,  possible-impossible)  did  not seem t o be m e a n i n g f u l t o the s u b j e c t s i n the t r i a l s e s s i o n s .  Only  one o f t h e i r s c a l e s , the t r u e - f a l s e s c a l e , was  The  other  two  r e t a i n e d f o r use.  s c a l e s used were the a g r e e - d i s a g r e e s c a l e and  i d e a s - u n l i k e my  ideas  the l i k e  my  i n the t r i a l s e s s i o n s  to  scale.  P o t e n t i a l s c a l e s w h i c h were e x p l o r e d  e s t a b l i s h a second d i m e n s i o n were s u g g e s t e d by Nunnally's (1967) " u n d e r s t a n d a b i l i t y " d i m e n s i o n and T a y l o r ' s The  (1966) " d i f f i c u l t y " d i m e n s i o n .  s c a l e s w h i c h were e v e n t u a l l y used i n t h e C.P.I, were:  f u s i n g , e a s y - d i f f i c u l t , and s c a l e s was  clear-con-  f a m i l i a r - u n f a m i l i a r . This l a s t set  termed a " f a m i l i a r i t y d i m e n s i o n " w h i l e the o t h e r  scales ( t r u e - f a l s e , agree-disagree,  and  l i k e my  of  three  i d e a s - u n l i k e my  ideas)  were l a b e l l e d as a " b e l i e f d i m e n s i o n . " To a s c e r t a i n the degree o f c o r r e s p o n d e n c e between the d i m e n s i o n s and was  first  matrix.  t h e a c t u a l r e s p o n s e s o f t h e s u b j e c t s , t h e d a t a cube  c o l l a p s e d o v e r p e r s o n s t o produce a s t a t e m e n t s by The  built-in  scales  columns o f t h i s - m a t r i x were t h e n i n t e r c o r r e l a t e d and  r e s u l t a n t s c a l e s by s c a l e s c o r r e l a t i o n m a t r i x  subjected  the  t o a component  4 a n a l y s i s , f o l l o w e d by v a r i m a x r o t a t i o n .  The  eigenvalues  of the com-  ponent m a t r i x , a l o n g w i t h the l o a d i n g s o f the r o t a t e d components appear i n T a b l e  4-1.  As i s e v i d e n t  from T a b l e 4-1  the most dominant a c c o u n t i n g  the f i r s t  two  components a r e by  f o r 96% of the t o t a l v a r i a n c e .  far  Thus o n l y  TABLE 4-1  R o t a t e d P r i n c i p a l Component-Loadings f o r Inter-Scale Correlation Matrix Variables (Scales) Agree  Components I II  Disagree  .9758  -.1836  Clear - Confusing  .1578  -.9639  Easy - D i f f i c u l t  .2184  -.9683  True - F a l s e  .9700  -.1807  Familiar - Unfamiliar  .5493  -.7758  L i k e my i d e a s - U n l i k e my i d e a s  .8332  -.5160  Variance Per c e n t  4.457 74.29  1.305 21.76  76  two components were r o t a t e d to y i e l d the s c a l e d i m e n s i o n s used by s u b j e c t s i n making t h e i r r e s p o n s e s . ~*  the  An e x a m i n a t i o n o f the s c a l e s  that  l o a d h i g h l y on the f i r s t component r e v e a l s the " b e l i e f d i m e n s i o n " t h a t was b u i l t i n t o t h e s c a l e s . for  L i k e w i s e , the second component g i v e s e v i d e n c e  the " f a m i l i a r i t y dimension".  These r e s u l t s were used t o o b t a i n a  b e l i e f - s c o r e on a s t a t e m e n t f o r a p a r t i c u l a r s u b j e c t by a v e r a g i n g t h e i r s c o r e s on s c a l e s 1, 4 and 6.  A f a m i l i a r i t y - s c o r e was o b t a i n e d by  a v e r a g i n g s c o r e s o v e r s c a l e s 2, 3 and 4.42  5.  A n a l y s i s o f Statement D i m e n s i o n a l i t y H a v i n g o b t a i n e d a c o m p o s i t e b e l i e f - s c o r e and  the second s t a g e o f t h e a n a l y s i s was meaningful c l u s t e r s of statements. p a r t i c u l a r viewpoint of heat.  familiarity-score,  t o examine t h e d a t a f o r e v i d e n c e o f These c l u s t e r s can be l i k e n e d to a  I n e f f e c t , t h i s procedure c o n s i s t s of  a type o f e m p i r i c a l check upon the t h r e e P e r s p e c t i v e s t h a t were b u i l t i n t o the items.  The q u e s t i o n b e i n g a d d r e s s e d by t h i s s t a g e i s :  Did  t h e c h i l d r e n p e r c e i v e any b a s i c d i f f e r e n c e s between the s t a t e m e n t s ? o t h e r w o r d s , d i d some s t a t e m e n t s c l u s t e r t o g e t h e r i n t h e Space' i n s u c h a manner as t o s u g g e s t a c o n s i s t e n t way and t h i n k i n g about h e a t phenomena?  In  'Viewpoint of l o o k i n g a t  A second q u e s t i o n n a t u r a l l y  follows:  What i s t h e p o t e n t i a l d i a g n o s t i c v a l u e o f t h e s e c l u s t e r s o f V i e w p o i n t s once they a r e i d e n t i f i e d ? The a n a l y s i s s t a r t e d w i t h a p e r s o n s by s t a t e m e n t s m a t r i x o f b e l i e f or  f a m i l i a r i t y - s c o r e s produced by the p r e v i o u s s t a g e .  the l a r g e number o f c h i l d r e n who  On the b a s i s o f  were e i t h e r n o t a b l e t o complete  e n t i r e C.P.I, o r began t o p a t t e r n t h e i r r e s p o n s e s a f t e r the f i r s t  the twenty  77  i t e m s , a d e c i s i o n was made t o i n c l u d e o n l y those s t a t e m e n t s w h i c h were r e l a t e d to the demonstrations.  As t h e r e was a t o t a l o f 276 s u b j e c t s  who completed t h i s p a r t o f t h e C.P.I, t h e r e s u l t a n t d a t a m a t r i x  con-  s i s t e d o f a 276 by 20 (persons by s t a t e m e n t s ) m a t r i x o f b e l i e f - s c o r e s . A s i m i l a r m a t r i x o f f a m i l i a r i t y - s c o r e s was a l s o a n a l y z e d .  As b e f o r e ,  the columns o f t h e m a t r i x were c o r r e l a t e d t o y i e l d an i n t e r - s t a t e m e n t c o r r e l a t i o n m a t r i x w h i c h was t h e i n p u t d a t a f o r a component a n a l y s i s . R e s u l t s o f t h e v a r i m a x r o t a t e d component l o a d i n g s f o r t h e b e l i e f s c o r e s a r e r e p r o d u c e d i n T a b l e 4-2.  S i n c e t h e component s t r u c t u r e f o r  the s t a t e m e n t - c l u s t e r s was somewhat more complex t h a n t h a t o f t h e s c a l e c l u s t e r s , t h e d e c i s i o n r e g a r d i n g t h e number o f components t o r o t a t e was n o t so s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d .  The s i x components r e p o r t e d i n T a b l e 4-2  a r e a r e s u l t o f r o t a t i n g o n l y t h o s e components w i t h an g r e a t e r t h a n one.  However, an e x a m i n a t i o n  eigenvalue  o f t h e s e components r e v e a l  o n l y one c l e a r l y d e f i n e d d i m e n s i o n , t h e f i r s t component. contains f i v e statements w i t h h i g h loadings f i v e statements belong to  T h i s component  ( g r e a t e r than . 4 0 ) . A l l  t o the K i n e t i c P e r s p e c t i v e .  Statements  belonging  the o t h e r two P e r s p e c t i v e s , t h e C h i l d r e n ' s and t h e C a l o r i c , appear  to be s p l i t among the o t h e r f i v e components.  F o r example, t h e C h i l d r e n ' s  s t a t e m e n t s were s p l i t between t h e second and t h e f i f t h component.  To  d e t e r m i n e whether t h i s type o f ' f i s s i o n ' was due t o t h e number o f components r o t a t e d , i t was d e c i d e d  t o r o t a t e fewer components i n s e a r c h o f  a more i n t e r p r e t a b l e s o l u t i o n . Three a d d i t i o n a l computer r u n s were made r o t a t i n g 5, 4 and 3 components r e s p e c t i v e l y .  The s o l u t i o n g i v e n i n T a b l e 4-3, w i t h  four  78  TABLE 4-2 Rotated P r i n c i p a l Component-Loadings f o r Inter-Statement C o r r e l a t i o n Matrix of Belief-Scores (Six Components Rotated) Variables (Statements) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20  (Caloric)* (Kinetic) (Childrens) (Childrens) (Kinetic) (Caloric) (Childrens) (Caloric) (Kinetic) (Caloric) (Childrens) (Kinetic) (Childrens) (Caloric). (Childrens) (Kinetic) (Childrens) (Childrens) (Kinetic) (Caloric)  Variance Per cent  Components III IV  .1  II  -.1078 -.3145 -.2900 .0196 -.6534 -.0246 .0762 -.3555 -.6874 .0523 -.1932 -.4592 -.2694 -.2417 -.0814 -.7712 .0625 .0223 -.6773 -.1747  .2013 .1480 .0692 .1829 -.1686 .3422 .2356 .0819 .0987 .0989 .0851 .3105 .4623 .6581 -.2381 .1102 .6370 .5438 .0141 .0707  .6352 - .6282 .2288 -.0459 .3465 .0686 .1027 -.0141 .0814 .1498 .0808 .2223 -.5368 -.0437 -.3255 -.0211 .2033 .1276 .0073 .1418  .1780 -.0266 -.0857 .1887 -.1433 .3314 -.0511 .4393 .1958 .7507 .0761 -.0279 -.1389 .2693 .5302 .0863 -.0345 .0283 .0734 .3923  -.0490 -.1853 -.2966 -.6587 -.0553 .1166 -.6303 -.0529 -.0895 .0344 -.6105 .0372 -.1068 -.0282 -.4082 .0166 -.2809 -.2826 -.0124 -.1916  .1835 -.0057 .5516 -.2486 .0521 .6151 .1170 -.0623 -.1096 .0565 .1565 -.5185 .1317 -.0585 .0013 .1257 .1393 .0487 .0743 .2101  3.719  1.988  1.443  1.302  1.137  1.0155  9.94  7.21  6.51  5.69  5.08  ;  18.60  V  VI  *The heat Perspective from which the statement i s taken i s i n brackets. For a f u l l d e s c r i p t i o n of the statement see Section 4.33.  TABLE 4-3 R o t a t e d P r i n c i p a l Component-Loadings f o r Inter-Statement C o r r e l a t i o n Matrix of B e l i e f - S c o r e s (Four Components R o t a t e d ) Variables (Statements) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20  (Caloric) (Kinetic) (Childrens) (Childrens) (Kinetic) (Caloric) (Childrens) (Caloric) (Kinetic) (Caloric) (Childrens) (Kinetic) (Childrens) (Caloric) (Childrens) (Kinetic) (Childrens) (Childrens) (Kinetic) (Caloric)  Variance Per cent  Components II  III  IV  .0591 .0936 - .3739 - .7048 .0334 - .1570 - .5715 - .2467 - .2913 - .0614 - .7402 .0507 .0004 - .6521 - .1453  .1079 .1601 .2188 .5732 -.1374 .1575 .5861 .0747 .0995 .0147 .4529 .1703 .4640 .4949 .1115 .0485 .6391 .5763 -.0031 .1488  .6722 .5887 .4698 -.1367 .3441 .3742 .1652 -.0191 .0686 .1543 .1553 .0339 -.3398 .0304 -.3284 .0907 .3210 .2024 .0755 .2280  .1362 -.0748 .1116 .1785 -.0999 .4342 .0381 .4055 .1738 .6765 .1970 -.2274 -.0463 .1812 .6186 .1440 -.0449 .0068 .1230 .4393  3 .719  1.988  1.443  1.302  9.94  7.21  6.51  I —  .1033  - .3304 - .1829  - .0287  - .6251  18 .60  80  components r o t a t e d , p r o v i d e d  the c l e a r e s t and  simplest s t r u c t u r e .  out o f the f o u r components a r e i n t e r p r e t a b l e ( i n terms o f the P e r s p e c t i v e s ) and  no  might be c a l l e d  o b s e r v a t i o n i s t h a t the f i r s t  not s i m p l y an a r t i f a c t o f the r o t a t i o n statements l o a d i n g h i g h on  t h a t the m a n i f e s t  the second and  Viewpoint,  fifth  —  structure i s  formed by  components o f T a b l e 4-2.  a very c l e a r conceptual  f o u r C a l o r i c statements w i t h h i g h l o a d i n g s and The  the fewer  the second component i n T a b l e  4-3  the f u s i o n  T h i s dimension o r  c o n t a i n s s i x C h i l d r e n ' s statements and  Component f o u r a l s o has  by  (which  procedures.  can be i n t e r p r e t e d as a C h i l d r e n ' s Viewpoint of  component.  component  a K i n e t i c V i e w p o i n t ) remains u n d i s t u r b e d  r o t a t i o n s thus p r o v i d i n g some e v i d e n c e  The  original  statements l o a d h i g h l y on more than one  A f u r t h e r encouraging  Three  one  Caloric  structure. one  statement.  I t contains  C h i l d r e n ' s statement.  o n l y component t h a t remains u n i n t e r p r e t e d i s number t h r e e which  o n l y t h r e e statements t h a t l o a d h i g h l y on i t — C.P.I. simply  One  the f i r s t  t h r e e on  by many o f the s u b j e c t s r e g a r d i n g the n a t u r e Hence i t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t they may t h r e e statements i n a s i m i l a r way o f what was  experienced  o f the judgmental  task.  have responded to t h i s f i r s t  s e t of  as they attempted to get a b e t t e r  r e q u i r e d by  the C.P.I.  t h r e e statements and  the  so made a s i m i l a r r e s p o n s e to each.  R e s u l t s from a s i m i l a r i n Table  un-  Another t e n a b l e hypo-  t h e s i s i s t h a t the c h i l d r e n were not a b l e to d i s c r i m i n a t e between  presented  the  p o s s i b l e e x p l a n a t i o n f o r t h i s component i s t h a t i t i s  an a r t i f a c t o f the C.P.I., based upon the u n c e r t a i n t y  derstanding  has  4-4.  treatment  Initially  o f the f a m i l i a r i t y - s c o r e s  the f i v e components w i t h  are  eigenvalues  .TABLE 4-4 .Rotated P r i n c i p a l Component-Loadings f o r Inter-Statement C o r r e l a t i o n Matrix of F a m i l i a r i t y - S c o r e s (Four Components R o t a t e d ) .Variables (Statements) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20  (Caloric) (Kinetic) (Childrens) (Childrens) (Kinetic) (Caloric) (Childrens) (Caloric) (Kinetic) (Caloric) (Childrens) (Kinetic) (Childrens) (Caloric) (Childrens) (Kinetic) (Childrens) (Childrens) (Kinetic) (Caloric)  Variance Per cent  -I  Components .11  •III  IV  .1891 .2001 .3638 .1630 - .7218 - .3305 - .1042 - .5240 .7109 .0470 - .2383 - .5753 - .2317 .0973 - .0988 - .7143 - .1810 - .1305 - .5596 - .1470  .1255 .1703 .1862 .7132 .0652 .3180 .6210 .3778 .2484 .6012 .4291 .1270 .1899 .1111 .6174 -.0205 .0353 .1642 .0742 .3228  - .3583 - .7360 - .6106 - .3556 - .3138  .7650 .7366 .4302 .1069 .2667 .3213 .1137 .0740 .1240 .3248 .1363 .2035 -.1855 .2177 -.0505 -.0148 .0172 .1503 .2266 .2698  5 .702  1.534  1.307  1.022  7.67  6 .53  5.12  -  -  28 .51  _  .0030  - .1279 - .2057 - .0167 .0061  - .1873 - .0022 - .0212 - .1390 - .1599 - .2179 - .2256 - .4150 - .6882 —  .2394  82  g r e a t e r than one were r o t a t e d , b u t a g a i n some c o m p o n e n t - s p l i t t i n g suspected.  I t was d e c i d e d  t h a t the s o l u t i o n o b t a i n e d  f a c t o r s was t h e most i n t e r p r e t a b l e .  scores.  by r o t a t i n g f o u r  However, t h e i n h e r e n t  o f t h e components i s n o t as c l e a r as t h a t o b t a i n e d  was  structure  f o r the b e l i e f -  Once a g a i n t h e f i r s t component i s a v e r y c l e a r K i n e t i c V i e w -  p o i n t w i t h a v e r y s i m i l a r s t r u c t u r e t o the b e l i e f d a t a —  the o n l y ex-  c e p t i o n i s t h e h i g h e r l o a d i n g on a C a l o r i c s t a t e m e n t ( i t e m number 8). T h i s r e s u l t m i g h t be e x p l a i n e d by t h e r e s e m b l a n c e o f t h e s t a t e m e n t t o the emphasis on p a r t i c l e m o t i o n i n t h e K i n e t i c P e r s p e c t i v e .  Unfor-  t u n a t e l y , t h e s t r u c t u r e o f t h e o t h e r components a r e n o t q u i t e as c l e a r . I n s t e a d o f o b t a i n i n g a c l e a r s e p a r a t i o n o f t h e C h i l d r e n ' s and t h e C a l o r i c Viewpoints,  as was t h e case w i t h t h e b e l i e f - s c o r e s , components two and  t h r e e p r e d o m i n a n t l y c o n t a i n h i g h l o a d i n g C h i l d r e n ' s s t a t e m e n t s w i t h one C a l o r i c s t a t e m e n t i n each.  S i n c e two o f t h e C a l o r i c s t a t e m e n t s , i t e m s  6 and 20, f a i l e d t o l o a d h i g h l y on any o f t h e r o t a t e d components, i t would seem t h a t no d i s t i n c t C a l o r i c V i e w p o i n t was p e r c e i v e d by t h e subjects.  As b e f o r e ,  the f i r s t  i n a s i n g l e component.  three statements a r e c l u s t e r e d  The f a m i l i a r i t y - s c o r e s , t h e n , produced a c l e a r  K i n e t i c V i e w p o i n t and two somewhat ambiguous C h i l d r e n ' s To r e t u r n t o t h e q u e s t i o n s some c o n f i d e n c e  Viewpoints.  posed e a r l i e r i t can now be s t a t e d w i t h  t h a t the c h i l d r e n were a b l e t o d i s c r i m i n a t e between t h e  v a r i o u s statements r e p r e s e n t i n g terms o f t h e s t u d e n t ' s c l e a r Viewpoints  together  the t h r e e d i f f e r e n t P e r s p e c t i v e s .  b e l i e f s about the s t a t e m e n t s , t h r e e  In  relatively  were i d e n t i f i e d w h i c h c o r r e s p o n d r a t h e r c l o s e l y t o t h e  ' b u i l t - i n ' Perspectives.  W h i l e these V i e w p o i n t s  a r e n o t as c l e a r l y  83  d e f i n e d f o r the f a m i l i a r i t y - s c o r e s , t h e r e i s / i d e f i n i t e s p l i t a K i n e t i c V i e w p o i n t o f heat and what appears of  between  to be a s u b s t a n c e n o t i o n  heat. The second q u e s t i o n c o n c e r n i n g t h e p o t e n t i a l u s e f u l n e s s o f t h e s e  V i e w p o i n t s i s somewhat more d i f f i c u l t  to address.  One p o t e n t i a l  approach  suggested by McKie and F o s t e r (1972) i n v o l v e t i the c r e a t i o n o f p r o f i l e s of  i n d i v i d u a l s based upon the p e r s o n ' s s e t of f a c t o r s c o r e s .  Such a  p r o ' f i l e c o n t a i n s much more i n f o r m a t i o n than the type o f c o m p o s i t e s c o r e t h a t i s the p r o d u c t o f many s c i e n c e achievement  t e s t s or a t t i t u d e  F u r t h e r m o r e , a p r o f i l e can be used i n a d i a g n o s t i c c a p a c i t y by  scales.  matching  an i n d i v i d u a l ' s p r o f i l e w i t h an a p p r o p r i a t e Met o f t e a c h i n g s t r a t e g i e s . T h i s t y p e o f m a t c h i n g p r o c e d u r e r e s t s on the a s s u m p t i o n made by the i n v e s t i g a t o r t h a t t h e C.P.I, i s t a p p i n g some a s p e c t o f c o g n i t i v e s t r u c t u r e (perhaps a  type  o f p h y s i c a l deep s t r u c t u r e ) and hence t h e l i t e r a t u r e  on s t r u c t u r a l change and development c o u l d s e r v e t o g u i d e t h e development of  teaching strategies. However, b e f o r e an i n d i v i d u a l ' s C o n c e p t u a l P r o f i l e can be o f d i a -  g n o s t i c v a l u e t o the t e a c h e r , i t must be accompanied by a s e t o f Model C o n c e p t u a l P r o f i l e s t h a t w i l l p e r m i t t h e t e a c h e r to i d e n t i f y an  individual's  C o n c e p t u a l P r o f i l e as a member o f a g i v e n c l a s s o r f a m i l y o f Model Conceptual P r o f i l e s .  Once an i n d i v i d u a l ' s C o n c e p t u a l P r o f i l e i s so c a t e g o -  r i z e d i t i s then p o s s i b l e to match i t w i t h a p a r t i c u l a r type o f t e a c h i n g s t r a t e g y designed f o r that c l a s s of P r o f i l e s . 4.50  The A n a l y s i s o f Model C o n c e p t u a l P r o f i l e s  By a Model C o n c e p t u a l P r o f i l e i s meant a h y p o t h e t i c a l p r o f i l e o f  84  s c o r e s t h a t i s t y p i c a l o f a group o f s u b j e c t s who s i m i l a r way  on the C.P.I.  have responded i n a  To o b t a i n a c l u s t e r o f p r o f i l e s one must  f a c t o r a n a l y z e o v e r s u b j e c t s ( g e n e r a l l y r e f e r r e d t o as  Q-analysis)  i n s t e a d o f the u s u a l f a c t o r i n g o f r e s p o n s e s as found i n S e c t i o n and 4.42  4.41  (which i s c a l l e d R - a n a l y s i s ) .  G u e r t i n and B a i l e y (1970) have mapped o u t a s e t o f  procedures,  accompanied by a computer program, t h a t w i l l a n a l y z e a l a r g e s e t o f p r o f i l e s i n t o d i s c r e t e c l u s t e r s of s i m i l a r p r o f i l e s . c l u s t e r i s obtained then the Model Conceptual  Once a  tight  P r o f i l e , which G u e r t i n  c a l l s a "modal p a t t e r n " , can be o b t a i n e d s i m p l y by c a l c u l a t i n g average p r o f i l e f o r a l l o f the members o f t h i s c l u s t e r .  the  As such i t  i s not a group s t a t i s t i c , b u t a s t a t i s t i c based upon t h e a v e r a g e s c o r e o b t a i n e d by a group o f s u b j e c t s whose p r o f i l e s a r e v e r y  similar.  To d i s g r e s s from G u e r t i n ' s program b r i e f l y , m u c h o f the c o n t r o v e r s y o v e r p r o f i l e a n a l y s i s has c e n t e r e d around t h e i s s u e o f p r o f i l e similarity.  F o r example, see Cronbach. and G l e s e r  (1962) and G u e r t i n (1970).  (1953),  Nunnally  I t i s r e c o g n i z e d by most t h a t a  simple  product-moment c o r r e l a t i o n between p r o f i l e s o n l y d i f f e r e n t i a t e s  be-  tween the shape o f the p r o f i l e s and does n o t a c c o u n t f o r d i f f e r e n c e s i n l e v e l and d i s p e r s i o n .  To i l l u s t r a t e t h i s p o i n t , c o n s i d e r the  l o w i n g example used by G u e r t i n (1970).  I f the raw s c o r e s on f o u r  f o r p e r s o n s A and B were: ITEMS 1  2  3  4  A  10  20  10  B  100  200  100  Mean  Dispersion  20  10  15  200  100  150  folitems  85  The product-moment, r , f o r t h i s a r r a y o f s c o r e s i s 1.00 a perfect correlation —  a r e s u l t due  which i n d i c a t e s  t o the s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n p r o c e d u r e s  i n v o l v e d i n c a l c u l a t i n g the c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t .  I t i s obvious,  t h e n , t h a t the product-moment c o e f f i c i e n t c o n s i d e r s o n l y the  relative  shapes o f the p r o f i l e s and i g n o r e s d i f f e r e n c e s i n the l e v e l (mean s c o r e s ) and the d i s p e r s i o n o f s c o r e s .  Thus, the use o f an i n t e r - p o i n t d i s t a n c e  measure i n E u c l i d e a n space has become the a c c e p t e d for  procedure f o r a n a l y z i n g  d i f f e r e n c e s i n l e v e l and d i s p e r s i o n o f p r o f i l e d a t a . W h i l e t h e r e i s s t i l l some d i s a g r e e m e n t r e g a r d i n g the b e s t d i s t a n c e  measure t o u s e , the a u t h o r a c c e p t s G u e r t i n ' s p o s i t i o n t h a t the b e s t measure o f t h i s d i s t a n c e (d) i s o b t a i n e d by f i r s t s q u a r i n g the p r o f i l e d i s t a n c e s to remove any n e g a t i v e terms and square r o o t o f t h i s e x p r e s s i o n .  inter-  then t a k i n g the  Thus d can be e x p r e s s e d  as:  where j and k a r e p r o f i l e s o f p e r s o n s b e i n g compared and i i s the i t h item  o f an i n s t r u m e n t  c o n s i s t i n g of n  items.  To r e t u r n to G u e r t i n ' s program, t h e n , the f i r s t s t e p c o n s i s t e d of performing  a Q - a n a l y s i s on the p r o f i l e s  ( p e r s o n s ) by c o n c e p t s  u s i n g e i t h e r the b e l i e f o r f a m i l i a r i t y - s c o r e s .  matrix  As t h i s p r o c e d u r e i n -  v o l v e d the f o r m a t i o n o f an i n t e r - p r o f i l e c o r r e l a t i o n m a t r i x p r i o r the f a c t o r a n a l y s i s , the r e s u l t a n t f a c t o r s , o r c l u s t e r s o f  to  profiles,  were based upon shape s i m i l a r i t y o n l y . In  o r d e r t o d e t e r m i n e whether p r o f i l e s o f the same shape c o u l d  be  86  f u r t h e r s e p a r a t e d on t h e b a s i s o f l e v e l and d i s p e r s i o n t h e n e x t c o n s i s t e d o f computing a s i m i l a r i t y m a t r i x  (inter-profile  distance  m a t r i x , o r D-matrix) f o r t h o s e p r o f i l e s t h a t c l u s t e r e d t o g e t h e r b a s i s o f shape a l o n e .  on t h e  D e t a i l s o f t h e c o m p u t a t i o n a l p r o c e d u r e s used i n  f o r m i n g t h i s D-matrix can be found i n G u e r t i n this matrix  step  (1970).  By f a c t o r i n g  i t was p o s s i b l e t o d e t e r m i n e i f f u r t h e r s u b - c l u s t e r s o f  p r o f i l e s appeared w i t h i n t h e same shape f a m i l y as a r e s u l t o f d i f f e r ences i n l e v e l o r d i s p e r s i o n .  Once a l l o f t h e p r o f i l e c l u s t e r s were  i d e n t i f i e d f o r a g i v e n shape f a m i l y , t h e n a "modal p a t t e r n " was computed f o r each c l u s t e r . w e i g h t e d mean s c o r e  T h i s was a c c o m p l i s h e d by c a l c u l a t i n g a  (using only the p r o f i l e s c h a r a c t e r i z i n g that  c l u s t e r ) f o r each o f t h e s t a t e m e n t s .  The w e i g h t i n g  used was t h e p r o f i l e  f a c t o r l o a d i n g from t h e a n a l y s i s o f t h e s i m i l a r i t y m a t r i x .  These "modal  p a t t e r n s " a r e t h e d e s i r e d Model C o n c e p t u a l P r o f i l e s and c a n be used i n a d i a g n o s t i c c a p a c i t y by some m a t c h i n g p r o c e d u r e between i n d i v i d u a l C o n c e p t u a l P r o f i l e s and one o f t h e s e Model C o n c e p t u a l P r o f i l e s f o r t h e purposes o f i n s t r u c t i o n . The  r e s u l t s obtained  Chapter F i v e .  f o r the p r o f i l e a n a l y s i s are presented i n  Chapter S i x i n c l u d e s a d i s c u s s i o n o f how t h e s e Model  C o n c e p t u a l P r o f i l e s m i g h t be u t i l i z e d i n an i n s t r u c t i o n a l s e t t i n g .  87  NOTES FOR  CHAPTER FOUR  1. Wish (1972) o u t l i n e s a v a r i e t y o f t e c h n i q u e s f o r g e n e r a t i n g d a t a t h a t can be s u b j e c t e d to some type o f m u l t i d i m e n s i o n a l a n a l y s i s . 2. I n the l i t e r a t u r e on the s e m a n t i c d i f f e r e n t i a l the w o r d , " c o n c e p t " , has been used i n a g e n e r i c sense to s t a n d f o r the s t i m u l u s b e i n g r a t e d by the s u b j e c t s . S i n c e t h e s e s t i m u l i were most o f t e n one o r two word nouns, o r noun p h r a s e s , the term was q u i t e a p p r o p r i a t e . I n the p r e s e n t i n s t a n c e the s t i m u l i c o n s i s t of r a t h e r l e n g t h y t w o - p a r t s t a t e m e n t s . A l t h o u g h the e x p l a n a t o r y p a r t o f the s t a t e m e n t a t t e m p t s to r e p r e s e n t a p a r t i c u l a r c o n c e p t i o n o f h e a t , i t was d e c i d e d t o d e v i a t e from the s t a n dard s e m a n t i c - d i f f e r e n t i a l usage and r e f e r to the s t i m u l u s as a " s t a tement" about h e a t . A p a r t i c u l a r i t e m on the C.P.I., t h e n , c o n s i s t s o f a s t a t e m e n t to be r a t e d and the s i x r a t i n g s c a l e s . 3. Some background i n f o r m a t i o n about the c a l o r i c and k i n e t i c t h e o r i e s may a s s i s t the r e a d e r i n a s s e s s i n g the v a l i d i t y and e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f the i t e m s . The b a s i c p o s t u l a t e o f the c a l o r i c t h e o r y was t h a t h e a t e x i s t e d as some s u b t l e , i n d e s t r u c t i b l e f l u i d t h a t was c a p a b l e o f p e n e t r a t i n g a l l m a t e r i a l bodies. The e l e m e n t a l c o n s t i t u e n t s o f t h i s f l u i d , i n k e e p i n g w i t h the Newtonian c o n c e p t i o n o f the w o r l d , were thought t o be p a r t i c l e s o r c o r p u s c u l e s o f c a l o r i c w h i c h o c c u p i e d the space around the p a r t i c l e s of matter. There was an i n h e r e n t a f f i n i t y o f a t t r a c t i o n between p a r t i c l e s o f c a l o r i c and p a r t i c l e s o f m a t t e r — the degree o f a t t r a c t i o n depending upon the type o f m a t t e r . T h i s a t t r a c t i o n was exp r e s s e d as a number and c a l l e d the s p e c i f i c h e a t o f the s u b s t a n c e . It was f u r t h e r h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t the c a l o r i c p a r t i c l e s were m u t u a l l y r e p u l s i v e and so the c a l o r i c would n a t u r a l l y move from an a r e a o f h i g h d e n s i t y t o one o f low d e n s i t y . That i s , from an o b j e c t , or p a r t o f an o b j e c t , t h a t was h o t t o one t h a t was c o o l e r . W i t h t h e s e t h r e e p o s t u l a t e s the c a l o r i c t h e o r y was a b l e t o a c c o u n t f o r most o f the e x p e r i m e n t a l o b s e r v a t i o n s o f the day. Those o b s e r v a t i o n s w h i c h o f f e r e d momentary r e s i s t a n c e — such as (1) the w e i g h t o f . an o b j e c t d i d not change when c a l o r i c was added t o i t ; and (2) d u r i n g a phase change no change i n t e m p e r a t u r e o c c u r s even though c a l o r i c i s b e i n g added — were i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o the network o f the t h e o r e t i c a l s t r u c t u r e by means o f ad hoc a d d i t i o n s t o the t h e o r y . I n answer t o the f i r s t problem i t was c l a i m e d t h a t the f l u i d o f p a r t i c l e s was so s u b t l e t h a t e i t h e r i t p o s s e s s e d no measurable w e i g h t o r e l s e the b a l a n c e s b e i n g used i n the e x p e r i m e n t s were not s u f f i c i e n t l y s e n s i t i v e . The second p r o b l e m a r e a r e q u i r e d a l i t t l e more i m a g i n a t i v e s o l u t i o n . The t h e o r i s t s h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t d u r i n g a phase change the added c a l o r i c p a r t i c l e s d i d not i n c r e a s e the d e n s i t y o f c a l o r i c around the atoms o f m a t t e r (as t e m p e r a t u r e was d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d t o the d e n s i t y o f the c a l o r i c ) b u t , t h a t these c a l o r i c p a r t i c l e s r e a c t e d c h e m i c a l l y w i t h the atoms t o produce a type of ' l a t e n t c a l o r i c ' . When the phase change was r e v e r s e d the bound-up ' l a t e n t ' c a l o r i c was a g a i n r e l e a s e d as ' f r e e '  88  c a l o r i c thus a c c o u n t i n g f o r the g r e a t amount o f h e a t r e l e a s e d d u r i n g a phase change. W h i l e t h e r e were some n o t a b l e d i s s e n t e r s , such as the much p u b l i c i z e d Count Rumford, the c a l o r i c t h e o r y was by f a r the most f a v o r e d t h e o r y o f h e a t from the mid-18th C e n t u r y u n t i l the mid-19th Century (Fox, 1971). W h i l e most r e a d e r s w i l l be somewhat f a m i l i a r w i t h the p r e v a i l i n g k i n e t i c t h e o r y o f h e a t , a b r i e f summary o f i t s b a s i c t e n e t s may be h e l p ful. Heat i s c o n c e i v e d not t o be a s e p a r a t e t y p e o f m a t t e r , as was the case w i t h the c a l o r i c t h e o r y , b u t a p r o p e r t y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e m o t i o n o f m a t t e r i Heat i s thus d e f i n e d as the t o t a l amount o f energy possessed by the p a r t i c l e s o f a body ( i n c l u d i n g a l l t h r e e p o s s i b l e t y p e s o f m o t i o n : t r a n s l a t i o n , r o t a t i o n and v i b r a t i o n . ) Temperature i s c o n s i d e r e d t o be a measure o f t h e a v e r a g e k i n e t i c energy o f t h e p a r t i c l e s o f t h e o b j e c t . The temperature o f an o b j e c t i s a l t e r e d by an exchange o f energy between a h o t and a c o l d body, as opposed t o an exchange o f a s u b s t a n c e e n v i s a g e d by t h e c a l o r i c t h e o r y . 