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Equal educational opportunity and considerations of student interests: the basis on which public schools… Karmel, Joe 1998

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EQUAL EDUCATIONAL OPPORTUNITY AND CONSIDERATIONS  OF STUDENT  INTERESTS:  THE BASIS ON WHICH PUBLIC SCHOOLS PROCEED by JOE KARMEL B.P.E.,  The  A THESIS  University  of  British  Columbia,  1981  SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF  THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTERS OF ARTS in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Centre  for  the  Study of  We a c c e p t to  this the  Curriculum  thesis  required  THE UNIVERSITY  standard  COLUMBIA  1998  Karmel,  Instruction  conforming  OF BRITISH  April © Joe  as  and  1998  04/17/98  in  presenting  this  degree at the  thesis  in partial  University of  fulfilment  of  of this  department  or  the  requirements  British Columbia. I agree that the  freely available for reference and study. I further copying  E l 002  UBC EDUC CUST  FRI 14:22 FAX 604 822 4714  his  or  her  representatives.  an advanced  Library shall make it  agree that permission for  thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by  for  It  is  by the  understood  that  extensive  head of my copying  or  publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission.  Department  of  fV.oA-ve  fof  The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada  DE-6 (2/88)  -tW  fAuAu of  Cv>rr ol V C  A  Xf\s-Vrv>cAVor\  ABSTRACT  A difficulty opportunity been  that  i n the  a tendency  n o t i o n of  i n achieving equal  rather  The p r o m o t i o n o f teaching  practices  approach, student  however,  resources  of  is  to to  has  confuse  the  the  to  programmes,  opportunities. standardize stems from an that  o p p o r t u n i t y are a t t a i n e d Lacking  any c o n s i d e r a t i o n  to  achieve  equal  of  been o v e r l o o k e d i n t h e  educational  opportunity.  conditions  when in  the  this  individual  access  promote a c a d e m i c a c h i e v e m e n t  essentially  extent  educational  than e q u a l e d u c a t i o n a l  for everyone.  there  a c o n s i d e r a t i o n wherein the  students  that  that  e q u a l i t y which c o n s i d e r s  exist  interests,  striving  sameness,  identical  and s t u d e n t  equal educational  same c o n d i t i o n s  offer  of  is  planners  an a p p r o a c h w h i c h aims  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of of  with that  tend to  opportunities  system  among e d u c a t i o n a l  equality  schools  public school  educational  intentional  to  the  has  j u d g i n g of  equal  iii  TABLE OF CONTENTS  ABSTRACT  ii  TABLE OF CONTENTS  iii  L I S T OF TABLES  vi  ACKNOWLEDGMENTS  vii  CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION  1  Statement of  the  Research  Question  Purpose  and F o c u s  Applications  Problem  3 4  of  the  Thesis  and L i m i t a t i o n s  of  5 the  Study  CHAPTER TWO: BACKGROUND AND RATIONALE FOR THE STUDY The If  B a s i s on Which S c h o o l s P r o c e e d Everyone  Were A l l o w e d  The  Right  To C h o i c e  The  Principle  to  11 13  Succeed  15  In E d u c a t i o n  19  Of C o n f e r r e d B e n e f i t s  22  Summary  25  CHAPTER THREE: INTERPRETING  EQUAL EDUCATIONAL  OPPORTUNITY The  8  Input  and O u t p u t  Alexander's Dworkin s 1  Resources  27 Interpretations  Theory: Maximization of  Theory: Preferred  27 Benefits  Provision  29  of 30  iv  Frankena's Theory: R e l a t i v e D i s t r i b u t i o n  30  Coomb's T h e o r y : E q u a l A c c e s s t o t h e E q u a l Distribution  of Resources  Summary  31 32  CHAPTER FOUR: CONDITIONS LACKING, CONDITIONS OVERLOOKED Legislative  35 I n t e r v e n t i o n : The C o s t s a n d  Benefits  35  The L i m i t i n g o f S t u d e n t O p t i o n s  37  Coercive Attendance  38  The S e l e c t i o n o f S t u d e n t Programmes  41  Intentional Striving  42  Summary  46  CHAPTER F I V E : QUESTIONING WHAT I S TAKEN FOR GRANTED  48  The O r d e r i n g o f K n o w l e d g e  53  Summary  58  CHAPTER S I X : The C i r c u m s t a n c e s o f Change  60  C o n s i d e r a t i o n s o f I n t e r e s t and P r o d u c t i v e Learning  64  Summary  68  V  CHAPTER SEVEN: LEARNING BY INTEREST: AN ALTERNATIVE TO THE STANDARDIZED CURRICULUM  70  The  Structure of Public.Schools  70  The  Road t o I t h i c a :  A l t e r i n g School  Structures  74  T h o s e W i t h Whom We S h a r e t h e L e a r n i n g Environment  75  From T h e o r y t o P r a c t i c e : A F i v e Y e a r P l a n  80  ...and a l l t h e W o r l d ' s a S t a g e  81  Do a l l Roads L e a d t o Rome?  89  Programme C o m p a t i b i l i t y  97  Education  105  and Future  Career Opportunities  Summary  108  CHAPTER EIGHT: CONCLUSION: WHAT I S AND WHAT OUGHT TO BE  110  What Ought To Be  116  BIBLIOGRAPHY  120  APPENDIX 1: The U n i v e r s a l D e c l a r a t i o n o f Human Rights APPENDIX 2: P u l l i n g irrationality,  128 t h e p l u g on a p p e a l s t o immaturity  and expediency  129  VII  ACKNOWLEDGMENTS  I w o u l d l i k e t o t h a n k my t h e s i s c o m m i t t e e f o r t h e i r combined e f f o r t s  throughout  t h e w r i t i n g o f t h i s paper; Dr.  I n g e A n d r e e n f o r c h e e r f u l l y c o o r d i n a t i n g t h e many r e v i s i o n s t h a t were r e q u i r e d , a n d D r s . J e r r o l d Coombs a n d W a l t e r Werner f o r t h e i r work which like  thorough  c r o s s e x a m i n a t i o n o f my  made s u c h r e v i s i o n s n e c e s s a r y .  I would  also  t o t h a n k my f a t h e r f o r i n s p i r i n g i n me t h e n o t i o n t o  q u e s t i o n what i s o f t e n t a k e n f o r g r a n t e d , a n d most o f a l l my d e a r e s t f r i e n d a n d c o l l e a g u e N a d i n e C r u i c k s h a n k s f o r p a t i e n t l y e n d u r i n g my a r g u m e n t s a n d c a u s i n g me t o c o n s t a n t l y r e - e x a m i n e my p o s i t i o n .  1.  CHAPTER 1  INTRODUCTION  Democratic  societies  ambitious  goals.  fairness,  equality,  have  set  for  Establishing practices freedom,  respect  dignities,  are  thoughtful  and c a r i n g s o c i e t y ought  attainment  of  support this  indeed praiseworthy  these goals  and a s s i s t a n c e  partnership it  transmit  the  aspirations  is  of  society  the  the to  that  goals to  promote  towards  strive.  of  the  the the  younger  and  which a And i n  upon  public education  values,  some v e r y  f o r human r i g h t s  a society relies  a function  attitudes, of  themselves  the  the system.  schools  In  to  beliefs,  and  members o f  the  their  communities. And no where does and  promote  system,  for  deprives  seem more i m p o r t a n t  these p r a c t i c e s inherent  "inequitable opportunity  it  i n these p r a c t i c e s  education to  secure  society  when a l l members contributors"  than i n the  tends  economic  in general are able  (Coombs,  to  to  1994,  of  p.  education  is  belief  and s o c i a l  the  inequality goods,  benefits  be f u l l 281).  reinforce  public  increase  the  to  that  participants It  is,  that  of  and accrue and  in fact,  a  corollary  of  this  increasingly opportunity public of  profits  schools  (Fullan, of  continue  practices  1982, pp.  on t h e  1991, p.  to  current  basis  of  the  result  benefits  all for  not  for  ends o f  and  existing  does not  few  (Bowles & G i n t i s ,  ends t h e of  the  i n the  promotion of  the  equal  common good o f  gaining  1991;  And s u c h  education  w h i c h has  opportunity for  society.  For  evidence  the  for  the  common good  recognized  c o n t r i b u t i n g to  the  m a j o r i t y and n o t  must  and p r o v i s i o n s  include benefits Unless  it  more i m p o r t a n t  of  for  equal educational  all  and n o t  c a n be shown t h a t than the  the  interests  of  just  is a  opportunity  some.  interests others,  as  the  of  minority,  of  1976;  consideration as  benefits  do  1 979 ; K i r k n e s s , 1 9 9 1 ;  1995).  e x i s t e n c e of  of  educational  a relative  support  beliefs  practices  rather  1 9 9 3 ; Roland M a r t i n ,  justify  an abundance  but  Hum,  equality  we  students,  1 964;"  that  educational  equal d i s t r i b u t i o n of  1983; Holt,  Noddings,  benefit  that  and  1 9 7 1 ; Darling-Hammond, 1 9 9 3 ; F u l l a n ,  Goodlad,  its  i n the  to  advantages Bruner,  suggest  and a b e l i e f  these assumptions  research  educational  1 4 ) , whereby  education.  support  society  fairness  compulsory  were i t  not  of  from e q u a l  of  w o u l d be u n d e r s t a n d a b l e , to  all  157-159),  embody p r a c t i c e s  legislation And to  that  and b e n e f i t s  (Strike,  opportunity  the  supposition,  of  some  are  and t h a t  the  success of benefits of  a few  for  will  all,  provide for  we must  current educational  with  the  desired  have  perhaps  t h e n be c o n c e r n e d  practices  goals of  overlooked  conceptualizations  of  an e q u a l d i s t r i b u t i o n o f that  a r e v e r y much i n  public education,  some e s s e n t i a l  equality  the  ends  contrast  and t h a t  we  elements i n our  and h e n c e e q u a l  educational  opportunity.  Statement o f the Problem The is  goal  complex  philosopher requires this  not  treating  altruistic  equity  if  though the  wholly  Kennith Strike  apparent  learners  the  p r o v i d i n g equal opportunity i n  an i n s p i r i n g n o t i o n ,  itself  our  of  with  people  paradox i s  troublesome.  (1995)  in fact  of  equality  As  educational  contends,  differently  and e g a l i t a r i a n the  concept  (p.  valid,  efforts  same c u r r i c u l u m ,  education  maybe  53).  And, i f  educate  under the  offering  of  equality  identical  for  that  opportunities  of  sameness,  instead  of  in  all  premise  and n o n d i s c r i m i n a t i o n , we have m i s t a k e n l y  notion  equality  then perhaps to  is  of  equated  thereby equal  opportunities. If student  this  were t r u e ,  needs t o  rich diversity individual  of  then  the  recognition  w h i c h we c u r r e n t l y pay l i p cultural,  differences  ethnic,  of  individual  service  -  the  through  the  linguistic,  - w o u l d be f a c i l i t a t e d  and  practice  of  assimilation  of  accommodation.  it  would a l s o h o l d t h a t  standardized equal  rather  And i f  this  educational  through the  were i n d e e d  present  c u r r i c u l u m may be  than  teaching at  odds  the  process  case,  then  strategies  and a  with our g o a l s  for  opportunity.  The Research Question I  feel  there  desirability  of  justification the  case, that  for  is  educational public  it  public teach  what  Accordingly,  practices  as  educational question:  to  question  practices, rests  if  this  as  to  is  of  for  the  to  the  and t o  i n the  i n the  question  manner t h a t  following  means and ends o f  they r e l a t e opportunity,  to  to  our  benefit,  on what  we  current  the  may  basis  why we c o n t i n u e  thesis,  provisions  by p o s i n g  ask  suggest  equal  current practices  educators  upon  all  a r e v e r y much l a c k i n g i n that  the  not  evidence  conditions  the  largely  beneficial  be c r e d i b l e  extent  proceed,  we t e a c h ,  both  to  upon some s t u d e n t s more harm t h a n  reasonable  schools  examine  the  is  However,  in fact  opportunity  confer is  one.  that  to  educational  education  appears  so,  schools  actually then  that  and t h e r e  reason  compulsory education  who r e c e i v e  this  sufficient  current  supposition  persons  is  of  to  do? I  critically educational  equal  following  research  How desirable achieving  the goal  through all  are current  an equal  practices  of equal  in our efforts  educational  distribution  towards  opportunity  of educational  benefits  to  students?  Purpose and Focus o f the T h e s i s It from  is  my i n t e n t i o n  educational  reinforce  a  outweighs  the  practices  practice  of  is  goals  p r o v i s i o n s of  an e q u a l  which  serve  ends  of  harm to  standardized and  relevant  unreasonable  the  the  and  equal such  d i s t r i b u t i o n of  support  that  the  the  and  educational  wholly  long  about  at  educational  practices  and  and  opportunity  decisions  unjust,  resulting  curriculum  denying students  and  education  ultimately  that  perceived benefits,  making meaningful  for  show  systematically  established for  to  odds  their with  our  opportunity,  will  not  benefits  bring to  as about  a l l  students. I  shall  support  of  two a r g u m e n t s .  is  a basic  Declaration central the  freedom  Case, to  to  1985,  promote  human of  the I  above  will  right,  argue  as  our  notion  of  to  pursue  one's  people's  and  (1948,  a human  the  firstly,  acknowledged  Human R i g h t s  p.452)  claims with  the that  in  Article  right  own w i l l  is (see  (Peters,  i f  the  the  education  Universal  26),  and  that  promotion  Appendix 2  maximization of  interests  development  1966,  of  -  opportunities p.  179),  then  compulsory p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a s y s t e m i c a l l y curriculum  n e c e s s a r i l y compromises a s t u d e n t ' s  for pursuing  "the  p e r s o n a l i t y " and rights"  full  development of  "the  strengthening  (see A p p e n d i x 1 ) .  maintain  that e x i s t i n g educational  considered to  unjust,  and  the  opportunity  human  of r e s p e c t  to which the u n i v e r s a l r i g h t  directed  right  standardized  f o r human  to education  is  Under such c i r c u m s t a n c e s , p r a c t i c e s must  a serious infringement  be  of the  argue secondly,  that further lacking i n  support of a s y s t e m i c a l l y s t a n d a r d i z e d curriculum,  i s a reasonable  and  justification  f o r the b a s i s  p r o c e e d t o demand t h a t s t u d e n t s  study  t h i n g and  another.  of  not  Even a c u r s o r y  literature  reveals extensive  every area  of educational  and  t o p r o c e e d , on what b a s i s , and  (Bowles & G i n t i s , 1993;  Goodlad,  1991;  Noddings,  a s o c i e t y and p o s s e s s no  1976;  1984;  Bruner, Holt,  1995,  review  disagreement i n  research  1969;  January;  1971;  purpose of e d u c a t i o n ,  one  virtually  practice  regarding  t o what e n d s Darling-Hammond,  H u r n , 1979; Roland Martin,  Kirkness, 1995).  e p i s t e m o l o g i c a l a g r e e m e n t on nor  what k n o w l e d g e o r  the  As  we the  experiences  a r e most n e c e s s a r y o r most d e s i r a b l e b e y o n d t h o s e o f l i t e r a c y , n u m e r a c y , and  on  the  a p r o f e s s i o n , i t would appear t h a t  s h a r e d and  the  mandatory  which schools  best  basic  education.  I shall  how  I  a c q u i s i t i o n of s o c i a l  basic  skills.  7.  Consider 2000 years questions with  the  the  ago  questions  and t h e  still  Aristotle  reader w i l l  time.  concerns  of  could easily  issues  causing are  discussions  the  subjects. about look  central  it  is  on what  concerns  and f o c u s  disagreement taught, best  about  a "1997  of  same current  is  As the  agreed  whether  life.  is  we  Neither  more  perplexing; or  three  be  opinions  is  concerned The  no one -  the  knows  should  should v i r t u e ,  h i g h e r knowledge,  our t r a i n i n g ; a l l  by  are  or w i t h moral v i r t u e .  in l i f e ,  s h o u l d the  used  For these  p r i n c i p l e we s h o u l d p r o c e e d  useful  the  world,  be c o n s i d e r e d .  education  practice  text  s h o u l d be e d u c a t e d ,  o r the  intellectual  unchanged  today:  t o be  whether  existing the  things  virtue  clear  with  there  same  agenda o f  F o r mankind a r e by no means  the to  exact  difference.  which remain to  are,  the  any symposium i n t h e  How young p e r s o n s things  the  than  so u n c h a n g e d a r e  be p l a c e d on t h e  i n education  questions  that  and v i r t u a l l y  In f a c t ,  a noticeable  still  find  educators,  Forum o n E d u c a t i o n " , a t without  by A r i s t o t l e more  remain unanswered  passage of  fundamental  posed  or  aim o f  have  been  entertained. (Aristotle, After will  1980, p.  I have g i v e n  then proceed  an a l t e r n a t i v e  to  542)  sufficient  outline  strategy  the  grounds  f o r my t h e s i s ,  conceptual  which I f e e l  will  framework  help  to  for  bring  I  about and  some s o l u t i o n s  t o enhance  opportunity  to  to  the  conditions  issues  for  o b t a i n i n the  the  that  have been  equality  of  public school  raised,  educational  system.  A p p l i c a t i o n s and L i m i t a t i o n s o f the Study The scope, of  following for  is  is  necessarily  much t o be c o n s i d e r e d  i n c r e a s i n g our u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f  equal  educational  c o u l d not over  and  it  reason,  economics, training,  considerations  innovation  matters  nor without  the  to  system.  without  including:  politics,  in  process  means  o p p o r t u n i t y i n our s c h o o l  many s u b j e c t  vocational the  what  broad  i n the  engage i n m e a n i n g f u l d i s c u s s i o n  a great  ethics,  to  there  examination  We  crossing  logic,  study of  g i v i n g some  liberal thought  of  change  and i m p l e m e n t a t i o n ,  and p r o g r e s s ,  rights  and o b l i g a t i o n s ,  and  the  rights  for  persons,  of  citizens,  freedom o f  equality,  choice,  democracy  diversity,  and t h e  pursue  purpose  respect of  education. My  arguments  a p p l y to p u b l i c s c h o o l s  and p u b l i c  education  systems  i n North America i n g e n e r a l ,  therefore  much o f  the  following discussion  around g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s .  However,  experience  in several  that  a r e no two c l a s s r o o m s  there  likeness  schools  among s c h o o l s ,  school  as  and  will  center  an e d u c a t o r ,  and s c h o o l alike,  with  districts, let  districts,  alone  and  a  school  I know  systems. of  Each i s  cultural  a distinctive  values,  rules,  microcosm w i t h i t s  and c o d e s o f  conduct  own  set  (Sarason,  1 982) . But,  at  the  same t i m e ,  there  is  also  something  recognizable  about a l l  schools,  all  such that  when a c o m b i n a t i o n o f  systems,  particular  conditions  themselves,  and c i r c u m s t a n c e s  we a r e aware o f  r e c o g n i z e d as  "school".  It  is  all  public schools,  generic  similarity in familiar a routine  institutions Much o f classroom  what  in this  i n as  i n the  that  there  I  exists  running of  these  1984).  t r a n s p i r e s on a day t o day b a s i s  define  T h e s e common s c h o o l  the  a  and r h y t h m s w h i c h  1 9 9 5 ; Lieberman & M i l l e r ,  and h i g h l y r e c o g n i z a b l e  which h e l p to  sense  much as  c a n be p r e d e t e r m i n e d by t h e  established  these  present  patterns  "dailiness"  (Dryden,  and i n  something u n i v e r s a l l y  address  establish  in a l l districts,  presence  school  in  of  the  well  structures  t e a c h i n g / l e a r n i n g environment.  structures matter  -  time,  space,  authority,  and s u b j e c t  (Werner,  one o f  the  main d i s t i n g u i s h i n g f e a t u r e s  extend  a f r a n c h i s e d appearance to  the  people,  1995) - account which tend  practices  of  for  to public  schools. And i n a d d i t i o n t o common t o  all  established  schools,  structures  the  school  there  structures  also exists  that  another  which h e l p to d e f i n e  appear layer  of  and u l t i m a t e l y  10.  distinguish schools  the  from  those of  Accordingly,  where  p u b l i c schools  all in  cultures  the  same  spirit  and p r a c t i c e s  generic  attention  such g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s I sincerely as  the  similarities  to  Hence,  the  arguments  specificity have  influences  while  at  necessary  t r i e d to  on t h e  strike  educational  for  and c o n c e r n s  as  they  in particular.  is  P l a t o and not  to  existence.  their  presence  same  time m a i n t a i n i n g  to  the  focus  the  solutions,  p u b l i c schools to  call  of  by o p e n i n g w i t h  discussion  is  Mill,  r a t h e r to  a p p l i c a t i o n of  of  to  oversimplify  of  the  relate  of  apply  f o r my i n t e n t  but  the  practices  do n o t  schools,  a balance  and t h e n n a r r o w i n g t h e  schools  of  schools.  apologize,  i n acknowledging the  generalizations  elementary  middle or secondary  N o d d i n g s and S a r a s o n ; my i n t e n t i o n the  of  I  discussion in  general,  on t h e  problems  p r a c t i c e of  secondary  11.  CHAPTER  2  BACKGROUND AND RATIONALE FOR THE STUDY  It other  c a n be a r g u e d t h a t has  natural  always  process  experiences  existed, of  e d u c a t i o n i n one and as  p a s s i n g oh t h e  from one g e n e r a t i o n  humankind has d e v i s e d  no o t h e r ,  and  But e v e n  f u l l y supported.  question existed  still  arises  as  the  form o f  unjust,  t h e n no amount o f  t o be  the the  accumulated l e a r n i n g  to  the  next,  and  since  e d u c a t i o n s h o u l d be v a l u e d if  this the  were  so,  the  education  that  now w i t h i n o u r s c h o o l s  education that  certain  convince  appears  to whether  and c u r r e n t l y e x i s t s  necessarily  it  form o r  ought  to  exist?  is  For i f  e d u c a t i o n a p p e a r s t o be u n r e a s o n a b l e  a person of  t r a d i t i o n or l e g i s l a t i o n  reason that  has  such p r a c t i c e s  a  or  will  ought  to  prevail. I are  am o f  the  opinion that  u n r e a s o n a b l e as  because  the  distribution because  ends o f of  despite  individuals  well  as  current educational unjust.  e d u c a t i o n do n o t  I  feel  this  practices is  so  result  i n an e q u a l  educational benefits  to  students,  evidence  that  can achieve  to  indicate  e q u a l l y the  all  not  benefits  all obtained  and  12.  through education, promote t h i s  education  beneficial  to  all  I  if  it  feel  provisions  set  some s t u d e n t s students, of  some, the  it  sufficient  such that  would n o t  to  evidence not  And s u c h i s firstly,  to  was  the  the the  show  to  opportunity  and,  unreasonableness the  practices discussion  over  all  to  suggest  not  to  this  suggest  and g e n e r a l l y  for provisions  secondly,  to  and i n j u s t i c e  show is  of  equal  that not  and  change.  as  equal,  claim,  then  is  a  proceed. chapter;  practices at  odds  are with  educational  this  widely  i l l u m i n a t i o n and i d e n t i f i c a t i o n  would s e r v e  to  that  there  following  current educational unjust,  not  And i f  support  the  do  name o f  actually  on w h i c h s c h o o l s  purpose of  objective  s t u d e n t s but o n l y  w h i c h g'o u n d e r t h e  shown t o  that  other  these p r a c t i c e s  be u n r e a s o n a b l e  basis  that  intended goals  and t h a t  opportunity  a recognized  ends o f  be u n r e a s o n a b l e  indeed unreasonable, our  i n d e e d was  practices  question  is  existing  v e r y much u n e q u a l and u n j u s t .  would a l s o  need  this  E d u c a t i o n a l O p p o r t u n i t y " were  in fact  s u p p o r t and  which  r o u t i n e l y gained advantages  and t h a t  then  to  persons.  in increased benefits  "Equal  it  being a process  c a n be shown u n d e r t h e  educational  but  as  continue  f o r t h as e q u a l e d u c a t i o n a l  education,  result  we n e v e r t h e l e s s  understood of  a good s t a r t i n g p o i n t  these for  13.  I  will  mistake  begin  of  that  i n our c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n  opportunity" have  by s u g g e s t i n g  and s u b s e q u e n t l y  of  i n the  o r g a n i z e d our p u b l i c s c h o o l s  subject  areas  curriculum.  I will  a systemically aspirations while  within  argue  "equal  framework o f  of  among s t u d e n t s '  that  a  standardized  rigid  adherence  represents  backgrounds,  interests,  and i s  thus  opposition  to  t o promote  abilities,  the  that  and  fundamentally equal  to  students,  natural diversity  individual  efforts  educational  o n l y a m i n o r i t y of  i g n o r i n g the  grave  around a narrow g r o u p i n g  further  and i n t e r e s t s  made a  manner i n w h i c h we  standardized curriculum  essentially  exists  the  we have  in  educational  opportunity.  The B a s i s on Which Schools There not  to  is  succeed  existing we have  in school.  in reality  I see  few  students  educational education  is  students  are  for  all  It  to  tread.  without  s h o u l d not but  to  mean  field what  pathway, on w h i c h The r e s t  a map.  of  Equal  identical  r a t h e r an e q u a l  develop  but  me t h a t  rough t e r r a i n ,  are able  learners,  o p p o r t u n i t y to  appears  school,  playing  and n a r r o w  t o s s e d a compass  opportunities  attend  no l e v e l  a straight  through i n c r e a s i n g l y  only a very  equivalent  o p p o r t u n i t y to  in public education.  bulldozed  the  an e q u a l  Proceed  or  individual potential  in  1 4.  o n e ' s own a r e a o f  interest  Our s y s t e m does n o t opportunities even though  for  they  represent  body.  towards  a m i n o r i t y of  status. of  outside  Schools a student  in fact,  of  and,  same s t u d e n t  they  are a l l  "not  so  of  the  to  go on t o  program,  they  s u c h as  not  a  far  to  existing  less  lower  level the  sanction  of Ministry  provincial  areas.  opinions  of  graduate  he o r she  the  directed  The  Columbia,  "smart."  is  success.  on  If  the  considered  However,  should  would r a t h e r c o n c e n t r a t e  the  on  the  power m e c h a n i c s  or metal  working,  a sudden i n a d i f f e r e n t  category  of  s t u d e n t s who h a v e n ' t  excellence  It  scholarship.  quite  matters  i n mechanical  metalworking craftsmanship; back,  a vastly  "core" s u b j e c t  smart" s t u d e n t s .  demonstrates  be o f  in British  therefore,  decide  arts  graduates;  to  even bother  the  destined  academic-technical  industrial  to  funding is  population.  condition children's  is  successful  school  school  and r e l e g a t e d  So low  university,  an o v e r w h e l m i n g m a j o r i t y o f  are perceived  E d u c a t i o n does n o t  testing  the  educational  g o i n g on t o  The m a j o r i t y o f  options  significance  provide equivalent  s t u d e n t s not  student  available  and a b i l i t y .  they  made i t  little  if  a  -  the  student  a b i l i t y or'  receive  a pat  on  the  15.  This  is  unfortunate  inadequate,  that  " l i v e d up t o p.  192).  their  Most  potential,  they  to  & LeCompte,  students never  discover  their  t h e y have n e v e r  find  out  what  it  limitations,  opportunity for  feel  somehow u n d e r a c h i e v e d and n o t (Bennett  understand t h e i r greater  have  students  potential"  because  opportunity  f o r we make t h e s e  as  failure  academic  been g i v e n  is.  the  They d o ,  there  however,  has been  than f o r  1990,  far  success.  I f Everyone Were Allowed t o Succeed? Setting school  the  prime e d u c a t i o n a l  curriculum  to  prepare students  entrance  graduation c e r t i f i c a t e  1992,  xiv).  is  p.  also  Not o n l y i s  unattainable  students  i n the  university social  entrance),  synonymous  our  strive  there this  is  outset,  me e x p l a i n .  it  is  (Noddings,  impractical  not is  the  given  goal  the  most  that  the to  it  highest  message t h a t is  it  (i.e.,  and by o t h e r  disservice  a goal  for  but  And a l t h o u g h  only'one  parents,  and t h e r e f o r e  a university  an u n d e s i r a b l e g o a l ,  goal  we do a g r e a t  for  a mistake  with u n i v e r s i t y entrance, for,  i n our p u b l i c  system.  By s e n d i n g o u t  students because  from t h e  is  and t o t a l l y  s t a t u s by e d u c a t o r s ,  institutions.  to  it  public school  m i g h t be a r g u e d t h a t  goal  social  graduation,  ultimate the  cannot  goal  m a j o r i t y of be  reached  morally u n j u s t i f i a b l e .  Let  16.  