4. The computer program used t o c a r r y out t h i s a n a l y s i s was o b t a i n e d f r o m t h e U.B.C. computing c e n t e r under the code name o f *FAN. 5. A l t h o u g h the u s u a l problem o f d e c i d i n g how many components o r f a c t o r s to r o t a t e was e a s i l y r e s o l v e d i n t h i s f i r s t s t a g e o f t h e a n a l y s i s , t h i s was n o t so i n o t h e r s t a g e s . Because the d e l i b e r a t i o n s s u r r o u n d i n g t h i s problem a r e somewhat s i m i l a r f o r a l l the c a s e s a b r i e f d i s c u s s i o n o f the i s s u e s i n v o l v e d seems w a r r a n t e d . F a c t o r s , o r components i n the p r e s e n t c o n t e x t , a r e r o t a t e d f o r one basic reason: " . . . t o o b t a i n a more i n t e r p r e t a b l e p a t t e r n o f f a c t o r l o a d i n g s and to f a c i l i t a t e e s t i m a t i o n s o f t h e s c o r e s o f p e o p l e on t h e factors." ( N u n n a l l y , 1967, p. 321) W i t h t h i s b a s i c purpose i n mind t h e f i n a l d e c i s i o n r e g a r d i n g t h e number o f f a c t o r s t o r o t a t e was p r i m a r i l y based upon the judgment as to whether t h e components o r f a c t o r s were r e n d e r e d more i n t e r p r e t a b l e by t h e r o t a t i o n p r o c e d u r e s . As t h i s j u d g ment i s o f t e n v e r y d i f f i c u l t , a number o f c r i t e r i a have been developed t o p r o v i d e a n a l y s t s w i t h some b a s i c g u i d e l i n e s . For example, see C a t t e l l (1966). The most common c r i t e r i o n i s t h a t o f r o t a t i n g o n l y those f a c t o r s w i t h e i g e n v a l u e s g r e a t e r than one. I n some i n s t a n c e s t h i s c r i t e r i o n i s i n a p p r o p r i a t e — as i s t h e case w i t h t h e a n a l y s i s o f the p r o f i l e d a t a i n S e c t i o n 5.10 due t o the s i z e o f the c o r r e l a t i o n m a t r i x and t h e r e s u l t a n t l a r g e e i g e n v a l u e s . A second p o p u l a r c r i t e r i o n i s t h e ' s l o p e ' c r i t e r i o n . This guidel i n e i n v o l v e d g r a p h i n g the magnitude o f t h e e i g e n v a l u e s v e r s u s t h e o r d i n a l v a l u e o f the e i g e n v a l u e . Only those f a c t o r s w h i c h precede the p o i n t a t w h i c h t h e s l o p e becomes c o n s t a n t s h o u l d be r o t a t e d . One, o r sometimes b o t h , o f these c r i t e r i a were used i n o r d e r to narrow down the range o f p o t e n t i a l f a c t o r s . I n t e r p r e t a b i l i t y o f the f a c t o r s t r u c t u r e was the f i n a l c r i t e r i o n f o r d e c i d i n g which f a c t o r s to r e t a i n .  89  CHAPTER FIVE RESULTS OF THE  CONCEPTUAL PROFILE ANALYSIS  The s t r u c t u r a l a n a l y s i s o f Phase Two  o f the s t u d y c u l m i n a t e d  w i t h the c o n s t r u c t i o n o f a number o f Model C o n c e p t u a l P r o f i l e s .  This  c h a p t e r c o n t a i n s a d i s c u s s i o n and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f the Model C o n c e p t u a l P r o f i l e s r e s u l t i n g from the p r o c e d u r e s d e s c r i b e d i n C h a p t e r 5.00  Four.  Model C o n c e p t u a l P r o f i l e s f o r the B e l i e f - S c o r e s  I n o r d e r to o b t a i n the Model C o n c e p t u a l P r o f i l e s based upon t h e s u b j e c t s ' b e l i e f s about c o n c e p t s o f h e a t s t a t e d i n i t e m s on t h e Conc e p t u a l P r o f i l e I n s t r u m e n t (C.P.I.) , o n l y t h o s e s t a t e m e n t s w h i c h were r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f the t h r e e V i e w p o i n t s (as o u t l i n e d i n S e c t i o n 4.42) used f o r i n p u t t o the G u e r t i n P r o f i l e A n a l y s i s Program.  were  Hence s t a t e m e n t s  1, 2, and 3 i n the C P . I . , w h i c h comprised a n o n - i n t e r p r e t a b l e (by the e x p e r i m e n t o r ) p r i n c i p a l component, were n o t i n c l u d e d i n t h e a n a l y s i s . The b a s i c d a t a m a t r i x f o r the a n a l y s i s c o n s i s t e d o f a 276 x 17 profiles  ( p e r s o n s ) by s t a t e m e n t s m a t r i x o f b e l i e f - s c o r e s .  t h i s m a t r i x and i n t e r - c o r r e l a t i n g the columns, c o r r e l a t i o n m a t r i x was produced. r e l a t i o n m a t r i x was produced. r e l a t i o n m a t r i x was performed."''  a 276 x 276  By t r a n s p o s i n g inter-profile  A p r i n c i p a l f a c t o r a n a l y s i s o f the c o r -  A p r i n c i p a l f a c t o r a n a l y s i s o f the c o r T a b l e 5-1 l i s t s the s i x t e e n e i g e n v a l u e s  o b t a i n e d from the a n a l y s i s . S i n c e a l l 16 o f the e i g e n v a l u e s were g r e a t e r than one, t h e  initial  b a s i s f o r s e l e c t i n g the number o f f a c t o r s t o r o t a t e was based upon t h e "slope c r i t e r i o n . "  A p l o t of the magnitude o f the e i g e n v a l u e s v e r s u s  t h e i r o r d i n a l numbers i n d i c a t e d an i n f l e c t i o n p o i n t a t the  third  9Q  TABLE 5-1 The 16 E i g e n v a l u e s from the P r i n c i p a l F a c t o r of the I n t e r - P r o f i l e C o r r e l a t i o n M a t r i x o f 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.  49.32 33.61 27.25 19.89 18.48 16.03 14.10 13.74  9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16.  Analysis  Belief-Scores  12.99 11.81 11.58 10.31 9.42 8.32 8.10 6.71  e i g e n v a l u e and a g r a d u a l l e v e l l i n g o f f o f t h e s l o p e a f t e r t h i s e i g e n value.  Thus, i n i t i a l l y  t h r e e f a c t o r s were r o t a t e d . Subsequent  computer  r u n s , r o t a t i n g f o u r and s i x f a c t o r s were a l s o made on a t r i a l b a s i s . comparison o f t h e r e s u l t a n t f a c t o r s t r u c t u r e s  i n d i c a t e d t h a t the i n i t i a l  s o l u t i o n , w i t h t h r e e f a c t o r s r o t a t e d , was t h e most s a t i s f a c t o r y i n g t h e f o l l o w i n g two c r i t e r i a :  (1)  the incidence  s p l i t t i n g whereby a p r o f i l e l o a d s h i g h l y  A  consider-  of undesirable  factor  (.50 o r g r e a t e r ) on more t h a n 2  one f a c t o r ; and (2) o p t i m a l p r o f i l e membership i n each f a c t o r . three retained  f a c t o r s , r e f e r r e d t o by G u e r t i n  define unique f a m i l i e s of p r o f i l e s .  as Shape F a m i l y  The Factors,  R e p r e s e n t a t i v e members o f a Shape  F a m i l y a r e p r o f i l e s h a v i n g t h e same shape. As o u t l i n e d i n  S e c t i o n 4.50 a f u r t h e r f a c t o r a n a l y s i s was p e r f o r m e d  on a s i m i l a r i t y , o r D - m a t r i x , o b t a i n e d from each o f t h e t h r e e Shape F a m i l y Factors.  This step determined i f s u b - c l u s t e r s  t i f i e d i n each dispersion.  o f p r o f i l e s c o u l d be  Shape F a m i l y as a r e s u l t o f d i f f e r e n c e s  iden-  i n t h e l e v e l and  The r e s u l t s o f t h e D - m a t r i x f a c t o r a n a l y s i s i n d i c a t e d  that  the p r o f i l e s i n each Shape F a m i l y d i d n o t d i f f e r i n terms o f l e v e l and d i s p e r s i o n i n any c l e a r l y i n t e r p r e t a b l e way.  T h i s can be seen i n p a r t .  91  i n T a b l e 5-2 which g i v e s the l a r g e s t s i x e i g e n v a l u e s f o r each o f the t h r e e i n t e r p r e t a b l e Shape F a m i l i e s . TABLE  5-2  The L a r g e s t S i x E i g e n v a l u e s O b t a i n e d by F a c t o r i n g the D-Matrices  f o r Each o f the Three Shape F a m i l i e s of B e l i e f - S c o r e s Eigenvalues 1  2  3  4  5  6  37.60  3.99  2.27  1.93  1.64  1.36  27.86  3.30  1.82  1.17  1.15  1.02  25.96  4.56  2.17  1.58  1.37  1.22  A p p l i c a t i o n o f the " s l o p e c r i t e r i o n " would suggest two p o s s i b l e c l u s t e r s o f p r o f i l e s i n each Shape F a m i l y .  I n each c a s e , however, t h e  second p r o f i l e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the second h i g h e s t e i g e n v a l u e c o u l d n o t be c l e a r l y d i s t i n g u i s h e d from t h e f i r s t . of p r o f i l e s was  F o r t h i s r e a s o n o n l y one  r e t a i n e d i n each Shape F a m i l y .  set  The p r o f i l e s r e t a i n e d  i n each Shape F a m i l y were s u b s e q u e n t l y r o t a t e d t o y i e l d a s e t o f p r o f i l e s i n each Shape F a m i l y w h i c h were c l e a r l y s i m i l a r i n terms o f l e v e l  and  d i s p e r s i o n as w e l l as shape.  These p r o f i l e s c o n s t i t u t e d t h e Model Con-  c e p t u a l P r o f i l e s sought a f t e r  i n the s t u d y .  The  t h r e e Model C o n c e p t u a l  P r o f i l e s a r e g i v e n i n F i g u r e s 5-1  t h r o u g h 5-3.  These f i g u r e s a r e  lowed by a l i s t o f the s t a t e m e n t s  i n T a b l e 5-3,  c l a s s i f i e d according  to each heat V i e w p o i n t , as t h e y appear i n the t h r e e Model  fol-  Conceptual  Profiles. 5.10  Model C o n c e p t u a l P r o f i l e s f o r the F a m i l i a r i t y - S c o r e s  I n a s i m i l a r manner Model C o n c e p t u a l P r o f i l e s were c o n s t r u c t e d f o r  Figure 5-1  Model Conceptual P r o f i l e 1 (Belief-Scores; N = 58 Subjects)  Figure 5-2  Model Conceptual P r o f i l e 2 (Belief-Scores; N = 43 Subjects)  K i n e t i c Viewpoint 5  9  12  16  Children's Viewpoint 19-  i  i  i  i  4  7  11  13  i  14  i  17  C a l o r i c Viewpoint i  18  Statements on Conceptual P r o f i l e Inventory  6  8  10  15  20  Figure 5-3  Model Conceptual P r o f i l e 3 (Belief-Scores; N = 46 Subjects)  K i n e t i c Viewpoint 5  9  12  i6  Children's Viewpoint 19-  4  7  i l  13  14  17  C a l o r i c Viewpoint 18 18  Statements on Conceptual P r o f i l e Inventory  6  8  10  15  20  95  the f a m i l i a r i t y - s c o r e s o b t a i n e d f rom t h e C.P.I.  As b e f o r e , s e v e r a l  items on the C.P.I, were e x c l u d e d from the a n a l y s i s because t h e y f a i l e d to l o a d h i g h l y on the t h r e e h e a t V i e w p o i n t s f o r the f a m i l i a r i t y - s c o r e s described  i n S e c t i o n 4.42.  These i t e m s were 1, 2, 3, 6, and 20. TABLE 5-3  A L i s t o f t h e Statements i n Each V i e w p o i n t Used i n the P r o f i l e A n a l y s i s o f the B e l i e f - S c o r e s KINETIC VIEWPOINT 5.  The whole r o d g e t s h o t because: BUMP INTO EACH OTHER ALL THE WAY  THE FASTER MOVING METAL PARTICLES THROUGH THE ROD.  9.  The wax m e l t e d because: THE WAX PARTICLES WERE MOVING ABOUT SO FAST THAT THEY COULD NOT HOLD ON TO EACH OTHER SO WELL.  12. The m e t a l cubes were h o t t e r t h a n t h e wood o r sugar because: METAL PARTICLES ARE EASIER TO MOVE.  THE  16. The t e m p e r a t u r e o f the w a t e r d e c r e a s e d when an i c e cube was added because: THE WATER PARTICLES LOSE SOME OF THEIR SPEED BY BUMPING INTO THE ICE PARTICLES. 19. The r e d l i q u i d i n t h e tube went up b e c a u s e : THE LIQUID'S PARTICLES MOVED MORE QUICKLY AND SO TOOK UP MORE SPACE. CHILDREN'S VIEWPOINT 4.  The whole r o d g e t s h o t b e c a u s e : THE HEAT BUILDS UP IN ONE PART UNTIL IT CAN'T HOLD ANYMORE AND THEN THE HEAT MOVES ALONG THE ROD.  7.  The wax m e l t e d because:  IT WAS  A SOFT SUBSTANCE.  11. The m e t a l cubes were h o t t e r t h a n the wood o r sugar because: IT WAS MORE DIFFICULT FOR THE AIR TO GET INSIDE THE HARD METAL CUBES TO COOL THEM. 13. The m e t a l cubes d i d n o t m e l t because: ENOUGH.  THEY WERE NOT  HEATED LONG  14. The t e m p e r a t u r e o f the w a t e r d e c r e a s e d when an i c e cube was added because: THE ICE CUBE ATTRACTED SOME OF THE HEAT PARTICLES AWAY FROM THE WATER.  96  17. A l a r g e i c e cube t a k e s l o n g e r t o m e l t t h a n a s m a l l i c e cube b e c a u s e : THE LARGE ICE CUBE HAS A COLDER TEMPERATURE THAN THE SMALL ICE CUBE. 18. The r e d l i q u i d i n t h e tube went up because: RED LIQUID LIGHTER AND SO I T RISES.  THE HEAT MAKES THE  CALORIC VIEWPOINT 6.  The w h o l e r o d g e t s h o t b e c a u s e : THE HEAT PARTICLES FROM THE FLAME ARE ATTRACTED TO ALL PARTS OF THE ROD.  8.  The wax m e l t e d because: THE HEAT PARTICLES WENT INSIDE AND FORCED THE WAX PARTICLES APART.  10. The m e t a l cubes were h o t t e r t h a n t h e wood o r sugar because: THE METAL CUBES DREW IN MORE HEAT PARTICLES THAN THE OTHER CUBES. 15. The t e m p e r a t u r e o f t h e w a t e r d e c r e a s e d when an i c e cube was added because: SOME OF THE COLD LEFT THE ICE CUBE AND WENT INTO THE WATER. 20. The r e d l i q u i d i n t h e tube went up b e c a u s e : THE HEAT PARTICLES TAKE UP SPACE INSIDE THE LIQUID AND FORCES THE LIQUID OUT THE TUBE. The e i g e n v a l u e s from a p r i n c i p a l f a c t o r a n a l y s i s o f t h e i n t e r - p r o f i l e m a t r i x o f f a m i l i a r i t y - s c o r e s a r e g i v e n i n T a b l e 5-4. A l though t h e f i r s t f a c t o r i s by f a r t h e most predominant i t was d e c i d e d TABLE 5-4 The E i g e n v a l u e s from t h e P r i n c i p a l F a c t o r A n a l y s i s o f the  Inter-Profile Correlation Matrix of Familiarity-Scores 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.  61 .92 27 .25 22 .56 21 .46 19 .73 17 .73  on the of  7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12.  16.67 14.76 13.85 13.28 11.81 11.03  b a s i s of t h e " s l o p i  the D - m a t r i x f o r b o t h i  F a c t o r s o f t h e f a m i l i a r i t y - s c o r e s a g a i n i n d i c a t e d t h a t ho f u r t h e r  Figure 5-4  Model Conceptual P r o f i l e 4 (Familiarity-Scores; N = 94 Subjects)  Figure 5-5  Model -Conceptual P r o f i l e 5 (Familiarity-Scores; N = 44 Subjects)  00  K i n e t i c Viewpoint '  P  1  8  '  9  <  12  •  16  Substance Viewpoint 1 1  '  l  <  I  V  Substance Viewpoint 2 I  1-9 4 7 10 11 15 13 Statements on Conceptual P r o f i l e Inventory  ,  14  ,  17  18  99  s e p a r a t i o n c o u l d be o b t a i n e d i n the p r o f i l e c l u s t e r s .  Thus two Model  Conceptual  P r o f i l e s r e p r e s e n t i n g the s u b j e c t ' s f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h  statements  a r e g i v e n i n F i g u r e s 5-4 5.20  In  and  the  5-5.  I n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f the Model C o n c e p t u a l  Profiles  C h a p t e r F o u r the f u n c t i o n o f the p r o f i l e a n a l y s i s was  to d e t e r -  mine a s e t o f g e n e r a l p a t t e r n s , o r m o d e l s , t h a t d e s c r i b e c h i l d r e n ' s c o n c e p t i o n s o f h e a t phenomena. i t  was  On the b a s i s o f t h e s e  profile-clusters  r e a s o n e d t h a t i t would be p o s s i b l e t o s p e c u l a t e about p o t e n t i a l  t e a c h i n g s t r a t e g i e s t h a t might be a p p r o p r i a t e f o r the groups o f p o r t r a y e d by each o f these Model d e s c r i p t i o n s o f Model C o n c e p t u a l  Conceptual  Profiles.  individuals  A s e t of  general  P r o f i l e s , which are l i n k e d to i n s t r u c -  t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s , s p a r e s the t e a c h e r the i m p o s s i b l e t a s k o f t r y i n g t o d i a g n o s e and d e s i g n an i n s t r u c t i o n a l program f o r e a c h i n d i v i d u a l i n t h e class.  T h i s s e c t i o n , t h e n , w i l l p r o v i d e a g e n e r a l d e s c r i p t i o n and  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f each o f the Model C o n c e p t u a l  P r o f i l e s obtained  an  from  the a n a l y s i s . 5.21  The B e l i e f P r o f i l e s Model P r o f i l e 1 The  f i r s t three Model Conceptual  P r o f i l e s i n F i g u r e s 5-1  were d e r i v e d from the s u b j e c t s ' b e l i e f - s c o r e s on the C.P.I.  to  In examining  the g e n e r a l shape o f a l l t h r e e i t . i s apparent t h a t the f i r s t P r o f i l e f e r s m a r k e d l y from the o t h e r two.  dif-  The most o b v i o u s d i f f e r e n c e i s t h e  p o s i t i v e r e s p o n s e towards the K i n e t i c V i e w p o i n t . i n c o n t r a s t t o the two P r o f i l e s .  5-3  other  A second f e a t u r e o f P r o f i l e 1 i s the g e n e r a l l y n e g a t i v e  r e a c t i o n towards the s t a t e m e n t s  w h i c h d e f i n e the  More s p e c i f i c a l l y , the 58 s u b j e c t s who  Children's.Viewpoint.  are portrayed i n P r o f i l e  1  100  appear t o be embracing a n o t i o n o f m a t t e r t h a t i s p a r t i c u l a t e i n n a t u r e as i n d i c a t e d by a l l t h o s e s t a t e m e n t s i n the K i n e t i c V i e w p o i n t t h a t were r a t e d h i g h e r t h a n +1 on t h e b e l i e f - s c a l e s .  However, the v e r y  h i g h r a t i n g s g i v e n t o s t a t e m e n t s 10, 15, and 20 ( a l l o f w h i c h r e p r e s e n t a C a l o r i c V i e w p o i n t ) would s u g g e s t t h a t l i t t l e d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n i s b e i n g made between t h e n a t u r e o f t h e s e p a r t i c l e s .  That i s , the s u b j e c t s r e -  p r e s e n t e d by t h i s P r o f i l e appear t o s u b s c r i b e t o the n o t i o n t h a t h e a t c o n s i s t s o f p a r t i c l e s s i m i l a r i n some r e s p e c t s t o p a r t i c l e s w h i c h make up m a t t e r . A n o t h e r prominent f e a t u r e o f t h i s C o n c e p t u a l P r o f i l e i s the s t r o n g r e j e c t i o n o f t h o s e s t a t e m e n t s (namely 13, 17, and 18) w h i c h r e f l e c t what might be c a l l e d common-sense i d e a s about h e a t .  These i d e a s , w h i c h  may  be based i n p a r t upon a s e t o f p h y s i c a l i n t u i t i o n s e v o l v e d from e a r l y c h i l d h o o d e n c o u n t e r s w i t h h e a t phenomena, were p r e v a l e n t i n many o f the i n t e r v i e w s conducted.  F o r example, i d e a s r e l a t i n g t h e s i z e and w e i g h t  o f an o b j e c t t o i t s t e m p e r a t u r e were f r e q u e n t l y e x p r e s s e d . The more n e u t r a l r e s p o n s e s t o t h e o t h e r s t a t e m e n t s i n t h e C h i l dren's V i e w p o i n t might be i n t e r p r e t e d i n terms o f t h e tendency o f t h e s u b j e c t s t o adopt a s u b s t a n c e v i e w o f h e a t , even though h e a t i s d e s c r i b e d i n t h e s e s t a t e m e n t s i n b r o a d q u a l i t a t i v e terms r a t h e r t h a n as a p a r t i c l e as i s the case i n the C a l o r i c V i e w p o i n t . I n summary, Model C o n c e p t u a l P r o f i l e 1 s u g g e s t s t h a t the s u b j e c t s who  f i t i n t o t h i s t y p e o f p a t t e r n t e n d t o b e l i e v e i d e a s about h e a t t h a t  a r e l e s s dependent on common-sense o r e v e r y d a y e x p e r i e n c e .  Thus, a  c o m b i n a t i o n o f p e r s o n a l e x p e r i e n c e a l o n g w i t h some more a b s t r a c t n o t i o n s  101  about the n a t u r e o f heat might w e l l account f o r t h i s group of s u b j e c t s who  s t r o n g l y r e j e c t e d such b e l i e f s about h e a t a s :  (1) a s t e e l o r copper  cube w i l l m e l t i f i t i s l e f t under a c a n d l e l o n g enough; o r (2) the l a r g e r the i c e cube the c o l d e r i s i t s t e m p e r a t u r e . c o n s i s t e n t l y responded  i n a p o s i t i v e way  they  t o those s t a t e m e n t s t h a t p o r t r a y  heat t o be the m o t i o n o f p a r t i c l e s o f m a t t e r . e a r l i e r , they a l s o responded  Furthermore,  A l t h o u g h , as  indicated  f a v o r a b l y t o those s t a t e m e n t s i n w h i c h  heat  was d e p i c t e d as unique p a r t i c l e s c a p a b l e o f i n t e r a c t i n g w i t h m a t t e r . One p o s s i b l e e x p l a n a t i o n f o r t h i s d u a l - p a r t i c l e v i e w i s t h a t t h e y d i d n o t d i f f e r e n t i a t e between the two t y p e s o f p a r t i c l e s mentioned  i n the  s t a t e m e n t s ( t h a t i s , h e a t p a r t i c l e s and p a r t i c l e s o f m a t t e r ) .  Or, a l -  t e r n a t i v e l y , they may  have i n d e e d p e r c e i v e d t h e d i f f e r e n c e and chose t o  t h i n k o f h e a t as a t y p e o f s u b t l e p a r t i c l e , l i k e a i r , t h a t c o u l d a l s o a f f e c t the m o t i o n o f t h e p a r t i c l e s o f m a t t e r .  W i t h the a v a i l a b l e d a t a  i t i s n o t p o s s i b l e t o check out e i t h e r o f t h e s e h y p o t h e s e s . Model P r o f i l e 2 The second Model C o n c e p t u a l P r o f i l e d i f f e r e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y the f i r s t .  from  Most e v i d e n t i s the s h i f t o f the s t a t e m e n t s from the K i n e t i c  V i e w p o i n t townwards t o a p o i n t below the n e u t r a l p o s i t i o n .  A  second  s i g n i f i c a n t s h i f t o c c u r r e d w i t h f o u r out o f the s i x s t a t e m e n t s from the C h i l d r e n ' s V i e w p o i n t moving upwards.  Three of t h e s e s t a t e m e n t s  ( 7 , 17,  and 18) moved o v e r two s c a l e d i v i s i o n s i n the d i r e c t i o n o f a s t r o n g e r belief rating.  A l t h o u g h t h e r e was a s m a l l t r e n d downwards w i t h most o f  the C a l o r i c s t a t e m e n t s , none o f the s h i f t s were much l a r g e r t h a n  one-  h a l f of a scale d i v i s i o n . Hence, f o r the purposes o f i n t e r p r e t a t i o n the f o c u s i s on the  1Q2  downward s h i f t of t h e K i n e t i c s t a t e m e n t s and the upward s h i f t o f the three C h i l d r e n ' s statements.  I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note that i n the  l a t t e r , the t h r e e s t a t e m e n t s a r e a l l i n the g e n e r a l c l a s s d e s c r i b e d e a r l i e r as c h i l d r e n ' s "common-sense" i d e a s about h e a t .  As t h e y t e n d  to appear a t a r a t h e r e a r l y age i t would seem as though t h e y a r e t h e p r o d u c t s o f a r a t h e r i n t u i t i v e p e r c e p t i o n o f h e a t phenomena based l a r g e l y upon immediate  sense d a t a .  F o r example, a s i x - y e a r i n t e r v i e w e d  by t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r i n d i c a t e d t h a t l a r g e i c e cubes a r e a t a l o w e r t e m p e r a t u r e than s m a l l i c e cubes because they have more c o l d .  These  "common-sense" b e l i e f s about heat a r e l i k e l y f o r m u l a t e d a t a r a t h e r e a r l y age and t h e n a r e n e v e r b r o u g h t i n t o doubt a t a l a t e r age when t h e c h i l d would be c a p a b l e o f s y s t e m a t i c a l l y c h e c k i n g out t h e i r  intuitive  f e e l i n g s about t h e phenomena. To e x p l o r e t h i s l i n e o f thought f u r t h e r , c o n s i d e r t h e p r e v i o u s example whereby t h e c r i t e r i o n f o r c o l d n e s s ( t e m p e r a t u r e ) was  the s i z e  o f the i c e cube. I f a c h i l d e v e r had o c c a s i o n t o h o l d a l a r g e p i e c e of i c e i n one hand and a s m a l l p i e c e o f i c e i n t h e o t h e r , t h e n the s e n s a t i o n would l i k e l y be one l e a d i n g t h e c h i l d t o assume t h a t t h e l a r g e r one was  colder.  T h i s same s e n s a t i o n would have l i k e l y had a g r e a t e r  o p p o r t u n i t y t o o c c u r when e s t i m a t i n g t h e t e m p e r a t u r e o f d i f f e r e n t amounts o f w a t e r bathtub-full).  ( f o r example, a c u p f u l v e r s u s a s i n k - f u l l v e r s u s a  I n f a c t , i t was  i n a s i t u a t i o n where c h i l d r e n were j u d g i n g  the t e m p e r a t u r e o f d i f f e r e n t amounts o f water t h a t the i n v e s t i g a t o r 3  f i r s t a l e r t e d to t h i s  'amount c r i t e r i o n ' f o r j u d g i n g t e m p e r a t u r e .  The o t h e r two C h i l d r e n ' s s t a t e m e n t s a r e a l s o amenable t o an  was  103  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s u g g e s t i n g a somewhat p r i m i t i v e n o t i o n o f heat from e a r l y e n c o u n t e r s w i t h a v a r i e t y o f p h y s i c a l phenomena.  emanating Thus, s t a -  tement number s e v e n , w h i c h s u g g e s t s t h a t s o f t s u b s t a n c e s a r e e a s i e r t o m e l t , c a n be f r e q u e n t l y v e r i f i e d around t h e home — and wax b e i n g p r i m e examples.  butter, shortening  Because t h e c h i l d r a r e l y has an o p p o r t u n i t y  to observe the m e l t i n g behavior o f substances, i t i s u n l i k e l y that b e l i e f would e v e r be q u e s t i o n e d by t h e c h i l d .  this  I t might be q u e s t i o n e d ,  f o r example, i f t h e c h i l d s e t up a m e l t i n g r a c e between a h a r d  substance  such as i c e and a somewhat s o f t s u b s t a n c e such as s y n t h e t i c r u b b e r , o r even a s o f t m e t a l . s u c h as l e a d . The o t h e r C h i l d r e n ' s s t a t e m e n t o f n o t e , number 18, was based upon the n o t i o n t h a t h e a t makes t h i n g s r i s e .  While i t i s not immediately  o b v i o u s as t o what d i r e c t c o n t a c t a young c h i l d would have w i t h t h i s type o f phenomenon, t h e p h r a s e , 'heat always r i s e s ' , was h e a r d on a number o f o c c a s i o n s w h i l e i n t e r v i e w i n g t h e younger c h i l d r e n i n t h e p i l o t sessions.  The o n l y o b v i o u s examples t h a t were mentioned by t h e t w e l v e -  y e a r o l d s were t h e h e a t r a y s r i s i n g above a t o a s t e r , o r o v e r a h o t r o a d . N e v e r t h e l e s s , i n t h e C.P.I, t h i s n o t i o n r e p r e s e n t s a genuine e x p l a n a t i o n a c c e p t a b l e to some o f t h e c h i l d r e n t o account f o r t h e r i s e o f t h e l i q u i d i n the tube. The s i g n i f i c a n t downward d i s p l a c e m e n t o f t h e f i v e s t a t e m e n t s  from  the K i n e t i c V i e w p o i n t s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e s u b j e c t s tend t o r e j e c t t h e s e more complex i d e a s p o r t r a y i n g heat as t h e m o t i o n o f p a r t i c l e s o f m a t t e r i n f a v o r o f t h e more "common-sense" v i e w d e s c r i b e d above.  Accordingly,  i t might be argued t h a t t h e i d e a s i n t h e C h i l d r e n ' s V i e w p o i n t and t h e  104  C a l o r i c V i e w p o i n t r e p r e s e n t a p o s i t i o n somewhat c l o s e r t o the c o n c r e t e w o r l d t h a t t h e c h i l d a c t u a l l y e x p e r i e n c e s , whereas those i d e a s c o n t a i n e d i n the K i n e t i c V i e w p o i n t r e p r e s e n t s a l e v e l o f a b s t r a c t i o n somewhat removed from t h i s e x p e r i e n t i a l w o r l d . I n summary, i t has been s u g g e s t e d t h a t the s u b j e c t s who  contributed  to t h i s second Model P r o f i l e h e l d a somewhat more i n t u i t i v e o r p r i m i t i v e v i e w o f heat t h a n t h o s e s u b s c r i b i n g t o the f i r s t Model P r o f i l e .  The  e v i d e n c e f o r t h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n was based l a r g e l y upon t h e d e c l i n e o f a l l the K i n e t i c c o n c e p t s and t h e l a r g e i n c r e a s e towards a p o s i t i v e r a t i n g s on t h r e e o f t h e C h i l d r e n ' s c o n c e p t s .  I t must be  emphasized  that these i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s are s p e c u l a t i v e i n n a t u r e , the o n l y s u p p o r t i n g e v i d e n c e b e i n g the e x p e r i e n c e o b t a i n e d from the i n - d e p t h i n t e r v i e w s  car-  r i e d out e a r l i e r by t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r . Model P r o f i l e 3 The t h i r d f a m i l y o f p r o f i l e s b e a r s a s t r i k i n g resemblance  to Model  C o n c e p t u a l P r o f i l e 2 ( b o t h h a v i n g s i m i l a r response p a t t e r n s f o r the K i n e t i c and C a l o r i c V i e w p o i n t s ) and a l s o b e a r s some s i m i l a r i t y t o Model C o n c e p t u a l P r o f i l e 1.  As most o f t h e s i g n i f i c a n t  d i f f e r e n c e s between  the two p r o f i l e s o c c u r i n t h e C h i l d r e n ' s V i e w p o i n t , t h e s e w i l l be used t o f o c u s t h e d e s c r i p t i o n o f Model C o n c e p t u a l P r o f i l e  3.  I n comparing Model C o n c e p t u a l P r o f i l e 3 w i t h Model C o n c e p t u a l P r o f i l e 2 the most o b v i o u s d i f f e r e n c e i s the upward s h i f t o f 13 and the downward s h i f t s o f s t a t e m e n t s 17 and 18.  Statement  statement 13 s u g -  g e s t s t h a t i f you h e a t t h i n g s ( i n t h i s i n s t a n c e the m e t a l cubes) l o n g enough t h e y w i l l m e l t .  The u n d e r l y i n g v i e w o f heat t h a t seems t o be  i  105  implied  ( s i m i l a r to t h a t i n s t a t e m e n t 4) i s t h a t t h e h e a t w i l l  accumulate  i n the o b j e c t u n t i l t h e r e i s a s u f f i c i e n t q u a n t i t y o f heat t o m e l t the object.  W h i l e t h i s attempt t o r e c o n s t r u c t t h e s u b j e c t ' s  interpretation  o f statement 13'has some i n t u i t i v e a p p e a l , i t does not a c c o u n t f o r one v e r y p r o m i n e n t o b s e r v a t i o n . Why  does s t a t e m e n t 13 have a r e a s o n a b l y  p o s i t i v e r a t i n g i n Model P r o f i l e 3 and y e t v e r y n e g a t i v e r a t i n g s i n t h e o t h e r two Model P r o f i l e s ?  One p o s s i b l e e x p l a n a t i o n o f t h i s anomaly i s  based upon a c o n v e r s a t i o n h e l d w i t h two grade n i n e s t u d e n t s a f t e r t h e y had f i n i s h e d r e s p o n d i n g t o t h e C.P.I.  They i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e y  responded f a v o r a b l y t o statement 13 because  t h e y thought t h a t t h e cubes  had i n d e e d been h e a t e d l o n g enough, b u t they would n o t m e l t s i n c e t h e c a n d l e f l a m e s i m p l y c o u l d n o t s u p p l y enough h e a t .  In other words, they  were r e s p o n d i n g more t o the o b s e r v a t i o n a l p a r t o f t h e s t a t e m e n t t h a n the e x p l a n a t o r y p a r t —  an i n s t a n c e o f t h e p r o b l e m d i s c u s s e d e a r l i e r  i n C h a p t e r Four under t h e g e n e r a l t o p i c o f c o n c e p t - s c a l e i n t e r a c t i o n s . Thus t h e d i s c r e p a n t r e s p o n s e p a t t e r n s t o s t a t e m e n t 13 may  s i m p l y be an  a r t i f a c t of the ambiguity of the wording i n the statement. Two  5  o t h e r s t a t e m e n t s i n the C h i l d r e n ' s V i e w p o i n t , s t a t e m e n t s 17  and 18, have s h i f t e d m a r k e d l y downward from t h e i r p o s i t i o n i n P r o f i l e  2.  Both o f t h e s e s t a t e m e n t s have been e a r l i e r d i s c u s s e d under t h e l a b e l o f "common-sense" i d e a s about h e a t .  Thus, on the b a s i s o f t h e t r e n d  emerging i n t h e C h i l d r e n ' s V i e w p o i n t ( w i t h the e x c e p t i o n o f the anomalous concept 13) i t would seem t h a t t h e r e i s a tendency away from "commons e n s e " i d e a s towards t h e somewhat more a b s t r a c t v i e w o f heat e x e m p l i f i e d i n Model P r o f i l e 1.  A l t h o u g h t h i s has not y e t been m a n i f e s t i n the  106  K i n e t i c V i e w p o i n t , the g e n e r a l d e c r e a s e  i n t h e d i s p e r s i o n of s c o r e s  i n the C h i l d r e n ' s V i e w p o i n t a l s o s u g g e s t s be a k i n d o f t r a n s i t i o n  t h a t Model P r o f i l e 3 might  s t a t e t o a more a b s t r a c t l e v e l o f  understanding  of heat phenomena. To pursue t h e m a t t e r o f s h i f t s i n u n d e r s t a n d i n g  a b i t further,  one  would e x p e c t , on the b a s i s o f b o t h i n s c h o o l and out o f s c h o o l e x p e r i e n c e , t h a t t h e grade f i v e s t u d e n t s s h o u l d have a h i g h e r membership i n t h e Model P r o f i l e w h i c h has the most p o s i t i v e s e t o f b e l i e f - s c o r e s on "common-sense" s t a t e m e n t s  (that i s , P r o f i l e 2).  And  the  c o n v e r s e l y , more  grade n i n e s t u d e n t s ought t o be a t t r a c t e d t o t h e more a b s t r a c t p a r t i c l e n o t i o n of heat  (Profile 1).  a type o f t r a n s i t i o n dents from a l l t h e T a b l e 5-5  I f P r o f i l e 3 represents those students i n  s t a g e , then i t ought t o c o n t a i n a m i x t u r e o f  stu-  grades.  p r o v i d e s i n f o r m a t i o n o f grade membership i n each P r o f i l e .  S i n c e t h e r e were an u n e q u a l number o f s u b j e c t s f r o m e a c h grade l e v e l comp l e t i n g the C.P.I., the p e r c e n t a g e s index.  These p e r c e n t a g e s  i n a p a r t i c u l a r grade who  i n b r a c k e t s a r e t h e most a p p r o p r i a t e  a r e c a l c u l a t e d by t a k i n g t h e number o f s u b j e c t s subscribed to a given P r o f i l e , m u l t i p l y i n g  100 and d i v i d i n g by t h e t o t a l number o f s u b j e c t s i n t h a t grade who p l e t e d t h e C.P.I. i n Model C o n c e p t u a l grade 5 who  com^  F o r example, t h e r e were e i g h t s u b j e c t s i n grade 5 P r o f i l e 1.  As t h e r e were a t o t a l o f 76 s u b j e c t s i n  completed t h e C.P.I, o n l y 10% o f t h e s e s u b j e c t s s u b s c r i b e  to a v i e w o f h e a t c h a r a c t e r i z e d by M o d e l P r o f i l e 1. totals  by  i n the row nor the columns sum  the s u b j e c t s a r e accounted  Thus n e i t h e r o f  the  t o e q u a l 100% as o n l y . 5 3 % of a l l  f o r by the t h r e e p r o f i l e s .  107  TABLE 5-5 Model C o n c e p t u a l P r o f i l e Membership by Grade L e v e l ( P e r c e n t a g e o f S t u d e n t s i n t h a t Grade R e p r e s e n t a t i v e of each Model C o n c e p t u a l P r o f i l e i s G i v e n i n B r a c k e t s ) Model Conceptual Profile mo,  Grade 5  Grade 7  Grade 9  Totals  8  26  24  58  (10%)  (22%)  (29%)  16  6.  (28%)  (14%)  (7%)  7  22  17  (9%)  (19%)  (21%)  1  (BeliefScores) No. 2 (BeliefScores) No. 3 (BeliefScores) No. 4 (Familiarity Scores) No. 5 (Familiarity Scores)  21  33  31  (43%)  (27%)  7  26  (9%)  (22%)  30  43  46  94  (36%) 11  44  (13%)  As p r e d i c t e d above, t h e grade n i n e s u b j e c t s have t h e h i g h e s t p e r centage f o r P r o f i l e 1 and t h e grade f i v e s u b j e c t s have t h e h i g h e s t p e r centage f o r P r o f i l e 2 .  W h i l e P r o f i l e 3 does i n d e e d have a m i x t u r e , i t  i s somewhat s u r p r i s i n g t o n o t e t h e r a t h e r h i g h number (21%) o f grade n i n e subjects i n this P r o f i l e .  6  Thus t h e s e f i g u r e s do p r o v i d e some p r i m a  f a c i e e v i d e n c e f o r t h e l e v e l s p o s i t e d above. A l t h o u g h i t i s t e m p t i n g t o s p e c u l a t e about t h e e x i s t e n c e o f d e v e l o p m e n t a l s t a g e s o r l e v e l s o f u n d e r s t a n d i n g , i t must be r e a l i z e d t h a t t h e  108  e v i d e n c e p r e s e n t e d has been c i r c u m s t a n t i a l a t b e s t .  Much more i n - d e p t h  e x p l o r a t i o n i n t o the n a t u r e and g e n e r a l i t y o f t h e s e Model C o n c e p t u a l P r o f i l e s would be r e q u i r e d t o s u p p o r t any s e r i o u s c l a i m of a genuine developmental trend. 5.22  The F a m i l i a r i t y  Profiles  When t h e C.P.I, was b e i n g c o n s t r u c t e d i t was  f e l t that a judgmental  d i m e n s i o n a s c e r t a i n i n g the s u b j e c t s ' f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h the c o n c e p t s would be u s e f u l when i n t e r p r e t i n g t h e f i n a l r e s u l t s . i t was  And l i k e the b e l i e f - s c o r e s  thought t h a t a number o f d i f f e r e n t shape f a m i l i e s c o u l d be  t i f i e d t h r o u g h the p r o f i l e a n a l y s i s p r o c e d u r e s . a m i n a t i o n o f F i g u r e s 5-4  iden-  However, a c u r s o r y e x -  and 5-5, w h i c h i l l u s t r a t e Model C o n c e p t u a l  P r o f i l e s 4 and 5 r e s p e c t i v e l y , i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e r e i s o n l y a v e r y s l i g h t d i f f e r e n c e between t h e s e two shape f a m i l e s .  T h i s would seem t o i n d i c a t e  t h a t o n l y one f a c t o r s h o u l d have been r o t a t e d . T h i s a p p a r e n t u n i f o r m i t y i n t h e r e s p o n s e s t o the f a m i l i a r i t y s c a l e s a c r o s s a l l t h r e e grade l e v e l s i s an i n t e r e s t i n g o b s e r v a t i o n i n itself.  I t i n d i c a t e s t h e l a c k o f e v i d e n c e f o r a d e v e l o p m e n t a l t r e n d as  had been h y p o t h e s i z e d f o r the s u b j e c t s ' b e l i e f - s c o r e s . g l a n c e a t T a b l e 5-5  Furthermore, a  i n d i c a t e s a f a i r l y even d i s t r i b u t i o n a c r o s s a l l t h e  grades f o r b o t h o f t h e p r o f i l e s based upon the f a m i l i a r i t y - s c o r e s . Thus t h e i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t w i l l be o f i n t e r p r e t i v e v a l u e i s t h e r e l a t i v e r a t i n g s f o r each o f the V i e w p o i n t s . A l t h o u g h the r a t i n g s o f the s t a t e m e n t s i n the Model C o n c e p t u a l P r o f i l e s w h i c h a r e based upon the f a m i l i a r i t y - s c o r e s d i f f e r from t h o s e o b t a i n e d by an a n a l y s i s o f the b e l i e f - s c o r e s , some comparisons can be drawn between the two j u d g m e n t a l d i m e n s i o n s .  The f i r s t o b v i o u s d i f f e r e n c e  109  i s the small dispersion of ratings on the statements f o r a p a r t i c u l a r Viewpoint.  In other words, there was l i t t l e d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n between  the statements i n a given Viewpoint on the basis of f a m i l i a r i t y . But the feature of r e a l i n t e r e s t i n Model P r o f i l e s 4 and 5 i s the r e l a t i v e f a m i l i a r i t y rating on each of the Viewpoints.  In both  of these p r o f i l e s the K i n e t i c statements are very close to the neutral mark while those statements constituting the two substance Viewpoints are s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher. mark.  In Model P r o f i l e 4 they are around the +2  I t i s therefore clear from these data that the statements i n  the K i n e t i c Viewpoint were perceived by many of the subjects to be less f a m i l i a r than those concepts which depicted heat as a type of substance or p a r t i c l e .  This finding lends some support to the argument  advanced e a r l i e r regarding the developmental trend i n Viewpoints of heat.  As the "common-sense" ideas l i k e l y derive from e a r l y , concrete  experiences with heat phenomena, one would expect the statements r e presenting the Children's Viewpoint to be more f a m i l i a r than the abstract notions of the K i n e t i c Viewpoint.  7  110 NOTES FOR  CHAPTER FIVE  1. The p r i n c i p a l f a c t o r a n a l y s i s was c a r r i e d out u s i n g a computer program i n G u e r t i n (1970) w h i c h was l a b e l l e d , "ED 777 — Profile A n a l y s i s Package." T h i s program was s u b s e q u e n t l y a l t e r e d by Page (1974) to i n c r e a s e the i n v e s t i g a t o r ' s f l e x i b i l i t y i n m a n i p u l a t i n g each o f the v a r i o u s s u b - r o u t i n e s and t o i n c r e a s e t h e number o f p r o f i l e s t h a t c o u l d be computed. I t was t h i s r e v i s e d v e r s i o n t h a t was used i n the s t u d y . 2. " O p t i m a l p r o f i l e membership" i s t a k e n t o mean a s u f f i c i e n t number of p r o f i l e s t o e s t a b l i s h a s i g n i f i c a n t and h o p e f u l l y g e n e r a l i z a h l e p a t t e r n o f s c o r e s . However, the number o f p r o f i l e s s h o u l d not be so l a r g e as t o e l i m i n a t e genuine d i f f e r e n c e s between the p r o f i l e s when they are averaged i n the l a s t a n a l y t i c a l s t e p . 3. When the 12 y e a r - o l d s i n the f i n a l i n t e r v i e w were f a c e d w i t h t h e s i t u a t i o n r e q u i r i n g them t o j u d g e the t e m p e r a t u r e o f two d i f f e r e n t amounts of w a t e r from the same s o u r c e , f o u r out o f t e n employed t h i s 'amount criterion'. S e v e r a l o f those who d i d n o t use t h i s c r i t e r i o n r e p l i e d t h a t the c o n t a i n e r w i t h the l a r g e r amount of hot w a t e r would t a k e l o n g e r to c o o l down. Hence, they were b e g i n n i n g t o make the d i s t i n c t i o n between the t e m p e r a t u r e o f an o b j e c t and the amount o f h e a t p o s s e s s e d by t h a t object. 4. The i n v e s t i g a t o r a t t e m p t e d t o d i s c u s s the r e s p o n s e s o f s e v e r a l s u b j e c t s a t each grade l e v e l a f t e r they had completed the C.P.I. T h i s was done w i t h a group o f f o u r grade f i v e s t u d e n t s and two grade n i n e s t u d e n t s . U n f o r t u n a t e l y the m e e t i n g t h a t was a r r a n g e d w i t h the grade seven s t u d e n t s d i d not t a k e p l a c e due t o c i r c u m s t a n c e s beyond the c o n t r o l o f the i n vestigator. 5. A f u r t h e r r e a s o n f o r s u s p e c t i n g the v a l i d i t y o f s t a t e m e n t 13 i s t h a t i t was one o f t h e e x t r a s t a t e m e n t s f r o m the C h i l d r e n ' s P e r s p e c t i v e t h a t was i n c l u d e d i n the C.P.I, and no p a r a l l e l s t a t e m e n t s f r o m the o t h e r two P e r s p e c t i v e s were c o n s t r u c t e d . I t i s f e a s i b l e t o suggest t h a t the s u b j e c t s d i d n o t p e r c e i v e the c o n n e c t i o n between t h i s statement and the d e m o n s t r a t i o n t h a t was p e r f o r m e d . 6. A l t h o u g h t h e r e i s c o n s i d e r a b l e amount o f d i v e r s i t y among the t o p i c s taught i n S c i e n c e 8 and 9 i n B r i t i s h Columbia s c h o o l s , the recommended course o f s t u d y does i n c l u d e a s e c t i o n on the k i n e t i c m o l e c u l a r t h e o r y of heat. Hence one would e x p e c t a more s i g n i f i c a n t grade 9 membership i n P r o f i l e 1 t h a n was i n f a c t o b s e r v e d . An a t t e m p t was made t o d e t e r mine t h e s u b j e c t s ' p r e v i o u s s c h o o l e x p e r i e n c e w i t h h e a t phenomena by a s k i n g them t o i n d i c a t e i f they had s t u d i e d h e a t b e f o r e i n s c h o o l . Many o f the grade 5 and 7 s u b j e c t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t they c o u l d not remember and so no f o r m a l f i g u r e s were k e p t . However, i n grade 9 o v e r o n e - h a l f o f t h e s u b j e c t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t they had p r e v i o u s l y done a u n i t on h e a t and temperature. 7. The a s s u m p t i o n h e r e i s t h a t the s u b j e c t s were indeed u s i n g two d i f f e r e n t j u d g m e n t a l d i m e n s i o n s i n r e s p o n d i n g t o a s t a t e m e n t . That i s , a s u b j e c t was c a p a b l e o f d i s t i n g u i s h i n g between b e i n g f a m i l i a r w i t h the i d e a b e i n g p r e s e n t e d i n a s t a t e m e n t and b e l i e v i n g the i d e a . The f a c t s  Ill  t h a t two d i s t i n c t d i m e n s i o n s emerged from the a n a l y s i s o f the s c a l e s and t h a t the Model P r o f i l e s d i f f e r e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y between the b e l i e f s c o r e s and the f a m i l i a r i t y - s c o r e s would appear t o s u p p o r t t h i s assumption.  112  CHAPTER SIX ILLUSTRATIVE APPLICATIONS OF THE This chapter  STUDY  i s devoted t o an e x a m i n a t i o n  o f some o f the  and problems a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the t h i r d phase o f the s t u d y — p l i c a t i o n o f the r e s u l t s t o an e d u c a t i o n a l s e t t i n g .  Two  issues  the  ap-  distinct  ways i n w h i c h knowledge o f t h i s k i n d can be a p p l i e d a r e i d e n t i f i e d and d i s c u s s e d i n s e p a r a t e each t y p e o f  sections, using i l l u s t r a t i v e  examples o f  application. 6.00  Two  Ways o f A p p l y i n g the Study  Broudy e t a l . (1964) have d e l i n e a t e d f o u r d i f f e r e n t ways i n w h i c h knowledge can be used. association,  These a r e f o r the purpose o f r e p l i c a t i o n ,  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n and a p p l i c a t i o n .  S i n c e t h e l a s t two a r e o f  c o n c e r n t o t h i s s t u d y , t h e y a r e the s u b j e c t o f d i s c u s s i o n i n t h i s s e c tion.  I n u s i n g knowledge i n an i n t e r p r e t a t i v e manner, one  to g a i n a b e t t e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g  i s attempting  o f a p r o b l e m by c a t e g o r i z i n g i t a c c o r d i n g  to some e x i s t i n g t h e o r e t i c a l framework o r a t l e a s t a c c o r d i n g t o a hypothesized set of r e l a t i o n s h i p s .  To put i t a n o t h e r way,  the  interpretive  use o f knowledge can be thought o f as an endeavor t o l o c a t e a p r o b l e m on some a p p r o p r i a t e c o g n i t i v e map  and  so make the phenomenon more i n -  t e l l i g i b l e by c l a r i f y i n g and o r g a n i z i n g i t i n terms o f f a m i l i a r s e t of c a t e g o r i e s . On the o t h e r hand, an a p p l i c a t i v e usage o f knowledge goes beyond m e r e l y r e n d e r i n g the p r o b l e m i n t e l l i g i b l e ;  i t e n t a i l s the  of t h e o r y a l o n g w i t h a s e t o f s p e c i f i c t e c h n i q u e s problem.  combination  to a c t u a l l y solve  Thus, a body o f t h e o r e t i c a l p r o p o s i t i o n s , o r "systems o f  the  113  meanings" as Broudy c a l l s them, i s e s s e n t i a l t o b o t h usages. if  However,  t h e s e t h e o r e t i c a l e n t i t i e s a r e t o be used a p p l i c a t i v e l y t o s o l v e  m e a n i n g f u l problems must be  o f p r a c t i c e t h e n a s e t of s u p p o r t i n g t e c h n i q u e s  developed.  An i l l u s t r a t i o n o f how  t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e s t u d y might be used i n  b o t h an i n t e r p r e t i v e and an a p p l i c a t i v e manner i s p r e s e n t e d i n the section to follow. 6.10 One  I l l u s t r a t i o n o f an I n t e r p r e t i v e Use o f t h e Study  o f the r e c u r r i n g themes o f t h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n has been the  emphasis upon c a r r y i n g out a type o f s t r u c t u r a l a n a l y s i s o f c h i l d r e n ' s beliefs.  I t has been argued t h a t t h e r e a l v a l u e o f a s t r u c t u r a l  p e r s p e c t i v e l i e s i n i t s p o t e n t i a l t o embed i n s t r u c t i o n a l problems i n a broader t h e o r e t i c a l context.  The t h e o r e t i c a l s t r u c t u r e , o r  "system  o f meanings" b e i n g used i n t h e p r e s e n t d i s c u s s i o n i s t h a t o b t a i n e d from C h a p t e r s Three and Five."''  These c h a p t e r s o u t l i n e d an h y p o t h e s i z e d  s e t o f b e l i e f s t y p i c a l l y h e l d by c h i l d r e n and a s e t o f proposed  rela-  t i o n s h i p s among t h o s e b e l i e f s . To b r i e f l y r e v i e w t h e s e r e s u l t s , i t was  r e p o r t e d t h a t many c h i l -  d r e n s u b s c r i b e t o a s e t of b e l i e f s t h a t v i e w " h e a t " , and sometimes " c o l d " , as a t y p e o f s u b t l e , m a t e r i a l s u b s t a n c e w i t h some p r o p e r t i e s s i m i l a r to t h a t o f a i r .  Heat, o r c o l d , was  c o n j e c t u r e d t o be c a p a b l e o f  movement from one o b j e c t t o a n o t h e r w i t h a consequent r a t u r e of the o b j e c t s i n q u e s t i o n .  change i n tempe-  Some t y p e s o f o b j e c t s , l i k e m e t a l s ,  were thought t o be i n h e r e n t l y a b l e t o a t t r a c t heat and so they n a t u r a l l y would g e t hot more r a p i d l y t h a n o t h e r s u b s t a n c e s such as wood, g l a s s , o r s y n t h e t i c s when p l a c e d on a h o t p l a t e .  When t h e s e b e l i e f s a r e c o n s i d e r e d  114  a l o n g w i t h t h e r e s u l t s from t h e p r o f i l e a n a l y s i s i n C h a p t e r  Five,  t h e n , t h e t e a c h e r has a v a i l a b l e a p o t e n t i a l s t r u c t u r e f o r i n t e r p r e t i n g . the b e h a v i o r s and i d e a s e x p r e s s e d by a group o f c h i l d r e n engaged i n i n v e s t i g a t i o n s o f h e a t phenomena. F o r example, one o f t h e most d i f f i c u l t problems  e n c o u n t e r e d by  most c h i l d r e n , and many a d u l t s , i s d i s t i n g u i s h i n g between t h e c o n c e p t s of  heat and t e m p e r a t u r e .  t h a t can accumulate  I n c o n s i d e r i n g h e a t t o be a type o f s u b s t a n c e  i n an o b j e c t (and thus r a i s e i t s t e m p e r a t u r e ) one  can r e a d i l y u n d e r s t a n d why a g r e a t d e a l o f c o n c e p t u a l c o n f u s i o n e x i s t s i n t h i s area.  A c c o r d i n g to t h i s v i e w , w h i c h seems t o be p r e v a l e n t i n  many-."children, t e m p e r a t u r e i s s i m p l y a measure o f t h e amount o f heat h e l d by an o b j e c t .  I n o t h e r words, no d i s t i n c t i o n i s made between t h e 2  i n t e n s i t y o f heat and t h e amount o f h e a t p o s s e s s e d by a body. Now i f t e a c h e r s a r e aware o f t h i s s u b s t a n c e v i e w p o i n t o f heat h e l d by many c h i l d r e n , t h e y ought t o b e t t e r u n d e r s t a n d t h e b a s i c n a t u r e o f the d i f f i c u l t y .  P o s s e s s i n g t h i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g , t h e t e a c h e r i s i n a much  b e t t e r p o s i t i o n t o make d e c i s i o n s r e g a r d i n g t h e most f r u i t f u l to p u r s u e .  approach  The t e a c h e r may a l l o w t h e c h i l d r e n t o c o n t i n u e t o work w i t h  t h e i r p r e s e n t i d e a s w i t h t h e e x p e c t a t i o n t h a t they w i l l r e s o l v e t h e d i f f i culty through guided d i s c o v e r y .  Or, t h e t e a c h e r may attempt t o p o i n t  out t h e d i f f e r e n c e s between heat and t e m p e r a t u r e u s i n g c o n c r e t e examples 3  d e s i g n e d t o do s o .  A n o t h e r a l t e r n a t e pathway, recommended by one e l e -  mentary s c i e n c e program, i s t o have t h e t e a c h e r " i n v e n t " , a f t e r  suitable  p r e p a r a t o r y e x p e r i e n c e s w i t h heat and t e m p e r a t u r e , t h e c o n c e p t s o f " h e a t " and  "temperature."  4  W h i l e t h e s t r a t e g y t o be employed depends i n p a r t upon such  i  factors  115  as t h e c h i l d r e n ' s p r e v i o u s e x p e r i e n c e w i t h heat and temperature and whether they a r e p r e s e n t l y aware o f c o n c e p t u a l d i f f i c u l t i e s , a knowl e d g e o f c h i l d r e n ' s p e r c e p t i o n s o f h e a t i s u s e f u l f o r d e c i d i n g upon a p a r t i c u l a r approach and then d e v e l o p i n g i t i n t o a v i a b l e t e a c h i n g strategy. G i v e n t h i s v e r y b r i e f i l l u s t r a t i o n o f how knowledge o f c h i l d r e n ' s c o n c e p t u a l commitments c a n be used t o u n d e r s t a n d p r a c t i c e f r e q u e n t l y encountered  a s e r i o u s problem o f  when c h i l d r e n a r e s t u d y i n g t h e t o p i c  of h e a t , t h e n e x t s t e p e n t a i l s t h e development o f t e c h n i q u e s t o r e s o l v e such p r o b l e m s . 6.20  Illustration  o f an A p p l i c a t i v e Use o f t h e Study  To use knowledge i n an a p p l i c a t i v e manner t h e t e a c h e r must f i r s t understand  t h e b a s i c n a t u r e o f t h e problem.  Second, he s h o u l d  possess  a s e t of techniques t h a t w i l l enable him t o s e r i o u s l y address t h e problem.  Perhaps one o f t h e most u s e f u l t e c h n i q u e s from t h e t e a c h e r ' s  point of view i s a s e t o f teaching s t r a t e g i e s . sections discuss the i m p l i c i t  Thus, t h e f o l l o w i n g two  problems t h a t must be r e s o l v e d p r i o r t o  d e s i g n i n g a s e r i e s o f t e a c h i n g s t r a t e g i e s , and a b r i e f i l l u s t r a t i o n o f one such s t r a t e g y . 6.21  Problems o f D e s i g n i n g T e a c h i n g S t r a t e g i e s B e f o r e any s e r i o u s p l a n n i n g can commence i n d e s i g n i n g a t e a c h i n g  strategy a c l e a r v i s i o n of the d e s i r e d i n s t r u c t i o n a l goals i s a n e c e s s i t y . This i s implied i n the very conception of a strategy —  a prescribed set  o f moves o r maneuvers i n o r d e r t o a t t a i n some s p e c i f i e d g o a l o r end s t a t e . There i s d i s a g r e e m e n t among s c i e n c e e d u c a t o r s w i t h r e g a r d t o g o a l s ,  116  and  i n p a r t i c u l a r the means t o be employed f o r a t t a i n i n g a s e t of  prescribed goals.  M o s t , however, would agree t h a t one  come of s c i e n c e e d u c a t i o n s i t i v e minds.  i s s t u d e n t s who  That i s , s t u d e n t s who  d e s i r a b l e out-  have i n q u i r i n g and  inqui-  have b o t h the s k i l l s and  the  d e s i r e to t r y and seek out more encompassing and p o w e r f u l ways o f l o o k i n g a t the w o r l d .  