Let's  say Canadian h i g h schools  outstanding and  job of  d i d an  absolutely  i n June o f 1 9 9 8 ,  graduating students  e v e r y h i g h s c h o o l managed t o g r a d u a t e e v e r y  meeting a l l suppose  the  this  student,  requirements for u n i v e r s i t y entrance.  became t h e  trend.  What w o u l d we do?  c o u l d not hope t o accommodate e v e r y o n e  And  We  i n our  universities. Take t h i s o n l y d i d the  example a l i t t l e public  schools  students  to u n i v e r s i t y ,  students  i n the  applied  to  and s a y t h a t  do a tremendous j o b o f  but they  also  counseled  " r i g h t " d i r e c t i o n and a l l  the  engineering.  further  faculties  of  medicine,  And, p l a y i n g out  ultimate conclusion,  let's  say  law,  the u n i v e r s i t i e s  Where w o u l d we put a l l  trained doctors, these  scenario is  Consequences of  for  remains that  the  educational  lawyers,  and  i n our h i g h l y  p e r h a p s a good example o f  test  consequences  v a l u e as  did  society?  above  fact  its  professionals,  these h i g h l y t r a i n e d educated s p e c i a l i s t s ,  the  and  that  engineers.  Universal  students  s c e n a r i o to  135,000  The  the  this  to graduate  technological  getting  and i n t h e y e a r 2 0 0 5 a r e r e a d y  an e q u a l l y tremendous j o b , fully  these  not  everyone  (Coombs,  a c t i n g on t h e  has  also  attainable  become  the  31) -  the  same p r i n c i p l e  what o u r s o c i e t y  most d e s i r a b l e j o b s process  1980, p.  the  has  come  -  to  through the  measuring s t i c k  1 7.  for  educational  cannot  be a v a i l a b l e  support  rigorous failing  we l i m i t academic  to  access  to  standards  grade,  cannot point  everyone  (Hurn,  and l a w y e r s  system i n f a c t  make the  little  everyone  the  opportunity  1979).  for  be t h e  these occupations  depends  on most  success of  the  few.  grade,  i n order to  every  and setting  Our  people  f a i l u r e of  failing  the  many  T h e r e would  student.  the  be  If  we would s i m p l y r a i s e  restrict  only  people  goals.  the  i n awarding A ' s to  qualifications  by  w h i c h r e l y on most  without  c o u l d make t h e  We c a n  i n our s o c i e t y ,  reach these h i g h l y sanctioned  evaluation  there  to  even though  so many d o c t o r s  therefore  to  success,  the  number o f  applicants. As N e l N o d d i n g s  (1993)  contends,  " L e a r n i n g as  game.  is  It  differences. needs o f  1993), for  relies  has  to  though  its  is  (p.  not  defined  today  is  and p o i n t  t o do w i t h  14).  on f a i l u r e  still  Stanford University  separate  little  (Bowles & G i n t i s ,  the  But t h a t . o u r i n order to  a  rigged  up interests  system  of  work has  1976;  Bruner,  1971;  widely  a p p r e c i a t e d nor  or  been  well  Kelley, recognized  ruthlessness.  There at  It  children"  education cited  designed  it  of  is  a well  defined  work i n o u r s c h o o l s ,  identified  as  the  and w e l l  understood  which Bowles,and G i n t i s  "sorting  f u n c t i o n " of  schools  principle (1976) -  a "Law  18.  of  the  J u n g l e " so  and someone i s  to  going  works,  and as  world,  schools quite  right  to  -  where  lose.  recognized  1971; D o l l ,  (Bruner, failure  the  speak  into  someone i s  T h a t ' s how the  1993).  We have  fundamental  s y s t e m i n s u c h a way t h a t  equitable  and t h e r e f o r e  that  s t u d e n t s have  that  playing  all  Against  this  understand that stay  for  i n school  students  they  can succeed  and g e t  t o be a w i n n e r . because  of  unnatural, Apple,  fact,  led  the  society,  will it  schooling,  believe  to of  of  s t a t u s quo w i l l not  have  that  will  if  of  "leveled  In  is  if  they  this has  the  further  be so  correct  belief  and  "would be  (McLaren, 1 9 8 9 ; that  individuals more  success  everyone  (Hurn,  the  to  has  be more s u c c e s s f u l .  changed  is  fairly.  i n d i v i d u a l s who have  follow  then everyone  to  this  chance  The n o t i o n  everyone  may be t r u e  stand a better  does n o t  that  be  j o b market  common s e n s e " it  to  are given  i n the  appears  reject  has  real  our  succeed  compete  This notion  image  But w h i l e  or p a r t i c u l a r groups education  to  that  a violation  1 990) .  appears  a good e d u c a t i o n .  opportunity  matter  to  the  built  of  our s u p p o r t .  background students  we a r e  so  it  win  principle  unwittingly  public education  institution  reinforced  this  an e q u a l o p p o r t u n i t y t o  u p h e l d by a b e l i e f field"  worthy of  for  structures  education  to  " r e a l world"  t r a i n i n g grounds  naturally reinforce  the  going  1979).  in  our  more For  the  19.  The Right To Choice i n Education In  my i n t r o d u c t i o n I c l a i m e d t h a t  practices upon t h e there  were  unjust  to  the  fundamental r i g h t  exists  opportunity  to  and t h e  p r i n c i p l e of  which presupposes  among a l l  persons:  capable  "Respect  that  particular interests  [person]  point that  of  interchangeable actions  different from t h e  educational  am'drawn t o  educational education  thus  be assumed  the  treat  (Benn,  I suggest  that  equality  the  own  to  to be  have  a  as  his  were,  someone  own v i e w  1988, pp.  the  it  relationship  p a r t i c u l a r l y freedom o f that  of  104-105)  o p p o r t u n i t y and human r i g h t s  conclusion  a  else's...because  when s e e n ,  to  -  is  perceived  c a n presume  w i t h anyone  seriously.  do w i t h f r e e d o m , I  from h i s  receiving e n d . . . T o respect  Furthermore, equal  e d u c a t i o n which  for Persons"  having  no one e l s e  significance  that  educational  grounded i n  and d e t e r m i n a t i o n s  a person is  himself  is  speaks  view,  k n o w . . . and w h i c h c a n n o t  as  I maintain  of o v e r r i d i n g  hierarchy...it  each  may i n f r i n g e  a c e r t a i n minimal  i n some measure  established  to  educational  they  education.  universal right  principle  the  that  a r e l a t i o n s h i p between e q u a l  r o o t e d i n the  fact  extent  current  also  choice,  considerations  o p p o r t u n i t y and r e s p e c t  for  the  a r e c o n d i t i o n a l upon freedom o f  between  right  choice.  and of to  has  to  thus equal  20.  Having equal all  a r r i v e d at  educational  students  interested Students have  are  in  provided with  met,  little  as  without  to  the  uninterested  strive goods  over  to or  take  are  I contend  c a n be  best  being  b e i n g met  students  whose  presence  students  to  to  be  i n the  classroom are  interest  fully  equally  offered.  interests  of  that  r e a l i z e d when  opportunites  materials  the  motivation for  contribute that  subject  interests  an advantage  being  conclusion,  opportunities  the  whose  this  there  participate  learning environment.  The r e s u l t  learners  to  full  resources  are  advantage which  unlikely of  the  promote  not  in  and  being  intentionally  kinds of  successful  is  educational  academic  achievement. Students tend  to  who a r e  learn quicker,  satisfaction interested because  they  learning,  they  are  feel  p.  they they  275).  however,  a l l  easier,  and enjoyment  i n what  1890/1980,  elite;  interested  and w i t h  than  are have  is  being  not  have  taught  greater  those  who a r e  not  learning,  and are  only  to  be  (William  the  prerogative  a right  to  be  there  James,  S a t i s f a c t i o n and enjoyment are  students  i n what  of  in  an  interested  academic in  learning.  However,  as  it  interested  i n what  Federation,  1995;  stands schools Fullan,  now,  only  teach 1991),  some s t u d e n t s  (Canadian while  are  Teachers'  a great  many  what  21 .  students (Holt,  have l i t t l e  actual interest  1964) and a r e t h e r e  w h i c h we s h a l l d i s c u s s  for a v a r i e t y of  further  w o u l d seem t o make s e n s e t h a t uninterested  i n what s c h o o l s  until  schools  Thus,  if  principle, to  t e a c h what i s  we c o u l d i n f e r it  t e a c h what  is  of  w o u l d be i n t e r e s t e d  it  designed  to  interest  the b e s t  interest  and,  in fact,  is  (1966)  freedom or r i g h t 179).  of  is  affect  about  society  that  children;  they  children,  which i s  particularly  right  to  neither  a l l o w each i n d i v i d u a l  the  to education i s  directed  schools  were  in  turn  are  are designed not  the a  not  t o be same  in  thing  right.  t h e whole p u r p o s e o f interests"  assumptions  a  (p.  and  i n a democratic  freedom of process  choice, is  mandatory  e q u a l i t y o f o p p o r t u n i t y nor  t o p u r s u e "the  human p e r s o n a l i t y " ,  children.  children  very n o t i o n of  when i n c l u s i o n i n t h a t  b u t we c a n a s s u r e  if  schools  "to promote p e o p l e ' s  the  those  so  is straightforward  p r o b l e m a t i c , as  reminds us,  it  teach.  any e d u c a t i o n a l p r o c e s s limits  to  to c h i l d r e n ,  the  But  l i k e l y remain  that,  C o n s e q u e n t l y we must c h a l l e n g e  beliefs  [their]  will  above p r i n c i p l e  still  reasons  l i t e r a t u r e a simple  i n what s c h o o l s  challenges  As P e t e r ' s  the  other  teach  who a r e  interest  the  interest  And a l t h o u g h t h e and l o g i c a l  students  of  schools  i n Chapter Four.  teach,  from  w o u l d be t o  i n what  full  to which the  (Article  development  of  fundamental r i g h t  2 6 , paragraph  2).  And  without  conditions  intentionally the  right  to  that  strive  encourage  for  education,  opportunity,  cannot  the  successful  individual  academic  and i n t u r n e q u a l  p r o p e r l y be  to  achievement,  educational  achieved.  The P r i n c i p l e o f C o n f e r r e d B e n e f i t s The j u s t i f i c a t i o n  for  standardized curriculum, benefits judge, of  is  this  unreasonable  beneficial  to  are unable  all  in  to  justify  implicit or not  to  that  the  for  the  of  then  confirms  legislation  of  practices,  for  it  the  that for  every  i n the  right.  that first  in their  p r e v e n t i n g harm u n t o  benefits education  the  liberty  also  be  to  choose  and  whether  -  can o n l y  be  was p r o p o s e d and which i s  through a p o l i c y lives,  inclusion  The o n l y m o r a l l y  right  place  reason  human r i g h t  l i m i t i n g a human r i g h t  individual  noninterference  not  must  is  same r e a s o n  the  compulsory  i n a human r i g h t  reason  recipients  that  is  a fundamental  acknowledged will  acknowledge  is  justifiable  the  to  education  exercise  conferred  u n d e r s t a n d nor  For i f  conferred benefits  current educational  considered  what  of  learners?  The p r i n c i p l e o f enough  can n e i t h e r  and u n j u s t .  from e d u c a t i o n ,  systemically  b a s e d upon a t h e o r y  recipients  conferment  derived is  w h i c h the  a m a n d a t o r y and  other  t h e m s e l v e s and  to  respect  the  of  than f o r  others.  reasons  of  23 .  There  is  a p r i n c i p l e more f u n d a m e n t a l  principle  of  conferred benefits  when b o t h a r e reasoning "Respect as  the  that  applied  for  Persons",  freedom  is  do n o t  the  limited  harm o t h e r s  William  the  James  of  referred  Individual",  those acts (cited  precedence  The p r i n c i p l e  Living  to  the  or i n t e r p r e t  actions.  o r what  of  which takes  justify  behind c e r t a i n  "Sovereignty  least,  to  than  which,  to  suggests  at  the  v.ery  1951, p.  in Kilpatrick,  139).  Mill's  point  of  and he s u g g e s t s Acts,  of  whatever  require  the to  Essentially reasoning and t h e  do harm t o  by t h e  controlled  and, of  must  when n e e d f u l , mankind. be t h u s  that  of  James,  p.  absolutely unfavourable  by t h e  active  far  limited; to  other  of he  the must  people.  293)  then,  conferred benefits.  may b e ,  The l i b e r t y  a nuisance  the  acknowledgment  the  others,  be,  u n d e r l y i n g the  considering  with  without  cases  make h i m s e l f  (1861/1980  which,  more i m p o r t a n t  interference not  kind,  cause,  sentiments, individual  consistent  that:  justifiable and i n  view i s  of  p r i n c i p l e of p r i n c i p l e of  respect  human r i g h t s ,  This point  following  harm i s  is  example.  not  further  the for  the  rightful persons  principle  illustrated  by  o  24.  Suppose the  the  w o r l d was  o n l y p e r s o n on e a r t h .  w o u l d be no n e e d o f for  persons  or acknowledging  suggests, universe time the  as  (cited there  recognize  was  natural rights,  a second  the  is  the  on t h e  justifiably  to  c h o o s e what individual  person  of  limit  that  the  by a l l o w i n g  they  interests,  it  are c u r r e n t l y To my knowledge  c h o o s e what current  the  such a  (see  with  freedom  is  limited.  human r i g h t s ,  misuse p.  proof rests  students greater based  that  and  of  A p p e n d i x 2,  learn,  to  for persons  would be more h a r m f u l  schools  wish  educational  the  t o be  respect  to  of  451). upon  freedom on  to  their  than  standardized c u r r i c u l a  to  subjected.  students  they  for  burden of  would l i k e  rights  Until  must be e v i d e n c e  a human r i g h t  means  is  there  such  w o u l d be no need  remains  p r i n c i p l e of  respect  could interfere  there  and o n l y  claim that  show t h a t  i n c a p a c i t y of  that  there  nature  51).  human r i g h t s ,  manditory p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the they  p.  was  John L o c k e  by t h e  u n i v e r s a l d e c l a r a t i o n of  this  it  1951,  for  o r as  given  reader,  i n nature  hence M a g s i n o ' s  In e d u c a t i o n  the  existence  based  we r e c e i v e  of  reader  p r i n c i p l e of  human r i g h t s ,  in Kilpatrick,  already present  schools  the  "Unalienable Rights",  natural rights  It  as  anew and t h e  Under t h e s e c i r c u m s t a n c e s  establishing  would a l r e a d y e x i s t  to  starting  to to  have n o t  make use learn.  practices,  demonstrated  of  their  Where i s with  their  the  liberty  the  to  evidence  required  that  courses,  tests, all  letter  grades,  children?  And where  justification in  and l o c k - s t e p  that  an i n c r e a s e  of  is  the  progressions,  evidence  compulsory i n c l u s i o n benefits  to  all  to  benefits  support  the  in education  members o f  results  society?  Summary "The j u s t i f i c a t i o n value  of  reflect  pursuing one's the  is  not  of  a right  with to  intentions  his/her to  Case.  will.  I feel  l i b e r t y " maintains  own w i l l .  As s u c h , (see  that  moral  of  that  not  the p.  not then  proper  object  452).  current educational  the  person,  I  it  agree  practices  e l e m e n t s by w h i c h we r e c o g n i z e  Case r e a s o n s  entitlements"  exclusion reason  place"  (P.  requires  (p.  452). for  for  liberties"  "age-based  and a r e n o t  and  appear judge  the  (p.  The o n l y d e f e n s i b l e he a d d s ,  a s c r i b i n g the  l i m i t i n g of  i n the  incapacity  451),  restrictions  equivalent  right  "must  that  a human r i g h t to  manner:  be  be  the  first any m o r a l freedom  make a c c e p t a b l e  w h i c h Case m a i n t a i n s  following  or  to  reason  i n the  F u r t h e r m o r e , Magsino c l a i m s  "demonstrable  demonstrated  451).  that  from a human r i g h t ,  we have  justification  one's  is  "is  an a c t i o n does  A p p e n d i x 2,  are e m p i r i c a l g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s  very  it  Case,  rights.  In a d d i t i o n ,  for  If  and v o l i t i o n s  liberty"  lack essential  human  for  use  of  Anyone who u p h o l d s distinction  a categorical  i s committed t o the f o l l o w i n g  [principle]: C l a s s o r g r o u p X c a n be t r e a t e d d i f f e r e n t l y than c l a s s / g r o u p Y w i t h regard t o e x e r c i s e o f r i g h t R only i f there i s a reason so t h a t i s b o t h  f o r doing  r e l e v a n t t o R and  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f X b u t n o t o f Y. words, proponents o f a d i f f e r e n t  In other status f o r  c h i l d r e n ' s l i b e r t i e s must p r o v i d e a c o n d i t i o n that i s e m p i r i c a l l y representative of children  (and n o t o f a d u l t s ) a n d m o r a l l y  relevant  t o the e x e r c i s e of freedoms,  (p.  It persons  446)  i s n o t an e n t i t l e m e n t o f any p e r s o n to interfere  i n t h e p l a n s o r p r o j e c t s o f any o t h e r  s i m p l y because they disapprove  of the choices or consider  o t h e r c h o i c e s more w o r t h w h i l e . concludes worthwhile  or groups of  w i t h regards  And, a s C a s e  to education,  i s not s u f f i c i e n t  "merely  justification"  (1985)  being (p. 4 5 3 ) .  In  o t h e r w o r d s , t h e c o n f e r r i n g o f b e n e f i t s deemed t o be more worthwhile  d o e s n o t e n t i t l e one t o i n t e r f e r e w i t h t h e w i l l  of another  human b e i n g no m a t t e r  p e r c e i v e d b e n e f i t s may b e .  how w o r t h w h i l e t h e  27 .  CHAPTER 3  INTERPRETING EQUAL EDUCATIONAL OPPORTUNITY  The ideal  notion  and as  offers  of  equal educational  s u c h open t o  several  that  philosopher  Jerrold  more p e r s u a s i v e five  there  of  are at  Coombs these  least  to  that  six  proceed  interpretations  (1994)  has  suggesting  people  differently.  The There are opportunity  that  Input  analyzed  that  examine  to  each of  and O u t p u t  presence  the  and s u g g e s t s examine I feel  that  and I  these  with regards  equality  may h e l p us  some o f  we s h o u l d c o n s i d e r ,  to  Strike's  may r e q u i r e t h a t  we  treat  Interpretations  two commonly h e l d v i e w s o f  determining i t s extent:  to  literature  Educational  may be u s e f u l  that  an  education  interpretations,  more c l o s e l y  theory  what  equal  The  A d d i n g Coombs' own i n t e r p r e t a t i o n ,  would l i k e  for  of  are worth e x a m i n i n g .  interpretations  further.  interpretation.  interpretations  opportunity  opportunity is  equal  to u n d e r s t a n d the i n our s c h o o l  educational criteria  s y s t e m s and  to  28. The n o t i o n has  of  equal  been g i v e n  some,  and an  others.  an  educational  'input'  'output'  opportunity  is  the  equality achieved  of  educational  available  to  all  opportunity obtains arrangements  and r a n g e  every  social  of  a certain  been a c h i e v e d resources  output  of  t h r o u g h the  for  representation We have levels  have  across  s e e n an i n c r e a s e  concludes:  First  same  p.  the  students. feel  to  of  that  has  a  Supporters t h e y have a  of had long  traditionally  show b e t t e r social  i n p a r t i c i p a t i o n at among women, etc.  that  school  Although s t i l l many  input  opportunity  d i s t r i b u t i o n of  parity,  Nations,  of  in believing  implementation  all  in  282)  supporters  spectrum of  i n our i n s t i t u t i o n s  ethnic'groups,  1994,  in educational  begun  the  the  achievement  equality.  way from r e a c h i n g c o m p l e t e  made  educational  may a l s o  in achieving  is  educational  justified  equal  quality  outcome  equal  manner,  systemic  curriculum  m a r g i n a l i z e d groups  that  quite  interpretation  some s u c c e s s  The  (Coombs,  equality  and by t h e  standardized the  may f e e l  level  programmes  educational  Conceptualized in this interpretation  same  approximately  group.  by  educational  o n l y when  produce  level  of  students.  suggests  by  input  when t h e  and r a n g e  interpretation  interpretation  interpretation  A c c o r d i n g to  interpretation,  opportunity  activities. virtually  religious  But as  Coombs  and  all  Although both of certain  degree of  adequate. take  these  plausibility,  The i n p u t  account  differences  of ...  interpretations neither  range of  educational  output  inadequate  because  account  the  of  achievements can c o n f e r through (p.  interpretation] it  fact  fails  that  are not  the  on p e r s o n s ;  intentionally  Coombs  (1994)  e q u a l i t y of further  Theory:  a l l o c a t i o n of  sort  of  it  only  (p.  is of  as  to  the  of  ambitious"  where  educational  i n a "just  to  "no  achievement  A l t h o u g h Coombs a g r e e s  teachers.  resources,  of  resources  distribution",  that he  know when no a d d i t i o n a l  any k i n d w o u l d make a d i f f e r e n c e ,  attention  educational  conditions  additional educational  284).  impossible  Benefits  Alexander's theory  v i r t u a l l y unlimited resources  a "less  one  them,  Maximization of  s u c h a t h e o r y would o n l y be f e a s i b l e  the  things  are gained  treatment  would i n d e e d r e s u l t  resources  to  due  educational  they  interprets  educational  any s t u d e n t "  feels  is  take  s t r i v i n g for  w o u l d make any d i f f e r e n c e  this  to  the  282)  Alexander's  of  the  one g r o u p more t h a n members o f  other...[The  to  relevant  programmes may u n j u s t i f i a b l y b e n e f i t members o f  a  is  interpretation fails  educationally the  have  if  there  s u c h as  Because  and were  those of  that access time  of  this  scarcity  Coombs s u g g e s t s  that  we s e t t l e  interpretation.  and  of for  30.  Dworkin's Theory: P r e f e r r e d P r o v i s i o n of Resources Dworkin's theory implies in  of preferred provisions e s s e n t i a l l y  " t h a t we s h o u l d  d i s t r i b u t e educational  s u c h a way t h a t no s t u d e n t w i t h  educational  full  provisions  k n o w l e d g e o f how  p r o v i s i o n s were d i s t r i b u t e d w o u l d h a v e r e a s o n  t o want t o t r a d e p r o v i s i o n s w i t h (Coombs, p. 2 8 4 ) .  any o t h e r  The d i f f i c u l t y  student"  Coombs f i n d s w i t h  this  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n i s t h a t a s t u d e n t may n o t w i s h t o t r a d e provisions, greater  but s t i l l  object  to a student o b t a i n i n g  amount o f e d u c a t i o n a l  a  resources.  Frankena's Theory: R e l a t i v e D i s t r i b u t i o n Coombs t r a n s l a t e s F r a n k e n a ' s t h e o r y equality  t o mean t h a t  resources  should  f o r educational be d i s t r i b u t e d " i n  s u c h a way a s t o make t h e same r e l a t i v e o r p r o p o r t i o n a l c o n t r i b u t i o n to every student a t t a i n i n g a set of educational  achievements which f o r h e r o r him would  as h a v i n g a g o o d e d u c a t i o n " theory, centre the  this  (p. 2 8 4 ) .  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n places  Like  Coombs f i n d s i s t h a t  The d i f f i c u l t y , there  educational  different  i s a step i n  of course,  that  i s no way t o a s c e r t a i n " t h e  r e l a t i v e contributions of d i f f e r e n t kinds the  Dworkin's  the student at the  o f t h e j u d g m e n t w h i c h , i n my o p i n i o n ,  right direction.  count  of resources  achievements of students having  i n t e r e s t s a n d t a l e n t s " (p. 2 8 4 ) .  very  Another  to  31  difficulty  that  I have w i t h  what  a student  her,  may o n l y be one  teachers,  to,  by s o c i e t y . consider  i n which they  Theory:  Educational  Equal  interpretations, interpretation that  of  that  the  the  essential  priority  worthwhile  nor the  not  influence  educational  choice's.  D i s t r i b u t i o n of  educational  -  opportunity  it  success.  difficulties  with  he c o n s i d e r s  to  as  the  access  to  -  at  the or  282).  the  interpretation  a p p l i c a t i o n of factors.  of  Coombs s u g g e s t s will  not  ensure  very least  But he a l s o p o i n t s  be l i m i t i n g  He  educational  resources  will  to  resources.  "conditions  a better  (p.  preceding  further  resources  would s e r v e  achievement, of  equal  desirable  access  a  the  on e d u c a t i o n a l  p r o v i s i o n of  although equal  chances  elements of  Coombs c o n s t r u c t s  educational  successful  parents,  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n does  upon p r e s e n t  to  that him o r  greatest  influence,  Access  which f a c i l i t a t e  achievements" equal  the  for  be c o n s i d e r e d  this  which f o c u s e s  the  distribution objects  that  that  is  Resources  By c o m b i n i n g t h e  argues  will  tremendous  choices  feel  have g i v e n  that  I am a f r a i d  career  interpretation  a v e r y good e d u c a t i o n  and one  society's  future  Coombs'  is  and c o u n s e l o r s ,  and s t a t u s  of  feels  this  his  out  increase  several  own t h e o r y  which  One  such l i m i t a t i o n c e n t r e s  around the  fact  that  u l t i m a t e l y what c o n s t i t u t e s e q u a l i t y o f a c c e s s  to  education  as  i s e s s e n t i a l l y a value  j u d g m e n t , and  u n l i k e l y to gain u n i v e r s a l assent. the best c o n t r i b u t i o n of t h i s a c t u a l l y be  Coombs c o n c l u d e s  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n may  " t o make c l e a r e r t h e n a t u r e o f t h e  that are  required  for applying  not  'defeasible'  ( c i t e d i n Coombs, p.  d e f e a s i b l e concept i n v o l v e s  our  value  what H a r t c a l l s  for but  judgments equal  the  285).  The  i d e n t i f y i n g conditions  e s s e n t i a l l y l a c k i n g , and  from a c h i e v i n g  resources,  p r i n c i p l e of  by  concept  using  the  access to education"  are  that  to i d e n t i f y a p a r t i c u l a r set of c o n d i t i o n s  c l a i m i n g equal d i s t r i b u t i o n of e d u c a t i o n a l rather  such  that  t h a t n e c e s s a r i l y t a k e away  claim.  Summary To  this point  t h e n , we  have l o o k e d  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of equal e d u c a t i o n a l f r o m e a c h one further  the  at  several  opportunity  and  e s s e n t i a l elements f o r c o n s i d e r i n g  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n (see o v e r v i e w on p . 3 3 ) .  But  c o m b i n i n g t h e s e e l e m e n t s i n t o a s i n g l e model may itself The  be  not  taken yet  a  simply in  sufficient.  a p p l i c a t i o n o f Coombs' i n t e r p r e t a t i o n t o  conditions enhance our  of equal access which are e f f o r t s by d e t e r m i n i n g  lacking, I feel  considerations  could  which  Table  1,  Interpreting  Equal  Educational  Opportunity  Strike Equality of Differences  Appreciation of D i f f e r e n c e s  Input Program Availability  Output Academic Achievement  Relevant Differences  Alexander Maximization of Achievement  Limited Resources"  i—.Time Conditions Lacking Teachers-  Dworkin Preferred Provisions of Resources  Frankena Relative Distribution  Essential Elements  Proportional Distribution Diversity  - Interests - Talent  Coombs Access to Equal Distribution of Resources  Conditions ' <Overlooked  Educational Achievement Defeasible Concept  Intentional Striving  Coombs s u g g e s t s may have For  if  we c a n i d e n t i f y  which n e c e s s a r i l y access,  we might  characteristics access  as  opposing or  of  former  will  necessary  for  and t h o s e  of  be o p p o s e d  unequal a c c e s s .  to  of  to  equality,  the  the  latter  to  f o u r we s h a l l  are  to  to  c a n be a p p l i e d t o  a further  opportunity.  equal  the the  absence  in  conditions  increased presence a lack of  of  the  conditions  prevail. l o o k more c l o s e l y  elements  lacking,  equal  the  And w h i l e  guarantee  elements  achieve  " s u b t r a c t i v e " e l e m e n t s may not  identifying  that  educational  to  certainly indicate  In c h a p t e r strategy  identifying  those  elements which c o n t r i b u t e  t h e m s e l v e s be s u f f i c i e n t characteristic  overlooked".  