Thus, the t e a c h i n g f u n c t i o n s employed i n e v o l v i n g  a s e t o f t e a c h i n g s t r a t e g i e s must be s u p p o r t i v e o f the above g o a l . I n c o n s i d e r i n g the t o p i c o f h e a t , one  can s p e c u l a t e about a number  of p o t e n t i a l l y e f f e c t i v e t e a c h i n g f u n c t i o n s , o r maneuvers as they w i l l be c a l l e d , w h i c h c o m p r i s e an o v e r a l l t e a c h i n g s t r a t e g y . the t e a c h e r must encourage the s t u d e n t s  with,  t o become f a m i l i a r w i t h a w i d e  range o f phenomena a s s o c i a t e d w i t h h e a t and  t e m p e r a t u r e and  d e v e l o p a s e t o f i n t u i t i v e i d e a s o r b e l i e f s about h e a t . s h o u l d be o f s u f f i c i e n t d e p t h t o a l l o w t h e s t u d e n t s i d e a s s u c h t h a t t h e y have the c o n f i d e n c e  To b e g i n  i n so  doing,  These e n c o u n t e r s  to c l a r i f y  their  t o b e g i n making p r e d i c t i o n s  about the outcomes o f subsequent i n v e s t i g a t i o n s . G i v e n t h a t s t u d e n t s have a t t a i n e d a somewhat s t a b l e s e t of  beliefs,  a n o t h e r t e a c h i n g maneuver might i n v o l v e the c r e a t i o n of a s i t u a t i o n l e a d s t o an u n e x p e c t e d outcome f o r the s t u d e n t s .  that  T h i s anomalous event i s  d e s i g n e d t o i n t r o d u c e an element o f u n c e r t a i n t y i n t o the  student's  b e l i e f s , w i t h the e x p e c t a t i o n t h a t the u n c e r t a i n t y w i l l e v e n t u a l l y  be  r e s o l v e d w i t h a t y p e o f r e o r g a n i z a t i o n o r r e s t r u c t u r i n g of the c h i l d ' s i n t u i t i o n s and b e l i e f s w h i c h c o n t r i b u t e s t o the a t t a i n m e n t goals.  I f a c h i l d i s now  of  instructional  a b l e t o u n d e r s t a n d a w i d e r range o f phenomena,  then t h i s s h i f t c o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d and encompassing c o n c e p t i o n  of h e a t .  as p r o c e e d i n g  towards a more  powerful  117  The  t e a c h i n g maneuvers j u s t s k e t c h e d o u t above c a n be f o r m a l i z e d  i n t o a t e a c h i n g s t r a t e g y w h e r e i n each maneuver i s d e s c r i b e d the t e a c h i n g  i n terms o f  functions that i t performs.  Hence, t h e f i r s t t e a c h i n g  f u n c t i o n may be i n t r o d u c i n g t h e s t u d e n t s  to a v a r i e t y of s i t u a t i o n s i n v o l v i n g experiences w i t h the e f f e c t s o f heat and  temperature —  t h a t i s , a s e t o f e x p e r i e n t i a l maneuvers.  These might  be f o l l o w e d by c l a r i f i c a t i o n maneuvers, t h e purpose o f w h i c h would be t o have t h e s t u d e n t s c a r e f u l l y t h i n k about t h e i r i d e a s . and  The w i l l i n g n e s s  a b i l i t y t o make p r e d i c t i o n s about t h e outcomes o f n o v e l i n v e s t i g a t i o n s  would be an i n d i c a t i o n o f t h e s u c c e s s o f t h e c l a r i f y i n g maneuvers. A n o t h e r s e r i e s o f maneuvers c o u l d be d i r e c t e d toward c r e a t i n g s i t u a t i o n s w h i c h would l e a d t o r e s u l t s t h a t a r e u n e x p e c t e d o r perhaps even c o n t r a d i c t o r y t o t h o s e b e l i e f s p r e s e n t l y h e l d by t h e c l a s s o r a p a r t i c u l a r group o f s t u d e n t s .  The impact o f an anomaly maneuver i s  d i r e c t e d towards g e t t i n g t h e s t u d e n t s t o r e c o n s i d e r position. about h e a t .  their  previous  T h i s may e n t a i l s t u d e n t s a d o p t i n g . a n e n t i r e new s e t o f i d e a s The r e s t r u c t u r i n g i n v o l v e d may t a k e c o n s i d e r a b l e  l i k e l y some g u i d a n c e f r o m t h e t e a c h e r .  t i m e and  A n o t h e r p o s s i b l e outcome o f an  anomaly maneuver i s t h e m o d i f i c a t i o n by t h e s t u d e n t s o f some p a r t o f t h e i r e x i s t i n g framework.  I n e i t h e r case, i t i s apparent that these  maneuvers have t o be s e l e c t e d t o f i t t h e p a r t i c u l a r p a t t e r n o f b e l i e f s e x p r e s s e d by t h e s t u d e n t s . F i n a l l y , one l a s t s e t o f maneuvers might be employed t o a s s i s t t h e s t u d e n t s i n accommodating t o t h e unexpected outcomes.  As w i t h each o f  the above, t h e s e r e s t r u c t u r i n g maneuvers c o u l d be a c c o m p l i s h e d i n many d i f f e r e n t ways r a n g i n g  from c l a s s d i s c u s s i o n and o t h e r peer group  118  i n t e r a c t i o n s t o more d i r e c t i n t e r v e n t i o n p r o c e d u r e s R e t u r n i n g now  by the t e a c h e r .  t o the c e n t r a l i s s u e o f u s i n g the r e s u l t s o f t h i s  s t u d y i n an a p p l i c a t i v e manner, i t s h o u l d be e v i d e n t t h a t the C.P.I., i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h t h e Model C o n c e p t u a l  P r o f i l e s , could play a very  prominent r o l e i n terms o f the d e s i g n and s e l e c t i o n o f a p p r o p r i a t e teaching strategies.  W i t h t h e a s s i s t a n c e of the C.P.I, and the M o d e l  C o n c e p t u a l P r o f i l e s , the t e a c h e r i s a s s i s t e d i n t h e d i f f i c u l t t a s k o f d i a g n o s i n g the e x i s t i n g c o n c e p t i o n s o f heat h e l d by i n d i v i d u a l members of the  class. S i n c e t e a c h i n g s t r a t e g i e s can be d e s i g n e d  f o r each Model  Conceptual  P r o f i l e , the t e a c h e r can a d m i n i s t e r the C.P.I, and' then match o r  catego-  r i z e i n d i v i d u a l s , o r groups o f i n d i v i d u a l s , a c c o r d i n g t o one o f the M o d e l Profiles.  The  r e m a i n i n g s t e p i n v o l v e s a d e c i s i o n t o choose an a p p r o p r i a t e  maneuver, o r s e t o f maneuvers, from among  those l i s t e d f o r a p a r t i c u l a r  Model P r o f i l e , s a y , i n a guidebook accompanying t h e C.P.I. 6.22  An Example o f an A p p l i c a t i v e  Use  I n an endeavor t o f u r t h e r c l a r i f y t h e t y p e s o f t e a c h i n g maneuvers and the m a t c h i n g o f an i n d i v i d u a l s t u d e n t t o one o f t h e Model  Conceptual  P r o f i l e s , t h i s s e c t i o n w i l l , i l l u s t r a t e these p r o c e d u r e s  by t a k i n g the  s c o r e s o b t a i n e d by one i n d i v i d u a l on the C.P.I, and map  out  instructional  potential  activities.  I n F i g u r e 6-1  t h e s c o r e s f o r a grade seven s u b j e c t a r e graphed i n  a s i m i l a r f a s h i o n t o the Model C o n c e p t u a l P r o f i l e s i n C h a p t e r F i v e . b e t t e r v i s u a l i z e the match between the i n d i v i d u a l p r o f i l e and Conceptual  P r o f i l e judged  t o be most s i m i l a r , F i g u r e 6-2  To  the Model  i s immediately  119  below and i s s i m p l y a r e p r o d u c t i o n o f  Model C o n c e p t u a l P r o f i l e  The l i s t of s t a t e m e n t s used i s a l s o r e p r o d u c e d i n  T a b l e 6-1  2.  f o r ready  reference. TABLE  6-1  A L i s t o f t h e Statements i n Each V i e w p o i n t Used i n t h e P r o f i l e A n a l y s i s o f the B e l i e f  Scores  KINETIC VIEWPOINT 5.  The whole r o d g e t s h o t because: BUMP INTO EACH OTHER ALL THE WAY  THE FASTER MOVING METAL PARTICLES THROUGH THE ROD.  9.  The wax m e l t e d because: THE WAX PARTICLES WERE MOVING ABOUT SO FAST THAT THEY COULD NOT HOLD ON TO EACH OTHER SO WELL.  12.  The m e t a l cubes were h o t t e r t h a n the wood o r s u g a r because: METAL PARTICLES ARE EASIER TO MOVE.  16.  The t e m p e r a t u r e o f the w a t e r d e c r e a s e d when an i c e cube was added because: THE WATER PARTICLES LOSE SOME OF THEIR SPEED BY BUMPING INTO THE ICE PARTICLES.  19.  The r e d l i q u i d i n t h e tube went up because: THE LIQUID'S PARTICLES MOVED MORE QUICKLY AND SO TOOK UP MORE SPACE.  THE  CHILDREN'S VIEWPOINT 4.  The whole r o d g e t s hot because: THE HEAT BUILDS UP IN ONE PART UNTIL IT CAN'T HOLD ANYMORE AND THEN THE HEAT MOVES ALONG THE ROD.  7.  The wax m e l t e d because:  IT WAS  A SOFT SUBSTANCE.  11.  The m e t a l cubes were h o t t e r t h a n t h e wood o r s u g a r because: IT WAS MORE DIFFICULT FOR THE AIR TO GET INSIDE THE HARD METAL CUBES TO COOL THEM.  13.  The m e t a l cubes d i d not m e l t because:  14.  The t e m p e r a t u r e of the w a t e r d e c r e a s e d when an i c e cube was added because: THE ICE CUBE ATTRACTED SOME OF THE HEAT PARTICLES AWAY FROM THE WATER.  17.  A l a r g e i c e cube t a k e s l o n g e r t o m e l t t h a n a s m a l l i c e cube because: THE LARGE ICE CUBE HAS A COLDER TEMPERATURE THAN THE SMALL ICE CUBE.  THEY WERE NOT  HEATED LONG ENOUGH.  120  F i g u r e 6-1  An I n d i v i d u a l P r o f i l e of B e l i e f - S c o r e s F o r a Grade 7 S u b j e c t  i  »  •  »  •  •  »  •  »  i  »  i  i  i  i  5  9  12  16 1 9 4 7 11 13 14 17 18 6 8 Statements on C o n c e p t u a l P r o f i l e I n v e n t o r y  F i g u r e 6-2  i  5  i  9  i  12  Model Conceptual P r o f i l e 2  i  10  i  15  i  20  (N= 43 S u b j e c t s )  I i l i i i J i l I l 16 19 4 7 11 13 14 1 7 B 6 8 Statements on C o n c e p t u a l P r o f i l e I n v e n t o r y  1 10  I  15  i  2 0  121  18.  The r e d l i q u i d i n the tube went up because: RED LIQUID LIGHTER AND SO IT RISES.  THE HEAT MAKES THE  CALORIC VIEWPOINT 6.  The whole r o d g e t s hot because: THE HEAT PARTICLES FROM THE FLAME ARE ATTRACTED TO ALL PARTS OF THE ROD.  8.  The wax m e l t e d because: THE HEAT PARTICLES WENT INSIDE AND THE WAX PARTICLES APART.  FORCED  10.  The m e t a l cubes were h o t t e r t h a n the wood o r sugar because: THE METAL CUBES DREW IN MORE HEAT PARTICLES THAN THE OTHER CUBES.  15.  The t e m p e r a t u r e o f t h e w a t e r d e c r e a s e d when an i c e cube was added because: SOME OF THE COLD LEFT THE ICE CUBE AND WENT INTO THE WATER.  20.  The r e d l i q u i d i n the tube went up because: THE HEAT PARTICLES TAKE UP SPACE INSIDE THE LIQUID AND FORCES THE LIQUID OUT THE TUBE. H a v i n g c a t e g o r i z e d t h e i n d i v i d u a l p r o f i l e a c c o r d i n g t o one of t h e  a v a i l a b l e Model C o n c e p t u a l P r o f i l e s , i n t h i s i n s t a n c e Model C o n c e p t u a l P r o f i l e 2, the t e a c h e r c o u l d then c o n s u l t a guidebook w h i c h c o u l d be p r e p a r e d c o n t a i n i n g a l i s t o f s u g g e s t e d t e a c h i n g maneuvers c r o s s - r e f erenced a c c o r d i n g t o the Model C o n c e p t u a l P r o f i l e s .  An i l l u s t r a t i o n o f  some t y p i c a l a c t i v i t i e s under each t e a c h i n g maneuver i s g i v e n f o r Model Conceptual P r o f i l e 2 i n Table  6-2.  These a r e but a few o f t h e p o s s i b l e a c t i v i t i e s and they a r e based i n p a r t upon the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s g i v e n t o M o d e l C o n c e p t u a l P r o f i l e 2 i n Chapter F i v e .  I t would be d e s i r a b l e t o have a l a r g e d i v e r s i t y  a c t i v i t i e s so as t o i n s u r e t h a t the t e a c h e r c o u l d f i n d some t h a t  of would  be c o m p a t i b l e w i t h t h e p a s t e x p e r i e n c e s and p r e s e n t i n t e r e s t s o f t h e students i n h i s c l a s s . The v a r i o u s t e a c h i n g maneuvers o u t l i n e d i n T a b l e 6-2  are very  g e n e r a l i n n a t u r e and a r e meant t o o r i e n t the r e a d e r t o p o t e n t i a l  122  T a b l e 6-2 L i s t o f P o s s i b l e T e a c h i n g Maneuvers t o Accompany Model C o n c e p t u a l P r o f i l e Two 1.  II.  III.  E x p e r i e n t i a l Maneuvers (a)  B a s i c thermometry a c t i v i t i e s (i) measure t h e t e m p e r a t u r e o f common c l a s s r o o m o b j e c t s (ii) measure t h e t e m p e r a t u r e o f o b j e c t s i n a l l t h r e e s t a t e s — g a s , l i q u i d , and s o l i d (iii) c r e a t e a c t i v i t i e s f o r hard-to-measure o b j e c t s such as t h e i n s i d e o f an i c e - c u b e .  (b)  Change o f s t a t e a c t i v i t i e s (i) o b s e r v e d i f f e r e n t s u b s t a n c e s m e l t i n g on a t r a y — l i k e b u t t e r , s u g a r , wax, l e a d , e t c . (ii) h o l d i c e - c u b e r a c e s t o see who can m e l t an i c e - c u b e the f a s t e s t and who c a n keep an i c e - c u b e from melting the longest.  Clarification  Maneuvers  (a)  Class discussion of results (i) A f t e r doing s e v e r a l a c t i v i t i e s c a l l the c l a s s o r group t o g e t h e r t o d i s c u s s t h e r e s u l t s . Those r e s u l t s w h i c h a r e i n doubt c o u l d be r e p e a t e d as a group activity. (ii) Ask group members t o t h i n k about t h e r e s u l t s and t o e x p r e s s t h e i r i d e a s t o a c c o u n t f o r them.  (b)  Competing v i e w p o i n t s o f h e a t (i) I f d i f f e r e n t s t u d e n t s o r groups have d i f f e r e n t i d e a s to a c c o u n t f o r t h e r e s u l t s , encourage them t o d i s cuss and debate t h e s e i d e a s among each o t h e r .  Anomaly Maneuvers (a)  Temperature change a c t i v i t i e s (i) Engage s t u d e n t s i n w a t e r m i x i n g e x p e r i m e n t s ; a l t e r i n g f i r s t t h e t e m p e r a t u r e between t h e two o r i g i n a l c o n t a i n e r s and then t h e amounts o f w a t e r i n each container. (ii) Observe t h e t e m p e r a t u r e e f f e c t s of a d d i n g d i f f e r e n t objects a t t h e same t e m p e r a t u r e ( s a y 100•* C.) t o g i v e n quantities of l i q u i d .  (b)  Heat v e r s u s t e m p e r a t u r e a c t i v i t i e s (i) Have an i c e - c u b e m e l t i n g r a c e between a i r a t 25° C. (or h i g h e r i f t h e r e i s a c c e s s t o an oven) and w a t e r at a lower temperature.  123  (ii)  Observe t h e t e m p e r a t u r e o f 50 m l . o f w a t e r heated by a s t a n d a r d c a n d l e and 100 m l . o f w a t e r h e a t e d by a s i m i l a r candle.  (c) S p e c i f i c h e a t a c t i v i t i e s (i) P l a c e s i m i l a r s i z e d o b j e c t s made o f d i f f e r e n t s u b s t a n c e s (wood, m e t a l s , s u g a r , g l a s s , e t c . ) i n a t r a y o v e r a h o t p l a t e f o r a s h o r t w h i l e and t h e n o b s e r v e t h e r e s u l t s when they a r e p l a c e d on a b l o c k o f wax. IV. R e s t r u c t u r i n g Maneuvers (a)  Group D i s c u s s i o n s (i) D i s c u s s u n e x p e c t e d r e s u l t s from t h e anomaly maneuvers and encourage them t o t h i n k o f p o s s i b l e e x p l a n a t i o n s . ( i i ) Encourage i n d i v i d u a l s o r groups w i t h d i f f e r e n t b e l i e f s t o e x p l o r e them more f u l l y e i t h e r i n d i s c u s s i o n o r further investigations.  (b)  Teacher I n t e r v e n t i o n (i) The t e a c h e r i n t r o d u c e s a competing v i e w p o i n t ( p r o v i d i n g i t i s c l e a r t h a t t h e s t u d e n t s a r e under no o b l i g a t i o n t o a c c e p t i t on t h e b a s i s o f a u t h o r i t y ) . ( i i ) The t e a c h e r attempts t o p o i n t o u t i n c o n s i s t e n c i e s between s t u d e n t ; s i d e a s and t h e a c t u a l o b s e r v a t i o n s .  124  a c t i v i t i e s and d i s c u s s i o n s .  However, the i n d i v i d u a l p r o f i l e c o u l d a l s o  be used by the t e a c h e r i n a d i a g n o s t i c c a p a c i t y . i n F i g u r e 6-1  F o r example, the p r o f i l e  i n d i c a t e s some v e r y s t r o n g b e l i e f s i n t h o s e s t a t e m e n t s  which  were e a r l i e r r e f e r r e d t o as "common-sense" i d e a s about heat ( n o t a b l y numbers 4, 7, 11, 15, and 1 8 ) .  S e v e r a l o f t h e s e might be used as the  b a s i s f o r a s e r i e s o f i n v e s t i g a t i o n s t o be u n d e r t a k e n by t h i s s t u d e n t and o t h e r s who  responded  i n a s i m i l a r manner.  T a k i n g s t a t e m e n t 7 as an example, t h e e x p r e s s e d b e l i e f i s t h a t t h i n g s m e l t more r e a d i l y t h a n h a r d t h i n g s .  On t h e b a s i s o f t h i s  soft  belief,  a s t u d e n t c o u l d t h e n examine the m e l t i n g b e h a v i o r o f a number o f h a r d and s o f t o b j e c t s (an e x p e r i e n t i a l maneuver). the s t u d e n t s t o t h i n k about why  The t e a c h e r might a l s o  encourage  s o f t t h i n g s appear t o m e l t more r e a d i l y  —  the f i r s t s t e p s toward t h e p o s s i b l e f o r m u l a t i o n o f a p o s i t i o n r e g a r d i n g the r e l a t i o n s h i p between heat and m a t t e r .  An anomaly maneuver might  be  i n t r o d u c e d by t h e t e a c h e r by e x p o s i n g t h e s t u d e n t t o some s o f t m a t e r i a l s t h a t do n o t m e l t e a s i l y  ( f o r example, s u b s t a n c e s l i k e s t y r o f o a m , p u t t y ,  p l a y - d o u g h , e t c . ) and some h a r d substamces t h a t do m e l t e a s i l y ( l i k e i c e , some p l a s t i c s ,  etc.).  Thus i t can be seen t h a t the i n d i v i d u a l s t a t e m e n t s on t h e C.P.I, can a l s o be used i n a d i a g n o s t i c c a p a c i t y . s u f f i c i e n t t i m e , those s t u d e n t s who  P r o v i d i n g t h a t t h e t e a c h e r has  i n d i c a t e d s t r o n g b e l i e f s about some  of the common-sense i d e a s c o u l d be engaged i n i n v e s t i g a t i o n u s i n g t h o s e i d e a s e x p r e s s e d about heat as a s t a r t i n g p o i n t . Im summary, t h e n , u s i n g e i t h e r the s p e c i f i c s t a t e m e n t s from t h e C.P.I, as the p o i n t o f d e p a r t u r e , o r the maneuvers c o n t a i n e d i n a t e a c h e r ' s guidebook,  the t e a c h e r ' s r o l e i s t h a t o f g e t t i n g the s t u d e n t s  125  t o t h i n k more c r i t i c a l l y about t h e b e l i e f s t h a t t h e y h o l d .  And i n so  d o i n g , t h e s t u d e n t s s h o u l d a t t a i n a more p o w e r f u l way o f l o o k i n g at heat and temperature  phenomena.  126  NOTES FOR CHAPTER SIX 1. W h i l e the d i s c u s s i o n i n t h i s s e c t i o n i s r e s t r i c t e d t o the r e s u l t s o b t a i n e d from t h i s s t u d y , one c o u l d a l s o c o n s i d e r t h e i m p l i c a t i o n s o f u s i n g the body of l i t e r a t u r e on s t r u c t u r a l growth i n an i n t e r p r e t i v e sense. That i s , t h e s e t s o f b e l i e f s i d e n t i f i e d i n the s t u d y can be c o n s t r u e d as one type o f s t r u c t u r e and so ought t o be s u b j e c t t o t h e same t y p e s o f c o n d i t i o n s employed by o t h e r s i n s e e k i n g t o promote s t r u c t u r a l change. See, f o r example, Kuhn ( 1 9 6 3 ) ; Palmer ( 1 9 6 4 ) ; S i e g e l ( 1 9 6 9 ) ; and F u r t h and Wachs ( 1 9 7 4 ) . 2. That t h i s d i s t i n c t i o n i s most d i f f i c u l t t o i n t u i t d i r e c t l y from the phenomena can be seen from i t s r a t h e r l a t e h i s t o r i c a l appearance. B l a c k i s g e n e r a l l y g i v e n c r e d i t f o r b e i n g t h e f i r s t t o c l e a r l y draw the d i s t i n c t i o n between the i n t e n s i t y o f the c a l o r i c f l u i d s u r r o u n d i n g t h e p a r t i c l e s o f m a t t e r (a measure o f i t s t e m p e r a t u r e ) and the t o t a l amount of c a l o r i c p o s s e s s e d by a body (a measure o f i t s h e a t ) . T h i s c o n c e p t i o n was f i r s t p u b l i s h e d as p a r t o f a s e r i e s o f l e c t u r e s by B l a c k i n 1803 w h i c h i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e d i s t i n c t i o n had e l u d e d many who were v e r y f a m i l i a r w i t h h e a t and t e m p e r a t u r e phenomena d u r i n g a p e r i o d o f o v e r one hundred y e a r s . 3. T h i s p r o c e d u r e might w e l l r e s e m b l e the " t e a c h i n g moves" d e s c r i b e d by Smith e t a l . (1961) f o r t e a c h i n g a p a r t i c u l a r c o n c e p t . 4. The S c i e n c e C u r r i c u l u m Improvement Study f i r s t i n t r o d u c e s the c h i l d r e n t o the t o p i c by e n g a g i n g them i n s e v e r a l a c t i v i t i e s w i t h h e a t phenomena. However, t h e t e a c h e r t h e n " i n v e n t s " t h e terms " t e m p e r a t u r e " and " t h e r m a l e n e r g y " ( h e a t ) i n o r d e r t o a s s i s t the c h i l d r e n t o u n d e r s t a n d and i n t e r p r e t t h e s e phenomena. 5. The a c t u a l m a t c h i n g p r o c e d u r e i s p r o b a b l y a c c o m p l i s h e d most e a s i l y by p l o t t i n g t h e i n d i v i d u a l ' s s c o r e s on a t r a n s p a r e n t sheet and t h e n l a y i n g t h i s o v e r the Model C o n c e p t u a l P r o f i l e s f o r a d i r e c t c o m p a r i s o n .  127  CHAPTER SEVEN  CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS 7.00 Overview o f t h e Study The t h r e e s p e c i f i c problems a d d r e s s e d i n t h i s s t u d y were d i s c u s s e d i n Chapter One.  I n v e s t i g a t i o n s o f t h e s e problems c o r r e s p o n d e d t o t h r e e  d i s t i n c t phases o f t h e s t u d y . the  Phase One sought t o i d e n t i f y and document  range o f s u b s t a n t i v e b e l i e f s about h e a t and t e m p e r a t u r e h e l d by  children.  The p r o c e d u r e s used t o i n v e s t i g a t e t h i s p r o b l e m c o n s i s t e d o f  i n t e r v i e w s w i t h c h i l d r e n r a n g i n g i n age from 6 t o 13 y e a r s .  Only t h e  s e t o f t e n f o r m a l i n t e r v i e w s , conducted w i t h 12 y e a r - o l d s , were r e p o r t e d i n Chapter Three.  The i n f o r m a t i o n o b t a i n e d from t h e i n t e r v i e w d a t a  formed t h e b a s i s f o r t h e i n v e s t i g a t i o n s o f t h e n e x t two phases. Phase Two attempted t o e s t a b l i s h some e v i d e n c e f o r t h e e x i s t e n c e of a s e t o f r e l a t i o n s h i p s among t h e b e l i e f s about h e a t and t e m p e r a t u r e h e l d by c h i l d r e n .  To t h i s end a m e a s u r i n g i n s t r u m e n t was c o n s t r u c t e d  r e f l e c t i n g b e l i e f s about h e a t o b t a i n e d from:  (1) t h e i n t e r v i e w d a t a ,  (2) a c u r r e n t s c i e n t i f i c t h e o r y o f h e a t ( t h e k i n e t i c t h e o r y ) , and (3) an e a r l i e r s c i e n t i f i c t h e o r y ( t h e c a l o r i c t h e o r y ) . administered t o twelve classes of students:  The i n s t r u m e n t was  f o u r c l a s s e s i n grades 5,  7, and 9 r e s p e c t i v e l y . An a n a l y s i s o f t h e d a t a c o l l e c t e d w i t h t h e i n s t r u m e n t r e s u l t e d i n t h e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f s e v e r a l t y p i c a l b e l i e f p a t t e r n s , w h i c h were l a b e l l e d Model C o n c e p t u a l P r o f i l e s .  These P r o f i l e s , d i s c u s s e d i n  Chapter Four and F i v e , s e r v e d as one component o f t h e e m p i r i c a l f o u n d a t i o n used i n t h e l a s t phase o f t h e s t u d y .  128  C h a p t e r S i x a d d r e s s e d the t h i r d s p e c i f i c p r o b l e m — t i o n o f the s t u d y t o an e d u c a t i o n a l s e t t i n g .  Two  the a p p l i c a -  ways i n w h i c h t h e  r e s u l t s c o u l d be used to i n c r e a s e t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f the t e a c h e r were d i s c u s s e d and i l l u s t r a t e d .  The  classroom  chapter concluded  the p r e s e n t a t i o n o f a b r i e f o u t l i n e o f a p o s s i b l e s e t o f  teaching  maneuvers t h a t were keyed to the Model C o n c e p t u a l P r o f i l e s . techniques  d e v e l o p e d i n Phase Two  Conclusions  Thus the  o f the s t u d y were shown t o be o f  t e n t i a l d i a g n o s t i c v a l u e to the c l a s s r o o m 7.10  with  po-  teacher.  o f the Study  A number o f t e n t a t i v e c o n c l u s i o n s can be o f f e r e d i n r e s p o n s e to the t h r e e problems t h a t have p r o v i d e d d i r e c t i o n f o r the s t u d y .  These  c o n c l u s i o n s , however, can b e s t be i n t e r p r e t e d as t e n t a t i v e h y p o t h e s e s suggesting  f u r t h e r e m p i r i c a l work, r a t h e r t h a n f i r m answers t o  q u e s t i o n s posed i n C h a p t e r The  One.  i n t e n t o f Phase One  about h e a t and  was  to i d e n t i f y the s u b s t a n t i v e b e l i e f s  t e m p e r a t u r e h e l d by c h i l d r e n .  methodology most a p p r o p r i a t e f o r t h i s t a s k was interviews.  I t was  argued t h a t  the  a s e r i e s o f open-ended  From the a n a l y s i s o f the i n t e r v i e w d a t a s e v e r a l c o n c l u -  s i o n s appear t o be (1)  the  justified.  Most young c h i l d r e n between the ages o f s i x and t w e l v e p o s s e s s a body o f b e l i e f s about h e a t and t e m p e r a t u r e t h a t can be i d e n t i f i e d i n an i n t e r view s i t u a t i o n .  T h i s was,  o f c o u r s e , an a s s u m p t i o n t h a t was  p r i o r t o the i n v e s t i g a t i o n .  made by the  author  And w h i l e the s u b j e c t s i n t e r v i e w e d v a r i e d  g r e a t l y i n terms o f knowledge and t h e i r a b i l i t y t o e x p r e s s  t h a t know-  l e d g e , i t can be s a i d t h a t the u n s t r u c t u r e d i n t e r v i e w t e c h n i q u e  is a  129  f r u i t f u l method f o r i d e n t i f y i n g c h i l d r e n ' s i n t u i t i o n s about  physical  phenomena. The r e m a i n i n g two c o n c l u s i o n s f o r Phase One r e p r e s e n t an a t t e m p t to d i s t i l l from t h e i n t e r v i e w d a t a c l u s t e r s o f b e l i e f s about h e a t and t e m p e r a t u r e t h a t appeared t o be s h a r e d by most of t h o s e c h i l d r e n i n terviewed. (2)  Heat was thought t o be a t y p e o f s u b s t a n c e w h i c h p o s s e s s e d i t s own u n i q u e p r o p e r t i e s .  T h i s s u b s t a n c e v i e w c o u l d be i d e n t i f i e d i n many o f the i n t e r v i e w s . Many o f the c h i l d r e n sought t o d e s c r i b e h e a t i n terms of fumes, r a y s , waves, o r used an a n a l o g y —  something l i k e a i r .  I n most i n s t a n c e s h e a t  was c o n s i d e r e d t o be a m o b i l e o r a c t i v e agent c a p a b l e o f independent movement t h r o u g h space and a l s o a b l e t o p e n e t r a t e most o b j e c t s .  Al-  though the mechanism f o r p e n e t r a t i o n i s n o t a t a l l c l e a r , i t may  be  t h a t a i r spaces i n o b j e c t s (which were f r e q u e n t l y mentioned) p r o v i d e d a t y p e o f passageway.  B e l i e f s about t h e p o t e n c y o f h e a t were r e v e a l e d  when some c h i l d r e n d e s c r i b e d i t s a b i l i t y t o "break a p a r t c e l l s " o f c e r t a i n o b j e c t s and so cause them t o m e l t . The n e x t prominent s e t o f b e l i e f s c e n t e r e d around t h e i r c o n c e p t i o n of  temperature. (3)  The c o n c l u s i o n might be e x p r e s s e d a s :  Temperature i s a measure o f the h o t n e s s o f an o b j e c t and i s a r e s u l t o f t h e amount o f h e a t t h a t i s added t o i t .  A l l o f t h e c h i l d r e n i n t e r v i e w e d were f a m i l i a r w i t h the t e r m , " t e m p e r a t u r e " , and were aware o f the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the h o t n e s s of an o b j e c t and i t s t e m p e r a t u r e .  However, t h i s p h y s i c a l i n t u i t i o n  a l s o be r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the s e t o f b e l i e f s s u r r o u n d i n g the change o f  may  130  temperature i n o b j e c t s .  F o r example, s e v e r a l o f t h e c h i l d r e n c l a i m e d  t h a t t h e t e m p e r a t u r e o f w a t e r was l o w e r e d when some o f t h e w a t e r was poured o u t .  A l s o when h o t and c o l d w a t e r were mixed  the f i n a l  tempera-  t u r e o f t h e m i x t u r e was d e t e r m i n e d by many c h i l d r e n u s i n g a s i m p l e a d d i t i o n o r s u b t r a c t i o n o p e r a t i o n o f t h e two i n i t i a l  temperatures.  Both o f t h e above c a n be u n d e r s t o o d i n terms o f a v i e w t h a t s u g g e s t s the t e m p e r a t u r e o f an o b j e c t i s d e t e r m i n e d by t h e amount o f h e a t p o s s e s s e d by t h e o b j e c t . As was i l l u s t r a t e d i n C h a p t e r S i x , t h e i n t u i t i o n s and b e l i e f s t h a t c o n s t i t u t e d t h e s e two b r o a d a r e a s may be l a r g e l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e d i f f i c u l t i e s e n c o u n t e r e d by many c h i l d r e n when t h e y a r e i n t r o d u c e d to the k i n e t i c theory o f heat i n a s c h o o l s e t t i n g . I n Phase Two t h e emphasis s h i f t e d towards i d e n t i f y i n g , a p a t t e r n of r e l a t i o n s h i p s o r a s t r u c t u r e i n c h i l d r e n ' s b e l i e f s .  To a c c o m p l i s h  t h i s end, an i n s t r u m e n t was c o n s t r u c t e d and d a t a were c o l l e c t e d and a n a l y z e d f o r 276 s u b j e c t s . The f i r s t i m p o r t a n t r e s u l t o f t h i s a n a l y s i s i n d i c a t e d (4)  that:  The s u b j e c t s were a b l e t o d i s t i n g u i s h between the s t a t e m e n t s r e p r e s e n t i n g each o f t h e t h r e e d i f f e r e n t perspectives of heat.  T h i s r e s u l t was o b t a i n e d by p e r f o r m i n g a p r i n c i p a l component a n a l y s on t h e b e l i e f r a t i n g s o f s t a t e m e n t s i n t h e C.P.I.  The t h r e e i n t e r -  p r e t a b l e components o b t a i n e d from t h e a n a l y s i s i n d e e d c o r r e s p o n d e d t o the h e a t P e r s p e c t i v e s t h a t were o r i g i n a l l y used t o d e s i g n the s t a t e m e n t s , g i v i n g some s u p p o r t t o t h e c o n s t r u c t v a l i d i t y o f t h e i n s t r u m e n t . A second a n a l y t i c a l p r o c e d u r e was employed t o d e t e r m i n e i f t h e r e were any s i m i l a r i t y i n t h e r e s p o n s e p a t t e r n s among the s u b j e c t s .  This  131  p r o f i l e a n a l y s i s y i e l d e d the f o l l o w i n g (5)  result:  Three d i s t i n c t p a t t e r n s o f b e l i e f - s c o r e s were o b t a i n e d f o r the s u b j e c t s . These p a t t e r n s were i n t e r p r e t e d i n terms o f d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s o f u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f h e a t phenomena.  On t h e b a s i s o f t h e r e s u l t s summarized i n c o n c l u s i o n s (4) and (5) i t was  i n f e r r e d t h a t a u n i q u e s e t o f s t r u c t u r a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s among  c h i l d r e n ' s b e l i e f s c o u l d be d e t e r m i n e d u s i n g the a n a l y t i c a l outlined earlier.  F u r t h e r , i t was  procedures  reasoned t h a t t h e s e r e l a t i o n s h i p s  s h o u l d form the n u c l e u s o f an e f f o r t t o d e v e l o p c u r r i c u l a r m a t e r i a l s o r t e a c h i n g s t r a t e g i e s i n t h e a r e a o f h e a t and The l a s t phase o f the s t u d y was  temperature.  s p e c u l a t i v e i n n a t u r e and  was  d i r e c t e d towards o u t l i n i n g t h e p o t e n t i a l a p p l i c a t i o n s t o an e d u c a t i o n a l setting.  Two  d i f f e r e n t ways o f u s i n g t h e r e s u l t s were i l l u s t r a t e d .  though no e m p i r i c a l work was done i n t h i s phase, i t was c o n c l u d e d (6)  Al-  that:  The knowledge o b t a i n e d f r o m t h e s t u d y c o u l d be used t o d e v e l o p a s e t o f t e a c h i n g s t r a t e g i e s t h a t c o u l d have a p p l i c a t i o n i n t h e c l a s s r o o m .  These s i x c o n c l u s i o n s , t h e n , r e p r e s e n t condensed s t a t e m e n t s o f t h e c o n t r i b u t i o n s made by t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y .  A l t h o u g h most o f t h e s e r e f e r  to s u b s t a n t i v e r e s u l t s , t h e u n d e r l y i n g m e t h o d o l o g i c a l p r o c e d u r e s a r e a l s o noteworthy.  That i s , t h e open-ended i n t e r v i e w p r o c e d u r e s , t h e d e v e l o p -  ment o f the s e m a n t i c - d i f f e r e n t i a l c l a s s r o o m i n s t r u m e n t and the a n a l y t i c t e c h n i q u e s used t o g e n e r a t e the Model C o n c e p t u a l P r o f i l e s a l l appear  to  be u s e f u l ways o f c o l l e c t i n g and p r o c e s s i n g i n f o r m a t i o n on c h i l d r e n ' s b e l i e f s and i n t u i t i o n s about n a t u r a l phenomena. 7.20  Recommendations f o r F u r t h e r R e s e a r c h  G i v e n the e x p l o r a t o r y n a t u r e o f the s t u d y s e v e r a l p o t e n t i a l  follow-  132  up studies might be suggested.  This section includes an outline of the  broad problems to be addressed and contains b r i e f comments on some of the issues accompanying each of these problem areas.  The recommended  studies can be thought of as f a l l i n g along a type of continuum defined at one end by a type of study which i s directed towards e l u c i d a t i n g the t h e o r e t i c a l issues raised by this study and at the other end by a study which i s aimed at evaluating the e f f e c t s of the study upon c l a s s room p r a c t i c e .  1  Some questions worthy of further i n v e s t i g a t i o n are l i s t e d below, beginning at the e l u c i d a t i o n end of the continuum and proceeding toward the evaluation end. (1)  Can the genesis and subsequent development of the underlying conceptual structures be more c l e a r l y i d e n t i f i e d and mapped out?  (2)  How v a l i d i s the hypothesized Children's Viewpoint of heat? Is the substance notion of heat as pervasive as suggested by the present study?  (3)  Can more evidence be obtained regarding the hypothesized developmental trend from a commonsense l e v e l of understanding heat phenomena to one which i s more abstract i n nature?  (4)  Are there any s i g n i f i c a n t differences i n heat viewpoints that can be attributed to s p e c i f i c variables such as: age, sex, geographical l o c a t i o n , etc.?  (5)  How might the e x i s t i n g methodology be applied to an i n v e s t i g a t i o n of children's ideas about other relevant topics?  (6)  Can a set of appropriate teaching strategies be created to match the Model Conceptual P r o f i l e s ?  (7)  Are these teaching strategies e f f e c t i v e i n bringing about the desired aims of the program?  133  H a v i n g s e t out t h i s a b b r e v i a t e d l i s t , i t remains  to p r o v i d e a  l i t t l e more s u b s t a n c e f o r a t l e a s t some o f t h e s e p r o s p e c t i v e s t u d i e s . Because the p r o c e d u r e s employed i n t h i s s t u d y ( s p e c i f i c a l l y the openended i n t e r v i e w t e c h n i q u e a l o n g w i t h the development o f the and methods o f a n a l y s i s ) were judged t o be s a t i s f a c t o r y by a u t h o r , i t i s recommended t h a t some c o m b i n a t i o n o f t h e s e  C.P.I, the  procedures  be s e r i o u s l y c o n s i d e r e d i n any f o l l o w - u p s t u d i e s . The  f i r s t two q u e s t i o n s i n t h e above l i s t a r e m a i n l y  concerned  w i t h g e n e r a l i z i n g the r e s u l t s o f t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y t o a l a r g e r sample of  subjects.  Hence, i t i s suggested t h a t a type o f open-ended i n t e r -  v i e w t e c h n i q u e be used w i t h a much l a r g e r sample o f s u b j e c t s , r a n g i n g from 6 y e a r s t o 16 y e a r s o f age.  Some o f the t a s k s used i n the p r e s e n t  s t u d y c o u l d be u t i l i z e d , however, w i t h the suggested age range some work would be r e q u i r e d to m o d i f y the i n t e r v i e w so t h a t i t would be p r o p r i a t e f o r b o t h t h e younger and o l d e r s u b j e c t s . hypotheses to  ap-  Since the r e s e a r c h  a r e a l r e a d y d e f i n e d t o some e x t e n t , t h e r e would be no need  engage i n t h e e x t e n s i v e p i l o t work d e s c r i b e d i n t h i s s t u d y . Q u e s t i o n (4) c o u l d a l s o be approached  i n a s i m i l a r manner i f  c a r e f u l a t t e n t i o n were p a i d t o the s a m p l i n g p r o c e d u r e s used t o a s c e r t a i n the causes o f any observed d i f f e r e n c e s i n response p a t t e r n s .  That i s ,  i f i t were b e i n g h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t boys have a more a b s t r a c t v i e w o f heat than g i r l s , then one would have t o be c a r e f u l t o match the samples on o t h e r v a r i a b l e s t h a t might a f f e c t the r e s u l t s s c h o o l achievement,  intelligence, interest,  ( f o r example, age,  etc.).  On the o t h e r hand, these two q u e s t i o n s c o u l d a l s o be  addressed  134  u s i n g the C.P.I., o r some a l t e r a t i o n of i t .  E x t e n s i v e use o f  this  type o f c l a s s r o o m i n s t r u m e n t would a l s o a l l o w a s e t o f norms to be e s t a b l i s h e d and so produce a more r e l i a b l e and v a l i d i n s t r u m e n t .  As  b e f o r e , the s a m p l i n g problem would be v e r y i m p o r t a n t i f one were a t t e m p t i n g to t e s t c e r t a i n h y p o t h e s i z e d r e l a t i o n s . The l a s t two problems a r e d i r e c t e d a t an i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f the e x i s t i n g r e s u l t s i n t o a c l a s s r o o m s i t u a t i o n , and f o l l o w - u p s t u d i e s e v a l u a t i n g the e f f e c t s o f such a program.  The r e s u l t s r e p o r t e d i n t h i s  d i s s e r t a t i o n a r e b e l i e v e d by the a u t h o r t o be o f s u f f i c i e n t v a l i d i t y and i n t e r e s t t o w a r r a n t t h e i n i t i a t i o n of an i n s t r u c t i o n a l program designed to t r a n s l a t e the procedures o u t l i n e d i n Chapter S i x i n t o a form s u i t a b l e f o r use by the c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r .  W h i l e i t would  ob-  v i o u s l y be d e s i r a b l e t o base t h e program upon a w e l l - e s t a b l i s h e d t h e o r e t i c a l b a s i s , i t i s argued h e r e t h a t work on b o t h ends ~ t h e o r e t i c a l and t h e p r a c t i c a l — r e s u l t s as a s t a r t i n g p o i n t .  the  c o u l d take p l a c e u s i n g the p r e s e n t  I f and when a l t e r a t i o n s a r e made i n t h e  t h e o r e t i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e , t h e s e c o u l d be i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o t h e p r a c t i c a l program. The work i n d e v e l o p i n g a s u i t a b l e i n s t r u c t i o n a l program would e n t a i l the c r e a t i o n o f a s e t o f t e a c h i n g maneuvers t h a t i s c r o s s r e f e r e n c e d t o p a r t i c u l a r l e v e l s of u n d e r s t a n d i n g , o r Model C o n c e p t u a l Profiles.  S u g g e s t i o n s were made i n S e c t i o n 6.32  might be i n v o l v e d i n a t a s k o f t h i s n a t u r e . maneuvers must conform  as t o i s s u e s t h a t  Furthermore, these teaching  t o the u s u a l c o n s t r a i n t s upon the c l a s s r o o m  c h e r , such as time and equipment. Once the development and i m p l e m e n t a t i o n of an a p p r o p r i a t e  tea-  135  i n s t r u c t i o n a l program i s a c c o m p l i s h e d , important. program?  t h e l a s t q u e s t i o n becomes more  How does one d e t e r m i n e t h e v a l u e o r e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f t h e V e r y l i t t l e o f t h i s type o f e v a l u a t i v e r e s e a r c h i s a c t u a l l y  c a r r i e d o u t i n e d u c a t i o n a l r e s e a r c h because i t i s so d i f f i c u l t t o d e f i n e and c o n t r o l t h e r e l e v a n t v a r i a b l e s . The a u t h o r ' s  opinion i s that i t i s exactly t h i s kind of research  t h a t has t h e g r e a t e s t p o t e n t i a l f o r making a s i g n i f i c a n t c o n t r i b u t i o n t o classroom  p r a c t i c e and t o o u r u n d e r s t a n d i n g  o f how t h e c h i l d  acquires  i n c r e a s i n g l y complex knowledge o f h i s p h y s i c a l e n v i r o n m e n t . On a c o n c l u d i n g n o t e , i t would seem q u i t e o b v i o u s t h a t i f t h e recommended program o u t l i n e d i n t h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n , m a t c h i n g i n s t r u c t i o n a l maneuvers t o t h e d i a g n o s i s o f t h e c h i l d ' s u n d e r s t a n d i n g p r o v e s t o be s u c c e s s f u l t h e n t h e b a s i c m e t h o d o l o g i c a l  o f h e a t phenomena, techniques  a l s o be a p p l i e d t o o t h e r a r e a s o f i n t e r e s t i n t h e c u r r i c u l u m 5 above).  (question  I n t h i s way a c a t a l o g u e c o u l d be assembled w h i c h w o u l d  as a t y p e o f i n s t r u c t i o n a l r e s o u r c e  f o r the teacher.  This  should  serve  catalogue  might c o n t a i n i n f o r m a t i o n on t y p i c a l b e l i e f s h e l d by c h i l d r e n a t d i f f e r e n t ages ( o r l e v e l s ) a l o n g w i t h l i s t s o f s u g g e s t e d a c t i v i t i e s .  The  a c t i v i t i e s might t a k e t h e f o r m o f some p r e d e t e r m i n e d o r e m p i r i c a l l y e s t a b l i s h e d teaching s t r a t e g y designed  t o a c h i e v e a p a r t i c u l a r aim.  A l t e r n a t i v e l y , t h e s e a c t i v i t i e s c o u l d a l s o be s i m p l y c a t e g o r i z e d a c c o r d i n g t o the i n t e r e s t s and i d e a s h e l d by c h i l d r e n thus a l l o w i n g t h e teacher, o r the student, and  t o make t h e d e c i s i o n r e g a r d i n g t h e usage  t h e sequence o f t h e a c t i v i t i e s .  136  NOTE FOR CHAPTER SEVEN 1. F o r a f u r t h e r d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e d i s t i n c t i o n between e l u c i d a t o r y and e v a l u a t i v e types o f r e s e a r c h s t u d i e s , see G l a s s (1971).  i  137  BIBLIOGRAPHY Anderson, R. C h i l d r e n ' s A b i l i t y t o F o r m u l a t e M e n t a l Models t o E x p l a i n N a t u r a l Phenomena. Paper p r e s e n t e d a t the a n n u a l m e e t i n g o f the N a t i o n a l A s s o c i a t i o n ' f o r R e s e a r c h i n S c i e n c e T e a c h i n g , 1965. A s h e n f e l t e r , J . 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A Study o f t h e Use o f the Semantic D i f f e r e n t i a l by F i f t h Grade C h i l d r e n from D i f f e r e n t Socioeconomic Groups. The J o u r n a l o f P s y c h o l o g y , 1972, 81, 343-350. Wish, M. Notes on t h e v a r i e t y , a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s , and c h o i c e o f p r o x i m i t y measures. Paper p r e p a r e d f o r B e l l - P e n n . Workshop on M u l t i d i m e n s i o n a l S c a l i n g , June, 1972. W i t z , K. A n a l y s i s o f Frameworks i n Young C h i l d r e n . U n i v e r s i t y o f I l l i n o i s , 1970.  Unpublished  paper,  W i t z , K. and E a s l e y , J . C o g n i t i v e Deep S t r u c t u r e and S c i e n c e T e a c h i n g . Paper p r e s e n t e d a t a c o n f e r e n c e on " O p e r a t i o n s and D i d a c t i c s " , a t C e n t r e de r e c h e r c h e , U n i v e r s i t y o f Quebec, M o n t r e a l , 1971.  142  APPENDIX A  A T r a n s c r i p t o f Ron's I n t e r v i e w Age:  12 y e a r s 8 months  Notes: (1)  (2)  E  =  experimentor  S  =  subject  (  ) =  an e x p l a n a t i o n o f some n o n - v e r b a l important  (3)  a c t i o n judged t o be  to the inverview.  For a d e s c r i p t i o n and/or p i c t u r e o f t h e m a t e r i a l s used i n each o f t h e t a s k s see Appendix B.  143  Ron's I n t e r v i e w (S was brought i n t o t h e i n t e r v i e w room and t h e f i r s t few m i n u t e s were s p e n t making him c o m f o r t a b l e and a n s w e r i n g any q u e s t i o n s t h a t he posed about t h e room and t h e m i c r o p h o n e s .  He was then shown t h e l i q u i d  e x p a n s i o n a p p a r a t u s used i n t h e f i r s t t a s k . ) Task Number One S:  What's t h i s ?  E:  I don't know.  S:  A colored wire?  E:  Okay, i t m i g h t be a c o l o r e d w i r e .  S:  T h i s i s t h e t e m p e r a t u r e h e r e i n s ' t i t ? No. top  What do you suppose t h a t i s ? ( R e f e r r i n g t o t h e r e d l i q u i d i n t h e stem) What do y o u suppose i t looks l i k e ? (S p o i n t s t o t h e  o f t h e r e d l i q u i d i n t h e stem)  E:  What do y o u mean i t ' s a t e m p e r a t u r e ?  S:  W e l l what's t h a t t h e r e ?  That p i n k l i n e c a n you see i t ?  Is that the water i n there? E:  Do y o u suppose t h e r e ' s anyway t h a t we c o u l d f i n d o u t ?  S:  Take i t o f f .  E:  T h a t ' s one way, y e s . I was g o i n g t o a s k you a q u e s t i o n about  that.  Have you e v e r seen a n y t h i n g t h a t l o o k s l i k e t h a t b e f o r e ? S:  This?  No, w e l l a  E:  You t h i n k i t l o o k s l i k e a thermometer?  S:  Measures  E:  How?  S:  W e l l t h e t e m p e r a t u r e o u t s i d e and i n s i d e a room.  E:  Can i t t e l l you t h e t e m p e r a t u r e o f a n y t h i n g ?  S:  I think so, yes.  E:  What I was g o i n g t o a s k y o u , do you t h i n k you c o u l d maybe g e t t h a t liquid the  thermometer. What does a thermometer do?  temperature.  t o go down, o n l y by t o u c h i n g t h i s bottom p a r t h e r e .  glass.  S:  Can you heat i t o r a n y t h i n g ?  E:  S u r e , do you t h i n k t h a t might make i t go down?  S:  I thought t h a t would make i t go up. i t expand o r what?  E:  Just  L i k e what d i d you have i n mind?  When you heat something does  144  L i k e an i c e cube.  I f you m e l t i t w i l l i t expand o r go s m a l l e r ?  L i k e s a y I have a h a n d f u l o f i c e and y o u l e t i t m e l t . w a t e r be b i g g e r I don't know. f i n d out?  W i l l the  t h a n t h e i c e was?  I've never t r i e d t h a t .  How do you suppose we c o u l d  Get a p y r e x , p u t i n a t h i n g f u l l o f i c e and m e l t i t . So we have i c e i n a g l a s s l i k e t h a t and t h e n what? And t h e n m e l t i t . And  then what would happen?  And see i f , I know, i t goes e i t h e r up o r down. though.  I c a n ' t remember  Say I have t h a t much i c e (S p o i n t s t o a s p o t h a l f way  up on a b e a k e r s i t t i n g on t h e t a b l e ) and when i t m e l t s , i t w i l l l o s e or whatever. perature  whether  Or t h i s might be a t a c e r t a i n tem-  i t m i g h t go up t h a t h i g h , l i k e i f i t was p u t i n t h e  f r i d g e or anything, t h e r down.  n o t l o n g enough t o f r e e z e , i t might go f a r -  I don't r e a l l y know what t h a t i s .  We have some w a t e r h e r e . and s e e what happens?  S h o u l d we t r y p u t t i n g i t i n some w a t e r Can y o u t e l l me a n y t h i n g  about t h a t w a t e r ?  What about t h e temperature? Cool, not hot. Do you t h i n k t h a t t h e l i q u i d would go up o r do y o u t h i n k i t would (S i n t e r r u p t s ) T h i s i s warmer.  (the apparatus)  I s that water, that's l i q u i d i n  there i s n ' t i t ? I'm n o t r e a l l y s u r e what i t i s . We c a n c a l l i t r e d l i q u i d . This is warmer, i t i s n ' t h o t and i t i s n ' t t h i s t e m p e r a t u r e (S p o i n t s t o t h e beaker o f w a t e r )  This i s quite cool.  So what do you suppose w i l l happen i f we put t h a t ( a p p a r a t u s ) i n there? This  (beaker o f w a t e r )  (S p o i n t s t o r e d l i q u i d ) might go down?  You t h i n k i t might go down? It i s .  I t ' s g o i n g down.  How f a r down do y o u t h i n k i t w i l l go?  145  S:  I t ' s s t o p p e d now.  I think.  No i t h a s n ' t s t o p p e d .  I think i t w i l l  go about t h a t f a r . E:  That f a r ?  S:  Y e s , h a l f an i n c h o r q u a r t e r o f an i n c h .  E:  Do you want t o mark where you t h i n k i t w i l l  S:  Oh no, i t ' s g o i n g down a l o n g  E:  Do you want t o r e v i s e y o u r e s t i m a t e ?  S:  Maybe i t w i l l go as f a r as t h a t i s t o t h e r e .  The w a t e r i s g e t t i n g warmer. go?  way.  (S p o i n t s t o the b o t -  tom o f t h e stem) E:. To where? S:  T h e r e , where t h e w a t e r i s t o t h e r e , but I don't t h i n k s o .  E:  What do you suppose i s happening t o the w a t e r ?  You mentioned some-  t h i n g about the w a t e r e a r l i e r . S:  I t ' s g e t t i n g warmer.  E:  Why  S:  Because o f the h e a t o f t h e , n o t the h e a t b u t , j u s t because o f t h e  i s i t g e t t i n g warmer?  o t h e r w a t e r around i t i n t h i s g l a s s h e r e . E:  What about t h e g l a s s , u n f o r t u n a t e l y we've g o t two g l a s s e s and s e t s o f l i q u i d h e r e so w e ' l l have t o t r y s o r t i n g t h a t o u t . we t a k e i t o u t f o r a second?  two Shall  And t h i s way you can p o i n t t o the  one t h a t you a r e r e f e r r i n g t o .  You thought t h a t t h i s w a t e r ( i n  the b e a k e r ) was g e t t i n g warmer? S:  Yes.  E:  And why was i t g e t t i n g warmer a g a i n now?  S:  Because o f t h i s w a t e r .  E:  Because o f the w a t e r i n the g l a s s  S:  Hey, now  E:  You t h i n k t h a t w i l l go up?  S:  Because i t w i l l g e t warm.  (S p o i n t s t o a p p a r a t u s ) there.  t h i s ( l i q u i d i n the stem) w i l l go up, r i g h t ?  than i t a l r e a d y was. go up and maybe.  Why? I mean t h i s , i t doesn't f e e l any  colder  I t would be ( i n a u d i b l e ) so I f i g u r e d i t would  You have h o t w a t e r t h e r e don't you?  E:  Yes.  S:  We can put t h i s ( t h e a p p a r a t u s ) i n hot w a t e r and see i f i t goes up.  146  You want t o t r y p u t t i n g i t i n h o t w a t e r .  I'm v e r y i n t e r e s t e d i n  why you thought t h i s water was g e t t i n g warmer. to t e l l  And y o u were about  me.  Cause when t h i s  ( a p p a r a t u s ) was i n t h a t (beaker o f w a t e r ) t h e tem-  p e r a t u r e o f t h i s g l a s s would  he  a  l i t t l e warmer t h a n t h i s w a t e r ,  and so a l l t h i s w a t e r i n h e r e would warm t h i s g l a s s and t h e warmth i n t h i s g l a s s would warm t h i s w a t e r . The warmth from t h e g l a s s ? L i k e i f you've g o t a b o i l i n g h o t spoon and you p u t i n i n t h e w a t e r i t would go warm.  J u s t l i k e on t h e beach you know when t h e t i d e  goes o u t and t h e s u n h e a t s t h e sand and t h e n t h e t i d e comes i n and the w a t e r ' s warmer because o f t h e h o t s u n . Let's see, t h i s l i k e a spoon.  (a m e t a l p l a t e ) i s n ' t q u i t e t h e same, b u t i t ' s something And i f I p u t i t , do you know what t h i s i s ?  Yes, i t ' s a hot p l a t e . Now i f I l e f t i t on t h e r e f o r a l o n g t i m e and i t g o t r e a l l y h o t . We haven't g o t t i m e t o do t h a t b u t l e t ' s j u s t s a y i t i s , t h e n I t a k e i t and I p u t i t i n h e r e (a b e a k e r o f w a t e r ) . you s a i d ?  I s t h a t what  Then what's g o i n g t o happen?  T h i s w a t e r w i l l g e t warmer. And how would i t g e t warmer? From t h e h e a t o f t h a t .  (the p l a t e )  From t h e h e a t o f t h a t .  Where does t h i s h e a t come from?  The h o t p l a t e And i t goes i n t o h e r e i s t h a t i t ? Yes.  I t warms up and now when i t ' s warm i t goes i n t o t h e r e ( t h e  p l a t e ) and i t warms t h e w a t e r . How does t h e h e a t go from t h e h o t p l a t e i n t o h e r e ?  (the p l a t e )  Well, i t ' s attached. Yes, i t ' s touching i t . Yes i t ' s t o u c h i n g i t and I guess m e t a l a t t r a c t s h e a t . W e l l what about when we p u t i n i n h e r e , what happens? i t i n the water?  When we p u t  147  S:  The w a t e r a t t r a c t s t h e h e a t from t h a t . the  E:  So t h e h e a t i s l e a v i n g t h i s ( p l a t e ) i s i t ? And g o i n g i n t o t h e What do you suppose h e a t l o o k s  of  looks l i k e  I f y o u ' r e d r i v i n g on t h e r o a d .  I t just  sort  fumes.  So you t h i n k t h a t i s what goes on when you p u t t h i s ( t h e p l a t e ) on the  S:  like?  You c a n see i t on some v e r y h o t days r i s i n g from t h e r o a d s o r t o f you know i n waves?  E:  Because  water i s a c o l d e r temperature.  water. S:  That c o o l s down.  hot p l a t e .  The h e a t goes from t h e h o t p l a t e t o t h e r e ?  I don't know how t h a t machine works b u t p r o b a b l y t h e r e ' s something warming t h e m e t a l up, and then t h e m e t a l .  E:  The t o p o f t h e h o t p l a t e y o u mean?  S:  Y e s , t h e t o p warms t h a t .  E:  Now you wanted t o t r y t h e e x p e r i m e n t d i d n ' t you?  (the metal p l a t e ) Do y o u t h i n k t h a t ' s  (a b e a k e r o f h o t w a t e r ) f a i r l y h o t o r i s i t n o t v e r y h o t ? S:  I t ' s h o t enough.  E:  Now what do you t h i n k i s g o i n g t o happen?  S:  T h i s ( t h e a p p a r a t u s ) h e r e s o r t o f , c o u l d I p u t my f i n g e r on t h e r e , put my hand around t h e r e w i t h my body h e a t t o see i f i t r a i s e s . Hey i t ' s r a i s i n g . beaker)  O.K. now I ' l l p u t i t i n here, ( t h e c o l d w a t e r  I t r a i s e d f o r a s e c o n d , b u t now i t ' s g o i n g down  gradually. E:  Now what do y o u t h i n k ' s g o i n g t o happen when you p u t i t i n h e r e ? (hot  water)  S:  It'll  raise.  E:  Do you t h i n k i t w i l l go v e r y f a s t ?  S: Y e s . E:  Why?  S:  Because o f t h e h e a t i n t h e w a t e r . j u s t w i t h t h e h e a t o f my hand.  Cause i t went up f a i r l y  fast  I t h i n k i t would go a l l t h e way  up t o t h e t o p . E:  You t h i n k i t would go a l l t h e way t o t h e top?  S:  Y e s . U n l e s s t h i s d o e s n ' t , t h i s t e m p e r a t u r e h e r e doesn't c o o l down that water.  See i t c o u l d happen.  148  E:  I'm n o t s u r e what you mean.  S:  The t e m p e r a t u r e o f t h i s g l a s s ( t h e a p p a r a t u s ) i s c o l d e r than t h e t e m p e r a t u r e o f t h i s w a t e r h e r e and so t h e t e m p e r a t u r e o f t h i s  glass  might c o o l down t h e w a t e r . E:  How does i t do t h a t ?  S:  W e l l i t might w e ' l l s e e .  E:  When something c o o l s something e l s e down, what do you suppose happens? When we s a y t h a t t h i s w a t e r c o o l e d down t h i s ( t h e a p p a r a t u s ) y o u said.  How does t h a t happen?  S: • I don't know. E:  You were t a l k i n g s o m e t h i n g about t h e h e a t o r when y o u p u t t h i s i n t h e r e , i t c o o l e d down.  S:  I know how i t warms up.  E:  How does i t warm up?  S:  I t o l d y o u . How i t c o o l s down,  E:  O.K.  S:  I t dropped and t h e n i t r o s e q u i t e  E:  Boy, i s i t e v e r g o i n g f a s t .  L e t ' s t r y t h i s e x p e r i m e n t h e r e and see what  you're r i g h t . S:  guess i t does t h e o p p o s i t e . happens.  fast.  (5 second pause) Y e s . Yes i t l o o k s  like  What's g o i n g t o happen?  I t ' s g o i n g t o r a i s e t o t h e t o p q u i t e f a s t and t h e n i t w i l l come o u t . When t h a t c o o l s down now, i t w i l l s t o p , maybe.  T h a t ' s what I t h i n k . .  E:  How l o n g do you t h i n k i t w i l l t a k e t o c o o l down?  S:  I s t h a t dyed w a t e r ?  E:  Why?  S:  Cause i t ' s g o t some c h e m i c a l i n i t cause dyed w a t e r d o e s n ' t r i s e I don't t h i n k .  E:  No i t c o u l d n ' t be dyed w a t e r c o u l d i t ?  Can I t a s t e i t ?  Well just a l i t t l e b i t .  S h a l l we t a k e i t o u t now.  What do you t h i n k  would happen i f we j u s t used o r d i n a r y w a t e r i n t h e r e ? S:  I don't t h i n k i t would do a n y t h i n g .  I f i t g o t h o t enough i t would  s t a r t b u b b l i n g and t h e w a t e r would r i s e .  I f i t g o t h o t enough  i t would s t a r t b o i l i n g , then t h e w a t e r would r i s e up h e r e . i t wouldn't.  No  You'd have t o , t h e h o t a i r , o r t h e steam would go  up h e r e and t h e n you p u t a r e a l l y c o l d c l o t h o r have t h i s tube bent  149  i n t o c o l d w a t e r and t h e n when t h e steam h i t t h e c o l d w a t e r i t would go t h r o u g h t h e t u b e .  I t would t u r n back i n t o w a t e r , and  then we'd have i t i n t o t h e t o p o f t h e j a r and t h e r e would be water going i n t o the j a r . Have you done t h a t b e f o r e ? Yes we d i d i t i n a s c i e n c e r e p o r t , a s c i e n c e e x p e r i m e n t . But i f we j u s t had o r d i n a r y w a t e r and p u t i n i n t h i s j a r o f h o t w a t e r , what do you t h i n k i t would do then? I don't t h i n k i t would do a n y t h i n g . What about i f we used m i l k ? I don't t h i n k i t would do a n y t h i n g I'm j u s t t r y i n g t o t h i n k o f some o t h e r l i q u i d t h a t we m i g h t p u t i n there.  