of  away from e f f o r t s  then b e g i n of  been  characteristics  those perceived  characteristics of  take  "heretofore  that  and see  at  have been  how t h e s e  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n ' of  this overlooked  principles equal  CHAPTER 4  CONDITIONS LACKING, CONDITIONS  L e g i s l a t i v e Intervention: Kilpatrick and t h a t  (1951)  OVERLOOKED  The Costs and  Benefits  reminds u s , freedom  i s not absolute,  "the p r i n c i p l e of equality p r e c i s e l y  p r i n c i p l e of l i b e r t y "  (p. 1 4 0 ) . I n o t h e r w o r d s ,  society or i n s t i t u t i o n equality,  l i m i t s the i n any  i n that society that values  t h e r e must be a b a l a n c e t h a t d e t e r m i n e s t h e  e x t e n t o f t h e freedom  of the i n d i v i d u a l  from  u p o n t h e r i g h t s o f a l l members o f s o c i e t y . b a l a n c e o c c u r s i n t h e form o f government  infringing O f t e n such a  legislation.  I n Canada, as i n o t h e r d e m o c r a t i c n a t i o n s , t h e r i g h t t o e d u c a t i o n has been l e g i s l a t e d  and " p r o t e c t e d " b y l a w .  But whenever a law i s c r e a t e d i t a l s o s e r v e s t o l i m i t t h e freedoms  of i n d i v i d u a l s within that society.  r e a s o n e d , however, t h a t enactment  the benefits  o f a c e r t a i n l a w are worth  It i s  derived  from t h e  the costs  of the  freedom s u r r e n d e r e d . The  l a w s w h i c h make e d u c a t i o n c o m p u l s o r y f o r e v e r y  member o f o u r s o c i e t y r e p r e s e n t a l i m i t i n g o f f i n d i v i d u a l freedoms  f o r t h e s a k e o f t h e common g o o d .  Adherence t o  legislation  calling  f o r m a n d a t o r y e d u c a t i o n i s s e e n as  b e n e f i t i n g a l l members o f s o c i e t y , that  with  f o r i t i s widely  an e d u c a t i o n each i n d i v i d u a l w i l l  prosper s o c i a l l y , turn, w i l l thus b e t t e r  lead  increasingly  politically,  and e c o n o m i c a l l y w h i c h , i n  to the creation  o f a more p r o s p e r o u s a n d  society  f o r a l l persons.  I n a d e m o c r a c y , t h e i n t e r v e n t i o n by t h e s t a t e e s t a b l i s h m e n t of laws which n e c e s s a r i l y individual  f o r the  restrict  f r e e d o m s a n d r i g h t s , i s t o l e r a t e d a n d deemed  j u s t i f i a b l e on t h e b a s i s gives  held  that  t h e enactment o f such  laws  no a d v a n t a g e , e i t h e r by k i n d o r d e g r e e , t o any  particular  i n d i v i d u a l or groups o f i n d i v i d u a l s w i t h i n our  society; only  t o s o c i e t y as a w h o l e , and i n e q u a l m e a s u r e .  T h e r e a r e , h o w e v e r , many who w o u l d a r g u e t h a t educational  practices  current  do i n f a c t p r o v i d e a d v a n t a g e s f o r  c e r t a i n i n d i v i d u a l s and groups o f i n d i v i d u a l s w i t h i n our society, for 1971; the  a n d h e n c e do n o t o p e r a t e on a b a s i s  of n e u t r a l i t y  t h e w e l f a r e o f a l l ( B o w l e s & G i n t i s , 1976; Dewey,  1963;  argument t h a t  Hurn,1979).  Bruner  I , t o o , have p u t f o r t h  s t u d e n t s who a r e i n t e r e s t e d  i n what i s  being taught maintain advantages over students that are not  interested  i n what t h e y a r e l e a r n i n g .  I have a r g u e d t h a t c h o o s e , by e n f o r c i n g  to ignore the r i g h t s of c h i l d r e n to  outside  p l a n s o r e x p e c t a t i o n s upon  37 .  them, i s a v i o l a t i o n o f t h e r i g h t s due person.  As  t e a c h e r s and  i n t e r f e r e n c e i n o u r own  a d u l t s we plans.  t o them as  deeply  Therefore  a  resent we  must  a c k n o w l e d g e t h e same r i g h t s o f n o n i n t e r f e r e n c e i n t h e a s p i r a t i o n s and such  p l a n s , we  p r o j e c t s of students unless i n f o l l o w i n g c a n show e v i d e n c e  t h a t t h e i r own  o r t h e i n t e r e s t s o f o t h e r s a r e a t s t a k e and harm.  To do o t h e r w i s e  i s u n j u s t and  I shall  interests  i n danger  of  continue  to  e x p a n d upon t h i s p o i n t .  The  L i m i t i n g of Student Options T h e r e a r e t h o s e who  education especially  i s a right, those  would argue t h a t whether or  the f a c t i s t h a t  i n secondary  students,  s c h o o l , a l r e a d y have a  d e a l o f c h o i c e i n what t h e y c h o o s e t o s t u d y , to e l e c t s u b j e c t s t h a t l e a d to the type of programme i n w h i c h t h e y a r e i n t e r e s t e d . argue t h a t the very f a c t b e y o n d t h e age basis,  that students  c o n t i n u e on i n s c h o o l and  And  that students  and  are  great free  graduation  Furthermore,  they  remain i n school  o f m a n d a t o r y s c h o o l i n g , on a " v o l u n t a r y "  is.evidence  i s of i n t e r e s t  not  are making the c h o i c e  to s e l e c t a course  of study  to that  t o them.  to a c e r t a i n extent t h i s  c h o o s e t o c o n t i n u e on r e q u i r e d o f them by  i s so, f o r students  do  i n s c h o o l beyond the p o i n t ,that i s  law,  and  there are i n f a c t s e v e r a l  38.  o p t i o n s from which s t u d e n t s study.  However, I w i l l  may  choose i n t h e i r courses  argue that s o c i a l  arrangements  whereby the i n f l u e n c e of u n w r i t t e n r u l e s , p e r c e p t i o n s , and individuals (Apple, be  w h i c h t h e y h a v e no c o n t r o l  M c L a r e n , 1 989;  s a i d to c o n s t i t u t e respect  or persons. student  Ogbu, 1 9 8 5 ) ,  cannot  truly  f o r d e m o c r a c y , human r i g h t s ,  Under s u c h c o n d i t i o n s , t h e f a c i l i t a t i o n  o p t i o n s and  continued  expectations,  o b l i g a t i o n s , d i c t a t e the a c t i o n s of  i n ways o v e r  1991;.  of  c h o i c e i s an i l l u s i o n ,  and  of  the  e x i s t e n c e of such p r a c t i c e s u n j u s t .  C o e r c i y e Attendance There are at l e a s t which, s t r i c t l y  f o u r reason's f o r a t t e n d i n g  speaking,  v o l u n t a r y a c t i o n s , but  are n e i t h e r compulsory  unduly i n f l u e n c e student  R e a s o n #1:  In  to  nor  which which act to r e s t r i c t  o p t i o n s and  which  school  there  are  no  student  choices:  acceptable  alternatives  schooling.  H a v i n g no reason  acceptable  f o r attendance.  that i n a democratic  alternatives  I t i s quite a s t o n i s h i n g to  s o c i e t y we  a l t e r n a t i v e to schooling. t h e age  to s c h o o l i n g i s  o f f e r no  realize  acceptable  For high s c h o o l students  of s i x t e e n , t h e r e i s a c h o i c e between g o i n g  s c h o o l or going  to j a i l .  A rather harsh  one  punishment,  under to but  39 .  i n c a r c e r a t i o n i n youth or prolonged  truancy  d e t e n t i o n programmes f o r r e p e a t e d  i s one o f s e v e r a l s t r a t e g i e s f o r  d e a l i n g w i t h noncompliance, and o f t e n i n c o n j u n c t i o n removal from t h e f a m i l y t o a treatment sentence of j u v e n i l e probation.  with  f a c i l i t y and/or a  For students  over  t h e age  o f s i x t e e n , s i n c e i t i s no l o n g e r m a n d a t o r y t o r e m a i n i n school, it  the only a l t e r n a t i v e i s dropping  isstill  utilized  unacceptable,  "option".  this  B u t t h e p o i n t must be e m p h a s i z e d t h a t t h e s e a r e  students  w i t h low academic a b i l i t i e s  and t h e b r i g h t e s t .  indeed  or a h i s t o r y of  t h e y a r e among t h e  The m a j o r i t y o f t h e s e  s c h o o l ' l e a v e r s c i t e boredom w i t h s c h o o l arid a  early preference  work as t h e m a i n f a c t o r s f o r l e a v i n g s c h o o l . O n l y 8% o f [ e a r l y ] s c h o o l l e a v e r s  cited  p r o b l e m s w i t h s c h o o l work a s t h e i r  main  reason  (1995),  f o u r Canadian c h i l d r e n choose  school-related d i f f i c u l t i e s ;  for  widely  t o the Canadian Teachers' Federation  a b o u t one o u t o f e v e r y  best  o u t i s t h e most  alternative.  According  not  dropping  o u t . And w h i l e  f o r l e a v i n g , and j u s t over  r e p o r t e d a v e r a g e g r a d e s o f D o r F. 30% o f h i g h s c h o o l d r o p o u t s a v e r a g e s when t h e y (Canadian  left  10% More  than  had A o r B  school.  Teachers' Federation,  1995, p . 1 ) .  40.  R e a s o n #2:  In  which  A second reason  students  attend  school  out  f o r " v o l u n t a r y " attendance  of  fear.  h a s t o do  w i t h t h e f e a r o f j e o p a r d i z i n g one's f u t u r e l i f e s t y l e . a recent study of Ontario schools Michael F u l l a n found  that at least  In  (1991),  50% o f h i g h s c h o o l s t u d e n t s a r e  u n i n t e r e s t e d i n s c h o o l b u t go s i m p l y b e c a u s e o f f u t u r e c o n s i d e r a t i o n s f o r employment and p r o s p e c t i v e e a r n i n g . Fullan's research e s s e n t i a l l y two  students  remaining  shows t h a t one o u t o f e v e r y  i n s c h o o l do s o f e a r i n g  unemployment o r p o v e r t y as t h e o t h e r  R e a s o n #3:  In  successful  which  attend  school  to secure  a  future.  A third  reason,  the second reason, offers,  students  alternative.  which i s e s s e n t i a l l y a c o r o l l a r y of i s b a s e d on a b e l i e f  that schooling  t o q u o t e J o h n Dewey, ""The o p p o r t u n i t y t o e s c a p e  f r o m t h e l i m i t a t i o n s o f t h e s o c i a l g r o u p " i n w h i c h one i s born"  (cited i n Fullan,  1991, p. 1 4 ) .  In other  words,  s c h o o l s o f f e r o u r s t u d e n t s hope - hope f o r p o l i t i c a l ascendency, economic s u c c e s s , and s o c i a l w e l l - b e i n g without  w h i c h t h e r e i s o n l y d e s p a i r and t h e f e a r o f d o i n g  w i t h o u t , o f n o t b e l o n g i n g , and o f r e m a i n i n g  R e a s o n #4: sense  of  In duty.  which  students  attend  school  unsuccessful.  out  of  a  41  A f o u r t h r e a s o n h a s t o do w i t h a t t e n d i n g s c h o o l , trying  t o g e t good m a r k s , t r y i n g t o be a g o o d  trying  t o be r e s p e c t f u l o f s c h o o l r u l e s , p o l i c i e s ,  forth,  out o f a sense o f duty  and  and so  t o one's f a m i l y and t o t h o s e  s i g n i f i c a n t o t h e r s f o r whom t h e y f e e l of i d e n t i t y .  student,  r e s p e c t and a sense  I t i s a d e s i r e t o p l e a s e p a r e n t s and f r i e n d s  make t h e s e p e o p l e  proud  e f f o r t s and achievements.  t o be a s s o c i a t e d w i t h Conversely,  leaving  e a r l y , poor achievement, poor b e h a v i o u r ,  their  school  would  necessarily  r e f l e c t b a d l y upon t h o s e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h a t p e r s o n , t h a t i t b r i n g s shame o r d i s a p p o i n t m e n t  The  such  t o a l l concerned.  S e l e c t i o n o f Student Programmes "There i s a l l t h e d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e w o r l d between  c h o o s i n g between a l t e r n a t i v e s and ' o p t i n g '  for  a l t e r n a t i v e s b a s e d upon a v a i l a b l e o p t i o n s " ( P e t e r s , 1 9 6 6 , p.  197).  V o t e r s a r e n o t unaware o f t h i s  difference.  Often voters vote f o r a c e r t a i n candidate or party not because they f e e l political  that that p a r t i c u l a r  party expresses  t h e i r views, b u t s i m p l y because  out o f t h e o p t i o n s a v a i l a b l e , party i s least  likely  candidate or  that p a r t i c u l a r  candidate or  to interrupt or i n t e r f e r e with that  voters plans or projects. Along s i m i l a r  l i n e s , passengers  c o u l d be o f f e r e d a c h o i c e e i t h e r  i n a burning airplane  t o jump w i t h a  parachute  42 .  o r go down w i t h t h e p l a n e . express  the wishes  Neither of these  of the passengers  o p t i o n s , p a r a c h u t i n g a p p e a r s t o be In the case same.  Of  i n which  options  but, of the the l e a s t  available  harmful.  f o r e d u c a t i o n , the s i t u a t i o n  i s much t h e  the a v a i l a b l e o p t i o n s s t u d e n t s o f t e n choose  one  the chances of s u r v i v a l are the g r e a t e s t , such  courses which ones which  as  i n v o l v e t h e l e a s t amount o f M a t h e m a t i c s ,  or  d o n ' t r e q u i r e homework o r d o n ' t i n v o l v e t h e  w r i t i n g of e s s a y s , or even c o u r s e s t a b l i n g schedule. o f s t u d y and  Students  make c o u r s e  that suit  peers,  s e l e c t i o n on  t o be  time  a l s o f r e q u e n t l y choose  from  after  career  parents,  the b e s t use of t h e i r  terms o f where they see t h e m s e l v e s  areas  the b a s i s of  o p p o r t u n i t i e s , o r what t h e y u n d e r s t a n d t e a c h e r s , and  their  time i n  completing  school.  Intentional  Striving  P u b l i c s c h o o l s c o n t i n u e t o o p e r a t e on p r i n c i p l e s o f hope and political  fear:  a s c e n d a n c y , and  o f d o i n g w i t h o u t and  the  combined  t h e hope o f e c o n o m i c  s o c i a l w e l l b e i n g , and  of not b e l o n g i n g .  and  t o d e f y common s e n s e ,  endure the disappointment  s c h o o l community.  In a c t u a l  and  the f e a r  In education,  c h o i c e to a t t e n d s c h o o l i s not p o s s i b l e u n l e s s a is willing  success,  to reject  student  the  advice  o f p a r e n t s , p e e r s , and f a c t , a s t r a t e g y of  the  the  43 .  i n c e n t i v e s and d e t e r r e n t s - a " c a r r o t and s t i c k " s t r a t e g y a p p e a r s t o be t h e p r i n c i p l e m o t i v a t i n g f o r c e b e h i n d many s t u d e n t s c u r r e n t l y c h o o s i n g The just  idea of dangling a carrot  t o remain from  a pole or s t i c k ,  i n f r o n t o f a donkey's nose and s l i g h t l y o u t o f r e a c h  of i t s grasp,  i s a s t r a t e g y f r e q u e n t l y u s e d a s an  i n c e n t i v e t o encourage the animal hopes o f r e a c h i n g t h e c a r r o t . i n c e n t i v e doesn't  t o move f o r w a r d i n t h e  Conversely,  And  i f the carrot  work t o e n t i c e t h e a n i m a l , t h e s t i c k c a n  t h e n be u s e d a s a d e v i c e f o r p e r s u a d i n g is  i n school.  t r u l y not i n i t s best i n t e r e s t  the animal  that i t  t o r e f u s e t o comply.  a l t h o u g h t h e c a r r o t may a p p e a r a s q u i t e an i n n o c e n t  motivational the s t i c k ,  s t r a t e g y i n comparison  t o the harshness  of  b o t h s t r a t e g i e s a r e u l t i m a t e l y aimed a t  coercing the animal  i n t o d o i n g what i t d o e s n o t want t o  do. Furthermore,  w h i l e i t might appear q u i t e obvious  that  c h i l d r e n a r e n o t t o be t r e a t e d as d o n k e y s , i t . i s n o t obvious  a s t o why we e m p l o y t h e same s t r a t e g i e s a n d  motivational devices i n their education. and  lifestyle  Dangling  career  o p p o r t u n i t i e s e n t i c i n g l y out of reach of  most s t u d e n t s ' g r a s p  i s as a l l u r i n g as t h e " i n n o c e n t "  c a r r o t w h i l e t h e f e a r o f unemployment,  insufficient  income, and r e l e g a t i o n t o a l e v e l o f s o c i a l  insignificance  a r e c a p a b l e o f i n f l i c t i n g b l o w s more p a i n f u l a n d more  enduring  than  any  that  c o u l d be  delivered  by  want  of  a  stick. I  believe  carrots  and  that  on  public  shorter  increasing  equal  students.  Students  programmes, equal  driven  strive  offer.  need by  to  The  and  considerations and p e r s o n a l  incentive and  must  fulfillment,  and  obligation  Intentional through  genuinely  feel  future  The  and  even  moral  making  a  because who  lets  it  brought  the  the  educational  in  a  there  of  sense of  lack  1996;  wonder,  by of  options,  Meier,  about  1996).  naturally  their  perception,  He  mental  are  occurs  when  choices  that  education  who  does  c u s t o m makes  world.,  or  his  judgment,  activity,  exercised  only  and in  anything no  portion  to  by  d e c i s i o n s and to  that  educational  simply a  exists  s c h o o l and  projects.  choices,  is  of  Such m o t i v a t i o n  make  feeling,  choice.  than  (Ohanian,  to  all  resources  for  enjoyment,  is  facilities  discriminative  remain  in  to  that  the  more  succeed  accompanied  issues relevant  plans  human  be  motivation.  empowered  affect  to  so  in  employment,  striving  intrinsic  students  their  future  to  variety  choice,  rather  of  sense of  are  continuously  interest,  provide  opportunities  interested  success of  they  a greater  considerations a  if  student be  intentionally  achievement  poles  educational  opportunity  schools  s c h o o l s must  choice...He of  it,  and  to  choose h i s p l a n o f l i f e of any o t h e r imitation.  f o r h i m , h a s no n e e d  f a c u l t y than  t h e a p e - l i k e one o f  He who c h o o s e s h i s p l a n f o r  h i m s e l f , employs a l l h i s f a c u i t i e s . . . . H u m a n nature  i s n o t a m a c h i n e t o be b u i l t  after a  m o d e l , a n d s e t t o do e x a c t l y t h e work prescribed f o r i t ,  but a t r e e , which r e q u i r e s  t o grow a n d t o d e v e l o p according  itself  on a l l s i d e s ,  t o the tendency o f the inward  f o r c e s w h i c h make i t a l i v i n g t h i n g . (Mill,  1861/1980, p. 294)  Over t i m e ,  and w i t h o u t  c o n d i t i o n s which provide  range o f a l t e r n a t i v e o p t i o n s and t h e p r o m o t i o n striving,  students  resulting i n total general.  can acquire a f e e l i n g of  fora  intentional  hopelessness,  a p a t h y towards s c h o o l and l e a r n i n g i n  A n d a p a t h y i s a c o n d i t i o n t h a t c a n be r e p l a c e d  o n l y by e n t h u s i a s m , a n d e n t h u s i a s m i s r e s t o r e d when a w e l l thought out p l a n takes  t h e i m a g i n a t i o n by storm,  whereby  the i n d i v i d u a l can a g a i n see t h e p o t e n t i a l and t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o s u c c e e d t o h e i g h t s l i m i t e d o n l y by boundaries  s e t o f t h e i r own i m a g i n a t i o n a n d e f f o r t s , n o t  by b a r r i e r s o v e r Coercion equal just  w h i c h t h e y h a v e no c o n t r o l (Ogbu,  i s not a c o n d i t i o n conducive  educational opportunity. and r e a s o n a b l e  the education  to creating  students  c a u s e t o be g e n u i n e l y  the e d u c a t i o n a l resources through  Unless  1985).  perceive a  interestedi n  and c a r e e r o p p o r t u n i t i e s o f f e r e d  s y s t e m , and u n l e s s t h e y have t h e  f r e e d o m t o make a p p r o p r i a t e c h o i c e s c o n c e r n i n g  those  o p p o r t u n i t i e s , our best i n t e n t i o n s t o provide to the d i s t r i b u t i o n of educational necessarily part  of  fail  equal  resources  access  will  t o e n c o u r a g e i n t e n t i o n a l s t r i v i n g on t h e  students.  Summary At  this point  I think i t w i l l  reader that  I consider  educational  opportunity  conditions  any f u t u r e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s o f e q u a l must n e c e s s a r i l y  Of t h e c o n d i t i o n s  e m p h a s i z e d t h e l a c k o f Choice  of Student  further supported the claim that  that  recognize  t h a t may be l a c k i n g , a n d c o n d i t i o n s  have been o v e r l o o k e d .  choice,  now be c l e a r t o t h e  Intentional  the v i t a l  Striving  w h i c h may  l a c k i n g , I have Options.  through t h i s  I have  lack of  i s u n l i k e l y to occur,  and  importance of t h i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of  l e a r n i n g has been o v e r l o o k e d  i n our judging  educational  achievement. I have a r g u e d t h a t p u b l i c s c h o o l s and  responsibility  educational  to provide  a l l students with  o p p o r t u n i t i e s , and t h a t  "directed at the f u l l  have an o b l i g a t i o n equal  t h e s e o p p o r t u n i t i e s be  d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e human  p e r s o n a l i t y " , w h i c h i s a f u n d a m e n t a l human r i g h t a n d one w h i c h C a n a d a , l i k e many o t h e r willingly is  democratic  assumes r e s p o n s i b i l i t y  nations,  for (Mill,  p. 1 0 4 ) . I t  the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the state to provide  conditions  47 .  whereby such a r i g h t  c a n be r e a l i z e d ,  and w i t h o u t  j e o p a r d i z i n g t h e " r e s p e c t f o r human r i g h t s freedoms  and f u n d a m e n t a l  t o which a l l persons a r e e n t i t l e d " .  I f we c o u l d f i n d a n y e v i d e n c e t h a t c o u l d c o n v i n c e u s t h a t support f o r undemocratic arrangements better quality  provide f o ra  o f human e x p e r i e n c e i n e d u c a t i o n , t h e n I  w o u l d a g r e e we h a v e l e g i t i m a t e c a u s e t o p r o m o t e t h e efforts  of current educational practices.  to A r i s t o t l e  (1980, p. 5 4 2 ) , "two p r i n c i p l e s a r e  characteristic  o f democracy,  m a j o r i t y and freedom". Kilpatrick,  But,according  t h e government o f t h e  And J e f f e r s o n  (cited i n  1 9 5 1 , p . 52) s i m i l a r l y s u g g e s t s t h a t  secure these r i g h t s  t h a t governments  " i t i sto  are instituted".  48.  CHAPTER 5  QUESTIONING WHAT I S TAKEN FOR GRANTED  It  i sdifficult  t o be a s t u d e n t  of Education  i n the  1990's a n d n o t be aware o f t h e w i d e d i f f e r e n c e s o f o p i n i o n r e g a r d i n g what p u b l i c s c h o o l s a r e c u r r e n t l y d o i n g , a n d what r e s e a r c h e r s a n d t h o s e who r e s i d e o u t s i d e t h e f i e l d c l a i m t h e y s h o u l d be d o i n g . is  T h i s d i s c r e p a n c y b e t w e e n what  a n d what o u g h t t o be i s one o f k i n d , arid n o t d e g r e e .  These w r i t e r s a r e n o t s i m p l y s u g g e s t i n g v a r i a t i o n s  t o the  same theme; t h e y a r e a d v o c a t i n g a w h o l e new theme. put,  Simply  they a r e e x p r e s s i n g an o u t r i g h t r e j e c t i o n o f  p r e v a i l i n g p h i l o s o p h i e s and e d u c a t i o n a l p r a c t i c e s t h a t c u r r e n t l y order our schools. Of field, and  significant  importance  i s how we a c c o u n t  f o r such  i n the  differences of opinion,  p r e c i s e l y o n what b a s i s s c h o o l s s h o u l d  Without the assurance for  to practitioners  proceed.  o f k n o w i n g why we do what we do -  what p u r p o s e a n d t o what ends - t e a c h e r s must r e m a i n  c a u t i o u s a n d somewhat s u s p i c i o u s o f t h e c o n v e n t i o n a l wisdom t h a t g u i d e s There e x i s t s  educational practices.  f a r t o o many c o n t r a d i c t i o n s a n d f a r t o o  many u n a n s w e r e d q u e s t i o n s a b o u t t h e way o u r s c h o o l s r u n t h a t s i m p l y d o n ' t measure up u n d e r t h e s c r u t i n y o f s o u n d  reasoning  for  teachers  destroying  the  promote  continuing  as  by  indeed  our  very  not  to  consider  educational to  methods  teach  often  that  experiences in  the  appear  perhaps  we  we  to  manner  to  be  at  seek  that  we  are  do,  odds w i t h  our  goals. Some m o d e r n public (1)  writers  education,  the  skills  as  acquisition  serving of  and knowledge,  essential  social  engage  functions  society  1991;  Sarason,  and  in  (2)  the  there  writers  and p r a c t i t i o n e r s  the  and  main  or  would  and  in  economic  Fullan,  However,  argue  lacking  the  to  1976;  a growing  turn  purposes:  of  political,  1990).  in  cognitive  needed  & Gintis,  who  and  development  social,  appears  insufficient,  two  academic  Schlechty,  inferred,  wholly  generally  (Bowles  1990;  schools,  and knowledge  earlier  are  public  various  skills  successfully of  credit  number that  as  of  these  ends  meaningful  purpose. And whereas necessarily prosperity of,  or  in  nor  should  greater  the  aim  concern of  the  conflict it  taken  from  the  these  arguments:  public  itself  with  state,  it  with  the  continue  concerns  of  for  to  the  interests  function  to  welfare  should not  humanity.  literature  education  be of  at the  must and  the  the  individual,  independently  A few  acquaint  examples the  expense  of  have  reader  the been  with  50. N e l l Noddings, Stanford It  i s o b v i o u s t h a t our  purpose i s not  a m o r a l one  c a r i n g p e o p l e but turns  University:  out,  main of  school  producing  a relentless,  and  as i t  h a p l e s s d r i v e f o r academic  adequacy...a r e o r d e r i n g essential.  of p r i o r i t i e s  (1995, J a n u a r y , p.  is  63)  Jerome B r u n e r , H a r v a r d U n i v e r s i t y : I b e l i e v e I w o u l d be declare,  i f not  quite satisfied  a moritorium, then  to  something  o f a d e - e m p h a s i s on m a t t e r s t h a t h a v e t o with  the  s t r u c t u r e of h i s t o r y or p h y s i c s ,  nature of mathematical c o n s i s t e n c y , with  i t rather  t h a t we  face.  ourselves solved,  do  i n the We  context  and  of the  might b e t t e r  concern be  j u s t by p r a c t i c a l a c t i o n , b u t  p u t t i n g k n o w l e d g e , w h e r e v e r we w h a t e v e r f o r m we massive t a s k s . James A.  deal  problems  with.how those problems can  not  the  find  by  f i n d i t and  in  i t , t o work i n t h e s e  ( 1 9 7 1 , p.  Beane, N a t i o n a l  21) College  of  Education: What p o s s i b l e f o r any  i n t e g r i t y could  k i n d of knowledge apart  connects with other i n v e s t i g a t e and and  issues  world? do  there  f r o m how  forms to h e l p  solve  us  i n the  integrity  t h e d i s c i p l i n e s o f k n o w l e d g e now (1995, p.  concerns, real  F u r t h e r m o r e , what k i n d o f  young p e o p l e ' s minds?  it  us  the problems,  that confront  be  have i n  620)  51 . Seymour S a r a s o n , S t a n f o r d U n i v e r s i t y : We  have l e a r n e d a l o t about  the c o n t e x t s  t h a t f a c i l i t a t e p r o d u c t i v e l e a r n i n g . . . . To f o s t e r p r o d u c t i v e l e a r n i n g , you the c h i l d  i s : h i s or her  questions, curiosity. want t h e c h i l d  where  interests,  Ignore those aspects,  s t a r t where y o u want t o s t a r t , you  start  "pour  t o l e a r n , pace  i n s t r u c t i o n according to a  i n " what  the  predetermined  c u r r i c u l u m and t h e p r e s s u r e o f a s c h o o l c a l e n d a r , i g n o r e t h e i n e v i t a b l e and f a c t of i n d i v i d u a l i t y  - proceed  brute  i n that  way  and y o u h a v e t h e p r e s c r i p t i o n f o r m a k i n g w a n t i n g t o l e a r n a sometime t h i n g , The  modal c l a s s r o o m i s a d u l l ,  boring a f f a i r (1996, p. It  i f that.  uninteresting,  b o t h f o r s t u d e n t s and t e a c h e r s .  274.)  i s p o s s i b l e to quote  from the l i t e r a t u r e a t g r e a t  l e n g t h t h o s e w r i t e r s whose o p i n i o n s r u n c o n t r a r y t o c o n v e n t i o n a l e d u c a t i o n a l p r a c t i c e s , and voice different  concerns, e s s e n t i a l l y  though  they a l l  they are about  the  same t h i n g ; t h e n e e d t o r e a d d r e s s b o t h t h e means and  the  ends' o f e d u c a t i o n . one  has  t o a s k how  i n d e e d t h o s e who  R e f l e c t i n g on t h e a b o v e s t a t e m e n t s , i s i t t h a t such h i g h l y educated  appear  have l a r g e l y p r o f i t e d now  t o h a v e done v e r y w e l l and  from t h e i r  see f i t t o c r i t i c i z e  this  i n c l u s i o n i n the  who system  same p r o c e s s and h o l d  of e d u c a t i o n i n such j u x t a p o s i t i o n to those that prevail?  people,  views  currently  The  q u e s t i o n i n g o f common e d u c a t i o n a l p r a c t i c e s i s  important  t o our understanding  of the thesis question, f o r  what c o n s t i t u t e s e q u a l e d u c a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t y i s a p h i l o s o p h i c a l q u e s t i o n and, by d e f i n i t i o n , educators Given  must a s k e a c h g e n e r a t i o n , o v e r  one w h i c h  and over  t h e o v e r w h e l m i n g amount o f l i t e r a t u r e  again.  surrounding  t h e need f o r change, b f w h i c h t h e above q u o t e d  authors  r e p r e s e n t o n l y a s m a l l h a n d f u l , t h e r e a p p e a r s an u r g e n t n e e d t o r e - e x a m i n e t h a t w h i c h we h a v e t a k e n  f o r granted i n  e d u c a t i o n as b e i n g o f sound t h e o r y and p r a c t i c e . Even though t h e l e g i s l a t i o n o f compulsory has  education  e s s e n t i a l l y made t h e a s s u m p t i o n f o r e a c h o f us t h a t  education contend  i s inherently desirable f o ra l l citizens,  t h a t we s h o u l d n o t b e g i n o u r e x a m i n a t i o n ,  words o f P o p k e w i t z , are reasonable" I feel  I  i n the  by assuming " t h a t e x i s t i n g p r a c t i c e s  ( c i t e d i n W e r n e r , 1 9 9 1 , p. 1 8 ) .  