What l i q u i d do you t h i n k would work?  I f I knew what t h a t was, I ' d t e l l y o u . Why do y o u t h i n k t h a t works?  Why do y o u suppose t h a t  happens?  What do you t h i n k i s happening t h e r e ? I know! That c o u l d be j u s t p l a i n w a t e r . h o t t e r so i t r i s e s r i g h t .  But t h e w a t e r i s g e t t i n g  The more i t r i s e s , t h e more i t goes up.  Now why does t h e w a t e r r i s e ? I know.  I know t h a t t h i n g t h a t I was t h i n k i n g o f now.  g l a s s o f w a t e r s a y t h a t h i g h and f r o z e t h a t . down a b i t and when you m e l t e d i t , Remember I was t a l k i n g about t h a t ?  I f y o u had a  The w a t e r would go  i t would go up t o t h e same t h i n g . So I know now.  T h a t ' s what I  think. Would you l i k e t o t r y e x p l a i n i n g t h a t t o me a g a i n . When i t g e t s h o t t e r , t h e w a t e r r i s e s and as i t r i s e s i t goes up the t u b e . Why does t h e w a t e r r i s e when i t g e t s h o t ? (5 second pause) you suppose w a t e r i s l i k e ? Ice?  What do  What i s i t made o u t o f ?  I don't know, w a t e r .  You t h i n k i c e i s made o u t o f w a t e r ? Y e s , w e l l w a t e r i s made o u t o f w a t e r . o f w a t e r g o i n g a c r o s s t h e ocean.  L i k e t h e c l o u d s a r e made o u t  150  :  W e l l I was w o n d e r i n g , why when i t g e t s h o t does i t r i s e ?  :  Why does i t r i s e when i t g e t s h o t .  I don't know.  I t h i n k you t o l d me why i t g e t s h o t .  I'm s t i l l i n t e r e s t e d  how t h e heat goes from t h i s w a t e r ( i n t h e b e a k e r ) i n t o  t o know that water,  ( i n the l i q u i d expansion apparatus) :  Through t h e g l a s s .  I t j u s t warms t h e g l a s s and then t h e g l a s s  warms t h a t . :  Does i t go r i g h t t h r o u g h t h e g l a s s ?  :  No.  W e l l i t warms t h e whole g l a s s up and t h e n t h e g l a s s warms t h e  w a t e r j u s t l i k e t h i s ( a p a i r o f t o n g s ) , i f y o u had t h i s h o t i t would warm t h e w a t e r . :  Now you s a i d  t h e h e a t , t h e r e ' s h e a t i n h e r e (E p i c k s up t h e t o n g s )  and then when you p u t i t i n t h e r e , t h e h e a t l e a v e s t h i s and goes into :  the water.  Does t h a t mean t h a t t h e r e ' s h e a t i n t h i s w a t e r ?  Y e s . T h a t ' s d e f i n i t e l y c o o l e r t h a n i t was, b u t maybe t h a t ' s  just  because i t was s i t t i n g . :  I f we u s e t h i s w a t e r i t ' s f a i r l y h o t .  I s t h e r e heat i n t h a t water?  : Yes. :  And i f we p u t t h a t ( t h e a p p a r a t u s ) i n t o t h e r e ( t h e w a t e r ) , what would happen t o t h e h e a t ?  :  I t would c o o l down.  :  You p u t t h i s i n t o h e r e and you s a y i t would c o o l down eh? would t h e h e a t do?  I f i t was o f f t h e h o t p l a t e . What  What would happen to t h e h e a t ?  :  W e l l t h i s ( t h e a p p a r a t u s ) would t a k e some o f t h e h e a t up.  :  So where would t h e h e a t go?  :  Into t h i s .  :  How would i t do t h a t ?  :  By warming t h e g l a s s and t h e g l a s s warms t h e w a t e r , o r whatever the  :  (the apparatus)  substance i s i n there.  I s t h e r e h e a t down i n t h e r e ?  Would t h e r e be?  : Yes. :  Do you suppose t h e h e a t ' s g o t a n y t h i n g t o do w i t h t h e w a t e r  :  The h e a t y e s .  Yes d e f i n i t e l y cause I h e l d my hand t h e r e .  rising?  151  E:  How do you suppose t h e heat makes i t r i s e ?  S:  I don't know.  E:  Yes t h a t ' s a tough q u e s t i o n  S:  I couldn't  E:  You don't have any i d e a s .  cause I'm n o t r e a l l y  sure.  even guess a t t h a t .  have a t a l l .  I'm i n t e r e s t e d i n any i d e a s t h a t you may  You c a n t h i n k about i t f o r a w h i l e  and do some o t h e r  and we c a n go on  t h i n g s i f y o u want.  Do you t h i n k you c a n t e l l me how h o t t h i s w a t e r i s ? S:  I t ' s quite hot.  I t h i n k we c o u l d use t h a t as a thermometer.  Because  we c o u l d measure how f a s t i t would go up f o r a c e r t a i n h e a t . we'd and we'd  have t o g e t a r e a l thermometer and t e s t t h e h e a t o f t h i s w a t e r t h e n we p u t i n h e r e and t e s t how f a s t i t w o u l d go up and t h e n g e t an i d e a .  Then we'd have t o have c o o l i n g w a t e r b u t i t would  have t o be warmer than t h i s f o r i t t o the w a t e r .  go up and t e s t t h e h e a t o f  Then p u t t h i s up and see how s l o w l y i t goes up and t h e n  we c a n j u s t g e t some d i f f e r e n t w a t e r t h a t has t o be a l i t t l e t h a n t h i s , p u t t h i s i n w i t h o u t no t e m p e r a t u r e o r n o t h i n g  E:  First  hotter  and see  how f a s t i t goes up and we c o u l d e s t i m a t e  i t and p u t t h e thermometer  i n t o t h e w a t e r and see how c l o s e we a r e .  Do y o u want t o do t h a t ?  Unfortunately  we p r o b a b l y need a s t o p watch w o u l d n ' t we?  you what, t h e r e ' s  I'll  tell  some o t h e r t h i n g s t h a t I want t o do, t h a t I want  t o t a l k t o you about and i f we have some t i m e w e ' l l t r y t h a t . T h a t ' s (the m e t a l p l a t e t h a t was r e s t i n g on t h e h o t p l a t e ) h o t now.  Now.  fairly  Do you know what t h i s i s ?  S:  I t ' s sort of a hot plate too.  E:  I t ' s asbestos a c t u a l l y .  S:  J u s t l i k e a t home, when y o u come i n w i t h t h e d i n n e r on a h o t p l a t e .  E:  Now what do you suppose i s g o i n g t o happen i f I were t o p u t t h i s on top o f t h a t p l a t e ?  (E p l a c e s h o t m e t a l p l a t e on a s b e s t o s pad and  m o t i o n s as i f t o p u t t h e e x p a n s i o n a p p a r a t u s on t h e h o t m e t a l p l a t e ) S:  I t would r a i s e t h e l e v e l . r i g h t down.  E:  F i r s t , l e t ' s c o o l t h i s down and g e t i t  (Referring to the l e v e l of the l i q u i d i n the apparatus)  I'm n o t g o i n g t o a c t u a l l y p u t i t on cause I t h i n k i t might c r a c k  this  152  it's  too hot.  J u s t t e l l me what you t h i n k might happen.  What  about t h e t e m p e r a t u r e ? S:  T h i s would go up q u i t e  fast.  E:  And what about t h e t e m p e r a t u r e o f t h i s w a t e r h e r e ?  S:  I t would h e a t .  E:  And what about t h a t , t h e t e m p e r a t u r e o f t h e m e t a l ?  S:  I t would c o o l down because i t ' s g i v i n g some o f i t ' s h e a t i n t o t h a t .  E:  So i t ' s t h e h e a t t h a t ' s d o i n g i t , and i f we s a t i t on t h e r e and l e f t i t on t h e r e f o r about 15 m i n u t e s what do you suppose would happen to the temperatures?  S:  They'd b o t h c o o l down p r o b a b l y .  T h i s ( t h e m e t a l p l a t e ) would  cool  down anyway i f y o u j u s t l e f t i t t h e r e cause t h e h e a t i s g o i n g i n t o the a i r . E:  J u s t disappears i n t o the a i r ?  How do you suppose i t d o e s . t h a t ?  S:  I t j u s t l e t s o f f t h e fumes I was t a l k i n g about l i k e h e a t was.  Probably  t h e r e ' s a l l s o r t s o f fumes i n t h a t m e t a l t h a t l e t s i t o u t g r a d u a l l y . E:  Do y o u t h i n k t h a t fumes go i n s i d e h e r e ( t h e a p p a r a t u s ) when i t h e a t s up?  S:  Y e s . How about j u s t l e a v i n g t h a t f o r about 15 m i n u t e s and t h e n w e ' l l see i f i t c o o l s down o r n o t .  Task Number E:  Two  Now I have t h i s h o t w a t e r .  You were g o i n g t o t e l l me, y o u want t o  guess how h o t t h a t i s ? S:  I don't know.  About 180 d e g r e e s .  Which i s b o i l i n g t e m p e r a t u r e a g a i n ?  E:  F o r w a t e r I t h i n k i s 212 o r something l i k e  S:  Yes I t h i n k i t ' s about 180 o r 160.  E:  I s t h e r e any way we c o u l d f i n d o u t ?  S:  Get a  E:  I j u s t happen t o have one w h i c h i s v e r y handy.  that.  thermometer. Now you n o t i c e t h e r e ' s  two s c a l e s on t h a t . S:  Y e s . T h i s i s t h e s c a l e we're l o o k i n g a t r i g h t ?  E:  W e l l no you were t a l k i n g about t h e o t h e r s c a l e . the name o f t h a t s c a l e i s ?  S:  No.  E:  That's c a l l e d a Fahrenheit s c a l e .  Do you know what  153  S:  I t seems t o be 145.  E:  W e l l you guessed 160 d i d n ' t y o u .  That's p r e t t y c l o s e .  about t h i s one ( c o l d w a t e r ) i n h e r e ?  Now what  Do you want t o guess f i r s t ?  S:  I'd say 50 t o 70 d e g r e e s .  E:  You're g i v i n g y o u r s e l f a l i t t l e b i t o f range t h i s t i m e .  S:  I t ' s stopped now.  I'm t a k i n g t h e t e m p e r a t u r e s from a p o o l .  know t h a t a p o o l ' s h e a t e d t o 80 d e g r e e s .  You  I f e e l the water i n the  p o o l and f e e l t h i s . E:  Yes i t ' s about 60.  O.K.  and what was t h i s 145?  S:  I t ' s p r o b a b l y about 140 now.  I t ' s c o o l i n g down (S measures t h e  temperature o f the hot water again) E:  W e l l i t looks l i k e you're r i g h t . quite a b i t before.  O.K.  You must have s t u d i e d t e m p e r a t u r e s  l e t ' s say i t ' s 140.  Now I want you t o  t e l l me what t h e t e m p e r a t u r e o f t h a t w i l l b e , t h i s w a t e r .  (E  pours a s m a l l amount o f h o t w a t e r o u t i n t o a n o t h e r s m a l l b e a k e r ) W i t h o u t t o u c h i n g i t (as S s t a r t e d t o p u t h i s hand i n t o t h e w a t e r ) S:  100 t o 120.  E:  And t h i s one?  (S pours more h o t w a t e r i n t o a second s m a l l beaker  about t w i c e as much as i n t h e f i r s t s m a l l b e a k e r ) S:  130.  E:  Why do you t h i n k t h a t one i s h i g h e r t h a n t h a t one?  S:  Cause t h e r e ' s more i n i t .  E:  And what about t h i s w a t e r ?  (the hot water i n the o r i g i n a l  large  container) S:  T h a t ' s 140.  There's more o f t h a t .  E:  How d i d t h a t w a t e r go from 140 t o 120?  (the water i n the f i r s t  s m a l l beaker) S:  Because t h e g l a s s i s c o o l e r .  E:  Have you e v e r seen a n y t h i n g l i k e t h a t b e f o r e ?  (E b r i n g s out t h e  two chamber m i x i n g box) S:  No.  E:  Do you want t o t a k e a l o o k a t i t ?  S:  Does t h i s r i s e ?  (S p o i n t s t o t h e b a r r i e r i n t h e box)  —  154  E:  I t ' sjust a l i t t l e tight.  What we're g o i n g t o do, I'm g o i n g t o  pour some o f t h i s w a t e r t h a t was 140 i n t o t h e r e and pour an e q u a l amount i n t o t h a t s i d e .  And t h a t was what —  It  i s e q u a l , about t h e same?  Now what do you t h i n k t h e t e m p e r a t u r e  of  t h i s w a t e r would be r i g h t now? O.K.  60 was i t ?  S:  D i d you pour i t from t h e b i g g l a s s ?  110.  E:  And t h i s w a t e r w o u l d be?  S:  T h a t was 60 r i g h t ?  E:  Why do you t h i n k 70?  E:  Cause t h i s g l a s s ( t h e b e a k e r ) h e r e would p r o b a b l y be t h e same tempe-  70.  r a t u r e and t h i s g l a s s (S p o i n t s t o t h e m i x i n g box) would be warmer.  T h e r e f o r e i t would warm t h e w a t e r a b i t .  E:  T h i s g l a s s ( t h e b e a k e r ) would be t h e same t e m p e r a t u r e a s ?  S:  The w a t e r , and t h i s ( t h e m i x i n g box) would p r o b a b l y be room temper a t u r e o r p r o b a b l y warmer t h a n t h a t .  E:  How l e t ' s say t h a t we l e t t h i s s i t f o r about t e n m i n u t e s what do you t h i n k , would t h i s the  (E p o i n t s t o t h e h o t w a t e r s i d e ) t e m p e r a t u r e be  same?  S:  No.  E:  What would i t be?  S:  P r o b a b l y about 80 t o 90 d e g r e e s .  E:  And t h i s t e m p e r a t u r e ?  S:  Around 80 d e g r e e s , around t h e r e .  E:  About t h e same?  S:  Because t h e y would go to. room t e m p e r a t u r e ?  E:  You t h o u g h t t h i s would be 80 o r 90 and you.thought t h i s would be about 70 o r 80.  (E p o i n t s t o t h e c o l d  side)  Why do you suppose i t would be t h e same?  Would t h e y go h i g h e r t h a n room t e m p e r a t u r e ?  S:  No.  I don't t h i n k s o .  E:  So you t h i n k i t would be 70 more t h a n 80.  S:  Yes.  E:  Why d i d you t h i n k i t m i g h t be 80?  S:  W e l l i t might be a l i t t l e warmer because o f t h e g l a s s .  E:  Do you t h i n k i t makes any d i f f e r e n c e h a v i n g t h a t b a r r i e r Do you t h i n k any h e a t w i l l go?  there?  155  W e l l y e s t h a t ' s why.  I t h i n k t h e y ' l l be t h e same d e g r e e s .  No I don't want t o i n f l u e n c e y o u , b u t why do y o u t h i n k t h e y ' l l be about t h e same? Because t h e y might j u s t , t h e y ' r e a l m o s t r i g h t t o g e t h e r now.  It is  a l m o s t as i f you mixed them w i t h t h a t b a r r i e r . What do y o u t h i n k t h a t b a r r i e r  does?  I t j u s t t a k e s t h e h o t w a t e r i n t o t h e c o l d w a t e r j u s t l i k e I was t a l k i n g about b e f o r e . I t takes the hot water i n t o the c o l d water? W e l l i t t a k e s t h e h e a t , t h e c o l d h e a t i n t o t h e warm h e a t . So i s some h e a t c o l d and some h e a t warm? Urn, y e s . How do y o u suppose i t would do t h a t ?  Does i t go t h r o u g h t h a t ?  (E  points to the b a r r i e r ) Yes, u n l e s s t h i s i s a s p e c i a l g l a s s . No I t h i n k i t ' s j u s t made o u t o f g r e e n m a t e r i a l so i t would differently.  look  L e t ' s j u s t p r e t e n d h e r e f o r a minute t h a t we have,  have you e v e r seen a m i c r o s c o p e b e f o r e ? Yes. L e t ' s s a y we had a r e a l p o w e r f u l m i c r o s c o p e and suppose look a t the i n s i d e o f that b a r r i e r .  t h a t we c o u l d  What might i t l o o k l i k e  inside?  Do you suppose t h a t you c o u l d draw f o r me on t h e b l a c k b o a r d how you t h i n k t h a t t h e , when you s a y t h e c o l d h e a t would go t h i s way and t h e warm h e a t would go t h e o t h e r way.  How m i g h t t h a t l o o k ?  Do y o u  t h i n k you might be a b l e t o do something l i k e t h a t f o r me? Yes.  I know e x a c t l y how i t would l o o k .  Here's t h e b a r r i e r  and  i n s i d e i s s o r t o f bubbles l i k e t h a t , a i r bubbles, s m a l l s m a l l , s m a l l a i r b u b b l e s . (S draws t h e f o l l o w i n g d i a g r a m on t h e b l a c k b o a r d )  °D t>  t  v  j  0  &  "  6  yttft.<• >  v vC '  g*V>V>U  C  Hot  pP  *7>0  s; <w  156  E:  This i s i n s i d e the b a r r i e r ? the  Which i s t h e c o l d w a t e r and w h i c h i s  hot water?  S:  This i s the cold water.  E:  And t h i s i s t h e h o t .  So, i n s i d e t h e b a r r i e r t h e r e ' s t i n y a i r b u b b l e s .  You t h i n k y o u c o u l d s e e t h o s e ?  How do y o u suppose t h e , how does t h e  c o l d heat and the warm h e a t go t h r o u g h t h e r e ? S:  W e l l t h i s h e a t (S p o i n t s t o h o t s i d e ) h e a t s t h e —  I ' l l draw some  b u b b l e s down h e r e t o o ( a t t h e b o t t o m o f t h e b a r r i e r ) .  This hot  w a t e r h e a t s t h i s ( t h e b a r r i e r ) and i t t r a v e l s t h r o u g h h e r e . And t h i s c o l d w a t e r c o o l s t h i s ( t h e b a r r i e r ) and i t t r a v e l s t h r o u g h h e r e and i t j u s t meets and t h e n t h i s would be a l l t h e same temperature, this barrier. E:  I s t h i s the c o l d water t h a t ' s t r a v e l l i n g through or i s i t the heat?  S:  I t ' s the heat.  E:  What do you suppose t h e , what happens t o t h e a i r b u b b l e s ?  S:  I don't know.  I guess n o t h i n g .  Unless the heat, l i k e  t h e r e might be  h o t a i r i n t h i s one and c o l d a i r i n t h i s one. (S p o i n t s t o d i f f e r e n t b u b b l e s i n t h e diagram) hot heat, r i g h t ? tap  I know.  C o l d h e a t t r a v e l s f a s t e r than  I t ' s more p o w e r f u l , because when you t u r n on t h e  a t t h e same speed, s a y y o u have two n o z z l e s , y o u t u r n o n b o t h  t a p s and you p u t i n t h e p l u g i n t h e s i n k .  Then you have them b o t h  g o i n g a t t h e same speed, c o l d and h o t , and when you s t o p them, i t w i l l be more c o l d t h a n h o t , t h e w a t e r . E:  So you t h i n k c o l d h e a t i s what?  S:  So t h i s w i l l o b v i o u s l y c o o l .  E:  Do you t h i n k t h o s e b u b b l e s have a n y t h i n g t o do w i t h i t though?  S:  No I don't t h i n k s o .  E:  I f we had t h i s r e a l p o w e r f u l m i c r o s c o p e , do you suppose t h a t we c o u l d see t h i s h e a t ?  T h i s might grow a l i t t l e warmer. ,  Do you t h i n k we c o u l d see h e a t ?  Would t h e  c o l d h e a t l o o k any d i f f e r e n t from t h e warm h e a t ? S:  No I don't t h i n k s o . Yes maybe i t w o u l d . know what i t would l o o k  E:  like.  So why d i d you p u t t h e a i r b u b b l e s i n ?  Yes i t w o u l d , b u t I don't  157  Cause I know t h a t ' s what i t l o o k s l i k e  i n the g l a s s .  Does a l l g l a s s have a i r b u b b l e s i n i t ? Y e s , e v e r y t h i n g does. Everything? Yes I t h i n k s o . Does w a t e r have a i r b u b b l e s i n i t ? Yes.  I t has t o , how do f i s h b r e a t h e ?  keep a f i s h  Unless i t ' s cut o f f .  i n a c o n t a i n e r o f w a t e r so i t c a n l i v e  I f you  i n that water  you know, i t c a n ' t be f r e s h w a t e r u n l e s s i t ' s a f r e s h w a t e r  fish,  t h e n c u t o f f t h e a i r , you know, p u t a s e a l o v e r t h i s , have a c o u p l e of f i s h  i n t h e r e and i n a c o u p l e o f days t h e y ' d use up a l l t h e a i r  b u b b l e s and t h e y ' d d i e cause t h e r e would be no a i r g e t t i n g i n t o the w a t e r . Have you e v e r t r i e d t h a t o r you j u s t t h i n k t h a t ' s what would happen. I know t h a t , I t h i n k I know. I'm i n t e r e s t e d i n what you t h i n k might happen i f we p u l l t h a t b a r r i e r up.  O.K.  l e t ' s p u l l t h a t b a r r i e r up.  Now what do you suppose i s  g o i n g t o happen? I t w i l l . m i x , the water.  I t w i l l a l l be t h e same t e m p e r a t u r e .  It  won't be t h e same t e m p e r a t u r e , i t w i l l be a d i f f e r e n t t e m p e r a t u r e b u t i t w i l l be a l i t t l e h o t t e r than t h e c o l d w a t e r was t o s t a r t w i t h b u t t h e h o t w a t e r w i l l be c o l d e r t h a n i t was t o s t a r t w i t h . So what do you t h i n k ?  The t e m p e r a t u r e on t h i s s i d e was 140 d i d we s a y  That was 140 and t h a t was 60. And what do you t h i n k t h e f i n a l Between 80 and 90.  t e m p e r a t u r e o f t h a t m i x t u r e might be?  P r o b a b l y 95.  How d i d you a r r i v e a t t h a t ? W a i t , I ' l l f i g u r e i t o u t a n o t h e r way.  The h o t water was 140 and t h e  c o l d w a t e r was 60 so what's i n between t h a t ? I guess 100.  So i n between t h a t i s  And t h e n t h e c o l d w a t e r w i l l c o o l down t h e h e a t so I  t h i n k i t w i l l be e x a c t l y what I s a i d between 90 and 95, t h a t ' s what I t h i n k now. You l o s t me i n t h a t l a s t b i t , you s a i d f i r s t i t would be 100 and then you s a i d t h e c o l d w a t e r w i l l do what?  158  S:  Cool down the heat a b i t .  E:  I don't understand what you mean by that.  S:  Well the cool water sort of rules the hot water, so i t would be a l i t t l e cooler than half way.  E:  Do you want to t r y i t ?  S:  Yes. Well I was wrong about that.  E:  Let's t r y a l i t t l e d i f f e r e n t mixture t h i s time.  I t i s 82 degrees. Why do you suppose  I t was 82? S:  The cold water would r u l e i t . l i t t l e more than I expected.  I guess the cold water rules i t a Do you want me to put t h i s (the bar-  r i e r ) back in? E:  Yes. Now l e t ' s t r y a l i t t l e d i f f e r e n t one t h i s time. water yes. Put that much cold water i n there. periment you'd l i k e to try?  Is there an ex-  Do you see what I'm t r y i n g to do?  One of them has twice as much. water)  That's cold  (the hot side has twice as much  Now l e t ' s ask the same sort of questions.  What do you  think w i l l happen a f t e r 10 minutes or so? What do you think the temperature of this (hot) water w i l l be? S:  After 10 minutes?  Do you take t h i s out? (S points to the b a r r i e r )  E:  No with i t i n .  S:  I t w i l l be around 100 degrees.  E:  And i t was o r i g i n a l l y about 140.  And what do you think that water  (cold) w i l l be? S:  About 80 degrees.  No 70.  E:  And why do you think i t w i l l be 70?  S:  Because the hot water w i l l warm this. (S points to the cold side) And the other water w i l l cool the hot.  E:  And i t wouldn't get any hotter than the 70? want to p u l l i t again.  O.K. l e t ' s , do you  What do you think the temperature of that  water w i l l be now? S:  95 to 100 no 95 to 105.  E:  Now why do you think that?  S:  I know i t w i l l be a l i t t l e hotter than i t was before because there's more hot water, that's why.  159  E:  O.K.  do you want to try i t .  I t looks l i k e you were r i g h t on  that time. S:  I t ' s 102 or 103.  Task Number Three E:  O.K.  What do you think some of those things are?  aluminium tray containing a number of d i f f e r e n t  (E brings out an objects)  S:  Cubes and sort of c i r c l e s round you know.  E:  Can you t e l l me what those cubes and round things are made out of?  S:  Sugar.  E:  Which one i s sugar?  S:  This one.  E:  Do you want to smell that sugar?  S:  No, what i s i t ?  E:  Have you ever smelled that smell before?  S:  Yes, I can't remember what i t i s .  E:  Have you ever seen them i n a trunk that your mother keeps closed?  (S points to a mothball) Does i t smell l i k e sugar?  To protect them against moths. S:  Oh yes, that's r i g h t .  E:  Now do you know what i t i s ?  S:  No, I uh mothballs?  E:  That's r i g h t .  S:  Metal, butter, wood, t i n , brass, sugar.  E:  Now I'm just going to move a few of these things here so that we can  What about these other things?  keep them separated.  What do you suppose we're going to do with  these? S:  I don't know.  I guess that's just the weight of i t , i t f e l t l i k e  a magnet a b i t . E:  What do you suppose that i s ?  (E places another object on the tray)  S:  I can't see i t . Ice cubes?  E:  Yes. Now do you know what I'm going to do with i t ?  (the tray f u l l  of objects) S: No. E:  Do you know why I put t h i s up here?  (E places the tray on the hot plate)  16Q  S:  Are you going to melt i t ?  E:  I don't know, do you suppose that would  S:  You're going to put a l l these on there (the hot plate) right?  E: Yes; S:  You're going to see which melts f i r s t and see which heats f i r s t . Now I think the i c e w i l l melt f i r s t , then the butter, and then the  sugar and the wood w i l l , w e l l i t w i l l heat f i r s t .  E:  What about the mothball?  S:  What i s a mothball made out of?  E:  I don't know.  What's i t f e e l l i k e ?  S:  Sort of s a l t y .  How are these made?  E:  I r e a l l y don't know.  S:  What makes them?  E:  I think they're manufactured some place.  S:  Why to you put mothballs i n a trunk?  E:  To keep moths away.  S:  Well I never knew that before.  You know what moths do to clothes. I always thought a mothball was some-  thing that moths made. E:  So you think, which i s going to melt f i r s t ?  S:  The i c e .  E:  The i c e cube and then?  S:  The butter, the sugar and then the mothball i f i t does melt at a l l .  E:  Do you think i t might not melt at a l l ?  S:  Yes, I don't know, does s a l t melt?  E:  I haven't got any. Maybe you could t r y i t some other time.  Do you want to t r y i t ? What  about brass? S:  O.K.  Now i t won't melt.  E:  You don't think i t w i l l melt?  S:  I t w i l l i f i t gets to a c e r t a i n extent. they moulded this?  You know, how do you think  I t w i l l but I don't think i t would melt a l o t .  And the wood w i l l get hot I suppose, I don't think i t w i l l burn. E:  What about the wire?  S:  Well i t w i l l get hot.  (solder r o l l e d up into a b a l l ) I ' l l show you what get's hot f i r s t .  The wire  w i l l get hot f i r s t , no the t i n w i l l get hot f i r s t , the wire and the  161  brass l a s t .  And t h e n , no t h e wood l a s t , then t h e b r a s s and t h e n  t h e wood. E:  When you say g e t h o t , what does t h a t mean?  S:  Heat up.  E:  And how w i l l we know?  S:  Feel i t .  E:  J u s t by f e e l i n g i t , and we wouldn't  S:  No.  E:  Why don't t h e s e o t h e r t h i n g s m e l t ?  S:  You mean t h e s e t h i n g s ?  They a r e s o l i d  E:  T h i s (sugar) i s s o l i d .  So i s t h i s ( i c e cube)  S:  They have g o t a i r b u b b l e s .  E:  Have you any i d e a why some t h i n g s m e l t and o t h e r s don't?  S:  Because they have, uh I don't know.  E:  Do you want t o put i t cn? (S p u t s t r a y on t h e h o t p l a t e )  see i t m e l t ?  substances.  I don't know.  Now what's  happening? S:  The i c e i s m e l t i n g and t h e m o t h b a l l i s m e l t i n g .  E:  W e l l i t l o o k s l i k e y o u were r i g h t . did  The sugar  isn't.  I d i d n ' t n o t i c e which melted  first  you?  S:  W e l l y o u c a n ' t r e a l l y t e l l w i t h t h e w a t e r and t h e b u t t e r .  E:  Now how about t h o s e o t h e r t h i n g s , do you suppose they a r e g e t t i n g h o t ? I wonder how we'd f i n d o u t . the wood w i t h a thermometer)  (S a t t e m p t s t o t a k e t h e t e m p e r a t u r e o f Can you see t h e temperature?  S:  I t ' s 95 degrees r i g h t now.  E:  What about some o f t h e o t h e r t h i n g s ? take i t o f f .  A c t u a l l y I t h i n k we'd b e t t e r  What i s g o i n g t o happen when I t a k e i t o f f ?  S:  I t w i l l c o o l down.  E:  What about (S i n t e r r u p t s )  S:  The b u t t e r i s h o t t e r (S p r o c e e d s Now i t i s n ' t so h o t .  t o touch some o f t h e 32 o b j e c t s )  That ( b r a s s ) i s t h e h o t t e s t , t h a t ' s ( s t e e l )  t h e second h o t t e s t , t h a t ' s (wood) t h e c o o l e s t . melt. E:  T h i s doesn't  even  The s u g a r .  Why do you suppose i t d o e s n ' t m e l t ?  Why d i d you t h i n k i t would m e l t ?  162  S:  I know.  I always thought i t was the heat i n the coffee that would  melt the thing (the sugar) but I guess i t ' s just the l i q u i d . E:  Melt the?  S:  Melt the sugar i n the coffee.  E:  I suppose there's a way we could find out that couldn't we?  S: Yes. E:  How would we do that?  S:  Get the water back again.  E:  That's something you could t r y at home. cube didn't melt?  Why do you suppose the sugar  No, l e t ' s t r y i t the other way around.  Why did  you think i t would melt? S:  Because of the heat.  Like I always thought i t was the heat i n the  coffee, that would make i t melt. E:  But now I know i t ' s the l i q u i d .  You think i t ' s the heat that makes the butter melt and the i c e cube?  S: Yes. E:  How does i t do that, do you suppose?  S:  I know that from making fresh buttered popcorn  you melt the butter.  And i c e cubes melt i n the sun. E:  How do you suppose the heat does that?  (10 second pause)  Could you  use our powerful microscope again and t e l l me how you think, say some" thing like a piece of i c e melts, take a look at a piece of i c e here. S:  I t w i l l melt because of the room temperature.  E:  And what's making i t melt?  S:  The room temperature or the temperature of that.  (the paper towel on  which the i c e cube was resting) E:  How does i t do that?  S:  Because t h i s (ice cube) i s on the surface.  E:  How does the room temperature make i t melt?  S:  Just from the heat waves.  E:  And what do the heat waves do?  S:  They transfer into that (ice cube) and make i t water, cycle i t back to water, I guess that's what you c a l l i t . Just l i k e when you take the steam into water, f i r s t you.have water, then make i t into steam, then  163  you have water again. It's not important.  