i t w o u l d be more p r u d e n t  In fact,  to follow the advice of  t h e i n f a m o u s d e t e c t i v e , S h e r l o c k H o l m e s , who a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f e a c h new c a s e  c a u t i o u s l y reminded h i s  c o m p a n i o n , D r . J o h n W a t s o n , t o "assume n o t h i n g " a n d t o " l e a v e no s t o n e  unturned"  i n their  investigation:  In  o t h e r w o r d s , i t w o u l d be i r r e s p o n s i b l e a n d u n p r o f e s s i o n a l t o s i m p l y assume t h a t o u r c u r r e n t s y s t e m o f e d u c a t i o n o f f e r s something o f equal b e n e f i t f o r each person, such  a d e g r e e t h a t i n c l u s i o n s h o u l d be w i t h o u t  and t o  choice.  It  is  i n the s p i r i t  and  o f Holmes' a d v i c e  l e a v i n g no s t o n e  then - assuming  nothing  u n t u r n e d - t h a t we p r o c e e d w i t h o u r  investigation. I h a v e come t o t h e c o n c l u s i o n t h a t o u r b e s t i n t e n t i o n to  create equal  fail  educational opportunity w i l l necessarily  t o b r i n g about any m e a n i n g f u l and l a s t i n g change i n  accepted very  educational practices until  we a c k n o w l e d g e some  f u n d a m e n t a l e r r o r s o n w h i c h we h a v e b a s e d o u r  educational entrance identical  theories.  The n o t i o n o f s e t t i n g u n i v e r s i t y  a s a p r i m e e d u c a t i o n a l g o a l and t h e c o n f u s i o n o f e d u c a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s with those  o p p o r t u n i t i e s , as d i s c u s s e d such e r r o r s .  i n C h a p t e r s 1 a n d 2, a r e two  The u n d e r v a l u i n g  of the respect f o r  students'  freedom o f c h o i c e  presented  i n Chapter 4 i s another o v e r s i g h t .  to  our understanding  i n the r i g h t  to education,  as  But f u r t h e r  of current educational p r a c t i c e s ,  t h e r e e x i s t s p e r h a p s an e v e n more s i g n i f i c a n t which these  of equal  m i s c a l c u l a t i o n s and o t h e r s  e r r o r from  t h a t we h a v e y e t t o  d i s c u s s have s p r u n g .  The O r d e r i n g o f Knowledge There a r e those  who w o u l d a r g u e t h a t some t y p e s o f  k n o w l e d g e a r e more d e s i r a b l e a n d o f a h i g h e r o t h e r s , and t h a t t h i s t y p e  order  o f knowledge should  t h a t i s promoted i n our s c h o o l s .  Russel  Kirk  than  be t h e k i n d (cited i n  54 .  Holtz  et  schools  a l . , 1989, p .  4 8 ) , f o r example,  s h o u l d be s p a r e d  and  egalitarianism"  and  conscience  "the  assaults  i n favour  of  "the  claims  of  that  utilitarianism  t r a i n i n g of  through c e r t a i n w e l l - d e f i n e d  t h e mind  academic  disciplines." The well  Liberal  known,  t h o s e who see  logic, Holt,  is  not  of  However,  a need  for developing  more t h a n s i m p l y  mind t o  engage i n t h e o r e t i c a l  to  mind i s  (Bruner,  scope of  illiberal  my c l a i m t h a t  education  with  education;  is the  of  idea  soul  be a c c o m p l i s h e d by t o u c h i n g on t h i s to  demonstrate  that  in  our c u r r i c u l a  is  the  value the  wade  confused is to  the  the  area of  the  of  means  belief  society  I  feel  discussion,  h i e r a r c h i c a l o r d e r i n g of well  as  than  of  either  But what  b o t h an i r r a t i o n a l as  into  development  development  (Cruickshanks, 1997).  the  debate.  learning,  that  promoted  reasoning,  to  education  greater  what  1995).  paper  we have  those of  more i m p o r t a n t t h a n t h e  body o r t h e  this  been  1 9 7 1 ; Dewey, 1 9 3 2 ;  1995; Roland M a r t i n ,  the  has  of on  education,  a l i b e r a l education  illiberal  an e n c r o a c h m e n t  an " i l l i b e r a l "  l i b e r a l vs.  central  s e e n as  our n o t i o n  as  within  the  ends o f  that  the  often  and c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g  depths  and  of  is  is  a l i b e r a l education,  1969, N o d d i n g s ,  It  V o c a t i o n a l T r a i n i n g debate  of  r e f e r r e d to  abilities  an  F o r what  traditional turf  Socrates by  versus  and one w h i c h p e r h a p s e p i t o m i z e s  compromise. the  Arts  the  the may is  knowledge counter  productive strategy f o r pursuing equal  educational  o p p o r t u n i t y i n the p u b l i c school system. p e d e s t a l i z a t i o n of a l i b e r a l p o i n t made e a r l i e r do  i n t h i s chapter  i n education without  taking f o r granted  r e g a r d i n g d o i n g what we  a c t u a l l y k n o w i n g why we do i t , b u t  To d e m o n s t r a t e t h i s p r i n c i p l e  i t is  t o t u r n b a c k t h e c l o c k two t h o u s a n d y e a r s t o  whence came t h e i d e a o f a l i b e r a l The  i s a prime example o f  t h a t t h e r e i s a good r e a s o n f o r  c o n t i n u i n g t o do s o . necessary  education  The  education.  t r a d i t i o n a l m e a n i n g o f t h e word " l i b e r a l " ,  as  a p p l i e d t o e d u c a t i o n , denoted a d i s t i n c t i o n between t h e e d u c a t i o n o f f r e e men and t h a t o f s l a v e s who, n o t u n l i k e domesticated and  animals,  were t r a i n e d t o p e r f o r m  t h e r e f o r e not educated  living,  strive  to l i v e  Illiberal  f o r t h o s e who n e e d e d t o work f o r a  while a l i b e r a l  men who p o s s e s s e d  tasks  f o r t h e i r own g o o d , b u t r a t h e r  f o r t h e e m p l o y i n w h i c h t h e y were i n t e n d e d . e d u c a t i o n was t h u s  specific  e d u c a t i o n was o f f e r e d t o t h o s e  the l e i s u r e i n which to  free  intentionally  well.  A c c o r d i n g l y , e d u c a t i o n was c a t e g o r i z e d a s " l i b e r a l " o r "illiberal"  (Aristotle,  1980), w i t h t h e l a t t e r  constituting  "any  o c c u p a t i o n , a r t , o r s c i e n c e , w h i c h makes t h e b o d y o r  soul  less f i t f o r virtue",  f o r they absorb  including  and degrade t h e mind"  "all  p a i d employments  ( p . 5 4 2 ) . However, i t  i s n o t o n l y t h e n a t u r e o f t h e s u b j e c t by w h i c h e d u c a t i o n  was  judged use.  t o be l i b e r a l  or i l l i b e r a l ,  b u t a l s o by i t s i n t e n d e d  I n o r d e r t o be c o n s i d e r e d l i b e r a l ,  e d u c a t i o n must  s e r v e t h e ends o f l e i s u r e i n t h e p u r s u i t o f e x c e l l e n c e . Otherwise, potential  " i f done f o r t h e s a k e o f o t h e r s " , e v e n a liberal  (Aristotle,  a r t becomes, " m e n i a l a n d s e r v i l e "  p. 5 4 2 ) . Hence we c a n n o t  s u b j e c t as a l i b e r a l  simply categorize a  a r t o n l y by i t s n a t u r e ; i t must a l s o be  determined  by i t s i n t e n d e d u s e , which  individual  living  must be t o e a c h  w e l l r a t h e r than f o r the purpose o f  earning a l i v i n g . In  o t h e r words, those s u b j e c t areas  s u c h as  Mathematics,  P h i l o s o p h y , S c i e n c e , R h e t o r i c , and so f o r t h cannot o f themselves  be c a l l e d l i b e r a l  i f t h e y a r e i n t e n d e d t o make  o n e s e l f i n a b e t t e r p o s i t i o n f o r g a i n f u l employment. t h e s t u d y o f Law, M e d i c i n e , o r M a t h e m a t i c s ,  Thus  f o r the purpose  of  making a c a r e e r and e a r n i n g a l i v i n g  as a l a w y e r ,  or  engineer  t h e e n d s o f an  illiberal one, but  i s , t r a d i t i o n a l l y speaking,  o r " v o c a t i o n a l " e d u c a t i o n and n o t o f a  a s we must t a k e f u l l y  i n t o account  doctor,  liberal  n o t o n l y t h e means  t h e ends. Put another  way, t h e f u t u r e d o c t o r who, w h i l e s t u d y i n g  M e d i c i n e , a l s o l e a r n s t h e a r t o f W o o d c a r v i n g f o r h i s own enjoyment and towards f u r t h e r i n g h i s knowledge i n t h a t for  h i s own s a t i s f a c t i o n ,  liberal  education through  i s , by d e f i n i t i o n ,  area  i n pursuit of a  h i s hobby r a t h e r t h a n i n h i s  57 .  p r i n c i p l e area of study at the u n i v e r s i t y .  By t h e same  m e a s u r e t h o s e s t u d e n t s who c u r r e n t l y s t u d y s u b j e c t a r e a s i n h i g h s c h o o l , which s t a t u s such etc.,  have been r e l e g a t e d t o a v o c a t i o n a l  as: Cooking,  Typing, D r a f t i n g , Metal  b u t who h a v e no d e s i r e t o p u r s u e  Working,  t h o s e ends as a  c a r e e r , and a r e l e a r n i n g s i m p l y f o r t h e sake o f enjoyment, self-interest, understanding liberal  satisfaction,  and o t h e r w i s e i n c r e a s i n g  their  o f t h e a r t , may be s a i d t o be r e c e i v i n g a  education.  Traditionally  s p e a k i n g t h e n , t h o s e who p r o m o t e t h e  notion of a " L i b e r a l Arts" curriculum of  Mathematics,  S c i e n c e , S o c i a l S t u d i e s , a n d L i t e r a t u r e as c o n s t i t u t i n g a more w o r t h w h i l e  f o c u s o f s t u d y , do s o u n d e r  false  p r e t e n s e s , r e c k l e s s l y and n e e d l e s s l y a p p l y i n g an o r d e r t o k n o w l e d g e t h a t i s w h o l l y u n j u s t i f i a b l e and w i t h o u t  good  reason  purpose  (Noddings,  1992,  p. x i i )  ;  F o r what h i g h e r  does t h e d i v i s i o n o f knowledge s e r v e by d i v i d i n g i t i n t o subclasses of i l l i b e r a l to,  and l i b e r a l  a c a d e m i c and v o c a t i o n a l ?  I cannot  b e n e f i t s o f such naming can outweigh individual  i n s o c i e t y who f e e l s  l e s s through  o r , as o f t e n r e f e r r e d imagine  the costs to the  t h a t t h e y have  s t u d y i n an a r e a o f p e r s o n a l  relevant t o t h e i r happiness However, i f a d v o c a t e s i n t e n t on " r e s t o r i n g "  that the  achieved  interest  and w e l l b e i n g as a p e r s o n .  of a l i b e r a l  tradition  education are  t o our schools  (Roland  58 .  Martin,  1 9 9 5 , p. 3 5 8 ) , t h e n a " r e o r d e r i n g  is certainly fact,  well called  i n theprocess,  rename a n d r e o r d e r our  current  electives  high  (Noddings, 1 9 9 2 , p. x i i ) . I n  for  i t w o u l d be q u i t e n e c e s s a r y t o  thenature of subject  schools  are recast  of p r i o r i t i e s "  curricula,  as l i b e r a l  disciplines i n  such that  arts,  vocational  s i n c e t h e y meet t h e  c r i t e r i a o f t h e t r a d i t i o n a l meaning o f the word, those "academic" o r l i b e r a l renamed i l l i b e r a l , if  we d i d s o ,  value  subjects  be a p p r o p r i a t e l y  a s t h e y do n o t f i t t h e c r i t e r i a .  what s i t u a t i o n  would r e s u l t ?  more h i g h l y v o c a t i o n a l  liberal  training  And  Would we t h e n  a s i t i s now a  a r t , o r would t h e former d i s t i n c t i o n s  meaningless  while  become  altogether?  Summary I concur with the  Jane Roland M a r t i n  means a n d ends o f c u r r e n t  concludes  educational  and  practices,  p a r a d i g m . . . one  i n t e g r a t e s thought and a c t i o n , emotion, education  does n o t d i v o r c e natural contexts.  But  surveying  that: We n e e d a new c u r r i c u l a r  that  who, a f t e r  one t h a t  p e o p l e from t h e i r (1995,  such a r e a l i z a t i o n w i l l  from r o u t i n e l y  and l i f e ;  and b l i n d l y  reason s o c i a l and  J a n u a r y , p . 358)  require that  schools  following educational  refrain practices  t h a t t a k e away f r o m t h e j o y s and  wonderment o f  learning,  t h a t s c h o o l s v a l u e e q u a l l y the c o n t r i b u t i o n to s o c i e t y of many t y p e s o f l e a r n i n g a n d ,  finally,  that schools  desist  f r o m t h e a r b i t r a r y o r d e r i n g o f k n o w l e d g e 'Which h e l p s preserve  conditions of i n e q u a l i t y w i t h i n educations  to and  occupations. We to  n e e d t o b e g i n c o n s i d e r i n g new  a new  understanding  two  chapters.  look  like.  means and  new  And  In chapters  e x p l o r e t h e n o t i o n o f c h a n g e and t h e s e new  ends  and  of equal e d u c a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t y  w i t h i n the p u b l i c school system. of the next  means t o new  such  i s the  6 and  attempt  7 we  purpose shall  t o d i s c o v e r what  ends i n p u b l i c e d u c a t i o n  might  60 .  CHAPTER  6  THE CIRCUMSTANCES OF CHANGE  T h e r e h a s b e e n much w r i t t e n on t h e whys a n d whats o f e d u c a t i o n a l c h a n g e , f o c u s i n g p r i m a r i l y on a m u l t i t u d e o f shortcomings  and p r o b l e m a t i c  c o n s i d e r i n g reforms. the preceeding  i s s u e s as reasons f o r  I n f a c t , what h a s been d i s c u s s e d i n  chapters  i s essentially just  supporting rationale, j u s t i f i c a t i o n , change.  that; the  and purpose f o r  However, d e s p i t e t h e a b u n d a n c e o f l i t e r a t u r e on  educational reform,  there i s very l i t t l e  written with  r e g a r d t o e x a c t l y how t h e s e c h a n g e s s h o u l d o c c u r .  I have  n o t become a c q u a i n t e d w i t h a n y a l t e r n a t i v e a p p r o a c h w h i c h o u t l i n e s p r e c i s e l y how t o a d d r e s s change, such  t h e whole broad  issue of  t h a t we c a n r e a l i z e any g r e a t a d v a n t a g e s  t h a t which a l r e a d y e x i s t s w i t h i n t r a d i t i o n a l  over  educational  practices. To d a t e o u r e f f o r t s t o w a r d s c h a n g e i n e d u c a t i o n a r e confined largely to rhetoric, of a c t i o n and l i t t l e proceed. is  offering  few c o n c r e t e  that i s t a n g i b l e w i t h which t o  I t i s as Derksen r e p o r t s , " t h e c l a s s r o o m  hard pressed  plans  t o f i n d p r a c t i c a l m o d e l s o f how  teacher  [change]  61 .  will in  work",  the  while  f u r t h e r on he a s k s ,  c l a s s r o o m which the  teacher  Monday m o r n i n g c a n b u i l d upon?" "teachers works"  need  (cited  findings  are  literature (1983), UCLA,  consistent  writes to  with  1995;  as  "both t h e  [education]  "it  is  the  been  reality  concludes,  reported in  for  the  to  guide  E d u c a t i o n at  and  the best  exemplars  noted the  the  are at  lack of  define  what  John Goodlad  Graduate School of to  of  And D e r k s e n ' s  1985).  theory  done  a  is  century  ideal for bringing  it  (p. 2 7 4 ) .  means  bringing  it  absence of  about."  public education,  with  It  acceptable  is  "practical directions my b e l i e f  that  the  is  a vital  in considerations  of  equal  opportunity  and the manner o f  achievement educational  of  a  for  considerable element  educational  educational  change.  approach  outlining  alternatives  only  all  i n t r o d u c e an a l t e r n a t i v e  and ends o f  l a c k i n g not  to  he  than give p r a c t i c a l d i r e c t i o n s  "Monday M o r n i n g P l a n , "  but  those  (1890/1980)  easier  In Chapter 7 I w i l l to  the  program development  W i l l i a m James  that  14).  Giroux,  the  expediate  has  programs which demonstrate  4 6 8 ) . The r e a s o n  (p.  earlier,  that  facing  Finally,  i n Werner 1 9 9 1 , p .  f o r m e r Dean o f  perhaps  about"  examine  (Dryden,  technology weak"  to  "what  success,  In  my mind t h e  best  way t o  increase  achievement  and e q u a l a c c e s s  to  educational  resources,  increase  students "full the  such that  development  into  the  right  that the  the  to  right,  which encourage Holt,  concerned f o r 1821/1980; 1 995;' that  167),  further  1969; the  in  (Article 26,  freedoms  (1)  of  and p r o m o t e  associated  n o t i o n of  all p e r s o n s  for  irrespective  1988;  (Benns,  with  respect  Mill,  Universal Declaration  adopting educational  1996),  collective  philosophies  1 9 9 3 , 1 9 9 5 , May; 1 994).  their  (3)  of  all  Roland  Creating  are encouraged  own i n t e r e s t s ,  success  (5)  Martin, structures  (Strike, 1982, to  thereby p r o v i d i n g  intentionally  (Coombs,  society,  (Mill,  school  and promote d i v e r s i t y  wherein students w i l l  educational  and a c a r i n g  well-being  whereby s t u d e n t s  explore  intended  encourage  by t h e  Sarason,  Noddings,  (4)  as  the  p r o d u c t i v e l e a r n i n g (Darling-Hammond,  accommodate  conditions achieve  (2)  Sergiovanni,  will  that  in society  conceived  by  towards  we have d i s c u s s e d :  environments  and as  strive  of  c a n be a c c o m p l i s h e d by t a k i n g  and i n t e r e s t s  Human R i g h t s ,  1993;  that  or s t a t u s  motivation  Human R i g h t s  i n accordance w i t h the  age  the  human p e r s o n a l i t y "  e d u c a t i o n and t h e  aspirations their  all  educational  d i s t r i b u t i o n of  intentionally  I think this  school  1821/1980),  p.  of  consideration  developing  of  they  to  U n i v e r s a l Declaration of  paragraph 2 ) .  of  is  the  equal  1994).  strive  to  Any  new a p p r o a c h  t o w a r d s i n c r e a s i n g e q u a l a c c e s s and  a c h i e v e m e n t must t a k e i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n a l l o f t h e above and  also avoid the "mistakes" of the past:  e m p h a s i s on a c h i e v i n g u n i v e r s i t y e n t r a n c e  (1) t h e o v e r s t a t u s and  i n c r e a s i n g p r o s p e c t s f o r employment a s t h e p r i m a r y of  education,  goals  (2) r e g a r d i n g t h e same o p p o r t u n i t i e s a s  c o n s t i t u t i n g e q u a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s , (3) c o n f u s i n g t h e means and  ends o f e d u c a t i o n ,  (4) l a b e l i n g a n d d i s t i n g u i s h i n g  knowledge as l i b e r a l o r i l l i b e r a l , r e s t r u c t u r e t h a t which I suggest difficulties  and (5) a t t e m p t i n g t o  i s not worth  restructuring.  i n searching f o r s o l u t i o n s t o our t h a t we m i g h t k e e p i n m i n d a p o p u l a r  t h a t seems t o c h a r a c t e r i z e t h e e f f o r t s o f p u b l i c to  date:  "You c a n p l e a s e some o f t h e p e o p l e  t i m e , and some o f t h e p e o p l e can't please a l l the people  adage education  some o f t h e  a l l of the time, but you a l l of the time."  However, I  do n o t t h i n k I w o u l d be a m i s s i n s u g g e s t i n g t h a t we h a v e come t o e x p e c t pleasing  more o f o u r e d u c a t i o n s y s t e m  "some o f t h e p e o p l e  think to r e w r i t e the l a s t reads, - unless status according  some o f t i m e . "  are  provided to their  alternatives from  simply  I t i s time I  l i n e o f t h e s a y i n g such  "you c a n ' t p l e a s e a l l o f t h e p e o p l e sufficient  than  which  individual  and people interests  a l l o f t h e time  options can  that i t  of  freely  and  equivalent choose aspirations."  Of  course  t h i s r e v i s e d s a y i n g may n o t r o l l  t o n g u e q u i t e as e a s i l y as t h e o r i g i n a l its  emphasis.  But perhaps t h i s  o f f the  and as such  i s n o t so bad.  lose  Maybe i n  d o i n g s o , we c o u l d r e - e s t a b l i s h t h e p r i n c i p l e s o t h a t i n e d u c a t i o n we c a n e x p e c t l e a s t most o f t h e t i m e . principle  t o p l e a s e all o f t h e p e o p l e a t I t i s b a s e d on t h i s r e v i s e d  t h a t I , i n any c a s e ,  s h a l l proceed  to outline  my  a p p r o a c h a s one s t r a t e g y f o r i n c r e a s i n g t h e c h a n c e s f o r equal educational opportunity to e x i s t school  i n the p u b l i c  system.  C o n s i d e r a t i o n s o f I n t e r e s t s and P r o d u c t i v e L e a r n i n g P u b l i c schools are not designed Otherwise,  at the very least,  to interest  they would t r y t o  accommodate t h e i r c a p t i v e a u d i e n c e s  by o f f e r i n g a v a r i e t y  o f e d u c a t i o n a l o p t i o n s and a l t e r n a t i v e s , t h e y must r e a l i z e  children.  i f o n l y because  t h a t e v e r y o n e c a n n o t be e x p e c t e d  to  l e a r n t h e same i n f o r m a t i o n , i n t h e same manner, i n t h e same s p a n o f t i m e , a n d w i t h t h e same r e s u l t s 1977). affinity  Given  t h e age o f t h e c l i e n t e l e a n d t h e i r n a t u r a l  towards l e a r n i n g through  c o u l d almost  (Piaget,  take i t f o r granted  n a t u r a l l y o f f e r high i n t e r e s t , relevant l e a r n i n g experiences  p l a y i n g a n d d o i n g , one that schools  high  would  activity-oriented,  i n order  t o ensure  maximum  p a r t i c i p a t i o n and m o t i v a t i o n f o r a l l s t u d e n t s , r a t h e r  than  cope w i t h t h e overwhelming d i s i n t e r e s t would r e s u l t  from o f f e r i n g low i n t e r e s t ,  learning experiences  ( E r i k s o n , 1977).  know a b o u t how c h i l d r e n l e a r n would take  i t f o r granted  above p r i n c i p l e s education. and  and apathy  that  low a c t i v i t y  G i v e n what we now  (Sarason,  1996, p. 2 7 4 ) , one  t h a t we w o u l d h a v e t a k e n t h e  i n t o a c c o u n t when d e s i g n i n g o u r s y s t e m o f  B u t , t h e t r u t h o f t h e m a t t e r i s , we h a v e n ' t  t h e r e s u l t i n g d e l u s i o n and c o n f u s i o n  are the  consequences. But student  what an a s t o n i s h i n g n o t i o n t h i s interests.  i n t e r e s t s students?  Why s h o u l d  schools  idea of teaching teach  what  W i t h a l l t h a t we h a v e d i s c u s s e d ,  c o n c l u d e t h a t t h e r e a s o n must be b e c a u s e s c h o o l s o n l y a b o u t g e t t i n g an e d u c a t i o n , productive  they  l e a r n i n g which, according is  are not  a r e a l s o about to Sarason:  f a r more t h a n an e x e r c i s e o f memory,  or o f a c q u i r i n g knowledge and s k i l l s aim  I  with the  of s a t i s f y i n g the requirements of  others...at  the expense o f p e r s o n a l  significance...To foster productive learning, you  s t a r t where t h e c h i l d  interests, p.  And role  questions,  i s : h i s or her  curiosity.  (1991,  274)  Sarason i s not alone  i n h i s appreciation of the  t h a t i n t e r e s t and, i n t u r n , r e l e v a n c y  m o t i v a t i n g c h i l d r e n t o t a k e an i n t e r e s t  play i n  i n s c h o o l and i n  66.  learning.  Educators  from  the time of P l a t o u n t i l  the  p r e s e n t day h a v e n o t e d t h e much n e g l e c t e d e l e m e n t personal interest Fullan  i n the process of e d u c a t i o n .  found  t h a t s t u d e n t s g i v e up on  when t h e y a r e n o t i n t e r e s t e d , and (Chap. 2 ) .  Canadian a chief  Teachers' factor  Similar  of  f i n d i n g s were r e p o r t e d by  John H o l t  (1964) w r o t e  i n t r o d u c t i o n o f h i s t h e n c o n t r o v e r s i a l book,  i n the  How  i n s c h o o l . . . they  because they are a f r a i d , bored, of  and  above a l l e l s e of  Children  fail  confused. failing,  d i s a p p o i n t i n g o r d i s p l e a s i n g t h e many  anxious a d u l t s around h o p e s and  them, whose  limitless  e x p e c t a t i o n s f o r them hang  t h e i r heads l i k e a c l o u d .  They a r e  over bored  b e c a u s e t h e t h i n g s t h e y a r e g i v e n and do a r e so t r i v i a l ,  so d u l l ,  told  to  and make s u c h  l i m i t e d and n a r r o w demands on t h e w i d e spectrum and  of t h e i r  talents.  intelligence,  capabilities,  They a r e c o n f u s e d b e c a u s e most  of  t h e t o r r e n t o f words t h a t p o u r s  in  s c h o o l makes l i t t l e  flatly  them  It often  c o n t r a d i c t s o t h e r t h i n g s they have  been t o l d , to  o r no s e n s e .  over  and h a r d l y e v e r has  what t h e y r e a l l y know.  any  (p. x i v )  relation  as  out.  1:  Most c h i l d r e n f a i l  the  c i t e d boredom  i n most s t u d e n t s ' d e c i s i o n t o d r o p  They a r e a f r a i d ,  the  learning  s i m p l y drop out  F e d e r a t i o n ( 1 9 9 5 ) , who  A q u a r t e r c e n t u r y ago  Fai  Michael  ( 1 9 9 1 ) , i n a s t u d y o f s c h o o l s i n Canada and  United states,  school  of  67 . At t h e e n d o f h i s b o o k , H o l t c o n c l u d e s  what many  others  have: The to  a l t e r n a t i v e - I c a n s e e no o t h e r -r i s  have s c h o o l s and c l a s s r o o m s  child  i n which each  i n h i s own way c a n s a t i s f y h i s  c u r i o s i t y , develop  hisabilities  pursue h i s i n t e r e s t s ,  and t a l e n t s ,  and...get a glimpse o f  t h e g r e a t v a r i e t y a n d r i c h n e s s o f l i f e (p. 1 80) . In  view o f a l l t h a t has been w r i t t e n t o d a t e ,  regarding the shortcomings practices, reject  of current educational  I cannot h e l p but t h i n k t h a t t h e o n l y reason t o  t h e n o t i o n s o f p r o d u c t i v e l e a r n i n g a s e n v i s i o n e d by  t h e l i k e s o f Dewey, E i n s t e i n , H o l t , a n d S a r a s o n ,  and  themes o f c a r i n g as a r t i c u l a t e d  i n the w r i t i n g s of M i l l ,  M o n t a i g n e , Noddings, and R o l a n d  M a r t i n , w o u l d be b e c a u s e  of f e a r .  We a r e a f r a i d  around the c u r i o s i t i e s , children,  t h a t i f we c e n t r e o u r  classrooms  q u e s t i o n s , and i n t e r e s t s o f  i f we f o c u s o u r c u r r i c u l a on i s s u e s o f p o v e r t y ,  w o r l d hunger, abuse, r a c i s m , e n v i r o n m e n t a l d e s t r u c t i o n , that  there w i l l  disciplines, "proper"  n o t be e n o u g h o f an e m p h a s i s on a c a d e m i c  and c o n s e q u e n t l y  education.  on a p r o p e r  students w i l l  The f e a r t h a t s t u d e n t s w i l l  academic e d u c a t i o n  as s c h o o l s c o n t i n u e  not get a  i s a v a l i d concern  l o s e out as l o n g  t o promote t h e n o t i o n t h a t a L i b e r a l  A r t s o r "Academic" e d u c a t i o n  i s superior, or at least  more d e s i r a b l e e d u c a t i o n a n d o f g r e a t e r p e r s o n a l a n d  a  68.  societal  w o r t h t h a n an I l l i b e r a l o r " V o c a t i o n a l "  education.  Summary To be s u r e that for  my c l a i m s change  limited the  to  then  and t h a t  I maintain that  these  under the  present  realities;  system the  of  they  challenged;  the  circumstances be  a c c o m p l i s h e d under  having heard  these  l i m i t i n g conditions  set  of  If  we a l t e r  realities  are  circumstances.  are only r e l a t i v e  education.  relative  be  must u l t i m a t e l y  c a n be r e a l i s t i c a l l y But,  fixed  alter  strong,  circumstances.  a given  existing  are too  what  objections,  are not  I have w r i t t e n w i l l  w h i c h I have p r o p o s e d ,  existing  only  what  to  the  They  our  system,  which d e f i n e  we  that  system. In o t h e r  words,  which our s c h o o l s fundamental  we change  operate,  philosophies  institutions, that  if  we a l s o  reality.  and s t r u c t u r e s  certain unalterable  public  education set  of  circumstances,  which d e f i n e  of  systems,  every  it.  the  to  under  the  our conditions  believe  that  of  there  inherent  in  all  must n e c e s s a r i l y  be  present  circumstances. we a l s o  to  conditions, that  of  existing  no r e a s o n  exists  in  circumstances  by making changes  change  There i s  the  create  If  we c r e a t e  a new s e t  of  another  set  realities  69 .  The c i r c u m s t a n c e s  which I e n v i s i o n t r e a t  o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l as t h e means t o p r o d u c t i v e equal  educational opportunity,  a s p i r a t i o n s of the i n d i v i d u a l understanding,  and r e s p e c t  l e a r n i n g and  and h o l d as i t s e n d s t h e t o seek  happiness,  f o r a l l p e r s o n s and t h i n g s .  Promoting such a v i s i o n w i l l the  the i n t e r e s t s  r e q u i r e t h a t we f o c u s  teaching of subject areas,  b u t r a t h e r on t h e  e x p l o r a t i o n of mutual i n t e r e s t s of the teacher pupils.  Focusing  on m u t u a l i n t e r e s t s w i l l  reassessment of the school to  support It  and  and h i s / h e r  first  s t r u c t u r e s w h i c h have  require a evolved  and promote c u r r e n t e d u c a t i o n a l p r a c t i c e s .  i s the task of curriculum planners,  students  o f e d u c a t i o n a l change t o d e s i g n  t h a t p r o m o t e and s u p p o r t  diversity,  approaches i n education. of s t r a t e g y .  Planning  conditions  traditional  We must a v o i d an e i t h e r / o r  type  f o r d i v e r s i t y a n d c h o i c e must be  to a l l future educational  that students,  philosophers,  but which can c o e x i s t  w i t h , r a t h e r than attempt t o r e p l a c e ,  central  n o t on  teachers,  considerations,  and p a r e n t s  such  over time can see the  o b v i o u s b e n e f i t s and form t h e o p i n i o n t o change i n t h e i r own m i n d s .  T h e r e must be no n o t i o n o f f o r c i n g  change;  d i v e r s i t y o f o p i n i o n must n o t o n l y be t o l e r a t e d b u t , i n a democracy, encouraged.  70 .  CHAPTER 7  LEARNING BY INTEREST: AN ALTERNATIVE TO THE STANDARDIZED  The S t r u c t u r e  o f P u b l i c Schools  Essentially throughout accepted (1989)  patterns  the  if  there  between e a c h  location.  types of  institutions  characteristics.  a restaurant,  them, to  such  their  schools  When a  or a  represent if  are as  a  school.  uniformity  they  have  tend  physical being them from  to  a have  and other  schools. the  the  education  industry,  can  walk i n t o  any p u b l i c s c h o o l ,  industrialized  that  v e r y much d i s t i n g u i s h e s and  Miller  and c i r c u m s t a n c e s  a k i n d of  and  of Teaching",  P u b l i c s c h o o l s by d e s i g n  a f r a n c h i s e d appearance that  what L i e b e r m a n and  "Dailiness  exists  u n i f o r m i t y about  function  education  a particular institution  a hospital,  so  Public  of  conditions  we c a n r e c o g n i z e  a theatre,  of  as  model o f  s y s t e m where p r e d i c t a b l e  and h i g h l y v i s i b l e  Particularly  type  o n l y one  or rhythms,  combination of  present, hotel,  exists  r e f e r r e d to  a r e dominant certain  there  our p u b l i c s c h o o l s  have  CURRICULUM  "MacDonaldsization" of  you w i l l .  c o u n t r y i n the  A teacher  or  student  i n v i r t u a l l y any  world,  and f e e l  a sense  of  71 .  familiarity recognize  the  classrooms length the  with  of  the  layout  extending the  of  the  off  with  and b o o k s h e l v e s .  They w i l l  school  with i t s  a c e n t r a l hallway  building.  classrooms  head of  surroundings.  They w i l l  their  each c l a s s r o o m ,  individual running  recognize  d e s k s and t a b l e s ,  They w i l l  expect  to  find  immediately  the  decor  of  chalkboards, an a d u l t  s u r r o u n d e d by two d o z e n  c h i l d r e n b u s y w i t h work a s s i g n e d  the  and e v a l u a t e d  or by  at  the  so that  adult. A visitor predictable wherein  to  textbooks,  i t e m s on t h e  well  the  or Music. daily  curricular  rhythms o f  environment.  foot  in,  pens,  recognize  recognize  the  what  be few  consistency, franchised  to  the  for  uniformity, t r a d e marks o f  the  Mathematics,  as  sounds,  sights,  and  recesses,' lunch breaks,  and i n a s h o r t  surprises,  be  the  Art, Physical Education,  all  time  they  e x p e c t when t h e y  common  and know  There w i l l  English,  period rotations,  And a l t h o u g h  a  activities,  and p a p e r a r e  menu by h e a r t . Socials,  in finding  feel  at  may n e v e r  enter  familiarity,  its  in  set  they  doors.  There  continuity,  standardization, public schools,  home  have  n o r c l a p p e d e y e s on a p a r t i c u l a r s c h o o l ,  know w e l l will  comfort  classroom  daily specials:  gym c l a s s ,  that  take  They w i l l  Science,  usual  will the  pencils,  They w i l l  homework,  to  equipment.  standbys: as  school  orderliness  and e s s e n t i a l  usual  the  are as  the recognizable  72 .  from the d i s t a n c e  to teachers  Arches of that other  and s t u d e n t s as t h e Golden  North American i n s t i t u t i o n  i s to i t s  patrons. This  franchised,  or perhaps "standardized"  s u p p o r t e d b y a few b a s i c a n d " t r a d i t i o n a l " structures.  W a l t Werner  cultures are b u i l t  Of t h e s e  p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r change o c c u r r i n g  time,  significant  through the a l t e r i n g  i n education  significant  and l a s t i n g  matter.  we h a v e r e a c h e d a  beyond which e d u c a t o r s f i n d  i t difficult  change w i t h o u t  i s n o t enough t o p r o v i d e  to effect  accompanying schools.  professional  d e v e l o p m e n t o p p o r t u n i t i e s o r some t i m e f o r d i s c u s s i o n when t h e c o n t e x t  i n which  teachers  work i s n o t c o n d u c i v e t o , a n d may e v e n contradict, aspects of desired  change.  I m p l e m e n t a t i o n i s n o t a m a t t e r o f f o c u s i n g on the p r a c t i c e s o f i n d i v i d u a l s w i t h o u t modifying  institutional  regularities.  (p.  v a l u e s and  18).  Werner  "threshold",  changes t o t h e fundamental s t r u c t u r e s o f p u b l i c It  of  the considerations o f :  space, p e o p l e , a u t h o r i t y , and s u b j e c t  suggests that  core  three  c u l t u r e s , he p r e d i c t s  s t r u c t u r e s , which i n c l u d e  school  b a s i c components:  pedagogy, norms, and s t r u c t u r e s .  school  school  (1995) c o n t e n d s t h a t  around three  components o f s c h o o l  model i s  also  73.  T h e s e same s c h o o l s t r u c t u r e s p u t i n p l a c e i n o r d e r facilitate  p u b l i c e d u c a t i o n , h a v e i n t u r n become a  significant reforms  impediment f o r s c h o o l s t r y i n g t o adapt  c u r r e n t l y demanded o f them.  the realm of p o s s i b i l i t i e s As Werner  to  (1991) a g a i n  They a c t t o  f o r the acceptance  the  constrict  of change.  observes:  U n l e s s d i s c u s s i o n f o c u s e s on i n t e r p l a y among o r g a n i z a t i o n a l norms, and  to  forms of  the  structures  [change], teachers  them f o r g r a n t e d and do n o t r e a l i z e extent of the problem  involved.  and  take  the  [Change] i s  t h e n i n t e r p r e t e d i n l i g h t o f , and m o d i f i e d t o fit And  with, existing conditions.  "the l i k e l y  consequence", observes  t h a t i n the main i t w i l l  endorse  and  [ e d u c a t o r s ] a l r e a d y t h i n k and do. rationalize  (p.  p.  18).  efforts,  i t i s not f e a s i b l e  type of r a d i c a l or a l t e r n a t i v e approach  favourable results.  a v o i d i n t r o d u c i n g any new  for  We  to and  must, i n f a c t , c o n s c i o u s l y  approaches  to education unless  c a n be r e a s o n a b l y c e r t a i n o f s u c c e s s f u l as F u l l a n  and  support n e c e s s a r y to promote,  s u p p o r t , and m a i n t a i n new  we  reinforce  under the p r e s e n t c i r c u m s t a n c e s , w i t h o u t  the type of s t r u c t u r a l  expect  g l o s s what  [ e d u c a t i o n ] , not  t r a n s f o r m i t " ( c i t e d i n W e r n e r , 1991,  i n t r o d u c e any  Hargreaves, " i s  It will  the e x i s t i n g c u l t u r e of  Consequently,  18)  implementation,  (1991) w a r n s , " n o n i m p l e m e n t a b l e  programs  74 .  p r o b a b l y do more harm t h a n g o o d when t h e y a r e (p. 1 0 4 ) .  I f we  a r e , t h e r e f o r e , t o r e a l i z e any  chance f o r the s u c c e s s f u l implementation of approaches  attempted"  t o e d u c a t i o n , we  must a l t e r  Th^  of such  existing and  changes.  Road to I t h i c a : A l t e r i n g School S t r u c t u r e s I n s t a r t i n g o u t on t h e r o a d t o c h a n g e , I am  of a scene  i n an o l d f i l m  L a r r y , Moe, Stooges",  In t h i s  and C u r l y , b e t t e r known as "The  Having l o s t  g o a t h e r d e r as  the best r o u t e to take to get to I t h i c a .  their  j o u r n e y , and a f t e r  realizing  no b e s t r o u t e , t h e o l d g o a t h e r d e r  concluded,  "You  know b o y s ,  to  Upon t r y i n g  e x p l a i n t o them i n w h i c h d i r e c t i o n i t w o u l d  be b e s t  that there  to  to really  thoughtfully  i f I were y o u ,  I wouldn't  start  here!" I n e d u c a t i o n we  advice.  i f we  c o u l d w e l l t a k e the goat  For i n our s i t u a t i o n ,  despondent t r i o , And  Three  t h e i r bearings i n the  o r d e a l , t h e y i n q u i r e from a wandering  from  situation  a r e s h i p w r e c k e d i n a s t o r m and wash up u p o n t h e  shores of Crete.  start  reminded  i n v o l v i n g t h r e e o f t h e most  u n l i k e l y s a i l o r s ever to put t o sea.  was  of  alternative  c i r c u m s t a n c e s such t h a t they are r e c e p t i v e to conducive to the f a c i l i t a t i o n  sort  herder's  u n l i k e that of  such a d v i c e would  keep i n mind P o p k e w i t z ' s  be q u i t e  the  practical.  and W e r n e r ' s  quote,  75.  that  " t o s t a r t where s c h o o l  i s c a n n o t mean t o i m p l y  e x i s t i n g p r a c t i c e s are reasonable",  that  t h e message i s q u i t e  similar  - we c o u l d u s e a new s t a r t i n g p o i n t f o r o u r  efforts  - a new s e t o f s c h o o l  s t r u c t u r e s a n d a new  p h i l o s o p h i c a l o r i e n t a t i o n t o h e l p us on t h e r o a d t o Ithica. What must i n i t i a l l y f o l l o w i n o r d e r for  the Learning  to provide  by I n t e r e s t a p p r o a c h , o r any o t h e r  a l t e r n a t i v e a p p r o a c h t h a t we m i g h t c o n s i d e r ,  i s the  c a p a c i t y o f t h e s c h o o l t o accommodate d i v e r s i t y students,  student  The a l t e r i n g o f s c h o o l  (time, place, people,  authority, subject  matter) I n conjunction with the moral, curricular  among  programmes, a n d t e a c h i n g / l e a r n i n g  methods, s i m u l t a n e o u s l y . structures  support  p h i l o s o p h i c a l , and  c o n s i d e r a t i o n s t h a t we h a v e d i s c u s s e d ,  will  c r e a t e o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r s u c h m o d i f i c a t i o n s t o be a p p l i e d in  the f o l l o w i n g c o n s i d e r a t i o n s o f secondary  school  models.  PEOPLE  Those With Whom We Share the L e a r n i n g Environment For  a start,  must be a b l e their  i n t h e l e a r n i n g by i n t e r e s t  t o group teachers' and s t u d e n t s  individual  interests.  a p p r o a c h we according to  As i t e x i s t s now,  secondary  76 .  schools g e n e r a l l y populate same manner. who  t h e i r classrooms  I n each classroom  i n roughly the  t h e r e i s one a d u l t t e a c h e r  i s responsible f o r d i r e c t i n g the a c t i v i t i e s  e f f o r t s o f up t o t h i r t y o r s o c h i l d r e n responsibilities, d i r e c t i o n from  and  whose  i n turn, e s s e n t i a l l y consist of taking  t h e one a d u l t .  The method o f  matching  s t u d e n t s and t e a c h e r s i s g e n e r a l l y b a s e d on age appropriate c r i t e r i a ,  i n which  t h e t e a c h e r and s t u d e n t s  a r e a s s i g n e d t o t h e same c l a s s r o o m b a s e d on t h e age o f t h e child  and t h e c o r r e s p o n d i n g g r a d e l e v e l o r s u b j e c t a r e a  t a u g h t by t h a t p a r t i c u l a r Pre-selection,  teacher.  that i s students requesting a c e r t a i n  teacher or teachers s e l e c t i n g c e r t a i n students, i s allowed o n l y under c e r t a i n c i r c u m s t a n c e s areas  i n secondary  and i n c e r t a i n  subject  s c h o o l s , s u c h as i n t h e e l e c t i v e o r  s e n i o r academic s p e c i a l t y a r e a s . i n the core c u r r i c u l u m areas  However, random  ( i . e . , Mathematics,  Socials,  and E n g l i s h ) i s g e n e r a l l y deemed a  approach  to classroom  assignments,  grouping Science,  reasonable  b a s e d on t h e p r i n c i p l e  that the c o n s i d e r a t i o n s of a l l students are t r e a t e d " e q u a l l y " , and a l l t e a c h e r s a r e deemed e q u a l l y c o m p e t e n t to teach the students i n those assigned Given  areas.  t h e p r e v i o u s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s Of e q u a l  e d u c a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t y , a l a r g e l y random p a i r i n g o f t e a c h e r s a n d s t u d e n t s was a r e a s o n a b l e  strategy to follow.  77 .  However, w i t h t h e a d d e d c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f i n t e r e s t s , or casual classroom of s e l e c t i o n .  p l a c e m e n t i s a l e s s a p p r o p r i a t e method  In order t o maximize the p o t e n t i a l b e n e f i t s  o f l e a r n i n g by i n t e r e s t , i n ' w h i c h we  i t i s necessary  randomly p a i r students  i n s t e a d m a t c h t e a c h e r s and areas  academic s u b j e c t  and  to a l t e r  teachers,  do  i n e l e c t i v e and  a s s o c i a t i o n s I am do,  t o remember t h a t  except  the  i n the normal course  of p u b l i c  Swimming, A c c o u n t i n g ,  Music,  f o r t h are a l l arranged l e a r n e r s and an i n d i v i d u a l  we  f i n d t h a t i t i s most a d v a n t a g e o u s t o g r o u p interests.  l e s s o n s f o r example, or i n s t r u c t i o n  not  example,  s u g g e s t i n g a r e common t o most manner o f  together according to t h e i r  understand  senior  G e n e r a l l y i n most l e a r n i n g s i t u a t i o n s t h a t  e n g a g e i n , we  interested.  their  areas.  I t h i n k i t w o u l d be h e l p f u l  people  way  and  B e f o r e p r e s e n t i n g the reader w i t h a c o n c r e t e  t h i n g s t h a t we  the  t h e i r p u p i l s according to  o f m u t u a l i n t e r e s t s as we  education.  random  i n Karate,  F i r s t A i d , Dance, and  T h e r e i s no n o t i o n o f  t h i n g s i n which they are  In non-school  related activities  that forced learning w i l l  be  only to the i n d i v i d u a l s concerned,  w i t h whom t h e y s h a r e  Gymnastics, so  a c c o r d i n g to the i n t e r e s t s of  the t e a c h e r . to study  Ballet  we  counter but  forcing not seem t o productive  also to  the l e a r n i n g environment.  the  those  78.  T h e r e w o u l d be l i t t l e  use, f o r example, i n h a v i n g  a  stamp c o l l e c t i n g c l u b o r an O l y m p i c swim team i f a g o o d many o f t h e members h a d no i n t e r e s t o r swimming c o m p e t i t i v e l y .  i n collecting  The f i r s t  w o u l d be t o a s k t h o s e who do n o t w i s h  order of business t o be t h e r e t o l e a v e  so t h a t t h e r e s t o f t h e members c o u l d g e t o n w i t h business. grouping  I n these areas together people  stamps  their  we r e c o g n i z e t h a t o n l y by who s h a r e  similar  a s p i r a t i o n s and  i n t e r e s t s c a n we c r e a t e t h e b e s t p o s s i b l e e n v i r o n m e n t f o r the b e s t l e a r n i n g and t e a c h i n g c o n d i t i o n s t o o c c u r .  A  g o o d l e a r n i n g e n v i r o n m e n t d e p e n d s n o t o n l y on t h e i n s i g h t s and  d i r e c t i o n s o f t h e t e a c h e r , b u t a l s o on t h e p r e t e n s e  that the l e a r n e r s themselves  will  encourage and e x c i t e  each other and, i n d o i n g s o , h e l p t o f u r t h e r each  others  i n t e r e s t s a n d k n o w l e d g e f o r t h e common good a s w e l l a s f o r their It  own b e n e f i t s . i s o n l y through  continue to function.  interest  t h a t these groups can  W i t h o u t a common i n t e r e s t ,  w o u l d be no r e a s o n  t o come t o g e t h e r .  hear o f elementary  school teachers arranging t h e i r  schedules  such  that a c t i v i t i e s  L a n g u a g e A r t s , where t h e y f e e l  there  I am o f t e n amazed t o daily  l i k e A r i t h m e t i c and t h e g r e a t e s t amount o f  a t t e n t i v e n e s s and c o n c e n t r a t i o n a r e r e q u i r e d , a r e programmed f o r t h e m o r n i n g p e r i o d s when c h i l d r e n ' s a t t e n t i o n s p a n s a n d c o n c e n t r a t i o n l e v e l s a p p e a r t o be t h e  79.  highest, while less mindful a c t i v i t i e s , Music,  such  or P h y s i c a l Education, a r e planned  as A r t ,  f o r the  a f t e r n o o n p e r i o d s when a p p a r e n t l y c h i l d r e n ' s a t t e n t i o n s p a n s and a b i l i t i e s so m a t t e r  to concentrate  of f a c t l y of this  attention,  are lower.  They s p e a k  impending d e c l i n e i n  i t i s as though i t were a n o r m a l  physiological  c o n d i t i o n t h a t n a t u r a l l y o c c u r s among a l l c h i l d r e n the  during  afternoon.What I f i n d most a m a z i n g a b o u t t h i s a t t e n t i o n d e f i c i t  phenomenom i s t h a t a t 3:00 o ' c l o c k , p r e c i s e l y when, a c c o r d i n g t o t h e a b o v e t h e o r y , s t u d e n t s a r e t h e most r e s t l e s s a n d a p p a r e n t l y t h e l e a s t a b l e t o c o n c e n t r a t e and apply themselves,  these  same r e s t l e s s a n d i n a t t e n t i v e  i n d i v i d u a l s r u s h o f f t o music l e s s o n s , dance l e s s o n s , t h e a t r e c l a s s e s , e t c . , where t h e y a p p l y diligently  and v o l u n t a r i l y  to, l e s s o n s f a r more r i g o r o u s ,  f a r more d e m a n d i n g , a n d o f t e n r e q u i r i n g discipline,  self-control,  themselves  greater  and d e t e r m i n a t i o n than any  number o f s c h o o l s u b j e c t s .  One c a n n o t h e l p b u t n o t i c e t h e  s t a r t l i n g c o n t r a s t i n energy l e v e l s between s c h o o l and e x t r a c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s no m a t t e r Are  what t i m e o f d a y .  we t o s u p p o s e t h a t i f s c h o o l was t o be h e l d o n a  Saturday  m o r n i n g t h a t we w o u l d e n c o u n t e r  enthusiasm  than  i f those  Thursday afternoon?  greater  same c l a s s e s were h e l d o n a  I b e l i e v e t h a t the apparent  decline  80 .  i n the c a p a c i t i e s of students to l e a r n i n the has  little  t o do w i t h s h o r t a t t e n t i o n s p a n s o r  l e v e l s o f c o n c e n t r a t i o n and of i n t e r e s t (1996, p.  afternoon,  much t o do w i t h t h e u t t e r  i n what i s b e i n g t a u g h t .  274)  c h i l d r e n and  s a y s , i f we  t e a c h what we  o n l y a "sometime t h i n g ,  lower  I t i s as  Sarason  ignore the i n t e r e s t s  of  want t o t e a c h , l e a r n i n g becomes  i f that."  s u r v i v i n g the morning g r i n d ,  I feel,  s t u d e n t s see  that the  after  afternoons  s i m p l y as t h e d o w n h i l l s t r e t c h and move o u t o f t h e mode, n o t  at a l l u n l i k e the e l a t i o n experienced  adult working Friday  lack  working  i n the  w o r l d by e m p l o y e e s w i t h t h e a r r i v a l  of  afternoons.  SUBJECT MATTER  From Theory to P r a c t i c e : There i s s t i l l  much more t h a t we  subject of classroom move f r o m j u s t how  A F i v e Year P l a n  groupings,  the t h e o r e t i c a l  c o u l d c o n s i d e r on  however, i t i s time  t o the p r a c t i c a l ,  and  t h e s t r a t e g y o f g r o u p i n g s t u d e n t s and  according to t h e i r  the  to  t o examine teachers  i n t e r e s t s might work i n a p u b l i c  school  setting. S u p p o s e , f o r e x a m p l e , we p l a n , and  i n the f i r s t  students i n grades  were t o a d o p t a f i v e  y e a r o f t h i s p l a n we  8 and  were t o  year invite  9 t o t h i n k a b o u t what i t i s t h e y  81 .  would r e a l l y interests,  like  t o l e a r n a b o u t i n s c h o o l - where  a s p i r a t i o n s , and c u r i o s i t i e s  lie.  their  These  i n t e r e s t s w o u l d t h e n be a d d e d t o a p o o l o f i n t e r e s t s  which  w o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d a s p o s s i b l e t e a c h i n g / l e a r n i n g activities this  o f f e r e d t o s t u d e n t s i n t h e upcoming y e a r s .  At  same t i m e , s c h o o l s w o u l d b e g i n t o r e c r u i t a n y new  teachers keeping students.  i n mind t h e i n t e r e s t s e x p r e s s e d  The o b j e c t i v e w o u l d be t o m a t c h  t e a c h e r s w i t h s t u d e n t s who s h a r e s i m i l a r  by  potential  interests i n a  p a r t i c u l a r area o u t s i d e of those c u r r e n t l y o f f e r e d w i t h i n the standard c u r r i c u l u m . To c o n t i n u e w i t h t h i s e x a m p l e , l e t ' s s a y t h a t o f t h e s i x new t e a c h e r s r e c r u i t e d , because of t h e i r a b i l i t i e s t h a t s t u d e n t s had e x p r e s s e d  f o u r were h i r e d e x p r e s s l y and d e s i r e s t o t e a c h i n areas interest  i n learning.  With  f o u r s u c h m a t c h e s i n p l a c e , we c o u l d c r e a t e i n t h e s e c o n d year  f o u r new c o r r e s p o n d i n g c o u r s e s o f s t u d y , o p e n t o any  g r a d e 8 o r 9 s t u d e n t who h a d e x p r e s s e d  a d e s i r e t o pursue  s t u d i e s i n one o f t h o s e f o u r a r e a s o f i n t e r e s t .  ...and A l l the World's a Stage L e a r n i n g about a n y t h i n g w e l l , learner understand  requires that the  a s much a s p o s s i b l e t h e many  and v a r i a b l e s a f f e c t i n g  that p a r t i c u l a r  interest.  elements One o f  t h e ways t o become more f a m i l i a r w i t h an a r e a o f i n t e r e s t  12 .  is  to study  And  one  that interest  from d i f f e r e n t p o i n t s of  method o f s t u d y i n g s o m e t h i n g f r o m d i f f e r e n t  of view i s to analyze s u c h as  those  Although  accepted  we we  curriculum,  i t through various subject  are a l l f a m i l i a r w i t h at h a v e no  wish  i t does have the d i s t i n c t  and  valued  by  the g e n e r a l  community.  For  this  e a s i e s t and  t h e most e x p e d i e n t  areas,  standardized  advantage of  p u b l i c and  the  to demonstrate the  i n t e r e s t s c o u l d p l a y i n c o n t r i b u t i n g to the  demands o f a c a d e m i c s t u d y , these  role  serious  i s to r e l a t e the e x p l o r a t i o n of  i n t e r e s t s to s u b j e c t areas i n the  curriculum.  being  the  reason perhaps  way  points  school.  t o promote the  educational  that  view.  standardized  U l t i m a t e l y , however, I f e e l  t h a t once p e o p l e  become more f a m i l i a r w i t h t h e n o t i o n o f s t u d y i n g i n t e r e s t s for  i n t e r e s t s a k e and  not  simply  as a n o v e l t y ,  comparison to the e x i s t i n g s t a n d a r d i z e d subject If  areas w i l l the  reader  be u n n e c e s s a r y and will  from h o r s e drawn v e h i c l e s t o m o t o r i z e d an a n a l o g y w h i c h c o u l d be u s e f u l t o o u r t h e c h a n g e s w h i c h I am were f i r s t  introduced  n o v e l t y , and  not  proposing.  curriculum  largely  consider b r i e f l y  a  the  unimportant.  transition  vehicles there i s understanding  When m o t o r i z e d  t h e y were m e r e l y r e g a r d e d  s o m e t h i n g f o r s e r i o u s work.  v e h i c l e s were i m p r o v e d and  and  vehicles  as  But  of  a as  these  refined, their potential  a d v a n t a g e s became more e v i d e n t .  While motorized  vehicles  83 .  were b e i n g d e v e l o p e d a n d a d a p t e d t o t h e v a r i o u s u s e s h o r s e s o r oxen t r a d i t i o n a l l y  filled,  that  i t was n e c e s s a r y t o  c o n s t a n t l y compare t h e i r p o t e n t i a l s i n t e r m s o f " h o r s e power". And f o r many y e a r s t h e h o r s e p o w e r  o f a v e h i c l e was  an i m p o r t a n t s t a n d a r d b y w h i c h t o j u d g e p e r f o r m a n c e a n d t o s a t i s f y e x i s t i n g c a l c u l a t i o n s f o r a s s e s s i n g work potential.  A century later,  however,  horsepower  does n o t  largely figure into the considerations of prospective v e h i c l e b u y e r s a n d , i n f a c t , many b u y e r s do n o t e v e n u n d e r s t a n d t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between  the performance of  t h e i r v e h i c l e and t h e c a l c u l a t i o n o f h o r s e p o w e r .  Buyers  t o d a y a r e o f t e n more aware o f o t h e r m e a s u r e s o f p e r f o r m a n c e such a s , c u b i c c e n t i m e t e r s , c y l i n d e r s i z e , and litre sixty,  uptake c a p a c i t y , a c c e l e r a t i o n speed from z e r o t o and so f o r t h .  The owner o f a v e h i c l e no l o n g e r  r e q u i r e s a c o n f i r m a t i o n i n " h o r s e power" t o a p p r e c i a t e i f the  j o b i s b e i n g done  efficiently.  R e t u r n i n g t o o u r d i s c u s s i o n , i f we c o n s i d e r t h a t  vital  to  a w e l l - r o u n d e d u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f T h e a t r e , f o r example,  is  t h e a c q u i s i t i o n o f knowledge  performance  about t h e language o f t h e  - i t s s u b t l e t i e s and i n n u e n d o e s ,  knowledge  about t h e t i m e s and t h e c o n t e x t o f t h e s t o r y , and knowledge as:  about t h e a c t u a l s t a g i n g o f t h e performance  c o s t u m i n g , s t a g e s e t s , sound and l i g h t i n g ,  special  such  84.  effects,  choreography,  f i n a n c i n g , one  music,  t o do.  or  can see t h a t t h e r e i s p l e n t y o f scope f o r  s e r i o u s academic i n p u t . attempt  seating, advertising,  We  And  this  i s e x a c t l y what w'e  shall  s h a l l e n d e a v o u r t o e n h a n c e and e n r i c h  t h e s t u d y o f T h e a t r e b y u s i n g and  giving credit  i n subject  areas that c o n t r i b u t e to a greater understanding enjoyment of a p a r t i c u l a r  area of  and  interest.  Imagine a t y p i c a l h i g h s c h o o l student g e t t i n g out bed  i n t h e m o r n i n g and  a c t u a l l y l o o k i n g forward to  t o s c h o o l b e c a u s e o f what t h e y w o u l d be l e a r n i n g , than s i m p l y t o see like? start  their  What i t w o u l d be  friends. like  w h o l e week t o go u n t i l The  r e a d e r can  going rather  What w o u l d t h a t l o o k  f o r a high school student  s c h o o l on Monday m o r n i n g s w i t h o u t  f e e l i n g c r e e p i n g i n and  of  thinking,  "Oh  that  god,  to  sinking  I still  have a  t h e weekend!"  imagine  a grade nine student waking  on a Monday m o r n i n g i n S e p t e m b e r and  up  going to school to  s t u d y n o t E n g l i s h , o r S o c i a l s S t u d i e s o r Shop, b u t r a t h e r to study Theatre. s p e n d a w h o l e day interest  This student  i s g o i n g t o g e t up  l e a r n i n g something  i n and has  asked  he o r she has  t o l e a r n - an e n t i r e  l e a r n i n g w i t h o t h e r s t u d e n t s who t h e r e , and  a t e a c h e r who  enthusiasm  of h i s / h e r p u p i l s '  ambitions.  a great  day  a c t u a l l y want t o  i s i n s p i r e d and  and  be  e n c o u r a g e d by  the  85 .  Furthermore, t h i s get  student  will  up e a c h d a y a n d l o o k f o r w a r d  about h i s / h e r i n t e r e s t every semester.  B u t what t h i s  p o s s i b l e t o study  have t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o  t o s t u d y i n g and l e a r n i n g  d a y o f t h e week f o r an e n t i r e  looks  like,  a n d how i t w o u l d be  T h e a t r e a l l day l o n g and s t i l l  what i s " r e q u i r e d " a n d n e c e s s a r y  learn  f o r "graduation",  will  r e q u i r e some f u r t h e r e x p l a i n i n g . I b e l i e v e that through the study p o s s i b l e f o r a student  of Theatre,  i t is  to attain credits i n English,  S o c i a l S t u d i e s , o r H u m a n i t i e s a n d , d e p e n d i n g on t h a t student's well.  special interests,  credit  How w o u l d t h i s work e x a c t l y ?  that the Theatre production Gulliver's Travels  W e l l , l e t us suppose  was b a s e d upon t h e s t o r y o f  f o r example.  To r e a l l y u n d e r s t a n d t h e  underlying s t o r y , i ti s necessary s a r c a s t i c context  i n an e l e c t i v e a r e a a s  t o understand the  i n w h i c h J o n a t h a n S w i f t was w r i t i n g  (1726/1980, P a r t I V ) .  