What do you c a l l that again?  Do you suppose we could measure the temperature  of that i c e cube? Yes. What do you think the temperature of that might be? What i s freezing temperature? be 32 degrees. Why  No.  Oh yes 32 degrees.  I think that w i l l  I think i t w i l l be 15 degrees.  do you think i t w i l l be colder?  I j u s t think i t i s . What do you think the temperature of that would be?  (E brings out  a much larger i c e cube) Around 15 degrees.  Same temperature.  Same temperature even though i t ' s bigger? Yes. Now  i f we put that, i f I take this and I put this i c e cube into here  (a beaker of water) what do you suppose w i l l happen? It w i l l ' melt. Why w i l l i t melt? Because of the,that water. 60 degrees.  I t ' s hotter than 15 degrees cause i t i s  So i t i s warmer than the i c e cube and the heat rays  i n the water w i l l transfer into the i c e cube and melt i t back to water.  And that water w i l l r a i s e .  That water w i l l what? Raise what i t was. Which water? The water i n there, because of the i c e cube melting. Oh I see, you mean the l e v e l .  I thought you meant r a i s e the temperature.  What w i l l happen to the temperature of the water? This (the water) w i l l get colder. The water.  What about the temperature of the i c e cube, what w i l l  happen to i t ? It w i l l get warmer.  That's why i t w i l l melt.  How hot do you think we can get that i c e cube?  164  S:  Without melting i t ?  E:  Well i f we leave that i c e cube s i t t i n g i n warm water f o r 10 minutes, how hot do you think the i c e cube w i l l get?  S:  Well before melting you mean or just before i t disintegrates?  E:  Just how hot do you think the i c e cube i s now?  S:  The same temperature. No i t ' s 32 degrees or more, you know 33, 34, something l i k e that.  E:  Now could we get the temperature of i c e to go up even higher, l e t ' s say i f we put this (the i c e cube) on the heat.  S:  Yes I guess so. Before i t d i s i n t e g r a t e s , i t would get hot.  E:  How hot do you think i t would get?  S:  What i s the body temperature?  E:  I think i t ' s 90 something.  S:  I think i t would get up to 100 degrees, i t would probably get up to boiling.  E:  And then what would happen?  S:  Then i t couldn't get any higher.  U n t i l i t disintegrates and then  i t would b o i l . E:  And what would happen to the temperature o f the water?  S:  I t would get hotter too.  I t ' s the water that i s getting hot and  t r a n s f e r r i n g into the i c e cube.  I f i t i s i n the water but i f you  put the i c e cube on the hot plate alone, then i t would be the i c e cube i t s e l f that was getting hot. E:  Now i f I put this onto the hot plate by i t s e l f , what's getting hotter now?  S:  The i c e cube.  E:  And how hot do you think we can get i t ? I f we put a thermometer i n the middle of the i c e cube say to measure i t .  S:  What's b o i l i n g temperature?  E:  212.  S:  O.K.  E:  What about, now you were saying something about the water?  i t would get up to 212 degrees.  the water that's coming o f f the i c e cube?  Is that  165  S:  No i t ' s t h e w a t e r i n t h e r e .  (the beaker)  E:  So the w a t e r i n h e r e , what w i l l happen t o i t ?  S:  It  g o t h o t and t h e n t h e i c e cube g e t s h o t a t t h e same t i m e because  the w a t e r has fumes o f h e a t and i t goes i n t o the i c e cube. E:  T h a t ' s what I wanted t o know.  L e t me j u s t draw t h i s h e r e so I can  see i f I u n d e r s t a n d .  There's t h e j a r and h e r e ' s t h e w a t e r and  h e r e ' s t h e i c e cube.  Now  can you show me what you mean when you say  what's g e t t i n g h o t . S:  S h a l l I draw a h o t p l a t e t o o .  E:  No l e t ' s not p u t i t on a h o t p l a t e so i t ' s n o t on a h o t p l a t e .  S:  The w a t e r i s 70 d e g r e e s .  E:  L e t ' s say the w a t e r i s 70 d e g r e e s .  S:  Now  B e f o r e we put the i c e cube i n .  the fumes from h e r e ( t h e w a t e r ) go i n t o t h a t ( t h e i c e c u b e ) .  W h i l e t h e fumes i n h e r e ( t h e i c e cube) a r e about 70 d e g r e e s . E:  So the i c e cube t h e n becomes 70 d e g r e e s .  And t h e n what happens t o  the w a t e r ? S:  I t gets c o o l e r .  E:  Oh the w a t e r g e t s c o o l e r .  S:  I f i t ' s on a h o t p l a t e i t w o u l d .  E:  I see what you were meaning, i t was on t h e h o t p l a t e .  I thought you s a i d i t g o t h o t t e r .  i f i t was j u s t s t a n d i n g o u t .  No I meant  So what would t h e t e m p e r a t u r e o f t h e  water get to? S:  I t would be l o w e r .  E:  Why  S:  Because o f the i c e cube..  E:  L e t ' s say the i c e cube m e l t s down t o t h a t s i z e , so w e ' l l j u s t draw a  i s that?  s m a l l i c e cube i n h e r e , now how h o t do you t h i n k t h a t i c e cube i s , f i r s t o f a l l , t h i s i s 10 m i n u t e s , how h o t do you t h i n k t h a t w a t e r would be now? S:  5 5 - 6 0 degrees.  E:  O.K.  l e t ' s p u t t h a t down.  L e t ' s say 55 degrees O.K?  you t h i n k t h e i c e cube i s ? S:  The same t e m p e r a t u r e .  E:  You t h i n k i t would be the same t e m p e r a t u r e ?  Now  how h o t do  166  S:  No i t would be around 45 degrees.  Cause i t ' s getting hotter while  t h i s (the water) i s getting cooler. E:  I thought that the i c e cube was 70 degrees before.  S:  I was wrong.  Say i t was 30 degrees before.  No, i t was 35 degrees  before. Task Number Four E:  What do you suppose i s going to happen i f I heat that up? (E i n i t i a t e s a new task by bringing out.  rod with three pins attached  using wax) S:  The rod?  The wax w i l l melt and the pins w i l l drop.  E:  Have you done this before have you?  S: No. E:  How did you know that would happen?  S:  Cause I knew that was wax on there and that i t would melt as the rod got hot.  E:  Why i s that?  S:  Because i f you transfer the heat into the wax, the wax melts.  E:  Now what transfers the heat into the wax?  s;  The rod.  E:  But I'm heating the rod way over here.  S:  I know but the whole rod w i l l get hot.  E : Why i s that? S:  Cause, i t ' s a l l joined together, the same thing. heat i t over there.  How about i f we  (S points to a place on the rod close to the  pins) E:  Where?  S:  Right there.  You see i f those drop o f f , then we'll know.  Right?  Then w e ' l l know i f the rod get's hot. E:  Why do you think the whole rod gets hot?  S:  Cause i t ' s a l l one substance.  I t ' s a l l joined together.  I t keeps  on transferring the heat to there and to there a d there. u  E: S:  How do you suppose i t does that? I t just travels through the rod.  Just from the heat rays,you know. I  167  E:  Y e s . Does i t t r a v e l t h r o u g h a l l t h i n g s ?  S:  No.  E:  Does i t t r a v e l t h r o u g h t h e a i r ?  S: Y e s . E:  What t h i n g s d o e s n ' t i t t r a v e l through?  S:  I guess i t does t r a v e l t h r o u g h a l l  E:  Can't t h i n k o f a n y t h i n g t h a t i t d o e s n ' t ?  S:  No.  E:  I s i t hot there?  (10 second pause)  things.  (S s t a r t s t o t o u c h t h e r o d n e a r t h e f i r s t p i n ) I guess t h a t ' s a way o f f i n d i n g o u t i s n ' t i t ?  J u s t by f e e l i n g i t .  Which p i n do you t h i n k w i l l  fall?  (pin  n e a r e s t t h e c a n d l e flame d r o p s ) S:  I was j u s t about t o s a y t h a t .  E:  Why?  S:  Cause i t t r a v e l s a l o n g and so i t goes t o t h e r e and i t t r a v e l s t o t h e r e and t h e r e .  E:  I see.  (S motions a l o n g t h e r o d )  (E p l a c e s a number o f d i f f e r e n t s i z e s and t y p e s o f r o d s .  on t h e t a b l e i n f r o n t o f S)  Have y o u e v e r seen a n y t h i n g l i k e  these  before? S:  T h i s i s copper.  T h i s i s m e t a l I suppose.  (S p i c k s up an a l u m i n i u m  rod) E:  Now I haven't p u t p i n s on a l l t h o s e r o d s b u t what do y o u suppose t h i s one h e r e i s e x a c t l y t h e same as t h a t one t h e r e (a copper r o d s i m i l a r t o t h e one used i n t h e d e m o n s t r a t i o n ) will  t r a v e l f a s t e s t i n w h i c h rod?  Which do you t h i n k  (E a l s o hands S a much t h i c k e r  aluminium r o d ) S:  T h i s one (copper) to  E:  I t d o e s n ' t have as much r o d  get the heat t o .  What about between t h e s e two? rod  S:  Cause i t ' s s m a l l e r .  (E hands S a copper r o d and an a l u m i n i u m  o f t h e same s i z e )  T h i s one.  (copper)  Cause we d i d t h a t i n t h e o t h e r e x p e r i m e n t t o see  w h i c h one g o t h o t t e r and t h e copper one d i d . E:  W i t h t h e cubes?  S:  Yes.  E:  D i d we use one, we d i d n ' t use t h i s t y p e d i d we?  So t h i s one (copper) d e f i n i t e l y .  Remember?  168  S:  That's metal i s n ' t i t ?  E:  I t h i n k i t ' s a type o f m e t a l , y e s .  S:  We used i t , we had a m e t a l t u b e .  E:  Yes maybe we d i d .  So, why do you t h i n k i t t r a v e l s f a s t e r i n t h e  copper? S:  Cause i t ' s j u s t a c e r t a i n k i n d o f c h e m i c a l .  E:  Do y o u know why i t might t r a v e l f a s t e r h e r e (copper r o d ) t h a n i n here?(aluminium rod)  S:  No.  E:  Do y o u want t o f e e l i t ?  S:  W e l l t h i s (copper r o d ) i s d e f i n i t e l y h e a v i e r . it  E:  I t might j u s t because  i sbigger.  You s a i d i t would  t r a v e l f a s t e r i n t h e s m a l l e r r o d , when y o u had  t h e s e two. S:  T h a t ' s because they were t h e same s u b s t a n c e .  E:  O.K. l e t ' s t a k e a l o o k a t t h e s e two (E hands S a s o l i d copper and a h o l l o w copper r o d )  S:  A r e t h e y t h e same s u b s t a n c e ?  S: Y e s . S:  Then i t w i l l  t r a v e l f a s t e r i n t h i s one ( h o l l o w copper r o d )  E:  Why?  S:  Because i t d o e s n ' t have t o f i l l  i n the h o l e .  I t ' s h o l l o w . Because  j u s t t h e same as t h i s , o n l y t h i s i s s m a l l e r , i t doesn't have t o fill  as much and t h a t one i s s m a l l e r t h a n t h a t one I t h i n k .  E:  I t ' s s m a l l e r because?  S:  Because i t ' s h o l l o w .  E:  What about t h e s e two? hands S a s o l i d  Do you t h i n k i t would  and a h o l l o w g l a s s r o d )  S: Y e s . E:  Do y o u know what t h e s e a r e ?  S:  Glass.  E:  Which do you t h i n k i t w i l l  S:  A r e they b o t h h o l l o w ?  E:  No, t h i s one's s o l i d .  travel faster in?  t r a v e l i n t h e s e ? (E  169  S:  The h o l l o w one.  E:  You t h i n k i t w i l l  S:  No I don't.  travel faster  i n t h e h o l l o w one.  I've changed my whole t h i n g around.  a i r can g e t i n t h e r e and c o o l i t down. E:  I don't know.  S:  That's what I t h i n k . this  E:  I should t r y that.  ( s o l i d copper  Correct?  What do you t h i n k ?  T h i s ( s o l i d g l a s s rod) w i l l rod) w i l l  travel  L e t ' s t r y the g l a s s ones f i r s t .  Now, because t h e  t r a v e l f a s t e r and  faster.  You t h i n k i t w i l l  travel faster i n  the h o l l o w one o r the s o l i d one? S:  The s o l i d one.  E:  And the r e a s o n why?  S:  I s because the a i r can g e t i n t h e h o l l o w one and c o o l i t down.  E:  You t h i n k t h e a i r w i l l c o o l i t down?  S:  From the r a y s , j u s t l i k e i n t h e water, the room temperature and  E:  Why would i t do t h a t ? water  t h e h o t water.  And so t h a t would be a l s o t h e case h e r e  too?  S: Y e s . Task Number F i v e E:  O.K.  we're j u s t g o i n g to take a real q u i c k l o o k a t another  I'm c u r i o u s t o see what you might t h i n k o f t h i s .  thing  here.  Do you want t o j u s t  take a l o o k a t t h a t and s e e . S:  What i s i t ?  I t ' s a metal bar.  E:  That's the d i a l .  S:  A pin.  E:  A p i n on i t .  With,  I don't know what t h a t i s .  And c a n you see what's on the back o f t h e d i a l ?  Now watch what happens when I , I'm g o i n g t o r e s t t h e  m e t a l r o d on t h e p i n O.K?  Now watch what I'm g o i n g t o do now. (E slowly  moves the m e t a l r o d w i t h h i s hand so t h a t the d i a l t u r n s ) j u s t g o i n g to move the r o d a l o n g t h e r e l i k e t h a t . happens to the d i a l ?  And then I move i t back.  See I'm  Can you see what  So i f you move i t  t h a t way, the d i a l t u r n s t h a t way and i f you move i t t h i s way i t t u r n s t h a t way. needle. S:  Yes.  Now I'm g o i n g t o take and put t h a t r o d on the  I s t h a t j u s t about  There,  zero?  t h a t ' s p r e t t y good.  -  (E l i n e s up d i a l to zero p o i n t )  170  E:  Now what do you t h i n k we're g o i n g t o do?  S:  Heat the r o d ?  E:  Y e s , t h e n what's g o i n g t o happen?  S:  I t w i l l heat the p i n .  E:  Why  S:  Cause i t t r a n s f e r s h e a t .  E:  And t h e n what do you suppose might  S:  Heat t h e paper I g u e s s .  E:  I s a n y t h i n g happening?  do you t h i n k i t w i l l h e a t t h e p i n ? happen?  S: -Yes, i t ' s g e t t i n g d a r k . E:  D i d you s e t t h e d i a l a t z e r o ?  S:  Yes.  I t moved.  about 12 now.  I t ' s moving.  I t ' s a t 10.  How does t h a t do t h a t ?  E:  I gave you some c l u e s .  S:  W e l l i s t h e r o d moving?  E:  How do you t h i n k i t might do t h a t ?  S:  From t h e h e a t .  I t ' s moving, i t ' s a t  I can't understand i t .  I guess i t ' s m e l t i n g and s t r e t c h i n g .  I see i t m e l t i n g i n one p l a c e s o r t o f .  I t ' s 20  now.  I guess t h a t ' s t h e t e m p e r a t u r e , i t measures how h o t t h a t b a r i s eh? E:  W e l l how do you t h i n k i t does t h a t though?  Why  does t h a t move?  S:  I guess i t m e l t s t h a t and i t s t r e t c h e s and t h e n i t t u r n s t h e t h i n g .  E:  I s t h e r e something we c o u l d do t o t h a t t o f i n d o u t ?  S:  No. (E blows o u t t h e two c a n d l e s t h a t were h e a t i n g t h e r o d )  E:  I s a n y t h i n g h a p p e n i n g t o t h e d i a l now?  S:  No.  Hey i t ' s g o i n g back.  the  rod i s c o o l i n g o f f .  I t ' s g o i n g back t o z e r o .  I guess because  I t must s h r i n k .  E:  How do you suppose t h e h e a t makes i t do t h a t ?  S:  I don't know.  E:  Can you dream up any i d e a s ?  S:  I t ' s g o i n g back t o z e r o (15 second pause as E and S watch t h e e f f e c t of  the i c e cube on t h e r o d )  (E p l a c e s i c e cube on r o d )  I t ' s at zero.  E:  A r e you w a i t i n g t o see what happens when i t c o o l s down?  S:  Does t h a t r a i s e and go down?  E:  What?  171  S:  The r o d .  E:  No.  S:  I thought when you do t h a t , I thought I saw i t r a i s e .  E:  No I moved i t and i t moved back l i k e t h a t . Do you t h i n k a l l m e t a l s  Why?  would do t h a t ? S: Y e s . E:  What happens when you h e a t l i q u i d s up?  S:  When you h e a t l i q u i d s ?  E:  How does i t do t h a t ?  S:  J u s t from t h e h e a t .  I t rises.  I know! When you h e a t something l i k e h o t w a t e r ,  i t gets bubbles i n i t r i g h t ?  And when t h e b u b b l e s come i n , i t t a k e s  up space and t h a t ' s why t h e w a t e r  rises.  E:  Where do t h e b u b b l e s come from?  S:  I knew you were g o i n g t o a s k t h a t .  E:  Could you apply that i d e a t o the r o d here?  S:  Maybe t h e r o d r a i s e s no.  E:  W e l l i t i s l a t e so we had b e t t e r be g e t t i n g you back t o s c h o o l now.  I don't know.  I can't understand i t .  T h i s has stumped me.  172  APPENDIX B  Diagrams o f t h e I n t e r v i e w Room and t h e A p p a r a t u s Used i n Some o f t h e Tasks  173  Figure  B-l  Diagram of Room Used to Interview the Subjects  —>  Blackboard  S's Chair ) Microphone E's Chair  1  1 Tables <  :  —  Table f o r > storing apparatus  One-way mirror  ~> Camera  174  Figure  B-2  Diagrams of the Apparatus Used i n Some of the Interview Tasks  Task One  30 cm. > capillary tube One-hole rubber ^ stopper 125 ml. Erlenmeyer t flask  Coloured -> Water  The Liquid Expansion Apparatus"  Task  Removable barrier  Three  Water-Mixing Apparatus  175  Figure  Task  B-2  Continued  Four  Metal rod  P i n s embedded i n wax 7  & -> C a n d l e j  Wooden base T r a n s f e r o f Heat A p p a r a t u s  Task  Five Movable cardboard d i a l  Nail fastening rod t o frame  Wooden frame Linear Expansion Apparatus  Reference point on frame  176  APPENDIX C  A Copy o f t h e C o n c e p t u a l P r o f i l e  Instrument  Information Sheet  Name of School  Your Grade  Your Age  Have you ever studied about heat and temperature i n school?  If  yea, how long did you study i t ?  In what grade(s) did you study i t ?  178  IDEAS ABOUT HEAT AND TEMPERATURE  Today we are going to do some experiments on heat and temperature and play a type of word game about these experiments. Before we do the experiments I want to explain how to play the game. ANIMAL CRACKERS  I THINK IT'S THE RESULT ^ ' LOOP AT "THAT STAR, ELWOOP?) OF ATOMS AMD ELECTRON} S WlLDWSPINNING WtWlKTHE WHU DO 4O0 SUPPOSE ^ ATMOSPHERE O F NEUTRON THE, U6HT PULSATES ' „ STARS, THUS CAUSl/xl<S A U^EIT'S DOlM<S ? A fiLI^HTHOQSe-LllcE BEACON.  I'M 50(2T OF G-LAD I ' I  I" 8  DIDN'T <3H)& HIM MY  "SPACEMAN W>TH A FLASHLIGHT" THEORY...  Just as Elwood and Lyle had d i f f e r e n t ideas to explain a star i n the cartoon, people often have d i f f e r e n t ideas to explain heat and temperature. In the word game a f t e r the experiments you w i l l be shown a number of d i f f e r e n t statements that some people have used to explain what happened. I want to know how YOU FEEL about the ideas i n these statements. To p r a c t i s e , l e t ' s take a look at a statement about •sickness* and I ' l l show you how the game works. Suppose the statement wasi People get s i c k because THEY DO NOT GET ENOUGH VITAMINS. As you can see there are 2 parts to t h i s statement. The f i r s t part i n small print t e l l s us what the statement i s about. In t h i s example i t i s about people getting s i c k . The second part i s i n the box and i s i n CAPITAL LETTERS• It i s an IDEA explaining why people get sicko I want you to t e l l me how you f e e l about t h i s i d e a . After reading and thinking about the idea i n the box suppose that you decide that people always get s i c k when they do not get enough vitamins. Then you should put a mark i n the blank above "Very Much Agree" as shown belowi X i i Very Much Somewhat S l i g h t l y Agree Agree Agree  «  Neither Agree nor Disagree  «  Slightly Disagree  «  Somewhat Disagree  «  Very Much Disagree  179  But suppose you f e l t that people often get sick when they do not get enough vitamins. Then you should put a mark i n the blank above "Somewhat Agree" as shown belowi  Very Much Agree  t  X i Somewhat S l i g h t l y Agree Agree  t  Neither Agree nor Disagree  t  Slightly Disagree  t  Somewhat Disagree  t  Very Much Disagree  Or, you might f e e l that people only sometimes get sick when they do not have enough vitamins. Then you should mark the blank above " S l i g h t l y Agree" as shown belowi  Very Much Agree  « i X Somewhat S l i g h t l y Agree Agree  i  Neither Agree nor Disagree  t  Slightly Disagree  i  Somewhat Disagree  i  Very Much Disagree  Suppose that you r e a l l y cannot decide i f vitamins are related to sickness or not. What blank would you mark? REMEMBER that you should only mark one blank i n each row. I am also interested i n other ways you f e e l about the same i d e a . For example, i n the second row on each page you are to decide i f the idea i s c l e a r or confusing. There are s i x rows which ask you how you f e e l about the idea i n the box at the top of the page. You are to put ONE mark i n each row. L e t ' s work through two other ideas on sickness to see i f you understand how t h i s game works. We w i l l discuss any questions you may have a f t e r you have completed the next two pages•  People get s i c k because GERMS ENTER THEIR BODIES AND CAUSE INFECTIONS.  Very Much Agree  Somewhat Agree  Slightly Agree  Neither Agree nor Disagree  Slightly Disagree  Somewhat Disagree  Very Much Disagree  Very Clear  Somewhat Clear  Slightly Clear  Neither Clear nor Confusing  Slightly Confusing  Somewhat Confusing  VeTy" Confusing  Very Easy  Somewhat Easy  Slightly Easy  Neither Easy nor Difficult  Slightly Difficult  Somewhat Difficult  virT Difficult  Very True  Somewhat True  Slightly True  Neither True nor False  Slightly False  Somewhat False  Very False  Very Familiar  Somewhat Familiar  Slightly Familiar  Neither Familiar nor Unfamiliar  Slightly Unfamiliar  Somewhat Unfamiliar  Very Unfamiliar  Somewhat Unlike My Ideas  Very Much Unlike My Ideas  Very Much Like My Ideas  Somewhat Like My Ideas  Slightly Like My Ideas  Neither Like My Ideas nor Unlike My Trfoao  Slightly Unlike My Ideas  oo o  People get sick because THEY GET TOO MUCH SLEEP, j  Very Much Agree  Somewhat Agree  Slightly Agree  Neither Agree nor Disagree  Slightly Disagree  Somewhat Disagree  Very Much Disagree  Very Clear  Somewhat Clear  Slightly Clear  Neither Clear nor Confusing  Slightly Confusing  Somewhat Confusing  Very Confusing  Very Easy  Somewhat Easy  Slightly Easy  Neither Easy nor Difficult  Slightly Difficult  Somewhat Difficult  Very Difficult  Very True  Somewhat True  Slightly True  Neither True nor False  Slightly False  Somewhat False  Very Familiar  Very Much Like My Ideas  i  Somewhat Familiar  Somewhat Like My Ideas  i  Slightly Familiar  Slightly Like My Ideas  i  Neither Familiar nor Unfamiliar Neither Like My Ideas nor Unlike My Ideas  t  Slightly Unfamiliar  Slightly Unlike My Ideas  i  Somewhat Unfamiliar  Somewhat Unlike My Ideas  Very False i  Very Unfamiliar  Very Much Unlike My Ideas  The large rod heated up faster than the small rod because THE LARGE ROD ATTRACTS MORE HEAT PARTICLES THAN THE S^AUTRODF  V e  ILpp° Agree  h  S  clear oiear  ° Agree m  e  w  h  a  t  S  Clear  Easv *asy  S  Trll  °S!^ Easy  h a t  irue  ° S True  Very Familiar  Somewhat Familiar  Very Much Like My Ideas  S  t  a  Neither Agree nor Disagree  ^ y Clear  Neither „Clear nor . Confusing  h  S 1  t  Somewhat Like My Ideas  Slightly Agree  l  y Easy g h t l  N  e  i  t  h  e  Somewhat Disagree  ' Slightly Difficult  r  Easy nor Difficult  Slightly False  Somewhat False  Slightly Familiar  Neither Familiar nor Unfamiliar  Slightly Unfamiliar  Somewhat Unfamiliar  Slightly Like My Ideas  Neither Like My Ideas nor Unlike My  i  Slightly Unlike My Ideas  Ve^ Confusing &  Somewhat Difficult  Either True nor False  t  Very Much Disagree  Slightly Somewhat Confusing «— ~ Confusing .  lJgWly True  s  i  j  t  Slightly Disagree  t  Somewhat Unlike My Ideas  VeTy" Difficult  —VeTy" False  Very Unfamiliar  t  Very Much Unlike My Ideas  The large rod heated up faster than the small rod because THE LARGE ROD HAS MORE METAL PARTICLES TO MOVE AROUND.  Very Much Agree  Somewhat Agree  Slightly Agree  Neither Agree nor Disagree  Slightly Disagree  Somewhat Disagree  Very Much Disagree  Very Clear  Somewhat Clear  Slightly Clear  Neither Clear nor Confusing  Slightly Confusing  Somewhat Confusing  Very Confusing  Very Easy  Very True  i  »  Somewhat Easy  Somewhat True  i  i  Slightly Easy  Slightly True  i  i  Neither Easy nor Difficult Neither True nor False  Very Familiar  Somewhat Familiar  Slightly Familiar  Neither Familiar nor Unfamiliar  Very Much Like My Ideas  Somewhat Like My Ideas  Slightly Like My Ideas  Neither Like My Ideas nor Unlike My Ideas  t  i  Slightly Difficult  Slightly False  i  i  Somewhat Difficult  Somewhat False  i  i  Very Difficult  Very False  Slightly Unfamiliar  Somewhat Unfamiliar  Very Unfamiliar  Slightly Unlike My Ideas  Somewhat Unlike My Ideas  Very Much Unlike My Ideas  The large rod heated up f a s t e r than the small rod because THE LARGE ROD HAS MORE AIR SPACES INSIDE FOR THE HEAT TO TRAVEL THROUGH.  Very Much Agree  Somewhat Agree  Slightly Agree  Neither Agree nor Disagree  Slightly Disagree  Somewhat Disagree  Very Much Disagree  Very Clear  Somewhat Clear  Slightly Clear  Neither Clear nor Confusing  Slightly Confusing  Somewhat Confusing  Very Confusing  Very y  Somewhat Easy  Slightly Easy  Neither Easy nor Difficult  Slightly Difficult  Somewhat Difficult  Very" Difficult  Very True  Somewhat True  Slightly True  Neither True nor False  Slightly False  Somewhat False  VerV False  Very Familiar  Somewhat Familiar  Slightly Familiar  Neither Familiar nor Unfamiliar  Somewhat Unfamiliar  viFy" Unfamiliar  : 6»"j Like My Ideas  ncxojici. Like My Ideas nor  aomewnat Unlike My Ideas  Very Much Unlike My Ideas  E a s  f"i M Like My ideas  7Like My Ideas  v  u  A  H n H l f a Mir  i  Slightly Unfamiliar  axxgnxxy Unlike My Ideas  t  The whole rod gets hot because THE HEAT BUILDS UP IN ONE PART UNTIL IT CAN'T HOLD ANYMORE AND THEN THE HEAT MOVES ALONG THE ROD.  Very Much Agree  Somewhat Agree  Slightly Agree  Neither Agree nor Disagree  Slightly Disagree  Somewhat Disagree  Very Much Disagree  Very Clear  Somewhat Clear  Slightly Clear  Neither Clear nor Confusing  Slightly Confusing  Somewhat Confusing  Very Confusing  Very Easy  Somewhat Easy  Slightly Easy  Neither Easy nor Difficult  Slightly Difficult  Somewhat Difficult  Very Difficult  Very True  Somewhat True  Slightly True  Slightly False  Somewhat False  Very Familiar  Very Much Like My Ideas  i  Somewhat Familiar  Somewhat Like My Ideas  i  Slightly Familiar  Slightly Like My Ideas  Neither True nor False t  Neither Familiar nor Unfamiliar Neither Like My Ideas nor Unlike My Ideas  i  . Slightly Unfamiliar  Slightly Unlike My Ideas  i  Somewhat Unfamiliar  Somewhat Unlike My Ideas  Very False i  Very Unfamiliar  Very Much Unlike My Ideas  The whole rod gets hot because |  THE FASTER MOVING METAL PARTICLES BUMP INTO EACH OTHER ALL THE WAY THROUGH THE ROD.  Very Much Agree  Somewhat Agree  Slightly Agree  Neither Agree nor Disagree  Slightly Disagree  Somewhat Disagree  Very Much Disagree  Very Clear  Somewhat Clear  Slightly Clear  Neither Clear nor Confusing  Slightly Confusing;  Somewhat Confusing  Very Confusing  Very Easy  Somewhat Easy  Slightly Easy  Neither Easy nor Difficult  Slightly Difficult  Somewhat Difficult  Very Difficult  Very True  Somewhat True  Slightly True  Neither True nor False  Slightly False  Somewhat False  Very False  Very Familiar  Somewhat Familiar  Slightly Familiar  Neither Familiar nor Unfamiliar  Slightly Unfamiliar  Somewhat Unfamiliar  Very Unfamiliar  Very Much Like My Ideas  Somewhat Like My Ideas  Slightly Like My Ideas  Neither Like My Ideas nor Unlike My Ideas  Slightly Unlike My Ideas  Somewhat Unlike My Ideas  Very Much Unlike My Ideas  The whole rod gets hot because THE HEAT PARTICLES FROM THE FLAME ARE ATTRACTED TO ALL PARTS OF THE ROD.  Very Much Agree  Somewhat Agree  Slightly Agree  Neither Agree nor Disagree  Slightly Disagree  Somewhat Disagree  Very Much Disagree  Very Clear  Somewhat Clear  Slightly Clear  Neither Clear nor Confusing  Slightly Confusing  Somewhat Confusing  Very" Confusing  Very Easy  Somewhat Easy  Slightly Easy  Neither Easy nor Difficult  Slightly Difficult  Somewhat Difficult  Very Difficult  Very True  Somewhat True  Slightly True  Neither True nor False  Slightly False  Somewhat False  Very False  Very Familiar  Somewhat Familiar  Slightly Familiar  Neither Familiar nor Unfamiliar  Slightly Unfamiliar  Somewhat Unfamiliar  Very Unfamiliar  Very Much Like My Ideas  Somewhat Like My Ideas  Slightly Like My Ideas  Neither Like My Ideas nor Unlike My Ideas  Slightly Unlike My Ideas  Somewhat Unlike My Ideas  Very Much Unlike My Ideas  The wax melted because | IT WAS A SOFT SUBSTANCE.  V e  JLl« Agree  C h  m  e  w  h  a  t  Slightly Agree  Neither Agree nor Disagree  p?IL Clear  Somewhat Clear  Slightly Clear  Neither Clear nor Confusing  Very *asy  Somewhat Easy  Slightly Easy  Neither Easy nor Difficult  °?r.  S  Trul  True  Like S? M  is-j?  at  True  FalnLr* Familiar  V  ° Agree  S  h  Slightly True  Somewhat Familiar  Slightly Familiar  T ?vrS  Slightly  S  ^  a t  ^  Slightly Disagree  Somewhat Disagree  Very Much Disagree  n~~*..