To do t h i s ,  i t w o u l d be h e l p f u l t o  put  oneself  i n J o n a t h a n S w i f t ' s shoes, so t o speak, and t o  see  t h e e v e n t s o f 1 7 t h and 1 8 t h c e n t u r y  Europe through h i s  eyes; e x p l o r i n g t h e ideas o f s t a t e , government, constitution,  j u s t i c e , a n d d e m o c r a c y , a n d t h e many other-  c o n s i d e r a t i o n s c o n s i s t e n t with our n o t i o n of S o c i a l Studies. Being of  f a m i l i a r w i t h t h e c o n c e p t s and l e a r n i n g outcomes  the S o c i a l Studies  curriculum, a teacher  could devise  a  86 .  social 87)  s t u d y , s u c h as t h a t shown on t h e f o l l o w i n g page  which  c o u l d enhance a s t u d e n t ' s u n d e r s t a n d i n g  of  (p.  the  t h e a t r i c a l p r o d u c t i o n w h i l e a l s o s a t i s f y i n g the aims of Social Studies. Theatre  Learning h i s t o r y through  the study  of  i s d e r i v e d o f t h e same p r i n c i p l e as l e a r n i n g  h i s t o r y through  the study of A r t .  as a l e g i t i m a t e and  f a s c i n a t i n g way  A r t H i s t o r y has of l o o k i n g at  about  evolved the  developments o f humankind. I n t h e same manner as S o c i a l S t u d i e s , s u c h c o u l d a l s o be  a p p l i e d to s a t i s f y i n g the requirements  e l e c t i v e areas. costuming, d r e s s and and  strategies  Theatre  s t u d e n t s w i t h an i n t e r e s t  f o r example,\ c o u l d make a t h o r o u g h t h e f a s h i o n s d u r i n g 1 6 t h and  combine t h i s h i s t o r i c a l  t o make t h e n e c e s s a r y  c o s t u m e s and  i n Music,  in  study of  17th c e n t u r y  the  Europe  r e s e a r c h w i t h Home E c o n o m i c s  e l e c t i v e a r e a o f T e x t i l e s and t r u e of e l e c t i v e s  of  receive credit  Clothing.  The  i n the  same w o u l d  be  D a n c e , o r Shop.  S i m i l a r l y a student could r e c e i v e c r e d i t  i n an  area  l i k e P h o t o g r a p h y by a p p l y i n g t h e s t u d y o f  Science,  H i s t o r y , and  of the e v o l u t i o n  E n g l i s h to the understanding  o f t h e c a m e r a and  how  pictures  a b o u t o u r w o r l d and how  we  i n f l u e n c e t h e way  express  ourselves  same a p p l i e s t o Human and E n v i r o n m e n t a l understanding fishing,  of the concerns  pollution,  we  think  (p. 8 8 ) .  I s s u e s , where  The the  i n d i s p u t e s over l o g g i n g ,  g l o b a l warming, w o r l d  hunger,  87. Table  2. Pleasure Reading  Silent Oral  Journal Creative Advertisement Poetry  Writing  Story Tone  Speaking  Clarity Expression  Play Essay  Editing Spelling  Language  Vocabulary Presentation Information  Listening  Pleasure  Tape Film  Theatre Production  Photograph  Medium  Word Processing  (Romeo and Juliette, Gulliver's Travels)  Live Performance History Area of Study  Social  Research Organization of Data & Materials  Applied Skills  Studies  Analyzing Critical Thinking & Feedback  Concepts in Culture  Application Basic Problems  Stage Production  Industrial Education/ F i n e Arts  Historical Research  r  Fabrication  • m  Electrical/ ' Special Effects Sound Scenery  m  Make up Costuming  Music  Orchestration Choreography  88.  Table 3 .  Impact on Historical Recordings School Newspaper Yearbook  Lens  Camera  Inventions  Science  Experimentation Adaptation to Change  Variables  Film Paper Lighting  Shutter Construction  89 .  child  l a b o r , and s o f o r t h , demands t h a t  understand  the s o c i a l ,  i m p l i c a t i o n s o f such  political,  activities  students  and s c i e n t i f i c  on t h e w o r l d .  Do a l l Roads Lead t o Rome? A q u e s t i o n f r e q u e n t l y asked  by c o l l e a g u e s r e g a r d i n g  s t u d e n t s c h o o s i n g a r e a s o f i n t e r e s t s i s , "Would we l e t t h e student choose t o study j u s t  any i n t e r e s t ? "  In other  words, a r e a l l i n t e r e s t s worthy o f s e r i o u s academic The  answer t o t h e q u e s t i o n i s b o t h y e s and no.  study?  Yes,  provided that the p a r t i c u l a r  interest  t h a t o f a t e a c h e r ' s who w i l l  a c t as an a d v i s o r f o r t h e  student. such  No, i f t h e r e i s r e a s o n e d  c a n be m a t c h e d w i t h  evidence  t o show t h a t  a p u r s u i t may be h a r m f u l . S u p p o s e , f o r e x a m p l e , t h e r e a r e s t u d e n t s who h a v e  requested  t o pursue  s t u d i e s i n O u t d o o r P u r s u i t s a n d among  t h e s e s t u d e n t s s e v e r a l who w o u l d l o v e t o l e a r n more a b o u t b i c y c l e s and t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n a b i c y c l e t o u r i n g t r i p part of t h e i r difficult But  schooling.  t o make a c a s e  I t w o u l d , I t h i n k , be v e r y f o r t h i s a c t i v i t y being  l e t us remember t h a t we h a v e s u g g e s t e d  t h r i v e from  as a  harmful.  students  should  the schooling experience; not simply s u r v i v e .  So o u r f i r s t c o n s i d e r a t i o n s h o u l d n o t be d e f e n d i n g o u r c h o i c e s from  concerns  o f p o t e n t i a l harm. I n s t e a d i t w o u l d  s t r e n g t h e n o u r p o s i t i o n t o show r e a s o n e d  evidence  that the  90.  s t u d y o f b i c y c l e s and a purposeful  and  b i c y c l e touring could  meaningful academic  Such " e v i d e n c e " c o u l d be First, 91), and  i f we  we  look  can  see  many s u b j e c t  two-wheeled marvel of Bicycle i n Society"  the  ways.  f o l l o w i n g page  (p.  areas that could p o t e n t i a l l y  t o an  in-depth  study of  industrialization.  "The  i s a theme w h i c h c o u l d be  t h i s example, h i g h l i g h t e d f o u r  this  Role of  I have, i n  areas of t r a d i t i o n a l  s t u d y : S o c i a l Impact, Competing Resources,  the  approached  q u i t e e f f e c t i v e l y from s e v e r a l p o i n t s of view.  I m p l i c a t i o n s , and  to  study.  d e m o n s t r a t e d i n two  a t t h e m o d e l on  logically contribute  contribute  social  Economic  G e o g r a p h y , as p o t e n t i a l s t r a t e g i e s f o r  u n d e r s t a n d i n g the b i c y c l e from a S o c i a l S t u d i e s  point,of  view. After  i d e n t i f y i n g several possible  s t r a t e g i e s , we  could  actually contribute flow  chart  consider,  i s our  t o our  second p i e c e  top of the  relevancy  of the  u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the  j u s t how  study i n d e t a i l . of e v i d e n c e .  f o r example, the heading of  shown a t t h e the  then i l l u s t r a t e  learning  chart  on  they would D e t a i l i n g the If  we  " S o c i a l Impact"  page 91,  we  could  b i c y c l e towards i n c r e a s i n g  as  show  our  socio-economic i m p l i c a t i o n s i n  our  a p p r e c i a t i o n of s o c i a l h i s t o r y . This the  we  h a v e done on  reader w i l l  the  f o l l o w i n g page  (p. 9 2 ) .  f i n d a b r i e f overview h i g h l i g h t i n g  Here  91  P  Social Impact  Table 4  competing Resources Economic Implications  Horse Car Boat  Public T r a n s p o r t  Geography  |  Suitability  |  Climate  I  Road Systems I  Science  iC  Technological Advances  S p i n oft Inventions!  F j Pneumatic Tire 1 Experimentation^  Braking SystemsT"^^.  Log Journal Reading for Pleasure The Bicycle in Literature  The Role of the Bicycle in Society  Reading for Information  Road Signs Repair Manuals Maps  Estimation  10  Whole Number Operations Ratio Physics  Time Distance Velocity Distance Acceleration Resistance Levers Fulcrum Ratios  Geometry  Plane Critical A n g l e Purpose  Planning a Trip  Duration Weather Supplies Suitability  Life Skills  Food Equipment Repairs & Maintenance  Preparation Nutrition Packing Precautions Safety  Exercise  Build up Stress  Recreation  | Gearing Ratios"  Friction | Heat  92. T a b l e 5. The Bicycle in History: A Brief Overview From a historical point of view, the common bicycle merits a special place in our study of history as an intriguing technological and social phenomena. Consider if you will the following capsulized points: 18th Century - The velocipede (a predecessor of the modern bicycle without pedals) is considered "faddish nonsense" and without any conceivable use in modern society. 19th Century - The bicycle is Seen as a fashionable leisure activity for "gentlemen". Social clubs dedicated to bicycle touring are established in major European cities. International cycling competitions evolve, spurring the relationship between sports and new industrial technology. The cost of a new bicycle is equivalent to one year's wages for a working man (two and a half years for a working woman). 20th Century - The bicycle is eclipsed by the increasingly popular motor car for gentlemen of the leisure class. Women demand radical changes in leisure clothing to accommodate the open-legged riding position on the bicycle. "Decent women" are forbidden by their husbands to ride bikes. The bicycle and women's slacks become symbols of women's emancipation and independence. The City of Chicago boasts the fastest bicycle-powered fire engine on the continent. World War I - The bicycle makes its debut as a "silent messenger" for deliveries and communication behind enemy lines. Post World War 11 - The advent of cheap and plentiful supplies of Middle-Eastern oil brings about a sharp increase in the use of automobiles in North America. The bicycle in Canada and United States (not Mexico) is reduced in status to a toy; something that only children use. 195Q's - China takes over as the world leader in bicycle transport and manufacture.  The bicycle  becomes the symbol of the working man's transportation in Europe and Asia. 1960's - The bicycle in Canada and the United States is considered quite unfashionable or "uncool" by urban high school students. They would rather walk long distances to school rather than ride a bike. 1970's - The Middle-Eastern oil crisis and the corresponding increase in gasoline prices spawns renewed interest in the use of bicycles. Many new designs and models hit the consumer market. 1980's - Governments offer tax incentives to promote bicycles as a fuel efficient alternative for urban commuters. City councils begin serious discussions regarding special bicycle lanes and pathways in urban centers. 1990's - Increasing interest in the bicycle as an "environmentally friendly" source of transportation with global implications for addressing the problems of air pollution, global warming, heart disease, the increased dependence on fossil fuels, easing traffic congestion, and so forth. 1997 - Interested grad students and teachers try to persuade administrators, school boards, and thesis committee members that bicycle touring is relevant to the understanding of modern history and fulfills all the requirements of the Standard Curriculum and the demands of serious academic study.  some k e y e v e n t s o f t h e b i c y c l e i n h i s t o r y w h i c h w i l l the  basis of a h i s t o r i c a l  bicycle. the  form  approach t o s t u d y i n g t h e  S i m i l a r overviews showing  the s i g n i f i c a n c e of  b i c y c l e c o u l d a l s o be p r e p a r e d i n t h e a r e a s o f  Geography, Economics, In  and C i v i l  Rights.  much t h e same manner, s t u d e n t s c o u l d e n g a g e i n t h e  s t u d y o f t h e b i c y c l e from a S c i e n t i f i c point of view.  or Mathematical  A s e c o n d l o o k a t t h e c h a r t o n page 91 a l s o  r e v e a l s t h e b i c y c l e as a r o l l i n g p i e c e o f P h y s i c s - a M a t h e m a t i c a l p r o b l e m on w h e e l s s o t o s p e a k . i n n o v a t i o n o f S c i e n c e and T e c h n o l o g y , approached  As an  t h e b i c y c l e c o u l d be  from t h e p o i n t o f view o f s e v e r a l areas i n t h e  P h y s i c a l S c i e n c e s : M a t t e r and Energy, I n d u s t r y , and Transportation. Attempting t o r e b u i l d or modify o l d b i c y c l e s , or i m p r o v i n g them b e y o n d  their original  t a k i n g them o n a c y c l i n g t r i p , outcomes as r e c o g n i z e d under  manufacture  c o u l d i n v o l v e many  Scientific  Attitude, Scientific  and I n d e p e n d e n t  Thinking.  With a l i t t l e  v a l u e d l e a r n i n g outcomes,  and a p p l i e d s k i l l s ,  i m a g i n a t i o n and  areas of study,  e t c . , t o c r e a t e a sound academic  almost any a r e a o f i n t e r e s t  pursue.  Knowledge,  i t i s p o s s i b l e t o m i x a n d m a t c h many o f t h e  traditionally  in  learning  the e x i s t i n g headings of  Applied S k i l l s ,  creativity,  and t h e n  s t u d e n t s may c a r e t o  study  I have s u g g e s t e d t h a t a l t e r n a t i v e c u r r i c u l a  should  seek t o c o e x i s t w i t h e x i s t i n g c u r r i c u l a r a t h e r than t r y t o r e p l a c e them.  By a c k n o w l e d g i n g t h e g o a l s a n d e x p e c t a t i o n s  o f e x i s t i n g c u r r i c u l a we a c c o m p l i s h gain the confidence community,  things:  of the educational  and c o n t i n u a t i o n o f t h e a l t e r n a t i v e  a p p r o a c h , a n d (3) we h a v e a b a s i s f o r  i n c r e a s i n g programme c o m p a t i b i l i t y , t h e r e b y students  (1) we  (2) we i n c r e a s e t h e l i k e l i h o o d o f s u c c e s s f u l  implementation curricular  and support  three  and t e a c h e r s  i n c r e a s e d f r e e d o m t o move e a s i l y  between approaches w i t h o u t or e d u c a t i o n a l  allowing  any s i g n i f i c a n t  loss of credit  status.  On p a g e s 95 a n d 96 a r e two f u r t h e r e x a m p l e s o f interests that could conceivably  student  come u n d e r one o f t h e  h e a d i n g s o f O u t d o o r P u r s u i t s as o f f e r e d i n t h e s e c o n d of our f i v e year  plan.  The t h i r d ,  f o u r t h , and f i f t h  year years  o f t h e F i v e Y e a r P l a n w o u l d g r a d u a l l y s e e an i n c r e a s e o f s i m i l a r Learning simultaneously interchangeable  by I n t e r e s t programmes, o f f e r e d  alongside  t h e S t a n d a r d C u r r i c u l u m and  with a l l the standard  subject  Such e x p a n s i o n w o u l d r e q u i r e t h a t we f o c u s  on t h r e e  areas of implementation:  (1) t h e r e c r u i t m e n t  with compatible  interests,  teacher  teaching  disciplines. main  of teachers  (2) w o r k i n g  with  p r e p a r a t i o n programmes t o p r o m o t e t e a c h i n g a n d  c u r r i c u l u m s t r a t e g i e s t h a t promote t h e needs and  95. Table 6 Time  Estimation  Distance  Compass  Math  Fixed  Direction  Degrees  Scale  Bearing Mapping  History  Impact  Socials Geography  Applied  Science  Log  t) a  Technology  Exploration Transportation Socio-economic Political Change  Balance of Power  Compass Knots  Inventions  CommunicatiorJ  English  r L  i  Maps  •  Universally of Symbols  Application  Journal Diary Food  Canoeing I Expedition  Packing  Nutrition Preparation  •  Time Frame  Equipment  Travel Cost  Purpose  Duration  Weather Clothing  K M  m  Individual Roles  Organization  Group Responsibilities Exercise  Psychomotor  Education Wilderness Skills  Nutrition Cognitive  i  Health  i  Physiology  96 . Table  7.  97.  e x p e c t a t i o n s o f t h e L e a r n i n g by  I n t e r e s t a p p r o a c h , and  i n c r e a s i n g t h e number o f c h o i c e s open t o s t u d e n t s  (3)  by  a l t e r i n g non-accommodating s c h o o l s t r u c t u r e s t o accommodate a l l t h o s e L e a r n i n g by  students  who  wish  to pursue  I n t e r e s t a p p r o a c h as an e q u a l  a l t e r n a t i v e to the Standard  and  the  equivalent  Curriculum.  TIME  Programme C o m p a t i b i l i t y Although d e v i s e new  I have s t r e s s e d t h a t i t i s i m p o r t a n t  approaches that w i l l  to  coexist with, rather  than  attempt t o r e p l a c e e x i s t i n g approaches, such  coexistence  s h o u l d be  s t r u c t u r e of  accommodated by m o d i f y i n g  s c h o o l s r a t h e r than orientation use  of time,  maintain  itself.  through I f we  any can  the time  m o d i f i c a t i o n s to  r e a l i z e a more e f f e c t i v e  I b e l i e v e there e x i s t s the p o t e n t i a l  a simultaneous  diverse curricula,  and  i n s t r u c t i o n and  compatible  coexistence  w h i l e a t t h e same t i m e  i n c r e a s i n g t h e q u a n t i t y and student  q u a l i t y of  of  classroom  programmes r a t h e r t h a n d e t r a c t i n g  t o m a i n t a i n i n g and  coexistence  to  actually  from e x i s t i n g p r a c t i c e s . Key  the  promoting a s u c c e s s f u l  of d i v e r s e approaches i n education  is  98.  programme c o m p a t i b i l i t y . v e r y much upon t h e freedom  to  a loss  ability  of  valuable  school  of  doing  of  so  quantity  it  the  instruction be g r e a t l y  significant  class  week,  reduction of  to  our t i m e t a b l e  grade  teaching  w i t h competence for  or s t a t u s ,  and  experiencing  a  instruction  the  week  upon  quality  there  classrooms  could  students 1 9 8 9 ; Nye,  1985).  A  teacher-student  ratio,  s t u d e n t s p e r week  (27  courses,  by f a c i l i t a t i n g  student per  two  simple  responsibilities. and e s p e c i a l l y  are q u i t e  teach  from  27 s t u d e n t s  i n more t h a n one  example,  is  of  (McGivern,  teachers,  the  regardless  number o f  and t e a c h i n g  the  In  both  I believe  a maximum o f  many h i g h s c h o o l  could,  without  increase  1987; Whittington,  teaching  A teacher  to  high school  be a c h i e v e d  8 - 1 0  the  those spaces.  use.  show t h a t  190 d i f f e r e n t  could easily  First,  to  i n the  X 7 classes)  changes to  filling  in a single  & Wendlant,  (a)  significantly  e n h a n c e d by r e d u c i n g the  Rike  an a v e r a g e  do so w i t h o u t  classroom  i n our e x i s t i n g  s e e n by a t e a c h e r 1982;  to  approach  credits  potential  w h i c h a p p r o a c h we d e c i d e evidence  either  impacts  people  a l s o has  two c o n d i t i o n s :  depends  time.  and q u a l i t y o f  sufficient  per  of  to  time  s p a c e and t h e  of  educational  physical  The s t r u c t u r e  of  of  the  loss  use  presence  move i n and out  experiencing (b)  Programme c o m p a t i b i l i t y  capable subject  a combination  thos  of area of  .  E n g l i s h , S o c i a l S t u d i e s , and perhaps,  P h y s i c a l Education  S c i e n c e , M a t h e m a t i c s , and  Secondly,  the school year  w i t h t h r e e s u b j e c t s per w o u l d a l l o w f o r two,  or,  Home E c o n o m i c s .  c o u l d be b r o k e n i n t o a t r i m e s t e r  semester.  The  current school  day  1-J h o u r p e r i o d s i n t h e m o r n i n g p l u s a  2 hour l e s s o n i n the a f t e r n o o n , or perhaps a t h i r d , h o u r l e s s o n i n t h e a f t e r n o o n and  a  1-2-  hour p e r i o d f o r group  w o r k , s t u d y b l o c k , o r s e m i n a r d i s c u s s i o n f o r Government exams, e t c .  A single  teacher  c o u l d then  assume  responsibility  f o r a c l a s s o f 27 s t u d e n t s , i n t h r e e  subject areas,  f o r an e n t i r e t e r m ,  labeled  "Standard  f o l l o w i n g page Under t h i s  as shown on  Curriculum Timetable  (p.  the  - O p t i o n A",  r e v i s e d time  structure,  the  teachers would  lessons, thereby  s t r u c t u r e would a l s o enhance the f a c i l i t a t i o n projects, field  s t u d i e s , and  s i n c e the r e l a t i v e  i n d e p e n d e n c e o f any  no  impact  This  of  special one  be  erasing  c o n c r e t e d i v i s i o n s between s u b j e c t d i s c i p l i n e s .  longer d i r e c t l y  on  100).  f r e e t o c o m b i n e p e r i o d s and  classroom  chart  major  events,  classroom  upon p r e v i o u s c o n c e r n s  would  around  t h e s c h e d u l i n g o f exams, m u l t i p l e homework a s s i g n m e n t s , t h e u s a g e o f any  other classroom  i n the school  S u c h a f r a m e w o r k w o u l d accommodate b o t h I n t e r e s t as w e l l as t h e S t a n d a r d i z e d approaches, a l l o w i n g f o r f u l l  building.  the L e a r n i n g  Curricular  or p a r t i a l  adoption  of  by  or  1 00. T a b l e 8.  H i g h S c h o o l Time T a b l e - O p t i o n A STANDARD CURRICULUM  Daily Schedule 8:45 Period 1  Fall Term Christmas (15 weeks) Break Semester 1  Winter Term (12 weeks) Semester 2  Easier/Spring Break  Spring Term (12 weeks) Semester 3  Mathematics  Social Studies  French  Physical Education  English  Sciences  Elective  Elective  Elective  (1.5 hrs)  10:15 Break (15 min)  10:30 Period 2 (1.5 hrs)  12:00 Lunch (1 hour)  1:00 Period 3 (1.5 hrs) 2:30 Seminar (45 min)  Student directed time for school, community or individual educational needs. Seminar options include: Band, Government exam review, Student Council, Homework, Computer Lab, School Newspaper, Peer Tutoring, English as a Second Language, Learning Assistance, etc.  3:15 Dismissal  Structural Advantages of Timetable: a) Compared to a full year 5x8 rotating timetable, there is an 85% reduction in the amount of students seen by one teacher in a term and a 60% reduction in students compared to a 4x5 semester system time table, if a teacher assumes responsibility for 27 students in three different subject areas per term. However, even with teachers rotating classes in each period, there is still a reduction of approximately 60% on a 5X8 timetable, and a 25% reduction on the 5 x 4 semester timetable. b) Less time required for classroom administration, allowing for more time to be spent on classroom instruction or classroom activities. c)  Greater flexibility for engaging in class projects, field studies, subject integration, etc., and increased potential for creative and spontaneous learning experiences.  d) Fewer subjects to prepare for, less homework, and fewer exams for students at any one time. e)  Less confusion surrounding rotating timetable, classroom changes, multiple teachers.  f)  Sizable breaks between terms for students and teachers.  101 .  either  curricular  By a l t e r i n g and  thus  space, way  a p p r o a c h as b e s t  the i n t e r n a l  the classroom,  people,  we  suits  impact  subject matter,  upon t h e s t r u c t u r e s o f  and  a u t h o r i t y , i n such  c o e x i s t e n c e o f two  d i v e r s e t e a c h i n g / l e a r n i n g approaches.  tabling  t h e j o b y e t . Up (as p r e s e n t e d  situation.  time s t r u c t u r e of the s c h o o l ,  as t o a l l o w t h e c o m p a t i b l e  finished  the  on p.  100)  has  only accomplished  simultaneously.  In o t h e r words, except  t h e p e r i o d s and  s h o r t e n i n g the semester  u n a f f e c t e d by  the change.  can  still  and  classroom  teach i n t h e i r  t e a c h more t h a n one  r e m a i n u n c h a n g e d , and  (the t o t a l  B u t , what we  Grading  will  still  r o t a t e from Teachers  and  and  evaluation although  i n place.  also accomplish  t h e L e a r n i n g by  can  t r a d i t i o n a l s u b j e c t areas  with this  change, i s the c r e a t i o n of the n e c e s s a r y support  are  Students and  hours  students  the rhythm o f the day,  modified, i s essentially  exist  to classroom.  group a day.  the  for lengthening  Curriculum  take a l l the t r a d i t i o n a l s u b j e c t areas to teacher  not  Standardized  s t a y t h e same) t e a c h e r s and  w i s h i n g to s t a y w i t h the Standard  teacher  are  to t h i s p o i n t , the r e v i s e d time  Curriculum w h i l e a l l o w i n g other approaches to  essentially  rather  However, we  t a s k of not d i s t u r b i n g the t r a d i t i o n a l  of i n s t r u c t i o n  a  structural  environment  to'  I n t e r e s t a p p r o a c h i n a manner t h a t  h e l p to i n c r e a s e the o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r i t s s u c c e s s f u l  102.  implementation. next to  If  we l o o k  page  (p.  103),  the  devote  the  entire  affecting  without  competing with  necessary  of  school  to  the  smooth  study  equivalent (or  offer  at  least  students  graduation.  available  to  no s u r e  eventually The  are  it those  ability  Curriculum  the  out  the  and  Students  two  and  interests.  conditions  we h a v e  of  free  school day  and  created  programmes  compatibility and c r e d i t s  a reasonable  sufficient  the  without  Even  is  s t i l l  though  to  of  programmes that  use  argued  that  make t h i s  this  option,  which  a l l  applied  an u n d e s i r a b l e to  we  student  such  have  that  an  goal  for  goal as  students  we will  entrance.  into  i n subject  number  i n advance  interchange  when m a p p i n g o u t  interest  I  is  who may n e v e r  i f we t a k e  in a l l  and c a n be  necessary  university  requires  choice),  interchangeable  way o f k n o w i n g  seek  accomplished  of  of  the  interests,  subjects  on u n i v e r s i t y entrance  many s t u d e n t s ,  we a r e  programme.  first  status  towards emphasis  of  running of  any o t h e r  the  that  B on  time.  earned  areas  see  move i n o r  credits  have  will  second c o n d i t i o n of  programmes to  reader  programme c o m p a t i b i l i t y ;  ability  maintain  as  the  satisfied  for  physical  Our  Table Option  c a n e a s i l y move b e t w e e n  T h u s we h a v e  loss  Time  day to  without  teachers  at  school credits  c o n s i d e r a t i o n the our  courses  of  can  Standard  study,  combinations that  be  offering  will  103. T a b l e 9.  H i g h S c h o o l Time T a b l e - O p t i o n B LEARNING by I N T E R E S T  Daily Schedule 8:45 Morning Session  Lunch Afternoon Session 2:30 Seminar -  Fall Term Christmas (15 weeks) Break Semester 1 (Teacher A )  Winter Term (12 weeks) Semester 2 (Teacher B)  Easter/Spring Break  Spring Term (12 weeks) Semester 3 (Teacher C)  Theatre  Photography  Outdoor Pursuits  English  Science  Mathematics  French  Social Studies  Physical Education  and choose one of: Shop Textiles Music or Dance  and choose one of: Journalism Art  and choose one of: Environmental Education Outdoor Education Journalism  School Annual  Student directed time for school, community or individual educational needs. - Seminar options include: Band, Government exam review, Student Council, Homework, Computer Lab, School Newspaper, Peer Tutoring, English as a Second Language, Learning Assistance, etc.  3:15 Dismissal  Structural Advantages of Timetable: a) Compared to a full year 5x8 rotating timetable, there is an 85% reduction in the amount of students seen by one teacher in a term, and a 75% reduction compared to a 4x5 semester system time table. b) Less time required for classroom administration, allowing for more time to be spent on classroom instruction or classroom activities. c)  Optional arranging of daily schedule and courses of study, allowing for greater flexibility for engaging in class projects, field studies, subject integration, etc., and increased potential for creative and spontaneous learning experiences.  d) Fewer subjects to prepare for, less homework, and fewer exams for students at any one time. e)  Less confusion surrounding rotating timetable, classroom changes, multiple teachers.  f) Sizable breaks between terms for students and teachers.  104.  fulfill  the requirements of the Standard Curriculum  necessary f o r graduation.  Students, along with  p a r e n t s and c o u n s e l o r s , would  determine  their  what c r e d i t s a r e  required f o r graduation w i t h i n the Standard or U n i v e r s i t y bound c u r r i c u l u m t h a t a r e a l s o o f f e r e d t h r o u g h t h e L e a r n i n g b y I n t e r e s t o p t i o n . Some i n t e r e s t s , in  Photography  (p. 88) f o r e x a m p l e , c o u l d e a r n  participants credits  i n the core c u r r i c u l a r areas of  Social Studies, Science, or English, areas of Fine Arts. have seen i n T h e a t r e  Other  and i n t h e e l e c t i v e  interests,  (p. 8 7 ) , might  s u c h a s t h o s e we  extend c r e d i t s i n  S o c i a l S t u d i e s and E n g l i s h , o r perhaps Humanities  a s i n g l e course i n  a n d two e l e c t i v e c o u r s e s i n a r e a s s u c h a s :  Music, Choreography, Home E c o n o m i c s ,  F i n e A r t s , Dance, I n d u s t r i a l  o r Drama.  Still,  Arts,  other i n t e r e s t s ,  t h o s e i n E n v i r o n m e n t a l I s s u e s , might curricular  such as those  s u c h as  o f f e r only core  c r e d i t s i n E n g l i s h , Mathematics,  Socials  Studies or Science. In  some c a s e s , t h e i n t e r e s t s o f c e r t a i n s t u d e n t s and  t e a c h e r s may i n f a c t be one o f t h e s t a n d a r d s u b j e c t a r e a s such as M a t h e m a t i c s , Literature.  or Biology, or Physics, or English  The c o m b i n a t i o n o f o p t i o n s a r e l i m i t e d  by p r a c t i c a l i t y a n d i m a g i n a t i o n .  only  What we h a v e  a c c o m p l i s h e d by c o n s i d e r i n g t h e s t r u c t u r a l ,  philosophical,  and m o r a l c o n d i t i o n s o f s c h o o l s , i s t o i n c r e a s e t h e  1 05 .  opportunity choosing,  for  students  to  by e x p a n d i n g t h e  encouraging  the  use  of  study  areas  realm of  of  their  own  p r a c t i c a l i t y and by  i m a g i n a t i o n and  creativity.  E d u c a t i o n and Future Career O p p o r t u n i t i e s There  is  still  one  introduced e a r l i e r The  nature  itself  of  perfectly  dossiers  of  engaged  over  increase  example,  cameras, of  students  of for  their  years  in a variety circumstances.  rehearsals,  career  advertise scenery, on. for  the  to  The same s t u d e n t the  school  as  well  as  to  add t o  situations, The s t u d e n t  for  a period  effects  instance, and  taping  t o do  or the  to  making  and l i g h t i n g ,  and community newspapers  use  and p o s t e r s  pictures,  c o u l d be e n c o u r a g e d  of  different  help with video  taking cast  special  types  in Theatre,  p r o d u c e hand b i l l s  help  his/her  and u n d e r may,  have  For  by w o r k i n g w i t h d i f f e r e n t of  and  could  Photography over  and c o n t i n u e  production,  h e l p i n g with  lends  which  considerations.  i n Photography to  helping  further.  approach  studies,  employment  could study  and d o s s i e r  skills  was  i n which they  combine P h o t o g r a p h y w i t h an i n t e r e s t his/her  that  compiling portfolios  and e x p e r i e n c e s  course  a student  portfolio  sets  to  them t o w a r d s  two o r t h r e e  education  L e a r n i n g by I n t e r e s t  projects the  of  w h i c h needs t o be d i s c u s s e d  opportunities  encourage  of  the  aspect  and  so  write-ups high  school  106.  annual,  t a k i n g p i c t u r e s o f team s p o r t s , s p e c i a l  e v e n t s , community happenings, cards, graduation pictures, this  s t u d e n t may  student  and  school  identification  so f o r t h .  In  addition,  choose t o combine h i s / h e r i n t e r e s t s i n  Photography w i t h i n t e r e s t s  i n Environmental  or  Political  Issues, gaining experience with on-location f i l m i n g , interviewing,  and  news r e p o r t i n g .  Prom t h e e x p e r i e n c e s g a i n e d i n s c h o o l a s t u d e n t realize  the o p p o r t u n i t y to d i s t i n g u i s h h i m / h e r s e l f  t h e m u l t i t u d e o f o t h e r s t u d e n t s who  offer  i n g r a d e 10,  11 o r  Mathematics,  and P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n .  from  also experience  12 E n g l i s h , S c i e n c e , S o c i a l S t u d i e s , This student  a c t u a l l y have the e x p e r i e n c e of a p p l y i n g these skills  could  to something.  And  a r r i v e s f o r that student  learned  these experiences would  d o c u m e n t e d i n t h e i r p o r t f o l i o and d o s s i e r .  would  be  When t h e  time  t o seek employment, whether i t i s  p a r t time w h i l e going to s c h o o l or f u l l  time  following  h i g h s c h o o l , t h a t s t u d e n t w o u l d n o t h a v e t o e n t e r t h e work force l i k e  so many o t h e r s t u d e n t s s e e k i n g t h e i r  p l a c e m e n t by a p p l y i n g t o t h e l o c a l convenience necessary"  entry  job  food r e s t a u r a n t ,  s t o r e , o r s e r v i c e s t a t i o n f o r a "no  experience  position.  A s t u d e n t who pursue  fast  first  an i n t e r e s t  has  had  the o p p o r t u n i t y to study  i n Photography,  Environmental/Human Issues over  Theatre,  and  or  the course of f o u r or  five  107.  years  at high school w i l l ,  upon g r a d u a t i o n , h a v e h a d  exposure t o a v a r i e t y of d i f f e r e n t possibilities. classifieds student  Consequently,  j o b and c a r e e r  r a t h e r than  searching the  f o r r e s t a u r a n t and gas s t a t i o n j o b s , t h a t  w o u l d be n a t u r a l l y d r a w n t o s e e k i n g employment o r  c a r e e r o p p o r t u n i t i e s a t a camera shop, p h o t o g r a p h y s t u d i o , l o c a l newspaper, o r perhaps a p u b l i c r e l a t i o n s with a local  t h e a t r e company o r news  Such a s t u d e n t  position  station.  w o u l d be a b l e t o w a l k i n t o a c a m e r a  shop o r photography s t u d i o and, w i t h h i s / h e r  portfolio  t u c k e d u n d e r t h e i r arm and s e v e r a l y e a r s o f "on t h e j o b " e x p e r i e n c e , d e m o n s t r a t e a knowledge o f t h e camera: t h e different class,  t y p e s o f cameras t h e y had b u i l t  and used i n  t h e many a p p l i c a t i o n s t h e y h a d a p p l i e d t h a t  k n o w l e d g e t o , w h i c h c a m e r a was u s e d f o r w h i c h p r o j e c t , t h e pros  and cons o f u s i n g a Pentax,  which type o f f i l m develop  that f i l m  f o r t h e b e s t l i g h t i n g e f f e c t s , how t o f o r , and so on.  analysis,  s t u d e n t s who h a v e h a d t h e  opportunity to explore their experience  camera,  t o u s e i n c e r t a i n s i t u a t i o n s , how t o  i m p r o v i s e when c a l l e d In the f i n a l  Cannon, o r N i k k o n  from these areas  e s s e n t i a l l y developed  i n t e r e s t s and g a i n o f academic study,  marketable  talents while  practical have studying  s o m e t h i n g t h a t was o f g r e a t p e r s o n a l i n t e r e s t and satisfaction.  What we h a v e i n t h e e n d i s a k n o w l e d g e a b l e  108.  student, and  e a g e r t o l e a r n more, e n c o u r a g e d t o l e a r n more,  r e a d y and w i l l i n g  community l i f e .  to contribute his/her s k i l l s to  That s t u d e n t  i s n o t one o f s e v e r a l  t h o u s a n d h i g h s c h o o l c l o n e s who h a v e r e a c h e d  a l e v e l of  c o m p e t e n c e i n t h e i r n a t i v e l a n g u a g e , and d e m o n s t r a t e d adequate s k i l l s  i n Mathematics, Science,  or S o c i a l  Studies.  Summary Consider,  i f you w i l l ,  the p o s s i b i l i t i e s  available in  a medium s i z e d h i g h s c h o o l o f 600 t o 1000 s t u d e n t s t h e L e a r n i n g by I n t e r e s t a p p r o a c h i s o f f e r e d . h a l f of the f o r t y or f i f t y in  one o r two a r e a s  students fifty  teachers  of t h e i r  I f only  i n that school  interests,  where  teach  i t w o u l d mean t h a t  would have t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o p i c k from f o r t y o r  different  learning experiences,  i n a d d i t i o n t o those  o f f e r e d on t h e s t a n d a r d i z e d c u r r i c u l u m . of t h e i r high school years, students  choose t o study  the course  would have t h e  o p p o r t u n i t y t o e x p l o r e a dozen d i f f e r e n t earning credits f o r graduation.  During  interests  A student  while  could also  i n g r e a t e r d e p t h two o r t h r e e a r e a s o f  i n t e r e s t , which c o u l d conceivably l e a d to career o p p o r t u n i t i e s or l i f e t i m e Rather  than  shaping  interests.  a l t e r n a t i v e approaches t o  accommodate e x i s t i n g c i r c u m s t a n c e s ,  we must i n s t e a d c r e a t e  109.  a l t e r n a t i v e circumstances i n order the  a l t e r n a t i v e approach.  The  c r e a t i o n of  circumstances involve taking school p h i l o s o p h i c a l and Considerations m a t t e r , and the  t o s u p p o r t and such  s t r u c t u r e s , along  moral c o n s i d e r a t i o n s ,  i n new  chances of s u c c e s s f u l  conditions  i m p l e m e n t a t i o n and  of a l t e r n a t i v e approaches to p u b l i c  with  directions.  of c o m p a t i b i l i t y between p e o p l e ,  time t a b l i n g are key  promote  for  subject increasing  continuation  education.  110. CHAPTER 8  CONCLUSION: WHAT I S AND WHAT OUGHT TO BE Throughout t h i s d i s c u s s i o n I have  concentrated  p r i m a r i l y on i d e n t i f y i n g t h e weakness,  oversights,  c o n t r a d i c t i o n s , mistakes, and the confusion b a s i s on w h i c h p u b l i c s c h o o l s educational  opportunities  regarding the  proceed t o provide  t o a l l students.  equal  And t h i s . , o f  c o u r s e , was t h e p r i m a r y p u r p o s e o f o u r e x a m i n a t i o n - t o begin to i d e n t i f y conditions overlooked  i n our c o n s i d e r a t i o n s  opportunity. notion  l a c k i n g and c o n d i t i o n s of equal  I n t h e p r o c e s s we h a v e d i s c o v e r e d  encapsulating  c e r t a i n values,  c l a i m s , which are c o n s t a n t l y therefore,  evolving.  constantly question  elements overlooked  b e l i e f s , and We must,  our understanding of  e q u a l i t y as i t a p p l i e s t o education,  searching f o r  o r l a c k i n g i n our i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of  concept t o ensure that e x i s t i n g c o n d i t i o n s  schools Any  that the  o f e q u a l i t y i s n o t formed o f a s i n g l e i d e a , b u t o f  many i d e a s  the  educational  are consistent  with  inconsistencies w i l l  those expectations  give  rise  i n our of society.  t o claims of  inequality. The  concept o f equal educational  a t t h e p r e s e n t t i m e demands t h a t all  opportunity  evolving  t h e s y s t e m work w e l l f o r  a n d n o t j u s t some, t o t h e e x t e n t  that the attainment  111.  of a democratic  s o c i e t y i s b e l i e v e d t o be  dependent upon t h e e x i s t e n c e o f e q u a l opportunity  largely  educational  ( G o o d l a d , 1983, p. 2 ) , a n d t h e n o t i o n  "inequitable education b e n e f i t s which accrue  deprives  that  society i n general  of the  when a l l members a r e a b l e t o be  full  p a r t i c i p a n t s a n d c o n t r i b u t o r s " (Coombs, 1994, p. 2 8 1 ) . Since equal  the inception of public education,  e d u c a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t y h a s e x i s t e d a s an i d e a l , and  when an e d u c a t i o n a l i d e a l entitled other  the notion of  i s proposed educators  are  t o a s k i n what manner c a n i t be a c h i e v e d ?  words, can everyone g e t t h i s e d u c a t i o n ?  c a n n o t be a c h i e v e d rightful  In  And i f i t  i n p a r t o r i n whole, then i t i s t h e  r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of educators  t o attempt t o  i d e n t i f y and examine t h e s h o r t c o m i n g s and t o encourage critical  a s s e s s m e n t t h a t may r e s u l t  i n either  modifications to or a r e j e c t i o n of the e x i s t i n g The  difficulty  opportunity,  i n achieving equal  proposal.  educational  however, i s t h a t t h e r e has been a tendency  among e d u c a t i o n a l p l a n n e r s  t o confuse the notion of  e q u a l i t y w i t h t h a t o f sameness, such t h a t s c h o o l s offer  tend t o  i d e n t i c a l educational o p p o r t u n i t i e s instead of equal  educational opportunities. w h i c h aims t o s t a n d a r d i z e  The p r o m o t i o n o f an a p p r o a c h t e a c h i n g p r a c t i c e s and  student  programmes, s t e m s f r o m an i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f e q u a l i t y w h i c h considers  that c o n d i t i o n s of equal  educational  opportunity  112.  are a t t a i n e d Lacking  in this  individual  the  same c o n d i t i o n s  a p p r o a c h , however,  student  intentional to  when t h e  interests,  s t r i v i n g of  resources  that  students  to  educational  opportunity.  education  is  the  the  notion of  acceptance  one w h i c h assumes t h a t knowledge formal  subject serve  streamline also  diverse  discourages  of curriculum,  body o f  through a process knowledge  equality  of  basic  of  must  be  to  its  result  i n a b i l i t y to of  offered  all  to  all  and,  i n education  as  accommodate  learners.  the  all  programmes  learners  ends o f  to  current  equal d i s t r i b u t i o n of  students.  proceed c o n t r a r y to  public education  which  of  among s t u d e n t  such that  i n the  strategies  our system  opportunity for  success,  benefits  practices  inclusion  argued that  and c o n s o l i d a t e  diversity  do n o t  educational  of  an e s s e n t i a l  has  equal  a standardized  is  needs and i n t e r e s t s  academic  practices  I have  contribute  The l a c k o f  current  of  the  access  achievement  judging of  Furthermore, this  disciplines.  to  achieve  equal  of  t h r o u g h m a n d a t o r y study, i n a p a r t i c u l a r g r o u p o f  education the  achieve  a s t a n d a r d system  w h i c h must be m a s t e r e d  schooling.  acquired  there  everyone.  any c o n s i d e r a t i o n  promote academic  been o v e r l o o k e d i n t h e  to  is  for  a c o n s i d e r a t i o n wherein  essentially  Central  exist  therefore,  to  I have the  argued  g o a l s we  that  desire  promote c o m p u l s o r y  being b e n e f i c i a l  to  all  113.  l e a r n e r s i s u n r e a s o n a b l e and u n j u s t . The  accommodation o f d i v e r s i t y i n our s c h o o l s i s  dependent upon a t o l e r a n t a t t i t u d e . awareness o f and r e s p e c t  Tolerance  r e q u i r e s an  f o r t h e d i v e r s i t y o f t h o u g h t s and  a c t i o n s among p e r s o n s w h i c h may n o t c o i n c i d e , a n d may e v e n conflict,  w i t h o n e ' s own.  Learning,  Kennith  compelling  I n h i s book L i b e r t y a n d (1982)  Strike  makes t h e f o l l o w i n g  argument f o r t h e r e c o g n i t i o n and accommodation  o f t o l e r a n c e and d i v e r s i t y  i n society:  A lack of tolerance w i l l v a r i e t y and i n d o i n g cultural  resources  so w i l l  reduce  cultural  narrow t h e  f o r producing  those  n o v e l t i e s on w h i c h t h e r e n e w a l o f human thought depends . . . . I n d i v i d u a l s s e e k i n g t o take  responsibility  their  f o r the d i r e c t i o n of  l i v e s need a r i c h and v a r i e d s e t o f  options  from which t o choose.... Thus, a r i c h  and  d i v e r s e c u l t u r e w i t h ample o p p o r t u n i t i e s  for  n o v e l t y t o occur  the l i f e  i s a resource  of i n t e l l e c t u a l  i n d i v i d u a l s seeking responsible choices.  both f o r  communities and f o r  t o make r a t i o n a l a n d ( P P - 166 -  167).  S t r i k e p r o c e e d s t o make a f u r t h e r a n d e q u a l l y argument w i t h r e g a r d s of s c h o o l  persuasive  t o t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e n a t u r e  c u r r i c u l a a n d t h e ends t o w h i c h i t m i g h t s e r v e  society: School  c a n e a s i l y become a d e v i c e  whereby c u l t u r a l d i v e r s i t y  and n o v e l t y a r e  a  114. reduced.  Schools  producing  c u l t u r a l and i n t e l l e c t u a l  uniformity.  operate  i n the d i r e c t i o n of  I t t h u s seems i m p o r t a n t  s c h o o l s do n o t o p e r a t e  that  i n s u c h a way t h a t  they g r a t u i t o u s l y suppress n o v e l t y . do  t h i s when we c o m p e l s t u d e n t s  B u t we  from  t r a d i t i o n s a t odds w i t h some component o f t h e c u r r i c u l u m t o a t t e n d t o i t , nonetheless....We should  n o t be s o c o n f i d e n t  curriculum] of these  that sources  in  [the  of novelty  outside  t r a d i t i o n s are unnecessary....It  [necessary] provide  t o support  diversity,  a s o c i e t y with sources  of  is  and t o renewal,  (p. 167)  There i s merit i s an i m p o r t a n t But  i n what S t r i k e h a s o b s e r v e d .  Tolerance  step towards the r e c o g n i t i o n of d i v e r s i t y .  I do n o t b e l i e v e t h a t s i m p l y  ultimately seeking  i n education.  t o l e r a n c e i s what we a r e Tolerance  i s only a half  way measure b e t w e e n i n t o l e r a n c e a n d c o m p a s s i o n ; b e t w e e n r e c o g n i t i o n and a c c e p t a n c e . not  What we a r e s e e k i n g  t o l e r a n c e , which o f t e n leads  to i n d i f f e r e n c e , but  c o m p a s s i o n w h i c h b r i n g s empathy a n d t h e a b i l i t y A quarter  of a century  "with rare exceptions, for 60).  students  w i t h any  Some y e a r s  finally i s  ago Noddings  to care.  (1972) c l a i m e d  [schools] are not supportive genuine or i n t r i n s i c  later  that,  places  i n t e r e s t s " (p.  s h e a d d e d t h a t , " t o o many o f u s  t h i n k t h a t we c a n i m p r o v e e d u c a t i o n  by merely d e s i g n i n g a  b e t t e r c u r r i c u l u m , f i n d i n g and i m p l e m e n t i n g a b e t t e r form o f  115.  instruction,  or i n s t i t u t i n g a b e t t e r  management.  These t h i n g s  F o r as  368).  materials, him,  his  Holt  attention  will  slip  the  off  classroom  (Noddings,  "If  the  1995, p .  situation,  c h i l d do n o t  the  interest  t o what does i n t e r e s t  e x h o r t a t i o n or t h r e a t s  will  bring  it  him, back"  158).  (p.  The o b s e r v a t i o n s opinion  insightful,  facilitate  the  of both Holt  as p u b l i c  interests  of  e d u c a t i o n were meant t o  and t h e rather  social  must  schools  interests  were n e v e r d e s i g n e d  children. serve  of  the  the  Historically interests  of  society  individual.  individual.  following  the  at  large,  More  b o t h t h e means o f  as w e l l  the  of  The l i b e r a l l y  arts  educated person w i l l but w i l l their  have  not  have  welfare.  society  not  fate.  in  the  curriculum:  have some u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f  injustices  education  (1987),  That p e r s o n w i l l its  state  recently,  as e x p r e s s e d  a standard l i b e r a l  to c a r e about  but w i l l  ends  current educational practices,  the knowledge about o t h e r s been t a u g h t  to  and a s p i r a t i o n s  Jane Roland M a r t i n  challenges  ends  interests  T h i s emerging view,  observation of  as  the  the  of  t h e r e has been a g r o w i n g p e r c e p t i o n t h a t  increasingly provide for  the  and N o d d i n g s a r e i n my  and e c o n o m i c w e l f a r e  than the  however,  of  work"  (1964) o b s e r v e d ,  the problems b e f o r e  and no amount o f  of  do n o t  form o f  have been t a u g h t  to  o r e v e n be c o n c e r n e d a b o u t  Our e d u c a t e d p e r s o n i s  an i v o r y  feel its  tower  116. person:  one  who  can  reason  but  has  no  desire  t o s o l v e r e a l p r o b l e m s i n t h e w o r l d ; one u n d e r s t a n d s s c i e n c e but  does not  the uses to which i t i s put; reach  and  What Ought To  (p.  can  has to  206)  Be  I have p r o p o s e d t h a t e d u c a t o r s set of circumstances  ends o f e d u c a t i o n  serve  support  c o n s i d e r the c r e a t i o n  i n w h i c h t h e means and  simultaneously  a set of  circumstances  the c o e x i s t e n c e  of  d i v e r s e e d u c a t i o n a l approaches from which s t u d e n t s have the r i g h t d i v e r s i t y and education our  to choose. provide  The  students  are necessary  the  t h e n e e d s o f t h e s t a t e as w e l l as  i n t e r e s t s of the i n d i v i d u a l ,  which w i l l  about  who  the s k i l l  c a r r y them o u t e f f e c t i v e l y .  the  one  f l a w l e s s moral c o n c l u s i o n s but  n e i t h e r the s e n s i t i v i t y nor  o f a new  worry  who  and  c o n s i d e r a t i o n s of equal  ability  to  then  facilitate  w i t h adequate c h o i c e s  in  e s s e n t i a l elements l a c k i n g i n educational opportunity  that  must become a f o c u s o f f u t u r e e d u c a t i o n a l p l a n n i n g i f s c h o o l s a r e t o move c l o s e r t o r e a l i z i n g At the p r e s e n t u n i f o r m i t y , and  time  this  goal.  the s t r a t e g i e s of s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n ,  conformity  a r e embedded i n o u r  school  systems to such a degree t h a t genuine c h o i c e w i t h i n p u b l i c education do  exist  i s v i r t u a l l y nonexistent,  and  are of degree r a t h e r than k i n d .  example the n o t i o n "Schools recent attempts  i n our  of Choice",  efforts  those  choices  Consider one  that  for  o f t h e most  to acknowledge the need f o r  117.  freedom of c h o i c e i n e d u c a t i o n w i t h regards i n t e r e s t s and  the s e l e c t i o n of student  b e g i n w i t h , t h e name i t s e l f  to  student  programmes.  i s a misnomer.  From t h e  t h e r e i s v i r t u a l l y no g e n u i n e c h o i c e i n v o l v e d . a l r e a d y been d e c i d e d  that a l l children w i l l  a f o r m a l , s t a t e a p p r o v e d , s c h o o l programme. law.  But  t h e n a f t e r g i v i n g c h i l d r e n no  s c h o o l , we  purport  It  That's  to p a r t i c i p a t e  expressed  real  This indeed We  n o t i o n of freedom of  o f f e r no v i a b l e a l t e r n a t i v e s t o s c h o o l i n g and How  can  the to  in  and,  have  i n studying.  i s an a b s u r d  f r e e l y of c h o i c e .  in  school  a c h o i c e of s c h o o l s u b j e c t s t h a t they interest  has  participate  furthermore, no  start  choice i n going  t o g i v e them a c h o i c e o f  programmes w h i c h t h e y h a v e n ' t a s k e d  To  choice. yet  t h e r e r e a l l y be g e n u i n e  speak  choices  when t h e r e a r e no g e n u i n e o p t i o n s f r o m w h i c h t o c h o o s e ? The  fundamental r i g h t  l e a r n e r s be is  allowed to pursue a course  " d i r e c t e d to the f u l l  personality" deduction to  t o e d u c a t i o n makes i t c l e a r  (Article  of e d u c a t i o n  that  d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e human  2 6 ) , w h i c h by way  of  reasonable  must a l s o i n c l u d e t h e f r e e d o m o f t h e  choose courses  that a l l  of study  i n areas  of  individual  individual  interest. I have c o n s i d e r e d the words of N e l Noddings wrote,  "The  first  (1992)  who  s t e p t o w a r d s w e a k e n i n g t h e hegemony o f  academic d i s c i p l i n e s  i s t o c e a s e t e a c h i n g them f o r  their  118.  own s a k e e x c e p t f o r t h o s e  who  in  begin  them... P e d a g o g y s h o u l d  interests,  show t h e p a s s i o n a t e  interest  with the purposes,  and c a p a c i t i e s o f s t u d e n t s "  (p.150),  and I have  r e f l e c t e d u p o n t h e i r m e a n i n g i n my t h i n k i n g o f t h e p r o b l e m s we now  face.  Currently schools interest  i n these  relevancy  t e a c h d i s c i p l i n e s and t r y t o c r e a t e  s u b j e c t s a r e a s by l o o k i n g f o r t h e  that w i l l  hook s t u d e n t s  and m o t i v a t e  learning.  What I h a v e p r o p o s e d i s t h a t i f we want s t u d e n t s interested  i n what i s b e i n g  approaching the teaching Why  not teach  taught,  t h e n p e r h a p s we a r e  - l e a r n i n g process backwards.  what i s a l r e a d y o f i n t e r e s t  where a p p r o p r i a t e , u s e t h e t r a d i t i o n a l  to students  t h e hook i s a l r e a d y  motivation  i n the student  to learn i s i n t r i n s i c ,  and,  subject areas to  enhance and e n r i c h t h e l e a r n i n g e x p e r i e n c e ? manner  t o be  In this and t h e  o r as W i l l i a m  (-1 890/1 980) o b s e r v e d , " t h e more i n t e r e s t  James  t h e c h i l d has i n  a d v a n c e o f t h e s u b j e c t , t h e b e t t e r he w i l l  attend"  (p.  275) . Learning standardized. ever  was n e v e r meant t o be s y s t e m a t i z e d No s t a n d a r d i z e d  system o f e d u c a t i o n  presume t o d i c t a t e t h e g r o w t h o f i n d i v i d u a l  personality.  or can  human  I t i s e v e n more i n c o n c e i v a b l e t h a t a s y s t e m ,  w h i c h must c a t e r t o t h e n e e d s o f m i l l i o n s o f c h i l d r e n , should  r e l y upon a s i n g l e s t a n d a r d i z e d  c u r r i c u l u m and a  119.  s i n g l e d o m i n a n t model o f s c h o o l s t r u c t u r e s and e x p e c t  to  meet t h e d i v e r s e n e e d s o f a l l l e a r n e r s a n d i n e q u a l proportions. N a t u r e r e l i e s upon d i v e r s i t y life  i n t h i s often harsh  t o ensure the success of  and c o m p e t i t i v e w o r l d .  s c h o o l s by c o n t r a s t h a v e t r a d i t i o n a l l y c h o s e n  Public  conformity,  standardization,  and a s s i m i l a t i o n as s t r a t e g i e s t o p u r s u e  t h e same g o a l s .  Current  r e s t r u c t u r i n g s t r a t e g i e s aimed a t  c o n s o l i d a t i n g and s t r e a m l i n i n g o u r s y s t e m o f e d u c a t i o n c o n t r i b u t e t o i t s demise, as u n i f o r m i t y and c o n f o r m i t y limit And  the c a p a b i l i t i e s o f a system t o adapt t o change.  I would suggest t h a t the s t r a t e g y o f d i v e r s i t y ,  upon  w h i c h mother n a t u r e  h a s come t o d e p e n d upon f o r b i l l i o n s  o f y e a r s , may s e r v e  as a b e t t e r b l u e p r i n t f o r s u c c e s s  the c o m p a r a t i v e l y  recent paradigm o f p u b l i c e d u c a t i o n .  than  120.  BIBLIOGRAPHY  (1953).  A l e i c h e m , S.  The adventures o f M o t t e l  (T. Kahana, T r a n s . ) .  New York: Henry Schuman.  ( O r i g i n a l work p u b l i s h e d i n 1 9 1 8 ) A p p l e , M. York:  (1 990) . I d e o l o g y and c u r r i c u l u m (2nd Ed.) . Routledge.  Aristotle.  (1980).  Trans.).  The works o f A r i s t o t l e  I n M. J . A d l e r &  Toronto:  William  Bacon, S i r F.  R. M. H u t c h i n s  books o f t h e western w o r l d  Beane, J . A.  (1995).  ( V o l . 3 0 , pp. 5 4 2 ) .  Advancement o f l e a r n i n g : F i r s t  I n M. J . A d l e r & William  (Eds.),  Benton.  (1980).  Toronto:  (W. D. Ross,  R. M. 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Toronto: W i l l i a m Benton.  (Eds.),  ( V o l . 7, p p . 295-  126. Rike,  C . J . & Wendlant,  overcrowding School Roland  Martin,  J.  of  J.  education (5),  J.  J.  38.  16(3),  January).  year  (1980).  D. H. Cole,  Hutchins (Vol.. Sarason,  the  American  2000.  moral  education.  204-213.  A philosophy  of  P h i D e l t a Kappan,  76  355-359.  Rousseau, (G.  Education.  We s o l v e d  learning.  Transforming  (1995,  for  March).  early  174(3).  (1987).  Moral  Martin,  (1987,  boosted  Board Journal,  Journal Roland  and  G.E.  Trans.).  (Eds.),  38, S.  pp.  Great  of  In  books  367-386).  (1982).  problem  A discourse M. J . of  (Rev.  Ed.).  Adler  the  Toronto:  The c u l t u r e  change  on p o l i t i c a l  & R. M.  western  William  of  the  world  Benton.  school  Boston:  economy  and  Allyn  the  and  Bacon. Sarason,  S.  (1996).  Francisco:  Schlechty,  P.  Barometers  C.  (1990).  Schools  Leadership  reform.  San F r a n c i s c o :  San  Shields,  T.  (1994).  Francisco:  San  Complexities  and  the  for  twenty-first educational  Jossey-Bass.  Building  P.  (1 9 9 5 ,  paradoxes  settings.  Administration,  imperatives  in  community  in  schools.  Jossey-Bass.  C M . & Seltzer,  cultural  change.  Jossey-Bass.  century:  Sergiovanni,  of  Salt  October).  o f .community  University Council lake  City.  in of  multiEducational  127. Strike,  K. A.  159).  Strike,  (1982).  Oxford:  K. A.  Martin  (1995).  administration. Swift, R.  J.  Universal  declaration  of  G.  W.  books  1-190).  College  of  Toronto:  in  pp.  Press.  In M. J . the  Adler &  western  William  Benton.  1726)  human r i g h t s .  ( V o l . 9,  & C. Merriam  (1991).  cultures.  In World  414-416).  Book  Toronto:  dictionary  World  Curriculum  integration  Formum o n c u r r i c u l u m  University,  Tri-university Integration  (1995).  ghange.  British Whittington, first  E.H.  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APPENDIX 1  The  U n i v e r s a l D e c l a r a t i o n o f Human  Rights  Article 2 Everyone i s e n t i t l e d  t o a l l t h e r i g h t s and freedoms  set f o r t h i n t h i s D e c l a r a t i o n , without  d i s t i n c t i o n o f any  k i n d , such as r a c e , c o l o u r , s e x , l a n g u a g e , political  religion,  or other opinion, n a t i o n a l or s o c i a l  origin,  property, b i r t h or other s t a t u s . Article 1. be  Everyone has t h e r i g h t free, at least  stages.  