~t±-  Slightly Confusing  Somewhat Confusing  Very _ . Confusing  Slightly Difficult  Somewhat Difficult  _  y  VeTy" Difficult  Neither True nor False  Slightly False  Somewhat False  Neither Familiar nor Unfamiliar  Slightly Unfamiliar  Somewhat Unfamiliar  v^Z Unfamiliar  Slightly  Somewhat  Very Much  Neither Unlike My Ideas  ^  M s  vir7 False  y  The wax melted because THE HEAT PARTICLES WENT INSIDE AND FORCED THE WAX PARTICLES APART•  Very Much Agree  Somewhat Agree  Slightly Agree  Neither Agree nor Disagree  Slightly" Disagree  Somewhat' Disagree  Very Much Disagree  Very Clear  Somewhat Clear  Slightly Clear  Neither Clear nor Confusing  Slightly" Confusing  Somewhat Confusing  VeTy" Confusing  Very fcasy  Somewhat Easy  Slightly Easy  Neither Easy nor Difficult  Slightly Difficult  Somewhat Difficult  ! S  Somewhat  Slightly True  Neither True nor False  Slightly False  Somewhat False  Slightly Unfamiliar  Somewhat Unfamiliar  Very Unfamiliar  Slightly Unlike My Ideas  Somewhat Unlike My Ideas  Very Much Unlike My Ideas  T  r  u  e  T  r  u  e  Very Familiar  Somewhat Familiar  Slightly Familiar  Neither Familiar nor Unfamiliar  Very Much Like My Ideas  Somewhat Like My Ideas  Slightly Like My Ideas  Neither Like My Ideas nor Unlike My Ideas  '  Very Difficult  ~ T i r T False  The wax melted because THE WAX PARTICLES WERE MOVING ABOUT SO FAST THAT THEY COULD NOT HOLD ON TO EACH OTHER SO WELL.  Very Much Agree  Somewhat Agree  Slightly Agree  Neither Agree nor Disagree  Slightly Disagree  Somewhat Disagree  Very Much Disagree  Very Clear  Somewhat Clear  Slightly Clear  Neither Clear nor Confusing  Slightly Confusing  Somewhat Confusing  Very Confusing  Very Easy  Somewhat Easy  Slightly Easy  Neither Easy nor Difficult  Slightly Difficult  Somewhat Difficult  Very Difficult  Very True  Somewhat True  Slightly True  Neither True nor False  Slightly False  Somewhat False  Very False  Very Familiar  Somewhat Familiar  Slightly Familiar  Neither Familiar nor Unfamiliar  Slightly Unfamiliar  S omewhat Unfamiliar  Very Unfamiliar o  Very Much Like My Ideas  Somewhat Like My Ideas  Slightly Like My Ideas  Neither Like My Ideas nor Unlike My Ideas  Slightly Unlike My Ideas  Somewhat Unlike My Ideas  Very Much Unlike My Ideas  The metal cubes were hotter than the wood or sugar because |  V  6  S r P p  C  h  Agree  THE METAL CUBES DREW IN MORE HEAT PARTICLES THAN THE OTHER CUBES*  Somewhat Agree  Slightly Agree  Neither Agree nor Disagree  Clear uiear  Clear  ^ Clear  Easv *asy  Somewhat Easy  Slightly Easy  Neither Easy nor Difficult  Very True  Somewhat True  Slightly True  Very Familiar  Somewhat Familiar  Slightly Familiar  Very Much Like My Ideas  S  Somewhat Like My Ideas  h  t  l  v  Slightly Like My Ideas  Neither „Clear . nor . Confusing  Slightly Disagree  Somewhat Disagree  Very Much Disagree  Slightly Confusing —  Somewhat Confusing ~-  VeTy" _Confusing -  n  s  y  5  " Slightly Difficult  ' Somewhat Difficult  Neither True nor False  Slightly False  Somewhat False  Very False  Neither Familiar nor Unfamiliar  Slightly Unfamiliar  Somewhat Unfamiliar  Very Unfamiliar  Neither Like My Ideas nor Unlike My Ideas  VeTy" Difficult  iJ3  Slightly Unlike My Ideas  Somewhat Unlike My Ideas  Very Much Unlike My Ideas  The metal cubes were hotter than the wood or sugar because IT WAS MORE DIFFICULT FOR THE AIR TO GET INSIDE THE HARD METAL CUBES TO COOL THEM.  Very Much Agree  Somewhat Agree  Slightly Agree  Neither Agree nor Disagree  Slightly Disagree  Somewhat Disagree  Very Much Disagree  Very Clear  Somewhat Clear  Slightly Clear  Neither Clear nor Confusing  Slightly Confusing  Somewhat Confusing  Very Confusing  Very Easy  Very True  Very Familiar  Very Much Like My Ideas  i  t •  »  Somewhat Easy  Somewhat True  Somewhat Familiar  Somewhat Like My Ideas  t  i  »  Slightly Easy  Slightly True  Slightly Familiar  Slightly Like My Ideas  i  t  t  Neither Easy nor Difficult Neither True nor False Neither Familiar nor Unfamiliar Neither Like My Ideas nor Unlike My Ideas  t  i  i  Slightly Difficult  Slightly False  Slightly Unfamiliar  Slightly Unlike My Ideas  i  t  «  Somewhat Difficult  • i  Somewhat False  Somewhat Unfamiliar  Somewhat Unlike My Ideas  i  t  Very Difficult  Very False  Very Unfamiliar  Very Much Unlike My Ideas  The metal cubes were hotter than the wood or sugar because | THE METAL PARTICLES ARE EASIER TO MOVE*  t  Very Much Agree  i  t  i  t  Slightly Easy i  Somewhat True  Very True i  Slightly True t  Somewhat Familiar  Very Familiar  i  Slightly Familiar  t Somewhat Like My Ideas  Slightly Like My Ideas  i  Neither Agree nor Disagree  i  Slightly Clear  Somewhat Easy  Very Easy  !  Slightly Agree  i S omewhat Clear  Very Clear  Very Much Like My Ideas  t  Somewhat Agree  t  Neither Clear nor Confusing i  Neither Easy nor Difficult  t Neither True nor False t Neither Familiar nor Unfamiliar i Neither Like My Ideas nor Unlike My Ideas  Slightly Confusing  i  i  t  t  Slightly Disagree  Slightly Difficult  Slightly False  Slightly Unfamiliar  i Slightly Unlike My Ideas  i  Somewhat Disagree i  Very Much Disagree t  Somewhat Confusing  t  Somewhat Difficult  i Somewhat False t  Very Confusing  t Very Difficult i Very False i  Somewhat Unfamiliar  i  Very Unfamiliar  i Somewhat Unlike My Ideas  Very Much Unlike My Ideas  The metal cubes did not melt because THEY WERE NOT HEATED LONG ENOUGH.  Very Much Agree  Somewhat Agree  Slightly Agree  Neither Agree nor Disagree  Slightly Disagree  Somewhat Disagree  Very Much Disagree  Very Clear  Somewhat Clear  Slightly Clear  Neither Clear nor Confusing  Slightly Confusing  Somewhat Confusing  Very Confusing  Very Easy  Very True  Very Familiar  Very Much Like My Ideas  i  t  »  Somewhat Easy  Somewhat True  Somewhat Familiar  Somewhat Like My Ideas  i  t  «  Slightly Easy  Slightly True  Slightly Familiar  Slightly Like My Ideas  t  i  i  Neither Easy nor Difficult Neither True nor False Neither Familiar nor Unfamiliar Neither Like My Ideas nor Unlike My Ideas  i  i  i  Slightly Difficult  Slightly False  Slightly Unfamiliar  Slightly Unlike My Ideas  t  t  i  Somewhat Difficult  Somewhat False  Somewhat Unfamiliar  Somewhat Unlike My Ideas  t  i  i  Very Difficult  Very False  Very Unfamiliar  Very Much Unlike My Ideas  The temperature of the water decreased when an i c e cube was added because THE ICE CUBE ATTRACTED SOME OF THE HEAT PARTICLES AWAY FROM THE WATER. "  Very Much Agree  Somewhat Agree  Slightly Agree  Neither Agree nor Disagree  Slightly Disagree  Somewhat Disagree  Very Much Disagree  Very Clear  Somewhat Clear  Slightly Clear  Neither Clear nor Confusing  Slightly Confusing  Somewhat Confusing  Very Confusing  Very Easy  Somewhat Easy  Slightly Easy  Neither Easy nor Difficult  Slightly Difficult  Somewhat Difficult  Very Difficult  Very True  Somewhat True  Slightly True  Neither True nor False  Slightly False  Somewhat False  Very False  Very Familiar  Somewhat Familiar  Slightly Familiar  Neither Familiar nor Unfamiliar  Slightly Unfamiliar  Somewhat Unfamiliar  Very Unfamiliar  Very Much Like My Ideas  Somewhat Like My Ideas  Slightly Like My Ideas  Neither Like My Ideas nor Unlike My Ideas  Slightly Unlike My Ideas  Somewhat Unlike My Ideas  Very Much Unlike My Ideas  T  h  e  t e m  P ^ t u r e of the water decreased when an i c e cube was added because e  SOME OF THE COLD LEFT THE ICE CUBE AND WENT INTO THE WATTrp .  Very Much Agree  Somewhat Agree  Slightly Agree  Neither Agree nor Disagree  Slightly Disagree  Somewhat Disagree  Very Much Disagree  Very Clear  Somewhat Clear  Slightly Clear  Neither Clear nor Confusing  Slightly Confusing;  Somewhat Confusing  Very Confusing  Very Easy  Somewhat Easy  Slightly Easy  Neither Easy nor Difficult  Slightly Difficult  Somewhat Difficult  Very Difficult  Very True  Somewhat True  Slightly True  Neither True nor False  Slightly False  Somewhat False  Very False  Very Familiar  Somewhat Familiar  Slightly Familiar  Neither Familiar nor Unfamiliar  Slightly Unfamiliar  Somewhat Unfamiliar  Very Unfamiliar  Very Much Like My Ideas  Somewhat Like My Ideas  Slightly Like My Ideas  Neither Like My Ideas nor Unlike My Ideas  Slightly Unlike My Ideas  Somewhat Unlike My — Ideas  Verv Much Unlike Sy Ideas  T  j  J  The temperature  of the water decreased when an i c e cube was added because  I THE WATER PARTICLES LOSE SOME OF THEIR SPEED BY DUMPING INTO THE ICE PARTICLES.  Very Much Agree  Somewhat Agree  Slightly Agree  Neither . Agree nor Disagree  Slightly Disagree  Somewhat Disagree  Very Much Disagree  Very Clear  Somewhat Clear  Slightly Clear  Neither Clear nor Confusing  Slightly Confusing  Somewhat Confusing  Very Confusing  Very Easy  Very True  Very Familiar  Very Much Like My Ideas  t  t  i  Somewhat Easy  Somewhat True  Somewhat Familiar  Somewhat Like My Ideas  »  i  i  Slightly Easy  Slightly True  Slightly Familiar  Slightly Like My Ideas  t  i  t  Neither Easy nor Difficult Neither True nor False Neither Familiar nor Unfamiliar Neither Like My Ideas nor Unlike My Ideas  i  t  i  Slightly Difficult  Slightly False • Slightly Unfamiliar  Slightly Unlike My Ideas  i  t  i  ;  Somewhat Difficult  Somewhat False  Somewhat Unfamiliar  Somewhat Unlike My Ideas  »  t  i  Very Difficult  Very False  Very Unfamiliar  Very Much Unlike My Ideas  A large i c e cube takes longer to melt than a small ice cube because [ THE LARGS ISK CUBE HAS A COLDER TEMPERATURE THAN THE SMALL ICE CUBE,""]  Very Much Agree  Somewhat Agree  Slightly Agree  Neither Agree nor Disagree  Slightly Disagree  Scmswhat Disagree-  Very Much Disagree  Very Clear  Somewhat Clear  Slightly Clear  Neither Clear nor Confusing  Slightly Confusing  Somewhat Confusing  Very Confusing  Very Easy  Somewhat Easy  Slightly Easy  Neither Easy nor Difficult  Slightly Difficult  Somewhat Difficult  Very Difficult  Very True  Somewhat True  Slightly True  Neither True nor False  Slightly False  Somewhat False  Very False  Very Familiar  Somewhat Familiar  Slightly Familiar  Neither Familiar nor Unfamiliar  Slightly Unfamiliar  Somewhat Unfamiliar  Very Unfamiliar  Very Much Like My Ideas  Somewhat Like My Ideas  Slightly Like My Ideas  Neither Like My Ideas nor Unlike My Ideas  Co  Slightly Unlike My Ideas  Somewhat Unlike My Ideas  Very Much Unlike My Ideas  The red l i q u i d i n the tube went up because THE HEAT MAKES THE RED LIQUID LIGHTER AND SO IT RISES.  Very Much Agree  Somewhat Agree  Slightly Agree  Neither Agree nor Disagree  Slightly Disagree  Somewhat Disagree  Very Much Disagree  Very Clear  Somewhat Clear  Slightly Clear  Neither Clear nor Confusing  Slightly Confusing  Somewhat Confusing  Very Confusing  Very Easy  Somewhat Easy  Slightly Easy  Neither Easy nor Difficult  Slightly Difficult  Somewhat Difficult  Very Difficult  Very True  Somewhat True  Slightly True  Slightly False  Somewhat False  Very Familiar  Very Much Like My Ideas  i  Somewhat Familiar  Somewhat Like My Ideas  i  Slightly Familiar  Slightly Like My Ideas  Neither True nor False i  Neither Familiar nor Unfamiliar Neither Like My Ideas nor Unlike My Ideas  i _____ Slightly Unfamiliar  Slightly Unlike My Ideas  i  Somewhat Unfamiliar  Somewhat Unlike My Ideas  Very False t  Very Unfamiliar  Very Much Unlike My Ideas  The red l i q u i d i n the tube went up because THE LIQUID'S PARTICLES MOVED MORE QUICKLY AND SO TOOK UP MORE SPACE.  \  Very Much Agree  Somewhat Agree  Slightly Agree  Neither Agree nor Disagree  Slightly Disagree  Somewhat Disagree  Very Much Disagree  Very Clear  Somewhat Clear  Slightly Clear  Neither Clear nor Confusing  Slightly Confusing  Somewhat Confusing  Very Confusing  Very y  Somewhat Easy  Slightly Easy  Neither Easy nor Difficult  Slightly Difficult  Somewhat Difficult  Very Difficult  E a s  Very T  r  u  *  e  Very Familiar  Very Much Like My Ideas  »  Somewhat True  Somewhat Familiar  Somewhat Like My Ideas  «  »  Slightly True  Slightly Familiar  Slightly Like My Ideas  »  , i  Neither True nor False Neither Familiar nor Unfamiliar Neither Like My Ideas nor Unlike My Ideas  i  i  Slightly False  Slightly Unfamiliar  Slightly Unlike My Ideas  t  t  Somewhat False  Somewhat Unfamiliar  Somewhat Unlike My Ideas  t  t  Very False  Very Unfamiliar  Very Much Unlike My Ideas  The red l i q u i d i n the tube went up because THE HEAT PARTICLES TAKE UP SPACE INSIDE THE LIQUID AND FORCES THE LIQUID OUT THE TUBE.  Very Much Agree  Somewhat Agree  Slightly Agree  Neither Agree nor Disagree  Slightly Disagree  Somewhat Disagree  Very Much Disagree  Very Clear  Somewhat Clear  Slightly Clear  Neither Clear nor Confusing  Slightly Confusing  Somewhat Confusing  Very Confusing  Very Easy  Somewhat Easy  Slightly Easy  Neither Easy nor Difficult  Slightly Difficult  Somewhat Difficult  Very Difficult  Very True  Somewhat True  Slightly True  Neither True nor False  Slightly False  Somewhat False  Very False  Very Familiar  Somewhat Familiar  Slightly Familiar  Neither Familiar nor Unfamiliar  Slightly Unfamiliar  Somewhat Unfamiliar  Very Unfamiliar  Very Much Like My Ideas  Somewhat Like My Ideas  Slightly Like My Ideas  Neither Like My Ideas nor Unlike My Ideas  O  Slightly Unlike My Ideas  Somewhat Unlike My Ideas  Very Much Unlike My Ideas  Objects rubbed together get hot because THE PARTICLES INSIDE THE OBJECTS MOVE FASTER,  Very Much Agree  Somewhat Agree  Slightly Agree  Neither Agree nor Disagree  Slightly Disagree  Somewhat Disagree  Very Much Disagree  Very Clear  Somewhat Clear  Slightly Clear  Neither Clear nor Confusing  Slightly Confusing  Somewhat Confusing  Very Confusing  Slightly Difficult  Somewhat Difficult  Very Difficult  &  Very Easy  Somewhat Easy  Slightly Easy  Neither Easy nor Difficult  Very True  Somewhat True  Slightly True  Neither True nor False  Slightly False  Somewhat False  Very False  Very Familiar  Somewhat Familiar  Slightly Familiar  Neither Familiar nor Unfamiliar  Slightly Unfamiliar  Somewhat Unfamiliar  Very Unfamiliar  Very Much Like My Ideas  Somewhat Like My Ideas  Slightly Like My Ideas  Neither Like My Ideas nor Unlike My Ideas  o N3  Slightly Unlike My Ideas  Somewhat Unlike My Ideas  Very Much Unlike My Ideas  Objects rubbed together get hot because [  THE HEAT PARTICLES INSIDE THE OBJECT ARE FORCED OUT. —  Very Much Agree  Very Clear  Very Easy  Very True  Very Familiar  i  t  t  i  *  Somewhat Agree  Somewhat Clear  ; Somewhat Easy  Somewhat True  Somewhat Familiar  i  i  t  i  i  Slightly Agree  Slightly Clear  Slightly Easy  Slightly True  Slightly Familiar  i  i  t  i  i  Neither . Agree nor Disagree Neither Clear nor Confusing  Neither Easy nor Difficult Neither True nor False Neither Familiar nor Unfamiliar  i  r  t  i  i  I  Slightly Disagree  Slightly Confusing  Slightly Difficult  Slightly False • Slightly Unfamiliar  i  'i  t  i  t  _________________ « ______________ • __________________ * ______________ • ________________ > Very Much Somewhat Slightly Neither Slightly Like My Like My Like My Like My Unlike My Ideas Ideas Ideas Ideas nor Ideas Unlike My Ideas  Somewhat Disagree  Somewhat Confusing  Somewhat Difficult  Somewhat False  Somewhat Unfamiliar  Somewhat Unlike My Ideas  i  t  i  t  i  i  Very Much Disagree  Very Confusing  Very Difficult  Very False  Very Unfamiliar  Very Much Unlike My Ideas  HEAT IS THE MOTION OF AN OBJECT'S PARTICLES.  Very Much Agree  Somewhat Agree  Slightly Agree  Neither Agree nor Disagree  Slightly Disagree  Somewhat Disagree  Very Much Disagree  Very Clear  Somewhat Clear  Slightly Clear  Neither Clear nor Confusing  Slightly Confusing  Somewhat Confusing  Very Confusing  Very Easy  Somewhat Easy  Slightly Easy  Neither Easy nor Difficult  Slightly Difficult  Somewhat Difficult  Very Difficult  Very True  Somewhat True  Slightly True  Neither True nor False  Slightly False  Somewhat False  Very False  Very Familiar  Somewhat Familiar  Slightly Familiar  Neither Familiar nor Unfamiliar  Slightly Unfamiliar  Somewhat Unfamiliar  Very Unfamiliar O  Very Much Like My Ideas  Somewhat Like My Ideas  Slightly Like My Ideas  Neither Like My Ideas nor Unlike My Ideas  Slightly Unlike My Ideas  Somewhat Unlike My Ideas  Very Much Unlike My Ideas  TEMPERATURE IS A MEASURE OF THE MIXTURE OF HEAT AND COLD INSIDE AN OBJECT.  Very Much Agree  Somewhat Agree  Slightly Agree  Neither Agree nor Disagree  Slightly Disagree  Somewhat Disagree  Very Much Disagree  Very Clear  Somewhat Clear  Slightly Clear  Neither Clear nor Confusing  Slightly Confusing  Somewhat Confusing  Very Confusing  Very Easy  Somewhat Easy  Slightly Easy  Neither Easy nor Difficult  Slightly Difficult  Somewhat Difficult  Very Difficult  Very True  Somewhat True  Slightly True  Neither True nor False  Slightly False  Somewhat False  Very False  Very Familiar  Somewhat Familiar  Slightly Familiar  Neither Familiar nor Unfamiliar  Slightly Unfamiliar  Somewhat Unfamiliar  Very Unfamiliar  Very Much Like My Ideas  Somewhat Like My Ideas  Slightly Like My Ideas  Neither Like My Ideas nor* Unlike My Ideas  Slightly Unlike My Ideas  Somewhat Unlike My Ideas  Very Much Unlike My Ideas  HEAT IS A SUBSTANCE SOMETHING LIKE AIR OR STEAM.  Very Much A g  Somewhat  ~e  clear  A g  S  Sliehtlv  ree  cClear °S a  Agist t  ^ ! "  S  .  ll?y  52  Very Much Like My Ideas  °_2" Easy  S  t  l  y  1  ^ > E  a  s  y  tl"  Somewhat Like My s  Slightly L i k f My  a  e  a  y I  d  e  a  s  . » _ _ _ _ _  S35£  jZ „ ,i t t e t c w nor  - s i" i"i hSt "i F^ ' "sSSiv^taomewnat Confusing Confusing  /"ther nor  ~  Slightly ' Difficult  Somewhat " Difficult  ither Like Mv Ideal n^r Unlike My Ideas  V  e  r  y  DifllLlt  raj.se  False  S'S'S  Unfamiliar  N e  Verv Conning  '^Sr '-_f  False  K-BS  —  1  liS^T  -~ I  "  o-. . . ^ —  |J3r  A  dear  S  "wpUh^—  q n ^ +i Vnlfvtl ^idels *  1  -= U  • Somewhat „ ^ n  a  U  _ Very Much ^  n  l  i  k  e  I  d  e  a  s  ALL OBJECTS CONTAIN A MIXTURE OF HEAT AND COLD.  Very Much Agree  Somewhat Agree  Slightly Agree  Neither Agree nor Disagree  Slightly Disagree  Somewhat Disagree  Very Much Disagree  Very Clear  Somewhat Clear  Slightly Clear  Neither Clear nor Confusing  Slightly Confusing  "Somewhat Confusing  VeTy Confusing  Very fcasy  Somewhat Easy  Slightly Easy  Neither Easy nor Difficult  Slightly Difficult  Somewhat Difficult  Tr»ne» True  Somewhat True  Slightly True  Neither True nor False  Slightly False  Somewhat False  VeTy" False  Familiar  Somewhat Familiar  Slightly Familiar  Neither Familiar nor Unfamiliar  Slightly Unfamiliar  Somewhat Unfamiliar  VeTy" Unfamiliar  Very Much Like My Ideas  S omewhat Like My Ideas  Slightly Like My Ideas  Neither Like My Ideas nor Unlike My  Slightly Unlike My Ideas  Somewhat Unlike My Ideas  Very Much Unlike My Ideas  "  Very Difficult  TEMPERATURE IS A MEASURE OF THE NUMBER OF HEAT PARTICLES IN AN OBJECT.  Very Much Agree  Very Clear  Very Easy  Very True  Very Familiar  Very Much Like My Ideas  t  t  t  »  »•  Somewhat Agree  Somewhat Clear  Somewhat Easy  Somewhat True  Somewhat Familiar  Somewhat Like My Ideas  i  t  t  i  »  Slightly Agree  Slightly Clear  Slightly Easy  Slightly True  Slightly Familiar  Slightly Like My Ideas  t  t  s  i  »  Neither Agree nor Disagree Neither Clear nor Confusing  Neither Easy nor Difficult Neither True nor False Neither Familiar nor Unfamiliar Neither Like My Ideas nor Unlike My Ideas  i  t  t  i  i  Slightly Disagree  Slightly Confusing  Slightly Difficult  Slightly False  Slightly Unfamiliar  Slightly Unlike My Ideas  i  t  i  t  »  Somewhat Disagree  Somewhat Confusing  Somewhat Difficult  Somewhat False  Somewhat Unfamiliar  Somewhat Unlike My Ideas  i  i  i  i  i  Very Much Disagree  Very Confusing  Very Difficult  Very False  Very Unfamiliar  Very Much Unlike My Ideas  HEAT IS MADE UP OF TINY PARTICLES THAT CAN MOVE.  Very Much Agree  Somewhat Agree  Slightly Agree  Neither Agree nor Disagree  Slightly Disagree  Somewhat Disagree  Very Much Disagree  Very Clear  Somewhat Clear  Slightly Clear  Neither Clear nor Confusing  Slightly Confusing  Somewhat Confusing  Very Confusing  Very Easy  Somewhat Easy  Slightly Easy  Neither Easy nor Difficult  Slightly Difficult  Somewhat Difficult  Very Difficult  Very True  Somewhat True  Slightly True  Neither True nor False  Slightly False  Somewhat False  Very Familiar  Somewhat Familiar  Slightly Familiar  Neither Familiar nor Unfamiliar  Slightly Unfamiliar  S omewhat Unfamiliar  Very Unfamiliar  Very Much Like My Ideas  Somewhat Like My Ideas  Slightly Like My Ideas  Neither Like My Ideas nor Unlike My Ideas  Slightly Unlike My Ideas  Somewhat Unlike My Ideas  Very Much Unlike My Ideas  Very False  TEMPERATURE IS A MEASURE OF THE SPEED OF PARTICLES T  t  *  Verv Wunh Agree  Somewhat Agree  Somewhat Clear  Slightly Clear  oomewnat Easy i  *  Verv True i Very Familiar  i  t  t  »  o oiaewnax Like My Ideas  Slightly Like My Ideas  Neither Familiar nor Unfamiliar  •  Slightly False i  t Very Difficult t  Somewhat False  Somewhat Unfamiliar  Very Much Disagree  Very Confusing  Somewhat Difficult  i Slightly Unfamiliar  ™  t  •  Neither True nor False  Slightly Familiar  oumewnaX Familiar  •  Slightly Difficult  g  t  Somewhat Confusing  t  Slightly True  o omewnat True  T  i  t  Neither Easy nor Difficult  B  Somewhat Disagree  Slightly Confusing  t  Slightly Easy  n  #  t  Neither Clear nor Confusing  H  i Slightly Disagree  t  i  Verv Easy  t  Neither Agree nor Disagree  t  Verv Clear  Verv Much Like My Ideas  i  Slightly Agree  M A  i  Very False  Very Unfamiliar O  t Neither Like My Ideas nor Unlike My Ideas  i  i Slightly Unlike My Ideas  Somewhat Unlike My Ideas  t  Very Much Unlike My Ideas  211 APPENDIX D AN ITEM ANALYSIS" OF THE THREE HEAT PERSPECTIVES IN THE CONCEPTUAL PROFILE INSTRUMENT  Legend f o r the T a b l e s (1)  C.P.I.  Item: R e f e r s t o t h e number o f t h e i t e m on t h e Conceptual P r o f i l e Instrument.  (2)  Belief Scale:  (3)  Mean Score: The average s c o r e o b t a i n e d on t h a t s c a l e f o r a l l a l l 276 s u b j e c t s . I t was a 7 p o i n t s c a l e .  (4)  Standard  (5)  ST C o r r e l a t i o n : The c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t o f t h e s c a l e s c o r e and t h e i t e m s c o r e c o r r e c t e d f o r o v e r l a p .  (6)  TT C o r r e l a t i o n : The c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i e i e n t o f t h e s c a l e s c o r e and t h e t o t a l s c o r e on a l l o f t h e items f o r a p a r t i c u l a r heat p e r s p e c t i v e .  (7)  Hoyt's R e l i a b i l i t y : T h i s i s Hoyt's r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t f o r a given item.  (8)  Standard  1 = agree-disagree b i p o l a r s c a l e 4 = true-false bipolar scale 6 = l i k e i d e a s - u n l i k e my i d e a s b i p o l a r s c a l e  D e v i a t i o n : The average d e v i a t i o n o f s c o r e s on t h a t scale f o r a l l of the subjects.  E r r o r : T h i s i s t h e s t a n d a r d e r r o r o f measurement for a given item.  The computer program used t o p e r f o r m t h e a n a l y s i s i s e n t i t l e d LERTAP and i s a v a i l a b l e from t h e s t a t i s t i c s l a b o r a t o r y i n t h e F a c u l t y o f E d u c a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia.  TABLE D - l Analysis of the Statements Representing the Kinetic Perspecti C.P.I. Item  Belief Scale  Mean Score  Standard Deviation  ST Correlation  TT Correlation  Hoyt *s Reliability  Standard Error  2  1 4 6  3.21 3.04 4.06  1.75 1.47 1.79  .737 .698 .599  .478 .498 .447  .82  1.50  5  1 4 6  3.73 3.56 4.05  2.00 1.81 2.02  .811 .790 .705  .627 .617 .637  .88  1.49  9  1 4 6  3.80 3.63 4.13  1.95 1.80 1.88  .861 .846 .754  .659 .631 .645  .91  1.27  12  1 4 6  3.97 3.76 4.24  1.85 1.58 1.75  .780 .779 .718  .532 .508 .520  .87  1.35  16  1 4 6  4.06 3.90 4.35  1.90 1.77 1.92  .770 .803 .650  .652 .649 .606  .86  1.50  19  1 4 6  3.20 3.17 3.58  1.84 1.77 1.85  .842 .882 .742  .572 .623 .641  .91  1.23  67.43  19.24  .89  6.25  Overall S t a t i c t i c s for K i n e t i c Perspective  (n=276)  N3 N3  TABLE D-2 An Item Analysis of Items  Representing  the Children's Perspective  C.P.I. Item  Belief Scale  3  1 4 6  3.86 3.69 4.16  2.09 1.83 1.83  .752 .797 .661  .408 .435 .370  .86  1.56  4  1 4 6  2.98 3.01 3.28  1.96 1.79 1.88  .799 .795 .697  .540 .430 .444  .88  1.45  7  1 4 6  3.19 3.09 3.23  2.12 2.01 2.02  .863 .886 .778  .515 .546 .507  .92  1.31  11  1 4 6  3.14 3.07 3.50  1.89 1.71 1.82  .821 .812 .732  .499 .485 .450  .89  1.32  13  1. 4 6  4.28 4.13 3.98  2.38 2.34 2.27  .846 .888' " .757  .397 .459 .448  .92  1.54  14  1 4 6  3.49 3.55 3.75  2.02 1.92 1.95  .821 .852 .735  .531 .511 .471  .90  1.39  18  1 4 6  3.72 3.62 3.78  2.21 2.11 2.90  .834 .875 .716  .542 .555 .468  .90  1.50  87.06  23.92  .86  8.73  Mean Score  Standard Deviation  ST Correlation  TT Correlation  Hoyt's Reliability  Standard ' Error  Overall Statistics for  Children's  Perspective (=276)  TABLE D-3 An Item Analysis of Items Representing the C a l o r i c Perspective C.P.I. Item  Belief Scale  1  1 4 6  2.27 2.37 3.60  1.37 1.36 1.76  .616 .594 .400  6  1 4 6  3.43 3.42 3.95  1.96 1.75 1.85  8  1 4 6  3.29 3.11 3.64  10  1 4 6  15  20  Overall  Mean Score  Standard Deviation  TT Correlation  Hoyt's Reliability  Standard Error  .393 .451 .293  .70  1.59  .798 .810 .683  .540 .520 .544  .88  1.43  1.73 1.49 1.71  .754 .736 .659  .443 .490 .505  .85  1.39  1.87 2.09 2.46  1.10 1.21 1.45  .765 .745 .683  .510 .491 .451  .85  1.05  1 4 6  2.33 2.38 2.53  1.49 1.37 1.55  .782 .796 .746  .433 .413 .384  .88  1.11  1 4 6  2.57 2.59 3.09  1.62 1.48 1.79  .767 .838 .725  .501 .499 .542  .88  1.24  50.98  13.14  .79  5.92  ST Correlation  Statistics  for C a l o r i c Perspective (n=276)  215  Discussion The  d a t a summarized i n the p r e c e e d i n g t h r e e t a b l e s s u b s t a n t i a t e s  the r e s u l t s o b t a i n e d from the f a c t o r - a n a l y t i c p r o c e d u r e s .  That i s , t h e r e  i s a r e l a t i v e l y h i g h degree o f i n t e r - c o r r e l a t i o n between the t h r e e b e l i e f s c a l e s f o r a p a r t i c u l a r i t e m as i n d i c a t e d by t h e ST c o r r e l a t i o n . Section  4.41  i n text)  There i s a l s o a f a i r l y h i g h p o s i t i v e  between i t e m s f o r a p a r t i c u l a r h e a t p e r s p e c t i v e —  t h e TT  (See  correlation  Correlation.  On the b a s i s o f t h e Hoyt r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s a l l o f t h e would appear t o be r e l i a b l e .  items  However, perhaps t h e b e s t i n d i c a t o r o f  how  a p a r t i c u l a r i t e m i s f u n c t i o n i n g ( i n terms o f i t s c o n t r i b u t i o n t o a p a r t i c u l a r heat p e r s p e c t i v e ) i s t h e TT c o r r e l a t i o n s between t h e s c a l e responses ing  f o r an i t e m and t h e t o t a l s c o r e on a l l of t h e i t e m s r e p r e s e n t -  a p a r t i c u l a r heat p e r s p e c t i v e .  U s i n g t h i s c r i t e r i o n two items  on  t h e C a l o r i c P e r s p e c t i v e , i t e m s 1 and 15 a r e q u e s t i o n a b l e s i n c e t h e y c o n t a i n TT c o r r e l a t i o n s w h i c h a r e below .40. A l s o two i t e m s on  the  C h i l d r e n ' s P e r s p e c t i v e c o n t a i n low c o r r e l a t i o n s on one o f the t h r e e s c a l e s , i t e m s 3 and 13.  I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o n o t e t h a t two o f the above  i t e m s , numbers 1 and 3, were o m i t t e d from t h e p r o f i l e a n a l y s i s because they they f a i l e d to l o a d h i g h l y on those components i d e n t i f i e d as the t h r e e ' b u i l t i n ' heat p e r s p e c t i v e s .  (See S e c t i o n 4.42  i n the t e x t )  While  the  c o r r e l a t i o n s f o r the o t h e r i t e m o m i t t e d from the p r o f i l e a n a l y s i s , i t e m 2, are not as low, they a r e s i g n i f i c a n t l y l o w e r than those r e p o r t e d f o r the o t h e r items i n the K i n e t i c P e r s p e c t i v e . F u r t h e r , the r e s u l t s e x p r e s s e d by the s t a n d a r d e r r o r o f measurement i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e s c o r e s o b t a i n e d from the b e l i e f s c a l e s of the C.P.I.  216  are accurate to within plus or minus three-quarters of a scale d i v i s i o n (seven scale divisions were used).  Hence some confidence can be ex-  pressed i n interpreting the b e l i e f scores from the C.P.I. the item  In summary,  analysis indicates that the care taken i n the preparation  and f i e l d testing has yielded a f a i r l y r e l i a b l e  instrument.  

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