26  to education.  i n the elementary  Elementary education  Education  shall  and f u n d a m e n t a l  s h a l l be c o m p u l s o r y .  T e c h n i c a l and p r o f e s s i o n a l e d u c a t i o n  s h a l l be made  g e n e r a l l y a v a i l a b l e and h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n  s h a l l be  a c c e s s i b l e t o a l l on t h e b a s i s o f m e r i t . 2.  Education  s h a l l be d i r e c t e d t o t h e f u l l  development o f  t h e human p e r s o n a l i t y and t o t h e s t r e n g t h e n i n g o f r e s p e c t f o r human r i g h t s a n d f u n d a m e n t a l f r e e d o m s . promote u n d e r s t a n d i n g ,  I t shall  t o l e r a n c e , a n d f r i e n d s h i p among a l l  n a t i o n s , r a c i a l o r r e l i g i o u s groups, and s h a l l activities  of the United Nations  further the  f o r the maintenance of  peace. 3.  Parents  education  have a p r i o r r i g h t  that s h a l l  t o choose t h e k i n d o f  be g i v e n t o t h e i r  children.  1 29 . APPENDIX  2  Eighth Concurrent Session  PULLING THE PLUG ON APPEALS TO IRRATIONALITY. IMMATURITY AND EXPEDIENCY  Roland Case University of Alberta  The topic of the paper Is the Justificatory grounds for Interference with the liberty of children and. In particular, the self-regarding (I.e. paternalistic) grounds for compulsory education. The title of the paper mentions three explanations most frequently offered In support of what Klelnlg calls the received doctrine. Roughly, this doctrine states that children, as a class, have no or, at best, few rights to liberty. Where children are seen to have prima facie rights, the doctrine holds that Interference with them Is more easily Justified than Interference with adult liberties. We have ' Inherited this categorical discrimination essentially unchanged from Mill. In the case of adults, he held: 1  the only purpose for which power can be rightfully exercised over any member of a civilized community against his will. Is to prevent harm to others. His own good, either physical or moral. Is not a sufficient reason.* ' Almost Immediately following. Mill added: It Is, perhaps hardly necessary to say that this doctrine Is meant to apply only to human beings In the maturity of their faculties. We are not speaking of children, or of young persons below the age which the law may fix as that of manhood or womanhood. It Is consistent with this tradition that, for example, the Criminal Code of Canada makes It an offense to deprive a parent or guardian who has lawful possession of a child from possession of that child.  This Is so even If the  child Is escaping from someone who mistreats him or her.'  A comic, yet  touching affirmation/repudiation of this Inferior status Is represented In the  \3>D.  Philosophy of Education 1985 film Irreconcilable Differences.  After being Innocently used and manipulated  by her parents, ten-year old Casey Institutes divorce proceedings because,  h  In her words, "You both treat me like a chattel." For my part, I wish to take up this theme. There are'Irreconcilable differences between the proffered defences of virtually wholesale exclusion of children from certain liberties and what would count as adequate Justification for this received doctrine. Ultimately I argue that entitlement to liberty should not be categorical (I.e., It should not be based on a particular status such as adulthood or (full) personhood). Rather, entitlement should be conditional. It should be based on the presence of the relevant factors In particular Instances. In the last section of this paper, I argue that the relevant justificatory factor associated with liberty Is the authenticity of a particular choice. And on this grounds, many school-age children often qualify. However, before developing this alternate conditional position, purported Justifications of the received categorical doctrine will be examined. Anyone who upholds a categorical distinction Is committed to the following: Class or group X can be treated differently than class/group Y with regard to exercise of right R only If there Is a reason for doing so that Is both relevant to R and characteristic of X but not of Y. In other words, proponents of a different status for children's liberties must provide a condition that Is both empirically representative of children (and not of adults) and morally relevant to the exercise of freedoms.'  This  means, for example, we cannot Justify compulsory education for children solely because they may be better off because of It.  The possibility of  beneflt-enhancement/harm-avoldance does not differentiate between children and adults.  (Surety, many adults would be better off being educated.)  Nor, for example, can we Justify compulsory education for children on the basis of age.  Although age differentiates between adults and children. It  does not Justifiably discriminate between them.  While more will be said about  age-based limitations, there Is nothing about age, per se, that Is relevant to the exercise of rights.  The three most plausible arguments offered  In  support of categorical exclusion of children are based on (i) lack of 6 7 fl rationality (proponents of which Include Locke, Hart, Magslno, and g in Sutton ); (II) lack of mature faculties (proponents of which Include Mill, Gerald Dworkln, Hablbl, and Sutton ); and (III) an expediency (a position Implicitly held by many of the above). 11  12  I.  13  appeal  to  IRRATIONALITY  Proponents of the Irrationality view assert that (I) reached the "age of reason" and (II)  children have not  entitlement to liberty Is dependent on  131 Roland Case attainment of this prescribed level of rationality.  The Initial plausibility of  these claims begins to dissipate when the concept of rationality Is examined. To begin, a basic distinction can be made between what has been termed IB  formal and substantive rationality. To be rational In the formal sense means, simply, that the Individual has a reason (any reason) for acting. Substantive rationality Implies more. It requires that the action or decision be judged reasonable In light of accepted standards or norms. In the case of formal rationality. It seems that most children clearly meet this requirement. This Is true even if It Is Interpreted as Implying the possession of a disposition to have reasons for one's conduct. The fact that we frequently characterize children's behavior as actions Implicitly corroborates this point. As Danto suggests: "without reasons there would be no actions, since reasons are presupposed by the very action."  existence of an event being an  15  The reported Irrationality of children must therefore be substantive and refer  to a failure  to meet standards In quality  of  reasoning.  These  standards may be concerned solely with means-end deliberation (i.e., what Aristotle called practical reasoning) or they may also Include an assessment of the desires. Interests and wants which are the motivations for action.  In  the case of the former, as practical reasoning, the concern Is solely with the efficacy of the deliberation In selecting means appropriate to the satisfaction of the want.  There Is, ex hypothesl, no concern over the goals. Obviously  this Is the sense of rationality Hume had In mind when he taunted:  "It Is  not contrary to reason to prefer the destruction of the whole world to the scratching of my finger."'  6  I doubt that proponents of the Irrationality  view would be satisfied with this Interpretation. '' 1  I take It that much of  the motivation for restricting the liberty of children stems from concerns about the types of Interests/desires children are wont to pursue. A more acceptable Interpretation of Irrationality would Include consideration of the reasonableness of the motives.  There are. In turn, two ways  to establish standards of reasonableness of this type and they are suggested by Brian Barry's distinction between want-regarding and Ideal-regarding 18 Interests, Ideal-regarding Interests refer to what a person could and should want based on what are perceived to be Ideals for that person (e.g., knowledge, virtue, autonomy).  Want-regarding Interests refer to what a  person really wants when all of his/her desires. Interests, ambitions and so on have been considered.  Rationality  In  the  Ideal-regarding  sense Is  consistency of actual wants with Ideals of what' ought to be wanted.  An  example of Irrationality In this sense Is the student who desires to be an accountant when he/she ought to pursue a more ennobling career In philosophy.  Want-regarding rationality Is consistency of a particular want with  the balance of that person's wants.  An example of Irrationality In this sense  Is the person who wishes to have a sexual affair even though It will likely Jeopardize those things which mean most to him/her (e.g., trust, spousal  132 Philosophy of Education 1985 happiness, family cohesion).  In essence. Ideal-regarding.rationality Is what  perfectly rational persons would choose.  Clearly, no one Is going to argue  for this as the minimal standard of entitlement to liberty.  We will presume,  then, that the rationality criterion can be described In terms of choosing/ acting In a manner consistent with the balance of the person's wants.  I take  It that this Is what Sutton has In mind when he describes rational choice as the "blending of desires with the Intelligent anticipation of the conse19 quences." Can this Interpretation satisfy the empirical representativeness requirement? Viewed In Its minimal sense, merely as a capacity. It Is not at all convincing that children are deficient. As one philosopher writes: Even a five-year old Is a master of a complex language, has a personality structure and an awareness of his own Identity, and Is quite capable of Implicitly Invoking a generalization principle to protest unfair treatment by a parent or teacher. " 2  In a similar vein, Robert Young claims: Children are far from always being too Immature or Irrational to know, and to be able to express opinions, when their Interests are affected. 21  In short. If the grounds for entitlement are simply a capacity for wantregarding rational choice, then many school-age children qualify as titleholders. If a stronger claim Is Implied, namely a dispositional trait, then Sutton and others run the difficulty of categorically excluding many adults from a right to liberty. Many "average" adults are disposed to act on Impulse, habit and compulsion. I can think of countless activities (e.g., smoking, overeating, getting drunk, wasting money, procrastinating, whimsical risk-taking) that are "irrational" for most participants. Yet we do not consider that sufficient grounds to Interfere with an adult's decision to do such things. Put simply, the problem Is that either the "average" child Is not Irrational enough or the "average" adult Is not rational enough. In summation, I suggest no plausible interpretation of Irrationality will supply the distinction that proponents need to differentiate children's rights.  II.  IMMATURITY  Appeals to the Immaturity of children often collapse Into a concern over the ensuing lack of rationality. of  "perception,  rationality,  For example, Hablbl laments children's tack discrimination.  Judgment  and  planning."  22  However, there are Interpretations of Immaturity distinct from Irrationality which focus on undeveloped psychological/mental states. talks of nascent Individuality  Here again, Hablbl  and character formation.  23  In an article.  133. Roland Case subsequent to the one cited In the previous section, Sutton shifts emphasis towards an Immaturity argument. Conceding that children are "In some sense rational," he claims they are not full persons. On this latter point, there Is a tendency to equate Immaturity with lack of personhood. While It Is analytically true that an "Immature" person Is not a "full" person, the notion of what constitutes being a person must be spelt out with adequate precision If a more compelling claim Is Intended. Significantly, In concluding his account of the concept of person, Daniel Dennett observes that while his conditions' are necessary, the degree to which they must be met Is Inescapably normative: Human beings and other entitles can only aspire to being approximations of the Ideal, and there can be no way to set a "passing grade" that Is not arbitrary. 25  Rather than attempt to equate Immaturity to the more global, less manageable concept of personhood, I will consider three plausible candidates representative of the concerns lurking behind the Immaturity appeal: (I) children are weak-willed (I.e., they are uniquely Impressionable and fc  vulnerable because they have little or no will of their own); (II)  (III)  children are blind-willed (I.e., they do not have a "free" will but are driven by whatever desire/want Is strongest); children are Impermanent willed (I.e., while they have wills of their own, their ambltlons/alms are likely to'change significantly as they grow up).  The third suggestion meets neither of the conditions for categorical exclusion.  The Implications of Immaturity as Impermanent will are (I) that  unlike children, adults are stable and have relatively set alms and aspirations; and (tl) that permanency of Interests over extended time Is relevant to entitlement  to liberty.  Empirically, It  Is not clear  presumption Is an adequate portrait of the average adult.  that  the first  One of Hart's  objections to Mill Is that Mill attributes normal adults with the "psychology of a middle-aged man whose desires are relatively  fixed, not liable to be  artificially stimulated by external Influences; who knows what he wants and 26  what gives him satisfaction."  Lack of this type of permanency could be  leveled against all adults who do not have the settled consistency of middle-age.  On the second presumption, the likelihood that adults' aspira-  tions-are less prone to change than children's Is not a convincing reason for denying children the right to pursue their current desires and preferences. It  Is. often  retorted  that present Interference  Is necessary to develop  children's ability to fulfill the desires they will have as adults. number  of  difficulties  with  this  defense.  One, treating  There are a childhood  134.  Philosophy of Education 1985 substantially as means to adulthood Is not to treat children with respect. 27 28 Pekarsky istic  and Klelnlg  needs  and  preparing  for  remind u s , childhood Is a period having character-  Interests  of  adulthood.  Immediate  harm,  results.  On  that  the  As  Intrinsic  Two,  our  It  value  Is  obvious,  are  likely  Interventions  contrary,  the  Independent  not  resentment  required to do things frequently eclipses.  to  that  of  any  except  In  secure  In of  the  desired  accompany  being  If not exceeds any benefit.  It Is  an Interesting question whether those who benefit have benefitted eventually If left on their own.  may  role cases  from compulsion wouldn't Certainly,  In the case of  schooling, we may Insist on compulsory attendance, but we cannot Impose an education. While the remaining two candidates,  weakness and blindness of bill', are  relevant to the exercise of liberty, they are not sufficiently of children to lustlfy categorical exclusion.  representative  Many children are strong-willed.  Often they are perfectly clear about what they want and are' determined to persevere In the face of opposition.  Even for those who are not character-  istically strong-willed, the fact they are susceptible to external Influence Is not sufficient reason for blanket exclusion.  In law, we do not deny someone  his/her liberty merely because the suspect Is prone to Illegality. on proof beyond reasonable doubt of specific Illegality. see,  We Insist  A l t h o u g h , as we will  we may accept the presence of outer-Impulsion as grounds for condi-  tional  Interference,  fairness  requires  rejection  of  mere  vulnerability  to  external Influences as sufficient grounds for categorical exclusion:• In support of the blind will appeal, Sutton suggests that 29 are unable to critically evaluate their Inner wants. possess  free  will.  Even  If  we  accept  pre-adolescents  A s such they do not  Sutton's  assertion  that  Plaget's  developmental stage of formal operations Is a bettweather of children's ability to evaluate their wills,  this means many c h i l d r e n , beginning around eleven  years old (and some y o u n g e r ) , possess the requisite capacity. there  Is  Intuitive  capable of always  the  and,  exercising  perhaps,  free  product of  will  more  even  unassessed  responsible for their behavior.  valid  evidence  earlier.  urges,  that  If children's  then  we  could  In addition, children are behavior  not  hold  was them  It Is because we believe they often "know  better" or "should have known better" that we can punish them for their actions. upon acting  T h e salient difference between conditioning and disciplining rests  the ability of on  certain  the  recipient to see  desires.  In  short.  the  Tightness and wrongness  If we  are  prepared  to  of  discipline  children, we have already recognized the freedom of their will.  III.  EXPEDIENCY  One final argument for the categorical exclusion of children from liberty stems from an appeal to expediency.  This  view  holds  that  for practical  Roland Case purposes, perhaps because the Incidence of harm Is significantly large among a particular group, and since It may be Impossible or, at least, extremely costly to Identify potential victims. It Is reasonable to categorically exclude the group as a whole. Magslno uses a version of this line of argument as the reason for the exclusion of children from option rights. However, he acknowledges that deprivation of such fundamental freedoms requires "demonstrable Incapacity to make acceptable use of one's liberties." Unfortunately, he assumes, but does not establish, that children have this demonstrable Incapacity. Clearly, the onus Is on the Intervenor to substantiate the claim. Notice also, the argument from expediency does not hold In cases of Interpersonal and parental paternalism. Having first-hand knowledge of a child and being able to supervise him/her Individually means that a categorical exclusion from all prima facie option rights Is obviously untenable on these grounds. 30  Where the appeal to expediency Is appropriate Is In the area known as legislative paternalism.  In such cases. It may be necessary to establish a  31  legal age at which certain entitlements are officially recognized. However, It must be remembered that age-based restrictions are empirical generalizations and are not equivalent to moral entitlements.  Therefore where practical or  legal constraints dictate use of age or other statistical norms, a number of qualifications are  required before the  practice Is  Justified.  One,  the  dlsenfranchlsement should be localized to criteria related to the activity under consideration and not refer to the overall capacity of the Individual. For example, fifteen-year  olds would not be allowed to drive cars, not  because they are too young to enjoy legal rights, but because statistically they make bad choices while driving. repeated drunken drivers.  The same principle now applies to  This type of provision would entitle groups such  as children, mentally disabled persons, and mentally disturbed persons who. In  the  past,  discretion  In  were dismissed as categorically matters  not  specifically  Incompetent  to exercise  legally, prohibited.  Two,  the  ascertainment of the normative cut-off point should be carefully scrutinized. It must be demonstrated that statistically few persons below the cut-off point meet the criteria and most persons above the cut-off satisfy the minimal requirements.  Three, provision must be made for Individual exemption from  the generalized restriction based on ability to demonstrate competence.  For  example. In discussing the fairness of adult sufferage, Schrag reports that six percent of eighth graders have the sophistication In political discourse of the top half of the adult population.  32  This suggests that competent young  persons below the guaranteed legal age of sufferage ought to be allowed to demonstrate voter fitness and be granted early franchise.  Four, as Dworkln  argues, legislation should Impose only the minimal Interference necessary to safeguard well-being.  33  '  These limitations on legal paternalism significantly alter categorical exclusion.  the notion of  I suggest that although age-based restrictions may  Philosophy of Education 1985 look like categorical exclusions, they are not Justified unless they have the effect of generalized conditional exclusions.  IV.  AUTHENTIC CHOICE  The received doctrine, at least as defended by appeals to Irrationality, Immaturity or expediency. Is suspect. Instead, I propose that children be recognized as tltleholders to the same basic liberties as adults and that the grounds for overriding these prima facie rights are the same for children and adults. In support of these claims I will briefly explain what I take to be the most defensible grounds for entitlement to liberty. The key, as Felnberg suggests. Is to determine whether a choice really Is attributable to an Individual, rather than to evaluate Its wisdom or 34 worthiness. For Mill, each person Is the proper guardian of his/her welfare. It Is not one person's prerogative to Interfere Just because he/she disapproves of another's choice. In fact. Mill's defense of liberty was 'expressly to fortify the Individual against the wills of others. Significantly, a decision which emanates from an Individual but does not represent the person In any faithful way Is, In an Important sense, foreign to that person. ' The Justification for liberty Is the value of pursuing one's own will. If an action does not reflect the Intentions and volitions of that person, then It Is not his/her will. As such. It Is not the proper object of a right to liberty. This Is consistent with Vlastos' principle of Justexceptions. It states that the only defensible reason for exclusion from human rights must be the very reason we have for ascribing the right In the first place. In self-regarding situations, this would mean that a necessary condition for denial of liberty Is evidence that the Individual's choice Is In. some way attenuated—It Is not. In a full-bodied sense, his/her choice but Is attributable to other causes.3  36  Attenuation arises either where acting on a particular decision will not secure the Intended objective or where the Intended objective was not freely chosen.  37  More specifically, attenuation  of  Intention of choice occurs  because person X, although voluntarily choosing C , did so not fully Intending the eventual outcome.  This occurs either because deliberation concern-  ing choice C failed to predict Important mediating events or consequences, or was based on mistaken beliefs, or because the choice of C was largely undellberated.  Attenuation of volition of choice occurs because person X,  although Intending C , did not do so freely.  This occurs because the normal  functioning of the person's choice-making mechanism was overridden.  Either  (I)  (e.g.,  the  normal consistency In  prlorlzatton  of goals was absent  self-deception, chronically undisciplined); or (II) among  goals  was  Internally  short-circuited  disorder, Internal compulsion, mania); or (III)  the mechanism for selection (e.g.,  stress,  personality  the mechanism for selection  13^.  Roland Case among goals was affected by foreign Intervention (e.g., hypnosis, brainwashing, threats, peer pressure). The upshot of this account Is that Interference with children's liberty can only be Justified to the extent that one or more of these attenuating conditions can be shown to be present. The received doctrine must be replaced by recognition that the choices of children do count. In the case for compulsory education It means merely being worthwhile Is not sufficient Justification.  t. John K l e l n i g , " M i l l , C h i l d r e n , end R i g h t s , " Educational 8 (1976): 1-3. 2. John Stuart M i l l . " O n L i b e r t y . " In Three Essays, O x f o r d University P r e s s . 197S), p. IS. 3. Reported In John McMurty, "Response to L i b e r a t i o n , " Interchange 10 (1979): 35.  Philosophy  and  Theory  e d . Richard Wolhelm (London:  Winchester  -  Yes,  Children  ». Reported In John Peary, " C h i l d r e n and Others S t r a n g e r s . " Macleans ber 22. 19S4): 78.  97  Need (Octo-  5. I take these formal requirements of empirical representativeness and moral relevance to be relatively uncontroverslal. At least implicitly, they have been defended by S . I . Benn according to his principle of noninterference, by H . L . A . Hart and his theory of a natural r i g h t , by Brian CrIUenden In terms of the moral status of human b e i n g s , and b y Victor Worsfold and Thomas Sutton In light of Rawlslan p r i n c i ples of Justice. 6. John L o c k e , " T h e Second Treatise of Government," In Two Treatise of Government, e d . Peter Lasletl (New Y o r k : The New American L i b r a r y , I n c . , 1965), sec. 55-58. 7. H . L . A . Hart, (1955): 175-191.  "Are  T h e r e A n y Natural  Rights!",  The Philosophical  6. Romulo F . Magslno, "freedom and Rights In Schools: for the Y o u n g , " Educational Theory 29 (1979): 171-11)5.  Review  64  Towards Just Entitlements  9. Thomas L . S u t t o n , "Human Rights and C h i l d r e n , " Educational 106-110. 10. Milt, p . 15.  Theory  21 (1976):  11. Gerald D w o r k l n . "Paternalism," In Morality and the Law, ed. Richard Wasserslrom (Belmont, C A : Wads worth Publishing C o . I n c . . 1971), p . 117.  A.  12. D . A . H a b l b l , ' T h e Status of C h i l d r e n In John Stuart Mill's Theory of Liberty," Educational Theory 31 (1983): 65-72. 13. Thomas S u t t o n , " T h e TBSk of E d u c a t i o n , " In Philosophy of Education ISBI, e d . Daniel R. DeNlcola (Normal. IL: The Philosophy of Education Society, 1962), p p . 2S7-267. 1*,. D . Clayton (I960): 69-70.  Hubln,  "Prudential  Reasons," • Canadian  Journal  of  Philosophy  15. Arthur C . D a n t o . " C o n s t r u c t i n g an Eplstemology of Human Rights: Problem," Social Philosophy and Policy I ( 1 9 8 « ) : 25. 16. Henry D . A i k e n , e d . , Hafner P r e s s , 1948), p . 25.  Hume's  Moral  and  Political  Philosophy  10  A Pseudo  (New  York:  17. T h e r e may be proponents of the received doctrine who would be satisfied with a practical rationality argument. In that c a s e , I would challenge the empirical representativeness condition. It strikes me that many children In the elementary grades are extremely shrewd In d e v i s i n g ways to get what they want. C o n v e r s e l y , adults are often unable to see what must b e done to accomplish their goals. 16. Brian B a r r y , Political 173-186. 19. 20. 15.  Sutton, p. D.G.  Argument  (London:  P.outledge t  Kegan P a u l , 1970), p p .  108.  Brown, "The  Rights of C h i l d r e n , "  The Journal  of  Education  17 (1971):  Philosophy of Education 1985 21. Robert Y o u n g , 'Education and the 'Rights' Educational Philosophy and Theory I 1197*): 29. 22. H a b l b l . p. Sa. 23. 2*. 23. Amelia 2*. 1969),  of  Children  and  Adolescent*,*  I b i d . , p. <S. S u t t o n . " T h e T a l k of E d u c a t i o n . * p p . J S « - I S « . Daniel Dennett, 'Conditions of Personhood,* In The Identity of Persons, ed. Rorty (Los Angelesi University of California P r e s s . 197SJ, p . 191. H . L . A . H a r t , Low. Liberty and ttorallty (Stanford) Stanford University P r e s s , p. 33.  27. Daniel P e k e r s k y , "Education and the Mirth of C h i l d h o o d , * In Philosophy of Education 1911 (Normal, IL: The Philosophy of Education Society, 1992), p p . 1M-1S6. 21. Ktelnlg, p. ». 29.  S u t t o n , ' T h e T a s k of E d u c a t i o n , p p . 2SS-2SS.  31. Rosemary C a r t e r , (1977)t t 3 3 - t W .  "Justifying  Paternalism,*  Canadian  Journal  of Philosophy  32. Francis S c h r a g , " T h e C h i l d ' s Status In the Democratic State." Political (1975)t WO. 33. D w o r k l n . p . 11*. 3«. 113. 3S.  Joel F e l n b e r g . "Legal Paternalism," Ibid., p.  Canadian  Journal  of  Philosophy  Theory  1 3  1 (1971)i  11*.  it. Gregory V l a s l o s , "Justice and E q u a l i t y , * In Human R i g h t s , e d . A . l . Meldon (Delmont, C A t ttadsnorth Publishing C o . , 1970). p p . (3-IH. 37. T h i s account of attenuation o f choice Is based on a conception of action c o n tained In S . C . Coval and J . C . Smith. Law and Its Presuppositions (London: Routledge t Kegan P a u l , upcoming). Chapter 1. t  

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